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Full text of "A comparative grammar of the Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Gothic, German, and Sclavonic languages"


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or THE 
















VOL. I. 

























In giving to tlie Public this Second Edition of the EngHsh 
Translation of Bopp's great work on Comparative Grammar, 
it is right to state tliat the version has been approved by 
Professor Bopp himself, and that it has been again very care- 
fully compared with the original; so that numerous errors, 
wliich, from the great lengtli of the work were perhaps hardly 
to be avoided in a first edition, have now been corrected. The 
appearance of the original, too, in parts, and at considerable 
intervals of time, led to some inconsistencies in the translation 
in the mode of expressing the value of certain letters ; but care 
has been taken to rectify this defect, also, in the present edition. 
The Table of Contents is altogether new, and will be foimd to 
be very much more copious than the German. 

Those who wish for an Introductory Notice before commen- 
cing the study of the Grammar, or who mean to content them- 
selves with a general notion of what has been achieved by the 
Author, may refer to the " Edinburgh Review," No. CXCII. 
p. 298, and the "Calcutta Review," No. XXIV. p. 468. It 
will be there seen that this Work has created a new epoch in 
the science of Comparative Philology, and that it may be justly 
assigned a place in that department of study corresponding to 
tiiat of " Newton's Principia in Mathematics, Bacon's Novum 
Organum in Mental Science, or Blumenbach in Physiology." 
The encomiums of the Reviewer have in fact been justified by 


the adoption of the Work as a Lecture Book at Oxford, and 
by the extensive use which Rawlinson and other eminent 
scliolars have made of it in tlieir researches. 

It remains to be added, that while the Notes and Prefaco 
made by Professor Wilson, the former Editor, have been re- 
tained, I must be myself held responsible for the errors and 
defects, whatever they may be, of the present edition. 


Hailrybury Coll for, 
February, 1854. 




The study of Comparative Philology has of late years been 
cultivated in Germany, especially, with remarkable ability 
and proportionate success. The labours of Gbimm, PoTt, 
Bopp, and other distinguished Scholars, have given a new 
\/ character to this department of literature; and have sub- 
stituted for the vague conjectures suggested by external 
and often accidental coincidences, elementary principles, 
based upon the prevaiHng analogies of articulate sounds and tlie 
grammatical structure of language. 

But although the fact that a material advance has been 
made in the study of Comparative Philology is generally 
known, and some of the particulars have been communi- 
cated to the English public tlurough a few works on Clas- 
sical Literature, or in the pages of periodical criticism; 
yet the full extent of the progress which has been effected, 
and the steps by which it has been attained, are impei"- 
fectly appreciated in this country. The study of the 
German language is yet far from being extensively pur- 
sued; and the results which the German Philologers have 
developed, and the reasonings which have led to them, 
being accessible to those only who can consult the original 
writers, are withheld from many individuals of education 
and learning to whom the affinities of cultivated speech 
are objects of interest and inquiry. Translations of the 
works, in which the information they would gladly seek 



for, is conveyed, are necessary to bring within their reach 
the materials that have been accumulated by German in- 
dustry and erudition, for the illustration of the history of 
human speech. 

Influenced by these considerations, Lord Francis Egertox 
was some time since induced to propose the translation 
of a work which occupes a prominent place in the litera- 
ture of Comparative Philology on the Continent— the 
Vergleichende Grammatik of Professor Bopp of Berlin. In 
this work a new and remarkable class of affinities has 
been systematically and elaborately investigated. Taking 
as his standard the Sanskrit language. Professor Bopp has 
traced the analogies which associate with it and with each 
other — the Zend, Greek, Latin, Gothic, German, and Scla- 
vonic tongues: and whatever may be thought of sonic 
of his arguments, he may be considered to have established 
beyond reasonable question a near relationship between 
the languages of nations separated by the intervention of 
centuries, and the distance of half the globe, by differences 
of physical formation and social institutions, — between the 
forms of speech current among the dark-complexioned 
natives of India and the fair-skinned races of ancient and 
modem Euroi)e;— a relationship of which no suspicion 
existed fifty years ago, and which has been satisfactorily 
established only within a recent period, during which the 
Sanskrit language has been carefully studied, and the prinei- 
ples of alphabetical and syllabic modulation upon which its 
grammatical changes are founded, have been applied to its 
kindred forms of speech by the Philologers of Germany. 

As the Vergleichende Grammatik of Professor Bopp is 
especially aedicated to a comprehensive comparison of lan- 
guages, and exhibits, in some detail, the principles of the 
Sanskrit as the ground-work and connecting bond of the 
comparison, it was regarded as likely to offer most in- 
terest to the Pliilologei's of this country, and to be one of 


the most acceptable of its class to English students: it 
was therefore selected as the subject of translation. The 
execution of the work was, however, opposed by two con- 
siderations — the extent of the original, and the copiousness 
of the illustrations derived from the languages of the East, 
the Sanskrit and the Zend. A complete translation de- 
manded more time than was compatible with Lord F. 
Eg£BTON*s other occupations ; and as he professed not a fa- 
miliarity with Oriental Literature, he was reluctant to 
render himself responsible for the correctness with which 
the orientalisms of the text required to be represented. 
This difficulty was, perhaps, ratlier over-rated, as the 
Grammar itself supplies all the knowledge that is needed, 
and the examples drawn from the Sanskrit and Zend 
speak for themselves as intelligibly as those derived from 
Gothic and Sclavonic In order, however, that the publication 
might not be prevented by any embarrassment on this account, 
I offered my services in revising this portion of the work ; 
and have hence the satisfaction of contributing, however 
humbly, to the execution of a task which I consider likely to 
give a beneficial impulse to the study of Comparative Philology 
in Great Britain. 

The difficulty arising from the extent of the original 
work, and the consequent labour and time requisite for its 
translation, was of a more serious description. This, how- 
ever, has been overcome by the ready co-operation of a 
gentleman, who adds a competent knowledge of German 
to eminent acquirements as an Oriental Scholar. Having 
mastered several of the spoken dialects of Western India, 
and made himself acquainted with the sacred language of 
the Parsees during the period of his service under the 
Presidency of Bombay, Lieutenant Eastwick devoted part 
of a furlough, rendered necessary by failing health, to a 
residence in Germany, where he acquired the additional 
qualifications enabling him to take a share in the transla- 



tion of the Vergleichende GrammatiL He has accord- 
ingly translated all those portions of the Comparative Gram- 
mar, the rendering of which was incompatible with the 
leisure of the Noble Loixi with whom the design originated, 
who has borne a share in its execution, and who has taken 
a warm and liberal interest in its completion. 

The Vergleichende Grammatik, originally published in 
separate Parts, has not yet reached its termination. In 
his first plan the author comprised the affinities of Sanski it, 
Zend, Gh*eek, Latin, Gothic, and its Teutonic descendants. 
To these, after the conclusion of the First Part, he added 
the Sclavonic. He has since extended his researches to the 
analogies of tlie Celtic and the Malay-Polynesian dialects, 
but has not yet incorporated the results with his general 
Grammar. The subjects already treated of are quite suf- 
ficient for the establishment of the principles of the com- 
parison, and it is not proposed to follow him in his subse- 
quent investigations. The first portions of the present 
Grammar comprise the doctrine of euphonic alphabetical 
changes, the comparative inflexions of Substantives and 
Adjectives, and the afiinities of the Cardinal and Ordinal 
Numerals. The succeeding Parts contain the compai'ative 
formation and origin of the Pronouns and the Verbs: the 
latter subject is yet unfinished* The part of the translation 
now offered to the public stops with tlie chapter on tlie 
Numerals, but the remainder is completed, and will be 
published without delay. 

With respect to the translation, I may venture to affirm, 
although pretending to a very slender acquaintance with 
German, that it has been made with great scrupulous- 
ness and care, and that it has required no ordinary pains 
to render in English, with fidelity and perspicuity, the not 
unfrequently difficult and obscure style of the original. 


October, 184.'). 


I CONTEMPLATE in this work a description of the compara- 
tive organization of the languages enumerated in the title 
page, comprehending all the features of their relationship, 
and an inquiry into their physical and mechanical laws, and 
the origin of the forms which distinguish their grammatical 
relations. One point alone I shall leave untouched, the secret 
of the roots, or the foundation of the nomenclature of the 
primary ideas. I shall not investigate, for example, why the 
root i signifies ** go ** and not " stand "; why the combina- 
tion of sounds dha or sta signifies "stand" and not *'go." 
I shall attempt, apart from this, to follow out as it were 
the language in its stages of being and march of develop- 
ment; yet in such a manner that those who are predeter- 
mined not to recognise, as explained, that which they main- 
tain to be inexplicable, may perhaps find less to offend them 
in this work than the avowal of such a general plan might 
lead them to expect In the majority of cases the primary 
signification, and, with it, the primary source of the gramma- 
tical forms, spontaneously present themselves to observation 
in consequence of the extension of our horizon of language, 
and of the confronting of sisters of the same lingual stock 
separated for ages, but bearing indubitable features of their 
family connection. In the treatment, indeed, of our European 
tongues a new epoch could not fail to open upon us in tlie 
discovery of another region in the world of language, namely, 
the Sanskrit,* of which it has been demonstrated, that, in its 

* San^crita signifies "adorned, completed, perfect "; in respect to lan- 
guage, " ckuHc "; and is thus adapted to denote the entire family or 
race." It is compounded of the elements sam, "with," and krita 
(nom. kritat, kritd, kriiam), "made," with the insertion of a euphonic « 
{§§. 18.96.). 


grammatical constitution, it stands in tlic most intimate relation 
to the Greek, the Latin, the Gtermanic, &c. ; so tliat it has 
afforded, for the first time, a firm foundation for tlio com- 
prehension of the grammatical connection between the two 
languages called die Classical, as well as of the relation of 
these two to the German, the Lithuanian, and Sclavonic 
Who could have dreamed a century ago that a language 
would be brought to us from the far East, wliich should 
accompany, pari passAy nay, sometimes surpass, the Greek 
in all those perfections of form which have been hitherto 
considered the exclusive property of the latter, and be 
adapted throughout to adjust the perennial strife between 
the Greek dialects, by enabling us to determme where each 
of them has preserved tlie purest and tlie oldest forms ? 

The relations of the ancient Indian lanffuacrcs to their 
European kindred are, in .part, so palpable as to be obvious 
to every one who casts a glance at them, even from a dis- 
tance : in part, however, so concealed, so deeply implicatetl in 
tlie most secret passages of the organization of the language, 
that we are compelled to consider every language subjected 
to a comparison with it, as also the language itself, from new 
stations of observation, and to employ the highest powers of 
grammatical science and method in order to recognise and 
illustrate tlie original unity of the different grammars. The 
Semitic languages are of a more compact nature, and, 
putting out of sight lexicographical and syntacticid features, 
extremely meagre in contrivance; they had little to pai't 
with, imd of necessity have handed down to succeeding ages 
what they were endowed with at starting. The tricoii- 
sonantal fabric of tlieir roots (§. 107.), which distinguishes this 
race from others, was already of itself sufficient to designate the 
].>arentage of every individual of the family. The family bond, 
on the other hand, which embraces the Indo-European race 
of languages, is not indeed less universal, but, in most of its 
bearings, of a quality infinitely more refined. The members 
of this race inherited, from the j)eriod of their earliest youth. 


endowments of exceeding richness, and, with the capability 
(§. 108.), the methods, also, of a system of milimited com- 
position and agglutination. Possessing much, they were able 
to bear the loss of much, and yet to retain their local life ; and 
by multiplied losses, alterations, suppressions of sounds, con- 
versions and displacements, the members of the common 
family are become scarcely recognisable to each other 
It is at least a fact, that the relation of the Greek to the 
Latin, the most obvious and palpable, though never quite 
overlooked, has been, down to our time, grossly misunder- 
stood ; and that the Roman tongue, which, in a grammatical 
point of view, is associated with nothing but itself, or with 
what is of its own family, is even now usually regarded as 
a mixed language, because, in fact, it contains much which 
sounds heterogeneous to the Greek, although tlie elements 
from which tliese forms arose are not foreign to the Greek 
and other sister languages, as I have endeavoured partly 
to demonstrate in my " System of Conjugation,"* 

The close relationship between the Classical and Germanic 
languages has, with the exception of mere comparative lists 
of words, copious indeed, but destitute of principle and 
critical judgment, remained, down to the period of the appear- 
ance of the Asiatic intermediarj', almost entirely unobserved, 
although the acquaintance of philologists with the Gothic dates 
now from a century and a half; and that language is so perfect 
in its Grammar and so clear in its affinities, that had it been 
earlier submitted to a rigorous and systematic process of com- 
parison and anatomical investigation, the pervading relation 

* Frankfort, a. M. 1816. A translation of my English revision of 
tluA treatise ( '' Analytical Compariiion of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and 
Teutonic Languages," in the <' Annals of Oriental Literature/' London 
1820.) by Dr. Pacht is to be found in the second and third number of the 
second annual issue of Seebode*s new Record of Philology and Paeda- 
gogical science. Grimm's masterly German Grammar was unfortunately 
unknown to me when I wrote the English revision, and I could then 
make use only of Hickes and Fulda for the old German dialects. 


of itself^ and, with it, of the entire Germanic stock, to the 
Greek and Roman, would necessarily liave long since been 
unveiled, tracked through all its variations, and by tliis time 
been understood and recognised by every philologer.* For 
what is more important, or can be more earnestly desired by 
the cultivator of the classical languages, than their comparison 
with our mother tongue in her oldest and most perfect form ? 
Since the Sanskrit has appeared above our horizon, that element 
can no longer be excluded from a really profound investigation 
of any province of language related to it; a fact, however, 
which sometimes escapes the notice of the most approved 
and circumspect labourers in this department f We need 

* Rask has been the first to supply a comprehensive view of the close 
relationship between the Germanic and the Classical Languages, in his 
meritorious prize treatise "On the Thracian Tribe of Languages," com- 
pleted in 1814 and published in 1818, from which Vater gives an (>xtract 
in his Comparative Tablrs. It cannot be alleged as a reproach against 
him that he did not profit by the Asiatic intermediary not then exten- 
sively known ; but his deficiency in this respect shews itself the more 
sensibly, as we see throughout that he was in a condition to use it with 
intelligence. Under that deficiency, however, he almost everywhere 
halts halfway towards the truth. Wo have to thank him for the 
suggestion of the law of displacement of consonants, more acutely 
considered and fundamentally developed by Grimm (§, 87., and sec 
Vater, §. 12.). 

t We refer the reader to the very weighty judgment of W. von. Hum- 
boldt on the indispensable necessity of the Sanskrit for the history and 
philosophy of language (Indische Bibl. I. 133). We may here borrow, 
also, from Grimm's preface to the second edition of his admirable 
Grammar, some words which are worthy of consideration (L vi.): "As 
the too exalted position of the Latin and Greek serves not for all 
questions in German Grammar, where some wonis are of simpler and 
deeper sound, so however, according to A. W. SchlegeFs excellent re- 
mark, the far more perfect Indian Grammar may, in these cases, supply 
the requisite corrections. The dialect which history demonstrates to be 
the oldest and least corrupted must, in the end, present the most pro- 
found rules for the general exposition of the race, and thus lead us on to 
the reformation, without the entire subversion of the rules hitherto 
discovered, of the more recent modes of speech." 


not fear that that practical and profound research in utrdque 
linguAy which is of most importance to the philologer can 
sufiTer prejudice by extension over too many languages ; 
for the variety vanishes when the real identity is recog- 
nised and explained^ and the false light of discrepancy is 
excluded. It is one thing, also^ to learn a language, 
another to teach one, ue. to describe its mechanism and 
organization. The learner may confine himself within the 
narrowest limits, and forbear to look beyond the language 
to be studied : the teacher's glance, on the contrary, must pass 
beyond the confined limits of one or two members of a family, 
and he must summon around him the representatives of the 
entire race, in order to infuse life, order, and organic mutual 
dependency into the mass of the languages spread before him. 
To attempt tills appears to me the main requirement of the 
present period, and past centuries have been accumulating 
materials for the task. 

The Zend Grammar could only be recovered by the process 
of a severe regular etymology, calculated to bring back the 
unknown to the known, the much to the little ; for this re- 
markable language, which in many respects reaches beyond, 
and is an improvement on, tlie Sanskrit, and makes its theory 
more attainable, would appear to be no longer intelligible to 
the disciples of Zoroaster. Kask, who had the opportunity to 
satisfy himself on this head, says expressly (V. d. Hagen, 
\\ 33) that its forgotten lore has yet to be rediscovered. I 
am also able, I believe, to demonstrate that the Pehlvi trans- 
lator (toHL II. pp. 476, et seq.) of the Zend Vocabulary, edited 
by Anquetil, has frequently and entirely failed in conveying 
the grammatical sense of the Zend words which he translates. 
The work abounds with singular mistakes ; and the distorted 
relation of Anquetil's French translation to the Zend expres- 
sions is usually to be ascribed to the mistakes in the Pehlvi 
interpretations of the Zend original. Almost all the oblique 
cases, by degrees, come to take rank as nominatives; the 
numbers, too, are sometimes mistaken. Further, we find forms 


of cases produced by the Pehlvi translator as verbal persons, 
and next these also confounded with each other, or translated 
by abstract nouns.* Anquetil makes, as far as I know, no 

* I give the Zend exprefisiona according to the system of reprt>sentation 
explained in §. 30., annexing the original characters, which arc exhibited 
in iypa for the first time in this book, and which were lately cut at the 
order of tlie Itoyal Society of Literature hy 1\, Gotzig, according to the 
exemplar of the lithographed M.S. of M.Bumouf. I give the Pehlvi 
words exactly according to Anquetil (11.435.): ^c^jmQm cJitndkefn, 

" rjfiwy" P. rouman (cf. p.602, ramariy "nos*'), A. "7V ^^moi;" as«^^>o>a} 
ahtibyay ** bonis" (witli dual termination, §.215), V.avaih, A.^^bon^" 
''excellent;' ^ffijOM aiU, ''hi," "li," P. »wr//iaw, " w,'' A. "/mi;" 
^ P^juil anhfmy " i was," or also " I am," P. djanounady " he is," A. " il 
est;' jko>e^juii atiheus, ''mundiy" P. akfie, A. ''Umonde;" 9^CO;oa5»A} 
awiishanmy*''horum,'' P,V£trmouschctn, ''it" K,"eux;' j^JA)?j^ haraitiy 
^^''fortt" P. dadrouneschnS, "the carrying" {eschne, in Pelilvi, forms abstract 
substantives), A. ^^ilporte" "il execute" "porter;' Jtv?^_j biSy "twice," 

P. dou, " two," A. " deux;" bereteb'io (^^^ii j^Aj7.yi baratibt/6, "ferenti^ 
bus?*' unquestionably a plural dative and ablative), P. dadrouneschne^ " the 
carrying," A. "porter;" ^ t6, "tui" P. tou, " tu," A. '* tai;" as^ju)^ 

tdchay " eaque*' (neut. §.231.), P.zakedjy A. "ce;" ^^Ay^jato, "tho 

smitten" (cf. Sansk. hcUes from han)y P. maitouncd, "he smites," A. " il 

frappe;" t»J^)X}^janat, "he smote," P.maitouneschnfy **the smiting," 

A. "Jrapper;" as^CsW zanthrOy "per genitorem," P. sarhounad, "^*- 

gnUy" A. " t7 engendre;" ^\m strU "feminOy" P. vakad, A. "femeUe;" 

^^7^^ itrtniy ^'fcminamy" P. vakady A. ^^femelle;'* 9'^*7au^j9 itdranmy 

" stellarum," P. setaran^ A, " Us ctoiles ;' jam^juiam A fra-ddtdiy "to 
the given," or "especially given," P.feraz dcJuschne (nomen actionis), 
A. '' donner abondamment ;" ^'^3M(^joj^^gaitkanamn, '* mundorumy" 

P.yuehan (cf. ^V^), A. "le monde;" j^^^ ^^jm^ gdtiimcha, "locum- 
qncy" P,gdky A. "lieu;'* ju^Tmi narSy " of the man," P . guebna hamat 
adcaky A."un /lomme;" aj7a5J nara, "two men," P. guebna hamat dau, 
A. "deuxhommes;" 9^yA5^j7jAuy ndirUcananm, ^'feminarum/' P. nai- 
rik hamat sS, A. "trois (pu plusieurs) /emmes;** ^ya^^^kj thrgahmy 
"trium," P.seviny A, ''troisicme;'* J^^^^l^ valimhnchoy "praxla- 
rumquey* P.neaeschncy ^'adoratio,*' A. "jefais ncaesch;" jjuiCa)(;> fWi- 
vidi, "pnecluro," P neaesch, kommy "adorationemfacio,*' A. "je bcnis 



i*cmark on the age of the Vocabulary to which I advert; while 
he ascribes to another, in which the Pehlvi is interpreted 
tlirougli the Persian, an antiquity of four centuries. The 

etfais neaesch** I do not insist on translating the adjective J0CJ09 vahma 
by ** pngclarus," but I am certain of this, that vahmSm and vahmdi are 
nothing else tlian the accusative and dative of the base vahma; and tliat 
.>auCa)9 vahmdi could be the first person of a verb is not to be thought 
possible for a moment. Anqnetil, however, in the interlinear version of the 
beginning of the V. S. attempted by him, gives two other evident datives com- 
pounded with the particle xms cJia, ''and," as the first person singular of the 

present, viz. >s^^Mi?(3hj^3JJ^ cmaotkrdi-cha^ Xi^joxA^^^s^^i^^xi^X 
fraiastai/aS-cha (see §. 164.)> by ^*placere cupio," " vota/acio" One then 
sees, from the examplea here adduced, the number of which Icould with ease 
greatly increase, that the Pehlvi Translator of the said Vocabulary has, 
no more than Anquctil, any grammatical acquaintance with the Zend 
language, and that both regarded it rather in the light of an idiom, jioor 
in inflexions ; so that, as in Pehlvi and Modem Persian, the grammatical 
power of the members of a sentence would be to be gathered rather from 
their position than from their terminations. And Anquetil expressly 
says (11. 415.) : ^^La construction dans la langue Zende^ semblahle en cela 
atur autres idiomes de T Orient , est astreinte a peu de regies (!). La for^ 
mation des terns des Verbes y est d, peu pres la mdme que dans le Persan^ 
plus trainante cependant^ parce qu'elle est accompagnSe de toutes les 
voyeUes (!). How stands it, then, with the Sanskrit translation of the 
Jzeschne made from the Pehlvi more than three centuries before that of 
Anquetil. This question will, without doubt, be very soon answered by 
M. E. Bumonf, who has already supplied, and admirably illustrated 
(Nouv. Joum. Asiat., T. 111. p. 3*21), two passages from the work in a 
very interesting extract from its Commentary on the V. S. These pas- 
sages are, however, too short to permit of our grounding on them over- 
bold inferences as to the whole ; moreover, their contents are of such a 
nature that the inflexionless Pehlvi language could follow the Zend ori- 
ginal almost verbatim. The one passage signifies, ** I call upon, 1 mag- 
iiify the excellent pure spell, and the excellent man, the pure and the 
btrict, strong like Dami (? cf. ^&n^\i» upanidna, "similarity;** and V. S., 
p. 423, ddmdis drujo) Izet." It is, however, very surprising, and of evil 
omen, that Neriosengh, or his Pehlvi predecessor, takes the feminine 
genitive daJimayds as a plural genitive, since this expression is evidently, 
as Burnouf rightly remarks, only an epithet of dfritdis. I abstain from 
speaking of the dubious expressions ddmdis upamanukd, and content my- 


one in question cannot therefore be ascribed to any very lute 
jjeriod. The necessity, indeed, of interpretation for the Zend 
must have been felt mucli sooner than for the Pehlvi, whicli 
remained much longer current among the Parsee tribes. It 
was therefore an admirable problem which had for its solution 
the bringing to light, in India, and, so to say, under tlie very 
eye of the Sanskrit, a sister language, no longer understood, 
and obscured by the rubbish of ages ; — a problem of which the 
solution indeed has not hitherto been iully obtained, but beyond 
doubt will be. The first contribution to the knowledge of 
this language which can be relied on — that of Kask — namely. 
Ills treatise ** On the age and authenticity of the Zend Language 
and the Zend-Avesta," published in 1826, and made generally 
accessible by V. d. Hagen's translation, deserves high honour 
as a first attempt The Zend has to thank this able man 
(whose premature death we deeply deplore) for the more 
natural appearance which it has derived from his rectification 
of the value of its written characters. Of three words of 
different declensions he gives us the singular infiections, though 
with some sensible deficiencies, and those, too, just in the places 
where the Zend forms are of most interest, and where are some 
which display that independence of the Sanski'it which Kask 
claims, perhaps in too high a degree, for the Zend ; a language 
we are, however, unwilling to receive as a mere dialect of 
the Sanskrit, and to which we are comi>elled to ascribe aii 
independent existence, resembling that of the Latin as com- 
pared with the Greek, or the Old Northern with the Gothic. 
For the rest, I refer the reader to my review of Rask's and 
Bohlen's treatises on the Zend in the Annual of Scientific 
Criticism for December 1831, as also to an earlier work 
(March 1831) on the able labours of E. Bumouf in this newly- 
self with having pointed out the possibility of another view of the con- 
stmction, different from that which has heen very profoundly discussed 
by Bumouf, and which is hased on Neriosengh. The second passage 
signifies, ^'I call ui)on and magnify the stars, the moon, the sun, the 
eternal, self-created lights!" 

PREFACE. xili 

opened field. My observations, derived from the original texts 
edited by Bumouf in Paris, and by Olshausen in Hamburgh, 
already extend themselves, in these publications, over all parts 
of the Zend Grammar ; and nothing therefore has remained for 
me here, but further to establish, to complete, and to adjust the 
particulars in such a manner that the reader may be conducted 
on a course parallel with that of the known languages, with the 
greatest facility towards an acquaintance with the newly-disco- 
vered sister tongue. In order to obviate the difiSculty and the 
labour which attend the introduction of the learner to the Zend 
and Sanskrit — difficulty sufficient to deter many, and to harass 
any one — I have appended to the original characters the pronun- 
ciation, laid down on a consistent method, or in places where, for 
reasons of space, one character alone is given, it is the Roman. 
This method is also perhaps the best for the gradual introduc- 
tion of the reader to the knowledge of the original chai'acters. 

As in this work the languages it embraces are treated for 
their own sakes, t. e. as objects and not means of knowledge, 
and as I aim rather at giving a physiology of them than an 
introduction to their practical use, it has been in my power to 
omit many particulars which contribute nothing to the 
character of the whole; and I have gained thereby more 
space for the discussion of matters more important, and more 
intimately incorporated with the vital spirit of the language. 
By this process, and by the strict observance of a method which 
brings under one view all points mutually dependent and 
mutually explanatory, I have, as I flatter myself, succeeded in 
assembling under one group, and in a reasonable space, the 
leading incidents of many richly-endowed languages or grand 
dialects of an extinct original stock. Special care has been 
bestowed throughout on the German. This care was indispen- 
sable to one who, following Grimm's admirable work, aimed 
at applying to it the correction and adjustment that had become 
necessary in his theory of relations, the discovery of new affinities, 
or the more precise definition of those discovered, and to catch, 
with greater truth, at every step of grammatical progress, the 


monitory voices of the Asiatic as well as the European sisterhood. 
It was necessary, also, to set aside many false appearances of affi- 
nity ; as, for example, to deprive the i in the Lithuanian (jeri of 
its supposed connection with the i of Gothic, Greek, and Latin 
forms, such as gSdaiy ayaOoiy boni (see p. 2ol, Note f, and com- 
pare Grimm L 827. 11); and to disconnect the Latin is of lupis 
(Jupihus) from the Greek ly of \vkoi^ {\vkoi'<ti). As concerns 
the method followed in treating the subject of Germanic 
grammar, it is that of deducing all from the Gothic as the 
guiding star of the German, and explaining the latter simulta- 
neously with the older languages and the Lithuanian. At the close 
of each lecture on the cases, a tabular view is given of the results 
obtained, in which every thing naturally depends on the most 
accurate distinction of the terminations from the base, which 
ought not, as usually happens, to be put forward capriciously, 
so that a portion of the base is drawn into the inflection, by 
which the division becomes not merely useless, but injurious, 
as productive of positive error. Where there is no real 
termination none should be appended for appearance sake : thus, 
for example, we give, §. 148, p. 164, the nominatives x^pa, 
terra f giha^ &c., as without inflection cf. §. 137. The divisi<ni 
gib-a would lead us to adopt the erroneous notion that a is the 
termination, whereas it is only the abbreviation of the 6 (from the 
old Ay §. 69.) of the theme.* In certain instances it is extraordi- 

* The Rimple mAxim Inid doTvii dsewhoro by mc, and diniucible only 
firom the Sanskrit, that the Gothic 6 is the long of a, and thereby wlien 
shortened nothing but «, as the latter lengthened can only become 6^ ox- 
tends its influence over the whole grammar and construction of words, nml 
explains, for example, how from c2a^tf, "day " (theme DAGA\ may be de- 
rived, withoat change of vowel, ddgs {BdGA\ " daily ** ; for this deriva- 
tion is absolately the same as when in Sanskrit rdjata, "argenteus" comes 
from rujata^ "oiv/fn/t/iw/'on which more hereafter. Generally speaking, 
and with few exceptions, the Indian system of vowels, pure from consonantal 
and other altering influences, is of extraordinary importance for the eluci- 
dation of the German grammar : on it principally rests my own theory of 
vowel change, which differs materially from that of Grimm, and which I 
explain by mechanical laws, with some modifications of my earlier defini- 


narily difficult in languages not now tlioroughly understood to 
hit on the right divisions, and to distinguisli apparent termina- 
tions from true. I have never attempted to conceal these difficul- 
ties from the i-eader, but always to remove them from his path. 

The High German, especially in its oldest period (from the 
eighth to the eleventh century), I have only mentioned in tlie 
general description of forms when it contributes something of 
importance. The juxta-position of it in its three main periods 
with the Gothic, grammatically explained at the close of each 
chapter, is sufficient, with a reference also to the treatise on 
soimds intended to prepare and facilitate my whole Grammar, 
after the "model of my Sanskrit Grammar. Wherever, in 
addition, explanatory remarks are necessary, they are 
given. The second part will thus begin with the com- 
parative view of the Germanic declensions, and 1 shall then 
proceed to the adjectives, in order to describe their formations 
of gender and degrees of comparison ; from these to the pronouns. 

As the peculiarities of inflection of the latter must have, for 
the most part, already been discussed in the doctrine of the 
imiversal formation of the cases, inasnmch as they are inti- 
mately connected and mutually illustrative, what will remain to 
be said on their behalf will claim the less space, and the main 
compass of the second division will remain for the verb. To 
the formation and comparison of words it is my intention to 
devote a separate work, which may be considered as a completion 
of its antecedent In this latter the particles, conjunctions, 
and original prepositions, will find their place, being, I consider, 
partly offshoots of pronominal roots, and partly naked roots of 

tiont, while with Griinin it has a dynamic significntion. A comparison 
with the Greek and Latin vocalism, without a steady nference to the 
Sanskrit, is, in my opinion, for the German more confusing than enlight- 
ening, as the Gothic is generally more original in its vocal system, and at 
least more consistent than the Greek and Latin, which latter spends its 
whole wealth of vowels, although not without pervading rules, in merely 
responding to a solitary Indian a {sepiimus fur sepiamas, quatuor for 
ekaivdr'as rfaaap-ts^ momordi f r ruamarda)* 


this class of words,* and which will, therefore, be treated in 
this point of view among the pronominal adjectivcs.f It is 
likely tliat a chasm in our literature, very prejudicial to inquiries 
of this kind, may be shortly filled up by a work ready for tlie 
press, and earnestly looked for by all friends of German and 
general philology, the Old High German Treasury of Grafl*. 
What we may expect from a work founded on a comprehensive 
examination of the MS. treasures of libraries national and 
foreign, as well as on a correction of printed materials, may be 
gathered from a survey of the amount contributed to knowledge 
in a s^Kicimen of tlie work, small, but happily selected, " The 
Old High German Prepositions." 

* I refer the reader preliminarily to my two last treatisis (Berlin, Ferd. 
Diimmlcr) " On Certain Demonstrative Bases, and their connection with 
various Prepositions and Conjunctions," and *^ On the Influence of Pro- 
nouns on the Formation of Words." Compare, also, C. GottL Schmidt's 
excellent tract '^Qussst. Gramm. de Prnpositionibus Gra)cis," and the 
review of the same, distinguished by acute observations, by A. Benary, 
in the Berlin Annual (May 1830). If we take the adverbs of place in 
their relation to the prepositions — and a near relation does exist — weslinll 
find in close connection with the subject a remarkable treatise of the 
minister W. von Humboldt, "On the Affinity of the Adverbs of Place to 
the Prepositions in certain Languages." The 2^nd has many grammatical 
rules which were established vritliout these discoveries, and have since 
been demonstrated by evidence of facts. Among them it was a satisfaction 
to me to find a word, used in Sanskrit only as a preposition {ava, '^from,") 
in the Zend a perfect and declinable pronoun (§. 172.). Next we find 
sa-cha^ '^ isque," which in Sanskrit is only a pronoun, in its Zend shape 
joaSJO^ ha-cha (§. 53.), often used as a preposition to signify ^'out of" ; 
the particle xms cha, *^ and," loses itself, like the cognate que in absque, in 
the general signification. 

'' Remark.— What in §. G8. is said of the rise of the u or o out of the 
older a is 80 far to be corrected according to my later conviction, tliat 
nothing but a retroactive influence is to be ascribed to tlie liquids ; and 
the u and the o, in forms Vik^plirUemu (nio), plintyu, are to be exempted 
from the influence of the antecedent consonants." 

t The arrangement thus aimounced, as intended, has undergone, as will 

be seen, considerable modification. — Editor. 

Bbrlin, 1833. 



Sanskrit writing distinguishes the long from their cor- 
responding short vowels by particular clmracters, slightly 
differing from these latter in form. We distinguish tlie long 
vowels, and the diphthongs F e and ^ o, which spring from 
i and u united with an antecedent a, by a circumflex. The 
simple vowels are, first, the three, original and common to all 
languages, a, i, u, short and long; secondly, a vowel r, pecu- 
liar to the Sanskrit, which I distinguish by r, and its long 

sound by f. The short r {^ is pronounced like the con- 
sonant r with a scarcely-distinguishable U and in European 

texts is usually written ri ; the long f (^) ia scarcely to 
be distinguished from the union of an r with a long /. Both 
vowels appear to me to be of later origin ; and r presents 
itself generally as a shortening of the syllable ar by sup- 
pression of the a. The long f (^) is of much rarer occur- 
rence. In declension it stands only for a lengthening of the r, 
where, according to the laws of the formation of cases, a short 
vowel at the end of the inflective base must be lengthened ; 
and in the conjugation and formation of words, those roots to 
which grammarians assign a terminating ^ f almost always 
substitute for this unoriginal vowel ^ ar, ^ ir, ^ ir, or, 
after labials, ^ir ur. The last simple vowel of the Sanskrit 
writing belongs more to the grammarians [G. Ed. p. 2.] 
than to the language : it is in character, as well as in pro- 
nunciation, an union of an c!^ / with nj r (^), or, when 
lengthened* with ^ r (h). We require no representative 
for this vowel, and shall not further advert to it. 

2. Sanskrit possesses two kinds of diphthongs. In the one, 



a short a uuited with a following i becomes ^ S (equivalent 
to the French ai), and with u becomes wt 6 (equivalent to 
the French au) ; so that neither of the united elements is 
heard, but both melt into a third sound. In the second kind, 
a long d with a following i becomes ^ ai, and with, u^ 
ift au, as in the German words waise, baum ; so that the 
two elements form indeed one syllable, but are both audible. 
In order, however, to fix the observation on the greater 
weight of the a in this diphthong, we write &i for ^, and Au 
for lit. That in ^ ^ and wt J a short, in ^ Ai and ^ dti, 
a long a is bound up, I infer from this, that where, in order 
to avoid a hiatus, the last element of a diphthong merges 
into its corresponding semi- vowel, out of ^ ^ and wt 6 pro- 
ceed the sounds ^r^ ay and ^w^ av (with short a), but out 
of ^ Ai and ^ Au proceed Ay and Av- If, according to 
the rules of combination, a concluding vr <i, with an ^ ?*, 
^ i*, or ^ w, "91 fi of a following word, be contracted, like the 
short a, into ^ i and wt 6, but not into ^ At and %rT Au^ 
this, in my view, is to be understood as if the long a, before 
its combination with the initial vowel of the following word, 
had shortened itself. This should the less surprise us, as the 
long a before a dissimilar vowel of an appended inflexion or 
a sufEx entirely disappears; and, for example, ^ dadA 
with Tn us makes neither ^lfri(^ dadAus, nor ^^ dadAs, 
but ^[F^ dadus. The opinion I have already expressed on 
[G.Ed. p. 3.] this point I have since found confirmed 
by the Zend ; in which jjui Ai always stands in the place 
of the Sanskrit "^ Ai, and gus do or >am du for ^ Au. In 
support, also, of my theory, appears the fact, that a con- 
cluding a (short or long) with a following ^ i or ^ 6, be- 
comes ^ Ai and wt Au; of which it is to be understood, that 
the short a contained in i and <} merges with the antecedent 
a into a long a, which then, with the i of the diphthong ^, 
becomes <h'. and with the u of 6, becomes Au. For example, 
if^VI^ mamAitat, from ifif FWT^ mama Hat, is to be understood 


as if the diphthong ^ ^ united its first element a with the 
preceding a into d, and with this, further united its last 
element (i) into ^ &i. 

3. Among the simple vowels the old Indian alphabet is 
deficient in the designation of the Greek epsilon and omicron 
(c ando), whose sounds^ if they existed when the Sanskrit was 
a living language, yet could only have evolved themselves, 
subsequently to the fixing of its written character, out of the 
short a ; for an alphabet which lends itself to the subtlest 
gp:^dations of sound would assuredly not have neglected the 
difference between a, ?, and 2, if the sounds had been forth- 
coming.* It is important here to observe, that in the oldest 
Germanic dialect, namely, the Gothic, the sounds and charac- 
ters of the short e and o are also wanting, and that either 
a, f, or u corresponds, in that dialect, to our German short e. 
For example, M/ta, "ichfalte," "I fold;" giboy "ichgebe." 
" I give." In the Zend the Sanskrit ^ a remains usually aj a, 
or has changed itself, according to certain [G. EJ. p. 4.] 
rules, into f e. Thus, for example, before a concluding m 
we always find j e\ compare the accusative ^<^?(3>fd puthre-ni 
"filium" with jv^ putra-m; and its genitive h5»'as7o>q> 
puthra-hi with ^^T^T putra-sya. In Greek the Sanskrit jg a 
becomes d, e, or o, without presenting any certain rules for the 
choice on each occasion between these three vowels ; but the 
prevailing practice is, that in the terminations of nominal 
bases the Greek o answers to the Indian jst a, except in the 
vocatives, where an e is substituted. In the Latin, besides 

a, e, and o, u also is employed, in the terminations of nouns 
of the second declension and of the first person plural, as also 
in some adverbial suffixes, to replace the Sanskrit jg a. 

4. As in the Greek the short Sanskrit a is oftener replaced 
by e or o than by a short a, so the long VT d is oftener re- 

• Griinm, Vol. i. p. 694; with whom I entirely concur in this matter; 
hAviDg long abandoned a contrary opinion, which I maintained in 1BI9 
in the Annals of Oriental Literatarc. 

B 2 


presented by >y or w than by a long alpha : and though in the 
Doric the long a has maintained itself in places where the 
ordinary dialect employs an rj, no similar trace of the long a 
for o) is to be found, ^fi? dadhdmi " I place,'" becomes 
TtOfjiJLt ; ^^ifif daddmit ** I give," 5/5w/xi ; the dual termi- 
nation ifTH tdm answers to rriv, and only in the imperative 
to Tcov: on the other hand, the ^S[m dm of the genitive plural 
is always represented by wv. Never, if we except pecu- 
liarities of dialect, does either rj or w stand for the Indian 
diphthongs ^ ^ or ^ d, formed by ^ i or an ^ u following 
a long d : for the first, the Greek substitutes et or oi (because 
for ^ a, and also for a, e and o are the substitutes), and for 
the last, ev or ov. Thus, ^fiu emi, " I go," becomes elfu ; 
iliNl path, "thou mayest fall," tt/ttto/j; ^vSda, "I know," 
oiSa ; jft go, mas. fem. " a bullock or heifer," j8oC-r. From 
this dropping of the t or u in the Indian diphthongs S and 6 it 
[G. Ed. p. 5.] may happen that a, e, or o, answer to these 
diphthongs ; thus, ^r^inrt^ Skataras, ** one of two," becomes 
eKOLTcpo^ ; ^ divri,* " brother-in-law," Latin, levir (nom. ^ 
dSvdt accus, ^^TOT devar-am), becomes iarjp (from SaFrjp, Sai- 
Frjp) ; ^^^ dSva-Sj " God," Geo? ; and the o in l3o6^, ^oi, stands 
for /3ou-of, /3oi^/, the « of which must have passed into F, and 
certainly did so at first, as is proved by the transition into the 

Latin bovis, bovif and the Indian irftf gavi (locative) from go-U 

5. In Latin we sometimes find the long e, which, however, 
may be shortened by the influence of the following conso- 
nant, arising from the mixture of a and t, as in the above- 
mentioned word l^viVf and in the subjunctive am^mus ef. 
iniV^ kdmayima from kdmaya-ima, 

6. If we inquire after the greater or less relative weight 
of the vowels of different quality, I have discovered, by 

* The original has devr, but, as observed in p. 1, in European texta it 
is usual to write ri for i^; and the absence of any sign for the vowel sound 
is calculated to cause embarrassment : it seems advisable, therefore, to ex- 
press 1^ by rL— Editor, 


various but sure appearances, which I shall further illustrate 
in my treatise on Forms, that in Sanskrit ^ a and len d are 
graver than the corresponding quantity of the vowel i ; and 
this discovery is of the utmost importance for every Treatise 
on special as well as comparative Grammar. It leads us, in 
particular, to important discoveries with respect to the Ger- 
manic modification of vowels. In Latin, also, the i may be 
considered as lighter than a, and generally takes the place of 
the latter when a root with an original a would otherwise be 
burthened with a reduplication of sound. Hence, for example, 
abjicio for ahjacio, tetigi for tetagt. I am compelled by this 
view to retract an earlier conjecture, that the i in tetigi was 
produced by a virtue of assimilation in the termination i, I 
have also to relieve myself from my former theory, that the e 
in words like inermis, imberbis, instead of [G. Ed. p. 6.] 
inarmis, imbarbis, springs from a retrospective power of 
assimilation in the following ?, after the fashion of the modi- 
fication of the vowel in German (Grimm, p. SO), and must 
place it in the same class with the e in such forms as abjedus 
and lubicen. The Latin radical a, for instance, is subject to 
a double alteration, when the root is burthened with ante- 
cedent syllables or words: it becomes i in open syllables, but 
e if the vowel is pressed upon by a following consonant un- 
attended by a vowel. Hence we have tubicen, abjectusy in 
contrast to tubicinisy abjicio ; and inermis, imberbis, not inirmis, 
imbirbis: on the contrary, inimicus, insipidus, not inemicus, 
insepidus. In connection with this stands the transition of the 
first or second declension into the third. As us is the masculine 
. form for a, we ought to say inermus, imberbus; but inermis, 
imberbis, and other such forms, owe their origin to the lesser 
weight of the i. With the displacement of tlie accent, where 
it occurs, this change of the vowel has nothing to do; but the 
removal of the accent and the weakening of the vowel are 
nearly related, and are both occasioned by the composition. 
In the Lithuanian we find similar appearances ; as, for ex- 


ample, ponas *' lord/^ at the end of couipounds, is weakened 
into ponis, as rotponis, " councillor," Germ, rathsherr.^'' 

7. Sanskrit Grammar gives no certain indication of the 
relative weight of the u with regard to the other original 
vowels. The t/ is a vowel too decided and full of character to 
allow of its being exchanged in this language, in relief of its 
weight, for any other letter. It is the most obstinate of all, 
and admits of no exclusion from a terminating syllable, in 
cases where a and i admit suppression. Nor will it retire 

[G. Ed. p. 7.] from a reduplicated syllable in cases where 
a allows itself to be weakened down to i. Thus in Latin we 
have pupugi, tufudi; while a, in cases of repetition, is re- 
duced to i or € (t(tiyufpfetti,8Lc.) In the Gothic, also, the 
u may boast of its pertinacity : it remains firm as the ter- 
minating vowel of nominal bases where a and i have under- 
gone suppression, and in no single case has it been extin- 
guished or transmuted. No power, however, exists which 
will not yield at last to time ; and thus in the High German, 
whose oldest records are nearly four centuries younger than 
Ulphilas, the u has, in many cases, given way, or become in 
declension similar to ?. 

8. If, in the matter of the relative dignity of the vowels, we 
cast a glance at another race of languages, we find in Arabic 
the u taking precedence in nobility, as having its place in the 
nominative, while the declension is governed by the change 
of the terminating vowel ; /, on the contrary, shews itself to 
be the weakest vowel, by having its place in the genitive, the 
most dependent case of the Arabic, and one which cannot be 
separated from the governing word. 7, also, is continually 
used in cases where the grammatical relation is expressed by 
a preposition. Compare, also, in tlie plural, the ttna of the 
nominative with the termination ina of the oblique cases, ji 
stands between the strong u and the weaker i; and under 
the threefold change of vowels has its place in the accusative, 
which admits of more freedom than the genitive. In the 


oblique cases^ however, of nouns, and in the two-fold change 
of vowels, it stands opposed to the u of the nominative, and 
in the dependent subjunctive of the verb to the u of the 
independent indicative. 

9. Between the vowels and the consonants, or at the close of 
the list of vowels, are commonly placed two signs, the sounds 
of which are rather to be considered as ap- [G. Ed. p. 8.] 
pendages to, or modifications of, the preceding vowels, than as 
independent sounds, and take, also, no place in the alphabet of 
the Native Grammarians, inasmuch as they are considered 
neither as consonants nor vowels, but rather as complements 
to the latter. The first, which we distinguish by n, is called 
Anuswdra^ " echo ;" and is, in fact, a thick nasal echo, which I 
think is best represented by the nasal n at tlie end of a French 
syllable. The weakness of its expression is discernible in the 
fact that it does not, like a^ consonant, impede the euphonic 
influence of an i or u on a following s, (see Sanskrit Gram- 
mar,. R. 101*). It has its place before semi- vowels (n y, 
^ r, 5J i '^^ v), sibilants, and h; and we might thence term 
it the nasal of the two last lists of consonants, and assign its 
alphabetical place between them. A concluding it to, fol- 
lowed by a consonant of the said two lists, passes into Anu- 
swara ; for example, d^(IH tasydm, ** in this,'' becomes WFlt 
tasy/ln, with the French nasal pronunciation of the n, if such 
a word as T7%T rdtrdtt, " in the night," come after. In con- 
nection with the Tr « of a verbal termination, a radical tT n 

S. N 

also passes into Anuswara ; as, ^frr haiisif " thou killest,'' 
from ^tf han. Great confusion, however, has arisen from 
the circumstance that the Indian copyists allow themselves to 
express the unaltered concluding iv to, as well as all the nasal 
alterations, and, in the middle of words, each of the six nasal 
sounds (the proper Anuswara included), by Anuswara.* I have 

* The practice is not unauthorized by rule. A final ^ is convertible to 

Anasw&ra before any consonant (Pan. 8. 3. 23); and a meiiial cf or if is 



endeavoured, in my Grammar, to remedy this confusion in the 
simple theory of Anus wara. My predecessors in the treatment 
of Sanskrit Grammar make no distinction between the real 
and the supposititious Anuswara. Colebrooke gives it, in 
[G. Ed. p. 9.] general, the pronunciation of w, and calls it 
" a shortening of the nasal consonants at the end of a syllable/' 
which leads to the error, tliat each of the nasal characters, even 

the concluding w n, may be abbreviated into Anuswara. 
Forster expresses it by the n in the English word plinth ; 
Carey and Yates by the English combination ng ; Wilkins 
by m. All substitute it for the concluding ^ of grammatical 
terminations : and as they give rules for the transition of the 
Anuswara into n orir . the necessary consequence occurs, that 
we must write nbhavnn or abliavang, " I was ;" dantan or dati" 
tang, "a tooth;" not ahhavam, dantam. Colebrooke, on the 
other hand, expressing a Sanskrit inscription in Roman letters 
(Asiatic Transactions, Vol. VII.) gives the proper termina- 
tion m, and before t, by a euphonic rule, n ; but he maintains 
the original m before sibilants and half vowels where Anu- 
swara is due; as vidinsJiAm srimad, for f^fiff^ vUivlshd/i. On 
the other hand, F. von Schlegel and Frank write w, for the 
value of Anuswara, in the place of m in several grammatical 
terminations. The first, for example, gives danan, " a gift," for 
ddnam ; the second, ahnn for aAawi, " I." A. W. von Schlegel 
gives rightly m instead of a spurious or representative Anu- 
swara at the end of words ; and makes, for example, the infinitive 
termination in turn, not in tun or lung. He nevertheless, on this 
important point of grammar, retains the erroneous opinion, 
that the Anuswara is a variable nasal, which, before vowels, 
must of necessity pass into m (Preface to the Bhag. Gita, p. xv.) ; 
while the direct converse is the fact, tlmt the concluding m is 

convertible to Anuswara bi*fore any consonant except a semi-vowel or a 
nasal. (lb. 8. 3. 24.) Such arc the rules In practice, the mutation of the 
final J{ is constant : that of the medial nasal is more variable, and in gene- 
ral tlic change occurs before the semi- vowels and sibilants. — Editor, 


the variable nasal, which, under certain conditions, passes into 
the proper Anus wara; but before vowels is necessarily re- 
tained^ both in writing and pronunciation. [G. Ed. p. 10.] 

Tliat Von Schlegel also still continues the original n m at the 
end of words as an euphonic alteration of the dead sound of 
Anuswara appears from his mode of printing Sanskrit text, in 
which he makes no division between a concluding n m and 
the commencing vowel of the following word ; while he does 
make a division after tT n, and thereby shews that he admits 
a division after terminating letters which remain unaffected 
by the influence of the letters which follow. If, however, we 
write lu^ ^ra^fhr^ tdn aOravi't, " he said to them," we must 
also write TTPf "^ra^ftw tdm abravit, " he said to her ;" not 
iflHsl^Iri tdma&ravitf for the ^ of Km tdm is original, and not, 
as Von Schlegel thinks, begotten out of Anuswara. The conjec- 
ture of C. Lassen (Ind. Bibl. Book III. p. 39), that the Anuswara 
is to be understood, not as an after sound {Nachlaut), nor as an 
echo (Nachhall), but as a sound which regulates itself by that 
which follows — as it were the term Nachlaut, with the accent 
on laut * — appears to me highly improbable. Schlegel's nasalis 
mutabUisvrould indeed be justified by this view, and the imputa- 
tion of error removed from the Indian Grammarians, to whom 
we willingly concede a knowledge of the value of the Sanskrit 
signs of sound, and whom we are unwilling to censure for de- 
signating a half sound as mutable, in a language whose termi- 

* This seems intended for an explanation, for Lassen has nothing like 
it. I have not found an etymological explanation of the term in any 
grammatical commentary ; but it may be doubted if the explanation of 
the text, or that given by Lassen, be correct. Anuswara may indeed be 
termed tequens soniis ; but by that is to be understood the final or closing 
sound of a syllable. Any other nasal may be used as the initial letter of 
a syllable; but the nasal Anusw&ra is exclusively an ^^ after" sound, or 
final. It is not even capable of blending, as it were, with a following 
▼owel, like a final n or in, as in tCtn- or tdmahravU. It is the legitimate 
representative of either of the other nasals when those arc absolutely 



Dating sounds are almost always governed by the following 
\vords. It is true the half sound owes its being to the muta- 
bility of a concluding m» but is not mutable itself, since it never 
has an independent existence of its own at the end of any word : 
in the middle, however, of a radical syllable, as ^ dans^ 
f^ hins, it is susceptible of expulsion, but not of alteration. 
[G. Ed. p. 11.] That the Indian Grammarians, however, 
consider the m and not the n as the original but mutable 
letter in grammatical terminations, like v^ am, viniT bhydmt 
&c., appears from the fact that they always write these 
terminations, where they give them separate, with the labial 
nasal, and not with Anuswara. If it be objected that this is 
of no importance, as dependent on the caprice of the editor 
or copyist, we can adduce as a decisive proof of the just 
views of the Indian Grammarians in this respect, tliat when 
they range the declensions of words in the order of their 
terminating letters, the Pronouns ^^ idam, and ftvif kirn, 
in which they consider the m as primitive, are treated when 
tlie turn comes of the labial nasal m, and together with 

IT^IW jyrasdmf "quiet," from the root ^ii? iam. (Laghu- 
Kaumudi, p. 46.) 

10. The deadened nasal, which is expressed in the Lithuanian 
by particular signs over the vowel which it follows, appears 
to be identical with the Sanskrit Anuswara; and we write it 
in the same manner with n. At the end of words it stands 
for the remainder of an ancient m, in the accusative singular 
for example ; and the deadening of n before s into n presents 

terminal, and in pronunciation retains their respective sounds, according 
to the initial consonant of the following word. Again, with regard to its 
relation to the semi-vowels and sibilants, it may he regarded as appropriate 
to tliem merely in as £gu* as neither of the other nasals is so considered. 
In this sense Anuswara may be termed a subsidiary or supplemental sound, 
being prefixed with most propriety to those letters which, not being classed 
under either of the five series of sounds, have no rightful claim to the 
nasals severally comprehended within each respective series.— £(ft7or. 


a remarkable accordance with the Sanskrit rule of euphony 
before mentioned. From laupsin-u, "I praise," therefore 
comes hupsinsu, " I shall praise f ' as in Sanskrit ^^^T^ 
hamyAmu " I shall kill," from the root IR^ han. In the 
Prakrit, not only the it wi, but the t^ n, at the end of words, 
has always fallen into Anuswara^ without regard to the follow- 
ing letters. Thus we read in Chezy's edition of the Sakun- 
tala, p. 70, H^4, which is certainly to be pronounced, not 
bhaavam, but bhaavaht for HT^R bhagavan ; [G. £d. p. 12.] 
^ huUiath for ^^nr kuiham. 

11. The second of tlie signs before mentioned is named 
Visarga, which signifies abandonment. It expresses a breath- 
ings which is never primitive^ but only appears at the end 
of words in the character of an euphonic alteration of 
?ff g and ^ r. These two letters (s, r) are very mutable 
at the end of words, and are changed into Visarga before a 
pause or the deadened letters of the guttural and labial 
classes (§. 12.). We write this sign H to distinguish it from 

the true 7 h. 

12. The proper consonants are classed in the Sanskrit 
alphabet according to the organs used in their pronunciation ; 
and form, in this division, five classes. A sixth is formed by 
the semi-vowels, and a seventh by the sibilants and the 
^ h. In the first five ranks of these consonants the single 
letters are so arranged, that the first are the surd or liard 
consonants, the thin (tenues), and their aspirates; next, the 
sonant or soft, the medial s, and their aspirates, each class 
being completed by its nasal. The nasals belong, like the 
vowels and semi- vowels, to the sonants ; the sibilants to the 
surd or hard. Every thin and every medial letter has its cor- 
responding aspirate. The aspirates are pronounced, like their 

* No native scholar would read these as bhaavah or kudhah, as the text 
affirms, bot bha-avam, kudhavi, agreeably to the final ^ represented by 
Anusw&ra. — Editor. 


respective non-aspirates, with a clearly audible h ; thus, for 
example, ^ tli, not like the English th ; "^ jrfi, not / or ^ ; 
and ?r klh not like the Greek %.* In an etymological point 
of view it is important to observe that the aspirates of 
different organs are easily exchanged with each other; 
thus, >T^ hhar, V^ dliar, (^ bhri, ^ dhrU §. 1.) " to bear,'' "to 
hold," are perhaps originally identical. ^ITO dhuma-s, 
[G. Ed. p. 13.] "smoke," is, in Latin, /wmw-*. In Greek, 

davu), as well as ^evo), is related to ^^ han, from V^ dhan, 
" to kill." The Gothic ihliuhan is the German flieheriy Old 
High German vlhilmn. 

13. The first class is that of the gutturals, and includes the 
letters "a^ A-, ?^ klu ^ fff \ gh, IP n. The nasal of this class 
is pronounced like the German n before gutturals, as in the 
words sinken, enge, so as to prepare for the following gut- 
tural. In the middle of words it is only found before 
gutturals ; and, at the end, supplies the place of it m when 
the following word begins with a guttural.f We write it 
without the distinctive sign, as its guttural nature is easily 
recognised by tlie following consonant. The aspirates of 
this class are not of frequent use, either at the beginning or 
end of words. In some Greek words we find ;^ in the place 

of ?r kh: compare oVu^, oVi/^-oj, with nakhof " a nail ;" Kovj^ff, 
Kov^fp^, with iankhn, "shell;" ^a/vo), ^avco, with khan, "to 

* The original here adds — " We designate the aspirate by a comma, 
as t\ (V, b*.'* The use of such a mark is, however, unsightly, and appears 
likely to cause occasional perplexity and douht. It seems thcfetbre pre- 
ferable to adhere to the usual mode of expressing the aspirated letters, 
as dhf hh^ and the like. It is only necessary to remember that th and p/i 
are the letters / and p with an aspiration^ and not the th and f of the 
English alphabet — Editor, 

t A careful examination will perhaps shew that the several nasals of 
the Sanskrit alphabet arc mere m(Hlifications of one sound, according to 
the manner in which that is affected by a succeeding letter ; and that the 
modifications prevail equally in most languages, although it has not been 
thought necessary to provide them with distinct symbols— f^t/or. 


dig/' As regards the sonant aspirates, the ^ gh of gharma, 
" heat" (in Greek depfirf), has passed into the aspiration of 
another organ ; ^rj lagbu, " light/' has laid aside the gut- 
tural in the Latin kvis, and, in virtue of the i, changed the 
u into r. The guttural has kept its place in the German 
* leichtf the English light, and the Old High German lihti, 

14. Tlie second class is that of the palatals ; and includes 
the sounds ch emdj, with their aspirates and nasal. We write 
^ ch, "9 chh, Hy,* Wjh,* H n. This class is an oflshoot 
from the preceding, and to be considered as a softening of it. 
It is only found before vowels and weak consonants (semi- 
vowels and nasals) ; and before strong consonants, and at the 
end of a word, generally retires into the class from which 
it springs. Thus, for example, the base [G. Ed. p. 14.] 
^rnr t/'dcA, "speech," *' voice" (cf. vox), makes, in the unin- 
fiected nominative, ^T«5^ vdk; in the instrumental and locative 
plurals, irfrre vdg-hhis, ^ra vAkshu, In the cognate lan- 
guages we have to look for, in the place of the letters of this 
class, first, gutturals ; next labials, on account of their mutual 
affinity ; thirdly, the sounds of /, as, according to pronun- 
ciation, the first element of the palatals is at or d; fourthly, 
sibilants, as being the last element in the letters of this class. 
Compare iT^rfH pachdmi, " I cook" (inf. paktum, part., pass. 
pakfa), with coquo, ite'nijii (TreTrrw, TrerTO), Trecrcra)) ; ^itt diatur, 
"four,'' nom. ^i«f|<i4 chativdras, with quaiuor, Terrapeg, Tea- 
aape^, Gothic ^rfidr, Lithuanian ketturi; Vi^:^^panchan, "five" 
(nom. accus. pancha), with quinque, itevre, Tre/xTre, Gothic ^m/, 

Lithuanian penki ; TT^HT rdjan, ** king," with rei, regis ; 
TUfV rdjafa, nom. rdjatam, "silver" (from rdj, "to shine"), 
with argentum, apyvpo^; Hd^jdnUf " knee," with genu, yovv. 
With regard to the aspirates of tliis class, the chh, as an initial 
letter in some words, answers to sc, (tk; Ptftr^fl chhind- 

« The original has g and g; but the appropriate symbols in English are 
j and its aspirate. 


mas, " we cleave," HftHftl chhinadmi, ** " I cleave " answers 
to the Latin scindo; "Wm chlidyd, *' shadow," to tlie Greek 
(TKid. As the terminating letter of a root chh answers, in 
ira prachh, *' to ask," to the Gothic h in f rah, *' I or he asked," 
and to the German and Latin g in fraye, rogo^ in case that 
the latter, as I suspect, is a modification of progo. The nasal 
of this class, for which we require no distinctive sign,, as it 
only precedes palatals, deviates but slightly from the sound 
of the guttural n, and is pronounced nearly like vj. 

15. The third class is called that of the Unguals or cerebrals, 
and embraces a peculiar kind of sounds of t, together with its 

[G. £d. p. 15.] nasal ; a kind not original, but which has 
developed itself from the ordinary class of t sounds. We dis- 
tinguish them by a point under the letter, thus, ^ A <^ th, 
Y (/> 7 dh, JH n. In the Prakrit this class has obtained &:reat 
supremacy, and has frequently supplanted the ordinary t 
We there find, for example, H^ bhddu, for vtmi bhavatu, " let 
it be ;" and ^uw padhama, for ITP^ prathama, " the first." 
With regard to the nasal, the substitution of JS for 7f is 
nearly universal. The Indian Grammarians approach the 
Prakrit nearer than the Sanskrit, when at the beginning of 
roots they use the same substitution. The practice, also, 
which we have condemned (^. 9.), of using Anuswara for 
sv m, at the end of words, is more Prakrit than Sanskrit. 
At the beginning of words these letters are seldom found in 
Sanskrit, but they are found as terminations to a certain 
number of roots ; for example, ^ at, " to go." They are 
pronounced by bending back the tongue against the roof of 
the mouth, by which a hollow sound is expressed, as if from 
the head.* The nasal of this class has sometimes overstepped 
the limits of its usual laws : it is found before vowels, which 

* Here, also, it may be doubted if similar modificatioiis of tho dental 
sounds are not discoverable in languages which do not express them by 
separate symbols. The t of the Italian tutto is the Sanskrit Z>— Editor. 


is not the case with the nasals of the preceding classes ; yet 
never at the beginning of words. 

16. The fourth class embraces the dentals, or the sounds 
which properly answer to the common d and t, together 
with the common n, which belongs to them, tt ^ ^ tht ^ rf, 
\dhf ^ n. Of the aspirates of this organ, we have to re- 
mark, that tr th, in an etymological respect, never — at least 
in no instance of which we are aw^are — is represented in 
Greek by 6, but always like the natural /, by t. On the other 
hand, ^ dJi does correspond to ft which also sometimes re- 
presents 5 d. Thus the imperative ending fii dlti, in Greek 
becomes Ot ; mi madhu, " honey," " wine," is /lidv ; ^[VTfH 
dadhdnih " I place," TidYiyd ; cf^ifT duhitar [G. Ed. p. IC] 
(^f^ duhitri, §. 1.), ** daughter," dvyarrjp ; ifT^ ditvlr, f. and 
dicdra, neut. (nom. dwdram), " door," dvpa; ^^rf^t'a,Lithuan. 
diewas, *• God," ©eof. With regard to the hard asjiirate, com- 
pare the terminations re and tov with ^ tlia and ^ (has, the 
former in the plural, the second in the dual of the present 
and future ; arvjaci) with FirenfsT sthdsydmi, *'I shall stand"; 
oareov with wf^ asthi, "bone"; in the Latin, rota with 
^ni ratha, "carriage" ; and in the Gothic, the ending /, in 
the second person singular of the preterite, with ilia ; for 
example, vais-t, "thou knewest," with ^7q v^Hha. From 
the beginning of words in the Sanskrit this aspirate is nearly 

17. The interchange of rf and / is well known. Upon it, 
among other instances, is founded the relation oilacryma to 
SaKpVf SaKpvfm. In Sanskrit, also, an apparently original 
^ d often corresponds to the / of cognate European lan- 
guages ; for example, ^i(^ dip, " to light," j^ dipn, " lamp," 
becomes \a/x7ra), Xafiirag ; ^15 diha, " body," Gothic leik. 
On this relation also rests, as I have shewn elsewhere, the 
relation of our If^ Gothic lif, in el/t zwolf, Gothic tvaliff to 

^^t^ daaan, icKa. As also the second consonant has under- 
gone alteration, and has migrated from the gutturals into the 


labials ; and as, moreover, the number " ten," taken alone, is, 
in Gothic, taihun, in German zehn, its origin from lif was 
deeply concealed ; and even the Lithuanian lika, which accom* 
panics the simple numbers in their compounded forms from 
eleven to twenty, remained long under my notice without 
result The fact, however, that one and the same word may, 
in the course of time, assume various forms for various objects, 
proved, as it is, by numberless examples, requires no further 
[G. Ed. p. 17.] support. With respect to the affinityof \iko^ 
in fjKiKogt &c., and of the Gothic leiks in hvdUiks, "like to 

whom?'' to^ drisa, Prakrit fi|[?rf7isa, "like,''' I refer the reader 
to my Treatise on the Pronoun and its influence (Berlin, pub- 
lished by Dummler) ; and only remark, in addition, that by 
this analogy of \iKog, leiks, I was first led to that of /// to ScKa ; 
while the Lithuanian lika had not yet attracted my observation. 
18. The labial class comes next, namely, ^p> ifi ph, W 6, 
vt bh, «r m. The hard aspirate j)h is among the rarer letters ; 
the most usual words in which it occurs are, IK9 pliala, 
" fruit," ^ pMna, " foam,'^ and the forms which come 
from the root "^ phrdl, '*to burst, blow, bloom." The 
sonant aspirate vtbk belongs, together with v dh, to the most 
frequent of the aspirates. In the Greek and Latin, ^ and / 
are the letters which most frequently correspond to this 
^ bh, especially at the beginning of words ; for example, 
>J bhri "to bear," fero, fjyipuy; ^bhu, "to be," /u-i, <pv-ia. 
v( bh is also often represented by 6 in Latin, especially iu 
the middle of words. The / of fero becomes 6 in certain 
compounds which rank as simple words with a derivable 
suffix, as ber, brum, brium, in words like salul}er, candelabrum^ 
manuljrium. Thus the / of fu appears as 6 in the forms 
amabam, amabo, which I have recognised as compounds, and 
which will be hereafter explained. The dative and ablative 
termination plural vq^r^ bhyas, becomes bus in Latin. The 
nasal of this class, n m, is subject, at the end of a word, to 
several alterations, and only remains fast before a pause, a 


vowel, or letters of its own class : it otherwise governs itself 
according to the nature of the following letters, and may pass, 
in this manner, into any of the four preceding nasals, and 
weakens itself into the softened nasal sound [G. Ed. p. 18.] 
of the proper Anuswara, if followed by a semi- vowel, a sibilant, 
or 7 A. M has also a fiill right to the name of a mutable 
nasal. It is, however, not beseeming, when, in editions of a 
text otherwise conspicuous for accuracy, we find sf , though 
protected in its original condition by a pause, or by the 
following letters, written as Anuswara. 

19. The semi-vowels follow next: iT y, ^ r, 5^ /, ^ v. We 
distinguish y by the sound of our German j, or the English 
y in the word year. As the Latin ^' in English has the sound 
of a softened g^ so in Prakrit ir y often passes into ^ j ; 
and in Greek, upon this exchange of sound rests the relation 
of ^euyvvfu, {1/70^, &c. to the root to^ yuj, ** to bind,'' and that 
of the verbs in a$a> to the Indian verbs in tnnft aydmi ; for 
C is d»9 but the sound dsch is not to be looked for in the Greek. 
The relation of the Persian ^j;\^ javdm " young," to the 
Sanskrit Theme iTTt^ yuvarit Lat. juvenis^ belongs to this 
place. By v we here designate the sound of the German w 

and English r. After consonants, as i^ni tw&m, ''thee,'" 
this letter takes the pronunciation of the English w. The 
occasional hardening of the v into a guttural deserves mention 
here ; thus, in Latin, vic-ii (vixi), vidum, spring from viv ; and 
in /ado I recognise the Sanski*it causal m^tnf^ blidv-ayd-mh 
" I make to be,'' from the root i|^ bhu. The connection be- 
tween/ac-/u5 and^ is practically demonstrated. Refer back, 
in the Old and Modem Greek, to the occasional hardening 
of the Digamma into 7 (cf. C. G. Schmidt in the Berlin 
Jahrbuch, 1831, p. 613.). The voice cannot dwell on ^ v or 
n y; and these two letters are therefore, as in the Semitic 
languages, excluded from the end of words : [G. Ed. p. 19.] 
therefore the word fi»^ div, ** Heaven," forms its noniina- 
tiye* which ought to be div {divis being forbidden, see §. 94.), 



from ift dyd. Nominal bases in y do not exist. T r at the end 
of a word is subject to many alterations, and is interchange- 
able with w 8. In places where the concluding a, by favour 
of the following letter, is retained, ^ r becomes ^ s ; and, on 
the other hand, remains unaltered in places where ^ s be- 
comes T r, namely, before vowels and sonant consonants. 

20. The semi- vowels, by reason of their tractable and fluent 
nature, are easily interchanged. For instance, in the more 
recent Sanskrit works gr I often stands for T r.* We often, 
also, find in the cognate European languages / for w v. On 
this interchange is founded the relation of the Latin suffix lent 
(e.g. opulens), and of the Gothic /aMc/(a)-sf (see §. 116.), in 
hvilauds, ''quantus,"" svalauds, "tantus/' samalauds, ^' just so 
much,'' to the Sanskrit ffm vant (in the strong case, §. 1 19.), 
in words like iTWi^ dJianuvant, ** endowed with wealth,'' 
Wt^m tdvant, *' so much," ifP^ ydvant, " how much." On 
the change between v and r is founded, as I believe, the re- 
lation of the Old High German pir-u-mis, ** we are" (sing, pim^ 
H^lftf bhav'&'fnijf to H^lif^ bhav-d-mas ; as also that of scrir^ 
'U-mht " we shriek," to ^mi||i|9 ardv-ayd-tnas, ** we make 
to hear" (§.109.); as also that of triusu, "I fall," from the 
[G. Ed. p. 20.] root trus, to the Sanskrit ttf^^dhwahst " to 
fall ;'* J and of the Cretan rpi " thee " from rf e, to the Sanskrit 
tivd. The semi-vowel I is also exchanged with the nasals ; 
thus, w^ini anya-Sf ** the other," becomes alius in Latin, and 

* It is scarcely correct to say '' often/' as the instances are rare : nor 
are they restricted to recent works. Menu has tiiWca for airika. — Ed. 

t Grimm (iii. p. 46) assumes an adjective laudSj '' great ;" which, as 
£ir as the Gothic at least is concerned, might be dispensed with, as it is 
of the greatest antiquity as a snfiix, and does not appear alone as an 
adjective, even in the oldest periods. 

X I>h, according to §, 16., = the Greek ^; and to the ^, according 
to §. 87., corresponds the old High German t. The u of truSy from the 
old a, may be produced by the influence of the r, or of tlie dropped 


ET afitara-s, " the other,'' alter; ^ vadf " to speak," 
answers to the Gothic lath-dn, " called," " invited," ga4athdnj 
** called together"*' : mr dhmOf ** to blow,'' answers to flare. 
(§• 109.) Compare, also, balbns with ^ati^alvui. 

21. The last class embraces the sibilants and h: l!i^s,\ sh, 
V 8, and ^ Ju The first sibilant is spoken with a slight aspi- 
ration, and usually written by the English sh.* It belongs to 
the palatal class, and thence supplies the place of the third or 
proper ^ s when a hard palatal ^ eft or "^ chh follows ; for 
instance, Tl^if^ ^^^cfw rdmas charatit instead of iiHii ^ncfif rdmas 
charati, "Ramas goes." In its origin, ^^s appears to have 
sprung from k ; and in Greek and Latin we find k and c regu- 
larly corresponding to the Sanskrit ^ s. The Grothic substi*- 
tutes h in pursuance of the law of change of sound ; but the 
Lithuanian stands the nearest to the Sanskrit with reference 
to this letter, and has in its stead a sibilant compound sx, pro- 
nounced like sh. Compare decern, SeKa, Gothic taihun, Lithuan. 
deszimiiSf with ?![9v^ daian (nom. ^ daia) ; canis, Kvuyvt Gothic 
hundst Lithuan. szuo (gen. szuns), with ^v«T swan (nom. igr sivd, 
gen. ^ff^ iunaSf fcvvog), " dog ;" iaKpv, lacrima, aazarOf f. with 
^1^ airu n. ** tear ;" equus ( = ecvm), Lith. aszwa f. " mare," 
with W1V €t8wa (nom. ^m aswas\ ** horse ;" szaka f. with 
^fm idkhd " bough." The Lith. szwenta-s, " holy," answers 
to the 2^nd a»^^^q>j9 ipenta (§. 50.). At the end of a word, 
and in the middle before strong consonants, ^ i is not al- 
lowed, although admitted as an euphonic substitute for a con- 
cluding ?^ s before an initial hard palatal. Otherwise jf^s 
usually tails back into the sound from which [G. £d. p. 21.] 
it appears to have originated, namely, k. In some roots, 
however, 9(^ s passes into z t; for instance, ^i;^ dris, ** seeing," 
and fi|^t;», "a man of the third caste," form, in the unin- 
flected nominative, y« drih, f^ viL The second sibilant, 
i| $hf is pronounced like our sch, or sh in English, and 

* More usually i ; the sh is reserved for the cerebral whWani.— Editor. 



belongs to the lingual class. It often steps, according to 
certain rules into the place of tt s ; thus, for instance, after 
^ ^, TT 8 never follows, but only if sh ; and the f , ar, in Greek 
and Latin, are regularly represented by "^ ksh. Compare 
^f^ dakshina, with dex-ter, Se^lo^, Lithuanian dSszini, " the 
right hand/' Of the vowels, i, u, and ri, short or long, are 
averse from ^s^ to which a and d alone are inclined. After the 
first-named vowels, ^ s passes into 19 sh ; for instance, inftft 
tanthhi, instead of indftr iandsi (extendis). As an initial, ^ sh 
is extremely rare : the Indian grammarians, however, write 

the roots which, under certain circumstances, change 11 9 into 
"^ sh, from the first with a *^ «A. A word which really be- 
gins with 1^ f A is if^ shash, " six;'' to which the Lith. szeszi, a 
plural nominative, answers most nearly, while other cognate 
languages indicate an original ordinary s. At the end of a 
word, and in the middle before other strong consonants, such 
as ^ (. ^ th, n^ sh is not permitted, but in most roots passes 
into ^ k, but with some into 7 t : the number six, mentioned 
above, becomes, in the uninflected nominative, ir^ shaL 

22. The tliird sibilant is the ordinary s of all languages, but 
which, at the end of Sanskrit words, holds a very insecure po- 
sition, and by certain rules is subjected to transmutation into 

:|(^ if M sh, Tr, I ah or H Visarga (§. U.), and ti; and only re- 
mains unaltered before t and th. We write, for example, «mt 
wrfif sunus tarati, " the son passes over,"*' but w^fir IT^ : taraii 
[G. Ed. p. 22.] sunuK, ^[5^ ^»Tfw sunus charaii («/), ^niT 
)T^fir sunur bhavati (est). This sensitiveness against a con- 
cluding 9 s can only have arisen in the later period of the 
language, after its division ; as in the cognate languages the 
concluding s remains unaltered, or where it has been changed 
for r does not return into its original form. Thus, in the 
decree against Timotheus (Maittaire, §. 383-4.) p everywhere 
stands for y : Ttfioaeop 6 MtXrjo'top — 'napaytv6fi€vop — Kvfiaive- 
Tat rap uKoap tUv vecov, &c.* The Sanskrit could not endure 

* Cf. Hartunpf, p. 106. 


r before t The Latin protects the s usually at the end of 
words ; but in the classical period generally sacrifices it^ when 
between two vowels, to the r ; for instance, genus, generis^ for 
genesis; a contrast to forms found in Varro and Festus^ such 
as pltisima, faedesum, meliosem, majosibus, in which the s 
evinces its original existence in the history of the language 
(see §. 127.). The accusative form arbosem, recorded by 
Festus, is more startling^ for here r is the original form, if, 
as I can hardly doubt, arbor, arbos, is related to the word of 
such frequent occurrence in the Zend-Avesta, a}7a»»7> urvara, 
"tree."^ This expression is not wanting in the Sanskrit^ 

(vtn urvard;) but it signifies, according to Wilson, ** fruitful 
land,'^ and " land'^ in general. 

23. 1^ A belongs to the letters which, in Sanskrit, are never 
admitted at the end of words, nor in the middle before strong 
consonants. In these places it passes, by certain rules^ into 
Z /, ^ d, 1^ it, or JT g. In Greek we often find x ^ ^^'^ place 
of the Sanskrit v^ ; compare ^e/ficdv, hiems, with f^ hima, 

" snow,'' *' rime f x^P^ "^^^^ 1^^ ^P^^' C^' ^' P- ^J 
ydmi, gaudeo; y{]v with l|^ hansot " goose ;" x^ej, heri, with 
IWr hyas, " yesterday ;" o%oy with WW vah, " to transport." 
We also find #c, c, for h : compare KapSia, cor, Gothic hairtd, 
with j[^ hrid (n. ^^ hridaya), " heart."" We sometimes, but 
rarely, find the spiritus asper substituted for h ; for instance, 
aip€(a, ftlf^ hardmi, ** I take away.'' The Lithuanian ex- 
hibits sometimes sz for h ; for instance, cwar, " I,'' for nip^ 
aham, szirdis f. " heart," for ;i|^ hrid. This letter stands 
sometimes in Sanskrit for a mutilation of other aspirated 
consonants, of which the aspiration alone has been sup- 
pressed ; thus, instead of the imperative ending f^ dhi, we 
generally find hi\ on which account the grammarians accept 
f^ hi, and not fv dhi, as the original ending, and assume that 
hi passes into dhiy for euphonic reasons, after consonants. 
The root ir^ grah, " to take," is written in the Vedas ii« 
grabh, and answers thus more nearly to the German greifen^ 
and the Persian giriflan. 


We give here a general view of the Sanscrit characters, 
with tlieir respective values. 


^ a, WT d, \h %i ^ w» ^ w, ^ ri, ^ ri. 


• n, : off. 


Gutturals V Ar, Wf kht ^ g, "9 gh^ W n. 

Palatals ^cA, ^chh, i^j, ^h, »rn. 

Linsuals 7 /» H th, '9 d, Z dh, m n. 

Dentals W t ^ *A, ^ rf, V d/j, ^ n. 

Labials ^|), ifipAt W 6, H 6A, if m. 

Semi- Vowels ^ y, T r, g? /, ^ v. 

Sibilants and Aspirates, ^ i, 19 sA, 9 s, ^ A. 

[G. Ed. p. 24.] The vowel characters given above are 

found only at the beginning of words ; and in the middle or 
end of a word are supplied in the following manner : v a is 
left unexpressed, but is contained in every consonant which 
is not distinguished by a sign of rest (s) or connected with 

another vowel. V A is thus read ka; and k by itself, or the 
absence of the a, is expressed by w* ^ 2> ^ ^> ^1*0 expressed 
hy f, % and the first of these two is placed before, the second 
after, the consonant to which it relates ; for instance, f% At, 
"^hi. For ^u, ^t/,^ n,^n,the signs>», c^, «, ^, are placed 
under their consonants ; as, v Au, i| Aru, if Art, tk hfi. For 
F ^ and ^ dif ^ and ""^ are placed over their consonants ; as, 
% M, % Jfdi : ^ 6 and ^ du are written by omission of the v, 
which is here only a fulcrum ; as, nh kS, ^ kdu. The con- 
sonants without vowels, instead of appearing in their entire 
shapes, and with the sign of rest, are usually written so that 
their distinctive sign is connected with the following conso- 
nant; for instance, for ir, 9, iT, we have >, ?f, x; and thus 

\ V ^ 

matsya is written ^f^, not 'Tl^l^ ; for 1^ -I- s^ we have ^ ; 
and for 1^ + i(r we have la^. 


25. The Sanskrit letters are divided into hard or surd, and 
soft or sonant. Surd are, all the tenues, with their correspond- 
ing aspirates ; and in fact, according to the order given above, 
the first two letters in each of the first five rows, ako the three 
sibilants. Soft are, the medials, with their aspirates, the « , 
the nasals, semi-vowels, and all vowels. Another division also 
appears to us convenient — that of the consonants into strong 
and weak ; in which the nasals and semi- vowels come under 
the denomination of weak ; the remaining consonants under 
that of the strong. The weak consonants and vowels exercise 
no influence, as initial letters of inflections and suffixes, in 
the formation of words, on the terminating [G. Ed. p. 25.] 
letters of a root; while they themselves are compelled to 
accommodate themselves to a following strong consonant 

26, With regard to the vowels, it is of consequence to 
direct the observation to two affections of them, of frequent 
occurrence in the development of forms of Sanskrit ; of which 
the one is called Guna, or virtue ; the other Vriddhi, increase 
or augmentation. My predecessors in grammatical inquiry 
have given no information as to the essence, but have only 
expounded the effects of these vowel alterations ; and it was 
only in my critical labours upon Grimm's German Grammar* 
that I came upon the trace of the true nature and distinctive 
qualities of these affections, as also of the law by which Guna 
is usually produced and governed, and at ^e same time of its 
hitherto undetected existence in the Greek and Germanic, 
and, most conspicuously, in the Gothic. My views in this 
particular have since derived remarkable confirmation from 
the Zend, with relation to which I refer to §. 2., in which, as 
I flatter myself, I have dealt successfully with an apparent 
contradiction to my explanation. Guna consists in prefixing 
short a, and Vriddhi in prefixing a long one : in both, how- 
ever, the a melts into a diphthong with the primitive vowel. 

♦ Berlin Journal, Feb. 1827, p. 264. 


according to certain euphonic laws. ^ i, namely, and ^, melt 
with the V a of Guna into ^(; 7 ti, n f2, into ^ 6. These 
diphthongs, however, dissolve again before vowels into ^ ay 
and ^ra av; ^ ri and ^ri become, in virtue of the action of 
Guna, WT ar; by that of Vriddhi, w^ dr. As in Greek the 
[G. Ed. p. 26.] short Sanskrit a is frequently replaced by 
e ; so we find the Guna here, when a radical i or t; is prolonged 
by prefixing an e. As in the Sanskrit the root ^ ?, "to go,'* 
forms, by the Guna modification, vfii imi (from a-tmtX " I 
go," in contrast to imai^ " we go ;" thus in Greek also we 
have cTfti in contrast to tfiev. As the root y^budh, in several 
tenses in the three numbers, rises, in virtue of Guna, into 

Whi bddh (from baucUi), for instance, wtviflv bddhdmi, " I know ;*' 
so in the Greek * the root ^^7 (e^tryov), in the present be- 
comes ipeuyia. In the Gothic, in the strong form of Grimm^s 
8th and 9th conjugations, the radical vowel, strengthened by 
a in the singular of the preterite, stands in the same con- 
trast to the i and u of the plural, as is the case in the corre^ 
sponding tense of the Sanskrit Compare baugt ** I bent/ in 
contrast to bugum, " we bent," with the Sanskrit form of the 
same signification, singular ^Htw hMidja, plural w^rftfif 
huhhujimat of the root )n(^ bhuj; compare vait, *' I know,"" in 
contrast with viium, " we know," with the Sanskrit forms of 

the same signification, ^ vida (from vaida\ ftfipi vidimot 
from the root ftr^ virf, " know," which, like the correspond- 
ing Gothic and Greek root, employs the terminations of the 
preterite with a present signification. 

27. We have, however, the Sanskrit Guna in yet another 
form in the Gothic — a form which I have but lately dis- 
covered, but of which the historical connection with the 
Sanskrit modification appears to me not the less certain. I 
once thought that I had accounted in a different manner for 
the relation existing between biuyat " I bend," and its root 

* lU'garding Greek 01 as Ciuna of i, see $. 491.; and as to Gairn in Old 
S'lavonic and Lithaaniun, sec {$.255» '>, 741., 746. 


bug, and I conceived myself bound to ascribe generally, in the 
present tense, to the prevalent i of terminations a retro-active 
influence. It now, however, seems to me indisputable that 
Grimm*s 8th and 9th conjugations of the [6.£d. p.27.] 
first class correspond to my first Sanskrit conjugation (r. 326.) ; 
so that the Guna a of the special tenses has been weakened 
to t, while the monosyllabic preterite maintains the Guna 
vowel in the more important shape of a ; just as in the loth, 
11th, and 12th conjugations, according to Grimm's division, 
the radical a, which has remained in the preterite singular, 
is, in the present and other tenses, weakened to i ; so that, for 
instance, aU ** V and ''he eat,'' corresponds to the root ^ 
(id, '* to eat ;" but in the present, ita stands in place of the 

form ^rf^i admU " I eat." * 

28. The 2^nd possesses, besides the Sanskrit Guna, which 
has remained everywhere where it stands in Sanskrit, a 
vowel application peculiar to itself, which likewise consists 

in A» a, and which was first observed by M. R Bumouf.-j* 
The vowels which admit this addition in the interior, but 

not at the end of words, are, first, the short j i, >u,^o; 
2dly, the Guna diphthongs ;o i and }^ 6. The two latter 
are the most usually befriended by this addition, and ;o i 
takes it in all cases where the opportunity occurs, both as an 
initial letter, and even at the end of words wherever the 
dependent particle a>^ cha, *' and,"" is appended to it ; hence, 
for example, ^7jMfnairi, ''hominu'' ^d^MA dihre, "ignV; but 
j^fox3!}xsf nara&chOf *' hominique,'*'' x3^)^M?(3Mi dthraSchaf **igni' 
qae'* Also where an i stands in two consecutive syllables, an 

a is placed before each. Hence, for instance, 4^^j;oa)^;oa} 
aUaSibyd, from inhirff it&hyas. The only case in which, ex- 

* It would be difficnlt to addoce a better iDstanco of the phonetic defi- 
ciencies of onr English alphabet than this sentence, in which I am forced 
to translate the present and past tenses of essen by the same characters. 
What foreign student could gness or remember that the one is pronounced 
€€ty the other ett ? The preterite ^* ate" is obsolete. — TYanalatar. 

t N. Jonm. Asiat., T. III. p. 327. 


cepting at the actual end of the word, n> i remains without 
the preceding a» a* is when it is produced by the influence of 
a y^ y, out of a> a or au d. We say, indeed, 4'JtJb^n>A>;*o 
[G. Ed. p. 28.] yaMydf "quibus,'*' from ^«i|^ y&hycu; but 
not |jd<>';oAo,pitf Ayaiiif but ^j9;o^>ui AyHi, "* I glorify,^ from 
the Sanskrit root, which has been lost, for the verb i|^ yai, 
from which comes ^9^^ yaias, " glory/^ Yet we find, for 

jjajjCL y^» * ^^' (^^' ^ y^)» sometimes, though perhaps 
erroneously, also j^)^j^JC^ yaizu The addition of the as a 
before 4^ d is just as unlimited, but the occasion is fietr less 
frequent. Examples of it are, y^^J^ adzdt ** strength,"^ from 
iftifV ^^; ^Y^f^ii kerenadt, "he made,^ from '^kri, ac- 
cording to the fifdi class, for iranAl^ akrindt; tA^xt^ mradtt 
" he spoke,*" from wiftv abr(H, which would be the reg^ular 
form, instead of winfh^ abravit (Grranun. Crit r. 352.). We 
also find ^^m"^ mradm, " I spoke,'' for WlfN abrdm, which 
would be the form used were, in the Sanskrit adjunct 
tenses, as in the Greek, a mere nasal, and not w am. the 
suffix of the first person. The vowels j t and > u are 
much more sparing in their attraction of the a> a now in 
question : they refuse it always at the beginning of words, 
and in the middle before two consonants ; and if transferred 
from the end of a word to its middle, by an adventitious ter- 
mination or word, they do not acquire the capacity of being 
wedded to an a» a. We say, for example, ^^^j imem, 
"this'" (accus.), not (^(jas aimem ; MiMdj^j^ mithwana, 
"a pair,"* not AiyAsoil^jA)^ maUhxjoana ; 4^^j7ja»^ gairibyd, 
*' moniibuHr not ^^^ja»7ja»^ gairaibyd. The > u also, ac- 
cording to set rules, very firequently abstains from the a» a; 
for instance, ^y>?> tinind, (anifMB,) not ij^f>Ai% uraund^ from 
yA>»7> urvan; on the contrary, Aif>7>Ai^ taurunat "young/* 
from ire^ taruna. Where, however, the Sanskrit ^ u is 
replaced by ^ o (§. 32.), an a) a is placed before it, as well 
at the beginning as before two consonants ; and in this case 
4f o stands in this respect in the same category as ;o ^ and 
[G. Ed-, p. 20.] ^ fj. Compare ^^m? raoch, " light," with 


I ruch; ^^i^^^j^^mm iaochantanm (lucefdium) with 
1^«|AIN iuchyatdm; A)^od^diA> aoctot ** he spoke/' with '9%ukta^ 
which I form, by theory, after the analogy of wf^ akshipta 
(Gram. Crit r. 389.), leaving out the augment 

29. In the Vriddhi modification, the vowels ^ i, ^ ^, melt 
with the preceding WJ d into $ di; 7 u, n i2, into ^ du; 
^ ri, ^ fit into WT dr. The simple vowel v a, as also the 
diphthongs ^ e and ^ o, which would produce the same 
effect by Gkina as by Vriddhi — for a-^Oj like d-^cu makes d; 
a + 4 liked + ^» makes di; a +6, like d+6, makes du — are 
capable of only one higher modification, and reserve this one 
for cases where grammatical laws demand the highest step, 
namely, Vriddhi, and remain in the cases of Guna unaltered, 
unless extraordinary grounds of exception occur. It may be 
convenient here to give a connected summary of the results 
produced by Guna and Vriddhi. 

Primitive Vowels, v a, WT d, ^ i, ^ i, ^ «, ^ tJ, ^ri 

Guna ^S, ^^, wt d, wt (J, mtar, 

Vriddhi w A ... ^ di, ^ di, ^ du, yS\ du, W^dr,* 

Primitive Vowels, ^ n, ^ ^, ^ di, wt 4 ^ du. 

Guna WT ar, 

Vriddhi mT dr, ^ at, ... ^ du. 

• . ... 

_ _ _ _ _ • • 

30. We now proceed to the exposition of the Zend writing, 
which^ like the Semitic, proceeds from right to left, and 
towards the comprehension of which Rask has contributed 
valuable corrections, which give the language an appearance 
more natural and more in consonance with the Sanskrit than 
it assumed in the hands of former commentators, Anquetil's 
pronunciation having admitted much that was heterogeneous, 
especially in the vowels. We follow the order of the Sanskrit 

* According to original Grammars the Gnna letters are a, e, o ; the 
Vriddhi^ dy ai, au; the two first, a and d, being severally sabstitnted for 
the vowel sonnds of re, /rt, in combination with the semi-vowels r and I, 
Siaar^al, dtf dL — Editor. 


alphabet in giving the corresponding value of each letter in 
[G. Ed. p. 30.] the Zend. The Sanskrit short v a has two, 
or rather three, representatives ; the first is a>, which An- 
quetil pronounces as a or e, but Rask, certainly with truth, 
limits to a. The second is g, which Bask pronounces like 
the short <e of the Danish, or like the short German a, as in 
Hdnde, or as a in cane in English, and e in the French aprh$. 
I consider this g as the shortest vowel, and write it e. We 
often find it inserted between two consonants which form a 
double consonant in the Sanskrit ; for instance, j^^h^m^j^^ 
dadaresa (pret. redupl.), for the Sanskrit ^^ dadaria, *'he'' 
or " I saw ;" ^^a»(J^^ dademahi (V. S. p. 102), " we give,'' 
for the Veda form ^flf^ dadmasu This shortest e is also 
always appended to an originally terminating r. Thus, for in- 
stance, ^xs^^xs ardare, " between,'' ^7^)^^ ddtare, " giver,'' 
" creator," ^?m»^ hvare, " sun," stand for the corresponding 
Sanskrit forms m^ afdar^ ^Tif^ dAtoft tsPC. awar, " heaven." 
It is worthy also of remark, that always before a final 
( m, and generally before a final y n, and frequently before 
an intermediate vowelless ^ n> the older v a becomes c e. 
Compare, for instance, 5f7(3>Q) puthretn, ''JUium''^ with inni 
putra-m; f^^^ anh-^n, "they were," with ygm^^dsan, ^<rav; 
^i^il^i^ hent-em, '*the existing one," with wn^^mnt-amf 
prre-seniem, ab-seniem. This retro-active influence of the 
nasal reminds us of the shortening power of the Latin ter- 
mination m; as, for instance, stem, stimus (Sanskrit Ardim 
tishthSy-am, fil^ tishthima). 

31. Anquetil entirely refuses to admit into his alphabet a 
letter differing but little from the g e above discussed, but 
yet distinct from it by rule in practice, namely, c, which 
Rask teaches us to pronounce like a long Danish <b. We find 
this letter usually in connection with a following > u, and 
this vowel appears to admit, with the excep- [G. Ed. p. 31 .] 
tion of the long jos d, no vowel but this p before it We write 
this c e without the diacritic sign, inasmuch as we represent 
the ro, like the Sanskrit ^, by i. Eu >c corresponds etymo- 


logically to the Sanskrit wt 6, or diphthong formed by v a 
and 7u; thus, for example, the nominal bases in u, which 
in the Sanskrit genitive, by the influence of Guna, u e. by the 
prefixing of a short a, make d-s, form, in 2^nd, m5>q eus. 
Compare, for instance, jiC>9*»A»Q) foseus with "T^fh^ pasds, 
from paiuf "pecus.*' And yet the Sanskrit 6 does not uni- 
versally become eu in 2^nd, but often remains as it is, and 
specially in cases where it arises out of the termination as, 
by the solution of the s into u. According to its pronuncia- 
tion, >c ^li would appear to be a diphthong, and to form 
but one syllable, as in our German words heute, Leutet &c. 

The long a (d) is written joi. 

32. Short and long i are represented, as are long and 

short ti, by special characters, j i, -f i$ > u, ^ u: Anquetil, 
however, gives to the short i the pronunciation e, and to the 
short u (>) that of o; while, according to Rask, only ^ is 
pronounced as short o.* This short o frequently holds the 
etymological place of the Sanskrit 7 u, and never corresponds 
to any other Sanskrit vowel. For the diphthong ^ du, in 
particular, we have generally the Zend ^ do : we yet find, 
sometimes, also >aii du; for instance, jic>Au^ gdus, ** bos,^ is 
more frequent than m5^^ gdos, for the Sanscrit jft^^gdus. 

33. The Sanskrit diphthong ^^ formed out of a + 1, is re- 
presented by ;o, which, especially as a terminating letter, is 
also written i^, and which we, as in Sanskrit, represent by i. 
We must here, however, observe, that the Sanskrit ^ i is not 
always preserved as n> ^ in the Zend, but is sometimes re- 
placed by j^ dit which appears to prevail particularly after 
a preceding ^^ y, especially at the end of [G. Ed. p. 32.] 
words. The Vriddhi diphthong ^ di (out of d + i) is always 
represented by jam di; 6, either by the equivalent ^ — for 
which we often find ^ o substituted by the neglect of copy- 
ists — or by the above-mentioned >j eu, which, according to 
rule, before a terminating m5 s replaces the Indian ^6; 

* But see §. 447. Note. 


SO that a termination in j^c^^ 6s* is unheard of in the Zend. 
For the Vriddhi diphthong ^ du (out ot d + u) we gene- 
rally find dOf for which there is a special character ^ ; 
more rarely >au du. It would appear that jms di, gus ad, 
>jui du, and the s^ 6i which replaces to i, should be pro- 
nounced as diphthongs, i.e. as monosyllables. 

34. Anuswara and Visarga do not exist in Zteud, unless we 
admit the nasal specified in §. 61. as answering to the sound 
of the Sanskrit Anuswara. We proceed meanwhile^ for the 
present^ to the proper consonants. The first letter of the 
Sanskrit guttural class has divided itself into two characters 
bearing reference to difierent functions, ^ and ^ ; of which 
the first, which we represent by k, only appears before vowels 

and » v; the other, which we write c, precedes especially 
consonants, excepting » v. Compare, for instance, ^^ k6, 
joij id, tAMj kal, (quis, quce, quid\ '^f f %«ww* hakeret, " once," 
j^j^Im^ kardith " he made," m»j kva, " where," with w^ kd, 
W\ kd, firsf kirn, ^^ sakrit, ^lOfil kardti, and JH kwa: on the 
other hand, xPdiSMc^ csathra, " king,** with "^pi kshatra ; 
j^^j^ hidi, " pouring out" (V. S. p. 198), with ftrf^ sikti 
(from f^g^sich). In what manner the pronunciation of this 
(Si c differs from that of the ^ k can indeed hardly be de- 
fined with certainty : it is probably softer, weaker than that 
of the ^ k, which latter is fenced in by no strong consonants. 
Rask selects for it the character 9, without observing that this 
letter prefers only to precede consonants, and in this position 
[G. Ed. p. 83.] always corresponds to the Sanskrit w k. 
Bumouf considers ^ as an aspirate, and writes ^%i*a)96^jo^ 
takhmahi. He writes, on the other hand, the letter ^ which 
Rask treats as an aspirate, with 9. Bumouf has not yet given 
his reason, which I think, however, I can guess, namely, that 
6i c is found before r, which, according to Burnouf s just 

* juo^ Ssy according to BumouE^ occurs occasionally as the termination 
of the genitiye singular of the ti-bases for the more common aa^>c eus; 
e,g, ju^yj^joii bdzaSi, '^ braehu," 


remark, generally confers an aspirate upon a preceding con- 
sonant. I consider this reason, however, as insu£Scient ; and 
think that ^ c stands before r, because, as we have before 
remarked, all consonants, v excepted, only admit before them 
that modification of the k sound which is expressed by ^. 
It would be impossible for 7 r, and the other letters of simi- 
lar agency, to convey aspiration to the preceding hard gut- 
tural if ?r JirA be not extant in Zend ; so that, for instance, 
the root ^bt^ khan, " to dig,** sounds yA$j kan in Zend. There 
are, however, some words in which ?(^ kh is represented by 
^. From WtkharOf "ass," we find the accusative ^g^Asd^ 
ccmsm ; and we find, also, the ?^^ kh of ^jfis sakhi, " friend,"' 
replaced by c ; the accusative, for instance, ^Tfrnnv sakhdyam 
transformed into ^jma^m^ hacdim. It may therefore remain a 
question whether ^ it or ^ c, in respect of their sounds, have 
the better right to be referred to 19 kh; but this much is 
certain, that "i|^ k before vowels and before ^ t? is only repre- 
sented by 5 in Zend ; before other consonants only by 6i ; 
which latter we shall, till better advised, continue to render 

35. Anquetil ascribes to ^ the value of ^, and to both 
the pronunciation kh; while Rask considers the latter alone, 
by reason of the aspiration stroke which he recognises, as 
aspirated, and compares it to the Spanish x and the Arabic 
^, and our German ch. Bumouf renders [G. Ed. p. 34.] 
^hy q; and observes (I. c. p. 345) that the Sanskrit syllable 
9 swa becomes qa in Zend, namely, in ^nr sivapna, ** sleep,^ 
written, according to Bumouf, qafnoy and in 9 swa {suus), 
** his.'^ We are inclined to add to these examples, xs^^^ 
khonha, (nom.) accus. ^<^ys^ khanhrenif from W9T swasd, 
" sister '' (saror) ; ^nsrTT]i|[ swasdram (aororem) ; and ^yf ^aj^jj ArAa- 
renth " splendour," as related to ^R. swar, " heaven,'' and ^ 
suT, "to shine." We must, however, at the same time, remark, 

that ^ 8w does not universally become ^ kh, and that W8wa 
in particular, in an isolated position and with a possessive 
signification, much oftener appears in the shape of a5»^ hva, 


or that of xs»xiw hava. We render ^ by kh, and support our 
view of its aspiration more on the fact, that in modern Persian 
it corresponds frequently to ^, our eft, than on the circum- 
stance that Rask has marked it as aspirated. This modern 
Persian ^ is pronounced, indeed, at present, without aspira- 
tion, like an Italian c before a, o, u; but its value in Arabic, 
and the choice of this letter, so powerfully aspirated in the 
Arabic to designate a special guttural sound, in true Persian 
words, seems to indicate an intrinsic stronger or milder aspi- 
ration. As ^kh is derived from the Sanskrit ^ swa, it was 
not applied to replace the 'W k before letters, which would 
without it produce an aspiration. It may also be here conve- 
nient to remember that either ti or v (j) accompanies the 
Persian ^ when the latter replaces at the beginning of a 
[6. Ed. p. 35.] word the Sanskrit ^ sw. It is true that j v 
is no longer sounded before long vowels, but it must originally 
have had its influence on the pronunciation, and cannot have 
been introduced into writing entirely without object, and for 
the mere employment of the copyist. Compare \\y^ khudd^ 
"God," with isnpil swadatta, " self-given f ' for which, in 2^nd, 
we have, under a more regular participial form (see Gramm. 
Crit r. 606), m^j^^^ khaddta*; which Anquetil, or his 
Parsi teacher, always understands in the sense of, "given 
through God," deceived, probably, by the resemblance of 
sound to ^J^ khudA; while Neriosengh properly translates it 
by ^onncw stvayandcdta. The Persian ^v>>- khudd is, however, 
as Bumouf correctly assumes, actually related to the Zend 
A3^M3ys^ khaddta, so as to have its name based in the idea, 
" created by itself," while in its form it has been mutilated of 
one syllable. In Sanskrit we find both ^5^? stvabhu, " self- 
existent,'" and also the more common '^[^f^swayambhu, as 
appellations of Brahma and Vishnu. That, however, as has 
often been maintained, our word "God" is really related to 

* This word comes from the root dhd^ "to place," not from dd, "to 
give," see §. 687. 




^J^ khudd, and that its primal signification has thus been dis- 
covered through the Zend, we are forced still to doubt. We 
will here only call to mind that the Germanic forms, especially 
in the older dialects, in general approximate much more to 
the Sanskrit than to the modem Persian. ^ sw, in par- 
ticular, in the Gothic, either remains unaltered, or becomes 
d (§. 20.). The pronominal syllable ^ stoa exhibits itself in 
the Gothic as 2k pronominal adverb, sva (so) ** thus ;" and with 
an instrumental form, sve (u?ie) **how.'' The neuter sub- 
stintive svis (Theme aviso) means Eigenthum, "property,"^ as 
in Sanskrit the neuter ^ swcu I know of no certain form in 
which a Germanic ^ or A: corresponds to a Sanskrit ^swov a 
Persian f^ kh. To return, however, to the [G. Ed. p. 86.] 
Persian 1, khu=z^ sw : compare ^Jji^ khuftan, " to sleep, 
with ^n^ swap ; ^^^ kh(w)dbf " sleep,'' with ^tr swdpa ; 
^^ j3^^ kh(w)dndan, " to sing,^^ with ^^ swan, ** to sound ; 
jfc^^ kh(w)dhar, " sister,'' with ^l^ swasri, Gothic svistar ; 
Ja2)^ khur-shidf " sun," Zend ^^»^ hvare, with ^^ swar, 
" heaven." In some words ^ kh corresponds to a Sanskrit k 
before r, in which position the Zend loves an aspiration ; in 
the modern Persian, however, a vowel intrudes between the 
guttural and the r ; thus, ^jO^]^ khirdmrtdan, " to proceed 
with pomp," corresponds to the Sanskrit W{^ kram, " to go,'" 
" to step ;" and ^v>?^ khiridan, " to buy," to the Sanskrit 
equivalent root "aft krt The Persian ^ kh answers to the 
Sanskrit aspirated 'Wf^ kh, in the word j^- khar, "ass'' 
(Sanskrit Ht khara). 

36. The guttural t\ , and its aspirate ^, are represented by 
o g and o gh. The Sanskrit i^^ gh has, however, sometimes 
dismissed the aspiration in Zend ; at least as^^As^ garema, 
"heat" (dipfirj and JVdrme), answers to the Sanskrit ^ 
gharma : on the other hand, the xifoghna in AjyoA$7cig7g9 vere- 
thraghnot "victorious," corresponds to the Sanskrit "Ughna at 
the end of compounds ; for instance, in ^nrff sairurghna, * * enemy 
slayer." The Zend AjyoA$7^g7g(? verkhraghna properly signi- 



fies, like the word so often used iu the same sense yjojAsAif 7j^ 
verethrorzan, " killer of Vritra/' and proves a connection be- 
tween the Zendish and Indian mythologies, which, however, 
in consequence of the obscuration of meanings in Zend, and 
the oblivion of the old Myths, now only exists in affinities of 
speech. " Killer of Vritra " is one of the most usual titles of 
honour of the prince of the lesser gods, or Indra, who, from 
his slaughter of the daemon Vritra, of the race of the Da- 

[G. Ed. p. 87.] nawas, bears this name. 

We shall discuss the nasals apart in §. 60. 

37. Of the Sanskrit palatals the Zend has only the tenms; 
namely ^>i cA ( = ^), and the media, namely ^j ( = ^): the 
aspirates are wanting, which is not surprising, as they are of 
rare occurrence in the Sanskrit The following are exam- 
ples : j^jAi7xi^ charaUi, " he goes,'' Sanskrit iirfiT charaii ; 
^?»3ii<3jS<3M^ chathudrd, ** four'' (nom. plur. masc.) Sansk. ^rm^iT 
chaiwdras, wmtt chativdrd ; S^a^S^Ai adjd, " strength," Sansk. 
vtifTT djas, ^ftift dj6. It is, however, to be observed, that, 
while tlie Sanskrit ch remains, by rule, unaltered in Zend, the 

sonant y is often replaced by other letters ; and first, by j r ; 
for instance, A5^oju^ zdta, *'born," Sansk. imr^^to; secondly, 
by tb sh ; for instance, >ygtb shenu, " knee," Sansk. m^yclntf. 

38. The modification of the sounds of t, peculiar to the 
Sanskrit, contained in the third row of consonants, is wanting 
in the Zend. We pass, therefore, to the ordinary sounds of 
that letter, the dentals. These are, p t (i0, (3 th (\)f^ d 
(^) (D^rf/i (^), together with a ( (r»), peculiar to the 2^nd, 
of which more hereafter. Tlie ^tis like the guttural which 
we represent by k (j\ in this respect, that its position is 
almost limited to one preceding vowels. Before 7 r and 
qjS'uu and sometimes before ^^ y, in order to gratify the 
affection of the latter for an aspirate, the aspirated <^ th 
steps in. Tlius, for instance, ^^offc^thwanm signifies "thee,*' 
while the nominative is written ^^^ fum, and the genitive 
Ai»Ai^ tava ; and the word 7a)^am dtar, " fire," nom. jtv97A)^jui 


diars, makes, after rejection of the a which preceded r, h^^juj 
AthrSf ** tgmi," i»aj7(3aw dthrat, ** ab igne,'"' &c. If, however, 
the t be protected by a preceding consonant, excepting n» 
the succeeding semi-vowel is thereby de- [G. Ed. p. 38.] 
prived of its retro-active power. We find, for instance, 
A>7pj5AJ9 vastra, not as^C^jjas^ vakhra, " garment,'' ** vest f 
but we have aj?^^9 manlhra, " speech,'^ not a}7|^^9 mantra, 
from the root jm^ man. At the end of a word, and, which 
rarely occurs, before strong consonants, (§. 25.) at the begin- 
ning also, and middle of a word, the Sanskrit t (if) is re- 
presented by a special letter, namely, by r», which we, with 
Burnouf, write/, but formerly wrote with a simple t undotted 
below, because no change is possible with ^ or (3. Rask 
represents it by th, because he recognises the sign of aspira- 
tion. I am unable, however, to assent to the universal 
validity of this sign of Rask's, and I incline to rejecting the 
aspirate, as in Sanskrit, from the end of words. We should 
also remember that the diphthong g is written ;o as well 
as Q^ ; the last, which prevails at the end of words, with 
a stroke similar to that which distinguishes our m from ^. 
Before consonants, for instance, in the word 4^)^;oas^(» 
fkaishd, the sounding of th would be more precarious than 
that of t, in case this th did not somewhat partake of a sibi- 
lant sound. I think, however, that r» / has merely a 
feebler pronunciation than ^ t, and is, so to say, the last 
breathing of ^ ; as, in Sanskrit, s and r, at the end of words, 
are diluted to Visarga (§. II.) ; and as ir t, in Prakrit, and 
also in Greek, is, at the end of words, altogether suppressed. 
39. ^ is the ordinary d ?f , and ^^^ according to Rask's 
just remark, its aspirate dh. This represents the Sanskrit 
H dh, for instance, in the imperative ending fV|. The 
Zend, moreover, favours (o^ dh for^ d in the middle of 
words between two vowels. We find, for instimce, as^au^ 
ddta, " given,'' but j^jm^^ dadhdmi, Sanskrit l»i;Tft! daddmi, 
"I give "; and as^au^^^i^as^ mazda-dhdta, [G. Ed. p. 39. | 



" given by Ormusd/' ** created '' ; J^y^ yidhU " if/' San- 
skrit iifij yadi ; a5(ojuiq) pddha, "foot,'' Sausk. m^ pdda. 

40. The labial class embraces the letters q) ft • /, _i 6, 
and the nasal of this organ 9 ^» of which more hereafter. 
q) p answers to the Sanskrit t^p, and is transformed into 
A / by the retro-active aspirative power of a following 7 r, 
j^ Sf and J n ; whence, for instance, the preposition n pra 
(pro, irpo) becomes, in 2^nd, a$o« fra ; and the primitive 
words Oaj ap, " water '' (aqtuh and perhaps a^po; ), «>f7g^ 
Arerep, " body,'' form in the nominative, j^jm dfs, J^3«^^ 
kerefs; on the other hand, in the accusative, 9gQ)Au dpem^ 

^8^8^f3 ^^^^/^^^' ^^ 9f<^^^f5 kehrpem. In regard to the 
power which resides in n of aspirating a p, compare >y^As^ 
^//hu, "burning," from the root q)a$p tap, with the deriva- 
tive from the same root jpj;o^^Q)jujpAu dtdpaySiii^ "he 
shines " (See Vendidad Sade, p. 33d), and the plural asj^am^ 
csafna, "nights," with the ablative singular f^MtTxi^MJA^ 
caapardt (Vendidad Sade, p. 330), in which, even in the root, 
the interchange between n and r is observable, as the same 
takes place in the Sanskrit between ^r^ ahan and vi^ 
ahar, "day." (Gramm. Crit. r. 228. annot.) Originally — 
i.e. standing for itself, and not proceeding from the o) p 
by the influence described — «/is of very rare occurrence. 
In some instances known to me it corresponds to the San- 
skrit w 6ft, which, however, for the most part, in the Zend 
has rejected the aspiration. In Anquetil's Vocabulary we 
find ndfot "navel," which in Sanskrit is written tfifi? ndbhi; 
and in the fem. accus. plural, of frequent occurrence in the 
Zend-Avesta, M3^(o^g«>»* hufedhris, we recognise the San- 
skrit TW5 mbhadra " very fortunate," " very excellent," 
also a title of Vishnu. 

41. We come now to the semi-vowels, and must, in order 
to follow the order of the Sanskrit alpliabet, discuss y in tlie 

[G. Ed. p. 40.] next place, by which we express the sound 
of the German and Italian j^ the English consonantal y. This 


scmi-vowel is written at the beginning of words by ^^o or 
jC^, and in the middle by the duplication of the u ^^, as in 
tlie Old High German we find w expressed. This semi- vowel, 

and the vowels which correspond to it, j i and ^ i, introduce 
into the preceding syllable an j i; an interesting pheno- 
menon, first observed by Burnouf (I. c. pp. 340, 34 1), and which 
in its principle is connected with the German vowel modifi- 
cation (§. 73.). We are obliged to ascribe a similar influence 

also to the diphthong ;o i where it stands at the end of a 
word. Frequent occasion for this presents itself in the dat. 
sing, and the third pers. pres. of the middle verb. For in- 
stance, jo^jAif nairi, ** hominir for /o^y nari, is frequent; 
but A»f«>n>A>^y naraichat " hominujue,'"* is an exception. The 
vowels after which, by the attractive power of the letters 
mentioned, an j i is placed, are m a, jm A, > u, ^ u, jo i, ^ df 
as to which we must also observe, that u, in the case of a 
succeeding i, is lengthened. Examples are : as^^^aj^ mai- 
dhya (iHfl madhya) "middle"; M^yjjuj nairya, " mjin'' ; 
j^jA}»Aii bavaiti, ** he is''; j^jjui^^asj dadlidilh " he gives'' ; 
j^ja)^i>a}q)juj^juj didpaySilh " he shines" ; ^C^^Jy/g^ kerendiV, 
"he makes"; J^^^^ iiaidhu "praise," instead of j^pjiJ 
itudfiU from the root >pjj ku (w) ; J<i^^J^^ ttiirya, " the 
fourth," from ^inTT chatiir, with the if cha suppressed ♦ ; 
Ai^yj>^JM dhuirya, an adjective, derived from A5/>tt»Aj ahum. 
With regard to the influence of ^^ y we must observe, that 
it does not mix up an j i with a vowel immediately pre- 
ceding, but only with one separated from it by one conso- 
nant ; for if there be two, unless the first be ^ n, the retro- 
active power of y, i, or t*, is neutralized ; thus ^mx5 akU 
not j^j)jA} aistiy stands for " he is " ; on the other hand we 
have •)^^jA)»Aa bavainli, Sansk. H^fR( bhavantU ** they are." 
Several other consonants also resist simply [G. £d. p. 41.] 
this power of attraction ; thus we have >^^^^ dakhyu, not 

* Or more immediately from the Sanskrit ordinal jp3( turyya or "^^n 
turiya, ^' fouxih,"— Editor. 


>^^^j^ daikhyu, " land,"" " province"" ; and the i of the 
personal terminations j^ mi and j^ hU or Jt^ shu obtain 
no influence over the preceding syllable. In the same man- 
ner, in the first person plural, j^a)^ mahi^ not j^jm^ maihi, 
corresponds to the Veda termination nftr masi ; and in the 
genitive of the stems, or inflective bases, in as a, ic^ai 
a-hi^ not Hd^JAt aihi, stands for W9T a-^a. 

42. ^^ y sometimes also exerts that disturbing influence 
on a following as a or jm d, which is equivalent US the in- 
sertion of a vowel, or of t, and consequently effects their 
transmutation into n> ^* ; thus the bases of nouns in 

* The expression of the text is ^'dafsert nmlantenden Einflass." It is 
hardly possible to render into English without circumlocution certain 
terms which the philologers of Germany have invented and adopted to 
express the various modifications of the Indo-Germanic vowel ; such as, 
Ablaut, Auflaut, Iniatit, Umlaut Whether these terms have in them- 
selves the virtue of suggesting to a Teutonic ear the particular modification 
of the vowel to which they are respectively applied may be doubted ; but 
if to the student and the teacher they answer the purpose of a tnemona 
technica, their use is fully justified by the necessity of the case, and the 
practice of a language which possesses a singular and inexhaustible power 
of progress and adaptation to exigencies. In our language, it seems to us 
that the uncouthness of such compounds as Upsound, Ofisonnd, and In- 
sound, could hardly be compensated by any advantage to be derived from 
their use ; and we therefore purpose, in the course of this work, where any 
of these terms occur in the original, to retain them in their German shape. 
Of these terms, Ablaut and Umlaut are those which chiefly, if not alone, 
are used by our author. ' Inlaut is, we believe, merely the Sanskrit Guna^ 
The meaning of the two former, and their distinction from each other, 
may best be explained by the following extract from our author's excel- 
lent work the Vocalismus, p. 10. 

** I designate," he says, ^* by the term Ablaut ^ a change of the root 
vowel, which is distinguished from the Umlaut by the fact that it is not 
produced by the influence of the vowel of the termination ; for Umlaut is 
a mere affection, disturbance {TrUhung) of the primary sound, through 
which tliat sound becomes more homogeneous with the vowel of the ter- 
mination; while in the Ablaut^ without any recognised external cause, it 
mukes room for another, and, in general, totally different sound ; as in 
Gothic, nima^ ^ I take ' ; nam, ^ I took.' I say, without any recognised ex- 


A»>*0 ya form, in the genitive, i^%y;o>*o yi-M* instead of 
(O^A»>H) ya-tii ; and, with the verb, the old Sanskrit n ya 
or inyA of the fourth and tenth classes, in the present 
singular becomes a)>h) y^^ Compare j9n)^^A)<])Au^Jui AtA- 
payimU J^io^y^^M^Ms dldpay^hi, j^j;o^^a5^ms^m3 Ai&payiilh 
with the Sanskrit ^VTin^Pn^ didpaydmU ^ I ri l M^fti dtdpnyasu 
WlrilM^fff dldpayati. In the last syllable, as^^ ya before ^ m, 
according to rule, becomes ^ i ; and after the same 
analogy, ^Ai» vam becomes ^^ ilm. We find, therefore, 
for instance, ^^h^^ tuirim, ** quartumr from as^^^j^p tui- 
rya; and ^^t^j7(^ thrishiim, ** tertiam partem,^^ 9flhp^^^^^ 
chcLihrushum, *' qunrtam partem,"^ from A$»t*0J/C3 thrishva^ 
a»>i^>7oa)^ chalhrushva. This appearance is to be thus 
understood, that the antecedent semi-vowel, after the suppres- 
sion of the a, passes into its corresponding vowel, which, 
however, according to the rule of §. G 1., must be a long one. 
The ^^ y*, after its influence has transformed aj a into 
70 e, is often itself suppressed ; thus we find 9;t3A)j};t3As^jusoA 
frddfiisainif " I sliewed," from Kl^^fMM prddSmyam, which 

temal cause ; because I think I can shew that the Ablaut also is produced 
by the particular quality and condition of the termination. Whether, 
however, we seek for the radical vowel in the present or the preterite, the 
change is equally one quite different from that of the Indian Guna or 
Vriddht, and in this respect, tliat it is a positive change ; while in Sanskrit 
the root vowel is not in &ct changed, but only receives an increment, and 
that increment always one and the same, with which it diphthongizes it- 
self, as in Greek, i and v with c, Xei7ra>, </>€vya>. In respect of signification, 
likewise, there is a difference between the Indian Guna and Vriddhi and 
Germanic Ablaut ; for the Ablaut has acquired for itself a significatory 
|K>wer for grammatical purposes, even if, as I conjecture, it did not origi- 
nally possess such : the contrast between the present and the past seems 
to rest upon it, and there are indications that the latter is expressed by this 
change. In Sanskrit, Guna and Vriddhi present no indication of this sig- 
nificatory power, but, merely in the character of diphthongizing modifica- 
tions, accompany those inflections which do signify grammatical relations." 

Further illustrations of these latter remarks are to be found in the 
Note 4, which Professor Bopp has appended to the above passage of tlie 
Vocalismus. — TraiM. 

♦ Cf. p. 963, Note. 


according to the rule of the tenth class, would be formed 
from fi^ dis. The genitive termination ;5I sya appears 
everywhere reduced into ^^ hi. The semi-vowels ^^ y 
and » V are generally suppressed after preceding conso- 
[G. Ed. p. 42.] nants* ; and thus, also, the imperative 
ending ^ swa gives up its w. 

43. In Sanskrit, ^ y is sometimes, for euphony, inter- 
posed between two vowels (Gram. Crit rr. 271. 310. 311.); 
but this does not uniformly occur. In Zend, the interposi- 
tion of y between > u, ^ u, and a following n> i, seems to 
amount to a law. Thus the Sanskrit li^ bruvi, " I say "^ 
(from "^and ^, Gram. Crit. r. dd.), becomes, in Zend, ^;^^^/^ 
mruyi (I. 63.) ; and the neuter form i divi, "two," after the 
vocalization of the to into ti, takes the form jjj^^ duyS. 

44. We have already remarked (§. 30.) with respect to 
7 r, that at the end of a word an ^ e is always appended to 
it ; for instance, ^?j<i^M3fi ddtare, ** Creator," " Giver " ; 
^7as»»( hvare, "Sun," instead of ^as^a^ ddtar ; ?As»tt» hvar. 
In the middle of a word, where an «>< ft is not introduced 
according to §. 48., the union of 7 r with a following con- 
sonant is mostly avoided ; so, indeed, that to the originally 
vowelless r an e is appended : thence, for instance, asjj^^^m^ 
dadaresat from ?f!!{^ dadarsOf "vid/," "vic/it"; or the r is 
transposed, in the same manner as is usual in the Sanskrit for 
the avoidance of the union of ^ r with two following con- 
sonants. (Gram. Crit. r. 34^.) Hence, for instance, a}»a)7(^ 
dthrava, "priests" (nominative), accus. 9gyAs»A57^jus dihra- 
vanem, from the theme fj<i»9j6^pjM dtarvan, which in the weak 
cases (§. 129.) contracts itself into j>?><^ma dthurun or y>7>A}(^jus 
dthaurun. (§. 28.) To this, also, pertains the fact that poly- 
syllabic stems (or uninflected bases) in 7aj ar, at the be- 
ginning of compounded forms^ transpose this syllable into 
Aj7 ra; and thus as^Ojuj dthra^ "fire,'' stands instead of 

« But sec § 721. 


7jo<3Aii fUhar* The combinations ^^9 ry, [G. Ed. p. 43.] 
»7> urVf are only permitted where a vowel follows, and the 
combination jj^^^ars only as a termination, and in the middle 
of a word before ^ t; for instance, as^^^j^^ tMrya, **the 
fourth"; a5^^^9 vairyoy "strong'^; yAj»7> urvan, "soul'' 
M»y>j<i^ haurva, " whole'' (?) ; ^i^^As^jui dtars, *' fire" (nomina- 
tive) ; ju^Ajy nars, "of a man" ; as^juv)7a}^ harsta, "ploughed" ; 
but j^>7(^AA^ chatlirus, "four times," for j^>(^a3^ chathurs, 
since here no a precedes the rs. 

