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WALTER L. PYLE, A. M., M. D., 


Second £Ntion, IRcviBC^ and Enlarged 



J ^ J ^ J . J ^ ^ 




Copyright, 1899, by P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 

WM. F. FELL ft CO., 






Encouraged by the sale of a large edition of this compend within 
two years, the authors have corrected, revised, and enlarged the text as 
much as compatible with the necessarily limited space, until now the 
volume far exceeds the ordinary size and scope of a compend. 
Through the liberality of the publishers the whole book has been re- 
set in larger type, and several new illustrations, including five colored 
plates, have been added. The section on Local Ocular Therapeutics 
has been increased to include all the recent mydriatics, miotics, local' 
anesthetics, ocular antiseptics, etc. Additional emphasis has been 

given to points of practical value. 


Philadelphia, June, j8gg. 


The object of this compend is to describe simply and concisely the 
most important subjects in Ophthalmology, giving the novice all the 
necessary preparation for an intelligent comprehension of the more 
exhaustive literature of this branch of Medicine. For the benefit of • 
the general physician, to whom some elementary knowledge of 
Ophthalmology is imperative, especial attention has been given to 
the principles and practice of refraction ; to muscular anomalies ; to 
the diagnosis and differentiation of the common ocular diseases ; and 
to local ocular therapeutics. 

A table of abbreviations, a glossary, and a complete index are 
appended. Dr. James Thorington has kindly written the section 
on Retinoscopy. 

Philadelphia, June, iSgy. 







General Description of the Eye, 13 

Elementary Optics, 18 

Optical Consideration of the Eye, 27 

Examination of the Eye, 33 

Inspection, 35 

Tension 38 

Ophthalmoscopy, 39 

Retinoscopy, 49 

Test-cards, 58 

'lest-Ienses, 62 

Prescribing and Testing Glasses, 65 

Spectacles and Eye-glasses, 70 

Mydriatics and Cycloplegics, 72 

Ametropia, 74 

Hyperopia, 74 

Myopia, 78 

Astigmatism, 84 

Presbyopia, 93 

Anisometropia, . 95 

Asthenopia, 98 

Amblyopia and Amaurosis, 100 

Amblyopia ex anopsia, 100 

Hemeralopia, 100 

Nyctalopia, loi 

Toxic Amblyopia, loi 

Traumatic Amblyopia, loi 

Hysteric Simulation and Malingering, . 102 

Color Blindness, 103 

The Field of Vision, . . 106 

Hemianopsia, 109 

Ocular Muscles, iii 

Anatomy, Ill 

Functional Anomalies, 1 12 

Strabismus, 126 

Paralysis, 128 

Nystagmus, 131 

Operations, I36 






Diseases of the Eyelid, 139 

Anatomy, 139 

Diseases of the Skin of the Lids, 139 

Diseases of the Edge of the Lids, 142 

Blepharitis, 142 

Hordeolum, 143 

Chalazion, '. . 143 

Malposition of the Lids and Lid-edges, 144 

Congenital Anomalies, 152 

New Growths 153 

Diseases of the Lacrimal Apparatus, 153 

Anatomy and Physiology, ^ ^53 

Diseases of the Lacrimal Gland, 155 

Diseases of the Lacrimal Passages, 155 

Diseases of the Conjunctiva, 160 

Anatomy, 160 

Simple Conjunctivitis, 164 

Purulent Conjunctivitis, 167 

Follicular Conjunctivitis, *. . 1 73 

Trachoma, 1 74 

Phlyctenular Conjunctivitis, , 177 

Pinguecula, 178 

Pterygium, 178 

Injuries of the Conjunctiva, 179 

New Growths, 181 

Diseases of the Cornea, 181 

Anatomy, < 1 81 

Pannus, 183 

Interstitial Keratitis, 184 

Phlyctenular Keratitis, 185 

Suppurative Keratitis 187 

Corneal Opacities, 190 

Staphyloma, 192 

Conic Cornea, 192 

Tumors, . 193 

Injuries, 193 

Operations, 195 

Diseases of the Sclera, 196 

Anatomy, 196 

Scleritis or Episcleritis, 1 96 

Staphyloma, 197 

Wounds, 198 

Diseases of the Iris and Ciliary Body, 199 

Anatomy, 199 

Inflammations of the Iris, 201 

Plastic Iritis, 201 



Serous Iritis, 203 

Suppurative Iritis, 204 

Malignant Tumors, 205 

Injuries, 206 

Congenital Anomalies, 206 

Pupillary Anomalies, 207 

Mydriasis, 207 

Miosis, 207 

Ai^U Robertson Pupil, 208 

Hippus, 208 

Operations, 208 

.Iridectomy, 208 

» Iridotomy, 210 

Iridocystectomy, 211 

Iridodesis, 211 

Cyclitis, 211 

Paralysis of the Ciliary Muscle, 212 

Spasm of the Ciliary Muscle, 212 

Diseases of the Choroid, 212 

Anatomy, 212 

Choroiditis, 213 

Exudative, 213 

Suppurative, 215 

Myopic, 215 

Sarcoma, 216 

Rupture, 217 

Detachment, 217 

Coloboma, . . .' 218 

Diseases of the Retina, 218 

Anatomy, 218 

Hyperemia, ' 219 

Retinal Hemorrhage, 220 

Retinitis, 221 

Albuminuric, 221 

Diabetic, 223 

Leukemic, 223 

Retinitis Pigmentosa, 223 

Thrombosis and Embolism of the Retinal Vessels, . . . 225 

Detachment of the Retina, 225 

Glioma, 227 

Injuries, 228 

Opaque Nerve-fibers, 228 

Diseases of the Optic Nerve, 229 

Anatomy, 229 

Optic Neuritis, 230 

Optic Atrophy, 234 

Diseases of the Lens, 235 

Anatomy, 235 

Cataract, 236 

Causes, 2^6 


Cataract : 

Varieties and Nomenclature, 237 

Symptoms and Diagnosis, 237 

Objective Examination, 237 

Treatment, 241 

Operations for Cataract, 242 

Discission, 243 

Extraction 244 

Secondary Cataract, 247 

Injuries to the Lens, 248 

Congenital Anomalies, 249 

Diseases of the Vitreous, , . . . 249 

Anatomy and Physiology, ^9 

Hyalitis, 249 

Muscae Volitantes, 250 

Persistent Hyaloid Artery, 250 

Glaucoma, 251 

Causes, 251 

Pathologic Changes, 251 

Symptoms, 252 

Diagnosis, 253 

Varieties, 254 

Prognosis, 255 

Treatment, 255 

Diseases of the Orbit, 256 

Anatomy, 257 

Periostitis, 257 

Orbital Cellulitis, 258 

Injuries, 258 

Tumors, 259 

Exophthalmic Goiter, 259 

Enophthalmos, 259 

Injuries to the Eyeball, 260 

Wounds, 260 

Foreign Bodies, 261 

Parasites 262 

Sympathetic Ophthalmia, 262 

Operations on the Entire Eyeball, 264 

Evisceration, 264 

Total Combined Keratectomy, 265 

Enucleation, 265 

Artificial Eye, 266 

Exenteration of the Orbital Contents, 267 




INDEX, 289 






PART 1. 




The eye is the organ of vision. Impressions of light are received 
in the peripheral organ, the eyeball ; are transmitted by the optic 
nerve and optic tract to the base of the brain, and thence to the cortex, 
and become known to us as images, through the visual centers in the 
occipital lobe. 

The eyeball is contained in a bony cavity called the orbit, which is 
conic in shape, with its apex posterior. The eyeball resembles in 
shape a sphere, which has on its anterior surface the segment of a 
smaller sphere. The average diameters of the human eyeball are : 
24 mm. anteroposteriorly, 23 mm. transversely, and 23 mm. verti- 
cally. The eyeball is held in place by its muscles and membranes, 
and is supported in the orbit in a cushion of fat. It is surrounded by 
a thin membranous sac, called the capsule of Tenon or tunica vagin- 
alis oculi. The axes of the two eyeballs are parallel with each other ^ 



white the axes of the orbit are divergent. The optic nerve enters the 
posterior portion of the eyeball through an opening called ihe poms 
opticus, slightly to the nasal side- 

The eyeball consists of three tunici or outer coats, and three refrac- 
tive media called humors. 

The tunica are { r) the scUra and cornea ; {2) the choroid, iris, ciliary 
muscle, and ciliary processes : (3) the r^/twa, "Vac sclera q^ sclerotic 
coal is a tough, fibrous covering, forming the chief protection of the 
eyeball. The choroid is the vascular coat, and is chiefly concerned 
in the nutrition of the eye; it and the retina are pigmented, and 
absorb all the superfluous rays that might, by reflection, confuse the 
retinal image. By its contractile and expansile powers, the iris 
regulates the quantity of hght admitted into the pupil; ordinarily 
it is Bufficienlly pigmented to prevent the passage of light through 
its substance. The retina is the inner and most delicate layer, and 
contains the nervous elements. It is the percipient tunic of the eye. 

The Humors. — The several humors are the aqueous, the crystalline 
(lens), and the vitreous. The cornea and the humors are transparent. 
All that portion of the interior of the eyeball lying behind the lens 
and ciliary processes is called the vitreous chamber, and contains the 
vitreous humor, a transparent, jelly-like substance. The crystalhne 
lens lies in front of the vitreous chamber. The rernaining anterior 
portion of the cavity of the eye is called the aqueous chamber. The 
aqueous chamber is subdivided into two portions, the anterior cham- 
ber and the posterior chamber, which are in free communication 
through the pupil, and both contain the aqueous A«»ior, a slighdy 
sahne, transparent fluid. The anterior chamber is an angular space, 
covered in front by the posterior surface of the cornea, at its angle by 
ihe tigamenlum pectinatum iridis, and behind by the anterior surface 
of the iris, tii& posterior chamber m a small cavity, bounded in front 
by the posterior surface of the iris, and behind by the ciliary pro- 
cesses, the suspensory ligament of the lens, and the anterior capsuli 
of the lens. 

The nervous supply of the eyeball and its appendages is through 
sensory branches from the first and second divisions of the fifth pair 
of nerves, and motor branches from the third, fourth, sixth, and 
seventh pairs of cranial nerves, and sympathetic filaments from the 
carotid and cervical plexuses. 
^^Tbe vascular supply of the eye is through ophthalmic branttit^ 




the internal carotid, and indirectly by anastomoses between its 
terminal branches and similai branches of the external carotid. The 

f, ss 

of Ihe lelina. /. E 

the posteiioi shorl ciliary arteiy to the optic nerve, i. Anastomosis of 
d vessels with those of Ihe optic nerve, m. Choriocapiliaris, », Epi- 

verse seciion). o. Blood-vessels of the itis._, f. Ciliary process, j. 

vessels of the globe proper are the long, the short, and thi 
ciliary arteries, and the central artery of the retina. Figure 2 


schematic representaiion of the vascular supply of the eye. The 
venous blood is returned from the eye through the superior and 
inferior ophthalmic veins, which empty into the cavernous sinus and 
also freely anastomose with the facial veins. 

Tbc lymph-ayBtem of the eye consists of numerous small lymph- 
canals, which empty into three chief lymph-spaces : the perichoroid 
space, the cavity between the choroid and the sclerotic ; the cavity of 
the ciipiule ,'/ Tenon,hityieeTi\iic eyeball and capsule ; andlhe x-a^na/ 
space, between the optic nerve and sheath. It is probable that the 
lymphatic spaces in the cornea communicate with the great lymph- 
space of the anterior chamber by means of SchUmm' s canal -ixtA the 
spaces 0/ Fontana. It is supposed that a stream of lymph flows from 
the ciliary body, diffusing through the vitreous, and from [he canal of 
Petit to the posterior chamber ; thence downward and forward 
through the anterior chamber, from whence it escapes at the angle, 
through the membrane of Descemet and the pectinate ligament, to 
the canal of Schlemm, Tributary streams of lymph flow into both 
the anterior and posterior chambers from the surrounding surfaces. 
It is possible that all the lymph-spaces communicate with the ante- 
rior chamber, except those of the retina, which discharge through 
the/>or«j opticus into the vaginal space. 

The muscles of the eyeball are six : the superior, inferior, internal 
and external recti, and the superior and inferior oblique. 

The appendages of the eyeball are the eyebrows, the eyelids, the 
capsule of Tenon, the conjunctiva, the lacrymal apparatus, the mus- 
cles, the aponeuroses, and the vessels and nerves. 

The anatomy and physiology of the individual components of the 
eyeball and appendages will be set forth under the separate headings. 

Dissection of the Eye.— It is somewhat difficult to obtain human 
eyes, and for practical dissection fresh bullocks' eyes ia which the 
corneie are still clear may be used, while for practising operations 
pigs' eyes are to be preferred. If the eyes can not be used during 
the day on which they arc obtained, they may be preserved in i : looo 
solution of formaldehyd. For dissection the eye should be held 
firmly In the left hand, and the sclera incised at the equator of the 
globe by repeated cuts until the black choroid is seen, and systematic 
examination of the different parts of the interior of the eye should 
be carefully made, following the plans laid down by the best anato- 
Cross-sections of frozen eyes are very valuable to sWiA-^ v'wt 



relative position of the tllfferent parts, whicti is disturbed in ordinarylH 
di,.ec.i... ■ 

For practising operations several masks are on the market, and V 
that consisting of a pliantom face with an orbital clip for holding the 
eye in a proper position is to be preferred. Operations on the ocular 
muscles should be studied on the human cadaver, or on the rabbit, 
^^ cat, or dog, 


Raya of light diverge from a luminous point in a straight line in 
every direction and in every plane. At six meters the divergence 
of the rays is so slight that for practical purposes we may consider 
rays from a point at such a distance as parallel. 

Light travels through space at a speed of about i!J6.6B o^ mil es a. 
second, but in the air or other transparent mettium of a known density 
the rate of speed diminishes, generally with the density of the media 

The Action of Opaque Substances on Rays of Light. — When a J 
ray of light meets an opaque body it is either absorbed or reflected.* ] 

Reflection. — The condition first requiring our attention is reflection I 
from highly polished plane, concave, or convex surfaces, or, gener- J 
ally speaking, mirrors. Rays of light from a luminous point striking j 
the mirror are called incident rays; rays leaving the mirro 
called reflecled rays. 

Resection by a plane Gurface gives an erect image, and the ; 
of reliection is equal to the angle of incidence. The reHected a 
incident rays are both in a plane perpendicular to the raflectii^ 
surface. The image is formed at a distance behind the reflectin* 
surface equal to the distance of the luminous point in front of it, aBi 
is called a virtual image, in contradistinction to a real image which 1 
formed directly by the reflected rays, and not by their prolor 
If a plane mirror he rotated on any axis in its own plane, the 
image moves in an opposite direction to the mirror. 




Reflection by a concave surface may be considered as reflection 
from a number of plane surfaces inclined toward one another. 
Parallel rays falling on a concave surface are reflected as convergent 
rays which meet at a point on the axis of the surface inside the cen- 
ter of concavity, called iS\^ principal focus (Fig. 3, F\ The distance 



Fig. 3. 

of the principal focus from the mirror is called ^^ focal length of the 

The formation of the image varies with the distance of the light 
from the mirror. If the light be placed at the principal focus, F, the 
reflected rays leave the mirror parallel with each other and the axis 


Fig. 4. 

of the mirror. If the light be placed at the center of concavity, C, 
the reflected rays return along the same line. If at a point beyond 
the center, A^ the reflected rays focus between the center and the 
principal focus, a ; and, vice versa, if the luminous point be situated 
between the principal focus and the center of concavity, the t^€iR.^\35A. 


rays fncus at a poinl beyolid the center ; and [he nearer the point is 
( the distance at which the reflected rays 
focus. The points A and ii are mutually convertible; j. a, cither 
may be taken as the point of emanation of the rays, or. conversely, 
as ihe point of collection, and hence are called conjugaU foci. If 
the light be placed neater the mirror than the principal focus, the 
reflected rays will diverge and never meet ; if, however, the divergent 
rays are continued backward, they will unite at a point, H, behind 
the mirror (Fig. 4), called the virtual focia, and an observer situated 
in the path of reflected rays will receive them as if they came from 
this point. Hence, concave mirrors produce a small inverted real 
image of an object beyond the center of concavity, no image of an 
object at the focus, and an erect and a larger virtual image of an 
object inside the focus. If a concave mirror be rotated, the real 
inverted aerial image of the object will move in the same direcdon as 
the rotation of the mirror. 

Reflection by a cooves surface produces a negative image at a point 
back of the surface called the principal focus, as parallel rays falling 
on a cnnvex surface diverge and never meet. Whatever the position 
of the object before a convex mirror, the image is always virtual, 
erect, and smaller than the object. 

The Action of Transparent Substances on Light. — A ray of light 
traversing a homogeneous substance like ether passes through undis- 
turbed and in straight lines, and, as already stated, when it is inter- 
cepted by an opaque substance it is reflected or absorbed ; but if it 
meets with a transparent medium it is only partially reflected and 
absorbed, the greater portion traversing the media, and during its 
passage it is deflected toward the perpendicular to the plane dividing 
the medium from which it comes from the medium which it enters. 
This bending of the ray is called refraction; the medium trav- 
ersed is called the refracting medium. In considering the transmis- 
sion of light through a transparent surface, the infinitesimal amount 
reflected and absorbed is disregarded, and only that refracted is con- 
Refraction by a Plane Surface.— Rays of light perpendicular to the 
surface separating the two media are not refracted, but continue in a 
straight line. In figure 5 the ray C O, perpendicular lo the surface 
A M,K not refracted, but continues its coutm in the straight lins 


As a. ray passes from a rare into a denser medium it is refracted 
toward the perpendicular. In figure S. if the incident ray £ O passes 
from air into water, then, instead of proceeding in a direct line to ^, it 
is bent toward the perpendicular C C, and takes the direction O W. 
Were the refractive media glass,- — ^a denser substance, — the refraction 
would be still greater and the ray would take the direction O G. 
Were the medium still denser, — as, for instance, diamond, — the ray 
l_would take the course indicated by O D. Upon emergence from the 


T to the rare medium again the ray pursues its original course 
d a line parallel, but not identical, with its initial direction. 
The sine {t e^oi E O C, the angle of incidence, bears a 
ratio to the sines {iv w'.gg'. d d') of the angles of refraction, tf ' O C 
G C. D O C': and this ratio is called the index of refraction, 
Taking air as a standard, its index of refraction is called 
the refraciive indices of the other substances are based on this stand- 
ard. According to Krause, the refractive index of water is 1.3342; of 
the cornea, 1.3507; of the aqueous, 1,3420; of the vitreous, 1.3485; 
■ of the crystalline lens, 1.4541. The index of refraction of otd\ 



i EYE. 

spectacle glass is 1.53. The diamond has the highest refractive | 
power of any transparent substance, its index of refraction bcingfron 
2.4. to 3.5-f . The refractive power of a substance is not always i: 
proportion to its density. 

Refraction by Prisms. — If the two sides of a refracting medium ar 
it parallel, as in a prism, the refracted rays do not emerge ii 

1 parallel t( 
ofthe prism, bolh : 

is called the principa 
of deviation, and is at 

The Btrength of a pi 
angie, the prism-diopt 

The prism-diopter 1, 
n of prisms 

the incident course, but are bent toward the base 
t the incident and emergent surfaces. In figure 6, 
the ray D M falling on the prism 
A B C&x the point M, instead of pur- 
suing the direction of M N,\s bent 
toward the base of the prism B C and 
assumes the direction M N. It is 
again deflected toward the base at A' 
and takes the direction N E, and an 
observer placed at E would receive 
the ray as if it came from A'. B A C 
IT apical angle. K H D\% called the ii«^/I# 
It one-half the size of the principal angle. 
m is expressed in three ways : the refracting 
, and the centrad. 

s suggested with the idea of conforming the 
the dioptric system of numbering lenses. A 
prism -diopter is that prism which has the power to deflect rays of light 
passing through it and to a distance of one meter beyond, exactly 
one centimeter. This deflection is measured on the tangent. In 
this system Ihe higher prisms are not simple multiples of the lower 
ones, — as, for instance. 20 prisms of two prism. diopters each equal a 
prism of 42 prism -diopters, and not 40 as would be the natural infer- 

The centrad is based on the sajne principle, but the amount of de- 
flection is measured on the arc at a meter distance instead of on the 
tangent. This method has been recommended by the American 
Ophthalmological Society. In the ordinary low number prisms the 
difference in Ihe numeration is so slight as to cause no inconveni- 

Refraction by a Spheric Surface. — Parallel rays passing through a 
spheric surface separating media of dilTetent densities are refracted 
sothatlhey meet at a point on the principal axis, called \\\e principal 



Table Showing the Equivalence of Centrads in Prism-diopters 
AND IN Degrees of the Refracting Angle (Index of 

Refraction 1.54). 


Prism-diopters. ■ 

Refracting Angle. 






2°. 12 



3°. 18 



4°. 23 






6°. 32 


















1 2°. 34 






14°. 23 



150. 16 














20. 270 







26°. 8i 






32°. 18 



34°. 20 



35°- 94 









40**. 29 



40°. 49 

focus. Divergent rays proceeding from a point at a distance from 
the lens greater than its principal focus meet at a point on the prin- 
cipal axis beyond the principal focus. Divergent rays proceeding 
from a point nearer its surface than its principal focus will still diverge, 
and hence never meet; but if continued backward they would meet 
at the negative conjugate focus of the initial point of divet^e^xc^* 



Refraction by lenses. — A lens is a. transparent refracting medium, 
isiially of glass or crystal, which is bounded by two curved surfaces 
>r a curved surface and a plane surface. 
Lenses may be considered as a juxtaposition of prisms with different 
refracting angles (Fig, 7), Convex lenses 
are equivalent to prisms with their bases 
placed together, A ; and concave lenses, to 
prisms with their apexes placed together, fl. 
Therefore, rays of light always being de- 
flected toward the base of a. prism will be 
rendered eonvergent by cowvex Itttsts, in 
which the prismatic bases are central : and 
will be rendered divergent by concave lemts, 
in which the prismatic bases are peripheral, 
'' Spheric lenses are used in ophthalmology 

in six different forms (Kig. 8): 

1. HanocoHvex, the segment of one sphere, having a plane surface 
an one side and a convex surface on the reverse side. 

2. Biconvex, segments of two spheres having two convex surfaces 

3. Concavoconvex. or converging meniscus. 

4. Biconcave, having two concave surfaces. 

;. Planoconcave, having on one side a plar 
reverse side a concave surface. 
6. Canvexoconcave, or diverginf; meniscus. 

■S 3 *"d 6, having opposite sides at different surfaces, are 
called pcriscopii: or meniscus liHses, and are used to avoid spheric 
aberration and to gain a greater field of clear vision. 

The principal axis of a lens is a line passing through the optic 
center, at tight angles to Ihe surfaces of the lens. Rays passing 
through this axis are not refracted. Rays passing through the oplic 
center of a lens, but not passing through the principal axis, are 
slightly deviated, although in practical optics they may be considered 
as straight lines. The/ocal length of a lens is the distance from the 
lens to the point at which parallel rays, refracted by the lens, focus. 

A cylindric lens is a lens with a plane surface in one axis, and a 
convex or a concave surface in the axis at right angles to it. ' This 
form of lens is really a segment of a cyUnder. Examination of any 
cylinder — as, for instance, a bottle — will show there is curvature 
only in one direction, from side to side, and not in the axis. As the 
axis of a cylinder has a plane surface, the rays are only refracted at 
right angles to the axis, and the strength of the cylinder depends on 
the curvature possessed by the surface at right angles to the axis. 
The axes of the cylinders in a test case are usually shown by grinding 
and making partially opaque portions of each side of the lens in the 
direction of the axis. 

// must be remembered that a cylinder refracts rays of light only in 
the meridian at right angles to its axis, while a spheric lens refracts 
rays of light in evety meridian. 

Classification and Numbering of Lcnaes. — Lenses are numbered 
according to their focal distance, and the strength of the lens varies 
inversely as its focal distance. Formerly lenses were numbered 
according to the inch system, the unit of which was a lens whose 
focal distance equaled one inch, — a very strong lens. This system 
necessitated the use of large numbers or fractions ; and, moreover, 
the denomination inch had different significations in different coun- 
tries, the French inch, for example, vJrying from the English inch. 
The metric or dioptric system of numbering lenses is now in use, and 
the unit is a lens having a focal distance of one meter, and is called 
a lens of one diopter strength — a comparatively weak lens ; a two- 
diopter lens is one having half the focal length of the one-diopter 
lens, or J^ of a meter. Decimals, of course, are used instead of 
fractions ; a lens of a focal length of four meters is called an 0.35- 
diopter lens. 


Convex lenses form real images, and are called positive or plus 
lenses, and are designated by the sign +. 

Concave lenses produce only virtual images, and are called negative 
or minus lenses, and arc designated by the sigo — . 

To convert a prescription written in the old system of numbering 
lenses into the modern metric system of diopters, we may roughly 
consider the meter as equivalent to 40 inches. A 10-inch lens would 
be equivalent to a lens having a focal length of J^ of a meter, or four 
diopters. The following table from Landolt gives the equivalents in 
both the old and new systems. 











Foe si 

of the 





II EtiKlish 



11 I^nKlish 
















■ 57 ..18 
















71 S 

















a. 79 














































B of Lenses used to Correct Refractive Errors: 

1. The simple sphere may be either convex or concave, and is used 
to correct the uncomplicated forms of refractive errors. 

2. The simple cylinder is limited in refractive power to the direction 
of its curvature, and is used in cases of simple astigmatism, in which 
there is an error of refraction in only one meridian of the eye. 

3. Tlie spkerocylinder is a combination of a sphere with a cylin- 
der, and is used in cases of compound or mixed astigmatism in which 
there is a different refractive error in the two principal meridians of 

4. The cross-cyliitdcr is a form of lens made up of two cylinders 
with their axes at right angles to each other. It is seldom prescribed, 
but is occasionally used in making tests. 


^'■Optically considered, the eyeball is a refracting ir 
to produce small and inverted objects upon the retina at the macular 
region. The impression received on the layer of rods and cones is 
conveyed to the visual centers in the brain, and the sense of sight 
results. Although the retinal images of external objects are inverted, 
the objects are seen in their proper positions, because all external 
sensations are referred outward along the lines of impact. The eye- 
ball only receives the rays of light ; the act of vision is performed in 
the higher centers. 

The refracting surfaces of the eyeball are the cornea, the anterior 
and posterior surfaces of the lens. The refracting media are the aque- 
ous, the substance of the lens, and the vitreous. 

The Cardinal Points. — Although it is possible geometrically to 
follow rays of light through the ocular media, this procedure is very 
difficult, and separate calculation is necessitated for each distance for 
the determination of the size of the image. By assuming certain 
ideal or cardinal points, to which such a complicated system of 
refracting media may be reduced, and learning their relative position 
and properties, we may determine, either by calculation or geometric 
constniction. the path of the refracted ray and the position and size 
of the retinal image. 
» Gauss has demonstrated that every dioptricsystem may be replaced 

by a single system composed of six cardinal points and six pla 
perpendicular to Ihe common axis at these points. 

The cardinal points of the eyeball are the Iwo principal points, 
two nodal points, and the two principal foci. These points are 
simated on the optic axis, (Fig. 9.) The planes are the tvio pri* 
p<i! planes, the two focal planes, and the hvo nodal plants. 

The principsl pointB may be defined as two points situated < 

optic axis, or the line connecting the centers of curvature 

various refracting surfaces of a compound dioptric system, and 

lated that the final emergent ray bears the same relation to the; 

^^^ (or posterior) principal point that Ihe initial or incident ray 

^^■^ bear to ihe first (or anterior) principal point, after having undergo 
I refraction through a single refracting surface of determinate curva 

In the eyeball, these two points are so closely situated that they 
be considered as one point, B, about two mm. behind the corne: 
The nodal points may be defined as two points on the optic an 
a dioptric system, and so related that every incident ray which i 
reeled toward the jfrj/noi/a/ ^a/ji/ is represented after refraction 

ka ray emanating from the second nodal point, and having a direct 
parallel to that of the incident ray, The nodal points of theeyel 
are ao close together that they maybe considered as one point, whf 
nearly corresponds lo the optic center. They are situated near 
posterior pole of the lens, about seven mm. behind the cornea {N), 


of the eyeball is located at jV in ihe vitreous, 
9 8 mm. in front of the retina. 

The first principal focus is a point on ihe axis at which rays parallel 
in the vitreous meet, F. It is situated about 13.7 mm. in front of the 

The second principal focuB is that point on Ihe axis at which par- 
allel rays meet after being refracted by the dioptric system of the eye ; 
that is, on the rods and cones of the macular region. A. It is usually 
about 22.8 mm. behind the cornea, in the emmetropic eye. 

The following are quoted as the mean dimensions of careful oph- 


idiua of curvature of cornea 7.S29 

.adius of curvature of anterior surface of lens, Ihe ciliiiry 

muscle beinj; relaxed, 10, 

Jladius of curvature of posterior surface of lens 6. 

■istuice from summit of cornea to anterior pole of lens, . 3.6 
Thickness of crystalline lens, 3.6 

Taking the above dimensions, with Helmholtz's later index for the 
crystalline lens (1.4371). calculation gives for the schematic eye the 
following distances ; 

Summit of cornea to first principal point, I'TSJ^ 

Summit of cornea to second principal point 3.1101 

Summit of cornea to iirat nodal point 6.96S5 

)f cornea to second nodal point, 7-3154 

between the principal planes equal Ihe distance 

between the nodal paints, 0.3569 

Ttrst nodal point in front of posterior pole of lens, . . . . 0.2315 

Second nodal point behind posterior pole of lens, ... o. 1 254 
Anterior focal distance (measured from the lirst principal 

P'"ie). 154983 

Poiterior focal distance (measured from second ]>rinci[ial 

P''"*). 20.7136 

Anterior focus in front of summit of cornen, I3-745I 

Posterior focus behind summit of cornea, 22.8327 

Posterior nodal point to posterior focus, 15.4983 

The size of the retinal image may be calculated from the siie of 
the object and its distance from the nodal point. Multiply the svi.e.(i( 


the object by the distance of the nodai point from the retina (apjv 
mately 15 mm.); divide the product by the distance of the objw 
from the nodal point, and the quotient will be the size of the r 
image. All measurements must be reduced to millimeters, st 
the result will be in millimeters. Suppose the eye nearly e 
tropic, and the size of the object five mm., and its distance from thq 
nodal point — /. e., its distance from the cornea, /t/UJ seven 
approximate distance of the nodal point from the con 
mm. Then, 5 X 15 = 75 I 75 -»- '«» = -075 mm., the siic of thi 
retinal image. 

I The first requiBite of perfect vision is that all rays proceeding frotfl 
La distant object and entering the eye at rest must pass through tl 
rrefractive media and be united exactly on the retina. An eye u 

which the refracting surfaces (namely^ 
the anterior surface of the cornea a 
the anterior and posterior surfaces of thd 
lens) and the intraocular media (namelyJ 
the aqueous, crystalline, and ■> 
humors) fulfil this condition is 1 
and is called einmelrapk , and in such & 
eye distinct, reduced, inverted i 
are formed on the retina. Any fault il 
the liioplric sys/eni of the eye c 
blurring of the image by the formatiol 
of circles of dispersion or diffusion. 
,e power accurately to unite all rays pa» 
from an object on the retina is called an amitropu eye, and the c( 
dition is called ametropia. The three principal forms of ametropia ai 
hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism. 

Hyperopia is a condition in which the eyeball Is too short or tl 
refracting media too weak, and the rays of light focus behind t 
retina. In the schematic diagram (Fig. 10), E represents the postdi 
rior receptive surface of the emmetropic eye. and the rays of ligl 
are focused at a, a point exactly on the retina. In H, the hyperopt 
eye, the rays are focused behind the retina, and a blurred image ^ 
formed in front of the focus at iTj. 

Myopia is a condition in which the eyeball is loo long 
refracting media too powerful, and the retina is behind the C 

An eye which h 

^(M, Fi 


Fig. to). In such condition a blurred image is formed a 
behind ihe focus. 

Aatigmatism is a condilion in which the retina may be eithi 
:oiit of or behind the focus, or both, but by dilTerenl amount 
ridians of the eye. 


As has already been said, rays corning from a distant object—that 
is, beyond six meters — may be considered, for practical purposes, as 
parallel, and the normal eye at rest gives them such convergence that 
they are brought to an exact focus on the layer of rods and cones of 
the retina. Rays from any given point of a nearer object approach 
the eye with a divergence so considerable that they can not be focused 
on the retina by the simple refractive properties of the dioptric system 
of a normal eye. However, to obviate this difficulty the eye has the 
faculty of increasing its refractive power in order lo give increased 
convergence to the rays coming from a near object, and this change 
in the eye is called accommodation. 

The Mechanism of Accommodation. — Optically considered, the 
extra divergence might be neulraliied in two ways ; by displacement 
of the retina backward, or by a shortening of the focal distance of 
the dioptric apparatus of the eye. Investigations have proved that 
accommodation is effected through Ihe dioptric apparatus, the in- 
creased refractive power being due to a change of the curvature of 
the refractive surfaces of the tens. It is commonly believed that this 
is effected in the following manner : The ciliary muscle contracts, 
thus relaxing the suspensory ligament of the lens, allowing the inher- 
ent elasticity of the lens to act and push forward the anterior surface, 
which, bybecoming moreconvex, increases its refractive power. The 
posterior surface of the lens scarcely alters in shape. This view is 
not accepted by Tscherning, who maintains that the ciliary muscle in 
contracting increases the tension of the suspensory ligament, and 
thus induces bulging of the lens anteriorly outward, and hardly at all 
toward the periphery. However, all theorists believe that ciliary 
contraction is the important factor in accommodadon, although they 
differ as to how it acts. Associated with the act of accommodation 
is a simultaneous contraction of the pupil. The elastic power of the 
I a peculiar watch-spring arrangement of its fibers. 



1 of Ihe eye ; 

Figure 1 1 represents the 


The Far and Near Pointa.^When the ciliary muscle is entire 
I relaxed and the eye is completely at rest, distant objects are receivl 

at an accurate focus on the retina, and the eye is said to be adapt) 
for its far point, or puncium temotum. When, however, the cilia: 
muscle has contracted to its fullest extent, the tens becomes convi 
to its greatest degree, and the nearest point from which rays ma 
diverge and yet focus on Ihe retina is called the near point, or punctt 
pronimum. This is found by directing the patient to look at soi 

ffine print of a definite measurement, and bringing it slowly do! 
and closer to the eye until It becomes blurred and illegible, a' 
noting the distance from the eye of the point where Ihe print is si 
distinct. The print may be brought up close to the eye, and a 
slowly away until it is first legible ; the distance of this point 
Ihe eye gives an equally accurate result. 

The distance between the far and near points is called the 
or amplitude of accommodation. This range is dependeht on t] 
elasticity of the lens and lessens with advancing age, until aba 
seventy or seventy- five years, when it becomes nil and the eye 
incapable of adjusting itself for objects nearer than infinity. 
range of accommodation is usually expressed in diopters, and 
represented by that convex lens which, placed closely in front of I 
eye, would take the place of the increased convexity of the lens 
giving rays from a near point a direction as if they came from inl 
ity. The table on page 94 gives the range of accommodative poi 
^^H^ which an emmetropic eye at ditTerenl ages is found to possess. 


hyperopia the range of accommodation is diminished to an 
extent expressed by the number of a lens which will enable the eye 
to see distant objects without accommodation. 

The Association between Accommodatioti and Convergence. — 
Convergence is the power of directing the visual axes of two eyes to a 
near point, and is effected chiefly by the action of the internal recti. The 
nearer an object, the more convergence is necessary, and usually for 
every increase of the convergence there is a certain increase in ac- 
commodation, the internal recti and ciliary muscles acting in unison. 
Although accommodation and convergence are usually harmonious 
in action, they may take place separately and independently. If we 
paralyne the accommodation with a mydriatic, convergence is not 
interfered with, and also in advancing life, when greater 
of the ciliary muscles is necessary to produce the requisite chi 
the convexity of the lens, the amount of convergence rema 
same. It must be remembered that the relations between 
dation and convergence are necessarily very different in ametropia, 
and this important point will be discussed later. 

The diminution of the power of accommodation by age to such an 
extent as to interfere with the use of the eyes for ordinary near work 
is called presbyopia. 

student is advised to follow some systematic method in the 
a patient consulting him for ocular trouble. No one 
plan can be arbitrarily dictated; different data will be required by 
different persons, and the authors suggest the following comprehensive 
plan, which may be modified at pleasure; 



I, Record the Name, Address, Sex, Age, and by whom re- 

II. The History, including the date of the present trouble, pre- 
vious attacks of ocular disease, family predisposition, and 
any useful collateral data. 
HI. The Subjective Symptoms : 

I. Inquire as to pain, including the location, kind, dura- 


The Subjective Symptoms (continued) : 

2. Smarting, itching, or other uncomfortable sensations 

about the eyes. 

3. Increased lacrimation, its character and possible 


4. Possible reflex troubles : Headache, indigestion, neu- 

rasthenia, etc. Inquire as to the character of the 
headache; whether frontal, temporal, occipital, 
" sick,** neuralgic, etc. ; whether worse in the morn- 
ing or evening. 

5. Alterations in vision : 

Record the visual acuity for distance and near. In- 
quire whether the diminished vision is constant, 
and whether the onset was gradual or sudden, and 
how long since it began. Color-sense and light- 
sense and the fleld of vision may be tested. Sco- 
toma scintillans, muscse volitantes, or dark spots 
before the eyes, etc., may be noted. 

IV. Objective Symptoms : 

1. Inspect the lids, cilia, lacrimal apparatus, conjunctiva, 

cornea, iris and pupil, and anterior chamber. 

2. Measure the intraocular tension. 

3. Test for muscular anomaly by the cover-test. 

V. Ophthalmoscopic Examination : 

1. Examine the media for transparency. 

2. Examine the disc for shape, size, color, cupping, blood- 

vessels, etc., and refraction. 

3. The peripheral eye-ground. 

4. The macular region. 

VI. Objective Examination of Refraction : 

1. By the ophthalmoscope. 

2. The retinoscope. 

3. The ophthalmometer. 

VII. Subjective Examination of Refraction : 
I. By the test-lenses. 

VIU. Test for Muscular Insufficiency and Squint. 



; whether Ihe eyelids are swollen, hypertrophied, or faulty in 

shape, position, o 

of the eyeball. In 
does not exist: This symptom w 

Is. Normally, the lids follow the 
ophthalmic goiter this harmony 
i first noticed by von Graefe, and 

e been shown by Cowers a: 
: central cerebral lesions. 
I their form, she. and positi 
:onditioiis may arise from m 

has been named after him. It has si 
others that this sign is present in so: 

The cilia should be inspected, J 
carefully noted, as many unpleasac 
placed cilia. 

The position of the lacrimal puncta should be noted, and whether 
or not they are patulous. In the normal state the lacrimal sac is 
empty, while if it is distended with mucus or pus, pressure with the 
finger will usually cause escape of the contents, either from the nose 
orfrom the puncta. Further examination is effected by lacrimalprobes. 

The conjunctiva is normally so translucent as to allow the bluish- 
white sclera to show through ; it contains only a few minute blood-ves- 
sels. In age there may be a deposition of fat in the subconjunctival 
tissue, giving a yellowish tinge to the membrane, and its translu- 
cency is additionally affected by an increase in the siie and number 
of blood-vessels. In inflammatory conditions of the conjunctiva it 
should be thoroughly examined for the presence of a foreign body or 
an inverted cilium. The surface of the bulbar conjunctiva is first 
inspected, and then the lower sulcus, which is easily brought into view 
by simple tension downward with one finger. Eversion of the upper 
lid is readily effected without the use of a probe or other instrument 
by telling the patient to look down, selling the edge of the lid and 
cilia with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, and drawing 
the lid first forward and downward away from the globe, and then 
upward over the point ofShe thumb or forefinger of the left hand, 
which is held stationary on the lid and acts as a fulcrum. 

Conjunctival injection is recognized by its brick-red color ; by the 
great irregularity, tortuosity, and intimate anastomosis of the blood- 
vessels ; by the mobility of the vessels on the sclerotic ; by the fact 
that pressure applied through the hd to the globe produces a distinctly 
anemic spot ; by the injection being more intense on the lids and ii 
the culdesac, and diminishing toward the cornea; by the accompany- 
ing mucous or mucopurulent si 

1 36 


Ciliary injection is distinguished by its pink appea.rance; by t1 
vessels running in a straight parallel course, radiating from the! 
cornea; by the immobility of the vessels when the conjiii 
moved; by the fact that gentle pressure on the margin of the lowerfl 
lids produces an anemic spot, which gradually becomes pink when | 
the pressure is removed ; by the congestion being most intense nearest I 
the cornea, and fading away toward the equator of the globe, 

!Thc cornea is perfectly transparent and glistening in health, aii4;J 
^ums diminished erect images of all objects held before it. Tbcl 

shape of the image is diagnostic of the curvature of the cornea. The 
iris and the pupil are readily seen througli the cornea. A foreign 
body, abrasion, opacity, ulcer, scar, or vascular formation is usually 
readily detected by simple inspection in a bright light, or with the 
ophthalmoscope and a high convex lens ; but it is always best to use 
what is called focal or oblique illuminatioa. {Fig. 12.) This method 
is effected by placing the patient in the line of the source of illumina- 
tion, to the right side if the left eye is to be examined, and focusing 
the rays of light obliquely on the cornea with a convex lens held 
the hand of the surgeon nearest the light. The illuminated point 



wed either directly or through a magnifying lens held at the focal 
distance from the patient's eye. Diffuse keratitis, corneal abscess, 
leukoma, and other similar corneal alTections. as well as lenticular 
opacities, should be examined by oblique examination. 

The exact extent of the corneal abrasion of an ulcer may be ascer- 
tained by the apphcalion of a drop of a solution of fltioreacin in the 
lower culdesac and rubbed over the eyeball, A few drops of boric 
acid solution are then instilled to wash away the superfluous stain, 
and the denuded area is stained a bright yellowish-green color. If 
the epithelium is changed and roughened but not denuded, as in 
keratitis and glaucoma, then the defective spot does not stain. 

The aqueous humor Is so transparent in health as to be invisible, 
but may be rendered turbid by inflammatory and hemorrhagic de- 
posits, or may contain pus which gravitates to the bottom of the ante- 
rior chamber, forming a condition known as hypopyon. 

The iris is ordinarily bright and presents a pohshed surface. The 
pigmentation and fibrillation are distinctly visible, and the pupil is 
perfectly round, and surrounded by a ring of dark pigment. The 
size of the pupil in its usual state varies with each individual, A 
general average is four mm. The pupils should be nearly equal in 
size and should at all times respond to light. The patient should be 
placed before a window or light, the surgeon standing before him, 
and one eye permanently obstructed either with a hand or bandage; 
then one hand should be placed over the exposed eye and quickly 
withdrawn. Under the shadow the pupil dilates, and when the hand 
is removed it quickly contracts. This is a direct refiex by means of 
the optic nerve. To study the consensual reflex, the patient Is placed 
in a room near a point of iight and the rays focused gradually on the 
corneaof the proximal eye, the eye farthest removed from the light 
still being in the shade. In health a simultaneous and sympathetic 
contraction of the shaded pupil is also seen. The pupil normally 
contracts in the act of convergence, and the patient should be di- 
rected to look at some distant object and then at an object near the 
lip of the nose, and the variations in the size of the pupil noticed. 
There arc certain conditions, such as locomotor ataxia, in which the 
eye contracts as usual in accommodation, but has lost its contractility 
to light. This condition is commonly known as the Argyll Robertson 
pupil and is a significant diagnostic sign. If the eyes do not react at 
n light and accommodation, there is probably disease Q£hQV"ats^iK. : 


nerves. Permanent dilatation (mydriasis) and contraction (miosis) 1 
will be spoken of under Diseases of the Iris. Furiher inspection of I 
the iris should determine whether it is steady or tremulous, : 
whether it is in its normal vertical position, or is convex and dis- ! 
placed forward toward the cornea, or concave, depressed toward the j 
vitreous, thus forming a shallow or deep anterior 
stead of being circular the pupil may be oval, with its greatest 1 
diameter horizontal, as is often seen in glaucoma. Adhesions of 
the iris to the anterior capsule of the lens or to the posterior surface | 
of the cornea, called synechia, also distort the pupil. Focal illumi- 
nation and examination with a high convex lens with the opblbal- 
H,inoscape render iritic adhesions more conspicuous. 


The surgeon stands in front of Ihe patient, who is directed to look | 
downward. All but the index fingers of the surgeon's hands res 
the eyebrow of the patient, and the tips of the index fingers through ! 
the closed lid, alternately and slightly, indent the eyeball. The edu- 
cated sense of pressure {laclus erudilus) measures the elasticity and I 
resistance. It is well to immediately compare one eye with the other, 
as there is often quite a noticeable difference between the two. As a J 
standard, the student has the tension of his own eye as a guide, from 1 
which any abnormal tension can be estimated. In glaucoma the 
eyeball is often hard, and the normal sense of elasticity is wanting. 
In certain extensive destructions of the choroid and liquefaction I 
of the vitreous the eyeball is soft and mushy. The eyes of the \ 
young are generally softer than those of the old. The degree of J 
tension is expressed by the capital letter T., preceded by a plus 
sign (+) if there is increase ; or preceded by a minus sign ( — )ifthere I 
is decrease. The amount of deviation from normal is expressed by | 
numerals; thus, +T. i expresses distinct hardening; + T. 3, decided | 
hardening; and + T. 3, extreme hardening, resisting all efTorts I( 
produce dimpling. 

The ophthalmotonometer is an instrument devised to me: 
sion mechanically, thus avoiding the discrepancy in the results of I 
several physicians testing the same eye ; but these instruments havB'] 
often been constructed on principles theoretically wrong, and are pi 
tic ally useless. 

^B^ Theory.— It is 


► Theory. ^It is self-evident that rays reflected from the fundus of 
the eye emerge from the eye in the same direction as that in which 
they enter it, the refractive media of the eye having the same action 
on light whether passing in or out. However, as ordinarily seen, the 
pupil !5 black. There is no light reflected from the patient's eye into 
ours, because our own eyes are not a source of light. Now. if the 
observer's eye is artificially made the source of light, and if he looks 
in the same direction as that in which the luminous rays enter the 
observed eye. as, for instance, through the sight-hole of a mirror, 
illumination renders the interior of the eye visible. This is the funda- 
mental principle of the ophthalmoscope, and it was first explained 
and made practical by Helmholtz, in 1851. 

Upright Image. Direct Method. — ^The dioptric system of the eye 
acts as a convex lens of a focal distance of about zo mm. 

If the retina lies within the focal distance/^ (Fig. 13, H), the eye is 
hyperopic, and rays leaving the fundus are divergent at the cornea, 
and the image of the fundus a' b' is ■virtual, upright, and magnified. 
To see this image the observer must accommodate for its location, or 
use a convex lens. 

If the posterior focal pointyiies exactly on the retina (Fig. 13, E), 
the eye is emmetropic, all rays emerge from the cornea parallel, and 
no image is formed. If the observer is also emmetropic, the rays 
passing parallel from the observed eye into his own eye form an 
image on his retina. 

If the retina lies behind the posterior focal point _/'(Fig. 13, M), all 
rays emerge from the cornea converging to the far point of the eye 
under examination. The observer can only receive on his own retina 
the image of the other's eyeground, when the (virtual) far point 
coincides with a', the actual far point of the myopic eye under ex- 

To be able, therefore, to examine the upright image of any eye the 
observer must be able to adjust his own refractive condition to that 
of the eye under examination. In the ophthalmoscope this is done 
by means of lenses. If the eye under examination is myopic, an 
emmetropic observer needs a concave lens in order to make him 
proportionally hyperopic; a myopic observer needs for the same 


purpose a concave lens increased in strength by the amount of his 
own myopia; a hyperopic observer must increase his own hyperopia 
by such a concave lens, or decrease it by such a convex lens 
make his (tjegntive) far point coincide with the far point of the eye 
under examination, lo speaking of the theory of the ophthalmo- 
scope, we consider that the observer does not use his accommodation, 


In ordinary practice such is not the case except in nien past middle 
age who have long practised suspension of accommodation. As & 
rule the observer employs some accommndative effort which aids him 
in examining hyperopic eyes, but which compels him to resort to 
optical aid 10 see distinctly the funduses of emmetropic and myo^nc 


a. falsi 

of the exact refraction of it 

The magnification of the image in the direct method is greatest ir 
the myopic eye and least in the hyperopic eye. 

Inverted Image. Indirect Method, — In this method the eye is 
made artificially myopic by a convex lens ; however, in high myopia 

S&e observer is beyond the image a' h' (Fig. 13, M), and if he u: 
his accommodation for the location of the image, he will be able 
see it without the aid of a lens. In low degrees of myopia the image 
is so small as to be of little practical use. Figure 14, illustrates the 
i iormalion of the inverted image in all three refractive conditiov.=, t.^ 





the eye. The rays from the hyperopic eye H. divergent when they< 
strike the convex lens 5 S. are united the greatest distance from the 
eye, and hence form the largest image. The rays from the myopic 
eye ^If. already convergent when they strike Ihe convex lens S S, 
unite at the shortest focus, and therefore the smallest image is the 
result. The rays from the emmetropic eye E are parallel when they 
strike the convex lens 5 S, and the result is an image midway in size 
between the two others. 

By the interposition of the convex lens in the inverted method, the 
ophthalmoscopic field is much larger than in the examination of the 
upright image, although the magnification of the fundus is less. The 
size of the ophthalmoscopic field increases with Increasing myopii 
and diminishes with increasing hyperopia. 

Description. — The simplest form of ophthalmoscope is a 
a hole in the center, which is held close to the patient's eye in such a 
manner as to reflect light from a luminous point near by into it, illu- 
minating theinferior of the eye and revealing the details of ihe fundus. 
The ophthalmoscopes in use to-day are of more intricate mechanism, 
and render the examination much easier and more satisfactory. The 
mirror most used in this country is small, concave, oblong or round 
in shape, with a central aperture of from two to four mm. in diameter, 
and so arranged that it can be tilted or rotated from side to side, thus 
saving the trouble of inclining the whole instrument to reflect the 
light properly. By means of various ingenious appliances a series of 
lenses are incorporated with the instrument in such a manner that,. 
by turning a wheel with the finger, the convex or concavi 
strength desired can be brought before the sight-hole in the mirrot; 
By arranging the lenses so that they can be combined, the range ma] 

nded from a fraction of a diopter to a lens of as high power 
is ever required. The large mirrors are more useful in the indi: 
method, in retinoscopy, and for illuminating a large surface of 
eye. In the direct method a very small mirror is as good or be 
than a large one. A small sight-hole gives a more distinct imagt 
and does not necessitate so much accommodation or optical aid ~ 
examining slightly amelropic eyes. The large sight-hole is better \ 
the accurate estimation of refraction. As the direct method is 
generally employed, and refraction is not ordinarily estimated by 
thalmoscopy, and retinoscopy is usually performed with a \ 
plane retinoscopic mirror, for all practical purposes it is belter 
3 small mirror mih a small sight-hole. 




Ihere i 


/here are many forms of ophthalmoscopes, for all of which some 
advantage has been claimed. The model of Loring is cheap and 
answers all practical purposes, but it is awkward to use and necessi- 
tates removal from the eye and a combination of lenses to secure the 
higher powers. To avoid these and other disadvantages the instru- 
ment described below (Fig. 15) was designed and has proven most 
satisfactory to the author. It consists of two superimposed lens discs, 
,. and 37 mm. in diameter respectively, each containing 14 

Each disi 

has independent tt 
tto the observer's e; 

apertures for lenses, 
inner disc— that is, the o 
high-power lenses, both 
milled and it is rotated directly by the finger, i 
ment. The outer disc — that is, the one nearest : 
the low-power lenses, both convex and conca 
ircumference, and it is rotated by 

Its circumference i: 
in the Loring inslru 


1 diameter. The two discs arc inclosed in a metal 
Vith 3. detachable handle. The lenses are six mm. in diam 
They are slopped hy a spring which clicks as i 
lens is wheeled into place. 