45. It is worthy of remark, that in the Zend the I is want- 
ing, as in Chinese the r, while, nevertheless, it exists in the 
modem Persian, and shews itself in words which are not of 
Semitic origin. The Sanskrit t^ v has three representatives 
in the Zend, 9, », and od*. The two first are so far distin- 
guished from each other in their use, that 9 corresponds to the 
Sanskrit v only at the beginning, and » only in the middle 
of words ; for instance, (a)as9 vahn, " we," = ^w? vaynm, 
A)»A»^ tava (tui) = }rmava. This distinction, as Rask justly 
assumes, is only graphic, oid^ which I, with Bumouf, ren- 
der by IT, most frequently occurs after (^th, so that » never 
accompanies an antecedent (3 f A. On the other hand we find » 
much oftener than od^after the aspirated medialsof this class. 
Perhaps the law here obtains that the ^^dh, which, accord- 
ing to §. 39., stands for^ d (^) ,is only followed by », while 
an original ^^dk, corresponding to a Sanskrit ^ dA, only 
appears in conjunction with oid^ Thus gus»^^ dadhvdo, 
" having created,'* " given," from the root aw^ dd f, answers 
to die Sanskrit nom. ^gl*^ dadwdn; while the accusative, 
of frequent occurrence in the Vendidad, ^gyAUQidco^acIAtt'dnm, 
seems to be identical with the Sanskiit umihi adhwAnnm, 
" viam.^ (Vend. Olsh. p. 18.) After other consonants than 

* By Stdmme, the author here evidendy means the crude derivative 
words which serve as Steins or Bases to inflected words, or those in com- 
bination with inflectional terminations; thus dthra for dt/iar, forms 
dikrawij cUhravaniHn, not iWiarva, (Wutrvanam, &c. — Editor, 

t The root corresponds to the Sanskrit dhd, see §. 037. 


d th and ^^dh, oii'w appears not to be admitted, but only 
» v; on the other hand, oxT w much prevails between two t's 
or J i and ^^ y, in which position » v is not allowed. 
[G. £d. p. 44.] Thus we read in the Vendidad (Olsh. p. 23), 
the nominatives J^3J(^J(0^ driwis, ** beggar,*" (?) and j^ojokOas^ 
daiivis, '*a worshipper of Daeva.*' J^M(^J(OA)^ daiwis however, 
as derived from daiva through the suffix j t, seems to me 
dubious, and I prefer the variation j^j»roAi^ da^la. Or is it 
between i and i also that qjkT w only can be allowed ? Another 
instance is, 4^^^(2](Oai ahvySt ** aquist'' as dative and ablative 
plural ; an interesting form which long remained a mystery 
to me^ but which I am now in condition to explain. It springs 
from the root Q)A$ap,** water'' in such a manner, that after 
suppression of the p,* the Sanski*it termination vqir bhyas, 
which elsewhere, in the Zend, appea'ts only as }^^Js byd, 
has weakened itself to ^^^oji^uyd, and, according to §. 41., has 
introduced an j i into the base. Another instance in which 
^ bh has weakened itself in the Zend into a semi-vowel, 
and obtained the form okTu; in virtue of its position between 
two J Ts, is the very common preposition jqjSm, aiwh for 
which, however, jijm aibi is sometimes substituted. It may 
be appropriate here to remark that H bh appears in the 
Zend, in other company, in the enfeebled shape of » v. 
We find, namely, the base "^H ufcftrr, ** both,"' not only in the 
shape jis> uba, but also in that of a}»J^a} aova (§. 28.), the 
neuter dual form of which I tliink I recognise in the Vend. S. 

p. 88., where |OC0^gQ><>9 (^^(^-^ y^f^^JC^ j^»i>Aj aovS yasnd 
amhhi ipeniS, can hardly signify any thing else than '*afnbi)s 
f venerans Amschaspardoi^ {non conniventes Sanctos, see Nalus, 
vv. 25, 26.) Anquetil interprets (T. 3, p. 472.) ovS, by *'tous 
deux.''* We have still another position to mention, in which 
[G. Ed. p. 46.] the semi-vowel gkT to appears, namely, 
before 7 r, in which connection the softer w is more appro- 

* Compare, id this respect, ^v^ ahhra, " cloud," for im ab-bhra, 

<*water.bcaring,"aDd iheZcudA5^^7^^sMi d-bcreta, nom. "water-bearer." 

t Biimouf rcadso^ (ue. "over ")and makeByaine, signify "reverence." 


priate than the harder » v. The only example of this case 
is the feminine juj7(2Kf>jj suvyrd, ** sword/' ** dagger/' in which 
we believe we recognise the Sanskrit tot iubhra^ "shining/'* 
As to the pronunciation of the qkT u?, I think, with Bumouf, 
that it accords with the English to, which also is akin to the 
Sanskrit ^ v after consonants. Rask reverses the powers, 
pronouncing the Zend oiT as the English v, and the letters 
9 and » as the English w. 

46. I have not detected in the v and w a power of at- 
traction similar to that which belongs to the ^^ y, as de- 
scribed in §. 41., unless the term aj»7>as»» haurva^ "all," which 
often occurs, as well as a)q)j}^ vispa, is derived from the 
Sanskrit tb% sarwa, "all." I have, however, already else- 
where ascribed to the corresponding vowel > u a power of 
attraction, howbeit sparingly exerted; in virtue of which, 
for instance, the base yA}»^pAu diarvarit *' priests," in the 
weak cases (see §. 129.), after that yAs^ van has contracted 
itself into y> tin, by the influence of this u, also converts the 
a of the preceding syllable into u; hence, for instance, in 
the dative, ^j>%Ai^Ms Atauruni for ^y>7As^Au dtaruni. The 
Sanskrit ir^u taruna, "young," is, in Zend, A5y>7>p turuna 
or Aiy>7>Aip tauruna (§. 28.); and ^ vasut "thing," "riches," 

[G. Ed. p. 46.] has, by the influence of the concluding ti, 

converted itself into >»»4'9 vdhu. 

47. Bumouf was the first to remark on the fact, pecu- 
liar to the Zend, that the semi-vowels are fond of commu- 
nicating an aspiration to a preceding consonant; and we 
(§. 40.) have ascribed a similar influence to j^o s and y n, 
and find ourselves compelled to assign the same also to the 

* The accusative (^7(2Kf> Ji) iuwratim, appears in Olshausen, p. 13, with 

the variation ^n»»o^> ji) sufranm, (§, 40.) Then we oflen find the instru- 

mental A)^^%d> JJ suwrya, for which, however, wo must read A»^^AJ/c»)d> JJ 

utcrayoy if huwrya he not derivahle from a Theme ^^^>^ eutcri, after 

the analogy of Tf(7^<^8undariy from ?n^ sundara, (Gramm. Crit. r. 270.) 


labial nasal, by which, for instance, the feminine participle 

W^'^ jogmushi has changed itself to ^t^^^o^^jaghmushi. 
The dental medial is free from this influence, for we find 
A52^ dva, "two," j^^>^ drucSf "a demon,'' (accus. ^g^T^ 
drujem,) not Mi^>7^^dhrucs, ^(^^/^^dhrvjem. The guttural 
medial is, however, exposed to this influence, as in the 
abovementioned instance oi jaghmiishi. We have, on the 
other hand, adduced, in §. 38., a limitation of this appearance. 
The aspirating virtue of the ^^ y is less potent than that of 
the 7 r and gkT us and we find y often preceded by the un- 
aspirated t\ for instance, in As^^^q^a hitya^ "the second,'' 
A5^^^j^(^ thritycLj * the third": on the other hand, we have 
>^^^i\i merethyu, '* death," Sansk. iro mrifyu. 

48. In connection with the above rule stands the pheno- 
menon, that before r, when followed by any consonant not 
a sibilant, an h is usually placed ; for instance a»^ Vas^ 
niahrka, "death," from the root 7aj5 mar (i| mri,) "to die"; 
^gQ)^f^ kehrpemj or 9?^g^f5 kerepem, "the body" (nom. 
jwo«j7g5 kere/it); Ai^Vg^ vehrka, or Ajjg^glp vereka, "wolf," 
(Y* vnkcu) The semi- vowel y also, which only appears be- 
fore vowels, sometimes attracts an »< A ; thus, A)^y>«><ASQir<5 
thwahyat "through thee," corresponds to the Sauskrit i^m 
twayd ; and the woH as^^^mam^ csahya (nom. ^^^^^VASJ^v^d^t 

[G. £d. p. 47.] csahyd adduced by Rask, stands (orAi^^AiJJc^ 
csaya and comes from the root jjj^ csi, "to rule," (fij kshu) 

49. We come now to the sibilants. The first, a palatal, 
pronounced in Sanskrit with a gentle aspiration, 5^^, which 
we express by s in Sanskrit, and i in Zend, is written m in 
the latter. Its exact pronunciation is scarcely ascertain- 
able. Anquetil assigns it that of the ordinary s. It in 
general occurs in those positions in which the Sanskrit in 
corresponding words has its ^ * ; thus, for instance, dasa^ 
" ten," sata, " hundred," pasu, "beast," are common to both 
languages. In this respect m i has spread itself wider in 
Zend than in Sanskrit; that before several consonants. 


namely, ^ t, j i, and y n, as well at the beginning as in 
the middle of words — in the latter place, however, only 
after ai a, jus d, and ^ an — it correspoi^ds to the Sanskrit 
dental or ordinary s '^^. Compare 4^7juj^ji) stdrd, "the stars,'' 
with UK^ aldras; j^^jm^m stddmi, "I praise,'' with ^Mk 
fidumi; j^mm asti, "he is," with ^frftff asti; (^^jjas 
ahanm, " ossium^ with frfi^r asthi ; x^^^x^^M skanda^ 
" shoulder," (?) with Tgw skandka ; jujyjj snd* " to purify," 
with m sndt "to bathe.*" We might infer from this cir- 
cumstance that s M was pronounced as a simple s, yet it 
may have to do with a dialectical preference for the sound 
shf as happens with the German s in the Suabian dialect, 
and pretty universally at the beginning of words before t 
and p. It is further to be remarked, that i j) occurs also 
at the end of words after •«» an. The occasion for this pre- 
sents itself in the nom. sing. masc. of bases in p^ nt 

50. The semi-vowel » v is regularly hardened into o) p 
after ^ s; hence, for instance, jm^m spd, ** canis.'*'' ^^jMt^M 
Spdnem ** canem^ ajq)j5^ viipa, "all," [G.Ed. p. 48.] 
A5Q>jJA} aspa, " horse," corresponding to the Sanskrit ^ swd, 
iVnPT iivdnam, fm viswaf ^PBT aswa. Ajp^go) ju spenla, " holy," 
is not corresponded to by a Sanskrit i^Pff swanta, which must 
have originally been in use, and which the Lithuanian 
szania-s indicates. From the Zend asq)j}a5 aspa, the trans- 
ition is easy to tlie Greek Tirno^, which is less obvious in the 
case of the Indian aswcu 

51. For the Sanskrit lingual sibilant ^ sh, the Zend 
supplies two letters, J^^ and i^. The first, according to 
Rask, is pronounced like the ordinary s, and therefore like the 
Sanskrit dental s "9 ; while i^ has the sound of ^ = sh, 
and marks this by a stroke of aspiration. We therefore write 
it sh.* Rask observes that tliese two letters are often inter- 
changed inMSS.; which he accounts for by the circumstance 

* It is in this Translation given sh without any mark. Sh denotes the 
Sansk. i|. 


that M5 is used in the Pehlevi for sh, and that tlie' Parsi 
copyists have been long better acquainted with the Pehlevi 
than the Zend. We find^ also, in the Codex edited by Burnouf, 
jwo almost everywhere corresponding to \sh. We recognise, 
however, from the text edited by Olshausen of a part of the 
Vendidad, and the variations appended, that although in ety- 
mological respects j^o as well as tp corresponds to the San- 
skrit "5 sht the principal position of j^ is before strong con- 
sonants (§. 25.) and at the end of words ; a position of much 
importance in the Zend, and which requires attention in tlie 
cases of other classes of letters. In this respect m5 re- 
sembles, among the dentals, m U among the gutturals c^ c, 
and among the nasals principally ^ n. At the end of 
words, indeed, j^ s corresponds to the Sanskrit ?t s, but yet 
[G. £d. p. 49.] only after such letters as, in the middle of 
a word, would, according to Rule 10 1(*) of my Sanskrit Gram- 
mar, change an original ^ s into i^ sh ; namely, after vowels 
other than a and d, and after the consonants (^ c and 7 r. 
Hence, for instance, the nominative jj^j^jm(^ pattis, " Lord," 
.H3>ji9ASQ) pasus, "beast," juo7a5^au diarst "fire," j^vj^y^ drucs, 
" daemon,'' from the theme ^y^ druj. On the other hand, 
*W)j>^ baram, "bearing,"^ from ^^as^ barant.* In the 
word JJ^^M»Ju^ csvas, " six," it is true a terminating ju^ s 
stands after a; but it does not here replace a Sanskrit igs, 
but the original ^^8ho{^^^ shash. As evidence of the use 
of M5 8 for i| sh before strong consonants, we may adduce 
the very usual superlative suffix as^ju^j isla (i.e. ioro^), 
corresponding to the Sanskrit i(^ ishthcu Other examples 
are As^jto^^ karsta, "ploughed," for ipi krishta. In the 
word A)yA5^^ASJio sayana "camp,'' Md stands irregularly for 
M 8, which latter was to be anticipated from the San- 
skrit ^PR sayana (cf. haiiit §. 54.) In the fem. numeral 

* I retain here the original t, since tlie theme of the word docs not 
appear in use. ^ t mast otherwise liave been changed for r» t. 


^7mm^j^ tisarS, " three '^ (Olsh. p. 26), the j^o might seem 
questionahle, for the Sanskrit form is f^re^ Hsras, and II ac- 
cording to §. 63., becomes »» h. The ^, however, is here 
in a position (after ^ i) in which the Sanskrit favours the 
conversion of ^ 9 into ^ sh ; and on this rests the Zend 
form ^?MM5j^ tisarS. That it does not, however, stand as 
^7a5i^j^ tisharo, as we might expect from §. 62., is certainly 
not to be ascribed to the original existence of as a, for 
^2a*ojp iisard stands for ^7jtv5j;o tisfd, 

62. t^ stands for the Sanskrit i^fA be- [G. Ed. p. 50] 
fore voxels and the semi-vowels ^^ y and » v ; compare 
()^1^;oAs;on>As aitaishanm and xs»tprdXA^foxs akaSshva, with 
^iNw ^shdm, " horum^ and ^^ HSshUf " in Aw"; ^^^t^^9 
mashya, "man,*' with Sf^^ manushya. Yet jty sh does not 
unite itself with an antecedent c^ c ; but for the Sanskrit 
^ ksh we find almost everywhere in Olshausen^s text, and 
without variation, Ms^cs't hence, for instance, As7(^A5J^9^ 
csaihrOf "king,'' Sanskrit "^jir kshatra^ "a man of the war- 
like or royal caste." The word of frequent occurrence, 
As^^Ayi^^ cshnadma, and the third person connected with 
it, j^j;D^^A5(4^A)ii^^ cahnadmayiitU ^e must, on a double 
ground, reject, and prefer the variation given at p. 33, since 
j»o s here is prolonged, as well by the preceding c as by 
the following n. It is, however, worthy of remark, that the 
Sanskrit "^ Jtsh in many Zend words abandons the guttural, 
and appears as 1^ sh. For instance, l^fepr dakshina, 
" dexfer,^'' becomes ^f^tfi^ dashina (Lithuan. deszine, "the 
right hand"'), and ^faj akshi, **eye," becomes ji^as ashi, 
which, however, seems only to occur at the end of possessive 
compounds (Bahuvrihi). 

63. ^y A is never, in etymological respects, the repre- 
sentative of the Sanskrit 7 A, but of the pure and dental 
sibilant ^ «- Before vowels, semi-vowels, and m, in Zend, 
this letter invariably becomes w, possibly because ^ S7v 
(§. 36.) takes the shape ^ kh; while before n, and such con- 
sonants as cannot unite with a preceding A, (§. 49.) it is to 
be looked for in the shape of m s. The [G.Ed. p. 51.] 


roots which begin with w sp and nsph have not yet been 
detected by me in the Zend ; but I am convinced that 
finiT spris, for instance, ** to touch/' could not begin other- 
wise in Zend than with 0)015 *p. Compare, for instance — 


€t V» 













swar, *' 




Mi^ hA, "they/ 
A5pQ)As%y hapta, '* seven/ 
i»f?gjAj%v hakereU "once/' 
JW»Aj ahh " thou art/' 
jjui^^As ahmdif "to this/ 
f ?Aj»%v hvare, " sun/' 
Aj»»» Ava, "his/' 

The word as>>^j^ Auva, " tongue^ from f9(^ jihwOf deserves 
mention, because the sibilant quality of the ^ j is treated 
as ?T s, and replaced by w» A (§. 58.). 

54. I do not remember to have met with an instance of 

the combination ^ hr; the Sanskrit word ^ETfH sahcwat 
'* thousand," which might give occasion for it, has rejected 
the sibilant in the last syllable, and taken the shape As^juir^As^y 
hazanra. If, in the word A5jjtv3>%v huskUf ** dry," Sansk. 
^«W sushkaf »» replaces the Sansk. ^ /, we must remember 
that the Latin siccus indicates a Sansk. 9 s, because c regu- 
larly answers to ^ i In many instances of Sanskrit roots 
beginning with ^ s, the corresponding Zend form may be 
grounded on the change which is effected on an initial ^s by 
the influence of certain prepositions. (Gram. Crit r. 80.) 
[G. Ed. p. 62.] Thus I believe I have clearly ascertained 
the existence of the Sanskrit participle ftf^ siddha^ ** per- 
fected/* in the term of frequent occurrence in the Veildidad 
(g^ji9jjuit^ shdistem; after the analogy of j6^mj7j irikn, 
" deceased," from (3j7j irith (see §. 99.) Olshausen notifies 
(p. 29) as variations of (^^^jaui^ shdistem — (gp^jjosjj 
sdistem, ^^^«>3JJaii^ shdisiim, C^^en>->-^l^ shdistim, and 
(g(e;o->^t^ shdisiem. In all these forms, the long a pre- 
sents a difficulty ; for, according to §. 28., fn shidh would 
give the form ^ji^tp shaidli; and this, with the suffix to. 


A5^ji)jA)i^ shaista, in the Dom. and accus. neut. (^^j^jjuii^ 
shdiitem. What Anquetil (vol. II. p. 279) translates, Juste 
juge du monde qui existe par voire puissance, vous qui Stes la 
pureiS mime, quelle est la premiere chose qui plaise a cette terre 
{que nous hahiions), et la rende favorable, runs in the original 
(Olsh., p. 29, Bumouf, p. 137), -jAj»pj3Aj (<^/a5^;oa)^ j^aj^amj 

Ddtare gailhananm astvaitinanm ash&uml kva pojoirim an- 
h&o zemd shdiStem? ** Creator mundorum existenliumf pure ! 
ubi (quid) primum htgus terrce perfectum (ftowiim?") 

55. The nominative pronominal base ^sya (Gramm. 
Crit. r. 268), in the Veda dialect, is under the influence of 
the preceding word ; and we see in Rosen's specimen, p. 6, 
this pronoun, when it follows the particle ^ w, converted 
into '^shya, after the analogy of rule 101* of my Grammar. 
I have detected a similar phenomenon in the Zend pronouns ; 

for we find ;o%v he, " ^s^ " ci^ which is founded on a 
lost Sanskrit ^ si (cf. i^ mi, " rwe?," " mihi:' and ?r t^, " tui,'' 
*' tibi ''), when it follows J^joy^ yizi, " if,'' taking the form 
J0M5 si (more correctly, perhaps, ;ox^ shi) ; for instance, 
at p. 37 of Oishausen : while on the same page we find 
A>w» M^J^JOy^ yizicha hi, {und uenn ihm,) [G. Ed. p. 63.] 
'* and if to him.'' In the following page we find a similar 
phenomenon, if, as I can hardly doubt, gusi^ shdo (thus I 
read it with the variation), corresponds to the Sanskrit 
lrifta«du("i/fr," **illa''''): A5pg7^ ^JC^ g^l^ gu^ 9^ jj ^A^f 
Ai^eiO^^A), Noit zi m zdo shdo yd (text, ^JC^ ydo) daregha 
akarsta (text, As^en)^^^! adarsia), "For not this earth which 
lies long unploughed." 

56^*). An »» h standing between a or d and a following 
vowel is usually preceded by a guttural nasal (j n) ; and 
this appendage seems indispensable — I remember, at least, 
no exception — in cases where the following vowel is cr, 6, 
or e. We find, for instance, As^guu^^joi^Asj^^y usazayanha, 
••thou wast born"; while in the active the personal ending 
jiy hi of the present admits no nasal ; and we find, for 



instance, j^as ahi, " thou art," j^asju^^asi bacsahi, " thou 
givest,'^ not jky^ anJii, J^y^M^^n bacsanhi. 

56^). The termination as, which in Sanskrit only before sonant 
consonants (§. 25.) and ^ a, dissolves its i^into ^u, and contracts 
the latter together with the preceding a into ^ 6 (compare Uie 
French au, from al) : this ancient termination as appears in 
Zend, as also in Prakrit and Pali^ always under the shape of 6. 
On the other hand, the termination ds, which in Sanskrit 
before all sonant letters entirely abandons the s, in Zend 
has never allowed the concluding sibilant entirely to expire, 

but everywhere preserves its fusion in the shape of i o (for 
[G. Ed. p. 64.] u) ; and I consider myself thereby strongly 
supported in a conjecture I enounced before my acquaintance 
with Zend,* that in Sanskrit the suppression of a terminating 
s after d had preceded the vocalization of this s into ti. It 
is remarkable that where, in Zend, as above observed, an 
j n precedes the %v h which springs out of the s of the 
syllable ds, or where, before the enclitic particle as^ c/*o, 
the B above mentioned is changed into ^ i, together with 
these substantial representatives of the s, its evaporation 
into CI is also retained, and the sibilant thus appears in 
a double form, albeit torpid and evanescent. To illustrate 
this by some examples, the Sanskrit irn^ mds, " luna " — 
an uninflected nominative, for the s belongs to the root — 
receives in Zend the form gus^ mdof in which o represents 
the Sanskrit s ; IVT9 mds^cha, ** lunaque" gives us As^jiSgus^ 
mdoscha, and TTfTR rndsairif ** lunam,'*^ (g^9g^( mAonhem ; so 
that in the two last examples the Sanskri< sibilant is repre- 
sented by a vowel and a consonant. The analogy otmdonhem, 
" lunam,' is followed in all similar instances ; for example, 
for WH dsa **Juitj^ we find Astv^gus donha, and for imBTPf 

* Observations, rule 78 of the Latin edition of Sanskrit Grammar. 
t Barnouf is of a different opinion as to the matter in question, for in 





57. Two sibilants remain to be mentioned, namely, j and 
«k>, of which the former was probably pronounced like the 
French z, and may therefore be replaced [G. Ed. p. 55.] 
by that letter. Etymologically this letter answers to the 
Sanskrit ir h for the most part, which never corresponds 
to the Zend w» A. Compare, for example, 



ff aham, " I, ' ^iS^ azem. 

hastaf " hand,'^ as^j^);^ zaita. 

sahasra, *' thousand,'' as/juUi^a)^ hazanra. 
iftif hanti, " he strikes," -^^i^MC zaintl 
^r?fif vahati, "he carries," J^JM^^^l^vazaiti. 

" bears," 
f^ Ai, " for," jj zi. 

fmj[\jihv)d, " tongue," A)»^jtv hizva, (§. 5a) 

ITPH^ mahaiy " great," \s^^ mazd (from mazas, 

ace. Cg^juu^A)^ mazanhem.) 

58. Sometimes ^ z appears also in the place of the San- 
skrit Uij; so that the sibilant portion of this letter, pro- 
nounced dach, is alone represented, and the d sound sup- 
pressed (see §. 53.). ThusjAj>*o yaz, "to adore," answers 
to the Sanskrit i|i^^ yaj ; aj^^^^ajj zadshct^ " to please," springs 
from the Sanskrit root "^jush, "to please or gratify." 
Thirdly, the Zend z represents also the Sanskrit n g, which 
is easily accounted for by the relationship between g and J. 
The Indian g6, (accus. gdm,) bos and terra, has, in Zend, 
as also in Greek, clothed itself in two forms ; the first 

the Nonveau Joum. Asiatiqne, torn. iii. p. 342, speaking of the relation of 
mdorJu> to mananhSy without noticing the analogies which occur in cases 
of repetition, mdosh'Cha^ *^lunaque/' urvdraosh-cha, ^' arboresquCf" he says, 
" In mdanghSy there is perhaps this difference, that the ngh does not re- 
place the Sanskrit «, for this letter has already become o in consequence 
of a change of frequent occurrence which we have lately noticed. 



signification has maintained itself in Zend» but in Greek 
has given way to the labial ; and jSoS^ and ju^gus^ gdos, or 
jto>Jui^ gdu8, correspond to the Sanskrit nom. ift^ gdiu. 

[G. Ed. p. 56.] For the signification " earth " the Greek 
has preserved the guttural, which in Zend is replaced by r. 
The nom. guj^ zdo supposes an Indian form TT^ gds, for 
4Ni jdiw; in the accusative, ^^^zanm agrees, in respect 
of inflection, as closely as possible with iim gdm and yrjv. 

59. do is of less frequent use, and was probably pro- 
nounced like the French^'; we write it ztu It is observable, 
that as the French j in many words corresponds to the Latin 
semi-vowel J, and derives from it its own developement, so 
also sometimes, in Zend, eb zh has arisen out of the San- 
skrit 1^ y. Thus, for instance, ^JTH ymjam, *' you,^** (vos), 
becomes (geb^>*o yuzhem. Sometimes, also, eb zh has 
sprung from the sound of the English J, and corresponds to 
the Sanskrit i(^ j, as in > /f «k> zhenu, Sanskrit iTRydnu, " knee.'* 
Finally, it stands as a terminating letter in some prefixes, in 
the place of the Sanskrit dental ii s after i and u ; thus, 
j^jA5^doj/ nizhbaraiti, " he carries out'" ; (g^^^do>^ 
duzh-uctem, " ill spoken" : on the other hand, ^^^m^ju^ 
dits-maiem, " ill thought."' 

60. We have still to elucidate the nasals^ which we have 
postponed till now, because for them a knowledge of the 
system of the other sounds is indispensable. We must first 
of all mention a difference from the Sanskrit, that in Zend 
every organ has not its particular nasal ; but that here, in 
respect of n, two main distinctions are established, and that 
these mainly depend on the circumstance whether n precedes 
a vowel or a consonant. In this manner y and ^ are so 
contrasted, that the first finds its place chiefly before whole 
and half vowels, and also at the end of words ; the latter only 

[G. Ed. p. 67.] in the middle of strong consonants. We 
find, for instance, j^70^^j6'^a3a^^j<3^ hankdray^mi, "I glorify"; 
aj^^ajq) jpawcfta, ** five"; ^^^^xy^^t^^^ btishyantem : on the 


Other hand, jkwy nd (nom.) " man'' ; t»J^f nSH, " not" ; yg ^^aj^ 
barayeUf " they might bear'' ; Ay^^jM anya, *' the other." 
Concerning the difference between y and ^ — a difference 
not recognised in European alphabets — it is probable that 
^, being always fenced in by strong consonants, must have 
had a duller and more suppressed sound than the freer y ; 
and by reason of this weak and undecided character of its 
pronunciation, would appear to have applied itself more 
easily to every organ of the following letter. 

61. Still feebler and more undecided than ^, perhaps 
an equivalent to the Indian Anuswara, we conjecture to 
have been the nasal ^, which is always involved with as o, 
and which seems from its form to have been a fusion of 
A5 and J. We find this letter, which we write an, first, 
before sibilants, before ^ h, like the Anuswara, and before 
the aspirates u^A and «/; for instance, M^^y^iJ^j^ csayans, 
''regnans,^^ accus. (gp^As^^J^3^ csayaniem; Asyjoi^As^^^y^ 
zanhyamdna, a part of the middle future of the root /as^ zan, 
^* to b^et/' but, as it seems to me, with a passive signifi- 
cation (** qui nascetur,'^ Vend. S. pp. 28 and 103.); Aj^w^f 
manthra, " speech,'' from the root yAj^ man ; >/«^^ya»/ViM, 
"mouth," probably from the Sanskrit %r{^jap, "to pray," 
§. 40., and with the nasal inserted. Secondly, before a 
terminating ( m and y n. We have here to observe that 
the Sanskrit termination mi^ dm is always changed to 
(^ anm in Zend ; for intance, 9k^q^ dadhanm, *' I gave, 
Sanskrit w^f^t\adaddm ; CyyAs^pAyo) pddhaiianm, '* pedum. 
Sans, ^n^nnsv pdddndm ; and that the ter- [G. Ed. p. 58.] 
mination of the third person plural, WH an, provided the a do 
not pass into e, always appears as a double nasal y^ anru* 

62. For the nasal, which, according to §. 56., is placed as 

an euphonic addition before the %y h, which springs from 
9 8, the Zend has two characters, 9 and jS, to both which 



* The termination ahn from dn belongs to the potential, precative, and 




Anquetil assigns the sound ng.* We write them n, in order 
to avoid giving the appearance of a j/f preceded by a gut- 
tural n to this guttural, which is only a nasal precursor of 
the following ^h. As to the difference in the use of these 
two letters, ^ always follows a and do ; jS, on the contrary, 
comes after t and e, for which the occasion is rare. For 
instance, in the relative plural nom. ^^jSioyi^ yinhi, "qui 
and in the fem. pron. genitives, as ^kyjS,iM cAnhdo, '* hujus, 
which often occurs, but as often without j i, and with 9 n* 
fAss^jjj anhdo. What phonetic difference existed between 9 
and jS we cannot venture to pronounce. Ant|uetil as we 
have seen, assigns the same pronunciation to each; while Rask 

compares j& with the Sanskrit palatal ^ n, and illustrates 
its sound by that of the Spanish and Portuguese n. 

63. The labial nasal ( m does not differ from the San- 
skrit 1^: it must, however, be remarked, that it sometimes 
takes the place of 6. At least the root \bru^ '* speak,'' in 
Zend becomes ^7^ mru ; as ^}^j^7^ mradm^ " I spoke,'* m^a)7^ 
mradtf "he spoke'": in a similar manner is the Indian 
snir mukha, ** mouth,'* related to the Latin bucca ; and not 

[G. Ed. p. 69.] much otherwise the Latin mare to the 
Sanskrit mft vdri, " water." I consider, also, multua re- 
lated to m^ bahula, the Grreek itolKv^j and the Gothic y?/ti. 

64. A concluding ( m operates in a double manner on 
a preceding vowel. It weakens (see §. 30.) the as a to f ? ; 
and^ on the other hand, lengthens the vowels i and u; 
thus, for instance, i4S!^jj^<d paitim, "the Lord," (^yA)^ tanunh 
" the body," from the bases j^jasq) paiii, >/aj;o tanu. In 
contradiction to this rule we find the vocative of frequent 
occurrence, (>ax}i^as ashdum, *' pure." Here, however, 
>juj dUf as a diphthong, answers to the Sanskrit ^ dii, the 
last element of which is not capable of furtlier lengthening 

•* Bumouf also writes the first of these ng. I hayc done the same in 
my reviews in the Journal of Lit. Crit. 


The form in question is a contraction of the theme 
^As»A>i^A> ashavan ; with an irregular conversion of the 
concluding y n into ( m. 

65. We give here a complete summary of the Zeud 

Simple Vowels : a> a, ^ p, p e ; jui 4 ; J t, ^ i ; > u, ci o, ^ </, 

Diphthongs : ^, to i, j^ 6i ; jjui di ; ^ d, ^ do, >jui du. 

Gutturals ; j k (before vowels and » v), ^ c (principally 
before consonants), ^^ kh (from ^ sw, before vowels 
and 5^y); 5 y, ^ gh. 

Palatals : ^ ch, ^j. 

Dentals : ^ t (before vowels and ^^ y). <» t (before con- 
sonants and at the end of words), ^th (before whole 
and semi-vowels),^ d, ^^dfu 

Labials: Q>p, ^/ (the latter before vowels, semi- vowels, 
nasals, and ma 9), ^ b. 

Semi- vowels : j^, /o, ^^ y (the two [G. Ed. p. 60.] 
first initial, the last medial), 7,^r (the last only after 
•y)» 9» » V (the first initial, the last medial), qxTip. 

Sibilants and h: m i, tp sh -h) «• tb zh (or like the 
French y), J z, »»/*. 

Nasals : 3 n (before vowels, semi-vowels, and at the end 
of words), ^ n (before strong consonants), -^ an (be- 
fore sibilants, »» h,(^th, A/, 9 m, and in), j n (between 
M a or ^ do, and ^ A, and between a and r ), jSn 
(between j i or rs S, and ^ h), ( m. 

Remark also the Compounds en>» for ^a> ah, and ;en> for 

66. We refrain from treating specially of the Greek, 
Latin, and Lithuanian systems of sounds^ but must here 
devote a closer consideration to the Germanic. The Gothic 
a, which, according to Grimm, is always short, answers 

* E.g. A)/auur(A5^ hazanra^ '^a thousand." 


completely to the Sanskrit a ; and the sounds of the Greek 
e and o are wanthig, in their character of degeneration 
from a, in Gothic as well as in Sanskrit. The ancient 
a has not, however, always been retained in Gothic; but 
in radical syllables, as well as in terminations, has often 
been weakened to i, or has undergone suppression ; often, 
also, by the influence of a following liquid, has been con- 
verted into u. Compare, for instance, sibun^ ** seven," with 

^TR saptan ; taihun, " ten,'' with l^^n^ dasaru 

67. We believe ourselves authorized to lay down as a 

law, that w a in polysyllabic words before a terminating $ 
is everywhere weakened into i, or suppressed ; but before 

a terminating ih generally appears as i. A concluding n a 
in the Gothic either remains unaltered, or disappears : it 
never becomes i. 

68. In the Old High German the Gothic a either remains 
[G. Ed. p. 61 .] unaltered, or is weakened to e, or is changed 

by the influence of a liquid to u = perhaps o. According to 
this, the relation of the unorganic e to the Gothic a is the 
same as that of the Gothic i (§. 66.) to n ci ; compare, for 
instance, in the genitive of the bases in a ^^VF? vrika-sya, 
Gothic vuffi'Sf Old High German wolfe-s. In the dative plural 
wolfu-m stands to vulfa-m in the same relation as above (§. 66.), 
sibun to saptan. The precedence of a liquid has also, in Old 
High German, sometimes converted this a into u or o ; com- 
pare pUnte'inu{mo\ cosco, with the Gothic blindamma. Also 
after the German j or y, which in Sanskrit (iT y) belongs as 
a semi-vowel to the same class as r, the Old High German 
seems to prefer uXo a\ thence plinfjut without^ also pliniu, 
"cceca,"* as a fern. nom. sing., and neuter nom. ace. voc. 
plural ; plinta *' coecam,'* The u of the first person present, as 
kiput "I give," Gothic giba, I ascribe to the influence of 
the dropped personal letter m. Respecting tlie degenera- 
tion of the original a sound to u compare also §. 66. In 
the Old High German inseparable preposition ki (our 
German go) = Gothic go, Sanskrit T{ sa or ^n sam, we 


have an example in which the Gk)thic-San8krit a has be- 
come i. 

69, For the Sanskrit %nd, the Gothic, which has no 
long a, almost always substitutes 6 (§• 4.), and this 6, in cases 
of abbreviation! falls back into the short a. Thus, for instance, 
in Grimm's first fem. declension of the strong form, the 
nom. and accus. sing. 6 is softened to a, whence giba, gibd-s 
(§. 118.). Generally in the Gothic polysyllabic forms, the 
concluding ^ d is shortened to a ; and where 6 stands 
at the termination^ an originally succeeding consonant has 
been dropped ; for instance, in the gen. plur. fem. 6 stands 
for ^m^ dm. Sometimes, also, in the Gk)thic, 6 corresponds 
to the Sanskrit d, as in the gen. plur. masc. and neuter. In 
the Old High German the Gothic 6 either [G. £d. p. 62.] 
remains 6, as in the gen. plur., or divides itself into two 
short vowels ; and, according to differences of origin, into oa^ 
ua^ or uo; of which, in the Middle High German^ uo prevails ; 
while in the Modem High German the two divided vowels 
are contracted into u. For the Gothic ^=ind, the Old, 
Middle, and Modern High German have preserved the old d, 
except in the gen. plural. 

70. For ^ i and ^ i the Gothic has i and ei; which latter, 
as Grimm has sufficiently shewn, is everywhere to be 
considered as long i, and also in Old and Middle High 
German is so represented. We, together with Grimm, as 
in the case of the other vowels, designate its prolongation 
by a circumflex. In the Modern High German the long i 
appears mostly as ei ; compare, for instance, mein with the 
Gothic genitive meina, and the Old and Middle High Ger- 
man min. Sometimes a short i is substituted, as in lick, 
answering to the Gothic leiks, *'like," at the end of com- 
pounds. On the long t, in titr, ** nos,"* Gothic vets, we can 
lay no stress, as we match the dat. sing, mir also with the 
Gothic mU. It is scarcely worth remarking that we usually, 
in writing, designate the elongation of the i and other vowels 
by the addition of an h. 


71. While the origiDal ^a has undergone many altera- 
tions in the Germanic languages, and has produced both 
i and u, I have been able to detect no other alterations in 
i and i than that t is as often suppressed as a ; but it never 
happens, unless some rare exceptions have escaped me, that 
i is replaced by a heavier vowel a or u.* We may lay 
[G. £d. p. Gd.] it down as a rule, that final t has given 
way in German everywhere, as it has generally in Latin. 





T^ pari, 



fair. (§. 82.) 

TUft uparU 




^fj asth 



Tifti santi, 




72. Where a concluding i occurs in Gothic and Old High 
German it is always a mutilation of the German j (or y) toge- 
ther with the following vowel ; so that j, after the suppres- 
sion of this vowel, has vocalized itself. Thus the uninflected 
Gothic accus. hari, " exercitum,** is a mutilation of haryaJ\ The 
Sanskrit would require fmrya-m ; and the Zend, after §. 42., 
meeting the Germanic half way, hari-m. Before a con- 
cluding s also, in the Gotliic, ^ i is usually suppressed ; and 
the Gothic terminating syllable is, is mostly a weakening 
of as, §. 67. In Old High German, and still more in Middle 
and Modern High German, the Gothic t has often degene- 
rated into e, which, where it occurs in the accented syllable, 
is expressed in Grimm by 'e. We retain this character. We 
have also to observe of the Gotliic, that, in the old text, t 

* The Sanskrit fm piiri, " father," probably stands for XHW pdifl, 
*^ ruler " ; and the European languages have adhered to the true original. 
(Gramm. Crit. r. 178, Annot.) 

fin tlie text hatja ; but in order to shew more exactly tlie connection 
uith the Sanscrit 1^^, vide §. 68. 1. 12. ; and as the J is simply and uni- 
versally pronounced y, the German J will be represented byy in this 


at the beginning of a syllable is distinguished by two dots 
above, which Grimm retains. 

73. As in Zend (§. 41.), by the attractive force of U i, or 
y, an i is introduced into the antecedent syllable ; so also, in 
Old High German, the corresponding sounds have obtained 
an assimilating power; and frequently an [G. £d. p. 04.] 

a of the preceding syllable is converted into e^ without any 
power of prevention on the part of either a single or double 
consonant Thus, for instance, we find from as/, '' branch/' 
the plural edi; from anst» "grace," the plural eiisti; and from 
valluf **I fall/' the second and third persons vellis, vellU, 
This law, however, has not prevaded the Old High German 
universally: we find, for instance, arpU ''hereditast* not 
erpi ; zahariy " lacrymcB,** not zaherL 

74. In the Middle High German, the e, which springs 
from the older i, has both retained and extended the power 
of modification and assimilation; inasmuch as^ with few 
limitations, (Grimm, p. 332,) not only every a by its retro- 
spective action becomes e, but generally, also, d, u, and o 
are modified into €e, ii, and o; 6 into a>, and uo into ue. 
Thus the plural geate, drcete, briichef k'Oche, lane, gruese, 
from gaat, drdf, bruch, koch, I6n, gruoz. On the other hand, 
in the Old High German, the e which lias degenerated from 
i or a obtains no such power ; and we find in the genitive 
singular of the above words, gaste-s, drate-s, &c., because 
the Old High German has already, in the declension of the 
masculine t class, reduced to e the i belonging to the class, 
and which in Gothic remains unaltered. 

75. The e produced in Old and Middle High German 
by the modification of a, is retained in the Modern High 
German, in cases where the trace of the original vowel is 
either extinguished or scarcely felt ; as, Ende, Engel, setzen, 
netzen, nenneuy brennen ; Goth, andif aggilu8, aaiyan, natj/an, 
namnyan, brannyan. Where, however, the original vowel 
is distinctly opposed to the change, we place a, short or 


[G. Ed. p. 65.] long, from short or long a ; and in the same 
relation, ii from u, '6 from o, du from au ; for instance^ Brdnde, 
Pfdle, DUnste, Fliige, K'dche, Tone, Bdume, from Brand, 
P/dl, &c. 

76. For ^w, 'muf the Gothic has u, which is generally short 
Among the few examples cited by Grimm, p. 41, of long u, 
we particularize the comparative sUthd, the essential part of 

which corresponds to the Sansk. T^u^stoddu, "sweet,** (j;W-r). 
and in which the long u may stand as a compensation for 
the absence of the w{v), which becomes vocalized. In Old High 
German it seems to me thatpAam, "to dwell," and trAin, "to 
trust," correspond to the Sanskrit roots >i bhut "to be,*' i^dhru 
" to stand fast** — from which comes m dhruva, " fast,'* 
"constant," ** certain" (Gramm. Crit. r. 51.) — with the Guna 
form of which (§. 26.) the Goth, bauan, traitan, is connected ; 

cf. ^f^TTR^bhav-iiumj "to be,'* vfHj^dhrav^itum, *'to stand 
fast." The Middle High German continues the Gothic Old 
High German A, but the Modem High German substitutes 
aw, whence bauen, trauen, Taube (Gothic dubd). 

77. As out of the Sanskrit 7 u, in Zend, the sound of a 
short i* has developed itself (§. 32.), thus, also, the Gothic 
u shews itself, in the more recent dialects, oftener in the 
form of o than in its own. Thus have the Verbs in the 
Old and Middle High German (Grimm*s gth conjug.) pre- 
served a radical u in the plur. of the pret., but replaced it 
by o in the passive part. Compare, for instance, bugum, 
•* we bend,'* bugans, **bent,*' with Old High German pukumSsp 
pokan^r, Middle High German bugen^ bogen. The example 
adduced shews, also, the softening of the old u to ^, in un- 
accented syllabes, in Middle High German as in Modem 
High German ; so that this unaccented e may represent all 
original vowels — a, i, t* ; and we may lay it down as a rule, 
that all long and short vowels in the last syllable of poly- 

* Cf §. 447. Note. 



syllabic words, are either worn away or softened down to a 
mute e. 

78. For the diphthongs ^ ^ (a + and [G. Ed. p. 66.] 

^ d (a + «), the Gothic has ai and au, which are also 
monosyllabic, and were perhaps pronounced like ^ 4 and 6. 
Compare bavaimaf **<Bdifice7nu8" with ^Wf bhav^ma, ^'simus^^; 
sunau'8, "of a son," with its equivalent ^H^ sund-s. Where 
these Gothic diphthongs at and au have maintained^themselves 
unaltered in value, they then appear, in writing, as i and 6* 
which must be considered as contractions of a + i and a + u; 
as in the Latin amSmus, from amaimus (§. 5.); and as in 
the almost solitary case of bds, the long o of which is the 
result of a contraction of a + ti, whose latter element appears 
again before vowels in the independent shape of v {bovis^ 
bavem), while the first element a, in its degeneration, 
appears as o (§. 3.). Compare^ 


^i| charima (eamus), faraima, varimis. 

^tikjL charHa (eaiis), faraitJu varU. 

^^ra tibhyas {his\ thaim dim. 

79. In like manner, in all subjunctives, and in the pro- 
nominal declension in which the adjective bases in a take 
part, an Old High German i corresponds to the Sanskrit 
^^ and Gothic al The Middle High [G, Ed. p. 67.] 
German has shortened this i, as standing in an unaccented 
terminating syllable {varen, varet). Besides this, the Middle 
High German has, in common with the Old High German, 

If, however, the Gothic diphthongs in question were not prononnced 
like thdr etymological equivalents ^ 4 and ifft Oy but, as Grimm con- 

ceires, approximate to the Vriddhi-change (§. 26.) % at and ^ du: in 
such case the High German i, 6, as opposed to the Gothic ai, au, are not 
merely continuations of these Gothic diphthongs : but the pronunciation 
assigned by the Sanskrit to the union of a with t or u, must have been 
first introduced into the Germanic, under certain conditions, in the eighth 


preserved the diphthong ^ where it stood in radical syllables 
under tlie protection of a following u, r (out of the older s), 
or h (c/i), even in cases where one of these letters had been 
dropped^ or where u had vocalized itself into t; or o. 
(Grimm, pp. 90. 343). Compare, 



aiv, * (Bvufriy Swtn. 

snails, "nix,'' snio, sni. 

mais, *'magis,'*'' mirf mi. 

laisyan, *'docere,^^ liran, Uren* 

laihvj '* commodavltr Uh Uclu 

In the Modern High German this i is partly preserved, 
partly replaced; for instance, mir (mehr), Schni {Schnee), 
Site (Gothic saivala) ; but ich lieh, gedieh. (Grimm, p. 983.). 

80. As the i for the Gothic aiy so the 6 for ati, in the 
Old and Middle High German, is favoured by certain 
consonants; and those which favour the 6 are the more 
numerous. They consist of the dentals (according to the 
Sanskrit division, §. 16.) /, c?, z, together with their nasal 
and sibilant (n, s) ; further, the semi-vowel r ; and A, which, 
as a termination in Middle High German, becomes ch (See 
Grimm, pp. 94. 345). The roots, which in the Grothic 
admit the Guna modification of the radical u by a, in 
the preterite singular, oppose to the Gothic au, in Middle 
and Old High German, a double form ; namely, 6 under the 
condition above mentioned, and next ou, %, 34., in the absence 

[G. Ed. p. 68.] of the letter which protects 6. For instance. 
Old High German z6h. Middle High German z6ch (traxi, 
traxii) Gothic tauht Sanskrit g^^ duddha {mulxi, mii&i,) ; 
but pouc, bouc, flexif fleiit, Gothic bang, Sanskrit ^^JtW 
bu'bhdjcu The Modem High German exhibits the Gothic 
diphthong an, either, like the Middle and Old High Ger- 
man, as d, and in a more extended degree, and subject 
to the modification of §. 75; or next, shortened to o. 


the particulars of which will be explained under the verb ; 
or, thirdly, as au ; for instance, daupya, " I baptize," hlaupa, 
*• I run" ; or, fourthly, as eu, §• 83. 

81. As Ulfilas, in proper names, represents both e and at 
by at, and likewise o and av by at* {Paitrus, Galeilaia, 
apaustatdus, Paulas ) ; and as, in the next place, not every 
Gothic ai and au in the cognate dialects is represented in like 
manner, but in some cases the Gothic ai is replaced in Old 
High German by a simple i or p, and au by u or o ( §. 77.) ; 
but in the others, ai is replaced by 4, or ( §. 85.) by ei, and 
au by 4 or (§. 84.) ou; therefore Grimm deduces from these 
facts a double value of the diphthongs ai and au; one 
with the accent on the last element (ai, aii), another with 
the accent on the a (di, du). We cannot, however, give im- 
plicit belief to this deduction of the acute author of the 
German system of sounds, and prefer assuming an equal 
value in all cases of the Gothic ai and au, although we 
might support Grimm's view by the fact, that, in Sanskrit, 

^ ^, wt d, never replace his ai and aH ; but everywhere, 
where occasion occurs, do replace &i and au. We think, how- 
ever, that the difference is rather phonetic than etymological. 
As concerns the ai and au in proper names, it may be ac- 
counted for, inasmuch as the Gothic was [G. Ed. p. 60.] 
deficient in equivalents for these non-primitive vowels, which 
have degenerated from the original w a. Could Ulfilas 
have looked back into the early ages of his language, and 
have recc^ised the original idenity of e and o with his o, 
he would perhaps have used the latter as their substitutes. 
From his point of sight, however, he embraced the ai and 
au^ probably because these mixed diphthongs passed with 
him as weaker than the long i and d, ejusdem generis, = 
(wTd). It is important here to observe, that in Greek also 
ai is felt as weaker than tj and o), as is proved by the fact 
that at does not attract the accent towards itself (TUTrro/iai 
not rvmofAai. The expression of the Greek at and av by 


the Gothic ai and au requires the less justification, because 
even if ai was pronounced like ^ ^, and au like ^ d, yet 
the written character presents these diphthongs as a still 
perceptible fusion of a with a following i or ti. 

82. As to the other statement, namely, that not every 
Gothic ai and au produces the same effect in the younger 
dialects, nor has the same foundation in the older Sanskrit, 
it might be sufficient to observe upon one feature of dialect 
peculiar to the Gothic^ that h and r do not content them- 
selves with a pure preceding i, but require it to be affected 
by Guna ( §. 26.) ; thus, ai for t, and au for u ; whUe other 
dialects exhibit the i and u before h and r in the same 
form as before every other consonant. The relation of the 
Gothic to their Sanskrit equivalents, 



snihst "six,"^ ^ shash, 

taihurit ** ten,'' !p|n^ dasarit 

faihUf *' cattle," i|^ pasu, 

svaihra " father-in-law,*' ^"^^S^ swasura, 

taihsvo, " dextera/' ^f^^ dahshinA, 

p hairtd, "heart/' f^ hrid (from hard%. 1.), 

S bairan, "to bear," hJi^ bhartum, 

V didairan, "to tear," J^t9l\ dar-i-tum, 

2 stairnd, "star," tito idrd, 

is not so to be understood as though an t had been placed 
after the old a, but that, by the softening down of the a to 
i (§. 66.), the forms sihs, tihuriy had been produced; out of 
which, afterwards, the Guna power arising from h and r 
had produced saihs, iaihun, bairan. The High German has, 
however, remained at the earlier stage ; for Old High Ger- 
man sells, ( Anglo-Saxon, "six,") and tehan or tehun, &a, rest 
upon an earlier Gothic sihsy tihun. Thus, tohiar rests on an 
earlier Gothic duhtar, for the Guna form dauhtar, Sanskrit 


jf^ duhitar, (^Tt^dutiitri, §. 1.) "daughter.'' Where the 


Sanskrit wa has preserved itself in the Gothic unaltered, that 
is, not weakened to i, the occasion is absent for the de- 
velopment of the diphthong ai^ since it is not the a before 
h and r which demands a subsequent addition, but the i 
which demands a precedent one ; compare ahtaUf " eight/' 

with wit ashtdu* 

83. The alterations to which the simple vowels have 
been subjected appear again in the simple elements of the 
diphthongs, as well in the relation of the Gothic to the 
Sanskrit, as in that of the younger Germanic dialects to 

the Gothic. Thus the a element of the diphthong ^ 6 
shews itself often in the Gothic, and in certain places in a 
regular manner, as i ( §. 27.) ; and in the same places the 

a contained in i? ^ (a + 1) becomes i, which, with the second 
element of the diphthong, generates a long i (written as ei, 
§. 70.). The Gothic iu has either retained that form in Old 
High German, or has altered sometime^ one, sometimes both 
of its constituents. Thus have arisen to, eo. [G. £d. p. 71.] 
There is a greater distance to be passed in Otfrid's theory of 
the substitution of ia for iu, which cannot fail to surprise, as 
we know that a simple u never becoms a.f In Middle 
High German iu has either remained unaltered, or has been 
changed to ie, which is as old as the latest Old High Ger- 
man, as it is found in Notker. In Modern High German 
the substitution of ie for the old iu is that which princi- 

* Ahtau^=^ashtdu is perhaps the only case in which the Gothic au cor- 
responds to the Sanskrit V^iddhi diphthong i^ au ; on the other hand, 
oil often answers to iRt ^=(a+u). 

t There is yet another ia in Old High German, namely, that which 
Grimm (p. 103) very acutely represents as the result of a contraction, and 
formerly dissyllabic, to which, therefore, there is no counterpart diph- 
thong in Gothic. The most important case will be discussed under the 
head of the verb, in preterites, such as hudty '* I held," Gothic hailicdd. 
After this analogy ^r, " four," (according to Otfrid), arose out of the 
Gothic>£tftwr, in this way, that, after the extrusion of the d\\ the 6 passed 
into its corresponding short vowel.— Gr/mw, p. 193. 



pally prevails, in which, however, the e is only visibly re- 
tained, for phonetically it is absorbed by the L Compare 
%ch biete with the Gothic biuda, giesse with giuia. Besides 
this form, we also find eu in place of the old iu or still 
older au, in cases, namely, where e can be accounted for as 
the result of a no longer perceptible modification (Grimm, 
p. 523, §. 75.); compare Leute with the Gothic lawleisj Old High 
German liuiU "people"; Heu, "hay," with Goth, havU "grass." 
Usually, however, the Gothic has already acquired an iu in 
place of this eu, and the original au (which becomes av be- 
fore vowels) is to be sought in the Sanskrit; for instance, 
Neufie, **nine,'' Old High German niuni, Gothic niunels, 
Sanskrit tf^ navan (as theme); neu, "new/' Old High Ger- 
man niwi (indeclinable), Gothic nivi-s, Sanskrit wpn nava-s. 
This e, however, is difficult to account for, in as far as it is 
connected with the Umlnuf, because it corresponds to an i in 
Middle and Old High German ; and this vowel, of itself 
answering to au i or y in the following syllable, is capable of 


no alteration through their power of attraction. Long u for 
iu, equivalent to a transposition of the diphthong, is found in 
lugen, **tolie," triigen, "to deceive," Middle High German 
liugeVf triugen. 
[G. Ed. p. 72.] 84. Where the a element of the Sanskrit 

wt 6 retains its existence in the Gothic, making au the equi- 
valent of 6^ the Middle High German, and a part of the Old 
High German authorities, have ou in the place of ati, 
although, as has been remarked in §. 80, imder the influence 
of certain consonants 6 prevails. Compare Old High German 
pouc, Middle High German bouc, with the Gothic preterite 
baug^ '*Jlexiy The o of the High German ou has the same 
relation to the corresponding Gothic a in au, as the Greek 
o in ^oSj bears to the Sanskrit n a, which undergoes a 
fusion with ^ u in the ^ d of the cognate word ift g6. 
The oldest Old High German autliorities (Gl. Hrab. Ker. Is.) 
have au for the ou of the later (Grimm, p. 99); and as. 



under the conditions specified in §. 80.^ they also exhibit 6, 
this tells in favour of Grimm's assumption^ tliat oti in the 
Gothic and oldest High German was pronounced like our 
Grerman au, and thus not like the Sanskrit ^ 6 (out of 
a-f ti). In 'this case^ in the Gothic ai, also^ both the let- 
ters must have been sounded, and this diphthong must be 
only an etymological, and not a phonetic equivalent of the 
Sanskrit ^ 6. 

85. In the Gothic diphthong ai the a alone is susceptible 
of alteration, and appears in High German softened down to 
e, in the cases in which the ^, contracted from ai (§. 78.), does 
not occur. In Modern High German, however, ei, in pro- 
nunciation, = ai. Compare 



haUa, *' voco,^ heizu, heize, heisse. 

skaida, " separo,** skeidu, scheide, scheide, 

86. (1.) Let us now consider the consonants, preserving the 
Indian arrangement, and thus examining [G. £d. p. 73.] 
the gutturals first Of these, the Gothic has merely the 
tenuis and the medial (k, g) ; and Ulfilas, in imitation of the 
Greek, places the latter as a nasal before gutturals ; for in- 
stance, drigkan^ ''to drink"; briggan, "to bring"; tuggd, 
** tongue" ; yuggs, " young " ; gaggs^ " a going" (subst.). For 
the compound kv the old writing has a special character, 
which we, like Grimm, render by gv, although q does not 
appear elsewhere, and t; also combines with g ; so that qv 
{=kv) plainly bears the same relation to gv that k bears tog; 
compare sigqvan, "to sink," with siggvan, "to read," "to 
sing.^ H also, in Gothic, willingly combines with v ; and 
for this combination, also, the original text has a special 
character; compare saihvan, lelhvan, witli our sehen^ leihen. 
In respect to h by itself we have to observe that it often 
appears in relations in which the dentals place their th and 
the labials their /, so that in this case it takes the place of 

K 2 


kht which is wanting in the Gothic. In this manner is 
aih related to aigum, " we have," as bauth to budum, and gqf 
to g&)um. Probably the pronunciation of the Gothic h was 
not in all positions the same, but in terminations, and before 
/ and 8, if not generally before consonants, corresponded to 
our ch. The High German has ch as an aspirate of the k: 
for this tenuis, however, either k or c stands in the older 
dialects, the use of which, in Middle High German, is so dis- 
tinguished, that c stands as a terminating letter, and in the 
middle of words before /, and ch also stands for a double k. 
(Grimm, p. 422.) This distinction reminds us of the use of 
the Zend (5^ c in contrast to ^ it, as also of the m Hn con- 
trast to p ^. (§§. 34. 38.) 

(2.) The palatals and Unguals are wanting in Gk>thic, as 
in Greek and Latin; the dentals are, in Gotliic, U th, d, 
[G. Ed. p. 74.] together with their nasal n. For th the 
Gothic alphabet has a special character. In the High 
German z {=ts) fills the place of the aspiration of the t, so 
that the breathing is replaced by the sibilation. By the side 
of this z in the Old High German, the old Gk)thic th also 
maintains its existence.* There are two species of z, which, 
in Middle High German, do not agree with each other. In 
the one, t has the preponderance, in the other, s; and this latter 
is written by Isidor zs, and its reduplication zss, while the 
reduplication of the former he writes tz. In the Modem 
High German the second species has only retained the 
sibilant, but in writing is distinguished, though not uni- 
versally, from 8 proper. Etymologically, both species of 
the Old and Middle High German z fall under the same 
head, and correspond to the Gothic t 

(3.) The labials are, in Gothic, p, /, 6, with their nasal 

* Our Modem High German th is, according to Grimm (p. 625), in- 
organic, and to be rejected. '^ It is, neither in pronunciation nor origin, 
properly aspirated, and nothing bat a mere tenuis." 


m. The High German supplies this organ, as the Sanskrit 
does all, with a double aspiration, a surd (/= i^ ph) (see 
§. 25.) and a sonant, which is written v, and comes nearer to 

the Sanskrit vf bh. In Modern High German we perceive 
no longer any phonetic diflFerence between / and v ; but in 
Middle High German v shews itself in this manner softer 
than /, in that, first, at the end of words it is transformed 
into /, on the same principle by which, in such a position^ 
the medials are converted into tenues; for instance, ti;o^ not 
wolvy but genitive wolves; second, that in the middle before 
surd consonants it becomes /, hence zwelve becomes zwelfle, 
funve becomes funfiepfunfzic. At the beginning of words / 
and V, in Middle High German, seem of equal signification, 
and their use in the MSS. is precarious, [G. Ed. p. 75.] 
but V preponderates (Grimm, pp. 339. 400). It is the same 
in Old High German ; yet Notker uses / as the original 
primarily existing breathing-sound, and v as the softer or 
sonant aspiration, and therefore employs the latter in cases 
where the preceding word concludes with one of those letters, 
which otherwise (§. 93.) soften down a tenuis to its medial 
(Grimm, pp. 135, 136) ; for instance, demo voter, den vater^ 
but not des voter but des fater. So far the rule is less 
stringent (observes Grimm), that in all cases / may stand 
for V, but the converse does not hold. Many Old High 
German authorities abandon altogether the initiatory v, 
and write / for it constantly, namely, Kero, Otfrid, Tatian. 
The aspiration of the p is sometimes, in Old High German, 
also rendered by ph, but, in general, only at the beginning of 
words of foreign origin, phorta, phenning ; in the middle, 
and at the end occasionally, in true Germanic forms, such 
as werpharit warphy wurphumh, in Tatian ; limphan in Otfrid 
and Tatian. According to Grimm, ph, in many cases, has 
had the mere sound of /. " In monumental inscriptions, 
however, which usually employ/, the ph of many words 
had indisputably the sound of ;)/; for example, if Otfrid 


writes kuphar, " cuprum,'* scepheri, " Creator," we are not to 
assume that these words were pronounced kufar, sceferi^ 
(p. 132). In Middle High German the initial pA of foreign 
words of the Old High German has become pf (Grimm, 
p. 326). In the middle and at the end we find pf, first, always 
after m, kampf, " pugna,"" tampf, " vapor,*' Icrempfen, " contra- 
here" in which case p is an euphonic appendage to/, in order 
to facilitate a union with m. Secondly, in compounds with the 
inseparable prefix ent, which, before the labial aspirates, lays 
aside its U or, as seems to me the sounder supposition, converts 
that letter, by assimilation, into the labial tenuis. Hence, for 

[G. Ed. p. 76.] instance, enp-finden, later and more harmo- 
nious emp-finden, for ent-finden. Standing alone, neverthe- 
less, it appears, in Middle High German, vinden, but v does not 
combine with p, for after the surd p (§. 25.) the surd aspirate 
is necessary (see Grimm, p. 398). Thirdly, after short vowels 
the labial aspirates are apt to be preceded by their tenues, as 
well in the middle as at the end of words : just as in Sanskrit 
(Granma. Crit. r. 88.) the palatal surd aspirate between a short 
and another vowel or semi-vowel is preceded by its tenuis ; 
and, for instance, ij^Pm prichchhaii is said for ^^ifftprichhai'u 
*' inierrogatr from the root K^prachh, In this light I 
view the Middle High German forms kopf, kropf, tropfe^ 
klopfen, kripfen, kapfen (Grimm, p, 398). In the same words 
we sometimes find ff, as kaffen, schuffen. Here, also, p has 
assimilated itself to the following/; for/, even though it be 
the aspirate of p, is not pronounced like the Sanskrit i^ ph, 
that is, like p with a clearly perceptible h ; but the sounds 
p and h are compounded into a third simple sound lying 
between the two, which is therefore capable of reduplication, 
as in Greek ^ unites itself with 0, while ph + th would be im- 

(4.) The Sanskrit semi-vowels are represented in Gothic 
by 7* ( = y), r,l,v; the same in High German ; only in Old 
High German Manuscripts the sound of the ludo-Gothic r 


(our w) is most usually represented by uu, in Middle High 
German by vvij (or y) in both is written u We agree with 
Grimm in using J (or y) and w for all periods of the High Ger- 
man. After an initial consonant in Old High German, the 
semi- vowel w in most authorities is expressed by u ; for in- 
stance, zuelif, " twelve," Gothic tvalif. As in the Sanskrit and 
Zend the semi-vowels y and v often arise out of the cor- 
responding vowels i and u, so also in the [G. Ed. p. 77.] 
Germanic; for instance, Gothic suniv^^ "filiorum,*' from the 
basesiinei, with u affected by Guna (iu, §. 27.). More usually^ 
however, in the Germanic, the converse occurs, namely, 
that y and v, at terminations and before consonants, have 
become vocalised (see §. 73.), and have only retained their 
original form before terminations beginning with a vowel ; 
for if, for instance, thius^ "servant," forms thivis in the 
genitive, we know, from the history of the word, that this 
V has not sprung from the u of the nominative, but that 
ihius IB a mutilation of ihivas (§. 116.); so that after the 
lapse of the a the preceding semi-vowel has become a whole 
one. In like manner is thivi, "maid-servant," a mutila- 
tion of the base thivyd (§. 120.), whose nominative, like the 
accusative, probably was thivya, for which, however, in the 
accusative, after the v had become vocalized, thiuya was 



(5.) Of the Sanskrit sibilants, the Germanic has only 
the last, namely, the pure dental jf ». Out of this, how- 
ever, springs another, peculiar, at least in use, to the 
Gothic, which is written z, and had probably a softer pro- 
nunciation than s. This z is most usually found between two 
vowels, as an euphonic alteration of s, but sometimes also 
between a vowel and v, /, or n ; and between liquids (/, r, n) 
and a vowel, y or n, in some words also before d ; finally, 
before the guttural medial, in the single instance, azgd, 
"ashes"; everywhere thus before sonants, and it must 
therefore itself be considered as a sonant sibilant (§. 25.), while 


s is the surd. It is remarkable/in a grammatical point of 
view, that a concluding s before the enclitic particles ei and 
tiA, and before the passive addition a, passes into z ; hence, for 
instance, thizei *'cujus,*' from thh "hujus,^ thanzei ''guo*/' 
from thans " Aos,'^ vileizuh " visne" from vileis '* m,*^ haitaza 
" vocaris/* from Aai^es " vocas^ or rather from its earlier form 
[G. Ed. p. 78.] haitas. The root sUp, " to sleep," forms, 
by a reduplication, in the preterite, saizlip, ** I or he slept'' 
Other examples are, izvis, ** vobis,** " vos" razn ''house," talzyan, 


•* to teach," marzi/an, " to provoke," fahzna, •* heel." The 
High German loves the softening of s into r, especially 
between two vowels (see §. 22.); but this change has not 
established itself as a pervading law, and does not extend 
over all parts of the Grammar. For instance, in Old High 
German, the final s of several roots has changed itself into 
r before the preterite terminations which commence with a 
vowel ; on the other hand, it has remained unaltered in the 
uninflected first and third pers. sing, indicative, and also 
before the vowels of the present. For example, from the 
i-oot lus, comes /im^m, •• I lose," Ids, ** I or he lost," lurumh 
" we lost" While in these cases the termination takes s 
under its protection, yet the s of the nominative singular, 
where it has not been altogether dropped, is everywhere 
softened down to r ; and, on the other hand, the concluding 
s of the genitive has, down to our time, remained unaltered, 
and thus an organic difference has arisen between two cases 
originally distinguished by a similar suflBx. For instance, 



Nominative . . blind's, plintS-r, blinde-r. 

Genitive . . . blindi-s, pHnte-s, blinder. 

87. The Germanic tongues exhibit in respect of con- 
sonants, a remarkable law of displacement, which has been 
first recognised and developed with great ability by Grimm. 
According to this law, the Gothic, and the other dialects. 



with the exception of the High German, in relation to the 
Greek, Latin, and, with certain limits, also [G. Ed. p. 79.] 
to the Sanskrit and Zend, substitute aspirates for the original 
tenues, h for k, th for t, and/ for p ; tenues for medials, t for 
cl, p for b, and k for g ; finally, medials for aspirates, g for j(^ 
d for d, and b for/. The High German bears the same 
regular relation to the Gothic as the latter to the Greek, and 
substitutes its aspirates for the Gothic tenues and Greek 
medials ; its tenues for tlie Gothic medials and Greek aspi- 
rates ; and its medials for the Gothic aspirates and Greek 
tenues. Yet the Gothic labial and guttural medial exhibits 
itself unaltered in most of the Old High German authorities, 
as in the Middle and Modem High German ; for instance, 
Gothic biuga, "flectOf' Old High German biuga and piuka, 
Middle High German biuge. Modern High German biege. 
For the Gothic/, the Old High German substitutes v, espe- 
cially as a first letter (§. 86. 3.). In the t sounds, z in High 
German (=sts) replaces an aspirate. The Gothic has no 
aspiration of the it, and either replaces the Greek k by the 
simple aspiration h, in which case it sometimes coincides 
with the Sanskrit j^h, or it falls to the level of the High 
German, and, in the middle or end of words, usually gives 
g instead of k, the High German adhering, as regards the 
beginning of words, to the Gothic practice, and participating 
with that dialect in the use of the h. We give here Grimm^s 
table, illustrating the law of these substitutions, p. 5S4. 

Greek P B F 

Gothic F P n 

Old High German, n{V) F P 

T D 


K G Ch 

rii T 


K G 

D Z 


G Ch K 


[G. Ed. p. 80.] 








qr^^ pflda-s, 

WOjJj, TToJ- 

0$", jje**, pedis, 



^^[^ pan^harif 










ftr^ pHHt 




, vatar. 

5Vf< upari, 







• . 


vf^^ bhanjt 

• • 




^ bhuj. 

. . 

fruiy fruclus. 



mn bhrdtri 

• . 




^ bhrU 







. . 

• • 


^ann^ kapAla, m. n.j 





ii|»^ twam (nom.), 


• • 



iTBT iam (ace.), 





^nro^ if at/us (n. pi.) 

, Tp€7s, 




WiTX: aniara. 





^f^JR c/a?i/a-m(acc.), oSor'T-a, 




# diuau (n. c/m), 





;?ftpin dakshind, 


. dexira. 








^fi^^ duhiiri, 


• • 








• ^ if^ madhu, 


• • 

• • 


F- ''^'f^^ *u*a7i, 





'I 5^ hridaya, 





cli ^^ aks/ia, 





W^ asm, 



iagr ni.. 


^ paki. 

• • 




* The Sanskrit words here stand, where the termination is not separated 
from the })a8e, or the case not indicated, in their crado or simple form 
(theme) ; of the verbi we give only the bare root. 

t "Parenta." 













88. The Lithuanian has left the consonants without 
displacement in their old situations, only, from its defi- 
ciency in aspirates, substituting simple tenues for the 
Sanskrit aspirated tenues, and medials for the aspirated 
medials. Compare, 



igK^ nvmiura. 


i^j^ dasan^ 








inpr nuiliat, 


^ hansa. 


Wr hyas. 


f^ lih. 
























raiors, "wheel,' 

husu, '* I would be," 

ka-s, " who," 

dumi, '* I give,*' 

patSf "husband," "master," 

penkif "five," 

trys, "three," 

keturif " four,*^ 

kelwirias, **the fourth,'' 

szakiu f- " bough," 


r^ ralha-s, "waggon." 

NfMuilfH bhavishydmi. 

WR has. 

^^ daddmi. [G. Ed. p. 82] 

vffnX^ paii'S. 

iT^fT panchan. 

mnr trayas (n. pi. m.) 

^HKfi chatwiras (n. pi. m.) 

^nr^ chaiurtlia^s. 

^TT^n sdkhd* 

Irregular deviations occur, as might be expected, in indi- 
vidual cases. Thus, for instance, naga-St "nail" (of the 

foot or finger), not naka-s, answers to the Sauski-it inre^ 
nnkhas. The Zend stands, as we have before remarked, 
in the same rank, in all essential respects, as the Sanskrit, 

* From fan, " to be born." 


Greeks and Latin. As, however, according to §. 47., certain 
consonants convey an aspiration to the letter which precedes 
them, this may occasion an accidental coincidence between 
the Zend and the Gothic ; and both languages may, in 
like manner and in the same words, depart from the ori- 
ginal tenuis. Compare, 


fhir (theme), " three." j!^<^ thrl, fi tri. 

thus, " to thee/' j^qkT^ tlmtyi, ^ twi* 

fra, (inseparable prep.) X5^\fra, IK pra 

friyd, " I love," j^AUf^ijM dfrindmWf jff^fllfk prin/imL 

ahva t, " a river/' j^siju^i dfs %m ap (theme). 

[G. £d. p. 83.] I pronounce this coincidence between the 
Gothic and the Zend aspirates accidental, because the causes 
of it are distinct; as, on the one side, the Gothic accords no 
aspirating influence to the letters v and r (truda^ irauan^ trim- 
pan, tvai), and, in the examples given above, th and /stand, 
only because, according to rule, Gothic aspirates are to be 
expected in the place of original tenues; on the other 
side, the Zend everywhere retains the original tenues, where 
the letters named in §. 47. do not exhibit an influence, which 
is unknown to the Gothic ; so that, quite according to order, 
in by far the majority of forms which admit of comparison, 
eitlier Gothic aspirates are met with in the place of Zend 
tenues, or, according to another appointment of the Ger- 
manic law of substitution, Gothic tenues in that of Zend 
medials. Compare, 

* THcS ocean as an uninflccted genitive in Rosen's Veda-Spedmen^ 
p. S6, and may, like the mutilated ^ t^y be also nsed as a dative. 

t **I bless," from the Sanskrit root pri, "to love,'* united with the 
prep. a. 

X Ahva. The Sanskrit-Zend expression signifies " water " ; and the 
Gothic form dcvclopcs itself through the transition, of frcqnent occnrrcnce, 
of /? to A:, for which the law of snbstitntion requires h (see also aqua). 


oornic. ZEND. 

thu, " thou/' 5^^ turn. 

fdvdr, (ind.) " four/" ^^ukd^oa)^ chathwdrd (n. pi. m.) 

Jimf, A)Ai^A)Q> pancha, 

fulls, " full,"" ^yg?go>|>«-en/J (n. m.) 

fadreijh ** parents/' (g/As^jAio) paitar-em (pat rem). 

fathst '* master,'' ^dj^jasq) paiii-s, 

faihu, "beast/' jm^>33M:d pasu-s. 

Jdryith, " he wanders," j^ja)2ks^ charaiti, 

futU'8, " foot," A5^j^Q> p4d/ia (§. 39.) 

fraihlth " he asks," j^jAsjjg^go) peresaiti 

ufaff "over," j?ja)q)> upairi, (§. 41.) 

o/J "firom,'* M^iM apa- 

thai, " these," a)^ ii. 

hvas, " who," ^3 kd. [G. Ed. p. 84.] 

tvai, " two," Aj»^ c/pa. 

taihun, ** ten," a)jju3^ c/oia. 

iaih8v6f " right hand," Asyjj^^ dashina, "dexter^ 

In the Sanskrit and Zend the sonant aspirates, not the 
sard, as in Greek, (^ h too is sonant, see §. 25.) correspond, 
according to rule, to the Gothic medials : as, however, in the 
Zend the bh is not found, _| b answers to the Gothic b. 


bmrith, " he carries," j^ja)7^ haraiti, fwfS bibharti 

brdthar, " brother," 9 ^^as^ju^ brdtarem (acc.)OTrC«^^ bhrdtaram (ace.) 
601, " both," ^> uba, 'w4\ ubMu (n. ac. v. du.) 

brukam '* to use," «| bhuj, " to eat." 

6t (prep.) ^SAs abi,J^Jj<iaivn,^[f^ abhi. 

midya, " middling," *a^^^m^ maidhya, mn madhya, 
bindan, '' bind," Q^^^au bandh, W^ bandh. 

89. Violations of the law of displacement of sounds, both by 
persistence in the same original sound, or the substitution of 
irregular sounds, are frequent in the middle and at the end of 


words. Thus, in the Old High German vatar, tlie t of the 
Greek itarfip remains; in tlie Gothic /ac/re»tii, **parentesr d is 
substituted irreg;ularly for th, Tlie same phenomenon occurs 
in the cases of the Old High German of pent a, and the Gothic 
ulbandus, contrasted with the r of eXe^avr* ; thus, also, the i 

of ^TilT chatur, " quatuor,^'' has become d in the Gothic 
Jldvdr instead of f/i ; but in High German has entirely dis- 
appeared. The p of the Sanskrit root ^n^ sicap, (Latin 
snpio,) " sleep,'' has been preserved in the Gothic slSpa, and 

[G. Ed. p. 85.] the Old High German sf/iju stands in tlie 
Gothic category, but the Sanskrit root is more faithfully 
preserved in the Old High German in in-suepyu {soj^w, see 
§. 86. 4.) 

90. Nor have the inflexions or grammatical appendages 
everywhere submitted* to the law of displacement, but have, 
in many instances, either remained faithful to the primary 
sound, or have, at least, rejected the particular cliange pre- 
scribed by §. 87. Thus the Old High German has, in the 
third person, as well singular as plural, retained the original 
t ; compare hapSf, " he has," hapSnt, " tliey have," with habei, 
habent: the Gothic, on the contrary, says habaitK haband; 
the first in accordance with the law, the last in violation of 
it, for hahanih. Thus, also, in the part pres., the t of the old 
languages has become, under the influence of the preceding 
n, not th but d ; tlie t of the |)art. pass., however, is changed 
before the s of the nom. into th, but before vowel termina- 

* It would be better to regard the pheuomenon here discussed by as- 
suming d as tlie proper cliaracter of the third person in Gothic ; and 
viewing the Old High German t as the regular sobstitnte for it. The 
d has been retained in the Gothic passive also (bair-a-clu)^ and the active 
form bairith is derivalrle from bairid, in that the Gothic prefers the aspi- 
rates to the medials at the end of a word. The same is the case with the 
part, pass., the suffix of whidi is, in Gotliic, dtiy whence, in Old High Ger- 
man, in consequence of the second law fur the permutation of sounds, 
comes ta ; so tliat the old form recurs again, re-introduced by a fresh cor- 


tions, by an anomalous process, into d ; after the same prin- 
ciple by which the th of the third person before the vowel 
increment of the passive is softened to cf ; so that da*, in- 
stead of tha, corresponds to the Greek to, of eTvirrer-o, and 
to the Sanskrit ir to, of JMmv abhavata. The Old High 
German, on the other hand, has preserved the original t in 
both participles : hapSntSr, hapitir, Gothic habands, genitive 
habandins; habaiths, gen. habaidis. 

91. Special notice is due to the fact, that in the middle 
of words under the protection of a preceding consonant, 
the old consonant often remains without displacement, 
sometimes because it chimes in well with the preceding sound, 
sometimes because, through regard for the preceding let- 
ters, alterations have been admitted other than those which 
the usual practice as to displacement would lead us to expect 
Mute consonants (§. 25.), among which, in [G. Ed. p. 80.] 
the Germanic^ the h must be reckoned, where it is to be pro- 
nounced like our cA, protect a succeeding original t Thus, 
^r#l ashtdUf "eight,'' oktcG, '* octo^ is in Goth, ahiau, in Old 
High Grerman ahtd: tHR naktam (adverbial accusative), 
••night,'' vf/f, vt/KTof, **nox,*^ **noctis" is in Gothic nahtst 
Old High German nahL The liquids, on the other hand, like 
the Towels, which they approach nearest of all consonants, 
aSect a ci or th after themselves. From these euphonic 
causes, for instance, the feminine suffix fir ti in Sanski-it, in 
Greek ais* as moitifn^^ which designates abstract substantives, 
appears in Grothic in three forms, ii^ di, and thi. The ori- 
ginal form ti shews itself after/, into which p and 6 mostly 
resolve themselves, and also after s and h ; for instance, 
anMt(t)s (§. 1 17.), " grace," from the root an, Old High Ger- 
man vfinan, '* to be gracious,*' with the insertion of an 
euphonic «: fralust{i)8, " loss," (from lusy pres. liusa): maht{i)s, 
*' strength,*^ (from magan) : fra'gifl{i)si'' betrothment," (from 
gib, gqf), alaofragibts, perhaps erroneously, as h has little 

* Da IB an abbreyiation ofdai = G. rai S«insk. te^'s-^ e §. 400. 


afiBnity with t : ga-skap(i)8, " creation/' (from skap^n). The 
form di finds its place after vowels^ but is able, where the 
vowel of the suffix falls away, ?'. e. in the nom. and accus. 
sing., to convert d into th, because th can, more easily than d, 
dispense with a following vowel, and is a favourite letter at 
the end of words and before consonants, though d also is 
tolerated in such a position. Hence the root bud, "to bid," 
( pres. biuda, §. 27.) forms, in the uninflected condition of the 
pret., baulhf in the plur. bud-um ; and the nominal base, 
mana-si-dU "world," (according to Grimm's well-founded 
interpretation, "seed, not seat, of man,^') forms in the nom. 
and accus. mana-sSths, mana-sSth, or mana-sidsf mana-nM; 
but in the dat. mana-sidai not -sHhau On the other hand, 
after liquids the suffix is usually thi^ and after n, di : the 
dental, however, once chosen, remains afterwards in every 
position, either without a vowel or before vowels; for instance, 
ya6aiir^A», " birth," dat gabaurthai-y gafaurds, "gathering" 
[G. Ed. p. 87.] (from far-yan, " to go ''), gen. gafaurdais: 
gakunlhs, "esteem," gen. gakunthais; gamunda, "memory," 
gen. gamundais ; gaqvumths, " meeting," dat. gaqvumthai, dat. 
plur. gaqvumlhim. From the union with m, d is excluded. 
On the whole, however, the law here discussed accords re- 
markably with a similar phenomenon in modern Persian, 
where the original t of grammatical terminations and suffixes 
is maintained only after mute consonants, but after vowels 
and liquids is changed into d : hence, for instance, girif-ian^ 
"to take," bas'ian, "to bind," ddsh-tan, " to have," jwiitA-ean, 
"to cook": on the other hand, dd-dan, "to give," bur-dan, "to 
bear," dm-^an, "to come." I do not, therefore, hesitate to 
release the Germanic suffix (i, and all other suffixes originally 
commencing with /, from the general law of substitution of 
sounds, and to assign the lot of this t entirely to the controul 
of the preceding letter. The Old High German, in the case 
of our suffix iif as in that of other suffixes and terminations 
originally commencing with /, accords to the original t a 


fer more extensive prevalence, than does the Gothic ; inas- 
much as it retains that letter, not only when protected by 
8, ft, and/, but also after vowels and liquids — after m an 
euphonic / is inserted ; — and the t is only after / changed 
into rf. Hence, for instance, ans-l, "grace,'' hlouft, "course," 
maA-/, " might," s«l-/, " seed," *?>mrf, "birth," rar-/, "jour- 
ney," mun-t, "protection," kUwal-t, "force," 8cul-t, schvld, 
"guilt,*' chumft, " arrival." 

92. The law of substitution shews the greatest perti- 
nacity at the beginning of words, and I have found it every- 
where observed in the relation of the Gothic to the Greek 
and Latin. On the other hand, in some roots which are 
either deficient or disfigured in the Old European languages, 
but which are common to the Germanic and the Sanskrit, 
the Gothic stands on the same footing with fG. Ed. p. 88.~| 
the Sanskrit, especially in respect of initial medials. Thus, 
^^bandh, ''to bind,^ is also band in Gothic, not pand; 717 
graht in the Vedas w^ grabh, " to take/' " seize," is grip 
(pres. greipa with Guna, §. 27.) not krip;^ to in gd and 
im gam^ " to go," correspond gagga, " I go," and ga4vd, 

" street ^ ?1 dah, "to burn," is, in Old High German, dah- 
an {iatia)t *' to bum," " to light." I can detect, however, 
no instance in which Gothic tenues correspond to Sanskrit 
as initial letters. 

9a(*). We return now to the Sanskrit, in order, with rela- 
tion to the most essential laws of sound, to notice one ad- 
verted to in our theory of single letters ; where it was said 
of several concurrent consonants that they were tolerated 
neither at the end of words, nor in the middle before strong 
consonants, and how their places were supplied in such situa- 
tions. It is besides to be observed, that, properly, tenues 
alone can terminate a Sanskrit word; but medials, only 
before sonants, (§. 25,) may either be retained, if they origi- 
nally terminate an iriBective base, or take the place of a tenuis 

• The Latin prehendo is probably related to the Sanskrit root XT? /7'*«^» 
through the nsoal interchange between gutturals and labials. 


82 chahacters and sounds. 

or an aspirate, if these happen to precede sonants in a 
sentence. As examples, we select j^fii^ harit, (viric/w), 
" green," ^^^ftf^ vida-vid, " skilled in the Veda,"" Hif^ dhana- 
labh, "acquiring wealth." These words are, according to 
§. 94., without a nominative sign. We find, also, ^rf^ScT Igftv 
asti harUy " he is green,'' wftj ^^ftlW asli vedd-viU ^ifiST IR^J^ 
nati dhana-lap ; on the other hand, ^TSyssf^harid asiU ^^[ftl^ 
^vfST vedavid asti, V5f5ni[ ^iftfT dhana-lab asli ; also, ^fic^ H^fif 
harid bhavaiU Sec With this Sanskrit law the Middle High 
[G. Ed. p. 89.] German is very nearly in accordance, which 
indeed tolerates aspirates at the end of words, contrary to the 
custom of the Sanskrit, only with a conversion of the sonant 
t; into the surd /, see §. 86. s.; but, like the Sanskrit, and 
independent of the law of displacement explained in §. 87., 
supplies the place of medials at the end of words regularly 
by tenues. As, for example, in tlie genitives tages, eides^ 
wibes, of which the nom. and accus. sing., deprived of the 
inflexion and the terminating vowel of the base, take the 
forms tac, (§. 86. i.) eit, wip. So also as to the verb ; for 
instance, the roots trag, lad, grab, form, in the uninflected 
1st and dd pers. sing, pret, iruoc, luot^ gruop, plur. truogen, 
luoden, gruoben. Where, on the other hand, the tenuis or 
aspirate (v excepted) is radical, there no alteration of sound 
occurs in declension or in conjugation. For instance, wori^ 
gen. toortest not itwrdes, as in Sansk. |[^ dadat, "the giver/' 
gen. l^^fiPff c/ac?a/as, not j^^^^dadadas, but f^ vit, "knowing,'' 
gen. ftr^ vidas, from the base f^ rid. In Old High 
German different authorities of the language are at variance 
with respect to the strict observance of this law. Isidor is 
in accordance with it, insomuch tliat he converts d at the 
end into t, and g into c; for instance, wort^ wordes; dae, 
doges. The Gothic excludes only the labial medials from 
terminations, but replaces them, not by tenues, but by 
aspirates. Hence gaf, " I gave," in contrast to g&}um^ and 
the accusatives hlaif, Uiuf, thiuf, opposed to the nominatives 
hlfubs, hubs, thiuhsf gen. hiaibis, &c. The guttural and dental 


medials {g, d) are tolerated by the Gothic in terminations ; 
yet even in these, in individual cases, a preference appears 
for the terminating aspirates. Compare bauth, "I or he 
offered," with budum, "we offered," from the root bud; 
haiiadHi *'nominatur" with haitith (§. 67.) '^nominat; aih, 
" I have/' ** he has," with aigunh " we have." 

[G. Ed. p. 00.] 93 (^). In a sense also opposed to t);iat of the 
above-mentioned Sanskrit law, we find, in Old High German, 
yet only in Notker, an euphonic relation between terminating 
and initial letters of two words which come together. (Grimm, 
pp. 130, 138, 181). As in Sanskrit the tenuis appears as an 
essential consonant, fit for the conclusion of a sentence, but 
exchangeable, under the influence of a word following in a 
sentence, for the medials ; so with Notker the tenuis ranks 
as a true initial; stands therefore at the beginning of a 
sentence, and after strong consonants; but after vowels 
and the weakest consonants the liquid is turned into a 
medial. Thus, for instance, ih piut " I am," but ih ne bin; 
ier dag, **the day," but tea tages; mil kote, ** with God,** but 
mtnan got, " my Grod." 

94. Two consonants are no longer, in the existing con- 
dition of the Sanskrit, tolerated at the end of a «word, but 
the latter of the tif^o is rejected. This emasculation, which 
must date from an epoch subsequent to the division of the 
language, as this law is not recognised either by the Zend 
or by any of the European branches of the family, has 
had, in many respects, a disadvantageous operation on the 
Grammar, and has mutilated many forms of antiquity re- 
quired by theory. In the High German we may view, as 
in some degree connected with this phenomenon, the cir- 
cumstance that roots with double liquids — U, mm, nn, rr — 
in forms which are indeclinable (and before the consonants 
of inflexions) reject the latter of the pair. In the case, also, 
of terminations in double h or t, one is rejected. Hence, 
for instance, from stihhu (pungo) ar-prittu (stringo), the 1st 
and 3d pers. pret «to/i, ar-prat. In Middle High German, 

Q 2 


in declensions in clc^ffy the last is rejected; for instance, 
6oc, gen. fcocte*,- grif^griffei: tz loses the t; for instance, 
schaZy schatzes. 

95. Between a final ^n and a sue- [G.Ed. p. 01.] 
ceeding t sound — as which the palatals also must be 
reckoned, for "« cA is equivalent to tsh — in the Sanskrit an 
euphonic sibilant is interposed, from the operation of the 
following t ; and i^, by this sibilant, is converted, §. 9., into 
Anuswara ; for instance, ^nr^ VW abhavans tcUra, (abhavan- 
s-iatra), ''they were there.'' With this coincides the cir- 
cumstance, that, in High German, between a radical n and 
the i of an affix, an s, in certain cases, is inserted ; for in- 
stance, from the root ann, " to favour/* comes, in Old High 
German, an-s-ff *• thou favourest," on-s-ta or onda, '* I fa- 
voured,"' an-s-tf "favour"; from prann comes prun-s-t, 
" ardour " ; from chart is derived chun-s-t^ " knowledge," our 
German Kunst, in which, as in Brunst and Gunst^ (from 
g'dnnen, probably formed from the ann before noticed, and 
the preposite^(e),) the euphonic s has stood fast The Gothic 
exhibits this phenomenon nowhere, perhaps, but in an^i^ls 
and aUbrunS'ts ' holocaustum.' In Old High German we 
find still an s inserted after r, in the root tarr ,* hence, tar-s-U 
" thou darest," tor-s-ta, I dared." (Cf. §. 6 1 6. 2d Note.) 

96. In Sanskrit the interposed euphonic s has extended 
itself further only among the prefixed prepositions, which 
generally enter into most intimate and facile connection with 
the following root. In this manner the euphonic s steps in 
between the prepositions ^ sanif^nava, vft^pari, vfwprati^ 
and certain words which begin with nr ft. With this the 
Latin a between ab or oh and c, q, and p, remarkably accords*, 

[G. Ed. p. 92.] which 9, ab retains even in an isolated posi- 
tion, when the above-mentioned letters follow. To this 
we also refer the cosmiitere of Festus, instead of commiltere 

* We scarcely think it necessary to defend ourselves for dividing, with 
Vossios, ob-^olescOj rather than with Schneider (p. 671) obs-'Oluco. 


(Schneider, p. 475), unless an original amUto, for milto, is 
involved in this compound. In the Greek, ^ shews an incli- 
nation for connection with r, 0, and /z, and precedes these 
letters as an euphonic link, especially, after short vowels, in 
cases which require no special mention. In compounds like 
(raice^iraAo^ I reckon the ^, in opposition to the conmion 
theory, as belonging to the base of the first member (§. 128.). 
We have yet to consider a case of the interpolation of an 
euphonic labial, which is common to the Old Latin and Ger- 
manic, and serves to facilitate the union of the labial nasal 
with a dental. The Latin places p between m and a following 
i or s; the Gothic and Old High German/ between m and L 
Thus, sumpsi^ prompsu dempsi, sumptus^ promptust demptus ; 
Gothic andanum-f-is, "acceptance'*; Old High German 
chum-f-tt "arrival.'' In Greek we find also the interpola- 
tion of an euphonic )9 after /z, of a $ after v, of a after cr, 
in order to facilitate the union of /z, v, and <r with p and \ 
{jietniiifipiay fikfi^Xeraty avSpog, Ifiaadhjj — see Buttman, p. 80) ; 
while the Modem Persian places an euphonic d between 
the vowel of a prefixed preposition and that of the following 
word, as be-d-H, " to him.'^ 

97. The Greek affords few specimens of variability at the 
end of words, excepting from peculiarities of dialect, as the 
substitution of p for ^ The alteration of the v in the article 
in old inscriptions, and in the prefixes cvv, ev, and iraTuv, 
seems analogous to the changes which, according to §. 18., 

the terminating if m, in Sanskrit, undergoes in all cases, 
with reference to the letter which follows. [G. £d. p. 03.] 
The concluding v in Greek is also generally a derivative 
from fif and corresponds to this letter, which the Greek 
never admits as a termination in analogous forms of the 
Sanskrit, Zend, and Latin. N frequently springs from 
a final s; thus, for instance, fxev (Doric /zer) and the 
dual Tov answer to the Sanskrit personal terminations 
H^ mcLSf in(^ iha8, ir^ tas. I have found this explanation, 
which I have given elsewhere, of the origin of the v from ^ 


subsequently confirmed by the Prakrit, in which, in like 
manner, the concluding 8 of the instrumental termination 
plural fWn bhis has passed into the dull n (Anuswara, §. 9.), 
and f^ hin is said tor. bhis. An operation, which has a pre- 
judicial efiect on many Greek terminations, and disturbs the 
relation to cognate languages, is the suppression of the t 
sound at the end of words, where, in Sanskrit, Zend, and 
Latin it plays an essential part In respect of the Towels, 
it is also worthy of notice, that in Sanskrit, but not in 
Zend, at the meeting of vowel terminations and com- 
mencements, a hiatus is guarded against, either by the 
fusion of the two vowels, or, in cases where the vowel has 
a cognate semi-vowel at its command, by its transition 
into this latter, provided the vowel following be unlike. 
We find, for instance, WCcA^ astidam^ "est hoc,'* and «^ 
IRH asty ay am, "est hie.'''' For the sake of clearness, and 
because the junction of two vowels might too often give 
the appearance of two or more words to one, I write in my 
most recent text ^i^ '*i^, in Order, by an apostrophe 
which I employ as a sign of fusion, to indicate that the 
vowel which appears wanting in the ^ dam is^ contained 
in the final vowel of the preceding word. We might, 
perhaps, still better write ^ngafT '^, in order directly 
[G. Ed. p. 04.] at the close of the fint word to shew that 
its final vowel has arisen out of a contraction, and that the 
following word participates in it* 

98. We have now to consider the alterations in the 
middle of words, i.e. those of the final letters of the 
roots and nominal bases before grammatical endings, and 
wc find, with respect to tliese, most life, strength, and 
consciousness in the Sanskrit; and this language is 

* We cannot guide oonelvcs here by the original MSS., as these exhibit 
no separation of words, and entire yerses are written together without 
intermption, as though they were only a series of senseless syllables, and 
not words of independent place and meaning. As we must depart irom 
Indian practice, the more complete the more rational the aeparatioiL 


placed on the highest point of antiquity, insomuch as the 
signification of every radical portion is still so strongly 
felt» that while it admits of moderate changes, for the 
avoiding of harshness, it never, if we except some vowel 
elisions, permits the radical sense to be obliterated, or 
rendered irrecognisable by concessions too great, or trans- 
itions too daring. Yet does the Sanskrit, more than any 
of its kindred, afford a field for the conflict of unsociiCble 
consonants, a conflict, however, which is honourably and 
strenuously maintained. The Vowels and weak consonants, 
(§• 25.) of grammatical endings and suffixes exert no in- 
fluence over preceding consonants; but strong consonants, 
if surd (§. 25.), require a tenuis, and if sonant a medial, 
before them. Thus, n^t and ^eA allow only of ^Ar, not 
1^ khf It g, \ gh preceding them ; only i^ U not ^ ih, 
\d9 \dh; while on the other hand, ^ dh allows only 7\^g, 
not ^ A, ?^ kh, ^ gh ; only 15^ d, not 1^ t, "^^th, if^cUi; only 
V 6, not ^ j9, 't^phj )T 6& to precede it The [G. £d. p. 05.] 
roots and ^e nominal bases have to regulate their final let- 
ters by this law ; and the occasion frequently presents itself, 
since, in comparison with the cognate languages, a far greater 
proportion of the roots connect the personal terminations 
immediately with the root ; and also among the case termi- 
nations there are many which begin with consonants (v<iT^ 
bhydm, f^ bhis, viTR bhyas, TT su). To cite instances, the 
root "m^ ad, *'Xo eat,'' forms ^ifn admu " I eat " ; but not 
iRftr aditi (for s is surd), nor nn^ ad-tU W^ ad-thot but 
^■fiKT at'si, mfn ai-th wm at-tha : on the other hand, in the 
imperative, Mf^i adrdhu ** eat'' The base i|5 pad, " foot," 
forms, in the locative plural, ^f^ pat-su, not Vl^pad-su; on 
the other hand, n^ mahat, " great" forms, in the instru- 
mental plural, il^fk^ mahadrbhis not inprfW^ mahat-bhis. 

99. The Greek and Latin, as they have come down to us, 
have either altogether evaded this conflict' of consonants, 
or exhibit, in most cases, with regard to the first of any 
two contiguous consonants, a disposition to surrender it or 


at least an indifierence to its assistance towards the signi- 
fication of the word, since they either abandon it altogether, 
or violently alter it, t.e. convey it beyond the limits of its 
proper organ. These two languages aSbrd fewer occasions 
for harsh unions of consonants than the Sanskrit, princi- 
pally because, with the exception of '£2 and 'lA in Greek, 
and JSiS, FER, VEU ED, in Latin, as Ict-t/, eo'-/Ltei/, ecr-re. 
iS-fxev, f<r-Te, est, esth, fer-tyfer-tU, vtiZ-/, vul-tu^ no root, termi- 
nated by a consonant, joins on its personal terminations, or 
any of them, without the aid of a connecting voweL The 
Greek perf. pass, makes an exception, and requires euphonic 
alterations, which, in part, come within the natural limits 
recognised by the Sanskrit, and, in part, overstep them. 
[G. Ed. p. 06.] The gutturals and labials remain on the 
ancient footing, and before a and r observe the Sanskrit law 
of sound cited in §. 98.; according to which ic-(r(D, ic-t, ir-o", 
w-T, are applied to roots ending in ic, 7, %, or ir, )9, ^, because 
the surd a- or r suffers neither medials nor aspirates before 
it ; heiice TeTpiTr-aai, Ter/onr-rai, from TPIB, TeTi;ic-<ra/, rervic- 
rai, from TYX. The Greek, however, diverges from the 
Sanskrit in this, that /z does not leave the consonant which 
precedes it unaltered, but assimilates labials to itself, and con- 
verts the guttural, tenuis and aspirate into medials. For 
T€TVfJL-fJLai, rirpt fir fiat f ireTtKey-fxat, Tervy-fiou, we should, on 
Sanskrit principles, write (§.'98.)TeTi;7r-/Ltai, rerpi^fioLt, irewXeK- 
fiai, rervx'fiou. The t sounds carry concession too far, and 
abandon the Sanskrit, or original principle, as regards the 
gutturals ; inasmuch as S, 0, and ^ (So-), instead of passing into 
T before a and r, are extinguished before a-, and before r and 
fi become <r (ir€ire«r-Tai, irenet-a-ai, ireneia-fiah instead of 
werreiT-Ta/, TreireiT-cra/, ireneiO-fiat, or irenetS-fMai. The Greek 
declension affords occasion for the alteration of consonants 
only through the r of the nominative and the dative plural 
termination in a-t ; and here the same principle holds good as 
in the case of the verb, and in the formation of words : kh and 
y become, as in Sanskrit, k (^=K-f), and 6 and ph become p. 


The t sounds, on the other hand, contrary to the Sanskrit, and 
in accordance with the enfeebled condition, in this respect, 
of the Greek, vanish entirely. We find 7rot5-y for wor-y, 
iroiMTi for iroT-o-/, which latter naturally and originally must 
have stood for iro J-<r, woJ-<ri. 

100. In Latin the principal occasion for the alteration of 
consonants presents itself before the s of the perfect and 
the t of the supine, or other verbal substantive or adjective 
(participles) beginning with t; and it is in [G. Ed. p. 97.] 
accordance with the Sanskrit law cited §. 98., and the original 
condition of the language, that the sonant guttural passes, 
before s and i, into c, the sonant labial into p, as in rec-si 
{text), rectum from reg, scripsf^ scriptum from scrib. It is also 
in accordance with the Sanskrit that h, as a sonant (§. 25.) 
and incompatible with a tenuis, becomes c before s and t ; 
compare vec-sU (vexit), with the word of like signification 
wrn^fhi^ cb-vdJc-qhit If of the two final consonants of a 
root the last vanishes before the s of the perfect tense 
{mulsi from mule and mulg, sparsi from sparg), this accords 
with the Sanskrit law of sounds, by which, of two termi- 
nating coBSonants of a 'nominal base, the last vanishes 
before consonants of the case terminations. D ought to 
become t before s; and then the form, so theoretically 
created, claut-sit from claud, would accord with the Sanskrit 
forms, such as VhIk/Ia a-tdut-sttt " he tormented,'' from ir; 
tud. Instead, however, of this, the d allows itself to be 
extinguished; so, however, that, in compensation, a short 
vowel of the root is made long, as di-vi-si; or, which is 
less frequent, the d assimilates itself to the following s, as 
cessi from ced. With roots in /, which are rarer, assimi- 
lation usually takes place, as con-^us-si from cut ; on the 
other band, mi-si, not mis-^i, for mit-si, from mit or mitt. 
JS, m, and r also afibrd instances of assimilation in jus-sif 
preg-si, ges-si, us-sL* A third resource, for the avoidance 

• Compared with the Sanskrit, in which ^H ush signifies ** bum"; 
the sibilant mast here pass for the original form. 


of an unioDy very natural, but not endurable in this weak- 
ened state of the language, ts, is the suppression of the 
latter of these two letters, which is also compensated by 
the lengthening of a short radical vowel ; thus,* sedi from 
[O. £d. p. 96.] aed, vidi from vid. I believct at least, that 
these forms are not derivable from gedui, vidui, and I class 
them with forms likefodi from Jod, legi^ for lec9h from %, 
fugU for fuc'si, from fug. To these probably also belong cdvi, 
Javif fovif for pavU vdvf, from cot;, &c A cavuU &c. is hardly 
conceivable ; cavi could never have had such an origin. I 
conjecture forms such as cau-sijfau'tif after the analogy of 
cautumt fautum ; or moon {moxt)^ after the analogy ofvic-si, 
con-nic'sL (§. 19.) Possibly a moc-st form might derive pro- 
bability from the adverb mox, since the latter is probably 
derived from mov, as cUo is from another root of motion. 
The c of fluo-rif struc-si, {fluxiy &c.)^iixuf7i, structum^ must, 
in the same manner, be considered as a hardening of v; 
and aflu'Vo, siru-vOf be presupposed, with regard to which 
it is to be remembered, that, in Sanskrit also, uv often de- 
velopes itself out of vu before vowels (Gram. Crit r. 5a*); 
on which principle, out of flu, siru, before vowels, we might 
obtain fluv, struvj and thence before consonants flue, 9truc. 
Thus, also, frudus out of fruv-or for fru-orm In cases of t 
preceded by consonants, the suppression of « is the rule, 
and ar^si for ard-i an exception. Prandi, frendh pandi, 
verity &c., are in contrast to arsi and other forms, like 
mulsi above mentioned, in their preserving the radical letter 
in preference to the auxiliary verb; and they accord in 
this with the Sanskrit rule of sound, by which the « of 
nidwH^ at&ui'sam, W^Wi^ ojrf /laip-sam, &c., for the avoidance 
of hardness, is suppressed before strong consonants, and 
we find, for instance, witfi atdut-ta, instead of miftm atAui- 
sta. The perfects sctdi^ fidU are rendered doubtful by 
tlieir short vowel, and in their origin probably belong 
to the reduplicated preterites, their first syllable having 

* Cf. §. 547., and for the whole }. c£ §§.547. 576. 570. 


perished in the lapse of time : in other [G. £d. p. 99.] 
respects, ^d/, ictdU correspond to iuiudUpupugh not to speak 
of tefigU the i of which latter is not original. 

101. The suffixes employed in the formation of words 
and beginning with t, for the representation of which the 
snpine may stand, deserve special consideration, in regard 
to the relations of sound generated by the conflict between 
i and the preceding consonant. According to the original 
law observed in the Sanskrit, a radical t ought to remain 
unaltered before ^iim, and d should pass into t ; as, ih|i^ 
bhUiumf ** to cleave,"" from fii^ hhid* According to the dege- 
nerated practice of the Greek, a radical d or t before t 
would become s. Of this second gradation we find a rem- 
nant in come^us^ comeS'turOf analogous to es-t, es-tisf &c. 
from edo: we find, however, no cameHunh comes'tor, but 
in their place comesunif comesor. We might question whe- 
ther, in comesum, the 8 belonged to the root or to the suf- 
fix ; whether the d of ed, or the t of tumt had been changed 
into 9. The form com-es-tua might argue the radicality of 
the 9; but it is hard to suppose that the language should 
have jumped at once from estua to esus, between which two 
an e89u$ probably intervened^ analogous to cessum, fissum, 
quas9um, &c., while the t of tum^ tus, &c., assimilated itself 
to the preceding «• Out of essum has arisen eaunh by the 
suppression of an s, probably the first; for where of a pair 
of consonants the one is removed, it is generally the first, 
(eifu from ea-filt iro-cri from jroi-ai,) possibly because, as in 
§. 100., an auxiliary verb is abandoned in preference to a 
letter of the main verb. After that the language had, through 
such forms as e-sunif cdsum, dimsum, ^s-sunif quas-sum, 
habituated itself to an « in sufiixes properly beginning with a 
f, 8 might easily insinuate itself into forms where it did not 
owe its origin to assimilation. Cs (x) is a [G. £d. p. lOO.] 
favourite combination ; hence, Jtc-sum, nec-sum, &c. for Jic- 
tum, nec'ium. The liquids, m excepted, evince special ineli- 


nation for a succeeding s, most of all the r ; hence, ter'Sum, 
mer-8um, cur-sum, par-sum, ver-sum, in contrast to par-iumf 
tor-turn : there are also cases in i^hich r, by a conversion 
into Sf accommodates itself to /, as in ges-tum, U84um, 
tos'tum* This answers to the Sanskrit obligatory conver- 
sion of a concluding r into s before an initial t ; as, HTTire 
mm mt[^ bhrdtas t&raya mdm^ " brother save me,'' instead of 
mfR, bhrdtar: on the other hand, in the middle of words r 
remains unaltered before t ; hence, for instance, )|^ bhar- 
ium, not )T^ bhastum, "to bear/' L exhibits in the Latin 
the forms fal'Sum, pulsum, vulsums in contrast to cul-tum ; 
n exhibits ten-turn, can-turn, opposed to man-sum. The other 
forms in n-sum, except cen-sum, have been mulcted of a 
radical d, as ton-sum, pen-sum. 

102. In the Germanic languages, t alone gives occasion 
for an euphonic conversion of a preceding radical consonant; 
for instance, in the 2d pers. sing, of the strong preterite, 
where, however, the t in the Old High German is retained 
only in a few verbs, which associate a present signi- 
fication with the form of the preterite. In the weak pre- 
terites, also, which spring from these verbs, the auxiliary t, 
. where it remains unaltered, generates the same euphonic 
relations. We find in these forms the Germanic on the same 
footing as the Greek, in this respect, that it converts radical 
t sounds (/, thf d^ and in Old and Middle High Gennan z 
also) before a superadded t into s. Hence^ for instance, in 
[G. Ed. p. 101.] Gothic matmais-t (abscidisti), for maknatt-tt 
fai'fah-t (plicavisti), for fai-falth-t, ana-baus-t (impemsti), for 
ana-baud-t. In Old and Middle High German weis4f " thou 
knowest," for weiz-t The Gothic, in forming out of the 
root vit^ in the weak preterite, vis-sa (" I knew '*), instead of 

* Tke obvious relationship of torreo with T€pa-ofjuu, and n trUh from 
Jfi tarsh^ argues the derivation of the latter r from «. Upon thai of uro 
from TW ««/', see J. 07. 


vistoj from vittoj resembles, in respect of assimilatioD, the 
Latin forms mentioned in §. 101., such as quas-sum for quas- 
iumt frt>m quat'tum. The Old High German, however, which 
also adopts wis^sa, but from muoz makes not muos-saf but 
fnuo-^Of corresponds, in the latter case, to such Latin forms, 
as canstim, clau-sum. The case is different in Old High Ger- 
man with those verbs of the first weak conjugation, which, 
having their syllables made long generally through two 
terminating consonants in the preterite, apply the t of the 
auxiliary verb directly to the root. Here the transition of t 
into s does not occur, but f, z, and even d, remain unaltered ; 
and only when another consonant precedes them t and d are 
extinguished, x on the contrary remains ; for instance, leit-iay 
•'Duxi," ki-neizAaj "afflixi," ar-dd-ta, ''vastavi," walz^ta, 
"voLvr," liuhrta^ •'luxi,^ for Huht-iu; huUtOt "placavi," for 
huld-ta. Of double consonants one only is retained, and of cA 
or cch only h ; other consonantal combinations remain, how- 
ever, undisturbed, as ran-toj " cucurri," for rann-ta; wanh'ta, 
" VACiLLAVi," for wanch-ta ; dah-ta, " texi," for dacch-ta. The 
Middle High German follows essentially the same principles, 
only a simple radical t gives way before the auxiliary verb, 
and thus lei^te is opposed to the Old High German leU-ta; on 
the other hand, in roots in Id and rd the d may be maintained. 
and the t of the auxiliary be surrendered — as dulde, " toleravi" 
— unless we admit a division of dul-de^ and consider the d as 
a softened U The change of g intg c (§. 9S.) is natural, but 
not universal ; for instance, anc-te, " arctavi,'' for ang-te ; but 
against this law 6 remains unaltered. [G. Ed. p. 102.] 
Before the formative suffixes beginning with <*, both in Gothic 
and High German, guttural and labial tenues and medialsare 
changed into their aspirates, although the tenuis accord with 
a following U Thus, for instance, in Grothic, vah-tvd, 

• With the exception of the High German passive part, of the weaker 
form, which, in the adjunction of its t to the root, follows the analogy of 
the pret. above described. 


"watch,''' from vak; sauh't{i)sf "sickness,"' from suk; 
fnah't(t)s9 "might,'^ from nuig; ga'Ska/4(i)s, "creation," 
fipom skap ; fragif'tl(J)8t *' betrothment/" from gib, softened 
fipom gab; Old High Grerman suht, maht, ki'skaft, " creature,"* 
kift, " giff The dentals replace the aspirate th by the 
sibilant ($), as is the case in Grothic before the pers. char 
racter t of the preterite, as th cannot be combined with L 
The formation of words, however, affords few examples of 
this kind : under this head comes our mast, related to the 
Gothic mats, "food," and matyan, "to eaf In Gothic, the 
s of bUstreis, " worshipper,'* springs from the t of bUtan, 
"to worship": bdst, "leaven," comes probably from beit 
(beitan, "to bite," Grimm, ii. p. 208). The Zend accords, 
in this respect, with the Germanic*, but still more with 
the Greek, in that it converts its t sounds into J9 s, not 
only before ^ t, but also before ( m ; for instance, as^jjj^j 
irista, "dead," from the root (wi irith; as^jsasi basta, 
'* bound,'* from ^^^ bandh, with the nasal excluded ; as 
in Modem Persian ajLj bastah, from JoJ band; xs^^kom 
aisma, " wood," from ^ icUima. 

103. It is a violation of one of the most natural laws of 
sound, that, in Gothic, the medial g does not universally 
pass into it or A ( = ch), before the personal character t of 

[6. £d. p. 103.] the pret., but generally is retained ; and 
we find, for instance, dg-t, " thou fearest,** mag-t, " thou 
canst-j"**; and yet, befoje other inflections formed with £, 
the g undergoes an euphonic transition into h, as for in- 
stance, 6h'ia, "I feared," mah-ts, "might." 

104. When in Sanskrit, according to §. 98., the aspiration 
of a medial undergoes a necessary suppression, it &lls back, 
under certain conditions and according to special laws, 
upon the initial consonant of the root, yet only upon a 
medial, or throws itself onward on the initial consonant of 

* Of. the Sclavonic and Lithuanian, ^. 457. 

t No other roots in g in this person are to bo found in Ulfilas. 


the following suffix. We find, for instance, H^iorrfiv bhot- 
syAmU ** I shall know,^ for iftVEqrf^ bSdh-sydmi ; ^^^^ vida- 
bhut, " knowing the vedas," for ^ budh ; ^ bud-dha, 
"knowing,"' for ^budhta; ^fte^irfN dhdh-shydmif "I shall 
railf for ^^l:MirM ddh-sydmi; ^n^ dug-dha, "milked," for 
9?W duh'ta. In Greek we find a remarkable relic of the first 
jiart of the transposition of the aspirate^* in the necessary 
suppression of the aspirate in some roots which begin with 
t and end with an aspirate before cr^ t, and /x, letters which 
admit of no union with an aspirate, and in its being thrown 
back on the initial letter, by which process t becomes 6. 
Hence, Tp€(f>iat Opeir-crci), {Oph\na)t Opejrriqp, Opefi'/xa ; ratfiYj^ dan- 
Toi, eTa(l>ijv, redaii'^ou ; rpvifyo^^ BpvTt'Tia, €Tpv(f>i]v, dpufx-fia ; 
Tpe^w, dpe^ofiai ; Opi^t Tpiyi^t TO^yg, 6d(r<r(av. In the spirit 
of this transposition of the aspirate, ex obtains the spiritus as- 
per when x is obliged to merge in the tenuis, (e^roj, eif w, eif /y) t 

* See J. L. fiumouf in the Asiatic Journal, III. 868; and Buttmann, 
PJK 77, 78. 

t It 18 nsnoi to explain this appearance hy the sopposition of two aspi- 
rations in the root of these forms, of which one only is supposed to appear 
in deference to the euphonic law which forbids the admission of two con- 
secutire aspirated syllables. This one would be the last [G. Ed. p. 104.] 
of the twoy and the other would only shew itself when the latter had been 
forced to merge in the tenuis. Opposed, however, to this explanation is 
the &ct, that, on account of the inconvenience of accumulated aspirates, the 
language has guarded itself in the original formation of its roots against 
the evil, and has never admitted an aspirated consonant at once for the 
initial and final letter of a root. In Sanskrit, the collection of whose roots 
is complete, there is no such instance. The forms, however, €6d(})BijVy 
r€6a<f>3ai, T€dd<t>6o>, r€6d<f>aTat, rfBpd<t>B(Ut i6p€<l>Br)v,^ present a difficulty. 
These, perhaps, are eccentricities of usage, which, once habitoated to the 
initial a^iration by its frequent application to supply the place of the ter- 
minating one, began to assume its radiqdity, and extended it wider than 
was legitimate. We might also say, that since <t>6 (as x^) is so favourite 
a combination in Greek that it is even substituted for rr^ and /3^— while, ac- 
cording to §. 98., an original <fi6 ought to become irO^on this ground the 
tendency to aspiration of the root remained unsatisfied by irax^Briv &c. ; 
and as if the ^ only existed out of reference to the 6^ the original ter- 
minating aspirate necessarily fell back on the radical initial. Tliis theory, 
which seems to me sound, would only leave r(9d<t>aTai to be explained. 

( 96 ) 


[G. Ed. p. 105.] 105. There are in Sanskrit^ and the lan- 
guages which are akin to it, two classes of roots : from the 
one, which is by far tlie more numerous, spring verbs, and 
nouns (substantives and adjectives) which stand in fraternal 
connection with the verbs, not in the relation of descent from 
them, not begotten by them, but sprung from the same 
shoot with them. We term them, nevertheless, for the 
sake of distinction, and according to prevailing custom. 
Verbal Roots; and the verb, too, stands in close formal 
connection with them, because from many roots each per- 
son of the present is formed by simply adding the requi- 
site personal termination. From the second class spring 
pronouns, all original prepositions, conjunctions, and par- 
ticles : we name them Pronominal Roots, because they all 
express a pronominal idea, which, in the prepositions, con- 
junctions, and particles, lies more or less concealed. No 
simple pronouns can be carried back, either according to 
their meaning or their form, to any thing more general, but 
their declension-theme (or inflective base) is at the same 
time their root The Indian Grammarians, however, derive 
all words, the pronouns included, from verbal roots, although 
the majority of pronominal bases, even in a formal respect, 
are opposed to such a derivation, because they, for the most 
part, end with a : one, indeed, consists simply of a. Among 

[G. Ed. p. 106.] tlie verbal roots, however, there is not a 
single one in a, although long a, and all other vowels, ^ 
du excepted, occur among the final letters of the verbal 
roots. Accidental external identity takes place between the 
verbal and pronominal roots; ^.^. ^i signifies, as a verbal 
root, "to go,'' as a pronominal root, **he,''' "this*'" 

106. The verbal roots, like those of the pronouns, are 


monosyllabic; and the polysyllabic forms represented by 
the grammarians as roots contain either a reduplicate- 
syllable, as '^^jdgri, " to wake," or a preposition which has 
grown up with the root, as ^W^^h^ ava-dhir, ** to despise " ; 
or they have sprung from a noun, like "ynr kumdr, '* to 
play," which I derive from JHK kumdra, ** a boy/' Except 
the law of their being monosyllabic, the Sanskrit roots are 
subjected to no further limitation, and their one-syllableness 
may present itself under all possible forms, in the shortest 
and most extended, as well as those of a middle degree. 
This free state of irrestriction was necessary, as the language 
was to contain within the limits of one-syllableness the 
whole body of fundamental ideas. The simple vowels and 
consonants were not sufficient: it was requisite to frame 
roots also where several consonants, combined in inseparable 
unity, became, as it were, simple sounds; e.g. "^ifisthd, "to 
stand,'' a root in which the age of the co-existence of the s 
and th is supported by the unanimous testimony of all the 
members of our race of languages. So also, in tqii;^ 
skand, "to go," (Lat scand-o) the age of the combination of 
consonants, both in the beginning and ending of the root, is 
certified by the agreement of the Latin with the Sanskrit 
The proposition, that in the earliest period of language a 
simple vowel is sufficient to express a verbal idea, is sup- 
ported by the remarkable concurrence of [G. Ed. p. 107.] 
nearly all the individuals of the Sanskrit family of lan- 
guages in expressing the idea " to go " by the root L 

107, The nature and peculiarity of the Sanskrit verbal 
roots explains itself still more by comparison with those 
of the Semitic languages. These require, as far as we 
trace back their antiquity, three consonants, which, as I 
have already elsewhere shewn,* express the fundamental 

• Trans, of the Hist Phil. Class of the R. A. of Litt. of Berlin for the 
year 1824, p. 126, &c. 



idea by themselves alone, without the aid of vowels ; and 
although they may be momentarily compressed into one 
syllable, still, in this, the combination of the middle radical 
with the first or last cannot be recognised as original and 
belonging to the root, because it is only transitory, and 
chiefly depends on the mechanism of the construction of 
the word. Thus, in Hebrew, kdiiU, "slain," in the fem., 
on account of the addition dli contracts itself to ktAl {kW- 
-Ah) ; while kdtil, ** slaying/' before the same addition, com- 
presses itself in an opposite manner, and forms kdlldh. 
Neither kM, therefore, nor kdllj can be regarded as the root ; 
and just as little can it be looked for in ktdl, as the stcUvs con- 
strudus of the infinitive ; for tliis is only a shortening of the 
absolute form kdidl, produced by a natural tendency to pass 
hastily to the word governed by the infinitive, which, as it 
were, has grown to it. In the imperative ktdl the abbrevia- 
tion is not external, subject to mechanical conditions, but 
rather dynamic, and occasioned by the hurry with which a 
command is usually enunciated. In the Semitic languages, 
in decided opposition to those of the Sanskrit family^ the 
vowels belong, not to the root, but to the grammatical motion, 
thq secondary ideas, and the mechanism of the construction of 
[G. Ed. p. 108.] the word. By them, for example, is dis- 
tinguished, in Arabic, katala, " he slew/' from kutila, **he was 
slain''; and in Hebrew, kdW^ "slaying," from kdl&l^ "slain." 
A Semitic root is unpronounceable, because, in giving it 
vowels, an advance is made to a special grammatical form, and 
it then no longer possesses the simple peculiarity of a root 
raised above all grammar. But in the Sanskrit family of 
languages, if its oldest state is consulted in the languages which 
have continued most pure, the root appears as a circumscribed 
nucleus, which is almost unalterable, and which surrounds 
itself with foreign syllables, whose origin we must investi- 
gate, and whose destination is, to express the secondary 
ideas of grammar which the root itself cannot express. 


The vowel, with one or more consonants, and sometimes 
without any consonant whatever, belongs to the fundamental 
meaning: it can be lengthened to the highest degree, or 
raised by Guna or Vriddhi ; and this lengthening or raising, 
and, more lately, the retention of an original a, opposed to 
its weakening to t or change to u(§§. 66„ 67.), belongs not to 
the denoting of granmiatical relations, which require to be 
more clearly pointed out, but, as I imagine I can prove, only 
to the mechanism, the symmetry of construction. 

108. As the Semitic roots, on account of their construc- 
tion, possess the most surprising capacity for indicating 
the secondary ideas of grammar by the mere internal mould- 
ing of the root, of which they also make extensive use, while 
the Sanskrit roots, at the first grammatical movement, are 
compelled to assume external additions ; so must it appear 
strange, that F. von Schlegel,* while he [G. Ed. p. 109.] 
divides languages in general into two chief races, of which 
the one denotes the secondary intentions of meaning by an 
internal alteration of the sound of the root by inflexion, the 
other always by the addition of a word, which may by 
itself signify plurality, past time, what is to be in future, 
or other relative ideas of that kind, allots the Sanskrit 
and its sisters to the former race, and the Semitic lan- 
guages to the second. "There may, indeed," he writes, 
p. 48, ** arise an appearance of inflexion, when the annexed 
particles are melted down with the chief word so as to be 
no longer distinguishable ; but where in a language, as in 
the Arabic, and in all which are connected with it, the first 
and most important relations, as those of the person to 
verbs, are denoted by the addition of particles which have 
a meaning for themselves individually, and the tendency 
to which suflBxes shews itself deeply seated in the language, 
it may there be safely assumed that the same may have 

* In hit work on the langaage and wisdom of the Indians. 

II 2 


occurred in other positions, where the annexation of par- 
ticles of a foreign nature no longer admits of such clear 
discrimination: one may at least safely assume that the 
language, on the whole, belongs to this chief race, although 
in this single point, by admixture or artificial adornment, 
it has adopted another and a higher character/^ We must 
here preliminarily observe, that, in Sanskrit and the lan- 
guages connected with it, the personal terminations of the 
verbs shew at least as great a similarity to isolated pro- 
nouns as in Arabic. How should any language, which 
expresses the pronominal relations of the verbs by syllables 
annexed either at the beginning or end of the word, in the 
choice of these syllables avoid, and not rather select, those 
which, in their isolated state, also express the corresponding 
[G. £d. p. 110.] pronominal ideas? By inflexion, F. von 
Schlegel understands the internal alteration of the sound of 
the root, or (p. 35) the internal modification of the root, which 
he (p. 48) opposes to addition from without. But when from 
So or $0), in Greek, comes SlSa-fit, dcj-o-o), So-SiprofieOa, what 
are the forms /xt, au>, dr](r6fxeda, but palpable external addi« 
tions to the root, which is not at all internally altered, or 
only in the quantity of the vowel ? If, then, by inflexion, 
an internal modification of the root is to be understood, 
the Sanskrit and Greek &c. have in that case — except the 
reduplication, which is supplied by the elements of the root 
itself— scarce any inflexion at all to shew. If, however, 
OtjaofJLeda is an external modification of the root So, simply 
because it is combined with it, touches it, with it expresses 
a whole ; then the idea of sea and continent may be repre- 
sented as an internal modification of the sea, and vice versd. 
P. 50, F. von Schlegel remarks : " In the Indian or Grecian 
language every root is truly that which the name says, 
and like a living germ ; for since the ideas of relation are 
denoted by internal alteration, freer room is given for 
development, the fulness of which can be indefinitely 


extended, and is, in fact, often wondrously rich. All, how- 
ever, which in this manner proceeds from the simple root, 
still retains the stamp of its relationship, adheres to it, and 
thus reciprocally bears and supports itself." I find, how- 
ever, the inference not established ; for from the capability 
of expressing ideas of relation by internal alteration of the 
root, how can the capability be deduced of surrounding the 
(internally unalterable) root indefinitely, with foreign syllables 
externally added ? What kind of stamp of relationship is 
there between /x/, era), ft/o-o/xedo, and the [G. Ed. p. 111.] 
roots to which these significative additions are appended ? 
We therefore recoo^nise in the inflexions of the Sanskrit 
fEimily of languages no internal involutions of the root, but 
elements of themselves significative, and the tracing of the 
origin of which is the task of scientific grammar. But even 
if the origin of not a single one of these inflexions could be 
traced with certainty, still the principle of the formation 
of grammar, by external addition, would not, for that 
reason, be the less certain, because, at the first glance, in 
the majority of inflexions, one discovers at least so much, 
that they do not belong to the root, but have been added 
from without. A. W. von Schlegel, also, who, in essential 
points, assents to the above-mentioned division of lan- 
guages,* gives us to understand, with regard to the so-called 

* Nevertheless, in his work, ^'Observations sur la langue et la litter ature 
prwen^lesy^ p. 14, &g., he gives three classes, viz. Les langues sansaucune 
ttructure gramrnaticale, les langues qui emploient des affixes, et les langues 
d inflejnon*. Of the latter, he says : *' Je pense, cependant, qu'il faut 
aarigner le premier rang aux langaes & inflexions. On pourroit les appeler 
les langues oiganiqaes, parce qu olles renferment nn principe vivant do 
d^veloppement et d'accroissement, et qn'elles ont senles, si je pais m'ex- 
primer ainn, nne vegetation abondantc et feconde. Lc merveiUenx 
artifice de ces langues est, de former une immense vari^t^ de mots, ct de 
marqner la liaison des iddes que ces mots ddsignent, moyennant un assez 
petit nombre de syllabes qui, considerces s^par^ment, n'ont point de signi- 


inflexions, that they are not modifications of tlie root, but 
foreign additions, whose characteristic lies in this, that 
[G. Ed. p. 112.] regarded, per «e, they have no meaning. 
In the Semitic, the appended grammatical syllables or in^ 
flexions have no meaning, at least in so far that they do not, 
any more than in Sanskrit, occur isolated in a completely 
similar state. In Arabic, for instance, antunif and not turn, 
is said for " ye"; and in Sanskrit mot ta, and not fni, ti, are 
the declinable bases of the first and third person ; and at-Ti, 
" he eats," has the same relation to TA-m, " him," that in 
Gothic /r-o, " I eat," has to the monosyllabic ATj " I ate." 
The reason for weakening the a of the base to f is probably, 
in the different cases of the two sister languages, the same, 
viz. the greater extent of the form of word with i (comp. 
§. 6.) If, then, the division of languages made by F. von 
Schlegel is untenable, on the reasons on which it is 
founded, still there is much ingenuity in the thought of a 
natural history or classification of languages. We prefer, 
however, to present, with A. W. von Schlegel (1. c.), three 
classes, and distinguish them as follows: first, languages 
with monosyllabic roots, without the capability of composition, 
and hence without organism, without grammar. This class 
comprises Chinese, where all is hitherto bare root, and the 
grammatical categories, and secondary relations after the 

ficatioD, inais qui d^terminent avec precision le sens da mot aaqnel elles 
Bont jointes. En modifiant lea lettres radicales, et en ajootant aux radnes 
des Byllabes derivatives, on forme de mots deriv^ de diverses especea, at 
dea d^riv^ dea d^riv^. On compose dea niota de plosieaia racines pour 
expriroer lea id^ea complexea. Enauite on decline lea aabetantift, leg 
adjectifs, et lea pronoms, par genrea, par nombrea, et par caa ; on conjngae 
lea verbea par voix, par modea, par temps, par nombrea, et par personnea, 
en employant de meme des desinences et qnelqnefoia dea augmena qnl, a^- 
pardment, ne signifient rien. Cette mdthode procnre TayaDtage d'^nonoer 
en nn seul mot I'id^ principale, sonvent dlj& tr^-modifi^ et trd»-com- 
plexe, avec tout son cortege d'iddes accessoires et de relationa vaiiabka. 


main point, can only be discovered from the position of the 
roots in the sentence.* Secondly, languages with mono- 
syllabic roots, which are capable of combination, and obtain 
their organism and grammar nearly in this way alone. The 
chief principle of the formation of words, in this class, 
appears to me to lie in the combination of verbal and pro- 
nominal roots, which together represent, [G.Ed. p. 113.] 
as it were, body and soul (Comp. §. 100.). To this class belongs 
the Sanskrit family of languages, and moreover all other 
languages, so far as they are not comprehended under 1. and 
3., and have maintained themselves in a condition which 
renders it possible to trace back their forms of words to the 
simplest elements. Thirdly, languages with dissyllabic verbal 
roots, and three necessary consonants as single vehicles of 
the fundamental meaning. This class comprehends merely 
the Semitic languages, and produces its grammatical forms, 
not simply by combination, like the second class, but by a 
mere internal modification of the roots. We here gladly 
award to the Sanskrit family of languages a great superiority 
over the Semitic, which we do not, however, find in the use 
of inflexions as syllables per ae devoid of meaning, but in 
the copiousness of these grammatical additions, which are 
really significative, and connected with words used isolated ; 
in the judicious, ingenious selection and application of them, 
and the accurate and acute defining of various relations, which 
hereby becomes possible; finally, in the beautiful adjustment 
of these additions to a harmonious whole, which bears the 
appearance of an organized body. 

109*. The Indian Grammarians divide the roots accord- 
ing to properties, (which extend only to the tenses which 

* We find this view of the Chinese admirably elucidated in W. yon 
Hnmboldt's talented pamphlet, ^^Lettre d M. Abel Retnusat, sur la na- 
ture des formes grammaticales en ghieral^ et sur le ghik de la langue 


I call the s}>ecial tenses,* and to the part, pres.,) into ten 
classes, all of which we have re-discovered in the Zend also, 
and examples of which are given in the following paragraph. 
[G. £d. p. 114.] We shall here give the characteristics of 
the Sanskrit classes, and compare with them those which 
correspond in the European sister languages. 

(l.) The first and sixth class add ira to the root; and 
we reserve the discussion of the origin of this and other 
conjugational affixes for the disquisition on the verb. The 
point of diSerence between the first class of nearly 1000 
roots (almost the half of the entire number) and the sixth 
class, which contains about 130 roots, lies in this, that the 
former raise the vowel of the root by Guna (§. 26.)f while 
the latter retain it pure; eg. Wtvflr bddhati, "he knows,'' 
from "i^budh (l.); J?^ tudati, "he vexes'' (comp. tundU)t 
from ir? fuel (6.) As ^ a has noGuna,*]* no discrimination can 
take place through this vowel between the classes 1. and 6. : 
but nearly all the roots which belong to either, having m a 
as the radical vowel, are reckoned in the first class. In Greek, 
c (before nasals o, §. 3.) corresponds to the affix m a ; and 
Xenr-o-/x€v,t ^euy-o-fiev, from AID, ♦YF (eKnroVf e^tryov), 
belong to the first class, because they have Guna (§. 26.); 
while, e.g. Oty-o-fxev, flA/jS-o-zxev, &c., fall under the sixth 
class.ll In Latin we recognise, in the third conjugation, 

* In Greek, the present (indie, imper. and optat., the form of the Greek 
SQbjunct. is wanting in Sanskrit) and imperfect correspond to them ; be- 
yond which certain conjagation-signs do not extend. In German, the 
present of every mood corresponds. 

t The accent here distinguishes the 1st cl. from the 6th. e.g. for pdtati 
did it belong to the 6th. cl., we shonld haYepatdti, 

t We give the plural, because the singular, on account of abbi«viation, 
makes the thing less perspicuous. 

II Sanskrit long vowels admit Guna only when they occur at the end of 
the root, but in the beginning and middle remain without admixture of 
the ir a ; so do short vowels before double consonants. 


which I would raise to the first, the cognate of the Sanskrit 
first and sixth class, since we regard the addition i as a 
weakening of the old a (§. 8.) ; and e.g. legimus has the same 
relation to Key-o-fxev, that tlie genitive ped-is has to noi-os 
where the Sanskrit has likewise a (i^ [G.Ed. p. 115.] 
pad-as). In leg-u-nt, from leg-a-nti, the old a, through the 
influence of the liquid, has become u (Comp. §. 66,). In 
German, all the primitive (strong) verbs, with the exception 
of some remains of the fourth class (No. 2.), stand in clear 
connection with the Sanskrit first class, which is here, for the 
first time, laid down in its full extent.* The m a which 
is added to the root has, in Gothict, before some personal 
terminations, remained unchanged ; before others, according 
to §. 67., and as in Latin, been weakened to i; so, hait-a, "I 
am called," hait-i-s, hait-i-thf 2d pers. du. hait-a-ts ; pi. hait' 
a-m, haii'i'th, hait-a-nd. The radical vowels i and u keep the 
Guna addition, as in Sanskrit, only that the a which gives 
the Guna is here weakened to i (§. 27.), which, with a radical 
t, is aggregated into a long i (written ei, §. 70.) : hence keina 
{ = ktnaj from kiina), "I germinate," from KIN; biugat 
" I bend," from BUG, Sanskrit ^i|(^ bhuj, whence Wtf bhugnOf 
" bent'^ The diphthongs at, au, as in Sanskrit ^ and ir^ 
(§. 2.), are incapable of any Guna ; as are ^ ( = ^, §. 69.) and 
a. The Sanskrit radical vowel m a has, however, in Gothic, 
experienced a threefold destiny. It has either remained 
unaltered in the special tenses, and is lengthened in the 
preterite, except in reduplicate roots (Le. to d, see §. 69. 

* I have already, in my Review of Grimm's Grammar, expressed the 
eoDJectuie that the a of forms like Iiaiia, fuxitam, haitaima, &c. does not 
belong to the personal termination, but is identical with the ^ a of the 
Sanskrit 1st and 6th classes ; but I was not then clear regarding the Guna 
in the present in all roots with vowels capable of Guna. (See Ann. Hcg. 
for Crit. of LiU., Book II. pp. 282 and 250.) 

t We make frequent mention of the Gothic alono as the true starting- 
point and light of German Grammar. The application to the High Ger-. 
man will hereafter present itself. 


thus, e.g, farA-th, " he wanders," answers to ^Itfif charaii 
[G. Ed. p. 116.] (§. 14.), and f&r, " he wandered," to 'q^lTt 
chachdra ; or, secondly, the old a shews itself in the special 
tenses weakened to i, but retained in the monosyllabic singu- 
lar of the preterite : so that here the stronger a (§. 8.) corre- 
sponds to the weaker i in the same way that, in the first case, 
the 6( = ^nd) does to the short a. The root ^«^ ad, " to 
eat," in Gothic, according to §-87., forms AT; hence, in the 
present, Ua ; in the sing, pret., at, 08-4, at. The third fate 
which befalls the a of the root in Gothic is a complete 
extirpation, and compensation by the weaker ?, which is 
treated like an original i, existing in the Sanskrit ; i.e. in the 
special tenses it receives Guna by t, and in the pret. sing, by 
a (§. 27.), but in the pret. pi. it is preserved pure. To this 
class belongs the KIN, " to germinate," mentioned above, 
pres. keina, pret. sing, kain, pi. kin-um. The corresponding 
Sanskrit root is '^(^jani " to produce," " to be bom" (see 
§. 87.) : the same relation, too, has greipa, graip, gripum, 
from ORIPt *' to seize," to ipa grabh (Veda form) : on the 
other hand, BIT, "to bite,"* {beita, baU, bUum), has an 
original i, which exists in Sanskrit (com p. fii^ bhid, " to 
cleave ") ; just so, FIT, " to know," Sanskrit fsm vid. 

(2.) The fourth class of Sanskrit roots adds to them the 
syllable it ya, and herein agrees with the special tenses of 
the passive ; and from the roots which belong to it spring 

chiefly neuter verbs, as e.g. ^fljuftr nakyaiu " he perishes,'' 
Their number amounts altogether to about 1 30. The German 
has preserved one unmistakeable remnant of this class, in 
those strong verbs which again lay aside, in the preterite, the 
syllable ya (weakened to yi), which is added to the root in the 
[G. Ed. p. 117.] special tenses ; e.g. raA^-ya (Zend f^^y^y 
ucs-yann^ "crescebantr Vendidad S. p. 257), ^^cresco,'' vahi- 
yi'th, ** crescitf^ pret. vdhs. 

* Occurs only with the prep, and, and with the meaniog *' to jbcoM, 
bat corresponds to the Old High German root BIZ, ^^ to bite." 


(3.) The second, third, and seventh classes add the personal 
termination direct to the root; but in the cognate European 
languages, to facilitate the conjugation, these classes have 
mainly passed over to the first class ; e, g. edri'fnust not ed-mus 
(as a remnant of the old construction es-t^ es-iis), Gothic 
U-orm^ Old High German iz-a-mii not h-mh, answering 
to the Sanskrit ivfn^ ad-mas. The second class, to which 
W^ ad belongs, leaves the root without any characteristic 
addition, with Guna of the vowels capable of Guna before 
light terminations, which must be hereafter explained ; hence, 

e-g. ^fil foit, corresponding to ^ins(^ imast from \i "to go," 
as in Greek 6?/xi to i/xev. It contains not more than about 
seventy roots, partly terminating in consonants, partly in 
vowels. In this and the third-class, the Greek exhibits roots, 
almost entirely ending in vowels, as the above mentioned 
X 4»A, FNQ (YvS-fli), AQ, 2TA, 0H, ♦Y (e^vv), AY, &c. 
To the consonants the direct combination with the conso- 
nants of the termination has become too heavy, and '£2 alone 
(because of the facility of (t/x, <tt) has remained in the San- 
skrit second class, as the corresponding root in Latin, Lithua- 
nian, and German. Hence, ^f^ aslU ecrrl, Lithuan. esti, est, 
Gothic and High German isL In the Latin there fall also 
to the second class, /, DA, ST A, FLA, FA, and NA; and also 
in-quam, whence QUA weakened to QUI, is the root, which, 
in Gotliic, appears as QUAT, weakened to QUIT, with the 
accretion of a T. FEK and VEL ( VUL ) have preserved 
some persons of the ancient construction.* [G. £d. p. 118.] 
The third class is distinguished from the second by a syllable 
of reduplication in the special tenses, and has maintained 
itself under this form in Greek also, and Lithuanian. In 

* Five roots of the second class introduce in Sanskrit, between the con- 
sonants of the root and the personal termination, an ^ t, as ^^f^f^T rod-i- 
miy " I weep," from ^^ md, I can, however, no longer believe that the 
i of the Latin tluid conjng. is connected with this ^ «, as there is scarce 
any doubt of its lelatioDBhip with the IT a of the very copious first class. 


Sanskrit it comprehends about twenty roots ; e.g. ^ ifa 
ddddmu SlSoyfJLt, Lithuanian dudu; ^vrfiT dadhdmi, rtSrjfu 
(§. 16.) ; inffmjajanmU " I beget,'' comp. yt-yv^'fiou. The 
seventh class, of about twenty-four roots, introduces, in the 
special tenses, a nasal into the root^ which is extended before the 
light personal terminations to the syllable na; e.g. f^Ttrfri 
Wmadmi, "I cleave,'' f^i(w^n(^ bhindmas, "we cleave," The 
Latin has kept the weaker form of this nasalization, but has 
further added to the root the afiix of the first class (p. 114 G. 
Ed.) ; hence findoyfind-i-mns. From the Greek come to be here 
considered roots, like MA0, AAB, 0ir, in which the inserted 
nasal has been repeated further on in the word, with the pre- 
fixed a, and, like the Latin ^nc^-i-mu^, is connected with the 
affix of the first class; thus, fxavd-dv-o-fievf Kafifi^v-o-fiev, 

(4.) The fifth class, of about thirty roots, has nil ; and the 
eighth, with ten roots, which, excepting v krit " to make," 
all terminate in ti n or iff n, has u for its characteristic addi- 
tion: the u, however, of these two classes is lengthened 
before the light terminations by Guna, which] in the corre- 
sponding Greek appended syllables, w and v, is supplied by 
lengthening the u; thus, e.g. ieiKvvyu, SetKvvfiev, as in Sanskrit 
^inWif dp-nrf-mi, ** ad-tp-is-cor,^^ ^Xim\ dp-nu-mast '^adipisd- 
mur^ An example of the eighth class is n^ tan, " to extend," 
whence inftftl tan-d-mi^^Tav-v-fxt, ir*nT^ tan-u-mcw^raiMJ-ftef. 
With the 7 u, v, of the eighth class, is probably connected 

[G. Ed. p. 119.] the v in some Gothic strong verbs, where, 
however, it adheres so firmly to the root, that, in a Grerman 
point of view, it must be regarded as a radical. Hence it is 
not dropped in the preterite, and receives, in the special 
tenses, like all strong verbs, the affix of the Sanskrit first 
class ; e, g. saihva,* '* I see," sahv, " I saw," 

(5.) The ninth class adds ifT nd to the root, which syl- 
lable, before heavy terminations, instead of being shortened 

* I now consider the v oisaUiva and similar verbs as purely eaphonic, 
cf. ^. 80. and Latin forms like cognOy Urujuo^ stinguo. 


toif na. replaces the heavy %n d hy the lighter ^ i (§. 6.), 
and is thus weakened to ifi ni. E.g, from 5^ mrid, "to 
crush/" (comp. mordeo) comes ^^\tt\ mridnAmi, f ^Tfhn^ mrid- 
nimas. In this is easily perceived the relationship with 
Greek formations in vriyn {vufit) vdfxev; e.g. Saixvrjjxiy iafiva- 
fxev. As a» e, and o, are originally one, formations like rifji-vo- 
fxev belong to this class, only that they have wandered into the 
more modem co-conjugation at a remote period of antiquity ; 
for more lately veoa would not have become vGi from vtjfju, 

(6.) The tenth class adds wiT aya to the root, but is dis- 
tinguished from the other classes in tliis farther important 
point, that this affix is not limited to tlie special tenses: 
the final a of ^R aya is peculiar to them, but ^ra ay 
extends, with very few exceptions, to all the other forma- 
tions of the root All causals, and many denominatives, 
follow this class, and, indeed, from every root a causal can 
be formed by the addition ^sr^ ay, which is always accom- 
panied by Guna of the middle vowel of the root capable of 
Guna, or by Vriddhi of every radical final vowel and of a 
middle a belonging to the root; e.g. ^'^^fH vid-aya'ti "he 
makes to know,'' from f^ vid; ^m^^fJf srdv-aya-ti, "he makes 
to hear," from ig inu We recognise, in German, the affix 
Vif aya at least in two shapes : in the one [G. Ed. p. 120.] 
the first a, in the other the last, is lost, and in the latter case 
y has become t ; so that I have no longer any scruple in 
tracing back Grimm's first and third conjugation of the weak 
form to a common origin. According to all probability, how- 
ever, the verbs with the affix 6 also (as Old High German 
mandn^ " to mention," " to make to think,'') belong to this 
class, regarding which we will speak further under the verb. 
The Old High German gives i as the contraction of a + i, 
(see §. 78.), but retains its S more firmly than the Gothic its 
Q{, which, in several persons, sinks into a simple a. Compare 
Gothic haba, habatn, haband, with Old High German hap^m, 
hapimes, hap6nL Very remarkable, however, is the concur- 
rence of the Prakrit with the Old High German and the Latin 


of the 2d conj. in this point, that it in like manner has 
contracted the affix ^R a^a to i^S. Compare Sanskrit HlffH i rH 
mdnaydmi, " I honour," Prakrit m^fH mAnimi* Old High 
German, var-man^m, " I despise,''' Latin moneo : 
[G. Ed. p. 121.] ^ OLD 


irnnnfH mdnaydml ^l^xf^ mdnimi var-manim moneo 
iVMUP^ mdnayasi J([fislf^ vidiiisi manh tnonSs 

m^Pffif mdnayati ^T^lf^mdnSdi matiH monet 

m^PHH^^ mdnaydmas 11T^^ mdnimha manimes monimm 

TtPTi^'i^ mdnaycdhja tvi^mdnidha manSl monilis 

iflH^Pn! mdnat/anti ivnufnf mdn^/i/i maniiit monent 

In regard to those weak verbs, which have suppressed the 
first vowel of the Sanskrit ^nv ayrh and give therefore ya as 
affix, we will here further recall attention to the forms iga 
(ige), which occasionally occur in Old High German and 

Anglo Saxon, whose connection with ^R ay a is to be traced 
thus, that the semi-vowel y has become hardened to </, 
(comp. §. 19.), and the preceding a weakened to L In Greek, 
the cognate verbs to the Sanskrit of the tenth class are to 

* I am not at present able to adduce this verb from the edited texts : it 
is, however, certain, that mdnaydmi in ihia dialect can have no other sound 
but mdnSmi. The conjugation is supported by other examples of this 
class, as ckintSmi, ^^I think*' (from chintaydmi), nividemi (from nivS^ 
daydmi). In the plural the termination mha is nothing else than the ap« 
pended verb substantive (Sansk. snuiSf "we are"). In tlic third peis. pi., 
together with mdnenti the forms mdnaanti and mdnanti are also admis- 
sible. The Indian Grammarians assume for the Sanscrit a root mdn^ *^ to 
honour": more probably, however, the verb, for which this root is sup- 
plied, is only a denominative from mdna^ '^honour*' ; and this substantive 
itself a derivation from man^ ** to think," whence ava-man, " to despise," 
as in Old High German var-MAN (by Otfrid, fir-MON). The root, 
therefore, which is contained in varmanSm is identical with the Gothic 
MAN (man, " I mean," " I think," pi. munum see §, 66.). To this class 
belongs, also, the Latm manere, as, '^ to make to think" (Old High German 
tnan6n), the radical o for a of which we explain by the principle of §. 66. 
(see, also, §, 3.) ; while the i of memin-i is a weakening of the original cr, 
explained by $. 6. 


be looked for in those in ata, eo), oo) ; in Latin, besides the 
2d conjugation compared above, most verbs of the 1st and 4th 
also belong to this affinity. We shall recur to them when 
speaking of the verb. 

109^. In order to adduce single examples of the mul- 
tiform construction of the roots, let us examine the order 
of the final letters ; but we will select only such examples 
as are common to the Sanskrit and several sister Ian- 
guages. The greatest forbearance, however, is requisite, 
as an authenticated comparison of all that admits of com- 
parison would easily swell to a book, which shall hereafter 
be devoted to this subject.* 
(1.) Roots ending with a vowel : — [G. Ed. p. 122.] 

"There are, as has been already remarked (§. 105.), no 
roots in ^ a; but roots in^A are numerous. Thus iif gd,^ 
"to go,'' contained in the Latin navi-ga-re; also, perhaps, 
in fati-gare, the first member of which belongs to f at iscor, 
fetgus ; in Greek, l^t/irjfu answers to ^^TlfRjagdmi, and rests 
on the frequent interchange of gutturals and labials ; Gothic 
ga-tlivd, " a street,'' (see p. 102. G. Ed.) ; Zend >^ms^ gd-tu^ 
"a place,*' (nom. >JV3>^jai^ gdtus) Old High German gd-m, 
'* I go,*' = linnftr ja-gd-mi ; not therefore, as Grimm con- 
jectures (p. 868), by syncope from gangu, but, with a more 
ancient and regular foundation, only with a suppression of 
the Sanskrit syllable of reduplication, introduced, therefore, 
from the third into the second class (see p. 117. G. Ed.), as in 
Latin* dortnus answering to SlSo-jJiev. Thus, also, std-m^ 
$ldrs, std't, in like manner, with suppressed reduplication, 
corresponds to T-imj-fii (for (riarfjixi), and to the Sanskrit 
root igin athd, which is irregularly inflected, firoiftf tishthdmi, 
fnfler tishthasit fwsflX tishthatU for tasihdmu tasthdsU tasihdtU 

* Somewhat that pertains to this subject I have already put togetlier 
very concisely at the end of my Sanscrit Glossary. 

t The attached cyphers denote the classes described in §. 109». 


which will be more closely considered hereafter. The 
Latin, in root and inflexion, most resembles the Old High 

German : the S^end, however, in its .»9AU(en)-)^ hhtdmi* (for 
siitdmif see §. 53.), appears in a genuine Greek dress. Ob- 
serve, also, the guj^eOAJAjOAs? ratha^sidot " warrior," which 
occurs so often in the Zend-Avesta, properly "chariot 
stander," with o for « as the sign of the nominative. 
How, then, in Old High German, comes from STA the 
extended form of the root STANT, whence the pre- 
sent stantu, ** I stand,*" and preterite stuonf, " I or he 
stood"; for which the Gothic has sianda^ stdih? We 
will here only preliminarily remark, that we have ob- 
served in Zend also, in some roots terminating in 4, an 
inclination to connect themselves with a f-sound. Thus 
we find, from Auyj) snd, "to wash," "to purify,'' (Sansk. w snd, 
" to bathe,'') whence snAta, " purified," in Vend. S. p. 233, 
frequently j^^ssxic^ ^ f^J^^^fra-inddhayen *' lavent^'' ; from m^ 
dd, "to lay," (Sans. UT d/id, p. 118 G. Ed.), we find f^^^^J>A^j 
nidaifhyann, *' deponant " (as Vendidad S. pp. 205 and 206, 

^^^^(xj^jy A)9g^ j^jM5>^ huski zemi nidaHhyann, "in siccd 
ierrd deponant ) : from the same root we find the imperative 
[G. Ed. p. 123.] form, A59jku(3Au^y nt-dd-thAma, " depona- 
mus " (Vend. S. p. 208, as9au7^ 9^fJ^^ ff^^fJ^^^jh ("^^mj aj»4 
As^jkuuAu^y A5»j ^i^M^ Aj7>»»Aj hxL uaratim isritananm 
tan urn bardma Ahura mazda kva niddihdma, "Quo hominum 
mortuorum corpus feramus, tibi deponamus'^?). Of the Grer- 
manic we will further remark, that the root in md, ** to 
measure" (cf. fxi-Tpov), has connected itself with a /-sound, and 
forms, in Gothic, MA T, present mita (§. 109*. i.). W^Jnd^ 
"to be acquainted with," "to know," TNQ, GNA (gnarus) 
Old High German CHNA (§.87.); whence chnd-ta, '*Iknew/' 
annexing the auxiliary verb direct, as in Latin {g)n(hvL To 

* I believe I may deduce this fonn firom the 3d pers. pi. J^V^pmj-KI* 
histenti (cf. laravTi) in the V. S. p. 183 : more on this head under the verb. 


the special form, W^Klfk jdndmU for Tfiipf^ jnA-nd-mit may be- 
long the Gothic root KANN, Old High German CHANN 
{kann, charif "I know," see §.94., kunnum, chunnum, **we 
know,"' see §. 66.). mr^ dhmd, '* to blow," alters itself in the 
special forms to vi dham, Latin FLA, according to the 
second class (§. 109» s.), Old High German PLA (§§. 12. 20.), 
whence pld-ta, ^^fiavC As in Sanskrit, from the above-men- 
tioned i|ir dham, comes the nominal base vnft dhamani, 
"a vein"; so may the Gothic base BLQTHA (nom. ace. 
bl6th, "blood") come here also under consideration. We 
pass on to roots in i^ and have to remark that the root 
mentioned at p. 107. G. Ed., ^ i, " to go," is not miknown 
in German. We find it in the Gothic imperative Atr-i, "come 
here**; du. hir-ycUs; pi. hir-yith. I believe, too, that in the 
irregular preterite tddya, ** I went," the i alone can be as- 
sumed as the root In Zend occurs j^jjom aSi-ti, "he goes'" 
(from irfir Sli, according to §§. 28. 41.), Lithuan. ei-ti fll' 
sri, "to go/" with the prep. ^ u<, "to raise itself"; hence, 
7fi^ tichchhrita, "raised,"' "high""; compare cre-sco, cre^i 
(see §. 21.), Old High German SCRIT, " to step," with tlie 
addition of a i, as in the case of mat, from ilT niA : perhaps 
the Latin gradior, as well as cresco, might be here included, 
the Guna form of the vowel, as in iBRfw sray-a-fi, " he 
goes,"" being observed. fm smi, " to smile,"" Old High 
German SMIL ; jffpri, "to love,"" Zend ^)^lfn (§. 47.), Goth. 
friySf •* I love"' (§. 87.), compare fmpriya, " dear/" >ft^ bhi, 
"to fear,'" f^ftr bibhi-mu "Hear"'; Lithuan. biyau; Gothic 
fiya, " I hate"" {fiyais, fiyaith), fiyands, " foe"' ; Old High Ger- 
man vUm or ^m, " I liate " : the Greek ipe^-o-yLai answers to 
the Sanskjit reduplication of bibhimi ; so that^ contrary to 
the common rule, the aspirates have remained in the prefix, 
bat in the base itself have become medials, and this has left 
only fi as the whole root, as in Sanskrit da-d-mas, " we give,'" 
for dardA^mas, Si'-So-fieg. Perhaps, also, [G. Ed. p. 124.] 
4IA, ipiiiofiat, is to be referred to the roots in i, so tliat an 



unorganic dental affix would be to be assumed. "^ si, 
" to lie," " to sleep," with irregular Guna in the middle ; 
hence s^-i^ = fceT-ra/. f^^ hriy "to be ashamed"'; Old High 
German HR U, " to repent " (Ariir-u, hrou, hrwumSsf see 
p. 115. G. Ed.). Of roots in u, "J^ dm, " to run/' "j^ drav- 
a-tif " he runs " may furnish, through the Guna form» the 
Greek ipa-^Kca, Si-Sfxi-o-Kco, which appears hence to derive 
its a with suppression of the digamma : the /x of SpSfita, how- 
ever, might pass as a hardening of the ^ v (§. 63.), and 
Spifi-a-fiev, 5f}€/x-e-Te, &c., therefore represent most truly the 
forms drav-d-mas, drava-thcu ^ plu, "to go," "to swim,'' 
" to float" (jnplava, " a ship"), Latin FLU. The Greek 
v\ii»>, TrXoo) is again not to be so regarded as if the old u had 
been corrupted to e or o, but Tr\e{F)i»i, ir\o(F)a> supply the place 
of the Guna form in plav^ (of the middle voice), dd pers. 
plav-a-ti : the future irXevam, the v having the Guna (§. 26.), 

answers to itt^pld-shyi ; Lithuan. plaukith ** I swim," with 
a guttural added, as in Latin fluc-n from Jluv (p. 98. 
G. Ed.). Old High German VLUZ, " to flow," pre-sup- 
poses the Gothic FLUT (§.87.); with the favourite dental 
addition, with which all final vowels are so commonly 
invested. ^ srn, " to hear,"" KAY (§§. 20., 21.), Gothic 
HLIU'MAN (nominative hliuma), "ear," as ''hearer,'' 
with weakened Guna (§. 27.) ; with regard to the kl for 
STf compare, also, clunis with "^t^ srdni, /. "hip.") 
Lithuan. klausaut " I hear." Perhaps erudio, as '* to make 
hear," is to be referred to this class : the derivation from e 
and rudis is little satisfactory. Anquetil introduces a Zend 
erodd, cSlebre, {k\vt6^), which I have not yet found in the ori- 
ginal text, but I meet with the causal form j(;o^,vxs»aii>!o 
irdvaySmi (Sansk. "zmm^ srdvaydmi), "I speak," "recite'' 
(V. S. p. 38). The Old High German, scrirumh, "we have 
exclaimed/' gives SCRIR as the root, and rests probably on 
the form irdv {%. 20.), with a thinning of the d to t (§. 66.) ; 
the present and sing, preterite, however, have lost the r {ncriu 


for 9crirut screi for sereir), like the Greek Khfi-iTu^ KeioKq-Kay &c. 
The Latin clamo, however, has the same relation to "vm irdv 
that mare has to ^nft vdri, ** water ' (§. 63.), and ipcfi to 
"5^ dravt from ^dru, "to run." >»» hu , "to extol," "to 
glorify" (As^^y>»' hunuta, " he celebrated," V. S. p. 39.), is 
probably the root of the Greek vfxvog (t!/Lt(e)i'Of), which I do 
not like to regard as an irregular derivative from SS(a. 
\pu'^' "to purify," PUrus. This root is the verbal 
parent of the wind and fire, which are both represented 

as pure, ^^n^pavana (with Guna and ana [G. £d. p. 125.] 
as suffix) is *• the wind," and the corresponding Gothic FONA 
(neut nom. Siccfdn, see §. 116.) is "fire," which in Sanskrit 
is called VT^M pdv-a-ka, with Vriddhi and aka as suffix. 
The relation of FONA to x(^;^ pavana resembles that of the 
Latin mdb from mavolo ; the loss of the syllable ^ va 
is replaced by the lengthening of the a (§. 69.). The Greek 
mp and Old High German VIVRA (nom. ace. vfur), the 
latter with weakened Guna (§.27.), and ra as suffix, both 
fall to the root, x^jpu. '^brii, "to speak," Zend ^7^ mru 
(e.g. 9^As79 mraS-m, "I spoke," V. S. p. 123.); the Greek 
pe[F)ia rests on the Guna form im^Oi hrav-i-mit and has, 
as often happens, lost the former of two initial consonants 
(c£ also peta^ fieva, and ruOf with 9 srw, *' to flow''). The 
Old Higfi German SPRJH. or IsPRAHH {sprihhu, '' I 
speak," sprakt "I spoke") appears to have proceeded from 
W^ bravf by hardening the ^ v (see §. 19.), and prefixing an 
s akin to the p. g bhuf "to be," Zend ju bu, Lithuan. BU 
(future M^ii, "1^11 be"), Latin FU, Greek *Y. Pro- 
bably» also, BY, in vpea-^ISv'g, itpea-pvTtj^, &c., is only 
another form of this root (cf. §• 18.); so that irpeg would 

have to be regarded as a preposition from irpo ( n pra,) 
essentially distinguished only by a euphonic 2 (cf. §. 96.). 
Moreover, the base vpea-ISv has a striking resemblance to 

'ff^ prabhu (excelms, auguhtitsjt literally, " being before." 
In Old High German pim or bim coiresponds to the 

I 3 


Sanskrit H^rrfif bhavdmi: more exact, however, is the corre- 
spondence in the plural of pir-u-rnhf pir-u-t, to bhav-i-mas, 
'*9umus^^ bhav-a-tha, *' estis"' (see §. 19.). To this class belongs, 

also, P^, "to dweir' (pu-ta, "I dwelt''), as the Sanskrit im 
vas ** to dwell," in German VAS, ff j4S, has become spyn. In 

Sanskrit, too, from v^bhu, *' to be,"" comes the substantive 
bhav-ana ** house,'' as place of being. The Grothic baua, 
'' I build^'' may be regarded as the causal of the idea '^ to 
be," like the Latin facio (§. 19.) : its conjugation answers 
also to HlTTlfk bhdvaydmiy "I make to be," which, in Pra- 
krit, may sound bhdvimu bhdvisU bhdviti (Gothic baua^ 
bauaist batmit). See p. 121 G. Ed. Sanskrit roots ending in 

diphthongs (^ ^, yshof ^di; there are no roots in ^ du) 
follow in their formations, in many respects, the analogy of 

roots in w d. We abstain from adducing examples of 
them, as they also offer little occasion for comparison. 
(2.) Roots terminating with a consonant. We shall give 
[G. £d. p. 126.] only a few examples, in which we compare 
roots with the same vowel, and proceed in the order, a, t, u. 
According to §. 1. we do not allow the vowel i^ri and ^ri 
to belong to the root. Long radical vowels before a final 
consonant are rare; and the majority of them are probably 
not original. 

The most numerous class of roots ending with a conso- 
nant has a medial v a. So ^^'^ vach, Zend ^9 vach 
(m^C^^j^ adcta, ''dixit,"" Vend. S. p. 124), Greek EQ for FEU, 
(§. 14.), Latin VOQ Old High German, WJH, WAG («- 
wahu, *• mentionem facio,*" pret. ki-wuoh pi. ki louogumis). 
Hi^ prachh, Zend ji)j7jQ) pieres, Gothic FBAH; pres iRKll^ 
prichchhdmU J^JOWiJg^jQ) peresdmi, fraiha iov friha (see §. 82. 
and §. 109*.!.); the Latin J?OG {rogOy inferrogo) appears to 
be abbreviated from FROG. Jiit^ pat, "to fall,'' "to fly,'' 
Zend ^joq) pat, **to fly" (Vend. S. p. 257. ^a^a59 joioa <^X0 
/i^^y^^> A)7jo»7> y^^joo) yat/rd vayS paiann urvara ucsyanm 
" where birds fly, trees grow "). One sees clearly from this 


that* in Greek, irlirrw, irerao), Treraofiou, verofiai, mfjixt, &c. 
belong to a common root IlET ; Latin PET, peto, im-peto^ 
prtepetes, penna by assimilation for pet-no. In Gothic 
FATH^ or, with the vowel weakened, FITH^ might be 
looked for. To the latter corresponds, according to §. 87., 

Old High German FED, in ved-ara, " feather/' ^^•^®- 
vad^ " to speak/' Latin VAD, contained in vas, vad-is. From 
^ vad proceeds the abbreviated form TO udt to which per- 
tains 'YA (S5a), uJew, v^ri^). The Old High German gives 
WAZ (var-uxlzu "maledico**), with z for d, according to §. 87., 
and the vowel of the base lengthened, as in ^T(nnf«I vddaydmu 
according to the tenth class. '^^ sad, " to sink, with the 
prep, fif nif ** to set oneself down ^ ; Latin SED, SID, sido, 
sedeo; Greek 'EA. 'IZ, eSof, cSpa, fCofJiat; Gothic SAT 
(§. 87.), sUa, "I sit'* (p. 116 G. Ed.). ^ an, "to blow," 
" to breathe,'' ^erfW? anila, " wind," Gothic jiN", usana, 
"I expire,*' cf. avefxo^, ** animusJ'* ip^^ jan, "to beget," 
Zend yA5j zan (§. 58.), j^ju^as^ zazdmU " I beget," Sanskrit 
iflffviT jajanmU Greek FEN, Latin GEN {ytyvofiat, yevog, 
gignOt genvs), Gothic KIN, " to germinate,'* (p. 116 G. Ed.) ; 

Jttifii, •* gender" (§.66.). W^ kar ('^kri\ e.g. ig^ kardti, 
*'facU^': this root, in Zend, follows the fifth class; e.g. 

j^j^A»y^|^3 kerenaoiti (§. 41.), **fadtr fp\^j^i^ kerena6t, *' fe- 
cit^ -^^^^/E^ kerenuldhu "/«c"; Old High German kara- 
wan or garawan, "to prepare"; Latin creo, cura (cf. ^^ 
kuru, "fac'**), ceremonial and with p for c (§. 14.), paro ; Greek 
Kpaivi^y Kpd-rog ; with tt, Trpda-ccif TrpaK-a-o), [G. Ed. p. 127.] 
irpay-fia, where the guttural appears to be a hardening of the 
\v (§. 19.), e.g. of "^fkfm kurvanii, "faciunt" (from kur-u^ 
-antiy, njf^ vaht "to drive," " to carry," Zend jaj^ vaz (§. 57.), 
Latin VEH, Greek ^of, " wagon," as bearer, carrier, for 
Fixo^^ ''TO* «vfls, "to breathe," cf. spiro, according to 
§§. 50. and 22. ir^^'^^' grah, "to take": the original 
form, occurring in the Vedas, is JX^^grabh. To this the 
Zend form belongs, according to the tenth class, and, 


indeed, so that the H^bh appears before vowels as » t?, but 
before ^i as ^p. Thus we r«ad in the Vend. S. p. 155 : 

A5C3j^ J^JJAJ ;t)w» jkMj A5^j;o5^»^g5J^ ashdum; yizi ndit 
uzvarhydtf/6 narem dgereptem dgeurvaySitif ki hi aili chUha? 
" Pure ! si non dimittiU qui hominem captum capit (L e. tenet), 
qutenam ei est prena^''?* In the European sister languages 
I believe I recognise this root in three forms : the Gothic 
GRIP has been already mentioned (p. 116 O. Ed.)> likewise 
prehendo (§. 92. note): by changing the medials into their te- 
nues» KAEII also seems to belong to this class, Gothic HLIF, 
"to steal," hli/tus, "thief." Finally, also, in Greek, ypiiro^, 
ypifpo^, "the net," stands quite isolated, and appears to 
me to be related to the Indian ?n^ grabh, by changing 
the a into i. ^n^ ds, "to sit,'' Greek *H2 a remnant of 
the second class, terminating in a consonant to be supplied 
at §. 109*. 3. ; rja-'Tai answers exactly to W^ ds^i (middle 
voice), and hence rj/xai stands for rjafxatf as etfxi for ea-fii (San- 
skrit asmi). VH^^ bhrd^'t " to shine," Zend ^g^gJ hetiz (§. 58). 
orf J J^ bureZf whence the part, pros, t^^-^g^g-S berezant, 
nom. m. m^^^^ berezaiis, *' splendens,^" *' aUus,*'' very fre- 
quently occurs. This Zend form prepares the way for the Old 
High German root PERAH, whence PERAH-TAX. nom. 
perah't, "fiJgidus.^ Tothis root belongs, also^ our PracAt The 
Greek language gives ^AEF (§. 20.) a cognate root, and thus 
[G. Ed. p. 128.] points to a Sanskrit short a for the long 

one. The cognate root in Latin is FLAO, flagro. ftu^ 
chhid, "to cleave," SCID, scind-i-mu8=^chhindnuis (J. 14.): 
2XIZ, perhaps also 2KIA, a-KiSviifu, &c. belong to this 
place ; the form is more genuine, and the ideas, too, of 

* Anqaetil translates, " Si celui qui a commis VAguertfti ne reoomwii 
pas sa/aute quelle sera sa punition," 

t Cf. p. 1281. Note * 

X The k (in the sense of ch) corresponding to the^', y, accoixis with 
§. 87., but is moreover favoarcd by the following /. 


clearing, dispersing, separating, are kindred ones. The 
Gothic SKAID, "to separate," if the relationship is 
certain, has a stiffened Guna, so that at appears to belong 
to the root. According to §. 87., howerer, the Gothic 
form should be SKAIT and the Old High German SKEIZ 

for SKEID. f^ vidy " to know^ Zend ^ji^ vid, 'lA ; 
Gothic VID, Old High German, VIZ; in the Latin VID, 
and in eiita, '* I see/^ the seeing is regarded as something, 
which " makes to know," and the conjugation of video is causal, 
according to p. 121 G. Ed. Thus, also, another root, signify- 
ing " to know/^ namely w^ budh, has, in Zend, gained the 
meaning "to see."* According to the tenth class, and 
with the prep, ni, VID, in Zend, signifies "to summon" 

( J9A>5,>As^;ojo»jy nivaidhayimi, '^invoco^ see §. 28.) In Go- 
thic, VIT receives through tlie prep, in the meaning "to 

adore'' (inveita, invatt, invitum). fijf(^ dis, "to shew,'' 
Zend J9J^ dis^^; hence ^^^ji)A)A5^o^ fradaiiayd, " thou 
shewest" (Vend. S. p. 123), Greek AIK, with Guna SeiKvvfxi, 
according to the fifth class ; Latin DlC, in dico, as it were, 
''to point out/ and diets ( diets causa). In Gothic, the rule 
laid down in §. 87. requires the form TIH, and this root, 
combined with ga, signifies "to announce" (ga-ieiha, ga- 
taihf ga-taihum, for ga-iihum, according to §. 82.). On the 
other hand, in taikus, " sign," the law for the transposition 

of letters is violated. ^f\v(^jivt "life;" Lithuanian gywa-s, 
"alive." gywen^i "I live," gywata "lifef Gotliic QUIVA, 
nom. quins, "alive"; Latin VIV, as it appears from QUIV, 

as 6m from dms (Sansk. fis^^ dwis), viginti from tvigintL The 
Zend has dropped either the vowel or the v of this root. 
Hence, e.g. xi^^jva, nom. }^»^jv6, "living," (V. S. p. 189); 
and 4^^^^^a>^ hu'jitayd, '*bonam vitam hjahentes^ (I. c. p. 222), 
from J^4^^ hu-jtiu From jit the root, would become, with 
Guna, jaydmif on which rests the Greek ^ao), the j having 

* Vide Grain. Crit. p. 3-28. 


fallen out (§• 14.) ; but fiios also belongs to this root, and finds 
a medium of comparison with lA^^v, in the Latin vivo. Of 
roots vdth u, '^ ruch **to shine,''' and ^ riid, "to weep/' 
may serve as examples; the former, in Zend, is ^m) radch, 
(§§. 28. 32.), and follows the tenth class, e.g. j^jjo^y^^xy? 
[G. Ed. p. 129.] roochayiitU ''sptendeL^ In Latin correspond 
LUC, luc-s, luceo (§. 20.) and RUD : the Greek has, in both 
roots, replaced the r by /, and presents, for comparison, AYK 
{dfJi(f>t\vKtj, \vk6<Pu>^) and AYZ ; to the former^ Au^vo;, Kt/)^ 

vetMo, &c., has the same relation that, in Zend, M5>jtM^ 
tqfnu'8, " burning,'' has to the root q)a5P tap (§. 40.) We 
must assign XevKog also, with Guna, to the root AYK. The 
Gothic gives LUH for LUK, according to §. 87. ; whence, 
with the original, or with weakened Guna (§§. 26., 27.), 
spring forms like lauhmdni, ''lightning,'* lauhatyan, 'Mo 
lighten," liuhath, "light." Without Guna^ and preserving 
the old smooth letter, stands lukam (theme, lukarna, neut), 

" lamp,'* rather isolated. A root corresponding to ^ rud 
is wanting in Gothic, but the Old High German has for it. 
quite regularly according to §. 87., RUZ, " to weep" (riuzut 
rdz for raxiZy according to §. 80., ruzumis). >|^^ bhush^ 
"to adorn," is perhaps contained in the Latin or-iio» with 
loss of the initial letter, as amo in relation to HTmnfll 
kdmaydmi, " I love." With regard to the r for ^^ ffc, 
advert to the relation of uro to ^ usht " to bum," ik^* 
*w, "to honour," ^ tnSdh, "to think "(?). The latter 
cannot hitherto be quoted as a verb : it springs, however. 

from ^^ m&dhas and ^ midJUU *' understanding," unless 
it should be preferred to assume for these words a root 
midh, which, however, the Grammarians do not exhibit. 
The Gothic has, for comparison, MIT, whence mii6, •*! 
think": the Greek furnishes an analogous word to ^t^ 
viz. 2EB, (Te^o). (§. 4.) 

110. From the monosyllabic roots proceed nouns, sub- 
stantive and adjective, by the annexation of syllables. 


which we should not, without examination, regard as not, 
per 86, significative and, as it were, supernatural mystic 
beings ; to a passive belief in' whose undiscoverable nature 
we are not willing to surrender ourselves. It is more 
natural to suppose that they have or had meaning, and 
that the organism of language connects that which has a 
meaning with what is likewise significative. Why should 
not language denote accessory ideas, by accessory words 
appended to the root? Language, which possesses both 
sense and body, infuses sense and imparts form to every 
word. The object of nouns is to represent [G. Ed. p. 130.] 
persons or things, to which that which the abstract root ex- 
presses adheres ; and hence it is most natural to look for 
pronouns in the elements used in the formation of words, as 
the bearers of qualities, actions, and conditions, which the 
root expresses in abstrado. There appears^ too, in reality, 
as we shall develope in the chapter on the pronouns, a com- 
plete* identity between the most important elements in 
the formation of words and some pronominal bases which 
are declined even in an isolated state. But it is not sur- 
prising that several of the elements of verbal formation, in 
the class of independent words, should not admit of more 
certain explanation; for these afl^es have their origin in 
the most obscure and early epoch of language, and subse- 
quently they have themselves lost all consciousness as to 
whence they have been taken, on which account the ap- 
pended sufiBx does not always keep equal pace with the 
alterations which, in the course of time, occur in the cor- 
responding isolated word ; or it has been altered while the 
other remains unchanged. Still, in individual cases, we 
may remark the admirable exactitude with which the 
appended grammatical syllables have maintained them- 

* I direct attention preliminarily to my treatise ^^ On the Influence of 
Pronouns in the Formation of Words " (Berlin, by F. Diimmler). 


selves through thousands of years in an unaltered form ; 
I say, we may remark this from the perfect accordance 
which exists between various individuals of the Sanskrit 
family of languages, although these languages have been 
removed, as it were, from each others eyes since time 
immemorial, and every sister dialect has, since that removal, 
been left to its own fate and experience. 

111. There are also pure radical words, i.e. those of which 
the theme, without sufiSx of derivation or personality, repre- 
G. Ed. p. 131.] sents the naked root, which are then united 
in declension with the syllables which denote the relations of 
case. Except at the end of compounds, such radical words 
are, in Sanskrit, few in number, and are all feminine ab- 
stracts ; as, Wt bhi, *' fear,'' ^ yudh, " contest,'' g^ miid, 
"joy." In Greek and Latin the pure root is the most rare 
form of the word ; but it does not always appear as an abstract 
substantive. As, for instance, e.g. fpKoy (0Adic-y), in (oir-y). 
vtff} (vnr- j), leg {lec-s), pac (poc-s), due (dues)* pel-lie (pel-lees). 
In German, commencing even with the Gothic, no pure 
radical words exist, although, by reason of the abbrevia- 
tion of the base of the word in the singular, many words 
have assumed that appearance; for from the abbreviation 
of these verbal bases, which has been constantly extending 
during the lapse of time, it is precisely the most modem 
dialects which appear to exhibit the greatest number of 
naked roots as nouns. (cf.§. 116.) Naked roots seem most 
generally used at the end of compounds, on account of the 
clogging of the preceding part of the word. According to 
this principle, in Sanskrit, every root can, in this position, 
designate the agent by itself ; as, e.g. V^f^ dharma-vid* 
"duty-knowing." In Latin, the use of these compounds 
is as frequent as in Sanskrit, only that, according to §. 6., 
a radical a is weakened to i or e; thus, carni-fic ifeC's\ 
titbi'cin {cen). An example in Greek is %epvij8 (for -vnr 
from I'/TT-Tw). Sanskrit roots which end with short vowels. 


^ f^jif " to contiuer,"^ are, in compounds of this kind, 
supported by the addition of a t, which so much the more 
appears to be a simple phonetic affix without signification, 
that these weakly-constructed roots appear to support them- 
selves on an auxiliary t before the gerundial suffix ya also. 

Thus, e.g. "^Af^ni svarga-jU, " conquering the heaven,^ ftftfW 
vi-jit-yOf " by conquering." In Latin I find [G. Ed. p. 132.] 
interesting analogies to these formations in IT and STIT, 
from the roots / and STA, the latter weakened to STI ac- 
cording to §. 6. Thus, corn-it (com-es), " goer with ^ ; equ-it 
(egu'€s)f "goer on horseback*'; al-it (al-ea), **goer with 
wings ^ ; super-stit {-stes), " standing by." The German has 
in this way supported throughout with a t several roots ter- 
minating with a vowel, and hence given to this letter the 
character of radicalism, as above mentioned (p. 123 G. Ed.) 
in MAT, from in nUU " to measure.**' 

( 124 ) 


112. Tlie Indian Grammarians take up the declinable 
word in its primary form, Le. in its state when destitute 
of all case-termination ; and this bare form of the word is 
given also in dictionaries. In this we follow their example ; 
and where we give Sanscrit and 2^nd nouns, they stand, 
unless it is otherwise specified, or the sign of case is 
separated from the base, in their primary form. The 
Indian Grammarians, however, did not arrive at their pri- 
mary forms by the method of independent analysis, as it 
were by an anatomical dissection or chemical decomposi- 
tion of the body of language; but were guided by the 
practical use of the language itself, which, at the beginning 
of compounds — and the art of composition is, in Sanscrit^ 
just as necessary as that of conjugation or declension — 
requires the pure primary form; naturally with reserva- 
tion of the slight changes of the adjoining limits of sound, 
rendered necessary at times by the laws of euphony. As 
the primary form at the beginning of compounds can re- 
present every relation of case, it is, as it were, the case 
general, or the most general of cases, which, in the unli- 
mited use of compounds, occurs more frequently than any 
other. Nevertlieless, the Sanskrit language does not every- 
where remain true to the strict and logical principle usually 
[G. Ed. p. 134.] followed in composition ; and as if to vex 
the Grammarians, and put tlieir logic to the test, it places as 
the first member of the compounds in the pronouns of the 
first and second person the ablative plural, and in those of the 
third person the nom. and ace. sing, of the neuter, instead of 
tlie true primary form. The Indian Grammarians, then, in 


this point, have applied to the cases furnished to them by 
the language, and take the augmented ^vmrw atfrnat or 
WFI^ asmadf "from us," 5^n^ yushmat or ir^T^ yushmadf 
"from you,'* as the starting-point in the declension, or as 
the primary form, although in both pronominal forms only 
Va and ^yu belong to the base, which, however, does not 
extend to the singular. That, however, in spite of this 
error, the Indian Grammarians understand how to decline 
the pronouns, and that they are not de6cient in external 
rules for this purpose^ is a matter of course. That the 
interrogative, in its declension, resembles bases in a, can- 
not escape any one who holds the neuter fw^ him for the 
original indeclinable form of the word. Panini settles the 
matter here with a very laconic rule, when he says (edit. 

Calc, p. 969) f%if: nr: kimaK kaKf i. e, ka* is substituted for 
kim. If this strange method were to be followed in Latin, 
and the neuter quid in like manner regarded as the 
theme, then, in order to get at the dative cu-i (after 
the analogy otfructui), one would have to say ** quidis cus^ 
or **quidi cus." In another place (p. 825), Panini forms 
from idanif " this " (which in like manner has the honour 
of passing for a base) and kim, "what?*' a copulative 

compound ; and by ^jfipft^ tS^ idankimdr iski, the Gram- 
marian teaches that the putative bases in [G. Ed. p. 135.] 
the formations under discussion substitute for themselves 
the forms ( and ki. 

113. The Sanskrit, and the languages akin to it, which 
in this respect have still kept upon the old footing, distin- 
guishy besides the two natural genders, another — the 
neuter, which the Indian Grammarians call Kliva, t. e. eu- 
nuch; which appears to be a peculiarity of the San- 

* He forms, namely, from kim, regarded as a base, kini'tzs, which 
In reality docs not occur, and which has, for tlie sake of euphony, here 
become kimah. 


skrit, OP most perfect family of languages. Aceoifling to 
its original intention this gender had to represent inani- 
mate nature, but it has not everywhere confined itself to 
these old limits: the language imparts life to what is 
inanimate, and, on the other hand, (according to the view 
then taken,) impairs the personality of what is by nature 
animate. The feminine in Sanskrit, both in the base and 
in the case-terminations, loves a luxurious fullness of 
form; and where it is distinguished from the other 
genders in the base or in the termination, it marks this 
distinction by broader, and more sonant vowels. The 
neuter, on the other hand, prefers the greatest conciseness, 
but distinguishes itself from the masculine, not in the base, 
but only, in the most conspicuous cases, in the nominative 
and its perfect counterpart the accusative ; in the vocative 
also, when this is the same as the nominative. 

114. Number, in Sanskrit and its sister languages, is 
distinguished, not by a particular aflb denoting the number^ 
but by the selection or modification of the case-syllable, 
so that, with the case-suffix, the number is at once known ; 
e.g. bhyam, hhydm, and bhycu are cognate syllables, and, 
among other relations, express that of the dative ; the first 
in the singular (only in the pronoun of the 2d person, in4 
tubhyamt '* to thee "), the second in the dual, the third in the 
plural. The dual, like the neuter, in course of time is the first 
to be lost with the weakening of the vitality [G. Ed. p. 136.] 
of the view taken by the senses, or is more and more straitened 
in its use, and then replaced by the abstract plural expressive 
of infinite number. The Sanskrit possesses the dual most 
fully, both in the noun and in the verb, and employs it every- 
where where its use could be expected. In the 2^nd, which 
otherwise approximates so closely to the Sanskrit^ it is 
found very rarely in the verb, more frequently in the 
noun. The Pali has only as much left of it as the Latin* 
viz. a remnant of it in two words, which signify "two** 


and "both"; in the Prakrit it is entirely wanting. Of 
the German languages, only the eldest dialect, the Gothic, 
possesses it, but merely in the verb; while^ on the con- 
trary, in the Hebrew (speaking here of the Semitic 
languages) it is retained only in the noun, in disadvan- 
tageous contrast with the Arabic, which, in many other 
respects also, is a more perfect language, and which main- 
tains the dual in equal fulness in the verb also ; while in 
the Syriac it has been almost entirely lost in the noun as 
well as in the verb.* 

115. The ease- terminations express the reciprocal rela- 
tions of nouns, Le» the relations of the persons spoken of, to 
one another, which principally and originally referred only 
to space, but from space were extended also to time and 
cause. According to their origin, they are, at least for the 
most part, pronouns, as will be more clearly developed 
hereafter. Whence could the exponents of the relations 
of space, which have grown up with the primary words 
into a whole, have better been taken, than from those 
words which express personality, witlt their inherent secon- 
dary idea of room, of that which is nearer or more distant, 
of that which is on this or that side ? L^* ^* P* 1^0 
As also in verbs the personal terminations, i. e. the pronominal 
suflBxea — although, in the course pf time, they are no longer 
recognised and felt to be that which, by their demonstrable 
origin, they imply and are — are replaced, or, if we may 
use the expression, commented on by the isolated pronouns 
prefixed to the verb; so, in the more sunken, insensible 
state of the language, the spiritually dead case-terminations 
are, in their signification of space, replaced, supported, or ex- 

* Regarding the character, the natoral founrlation, and the finer gra- 
dations in the nse of the daal, and its difiiision into the different provinces 
of langnage, we poesess a talented inquiry, hy W. von Humboldt, in the 
IVantactions of the Academy for the year 1 8*27 ; and some which have been 
published by Diimmler. 


plained by prepositions, and in their personal signification fay 
the article. 

116. Before we describe the formation of cases in the 
order in which the Sanskrit Grammarians dispose them, 
it appears desirable to give the difierent final sounds of 
the nominal bases with which the case-suflSxes unite them- 
selves, as well as to point out the mode in which the cognate 
languages are in this respect related to one another. The 
three primary vowels (a, i, u) occur in Sanskrit, both short 
and long, at the end of nominal bases ; thus, V a, l( t, 7 u ; 
W\d,%i,'mti To the short a, always masculine or neuter, 
never feminine, a, corresponds in 2^nd and Lithuanian, and 
also in German, where, however, even in the Gothic (in 
Grimm^s first strong declension), especially in substantives, 
it is only sparingly retained : in more modem dialects it is 
commonly supplanted by a more recent u or e. In Greek, 
the corresponding termination is the of the second declen- 
sion {e.g. in Koyo-s) : and was also the termination of the 
Latin noun in ancient times ; but in the classic period^ al- 
though sometimes retained, it was commonly changed to u 
in the uom. and aceus. sing, (of the second declension). An 
old a, however, is still left in cola, gena, cida, at the end of 
compounds, where, however, from the want of other ana- 
logies, it is used in declension similarly to the feminine 

[G. £d. p. 138.] originally long a, on which account the 
nominative is written, not colas, genas, cidas, but cohf &c. 
The Grecian masculines of the first declension in o-y,* witli the 
tj'S which has proceeded therefrom, must likewise, accord- 
ing to their origin, be compared witli the Sanskrit mas- 
culine short a, to which, in regard of quality and preserva- 
tion of the nominative sign, they have remained faithful, 
while the o of the second declension has preserved its old 
original brevity. Their identity with bases in o is excel- 
lently shewn by the genitive in ov, which does not at all 

Cf. p. 1204. 1. 20. G. E(l. 


8uit a theme in a or 97 ; and further, from such compounds 
as /Lii/pomi>\i;-^, irouSorpifirj-g, in which the vowel that has 
been added to the roots n£2A and TPIB supplies the place 
of the Sanskrit a in similar compounds for which, in Greek, o 
usually stands. 

117. To the short 1, which occurs in the three genders, 
the same vowel corresponds in the cognate languages. In 
German it is to be looked for in Grimm's fourth strong 
declension, which I shall make the second; where, how- 
ever, from the destructive alterations of time, it becomes 
nearly as hard as the a of the first declension. In Latin, 
t is interchanged with e; hence facile for facili, mare 

for fnari, Sanskrit inft vAri, ** water/' In Greek, before 
vowels the 1 is generally weakened to the unorganic e. The 
short u also shews itself in Sanskrit in the three genders, 
as in Greet t/, and u in Gothic, where it distinguishes itself 
from the a and t in that it is retained as well before 
the 8 of the nominative as in the uninflected accusative. 
In Latin the corresponding letter is the u of the fourth 

118. The long vowels (d, i, d) belong, in Sanskrit, prin- 
cipally to the feminine (see §. 113.), are never found in the 
neuter, and occur in the masculine very rarely. In Zend 
the long final a has generally been shortened in polysyllabic 
words ; as it has in Gothic, in which bases [G. Ed. p. 139.] 
in 6 correspond (§. 69.) to the Sanskrit feminine bases in d, 
and the 6 in the uninflected nom. and accus. sing, is shortened 
to Of with die exception of the monosyllabic forms s6, '* she,"" 

**thi8/' Sanskrit in sd, Zend Ad; hv6, "which?" Sanskrit 
and Z^nd kd. The Latin, also, in the uninflected nom. and 
voc, has shortened the old feminine long a ; but the Lithu- 
anian has, in the nom., maintained the original length. In 
Greek, the Doric a approaches most nearly to the Sanskrit 
feminine wt d, which the common dialect has sometimes 
preserved, sometimes shortened, sometimes transformed 
into tj. 



119. The long i appears, in Sanskrit, most frequently 
as a characteristic addition in the formation of feminine 
bases, thus, the feminine base H^lft mahati (magna) 
springs from inpr mahat The same holds good in Zend. 
Moreover, the feminine character i has been preserved 
most strictly in Lithuanian, where, for example, in the 
part pres. and fut. an i is added to the old participial 
suffix antf and isant-i, ''the existing,^ b^aeni-if ''that 
that shall be,^^ correspond to the Sanskrit wH sat-i (for 
asatl or asanti)^ Hr«<«(*Al bhav-i-shyanit In Greek and 
Latin this feminine long i has become incapable of declen- 
sion ; and where it has still left traces, there a later un- 
organic affix has become the bearer of the case-termina- 
tions. This aflix is, in Greek, either a or 9; in Latin, c. 
Thus, ]7$e?a corresponds to the Sanskrit I9m^ sioddw-i, 
from ^OT? siuddu^ "sweet''; -r/o/a, -rp/J, eg. dpx^P^OLf 
\iej(rrpi£t XtjarptS-o^, to the Sanskrit "^ tri, e.g. nf^nft/antiH', 
"genitress," to which the Latin genitri-os, geniiri-c-is, cor- 
responds ; while in the Greek yeveretpa, and similar forma- 
tions, the old feminine i is forced back a syllable. This 

[G. Ed. p. 140.] analogy is followed by jiiTsjouva, rihaiva, 
repeiva, and substantive derivations, as reicTa/va, AAKouva. 
In OepoTraiva, \eatvaf the base of the primitive is, as in the 
nom. masc, shortened by a r. In deatva, Xt/jcoivo, it is to be 
assumed that the proper primitive in v or ^r has been lost, 
or that these are formations of a different kind, and corre- 
spond to the rather isolated word in Sanskrit ^if[nft/fi- 
drdni, as the wife of Indra, as derived from ^9^Indr€^ is 
termed. The cases where the feminine t is solely represented 
by a are essentially limited to feminine derivatives from 
forms in vr, where r passes into a- : the preceding v, howeTer, 
is replaced by v or i, or the mere lengthening of the pre- 
ceding vowel, or it is assimilated to the a: 

hence, ova-a, aa-af eao'-a, dw-a** ucr-a 
for ovT-a, eirr-a, evr-a, ovr-o, i/vr-o. 

* In Doric subsequent and original aur'a. 


To this analogy belong, moreover, the feminine substantives, 
like OoLKaaaot i8a<riX/<r<ra, fieKiaa-a, which J. Grimm (II. 328.) 
very correctly, in my opinion, compares with forms like 
yapi^&TfTa, fjL€\tT6'€(Taa9 and explains the double a by gemi- 
nation or assimilation. The feminine formations by a 
simple a instead of the original / are most corrupt, and, 
relatively, the most recent; and herein the Greek is not 
supported by any of the cognate languages. The Latin, 
its twin-sister, which otherwise runs parallel to it, leaves, 
in the part pres. and other adjective bases terminating 
with a consonant, the feminine undistinguished from the 
masculine through all the cases, since it has no longer the 
power of declining the old i. 

120. The German, too, can no longer fully decline tlie 
old feminine i; and the Gothic, by a foreign affix, intro- 
duces it into the 6 declension, but in the singular of sub- 
stantives shortens the syllable yd in the [G. £d. p. 141.] 
uninflected nominative and vocative to t,in the adjective to ya. 
More commonly, however, the old bases in i are introduced, 
by the frequently employed affix of an n, into the so-called weak 
declension ; and as ^ in Gothic is denoted by e<, so to the 
Sanskrit feminine participial bases in wrA anti, and to the 
fern, comparative bases in ^i|^1 tyasi, correspond the forms 
ndein, izein, regarding the nominative of which refer to §. 142. 

121. The long u (A) appears, in Sanskrit, rather seldom 
at the end of primary forms, and is for the most part 
feminine. The words most in use are ^^vadhu, ** a wife," 
^bhus "earth,'' WB^stvasru, "mother-in-law" (socrus), ^bhru, 
** eyebrow.*' To the latter corresponds otppvg, likewise with 
the long 1/, the declension of which, however, is not different 
from that of the short v ; while in SaHskrit the long u is distin- 
guished from the short feminine u in the same way as ^ t 
from ^ I. But few monosyllabic primary forms end, in 
Sanskrit, with diphthongs, not any at all with ^ S ; with ^ di 
(from d + t, see§. 2.) only "^ra/, masc. "thuig,'' ** riches"; in 

K 2 


the nom. irregularly Tj^^rd-s for T;ff rdi-s. In this is recog- 
nised the Latin res. Still I do not believe that Latin bases 
in e should therefore be looked upon as corresponding to 
the Sanskrit ^di; for, in the first place, the Latin e corre- 
sponds elsewhere to the Sanskrit ij^ (froma+i), never to 
di ; secondly, the connection of the e of the fifth declension 
with the originally long a of the first is not to be mis- 
taken (to which it bears the same relation that the Ionic 
tj does to the Doric a), for many words with the same mean- 
ing belong to the A and E declension ; and, for example, 
a suffix which is employed for the formation of abstracts 
from adjectives is sounded as well tie as tia {planitie-s, 
[G. Ed. p. 142.] planitia, canities, canitia) ; and ie-s, and i/i, 
in the formation of primitive and derivative words — ^like 
effigies, effiyia, pauperies, pauperia — are clearly one and the 
same suffix, identical with the Sanskrit VJ yd^ which is used 
for the same purpose, and the Greek la, Ionic /17. Let us now 
consider the objections which are opposed to the original 
identity of the feminine e and a. The most weighty is 
the 8 in the nom. sing, and pi. : es, es for e, ei, as mtiso, 
musa (musai), K€(f>a\rj, KeffiaKal. As regards the s in the 
singular, it is, if the identity with the first declension be 
authentic, very remarkable ; and forms like species, canities, 
seem to be true lingual patriarchs: for the Sanskrit, like the 
Zend, Greek, Gothic, Lithuanian, exhibits the absence of the 
nominative sign in the corresponding feminine bases in a. 
I have, however, never considered as original the aban- 
donment of the nominative sign, and the complete equal- 
ization with the primary form in jirr sutd, ** daughter,** and 
similar words, although it has appeared to me as losing 
itself very deeply in far-distant ages. The Latin, how- 
ever, in some other points of Grammar, shews greater 
antiquity than the Sanskrit and Greek, as, for example 
(to confine the present instance to the nominative case), 
participial nominatives, like amans, legens, are better and 


older forms than the Sanskrit and Grreek, like g^ tudan, 
\e7c0i', Tifleiy, because they have preserved the nomina- 
tive 8 together with the nasal, and therein stand on 
the same footing with Zend forms, like m^»^^ bavans, 
•'being.** I cannot, therefore, find, in the retention of 
the nominative sign in the fifth declension, any decisive 
argument against its original identity with the first We 
will treat hereafter of the s of the nominative plural. In 
the genitive singular the common form ei answers to deae 
(deal), the more rare, however, and better, in es to famUias, 
Schneider searches, but fortunately without [G. £d. p. 143.] 
success, for genitives likb die-is : we require them as little, 
perhaps, as a familio'is. Let dies be written with Greek 
letters itif^, and then, perhaps, a die-is will be as little re- 
quired as a Siiof-o^. Although a few bases of the third de- 
clension, by rejecting a consonant or an entire syllable, have 
passed into the fifth declension, we will not therefore infer 
that all bases in e have arisen from such an abbreviation. If 
QUIET, after rejecting the U could be declined according to 
the fifth declension, then must there necessarily have for- 
merly been a fifth, i.e. there must have been bases in e, 
otherwise from QUIET could only have come QUII {quies, 
quiiSf like cades); i.e. in spite of the rejection of the t 
it must have continued in the third declension. The connec- 
tion between re-s and the abovementioned Sanskrit '^ rdi is, 
in my opinion, to be arrived at through the irregular 
nominative tT^rd-s; and according to this re-s would be 
supported on an old d : it answ^ers to ^rr^^ rd-s as re-bus to 
TTMrer rd-bhyas, and as in Greek yfj-v to the Sanskrit iiuf 
f/dmt **terram,^^ which, in the remaining cases, has ^gd for 
its base. In Lithuanian tliere arc feminine primary forms 
in e (Ruhig*s third declension) which resemble the Greek fj 
in the suppression of the singular nominative sign, but in the 
nominative plural in e-s approach more closely the Latin 
in e. 


122. Primary forms in ibi^ d are rare in Sansknt : the 
only ones known to me are ift rfyA " heaven," and ift g6 : 
the former is feminine, and properly proceeds from f?^ div 
(a radical word from fij^ dfv, *' to shine ") by the vocali- 
zation of the Tf V, after which the vowel ^ i becomes its 
semi-vowel i^ j/. In the accusative the 6 bases change this 
diphthong into d. To the d thus obtained in witr dyd-m^ 

[G, Ed. p. 144.] im gd-m corresponds the Latin e of die-m, 
the Greek rj, Doric a, of yij-v, ya-i/ : the Latin e, however, is 
rendered short by the influence of the final m : the original 

language requires die-m. In Sanskrit, also, from fl^ diVf 
** to shine," are derived appellations of day ; as on the other 
side, in Latin, those for the heaven — divum, sub divo, sub dio 

— ^viz. fij^ divdt as an adverb, *' by day," and used as a 
primary form at the beginning of compounds; and also 

fi^^ divasa, masc, and vr dyu, neuter (a contraction from 
div), which latter signifies both "day" and ** heaven." 

To IT dyu answers, after rejecting the d (as viginti for 
dviginti), the Latin Ju of Ju^piter, " heavens - lord or 
father": the oblique cases Jov-is, Jov-i, Jov-em answer 
better to the broader theme ift dy6, whence the dative 
W^ dyav-i^ and the locat. irf% dyav-i. The DJovis, moreover, 
furnished by Varro, deserves mention, as that which keeps 
most faithfully to the ancient form. The Grecian Zeus sig- 
nifies, therefore, in accordance with its origin primarily, 
''heaven": I form its relation to iiftdyd thus, that after 
dropping the ^ d the following semi-vowel IT y became 
f (§. 19.). The oblique cases, on the contrary (Aio^, Ati, &c.), 
belong to the Sanskrit v dyu^ and must originally have 
had a digamma, proceeding by the natural law of sound from 
u, after wliich change the semi-vowel j must have become 
a vowel. Aios has the same relation to AiFos, that, in Latin, 
sub dio has to sub divo. 

123. Let us now consider the second of the abovemen- 
tioned primary forms in 6, viz. ift gd. It has several 


meaniogs ; but the most common are " bull/^ as masculine, 
and ''cow'* and ''earth'' as feminine. Both significations 
have in Zend, as in Greek, divided themselves into two 
forms. The Greek has preserved for the meaning " earth "' 
the old guttural. With regard to the vowel, 7^, 7a follows the 
example of the Indian accusative, where, as has been already 
remarked, 7n\ gdm (yrp^) stands for gd-m [G. Ed. p. 146.] 
or gav-am. For the meaning " ox" the Greek has preserved 
the old diphthong — (for, for ^6 = ax>u may very well be 
expected, according to §. 4., ov) — but has exchanged the guttu- 
ral medials for labials, as, p. 122 G. Ed., IBi/Srjfu for innf'l 
jagdmL The base BOY before vowels must originally have 
become BOf ; thus, in the dative, /8of-/ would answer to the 
Sanskrit locat. iff^ gav-it and the Latin dative bov-i ; but in 
the present state of the language the middle digamma 
between two vowels has always been dropped; and there 
is not, as with the initial digamma, the medium of metre 
for replacing it in the oldest writings. Only theory and 
comparative grammar can decide here. The Latin has, 
in the word bos, changed the vowels (a + u) — (which were 
originally of different kinds, but have been united into a 
diphthong) — into a homogeneous mass (cf. §. 4.), the nature 
of whose contraction, however, discloses itself before vowel 
inflexions, since the u-half of BO becomes v, and the short a 
is resolved into the form of a short ; thus, bov-i answers 
to the Sanskrit locat. n^gav-u The Zend for the meaning 
"earth"' has changed the guttural of the word under dis- 
cussion into z, and gives in the nominative gusj zdo for 
jkeAu^ xds (§. 56^.), in the accusative 9^^ zanm (§. Gl.) : I am 
not able to adduce other cases. For the meaning "ox^ 
the guttural has remained in Zend, and the nominative 

is then juo>ja)^ gdu-s or -H^g^^ gdo-s, 

124. I know only two words in Sanskrit which terminate 

in fft dii — ^ndu, "ship," and r^gldu, " moon'': the former 
has navigated very far on the ocean of our wide province of 


language, without, however, in Sanskrit, having arrived at a 
secure etymological haveB. I believe ^ ndu to be an abbre- 
viation of snau (cf. peo), peuca, ruo^ with ^ sru, p. 125 G. ed.)f 
[G. Ed. p. 146.] and that it therefore proceeds from the root 
Wl snd, "to bathe,"' which originally, perhaps, may also have 
meant ''to swim,'" and with which v<ia>, t/6a>, na-to, appear to 
be connected. ^^^ ndu would consequently be a radical word ; 
and in regard to the vowel would stand for nd, according to 

the analogy of l^ daddu (dedi, dedit) for dadd, from dadd-a. 
As a, according to §. 6., is a grave vowel, the Greek cannot 
represent the Sanskrit Vriddhi-diphthong ^ du better than 
by av, while wt 6 (from short a'\-u) is commonly repre- 
sented by €v or ov. Hence fftn ndu-s and vaG-j correspond 
as exactly as possible; the v of NAY, however, like that 
of BOY, has maintained itself only before consonants ; and 
the digamma, which replaces it, is lost before vowel in- 
flexions; v^-ey, va-er, are from vdf-ey (Sansk. ffn?! ndv-as), 
as )8d-6^ from l36F-e^. The Latin has given this word a 
foreign addition, and uses navls, navi-bus, for nau-8, natirbus.^ 
As the semi-vowel t; is easily hardened to a guttural 
(§. 19.), we have here also, for nau, ndv-am, a sister form 
in our Nachen, Old High German naccho, " ship,** gen. dat 

125. We pass over to the consonants: of these, n, /, s, 
and r appear in Sanskrit most frequently at the end of 
primary forms ; all other consonants occur only in radical 
words, which are rare, and in some nominal bases of uncer- 
tain origin. We consider next the more rare or radical 
consonants. Of gutturals {k, kh, g, gh) we find none at 

* Thus in German an t has been added to the above-mentioned sj^ 
g(% which, however, according to §, 117., is suppressed, together with the 
case sign in Old High German; hence chuo, "cow," gen. chuot, where 
the t does not belong to the case designation, but to the here uninflected 


the end of the Domiual bases most in use ; in Greek and 

Latin, on the contrary, they are of frequent occurrence; 

c is in Latin both radical and derivative, [G. Ed. p. 147.] 

g only radical— DC/C, VORAC, EDAC, LEG. In Greek, 
K, j^ and y are only radical, or occur in words of unknown 

origin, as 4»PIK, KOPAK, 'ONYX (Sanskrit nakha), 4»A0r. 
Of the palatals, ch andj in Sanskrit occur most frequently in 
^vdcft, "speech, voice" (VOC, 'OD); TTi^ rdj, "king," the 
latter only at the end of compounds ; ^raw asrij, *' blood " 
(sanguis) : in Zend we have ^2^ druj, f., as name of an 
evil demon, probably from the Sanskiit root ^ druh " to 
hate/' Of the two classes of the T-sound, the first, or 
lingual (^ f &c.), is not used at the end of nominal bases ; 
and therefore the second, dental, or proper T-class, is so 

much the more frequently employed. Still ?^ d, ^ ci/i, occur 
only in radical words, and therefore seldom ; "^ th perhaps 
only in i?^ path, as the secondary theme of ^P^ paihin, 
"way''; nom. YpqmpanfAdv, from Jl^im^ parUhas, which I 
think I again recognise in the Latin PONT, pons. Other 

examples are, 'W^ ad, " eating," at the end of compounds, 
and 'jg^^yudh9 f., "strife." The letter 7^ i is so much the 
more common, that several of the most frequently employed 

suffixes end with it, as that of the part. pres. in ^n^ at or 
^BP^ ant^ Greek and Latin nt The Greek, besides t, ex- 
hibits also S and 6 at the end of primary forms which are not 
radical ; still KOPY0 and *OPNI0 appear to me to be pro- 
perly compounds, and to contain the roots 0H, 0E (the vowel 
being dropped) as their last member ; and according to this, 
KOPY0 would properly mean " what is placed on the head"; 
so in Sanskrit, ^j^ sarad, ** autumn," " rainy season," 
trhich Grammarians explain by a suffix ad, in my opinion 
means nothing but " water giving," and contains the root 
?r dd, "to give," with d suppressed. 'OPNI0 finds in 
Greek itself no etymology : the Sanskrit offisrs for its expla- 
nation W[fyi arani (according to the pronunciation of Ben- 
gal, oronf), "wood"; and it opvt is con- [G. Ed. p. 148.] 


iiected therewith, we may refer to flew, " to run," in respect 
to tlie 0: "bird" therefore would derive its name from its 
going in the wood; while in Sanskrit, from its passage 

through the air, it is called, among other names, Ot^Jl 
viha-ga^ Regarding the later origin of the S in feminine 
bases in /$, an account is given in §. 119.; that is to say, 
patronymics in tS may be compared with Sanskrit ones in /, 
e.g. ^ift hhaimu " the daughter of Bhima. Probably, too, 
the $ in feminine patronymics in a$ is a later addition ; they 
spring, like those in i9, not from their masculines, but directly 
from the primary word of the masculine, and, in my opinion, 
stand in sisterly, not in filial connection with them. In 
Latin, c2 appears as a more modern affix in tlie base PECUDy 
which the Sanskrit, Zend, and Gothic terminate with u 
(Sans.-Zend, pasu, Goth, faihu). In Gothic, primary forms 
with a final T-sound are chiefly limited to the part pres., 
where the old t appears changed into d, which remains 
without extraneous addition: tliere only, however, where 
the form stands substantively; otherwise, with the excej>- 
tion of tlie nominative, it is conducted by the affix an 
into a more current province of declension. The more 
modern German dialects under no circumstances leave the 
old r-sound without a foreign addition commixed witli 
the base. In Lithuanian the participial suffix ant, in re- 
gard of the nom. sing, aiis for ants, rests exactly upon 
tlie Latin and Zend step, which extends beyond the San- 
skrit; but in most of the remaining cases the Lithuanian 
cannot decline any more consonants, Le. cannot unite 
them with pure case terminations, but transports them 
always, by a more modern affix, into a vowel-declension; 
and, indeed, to the participial suffix ant is added the 
[G. Ed. p. 149.] syllable ia, by the influence of which 
the t experiences the euphonic transformation into ch 
(= tsch^). The nasal of this dental T-class, viz. the 

* This sound is expressed by cz, as in Miekke's edition of llulii^'s 


proper r?, belongs to those consonants which occur most 
frequently at the end of nominal bases. In the German 
all the words of Grimm^s weak declension like the San- 
skrit, and tlie masculine and feminine in Latin, reject in 
the nominative the n of the base, and thereby have a 
vowel termination. The Lithuanian presents the same 
appearance in the nominative, but in most of the oblique 
cases adds to a base in en sometimes ia, sometimes a 
simple f. 

126. Primary forms with a final labial, including the 
nasal (m) of this organ, appear in Sanskrit only in naked 
roots, as the last member of compounds, and here, too, 
but seldom. In isolated use, however, we have l((l^ ap 

(probably from the root ^n^ dp, '* to take in,'^ " to compre- 
hend"), "water," which is used only in the plural; in 
Zend, however, in the singular also.* In Greek and Latin, 
also, bases in p, b, 0, are either evidently radical, or of 
unknown origin, with probably radical letters at the end; 
or in Latin they have suppressed, in the nominative, a 
vowel belonging to the base ; and so, as in [G. £d. p. 150.] 
German, the first and fourth strong declensions, according 
to Grimm, have only the appearance of a base terminating 
with a consonant. Of this kind is plebs, from plebh; to 
explain which it is not requisite to turn, with Voss, to 
the Greek irXrjOo^ : one must keep to the Latin root PLJS, 
The derivative hisy bes\ I explain like bus, bundus, bills, bam. 

* The Latin adds an a to this old consonantal base, and thus arises, 
according to the frequent interchange of p with qu (cf. quinque with 
q ^j pancltan), aqua ; on the other hand, am^nis rests on the form op, 
as 9omnu8 for 9opnu8^ and fT€fiv6sy for a-tftvos, in analogy with a Sanskrit 
cnphouic law (Gramm. Crit. r. 58.). llie Sanskrit has ftrom the samo 
root anotlier neater, ^sn^nr itpas^ in which we recognise the Latin {pquor, 
which therefore would not proceed from lequusy but is transferred from 
the waves, or the mirror of the sea, to other things of a similar nature. 
In Greek, d(pp6s appears to belong to the same origin. 


60 (amabam, -bo), as from the root FU, " to be," which, like 
FER, often changes the B in its middle into F (§. 18.). 
Without appealing to the cognate languages, it is difficult, in 
Latin, to distinguish those bases which truly and origi- 
nally terminate in a consonant from those which only ap- 
pear to do so; for the declension in i has clearly operated 
on the consonantal declension, and introduced an 7 into dif- 
ferent places in which it is impossible it could have stood 
originally. In the dative and ablative plural, the i of forms 
like amantibus, vocibus, admits of being explained as a con- 
junctive vowel, for facilitating the affix; it is, however, 
in my opinion, more correct to say that the bases VOQ 
AMANT, &c., because they could not unite with bus, have, 
in the present state of the Latin language, been lengthened 
to VOCI, A MA NT I; so that we ought to divide voci-bus, 
amanti'bus, just as at §. 125. it was said of the Lithuanian, 
that in most cases it extends its participial bases in ant to 
anchia (euphonic for antia). This view of forms like amanti- 
'bus is proved to be the more probable, in that in the geni- 
tive plural also before wwi, as before the a of neuters, an i 
frequently finds its place, witliout its being possible to say 
tliat in amanti'Umi amanti-a, the i would be necessary to 
facilitate the annexation of the ending. On the other 
hand, juveni-s, cani-s, forming the genitives canu-m, juvcn- 
-wm, remind us of older bases in n ; as in Sanskrit ig^ 
iwaut " a dog '^ (abbreviated ws^^ sun)* and J^'^ yuvan^ 
" young'' (abbreviated ^ yun), in Greek kvu)v, abbreviated 
[G. Ed. p. 161.] KYN, really close their theme with w. The 
German resembles the Latin in this point, that for the 
convenience of declension it has added an i to several nume- 
rals, whose theme originally terminated with a conso- 
nant; thus, in Gothic, from FID FORI (Sanskrit ^mix 
chatur, in the strong cases §. 129. MWT chntwAr) comes the 
dative fidvori-m. The themes ITRH saptan, " seven," t^^R 
nuvan, ** nine," ^^ra damn, ** ten,'' by the addition of an /, 


in Old High German mould themselves to SIBUNL 
NIUNI, ZEHANI] which forms, at the same time, pass as 
masculine nominatives, as these cases, in Old High German, 
have lost the case-sufRx 8, The corresponding Gothic 
nominatives, if they occurred, would be sibunei-s, niunei-s^ 
iaihunei'S. More on this point hereafter. 

127. Of the semi- vowels (y, r, /, v), I have never 
found in Sanskrit i^ y and ^ / at the end of bases, and 
^ V only in the word f?^ div, before mentioned, which 
contracts itself in several cases to if^ dy6 and ^ dyu. On 
the other hand, T occurs very frequently, especially in 
words which are formed by the suffix H^ tar* to which, in 
the cognate languages, likewise correspond bases in r. 
Moreover, r in Latin appears frequently as an alteration 
of an original s, as, in the comparative suffix ior (San- 
skrit fro iyas) ; and, further, as an abbreviation of ri-s, 
re, as I for lis, le ; or, in the second declension, as abbre- 
viated from ru's; as in Gothic, vair, "man," for vair(a)», 
belongs to bases in a (§. 116.). In Greek *AA appears as a 
consonantal base ; but in contrast with the [G. £d. p. 152.] 
Sanskrit igf^j;^ salila, " water," aVr appears abbreviated 
exactly in the same manner as yicya-q from /xeYoAoj . 

128. Of the Sanskrit sibilants, the two first (^ s, \ ah), 
as also the w A, are found only in radical words, and there- 
fore seldom; ^ s, on the contrary, concludes some very 
common suffixes used in the formation of words, as ^m as, 
which forms principally neuters, e.gr. T^iTEr Ujas, "splendour," 
" strength,'' from fK\ tiff " to sharpen." The Greek ap- 
pears to be without bases in 2; this, however, proceeds 
from the following reason, that this sibilant between two 

* Bases in ^Rf^ ur in several cases, and in the primary form also at tlie 
beginning of componnds, contract the syllabic ^Rf^ ar to ^ ri ; and this 
ri is regarded by the Grammarians as their proper final sound. (;. 1.) 


vowels, especially in the last syllable, is usually rejected ; 
bcDce, neuters like fxevog, yevo^ (from MENE2, rENE2, 
with change of the e into o), form in the genitive /lei/eoj, 
yeveog, for fiiveao^, yeveao^. The y of the nominative, 
however, belongs, as I have already elsewhere remarked, 
to the base, and not to the case designation, as neuters 
have no ; in the nominative. In the dative plural, how- 
ever> in the old epic language, the 2, as it did not stand 
between two vowels, maintained itself; hence revxea-ai, 
opea-a^t ; so likewise in compounds, like (raicef-7ra\oj, reKeg- 
^po£, in which it would be wrong to assume the annexation 
of a 2 to the vowel of the base. In yfjpa^, yfjpa-og, for 
yrjpa<T-og, after restoring the 2 of the base, the form of word 
answers exactly to the Sanskrit ^TOl^^ara^, "age," although 
the Indian form is not neuter, but feminine. In Lithua- 
nian, another remarkable remnant of the Sanskrit suffixes 
terminating with s has been preserved, viz. in the partic. 
perf., in the oblique cases of which us corresponds to the 
Sanskrit "9^ ush (euphonic for ti^ us) of the weakest cases 
(§. 130.); still, in Lithuanian, on account of the above- 
noticed incapacity for the declension of the consonants, the 
old us is conducted, as in other similar cases, by the subse- 
quent addition of ia, a or i, partly into the a, partly into the 
[G. Ed. p.'16d.] t declension; and only the nominative and 
the vocative, which is the same with it, belong, in the singular, 
to the consonantal declension. 

129. The Sanskrit and Zend have eight cases, viz. be- 
sides those which exist in Latin, an instrumental and a 
locative. These two cases exist also in Lithuanian; 
Ruhig calls the former the instrumental ablative, the latter 
the local ablative ; in Lithuanian, however, the proper abla- 
tive — which in Sanskrit expresses the relation " whence ?" — 
is wanting. With reference to the primary form, which 
in Sanskrit does not remain the same in all words, or 


suffixes used in the formation of words through all the eases, 
a division of the cases into strong and weak is desirable 
for this language. The strong eases are the nominative, 
accusative, and vocative of the three numbers, with excep- 
tion of the accusative plural, which, together with all the 
other cases, is weak. Where a double or triple formation 
of the primary form exists, there, with surprising regu- 
larity, the cases which have been designated as strong 
always exhibit the fullest form of the theme, which, from 
a comparison of languages, is proved to be the original 
one; while the other cases exhibit a weakened form of it, 
which appears also in the beginning of compounds, and 
hence is represented by the native Grammarians, accord- 
ing to §. 122., as the proper primary form. The pres. 
part, may serve as an example : it forms the strong cases 
with the suffix ant, but in the weak cases and in the be- 
ginning of compounds rejects n, which is retained by the 
cognate European languages, as also, for the most part, 
by Zend ; so that mr at is given as the suffix of this par- 
ticiple in preference to trST ant. The root TO tud^ " to vex/^ 
e.g. exhibits in the participle mentioned the form 7R[Sir iti- 
'dant as the strong and original theme (cf. tundent'em), 

andir^ tudat as the weak theme; hence the masculine 
is declined, [G. Ed. p. 154.] 


Singular : Nom. Voc. w^ t^ tudan 

Ace. i|^*fl«i tudantam 

Instr. ij^tudatd. 

Dat. f^iudali. 

Abl. ir^m tudaias. 

Gen. in^fT^ tudata^. 

Loc. K^fH tudatu 

Dual: Nom. Ace. Voc. K^^tudantdu 

Instr. Dat. Abl. • 3^"^ tudadhhydnu 

Gen. Loc. w^ll^ iudaids. 



Plural : Nom. Voc. . . H^HPff tudantas 

Ace. K^ins tudata^, 

Instr. W^fk^ tudadbhis. 

Dat Abl. S^VTT tudadhhyas. 

Gren. iT^irnT tudatAm, 

Loc. "^jl^ tvdatsu. 

130. Where three formations of the primary form per- 
vade the declension of a word or a suffix, the weakest form 
of the theme there occurs in those weak cases whose termina- 
tions begin with a vowel, the middle form before those case- 
suffixes which commence with a consonant. This rule makes 
a division of the cases into strong, weaker or middle, and 
weakest, desirable. (See Gramm. Crit. r. 185.) 

131. In suffixes used in the formation of words, which in 
Sanskrit separate into different forms, the Zend usually carries 
the strong form through all the cases ; for instance, the part. 
pres. retains the nasal in most of the cases, which in Sanskrit 

[G. Ed. p. 166.] proceed from the weakened theme. Words, 
however, are not wanting which follow the theory of tlie 
Sanskrit gradations of form. Thus, the Sanskrit base 
iff^ swaru " hound,'' which in the weakest cases is con- 
tracted to ^Tf mUf appears in Z^nd likewise in a double 
form, and presents the weak genitive iiin-6 over against 
the strong nominative and accusative sjhX ipdn-em, San- 
skrit iBTT swd, WRt »wdnam (§. 50.). The base ap, " water,'' 
which, in Sanskrit, in the strong cases has a long f% but 
is not used in the singular, forms in the Zend the stron<^ 
sing. nom. jj^^m Afs (§. 40.), accus. 9^Q)jai dpem; on the 
other hand, ap-d, " of the water," ap-at, " from the water," &c.''^ 

* This word occurs in the Codex of the V. S., edited by Bumouf, very 
frequently, and mosdy with that qoantity of the initial a which is 
required by the theory ; so that where that is not the case it can only 
be imputed to an error in writing. 


In the plural, where the Zend very frequently makes the 
nominative and accusative the same, confusion has, for 
this reason, crept in ; and the weak ^y^JJ sund, " canest^ 
is found for ^jma^m spdno in the nominative ; and, on the 
other hand, the strong ^m dp6, in the nominative as well 
as in the accusative.* 

132. The Greek, in the declension of Kvuyvt has limited the 
strong form to the nom. and voc. sing. : in [G. £d. p. 156.] 
some cognate words in p, however, in accordance with the 
Sanskrit, it has given the accusative also the strong form, in 
which the Gothic agrees with it. Compare irar^p, rfrarepa, 
Trdrep, itarpi with fVnn pitA, f^Urcj{^ pUararru f^nr^ pitar, flifti 
piiri (locat.); and the Gothic brdlhar, as nom., accus., and 
vocat., opposed to brdthrSf " of the brother," brStlir, " to the 
brother,"' with the Sanskrit >nin bhrdidf HUTST hhr&taram^ 
mfC\ bhrdtar, dative HT% bhrdtrij locat. Hlff bhrdtrL Accord- 
ing to the same principle in bases in an, in Gothic, the a in 
the genitive and dative sing, is weakened to i (§. 140.) ; while 
the nominative, accus., and vocat retain the original a; e.g, 
ahmaf ahmin-s, ahmin, ahman,ahma, from AHMAN, "spirit" 
(§. 140.). 

133. As regards the mode of combining the final vowels 
of the primary forms with case-sufibes beginning with a 
vowel, we must first draw attention to a phenomenon, which 
is almost limited to the Sanskrit, and the dialects which 

* I have, however, found also i{iq)a} opd in the accusative; and am 
therefore in douht, whether in this word, owing to the facile exchange of 
JO a and ju) d, the confusion has not originated in mere graphical over- 
sights. Thus, V. S. p. 21, we find; gus^jvJOj^At^ Mi^^^yjl} ^^ma 

A)«>3A>^^JU) juo^y^A5t^AS gu]^JUL}^^4<A}9 dpo vanhuU vahistdo mazda- 
dhdtdo cuhaonU dijcU, *' aquas puras, optimas, ah Ormuzdo creatas, mundas 
celebro"; and ^a)ju) cu](2)j9^(p vUpdo dpo, ^'omnes aquas." On the 

other hand, in the page following: as^jjas^^j a)^jja)q)a} guJ^-^ 

TO^^r^^^jM A5^jd^/A5»/> im/So apas-cha zcmai-cha urardos-rha ^i/f»P, 
^^ /ta/t aquasqtic ttrrfi'^qtie nrhoresque nlchrn.** 



approximate most nearly to it, as Pali and Praki*it, through 
which, to avoid a hiatus, and to maintain pure the vowels 
of the base and of the termination, a euphonic n is introduced. 
This euphonic expedient cannot, in the extent in which it 
exists in Sanskrit, belong to the original state of the lan- 
guage ; otherwise it would not be almost entirely lost in the 
cognate European dialects, and even in the Zend. We there- 
fore regard it as a peculiarity of the dialect, which, after the 
period of the division of languages, became the prevailing 
one in India, and has raised itself to be the universal written 
language in that country. It is necessary here to remark, 
that the Veda language did not use the euphonic n so univer- 
sally as the common Sanskrit ; and together with ^in 
ind, Jj^ indf T^d und, occur also mn oydt ^ iyd, Tm uyd. 
The euphonic n is most frequently employed by the neuter 
[G. Ed. p. 157.] gender, less so by the masculine, and most 
rarely by the feminine : the latter limits its use to the plural 

genitive termination inn dm, in which place it is intro- 
duced by the 2^nd also, although not as indispensably re- 
quisite. And it is remarkable^ that precisely in this place 
in Old High German, and other Old German dialects, an n 
has been retained before the case-sufl&x ; thus in Old High 
German, ahd-nrS, " aquarum*' from the feminine theme AHO 
(nom. aha). Besides the use of the euphonic n, there is fur- 
ther to be remarked, in Sanskrit and Zend, the attachment of 
Guna to the vowels of the base (§. 26.) in certain cases, to 
which also the Gothic presents analogies. 



134. Bases, of the masculine and feminine genders, end- 
ing with a vowel have, in the Sanskrit family of languages, 
(under the limitation of §. 137.) s as nominative-suflBx, which 
in iZend, after an a preceding it, always melts into ti, andjs 
then contracted with the a to d (§. 2.), while tliis in Sanskrit 


takes place only before sonant letters (§. 25.)* Examples 
are given at §. 148. I find the origin of this case-designation 
in the pronominal base fr so, ** he,"" " this,"" fem. m id ; and 
a convincing proof of this assertion is the fact, that the said 
pronoun does not extend beyond the limits of the nom. masc. 
and fem., but is replaced in the nom. neuter, and in the 
oblique cases of the masculine, by in ta, and feminine Ht 
id regarding which more hereafter. 

135. The Gothic suppresses a and i be- [G. Ed. p. 1680 
fore the case-suffix s, except in monosyllabic bases, where 
this suppression is impossible. Hva-s, " who ?" w, "he," are 
used, but vulfs, *• wolf," gast-s, " stranger," for vul/a-s, gasii-s 
(cf hosti'Sf according to §. 87.). In masculine substantive 
bases in^'a (ya), however, the final vowel is retained, only 
weakened to i (§. 66.) ; e, g, haryi-St " army." If, however, 
as is generally the case, the final syllable is preceded by a 

long syllable, or by more than one, the ji (yi) is contracted 


to ei (=f, §. 70.); e.g. ondeis, "end," ragineis^ "counsel," 
for andyis, raginyi-s. This contraction extends also to the 
genitive, which is in like manner denoted by s. To the 
Gothic nominatives in v'-^ correspond the Lithuanian, like 
Atpirktoyi'Sf " Saviour," the i of which has likewise arisen 
from an elder cwf I deduce this from the majority of the 
oblique cases, which agree with those of the a bases. 
Where, however, in Lithuanian, a consonant precedes 
the final syllable ya, which is the more common case, 
there the y is changed into the vowel t, and the follow- 
ing f, which had arisen from a, is suppressed: hence, 
yaunikki'S, " young man," for yaumkkyis from yaunikkyas. 
Hereto correspond in Gothic all adjective bases in ya,t 

* E g, witt W\ sutd mama, ^'filitu meus" ^HHT m iutas tava^ ^^fi'^ 
liustuus'' (?.22.). 

t Through the influence of the y, in accordance with a Zend law of 
euphony (§. 42.). 

I Respecting the nom. e,g, of Gothic bases in yoj tee p. 1309 G. £d., 

L 2 


as midi-s "the middle" (man), for midyi-s from midya-s, 
Sanskrit ^vm madhya-Sf The Zend also, in the vocali- 
zation* of the syllable ya, presents a remarkable analogy 
to the Lithuanian and Gothic in contracting the syllable 
A5>MJ ya before a final 9 m regularly to ^ z, as also AsCp va 

to ^u (§. 42.). 

136. The High German has, up to our time, preserved 
the old nominative sign in the changed form of r; never- 
theless^ as early as in the Old High German^ in pronouns 
and adjectives only, with a vowel termination of the base. 

[G. Ed. p. 159.] The High German is, however, in this 
point, superior to the Gothic in fulness, that in its a bases — 
to which belong all strong adjectives— it has not suppressed 
the vowel before the case-sign, but preserved it in the form 
of ej which, in Old High German — as it appears through 
the influence of the r — ^is long, but only in polysyllabic, 
not in monosyllabic forms. Thus, e,g. plint-er, ^'coecus,'* 
completes the Gothic blinds for blinda-s ; as to the Gothic 
is, "he,** corresponds i-r; Middle and New High German 
e-r. The Old Northern has likewise r as the nomina- 
tive sign, and, in fact, everywhere where, in Gothic, s 
stands. In the other dialects the nominative character is 
entirely lost. 

137. Feminine Sanskrit bases in m d, and, with very 
few exceptions, polysyllables in ^ t, together with ^ stri, 
'*wife,'* like the corresponding forms of the cognate lan- 
guages, have lost the old nominative sign (with tlie exception 
of the Latin ^ bases, see §. 121.), and give the pure base : tlie 
cognate languages do the same, the base having been weak- 
ened by the abbreviation of the final vowel. In Gothic, be- 
comes a (§. 69.); only sd, "this,"' and hwd "which?" remain 
unshortened, on account of their being monosyllabic, as in 
Zend jui^ hd and jm^ kA \ while in polysyllabic forms the 

* I have used vocalization and vocalize to express the change of a semi- 
vowel to its corresponding vowel.— TVflw*. 


Mi d is shortened. In iSend, ^ i also is shortened, even in 
the monosyllabic ^^m strip " wife,'' see V. S. par. 136, (by 
Olshausen), p. 28, where we read as^j^js iiri-cha, ^'femi- 
naque^^; whilst elsewhere the appended as^ cha preserves 
the original length of the vowel. Here, too, the Zend nomi- 
natives in A) ^ deserve to be mentioned, which seem very 
similar to the Greek in ly; as /Of^?^fdpereni, ** plena,'''* which 
in the Vendidad occurs very often in relation to guj< zdOf 
** earth/'' without my being able to remember that I have 
found another case from A^yg^j^o) ppren^. But from the 
nom. jOfjM^ kaini, " maid" (Sanskrit iRn [G. Ed. p. leo.] 
kanyd)f which is of frequent occurrence, I find the accus. 
9|Ai^^yA)^ kanyanm (V. S. p. 420); this furnishes the proof 
that the to 6 in the nominative is generated by the eupho- 
nic influence of the suppressed ^^ y (§. 42.). In a>^^7>^ju^ 
brdturyt^ " cousin,'' and A)^,)^^^ twxyit " a relation in the 
fourth degree" (V. S. p. 380), the ^^ y has remained; on 
the other hand, in io^ma^^j nydki, "grandmother," the 
dropping of a ^^ y must be again assumed. We cannot 
here refrain from conjecturing that the e also of the Latin 
fifth declension, as with very few exceptions it is everywhere 
preceded by an f, is likewise produced from a by the in- 
fluence of this i ; so that the Latin here stands in reversed 
relation to the Greek, where i rejects the combination with 
r}, and preserves the original a (croipia), 

138. Bases of the masculine and feminine genders which 
terminate with a consonant, lose, in Sanskrit, according to 
§. 94., the nominative sign s ; and if two consonants termi- 
nate the base, then, according to tlie same law, the latter of 
these also is lost. Hence, fWiT^ bibhrat, for fwii^ bibhratSf 
'*the bearer"; ir^tudan, for w^^^m^tudant-s **the vexer"; 
^Pf vdk (from ^T^ vdch, t), for ^rB|^ vdk'-sht " speech." 
The Zend, Greek, and Latin, in preserving the nominative 
sign after consonants, stand in an older position than the 
Sanskrit; Zend ao^am df-s (for dps, §.40.), "water" 


jwo^g7f5 k'refsl, "body"; jj^^druc-s (from the base druj\ 
" a demon/' The Latin and Greek, where the final conso- 
nant of the base will not combine with the s of the nomi- 
native, prefer abandoning a portion of the base, as %a|Oif for 
X^P^"'^* comes for comit-s (cf. § 6.). The Latin, ^olic, and 
Lithuanian agree remarkably with the Zend in this point, 

[G. Ed. p. 161.] that nt, in combination with s, gives the 
form 718 ; thus amans, r/flei/y, Lith. sukans (§. 10.), corre- 
spond to the 24end M'^^^m»jm7m srdvayans, "the speaking'^ 

139. A final n after a short vowel is, in Sanskrit, no 
favourite combination of sound, although one not prohibited. 
It is expelled from the theme in the first member of a 

compound, e.g. TXWn rdja-puirat ** king's son,'' for TT9P<nr 
rajan-puira ; and it is rejected in the nominative also, and 
a preceding short vowel is lengthened in masculines; 
€,g, ijm rdjA, " king," from TTiPT rdjan, m. ; tTW ndmat 
*' name," from tTHR n&man, n. ; xi^d dhani, m., vftf dlianU n., 
from vftpT dhanin, "rich." The iSend in this agrees exactly 
with the Sanskf it ; but from the dislike to a long a at the 
end, which has been before mentioned, omits the length- 
ening of the vowel ; e.g. a)»a)i^a) ashava, " the pure " (man), 
from fxi»j6tff)^ ashatatit m. ; m^x^as^ chashmth " eye," from 
f^9t^^^ chashmanf n. The Latin follows the Sanskrit in 
the suppression of the n in the nominative, in the mas- 
culine, and feminine, but not in the neuter: aermo, 
aermon-ts, action octionAs; but Yiomen, not nome or nomo. 
The root can at the end of compounds, refrains from 
rejecting the n, probably in order not to weaken still more 
this weak radical syllable ; thus tubi-centfidi-cen, os-^en (see 
§. 6.). Lien is an abbreviation of lieni-s ; hence the reten- 
tion of the n is not surprising. Pecien stands rather 
isolated. In Sanskrit the naked roots also follow the prin- 
ciple of the rejection of n ; ^ " slaying," " smiting," 
nom. ^ A4 is, however, the only root in n which I have 


met ^ith so used. iffTr twan '' hound/' nom. iGfT iwd, which, 
in the weakest cases, contracts its theme to ig?^ sun, 
is of obscure origin. The Latin lias extended the base 
"^R iwarif in the nominative, by an unorganic addition, 
to cani ; so ^ptf yuvan, '* young,"" has become juveni 
(cf. §. 126.). As regards the opposition [G. Ed. p. 162.] 
between o and i, by which, in several words — as homo, homin- 
-is, arundOf arundtn-is — the nominative is distinguished from 
the oblique cases, this o appears to me a stronger vowel,* 
which compensates for the loss of the n, and therefore is 
substituted for the weaker i; according to the same prin- 
ciple by which, in Sanskrit, the nom. Vrffi dhani;\ comes 
from vf^^ dhanin ; and, in Lithuanian, bases in en and tin 
give, in the nominative, u ( = iio) for e or u. Thus, 
from the bases A KM EN, "stone," SZUNj " hound," come the 
nominatives ahmut szu ; as in Sanskrit, from the primary 
forms of the same signification, iv^in^ asman, iv«^ sivan, 
have arisen w^ asmd and "^r swil It does not follow that 
homin-is has come from homon-isyl because the old language 
had hemoj hemonU^ for homot hominis ; but mon and min are 
cognate sufiixes, signifying the same, and were originally 
one, and therefore may be simultaneously affixed to one and 
the same word. 

140. The German language also rejects a final n of the 
base in the nominative and in the neuter, in the accu- 

* Although its quantity in the actual condition of the language is arbi- 
trary, still it appears to have been originally long, and to imply a similar 
contrast to the Greek iju, €V'Os; tov, ov-os. For the rest it has been 
already remarked, that between short vowels also exists a difference of 
gravity ($. 6.). 

t In bases in ^nT an the lengthening extends to all the strong cases, 

with the exception of the vocat. sing. ; thus, not merely TTifT i^4/^9 ** ^*«*'/* 
but also ill 9| I HI rajdn-am, ^^regem" K}A\A^ rdfdnas^ '^ reges." 

X I now prefer taking the i of hamin-is, &c., as the weakening of the o 
of hcmo. The relation resembles that of Gothic forms like ahmin-is, 
(ihmifL, to the nom and ace. ahma, ahman^ which preserve the original vowel. 


sative also, like Sanskrit. In Gothic, in the masculine 
and neuter — where alone, in my opinion, tlie n has an 
old and original position— an a always precedes the w. 
There are, that is to say, only bases in on, none in in and 
tin; the latter termination is foreign to the Sanskrit also. 

[G. Ed. p. 163.] The a, however, is weakened to i in the 
genitive and dative (see §. 132.); while in Sanskrit, in these 
cases, as especially in the weakest cases (§. 130.), it is entirely 
dropped.* Among masculine bases in an, in Gothic, exist 
several words, in which an is the whole derivative- suffix, 
and which therefore correspond to the Sausk. TTipi raj-an, 
*' king," as " ruler." Thus JH-JN, " spirit," as " thinker '' 
{ah-ya, "I think''), STAU-JN, "Judge" («/au-ya," I judge"), 
whence the nominatives aha, staua. There are also, as in 
Sanskrit, some masculine formations in man ; as, AHMAN^ 
" spirit,'' nom. alima, with which perhaps the Sansk. ^[Tff^ 
dtmam **soul,'' nom. iRTfiTT Atmdt is connected; in case this 
stands for dh-man, and comes from a lost root ^rr^ dh, 
"to think,"t where it is to be remembered that also the 
root Uf^ nalh " to bind,'' has, in several places, changed its 
h into f. The Gothic MILH-MAN, nom. milh-ma, "cloud," 
appears to have sprung from the Sanskrit root mih, by the 
addition of an /, whence, remarkably enough, by the suffix 
fl, and by exchanging the ^ A for '^ gh, arises the nomi- 
nal base ^ migha, " cloud." In Latin ming-o answers to 
fiw mill, and in Greek o-fjifx^-eu) ; the meaning is in the 
three languages the same. 

141. Neuter bases in an, after rejecting the w, lengthen, 
in Gothic, the preceding a to d, in the nominative, accusa- 

♦ In case two consonants do not precede the termination ^ra an ; 
e»g» VIrlfvfn dtman-as^ not dtmn'CL8^h\xi kiWm ndmn-as, not rutman-a^, 

t Perhaps identical with the actually -occurring ^?ra 6h, "to speak," as 
inr wan, "to think," in Zend means also "to speak ; whence xs7(^^^ 
maiUhra^ "speech,** and in Gothic AfUN-THA, nom. munths, "mouth ** 


tive, and vocative, which sound the same ; [G. Ed. p. 164.] 
so that in these cases the Gothic neuter follows the theory of 
the strong cases (§. 129.)f which the Sanskrit neuter obeys 
only in the nom., accus., and vocat plural, where, for ex- 
ample, ^TlTft chatiodr-i, "four,"* with a strong theme, is 
opposed to the weak cases like ^wf^ chaturbhis (instr.), 
^fJ^IPR chaturbhyas. The a, also, of neuter bases in an is 
lengthened in the nominative, accusative, and vocative plural 
in Sanskrit, and in Gothic ; and hence ffniTftT ndrndn-i, 
Gothic namdn-a, run parallel to one another. However, in 
Gothic namn-a also exists, according to the theory of the 
Sanskrit weakest cases (§. 130.)f whence proceeds the plural 
genitive Hl^l^ ndmn-Am, '^nominum^; while the Gothic 
namdn-S has permitted itself to be led astray by the example 
of the strong cases^ and would be better written namn-i or 

142. In the feminine declension in German I can find 
no original bases in r?, as also in Sanskrit there exist no 
feminines in an or in ; but feminine bases are first formed 
by the addition of the usual feminine character ^ i ; as, 
TJlfirdjnt, "queen," from TT^^ rdjan ; vff^ dlianini, "the 
rich'' (fem.), from ifftn^ dlianin, m. n. "rich." Gothic fe- 
minine substantive bases in n exhibit, before this consonant, 
either an 6 ( = in, §. 69.) orei: these are genuine feminine 
final vowels, to which the addition of an n can have been 
only subsequently made. And already, at §. 120., a close 
connection of bases in ein ( = in) with the Sanskrit in ^ (, 
and Lithuanian in ?, has been pointed out. Most substan- 
tive bases in ein are feminine derivatives from masculine- 
neuter adjective bases in a, under the same relation, ex- 
cluding the modern n, as in Sanskrit that of H^^Ci sundari, 
"the fair" (woman), from w^sundara m. n. "beautiful." 
Gothic substantive bases in ein for the most part raise 
the adjective, whence they are derived, to an abstract; 

* Vide p. 1083, Note. 


[G. Ed. p. 165;] e.g. MANAGEIN, "crowd, nom. managei, 
from the adjective hELseMANAGA (nominative masc. manag-s, 
neut managa-ta) ; MIKILEIN^ nom, mikileu " greatness," 
from MIKILA {rrukil-s, mikila^a), "great/" As to feminine 
bases in dn, they have arisen from feminine bases in 6; 
and I have already observed that feminine adjective bases 
in 6n — as BLINDON, nom. blindd, gen, blind&ii-z — must be 
derived, not from their masculine bases in any but from the 
primitive feminine bases in 6 (nom. a, Grimm's strong adjec- 
tives). Substantive bases with the genitive feminine in &n pre- 
suppose older ones in 6 ; and correspond, where comparison 
is made with old languages connected in their bases, to 
Sanskrit feminines in d, Greek in a, i;, Latin in a ; and in 
these old languages never lead to bases with a final n. 
Thus, TUGGON (pronounced tungdn), nom. tuggd, answers 

to the Latin lingua, and to the Sanskrit fif^ jihwd, 
{z=:d8chihwd, see §. 17.); and DAURON, nom. daurd, to the 
Greek 6vpa ; VIDOVON, nom. viddvd, " widow," to the San- 
9krit ^^Hm vidhavd, "the without man" (from the prep. 
fr vi and VW dhava, "man''), and the Latin vidiui. It is 
true that, in MITATHYON, " measure," nom. mUathyd, the 
suffix thy6n completely answers to the Latin tiony e.g. in 
ACTION; but here in Latin, too, the on is a later addition, 
as is evinced from the connection of ti-on with the Sanskrit 
suffix fir ih of the same import, and Greek m-^ (old T/r)» 
Gothic tu (hi, di (see §. 91.). And in Gothic, together with 
the base MITATHYON exists one signifying the same, MI- 
TAT HI, nom. mitaths. In RATHYON, nom. rathyd, "ac- 
count," a relationship with RATION^ at least in respect of 
the suffix, is only a seeming one ; for in Gothic the word is 
[G. Ed. p. 166.] to be divided thus, rath-ydn : the th belongs, 
in the Gothic soil, to the root, whence the strong part, rcdh- 
an{ay8 has been preserved. The suffix ydn, of RATHYON 
therefore corresponds to the Sanskrit yd ; e.g. in f^m vid-yd, 
"knowledge." Of the same origin is GA-RUN-YON, nom. 
garunyd, " inundation."" 


143. If a few members of a great family of languages 
have suffered a loss in one and the same place, this may be 
accident, and may be explained on the general ground, that 
all sounds, in all languages, especially when final, are sub- 
ject to abrasion ; but the concurrence of so many languages 
in a loss in one and the same place points to relationship, 
or to the high antiquity of such a loss; and in the case 
before us, refers the rejection of an n of the base in the 
nominative to a period before the migration of languages, 
and to the position of the original site of the human races, 
which were afterwards separated. It is surprising, there- 
fore, that the Greek, in this respect, shews no agreement 
with its sisters ; and in its v bases, according to the measure 
of the preceding vowel, abandons either merely the nomi- 
native sign, or the v alone, never both together. It is a 
question whether this is a remnant of the oldest period 
of language, or whether the v bases, carried away by 
the stream of analogies in the other consonantal declensions, 
and by the example of their own oblique cases, which 
do not permit the remembrance of the v to be lost, again 
returned, at a comparatively later period, into the common 
and oldest path, after they had experienced a similar 
loss to the Sanskrit, Zend, &c., by which we should be 
conducted to nominative forms like evSai/jLta, euSai/jLo, repri, 
T€p€, ToAo, ToXd? I do not venture to decide with positive- 
ness on this point, but the latter view appears to be the 
more probable. It here deserves to be [G. Ed. p. 167.] 
remarked, that, in German, the n, which in Gothic, in 
the nominative, is always suppressed, has in more modem 
dialects made its way in many words from the oblique 
cases again into the nominative. So early as the Old 
High German this was the case ; and, in fact, in femi- 
nine bases in tn (Gothic ein, §. 70.), which, in the nomi* 
native, oppose to the Gothic ei the full base in : as 
f/uotlihhtn, "glory" (see Grimm, p. 628). In our New High 


German the phenomenon is worthy of notice^ that many 
original n bases of the masculine gender, through a eon- 
fusion in the use of language, are> in the singular^ treated 
as if they originally terminated in nu ; L e. as if they be- 
longed to Grimm's first strong declension. Hence the n 
makes its appearance in the nominative, and the genitive 
regains the sign 9, which, indeed, in Gothic, is not want- 
ing in the n bases, but in High German was withdrawn 
from them more than a thousand years since. Thus, 
Brunnen, Brunnens, is used instead of the Old High Ger- 
man prunno, prunnin, and the Gothic hrunna, brunnin-s. 
In some words, together with the restored n there occurs in 
the nominative, also, the ancient form with n suppressed, as 
Backe or Backen, Same or Samen ; but the genitive has in 
these words also introduced the s of the strong declension. 
Among neuters the word Herz deserves consideration. 
The base is, in Old High German, HERZ AN, in Middle 
High German HERZEN; the nominatives are, herza, 
herze; the New German suppresses, togetlier with the 
n of Herzen, tlie vowel also, as is done by many mas- 
culine n bases; as, e.g. Bar for Bare. As this is not a 
transition into the strong declension, but rather a greater 
weakening of the weak nominative, the form Herzens, 
therefore, in the genitive, for an uninflected Herzen, is sur- 
[G. Ed. p. 168.] prising. With this assumed or newly-re- 
stored inflection s would be to be compared, in Greek, the 
nominative y, as of 5e\^/-r, /xe\a-y; and with the n of Brun- 
nen for Brunne, the v of ial/JLUiv, repriv ; in case, as is ren- 
dered probable by the cognate languages, these old forms 
have been obtained from still older, as ie\^i, /jLcKa, Satfica, Tep)/, 
by an unorganic retrogade step into the stronger declension.* 

* That, in Greek, the rennnciation of a y of the base is not entirely 

unknown may be here shewn by an interesting example. Several 

cardinal numbers in Sanskrit conclnde their base with tf n; viz. 



144. Bases in w^ ar (^ re, §. 1.) in Sanskrit reject the r in 
the nominative, and, like those in ^ n, lengthen the pre- 
ceding vowel ; e,g, from fcniT pitar^ "father," ^mnf bhrdtar, 
*' brother,'' iTTiT^ mdtar, "mother,** jf^n^^ duhitar, *' daughter," 
come Ann pitd, mwi bhrdtA mm mdtd, jfipCT duhitd. The 
lengthening of the a serves^ I believe^ as a compensation 
for the rejected r. As to the retention, however, through 
all the strong cases, excepting the vocative, of the long a 
of the agent, which corresponds to Greek formations in 
T7JP, Tu>p, and to Latin in tor, this takes place because, in all pro- 
bability, in these words iTR tdr, and not w^ tor, is the 
original form of the suffix; and this is also supported by 
the length of the suffix being retained in Greek and Latin 
through all the cases — ri/p, rap, tdr; only [G. Ed. p. 160.] 
that in Latin a final r, in polysyllabic words, shortens an 
originally long vowel. Compare 


Nom. sing. ^»nn ddtd, Sor^/p, dator, 

Ace. sing. ^lAKi^ ddtdr-am, SoTrjp-a, dator-em, 

N. A. V. dual, ^nrm ddtdr-au, Sor^p-e, 

Nom. Voc. pi. ^nnXV ddtdr-as, SoTrjp^eg, dator-es. 

The Zend follows the analogy of the Sanskrit, both in the 
rejection of the r in the nominative, and in the lengtli 

pancharu, " five," saptaii, " seven,** ashtan with ashtau, " eight," navauy 
"nine," daian^ "ten." These numerals are, indeed, used adjectively, 
when they are not governed hy the gender of their substantive, but display 
always a neuter form, and indeed, which is surprising, in the nominative, 
accusative, and vocative sing, terminations, but in tlie other cases the suit- 
able plural endings ; e.g. jp^ ilHI«f^ pancha (not panckdnas) rdjdnas 
**quinqne reges"] on the other hand, ITOT l^l^m panduisu rdfam "in 
quinque regibus.** To the neuter nominatives and accusative of the sin- 
gular X|^ pancha, JHf sapta, tfCf ruztMX, and ^^ dasa — which rest on the 
regular suppression of the n— answer the Greek Tr€VT€t iirrd, iwia^ ^tKa^ 
with the distinction that they have become quite indeclinable, and retain 
the old uninfected nominative through all the cases. 


of the precediDg a of the noun agents in the same places 
as in the Sanrkrit, with the exception of the nominative sin- 
gular^ where the long a, as always when final, is shortened ; 
e.^.As^jAto) paiia, "father/' j^^M^ddta, "giver,'' "Creator ;" 
ace. ^^At^jAto) paitar-emt (^^joi^am^ ddtdr-em. In Lithua- 
nian there are some interesting remains, but only of femi- 
nine bases in er, which drop this letter in the nomina- 
tive, but in most of the oblique cases extend the old 
er base by the later addition of an i. Thus mote, ** wife/ 
dukte ** daughter,'' answer to the abovementioned min 
m&bA, cf^WT duhitA\ and, in the plural, moter-es, dukter^esp to 
nviRj9 mdtar^aSf ^^KT^ duhitar-as. In the genitive singu- 
lar 1 i^egard the form moier-Si dukter-s, as the elder and 
more genuine, and moterUs, dukteriis, as corruptions be- 
longing to the i bases. In the genitive plural the base 
has kept clear of this unorganic t ; hence, moter-ii, dukter-ti, 
not moteri'Aj dukteri-H. Besides the words just mentioned, 
the base SESSER, "sister,*' belongs to this place: it 

answers to the Sanskiit ^^ swasar, nom. ^^ swasd; but 
distinguishes itself in the nominative from mote and dukte, 

in that the e, after the analogy of bases in en, passes info u, 
thus sessh. 

[G. Ed. p. 170.] 145. The German languages agree in their 
r bases (to which but a few words belong denoting affinity) 
with the Greek and Latin in this point, that, contrary to the 
analogy just described, they retain the r in the nominative. 
As itarffp, yaiTYip, Ovy arrjp, Sa^p (Sanskrit, ^?r^ divar, ^dhri, 
nom. ^ dSvd), frater, soror ; so in Gothic, brdthar, svistar, 
dauhtar ; in Old High German, vatar, pruodar, suestar, tohtar. 
It is a question whether this r in the nominative is a rem- 
nant of the original language, or, after being anciently 
suppressed, whether it has not again made its way in the 
actual condition of the language from the oblique cases 
into the nominative. I think the latter more probable ; 
for the Sanskrit, Zend, and Lithuanian are three witnesses 


for the antiquity of the suppression of the r; and the 
Greek words like itaTrjp, fifJTvip, ccoiTi^p, pr^oip, exhibit some- 
thing peculiar and surprising in the consonantal declension, 
in that p and £ not combining, they have not rather pre- 
ferred giving up the base-consonant than the case-sign (as 
7ra7f, irov£, &c.). It would appear that the form njs is of 
later origin, for this reason, that the p having given place 
to the nominative y, the form -ny-y, whence Trjp-o^ should 
come, was, by an error of language, made to correspond to 
the tj-£ of the first declension. The want of a cognate 
form in Latin, as in Zend and Sanskrit, as also the, in 
other respects, cognate form and similarity of meaning 

with iTK tdr, to-r, Tqp and tco/o, speak at least plainly enough 
for the spuriousness and comparative youth of the nouns of 
agency in Tjyy. 

146. Masculine and feminine primary forms in ^n as 
in Sanskrit lengthen the a in the nominative singular. 
They are, for the most part, con^pounded, and contain, as 
the last member, a neuter substantive in Y« as, as §^«ri( 
durmanas, ** evil-minded," from gir^ dus [G. Ed. p. 171.] 
(before sonant letters — §. 25. — ^ dur) and ws{^ manast 
*' mind,^^ whence the nom. masc. and fem. d^Hlll durman&St 
neut. g%«ner durmanas. A remarkable agreement is here 
shewn by the Greek, in Sva/jLCv^s, 6, ^ opposed to to Sva/xeveg. 

The ^ s of ^4«ITTr durmands, however, belongs, though 
unrecognised, to the base ; and the nominative character is 
wanting, according to §. 94. In Greek, on the other hand, 
the y of SwTjxev^g htis the appearance of an inflexion, because 
the genitive, &c.,is not iva'fiev€a''og, like the Sanskrit ^Ihnnf 
dtermanas'as, but ivafieveog. If, however, what was said at 
§. 128 is admitted, that the f of jxevos belongs to the base, and 
fjieveog is abbreviated from /x^v6(r-of, then in the compound 
Svcfievrig also, and all similar adjectives, a 2 belonging to 
the base must be recognised, and the form SvcfieveiTog 
must lie at the bottom of the genitive ivtrfxeveog. In the 


nominative, therefore, either the y belongs to the base, and 
then the agreement with wkmrt durmands would be com- 
plete ; or the j of the base has been dropped before the case- 
sign y. The latter is, in my opinion, least probable; for the 
former is supported by the Latin also, where the forms which 
answer to the Sanskrit as bases are in the nom. masc. and 
fem. in like manner without the ease-sign. Thus the San- 
skrit comparative suffix is fijT^^ iyas — the last a but one of 
which is lengthened in the strong cases, and invested with a 
dull nasal (Anuswara, §. 9.) — in Latin, tor, with the s changed 
into r, which so frequently happens ; and the nominative in 
both genders is without the case-sign : the originally long o, 
however, is shortened by the influence of the final r. In the 
neuter us corresponds to the Sanskrit W9 as, because u is 
favourable to a final s, and prevents its transition into r ; 

hence gravius has the same relation to the Sanskrit infhni 
gariyas (irregular from in^ guru, "heavy,'') as lupus to 

[G. Ed. p. 172.] ^^ra^ vrikas, only that the s of the nomi- 
native character in the latter belongs in the former to the 
base. The final syllable or, though short, must nevertheless 
be held, in Latin, as graver than us, and hence gravior forms 
a similar antithesis to gravius that in Greek Svo'fievi^g does to 
Svcfjieve^, and in Sanskrit ^^tTTH durmands to s^tfTT durmanas. 

147. In Lithuanian a nominative, which stands quite 
isolated, minu ( = fnenMo), " moon'' and "month," deserves 
here to be mentioned : it proceeds from the primary form 
MENES*, and, in regard to the suppression of the final 
consonant and the transformation of the preceding vowel, has 
the same relation to it that, as above (§. 139.), aJcmu has 

* The relation of this to l^m fnds, which signifies the same — from ITRI 
mds^ ^'to measure," withoat a derivative suffix — is remarkable ; for the 
interposed nasal syllable ne answers to the Sanskrit vf na in roots of the 
seventh class (see p. 118); and in this respect MENES bears the same 
relation to the Latin MENSI that 1. c. fi|«TfR bhinadmi does io fndo. 


to AKMEN, 8€ssu to SESSER : in tlie oblique cases, also, 
the s of the base again re-appears, but receives, as in the 
er and en bases, an unorganic increase : thus the genitive 
is menosh, whence MENESIA is the theme ; as wilko, **lupi,'' 
from WILKA, nom. wilka-s. 

148. In neuters, throughout tlie whole Sanskrit family of 
languages the nominative is identical with tlie accusative^ 
which subject is treated of at §. 152. &c. We here give a 
general view of the nominative formation, and select for the 
several terminations and gender of the primary forms, both 
for these cases and for all others which suit our purpose, the 
following examples: Sanskrit ^ vrika, m. "wolf;" m ka, 
" whor ^nr dAna, n. "gift;" W tn, n. "this;" f^3rjilnvd, 
f." tongue;" liT id, •* which T irfiT/)o<z, m. "lord," "husband;" 
li\fiH pri%{. "love;" mh^vdrij n. "water;" vff^v^pi^bltavishyanti, 
"who is about to be;" ^sunu, m. " son;" [G. Ed. p. 173.] 
W^ tanu, f. " body ;" nv madhu, n. " honey,'* " wine ;" ^ 
vadhuj f. "wife;" iftgd^ m. f. "bullock," "cow;" f^nd«, f. 
" ship." Of the consonantal declension we select only such 
final consonants as occur most frequently, whether in single 
words or in entire classes of words: ^r^ vdch, f. " speech ''♦; 
HT^ bharant, in the weakened form, Hr?^^ bharaf (§. 129.) m. 
n. " bearing," " receiving," from H^ bhar (h bhri) cl. 1. ; 
^HW^ Atmanf m. "soul;" rnunT ndman, n. "name;" HTWT 
bhrdtar.m, "brother;" jf^HT duhitar, f. "daughter;" !;tw^ 
ddlar, m. " giver ;" TTO vachas, n. " speech," Greek, "EriES. 
eiro^ (§§. 14. 128.), for fEIIES, Feiro^. Zend, xs^7^<^verh]ca, 
m. "wolf;" A5^ ifca, m. "who?" a5^.us^ ddta, n. datum; Asp 
try, n. "this;" jm»^s^ hizvA, f. "tongue;" jm^M, "which?" 