The purposes in view were to obtain : 

1. Neatness, compactness, and durability. 

2. Avoidance of direct rotation of the disc 
taining the low-power lenses by the finger close 
the patient's nose and cheek, as in the Lorinj 

3. Continuous 1 
crease of both convex and concave lenses up t 
74. D. without removal from the first position before 

4. Avoidance of combinations of lenses, 
}. Continuous registration and single registeiioi 

n the c 

6. A small, round, rotary mirror, small aperture;, 
with absolute exclusion of direct or reflected light 
in the space between the observer's eye and llie> 
sight-hole of the mirror. 

7. Simplicity and cheapness. 

The dimensions of the instrument are iji 
wide by 2j^ in. long. There is no serviceab] 
instrument of smaller size made. It can 
carried in the vest-pocket. The exact 
shape are shown in the accompanying illustra6i 
(Fig. 15). There are no points of special wear a.i 
tear or of line adjustment to get out of order, Thi' 
case and all the framework are made of 
If a more elaborate and expensive 
i-n's desired, that designed by Morton is very satisf&e* 
lory. Still more complete and elaborate is that. 
instrument shown in figure 16. As in the Moitoa 
ipe, the Rekoss disc is dispensed with and the lenseii 
in revolving, endless chains, after the idea of Couper^ 
o series — those most used at one end, and the highW 
h plus and minus, ni the other. The arrangement 
so that a surgeon with high ametropia, except in 


il'ill seldom be compelled to tra.nsfer the mirror so as 
to use the high-power lenses. The transfer, however, requires but an 
instant. There are sixty lenses, all the lower powers proceeding from 
zero by 0.5 D. intervals ; the highest minus lenses being 40 D., the 
highest plus, 30 D. The instrument requires no handle itself when 
used, being grasped by the hand. The mirror is turned at any angle, 
so that examination of an eye is easy, whatever the position of the 
patient or the liijht. The size of the sight-hole, by an ingenious 
device, can at pleasure be made large or small. 

In addition to the ordinary instruments, binocular and astigmatic 
ophthalmoscopes are among the many devised. 


Direct Method (Fig. 1 7). — The patient is placed in front of the source 

of illumination, and to the side of the eye to be estamined, the light 

behind him so that it shines on his temple, just touching the tips of 
the outer lashes. He is then told to look straight ahead to an object 
on a level with his eyes across the room. To examine the patient's 
right eye the surgeon sits or stands, and holds his ophthalmoscope in 
his light hand before his own right eye. To examine the patient's left 
eye he places himself to the left of the patient and holds (he oph- 
IJttalinoscope in his left hand before his own left e^e, Ttito^' 



moscope is brought close to the eye under examination, the mirror 
of the ophthalmoscope having been inclined and the instrument held 
in such position that the light from the source of illumination will be 
reflected directly into the patient's pupil ; then, if the media are clear 
a red glare called the fundus leflex is seen through the hole in t 
mirror. If the examiner wears glasses, he need not remove them; 
fact, if he is astigmatic, he had better accustom himself to workh 
with his correcting lenses on. 

GxaminatioD of the Media. — ^The reaction and form of the pupil 1 
first noticed. If a foreign body or opacity is present in IhepupQla 
area, it appears as a d jrk spot on a red background. A slight corm 
opacity appears only as a mere shadow. It must be remembei 
that spots on the cornea and lens always maintain their same re 
live position and are immovable, while opacities in the vitrei 
are usually freely movable and can be diagnosed by their chaii 
of position as the patient turns the eye quickly in various directio 
and then looks straight forward. To locate corneal or lenticu! 
opacities, in addition to focal illumination, we take advantage of t 
phenomenon of parallactic displacement, which is governed by t 
rule that opacities lying in froHt of the pupil move in ike same dm 
tigrt as ike patient's eye, tuhile opacities behind the pupil move 
the opposite direction to tke patient's eye, a.-nA the extent of this appi 
ent movement enables us to approximately determine the distance 
the opacity either in front or behind the pupillary plane. After ha 
ing observed any anomaly of the pupil or media at a distance of 
13 to 16 inches, a strong convex lens (10 D. to 16 D., according 10 
location) is then wheeled before the sight-hole of the ophthalmosco 
which allows the observer to approach closer to the patient's eye, 9 
greatly magnifies the conditions present. 

ExaminatioD of the Fundus. — If the media are clear, the surgi 
approaches close to the patient's eye and at once the details of 
eye-ground become visible. (See Fronti-ipiece.) The refracti 
media of the eye magnify the details of the fundus about fouiU 
times, and by this fortunate circumstance the minute details of 1 
eye-ground are plainly visible. Probably the first distinct object 1 
be a retinal vessel which can be easily traced to the most promini 
part of the fundus, the optic disc. At this point a bright whitish 
pinkish reflex is seen, standing out in sharp distinction to the surrotu 
ing red fundus. By adjusting the proper lens before the sight'hol« 


ir the outlines of the disc may be brought sharply into view. 
The average size of the normal disc as seen by the direct method is 
nearly that of a twenly-five-cenl. piece or a shilling, while to the naked 
eye it measures only 1.5 mm. Emerging from the disc is seen the 
central retinal artery and vein, dividing into inferior and superior 
branches. The veins may readily be distinguished from the arteries 
by Iheir darker color and their size, about one-fourth larger. Pulsa- 
tion of the veins is observed under normal circumstances, while 
pulsation of the arteries indicates a pathologic eondition^ — either rise 
of intraocular tension or decrease of blood -pressure. Reflexes con- 
sisting of bright Unes in the middle of the blood-vessels are seen. 
Frequently a depression may be seen in the disc called the physio- 
logic cupping, caused by the branching of the internal fibers of the 
optic nerve at a lower level than the more external ones. This is 
white with a surrounding zone of pink. Pathologic cupping includes 
the whole of the disc, and is characteristic of glaucoma. The form, 
the siie, the color, and olher appearances of the disc must be further 
studied. At the external border of the disc is often seen a black, 
circular pigment-ring, bounding the opening in the choroid through 
which the optic nerve enters. To the outer side of this is the ivhife 
scleral ring, ■vWvA'vi not always distinctly circular. A white conus, 
or even a crescent, may be seen at the edge of the disc if there is 
choroidal atrophy. In high myopia this condition is noticeable. If 
there is distinct sign of cupping, the extent may be approximately 
estimated by the refractive conditions of two points lying at different 
elevations. The difference in diopters in the lenses required to 
distinctly focus the two points multiplied by .35 mm. will give us the 
difference in depth. It is usual to select one point at the bottom of 
the cup and the other near the surface. 

The parallax teat is based on the fact that in the indirect method, 
while the whole fundus seems to move along with the lateral move- 
ments of the convex lens, the floor of the excavation apparently 
moves in ihe same direction, but at a slower rale. This parallax is 
more marked the deeper the excavalion. 

The general aspect of the eye-ground is then studied, and any 
abnormalities in the retina, choroid, or sclera should be noted. If 
there is absence or deficiency of pigment between the relina and 
choroid, the larger choroidal vessels are seen through it, and ihe eye- 
ground is streaked with well-defined interspaces. At an^ ^cwvov. (A 




the fundus in which both the retina and choroid are tacking, the 
while, glistening sclera is seen shining through. To examine ihe 
macular region the patient is told to look into the light coming from 
mirror, or, better, beyond it in the same direction, which move- 
it of the eye generallj' brings ihc macula into view. This appears 
as a dark spot isolated in the fundus, with a small, bright spot in the 
center, called the/ovea centralis. There are usually no vessels lo be 
seen in this vicinity. The macular region should always be studie 
carerully, as any lesion or hemorrhage in this location has a 

Iportant bearing on the vision of the patient. 
Refraction by the ophthalmoscope is usually a 
direct method. Refraction of the macular region is 
the intense dazzling produced by light makes it almost impossible,! 
disc is usually the objective point selected. The observer 6rst c 
reels his own ametropia, and as much as possible relaxes bis accei 
modation. It is this inability to regulate the relaxation of a 
I hat makes this test unreliable in simple e 
the lower degrees of astigmatism it is comparatively » 
1 the mostskilful hands. The ri 

t for the objective method of refrac 
ig relaxed the accommodation and corrected his 
surgeon moves before the eye the lens which gives hin 
lines of the disc, and subtracts his own correcting lens from I 



of astigmatism the disc is usually oval, its long diam- 
eter corresponding to the axis of astigmatism. Two vessels at right 
angles to each other in the principal meridians are refracted sepa- 
rately, and the results noted. Glasses should not be prescribed from 
the ophthalmoscopic refraction atone. 

Indirect Method (Fig. iS). — The indirect method is less valuable 
than the preceding. The image is inverted and less magnified (ihree 
or four diameters), but we are able to see a larger part of the fundus 
at one glance, and we are not compelled to approach so near the 
patient's face. It also enables the surgeon to intensify his illumina- 
tion incasesof very small pupil or of cloudy media. In this country the 
indirect method is being less and less used. Themethodofprocedure 
is usually the same as in the direct method, except that the surgeon 
keeps his eye a foot or more away from the patient's face and holds 
in front of the patient's eye a strong convex lens. However, the 
surgeon need use but one eye and may stand directly in front of the 
patient. The lens is usually held at such a distance from the eye 
that the iris just disappears from view; a plus spheric 4 D. lens may 
be held before the opening in the mirror to enlarge the image and to 
replace the observer's strain of accommodation. By directing the 
light from the mirror through the lens into the eye, an inverted aerial 
image is farmed in front of the lens, and it is this image that the 
surgeon sees. In high degrees of myopia it is easy to examine the 
inverted aerial image without a convex lens. 

The salisfaclory use of the ophthalmoscope, both in examining the 
fundus and approximately estimating the kind and degree of ame- 
tropia, can only be obtained after considerable practice. A normal 
fundus in both a light'Complexioned and dark-complexioned person 
should be repeatedly studied, as abnormal conditions are not recog- 
nized until one is thoroughly familiar with the normal healthy fundus. 


^^P Br JAM£S Thorcmiton, M.D. 

Definition. — The method of estimating the refraction of an eye by 
reflecting into it rays of light from a plane or concave mirror, and 
observing the movement which the retinal illumination makes by 
rotating the mirror. To avoid confusion, the description of t«i' 


1 o- 




oscopy that follows will apply to the plane mirror, which is 

ferred lo the concave mirror, as it is decidedly more salisfaclory ft 

general use and convenience. 

The principle of retinoscopy is the finding of the point of reversi 
or myopic far point. Should the eye under examination be emm 
tropic or hyperopic, it must be given an artificial far point, 

Synonyma. — Many names have been given to this method < 
refraction, viz.: Shadow-tesl, skiascopy, fundus-reflex test, pupillo! 
copy, etc.; but retinoscopy seems the most appropriate, as it is t 
retina in its relative position to the dioptric media which we study. 
the present time the term skiascopy is suggestive of jr-ray skiagraphy 

Advantages, — Of all the objective methods of refraction, red 
□scopy in the hands of the expert is the most exact, but, like i 
objective methods, its results should, when possible, be confirme 
with the trial-lenses. 

Retinoscopy offers the following advantages : 

I. The character of the refraction is quickly diagnosed. 

z. The refraction is estimated without the verbal assistance of th 

3. No expensive apparatus is necessarily required. 

4. Little time is taken to estimate the refraction. . 
;. It is of inestimable value in the young, in the feeble-minded, th 

illiterate, in cases of amblyopia, nystagmus, and aphakia ; and n 
such cases the retinoscopic correction may be ordered. 

Preparation. — To learn retinoscopy the beginner is urgeoil 
advised to study the form, direction, and rale of movement of th 
retinal illumination from one of the many schematic eyes i; 
market before attempting the human eye. The beginner should als 
be thoroughly acquainted with the laws of refraction, and especiall 
understand conjugate foci, for it is the recognition of the point c 
focus of the convergent rays of light from the eye under exam 
nation that gives the true solution of the test. 

Before proceeding to the examination of an eye, the begini 
understand several important details, namely ; 

The reiinoscDpc, or mirror, is of varying form and size. The Oi 
recommended is the small plane mirror, two cm. in diameter, on 
four cm. metal disc, with a two mm. sight-hole at the center of tl 
ir, made by removing the silvering and net by cutting a ha 
gh the glass. (Fig, 19.) 


Tho light should be steady, clear, and white, and secured li 

movable bracket. For general use the Argand burner is best. As 
only a small portion of the flame is used, it is necessary to cover n 


ir cover-chimne}', is made of thin asbestos and of 

It easily over the [jiass chimney of the Argand burner, 

:d, generally one cm. in diameter, should be opposite 

part of the flame. 

The screen 

The opening 

to the bright 

An asbestos cover-chimney is used 

in preference to metal, as it intercepts 

most of the heat. 

The room for retinoscopy must be 
darkened, and the darker the better; 
all sources of light except the one in 
use must be excluded. This must be 
insisted upon, as darkness offers the 
best contrast to the test. 

Position of the Light and Mirror. — 
The rays of light coming out of the 
opening in the light-screen should be 
five or six inches' in front and to the 
left of the observer, so that the rays 
may pass in front of the left eye and 
fall upon the mirror held before the 
right eye, thus leaving the observer's 
left eye in comparative darkness; or 
this may be reversed if the observer 
is left-handed. The observer should 
keep both eyes wide open. 

In order to see the movements dis- 
tinctly, the observer should wear his Fic. 19.— Rhtinoscope, 
correcting glasses, but need not make 
any note of his accommodation as in using the ophthalmoscope. 

The patient must have his accommodation thoroughly relaxed with 
a reliable cycloplegic, and be comfortably seated in front of the 
observer, preferably at one meter distance, with his vision steadily 
fixed on the observer's forehead just above the 
better, the patient may concentrate his vision on the edge of the metal 
disc of the mirror, but never directly into the uvUiot, ■».% ■*•-■' ™""\; 


soon irritate and compel him to dose his eye. In cases of sqniiif 
is particularly necessary to cover one eye while its fellow is bein 

Distance of Surgeon from Patient. — Each observer may chooB 
his own distance, and must be eoverned accordingly. There 
fixed rule of distance, and it will be well for ihe observer to try 
different distances and then choose for himself. The ( 
distance offers two advantages ; it is convenient for the observer it 
reaching forward to place neutralizing lenses in front of the eye, ; 
in the ultimate result it is easy to calculate i D. for this distance. 

Reflection from ihe Mirror. — The rays of light coming from thi 
round opening in the screen to the plane mirror are reflected diver* 
gently, as if they came from the opening in the screen situated jui 
far back in the mirror as they originally started from in front. 
nearer the light and mirror are brought together, the brighter will III 
the reflected rays. 

How to Use the Mirror.^lt should be held firmly in the ri^ 
hand before the right eye, so that the sight-hole is opposite tt 
observer's pupil. The movements imparted to the mirror should t 
very limited, though they may be quick or slow ; but never, at an 
time, should the mirror be tilted more than two or three mm., olhe 
wise the light will be lost from the patient's eye. 

With the patient, light, mirror, and observer in position as jti 
described, and as near In line as possible, the observer may find ill 
patient's eye by reflecting the light on to his left hand held betwe^ 
the mirror and the patient's eye, and, when this is done, to drop I: 
hand and have the light pass into the patient's eye. 

Retinal Illumination. — This is the portion of the retina that rcceiv 
the rays of light from the mirror after they have passed through ti 
media of the eye. The size and form of this illumination is conirolle 
in great part by the refractive power of the media. 

The Shadow. — This is the nonilluminaled portion of the retina sui 
rounding the illumination. When the mirror is tilted and the illumi 
nation is passed to one side, darkness precedes and follows it ; it i 
this combination of illumination and nonillumination (shadow) tbi 
gives the "shadow-test" its name. The contrast between illii 
mination and shadow is most marked when the illumination | 
bright est. 

Where to Look and What to Look For.— Through a foiur, five, i 


t the apex of the cornea, whLch corresponds to the 
position and si^e of Ihe pupil when Ihe effects of the cycloplegic pass 
away, the observer studies the character of the retinal illumination 
for ([) form, (2) size, (3) direction, and (4) rate of movement. 

Point of Reversal. — This is the myopic far point, the artificial focus 
of the emergent rays, the point at which the emergent rays cease lo 
converge and commence to diverge, the point conjugate to Ihe 
retina, or the point where the erect image ends and the inverted 
image begins. 

To Find Ihe Point of Reversal. — In observing the retinal illumina- 
tion, one of the most important things to study is ^ha direction m 
which it moves, or whether it moves at oil. For example; having 
determined at one meter distance, with a + 2.00 D. lens before the 
patient's eye, that the retinal illumination moves in the same direction 
in which the mirror is lilted, and then substituting a + 3.35 D., and 
the illumination appears to move in the opposite direction ; the 
observer will know at once that the difference in the strength of these 
lenses, + 2.12 D., would bring the emergent rays to a focus on his 
retina and that no movement of the retinal illumination could be 
made out, and this point, when found, is the point of reversal or arti- 
ficial far point. 

The Principle of Retinoscopy. — The point of reversal or focus of 
emergent rays Is always negative in hyperopic and emmetropic eyes. 
In myopic eyes, however, the emergent rays always focus at some 
point inside of infinity, and Ihe observer may, therefore, if he is so 
disposed, by moving his lightand mirror closer lo orfarther from the 
patient's eye, as the case maybe, find a point where Ihe retinal 
illumination ceases to move. If ibis should be at two meters, the 
patient would have a myopia of 0.50 D, ; if at four meters, a myopia 
of 0.3S D.; if at one meter, a myopia of i.oo D., etc. 

It is well for the beginner to remember thai when using the plane 
mirror the illumination on the patient's face always moves in the 
same direction in which the mirror is tilted, but not necessarily so in 
the pupillary area, where it might move opposite. It is in the pupil- 
lary area ihat the retinal illumination is spoken of as moving with or 
against (opposite to) the movement of the mirror, and the diagnosis 
is made accordingly. 

The direction, rate, and form of the retinal illumination are the 
three essentials to be noted in all retinoscopic work, and should 
therefore receive individual consideiaiiott. 




e with plar 

—The movement of Ihe retinal illumination going with 
t of the mirror signifies emmetropia, hyperopia, and 
myopia when the myopia is less than 1 .00 D. 

The retinal illumination moving opposite to the movement of (he 
mirror always signifies myopia of more than i .00 D. 

Rate. — This is under the control and is influenced in great part by 
Ihe rate of movement of the mirror itself ; yet after a little practice the 
observer will recognize the fact that there is a certain slowness in the 
apparent rale of movement of the illumination when the refractive 1 
error is a high one and requires a strong lens for its neutralization ; 
whereas, when the retinal illumination appears to move fast, the 

refractive error is but slight and requires a wez 

Form. — While a large round illumination may signify either hyper- 
opia or myopia, yel astigmatism may be in combination. When the 
retinal illumination is a band of light extending across the pupil it 
iignifies astigmatism. The presence of astigmatism is known by 
he straight edge of the illumination; or, in its place, a crescent edge 
would mean 3 spheric correction. (Fig. 20.) When the illumina- 
ion appears to move faster in one meridian than Ihe meridian at 
'i^'hl angles to it. astigmatism will be in the meridia 


Immetropia, — The rays of light from an emmetropic eye (woceed I 
■allel, and by reflecting the rays of light into such an eye from a 
le meter the observer sees a small bright retinal illu- 


m, which moves rapidly in the same meridian through 
which the light is passed. By placing a + i.oo D. lens in front of 
such an eye all apparent movement in ihe pupillary area ce; 
showing that the + i.oo D. has bent the emergent rays and brought 
tliem to a focus on the observer's retina. This -(- i.oo D. has made 
this emmetropic eye myopic just one D., so that in taking the patient 
thus refracted from the dark room to test his vision at six meters, this 
one D, of artificial myopia must be removed, thus proving the 
emmetropic condition. 

H3T>eropia.— In hyperopia the same conditions hold true a 
emmetropia. For example, having placed a + 3.00 D. in front of the 
eye and found that the previously slow movement with the mirroi 
ceased, and substituting a + 3.25 D. makes it move opposite, it will 
be known at once that the + 3.00 D.was the correcting glass for 
meter ; or, in other words, that the original divergent rays proceeding 
from the eye were bent by the -|- 3.00 D. and brought to a focus o 
the observer's retina. Two D. of this + 3 00 D. would have made 
Ihe eye emmetropic, but the additional + 1.00 D. made the 
myopic just that amount, and taking the patient from the dark n 
this I.oo D. of artificial myopia must be taken from the dark-n 
result, which would leave + 2.00 D. as the amount of the hyperopia. 

Myopia. — The rays of hght from a myopic eye always proceed c( 
vergently, and to the observer seated at one meter distance Iheretinal 
n appears to move opposite to the direction in which the 
s moved '/the myopia exceed? one D,, and lo move ivilh the 
of the mirror if the myopia is less than one diopter. Ai 
eye that is myopic just one D. has its emergent rays focusing at oni 
meter, and the observer with his eye at this point does not recognin 
any apparent movement in the pupillary area. 

For example, an eye thai is myopic 4.00 D. has its emergent rays 
focusing at ten inches, and the observer at one meter has the apparent 
movement of the retinal illumination moving opposite to the m 
ment of the mirror. If a — 3.00 D. be placed in front of this eye, 
the emergent rays then focus at one meter, at which point the observ 
does not appreciate any movement of the retinal Illumination. Itwill 
thus be seen that the eye which is myopic more than I.oo D. rel 
one D. of its myopia when tested at one meter, and this i.oo D. must 
be supplied in taking the patient from the dark room lo test his dis- 


If the observer will remember to always use a plus lens whei^ 
relinal illQminalion moves with the movement of the mirror, and a 
minus lens when it moves opposite, and allow for the one D. of 
myopia when -working at one Mfler,h^ will have the following rule (o 
Ruide him, namely ; To add a minus i.oo D. to the dark-room result 1 
in every instance ; i. e. : 

— _ Dark roomo.ooD. + 0.25 D. + 0.50 D. + 0,75 D. + 1.00 D. 
■L add —i.oo —1.00 —1.00 —1.00 —1.00 

■ Result —1.00 —0.7s —0.50 —0.85 —0.00 

I" Regular Astigmatism. — The presence of this condition when look- 
ing in the eye before any neutraUzing lens has been placed in posi- 
tion, can be determined when a band of light is seen extending across 
the pupil, or when it is possible to note a difference in the rate of 
movement of the retinal illuminations of any two meridians at right 
angles to each other. If the spheric error is high and the cylinder a 
low one, then it will not always be possible (o recognize the charac- 
lerislic band of light (astigmatism) until the approximate neutralit- 
ing sphere has been added. 

Tfii axis subiended by the band of light after the requisite sphere ' 
has corrected the tneridian of least ametropia, is the axis for ti 
cylinder in the prescription to be given. 

The better way to neutralize cases of astigmatism is to use sphet 
lenses in preference to cylinders, for by so doing the difficulty of ' 
placing cyhnders on the exact axis is avoided; for example, 
following formula, + S. 2.00 + C. 1,00 axis 90°, it will be found that 
a + 3.00 sph«re in the dark room will correct the 90° meridian and 
partly correct the 180° meridian. And that a + 4,00 apher 
rect the 180° and overcorrect the 90° meridian, making a difference 
in Ihe strength of the two spheres employed of 1,00 D., which is 
Ihc amount of the cylinder required. After thus obtaining the result, 
the observer may, if so disposed, confirm it by placing the spher 
cylinder combination. 

Aionomeier. — To find the exact axis subtended by the band of 
light while studying the retinal illumination when the meridian of 
least ametropia has been corrected, the writer has suggested a small 
instrument called an axonometer. (Fig. ii.) It consists of a black I 
metal disc with a milled edge, 1 ;i mm, in thickness, of Ihc diameter I 
of the ordinary trial-lens, and mounted in a cellof the trial-si 


^^cen^Tround opening i3 mm. in diameter — the diameter of the 
average cornea at ils base. Two heavy wbite lines, one on each side, 
pass from the circumference across the central opening, bisecting the 
disc. The aitonometer is turned in the triaMrameuntil Iheiwo heavy 
while lines coincide with the band of light, and the degree mark on 
ihe trial-frame to which the white line points is the axis for the 

Irregular Astigroalifim. — This condition is either in the cornea or 

lens, generally in the former, making it difficult in any instance to 

study the refraction, as the reflex is more or less obscured by areas of 

^^^^kness, so chat to study the condition the observer may have to 

change his working distance toward or from the eye. The kineto- 
scopic picture obtained by moving the mirror so as to make the light 
describe a circle around the pupillary edge of the iris is quite diag- 
nostic of the corneal condition. Whatever result is obtained, the 
observer must take care to refract in the area of the cornea that will 
correspond lo the small pupil when the efTects of the cycloplegic pass 
away. It is best in these cases to retain the correction found as a 
guide in a postcycloplegic manifest refraction. 

Irregular Lenticular Astigmatisin. — This is often more uniform than 
the corneal variety, and is characterized by faint stria; in the lens 
pointing in toward the center from the periphery. WKerv i^s-^ Sa\«t 

K Position. 


^ th 


these stride are fine, and only seen when the point of reversal 
proached. If the stria; are prominent, they are often seen by 
ophthalmoscope even before the use of the cycloplegi 

Scissors Movement. — Cases in which this movement is seen are' 
not unusual, and are recogtiized by the presence of two parallel bands 
of light with a dark interspace; the axes of these bands are generally 
horizontal or inclined a few degrees therefrom. By tilling the mirror 
in the vertical meridian these bands are seen to approach each other, 
like the opening and closing of the scissors blades, and hence the 
name. In neutralizing a case of this kind the observer must look 
carefully between the bands for the central illumination, and 
great extent ignore the bands. 

Conic Cornea. — In this condition the observer is impressed at 
with the bright, round, central illumination that moves opposite ti 

t of Ihe mirror, the peripheral movement being with ll 

\ perchance the margin be myopic also, but of li 

degree. The best way to refract a case of this kind is to foUoi 

suggestion given for refracting cases of irregular astigmatism. 

c Aberration, — There are two forms of this condition, positji 
and negative. In the positive form [he peripheral (at the edge of' 
is) refraction is stronger than the central, and in the negative tl 
peripheral is weaker than the central ; that is to say, in the positil 
form, when Ihe neutralizing lens has reduced the retinal illi 
ind increased its rate of inovemenl, and the point o 
for the center of the pupil is close to one meter, the peripheral illui 
n grows broader and has a tendency to, and often will, crowd 
upon Ihe center, giving the idea of overcorrection, the refraction 

tthe periphery moving opposite. The observer must be on his gui 
for this condition. The negative form is just the opposite of the 
live, and has the central illumination neutralized and the periphi 
still moving with the movement of the mirror. This is the conditii 
seen in coni 





It has been discovered thai the smallest retinal image which can fa 

perceived at ihe macula corresponds to a visual angle of 

visual angle is the angle included between two lines drawn from ti 

I opposite edges of the object through the nodal point. Following d 



in such a manner that 
proper distance it subtends an 

principle, test-types have been 
every letter is so made that wher 
angle of 5'. 

To tind the exact size of letters at different distances which sub- 
tend an angle of 5', we multiply the distance expressed in millimeiers 
by the tangent of the angle of ;' (.001454), and 'he result will be the 
correct size of the letters, both vertically and horizontally, expressed 
in millimeters. 

Snellen's letlera are constructed in such 
a manner that each part ts separated 
from the other parts by an interval equal 
lo not less than the arc subtending i' at 
the nodal point. The ordinary cards in 
use give a series of letters which should 
be seen by the emmetropic eye at dis- 
tances varying from 3 to 4J meters. The 
distance in feet is usually also noted 
opposite each line of letters. Physiolog- 
ically, the ordinary construction of black 
letters on a while background is wrong. 
While surfaces reflect all the larger part 
of the light thrown upon Ihem, positively 
stimulating a relatively targe portion of 
the retina, leaving, as it were, small por- 
tions of n on -stimulated parts, correspond- 
ing to the black letters to be distinguished. 
The positively stimulated portions should 
be the letters, and the enormously larger 
part should be black and unstimulated, 
saving much ocular labor and weariness. 
In testing the eyes under a mydriatic, 
and in amblyopic, strained, and aslhen- 
opic eyes, we h.ive found that test-cards with black background a 


white letters (Fig. 22) are 

Ii is well to have two 

patient learning the letlere 

The mode of procedu 

: satisfactory than the ordinary lesl- 

s follow: 

cries of letters, 
of a single card, 
determining the acuity of 

lid doubt from the 

The patient is placed with hh bac k to v'ac'n^Vw 


front oFthe test-cards, which must be hung at a distance offii 
meters and be well illuminated by artificial light from a reflector, about 
two feel away and to the side. In using the cards with the dark back- 
ground, f/ie card must be inclined at suck an angle that the patient 
sees no disagreeable reflection from its surface. We then cover the 
eye not under examination, and ask the patient to read the lowest 
line possible. If seated at six meters' distance he read the line marked 
six meters, his visual acuity is expiessed by the fraction | ; if he read 
the line marked four meters, he has remarkable acuteness of vision. 
and we express it by the fraction \; if he is amblyopic or ametropic 
he will not be able lo read the six-meter letters, and may possibly read 
onlylhe line marked 15 meters, when his visual acuity is expressed 
by the fraction ^. Some surgeons prefer to use feet instead of meters 
in their estimations, and seat their patients at about 20 feet from 
the card, and express Ihe visual acuity by using 20 for the numer- 
ator and the foot-number of the card seen as the denominator. 
It sometimes happens that the patient is not able to read anyletteroo 
the card at six meters' distance ; in such a case we have him gradi^ 
ally approach Ihe card, or bring the card toward him, until the 
letter is distinguished. This distance is noted and serves as 
numerator in the fraction of visual acuity. 

With illiterates it is best to use a regular illiterate card, consisting 
of lines shaped like the plain capital letter £. The patient is asked 
to tell which way the prongs of the E point, upward, downward, to 
the right, or to the left. More difScult are the Burchardt dots for 
counting. These cards are constructed on the Snellen principle. 
For foreigners special cards have been constructed, The German 
and Hebrew letters are often of value in hospital work, 

Near Tjtjb. — The test-cards usually employed lo estimate the ac- 
commodation are after the model of Jaeger, and are merely printer's 
types of various sizes. These cards have the advantage of closely 
resembling ihe work ordinarily done by the eye in reading, but have 
the disadvantage that they are not arranged on any scientific plan. 
It is possibly better to use cards in which each word is composed of 
several letters constructed in strict conformity with the Snellen basis 
of letter formation. Figure 23 represents a card of this description. 
On account of the impracticability of ever printing books and papers 
with white letters on black background, the ordinary appearance of 
reading mailer should be imitated in Ihe near card, and it is in II14 


ml)' that we advise the white 

: card for distance 

In most cards there is a purposive succession of confusion-letlers, 
such as C O D. H M N. E L F, etc, which are of value in recognizing 
astigmatism. The mode of procedure with the near type is to find 
the farthest and nearest point at which the smallest recognizable 
type is legible. In pres- 
byopes it is necessary lo 

strength varying with the 
age of the patient. Each 
eye should be examined 

The light'Sense may be 
approximately estimated 
by the degree of illumin- 
ation necessary to make 
the lelters on the test-card 
legible. In the same 

measure the difference in 
acuity of vision under dif- 
ferent degrees of illumin- 
ation. Fore 
menls of the light 


called a pbotometer. One 
of the best instruments of 
this class is that designed 
by Dr. Henry, of Leices- 
ter, England. The in- 
strument consists of an 
oblong box, open at the 

anterior end, through which the patient looks ; lo the edge of 
this opening a hood is affixed, which is drawn over the patient's 
head during the examination, in order lo exclude any external light 
from the candle. Al the posterior end is an aperture, opposite 
which are nine discs of 15-ounce standard opal glass, so arranged 
ihat one by one they can be swung back. Beh\i\4 VtvM., ovi ».V 




^ of a meter distant from the box, is a standard candle in a spring 
holder, keeping the flame at a constanl level ; behind this is a shade 
to prevent flickering. The jiholometer rests on a stand. The patient 
is kept in the dark for five minutes in order that his retina may be- 
come adapted to the dark. The eye not under examination is closed 
with a light bandage. The patient looks into the instrument, and the 
opal discs are removed, one by one, uniil the palient detects any 
light. If he detects any light from the candle-flame through five of 
the opaque discs, his minimum light-sense ( L. M.) is noted as 6ve. etc. 
If the eye does not readily perceive the difference in illumination be- 
tween two discs, the light-sense is also abnormal, the ligbt difTeience 
(L. D.) being too high. L. M. is greatest in early and middle life, 
and gradually diminishes toward old age. Diseases primarily involr- 
ing the nervous elements of the optic nerve show defective L. D., 
while diseases primarily involving the choroid and retina 
defective L. M. In chronic simple glai 
while it is only slightly affected in simple ; 

Adaptation of the n 
perception of images v 


intact while the adapta 

a L. M. is much reduced, 
rophy of the oplic nerve. 
s the power of gradual adjustment for the 
when there is a. change from bright to dull 

ronfused with light-sense, which maybe 
may be defective, as in cases of night* 


should contain a set of -f- spheric lenses a: 
; from 0.12 D. to 2d D. ; a set of -|- cylindenrB 
12 to at least 6 D., and a set of prisms fromfl 
:o degrees ; several plain colored glasses,T 


The case of lest-iense: 
— spheric lenses in pair; 
and — cylinders from o. 
0.5 degrees to at least 
opaque glasses, blanks, stenopaic discs, etc., and a trial-frame. 

Trial-frames for test-lenses are of several varieties. The moat' 
common form (Fig. 24) consists of an arrangement whereby the nose- 
piece maybe rapidly adjusted by means of a screw, so as to make the 
frame conform to any height or depth of the bridge of Ihe patient's 
nose. A vertical and horizontal adjustment by a rack-and-pinion 
movement on the nose-piece enables us to quickly and perfectly 
adjust the frame to any peculiarity of the patient's face. A millimet- 
scale with a pointer moved by a double rack-and-pinion device 

-es the distance between the pupils at a glance. The lens-holder 



Sisls of two hollow grooves, with a slot in each eye-piece lo permit 
rotation of cylindric lenses wilh handles. On the ouUide of each eye- 
piece are hooks for adjusting an additional lens or a blinder. The 
markings on the eye-pieces begin at zero at the nasal side, and run to 
the temporal side to 180°. The axis at which the cylinder Is inclined 
is found by comparing the axis marked on the test-cylinder with the 
coinciding number on the trial-frame. However, as the trial-frame 
is not often perfectly adjusted, it is well for the surgeon to learn to 
estimate the angle, particularly in the vertical and horizontal merid- 

1, wilh his eye. In placing strong lenses in the trial-frame it is 
well to have the convex surface of convex lenses turned away from 
the eye, and the concave surfaces of concave lenses turned toward 
the eye. In all cases the lenses should be placed as near the eye as 

Practical Procedure with the Test-lenses. — Having been assured 
that all the accommodation is suspended, we seat the patient to the 
left of the table containing the test-lenses, and 
wilh the right eye, covering the left wil 



meial disc. We then ask the patient to read down the card an 
at five or six meters' distance, until he conies to the letters that are 
indistinct; we then commence the application of the lei 
perience will give us a good idea what lens to start with, by notinf 
Ihe amount of interference with vision after mydt 
patient is able to recognize only the largest letters on the card, he 
either amblyopic, myopic, or highly hyperopic, and is quite likely 11 
every case astigmatic. If the patient is amblyopic from intraocular 
disease or other cause, the application of a pin-hole peiforaled disc 
will not increase his vision, and it is not likely that glasses will im- 
prove his sight. If the trouble is only refractive, he will at once 
notice an improvement of vision through the small perforation. If 
he is astigmatic, he will select the stenopaic disc (a blank disc with a 
small open slit, described under Astigmatism) at an angle corre- 
sponding to the axis of his astigmatism, and the two meridians may; 
be refracted separately by spheric lenses alone. 

It is perhaps well to assume the simplest examination of a Qioderatt^' 
degree of ametropia. 

First using a low power -|- spheric lens (o.zj), we inquire if die 
confused letters are improved by it ; :f the patient answers yes, we 
try a corresponding strength astigmatic lens starting at axis 90°, aod 
inquire if the vision is still belter ; we then rotate the cylinder in the 
frame, Ending the axis at which the lettersare best seen. If the patient 
prefers the cylinder to the spheric lens, we put on the cyUnder at the 
aiis preferred, and determine the line read with this correction. A 
low power + spheric lens (0.35) is held in front of the eye which is 
already corrected by a cylinder, and we inquire if the vision is itn- 
ptoved, and also whether a correspondingly low + cylinder still 
further Improves the vision ; If the spheric lens is preferred to the 
cylinder, it is put in the trial-frame, back of the cylinder first applied, 
and the same mode of procedure further pursued, testing with a low 
spheric lens and then a low cylinder until the vision can no longer 
be improved. The result is then noted and the examination of the 
other eye commenced in the same manner. 

If. however, neither a + spheric nor a + cylinder lens improves 
the vision, a — spheric and a — cylinder arc used in the preceding 
manner. It sometimes happens that a -J- cylinder is accepted, but 
fuiihcr improvement can not be obtained by an advance in the 
strength of a cylinder. 01 by the addition of a -f- spheric lens ; U 







such case we immediately q ^ 

placed at an axis at right a 5 -S^hould be fully explained in 

der was preferred. OccasiJ r^ fi ^ 

with both eyes corrected « 2 .«>« ^glasses are for constant 

determine a doubtful axis l I "5 <? S. ^ "* convenient to 

an opaque disc. 3 " s S "^ .nee, 798;^ means 

An exact knowledge of tl . ;§ I ^ ^ ^ ^" ''*"''' '° ""** 

lenses can only be obtained ^ S ] § i § I ^ 

pointswillbegiveninthedi ^ f §- rJ S- ^f t^t*^^^ *^ 

&-^S^S'^ S ^4inless 

U S \the 

Other Methods of Detern; So o 


cussion the many other ing< vo ^ ^ 

numerous text-books on opl ^ \ 

only necessary to describe t \ 

tive method with test-cards i 

of importance — namely, xt _ 

ophthalmoscope, and the eSnmation of corneal astigmatism by the 



Mode of Prescribing Lenses. — The right eye is designated by 
R., R. E., or O. D. (pculus dexter)^ and the left eye by L., L, E., 
or O. S. {pculus sinister). Both eyes are generally designated by 
B. E. or O^. The convex spheric lenses are designated + S. or Sph., 
and the minus convene spheric lenses — S. or Sph. A convex cylin- 
dric glass is designated -\- C. or -f- Cyl., and a concave cylindric 
glass, — C. or — Cyl. The combination sign 3 ^^^ ^^ diopter (D.) 
are superfluous, as they are understood. Ax. indicates axis. The 
degree mark is not necessary in ordering cylinders. To illustrate the 
various forms of prescriptions, examples of each are given. 

Simple Hyperopia : 
R., + S. 1,25 

Simple Myopia : 
Z., — S. 1. 25 

Simple Hyperopic Astigmatism : 
R.y -\- C, 1.50 ax. go 


metal disc. We then ask thm : 

at five or six meters' distaj-^Q 

indistinct; we then c<y * ,. 

Ml . ^ic Astigmatism : 

penence will give ur . ^ 

the amount of. ^^^ + ^' ''^5 ^^^ 90 

patient is abla«yoP»c Astigmatism : 

either amb^^^*. I,00 — C, 1,2^ ax, i8o 

every cjf^stigmatism : 

^^^!?<?^., + S, l,oo — C, 1,50 ax. 180 


y Z., — S, 1. 00 + C 7.75 ax, go 

In ordering a plane glass in cases in which one eye is blind or em- 
metropic, we use the term piano, 

R,, + S. I,2J 
Z., Piano 

Bifocal glasses are indicated by the peculiar double form of pre- 
scription, and the word bifocal. A complete bifocal prescription, 
which may be taken as a model form of prescription, is as follows : 

Adam Smith, ffi,. D., 

5000 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 

Jaymary /, i8gy. 
Mr, John Smith, 

Bristol, Pa, 


?., + 5. 1,00 + C, 1.25 ax, Qo\ ^ 

r I c- *- ^ r ^ r For distance, 

.., + S. o.ys + C. 0.25 ax. go j 

R., + S. ^.00 and Cyl, \ 

L.,-^ S: 2 75 and Cyl.)^'^ "'''''■ 

Bifocals in i^-k, gold, rimless spectacles, 

Adam Smith, M, D. 


-Opaque glasses, tinted glasses, etc., should be fully explained 
English on the prescription. 

Every prescription should state whether the glass 
use, or for near or distant use only. Trade terms 
indicate the style of glasses ordered — as, for instance, 798^^ means 
14-k. gold, ritnless spectacles. However, it is possibly better to write 
the full directions out. 

Finding the Center of Lenses, — Expert opticians will endeavor to 
make the geometric and optic centers of lenses coincide, unless 
decentration Is desired to obtain prismatic effect. To tind the 
optic center of a lens, we look at two lines, several inches long, 3t 
right angles to each other, in the shape of a + sign, through the lens 
held a few inches above. We rotate the lens until both the vertical 
and horizontal lines appear continuous when viewed through the lens, 
and when viewed beyond the lens. Then the point on the lens just 
opposite to the center where the two lines cross is the opiic center of 
the lens, and should be marked in ink. It is necessary to know the 
optic center of a lens, to see if it corresponds to the center of the 
pupil when the glasses are in position on the face, and properly to 
apply a neutralizing cylinder. 

Neutralization of Lenses, — The lens is held a few inches in front of 
the eye, and some object, such as the vertical and horizontal lines of 
a window-frame or the test-letters, is viewed through it. The lens is 
then moved to the right, and if it is convex, the object will move to 
the left ; if it is concave, the object will move with the lens lo the 
right. Having determined what sort of a spheric lens we have under 
examination, we proceed to neutralize it by holding successively a 

ment of the object is perceived through the lens ; therefore, to find 
the strength of a spheric lens it is only necessary to combine it with 
successive lenses of the opposite sign until one is found which neutral- 
izes the apparent movement of objects seen through the lens under 
examination. The more rapid the apparent movement, the higher 
the power of the lens required to neutraUze. 

Cylindric lenses only show movement in the direction opposite to 
their axes ; the movement is against in convex cylinders, and with in 
concave cylinders. To find the axis, an object presenting a straight 
line, such as the vertical line of the window-sash or the edge of a 
frame, is viewed through the lens. As the lens is toWici, AiomV ■&« 


visual axis, the portion of the vertical line se 
appear to be oblique, as compared with tliat 
the lens. (Fig. 25.) This oblique displ; 
tion contrary to the rotary motion given 
same direction as the rotary motion given 
lain the position of the axis of a cylinder 

through the lens will 
;n above and below 
akes place in a direc- 
ivex lens, and in the 
lens. To ascer' 
slowly rotated until the 
n through it appears continuous above and below. {Fig, 26 ) 
If motion from side to side produces apparent motion of the object, 
this line is the axis of the cylinder, and if no motion results, the line 
is at right angles to thg axis of the cylinder. The axis being deter- 
mined, the cylinder is neutralized by successive cylinders of opposite 
curvature applied in Che same axis. 

Spherocyiindric lenses are neutralized the same way as two cylin 
ders with their axes perpendicular to each other. Having neutralized 
me meridian, we note the result, and neutralize the 
a the other meridian. 
The pbacomeier is an instrument designed to ascertain quickly the 
strength of a lens under examination. It is operated by pressing 
ibe surface of a spheric lens squarely against three steel pins, the 
central one of which is movable. When the central one is depressed 
until all three points touch the glass, the curvature of the lens is indi- 
cated on a dial. 

Mode of Prescribing Prisms. — When it is found necessary to pre- 
scribe prisms, we may distribute the full prbmatic strength between 


o eyes, or order it all in one eye ; as, for instance, if we desire 
lo order five degrees base out or five degrees base in, we can put the 
prism in either lens or we may distribute it 2% degrees base out — or 
base in, as the case may be — in each eye ; or two degrees base out or 
base in in one eye and three degrees base out or base in in the other 
eye. In testing for hyperphoria we always record which eye has 
been tested — as, for instance, our record reads five degrees base 
up, left. If we desire to prescribe this prism entire, we insert it ii 
the left lens; if, however, we desire lo divide it, we order 2^ degrees 
base up in the left lens, and 2yi degrees base down in the right lens. 
If we had ordered 2)^ degrees base up in both lenses, one pt 
would have simply neutralized the other, and we would have had 
correction of the vertical deviation, only a uniform downward dis- 

B. D. is a symbol for base down ; B. U., for base up ; B. 1., for base 
in ; B. O,, for base out ; R. stands for right, and L. for left. 
The following is a form of prescription for a simple prism : 


prism B. 0. 
ic following is the usual mode of combining a prism wii 

R., -\- S. i.oo + C. 0.25 ax. go 

L., -\- S. 1.00 -\- C. 0.3S ax. 90 

With prism 3° S. D., L. {i.e., base down, left); 

« 2° B. 0., R. ami L. {i. e., ^ base out in each eye). 

Decentering spheric lenses produces a prismatic effect identical 
wilh the lens of the same strenglh combined with a prism. (Figs. 2? 
and 38.) The stronger the lens, the less decentering it require; 
produce prismaiic effect, and in cases in which it is desired to order 
a strong lens with a weak prism, decentering is of great value. 

Rule. — ^To find the exact amount of decentering lo produce a 
prismatic effect, we divide the number of cenlrads required by the 
strength of the lens in diopters. The quotient is the necessary de- 
centration expressed in centimeters. For example, to produce a 
prismaiic effect of two centrads by means of a spheric lens of four 
I -diopters, it is necessary lo decenter ihe lens 2 -;- 4, or .5 cm. 


NeulraliiBtion of Prisma. — The apex of a prism may be determined 
by looking through it at fine lines crossed at right angles, or at the 
border of a card. Holding the prism so that its edge just touches one 
hne at the point of intersection, we rotate the prism until the other 
line appears continuous through the prism and beyond it. The point J 
of intersection in such case marks the true apex of the prism. The 1 

The IKitlc center O. in fiiiiire 17 caini 
removed loward the ba»e of the 1 

Strength of the prism is then ascertained by the prism with its apex I 
pointing in the opposite direction that will neutralize the pris 
effect of displacement when looking at a distant object, such a 
side of a picture-frame or a door jamb. 


The fittingof spectacles and eye-glasses is a most necessary adjunct 
to the art of ophthalmology. Spectacles should always have stout 
temple-pieces, to maintain their shape and stay in proper position by 
their weight. To prevent jarring while walking or running, the aide- 
pieces should fit closely to the face and temples ; in fact, it is S 
times preferable that they should exert sufficient pressure to slightly '1 
groove the skin. By this means a definite and fixed support is given. 
Fourteen -karat gold is to be preferred, and stout steel should be the I 
second preference. Although silver does notriisl. it can not be made J 
of sufficient rigidity. Delicate wires, either of gold or stee!, should I 
not be accepted, .is they can only maintain their position by uncom- ] 
fortable pressure behind the ears and on the nose. 

Spectacles are preferable to eye-glasses whenever there is astigma- 1 
tism.otwhen the nose is not properly shaped for the ready adjustment | 


of eye-glasses. Hooka are to be preferred to straight temple-pieces 
when the glasses are to be worn' constantly. Reading-glas 

lonvenient with straight side-pieces, particularly in 
it of the abundance of hair about the temples. 
e lenses should be slightly inclined at acomprami'e 
angle between the straight position and the inclination preferred for a 
reading-glass. Of course, the occupation of the patient must be taken 
into consideration in adjusting the glass. 

In high defects the glasses should be fitted closely to the eyes and, 
if necessary, the lashes should be trimmed from time to time. 

Glasses should be worn constantly in high defects, in astigmatism, 
and in all cases in which there are asthenopic or reflex symptoms. 

Bifocal glasses are particularly valuable for a presbyope, or a high 
myope who is compelled to use a different glass for reading and for 
distance. The improved form, with a reduced curved segment 
cemented on the distance glass, is far more satisfactory than the old 
straight Franklin bifocals. The lower segment should be about 2 
cm. wide, and the upper edge more curved than the lower. If the 
occupation of the patient subjects him to high degrees of heat or 
steam, the lower segment should be inserted into a groove in the 
boilom of the distance glass instead of being cemented on. Although 
it takes the patients some little time to become accustomed to bifocal 
glasses, they ultimately give far greater satisfaction and are more 
convenient than two different pairs of glasses. 

Before discharging the patient, the adjustment of the glasses should 
be carefully examined and the correctness of the lenses verified by 
neutralization. The good effects of many a careful diagnosis of re- 
fraction are ruined by maladjusted and decentered glasses. 

Tinted glasses of any kind should never be ordered for constant 
use, but only temporarily prescribed in inflammatory conditions, 
during mydriasis, for use at the seashore, etc. The habit of wearing 
tinted glasses once formed is difficult to overcome. Photophobia is 
usually due to uncorrected or improperly corrected ametropia. It 
is a well-known fact that tinted glasses are most used in countries 
in which the importance of eye-strain in comparatively low defects 
is unrecognized. When tinted glasses are oidered, it should be 
specified that London smoke piano lenses are wanted. Coquilles 
generally have some spheric or cjlindric effect on an irregular 




Definition. — A mydriatic is an agent which produces dilatation a^^ 


ssing , 


lor at^l 



agent which produc 
cjclople^c is a 
ciliary muscle oflhceye. In ophthalmology these two terms s 
usually considered interchangeable, as the ordinary drugs possessing 
the power of producing mydriasis, also produce in a more or less d ^ 
gree cycloplegia 

The mydriatics which have been used in the examination of tl 
eye are atropin, belladonna, homatropin, cocain, hyoscyamin,* 
duboisin, dalurin, scopolamin, muscarin, mydrin, euphthalmin, and 
ephedrin. Alropin and homatropin are the drugs usually employed 
in refraction, and are the ones to be recommended, as they tuve 
been extensively used and their action and dangers are far betb 
understood than those of the newer substances. 

Physiologic Action. — Atropin and homatropin produce mydriaa 
by paralysing the sphincter of the pupil and stimulating the dilator a 
the same time. Cocain affects the dilator of the pupil chiefly, stimulat- 
ing it. Alropin paralyzes the ciliary muscle completely, and leaves 
the eye adjusted only for the far point. Homatropin paralyzes it lesc 
completely, but sufficiently for the purposes of refraction, when a^ 
nislered in (he manner indicated. Cocain has a very sligh| 
paralytic action on the ciliary muscle. As usually administered, tl 
of atropin lasts from ten days to two weeks ; of homalropia, 
one to two days ; of cocain, only a few hours. 
Indications in Refraction. — /n all first refractions of the ejff <'/U 
under forty-five or fifty years of age, in "whom there is no . 
'pition of glaucoma. No absolute diagnosis of the finer grades 
'Astigmatism can be made without a mydriatic in a person p 
■the power of a 

igers. — These drugs may precipitate an attack of glaucoma fa 
the eye of a person past middle life, or in whom there is already I) 
tendency to increased intraocular tension, 

It has been said that if a mydriatic ordinarily applied for purpose 
of diagnosis produces glaucomatous symptoms, the patient would 
likely have been the subject of insidious glaucoma later in life anji 
way, and that (he early diagnosis by the mydriatic facilitates t 


Mydriatics may also cause general toxic symptoms in susceptible 
patients. The general symptoms are tickling and dryness in the 
throat, vomiting, diarrhea, redness of the face, and quick and irreg- 
ular pulse ; even fatal cases have been recorded. If there is any 
history of idiosyncrasy, the patient should always be instructed to 
press the finger against the lacrimal sac for ten minutes after using 
the drops. This danger may also be averted by using minute or 
divided drops of the solution. Congestion of the conjunctiva is often 
a temporary result of the instillation of a mydriatic. The systemic 
effects of a mydriatic may be combated with a full dose of paregoric. 
Administration. — The most effective of this class of drugs, and that 
mostfrequentlyused, is the sulphate of atropin. A solution of one grain 
to two drams is ordinarily prescribed ; one drop of this strength solu- 
tion is placed in each eye three times daily for two days prior to the 
examination. An additional drop is generally applied at the office of 
the oculist before beginning the examination. For the reason of its 
prompt action and the short duration of its effect, the hydrobromate 
of homatropin offers a very efficient and necessary substitute for 
atropin in office practice. It is, however, a much more expensive 
drug than the sulphate of alropin. The best solution is a mixture of 
two-thirds hydrobromate of homatropin, ten grains to the ounce, and 
one-third hydrochlorate of cocain, ten grains to the ounce. A drop 
of the mixed solution is instilled in each eye every ten minutes for an 
hoiu- preceding examination. If it is necessary to have repeated 
examinations of the eye or to have prolonged mydriasis, atropin should 
be invariably used. Cocain is useful to dil.ite the pupil to facilitate 
ophthalmoscopic or retinoscopic examination, but is valueless as a 
cycloplegic. The four per cent, solution is generally used. Sufficient 
dilatation is usually obtained in from fifteen to thirty minutes. 