* Masculines and feminines in the consonantal declension agree in all 
cases : hence an example of one of the two genders is sufficient. The 
only exception is the accusative plural of words denoting relationship in 
^nr ar (^, \J. 114.), which form this case from the abbreviated theme in 



me am: 
uoa V ; >(DA5|y maanu, n. wiiic^ ^^ g6t u*. i. uuhula. 
[G. Ed. p. 174.] "cow''*; ^am(p vdch, f. "speech^ "voice " |; 
^^Aj^Aii barant, or ^^£^ barent, weakened form ^ajTvu 
Aflrot m. n. "bearing;*' yAs^^At asman, m. "heaven;" fJ^^M}f 
ndman (also y^s^^y wonmati), n. "name;" /Aj^jusi brdtar^ 

* It IiHS been remarked at ^^ 123 of the cognate nom. gufr 2'/^, 
"earth," accus. ^v\*< zahm, that I have only met with these two cases. 
The very common form ^c^ «^, which is found only in the other 
obliqne cases, is nevertheless represented by Bumouf, in a veiy interesting 
article in tho Journal des Savnns (Ang. 1832)^ which I only met with 
after that page had been printed, as belonging to the same theme. 
I agree with him on this point at present, so much the rather as I beh'eve 
I can account for the relationship of As^J < zem/}, " terra^ (dat.) Jff f 

zemiy " in terra" &c. to tlie Sanskrit ij^ gavC\ T\f^ gavL 1 do not doubt, 
that is to say, that, in accordance with what has been remarked at J.CO. 
and p. 114, the Zend ^ ni \b to be regarded as nothing else than the 

hardening of the original i\ The Indian ift gOy iKffore vowel terminations 
gav, would consequently have made itself almost unintelligible in the 
meaning " earth," in Zend, by a double alteration ; first by the transition 
of // to z, in which j must be assumed as the middle step — in wliich 
e.g. ^AJ^y«7w, " to go," from im gam, has remained ; secondly, by the 
hardening of the v to fw. Advert, also, to the Greek 5i;, for 77, in dT)firjTT]f) ; 
since d and f z, from ^j (=efoc^), have so divided themselves in the 
sound whence they have sprung^ tliat the Greek has retained the T-sound, 
the Zend the sibilant. 

f I cannot quote the nominative of this word ; but it can only be 
M^Aul^ vdc'S, as palatals before jtv) s change into ^ c ; and thus, from 

u> /A dru;, "an evil demon," occurs very frequently the nom. j^v>^>^ 
druc-9. I have scarcely any doubt, too, that what Anquetil, in his 
Vocabulary, writes vdhksch, and renders by "parler, cri," is the nomi- 
native of the said base ; as Anquetil everywhere denotes ^ by kh, and 
ju^ by itch, 

t In the theme we drop, intentionally, the c e required by §. 44, as it 

is dear that ^^jus^l hrdtar^ not cAs^au^ brdtare^ must be the base 

word ; As^As^LI baratar also occurs, with a) a interposed. 



m. " brother;" ^Aj^^gvj duj/Zjc^ar, f. "daughter;" 7a>^am^ 
dAtar, m. "giver," "creator ;" \^»») vach6, n. (§. 56 ^) 
" word." It is not requisite to give here examples in Greek 
and Latin : from Lithuanian and Gothic we select the bases, 
Litb. WILKA, Goth. VULFA, ni. " wolf;" Lith. KA, Goth. 
HFA, m. "who?" Lith. GERA, n. "good;" TA, n. "the;" 
Goth. DAVRA, n. "gate," (Sanskrit, »ft dwAra, n.); THA, 
n. "this." Lith. RANKA, f. "hand;" Goth, G/50, f. " gift" 
(§. 69.); HVO, f." which?"; Lith. PATI, m. "Lord"*; Goth. 
GASTI, m. "stranger;" 7, m. "he," n. [G. Ed. p. 175.] 
"it;" Lith. AWI, f. "sheep," (Sansk. ^f^ avi, m. cf. ovU, 
oij); Goth. ANSTI, f."mercy;" Lith. Goth. SUNV, m. " son;" 
Goth. HANDU, f. "hand;" Lith. DARKU, n. "ugly;" Goth. 
FAIHU, n. "beast;" Lith. SVKANT, m.t "turning; Goth. 
FIYAND. m. "foe;" Lith. AKMEN, m. "stone;" Goth. 
AHMAN, m." spirit;" N AM AN, n."ii&me;' BROTHAR, 
m. "brother;" DAUHTAR, Lith. DUKTER, f. "daughter." 


m. vrika-Sy vehrk6,X \vko^, lupus, wilkas, vulfs. 
m. ka-s, kdtX .... .... ka-s, hva-s* 

* In the comji, wiess'pati.s, ^'landlord"; isoiated pais, '^ huahand,*' 
with t in the nominative suppressed, as is the case in Gothic in all hases 
in I. Compare the Zend j^ jasq>jj^9 vts-paiti^ " lord of the region." 

t These and other hoses ending with a consonant are given only in 
those cases which have remained free from a suhsequent vowel addition. 

I Before the enclitic particle cha^ as well here as in all other forms, the 
termination as, whicli otherwise hecomes 6 {§-6Q^,), retains the same 
fonr which, in Sanskrit also, ^STR as assumes before ^ cha : hence is said 
ASc^jJAJj-^^vc^ vehrkaidta, " lupvsque" as in Sanskrit n^^ vrikaicha. 
And the appended cha preserves the otherwise shortened final vowel 
in its original length: hence J6^jm»^jii^ jihvdc/ia, " linguaque^" 
A5^^^^JAJ^^ia3jll hushyainficha, ^*'futuraque," as^au^jus^ brdtdcha^ 
^^/raterque " Even without the a5^ at tiroes the original length of the 
final vowel is found undiminished : the principle of abbreviation, how- 
ever, remains adequately proved, and I therefore observe it everywhere 
in the terminations. 

M 2 










pat is. 








f. prtfi-s, 

A . • 

n. VLVTl^ 




t • • • 


• • • • 

2f. bhavi^fiynnti, biishymnti* 

n, madhu, 
f. vadhH-s, 
m.f. //ciM-Sif 
f. nAu'Sf 

f. Vi\k\ 

in, bharan, 

ni. (ItmcCy 

n. m}mn\ 

m. bhrtUfV, 

f. c/iiAi7d', 

m. c/d/^, 

n. vachas, 


• • • • 

• • • • 












• t • • 
host i -St 

sit is, 


• • • • 


• . • • 

• • • 








a wis, ansfs, 
■••• ••■• 

.... i-fa, 

buscnti, .... 

sunns, siinU'S. 

.... handus. 

dark'ii, fttihit. 

• « • • 

•... «••. 

ISov-^, bo'Sf 

•'OCI/'"yj ■••• •••• •••« 

oTT-j, for-.?, 

ipepuiv, ferens, svkans,fiynnd'H' 

Satfiuiv, senna*, akmTt\ ahmn\ 

r&Kav, nomen nam6\ 

TraTrjp, f rater, . . • . br6lhar, 

OvyaTtjp, mateTy dulcte, davlifar. 

ionjpy daioTf 





149. The character of the accusative is m in Sanskrit, 
Zend, jind Latin ; in Greek v, for the sake of euphony. In 
Lithuanian tlie old m has become still more weakened to 

* See the marginal note marked (X) on the foregoing page, 
t Irregnlarly for ift^ gfis, 

\ Or ji\^gufm gSwt, §. 33. 


the (lull re-echoing uasal, which in Sabskrit is called Auu- 
[G. Ed. p. 177.] swara, and which w^e, in both languages, 
express by ii (§. 10.). The German languages have, so early 
as the Gothic even, lost the accusative mark in substantives 
entirely, but in pronouns of the 3d person, as also in adjec- 
tive bases ending with a vowel which follow their declen- 
sion, they have hitherto retained it; still only in the 
masculine: the feminine nowhere exhibits an accusative 
character, and is, like its nominative, devoid of inflexion. 
The Gothic gives nn instead of the old m ; the High 
German, witli more correctness, a simple n : hence, Gothic 
blind-na, " caecum,"* Old High German plinta-n^ Middle and 
Modern Hiffh German blinde-n. 

150. Primary forms terminating with a consonant prefix 
to the case-sign m a short vowel, as otherwise the combi- 
nation would be, in most cases, impossible: thus, in San- 
skrit am, in Zend and Latin em, appears as the accusative 
termination*: of the Greek- ai', which must originally have 
existed, the v is, in the present condition of the language, 
lost: examples are given in §. 157. 

151. Monosyllabic words in i, tl, and c2tr, in Sanskrit, 
like consonantal bases, give rim in place of the mere m, as 
the accusative termination, probably in order in this way 
to become polysyllabic. Thus, rft bhi, " fear," and tfl mhi, 
** ship," form, not bli-m and iidu-nif as the Greek vdv-v would 

* From the bases ^>_^ druj and ^Aulp vdch, I find besides ^fH^>^ 
dniji'm^ ^c^^jmI^ vdchi'm, in the V. S.j also frequently ^J^y^J flrujim^ 
9jA)ja)(p mchim : and if these forms are genuine, which I scarcely doubt, 
they are to he thus explained — that the vowel which stands before m is 
only a means of conjtmction for appending the m ; for this purpose, how- 
ever, the Zend uses, besides the ce mentioned at j. 30, not unfrequently 
ji; c^r for ^aj^C4A54 rfot/ej/ifl/*/, occurs also ^^xi^^^xA^dadimahiy 
«nd mnny similar forms ; as ^^^As^ J^> us-i-nudiU answering to the San- 
skrit Tipnr uimas (in the Vedas ^^Iffir uimasi)^ "wo wiU. 

■11 » 


[G. Ed. p. 178.] leud us to expect, but fnp^ bhiy-am, A\^\ 
ndc-am. With this agree the Greek themes in ei;, since these 
give €-a, from eF-a, for eu-y; v.y, l3a(ri\c{F)a, for )8acri\eu-i'. 
It is, however, wrong to regard the Latin em as the true, ori- 
ginally sole accusative termination, and for lupu-m, hora-m, 
fruc'tum, dlemy to seek out an older form lupo-em, horn-cm, 
fruciu-em, die-em. That tlie simple nasal suffices to charac- 
terize the accusative, and that a precuraory vowel was only 
added out of other necessary reasons, is proved by the history 
of our entire family of languages, and would be adequately 
established, without Sanskrit and Zend, by the Greek, Li- 
tliuanian, and Gothic. The Latin em in the accusative 
third declension is of a double kind: in one case the e 
belongs to the base, and stands, as in innumerable cases, 

for i; so that e-m, of iyne-m (Sanskrit ^fxtfi? aynl-in), 
corresponds to the Indian i-m, Zend i-t/i, Greek <-i/, Li- 
thuanian i-w, Gothic i'ua (from inr/, "him"); but in the 
em of consonantal bases the e answers to the Indian c/, to 
which it corresjwnds in many other cases also. 

\b:l. The Sanskrit and Zend neuter bases in a, and 
those akin to them in Greek and Latin, as well as the two 
natural genders, give a nasal as the sign of the accusative, 
and introduce into the nominative also this character, 
which is less ])er8onal, less animated, and is hence appro- 
priated to the accusative as well as to the nominative in 

the neuter : hence, Sansk. ^iHTH «ayana-?w, Zend ^^/as^^j^ 
iaynne-m, "a bed"; so in Latin and Greek, donu-m, Scdpo-v. 
All other bases, with but few exceptions, in Latin, remain 
in the nominative and accusative without any case charac- 
ter, and give the naked base, which in Latin, however, re- 
places a final i by the cognate e; thus, mare for marl corrc- 
[G Ed. p. 179.] spends to the Sanskrit ^ft vdri, *' water"; 
the Greek, like the Sanskrit and Zend, leaves the / unchanged 

— iSpi'£, iSph as in Sanskrit ^f^ iuchis, ^f^ suchl The 
following are examples of neuter u bases, which supply the 


place both of uomiiiative and accusative : in Sanskrit m 
madhu, ** honey," " wine," wg as^ru, " tear,'' ^nj swddu, 
*' sweet" ; in Zend >^^l^ vdliu, ** wealth" (Sanskrit ^H 
vasu); in Greek fiedv, SaKpv, ^Sv; in Latin joecu, genu. Tiie 
length of this u is unorganic, and has probably passed into 
the nominative, accusative, and vocative from the oblique 
cases, where tlie length is to be explained from the sup 
pressed case terminations. With regard to tlie fact that 
final u is always long in Latin, there is perhaps a reason 
always at hand for this length: in the ablative^ for ex- 
ample, the length of the originally short u is explicable as a 
compensation for the case sign which has been dropped, 
by which, too, the 6 of the second declension becomes long. 
The original shortness of the u of the fourth declension 
is perceivable from the dat. pi. u-bus. The 2, in Greek 
words like yevog, jxevo^, eiyeveg, lias been already explain- 
ed at §. 128. as belonging to the base: the same is the 
case with the Latin e in neuters like genuSf corpus, 
gravius : it is the other form of the r of the oblique cases, 
like gener-is, corporals, gravior-is (see §. 127.); and corpus 
appears akin to the Sanskrit neuter of the same mean- 
ing, ^^^ vapust gen. ^^ipra vapu-sh-as (see §. 19.), and 
would consequently have an r too much, or the Sanskrit 
has lost one.* The 2 also of neuter bases in T, in Teri/^oj-, 
T6paf, does not seem to me to be the case sign, but an 
exchange with T, which is not admissible at the end, but is 
either rejected (/xe\i, irpdyfia) or exchanged [G. Ed. p. 180.] 
for a cognate 2, as irpo^ from TrpoTi, Sanskrit ufir prati'\ 

* Compare^ in this respect, bracldum, fipaxiavy with ^TTT^ bdliu-Sf 
"arm"; frango^ priywfu, with H«!f^ bluinajmiy "I break," HSiinr 
hhanjmas, " we break." 

t With this view, which I have already developed in my treatiKO 
'* On some Demonstrative Bases, and their connection with various Pre- 
])ositions and Conjunctions" (Berlin, by Diimmler), pp. 4—6, corre- 
sponds, as to the essential points, what llartung has since said on this 



In Latin it is to be regarded as inconsistent with the sj)irit 
of tlie language, that most adjective bases ending with a 
consonant retain tlie nominative sign s of the two natural 
genders in the neuter, and in tliis gender extend it also to 
the accusative, as if it belonged to the base, as cnpac-a fvllc-s, 
soler(t}}t, aTnan{t)s, In general, in Latin, in consonantal bases, 
the perception of the distinction of gender is very much 
blunted, as, contrary to the principle followed by the San- 
skrit, Zend, Greek, and Gothic, the feminine is no longer 
distinguished from the masculine. 

153. In Gothic substantives, as well neuter as mascu- 
line, the case sign m is wanting, and hence neuter bases 
in a. stand on the Siime footing with the t, t/, and consonantal 
bases of the cognate languages in that, in the nominative 
and accusative, they are devoid of all inflexion. Compare, 
with regard to the form of this case, daur{a) with 17T*» 
(Itvdram, which has the same meaning. In Gothic there 
are no neuter substantives in /; on the other hand, the 

[G.Ed. p. 181.] substantive bases in yn, by suppression of 
the a in the nominative and accusative singular (cf. §. 1 35.), 
gain in these cases the semblance of i bases; e.g. from the 
base REIKYA, " ricir (Sanskrit Trm rdjya, likewise 
neuter), comes, in the case mentioned, reiki, answering to 

the Sanskrit Oii|H rAjya-m. The want of neuter / bases 

subject in his valuable work on " On the Cases," p. 152, &c. ; where also 
the p of i)TTap and ilfiwp is explained as coming from T, through the inter- 
vention of 2. The Sanskrit, however, appears to attribute a dift'en nt 
origin to the p of these forms. To I^Aff yakrit "liver* (likewise neuter), 
corresponds bolh^Vrwr and rtnapy throi'gh the common interchange between 
k and p : both owe to it their p, as rprar-os does its r. "llnar-os should be 
ijnapT'OSy Sanskrit iTTiTTT yakrit-ns. But the Smiskrit also in this word, in 

the weak cases, can give up the r, but then irregularly substitutes tT n for 

W ^ eg. gen. ^n[|9 yakn-as fi»r Ijipflff yakanas. W\i\\ regard to tlie 

p o^v8wp, compare iTf udrti^ " water,*' in ISW^ mm-wlra^ "sea." 


in German is the less surprising, that in the cognate Sanskrit, 
Zend, and Greek, the corresponding termination in the neuter 
is not very common. Of neuter u roots the substantive de- 
clension has preserved only the single FAIHW, " beast"" In 
Lithuanian the neuter in substantives is entirely lost^ and 
has left traces only in pronouns and adjectives^ where the 
latter relate to pronouns. Adjective bases in u, in this 
case, have their nominative and accusative singular in ac- 
cordance with the cognate languages, without case sign; 
e.fj. darku, "ugly,"* corresponds as nominative and accusa- 
tive neuter to the masculine nominative darkvL-i^ accusative 
darkuiu This analogy, however, is followed in Lithua- 
nian, byHhe adjective bases in a also; and thus g^ra^ 
"good," corresponds as nominative and accusative to the 
masculine forms g^ra-s, gSra-n,* which are provided with 
the sign of the case. 

[G. Ed. p. 182.] 154. It is a question whether the m, as 
the sign of the nominative and accusative neuter (it is ex- 
cluded from the vocative in Sanskrit and Zend), was origi- 
nally limited simply to the a bases, and was not joined to the 

♦ The e of neater forms like dide^ "great," from the base DIDYA — 
nom. moae.didi'S for didya-Sy as §. 135.* yaunikkiSf "yonngliDg" — I ex- 
plain through the euphonic inflai'nce of the suppressed y. As also tlie 
feminine originally long a is changed into e by the same influence, so is 
the nominative aud accusative neuter in such words identical with the 
nominative feminine, which is likewise, according to §, 137, devoid of in- 
flexion ; and dide therefore signifies also '' magna," and answers, as femi- 
nine, very remarkably to the Zend nominatives explmned at §, 137., as 
^/c C^ peVY7i^, i^^^y^Mji/i hrdiuryL In this sense are to be regarded, 
also, the feminine substantives in Ruhig's third declension, as far as they 
terminate in the nominative in e, as gietme^ ^'dong." As no masculine 
forms in U correspond to them, the discovery of the true nature of these 
words becomes more diflicult ; for the lost y or t has been preserved only 
in the genitive plural, where giesmy-ik is to be taken like rank-H from 
rankd^ i.e. the flnal vowel of the bases is suppressed before the termina- 
tion, or has been melted down with it. 



i and u bases also ; so that, in Sanskrit, for wiri \vc had uri- 
ginally rrJn-m, for madhv, madhu-m? I should not wish to 
deny the original existence of such forms ; for why should 
the a bases alone have felt the necessity of not leaving 
the nominative and accusative neuter without a sign of 
relation or of personality? It is more probable that the 
a bases adhered only the more firmly to the termination 
once assumed, because they are by far the most numerous, 
and could thus present a stronger opposition to the de- 
structive influence of time by means of the greater force 
of their analogies; in the same way as the verb sub- 
stantive, in like manner, on account of its frequent use, has 
allowed the old inflexion to pass less into oblivio*u, and in 
German has continued to our time several of the progeny of 
the oldest period ; as, for instance, the nasal, as charact(M-istic 

of the 1st person in bi-n, Old High German pi-jn Sans, ^^lf^ 
bhaviUviL In Sanski'it, one example of an m as the nomina- 
tive and accusative sign of an i base is not wanting, although 
it stands quite isolated ; and indeed tliis form occui*s in the 
pronominal declension, which everywhere remains longest 
true to the traditions of bygone ages. I mean the inter- 
rogative form ftiR ki-m, "what^'? from the base fsfi k'tr 
which may perhaps, in Sanskrit, have produced a Av-^ 
which is contained in the Latin qui-il, and which I recog- 
nise again, also, in the enclitic fin^ chit, weakened from fwTT 
ki'U Otherwise i or u-bases of pronouns in the nomina- 
tive accusative neuter do not occur; for ^[^amv, "that" 
(man), substitutes ^R^ ndas ; and \U " this," combines with 

[G. Ed. p. 183.] ^ dam (l[^ k/c/wi, " this"). Concerning 
the original procedure of consonantiil bases in the nominative 
and accusative neuters no explanation is afibrded by the pro- 
nominal declension, as all primary forms of pronouns termi- 
nate in vowels, and, indeed, for the most part, in a. 

155. Pronominal bases in a in Sanskrit give /, in Zend /, as 
the inflexion of the nominative and accusative neuter. The 


Gothic gives, as in the accusative masculine, na for m or n, 
so here ta for simple t ; and transfers these, like other pecu- 
liarities of the pronominal declension, as in the other Ger- 
man dialects, also to the adjective a bases; e.g. blinda-la, 
** ccecumr midya-ta, "medium.*'' The High German gives, 
in the older period, z instead of the Gothic t (§. 87.), in 
the most modem period, s. The pronominal base I (later E) 
follows in German, as in Latin, the analogy of the old a 
bases, and the Latin gives, as in the old ablative, d instead 
of f. The Greek must abandon all T sounds at the end of 
words : the difference of the pronominal from the common 
declension consists, therefore, in this respect, merely in 
the absence of all inflexion. From this difference, however, 
and the testimony of the cognate languages, it is perceived 
that TO was originally sounded tot or toJ, for a rov would 
have remained unaltered, as in the masculine accusative. 
Perliaps we liave a remnant of a neuter^inflexion r in Stti, 
so that we ought to divide ot-t/ ; and therefore the double t, 
in this form, would no more have a mere metrical foundation, 
than the double o* (§. 128.) in opea-ai. (Buttmanu, p. 85.) 

156. We find the origin of the neuter case^ign t in the 
pronominal base If ta, " he,'' " this,'' (Greek TO, Goth, THA, 
&c.) ; and a convincing proof of the correctness of this ex- 
planation is this, that mda-t "it" "this," stands, in regard 
to the base, in the same contrast with ^ sa, " he," m sd» 
" she," as t, as the neuter case-sign, does to [G. Ed. p. 18-1.] 
the nominative s of masculine and feminine nouns (§. 134.). 
The m of the accusative also is, I doubt not, of pronominal 
origin; and it is remarkable that the compound pronouns 
i-mo, "this," and a-mu, " that," occur just as little as ia in the 
nominative masculine and feminine ; but the Sanskrit sub- 
stitutes for the base amu, in the nominative masculine and 
feminine singular the form asdu, the * of which, therefore, 
stands in the same relation to the m of ^m^^ amu-tn, " illum^'' 
amu'shya, '* Uliusr and other oblique cases, as, among 

.*«■- .---^ 


the case-tcrniinatioiis, the sign of the masculine fi'iiiiniiu* 
nominative to the m of the accusative and neuter nomina- 
tive. Moreover, in Zend is used ma>9 j inwf, " this," (n.) 
(nom. accus.), but not hno, " this"' (ni.). hut 9a>aj aim (from 
^n^ aynm)t and 9^ m (from ^i^ iyam), ** this'" (f.). Observe 
in Greek tlie pronominal base MI, whicli occurs only in the 
accusative, and, in rc*gard to its vowel, has the same rela- 
tion to ^ ma (in the compounded base ^ i-ma) that f^ 
/•e-7/i "what?" has to "BRVt kas *' who "P The Gothic neut. 
termination tu anwers, in respect to the transposition of 
sound (§. S7.), to the Latin d (i(U html) : this Ijitin (/, how- 
ever, seems to me a descent from the older t ; as, rjj,. the 
h of ah has proceeded from the p of the coij^nate ^^ f/y>r/, 
am6\ and in Zend the d of C^^Jau* A-dtm, "him," is clearly 
only a weakening of the / of ir la, aj^ ta.'\ 

[G. Ed. p. 185.] 157. To the Sanskrit in-f, mentioned above, 
Zend tn-t, Greek to, &c., corresponds a Lithuanian itn. ** the," 
as the nominative and accusative singular. I do not believe, 
however, that the i which is here incorporated in the base 2\l 

* The fc oid-d'nn is the proposition corresponding to the Saiisk a. 

t Sec my treatise " On the Origin of the Coses " in the Trans, of the 
Berlin Acaderry for the year 1820. As T in Greek easily becomes 2 (hut a 
final 2 lias in man}' parts of Grammar become v\ Ilartung founds on this, 
in the pamphlet 1)cf()re mentioned, p. 1*54, the acute conjecture of an 
original identity of neuters in v (fw) with those in /. Wc cannot, how- 
ever, agree with him in this, because the tu, on account of the origin 
which we ascribe to this ease-sign, is as little surprising in the nominative 
of the neuter as in the accusative of the more animated genders; and 
besides, a greater antiquity is proved to belong to the neuter iw, through 
the Sanskrit and Zend, than prohahly the v sounds can boast, which, in 
Greek, stand for an older 2, as /xfv for /icf Ci^ ma8\ and in the dual rfi-, 

roi' for ^TH tJiaa^ jm (as. What is wanting in the Greek, viz. a neuter 
inflexion «, appears, however, to be possessed by the Sanskrit ; and I am 
inclined to divide the form '^C^ adas^ " that " (nom. accus.) into w-</a-.v, 
and to expbiin it as a corruption ofa-da't (cf. Gramm. Crit. Addend, to 
r. 299.) ; button>gard the s^'llable da as weakened from ta, as in tlie Z^nd 
ii^ d-dc'tn^ "him." \Vc shall recur to tills when treating of the 


is any way connected with the neuter f, d, of the cognate 
languages : I should rather turn to a relationship with the 
/ demonstrative in the Greek ( ovroal, eKCivoa-i), and to the 
^ it, which is, in like manner, used enclitically in the 
Vedas — a petrified neuter, which is no longer conscious of any 
gender or case; and hence, in several eases, combining with 
masculine pronouns of the third person.* This i^tt it, is 
consequently the sister form of the Latin id and Gothic i-ta, 
which, in the Greek eKCivoal, has, perhaps only from neces- 
sity, dropped the t or J, and which already, ere I was ac- 
quainted with the Veda-dialect, I represented as a consis- 
tent part of the conjunctions ^ chit (from cha + it), "if/' 
and $hl nit (na+it). [G. Ed. p. 186.] 

The words mentioned at §. 148. form in the accusative: 


m. vrika-m, vehrke-nty Kuko-v, lupu-m, wilkn-n, vulf, 

m. ka-m, ke-m, ka-n^ hwa-ncu 


n. ddna-m, ddie-m, icdpo-v, donu-m, gira, daur\ 

n. ta-t, ta-tf to, is-tu-d, ia-ij tha-tn* 

f. jihwA-m, hhva-nm, 'xjuipa-v, terram, ranka-^, giba. 

f. kd-m, ka-nm, . . » . hvd.f 

* Examples are giyen by Rosen in his V^da Specimen, pp. 24, 25, 
which, though short, are in the highest degree interesting for Sanskrit 
and comparative Grammar; as, ^^ suit, ^^he," ItfHli /ami/, ** him"; 

inftft?^ taydrity " of these two"; H^RT^ tasmdU^ " to him"; min^ 
cLsmd'it, '^ to this" (m.). The Zend combines in the same way fo e or 
J % with the interrogative: ;ojdA>3 ^^^ ^^^ JJ^as^ kaiiy ^^who"? occur 
frequently. Perhaps only one of the two modes of writing is correct. 
Cf. Gramm. Grit. Addend, to r. 270. 

f One would expect hvd-na^ or, with abbreviation of the base, htja-na, 
which would be the same as the masculine. With regard to the lost case- 
termination, it may be observed, that, in general, the femiuines are less 
constant in handing down the old inflexions. A charge which is incurred 
by the Sanskrit in the nominative, since it gives kd for kd-s^ {§, 137.), is 
incurred by the Gothic (for in this maimer the corruption spreads) in the 
accusative also. 

* Cf. V 380. p. 514. 



• • • 






iroai'V, hostenif pud-ny yast\ 

• «•• ••■■ •••• c*7lcZ« 

iropTt'Vf siti-mt awi-Ut ansl\ 
idpt, mare, 

■ • • • l~Cij • • • • I'lQ* 

f. bhavishyanlimjjiishyainti-m, . .* ... 

/^ftj-v, pecu-nij siinu-ii, simu, 
iriTV'V, socru-m, .... liandu, 
jieOv, pecUf darki), faihu. 


m. pati-m, 


f. jniti'm, 
n. vdrii 

• f. tanu-iiu 

^n. madfin, 


Lf. vadhim, 


f. ntlv-am, 

f. rdch-am, 


• • . • 

... • • . 



l3ov'V, buv'on, .... 

• • . • 






• • • • 

* The feminine participial bases in i^ mentioneil at {. 119., remain free 
fron> foreippQ commixture only in the nominative and vocative singulur : 
in all other cases, to the old i is further added a more modern a ; and the 
declension then follows RANK J exactly; only that in some cases, through 
the euphonic influence of the i, and in analogy with the Zend and the 
Latin fifth declension {§. 137.), the added a becomes, or may become, e: 
in the latter case the i is suppressed, as 1. c. ;oijA)^ kahw for kaini/e {§. 42.). 
Thus, from aukatiti, "the turning" (f.), sukun, "the having turned" (f.), 
and sukaenii, " the about to turn," Mielcke gives the accusatives sukan- 
ezeii (see. p. 138, Note) or sukanczian, gfikuseh^ and auksenczeii or suk- 
senczian. And even if, according to Ruhig (by Mielcke, pp. 3, 4), the i 
before a, e, o, u is scarcely heard, it must not therefore, in this case, as 
well as in tliose there enumerated, be the less regarded as etymolcgically 
present, and it was originally pronounced so as to be fully audible. From 
tbe feminine, where the i, as Sanskrit grammar shews, has an original pr)si- 
tion, this vowel appears to liave made its way, in Lithuanian participial 
bases, into the oblique cases of the masculine, and to be here invested with 
a short masculine a. The accusative sukanli-h^ " the turning" (masc.), is 
therefore to be regarded in the same light as yaunikki-h, from the theme 
VA UNIKVA^ i.e. it stands for sukantyi'U from snhantya-hy and hence 
answers to the Zend accusatives, like ( j^j^co tuirim for tuiryvm {j, 42.), 
and to the Gothic, like hari from the base HARYA (§. 135.). 

t See {. 122. 







m. bharant-am, barent-em, ^epovr-ay ferent-ein, 
m. dtmdn-am, asman-em, Satfiov-a,^ sermon-em^ 
n. fiflma', vdma, Tahav, nomev, 

ni. bhrdtar'amy brdtar-em, irarep-a, fralr-ein, 
f. duhitar-am, duyhdhar-em, dvyarep-ay matr-em, 
m. ddtdr-am, ddidr-em, SoTijp-a, dator^em, 

11. vachas, vachd,^ 


opus J, 



• • • • 

• • • » 


158. The instrumental is denoted in Sanskrit by wr d ; 
and this inflexion is, in my opinion, a [G. Ed. p. 188.] 
lengthening of the pronominal base ^ a, and identical with 
the preposition wd, "to/' "towards/' "up to," which 
springs from this pronoun, and appears only as a prefix. 
The Zend d appears still more decidedly in its pronominal 
nature in the compound mentioned at §. 156. Note *, ^|^ 
A'dhn, "him," "this," (m.) fem. i^^^^ d-danm. As a 
case-sign, jm d generally appears abbreviated (see p. 163. 
Note J), even where this termination has been melted into 
one with a preceding jo a of the base ; so that in this case 
the primary form and the instrumental are completely 
similar; e.g. J^tp^^^ zadsha, "voluntarily," ascp^^as^as 
azadsha, " involuntarily," (V. S. p. 12.) x}f^\j^^jM5 skyadthnat 
*' actionem often occur; xsjxi ana, " through this" (m.), 
Aj^g7jj j^ jjoq) pae/i-iere/a, '* aUevato.^^^ The long d appears 
in the instrumental only in monosyllabic bases in as a; 
thus AUjia khdt *'proprio'"' V. S. p. 46.), from the base as^io 
kha (Sanskrit ^ swa, §. 35.). In Sanskrit a euphonic tr n 
is added to bases ending with short vowels in the masc. 

♦ See §. 6<5»>. 

t Cf. Gramm. Crit. r. 638. Rem. This interesting instrnmental form 
was not known by Bask when he published his work on the Zend, and 
it was not easy to discover it, on account of its discrepancy from the San- 
skrit and the many other forms with final a) a. 


and nout. genders;* a final ^ a, however, is, as in several 
other cases, changed into Jf i; and the "m d of the cas(*- 
sufBx is shortened, as it apj)ears to me, by the iiiflucncL'? of 
this clog of the base ; as ^^ra rriW-w-fl, but smPhhi ar/i}}' 
n-Af mdMl vdri-n-d, ^^TF sunu-n-A, Win mmlhn-n-u, fn^iii 
^ vrika, &c. Tlie Vedas, however, exhibit further 
remains of formations without the euphonic ?/, as wSfVl 
siva'pixny-A for ^^ siff/j^w^-n-a from ^TT sivajma, m. "sleep** 
(see §. 133.) ; 9^^^ vru-y-A for 9^m uru-n-n, from ^^ uru, 
"great," with a euphonic i^y(§. 43.); JlWl^m prahA ha v-A, from 
'mn^praMhu, from ^r^bAllu, "arm," with the preposition 
[G. Ed. p. 189.] u pra,. The Vecl.i-form ^THH suapnayA, 
finds analogies in the common dialect in inn mat/A, 
" througli me," and i^^ twnyAf " through thee,'' from the 
bases ma and twOf tlie a of which in this case, as in the 
loc, passes into i. And from xriit paiU m. **Lord," and 
^ffl sakhi, m. " friend," the common dialect forms instru- 
mentals without the interposition of h w, viz. "qmT j>aly-A, 
?r^qT salchy-A, Feminines never admit a euphonic n ; but 
d, as before some other vowel terminations, passes into 
11 f, that is to say, i is blended with it, and it is shortened 
to V a ; hence, ff^jpn jihway-d (from jihui + A). The Zend 
follows in this the analogy of the Sanskrit. 

159. As 4 in Gothic, according to §. 69., just like A, re- 
presents ^TT d, so the forms thi, hv6, which Grimm (i)p. 790. 
and 798.) regards as instrumentals, from the demonstrative 
base THA and the interrogative IIJ'A, correspond very 
remarkably to the Zend instrumentals, as joi^o khd from 
the base aj^ij kha. We must, however, place also sre 
in the class of genuine Zend instrumental! forms, which 
have been correctly preserved : besides svi^ from SJ'A is also, 

* The original has ^^Stammen gen. masc. ond fem. ;" but genitives of 
nonns in a do not take a euphonic n, nor do feminine nnuus ending in 
short vowels use such an augment in the instrumental : Iuto is nn doubt 
some typographic error. — Kfittor. 



in respect of its base, akin to joi^ khd from klia (§. 35.).* 
The meaning of svi is ''as'^ (a>0, and the sd, which has arisen 
in High German from sva or svi, means both "as" and 
" so," &c. The case relations, however, which are expressed by 
"as" and " so" are genuine instrumentals.t [G, Ed. p. 190.] 
The Anglo-Saxon form for svi is svd, in which the colouring 
of the Zend jus^ khd is most truly preserved. The Gothic 
sva, " so," isy according to its form, only the abbreviation of 
svS, as a is the short equivalent both of i and of d : through 
this abbreviation, however^ sva has become identical with 
its theme, just as Asyxs ana in Zend is, according to §. 158., 
not distinguished from its theme. 

160. }As the dative in Gothic and in Old High German 
very frequently expresses the instrumental relation, and 
the termination also of the dative is identical with the 
Sanskrit-Zend instrumental character, shortened only, as 
in polysyllabic words in Zend, it may be proper here to 
describe at the same time the formation of the German 
dative. In a bases it is in Gothic, as in Zend, identical 
with the theme, and from VULFA comes vutfa, as As^?%>*g9 
vehrka from VEHRKA. Moreover, there are some other 
remarkable datives, which have preserved their due length, 
and answer to the monosyllabic instrumentals thi, vi, svi, 
which have been already explained, viz. hvammi-hf hvar- 
yammi'h, "cixiyw^," and ainummi-hun, **ulU" for ainamm^ 

* Grimm's conjectures regarding the forms sva and $vS (III. 48.) ap- 
pear to me untenable ; and an explanation of these forms, without the 
intervention of the Sanskrit and Zend, is impossible. More regarding this 
at the prononns. 

t If " as " is regarded as '* through wliich means, in which manner or 
way/' and "so " as "through this means, in this way," it is certain that 
among the eight cases of the Sanskrit language there is none which would 
be adapted in the relatiye and demonstratiye to express ''as" and " so." 

X The German dat. smg.is according to §.'356. Rem. 3., to be every- 
where identified with the Sanskrit dative ; and so, too, the dat pi. the m 
of which approaches as closely to the Sansk. bfu/cu, Latin btu, Lith. musy 
as the instrumental termination hhiif Lith. mU, 



hun (§. 66.).* Bases in i reject this vowel before the case- 
sign ; hence gnsf-a for gasti-a : on the other hand, in the 
u bases the termination is suppressed, and the base-vowel 
receives the Giina: hence sunau, which will have been pro- 
nounced originally sti-nav-^ ; so that, after suppressing the 
termination, the v has again returned to its original vowel 
nature. The form sunav-a would answer to the Veda form 
iniT?^ pra-Mlinv^. In Zend, the bases which terminate 
with J i and > m, both in the instrumental and before most 

[G. Ed. p. 191.] of the other vowel terminations, assume 
Guna or not at pleasure. Thus we find in the Vend. S. p. 469, 
As»A5^.uu Mzav-a, **brachto,^^ as analogous to li^l^'ci! pra- 
'Mhav'd (§. 57.); on the other hand, p. 408, A)(ur(3^As^ zanJthwa 
from zanhi, "the slaying," ** killing." From >yj)^Q> pahmiu 
" dust," we find, 1. c. p. 229, the form ^yj^^o) pafisnii, which 
Anquetil translates by "par cetie pousstpre"; and if the read- 
ing is correct, then pnnsni}, in regard of the suppressed ter- 
mination ( compensation for which is made by lengthening 
the base vowel ), would answer to the Gothic sunau, 

161. Bases ending with a consonant have lost, in Ger- 
man, the dative character: hence, in Gothict Jiy and, ahm'm, 
br6thr (§. 132.), for fiyand-af ahmtn-ft, hrdthr-n.f All femi- 
nines, too, must be pronounced to have lost the dative 
sign, paradoxical as it may appear to assert that the Gothic; 
gibai, **c/f)iio," and thizaU " /*w«V," izai, " f?/," do not contain 
any dative inflexion, while we formerly believed the ni of 
gthai to be connected with the Sanskrit feminine dative 

* Here the appended pArticlc has preserved the ori^innl length of the 
termiiiAtion, as is the case in Zend in all instramentals, if they are com- 
bined with A>A> cha, ^^ and." 

+ The Old High German form fatere {for fat era), "/wi/W," proceeds, 
as do the genitive y«^^e-*, and the accusative fatera-n^ from a theme 
FA TERAy extended by a. The accusative yci/era-/i, however, is remark- 
able, because substantives, so early as in the Gothic, have lost the accusa- 
tive sign, together with the final vowel of the base. In Old High German a 
few other substantives and proper names follow the analogy of FATE It A. 


character $ di. But as we have recognised in the mas- 
culine and neuter dative the Indo-Zend instrumental* 
we could not, except from the most urgent necessity* 
betake ourselves to the Sanskrit dative for explanation of 
the Gothic feminine dative. This necessity, however, 
does not exist, for, e.g., hveitai, **albaer from Hl^EITO from 
HVEITAi may be deduced from the instrumental litinn 
iwHay-Aj " ai5d," from ?knn swUd^ by suppressing the ter- 
mination, and changing the semi-vowel to a vowel in the 
same manner as, above, sunaa from sxinav-a^ [G. £d. p. 192.] 
or as the fern, handauy " manuij'*'' from handav-a. Analogous 
with sunctUf handauy are also the dative feminine i bases ; 
and, e.g.» anstai, "gratia,*' has the same relation to its theme 
ANSTI that handau has to HAND U. 

162. In Old High German the forms diu, hviu, corre- 
spond to the Gothic instrumental thi, hvS ; but authorities 
differ as to the mode of writing them,* regarding which 
we shall say more under the pronouns. The form hiv, 
also, from a demonstrative base HI, has been preserved in 
the compound hiuiu for hiu-fagu, " on this day,'" "to-day" 
(see Grimm, p. 794), although the meaning is here pro- 
perly locative. The Gothic has for it the dative himma- 
-daga. This termination u has maintained itself also in 
substantive and adjective bases masc. neut. in a and 7, 
although it is only sparingly used, and principally after the 
preposition mil (see Graff, I.e. pp. 110, 111); mit wortu, 
*' with a word," from WORT A; mit cuatu, ** with good,*' from 
CUATA ; mit kastu, " with a guest," from KASTL It is here 
important to remark, that the instrumental in Sanskrit 
*very frequently expresses, per se, the sociative relation. 
We cannot, however, for this reason look upon this u case 
as generically different from the common dative, which, we 
have already remarked, is likewise of instrumental origin 

♦ With reference to their use with yarious prepositions we refer onr 
readers to Graff's excellent treatise, " The Old High German Preposi- 
tions," p. 181, &c. 

N 2 


and meaning: we rather regard the u* as a corruption 
[O. Ed. p. 193.] (although one of very ancient date) of u, 
just as in the neuter plural of pronouns and adjectives a u 
corresponds to the short a of the Gothic and the older cognate 
languages. In Lithuanian the a bases form their instru- 
mental in a, which is long^ and in which the final vowel 
of the base has been melted down. That this u, also, has 
arisen from a long a, and thus, e.g. dieimi is akin to the 
Zend A)»;oAs^ daiva, "deo," for jM»roM^ daivd, appears to 
me the less doubtful, as also in the plural diewais answers 

very surprisingly to juojjus»;o^ daivdis, ^^^ dSvdis. More- 
over, in many other parts of grammar, also, the Lithuanian 

u corresponds to the Sanskrit w d; e.g. in the plural 
genitive. In feminine a bases, also, in Lithuanian, the 
vowel of the base is melted down with that of the termi- 
nation, but its quality is not changed ; as, e.g. ranka 
" manup* from RANKA. In all other bases mi stands as 
the termination, to which the plural instrumental termi- 
nation mis has the same relation as, in Latin^ bis to hi 
{voBIS, tiBl) \ and, according to §. 63., I do not doubt 
that in both numbers the m has arisen from 6. 

163. The bases given in §. 148. form, in the instrumental 
and in the Grothie, in the dative, 




















* Contrary to Grimm's opinion, I cannot let the instmmental u pass as 
long, even not to notice its derivation from a short a ; for, first, it apt 
pears, according to Notker, in the pronominal forms diu^ &c. without a cir- 
cumflex (other instrumentals of the kind do not occur in his works); 
secondly, like the short a, it is exchanged for o {§. 77.); hence, wio, 
w?g<>, with win, toio-lihy hueo-lih, ^^qualis" (properly, '^similar to whom"); 
tlLirdl}^ the length of this u cannot be deduced from the Gothic forms the^ 
hvi, 8v^, because these, in all probability, owe the retention of their long 
vowel to tlieir being monosyllabic (cf. §. 137). 









(i/rifhy-a, awi-mi. 


r— 1 






. • a • 

. • • • 




pait^Ot 8unu-fni, 






■ • • • 




• • • • 

• t • 

• . • « 


1— J 


L gav-d. 


> • a • 

• • • • 

J • 


• • • • 

t • • • 

• • • • 



t * . • 

. • • . 




• • • • 





• • . • 






I • . . 





1 • • • 





• • • 





• • • 

• . . • 




• . • 

• . • • 

164. In Sanskrit and Zend, ^ is the sign of the dative, 
which, I have scarce any doubt, originally belongs to the 
demonstrative base ^, whence the nom. ^vtp^ ayam (from 
^ + am), "this"; which, however, as it appears, is itself 
only an extension of the base ir a, from which arise most 
of the cases of this pronoun (n-snidf, a-smdi, a-smin, &c.) ; 
and regarding which it is to be observed, that the common 
a bases, also, in Sanskrit in many cases extend this vowel 
to ^ by the admixture of an / (§. 2.). The dative sign con- 
sequently would, in its origin, be most intimately con- 
nected with the case, which, as (§. 160.) was explained, de- 
notes, in German, both the dative and instrumental rela- 
tion, and occurs in Zend also with a dative signification.* 

* E,g, Vend. 8. p. 46: j^jMi^j^ m^^J^JMsjjm^^m ^94^a>%>* 
^^(3><^ ^^JAMO^ HadmdatizdnditibudadhdUiaaitd'puthrimy "H<5m 
gives a splendid daughter to those who have not had offspring." The 
lithographed Codex, however, gives the form aasizdnditibis as three words, 


[G. Ed. p. 195.] We have here further to remark, that in 
the pronoun of the 2d person the affix »|it bhyam (from 
bhi -f am) in wwiH tu-bhyam, " to thee/' stands in evident 
relationship to the instrumental fW^ bins in the plural. 
The feminine bases in 6, i, d, and, at will also, those in i and 
u, prolong in Sanskrit the dative termination ^ ^ to ^ df ; 
with the final d of the base an i is blended ; hence ftn^ 
jihwdy-di from jivdi-di. On the other hand, ^ i and T u re- 
ceive the Guna augment before J[ ^, but not before the 
broader ^di; as ^[t|^ sunav-i from sunu. In Zend, femi- 
nine a and t-bases, like the Sanskrit, have &i for their termi- 
nation : however, hizvdy-^i is not used, but jau^^as>>^j»* 
hizvay-di, from the base hizvdt as long vowels in the penulti- 
mate, in polysyllabic bases, are so frequently shortened. 
Bases in j i have, in combination with the particle a>^ chof 
preserved the Sanskrit form most truly, and exhibit, without 
exception in this case, the form j^/oas^^m ay-aS-cha (see 
§. 28), e.y. As^;oA5^^Aj(en>^3 ita^«/aya^cAa, "and on account 
of the ploughing," "in order to plough" (Vend. S. p. 198), 

[G. Ed. p. 196.] from karsfe. Without cha, however, the 
form ;og eiJ is almost the sole one that occurs, e.y. 
fo^^^?^^^ kharetei, **in order to eat,'' from j^^^m^ khareti 
This form, I doubt not, has arisen from ;t)^^As ay-i, by re- 
jecting the semi-vowel, after which the preceding aj a has 
become g e (§. 31.). Forms like ;o^^o«au dfnt6* or g^^ijoi 
dfrife, which sometimes occur, and are most corrupted, may 

juOgU J^^Auy-U)j ^A) azt zdnditi bia. Such separations in the middle of a 
word arc, however, in this Codex, qnite common. I entertain no doubt 
of tlie correctness of the length of the a, both of zd and ndi ; and I anti- 
cipate a variety az'tzanaUibis or— M«. Probably also csaitS is to be read for 
csnito. Anqoetil translates : " O Horn, donnez a la femme, qui n*a pas 
<'ncx)re cngendr^ beaucoup d'enfans brillans." Wc will return to this passage 
hereafter; and we will here further remark that, at the same page of the 
Vend. S., the instr. jj^^^j^ a^bis also occurs in the sense of " to them." 
* Cf. p. 286 Noi(: f. 


rest on errors in writing.* Bases in u may take Guna ; 
e.g, ?o»xiW^l^ van-hav'i from >%y^l^vanhtif ''pure^"; or not, 
as a)»cSaj7 rathv'^ from >pAs7 ratu^ " great,'^ " lord." The 
form without Guna is the more common. A euphonic ^^ y 
also is found interposed between tlie base and the termi- 
nation (§. 43.) e.g. ;o^^>yA>^ tanu-y-i, " corporu'' 

165. Bases in ir a add to the case-sign i also an V a ; 
but from ^ ^ ( = a +0 and a is formed mi aya ; and this, 
with the a of the base, gives Aya, thus ^liliV vrikdya. 
Hence may have arisen, by suppressing the final a, the 

Zendian jjmjT^^I^ vehrkdi, after which the preceding semi- 
vowel must return to its vowel nature. It might, how- 
ever, be assumed, that the Zend has never added an a to 
the dative ^, and that this is a later appearance in Sanskrit, 
which arose after the division of languages; for from a-i-i 
is formed, quite regularly, di (§. 2.). The Sanskrit forms 
also, from the particle ^ sma, which is added to pro- 
nouns of the 3d person, the dative ^ 8mAi ; and thus, e,g. 
i|^ hasmdi, " to whom"" ? answers to the Zend -»-u>^3 
kahmdi. The Sanskrit, in this case, abstains from adding 
the ^ a, which is elsewhere appended to the dative ^ ( ; 
since ^ sma, already encumbered with the preceding prin- 
cipal pronoun, cannot admit any superfluity in its termi- 
nation, and for tliis reason gives up its radi- [G. £d. p. 197.] 

cal n a before the termination ^ in in the locative case 
also, and forms arn-in for amin. 

166. The particle ^ sma, mentioned in the preceding sec- 
tion, which introduces itself between the base and the ter- 
mination, not only in the singular, but (and this, in fact, 
occurs in pronouns of the two first persons) in the plural also, 
if not separated from both — as I have first attempted to shew 

* ^^.^^^AM ^^te is undoubtedly incorrect: however, ^ e is oAen 
fouud erroneously for ;o e in other forms also. 


in my Sanskrit Grammar— gives to the pronominal declen- 
sion the appearance of greater peculiarity than it in fact 
possesses. As this particle recurs also in the cognate 
European languages, and there, as I have already elsewhere 
partly shewn, solves several enigmas of declension, we 
will therefore here, at its first appearance, pursue all its 
modifications and corruptions, as far as it is possible. In 
Zend, sma, according to §. 53., has been changed to hma; 
and also in Prakrit and Pali, in the plural of the two first 
persons, the s has become h, and besides, by transposition 
of the two consonants, the syllable hma has been altered 

to mha; e.g. Prakrit in^ amM, " we'' (of/z/xej), Pali vi^l^n 
amJidkarrif Zend ^^jjm^ ahmdkem, ^/jlc^k From the Praknt- 
Pali mha we arrive at the Gx)thic nsa in u-fisa-Ta^ Vh^^f 
ti-n«i-»,* ** nobis,'''' '*no8.'* In that the Gothic has left the 
sibilant unaltered, it stands on an older footing than the 
P&li and Prakrit; and on the other hand, by the change 
of m into n, for more facile combination with the follow- 
ing 8, it rests on a more modem stage. We cannot, 
therefore, any longer assume the ns of uns, " nos,^* to be 
[G. £d. p. 198.] the common accusative termination, as we 
have formerly done in unison with Grimmt — cf. vul/a-ns, 
gasti-ns, sunu-ns — and thence allow it, as though it had be- 
come a property of the base, to enter into some other cases, 
and connect it with new case-terminations. To this is op- 
posed, also, the 2d person, where izvis {i-zvi-s) stands in the 
accusative, and yet in essentials the two persons are identical 
in their declension ; uns, ** nobis,*' " nos,^ stands, therefore, for 
unsi'S (from unsa's)y and this has s as the case-suffix, and u-nsa 
(weakened from u-nsi) as the compound base. And we 

* The a being changed into t, according to r. 67. 

t t. 813. ^^'unsara appears to be derived from the accusative uns, as 
else the dative unns, which, with izwis, preserves a parallel sound to the 
dative singular." Cf. I. 813. 34. 


cannot, also, any longer regard the u of tin«a-ra, " nostrV^ 
&c. as the vocalized v of veis, "we,^ although the t of 
izvara, *' vesiriT &c. can be nothing else than the vocalized 
y of yust ** yowT ; for in Sanskrit, also, the syllable ^ yu of 
yHyam, ** ye/' (§. 43.) goes through all the oblique cases, 

while in the 1st person the ^ v of ^ini^ vayam, "we,'' is 
limited to the nominative, but the oblique cases combine a 
base V a with the particle ^ $ma. This a, then, in Gothic, 
through the influence of the following liquid, has become 
u ; hence, unsa-rti, &c. for ans^ra (§• 66.), 

167. As in Zend, the Sanskrit possessive 9 9wa shews 
itself* in very difierent forms in juxta-position with diffe- 
rent letters, so I believe I can point out the particle 
m sma in Grothic at least under four forms ; namely, 
as nsot zva, gka, and mma. The first has been already 
discussed ; the second — zva, and in a weakened form zvi — 
occurs in the pronoun of the 2d person, in the place where 
the 1st has nsa {nsi); and while in the cognate Asiatic 
languages (Sanskrit, Zend, Pali, Prakrit), as also in Greek and 
litliuanian, the two pronouns run quite [G. £d. p. 199.] 
parallel in the plural, since they both exhibit the interposed 
particle under discussion, either in its original form, or simi- 
larly modified, in Gothic a discrepancy has arisen between the 
two persons, in that the syllable sma has in them been 
doubly transformed. The form zva from sma rests, first, 
on the not surprising change of the 8 into z (§• 86. 6.); 
secondly, on the very common change of m and v (§. 63«). 

168. From the Gothic downwards, the particle sma has 
been still further corrupted in the Grerman dialects, in the 
pronoun of the 2d person, by the expulsion of the sibilant. 
The Old High German i-ioa-r has nearly the same relation 
to the Gothic i-zva-ra that the Homeric genitive to7o has 

* See Ann. of Lit. Crit. March 1831, p. 376, &c. 


to the Sanskrit ir^ tasya, which is older than the Homeric 
form. Compare, without intervention of the (Jothic, tlie 
Old High German i-ica-r, i-w, i-wi-h, with the Sanskrit 
ytt'shmd'kamy yu'shma'bhyam, yu-shmd-n, and with the Li- 
thuanian ifU'Sti, yu-must yu-s : thus it would be regarded as 
settled, that the tu or u belongs to the base, but is not the 
corrupted remainder of a far-extended intermediate pro- 
noun ; and it would be incorrect to divide iw-ar, iw-ih, iu, 
for i'Wa-r, &c. I, too, formerly entertained that erroneous 
opinion. A repeated examination, and the enlarged views 
since then obtained through tlie Zend, Prak]*it, and Pali, 
leave me thoroughly convinced, that the Gothic interme- 
diate syllable zva has not been lost in High German, but 
that one portion of it has been preserved even to our 
time (e-ue-r from i-zva-rat e^u-ch from i-zvi-s. Old High 
German i-wi-h) : on the other hand, the u of the base yu 

(^ yt<)» as in Gothic so also in the oldest form of the High 
[G. Ed. p. 200.] German, is rejected in the oblique cases, 
botli iu the plural and in the dual* ; and the Gothic i- zva-ra. 
Old High German i-tva-r, &c., stand for yu-zva-ra, yu-wa-r. 
The Old Saxon, however, and Anglo-Saxon, like the Lithua- 
nian, shew themselves, in respect to the preservation of the 
base, more complete than the Gotliic, and carry the u, 
which in Anglo-Saxon has become o, through all the 
oblique cases: iw-ioe-r, eo-ve-r, "vestrW^ &c. If merely 
the two historical extremes of the forms here under dis- 
cussion — the Sanskrit and New German forms — be con- 
trasted with one another, the assertion must appear very 

paradoxical, that euer and ^Tirnp^ yushmdkam are connected, 
and, indeed, in such wise, that the w of enrr has nothing 

* So much the more remarkable is the u, which is still retained in the 
North Friesian dialect (Grimm, p. 814), where, e.g. yunke-r, yu-nk, in 
regard to the base, distiDguishes itself advantageously from the Gothic 
i-f/qva-ra, i-nqoi-s. 


if] common with the u of ^ yu, but finds its origin in the 
m of the syllable w sma. 

169. The distinction of the dual and plural in tlie oblique 
cases of the two first persons is not organic in German ; for 
the two plural numbers are distinguished originally only by 
the case-terminations. These, however, in our pronouns 
are, in Gothic, the same; and the difference between the 
two plural numbers appears to lie in the base — ugka-ra,* 
vlSiv, unsa-^a, ^fiiav, iggva-ra, cr^coiV, izva-ra, vfxiiv. But from 
a more close analysis of the forms in the two plural num- 
bers, and from the light afforded us by the cognate Asiatic 
languages, it appears that the proper base is also identical 
in the two plural numbers ; and it is only the particle sma 
combined with it which has become doubly corrupted, and 
then the one form has become fixed in the dual, the other in 
tlie plural. Tiie former comes nearest to [G. Ed. p. 5201.] 

the Praki'it-Pali form s^ mha, and between u-nsa-ra and 
u-gka-^a {^u-nka-ra) an intervening u-nha-ra or u-mha-^a 
must be assumed. At least I do not think that the old s be- 
came k at one spring, but tliat the latter is a hardened form 
of an earlier h, which has remained in the Prakrit and Pali, 
as in the singular nominative the it of ik lias been developed 
from the h of ir|riT aham. The second person gives, in 
Gothic^ qv {=kv §. 86. i.) for Ar, while the other dialects leave 
the guttural the same form in both persons: Old High Ger- 
man, w-TicAa-r, i-^ncha^r; Old Slavonic^ w-nAre-r, i-nke-r ; 
Anglo -Saxon^ u-nce-r, i-nce-r. It would consequently 
appear proved that the dual and plural of the two first 
{)ersons are not organically or originally different, but be- 
long, as distortions and mutilations of different kinds, to 
one and the same original form ; and that therefore these 
two pronouns have preserved the old dual just as little as 

* It must not be overlooked, that hcre^ before /f only represents the 
niisal answering to k (86. 1.). 


the other pronouns and all substantive and adjective de- 

170. The fourth form in which ^ sma appears in Gothic 
is that which I first remarked, and which I have brought 
forward already in the ''Annals of Oriental Literature'' 
(p. 16). What I have there said, that the datives singular, 
like thammOf immcL, have arisen, by assimilation, from tha- 
smot i'sma, I have since found remarkably confirmed by 
the Grammar of the Old Prussian published by Vater, a 
language which is nearly connected with the Lithuanian 
and Gothic, since here all pronouns of the third person 
have smu in the dative. Compare, e.g. aniar^smu with the 
Gothic anthara-mma, ''to the other": ka-smu with the 
Gothic hva-mmaf "to whom?^ We have also shewn in 

Greek, since then, a remnant of the appended pronoun ^ 
sma similar to the Gothic, and which rests on assimilation, 

[G. £d. p. 202.] since we deduced the ^olic forms a-/x/i-6f , 
v-fifi-e^f &c., from a-oyxe-cf, iT-cr/Lte-ey, to which the common 
forms i/zieTif, vfieTg, have the same relation that the Old High 
German de-mu has to the Gothic tha-mma, only that rfjieig, vfie7^, 
in respect to the termination er^, are more perfect than the 
^olic forms, since they have not lost the vowel of the particle 
(T/ze, but have contracted /xe-e^ to fiei^. 

171. The Gothic datives in mma are, as follows from 
§. 160., by origin, instrumentals,* although the particle sma 
in Sanskrit has not made its way into these cases, and e.g. 
}ni Una, " through him,^ not tasminOf or, according to the 
Zend principle (§. 158.). tasma (for tasnid), is used ; — I 
say, according to the Zend principle; for though in this 

* The difference between the forms thi^ hvi^ explained at §. 150., and 
the datives tha'mnuLf hva'tnma, consists first in tins, that the latter express 
the case relation by the affixed particle, the former in the main base ; 
secondly, in this, that thamnuiy hvamma^ for thammi, hvammS, on account 
of their being polysyllabic, have not preserved the original length of 
the termination (cf. §. 137.) 


language hma has entered into the instrumental masculine 
and neuter, this case in the base ta could only be as^^ tahma 
or Ms^^ tahmd (from ta-hma-A). In the feminine, as we 
can sufficiently prove, the appended pronoun really occurs in 
the instrumental ; and while e.g, from the masculine and neuter 
base AjyAJ ana, "this'" (m.), "this'' (n.), we have found the 
instrumental of the same sound AsyAs ana not anahma, from 
the demonstrative base as a occurs rather often the feminine 
instrumental m^^^ ahmy-a, from the fem. base ^^ ahmif 
increased by the appended pronoun. 

172. The Sanskrit appended pronoun [G. Ed. p. 203.] 
W sma should, in the feminine, form either WT smd or f^ft 
smt: on the latter is based the Zend form ,f^m(, mentioned 
at §. 171. But in Sanskrit the feminine form lift smi has 
been preserved only in such a mutilated condition,* that be- 
fore my acquaintance with the Zend I could not recognise it. 
From ta-ami must come the dative ta-smy^i, the gen. and 
ablative ta-smy-ds, and the locative torsmy-Am. These forms, 
by rejecting the m, have become abbreviated to w^ torsy-Ai, 
H^qn^ ta-sy-Ast ir^TT^ ta-sy^Am; and the same is the case 
with the feminine pronoun umi in all similar compounds ; so 
that the forms mentioned appear to have proceeded from the 
masculine and neuter genitive taaya^ by the annexation of new 
case-terminations. This opinion was the more to be relied 
on, that in Gothic, also, the feminine forms ihi-zds, " hujusr 

* The Zend, too, has not ererywhere so fully preserved the feminine 
hmtf as in the instr. a-hmy-a; bat in the genitire, dative, and ablative 
has gone even farther than the Sanskrit in the demolition of this word, 
and has therein rejected not only the m bat also the C. The feminine 
gus»«3gi; a-nh'do {§, 66^.), ^^hufiu^** for a-hmy-do, often occnrs; and for it 

also cus^ jOas ainh'do, in which the t is, to use the expression, a reflec- 
tion of the lost ^^ y {§. 41.)« From another demonstrative base we find 
the dative jMiky}U»J6 ava-nk-di^ and more than once the ablative 
i)0AM^3gi;»A) ava-nh-dt for ava-hmy-di, ava-hmy-df. 


tfd'zaU '^huiCf''' might be deduced from the masculine genitive 
this, by the addition of the terminations 6s and ai ; and as, too, 
in Lithuanian, the whole of the oblique cases singular of the 
1st and 2d person stand in close connection with the Sanskrit- 
Zend genitives im mamaf aijas^ mana, jn tava, as»a5^ tava, 
and have the same as base. After discovering the Zend fe- 
[G. Ed. p. 204.] minine pronominal forms in hmy-a in the 
instrumental and locative — in the latter for hmy-anm — the 
above-mentioned forms in Sanskrit cannot be regarded other- 
wise than as abbreviations oUa-smy-di, &c., as this is far more 
suited to the nature of the thing. Tlie Gothic forms then, 
thizds, thizai, will be regarded as abbreviated, and must be di- 
vided into thi'zo^, tliirzau The masculine and neuter appended 
pronoun sma must, for instance, in Gothic give the feminine 
base SMO^'mismd, as BLIND 6, nom. blinda, "cfrca,"" from 
B LINDA, m. n. (nom. bUndT'S, blinda-ia). SMO, however, 
by the loss of the tn, as experienced by the Sanskrit in the 
feminine, has become SO; but the », on account of its posi- 
tion between two vowels (according to §. 86. 5.), has become z. 
Therefore, thi-zd-s ♦ has only s as case-sign, and the dative 
ihUzaU like gibaiin §. 161., is without case character. With 
the masculine and neuter genitive thus, therefore, thi-zd-s, thi- 
zai, have nothing in common but the demonstrative theme 
THA, and the weakening of its d to t (§. 66.). 

173. Gothic adjective bases in a (Grimm's strong ad- 
jectives) which follow the pronominal declension, differ 
from it, however, in this point, that they do not w^eaken 
the final a of the base before the appended pronoun to i, 
but extend it to ai, and form the feminine dative from the 
simple theme, according to the analogy of the substan- 
tives :t hence blindai-zd-s, blindai, not blindi-z/^s, blintli-zai. 

• Cf. §. S66. Rem. 3. p. 501. last line but seven, 
t With respect to tlie extension of the a to ai, compare the gen. pi. and 
Sanskrit forms, as tS-bhyas, " iis" teghdm, **earum,'' for ta-bhyas^ tasdm. 


174. The Zend introduces our pronominal syllable smn 
in the form of hma also into the second, and probably into 
the first person too: we find repeatedly, in the locative, 
^^Q)du thwa-hni-iy instead of the Sanskrit [G. Ed. p. 206.] 
TVfiT tivny-i, and hence deduce, in the 1st person, ma-him'-if 
which we cannot quote as occurring. The Prakrit, in this 
respect, follows the analogy of the Zend ; and in the 2d per- 
son gives the form intfipv tuma-sni-if '* in thee,*' or, with 
assimilation, imfm tumnmmh with n^ tumi (from tumn-i) 
and TT^ tat; and ^^fw fnama-Sfn-i or ^^fni mama-mmu " in 
me,'* together with the simple ifff mai and n^ mat.* Ought 
not, therefore, in German also, in the singular of tlie two 
first persons, a remnant of the pronominal syllable sma to be 
looked for? The a in the Gothic tMrs^ "to me," fhu-99 
"to thee,*' and 9i-s, "to himself," appears to me in no 
other way intelligible ; for in our Indo-European family of 
languages there exists no 9 as the suffix of the instrumental 
or dative. Of similar origin is the 9 in the plural u-nsi-Sf 
**nohvir "nos" i-zvi-Sf **v<jbis^ **vos^\' and its appearance in 
two otherwise differently denoted cases cannot therefore be 
surprising, because this s is neither the dative nor accusative 
character, but belongs to a syllable, which could be declined 
through all cases, but is here deprived of all case-4ign. In 

u-nfd'S, i'Zvi-9f therefore, the Sanskrit ^ sma is doubly con- 
tained, once as the base, and next as the apparent case-suffix. 
I am inclined, also, to affirm of the above-mentioned Prakrit 
forms, tu-ma'SmX " in thee," and ma-ma-grnif " in me/* 
that they doubly contain the pronominal syllable sma, and 
that the middle syllable has dropped a preceding s. For 
there is no more favourite and facile combination in our 
class of languages than of a pronoun with a pronoun ; and 
what is omitted by one dialect in this respect is often 
afterwards supplied by another more modern dialect. 

• See E:<sai sur le Pali, by E. Bnmoaf and LasBen, pp. 173. 175. 


[G. Ed. p. 206«] 175. The k in the Gothic accusatives mi-k, 
thu'k, si'k {me, te, se), may be deduced, as above, in u-gka-ra, 
vQk'v, &c., from 8, by the hardening of an intervening A ; so 
that mi-s is altered to mi-h, and thence to mi-k ; and there- 
fore, in the singular, as also in the plural, the dative and ac- 
cusative of the two first persons are, in their origin, identical. 
In Old High German and Anglo-Saxon our particle ap- 
pears in the accusative singular and plural in the same 
form : Old High German mi-h " me/' rfi-A, ** thee,'' u-nsi-h, 
"us," i'wi'h, "you**; Anglo-Saxon me-c, "me," u-si-c, "us," 
thi-c, "thee," e<MJirC, "you": on the other hand, in the 
dative singular the old s of the syllable sma has become r 
in the High German, but has disappeared in the Old Saxon 
and Anglo-Saxon: Old High German mi-r, di-r; Old 
Saxon mi, thi; Anglo-Saxon me, the. 

176. In Lithuanian ^ 8ma appears in the same form 
as in the middle of the above-mentioned (§. 174.) Prakrit 
forms ; namely, with s dropped, as ma ; and indeed, first, in 
the dative and locative sing, of the pronouns of the 3d per- 
son and adjectives ; and, secondly, in the genitive dual of the 
two first persons : we cannot, however, refer to this the m, 
which the latter in some cases have in common with the 
substantive declension. The pronominal base TJ, and the 
adjective base GERA, form, in the dative, i&-mui, " to thee," 
gerd-mui, " to the good ** (shortened tdm, gerdm), and in the 
locative ta-mh, gera-mi ; and if -mut and -m^ are compared 
with the corresponding cases of the substantive a bases, it 
is easily seen that mm and m^ have sprung from ma. The 
pronouns of the two first persons form, in the genitive dual, 
mu-mil, yti-t/id, according to the analogy of ponA, " of the 
two lords." 

• We have a remnant of a more perfect form of the particle ;9V sma in 
the locative interrogative form ka-mm^, " where "? Sansk. "arfFnT ka-smin^ 




177. LithuaDian substantives have i for [G. Ed. p. 207.] 
the dative character, but i bases have ei*; a final a before 
this i passes into u ; hence wilku-i. Although we must refuse 
a place in the locative to the dative i of the Greek and Latin, 
still this Lithuanian dative character appears connected with 
the Indo-Zend S, so that only the last element of this diph- 
thong, which has grown out of a + i, has been left For 
the Lithuanian has, besides the dative, also a real locative, 
which, indeed, in the a bases corresponds exactly with the 
Sanskrit and Zend. 

178. The nominal bases, Sanskrit, Zend, and Lithuanian, 
explained at §• 148., excepting the neuters ending with a 
vowel and pronouns, to the full declension of which we 
shall return hereafter, form in the dative : 






vehrkuU wilku-L 



hizvay-di, ranka-i. 



paiie-i ? t pdch-eL 



afrtie-i, dwi-eL 



bdshyainty-dU .... 



pasv-S, sunu'U 

*Mn whom," whicb^ accordiDg to the common declension, would be 
i|^ kasmS (from kasma^). Compare the Gothic hvamma, '< to whom?" 
for hvasma, 

* The form dwiui, with dwiei appears to admit of being explained as 
arising from the commixture of the final vowel of the a bases. 

t The form J^patyS is, with respect to its want of Guna, irregular, 

and should be iffT^ patayL 

X In combination with a5as cha we find in V. S., p. 473. as^;o^^^jasq) 
paithyi'Cka, and hence deduce for the instrumental (p. 198 G. £d.) the form 
paitkya, while, according to §. 47., also paitya might be expected. From 
JC5^A)^ had, *' friend," I find in V. S., p. 162, the instrumental a)^^as5^A5^ 

hacaya with Guna, after the analogy of the A5>>A5<ja>i hdzava^ mentioned 
at $. 160. 






f, tanavit 
f. vadhw'fU, 
m. f. gav-S, 

f. vdch-e^ 

m. bharat-i, 

m. diman-i, 

11. fic)mn-^,J 

m. bhrdtr-^, 

f. duhitr-^, 

m. ddlr-pf 

n. I'achaS'^.t 


• • • • 



• • • • 







* I give ;o^^>yA5^ ianuyS with eDphonic y, because I have fonnd this 
form freqnently, which, however, cannot, for this reason, be considered as 
peculiar to the feminine ; and, instead of it, also tanvS and tanav^ may be 
regarded as equally correct. Cf. $. 43., where, however, it is necessary to 
observe, that the insertion of a euphonic ^^ y between u and ^ is not 
everywhere necessary ; and, for instance, in the dative is the more rare form. 

t The c ^in TtJ/cg^p >4 dughdherdy and in the instr. AJ/f^^p >^ 
dughdh^ra^ is placed there merely to avoid the harsh combination of three 
consonants. I deduce these forms from the plural genitive (k>)^?^9 M 
dttghdher-ahm^ for 9^/(0^9 >5 dtighdhr'ahm. 

X Respecting in^ ndmn^, for IfPT^ ndmani, and so in the instru- 
mental w\\^ ndmndt for ffpTiTT ndmand, see $.140. In Zend, in this and 
gimilar words, I have not met with the rejection of the a in the weakest 
cases {§, ISO.), but examples of its retention, e,g. in the compound aocto' 
"ndmarif whence the genitive aoctS-ndmand (Vend. S. p. 4, and frequently). 
I consider the initial a in this compound as the negation, without eupho- 
nic n ; for^in all probability it means ^' having untold (countless) names.** 
Similar compounds precede, viz. c^»A)A5i A)»'A5t^^A)p ij|f?jJLf^A^^ 

y/Atg yy A^Ai hazanrd-ghadshdhi ha^are-chashmand, ''of the thousand 
eared, ten thousand eyed." Cf. Anquetil 11.82. In words in van, on 
the other hand, jo a is rejected in the weakest cases, and then the 

» V becomes > u or ^ <?. Regarding the addition of the j i in ;t} /jjo^juoy 
ndmainSf see ^. 41. 



179. The Ablative in Sanskrit has i^^ t [G. Ed. p. 209.] 
for its character, regarding the origin of which there can no 
longer be any uncertainty, as soon as the influence of 
pronouns on the formation of cases has been recognised, as 
we are conducted at once to the demonstrative base /a, 
which already, in the neuter nominative, and accusative, 
has assumed the nature of a case-sign, and which we shall 
subsequently, under the verb, see receiving the function of 
a personal termination. This ablative character, however, 

has remained only in bases in v a, which is lengthened 
before it; a circumstance that induced the Indian Gramma- 
rians, who have been followed by the English, to represent 
wnr At as the ablative termination. It would therefore be 
to be assumed, that in ^pVTV vrikdt the a of the base has 
been melted down with the d of the termination.* 

180. M. E. Bumouf t has been the first [G. Ed. p. 210.J 
to bring home the ablative character to a class of words in 
Zend which had lost it in Sanskrit, and whence it can be 
satisfactorily inferred that a simple f, and not dt, is the true 
ablative character. We mean the declension in u, of which 
hereafter. As regards bases in a, which in Sanskrit alone 
have preserved the ablative, we have to observe, that in 

* I have drawn attention already, in the first (German) edition of my 
Sanskrit Grammar, to the arbitrary and unfounded nature of this assump- 
tion (S§. 150. and 264.) ; and I have deduced from the ablatives of the 
pronouns of the two first persons {mat, tioat) that either at with short a, or, 
more correctly, a simple t, must be regarded as the ablative termination. 
This view I supported in the Latin edition of my Grammar, on the ground 
that in old Latin also a simple d appears as the suffix of the ablative. But 
since then the justness of my opinion regarding the Sanskrit ablative has 
been still more emphatically confirmed by the Zend language, because the 
Zend stands in a closer and more evident connection with the Sanskrit 
than doefe the Latin. 

t Nouveau Journal Afiintique 1820, torn. III. 311. 



Zend also the short vowel is lengthened, and thus mjus^^^^^ 
vehrkd't answers to ^r^STW vrikd-L Bases in j i have di-t 
in the ablative ; whence may be inferred in Sanskrit ablatives 
like ^7^ pati't, iftih^ priti-t (§. 33.)» which, by adding Guna 
to the final vowel, would agree with genitives in is. The 
Zend-Avesta, as far as it is hitherto edited, nevertheless 
offers but few examples of such ablative forms in f»j\f di-t : 
I owe the first perception of them to the word iwj^'^^oiju) 
Afritd'tt, " benediclioner in a passage of the Vendidad,* ex- 
plained elsewhere, which recurs frequently. ExampK^s of 

masculine bases are perhaps i»j4^7^jto>^A5^ '^^-'YH;?^^ rajoit 
zaratusirdit, " institufione zaratustrha " (V. S. p. 86), although 
otherwise j^9 rajU which I have not elsewhere met with, 
is a masculine : the adjective base zaraiustri, however, be- 
longs to the three genders. From j7jxi^ gairi, *' moun- 
[G. Ed. p. 211.] tain,'' occurs the ablative i»j^9j<s^ garoit 
in the Yescht-Sade.f Bases in u have i»\fM ao-tX in the 
ablativell; and in no class of words, with the exception of 

* See Gramm. Grit. add. ad r. 156. 

't What Anqnetil III. 170. Rem. 4, writes ^u«r^(f can be nothing else 
than the ablative aoj^7jo^ gardit, for AnquetU generally expresses 

n by ^u, xshy Cy j^ by de^ and t» by d. The nominal base j/jas^ gairi, 
however, is treated in Zend as if gari was the original form, and the i 
which precedes the r was produced by the final t, as remarked by 
M. Burnouf in the article quoted at p. 173, and confirmed by the genitive 
AOJ^^^ garoit. That, however, which is remarked by M. Bumonf, 
1. c. with respect to the genitive, and of which the Vend. S. p. 64. affords 
frequent proof in the genitive ju^j^^asq) patois^ must also be extended to 
the ablative mdii; and the e, which, according to ^. 41., is adduced through 
the final j i of the base, is dropped again before this termination. 

X For this we also find Ap>e eut ; e.g, M>e,^<^ijA)( mainyeut from 

II Interchanges of ^ o and tff 6 are particularly common, owing to the 
slight difference of these letters. Thus, e.g. for Ap^A5?( mraot, '^he 
spoke," occurs very frequently r^^fM/i} mraot ; the former, however, is, 
as we can satisfactorily prove, the right reading ; for, first, it is supported 



that in a, does the ablative more frequently occur, although 
these words are in number but five or six, the ablative use 
of which is very frequent; e.g. i»^xi^j^JSs^ddonha6U '^crea- 
tionef^ from ddonhut in a passage explained elsewhere* 
f»^^3ky^ anhad-t, *' mundor from >^^ anhu ; m^asjas^ 
tanadf '* carpore,''^ from >yAjp ianuu Bases ending with con- 
sonants are just as little able to annex the [G. £d. p. 212.] 
ablative i» t without the intervention of another letter, as 
the accusative is to annex m without an intermediate letter; 
and they have at as their termination, numerous examples of 
which occur; e.g. i»ajq)aj ap-a/, ** aqud^^ ; t»J6/(3Mi dthr-at, 
" igne^^ ; mas^as^ i^a>^ cAas/tman-a(, "oculo^^; i»AsyAs»t^gusj 
ndonhan-at '*naso^^; i»aj^>^ c?rti/-a/, ** dcemone''^ ; i»MM^i^ 
vis-atj " loco^^ (fit. vicust according to §. 21.). Owing to 
the facile interchange of the as a with jm d, i»ms At is 
sometimes erroneously written for i»aj at ; thus, Vendidad 
S. p. 338, MAM^^A)^4'ASJ9 sa6chant-dt for mas^^as^^'asj) sad- 
charU-at '* Ittcente.'"'* Bases in u sometimes follow the 

by the Sanskrit form wsftw abrdt, for which the irregular form W^rtlT 
abrau-U is nsed; and secondly^ it tfnswers to the Ist pers. mradm (V. S. 
p. 123) ; thirdly, the Sanskrit ^ ^ is, in Zend, never represented by ^as 
aOy hnt by ^ 6, before which, according to $.28., another as a is placed, 
hence ^as ad : on the other hand, ^as ao represents u, in accordance with 
§. 32 and §. 28. If, then, > jjasq) pahi formed in the ablative Mti^ASJ9ASQ> 
paHaot, this would conduct us to a Sanskrit ll^nr JM»u /; while from the 
ablatives m j^^^o«Aks qfrUdi-t^ t»jii^7^M5>^j69xf{^zaratustr6i't, m j^^^n 
gardi'tf and from the analogy, in other respects, with the genitive, the 
Guna forori, iV^ftv paiS-t must be deduced. Moreover, in the Vend. S. 
the ablative form m^as ad-t actually occurs; for at p. 102. (as^as^ 
f^As^auUJAs^ M^AS?^auU9 hacha vanhead-t mananh'atj ''from pur9 
spirit ") occurs vanheadt, the ablative of vanhu ; and the ^ e preceding 
the a is an error in orthography, and vanhadt is the form intended: 
p. 245 occurs m^^as^^uU anhaSt, ** mundo," from anhu. 
* Gramm. Crit. §. 640. ann. 2. 


cousonantal declension in having ma5 at as the ablative ter- 
mination instead of a mere /; just as in the genitive, besides 
a simple s, they exhibit also an 6 (from as, §. 56^), although 
more rarely. Thus, for the above-mentioned t»^fJ<^^x^^ 
ianaot, **corporer occurs also tanv-at (Vend. S. p. 482).» 
Feminine bases in Msd and ^ i have mjus dt in the ablative, 
as an analogous form to the feminine genitive termination 
WW ds, whence, in the Zend ^ do; e.g. mjos^^^as^ 
dahmay-dt, '* prtBclara,^^ from M^^dahmd; i»juj^^a5!1^»?> 
urvaray-dt) ** arbore,^^ from ms7x5»7> urvard ; i»Jtt5^^?C3f ?2SJ 
[G. Ed. p. 213.] harkhry-dU ** genitrice,'''' from ^/<3f^ bare- 
thrt.f The feminine bases also in u, and perhaps also those 

in i, may share this feminine termination t»jM df ; thus, 
from zantUf ** begetting," comes the ablative zanihv}-dt (cf. 
Gramm. Crit. §. 640. Rem. 2.). Although, then, ttie ablative 
has been sufficiently shewn to belong to all declensions in 
Zend, and the ablative relation is also, for the most part, 
denoted by the actual ablative, still the genitive not un- 
frequently occurs in the place of the ablative, and even 
adjectives in the genitive in construction with sub- 
stantives in the ablative. Thus we read. Vend S. p. 479, 

avanlidtX vUat yat mdzdayaindis^ " ex hoc terrd quidem maz- 

* Burnouf writes tanavaty probably according to another Codex. 
I hold both forms to be correct, the rather as in the genitive, also, both 
tanv-6 and tanav^d occar ; and in general, before all terminations beginning 
with a vowel, both the simple form and that with Guna are possible. 

t Vendidad Sade, p. 436 : ^^/^^Ai^g^Asoidl^A)^ Y^^^f 9 A50A5,^ 

9f 7o>q) as^a5^ i»Jtt5^^/og^ MJa}^^^A5^g^5^doj/ YtUlui vekrko 
chathwcare-jangrd nishdaredairydt barethryat hacha puthrSm, '^As a wol^ 
a fonr-footed animal, tears a child from its mother." This sentence is 
also important as an example of the intensive form (cf. Gramm. Crit. 
§. 368.) The Codex, however, divides incorrectly nUhdcwif dairydt. 
X Regarding this form, see p. 172. Rem. 


181. The Old Roman corresponds with the Zend in re-> 
gard to the designation of the ablative; and in those two 
memorials of the language, tliat on the Columna rostratci, and 
the S. C. de Bacckancdibus, which are the most important 
inscriptions that remain, all ablatives end with d\ so that 
it is surprising that the ablative force of this letter could 
be overlooked, and that the empty name of a paragogic d 
could be held satisfactory. Bases ending with a conso- 
nant use ed as ablative suffix, as in the accusative they 
have em instead of a simple m: hence, forms like pr<e- 
sent-ed dictaior^ed, answer to the 2^nd ioAchant'cU Athr^ 
{hicente igne); while navale-d* prcpda-d, inalto-d mari-dt 
senaiu'd, like the above-mentioned Zend forms mj^^^ 
gardi't, " monte,^^ i»4>AjyA)p tanad-t, " corporct^ &c. ; and in 
Sanskrit ^^VTir vrikd-tf *' lupo^ have a simple T sound to 
denote the ablative. The Oscan also takes the ablative 
sign d through all declensions, as appears from the remark- 
able inscription of Bantia, e.g. dolu-d [G.Ed p. 214.] 
mallu-d, cum preivafu-d, toufa^d prcBsenli-d.^ It may be pre* 
liminarily observed, that, in the 3d person of the imperative, 
old Latin and Oscan forms like es-tod, es-tud — for eHo, and 
therefore with a double designation of person — correspond 
remarkably to similar Veda forms witli which we are 
hitherto acquainted only from Panini ; e.g. wfi'mnif^jiva'tdt, 
which signifies both "'viva^" and **viver but in the latter 
sense is probably only an error in the use of the language 
(cf. vivito as 3d and 2d person). 

182. In classical Latinity a kind of petrified ablative 
form appears to be contained in the appended pronoun 
meU which may be transferred from the 1st person to the 
others also, and answers to the Sanskrit ablative matt 
"from me.*^ But it is possible, also, that met may have 

* The e here belongs to the base, which alternates between e and t. 
t See O. Muller's Etruscans, p. 36. 


dropped an initial s, and may stand for smei, and so be- 
long to the appended pronoun ^ sma, explained in §. 165. 
&c., corresponding with its ablative smaf, to which it 
stands in the same relation that memor (for mesmor) does 
to Vismri — from smart §. 1. — "to remember/' The com- 
bination of this syllable, then, with pronouns of the three 
persons, would require no excuse, for "m smoy as has 
been shewn, unites itself to all persons, though it must 
itself be regarded as a pronoun of the 3d person.* The 
conjunction serf, too, is certainly nothing but the ablative 
of the reflexive ; and sed occurs twice in the S. C. de Bacch. 
as an evident pronoun, and, in fact, governed by inter; 
[G. £d. p. 215.] whence it may be assumed that inter can 
be used in construction with the ablative, or also that, in the 
old languages, the accusative is the same with the ablative : 
the latter view is confirmed by the accusative use of ted and 
med in Plautus. 

1 183. In Sanskrit the ablative expresses distance from a 
place, the relation " whence ;" and this is the true, original 
destination of this case, to which the Latin remained 
constant in the names of towns. From the relation 
" whence," however, the ablative is, in Sanskrit, trans- 
ferred to the causal relation also; since that on account 
of which any thing is done is regarded as the place whence 
an action proceeds. In this manner the confines of the abla- 
tive and instrumental touch one another, and ihf tina (§. 158.) 
and Kwn(^tasmAt, may both express "on account of which." 
In adverbial use the ablative spreads still further, and in 
some words denotes relations, which are otherwise foreign 
to the ablative. In Greek, adverbs in ci>f may be looked upon 
as sister forms of the Sanskrit ablative ; so that o)-;, from 
bases in o, would have the same relation to the Sanskrit 


* The redo plication in me-mor, from mesmor y would be of the kind 
used in Sanskrit, e,g, pasparsa, *' he touched/' of which hereafter, 
t Cf. the Gothic ablatives in 6, adduced in §. 294. Rem. 1. p. 384. 


^»nr d't, from bases in a, that, e.g. S/Joxri has to J^^^ dadd-ti. 
Thus, ofiQr^ may be akin to the Sanskrit ^mrff samd-U 
"from the similar," both in termination and in base. In 
Greek, the transition of the T sounds into £ was requisite, if 
indeed they were not to be entirely suppressed*; and in 
§. 152. we have seen neuter bases in t, in the uninflected 
cases, preserve their final letter from being entirely lost by 
changing it into y. We deduce, therefore, [G. Ed. p. 216.] 
adverbs like o/luj-;, ourco-y, i-y, from oftci-T, ovrcurr, cb-r or 
ofcco-^, &c., and this is the only way of bringing these forma- 
tions into comparison with the cognate languages ; and it is 
not to be believed that the Greek has created for this ad- 
verbial relation an entirely peculiar form, any more than 
other case-terminations can be shewn to be peculiar to the 
Greek alone. The relation in adverbs in a>-f is the same as 
that of Latin ablative forms like hoc modo, quo modo, raro, 
perpetuo. In bases ending with a consonant* o; for or might 
be expected as the termination, in accordance with 2iend 

ablatives like ^oAjyAs^t^A)^ chashman-att *' oculo "; but then 
the ablative adverbial termination would be identical with 
that of the genitive : this, and the preponderating analogy 
of adverbs from o bases, may have introduced forms like 
(rci)0poi/-a)f, which, with respect to their termination, may be 
compared with Zend feminine ablatives like ^oAu^^wg^ 

harkhry-At We must also, with reference to the irre- 
gular length of this adverbial termination, advert to the 
Attic genitives in taj for oj .f 

* As, in oura>, together with ovra>-r, 2>de, axftwa, and adverbs from 
prepositions— c£fi>, ai/a>, icaro), &c. It is here desirable to remark, that in 
Sanskrit, also, the ablative termination occurs in adverbs from prepositions, 
aa ^WCTIIT adhastdtf "(from) beneath/' Jf^j^unpurastdty "(from) before," 
&c. (Gram. Crit. §. 662. p. 279.)- 

tin compounds, remains of ablative forms may exist with the original 
T sound retained. We will therefore observe, that in *A(f}po6iTrf the first 




[G. Ed. p. 217.] 184. In no case do tlie different members 
of the Sanskrit family of languages agree so fully as in the 
genitive singular ; only that in Latin the two first declen- 
sions, together witli the fifth, as well as the two first persons 
of the pronouns, have lost their old termination, and have re- 
placed it by tliat of the old locative. The Sanskrit termi- 
nations of the genitive are ^ «, 'Pilsya, ira as, and ^TTT^ ds: 
the three first are common to the three genders: as is 

member has a genuine ablative meaning ; and as the division a(j>po-diTTi 
admits of no satisfactory explanation, one may rest satisfied with dcppob-irrj. 
In Sanscrit, ^^if^ill alfhrdditd would mean ^Hhe female who proceede<l 
from a cloud," for a^/ir<i-^ must become abhrdd before itd ($. 03'.) ; and in 
neuter verbs the otherwise passive participinl sufHx ta has usually a past 
active meaning. Of tliis usage in;, in d<l)pod-lTrj, might be a remnant, and 
this compound might mean, therefore, *' She who arose, who sprang, from 
foam." The only difficulty here is the short vowel of od for o)^. As re- 
gards the Sanskrit, here also the s of the ablative may in most declensions 
rest on an exchange with an older / (cf. p. 184 G. ed. Note) ; and, as the 
Zend gives us every reason to expect Sanskrit ablatives like jUiwdy-dt^ 
pfiti-ty sunS-t, Miavifhyanty-dtf dtman-at ; so it will be most natural to 
refer the existing formB Jihwdy-ds, prtie-s^ &c., where they have an abla- 
tive meaning, to the exchange of / with «, which is more or less in vogue 
according to the variety of dialects ; particularly as it is known, also, that, 
vice versd, according to certain laws, w s passes into W / (Gramm. Crit. 
}. 100.). Consequently the identity between the genitive and ablative, in 
most declensions, would be only external, and the two cases would vary 
in their history ; so that, e.g.jikwdy-ds would be, in one sense, viz. in that 
of UngtuTy independent and original ; and in another, that of Ungttdy a 
corruption otjihwdy-dt. At the time when Sanskrit and Zend were sepa- 
rated from one another, the retention of the original t must have been 
the prevailing inclination, and, togetlier with it, may also its change into 
s have arisen, as the Zend also uses, at times, the genitive form with an 
ablative meaning {e,g. Vend. S. p. 177.). 


principally confined to the consonantal bases/ and hence has 
the same i:elation to s that, in the accusative, am has to m, 
and, in the Zend ablative, at has to t. 

185. Before the genitive sign n s the [G. Ed. p. 218.] 
vowels ^ i and 7 u take Guna ; and the Zend, and in a 
more limited degree, also the Lithuanian and Gothic, share 
this augment. All u bases, for example, in Lithuanian and 
Gothic, prefix an a to their final vowel : hence the Lithuanian 
sunaus and Gothic sunau-s correspond to the Sanskrit TPfhc 
sinds (Jilii) from sunaus (§. 2.). In the i bases in Gothic, Guna 
is restricted to the feminines ; thus anstaUs, *' graiics'* answers 
to irHNf priti'S. Respecting Lithuanian genitives of i bases 
see §. 193. The High German has, from the earliest period, 
dropped the genitive sign in all feminines : in consonantal 
bases (§§. 125. 127.) the sign of the genitive is wanting in 
the other genders also. 

186. The form which the Sanskrit genitive termination 
after consonants assumes, as it were of necessity (§. 94.), 
viz. as for s, has in Greek, in the form og, passed over also to 
the vowels i and v and diphthongs terminating in t;; and 
genitives like woprez-f, t')^6€V'^, which would be in accordance 
with §. 185. are unheard of; but mopri-o^y Ix^o^ answer, 
like iro9-o$-, to Sanskrit genitives of consonantal bases, as iy^ 
pad-as, " pedisi'' wni^ vdch-<is, " vocis,''^ The Latin, on the 
other hand, answers more to the other sister languages^ 
but is without Guna : so hosti-s is like the Gothic genitive 
gasti'S. In the u bases (fourth declension) the lengthening 
of the u may replace the Guna, or, more correctly, this 
class of words followed the Greek or consonantal principle, 
and the vowel dropped before s was compensated for by 

* Besides this, it occurs only in monosyllabic bases in ^t, ^u, ^ di, and 
^ au ; e,g, rdy-tis, *^rei,*' ndv-as, " navis ;" and in neuters in ^ i and '^ u, 
which, by the assumption of an euphonic vl n, assimilate to tlie consonantal 

declension in most cases. 


lengthening the u. The S. C. de Bacch. gives the genitive 
senatu'08 in Grecian garb. Otherwise the termination is 

of consonantal bases is better derived from the Sanskrit ^ra 
[G. Ed. p. 219.] as than from the Greek oj, because the old 
Sanskrit a in other places in Latin has been weakened to t, 
as frequently happens in Gothic (§§. QQ. 61.). 

187. With regard to the senatu-os just mentioned, it is 
important to remark, that, in Zend also, the u bases, in- 
stead of annexing a simple s in the genitive, as j^>^^^yjA)9 
mainyeu-s, "of the spirit," from mainyu, may, after the 

manner of consonantal bases, add \ 6 (from as, cf. p. 212, 
G. Ed.), as »^^^ danhv-6t or ^»ajw»jaj^ danhav-d, for 
danheU'S *' foci," from >^^jj^ danhu. This kind of genitive 
occurs very frequently as a substitute for the locative, as 
also for the ablative (Vend. S. p. 177), more rarely with a 
genuine genitive meaning.* 

188. Bases in w a, and pronouns of the third person, of 
which only amu ends with a vowel other than a. have, in 
Sanskrit, the more full genitive sign i^ sya ; hence, e. g. 

i'8ya» " lupu^ ITER ta-sya^ '* hujxisr &c.,^igiR amu-shya. 

* It might be assumed that as /3ao-iXcor clearly stands for fiasiXtFos, 
po6s for poF6s, va69 for paF6s, (§. 124.), so also dartos would stand for 
AareFos, and that acrrtosy therefore, should be compared with the Zend 
genitives with Guna, as ^»m^^aS^ danhav-6. The f, therefore, in 
Avreos would not be a corrupted v of the base, but the Guna vowel foreign 
to the base ; but the v of the base, which, according to the original law of 
sound, roust become F before yowels, is, like all other digamnias in the 
actual condition of the language, suppressed. The c is certainly a very 
heterogeneous vowel to the v, and the corruption of the latter to c, in the 
middle of a word, would be a greater violation of the old relations of sound 
than the rejection of a v sound between two vowels. The corruption 
of 2 to e is less surprising^ and occurs also in Old High German (^. 7*2.). 
In Greek, also, a consonant y is wanting, but cannot have been originally 
deficient; and therefore the question might be mooted whether also 
irdXeoDff, o-ivoircoff may not stand for pole-ySs, tinape-yot. 


" alius/* (§. 21.) In Zend this termination [G. Ed. p. 220.] 
appears in the form of hi, (§. 42.) : hence, e. g. i^»»Aj^7»»g9 
vehrkahi, "lupir jO»*;o^^J^p tuiryi-hi, *' quarts' {or tinrya-hi. 
189. In Greek and Latin we have already, in another 
place, pointed out a remnant of the genitive termination 
^ syot and, in fact, precisely in places where it might be 
most expected. As bases in w a correspond to the Greek 
bases in o, and as o* in Greek at the furthest extremity of words 
between two vowels is generally dislodged, I do not enter- 
tain the smallest doubt that the old epic genitive termination 
in to is an abbreviation of ato ; and that e. g. in ro7o = w^ 
ta-sya, the first o belongs to the base, and only to to the 
case-sign. As regards, however, the loss of the a in toTo, the 
Greek Grammar supplies us with another o7o, where a 2 is 
lost, the necessary and original existence of which no one 
can doubt : eSiioao, and the ancient position of the 2 in the 
second person, testify for SiSotao instead of itSo7o, as for cAe- 
760*0 instead of eheyov, just as the Indian iFBir ta-sya for 
TO-0-/0 instead of to?o. In the common language the i, also, 
has been dropped after the o*, and the o of the termination, 
which has remained, has been contracted with that of the base 
to ov ; hence rov from to-o. The Homeric form ao (Bopeao, 
Atveiao) belongs likewise to this place, and stands for a-tot 
and this for a-^rio (§• 116.). The Latin has transposed our 
1^ sya to just with the change, which is so frequent, of the 
old a before the final s to u (cf. ^^iTI vrika-s, " lupurs,^ y*^ 
yuvjmns, jungimus); hence, hujus, cu-jus, e^us, illius for illi- 
"jus, &c. I cannot, however, believe that the i of the second 
declension is an abbreviation of oto, of which the t alone has 
been retained ;* for it is clear that lupi and [G. Ed. p. 221.] 
lupoi from lupai rest on tlie same principle ; and if lupi pro- 
ceeds from \vKoio, whence can lupai be derived, as the cor- 
responding Greek feminines nowhere exhibit an ouo or rjto ? 

* Hartung's Cases, p. 211. 


190. In Lithuanian the genitives of the a bases differ re- 
markably from those of the other declensions, and denote 
the case by o, in which vowel, at the same time, the final 
vowel of the base is contained ; thus, wUko, ** lupi^"* for 
wilka^. It is probable that this o id) has arisen from as, 
according to a contraction similar to that in the Zend (§. 56^). 
In old Sclavonic, also, o occurs, answering to the Sanskrit 
as ; and nebo, gen. nebese, corresponds to the Sanskrit «pnT 
nabhas. That, however, the Lithuanian has left the sylla- 
ble as in the nominative unaltered, but in the genitive has 
contracted it to o, may induce the remark, that like cor- 
ruptions do not always find entrance in like places, if they 
have not raised themselves to a pervading law. In this 
manner, in Gothic, the old a h«is remained in the interroga- 
tive base HVA in the nominative (Jivas), but in the genitive 
hvi'-s the weakening to i has taken place; so that here, as 
in Lithuanian, only the more worthy powerful nominative 
has preserved the older more powerful form, and an unor- 
ganic difference has found its way into the two cases, which 
ought to be similar. 

191. The Gothic has no more than the Lithuanian pre- 
served a remnant of the more full genitive termination sya, 
and the Gothic a bases, in this case, resemble the i bases, 
because a before final s has, according to §. 67., become 
weakened to t; thus vulfi-s for vulfa-s; as also in Old 
Saxon tlie corresponding deolension exhibits as together 
with eSf although more rarely ; thus, daga-s, " of the day," 

[G. Ed. p. 222.] answering to the Gothic dagi-s. The conso- 
nantal bases have, in Gothic, likewise a simple s for case-sign ; 
hence, ahmins, Jiyands, brdthr-s (§. 132.). The older sister 
dialects lead us to conjecture that originally an o, more 
lately an t, preceded this s — ahmin-astjiyand-as, brdthr-as,^ 
which, as in the nominative of the a bases {vulf^s for vulfa-s), 
has been suppressed. The Zend exhibits in the r roots an 
agreement with the Gothic, and forms, c g. jjcUmj nar-s, " of 



the man,"^ not nar-d, probably on account of the nature of 
the r bordering on that of a vowel, and of its facile combi- 
nation with *.* 

192. Feminines in Sanskrit have a fuller genitive ter- 
mination in bases ending with a vowel, viz. da for simple 
8 (see §. 113.); and, in fact, so that the [G. Ed. p. 1223.] 
short-ending bases in i^i and 7 u may use at will either 
simple ?^ s or ^sn^^ ds; and instead of iftihi pritSsf mft^ 
tand-Sf also lAfOPB prify-ds, K^^m tanw-ds, occur. The long 
vowels WT d, ^& ^ lit have always ^l^^^ ds ; hence, ftldfPmr 
jihwdy-ds, Hft^RWW bhavishyaidy-dst ^CVTO vadhvo^. This 
termination ^sm ds, is, in Zend, according to §. 56^., 
sounded do; hence, ^^^»^^>» hizvay-do, ^^^^^'i^^^tpis 
biishyainty-do. In bases in j £ and > u I have not met 

* Hence I deduce the genitives M^A)yjui/t brdtaV'S, j^jAs^^o >j 
dughdhar-s — which cannot be quoted — and the probability that the corre- 
sponding Sanskrit forms are properly bhrdtuvy dtihitur, which cannot be 
gleaned from the Sanskrit alone, on account of $. 11.^ and by reason of the 
elsewhere occurring euphonic interchange of 9 and r. >iniT bhrdtur, and 
similar forms, would therefore stand for -ur^, and this apparently for ars, 
through the influence of the liquids ; and, according to §, 94., they would 
have lost the genitive sign. The same is the case with the numeral adverb 
inrc chatur, " four times," for ^nrlt chaturs ; for which the Zend, by 

transposing the r, gives M^>)(iyA^ chatknu (§. 44.). The Indian Gram- 
marians also, in the genitives under discussion, assume the absence of the 
genitive sign (Laghu-Kaumndi, p. 35). As, however, the Visarga, in 
T^ kroshtu (from the theme llhfX. krdshtar or lj|^ kroshtriy see §, 1.), 
may evidently stand as well for « as for r ; so in such doubtful cases it is 
of no consequence to which side the Indian Grammarians incline, where 
arguments are not found in the Sanskrit itself, or in the cognate languages, 
which either confirm or refute their statements. And it is impossible, if 
the Visarga, in mir, bhrdtuK, stands for r, that the preceding u can be 

a transposition of the final letter of the base (y^ ^^)» f^' tliis cannot be 

both retained in the form of r, and yet changed into u (cf. Colebrook, 

p. 55, Rem.) 

t Only the few monosyllabic words make an exception. (Gramm. 
Crit. §, 130.) 


with this termination ; together with j^dj^^^^^jos dfritdi-St 
j^3>fyAjp taneu-St or ^»fxi^ tanv-d, 4^»AjyA)p tanav-6, I find 
no gus^^(3^0«ja) dfrithy-dot gMiS»yAjp tanv-do. The cognate 
European languages exhibit no stronger termination in the 
feminine than in the masculine and neuter ; the Grothic, how- 
ever, shews a disposition to greater fulness in the feminine 
genitive, inasmuch as the 6 bases preserve this vowel in con- 
tradistinction to the nominative and accusative; but the 
i bases, as has been shewn'above, attach Guna to this vowel, 
while the masculines do not strengthen it at all. Compare 
gibd'S with the uninflected and base-abbreviated nominative 
and accusative giba, and anstai-a with gasii-s. Respecting 
the pronominal and adjective genitives, as thi-zd-s, hlindai- 
x6'8, see §. 172. The Greek, also, in its feminine first declen- 
sion preserves the original vowel length in words which have 
weakened the nominative and accusative — a^vpa^, Movcrrj^, 

[G. Ed. p. 224.] opposed to o-^Cpo, (T<f>vpa'V, fiovaav* In 
Latin, also, as, with the original length of the base escas, 
terras, &c. stands opposed to esca, esca-m. It cannot be sup- 
posed that these genitives are borrowed from the Greek; 
they are exactly what might be expected to belong to a 
language that has a for the genitive character. That, 
however, this form, which no doubt extended originally to 
all a bases, gradually disappeared, leaving nothing but a 
few remains, and that the language availed itself of other 
helps, is in accordance with the usual fate of languages 
which continually lose more and more of their old heredi- 
ditary possessions. 

193. The Lithuanian, in its genitive rank-ds for ranka-s, 

* The Attic termination a>r is, perhaps, a perfect transmission of the 
Sanskrit %[m ds ; so that forms like irSkt-ws answer to IfhtnTT prity-ds. 
Although the Greek <as is not limited to the feminine, it is nevertheless 
excluded from the neuter (^orco^), and the preponderating number of i 
bases are feminine. 


resembles the Gothic ; and in "some other cases, also, re- 
places the feminine a by a long or short o. It is doubtful 
how the genitives of i bases, like awiis, are to be regarded. 
As they are, for the most part, feminine, and the few mas- 
culines may have followed the analogy of the prevailing 
gender, the division awi-h might be made ; and this might 
be derived, through the assimilative force of the i, from 
awi'ds (cf. p. 174, note*), which would answer to the San- 
skrit genitives like iAtH^ prity-ds. If, however, it be com- 
pared with iftlhr priiiH, and the i of awiis be looked upon 
as Guna of the i (§. 26.), then the reading aw'th for awSi is 
objectionable. Ruhig, indeed, in his Glossary, frequently 
leaves out the i, and gives ugnis, "of the fire,*' for ugnih; 
but in other cases, also, an i is suppressed before the e 
generated by its influence (p. 174, note*); and, fi,g,, all 
feminine bases in yu have, in the genitive, h for i-h or y-is, 
as (jiesm^-Sj for giesmyp^, from GIESMYA (see p. 169, note). 
Therefore the division aucU-s might also be made, and it 
might be assumed that the i bases have, in some cases, ex- 
perienced an extension of the base, similar to those which 
were explained in the note, p. 174 (cE. §. 120.). This 
view appears to me the most correct, espe- [G. Ed. p. 2-26.J 
cially as in the vocative, also, awU answers to giesme for 
giesmye, or giesmie, 

194. As regards the origin of the form through which, 
in the genitive, the thing designated is personified, with 
the secondary notion of the relation of space, the language 
in this case returns back to the same pronoun, whence, in 
§. 134., the nominative was derived. And there is a pro- 
noun for the fuller termination also, viz. ^ sya, which occurs 
only in the Vedas (cf. §. 55.), and the s of which is replaced 
in the oblique cases likewise, as in the neuter, by t (Gramm. 
Crit. §, 268.) ; so that ^ sya stands in the same relation to 
WR tya-m and mi^ tya-t that ^ sa does to WH /a-m, TTi^ ta-L 
It is evident, therefore, that in ^ sya, W tya, the bases ^«a, 
ir ia, arc contained, with the vowel suppressed and united 




with the relative base i? ya. Here follows a general view 
of the genitive formation ;* 


m. vrika-sya, 
m. Ica-gya, 
f. jihwdy-iUt 
m. paii'Sf 

f. pritSs, 




• • • • 



• • • 

• • • • 



wilkd, vulji's. 
kdf hvi'S, 

rankd'S, gibd-s. 
t gasli-s. 



• • • 


f. bhavishyanty-ds, bUshyainty-do 

. • • • 

m. sUnd'Sy 
• • • • 

O f. tand-s, 


p« » 

^ f. vadhto-ds, 

ilj f. ndv^s, 

f. vdch-aSf 

m. bharat-as, 

m. d^man-a^, 

n. ndmn-a5, 


• • • • 

• • • • 


• • • • 


• • • • 


stinai)-*, su7iat£-5. 


• • • . 

• • • 

)8o(f)-o$', bov'is, 

vd^fy-og, .... 

oTT-os', voc-is, 

tpepovT-os, ferent'h, 

SatfjLov-og, sermon-is, dkmen-s, ahmin-s 

rdhav-o^, nomin-h, .... namin-a 

• . . • 

t anstai'S 

. a • • 

• • . 



* The meanings will be found in $. 148. 
t See f . 103. 

I See p. 1C3. Note t- 

§ And ^^ajAjj baratS also may occur, according to the analogy of 
yyAS<c/c _i h^esato], ^^splendentisy" V. S. p. 87, and pcutsim. The reten- 
tion of the nasal in the genitiye, however, as in all other cases, is the more 
common form, and can be abundantly quoted. For 4^^«us^^ bdrento, 

also i|i^^A)^ij haraiiid^ is possible, and likewise, in the other cases, the 
older A» a for c e. In some participles, as in ^^^^^>mA fmyani (nom.), 
which is of constant recurrence as the usual epithet of agriculture 
(As^^/t^j) JA)9 vaiitryd) c e never occurs. 

II Vide ^. 254. p. 302, Note t 




m. bhrtitur, 

f. duhitur^ 

m. ddlur, 

D. vac has- as, 




irarp-o^, frair-is, 
dvyaTp-o^, matr-is, 
SoT^p-oSt daiot'is, 
e7re((r)-oj, operAs, 


.... brdthr^s. 
dugter-s, dauhiV'S. 


195. This case has, in Sanskrit and Zendy§ i for its cha- 
racter, and in Greek and Latin || has received the function of 
the dative, yet has not suffered its locative [G. Ed. p. 227.] 
signification to be lost ; hence, AaSSivi, Mapadiivt, 2aAafc7w, 
aypSi, oiKot, ')(afjLa[; and, transferred to time, t§ olijt^ VH'^P9'* 
TYj ovtS vvktu So in Sanskrit, f^^divasi, "in the day;'' ftffij 
nisu "in the night." 

196. With w a of the base preceding it, the locative ^ i 
passes into ^ & (§. 2.), exactly as in 2jend ; but here, also, 
^^ 6i stands for ;o & (§. 33.) ; so that in this the Zend 
approaches very closely to the Greek datives like otKOh 
fiot, and (rot, in which / has not yet become subscribed, or 
been replaced by the extinction of the base vowel. To the 

forms mentioned answers Js^'t^^^iSii^^ maidhydi, "in the mid- 
dle. ' One must be careful not to regard this and similar 
phenomena as shewing a more intimate connexion between 
Greek and 2^nd. 

197. In Lithuanian, which language possesses a proper 
locative, bases in a correspond in this case in a remark- 
able manner with the Sanskrit and Zend, since they con- 

* It would be better to read brdthr-d, after the analogy of ddthr-S, 
*^creatorUJ' (Burnouf, " Ya^na," p. 363, Note). 

t The gen. oid&ghdar is probably dtighderS (see p. 194, Note t) 

X Seep. 1C3, Note J. 

§ Few cases admit of being more abundantly quoted in Zend than the 
locative, with wliich, nevertheless, Bask appears to have been unacquainted 
at the time of publishing his treatise, as he does not give it in any of 
his three paradigms. 

II I now refer the Latin dative to the Sanskrit dative, rather than to 
the locative ; see p. 1227 G. Ed., Note t- 

p 2 


tract this n with the old locative ?, which appears pure 
nowhere any more, to i* ; hence, lUeui^, " in God/* from 

DIEJFAt answers to ^^ tUvi, j^»;ttAjj duM, Tlie bases 
which terminate with other vowels employ, however, in 
Lithuanian, without exception, ye as the locative termina- 
tion, without any accent upon the e, a circumstance which 
must not be overlooked. This e is, perhaps, only an unor- 
ganic echo, which has occasioned the change of the old locatives 
i into ?/, as, in Zend, the plural locative termination sw, by 
adding an a» appears, for the most part, in the form of a»>i^ 
[G. Ed. p. 228.] shvn, or aj»»» hva. To the Lithuanian yp 
answers also, in old Sclavonic, a locative termination ye, for 
which several declensions have the orio;inal pure i\ so 
that nebes-U "in Heaven," and imen-i, "in the name," agree 
most strictly with the Sanskrit tTHftr nahhns-i and ^rRft? 
numan-i, from "S^T^^ nahhas, "^JWff^ nclmnn. 

198. Masculine bases in i and m, and, optionally, feminine 
bases also, have a different locative termination in San- 
skrit, viz. "^ da, before which 1^ i and "y n are droi)ped ; 
but in vfl^paii, "lord," and ^fisr saklii, "friend," the / has 
remained in its euphonic change to ^ y: hence, ViT^pnty-dft, 
Tl^^ sakliy-dn. If we consider the vocalization of the s to ?/, 
shewn in §. 56^, and that, in all probabilitj^ in the dual, 

also, ^ Ah has proceeded from ^m ds (§. 206.) ; moreover, 
the circumstance that in the Vedas tiie genitive occurs 
with a locative meaning (^fiapDnn^ dakshtudydst " in deiterd^ 
for <ril|lUNIM dakshindydm, Panini VIL 1. 39.) ; and, finally, 
tlie fact that, in Zend, masculines in i and u likewise em- 
ploy genitive terminations with a locative signification ; we 
shall be much disposed to recognise in this ^ du, from 
^rnr ds, a sort of Attic or produced genitive termination. 

199. In u bases, instead of the locative the Zend usually 
employs the genitive termination ^ d (from ^rrr as), while, 
in a genitive meaning, the form jto>c ens is more com- 
mon ; thus we read, in the Vend. S. p. 337., j^^aja* 
^p^jAJ»pj3A5 'JOA*^ \»^y^ a^nhmi anhvd yut astvainti, ** hi 


hoc mundo quiJem existente.^'' This ZenA termination 6 (from 
Q'k'U) has the same relation to the Sanskrit du that a 
short a has to a long a« and the two locative terminations 
are distinguished only by the quantity of the first member 
of the diphthong. On the other hand, we find in tlie 
feminine base >yA)^ ianu, " body/' very often the genuine 
locative form j»jxi^ tanv-i ; and we do not doubt that, in 
Sanskrit also, originally the u bases of the [G. £d. p. 229.] 
three genders admitted in the locative the termination i 
(jfi^ sunio-i, wft^ tanw-i, fiftlBf madhw-i, or nvftf madhu-n-i). 
Bases in j i employ, in the locative, the usual genitive 
termination di-s; thus, in the Vend. S. p. 234, joy^u^Ajy j^ 
M^^)^^^^^>s^^M^^ r»^y^ ahmi natndni yat mdzdayasndis, ** in 
hac terra quidem mazdayasnica, which Aiiquetil renders by 
** dans le pays des mazde'iesnansJ'^ In pronouns, also, though 
they have a locative, the genitive sometimes occurs with 

a locative meaning; e.g. Vend. S. p. 46, ^^^i^ M^y^M 
ainhS visi, " in this way," or " place," (cf. the feminine form 

gus^ij^A) ainhdo, §. 172. Note.). 

200. From the Zend and Sanskrit we have alreadv been 
compelled to acknowledge a connexion between the genitive 
and locative; and as we have seen the locative replaced 
by the genitive, so must we, in Latin, recognise a replacing 
of the genitive by the locative. Through the formal 
agreement of the corresponding Latin and Sanskrit termi 
nation, and from the circumstance that the genitive occuis 
with a locative meaning only in the two first declensions 
(Romw, Corinthi, humi), not in the third or in the plural (ruri 
not ruris), M. Prof. Ilosen was first induced to characterize 
the Latin genitive of the two first declensions as borrowed 
from the old locative; a view, the correctness of which I 
do not doubt, and which I liave already corroborated else- 
where by the genitives of the two first persons, in which mei 
tuU agree most surprisingly with ^!^ mayi (from W-t, §. 2.), 
**in me," pcfti lioayi (from twi-i). Or ought, perhaps, a double 
inflexion i to be assumed as the sign of both a genitive and 


a locative dative? Should Soma (from Romai\ Corinthi, 
be on one occasion genitives and on another locatives, and 

[G. £d. p. 230.] in their different meaning be also of 
different origin ? And where, tlien, would the origin of the 
genitive Rotmb be found, as that of the locative has been 
found already ? Should me'u tui, be compared, not with iffij 
mayU Fffil twayU l^i to/, but with Hif mama, m tava, /xoC, rovf 
Goth, meina^ theina? As the cases, like their substitutes the 
prepositions, pass easily from one relation of space to 
another, and, to use the expression, the highest become the 
lowest, nothing appears to me more probable, than that, 
after the first declension had lost its ct-s, then the dative, 
according to its origin a locative, necessarily became substi- 
tuted for the genitive also.* In the second declension the 
form O'i, which belongs to the dative locative, corresponding 
to the Greek co, ot — and of which examples still remain 
handed down to us (as populoi Romanoi) — has become doubly 
altered : either the vowel of tlie base alone, or only that 

[G. Ed. p. 231.] of the termination, has been left, and the 
first form has fixed itself in the dative, and the latter in the 

* The assumption that a rejected 8 lies at the base of the genitives in t, 
ae (a-i) appears to me inadmissible, because in all other parts of Grammar 
— numerous as the forms with a final s otherwise are — this letter has in 
Roman defied all the assaults of time, and appears everywhere where the 
cognate languages lead us to expect it : no terr€e for terras (ace. pL), no 
lujd for lupoSf no amre for amas, &c. The question is not here that of an 
occasional suppression of the s in old poets, before a consonant in the word 
following. The genitives in e-a and te-s occurring in inscriptions (pro- 
vincie-s^ nue-s, see Struve, p. 7.) appear to be different modes of writing 
one and the same form, which corresponds to the Greek rj-s for as ; and 
I would not therefore derive the common genitive sua — older form suai — 
from fU€B8 with the s dropped. The genitives in us, given by Ilortung 
(p. IGl.) from inscriptions in Orelli {nojnin-us, exercitu-us^ Castor-uSy &c.), 
I am not surprised at, for this reason, that generally us is^ in Latin, a 
favourite termination for ^m as ; hence rumiin-us has the same relation 

to ffnj^ ndmn-asy that nomin^i-bus has to tflilMl^ ndma'-bhyas, and 

iupus to nm vrika-^. 


genitive, which is therefore similar to the nom. plural, where, 
in like manner, Somani stands for Romanoi. But the dative 
is not universally represented in Latin by a locative ter- 
mination ; for in the pronouns of the two first persons mihi 

answers to inspr ma-hyam^ from ma-bhyam, and iibi to nvqn 
iu-hhyam; as, however, the league between the dative and 
locative had been once concluded, this truly dative termi* 
nation occurs with a locative meaning (z&t, ti6i), while vice 
versAy in Sanskrit, the locative very frequently supplies the 
place of the dative, which latter, however, is most usually 
expressed by the genitive, so that the proper dative is, for 
the most part, applied to denote the causal relation. 

201. Pronouns of the 3d person have, in Sanskrit, i^ in 
instead of I in the locative, and the v a of the appended 
pronoun TR sma is elided (see §. l65.) ; hence, fifnif^ 
tasmim *' in him "; nf^^n^ Icasrnin, ** in whom ?'' This w, 
which seems to me to be of later origin, as it were an n 
e^ehKWTTiKov, does not extend to the two first persons, and 
is wanting in Zend also in those of the third ; hence, 
j^ ahmii '* in this.'^ As to the origin of the i signifying 
the place or time of continuance, it is easily discovered as 
soon as f is found as the root of a demonstrative ; which, 
however, like the true form of all other pronominal roots, 
has escaped the Indian Grammarians. 

202. Feminine bases ending with long simple vowels 
have, in Sanskrit, a peculiar locative termination ; viz. WH^ 
dm, in which, also, the feminines in short i and u may at 
will participate (cf. §. 192.) ; while the monosyllabic femi- 
nine bases in long ^ i and V u, for ^rnv dm, admit also the 
common ^ i ; hence, fn^nsr bhiy-dm or fiifii bhiy-i, *' in 
fear," from >rt bhi* In Zend this termi- [G. Ed. p. 232.] 

* Perhaps the termination dm is a corruption of the feminine genitive 
termination lU (cf. §. 198. J^^^irm\daluhindi/ds for dakshinAyam\ 
where it should be observed that in Prakrit, as in Greek, a final 9 has 
frequently l)ecomc a nasal. 



nation dm has become abbreviated to a (of . §.214.); hence, 
A)^^^>^ yahmya, "in which," from ^^>^ yahmi 
(cf. §. 172.). This termination appears, however, in Zend, 
to be less diffused than in Sanskrit, and not to be applicable 
to feminines in j t and > u. The form tanwi is clearly 
more genuine tlian the Sanskrit tandu, although from the 
earliest period, also, tanwdm may have existed. 

S03. We here give a general view of the locative, and 
of the cases akin to it in Greek and Latin (see §. 148.) : 




















• a a • 






• • . • 






'dm,b&shyainty<i, .... 

. a • • 

. . • • 



. • • • 











• • . • 
. . • . 


* * fl 9 

A A A A 


• • • • 
9 V # 9 





. • • • 


9 9 % 9 



, ferent'l 


pp m. 





r, . 






r a 



brdthr-i ? \ 






9 dvyarp'i 

, viatr-i. 











* Sec J. 196. t See }. 198. t Otprity-am. } Or tanw-dm. 

II The rejection of the a preceding the r in the theme seems tome more 
probable than its retention. The t of the termination is guaranteed by the 
other consonantal declension, which in tliis case we can abundantly enough 
exemplify. (Regarding dvghdher-i, see p. 194, Note t). That in Sanskrit 
bhrdtar-i, duhitar't, ddtar-i, are used instead of bhrdiri, &c. is contrary 




204. The vocative in the Sanskrit family of languages 
has either no ease-sign at all, or is identical with the 
nominative: the former is the principle, the latter the 
practical corruption, and is limited in Sanskrit to mono- 
syllabic bases terminating in a vowel : hence, WN(^ bhi-s^ 
" fear !" as #ci-r. A final a of the nominal [G. Ed. p. 234.] 
bases remains, in Sanskrit and 2^nd, unchanged ; in Lithua- 
nian it is weakened to e ; and the Greek and Latin also^ in 
the uninflected vocative of the corresponding declension, 
prefer a short c to o or t«, which, under the protection of the 
terminations, appears as the final letter of the base. We 
must avoid seeing in Ai/fce, lupe, case terminations : these 
forms have the same relation to ^V vrika that irevre, 
quinque, have to ^«j pancha ; and the old a, which ap- 
pears in \vKO£ as o, in lupus as t<, has assumed the form of 
e without any letter following it. In 2^nd, the consonantal 
bases, when they have s in the nominative, retain it in tlie 
vocative also ; thus, in the present participle we liave fre- 
quently found the form of the nominative in the sense of the 

205. Bases in i and u have, in Sanskrit, Guna; neuters, 
however, have also the pure vowel : on the other hand. 

to the theory of the weakest cases (•$. 130.), to which in other respects the 
locative belongs. As, however, bases in wr ar (i^ ri), with respect to 
the rejection and lengthening of the a, have a very great agreement with 
bases in a;i, it must here be further remarked, that these too, in the 
locative, do not strictly follow the suppression of the a in the weakest 
cases, which is conditionally prescribed in ^. 140., but optionally retain 
the a, or reject it ; so that with yiai/m-i also ndman^i is used. With 
hrdtar-U however, exists no bhrdtr-%, and the {orm pitr-i, given at $.132. 
is an oversight: the Greek narp-i may therefore, with respect to tho 
shortening of the base, be better compared with the dative pitr-i. 


polysyllabic fcmiiiines in i and tl shorten this final vowel ; 
while a final Wl d, by the commixture of an i, becomes S 
(§. 2.). The language, however, both by producing and 
shortening the final vowel, clearly aims at one and the 
same end, only by opposite ways ; and this end, in fact, is 
a certain emphasis in the address. To the Guna form 
^ d, from a + M, correspond remarkably the Gothic and 
Lithuanian ; as sunau, sunaii, resembling the Sanskrit 
inft siind,* Gothic feminine bases in i do not occur in 
[G. Ed. p. 235.] Ulfilas in the vocative : as, however, they, 
in other respects, run parallel to the u bases, the vocative 
anstaif from ANSTI, might be expected as an analogous form 
to handau. The Lithuanian t bases in the vocative extend 
their theme in the same manner as in the genitive (§. 193.); 
so that, properly, there is no vocative of this class of words, 
and awie answers to ztudke, giesme (Ruhig^s third declension), 
for zwdkiBf giesmi/e.^ Masculine bases, in Gotliic, in f, like 
the masculine and neuter a bases, have lost their final vowel 
in the vocative, just as in the accusative and nominative ; 
hence vul/*, daur\ gasC. In bases in n the Gothic shares 
with the Latin the suppression of the final consonant, 
which has passed over from the nominative to the voca- 
tive; while only the Sanskrit and Zend again introduce 

* The Zend can at will attach Gana to a final > u, or not; and we find 
both 4^^^yjA)9 mainyd and >^^yjAs9 mainyu as the vocative of >^^yJA}9 
mabtyu, " spirit." On the other hand, we have fonnd a final j i only, with- 
ont Guna; and indeed frequently j^ jasq) pat7i, ^'lord." So Vend S. 
p. 450, j^jasq) ^yJOi^ASi A»(eK)-5^3J}> uixhiitanajmdnd'paitiy^^AriBey lord 
of tlie place !'' The j i between the preposition and the verb serves as 
a conjnuctive vowel, to assist the juncture of the words (cf. $. 150. Note). 

t It follows from this, and from $. 103., that ($. 177.) I have mcor- 
rectly assumed et as the termmation m the dative. For dwi-ei, the division 
should be made thus, dwie-i; and this b analogous with zwdkei, gtcsnte-iy 
for swdkic'i, gie^mye-i. 


into the vocative the nasal which had been dropped in the 
nominative. Adjectives in German, with respect to the 
vocative, have departed from the old path, and retain 
the case-sign of the nominative; hence Gothic blincTs, 
" blind i*^ In Old Northern, substantives also follow this 
irregular use of the nominative sign. The Greek has 
preserved a tolerable number of its vocatives pure from 
the nominative sign, and in some classes of words uses 
the bare base, or that abbreviation of it which the laws of 
euphony op effeminacy rendered requisite ; hence, ToXav op- 
posed to TttAaf, xajo/ev for yapUvT opposed to xajo/ei;, wa? 
for itaii opposed to itai^. In guttural and labial bases the 
language has not got free of the nominative sign in the voca- 
tive, because icj and wy (5, y\t) are very favourite combina- 
tions, to which the alphabet also has paid homage by parti- 
cular letters to represent them* Still the [G. Ed. p. 236.] 
vocative ai/a, together with ai/a|, is remarkable, and has that 
sound which might be expected from a theme avaicr, to 
which, in its uninflected state, neither kt, nor, conveniently, 
even tlie k, could be left. '* For the rest it is easy to imagine 
(says Buttmann, p. 180), that particularly such things as are 
not usually addressed, prefer, when they happen to be ad- 
dressed, to retain the form of the nominative, as <S irovs P' * 
The Latin has followed still farther the road of corruption in 
the vocative which was prepared by the Greek, and employs 
in its place the nominative universally, except in the mascu- 
line second declension. The substantive bases mentioned in 
§. 148. form, in the vocative. 

* To this circumstance may also the re-introduction of the case-sign in 
the neuter be owing, while the Sanskrit employs the bare base. More- 
over, this fact also may have co-operated towards the Greek more easily 
freeing itself in the vocative from the bare primary form, because it ap- 
pears at the beginning of compounds much more rarely than in Sanskrit. 
(Sec J. 112.) 




in. vrika, 


u. ddna, 

f. jihw^f 

m. pai^, 

f. prit^, 

n. rclri, 

f. bhavhhyanii, 

m. 9tin(), 

f. fanJ, 
'^ n. madhu, 
M f. vadhu, 
J^ m.f. g()u-s, 


g f. rulU'S, 

iIj f. t'di, 

m. bharan, 

m. dtman, 

n. ndman, 

m. bhrdtar, 

f. duhilar, 

n. vachas, 









. • • • 


. . a • 

tx}c-« .^ 


\vK€f lupe, wilke, 

Siopo-Vf donu'W 

%(5pa> terra, ranka, 

TtoJi, hosti'S, .... 

TtOpTt, siti'S, 

iSptf mare. 

a • • • 

• • . . 

• ••• ••** 



• • • • 

pecu'S, sunau, 


pecu, .... 

• . . . 

jSoC, bo-s. 





. . • . 





. . . ■ 

• • • ■ 


• * . . 

baran-s, {fyepuiv, feren-s, sukan-s, Jiyand, 

asman, iouyiov, sermu, dkm&\ ahmu\ 

ndman, raKav, nomen, .... namff, 

brdlare* itdrep, /rater, .... brdthar, 

dughdiiare,* dvyaT€p,mafer, mde, dauhtar. 

ddtare,* iorrfp, da for, 

vachd, €7roy,t opus. 

... a 

• • . . 


206. These tliree cases have, in Sanskrit, in the uiascu- 
line and feminine, the termination ^ du, which probably 
arose from ^rni ds by vocalization of the s (cf. §§. 56^. and 
198.), and is therefore only a stronger form of the plural 
termination as. The dual, both in the cases mentioned and 
in the others, prefers the broadest terminations, because 
it is based on a more precise intention than the indefinite 

* Sec §, 44. 

t See §. 128. 


plural, and needs, therefore, stronger emphasis, and more 
lively personification. Compare, also, in the neuter, the 
long i of the dual with the short i of the plural; as 

^r^^ asruni with W9f)lT asruni. 

207. While the Prakrit and Pali have lost [G. Ed. p. 238.] 
the dual, the Zend has retained it ; still, however, so that 
instead of it the plural often occurs, and in the Vend. S., 
p. 203, Mj^j)A)4is>ygcb JO) d schenubyaschit, "and as far as 
the knees,'' is used with a plural termination. In the verb 
the dual is still more rare; but h^e, however, it is not en- 
tirely lost, and many examples of it can be quoted in the 
V. S.* The Sanskrit termination ^ du occurs in the cor- 
responding places in Zend in the form of gdj do, which, 
according to g. 56\, stands at the same time for the Sanskrit 
termination ^ETTO^d?, and gives an emphatic proof that the 
Sanskrit dual termination ^ du is nothing else than a cor- 
ruption of w^ ds, and, in fact, an occasional one which 
appears in grammar only once or twice (see §. 198.), wliile 
the example herein given by the Sanskrit has been raised 
to a general principle by the Zend. This principle be- 
comes almost irrefragable matter of fact from the conside- 
ration that the Zend has even actually retained, in the 
dual, the sibilant before the particle as^ c7ta, and uses 
dos'cha, not do-cha, as might have been expected if the 
dual termination ^du, in Sanskrit, were the original form, 
and not a corruption of WTR ds. Thus we read in the 
Vend. S. p. 225, A»^j)gids^As^g7|^9A» A5^,wgdJ»7>»» M^1S> -i^S? 
liViuhai hurvdos-chn ameretat-dos-chaf "the two Haurvatsand 
Amertats."t What Anquetil, in his Voca- [G. Ed. p. 239.] 

* Cf. Gramm. Crit. Add. to r. 137. 

t Cf. Anquetil II. 175. The two Genii, which Anqaetil writes JTAor- 
dad and A merdad^ appear very frequently in the dual, also with the ter- 
mination hya (§. 212.) ; and where they occur with plural terminations, 
this may be ascribed to the disuse of the dual, and the possibility of 



bulaiy (p. 456), writes naerckei()o, and renders by "devx 
femmesj'' can be nothing else than gus^^Aj^j^jjoiy nAirikay-do, 
from the base Joi^j^jAuy ndirikA. The form gus^^^j7jjuiy 
ntlirikaytlo is, however, evidently more genuine than 
^^ j^jjuiy ndiriki ; as, according to the Sanskrit principle 
(§. 213.), from a feminine base must have been formed 
nAirikd. From >^j^ bdzu, Rask cites the form gdsyyjjuij 
MzvAo, ^^arms,"^ without remarking that it is a dual: it 
clearly belongs, however, to this number, which was to be 
expected referring to the arms ; and >jami Mzu forms, in 
the nominative plural, 4'»^4&U bdzvd or 4^»asj4^ bdzavd. 
Still, in the edited parts of the Zend-Avesta, examples are 
wanting of bAzvAo, regarding the genuineness of which, how- 
ever, I have no doubt. 

20S. In the Veda dialect, the termination ^ Au occurs 
frequently abbreviated to A, so that the last element of the 
diphthong is suppressed. Several examples of this abbre- 
viated form occur in Rosen's "Specimen"; as, ^rftnn 
asvin-A, '* the two Aswins,'' from aivin, and im nardy " two 
[G. Ed. p. 240.] men," which can be derived both from nar 

replacing the dual in all cases by the plural. Thus we read, 1. c. p. 21 ], 
haurvaidt'6 and ameret-ai-cha as accusative, and with tlic fullest and 
perhaps sole correct reading of the theme. We will, however, not dwell 
on this point any longer here, but only remark, that haurvatdt is very 
frequently abbreviated to haurvat^ and the d of ameretdt is oflen found 
shortened; whence, p. 104, A01iMA)»^A»^ haurva^hya^ A^iAjOpASpg-^f ^JO 
ameretatbyOf (see {. 38.) ; akSAi A)opA»^g^g(A» ameretata bya is a palpable 
error. Undoubtedly, in the passage before us, for hurvdokcha, must be 
read either fiaurvatdoscha^ or haurvat(itdoicha, or haurvatatdokha. Com- 
pare 1. c. p. 01, A}^jJ>ja)^AS^A)»/^A)^ Aa^rva/a/dt/i-cAa with the termi- 
nation j3>jai dug for jjgdj dog (cf. §. 33.), but incorrectly \f 6 for ^ 6. 
The two twin genii are feminine, and mean apparently, " Entirencss" and 
" Immortality." The forms preceding them, therefore, toi and uha^, are 
likewise feminine; the former for jt tc {§, 33.), the latter for ^ uhJw 
(cf. }. 28.). We must also regard the dual form mentioned at jj. 45. of 
the so-called Amschwtpants not as neuter, but as feminine. 


(^fifi) and from nara, but which more probably comes 
from nar. In Zend the abbreviated termination from du is 
likewise employed, and, in fact, more copiously than the fuller 
termination ; and we rejoice to see, in the Heaven of Ormuzd 
also, the twin pair called Indian, and celebrated for their 
youthful beauty. We read, namely, in Vend- S. p. 313/ 

j^^jA59jAj^ ^/•w»Aj^ Ai^jMj^^Ai aspifid'cha yavand yaz 
(maidhi)^ ** Aivinosque juvenes veneramur,^' which Anquetil 
renders by "jefais JzeschnS a Texcellens toujour s (subsistanV*), 
The Sanskrit ^rf^RT asvind however, can, in Zend, give 
nothing but aipind or aspina (§. 50.) : the former we owe 
here to the protecting particle as^ cha (see p. 176, Note t 
G. Ed.). The plural yavan-d (from yavanas), referring to 
the dual aipind, is worthy of remark, however (if the read- 
ing be correct), as it furnishes a new proof that, in the 
received condition of the Zend, the dual was near being 
lost: the verb being, for the most part, found in the plural 
when referring to nouns in the dual form. 

209. From the Veda termination d, and the short a,* 
which frequently stands for it in Zend, the transition is 
easy to the Greek e, as this vowel, at the end of words, is a 
favourite representative of the old d ; and, as above, in the 
vocative (§. 204.), \vk€ stood for ^^ vrika, Asj^w^g^ vehrha, 
so here, also, avipa (with euphonic 5) corresponds to the 
above-mentioned Veda Htl nard, and Zend x!)j^f nar-a. Al- 
though, according to §. 4., co also very frequently stands for 
wr df still we must avoid regarding \vku) as the analogous 
form to nm vrikd, or xs^^yycl^ vehrkd (see §. 211.). That 
however, the Lithuanian dual it of masculine [G. Ed. p. 5J41.] 
bases in a (in the nominative) is connected with the Veda and 
Zend dual termination spoken of, L e. has proceeded from a, I 

♦ Thus, Vendidad SAde, p. 23, as^jos^c/c^as as^A5»7>a)^ haurvata 
ameretdta, "the two Haurvats and Amertats"; p. 136, and frequently, 
AsAiy A5>>^ dva nara, "two men." Cf. Gramm. Crit. Add. to r. 137. 


have the less doubt, because in the other declensions the Li- 
thuanian dual also agrees in this case most strictly with the 
Sanskrit, and the Lithuanian u or ti (ito) is, in some other 
places, equally the representative of an old A (see §. 162.); 
compare, diimi, or dudu, "I give,'^ with ^ifn daddmi; 
dtiw, " I will give," with ^TWrftf ddsydml And the mono- 
syllabic pronominal bases also in a sound in the dual u ; 
tlms /S = WT fd, kit = kd. We liold, therefore, the Veda 
form wmx vrikd, the Zend jm^7^^1^ velirkd, and the Li- 
thuanian ivilki), as identical in principle : we are, at 
least, much more inclined to this view of the matt<*r 
than to the assumption that the u of ivilku is the last 
portion of the Sanskrit diphthong ^ du, and that tvUkii 
l>elongs to the form ^^ vrikdti. In the vocative the Lithu- 
anian employs a shorter it, and the accent falls on the 
preceding syllable : thus wilku, opposed to wilkit, in which 
respect may be compared itirep opposed to irar^p, and §. 205. 

210. Masculine and feminine bases in i and u suppress, 
in Sansknt, the dual case termination ^ du, and, in com- 
pensation, lengthen the final vowel of the base in its unin- 
flected form; thus, t^ poii\ from ^fir pati; '^sunu, from 
^siinu. The gus>>^.^u bdzv-Ao, "arms,*' (from bdzu) men- 
tioned in §. 207., is advantageously distinguished from these 
abbreviated forms. The curtailed form is not, however, 
wanting in Zend also, and is even the one most in use. 
From y^^fjxi^ mainyu, *' spirit," we frequently find the dual 
f^^f^xs^ mainyu : on the other hand, for ^^g^g erezA, *' two 

[G. Ed. p. 242.] fingers," we meet with the shortened form 
>5g7g erezu, which is identical with the theme (Vend. S. 
p. 318, >Jg^g Aj>>^ dva enzu. 

211. The Lithuanian, in its i and u bases, rests on the 
above-mentioned Sanskrit principle of the suppression of 
the termination and lengtliening of the final vowel : hence, 
an7, " two sheep" (fem.), answers to ^f^ nvu from ^rfii avi ; 
and Hxinii, " two sons," to "^^sunu. On this principle rests 


also the Greek dual of the two first declensions. If it be 
not desired entirely to remove tlie a> of Kukio from a Grecian 
soil, and banish it completely to India, it may be allowed 
to seek its origin, not in the long a of "^rm vrikd, but in 
the short o of the base, as the first declension has a long 
a in the dual, because its bases terminate with oc, although 
in the common dialect this letter is very frequently repre- 
sented by fj. Or may it, perhaps, have happened, that, in 
the dual a of the first declension an / subscribed has been 
lost, and thus ra for rq. would correspond to the Sanskrit 

it t6 (from tdi-i or i)? Be that as it may, still the dual 
has always the quality a, because it is comprehended in the 
base, and the a> of \vkci} may be regarded as merely the 
lengthening of the o of \uko ; for it must be assumed, that if 
the Sanskrit a bases had preserved the short a in Greek, and 
Y'ra vrika-s had become AiJica-j-, then the dual too would 
be \vKat and not KuKia, 

212. Neuters have, in the Sanskrit dual, for the termi- 
nation of the cases under discussion, not ^ Au, but i, as in 
the plural they have not as but short i (^). A final v a 
of the base with this ^ { passes into ^ i (§. 2.); hence, 
Hn^ arW, "two hundred,'' from ^pt^sata-i: [G. Ed. p. 243.] 
other vowels interpose a euphonic n ; hence, iH^hI tdlu-n-i, 
" two palates." In Zend I can quote the neuter dual only in 
the a bases ; as, for example, we frequently find |\^C(>->-'^«^ 
saitS (§. 41.), answering to the Sanskrit ^ .W^ ; and jjj^^ 
j^?3uajA5»» duy^ hazanri, " two thousand," (§. 43.) for ^ ?n^ 
du'^ sahasri, 

213. The Greek has renounced a termination distin- 
guishing the neuter from the two natural genders; but 
the Sanskrit appears to have extended the neuter i men- 
tioned above also to the feminine d bases. But the coin- 
cidence of the feminine form fs^jihtvS, "two tongues,'' 
from fKdPJihnd, with the neuter ^ Aln^, " two gifts,'' is, 
as the Zend instructs us, only external and the two forms 


meet in quite diSerent ways, and have ^ueh a relation to 
one another, that in c?4n^, from ddna-^-i, a dual termina- 
tion, and, in fact, the usual one of neuters, is actually con- 
tained; but in f^jihwS the masculine-feminine termina- 
tion flu (from dSf §. 206.) is lost, but can, however, be again 
restored from the Zend form ^^^xi^j^jjoni ndirikay-do, ** two 
women/* I believe, that is to say, that ff^jihwi has 
arisen or been corrupted from f^Sf^^jihway-du* in such a 
manner, that after the termination has been dropped, the 
preceding semi-vowel has returned to its vowel nature, and 
has become a diphthong with the d of the base (see §. 2. and 
cf. p. 121 G. ed.)- The dnaljihwSf therefore, like the Gothic 
singular dative gibai (§. 161.) would have only an apparent 
termination, i.e. an extension of the base "which originally 
accompanied the real case termination. In Zend, however, 
the abbreviated feminine dual form in aj ^ likewise occurs 
(§. 207. Notet), and is, indeed, the prevalent one ; but it is 
[G. Ed. p. 244.] remarkable, and a fair and powerful con- 
firmation of my assertion, that even this abbreviated form 
in AJ A where the appended particle as^ cha stands be- 
side it, has preserved the case sign s; and, as above, 
A>^«})gids^A5^g7|^9A» amerelaUdoS'cha, "the two Amertats," so 
we find. Vend. S. p. 58, ^^^^^di A)^j);o)^g(A) ameshei-cha 
ipenfS, "and two Amshaspants" (*'non-conniventesque sanc- 
tos,"" cf. ^jftm amisha and Nalus V. 25, 26. and see §. 50.).'j- 
The form »w;o h is to be deduced from the full form 
^gus<)i)A5 ay-doS ; so that, after dropping the gui do, the pre- 
ceding ay must have been contracted to ^, just as (p. 121 

♦ Cf. the dual genitive and locative fildf^^ jihway-os. 

t The- MS. has here as^jjcjsc^jo ameieicliaj but c frequently occurs 

in the place of ;o, although, as it appears, through an error. Cf. 1. c. 

p. 88, cp^gQ)jJ l^-AJOg^A) ^/JJAJ^Cl^ K^»>^A5 aoi*^ yamd am&t^ ip^nte; 
and see §. 51. 


G. Ed.) in Prakrit, ^ imi has arisen from the Sanskrit 
^^^lf^ aydmU by rejecting the d. We may support the 
derivation of ftn^ jihicS from ftn^ jihway-duh by this 
circumstance, also, that in the Veda dialect the feminine i 
bases may lose the dual termination du, and then display the 
naked base ; thus, in the scholia to Panini, ^m^ T^HT^ 
vdrdhi updnahdu, " boar-leather shoes/' for ^RH^ vdrdhydu. 
It is very remarkable, that even this Veda form, only one 
example of which can be quoted, can be referred to the Zend 
language. We find, frequently, ^t^^»9C0 tevishi applied to 
feminine dual substantives (e. g. Vend. S. p. 225.) ; and I 
infer that its theme ends with a long, not a short t, from the 

frequently-occurring plural accusative -^^V1l^»9CB tevishis 
(Vend. S. pp. 99, 102).* 

214. To the Sanskrit- Zend feminine dual [G. Ed. p. 245.] 
forms in ^ answer the Lithuanian in t, as ranki, from 

RANKA ; so that of the diphthong ^ & only the last ele- 
ment is left The Lithuanian forms the accusative dual, in 
contradistinction to the cognate languages, according to the 
analogy of the singular, by a ringing nasal, e.g, witkuiu The 
Latin has preserved only in duo and ambo a remnant of the 
dual corresponding to the Greek, which, however, in the 
oblique cases, is replaced by plural terminations. Here fol- 
lows a general view of the nominative, accusative, and voca- 
tive dual (see §. 148.). 

* It is perhaps a participle of the reduplicated pret., accordiDg to the 
analogy of the Sanskrit dfvl^lf thdvas^ fem. ^«T^ thiu^hi (Gramm. 

Crit. $. 603.) ; and indeed, from the root »ASp tav, " to he ahlc," it may 
signify " powerful, strong." The e e for A) ^ is explained by the influ- 
ence of the » 7\ And .^^JO^,>as^> utayiM also is an adjective feminine 
dual; hot I am unable to quote e^mples of the other cases of this word, 
from which to leam whether ^ 7 or j i is its final vowel. 




• ••• •■•• 

r^ m. irikflu^ vehrkdo, 

' irikd, vehrM* \vko}, "S.wilkiXY.ivilku. 

5 ' 

• n. dfln^f ddt^, 9<doci>. .... 

g f. .... htzvay-ilOf .... .... 

iIj jihw4, htzv(\ X^P^* 'ii.rank\Y,runhi, 

r^ m. foitj paiii ? itoai-e, N. pnCiy V. jkiU, 

wf. prtfi, ^frtfi ? TTOjOTi-e, N. fliri, N. /iwi. 

►i n. tv^rE-w-t*, .... iipi-€j . . . 

i^jJA^^^jai ^^^gi^>^ au7oa5juo^>^ jas^^gQ)juo 
Jiticsatkrd huddonhd dy^i4, '^ I glorify the two Amshaspf 

* While consonantal bases occur in tlie dual both with a long and a short 
a, the a bases, contrary to the practice otherwise adopted of shortening a 
final ^, exliibit in the nom. ace. dual, for the most part, the original long 
vowel. I deduce this, among other words, from the so-called A mshcu- 
pants^ which, together with the feminine form noticed at $. 207. Note t., 
are found also as masculine ; e g. Vend. S. pp. 14. 80, 31, &c. : joi^c^as 

am^shd spenta 
ishaspants (non conni- 
ventesqiie sanctos) the good rulers, who created good." If amesha spenld 
and hucsathrd were plural forms, the final a would bo short, or at least 
appear much more frequently short than long ; while, on the contrary, 
these repeatedly recurring expressions, if I mistake not, have ever^'^where 
a long a, and only in the vocative a short a (Vend. S. p. 67. Cf. }. 209.). 
That the epithet huddonhd is in the plural cannot incur doubt, from the 
dual nature of the Amshasp (cf. ^«208.): this resembles, to a certain 
degree, the use of adjective genitives referring to a substantive in the 
ablative, which was mentioned in ^. 180. We find, also, the forms 
ameshdo spi^ntdo (Vend. S. p. 313.), which indeed might also be feminine 
plural forms, but shew themselves only as masculine duals, in the same 
meaning as the so frequent amesha spentd. We find also, frequently, 
^^^yjAS^ AM^e^OJygo^J* sp^nistd maim/A, "the two most holy spirits" 
(p. 80), through which the dual form in d of bases in a is likewise con- 
firmed in the most unequivocal manner. The answer to the query, 
Whether generally only two Amshaspants are to bo assumed ? whether 
the genitive plural {ameshananm spentananm\ and sometimes also the 
accusative plural, is only the representative of the dual, which is very 
uncertain and shaken in its use? whether under the name Anisliaspants, 
perhaps, we should always undcrKtand the Genii Haurvat {Khordatff) and 








f. bhavishyanty-Au, biishyainii, 

• • • • 

• • • • 

m. siinA, 



N. «unu, V. a 

f. tana, 



• • • • 

m. madhH-n- 


If • • • • • 


• • • • 

f. vadhwHlUf 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • . . 

m. f. gav-du,* 

• • • • 


. . • • 

f. ndv-du, 

• • • • 


. • • • 

f. vdch-du, 


• • • . 

• • • • 

Afnertat, and whether these two Genii, according to the principle of the 
Sanskrit copulative compounds, have the dual termination for this reason 
alone, that they are usually found together, and are, together, two? 
whether, in fine, these two twin-genii are identical with tlie Indian 
Aswinen, which were referred in §. 208. to the Zend- Areata? The reply 
to all these queries lies beyond the aim of this book. We will here only 
notice that. Vend. S. pp. 80 and 422, the Genii Haurvai and Amertatj 
although each is in the dual, still are, together, named jai^c;o^/?^«^ 

'itfi'i»%^ MA^O^^ ^^^J-i^^ spenistd mainyd mazdd tevishiy &c., ^^tlie 
two most holy spirits, the great, strong." As Genii, and natural objects 
of great indefinite number, where they are prmsed, often have the word 
viipa^ ^^ all," before them, it would be important to shew whether *' all 
AmshaspanU " are never mentioned ; and the utter incompatibility of the 
Ajimh. with the word viipa would then testify the impassable duality of 
these Genii. If they are identical with the celestial physicians, the Indian 
Aswinen, then ^' Entireiiess" and '' Immortality* would be no unsuitable 
names for them. In Panini we find (p. 803) the expressions iHTT^f^lifd 

rndtara-pitardu and Pm ri<l4 1 d il pitara-mdtard marked as peculiar to the 
Vcdas. They signify ^^ the parents," but, literally, they probably mean 
'* two mothers two fathers," and ^^ two &thers two mothers." For the 
first member of the compound can here scarcely be aught but the abbre- 
viated dual pitard, mCitard; and if this is the case, we should here have 
an analogy to the conjectured signification of haurvat^a and amMtdt^a, 
* Bases in ^ 6 form the strong cases {§, 120.) from lii du; those in 

TftT ariy and nouns of the agent in HT toTf lengthen in those cases, with 
the exception of the vocative singular, the last vowel but one (see 
§. 144.). 





in. bharant-du, 

y m. dtmun-dut-f 

'n. ndmn-i, 
m. bhrdtar-du, 

f. duhilar-du, 

ui. ddldr-dut^ 

n. vachaS'i, 




baranMOf .... 

barant-a, ipepovr-e^ 

aiman-doy .... 

asman-a, Salfiov-e, N. V 

.... ToAav-e, 

brdtar-do, .... 

brdtar-a, Trarep-e, 
duyhdhar-do, .... 

duyhdhar^y Ovyarep-e, 

ddtdr-ao, • • . • 

ddtdr-a^ Sor^p-e, 

.... eire(<r)-e, 





215. These three eases have in the Sanskrit and Zend dual 
a common termination; while in Greek the genitive has 
joined itself to the dative, and borrowed its termination from 
it. It is in Sanskrit nnH bhydm, which in Zend has been 
abbreviated to M^is bycu Connected with the same is, first, 
the termination vi|i^ bhyam, which, in the pronoun of the two 
first persons, denotes the dative singular and plural, but 
in the singular of the first person has become abbreviated 
to Wf^ hyam (§. 2a). This abbreviation appears, however, 

[G. Ed. p. 249.] to be very ancient, as the Latin agrees 

* The V^da duals in ^ are as yet only cited in bases in a, n, and ar 
(^, $. 1.) ; however, the Zend leads us to expect their extension to the 
other consonantal declensions, as also the circumstance that, in other parts of 
grammar, in the Vedas d is occamonally found for du, and other diph- 
thongs ; e.g, tTnn ndbhd^ as locative for ^ifPT^ nabhdu^ from ;fT^ nabhij 

t See the marginal note marked (*), p. 229. 


remarkably with it ; and mi-hi correspoDds to ifro ma-hyamt 
as ii'bi does to ^»nv tu-bhyam. In the second place, vq^ 
bhyast which expresses the dative and ablative plural, is 
pronounced in Zend byd (§. 56^), in Latin bus, suppressing 
tlie y, and with the usual change of as into us. The Li- 
thuiinian has nius for bus in the dative plural (§. 63.): this 
more complete form has, however, remained only in the 
pronoun of the two first persons, where mu-mus, *' nobis,''* 
yu-mus, "vobis,** are used as well as mu-ins, ywrns; while 
in all other words we find simply ms as the sign of the 
dative~ti7i/A:a-ms, &c. In the dual dative the Lithuanian 
has only the m of the Sanskrit termination hhi^ bhydm, as 
wilka-m. This m is, however, not the final letter of bhydm, 
but the initial labial, 6, in a nasal form (§. 63.)* : to me, at 
least, it appears improper to regard this dual termination 
otherwise than that of the cqgnate plural case ; and I have 
no doubt of the identity of the m of wilka-m, \ukoiv, with 
that of wilka-ms (for wUka-mus), T^Koig, According to this 
ex})lanation, therefore, the German plural dative corresponds 
to the Lithuanian dual dative, vulfa-m, gasii^m, sunu-m.f 

216. A third form related to the dual ter- [G. Ed. p. 230.] 
niination «n^ bhyAm is fW^ bhis, as sign of the instru- 
mental plural. This termination which is in Zend .h^^ji bis. 

* On the facile transition of v into m (cf. p. 114) rcstB also, I doubt 
not, the connexion of the terminAtion if^myuvdm, "ye two," W9P? 
di'dm, '' we two," with the common termination dti, before vowelB dv^ 
which in the pronouns spoken of has stiffened into dm, and in this form 
has remained even l>eforc consonants. Whether the case is the same with 
the verbal third dual person irni turn shall be discussed hereafter. 

t Cf. Grimm, I. 828. 17, where the identity of the Lithnanlan*Germau 
inflection 7/i with the b (bh of tlie older languages) was first shewn. AVhcn, 
however, Grimm, I.e., says of the Lithuanian that only the pronouns and 
adjectives liave ms in the dative plural, the substantives simply m, this is 
perhaps a mistake, or the plural is named instead of the dual ; for Kuliig 


(also ju^ju bis), has in Latin fixed itself in the dative and 
ablative,* which must together supply the place of the instru- 
mental; while in Lithuanian, with the exeliange of the 
labial medial for the nasal of this organ (§. 63.), mis is the 
property of the instrumental alone, so that puii-mis answers 

to ilfiffm paii-bhis, j^5?^J^Jasq) paiii-bis. 

217. I have already elsewhere affirmed, that the Greek 
termination ^i, ^iv, is to be referred to this place,t and what 
is there said may be introduced here also. If ^iv, and not 
0c, be assumed to be the elder of the two forms, we may offer 
the conjecture that it has arisen from ^1$-, following the analogy 
of the change of /zef into jxev in the 1st person plural, which 
corresponds to the Sanskrit mas and Latin musX ; iptg would 
correspond to the Sanskrit bhis and Latin bis, in nobis, vobhs. 
Perhaps, also, there originally existed a difference between 
01 and 01V (which we find used indifferently for the singular 
and plural), in that the former may have belonged to the 
singular, the latter to the plural ; and they may have had 
the same relation to one another that, in Latin, bi has to 
bis in tibi and vobis\ and that, in Lithuanian, mi has to mis 
in akimi, "through the eye," and akimisy "through the 
eyes." It has escaped notice that the terminations 0i and 

[G. Ed. p. 251.] 011/ belong principally to the dative : their 
locative and instrumental use — auroipt, Ovprj(f>t, ^lYi^fav — ^is ex- 
plained by the fact, that the common dative also has assumed 
the sign of these relations. The strict genitive use of the ter- 
mination 0«, 011/, may perhaps be altogether denied ; for if pre- 
positions, which are elsewhere used in construction with the 

* In the 1st and 2d pronoun (no-bia, vO'bis)^ where bia supplies the 
place of the bin which proceeds from vq^ bhyas. 

t Trans. Berlin Academy, 1826. Comparison of Sanskrit with its cog- 
nate languages^ by Prof. Bopp. Essay III. p. 81. 

X Obiicr>'e, also, that tlie Sanskrit instmmental termination bhis has 
been, in Pr&krlt, cormpted to f^ hih. 


geuitive, occur also with the case in 0i, ^it/, we are not com- 
pel led, on this account, to regard the latter as the genitive 
or representative of the genitive. In general, all prepositions, 
which are used in construction with the genitive, would, 
according to the sense, be better used with an ablative or a 
locative, if these cases were particularly represented in 
Greek. The suffix dev also, of genuine ablative signification, 
expressing separation from a place, is incorrectly consi- 
dered to represent the genitive termination, where the 
latter, in the common dialect, has received the sign of the 
lost ablative. In oaae SaKpvotpiv 7r//x7rAai/ro, SaKpvotfytv would, 

in Sanskrit, be rendered by ir^fWv asrubhis : the relation 
is entirely instrumental, and is not changed because the 
verb mentioned is more usually, though less suitably, used 
with the genitive. The same is the case with oirae Sa- 
Kpvwptv repa-avTo. In 'I\io0i icAurd T6f%ea it is not requisite 
to make 'l\i6<l)i governed by Te<%ea, but it may be regained 
as locative "to Ilium:" And in Od. XII. 45. (ttoAuj J* a/x0* 
oareofpiv ffi^ dvSpS>v irv6ofievu)v) there is no necessity to look 
upon oareoipiv as the genitive, for it can be aptly rendered 
by ossibus. I know no passages besides where a genitive 
meaning could be given to forms in <pi and tpiv. To the 
accusative, likewise, the form <pi, 0iv, is foreign, and accord- 
ing to its origin does not suit it ; nor does it appear in 
the train of prepositions, which elsewhere occur with the 
accusative, with the single exception of ey evvti^fnv in Hesiod 
(cf. Buttmann, p. 205). As to the opinion [G. Ed. p. 252.] 
of the old Grammarians, that ^/, ^/v, may stand also in the 
nominative and vocative, and as to the impropriety of the i 
subscribed before this termination in the dative singular of 
the first declension, we refer the reader to what Buttmann 
(p. 205) has rightly objected on this head. 

218. The neuters in 2, mentioned in §. 128., are nearly 
the only ones from bases ending with a consonant, which 
occur in combination with ^f, ^ii/, in forms like o3^e(r-0<> 


opea^i, iTTijd€<r'(f>iv, which have been misunderstood, be- 
ciiuse the 2 dropped before vowel terminations was not 
recognised as the property of the base. Of the other con- 
sonants, V is the only one, and KOTYAHAON the only v 
base, wliich occurs in combination witli <l>iv ; and since N 
does not combine with ^ so readily as 2, it assumes an auxi- 
liary vowel o — KOTvKrjiov'O'ffiiv — after the analogy of com- 
pound words like Kw-o-dapa/j^* This example is followed, 
without the necessity for it however, by S&Kpv — iaKpv6<f>tv ; 
while vav^iVt in an older point of view, resembles exactly 

the Sanskrit ^^\fy(^ niubhis ; for in compounds, also, the 
base NAY keeps free from the conjunctive vowel o, on whicli 
account vaxnrraOyLov may be compared with Sanskrit com- 
pounds like ^t^ ndu-8ihaf " standing (being) in the ship."" 

219. But to return to the Sanskrit dual termination 
vqT>^ bhydm, it is further to be remarked, that before it 
a final v a is lengthened ; hence, ^i||M4I^ vrikdbhydm for 
^p[vin>^ vrikabhydm. It hardly admits of any doubt, that 
this lengthening extended to the cognate plural termina- 
tion fiw bins ; and that hence, from ^ vrika also vrikd-bhh 
would bo found. The common dialect has^ however, ab- 
breviated this form to ^j%T^^ vrikdis, which is easily derived 
from vrikdbhis by rejecting the bh; for ^ di is, according 

[G. Ed. p. 253.] to §• 2., =d + i. This opinion, which I 
have before expressed,* I can now support by new arguments. 
In the first place, which did not then occur to me in dis- 
cussing this question, the pronouns of the two first persons 
really form from their appended pronoun tr sma, smd-bhis; 
hence WFUftr^ asmdbhisy ^j^lfW^ yushmdbhis ; which forms 
stand in the same relation to the >pirrfH^ vrikd-bhis, 
assumed by me, that the accusatives vWTt^ asmdn, ^m\^ 
yushmdn, do to ^^lit^ vrikdrif *' lupos.^'' Secondly, the opinion 

* Trans. Berlin Academy, 182G. ComparisoQ of Sanskrit with its Ci)g- 
natc languages, by Prof. Bopp. Kssay IJI. p. 70. 


which I arrived at theoretically has, since then^ been so far 
practically established by the Veda dialect, that, in it. from a 
final IV a not d-bhis but i-bhis, has been formed, according to 
the analogy of the dative and ablative, as^|ikrH|^ vrikibhyas; 
hence, W%fW9 asvibhis, **per equos,^^ from Viv aStva. In the 
common dialect the pronominal form ^^T^ i-bhis '*per hos,^'* 
answers to this Veda form, which must properly be de- 
rived from the pronominal base v a, which generally plays 
the chief part in the declension of ^^icZam. Though, then, on 
one side, from the pronoun v a springs the form ^fWir i-bhis; 
on the other side, from iRif a^ma and ^m yushma proceed 
the forms ^amifH^^atmdbhist ip^dfH^ yushmdbhis; and though 
the Veda dialect, in its substantive and adjective bases in a, 
attaches itself to the former form, still no necessity hence 
arises for supposing the abbreviated de^ to be based on an 
^'bhist* as that could never lead to Ais, Perhaps, however, 
dbhis might become ^bhUt either through the assimilative 
force of the i of bhU, or through analogy to [G. £d. p. 264.] 
the dative S-bhyas, the 6 of which may, in like manner, owe 
its origin to the re-active influence of the n y,'\ 

220. The Prakrit has fully followed out the path com- 
menced by the Veda dialect, and changed into ^ S the d of 

* From ebhis would come, after rejecting the bh, not di8^ bnt at/is, for 
e, =a+Z9 cannot be combined with a following t into a diphthong, or, as 
it 18 itself already a diphthong, into a triphthong. 

t I do not regard tlie Veda vtINt nadydisy for vf^HW^ nadi-bhis, as 
an abbreviation of nadi-bhis (for after rejecting the bk, from nadi+is 
would be formed nadis\ but as a very common instrumental, for which 
an extension of the base nadi to nadya is to be assumed. On the other 
hand, the Zend pronominal instrumental dU mentioned by Bumouf 
(Nouv. Joum. Asiat. III. 310.) may here be considered, which occurs fre- 
quently in the Jzeshne, and is probably an abbreviation of j^^^jj^ dibi$ or 

jvo^jjj dibU^ from a base rfi, the accusative of which ^ dim^ " him,'' 
is often found with t ujilengthened, contrary to $. 64. The connection of 
the bobc j^ di with a)^ ta cannot, on this account, 1)e disputed. 


asmd'hhis, yushmd-bhis^ as also, in the locative plural, tliat of 
cLsmdsUf yushmdsu; hence lR^i%f^ amhi-hin, ir^f^ tumhi-Inn, 
in%ier amhhu. iTOH tumhisu. Moreover, in Prakrit, all other 
a bases, as well pronouns as substantives and adjectives, 
terminate the instrumental plural with ^f^ e-hin ; and thus 
'Wf$^kumm&-hin, '* florihusr (from kusuma^) answers to the 
V&da vrr^^K^ kusum&'bhis. Before, however, the forms in 
^rfiwr &-bht8t ^ff ^-hin, had arisen, from vfim dbhis, by the 
change of 6, into ^, (Vis must have proceeded by means of 
rejection and contraction from that most early form. This 
form exists also in the oldest hymns of the Vedas, together 
with that in 75m ibhis : thus, in Rosen, p. 14, ^||h^ yajndis; 
pp. 15 and 21 ^rFh arkdis. In Zend the abbreviated form 
dis is tlie only one that occurs, which it does, indeed, ex- 
tremely often. 

221. Before the dual termination a>^ by a the Zend, in 
[6. £d. p. 255.] its a bases, differs from the Sanskrit in the 

same way as the Zend and Prakrit do before the termina- 
tion fWrr bhis, fif Inn ; it employs, namely, ^ for d : but 
from vehrki-byaf according to §§. 28. 41. comes vehrkaiibya. 
Thus, in the Vendidad, a>4Aij;oa5(damq) a»4^j;oa5»^ hva^ibya 
pddhaiibya, " «aw pcdifcu*," = ^gTwn'^^ MI^Imii^ swdbhydm pddd- 
bhydm; j^iisf^^^^^^ zaitaiibya {^W^\\) ** mambus.^^ But 
in this case, also, the diphthong ^ ^ is supplied by 6i (§. 33.) ; 
e.g. A»4AiJs^> ribdibya, " ambobus'''' (Vend. S. p. 305.). If in 
this form the lost nasal be restorec'., and it be assumed (of 
which I have no doubt) that the Greek dual termination w is an 
abbreviation of the Sanskrit bhydm f then the Homeric forms 
like lofJLot'iv are to be compared with the a»<^,)4u> libdi-bya 

♦ By rejecting the labial, as in w^^vrtWi* from f^H^Y^ vrikdbhis, 
and by contracting the iimydm to iv, as when, in Sanskrit, for yashta^ 
ifhta is said, from yaf, "to sacrifice," and in Zend ^^im, ^'fuBc^^' for 
^^^ iyam (see, also, ^. 42.). 


above mentioned ; where, therefore, the first i would fall to 
the base, which it lengthens, the other to the termination. 
The third declension, by its forms like Satfiov-otv, might give 
rise to the conjecture, that oiv and not tv is the true termina- 
tion : the latter, however, is shewn to be so from the two 
first declensions, where tv and not oiv is attached to the final 
vowel of the base {Moucra-tVy Koyo-iv), In the third, there- 
fore, we explain the o before iv in the same manner as, §.218. 
before ^iv (KOTv>JiSoV'6-<l>iv); viz. as a conjunctive vowel, 
which has made its way from the bases which necessarily 
have it, i.e. from those terminating in a consonant into 
those which might dispense with it (into the bases in 
/ and v) ; as, in general, in the third declension the conso- 
nantal bases have given the tone, and have shewn the way 
to the vowels * and v. It might, however, not [G. Ed. p. 256.] 
have been necessary for the conjunctive vowel o to make its 
appearance between consonants and the termination, as 
Satfiov'tv could very easily be uttered ; but the o of Saifiovoiv 
comes evidently from a time when the iv was still preceded 
by the consonant, which the corresponding Sanskrit termi- 
nation bhydm leads us to expect ; in all probability a ^ ; thu s, 
Satfiov-o-iv, from 'Saifiov-o-^iv* We should have, therefore, 
here a difierent <f>tv from that which, in §. 217., we endea- 
voured to explain from ^<r, finr bhis: the nasal in the dual 
(0)ii/ stands quite regularly for its predecessor m, as, in ge- 
neral, at the end of words. In order to present to our 

* The conjunctive vowel o, therefore, before the dual termination ii^, 
has an origin exactly similar to that of the possessive suffix cvr, which has 
been already elsewhere compared with the Sanskrit ^^^ vant. Evt must 
therefore have been originally pronounced Fevr; and the conjunctive 
vowel, which the digamma made requisite or desirable before consonantal 
bases, and which, from thence, has extended Itself to the whole third 
declension, has remained also after the digamma has been dropped, and 
thus TTvp-o-tis answers to irvpoivy from Trvp-o-lv : on the other hand, 'rvp6'€ii 
to Tvpmu {rvpo-'iv). --. " 


view still more clearly how forms quite similar take root 
in the language as corruptions of preceding dissimilar 
forms, let the form cTimrov be considered as the first per- 
son singular and third person plural; in one case from 
ennrroiiy in the other from ennrrovr. 

222. If the dual termination tv be explained as a con- 
traction oibhyAnif we shall have found, also, the origin of 
the dative plural termination iv, which appears to have been 
changed in this number in the pronouns of one gender as 
it were by accident (jy/x'-Ti/, vyl-^v, ctp^-iv, together with 
cfpt'O-t). The Greek, however, in this respect, is guided or 
misled by the Sanskrit ; or, more correctly, the distinction 
of the plural dative of the pronouns of one gender is very 
ancient, and the Sanskrit has in them v<n^ bhyam as termi- 
nation (^ffWPI asma-bhyatn, **nobift,^^ ^r^an?^ yushma^bhyamt 

(G. Ed. p. 257.) "to6w''), opposed to the «m^ bhyas of all 
other words. From this bhyam, then, we arrive at tv quite 
as easily, or more so, than from the dual termination bhydm 
(cf. §.42.). As, however, wp? bhyanty and its abbreviated form 
'^ff{Jiyam, according to §. 215., has also its place in the singular 
dative of the pronouns of one gender, but occurs nowhere 
else ; as, moreover, the Latin also, in the pronouns referred 
to, has maintained a genuine dative termination, and to the 
common t, which is borrowed from the locative, presents in 
contrast the termination bi or hi (for bhi) (§. 200.); we can, 
therefore, in the singular tv also of cfA-iv, re-iv, t-iV, n/, cr^'-iV, 
see nothing else than an abbreviation of ¥inT bhyam, a form 
which the Latin and Greek have shared in such a manner, 
that the former has retained the beginning and the latter 
the end. In the i both coincide.* The occasional accu- 

* A short time since. Max. Schiitidt, in his excellent treatise ''Com- 
mentatio de Pronominc Gricco et Latino'' (p. 77), endeavoured to con- 
nect the termination iv here treated of with the Sanskrit in a different 
wny, h^^ designating it as the sister form of the pronominal locative ter- 

- - » *, ; .-. - . mi nation 

« » 


sativc use of this termination, in Theocritus, is to be ex* 
plained from its original signification being no longer felt, 
and the exchange of its v with that of tlie accusative thereby 
caused. On the other hand, we have in jjliv and vlv real accu- 
satives, and should therefore divide them /xi-v, w-v; and 
not assume, with Buttmann (p. 296), a connection between 
this form and the dative -Iv. 

223. As to the origin of the case-suffixes [G. Ed. p. 258.] 
fW^f^^ bhi'S, wn? bhy-am, wni^ bhy-dm, and WRl^ bhy-as, which 
Ijegin with wi hhy (from fk fc/«). we must notice, first, 
their connection with the preposition wft? abhu *' to,'^ " to- 
wards,'' "against,"" (whence ^>nra^fl6/a-^a«f "at,"' cf. "apud""). 
However, in abhi itself bhi is clearly, in like manner, the ter- 
mination, and the demonstrative IV a the theme ; so that this 
preposition, in respect to its termination, is to be regarded 
as a sister form to tfie Latin fi-6i, si-bi, i-bif u-bi ;* just as 
another preposition, which springs from the pronominal 
base fl, viz. irfti adhi, " over,"" finds analogous forms in the 
Greek locatives, like o^Ot, aTO^.o-Ot, ovpav6-6i (§. 16.). Related 
to the suffix fti did is V dhn, which has been retained in 
the common dialect only in the abbreviation ha, in i-hn, 
"here,"* and in the preposition sa-hn, "with"; but in the 
Veda dialect exhibits the original form and more extended 
diffusion, and in the Zend, also, is found in several pro- 

iTiination ^i« (}. 201.). In this view similar forms would he con- 
trasted, cxclusiYc of the length of the Greek iv^ which, according to my 
explanation, may pass as compensation for the a, which has been dropped. 
Still I lay less stress on the difference of quantity than on this, that it is 
precisely the pronouns of one gender in the Sanskrit, which exhibit in the 
locative not in but the common t (§. 201.), but I attach still more weight 
to what has boon said above in support of my opinion. 

* In Prakrit the termination f^ hthj which is connected with fn bhi 
(cf. §, 217.), unites also with other pronominal bases, for the formation of 
locative adverbs, as irf^ ta-hin, "there," wf^ Ara-Ziiri, "where?" 


nominal bases with a locative signification ; e. g, a5(2^»aj 
ava-dhn^ "here." In the Greek, compare 0a o( evda, op- 
posed to Oev, from evOev, efiiOev, &c., from v^ dhas, for 
WT( tas, in V^ Ordhas, "beneath": in which formations 
y^ dh stands as a permutation of t, and occurs in this way, 
also^ in some other formations.* Therefore dha, dhU are 
to be derived from the demonstrative base it ta ; but it is 
more difficult to trace the origin of the fii bin of wft? abhi 
(Greek a/x0/). I suspect that an initial consonant has been 
[G. Ed. p. 269.] dropped. As in Greek, also, ^tv is used for 
(Tffitv, and as in Sanskrit f4l(rfw vinkaii " twenty ,"" is clearly 
an abbreviation of f^n^rfk dwihmiu and in Zend j^^^ bis, 
"twice," As^^^^ bitya, "the second," is used for j^a^>>^ dvts, 
(Sanskrit fg^^ dwU), as^^^j^ dvifya (Sanskrit finrtiT dwitiya), 
so fW bhi may be identical with the pronominal base ^ swa 
or fi^ ^wi — whence the Greek a'^e?^, (r<piv, 0/V, &c.; and so 
indeed, that after the s has been dropped, the following 
semi-vowel has been strengthened or hardened, just as in 

the Zend aiv3^^ bis, ^^^^Jj biiya, and the Latin bis, bi The 
changed sibilant might also be recognised in the aspira- 
tion of the ^^ bh, as, in Prakrit (§. 166.), J!R sma has become 
9^mA(i; and, (which comes still closer to the case before us), in 
Greek for <r^/i/ is found also \/r/V. And, in Sanskrit, that vt bh 
should spring from 6 + A is not entirely unknown ; and in 
this way is to be explained the relation of mra bhuyas, 
" more," to WJ bahu, " much,'' the a being rejected (Gramm. 
Crit. r. 251. Rem.). 

224. The following will serve ns a general view of the 
dual termination under discussion, in Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, 
and Lithuanian:-— 

* Among others, in the 2d person plural of the mi<lc]le s^ dhirc and 
UPV dhwam for ^ iw6, y^ Urnm. 



m. vrikd-bhydm, 

f. jilnvd-bhydm, 
m. paii-hhydm, 
f. tanu-bhydm, 
f. vdg-bhydm, 
m. bharad'bhydm, 
m. dlTna*-bhydm,'\ 



{ vehrkaii-bya, or f ^ 
( vehrkdi-bya, j 













• • • 


* I deduce this form principally from the base ^^as/ raoch, " light/' 

which often occurs 'in the terminations beginning with f ft, and always 

interposes c e as conjunctive vowel— jvo^_jc«j'i^ as/ raocA-^-fti*, ^<^casJ:ia5/ 

raoch-e-byo. We find, also, m^^ J9c>>-V»>'^s> vi-vache-bU (Vend. S.p. 03.). 

Bases in / r interpose c e; those in p t, when a vowel precedes that 

letter, conjoin the termination direct (a)<^ma)^am^^/|?9a5 ameretdtaU 

hya^ according to $. 38.) : on the other hand, the ^ t oi ^j^ nt is 

rejected; thus, V. S. p. 9. A)«>^iiCgc7c i hercsen-hya^ '^ splerulentibus," 

with y, contrary to §. GO. The form ('^•^^ r>fiA5>>/| brvai-byanm^ 
" superciliiSy" also deserves notice, because in this solitary word the case 
termination appears unreduced (§. 01.). The MS., however, as often as 
this word occurs, always divides the termination from the base (Vend. S. 
p. 209, twice, (yNS<^ (»aj>>2| brvat byahm; pp. 321 and 322, r»A5»^i 

^vMi^ bar vat byahmy probably for hravat byahm; so that it would seem 
that (»AJ>>i brvat is the ablative singular of a theme a/\ bru (Sansk. w 
bhru). I have not found this word in any other case : it is not likely, 
however, that any thing but pA5>>2i brvat or p^A5>>^ brvant is its 
theme: in the latter case it would be a participial form, and would 
demonstrate, that instead of the last consonant of 7i/, the last but one also 
may be rejected. Or arc we to regard brvat byahm as a form of that sin- 
gular kind that unites with the termination of the ablative singular that 
of the dual, and thus ^_/j brA would still be the theme ? 

t y, in K^auskrit and Zend, is rejected before case terminations beginning 
with a consonant ; thus, in Greek, ^aifio-ai, and in Gotliic ahma^-m, 




m. hhrdiri'bhy&m,* bhrdtar-e-bya, Trarep-o-ii/, 
n. vachd-bhydm,^ vachd-bya, €ire(<r)-o-iv. 

• • • ■ 


[G. Ed. p. 261.] 225. These two cases, in Sanskrit, have the 
common termination ^rfhr ds, which may be connected with 
the singular genitive termination. Tlie following are 
examples: ^^inft^ vrtkay-ds, f^n^^^jihivay-ds (cf. §. 158.). 
'^fim paiy-da, iH^fru tanw-ds, ^^nft^ vdch-ds, >jnft^ bhrdtrSs, 
^^ratri vachas-os. In Zend this termination seems to have 
disappeared, and to be replaced by the plural; likewise in 
Lithuanian, where, awy-il is both dual and plural genitive. 



226. Masculines and feminines have, in Sanskrit, vn as 
for the termination of the nominative plural, with which, as 
in the cognate languages, the vocative is identical in all de- 
clensions. I consider this as to be an extended form of 
the singular nominative sign s; so that in this extension 
of tlie case-suffix lies a symbolical allusion to plurality: 
and the s, which is too personal for the neuter, is wanting 
in that gender, in the singular and dual, as well as in 
the plural. The three numbers, therefore, with regard to 
their masculine-feminine termination or personal designa- 
tion, are related to one another, as it were, like positive, 
comparative, and superlative, and the highest degree be- 
longs to the dual. In Zend ^ as has, according to §. b6\ 

* IHf^ ar before case terminatioDs beginning; with consonants is short- 
ened to ^ W (f . 127.). 
t See J.66^ 


become 6 or a»j) as before the appeuded particles cha and 
chit ; the Greek exhibits c^t under the restriction of §. 228. ; 
the Latin es,* with unorganic length of quantity through 
the influence of the s ; the Lithuanian has es in bases in r 
but elsewhere simple s. Thus the words jfipiTl^^ duhitar-ast 
M^MM/xyQ^oyj dughdUiar-as-cha, dvyarep-e^t dukter-is, mcdr- 
-es, correspond with one another. 

227. The a of the termination is melted [G. Ed. p. 262.] 
down with a preceding iv a of the base to d; thus, ^urnr 
vrikfls, from vrika-\-as, corresponds to the Gothic t;u(/(Js, from 
TVLFAas (§. 69.). In this concretion only, however, with 
the vowel of the base, the Gothic has preserved the full ter- 
mination ; but elsewhere^ both with vowel and consonantal 
bases, the s alone of the old as is left, as in general the ter- 
mination as in Gothic polysyllabic forms has everywhere been 
weakened to is or « (cf. §§. 135. 191.) : hence, sunyu-s, ahman-s, 
for suniv'os, ahman-as. And W d, too, is contracted with 
the termination as to ds; hence, fw(j^ jihwASf tor jihwd-as. 
It cannot, however, be shewn with certiinty, from what 
has been just said, that the Gothic gib6s, from GIBO, has 
simple s or as (contracted with the base vowel to d=d) for 
its case designation. 

228. The masculine pronominal bases in a refuse, in 
Sanskrit, Zend, and Gothic, the full nominative designa- 
tion, and in place of it extend the base by the addition 
of an f, which, according to §.2., with the a of the 
base forms ^ i,\ for which, in Zend, is used f^ i or j^ 6i; 

* Vide §. 797. p. 1078. 

t As IV a is lengthened in many other cases to ^ I, and with this the 
case terminations are then first conjoined, there is good ground to assume 
that in ^ /^, and similar forms, no case designation at all is contained, and 
that the pronouns, as purely words of personality, find themselves suffici- 
ently personified in this case through themselves alone ; as in the singular 
sa is said for sas, in Sanskrit as in Gothic, and in Greek 6 for 6s ; while in 
Latin, with is-te also ipse and iUe are robbed of the nominative sign. 
This opinion is remarkably confirmed by the fact that Wlf\ ami (Grimm. 

R 2 . . Crit. 


hence, Sanskrit ?^ t^, Zend j^^ tSt Gothic thai, " this,** 
[G. Ed. p. 263.] answering to the feminine form irra tds, 
gui^ tdo (§. 56'*.), fhds. To this corresponds, in Greek, to/ 
(Doric for ol). In Greek and Latin, however, this i, which 
practically replaces the termination as (ej, ^v), has not re- 
mained in the masculine pronominal hases in o {^^ a^ 
§. 116.); hut all other bases of the second, as of the first declen- 
sion, have, in Greek and Latin, taken example from it; hence, 
\vKoi, ypipaif for AuKo-ey, xwjoa-ej^, lupi (from lupoi\ ierra* 
(from ferrai), for lupo-es, ierra-es. The Latin fifth declension, 
although in its origin identical with the first (§. 121.), has 
preserved the xAd termination ; hence, res from re-es, as, 
in Sanskrit jihwds from jihw(\-as. The Lithuanian has 
fixed narrower restrictions than the Greek and Latin on 
the misuse of the pronominal inflexion under discussion, or, 
to speak more correctly, want of inflexion : it gives, indeed, 
u:iIkai=7(vK0i, Ivpi, but not rankai, but rankos. Honour, 
therefore, to the Gothic ! that in this respect it has 'not 
overstepped by one hair the old Sanskrit-Zend limits; for 
that the adjective a bases, as they in general follow the 
pronominal declension, give also ni for 6s {blindai "ccccr) is, 
therefore, no violation of the old law. 

229. In Zend, in consonantal bases the dual termination 
gui do also (from 'wnj d«, §. 207.) occurs with a plural signi- 
fication ; thus, frequently, guj^juj^ vdch-do, ** voces,'' ^^\)j^7 

Crit. J. 271.) shews itself clearly through most of the oblique cases, as 
amUbyas, " i7/w," amUshdm, " illorum,*' to be the naked theme. The form 
which occurs in the Zend-Avesta A5^j^eQ)jj^^ vUj)€S'C?ia, ^^omnesque'' 
(V. S. p. 40), considered as a contraction of vUpay-ai-cha (cf. §, 244.), 
leads to the conjecture, that to ?r t4, and similar uninflocted forms, tlie 
termination as also might attach itself; thus, mw iay-as. In Zend, the 
pronominal form in ^ occurs, for the most part, in the accusative plural ; 
and thus the abovemcntioned vUpei-clM 1. c. stands probably as accu- 
sative, although, according to Anquetil's inaccurate translation, it might 
be regarded as the nominative. 


raoch-nlo, " Iucps,"^ which forms cannot be regarded, perhaps, 
as regular plurals of bases ind; for I believe [G. Ed. p. 264.] 
I can guarantee that there exists no such base as jos^jos^ 
vdchd and juj^diA^/ raochd. The form ^tv^gui donhd in a 
bases, as ^tv^gus^^tv^Cp vehrkdonhd, **lufiy'' and '* lupos^ rests 
on that in the Vedas, but which only occurs in the nomina- 
tive, ^onrH dsas (§. 56^'.); e.g, ki\Hm^^ stdmdsast "songs of 
praise,"^ for ijc^Hl^^ stdmds, from ^cflH stoma.* 

230. Bases in i and u have, in Sanskrit, Guna ; hence W^ 
patay-as, TPHRl^ sunauu-as, for paty-as, sunw-as. The Gothic 
also has preserved this Guna, but in its weakened form i 
(§. 27.), which, before w, becomes y; hence, sunyws, "sons," 
(for suniu'S, from sunau-s,) a form which would be unin- 
telligible without the Guna theory, which has been shewn 
to belong to the German. In i bases the Guna i is melted 
down with that of the base to long i (written ei, §. 70.); 
hence, gastei-s, ansfei-s, from GASTI, ANSTI (cf. p. 105.). 
The Zend employs Guna or not at pleasure ; hence ^^^^jasq) 
paUi/-6, or paitay-d,* <^»jja5q) pasv-d, or paiav-d. 

231. Neuters have, in Zend, as in the cognate Euro- 
pean languages, a short a for their termi- [G. Ed. p. 265.] 
nation^ ; perhaps the remains of the full as, which belongs 
to the natural genders, after the «, which is too per- 

* This form is, in ray opinion, to be so regarded, as that, for greater 
emphasis, the termination as has been a second time appended to the 
termination, which had become concrete with tlie base. 

t The t, whicli, according to §, 41., is blended with the base, remains 
in spite of the a preceding the y, 

X Simple as this point is, I have nevertheless found it very difficult to 
come to a firm conclusion regarding it, although, from the first, I have 
directed my attention towards it. Bumouf has already (Nouv. Joum. 
Asiat. III. 309, 310) given the plural neuter form, and instituted com- 
parisons with the Gothic and Greek, &c. But from forms like hu-mata, 
^"^ bene-cogitata,'^ ^^hucta,'^ ^* bene-dicta^^' it cannot be perceived what tlie 
neuter plural tennination properly is ; because, setting out with tlie San- 
skrit, we arc tempted to assume that the true termination in these forms 



sonal for the dead speechless gender, has been dropped. 
[G. Ed. p. 266.] This a remains, then, in the accusative. 
The masculine and feminine have, in the same case, 
generally likewise as (Zend ^ 6, as^jjas aicha). The 
following are examples: A5yA5»A5)^As ashavan<L, "puraC 
A5p*u>Aj<g?g_i Krezant-at " splendentiaC^ As^JoiCp vdch-a, ** verba ;" 
A5?A5y nar-Oj " homines ;" A};eK)A» ast-a, ** ossa.^^ In no- 
minal bases in a the termination is melted down with 
tlie vowel of the base : the d so produced has, however, in 
the received condition of the language, according to a 

has becD dropped, and its loss either compensated hy lengthening the final 
vowel, or not. Wc must therefore direct our attention to hases with a 
difTeront termination than a, especially to such as terminate with a con- 
sonant. The examination of this subject is, however, much embarrassed, 
in tliat the Zend, without regard to the gender of the singular, is prone, 
contrary to natural expectation, to make every noun neuter in the 
plural ; an inclination which goes so far, that tlie numerous class of a bases 
have hereby entirely lost the masculine nominative, and but sparingly 
exhibit the masculine accusative. When, e,g, masht/a, " human being," 
is, in the plural nominative, likewise, mashya (withc^, nuuhya-cha), here 
I am nevertheless convinced that this plural mashya^ or mashydy is not an 
abbreviation of mashydn from mctshyds {§. 66^.), as in no other part of 
Zend Grammar j^aor Mjd stands for ^BTTTr as: lam persuaded that this 
form belongs to the neuter. The replacing, however, of the plural mas- 
culine by neuters rests upon a deep internal feeling of the language ; 
for in the plural number it is clear that gender and personality are fiir in 
the back ground. The personality of the individual is lost in the a1)stract 
infinite and inanimate plurality ; and so far we can but praise the Zend 
for its evitation of gender in the plural. We must blame it, however, in 
this point, that it docs not, in all places, bring the adjectives or pronouns 
into concord with the sub^stantives to which they refer, and that in this 
resi)ect it exhibits a downright confusion of gender, and a disorder wliich 
lias very much impeded the inquiry into this subject. Thus, e,g. vHipa 
anayhra-raochdo (not raoch-a), " all lights which have had no beginning"; 
tlsaro (fern.) sata or thrayo (masc.) iata, "three hundred"; chathwdro 
(masc.) mta "four hundred." In general the numbers " three " and 
** four " appear to have lost the neuter ; hence, also, thrayo csafn-a^ "three 
nights," chathwdro csnfn-a^ " four nights": in Vend. S. p. 237, on the other 
lumd, stands tdnara yd^ "those persons who . . . /' I divide thus mir-a 



principle often quoted, been again shortened, and remains 
only in monosyllabic bases and before annexed particles. 
The Gothic and Zend, in this respect, stand [G. £d. p. 267.] 
very remarkably upon one and the same footing ; for thS, 
" hac,'' is used (for thd, §. 69.), from THAa ; hvd, " qua," for 
HVAa\ but daura, from DAURA, as, in Zend, jojp td, 
** hcBC,''^ •^•CL y^> "?W6P," opposed to ajoas agha, ** peccatoT 
from agha. It cannot, therefore, be said of the Gothic that 
the a of the base has been dropped before that of the termi- 

although the form might also belong to a theme nardf which also occurs, 
but much less frequently than nar ; whence also, elsewhere, the masculine 
nar-o taS-chOy "and those persons." From the theme vdch^ "word," 
''speech/' we find frequently vdch-a (also, erroneously as it appears, 
twcA-fl); e.g. Vend. S. p. 34, a5^jj^7a5»^ AS^d^^^ As^A59>ty AS^Jd)^ 
vdcha humata h&cta hvareita^ ** verba bene-cogitatay bene-dicta^ beftfi-peracta," 
From iA5»A5)^As askavan, " pure," occurs very often the neuter plural 
ashvana-a : as, however, the theme cLsIiavan sometimes, too, although 
very rarely, extends itself unorganically to ashavaruty this form proves less 
(though it be Incorrect) that the neuter asluivan-a should be derived from 
the unorganic extremely rare ashavana, than from the genuine and most 
common mihavany in the weak cases aahaun or ashaon. Participial forms, 
too, in nt are very common in the neuter plural ; and I liave never found 
any ground for assuming that the Zend, like the Pali and Old High Ger- 
man, has extended the old participial theme by a vowel addition. In 
the Vend. S., p. 1 10, we find an accusative agha aiioUhiidr'a, "peecata 
corrumpentiaiiy Anquetil renders both expressions together by "to 
corruption du cceur'* (II. 227.); but probably aiivi-sitdra stands for 
-csUdray and means literally " the destroying" (cf. f^ kshiy Intrans. "to 
be ruined"). So much is certain, that oit&t is a prepomtion (p. 42), and 
tar is the suffix used in the formation of the word ($. 144.), which is in 
the strong cases tar; and from this example it follows, as also from asha- 
van-ay that where there are more forms of the theme than one, the Zend, 
like the Sanskrit (see Gramm. Crit. r. 185. c), forms the nominative, ac- 
cusative, and vocative plural from the stronger theme. I refrain from ad- 
ducing other examples for the remarkable and not to have been expected 
proposition, that the Zend, in variance from the Sanskrit, forms its plural 
neuters according to the principle of the I^tin nomin-a, Greek rdXavay 
Gothic namon-a or namn-a. 


nation, for it could not be dropped, because the base-vowel 
and termination have been, from the first, concrete. Tlie old 
length of quantity might, however, be weakened : this is 
the fate of long vowels especially at the end of words. It 
cannot, therefore, be said of the Greek ra SSipa and the 
Latin rfown, that the a entirely belongs to the termination, 
This a is an old inheritance of the oldest date, from the 
time when the second declension^ to use the expression, 
terminated its bases with a. This d has since then be- 
come, in Greek, o or e (§. 204.), in Latin, m, o, or e, and has 
maintained its ancient quality only in the plural neuter, 
and the fi, which has grown out of /i + a, has become 
shortened. This ("i, however, in contrast with its offspring 
o, ?, u, may even pass for a more weighty ending, which 
uuites base and termination, than if Scojoo or Stape, dono, 
done, stood as the plural neuter. 

232. Bases in i and u may, in Zend, suppress their final 
vowel before the termination, and u may be suppressed and 
replaced by lengthening tlie base-vowel: thus we read iu 
the Vend. S. pp. 46 and 48, m?j<s^ gar a, " hills,'' from j9jm^ 
gain (see p. 19(), Notet): on the other hand, p. 313, gahis 
(fem.). That which Anquetil (11. 268.) renders by •* ime 
action qui empfkhe de passer le pont, fe }>eche amtre nature,** 
runs in the original (p. 1 19), MiJC^ A5yC3 ^As^^yuo A^Caj 7jc)AuyAj ajo as 
A)<5<>A5Q)jA5»«^/A5y ogha andperetlia skyaothna yd naro-vaipaya, 

[G. Ed. p. 208.] !. e. ** the sins which stop the bridge, the 
actions which ....''; and here it is evident that nrniperetha 
stands for andperethiv-a, for peretn means actually ** bridge."* 

* Barnonfs MS. divides thus, and pcretha^ which is following Olshau- 
sen (p. 6), but with the various reading anupcrelka. I have no ground 
for assuming tliat in Zend there exists a preposition an/r, " witliout,'' so 
that and pcretha might mean " without a bridge" ; and i\mi jwretu would, 
in the singular instrumental, form ph-ethica or pvrelava, I suppose, tliero- 
forc, thaiperetu may be conjoined with the preposition a, and then tlic 
negative an have been prefixed. 


But a final u may also be retained^ in the form of a semi- 
vowel, either pure or with Guna : the latter form I recognise 
in aj»aj^aujC1^ ydtava (Vend. S. p. 120 ; in Olshausen, p. 7), 
which can only be the plural accusative of >^amjCL y^^«*» 
for it stands with xsom agha, "peccata; and in the same 
page in Olshausen occurs a derivative of yiHu in the accu- 
sative singular, viz. ti^^^^f^y^Mij^ydlumeniem, "the magi- 
cian," "gifted with magic'* (according to Anqneti], mngicien). 
I render, therefore, ay ha yrUava literally by "the sins of 
sorcery " (Anquetil, "/a mayie tr^s mauvaise*'); and in An- 
quctil's Vocabulary is (p. 46?) 9^»^J^jCL yf^^hvanm, the 
regular plural genitive of our base ydtu^ which means, 
therefore, "of the sorceries"; while Anquetil faultily gives 
it the meaning of the derivative {mayiciens), and, according 
to his custom, takes this oblique case for a nominative. 
An example of a neuter plural form witliout Guna is at V. S. 

p. 122, A5X^j^jo» hhiJva " the Indies'"; with haptci hendu, "the 
seven Indies " (Anq. II. p. 270). It has the epitiiet us-asfar-a 

("upstarred?'') in opposition to C>^^^go» 9f7As;en>AjA\5>A5j 
dausastarem hhidnin, " to the ill-starred (?) [G. Ed. p. 269.] 
Indies." An example, in which the suppressed termination in 
a u base is replaced by lengthening the final vowel, is the very 
frequently occurring ^»'^9 vdliu, "goods," from y^^l^vdhu. 
233. The interrogative base ki (cf. quis, quid), whicli in 
Sanskrit forms only the singular nominative-accusative (neu- 
ter) fiiH A-i-m, but is elsewhere replaced by ka ; whence, in 
Zend, <»AJ5 A:a-/, " what ": this base, the use of which is very 
limited, forms in Zend the plural neuter aj^^j Ay-a*; and 

* V.S.p. 341. A)»^ja)(3AM^ J^^JW* •'YiCL •^^•^9 (^C°^AS AS^^J 

Ajco^/^AM AOJ/C3 kya at^te vacha yoi henti gdthdhva thris dmruta (erro- 
neously thris dmruta), " WTiat are the words which are thrice said in the 
prayers (songs) V* The masculine forms aiti and yoi can here, according 
to Note at f . 231., occasion no difficulty. So also V. S. p. 86, A5^^^ kya 



this form is the more important, since we sfill require 
examples which can be relied upon, in which the i of the 
base is not suppressed before the termination a (above, 
gara for gatry-a\ although it may with reason be conjec- 
tured, that, in accordance with the abovemcntioned hendv^ 
and ydtav-a, forms also like vairy-a or vairay^, from vairt, 
were in use. As in Gothic, neuter substantive and adjec- 
tive bases in i are wanting, the niuneral base THRI^ 
" three," and the pronominal base /, " he," are very im- 
portant for the neuter cases under discussion, in which 
they form thriy-a {thriya hunda, " three hundred ") and iy-a, 
according to the principle of the Sanskrit monosyllabic 
forms, of which the i sound has not passed into its simple 
semi-vowel, but into zy; thus, in Sanskrit, {inn bhiy-d, from 
^ bhi. 

234. The Sanskrit gives, in place of the Zend- European 

neuter a, an ^ i, perhaps as the weakening of a former a 
[G. Ed. p. 270.] (§. 6.) ; the final vowel of the base is length- 
ened, and between it and the case termination a euphonic n 
is placed (§. 133.) ; hence ^jmfi{ ddnd-n-U ^nftftl vdn-n-i,* liuftf 
mad/itl-n-t.t The bases which terminate with a single con- 
sonant — t^ n and T r being excepted — prefix to it a nasal. 

before the masculine <{?»a5^A57 ratavd (<^»a)^as7 a>^^^ ^^ ratavdy 
" which are the lords"?). 
* According to a euphonic law (Gram. Crit. r. 84*.), an tt n following 

after ^ r, and some other letters, is, under certain conditions, changed into 

t In the Vedas, the nt in a bases is frequently found suppressed ; e.g. 
f^iSTT viiwd, ^^ omnia" from viiwa. In this way the Sanskrit is connected 
with the Zend viipa^ vUpd-cha : but perhaps tliis coincidence is only exter- 
nal ; for as the Sanskrit nowhere uses a neuter termination a, fi^[^ viiwd can- 
not well be deduced from vijfpa+a, but can only be explained as an ab- 
breviation of the d-niy which Ukewisc occurs in the Vedas, as also n^ 

puru^^^ muUa" ^^magnaj* is used for JV^^puruni ^Rosen*s Spec. ])p. 0, 10). 


and after s and n the preceding vowel is lengthened ; hence 

^^^rfVs vachdn-sU •TPnf^rf ndmdn^i. Into relation with this i 
might be brought the neuter inflexion of quce {quai) and A<e-c 
ihcuc) which stand in Latin very isolated ; qiuB is, however, 
still tolerably distant from the Sanskrit vrf^ kd-n-h while it 
is nearly identical with the neuter dual % kS from ka-k-i 
(§.21 2.). Since, ho we ver^ the antiquity of this dual termination 
is supported by the Zend, the plural form kdni stands on the 
other side isolated, and its age is thereby rendered doubtful ; 
as, moreover, the Latin, in the verb also, has introduced a 
termination originally dual into the plural* ; [G. £d. p. 271.] 
we cannot avoid recognising in the Latin plural qius a 
remnant as true as possible of the Sanskrit dual iit ki. 

235. We give here a general view of the formation of 
the plural nominative, and of the vocative, identical with 
it and the neuter accusative : 


ra. vrikds, vehrkdonhd,^ KvKOh lup'-i, wWcai, vulfds. 

m. t^, tit rot, iS'ftf tieit thai. 

n. ddnd-n-i, ddta^ iS^pa, doruh .... daura, 

f. jihwds, hizvdo, X^P^'* ^crrae, rankos, gibos. 

* The termination tU answers to ^m thas^ Greek rov from rosy not to 
^ tha or if ta^ Greek re With respect to the otherwise remarkable 
declension of ^i, and of Ate, which is akin to it, I would refer prelimi- 
narily to my treatise '< On the Influence of Pronouns in the formation of 
AVords" (by F. Diimmler), p. 2. 

t See \. 220. 

X This form bebngs not to the base TA (= if ta\ whence, in the sin- 
gular, ta-s, and nearly all the other cases ; but to TIA^ whence, through 
the influence of the », tie has been developed (cf. p. 174, Note * and 
$. 193.) ; and whence, in the dative dual and plural, tie-m^ tie-ms. The 
nominative plural is, however^ without a case termination. The original 
form TIA corresponds to the VSda JH tya, mentioned in §. 104. ; while 

the base ^ sya (iq shya^ see $. 55.) is fiilly declined in Lithuanian in the 
form of SZIEy and in the plural nominative, likewise without inflexion, 




f. tdSt 

m. patay-ds, 
f. priiai/-(is, 
n. vdri-n-i, 

Ua • • • • 


Pf. bhavishyanty-ast 

Sm* sunav-aSf 


gn. madhu-n-U 


f. vadhw-as, 









bushy amty-6* 

pasv-d,* lydv-e^, 

tanv'd,* iriTU-eg, 

madhva, fiedv-a. 

• • • . 

• • • 


is-tact tes, thtU, 
hosC'€s,i .... gasiei-s* 
mess*' es, t « «*y-*» anstei-a. 



• ■• • 

. • . . 


. • • 





sunu-Sf €unyU'8. 
.... handyvri 


«... •••• 

^6(Fy€g, bov-es.f 



is ^rif. From the pronominal declension the form ie (from ia) has fonnd 
its way into the declension of the adjective also : so that the hase GERA^ 
*'good," forms several cases from GERIE; viz. dat. du. gerie-m for 
gera-m, dat. pi. gerie^ms for gera-rns, and nom. pi. gen for gerai. This 
geri appears to stand in most complete agreement with the Latin nomina- 
tives of the corresponding declension {boni, lupi) ; but the difference he* 
tweon the two languages is this, that the t oiboni (for bono-i) belongs to 
the termination, while gerl is void of termination, and stands for gerie 
(analogous with tie), but this latter for gerie-i (cf. yaunikkie-u) 

* Seep. 163, Note J. 

t See p. 1078. 

X To this ky-a, from ki-a^ corresponds surprisingly the Latin qui-a 
{quianam^ quiane), if, as I scarce doubt, it is a plural neuter, as quod is a 
singular neuter (cf. Max. Schmidt " De pron. Gnsco et Latino^" p. 34). 
In the meaning " that," quia is clearly shewn to be an accusative : the 
meaning *' because " is less apt for this case, and would be better expressed 
by an instrumental or an ablative ; but in the singular quod we must be 
content to see the idea " because " expressed by an accusative. On the 
other hand, quo, among other meanings, signifies ^' whither," a genuine 
accusative signification in Sanskrit grammar. Without the support of 
quod we might conjecture that an instrumental singular had been pre- 
served in quia^ after the analogy of Xi^^^jM(d paity-ay for paiti. 

§ We might expect gav-o, gavai-cka, '*bovesque;'' but wc read ji^>c^ 
geus in the Vend. S. p. 253, L. 9, in combination with the pronominal 
neuters jm^ td^ *^illa^" M3)^ 1/d, ^^qua,'' which, according to §,231. 
Note, cannot surprise us. 




f. ndv-as, 

f. vdch-ast 

m. bharant-aSf 

m. dtrndn-as, 

n. ndmdn-if 

m. bhrdtar-as, 

f. dnhitar'ast 

m. ddtdr-as, 

n. vachdhs'h 


• • • • 



• • • 

• • • 








ffir-€^9 voces yf 

(pepovT-etf ferent-estf 

SalfJLov'Cg, sermon-eSff . . . • 

Ta\av~a, nomin-a, . . . . 

irarep-eg, fratr-€s,\ • . . . 


• • 

• • • • 

• • • • 




• • • .^ 

dughdhar-d* Svyarep-e^, matr-estf dugter-is, 
ddtdr-d* Sorfjp-e^, dator-estf .... 

vachanh-a,^ e7re(<T)-a, oper-a, .... 

. . • • 


236. The bases which end with a short vowel annex t^ 
n in Sanskrit, and lengthen the final vowel of the base ; 

hence, ^^tiM vrikdn, Mirt»^ patin, «^ff suntin, &c. We might 
imagine this n to be related to tlie m of the singular ac- 
cusative, as in the verb the termination 'frrfW dni (1st pers. 
sing, imperative) has clearly proceeded from ^ijfk dmi. The 
cognate dialects speak, however, in favour of Grimm's acute 
conjecture, that the Sanskrit n is, in the accusative plural 
masculine, an abbreviation of nsM which has remained en- 
tire in the Gothic — vul/a-mt, gasii-ns, sunu-nst — but has been 
divided in the other sister languages; since the Sanskrit, 
according to §. 94., has given up tlie latter of the two con- 

* See p. 103. Note t 

t See Note t in preceding page. 

X The Gothic r bases annex in the plural a u, and can therefore be 
contrasted no further with the cognate languages. BBOTHAR becomes 
BROTH RU, whence brothrt/u-s, &c., according to the analogy oisunyus. 

$ Or A)^*j^^A)9 vachenJia. Thus we read Vend. S. p 1-27, nemenha^ 
which, I think, must be regarded as accusative of nimo (vflHT namag^ 
''adoration"), and as govesned by Aj7(3c7cji berethra, "from him 
who brings," " from him offering." 

II The Old Prussian, too, exhibits in the ace. pi. rw, e.g. tdva-ns, naripas. 
Respecting the Veda termination nr, from w*, see {.617. Remark. 



sonants, and has lengthened, as it appears, in compensa- 
tion for this, the final vowel of the base*; while the Greek 

[G. Ed. p. 274.] KuKov^ has preserved the sibilant, but has 
permitted the v to volatilize to t/.f In fact, \t;ico-t;; has die 
same relation to \vkov^ that TirmovfTi has to Timrovch from 

[G. Ed. p. 276.] TxnrrovTi.X For Trdo-i-ay, ixOv-ag, we could 
not, however, expect a ttoo-i-vj, ix^^-v^f as the Greek makes the 
i and t; bases in all parts similar to the bases which terminate 
with a consonant, which, in Sanskrit, have as for a termi- 
nation; hence nnp^ padas^iroSag: and even in the most 
vigorous period of the language ns could not have attached itself 
to a consonant preceding. This as for na may be compared with 

* Thus vrikdn for vrikans; as, f^lf^ vidwdns, whence tlie accnsativc 
f^flfhm vidwdns-am, m the nninflected nominatiyo f%7T«f vidtcdA, 

t As the y also passes mto i {riBtU for riBivsy JEolic rv^oir, ficXoir for 
T%p^ay{T)s^ fUkavs), Hartung (I. c p. 263) is correct in explaining in this 
sense the i in iEolic accusative forms like v6fioiSy vols aTparrjyois, &c. As 
regards, however, the feminine accusatives like fityakaisy TrotxiXair, relfuusf 
quoted by him, I believe that they have followed the analogy of the mas- 
cnlines, from which they sufficiently distinguish their gender by the a 
preceding the t ; we cannot, however, thence infer, that also the first and 
specially feminine dedennon had originally accusatives in vs, as neither 
has the Gothic in the corresponding declension an ns, nor does the San- 
skrit exhibit an n (see §, 287.> and c£ Rask in Vater's Tables of Compa- 
rison, p. 62). 

I It cannot be said that rvTrrova-t proceeded from rvirrovra-i., a truly 
monstrous form, which never existed in Greek, while the rvnrovTi before 
us answers to all the requirements of Greek Grammar, as to that of the 
whole base, since o-in-i corresponds to the Sansk. antl, Zend entlf Goth. nV; 
and from the singular ri (Dor.), in the plural nothing else than vn can be 
expected. But to arrive at ovo-t firom ovri it is not requisite to invent 
first so strange a form as oin-o-c ; for that ovri can become ovai is proved 
by the circumstanoe that the latter has actually arisen from it, by the 
very usual transition of T into S, and the not rare vocalization of the 
N to Y, as also in Sanskrit, in all probability, tra U5 has arisen from nt 
(cf. p. 172, Note *), of which more hereafter. But if in the dative plural, 
indeed, ov-o-i lias arisen from ovT'<ru^ not from oi/-(ri (Xcovcri not ^aifiova-i)^ 



the Ionic arat, aro, for vrai, vro, a form which has extended 
from the places where the vocalization of the v was necessary, 
to those also where v might be added {ireiTeidaTah rerpa- 
ff^arai ; then, also, iteitavarai^ KeKhd&rm^ &c. for Treirat/vTai, 
KeicKivTai). This comparison with the 3d person plural ap- 
pears to me the more in point, as, in my opinion, the n 
in the presupposed forms, like ^%^ vrikans, Trfih^ patins, 
T^Kovg, has the same object that it has in the dd person 
plural ; viz. allusion to plurality by extending (nasalizing) 
the syllable preceding the sign of personality. Tlie in- 
troduction of a nasal is an admixture which is least of all 
foreign, and comes nearest to the mere lengthening of an 
already existing vowel. 

237. Feminine bases with a final vowel follow in San- 
skrit the analogy of consonantal bases; but with the sup- 
pression of the a,* thus s for a» or ns; they may perhaps, 
too, never have had ns, for else hence would have arisen, 
as in the masculine, a simple n : to the [G. £d. p. 276.] 

we must remember that theabandoDment of the n before case terminations 
beginning with a consonant is a very old and therefore pro- Greek pheno- 
menon^ which is not to be accounted for in the Greek, and wherefore no 
compensation is to be required for the y, which has been dropped. But 
even if it were so, we must still be satisfied, if the demand for compen- 
sation for a lost V remains unfulfilled in several places of grammar ; for 
there are two kinds of euphonic alteration in all languages : the one, 
which has acquired the force of a general law, makes its appearance under 
a similar form on each similar occasion, while the other only irregularly 
and occasionally shews itself. 

* Monosyllabic bases only have preserved the a as the case sign in 
the singular nominative (§. 137.) ; hence, f^S^lfH ttruf-as, ''feminaSy' 

H^^ bhuvasy " terras'* from vA strt Vf bhU, There is scarce a doubt 
that this form originally extended to polysyllabic bases also ; for besides 
the Greek, the Zend also partly evinces this {§, 238.), as also the circum- 
stance that in the actual condition of the Sanskrit language the accu- 
sative plural shews, in general, an inclination to weaken itself, and thus 
contrast itself more submissively with the imperious nominative (§. 129.). 


feminine gender, too, the well-sounding Ionic a is more suit- 
able than n. In general, the Sanskrit feminines in other parts 
of grammar east off the w, which is annexed by masculines 
and neuters (§. 133.). Moreover, the Gothic also, in feminine 
6 bases, gives no ns, but it appears that thus = TTni t(^s {eas, 
lias) is a pure dowry from the ancestral house ; and when the 
feminine i and u bases in Gothic, by forms like i-ns, u-ns, 
assimilate themselves to the masculines, this may be regarded 
as a disguise of gender, or a deviation caused by the example 
of the masculines. The consonant bases follow the ex- 
ample of the Indian, but have lost the a, as in the nomi- 
native (§. 227.); hence, Jtyand-s, ahman-Sy for fiyand-as, 

238. Feminines with a short final vowel lengthen it, to 
compensate, as it appears, for the suppression of the a ; 

thus iflfA^ prhi'S is formed from prity-us, and TT^^ tanu-s 
from tanw-as. The Greek certainly presents, in this re- 
spect, only a casual coincidence, tlirough forms in 7s, vg, 
which, however, are not restricted to the feminine, and 
stand at the same time, in the nominative, for <-ef, u-eg. 
The Zend, like the Greek, follows in its i and u bases the 
analogy of the consonantal terminations; hence, ^^^^ja5q) 
paity-o (paity-as-cha,) <{^»jJAja) pasv-d (paiv-as-cha, or, with 
Guna, paUay-6^ paiav-d. In feminine bases in i, u, occur at 
times also the forms is, A-Sy corresponding to the Sanskrit; 
as, AO^?3AJM gairi'S, '^montes''^ (Vendidad S. p. 313.), -H?^jf/^ 
erezu-8, *'rectas,^'' M^^f^J^^tafnu-s, " urentes,'"' M^^^^'^^^pentu-s, 

239. Masculine bases in a5 a, w^here they are not replaced 
by the neuter (§. 23 1 . Note), have, in the accusative, aii (cf. §.61.); 

£i8,^i^ima7i* **/ios," often occurs, <^C6K)->$-^9 mazistan, "maxi- 

mos' (Vend. S. p. 65.). The sibilant is retained before the 

[G. Ed. p. 277.] particle xs^ cha, and these forms can be 

copiously quoted ; as, J<i^^^tp'c9^ ameshans-cha, " non- 

* Cf. Vedic forms in d'n. 


conniventesque'^ ; ASfAjd^^o^^ manthrans-chOf *' sermonesque*^ 
A}^jd^9'^;oAs aismahs-chot ** lignaque^ ; as^jj^^^^^jsjuu^ vds- 
tryans'cha, " agricolasqueJ^^* The form As^jj^y>7>A>(^A> athau" 
run-ans-cha, " presbyterosque^'* (V. S. p. 65.), is remarkable, as 
there is no reason elsewhere to assume a theme athauruna; 
and this form would accordingly shew that consonantal bases 
also could assume the inflexion ns, with an unavoidable 
auxiliary vowel however; unless, indeed, we are to suppose 
that, in the perverted feeling of the language, it has been 
introduced by the preponderating analogy of the a bases* 
More important, therefore, than this ASfAjd^y>7>As(3As athaur^ 
unans-cka are the accusatives juv9>c^y nareus, "homines,''^ 
and J^5>c7pjj sirens, ** stellast'*'' which occur very frequently; 
while from 7xs^jjs diar, ** fire,'' we have found, not j^>g9(3M3 
dthr-eus, but 4^7(3!\m dthr-d, in which it is to be remarked 
tliat dtar distinguishes itself from other words in r in this 
point also, that it forms, in the nominative singular, not 
As^Au dta, but jj^x5^M3 dtars. But how is the termination ens 
to be explained ? I believe in no other way but from o)^ 
ans, by changing the n into a vowel, as in [G. Ed. p. 278.] 
\6yov£; after which, according to §. 31., the as a has be- 
come c e : the sibilant, however, which, after as a and ^ an, 
is 09 s, must, after > u, appear as j^^ 9. We actually find, too, 
in the V. S. p. 31 1» ^'^'^i/ ner-ani in the sense of a dative: 

* I formerly thought I coold^ through forms of this kind, quote the 
introdnction of a euphonic # in Zend, according to the analogy of §. 95. 
But if this introduction cannot be proved by cases, in which do gronnd 
exists for the assumption of an original sibilant, preserved merely by the 
particle as^ cha (cf. §§. Q6\ 207. 228.), then the above examples are the 
more important, in order to supply a fresh proof that ru is the original 
designation of masculine plural accusatives of themes terminating with a 
vowel. The superlative a)^?^ Ji) tfi^^ih^ vi^^thrazahithna (of which 
hereafter) may be regarded as derived from a participial nominative. Other 
cases, which might suggest occasion to assume, in Zend, a euphonic #afUr 
w, have been nowhere met with by me. 



\j\fj6t;pxi Mi9>^M j^^Ai^ ji)^7^y MAs^j^jAU^ ddidi at nerahs 
mazdd ahurd aahaandt &c. *'da quidem hominibus, magne Ahure I 

240. As a in Sanskrit occurs the most often of all letters 
as the termination of masculine bases, and we cannot mis- 
take, in the history of our family of languages, the disposi- 
tion in the sunken state of a language to introduce, by an 
unorganic addition, the more inconvenient consonantal de- 
clension into that of the vowels, I cannot therefore think 
that it admits of any doubt, that the New Persian plural 
termination dn, which is restricted to the designation of 
animate creatures, is identical with the Sanskrit ^rr^ dn in 
the masculine plural accusative : thus, ^j^t^j^ marddn, '* ho- 
minesy'* answers to hAt^ martydn, " mortaks^ "haminesy* 

241. If, then, the termination ^\ dn, applied to animate 
* beings, belongs to a living being in the old language, the 

inanimate neuter will be fitted to give us information re- 
garding that New Persian plural termination which is 
appended to the appellations of inanimate objects. A 
suffix, in the formation of words which is peculiarly 
the property of the neuter, is mr as (§. 128.), which is still 
more frequently used in Zend than in Sanskrit. In the 
plural, these Zend neuters form anha or enha (§§. 56^ 235.) ; 
and with this ha is evidently connected the lengthened lib 
hd in New Persian ; thus, libj^j roz-hd, '* days,'' answers to 
the Zend As^jiu^diAs^ raochanha, " lights.*" Many New Per- 
sian words have been compared with New German words, 
[G. Ed. p. 279.] and often, too, correctly ; but, except 
through the medium of the Sanskrit and 2^nd, it could not 
have been conjectured that our " WMer^ is, in respect to^ its 
termination, related to ]the New Persian hd. As, however, 
the High German has, from its earliest period, repeatedly 
changed s into r, and a into i (later e), I have no 

* Thus in Spanish the whole ploral has the termination of the Latin 



doubt the ir — Middle and New High German er — ^which 
makes its appearance in the plural in many Old High Ger- 
man neuters, is identical with the Sanskrit neuter suflSx 

^BRi^ as; e.g. husir, "houses/" chcUpir, "calves'* (cf. Grimm, 
pp. 622 and 631).* 

242. Here follows a general view of the accusative for- 
mation : 




















• • • • 





















• • . • 







• • . • 

• • • • 





• • • • 








• • • • 

• • • • 


• • . • 


• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 




St bUshyainti'S,^ 

• • • • 

• • • • 

[G.Ed- p. 280.] 












• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 






• • • • 







• • • • 

• • • • 

* This ir, however, is treated in declension as if the theme origmally 
terminated in a, and wonld thus, in Sanskrit, be aia. Hence, compared 
with the dative MUiru-m (ft'om hi^ra-m, (. 168.), the nom. accns. JUuir 
appears an abbreviation. Ba the relation of onr ir to the Sanskrit a« 
is not thereby disturbed, becaase in general, most of the original consonantal 
terminations in High German have received unorganic vowel additions* 
Cf. pp. 148 and 191, G. Ed. Note. More regarding this hereafter. 

t See p. 175, G. Ed. Note. J. 

t This form is further confirmed by AS»iAS^^4)eQ) pHd'tanon, firom 
pesd-tami, which signifies the hind part of the body (§. 199.), but is alao 
used in the sense of " blow on the hinder part of the body'' ; and in this 
manner it occurs in the 16th Fargard of the Vend. : a5^as^ t»Xi^jJA» 
A5»yA)^^4)gQ) j^^JA»»^ AS^AS M^^9M>>M3j(3yj^xi^y^ainha^{ainhdt?) 

g 2 haeha 




m. f. gd'8* 
£ ndv-as, 
^. duhiiri'S,^ 
m. ddifi'Ti,^ 
D. vachdns-h 



• • • • 





• • • • 




• • 

. a • • 

. . . • 

• . • 

• • • • 

• • 

• • < 

IS6{r)'a^f bov-es, 

va(f)-af» • • . . 

oW-af, voc-es, 

(l>epovT-a^t ferent-eSf .... fiyam 

iaifwv-ag, sermon-est .... ahtna 

ToKav-a, nomin-aj • • • . namd, 

Trarep-ar, fratr-eSf .... ... 

dvghdher-eus? Ovyarep-ag, matr-es, duyter-es, • • . . 

ddthr-eus? Sorfjp-a^, dator-es, 

vachanhrQt eir€(cr)-a, oper-a, 

. • 

• a i 


[G. Ed. p. 281.] 243. The formation of this case, and what is 
connected with it, has been already explained in §§.215 — 224. ; 
it is therefore sufficient to give here a comparison of the forms 
which correspond to one another in the cognate languages. 

hadui skyadthnd-vcar^za atha bavaintip^id'tanvfi^ " hticpro/acti-peraciione 
turn sunt verbera posteriori corpari ir^ta " ( Anqnetil, Celui qui commet 
eette action sera coupable du tanafour). In regard to the amiperetha, men- 
tioned at §, 232., it is further to be noticed that the u th con only be 

occasioned by a oitf to that has been dropped (§. 47.), for the theme of tlio 
concluding substantive is >pg7g<^ peretUf not perethu (Vend. S. pp. 313 
and 362, twice). 

* Irregularly from a theme ITT gd (§. 122.), for Jpm gav-as. The 

Zend J^3>JUI0S gdus (idso jkogusn gdos), which often occurs, rests on the 
strengthened Sanskrit form if^ gdu ; so that in respect of the strong And 
weak cases (§. 120.), the relation in this word is distorted. In the nomi- 
native, for instance, we should expect jkO>AMflS gdus, and in the accusative 
AV3>CM geus, rather than vice versd. 

t See p. 163, Note t. 

t See §.120. 

§ See ^. 127. Note and §. 240. Note I 


by which a summary view of the subject may be assisted. 
As the German, in its singular dative,* is identical with 
the Sanskrit-Zend instrumental, it is hence deducible that 
its character m (for b see §. 215.), in the dative plural/ 
must rather be regarded as an abbreviation of fi?i^ bhis 
than as belonging to the dative-ablative termination vra 
bhyas ; although it approaches equally near to the two old 


m. vrikibhis, .... Oeo^tv, vo-bis, .... vu^cL-^n, 

vrikd'is, vehrkd-is, .... .... wilka-is, .... 

f. jihwd'bhis, hizvd'bis, .... .... ranktMmis, gibd-m. 

priti'bhis, dfrtthbts, .... .... awi-mU, ansti-m. 

m. siinu^his, pasu-bh, .... .... iunu-mis, aunu-m, 

f. nau-bhis, .... vav-^iv, .... 

m. dtma^'bhis, asma-bis, .... ahma-m, 

n. ndma-bhiSf ndma-bis, . . . . namn-am. 

n. vach6'bhis,f vach6'bis,f ^€(r-^v,t .... [G. Ed. p. 282.] 


244. Mention has already been made of the sufiSx of 
these two cases in §. 215. Only the s of the Latin bus has 
been left in the first, second, and (according to Nonius) 
occasionally, also, in the fourth declension; for the f of 
lupi'8, terns, spect-s (for speci-bus from specurbwt), must be 
allotted to the base. Lupi-s stands (orlupo-bus, as evinced 
by amb(hbus, duo^us. From o-bus (by lightening the final 
vowel of the base, o, u, from an original a, §. 6.), as occurs 
in the beginning of compounds {muUv^lex for multw^lex 
or mulio-plex, of which hereafter), the language arrived at 
i'bus, (parvi-buSf amici-bus, dii-bus, cf. Hartung, p. 261). In 
the first declension a-bui has been retained with tolerable 

♦ Vide J. 160. Note J 
t See {§. 66^ and 128. 



frequency, but the middle step i-bus is wanting; yet the 
language has scarcely made the spring from a-bus at once 
to t'8f but a-bus has weakened the a of the base to ?, which, 
to compensate for the bu which has been dropped, has been 
lengthened; thus terri-s from terri-bus, for terra-bus^ as 
[G. £d. p. 288.] malo from muvolo. Compare, 



• • • "I 


m. vrikS'bhyas, vehrkaSi-byd, lupi-s. 

f. jihwd-bhyaSf hizvd-byd, ferri-s, 

m. pafi-bhyaSf paiii-bydy hosfi-bus, 

t, priii'bhyas, Afriii-byd, messi-buSf 
m.bhavuhyantt'bhyas,biishyainti'by6, .... .... 

m, sttnu'bhyas, paiu-byd, p€cu'bu8,t 8unU'm{u)Sf 

f. vag-bhyas, vdch-e-by6, ^ voc-i-bus 

m. bhardd'bhyaSf baren-by6,% fereni-i-bys, . . .'. 

m. atma-bhyas, asma-byd, sermon-i-bus, .... 

m. bhrdtri'bhyas, brdtar-e-bydy fratrH-bus, 



24.5. The genitive plural in Sanskrit, in substantives 

and adjectives, has the termination wru^ dm, in the Zend 
anm, according to §. 61. The Greek cav bears the same re- 
lation to the original form of the termination that eStScitv 
does to V^^H'l, odlodAm (§§. 4. 10.). The Latin has, as usual, 

« See $.215. 

t The mascnline t bases pass in the plural, by an nnorganic increment^ 
into a different declension. And in the dual and dative singular, also, 
P ATI had to be given up (Mielcke, p. 35, Rem. 1.). 

X I have selected the masculine base PECU, which occurs only in a 
few cases, on account of its connecticm with > jjas^ paiu, and I have car- 
ried it through all the cases, and think, therefore, that 1 may here also 
give the original u-bus for the corruption i-bus. 

§ SeeJ.224. Note*,p.241. 


preserved the labial final nasal in its original form, but 
by its influence has shortened the preceding vowel ; hence, 
ped'Um (sspad-dm), the u of which supplies the place of a 
short a» as in hipum = ^fV^^ vrikarrh \uko-v.* [G. Ed. p. 284.] 
The German, like the Lithuanian, has dropped the final nasal. 
In Gothic, however, the Wl d, which has been left, shews itself 
under two forms, and thereby an unorganic difierence has 
been introduced between the feminine genitive termi- 
nation and that of the masculine-neuter ; since the fidler 6 
has remained only to the feminine 6 and n bases. 

246. Bases ending with a vowel, with the exception, 
partly necessary and partly arbitrary, of monosyllables, 
place, in Sanskrit, a euphonic n between the termination and 
the base, the final vowel of which, if short, is lengthened. 
This interposition appears to be pristine, since the Zend 
partakes of it, although in a more limited degree; for 
instance, in all bases in as a and jui A : hence, 9'^/A5^^t>'g9 
vehrka-n-anm, ^^jM»kyj^, jUiva-n-anm. To the latter cor- 
respond very remarkably tlie genitives (which occur in 
Old High German, Old Saxon, and Anglo-Saxon, in the 

* R^^ardingthe terminati(m i-um m consonantal bases, and, vice versd, 
respecting um in places where Uum might have been expected, we refer 
the reader to §. 126. In adjectives the feminine character f mentioned in 
$.119. may have had its effect, and may have passed over from the fsmi- 
nine to the other genders, according to the analogy of the Lithuanian 
(p. 1 74. Note * §, 157.) : thns the i i^ferenti-um reminds ns of the Sanskrit 
feminine HljSff\ bharanti. The same is the case with the t of the neuter 
form ferenti-a ; it is bequeathed by the deceased feminine theme FB" 
RENTI, On the other hand, contrary to the opinion preferred in 
$. 120., we must now regard the t before btu (e.g. voc-i-lnu) as a conjunc- 
tive vowel, like the e « in the Zend vdch-e-byd. Here it is to be observed 
that those consonantal bases, which admit neither i-a nor t-ttm , must never- 
theless proceed before bus to annex an i. In the chapter upon the adjec- 
tives we shall recur to the feminine chancier i ; and then treat also of the 
i for in the singular ablative of the eommon dialect. 


corresponding class of words) in d-n-d, e-n-a; hence. Old 
High (xerman kepd^S, Old Saxon gebS-n-d, Anglo-Saxon 

247. We find the bases in short and long f, in Zend, if 

[6. Ed. p. 285.] polysyllabic, only with euphonic n : on the 

other hand the monosyllabic t bases annex the termination 

direct, either attaching Guna to the final vowel, or keeping it 

pure; thus, /Ary-anm or /Aray-a»m,'*/r mm/' fromf Art/ twy-arim, 

' avtui/i,"" from vi. Bases in > u admit both of the annexing 
the termination direct and of the insertion of the euphonic n,* 
but I find from the masculine > jsasq) paiu only pasv-anm : on 
the other hand, I have found from feminine bases like >/a)^ 
tanu, "body,**' >MXij nasUf "corpse'* (cf. ve#ct;$' according to 
§. 21.), hitherto only u-n-anm. With Guna ^^»a5J3A5q) 
paiav-anm would serve as a prototype for the Gothic suniv-i 
with Guna weidLcned (§. 27.). 

24S. Pronouns of the third person have, in Sanskrit, 
Wi^ «dm* for ^ni^ Am ; and this may be the original and 
formerly universal form of the case-suffix, so that 6m 
would properly be only the termination of the termination, 
and the s connected with the genitive singular would be 
the chief person. If this is the case, the abbreviation of 
this termination in substantives and adjectives must still 
be recognised as very ancient ; for the Gothic, which in the 
plural nominative restricts itself so rigorously] to the old 
limits (§• 228.), gives to tlie sibilant, in the genitive also, 
no wider scope ; hence ihi-z& (§. 86. s.) = te-shdm (for IS- 
«dm, according to §. 21.) *'Aort*m"; ihi-zo =^ td-sdm, "ha- 
rumr Here the a, like the 6 of the base THA, THO, 
appears weakened to i (§. 66.) : on the other hand, the ad- 
jective a and 6 bases, which follow the pronominal de- 
clension, have (d'z6, ai-zd; and blindai-zi, "copcorum** (for 
blinda-zi), answers exactly to the Sanskrit iNts^ (e-shdm 

* Ci*. Old PriiSBlau wn, e.g. in stei'Son, ^'nu^" 


(from iai-sdm) from the base ir tcu The High German has 
changed the old sibilant to r, as in many other places; 
hence, in Old High German^ Je-rd for thi-zi and ihi-zd, of 
which termination only the r has remained [G. £d. p. 286.] 
to us. To the Latin, in like manner, belongs rum for sum 
(§.22.); hence, isiorum, islarum.^ 

249. We give here a general view of the formation of 
the genitive : 


ni. rHA'd-n-elwi, vehrka-n-anm, KuK-oiVf lupo-rumt wiW-^l^ vulf^-i, 
m.n. ti'shdm, tai-shaiim, t-&v, isto^rumy t'-d, ihi^zi, 

f. jihu^-n-Am, hizva^n^anrnt %a)pa*cii>i/, terra-rum, rank*~Af kepS-n'djf 

* This rt/m, howeyer, hasi like the property of the plaral nominatiye 
(§. 228.), found its way or returned from the pronominal declension 
into the entire second, first, and fifth declension, which is originally iden- 
tical with the latter {§j. 121 and ld7.)« The transplanting of the rum 
termination into the declensions mentioned was the easier, as all pronouns 
in the genitive plural belong to the second and first declension. Forms, 
however, remain, especially in the old languages, which evince that the 
language was not always equally favourable to the bringing back the ter- 
mination rum {deum, socium, ampharum^ drachmum^ agricoJum, &c). 
On the other hand, the termination rum appears also to have attempted 
to fix itself in consonantal bases, with e as conjunctive vowel, ii^ at least, the 
forms fiimished by Varro and Charis. — hoverum^ Javerum^ lapiderum^ 
regerum, nucerum (Hartung, p. 256.) — are to be regarded as correct, and 
do not perhaps stand for bovo-rum, &c. ; as also, in Zend, the base gd may 
extend itself to gava. The Latin rum and Sanskrit Tftmsdm lead us to 
expect the Greek o-av : this is not met with, however, even in the pro* 
noun ; so that the Greek, in this respect, stands in the strongest opposition 
to the Latin. The forms in a-ck>v, e-mv (€.g, avra-o»v, avrt'^v, dyopd-^Pj 
dyopeav) point, however, to a consonant that has been dropped. It is a 
question, therefore, whether universally a 2 (cf. §, 128.), or, as the San- 
skrit and Zend lead us to expect, only in pronouns a 2, but in other words 
of the first and second declension an N has been dropped, as in fwi^tt 
from fuiC^va. According to this, Xi;icck>y would be to be derived from 
\vKO'V'<ov^ X<i^pd(av from xaopa'-v-tiv , but r&v from rocoDV, raoy from rao'nv, 

t 01^ High German, see $. 246. 




f. id-sdm, 
'3 m. n. tray-a-ndm, 
rt f- priti-n-am, 
»^ ixu siind-n-^m, 
8 f. tantl-n-dm, 
"^ m. f. gav-dnif 
f. nd'Vdm, 
f. vdch'dm, 
m. n. bharat-dmf 

m. bhrdtri'fi-imi 








• • • • 



Tcc-wv, isfct-rum, 
rpi-Si', fri-um, 
iropTt'Cav, messi-um, 
ij^dv-cav, pecu'um, 





• • 

^epoi/T-wv, ferenti'Um^ 
SatfioiMav, sermon-um, akmen 
irarip^iav, fratr~um, • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 







• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 


'd, ahman^i 

• • • • 

* This word often oocurs, and corresponds to the Sanskrit m'^m d-gdm 
** harumy" ** earum " {}. 56^.) ; from ja»^ td^ tdonhahm would be expected, 
which I am unable to quote. The compound (polysyllabic) pronominal 
bases shorten the last syllable but one ; hence, 9^^^^a>A5 ai'tanhafkm 
not aMdonhahm^ as might be expected firom ^ilTRT^I etd-sdm. 

t Or, also, 9^^^A&7^ baranttthmf as in the YendidUd Sftde, p/ldl, 
9^^^A5AidiASJJ iaochtmtanmt "luoentium:" on the other hand, also, 
frequently Saochentahm, 

t This and the following genitives from bases in or are clearly more genuine, 
and are more nearly allied therefore to the cognate European languages than 
the corresponding ones in Sanskrit, which, in this case, has shortened or to 
^rt, and has then treated it according to the analogy of vowels. From 9xit 
nor frequently occurs nor-aflm, with retention of the a, on account of the 
base being monosyllabic : on the other hand, dthranm from dtar, ''fire," 
and 9 ^7m5j^ tisr-anm '' trium^" fern, for the Sanskrit flimrr tisri-nrdm 
(Gramm. Crit. r. 266.). From ^as^q^^ dughdhar, we find the form 
dughdher-anm (cf. p. 208, G. Ed. Note t) : the Codex has, however, 
dugd^-ahm (p. 472, L. 2.). In general, in this word the readings dughdhar 
and dugdar are interchanged in yarious passages : the former, however, 
is the more common. 



2 50. The character of the plural locative [G. Ed. p. 288.] 
is, in Sanskrit, ^ m, which is subject to be changed into ^ 
shu (§. 21.), for which, in Zend, is found >x;p shu (§. 52.); 
while from ^ su, according to §. 53., has been formed >»» hu. 
The more usual form for shu and hu (for which, also, occur 
shu and hu) is, however, M»tp shva, j6»^ hva, which leads 
to a Sanskrit ^swa. This appears to me to be the original 
form of the termination ; for nothing is more common in 
Sanskrit than that the syllables ^ wa and i| ya should free 
themselves from their vowel^ and then change the semi-vowel 

into a vowel, as TiHi ukta is said for vdkia (see also §. 42.). 
The supposition, therefore, of the Indian abbreviation of the 
termination is far more probable than that of a Zend 
extension of it by a lately-added a, especially as in no 
other case does a similar aftergrowth admit of being esta- 
blished. But if ;9 swa is the original form of the termi- 
nation^ it is then identical with the reflective-possessive 
base ;Br «ua, of which more hereafter.* The same relation 
which, in Latin, si-bi has to su-bi (which might be conjec- 
tured from «ii-i), or that ii-hi has to iu-hh Sanskrit WHni 
iu-bhynm, the Greek dative-locative termination at (a-iv) has 
to the Sanskrit 9 su.f 

* Therefore, in Zend, the locative a5» ja) J?w thrishva, " m tribus,** is 
identical with Ai»x^j?^ trishva, '^ the third part/' since the pronoun in 
the latter compound denotes the idea of part. 

t Regarding the termination iv of the pronoun of the Ist and 2d 
person see §. 222. From the ^olic form afifua-ivy quoted by Hartang 
(p. 260) from ApolL, I cannot infer that iv is an abbreviation of o-tv : 
if it were so, the v also in rfftiv would not adhere so firmly. It appears to 
me more suitable, therefore, to accord to the common declension an in- 
fluence upon the transformation of the form of inflexion peculiar to the 
pronouns without gender, but of the highest antiquity ; an influence which 
has penetrated further in <r<f>i(ri for <r<f>ly. 


[G. Ed. p. 2S0] 251. The bases in V a add to that vowel, 
as in many other cases, an i ; but from a + i is formed ^ i 
(§. 2.), to which the Greek oi corresponds; hence, \i/#coi-<ri = 
W^ vriki'shu. Hence the i in Greek has also passed over 
to the bases in a-, tf-, either preserving its full value or sub- 
scribed, while in Sanskrit the m a remains pure ; hence, fin|r| 
jihwdrsu^ with which the locatives of names of towns best 
agree, as 'QXaravafTiVf *0\vfnriaai, 'AO^vrjat (Buttmann, §. 116. 

R 7. and Hartung, p. 461.).* 

252. Like the Gothic, the Lithuanian has an unoi^ganic 
difference between the terminations which mark the case 
in the masculine and feminine in the genitive plural: the 
first has the sound of «6, and the latter of sa, with the 
original and more powerful a, which, in the masculine, has 
softened into e. The ending sa is plainly from the swa, 
assumed above (p. 267, 1. 7.) to be the original form, from 
which it is made by rejecting the semi-vowel. 

253. Here follows a general view of the Sanskrit, Zend^ 




m. vrikS'shu, vehrka&shva. 



'gf. jihwd'SU, hizvd'hva. 


OKvfnrlao'i, yti^pou-iri 

gf. priti'ghu^ dfrtti-shvafj; 



^ m. sUnu'shu, pasu'shva. 



g m. £ go'shu, • • . • 



'^f. naushu, .... 



* The common termination ocr, ens (oi-r, €u.'s)y formed by curtailing 
oi-o-i, oi-cri, and so brought into agreement of sound with the third declen- 
sion, is here lost, through its apparent connection with the Sanskrit cur- 
tailed instrumental endmg ^<!2» ($. 219.), which had before required 
consideration, because the Greek dative is also used as the instrumental. 

t I have no authority for the locative of the Zend bases in {, but it can 
only be analogous to that of the bases in ti, which can be referred to in 
copious instances. 






f. vdk'Shu, vdc^ava ? 
m. n. bharat-stt, brdtar-e-^hva ? 
m. dtma-su, ahna-hva,* 
m. hhrAiri'Shm .... 
n. vachaS'SUf vachd-hvQft 



* Thus, in the Vend. S&de, p. 499, a5»^as)^> whahvoj from )xsxp> 
uihan, and p. 500, J6»^J6^jma ddmahvoy from fx^^jMA ddman, 

t The a in this form is not, as is generally supposed, a conjunctive 
vowel, but rests on a transposition ; as ZdpoKop for ZbapKov, and in Sanskrit 
^\&fl I f^ drcikskydmi, '^ I will see," foT'^'^[\fiRdarknhifdmi(Sfinsk. Gramm. 
}.34b.) : thus voTpaa-i (compare rrrpcurC) for irarapa-i (compare r€(r<rapo-t)f 
which, by preserving the original vowel, agrees with the Sanskrit base 
piictr better than irmpa, iraTep€s, &c. The same applies to the dative 
dpvdtri, since the theme of dpvSs has, as appears from the cognate word 
priVy dprjy, dpprjy, rejected a vowel between the p and v, whic^ again appears 
in the dative plural in the form of an a, and removed from its place. 
The whole BEN appears to be a transposition of Ner^ Sansk^t tf^ nor 

( f| firt), ''a man," for dprjp properly means '' male sheep." The a of dpyda-t 
is therefore etymologically identical with that of aydpao-t (comp. Kiihner's 
complete Greek Grammar, $. 281 . Rem. 2.). It is more difficult to give any 
accurate account of the a ofvldai : it is either the older and stronger form 
for the € of vlcVt, or this word must have had, besides its three themes 
(*YIO, *YI, 'YIEY), a fourth, YIAT, from which came vidtri, asycJwwri from 
rONAT, the more prevailing co- theme of rONY, which latter agrees with 

X In the Vendid&d Sade, p. 409, we find the analogous plural locatives 
A)»^^^> uzirdhva, and a)»^4^q)a5juv^^ csapdkva, Anquetil translates 
the former by " au lever du soleil,'' and the latter by " ^ fa niii7." It is im- 
possible to pronounce these forms aught but derivatives from themes in 
MAi ah (^ 6, $. 66^0 Most of the cases of the latter word, which occurs 

very frequently in various forms, spring from a theme in ^ ar^ and the 

interchange of ^xs^>sm^^ csapar with ^q)a}juo^ csapd is a similar case 

to that in Sanskrit, where llfH ahan, " day," forms some cases from 

W^ ahas (from which ^n^ ahd in fff^fW^ ahdbkii, &c.) ; and together 



[G. Ed. p. 291 .] ** Remark. — From the bases in E2, to which 
in the dative eaai ( = ^r^ as-su) properly belongs, this form 
appears to have imparted itself to other bases terminating 

[G. Ed. p. 292.] difierently, in which, for this case, an ex- 
tension of the original theme by es* is to be adopted ; which, 
in its origin, is identical with the abovementioned (§. 241.) 
plural increase to the base by ir (from is and Ihift, from as)^ in 
Old High German forms, as hUsir, "houses," chalpir "calves," 
which are the plural themes, with which the nominative, accu- 
sative, and vocative are identical, and from which, in the 
dative, by the addition of the ending for that case, arises hu- 
sirumf chalpirum; as, in Greek, icui/eo'-o'/, veKveao't, TTavreatri, 
ywaiKeaat, iro\ie<Tat, and others, from the unorganically in- 
creased themes KYNE2, NEKYE2, &c., according to the ana- 
logy of *£nE2. From the doubled 2 one may then be re- 
jected {avdicreaiv, woX/W/, /n^veo-i), or the doubling of a 2 by it- 
self be employed ; as, for example, ve#cu-<r(ri, for vcKv-^t. This, 

with the theme ^|^ exists another, ^R|r^ ahar. The anomaly of the 
Sanskrit '' day " appears, in Zend, to have passed completely over to 
** night," as this latter word has also a theme in n, namely iA)Q)ASJ^^^ 

csaparif of which the genitive pi. ^itAu/^ cm^haiim— analogous with 
%mnahndmf ''dierum " (J. 40. relative to i/ for <dp) — is found in con- 
nection with the feminine numeral f^^J^ tisranm, " trium " (Vend. S. 
p. 246); for we read, 1. c. §. 163., ainahmcha (=^nT^ ahndncha\ 
csafananmtha (read csafnahmeha), " of days and nights." In Sanskrit, 
by the suffix ^ a, the form ^^ahnaj derivative, but equal in its meaning, 
has arisen out of ^gy^s ahan^ which, however, occurs only in compounds 
(as J^npi)arvdhnaj "the early part of the day"), and in the adverbial 
dative mn|a*w4ya, "soon," " immediately," which, therefore, it is not 
necessary to deduce from the root ^ hnuy with the a privative. The 

Zend, however, whose night-nomenclature, in this respect also, is not out- 
stripped by the Sanskrit, produces, as it appears, by a similar mutation, 
ASi«AMiV9(5^ aqfna from fxy^xsjj^ esapan; whence we find the locative 

»^y«AMO^ aafr^y which might also be taken for the dative of iA»Q)AMO^ 


in most important particulara, is adopted by Thiersch, §. 128., 
for the developement of the forms in eaa-i ; only that he with- 
draws from the neuter bases described in §. 12S., as BEAE2, 
the 2 which belongs to them, and» by a supposition, proved 
to be erroneous, BEAE is made the theme : and he divides 
forms like Sx&Tffu into S)(e'<r<l>i instead of Syea-^^ and, by 
assimilation, derives oj^e-o-o-i from Sx!^(rif>i ; while, as I be- 
lieve I have proved, the forms Syetr-if^i and o^eo-o-i rest on 
entirely different case- suffixes (§. 218.)> and have only the 
base *OXE2 in common with one another. An assimila- 
tion, however, may be remarked in yovvour-ai, from yowar-a-i, 
so that the first letter has assimilated itself to the second, not 
the reverse. In ienaa-o'i we shall leave it imdeeided whether 
the first 2 be primitive, and AEI1A2 the theme (comp. 
yrjpa^t §. 128.), or whether it has arisen out of r, and so 
AEQAT with TEPAT, KEPAT, belong to one class. If, 

cjopan, bat that it is preceded (V. S. p. 168.) by the unequivocal adjective 
locative y^^l^xsf naimS (from xi^roxii nahna, " half*'). Ck>mpare, also, 
1. c. 5. 149., where Hd/^AUuv;^ aj?(3J (^«^as Xi7(3j ithra, akn4, Uhra, 
csa/hS, probably means "in this day," "in this night," with the locative 
adverb a>?(X5 ithra, "here," in the sense of a locative demonstrative. 
To the theme xiAxiJu^ aqfna, the plural of the same sound csqfha, 
might also be assigned, which occurs 1. c. §§. 830. 331., and in several 
places elsewhere : as Aasju^^ ^^^Ai7(3 thrayd csaftia^ " three nights,' 

AiAAMi^^i MdXiy^MoCSi cavas csafna^ "six nights," j^j^XMO^i A5»Asy 
nava ctafna^ "nine nights," if here esafna be not (as in f. 281. Note t it 
was considered to be) rather to be taken for the plural of txy^xsM^ctapan^ 
as neuter, since, as has been before observed, the Zend uses the gender of 
the substantive with great laxity, especially in the plural. For the 
frequently-occurring ablative f»jaiAM)A5J^3^ csapardt, however, we 
cannot assume another theme caaparay but we must, if the reading be 
correct, admit that feminine consonantal roots in the ablative adopt also 
the broader ending, dt for ai. 


however, in all these forms^ we allow only <rt or aiv to be the 
case-suffix, and all that precedes it is referred to the true or un- 
organic increase of the base, it can therewith not be denied that 
not even to Homer himself, in forms like eirecro-/, not to men- 
tion unorganic forms like Kvvea-a-if did the entire eaai present 

[G. Ed. p. 293.] itself as pertaining to that which marked 
the case ; for in the feeling of the speaker eirecrcri could pre- 
sent itself, during that period of the language, only as what 
it is, namely, as eTrecr-o*/, while eiteao^, eireat, plural eireaa and 
not eneo^, &c., were used in declension. But different from 
what has been here adopted is the assumption of Hartung 
(p. 260, ff.) and Kiihner (1. c. §. 255. R. 8.), in the most ma- 
terial points following Greg. Cor. iEol. §. 35., relative to the 
{production of the Greek plural datives. Kiihner says (1. c.) 
** The character of the dative plural is ey (character of the 
plural) and i or tv (character of the dative singular), there- 
fore, e(ri(i/)." I, however, think ej not the character of num- 
ber, but of the nominative plural, and connected with the 
nominative singular through its 2 : a union of the plural 
nominative suffix with the singular dative is, to me, not to 
be imagined. If it were so, how could neuter nouns, to 
which er in the nominative is quite foreign, arrive, in the 
dative, at their identity of form with the natural sexes ? 
It further deserves to be remarked, that, in Prakrit, the 
locative ending 9 su frequently assumes an Anuswara, and 
so adapts itself, by the form ^^ura, for su, to the Greek, 
<r/v, for at, 

254. After laying down the laws of the formation of a 
single case, it may serve to facilitate the general survey if 
examples are adduced of the most important classes of 
words in their connected declension. We pass over here 
from the Sanskrit, and go to the other languages in their 
order, according as they have, in the particular cases, 
most truly preserved their original form ; and where one 
or other of them has departed entirely from the original 


principle of formation, or by an unorganic increase to the 
base has entered the province of another declension^ we 
there, in the place in question, exclude it from the com* 



Nominative, Sanskrit vrika-a, Lithuanian wiUca-s, Zend 

vehrk-df with cha, vehrkas-cha, Greek A.i5#co-f, 

Latin lupus, Gothic vtJf^-s.* 
Accusative, Sanskrit, vrtka-m, Lithua- [G. Ed. p. 294.] 

nian vAUca-n, Zend vehrke-m, Greek KukO'V, 

Latin lupu-m, Gothic vulf. 

Instrumental, Sanskrit vrikS-n-a, Zend vehrka, Gothic Dat. 

• • . 

vulfa, Lithuanian Instr. wilku. 
Dative, Sanskrit vrikdya, Zend vehrk&U Lithuanian 

Ablative, Sanskrit vrikd-t, Zend vehrkA-t, Latin lup'c(d) 

(see §. 181.). 
Genitive, Sanskrit vrika-sya, Greek 7\juko'{<t)io% Zend 

vehrka-hS, Gothic vulfi-s, Lithuanian wUko. 

• The meaniDg is, iu all these languages, the same, and so is the theme 
in its first origin. The connection of the Lithaan. wilkas with vrikas 
rests on the very usual interchange of the semi-vowels r and /; and this 
latter goes through the whole of the European sister languages. The 
Gothic vul/s shews, moreover, the equally common interchange of gut- 
turals and labials, and follows the rule for the alteration of letters (Asp. 
for Tenuis, see §. 87)« In Latin the same thing takes place with regard 
to the supply of the guttural hy the corresponding lahial ', hut lupus is 
further altered through the loss of the initial letter T, as is the Greek 
\vKO'S : it may, however, he assumed, that this v is introduced into the 
middle of the word in being vocalized into ti. While therefore, in Li- 
thuanian, mwWeas, I and k are united, they are, in Greek, separated by v. 

t M. Reimnitz, whose pamphlet, ''The System of Greek Declension" 
( Potsdam, 1831 ), had not been seen by me before I completed the preceding 
Part of this book, unfolds (1. c. p. 122 passim) the same views oonoenung 

T the 


Locative, Sanskrit vriki (from vrtAro + 0» Zend vihrki 

[6. £d. p. 295.] (maidhyOi, §. 196.), Lithuanian wUkSf Greek 

Dat. \vK(fi (oiKot §. 195.) Latin Gren. Ztip'-t. 
Vocative, Sanskrit vrika, Zend vehrka, Lithuanian wilk^t 

Greek \vKe, Latin lupe, Gothic vulf. 


Nom.Acc.Voc. Sanski*it vrikdu, Vedic vrtkdt Zend v^rkd, 

Lith. Norn, wilku, Voc. wilku, Greek \vku}, 
Instr. DatAbl. SanskrYivrikd-bhydm, TjerxdvehrkoH-byOf Greek 

Dat. Gen. Xjuko-iv, Lithuanian Dat. wilka-m 

(see §. 215.). 
Gen. Loc. Sansk. vrikay-is^ 2^nd vehrkay-d (see Rem. 1.), 

Lithuanian tcUku. 


Nom. Voc. Sanskrit vrikds, Gothic vu^Ss.* 
Accusative, Sanskrit vrikd-n, Zend vehrka-n, Goth, vulfa-nst 

Greek Xvko-v^ (from \vko-v£, §. 236.), Lithu- 
anian wilkus, Latin lupd-s. 

the Greek out and its connection with the Sanskrit a-gya which I have, with- 
out being aware of his concurrence, brought forward in §. 189. I have, 
howeyer, in this respect, already stated my Yie?ra in my pamphlet '' On 
the Demonstrative and the Origin of Case" (in the Transactions of the 
Hist. Phil. Class of the Academy of Science of Berlin for the year 1826, 
p. 100. Here I have only further to observe, that the Greek adj drffidaios^ 
from the root AHMO, is, in the saffix by which it is formed, probably con- 
nected with the genitive ending in the text ; and is therefore remarkable 
with reference to the preservation of the f, which is lost in drjfioio. With 
regard to the origin of irifi6(rtos from the genitive, let reference be made 
to the Latin cufu$^ a, um ; and the identity of the Sanskrit suffix of words 
like ^W^ mctnufhyOf ^^man," as a derivative from Manu, with the geni- 
tive ending V| shya for ^ jya, as in VjTV| amu-§hyay " illius" 

• With reference to the Zend, see §, 281. Notet ; and with regard to 
the Greek, Latin, and Lithuanian forms Xvieoiy hgn, wUkai^ see §, 228. 