Hyoscyamin, duboisin, daturin, and scopolamln are sometimes 
used, but investigation has not yet definitely established reason why 
they should be preferred to the older drugs. These and the rarer 
mydriatics are further described in the section on Local Ocular 


Synonym 8 . — H y perme tropia, far-sightedness. 


^^^H, Definition. ^A condition of the refraction of ihe eye in which, yrht 

^^^Fihe accommodation is at rest, the focus of parallel rays of light tra.i^ 

1^^^ mitted through the eye is heyond the ri 

Causca. — Hyperopia may be due to a lessening of the convexin 
of the refracting surfaces of the eye(/iypeiofi!a of curi'ature),| 
in the index of refraction of the dioptric media, of absence of tl 
crystalline lens (aphakia). It is, however, most commonly due to a 
shortening of the anteroposterior axis of ihe eyeball (axial hyperopia). 
Hyperopia may be looked upon as arrested development. Animals 
are, as a rule, highly hyperopic ; and savages are, as a rule, more or 
less so. Children are usually hypevopic, and become emmetropic or 
even myopic while growing to maturity. Properly speaking, hyper- 
opia is a failure of the modern eye to properly adapt itself for its uses 
in modern civilization. Hyperopia is often hereditary. 

The rcBuItB of hyperopia on the ciliary muscle are quite noticeable. 

I Excessive contraction produces abnormal development, particularW 

I of the circular fibers, which become greatly in en 
ifibers. The continuous contraction may lead to ti 
m very difficult to overcome, and renders refraclior 
i|nydriasis most unreliable. 
Axial Shortening in Hyperopia : 



15.91 391 

17.92 4.00 


n or>lli 


. praciii 







UkhHiIhI nil) 


■ defect! «LI1 1j= 




idvmnUges. — Parallel rays of tight do not focus on the retina, 
but form circles of diffusion and hence a blurred image. Divergent 
rays impinging on the cornea form still larger circles of diffusion on 
the retina. The only rays that can focus exactly on the retina and 
give a distinct image are those rendered convergent to a certain 
degree by convex lenses. The eye contains a mechanism for over- 
coming its hyperopic defect. In order to render the rays more con- 
vergent, the anterior surface of the lens is made more convex by the 
IS contraction of the ciliary muscle. In this way hyperopia, 
:erlain point, varyingwith each individual, is involuntarily cor- 
However, we can readily realiie the result of a constant 
n the ciliary muscle. Nervous energy is consumed and the 
equilibrium is disturbed, with the result not only of annoy- 
ing local symptoms of pain, fatigue, and congestion, but more remote 
reflexes, such as headaches, gastrointestinal disturbances, and many 
general neurotic disorders. As the correcting effort of the ciliary 
muscle is involuntary, the resultant annoying symptoms of eye-strain 
can only be relieved by atrophy or paralysis of the muscle, or cor- 
rection of the defect which necessitates the ciliary contraction. 

Varieties.' — Manifest, which is measured by the strongest spheric 
lens which, without mydriasis, gives the greatest acuity of vision. 
Latent hyperopia is that part of the total error which can only be 
revealed by mydriasis, as It is at all limes masked by the accom- 
modation. The younger and more vigorous the subject, the greater 
the amount of latent hyperopia. It is on account of the ever-present 
latent hyperopia in the eyes of persons younger than fifty years, that 
it is necessary to paralyze the ciliary muscle in order to measure 
the full degree of hyperopia. The old classification oi facullati-ve, 
relative, and absolute hyperopia is too vague to be used. 

Symptoms, — The objective symptoms are inconsiderable. TTie 
leading subjective symptoms are caused by the strain upon the 
accommodation, and may be grouped under the heading " accommo- 
dative asthenopia," The patient will complain of inability to perform 
continuous near work: the letters and words are indistinct and seem 
to run together. Headaches and pains about the eyes are present. 
There is increased lacriraation and tendency lo chronic congefition 
of the conjunctiva. The local reflex symptoms may range from a 
slight p.ilpebral conjunctivitis to inlfuse blepharitis and even granular 
lids. There may be such intense photophobia as lo ci ^ 


of retinal disease. The remote systemic reflexes, such as headacl^^| 
nausea, indigestion, general neurotic disturbances, etc., are l^^| 
numerous to be discussed here. JH 

^^^ The distant vision is usually sood, as the ciliarv muscle is caoable ' 


■opic W 

The distant vision is usually good, as the ciliary muscle is capablr ' 
of overcoming a moderate defect. Hyperopia of a high degree, or 
complicated with astigmatism, markedly diminishes real aculeness. 

There is an intimate connection between convergent strabismus 
and hyperopia. It is likely that the associated movements of accom- 
modation and convergence are controlled by the same ceriter, or by 
contiguous centers, acting automatically from long association. The 
increased strain on the accommodation causes extra innervation to 
convergence, which may result in permanent squint inward. Or, 
again, persistent stimulation of the adductors may weaken them and 
thus produce divergent squint. Very often if a child is hyperopic W 
some extent, and unequally in the two eyes, to avoid the discomfool 
of a blurred or double image one eye is turned in and becom 
amblyopic, It has been estimated that over three-fourths of [he c 
of convergent strabismus are caused by hyperopia. We, therefore, 
see how very necessary it is to examine carefully the refraction of an 
eye beginning to converge in a child. 

Hyperopia increases with age, on account of the lessening of the 
refractive power of the lens caused by a change in its substance. At 
the age of eighty this lessened refractive power is quite apparent. 

Diagnosis can be made with certainty only by the use of a mydri- 
atic, although failure of accommodation and recession of the near 
point incommensurate with age give strong reason to suspect hyper- 
opia. The most important point in the diagnosis is the acceptance 
of a convex lens, and we usually estimate the full degree of hyperopia 
by the convex lens which gives the eye under complete mydriasis the 
best vision with the test-cards at six meters. 

In the higher degrees of hyperopia the patient must choose be- 
tween a small, more or less distinct, and a larger blurred image. As 
n rule, his choice is the latter evil, and to this end he will hold his 
book or instrument very close to his eye, simulating the action of s 
myope. In addition, the high hyperope complains of inability to sec 
distinct objects, which makes another point of confusion with myopia. 
In casual examination of hyperopia with ciliary spasm, a weak con- 
cave plass may be accepted with relief. However, all confusion wilh 
myopia may be avoided by thorough mydriasis. 


(be test-lenses, hyperopia is diagnosed and the degree esti- 
mated by the ophthalmoscope and the retinoscope in the manner 
described in the sections relating to these instruments. 

The treatment of hyperopia consists in prescribing correcting 
lenses. Having estimated the degree of defect, several points must 
be taken into consideration in prescribing glasses. It is taken for 
granted that the patient has been thoroughly under a mydriatic dur- 
ing the preliminary tests. When he comes back to our office for a 
prescription, it very often happens that we find at the postmydriatic 
examination that a hyperope of a slight degree will not accept any 
of his correction, either for reading or for distance. In such c^se, if 
anisometropia is not present and if the patient has complained of no 
asthenopic symptom and is apparently vigorous, we do not prescribe 
a glass, but tell him of his defect, and warn him of the ultimate 
results of eye-strain, and urge him to come back at the first sign of 
trouble. It more often happens that a certain proportion, or even a 
full correction, is accepted for reading, but all correction is rejected 
for distance; in such case, if there is no prominent asthenopic reflex, 
we only prescribe a reading glass. 

Prescription of glasses in hyperopia is a most important subject. 
No definite and dogmatic conclusions or rules are applicable in every 
case. We must study each case separately and be influenced by the 
degree of defect, the muscle-balance, the age of the paiient, the con- 
stitutional condition, the asthenopic symptoms, and the occupation 
or habits of the patient. 

It is very often necessary in young people wiih strong accommoda- 
tion to make considerable deduction from the full correction in order 
to obtain sufficient distant vision. Young and vigorous adults who 
have never worn glasses will not accept their full correction. In such 
cases we must be governed by our judgment. As a general rule, we 
try to prescribe the highest convex lenses which allow sufficient dis- 
tant vision; these are usually readily accepted for near work. If 
the patient is engaged in continual near work and complains of 
marked asthenopic symptoms, we order, for near vision, a large share 
of the full correction, and consider it advisable to blur slightly the 
distant vision. We must explain to the paiient that such glasses 
will not be satisfactory at first, but that the eye will gradually become 

Emed to them, and that the glasses were not ordered to improve 
lant vision, and may diminish it at first, but iVvaX \Vc \-i<>\\\'>. ^^^ 


isideration is to effect easy near vision, and to avoid e;re-strun ai 
.s distressing consequences. 

In cases of very Vijgh defect with enormous accommodative power 
weak lenses are at tirst ordered, and these are strengthened at 
:I intervals until the full correcdon is approximated. It is surpris- 
ing to note the rapidity with which the eye will accommodate itself to 
what was at first an unacceptable correction. 

The muscle -balance must always be tested before ordering glasses. 
In cases of orthophoria or exophoria we must reduce the correction 
in hyperopia to force the intemi into action. The ideal hyperopic 
muscle- balance in most office patients is about two degrees of eso- 
phoria with the Maddox rod, or orthophoria with the Stevens phoroin- 
eter. Cases of higher esophoria need a strong correction. 

In presbyopia and in other cases in which a mydriatic has not been 
used we endeavor to order the full strength of the manifest refraction. 

A final point is the influence of avocation. We readily see thai the 
musician and artist, to obtain the best acuity and accommodation at 
theitworking distances, will require a different correction from ihal of 
the copyist and engraver. 


Synonyms. — Near-sightedness, short-sightedness, brachymetropU. 

Definition. — A condition of the eye in which parallel rays of light 
are brought to a focus in an eye at rest in front of the retina. It is 
most often dependent on the lengthening of the axial diameter of the 
eye, and such cases are called irue or sfa/ii^ myopia. A /a/se or 
functional myopia is produced by spasm of the ciliary muscle, conic 
cornea, swelUng of the lens in incipient cataract, etc. In such cases 
the sclera is of usual thickness and the axis of the eyeball is not 
lengthened ; the change is in the refractive media. 

Axial Len^^thening in Myopia : 

Myopia in D. Length of Myopic Eye. Jncieaie in Lcngtt,. 

□ a2.S24 0.00 

1 83,14 0.32 

a 23.48 o,t>6 

3 33-83 i-or 

4 a4->9 '-37 

5 »4S6 1,74 
10 26.62 J. So 
15 29.10 6.j8 

20 33.IJ q.H 

rarely congenital, and, when si 
lid to be the pecuha 
in certain people. 

Devitalization and weakened resistance of the ocular tissues are 
predisposing causes. Scrofulous children are ready victims to 
myopia. The early necessity for increased convergence and accom- 
modation by the precocious application of hyperopic eyes of child- 
hood to continuous near work produces a hyperemia of the 
ocular tissues, which if of low resisting power are stretched, 
the eye gradually becoming lengthened, and, as a result, myopic. 
Myopia is often se»n in persons of intellectual pursuits requiring 
excessive near work, such as students, artists, engravers, etc. How- 
ever, in the congenital and hereditary types, the patients may be of 
the most ignorant classes of mere manual laborers. In such cases a 
low-grade choroiditis is an important etiologic factor. Myopia 
rarely results from an increased refractive power of the lens in the 
early stages of cataract in old persons, and to this fact maybe possibly 
attributed the cases of so-called " second sight," in which aged per- 
sons find themselves able to read again without their convex lenses. 
However, their distance vision becomes markedly decreased. 

The entire eyeball is not necessarily involved in myopia — as. for 
instance, myopia results from the condition known as conic cornea, 
the relation between the retina and other media being normal. 

An occasional and a curious cause of myopia is a marked decrease 
in weight of an extremely stout emmetrope or a low degree hyperope. 
In a like manner we have noticed considerable decrease of myopia 
in persons who suddenly and markedly increase in weight. 

Disadvantages and Dangers. — The axial diameter being too long, 
the parallel rays of light falling on the eye focus in front of the retina, 
and hence only a blurred image of external objects is received on 
the rods and cones. In moderate hyperopia a similar defect is over- 
come by the accommodation, but the myopic eye possesses no 
mechanism adapted to the correction of the refractive error. There 
is no way of diminishing the refractive power of the dioptric system, 
and hence distant objects are always blurred. There is false estima- 
tion of size and distance, and altogether the myope is at a decided 
disadvantage in sports or occupations. However, the myope is still 
able to see near objects distinctly, and unfortunately therein lie^U 
I danger. Deprived of many out-door pleasutea, " 



:upation and amusement within his own limited circle o 
By holding his book or implements close to his eye, he is able ti 
distinctly ; but in so doing he strains his power of convergence t 
:ly, producing ocular congestion and compression of the eil 
ball ; and by bending over he affords a favorable position for the 
tcniion of the ocular veins. The coats of the eyeball, already i 
weakened resistance and put upon the stretch, are further pulled a 
damaged. The eyeball becomes more and more lengthened, and d 
myopia increases. With the stretching of the ocular 
tion of the eye is seriously disturbed, and, as a result, the chorQ 
becomes diseased, and this causes associate retinal changes, defec 
vision, even with proper glasses, resulting. The nutrition of ti 
vitreous and lens is also seriously damaged. The consequences 3 
this dcnutrition in the highly myopic eye are serious, and such eyj| 
are liable to cataract, vitreous opacities, and retinal detachmenL 
The danger is, of course, greatest in youth. 

Contrary to the popular impiession, the myopic eye should be con- 
sidered as a " sick eye." However, if proper glasses are prescribe 
and constantly worn and excessive near work interdicted, a moder 
degree of ntyopia unaccompanUd by posterior staphyloma i 
liable to progress, but will remain more or less stationary throng 
•dull life. This again offers another argument for the early coir 
tion of myopia. 

Another danger of excessive convergence In a myopic child! 
divergent iquint. The strain in excessive convergence, necessiliU 
by the diminished distance for near work, and extra eHbrt t 
the elongated eyeballs, may be so great that the effort to ci 
both eyes is finally relinquished, and one eye diverges. 

A 6nal danger of myopia is the liability to accidents on account 9 
the inability to see distant objects clearly. 

ProgrcMivc or malignant myopia is the serious type in which d 
ocuUi coats continue to stretch and tiecome devitalised until t1 
ultimately give way. The bulging occurs at the weakest portion m 
the posterior pole, to the temporal side of the disc, and c 
what is known as postcHoi Biaphyloma. The destruction of D 
choroid is accompanied by many conditions which are readily recog- 
niied through clear media with the ophthalmoscope. The myopic 
(C Fig. 19) is caused by the absence of the jHgment of 
stretched choroid and retina, usually al the nasal margin of the 


disc, allowing the sclerotic to show through as a white 

white spots indicative of chronic choroiditis may be 

throughout the fundus. Hemorrhages and 

produce retinal detachment. In e«reme c; 

fluid and the eyeball soft. Vitreous opacity and lux: 

may result. With such serious sequels we readily s 

mate result of unchecked malignant myopia maybe disorganization 

of the whole eye and total blindness; and in all cases of high 

myopia, whether progressive or stationary, there are pathologic 

changes of such import as la produce more or less amblyopia. 


in of the lens 
that the ulti- 

Symptoms — The object ve symptoms in the lower grades of 
myopia arc of 1 Itle importance In the h gh degrees tl e eyeballs 
may be promment and when stronj,ly converged ire seen to be 
elongated In s ch cises the p p Is are Hrge and nactive. The 
myopic crescent and the choro dal cond t on help the d at,nosis. 

The most noticeable subjective symptom is the interference with 
vision. In moderate myopia distant obj'ects can not be seen dis- 
tinctly. Myopic children complain that they can not see the clock 
across the room or distinguish writing on the *> ""t bcTmmsV, 

although they are able to read at close range V "— ^ i 


exiretnE cases of myopia or in the progressive tj'pe the far point ]■ 
close to the eye as to render the eye virtually useless for distant 
vision. ScDtomata, limitation of the visual Held, vitreous opacities, 
photophobia, photopsia, muses, and ocular pains are additii 
symptoms of the higher degree of myopia. 

As a rule, the symptoms of accommodative asthenopia and tl 
remote reflex irritations from eye-strain are not complained of 
myopia, as the cilinry muscle is passive rather than active. Its radial 
I fibers are better developed and are greatly in excess of the circular 
fibers, the opposite of the condition in hyperopia. However, because 
of the strain on the convergence, evidences of muscular aslhenopii 
such as headache, we:iriness and seust of heat in the eye, and chroi 
conjunctivitis may follow. 

Diagnosis rests upon the diminished acuteness of distant visioi 
the ophthalmoscopic examination (refraction and fund us -changes] 
the retinoscopic examination, and the acceptance of and 
provement by a concave lens. Conic cornea is easily differenliati 
from myopia by the pecuhar protruding appearance of the 
depth of the anterior chamber, and the characteristic retinoscopic 
reflex. Hyperopia with ciliary spasm simulating myopia is readilf 
differenliaied under mydriasis. 

Treatment- — Prophylactic measures consist in the careful examina- 
tion of children's eyes, particularly about the time they are to start to 
school, and in securing the best hygienic conditions for them during 
their school hours. Good ventilation, pro perlv' constructed desks.and 
suflicient and rightl/ directed light are requisites for the maintenance 
of normal vision. There should be a north light coming in over the 
left shoulder, and notfathng directly on the desks. The walls and 
ceilings should be painted in light colors. There should be 
of window space for every five feet of floor space, and small type 
should be distinctly read in the most remote corner of the school- 
on a cloudy day. Books should be printed in large, broad-faced 
and on dull-faced paper. The desks should be sloping and 
arranged as lo avoid all stooping positions. In young myopes exi 
sive near work must be interdicted. Such children should be 
lo forego studying, reading, and other in-door amusements, and must 
be encouraged to go out into the open air and take plenty of health- 
ful exercise, meanwhile rigorously wearing their correcting gla- 
^ In myopia the book, writing, etc., should be placed 


ial ■■ 



I type 




at least 13 inches from the eye, artificial or insufficient light should be 
avoided, and the eyes should be given frequent imermissions of rest. 

In the progressive type of myopia, and in the extremely high 
degrees, nea.r work must be virtually excluded from the daily occupa- 
tion. In such cases the treatment depends upon rest, abstinence 
from near work, constitutional and hygienic measures, the relief of 
any increased ocular tension by the administration of eaerin, or 
iridectomy, attention to the associate choroiditis and other pathologic 
changes, and the constant use of correcting lenses. 

Prescription of GUsges. — Ordinarily, it is desirable to prescribe 
spectacles that will give fair distant vision and. at the same time, 
enable the patient to read easily at the proper working distance. 
However, in cases of persons doing much near work, a pair of weak 
lenses may be ordered for reading, etc., and stronger glasses for out- 
door use, theaters, receptions, etc. 

In myopia of three diopters or over the far point is inside of the 
ordinary reading distance, and there is necessarily extra conver- 
gence; but unfortunatfly there is no necessity for accommodation; 
the adductors are deprived of this stimulus, and exophoria results. 
In order to cause the requisite accommodative stimulus to the adduc- 
tors, constant use of Ihe full correction of myopia has been urged. 
The theory of this is plausible, but Ihe strain on the undeveloped 
accommodation is too severe and serious asthenopia results. We 
unfortunately find that most myopes complaining of unsatisfactory 
glasses are wearing not only their full correction, but are, in a major- 
ity of cases, overcor reeled. A myope will naturally select a strong 
lens, and we should be cautious in the trial with the test-lenses, and 
accept as the proper refraction the weakest lens which gives normal 
vision, and which does not diminish the size of the letters, and, as 
the patients so often say, makes them seem belter but farther away. 

In prescribing glasses for constant use, some deduction from the 
full correction should be made in cases of children and young adults, 
in order that compromise lenses may be continually used which give 
fair distant vision, but which necessitate only a moderate accommoda- 
tive effort in reading. It must always be remembered that overcor- 
recied myopia may produce as distressing symptoms as uncorrected 

At the presbyopic age bifocal lenses should be constantly woirb. 
and the full distance-correction ordered in ttic y^^W ?«%'wimA. 


^^^P high myc 

^^^ glasses ar 


Ihe high degrees of myopia (above six lo eight diopters) the 

lolerated. In the unfortunate 
high myopia (12 lo 30 diopters), with extensive choroidal chang< 
glasses are often of little service in making a useful working eye, 
are so bulky and heavy as to be uncomfortable. 

Removal of the Lens for Hig'h Myopia. — -It is a well-kni 
that the removal of the crystalline lens makes an emmeiropii 
hyperopia by about 12 or 13 diopters. In the knowledge of this fa 
it has been suggested that removal of the lens would be an advisal 
procedure in cases of extremely high myopia — for instance, of from ij 
to 20 diopters. Although this operation has been performed quite a 
number of times recetitly, the actual practical results are not definitely 
settled ; there is great danger of retinal detachment, and, moreover. It 
is too radical a treatment to be advised to the beginner in ophthi 
mology. An ideal Indication for this operation would be lenliculi 


I Definition. — An error of refraction usually due lo some irregul 
' of the curvature of the refracting surfaces of the eye. The earnest 
most often the faulty structure, but lenticular astigmatism is not vtt- 
common ; in fact, it is said that all eyes possess some irregular astig- 
matism in the lens, and for this reason a point of light at a great dis- 
tance is not seen as a point, but as a star. However, it must be re- 
membered that light coming from the heavens travels through medltt 
of different refractive powers. In simple myopia or hyperopia, whilfl 
the refraction is faulty, the corneal meridians are all of equal curvM 
ttire. In astigmatism the curvature of the meridians is different; OOC 
I principal meridian may be of proper curvature while the other 
[ markedly defective. It must be remeuibered that astigmatism does 
not depend upon the length of the globe, but upon the curvatures of 
the cornea and lens. 

Varieties. — Regular astigmatism is present when the two princi| 
meridians— I.e., those of greatest and least curvature — are si 
angles to each other. 

Irregular asCigmalism is a condition in which the unequal cui 
lures of the cornea bear no definite relation to each other, Thi 
> principal meridians, and dilTerent parts of the same meridii 
may have different refractive powers. This form of astigmatism 

ler is 


usually due to cicatrices of the cornea following injuries, surgical 
operations, or destructive inflammations. If the cornea is clear and 
apparently regular, we are safe in attributing irregular astigmatism 
to a diiTerence in the refractive power of the different sectors of the 
lens, or to its oblique position. 

Causes of Regular Astigmatism. — As previously staled, the chief 
factor in the production of regular astigmatism is imperfect curvat 
of the cornea. Regular astigmatism may be congenital or hereiiitary. 
Congenital malformation of the cornea may be a part of a general 
anatomic defect in the bones of the face and skull. 

The causes of acquired regular astigmatism are not exactiy under 
stood, but as almost every person is slightly astigmatic, we must sa; 
that among civilized nations regular curvature of the corneal surface 
Is the exception rather than the rule. However, the excessive use of 
the eyes in modern life is attended by so much muscular and accom- 
modative effort that we may readily believe that both tension and tor- 
sion on the coats of the eyeball by the muscles are prime factors in 
the meridional change in corneal curvature. Pressure of the lids, 
particularly in ametropia and when they are hypertrophied and ' 
even afler some marked conjunctival inflammation, is often suggested 
as a cause. Finally, after operations on the cornea or sclera, the 
subsequent changes during cicatriiaiion may produce a high degree 
of astigmatism. 

Explanation of ihe Several Varieties of Regular Asligmalism 
Ordinary refraction through a perfect dioptric system causes rays of 
light from a point to be focused as a point. When, however, there is 
meridional difference of curvature, the point of light appears as a 
group of lines. If the surface bounding one meridian is more curved 
than thai bounding the other meridians, the rays of light impinging 
on this surface will be focused sooner than those striking Ihe less 
curved meridian. 

If a cone of light passing through a regularly convex spheric su 
face corresponding to the normal cornea be divided perpendicul; 
to its axis, either at a point in front of its focus or after the rays hav 
crossed and are divergent behind the focus, a circle is formed. I 
however, the parallel rays passing through a convex spheric surface 
are refracted more in the vertical than in the horizontal meridians, 
the resulting cone will be more or less ovoid, and form a circle only 
a the rays of the vertical meridian, diverging after focusing, c^ 



86 E 

the converging rays of the horizontal meridian, not yet focused, ( 
the intersecting plane. (Fig. 30, line 4.) 

In figure 30, V V are rays impinging on the vertical meridian, : 
H H arc rays striking the horizonlal meridian ; V V are brought to jl 
focus at the line V 2, while H H are not focused until they reach tl 
line H 6. If we suppose the intersecting lines i to 7, dividing t 

rays, to represent the retina in, different forms of ametropia, 
of forming a circle, the resultant cones will be similar to the geometi 
figures represented in figure 31. Instead of distinct im^es, the resi 
is circles of difTusion and blurred outlines. 

The several possible com bin at i 

onsin the differences 

i of refraction 

of the principal meridians give 1 

ise to the five variet 

ies of regular 


Simple hyperopic astigmatism i 

s the form in which 

one meridian 



^H op 


is emmetropic and the other hyperopic. If we presume li 
the retina, it is obvious that far rays passing through the vertie*! 
meridian V V it is emmetropic, while the rays through the horiiontal 
meridian focus behind the retina,—;, r., they would cause a hypei^ 
opic refraction, — and a horizontal straight line is formed. ] 


a j 


^ simple myopic astigmatism is a. form in which one meridian is en 
metropic and the other myopic. If the relitia be supposed at line 
the horizontal rays focus directly upon it, while the vertical rays focus 
in front of it; ;'.■•., they would produce a myopic refraction. The 
image is a larger and longer vertical straight line. 

Compound h}^eropic astigmatiam is a form in which both merid- 
ians are hyperopic, but one more so than the other. If the retin; 
at line I. both sets of rays have their focus behind, and an oblate 
oval is formed. 

Compound myopic astigmatism is a form in which both meridians 
are myopic, though unequal in degree. If the retina be at line 7, 
both sets of rays focus behind it, and the resultant image is a large 
prolate ellipse. 

Mixed astigmatism is a variety in which one meridian is hyperopic 
and the other myopic. If the retina be at lines 3, 4, or 5 (Fig. 30), 
the vertical rays will focus in front and the horizontal rays will focus 
behind, and the images 3, 4. or ; in figure 31 are formed. 

Aatigmalism with (be rule is a term given to cases of hyperopic 
astigmatism with the axis in or near [he vertical meridian, and 10 
cases of myopic astigmatism with the axis in or near the horizontal 

Astigmatism against the rule is the reverse of foregoing condition. 

Symmetric astigmatism is the usual form in which the axes of the 
two eyes added together make exactly 180 — as, for instance, R. axis 
30, L. axis 150; or, R. axis 180. L. axis 180 (in this case one of the 
axes in the left is taken as o). 

Unsymmetric astigmBtism is the troublesome form in which tbc 
two axes collectively do not make 180 — as, for instance, R. axis i 
L. axis 40 ; or, L. axis iSo, R. axis 140. This form is a prolific ca 
of asthenopic symptoms. 

Disadvantages. — An astigmatic eye sees a point as a line ; hence 
images are distorted and marked visual disturbance results. I; 
believed that there is an involuntary efl^ort on the part of the ciliary 
muscle and even the external muscles to remedy the astigmatic defect. 
By constant unequal contraction the ciliary muscle partly compen- 
sates for moderate inequalities in the curvatures of the cornea. Such 
continuous and unequal accommodative effort must result in e 
strain, and consurne much of the normal nervous energy, eventually 
ing reflex manifestations of disturbance of the nervous e<jf\V4s- 





Hum. Therefore, an astigmatic person may be able to improve 
vision only at the expense of his heaUh. Uncorrected astigmatis 
particularly in delicate and nervous women, results 
forms of reflex asthenopic symptoms. 

Symptoms.— Nearly every person consulting us for refraction 
more or less astigmatic, and in the majority of cases part of ibe 
astigmatism is masked by the accommodative effort of the ciliary 
muscle. Under this natural correction the visual acuity is more or 
disturbed, and in the moderate degrees of astigmatism the 
reflex symptoms are the most prominent sii;ns. The patient com- 
plains of headache, nausea, anorexia, indigestion, inability to per- 
work, etc. In reading, the letters often fade 
and seem to run together. There is significant confusion of sucb 
letters. Commonly there will be noticed an inclination of the head 
to one side, the patient say- 
ing that he can see better 
with his head in that posi- 
tion. In very high degrees 
of astigmatism the pupil may 
be ova], and the asymmetry 
of the cornea may be de- 
tected by simple inspection. 
From the preceding re- 
marks as to the involuntary 
correcting action of the cili- 
ary muscle, the use of a mydriatic in determining the full degree a 
correct axis of the astigmatism is seen to be necessary. 

Tests for astigmatism are very numerous; there are a dozen c 
more valuable methods of qualitative and quantitative diagnosis tn 
ligmatism. The astigmatic cards and dials, the slenopaic dtsi 

keratoscope furnish us easy methods for simple diagnosis, whilfffl 
the ophthalmoscope, ophthalmometer, retinoscope, and tesc-teoses ai 
rvaluable methods for the more exact determination of the kind a. 

igree of astigmatism. Besides these tests we have the perforate 
'chimney disc, the cobalt glass, etc. 

The diagnosis of astigmatism by the ophthalmoscope, by the n 
oECope, and by the lesi-lenses has been described in the section^ 

ing with these special instruments, and in the following lines « 

shall attempt to describe only instruments especially designed for ll 

itection of astigmatism. 

^^^Btigmatic cards and charts are of several varieties. Snellen's 
cards consist of a series of equally colored dark lines arranged like 
the spokes of a wheel, wiih the an^le of inclination of each hne 
marked opposite to it. (Fig. 32.) Seated at six meters and looking 
at this card, an astigmatic person sees clearest the lines correspond- 
ing to the axis of his astigmatism, and sees poorest the lines at right 
angles to this axis. Another form is the arrangement of lines similar 
to a clock-dial ; the numbers of the clock are used to indicate the 
chief meridians, as these are so well known by the patient and can 
be easily indicated by him to the physician. 

Fray's astigmatic tetters (Fig. 33) are formed of equally black lines 
inclined at different angles. The letter seen the blackest is the one 
formed of lines at an angle corresponding to 

the axis of the patient's astigmatism. Many ^? ^^^ '^^ 
other forms of cards and charts have been jS ^^ ^S^ 

The stenopaic disc consists of a round ||iilip aiif W«fc 
disc of metal or hard rubber containing in ,,||J,|| 'l,Jl ^^ 

one of its diameters a fine linear slit-like 

opening. It is mounted in a test-lens cell J^sj jjiwij; mm 

for use in the trial-frame. One eye is ex- ^g^^jj ^^^, ^^^^yj 

eluded from vision with an opaque disc, and 

the disc is placed before the other. The ^^ ''^^ ^'^' 
patient is directed to look at the test-letters ^5^^ »3^ ^ 
or astigmatic chart. The stenopaic disc is . _ 

then rotated in the trial-frame until it reaches matic LtirtKB. 

the position in which the letters are seen 

most clearly, or in which the lines on the chart are of nearest equal 
distinctness. The angle marked on the trial-frame corresponding to 
the inclination of the slit indicates the least defective meridian, and 
also the axis of the necessary correcting cylinder, as such a cylinder 
would correct only the defect of the meridian at riglit angles to its 
axis (the most defective meridian). The convex or concave glass 
that gives the best vision is put down as the refraction of the first 
meridian. The slit is turned exactly 90°, and the second meridian is 
similarly refracted. If both meridians are hyperopic or myopic, the 
refraction of the first meridian represents the spheric defect, and the 
difference is the cylindric defect at the axis of the first meridian. If 
preferred in the vertical, meridian (axis 90°), and the 


t 9° 


1 D., and the refraction of ^ 
I- 2.O0 D., the defect would ti 


refraclion of this meridian is -f 

hori^ontal meridian (axis [So") i 

expressed thus : + S. i.oo + ^. i 

If the refraction of the first meridian is myopic, say, — i D., a 

the refraction of the 180 meridian, hyperopia, say, -+- 2 D., the defid^ 
[■ could be expressed either — S. 1 .00 + C. 3.00 ax. 90, or + S. 3,4 
' — C. 3.00 ax. 180. The first would be the belter formula 

the meridian of least defect is generally taken for the spher 

The stenopaic disc furnishes a simple means of refracting 3 
matic eyes, but it is not always accurate. It is of greatest valued 
cases of mixed astigmatism. It has the advantage of not requiri 
cylindric lenses in refraction. 

A ready means of delecting astigmatism is the applic 
low power cylinder before the eye, which if preferred in any speciaT 
axis gives a strong reason to suspect astigmatism in that axis or at 
right angles to it. Indeed, after the acquirement of considerable 
expertness no device except the test-lenses and the test-letters aj^^ 
required for the accurate diagnosis of astigmatism, with paralyttfl 
accommodation, swinging the cylinder 10° or zo° readily locates ttH 
precise axis even in low degrees of defect. ^H 

A keratOHcope is an instrument for examining the cornea and test- 
ing the symmetry of its meridians of curvature. Several forms have 
been devised, such as the Wecker-Massclon, which is a black board 
18 cm. square, bordered by a white stripe about 15 mm. broa<t., 
Through a hole in the center, the image of the white frame i; 
rcftecled on the cornea. By turning the board on its handle ti 
while frame will take a position from which a rectangular image J| 
reflected. When this position is found, we have the direction of (■ 
principal meridians in an astigmatic cornea. If the mirror is held|| 
any other direction, a rhomboid image of the r 
degree of astigmatism is found by comparing the size and sbap£ ■ 
the image with a series of rectangles printed on an accompaiiy)| 
card, showing the appearance of the corneal image in astigm 
conditions from o to 10 13. 

Placido'a diac is a white disc about ten inches in diameter, t 
the surface of which are painted concentric black rings one 11 
apart. The observer looks through a hole in the center of thi« d 
and notes the appearance of the image of the rings that is refiedi 


upon the patient's cornea. The image is elliptic or distorted, accord- 
ing as the astigmatism is regular or irregular. In emmetropia the rings 
appear circular. 

A ready method of keratoscopy is to place the patient in front of 3 
window having several panes of glass in it, and observing the appear- 
ance of the image of the sash on the patient's cornea. The lines are 
curved or irregular if astigmatism is present. 

The ophthalmometer (Fig. 34) is an instrument used for the deter- 
mination of the kind and amount of corneal astigmatism. It is less 
exact than the retinoscope, and, moreover, it is very expensive. That 
of Javal and SchiSti consists of a telescope attached lo a graduated 
arc, upon which are two objects called mires, the left one being 
fixed, white the right is movable. These mires are white enamel, 
one quadrilateral in shape and the other the same size, except that on 
one side it is cut out into five steps. The observer looks through the 
tube, which contains a combination of convex lenses and a birefracl- 
ing prism, and sees four magnified images in a line on the cornea 
under examination. He first finds the meridian of least refraction 
by moving the semicircular arm to the position in which the two cen- 
tral images are farthest apart. The mires are then moved together 
until the two central images on the observed cornea, touch and their 
central black lines coincide, the lowest step of one image with the 
side of the other. The arm is now turned at right angles to this 
meridian, and we notice the overlapping of the two central images ; 
for each step overlapping there is a difference of one diopter between 
the meridians. In higher degrees of astigmatism we add five diopters 
to the number of steps protruded on the other side. At five diopters 
of astigmatism the steps exactly cover the plain quadrangular mire. 

The meridian of least curvature corresponds to the axis of astigma- 
tism. The findingsof the ophthalmometer are not exact. No account 
is taken of the lenticular astigmatism, and even though the cornea is 
al fault, no rules for adapting the ophthalmometric results can be for- 
mulated. Speaking broadly, the total astigmatism is approximately 
equal to the amount indicated by the ophthalmometer, expressed as 
myopic astigmatism, combined with an inverse myopic astigmatism 
of 0.75 D. ; or, in other words, when there is no corneal astigmatism 
by the ophthalmometer, the test-lens will likely show about 0.73 D. 
of inverse astigmatism (Bull). 

Treatment of regular astigmatism consists in using the ~ 

PHEsnvopiA. 93 

recting glasses. The full astigmatic correctian should be ordered, 
and in the compound or mixed forms, combined with the spheric cor- 
rection. If the degree of defect is high, or if there are symptoms of 
accommodative asthenopia, the glasses should be worn constantly. 
Sometimes in cases of simple hyperopic astigmatism of high degreei 
it is necessary to order — S. 0.25 or 0.50 in addition to the cylinder, lo 
enable the patient to see at a distance. This is particularly the case 
with first glasses. We should generally urge the patient to wear 
spectacles, as eye-glasses are continually getting out of shape, and 
we can never be sure that the glass is applied to the eye at the proper 
axis. In very sensitive eyes the slightest tilting of the axis of the 
cylinder is provocative of the most disagreeable asthenopic symp- 
toms, and often a proper glass wrongly adjusted will aggravate the 

Treatment for irregular lenticular astigmatism is worthless. 'For 
irregTilar corneal astigmatism, generally due to a corneal cicatrix, 
stenopaic glasses — i.e., discs having small openings in the middle lo 
prevent the rays of light from being received on any but an extremely 
limited corneal area, the curvature of which may be regular — have 
been used. However, the field of vision is so limited in these cases 
that the glasses are of little value. By patiently applying the test- 
lenses to an irregularly astigmatic eye, we can sometimes find a 
cylindric combination which at a particular axis seems to improve 
the vision. 



lynonym. — Old-age sight. 
Definition. — A condition of the eye in which the power of accom- 
modation (s either partially or wholly lost by age. Properly speaking, 
presbyopia implies diminution of the accommodative power in adults 
past middle life, to such an extent as to interfere with near vision. 
Presbyopia usually occurs between forty and fifty years of age. As 
a hyperopic eye is obliged to exert a portion of its power of accom- 
modation to overcome its refractive error, it necessarily has less ac- 
commodative powerin reserve, and consequently becomes presbyopic 
sooner than an emmetropic or myopic eye. An uncorrected myope 
may never exhibit the signs ol presbyopia, as he can read at his far^ 
It. but if he wears a distant correction , he wvU \\ave vtve -.Mtvc v,i!« 


ft for a reading glass about the presbyopic age as ihe emme^ape3^| 

hyperope. ^H 

Cauje.— The direct cause of presbyopia is the diminishing elastici^H 
of the lens simultaneously with the solidification and sclerosing con^^* 
ditions which take place elsewhere in the body with advancing age. 
As a consequence of the changes in the lens-struciure, it gradually 

I loses its power to become convex, and hence to refract diverging rays 

I from a near point so that they will meet directly on the retina and 
give a clear image. This diminution in the refractive power of the 
lens is physiologic, and when it has advanced to such a point that 
rays at the average reading distance — about thirteen inches — are t 
longer refracted exactly on the retina, presbyopia is said 10 hal 
Nolwiihsianding the fact that each patient should be studied im 
vidually, and no arbitrary rules can be constructed by which we O 
estimate the relative range of accommodation to age, forconveniei) 
I it is desirable to have the following tables in the mind in refracdj 

presbyopes ; 

6;. or over + JJo D. 

Symptoms. — The chief symptom of recession of the near p 
^ beyond the ordinary working distance is dimness of visio: 

Drk, the palient particularly complaining of inability to read, t 
or sew, without holding the work at an uncomfortably increased dis- 
tance. The ordinary symptoms of accommodative asthenopia are 
very often present, and it is quite likely that ihe headaches, dys- 
pepsia, and neurotic conditions in women about forty-five years gfl 


age, so often attributed to the menopause, are really directly due t< 

eye-strain. The gradual progress of presbyopia, logether with the 
attempt of nature to remedy the defect by narrowing the pupil, s 
what delays Ihe marked symptoms, and unfortimately most pres- 
byopes unconsciously undergo considerable eye-strain before seeking 

Diagnosis rests on ihe age of the person, the history of faihng 
near-vision, the recession of the near point as tested with Jaeger 
types, and the acceptance of a convex lens at close range, A dis- 
proportionate loss of accommodation with the age is indicative of 
ciliary palsy or insufficiency. 

Treatment. — In every case it is necessary to detect and correc 
ful! amount of hyperopia, myopia, or astigmatism that may e 
and for this purpose, in strong, vigorous persons under fifty, the 
administralion of a mydriatic is necessary. Following the ordinary 
method of prescribing lenses for distance in the kind and degree of 
ametropia detected, we correct the presbyopia by adding U 
distant correction a convex spheric lens that gives the best visit 
an ordinary working distance. If allowed to choose the glass and 
distance, the presbjope will usually select a strong glass at a dose 
reading point, and thus lead the examiner into error. Always try 
the test-lenses with the reading card at least thirteen inches from the 
eye. Again, it must be constantly borne in mind that the patient's 
occupation is an important factor to be considered in prescribing 
presbyopic glasses. The engraver will need a stronger glass than 
the seamstress, and, conversely, persons working at a comparatively 
long distance, such as musicians, artists, ministers in the pulpit, etc, 
will need a weaker glass in the pursuit of their occupations than they 
will in ordinary reading. 


Definiiion. — A term used to indicate marked inequality in 
refraction of the two eyes. Minor differences are the rule ii 
ordin.ary refraction, but these are not practically considered. 

Varieties. — Anisometropia may be produced by almost any combi- 
nation of refractive disturbances. The eyes may be myopic, hyper 
opic, or astigmatic, in different degrees, or there may be emmelropia., 
myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism in one e^c andarv CpWav^ij fi^ffi«t«s& 

to t^l 


: still 


It he 
r »«■ 


defect in the other. The condition may be classed according 6 
manner in which the visual act is performed. Following this claa 
fication, we have the following three varieties : 

1. Cases in which there is synchronous fixation and, 
sense of the word, binocular vision; for, even though the retinal 
images are not of equal distinctness and size, binocular vision is still 
possible. In surh cases it seems likely that satisfactory near- visiolL 
may be obtained by unequal accommodation for each eye. 

2. Cases in which there is alteration of fixation in vision — as, I 
instance, the eye with the weaker refractive power may be used ti 
distant objects, while the other, with the greater refractive power, ii 
used for near objects. In this condition the patient 1 
factory vision and so extensive a range of accommodation that he 
is often not aware of any defect. Alternating vision can easily b 
discovered by successively covering each eye and testing for n 
and distant objects. In this class there is usually correct po»tioil1 
the eyes. 

3. Cases in which only one eye takes part in vision, the active e 
being usually the one with the least refractive error ; tl 
being excluded from vision, deviates, and there is a noticeable squint. 
Even in this condition the patient is very often unconscious of the faO 
that one eye has lost its visual acuity, and usually discovers 1 
by accident. Few of the laity are conscious of the fact that a 
ing eye is usually more or less amblyopic, and that the refraclt^ 
error is directly the cause of the squint, and indirectly the caused 
the amblyopia. With this knowledge we see how important a 
examination is in cases in which there is a tendency for one 
deviate in either direction. 

Treatment .^It is in this condition that all the judgment and p 
tience of an oculist is called forth. Many arbitrary rules have I 
advanced, but none have been found that are satisfactory, 
individual case presents new phases, and must be treated separattj 
and with the greatest introspection and caution. The two oppos 
factors in the treatment of anisometropia are the ambition of the W 
list to prescribe such correction as will give synchronous binoculSI 
vision and equal acuity, and the rebellion of the established visual 
system to such a marked innovation. 

hardly be doubted that many eyes amblyopic from disuse 
could be saved by care and patience. It should be the ultimate 0| 


ject of every oculist skilled in the finer refraction to do all in his 
power to establish equal acuity and harmonious action in every in- 
stance of anisometropia, and to strive, even under the most unfavor- 
able circumstances, to bring an amblyopic eye into function. As 
would naturally be supposed, ihe best results are obtained in children 
and young adults; but even in older persons there is a strong response 
on the part of nature to measures of restoration, faithfully pursued. 

To better enable the beginner to obtain an idea of the mode of 
procedure in this condition, we will consider a hypothetic case of a 
child who comes to us with a convergent squint in the left eye. We 
immediately suspect anisometropia, and on examination we find a 
slight refractive error in the right eye, but a high degree of compound 
hyperopic astigmatism in the left. It may be that the left eye is am- 
blyopic to such an extent that vision is reduced to counting fingers at 
a few feet, and refraction can not be satisfactorily estimated with the 
lest-lenses, and we resort to some objective method, preferably the 
retinoscope. We prescribe the proper correction for the right eye 
and slightly under-correct the left eye. We then instruct that these 
glasses be worn constantly; and for a short period each day, begin- 
ning with a few minutes and gradually increasing, we direct that a 
blinder be worn over the good eye, thus necessitating the use of the 
amblyopic eye. It is astonishing how quickly vision is restored in a 
young and healthy child. We must impress upon the mother or 
guardian of the child the importance of the blinder- exercise and of 
prompt appearance at the oculist's office at stated intervals for re- 

If the patient be an adult, and particularly if of nervous tempera- 
ment, the case is sure to be a tedious one. With advancing age there 
is less response to recuperative measures, the long- established visual 
habit is abruptly broken, and all sorts of distressing symptoms inter- 
vene. In such cases, rather than resort to any arbitrary rules, Irre- 
spective of variety, we must explain to the patient the overwhelming 
advantages of binocular vision and the dangers of amblyopia in one 
eye. The active eye is under extra strain, and is hence more liable 
to disease ; and in such case obscuration of vision , as by cataract in 
that eye, means almost total blindness ; whereas if the amblyopic eye 
is restored, not only are the dangers to the one eye lessened, but 
there is still left a more or less active eye on which to depend in case 
of accident or disease. We then instruct the patietv*. \ci ^^st ■Otwi 





greatest persistence in the blinder- exercise, and to constantly wear 
his correction, and we only suspend our restorative treatment after a 
long and faithful trial. Ignoring the refraction of an undiseased 
amblyopic eye is unpartionable in a scientific oculist. 


Definition. — Weakness or speedy fatigue of the ocular muscles j 
visual powers. 

Causes. — Errors of refraction, excessive use of the eyes, muscnl 
insufficiency, and constitutional denutritive processes, such i 

Varieties, — f. Accornmodative asthenopia, generally due to hyp« 
opic astigmatism or to simple hyperopia producing strain of tbeciliai 

2. Muscular Bsthcnopia, due to weakness, incoordination (hetet 
phoria), or strain of the external ocular muscles. Myopia, by n 
sitating extra convergence and straining of the internal recti 


3- Retinal, or nervous, asthenopia is a rare variety caused by retiiH 
hyperesthesia, anesthesia, or other abnormafily, or by general t 
vous affections. In overworked schoolchildren it is manifested by 
complaint of haziness and dimness of the letters, occasional diplopia, 
photophobia, lacrimation, and local ocular pain. In neurasthenic 
and hysleric adults all these symptoms are aggravated, and such 
patients constitute very troublesome cases. 

Symptoms. — Symptoms of asthenopia are of such diversity and 
differ so in degree that a thorough discussion of the effects of eyfci 
strain would necessitate a volume in itself. 

As a causative factor In the production of headache, eye-strain i 
by far the most important. Anorexia, dyspepsia, constipation, heaH 
burn, nausea, repeated attacks of vomiting, etc., represent s 
ihe gastric reflexes. Amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea are mi 
anomalies sometimes caused by eye-strain. Insomnia, nightm 
chorea, nocturnal enuresis, and even epilepsy, have often owed thdi 
existence and perpetuation to uncorrected eye-strain in some form. 
The multiformity of the effects of eye-strain can only be properly 
reatited when we understand how vita! the function of v 
every act, emotion, and thought. The visual centers . 



is to 



closest conaectioD with the other brain-centers, a.nd the slightest dis- 
tmbance of the visual mechanism produces sympathetic irritation in 
the entire motor, sensory, and psychic systems. Happily, the mani- 
fold effects of eye-strain, so long ignored, are being appreciated and 
recognized more and more every day. Besides the reflex symptoms, 
which are often remote and only brought out by careful questioning 
(the usualcomplaint in asthenopia is discomfort in near-work), the pa- 
tient complains of inability to read or sew for any length of time; the 
print runs together, there is heaviness of the lids, and often excessive 
lacrimation. Local congestion soon produces conjunctivitis or blepha- 
ritis, and it is our duty to examine the refraction in all cases of chronic 
conjunctival and palpebral inflammations instead of carelessly dis- 
missing the patient with a time-worn formula for an ointment or a 
wash. So long as uncorrected ametropia exists there will be recur- 
ring attacks of inflammalion. 

A peculiar rule in asthenopia is that the amount of local or consti- 
tutional reflex is in direct proportion to the debility or neurotic tend- 
ency of the patient. Strong, vigorous men may, by accommodative 
and muscular effort, overcome ametropia to such a degree as to 
tirely mask the condition, and such patients may pass all their lives 
without experiencing a single uncomfortable reflex; on the other 
hand, a nervous school-girl or a neurasthenic woman may suffer 
severest headaches or be the victirn of anorexia, nausea, dyspepsia, 
etc., from the slightest astigmatic error. There is also someti 
noticed an interchange ability of reflexcB, When the vision c 
tinues normal in spite of the ametropia, reflexes ate present; if the 
vision suffers, reflexes are less conspicuous. Intense local symp- 
toms are also usually unattended by severe reflex symptoms, and 

Diagnosis rests on a careful examination of the refractive condition 
of (he eye and of the muscular power and muscle-equilibrium. In 
all cases in which there is presumed to be retention of accommoda- 
tive power, a mydriatic must be used. 

Treatment. — In the accommodative form, rest of the eyes, absti- 
nence from excessive near-work, and constant use of correcting iense 
are necessary, Constilutional and hygienic treatment must be urged. 
If there is any muscular anomaly, it must be corrected by gymnastic 
exercise with prisms, constant wearing of prisms, or in extreme cases 
tenotomy and advancement. For nervous asthenopia.,«tn\. 



must be reduced to a minimum, and out-door exercise, good f04 
the administration of tonics, massage, or electrotherapy, a 


Definition. — Amaurosis is a term which, from its vagueness, i 
happily becoming obsolete, signifying partial or total loss 
When partial, the term amb!yopia\^ now used; when complete, bliHd\ 
ntss. The word is still sometimes used to express blindnt 
the cause is unknown or doubtful. Properly speaking, amb/yopM 
means subnormal aculeness of vision, due neither to dioptric abnoi 
malism nor to visible organic lesion. 

Amblyopia exanopsia is a term applied to partial or total blinijlF 
oess in an eye from disuse. It is of common oc 
tropia and in strabismus. The individual with a squinting eye i 
rally has double vision ; in order lo obtain monocular vision he i 
either turn the axis of the squinting eye or learn to mentally s' 
press the image of that eye. If for anatomic reasons rotation is 
impossible, or if there is such difference of refraction that images of 
different distinctness and size are observed, the mental suppression 
_ of the image is the only alternative, and progressive amblyopia n 

Treatment is successful directly in proportion to the youth of ti 
patient. It consists in restorative measures, such a 
Tractive error and subsequent exercise of the weak eye. 
strabismus, tenotomy or advancement is necessary. The treau 
ment of anisometropia has already been reviewed. 

Night-blindness (hemeralopia) may in itself constitute a disease dai 
to over-stimulation or lack of proper nourishment, or it may be | 
symptom of retinitis pigmentosa or similar degenerative disease of th^ 
retina, alone or with disease of the choroid. It is sometime 
among people the subject of extreme denutrition from ciin 
social influences, such as the lower classes of the Russians ; and tha 
disease is, in fact, almost endemic in some parts of Russia afler thfl 
religious fast during Lent. 

Treatment consists In rest from bright light by protective glaaseii 
improvement of the general health, and the administration of tonicM 
''tod-liver oil, etc. 


Other farms of retinal injury from prolonged exposure 
glares, such as the sun's rays upon the sea, upon vast expanses of 
snow, and continual gazing at a bright light, such as an electric light, 
are the causes of temporary amhlj-opia and amaurosis. Snow-blind- 
ness, moon-blindness, electric -light- blindness, sun- blindness, are the 
significant terms applied in such cases. The tteatment consists of 
rest under favorable hygienic circumstances. 

Nyctalopia etymological I y means night-blindness, but the general 
usage making the term mean night-vision is so strongly intrenched 
that it is useless and confusing to reinstate the old significance. The 
condition in which one sees better at night, relatively speaking, than 
by day, is due lo some lesion in the macular region rendering it blind; 
at night the pupil dilates more than in the day-time, and hence vision 
with the extramacular or peripheral portions of the retina is corre- 
spondingly better. Nyctalopia is a symptom of macular disease and 
not a disease in itself. All night-prowling animals have widely, 
dilated pupils, and in addition to this they have in the retina a spe- 
cial organ call(?d the iapeium iucidum, the function of which is Co 
reflect to a focus in front of ihem the relatively few rays of light that 
enter the widely dilated pupil and thus enable Ihem the better to see 
their way. Hence the luminous appearance of the eyes of such 
animals in the dark. 

Tonic amblyopia may be due to such conditions as provoke super- 
saturation of the blood with toxic ingredients — as, for instance, in dis- 
ease of the kidney we may have accompanying the resultant uremic 
poisoning, amblyopia, or even total blindness of both eyes, appearing 
somelimes suddenly and sometimes after a day or two of gradually 
failing vision. The disturbance in such a case is supposed to be cor- 
tical. If the patient survives the attack of uremia, the blindness may 
disappear completely in a few days. Diabetic amblyopia is distin- 
guished by its association with the ordinary symptoms of diabetes. 

Amblyopia from malarial fever and quinin has been reported, and 
in rare cases complete blindness has intervened, Quinin itself has 
produced bilateral amblyopia, and conversely has cured malarial 
amblyopia. Other poisonous substances, such as tobacco, alcohol, 
lead, etc., by causing either macular disease or retrobulbar optic neu- 
ritis, produce subnormal acuity of the central field. These will be 
discussed under Diseases of the Retina and Optic Nerve. 

iBumatic amblyopia follows blows upon the skull, on the face. 

directly on ilie eye, or on so remote a portion as the spinal cord. 
Rigid miosis may follow such injuries. The visual disturbance is 
caused directly either by hemorrhage into, or pressure upon, some 
portion of the visual apparatus, either in the orbit or in the brain, 
reflexly, as after spinal injury. 

Hysteric Simulation and Malingering. — Hysteric amblyopia is : 
uncommon, but very many cases so diagnosed are properly i 
sequence of asthenopia. Malingering by the declaration of ainblyi 
pia or blindness may be found in insurance examinations and 
military life, and often to procure damages after alleged inji 
Many ingenious devices have been adopted to expose the simulant 
all depending upon the fact that in ordinary visual perception thei 
is no account taken of the exact participation of the two eyes. 
hold a book before the patient's eye and interpose a pencil in front 
of the eye supposed to be active, tbe reading will be slightly inter- 
rupted if the left eye is amblyopic ; if, however, the amblyopia 
feigned and not real, the left eye will escape the pencil and the read- 
ing will be uninterrupted. Another way is to interpose a highly 
vex lens in front of the eye supposed to be well, and if test-type 
removed beyond the focal distance of the lens and is still legibli 
know that the other eye participates in vision. The production ol 
double images by the interposition of prisms also proves binocular! 
vision. Still another method depends upon colored letters placed, 
upon a dark background which can not be seen through glasses 
complementary colors. A person looking at green-blue letters on 
dark ground through a red glass over the sound eye, and a white 
green glass over the alleged blind eye, will be unable to see t 
letters if the allegation is true. 

Amblyopia from Enloptic Phenomena. — Muscce volitantea : 
curious dots or rings of all shapes which float before the eye, and 
some conditions, such as high myopia, are so numerous that they cai»i 
not be ignored, and cause considerable disturbance of vision. The 
origin of musc^ is not exactly understood, but they are probably 
the remnants of some ocular debris. It has been suggested thai 
they are intraocular manifestations of general waste- 
ntulation (uric acid diathesis), and that they are reheved by appro^J 
priale diet, exercise, and medication. Subjective exam' 
muses is of interest, and they can be studied by lying on the bad 
uid looking at a bright cloud in the sky. By what is called 





balloltemem, turning the eye downward and arresting the n 
very sharply and suddenly, one may get a positive rebound of niuscK 
from the bottom of the chamber up to the hne of visual perception. 
Wicropsia is a condition in which images of objects seem too small, 
and is supposed to be due to a dispersion of the retinal end-organs, 
so that fewer receive the image, Megalopsia is live opposite of this 
condition. ^~^~^ 

Metamorphopsja is an apparent distortion or change of the form of 
objects, supposed to be produced by changes in the relative position 
of the retinal end-organs. 

Little can be done for the relief of emoptic phenomena. Proper 
correction of the refraction and muscular anomaly, together with 
hygienic precautions and the use of eliminatives, as sodium phos- 
phate and the iodids, will sometimes diminish muscEe. 



-perception. — A beam of light passed through a small open- 
ing, or if passed through a prism, will separate inlo an arrangement 
of colors on a. screen. This arrangement is called the spectrum. 
The explanation of the spectrum is that the beam of while light is 
made of a number of rays having different wave-lengths or rates of 
vibration. Rays under four hundred billion vibrations a second 
are not perceived by the human retina as light, and are called heat 
rays. The range of the perceptible spectrum is from red light, about 
four hundred million millions vibrations a second ; to violet, haying 
over seven hundred and fifty milhon millions a second. Between 
red and violet are found orange, yellow, green, and blue rays. Rays 
having a higher tale of vibration than violet can not be appreciated 
by the human eye, and are only recognized by their chemic and 
physical effects. Therefore, the usual definition of color-sense is the 
power of the eye to distinguish different wave-lengths. Different ex- 
planations are given of color-perception. We know that the irrita- 
tion on the rods and cones of the different wave-lengths is carried 
back through the optic chiasm to the visual center in the occipital 
lobe in the brain ; but in exactly what manner we become conscious 
of color-impression, and in what way it can be altered, we are not 
definitely certain. The majority of observers in this field seem to for- 
get that the retina is a substance of considerable thickness and not a. 


hypolhetlc plane, and also the participation of the visual center 
the brain in color-consciousness and color-blindness-. At the present 
time there are two important theories, both of which have been found! 
faulty, but which have become so identified with this subject that w 
briefly note them. According to the Young-Helroholtz Iheoiy, iheV 
retina possesses three sets of color-perceiving elements, — 
red, green, and blue or violet. According to Bering's theory, thel 
color-sense and the light-sense depend upon chemic changes in 
retina, or in the substance called the visua] purple of the retina. 
suggests that there ate three different visual substances, — the whitfr 
black, red-green, and blue-yellow, — and that sensations of light and^ 
color are due to the using up and restoration of these substances. 

Varieties of Color-Blindness. — Total and partial ; congenital and 

Total color-blindness, in which the solar spectrum appears grayish, | 
is very rare. ■ 

Partial color-blindness is quite common. Statisticians tell us thad 
the proportion is 1:25 among males, and i : 400 among females. J 
I There may be blindness to blue, yellow, red, or green. However, the 
I colors that most often fail to make proper impressions are red and its 
complementary color, green. These colors do not appear as abso- 
lutely black, but they can not be distinguished from one another and J 
from certain shades of gray and brown. In extreme cases there b 
total blindness for red and green, and even the brightest shade o 
red can not be distinguished from green. Unfortunately, the color 
most often at fault have been selected by railroad companies a 
navigators as iheir signal colors ; hence, we see how important it i 
for the employees of transportation companies to have the colof 
sense absolutely perfect. 

Congeoital color-blindness is the most common form. Ii 
hereditary, and sometimes skips several generations. The dbcovei 
of color-blindness was Dalton. a distinguished professor of chemistiji 
who himself was color-blind, afact which he ascertained byaccidenl 

Acquired color-blindness may be the result of disease or accident 
Defective color-sense often appears after disease of the optic nerv 
and is a particular symptom in optic neuritis and atrophy due to e: 
cessive use of tobacco and alcohol. However, central color-blind^ 
ness may be seen in all forms of toxic amblyopia. A peculia 
to be noted in tobacco-amblyopia is the fact that Ihc p.iticnt may b 

able to distinguish colors close to the eye, but when they are farther 
removed, he is cotor-blind, particularly for green and red, This 
makes it quite important to lest for color-blindness at the normal 
signal distance in addition to the skein-test at close range. Color- 
blindness is sometimes the result of traumatism; occasionally, afler 
blows upon the head, color-blindness is noticed in one-half the field 
of vision only, the other half being normal in its color- perception. 

Cbromatopsia is a condition in which all objects became tinged 
with certain colors. It is common after cataract extraction. Large 
doses of santonin have the pecuhar property of rendering the whole 
field of vision yellow. 

Diagnosis. — In the ordinary Holmgren test, the person is given a 
test-skein of wool of a light-colored pink, and told to se/eci {and not 
Dame) from a mass of similar skeins those which most nearly resem- 
ble the skein to be matched. If he is color-blind he will confuse the 
grays, the greens, the pinks, the browns, and the reds. As a con- 
firmative test, he is then given a light pure green skein to match in 
the same way. 

Dr. William Thomson has devised a convenient apparatus for 
testing for color-blindness, which has been widely adopted by rail- 
road examiners. It consists of a stick lo which numerous bundles 
of yarn are attached, a light green being used as the test-skein. The 
method of using the Thomson stick is described by its author as fol- 
lows : Using the light green test-skein, the patient under examination 
is asked to match it in color from the yarns on the stick, which are 
arranged in alternate green and confusion colors, and which are 
numbered from one to twenty. The selection of ten tints is re- 
quired, and the examiner notes the number of the tints chosen. 
The odd numbers are green and the even ones the confusion colors. 
If the patient has a good color-sense, his record will exhibit none 
but odd numbers ; if he is color-blind, the mingling of even numbers 
betrays the defect. To distinguish between green-blindness and red- 
blindness, the rose-teU is used, and the color-blind patient will select, 
indifferently, either the blues intermingled with the rose, or, perhaps, 
the blue-greens or grays. Finally, the red test is tised as a control. 

There are other color-tests, but these two are sufficient for practical 
purposes. The tield for vision for different colors is tested in the 
same manner as the field for while, using a colored object instead 
of a white one. 




In the peripheral field of vision there is a 
ranging from white thus: Yellow, blue, red, and green. In contri 
distinction to this, we find the central \\^\<:i-a for red the most disIinG^ 
and violet least distinct. Hence the use of red for signals. 

The tests for distant color-vision should be made with color 
lamps or lanterns, under normal conditions, either oq the track orq 
the depot. 

Treatment for the congenital form is useless. The treatment 
acquired color-blindness is directed to the cause. In the li 
abstinence from tobacco and alcohol is necessary. 


The field of vision of an eye is that portion of space before tl 
eye from which, when at rest, it can receive impressions of lighL 
Ordinarily speaking, the field of vision is considered the space before 
the eye in which small objects can be seen while the visual : 
6Ked in one position. The binocular field is the space in which^ 
objects can be seen with both eyes open without moving the hea^ 
Tlte field of fixation designates that portion of the field of vision 1 
which objects may be directly looked at. 

Modes of Testing the Field of Vision, — The simplest method I 
to face the patient, covering [he eye not under examination, 
closing your own eye opposite the patient's covered one — as, 
instance, in testing the patient's left eye, close his right eye and yo* 
left eye. Then teil the patient to look directly at your open eye, : 
while standing accurately in front of him, you meet his gaie ; 
holding your finger off to the side beyond the field of vision 
gradually bring it in and note the point at which the patient firs 
the finger. This test can be tried in every direction, and If the s 
geon's field of vision is normal, by comparison he can readily e 
mate any alteration in the patient's field. Due allowance n 
made for extra prominence of the brow or nose. This test will do fo^ 
simple diagnosis, but it is somewhat unscientific, and does n 
out the finer points which it is so often necessary to detect. 

The perimeter is an instrument for exact measurement of the fielj 
of vision. It consists of a graduated arc, which turns at it 
upon a pivot. At the inner side of the arc, and directly opposite ll 
pivot, is a small, white disc, upon which the patient's gaze must \ 


Eadily fixed. The most improved form of perimeter (Fig. 35) is 
self- registering, and marks on a special card the exact limitation of 
the field at every angle to which the graduated arc is turned. The 
patient is seated in front of the perimeter, with the chin on a rest, 
which brings the eye to be tested into the middle line directly oppo- 

site the point of fixation. The other eye is covered. During tlie 
whole examination the patient must gaze directly at the white spot in 
the center of Ihe perimeter. A movable disc containing a small 
while surface is gradually brought in toward the center until it is 
seen by the patient as while. This is repealed at every a 

esults recorded upon a special perimetric chart. The fields fi 



color are obtained in the same manner, using instead of a w) 
object a limed one, corresponding to the color to be tested for. 
order to detect scotoniata, the disc should be moved all the way 
center, and any point within the field at which the color 
appears should be noted. If the patient is amblyopic 
instead of the ordinary disc, a lighted candle may be moved along 
irc of the perimeter, and another light put at ibe point of fii 
The perimeter may also be used to enamine the angle 
I deviation in strabismus. 



le normal field of vision (Fig. 36) is naturally contracted at 
nasal side to about 65° on account of the projection of Ihe bridge 

nose. It contains a physiologic " blind spot "to the 
side of the fixation point, between 10 and lo, as shown by the stn: 
circle in the diagram, The fields for blue and yellow are somewhat 
smaller than that for white, the field for red still more contracted, and 
green is the innermost field. However, the size of field for any color 
varies considerably for different persons, and for the same person' 
different degrees of illumination. 

Atleraltons in the field of vision may be concentric or regular 
tractions in all directions, or diaimctly uneven and irregular 



tions, according to the amount of fundus-invalvement. Scotomata 
are patches in the field of vision in which there is blindness to the 
object under observation. A positive scotoma appears as a dark . 
spot before the patient's vision ; a negative scotoma is generally only 
delected by examination with a perimeter, and appears as an appre- 
ciable interval in which there is blindness. It is usually due to some 
loss of perceptive power, which, when Eocated at the macula, or in 
the central fibers of the optic nerve, causes the well-known ceotral 
scotoma, which is particularly noticeable for red, and which is an 
important sign in many toxic amblyopias. The physiologic scotoma, 
or blind spot, represents a point at which the optic nerve enters the 
eye. The changes in the field of vision are of diagnostic importance 
in many pathologic conditions of the fundus, and the perimeter is 
an efficient aid not only In diagnosis, but in showing the exact rt 
of treatment. 

The disadvantages of limitation of the field of vision may be readily 
understood when we look through a long tube. Peripheral objec 
are not seen, and unless the patient continually moves the head from 
side to side and rotates the eyeballs, he will stumble over neighboring 
objects. It sometimes happens that the central vision may rema 
good that the smallest print can be read while the peripheral v 
is absolutely destroyed. In central scotoma the patient must look 
above, below, or to one side of the object, for, if he fixes directly o 
it, the object is not visible. 

Hemianopsia is a term used to indicate obliteration of half the 
visual field in both eyes. It may be complete, but is usually incom 
plele. There is generally a bending out of the hemianopsic lire 3 
the point of fixation, giving us re; 
plied by fibers from both optic li 
retina is supplied by the tract on 
supplies the right halves of the ti 

When the obliterated half 
speak of homonymous bemianop! 
indicative of di 
have crossed, 

that the fovea is 
whereas the remainder of the 
ie — that is, the right optic tract 
tinK, and the left the reversi 
le same side in both eyes, ^ 
{Fig. 37.) Such a condition is 
pressure behind the chiasm, before the fibers 
ided hemianopsia there is some lesion of the 

right optic tract or its connection with the cerebral cortex, and the 
reverse of this in right-sided hemianopsia. In heteronymous ( 
crossed hemianopsia — that Is in both temporal or both nasal halves 
■3- there is probably a lesion at some part of the chiasm. -hVivAi, S: 



eludes the decussating fibers of both tracts. Vertical bemianop! 
due to partial lesion in front of the decussation. 

In homonyrnous hemianopsia we have additional aid in locatil 
a tumor or lesion by the pupillary reflex to light. The pupilh 
centers are near the corpora quadrigemina; if we carefully direct 
rays of light upon the blind side of a retina in a case of homonymous 
hemianopsia, and yet get pupillary reaction, we know that the pupil- 
lary centers and all the region in front in the path of pupillary reaC' 

1 are intact, hence the lesion is back of the corpora quadrigemina; 

Lversely, if pupillary reaction is destroyed, we have reason to 
believe that the lesion is somewhere between the corpora qu, 
gemina and the chiasm. This test is known as V/emicke's eign. 


> Hemianopsia. Rbsultinc from UniLATRBAL 

Causes. — Hemianopsia is usually due to hemorrhage, embolus. 

The clinical significance of hemianopsia depends on the amount 
and form of the obliterated field and the associate symptoms, such as 
hemiplegia, hemianesthesia, aphasia, etc. 

Transient hemianopsia is a sign of some cortical disturbance, and 1$ 
probably the result of spasm of the superficial cerebral arteries. Ii 
is oflen associated with unilateral headache, vertigo, apham. 
amnesia, and other symptoms referable to a cerebral origin. In a 
number of the patients there is a family history of epileptirorm 

^^™Anato my. — T h 


■Anatomy. — The eye is moved by the following six muscles ; ihe 
superior, inferior, external and internal recti, and the superior and 
inferior obliques. (Fig. 38.) 

The superior rectus rises from the upper margin of the optic fora- 
men and from the ftbrous sheath of the optic nerve, and is inserted 
by a tendinous expansion into the sclera, about 7.7 mm. from the 
margin of the cornea. 

The inferior rectus rises from the lower margin of the optic fora- 
ivith the internal rectus, and from the fibrous 

Front.— (H/7;t Mniil.) 

sheaih of the optic nerve, and is inserted into the inferior portion of 
the sclera, about 6.5 mm. from the margin of the cornea. 

The internal rectus is the thickest and shortest of the straight 
muscles, and arises from the common tendon a 
the optic nerve, and is inserted into the inner 
about 5.5 mm. from the cornea! margin. 

The enternal rectus, the longest of the straight muscles, arises by 
two distinct heads, one from the location of the common tendon of 
the inferior and internal rectus, and the other frowv \\it ■w^i'ije.t \niwe.-a 


of the optic foramen with the superior rectus. It is inserted into tbff^| 
outer surface of the sclera 6.g mm. from ihe margin of the cornea. H 
Passing between ils heads are the nasal, third, and sixih nerves, ^ 

The superior oblique arises from the upper margin of the optic 
foramen, and from the fibrous sheath of the optic nerve, and passes 
forward to the pulley beneath the internal angular process of ihe 
frontal bone ; its tendon is then reflected beneath the superior rectus 
muscie to the outer and posterior surface of that part of the sclera 
near the entrance of the optic nerve. At the point at which it passes 
through the pulley the tendon is inclosed in a synovial membrane. 

The inferior oblique is a thin, narrow muscle, arising from ihc 
inner margin of the superior maxilla, immediately exterior to the lac- 
rimal groove. It passes beneath the inferior rectus to be inserted 
the external and posterior portion of the sclera, about 5.5 mm. from, 
the entrance of the optic nerve. 

Nervous Supply. — The third nerve (oculomotor) suppli 
muscles of the eye, except the external rectus and the superior 
lique. The fourth nerve (trochlear) supplies the superior oblique 
and the sixth nerve (abducens) supplies the external rectus. 

Function. — The eye is turned out by the abductor muscles — the 
external rectus and the two oblique ; it is turned in by the adductor 
muscles — the internal rectus and the inferior and supetior recti. The 
superior rectus and the inferior oblique turn the eye upward, and are 
called the elevators ; the inferior rectus and the superior oblique turn 
the eye downward, and are called the depressors. The upper part of 
the eye is rotated inward by the superior oblique and the superior 
; the lower part of the eye is rotated inward by the inferior 

t oblique and the inferior rectus. There is harmonious impulse and^J 
concerted action of the muscular apparatus of the two eyes, ^H 


Muscular Balance. — When the visual axes of the two eyes exacdf <^| 
meet at the object to which they are directed, the eyes are said to be 
balanced or in equilibrium. This muscular balance is maintained 
by the constant and equally distributed innervation of the ocular 
muscles, and is directly dependent upou vhc relative anatomic f'W'^J 
mation and physiologic strength o( the to\isc\cs. Nti-j ftira^.m'Oiwtti^^H 


ces muscular imbalance. However, muscular 
imply inability to perform perfect binocular fixa- 
tion, for in some cases the visual axes are rightly directed by in- 
creased innervation, and it is this necessary extra expenditure of 
nervous energy that causes the aslhenopic symptoms so frequent in 
minor disturbances of muscular equilibrium. 

Perfect binocular vision requires that the visual axes should exactly 
meet on the point of fixation and that the retinal impression of both 
eyes should be simultaneously conducted to the brain and be fused 
as one image in the visual centers. When there is any deviation 
from these normal requisites, diplopia, or double vision, results. 

In studying the classification of the functional anomalies of the 
ocular muscles, it must be remembered that both eyes are involved, 
and the nomenclature used qualifies the fault, but does not locate it — 
for instance, right hyperphoria Indicates thai either the right superior 
rectus is too strong for the right inferior rectus, or the left superior 
rectus is too weak for the left inferior rectus — that is, one eye tends to 
turn upward, or the other downward. 

Arbitrary classification of the functional anomalies can not be 
made; the differences are of degree rather than variety, and the divid- 
ing line is somewhat indistinct. Cases of muscular imb.alance in 
which the equilibrium is maintained by increased innervation of any 
of the muscles, or in which the deviation of the vjsua! axes is only 
transient or slight, may be classed under the head of insufficiency. 
Cases in which there is decided deviation, which can not be over- 
come by increased innervation, may be classed under the head of 
BtrsbiBinus. In the ordinary acceptation of the two words we may 
consider insufficiency as latent or nearly corrected squint, and stra- 
bismus as manifest or uncorrected insufficiency. 

Adduction is the power of rotating the eyes inward — that is, of 
overcoming the diplopia produced by prisms, bases out. 

Abduction is the power of rotating the eyes outward — that is, 
of overcoming the diplopia produced by prisms, bases in, 

Sursu induction is the power of rotating the eyes in the horizontal 
meridian — that is, of overcoming the diplopia produced by prisms, 
bases up (infraduction) or bases down (supraduction), 

Stevens, of New York, has suggested a descriptive nomenclKtAue 
(or the fiinctional anomalies of ocular muscles "«\iicti\va3. ^lewvawwcv- 
sally accepted in this country. For norma\\lv and \'^e SiSfttwi 



of disturbance of muscular equilibrium, or latent squint. 1 
gests the use of the following terms : 

Orthophoria, perfect binocular equilibrium. 

HeUropkoria, imperfect binocular equilibrium. 

The varieties of heterophoria are : 

Hyperphoria, a. tendency of one eye to deviate upward. 

Esophoria, a tendency of the eyes to deviate inward, 

Exophoria, a tendency to deviate outward. 

Hypertsophoria, a tendency of one eye to deviate upward and i 
ward, or of its fellow to deviate downward and inward. 

Hyperexophoria, a tendency of one eye to deviate upward a 
outward, or of its fellow to deviate downward and outward. 

For cases in which there is absolute turning or deviation of tl 
visual axis instead of only a tendency, and hence inability to 
perfect binocular fixation, the following terms are suggested : 

Orlhotropia, perfect binocular fixation. 

Heterotropia, a decided deviation from parallelism (squint). 

Of the different varieties of helerotropla we have : 

Esotropia, a deviation Inward (convergent squint). 

Exolropia, a deviation outward (divergent squint). 

Hypertropia, a deviation of one eye upward or the other dow 

Hyperesotropict and hyperexolropia are combinations of the abov 


General Remarks, — A prism deflects rays toward its base ; bene 
by placing a prism before an eye the rays entering the eye will be 
bent as to cause them to leave the visual axis, and, unless there 
muscular compensation, in such a case diplopia, or double vision, 
the resuh. A high-degree prism base down before an eye will 
bend the rays that they will reach the retina at a point below that 
upon which they would have impinged had they not been inter- 
rupted. By the mental habit of judging the position of an object, 
the deflected rays are referred to a point above the optic 
same way, rays impinging on the nasal side of the retin 
impression of an object on the temporal side, and vice ■ 
forms of diplopia may be illustrated by figures 39 and 40 

In figure 39 the right eye is turned in, and instead of perceiving-j 





single object, 0#, diplopia tesulls, and the patient sees one image, 
which he refers to ob, and another, which is referred to F. ob. The 
image of the right eye is to the right of that of the left eye, and the 
case is designated bomonymous diplopia. In figure 40 the right eye 
is turned out, and the apparent position of the object ob is at F. ob. 
The images have crossed ia their relative positions ; that of liie right 

Bb. Obj. 

eye is seen to the left of that of the left eye. and the case is called 
crossed diplopia. 

The amount of muscular insufRciency is measured by the strength 
of the prism, which, placed before the eye at rest, will deflect the 
imperfectly directed rays of light in such a manner that there will be 
perfect binocular fixation. 

The strength of the ocular muscles is measured by the prism wtvich. 
they can overcome, and, by increased innctvalivoii n\&. ^.tvioTViWiivti!- 



tain perfect binocular fixation. The muscular strength varies with 
each individual, but [here is a normal relation between the strength 
of certain muscles. The adductors can normall}' overcome prisms J 
from 10° to 30°, and the abductors can overcome prisma of from 6"J 

It must be remembered that in cases of stable muscular equilibriut 

by rlgbleyar4 

there may be still decided insufficiency and disproportion ; 
mal relative strength of the adductors and abductors. 

Tests for the strength of ocular muscles are based upon their ability I 
to overcome prisms while both eyes are fixed on a small light about ] 
six meters' distance. In these tests we aim to measure the associated 1 
powers of the muscles concerned in abduction, adduction, and sur- J 
samduclhn rather than the slrengtb o( V\ie KnAvjidvial muscles whichS 
may never Aai-e individual action. To \es^ adivittv^tv. "4«; ^ 



are placed bases out; to measure abduction, bases in 

the elevators (supraduction), bases down ; to measure the depressors 

(infraduction), bases up. 

It is the measurement of the strength of the abductors and ad- 
ductors that is of most practical importance in ordinary practice, and 
in all cases in which there is reason to suspect any muscular insuffi- 
ciency in the causation of asthenopic symptoms not only should the 
tests for muscular equilibrium be applied, but also the power of ad- 
duction and abduction should be measured. 

Cases of apparent orthophoria sometimes show great insufficiency 
of the lateral muscles of the eye. The performance of reading and 
other near-wQ k w'th a weakene I 
power of addu on g es se o h 
roost annoying symp oms 

The ordinary p edu e n e n 
adduction and abdu on to e 

the patient abou 
a small flame. 

nd I 

, yfo 


n thefl 

To n 

5 ed 


abduction, prisn ba es n i 

before the eye un pe m 

plopia is produ ed The h ^1 

that can be ove ome s he 

menl of the abdu on In 

adduction, prisms, bases out 

until increased convergence is no 

longer able to maintain the image of the light single. The highest 

prism that can be overcome is the measurement of adduction. 

A more convenient mode of testing adduction and abduction is by 
the so-called '' prism-batiery " suggested by the senior author. 

Rotary variable prisms are constructed in such a way that two 
prisms of equal strength shall be equally rotated in opposite direc- 
tions. During the rotation certain components of the two prisms 
neutralize each other, while the remaining components act together 
and give the variable effect. Risley's rotary prism (Fig. 41) is an 
adaptation of the Cri5l6s prism. Two 15° prisms are mounted in a 
milled-edge containing-ceil, having the same diameter as empIa-jtA 
in the ordinary test-lenses, and wil\ iheTctorc yeaSAl ^V vtv "Cw^ coto.- 
mon trial-frames. The superimposed pvis,ms Mt c'iMf.^i \-'^ tovj** 


over each other by means of a milled-edge screw projecting from the 
front. The strenglh of the resulting prisms is indicated by a grad- 
uated scale engraved on the front plate of the containing cell. To 
produce more delicate results in the lower prismatic powers, Jackson 
has employed three prisms, one stationary of 15° and two rotary 
prisms of 75^° each. 

Phoromeler. — The ocular muscle teats may be simplified and made 
more exact by the use of instruments called phorometers, by 
which ihe degree of insufficiency existing in a muscle can be easily 
found. Stevens, of New York, has devised an excellent ir 
of this description, consisting of two revolving 4° prisms si 

arrajiged - 

that diplopia is produced and any heterophorii 
me.isured simultaneously. 

Various opiomeiers have been devised, including trial-frame, pho- 
rometer, revolving Maddox rod, and revolving rotary prism. With 
these instruments the powers of adduction, abduction, and sursum- 
duction, as well as hetcrophoria, may be measured. The best of ■ 
these instruments is that represented in figure 42. ■ 

By careful stimulation at progressively increasing distances, ihol 
full amount of the adducting power, called the convergence- stimulus 1 
adduction, may be measured. The patient fixes first on an object 
brought within six inches of the eyes and then slowly carried away 
toward the flame, transferring the vision on the flame just as the 
object reaches it. 

;st," although unreliable 
s enables ihe physician to 
For rough diagnosis the 
with his eyes at about the 
at which he is told to look 


"Tests for Heterophoria.— The "cover 

and not available in law degre 

detect the tendency toward deviatio 

patient is placed in front of the physii 

level of the bridge of the physician's r 

steadily. A card is placed over one of the eyes and a 

ward withdrawn; if there is a tendency to deviate outward, a slight 

movement inward is noticed immediately after the withdrawal of 

the card. In the same manner a tendency inward will be detected 

by quick movemenioutward after the withdrawal of the card. Both 

eyes can be tested in this manner. 

In cases of insufficiency, so slight an obstacle as a colored glass 
placed before one eye may produce immediate diplopia — for ir 
in a case of unstable muscular equi* 
librium, we place a red or a blue glass 
before the left eye ; the patient may 
immediately declare he sees two 
images of the light at six meters' 
distance, the colored one being to 
the left of the white image, showing 
that we have homonymous diplopia, 
and consequently a tendency toward 
inward deviation. If the colored 
light were seen to the right of the 
white one, we would have crossed 
diplopia, and hence a tendency p^, _ _maddox Rod 

toward outward deviation. There 

might also be a tendency toward upward or downward deviation in 
addition to the lateral forms. The tendency toward deviation pro- 
duced by the interposition of a simple colored glass is soon overcome, 
and for this reason the test is unreliable. Another disadvantage lies 
in the fact that the lateral and horiionlal defects can not be meas- 
ured separately and distinctly. 

The Maddox rod consists of a glass rod or series of rods which, 
acting as a strong cylinder, distort the natural image of a small flame 
at six meters into a streak of light. It is usually mounted in a metal 
disc to fit in the trial-frame. (Fig. 43.) When a Maddox rod is placed 
before one eye, the difference between the images seen before the two 
eyes is so marked that, unless there is perfect muscular ei\uiUbtv\iwv, 


binocular fixation is impossible. In order to make the diffi 
more marked and readily to call the patienl's attention to the streal^ 
the Maddox rod is ordinarily colored red, or a white rod may be 
used : or a plane colored glass may be placed before the other ejt. 
In testing with the Maddox rod ihe patient, as before, is seated sir 
meters in front of a small flame, which should be placed in the darkest' 
portion of ihe room and beyond confusion with any other lights. 
The rod must be placed in the trial-frame, exactly before the pupil, 
or no streak will be seen. To begin the test, the eye containing the 
rod is first covered and the point of light noticed ; the other eye i 
then covered and the rod, adj usted until the streak is seen ; then b 
eyes are uncovered, and if the adjustment is correct, both streak a 
flame will be seen simultaneously. 

To test for a tendency toward lateral deviation the rod is placed 
horizontally before the left eye ; being refracted through a cylinder^ 
the image is seen running at right angles to the axis of the rod, which,' 
in this instance, being horiiontal, the streak will appear verticaL 
there is orthophoria, the streak will run immediately through the light; 
if there is exophoria, the streak will be to the right of the light. 
there is esophoria, the streak will be to the left of the light ; the de^ 
gree of defect is measured by the prism, base out or base in, whic^ 
will bring the streak immediately through the light. The rotary 
prism or individual prisms mounted in cells may be used for tiM 

To test for hyperphoria the rod is placed vertically before Ihe lef^ 
eye, and if the streak, which now runs horizontally, is above o 
the light, a prism, base up or base down, as the case may require, tha 
brings the streak immediately through the light is a measurement o' 
the hyperphoria. In recording results it must be mentioned which' 
eye Ihe prism is placed before ; as, for instance, base down left 
base up right. It is well to establish imiformity in using this 
and we invariably place the MaddoK rod and the correcting pi 
before the left eye. 

We have found that the segment of a high-power glass cylinder 
just large enough lo fit in the test-lens cell will give as good a streak 
as the Maddox rod. 

The Maddox rod is usually perfectly salisfactor>', but if for uij 
reason the streak is not plainly seen, or we believe that the patient si 
^Jfoluniarily attempting to overcome his heterophoria. we must n 


to the use of prisms in tesiinj; for the helerophorla. Procedure in 
this case tlepends upon the production of diplopia by prisms of such 
strength that ihey can not be overcome by increased action of the 
ocular muscles. To lest the lateral muscles an artificial hyperphoria 
is produced by placing a prism of about eight degrees base up or base 
down before one eye, and a red glass before the other. If there is 
perfect muscular eqvulibrium, the two images will be seen, one imme- 
diately above the other. However, should there be exophoria, there 
will be crossed diplopia, and the left image will be seen on the right- 
hand side. The degree of eKophoria is measured by the prism, base 
in, which, placed before the left eye, brings one image directly above 
the other. If there is esophoria, homonymous diplopia is present, 
and the left image will be seen to the left of the right image. The 
degree of esophoria is measured by the prism, base out, which, 
placed before the left eye, will bring the two images in the same 
vertical plane. 

To test hyperphoria, a. prism of about ten degrees, base in, is placed 
before one eye and a red glass is placed before the other eye. If 
there is perfect equilibrium, the two images will be seen by the patient 
exactly on the same horizontal level. If the red glass is before the 
left eye and the red image is seen lower than the while one, there is 
left hyperphoria, and conversely. The degree of hyperphoria is 
measured by the prism, base up or base down, which, placed before 
the left eye, will bring the two images on an exact level. The pho- 
rometer is the most convenient means of measuring deviations made 
manifest by the production of diplopia. 

As anomalies of refraction are the chief causes of heterophoria in 
almost every case, the refraction should be examined under a mydri- 
atic, and ametropia corrected. We must also bear in mind the mus- 
cular condition when prescribing. If the patient is hyperopic, we 
must order a weak correction in exophorla, reduce the correction 
slightly in orthophoria, and only use a strong correction in esophoria. 
(See treatment of hyperopia.) In many cases such procedure alone 
will sufficiently modify the defect, or even perfectly restore the mus- 
cular balance, and relieve such reflex symptoms as headache, nausea, 
indigestion, vomiting, and various other nervous pheii 



said that hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism are the error; 
associated with esophoria, and that exophoria is frequently associaU 
with myopia and myopic astigmatism. This is theoretically c 

It it is not always confirmed in practice. 

Another cause of heterophoria is distinctly weakened general i 
tality, and we expect no decided results until the systemic conditit 
is improved. In young pr vigorous persons we may expect to 
crease the mu5cular power and innervation sufficiently by norx 
exercise of the eyes with the correcting lenses. If, however, I 
patient is extremely debilitated or weak, the only relief that can 1 
given is by the use of correcting prisms. However, in such cases 
partial correction should at first be applied, which, if satisfactor 
should be worn for a. wh'ile and, if possible, afterward carefully r 
duced in strength, or, if unsatisfactory, should be gradually increas 
until comfort is obtained. Tenotomy should be a last resort. 

Treatment of Insufficiency of the Adduction. — In healthy indivii 
iials, even past middle life, we expect the best results in cases of i( 

ifficiency in adduction (a common defect), by systematic exerci! 

ith prisms, bases out. To prescribe a prism for permanent i 

perform tenotomy in such cases without a prolonged trial of gyn 
nastic exercise with prisms is assuredly unwarrantable and bad priU 

Patients suffering from insufficiency of the interni are chiefly p 

ns whose habits and occupations cause excessive use of the eye 
The intense headaches and gastric neuroses accompanying this d 
feet call for a special mode of treatment. To prescribe prisms is oil 
affording a crutch and encouraging the insufficiency, Permanei 
cure can hardly be effected by such treatment. The principle 
tenotomy in exophoria is to weaken a strong or normal muscle 1 
such 3 degree that it will be equally insufficient with its defectiv 
'. Such treatment as this can hardly increase the adductii 
power, the deficiency of which is at the root of all the uncomfortab 
symptoms. Advancement of the interni docs not secure inci 
innervation. In view of these facts, the only rational treatment 
that of a tonic nature, effected by the best hygienic and constitution! 
treatment, and careful and graded gymnastic exercise of the deficie 

It is a noteworthy fact that the prescription of healthful, opco-4 
will of itself be sufficient to cause the muscular defect I 


I Oisappeai 


^sappear and the aslhenopic symptoms to subside, and it is also a 
fact that the general health will improve very often under the ocular 
gymnastics, which, by remedying the muscular defect, removes the 
exciting cause of the systemic troubles. 

The skepticism as to the value of ocular gymnastics in cases of 
insufficiency of adduction is largely due 1o the fact that the treat- 
ment has not been carried out rationally and systematically, and we 
especially call the student's attention to the proper modus operandi. 
For minor cases the '■ thumb exercise " is of value. This consists of 
exercising the convergence by drawing a thumb gradually toward the 
bridge of the nose, meanwhile trying to maintain a single image of 
the finger. The thumb should be withdrawn immediately when dip- 
lopia results. This exercise should be repeated a doien limes at 
each exercise, and the exercises should be used several limes daily. 

The more Important method is that by graduated exercise in over- 
coming BuccesBively higher prisms, bases out. The following is the 
usual mode of treatment: The amount of exophoria is noted, the 
abduction and adduction is then measured, followed by the measure- 
ment of the convergence-stimulus adduction. , This is obtained by 
coaxing the patient to overcome as strong a pair of prisms, with the 
bases out, as possible in the following manner : A pair of prisms 
just a little stronger than the normal power of adduction are placed 
in the trial-frames ; these will, of course, cause diplopia for the dis- 
tance, but not, as a rule, at the near point. The patient is then 
requested to fix his gaze on a mark made on a card (a cross or a dot 
seven or eight mm. in size), which is held at the reading distance or 
nearer.. The card is then gradually withdrawn to a small gas-jet, 
the size of a candle-flame, about six meters from the patient's chair, 
the patient endeavoring and being encouraged to maintain a single 
image all the time. When this point is reached, the patient can 
transfer his gatt and fuse the double image of the flame instead of 
the mark on the card. This manosuver is then repeated with stronger 
pairs of prisms until the limit of adduction is reached. It will gen- 
erally be found that a pair of 10° or 15° prisms is as much as can be 
overcome at first, but if the exophoria is not too great, it is seldom 
(hat. after a few trials, a patient can not fuse the image of a candle- 
flame at 2D feet with this handicap. 

The examiner should then prescribe a pair of'iK'i wA, 
suiting the strength to the indications, givmj aW^VvVj \t^s ■Ckmv 'ia's. 


It of adduc 

shows the 
The patie 

: the I 
-e 44 

lack- I 

Is of great importance to have I 
in a well-adjusted frame. Figure 
ordinary interchangeable prism-frame^ 
: is instructed to place himself 20 fee 
from a flame, and endeavor to fuse the doubW 
image ; if, a5 is usual, it is impossible for him 
fuse at this distance, he must approach the Aam^ 
until he gets the single image, then walk back- 
ward, keeping his gaze steadily fised on the flame, 
until he reaches his starting-point. This is much 
more difficult for the patient than having some one 
withdraw the marked card from the near point to 
the flame ; so that whenever feasible it is prefer- 
able to call in the assistance of a second person, 
particularly in the earlier days of this treatment. J 
This assistant, unfortunately, is not always avait^ 
able. If the image is still single, the patient i 
to hold it steadily so for about a quarter of a 
ule, then to raise Ihe glasses and gaie at the flam 
with naked eyes for the same length of lime, anj 
repeat this ten or twenty times three times a ( 
The patients are instructed to continue this c 
cise for a week. During the first few days con 
plaint may be made that the exercise is dilGca 
and tires the eyes, but before the week is over it 
becomes easy. At the next visit the strength of the 
prisms is increased and Ihe exercise continued at 
home, and at each succeeding visit an addition— 
of about five degrees may be prescribed until ll 
patient can, without the slightest trouble, 
come a pair of 35° or 30° prisms. Patients C 
sometimes be educated to overcome a combined 
prism -strength of over 100°. In such c 
ability of convergence is remarkable, 
rangement may be effected with an optician t 
lend prisms and make the necessary changes fil 
a very moderate charge, and the patient i 
saved the expense of buying a whole outfit a 
it would be useless to him after a few weeks 

)MALIES. 1:25 

a moderate degrees of exophoria, or in cases in which there is no 
exophoria, but a lack of power of convergence, the symptoms disap- 
pear after the second week ; but this is no indication lo slop treat- 
ment, for unless the adduction is farced up lo 50°, or 40° at least, the 
trouble is likely lo return ; if the patient can overcome a pair of 
25° prisms, the cure is probably permanent. The higher the degree 
of insufficiency, the more necessary does it become to force up the 
power of convergence. 

Insufficiency of adduction is not necessarily accompanied by exo- 
phoria ; it is not usual, but still quite possible, to find a lack of con- 
verging power in cases of esophoria. 

Occasionally a case of divergent strabismus may be cured by prism 
exercise ; but a partial tenotomy of the external recti, one or both, 
may accelerate ihe cure and save much valuable time. It is a safe 
rule lo follow, never lo over-correcl by a tenotomy, and to follow up 
the operation immediately with prism exercise, — " not to wait for the 
tenotomized muscle to unite in its new position and later on contract, 
but stimulate the internals to fight and push their advantage lo vic- 
tory while their opponents are nursing their wounds." (Bennett.) 
Much, however, can be done without operation, and many a nervous 
woman will go through months of treatment rather than submit to the 
slightest cutting procedure. 

!t often happens that in cases of mixed muscular defect, by correct- 
ing the ametropia and properly exercising the adduction with prisms, 
not only is the adducling insufficiency remedied, but general mus- 
cubr bal.mce is restored and all the asthenopic symptoms relieved. 

Hyperphoria is often thus relieved. If it persists despite this treat- 
ment, it must be treated by correcting prisms, base up or base down, 
ground in the ametropic correction, or by tenotomy. It is not un- 
common to find that hyperphoria increases when it is corrected by 
prisms. Tenotomies are often unsuccessful, as the hyperphoria may 
return after a few months. The defect is likely innervational, and 

Happily esophoria is rare, and seldom causes distressing symp- 
toms. It should be treated by prescribing a strong ametropic correc- 
tion, the use of correcting prisms, or by tenotomy and advancement. 
Prism exercise is of little use, as there is no stimulus In man to cause 
bilateral divergence. Sometimes prolonged mydriasis is helpful by 
suspending accommodation and, hence, convergence. 



Sjmonyma, — ^Hclerotropia, or manifest squint. ^^M 

Varieties.^The difference between strabismus and insufficiency!!^^ 
onlj' one of degree. In strabismus the muscular insufficiency is un- 
corrected, the squint is manifest, and diplopia is produced. How- 
ever, strabismus may be only periodic, as when ihe patient is fatigued 
or the systemic condition weak ; or it may be present only when the 
patient looks at distant objects or accommodates for near-work. 

Concomitant strabismus is a variety in which there is equal move- 
ment of the eyes, but the eye still deviates on account of some defect 
in one of the ocular muscles. 

Paral)^ic strabismus is due to paralysis of an ocular muscle, and 
n the eyes are turned toward the paralyzed muscle, one eye a 

deficient in movement. This form will be fully discussed in the leO^H 

tion on ocular paralysis. ^^M 

I Spastic squint is a term applied by some authors to cases ^^H 

^^H which deviation is caused by spasmodic contraction of one muscli^^| 

^^B It is very rarely, if ever, present, and must result from some peculil^^| 

^^H central irritation. ^H 

^^r Alternating strabismus is fixation with either eye, the other ey^^l 

I deviating. Part of the time one eye squints and part of the time ihe 

other eye is at fault. It occurs when the vision is nearly equal in the 

two eyes, or when one eye is used for near-work and the other for 

distance. ^H 

Monolateral or constant strabismus is the name given to tbcM^^H 

cases ill which the squint is always in the same eye. ^^M 

Internal strabismus, or convergent squint, is deviation inward ^^| 

one or both eyes, and is usually due to the increased convergence <|^^| 

an ametropic eye. The converging eye is usually highly hypetopi^^f 

Homonymous diplopia is produced. ^^H 

External strabismus, or divergent squint, is a deviation Qutward 
of the visual axis of one or both eyes, and in most cases is due to 
insufficiency of adduction rather than to overaction of the abducton 
in an ametropic eye. The diverging eye is usually highly myofnc _ 
Crossed diplopia is prnduced. J 

Disadvantages.— When there is uncorrected deviation of on« tyti .H 

I diplopia results. To overcome this anomaly of vision, one eye >C^| 

^^^ thrown out of use and the image suppressed, and if this amblyopi^^H 

li ~ J 


intreated for any length of time it gradually increases until the 
affected eye may become practically blind. Before the eye is turned 
out of use and the amblyopia exanopsia developed becomes dis- 
commoding, aslhenopic symptoms are caused by the struggle for 
perfect binocular fixation. In long-continued convergent squint 
the temporal half of the retina being continually unstimulated, loses 
its sensibility ; in such cases there is sometimes a quite accur 
simulation of hemianopsia. This condition we have named squint 
bemianopsia. The cosmetic disadvantage of squint needs no discus- 
Diagnosis. — Ordinarily, strabismus is apparent on simple inspec- 
tion. However, we can not depend on the symmetric situation of the 
cornea, as it sometimes happens that the visual axis is to one side of 
the cenler,.and an eye is thought to squint which is really properly 
directed for perfect binocular vision. The cover-test is reliable for 
the simple diagnosis of strabismus. The patient is told to fix bis 
vision on an object and the fixing eye is then covered , and immedi- 
ately the other eye will turn into position and fix while the other 

The movement of the sound eye when covered is called s 
ondary deviation. In concomitant strabismus the sound eye makes 
a movement in its deviation equal to that made by the squindng eye 
in its effort to fix. In paralytic strabismus the paralysis in the affected 
eye prevents full movement, and the secondary deviation is always 
greater than the primary squint. The primary and secondary devia- 
tions may be measured by marking on the lids the boundaries of the 
cornea before the test, and the boundary of the cornea of the 
affected eye when attempting to fix, and the boundary of the cornea 
of the sound eye diverging under cover. The markings on the 
lid of the squinting eye show the primary deviation, while those on 
the lid of the other eye show the secondary deviation. 

squint there at 
t) Contraction of the 

(a) Secondary deviation 

than the primary. 
(3) Dislutbiuice with 


It there arc : 
(1) Displacement of the field of vi 

sion, but no contraction, 
(z) Secondary deviation equal to Ih 

(3) No disturbance with doubl. 


It often happens that there is horizontal as well as lateral squin 



I to study properly the exact character and degree of deviation 
must try to compel recognition of the double images which are 
received; unfortunately, after some time the image in the squinting 
eye becomes suppressed, and it is very difficult to get tbe patient to 
recognize two images ; but by placing a deeply colored gla; 
the fixing eye its Image is so moditied that the false image which it 
ordinarily suppressed may be recognized by the squinting eye. 

Treatment. — As strabismus Is often due to ametropia, 
commonly anisometropia, the first object should be to correct the 
refractive error in both eyes and to strive to bring the squinting eye 
into function by the blinder- exercise, in the manner described under 
the treatment of anisometropia. The muscular insufficiency should 
be treated by systematic exercise, at first by the thumb-exercise, and 
afterward with prisms. Periodic squint is particularly Mnenable to 
this treatment. In young children in whom there is a tendency to 
strabismus, the constant use of a weak solution of atropin in the 
sound eye will often bring the other eye into function and correct the 
squint, or it may be necessary to completely paralyze the accommo- 
dative effort for some lime by using the mydriatic in both eyes. 

When, however, binocular vision can not be obtained by tlie fore- 
going procedures, an operation must be resorted to. For miernal 
strabismus, tenotomy of the internal recti is indicated. For external 
strabismus, tenotomy alone of the external recti or in conjunction 
with advancement of one or both tendons of the internal recti may 
be necessary. In regard to the relative indications of tenotomy and 
advancement it should be remembered that in concomitant squint 
with relaxed tendons we should perform advancement, and with 
tense tendons we should perform tenotomy. However, it is some- 
times necessary to advance an apparently tense tendon and regulate 
a tenotomy by subsequent advancement. The great difficulty with 
tenotomy is that, despite the most careful and assiduous static and 
dynamic testing and operative dexterity, we can not be absoluleljp^ 

dynamic testing and operative dexterity, we can not be absolulel;p^H 
sure of the exact effect of the operation after cicatrization and coi^^H 
traction are completed. Advancement seems to offer more dcGnit(^^| 


Varieties. — Suspension of the function of a muscle or a set O^^H 

muscles constitutes liue fiarafysis ; impairment of the function alan^^H 


is called paresis. One muscle alone may be paralyzed, or a set of 
muscles may be affected, or there may be total paralysis of all ocular 

Total ophthalmoplegia is paralysis of all the ocular muscles, due 
to some destrueiive cerebral lesion. 

Exteitial ophthalmoplegia indicates paralysis of the external mus- 
cles of the eye — the four recti and the two obliques. Ills an occa- 
sional symptom of locomotor ata?:ia. 

Internal ophthalmoplegia, or paralysis of the ciliary and pupillary 
muscles, is very rare, but partial internal ophthalmoplegia often fol- 
lows an attack of diphtheria. We gentrally apeak of this partial 
paralysis of the internal muscles as paralysis of accommodation, 
which is discussed in another section of the book. 

Paralytic strabismus may also be divided and classified according 
to the nerve involved. 

Paralysis of the third or oculomotor nerve causes paralysis of the 
muscles of the lid (ptosis), and paralysis of the superior, inferior, and 
internal recti and the inferior oblique. The manifestations of such 
paralyses are inability to move the eye from its central position in- 
ward and upward, and hence divergent or vertical squint with crossed 
and more or less vertical diplopia. There are also mydriasis andJoss 
of accommodation. 