Instrumental, Sanskrit vrikd-is* (from vrikd-Ohis)^ Veda 

vriki'bhis, Zend vSirkd-is, Lithuanian wiUca-is. 
Prakrit dive-hin (from diva, "God," see 
§. 220.), Greek d€6'<ptv,f Gothic Dat. Instr. 
wulfa-m (§. 215). 

Dat Abl. Sanskrit vriki-bhyas, Zend [G. Ed. p. 296.] 

vehrkaii'byd, Latin lupi-s (qmici-bus §. 244.), 
Lithuanian wilka'm(u)s (§. 215.). 

Genitive, Sanskrit vrikd-n-dm, Zend vehrka-n-anm, Greek 

hvK'Uiv, Lithuanian nWc'-u, Gothic mul/*'t, 
Latin lupo-rum (§. 248.), 

* I take the liberty, in order to separate the base and the termination, to 
divide the diphthongs, as above in Xvxo-vr ; therefore one mnst here pro- 
nounce vrikdis, and in Lithuanian tviikais, not as trisyllables, bnt as 

t I have remarked at ^. 217., bnt only as a conjecture, that the ending 
<l)w in the plural is perhaps identical with the Sanskrit fWH ^^, and the 

thence-derived Prakrit f^ hih^ and the Latin bis in nobis, vobis ; and 
1 will not advance more than a conjecture here, also, in comparing Bt&^uf 
with d^S'hih, This only is certain, that with the syllable fi| bhi, which 

in Sanskrit, lies at the bottom of the case-forms fWv bhf8, vm bhyam, 

and vinn bhydm, as their common root (see $. 215. passim), the Greek 0t 
and <f>iv is also to be associated. I here willingly agree with M. Ag. Se- 
nary (Berl. Ann. July 1833, p. 51.), that <fiiv might be formed from the 
ending vipT bhyam {§. 222.) by the contraction of Hya into t (as in ^/itv, c/itV, 
Tftvy &c. §. 222.). The third possible supposition would be the derivation 
from the usual dative-ablative plural termination vq^ bhyas; again with 
the corruption of « to v, as in the 1st person plural fitv from /xcr, and in 
the 2d and dd person rov, rov from ^ni thaa, jm tas. The fourth poasiblo 

case would be the derivation from the dual termination vinif bhydm 
{§. 215.), and the changing this number of restricted plurality to that of 
unlimited plurality. I prefer, however, to consider ^cy (<^c) as from one 
of the multifarious terminations of the Sanskrit plural belonging to all 
declensions; therefore, from fin bids or 'tBtnbhyas, 

T 2 


Locative, Sanskrit vriki-shu, Zend vehrkai-shva, Lithu- 

anian wiUcuse, Greek Dat. \uKot-iTt. 



Nom. Ace. Sanskrit ddna-m, Zend ddie-^, Latin donu-m^ 

Greek icdpo-v, Lithuanian gera, Gothic daur. 
Vocative, Sanskrit dAna, Zend ddta, Gothic daur. 

The rest as the masculine. 


Nom. Ace. Voc. Sanskrit ddni (from ddna + t), Zend ddtS. 

The rest as the masculine. 

[G. JEd. p. 297.] PLURAL. 

Nom. Ace. Voc. Sanskrit ddnd-n-i, Vedic ddni, Zend ddla, La- 
tin dona, Greek iiopa, Gothic daura. 
The rest as the masculine. 

"Remark 1. — The Zend system of declension has re- 
ceived some valuable additions from the treatises pub- 
lished by Burnouf since the appearance of the First Part 
of this book, which I must lay before my readers.* First 
a dual case, viz. the genitive-locative, which I imagined 
to be lost in the Zend, as I had searched for it alone in 
vain, and could supply all the other dual endings in tole- 
rable copiousness. M. Burnouf supplies this {Yasna, Notes 
et Sclaircissetnents, p. cxxii.) by the expressions 4^«>^4^-i> 
\»kyjjj ubdyd anhvd which are to be twice found in V. S. 
p. 312, and on both occasions are rendered by Anquetil, whose 

^ First, a roTiew of this Part in the Journal det Savans, which refers 
particularly to the Zend ; then the First Part of the First Volume of a 
Commentary on the Ya9na ; lastly, a disquisition in the Nouvcau Journal 
Asiatique, '' Sur le» mots Zends et Sanscrits Fahista et Vasichta^ et sur 
queigues ntperlatift en Zend.*' 


translation is in this place particularly confused, '' dans ce 
mondeJ* This translation might lead us astray so much 
the more easily, that }^»^^ anhvS^ according to §. 187., 
might also be the singular genitive, which frequently 
occurs with a locative meaning. We await the elucida- 
tion which Neriosingh'^s Sanskrit translation will give of 
this passage; but, for the present, content ourselves with 

the inferences deduced by Burnouf. h^6W-I> «6<ty4 ac- 
cording to that authority, corresponds with the Sanskrit 

'WW'itVt^ubhayds (amhorumf in ambobus), with 6 for a, probably, 
according to Burnouf s acute conjecture, through the 
influence of the preceding 6, and with the loss of the con- 
cluding s. I am the more inclined to assent to Burnouf 8 

opinion regarding the origin of the first 6 of 4^^^!^^> ubSyd, 
as I have been so fortunate as to find another example 

for the hitherto missing dual case, in which 4^^^ ayd, not 
Y«>.>v ^y^* actually occurs ; because, that is to say, no letter 
exercising the force of assimilation in question precedes 

the a — I mean the form 4^^^^«s)as^ zastayd ( = Sanskrit 
hastayds), " in the hands," from as^«s)as^ zasta, [G- Ed. p. 298.] 
in a passage of the Jzeschne, which has perhaps not yet been 
examined by M. Burnouf (V. S. p. 354.) : jMst^xi jusC^as^ 

4^^^As^«s)As^ i'ff^^ 9i^2^ kathd ashdi drujem dyahm zakayS,* 
which Anquetil (p. 192) translates by '* Comment moi pun 
mettrai'je le main sur le Daroudjf** It appears, how- 
ever, that jjMt^M ashdi can as little be a nominative as 
^^^^«s)As^ zaitayd a singular accusative; and I believe 
I am not wrong in the following literal translation : "How can 
I give the (Dasmon) Drudj into the hands of the pure (into 
the power)?" 

"Remark 2. — In the instrumental singular M. Burnouf 
admits the termination ana in bases in a (Ya9na, p. 98. 
passim), with n introduced, for the sake of euphony. 

* The Codex has fauhily jjum\)A} asdi and (9^>^ drvfem. 


according to the analogy of the Sanskrit w^ina (§. 158.). 
He rests this, among other forms, on that of Aiyjo^jJiojo^ 
maiHmana, " urimV^ a word which had often attracted my 
attention, and from which I, in like manner, would have 
deduced instrumcntals in a-n-a if I had not differed from 
liurnouf in the etymology of the same, as I make its 
tlieine terminate in n ; and this word, which I remember 
to have seen only in the instrumental, I derive from the 
Sanskrit root fn^ mih, '* mingere,^'* by a suffix in^ matif 
according to the analogy of yA)9«s)g2^ baresmanj from ^^ 
vrlh, " to grow," whose instrumental ^^fM^09^7^^ bareimana, 
analogous with xsjj^^^r^xs^ maHmana^ occurs very fre- 
c|urntly. M. Burnouf appears, on the other hand, to 
adopt a suffix ma in the word ma^mana, in which we 
think we cannot agree with him as long as we cannot 
Nupply any cases which must indubitably belong to a 
tlicmc in a. If, further, some words, which in their theme 
t<!rniinate in jja) m (^, Sanskrit VTT^ as), adopt ana in the 
instrumental form — M. Burnouf quotes, p. 100 note, Asyj^Ai^ 
mazana, xifJsi^yM?^^ srayana, and a5^a5^3aI9 vanhana; still, in 
my opinion, bases in a may be assigned as the origin of 
these forms, and they can be divided maza-na, &c., only 
in as far as such forms have been already proved to belong 
to undoubted bases in a. But now we prefer dividing 
them mozan-a, so that the letter s, with which these themes 
originally terminate, is interchanged with a nasal, just as, 
[G. Ed. p. 200.] in Sanskrit, the words ''ff\ yakriU H^^ 
sakrit change their t for n in the weak cases, and may sub- 
stitute i^w\ yakan. ^^TV^ iakan ; or as, in more remote 
analogy, the Greek, in the first person plural, has formed ^lev 
from fte? {^^ mas, "mus "'). Besides this, M. Burnouf cites 
also the interrogative instrumental AsyAs^ kana, "with what?'^ 
which is the only word that brings to my mind somewhat of 
conviction, and had struck my attention before, in passages 
like gjyJ^-'^^d^ ^/S^^^ ^i^i Icana yazna yazdnS, "with 


what oflFering shall I sacrifice?" (V. S. p. 481.) I have not, 
however, ventured to draw a grammatical deduction from 
this form, because the pronominal bases are prone to 
unite with one another, and because I believed I might 
assume that the same pronoun which is contained in yg^ 
ana and ^if 6na forms also the last element of AsyA)^ kanc^ 
if from this base the instrumental only had been evolved 
or preserved, as has also occurred in the Sanskrit 
^Rff ana and ^if Sna in but a few cases. For the rest, 
the Greek kcivo^ also appears connected with this AsyAs^ 
kana, if it is looked upon as a theme, with which the in- 
strumental must agree in sound, for Keivo^y if not directly 
of interrogative meaning, is still plainly connected with 
the old interrogative base (comp. WV^ kaschana, " who- 
ever/O- Under these circumstances I cannot yet admit 
of any instrumentals in a-n-a, especially as also the bases 
in i and u (in which the Sanskrit in the masculine and neu- 
ter likewise introduces a euphonic n) in the Zend, in words 
which we have noticed, have dispensed with a similar insertion 
(§. 160.). In another place {Journal des Savans), M. Bur- 

nouf deduces the frequently-occurring instrumental am^^asco-w 
ashayd, " with purity," from the masculine theme asi^a) 
a^ha ; and there would be accordingly as^^i^as ashaya, an 
instrumental form, at present standing alone in the Zend, 
which I hesitate to acknowledge, although it would be 
analogous to the Vedic form mentioned in §. 158., ^nnn 
swapnayd, if one derives this, with the Indian grammarians, 

from a theme igm swapna. But if instrumental forms of 
this kind, in the Vedas or in the Zend, are not to be pro- 
duced in otlier undoubted instances as in the case of 
adjectives in construction with masculine or neuter sub- 
stantives, nothing prevents the assumption, that the form 
^^nnd swapnayd belongs to a feminine theme ^onVT iwapnd, 
especially as the suffix ^ na occurs also in other abstracts 
in the feminine form 7([ nd, and therefore ^nnn sioapnayd 


may be explained according to the analogy of TQinn trhli- 
[G. Ed. p. 300.] nayd, " with thirst" In every case I think 
I may deduce the Zend aj^^i^a) ashaya from a feminine 
theme joii^oa) ashAf as the Zend in general, in the substantive, 
passes readily from one sex to the other ; and, for example, 
with a masculine base x!f<i^^ manthrat ** a speech,'* occurs, 
also, a feminine ja)?o<^( manthrd. 

" Remark 3. — For the genitive termination jo»» hi there 
also exists, as Burnouf has most satisfactorily proved, a 
form nearer to the Sanskrit sya, viz. jui^^^ hyd, which, 
although rather rare in comparison with the more 
corrupt form h6, is still sufficiently frequent in some 
chapters of the Jzeschne to satisfy one perfectly of its 
signification, according to the proofs given by Burnouf. 

I too had remarked words with the ending jss^^^ hyd, 
but in passages where AnquetiFs translation was little 
adapted to bring to light the genitive nature of the same, 
which, besides, was very much obscured through its usual 
representative m^ AA and was, moreover, concealed from 
me under the appearance of an instrumental form. 
However, the termination hyd — for which is sometimes 
found, also, m^^m khyd — approaches so very near to the 
Sanskrit ;py gya, and agrees with it so precisely according 
to rulci as far as the unorganic lengthening of the n, that 
a single passage, with the accurate translation of Nerio- 
singh, who, in the passages hitherto edited, follows the 
original word by word, would have led us to it. Such a 
passage is given, although with a different aim, by Bur- 
nouf in his Ya^na (Notes, p. cxxxix.), which we here annex, 
as it is interesting in other respects, also, for grammar : — 

JMJOSXi^ 4^^^»7>^ASq) Jai^^^A5)^A) AU^A5q) JMQ}S'(2^^ JUIiJ)A)^ 

(gyjui»^As MAU^ A5^^c7^jj ^)^?^ kosnd zonthnd paid 
ashahyd paourvyd kasnd kheng strencha ddt adhvdnem. Ne- 
riosingh translates this passage word tor word, only that 

he renders kasnd, " which man?*' (here properly not more 


than "who,"' for the idea of man is lost in the general 
signification of the whole,) not hy lit 7([ kd nd, but simply, 
by nft kd, as follows : nft iR%: ftWT ^W9? T[VA 'Wl ^W 
flK^IHIM ^ xi^^ftn kd jananiH pUd punyasya prcUhaman^ 
(rti^ H^*M I MKi<ll^ ^ir5(^ '^ kila sadvydpd' [G. Ed. p. 301.] 
ratvan kas chakrS, i.e. ** boni originem quis fecit ?^^) kaK sur- 
yasija tdrakdndncha daddu padavim (ftlT^ H\h^ ^^ITl^ ^ ^ 
kila morgan tSshdn kd daddti, i.e. **viam ipstis quis dedit?*^)* 
We translate from the Zend, " Quis {quails vir) creatione pater 
est pvritatis (or pur'i) primus? quis {qualis vir) soli stellisque 
deditviam?^'* The Zend expression maqj^^^ zanthwd, for 
which, in the lithographed codex, p. 351, is erroneously 
given J>^<^^ zanthdf is plainly the instrumental of >^^xi^ 
zantu ; which would correspond to the theme of a Sanskrit 
infinitive, vTinT jantum, as the latter is feminine, and to which 
I have, in another place, referred the ablative mjusqjcTG^ 
zaiilhwilt (Gramm. Crit, p. 253.). This form is, besides, re- 
markable on this account, viz. that it is identical with the 

Sanskrit instrumental gerund, which, from if^/tin, without a 
conjunctive vowel and without the euphonious suppression of 

the i{ n, would sound lipRT Jan^icd. With regard, however, 
to the length of the concluding a of the Zend form, which is 
preserved contrary to the prevailing rule (see §§. 118, 158. 

and 160. p. 191 G. Ed., where, however, xsajS^^^janthwa is to 
be read for zanthwa), I do not attach any particular import- 
ance to that, because in the chapter from which this pas- 
sage is taken a, originally short, is repeatedly to be found 

lengthened. The Sanskrit ir^i jananSK^ with which Nerio- 
singh translates the Zend instrumental case, must be con- 
sidered as an ablative, as this case often enters the depart- 
ment of the instrumental, and is also capable of expressing 

* Perhaps the adverb TfV!^ prathamah, ^^primum/' is a corraption for 

jfvim pratJianmh, "primuSy** which answers to the oiiginal^ and is to be 
expected from the sense. 

t Vide as to ASQj(r^vs< zanthwd^ p. 1-244 6. ed. 


the preposition "through" (for example, Nal. XII. 69.). 
Considered as a genitive, Wfi^ljcinanSK would not correspond 
;vith jui<»^<^ zanthwA, which cannot possibly be a genitive, 
for the genitive of >^^J<i^ zantu could only be •»\5>9C^^aj5 
zanteuSf or, also, ^okTc^W zanihwd, or ^»a)^^as^ zantavd (see 
§. 187.), but in no case jmqjS^^ zanthtvd. Add to this, also, 
thsitKHf^ janani is feminine, like the Zend >^^a)j zaniu, and 
lupr^punydsya, therefore, could no more pass as the epithet 
of i|f(r|: jananiK than, in Zend, Ms^^^xit^xi ashahyd could 
pass as the epithet of m3qjS^^ zanthwd. I will, however, as 
concerns the Zend, lay no great stress on this circumstance, 
since in it the genders of the substantive are constantly 
changing. M. Bumouf, who looks upon ini^. jananili as a 
genitive, and refers t^T^ punyasya to it, according to this 
interpretation justly takes objection to the ^J^n^ punyasya, 
which does not agree with the gender of iRf«T^anani, but he 
confirms* however, the reading expressly by the addition of a 
[G. Ed. p. 302] sic* His translation runs, **Qu€l est le pre- 
mier pkre de la creation pure 9 qui a montrS leur route au soleil 
et aux asires'' I look with anxiety for M. Bumoufs further 
explanation of this passage, but expect from him rather in- 
formation of value in other respects, than to find that he has 
succeeded in making the forms hh^: jananifi. and joiodC^W 
zanthwd pass for genitives. Anquetifs traditionary inter- 
pretation sounds, in this place, very strange, but does not 
contradict my apprehension of jmq!^^ zanthwd : he makes 
the genitive JM^^^^^tf)M ashahyd pass for the nominative, 
and does not, therefore, throw any light on the meaning of 
the termination jui^^^ hyd ; for, in the presumption that it 
was right, joi^^^iaji^a) ashahyd might, perhaps, have next 
been taken for an instrumental, and perhaps have been trans- 
lated " father with purity." His translation is as follows : 
" Quel est le premier pkre pur* qui a engendre f qui a donn^ 

* In other places (V. S. p. 886) ADqaetil renders (p. 187) the words 


de lui mime les astres qui ne sont pas a deux faces?" The 
sun is here quite left out of the question; and it must be 
acknowledged, that, as far as relates to etymology, it is 
very much obscured in this passage; we might identify, 
with reference to the form of ^))^9^ kheny, this expression 
with the reflective pronoun as^ kha (as in kha-ddta^ " created 
of itself,''' which is often said of the stars, as of self- 
created lights), and consider it as the epithet of Ai^jMe?^^ 
itren-cha ; so that it would correspond as accusative plural 
to the Sanskrit ^on^ swAn. It is here to be remarked, that 
in some chapters of the Jzeschne, ^^ ng is repeatedly 
found instead of a simple nasal, and, indeed, without 
regard to the organ of the following initial letter. So we 
read, in the V. S. p. 391, ^^^<^j^M^xstf!i^ dushacsathreng^^ 
^^py<3^A5^^ykO-H^ dusskyadthneng, ^^9y;o^^<b>^ dushda- 
6neng. Anquetil, indeed, renders these expressions as 
singular nominatives, "ca rot mechanU qui fait le mal, attachi 
a la mauvaise hi "/ but they, together with [G. Ed. p. 306.] 
^»*3Ai^»«b>5 dushvachanhd, y^^^/J<iitff)>fi dushmananhd, 
refer to the plural 4^^A5»^g^ dregvaid, and I have no 
doubt of their accusative nature : the whole passage, how- 
ever, like many others in the Jzeschne, can be explained 
only with the help of Neriosingh's Sanskrit translation. 
We can but regret that the in other respects highly valuable 
elaborate exactitude of Burnoufs excellent Commentary 
leaves us no hope that he will come very soon to the 
elucidation of this and other passages, regarding which 
I am most curious. But to return to our ^^?^ kheng, 

JUi^^^ASt^A) ja)^A5Q) paid askahi/d rightly by ph^ de la pureti : his 
translation is, however, little calcalated to throw light on the connection 
of the passage referred to. 

* The lithographed MS. has ^^Me)(^x^M^ asjuo>4 dwa csaihreng as 
two words ; the a is, however, cleany only a conjunctive vowel, to unite 
the prefiiic tfl)>A du$h more conveniently with the following jj^ cs. 


the ^ kh makes no difficulty in this expression, even in its 
acceptation for the sun, for which, commonly, ^7Af»^ hvare 
is found (the Sanskrit ^R swar, " heaven/")* as l*J th is used 
very frequently for »»» hv (see §. 35.) ; but we might here 
expect to find (^^ khare, and may suppose that the 
»^ ng has arisen out of n, and this letter out of r, as 
these liquids are easily interchanged, as is shewn in San- 
skrity by the connection of Wlf^ ahan, " day,^ with ^n^ 
ahar, and, in the Zend, that of yA»Q)AMc^ csaparu " night,*' 
with 7AfQ)A5Juo^ csapar (I write it thus, and not ^q)amcc$( 
csaparey designedly, see §. 44.). At all events I take ^^9^;^ 
kheng to be the accusative, if, indeed, it may not also be 
conjectured that the base ^»»» hvar may have entirely lost 
its r, and that it may be ^^?^ kheng for (g^ khem, the 
accusative of a base as^ kha, as^^p^^^s) stren-cha, also, 
according to my opinion, is the accusative, and not, as one 
might expect from the Sanskrit translation, the genitive 
plural, which more frequently occurs in the form (^^ui^jj 
stdranm. Although, from this, ^9^«s) sfren might easily 
be formed by contraction and combination with xi^ cha, I 
nevertheless prefer acknowledging in a)^^c7^«s) strencha, a 
secondary form of jto>c7jj)jj kreus, explained in §. 239.; 
so that the nasal, here vocalized to u, is there retained, 
but the sibilant has been removed (comp. §. 239.); espe- 
cially as, in other places also, x^ dd is found in construc- 
tion with the accusative of the person, which has been 
given. In the Zend expression, (gyAu»^^ adhvdnem, the 
Sanskrit ^rsTRT adhivdnam cannot fail to be observed 
(comp. §. 45.); but in the lithographed MS. we have in- 
stead of this, (gyjo)^^ advdviem, which is easily seen to be 
an error. This false reading appears, nevertheless, to be an 
ancient one, and widely diffused ; and upon this is founded 
AnquetiFs, or rather his Parsi teacher's, interpretation, which 
is strangely at variance with Neriosingh's exposition ; " qui 
[G. Ed. p. 304.] ne sont pas a deux/aces,^ so that as a is 


taken for the well-known privative particle, as^ dva as 
the number two, and the last portion finds in the Sanskrit 
WTtR dnanoj *' countenance,'' its corresponding syllable. 


Nominative, Sanskrit dhard,* Greek ^^cGpo, Lithuanian 

ranka, Zend hizvd, Gothic gibot Latin terra. 
Accusative, Sansk. dhard-m, Latin terramt Zend hizia-nm, 

Greek jfjiipa-Vf Lith. ranked, Goth. giba. 
Instrumental, Sanskrit dharay-d, Tjend hizvay-a, Gothic Dat. 

Instr. gibai (§. 161.), Lithuanian rankh. 
Dative, Sansk. dhardy-di^ Zend hizvay-di, Lith. ranka-u 

Ablative, Zend hizvay-dt, Latin ierra{d). 

Genitive, Sanskrit dhardy-ds, Zend hizvay-do, Greek 

^ci>pa-^, Latin terrU'S, Lithuanian ranko'S, 

Gothic gibd-s. 
Locative, Sanskrit dhatdy-dm (§. 202.), Zend hizvay-a^ 

Lithuanian ranko-ye (§. 197.). 
Vocative. Sanskrit dhari, Zend hizvi (?), Greek x^P^ 

Latin terra, Lithuanian rankn, Gothic giba (?). 


Nom. AccVoc. Sanskrit dhar6, Zend hizvS (§. 213.), Lithuanian 

Nom. rank), Voc. rdnki. 
Instr. Dat. Abl. Sanskrit dhard-bhydm, Zend hhvd-bya,1: Greek 

Dat Gen. xcGpa-zv, Lith. Dat. ranko-m (§. 215.). 
Gen. Loe. Sanskrit dharay-ds. [G. Ed. p. 305.] 

* Means ** earth/' and is probably connected with the Greek x^P<H ^ 
aspirates are easily interchanged (Battmann, $. 16. Rem. 1.). The root is 
V dhri (l|T dhar^ §. 1.). "to hold," "carry j" whence, also, VTU dhdrd^ 
which, by reason of the long vowel of its root, approaches nearer the 
Greek x^P^ ($• "^Oy although it does not signify earth. 

t Without being able to quote this case in Zend bases in ^, I still have 
no doubt of the genuineness of the above form, since I can prove by otlier 
cognate case terminations : 1. That the 4 is not shortened; and 2. also 
that an t is not introduced into the theme by the assimilative power of the 
termination ; hence, e. g. in the instr. pL M)^ jAuygn ghUibU (V. S. 

p. 306.) from JU^y^^ g(^ " woman " (yvm}). 









Sanskrit priii-s, Zend dfriti-s, Greek vopri-s* 
Latin iurri-s, Lithuanian awi-s, Gothic ansf-s. 
Sanskrit priti-m, Latin iurri-m, 2Jend dfiriti-m, 
Greek itopn-v, Lithuanian dwi-h, Gothic antC. 
Sanskrit prUy-d^ Zend dfrithy-a, Gk)thic Dat. 
Instr. anatai (without case suffix, see §. 161.). 
Sanskrit pritay-i (or priiy-AU §. 164.), Zend 

Zend dfritdi-t, Latin turrl-(d}. 
Sanskrit prills (or only with the feminine 
termination prity-ds^ Gothic anstai-Sf Zend 
dfrftdi'S, Greek voprt-o^, ^pvae-oag, Lat turrits. 
Sanskrit prit-du, (or with the feminine termi- 
nation only prity-dm). 
Sanskrit prxiit Zend dfritu Greek itopn. 


Nom. AccVoc. Sanskrit prrit", S^end dfriti(^), Lithuanian Nom. 
[G. Ed. p. 306.] awl, Voc. dim. 

* It may be sufficient to give here the cases of a Sanskrit masculine in 
? i, which differ from the feminine paradigma : from agniy " fire," comes the 
instrnmcntal singular agni-n-d — whilst from paii, " master/' comes/Mz/y-o, 
and from sakhi, '' friend," sakhy-d (see §, 158.)^and in the accns. plural 
^5fh^ agnUn. 

t Differing from what is stated in §, 164. p. 106. G. Ed., it is now my 
opinion that the e ^ in k^e^^o^jus dfriteS does not represent the ai a of 
the original form |^^^A5^^«as qfiritay^y hut is the contraction of a andy ; 
as, for instance, in the Prakrit f^^fiT MntSmi, from r ^ H l H i rH chinta- 
ydmL e e is here a weaker form of i=^}ff and is more properly used to 
represent the latter than another yoweL With regard to the Lithuanian, 
see p. 218, Note t. 


Instr. Dat. Abl. Sanskrit prtti-bhydm, Zend dfrtti-byaf Greek 

Gen. Dat. tto/otZ-o-iv, Lithuanian Dat. dun-m 
(§. 215.). 

Gen. Loc. Sanskrit prdy-ds, Zend dfrithy-6 (?) (see p. 276. 

Rem. 1.). 


Nom. Voc. Sanskrit pritay-as, Tjend ^ithy-6 (with cha 

"and'^ dfrithy-as'cha), Greek Troprt-e^, Latin 

turr-eSj Gothic anstei-s, Lithuanian dwy-s. 
Accusative, Sanskrit priti-s, Zend dfriti'S, Greek TropTJ-f, 

Gothic ansti-ns, Lithuanian divy-s. 
Instrumental, Sanskrit prtU-bhis, Zend ^riti-bis, Lithuanian 

awi-miSj Gothic Dat Instr. ansti-m (§. 215.). 
Dat. Abl. Sanskrit priti-bhyas^ Zend dfriti-by6t Latin tur- 

ri'bus, Lithuanian att*i-fn(u)s (§. 215.). 
Genitive, Sanskrit priti-n-drnf Zend dfritin-anmf Latin 

turri'um, Greek TroprZ-cav, Lithuanian am-Ut 

Gothic ansf'i. 
Locative, Sanskrit priti-shu, Zend d/riti'Shva (or dfriti- 

'shuX Lithuanian dm-scL, Greek Dat. iropTt-a-t. 


Nom. Acc. Voc. Sanskrit vdri, Zend vairi, Greek tipt, Latin 

The rest like the masculine. 


Nom. Acc. Voc. Sanskrit vdri-n-t 

The rest like the masculine. 


Nom. Acc. Voc. Sanskrit vdri- n - 1, Ztend [G. Ed. p. 807.] 

vdr-a, Greek tSpt-^, Latin mari-cz, Gothic 
thny-a (from THRI, "three''). 
The rest like the masculine. 

* Vide p. 1078 O. ed. as to turri-i and similar forms. 




Nominative, Sanskrit sUnu-s, Gothic sunu-s, Lithuanian 

sunit'S, Zend paiu-s, Latin pecu-s, Greek 

Accusative, Sanskrit sUnutn, Latin pecu-m, Zend pasi-m, 

Greek fiorpv-v, Lithuanian sunu-n, Gothic 

Instrumental, Sanskrit silntt-n-d (Veda prabdhav-d, from pra- 

bdhUf §. 158.), Zend pah-a, Gothic Dat. Instr. 

Dative, Sanskrit siinav^i, Zend pasv-^, Lithuanian 

Ablative, Zend palad^t, Latin pecu-^d). 

Genitive, Sanskrit sitnd-s (fromsunau-s), Gothic sunau-s, 

Lithuanian sunau-s, Ziend paseu-s or paiv-d 

(from pasv-as), Latin pecd-s, Greek jSorpv-os. 
Locative, Sanskrit sdn-du. 

Vocative Sanskrit sdnd (from sunau), Gothic sunau, 

Lithuanian sunau, Zend pasu, Greek /Sorpv. 


Nom. Ace. Voc Sanskrit sdnd, Zend paid, Lithuanian Nom. 

sunUf Voc. sdnu. 
Instr. Dat Abl. Sanskrit sdnu-bhydm, Zend pas'u-bya, Greek 

^orpifOHv, Lithuanian sunu-m (§. 215.) 
Gen. Loc Sanskrit sdni>ds, Zend pasv^ (see p. 276. 
[G. £d. p. 808.] Rem. 1.) 


Nom. Voc. Sanskrit sdnav-as, Greek fiorpv-e^, Zend 

paiv^ (with cha, paivas-cha), Latin pccu-s, 
Gothic sunyu'S (for tuniu^s, from sunau- s, 
§. 230.), Lithuanian sunups. 

Instrumental, Sanskrit sdnu-bhis, Zend paiwbis, Lithuanian 

8unu-mi8, Gothic Dat Instr. sunu-m (§. 215.). 


Genitive, Sanskrit sumi-fi'dm Zend paiv-annif Latin 

pecU'Um, Greek /Sorpv-oav, Gothic sunivi, Li- 
thuanian sun-iL 

Locative, Sanskrit sunu-shu, Zend paiu-shva (or paSu- 

-9A11), Lithuanian siiiiu-^e, Greek Dat. fiorpv-au 

Remark. — Feminine bases in u in Sanskrit differ in 
declension from the masculine, exactly as, p. 305 G. Ed , irHk 
priti f. differs from igfni agni m. 



Norn. AccVoc. Sanskrit madhth T^nA madhu, Greek fiedv, 

Latin pecu, Gothic faihu. 
The rest like the masculine. 

DUAL. ^< 

Nom.Acc.Voc. Sanskrit madhu-n-u 

The rest like the masculine. 


Nom.Acc.Voc. Sanskrit madhu-n-i, Zend madhv-a, Greek 

fiedv-a, Latin pecu-a. 
The rest like the masculine. 


[G. Ed. p. 809.] 





ndri, "woman," 

bhi'S, "fear;' 

ndiri, "woman.' 











bhiy-t, or bhiy-^i, 




bhiy-as or bhiy-ds. 




bhiy-as or bhiy-ds. 




bhiy-i or bhiy^m, 












N.A. V.ndry-^ii, 



I. D. Ab. ndri-bhydm, 



Loc. ndty'Sst 



ndiry-d f 

N. V. ndry-ds, 



Accus. ndri-s, 



Instr. ndri-bhis. 



D. Abl. ndriihyas. 



Gen. ndrt-n~dm, 




Loc. ndri'shUf 


ndiri'shva or -sAw. 

" Remark. — By the side of the declension of monosyllabic 
feminine bases in i, which may reject the terminations 
peculiar to tlie feminine alone, may be placed the Greek 
[O. Ed. p. 310 ] kUp and a remarkable similarity of inflexion 
will be observed, as Nom. bht-s, ncf-?, Gen. bhiy-as, Ki-6^, Loc. 
Dat. bhiy-i, Ki-t\ Ace. s/rf-m,f #cf -i/, Voc. bhi-s, i^i-£. Plural : Nom. 
bhiy-as, Ki-e^t Gen. bhiy^dm. icT-cSv, Loc. Dat bhi-shu, ki-ctI, Acc. 
bhiy-as, icZ-ay, Voc bhiy-as, Ki-eg. I consider, however, this 
coincidence as accidental, but, nevertheless, an accidental coin- 
cidence of that nature, that can only occur in languages 
which were originally really one: and undoubtedly the 
terminations, whose common sound appears so startling, 
are historically connected. As far, however, as concerns 
the theme, I believe, with Kiihner (§. 287.), that the 7 of k1 was 
not the original concluding radical letter of the word, but that a 
consonant has fallen out after the i. I would rather, however, 
leave the question as to this consonant undecided, than assume 

* Or bhUn-dm, Farther, the longer cafie-terminations, which belong 
to the feminine (see J. 164.), are added at will to the monosyllabic femi- 
nines in f, H; for example, together with bhiySy bhruvS, also bhiydi, 

t Or, like the other monosyllabic words in i, with the termination am, 


that Klf is the true theme, and that the nominative was origi- 
nally KiFg ; for if icioy, Ktl, in the form in which they have 
been received, be analogous to A«o?, Att, from AiFo^, Aif /, 
still, to establish a theme Klf, a proof must be brought 
similar to that which really attaches to A/f / from its being 
found in inscriptions. And besides this, that which of itself is 
alone sufficient proof, the cognate Sanskrit word fl^ div, 
"heaven" (§. 122.) likewise attests a digamma. All ground 
for supposing a theme Klf is, however, wanting, for the long 
I could, as in the Sanskrit vA 6Af, and like the long u in 6(t>pv£9 
he also the real final letter of the base, only that the long 
i in the Sanskrit, except in compounds (for example iwA 
gata-bhi m. f., " void of fear,'' if^nA m. f., " water-drinking,'' see 
Gramm. Crit. §§. 169. 170.), concludes only the feminine themes. 
We will therefore seek elucidation regarding the Greek #c7y 
in another way, through the Sanskrit , and we find this, as it 
appears to me, through a like masculine base, which approxi- 
mates closely to the #cf-f, as well in form as in meaning ; 

namely, in ^^T kiki, Nom. if^z:^^ Ictta-Sy " insect " " worm," 
which would lead us to expect in the Greek k7toj, Acc. Kirov^ 
to which icFf , Kiv, bear the same relation as fieya^, fiiyav, to the 
to be presupposed fieyotKo^i fi€ya\ov. I do not consider it re- 
quisite to assume a theme MErAT, although the Sanskrit 
1!^ mahaf, " great," might support it ; but inp^ mahat is a 
participial form, and its full and original form [G. Ed. p.8l 1 .] 
(§. 129.) is n^iw mahant, Nom. masc. iTfT^j mahdn, which 
would correspond to the Greek fieytav.** 



Sanskrit. Greek, 

Nom. vadhU'S, "wife,** bhrH-s, "eye-brow," i^pc-y. 

Accus. vadh^-m, bhruv-am, o^pv-v. 

Instr. vadhw'd, bhruv-^, 

Dat vadhivdi, bhruv-^ (or -di), 






Sanskrit. Greek, 

Abl. vadhiC'ds, bhruv^as (or -c1.v), .... 

Gen. vadhiv^ds, bhrutMis (or -ih), 6<f>pv-oq. 

Loc. vadhtc^dm, bhruv-i (or -/Iw). 6<ppv-\\ 

Voc. vadhu, bhr^-s, 6<f>pv. 


N.Ac.V.wWAu?-^ti, bhruv^u, 6^pv-€. 

1. D, Ah. vadhd-ihydm, bhrtt-bhydm. oippv-o-iv. 

G. L. vadhiD^Sf bhruv^s. .... 


N. V. vadhw'as, bhruv-as, o^/ou-ef. 

Accus. vadhit'St bhruv^s, 6^pv~a^. 

Instr. vadh4-bhis, bhrii-bhis, .... 

D. Abl. vadh^-bhyaSt bhrd-bhyas, .... 

Gen. vadh^t-n-dm, bhruv^dm (or 6Aril-w-dm), 6<l>pv-<M}v. 

Loc. vadhH-shu, bhr-d'shu, 6(f>pv^i. 

Remark.— The identity of ^ 6Ari2 and 'O^PY* is 
[G. £d. p. 312.] sufficient proof that the length of the t; is 
organic (comp. §• 121.), and it is not necessary, therefore, to 
suppose a theme 0<^PYf (comp. Kiihner §. 289.) so as to 
consider o0ptf as coming from 6<f>pvf^y and the long t; as a 
compensation for the rejec^d F, as perhaps ^leKa^ from fie\av^. 
That, however, f originally stood — for example, 6(l>pvFo^ — 
before the terminations now commencing with a vowel,though 
at a time when the language had not a Grecian form is 
shewn by the Sanskrit bhruv-as ; by which, at the same time, 
the shortening of the t; in this case is justified, for the Sanskrit 

* Tho o in o<t>pvs is based on the pecaliar disposition of the Greek to 
prefix a vowel to words which originally commenced with a consonant, 
to which I have already drawn attention in another place, and by which, 
among other things, tho relation of oia;|, ovofta, to f^^nT nakJia-s^ «n^ 
nAmtty is shewn. 



changes, that is to say in polysyllables, as well t; as S, before 
vowel terminations, into a simple v ; but in monosyllables, 
in order to avoid commencing with two consonants, or to 
gain a polysyllabic form, the semi-vowel has its corre- 
sponding short vowel placed before it, and thus is formed 
11^ uv (uv), as well from u as from u, as, under a similar 
condition, ^ from i and { : hence the two opposite forms, 
for example, vadhw-^s (not vadhuiMis), "women," and 
bhruv-€Ls (not bhrw-as), "the eyebrows;" as above, bhiy-as 
(not bhi/'as), opposed to ndry-ns (ndriy^as). In the dative 
plural the short i; of ofjypv-a't for 6tl>pv-a't may be attributed to 
the effeminate habit of regularly shortening the i; before vowel 

BASES IN du (mi)* 




















[G. Ed. p. 318.] 

Nom. Ace. Voc. 



Instr. Dat. Abl. 














ndu'shut Dat vav^L 




"Remark.— I find no sufficient grounds, with Kiihner, 
(I. c. §. 283.) to suppose that the base of the nominatives 

* I give only the cases retained in the Greek. 



in av^, €v^, ouf, originally terminated in F, so that in the 
case before us it would be requisite to suppose a theme NAf : 
for even if the vocalization of F to v, in order to facilitate tlie 
junction with a consonant following, did not surprise us — 
(forms like vaF^, vaFat, could never occur) ; — still, on the other 
hand, the transition of the sound t; into its corresponding 
semi-vowel, in order to avoid the hiatus, is far more 
regular, and is required in the Sanskrit according to the 
common rules of euphony. We will not therefore differ 
from the Indian grammarians, by tlie assumption of a 

theme tfra ndv for ift ndu, and n^ gav for ift gd {bot) ; al- 
though, if there were adequate reasons for it» the practice 
of the Indian grammarians would not restrain us from 
laying down iT^ gav and tfT^ ndv in the Sanskrit as the true 
themes, which maintained themselves in this form only 
before vowel terminations, but before consonants have 
allowed the v to pass into a u, according to the analogy 
of the anomalous f^ div, " heaven '' ; whence, for example, 
the instrumental plural ^fW^ dyu-bhis for fif^Rl^ div-bhis, 
which would be phonetically impossible (Gramm. Crit. 
§. 208.). The Latin navis cannot compel us to lay down a 
theme ndv for the Sanskrit and Greek, for the Latin base 
has extended itself by an unorganic t, as iivan, " dog," length- 
ened to cani; and therefore it exhibits in its declension 
nowhere u, but universally v. 

















Accus. , 







• • • • 




• • • • 

• See Locative. 












. • . • 



• • • • 









D. voc'i, 





vdc'S ? 




N. Aec. V. vJcA-dw, 


• • . • 

• • . . 




. . • • 


I. D. Abl. 


. • • • 

• . . • 

D. G. 


G. L. 


vdch'-6 ? 


• . • • 

• • • • 

N. V. 












. . • . 

• • • • 

. . • • 

D. Abl. 


. • • • 


• . • . 





a . • • 



vdcshva ? 




" Remark 1, — I leave the terminations in [G. Ed. p. 816.] 
the Zend which commence with 6 unnoticed, since, contrary 
to my former opinion (§. 224. Note *), I look on the 
c e, in forms like jk^^c^l^AJ? raochebis, no longer as a con- 
junctive vowel; and therefore no longer attribute the said 
form to a theme ^Aiaj? raoclh but assume that -Hj^^i^^i^Aj/ 
raochebts, and similar forms, have proceeded from bases in 
^d(from ash 56\) ; so that I look upon the c e as a corruption 
of the 6, and to the form ^^iic^e^Aj? raoclwltyd I place as 
anterior a lost form ^4^^^i^As7 raoch6-byd.% In a similar way 

* Like the Genitive. 

t With cha, "and," vdchai-clia. 

X See p. 230, Note ♦. 

^ M. Bumouf, who has indnced me, by his excellent pamphlet, cited at 
p. 276, on the Valiista (in the separate impression, p. IG, and following), to 
rectify my former views, leaves, p. 18 note, the iquestion still unde- 
cided, whether forms like •*C^«J9<aj9 maaebiSf ^^^.j^yAJ^ manebU^ 


[G. Ed. p. 816.] I find, in the Prakrit (Urvasi, by Lenz, 
p. 40.), inrkf^ achharihih for ll'^Oni achhardhin (Sanskrit opsa- 
rdbhii) ; and if this form is genuine, then the c e, in forms 
like jto^_iQ^iiA57r(iocAe6is, appears to stand for;o^, as generally 
many interchanges between c e and ;o ( occur, although in 
the case before us the c e is very constantly written, and 
70 ^ has not yet been pointed out in its place. If it is further 
considered that we often find qj^ ye for ^jC^ yd, "which,'^ 
y ke for \fj k6, " who ?'' and in the pronoun of the 2d 
person in the plural also m ve for \l^ v6 ; and, finally, in 
the pronoun of the 1st person cy ne for }^3 nd ; then we 
see the change of the ^ 6 with c e is sufficiently ascer- 
tained^ although it appears to be restricted to the end of 
words of a monosyllabic form ; and in these the practice of 
writing the \ 6 i^ the prevailing one, while before termi- 

juo^Pc^AS^ vachebts, jus5^^9<^^m/ raocMtsthare 80 arisen from the bases 
wMi} mcusd, &C., that the ^ d {mj6 as) is suppressed, and e e then 
introduced as oonjonctive vowel ; or whether, before the d (from as) only, 
the s has been rejected, and the preceding a with an epenthetic i united 
with an e. In the former case I should not have been entirely wrong, 
from the analogy of raoch'e-biSy to deduce forms like vdch-e-bis, I con- 
sider, however, the last view as the right one, only that I prefer letting 
the 6 {ix)m the pre-supposed original form, tnanS-bis, raochd-bis^ be changed 
in its whole force into e e, rather than reduce it into its elements, and 
mix the first of the said elements (a) with a conjoined i : for the deri- 
vation oi mantis from manilibis irom manahU^ for manasbUy would extend 
to the Sanskrit form ifrfV^nr manobhts, which ^originally may have been 
manarbhis {manas^bhis was never possible). But I believe that in the 
Zend the form dns really preceded the form dbis, M. Bumouf, in his 
review in the Jawmal des Savans (in the separate impression, pp. 30, 31 ), 
calls attention to a form i{9«^«bpja)9 vAghzJd/y6, for which is once 
found, in tlie Vend. S&de, pp. 69 and 70, t^^^ccbcpjuoCp vaghvzhcbyo' 

once ^«)^c«k>pjai9 vayhzhebyd, and once yi^AitbgpAM^ vaghezhbyo, 



nations beginning with b as yet no 6 has been pointed 
out ; so that b appears to be as repugnant to a preceding d 
as favourable to a following 6, if the conjecture of Bumouf, 
mentioned at p. 297, G. Ed., is well-founded. On this point 
I was not yet clearly informed, when, at §§. 224. and 242., I 
inconsiderately imagined I could deduce vachd-bya^ vachMis, 
from ^'^•^9 vachd (from vachai). Instead of this should be 
read As^^c^lp vache-bya, J^^^_19^AJ9 vache-bh ; and besides 
this, in the locative singular, j^as^as^ vachahi for j^^^mI^ 
vachanhi; since the nasal to be prefixed to the h, according 
to §. 56^, falls away when the vowel which follows the h 
is t, which has been already indicated in the paragraph 
quoted, but since then fully proved by Bu^ [G. Ed. p. 817.] 
nouf. Besides, there really occurs, also, in one passage (where, 
unfortunately, the lithographed MS. is faulty, and is therefore 

which, with the coDJanctive vowel c ^ (see $. 30.) introduced in different 
ways, plainly represent one and the same word, and have proceeded from 
^«^«k>pja)9 vdghzhbyd, which itself never occurs. Although these 
forms, which had struck me likewise, clearly belong to a theme which 
means ^' discourse," and is connected with our vdch^ I would still rather 
not, with Bumouf, derive it from vdch ; so that the nominative of this, 
jj^^maI^ vdcs^ raised to a secondary theme, would be contained therein. 
We dare not, without further authority, attribute to the Zend such a 
malformation, although it derives its superlatives in a)(m iema from 
the masculine nominative, instead of from the theme. But Anqnetil, in 
liis Glossary, gives a form vakk$engM, *' parole^ utiley" which we ought 
probably to read ^^^m^mI^ vacsanhi (as dative), if not with long a 
K3^9uUJtv5^AU9 v/icsanhS. This latter form would belong to a theme 
^'MSCJ^amC? vdcsd (vdcsas) ; from which, in the dat. abl. pl^ ^«>^«k>p Jku^ 
vaghzhhyd {voghczhbydy &c.) might proceed for }p^M^Ma\^ vacsf/yd ; 
as with J^?^_j9 <aj5 mazebU, j^o^P/aj^ fnanelns, occur also j^^S-^^ijaj^ 
mazhU^ M-V^x^-W^ manlns; for the jj^ s o£ ij^jj^Mil^ vdcsd must, as 
Bumouf has bhewn, in contact with b become cb ^* 


impossible for me to use) the locative j^as^asC^ vachahi ; 
that is to say, in the Vend. S. p. 173, where, for jiu^;v^A5yA»( 
jiu^A9^A)^9 manahSchd vachahichd, is to be read ms^j^xsjx3^ 
joi^j^As^Cp manahichd vachahichd. In a Grammar, the lost 
acquaintance with which is again to be restored, oversights 
of this kind will, I trust, be excused in the first labourers ; 
and if, for example, Rask gives to the word paiti the genitive 
paitdis, while, according to §. 180. p. 196, Note t» patdis is to 
be written, still the form pcutdis was, in its time, instructive 
in the main, and first taught me that the Sanskrit genitive 
termination ^-s corresponds to the form 6is in the Zend. 
If, too, Rask has incorporated in his scheme of declensions 
the ablative paitdit (for paidit), this was indeed a new error, 
but also a new advantage for the Zend Grammar in its 
then state, and brought to light a new and important fact, 
which I believe I was the first to discover; namely this, 
that bases in i form their ablative in dit, for which the 
proofs in the Zend-Avesta, as much as I have of it, are 
neitlier numerous nor easily found. I make this remark 
because M. Burnouf, as it appears to me, speaks too unfa- 
vourably of such theoretic formations. As far as I am 
concerned, I believe I may assert that my communications 
regarding Zend Grammar are founded on careful reflec- 
tion. I could not, however, perfectly conclude my con- 
siderations, and I am very ready to complete and adjust 
them through those of M. Buruouf. For in this book 
also, in regard to Zend Grammar, one must carefully 
distinguish the disquisitions given in the text from the 
general comparison added at the end of each rule regarding 
case. In the former I give only those Zend forms which 
I have seen, and I thence deduce theoretic laws: in the 
latter I seek to make the deductions from the inquiries 
pursued in the text evident in one select example. I am 
perfectly sure of t'he prevailing majority of the forms 
given in the tables, and can produce abundant examples 


of them. I have marked some as questionable, and shewn 
the limits of the probability of others, in notes ; and if an 
error has crept into the forms spoken of, and by me 
believed to be correct, it will give me pleasure to be able 
hereafter supplementarily to correct it The form My^jj^Ml^ 
vachanhi was, however, only in a measure a theoretic forma- 
tion ; and I should not have ventured to [G. £d. p. 318.] 
exhibit it if I had not observed, in other words of the same 
declension, ue. in other bases terminating with a consonant, 
the locative, which has entirely escaped Rask. 

"Remark 2. — One might consider the o of oiroiv instead 
of a conjunctive vowel, as has been stated above (see 
§. 221.), as a property of the base, t. e. as an unorganic 
extension of it ; or, in other words, regard it as a trans- 
ition from the third to the second declension; a decla- 
ration which must then naturally extend itself to the dual 
termination otv of the whole third declension (Troaio-tv, (So- 
rpvo-iv, Satfjiovo-iv like 7sxfKo~iv), and to all cases in the forma- 
tion of words and arrangement of the same, where we have 
represented an o foreign to the proper base as conjunctive 
vowel. According to this, forms like fieKiroag, /xeAiTOTrcaAjyf, 
(pvcioKoyiaf (Sorpvoetg^ )8oTpuo$ci>po^, would be, under the pre- 
supposition of the bases MEAITO, 4>Y2IO, BOTPYO, to be 
divided into /xe\iTo-6/f, and would lead us to expect the 
nominatives /xe\iTo-v, &c., which are not to be found. The 
statement here given has this in its favour, that similar 
cases occur also in cognate dialects, since in general that 
declension which is the most in vogue and most used, is 
j)rone, in certain cases, to receive into itself the other 
declensions, which annex to their original base the final 
letters of the bases of the declension more in use. The 
origin of ottoiv from 'OUO, of ^epovrotv from *EPONTO, 
was as it were the first commencement of the disease, 
which came to its full developement in the Pali ; since in 
this lan^juage, which otherwise closely resembles the 
Sanskrit, the bases which end with consonants are declined 



in the old way only in the singular, but in the plural are 
so corrupted, that, with the exception of the nominative 
and the vocative of similar sound, and the genitive, which 
at the same time supplies the place of the dative, they 
have extended the old base by an unorganic a (= Greek o), 
and have thus partly brought it fA)m the Greek third 
declension into the second; and in the singular, also, 
most of the cases may, together with the old form, assume 
more recent forms, which have originated in the manner 
stated. In this manner, for example, the root ^R char, "to 
go," forms its participle present partly from the original base 
^ICfT charant, or its corruption ^^^ char at (see §. 129.), partly 
from the augmented theme ^IT^ c^ran/a, and in part also 
[G. Ed. p. 319.] arbitrarily from ^fCff charant or ^rfir 
charanta, as follows (see Clough's Pali Grammar, Colombo 
1824, p. 25, and compare Burnouf's and Lassen's Essay, 
p. 112 et seq.): 




Nom. charaih* 
Ace. charant-Himti 
Instr. . • • . 
Dat. like the Genitive, 





• . . . 


( charanta-smd, 
\ or charanta-mhdfX 


i charat'd.^ 


* The final 7T n is, as in the Pr&krit {§. 10.), transmated into the 
Anusw&ra, which I here express, as in the Sanskrit, by n. 

t It might also be divided thns^ charanta-m^ and dedaoed from 

I Transposed, and with h for s (comp. §. 166.). These forms are 
derived from the medial prononn tma mentioned in §. 166., which, in 
the P&li also, has forced its way into the nsnal declension. The /, which 
was to have been expected, is, as generally happens at the end of a word, 

§ Charatd is, according to appearance, identical with the instrumental, 







.... charanta-asa, 

i charanti, 


• • • 

<or charanta-smin,? charat-U 

i ) 




• . • • 

[G. Ed. p. 320.] 



• • • 

• • . • 

• • . • 


or charanta-mhi, 
or chara, 
or chard, 


f charantidhi, 
(or charantehi, 
Dat like the Genitive. 
Abl. like the Instrumental. 

Loc. .... charanti'SU, 

Voc. charantdy charantd, 

" If the Greek in its bases ending with a consonant had fol- 
lowed the declension-confusing example of the Pali, one would 
have expected, for instance, from ^epcot^ a genitive ^epoio-ot;, 
dative (pepovru^; and in the plural indeed, fpepovnav from 


. • • • 

• • • • 

but is, in reality^ corrnptcd from charat-at^ analogous with Zend foras 
like ap-at (in §, 180.) : tlie suppressed t is replaced by the lengthen- 
ing of the preceding vowel, as in achard^ ^^he went," from acluurdi 
(Clough, p. 106.). 

* If this form really belongs to fk theme in n^, as I believe, it has 
sprung from the original form charan^ by snppression of the concluding 
nasal (comp. Bumouf and Lassen, p. 89) ; and in chard this deficiency is 
replaced by lengthening the vowel. 

t According to the usual declension ending with a consonant one 
would expect with charantd also charantd^ from the original theme 
charant ; as^ for example, gunavantd is used with gunavantd, *' the vir- 
tuous" ; the former from gunavant, the latter from gunavanta. 


4>EPONT, but (pepovTot, fpepovrov^, ipepovroi^, from ^EPONTO. 
In this manner the form ^povroiv in the dual, which has 
been lost in Pali, would be clearly explained as derived from 
^EPONTO ; but even when standing isolated, tfyepovrotv may 
be justly referred to a theme 4>EP0NT0, as the first com- 
mencement of a corruption which was further pursued in the 
Pali ; and I prefer this view of the matter now to that laid 
down at §.221. Both views, however, concur so far; and 
thus much of my opinion may be looked on as proved, 
that in ^epovrotv, and all other dative-genitive forms of the 
third declension, the o belongs neither to the original theme, 
which lies at the root of all the other cases, nor to the 
true case-suffix. 

[G. Ed. p. 321. J SINGULAR. 

Sanskrit. Zend. Latin. Greek. « Gothic. 

N. bharan, baran-Sf ferens, ipeputv, Jiyand^s.* 

Ac. bharant-^mf barent-em, ferent-em, <pepovT-a{v)t fiyand. 

Ins. bharai-^X barent-a, D. Y.fiynnd. 

D. bharatS, barent-^, see Locate see Loc. see Dat. 

Ab. see Gen. bararU-at, ferent-^{d) .... 

G. bharat-as, barent-d,^ ferent-is, ^epovr^^, ^yand-is.^ 

L. bharat-i, barhit-h D.ferent-i, D. tpepovr-i, .... 

V. bharan, baran-s, feren-s, ^pcov, Jiyand. 

♦ Feind, "foe," as " hater," see }. 126. p. 188. 

t See p. 210. Note J ; with cha, harentai^ha ("ferentigque'*). 

1. 1 imagined, p. 210, that I most, in this case, which before was not 
proved to exist in ND bases, set down fi^and-s as a mntilation offiyandis 
hcmfiyand-as, according to the analogy of other bases terminating with a 
consonant (ahmin-s, brdthr-a, }. 191.) ; Grimm has (I. 1017.) conjectnred 
friy6ndi» or Jriydnds homfriydnds. Since this, owing to the very valuable 
additions made by Massmann to onr Gothic authorities, the genitive 
muyandis of Nasyand ("preserver, " preserving'^ has come to light (see 
his Glossary, p. 163), by analogy with which I iormfiyand-is. 



Sanskrit Zend. Greek. 

N. Ac. Voc. bharant'dut barant-do, or baranta, ^e/oovr-e. 
Vedic, bharant'df* .... .... 

I. D. Abl. bharad'bhydm, baran-bya^^ ^epovro-tv.X 

Gen. Loc, bharat-os, barat-d? (p. 276, R 1.) .... 

PLURAL. [G. Ed. p. 322.] 

Sanskrit, Zend. Latin. Greek. Gothic. 


N. V. bharant-as, barent'6,% fererU-es, ipipovr-egt fyandrS. 

Ace. bharai-aSf barent^6,% ferent-es, ^epovr-ag, fiyand'sA\ 

Instr. bharad-bhis, 6aran-5w,ir .... 

D. Ab. bharad-bhyas, baran-bydt^ ferent-i-bus. 

Gen, bharat'dm, barent-anmAfferenti-umf ^epoirr-wr, fiyand-^XX 

Loc. bliarat-su, ....§§ .... <f>epoV'(Tt. [G.Ed. p. 323.] 

.... .... 

*••• .... 

* See p. 230, Note ♦ 

t Or harhibya. See p. 241 Note •, and p. 210. Note $. 

; See p. 299. Rem. 2. 

§ Barentas-cha^ ^^ferentesque." See p. 210 Note J. 

II This form, which, owing to an oversight, is omitted in p. 260, is found at 
Matth. 6. 44., and agrees ynth friy6nds, " amicos " (" amante8^*\ Matth. 5. 
47. as generally with tlie declension of a root terminating with a con- 
sonant. Comp. Grimm (I. 1017.). 

f See p. 241 Note ♦, and p. 210 Note}. 

♦* The Gothic dative, which I would have used also as the instrumental 
(§. 243.), does not occur in roots ending in nd, 

tt Or harant-ahm. See p. 266 Note f. 

XX This case certainly cannot be proved in bases in nd ; but may, how- 
ever, be correctly deduced from the other bases ending with a consonant, 
and from the elder sister dialects. See $. 245. 

$$ I conjecture a transition into the a declension (comp. p. 299 Rem. 2.), 
by suppressing the nt; thus, perhaps, baraSehva (or shu, OT-ehHy J. 250.), 
as Vend. 9. p. 354 ; ^M^roMyy^^T^dregvaSgA (read ^fHj shU) for dregvat- 
sity from dregvai, in the strong cases ($. 129.) dregvant; on the supposition 
that the reading is correct, except the false s. See §. 52. 







Latin. Greek. 

N. dtmd\ aima, sermot ialfiuiv, 

Ace. dlmdn-am, aiman-em, sermon-em, iaifJiova(y), ahman. 

.... D. I. ahmin. (§. 132.) 

see Dative. 

Inst, dtman-df asman-a, 

Dat. dtman-^, aimairi'^f see Loc. see Loc. 

Abl. see Gen. dSman-at, sermon-e^cOt .... 

Gen. dtman-as, asman-d* sermon-is, Saifiov-ogg 

Loc. dtman-i, aimain-i,D. sermon -i, iaifMovt, 

Voc, dtman, asman, sermo\ ialfiov, 

• * • • 

ahmin-s (§. 132.) 

ahma . 




N. Ace. Voc. dtmdn-du, 

Veda, dlmdn-a, 
Instr. D. Ab. dtma-hhyam. 
Gen. Loc. dtman-ds, 

Zend, Greek. 

asman-do, or aiman-a, ialfiov-e. 

aima-bya, D. G. Sai/xdi/o-i i/.t 

asman-d? (p. 276, R. I.), .... 







N. V. dtmdn-as, aimanrd, sermon-es, ialfMov-e^, ahman-s. 

Ac. diman-as, aiman-d, sermon-es, iaifxov^a^^ ahman-s. 

Instr. dtma-bhis, asma-bU, .... 

H.Ah.dlmd'bhyas, aima-byd, sermon-i-bus. 

Gen. dtman-dm, asman-dm, sermon-urn, iatfiov-oiv, 

Loa dima^su, asma-hva, .... iatfxo-(Ti, 

(5a//Liovo-^v),D. I. ahma-m^ 

. . • • 



[G. Ed. p. 324.] 



Zend. Jxitin, 



N. 6Ard^ 

brdta, frater, 



Ac bhrdtar-am. 

brdtar-im,% fratr-im. 



♦ Asmanas-choy " ccRliqueJ' f Se« p. 299, Rem. 2. t See p. 241, Note f. 

§ Also 9g7(3AU^ brdthrem might be expected, as Vend. SAde, p. 867 ; 
(c^I^asq) patrem {paihremf), contrary to the theory of the strong cases 
($. 129.)9 ioipatarem. 



In. bhrdtr-d, 
D. bhrdtr-i, 
Ab. see Gen, 
G. bhrdluTt 
L. bhrdiar-i, 
V. bhrdiar, 


Zend. Latin. Greek, Gothic, 

brdthr-a, .... . . . . D. Inst brdthr (see §. 132.). 

brdihr-^, see Loc. see Loc. .... 

brdlhr-at, fratr-eid)^ .... .... 

brdthr-6* frair-is, irarp^^, brdthr-s (see ^ A 32,). 

brdthr-ifjf D./ratr-i, Trarp'i, 

brdtare,i frater, warep, brdlhar. 



Sanskrit. Zend. 

N. Ace. Voc. bhrdtar^u, Ved. bhrdtar-d, brdtar-do or brdtar-ay 
Inst D. Ab. blirdlri'hhydm. brcdar-e-bya, 

Gen. Loc. bhrdtr-ds, brdthr-di^) 










Nom. Voc. 














. • . . 

[G. Ed. p. 825.] 

Dat Abl. 















♦ Vide §. 194. p. 211, 1. 1. Note, 
t See p. 216 Note ||. I See §. 44. 

§ For the Gothic, which is here wanting, see p. 253, Note |. 
II A)^j}A5A)^JU0>i brdtarai-chOy ^'/ratresque." 
IT See }. 1-27. Note. 

♦* Perhaps also brdthr-d, brdthrai-cha {'^fratresque "), according to the 
analogy ofdthr-6, " ^«/' from dtar. See f .239. 
tt See p. 266, Note t. 



N. A. V. manas, 
Instr. manas'd, 
Dat. manas'S, 

Abl. see Gen. 

Gen. manas^s, 
Loc. manaS'i, 



mananh'6 {mananhai-^ha), 
manah'i,(see p. 3 1 6, G. ed.) D. /iei'e((r)-/, 


• • • • 

see Loc. 

• • • • 


• • • • 
see Loc. 

♦ Manas-choj ^^ mensque" "meniemque" 

t M. Baraouf remarks, in his review (in the separate impression, p. 11 )> 
that in tliis class of words the instrumental ending is generally long. 
I, in like manner, had remarked forms enough of this kind with a long dy 
but in passages where also many a'a, originally short, appear to be length- 
ened at the terminaUon, and which, therefore, 1 was not willing to bring 
into account : moreover, the cases could not be included, where, through 
the particle as^ cha^ a preceding joi a is preserved in its original length. 
After deducting these two classes from forms in anhdy the computation 
might perhaps turn out in fevour of the short a given above. I have, 
however, as yet not applied any closer reckoning: it would, however, 
surprise me if, on more exact calculation, but stiD in departure from the 
fate of other polysyllabic words ending with a shortened a, the advantage 
in thb particular case should incline to the side of those words which 
retain the long vowel, which 1 would then gladly restore. No one will 
deny tliat the collation of MSS. is of great importance in deciding many 
grammatical and orthographical questions, although I believe I may assert 
that even a single lithographed MS. opens a rich field to inquiries and 
important grammatical observations : for although it is very full of errors, 
it nevertheless shews no systematic opposition to what is correct ; and 
many expressions, passages, and turns recur so frequently, that, taken 
together, they can in a measure supply the place of a comparison of other 
MSS. For the rest I had at my command the edition of Olshansen of 
the three first chapters and part of the fourth of the Vendid&d, with the 
various readings attached to it, so that, through these means, I was not 
left entirely destitute of MSS. 


DUAL. [G. Ed. p. 326.] 

Sanskrit Zend. Greek. 

N. Ac. V. manas'h .... /xeve(<r)-€. 

I. D. Ab. mand-bhydm, manc-6ya(p.316G.ed.),D.G. /xei/e((r)o-iv.* 
G. L. manas-Ss, mananh'6{?) (p. 297 G. ed.), .... 


Sanskrit, Zend. Greek, Latin, 

N. Ac. V. mandns-it mananh-^^-f /xeve((r)-a, geneva. 

Instr. mand'bhis, mane-bis, (jievea-'<l)tv,) . . • . 

Dat. Abl. mand'bhyas, mancbyS, see Loc. gener^i-bus. 

Genitive, mawas-dm, mananh-annh /xei'e(tr)-cov, gener-um. 

Locative, manas-su, mand-hva, fjievea-'O-i, .... 

ungular, masculine and femininb. [G. Ed. p. 827*3 
Sanskrit, Zend, Greek. 

Nom. durmands, dushmando (§. 56^). it/afxevrj^ (§. 146.) 

Accus. durmanas^am, dushmananh^hn, iv(ryLeve{crya{y). 

Voc. durmanas, .... Svafxeve^. 

The rest like the simple word. 


N.Ac.V.rfurmaiw^-dtt, ) 
Veda, durmanas^t J ^^^^^^-^ (?) J./«r^ev^((r).e. 

The rest like the simple word. 


N. Voc. durmanas^i, dushmananh-^ (ai^ha), 5u<r/x€ve((r)-e9. 
Accus. durmanas-as, dushmananhro (as-cha), 5u<r/Lt€ve((r)-af. 

The rest like the simple word. 

« See p. 299, Rem. 2. 

t See p. 245, Note X, It was, however, ft-om an oyersight that I, 
as was observed at p. 258, Note §. read in the Vendid&d Sftde, p. 127, 
As^jc^ci nemenha : it should be As^juU^gy nhnanha, and may also be 
considered the instmmental singular ; then we should have in this pas- 
sage, which recurs three times, the instmmental in as^^ anha in both 
editions three times with a short a. 

I See p. 230, Note *. 

X 2 



Sanskrit, Zend. Greek. 

Nom. Ac. V. (lurmanas, dushmand (c/i-cAo). ivafiev^^. 

The rest like the simple word. 

" Remark. — It was remarked in §. 152. (comp. §. 146.), that 
the 2 in forms like fievo^, euyeve^f belongs to the base, and 
is not the nominative character ; and that the 2 in forms like 
T€Tv<l>6^ has come from r, and in like manner belongs to the 
theme. M. Reimnitz, who, in (p. 54, &c.) his pamphlet men- 
tioned at p. 294, G. ed., agrees with tliis view, first given in 
my treatise '' On some Demonstrative Bases," wishes to look 
upon the 2 in the masculine TeTv<pci>£ as belonging to the 
base, and arising out of t ; in which I cannot agree with him, 
as I, according to the view generally taken, consider the 
final letters of T€Tv<f>ti)£ as marks of the nominative, before 

[G. Ed. p. 828.] which the final letter of the base is suppressed 
on account of the incompatible association of rcr (comp. §. 99.), 
and replaced by lengthening tlie preceding vowel ; as, for 
example, in fxeXa^ for /xeXavg. The Sanskrit has a few bases 
in n which, diOering from the ruling principle (see §. 139.), 
run parallel in the nominative to the Greek /le^d;; thus. 
pantltds, " the way,'** from panlhan^ accusative pantMn^am. 
Only in this panthds the lengthening of the a can be less re- 
garded as a compensation for the rejected n than in tlie Greek, 
because it extends also to the other full cases (§. 129.), with 
the exception of the vocative ; but perhaps the lengthening 
of the a has originally taken place only in the nominative, 
and has thence imparted itself, when the reason of this 
prolongation was no longer perceived, to those cases which 
otherwise stood upon an equal footing with the nomina- 
tive. Thus one says H^\^ mah&n, "great'' (from the theme 
mahanU properly a participle present from w mah, " to 
grow ^), with the vowel of the concluding syllable length- 
ened, acconling to the analogy of the Greek form, as 
\e7coi/. The Sanskrit word, however, retains the long vowel 


dso in the other strong cases {mahdntam " magnum^*' mahdntas 
*'magnh'' mahdnidu, "/xeYaAo)"), with the exception of the vo- 
cative ; while the usual participles present leave the a short 
in all the strong cases. In most exact accordance, however, 
with the Greek participle present stand the Sanskrit pos- 
sessive adjectives, which are formed by the sufEx vant 
(Greek evr for Fevr, in /ueXiToeiy and others) and mant (in the 
weak cases vat, mat). These lengthen, that is to say the a 
only, in the nominative singular ; so, for example, dhanavdn, 
"dire**"* {hom dhana, " riches*^), dhanavant-am^dhanavant'du, 
dhanavant-as, as \eyiov, Keyovra, ^.6701/70), \ey6vT€^. 


255. Before we enter upon the province of Sclavonic 
Grammar, we must endeavour to explain its system 
of sounds; and although it is not requisite to specify 
all the minutise of the subject, we must, nevertheless, 
bring into notice those parts which are indispensable to 
the understanding of the Grammar. It is therefore our 
principal object, in the following remarks, to exhibit the 
connection of the Old Sclavonic sounds with those of the 
elder languages, of which they are either the true trans- 

* If, as has been remarked in another place, the suffix ^^K vant has 
maintained itself in the Latin in the form lent (as opulents)^ it would not 
be surprising if the weak form ^ir vat, without the interchange of v with /, 
but with the weakening of the a to 1, had its representatiye in the Latin 
divit, which stands in the same relation to dhanavat^ by passing over the 
middle S3'llable, as malo to mavolo. 

t It is stated by Professor Bopp, in the preface to the second published 
portion of this Grammar, commencing with the formation of cases in 
general, that it had not occurred to him to direct his attention at an 
earlier period to the Sclavonic tongues : having subsequently considered 
the subject, he found sufficient reason to include them in the same 
family of languages, and accordingly devotes to its principles of declension 
the supplementary section which follows. — Editor. 


missions, or corruptions more or less vitiated. We give 
therefore, for the first time» a history of the Sclavonic 
sounds, in which, however, as is natural, as far as their value 
is concerned, we have nothing new to bring forward ; and in 
this respect follow only the teaching of native grammarians. 

(a.) — The Old Sanskrit ^ a has so far experienced, in the 
Sclavonic, an exactly similar fate to that which has befallen it 
in the Greek, that it is most frequently supplied by e or o 
(e, o), which are always short: it very rarely remains a. In 
the interior of the bases, also, e and o are iuterchaDged as in 
Greek; and as, for example, \6yo£ is related to Keyto, 
so, in the Old Sclavonic, is brod, ** ferry," to bredti, "I wade 
through ;" voz, "carriage,^ to vearfl, "I ride in a carriage." 
And as, in tlie Greek, the vocative \6ye is related to the 
theme AOrO, so is, in the Old Sclavonic, rabe, "O slave," to 
rabo, nominative rab, "a slave." The o has more 
weight than e, but a more than o; and hence a 
corresponds most frequently to a Sanskrit d, so that, 
for instance, in the Old Sclavonic, forms in a answer to 
the feminine bases in w\ d (comp. vdova, '* widow,"' with 
f^irn vidhavd), which, in the vocative, is in like manner 
abbreviated to o (vdovol), as above o to e. As final 
vowel, also, of the first member of a compound, a is 
weakened to o ; for instance, vodo-pad, " waterfall," vodo- 
pdi, " water-drinker," for voda- ; just as in the Greek 
Mov<TO'rpa<l}fJ£f Movco'iplKfj^, and similar compounds, which 
[G. Ed. p. 830.] have shortened the feminine a or 27 to o. 
Even if, therefore, a is in the Old Sclavonic a short vowel, 
I nevertheless regard it, in respect to grammar, as the long 
; so that in tliis the Old Sclavonic stands in a reversed 
relation to the Gothic, in which a has shewn itself to us as 
the short of 6, and, in case of abbreviation, 6 would become 
09 exactly as in the Old Sclavonic a becomes 0. 

(b.) — 1^ i and ^ i both appear in the Old Sclavonic as i, 
and the difierence of the quantity is removed, at least I 



do Dot find that a longer or shorter i is anywhere 
spoken of. Let schivtif "I live," be compared with 
ifinifH jivdmi ; sila, "virtue," with Ifff^iila; and, on the 
other hand, vidyeti, " to see,'' with the root fre vid, " to 
know," to the Guna form of which, ^ftf vidmi, the Old 
Sclavonic vyemy (abbreviated from vyedmy, infin. vyes-t 
for vyedrti,) " I know," assimilates itself, so that vid and 
vyed in the Sclavonic appear as two different roots. The 
short ^ i, however, appears frequently in the Old Scla- 
vonic also in the corruption to e (e), as in the Greek 
and the Old High German (§. 72.) ; that is to say, the 
bases in i shew, in several cases, e for t, and the numeral 
three (ftl tri) appears frequently in composition in the 
form ire, e. g, trepHtye, " trivium,*'' So, also, pUfe^shestvyef 
oSonropla from P UT I {%. 260.). The lis also very frequently 
•suppressed, e. g. in the 3d person plural dadyat, " they 
give," Sanskrit ^p»fir dadati; stU, "they are," Sanskrit 
^ftr santi. Where i forms a diphthong with a vowel 
preceding it, it is marked in the old writing with a 
short mark, which we retain, e. g. hot, " strife." 
(c). — '9 u and 9 u have, in the Old Sclavonic, in the forms 
which are retained most correctly, both become y.-f In 
this manner, for instance, by (infin. by-ti) answers to vr 

* The suppression here noticed of final i refers to Dobrowsky's incorrect 
orthography. In point of fact, however, the final i in Old Sclavonic has 
either been retained unaltered, or has become b y ; e.g., that which Do- 
browsky, I.e., writPs dadjat, "they give,' g&t^ "they are," should be 
corrected to A^AATb, dadahty^ CATb nmty. Regarding the nasalized 
vowels, see $. 783. Remark. 

t We express, as in Polish, the yery or dull t by y, as, like the Greek 
V, where it is original it supplies the place of the old short or long u. 
It is pronounced in Russian, according to Reiff (by Gretsch II. p. 666.), as 
in the French out, spoken very short and monosyllabically ; according to 
Ileym, nearly like m, in union with a very short t (Heym, p. 5). This 
does not, however, remain the same in all positions of this letter (Reiff, 
1. c), and it sounds after consonants other than labials like a dull thick i 


Mu,"tobe;" svekry /'mother All A£LW,'*'*to'i9tfsvasru; myshy, 
** mouse/' to rti| musha ; syn, " son,^ to to mnu ; 
chetyri, reaaape^, with ^IIT chatur (in the theme), nomina- 
tive masculine ^liWncs chatwdras. The instances of y for 
7 u are, nevertheless, more rare than tliose where y 
corresponds to the long 9 u\ for the short u, as in 
the Old High German (§. 70.), has for the most part 
[G. £d. p. 831.] become o ; and thus, for example, snocha, 
"daughter-in-law,"" answers to ^^snushd; oba, "both,"" 
to ^DIT ublid (Vedic form), Zend j^> ubd. Hence, also, 
the old u declension has, in many cases, become similar to 
the declension, which, according to (a.), has arisen from 
IV a ; and, on the other side, o may also, but only in 
substantives, participate in those forms which belong 
only to the genuine u declension: whence it is easily 
perceived that th6b genius of the language could not 
everywhere distinguish further the two kinds of o, in 
their history, indeed, far separated from one another, 
but phonetically identical. 
((/).— Unorganic y, i. e. y as representative of original 
vowels other than V u or 9 t/, is not uncommon in the 
grammar; that is to say, the personal termination my 
(1st person plural), like the Latin mus, has arisen 
from the more ancient mas ; and if the bases in a (for 

Wl d) have y in the nominative plural (vdovy, ** vidute ''), 
still the y here is so much the less to be looked upon 
as a case termination, as no account could be given 
of y in this sense ; and with bases in ya the a of the 
base is also really retained {volya, "voluntates"). But 
as the y exerts the force of an Umlaut on an o suc- 
ceeding it, by which that vowel is changed to an e, so 
I tliink that to an i following the o, without the interven- 
tion of another letter, the force of a reactive Umlaut must 
be ascribed, even if this force is not everywhere exerted, 
and that some y*s must be declared to be the Umlauts 
of ' that is to sav* as soon as so much has been re- 


cognised in the Old Sclavonic adjectives, that their 
bases all end either in o or t/o (changed by the Umlaut 
to i/e), and are thus sister forms to the Greek, like AFAQO, 
*AriO; andof the Sanskrit, asi^ iti^^a, " white,'' f^divya, 
" heavenly ''; — so soon, I say, as the abbreviation of the 
base in the masculine nominative has been recognised 
(nov, novus, for novo), then will it be no longer said with 
Dobrowsky (p. 318) that the definite adjectives are derived 
from the primitives (indefinite) by annexing, according 
to the measure of the final letter of the primitive, either 
yi or u* If, however, I may trust that I have obtained 
an accurate knowledge of the organization of the Old 
Sclavonic grammar on any point, it is on this, that the affix 
in the nominative singular of definite adjectives consists 
not in yt or u, but in t as a mutilation of t/o from t/a 
(i? ya), and in the feminine of i/a from i/4 [G. Ed. p. 332]. 
(m yd). This also appears to me subject to no manner 
of doubt, that if, for example, the compound word svyatyi 
comes from the word svt/ato, "holy," its acknowledged 
theme, the y is a euphonic product from o» through the in- 
fluence of the i which is added to it. Ttiis t has, in some 
cases, in which it has been dropped, still in a degree, in its 
euphonic operation, left its reflection, and tliereby the 
proof of its former existence. Thus, for instance. 
svyaty-nif "per sanctum,'* from the older svyniyim, 
bvyaiij^rh, " sanctorum^ and " in Sanctis^ from svyntyi'-clu 
corresponds to the indefinite forms svyato-m, gtyaiye-ch 
(for svyatO'ch),'\- At times, through the said pronominal 
syllable i, the preceding o may be changed at will into y 

*■ Di)l)r. alsK) himself, p. 403, considers simple t or ii as the definitive 
adjunct ; but in consideringi as he there does, blagyl as the cnnflaence of 
blag and ?<*, he appears to look upon the y as having arisen from the i of 
the suffix, and not to acknowledge in it the final vowel of die simple 
mljcctive root. 

) In the oldest MSS., according to Dohr. p. 602, the more full forms 
y'tch^ y^im, yimi occur in the plural^ for ytn, ych^ ymi 


or not : thus the interrogative exhibits the forms kyl, 
"yuisf*' (Dobr. 500 and 3A3.),kyim, "per quemf*' kyich, 
*^in quibus, quorum?'* kyim^ *'quibu8?** kyimu **per 
quos? with kdi, koim, koicht koimu The possessive 
pronouns allow no euphonic reaction at all to the de- 
monstrative t, which forms the last member of them, 
and they always retain their radical o; e.g. mdi, ** meus,^" 
mdim, "per meum^ not my^i^ mylm. As to the definite 
form of the adjective bases in t/o, which Dobrowsky forms 
through the addition of u, I have not the slightest 
doubt that here, also, a simple i is the defining element, 
for the first t is clearly the vocalization of the y of the 
primitive base; so that therefore, for example, sinii 
*'the blue," is to be divided, not into rin-^i, but into 
sini'U The primitive adjective is sounded in the nomina- 
tive which is deprived of all inflection and of the last vowel 
of the base — sintf, the y of which appears as i in the nomi- 
native plural masculine, just as iu the definite pronoun, 
sini, " coerulei** siniif ol " cceruleiJ'* In order, however, here 
fully to explain the nature and origin of the definite 
declension, and not hereafter to be compelled to repeat 
what is already settled, it may be stated that its pro- 
nominal defining addition is identical with the Sanskrit 

relative base i| ya, which is most correctly preserved 
in the Lithuanian^ in which language *t/a signifies " he " 
(t/a-m, "to him,'' t/a-mi, "in him''). The nominative 
t/isf "he*' (for yas), has given the y an assimilating 
influence, as is the case with all bases in ya (§. 135.). 
The feminine, also, is pronounced in the nominative, 
through assimilation, yi for ya; but the genitive 
yoSf and all the other cases, are easily perceived through 
the declension of rankh, "hand," and giesme, "song," 
[G. Ed. p. 383.] from OIESMJA (p. 169, Note). The 

* Written ja in the text. This passage furnishes a good reason for 
writing the Germanic y by y, as has been done throughout this translation. 


Old Sclavonic has, in all the masculine bases ending with 
a vowel, suppressed this vowel in the nominative and 
accusative; and since the vowel has dropped from the 
Sanskrit-Lithuanian base i| y a, ya — which, according to(a.\ 
makes one expect yo in the Old Sclavonic, from which, 
according to (n.), must be formed ye* — the tf must be 
changed into a vowel; hence, t, "he,** "him," which 
must, therefore, on no account be placed together with 
the Latin-Gothic is, from the base u In the nomina- 
tive singular masculine, however, this Sclavonic pro- 
noun occurs in all the three genders, not isolated, but in 
union with the particle sche, which has preserved to it 
the old relative meaning: i-sche means as well *'qui'* 
aa** quern**; tfa'^chef'*qu<B**; yit'sche, ** quam**; and ye-sche 
**quod.*'' Now as t means " he,** ya, "she," and ye, " it," 
I could not imagine how one could create the definitive 
adjective forms svyaty-l, svyata-ya, svyato-e (for svyatoye), 
accusative svyaty-i, svyaiik-yA, svyato^, in their opposition 
to the indefinites svycU(p), svyata, svyato, difierently from 
Dobrowsky (p. 493), and perhaps other grammarians 
before him, have done, namely, by the addition of the 
pronoun here under discussion ;f for this pronominal 
suffix supplies the place of the article of other languages ; 
and the Lithuanian language uses the same pronoun 

* Hence in the genitive ye-go^ dative ffe-mii, loc. ye-m, the e of which 
Dobrowsky wrongly ascflbes to flexion, because he everywhere seeks the 
base in the nominative. However, the base ye has not fully maintained 
itself before all terminations beginning with a consonant, bat become, in 
like manner, shortened to t : in i-m, *' per euniy" and tw, i-mi *'per eos,'* 
ichy " eoruniy' " in its," for ye-m, &c. 

t What Grimm (by Wuk, p. xl.) remarks against this declaration has 
not convinced me ; least of all can I, for the above^ reasons, concede to 
him that the t ofsvyatyi has any thing to do with the a ofbUnia^ ^' the 
blind " (from blindan, (. 140.) ; so that svyatyi would belong to the indefi- 
nite declension; and, on the other hand, svyaty contrary to the Sclavonic 
Grammarians, would be to be removed from the indefinite into the defi- 
nite forms. 


for the same object, f. e. equally in the emphatic, or, 
as it is also termed, definite declension of the adjective ; 
and certainly so, that, through all cases, both the adjec- 
tive which precedes and the pronoun which concludes are 
declined, while^ in the Sclavonic, in most cases the pronoun 
only is provided with the inflexions of case, but in some 
[G. Ed. p. 834.] it has utterly disappeared, and in others 
is still to be recognised in the y for o mentioned above. 

(e.) — The Sanskrit diphthong t^ i I have found always ren- 
dered, in the Old Sclavonic, by ye, in similar forms ; so 
that after weakening the i^ i, to compensate for this, 
the semi-vowel y has made its appearance, to which, in 
this union, a particular legitimacy would be, according 
to (c), to be ascribed. Let pyena, *' foam," be compared 
with ^phina; si-yet ** light,'' vrith "tjfff svHa; vyemy, "I 
know,'' with ^fff vMmi. The most important cases in 
the grammar wth ye corresponding to t^6 are the dual 
case forms of the feminine and neuter, and those of the 
imperative, in accordance with the Sanskrit potential of 
the first conjugation, 

(f.) — The Sanskrit diphthong ift d (from a + u) is repre- 
sented in the Old Sclavonic by u (v ) ;* so that the first 

* Altliough this vowel may at times be pronounced short, still this mnch, 
at least, is certain, that, according to its origin and its definition, it is long. 
In Bohemian it appears in two forms, as au and u : the former is pro- 
nonnced ou, but the writing points to an older and different pronunciatioD, 
in which the a was accurately preserved in its place : the u is pronounced 
short, whence, however, it cannot be deduced that this short u perhaps 
corresponds to the Sanskrit 7 and Greek ^ and that au is its intensitive 
or Guna ; hut, on the contrary, only the u retiuned in the au corre- 
sponds to the Sanskrit 7 u, and the u which stands alone in Bohemian 
is a weakening of the au ; so that, from this, the concluding element u 
alone is left : etymologically, that is to say, the Bohemian an, as also u, 
answers to the Sanskrit if^ 6, and also to the Sclavonic u (tf ), only that 
the former is phonetically more exact, and without the loss brought about 
by time. Hence, also, usta (written vsta) '^ ora " corresponds to the San- 
skrit ^hv 6shtha^ **the lip" : more complete, however, is austne, ** by word 



element of the Indian diphthong has assimilated itself to 
the second, and, in conjunction with it, presents a simi- 
lar long vowel, as, in the Greek & (ou), two hetero- 
geneous vowels, according to pronunciation, have united 
themselves in a similar measure. As, according to (a), 
the Indian short a has, in the Sclavonic, mostly become 
short 0, we must consider the first element in the diph- 
thong tl also (so we write the h) to be o ; and it be- 
comes visible, too, in this form, when A is resolved before 
vowels into ov, (compare l3o{F)6s from B8, [G. Ed. p. 336.] 
§. 123.), while the Indian ih 6 becomes av before a vowel 
(ilftr gavi = iSof /, from ift gd). Now as, in the Sanskrit, ^ m, 
71 u, rise to 6 through Guna (§. 26.), and std-shydmi 
appears as the future of stu, so in the Old Sclavonic, 
in like manner, y (cy) is interchanged with tl ; so that bd 
in hit-dut " I shall be," must pass as the Guna form of by 
(in bytif " to be ") : but if a class of nouns, which in the 
nominative-accusative terminate in a consonant or in 
yerr (see k.), exhibit, in many oblique cases, the syllable 
ov before vowel-endings, this ov must neither be consi- 
dered, with Dobrowsky, for an augment added to the 
base, nor can it be deduced from forms like synovi, *' from 
a son" (Sanskrit 7^(^ sunav-e^ from sunu), syrwiyi, "sons'' 
(inn?r sunav'(vt)t that syn, in the nominative-accusative, 
is an abbreviation of synit ; and that therefore the yerr, 
when it is added to the form 8yn, is a representative 
or weak remainder of H: but it is clear, from {c.\ 
that syn, **filius" **filium,** if its final vowel, in its 
most genuine form,, had remained to it, would sound 
syny, from which synov is the Guna intensitive, the 
ov of which has arisen from it through the influence 

of mouth"; and even for vsia is to be found austa (Dobr. Bohm. Lehrg. 
p. 4. ) : ruka corresponds to the Lithuanian ranka^ '' hand " ; and htu to the 
Sanskrit ^TT hahsa^ ^' goose " ; for which, according to p. 319. rauka, hausa 
was to have been expected. A distinction must here, according to $. 783. 
Remark <[. v., be made between oy v, and & uii. 


of the vowel following it, but has remaiDed in the 
genitive plural also, after the ending has been dropped. 
Let gynov, "filiorum'' be compared with the Gothic 
suniv'^ (§• 247.) As, in the Sanskrit, the substantive 
bases in u adopt the Guna form of the u before the 
vowels of the derivative suffix, so it is very remarkable 
that, in the Old Sclavonic bases in y, also, this vowel 
appears before certain derivative suffixes in its Guna 
form ; e. g. domav-it from dom {DO MY), " house **; hinovnit, 
"debtor,''' from byn (BYNY).* Derivative substantives 
and adjectives in ov, ev (theme ovo, evo, the latter for 
t/ovo, see n.), correspond to the Sanskrit in ipr ava ; as 
VTW^pAndava (nominative as), "descendant of Pandu^^; 
wik^ drtava, "seasonable,*" from ymrUu, "season**: so, 
in Old Sclavonic, Adamov, "Adamite,** from Adam 
(AD AMY) ; zarev for zaryev, " kingly,** from zar (theme 
ZARJY). For these formations, therefore, we must not, 
with Dobrowsky (322, 323)9 assume a suffix ov or ev. 
but we must look upon the alone, which, in the nomi- 
native, is suppressed, as the derivative sufKx (ADAMOV-O, 
ZAREV-O). Through the Vriddhi increase (§, 29.) the 
Old Sclavonic y becomes av, because a, according to (a.), 
usually corresponds to VT d : hence, from the root by, 
"to be," comes the causal baviti (infinitive), as in the 

[G. Ed. p. 336.] Sanskrit HnifinrR bh&vayiium. But 
though Htoviti occurs as the caused of i^a, this form may 
have arisen in the perverted feeling of the language as an 
irregularly analogous word to bavUi. In order, then, still 
more to establish, by a few other examples, the representa- 
tion of the Indian ^6 ov 1»^ av by the Sclavonic u, we 
find uH, " mouth,** correspond to ^in dshtha, " lip** ; shUl 
" sinister '' (theme SHU JO), to inqwvya; buditi, "to 
awake" — a causal, whose primitive bdyeti has entirely 

* Dobrowsky supports himself in these cases by calling ov a prefix (p. 329). 


lost the vowel of the root — to wt^fifinv bddhayitum, also 
" to awake,'' from jm^ budh, " to know/' Thus gubUi is 
the causal otgyb-mA (I. P.)f and stUditi of styd-mA (Dobr. 
360, 361.) ; while vtfenti is the causal of vistfeti (see e,), as, 
in the Sanskrit, ^^filMH^ vSsayitum, ** to cause to enter,** 
from ftr^^^ vis, " to go in/' 
(g.) — As the nasals* easily resolve themselves into ti, so 
the second element of the diphthong d sometimes also 
supplies the place of a nasal in the cognate languages ; 
€,g, rAkcL, "a hand," Lithuanian ranha; pAty, "a way,*" 
Sanskrit V[99(m panthds, id. Latin pons; gohby, " a dove/' 
columba; gii^y, "a goose,'' ^ hansa. The Polish has 
preserved the old nasal in golamb, " a dove,"" gansie, " a 
gosling," gansior, "a gander," and in many similar 
cases. Hereby the d in the accusative of bases in a 
(from VT d), which are for the most part feminine, is 
remarkably explained; compare vdovH from vdova, **sl 
widow,'' with fvM^^PV vidhavdm, " viduam,^^ Therefore 
vdovH is to be derived from vdovo^m for vdova'-m (see a.) ; 
so that the a which is weakened to an o is contracted 
with the nasal mark of the case to d. This view is further 
supported by the consideration, that in Polish, also, the 
corresponding feminine declension marks the final vowel 
of the base with the same sign which, in the middle of 
a word, expresses a nasal, which is governed according 
to the organ of the following letter, but at the end, 
probably through a corruption of sound, is said to have 
an equal value with a ringing h. This nasalizing mark 
recurs also in the Polish verb, and, indeed, exactly in 
such a place where one had to expect a nasal, t.e. in 
the 1st person singular and 3d person plural; and thus, 
in Bandtke's second and third conjugation, the so 
marked g, eg. in pieke, "I bake," supplies the place of 
the am of the first conjugation, as czytam, '* I read." 

« Cf. §. 783. Remark. 


The Old Sclavonic has, however, excepting some ano- 
malous remains of an older formation, tl in all the con- 
jugations; and, according to what has been said, it 
admits of no doubt, that in the second part of this diph- 
thong (o-^u) the personal character m, and in the first 
part of the diphthong the conjunctive vowel, is retained. 
When therefore, in the 1st person, an o corresponds to the 
e (e) of nes~e-shi, ** thou carriest," nes-e-t, " he carries ^ — 
[G. Ed. p. 337.] for nesi is for nes-^-u for nes^o-m from 
nes-'e-m — it must be assumed that the conjunctive vowel e, 
before its confluence with the ti, which has arisen out of m, 
has passed into o ; as in Greek ov arises by the contraction 
of e and o, through the transition of e into o and o into v. 
The same relation is to be found in the Old Sclavonic in 
the 3d person plural, where, corresponding to nes-e^m, 
" we carry ,** nes-^te, '* ye carry " (comp. Aey-e-Te), the form 
negent is expected, but in place of it occurs nesHt in sur- 
prising accord with the Greek Kiyowrt for Keyovai from 
KeyovTt. The Polish has, like the Bohemian, relinquished 
the character of the 3d person in the plural, as well as for 
the most part in the singular, but everywhere retains, in 
the first, the old and more powerful a (w), and marks this 
with the diacritical sign mentioned above, which, in the 
middle of a word, supplies the place of a nasal function ; 
thus, sa, " they are," corresponds to the Sanskrit ^r% 
sand, Sclavonic silt. The Bohemian has also, in many 
conjugations, retained the old conjunctive vowel a in the 
3d person plural, but, like the Sclavonic, permitted the n 
to dissolve into a u; therefore, in wezau, **vehifnt** 
(wez-e-mct **vehimu8r wez-^-fe/* vehitis"), the u answers to 
the n of ^^ffNr vahanti, ** vehurUp'*^ and the u which, in Bohe- 
mian, is united with an a, is essentially different from 
that which stands alone ; for the latter answers to the 
Old Sclavonic diphthong u (»), but the former only to 
the latter portion of the A, which, in the Old Sclavonic, 
never stands alone, at least never occurs as u, but as y (c). 


If, then, through what has been said, the vocalization of 
the m or n, which is of such frequent occurrence in the Scla- 
vonic, has been shewn with sufficient clearness, it is remark- 
able that conversely, also, the latter portion of the d (y) has 
occasionally been hardened into a nasal; and thus buduf *' I 
will be,'^ is in Polish beiid^ (written bedp). 
(A.) — In certain cases an old d (w) unorganically supplies 
the place of the Sclavonic A, t. e. in the instrumental of 
pronouns without gender, and all feminines; thus« 
vdovoif'U, ** through the widow,'^ answers to fVrwin vidha- 
vay-d; and tobotf-Uy "through thee,'' to ?fin tway-d. Deno- 
minatives also, in dt/d (1st per. pres.)* in the Old Sclavo- 
nic, correspond to the Sanskrit in wmifkdydmi, as ^ppQ^rarfiT 
iabdAydmU "I sound," from ^Rj sabdat "a sound,"; rtKii^lTH 
chirdydmi, "I hesitate," from f^ chira, "long": thus, 
in the Sclavonic^ zieldyd^ "I greet," "I kiss,*' from zieU 
(ZIELO), "healthy": vdovdtfd from vdiwa, "widow" (Dobr. 
p. 372.). Finally, words in dn {UNO) answer, as it appears, 
to the Sanskrit participles of the middle voice, in dna, as 

^^R yunjdna, "uniting,^^ from iTi^ yuj; so in the Old 
Sclavonic, perdn, {PERUNO\ ''^Deus [G. Ed. p. 338.] 
tonanSf* from the root per, " to shake "; byegdn^ " runner " 
(BYEGUNO), from BYEG «'to run" (Dobr. p. 2890. 
({.) — There are in the Sclavonic alphabet two marks, which 
by some are called lit(era aphoncB, but by Gretsch semi- 
vowels ; I mean the so-called soft yer,* and the hard yerr. 
The former is represented by Gretsch as half t, and by 
his translator, Reiflf (47), as answering to the tones 
' mouill6s ' of French (compare Kopitar, p. 5) ; and thus 
schal\ "sympathy," and ogon\ "fire," are, in respec- 
to the soft yer compared with the pronunciation of 
travail and cicogne. This tfer, therefore, denotes a tone 

♦ In the original^'gr, pronounced, however, yer; and hence y has been 
substituted for^' in all that follows.— £<(<7or. 



wliich is rather to be cnlled a ^ than an i* ; and it may 
be said that in schcd^ and ogon^ one hears quite as much 
of a t( as can be lieard of tliis semi-vowel after a con- 
sonant preceding it Hence we mark it with a if, and 
write the above words schaly^ ogonVt Old Sclavonic ogni/. 
In the words, too, which end with it in the uninflectod 
nominative and accusative singular^ it occurs in several 
oblique cases as a distinct proper v^ e.g. in zarva, " rfgis^ 
zarj/Uf " regi^*^ from zart/, " r«r," " rcgem.'" On the consonant 
which precedes it this yer has an influence which ren- 
ders its pronunciation more mild, because its sound is 
somewhat broken by the y, which throws back its sound. 
Etymologically the yer corresponds either to a final i of 
the cognate languages, as in yesty^ " he is '' (vf5Rr asU, 
earl, Lithuanian esti), kosty, "bones" (^fiw cwifti), or 
in the nominative and accusative singular of masculine 
substantives and adjectives, to a y ( ^y), from which a 
vowel has dropped; for the theme of siny, ** caeruleusy' 
concludes neither with i nor with y, but with yo (euphoni- 
cally ye, see n.) ; whose final vowel, suppressed in the 
nominative and accusative masculine^ appears, however^ 
in the feminine sinya^ in its extension to o, while the 
neuter sine for ainye has rejected the y. 
{k.) — The hard yerr is represented by Gretsch as a semi o, 
but by Reiff^ more correctly in my opinion^ it is com- 
pared to the French silent e and the Hebrew schva : it is 
therefore, to use the expression, equivalent to *' nothing "; 
and one cannot perceive of what vowel the small, still 
perhaps remaining vowel part of it is the residue. Conso- 
nants preceding it have a stronger and free pronunciation ; 
[G. Ed. p. 3d9.] and Kopitar (p. 5) tells us that tliey are 
pronounced before it sharp, and without echo, and that it 
is for this reason called the hard yerr^ and not on account 
of its own pronunciation. We require, therefore, in the 

* In the Camiolan dialect this sound has mostly disappeared; but 
where it has remained it is also written by a y ; as, kony^ *' horse/' 



Roman character^ no substitute for this mark, and 
Dobrowsky also omits it at the end of words. Etymo- 
logically, however, this yerr always represents a sup- 
pressed mute vowel^ only not always an o, nor, as 
Grimm conjectures (in his valuable Preface to Wuk's 
Servian Gramtn. p. xxxrv) a ti. Rather, each of the 
three short fundamental vowels — a (as represented also 
by 0, e)t i, u, (for which may stand y, o), — ^is very fre- 
quently dropped at the end of words ; and although the 
i is seldom entirely suppressed, more generally throwing 
back its sound as ^, nevertheless the vowel suppressed 
after the m of rabo-m, "per iervum,'' and in Russian 
replaced by tferr, is clearly, as we gather from the 
Lithuanian, an t. 
(/.)-*-!* believe I may assert, that in tlie whole extent of 
the structure of the Sclavonic language, at least in 
all the conditions of its noun and verb, not a single 
final consonant occurs after which some termination, 
which, through the cognate languages can be pointed 
out as beginning with a vowel, has not been dropped. 
Thus, the base NEBES, " ccelum** forms, in the genitive 
plural, likewise nebes, but the vanished termination 

iSy in Sanskrit, in>V^ Am (fPITITST nabhasdm, " ccelo- 
rum'*), Greek <av (i/e^€(<r)a)i/), Latin t*m, Gothic i. The 
real final consonants, however, which, in the truly-pre- 
served elder dialects of the Indo-European family, stand 
as the foundation of the word, have utterly disappeared 
in Sclavonic polysyllables; e. g. from ir^ as, e^ is formed, 
in the. nominative plural, e (e); and synov-e answers to 

forms like IR^ sunav-as, ISorrpv^^. 
(m.) — As far as regards the writing of those consonants 
which, in the Sclavonic alphabet, properly correspond to 
the Roman, we express the sound of the French^' (zivyeie, 
in the Carniolan i/i), as in Zend (§. 65.), by sch, that 
of our German sch ( = 1^) by sh as in Sanskrit, 

• Cf. 5. 783. Remark. 
Y 2 


and also as* in Sanskrit, the tsch by ch: for the 
sound of the Greek f (=ds) we retain f, and use z for 
the sound of our German z (=/.v) : for x we write ch. In 
regard to etymology, it is important to call attention 
to the relation of this letter to sibilants, by means 
of which snochat "daughter-in-law," corresponds to 
the Sanskrit ^^in snushd. Ck also, in declension 
and conjugation before certain vowels, passes into s 
[G. Ed. p. 340.] (Dobr. pp. 39, 41), and in some cases 
into sh (Dobr. 41.). Finally, in preterites like dach, " I 

gave,^' dachoMf ** we gave,*" the ch returns to the s (n «, 2) 
whence it has proceeded, in the cases where a personal 
ending beginning with a t follows it ; hence, dasie, ** ye 
gave," dasfa, "ye two" and "they two gave."* As the 
vowels exercise a multifarious influence in the trans- 
formation of gutturals preceding them, we will further re- 
mark that the ch under discussion maintains itself in the 
dd person plural before d, but before a appears as sh ; 
hence, dosha or dachA, " they gave." 
(n.) — f For the semi-vowel tf (j{^ y) the Cyrillian alphabet 
gives the Greek i, excepting in the cases for which tlie 
inventor of the cliaracter has provided by particular 
letters set together according to their value, which, at 
the same time, express the y with the following vowel ; 
that is to say, ya is never written by two letters. It 
would, however, for this reason, be wrong to assume a 
vowel ya, as this syllable, however it may be written, 
still always unites in itself two sounds. For ye, also, 

* Dobrowsky has, however, as t appears to me, not perceived tho 
irrefragable connection between the ch of dach and the $ of dastCy for he 
considers the ch and ste^ &c. as personal terminations (pp. 264. 383. 397) ; 
and hence he nowhere informs ns tliat cli before t passes into 8. More on 
this subject when we come to the verb. 

t The vowels mentioned here, preceded by y, are, with the exception of 
K ^, and t tfCy nasalised vowels (see §. 783. Remark) ; and hence pffcUtf^ 
'^fivc," mast be pronounced /9aii/|^ (in the original character nATb). 


Cyril has provided by a simple sign, and yd is expressed 
by an o in conjunction with an i. But y often appears in 
Sclavonic as a dialectic addition before vowels foreign 
to the cognate languages. Compare yesmy, "I am,** 
yam (for yadmy), "I eaC pyaty, ''&ye,** desyaiyf "ten/* 
yediUf " one,** with the corresponding Sanskrit forms, asmu 
admh panchan, daian, ddi (primus). An o which follows 
is^ in accordance with similar forms which we have 
observed in the Zend and Lithuanian (§. 137. and p. 174, 
Note*), changed into e through the influence of a y 
preceding it In like manner, in accordance with the 
Zend and Lithuanian, the y, after it has assimilated a 
vowel following it, has often itself disappeared, and has 
left behind only its effect, and thereby the proof of its 
former existence.* 

* Dobrowsky does not express himself with sufficient clearness re- 
garding this form, when he says (cap. II. $. iii.) that o after y and liquid 
consonants is changed into e. According to this, one would believe that, 
besides y, certain other consonants had the power of changing an o follow- 
ing them into e, Dobrowsky understands — which, however, as far as 
I know, he nowhere expressly says — under ** consarus Uquid€e^ those 
which, in consequence of a following yer {y\ have retained a more flowing 
and softer pronunciation ; while he calls the consonants without yer '^ 0071- 
sofUB solidcB " (comp. 1. c. p. 267) ; so that no consonant is by nature and 
of itself alone liquid, but receives this quality through a following yer 
(a y without a vowel). Thus, in Dobrowsky's second masculine declen- 
sion, the consonants r, ch^ and ^, in xary^ " king," vrachy^ *' physician/' 
and knyaCy, ** prince," are liquid. But as these words in the instru- 
mental form zarem, hrachem, knyaCem^ Dobrowsky ascribes the e for o 
to the influence of a liquid consonant ; while, according to my opimon, the 
consonants in these forms have no concern whatever in transforming into 
e, but for zarem, &c. zaryem must originally have stood. And as in this 
form the y is the full semi-vowel, not entirely without a vowel sound, and 
tlierefore not the expression of the yer without a vowel which softens the 
consonant preceding it — as in the abbreviated nominative zary—so the r 
also, in zaryem, was not liquid, and has not, according to my opinion, be- 
come liquid after the dropping of the semi- vowel ; at least, 1 And it nowhere 



[G. Ed. p. 341.] 256. We must now, in order to be able 
to compare the true case-suffixes of the Old Sclavonic with 
those of tlie cognate languages, first of all endeavour to ascer- 
tain the final letter of the kinds of base which occur, as they 
have for the most part been rubbed oflF in the singular 
nominative, whence it has appeared as if these letters, 
where they again present themselves in the oblique cases, 
either belonged to the case termination, or were an addition 
equally foreign to the base and to the termination, which has 
been termed •'augment" by Dobrowsky. After becoming 

[G. Ed. p. 842.] acquainted with the true base, the case ter- 
minations assume, in many points, an entirely different shape 
from what Dobrowsky has represented (p. 460), with whom 
we cannot concede to the neuter a nominative termination 
o or e, but perliaps tlie advantage of having preserved, in pre- 
ference to the masculine, the final vowel of the tlieme in this 
case. For the practical use of the language, and to keep 
simply within the limits of the Sclavonic language, all might, 
notwithstanding, be assumed as inflexion wliich is usually 
represented as such. It is not, however, here our object 
to consider those syllables as supplying the place of gram- 
matical relations which present themselves to the feeling 
of the speaker as such, but only those which may be so 
traced through the history of the language, and which, for 
tliousands of years, have subsisted as Grammatical forms. 

257. To the masculine and neuter bases in w a corre- 
spond, in the Old Sclavonic as well as in Greek, bases in 
0,* which vowel has disappeared in the nominative and 

stated that the r and other consonants^ in forms like zarem, knyaCem, 
golubem, kbeilem, are differently pronounced from what they are in pirwn, 
voiom^ lobom, adoiiiy of Dobrowsky *8 first masc. declension. The difference 
in the two classes of words is only this, that the former have a y for the last 
letter bat one of their theme, which, by the power of assimifation, has 
changed the following o into e, which e, after the y has been dropped^ does 
not again become o, 
* Dialectically the older a has, in certain cases, maintained itself^ as in 


accusative singular: so the corresponding a lias disap- 
peared in Gothic, except in the neuter (as Gothic bUnda-ta^ 
*' cascum^* in contrast witli hlind^-s^ *' caucus '*) : it has also 
maintained itself frequently in the beginning of compounds 
in the Gothic and Old Greek, where, according to the oldest 
principle, the naked theme is required; as* nov^ "novus,** 
appears in many compounds as novo {novo^rad, "new- 
town"), but is then not to be considered as the neuter 
novo, ** novunh" but as the common theme [G. Ed. p. 343.] 
of the masculine and neuter, in which as yet no difference of 
sex is pointed out. The clearest proof that the class of nouns 
under discussion corresponds to the Indian, Lithuanian, and 
Gothic nouns in a, is afforded by their feminine bases in a 
(for Ml d); so that to the form rab (for rabo), " servant,'' 
corresponds a feminine raba, **a maid'': that is to say, all Old 
Sclavonic primitive adjectives, L e, those with an indefinite 
declension, correspond to the Sanskrit in a^s, d, a-m, Greek 
0-9, rj{a), o-v, Latin u-s, a, u-m; much as one might be led 
astray by outward appearance to seek in the adjectives, which 
in the nominative masculine end in y (t/er), and in the neuter 
in e, as sintf^ " cosruleus/' syne, '* cwruleunh* an analogy to 
Latin adjectives like mlti'S, mite, 

258. But I recognise in adjectives like that just men- 
tioned, and in similarly-constituted substantives, as knya^y, 
"prince," more, "the sea," bases of such a nature as» with- 
out the euphonic form mentioned at §. 255. (n.), must have 
terminated in yo, whence ye ; and hence, in the nominative 
masculine — according to the suppression of the final vowel 
of the base, y in this case — and in the neuter e retaining 
the vowel and dropping the y. These bases, therefore, 
correspond to the Indian in i? ya, the Greek and Latin in 

the Cnrniolon, before all inflections beginning with m in the three num- 
bers, as posla-m, " through the domestic," posla-ma '* the two domestics." 
This word appears to be identical with xnr pt</ra, "son," Persian pisar 
** son," " hoy," " young man," and to owe its meaning to familiar address. 


tOj iu (0(7/0-9, aiytO'Vf sociu-s, prceliu-m) ; that is to say, serdze 
(nominative and accusative neuter), " heart,** corresponds to 

the Sanskrit V^ir\ hridaya-nif which is likewise neuter. 
The feminines, again, afford a practical proof of the jus- 
tice of this theory, for the Sclavonic bases in tfa correspond 
to the Sanskrit feminine bases in in yd Greek lo, Latin 
70); and this form, in the uninflected nominative, stands 
opposed to the masculine termination y and neuter e, as 
sinya, "ccBruIeOf* to shy, ** coeruleus," and sine, *^ ccenJeum.'* 
[G. Ed. p. 844.] When an i or other vowel precedes the last 
y but one of the base, the y in the nominative, and accusative 
masculine is changed into the vowel t; as, nyetii, '^nepo9 ex 
aorore' (Dobrowsky, p. 282). The corresponding feminine 
form is iya^ and the neuter ye, the y of which has arisen from 
i of the form iye, which is to be supposed the original, after 
dropping the last y but one. To the Sanskrit 1EI«|^ savya^s, 
WfU savyd, ^STspr savya-m {sinhter, a, urn), correspond thus 
8h4i, shUya, shUe (compare Dobrowsky, p. 285). 

259. The Old Sclavonic masculine and neuter bases in yo,* 
with their feminines in ya, are, according to their origin, 
of four kinds : — 1. Those in which, as in SHUfO^W^ 
savycL, both the semi-vowel and the vowel following, from 
the earliest period of the language, belong to the base of 
the word; and this case is perhaps the most rare. 
2. Such as originally end in i, to which an unorganic o 
has been added ; as, in the Lithuanian, the bases in f, in 
many cases, change into the declension in ia (ie) (§. 193. 
and p. 174, Note*). To this class belongs MORYO, nom. 
viore, ** the sea,'* the e of which therefore differs widely from 

* Where I fix the theme, I leave the eophonic law contained in 
§. 265. (n.) unregarded^ and I give SERDZfO as the theme of serdze 
(^^ heart," nom. ace.), although the latter is no other than the theme 
modified according to that euphonic law, Le, without uiflection, as in 
the Sanskrit vdch is laid down as the theme, although ch cannot stand at 
the end of a word, but passes into Ar, as in the nominative vdk, which is 
properly identical with the theme. * ^ 


the mare in Latin, corrupted from mari; so that the 
Sclavonic y, which again makes its appearance in the geni- 
tive mortfOt dative tnoryHt, corresponds to the Latin e spoken 
of. The Latin word must» however, in order to be 
classed with the Sclavonic, be pronounced in the nominative 
mariu-m. Neuter bases in f, without an unorganic augment, 
are entirely wanting in the Sclavonic. [G. £d. p.d45.] 
Among the masculines of this class of words chervVf ''a worm** 
(theme CHERVJO), answers to the Sanskrit ^ krimi 
and the Latin FERMI, Old High German, WURMI /and 
iyaty [{JATJO), "gener,"' to the Sanskrit mfw >ati, 
feminine, *^familia^^ " genru,^^ from if^ jariy " to be bom.'^ 
The third kind of bases in yo is that where the unorganic y 
precedes a final o, according to the euphonic disposition 
mentioned in §• 255. (n.). So gUsy (GUSyO) corresponds to 
the Indian f« hansa, " goose '' (§. 255. g.). In the fourth 
place there exist among bases in yo the words in which the y 
as well as the following vowel is an unorganic addition. 
Thus fnouns of agency in TARXO correspond to the 
Sanskrit in WT tar (^ in, in the strong cases wr^ tdr,) to the 
Latin in tdr^ and to the Greek in tj/jo, tcojo; hence the nomi- 
natives my-tary^ schi-tary, and ^latary (Dobrowsky,p. 295), and, 
with y for a, pQ^tyry, "shepherd." Of this kind, also, arc 
the nouns of agency in TELX^t the I of which is clearly 
an interchange with r (§. 20.), so that this suffix also con- 
forms itself to the Sanskrit IR far ; hence the nominatives 
bfayo'dyetely, '^beneficusy* pye-tely, "a cock," from the root 
pye, *'to sing," schalely, " messor,^* spas-i'ielyy ** saJvator^X 

* C frequently answers to the Sanskrit ^ j, and for example Tfl jnd, 
** to know," is in the Sclavonic C^a (infinitive Cnati). 

t But see p. 879. Note §. 647. 

I iVs these words stand in analogy with the infinitive in <t, in so far 
that their suffix begins with a like consonant, Dobrowsky (pp. 292, 293) 
derives them from the infinitive, and allows them simply e/y as suffix (as 
also simple art^ for tar^), as it has been the custom to derive also, in 
the Latin, tor and iurtu from the supine. However, it is certain 



260. To the Sanskrit feminine bases in HT d correspond 
as has been already remarked, Old Sclavonic in a. To 

[G. £d. p. 346.] this class of words, however, belong also 
some masculines, particularly proper names, which are then 
declined entirely as feminines, as in Latin nauic^ caelicola »&c. 
(§. 116.), on which we will not here dwell further. Amoqg 
the bases in i there are, in Old Sclavonic, no neuters, and only 
a very small number of masculines — as in Lithuanian — 
which Dobrowsky, p. 469, represents as anomalous^ as 
though they were only irregulars of his second declension 
masculine : they are, however, in reality, foreign to it» for 
thb very reason, that they end their theme with i, but 
the former with tfo, and in part with yy, (§. 263.). It is only 
in the nominative and accusative singular that these three 
classes of words, from various reasons, agree ; and, gosiy^ 
"guest," from GOSTl* (Gothic GASTI, Latin HOST!) 
agrees with hnyn^y, "prince,*" from KNY^iYO, and vrachy, 
" medicus,*' from VRACHYY* The masculine bases origi- 
nally ending with n — there are but a few of them — form 
most of their cases from a base augmented by t ; KAMEN^ 

" stone '" (Sanskrit IV^IT^ asman), is extended to KAMENI, 
and then follows GOSTL 

261. To the Sanskrit feminine bases in i[ t correspond 
numerous Old Sclavonic bases of a similar termination 
(Dobrowsky, decl. fem. iv.) ;. that is to say, the Sclavonic 
agrees with the Sanskrit in the formatioH of feminine ab- 

the suffixes TORy TURUmd the Sclavonic TARYO, TEZyO, used to 
borrow their / not at first from another syllable of formation so com- 
mencing. They form primitive words from the roots themselves, and not 
derivatives from other words. 

* Thus, also, Pt777, "away" (Sanskrit ^ftpT pathin\ and LJUDI, pi. 
num^ nom. lyddy-e, "people," Gothic LAUDI, nom. lauth^t "a person," the 
au of which, according to ^^.255. (f.\ is represented by i? (»), and, according 
to$.255. (m.),has gained a prefixed ij. GOSPODI^ "a master" (comp. ^jfif 
pati^ Lithuan. PulT/and Gothic FADI) is in fiact irregular^ as it passes 
into several kinds of theme in its declension. 


stracts in T/, as PA-Mfyl-TI, "memory,** nom. pamyaiy, 
from the root MAN, as in Sanskrit nflr maii (for man/t), 
*' spirit,** " meaning " from w\ man, " to think "* (compare 
memini). These words weaken, indeed, in [G. Ed. p. 347.] 
the nominative and accusative, their i to yet, but in no case 
overstep their original base by an unorganic addition; and 
hence they must not, on any account, be looked upon as of the 
same base with the majority of masculines terminating simi- 
larly in the nominative and accusative singular. But 
Dobrowsky's third feminine declension is of a mixed nature 
{zerkiyvyt "a church"): in this we recognise some words 

which have, by Guna, changed a Sanskrit final 'mu to av; 
and from this form several cases, as from a base ending with 
a consonant— &.^. 2;eritt>-e, genitive singular and nominative 
plural— but so that the o is suppressed before vowel termina- 
tions. In some cases the theme extends itself by an un- 
organic I, in others by a; and also before these exten- 
sions of the base the o of the syllable ov is siippressedt ; 
e. jr. zerkviy-H, " per ecclesianit* zerkvi, " ecclesia,* zerkvii, 
" ecclesiarum" zerkva-mt " ecclesiis" zerkva-chf " in ecclesiis" 
xerkva-mi, **per ecclesias.'* The dative locative zerkvi is 
doubtful, as this case could have no other sound than 
zerkvi, whether it come from ZERKOV ov from ZERKVI. 

♦ Dobrowsky (p. 355) imputes, in my opinion wrongly, the n of po- 
myanii^ " I remember/' and some umilar bases, to derivation, instead of 
supposing that the radical n is suppressed before /, in analogy with the 
Sanskrit, and as, in Greek, rcuns from TAN, Sanskrit Iff^re taii'S, ''a line " 

(as extended), for irf^if^ tanii-s, 

t The example given by Dobrowsky, zerkow^, " a church," nevertheless 
does not apply to monosyllables, as krovi^, '^ blood" (Sanskrit mkravya^ 
neuter, *' flesh"), nor to those polysyllables in which two consonants 
precede the syllable ov ; for yairvach and krvach would be equally imprac- 
ticable (comp. Gretsch by Reiif, p. 163). Brovyy " eyebrow," also appears 
to form all its cases from a theme BROVI^ an extension of the Sanskrit 
^ bhru^ feminine, by tlic addition of z, with a Guna of the TH u. The 
noiuinative plural is hence hrovi (Dobrowsky, p. 115), not brov-e. 


Some words of this class havci in the nominative, y, and 
[G. £d. p. 348.] thus svekry agrees with ^V^ra iwasru-89 
**8ocrus'* (§. 255. c); others have, at will, ovy or vi, with 
o suppressed ; hence zerkovy or zerkvL 

262. Among bases in u (Greek v) of the cognate lan- 
guages, only masculines have maintained themselves in the 
Old Sclavonic. They, like the bases in o, suppress their 
^ final vowel in the nominative and accusative, but in the 
remaining cases this letter shews itself either with Guna 
changed to ov or ^ (§. 255. /.), or without Guna, as o 
(§. 255. c.) ; and in the latter form it appears also in the 
beginning of compound words as a naked theme. Hence 
it is more probable, that anciently for «yn, **//iu«," "^filiumT 
stood 9yno rather than syny (§. 255. c.).* With this simi* 
lar conformation of theme of the old bases in a and u, it 
is not surprising that two kinds of bases, which in their 
origin are widely different, run very much into one another 
in the Sclavonic declension ; and that, in the more modern 
dialects, these two declensions, which were originally so 
strictly separate, have fallen almost entirely into one. 

263. As in the o bases which have arisen from W a, a y 
preceding introduces a difference of declension, which we, 
in §. 258., have represented as purely euphonic, the same phe- 
nomenon makes its appearance also in tlie y bases, by means 
of which their Guna form is articulated ev (for yev) instead 

* We term this class of words, neyertheless, bases in y ; for although 
their final letter never occurs as y, stiD, according to J. 226. (c), y is the 
most legitimate, even if it be the most rare, representative of the Sanskrit 
7 u. Bat should it be wished to call them bases in 0, they would not be 
distinguished from the order of words, which, according to J 257., bear 
this name with more right. The term u bases would be appropriate only 
80 far as here, under the ti, might be understood, not tlie Old Sclavonic ^ 
(etymologically=lH^ 6), but the Sanskrit ^ m or the Latin u of the 
fourth declension, which, in the Old Sclavonic, has no real existence. 


of ov.* If, however, with Dobrowsky, we di- [G. Ed. p. 349.] 
vide the Old Sclavonic masculines — with the exception of the 
bases in t, §. 260. — into two declensions, and in doing this de- 
sire, as is natural, to ground the division on the final letters of 
the bases, we must place knya^y, "prince" (nominative) of 
Dobrowsky*s second declension in the first, and by the side 
of rat, "a servant'": on the other hand, the words syw, 
" son," and donit " a house," of Dobrowsky's first masculine 
declension must be transferred to the second declension 
as mutilated y forms. Of the paradigma here given by 
Dobrowsky, vrachy, ** medicus,'* adheres most strictly to the 
true y declension, and, according to §. 255. (n.), opposes 
€v to the ov of SYNY, On the other hand, words inflected 
like zari/f "a king" (nominative), clearly form the nomi- 
native and genitive plural from bases in i ; hence zartf-e, 
"kings," zariif "of kings," from ZARI ; as gosiy-e, **ho' 
spites,^'' and gostii, " hospitum" from GOSTL In the dative 
plural and instrumental singular the form zare^n is doubt- 
ful : in this and other words, also, of obscure origin, it re- 
mains uncertain whether the more contracted tlieme in t, 
or the more extended in yy, is the older ; but it is certain 
that several old i bases have migrated into this declension 
by an unorganic addition; for instance, ogny, "fire" (nom.), 
dative ognev-U from OGNYY, agrees with the Sanskrit wfttf 
agnU Latin IGNl Lithuanian UGNL^ It [G. Ed. p. 360.] 

* Without Guna» the final of the base is pronounced e for ye from yo 
(§. 255. n.) ; and hence, in the cases without Gnna the yy bases are just 
as little to be distinguished in their inflection from the yo bases, as, in 
the instrumental singular, syno-m (from the theme SYNY) from ralxh-m 
(theme RABO). In the beginning of compound words, also, the yy bases 
end like those in yo, with e for ye. 

t As regards words inflected like mravti^ the only proof which could 
bring them under the head of the y bases is the yocative sing. mraviyH: 
that they, however, although they have borrowed this cose from the y 
declension, originally belong to the o declension, is proved by their 
feminine in iya and neuters in iye or ye (Dobrowsky, p. 282). 


deserves here to be further remarked, that in the more modem 
dialects of the Sclavonic stock, the two masculine declensions 
here spoken of have been transfused almost entirely into one, 
which has taken several cases regularly from the old u 
declension, in which, however, from the point of view of 
the more recent dialects* e.g. in the genitive plural of 
the Polish and Camiolan, ov, ow, form an exception as a 
case termination. In the Old Sclavonic, also, rob (theme 
RABO\ "a servant," may optionally form several cases from 
a theme RABY (for rabu)\ and for rah, " servorum,** we 
may also have rabov: and in the nominative plural of 
this class of words we find also ov-e, according to the 
analogy of synov-e. On the other hand, the adjective 
masculine o bases (the indefinites) of the y declension have 
admitted no irregular trespassings any more than the 

264. Bases ending in a consonant are, under the limi- 
tation of §. 260., entirely foreign to the masculine : on the 
other hand, there are neuter bases in en, es, and at (vat)f 
which are important for the system of declension, because 
the case suffix, commencing with a vowel, divides itself so 
much the more distinctly from the base ending with a 
consonant. The bases in en correspond to the Sanskrit 
in iBr«|^ an, and have preserved, too, in the uninflected 
nominative, accusative, and vocative, the old and more power- 
ful a, but with the euphonic prefix of a ^ (see §. 255. n.), 
and with the suppression of n of the base (see §. 139.). 
All of them have an m before the termination en; so that 
men is to be considered as the full formative suffix of the 

word, which answers to the Sanskrit ^^^man — e.g. in ^rt^ 
karman neut, " deed" — and to the Latin men ; that is to say, 
S YE MEN (nominative syemya, "seed," from the base sye) 
answers to the Latin se-men; and imen, "a name," is a 
mutilation of A\H^ n&man, " nomen.^^' The bases in es 
answer to the Sanskrit neuter bases in as, as nehes. 


" hefiven/' Sanskrit J^am nabhas. In the [G. Ed. p. 851.] 
nominative, accusative» and vocative, they relinquish the con- 
cluding 8 (according to §. 255. /.), and afterwards strengthen 
the e to o (§. 255. a.). We cannot, therefore, any longer com- 
pare the o of nebo with the Sanskrit-Zendian o, which has 
arisen out of a + u. As in this abbreviation of es to o the 
neuter e^ bases in the cases mentioned become similar to the 
o bases, it is then — on account of the influence of these cases, 
and because the nominative principally gives the tone in 
the declension, and shews in the oblique cases as inflec- 
tion that which is in itself deficient, — it is then, we say, 
not surprising, if the original o bases at times admit an es 
in the oblique cases, particularly when we consider the ori- 
ginal great extension of these neuter bases terminating in s 
(compare §• 241.), which induces the conjecture, that mtmy 
words, now declined as o bases, were originally domiciled in 
the bases in es. On the other hand, Dobrowsky proves that 
there is no admixture of es in the thoroughly legitimate 
adjective o bases. It is also clear, from §. 255. (/.), that 
the bases in vat* in the uninflected cases must lay aside 
the tt and follow o-cj/Lia, not ^^ mahat C' mcugnufn'') and 

265. Of the class of words in r mentioned in §. 144. two 
feminine words have remained in the Old Sclavonic which 
derive most of their cases from the genuine r bases, but 
in others increase the original base by an unorganic i, or 
also by ya (compare the Lithuanian in §. 144.) : in the nomi- 
native singular, however, in accordance with the Sanskrit and 
Lithuanian, they suppress the r. These are, malU "mother," 
and dshchi, "daughter"; in the latter only occurs the increase 
of the base by ya (in the nominative accusative and dative 
plural) ; the declension of the former springs [G. Ed. p. 352.] 