Paralysis of the sixth or abducena nerve produces convergent 
squint and homonymous diplopia, due to a loss of power in the ex- 
ternal rectus, which is supplied by this nerve. 

Paralysis of the fourth nerve is manifested by loss of power in the 
superior oblique muscles, causing imperfect movement of the eye 
down and out, and hence diplopia and slight convergent squint. 

According to A, Graefe, the proportionate frequency is as follows : 

32 per cent., isolated paialysis of bd external rectus; 
16 per cent,, isolated |iatalysis of a superior oliliquc; 
8 per cent., isolated paralysis of one of the four remaining muscles ; 
44 percent., combioed paralysis of all these four remaining muscles in one or 
both eyes. 

Symptoms of paralysis of an ocular muscle are marked and sig- 
nificant. The objective symptoms are limitation of movement of the 
affected eye on the side and in the direction of a paralyzed muscle. 
This limitation can generally be perceived when the patient holds 

■ 13° 

his head still and attempts to follow the movements of the physician 
in various directions. If the paralysis is slight, it may not be recog- 
nized objectively. Another significant objective sign is the tendency 
of the head to be inclined obliquely, in a. characteristic position for 
each form of paralysis. The deficiency in ihe affected muscle ts 
partly corrected and the diplopia controlled by keeping tlie head 
turned toward the side of the affected muscle. 

Subjective Symploms. — Diplopia, occurring when the patient looks 
at an object situated within the sphere of action of the paralyzed 
muscle. The two im ages of an object seen in the median line are 
more wjdely sepataled^wlienjhe object isrnoveJyin. the, dire ction of 
t he action of the para lyzed muscle. The image seen by the sound eye 
is the true image, and that seen by the affected eye the false image. 
A study of the relative position of the two images enables 
determine the special muscles or set of muscles paralyzed. 

Vertigo, nausea, headache, and incorrect estimation of position 
space are disagreeable symptoms of ocular paralyses. As the patii 
forms incorrect location of obji 

Special diagnosis of the ocular palsies depends upon the relativB, 
position of the images in diplopia. To determine the eye and 
cle affected, we must remember that the loss of motility and d iplopia ■ 
increase upon the side of the paralyzed muscle. The imag e of the 
affected eye is always found on the side opposite that to which the 
cornea is turned. A ready method is to tell the patient to look straight 
at a pencil, and to follow the movements given it, until two images 
of the pencil are seen. Then one eye is covered, and according to 
which image disappears, we know whether there is crossed or homon- 
ymous diplopia, and the relative position of the two images will give 
us an idea of the muscles paralyzed. To aid in the diagnosis we ap-i 
pend a tabulated arrangement of the conditions in paralysis of ihi 
ocular muscle, modified after Landolt, showing the nature and pi 
tion of the images and other important correlated details. 

Causes. — The lesion directly causing the paralysis may be 
primary affection of the nerves themselves, or may be situated 
cerebral centers from which the nerves originate. Syphilis and' 
tubercular meningitis are probably the most common causes. Ofthe 
infectious diseases, diphtheria is most active in causing ocular par- 
alyses, which, hov/av&r, in these cases are Tnoie manifest 
^hiternal muscles o/" accommodation, Influenia, x\ic\iTOai.i.sTO.\'i^'s 

> to 




fever, and diabetes have a!so been mentioned as causeE. Poisons, 
like nicotin, alcohol, lea.d, the ptomains, carbonic oxid gas, and e 
posure to cold have all been reported as causes. Orbital tumors a[ 
abscesses, exophthalmic goiler, aneurysm, cerebral hemorrhage, and 
fractures at the base of the brain may cause paralysis by pressure. 

Prognosis. — The duration of the paralysis is more or less chronic 
In the most favorable cases several months are required for a cure 
The prognosis is favorable when a paralysis is a sequel lo diphtheria, 
some mil J injmy.or tr;insii;iit intuxii.iilidTi. '.Ii"iil;vr p.Tralysis a 
£iaieil wiili lociiMiutor at.ixia in tiie early iU^e^ is likely to disappear 
as the dihca-e progrcssei. Tl:e pfo;;ii05Js i? unccitain wiien'lhe 

3 be the 

, The 

when (he paraljsis is dis^ 
"orTefeLral lesion. 

Treatment. — Treatment should be directed lo the removal of the 
cause and the relief of the symptoms. Syphilis yields to mercurials 
and iodids and diaphoresis. Meningitis must be treated in the usual 
manner. Diabetes demands dietary and hygienic treatment. Par- 
alyses of rheumatic origin require the salicylates, colchicum, and 
other ordinary rheumatic therapeutics. Diphtheric palsies generally 
disappear with healthy bodily nutrition and the best tonic treatment. 
The influence of mercuric chlorid should never be overlooked. Both 
the galvanic and faradic currents are sometimes of value. For the 
relief of the diplopia it is well to occlude the unsound eye from vision, 
either by a bandage or an opaque disc. The simple patch is the least 
cumbersome occlusive bandage. In all cases we must remember 
that a long period of diplopia and its consequent distressing symp- 
toms will elapse before a cure can be effected. If the paralysis con- 
tinues in spite of all treatment, we may try lo remedy the patient's 
discomfort by prisms, but these are rarely of value. In cases beyond 
the possibility of cure in which strabismus has developed, tenotomy 
or advancement may be performed to relieve the disfigurement. In 
cases of secondary contracture an attempt should be made to oppose 
the development of the contracture by stretching the antagonist of 
the paralyzed muscle, by seizing the overlying tissues with lixation 
forceps and strongly rotating the eye several times toward the side 
of the paralyzed muscle. 
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modic jerking movements of the eye, not interfering with the volun- | 
lary movements, but accompanying them. Itis the result of defective 
coordination, The involuntary movements may be horizontal or 
vertical, oblique, or rotations about the visual axis. Internal squint 
is a frequent accompaniment, and there may be simultaneous shak- 
ing of the head. 

The commonest form of nystagmus is that following some de- 
ficiency of vision in both eyes, beginning in childhood, particularly 
amblyopia the result of the destructive changes of ophthalmia 
neonatorum and of retinitis pigmentosa. It also exists in microph- 
thalmus, albinism, and some varieties of congenital cataract. The 
disease may be found in miners who constantly strain their eyes in 
the darkness. Nystagmus from cerebral disease is only of symp- 
tomatic significance. It is especially important in the diagnc 
multiple sclerosis. 

Treatment beyond simple rest and the relief of the distressing 9 
symptoms is of little value. It must always be remembered that'fl 
there is a possibility of improving the visual acuity and modifying the I 
disease by correcting lenses. The prognosis of the nystagmus i 
never encouraging, even under the most favorable circumstances. 


Tenotomy. — The eye should be thoroughly cleansed and rendered 
aseptic. The section of ihe tendon is best performed under coc; 
other local anesthetic, as in general anesthesia the result can n 
seen during the operation. The lids are held apart by an 
speculum. (Fig, 45.) The eye is turned in 3 direction away from tbe | 
muscle to be divided, and held by fixation forceps. (Fig. 46.) A fold I 
of conjunctiva lying over the muscle is grasped wiih the fixation for-/ 
ceps, and a short vertical incision is made about four mm. from the I 
corneal margin through the conjunctiva and capsule of Tenon. Tlie J 
conjunctiva is freed from the underlying tissue by means of a pair of f 
blunt scissors or other blunt instrument ; when the muscle i: 
posed, a strabismus hook (Fig. 47) is passed underneath the tendoi 
which is raised from the globe and divided close to the sclera with aj 
psir of blunt scissors. (Fig. 46.) If complete VencAotvi'j '\%Ae^vicd,3Lnyfl 
jKV/s ivmaining undivided jJay be caught by a a\\a\j\sTOvis Vwitw 


cut through with the scissors. As a rule, no conjunctival stitch is 
necessary, although it may be used in cases of tenotomy of the interni. 
After the operation the eye is cleansed and a light dressing applied 
for a few hours. A mild antiseptic lotion should be ordered. The . 
divided tendon becomes reattached at a point beyond its former m- J 

Advancement. — In this operation the insertion of a muscle is " 
advanced toward the corneal margin by means of a suture. It is 
performed on weak and relaxed muscles, and in connection with ten- 
otomy of the opposing strong muscle. The process of separating 
the tendon is the same as in tenotomy, and the tendon is lifted away 
from the globe by a strabismus hook. A needle threaded with silk 
of sufficient strength is then introduced in the tendon near the upper 
margin, from behind forward, and a sufficient number of millimeters 
back of the insertion to produce the requisite advancement. Another 
suture is similarly introduced at the lower border of the tendon. With 
the blunt-pointed scissors the tendon is then divided near the sclera, 
and the needle of the upper suture is carried beneath the conjunctiva 
to a point near the upper corneal margin, where it is then brought 
through, leaving the ends of the thread hanging free. In a like 
manner the needle of the lower suture is brought out near the tower 
corneal margin. The ends of the two sutures are then tied together, 
the threads being drawn tight enough to slightly overadvance the ten- 
don beyond the point of necessity. This latter precaution is taken lo 
counteract the diminution of advancement with healing. If desired, 
the tendon may be divided last, after the sutures are brought out 
through the conjunctiva. The surgeon must be careful not only to 
pierce the conjunctiva, but also the capsule of Tenon, as sutures 
would tear through the conjunctiva alone. Some surgeons excise a 
small portion of the conjunctiva and the capsule of Tenon, between 
the insertion of the tendon and the cornea. The sutures should be 
removed on the third or fourth day. A mild aniiseptic solution may 
be used as a lotion. Various other operations of advancement have 
been suggested. Landolc's capsular advancement is a deservedly 
popular operation, and the student is referred to the modern text' 
Kbooks for a full description of its lechni 




Anatomy. — The eyelids are composed of the following s 
from without inward; Skin, areolar tissue, fibers of the orbicularis 
palpebrarum, tarsal cartilage, fibrous membrane, Meibomian glands, 
and conjunctiva. The upper lid is the larger, and is freely 
movable ; it is furnished with a special muscle, the l evator DalpebrL^_ 
5 u peri oris. The angles which correspond to the junction of the 
upper and lower lids are called the canthi . The inner canlhus Is pro- 
longed toward the nose, and the two lids are thus separated by a 
■i^^triangular space called the lacus lacrimalis. The lacrimal papilla, 
Br carunclh is a small conic elevation on the outer margin of each 
lid, at the commencement of the lacus lacrimalis. The j^5(a£_ 
cartila^fs are thin plates of fibrocartilagfe. about an inch in length, 
and give the main support to the lid. The cilia or eyelashes are 
atlached to the free edge of the lids. The upper cilia are more 
numerous, and curve upward, while the lower curve downward. An 
excellent idea of a vertical section through the upper eyelid is given 
in figure 49. 

The Meibomian glands are situated on the inner surface of the eye- 
lids, between the tarsal cartilages and the conjunctiva. Their ducts 
open on the free margin of the eyehds, and furnish a sebaceous 
secretion which prevents adhesion of the lids and epiphora. The 
muscles of Ike lids are the orbicularis palpebrarum, corrugalor super- 
^ii, tensor tarsi, and the levator palpebrs. 


KPE3 ZOSTER OPHTHALHlCUa is an acOtft (t.Vll:\\t &.=*.^=«. "i 
mpanied by herpetic eruption? extending ovftx -Crc ^i^i^'iv-i!. 


distribution of the supraorbital, supratrochlear, and infratrochlear 
nerves. The nerve twigs supplying the cornea may be affected. 
The symptoms are local inflammation, herpetic vesicles, and general 
systemic involvement, t^p pnip tion does not pass the middle line of 
rhf- nriti- and forehead . The prognosis is good, provided the cornea 
is not extensively involved. The treatment consists in relieving the 
pain, and the application of powders and ointments for drying up 


softening the scabs. 

ides and pustules, and dries in 

scales and crusts. All the various forms of eczema are seen in this 
location; the chief subjective symptom is i tching. The treatment 
n protecting the skin and greasing the lids with some simple 
, such as yellow oxid of mercury gr. j, vaseltn 3ij. The 
scales should be moistened with warm oil and removed. 

AND PHLEGIMONS of the lid should be incised, and 
itiseplic precautions. 

dressed with : 

may be the result of traumatisi 
tures, or may be due to injury 
skull. In ordinary " black cyi 
follow soon after the injury, 
after an injury points strongly 1 
dyscrasias, such as scurvy, may ca 
pedesis. Treatment is usually un 
will disappear in a few weeks. _ II 
be ordered to preveni 
mote absorption and reli 
a pressure Ifunii.ijrp . may be ordered. Incising very puffy lids 

as the swelling soon disappears without 
It least, on the application of heat and pressure. For 
effect, the discolored lid may be painted a flesh tint. 

EDEMA OF THE LIDS is a regular accompaniment of any inflam- 
matory process therein. If there is inflammation of the bulbar con- 
junctiva or of the cellular tissue of the orbit, edema of the lid is a 
serious symptom. The treatment consists in opening any pustular 
formation about the lid, applying a piessv«e-\i3.'n6'a^e,'i^, *s. ■»-^'>-'*J 
le, incising the lid. 

ily known as "black eye," 
I directly to the lids or adjacent struc- 
o remote parts, such as fracture of the 
" the extravasation and discoloration 
' Black eye " appearing several days 
fracture of the orbit. Certain 
; hemorrhage into the lid by dia- 
:essary ; the extravasated blood 
en early, cold application s may 
. Later, h ot compresses pro- 
lead-water ^ni] Iniiilariim or 

the heart, kidneys, or liver. The general dropsy of Bright's disease 
is often first seen in the lower lids. • 

KMPHvaRMA OF THE LIDS may be the result of making a fake 
passaye in probing the lacrimal duet, or of fracture of the bones of 
the orbit or adjacent hones of the face, opening the nasal passages or 
sinuses. In such cases blowing the nose increases the emphysema, 


BLEPHARITIS is an inflammation of the free edges of the lids. 

The synonyins are blepharitis simplex, blepharitis marginalls, 
blepharitis ciliaris, blepharitis ulcerosa, blepharitis hypertrophica, 
blepharadenilis, ophthalmia tarsi, tinea larsi, sycosis tarsi, and 
eczema of the lid-edges. 

CauscH. — Uncorrected ametropia ; ecxema ; some inflammatory 
process, such as conjunctivitis, keratitis, etc.; inflammation of the 
roots of the cilia ; or the condition may be the result of strumous 
diathesis. The disease is said to accompany general disturbances of 
the sexual organs and syphilis. Lice are sometimes a cause. There 
is also reason to attribute it to special bacteria. Dirty children 
very susceptible to blepharitis. Continued eye-strain undoubtedlyli 
at the bottom of many obstinate cases. Obstruction of the laci 
apparatus and intranasal disease are causes not to be overlooked. 

Symptoms. ^The lid-edges are swollen and reddish, and may cause 
intolerable itching and soreness. There is a gummy and yellowish 
secretion in the lashes and on the skin near the lid-edge, which, when 
dried, deposits as scabs and crusts. Thehdsare glued together after 
being closed for some lime, particularly in the morning. The eyes 
tire easily. The protean character of eczema may be present about 
the lid-edge, and possibly in other parts of the body. The cilia are 
often dwarfed or entirely absent, causing a disagreeable disfigure- 
ment. In the hypertrophic variety the lids may be everted, exposing 
the puncta lacrimalis and causing the tears to overflow, thus keeping 






tup the condition, and, indeed aggravating il, as the edge of the lower .^^ 
lid soon becomes water-soaked. The most annoying sequel of^H 
blepharitis is trichiasis, a condition In which the lashes become fnia^^| 
placed and scratch the cornea, and wWch \eads \o acWiaV ^ntio^iai^^l 



s the treatment. These cases are sometimes very obstinate, 
and despite all eflbrts at relief they cause the patient long years of 
discomfort, and produce a most anrioying facia! blemish. We should 
first of all search for one of the causes en umerated. It is advisable 
to examine the refraction of the affected eyes, and be sure that the 
lacrimal apparatus and nasal chambers are unaffected. Treat any ji' 

possible cause. All the scales should be tem oved and the lid-edges,,-''^!^^ 
kept clean and fresh. For this purpose warm water or a weak boric Ct*lAj. 
or bichlorid solution (i : 5000) should be used. In the eczematous S^y^^' 
variety, bichlorid in itself is an efficient remedial agent. Thelocalireat"^'^' 
ment by massage with a weak Pagenstecher ointment (gr, j to 3iij) is •* — 
[)robably the best at our comriiand. Ulcers may be painted with a-'j 
two per cent, solution of silver nitrate. The treatment of the trich- 
iasis consists in epilation of the distorted cilia, their destruction by 
electrolysis, or operation. Disease of the conjunctiva and cornea 
should be treated simultaneously with the blepharitis. The treatment 
of the sequels will he discussed separately. 

HORDEOLtJM OR STYE. — A furuncular or phlegmonous inflamma- 
tion near the hair.foUicles or margin of the lid. Eye-strain is a com- 

Symptoms, — It begins with a pricking pain, soon followed by swell- 
ing of the affected lid. A lender hard spot is easily located by palpa- 
tion, and may be inspected by raising the lid away from the eyeball, 
when a yellowish point will be seen. 

Treatment. — If pus is seen, it should be let out, and. as a rule, the 
symptoms will usually subside immediately. To prevent recurrence, 
cleanliness and disinfection with a lukewarm bichlorid solution (i : 
5000) are demanded. A ten per cent, sulphur ointment may be used. 
Recurrence of styes is suggestive of refractive-error or constitutional 
disorder, and the ametropia and general health should be looked after. 
Small doses of calcium sulphid are said to be efficient. 

CHALAZION is a small tumor arising from an 
closiireofaduct of a Meibomian gland. It is the size and shape of a 
split pea, the convex side being toward the skin. It usually points 
toward the palpebral conjuncliva, It may be distinguished from hor- 
deolum by its location, its chronic course, and noninflammatory 
symptoms. The conjunctiva is often red and a'pot\5,'jAtt<iVw\'i,,Wi^t^ 
dally directly over the lutnor. The skm ovct \\ie \.\mvot \^ ^tt*''! 
movable, and normal in appearance. 



Treatment consists in excising and curetting the tumor^moc 
iing a special forceps. (Fig. 50.) In excising through the 
conjunctiva, the scanficalian following an extensive excision may 
cause entropion, and a simple incision should be made in the direc- 
tion of the gland, and curetting alone should be resorted lo. In ex- 
cising through [he lid, an incision parallel to the edge of the lid is 
made over the chalazion, its capsule is opened, and the whole nr 

^H lb. 



NARROWED FISSURE.— Tlie normal palpebral fissure in the adult" 

36 to 28 mm. long, and about one cm. wide. Narrowing of the 

isure is either called ankyloblepharon or blepharophimosis. The 

first condition is an actual union of the external angle of the lids, 

and maybe congenital or due to a cicatrix following a burn or an 

ulceration. Blepharo phimosis indicates that a fold of skin covers 

/A« exlernal angle, and results from a contraction of the slctn of ths 

after a chronic conjut 


Treatment of ankyloblepharon consists Jn an operation called can- 
tboplasiy. (Fig. 51.) Theadhesionsaredissecled up and theexternal 
canlhus split, leaving a denuded V^baped wound, the conjunctival 
edges of which are dra.wn together by sutures. Blepharophimosis 
may be corrected by cutting away the redundant skin and stitching 
the edges of the wound together. 

WIDENED FISSURE is usually a cleavage of the external canthus 
due to an injury, after which union, is not perfect. It is remedied by 

an operation called tarsorrhaphy, in which both edges of the lids are 
denuded and the raw surfaces sutured together. 

LAGOPHTHALMOS is a condition in which the eyeball is so extruded 
thai the lids can not be completely closed. The exposure of the eye 
following this condition is accompanied by the greatest danger to the 
cornea. Lagophlh almas may be due to staphyloma of the cornea, 
ocular or orbital tumor, or paralysis of the orbicularis muscle. 

EXOPHTHALMOS Is protrusion of the eye from the orbit, and may 
be due to increase in the bulk of the eye by A\^, OT\i\'f(\wSv>icJws, 
an orbiial tumor, a foreign body in Ihe oxto, w\-50V'*o-,'^ 

I the 

the accompanying sign of exophthalmic goiter. It maybe present 
a slight degree after tenotomy. If so marked as to cause delete- 
us exposure of the cornea, a modified tarsorrhaphy should be per- 
formed. Exophthalmos may cause blindness by excessive stretchii 
of the optic nerve. 

TRICHIASIS is a condition in which the cilia are misplaced 
misdirected, and rub against the cornea, causing more or less comeaF 
The condition may apply to all the cilia, or only a few 
may be misdirected. The common cause of trichiasis is trachoma, 

» although blepharitis or any inflammation about the cilia may produce 
it. Cicatricial contraction after injury and operation is a cause. ThCj 
treatment consists in curing the causative condition, and by cpili 
electrolysis, illaqueation, excision, and plastic operation. 



DiSTiCHiASia is a condition in which there is a double row of ciUi 
one directed inward and one directed normally outward. The resid 
of this condition is corneal irritation. The treatment is similar t 
that of trichiasis. 

ENTROPION is inversion of the edge of the eyelid. (Fig, 52.) 
results from cicalriiation following trachoma, blepharitis, wounds, 
burns, etc. Blepharospasm and pressure from bandaging are causes. 
It should be distinguished from simple trichiasis, in which the cilia 
alone are displaced. In entropion the edge of the lid is wholly or< 
partly inverted, as well as the cilia. 

Treatment. — If spasmodic entropion is due to a faulty bandaj 
strcA caase must be removed. One end of a y\ect of adhesive pli 
tgtened below the /ashes and the other end \o "-^ic t^intV TOa.-) ^ 






relief. The classic operative measure for entropion i 

horiiontal fold of skin parallel to the edge of the lid, with suture of 

the wound. Other operations are described in the following pages, 

ENTROPION. — El ecirolYs is is performed by attaching the needle to 
the negative pole of the battery, the positive pole being placed on 
the temple; the point of the needle is thrust into the bulb of the lash, 
and the circuit closed. Destruction of the bulb is indicated by 
bubbles of gas about the needle. Each lash must be treated separ- 


Illaqueation is a name given to a method of changing the direction 
of misplaced cilia by withdrawing them, by a noose, through an 
opening in the adjacent tissue of the lid. Unfortunately, the eye- 
lashes freqiienti)' regain their abnormal position by reason of their 
own elasticity. 

Excision.— A V'Shaped incision is made in the skin of the lid, 
including the misdirected cilia, the whole flap is excised, and the 
margin of the loss of tissue is drawn together with sutures. Flarer'a 
operation (Fig. 53) consists in splitting the lid into two portions as far 
back as the ends of the hair-bulbs of the ciWa. TVe ■; 
containing Ibe hnir-bulbs, is then cut awa^ b^ "\nt\^\<m. '^^aw^* 

^^ skin i 


; the whole length of tlie 


skin from above. In cases in 
this operation is not advisable. 

Transplantation. — The Arlt-Jaesche operation is performed 1 
splitting the lid along the whole intermarginal edge for a' 
deep, the anterior laj'er containing the orbicular muscle and the 
integument with all the hair-bulbs, and the posterior containing the 
tarsus and conjunctiva, A second incision is made about six mni. 
from the margin and parallel to it, extending the whole length of the 
lid. A third incision is made in a curved line from one end of the 
second incbion to the other. The semilunar fold of skin thus formed 
is dissected off, and the exposed margins are brought together by i 

The height of the curved incision is proportionate to tl 
effect desired. 

Dianoux's operation is performed by incising the integument to 
cartilage only, in a hue parallel to the lid-edge and about four a 
from it. On the intermarginal edge the lid is split between the cartilj 
lage and muscle until the knife meets the preceding incision at rigbl 
angles to it, thus farming a bridge of lid-edge containing ihe cilia ai 
their roots. Another and shghtly longer line of incision isnowmadc^ 
parallel with the first one and about three mm. above it. The St[iM_ 
of skin between the two is dissected up in the middle and leftl 
detached at both ends. The bridge of the Sid-mavgin is then drawin 
F|*Ji/ ot^er the strip of loosened skin, and ia.s\.tnei ^j-j w 



the upper border of Ihe highest incision, while the loosened strip ii 
drawn down and stilched to the intemiarginal edge. (See Figs. 54 and 
55.) The objection to this operation is that occasionally the cuta- 
neous hairs on the transplanted flap irritate the cornea, and these 
hairs, being much finer than cilia, are more difficult to remov 

Van Millingen's operation consists in splitting the eyelid, a 
Arlt-Jaesche operation, from end to end, sufficiently to produc 
three mm. wide in the center and becoming narrower toward the 
canthi. Sutures are passed through folds of skin on the upper lid, 
which prevent the gap from closing. A strip of mucous membrane 
as long as the lid and about two mm. broad is cut out of the inner sur- 
face of the patient's under lip, and is slipped into the gap. Sutu 
superfluous. In this operation 
the transplanted tissue, being 
mucous membrane, is free from 
the objectionable fine hairs. 

Streatfield's operation and 
Snellen's modifiCHtion of it con- 
sist in grooving the tarsus, and 
removing a wedge-shaped piece 
of skin, the length of the lid, 
and about two mm, from it, 
When the edges of the wound 
are brought together, the cilia 
are turned outward and into 
their normal position. 

In von Graefe'a operation tw( 
the skin of the upper lid, Ihe lal 
posterior leaf; the 
along the vi 
the skin of the upper 


e made through 

Ltter being split ii 
margins are then entered higher 
I. A horizontal incision is made through 
triangular piece of skin, with its base 

s removed ; also a triangular portion of the t 
upward, is removed, and the wound sutured. This operalio 
ommended in senile entropion, when excision of a horizontal piece 

If skin or Ihe application of subcutaneous sutures are not sufficient. 
■HoIi'b operation for the same condition consists in excising the 
Itin and muscle down to the tarsus, some four to six mm. from the 
i-edgc, laying bare the tarsus and drawiu^ ^V\e'."HO^'*TO-«vMiij,-(\^ 
peiher and holding fhem until union \5 efttc^fti, \)ri\i^^\i\Tv'{,i».v3ii* 

fulcrum for the everting farce of the cicatrix and skin, which Hotz 
thinks ia wanting in oiher methods. 

ECTROPION iseverstonofihelid. (Fig. 56.) It is not attended by 
the severe symptoms of entropion. Epiphora, with the consequent 
eciema which follows it, is the worst symptom. In severe cases th 
whole lid may be everted, leaving the conjunctiva unprotected, 
condition popularly called blear eyt. This deformity results from 
relaxation of tissues in old age, or paralysis of the orbicularis, cicatri- 
cia! changes due to injuries, burns, etc., and follows chronic conjui 
livitis, blepharitis, or other inflammatory conditions about the lids. 
The scars of lupus and syphilis are occasional causes. Both lids 
may be affected. 

Treatment. — For eversion of the punc la —slitting the lacrimal 
canaland clearing the nasal duct may give relief. Any discernible 
cause should be treated. Mild antiseptic lotions should be used on 
the denuded surfaces. The patient should be instructed to wipe the 
eye from below upward, thus tending to reduce the eversion by asort 
of massage. 

OPERATIONS FOR ECTROPION are designed to raise the under lid 
or to stretch it out horizontally. The usual plastic operation is 
cision of a V-shaped piece of skin below the lid-margin. The edges 
of the denuded triangular area are brought into position by suturi 
as depicted in figures 57 and 5S. Snellen's sutures are threads e 
tered on the conjunctival side of the lids from above downward, and 
brought out on the skin at about the level of the edge of the orbit, the 
ends being knotted over pieces of lubing or a ball of cotton. In 
cicatricial ectropion, the first step is to sever the adhesion between the 
lid and the bone, and to cover the remaining scar by a transplanted 
flap or by skin-grafting, 

PTOSIS is drooping of the upper lid. It may result from any 
effusion or inl^ammatfon weighing down (he upper lid. Excessive 
deposits of fat in the lid may cause it to droop, Ptosis also results 
from injury to or paralysis of the levator palpebrie muscle. 

The treaiment of ptosis consists in removing the cause if possible. 
In paralysis of the levator muscle, strychnin and the galvanic cur 
are useful. Several ingenious lid-elevators h.ive been devised for Ihe 
relief of this condition. Operative interference has for its abject the 
f a piece of the skin of the upper lid, or the insertion of 


hold the lid up. The tendon of the levator muscle 
may be advanced, or the tarsus may be sutured to the temporal 
muscle. The patient can often relieve ptosis by learning to use the 

Fins. 57 *ND 53.— Ophratioh for Ectropk 

temporal muscle, or by throwing the head backward in order to see 

A simple and efTective operation for ptosis consists in passing a 
stout silk ligature vertically under the skin from the eyebrows lo the 
margin of the lids, and firmly tying the ends. The noose formed ii 




this manner is tightened every day until it has cut its way through 
the con lined tissues; the resultant cicatrix draws the lid to its normal'] 

is really frequently-repealed involuntary winking. It may be 
ciated with hysteria, chorea, or general neurasthenia; in fact, it may 
be a symptom of nearly any reflex neurosis. It often becomes 
habit. Clonic spasms of the orbicularis sometimes appear after the 
use of eserin. In persons doing considerable eye-work, there is 
doubtless some uncorrected error of refraction. Tlie treatment of 
this condition consists in administering remedies alleviating the 
nervous condition, or in correcting the ametropia. . 

BLEPHAROSPASM is a tonlc contraction of the orbicularis, oReilq 
affecting both eyes. It is generally reflex, from irritation of the con- 
junctiva or cornea by a foreign body or from inflammation of some 
kind in these regions. It is a. disagreeable accompaniment of phlyc- 
tenular conjunctivitis and keratitis, and corneal ulcer. Often the 
irritation caused by an inverted eyelash is the seat of the troublci 
Photophobia often leads to blepharospasm. If no local cause 
cernible, we must suspect ametropia, or some reflex from a distal 
irritation, such as intranasal disease, or even a decayed tooth. Ths] 
apasm may be of central origin. Treaiment of the cause 
way to attack the spasm. Pressure on the facial nerve at 
the styloid foramen is said to slop the spasm. Galvanism is nseful 
By all means examine the refraction. In children with phlyctenuh 
disease, plunging the face under cold water will often cause thsj 
orbicularis to relax and permit examination of the cornc^e, 


COLOBOMA is a perpendicular fissure of the lid, usually the upper fl 
one. It is congenital, and is often associated with hare-lip or cleft-V 

&PICANTHU3 is a condition in which a perpendicular fold of skin^ 
I extends from the nose over the Inner canthus. It causes the nose to 

look broad and the fissure to appear small. It Is a racial character- 
^ isiic of ihe Mongolians. When congenital, it may gradually disnp- 

_- />ear. Excision of a piece of skin of the nose, caWei i'ri\Tio\i^\a.?'wj,^J 


;s sometimes performed for cosmetic reasons. Eye-glasses wiih si 
e-pieces are sometimes used for cosmetic effect. 


EPiTHELiaMA should be distinguished from chancre of the lid by 
ili slower development, and the absence of syphilitic symptoms else- 
where. In syphilis there is early involvement of the lymph-glands 
at the angle of the jaw, and edema is more apparent. The treatment 
of epithelioma consists of prompt and thorough incision, and, if the 
wound is large, a. subsequent skin-grafting. In some cases a careful 
cureting will suffice, but on the whole excision is safer. The applica- 
tion of pure formalin is a substitute for curetment. After excision, 
the conjunctiva and skin should be sutured separately. 

OTHER TUMORS of the lids are warts, angiomas, and xanthomas. 
All of these may be removed with ease and impunity. Angiomas 
are bluish-red in color, while xanthomas are dirty yellow. 


Anatomy and Physiology. — The lacrimal apparatus consists of the 
lacrimal gland, its excretory duct, the puncta lacrimalia, the lacrimal 
canaliculi, the lacrimal sac, and the nasal duct. (Fig. 59.) 

The lacrimal gland is situated at the upper and outer angle of the 
orbit. It is invested in a dense, Rbraus membrane, and is in contact 
superiorly with the periosteum. The secretion of the lacrimal gland 
is carried by 8 to iz small ducts, which run for a short distance 
beneath the conjunctiva, and open upon its surface by a series of 
pores, about ^ of an inch apart, situated in a curved line, a little 
above the upper border of the tarsal cartilage. 

The lacrimal eanalicuH commence at minute openings in the 
lacrimal papilla of the inner canthus of the lids, called puncta lac- 
rimalia. They are directed inward to the lacrimal sac. The superior 
canaliculus at first ascends, and then, turning suddenly inward, 
forms an abrupt angle with the nose. The inferior canaliculus de- 
scends at first and then turns abruptly inward. These canaliculi are 
dense and elastic tubes about twelve mn\. lorig, aui a.^ ta.ijHiQ.v^ 
lubes, being constantly open. i 



^^^M The lacrimal sac is lodged in a groove of the lacrimal bone, and 
^^^1 when distended may he compressed through the iid. It is lined with 
^^K mucous membrane, and is really a dilatation of the nasal duct. 
^^H The natal duct is a bone-canal, about % of an inch long, through J 

1 ^^ 

^1 J 

^^^^^^^^H LACHYMAL 



^^^ BBir ^^^ 





^^^r 1, 1. Canaliculi. i, i. FuncU lacrimslia. 3. 3. Inner t 
^^^^m 4,4, Fr» borders onula. 5. LAcrlmal lac. e. Aiibi 

iL Excretory ^fflB^^^H 

iirfinil)' or Ursl rartOu^^l 
chmeiii to m^ixlllary bone^H 

which the tears are conveyed from the eye to the nose. It is liiU^H 

with ciliated mucous membrane, continuous with that of the inferit^H 

meatus of the nose into which it opens. Its direction is downwu^H 

^^^oufivard, and backward. ^H 



V»/c and Nerves. — The lacrimal gland is supplied with blood 
.^c lacrimal branch of the ophthalmic artery, and with nerves 
M lacrimal branch of Che ophthalmic and orbital branch of the 
rior maxillary. 
^ forces at work in the passage of tears from the gland to the 
^ere capillary attraction as furnished in the canals, gravity caus- 
:m to fall over the conjunctiva and through the canals, and 
lar movement in winking. In winking, the tearsac is expanded 
traction of the muscles, and the tears sucked into it. Con- 
1 of the sac is passive, due to the elastic action of tense tissues. 
latrimal secretion, called tears, is a faintly alkaline fluid con- 
ig about one per cent, of solids, of which a small part is proteid 
:oinposition. The lacrimal secretion is slightly antiseptic, and 


ABSCESS AND INFLAMMATION of the lacrimal gland are very 

are. The diagnosis depends on the presence of swelling or the 

jig-ns of abscess in the region of the gland. An abscess should be 

incised, and any inflammation of the gland treated with a mercurial 

^ ointinent or potassium iodid. 

^^^^NEW GROWTHS are mostly adenoids. A chloroma is a malignant 
^^Heenish lumor which sometimes attacks the lacrimal gland. Sar- 
^^^Kia and carcinoma are also occasionally found in Ibis location. 
^^^^pwever, disease of the lacrimal gland is such a rare affection that 
^^pa^ny men of vast experience have never seen a case. The treat- 
ment of a tumor is prompt excision. 
' DACRYOPS is a condition in which a lacrimal duct becomes oc- 

cluded and the lumen full of secretion, forming a bluish tumor on the 
outer upper fold of the conjunctival sac. It should be opened with a 
fine needle. 

FISTULA of the lacrimal gland is usually the result of injury or 
*■ operation. The fistula should be connected with the conjunctival sac, 
after which the dermal opening soon heals. 


' The all-important sign of diseases of the lacrimal i^a«SA<^(it 

ovetSonr of tears, or EPIPHORA. The first purpose ot Uea 




is to clear ilie passages so that ibe tears will run into the nose. 
However, we must remember that in overseeietion the tears will run 
cheeks. Thus, on a windy day or in emotional weeping, 
there is not only extra secretion into the nose, causing sniffling, thus 
proving that the nasal duct is patulous, but, in addition, epiphora. 
of tears may be due to conjunctivitis, keratitis, an 
especially irritable tri);eminus nerve, uncorrected ametropia, and a 
number of other c ^ 



puncta, or even of the lower punctum alone, will cause epipbor. 
should immediately endeavor to correct any malposition, 
quences of epiphora are very serious, eventually leading It 
In culling operations on Ike lids, or in Ihr application of cautticsM 
mits/ a/ways A' earffiil Ikat Ike puncta art nol involvtd.. a 
tvith /(sannoj'ingsequel.-C, will resuU W \.\\is ?'[ccaM\:\oiv'wnu\\d« 

Although it is always well to preserve the puncta, which have a. 
physiologic function of importance in keeping solid, irritating bodies 
from the nasal duct and lacrimal sac, it is often necessary, for imme- 
diate drainage, to slit the canaliculuB involved. This simple op- 
eration is performed as follows (Fig. 60) : The lower lid is drawn 
downward and outward, and slightly everted by the thumb of one 
hand, while the probe point of a canaliculus knife (Fig. 61) is intro- 
duced vertically with the other hand. When the knife is well inserted 
into the cana], its point is turned inward and shghlly backward, 
reaching the inner wall of the lacrimal sac. During this manieuver 
the edge of the knife is turned toward the conjunctiva, and the whole 
length of the canaliculus is divided, close to the mucocutaneous 
junction, by bringing the knife up boldly from the horizontal to the 
vertical position. In dividing the upper canaliculus, the upper lid is 
made tense, and the knife is introduced into the upper punctum and 
passed into the sac in a direction downward and inward. If the 
canaliculus is very small, a fine-pointed conic probe should first be 
used to dilate it. There are various modifications of the operation — 

with a groove director, fine scissors, etc. The wound should be ex- 
amined at short intervals, and kept open with a probe. 

AFFECTIONS OF THE CANALICULUS Obstruction of the canahc- 

ulus is bften due to a foreign body, such as an eyelash, which not 
only occludes the canal, but scratches the cornea. The obstruction 
may be due to a stone in the canaliculus, called a dacryolilh. Polypi 
of the canaliculi may grow so luxuriantly as to protrude from the 
puncta. The treatment in these cases is to remove the foreign body 
if it protrudes from the punctum ; or, if the obstruction is due to a 
stone or polypus or there is absolute stenosis or obliteration of the 
canaliculus, it should be promptly slit to its full extent. 

AFFECTIONS OP THE LACRIMAL SAC.~Thc lacrimal sac is lined 
wilh mucous membrane, which is subject to inflammation and catarrh 
like any oilier mucous membrane. Any coi\iAUot\ 'K\i\i:^v sfeW-vis^a 
tJie free passage of the tears predisposes lo dwtasa ol 'fee ^a-CiWo.^ 


pa.r[icul3rly if the obstruction is in the nasa.1 duct. The sac also In- 
comes diseased by extension of any inflaminatory process from the 
:. iDflammation of the sa.c leads to blennorrhea, and this, in its 
, leads to dacryocystitis, or abscess of the lacrimal sac. The 
contents of a constantly suppurating tear-sac are very infectious, and 
although the patient may go on for many years with epiphora, con- 
junctivitis, and crusting of the lids in the morning, yet the infection. 
may be so severe as to set up an inflammation which will eventuall 
destroy the eye. The slightest abrasion of the cornea may b 
infected and a dangerous ulcer result, 

DacryocystitiB. — The initial symplomsare conjunctivitis, local pain, ' 
and redness of the skin. The distended sac soon appears as a tumor 
involving the tissues near the inner canthus of the eye. If left to itself. 
this tumor may ulcerate and the pus burrow through the skin, estab- 
lishing what is known as a lacrimal fistula, which may remain 
time, and become in itself a safeguard against a new attack, 
the distended sac loses its elasticity and becomes a permanent l 
called hydrops sacci lacrimal is. The diagnosis between simple 
catarrh, blennorrhea, or hydrops, is easily made by emptying the sac 
with pressure of the finger: in catarth, a watery secretion appears 
at the punctum ; in blennorrhea there is more or less pus ; in hydro 
the sac may empty into the nose and no secretion appear, 
cystitis and fistula need only be seen to be recogniied. 

Treatnicot. — Any nasal affection should be corrected, and a 
passage of tears imo the nose established. The latter is generally 
effected by the passage of sounds. Bowman's sounds or probes (Fig, 
62) are usually employed. The canaliculus should be slii^and the 
following day the passage of probes commenced. It is optional whidli ^ 
canaliculus is used, but the upper Is shorter and ei 

To pass a lacrimal sound or probe, the point of the sound r 
be passed along the floor of the slit canaliculus to the nose, until Qf 
felt to strike against bony resistance ; the sound is then rotated «" 
it points downward ; keeping close to the inner wall of the 
sound is then firmly pushed along. Under ordinary circumstai^ 
if the probe is in the right position, it will pass along the nasal ( 
with a moderate pressure; undue resistance to a small probe indicates 
stricture of the duct or a false passage; in either case the pressure 
should be used cautiously . If the sound \ias ^asscA casiVj, U should 
be left in position several minutes ; in fact. »«. ma.'j (fccii™ ?.\^aN.\\»Rfli\ 


1 alnS 

ind the 



al dffin 


often to advantage. It Ihe passage has been tight, the sound should 
be immediately withdrawn. The sounding of the passage should be 
repealed every three or five days, and the size of the sounds pro- 
gressively increased. In some cases it is well for the patient to wear 
a leaden stylet constantly for several days. Theobald and others 
advocate the use of very large lacrimal sounds. A special probe- 
pointed knife has been devised for slitting strictures of the nasal duct. 
In treatment of the lacrimal passages we should resort to frequent 
syringing, various astringent and antiseptic preparations being used. 
Weak solutions of silver nitrate are of benefit in cases of blennorrhea. 
Recently there has been a reaction against promiscuous probing in 
lacrimal disease. The results are generally unsatisfactory and the 
case is often protracted. As a substitute there has lately beeri advised 

copious syringing with a fountain-syringe attached to a hollow No. 4 
Bowmari's probe. The canaliculus need only be split halfway, and 
in some cases not at all. Boric acid and weak antiseptic solutions 



A simpler treatment of lacrimal obstruction, which dispenses with 
mutilation of the puncta and canaliculus and probing, consists in the 
following manipulations: 

First empty the sac and canaliculi by dextrous pressure, and 
cleanse the eye and palpebral pockets of the unhealthy material. 
Then cant the patient's head back and to one side, or have him lie 
so that a teaspoonful of liquid will be held in the depression formed 
by the nose, orbital border, and superior maxilla. Fill this space 
with a weakly antiseptic solution. The so\ut.ioTV vte \i.^«\^ tft\ci^s«R&, 
to the ounce of distilled water, of boric actd.lCTi ^aa^'s". wBoa 



salt, three grains ; chlorid of zinc, one grain— all deeply tinted * 
pyoktanin-blue, and doubly filtered after long standing. With the 
little finger again slowly empty the sac and canaliculi by pressure. 
and then, as slowly lessening ihe pressure, allow these spaces to refill, 
by suction and capillary attraction, with the solution under which the 
puncta are submerged. Again, in half a minute, empty the canaliculi 
and sac by pressure, but this time beginning the pressure from the 
canlhus toward the nose and downward, so as to force the antiseptic 
solution downward into the duct. These alternate emptyings and 
refiliings of the sac may be repeated several times and as often as 
desirable to meet the indications of the case. It will usually be found 
that the sac will soon become healthy and that pressure upon it will 
not cause regurgitation of morbid material through the puncta, 

A certain number of cases, however, will not yield to this treat- 
ment. There is too great stenosis or spasmodic contraction of the 
muscular sphincter of the punctum, etc., so that the cleansing solu- 
tion can not be forced into the sac and duct. In such cases we are 
accustomed to insert one sharp point of the iris scissors into the 
punctum and snip it open about J^ of an inch, perpendicularly down- 
ward toward the conjunctival fold. This gives a larger opening for 
the indrawal of the solution. 

Obliteration of the lacrimal sac is a questionable procedure. The 
treatment of acute dacryocystitis consists in voiding the pus, either 
through the canaliculus or by an incision through the skin. The 
fistula is treated like other fistulous passages, and will generally heal 
if the obstruction to the passage of tears is removed. Repeated Irriga- 
tion, syringing, and probing are the important after-treatments of all 
these affections. 


Anatomy, — The conjunctiva is the mticuus membrane of the i 

and when the lids are shut, it forms a closed sac. (Fig. 63.) The g 

covering the eyeball is called the bulbar conjunctiva, and the p 

retlecled over to the inner surface of the hds is called the palpeh 

conjunctiva. The part forming the fold between the two is called ll 

yhrm^, and the regions between iVie Iwo ^aV^eX^iaV and bulbar p 

l/ons are called the sulci, or palpebiaV sinuses, T^it ^-m^vii ■ 


IS Itie deeper. The conjunctiva covering Ihe cornea is thin, closely 
adherent, and contains no blood-vessels. Upon the sclerotic it is 
thicker and less adherent ; but upon the Inner surface of the lids it is 
somewhat closely connected, and exceedingly vascular. The con- 
junctiva is directly continuous with the mucous membrane of the 
mouth and nose, and is sympathetically affected by disease of these 
cavities and their continuations. Indamraation of the gastrointes- 
tinal and pulmonary tracts may cause congestion of the conjunctiva. 
The conjunctiva is traceable into the lacrimal gland above, and into the 
lacrimal sac below. Immediately to the outer side of the caruncle is a 

slight duplicature of the conjunctiva, called thep/ica semilunaris. This 
is analogous to the rudimentary third lid or nictitating membrane of 

Diagnosis of Superficial and Deep Congestion. — To distinguish 
congestion of the conjunctival vessels from engorgement of the 
deeper vessels, we must bear In mind that the conjunctival vessels 
are tortuous, easily movable upon the sclera, are bright red, and may 
be traced along their entire course. In deep congestion the indi- 
vidual vessels can not be seen clearly, and t\iw5«a\'j,\&,».ix4.'Ct«stVa 
a bJaish-red or violet injection. 

It 1 

[3 S 



































i ° -.3 

I! I 


f o 







•II ■ 



'J- l£ IS 

v3 g e;Q ^1 

= £ B 

15 !r= V4 Vw'^ 

< lO ^> ^*i ^ 



J As ihe gravest m; 

inexperienced are 
characteristic featur 
mation. the followii 
on pages 162 and r 
table before readin 
however, that the t 

I less modified or ab! 
cesses are frequentl 
disease, and is gene 
I>rane, such as foreij 
etc. The treatment 
to locale. 

istakes in the treatment of ocular disease by the 

due to a lack of knowledge of the salient and 

es of each of the different types of ocular inflam- 

ig table (a modification of that of Bruns) is given 

63. The student is urged to review carefully this 

table before reading farther on diseases of the eye ; rernerabering, 

however, that the typical signs of each condition are often n 

less modified or absent, and that combinations of the different pro- ' 

'cesses are frequently present. 


KVPERBMIA OF THE CONJUNCTIVA is a symptom rather than j 

disease, and is generally the sequence of some irritation of the meiri^ 

I>rane, such as foreign body, weeping, heat or cold, exposure to light 

The treatment consists in removing the cause, which, in manyv 

small foreign body which the patient has been unable 

caused in many ways. Irritation by dust, peculiar to such occupation) 
as those of the miller, stone-mason, etc., is a fruitful source- Any I 
derangement of the secretion or excretion of the tears is a cause- 
Firemen, puddlers, and others who work continually in a strong light; 
students, using their eyes excessively and often by poor light, and. 
persons subject to any kind of eye-strain, may be afflicted with dry J 
catarrh of the conjunctiva. The symptoms are itching and si 
as of a foreign body or heat in the eye. The distress increasefj 
toward evening, showing the indubitable presence of eye-str 
upper lids feel heavy, and there may be blepharospasm i 
degree. Upon examination, the lids are seen to be congested, ther 
is a uniform redness, and all the accompanying signs of a catarrhal 
condition. At the sides and over the tarsus there are often nodulcS 
looking like raw flesh. There is no pathologic secretion. 

The treatment consists in correcting any error in refraction o 
cular trouble. To avoid the deleterious influences of some oi 
tions, protective glasses may be ordered. If there is exposure ti 
sunlight, smoked glasses should be prescribed. Astringent 
antiseptic applications are advisaWt. Boi\t add. ?,r, x to Jj, 
Be solution most commonly employed; iii^c sM\v'ha\i 


chloridigr. j to SJ. ^■'c useful. Camphor water is often used as a 
base for eye-drops. Alum may be used in solution of gr. vj 10 3j. 
In case the catarrh is persistent, applicaliors every second day of a 

two per cent, solution of sitvi 
the eyes with a pencil of all 
and refractory 

mended. Touching 
Often, in old 
in the astringent employed is of ad- 

vantage. Irrigation with hot or cold lotions of plain water is always 
advisable ; besides the pleasant local effect, absolute cleanliness is 

Figures 64. and 65 illustrate the simplest and best mode of applying- 
the alum pencil, which also dispenses wil\\ v\\e atino-ja^tt, tA CMWv.v^'i 
Ihe upper lid. The skin over the middle o( V\\c u.^'p(i^\\6. '\^ fa-'w 



^^^1 between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, pulling the lid 

^^H upward and away from the globe. The patient is told to look down- 

^^H ward, and with the right hand the pencil is inserted deep into the 

^^^1 upper sulcus, especially in the direction of the canlhi, where the 

^^H greatest congestion Is usually located. The advantage of this method 

^^B overeversion of the lid lies in the fact that the remotest depths oflhe 

^^B sulci can be reached. In applying the pencil to the lower sulcus, 

^^H simple eversion of the lid by tension is all that is necessary, 

^* lot 


HOW TO USE HYE-DROPS.— When ordering astringent or antisept 
for the eye, we should instruct the patient how to use them. 
He should lie on his back without a pillow, and with a clean dropper 
several drops should be placed immediately in the eye; the lids 
should not be violently closed, thus squeezing all the lotion out, but 
the eyeballs gently rotated, diffusing the lotion in all parts of thi 
junctival sac. Instead of wiping the lotion out, it should be allowed 
several minutes to dry in the eye. Surplus lotion should not be put 
back in the bolde, but thrown out, and the dropper cleansed after 
each instillation. The use of eye-cups is not recommended. 


SIMPLE CATARRH is one of the commonest diseases of the 
junctiva. In addition to being due to the irritative causes alreadi 
mentioned, it is a frequent accompaniment of Ihe ordinary infecliottj 
diseases, such as measles, scarlet fever, etc. A simple cold is a &«3 
quent source of conjunctival catarrh. Tobacco smoke and other 
irritant vapors are causes. Finally, any bacterial invasion producing 
inflammation elsewhere in the body may cause trouble in the con- 
Symptoms.— It begins with a hyperemia, followed by a profuse 
watery discharge. The lashes are malted, and the hds are glued 
together in the morning. There is profuse lacrimation, called forth 
to remove the excessive secretion from the conjunctiva, and, as the 
capacity of the drainage-apparatus is overtaxed, epiphora results. 
Aside from the ordinary symptoms of conjunctival congestion, the 
patient is annoyed by Ihe optic defects Caused by flakes of mucus 
on the cornea. Photophobia is sometimes distressing. Again, the 
symptoms are worse in the evening. The patients complain that 
they have h sensation as of sarid in Ibc c^e, atvAftie-j uevacUned to 
praJong the irtitAt'ion by rubbing. 


The course of ihe disease varies from one week to an indefinite 

Treatment. — Ordinary measures with astringent and antiseptic 
washes will alleviate the symptoms; but when there is a hidden 
cause, the process continues. Occupation, habits, and continued eye- 
strain are causes which are often left uncombaled. In such cases local 
treatment is of little avail. Anointing the lids with pure or niedicaled 
vasehn every evening should be insisted upon. Generally, [he use of 
an astringent is advisable, — alum, tannic acid, silver nitrate, and zinc 
sulphate are those most used. No rule can be given for the strength 
and frequency of the applications. Each case needs a special treat- 
ment. In intractable cases the application of a 50 per cent, solution 
of boroglycerid in glycerin, once or twice daily, is often of great ser- 


^FPurulent conjunctivitis is a term used to cover highly infectious 
processes of the membrane. It varies according to the mode of in- 
fection. The most serious cases are generally due to the gonococcus 
of Neisser. 

SIMPLE BLENNORRHEA of the conjunctiva is distinguished by red- 
ness, swelling, profuse yellowish secretion, and involvement of the 
lids, skin, and even the neighboring lymph-glands. Crests are 
formed at the edges of the hds, and pseudomembranes on the inter- 
nal surface. In the height of the inflammation the conjunctiva may 
be so swollen as to push between the hds, constituting what is called 
chemosia of the conjunctiva. The discharge is at first watery, then 
purulent, and in the subsidence of the disease it is similar to that of 
a simple catarrh. 

aoNORRHEAL coNjtJNCTiviTis. — This disease is due to infection 
by the gonococcus. 

Symptoms.^For the first (wenty-four hours it may present only the 
symptoms of a simple catarrh. The violence of the onset is depend- 
ent upon the stage of the inflammation from which the inoculation 
was made. Inoculation from an eye in the full stage of suppuration 
may cause violent symptoms in six hours. The conjunctiva be- 
comes congested and the lids are edematows atii s»io\Wi- t»a "fet 
ses the signs of inflammal.\oivaTetftOTtTti^'Ciw&."'Cii«ifc 

is grayish infiltration of the conjunctiva, intense pain, and 
become so swollen as to hide the eye, and pioject 
from the face. Between the lashes drops of yellow pus ooie. Upon 
opening the eye pus gushes forth, "and the examiner must be 
tious that none of the contagious secretion falls upon his face, 
fact, it is well to wear protective glasses in examining such patients. 
At this stage the bulbar conjunctiva is scarlet in color and so 
chemosed that the cornea may be completely hidden. The disease 
attains its height on the third or fourth day, and slowly subsides, the 
catarrh usually running a course of from four to six weeks. Indica- 
tions of abatement of the process are diminution of discharge and 
Bigns of inflammation and the gradual return of the normal wrinkles 
of the eyelids as the swelling subsides. There are often 
slitutional symptoms. The temperature is elevated, and the pain may 
be agonizing. 

Compile atians. — The most frequent complication is corneal ulci 
tion, which is due in great part to the deprivation of vascular suppl]^ 
to the limbus from the constriction of the conjunctival vessels by Ihfl 
great chemosis of the conjunctiva. The ulcers may not perforate, 
but when they heal, they leave a disastrous scar in the cornea, 
Prolapse of the iris may follow perforation. If the perforation is 
small, it may heal with synechial attachments of the iris; if large. 
anterior staphyloma may occur. The whole cornea may slough and'.' 
panophthalmitis result, leaving nothing but a sightless stump. 

Diagnosis. — A history of gonorrhea or discovery of the gonococcirt 
in the secretions at the onset of the disease makes the diagnosis posi- 
tive. At its height the disease will be plainly recognized. 

Prognosis is alw.-iys serious and is dependent entirely upon the 
amount and location of corneal involvement. Large peripheral 
leukomata are less dangerous to vision than small 

Treatment. — The patient should be put to bed, and if one eye is 
sound, it should be protected with a Bullet's bandage. This contriv- 
ance consists of a watch-glass held in place before the eye by a 
perforated adhesive bandage, tt must cover and exclude the sound 
eye entirely, and must be Impervious to the irrigations of the di 
eased eye. The attendants and patient must be cautioned against 
the infectious nature of the discharge, and all compresses 
destroyed. Iced compresses s\inu\d be 3.\ipV\ed Vo Ac e^e almost 
continuously. This Ireatnient eases vVie pa.™. Vinvw^ (^xu&a£tra« 


and prevents violent swelling and cotijunclival edema, so fatal 
to the cornea. If the cornea ulcerates early, cold must be discarded 
for hot compresses, wrung out in water from 115° to 120°. An atropin 
solution may be instilled unless the perforation is quite peripheral. 

The next important part of treatment is thorough irrigation at short 
intervals. This is the fundamental principle in the therapeutics of all 
autoinoculable and purulent processes. Remove the self-multiply- 
ing cause, and assist nature to combat the original infection. Strong 
antiseptic applications are usually unnecessary. The infection soon 
gains access to tissues possibly heyond the reach of local antiseptics, 
and, moreover, such substances in germicidal strength have generally 
a devitalizing effect on the tissues, and this we wish to avoid. Let 
cieaniiness be nature's assistant, and only when the curative process 
is delayed, should stimulating applications be used. 

In view of its importance, it is unfortunate that thorough and re- 
peated irrigation of the sulcus is seldom effected. To cleanseat inter- 
vals of a half-hour every portion of an infected conjunctiva in an 
active state of purulent inflammation is a difScult task. The lids are 
tense and swollen. The palpebral and bulbar conjunctival surfaces 
are, as it were, glued together, making the depths of the sulci almost 
inaccessible. The pain in the manipulation is intense. A child vigor- 
ously resists all efforts to open the lids, and even in the case of adults 
it is often quite impracticable under these circumstances. To be 
effectual, irrigation must be thorough, and in the active inflammatory 
stage it should be repeated at least every half-hour. What might be 
called the " golden rule " in these cases is : Without careful irriga- 
tion, ail ether treatment is unreliailc. 

In the irrigation of the eyes we have had little mechanical or inslru- 
menta! assistance offered us. Some surgeons advise against the use 
of any hard substance in irrigation, as they fear injury to the cornea 
in manipulation. Of the few methods suggested, that of Kalt, with 
the irrigation -tube, seems to have produced the best results. 

We have had made an instrument which seems to answer all the 
requirements of a satisfactory sulcus- syringe (Fig. 66). It is, in all 
essentials, simply a lid-retractor, such as every one uses in operations 
and in examining infl.imed eyes, etc,, but made hollow for the pas- 
sage of a liquid to all parts of the sulcus. It is perforated at its edges 
and on both its bulbar snd palpebral surfaces, Xo aWo-oj 'C' 
of liquid through and about it. The sYnaU \ia\es -axe, ia^jt^ 

prevent occlusion by close contact with the conjunctiva, and both J 
surfaces are grooved to allow a drainage flow from the sulcus. There 
are no ragged edges or protrusions lo injure the eyes, and there is 
danger of the fluid being squirted back into the operator's eyes. The J 
retractor may be made of metal or hard rubber. It is best used w 
a fountain -syringe, the pressure being regulated by the height of thefl 
reservoir above the patient's head, the current controlled by a slop- 1 
cock, or by pressure on the tubing near the retractor. The ii 
ment is also adapted for adjustment to a hypodermic syringe, having 
a thread the same size as an ordinary hypodermic needle. 

With this retractor-syringe the eye may be thoroughly washed al4 
the shortest intervals, as there is little pain in its introduction. TwentyrI 
minutes constitute the shortest interval ever required. At least a half-j 
t of water should be used at each irrigation, and during 

cleansing the retractor should be moved about slightly in the sulcus,fl 
The liquid should be drained over the side of the face inlo a basin, 
care being taken thai it does not enter the ear, nose, ormout 
is particularly necessary in infants. Any solution may be used,! 
although sterile water, or possibly a weak boric acid solullon 
manganate of potassium, will be found effective. The fluid shoul 
be used at body temperature, unless for special reason the applicatioi|l 
of heat or cold is desired, which may be readily applied in this man-1 
ner. The solution, gently run through the syringe, also offers anl 
excellent substitute for wet-packs and fomentations in certain cas 
of ocular inflammation. 

In addition to the irrigation, the lids should be everted, if possibl^fl 
and brushed three times a day with a top\ous ^o vti ttvii. solution^ 
of boroglycerid in glycerin. This so\iii\on ma^ o\\cTv\3e?iti(Ac&\t 


the conjunctival sac without everting the lids. Tliis substance has 
given us belter results than the belter known silver preparations. 
Silver nitrate (gr. x to 5J) and its substitutes (such as protargol and 
argonin) are widely recommended. Sometimes the chemotic conjunc- 
tiva should be freely incised. As the disease subsides into a simple 
catarrh, the ordinary antiseptic and astringent treatment is instituted. 
In cases of corneal opacities, frequent massage with a weak yellow 
oxid ointment (gr. j to 3iij) is recommended. An iridectomy is often 
resorted to for optical purposes. An artificial pupil downward may 
give serviceable vision, although the lower part of the cornea is not 
always clear. The treatment of the other complications is discussed 
under Iheir separate headings. In the course of the disease the pain 
may be so intense as to necessitate hypodermic injections of morphin 
in the temple. Constitutional and hygienic treatment is often neces- 
sary. Pure air, cleanliness, light diet, free bowel- movements, etc., 
are demanded. The rigorous treatment prevents the possibility of 
much sleep. 

RUM). This disease is analogous to the gonorrheal conjunctivitis of 
adults, although the symptoms are less violent, and the consequences 
not so severe. It is usually due to the gonococcus in the secretions 
of the parturient tract, although severe cases have been caused by 
the secretions of nonspecific vaginitis. 

Symptoms. — The inflammatory symptoms are similar to those of 
a mild case of gonorrheal conjunctivitis in the adult. They appear 
between the first and third days of life. Later appearance strongly 
indicates postnatal infection. In lying-in hospitals the disease may 
be transferred from one infant to another, unless the proper precau- 
tions are exercised. 

The course of the disease is shorter than adult gonorrheal conjunc- 
tivitis. Both eyes are usually involved. 

The diagnosis is easily made by the appearance of inflammation 
of the eyes in a newly born child. A history of a vaginal discharge 
in the mother or urethritis in the father is confirmative evidence. 
Bacteriologic examination makes the diagnosis positive. 

The complications are chiefly corneal ulcers, although destruction 
of the eye may result. If the ulcers do nol pc"rt weave, >Jsvft ■^xn^-wasi.'i 
as regards the scars becoming more or less Itans^iiie.^vV.v'^ mvi.'ia'Qe*^, 


^~ ft 


^^ the 



than in the adult afTeclion. Ferforaling ulci 
mas, which are always great hindrance 

Treatment. — As bolh eyes are usually involved, it is not necessary 
to protect one ; in fact, this would be most ditiScull 
care should be taken to avoid transference of 
from one eye to its fellow, as there is not always the 
of infection in the two eyes. 

The prophylactic treatment consists : (i) If possible, in removinjr 
the disease from the mother before labor; (2) thorough disinfection 
of the vagina, before labor, with solutions of creolin, carbolic acid, 
boric acid, salicylic acid, mercuric chlorid, or other antiseptic; 
thorough cleansing and disinfection of the child's eyes as soon 
the head is born. These precautions should be carried out 
suspicious cases, 

Ciede's method should be employed in all cases in hospital □ 
wife service, and in suspected private cases. In fact, ihere is a law 
to this effect in many communities. It consists of dropping a few 
drops of a two per cent, solution of silver nitrate exactly on the 
cornea of a child born of a mother who is suspected of vaginal infec- 
tion. Other solutions have been suggested, hut have no advanlages 
over this simple method. We think, however, as a prophylactic 
measure this strength is greater than necessary, and liable to 
inflammation. A one per cent, solution, together with deanlin* 
etc., seems sufficient until decided symptoms appear. 

The routine treatnient is practically the same as that of gonoriht 
conjunctivitis: cold applications, frequent and thorough irrigation, 
the application of boroglycerid, silver nitrate, etc. At the first sign 
of corneal complication, hot compresses should be employed and 
atropin instilled. Massage with weak yellow oxid ointment is indi- 
cated for the corneal opacities. The child must be well nourished and 
kept clean and warm. Early operation is indicated if the opacities 
are central and dense. The sooner an artificial pupil is established, 
the better for the child's mental development. Of course, operation 
should be deferred a reasonable number of months while waiting for 
the opacities to clear up. In treating these cases, the physician him- 
self should inspect the cornea, and make the applications at least 
a day. Nurses or family attendants often fail to open the lids 
fufSciently to c/eanse the culdesac and to administer the local 






tcli c 




; CONJUNCTIVITIS is an extremely disastrous disease, 
due to infection of the conjunctiva by the Klebs-Loefiier or similar 
bacillus. There is a painful, board-like swelling of the lids, and a 
scanty, seropurulent or serous discharge. The ordinary constitutional 
symptoms of diphtheria may accompany the affection. The treat- 
ment does not differ from that of other purulent affections of the 
conjunctiva, except in the relief of pain by atropin and the ordinary 
diphtheric measures. Administration of the antitoxin is highly rec- 
ommended by some authors. Disease of the cornea is seldom 
avoided in this affection, and the prognosis is very grave. Fortu- 
nately, the disease is rare in this country. 

CROUPOUS CONJUNCTIVITIS differs from true diphtheric conjunc- 
tivitis in that it is characterized by a soft, painless swelling of the 
lids, and a membranous exudation on the surface of the conjunctiva. 
It must be remembered that the secretions of conjunctivitis of the 
new-born may take on a membranous appearance. The treat- 
ment is virtually the same as for 
other purulent infections of the 
conjunctiva. Caustics are contra- 

SymptomB. — Follicular conjunc 

panied by the formation of follicles 
or nodules in the conjunctiva (Fig 
67). It is more infectious than stm 
pie catarrhal conjunctivitis and is 
more prone to relapses ahhough 
no cicatrices remain after the foUi 

cles disappear. The disease may be acute or chronic. The follicles 
can not be seen until the congestion recedes, when they appear in 
rows, glistening through the overlying membrane. Accompanying 
pericorneal injection is a precursor of shallow ulcers at the corneal 
margin. From its infectious character, a special germ is supposed to 
be the cause. It is distinguished from trachoma by the small secretion, 
absence of cicatrices, and appearance in the lower culdesat ovAi, 
^C^ivsiment sbmild be first directed to mcasttiesXQ'pxeNfiA'C^*!"*-^'''^- 

\ ci 


cia.tes of the patient from becoming affected. The secretion should 
be removed as it appears by sublimate solution. Applications of boio- 
glycerid, blue stone, or alum may be of use. Smarting may be 
relieved by cold compresses. The conjunctiva may be 
and the follicles squeezed out with cilia forceps. 


Definition.— A disease of the conjunctiva, characterized by 

unrestricted formation of foUicles, which, instead of being absorl 

as in follicular conjunctivitis, pr^ 
duce permanent granular masses, 
spreading over the surface of the 
entire lid, and presenting, in ex- 
treme cases, the characteristic ap- 
pearance of a bunch of grapes 
of a deep-red color (Fig. 68). The 
upper lid is generally first affected. 
Where the follicles are abundant, 
the conjunctiva is destroyed. Ul- 
ceration takes place, and the 
necrosed membrane is replaced 
by scar-tissue. The disease 
chronic, and progresses many 
years, new nodules forming wl 
others are ulcerating 
triiing. The bulbar conjuncd4 
is not usually involved. 

ith conjunctivitis, followed by 

'ascular tissue over the cornea, 

ng keratitis and conse- 



: begin 

Course. — The 

follicular formation and growth of 
due to friction of the roughened lid, cau5 
quent corneal opacity. The upper third 

affected, and there is a distinct line of demarcation between the 
healthy cornea and the vascular tissue, which never entirely diS' 
appears. This condition is called pannus, and wilt be fully 
ered under diseases of the cornea. The second stage of tracbi 
is ulceration of the foUicles. The secretion, until now slight, 
mucopurulent, and the follicles, inWead ol ^le^■n^ AK^.«\c^,ha' 
tgged appearance and are u\ceia.Ved. T^ne ev.\:vxt cotv^MTitA 

dis- . 



congested, and the lashes are matted togelher with the secretion. After 
some months the disease passes into the third stage— cicatrization. 
The granulations have now disappeared, there is little secretion, and 
the conjunctiva is no longer actively inflamed and rough, but is dry 
and dirty white, thickened, and rolled into line folds. This atrophic 
condition is called parenchymatous xerosis. The entire lid is now 
shorter from above downward, so that ihe lids when closed gape to a 
slight degree, and are turned in. The lashes are sparse and irregu- 
lar, and trichiasis results. Running parallel to the under surface of 
the upper lid and a mm, from it a thiclc scar is sometimes seen. 

The subjeclive Bjimptoms in the first stage are pain, itching and 
burning of the lids, lacrimation, photophobia, and asthenopia. Later 
on there is dimness of vision, which increases in the third stage. 
There are also the annoying symptoms caused by the inverted iashes. 

Cause and Distribution. — Poorly nourished and scrofulous persons 
are most frequently affected. Unhygienic habits and contagion in 
crowded districts are marked factors in the production of the disease. 
Trachoma is rare in mountainous regions, and increases toward the 
lowlands. The peculiar susceptibihiy of some of the Continental 
emigrants is possibly due to their unsanitary habits, rather than to 
any inherent racial peculiarity of temperament. According to Burnett 
and others, negroes are particularly immune from trachoma. 

There is unanimity of opinion as to infectiousness of trachoma, and. 
although there is a.n inclination 10 consider the disease as due to a 
special germ, the reports of bacteriologic investigation have not been 

Prognosis is unfavorable. The disease continues for many years, 
and there is rarely complete recovery. The dryness of the conjunctiva 
is very annoying, and by the irritation and exposure of the corneal 
epithelium, with consequent opacity, vision is affected. Entropion 
and trichiasis are disagreeable sequels. 

Treatment. — ^The patient should be informed of the infectious na- 
ture of the disease, and warned not to wipe his eyes on public towels. 
To the strumous and poorly nourished, change of environment and 
constitutional treatment are of great value. The conjunctival sac 
should be washed several times a day with boric acid or a weak 
solution (i ; 8000) of mercuric chlorid. If the symptoms are acute, the 
temples should be leeched, cold appUca.l\otis wSiftiiVti. -iwft. -4.\.i's'i\-a. 
instilled. As the inflammatory symptoms svto^\ie, a. W^i 'j«s^«-'«^ 


I 1 


solution of boroglycerid in glycerin should be appi 
It may be alternated with glycerol of tannin, or copper sulphate, 
alum in pencil form. Long application of silver niiraie lea' 
Iressing scars and discolors the conjunctiva, and is not a(lvise( 
Those who derive good resulls from this salt use it with great 
and only after long experience, Boroglycerid is more efficaci< 
and can be given to the patient to drop in the eye at home durii 
the intervals of visits to the physician's office. There is diversity o( 
opinion relative to the value of protargol in this affection. We have 
seen little good result from Its use. Mercuric chlorid in solution of 
I ; 250 may be brushed over the everted lids. Op«rations destroyi 
much conjunctiva defeat their own purpose, as the previous desti 
lion of this membrane by the disease is already the cause of 
disagreeable complications. In cases in which the granulations 
very profuse and have not yet ulcerated, the disastrous sequels rai 




be averted by expression. A favorite method 
the granulations with roller- forceps (Fig. 69), but 

jutine practice. Tension may be relieved by splitting tbe 
externa! canlhus and cutting the canthal ligament. Hyperemic 
and soft granules must be more carefully handled. Massage with 
iodoform ointment may be used, and is less painful to the patient, 
and often gives good results in a very short lime. Pannus should 
be treated by massage, peritomy, or jequirity-inoculation (see under 
Oiseases of the Cornea), Distortion of the lids must be corrected 
and corneal opacities treated. Constant instillations of glycerin 
some bland oil are said to be palliative in xi 

TUBERCULAR CONJUNCTIVITIS resembles trachoma, but is, 

rule, confined to one eye. The ulcers are decidedly greater than 
trachoma. The diagnosis may be definitely established by baclt 
Jogic examination and by the symptoms of tuberculosis eUewh< 
^^Ae prognosis is tinfavorable. Tte \oca\ 




destruction of tissue invoVed. The general treatment is that of 
systemic luberculosis. 

lival inflammation recurring each spring or summer and disappear- 
ing with the frost, characterised by a pericorneal epithelial hyper- 
trophy. The affection is binocular, and occurs chiefly in the young. 
It is characterized by a swollen and injected linibus and the signs of 
general catarrhal inHamniatinn. The conjunctiva is pale, and looks 
as if it were covered with a thin film of milk. The cornea itself 
is not involved. There may be localized hypertrophies on the con- 
junctiva of the upper lid. The disease disappears spontaneously, only 
to return in the majority of cases the next season. The average 
duration is about four years. In a few cases slight opacities are \e{t 

Treatment. — The refraction should be carefully examined, and any 
ametropia corrected. In some cases it is even advisable to put the 
ciliary muscles at rest for several weeks, by the daily instillation of 
airopin. A mild, soothing lotion should be prescribed, and pro- 
tective glasses ordered. 

Synonyms. — Lymphatic, scrofulous, or herpetic conjur 

-This dise 

IS char 

;riied by the 

porary vesicles or pustules on 
the bulbar conjunctiva {rig. 70). 
These blebs are called phlyc- 
enules.and are grayish -red and 
flallened prominences, from 
one to four mm. in diameter, 
with deep-red surroundings. 
Sometimes only a single bleb is 
seen. When anumbercf these 
phlyctenules are present, there 

gestion, pain, photophobia, and 
even blepharospasm. The lid 

is swollen and red, Ihe conjunctiva injec\.ed tivvA vtVutA'j ,-m\&.'&wxi\«. 
mucopurulent discharge. The vessels suppV^'in^V'Rc^'n^tt'i.e.ft.te'erao 


^^Vare swullen and become tortuous as they approach the phlyctenule. 
^^H In the purulent form the disease soon reaches its height, i 
^^m severe for a few days, and then subsides. The milder varietii 

the patient shght inconvenience. Scrofulous children are particularly 
susceptible, and the disease is often seen in children with signs of 
eczema elsewhere on the body. It may follow the common infectious 
fevers. In debilitated children there is a tendency to relapse, 
disease may continue for years. 

Unless the cornea becomes involved, the prognosis is good. Bac- 
terial infection has been suggested ai 

Treatment. — The constitutional treatment consists of cleanliness, 
fresh air, good food, tonics, cod-liver oil, etc. Local Ir 
of the daily application of a mild Pagensiecher ointment, and irriga- 

*tion with a mild antiseptic solution. Calomel may be dusted over the 
effected area, unless the child is taking some preparation of iodin. 
The applications should not be made in too rapid succession. Mas- 
sage with a ten per cent, iodoform ointment, or with a weak salve of 
the yellow oxid, is often of value. A I : looa aqueous solution of pyok- 
tanin has proved useful. Boroglycerid, fifty per cent., is a useful, 
application. The more severe applications, such as silver nitrate and 
the zinc salts, were formerly used. Stimulating applications shouU 
be avoided if there are signs of a corneal ulcer. 

PINGUECULA is a small, yellowish growth on the bulbar conjunci 
tiva, close to the cornea and usually to the inner side. It has 
vascular supply, and is pale when the rest of the conjimcllva is ci 
gested. Mechanical irritation is the probable cause. There is little 

^^ discomfort, although it may lead to pterygium. No interference i 

^^L nOcessary. 

^H PTERYQiUH is a triangular patch of thickened conjunctiva, na 

^m common on the nasal side ; the apex of the growth points toward lb 
pupil, and the fan-shaped base radiates toward the canlhus. As 
continues to grow, it resembles a mass of flesh ; and as years go on 
partly atrophies, becomes pale, and appears tendinous. It is looself 
attached at the limbus, and in this position a probe can be pai 
under its edges. On the cornea the growth is firmlj' adherent and mu 
be torn or dissected away. If the pterygium grows over the cornea, 
aiaydmg the conjunctiva and carundc WaV "w Vo suiAi a.&«Gieti 
to inierfere with the movemeTits of V\\e e-itba.\\."tae.^\4« \KtQtK 

has developed 

>t exlended upon the cornea and 
lay be left undisturbed. A flat, 
of growth, and excision need not 
neans active progression. The 
Grasp the neck of the pterygium 
in perpendicular to the surface ; 

unsightly. This affection is frequently found in elderly persons ■ 
have endured exposureinyearsof outdoor occupation. It is comi 
in sailors. One eye is usually aflected, although the growth has h 
seen simultaneously in both eyes, an 
from the outer canthus. 

Treatment. — If the growth has n 
shows no sign of progression, it r 
stringy head indicates a ce 
be resorted lo. A vascular head r 
operation of removal is as follow 
with fixation forceps, making tra< 
dissect up the head, and make 
two converging incisions into 
the body with a pair of scissors. 
The pails between these inci- 
sions are dissected away and the 
loienge-shaped wound closed 
by a suture apphed about the 
middle of the wound. Another 
method of removal Is by trans- 
piantalion. The growth is split 
longitudinally and is fixed in an 
upper and a lower conjunctival 

pocket with a suture. Ligation fic. 71.— Lioatioh oi' Ptebigium. 

has also been recommended ; a 

large part of the pterygium between the sclerocorneal margin and the 
base of the growth is strangulated by sutures in the manner shown in 
figure 71, It has been suggested that the whole trouble in pterygium 
lies in the apex, and curetment of the affected cornea or the applica- 
tion of the galvanocautery has produced good results. Under the old 
operations pterygium was liable lo recur, and sometimes repeated 
operations caused limitation of (he ocular movements. Electrolysis 
is the most recent treatment proposed. 


FOREIGN BODIES in the conjunctival sac are sometimes difficult 

to locate, and the lids should be everted and the bottom of the sulci 

explored. In case a /breign body resists re'mova\,\\.Ti\iK.'t'^t^»;t&»s&- 

bered that il wilj cause disagreeab\e sytYXptotns, a.wi™^^- *^"'*-'***^ 

have lo be taken out ; therefore, in refractory c; 
with 3. forceps and dragged out, even at ihe risk of laceration, j 
Cocain may be u^ed in the removal of a foreign body, and a mildl 
antiseptic wash prescribed. 

WotjNDS of llie conjunctiva, if slight, need only s 
vnsh. such as boric acid or a I : ;ooa mercuric chlorid solution.^ 
Extensive wounds must be closed with a fine suture. Large granu- 
lations after wounds or operation may be cut off at the base with a 
pair of fine scissors. 

StJBCONJUNCTlVAl. HEMORRHAGES occur after Iraumatisni, vio- 
lent exertion, or severe fits of sneezing or coughing. They disappear 
spontaneously in two or three weeks. Subconjunctival hemorrhage, 
coming on several days after an injury, is indicative of fracture of 
the orbit. Spontaneous hemorrhage in the conjunctiva is a dangerous J 
signal of an atheromatous condition elsewhere. 

BiiRNS of the conjunctiva are usually on the bulbar portion, whicb 
is most exposed. The 

with a piece of cottor 
neutralized at once. 
Cocain and atropin a 
plied in the form of ai 

'^TTS^v " 

cned conjunctiva i 
pLintatlon of new s 
the deformity. 

n cleansing the eye, u 
y lime, when the parts should be washed 1 
■A in oil. Acids and alkalies should be \ 
oil or liquid vaselin should be instilled.! 
isable to relieve the pain, and may be ap-l 
Atropin, o. I; cocain, 0.2: vaselin, lo.Oi 
of the lid to the eyeball, ihusi 
'e (Fig. 72). It is cicatricial i«r 
origin, following some i 
jury, burn, or destructivein 
flammalion of the conjunc-J 
liva. It should be preventei 
by keeping the injured o\ 
posed areas from being iaj 
apposition during the heal-4 
ing process. Symblepharoitf 
is treated by dissecting 
the constricting tissue anij 
preventing the cut ends froitf 
liting by transferring \oo^. 

e surface. \n 
mucous merobtm 

s 1^**1 Vi 

TUUDRS of the conjunctiva are lipoma, polypus, cysts, dermoids, 
sarcoma, and carcinoma. Lipoma should be turned out; ptolypus, 
excised down to Ihe healthy tissue; and cysts, opened and their 
walls cauterized. If solely confined to the conjunctiva, sarcoma and 
carcinoma may be carefully excised, and the wound cauterized by 
the galvanocautery. In cases of deeper involvement, enucleation 
of the eye becomes imperative. 


—The cornea is the transparent tunic covering the 

nrtor fifth of the globe of the eye. It is circular in form, t 
vex, and, by the way it is fitted into the beveled edge of the sclera, 
resembles a watch-crystal. When examined from its exterior surface, 
its vertical diameter is about one-sixteenlh shorter than the trans- 
verse; on its interior surface its outline is perfectly circular. The 
cornea is one mm. thick at its apex. It is covered with the conjunc- 
tiva and is itself composed of three layers (Fig. 73). The anterior 
layer consists of epithelium, columnar in shape, supported by a homo- 
geneous elastic structure cMed B<rwmart's membrane. The middle 
layer constitutes about 95 per cent, of the whole cornea, and consists 
of fine connective tissue and elastic fibrils, which are arranged in 
layers; between these layers is a series of communicating spaces, 
called lacunas. The lacunas, with iheir canals, constitute the lymph- 
system of the cornea, and through them the nutrient fluid circulates. 
In order that the cornea may be perfectly transparent, in health it is 
devoid of blood-vessels. The posterior layer consists of a glass-like, 
structureless basement tissue, called Descemefs membrane, which, in 
spite of its exlreme thinness (.006 mm.), is very strong. On the sur- 
face of Descemel's membrane there is a single layer of flat endothe- 
lial cells, continuous with the anterior surface of the iris. The cornea 
is richly supplied with nonmedullaled nerves, which extend to the 
uppermost layer of the corneal epithelium, and are sensitive indica- 
tors of irritation of the exposed surface. 

INFLAMMATIONS OF THE CORNEA demand 9a.w!\«ia.X ■JM.eti'OiKrtii 
as they are very hkely to result in opacities, Xeavvtv^w 


optic disturbances. Since the cornea is inelastic and nonvascular, 
the ordinary signs of inflammation are not present, and the diagnostic 
sign is cloudiness of the tissue, resulting from a collection of leuko- 
cytes that have passed into the cornea from the adjacent blood- 
vessels. In corneal inflammation there is generally swelling and 
inflammation of the lids and congestion of the conjunctiva. Peritor- 
nealinjectioH is due to congestion of the deep conjunctival vessels, 
arising from the ciliary arteries. Inflammations of the cornea may 
be divided into two classes, supfrficlal znA deep. 




— Panni 


the superficial layer of the cornea ; 
the deeper layers. It begins with 
which large areas become clouded 
and infiltrated with superficial 
blood-vessels. The newly formed 
and tortuous vessels are largest 
at the periphery, and are directed 
toward the center of the cornea. 
There may be only one vessel, or 
the vascular formation may be so 
luxuriant that a great part of the 
corneal surface is transformed 
into a fleshy-looking mass, having 
the appearance of raw beef. This 
condition is sometimes called ^unj 

The cause of pani 
lids against the cornea, or ther 
matous process into the cornea 
affected (Fig, 74). Prolonged 

growth of connective tissue on 

may. however, extend and affect 
inflammation of Ihe cornea, in 

IN Thachoma.— I.J/i'd- 

generally the friction of roughened granular 

nay be an extension of the tracho- 

The upper half is the part usually 

of the cornea by inverted 


lashes or entropion may cause pannus unassocialed with ulcers. The 
eczemalous variety of pannus is a sequence of a phlyctenular process. 

The aymptoma of pannus are p:iin, photophobia, lacrimation, swell- 
ing, conjunctival and ciliary injection, together with lie character- 
istic vascular appearance. 

The prognosis depends upon the extent of corneal infiltration and 
destruction of the epithelium. The important b«^u.«,1« »."!t •^tnwssi. 
'.cities, and, rarely, conic cornea and cottiea\ «a.^\viV«a»" 


The treatment should be directed to the cure of Ihe granular lids, | 
or to remedying tbe trichiasis or entropion. Should Ihe pannu! 
last the causes of the disease, massage with yellow ointment o 
application of such preparations as boroglycerid and copper sulphab 
should be tried. Eserin, and iodoform or one of its substitutes, 3 
constant bandaging of the eye are of value. The extreme measu 
are peritomy, which consists in removal of a ribbon of conjuDctlvs^ 
about two mm. wide, parallel with the edge of the c 
ing and obliterating the superfluous vessels (unfortunately, the vessels 
repullulate) ; or the induction of an acute inflammation of Ihe con- 
junctiva with an extract of jequiriiy seeds. For Ihe relief of pain, ^^ 
Latropin and hot-water applications a 

Definition. — Diffuse inflammation of the substantia propria of ll 

Symptoms and Diagnosis. — In this disease the deeper tissues • 
a became infikrated by lymph-cells, whicb slowly increa; 
[ until the whole cornea becomes more or less opaque. Without alen 
the cornea presents the appearance of 1 
piece of ground glass {Fig. 75), but foe 
illumination shows that the parts are ni 
uniformly alfecled, and sometimes ui 
affected portions may be seen betweel 
local opacities. Pericorneal injection i 
marked, but the conjunctival vessels lax 
be but slightly affected. The epitheliuK 
may be partly destroyed. The iris maj 
be affected sympathetically and posleriof 
Wjrnechias formed ; in fact, the whole ciliary region and the chora 
■ may be affected and the nutrition of the vitreous disturbed. In ve 
severe cases blood-vessels form in the interstices of the cornea. Tl 
disease is Ihe result of general infection, and, according to Horner, li 
at least 80 per cent, of cases both eyes are attacked eventually, 
disease occurs chiefly in hereditary syphilis, and is associated 1 
iheoiher signs of this malady, such as Hutchinson's teeth, thickeo 
//}£■ of the periosteum, glandular swellings, middle-ear disease, t 
A syphilitic history may be obtavned (rom v\vc p3.ieiM.&. tVit to.w; 


^nay bear evidences of specific infection, and give a hislory of sickly 
cliildren or recurring miscarriages. It is probable that some cases are 
of tuberculous origin. The chief subjective symplotns are ditnness 
of vision and lacrimalion, but there may be much pain or photo- 

The prognosis is unfavorable, although complete loss of \ 
seldom to be feared. The disease is of long duration, and 
tion of the visual acuity is doubtful, especially if the patien 
very young. 

The treatment Is directed to the systemic condition, and co: 
mercurials, iodids, cod-liver oil, and tonics, cleanliness, good food, 
and fresh air. The following is a good formula : 

B- Mercuric iodid g'' '} 

Poiassium iodid, gij 

Syrup of sarsBparillo q. ».ad ^iij. 

A leaspoorful in waler after meals. 

The local treatment is by atropin, warm compresses, and protective 
glasses. When the disease has passed its climax, massage with yellow 
ointment or dusting with calomel are of advantage. 

PUNCTATE KERATITIS is a disease of the cornea associated with 
affections of the iris, choroid, and vitreous. It is characteriied by 
the formation of opaque dots, generally arranged in a triangular 
ir upon the posterior elastic lamina of the cornea, and hence is 
i called descemetitis, which term, however, is usually 
restricted to serous iritis. It is also used to express an inflammatory 
affection of the cornea occurring in young syphilitic children, in 
which isolated white spots, surrounded by cloudy areas, appear on 
Descemet's membrane. There is a superficiiil piinciale keratilis 
associated with severe conjunctivitis and catarrh of the respiratory 

Description. — Although there is no especial reason for separating 
this disease from phlyctenular conjunctivitis, it is usually also described 
under Diseasesof the Cornea, It is particularly a disease of children 
of scrofulous diathesis or improper nourishment, or who show signs 
of edematous affection in other portions of the body. Adults and 
^^aXihy childtea are also affected. \l va c^&'ia.OKiaj 


I tiiore phlyctenules, or small cysts, formed on the limbus of the 
junctiva, and extending upon the cornea (Fig. 76). These phlye- 
tenules cause an opacity which may clear up or may be followed bj 
the formation of a bundle of new vessels on the cornea. This leaih 
of vessels may disappear, but the ulcer beneath them generally leav( 
I an opacity. 

[ Symptoms. — The chief symptoms are acute pain, photophoW 
lacrimation, and the characteristic bundle of vesseb, with ~a yellc 
crescent at the apex, its concavity toward the vessels. Every phlyc 
tcnule does not necessarily change to an ulcer, but may be dissolve^ 
under proper treatment. The photophobia may be so intense as 
cause blepharospasm, because irritation of so highly nervous 
tissue as the cornea gives rise to severe reflex symptoms. Tl 
blepharospasm may be so severe as to necessitate the administratic 
a general anesthetic before the cornea can be properly examine 
The treatment consists of good foo 
improved hygienic surroundings, a.[ 
soothing local applications. Of ll 
latter, atropin and warm compressi 
areadvised. Theeyemaybedouch( 
with mercuric chlorid. 1 : 8000. If a 
ulcer exist, the general treatment i 
before described should be institute 
When the ulcer has healed, it shoul 
be dusted with iodoform or calomc 
and massaged with yellow ointmen 
We have found that to promote al 
ilillation of eserin into the eye, follovrc 
ornea, and a constant applicatio 
ng local heal, produce good results. 

HERPES OF THE CORNEA is characterized by the formation t 
small blebs filled with a watery fluid. It may be the general accon 
paniment of herpes zoster or febrile herpes. The blebs should I 
treated with the gentlest measures, such as the instillation of atropi] 
disinfection, and a bandage. Should they form ulcers, they shoul 
be treated as such, 

NBUROPARAi,YTic KERATITIS is an ulcerative condition of tt 
M, due to some disttirbance of ihtcomcaiTvctvt-sM'p^Vi. TV 


^^prognosis and treaiment of the disease depend upon tlic 
lesion causing it. 

BULLOUS KERATITIS is characteiiied by the formation on tlie 
cornea of large vesicles filled wilh a clear fluid. The vesicles break 
after a few days, and the symptoms of irritation subside. This con- 
dition has been seen associated with glaucoma, iritis, and inflamma- 
tion of the uveal tract. The disease has been attributed to some 
affection of the corneal nerves, and to malarial fever. A peculiar 
chronic form is sometimes seen after corneal injury. It is called 
recurrent traumatic keratitis. U is said that the recurrent attacks are 
preceded by a peculiar aura, and that they may be aborted by large 
doses of quinin. The vesicles should be incised early, and local 
treatment instituted. 

KERATITIS FROM LAGOPHTHALMOS is a Condition in which there 
is ulceration of the cornea, due to exposure from incomplete closure 
of the lids. The chief causes are lack of sensation in the cornea from 
paralysis of the peripheral nerves, a condition in which the patient 
lies comatose for a long time, and possibly some paralysis of the 
lid-muscles. Protection by anointing with vaselin or a bland oil is 


Corneal ulcer is caused by an external wound leaving an opening 
for the entrance of a suppurative process, by intense conjunctival 
inflammation, or by some deep inflammatory process which leaifs to a 
destruction of the superficial layers and epithelium. 

Diagnosis and Symptoms. — It is very important lo immediately 
recognize any superficial loss of substance in the cornea. The or- 
dinary optic aids, such as oblique focal illumination and high plus 
lenses, or the ophthalmoscope, are generally sufficient. In doubtful 
cases and in young children, a drop of fluorcscin placed on the con- 
junctival sac, and immediately washed out, is a ready means of diag- 
nosis. Any spot of the cornea denuded of its epithelium will be colored 
green. If an ulcer is present, we must determine whether it is due to 
external infection, from extension of some conjunctival disease, from 
nervous disease, or from some systemic affection, as the subsequent 
treaiment depends much on the origin. However, If pain, photo- 
phobia, lacrimation, and attendant svjeWit^g o\ \i\e.\\4,^'4.tA.>^^'^'»K> 


together with extensive and progressive desiruclion of tissue, are 
present, it is necessary lo proceed imtnedialely, regard!) 
mode of origin, which may be left to a subsequent 
ulcer with a ragged edge and a grayish, uneven base, with general 
cloudiness around ihe circumference, and acute associale local dis- 
turbance and subjective sytnploms, is probably in an active stage of 
inflammation. If the cloudiness is clearing up, the edge round, and 
the ulcer appears clear and smooth, and the patient's symptoms are 
subsiding, the healing process has probably begun, 
becomes filled up, the opacity becomes more dense ; the younger the 
patient, the sooner the scar will clear up. Central ulcers result 
most damage to vision. 

The sequels of most importance are : corneal opacity ; staphy- 
loma, or hernia of the cornea, due to weakening of its structure by 
scar-formation, which condition sometimes includes a staphyli 
the iris as well as the cornea ; perforation, followed by discharge of 
aqueous and prolapse of the iris, which may remain permanently 
adherent to the white corneal scar, a condition called leukoma mf 
AiTCwj; atrophy of the eyeball, called^A/Arji>i«/i(', following i 
destruction of the cornea ; and prolapse even of the lens and vilreous, 

The prognosis varies with the age of the patient, location and 
extent of involvement, and the general systemic condition. 

The treatment is. first, to put the eye at rest, which is best accom' 
plished by a pressure-bandage and by alropin, which subdues pain 
and overcomes inflammation. If there is much congestion of the 
conjunctiva, leeches to the temple will give great relief and hasten 
subsidence of symptoms. Disinfection is best accomplished by a 
mercuric chiorid solution, I ; 5000, or the ulcer may be dusted with 
iodoform. After dusting iodoform on the cornea, the upper lid should 
be drawn away from and down over the cornea, and held in position 
a few minutes, otherwise movement of the eye will brush all the 
powder off" the cornea. If the ulcer progresses, stronger disinfection, 
preferably with mercuric chlorid, 1 : looo. boroglycerid 50 pet cent, 
or formalin 10 per cent., will be needed. Finally, if the ulcer resist; 
all treatment and is progressive, the whole of the infected surface 
should be cauterjied by the direct heat of the galvanocaulery. Moist 
heat, applied in the shape of mild antiseptic compresses, will lessen 
ihe ;>ajn, increase ihe development of blood-vessels, and arouse a 

\eral reaction in Ihe affected parts. 

If perforation seems is best to haslen it by puncture 
with a needle or small cataract knife, as experience has shown that 
perforated ulcers heal quickly of tliemaelves, and better drainage Is 
established. After perforation the eye should be carefully waStied, 
eserin inslilled, a pressure-bandage applied, and the eye allowed to 
remain untouched for at least twenty -four hours. If the iris prolapses, 
it must be drawn from the wound and excised. When the ulcer 
shows signs of healing, daily massage with a weak Pagenstecher 
ointment is advisable. The membrane of Descemet is very elastic 
and sometimes, instead of perforating, It prolapses through the ulcer 
and prevents its healing, causing a corneal fistula. In such cases 
the edges of the ulcer should be stimulated or cauterized. The treat- 
ment of the sequels will be discussed separately. Constitutional 
treatment, particularly administration of Ionics, should be inaugurated 
al the beginning of the disease, and any causal disease corrected. 
The patient should not be kept in an ill-ventilated, dark room. 

ABSCESS OP THE CORNEA may run its course without ulceration, 
or it may result in ihe formation of an ulcer— usually the ulcus ser- 
pens. Abscesses in the superficial layers of the cornea are most 
prone to ulceration. 

The chief causes of abscess are infection through an abrasion or 
distinct wound, or infection through the blood or lymph channels, as 
seen in some acute cianthematous diseases, such as measles, scarlet 
fever, small-pox, etc. 

The appearance presented is that of a yellowish, circumscribed 
opacity near the middle of the cornea, and surrounded by a grayish 
zone. It is usually round or crescentic in shape. The surface over 
the abscess appears elevated and dull, and the whole cornea may 
lose its luster and appear as opalescent. There is usually much 
conjunctival and ciliary injection. The abscess is attended with 
severe pain, photophobia, blepharospasm, etc. Hypopyon, onyx, and 
iridic involvement are usually constant altendants. The common 
termination is ulceration through the superficial corneal layers; but 
occasionally the abscess spreads through the corneal stroma, and 
gradually becomes absorbed without undergoing ulceration. 

The treatment consists of atropin. warm fomentations, iodofovm,, 
and a light bandage. If these measures do noX. thtclt 'C^t^ofsisi, 
resort must be had lo Ihe cautery. HypopV'^'" '^^ ■ctXvfc'Jti "fti ij-^^*' 



nature of cinchona comp. 
g diet should be instiluied. 


t the 

SERPIGINOUS ULCER, OR ULCUS SERPENS, is a destructive inilam-- 

n of the cornea usually attacking debililaled and aged persons. 

Disease of the lacrimal passages predisposes to It. its chief chatacier- 

s its remarkable inclination to extend and destroy tii 
most commonly results from some injury to the eye, often only 
small scratch, through which some form of infecting germ 
duced. Infection may be derived from the article causing the inji 
from some purulent discharge about 
eye or its appendages, or from some 
article used to wipe the eye. At the 
posterior part of the ulcer thi 
ally seen a grayish cloud, which may 
tend into the anterior chamber. This 
caused by a collection of pus- 

I""['(((|i['|i[]r[i[\iV>' in the lamellas of the cor 

Fic. 77-— Acute Ebsfiginoub onyx, or in the anterior chamber, whicb 
Ulcer of the Corner. render the aqueous opaque, and, settling 

in the bottom of the anterior chamber, 
form what is called hypopyon. The disease begins as a round, yellowish 
abscess near the center of the cornea (Fig, 77), which breaks and forms 
an ulcer rapidly increasing in surface and depth. Serpiginous ulcer 
often follows severe infectious diseases, particularly smalUpox. 

The prognosis is unfavorable, as there is generally left an exten: 
opacity, and most likely anterior and posterior synechias. 

The treatment is the same as for an ordinary severe ulcer or 
scess, Occasionally Saemisch's operation at the base of the ulcer'; 

Rodent ulcer is a chronic inflammation, beginning 1 

I of the cornea and slowly eating its way to the opposite margin, 
rarely extending intothe deeper layers. Its edges must be 
ANOMALOUS OPACITIES.— In this connection it is deemed 3d< 
able to mention peculiar acute opacities, evidently de nutritional, 
which can not be called ulcers or abscesses. They develop rapidly 
MS white spots without previous signs of corneal inflammation, and 
sometimes leave permanent opacmcs. Itta ^\\c'MiTOt:iv(iT^\\-aa' 
noticed after adacks of severe conjuncCiN\t\5 ^^li IqWo^v&^i" 



iritis. Such denutriUonal ftpacilies are no more 
ment than Ihe ordinary forms foUowmg corneal ul 
use of mercuric chlorid in catnract-extrac 
neal opacities, which may be permanent. 

VARIETIES OF CORNEAL, OPACITIES.— Leukoma is the densest 
corneal opacity, and appears as a white spot. Macula is less dense, 
and appears as a bluish-gray spot, and is only visible against a dark 
background. Nebula is a transparent and extremely delicate opacity, 
which may only be delected by optic aid, and is often overlooked in 
first examinations. The degree of visual disturbance is dependent 
on the position and nature of the opacity. A considerable opacity at 
the margin of the cornea may cause little orno trouble, while a nebula 
in the center of the cornea markedly reduces the visual acuity. 

TREATMENT OF CORNEAL OPACITIES. — The results of the treat- 
ment of corneal opacity vary with the estent of the involvement and 
the age of the patient. Fortunately, there is a strong tendency 
toward clearing up in young patients. Absorption is favored by mild 
irritants and absorbents, such as finely-powdered calomel or iodo- 
form dusted upon the curnea, and massage with yellow ointment 
or iodoform ointment, continued months and even years. By retain- 

Fio. ;B,— Tattooing NKtuLa. 

•ng heat, a hght bandage promotes absorption. The greatest degree 
of patience must be exercised to produce a beneficial result. 

If the condition of the retina is believed to be favorable, and 
part of the cornea is clear, an optic iridectomy, forming an artificial 
pupil back of the transparent portion, will improve vision. As yet, 
I he insertion of transparent corneal grafts has not been successful. 
Recently some progress in the clearing of corneal opacities has been 
made by a special use of the galvanic current. Tattooing the opacity 
with India ink is sometimes resorted to for cosmetic as well as optic 
reasons. The ink is gently inserted by several fine steel needles 
firmly fastened in a handle (Fig. 78). 

X grayish-while opacU'^, £)AtTi&iv^».^wa.-a*i'&>e- 

a 'about i.j mm. fronn ite botdet. T^e. 

in aged and ^ 

STAPHYLOMA OF THE CORNEA is a bulging forward of a corneal 

r wilti an adherent iris. It is caused by the weakening of the 

I corneal tissue, which gives way to the intraocular pressure, pushing 

1 the lens forward. 

Secondary glai 

mplication. The staphyloma 
may be partial ortotal {Fig. 7g). The 
pain, loss of vision, and repulsive dis- 
figurement associated wiih this affec- 
tion render the palientagreat sufferer, 
Treatment.— Unless the condition is 
only that of a simple prolapse of the 
— iris, the treatment is of no avail 

ir ~t-o iPLETH bTAPH^LoMA When possiblc, abscission of the sta- 
phylomalous projection, forming 3 
uitable stump for a glass eye, is to be preferred to enucleation, 
I particularly in young children, in whom the presence of orbital ci 
s is necessary for the symmetric growth of the face. If there aj 
signs of infection or internal disease, enucleation is peremptoril 

inning and 
:, without alteration 
the transparency. It is the result of progressive weakening of 
corneal tissues. It occurs in young persons between ten and twenty 
years of age, without any evidence of inflammation. It eventually 
becomes stationary, and perforation never occurs. The pathology 
is obscure. It is readily diagnosed by the distorted image 
patient's cornea, the depth of the anterior chamber, and by 
relinoseope and ophthalmoscope; in fact, it is only necessary to 
a side view of the patient's eye. 

Treatment is of little v.ilue, although a high minus spheric 
combination of minus spheric and minus cylindric lenses may 
\ prove the vision. Hyperbolic glasses have been devised, but are 
mt/e used. Trephining a fine piece o\ \\\e apex o\ ^nt 
'Jiing- it wiib a special galvanocauicfj vi^^w. ai\i 

or« [ 

TUMORS OF THE CORNEA are very rare, but the cornea may be 
attacked by new growths which arise at the conjunctival Mmbus. 

'OREIGN BODIES IN THE CORNEA, if not removed, aim 
biy cause cell-intiltration and destruction of the adjacent tissue, tl 
inviting infection. However, the subjective symptoms so well kno 
to everybody are usually so severe as to demand immediate tri 
ment. Although simple inspection may be sufficient, focal i 
mination and fluorescin, for (he detection of the denuded area 
epithelium, are sometimes necessary for locating abrasions. 
every case it is safer to examine the eye by focal and oblique illumi 

Foreign bodies in 
out the useofcocai 
is wound on itself oi 

n the cornea can generally be removed with- 
id without insUumtnVaX aS5i. K-«'\a'jiA tWisro. 
a small stick ■,lhepa.<vft'iU.\a\o\&\Ki\'iOs,iiE™-5i- 


I ward, and the cotton is pressed firnily against the cornea. The paiient^H 


ward, and the cotton is pressed firmly against the cornea. The patient 4 
immediately rotates the eyeball upward, and the cornea Is brushej^ 
against the fibers of cotton, which usually entangle the foreign body.B 
We have found this simple method almost invariably successful, and ■ 
we urge its trial before resorting to the spud or needle. 

The removal of a foreign body from the cornea by it 
procedure that should be carried on with especial caution. If the 
substance is embedded, the cornea should first be cocainized and ren- 
dered aseptic. 

Under focal illumination, a small curet, chisel, or spud will gener- 
ally accomplish the removal. If, however, the foreign body is closBa 
to the anterior chamber, it may be lost in the iridic angle. In such M 
case a small keratome should be introduced ir 
and pressed against the posterior surface of the cornea, thus prevenH 

L iDg penetration of the foreign body into the anterior chamber, 
c magnet is often of great value in removing pieces of iro 

I- steel. A boric acid wash or iodoform ointment should be used for ■! 

[ least twenty-four hours after the use 

BURNS OF THE CORNEA are treated on the same principle 
burns of the conjunctiva, already described. Ulceration , o pacities 
and svmbl epharon a re the important sequels to be feared. 