* They are all dcriyatiyos from names of animals, and denote the 
young of the animal mentioned. 


partly from MJTER, eg. mater-e, ''mairist* and moires 
(/Ltfirep-ey), partly from MATERh e.g. matertfj "matrem.** 

266. *In order now to pass over to the formation of 
cases, the nominative and accusative have lost the case- 
signs 8 and m, with the exception of the bases in a, which 
present in the diphthong H {a), a contraction of the vocalized 
nasal with the final vowel of the base shortened to o, (see 
§. 255. g.) ; hence vodH, " aquam" from vodiHL The instru- 
mental has, in the feminine, and the pronouns which have 
no gender preserved the genuine Sanskrit inflection; but 
it is to be remarked of the feminine bases in i that they 
change this vowel before the termination H, (for 4 see 
§• 255. h,), not into simple y, but into iy; so that ki this 
respect the Old Sclavonic agrees more closely with the 
Pali, which, in the corresponding class of words, dianges 
the final i before all the vowel endings into iy, than with 
the Sanskrit Hence, let kostiy^, from KOSTI, " bones," 
be compared with the Pali xhffm pitiy-d (from piti, " joy'')» 
for the Sanskrit yff^prity-d. Masculines and neuters have 
mt for their instrumental ending; and this is, I have no 
doubt, an abbreviation of the Lithuanian mi, and comes there- 
ore from bi (§. 215.). 

267. The dative has, in the singular, a common ending with 
the locative, and, in fact, the Old Sanskrit t (§. 195.); hence, 
imen-iy *' in nomine,'' and '^ nomini "; synov-iy "Jllio,'* brachev-i, 
"medico:* from SfNY and BRACHfY (§.263.), with 
Guna.$ If the case-sign is suppressed, the preceding ov 

[G, Ed. p. 868.] becomes H, and ev (from yov) becomes yA ; 
hence, also, synil, "Jilio,'' with synov-i, and zaryd, " regi,'' with 

* Cf. $.783^ 

t For m, according to Dobrowsky, we should read Mb my. 

I Hence I am now disposed, contrary to §, 177., to assume for the 
Lithoanian a common origin for the two cases, although m their received 
condition they are externally separated from one another, as is the 
case in Old Sclavonic, also, in several classes of words. 


the y bases, but prefer, however, the abbreviated form d; 
hence raMy from MABO, more rarely raljov-i. The o bases 
of the adjectives, and of these there are, in the mascu- 
line and neuter, only o bases, and those of neuter substan- 
tives have alone the uninflected form in 4; hence, e.g. 
hhyH, **bono,'' masc. neut; sin^ "ccsruleOf* masc. neut. : 
sfovtt, "verbo,** moryU, **mari'^: not blagov-i, sinev-i, slovov-i, 
morev-i. In masculine names of inanimate things this 
uninflected form in ^ extends itself also to the genitive 
and locative; hence dfomil, "of the house," "to" and "in 
the house '*: but in the dative is also found domov-i, and in 
the locative domye.* The pronouns of the 3d person mas- 
culine and neuter — with exception of the reflexive — have 
in the dative, in like manner, the uninflected ^; for the 
form mA in to-mii, " to this," is clearly from the Sanskfit 

appended pronoun tt sma (§. 165. &c.)> which has extended 
itself in the cognate European languages so much, and 
under such different forms, and this, in the Old Sclavonic, 
would necessarily give the base SMO, from which, after 
dropping tlie s, would come the dative mil, as rabd from 

268. While tlie o bases, as has been shewn above, have 
borrowed their dative from the y declension, the y bases 
appear, in the locative, to have intruded on the o class ; 
for synye answers to rabyCi from RABO from RABA 
(§. 255. a,) ; but the ye of rabye is. according to §. 255. (^), 
clearly from the Sanskrit ^ ^ of ^ vjike from ^ vrika^ 
and answers to the Lithuanian wilke from [6. Ed. p. 354.] 
WILKA (§. 197.). As, however, in Lithuanian, from SUNU 
comes sunu-ye, so may also the Old Sclavonic synye require 

* Masculine names of inanimate things all follow the declension oidom 
(theme DOiU 7), although very few among them, according to their origin, 
iall into the class of the old 7 u, i.e. of the Latin fourth declension, but 
for the most part correspond to Sanskrit bases in W a. 



to be divided into syn-yc : and this is rendered the more pro- 
bable, <is the feminine a bases, also, have in the locative ye 
for a^ye ; hence vod^-ye, " in aijua^* from VODA, answers to 
the Lithuanian ranko-ye (for ranka-ye) from ranka.* In bases 
in 7, masculine and feminine, it might appeiir doubtful 
whether i, with which they end in the dative and locative — e. g. 
pAti, "in the way," kosti, **in the bone^ — is to be ascribed 
to the theme or to the inflection: as, however, in the 
genitive, (to which belongs an i, though not through any 
inflection), they have just the same sound, and otherwise 
never entirely give up the i of tlie base, except in the in- 
strumental plural, it is more natunil to consider the forms 
pAUf kontu uninflected, just like Jof/iil, '*in the house." We 
may also look upon the i in the dative and locative of those 
bases, which have y as the last letter but one, as nothing 
else than the vocalization of this y ; the U therefore, of 
kvyal^i, morh hrachi^ voli, represents nothing else than the y 
of the masculine bases KNY^^fO, VHJCHYY, and of 
the neuter MORYO, and feminine lOLYO. 

269. In the genitive the terminations as, os, h, which 
in the cognate languages, are joined to bases ending with a 
consonant, must, according to §. 255. (/.), drop the s, but the 

[G. Ed. p. 355.] vowel appears as e in all the bases ending 
with a consonant (§§. 260. 264.): hence imen-ey "of the name," 

* It must be allowed that here occurs the very weighty objection, that 
t)ie femiuine form rankoye in tlie Lithuanian, and vodye in the Sclavoiiic, 
might stand in connection with the Sanskrit VPTR aydm in HHJIIH I M 
jihvrdy-dm ({. 202.) ; so that, after dropping the w, as in the Zend {^, 202.), 
the ])receding vowel, which in the Zend is already short, would, through 
the euphonic influence of the y^ 1)ecome e. As the bases in t in tlie 
Lithuanian, down to a few exceptions, are feminine, so might also atciye 
from fliw*-*, "a sheep," be divided into arviy-e^ and compared with t(W^ 

tnaty-am, from mati or I^Ufpi bhiy-am from hh\ (conip. in f .266. kosUy-u^ 
for kosty'{t, from KOSTI). 


answers to HIHHI(^ ndmn-as, nomin-is ; ncben-e^ ** of the 
heaven/' to vfH^ noAAa^-n^^ ve0e(o-)-o5: ; mater-e to mcUr-is, 
yL^jrpo^, The pronominal forms also follow tliis analogy : 
men-ej " mei^'^ teb-e, **tui,*' seb-e, ^^^sui,'* because, in the 
oblique singular cases, MEN, TJEB, SEB are their themes. 
We recognise the fuller Sanskrit genitive ending ^ sya in 
the pronominal genitive termination go, as to-go = K^ ta-sya 
(§. 188.)* This comparison might alone be sufficient in place 
of all proof; but, over and above, is to be remarked the easily 
adopted hardening of the semi-vowel y to y (comp. p. 121 
G. ed.), and in the Prakrit to i^ j (§. 19.) ; finally, let the 
high degree of improbability be considered, that the Sclavonic 
should have formed an entirely new genitive termination^ 
foreign to all the cognate languages. Now, if the g of the 
termination go is taken for a hardening from t/ (j{^ y), then 
the Old Sclavonic has preserved exactly as much as the 
Greek of the termination sya; and go answers to the 
Greek to, and io-go^ ** hujusj' to the Greek to-To. As» 
however, in Sclavonic, the sibilants are easily interchanged 
with gutturals (see §. 255. m.), one might also conjecture 
the g of go to be a corruption of the Sanskrit s and the 
semi-vowel of ^ »ya, which had been lost. This conjec- 
ture cannot entirely be put aside ; but in any case, even in 
this supposition, the termination go remains connected with 
^ sya and to. As, however, in the Old Sclavonic, g is else- 
where exchanged only with ^and sch (Dobr. p. 41), but not 

with s, in my opinion the derivation of g from tf (n y) is 
to be preferred to that from s. 

270. The substantive and adjective (indefinite) o bases, 
in disadvantageous comparison with the pronouns which 
hold fast tlie old form, have lost the genitive termination go; 
but for it, in compensation for the lost termi- [G. £d. p. 850.] 
nation, they have retained tlie old a of the base, instead of, 
according to §. 255. (a.), weakening it to o ; hence raba, **servi,'* 
nova (= Sanskrit nava-sya) ^novV^ Now, although the y bases 

z 2 


in the genitive end in o, the comparison of the form syna^ *\fiHi^'' 
with the Lithuanian and Gothic suna(t-Sj sunau-s, and the 
Sanskrit sAn6-s (from sAnau-s), teaches that the a here is only 
a Guna element, but foreign to the proper base, as well as to 
tlie case-suffix, which, according to §. 255. (6.), must disappear. 

271. The feminine bases in n, with the exception of 
those which have a penultimate y, change that a in 
the genitive into y; hence vody, "aqu^p'* from VODA, 
hut volva, "voluntatis" with unaltered base, from VOLY^* 
I ascribe that y, as well as that in the nominative plural, to 
the euphonic influence of the «, which originally ends the 
form (see §. 255. d.): this, however, does not obtain if a y 
precedes the a; hence vo/ot, ** voluntatis" is identical with 
the theme. On the other hand, the feminine pronominal 
bases in a have preserved a remarkable agreement with 
the Sanskrit pronominal declension; for if ta, "this" (at 
the same time the theme), forms to-ya in the genitive, I do 
not doubt of the identity of the ending yn with the San- 
skrit sy&s (§. 172.), as in the word iT^qm tasy&Sy of the same 
import, for the final s must, according to §. 255. (/.), give 
way; but tlie a of the Sclavonic ya directs us, according 
to §. 256. (a.), to an Indian ^ A just as the preceding o 
points to a short w a. The irregularity, therefore, in the 
shortening of the Sclavonic termination lies only in the drop- 
ping of the sibilant before y, as, in the Greek, rolo, from 


K^ ta-sya, and in the to^go, for to'{s)yo, mentioned in §. 269. 

272. In the vocative, which in the cognate languages 
is without any case-suffix (§. 204.), o is weakened to e (e) and 
rt to (§. 255. a.); hence nove (from NOVO, **new"), for 

[G. Ed. p. 357.] Sanskrit l(^ nava, is identical with the Latin 
hove, and answers to the Greek ve(f)€: from VODA, " water/* 
comes vodo; but from VOLYA, according to §. 255. (n.), vole 
for volyo: and so from KNYAtiYO, "prince/' knyashe* for 

* C before e becomes fh. 


knifa^ye. Bases in yy change their y by Guna to il (§. 255./.)f 
in analogy with §. 206. ; hence rracAytl— more commonly, 
with V suppressed, vrachU — " medice /" from VRACHXY. On 
the other hand, y bases without y for their penultimate letter 
commonly omit the Guna, and weaken their final vowel, 
like the o bases, to e ; hence synet ^ oh son !*' more rarely 
ayn^i (Dobr. p. 470), =Gothic sunau, Lithuanian sunou, San- 
skrit a^nd from sunau. 


273. By preserving a dual, the Old Sclavonic surpasses 
the Gothic, in which this number is lost in the noun: 
it exceeds, in the same, the Lithuanian in the more true 
retention of the terminations, and it is richer than the 
Greek by one case. The agreement with the Sanskrit 
and Zend is not to be mistaken : let the comparison be 


N. Ace. V. m. ubfuldoLmhoWeAiQ^uMf aba. 

f. n. ubhS, vbi, obye (§. 255. w.). 

L D. Ab. m. f. n. ubhiX-bhyAm. ubdi-bya, L D. ohye-ma (§. 2 1 5.).* 

G. L. m. f. n. vbhay-ds, vbdy-d, oboy-tLI^ 

* The pe, which precedes the termination ma, may be compared with 
the Sanskrit ^ in plural forms^ as ^^^^^ni vrikSbhyas : ye-ma, however, 
occurs in the Old Sclavonic only in dvye-mOf " duobus^** **per duos" and 
some pronouns. The usual form of substantive o-bases before tliis ending 
is that with an unchanged <?, as sto-ma^ from sto^ '^ a hundred " ; and the 
final a of feminine substantives also remains unchanged, as dyeva-ma, from 
Z^r^Fil, "agirL" 

t The form ii, for the Sanskrit ending Ss, is, according to §. 255. (/.) 
and (/.), necessary : the Zend certainly approaches the Old Sclavonic in 
casting away the s voluntarily. Tlie oy, which precedes the termina- 
tion u, clearly corresponds to the Sanskrit ^Rll oy (see §. 225.) and the 



[O. Ed. p.35S.] The Sanskrit iiIjM, as neuter, comes, ac- 
cording to §. 212., from the theme ubha, in union with the 
case-suiEx t ; and the feminine vbhS is an abbreviation of 
vhhaij'titt, and is therefore without a case termination (§. 212.). 
The Old Sclavonic, which runs parallel to the Sanskrit in 
both genders, and, according to §. 255. (/.), opposes ye to the 

Indian ^i, no longer recognises the origin of this y, and 
regards it entirely as a case-suSix before which tlie final 
vowel of the theme appears to be suppressed. Therefore, 
also, neuter bases ending in a consonant make ye their 
termination, if the imevye, "two names," given by Do- 
browsky, p. 513, actually occurs, and is not a theoretic for- 
mation. In feminines, however, the termination ye extends, 
exactly as in Sanskrit, only to bases in a (for Sanskrit A, 
§. 255. a.) ; but in such a manner, that those with y as tlie 
last letter but one in the theme reject the termination t/f>, 
and vocalize the y of the theme ; hence dyerye^ " two girls/' 
from dyeva, but siel^U "two steps," from STEI^YA. The 
feminine bases in t, in the dual case under discussion, 
answer to the Sanskrit and Lithuanian forms mentioned 
at §§.210. 211., as pati, "two sirs,"' from V^ pati ; 
[G. Ed. p. 359] GM7, *'tvvo sheep," from AJVI; only 
that, according to §. 255. ft.), the i in the Sclavonic is not 
lengthened; as dlani from DLANI (nominative singular 

Zend oy or ay (see p. 277); but that occurs only in rfwy-fi= Sanskrit 
dicay-Ss, "of two," "in two" m. f. n., and in ^o;/-<i=Sanskrit tay-6g, 
" of these two," m. f. u. The genitives and locatives of the two first persons 
also rest on this principle, only retaining tlie older a — nayfi^ vaifft. 
For the rest, however, the final vowel of the theme is rejected In-fore 
the termination <i, as sV-u (Sanskrit shatuy-ds) from STO, "a hundred," 
dijcv-fi, from DyEVA, "a girl"; and thus occurs, also, together with 
dvoyn^ the syncopated form dcu. Although the Lithuanian generally 
does not drop the final 5, still the u mentioned in §. 225. may be identical 
with the Sclavonic u ; as in the Zend, *dso, in this termination the a is 
often dropped. 


dlani/\ " vula manus*^ On the other hand, the masculine y 
bases do not follow this principle, but suppress the final 
vowel before the case-suffix a; hence syn-ri, "two sons," 
from SYNY. 


274. In the plural, the masculine nominative termina- 
tion e (e) for the most part answers to the Greek ey, and, 
according to a universal rule of sounds, omits the s 
(§. 255. /.) ; hence synov-e, " the sons," ^^^^ silnav-as : 
compare ^orpv-eg, kamen-e, "the stones,'' for fi yiM^ 
asmfln-<is (§. 2L) ; compare Saifiov^e^t gosfy-e, "guests" (theme 
GOSTI), for the Gothic gastei-s, and Greek forms like iroa-i-e^. 
The bases in o take, as in Lithuanian do the corresponding 
bases in a, i as their termination (see §. 22S.), but before 
this reject the o of the base; hence rab*-}, "servants," for 
rabo'i (comp. KvKo-t), as in Latin lup-i for lupo-L Neuters 
have a for their ending, like the cognate dialects, with the 
exception of the Sanskrit with i for a ; nevertheless, s/otxi, 
''verba'' from SLOVO — ^as Sw/oa from AQPO — answers to 
Vedic forms like vanAj " woods," from vana; and the same 
thing obtains which, §. 231. p. 267 G. ed., has been said of 
Gothic, Greek, and Latin, regarding the relation of the a of 
the termination to the o of the theme. As regards the bases 
ending in a consonant, let imen-a, "names," be compared 
with the Latin nomin-a and Gothic namdn-u ; nebes-a, ** the 
heavens," with i/e0e(<r)-a ; and telyat-a^ " calves," with Greek 
forms like ccofJiaT-a* Feminines, with the exception of the 
class of words in ov mentioned at §. 261., have lost the no- 
minative ending ; hence volya, " voluntates,** is the same as 
the theme and the nominative singular; and [G. Ed. p. 360.] 
from KOSTf, "bones" (Sanskrit asthi, neuter) comes the 
nominative singular kosfv, and tlie plural like the theme. 

275. The accusative plural is, in feminine and neuter 
nouns, the same as the nominative, and therefore in the formi'r 


mostly without inflection, exactly as in the few masculine 
bases in i ; hence gosii for the Gothic gasti-ns. Bases in o, 
without y preceding, like RABO, change this o into y, as 
raby, ** servos'*; at least I cannot believe that tliis y is to 
be looked upon as the case-suffix ; and I pronounce it to be 
the euphonic alteration of the o of the base, through the 
influence of the consonant of the inflection which has 
been dropped (comp. §.271.): as in Lithuanian, also, the 
corresponding class of words often changes the final vowel 
(a) of the base into u ; hence wilku-s, " lupos,' answering 
to the Gothic vuffa-ns and Sanskrit vrikfUn. But if tlie 
Old Sclavonic bases in y, of animate creatures, form 
owy in the accusative plural, and thus synovy, **filios,'* 
answers to the Lithuanian sunii-s (from SUNZJ), this 
very Lithuanian form, as well as tlie Gotliic and Sanskrit 
sunu-ns, ^^^ sunu-rif prove that the Sclavonic form is 
unorganic, and formed from an augmented theme SYNOTO, 
according to the analogy of raby. Bases in yy in this case 
follow bases in yo (from ya, §. 255. a), which, preserving the 
old a sound, give ya, as in the genitive singular (see §. 270.); 
hence vrachya^ ** medicos,'" like knyal^ya, **principes^\' but 
forms, also, like doschdevy, analogous with synovy, occur, fol- 
lowing the euphonic rule, §. 255. (/*.). 

276. The view here given is the more incontrovertible, 
as in the dative, also, synovo-m, **film'*^ (compare rabo-m), 
is clearly formed from a theme SYNOVO, increased by o, 
corresponding to the Lithuanian simu-ms. This dative 
suffix m, for the Lithuanian ms (from mus, §. 215.), according 

[G. Ed. p. 361.] to §. 255. (/.), extends itself over all classes 
of words, and appears to be attached by a conjunctive vowel 
e to bases terminating with a consonant ; but, in fact, it is 
to be considered that these, in the cases mentioned as also in 
the locative (see §. 279.), pass over into the i declension, as 
a final /, before the signs of case m and ch, becomes e: and a 
similar metnplasm occurs in the Lithuanian, and indeed, to a 



much greater extent (§. 125. subfinem, comp. §. 126.); hence 
imene-m, imene-cK froni IMENI from IMEN, "names," as 
koste-m, koste-eh, from KOSTI, " bones." 

277. Less general is the instrumental ending mif an- 
swering, subject to the loss required by §. 255. (/•), to the 
Lithuanian mis, Sanskrit bhis, and Zend bis. This ter- 
mination mi is, however, in masculine and neuter nouns 
for the most part lost (comp. Dobr. pp. 473 and 477) ; 
and is preserved principally, and indeed without exception, 
in feminines, as well as in a few masculine i bases: a final 
i of the base is, however, suppressed before the termina- 
tion mi. Let kosi-mi be compared with isf^rfW^ asthi-bhis, 
from vfm asthi, " bone ''; vdova-mi with f^trnfWf^^ vidhavA" 
bhin, from fVnn! vidhavd, ** a widow/' The instrumental 
raby^ synovy, are, like the accusatives of similar sound, 
uninflected (§. 275.); the i of knyal^f vrachi, is the vocali- 
zation of the y of the bases KfNJ^YO, VRACHJY, 
after the loss of the final vowel ; and the y of neuters 
terminating in a consonant, like imeny **pe.r nomina^" is to be 
explained by a transition into the o declension, and is there- 
fore analogous to raby, sluvyt similarly to the o of the Greek 
dual forms like iaifiovotv (p. 318 G. ed. Rem. 2.). 

278. Dobrowsky (p. 461) represents ov, r/, i?, evj en, t/at» 
and es, as plural genitive terminations ; but in reality the 
suffix of this case has entirely disappeared, and in bases in o, 
a, and y, has also c^irried away those final vowels with it, while 
bases in i double that vowel ; hence rab, [G. Ed. p. 362.] 

" servorum" from RABO\ vod, **aquarum" from ] ODA; syn, 
"/«ar7iw," from SYNY; kostil *'ossium;* from KOSTI; imen, 
^^nomimtm" from IMEN; ncbes, ** cwlorum,'' from NEBES. 
The 71 and s of imen, nebes, would, without the former protec- 
tion of a following termination have been dropped, as in 
Sclavonic we have only a second generation of final conso- 
nants ; while the former, with the exception of a few mono- 
syllabic forms, has, according to §. 255. (/.), disappeared. 


279. The termination of the locative plural is ch 
throughout all classes of words, and has l)een already, at 
§. 255. (m.) recognised as identical with the Indian ^ m, 
and therefore, also, with the Greek at : compare, also, the 
Zend As^ kliGf for the Sanskrit siva, in §. 35. Before 
this kh, passes into t/p, exactly as the corresponding 
Sanskrit n a into ^ g (see §. 255. e.); hence rnbye-ch^ *'in 
servis,^^ answers to ^pifj vriki-shij " in lupis,^'* Bases in yo — 
and those in yy follow their analogy — suppress, however, 
before this ye, their preceding y, as in similar cases; 
hence knyal^ye'ch, "in principibus,** not knyat^yy-ch from 
KNY^CYO. A final a remains unchanged ; hence vdava-ch, 
** in viduiSf^ answ^ers to the Sanskrit vidhavd-su. For bases 
in i, and consonants, see §. 276. 

280. For an easier survey of the results obtained for 
the Old Sclavonic case-formation, we give here, in order 
to bring under one point of view all the kinds of theme 
existing in Old Sclavonic, and to render their comparison 
with one another easy, the complete declension of tlie 
bases: 72^50, m. " a servant," KNfJCYO, m. "a prince " 
SLOTO,n. "a word," MO/if 0, n. "a sea" (Dobr. p. 176. 
§. 1!.), rODJ, f. "water," VOLJAJ. "will," GOSTI, m. 
"a guest," KOSTI, f. "a bone," SYNY, m. "a son/' DOMY, 
m. "a house," VKJCHfY, m. "a physician," KAMEN, m. 

[G. Ed. p. 363.] •* a stone," I MEN, n. " a name," MA TER, f. 
"amother," NEBES, n. "heaven," TELYAT, n. "acalf."* In 

* The al>ovc examples are armnged according to their final letters, 
with the observation, however, that o represents an original short a, and 
hence precedes the a for Sanskrit a ($. 2*25. a,). All bases in t have a </ 
l>efore the preceding a ; this semivowel is, however, readily suppre^Sinl 
after sibilants ; hence ovdui for ovchya, Do1)r. p. 475 ; and hence, also, 
from liziio come(noni. Uzr) the genitive, dative, and nominative accusative 
plural Ihuy Uza, for /<«//c/, Ustfu. If in biises in yo, m. n.,« and in femi- 
nines in ya, an t precedes the semi-vowel, this invulves souk' apparent 



those forms of the following table in which a part of the word 
is not separated from the rest, thereby shewing itself to 
be the inflection, we recognise no inflection at all, Le. no 
case-suffix; but we see therein only the bare base of the 
word, either complete or abbreviated; or also a modifica- 
tion of the base, through the alteration of the final letter, 
occasioned by the termination which has been dropped 
(compare §. 271.)* In some cases which we present in the 
notes, base and termination liave, however, been contracted 
into one letter, by which a division is rendered impossible. 
With respect to the dual, which cannot be proved to 
belong to all the words here given as specimens, we 
refer to §. 273. 

variations in the declension, which require no particular explanation here 
(sec, in Dobr. mravuy m. p. 4G8 ; ladiya^ f. p. 478 ; and Mien ye, n. p. 474. 
With regard to zary^ "a king/' sec §. 203 ). 



[G. FA. p. 364.] 


RABO, m.* Tab\ 

KNT^iTO.m? knyaOj\ 
SLOVO. n.* tlovo, 
MORTOf n? 
VODA, f.* 





VOLJA, f.* 
GOSTl, m.* 
KOSTI, f.* 
SYNV, m « 
DO MY, mJ 
VRACHfy,m? vraehy\ 
KAMEy, m.» Arawiy*," 
JMEy, n.^® tmya, 
MATER,f.^^ wia/i, 
NEBES, n." n^fio, 
TELTAT,n?^ ielya. 








• • • * 

. • • • 




nebete^my, nebes-i^ 
telyaie^my, telyaH, 












vr ache- my, 



. • • • 







































^ Comp. pp. 276, 27G. 
' See p. 337, Note. 

* Comp. p.28f 
» See §, 263. 

» Comp. p. 273, &c. ' See §§. 268. 259 

* Comp. p. 286. * Comp. p. 288. 

* Comp. p. 304. The cases wanting come from KAMENI (see $. 260.) ; whence 
also, kamene-niy kamene-ch (^.266.); and whence, also, might be derived the datiTi 
and locative kamen-i, which I prefer, however, deriving irom the original theme, jus 
as in MATER. 

»" Comp. §. 133. " See }. 266. and comp. p. 306. 

»3 See Si. 264. '* Dobr. p. 287. 

^^ Comp. Seixiakritjihwai/'d, &c. Sec §. 266. 

'8 Or rabovi, §, 267. 

M The t may also be ascribed to the mark of case, and the dropping of the final Icttc 
of the base may be assumed ; but in the genitive of the same sound, the t clearly belong 
to the theme. 

21 See}. 270. « See {.271. 

23 More commonly vracha, and in the vocative, vrachu. See p. 347, Note. 

« See ^ . 269. « See §. 268. « Or syne. 

" Comp. p. 306. and §. 147. 
'* See }. 266. 

'^ Comp. Lith./7a/i-mi,«untt-iir 
'» See ".268. 




[G. Ed. p. 365.] 


















, knya(e-ch 
















































vrachev e. 






• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 


• • • • 








mater- e^ 

• ■ ■ « 


• • • • 

. . • . 













' See §. 274. * See $.271. ^ gee §. 276. 

* From SYNOFO, sec ^.275. In the locative occur also gynovfh^ 
and syrwve-ch, 

5 See §.277. « See §.276. ^ See ^^.278. ^ See .279. 

'^ One would expect nebese-ch ; but in this case ech and yech are fre- 
quently interchanged with one another, and the form yech appears to 
agree better with the preceding 8 (comp. Dobrowsky, p. 477). 



LG. Ed. p. 366.] 281. The declension of the adjective is not 
distinct from that of the substantive ; and if some inflected 
forms, which in the Sanskrit and Zend belong only to the 
pronouns, have, in the cognate languages, emerged from the 
circle of the pronouns, and extended themselves further, they 
have not remained with the adjectives alone, but liave 
extended themselves to the substantives also. As regards 
the Greek, Latin, and Sclavonic, we have already ex- 
plained at §§• 228. 248. and 274. what has been introduced 
from pronominal declension in those languages into 
general declension : we will here only further remark that 
the appended syllable sma, in §. 165. &c., which, in Sanskrit, 
characterises only the pronominal declension, may in the 
Pali be combined also, in several cases, with masculine 
and neuter substantive and adjective bases^ and indeed 
with all bases in a, t, and i/, including those which, origi- 
nally terminating in a consonant, pass by augment or 
a|X)cope into the vowel declension ; thus the ablative and 
locative singular of kiaa, "hair,'' is either simply kisd 
(from khdt, see p. 300), k^s^, or combined with sma or its 
variation mha, k^sa-smdy kisa-mM, kha-smin, kha-mliL In 
the Lithuanian, this syllable, after dropping the s, has, in 
the dative and locative singular, passed over to the adjec- 
tive declension, without imparting itself to tliat of the sub- 
stantive, and without giving to the adjective the licence of 
renouncing this appended syllable; as, geram^ '*bono^ 
geramSf "in bono'^ According to this principle it would 
be possible, and such indeed was lately my intention. 


to explain the agreement of the Gothic full adjective dative, 
as blindamma (from blinda»ma, §. 170.), with [G. Ed. p. 367.] 
pronominal datives like tha^mma, "to this,*' i-mma, "to him"; 
but the examination of the Old Sclavonic declension, in which 
the indefinite adjectives remove themselves from all admix- 
ture of tlie pronominal declension, and run entirely parallel 
to the German strong substantive, not to tlie weak, has 
led me to the, to me, very important discovery, tliat 
Grimm's strong and Fulda's abstract-declension-form of 
adjectives diverges in not less than nine points from the 
strong substantives (i.e. those which terminate in the 
theme in a vowel), and approaches to the pronominal de« 
clension for no other reason than because, like the definite 
adjectives in the Sclavonic and Lithuanian, they are com- 
pounded with a pronoun, which naturally follows its own 
declension. As, then, the definite (so I now name the 
strong) adjectives are defined or personified by a pronoun 
incorporated with them, it is natural tliat this form of de- 
clension should be avoided, where the function of the in- 
herent pronoun is discharged by a word which simply pre- 
cedes it ; thus we say guter, or der yute, not der guter, whicli 
would be opposed to the genius of our language; for it 
still lies in our perception that in guter a pronoun is con- 
tained, as we perceive pronouns in im, anh beim, al- 
though the pronoun is here no longer present in its original 
form, but has only left behind its case-termination. In 
comprehending, however, the definite adjective declension, 
the science of Grammar, which in many other points had 
raised itself far above the empirical perception of the lan- 
guage, was here still left far behind it; and we felt, in 
forms like guter, gutem, gute, more than we recognised, namely, 
a pronoun which still operated in spirit, although it was no 
longer bodily present How acute, in this respect, our percep- 
tion is, is proved by the fact tliat we place the definite form of 
the adjective beside the ein when deprived [G. Ed. p. 3C8.] 


of its definitive pronominal element; but, in the oblique 
eases, beside the definite eines, einem, einen, the indefinite: 
em yrosseSf eines yrossen (not grosses), einem grossen (not 
grifssem). In the accusative, grossen is at the same time 
definite and indefinite ; but in the former case it is a bare 
theme, and therefore identical with the indefinite genitive 
and dative, which is likewise devoid of inflection; but in 
the latter case the n evidently belongs to the inflection. 

282. The pronominal base, which in Lithuanian and 
Old Sclavonic forms the definite declension, is, in its origi- 
nal form, t/a ( = Sanskrit ij ya, ** which'') ; and has, in the 
Lithuanian, maintained itself in this form in several cases 
(see below). In the Old Sclavonic, according to §. 255. (o.), 
vo must be formed from t/a ; and from yo again, ac- 
cording to §. 255. (n.), ye or c : but the monosyllabic na- 
ture of the form has preserved it firom the suppression of 
the y, which usually takes place in polysyllabic words. In 
some cases, however, the y has vocalized itself to i after 
the vowel has been dropped. It signifies in both lan- 
guages "he"; but in Old Sclavonic has preserved, in union 
with sche, the old relative meaning (i-«cAe, "which"). The 
complete declension of this pronoun is as follows : — 



Nominative, m. yis f. yi, m. i,* f. t/^/,* n. ye* 

Accusative, m. t/iw, f. yen, m. i, f. yA, n. ye. 

Instrumental, m. y&, f. ye, m. n. im. f. yfyH, 

Dative, m. ydm, f. yet, m. n. ^emtl, f. yei, 

Genitive, m. yo, f. yds, m. n. yego, f. yt^ya. 

Locative, m. yame, f. yoyk, m. n. yenh f. yet. 

* Occura only as the relative in union with selie. 



Nominative, m. 
Accusative, m. 
Instnimenta], m. 


if'te (t/l), f. if OS, 


m. f,* f. n. va. 















f. yi, 

f . yes, 
f. yomis, 
f. yoms. 

m. f. n. 
m. f. n. 
m. f. n. 
m. f. n. 
m« f. n. 






[G. Ed. p. 869.] 


• • • • 

f. ywmif 




yu (yS), f. yi, 

yun, f. yin, .... 

yi^m, f. yomt Instr. Dat. m. f. n. yima. 
m. f. yUL, Gen. Loc. m. f. n. yeyH 

283. The Lithuanian unites, in its definite declension, 
the pronoun cited — which, according to Ruhig (Mielcke, 
p. 52.), signifies the same as the Greek article — with the 
adjective to be rendered definite ; so that both the latter, and 
the pronoun, preserve their full terminations through all the 
cases ; only the pronoun in some cases loses its y, and the 
terminations of the adjective are in some cases somewhat 
shortened. Geras, " good," will serve as an example. 





















. . a . 










* See Note on preceding page. 

t Or gerasM, by aasimilatton from gerasyis, as, in the Prakrit ^ fre- 
quently assimilates itself to a preceding s, as tassa, '' hujw" for if^ tasya, 

\ The s of the adjective is here not in its place, and appears to be 
borrowed from the plural. 

A A 

















. • • • 












• • • • 






[G. Ed. p. 370.] 

284. The 

Old Sclavonic, 

differing fr< 

the Lithuanian, declines only in some cases the adjective 
together with the appended pronoun, but in most cases the 
latter alone. While, however, in the Lithuanian the appended 
pronoun has lost its y only in some cases, in the Old Sclavonic 
that pronoun has lost, in many more, not only the y but also 
its vowel, and therefore the whole base. Thus the termi- 
nation alone is left For more convenient comparison we 
insert here, over against one another, the indefinite and 
definite declension: svyat (theme SVY-^TO), "holy," may 
serve for example : 



Indcf. Def, 

si'yafa. svyaia-ya. 

svyai'&j svyattt-ytL 

svyatoyA, svyato-yHi.^ 

svyatye, svyato-L^ 

svyaiy, svyaiy-ya. 

svyafye, svyato^u^ 

* See Note % on preceding page. 

1 See §. 2d5. d, ' Or tvatye-my in whicli, as in the Lithuanian, the 

adjective is inflected at the same time. 

s The indefinite and definite forms are here the same, for this reason, 
ihRi svtfatO'yeifii^ as the latter must originally have been written, has dropped 
the syllable ye. The adjective base svyata lias weakened its o to a 
before the pronominal addition ($. 255. a.\ just as in the dative and loca- 
tive ivyaio-iy where an external identity witli the indefinite form is not 
perceptible. * Or svyatye-i, Comp. Note 2. 


Indif. Def. 





















Indef. Def. Indef. Def. 

Nominative, svyutif svyali-U ^^atyt ^y^^^y-yci' 

Accusative, svvafy, ivyaty-ya, svyaty, svyaty-ya. 

Instrumental^ svt/afy, ssvyaiy-tmU^ svyata-mt, svyaiy-imU 

Dative, sr^yafom, svyaty-imh^ styata-^fn, svyaty^imJ 

Genitive, svyat, svyahj-ich, svyat, svyafy'ich. 

Locative, si-yafyech, svynty-ich,^ svyata-^h, sryaiy-ich.^ 



Indef, Def, Indef. Def 

Nom. Accus, svyrdo, svyaio-e, svyata, svycUa-yn. 

The rest like the masculine. 

^ I give those forms which, according to Dobrowsky (p. 302.), occur in 
the oldest MSS., in place of the more ordinary forms, which have lost 
tlie t of the pronominal base : gvi/aty-miy wyaty-m^ svyaty-di, 

^ Although in the pronominal declension the genitive plural is exter- 
nally identical with the locative, we must nevertheless, in my opinion, 
separate the two cases, in respect to their origin. I find, however, the 
reason of their agreement in this, that the Sanskrit, which in this case is 
most exactly followed by the German and Sclavonic, in pronouns of the 
third person begins the plural genitive termination with a sibilant, Sanskrit 
sdm, Gothic zi (for «^, $.248.). This 5, then, has, in Old Sclavonic, become 
cht just like that of the locative characteristic '^ su (}.279.). The nasal of 

'^J^ sdm must, according to rule, be lost {§. 255. /.) : the vowel, however, 
has, contrary to rule, followed it, as also in the ordinary declension the 
termination dm has entirely disappeared (§. 278.) ; and the same relation 
which imew, " nominwn," has to the Gothic naman-Sy tye-ehy " horum" 
has to thi-ze. This tye-cK however, answers as genitive to the Sanskrit 
^tqX'f te-shdm^ and as locative to ira tS-shu ; ye being used in both cases 

for ^ ^, according to §, 255. (e,) 

7 See Notes 5 and 6. The identity with the masculine and neuter forms 
arises from this, that the grave a of the feminine adjective base is changed 
into the lighter o ; and this again, as in the masculine neuter^is con- 
verted, according to §, 225. (</.}, into y. 

A A 2 



[G.Ed.p.871.] 285. As Id the Sanskrit the preponderating 
majority of adjective bases end in the masculine and neutei 
in a, and in the feminine in d ; and as this class is, in the 
Old Sclavonic, only represented by bases in o, yo in the mas- 
culine and neuter (see §. 257.), and a, ya in the feminine 
it is not surprising that in German also, with the excep- 
tion of a few in u (of the comparative and participle 
present), all other adjective bases, in their original con- 
dition, end in a, feminine o for d (§. 69.). It is, however 
remarkable, and peculiar to the German, that its adjectives 
in their indefinite condition, have all lengthened their theme 

[G. Ed. p. 872.] by an unorganic n, and that in substantive! 
the class of words in n appears to be the most generally mad< 
use of, inasmuch as a large number of words, whose basei 
in Gothic terminate in a vowel, have, in the more moden 
dialects, permitted this to be increased by ti. The reason 
however, why the indefinite adjectives — not simply in part 
and for the first time in the more modern dialects, bu 
universally, and so early as in Gothic — have passed inU 
the n declension, is to be sought for in the obtuseness o 
the inflection of this class of words, which, according t< 
§§• 139. 140., in common with the Sanskrit, Latin, an< 
Greek, omits the nominative sign, and then, in variance 
from the older languages, dispenses also with the dativ< 
character, upon the loss of which, in Old High German 
has followed, also, that of the genitive character. This ab 
sence of the animating and personifying mark of cas< 
might belong to the indefinite adjective, because it feel 
itself more exactly defined through the article which pre 
cedes it, or through another pronoun, than the definit 
adjective, the pronoun of which, incorporated with it, ha 
for the most part left behind only its case terminations 
In the Lithuanian and Sclavonic, in which the article i 
wanting, and thereby an inducement further to weaken th 
declension of the indefinite adjectives, the latter stand on a: 


equal footing with Grimm's strong declension of substantives, 
Le, they maintain themselves, without an unorganic conso- 
nantal augment, in the genuine, original limits of their base. 
286. As the feminine, where it is not identical, as in 
adjective bases in i in the Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, 
with the theme of the masculine and neuter, is always, 
in the Indo-European family of languages, made to diverge 
through an extension or an addition to the end, it is 
important for German Grammar to remark — and I have 
already called attention to this point in another place — 
that the feminine of the German indefinite adjective, in 
variance from the principle which has been [G. Ed. p. 878] 
just given, has not arisen from its masculine, but from an 
older form of the feminine; e.g, the primitive feminine 
B LINDA m. n. '* blind/' has extended itself in the indefinite to 
BLIND AN. and the primitive femmine BLINDO to BLIN- 
DON: one must not, therefore, derive the latter, although it 
is the feminine of BLINDAN m., from this, as it is entirely 
foreign to the Indo-European family of languages to derive 
a feminine base through the lengthening of the last letter 
but one of the masculine and neuter. As far as regards the 
declension of BLINDAN m., it follows precisely that of 
AHMAN (p. 322 G. ed.). and BLINDAN n., that of NAMAN 
(p. 176 G. ed. &c.); the fem. BLINDONdiSers from the mas- 
culine only by a more regular inflection, since its 6 remains 
everywhere unchanged, while a, in the genitive and dative 
singular, is, according to §. 132., weakened to i; therefore — 




N. V. blinda*,^ blindan-s, blindff? blinddn-a? blind6\ blinddn-s. 

Ace. blindan, bUndanSt blindS? blindAn-a^ blinddn, blinddn-s, 

Dat blinding blinda-mf blinding blinda-m, btindAn, blindd^-m^ 

Gen. blindin'Sf^blindan-i, blindin*s}blind6n'4? bUnddns, UinddnS? 

' Sec §. 140. * See $. 141. * See $. 245. 


287. In order, then, to examine the definite declension of 
adjectives in Gothic, we will, in the first place, for the pur- 
pose of bringing into view their agreement and discrepancy 
with substantives and simple pronouns, place by the side 
of each other the declension of the definite BLIND A m. n. 
and BUN DO f., and that of VULFA m., *• wolf," DAURA 
n., "a gate,'' GIBO f., a gift," and tlie interrogative 

[G. Ed. p. 374.] m'A ra. n., " who? " what ?" Hf'O f.; further, 
that of MID YA m. n. {mediusl MID JO f., by that of HAR J A 
m., ''an army," BADJA n., "a bed." KVNTHYO f., "news," 
and HVARJA m. n., - who ?" " what ?" HVARYO f. 



N. vulf^Sy bUnd*s, hva-s,^ vulfdsi^ blindai. Am?,' 

A. vuff\ hlindana, hva-na, vulfa^ns, blindans, hva-ns, 

D. vuffa,^ hlindnmma, hva-mmaf^ vulfa-mt blindaim, hvai-m. 

G. vulJi'S, blindis, hvi-s, vulf^-i, blindaizS, hvi-zS. 

V. vnI/\ bllnd^s, .... vulfdst blindaf, .... 

N. haryl'S,^ midyis^ hvaryi-s, hary6s*^ midyai, hvaryai? 

A. hari,^ midyunay hvaryn-na, harya-ns, midyans, hvarya-ns, 

D. harya. midyamma, hvaryn-mma, harya-m, midynirriy hvaryni-m, 

G. haryf'ft, midyht hvaryis, hary-i, midyaizS, hvaryaizS. 

V. hart, midyh, .... haryds, midyai. 

• • . 

^ See §. 135. » See §, 220. « See J. 171. 

« See J. 227. * See §. 160. 

* From hari/as, see $. 135. 

^ The nominative in adjective bases in ya does not occur, unless perhaps 
in the fragments which have last appeared ; and I have here formed it by 
analogy with haryis and hvaryis, Grimm gives midig (1. 170.). If, 1. c, the 
form yis is considered as unorgamc, and, in regard to midis^ if its analogy 
with hardua is remembered, then Grimm is wrong in taking MIDI for the 
theme, as in reality UARDU is the theme of hardus. The true theme 
MIDyA occurs, however, in the comp. midya-svcipaimy "deluge," and 






N. A. V. daur\ 

N. A. V. badi. 

bXindata^ hva^ daura, 

The rest like the masculine. 

midyata? hvarya-ta, badya. 
The rest like the masculine. 





N. gibOf 
A. giba, 
D. gibau^^ 
G. gibd'S, 
V. giba, 

N. kunthi^^ 
A. kunthya, 

^^^ • 

D. kunthi/ai,^^midi/aij^ 
G, kunthi/6-s, midyaizds, 
V. kunthi, midya. 


blinda ? 




• • • • 


midya^ hvarya, 
[G. Ed. p. 875 ] 


blindds, hvds. 
blinddst hvd-s. 
bltndaimy hvai-m, 
blindaizOf hvi-zA. 






kunthyds? midyds? 
kunthyd'S, midyds, 
kunthyd-m, midySm, hvaryd-m. 




hvaryaizdsP kunthy-d, midy'd, 

kunthydsy midyds, 

• * a . 


answers to the Sanskrit IfBI madhya. Formed from midya as theme, 
midifis would be clearly more organic than midU, Adjective t bases, 
which conld bo referred to hardu-8 as u base, do not exist, bat only sub- 
stantive, as GASTIy nom. gasts, 

^ Compare Zend forms like (^/JOp tiUrim, ^^quartum" from Xi^yJ^^ 
tuirya (f . 42.). 

^ Hva^ with suppressed termination, for hvata^ Old High German huata, 
see $§. 155. 156. ; for hUndata also bUnd; and so for midyata also midi. 

'^ The form hvd^ which, like some others of this pronomi, cannot be 
shewn to occur, is, by Grinmi, rightly formed by analogy from thd^ 
^^luBc" Grimm here finds, as also in the accusative singular, the 6 in 
opposition to the a of blinda surprising: the reason of the deviation, 
however, is fixed by JJ. 69. 137. 231. 

" See p. 173, Note f. " See J. 161. '« {. 172. 

^^ For kunthya^ from kunthySj by suppression of the final vowel of the 
base, which again appears in the accusative, but shortened to a (see 
^. 69.) ; but here, also, the final vowel can be dropped ; hence kunthi as 
nccusativc. Luc. 1 . 77. 


If, then, it is asked which pronoun is contained in the German 
definite adjective, I answer, the same which, in Sclavonic 
[G. £d. p. 876.] and Lithuanian, renders the adjective defi- 
nite, namely, the Indian relative ya (i| ya). This pronoun 
in German, indeed, in disadvantageous comparison with the 
Lithuanian and Sclavonic, does not occur isolated in its 
inflected state ; but it is not uncommon in the history of lan- 
guages, that a word has been lost in regard to its isolated 
use, and has been preserved only in composition with other 
words. It should be observed, too, that a demonstrative 
i base must be acknowledged to belong to the Sanskrit, 
which, in Latin, is completely declined ; in Gothic almost 
completely; but in Sanskrit, except the neuter nomina- 
tive accusative idam, ''this," has maintained itself only in 
derivative forms, as j^ i-iU ^W^ ittham, " so,'' ^ifl^ iy-ai, 
" so much,"' fpij i'drisih *' such/' The case is the same 
in Gothic, with the pronominal base t/a: from this comes, 
in my opinion, the affirmative particle j^o, as in otlier 
languages, also, affirmation is expressed by pronominal 
forms (i'ta, jnn ta-thd, '* so," outci)j), and further tfobai, " if,'' 
analogous with ibai, "whether," ibainU "lest"; as also, 
in Sanskrit, irf^ yadi, '* if,"' comes from the same base, and 
to this, as I now believe, the Greek el — ^the semi-vowel 
being laid aside — has the same relation as in Prakrit, in the 
3d person singular present, at, e.g.Hff^bhamai, "he wanders" 
(Urvasi by Lenz, p. 63), has to the more usual ^i^ adip 
for the Sanskrit ^xfn aiu In Prakrit, too, ^jai (1. c. 
p. 63 on j for y, see §. 19.), really occurs for yadi; so 
that in this conjunction, as in the 3d person of the present 
\eyei from Keyert), the Greek runs parallel to the cor- 
ruption of the Prakrit If, however, in ei the Sanskrit 
1^ y has disappeared, as in the iEolic u/x/xe^^Sanskrit 
yushmS, it appears as A in 6f, which has nothing to do with 
the article 6, 17, where h falls only to the nominative mascu- 
line and feminine, while in o; it runs through all the cases, as 


in Sanskrit the \y ot7(^^ ya-a. To this [G. Ed. p. 877.] 
^ yas, Of, in regard to the rough breathing, bears the same 
relation as u/ieTp to |^ yushmt, al^ta, ayto^ to i|l^ yq^, " to 
worship/' "to sacrifice^ ^nv ya^a, **to be worshiped;'' va-fiiv 
to ^ yudhf " to strive," W? yudhmOf "strife'' (comp. Pott, 
pp. 236. 252.). But to return to the Gothic Y^» let us further 
observe tfah,^ "and," "also," with h enclitic, of which hereafter, 
and yu, " now," i. e. "at this time," "already" (comp. Latin jam). 
It also clearly forms the last portion of hvar-yis (for ycui), as, 
in the Sclavonic, this pronoun often unites itself with almost 
all others, and, for example, is contained in ity-t, "who?" 
although the interrogative base also occurs without this 

288. In Gothic definite adjectives the pronominal base 
Y^ shews itself most plainly in bases in u. Of these, 
indeed, there are but a few, which we annex below,f but 
a ya shews itself in all the cases, and these in blinds differ 
from the substantive declension, to such an extent that 
before the y the u of the adjective is suppressed, as in 
Sanskrit before the comparative and superlative suffixes 
tyas,ishtha; e.g. laghtyas, "more light," laghishthcif "most 
light," for laghv4yas, laghv-ishtha from laghu; and as, 
even in Gothic, harcC-izA, ''more hard" (according to 

* The h may aanmilate itself to the initial consonant of the following 
word, and thus may arise ytifff yatiy and yca^ and in conjunction with M: 
yatihS, ^^or" (see Massmann's Gloss.). 

t Aggvusy "narrow," aghu^ "heavy," ^fap'^tm*,"inda«triou8,"Aarrfta, 
"hard," manvus^ "ready," thaurtut, "dry," thlaqvus^ "tender," aeithtu, 
" late," jKti«, "much," and, probably, hnasqvuiy "tender." Some occur 
only as adverbs, as glaggvu- ba^ " industriously.* In addition to the adverb 
filu^ " much," since Grimm treated this subject the genitive >S2att« has been 
found {filau9 mats, " for much more," see Massmann's Gloss.), which is 
the more gratifying, as the adjective u bases had not yet been adduced iu 
this case. 


[O. Ed. p. 878.] M&SBmann, p. 46), Tor hardv-u6'^ from 
EARDU. Hitherto, bowerer, only the accusative Bingular 
masculine tAaurs-uano, "akcum" manv-yatta,"paTaium"{ the 
accasative nugular ceuter manu'-j/a'a ; the datiTe plural 
knasqi!-yaim are adduceable, if Grimm, aa I doubt not, is 
right in ascribing to this word, which is not to be met 
with in any other case, a nominative knatqvat.^ Finally, 
also, the accusative plural masculine unmanv'-^n*, anofta- 
intevaoTovt (2 C 9. 4.)> although, in this case, blindam is not 
diSerent from vu^atu. These examples, then, although 
few, furnish powerful proof; because, in the cases to be 
met with, they represent an entire class of words — viz. 
the definite adjective in u — in such a manner, that not a 
single variety of form occurs. It may be proper to annex 
here the complete definite declension of MANFV, as it is 
either to be met with, or, according to the difierence of 
cases, is. with more or less confidence, to be expected : — 


N. manvurs^ (manv'-yji), monvti-s, (manw'-yda). 

Ac. tnanv'va-na, manv'-yatii, (manw'-yn,) {mavv-y6»), 

D. lmanv'-^a-mma),tnanv'-yai-'m, (manv'-t/ai). {manv'-yaim), 

G. manvau-s, {manvvaiz^, (manu'-yairdj), {manv^~vaiz6. 

[G. Ed. p. 379.] NEDTEB. 

Nom. Accus. manv'-ifa-fa,f {manv'-va). 

■ I am the more inclined to agree n-ith him, as a few oiher adjective 
bases in tiu occur. Perhaps a enphonic iiiflacnce of the v on Ihe vowel 
whicli follows it is also at work; esattimes one finds In the Prokiitafinal 
a changed throngh the influence of a preceding Iff it, t r, or <7 ^ to 7 u. 
So UrvBsi, p. 72, dbi, t/Uu, dvarattu, fur tdla, tdii, dvarana; p. 71 
rmajdharu fot maad/iara. 

t Without inflectbn and proaom. nuinvu, as ^ns tiodda, jdu, Lithu- 
anian dariti. 


" Remark 1. — ^Grimm finds (I. 721.) the identity of the fe- 
minine with the masculine remarkable, since he, as it appears, 
looks upon 9 as an originally mere masculine termination 
(comp. I.e. 824, 825. ^•'•). That, however, the feminine has 
equal claim to 5 as the nominative character, and that it is 
entirely without inflection where this is wanting, I think 
I have shewn in §§. 134. 137. Adjective bases in t, which 
in the Gothic, as in the Lithuanian and Sclavonic, are 
wanting, end, in the Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, in the 
nominative of both genders, in is ; and only the neuter is 
devoid of inflection : compare ^f^^ suchi-s m. f., "clean,** 
suchi n., with ?5f>/-j, idpt, facili-s, facile. Adjectives in ti, in 
Sanskrit, frequently leave, in like manner, the feminine base 
undistinguished from the masculine and neuter, and then 
end, according to §. 234., in the nominative in u-s; so pdndu-^ 
m. f., agrees with manvus above, and the neuter pdndu 
with manvu. If two consonants do not precede the final 
"9 u, as in pdndu, the feminine base may, except in com- 
pound words, be lengthened by an (, which is particularly 

characteristic of this gender; and thus ^^TUft siiMwi, "the 
sweet" (theme and nominative), answers to the Greek 
word tjSe7a, which is lengthened by an unorganic a (§. 119.), 
for ^SFta ; and swddu'S answers both as feminine and mas- 
culine nominative to the Gothic manvus. In the Sanskrit, 
also, a short u in the feminine base may be lengthened, and 

thus the feminine of ir^ tanu, *' thin,"* is either tanu or 
tnn{i, whence the nominative tand-s; and tanwi, as substan- 
tive, means the *' slender woman.*** The Lithuanian has 
adjective bases in m, as snviesu^s, m. " light," " clear,** 
(compare i&H swita, " white,'*) which nevertheless, in seve- 
ral cases, replace the ti by a ; as szwiesdm dangui, *' to the 
bright heaven": in some, too, they prefix an i to the a, 
the assimilating power of which changes the a into e 
(comp. p. 169 Note); as, szwiesiems dangums, "to the bright 
heavens." The feminine is, in the nominative, szwiesit the 




[G. £d. p. 880.] final t of which is evidently identical with 
the Sanskrit ^ ^ in wsAdxvt. In the oblique cases, how- 
ever, an unorganic a also is added to the Lithuanian i, as it 
has been in fi^ela : this iot however, becomes either by eu- 
phony, e (comp. p. 174, Note •), e.g. accus. szwiesen^ accus. 
plural szwieshs; or it happens, and tliat, indeed, in the majority 
of cases that the i is entirely suppressed, so that SZfVlESA 
passes as the theme ; as szwieabs ranUbs, *' of the bright hand '' 
(gen. szwiesai rankai (dat). The i of ia, however, appears, 
as with the participles, to have communicated itself from 
the feminine to the masculine, 

"Remark 2. — With the accusative manvyana which has 
been cited, the conjectured dative manvf/ammn is least 
doubtful. That Grimm should suggest forms like hardv^ 
amfTio, hardv-ana, arises from his regarding ammo, cma^ as 
the dative and accusative terminations of the pronoun and 
adjective ; while, in fact, the terminations are simply mma 
and no. When, therefore, HARDU, in the dative and 
accusative, without annexing a pronoun, follows never- 
theless the pronominal declension, the cases mentioned 
must be written hnrdu-mmch hardu-na, analogous with 
thormma, iha-na^ i^mma, i-na. If, however, contrary to 
all expectation, forms like hardvammcL, hardvana, shew 
themselves, they must be deduced from hardu-ya-mma^ 
hardu-ya-na ; so that after suppressiag the y, the preceding 
II, in Ihe place in which it would be left, has passed into v. 
With regard to blindamma, blindana, blindatot it is doubtful 
whether they ought to be divided blindC-{y)nmma^ blind''(jf)ana, 
blind'(y)cUaf as analogous with manv{u)-yamma9 manv{uy 
-yanat fmint;(u)-j/a^a, or blindar{ya)mmfi, &c. : I have there- 
fore left them, as also the corresponding forms from 
MIDY^» undivided. If the division bUnda-mma, &c. is 
made, nothing is left of the pronoun, as in the Old Scla- 
vonic dative svyata-mii, and as in our expressions like beim, 
am, im, except the case-termination, and the adjective base 


has preserved its a. If, however, the division blincC-ammaf 
&e. is made, to which I now give the preference, and 
which is also adopted by Grimm, though from a different 
point of view, then the pronoun has only lost its v, as in 
some cases of the Lithuanian definite, e.g. in gertLs-us for 
geruS'Vus (see p. 353) ; and with respect to the y which has 
been dropped and the vowel which is left, blindC-amma 
would have the same relation to blincr-yamma as midums, 
** the middle man" (theme MID UMJ)^ to its Sanskrit cog- 
nate form of the same import, imni madhyamat whose rela- 
tion to MIDUMA I thus trace — the latter has softened 
the first a to i, and has changed the middle d, through the 
influence of the liquid, into u; and both, however, have, ac- 
cording to §. 66., suppressed the semi- vowel. 

''Remark 3. — Although, in the accusative plural mascu- 
line, blindans is not different from vulfans^ and the simple 
word BLIND A could not form aught but [G. Ed. p. 381.] 
blinda-ns ; nevertheless the word manv-yans, mentioned above* 
which is of the highest importance for the Grammar, as well 
as the circumstance that where any inflections peculiar to 
the pronoun admonish us of the existence of an inherent 
pronoun in the definite adjective, this inheritance really 
exists ; — these two reasons, I say, speak in favour of dividing 
thus, A/incT-an^, and of deducing it from blind-yans. Just in 
the same manner the dative blindaim, both through the aimt 
which occurs elsewhere only in pronouns, as through the 
word hnasqv-yaimt mentioned above, declares itself to be 
an abbreviation of blind'-ifaim ; but blindci proves itself 
only by its pronominal inflection (compare ihai^ hvai, San- 
skidt "^ ti,\ki) to be an abbreviation of blimC-ya. 

** Remark 4. — In the Sanskpt, in some cases an i blends 
itself with the final a, which, with the a of the base, be- 
comes i : hence the instrumental plural of the Veda dialect 
and of the Prakrit, "vn^fira cAvot-bhis from (uwa^ W^kf^ 
kusumi'hin from kusumcu To this 6 answers the at in 




IJi I 


Gothic pronominal datives like hvai-m, **quU)us'' tha-imt 
** Ais'"; as the German dative, in accordance with its origin, 
is identical with the old instrumental. We were, however, 
compelled, before we had a reason for seeking the pronoun 
Y^ in tlie Gothic definite adjective, to give to the exten- 
sion of the base in German a wider expansion by an i 
which means nothings than it has in the Sanskrit; while we 
have now every reason, where, in Gothic definites, an i 
unsubstantiated by the oldest grammar shews itself, to re- 
cognise in the i a remnant of the pronominal base Y-^* 
either as a vocalization of the y, which so often occurs in 
the Sclavonic (see p. 354), or the t may be considered as 
an alteration of the a of Y^» ^ in the Lithuanian geras-is 
for geras-yis^ (p. 353). The latter view pleases me the bet- 
ter because it accords more closely with blind'-^mmat 
blindT-^na, &c., from blind^^amma, blindC-yana, The vowel, 
then, which in blind'-amma, &c., maintains itself in its 
original form, appears, in this view, as i in the feminine 
singular genitive blindaizds — which is to be divided blinda- 
iz6s — from blinda-yizds ; and this yizds is analogous with 
hvizds, thizdsy from hvazds, thazds, = Sanskrit kasyds, tasyds 
(§.172.). We must not require blindd-izds — because 
BLINDO is the feminine adjective base — for there is 
a reason for the thinning of the d, in the difficulty of 
placing the syllables together, and a is the short of 6 
(§. 69.). For the rest, let it be considered, that in 
the Sclavonic the graver feminine a before its union 
with the pronoun is weakened to the lighter masculine o 
(p. 354, Note 3.); and that a diphthong oi in the Gothic 
[G. Ed. p. 382.] is never admissible ; on which account 
salbi), " I anoint,*' in the subjunctive suppresses the i, which 
belongs to this mood {salbds, salbd, for salbdis, salbOi). In the 
feminine dative one should expect bUndaizai for blindai, 
which is simple, and answers to gibai, while the remaining 
German dialects are, in this case, compounded in the very 


same manner : in Old High German the genitive is plintera, 
and the dative plinteru,* la the genitive plural mascu- 
line and neuter the ai in hlindaize- mi^t be substantiated 
through the Sanskrit ^ ^ of the pronominal genitive, as 
irar*^ iish&m^ '* hoTurn^ ; and therefore the division blindai-ze 
or blin(P'{y)aize should be made: as, however, the mono- 
syllabic pronominal bases, in which one would rather ex- 
pect a firm adherence to the old diphthong (comp. §. 137.), do 
not retain it, and thi-zi, " horum^ hvi-ziy " quorum,*' as weak- 
ened forms of tha-zif hva-zS, are used ; and in the feminine 
thi'zd, hvi'zdy for thd-zS, hv6-z6,^==Sa,uskvit td-sdm, kd-sdm; 
I therefore prefer to substantiate in a different way the ai 
in blindaizi m. n., and blindaizd f., than by the Sanskrit 6 
of tS'shdm m. n. (f. td-sdm), which, moreover, would not be 
applicable to the feminine form blindaizd ; and I do it, in 
fact, by the pronominal base Y^t ^^ ^^^ blinda-izS blinda- 
izd, is the division to be made according to the analogy of 

'^ Remark 5. — The nominative masculine and feminine has 
kept itself free, in Gothic, from union with the old relative 
base, and has remained resting upon the original, as 
received from the Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin. The mas- 
culine blinds, also, through the very characteristic and 
animated s (see §. 134.). has cause to feel itself personified 
and defined determinately enough. Even if blinds could be 
looked upon as an abbreviation of blindeis (comp. altheis, 
"old," from the base ALTHXA, according to Massmann), 
or of blindais, to which the Old High German plinter 
would give authority, I should still believe that neither the 
one nor the other has existed in Gothic, as even the u basest 

* The Gothic at would lead us to expect S, and this, too, is given by 
Grimm. As, however, with Kero, the doubling of the vowel, and, with 
Notker, the circumflex is wanting, I adopt in preference a shortening of 
the e, or leave the quantity undecided. 




like manvu-s above^ which, in the oblique cases, shew 90 
clearly the pronominal base Yji, have not received it in 
the nominative singular of the personal genders. In Old 
High German, however, the pronoun spoken of has had 
time, in the space of almost four centuries which intervene 
between its oldest memorials and Ulfilas, to raise itself up 
from the oblique cases to the nominative ; which was the 
more desirable, as the Old High German substantive declen- 
[G. Ed. p. 883.] sion in the nominative masculine, in dis- 
advantageous comparison with the Gothic, omits the mark of 
case. Plintir (the length of the 6 is here rendered certain) 
is contracted from plintaAr (for pUnta-yir) ; for the Old High 
German 6 corresponds, according to §. 78., to the Gothic at. 
In the feminine, therefore, the form pUntyu, which occurs 
in the chief number of strict Old High German authori- 
ties, and those which, as Grimm remarks, are the oldest 
of all, has good substantiation, and corresponds very fitly 
to the masculine plintir; and in the nominative and accusa- 
tive plural and neuter the form plinl-vu, with regard to the 
retaining the y of the pronoun, is more genuine than the 
Gothic blinds for blindrya. The form plintyu, moreover, 
answers to feminine pronominal forms like ^yu, "the" (f.), 
st/u, "she," desyu {de-syu), "this"* (f.), and to the instru- 
mental masculine and neuter dyu (in the interrogative huiu), 
where all authorities concur in retaining the e or j^ ; while 
in the adjective, Otfrid, and, as Grimm remarks, here and 
there Isidore and Tatian, have u for yu, For explanation. 

* As in the Old High German t and j (^) are not distinguiahed in 
writing, it remains uncertain in many, if not in all cases, in what places of 
the memorials which have come down to ns the sonnd J, and in what that 
of t is intended ; as even where the Gothic has &j, it may become t in 
the Old High German. If, however, in the analogous adjective forms 
like pUntju one reads J, which is supported by the Gothic (p-362), we 
mnst| in my opinion, leave it in the above forms also. Grimm writes diu, 
tiuj but disfu / and expresses, p. 791, his opinion regarding the i. 




StfU, difu, 












however, of the pronominal forms which have been men* 
tioned, it is important to consider, that in the San- 
skrit the pronominal base to, or the aa which supplies 
its place in the nominative masculine and feminine, unites 

itself with the relative base n ya, by which the first pro- 
noun loses its vowel. Compare, then — 


IB^ tyds, "Acp," "Aa«,' 
• wPii tt/dni, *' hcBC,'' 

Here, then, in a manner as remarkable as convincing, the 
relation is proved in which the Old High German forms 
mentioned stand to the Gothic ad, thd, thai, [6. Ed. p. 884.] 
thds, thd : one must first transpose these into syd, thyd, 8cc., 
before they can pass as original forms for the Old High Ger- 
man. Our mother tongue, however, in tlie case before us, 
obtains more explanation through the Sclavonic, where the 
demonstrative base TO may indeed be simply inflected 
through all the cases : in several, however, which we have 
partly given above, it occurs also in union with YO. It is 
most probable, that in the Old High German the combina* 
tion of the base of the article with the old relative pronoun 
has extended itself over all the cases of the three genders ; 
for that it does not belong to the feminine alone is seen 
from the masculine and neuter instrumental form dyu 
(d'-yu), and from the dative plural, where together with 
dim occurs also dyim (diim), and, in Notker, always 
dien. According to this, I deduce the forms d'er, des, d'dmu, 
&c., from dyer, dyes (for dyis), dyemu (from dyatnu); so 
that, after suppression of the vowel following the y, that 
letter has vocalized itself first to i and thence to e. Ac- 
cording to this, therefore, des, and the Gothic genitive 







thi'8, would be, in their origin, just as diflFerent as in'thc 
accusative feminine dya and thd. In the neuter, on the 
other hand, daz — ^for dyaz, as Gothic bUnd^-ata for bllndr 
yata—ihe vowel of the base DY^ is left, and the semi- 
vowel, which above had become e (from t) has disappeared. 
Further support of my views regarding the difference of 
bases in the Gothic tha-na and the Old High German 
d'e^n (I give the accusative intentionally) is furnished by 
the demonstrative des^r, which I explain as compounded^ 
and as, in fact, a combination of the Sanskrit m tyOf men- 
tioned at p. 383 G. ed., for taya, and ^ sya for sa-ya^ the 
latter of which has a full declension in the Old Sclavonic, 
also, as a simple word. D'esSr stands, therefore, for dya-sdir 
(ezzzai); and our Modern German dieaer rests, in fact, upon 
a more perfect dialectic form than that which is preserved 
to us in the above desir, namely, upon dya-sir or dia-s^; 
referred to which the Isidorean dhea-sa, mentioned by 
Grimm (I. 795.), at least in respect of the first syllable, no 

;ft longer appears strange, for dhea from dhia for dhya^^ 

answers admirably to the Sanskrit m tya, and the final 
syllable sa answers to the Sanskrit-Gothic nominative 

^ form sa (Greek o), w^hich has not the sign of case. 

■jj " Remark 6. — The adjective bases wliich from their first 

origin end in ya, as 3f/i)^= Sanskrit madhya, are less 

i ' favourable to the retention of the y of the definite pronoun ; 

for to the feminine or plural neuter plinV-yu for plinta-yu a 

midy-yu would be analogous, which, on account of the difE- 

[G. Ed. p. 385.] culty of pronouncing it, does not occur, but 

Ijji may have originally existed in the form midya-yu, or mid- 

ya-ya ; for the masculine nominative midySr is from midya-ir 
for midya-yar^ as, in Gothic, the feminine genitive-form 
midyaizos from midya-yizds. If, however, according to this, 
even hvar-yaizds (from hvar-yayizds) be used, and analogous 

* D, th, and dh are interchanged according to different authorities. 


forms in several other cases, so that the base ^ is therein 
doubled, we must recollect, that in the Lithuanian also the 
base Y^> besides its composition with adjectives, combines 
itself, also, with itself, for stronger personification; and, 
indeed, in such a manner, that it is then doubly declined, 
as tfis'Sai (for tfis-tfai% 'he**; vo-vo, *of him,' &c." 

289. The participle present has, in Gothic, preserved 
only the nominative singular masculine of the definite 
declension, e.g. gtbands, ''giving," which may be deduced 
as well from a theme GIBANDt according to the analogy 
oiJiyand'S (see p. 164), as from GIBANDA, according to 
the analogy oivulf-n (§. 136.). The Pali (see p. 300) and 
Old High German support the assumption of a theme 
GIBANDAf as an extension of the original GIB AND; 
whence, then, by a new addition, the indefinite theme 
GIBANDAN has arisen, as, above, BLINDAN from 
BLINDA; and it is very probable that all unorganic n 
bases have been preceded by an older with a vowel ter- 
mination : for as all bases which terminate in a consonant 
(nd, r, and n, §. 125.) are in their declension, with the excep- 
tion of the nominative nd-s, alike obtuse ; [6. Ed. p. 886.] 
so it would not be necessary for GIBAND, in order to 
belong, in the indefinite adjective, to a weak theme, or one 
with a blunted declension, to extend itself to gibandan (com- 
pare p. 302), unless for the sake of the nominative gibanda 
(see §. 140.). 

290. In the Pali, no feminine theme charanti has been formed 
from the unorganic theme choranta^ mentioned at p. 319 G. ed. 

* Ruhig (by Mielke, p. 68) wrongly gives cu as the emphatic adjunct, 
as the doubling of the s in tatsaif szUsai, yissai is clearly to be explained 
through the assimilative power of the tf (see p. 353, Note t)> The termi- 
nation ai answers to the neuter toe, mentioned at i, 167., for t<zt^ which 
latter is contained in the compound tat-iai (comp. kok-tai, tok^tai). After 
two consonants, however, the y is entirely dropped; hence e,g, kurs-ai, 
not kurS'Sai, 

BB 2 


for the masculine and neuter form charania has arisen from 
the necessity of passing from a class of declensions termi- 
nating in a consonant into one more convenient, terminating 
with a vowel in the theme. The Sanskrit, however, forms 
from bases terminating in a consonant the feminine theme 
by the addition of a vowel (i, see §. 119.); e.g. from charant m., 
comes charanii, and there was therefore no reason in the 
Pali to give also to the more recent form charania a 
feminine theme charantd. Here, again, the Gothic stands 
in remarkable accordance with the Pali, for it has pro- 
duced no feminine base GIB AND from the presupposed 
GIB AND J ; and therefore, also, the indefinite GIB AN DAN 
has no feminine, GIB AND ON, nom. gibandd, answering to 
it {as BLINDON to BLINDAN); but the feminine form 
gibandei {ei=if §. 70.), which has arisen from the old 
4lieme GIBAND, in analogy with the Sanskrit charanti, 
has become GIBANDEIN, by the later addition of an n. 
Hence, according to §. 142., in the nominative gibandei 
must have arisen. It is not, however, right to regard this 
nominative as a production of the more recent theme, but 
as a transmission from the ancient period of the language^ 
for it answers to the feminine Sanskrit nominative cha-- 
ranti{^. 137.), and to Lithuanian forms like sukaniif '*the 
turning,^' for which a theme sukantin is nowise admis- 
sible. In Latin, bases in t or 1^ originally feminine, must 
have arisen from adjective bases terminating with a 
consonant; thus FERENTI from FERENT (compare 
§. 119. genitri-^s) : and this feminine t, as is the case in 
Lithuanian, as well with the participles (see p. 174, Note) as 
[G. Ed. p. 887.] with the adjective bases in u (p. 363), has 
in some cases no longer remembered its original destination, 
and been imparted to the other genders : hence the ablatives 
in f (for t-d), genitive plural in i-Mwi, neuter plural in ia 
(ferenti{d), ferenti-um, ferenti-a) ; and hence is explained, 
what must otherwise appear very surprising, that the 


participles, when standing as substantives, freely take this 
i, which is introduced into them from the feminine adjec- 
tive {infante^ sapient e). 

" Remark. — In the tfu of kepanfyu, the Old High German 
feminine of kepaniir, I recognise the regular defining ele- 
ment, as above in plinfyu, answering to the masculine plirdir. 
On account of the participial feminines in yu, therefore, 
it is not requisite to presuppose masculines in yir, accord- 
ing to the analogy of midyir, midyuy midyaz, partly as 
kepentir and kepantaZf incline, in none of their cases, to the 
declension of midyir, midyaz, and also as the derivative 
indefinite base in an has sprung from KEPANTA, and not 
from KEFANTY^- therefore m. kepanto {==Goihic gibanda), 
f. n. kepanta (= Gothic gibandd). This only is peculiar 
to the Old High German participle present, in relation to 
other adjectives, tliat in its uninflected adverbial state it 
retains the defining pronominal base Y^ ^^ its contrac- 
tion to I ; therefore kepanti, " giving," not kepanf^ like plinth 
It is, however, to be observed, that there is far more 
frequest occasion to use this form divested of case termi- 
nations in the participle present, than in all other adjec- 
tives, as the definite form in nds in Gothic, in the 
nominative singular masculine, corresponds to it; and as 
it may be assumed, that here the t supplies the place of 
the case termination, which has been laid aside ; so that it 
is very often arbitrary whether the definite form of the 
participle, or the uninflected form in t, be given. So in 
Grimm*s hymns (IL 2.). suatollena is rendered by the unin- 
flected ufpurrentU and bapiizans by taufantir, although the 
reverse might just as well occur, or both participles might 
stand in the same form, whether that of the nominative 
or adverbial. As regards the Old Saxon forms men- 
tioned by Grimm, namely, Mpandyes or sldpandeas, 
'* dormientis" gnomondyi, ^* moerentes,** buandyum, *' habitant 
tibus^ they should, in my opinion, be rather adduced. in 


proof of the proposition, that the participle preseat has, 
in the dialect mentioned, preserved the defining element 
more truly than other adjectives; and that those forms 
have maintained themselves in the d^ree of the Gothic 
[G. Ed. p.d88.] forms like manvvana, mentioned at p. 362, 
tlian that a theme in ya belonged to the Old High German 
participle present before its conjunction with the pronominal 


291. The comparative is expressed in Sanskrit by the 
suffix iara, feminine tard, and the superlative by tama^ 
feminine tamd, which are added to the common mas* 
culine and neuter theme of the positive; e.g. punyor 
'tara, punyortama, from punya, "pure"; iuchi-tara, suchi- 
'tama, from iuchU " clean **; balavai-tara, balavat'tamot from 
balavaf, "strong." In the Zend, through a perver- 
sion of the language as7as^ tara and a)^^^ iema unite 
themselves with (in place of the theme) the nominative 
singular masculine ; e, g. a57m^^jjo>^ huskdtara (Vend. S. 
p. 383) from huska^ nominative masculine ^yyo>»' huskS, 
'*dry"; As(g^4^^^gQ)ji) spentdtema from Ipenta, "holy**; 
As9g^ji)^A)7e|^7g9 verethrazankema (Vend. S. p. 43) from 
verethrazant, nom. verethrazans, '* victorious " (literally, 
** Vritra-slaying ").* According to my opinion Jixiara owes 

* The participle present zant^ the nominative of which I recognise In 
j9^A)76g7|^^ verethra-zani, rests on the analogy of the frequently- 
occurring i» j4XA5<j)> tipa-z^Y, " let him strike"; since, in fiswt, the root ran 
(Sanskrit jp^^han) suppresses its final vowel, and has treated the a which 
remains according to the analogy of the conjugation vowel of the first and 
sixth class (see p. 104). The Sanskrit radical ra han, " slaying," which ap- 
pears in ^1^«T Fritru'han, '^ Vritra slaying," and similar compounds, has, 
in 2Scnd; taken the form jan, the nominative of which is pu^jdo (Vend. S, 


its origin to the root l^tfi {tar, §. 1.), "to [G. Ed. p. 389.] 
step beyond " "to place beyond " {e.g. " over a river") ; hence, 
also, the substantive tara, " a float/^ In the Latin, as Lisch 
has acutely remarked, with this root are connected the pre- 
position trans, and also terminus, as that which is overstepped, 
and probably also tra, in in-tra-re, penetra-re. The superla- 
tive suffix I derive, with Grimm (III. 583.), from that of the 
comparative, although I assume no theoretic necessity that' the 
superlative must have been developed through the degree of 
the comparative. But tamoj as a primitive, presents no satis- 
factory etymology. I formerly thought of the base w^^ tan, 
"to extend,'" whence, also, raroj could be explained; but then 
mi tama would be no regular formation, and I now prefer 
recognising in it an abbreviation of tarama^ partly be- 
cause the superlative suffix ^ ishtha may be satisfac- 
torily considered as derived from its comparative iyas, 
through the suffix tha, which, in the Greek, is contained in 
the form of to, as well in la-rog as in raTog, for rapro^ or 
rapoTo^. In this manner, thereforp, is formed raTo-j and 

inn^ tama-s : they both contain the same primitive, abbre- 
viated in a similar manner, but have taken a different de- 
rivative suffix, as in Tre/uw-roj contrasted with ^^PR panchama, 
"the fifth'": the vowel, however, is more truly retained 
in the derivative raro^ than in its base repo^. In Latin, 
innr tama-s has become timu-s {optimus, intimuSj extimus, 
ultimus); and, by the exchange of the t with s, which 
is more usual in Greek than in Latin, simus; hence, 

p 43), and is analogons to the Sansknt panthds^ from panihan, mentioned 
at p. 308. More nsnally, however, do in Zend nominatives stands in the 
place of the Sanskrit an of the suffix vant and vdhs; so that, in Zend, the 
sign of the nominative has taken the place of the Indian n, the said sign 
being o for *, according to J.66^ In gui» vdo^ from i^ vdns, the Zend 
o may also be looked upon as belonging to the base (comp. BumouTs 
Ya9na, Notes, p. cxxviii. &c.). 


maximus {mac-simus) for fnag-simns. However, the simus 
is generally preceded by the syllable w, which we will 
hereafter explain. 

292. As in comparatives a relation between two^ and in 
[G. Ed. p. 890.] superlatives a relation between many» lies 
at the bottom, it is natural that their suffixes should also be 
transferred to other words, whose chief notion is individual- 
ized through that of duality or plurality: thus they appear in 
pronouns, and VTTtll^ katara-^ is "which of two persons? 
and "WWH^ katama-s^ "which of more than two persons? 
imRir ikataras is "one of two persons,*' ani (katamas, "one 
of more than two.** It is hardly necessary to call attention 
to similar forms in Greek, as Ttarepo^ (for Korepo^), eKorepo^. 
In eKa(TTo^ the superlative suffix {trro^ for loroj) presents a 
different modification from that in ikaiama-s^ and expresses 
••the one of two persons/* instead of "the one of many 
persons.** In Latin and German, indeed, the suffix lata 
is not in use in genuine comparatives, but has maintained 
itself in pronouns in Latin in the form of TERU (jter, teru-^, 
and in Gothic in that of THARA ; hence tifer,- neuterf aUer ; 
Gothic, hva4har,'^ "which of two persons?" Old High German, 
[G. £d. p.d9I.] huedar, which has remained to us in the 
adverb toeder, as an abbreviation of the Middle High Grer- 

* The Gothic resembles the Latin in withdrawing the sign of the 
nominative from its mascnline bases in ra, as the latter does from 
its corresponding bases in rti. Hence, above^ hvathar for hvathar(a)s, as 
alter for altertu; so also ratr, " man," = Latin vir for viru-t. This sup- 
pression has, however, not extended itself universally in both languages. 
In the Gothic, as it appears, the $ is protected by the two preceding con- 
sonants ; hence akrs, **• a field " (comp. Grimm, p. 699) ; still the adjective 
nominatives ^ottrf, " mournful " (theme Gattra, comp. Sanskrit ^^ ghAra^ 
"terrible"), and tvirs^ ** honoured," occur, where this cause is wanting, 
where, however, the preceding long vowel and the diphthong au may 
have operated. In vair^ indeed, a diphthong precedes ; but the a is here 
first introduced through the euphonic law 82. If, in Latin, in adjective 
bases in ri, only the masculine has predominantly given up the s, with the 



man, combined with a particle of negation newUder. Anthar, 
also, our anderer, belongs here» and answers to the Sanskrit 
^RR?^ antara-Sf whose initial syllable is the same which in 
^BRi anyd, ** aliusr has united itself with the relative base 
IT ya. From this ^BRI anya comes anyatara, " allerJ*^ If» 
however, ^brr antara means, in general, " the other," the 
comparative suffix is here intended to denote the person 
following after, passing over this thing ; so is, also, the 
Latin ceterus to be considered^ from ce as demonstrative 
base (compare ci-a, ci4ra) ; and so, also, in Sanskrit, itartz, 
"the other," comes from the demonstrative base t, as, in 
Latin, the adverb iterum from the same base."* In our 
German, also, wieder is the comparative suffix, and the 
whole rests, perhaps, on a pre-existing Old High German 
word huia-dar or hictfadar, with a change of the inter- 
rogative meaning into the demonstrative, as in weder, enU 
'Weder. The wie in wieder, therefore, should be regarded as, 
p. 370, die in dieser; and herein we may refer to the Isidoric 
dh'ea-sa. i 

293. In prepositions, alsa it cannot be surprising if one 
finds them invested with a comparative or superlative suf- 
fix, or if some of them occur merely with a comparative 
termination. For at the bottom of all genuine prepositions. 

preceding i, while e.g. the feminine acris might have pennitted its i» to 
have been removed, just as well as the masculine, I can find the reason of this 
firm adherence of the feminine to the termination U only in the circum- 
stance that the vowel t particularly agrees with that gender, as it is in 
Sanskrit (although long), according to $. 119., the true vowel of formation 
for the feminine base. In Gothic, the suppression of the nominative sign 
9 is universal in bases in sa and W, in order that, as the final vowel of the 
base is suppressed, two s should not meet at the end of the word ; hence 
e,g. the nominative druMf *' a fall," from DRUSA ; garuns, '^a market,'^ 
from GARUNSl, f. 

* I have traced back the comparative nature of this adverb, which 
Voss derives from xtert '' the journey," for the first time in my Review of 
Forster 8 Sanskrit Granunar in the Heldelb. Jahrb. 1818. i. p. 479. 


at least in their original sense, there exists a relation between 
[G. Ed. p. 392.] two opposite directions — thus, " over,** 
"from." " before.'' "to," have the relations "under," "in," "to- 
wards," " from," as their counter-poles and points of com- 
parison, as the right is opposed to the left; and is always 
expressed in Latin, also, with the comparative suf&x* dexter 
(^fi^ dakshina), sinister. As, however, the comparative na- 
ture of these formations is no longer recognised in the present 
condition of the Latin, the suffix ter admits of the further 
addition of the customary ior (dexterior, stnisterioTf like 
exterior, interior); while the superlative timus has affixed 
itself to the core of the word {dextimus or -tumus, sinistitnus). 
The prepositions which, in Latin, contain a comparative 
suffix, are inter, prceter, propter, the adverbially-used subter, 
and probably, also, obiter (compare audacter, pariter).^ To 

inter answers the Sanskrit WilT antar, "among," "between"; 
for which, however, a primitive an is wanting, as in Sanskrit 
the relation " in " is al ways expressed by the locative. Notwith- 
standing this, antar, in regard to its suffix, is an analogous 
word to THW^prcitar, " in the morning," from the preposition 
[G. Ed. p. 393.] pra, " before,''! with a lengthened a, as in the 

* I was of opinion, when I first treated this subject (Heidelb. Jahrb. 
1818, p. 480), that ob-i-ter must be so divided, and t looked upon as tlie 
vowel of conjunction. As, however, the preposition oh is connected with 
the Sanskrit irfW abhi, ^' to," ^' towards," the division obi-ter might also be 
made, and the original form of the preposition recognised in obi : observe 
the Sanskrit derivative ^rfWilTr abhi-tas, ^^near," from abhi with the suffix 
t€u. The common idea, however, that obiter is compounded of ob and 
iter cannot entirely be disproved, partly as then obiter would be a similar 
compound to obviam, 

t Com p. ni, pari, prati^ for m, &c. in certain compounds. Formations 
which do not quite follow the usual track, and are rendered intelligible by 
numerous analogies, are nevertheless frequently misunderstood by the 
Indian Grammarians. Thus Wilson, according to native authorities, 
derives V^ antar from anta, ** end," with rcL^ ** to arrive at," and the 



Greek wpwi from wpo. For the relation " under," the San- 
skrit has the preposition m^ adhas, which I have else- 
where explained as coming from the demonstratire base 
W a; from which, also, come v^ a-dhara and W^R, a-dhama, 
"the under one," or "the most under,"" to which inferus and 

infimus are akin, as fumus to ^m dhuma-s, *' smoke,'" and, 
with a nasal prefixed, as in afJL<l}i in relation to ^rfW abhU 
and in a/x0a>, ''amhot^ answering to T^t ubhdu. Old Scla- 
vonic oba. The suffixes iR dhara and ^i| dhama are, in my 
opinion, only slightly-corrupted forms of the tara and iama 
mentioned in §. 291.; as also in xrm prathama, "the 
first," m. from pra, " before,"" the T sound of the suffix is 
somewhat differently transposed. The suffix dhas of adhas, 
"beneath,* however, has exactly the same relation to tas, 

in wins cUas, "from here,"" as dharaf dhama, have to tara, 
fama; and therefore adhas, as a modification of atas, is, in 
respect to its suffix, a cognate form of aubtus, intus. The 
usual intention of the suffix in^ tas, like that of the Latin 
tus, is to express distance from a place. In this, also, the 
Greek Bev (from fler, comp. §. 217.) corresponds with it, 
which, in regard to its T sound, rests on the form m^ dhas 
in ^nm adhas (§. 16.), as the latter also serves as the pat- 
tern of the Old Sclavonic suffix dH, which only occurs in 
pronouns, and expresses the same relation as in^ tas, 6ev, 
tus: e.g. ovo-HM, "hence,""* ono-HdH, "thence." The form 
c/tl, however, corresponds to the euphonic alteration, which 
a final as in the Sanskrit must suffer before [6. £d. p. 39i.3 
sonant letters (§. 25.), viz. that into 6 (see §. 255./.), which in 
Zend has become fixed (§. 56^). 

analogous word prdtar from pra, with at, '' to go." A relation, never- 
theless, between onto, ^'end," and antar^ *' among,'' cannot perhaps be 
denied, as they agree in the idea of room. They are, however, if they 
are related, sister forms, and the latter is not an ofishoot of the former. 

* The demonstrative base OVO answers remarkably to the Zend 
As»AS ava, with o for a, according to §, 2d5. (a.). 


"Remark, — Dobrowsky p. 451 gives ^dti 'as the full 
form of the suffix, just as he also lays down a suffix 4dye, 
which forms adverbs of place, as kMye, "where?** on^dye, 
"there.'* As, however, the definitive pronoun, which has 
been treated of at p. 353, &c., exists in these two adverbs, 
Mii, ^dffCy and forms, with sche, Mdsche, iidyesche, for t/ddH, 
&c.; and as this pronoun is, in general, so frequently 
compounded with other adverbs, there is every reason to 
assume that it is also contained in ovch^d^^ ono-Adtl, 
on-ildtfe, f-^dye, and others. But how is the 6 itself in 
ti-cfd. tfd-dtfe, to be explained ? I cannot speak with confi- 
dence on this point ; but as, according to §• 255. (g.), in the last 
element of the diphthong ^ a vocalised nasal is sometimes 
recognised, yud^, y&dyet might be regarded as corruptions 
of yoiidA yondye, and, in respect to their nasal, be compared 
with the Latin inde, unde, from /, V. Y^^y^* y^y^ might 
also have proceeded from the feminine accusative yd, which 
would again conduct us to a nasal (§. 266.): this accusative 
would then stand as theme to the derivative adverb, as our 
preposition hinter, Old High German hinfar, has arisen 
from hin, a petrified accusative, on which the Gothic 
hina-dag, "this day,'* "to day," throws light Before the 
suffix dye, however, elder form de, occur also the pronouns 
in a simple form, as gdye^ "where?" (more anciently kde^ 
with the final vowel of the base KO suppressed); zdye (older 
sde)f "here"'; idyesche, " where" (relative). As e (e), accord- 
ing to §. 255. (6.), frequently stands as the corruption of an 
older t, I recognise in the suffix de the Sanskrit fv dhi, 
from ^rfM adhi, "over,'' "upon" "towards,'' (from the demon- 
strative base a), which, in Greek, is far more widely diffused 
in the form of ft (woft, aTO^diY* 

294. In German, even more than in Latin, the preposi- 
tions shew themselves inclined to combine with the com- 
parative suffix. To the Sanskrit iH'ir^ atdar, Latin inter, men- 
tioned above (at p. 392, G. ed.), corresponds our unf^, Gothic 


undar, with u for the old a, according to §. 66.* If, how- 
ever, the, in my opinion, incontrovertihle original identity 
of the latter with the two former is recognised, [G. Ed. p. 396.] 
one must not, with Grimm (III. 260.), derive undar from the 
preposition und, " as far as,^' &c., by a suffix or, and so again 
divide the dar ; for undar,^ as transmitted from an ancient 
period of the language, was already formed, before the 
existence of a German dialect, and the abovementioned 
preposition has only to dispose itself according to the 
relations of sound mentioned in §§. 66. 91. The matter 
is different with the Old High German af-tar, "after,** 
for the primitive language^ or languages, transmit to 
us only m^ apOt airo, " from "; to which, in the spirit of 
Wir^ antar, inter, subter, &c., the old comparative suffix 
has first united itself upon German ground. In Gothic, 
aftra means "again,*" which I look upon as an abbreviar 
tion of aftara, as in Latin extra, intrOf contra^ and others, 
as feminine adjectives, from extera, &c. In regard 
to the termination however, a/trap and similar forms 
in tra, thra, appear to me as datives, ue. original in- 
strumentals (§• 160.)^ as also, in the Sanskrit, this case occurs 
as an adverb, e.g. in ^Hir^ antarina, "between." Per- 
haps, also, the Sanskrit pronominal adverbs in tra, although 
they have a locative meaning, like im yatra, "where,*** 
are to be regarded as instrumental forms, according to 
the principle of the 2iend language (§. 158.), and of the 
gerund in ij ya, (Gramm. Crit. §. 638. Rem.), so that their 
tra would be to be derived from trt tard : compare forms 
like ST^^iTYT manushya-trdf " inter homines '' (Gramm. Crit. 

* Regarding dar and tar for thoTf see §. 91. 

t Grimm however, also, at II. 121. &c., dividos brdth-ar, vatar 
("brother," " father "), although the many analogous words denoting rela- 
tionship in the German and the cognate langoages clearly prove the T sound 
to belong to the derivative suffix (see Granmi. Crit. §. 178. Rem.). 


§. 252. 8u£ trd). As (rftra is related to aflat, so is the Gothic 
viihra, ''against/' to the Old High German widar, our wider, 
the primitive of which is supplied by the Sanskrit through its 

[G.Ed. p. 896.] inseparable preposition f^ vi, which ex- 
presses separation, distraction, e.g. in visrip, "to go from one 
another/' "to disperse.^^ Exactly similar is the Sanskrit 
f^ ni, to which I was the first to prove the meaning "below *' 
to belong,* and whence comes the adjective cfW nicha, " low^ 
(Gramm.Crit§. ill.), the base of our nieder, Old High Ger- 

[G. Ed. p. 397.] man ni-dar.-f From htn-daT^ Old High 
German hin-tar, comes our hin-ter which has already been 
discussed (p. 394, G. ed. compare Grimm. HI. 177. c). 
In the Old High German sun-dar, Gothic sun-^ro, 
" 9eorsim,** afterwards a preposition, our sondem, dar is, 
in like manner, clearly the comparative suflBx, and the 
base appears to me, in spite of the difference of signi- 

* It is nsual to attribute to it the meamng ''in,*' ''into/' which cannot 
in any way be sapported. 

t Grimm assents to my opinion, which has been already expressed in 
another place, regarding the relationship of fVf ni and nidar (III. 258, 
259) : he wishes, however, to divide thus nid'Or, and to suppose a Gothic 
verb nithan, nath, nMurif to which the Old High German gindda (our 
Gnade) may belong. Does, however, gi-ndda really signify humiiiias? 
It appears that only the meaning gratia can be p^ved to belong to it ; 
and this is also given by Grimm, I. 617. and II. 235. gratia, humanitas^ 
where he divides ki-nd-da, which appears to me correct, and according to 
which nd would be the root, and da the derivative suffix ; as in the etymo- 
logically clear ki-wd-da, " affiatus,'* to which the Sanskrit gives ^ toa, 
" to blow," as root, the Gothic gives v6 ($. C9.) {vaia^ vaivd). To gi-nd- 
'da, indeed, the Sanskrit supplies no root nd, but perhaps nam, ^' to bend 
oneself," the m of which, according to the laws of euphony, is suppressed 
before /, which does not produce Guna ; as nata, " bent," nati, " bending," 
with the preposition sam, san-nati, which Wilson explains by " reverence," 
" obeisance,'' " reverential salutation." As the Gothic inseparable prepo- 
sition ga, Old High German gi or Art, is, as Grimm first acutely remarked, 
identical mih the Sanskrit sam, gi-nd-da has much the same formation 
with san-na-ti : it would, however, still better agree with the feminine 



fication, related to the Sanskrit 9sv sam, "with '* (compare 
Gothic samath, " together with/' Old High German samant), 
and the u, therefore, is from a, according to §. 66. The 
Latin con-tra, however, is nearly just as much opposed in 
meaning to its primitive cum; and as cum (compare avv) 
belongs, in like manner, to TCV sam, so sundar, sundrd, and 
contra, would be, in a double respect, sister forms. Observe, 
also, the Gothic samath, Old High German samant, ^'to- 
getlier with": the latter answers surprisingly to the 
Sanskrit WfRf samanta (from sam + anta, ** an end '^), the 
ablative of which, samantdt, as also the adverb, samantatas, 
mean "everywhere.*' Perhaps, too, in all other Old High 
German adverbs in rd (Grimm. HI. 214.), the said inir anta 
is contained, for the meaning " end," cannot be unexpected 
in adverbs of place and time, and, like MUte^ ^'mid,"" 

passive participle san-na-td. Be that as it may, so much is certain, that 
there is no necessity for a hypothetic Gothic base nith or nath, either for 
the substantive gi'-nada or for the preposition rddar^ as they can be fally 
set at rest by the existence of a Sanskrit primitive ftf nt, '^ below,'' and 
the comparative suffix dar, which frequently occurs in prepositions. And 
as the circumstance that genuine original prepositions never come from 
verbs, but are connected with pronouns, I must, with regard to its etymo- 
logy, keep back every verb from our nidar. Grimm wishes also to divide 
the Gothic preposition vi-thrd, Old High German wUdar^ into vith-ra, 
wid-ar, and to find their base in the Anglo-Saxon preposition widh^ 
English withy Old Sclavonic wid, Old Norman vidh, Swedish vid^ Danish 
vtd, which mean '^ with," and, according to appearance, are wanting in 
the Gothic and High German. If, however, one considers the easy and 
frequent interchange of r, ft, and m (^ift vdri^ " water, "=77: are, i9/>ordr=: 

i^nfT mriias, ** mortuus *'), one would rather recognise, in the above pre- 
positions, dialectic variations of sound from the Gothic mithf which is of 
the same import with them (=the Zend ix^As^ ^^f)f BSid which, in most 
of the dialects mentioned, maintains itself equally with the other forms ; 
as it often occurs, in the history' of languages, that the true form of a word 
is equally preserved with a corruption of it. 


(compare inmiUenf "in the midst'*) and Anfang^ "begin- 
ning,"' it attaches itself first to the prepositional ideas : 
therefore hinont, "this side,** enoidt "that side," would be 
the same as " at this end,"" " at that end.'" With regard 
to the comparative forms there is, further, the Old High 
German for-datt fur-dir Q'porrOf^ ** ampUm^X our fur^der 
to be mentioned, whence der vordere, vorderste, 

[G. Ed. p. 398.] " Remark 1. — As we have endeavoured 
above to explain the Gothic qf4ra and vithra as datives, I be- 
lieve I can with still more confidence present the forms in 
thrd or tard as remarkable remains of ablatives. Their mean- 
ing corresponds most exactly to that of the Sanskrit ablative, 
which expresses the withdrawing from a place, and to that of 
the Greek adverbs in dev ; thus hva-ihrdf " whence?'* tha-ihrd, 
"thence,*' ffain-thrS, "hence," alya-thrd, "from another 
quarter," inna-thrd, " from within," uta-thrS^ " from with- 
out," af-iarC, " from behind," dala-thrd, " from under," and 
some others, but only from pronouns, and, what is nearly the 
same, prepositions. I might, therefore, derive dalathrS, 
not from dal, "a valley," but suppose a connection with 
the Sanskrit IVH^ adhara, " the under person," with aph- 
seresis of the a and the very common exchange of the r 
with / (§. 20.). Perhaps, however, on the contrary, thai is 
so named from the notion of the part below. As to the 
ablative forms in tard, ihrS, the 6 corresponds to the San- 
skrit 61 (§. 179.), with d, according to rule, for in A (§. 69.), 
and apocope of the i ; so that 6 has the same relation to 
the to-be-presupposed 6t that in Greek ourco has to oSru^^ 
from OLTCOT (§. 183. Note ♦ p. 20l). Many other Gothic ad- 
verbs in 6y as «riteind, " always," sniumundd^ " hastily," «pran<^, 
" suddenly," ihridyd, " thirdly." &c., might then, although 
an ablative meaning does not appear more plainly in them 
than in the Latin perpetuOy dto, subito, teriio, and others, be 
rather considered as ablatives than as neuter accusatives of 
indefinite (Grimm's weak) (orms ; so that ihridvd would 


answer to the Sanskrit ablative tritiydi, while the common 
Gothic declension extends the ordinal bases in a by an 
unorganic n; thus THRIDYAN, nom. tkridva. It must 
be further observed, that all unorganic adjective bases in 
an are, in general, only used where the adjective is ren- 
dered definite through a pronoun preceding it ; that there- 
fore the forms in 6, which pass for adverbial, are, for the 
very reason that no pronoun precedes them, better as- 
signed to the definite (strong) declension than to the inde- 
finite; especially as most of them are only remains of 
an old adjective, which is no longer preserved in other 
cases, and, according to their formation, belong to a period 
where the indefinite adjective declension had not yet re-, 
ceived the unorganic addition of an n. As to the transla- 
tion of rovvavTiov, 2 Cor. ii. 7., by thaia andaneithd, here of 
course andaneithd is the neuter accusative; but the in- 
ducement for using the indefinite form is supplied by the 
article, and rovvavrlov could not be otherwise literally ren- 
dered. The case may be similar with 2 Cor. iv. 17., where 
Castiglione takes thaia andavairthd for the [G. £d. p. 399.] 
nominative, but Grimm for the adverbial accusative : as it 
would else be an unsuitable imitation of the Greek text, 
where to does not belong to avTiKa, but to e\a(pp6v. In my 
opinion, however, it can in no case be inferred from these 
passages that the adverbs in 6, without an article preceding 
them, belong to the same category. Moreover, also, anda- 
neiiho and andavairthd do not occur by themselves alone ad- 
verbially. As, then, ihr6 has shewn itself to us to be an 
abbreviation of thrdt, it is a question whether the suppres- 
sion of the ^ by a universal law of sound was requisite, as 
in Greek, and in the Prakrit, all T sounds are rejected 
from the end of words, or changed into 2. It is certain 
that the T sounds {t, th, d), which, in the actual condi- 
tion of the Gothic, are finals, as far as we can follow their 
etymology, had originally a vowel after them, so that 

c c 


they are final sounds of a second generation, comparable 
in that respect to the Sclavonic final consonants (§. 255. L). 
This holds good, for example, with regard to th^ d, in the 
3d person singular and plural, and the 2d person plural 
= Sanskrit fir ti, ^iftir arUh V tha or ?r ta ; and I explain the 
th or dt which, in pronominal bases, expresses direction to 
a place, as coming from the Sanskrit suffix v dha ("^ ha) ; 
which, in like manner, in pronouns expresses the locative 
relation. The passing over from the locative relation to 
the accusative, expressing the direction whitlier, cannot be 
surprising, as, even in Sanskrit, the common locative ad- 
verbs in tra^ and the ablatives in ias^ occur also with accu- 
sative meaning, t. e. expressing the direction to a place 
(see tatra in my Glossary). The Sanskrit suffix v dha 
appears, in common language, abbreviated to Aa, and is 
found, indeed, only in i~ha, "here,"' from the pronominal 
base i and irf sa-ha — in the Vedic dialect and Zend sa-dha — 
which I derive from the pronominal base sa. It ought, 
according to its origin, and consistently with the usual 
destination of the suffix dha, to mean "here or there": it 
has, however, become a preposition, which expresses " with.** 
The adverb ^ lAo, '*here," is, in Zend, as^ idhot^ and fre- 
[G. Ed. p. 400.] quently occurs in combination with Asy na^ 
"not''; so that xs^xyj na6dhdt means " nor," answering to 
ft^^^/ n6U. "neither" (literally "not it," from na-hit, §. 33.). 
From As»A5 ava and as^a^as aSla, "this" (mas.), comes a5^»as 

♦ Vend. S&de, p 868. several times: a5»as^a)0^ ^^^ as^ ^^j 
imahidha vachd framrava, "hac hie verba enunUoy" which Anquetil 
translates by ^' en prononfant bien ces paroles" In the same page also 
occurs repeatedly as^as adha, with the same meaning, fipom the demon- 
strative base fl, as in the Vdda's W>| adha (Rosen's Sp. p. 10), without 
perceptible meaning. 

t a + • makes i, according to f . 2. ; and from nidha is formed, by §. 28., 


avadha and as^^a^a) aita-dlia (Vend. S. p. 164). To the 
Zend-Vedic suffix dha corresponds most exactly the Greek 
Oa, in ev0a and evrau-da, "here." Perhaps ev0a and a5 ^ 
i-dlia, ^ iha, are, with regard to their base, identical ; 
€v0a, therefore, is for IfvBa from tBa (comp. in, inde), as nasals 
are easily prefixed to another consonant, and thus d/x^/ an- 
swers to ti?fil abhi, a/x0ci> to mit ubhdu, Old Sclavonic oba ; 
but avOa, in the triple compound ev-r-avda, is completely 
the Zend a5(oa)»a5 avadha, whose theme ava has been con- 
tracted in the Greek to av (compare av-di and av^og, the latter 
being combined with the article), but in the Old Sclavonic it is 
more correctly preserved in the form of OVO.* To the word 
^^ ihafyOf " of this place," which is derived from ^ iha 
through the suffix ig tya, corresponds the Greek evddcnog, 
with or from t ; compare, with regard to the suffix* the Latin 
propiiius from prope^ and, in the Gothic, frama-thva, ** a 
foreigner," through which the preposition /ram shews itself 
to be an abbreviation of frama. As in the Sanskrit the suffix 
nr tya belongs only to local adverbs and prepositions, so might 
also the Gothic ni-thyiSf '' cousin" (for ni-tityas, §. 135.), as 
propinquus, or one who stands somewhat lower in relationship 
than a brother, &c.,t ^ derived from the [G. £d. p. 401.] 

* Before my acquaintance with the Zend, and deeper examination of 
the Sclavonic, I believed I could make ont the Greek base av to agree 
with the Sanskrit amuy " iUe," by casting out the m (as Kovpof with Arti- 
mdra) : now, however, w^ ava and OFO h&ve clearly nearer claims to 
take the Greek forms between them. 

t Terms of relationship often express the relation, of which they are 
the representatives, very remotely, but ingeniously. Thus «fv naptri, 
^^a grandson," is, I have no doubt, compounded of na^ ''not," and pitri, 
'^father" ; and " not-£Either '' is regarded as a possessive compound, '* not 
having as father,'* in relation to the grandfather, who is not the &ther of 
the grandson. In Latin it would be difficult to find the etymology of 


nepos {nepot') — and the same may be said of our word neffe — ^without the 
aid of the word VainTf which is fully preserved from the Sanskrit. In the 

c c 2 meaning 


ancient preposition ni, mentioned at p. 382, from which, 
in Sanskrit, nitya actually comes, but difiereutly related^ 
and with a signification answering less to the meaning 
of the preposition, namely, sempiternus. In consideration 
of the aspirates in Greek being easily interchanged, and, 
e.y, in the Doric, "OPNIX is said for t)PNI0, one may also 
recognise in the syllable %o, in forms like iravra^o-^ev, 
wavra-xo-o-e, 7ro\\axo(J€, and others, a cognate form of the 
suflBx 0a, dha, or of the corrupted f ha (comp. §. 23.). At 
the bottom of these forms lies, in my opinion, as the theme, 
the plural neuter, which need not be wondered at, as irAvra 
and 7ro\\a are also used as first members of compounds 
(iroAAa-ajy/xof, 7rarra-/LtO|O0oj). Havraxo might, in the iden- 
tity of its suffix with fla, c/Aa, or ha, mean " everywhere '*\ 
whence may then be said 'rravTaxo-<f€, " from everywhere,** 
&c., as we combine our locative adverbs wo and da with 
her and hin {woher, wohin) ; and in Greek, also, e/ceTdi, eKeTae, 
CKeidev^ which might literally mean in illic, versus illic, ab 
illic, as eicei is a local adverb. Forms in ^o, however, are in 
a measure raised to themes capable of declension, though 
only for adverbs, and develope, also, case-forms, as wavTo^oC, 
vavraxoi (old locative and dative), irairra)(rj. The addition 
of new suffixes or terminations to those already existing, 
but which are obsolete, appears to me assuredly more natural 
than, as Buttmann supposes, the introduction of an un- 
meaning ax or even a^o, in which case we should have 
to divide iravr-axi-dev, &c. But as the 3^0 under discus- 
sion has arisen from da, dha, I think I recognise in the 
XI of 5x' a corruption of the suffix fli, from ftr dAi ; in 
which respect might be compared ay^h as a sister form to 

meaning of Neffe the negation of the relationship of father points to the 
node. The Indian Grammarians, according to Wilson, see in naptri the 
negation, but not the father, but the root paty " to fall," and a Un&di 
suffix tri. 


^E(f^ adhit "to," "towards," with a nasal introduced. Asa 
third form in wliich the Vedic-Zend suffix dha appears in 
Greek, I notice <re, with <r for ft n dh, as fieaog from nm 
mudhya, "midst," the y of which has assimilated itself, 
in the form fieaaogf to the <r. The suffix <re, however, in 
that it is altered from its original intention to denote 
rest in a place, to the expression of motion to a place, 
answers to the Gothic th or d, whence we set out in this 
examination, in forms like hva-ih, ira-o-e, " whither ?"" also 
hvad — John xiii. 3. hvad gaggis, vov wraYeiy — yain-dt eKei-cre, 
alya-ihy aKKo-ae. To the Zend idha, Greek evfla, corresponds 
i'th; which, however, contrary to the original intention of 
the form, does not mean "thither," but is used as a con- 
junction— "but," " if," " then'' (1 Cor. vii. 7.). To this class, 
also, belongs ath, which only occurs in combination with than 
--ath'than, " buC like ith-than ; and it has [G. Ed. p. 402] 
the Vedic-Zend a-dha as prototype (§. 399.). Thad, in com- 
bination witli the relative particle ei, which is probably con- 
nected with H ya, has preserved the original locative 
meaning together with the accusative, and thad-ei may be 
cited as "where" and "whither." The d in these forms, 
answering to tlie Greek ft agrees with the rule for the transmu- 
tation of sounds (§. 87.); and it is to be observed that medials 
at the end of a word freely pass into aspirates — compare bautk, 
bu-^Ium (§.91.);— so that the Gothic T sound of the suffix 
under discussion, after it has, in one direction, diverged from 
the Greek, has, in another, again approached it 

"Remark 2. — As we have above recognised ablatives in 
the formations in thrd, tard, so we find in this comparative 
suffix, also, a remnant of the Sanskrit locative; in which, 
however, as in the adverbs in th, d, the expression of 
reiK)se in a place is changed into that of motion to a 
place— in A Wr A* "hither," Mark xi. 3. Luke xi v. 21.; hva-drS, 
"whither.^" John vii. 35. On the other hand, yaindri ac- 

♦ Vide §.991. 


tually occurs with a locative meaning; tharei leik^ yaindrS 
galisand aik aranSf 'ofwou to aiofjia, ckci (Tvvoc)(6rja'ovTai ol aeroL* 
Compare these forms with the Sanskrit, as, adharit "in 
the lower," and the Lithuanian wilki (§. 197.). That, how- 
ever, the Gothic 6, which in the genitive plural masculine 
and neuter answers to the Sanskrit WT A (§. 69.), moreover 
corresponds to f ^^ is proved by preterites like n^tim, 
'we took/ answering to the singular nam\ as, in Sanskrit, 
^ftnr nSmima, * we bent ourselves,' answers to •Ttfii nanama 
or HHIH nanAma, *I bent myself/ " 

295. The superlative suffix jm lama occurs in the Gothic 
also in the form of TUMAN, nominative tuma, or, with 
d for t in prepositional derivations, either simply or in com- 
bination with the common superlative suffix 1ST A; thus, 
af-tumaf **posferuSf^ af-tumistSf ** postremus,^* hin-dumhts, " ex- 

tremus.^^ If one considers the Indian suffix wv tamth to 
have suffered apocope of the a— as in Latin, also, iimus ap- 
pears abbreviated to tim in adverbs like viri-Hm, caierva-tim^ 
which I have already, in another place (Heidelb. Jahrb. 1918. 
p. 480), explained, together with forms like legHimus^ as 
superlatives — one may look for that tarn in the Gothic cor- 
[G. Ed. p. 403.] rupted to tana, after the analogy of the ac- 
cusative masculine of pronouns, like tha-na = WR iam, t6v, hva- 
-fia = ^iiT ka-m, "whom?''; and accordingly regard the pre- 
positional derivations in tana, cfrma, as superlative forms; thus, 
Gothic af-tana, " behind "; hindana, irepav, Old High German 
ni'dana, "under" (compare our hie-nieden, "here below." As, 
however, in Old High German there exist, also, formations 
in ana without a preceding t sound (Grimm III. 203, &c.), 
it is a question whether innana " within," Azana " abroad," 
forana shortened to forna " from the beginning,'' ferrana 
*' 'ir6pp(M)d€v," rAmana " from a distance," hdhana ** vxIroBev,^ 
heimina "otKoOev,'* have lost a t or a d preceding the a; 
or if they are formed after those in tana, dana, in the 
notion that the whole of the suffix consists merely of ana ; 
or, finally, whether they rest on some other principle. 


The preposition obar, " over," Gothic ufar, which answers 
to the Sanskrit T^ft upari, Greek inrepf has, in the 
same manner, an adverb obana^ "above^ corresponding 
to it. 

296. In the Sanskrit the appellations of the quarters 
of the heavens come from prepositions in combination 
with the root w^ anch, '* to go^' ; thus the east is denoted 
as " that which is before/' by irn^ prdnch, from Upra, " before "' ; 
the west as "that which is over against it,'' hyjRir9 pratyanclh 
from nfif pro/i, "opposite''; the south as "that below/' 
by ^H^ra at'dncA, from w^ av<h "below'*; and its opposite 
pole, the north, as " that above," is called V^^ udancht 
from ^ utt " up." Now it is remarkable that in German 
the names of the quarters of the world shew themselves 
through their terminations, Old High German tar and famr, 
or as they so frequently occur in prepositions, dar, dana^ to be 
derivations from prepositions, though the nature of their 
origin has become obscure. The custom of the language 
disposes of the forms in r and na in such a manneri 
that the former expresses the direction whither (Grimm. 
Iir. 205.), the latter the direction whence, which, however, 
was not, perhaps, the original intention of the terminations, 
both which seem adapted to express the same direction ; 
the former comparatively, with a glance at [Q. Ed. p. 404.] 
that which is opposite, the latter superlatively, in relation 
to all the quarters of the globe, as, p. 376, ^iHR 
ikatara, " one of two persons," but ^^nnv ikatama, " one 
of many persons." The west may perhaps be most satisfac- 
torily explained, and in fact, as being etymologically pointed 
out to be that which lies over against the east, as in Sanskrit. 
For this object we betake ourselves to the prepositional 
base wi, mentioned at p. 382, whence the comparative 
wi-dar. We do not, however, require to deduce wes-tar,* 

* By writing ir?, Grimm marks the cormptioii of the e from i, in which 
I readily agree with him. 


*.' towards the west," w'es-tana,** from the west," from 
the derivative widar; but we may keep to its base wi, 
with the assumption of a euphonic s; as in the Sanskrit, 
also, some prepositions terminating in vowels in certain 
combinations, and before consonants which are disposed 
to have an 9 before them, assume this letter; e.g. pra» 
iishkasa for pratikasa ; and as in Latin abs, os (for obs), 
from ab, ob (§. 96.). But if it were preferred to deduce 
wesiar, westana, from the derivative widar, it would 
then be necessary to force the d of derivation into 
the base, and, according to §. 102., change it into s. 
The east is more difficult of explanation than the west 
— Old High German Ss-ixir, "towards the east," ds^tana, 
"from the east,*' — for several prepositions start up toge- 
ther that would gladly sustain this quarter of the heavens. 
It is not necessary that the preposition after which the 
east is named should elsewhere, also, be received as a 
German preposition; for in this appellation a prejx>- 
sition might have incorporated itself, which, except in this 
case, is foreign to the practice of the German language. 
[G. Ed. p. 406.] It may therefore be allowable for us, 
first of all, to turn to a preposition which, in the Indian 
language, is prefixed to the south, and, in the German, 
may have changed its position to the east; the more so, 
as, with prepositions, the principal point is always where 
one stands, and the direction to which one is turned ; 
and one may, with perfect justice, turn that which is at the 
bottom to the uppermost, or to the front. In Zend, ava, 
which in Sanskrit signifies " below/' exists as a pronoun, 
and means "this"; and as this pronoun is also proper to 
the Sclavonic {OVO, nom. ov), and occurs in Greek as au, 
{av'dt, auTof, see p. 387), it need not surprise us to find an 
obsolete remnant of this base in German, and that the 
east is taken as the side opposed to the west Here it 
may be necessary to observe, that in Sanskrit the pre- 
position arci. in like qianner, annexes a euphonic •«; from 


nvas, therefore, by suppressing the last a but one, would 
arise (iis iu Greek av) aus (different from our aus, Old 
High German uz, Gothic t/t, in Sanskrit TiT vt, ** up ''), 
and hence, according to §. 80., 6a: the old northern form 
is austr, austan. The Latin aus-ter might then — to which 
Grimm has already alluded (Wiener Jahrb. B. 28. p. 32) — 
be placed with more confidence beside the Old High 
German as a sister form, and led back by the hand of our 
comparative suffix to the preposition, which in Sanskrit 
has given its name to the south, bold as it at the first 
glance might appear, if we declared aus-ter and ^v^ra avdnch 
{ava + anch), "southern," to be related. The derivations 
from haurio, or avu), certainly deserve less notice. As, 
however, the juxta-position of ausiar with the Latin auster 
and the Indian preposition ava, avasy is most suitable, 
we refrain from giving other prepositional modes in 
which one might arrive at the appellation of the east in 
German. As the most natural point of departure, we 
cannot place it in so subordinate a position to the west as to 
mark it out as " not west " (a-mtar from a- [G. Ed. p. 406.] 
-w'estar). We turn now to the south, in Old High Ger- 
man sun-dar, " towards the south," sundana, ** from the 
south,'' the connection of which with the sundrd, sundar, 
mentioned at p. 383, is not to be mistaken. The south, 
therefore, appeared to our ancestors as the remote dis- 
tance, and the reason for the appellation of this quarter 
of the heavens being clearly in allusion to space, is a new 
guarantee for the prepositional derivation of the names for 
east and west, as also for the fact that the designation of the 
north, too, has subjected itself to a preposition, although it is 
still more veiled in obscurity than that of the three sister 
appellations. We cannot, however, omit calling atten- 
tion to the Sanskrit preposition ftTTI nis, which signifies 
** out, without,"' and before sonant letters, to which d belongs 
(§. 25.) according to a universal law of euphony, appears 


in the form of nir, which it is also usual to represent as 
the original form. 

297. In the Old Sclavonic the Indo-Greek compara- 
tive sujQBz occurs in vtoryi, " the second '" (m.), in which 
the definitive pronoun is contained (p. 352) : vtory-i, then, 
is formed from vtoro-i (§. 255. d), in which the cardi- 
nal number dwa is melted down to v, corresponding in 
this respect to the Zend 6 in b-yarh "two years,^ but 
singular, with 6 as a hardened form from v. To the 
Sanskrit W!(Kkatara, "which of two? hl"' (Gothic hva-ihar) 
and ipxt ya-tarnt " which of both,'^ corresponds etymolo- 
gically, the Old Sclavonic ko-iory-i (as definitive),, older 
ko-tery-i and ye-ter, feminine ve-tera (ye-re/oa), neuter 
yeAero. The origin of these two pronouns is, however, 
forgotten, together with their comparative meaning ; for 
kotoryi means "who?'^ and yeter, "some one" (compare 
p. 352). Dobrowsky (p. 343), however, in which he is 

[G. Ed. p. 407.] clearly wrong, divides the suffix into 
ot'or; for although the interrogative base ITO may 
lay aside its o, and combine with the demonstrative base to 
(jitOf "quis?^ Dobr. p. 342), still it is more in accordance 
with the history of language to divide ko-ioryi than kot- 
oryi or koto-ryi, as the formation or would there stand 
quite isolated ; and besides this the pronoun i, " he,'^ 
from yOf does not occur in combination with the demon- 
strative base to, and yet ye-ter is said. 

298. A small number of comparatives are formed in 
Sanskrit by f|ii^ iyos, and the corresponding superlative by 
^ ishtha, in which ishtha, as has been already remarked 
(p. 389.), we recognise a derivation from fyas in its con- 
traction to ish (compare ishtat "ofiered,'' from yc^), so 
that the suffix of the highest degree is properly ^ t/*a, 
through which, also, the ordinal numbers 'tj^ chatur-thaa 
(rera/o-To-f), and iTTO shash-thas (e^c-roj), arc formed, for 
the notion of the superlative lies very close to tlie ordinal 


numbers above two, as that of order does to the super- 
latives, and hence the suffix inv tama occurs in ordinal 
numbers ; e.g. fl^irddHH vinsati'tama'Sf " the twentieth,^* 
wherefore ma, in forms like inR^ pancha-ma-s, " the fifth,^ 
may be held to be an abbreviation of tama. To' the form 
ish, contracted from tyas — euphonic for is — ^in Greek and 
Zend is, corresponds the Latin is, in the superlatives in 
is-simus, which I deduce through assimilation from is-timw 
(comp. §. 101.); the simple is, however, which, viewed 
from Latin, is a contraction of ids (§.22.), appears in the 
simple form in the adverb mag-is, which may be compared 
with fieyig in fieyta^o^. In the strong cases (§.129.) the 
Indian comparative shews a broader form than the tyas 
above, namely, a long d and a nasal preceding the s, thus 
firhr iydns (see §. 9.), This form, how- [G. Ed. p. 408.] 
ever, may originally have been current in all the cases, 
as the strong form in general (§. 129.), as is probable 
through the pervading long o in Latin, idris, iorif &c., if 
one would not rather regard the length of the Latin o as 
compensation for the rejected nasal: compare the old 
accusative mel-iosem, mentioned in §. 22., with Sanskrit 

forms like lilili^H gar-tydns-am (graviorem). The breadth 
of the suffix, which is still remarkable in the more 
contracted from (pas, may be the cause why the form 
of the positive is exposed to great reductions before 
it; so that not only final vowels are rejected, as gene- 
rally before Taddhita suffixes* beginning with a vowel, but 
whole suffixes, together with the vowel preceding them, 

are suppressed (Gramm. Crit §. 252.) ; e. g. from iTfilinr 
muli-nrtf, "intelligent," from mati, "understanding," comes 
mat'-iyds; from ballvaf, "strong" ("gifted with strength," 

♦ The Taddhita suffixes aro those which form derivative words not 
primitives direct from the root itself. 


from bala + vat), hal-iyas; from kshiprOf "quick** (from 
the base kship, "to throw"), comes kMp-iyaa; from 
kshudra, " insignificant," kshid-iyas ; from tripra, " satis- 
fied," trap- ly as; since with vowels capable of Guna the 
dropping of the suffix is compensated by strengthening 
the radical syllable by Guha, as in the Zend vaSdisia; 
which Bumouf (Valiista, p. 22) deduces, as it appears to me, 
with equal correctness and acuteness from vidvas {yidvd^ 
§. 56\, Sanskrit vidwas), " knowing.** With respect to 
trapiyast from iripra, let it be observed that ar, as Guna of 
ri, is easily transposed to ra (Gramm. Crit. §. 34*.) : compare 
the Greek eSpaKov for eiapKov ; Tcarpaci for tfaTapai (see 
p. 290, G. ed.). In a similar manner M. Ag. Benary explains 
the connection of vartyas with uru "great," with which he 
rightly compares the Greek eipv^ (Berl. Jahrb. 1834. I. 
[G. Ed. p. 409.] pp. 230, 231). But vartyas might also 
come from vara, " excellent," and uru might be an abbrevia- 
tion of varuy which easily runs into one. To the su- 
perlative ^ftv varislitha, which does not only mean laiisn- 
mus but also optimus, the Greek apurros (therefore Fapitrro^) 
is without doubt akin, the connection of which with evpv^ one 
could scarcely have conjectured without the Sanskrit. Re- 
markable, too, is the concurrence of the Greek with the 
Sanskrit in this point, that the former, like the latter, be- 
fore the gradation suffix under discussion, disburthens itself 
of other more weighty suffixes (compare Burnouf s Vahista, 
p. 28) ; thus, exOtOTo^, atayiaro^, oiKTiaroSy KviiOTOSf fi^Kiarog^ 
a\yt<rTog, from e^Opo^, &c., exactly as above kshipishthas and 
others from kshipra; and I believe I can hence explain, ac- 
cording to the same principle, the lengthening of the vowel in 
fxrjKKTTo^, fxd(T<Tov, from fiaKpog, on which principle also rests 
the Guna in analogous Sanskrit forms— namely, as a com- 
pensation for the suppression of the suffix. The case is 
the same with the lengthened vowel in forms like da<r<7oi/, 
aa-aov, where Buttmann (§. 67. Rem. 3. N. **) assumes that 


the comparative t has fallen back and united itself with 
the a (a) ; while, in my opinion, a different account is to be 
given of what has become of the i in forms like dia-auyv, 
/Bpaa-aoiiv (§. 300.). The formation of fiiyKno^ from fiiyag, 
from fieyaKo-^y is similar to the origin, in Sanskrit, of 

^f^ banhishtha, from bahuia, " much "; from 6a/m, ** much'^ 
comes bhdyhhtha ; and fiey-Krrog, in relation to MErAAO, has 
lost as mi^ch as banh-ishfha, compared with bahula, only that 
the Sanskrit positive base is compensated for the loss otula by 
the addition of a nasal ; which therefore, as Ag. Benary 
(1. c.) has very correctly remarked, rests on the same 
principle with the Guna in kshipishtha, &c.* 

•* Remark. — It will then, also, be necessary [G. Ed. p. 410.] 
— as Burnouf (Ya^na, p. 131) first pointed out, but afterwards 
(Vahista, p. 25), in my opinion, wrongly retracted — to explain 

the ^ ^ of sriyas, '* better/' srishtha, ** the best/' as coming 
from the i of irf, " fortune," by Guna, instead of the common 
view, in which I formerly concurred, of substituting a useless 
sra as positive, and hence, by contraction with iyas, ishtha^ 
forming sriyas, srhhtha. From sri comes the derivative sri- 
mat, " fortunate,"" from which I deduce sri-yas, M-shtha^ by 
the prescribed removal of the suffix.f although one might 

* The Guna, however, in the gradation forms under discussion, might 
also be accounted for in a different way, namely, by bringing it into con- 
nection with the Vriddhi, which occurs before many other Taddhita 
suffixes, especially in patronymics, as ^^f^Hf vaivaswaia, from f^HW 
vivaswat. On account of the great weight of the gradation suffixes iyas, 
ishtlia, which has given rise to the suppression of the suffix of the positive 
base, the initial vowel also of the same would accordingly be raised by 
the weaker Guna, instead of by the Vriddhi, as usual ($. 20.). Be that 
how it may, one must in any case have ground to assume an historic con- 
nection between the Grecian vowel-lengthening in /i^jctarof, Baa-a-ov, and 
others, and that of Sanskrit forms like kshSptyaSy kghSpiahiha, 

t If there existed, as in Zend, a ir'tra, one might hence also derive the 
above gradations. 


expect in the superlative sray-ishtha, euphonic for srS-ishiha ; 
and on this ground it is that Burnouf takes his objection. 
But as in Greek eica-oroj, o-Konrro^ (see p. 376), in spite of 
the want of the i of ktto^, are nevertheless nothing else than 
superlative forms, I do not see why, in certain cases, in 
Sanskrit, also, the suppression of an i may not hold good. 
This happens, moreover, in tthi-shtha from sthi-raf " fast,**' 
sphi'slitha from sphi-ra, " swollen,'' and pr^-shtha from priy-a, 
" dear." In the latter case, after removing the suffix a, 
the preceding y, also, must retire, since priy is only a 
euphonic alteration of prl (Gramm. Crit §. 51.) As to the 
derivation, however, of the meanings meUor, opiimus, from 
a positive with the meaning " fortunate," it may be further 
remarked, that, in Sanskrit, " fortune " and ** splendour "' 
are generally the fundamental notions for that which is 
good and excellent ; hence, bhagavaU " the honourable," " the 
[G. Ed. p. 411.] excellent," properly, " the man gifted with 
fortune "; for our besserer, beiAert also Gothic bat-iza, bat-ists, 
are associated with a Sanskiit root denoting fortune {bhcul^ 
whence bhadra, "fortunate,'" "excellent''), which Pott was 
acute enough first to remark (Etymol. Inquiries, p. 245), who 
collates also bdtiian, " to use." The old d gives, according 
to §. 87., in the Gothic t, and the Sanskrit bh becomes 6. 
It might appear too daring if we made an attempt to refer 
melior also to this root ; but cognate words often assume the 
most estranged form through doubled transitions of sound, 
which, although doubled, are usual. It is very common for 
d to become I (§. 17.), and also between labial medials and the 
nasal of this organ there prevails no unfrequent exchange 
(comp. §. 63.). If,' also, the Greek /SeKrluiv, ^e\Ti(rToy, should 
belong to this class, and the t be an unorganic addition, which 
is wanting in j9e\-Te/ooj, /SeK-Taro^, fie\ would then give the 
middle step between H^ bhad and mel. The ideal positive 
of fieKTtiav, napiely ayadog, might be connected with mnm 
agddhat " deep," with which, also, the Gothic g6tlis (theme 


gdda) is to be compared, with 6, according to rule, for WT A 
(§. 69.), and medials for Greek aspirates, according to §. 87. 

299. From the strong theme f;^h^ iy&ns, mentioned at 
§. 298., comes the nominative iyduf with the suppression 
of the final letter rendered necessary through §. 94. The 
vocative has a short a, and sounds iyan. To tyan answers 
the Greek Tcoi^, and to the vocative iyan answers lov\ to 
the neuter tyas (N. A. V.), identical with the weak theme, 
corresponds the Latin ius (§. 22.), The Greek, however, 
cannot become repossessed of the 5, which is abandoned 
in Sanskrit in the nominative and vocative masculine for 
legitimate reasons, since it declines^ its comparative as 
tliough its theme terminated from the first with v\ hence 
accusative lov^a for the Sanskrit ^^^iltai^ iydns-am Latin 
ior-em {ids-em, §. 22.), genitive 7ov-oj for iyas-as, ior-is. 
However, one might, as Pott has already, I^ believe, noticed 
somewhere, reduce the contracted forms like j8e\T/a>, 
^eKrlovq, to an original Ifxrajoae^^ ioaas, corresponding to 
iydnsam, iydnsi (neuter plural), iydns-as, iyas-as^ the o- of 
which, as is so common between two vowels, would be 
rejected.* On the other hand, v, except in [G. Ed. p. 412.] 
comparatives, on the presupposition that the contracted forms 
have rejected an v and not <r, is suppressed only in a few 
isolated words f AttoWo), IIo<r6i$(0, e/icco, gcy/joO^, and a few 
others), which, however, the theoretic derivation of the com- 
parative 2 renders very embarrasing. We would therefore 
prefer giving up this, and assuming, that while th^ Sanskrit 
in the weak, i,e, in the majority of cases, has abandoned 
the former consonant of lif, the Greek, which was still 
less favourable to the vcr-, has given up the latter, as 
perhaps one may suppose in the oldest, as it were, pre- 
Grecian period, forms like ^eKriovaa. It is, however, 
remarkable, that while all other European sister lan- 

« Comp. p. 325 G. ed. 


gusges have only preserved the last element of I 
comparative ns — the Latin in the rorm of r — and wh 
the Sanskrit also ahews more indulgence for tli^ t th 
for the n. the Greek alone has preserved the nas 
so that in the comparative it differs in this reap 
from all the other languages. Without the interventi 
of the Sanskrit and Zend it nouM be hardly possible 
adduce from the European sister languages a cogni 
termination to the Greek iwv, lov, or if idr and Tuv shot 
be compared, one would think ratlier of a permutation 
liquids,* than that after the Greek v the prototype of t 
Latin r, namely a, hqg originally existed. 

300. In Zend, the superlatives in M^otiJ ista are mc 
numerous than the correspooding ones in Sanskrit, and i 
quire no authentication. With regard to their theoi 
Bumouf has rendered important service, by bis ezcelle 

[G. Ed. p. 413.] treatise on the Vahista; and his remarks s 
also useful to us in Sanskrit Grammar. In form jd^q 
ista stands nearer to the Greek ioro-r than the Indian ixhtl 
and is completely identical witli the Gothic ista, nom, tsi 
(§. 135.), as the Zend frequently exhibits t for the Sansk 
aspirates. The comparative form which belongs to uta 
much more rare, but perhaps only on account of the want 
occasion for its appearance in the authorities which liave be 
banded down to us, in which, also, the form in tara c 
only scantily be cited. An example of the comparati 
under discussion is the feminine fwn^iMMi maiyihi, whi 
occurs repeatedly, and to which I have already elaewht 
drawn attention.t It springs from the positive bi 

• Comp. §. 20- 

t Berl, Jahrb. 1831, 1, p. 372, I then conceived this form tobe t1 
arrived at, that the y of the Sanskrit tya^ had disappeared, as in the gi 
tive termination A^, from "^tya ; after which the E mnsi have passed int 
Still the above Tiew of the case, which is also tlie one chosen by Dumi 


MAidiAs^ masaSf " great '' (masd, mamht mdsanh, §§. 66*. 66^), 
and confirms, like other Zend forms, the theory which holds 
good for the Sanskrit, that other suflSxes fall away before 
the exponents of the comparative and superlative relation 
under discussion. If yihi is compared with the Sanskrit 
feminine base iyasi, the loss of the i shews itself, and then 
the a has, through the power of assimilation of the y (§, 42.), 
become d, and s has, according to §. 53., become h. In 
the loss of the i the 2iend coincides with the Sanskrit forms 
like sr&yas, mentioned at p. 397, with which, also, bhil-yas, 
" more," and jyd-yas, " older," agree. Greek comparatives 
with a doubled <r before cov, as icpe/Wcov, I3pd<ra'<»>v, eKacaiav, 
are based on this; which, according to a law of euphony 
very universally followed in Prakrit, have assimilated the t^to 
the preceding consonant, as elsewhere oKKo^ [G. £d. p. 414.] 
from aXvog, Gothic alya-, Latin aliu'S, Sanskrit anyo, are 
explained (Demonstrative Bases, p. 20). In Prakrit, in the 
assimilations which are extremely common in this dialect, 
the weaker consonant assimilates itself to the stronger, 
whether this precedes or follows it; thus anna, "the 
other," from anya, corresponds to the Greek aKKos ; the San- 
skrit t<isyat "hvjus" becomes tassa; bhavishyali, "he will 
be,'' becomes bhavhsadi,* divya, "heavenly," diwa; from 

is simpler, and closer at hand, although the other cannot be shewn to be 
impossible ; for it is certain that if the y of iyas had disappeared in Zend« 
it would fall to the turn of the preceding I to become y. 

* Comp. tfa-aofiai, fifom €<ryofuUf with ^tfrfn ty^h '^ compoffltion with 
attributive verbs. It may be allowed here preliminarily to mention 
another interesting Pr&krit form of the future, which consists in this, that 
the Sanskrit s passwi into A, but the qrllable if ya is contracted to t, 
herein agreeing with the Latin t in eris, mt, anuOis, amabity &c. ; aa, 
karihisij " thou willst make," from karMyasi ; sMhimi^ " I will endure," 
from sahishydmi, instead of the medial form sahUhyS (Urvasi, by Lenz. 
p. 69). 



which it is clear that v is stronger than y, as it also is 
more powerful thjin r; hence sawn from snrva, "every- 
one." It is remarkable that the i also of iti ** thus " as- 
similates itself to the following t; hence, //i, which, in pro- 
nunciation, naturally leans upon the word preceding. 
Therefore one might thus also, without presupposition of 
a form wv, establish the assimilation from rcoi/. As to the 
transition of the consonant of the positive base into a {Kpeta-- 
-(Tcoi', )9/oa(r-(ra)v, )9a(r-(ra)v, /ia(r-(ra>v, e\ao'-(ra)i% &c,), to which 
the y has assimilated, the transition of r, $, 6, into o* need 
least of all surpris*3 us (see §. 99.) ; but with regard to the 
gutturals, the Old Sclavonic may be noticed, in which, be- 
sides what has been remarked in §. 255. {m.\ v, i, and e — 
which latter comes very near the vowel combined with a 
y,^ and is frequently the remainder of the syllable ve — 
exert an influence on a guttural preceding them, similar 
[G. Ed. p. 415.] to that which the comparative y or t produces 
in Greek. Before the ?, namely, of the nominative plural, 
and before ye in the dative and locative singular, as before t 
and ye of the imperative, ch becomes s; e.g. gryes^i from 
gryech, as dac-aiav from daa-vcov, from ra;^-; g becomes f, 
e, g. pril^i from prAg, as fxeil^uiv, 6\il^u)v, from ftei^cdv, 6\t^yu}v, 
from fiey-y dTuy-; k becomes ch, while in Greek k is modified 
in the same way as y On account of the contracted nature 
of the ^ { = icr) no assimilation takes place after it, but the y 
entirely disappears, or, in /Ke/^cov, is pressed into the interior 
of the word (comp. §. 119.), as in d/zeiVa>v, ;^e//oa>r, which lat- 
ter may be akin to the Sanskrit WIR adhara, ** the under 
(m),'* consequently with aphairesis of the a (comp. §. 401.). 
With the sui)erlative fieyKnos compare the Zend Jo;en;-K-^9 
mazistat where _j r, according to §. 57., answers to the San- 
skrit h of ififw tfiahat, "great"'; while in the above ^^io^^mm^ 
maiy^hif as in the positive tiiasai (euphonically maio), i 
stands irregularly for z, as if the Zend, by its permutation 
of consonants in this word, would vie with the Greek ; but 


we find, Vend. S. p. 214, ^^^a)^ mazy 6, with r, which I hold 
to be a neuter comparative; thus, ^^^^ ^^S^^^ mazyd 
vidvdo, "the more (literally greater) wise." 

301. As in the Latin comparative a suffix has raised 
itself to universal currency, which in Sanskrit and Greek 
is only sparingly applied, but was, perhaps, originally, 
similarly with the form in tara, repo-^, in universal use ; so 
the German, the Sclavonic, and Lithuanian, in their degrees 
of comparison everywhere attach themselves to the more 
rare forms in Sanskrit and Greek; and indeed in the Gothic 
the suffix of the comparative shews itself in the same short- 
ened form in which it appears in the Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, 
and Latin, in its combination with the superlative suffix 
(see §. 298. p. 395 &c), namely, as is; and this most plainly 
in adverbs like maiSf **more," whose con- [G. Ed. p. 416.] 
nection with comparatives in the Sanskrit, &c., I first pointed 
out in the Berl. Jahrb. (May 1827, p. 742). We must divide, 
therefore, thus, ma-is ; and this word, as well in the base as 
in the termination, is identical with the Latin mag-is (comp. 
/xeytC'Tog, p. 402) ; whence it is clear that the Gothic form 
has lost a guttural (compare ma-jor and mag-ior), which, in 
mikils, "great" — which has weakened the old a to i — appears, 
according to the rule for the removal of letters (§. 87.), as k. 
Mais, therefore, far as it seems to be separated from 
it, is, in base and formation, related to the Zend maz-yd 
(from maz-yas), which we have become acquainted with 
above (p. 415 G. ed.) in the sense of "more." 

"Remark. — ^There are some other comparative adverbs 
in is, of which, the first time I treated of this subject, I 
was not in possession, and which Grimm has since 
(IIL 589, &c.) represented as analogous to mais. He has 
however, afterwards, I. c. p. 88, agreed, with Fulda, in viewing 
kauhis, avu>T€pov, as the genitive of the positive hauhs, " high." 
Yet hauhis stands in exactly the same relation to hau- 
hiza, "the higher," that mais does to maiza, "major.'^ 

u d2 


Compared with the Zend maz-yo and Greek jxetX-t'^Vf one 
might believe the z in maiza belonged to the positive base, 
particularly as the Old High German adds a second compara- 
tive suffix to its adverb m^r, answering to the Gothic wiaw 
(mirirOt 'major'') because in mSr no formal expression of the 
comparative relation was any longer felt. Raihtis, which 
Grimm wishes to leave under the forms which, III. p. 88, 
are considered as genitive, seems to me properly to signify 
potius, or our rechier ; and 1 consider it, therefore, as a com- 
parative, although the Old High German rehtes, examined 
from the point of view of the Old High German, can only 
be a genitive, and the comparative adverb is rehidr. The 
comparative ga^raihtdza, *jusii<yr^ which may be cited in 
Gothic, does not prevent the assumption that there may 
have been also in use a raihfiza, as in all adjectives 
iza may just as well be expected as Sza; for, together 
with the comparative adverb /ramdzd, *at first' (R. xi. 35), 
occurs the superlative frumists. Perhaps, however, the 
genius of the Old High German language has allowed itself 
to be deceived through the identity of the comparative 
suffix is with the genitive termination is; and taking some 
obsolete comparatives, which have been transmitted to it 
[G. Ed. p. 417.] for genitives, left them the s, which, in 
evident comparatives, must pass into r ; but is alsoj still re- 
tained as s in wirs, ^pejus.^ I prefer to consider, also, a//w, 
* omninot as a comi)arative, in order entirely to exclude the 
Gothic apparent genitive adverbs from the class of adjectives. 
In the Old High German, together with alles, *omnino^ exists 
alles, ^alUer,* which, according to its origin, is an essentially 
different word — through assimilation from alyes, as above 
(p. 411 G. ed.) a?iKo^ — in which the comparative termination, 
in the Latin ali-ter and similar adverbs, is to be observed. The 
probability that these forms, which, to use the expression, 
are clothed as genitives, are, by their origin, comparatives, 
is still further increased thereby, that together with eines^ 


* semelf* and onderes, ' aider ^ there occur, also, forms in the 
guise of superlatives, namely, einest, 'once' (see Graff, 
p. 329), and anderest, ' again/ Some comparative adverbs 
of this sort omit, in Grothic, the i of is; thus min^Sf 
' less' (compare minora minus, for minior, mtnttu), perhaps 
vair-Sf 'worse,' which is raised anew into vairsiza, *pejor,'' 
and may be connected witli the Sanskrit avara, 'posterns^ 

as above x^^P^^ ^*® compared with ^w^ adhara ; seilh-s^ 
' amplius ' (from seithu, * late ') ; and probably, also, suns^ 
' statim/ and anaksy ' subito. ^ 

302. The comparative-suffix is required in Gothic, where 
the consonant « is no longer capable of declension,* an un- 
organic addition, or otherwise the sibilant would have been 
necessarily suppressed. The language, however, preserved 
this letter, as its meaning was still too powerfully per- 
ceived, by the favourite addition an, which we have seen 
above, though without the same urgent necessity, joined to 
participial bases in nd in their adjective state (§. 289.). As, 
then, s comes to be inserted between two [G. £d. p. 418.] 
vowels, it must, by §. 86. (5.), be changed into z : hence the 
modern theme MAIZAN, from the original MAIS, which 
has remained unaltered in the adverb. The nominative mas- 
culine and neuter are, according to §§. 140. lAl,, maiza,maiz6. 
On the other hand the feminine base does not develope itself 
from the masculine and neuter base MAIZAN—bs in general 
from the unorganic bases in an of the indefinite adjectives 

* A baie in $, as the abovementioned maU, would not be distinguished 
from the theme in all the cases of the singular, as also in the nominative and 
accusative plural, as, of final double «, the latter must be rejected (comp. 
dru8, '* fall," for drus-t from dnua-Sy §. 292. 1st Note). In the nominative 
and genitive singular, therefore, the form mais-^ must have become mai$ ; 
just as, in the nominative and accusative plura), where ahman'S oomea 
from the theme ahman. The dative singular is, in bases ending in a con- 
sonant, without exception devoid of inflection ;^ and so is the accusative, 
in substantives of every kind. 


no feminines arise — but to the original feminine base in i^ 
^hich exists in the Sanskrit and Zend, an n is added, as in 
the participle present ; thus MAIZEIN (ei = i, §. 70.), from 
mah-k-ein, answers to the Zend feminine base of the same 
import, j^ro^^Mxs^ makyihu and Sanskrit forms like JiO^hI 
gartyas-i, from yartyas. The nominative maizei may then, 
according to §. 142,, be deduced from MAIZEIN, or may 
be viewed as a continuation of the form in Zend and San- 
skrit which, in the nominative, is identical with the theme 
(§. 137.); in which respect again the participle present 
(§. 290.) is to be com()ared. These two kinds of feminines, 
namely, of the said participle and the comparative, stand 
in Gothic very isolated ; but the ground of their peculiarity, 
which Jacob Grimm, III. 566, calls still undiscovered (com- 
I>are 1. 756), appears to me, through wliat has been said, to be 
completely disclosed ; and I have already declared my opinion 
[G. Ed. p. 410.] in this sense before.* The Old High German 

* Berl. Jahrb. May 1827, p. 743, &c. Perhaps Grimm had not yet, 
in the passage quoted above, become acquainted with my review of the 
two first parts of his Grammar ; since he afterwards (Il.CdO.) agrees with 
my view of the matter. I find, however, the comparison of the transition 
of the Gothic s into z with tliat of the Indian ;g s into ir sh inadiuis- 
sible, as the two transitions rest upon euphonic laws which are entiiely 
distinct; of ^hich the one, which obtains in the Gothic {§, 86.6.), is just 
ns foreign to the Sanskrit, as the Sanskrit (}. 21. and Gramm. Crit. lOr.) 
is to the Gothic. It is further to be observed, that, on account of the 
difference of these laws, the Sanskrit ixsh remains also in the superlative, 
where the Gothic has always st, not zt. In respect to Greek, it may 
here bo further remarked, that Grimm, 1. c. p. 651, in that language, also, 
admits an original s in tlie comparative ; which he, however, does not 
look for after the v of i<av, as appears from §, 209., but before it ; so that 
he wishes to divide thus /xci-^q>p, as an abbreviation of ficyiCav ; and regards 
the C i^ot oa a corruption of the y, as Buttmann also assumes, but as 
a comparative character, as in the kindred Gothic ma-ixa. The Greek 
CDP, ovy would, according to this, appear identical with the unorganic Gotliic 
an in MAIZAN ; while we have assigned it, in §.209., a legitimate 
foundation, by tracing it back to the Sanskrit diis. 


has brought its feminine comparatives into the more usual 
path^ and gives, as corresponding to tlie Gothic minnizei, 
"the lesser*' (fern.), not minniri but minnira. The Gothic 
sibilant, however, was, in the High German comparatives, in 
the earliest period transmuted into r, whence^ in this respect, 
minniro, minnirot has more resemblance to the Latin minor 
than to the Gotliic ntinnizo, minnizei, 

303. The comparative suffix in the Gothic, besides is, 
iz'un, exhibits also the form ds, dz-an: it is, however, 
more rare ; but in the Old High German has become so 
current, that there are more comparatives in it in 6r6 
(nominative masculine), 6ra (nominative feminine and 
neuter), than in iro, ira, or ero, era. ' The few forms in 
OZAN which can be adduced in Gothic are, $vinih6za, 
'*/ortior^^ (nominative masculine), frdddzay "prudent tor,*' 
frumdza, '* priori hlasdza, **hilarior,^* garaihtdza, "justior,** 
framaldrdza, '*provectior (Etate,'* usdaudozOf ** solUcitior,** 
unsvikunthdza, "iwc/anor" (Massmann, p. 47), and the ad- 
verbs sniumundds, ** airovSaiorepu)^,** and alvaleikOs, ** erepcoy.** 
How, then, is the 6 in these forms to be explained, 
contrasted with the i of IS, IZAS? I believe only 
as coming from the long a of the Sanskrit strong themes 
iydtis or yam (§§. 299. 300.), witli 6, according to rule, for 

wr d (§. 69.)- I^ ^^^ starts from the latter [G. Ed. p. 420.] 
form, which, in the Zend, is the only one that can be 
adduced, then, beside the nasal, which is lost also in the Latin 
and in the weak cases in the Sanskrit, ydns has lost in 
the Gothic either the i or the y {=/), which, when the 
d is suppressed, must be changed into a vowel. The 
Gothic ds, dz, and still more the Old High German dr, 
correspond, therefore, exactly to the Latin 6f in minor, 
mindr-iSf for minior. There is reason to assume that, in 
the Gothic, originally y and 6 existed in juxta-position to 
one another ; and that for minniza, " the lesser,'' was used 
minnydza, and for frdddza, ** the more intelligent," /rA/ydara. 


The forms which have lost the y are represented in Latin 
by minoTy minus, and plus, and those with 6 suppressed by 
mag-is. One cannot, however, in Gothic, properly require 
any superlatives in OSTA, nom. dsC-s^ corresponding to the 
comparatives in ds, 6z; because this degree in the San- 
skrit, Zend, Greek, and Latin always springs from the 
form of the comparative, contracted to is, ish. It is, how- 
ever, quite regular, that, to thefrumdza, "prior/* corresponds 
a frumists, ** primus,'''' not frumdsts. To the remaining 
comparatives in 6za the superlative is not yet adduced; 
but in the more recent dialects the comparatives have 
formed superlatives with 6, after their fashion; and thus, 
in the Old High German, 6st usually stands in the super- 
lative, where the comparative has 6r : the Gothic furnishes 
two examples of this confusion of the use of language, in 
lasivdsts, " in/irmissimus" (1 Cor. xii, 22.), and armdsfs, "miser- 
rimus** (1 Cor. xv. 19.). 

304. In the rejection of the final vowel of the positive base 
before the suffixes of intensity the German agrees with the 
cognate languages; hence suf-iza, from SUTU^y "sweet''; 

[G. Ed. p. 421.] hard'-iza, from HARDU, ''hard"; seith-s 
{fhana-seiths, *' amplius'*), from SEITHU, "late"; as in the 
Greek )7$/a>v from 'HAY, and in the Sanskrit laghiyas from 
layhu, "light." JTa is also rejected; hence spidC-iza, from 
SPEDJA, "late'' (see p. 358, Note 7.); reik'-iza, from 
MEIKYA, " rich." One could not therefore regard the 6, in 
forms likefrdddzay as merely a lengthening of the a in FRODA 
(§. 69.), as it would be completely contrary to the principle 
of these formations, not only not to suppress the final vowel 
of the positive base, but even to lengthen it The expla- 
nation of the comparative 6 given at §. 303. remains therefore 
the only one that can be relied upon. 

* The positive does not occur, but the Sanskrit swddu-s and Greek i^dv-r 
lead us to expect a final u. 


305. In the Old Sclavonic, according to Dobrowsky, p. 332, 
&e., the comparative is formed in three ways, namely, 

(I) By masculine it, feminine shi, neuter vee; as, iinti, 
" the better (m.) "; iinshi, " the better (f.) "; Unyee, " the best 
(n.), " from a positive which has been lost, as batiza, melior^ 
and dftetvcdv; and it is perhaps connected in its base with 
the latter, so that a may have become o (§. 255. a.), but fi, ii, 
as frequently occurs with n ; and this u, with the preceding 
o, has become 4 (»).* Mniu "the lesser, (m,)/ fem, menshu 
neuter mnvee, spring, in like manner, from a positive which 
has been lost. Bolii, " the greater," fem. bohhi, neuter bolyee, 
may be compared with the Sanskrit balty&n, "the stronger'' 
(p. 39 6), fern, bcdiyasi^ neuter boKyas.-f For [G. Ed. p. 422.] 
bolii is also used bolyei; and all the remaining comparatives 
which belong to this class have yei for it, and thus answer 
better to the neuter form yee. If, as appears to be the case, the 
form yet is the genuine one, then ye answers to the Sanskrit 
yat ofjyd-yasy bhA-yas^ iri-yas, &c. (§. 300.), and the loss of the 
s is explained by §. 255. (/.) : the final i oiye-u however, is the 
deGnitive pronoun (§. 284.), for comparatives always follow, 
in the masculine and neuter, the definite declension. In the 
feminine in shi it is easy to recognise the Sanskrit at of lyaA-i, 
or yaS'i, and herewith also the Gothic :rfi (oblique theme Z£/2V, 

* The a in dfi€ivtov appears to me to be privatiye ; so that fidvtav would 
seem to be a sister form to the Latin minor, Gothic minniia, Sclavonic 
mnii ; and dfitivav would properly ngniiy " the not lesser," •' the not 
more trifling." Perhaps this word is also inherent in amnis; so that o 
for a would be the negation, which, In Latin, appears as in ; where it 
may be observed, that, in Sanskrit, a-^akrity literally ^' not once," has taken 
the representation of the meaning '^ several times." 

t The positive velit, with v for b and e for o, occurs only in thb de- 
finite form (Dobr. p. 320) ; the primitive and indefinite form must be vel. 
With respect to the stronger o corresponding to the weaker letter e 
(§. 255. a.), bolii, in the positive, answers to the manner in which vowels 
are strengthened in Sanskrit, as mentioned at §, 298. 


p. 413 G. cd.); that is to say, bol-shf, •'the greater (fem.), " 
corresponds to the Sanskrit ^^^il^f) baliyast, " the stronger 
(f.)/' and memhf, *' tlie lesser," to the Gothic minn-izeL While, 
tlierefore, the Sclavonic masculine and neuter have lost the s 
of the Sanskrit yas, the feminine lias lost the ya otyas-t* This 
feminine shU also, in departure from (2) and (3), keeps free 
from the definite pronoun. There are some comparative 
adverbs in e, as the abbreviation of t/e (§. 255. n.), which iu 
like manner dispense with the definite pronoun ; thus, Hn^^ 
"better"; bole, "greater" — in Servian MSS. iinye, botye; 
[G. Ed. p. 423.] pache, " more," probably related to irax^t 
Trao-o-wv; so that (which is very obscure) the final vowel of 
pache for pach-ye, for reasons which have been given before, 
is, in fact, identical with the Greek ao of Tratr-croi/, for vaa-yov. 
The ch of pache may, according to p. 415 G. ed., be regarded 
as a modification of k, as the first <r of iraa-aov has developed 
itself from %. Thus the f of dolK^'-ype, •* longer " (neuter and 
adverbial), as euphonic representative of tlie y of doly, dolya, 
doJyo {lonyus, a, urn), answers remarkably to the Greek f 
in fjLeiXf^v, 6\!^u)Vf for fielyoiv, 6?Jy<»>v, That, however, the 
positive dolg is connected with the Greek io?ux6i needs 
scarce to be mentioned. Somewhat more distant is the 
Sanskrit lft%T^ dirgha-s, of the same meaning, in which 
tlie frequently-occurring interchange between r and / is 

* U may be proper here to call remembrance to the past gemnd, 
properly a participle, which in the strong cases vans, nom. masc. vdn for 
vans, fern, ushi^ neater vat (for vai), corresponds to the Sanskrit of the 
reduplicated ])reteritc in vas. The Old Sclavonic has here, in tlie nomi- 
native masculine, where the s should stand at the end, lost tills letter, 
according to f.255. (/.), as by-v, ^'quifuit,*' but by-vM, ^'quafuW; 
and in the masculine also, in preference to the comparative, Uie s again 
appears in the oblique cases, because there, in the Sanskrit, after the s 
follow terminations beginning with a vowel ; so in rek-sh^ *'eum qui dixit '* 
the 8h corresponds to the Sanskrit vdia-am, as rurud-vdhs-am, " eum qui 


to be noticed {%. 20.). The t of SoKtxo^, however, shews 
itself, by the evidence of the Sclavonic and Sanskrit, to be 
an organic addition. Let garyee, ''pejus,^^ be compared 
with the Sanskrit gariyas, " graviusr from gurUi " heavy " — 
according to Burnoufs correct remark from garu, as this 
adjective is pronounced in Pali — through the assimilating 
influence of the final ti, to which the kindred Greek fiapxf^ has 
permitted no euphonic reaction* 

(2) The second, by far the most prevalent form of the 
Old Sclavonic comparative, is nominative masculine shiij 
feminine shaTfa, neuter shee. The t of ahii is the definitive 
pronoun, which, in the feminine, is yo, and in the neuter e 
for ffe (§§. 282. 284.). After the loss, then, of this pronoun, 
there remains ahi, sha, she ; and these are abbreviations of 
shyo, shya, shye, as we have seen, p. 332, G. ed., the adjective 
base SINYO (nominative siny), before its union with the 
defining i, contracted to sini (sini-l, neuter sine-e for sinye-ye. 
The definite feminine of SIN^O is sinya-ya; and as to the 
feminine comparatives not being shya-ya but sha-ya, this 
rests on the special ground that sibilants gladly free 
themselves from a following y, especially [G. Ed. p. 424.] 
before a (Dobrowsky, p. 12); so in the feminine nomi- 
natives dUnha, sAsha, chasha, for sAsya, &c. (Dobr. p. 279). 
The relation of the comparative form under discussion 

to the Sanskrit inr^ yas and Zend j)a»^^ yaS (p. 40l) 
is therefore to be taken tlms, that the ya which precedes 
the sibilant is suppressed, as in the above feminines in 
shi; but for it, at the end, is added an unorganic Y^, 
which corresponds to the Gothic-Lithuanian Jii in the 
themes NIUYJ, NAUYJ, "new,'' answering to im nava, 
NOlU, NEO, Sclavonic NOVO. This adjunct YO has 
preserved the comparative sibilant in the masculine 
and neuter, which, in the first formation, must yield to 
the euphonic law, §.255. (/.) Examples of this se- 
cond formation are, un-shii, "the better (m.)," feminine 


iln-shat/a, neuter in-shee ; pAst-shii from pAst, theme PUSTO, 
" desert" Hence it is clear that the final vowel of the 
positive base is rejected, as in all the cognate languages, 
however difficult the combination of the t with sA. Even 
whole suffixes are rejected, in accordance with §. 298. ; as, 
ylub^h'ii from yIiU)ok, " deep " (definite, gliboky-i), sludshit 
from sladok, ** sweet."* 

(d) Masculine yeishii, feminine yeishnya, neuter yeishee ; 
but after scK sh, and ch, di stands for yet: and this ai evidently 
stands only euphonically for ydi, since the said sibilants, as 

[G. Ed. p. 425.] has been already remarked, gladly divest 
themselves of a following y: hence blasch-ahhiU *'the 
better" (masculine), from Uag (theme BLAGO\ "good,"t 
since g, through the influence of the y following, gives 
way to a sibilant, which has subsequently absorbed 
the y\ compare oA/f-coi/, for ^A/y-Zwi/, oKty-yLnv (p. 402): 
so tish-ahhri, from iich (theme TICHO), "still,""! as in 
the Greek 6a(T'<nav from rayy^. As example of the form 

* I hold ho J whence in the nom. masc. A, for the soffix of the positive 
base, bat the preceding o for the final vowel of the lost primitive ; and 
this corresponds either to a Sanskrit a, according to $. 255. (a.), or to an 
7f u, according to $.255. (c); for example, tano-k^ ''thin/' theme 
TANOKO^ corresponds to the Sanskrit tanus, ''thin," Greek raw ; and 
slad(hk to the Sanskrit swddus, " sweet," with excliange of the v for /, 
according to $.20. Thus the above slad-thii shews itself to be originally 
identical, as well in the suffix of the positive as of the other degrees with 
the Greek ^d-tW and Gothic sutiza ($.804.), far as the external diffe- 
rence may separate them ; and to the Sclavonic is due, as to the truer 
preservation of the fundamental word, the preference above the Greek 
and Gothic, although, on account of the unexpected transition of the 
r into /, the origin of the Sclavonic word is more difficult to recognise. 

t Dobrowsky says (p. 334) from blagi/i (ihiB is the definite, see $.284.) : 
it is, however, evident that the comparative has not arisen from the adjec- 
tive compounded with a pronoun, but from the simple indefinite one. 

I Compare the Sanskrit adverb tAshmm^ " still, silent," and refer to 
^^.255. (m.). 


with i/ei, yun-i/eishUf ** junior/' from T/wn, may serve. 
Whence comes, then, the yei or at (for yai), which distin- 
guishes this formation from the second ? It might be sup- 
posed that to the first formation in yei, where, for example, 
also yun-yei, " the younger ( m.),'' occurs, that of the 
second has also been added, as in Old High German 
mireroy ** the greater ''' (masculine), and in Grothic, probably, 
vairsiza, "the worse" (p. 405), are raised twice to the com- 
parative degree ; and as, in Persian, the superlatives in terin^ 
in my opinion, contain, as their last element, the compara- 
tive ^irhr iydm, which forms, in the nominative masculine, 
it/dn^ and from this could be easily contracted to in. In 
Persian the comparative is formed through ter ; as, behter, 
" the better,''' whence behteririf ** the best/' Now it deserves 
remark, that in Old Sclavonic the formation before us fre- 
quently occurs with a superlative meaning, while in the 
more modern dialects the superlative relation is expressed 
through the comparative with not, " more," prefixed (pro- 
bably from mat = Gothic mais, according to §. 225. /.). The 
only objection to this mode of explanation [G. Ed. p. 426.] 
is this, that the element of the first formation ye-i has not 
once laid aside the definitive pronoun i, which is foreign 
to the comparative ; so that therefore in yun-yet-shit the 
said pronoun would be contained twice. There is, how- 
ever, another way of explaining this yeishit or (yjaishii, 
namely, as an exact transmission of the Sanskrit lyas or yas^ 
from which the second formation has only preserved the 
sibilant ; but the third, together with this letter, may have 
retained also that which preceded. Still, even in this method, 
the i of 1/ez, (y)at, is embarrassing, if it be not assumed that 
it owes its origin to a transposition of the i of iycu 

306. As to the remark made at p. 400, that among the 
European languages the Greek only has preserved the 
nasal, which the Sanskrit shews in the strong cases of the 
comparative suffix iydhs, I must here admit a limitation in 


favour of the Lithuanian, which, exceeding in this point 
tlie Greek, continues not only the nasal,* but also the com- 
parative sibilant through all the cases. For an example, 
gerisnisy "the better^' (m.)» may serve, with which we would 
compare the Sanskrit gartydnsam, ** graviorern"* (nominative 
gartydn). It may be, but it is not of much consequence 
to us, that gerisnis and gartydhs (strong theme) are also 
connected in the positive base; so that, as according to 
p. 398, in Greek and Gothic goodness is measured by depth, 
in Lithuanian it is measured by weight. The Sanskrit com- 
parative under discussion means, also, not only "heavier/* 
or " very heavy,'' but also, according to Wilson, ** highly 
venerable/* In order, however, to analyze the Lithuanian 
gnrSsnist we must observe that geresnis stands for geresnioM, 
and the theme is clearly GERESNIA; hence genitive 
gerhnio, dative gerSsniam ; as gero, gerdm, from gSra-s. 
[G. Ed. p. 427.] The termination ia, therefore — for which 
ya might be expected, the y of which, as it appears for 
the avoiding of a great accumulation of consonants, has 
been resolved into i — corresponds to the unorganic addi- 
tion which we, p. 411, have observed in Sclavonic compara- 
tives. We have now geresn remaining, which I regard 
as a metathesis from gerens,f through which we come 
very near the Sanskrit gariydns. But we come still 
nearer to it through the observation, that, in Lithuanian, e 
is often produced by the euphonic influence of a preceding 
7/ or I (§. 193 ). We believe, therefore, that here also we 
may explain gerisn as from geryasn (geryans), and further 
recall attention to the Zend ^w^^33m^ maiyihi (§.300.). 

* In the Lith. comparative adverbs like daughus, " more," maiaui^ 
" less," I regard the u as the vocalization of the n; thas daugiaus from 
daugiansy where %an$=Sikr. ^ydm of the strong cases. 

t This has been already alluded to by Grimra (III. 635, Note •), who 
has, however, given the preference to another explanation, by which esnU 
is similarly arrived at with the Latin issimus. 


The emphasis upon the e of geresnis may be attibutable 
to the original length in the Sanskrit strong theme gnriydns. 
Hence the astonishing accuracy may justly be celebrated 
with which the Lithuanian, even to the present day, con- 
tinues to use the Sanskrit comparative suffix tydns, or 
rather its more rare form preferred in Zend yins. 

307. The Lithuanian superlative suffix is only another 
modification of the comparative. The nasal, that is to 
say, which in the latter is transposed, is, in the superlative, 
left in its original place : it is, however, a^s often happens, 
resolved into «,♦ and to the b which ends the theme in 
the Sanskrit, which, in Lithuanian, is not declinable (§. 128.), 
is added ia : hence GERAUSIA^ the nominative of which, 
however, in departure from gerSsniSf has dropped, not the 
a, but the i ; thus gerausa-St gen. gerausio, and, in the femi- 
nine, geraiisch gerausids ; in which forms, [G. Ed. p. 428.] 
contrary to the principle which is very generally followed 
in the comparative and elsewhere, the i has exercised no 
euphonic influence. 

** Remark. — With respect to the Sanskrit gradation- 
suffixes tara^ tamot I have further to add, that they also oc- 
cur in combination with the inseparable preposition ^ ut ; 
hence vt-taraf 'the higher,' ut-tam(h * the highest,* as above 
(§. 295.) af-tuma, and in Latin ex-timuSf in-Umus. I think, 
however, I recognise the base of ut-iara^ ut-tama, in the 
Greek v^ of va-Tepog, va-Taro^y with the unorganic spir. asp., 
as in eKarepog, corresponding to the Sanskrit ikatara-s, and 
with <r from t (compare §. 99.), in which it is to be remarked 
that also in the Zend for ut-tara, ui-iama, according to 
§. 102., us'tara, us-temOf might be expected. 

* Comp. §, 255. {g.) ; in uddition to which it may bo here farther 
remorked, that in all probability the u also in Gothic conjunctives like 
Aat/au, haihaiiyau^ is of nasal origin. 

( 416 ) 



308. I. In the designation of the number one great dif- 
ference prevails among the Indo-European laDguages, 
which springs from this, that this number is expressed by- 
pronouns of the 3d person, whose original abundance 
aflbrds satisfactory explanation regarding the multiplicity 
of expressions for one. The Sanskrit ika^ whose com- 
parative we have recognised in the Greek eicarepo^* is, in 
my opinion, the combination of the demonstrative base Sf 
of which hereafter, with the interrogative base ka^ which 
also, in combination with api, '*aIso^ (nom. masc. kd*p9\ 
signifies " whoever "; and even without this apt, if an in- 
terrogative expression precedes, as Bhagavad-Gita, II. 21, 

^ ' ^^- ^''^ ''^ ^nrafil ?ftr V^^ kathan sa purushaK 
Pdrtha kan ghiMayati hanti kam, " How can this person, O 

Partha, cause one to be slain, (or) slay one ? '* The Zend a>»;oas 
[G. Ed. p. 429.] a§va, is connected with the Sanskrit pro- 
nominal adverbs iva, " also,"' " only,'^ &c., and ^am, " so," of 
which the latter is an accusative, and the former, perhaps, 
an instrumental, according to the principle of the Zend lan- 
guage (§. 158.). The Gothic ain-s, tlieme AINA, our etfier, 
is based on the Sanskrit defective pronoun ^a (§. 72.) whence, 
among others, comes the accusative masculine 4na~nif ** this.'* 
To this pronominal base belongs, perhaps, also the Old Latin 
oinos, which occurs in the Scipionian epitaphs, from which 
the more modern 4nus may be deduced, through tlie usual 
transition of the old u into u, which latter is lengthened 
to make up for the i suppressed. Still Unus shews, also, a 
surprising resemblance to the Sanskrit ttna-s, which pro- 
perly means •* less," and is prefixed to the higher numerals 
in order to express diminution by one; as, Unavinshaii, 
" undevUjinii!' Unafrinshat, " undetriginta.** Tliis Anas could 


not have appeared in Latin, more accurately retained than 
under the form of Unu-s, or, more anciently, Uno-s. The 
Greek 'EN is founded, it is highly probable, in like manner, 
on the demonstrative base inf hia, and has lost its final 
vowel, as the Gothic AINA, in the masculine nominative 
uifiH : \iith respect to the e for ^ compare eKorepo^. On the 
other hand, oto^^ " unicus,** if it has arisen from oivog compare 
oinos), as /xe/fo) from yLcil^ovoL, has retained the Indian diph- 
thong more truly, and has also preserved the final vowel 
of inf &na. If ovo£y the number one in dice, really has 
its name from the idea of unity, one might refer 
this word to the demonstrative base fR anay Sclavonic 
ONO (nominative orit "that"), which also plays a part 
in the formation of words, where ovri corresponds to 
the Sanskrit suffix anA (feminine of the masculine and 
neuter ana), if it is not to be referred to the medial 
participle in dna, as /xovj; to mdna. The Old Sclavonic, vrdin, 

" one," is clearly connected with the Sanskrit w\f^ ddi, "the 
first," with V which has been prefixed according to §. 255, (w.): 
on the other hand, in the Lithuanian wienn-s, [G. £d. p. 430.] 

if it is connected with the Gothic AINA and Sanskrit in? 
ina, an unorganic w has been prefixed. In regard to 
to the ie for ^ & compare, also, wies-te, " knowledge," with 
^f?l vidmi, ** I know." 

"Remark. — The German has some remarkable expres- 
sions, in which the number one lies very much concealed 
as to its form, and partly, too, as to its idea : they are, in 
Gothic, haihst ** one-eyed," han/s, "one-handed," hal/s, 
" lame," and halbft, " half." In all these words the num- 
ber one is expressed by ha ; and in this syllable I recog- 
nise a corruption of the abovementioned Sanskrit v ka for 
^^ ika, " one," which is founded on the universal rule 
for the mutation of consonants (§. 87.). It would be 
erroneous to refer here to the Zend as^* ha of iwf^fjAsw* 
ha-kereU ** once " (Sanskrit ir^ sakritX as the Zend ^ h 

K K 


Stands, without exception, for the Sanskrit n s, to which 
the h in Gothic never corresj^nds.* J. Grimm compares 
hnihs with crecus (II. 316), not with the purpose of following 
out the origin of these cognate words, but in order to 
prove the transition of the tenuis into the aspirate ; for tlie 
simple aspiration stands in Gothic instead of kh, which 
is wanting. These words are, however, so far connected, 
that, in both, the word eye is contained. It is only the 
question whether the one-eyed in Latin has also lost the 
other eye, and if the blind (cacus), in regard to etymology, 
lias not preserved one eye left This appears to me 
more probable than that the blind in Gotliic should reco- 
ver his sight, though but with one eye. The theme of 
haihs is IIAIIIA: one may, then, divide HAIHA into 
HA- 1 HA or into H-AIHA ; thus the latter portion of tliis 
compound word is assuredly connected with the word v^ 
akaha, "eye," in Sanskrit, which only occurs at the end of 
compounds ; so that of the compounded ^ Icsh only the first 
|)ortion is left, while the Zend Jtp^^ dshi, "eye^ — which, in 
like manner, I have found only at the end of compound words, 

as 9^iyAj-wv5Aj»jk;oc5i csvaS'Wthim, "the six-eyed" — has pre- 
served the last element : the Latin ociis, however (the primi- 
tive base of oculus), preserves only the first like the Gothic If 
in HAIHA the diphthong ai is left entirely to the share of the 
eye, we must assume that the a is introduced through the 
euphonic influence of the h (§. 82.), and that ^/^^ stands for 
[G. Ed. p. 431.] I HA, and this for AHA; as fimf from 
xr^pancha; fidvdr from ^^piR cAotodr. But if the aoiHAIHA 
is allotted to the numeral, which appears to me more correct, 
then tiie h in this word has not introduced any euphonic n, 
because, with the aid of the first member of the compound, the 

• Connected, however, with this designation of " one," which is taken 
from the pronominal base aa (Greek 6), may be the Greek cl in d-YrXoOr. 


disposition of the h to ai was already satisfied. We must 
further recall attention to the Latin codes, in which, 
however, the notion of unity is evidently represented only 
by the c, for the o must be left to the ocles as a derivative 
from oculus: ctpcus, however, if <e is the correct way of 
writing, and if the number one is contained therein, would 
spring from ca-icus; and the Indian a, therefore, is weak- 
ened, as in Gothic, to i, which, in Latin compounds, is the 
usual representative of an a of the base (§. 6.). Let us 
now examine the one-handed. Its theme is, in Gothic, 
HA UFA, nominative abbreviated haufa ; so that here, as in a 
skein^ two bases and a pronominal remnant, as mark of case, 
lie together. The numeral is here the most palpable ele- * 
ment: it is more difficult to search out the hand. In the 
isolated state no theme nfa could be expected ; but in com- 
pounds, and also in prefixed syllables of reduplication, 
a radical vowel is often rejected; as, in the Sanskrit 

^frmjagmima, " we went," of the root JpT gam, only gm is 
left ; and in the Greek, irtm-ca for mveTiaf IIET, which corre- 
sponds to the Sanskrit ifij^^ pat, *' to fall,"" is abbreviated to 
ITT. We shall, therefore, be compelled to assume that a vowel 
has fallen out between the n and /of HA-NFA. If it was an i 
which was displaced, then NIFA might pass as a transposi- 
tion of the Sanskrit inftf pdni, "hand,''' with / for p, accord- 
ing to §• 87. In HA-L TA, " lame "' — nominative Aa/te— must 
ha again pass for a numeral, and ha-Ha may originally signify 
" one-footed,"^ for it is (Mark ix. 45.) opposed to the Gothic 
ivans fdluns habandin, "having two feet," where it is said 
^ it is better for thee to enter into life with one foot, than 
having two feet to be cast into hell/ It is at least certain, 
that a language which had a word for one-footed would 
very fitly have applied it in this passage. If the last element, 
however, in HA-LTA means the foot, we must remember 
that, in Sanskrit, several appellations of this member are 
derived from roots which mean " to go.*" Now, there is, in 

E B 2 


Gothic^ a root LITH, "to go," with an aspirated /, indeed; 
but in compounds the consonants do not always remain 
on the same grade which they adopt in the simple word; 
[G. £d. p. 432.] e.g, the t of quatuor appears as d in many 
derivatives and compounds, without this c? thereby dissembling 

its original identity with the t of quaiuor and ^ifTiT chaiur. 
So, then, HA-LTA may stand for HA- LIT HA ; and it may 
be remarked, that from the root LIT comes, also, lilhusp ''the 
limb," as that which is moveable. Before I pass on to 
the explanation of halh, I must mention that J. Grimm 
divides the pronoun seller, as it appears to me very pro- 
perly, into two parts; so that the syllable si of the 
' Gothic silba devolves on the reciprocal {sci-not sis, ai-k). 
With respect to the last portion, he betakes himself to 
a verb Itiban, "to remain,'^ and believes that silba may, 
})crhaps, have the meaning of "that which remains in 
itself, enduring.** Be this as it may, it is clear that halbs 
— the theme is HALBA — might be, with equal right, divided 
into two parts ; and it appears to me, that, according to its 
origin, this word can have no better meaning than, per- 
haps, "containing a part"; so that the ideas one and a 
part, remnant, or something similar, may be therein ex- 
pressed, and, according to the principle of tlie Sanskrit 
possessive compounds, the notion of the possessor must be 
supplied, as in the already explained liaihs, "having one 
eye." In the Gotliic, also, huha means "remnant** It 
scarcely needs remark, that halb is no original and simple 
iden, for which a peculiar simple word might be ex- 
pected, framed to express it. The half is one part of the 
whole, and, in fact, equal to the absent part The Latin 
dimiJius is named after the middle through which the division 
went. The Zend has the expression j6^iK>i6j nahnoy for halb, 
according to a euphonic law for nhnoy which in Sanskrit 
among other meanings, signifies "part": this is probably 
the secondary meaning, and the half, as part of the whole. 


the original. If it is so, ^ nSma appears to me a very 
ingenious designation for a half, for it is a regular contrac- 
tion of H na, " not/' and ^ ima, " this or that "; and the 
demonstrative therefore points at the ** this or that " portion 
of the whole excluded by the negative na. In Sanskrit, 

hatt) is termed, among other appellations, ^enfii sdmi, in 
which one recognises both the Latin semi and the Greek 17/x/; 
and the three languages agree in this also, that they use 
this word only without inflection at the beginning of com- 
pounds. As to its origin, ^enfii sdmi may be viewed as a 
regular derivative from ^fif sama, " equal,'* ** similar,'* by a 
suffix t, by which the suppression of the final vowel, and 
widening of the initial vowel of the primitive* become neces- 
sary. If this explanation is well founded, [G. Ed. p. 483.] 
then in this designation of halb only one part of the whole, 
and, indeed, one equal to the deficient part, would be ex- 
pressed, and the wf^ sdmi would be placed as trepov over 
against the deficient erepov ; and the Sanskrit and German 
supply each other's deficiencies, so that the former expresses 
the equality, the latter the unity, of the part ; i. e. each of 
the two languages only semi-expresses the half. As to 
the relation, however, of the Greek fjfiKrvg to 17/w, it follows 
from what has. been already said — that the latter is not an 
abbreviation of the former, but the former is a derivation 
from the latter ; and indeed I recognise in av the Sanskrit 
possessive swa, " suus^ which, remarkably enough, in Zend 
enters into combinations with numerals with the meaning 
"part"; e.g. o^»tf}'i^<^ ihri-shva, "a third part," ai»^o>?^a5^ 
chnihru'shvay "a fourth part." In the accusative these 
words, according to §. 42., are written %^t^Jf<^ thri-shu-m, 
(^)^>7^A5^ chathru'Shum, of which the last member comes 
very near to the Greek aw of tjfiiavv, ^'H/iw-cn/j' means 
therefore, "having one equal part," and the simple jJ/lw 
means only the equal. The Sanskrit designation of "the 
whole" deserves further to be mentioned, "^W^^sa-kala-s, 


which, as sigoify ing that which joins the parts and unites them, 
is opposed to the German haU) as applying to one part, and 
in a measure furnishes a commentary and guarantee for the 
correctness of my view of the latter. The word inV9 sakbla 
consists, though this is scarcely perceptible, of ^9 to, '* with,^ 
and iK^T kalAi ** part/' so that, if the latter is regarded 
in the dual relation — and the last member of a compound 

may express each of the three numbers — w:W9 takaia ex- 
presses that in which the two parts are together. Thus the 
word ^nw sam-agra, ** full," is used especially in regard to 
the moon, as a body with points, t. e. that in which the two 
points touch one another. Transposed into Greek relations of 
sound sakdUi'S would give^ perhaps, okolKo^, or oice^or, or 
6ko7^S\ but from this the present ohio^ has rejected the middle 
syllallable^ as is the case in Kopo^, Kovpog, compared with 
IIHRS kumdra-s, "a boy." 

309. II. The theme of the declension is, in Sanskrit^ dtoa, 
which is naturally inflected with dual terminations: the 
Gothic gives for it iva, according to §. 87., and inflects it, in 
the want of a dual, as plural, but after the manner of pronouns : 

[G. Ed. p. 434.] nominative tvaU tvds, iva ; dative tvahn; ac- 
cusative tvans, thvds, tva.^ The Sanskrit displays in the dual 

* One would expect tvd, on account of the form being monoByUAbic 
($.231.). In the genitive masculine and neuter 1 should look for tvi-zi^ 
aflter the analogy of thi-zS, '' horum" from TffA,OT tvaizS, according to the 
analogy of the definite adjectiyes ($.287. p. 374 G. ed.), and according to the 
common declension tv'S (p. 276) . However, the form tvaddy^ occurs three 
times in the sense of ducrum ; whence it is clear that the genitive of the 
base TFA was no longer in use in the time of Ulfila. The form tvaddy^-i 
belongs to a theme TVADDfA (as hary'-i from HARTA)^ and appears, 
from the ordinal number, which in Sanskrit is dwi-tiya for dwa-Hya^ to 
have introduced itself into the cardinal number. From tvaddyS, by 
rejecting both the rf— of which one is, besides, superfluous — and by 
changing the y into a vowel, we arrive at the Old High German zueiS^ 
according to Isid. zueiyo, aafior from fidvor; also definite, zueiSro, which, 
in Gothic, would be tvaddyaizL Grimm appears, on the other hand, to 



no difference between the pronominal declension and the 
ordinary one, and dwdu is declined like mikAu (p. 274), 
du'^ feminine like dhM (p. 285), and dwe neuter like dAn^ 
(p. 276). As, however, the notions of number are much 
akin to those of the pronouns; and as IBT^ alpa^ "a little,"' 
forms, in the nominative plural masculine, v^a^(§. 228.); 
so from the masculine theme dwa, if it had a plural, 
might be expected dw^, to which, according to ^ 78., tlie 
Gothic tvai would correspond, which it is not requisite 
to regard like adjectives terminating similarly, as if com- 
pounded with a definite pronoun, espe- [G. Ed. p. 436.] 
cially as a genitive ivaizi, which would make the latter 
view necessary, does not occur. To tvai corresponds, also, 
hai, " both,"' from the theme BA, neuter ba, dative baim^ accu- 
sative masculine bans, which is to be deduced through 
aphsDresis from the Sanskrit base vbha, Old Sclavonic oba 
(nominative and accusative dual), from the base OBO. In 

Zend the masculine of the number two is a>^ dva (for dvA, 
§. 208.), with which the Old Sclavonic dva is identical, while the 
feminine neuter c/tn^e answers to the Sanskrit dwS (§. 255. e,). 
Tlie Zend neuter is duyS, with euphonic y (§. 43.), and the v 
resolved into u. In the Greek and Latin ^Jco, Svo, duo, the 

have taken occasioD, firom the Old High German forms, to suppose a 
Gothic tvcuyi and tvaiaizSy in which I cannot agree with him. The Old 
Northern, by exchanging the dental medials with gutturals, gives tvaggya 
for the Gothic tvaddyL In the accusative plural feminine is found, in 
Gothic, together with ivos also tveihnSsy which presuppoees a masculine and 
neuter base TVEIHNA, fern. TVEIHNO; and in which the an- 
nexed HNA reminds us of the appended pronoun ^ «ma, discussed 
at §. 165. &c., which, by metathesis, and with the alteration of the s into 
A, has in Pr&krit and P&li taken the form mha (oomp. $. 109.). On this 
Gothic TVEIHNA is based the Old High German nominative and 
accusative masculine zuhi6 with loss of the h. The feminine, however, 
appears in Old High German free from this addition, and is in the nomi- 
native and accusative zud, also abbreviated ssua (oomp. ^. 69.). 


old V isy in the same way, resolved into the u, but the final 
vowel of the base is not abandoned: Svu) answers to the 
Vedic masculine dwd (§. 208.) ; but in distinguishing the 
genders the Greek is surpassed by the Latin and the 
other European sister languages. The Lithuanian has du 
in the nominative masculine, and dwi in the nominative 
feminine; with the closer explanation of which, and 
their dual declension, we will not here occupy ourselves 
further. It is, however, to be remarked of the Sanskrit nu- 
meral, tliat the a of dwa is, in the beginning of compounds, 
weakened to i (compare §. 6.): hence dwi, which is repre- 
sented by the native grammarians as the proper theme 
(comp. p. 102). The Greek, in which SFi is inadmissible, 
gives in its stead St; hence, Stfju^TOip^^fgmi^dioimdin (theme), 
"having two mothers.'' The Zend and Latin agree in 
the corruption of this dwi very remarkably, in this point, 
that they have both dropped the d and have both hardened 
the V to 6; hence AsyAS(en3->^'M5(^ bipaitistana, "with two 
nipples,** like biceps, bidens, and otliers. From this abbre- 
viated 6/, comeSy in both languages, also the adverb bis, 
"twice,'' in contrast to the Sanskrit dwis and Greek 
8/j: the Greek 5/, however, in compounds, cannot be re- 
garded as an abbreviation of ii£, as is wont to be done. 
The German dialects, with exception of the Old High Ger- 
[G. Ed. p. 436.] man, require, according to §. 87., ivi for dvi, 
as the initial member of compounds ; this is furnished by the 
Anglo-Saxon in compound words like ivi-fUe, '^bipea^' ivi-finger, 
"duos ditjiios longus" Ivi-hwe, **bicolor.** The Old High 
German gives zui {==zwi) ov qui; e.g. zui-beine, ''bipes,'* 
qui-falt, ''duplex'* (Grimm HI. 956.). The adverb zuiro, 
more fully zuiror, also quiro, " twice." belongs, according to 
its formation, but not without the intervention of another 
word, to the above dwis, 5/j, bis ; but it is clear, from the 
Old Northern ivis-var, that ro has arisen from sva by 
apocope of the a and vocalization of the ?;, perhaps more 


anciently to u, and thence to o (§. 77.) as in deo (also c/iu), 
"a servant," genitive diwe-s, frona the base DIWA. 
Whence comes, however, the Old Northern war, which 
occurs also in thrisvar, "thrice," and with which the En- 
glish ce in twice, thrice, is connected. I believe that 
the Si which precedes the var, is certainly identical with 
the s of f^ dwis, il^, and fti^ fris, t/o/j, but the an- 
nexed var corresponds to the Sanskrit substantive vdra» 
which signifies period and time; hence ikavdra, ''once" 
(see Haughton), and vdrarnvdram^ "repeatedly.'" Hence 
comes the Persian bdr, e.g. bdr-iy "once"; and as the 
original meaning of this word is "time/* and we have 
already seen, in Persian, the transition of the v into 6, we 
may hence very satisfactorily explain the Latin ber in 
the names of months ; and Septem-ber, therefore, is literally 
the seven-time, i.e. the seventh time-segment of the year. 
But to return to the Old Northern svar, in trisvar, thrlwar, 
which we must now divide into tris-var, thris-var, accord- 
ing to the explanation which has been given, the idea of 
time, is expressed therein twice, which is not surprising, 
as in the Old High German miriro, also mentioned above, 
the comparative suffix is twice contained, because it is no 
longer felt the first time, by the genius of the language, 
with sufficient clearness. As then, in Old High German, 
first the r, and more lately also the o (from v), of s-var has 
been dropped, we see, in the Middle High [G. Ed. p. 437.] 
German drir, from dris, the form again returned into the 
original limits of the Sanskrit- Greek tris. 

310. III. The theme is, in the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, 
Lithuanian, and Old Sclavonic, TBI, whence in the 
Gothic, according to §. 87., THRI, and exactly the same in 
Zend, according to another law of sound (§. 47.). The 
declension of this base is, in most of the languages 
mentioned, perfectly regular: it is only to be remarked 
of the Gothic, in which, however, all the cases cannot be 


adduced, that on account of the word being monosyllabic, 
the t is not suppressed before vowel terminations, but 
becomes iy (compare the Pali, §. 226.) : hence the genitive 
thriy-if and nominative neuter ihriy^ (§. 233.). Besides 
these, the dative thrirm and the accusative thri-m may be 


cited. The Sanskrit forms the genitive from an extended 
theme trayOf hence trayA-^-Am; while the Zend thrj^nm 
or ihray^nm comes from the original base. Both lan- 
guages, however, agree in this, that ft tru sf<i thru is 
only a theme of the masculine and neuter ; and although, 
according to its termination, it might quite as well be 
assigned to the feminine, nevertheless the feminine num- 
ber has an appellation peculiar to it, which is rather 
different from fr% thri, of which the theme is tisar (flm 
tisri, §. l.)f the a of which, in the Sanskrit nominative, 
accusative, and vocative, is irregularly suppressed ; hence 

flTQlT tisras^ for tisaras^ Zend ^/mm^j^ tisard. 
[G?£d. p. 4380 311. IV. The Sanskrit feminine theme 

^nriR chaiusar (chatasri) follows the analogy of the tisar 
just mentioned ; and the similarity between the two forms is 
so great that it appears, which is perhaps the feet, that the 
number three is contained in the fourth numeral; so 
that tisT'OS would be a weakened form of iasr^as, and 
the cha prefixed to the number four would be identical 
with the particle, which means '* and," and which, in other 
places, is attached to the end of the word. If one wished 
to press still farther into the deep mystery of the appel- 
lations of numbers, one might moot the question whether 

* With thiB extended theme one may compare the Old High German 
nominative masculine dri^ in Isidor^ which belongs to a theme DBIA^ 
with pronominal declension. The feminine drio, from the base DRIO, 
of the same sound, presupposes in like manner a masculine and neuter 
theme DRIA, 

t In the accusative, tisras is more organic than fffS^ tigrU, as it must 
stand according to the common rule (comp. $. 242.). 


the syllables tasa in the theme cha-ta-sar, might not be 
considered as identical with the demonstrative bases of the 
same sound. I do not think, at least, that any language 
whatever has produced special original words for the 
particular designation of such compound and peculiar 
ideas as three, four, five, &c. ; and as the appellations of 
numbers resist all comparison with the verbal roots,* the 
pronominal roots remain the only means by which to 
explain them. Without attempting to resolve the diffi- 
culties in the individual numbers, we will express the 
conjecture, that the operation of speech with regard to 
the numbers might originally be expounded nearly in 
this manner — ^that one might perhaps say, "it, this, that, 
and it, and this,"^ &c. : thus the pronouns might actually 
suffice better than they appear to do in the forms of 
numerals which lie before us. But an obscuration of 
the original clearness of this method, which would occur 
in the course of time, would be owing also [G. £d. p. 4S9.] 
to this, that a simple or compound word might undertake im- 
mediately to designate this or that number, and no other 
one, though equally adapted to denote it 

312. The masculine and neuter of the number four have, 
in Sanskrit, ^nwi^ chatwdr as the strong theme, and ^r^ chatur 
as the weakt ; hence» noop. masc. chatw&r^as, accus. chatur-as, 
nom. accus. voc. neut chatwir^i : the gen. masc. and neut 
is irregularly ch(Uur-tirdm for chatitr-dm, since, according 
to the analogy of bases terminating with a vowel, a nasal 

* Only in three might one perhape think of the Sanskrit root 7 irif 
^^ iransgredif" and consider three^ therefore, as the more (than two). 
This verbal notion of passing over, adding, is, however, also the only pos- 
sible one which coold be blended with the names of numbeni. 

t To §. 1*29. is further to be added, that from the strong theme springs 
also the form of the nom., ace., and voc. plaral of the neuter; while thits 
kind forms the whole singular and dual from the weak theme. 


is introduced (§. 246.). In the Zend the strong theme is 
7juiQ)d(3A)^ chathwdr, according to §. 47. ; hence, nom. masc. 
^AuQidCsAs^ chathwdrS ; and the weak theme is, by trans- 
position, >7<^xs^ chathru ; as, chathru-mdhim, " four months **' 
(accus. sing.), Vend. S. p. 248. For the Sanskrit genitive 

^SlOT\ chaturndm, we find ^^fM5W^M^ chathrusnanm (1. c. 
pp. 204 and 206, with a inserted, ^^fXiM5>7.<^xi^ chathrusa- 
nanm); but in the beginning of compound words it is 
more frequently found ^^qkIuas^ chathware ; so that the 
weakening consists merely in the shortening of the d, and, 
according to §.44., an ^ is added to the r; as chatwar^ 
paitistanydo, " of her with four teats " (gen. fem.. Vend. S. 
p. 83). As to the European sister languages, one must 
expect, according to §. 14., for ch, gutturals and labials, 
hence, in Gothic JUlv&r, and aspirates for smooth letters, 
according to §. 87. This^dv6r is based on the strong theme 

^Wfin^ chatwdr, but in the state of declension extends the 
theme by an unorganic t, hence dative /itlvdri'm, the only 
adduceable case. In Old Northern the nom. masc. isfidri-r. 
[G. Ed. p. 440.] The original theme Jidvdr appears in the 
compound ^(/vdr-Zigruris, ** forty ^' (accus.): on the other hand, 
Jidur in Jldur-ddgs, •* four days," is referable to the Indian 
weak theme chaiur; whence, however, it should not be 
said that the weak theme of the German, Lithuanian, and 
Sclavonic has been brought from an Asiatic original site; 
for it was as easy for the Gothic, by suppressing the last 
vowel but one, to contract its fidvdr to fidur — like thiu-if, 
** servant," from thiva-s, gen. thivi-s — as for the Sanskrit to 
abbreviate chatwdr to chaiur. The Lithuanian theme fol- 
lows the example of abbreviation in its interior, but 
extends the theme at the end ; the masc. nom. is keturi, 
and the feminine keturios : KETURIA serves the latter as 
theme : the masculine keturi is analogous with ger), *' the 
good" (see p. 251, Note J), and therefore has KETURI E, 
euphonic for KETURIA^ as its base. The genitive and 


accusative masculine keturi-H, keturi-s, proceed from the base 
KETURI. The Old Sclavonic gives CHETYRIas the mas- 
culine and feminine theme, and inflects the masculine like 
GOSTh and the feminine like KOSTI (p. 349) ; hence nom. 
chefyry-e, chetyri, }i\st as in the third numeral triy-e, **iri "; and 
the feminine form may, in both, represent also the masculine, 
and always supplies the neuter. But the collective chet- 
verOf and the ordinal number chetverty-ij stand in closer 
agreement with the Indian strong theme ^liirTT cfuUivdr : 
the Latin quatuort also, which, in disadvantageous comparison 
with the cognate languages, has lost the capability of declen- 
sion, and the Greek ria-aap-eg, Terrap-eg, rest on the strong 
^ffiTTTl^^ chatu'dras ; so that je-nape^, just like the Pali form 
^^IVKt chattdrd, has gained its last t by assimilatson of the 
semi- vowel. The Prakrit form, also, which I am not able 
to quote, will scarcely be other than chattdrd (comp. §. 300 
p. 414 G. ed.). With regard to the initial t let reference be 
made to §. 14., by which this t is accommo- [G. £d. p. 441.J 
dated with the iGolic itiavpeg, which refers itself to the weak 
theme ^iw^ chatur. With the Zend transposition of the weak 
theme to cliathru (p. 439 G. ed.), at the beginning of compounds, 
agrees surprisingly the Latin quadruy in quadrupes and other 
words. The adverbial s, by which fg^ dwUf *' twice," and 
fro irist Zend thris, " thrice,*" are formed, is, in the San- 
skrit chaiur, suppressed by the rule of sound mentioned 
in §. 94. ; hence chaiur, " four times," for chaiurs. That 
the latter has originally existed one learns from the Zend 

transposed form j^>7(3a)^ chathrus. The Latin has already, 
in the number three, without being forced by a compulsory 
law, dropped the s, and hence ter and quater appear only 
as internal modifications of the cardinal numbers. 

313. y. Sanskrit im^ panchan, Zend ^as^^asq) panchan, 
Lithuanian penk'*,* Greek irevTe, -flEolic Trefxtre, Gothic 

* This 18 the nomlnatiye masculine ; the feminine is penkios, and holds 



Jimft* Latin quinque, Old Sclavonic pyaiyA The Sanskrit- 
Zend panchan is the theme, and the genders are not dis- 
[G. Ed. p. 442.] tinguished in this and the following num- 
bers ; hence the nominative, accusative, and vocative have 
always singular neuter forms (therefore jjancA/i, according to 
§. 139.) : the other cases shew plural terminations; as, geni- 
tive MMMlil^ panchdndm, Zend ^^yuo^^Aso) panchananm 
(Vend. S. p. 52). By this irregularity in the declension the 
Sanskrit and Zend prepare us in a measure for complete want 
of inflection in Greek and Latin. Moreover, it is remark- 
able that not one of the European languages will at all recog- 
nise the final nasal, while, nevertheless, that of saptan^ 
navnn, and damn is found also in Gothic and Lithuanian ; 

and in Lithuanian, also, that of 1S[W\ ashtan, " eight ^^ 
(aszt&ni). The Greek has frequently preserved an old a 

the some relation to it that keturios does to keturi (p. 428). The same 
obtains with the appellations of the numbers 6, 7, 8, 0, of which we give 
only the masculine. 

* Occurs only nninflected : in the declined theme, the unoi^ganic addi- 
tion of an t must be expected, as in FIDVORI\ and as is also actually 
the case in Old High German in this number, and the appellations for the 
six to ten inclusive. In Gothic, however, occur also taVia^ ''six," Hbun^ 
''seven/' ahtati^ ''ei^t,' and taihuriy ''ten," only nninflected, and there- 
fore without the unorganic t ; but from nitin, " nine," comes the genitive 
niun-S, which indeed might also have proceeded from a theme NIUN or 
NIUNA^ but which I doubt not comes from NIUNI, 

t The theme is PJATl, and is inflected like KOSTI (p. 348), and 
with singular terminations; so that one has to look upon this nume- 
ral as a feminine collective, beside which the object numbered stands 
in apposition in like cases. The same obtains with the ^pellations for 
the numbers 6 to 10 inclusiye. As to the formal relation of PYATI 
to panchan, we must observe, that of the latter, in Sclavonic, only the 
syllable pa is represented by pya {§. 225. n.); but TI is a derivational 
suflix, as m SHESffTI, "six," DEFTATI, "nme,"and DESfATI, 
"ten," and corresponds to the Sanskrit suflix ti in the multiplied numbers 
vifnatiy "twenty," shaMi, "sixty," &c. 


before a nasal originally there, while it has preferred 
weakening the same to e before other consonants; hence 
€TvyJra(jJL, v). eri/i/rai/, but eTi;\/re(T); T€TU^(fi() but T€TI/0€(ti); 
and so enra, ewea, SeKa: not irevTa, however, but irevre. It 
might therefore well be assumed, that the nasal in Indo- 
Zend numerals is a later addition, but that cha is the par- 
ticle signifying " and," which, in the number four, we have 
taken for the prefix (§. 311.). In Latin, also, guinque is, in 
regard to its termination, similar to words connected with 
the particle que, as in irevre the enclitic re, which is akin 
to que and cha (see §• 14.) appears to be contained. This 
being the case, I would prefer regarding pan in iw pancha 
as euphonic for pam, and the m as a neuter case-sign ; but 
the pa which remains over as a pronoun, and indeed as 
identical with the ka which occurs in the number one (§. 308), 
in regard to which one might advert to the [G. Ed. p. 443.] 
old Latin pidpid for qmdquidt Tto7os for Koiog, &c. Five would, 
therefore, literally mean "and one," and in fact that one 
which is to be added to four.* 

314. VI. Sanskrit in|^ shash, Zend jicA»»aivd^ csvaSf Lithu- 
anian szeszh Old Sclavonic shesft/ (theme SHESHTI, p. 430t 
Note t), Gothic saihs (see §. 82.), Latin sex, Greek ef. One 
may justly suppose that the guttural which begins the 
Zend word has also existed in Sanskrit, for instance, tvi|[^ 

* Ag. Benary, who likewise recognises in pancha the particle ^^and/' 
seeks to compare the preceding syllable mthpdnif 'Miand" (Berl. Jahrb. 
1833. 1 1, p. 40). U, however, a connection exists between the appellations 
of the hand and five, the former word might be named from the number 
of the fingers; as one might also venture an attempt to explain digitus 
and dojcrvXoff with the number "ten," and our ^^ finger/' 6otlnc>^^r« 
( =zjingrs), theme FIGGRA, mih.Juiif(Jim/) ; so that in this word no 
transition of the guttural organ into the labial has taken place. I do not 
think it probable that^&i^er in named fromfangetif **io seize "; also, as 
far as regards the Greek and Latin, the appellation of each single finger 
is more likely to be derived from the total number than from pointing 


k^hash, for sh is otherwise not an initial syllable in Sanskrit, 
and also no original sound, but that sibilant which is only 
admissible with a preceding k (§.21.). In Latin, Greek, 
and German the guttural appears to be transposed, for 
sex is the transposition of xes, 

315. yil. Sanskrit Fin^ saptan, Zend yAs^Q)As^ haptan, no- 
minative and accusative Tnr S(7j7to, as^q>a)^ hapta (see §. 313.), 
Greek eitra, Latin septem^ Lithuanian aeptyni, Old Sclavonic 
sedmv (theme SEDMI). The m of septem and sedmv seems to 
me to have been introduced from the ordinal number, which 
is, in Sanskrit, saptama^ nom. masc. saptama-s, and in Scla- 
vonic sedmyi. The same holds good of the termination of 
osmvj " eight,'^ and the Latin novem, decern, Sanskrit navama-s, 

[G. Ed. p 444.] "the ninth," dasama-s, " the tenth "; for it 
is not probable that the n of the Sanskrit cardinal number 
has become m in the abovementioned languages, as m is 
very frequently corrupted tow, especially at the end of words, 
where, in Greek, this transition is necessary ; while the re- 
verse method of the n to w scarcely occurs anywhere. 

316. VIIL Sanskrit w?f^ ashtan or wiiashtdu; from the 
former the nominative and accusative ashku from the latter 

again ashtdu ; Zend ixy^M^M asian, nominative A5^M^^s asta^ 
Lithuanian asztttni, Gothic ahtau, Greek okto), Latin octot 
Old Sclavonic osmy (theme OSMl). The Sanskrit ashtdu 
and the analogous okto) appear, as it were, in a dual dress 
(see §. 206.) ; nevertheless, ashtdu is, in my opinion, just as 
much as ashtan, a bare theme, and has perhaps proceeded 
from the latter form, which occurs only in Zend, by the 
resolution of the n to u, which is so common (comp. p. 415, 
Note ), and the lengthening of the a ; if it is not preferred 
to develope it from ashtasy according to the analogy of 
§. 206. From ^rrt ashtdu comes, by suppression of the last 
element of the diphthong, a^htd-bhis, ashtdbhyas, ashtd-su, 
as rd-6/iM, &c., from rdi, "thing/'' "riches," while ashtdn, 
in the cases mentioned, forms regularly ashtabhis, ashta- 


bhyas, ashtdsu (comj). p. 304). The genitive has only one 
form, namely, ^nrT«n>( ashtdndm. The strength of the du 
of ashtdu is preserved, also, in the cognate languages, and 
indeed in the Latin ociav-us, Greek oyioog for oyioF-o^, and 
in German forms as ahtowe-n, dative, according to Notker 
the cardinal number from ahtowi-m, from the theme 
AHTOWL But if a«A(da were connected in its base with 
'Wf!^ chatur, " four,"" there would be strong reason for con- 
sidering the former form as the dual, expressing four twice, 
and for assuming that an unorganic corruption of a dual 
termination, which made its appearance in the earliest 
antiquity, has grown up with the theme. 

317. IX. Sanskrit tfi'^ navan, Zend« [G. Ed. p. 446.] 
fxi»x3f navan (nominative and accusative nava), Gothic niun 
— by contracting the va to u and weakening the a to t, as is 
so common, §. 66. — Latin novem (see §. 315.), Greek evvia, 
Lithuanian dewyni^Old Sclavonic devt/ati/ {theme DEVYATI). 
The last two appellations appear foreign to the system of 
the other sister languoges : they are based, however, as I 
have already remarked in another place,* on the facile 
interchange of a nasal with the organically corresi)onding 
medial on which, among others, rests the relation between 
jS/ooToj and nitn^ mrifas, " moriuus.^^ As regards the origin 
of this numeral term, there exists a close connection in re- 

ct of form with the expression for "new" (Sanskrit nava). 
That, however, a relation of ideas actually exists between 
the two designations, as Ag. Benary first acutely conjec- 
tured (Berl. Jahrb. 1832. ii. p. 50), appears to me likewise 
probable; for without recognis'ng a dual in ashtdu, and 
without excluding the thumbs in reckoning by the fingers, 
the number nine can still only be thought of with refe- 
rence to the earlier numbers, and as next to eight; and 

* Historical nnd Philological Traiisaclious of the Academy of Letters fur 
the year 1833, p. 108. 

1- r 


nine, in contrast with eight or all the preceding namber?, 
is just as much a new number, as that which is new itself 
is always a sometlang later and successive, a this corre- 
sponding to tlie old that. As a case in point, observe 
the Latin secundus from sequor. One must also admit that 
it would not be surprising if any former number what- 
ever, excluding one, were named after the idea of that 
which is new, and that this origin is most intimately con- 
nected with the pronominal origin of other numerals. 

[G. Ed. p. 440.] 318. X. Sanskrit ^[^ dasan, Zend 
jxi33>A^ dasan (nominative and accusative dasa), Greek Sexa, 
Latin decern, Lithuanian deszimty deszimC-s and deszimtis (the 
two first indeclinable). Old Sclavonic desyaty (theme DES Y^ TI, 
see §. 313. Note f), Gothic taihun. Concerning the ai and u of 
iaihun, see §§. 66. and 82. : the consonants have obeyed the law 
of removal (§. 87.). The Greek, rather than the Sanskrit, 
therefore serves as prototype to the Gothic in regard 
to the second consonant; and we have laid down in 
§. 21. the Sanskrit ^ 5 as a proportionably modern sound* 
If, then, in this corruption, the Lithuanian and Sclavonic 
agree with the Sanskrit, this may be so explained, that 
these languages, guided independently by the Sanskrit and 
Zend, but with the same euphonic feeling, have transformed 
an old guttural to a sibilant;* in which change of sound, how- 
ever, the Sclavonic, in other cases, goes farther than the 
Sanskrit (comp. p. 4 15 G. ed.). If, however, we desire to base 
on historical tradition the peculiar coincidence with the San- 
skrit and Zend in the case before us, and some others, we 
must arrive at this through the assumption that the Li- 
thuanian and Sclavonic races at some period wandered 
from their original settlement in Asia, when corruptions 

♦ But not universally, where, in Sanskrit, 5? i is found ; for ahnan, 
"a stone," nom. aimd, is, in Lithuanian, AKMEN, nom. akmu {§. 139.), 
and in Old Sclavonic KAMEA\ nom. kmfiy (S. 264 ). 


had already entered into the language, which did not exist 
at the time when the Greeks and Romans transplanted the 
Asiatic original language to Europe. 

319. XI — XX. The smaller numbers are combined with 

tne expression tor ten : aansknt ^4i^^|«^ Skadasan, TT^^n^^ 
dwddamn, ^nft^pjp^ trayddaian, ^iT^^^ chaturdasan, &e. ; 
Zend yAsjj|A)^^A)»;oAs ahandasan (?), yAsjjAj^^^ dvadasan ;* 
Greek evieKa^ dcaSeica, TpiorKaiieKa, T€aaap€(r' [G. Ed. p. 447.] 
tcalSeKa; Latin undecim, duodecim, tredecim, quatuordecim ; 
Lithuanian wienolika, dwylika^ tryl'ika, keturolika; Gothic 
ainlif{\ C. xv. 5.). ivalif,^ Jlmfiaihun, "fifteen"; Old Sclavonic 
chetyrinadesyaiy, " fourteen," pyatvnadesyafv, " fifteen," &c. 

"Remark. — Before the simple dahn (from dakan) had 
been changed in the Gothic into iaihun, according to the 

* These may be deduced from the ord'mals a&vandaia^ dvadasa (Vend. 
S. p. 120). So also chathrudasan, '^ fourteen," jpanchadaiariy '^ fifteen/' 
from chaihrudaiay ^' the fourteen th/'^MZTtcftae/oi/ay "the fifteenth." The nasal 
in CLivandaia appears to have proceeded from m, and to be an accusative 
sign, for the whole stands 1. c. in the accusative (aSvandaSem), By this, 
doubt is thrown on the a4vandaian given above, and perhaps a^odaian, 
or, according to the original principle of the compound, aivadasan might 
be expected. In one other passage, indeed, occurs the nominative of the 
ordinal a^vandalo (1. c. p. 230) : it is, however, clearly a false readinpr, 
and the sense requires the accusative^ as governed by j^j^AsyjtoJUJO^ 

frdsnaoiti, which Anquetil renders by a attemt; thus, (gJ9A)^^A)»;0A) 
,>coji^A)/juoJkX}0« advandaiSm frd^naoiti, '^decimum attingW ; and in 
the following analogous constructions the ordinal number also stands 
always in the accusative. The form cUivandtiiem, from a^vamdasem^ is 
remarkable, also, in a phonetic respect, because elsewhere in Zend a final 
m is not governed by the organ of the following letter. 

t I do not take the twi here, with Grimm (II. 047.), for the neuter, but, 
according to the principle of genuine compounds, for the theme (compare 
§. 112.), whence the nom. masc. tvai. Tva may also— and this appears 
to me more correct — be regarded, without the Gothic being conscious of 
the formation, precisely as the abbreviation of the Sanskrit diod, which is 
a lengthening of the theme dwa^ as 6kd from ^ka, 

F F 2 


cooiparitivily reeeit law for the alteration of sounds 
(compire §. S2.), it m\y have happ3ned that, through the 
very w'dely-diTused disposition for exchanging the d with 
/, and thpou^fh the not less connon permatation between 
gutturals and labials —through which, among others, the 
relation otfi(lv6r to the Lithuanian keturi and Latin qiiatuor 
becomes explicable — the dasan containod in ekd-dnsnn 
" eleven," and dwA-dnsan, •* twelve '' (from dakrinjj may have 
passed, in Gothic, into LTBL Through the dative tva-Iibi-my 
genitive tva-lib'-S, LIB I is preserved, in fact, as the true 
theme; so that each a of daian is weakened to L The /of 
[G. Ed. p. 448.] the uninflected tvali/ is, therefore, not to be 
explained according to §. 87., but according to §. 93».; and if 
the theme Ubi has not obeyed the law for the mutation of 
sounds, the objection, which has been raised by Graff 
(Old High German Thesaurus, p. 317) against my ex- 
planation, is removed by w^hat has been remarked in 
§. 89., for we refer to fidvdr, not fithvdr. The Latin 
quadraghta, also, for quatragintth and the Greek oySoog for 
oicToof, efiSofxo^ for e-nrofxo^, and several others, may be 
noticed, in support of the proposition that the nume- 
ral formations in the choice of the degree of the organ of 
the consonants have not always remained in the custo- 
mary path ; and in cumbrous compounds the medials are 
more admissible than the smooth letters and aspi- 
rates.* To remove the objection which may be taken 
on the ground that LIBI is so very different from 
the form of iaihiin, we mav remark, that, in French 

* The Anglo-Saxon endleofan, endlufan^ compared with tvelf^ and 
the Old Friesian andlova with twiVf, should not make us doubt, since 
the Anglo-Saxon eo corresponds to the Sanskrit a of dasan and Gothic t 
of Uff as in the relation of sen/on (Old Friesian Biugon) to the Sanskrit 
saptan^ Gothic sibun. Let, then, the Old Friesian o of lova be regarded 
like that of siugon. To the Sanskrit ckatwdr, Gothic Jidvor^ correspond 
tbe Anglo-Saxon /forfr, Old Friesian ^i/irer. 


also, the number ten, in eompounds like on-r^, Jou-zr^ 
irei ze, is so remote from the expression of the simple 
ten, that one would hardly venture to pronounce the syl- 
lable ze to be akin, or originally identical with dix, if it 
were not historically certain that onze, dovze, &c., have 
arisen from undecim, duodeclm, and that therefore ze is a 
corruption of decimj as dix is a less vitiated form of decern. 
If, then, onz€y douze, &c., have assumed the appearance of un- 
compounded words through the great alteration of the expres- 
sion for the number ten contained in them, the same holds good 
with regard to our ei^and zw'dff, in which, perhaps, as in 
onze and douze^ a connection with ein and zivei may be 
recognised, but none with zehn ; and in the English eleven, 
also, the relation to one is entirely obliterated. But with 
regard to our using for thirteen, fourteen, &c., not dreV/, 
tier!/, or similar forms in If, but dreizehn^ vierzehn^ &c., 
in which zehn is just as unaltered as the drei and viir^ 
this arises from the Germans having forgotten the old Indo- 
European compounds for these numbers, and then having 
compacted the necessary expressions anew from the elements 
as they exist uncompounded. Nay, even [G. Ed. p. 449.] 
the Greek has reconstructed afresh, as well as it could, its 
numerals from thirteen upwards, after tliat the old more 
genuine compounds had fallen into disuse ; but this has been 
done, I must say, in a clumsy, awkward fashion, by which the 
addition of a particle signifying and was found requisite in 
an attempt at extreme perspicuity, while evicKa, ScoSeKor, 
move more freely, and are suited to the spirit of the ancient 
compounds. The literal meaning, too, of rpiaKaiScKa (for 
rplSeKo) is " thrice and ten,'' and the numeral adverb t/oiV, 
instead of the bare theme rpi, is here just as much a mistake 
as the masculine plural nominative serves as a reproach to 
the Tea-a-apecKalSeKa, and is inferior in purity to the Sanskrit 
cluUur-dasanf not chalvdras-dasan {chatvdrd^asan). On the 
other hand, the Sanskrit, in the designation of the number 


thirteen, commits a similar error, and awkwardly gives in- 
stead of tri-daiant trayd-daian — euphonic for irayas-daian — 
where the masculine plural nominative instead of the theme, 
which is adapted for all genders, is not well selected. The 
Latin tre-decim is tlierefore a more pure formation, as it 
dispenses with a caseH9ign in the first member of the 
compound : just so the Lithuanian try-Iika, not trys-Uka. 
This likof which concludes the form, in all Lithuanian 
adding numerals (eleven to nineteen), exchanges the old d 
for I, as in German, and is therefore as far estranged 
from the simple deszimfs as the Gothic libi from taihun ; 
partly, as the second consonant in lika has maintained 
itself in its oldest form received from the Greek, and has 
not become a sibilant ; so that lika and Se/ca resemble each 
other very closely. The Lithuanian ZiJEra, therefore, is de- 
rived, like the Gothic libi and the French ze in onze, douze. 
&c., from the old compound which has been handed down, 
and cannot, therefore, be censured for its want of agree- 
ment with the simple number ten: it is no longer con- 
scious of its meaning, and, like an inanimate corpse, is car- 
ried by the living inferior number. As, however, the smaller 
number in these compounds is still living, so that in the 
feeling of the speaker the numbers wieno-Hka, dwy-lika, &c., 
do not appear as independent simple designations of num- 
bers — as, perhaps, septyni is felt to be independent of each of 
the earlier numbers — so, naturally, in these compounds the 
first member has kept tolerably equal pace with the form wliich 
it shews in its isolated state ; on which account wieno-lika^ if it 
is regarded as an ancient compound from the time of the unity 
of language, or perhaps as derived from i^^mitf^ ikd-dcUafh 
[G. £d. p. 450.] has nevertheless undergone, in its initial 
member, a renovation; as also in Gothic ainlif, in Greek evScKa^ 
in Latin undecimt have regulated their first member according 
to the form which is in force for the isolated number one. On 
the other hand, ^coJeica is almost entirely the Sanskrit dwd-^asa 



(o) for /}, according to §. 4.), and is asi similar to it as possible, as 
V (F) in Greek cannot be pronounced after consonants, and in 
the first syllable, aUo, could not assimilate itself to the prece- 
ding consonant (compare rerrape^ from Terfapef ), for SSdieKa 
could not be uttered. In Latin, duodecim has formed its first 
member exactly after the simple form : on the other hand, 
the French has paid no regard to the form in which the prece- 
ding number appears in its isolated state, but has left the 
composition entirely in the old form, only with the abbre- 
viations which time has by degrees introduced. With refe- 
rence to the isolated state of the smaller number, it would 
have been, perhaps, necessary in French to have said unze, 
deuze, iroize, &c. After what has been stated, I think no 
one can any longer doubt, that in our eUf {elf) and zw'dlf, 
strange as it at the first glance may appear^ a word is con- 
tained expressing the number ten, and identical in its origin 
with damn, ^eica, and zehn. If, however, the older LIBI, 
iif, and Lithuanian lika, be regarded without the suspicion 
arising, that in them corrupt though very common permu- 
tations of sounds may have preceded, then one would propose 
in Lithuanian a root lik, and in Gothic Iif or lib (Gothic 
af-li/narit "relinqui, superesse,'"'' laibds, ** reU(fui<s''^), which both 
signify " to remain/* and are also connected with each other 
and with the Greek \e(ir(a (AID). Grimm^ who has recog- 
nised (11. 94G) the original identity of our Iif and the Lithu- 
anian lika, has perhaps allowed himself to be led astray by 
Ruhig in the meaning of these expressions, and deduces the 
latter from likii, " linqui, remanerej* the former from leibaiij 
•' manere.^'' Ruhig, according to Mielcke» p. 58, holds lika for 
the 3d person plural, since he says, "Composition in the car- 
dinal numbers from ten to twenty takes place by adding 
the 3d person plural number present indicative lika (from 
lika s. liekmi) ; scil., the tenth remains undisturbed with the 
simple number, e.y. one, two, &c. ; which addition, how- 
ever, in comiK>8ition degenerates into a declinable noun of 
the feminine gender, according to which, also, the preceding 


[G. Ed. p. 451. J simple number must be regulated.*'* The 
languages, however, do not proceed so pedantically; and if 
they hold any thing understood, as very commonly happens, 
they do not expressly state that any thing remains over to 
be expressed. It is certain, however, that the Sclavonic lan- 
guages, in their expressions for eleven to twenty, do not keep 
back any tiling to be understood, but form those expressions, 
after the loss of the old, no longer intelligible compounds, 
anew, with the annexed preposition na, ''over"; e.g. in Old 
Sclavonic, where the numbers eleven, twelve, thirteen, no 
longer occur, chetyri-na'desyaty, ** four over ten." The ordi- 
nal numbers for eleven and twelve are vedinyt-na-^esvafy, 
" the first over ten," vtoryt-^a'desyalrf, " the second over ten." 
In the same manner proceeds the twin sister of the Lithuanian 
— accompanying it, but corrupted— the Lettish, in which 
weenpazmit signifies " eleven," as it appears to me, with con- 
traction of the d{e)s of deam'tt, " ten," to r, and overleaping the e. 
This procedure in Lettish has no doubt originated from the 
older lika being no longer intelligible. If it was to be so 
understood, as Ruhig has taken it, its form would be palpable, 
and the Lettians might have been satisfied with it. With re- 
ference to the composition of the numerals under discussion, 
there remains to be noticed a most remarkable coincidence 
of the Lithuanian and German with a Prakrit dialect, 
which coincidence, when I formerly touched upon this 

* Grimm's view is certainly much more natural, " ten and one over, 
two over." Only it would be to be expected, if the language wished to 
designate the numbers eleven and twelve as that which they contain more 
than ten, that they would have selected for combination with one and 
two a word which signifies " and over, or more," and not an exponent of 
the idea "to leave," " to remain." It would, moreover, be more adapted 
to the genias and custom of the later periods of the language, not to 
forgot the number ten in the newly-formed compounds, like the Lettish 
and Sclavonic. J. Grimm, in his "History of the German Language," 
p. 246, agrees with my explanation of ei(f, zwolf, and analogous forms in 
Lith. and Sclavonic. 


subject,* was not yet known to me, and which has been 
since then observed by Lenz in his edition of Urvasi (p. 219). 
In this dialect, then, the number ten is pronounced simply 

^ daha — approaching closely to the Gothic taihun — but 
at the end of the compounds under notice raha: r and /, 
however, are, according to §. 17., most intimately connected. 
Hitherto only, ^TT? vdraha, "twelve,^' from 17^ dwddasa^ 
and Vl^4li< a/thdraha, "eighteen,** from ^sm^ ashtddasa, 
can be cited, but still from them it is probable that the other 
numerals too, which fall under this cate- [G. Ed. p. 452.] 
gory, have an r for d, apparently to lighten the word loaded 
by the prefixing of lesser numbers, by exchanging the d for 
a weak semi-vowel. Now it is a remarkable coincidence 
that if we were desirous of not seeing a mutation of 
letters in this raha we should be led to the root rah, " to 
leave," which is probably identical with the verb, to which 
recourse has been had for the explanation of the corre- 
sponding Lithuanian and German numeral forms.f I 
thought I had exhausted this subject, when I was led by 
other reasons to the Hindustani grammar, where I was 
agreeably surprised by perceiving that here, also, the 
number ten, in the designation of eleven, twelve, &c., has 
taken another lighter form than in its simple state, in 
which it is pronounced das,X But in the compounds under 
discussion this becomes rah,X and, for example, bdrah, 

* Inflaence of the Pronoun on the formation of Words, p. 27 ; and 
Histor. Pliilol. Trans, of the Academy for the year 1833, p. 178, &c. 

t The a of rah hns been weakened in the cognate languages to i: 
hence linquo, Lithuanian Ukii, Greek XctVo) (cXtrroi'), Gothic of-Uf-na, 
In respect to the consonants, we refer the reader to J J 20. 23. : remark, 
also, the connection of the Lithuanian lakii, ^^ I lick," with the Sanskrit 
root llh^ ^' to lick." Since writing this note, I hare come to the conclu- 
sion that it is better to concur with Benfey, in assigning the Latin linquo, 
Greek X^tVo), Gothic af-lif-ruiy to the Skr. root richy from r/A, "to leave." 

\ The text has des and reA, but as these sounds are incorrect, I have 
altered them, as well as some other inaccuracies in the IlindustAni nnmc. 
rals which follow.— 7ran*/Iii/or. 


** twelve," answers to the abovementioned Prakrit inr^ 
Mraha, and, like this, has proceeded directly from the 

Sanskrit original form W^ divddaia, without heeding 
the form of the simple do, "two,** and c/a*, "ten." It 
may be proper here to quote all the Hindustani compounds 
which belong to this subject, together with the corre- 
sponding Sanskfit words of which tliey are the corrup- 
tions. We annex, also, the number twenty, and nine- 
teen which is related to it as being twenty less one, as 
also the simple lower numbers in Hindustani. 

[G. Ed. p. 463.] 







ikddam 11. 





dvcddata 12. 





trayddaia 13. 





chalurdcaa 14. 





panchddaia 15. 





shSdasa 16. 

• • 





saptadasa 17. 






ashtddasa IS. 

• • 





Anaviniati {"undeviginW) 19. 





viiisati 20. 

320. XX — C. The idea of ten is expressed in Sanskrit 
by ^pffir iati, ^{fi^^ sat or fw ti ; in Zend by j^jasjj saiih as^ajjj 
sata, or jp ti ; and the words therewith compounded are 
substantives with singular terminations, with which, in 
Sanskrit, the thing numbered agrees in case, as in ap- 
position, or is put, as in the Zend, in the genitive, as 

* The retention of the d is here clearly to be ascribed to the circum. 
stance that the lesser number ends with r, although in the Hindust&ni 
corruption this is no longer present. The BengMi has assimilated the r 
to the following d, hence cMuddo; but, as a general rule, the Bengali in 
these compounds changes the d into r, and in all cases suppresses tlie 
Hindust&ni ^ ; as ^dro, "eleven," bdro^ " twelve," tiro, "thirteen." 

t This form merits particular notice, as, through its / for the r found 
elsewhere, it comes so near to the Lithuanian and German Uka^ Iff. The 
Ik^ngali is sholo. 


dependent u[)on it. Occasionally, too, one finds these 
numerals in Sanskrit used adjectively, with plural endings. 
Compare, [G. Ed. p. 454.] 


20, f^i^iPH vitisaU, j^jasjj^ vtsaitU e^Kart^ viginii, 

30, f4l^ trinsat, xs^m^j!)<^ thr'daia, rptaKovra, triginta. 
40, chatwdriiiiaft chaihivareiata, reacrapaKovraf quadraginta. 
bOf panchdsaf, panchdiaia, irevTijKovrOt quinquaginta. 

60. shashti, 


70, saptati. 


80, Qsitit 


90, navaiU 


100, sata-m, 


e^rjKOvra, sexagintcu 

e/BSofujKovraf^ septvaginta, 

oySoi^Kovra, octoginta, 

evev^Kovra, nonaginia. 

e-icoTo-v, centu-m. 

"Remark. — I hold sati, iai, iata, iU to be abbreviations 
of dasati, dasat, daiatOf and therefore derivations from 
damn, "ten," by a suffix ti, ta, or t: the former is, 

* The nnmeraLs in saia^ answering to the Sanskrit forms in sat, are 
neuters, and occur, like the forms in /i, Tery frequently in the 6th and 
12th Fargard of the Vendid&d, but only in the accusative singular, in 
which sat^m might also belong to a theme sat. That, however, iata is 
the theme and the neuter form is clear from Vend. S. p. 230. (in the 
7th Fargard), where pancfta iatem (pancJidsatem), " fifty," stands as nomi- 
native. From csvasti, " sixty," haptditi^ " seventy," and navaiti, "ninety," 
we find the accusative csvastim, Jtaptditim, navaitim : on the other hand, 
in the 12th Fargard, occurs several times vUaiti (also written tisati and 
visati) as accusative of vUaiti^ which perhaps is a dual neuter form (two 
decades), and according to this would stand for viiaili (§. 210.). But if 
the final vowel is retained in its original form it is a singular neuter. It 
is, however, remarkable, that only this final t, and no other, is again found 
in the cognate Latin and Greek forms. 

t This and the following number are renovated forms, in which the 
first member proceeds unorganlcally from the ordinal number. We might 
have expected cTrr^ieoi/ra, oKTODKovrot for the latter Ion. 6yba>KovTa, In 
€Vfvr)KovTa the two v are separated from each other : the epic form cio^- 
Kovra is more genuine. 


in Lithuanian and Sclavonic^ already contained in the 
simple deszimCs, deszimtis. Old Sclavonic desyafy. Witli 
regard, however, to the ten being expressed without 
abbreviation in the languages mentioned, in compounds, 
also — ^as in Lithuanian dwideszimti (or tis), "twenty," 
frysdeszimti ( or its ), " thirty/* and in Old Sclavonic cAe- 
fyrldesyaiy, " forty/'* pyafydesyafy, " fifty " — I do not consider 
[G. Ed. p. 455.] this as a more true retention of the original 
form, but as a new formation. The Lithuanian, too, from 
forty upwards, separates the two numbers, and puts the 
former in the feminine plural, e.g. keturios deszlmtis^ " forty/* 
penkios deszimtist '* fifty"; in which it is surprising tliat 
deszimtis, also, does not stand in the plural The Gothic 
method in this numeral category is of comparatively 
recent date: it has lost, as in thirteen, &c., the ancient 
compound, and gives, in the numbers under seventy 
(sixty does not occur), iiguSf masculine, as the expressioQ 
for ten, and declines this, and in twenty, thirty, the lesser 
number also, with regular plural terminations: hence the 
accusatives (vansiigunst thritiifilguns, Jidvdrtiguns, fimfliguns^ 
genitive thriyHigvi. The substantive iiyust however, is 
the etymological quaver to (aihvn, and LIBI: it is related 
to the former essentially, the aspirate having become a 
medial (see §. 89.), tlius rendering the a, which, in taihun, 
is brought in by the rule of sound mentioned in §. 82.» 
superfluous. Advert, also, to the Latin medials in ginlit 
ginfa, contrasted with the Greek Kan, Kovra, which answer 
better to Hkou Tigu-s may be identical with the San- 
skrit ordinal daia^ nominative masculine daia-s, vfhich 
occurs only in compounds, as duddaia-s, *'the twelfth." 
To this daiz'S, therefore, is related tigws in regard to 
its u, as fdtu-s to pdda-Ss **a foot." In the numbers 
seventy, eighty, and ninety, ten is denoted by the neuter 

* Twenty and thirty do not occur. 



substantive Uhund (theme TEHVNDA^ genitive Uhundis)* 
hence sibun-Wiund, " seventy/' ahtau-iMund, " eighty," 
niun-Uhund, "ninety." The i of this TEHUNDA stands 
as the representative of the at of taihun, and I hold DA to 
be the ordinal suffix, which has introduced into the com- 
mon ordinals another anorganic N, or, according to Grimm, 
follows the weak declension ; hence TAIHUNDAN, nomi- 
native iaihunda, '^ decimus" Hereby, then, it becomes still 
more probable that the abovementioned tigus also is 
originally an ordinal number. In our New German this 
word has transformed itself to zig or ssig (dreissig), and 
is found also in siebenzig, achtzig, neunzig, Old High 
German slbunzog, ahtozog, niunzog, or -20c, and zehanzog 
(zoc), Gothic taihuntShund, "a hundred." The Sanskrit- 
Zend iata, "a hundred," which is a neuter substantive — 
nominative ^nn» mtam, ^^^asjj satem — in my opinion owes 
its designation to the number ten {dasan\ whence it is 
formed by tlie suffix ta — the suppression of the final nasal 
is regular ; — so tliat it is to be regarded as an abbreviation 

of daiaia, as above, !|rfjT sati, ^ sat, and the Zend A3^asm 
iata for daiati, &c. This abbreviation, however, which 
has given to the word the stamp of a primi- [G. Ed. p. 466 J 
tive expression specially created for the idea " a hundred," is 
proved to be of the highest antiquity by the consentaneous 
testimony of all the cognate languages, Greek kutov (eicarov 
is, verbatim, "one hundred"), Latin centum, Lithuanian 
szimta-s (masculine), Old Sclavonic sto (at once theme and 
nominative and accusative neuter).* The Gothic hund and 
Old High German hunt (theme HUNDA, HUNTA) occur 
only in compounds, as tva-hUndu, thria-hunda, zuei-hunt, 
driu'hunt, where the lesser number is likewise inflected. 
That also ^rfw hti, ^nf scU, and the corresponding words 

♦ In Z(?nd $ta occurs frequently for ia/a, and just so in the nnmbers 
compounded therewith. 


in the cognate languages^ have in the earliest periods lost the 
initial syllable of the number ten, and with it the lingual 
remembrance of the same ; and that in f^^rfw vinstiti j^jmm^ 
viiaiti, etKari, eiKoa-i, viginii, the single elements have lain 
together undisturbed for thousands of years/ affords a fresh 
proof of the agreement of the languages which have most 
faithfully preserved their ancient construction. I would 
not, however^ wish to maintain that the loss of tlie d of 
the number two in the above forms falls under the period 
of the unity of languages ; and that it may not have hap- 
pened that each of the four individual languages, having 
become weary of the initial double consonant in a word 
already encumbered by composition, may have disbur- 
thened itself of the initial sound, as we have above seen 
the Latin and Zend, independently of each other, produce 
bis from dwis, and bi from dm, and as, in agreement with 
the abbreviation of f^t^fir viniati, the Prakrit dialect men- 
tioned at p. 451 G. ed. has laid aside the d in the number 
twelve also (vdraha for dicdraha). It is remarkable that the 
four oldest and most perfect languages of the Indo-European 
family in the category of numerals before us, have lost 
exactly as much of the number ten as the French in the 
forms for eleven, twelve, &c. ; and the ze of douze is 

therefore identical with the Sanskrit ia of f4^^ viniaii. 
The Sanskrit and Zend, however, in a later corruption 
which is unsupported by the Greek and Latin, have 
caused the word dasati to be melted down to the deri- 
vation suffix tif and this ti corresponds to the French te 
of Irentef (juarante, &c. The numbers which have been 
thus far abbreviated begin, in Sanskrit and Zend, with 
sixty f ^fw shashti (ti euphonic for ti\ j;eK>^»-H3Cl^ csvastL To 
the iati of fj^frfir vinsati j^mm^ visatif regularly corresponds 
the Doric kuti of ef/caTi, while in the Latin ffinti the smooth 
[G. £d. p. 467.] letter has sunk to a medial, as in ginta^^Kovra 
of the higher numbers. In Sanskrit the n of vinsati. 



trimat, chatwdrinsaf, is surprising, and one might imagine 
a transposition of the nasal, so that in the Latin ginti, 
gintCf centum^ and in the Gothic HUN DA, "one hundred," 
it would stand in its proper place. For the rest, chatvxU 
riniat shews its relation to the neuter chaiwdri (see §. 312.); 
as also Tpta, reaaapa in TpiSiKovTat rea-capaKovTa, are, in my 
opinion, plural neuter forms, with the termination length- 
ened in rptoL, and originally, also» in Tccaapa, as the Ionic 
T€(T<rapi^KovTat Doric 7€Tpci)Koirra* Latin quadraginia, prove. 
These forms excite the conjecture, that, in Sanskrit, the 
introduction of the nasal may, contrary to the explanation 
attempted above, have the same object that, in Greek, the 
lengthening of the termination has, namely, an emphatic 
repetition of the prefixed number, which is also percep- 
tible in the long i of the Zend visaiti^ as in the long a of 
inrr^ ponc/idioi. ^^^asj^am^^asq) j>ancAdiatem from panchan 
(§. 318.), and to which again the length of TrevTrjKovra, 
quinquagintOf runs parallel. The Zend cimthumre, in 
As^Aij^g^Asvcfdjo^ chcUhwaresaia, ** forty ^' (Vend. S. p. 380), is 
likewise stronger than cha-thru-iata, which might have 
been expected from §. 312. As as^asj) sata is a neuter, to 
which, in Greek, kotov or kovtov would correspond, Kovra 
therefore, and the Latin ginfa, are best explained as neuters 
in the plural, by which the neuter nature of rpia and reaaapa 
is still more authenticated. An auxiliary vowel, which 
merely facilitated the combination, and which might be 
assumed in e^iqKovra, would at least be very superfluous in 
the theme TPI ; and it is much more probable that e^rj, too, 
is a lengthened plural neuter. Compare e^a-ic/f, e^airXovg, 
and the remarks on Travra and iroTOia, p. 401, G. ed. 

* The « for 5 is explained by $. 4. As to the suppression of the vowel 
before the p, rrrpo) answers to rtrpa in rrrpafctr, rrrpanXovs, which in li!ve 
manner arc based on plural neuter forms instead of the theme. 



321. While, in designating the number one, the greatest 
variety obtains amongst the Indo-European languages, they are 

[G. £d. p. 468.] almost unanimous in their designation of /A^ 
fiTiU which idea none of the languages here treated of derives 
from the corresponding cardinal number : Sanskrit inpn^ 
prathama-s (nom ), Zend ^^^(3A}^\ frathhnd (§.56.), Latin 
primu'8* Lithuanian pTima-s, Gothic frurn-s (for fruma-St 
§. 135,;, or indefinite fruma (theme FRVMANy §. 140.). or, 
with newly-added superlative suflBx, /rum W-j, Old High Ger- 
man Sriatir, usually indefinite Crista (from the adverb er, " be- 
fore''), Greek wpcoTOf, Old Sclavonic pervyh Tr^praihama» 
from the preposition pra, has been already discussed (p. 393 
G. ed.); so the Greek -npwTo^ iS derived from the correspond- 
ing preposition Trpo, the lengthening of which to Trpco accords 
with the Sanskrit pr& in prtUar, " in the morning" (see p. 392 
G. ed.). The suffix TO is an abbreviation of the Sanskrit 
tima or thama, which occurs even in Sanskrit in ^n^ 
chaiur-tha'S, " the fourth,'' and W^ sbash-tha-s, " the sixth," 
as also in Latin in the form of TU in quartus, (juinlus, 
9extu8i while in Greek this abbreviation extends to all the 
ordinal numbers, exclusive of SevTepog^ ejSSo/xof, and oySoo^» 
In Lithuanian the corresponding TA of four runs through 
all, but in such wise, that together with sepiinias, aszluntaSf 
occur also sSkmas, dszmas, which correspond to the Sanskrit 
lSn^(^ sapfama-s, iTfnf^ ashtama-s, in which the last portion 
of the superlative suffix (ama or Ihama has remained ; of 

which kind of division, also, ^^nnr panchama-Sf «ni|Tr 
navama^s, and ^l^HH^ daiama-s, partake, which therefore com- 
plete, by their suffix, the tha of chaiurthoy so tliat both united 
present the perfect word. The Zend agrees herein with the 
Sanskrit, only that its ^(3A5^q)a)^ haptathd agrees more 
with sepiinias than with ^Rinni^ sapi'ima-s and srplimws ; and 


that also ^ ^tt >^ pug-dhd, " the fifth," belongs more to 
the European cognate languages, in which it comes nearest 
to the Lithuanian penk4a-s. The Lithuanian, however^ is 
more true to die original form, as its sister, the Zend, has 
softened two original smooth letters, as [G. £d. p. 450.] 
in Greek, oySoo^ for oicroog ; and, besides this, has aspirated 
the last, rejected the nasal (comp. p. 94, basta from handh\ 
and irregularly, changed the a to u, as in "ONYX, corre- 
sponding to the Sanskrit «f?r nakhof "a nail/' In the 
numbers from eleven to twenty the superlative suffix, in 
Sanskrit and Zend, is abbreviated still more than in the 
simple J^!^ dasamat as^^jjas^ daiema, and of all the deri- 
v.itional suffix only the a is left, before which the a of the 
primitive word must fall away, according to a universal 
principle for the derivation of words; as, yi^ dwd- 
dasa, Af j)A)^^ dvadasGf '* the twelfth '' ; ^inr^ chaturdasa, 
Af j^a5^>7ga5^ chathrudasaf *' the fourteenth." The Latin 
appears to prove that this abbreviation is comparatively of 
recent date, and it goes beyond both the Asiatic sisters by 
its undecimus, duodecimus, not undecus, duodecus ; but has, as it 
were, exliausted itself in the effort which the continuance of 
these heavier forms has cost it ; and has given up the ana- 
logous formations in the very place in which the German 
cardinal numbers have lost the old compound in lif: hence, 
tertins decimus for the lost iredecimus, &c. An imitation, how- 
ever, of the abbreviation which we have just remarked in the 
Sanskrit-Zend dam is supplied by the Greek and Latin in the 
forms octav-us, oySo{Fyo^, where, of the ordinal suffix, in like 
manner, only the final vowel is left : we might have expected 
oyiofio^, octomus. In the very remarkable coincidence which 
here exists between the said languages, it must seem strange 
that, in the remaining designations of the ordinal numbers, 
the Latin is a much truer colleague to its Asiatic sisters 
than to the Greek ; and it preserves this character, also, in 
annexing, from twenty upwards, the full superlative suffix 
simU'S (from iimU'S^KH^^ lama^s) ; thus vicesimus or vige- 

G Q 


[G. Ed. p. 400.] simus, irigesimus, as in Sanskrit viniaiitama-St 
iriniattama'S.* In Latin, however, the termination nti or nta 
of the primitives is rejected, and in compensation the pre- 
ceding vowel is lengthened in the form of e» Compare, in 
this respect, the comparative formations discussed in §. 298* 
The Greek shews its more rare superlative suffix, correspond- 
ing to the Sanskrit ^ ishtha, in the ordinal numbers like 
eiKooTog, rptaKooTo^, with the loss of the i of lorof, as in eicaoTo^, 
nooTo^. Here also, therefore, as in Latin, the ri, ai, and vra 
of the cardinal number are rejected. The German languages 
employ in like manner the superlative suffix in numbers from 
twenty upwards : hence. Old High German dri-zugdsto, " the 
thirtieth,*^ Jior-zugdittot '* the fortieth": but in the numbers from 
four to nineteen the TAN or DAN, in Gothic, corresponds, 
according to the measure of th^ preceding letter (§. 91.), to 
the suffix of the cognate languages, as in ^Vir4l(^ chaturtha-^, 
rerapTo-g, quartu-s, ketwir-ta-s. The N, however, is an unor- 
ganic addition, after the principle of the indefinite adjective 
declension (§. 285.), which is followed by the ordinal numbers, 
with the exception of 1 and 2 in the older dialects; while 
the New German has also introduced the definite — vierteTf 
"fourth,*' funfter, "fifth," &c.; hence, Gothic FIMFTAN, 
nom. masc fimfta.^ 

[G. Ed. p. 461.] 322. From the weakened base f^dwi " two "' 
(p. 424), and from the ff iri, " three," contracted to ^ tri, the 
Sanskrit forms the ordinal numbers by a suffix tiga; hence dwi- 
tiga-s, iritiga-s. This suffix is easily recognised in the Latin ter- 

* However, this and the higher numbers may follow the analogy of 
('kSdasa-Sf "the eleventh"; hence, also, virksa, trihs-a^ &c. In Zend 
I am unable to qnote the ordinal numbers from twenty upwards. 

t In compounds like /m/?ateiAunrfa, " the fifteenth," the lesser number 
lias eitlier preserved the original theme while still free from the n, which 
was added more lately, — for the lesser number in these compounds does 
not partake of declension, — oxfimfia is here the regular abbreviation of 
the theme FTMFTAN^ since, as I have already elsewhere remarked 
(Berl. Ann. May 1827. p. 769), bases in n, in strict accordance with the 
S^mskrit, drop the n in the beginning of compoimds. 


fius, as also in the Old Sclavonic frefii, fern, treihin, which, like 
all theordinal numbers, hasonly a definite declension, in which, 
however, the particular case occurs, that the defining element 
is brought with it direct from the East, while the iyt of 
chefwertyi and others, in which, in like manner, a connection 
with iftfl tiya might be easily conjectured, is, in fact, con- 
nected with the ^ tha, TO, TU of ^jA chaiurtha, reTapro^, 
qunrtus, and has arisen from the indefinite theme in TO 
(comp. the collective clietvero, §. 312.), according to §. 255. (c/.)» 
although the simple word in most of the formations falling 
under this category no longer exists. The same relation, 
then, that chetvertyi, shestyh have to chaturtlia-s, shashtha-s, 
sedmyt, osmyt, have to ^nw sapfama, ^TTO ashfama; and 
pervt/i, " the first," to ^ purva, " the former ;*' which ex- 
pressions, in Sclavonic, remain only in combination with 
the pronominal base J^O (§. 282.). The Zend has rejected 
the i of the suffix iiyUf and abbreviated dwi to bi ; hence 

"J^A^C?^ bitya, xs^^^J)(3iliritya, in which it is to be remarked 
that the y, which is thus by syncope united with the < at a 
comparatively later period, has gained no aspirating influence 
(§. 47.). To this Zend tya corresponds, by similar suppression 
of the middle i, the Gothic DY^N (from dya, §. 285.) in 
THRIDY^N, nom. masc. thridt/at the t/ of which in the Old 
High German dritto, has assimilated itself to the preceding /, 
in analogy with the Prakrit forms and Greek comparatives, 
like 6d(T(TG)Vf Kpehtruiv, KpeiTTOiv, mentioned at p. 402. Still 
closer, however, lies the comparison with Sirrof, t/o/ttoj 
{SitTaogf Tptaa-o^), which are evidently, in [G. Ed. p. 462.] 
their origin, one with the corresponding Sanskrit-Zend ordinal 
numbers; and, in respect of their reduplicated consonant, have 
the same relation thereto that the Old High German dritto has 
to the Gothic thriyda. Regarding tvaddy^,^ "duorum,'' 
seep. 422, Note *: the place of the ordinal number is supplied 
by the pronoun anthar (see p. 377), Old High German andar. 
Middle High German ander. Our zweiter, however, is a new 
unorganic formation. The Old Sclavonic vtoryi (see §. 297.) 



answers, in respect to its derivation, to the Greek Sevrepog^ 
and, in abbreviation of the base, to the Zend biiyo^ only that 
it has lost also the i of the Sanskrit dwi-iiya, in regard 
to which we have, in §. 297., adverted to the Zend ^Zm^ 
bytlrf:*, "two years." 

323. We give here a general view of the ordinal numbers 
in the feminine nominative singular, since in tliis case the 
agreement of all the languages strikes the eye more than 
in the nominative masculine. The Gothic forms which do 
not occur we give in parentheses, formed theoretically, and 
according: to the Old Hiirh German. 

[G. Ed. p. 4C3.] 










• • * 








rrpojTn, prima^ 
d€XfT€f}a^ altera^ 
rpira, tcrtia, 
rrrdfJTa, guaria, 
TTe/zTTTtt, guinta, 
€KTa, aexta. 


fruma, pirma^ 

atUharOj antrd^ 

thr%dyO\ irichid, 

iJuivMo), keiwirtd, 

fimftoy penklot 

saihxUii', ssSsxta, 

tff^ofia, septima, . (gibundu), sekma, 

oyb6dy octavo, ahtudo, aszmftf 

ivvdra, nona, niundu, dewintaf 

btKara^ dectma, taihund6\ deszimtd. 


a^vandaiaf MtKardyUndeeima, (atn/i//o* ), teienolikia, 

vinMH'tama, vtsaititema 9 ciicocrra, vicesima. 











yedina-ya-na- detyat^ 

• • • • 

dwideszimtdf vtoraya-na'dayaiy. 

* We should read thus §. 297. for byare, as accusative singular (sec 
Olshausen, Vend. S. 43). 

* More usually paoirt/a, masc. pnoiryo^ by which the Sclavonic peri^yl^ 
pervaya, is, as it were, prepared. 

'^ Also turiydy masc. turiya-s, on which is based the Zend tuirya, 
masc. iulryo. The suppression of the syllable cha mi^ht aunouncx; th 
looser connection of the same with the remaining portion of the wor 
and thereby support the conjecture expressed at ^. 31 1. 

^ The / ofpyataya, masc, pyafi/i, has nothing in cx)mmon with the t of 
the cardinal number pyaty ; the proper primitive \%pya (scep.4t30 Note j), 
whence Pf^TI by the suffix 77, and PYATO, fem. PyATA^ by the 
suffix TO, fem. TA (see §. 3i>2.). The same holds good with regard to 
fhestaya in relation to shestyy &c. 

* Hy transposition and syncope frum csiadn^ ns mu;st be expected Jiom 
the cardmal number juca)»juo5^ csvas, 

* Regarding the d for n, see f. 317. « Sec {. 319, Note », p. 435. 


** Remark. — As the old a of the preposition n pra has 
been weakened to i — as in yuinque, answering to panchan 
— the Latin prima appears distinct from the preposition 
pro, and is decidedly not derived from a Roman soil, but 
is, as it were, the continuance of the Indian prathamd, the 
middle syllable being cast out. A similar weakening of 
the vowel is exhibited in the Greek adverb irpiVt which is 
hereby, in like manner, brought into connection with the 
preposition irpo. In the comparative prior only the pr of 
the preposition, which forms the base, is left, as the i be- 
longs to the comparative suflix. In Lithuanian the m of 
the superlative formation has introduced itself also into 
the preposition pirm, * before ' ; but the unaltered pra stands 
as prefix. To the same base, however, belongs also pri, 'by, 
before,* as well isolated as prefixed. The Gothic/riima shews 
the same relation to prathamd that the Latin [G. Ed. p. 464.] 
and Lithuanian do : the u of fru has arisen from a through 
the influence of the liquid (§. 66,). In the cognate preposition 
fram, 'before, by,^ &c., the original vowel has remained, 
and in this form, as in the Lithuanian pirm, the superla- 
tive m is contained. On Tlpra is based, also, /aiir, * before," 
with transposition of the u oi fru-ma, and with a prefixed, 
according to §. 82. 


324. The adverbs which express the ideas "twice,'' 
"thrice,*" "four times," have been already discussed 
(p. 435. G. ed.). Let the following serve for a general 
view of them : — 


dwis, bis, Sig, bis, frnwar (p. 436 G. ed.). 

tris, thris, rptg, ier, ihrin-var. 

chaiur,* chnfhrus, .... quater, .... 

* AccordiDg to §. 94. for chalurs. 


The Greek forms in #c/y like TerpaKi^, irevraKt^, &c,, in re 
gard to their sufEx, do not belong to this class, but fc/y answers 
to the Sanskrit sas (§. 21. )» the a beiog weakened to i ; 
this &as, however, forms adverbs from words which ex- 
press a great number, multitude or number, as saiasas^ 
"by hundreds,'" sahasrasaSy "by thousands,'' bahwtas, "of 
many kinds,'' ganasas, " in swarms." The original idea of 
the sufBx in both languages is that of repetition, but e.g. 
iatasas is an indefinite repetition of a hundred, while in 
cKaTovraKi^ the repetition is strictly defined by the numeral. 
How stands it, then, with the Latin forms like quinquies, 
sexies, &c.? I believe that in respect to their suffix they are 
connected neither with the forms in s like dicU, Si^, nor witli 
[G. Ed. p. 465.] those in Kig (sas), by suppression of the 
guttural ; but as toties, quoiies, evidently belong to this class, 
which are also pronounced quofiens, totiens, this probably 
being the more genuine form, as in Greek, in a similar case, 
Tiflei/j is more genuine than Tidei^ (§. 138.), I therefore 
prefer bringing these forms in ens, es, into conjunction 
with the Sanskrit sufiix vant (in the weak cases vai), 
which signifies, in pronominal bases, "much," but else- 
where, ** gifted with," and the nominative of which is, in 
Zend» vans, e.g. chvans, "how much/' for chivaiis. This 
suffix has, in Sanskrit, in combination with the interroga- 
tive base kh and the demonstrative base U laid aside the 
v\ hence kiy-ant, iy-ant — weak form kiyat, iyat — nomina- 
tive masculine kiydn, iydn ; this ant for vant answers there- 
fore to the Greek ENT (nominative masculine e/j), e.g. in 
fte\iTO€if, and also to the Latin ens, in totiens, quotiens, which 
indeed are, in form, masculine nominatives, but must also be 
considered as neuters, as in the participles, too, in w^ the 
masculine nominative has forced its way into the neuter. 
Now comes the question whether we ought to divide toti-ens 
quoti-enSf or tot-iens, quot-iens? In the former case tot, 
quof, would have preserved, in this combination, the i 



which belongs to them, for they are based on the San- 

skrit iffil tatif "so much/' nfir katif " how much "; and the 
ens in toti-ena would, according to that^ express the " time," 
and toti, "so much." In the division tot-iens, however, 
we should have to assume that in iens, the abovementioned 

demonstrative l^iFir iyanty '* so much,'^ is contained, but in 
such wise, that only the meaning of the suffix is still per- 
ceived. Under this supposition quinqu-ies [G. Ed. p. 466.] 
would, accordingly, express "five-somuch" (times); in the 
former case, however, the i, as quinqui-eSf octi-es, would have 
to pass as representative of the e and o of quinque, octo, 
and that of sexies as a conjunctive vowel, or as an accom- 
modation to the prevailing analogy. In any case, how- 
ever, the identity of the suffix ens, es, with the Sanskrit 
ant, from vant, is highly probable. The Sanskrit expresses 
the idea ** times '^ from five upwards by kritwas ; as, ^rnpl^ 
panchakritwas, "five times." This kritivas comes from krit» 
"making," which in sakrii, "once," is sufficient of itself : 
the annexed vas, however, might, by exchange of the t 
for s (compare §. 156. Note *), have arisen from vat, which 
should be given above as the weak theme for vant ; as, tdvat^ 
"so much," ydvat, "how much" (rel.). With krit from 
kart (§. 1.) is clearly connected the Lithuanian kartors, 
"time," a masculine substantive, which, like the defining 
number, is put in the accusative, in order to make up for 
the adverbs under discussion; e.g. wienan kartan, "once," 
du kartu, ** twice" (accusative du), iris kartis, "three 
times." In Old Sclavonic the corresponding krat or kraty 
is not declined, and the former appears to be an abbrevia- 

• These are neaters, which, in common with the numerals 1^^^ 
panchan, '^fivc," &c. (J. 313.), have, in the nominative, accusative, and 
.vocative, a singular form ; in the other cases, plural terminations ; while 
in Latin qiiot^ tot, like quinque, &c., have become completely inde- 



tion of the latter, for it cannot be brought into direct 
comparison with the Sanskrit «i^ krit on account of §. 255. (/.) : 
kmty, however, is to be deduced from 'tfpfll^ kriiwas, by sup- 
pression of the t'. With regard to the y for as comjKire 

325. Tlirough the suffix VT dha the Sanski*it forms ad- 
verbs in sense and in form, c»orres}X)nding to the Greek 
in x^9 which, therefore, have altered the T sound of the 
suffix into a corresponding guttural, by the usual exchange 
of organ in aspirates, as in OPXIX for OPXI0, and in the 

forms mentioned at p. 101 G. cd. Compare, 
fG. Ed. p. 467.J 

fgin ihvt-dhd,* 

ftW (rl'dlttl, 

^RTOT chafur-dhA, 


iWyr jKinclm-dln}, 



♦ '• Divided into two parts," Sav. V. HW. 

!-.ND OF VOL. I. 

r I 



> . *