WOUt«DS OF THE CORNEA are always dangerous, not only fra 
the destruction of corneal tissue and subsequent opaque cicatrix, I 
they are also often attended by sudden escape of the aqueous ) 
prolapse of the iris. Results of infection through a corneal wounfl 
vary from the formation of an ulcer to the destruction of the whoH 

The treatment is the application of a simple aseptic bandaj 
The eye should be kept clean, and if there is much irritation, s 
should be used. Should the iris become prolapsed, an effort nr 
made to replace it and retain it in position by eserin, complel 
I and a bandage. If this treatment is not successful^he iris should be 
drawn out and excised. Very large prolapses^shonld not be excised, 
as they will recur, and much iris tissue Will be needlessly lost. 
In such cases no operative interference is indicated until the wound 
closes. The cornea and iris are cleansed, an attempt made to par- 
lra//y reduce the prolapse, atropin inW\\lt4, a ^xesaMrc bandage 
applied, and the patient placed on hisba.A 


lmic banda ge J | 

^^P PAI 


PARACENTESIS OF THE CORNEA is an Operation performed for the 
purpose of emptying the anterior chamber of aqueous, and thus reliev- 
ing any increased intraocular tension, or for evacuating hypopyon. It 
is best done with a paracentesis needle, a bentkeratome, or a slender 
Graefe knife. The eye is thoroughly cleansed, and the point of a 
aseptic kni{eispirprniiicu/ar(y introduced at the lower outer border of 
the cornea. If it is introduced at an angle, there is danger of splitting 
the layers of the cornea, and not directly perforating it. After per- 
foration of the cornea, the blade of the knife is turned horizontally, 
and a corneal wound of about two 
mm. in length made. The knife is 
then slowly withdrawn, allowing the 
aqueous to escape slowly. Depres- 
sion of the lower edge of the wound 
by a curet will aid in the evacuation 
of hypopyon. 

formed for the relief of corneal ab- 
scess or serpiginous ulcer. It con- 
sists in introducing a Graefe knife 
through healthy corneal tissue at the 
margin of the involved area, carry- 
ing it into the anterior chamber, 
and making a counterpuncture in 
healthy tissue at the other side of 
the abscess. The cutting-edge is 
then drawn forward, and the abscess 
bisected. Any pus may be removed 
by irrigation or by a scoop. The woui 
completely so long as the disease is ac 

id must not be allowed to close 

trephine, a piece of a rabbit' 

consists in removing, with a 
nea. and transpbnling it ove 
ibtfui value in any case. 

CRITCHETT'S OPERATION is the simptesl. and ■rooW. t'fi.e^t'oi.-ic- "SV 

pthreaded needles are inserted, enu\A\\. ^Tii Ya.xjSvi?i ■»rv«i 



arolher, through Ihe base of ihe staphyloma (Fig. 81); the involvn 
tissues are then excised with a knife or scissors, a.nd the needles 
drawn through and the sutures tied. This leaves a very desirable^ 
stump upon which to place an artificial eye. This operation i 
be preferred to enucleation of the eye in children, as the stump favors 
symmetric growth of the face. 


Anatomy.— The scleraforms the euternal tunic of the posterior four- ' 
fifths of the eyeball. It is a dense, fibrous membrane, thicker behind 
than in front. Since the surface of the sclera is partially protected by 
the conjunctiva and partially by the capsule of Tenon, an epithelial 
surface is unnecessary, and both the internal and external surfaces 
of the sclera are covered with endothelium, which facilitates move- 
ment against the capsule of Tenon on one side and the middle tunic 
on the other. Anteriorly, the sclera presents a beveled edge for the 
reception of the cornea, in the same way that a watch-glass is received 
in a grooved case. The anterior surface is covered by a thin, tendi- 
nous layer, the tunica albuginea, which is derived from an expansion 
of the tendons of the recti muscles, and which, by reason of its bril- 
liant white appearance, is commonly called " the while of the eye." 
Posteriorly, the sclerotic is continuous with the sheath of the optic 
nerve. At the entrance of the optic nerve the sclerotic forms a thin, 
cribriform lamella, called the lamina cribrosa, which is pierced by 
the filaments of the optic nerve and the central artery and vein of the 
retina. The sclera is also pierced, about twelve mm. anteriorly, by the 
posterior ciliary vessels and nerves, and still more anteriorly by the 
vens vorticosse, which empty into the ophthalmic vein. Close to ihe 
limbus, the anterior cihary vessels and nerves enter the sclera. The 
fibers of the sclera contain numerous lymph-channels communicat- 
ing with those of the cornea and of the internal and external struc- 

Inflammations of the sclera are usually secondary to those of Ihe 
cornea, cUiary body, and choroid ; in fact, all four of these structures 
rnay be involved in anterior 8cleroctoTo\d\tt». \ivo^a3ii\c.Sisea.MeiA 
the sclera is not common, and is ncvci dtSvjse. 


Episcleritia is a localiied inflammation of the scleral tissue charac- 
terized by a purplish injectign of the ciliary, deep pericorneal, and 

Symptoms and Diagnoais. — If the conjunctival vessels are kept 
empty by gentle pressure, the bluish scleral vessels are seen more 
clearly. There is considerable pain on pressure and some local 
swelling. Carefully examined, a flat nodule made up of minute vesi- 
cles is seen lying about three mm. from the edge of the cornea. There 
are often adjacent slate-gray blotches, which are very diagnostic. 
The disease is intimately connected with rheumatic disorders, and 
with syphilis and tuberculosis. The diagnosis is easy, and depends 
upon the characteristic local condition and rheumatic, gouty, or 
syphilitic history. There may be confusion with phlyctenular disease. 
A phlyctenule is not covered with a network of vessels, may ulcerate, 
and is of short duration. The course of the disease is protracted, 
sometimes one nodule after another being formed until a large por- 
tion of the sclera is occupied by blotches. Relapses are frequent, and 
are closely connected with general rheumatic paroxysms. The pain 
is more or less severe, and for the time the eye is practically useless 
for near-work. 

Treatment is general. Salicylates and the ordinary rheumatic 
treatment should be instituted ; or if syphilis or tuberculosis are de- 
fined, their respective treatments should be inaugurated. Ordinarily, 
local treatment should be avoided, but in chronic cases massage with 
yellow ointment may be tried. For the relief of the pain, moist heat 
and pressure are advised. If the choroid is involved, atropin is in- 


aTAPHYLOMA, or, more properly speaking, ectasia, of the sclera ts 
the name given to change in the shape of the eyeball due to stretch- 
ing of its outer coat. The weakest portions of the sclera, are in the 
region of the optic nerve, and where it is perforated by the vence 

ANTERIOR STAPHYLOMA is an outward bulging of the sclera in 
the ciliary region (Fig. 82). It is caused by prolonged, increased 
intraocular tension, and scleral disease, TbtpToV:wS\^^^*i\wi\'a'C™&, 
and the black uveal pigment is seen t.hrou^\\ \V, "^^t ^\'i\.\>i'ivi^"««eV 




^^H be of small size, or may include the entire 

^^^B involving the ciliary body, lens, iris, and 

^^^B due to some intraocular growth, such 

^^V pation with a fine sound will reveal a fii 

' Ibescler 

irhalf of the globe. 
If the pressure is 
of the choroid, pal- 
yielding body beneath 



iderlying portion of the ciliary body being involved 
in the extension. If the bulging 
is of small extent, the condition 
causing the increase iti ten 
which produces the ectasia shi 
be treated. If the major porti 
of the ciliary region 
3.bscission or enucleation may 


nontraumatic sclera! bulging at 
the posterior portion of the globe. 
It is closely associated with high 
degrees of myopia, and is the re- 
sult of a posterior sclerochoroidilis, 
&nd is further mentioned under diseases of the choroid and myopia. 

HVDROPHTHALMOS is a congenital condition in which the whole 
sclera yields to increased ocular pressure and there is more or lest 
uniform enlargement of the eyeball. It is due either to intrauterine 
iridokeratitis, or congenital deficiency or clostire of the drainage 
canals about the iridic angle. Early iridectomy and the long-con- 
tinued use of eserin are advised. 

WOUNDS OF THE SCLERA generally involve the iris, choroid, and 
vitreous, and therefore will be discussed under penetrating wounds 
of the eyeball. If the sclera alone is involved, healing is very prompt, 
and there are no disagreeable sequels. 

The treatment consists of disinfection, closure of the wound, and^ 
bandage. If there is considerable gaping, a conjunctival or « 
e may be necessary. 


^^ Ana 



Anatomy. — The iijs is a circular, contractile membrane of elastic 
and non^triped muscular (ibers, which forms a septum between the 
anterior and posterior chambers of the eje (Figs. 83 and 84). It is 
pierced somewhat toward the nasal side of its center by a circular 
opening called the pupil. It is suspended from the cornea by the 
ligamintum pccfinatum iridis, and hangs in the aqueous humor, 
slightly in front of the lens and ciliary processes, and about 2.5 mm. 
behind the cornea. The anterior surface is lined by flat epithelium 
continuous with Uescemct's membrane. The posterior surface of the 
iris is lined with a deep purple pigment, which is called uvea, from 
its resemblance to a ripe grape. The iris is composed of two layers, 
an anterior or muscular, consisting of radiating fibers, which converge 
from the circumference loward the center and dilate the pupili^Some 
authorities consider this layer fibroelastic rather than muscular. The 
circular layer surrounds the pupil like a sphincter, and contracts the 

The vascular supply is from two sets of anastomosing vessels, one 
of which is located in the ciliary or peripheral portion, and the other 
surrounding the pupillary margin. The arteries are branches of the 
long and anterior ciliary arteries forming the circuli iridis major , 
minor. They are very numerous, and are provided with extraordi- 
narily thick walls, so that they can maintain their lumen when 

The iris is plentifully supplied with nerves, arising from branches 
of the oculomotor, trifacial, and sympathetic. The sphincter pupillas 
is supplied by the oculomotor, and the dilator iridis is supplied by the 
sympathetic. The trifacial supplies common sensation. 

The spaces of Fontana are small cavernous spaces in the intervals 
between the fibers of the ligamentum pectinatum iridis, which com- 
municate with a somewhat larger space in the substance of the sclera 
close to the corneal junction, called ihe canal of Schlemin, 01 si 
circularis iridis. This latter canal has been described by some ; 
lymph-canal, by others as a venous sinus. The pigment of the iri 
situated in the slroma of the membrane, and to it the color of the 
eyes is due. In light blue or gray cycs Ocieit « \«&e. ^\^^«w-% ">.■«. 
albinos it is absent. 


The ciliary body comprises the ciliary processes and the ciliary I 

The ciliaiy muscle (Fig. 83) is a grayish, semitransparenl band of 
iStriped muscular libers, about yi of an inch broad, thickest in front. 

Kit consists of radiating and circular Rb«rs, the former the more 
|%rous, arising from the junction of the cornea and sclera, to 
backward lo the choroid, opposite the ciliary processes : the Utter 
interna}, and pursue a circular course around the insertion of die 



The circular fibers are sometimes called the ring-muscle of MUllfr. 
and were formerly described as the ciliary ligament ; they are re- 
markably developed in hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism. 

The ciliary processes (Fig. 84) are from 60 to 70 folds formed by re- 
duplications of the choroid at its an- 
terior margin. They are arranged 
inacircle, and form a sort of plaited 
frill behind the iris, around the 
margin of the lens. They consist 
of large and small processes, ir- 
regularly alternating, the farmer 
being about -^^ of an inch long. 

Tht zone of Zinn is the name 
given to the pigmented indenta- 
tions made by the ciliary processes 
in the hyaloid membrane. Its 

: Ihe I 


pensory ligament of the lens. 


of the adjacent 
is recognized by the 
and discoloration of 
id the sluggish reaction 
If the hyperemia be- 
tense as to produce an 

the pupil, a 
to alropin. 

Definition. — An inflammation of the iris in which a scant, fibrinous 
exudate is deposited on the anterior or posterior surface of the irja, j 
the pigment-layer at the edge of the pupil thereby becomin^adhMi 

in places to the capsule of the lens. This biniJinE down of the iris la 
the lens is the cause of the immobile pupil. 

Symptoms. — The patient complains of intense pain radiating o 
the forehead and face, and which is not proportionate to the severity 
of the disease. The pain is worse at night. There is lactimaiion . 
photophobia, and dimnes s of vision. In some cases the subjective 
symptoms may be very slight. The objective symptoms are petic 
Ileal injection, h aziness of the pupil, l oss of luster in the iris , andci 

un symmetric pupil- Hyperemia of the optic 

traded , distorted, c 

nerve Is said to accompany ir 

Course and Sequels. — An uncomplicated iritis running its course 
in from two to four weeks is an exception. Permanent adhesions, a 
synechias, o f the iris, by organized exudate between it and the surface 
of the capsule qf the lens, are often left behind, and render relapses 
of iritis likely. The whole pupil may become blocked with organized 
exudate, and thus produce loss of vision in the eye affected. If there 
are many severe recurrences of attacks of iritis, circular adhesions 
may form between the lens and iris, and destroy ci 
tween the anterior and posterior chambers. In s 
bulges forward from the tension of the aqueous which collects in the 
posterior chamber, causing the condition known as " ballooned iris 
or " umbrella iris." Unless an artificial pupil be formed at once by 
iridectomy, reesiabhshing the communication between the chambers, 
the whole eye will be destroyed. 

Causes.— What is called idiopalkic irilis is 
some general systemic dyscrasia. although e 
affected. Syphi lis j 
tuberculosis, rheumati sm, ] 
infectious fevers. Often the only explar 
to cold, or " i;atching cold " in the eye. Secondary iritis follows in- 
flammation of the adjacent tissues; even a conjunctivitis may lead 
to iritis. Traumatism, with or without infection, or a foreign body ii 
the iris are causes of the inflammation. 

Treatment. — The most important element in the treatment is tft 
prevent or overcoine adhesjons of the iris. If possible, a history of 
an injury or clinical manifestations of some systemic condition known 
to cause irilis should be elicited. It is especially important to institute 
immediately general Ireatment in s^pWvUs, ThtunvWJ^TO, itiA ^oMt, 
The iodids, salicylates, salol, and mercuiva\a >isc^\i\. X\ie S\« 

lerally the result of 

eye only is often 

Other causes ate 

tis, and the severe 

if the origin is exposure 


The H 
to the ■ 
ected. V 

should be chiefly of milk and broth during [he acute stagi 
pupil should be immediately dilated by atropin, and if it yields 
diug and is perfectly circular, a rapid improvement may be expected. 
Caution must be used in the administration of atropi n to persons past 
ron y-five, or in cases showing increased tension of the eyeball, or in 
which there is idiosyncrasy to the drug. If the pupil resists dilala- 
tion, the atropin solution should be heated, or a drop of five percent, 
solution of c ocain every three or four minutes four or live times, 
and then another application of atropin, should be tried. If the iris 
is still bound down, six or eight leeches , or a mechanicalleech, 
should be apphed to the temple, and mercurial inunctions begui 
using a hot bath and profuse diaphoresis before 1 
Atropin must be kept up throughout the treatment. If it causes much 
conjunctivitis, s copolamin may be substituted. Thejiain is best 
lieved by local depletion with leeches, or artificial scarification o 
the temple, or hot, moist compresses to the eye for fifteen minutes 
Anlipyrin, morphin, or other analgesic may be 

administered! Profuse diaphoresis, with a Dover's powder, hot drink, 
foot-bath, and blankets, is of great value, and may be repealed several "-i^*. 
fail, puncture of the c 


tension. IriQectomy is not indicated in the inflar 
when there is a circular synechia obliterating cc 
the anterior and posterior chambers. If there 
left to warrant belief that ihi 
should be performed after the 
prophylactic measure of great 
1 through the disc 

ralory stage except 

igh adhesions 
e will be fulure relapses, iridectomy 
flammation has subsided. This is a 
mportance. ^mfi|fpri plan^f^ should 
se. Alcohohc beverages should be 

SEROUS miTI.'i. 

which an inflammatory pro- 

seltles in the anterior chamber, causing a haiii 

id deposits on the posterior surface of the cor 

of which the disease is sometimes called desce- 

s and Diagnosis. — The chief obje 
posits ill the aqueous and on the back of the 
the agueous, the increase in the depHi o( the 
Me signs of acute iritis in a milder degree. 

signs are the de- 
a, the haeiness of 

Tain a.\\i ^ifia'" ^ 


live symptoms ar 
There is often a 
changes in the aqueous, 
pages 162 and 163). 
The important sequel! 

of li 

srable, and the pupil may be dilated. ' 
iion, due .to the chemic and physical 1 
ing simulation of glaucoma (see table, j 

iated opacities c 

I the back of the 

r quite clear up, pos- 
terior synechia, and, if the ciliary body 
is affected, vitreous opacities, and pos- 
sibly opacities in the lens. 

Causes. ^Serous iritis occurs in debili- 
tated and anemic young persons, and has 
been ascrihed to syphilis and other gen- 

f pi^ B";— Skbous Iritib eral dyscrasias. It is commonly bilateral, 

^^^^ DKscEUBTins. which fact points to a systemic cause. 

^^^L It may occur after cataract operations. 

^^^B Treatment. — The patient's general health should be attended to, 
^^ and good food and hygienic measures instituted. To keep the pupil 
dilated and break up adhesions, atropin twice a day is necessary. To 
hasten absorption of the inflammatory products, heat, diaphoresis, 
and the iodids are useful. The depressed physical condition of the 
patient generally forbids any rigorous mercurial treatment. The de- 
posits may be mechanically removed by releasing the aqueous by 
repealed paracenteses. If there is much rise of intraocular tension, 
atropin must be suspended and eserin substituted. Repeated para- 
centeses will here prove of great value. Iridectomy may be indicated 
in the worst cases, 

Definition. — A condition in which the inflammatory product is puru' 
lent, and saturates the tissues of the iris and overflows into the ante- 
rior chamber forming^ a hypopyon, whicli is more fluid than the 
hypopyon following inflammation of the cornea. 

Symptoms. — !n this condition the iris is highly hypereinic, and is 
swollen and discolored yellow by the pus in its matrix. The chief 
symptoms are: The marked changes in the iris; the swollen piipil- 
lary border of the iris, which often occludes the pupil ; the fluid hypo- 
pyon, which changes position, in disdnction to the stationary libriDoua 
c/ot of pus in corneal disease; and Wa^w^ ot \i\(et<\«iT., 
ihroagb a wound. la ihis day of asepvic ^tctaviftotv*. wi^w 


iritis after operation is very rare. Diabetes is said to be a systemic 
cause. If the disease is due to infection through a wound or following 
an operation, there is great danger of general involvement of ihe eye, 
and such cases should be regarded as very dangerous. What have 
seemed idiopathic cases, have often yielded readily to treatment and 
left no sequels. 

Treatment is that of simple iritis, and should be energetically pur- 
sued — rapid mercurial inunctions, atropin, and paracenteses, after the 
height of the inflammation has been passed. For idiopathic or dia- 
betic cases, the salicylates have been used to great advantage. 

IRITI3 NODOSA is an inflammation in which small nodes or tubercles 
are seen on the iris. Nodules are sometimes noticed on the iris in 
both simple and suppurative iritis, but the name is usually applied to 
conditions in which small gumraata or tubercles are found on the 

Gumma of the iris is a local expression of tertiary syphihs, and gen- 
erally yields to antisyphilitic treatment. There is usually seen near 
the pupillary edge of the iris a yellowish mass, about the siie of a split 
pea, surrounded by a brownish-red base. A history of syphilis is 

Tubercles of the iris usually occur in groups, are some distance from 
the edge of the iris, and are grayish or pale yellow in color. The 
adjacent lymph-glands are swollen, and there is a history of tubercu- 
losis. Tubercular iritis usually attacks young persons, while gum- 
mala are mostly seen in advanced life. Gummata may disappear 
under the iodids and mercurials, or may leave the iris atrophic or 
immobile. In tubercular iritis the prognosis is bad. In severecases 
the eye must be enucleated. Excision of the tubercles is useless. 

CYSTS, ranging in size from that of the head of a pin to that of a 
small pea, may form on any part of the iris. They may be single or 
multiple, and are generally Ihe result of traumatism. They should 
be completely removed by an iridectomy. 

MALIGNANT TUMORS have been noticed in the iris, and are usually 
)us. Rapid growth of any iridic tumor suggests malignancy, 
val, together with the netgVibonn^ fcsxift.^s-j i\-».i'ip."'«^*>.'*.^ 
lomy is demanded. 


^^m PE^ 


PENETRATING WOUNDS OF THE IRIS are recognized by focal 
id oblique illumination ; there appears a rent, through which the i 
fundus-reflex shines, provided, of course, the media are still clear. 

iRiDODiALYSia is a condition in which the iris is lorn awa.y from 
ihe ligamenium pectinatum and ciliary body. It is usually the result 
of a severe blow. It is attended by hyphemia, or hemorrhage into 
the anterior chamber. The blood in the chamber will absorb, but 
no treatment will restore the detached iris. In cases of hyphi 
cautious prognosis should be given, for when the blood in the ante- 
rior chamber becomes absorbed, more serious choroidal and retinal 
hemorrhages may he found. Paralysis of the iris, or iridoplegia, may 
be a result of traumatism. 

FOREIGN BODIES in the iris, as a rule, cause inflammation, although 
there are instances in which aseptic particles have remained for years 
without causing any difficulty. As the aqueous soon becomes clouded, 
removal should be attempted at once. This is effected by corneal 
section and removal of the substance with a fine pair of forceps. Jf 
the foreign body is a particle of iron or steel, the magnet may remove 
it. If this fails, the fold of iris in which the foreign body is included 
should be seized and excised. 


ANIRIDIA, or absence of the iris, is rarely seen, and is u< 

COLOBOMA is the most frequent congenital defect of the Iris, It 19 4 
an aperture in the iris, generally beneath the pupil, and, unless very I 
extensive, causes little visual disturbance. It is sometimes associated | 
with coloboma of choroid or lens. 

POLYCORIA is a multiplicity of pupils. 

ANOMALIES OF COLOR of the iris are often seen, and have n 
nificance. Sometimes the pupils are of difTerent colors, or one puptlJ 
may be of several difTerent colors. 
I Jn ALBINISM ibere is a lack of pigment in the iris, in conseqi 


of which there is intense photophobia, nystagm 
lessened visual acuity. 

PERSISTENT PUPIL.I.ARY MEMBRANE is a remnant of a. vascular 
connective-tissue layer that, in tlie embryo, enveloped the lens before 
the iris was formed. In this condition very fine fibers, springing from 
surface of the iris, pass over the pupil to be attached 10 
surface of the lens. There is usually no visual disturb- 

MYDRIASIS, or extreme dilatation of the pupil, occurs under the 
tffects of drugs possessing a mydriatic action, such as atropin, hom- 
alropin, hyoscyamin, etc. ; in glaucoma ; in optic nerve atrophy ; in 
diseases of the orbit ; after fright; in neurasthenia ; after ir' 
the cervical sympathetic, as hy an aneurysmal tumor ; and s< 
in idiots. Permanent mydriasis has occurred after the instillations 
of a mydriatic have been suspended. Mydriasis of distinctly cere- 
bral origin is caused either by irritation due to some lesion in the 
brain or cervical portion of the spinal cord, or by paralysis of the 
oculomoter center, due to hemorrhage, thrombosis, tumor, or abscess 
of the brain. 

The treatment of mydriasis consists in remedying the cause, if 
possible ; locally, pilocarpin or eserin is indicated, and the galvanic 
current is sometimes of use. Exercise of the eyes with convex lenses 
upon near objects may be of value. 

MIOSIS, or permanent contraction of the pupil, occurs under drugs 
possessing miotic action, such as eserin, pilocarpin, etc, ; in paralysis 
of the cervical portion of the spinal cord, particularly in locomotor 
ataxia ; in paretic dementia ; in cerebral syphilis ; and in bulbar palsy, 
with progressive muscular atrophy. Persons who continually use 
their eyes on fine objects, such as watchmakers and engravers, some- 
times suffer from miosis. In opium poisoning the pupil is reduced to 
the size of a pin-point, dilating just before death. Nicotin and alco- 
hol in poisonous quantities may produce miosis. As contraction of 
the pupil may result from irritating cerebral lesions similar to those 
causing dilatation, it is important to have some means of differential 
diagnosis. Berthold mentions that miosis occurs in a sudden attack 
of paralysis due to embolism, and mydriasis in an attack due to 

r308 DISEASES OF THE ^^^^^^H 

beinairhage. The treatment is directed to the cause. Atrop^^^^^l 
be used locally. ^^M 

ANI30C0R1A, or INEQUALITY in Size of the pupils, may occur !^| 
perfect health. In fact, it is much more common than text-books in- . 
dicate. It is sometimes seen in eyes of widely dissimilar refraction, 
diseases of the brain and nervous systems, and in insanity. It is not 
uncommon in tabes, disseminated sclerosis, and paretic dementia, 

tioned in the discussion of hemianopsia. Light is carefully throiri 
onthebUnd side of the retina; if there is reflen contraction, the lesiql 
is behind the pupillary centers; if there is no reflex obtaJned, I 
lesion is at or in front of the pupillary centers. 

• THE ARGYLL ROBERTSON PUPIL, is a name given to a rcflex pupi 
lary rigidity producing loss of reaction to light-stimulation, although 
the action to accommodation and convergence may still be present. 
It is a diagnostic sign of value in locomotor ataxia, but has been 
noticed in general paralysis of the insane, in cerebral syphilis, and KM 
the result of poisoning by bisulphid of carbon. 

the pupil when a forcible effort is made to close the lids, 

HIPPUS is the name given to the oscillations occurring after c 
traction to light. It is exaggerated in hysteria, disseminated scler 
epilepsy, and in the early stages of acute meningitis. 

IRIDODONESIS is a tremulous condition of the iris, due to lack tjt 
normal support of the lens. It is seen In conditions in which t 

I lens is dislocated posteriorly, in atrophy of the vitreous, in overripj 
cataract, and after cataract extraction. 
in glaucoma, In cataract extraction, for the removal of roieign bodi 
and growths. In complete synechias, and for optic purposes. Having 
first secured a lid-speculum in position, a fold of conjunctiva, near 
die cornea and opposite the place wVctc v\ic Vnw'ildn. U to be made, 
Js seized by fixation forceps. A ^teraVome ^s tWMti "Cmou'^ * 

IRIDECTOMY is the excision of a portion of the iris. It is perforn 





cornea at the scleral border, the point being kept nearly perpendicu- 
lar to ihe sclera until it has reached the anterior chamber, when the 
handle is depressed so as to bring the blade parallel to the iris (Fig. 
86), The blade is then pushed forward until it has made a wound 

lufEcientlj- large for the purpose of the operation; still depressing 
Ihe handle, the blade is withdrawn slowly, and iris forceps (Fig. 87) 
are thrust through the wound closed, and opened in the anterior 
chamber to seize Ihe iris. The iris is tWcti i\?c»ia Q^S- "A -O^t 
ivound, and as macb of it as desired is cKciseA. "tt-f ^^e, X'tAtttJaMxt j 


sars (Fig. 8S) held firmly against the eyeball a.nd parallel to tbe 
wound. The stump of the iris is tlien carefully returned to the ante- 
rior chamber, no portion of it being allowed to become incarcerated 
in the corneal incision. The delicate McClure iris-scissors are the 
best for cutting the iris, but they are rather expensive, and not always 
obtainable. The eye should be thoroughly cocainized, and the opera- 
tion should be done under antiseptic precautions ; after the operation 
the eye should be thoroughly irrigated, a light bandage applied, and 
the eye kept closed until the corneal incision has become united. 
The incision may be made with the Graefe knife instead of the lar 
shaped keratome. 

i, 89.— Dk 

IRIDOTOMY is performed when the pupil for any reason is occluded 
by a thickened and opaque capsule, or with exudations from the iris. 
One mode of operation is with a needle-knife, having a double cut- 
ting-edge, with its shank so constructed as to completely fill the 
t corneal wound, thus preventing any escape of aqueous. This knife 
is thrust through the cornea midway between its center and circum- 
ference, and the occluding membrane is divided at right angles with 
the line of greatest tension. When the itis is to be incised so as 10 
make an artificial pupil, a lance-knife is used instead of a needle- 
knife, and introduced in the same way as before, and withdrawn half 
WMy, allowing some of the aqueous Vo esca-pc, ftiM-i ca.\vj\RS, \t\« iri«_ 
forward. The knife is thrust ibrougti *ew\aMvi'Oc«.B.-«iS&ftsM 
De Wecka-s scissors for itidotomy tySs-^q^w^ ....«:t*iAa 

opened in ihe anterior chamber, one blade passed through the cut in 
the iris, and the blades brought together through the iris, thus elon- 
gating the incision, 

iRiDOCYSTECTOMY is preferable to iridotomy. An incision is 
made with a Deer's knife through cornea, iris, and the thickened or 
adherent lens-capsule. Next a Tyrrell hook, or one branch of a pair 
of iris forceps, is passed into the opening in the iris. The edge of 
the iris (and capsule) is drawn out of the corneal wound and cut off 
close to the cornea. 

IRIDODESIS consists of drawing the pupil into a new shape and 
position, and is accomplished by making a small incision in the 
cornea and drawing a part of the iris, including some of the pupillary 
border, into it, and fixing it with a ligature. This operation is now 
almost obsolete. 


Definition. — Inflammation of the ciliary body; the iris and choroid 
are often simultaneously involved. 

Varieties. — The seioua, which is comparatively benign, and de- 
velops like a serous iritis ; the plaatic, which is a worse form and 
produces a total posterior synechia; and the suppurative, which is 
distinguished from the others by the presence of a purulent exudate 
in the chambers of the eye. 

Symptoms and Diagnosis. — Cyclitis is always a seiious and often a 
dangerous disease, and should be differentiated from a relatively 
benign iritis. Pain, photophobia, lacrimation, and visual disturbance 
are signs common to both. The characteristic signs of cyclitis are 
extreme sensitiveness to pressure in the ciliary region ; cloudiness in 
the anterior portion of the vitreous ; and the noticeable changes in 
the intraocular tension, which is increased at first and diminished 
later. The aqueous is also lurbid, and may contain pus of the sup- 
purative variety. 

Causes. — Generally some injury to the ciliary b()dy or adjacent 
tissues. Foreign bodies in tlie eye are almost certain to destroy the 
eye by a plastic cyclitis. It is likely that there is more or less cyclitis 
in most cases of iritis — that is, iridocyclitis is more freo^uent t.b.a.n. 
simpJe iritis or cyclitis. Cyclitis may be d\ie\.o\T\ft'McvTO,-»;««i^ '^'^^ 
o/r/ie t/ssues in continuity with the c\\\a.T-^ \.o6-J . w \.q vj-m? 1 




ophthalmia. Idiopathic cases are said to result from syphilis, talM 
culosis, rheumatism, and other systemic disorders. 

Treatment is virtaally the same as that for iritis, although atropfl 
lust be used with caution, as it is oftenvery poorly borne. Plastic ai 
purulent cyclitis must be treated rigorously with mercurial inunctions. 
For the reduction of tension, Ihe local use of eserin, diaphoretics, and 
paracentesis are indicated. In purulent cyclitis, especially afleropera- 
tions. antiseptic douches arc indicated. On account of the u 
prognosis, the possibility of relapses, disorganization of the vitreotM| 
and sympathetic ophthalmia, the patient must be carefully watched 
and expectant treatment continued after the symptoms have subside 


Paralysis of the ciliary muscle is recognized by destruction or 
diminution of the normal range of accommodation that usually cor- 
responds to the age of the patient. The causes may be peripheral, 
as by atropin ; or central, due to disturbance of the oculomotor 
nucleus. General intoxication by the poisons of infectious diseases, 
and conditions producing exhaustion or debihiy, may result in par- 
alysis of the ciliary muscle. Diphtheria is a common cause. The 
iris may or may not be involved in the paralysis. In this condition 
objects seem minimized — micropsia. The treatment is directed 
toward the cause. Locally, miotics, convex glasses, and electricity 
may be of value. 

Spasm of the ciliary muscle is a condition in which the range of 
accommodation is shortened, causing an emmetrope or hyperope 10 
have myopic symptoms. In this condition objects appear enlarged 
— macropsia. The causes are the miotics, strain on the accommoda- 
tion, and severe disease of the spinal cord, The treatment is directed 
toward the cause. Mydriatics give temporary relief. This condition 
is discussed in the section on Ametropia. 

fc _ _ _ _ ..___ 

tion, and severe disease of the spinal cord. The treatment is direc 


^Lp«5i?5 from its inner surface antei\ot\^ . U "vs p\M«i \it\;\tvei,Vi S!n^ 

Anatomy. — The choroid is the vascular and pigmentary tunic 
tJie eyeball, investing the posterior fiue-sixlhs of the globe, 
tending as far forward as the cornea, atiAdevt\o^TO?, fee t\\\Tvvi ^rro- 


optic nerve. Externally il is eonnecied tiy a fine ctllular web {mem- 
hrana fusca) wilh ihe inner surface of ihe sclerotic. Internally it lies 
in contact with the basal membrane of the pigment-coat of the retina, 
as far forward as the ora serrala. The choroid is divided into two 
layers : an external, containing the larger vessels and the most pig- 
ment, and an internal. The external layer consists in part of the 
larger branches of the short ciliary arteries, which run forward be- 
tween the veins before they bend down to terminate in the capil- 
laries; but is principally formed by converging veins called vena 
varticesa. The internal layer consists of an exceedingly fine capil- 
lary plexus, formed by the short ciliary vessels, and is known as the 
tunica niyscfiiana. On the inner surface of this tunic is a. very 
thin homogeneous membrane called lamina vitrea that separates it 
from the pigmentary layer of the retina. The pigment of the choroid 
consists of hexagonal cells, filled with dark.brown granules, and is 
scattered throughout both layers in sufGcient quantity to absorb Ihe 


^P Causes. — Inflammation of the choroid results from general diseases, 
V-such as syphilis, tuberculosis, scrofula, chlorosis, rheumatism, and 
gout. Senile choroiditis is probably preceded by choroidal apoplexy. 
Suppurative choroiditis is due to traumatism wilh infection ; to metas- 
tatic infarclion, in pyemia and endocarditis ; and to severe infectious 
fevers. High myopia, by causing extreme stretching of the choroid, 
often gives rise to a local or diffuse inflammation. Choroiditis may 
be an accompaniment of inflammation of the iris and ciliary body. 

Varieties. — For convenience, choroidilis maybe divided into the 
exudative and suppurative varieties, although many subdivisions, 
such as disseminated, syphilitic, areolar, central, guttate, etc., have 
been studied pathologically. 

EXUDATIVE CHOROIDITIS is distinguished by the impairment of 
vision due to the simultaneous involvement of the retina, and the 
changes noticed by the ophthalmoscope. The disease runs its 
course without pain and without external symptoms, and the patient 
is only aware of his trouble through the impairment of vision. It 
must be remembered that there is no definite relation hetweew (.W 
^mmountof visual dislurbance and tine c\iat\g,es no\.e.&.\^ ■<!&-«. ^n>.'«>-*^"'^- 

^K 314 
^^ Aller; 


Alleration in the field of vision, the appearance of scotomas, )C 

phopsia, night-blindness, flickering spots, and progressive lessen- 
ing of the visual acuity, are the most important subjective symptoms. 
The ophthalmoscope shows the presence of numerous dispersed 
patches in the fundus, thickly strewn near the equator, gradually 
diminishing toward the macula and optic disc, these being generally 
free from disease. If fresh, the patches are round, sharply defined, 
much smaller than the disc, and yellowish-red, lighter in color thui 
the fundus. In addition, there are yellowish-white streaks along ibe I 

I vessels. As the disease advances, the patches become larger KO* 

I coalesce into irregularly -shaped figures, showing the white sderotici 

beneath, surrounded by hypertiophied pigment epithelium of the 
retina. In the majoiity of cases permanent white patches are |i 
either due to exposure of the sclera or lo reflection from cicatrici 

k(Fig. 90). The optic disc is generally slightly red and cloudy. The 
lem) disseminated choroiditis Is oflen applied to cases in which the 
Bjoots in the fundus are numerous and diffuse. Areolar choroiditis 
consists of black patches and smaU pij;mcMV,-bloi.che5. gradually 
banking to whitish blotches with UacV. eA^es. U "w o.oiv'iw.ti. 



pole of the eye, and endangers central vision. The central 
variety is located directly at the macula. Soinetimes retinal vessels 
can be traced over spots of choroidal atrophy, showing that the cho- 
roid is the primary seat of the lesion. The vitreous is generally clear, 
and good ophthalmoscopic images are obtained. 

SYPHILITIC CHOROIDITIS is diagnosed by syphilitic history and 
speedy reaction to mercurial inunctions ; the most characteristic signs 
are night-blindness and circumscribed scotomas in the field of vision. 
Vitreous opacities are also said to be rnore numerous in this variety. 

SUPPURATIVE CHOROIDITIS begins with hemorrhage into the retina 
and choroid, which is soon followed by purulent infiltration of the 
whole interior of the eye. Externally, the lids and conjunctiva are 
red and swollen, and are covered with a purulent secretion; the 
cornea is hazy, and there may be hypopyon ; the iris is inflamed, the 
pupil appears yellowish, and the eyeball is hard. The patient suffers 
intense pain, has acute febrile symptoms, and is blind in the affected 
eye. Viewed by the opbthulmoscope, the golden reflex, due to the 
exudative material thrown ont between the choroid and the retina, 
confirms the diagnosis, although in children it may be mistaken 
for glioma of the retina. The inflammation may subside, but it is 
rare for any visual perception to be preserved. In the malignanlform 
panophthalmitis ensues, and the whole eye becomes an abscess- 
cavity, and is lost. The infection is often metastatic. 

MYOPIC CHOROIDITIS is due to the ecLisia Or staphyloma of the 
sclera at the posterior pole, and is usually present in high degrees of 
myopia, and always in progressive myopia. The increased " myopic 
" producing an enlarged blind spot, and the ordinary symp- 
myopia associated with the atrophic changes of the choroid, 
furnish a ready means of diagnosis. 

ANTERIOR SCLEROCHOROiDiTis involves the anterior part of the 
choroid, inaccessible to the ophthalmoscope. Itis differentiated from 
episcleritis, which is a benign local disease, while the former attacks 
the cornea, iris, and anterior portion of the vitreous, finally causing 
anterior ectasia of the sclera. 

Prognosis of choroiditis is, on the whole, unfavorable. In the exu- 
dative variety and in high myopia, we can hope to retain only part 
Bpf the vision left. In case of large ectasia \.\vc^e \s iiq-ss^t^.-W. ^.■i.-wjisi 




,se in inflammation and glaucomatous symptoms. If 
cclasia is produced, blindness follows through flatness and opacity 
ea, increased tension, and distortion of the eyeball, 
I purative choroiditis the eye may be preserved, but vision is ; 
I lost. 

Treatment of cboroiditis must be directed against any discoverable 
:ause. In all acute cases, whether syphilitic or not, in which ihe 
f patient is in fairly good health, mercurial inunctions should be begun. 
In debilitated cases, constitutional and tonic treatment should be in- 
stituted, diaphoresis provoked, potassium iodid administered, and 
I rest, with smoked glasses, ordered. Confiner 
innecessary. In subacute or chronic cases 
following is advised : 

Mercuric chlorid, P- 'j> 

Eitract of belladouna, gr- 'v. 

Make 40 pills. 

Take one pill three timeE a day. 

In the suppurative variety we can do no more than to quiet pats 
by narcotics, or by the local use of atropin and hot compresses, 
the eye is a virtual abscess, it should be incised or enucleated uni 
the strictest antiseptic precautions. In the anterior variety, teoai 
must be carefully watched, and if excessive, may be relieved m 
corneal puncture or iridectomy. The treatment of progressive ■ 
high myopia is discussed under Myopia. 

festing itself in small, whitish-yellow spots, that are minute tuberclq 
near the posterior pole of the eye ; many are too small to be 
by the ophthalmoscope. The second form is a spheroid tuberd 
causing detachment of the retina, and possibly inflammat 
eye. It is to be distinguished from sarcoma of the choroid, butfl 
both cases enucleation is peremptorily demanded. 

SARCOMA OP the: choroid develops slowly at first, but later € 
involves the surrounding tissue with great rapidity. In the first si 
ihe only subjective symptom is disturbance of vision, the eye becoi 
ing more myopic, and distortion of images ensuing, 
is usually at the posterior pole. Viewed by the ophthalmosco| 
i« a rule nothing but retinal dtiac.'ftttveWw S^'u&'^A-i ■■■ " 




in the second stage, severe pain caused by increased tension is 
noticed, and lotal blindness ensues. The media become so cloudy 
that no reflex is obtainable. After this the growth penetrates the 
sclera, the whole eye becomes a malignant mass, and even if metas- 
tasis has not occurred, the patient may die of exhaustion. The disease 
is unilateral, and should be distinguished from glaucoma. In which 
there is no retinal detachment ; and from simple retinal and choroidal 
detachment, in which there is no increase in tension. It is generally 
followed by sarcoma of the liver. The mote fibrous the tumor, the 
less the liability to metastasis. As soon as the disease is recognized, 
the eye should be enucleated and the orbit thoroughly cleaned out, 
as death will speedily ensue if 
the disease is allowed to con- 

(Fig. gf) is due to injury of the 
eye, and, as a rule, can not be 
recognized until the vitreous be- 
comes transparent, after which 
a recent rupture appears as a 
yellowish, blood-specked stripe, 
which finally becomes white and 
is bordered with a black pig- 
ment. The extent of visual dis- 
turbance depends essentially 
upon the portion of the choroid 
involved. Peripheral rents have 
little influence on vision. The 
ruptures ate generally near the 
optic nerve and parallel to its cii 
sists of atropin and rest. 

DETACHMENT OF THE CHOROID is recognized with the ophthalmo- 
scope as a round or oval, brown, and smooth tumor near the equator 

umference. The t 

of the eye, that does not have the 
panying movement of the eye, ai 

mbling movements a 
in detachment of the ri 
Choroidal detachments may reunite. Loss of vitreous during c: 
operation or an effusion between the choroid and sc\.w«iK.Va.N «.>=**». ^ 
causes. The trettlment is absolute n 

COLOBOMA OP THE CHOROID appears as a large while or bluut. 

glistening area, usually below the disc, and several times its diameter. 
Retinal blood-vessels pass across it. It is simply a congenital defi- 
ciency in [he choroid that allows the sclerotic to show through, and 
often causes but little visual disturbance. It may be associated wilh. 
coloboma of the iris or other anomalies of the eyeball. 



Anatomy. — The retina is the chief and essential peripheral organ 
of vision, and constitutes the third or internal coal of the eyeball. It 
is made up of the end-organs, or expansion of the optic nerve within 
the globe of the eye. It is composedof three main layers: the inner, 
of fibers and nerve-cells, the granular middle layer, and an internal 
layer composed of rods, cones, and pigment. Microscopically it is 
divided into ten layers, from without inward, as follows ; (i) Pigment 
cells; {2) rods and cones; (3) external limiting membrane ; (4) 
external granular layer; (5) outer molecular layer ; (6) internal gran^ 
ular layer; (7) internal molecular layer ; (8) a ganglionic layer; (9) 
nerve-fibers; (10) internal limiting membrane; the exact construe' 
tion of the retina is diagramatically shown in figure 92. 

The rods and cones are the essential sight-elements. The retina is 
about 0.2J mm. in thickness, and covers the under surface of the 
choroid from the optic nerve entrance to the dentated anterior margin 
of the retina, called the era serrata, a few millimeiers back of the 
ciliary body. The most sensitive portion of the retina is a yellowish 
spot, about 0.5 mm, in diameter, lying to the temporal side of the 
optic disc, which, from its color, is called the niacu/a /uffa. In the 
center of the macula is a reddish dot called \\\& fovea antralii, at 
which point all the layers of the retina, with the exception of the 
cones, are absent. The vascular supply of the retina is from the 
central artery and vein, which, passing through the jiiorKj opticus of 
the lamina cribrosa, divide over the optic disc, vertically into large 
and horizontally into small vessels, which are distributed in the fibc 
layer of the retina, anastomosing at the entrance of the optic nei 
with the short ciliary vessels, and aniwiD>\'i a.i ihe ora serrata with t) 
choroidal I'essels. 


S, 5. Ouler and inner Etflnular Uytr*, 6. Ouler granular lB)^r. j. liitergranulHr 
it.ytj. 8. Inner grsnulnr layer, g. Layer of Rray mailer, lo. Gninukr poiliun 
of tliia layer, ir. Cellular [wrlion. 19, ii. Fibroui layer, ij. Membrana Umliann 

14. 14- RatliBiins fiberi 

itftsis-hyperemia the thickness of tbe veins in comparison with the 
irleries is noticed. Irritation -hyperemia usuaU^ icc.QTft^amt'Si'w.^-a.'nx- 
Tiaiion of some other portion of the eye, ot it vi\a'^\ie ^w^"^ sA t-^t- 





quite common in persons with some uncorrected reftac- 
muscuUr imbalance, who use iheir t;yes to excess. 
should be directed to correction of any ameltopia or 
muscular trouble, and the eye should be put at rest and shielded with 
protective glasses. If the hyperemia is supposed to be a local expres- 
sion of cerebral congestion, the treatment for the latter affection should 
be instituted. 


Causes. — Retinal hemorrhage is seldom an independent affeclioD, 
but is usually associated with some disease or injury of the retina: W 
it may be the result of some condition provocative of hemorrhage in 
any other organ, such as atheroma of the arteries, hypertrophy of the 
left ventricle, scorbutus, hemorrhagic purpura, nephritis, diabetw, 
pernicious anemia, etc. In such conditions the immediate cauM 
may be muscular strain, violent coughing, or sudden change in ihe 
intraocular tension after operation. Hemorrhage following occlusioo 
of the retinal vessels will be mentioned later. 

Diagnosis with the ophthalmoscope is easy if the media are clear 
and if the remaining portion of the retina and disc is unaffected. In 
such a case a fresh clot appears as a bluish-red blotch on a white 
background ; or, if the clot is old, a brownish-red blotch is seen ; or 
the only remnants of the hemorrhage maybeaspot of yellowish-while 
degeneration, perhaps associated with pigment deposits. The hemor- 
rhage is <lame<shaped when in the internal layers, rounded nhen In 
the external layers, and massive when between the retina and hyaloid 
membrane of the vitreous {subhyaloid'). If other blotches are seen 
in the retina and the whole fundus is hazy, the condition is called 
hemorrhagic retinitis. 

Prognosis depends on the cause and recurrence of hemorrhages: 
unfortunately, the prognosis of affections causing retinal hemorrhage 
is usually bad. The amount of visual disturbance depends on the 
location and size of the clot. Hemorrhage in the macula is serioos. 
Multiple hemorrhages may cause a glaucomatous condition, produc- 
ing blindness. 

Treatment must be directed to the general causative condition. 

falienls sliould be put la bed and the eyes bandaged. Congestion 

maybe reJieved by leeches ot drv cupsraWn temijks. Mercuric 

aad iodids. together with diap\\ove5\s, vna-j piomavc s.Vaai'^v.tiw. ^h 


General Remarks. — It is probable that idiopathic retinili5 never 
occurs. Inflammation of the retina is generally due to some disease 
of the general system, such as syphilis, renal disease, diabetes, leu- 
kemia, etc. In cases of prolonged exposure or excessive use of the 
retina, the resultant affection is more in the nature of a functional 
trouble than a true inflammation. Retinitis may be due to an exten- 
sion of inflammation from the neighboring structures, principally the 
ciliary body, choroid, and optic nerve. Panophthalmitis produces an 
immediate suppuration of the retina. 

The subjective symptoms of retinitis ate usually dimness of vision, 
scotomas, metamorphopaia, etc. The objective symptoma elicited by 
the ophthalmoscope are sometimes quite characteristic of the causal 
trouble, although differential diagnosis is at limes very difficult. 
However, the condition discovered is often a valuable indicator in 
substantiating systemic evidence of the general disease, and is an 
important factor in prognosis, 

ALBUMINURIC RETINITIS becomes almost always bilateral, al- 
though a number of unilateral cases are recorded. The light-sense, 
color-sense, and visual Reld are usually undisturbed. Dimness of 
vision progresses slowly, and sometimes it is difficult for the patients 
to count fingers. This affection often accompanies the nephritis of 
pregnancy. Uremia, coincident with renal disease, may cause com- 
plete blindness, but this can not be attributed to retinitis, but rather 
to a transient effect upon the cuneus lobe of the uremic poison. 

Ophthalmoscopic changes (Fig. 93) differ in the various stages, 
although they are most marked in advanced renal disease. The 
changes in the fundus are generally confined to the posterior pole 
and region adjoining. Hyperemia is at first noticed, but in the ad- 
vanced disease white spots or patches are seen about the papilla, 
and later fine white dots are noticed grouped about the macula in the 
shape of a star with the fovea in the center. Finally, hemorrhages 
and fatty degeneration, with paleness of the disc and contraction of 
the vessels, may occur just before death. In some cases, instead of 
while spots there may be numerous wide-spread hemorrhages, or. 
again, only congestion and simple redness o( 4«t. 

Prognosis.— Tie exact relation betweeti tetvwA^saTiAfec'^^'^'^'^'^*''' 



renal disease is not definitely established. However, it may usually be 
said that a definite case of albuminuric retinitis will have fatal issue 
within two or three years, allhough the visual disturbance may not 
increase, and may even improve in fatal, chronic cases. We have, 
however, seen cases in which the patients have lived from five to ten 
years after typic albuminuric retinitis had been estabhshed. In in- 
terstitial nephritis particularly, retinitis is a serious sign. After tecovery 

from acute nephritis an associate retinitis may clear up and the visioD 

become normal. The prognosis of both life and vision is better in the 

albuminuric retinitis of pregnancy, and in cases in which only one eye 

becomes involved. 

Treatment must be that of i.\\e ori^iwa,l disease. In hemorrhagic 

cases, rest, Oandaging of the ev*^*' '^'^^ poa?;\Wi'j 'ftve \T\ySAa,>:\inv ^ 

1 atropln, in weak solution (gr. ) lo ^iV are a-AviaiWc. TVt ^^S-™- 

ance of albuminuric retinitis in pregnancy is regarded by many as 
an indication for the induction of abortion. 

DIABETIC RETINITIS is often indistinguishable from albuminuric 
retinitis by the ophthalmoscope alone. The diagnosis can only be 
made by Ihe test for glycosuria. The prognosis is possibly not so 
bad as in the foregoing disease, and dietary and hygienic treatment 
may establish a cure. 

SYPHILITIC RETINITIS is a diffuse instead of a local inflammation, 
as in the preceding diseases, and may be unilateral or bilateral. A 
general cloudiness, most apparent at the optic disc, and gradually 
shading off into the periphery of the fundus, is noticed. While lines 
may be observed along the course of the blood-vessels. There are 
numerous dust-like opacities in the vitreous. Hemorrhages are less 
frequent than in the preceding forms. The treatment is purely con- 

LEUKEMIC RETINITIS is characterized by the pale-yellow appear- 
ance of the fundus, always bilateral. There is a marked tendency 
toward hemorrhages ; sometimes circular white clots and prominent 
blood -bordered spots are seen at the periphery of the retina. Diag- 
nosis should be substantiated by microscopic examination of the 
blond. The treatment is that of leukemia. 

RETINITIS OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA presents an edematous condi- 
tion of the retina, diffuse retinitis, with distended veins and pallid 
blood. The disc appears dirty greenish- while, against a yellowish 
eye- ground. 


Definition. — A pigmentary degeneration of Ihe retina sometimes 
found in descendants of consanguineous marriages, or of syphilitic 
parents. It occurs commonly in members of the same family. 

Symptoms and Diagnosis. — The chief subjective symptoms are 
Kigkt- blindness, due to the reduced sensitiveness of the retina ; con- 
centric contrculion of the field of vision, often coupled with nystag- 
mus, causing Ihe patient great inconvenience from inabilit-V "-Q ^^^^ 
his way, although his central visioti ma.-) be atiAe. t\ic tQ'w^a-^A. , 
bowing of the head in walking is a c\va.ta.c\.w\?.'C\c sv^- 


/uni/ttj has a. very characteristic appearance (Fig. 94). Thediicii 
yellowish and lis edge Is somewhat obscured, and the vessels are 
narrowed, accompanied by fine bands, and fade off into the per- 
iphery. Dark streaks of pigmentation, beginning at the peripher)-, 
trail over the fundus, and gradually progress toward Ihe macula. In 
appearance these have been compared lo the Haversian bone-canals. 

Cases of retinitis pigmentosa without Ihe distinctive pigmentation » 
occasionally found. There is evidence of pigment- atrophy at l{ 
periphery, slightly subnormal night-vision, narrowed color-fields, 4 
Treatment is useless. All that can be done is to keep the patB 
in good health and spirits, and surround him with hygienic conditio 
inducive to Ihe arrest of any degenerative process. 

Symptoms and Diagnosis, — Embolism of the central artery of the 
retina is rare. Both the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries branch 
at right angles from their parent stems, and an embolus is easily 
swept by them. The characteristic subjective symptom is sudden 
blindness in one eye, probably after some slight exertion. There 
may be temporary improvement during the succeeding weeks, but 
the prognosis is very unfavorable. The differential diagnosis between 
thrombosis and embolism with the ophthalmoscope is sometimes diffi- 
cult. Hemorrhages are more numerous in thrombosis, and there is 
intense swelling of the nerve and retina. There is pallor of the disc 
and retina in embolism, and marked diminution in the size of the 
vessels. The veins become tortuous and very irregular. The cen- 
tral portion of the retina becomes hazy and grayish, the macula 
standing out in sharp contrast by its maintenance of the normal red 
color, the classic " cherry red spot," supposed to be due to the non- 
existence of the nerve-fiber layer at the fovea, allowing the choroidal 
vessels to show through. Finally, atrophy of the disc and retina 
ensue, and the vessels become obliterated and replaced by white 
streaks. Involvement of only a branch of the central artery is fol- 
lowed by an anemic and degenerated sector-like area supplied by 
the affected artery. The diagnosis should be confirmed by the 
discovery of some systemic source of embolus or thrombus, such 
as endocarditis, or other organic heart- affection, phlebitis, pyemia. 

Treatment is of little avail ; but sometimes in very recent cases it 
may be possible to remove the embolus by massage of the eyeball, or 
by reduction of the internal tension, as by sclerotomy. General treat- 
ment is, of course, indicated. 

Causes. — The most common cause is disease of the choroid conse- 
quent upon myopia of high degree. Chronic indammalion of the eye- 
ball or of the retina alone, fluid effusions or hemorrhage between the 
retina and choroid, injuries, new growths, diseases of the vitreous, 
removal or dialocation of the lens, and parasites, are oltwx (lwjkss.. 
ondition in which ihe inlraocu\at lcT\5iotv\s^\xi&ieTCvi\i'»"««*-— 


j, for instance, by the rapid escape of vitreous after a corneal sec- 

— predisposes to retinal detachment. 

Symptoms and Diagnosis.— The premonitory signs are flickering? 

I and the appearance of daiiling sparks before the eyes, and attack; 

^^^^ of momentary blindness. The detachment takes place suddenly. 

^^H and the field of vision is obscured by what seems to be a dark cloud 

^^V before the eyes. The detachment is only partial at first, and the 

^^* retina is still nourished by its own vessels, its functions being impaired 

rather than destroyed. Naturally, the refractive condition of the eyes 

is more hyperopic, but as the detached portion of the retina consiiliites 

^irregularfolds which constantly move with every movement of the eye, 
metamorphopsia and other anomalotis visual disturbances are present. 
By the ophthalmoscope there is absence of the red reflex in the region 
of the detachment. In advanced easel 
^^^^^^^^ a bluish-gray curtain is seen floating 

^^^^^^^^^^^ freely in the vitreous, and may even he 

i^^^^^^^H^^ seen by the naked eye (Fig. 93). The 
, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ picture may be confused by vitreous 
Q^mi^^^l^Q opacities, which frequently accompany 
this condition. 

Prognosis is dependent on the cause. 
If caused by intraocular tumor. Ihe case 
may be considered hopeless. If due to 
uETAUHKu pronounced myopia, one eye is usually 
^^^ Rhtima (Ebsct Imacr).— attacked after the other, and blindness is 
^^L t'r.r' ^ '""<•" J<"' unavoidable. In the other conditions 
^^H the progress of the detachment may 

^^^f possibly be arrested, but we can hardly hope for improvement, 
^^^ although instances of alleged reattachment without treatment have 
been reported. 

Treatment consists of prolonged rest in bed, with protection of tbe 
eyes from light by a pressure-bandage. Antiphlogistic measures 
should be adopted ; diaphoresis with the salicylates, or by hypodermic 
injection of pilocarpin. may prove of benefit. 

The operative treatments that have recently been r 
ire puncture through the sclerotic, allowing escape of the subrelioal 
fluid, injection of an artificial vitreous in front of the prolapsed ri 
or injection of a few drops of iodio iti Ihe vitreous. The real v 
I o/'/A«e /neasures is doubtful. 

^_ of I 

subrelioal J 
sed retina, ,■ 
real valm^^ 



DeGnition.' — A malignant tumor, soft and highly vascular, develop- 
ing in the retinal connective tissue, which, in common with the cere- 
bral connective tissue, is sometimes designated neuroglia. 

Symptoms.— It occurs chiefly in children from one to four. On 
account of the youth of the patient and the absence of pain, the early 
subjective symptom — visual disturbance — escapes unnoticed. The 
child may be totally blind for some lime without the parents' knowl- 
edge, attention to the eye first being called by the bright shimmer in 
the pupil, the so-called " cat's eye." In the first stage of the disease 
the ophthalmoscopic examination shows a yellowish prominence sur- 
rounded by small nodules, toward which dilated retinal vessels con- 
verge. In the second stage there is probably increased tension, and 
the growth begins Co push its way forward, carrying the retina, lens, 
and iris with it. The cornea and the aqueous may become opaque, 
and the conjunctival vessels intensely congested. Internal inflam- 
mation progressively increases, and the tumor may escape through a 
perforation in the cornea or penetrate the sclera, and appear as a, 
spongy, bleeding mass between the lids. The final stage is extension 
along the optic nerve, or metastasis to the neighboring structures. 

DiBgnoHiH is easy after the second stage is reached. In their early 
stages, suppurative choroiditis or hyalitis may produce symptoms so 
closely resembling glioma that they have been called pseudoglioraa. 
However, in choroiditis inflammation precedes the blindness, and the 
eye is soft. If there is doubt as to the diagnosis, the case should be 
treated as glioma, to prevent an error which may prove fatal. 

Prognosis. — Unfortunately, it is usual for the child lo be broughtfor 
treatment after the disease has progressed sufficiently lo cause the 
" cat's eye " or other prominent objective symptoms, and it may be 
too late even to save the child's life. There is absolutely no hope of 
preserving the affected eye. 

Treatment. — Not only should the affected eye he immediately enu- 
cleated, but the optic nerve should be divided as far back as possible, 
a nd if there is the slightest sign of invasion of the orbital tissues, they 
^^^^ust be removed and the orbit cauterized. 


Ordinarily, injuries of ihe retina are coincident with injuries to other 
parts of the eye, and the treatment is general rather than special. 

DAZZLING from exposure to intense light may result in partial 
complete loss of sight. Such cases often follow the observance of am 
eclipse of the sun. In severe cases a central blind spot is produc 
and the ophthalmoscope shows an opaque graybh spot in the maci 
probably due to a definite chemic change of the substance of 
retina. In such cases a permanent central scotoma remains, in spil 
I of treatment by rest in a dark room, leeches, electricity, strycbi 

^^F opAQtJE OR UEDULLATEDNERVE-FiBERa are sometimes disct 

cred by the ophthalmoscope. They are seen as white, striated blotct 
with fringed edges, along the direction of the principal vessels, a 
together present a flarae-like shape. When they can not be dircc 
traced to the disc, they may he confounded with pathologic chang 
In the vast majority of cases they cause no visual disturbance. 1 
condidon is due to the retention of the opaque medullary sheath 
the fibers, or "white substance of Schwann," after they leave I 
^^B lamina cribrosa to expand into the retina. 



Anatomy. — The fibers of the optic nerves arise in two bands, calli 
the ofilic tracts, from the corpora geniculata, corpora quadrigi 
und ophthalmic ganglion, which in turn are connected by radtadi 
with the center in the occipiioangular region of the coite 
(Fig. 96). Each optic tract winds obliquely across the correspondill 
id converges forward to meet its fellow, forming 
the optic commissure or chiasm, which is 
of six sets of fibers — viz., a set crossing from the right side of 
brain to the left eye ; a second scl, pursuing the same course from 
opposite side — decussating fibers ; a third set, anterior, connecting t1 
two retinas — inlerretinal fibers ; a fourth and a fifth set, latera], « 
nectiag the kemisphcTe of one s\de wU'b vW Te\;iTiTL q( \W <ava« sidt 
f^rvf^/ina/ ,■ and a sixth set, poslerior , co-nivecvW^ one o^\t \ 

I with 


with the other — intercertbral. The optic nerves diverge from the 
chiasm to pass through the optic in each sphenoid bone. 


nerve is covered by prolongadons of tnembranes of the bialo. a.^ 

s the lamias cribrosa, at which poiirt iVie &\Hi ^a'fcVM ' -'*>^_ 

sclera, the oiher membranes are d\scoTiivec\ti, * 

I cc 



covering of the nerve-iibers ceases, and the axis-cylinders pass 
through to form the nerve-fiber layer of the retina. The ophthalmic 
artery and vein pierce the nerve obliquely about 1 8 mm. posterior to 
the lamina crjbrosa, and are continued forward in the center of tbe 
nerve, passing through the porus opticus to be distributed 


Synonjins. — Choked disc, optic neuritis, papillitis, neuroretini^ 
Choked disc is so called on account of the interference of 
of blood through retinal veins, by pressure from swelling at this 
point. Papillitis generally describes an inflammation limited toxht 
intraocular head of the oplic nerve, although in all probability, in the 
majority of cases, the nerve is affected throughout its entire length- 
There is less swelling than in choked disc, the visual disturbance 
appears earlier, and the disease leads to atrophy and blindness more 
frequently than does choked disc. Ncurorctinitis and papilloretinitis 
are terms used to describe an inflammation which involves the retina 
as well as the optic nerve. It is characterized by hemorrhages, 
patches of fatty degeneration that appear as white spots, deposilioii 
of pigment, etc., similar to the changes in albuminuric retinitis. 

Causes. — The condition often called choked disc may b« due 
traumatism, but is usually the result of a brain tumor, and is almost 
invariably bilateral. Tumors of the cerebellum and those at the base 
of the brain pressing upon the sinuses are most likely to be followed 
by choked disc, Some form of optic neuritis is said to accompany 
ninety percent, of all cases of brain tumor. If unilateral, the disease is 
probably caused by a tumor in the orbit. Other intracranial diseases 
causing inflammation of the optic nerve are ; tubercular basilar men- 
ingitis of children, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis-r-in fact, 
gitis from other infectious diseases or from any suppurative origin. 
Infectious diseases, syphilis, lead-poisoning, and other systemic atTec- 
tions may directly cause optic neuritis. Tumors or diseases of (he 
orbit may have the same eflect. Traumatism and inflamm! 

Pathologic Anatomy.— Cerebia.^ tumors iWAtfctt with the circut*- 
n and distribution of subarac\ino\d ftvivA \tv We X^tov"^- 
te sheath 0/ the optic nerve becomes rftttCus-waMcft^viiVi- 




It is supposed that the bacilli of the causative meningitis act directly 
upon the nerve-head. 

The line of distinction between retinitis and neurorelinitis is so slight 
that we can probably associate closely the causes of the former with 
those of the latter; however, in albuminuric neurorelinitis, the greatest 
changesarein the retina rather than in the nerve-head, and the urinary 
tests are quite indicative. Cases of inflammation of the optic nerve 
in which the cause is unknown are sometimes seen. Occasionally, 
several members of a family, the males particularly, and of appar- 
ently healthy parents, are attacked between the eighteenth and 
twenty-fourth years by a bilateral optic neuritis. In other cases, 
"catching cold," suppression of the menses, lactation, etc., are given 
as causes. In such cases there must be a suspicion that there was 
latent inflammation which became prominent under the conditions 
mentioned, and was not directly due to them. 

Symptoms and Diag:nosis. — The systemic condition is often simul- 
taneously affected. The principal ocular symptom is impairment of 
vision, gradually passing intt) total blindness. In the early stages of 
choked disc vision is not markedly impaired. Particularly typical are 
liiminuiion of central -visual acuity, ititsymmetric contraction of the 
visual Jield, and impaired color-sense. The ophthalmoscopic appear- 
ance of choked disc is a swelling and opacity in the disc and its 
immediate neighborhood (Fig. 97). That the papilla is larger than 
normal and projects into the vitreous may be proved by \\ie parallax 
test. The papilla, while undergoing inflammation, has what has been 
called a vjoolly appearance, together with swelling and congestion. 
The small vessels of the disc are dilated, so that many of them are 
visible, unless masked by excessive edema. There may he numerous 
capillary hemorrhages in the nerve-head. The retinal arteries are 
diminished in siie, and veins are swollen and tortuous. The edges 
of the disc are lost, and a striated flame-like or grayish haziness 
spreads over the disc into the adjoining retina, nearly equal on all 
sides. !n severe forms there are diffuse retinal hemorrhages and 
perhaps macular changes resembling albuminuric retinitis. 

In addition 10 the presence of choked disc, the discovery of hemi- 
anopsia and use of Wernicke's sign will aid in the diagnosis of cere- 
bral growth. 
,Jn Ihe interstilial or descending neuritis \\\e fi\^t "vi xiov ■b■^^O^e■^. 'i-b 
'\oked disc; k is dull and edematous \oaV\t\'£. "Nv-ivoTv va "iSi-S*n. 


^V 232 

.nd sooner affected, owing to the greater length of nerve st 

Prognosis. — The course is usually chronic, finally ending in optic ' 
nerve atrophy. Naturally, the prognosis is affected by the catise. 
Cerebral tumors are usually fatal in a short time. The various Torms 
of meningitis arc always serious. Restoration of vision is doubtful; 
there is little hope of regaining lost visual power. However, cuies 
with restoration of normal visual acuity, ana cures of amblyopia of 
every degree, have been reported. 

Treatment is naturally directed to the c; 

If the cerebral tumof 

can be located, surgical interference may be of value, A sypbilij 
gumma will yield to mercury and potassium iodid. If no cause il 
discernible, diaphoresis, the mercurials and iodids, and tonics iQ&n 
be tried. Blood-letting from the temporal region has been reporti 
of value. Possibly mild cases recover spontaneously. If there i 
;on 10 suspect that the neuritis is orbital in origin, systc 
p(»;JJproveof little value; and in welKdefined malignant orbiti 
[ disease immediate enucleation Is *impcta.v\Ne. 



Definition.— Inflammation of the optic nerve beyond the eyeball, in 
which the disc is not involved at first, papillitis arising in the ad- 
vanced stage. 

Causes. — Acute retrobulbar neuritis is caused by exposure to cold, 
acute infectious diseases, sudden cessation of the menses, and any 
condition which leads to a sudden exudation into the sheath of the 
optic nerve. The most common cause of the chronic form is exces- 
sive use of tobacco and alcohol ; although lead-poisoning, syphilis, 
quinin, and other toxic agents may produce it. As a rule, both 
tobacco and alcohol are simultaneously used to excess, and act con- 
jointly. The disease is often called tobacco or alcohol amblyopia, or 
loxic or intoxication amblyopia, although many authors dlsdnguish 
between intoxication amblyopia and retrobulbar neuritis from other 
causes. It has recendy been suggested that the central amblyopia 
is due to primary rather than to secondary macular disease — that is, 
that the disease starts in the macula and ascends the central fibers 
of the optic nerve. 

S)'mptoma. — In the acute disease, total blindness results in a few 
days, and there is often pain in the eye. increased by movement or 
pressure. The ophthalmoscope reveals a papillitis of moderate 
severity. In the more common chronic disease, the chief symptom 
is slowly diminishing central vision. The patient complains that he 
sees indistinctly, especially in bright light, and his vision improves at 
sundown. This is explained by the dilatation of the pupil as daylight 
fades, and consequent stimulation of the unaffected perimacular 
region by the increased illumination. Examination with the peri- 
meter shows a central scotoma, at first for color, and finally for 
light. At the onset, the lield of vision remains nearly normal, and 
only begins to be obliterated when fixation becomes impossible, 
and nystagmus results. With the ophthalmoscope there is first seen 
slight hyperemia of the disc, and later a grayish-white discoloration 
of the temporal halves of the papillas. The outlines are obscured, 
the veins are enlarged, and the arteries diminished in size. 

Prognosis may be considered favorable if the disease has not pro- 
gressed to atrophy, and if the patient can he made to stop drinking 
and smoking'; but relapses are likely to dccmt ■wVewevt.xftvt lioSixEi- 
ence is suspended. 

THE LENS. 23s 

Symptoms and Diagnosis. — The patient notices an early disturb- 
ance of vision, consisting of tliminmion in the central acuity, concen- 
tric contraction of the visual field, both for while and colors, and 
irregular scotomas. There is no pain, and seldom photophobia. 
Of the colors, green is first lost, and blue last ; light-sense is longest 
retained. The ophthalmoscopic appearances vary with the cause. 
If the atrophy is subsequent to papillitis, the disc is increased in 
size, and there is more or less obliteration of its outline and disten- 
tion of the veins. In simple atrophy, instead of the rosy healthy hue 
of the normal disc, the papilla may be grayish-blue, or quite white. 
The outlines have a striking sharpness, which gives the shining disc 
its characteristic appearance (Fig- 98). The disc appears sunVen 
and excavated, and allows the network of the lamina cribrosa to be 
seen through the spaces left open by the disappearance of the nerve- 
fibers. Tfae vessels diminish in size, and the capillaries of the 
papilla are no longer visible, 

Prognosis is serious. The probability of retaining the vision yet 
led is small, and the result is usually total blindness. 

Treatment should be directed to the cause ; constant, increasing 
doses of strychnin should be given, orally or hypodermic ally, and the 
continuous electric current should be applied until it is found to be of 
no avail. Good results have recently been reported from the com- 
bined use of mercuric chlorid and nitroglycerin. 


Anatomy. — The crystalline lens consists of a biconvex, transparent 
body inclosed in an equally transparent homogeneous capsule. It 
varies from eight to ten mm. in diameter, and is from three to four 
mm. thick from pole to pole. Its posterior surface rests against the 
vitreous, and its anterior surface against the posterior surface of the 
iris. The capsule is thickest at the anterior pole (o,di6 mm.). The 
lens is enveloped at its periphery by the suspensory ligament and 
behind by the hyaloid men;ibrane. The substance of the lens is 
arranged in concentric layers, composed of minute fibrils somewhat 
hexagonal on horizontal section, which dove-tail into one another. 
The external layers are soft, the next fiimet, M\i'C[\ftceft\-i'jJv.\t«\& ft 
hardened nucleus. Between the \ayeis ai\i anvonsj.x^fcWoS''^^''^'^'^ 


oil-like material called the liquor Morgagni, which permits chan{ 
of form of the lens without friction. The anterior capsule is 
elastic membrane, lined on its posterior surface by hexagonal c 
whose function, it is said, is to nourish the lens proper. 

The zone of Zinn is the suspensory ligament of the lens, ai 
to retain the lens in place. It is a transparent, fibrous, perfori 
membrane, stretched between the ciliary processes and the len 
Between the folds of this ligament is the canal of Pi til, encircling d 
equator and containing a fluid supposed to assist the nutridoa of 4 


Definition. — A pathologic change in the lens or its capsule dimi 
ishing its transparency. 

Causes.— Traumatic cataract, due to injury of the capsule o 
needs no explanation, as it is not supposed that the subsequent ci 
tricial tissue will be transparent. If the lens or capsule i 
injured by trauma, but is dislocated or its surrounding media dis- 
turbed, it becomes opaque through altered nutrition, due lo the sus- 
pension of the exchange of fluid between the lens-stniclure and the 
surrounding media. Any chemic alteration in the fl 
of the body in general may he participated in by the aqui 
ous, and suspensory hgament, and may endanger the lens, as, ( 
instance, cataract due to diabetes. Inflammations of the uveal ti 
myopia, retinitis pigmentosa, detachment of the retina, and gill 
ct. Rickets is an almost constant a 

The gouty diathesis is mentioned ■ 

Heredity is sometimes an etiologic fact! 

r workers in great heat and glare are parti 

Certain toxic agents, such as naphtb 

There is no satisfactory expl« 

ct. Old age predisposes to cataract, but wfaeth 

, sclerosis, atheroma of the . 

lin on the accommodation In presbyopia, w 

" say. It has been suggested that as the lens grows by proliferation d 

the epithelial cells lining the anterior capsule, these cells becog 

more compressed and harder at the nucleus, the oldest part of ^ 

lens, and when the normal increase d( l\\tTviit\cM'iTL>.'CBe ti.^j«r,*a^ 

lAe cortical substance ceases, the feist ^tt^i^i-aVetv v 

paniment of lamelb 
a predisposing cause. 
Glass-blowers and othi 
larly susceptible to 
lin and ergot, may i 
tion of senile 
by weakened 

formation. It is the opinion of the authors that the disturbances in 
nutrition, directly and indirectly brought about by prolonged eye-strain 
due to uncorrecied ametropia, are not only possible, but general 
causes of cataract. 

Varieties and Nomenclature. — Opacities in the capsule are called 
capsular cataract ; opacities in the lens-substance are called lenticular 
t, and may be cortical or nuclear, or, if both cortex and nu- 
re involved, we speak of complete cataract. Complicated 
le in connection with other eye-diseases. If ihe diseased 
IS adherent to any of the neighboring structures, the condition is 
'n as cataracta accreta. A polar cataract is a cataract conlined 
c pole of the lens. In psrramidal cataract the opacity is at the 
■r pole, and is conoid, the apex extending forward. Recurrent 
capsular or secondary cataract is a cataract of the capsule appearing 
after extraction of the lens. Diabetic cataract is associated with 
diabetes. Probably the most convenient division of cataract is into 
Benile, juvenile, traumatic, and atationary, and this classiiication with 
its subdivisions will be used later. An important distinction of cata- 
racts refers to their maturity or ripeness, whence they are classed as 
ripe, unripe, and overripe (Morgagnian). 

Symptoms and Diagnosis. — Cataract does not cause pain. The 
symptoms are disluibance of vision and reduction of visual acuity, 
which vary according to the kind of cataract and its stage of maturity. 
Opacities on ihe pole or on the axis between the two poies may escape 
the patient's notice, if they are small, dense, and sharpiy defined; 
whereas, opacities including the entire pupillary area cause great 
disturbance of vision. Opacities at the periphery, when covered by 
the iris, as a rule produce no obstruction to sight; but when 
the pupil is sufficiently dilated, as in a dim light, these opacities be- 
come evident, hence such patients see belter in a bright light wilh a 
contracted pupil. Patients with an opacity in the pupillary area with 
the periphery remaining clear see better wiih a dilated pupil-rs.'^^ 
under a mydriatic or in a dim light. Even a complelgly-opaque lens 
does not destroy vision. If the retina and opa^ii>^ierve are healthy, 
the patient should be able to tell the direction from which light is pro- 
jected, and should recognize an ordinary candle-flame in a dark room 
at six meters. With normal light-perception, a pupil of a cataractous 
eye should contract distinctly if light is suddenly t.hrO'«v\ mv\o \V, 
- 1 Objective Eiamination. — If the anterior po\ai l;el^^'iT^'\sCl■^■^c!(M■,'^«• 




pupil appears grayish-white instead of normal black. It musC not be 
supposed that every grayish discoloration of the pupil is caused bj 
cataract ; indeed, in old persons some difTused light is always refleclfd 
from even a transparent lens, giving the pupil a. grayish color. 
The general plan in the diagnosis of cataract is to use both obliqut 
illumination and the ophthalmoscopic mirror. With the first, opac. 
ities appear grayish against a black background, and with the second, 
black against a red background (Figs. 99 and loo). If the calaiadis 
almost complete, the whole pupillary area is grayish under oblique or 
direct illumination and black under the transmitted light of the 

J. Op«e, 

ophthalmoscopic mirror. When a distinct area in the lens appeais 
^iiy or ivhitt by focalilluminalion and black to light thrown through 
it by the opklhalmoscope, we are justified in assuming an opacity. 
The entire lens can be examined only by complete dilatation of thf 
pupil, and even then the peripheral edges may be hidden. 

Cataract is most common in old persons, next in infants, and rarest 
in middle age. 

BENILB CATARACT develops usually between the fiftieth and seven- 
tieth yesr, and may be cottvca\, nuclear, or mixed in origin. It geit 
tersJly shows a hard, unclouded, and \.ta'n=.■p^■^fe^\\■^'4Ae■Qs,■ 




One eye is generally affected at a time. Early 
symptoms are multiple vision in one eye, caused by opaque sectors in 
the cortex of the lens, and shortsightedness due to a change in the 
refractive index or expansion of the lens. Incipient cataract causes 
the presbyope annoyance; he complains that his glasses do not fit, 
and that dark shadows are seen before his eyes. As the opacities 
increase, the visual acuity diminishes, and the lens swells from absorp- 
tion of water in the cortex, causing the anterior chamber to become 
shallower. After a longer or shorter time the cortex becomes opaque, 
the swelling disappears, and the anterior chamber is again of normal 
depth. By this lime the visual acuity is reduced to counting fingers 
and perception of a. candle across the room. The cataract is now 
considered mature, or ripe. 

The test for maturity of a cataract is what is known as the iris- 
shadow. By throwing a strong light obliquely into the pupil, the 
margin of lhe.^«pfris made to throw a shadow upon the opacity. If 
the iens is completely opaque, the white hght reflected from it and 
the dark brown of the pupillary margin of the iris lie immediatelj' 
against each other ; if, on the contrary, the external cortical layer of 
the lens is still clear, there will be seen, between the white shadow of 
the opaque pupillary portion of the lens and the pigmented edge of 
the iris, a dark ring, which will be wider the less the lens is opaque. 
The treatment for mature senile cataract is extraction. 

An otJerripe cataract becomes smaller and more dense, due either 
to a diminution in the aqueous constituents, or to the cortex becoming 
a yellowish, mushy mass of fluid, with a brown ni:cleus floating in il. 
This latter condition is known as the Morgagniari cataract, and causes 
the greatest disturbance of vision and difficulty of extraction. 

JUVENII.E CATARACT maybe congenital in all stages of its growth. 
As the nucleus is not yet hard, it participates in the general cataract- 
ous change in the lens. Any part of the lens, even the nucleus, may 
bestrewn with punctate opacities. Juvenile cataracts become atro- 
phied, liquefied, or calcified. In the atrophic soft cataract there is 
found within the capsule a mushy degenerative mass; and In the 
fluid cataract the same constituents are found floating in the liquid. 
In calcified cataract the whole lens is changedloalumpy mass, look- 
ing like gypsum. In some cases the contents of a soft catatacl wiV) 
be absorbed, leafing' only the membranoua oi ca^%u\M ta,\.wa«, T^t 

I age of ihe patient, ihe bluish white color, and general appcaranct, 
I indicate 


^^r STATIONARY CATARACT includes any Condition in which there is* 
fixed and permanent opacity throughout life, showin 
progression as in the foregoing varieties. There are several kinds d 
cataract that are stationary, and they will be considered sepaialely. 

Zonular oi Lamellar Cataract. — This is the rnost c 
of stationary cataract. It appears nearly always in both eyes, ai 
may be congenital, or may be developed during the eady yea 
of life, not being noticed until the child is sent to school, 
as a delicate, gray, homogeneous opacity, restricted to a zone lyiai 
between the nucleus and the cortex, and is supposed lo be produce 
by a temporary interruption of nutrition during formation of the le 
If light is thrown by the ophthalmoscope directly into the pupiLl 
dark, circular opacity, brownish-red in the middle, is seen, 1 
cortex is not always clear, but may contain dots and spokes and w 
are known as saddit opacitus. Unless the pupil be dilated, the c 

■ ractous shell may not be discovered, and the patient be considered! 
myope. Discission is almost always the operative measure employa 

Posterior polar cataract is characterized by a white, glisteninft 
round opacity, situated on the posterior pole of the lens or its capsulli 
and is supposed to be the result of some disease of the fetal hyal 
artery. It is usually complicated with disease of the retina 
choroid. An artificial pupil may produce relief in these case*, b 
failing in this, discission is the final step. 

Pyramidal cataract (anterior capsular or polar cataract) if 
congenital, but is acquired in childhood arter a perforating ukeri 
the cornea and escape of the vitreous, which allows the lens lo a 
in contact with the inflamed cornea. Afier the aqueous reforms. A 

I lens recedes, leaving a small, roundish, glittering opacity protmiiii 
into the anterior chamber like the apex of a cone. Contrary t< 
general idea, the opaque mass is inside the capsule, which is i 
jured, save for the absence of its epithelium. 
Congenital nuclear or ecniral cataract is recognized by a whU 
circular, and sharply outlined opacity in the center of the pnpl 
Vision may be good, as the patient, \oqV% ^.\^■IW5,h. the side of ij 
opaque nucleus. 



TRADMATIC CATARACT results from a rupture of the capsule by a 
contusion of the eyeball, by penetration from a foreign body, or frora 
injury to the lens itself. The lens-fibers coming in contact with the 
aqueous become cloudy and swollen, and If the wound is of any 
extent, as is usually the case, the entire lens parflcipaies in the morbid 
process. The Contents of the capsule gradually protrude into the 
anterior chamber and are absorbed. Iritis is a frequent accompani- 
ment, and if there is much swelling of the lens, glaucoma may be 
produced. The younger the patient, the quicker the absorption and 
the less inclination to increased tension. The slightest touch in an 
operation may give rise to a traumatic cataract, and in elderly per- 
sons a small aseptic foreign body rnay cause cataract so slowly that 
the patient forgets about the injury long before there is marked visual 
disturbance. The treatment in young subjects is to wait for absorp- 
tion, while in elderly persons extraction is indicated after the subsid- 
ence of inflammatory signs. Marked increase of intraocular tension 
calls for early iridectomy and extraction, The general procedures for 
associate traumatic and inflammatory conditions — such as co!d, leech- 
ing, antiseptic douching, and atropin — are necessary. 


General Remarks. — The treatment of unripe cataract must be the 
use of proper reading glasses, protecting the eyes from irritation of 
any kind, and the maintenance of the general health of the patient. 
In considering what cataracla may be operated on, we must first 
determine whether any retinal, choroidal, or nerve-disease coexists, 
which maybe discovered by examining the light- sensation or field 
of vision. 

Stationary cataract, in which the visual acuity is sufficient for the 
patient's occupation, or in which an artificial pupil will suffice, should 
not be operated on. If one eye is unafFeclcd and healthy, it is not 
advisable to operate, for, even under the most successful conditions, 
we can not expect perfect binocular vision, on account of the great 
optic disparity between the eyes. 

Ripe and overripe cataracts are best treated by operation. Unripe 

cataracts should be waited for. or, if absolutely necessary, should be 

artificially ripened by intracapsular irti^aV\on t,W.Of..tiv«T^i. t« ">h-( 

Forsler's luelhod, which consists in pevioimTO^ aTi «\i,^s\>i -ot ■» 



paracentesis of the cornea, allawing the escape of aqueous, and imi- 
tating the lens hy massaging the cornea against it with a strabistnui 
hook or spatula and CKtracling afterreaclion has ceased. Beltmann's 
method consists in "' direct trituration " of the lens with a spatula In- 
troduced into the anterior chamber after iridectomy. AH these oper- 
ations are attended with more or less danger. In fact, many oper- 
ators believe it is safer to extract an unripe cataract than to resort to 
artificial ripening. 

The health of the patient and the state of the eye should be con- 
sidered before proceeding with any operation. General debility and 
any inflammatory disease of the eye or appendages are contralndica- 

Preparation for Operations. — A gentle purgative should be given 
the day before the operation. The head should be washed with soap 
and hot water, and an antiseptic bandage placed ove 
operated on. This bandage is removed at the operation, the head 
enveloped in a cloth wet with sublimate solution, the vicinity of the 
eye thoroughly scrubbed with a strong sublimate solution, and the 
eye douched with a mild antiseptic solution. Anesthesia is produced 
by instilling several drops of a four per cent, solution i 
eye five limes, at intervals of two or three minutes, / 
sponges, and dressings used should be thoroughly sterilized before 
the operation. 

Choice oF Operation. — Discission is applicable to the 
and lamellar cataracts in childhood. The reaction an 
tension in adult eyes after discission is so great as to be dangerous, 
although discission has been successfully used before extraction of rbe 
lenses of highly myopic eyes. However, in this case an early iridec- 
tomy and extraction is performed. 

Extraction •mithout iridectomy is a beautiful operation, and often 
gives ideal results. Many reliable operators advise it, but it should 
never be performed by a novice ; only by an expert upon selected 
and trained patients. The tendency to prolapse of the iris a 
secondary capsular cataract is greater than in the combined opera- 

Exlraction with iridectomy is the safest of all cataract extractions. 
It is absolutely demanded in complicated or difficult cases. The so- 
called "njHli/alfon " of the iris \s s\\^\\i, ani vVe co^wittic disadvan- 
tage is hardly noticeable, and is muc\v mot« Wao. aft^-ft'Vi'j x^at ^i&e^ j 



and good results. Prolapse of the iris is infrequent. Wiih careful 
irrigation of the anterior chamber, the chances of secondary ci 
are greatly reduced. 

Discission \s the operation most used in lamellar cataract i 
all soft cataracts without hard nuclei. The necessary ii 

Fig. 101.— Nehdlb fob Sopt C*tab.<ct, 

a lid-speculmn, fixation forceps, and a discission-knife needle (Fig. 
[01), or Bowman's stop needle. The pupil should be dilated (o the 
utmost. The needle is entered perpendicularly to the under and outer 
side of the center of the cornea (Fig. 102). The capsule is pie reed near 
its anterior pole, and is divided up and down by a vertical sweep of the 
handle, taking care not to penetrate deeply into the lens. If neces- 

sary, the vertical incision in the capsule may be enlarged transversely ; 
the needle is then withdrawn in the same direction as it was entered, 
avoiding, as much as possible, escape of the aqueous. While the 
lens is undergoing absorption, the pupA mo* \iei V.t'^ SJttos^ -w&v J 
airopin. If the swelling is too intense ani ittoa «u»w4,"Jd.«i ' 


action. If abso 
: aqueous by paracentesis and re-1 
Inflammatory symptoms a 

I 344 

mass should be let out by simple 
obstructed, simple release of the 
peated discissions are necessary, 
in the usual way. 

Extraction with Iridectomy. — The lids are fixed by a lid-speculum 
or by the fingers of an assistant, and the conjunctiva is firmly held 
with fixation forceps, at a point centrally below the margin of the 
cornea. A Graefe knife (Fig. 103) is entered at the corneal margin, 
just above its horizontal diameter, and is passed through the a 
terior chamber in front of the pupil, making counterpunclure at 

point exactly opposite. With the culting-edge upward, the knife b 
gently moved to and fro, until the upper two-iifths of the cornea b 
opened at the scleral border. The operation is then momentarily 
suspended, and the patient is directed to look downward and keep 
the eye quiet while iris-forceps are introduced closed through the 
center of the incision. The iris is grasped at its pupillary border, 
slowly withdrawn, and the portion to be removed is excised^ 
by iris- scissors, the blades of which are held in the plane of tliel 
vertical meridian. The anterior capsule of the lens is then opene<i 


by a cystotome (Fig. 104), which is Introduced into the wound to tl 
edge of the iris, with its cutting-point directed upward ; it is tl 
partly revolved, turning the point backward toward the capsule, o 
which it is drawn in a horizontal and vertical direction, or around th«fl 
circumference of the pupil ; another quarter revolution of the handlai 
is made, and the instrument is withdrawn with its point downward. 

The delivery of the lens is then effected by gentle pressure anftfl 
massage with a lens-spoon until it is extruded through the cornea 
incision (Fig. 10$). Counterpressuie toiy be made with one spooi^ 
on Clie inferior portion of the cornea, ■«\i\\«3-novWi s'5(««v^!e 


the sclera above the incision. The anterior chamber is freed from 
blood, and the remaining cortical fragments are expelled by stroking 
the cornea with a spoon or by the gentle injection of sterilized water 
or a weak antiseptic solution. Care must be taken that the iris is not 
engaged in the wound, and if it can not be successfully pushed hack 
into the anterior chamber, it should be excised. 

If the vitreous presents at the corneal wound before the lens is 
delivered, the speculum must be withdrawn, and the lens removed by 
means of a wire loop, a spoon, or a special lens-extractor. In cases 
in which, for any reason, prolapse of the vitreous is anticipated, the 
Kail suture is sometimes employed. A fine suture is introduced into 
the substance of the cornea, not penetrating it, below the line of ex- 
pected section, and brought out and carried over into the tissues 

Fig. 105.-EJ 

beyond the limbus. After extraction, this suture may be tightened. 
The Kalt suture has not found general favor. 

Bxtrsction without iridectomy is suitable for cases in which the 
operator is skilled by long experience, and in which a smooth and 
complete delivery of the lens may be anticipated in a healthy, calm, 
and intelligent patient, A Graefe knife is introduced near the hori- 
zontal diameter of the cornea at its junction with the sclera, and a 
flap made by transfixation as before, including about five-twelfths of 
the corneoscleral margin. The capsule is divided as in the preced- 
ing operation, or rather more extensively if a Knapp knife, especially 
designed for this purpose, is used. The lens is expelled by slow, 
steady, continuous pressure with a spoon otv \\vt \o"«e.\ ■^■ft,l^. <A "^^t 
cornea. The rest of the operation and U\e com^Vvc 

as in extraction with iridectomy. Eserin (gr. j 
the eye and the eye bandaged. 

Accidents During Extraction. — The corneal section may be made 
loo small. In such case it should be enlarged by a knife 
Hemorrhage into the anterior chamber tas^j interfere with iheoperi- 
tion. Irrigation and massage of cornea with a scoop will dispel ihc 
blood. Prolapse of ike ■vitreous before delivery of the lens Is a seri- 
ous accident, as the lens falls back into the vitreous chamber, and 
may be lost unless immediately extracted by a loop, scoop, or olbM 
similar instrument. Loss of vitreous after extraction is not serious, 
but is an Indication for Immediate suspension of further manipula- 

Complications in the Process of Healing. — Pain may be severe, and 
continued beyond three or four hours. It should be rnet with hypo- 
dermic injections of morphia. 

The anterior chamber is sometimes not restored for a week or mote. 
This need cause no alarm. 

Corneal opacities usually soon pass away, unless caused by strong 
C chlorid solutions. 

Suppuration of the ivsund is rare when antiseptic precautions are 
used. Its onset is made known by severe continued pain and by pus 
In the eye. It usually occurs between the twelfth and thirty-sixth hours,. 
It should be combated by actual cauterization of the whole corneal 
wound and mercuric chlorid irrigations. It Is a very serious compli-.. 

Iritis Is due to traumatism during the operation, irritation from 
remaining cortical substance, and rarely infeclion. It does not ap- 
pear for several days after the operation, and is ushered in by patA 
and the objective symptoms of plastic Iritis. It is treated by atropln, 
hot compresses, leeching, and salicylate of soda or the iodids intern- 
ally. The disastrous results are generally due to organized exudate 
in the pupil, obscuring vision, 

Cysloid cicatrix \% usually seen at the extremities of the corneal 
section. It does not appear for several weeks after the operation. 1' 
the Iris capsule is included in the cicatrix, the eye Is exposed to th 
danger of sudden attacks of iridocyclitis or iridochoroiditis. 
Extraction of the lens in an unruptured capsule is an ideal opers 
li'o/i, but is an]v applicable when ihe capsu\e\s\ia\i^ »T.i>i\e 'jah^u 
mryligameni weak.or when ,hereis iftuvi WV««^ftv«NM,«^^, 


lens. Instead of lacerating the capsule with a cystotome, a spoon 
is passed behind the upper edge of the lens, and gentle pressure is 
exerted on the lower third of the cornea. If the lens is not expelled, 
the spoon is passed still deeper behind to the posterior pole, and the 
lens slipped out by pressing it lightly against the inner surface of the 

Descriptions of other operations for the extraction of cataract are 
considered unnecessary in a work o( this nature. Suction is only 
applicable to fluid cataracts without a nucleus, and is not recom- 
mended. Suction by the mouth is a forbidden procedure in these 
days of asepsis and antisepsis. 

After-treatment consists in removing all shreds from the corneal 
wound, cleansing the eye, and after simple exlraclion instilling a 
drop of eserin to prevent prolapse of the iris. If there is much cor- 
tical substance still in the wound, it may be removed by gentle mas- 
sage of the cornea, or by c.ireful irrigation of the anterior chamber 
with a special syringe. Lippincott has devised a most convenient 
apparatus for this purpose. The eyelids are closed with adhesive 
strips. A light absorbent bandage, consisting of a little absorbent 
cotton and thin material, like tarletan, is applied over both eyes, not 
to exert pressure, but simply to keep the eyes closed, at rest, and 
moderately warm. The dressings may be protected by a pasteboard 
shield. The patient is kept quiet in bed, and, unless there are active 
signs of infection, the bandage is not opened until about forty-eight 
hours after the operation. If there are no signs of inflammation then, 
the eye is cleansed twice daily, and at the end of a week the band- 
ages may be omitted altogether, and dark glasses should be worn 
10 protect the eye from strong light. After removing the bandage, 
atropin may be instilled daily, to keep the cili.iry muscle and iris 
completely at rest. Strong convex lenses may be ordered after sev- 
eral weeks, and the patient allowed to begin the use of the eyes. 
Under ordinary circumstances the correcting lens for distance is 
about -|- S. 10, and about -|- 5. 13 or 14 for reading. Some astigma- 
tism is usually present, and should be corrected; this, however, 
gradually diminishes, and a reexamination of the refraction is soon 
necessary. Any inflammation secondary to cataract operations 
should be treated on the general principles heretofore discussed. 


:ONDARV CATARACT ii dvlC 1(1 lUeOp&WV^ o^ fee.T'^*^™'^^ 


aule of the lens, with or without any remaining lens-substance, t 
ract-dcbris, or inflammatory exudate. The treatment of an opaqire I 
capsule in a pupillary space consists of discission by a. needle c 
Graefe's knife (capsulotomy), or, if the capsule is tough, by dilacera- 
tion with two needles (Fig. io6). Care should be taken not to 
exert too much pressure and dragging on the cUiary body. Some 
operators divide the capsule with a pair of Rue scissors-forceps, and 
others extract the capsule through an opening in the cornea n 
scleral margin (capauleclomy). Small hooks arc also used for tearing M 

1 openmg ii 

1 opaque capsule, 


INJURIES TO THE LENS causing opacity are seldom limited 
locality, but generally involve the adjacent tissues. Simple 
should be treated like cases of discission, and may subsequently 
quire an appropriate operation. The younger the patient, the better 
the prognosis. The lens may be dislocated completely, in which form 
the suspensory ligament is lorn through and the lens is crowded 
of position, and may even escape through the conjunctival 
or it may be simply subluxated. A lens displaced from its ntUut 
lied sooner or later becomes opaqvie. Yoi (iiCviti ^vit^'o'SAQQ 
/Am subject the reader is referred to tVie sccVvotv otv ' 



Tact. A foreign body in the lens causes cataract, and the c. 

Dus lens should be removed before it becomes overripe, else the 

foreign body may be released and become lost in the vitreous chamber. 

generally associated with some congenital anomaly of the vitreous or 
choroid. In this form the lens may retain its transparency for many 
years, and Can be seen to move with change of head, and is visible 
under transillumination. There is sometimes congenital coloboma 
of the lens, generally peripheral, corresponding to coloboma of the 
iris and choroid. Aphakia, or absence of the lens, is sometimes 
congenital, but exists, of course, in persons upon whom discission or 
exlraclion has been performed. It is diagnosed by the deep anterior 
chamber,the trembling iris, high degree of hyperopia, and the loss of 
accommodation. There is also the absence of the small inverted im- 
age of a candle held close to the eye. The treatment 
prescribing correcting bifocal glasses for reading and disla 


Anatomy and Physiology. — The corpus vitreum forms the principal 
bulk of the globe of Ihe eye. It consists of 98,6 per cent, of water. 
The remainder is composed of transparent fibers extending in all 
directions. Between these fibers are the compartments in which the 
nearly pure water or vitreous humor is contained. The vitreous is 
pierced in an irregular sagittal direction by the central eanal A\io^\^ 
Iwo mm. in diameter. In the embryonic state Ihe hyaloid artery Xxa.- 
verses this canal, and sometimes persists after birth. The vitreous is 
contained in a delicate membrane called the hyaloid membrane. 

HVAL.1TI3, or inflammation of the vitreous, is not an independent 
disease, but is generally associated with inflammation of the uveal 
tract, particularly the ciliary body, which causes disturbances of 
nutrition. It is characteriied by change in consistency and partial 
disorganization. Opacities are seen in the form of threads, clouds, or 
separate flocculi, which cause subjective visual disturbance, ^'u^. 
provided the media are sufficienl\y c\eaT,aTe de\et>.ti\i'i'Ci\twJ«*^'^- 
moscope. The treatment is consl\tuViOT\a\, avi4 viTvift aKi <L«fa.-o 


MUSC^ V0LITANTE3, OR MYiODESOPSiA. — Microscopic vitreo 
opacities- formed at the periphery are of normal occurrence, and a 
found floating in the vitreous and can Ije readily seen in one's o« 
eye, particularly if the observer be myopic. In certain cooditions i 
a.metTOpia these opacities become numerous and annoyingandassun 
different shapes, such as strings of beads, flakes, etc. They generallfl 
disappear when the ametropia is corrected. By many observen 
musca; are considered intraocular evidence of waste-tissue accuniul» 
don, and diet, exercise, and eliminatives, such as sodium phosphate 
are prescribed. Many patients complain of muses during attacks 
of "biliousness." As soon as opacities are rendered visible by Ok 
ophthalmoscope, they are termed ■vitreous opacifies and are always tl 
sign or sequence of disease of the choroid, ciliary body or relioi 
intraocular hemorrhage, etc. The treatment should be directed ti 
the cause. Mild aperients, diaphoretics, the mercurials and iodid^ 
etc., may be administered. The eye should be used as little a 
sible at night. Vitreous opacities only reduce visual acuity when lh(J 
intercept the rays of light proceeding to the macular region, 

SYNCHYSia is a name given to fluidity of the vitreous. Ii 
erally due to chronic inflammation of the choroid or the ciliary bodj; 
and in itself brings about no special disturbance. Fluidity of tMr 
vitreous is significant in cataract operation, as we may expect c 
erable loss of vitreous under such circumstances. 

BYKCHYSis SCINT1LLAN3 is the name given to an acciimul. 
of cholesierin, tyrosin, and other crystab dispersed in the vitreoii 
constituting an ophthalmoscopic picture which has been compared 
a shower of sparks in fireworks, ll may be dependent upon cb 
roidilis. The disease appears in advanced age, without siga i 
choroidal disease. Treatment is useless, and the condition is a CO 
Iraindicalion to operation, 

PERSISTENT HYALOID ARTERY is a rare anomaly, and consists i 
a line, Jibrous cord with its anterior end either attached to the pa 
lerior surface of (he lens or pnitruAma ^toto v'tvft Wtvi-iii \ti\ji <] 
vilreous. It may easily be seen w\i\it\\e o?\v<,^a\TOQ^to^. 


Definition. — Glaucoma is a disease in many respecis not thorouglily 
understood, but characterized by the essential sign of increase of in- 
traocular tension. However, every case of simple increase in intra- 
ocular tension is not glaucoma, and in some cases oi simple glaucoinii 
no increase of tension exists. 

Causes.^The direct cause is increase of the contents within the 
eye; either from Af^»'ji'iT«A'o«, due to disturbances of llie nervous 
mechanism controlling secretion, or to relenlion of the intraocular 
fluids by obstruction or obliteration of the drain age -pass age a at the 
periphery of the anterior chamber. Conditions causing changes in 
the composition of the aqueous also interfere with fillration^ — as, for 
instance, serous iritis and cyclitis. There is so much discussion and 
difference of opinion among equally erudite oculists about the cause 
of glaucoma that an exposition of the numerous theories is not advis- 
able in an elementary work. 

Among the predisposing causes are mentioned old age {with nor- 
mal diminution of the circumlenticular space), gout, rheumatism, 
nephritis, certain cardiac diseases — in fact, any condition leading to 
circulatory and vascular changes. The general tendency to waste- 
tissue accumulation — the so-called uric-acid diathesis — is a funda- 
mental cause in these cases. It is the opinion of the authors that 
long-continued eye-strain, from uncorrected or improperly corrected 
ametropia, is a potent factor^ in the etiology of many cases of 

Pathologic Changes. — If there is a rapid rise in tension, the lens is 
pressed forward, a fact proved by the shallowness of the anterior 
chamber, and the suspensory ligament is stretched beyond the power 
of the ciliary muscle to relax it, as is shown in the lessening in the 
range of accommodation. There are marked circulatory changes in 
Ihc eye. Pulsation is noticed in the retinal arteries, and the retinal 
veins are tortuous and swollen from the increased pressure. As the 
venje vorlicosic are also squeezed by the intraocular pressure, an 
excess of blood is discharged through the anterior ciliary veins, 
which, in consequence, become dilated and tortuous. The cornea 
becomes cloudy from pressure, and even the a.t\uto\iL=, xcvi •jXwtwas. 
participate in this change. From pressiwc oti ft\e cKvw^ -msn^s 
neuralgia is produced, and paralysis ot tVe Si^VvncSAT "O'MaCi.'s^ '^^ 



anesthesia of the cornea result. By increase in the vitreous Ihe in- 
traocular pressure is raised. The most important diagnostic change 
is the excavation or cupping of the disc and atrophy of the nerve- 
libers (Fig. 107). The final result of intraocular tension is active 
inflammation and swelling of both the internal and external coats of 
the eye. Naturally, vision is very much reduced. 

: Symptoms. — The patient complains of dimness of 
vision, diminution of the visual field, and 
pain about the eye, the intensity of which 
varies with the aculeness of the attack and 
the inflammatory symptoms accompany- 
ing. The appearance of colored rings or 
halos about any source of light, so often 
noticed in glaucoma, is a phenomenon 
due to the corneal disturbance, and is not 
confined especially to glaucoma. 

Objective Symptoms. — The tension of 
the affected eyeball is abnormally high. 
If the rise in tension has been abrupt, the 
cornea is hazy and less sensitive to the 
touch than usual. The pupil is sluggish 
and ofien widely dilated, and has a greenish 
hue ; the anterior chamber is shallow. In 
the inflammatory form there is consider- 
able superficial and deep pericorneal injec- 

With the ophthalmoscope the most char- 
acteristic symptom is excavation or cuppiog 
of the optic disc (Fig. 108), which is to be 
distinguished from the physiologic cupping 
n extending the whole surface of the disc, and in having abrupt or 
overhanging sides ; and from atrophic excavation of the disc, by the 
depth and pecuhar "broken-off" appearance at the edge of Ibe disc, 
so that no continuity can be discovered between the arteries aX the 
bottom of the cup and the vessels on the edges of the disc. Pulsa* 
tion of the retinal arteries is noticed, particularly where the Artery 
bends over the edge of the cup ; it may be made more dlsiinoL^ 
b^ slight pressure on the eyebaU. T\ie de^ee o^ cuijvvti^ ■«.■».-) he 
estimated by the parallax test or by conipa,t«cnv o^ OaeitUac&wn& 
the edge ^nd bottom of the cup. 



(gnosis. — In inilaminatory glaucoma, on hasty inspection, the 
disease may be confounded with keratitis, iritis, cyclitis, etc. In such 
cases it is well to discard the injection, and rely an the dilated pupil 
and shallow anterior chamber, the increase of tension, the visual dis- 
turbance, the peculiar ciliary neuralgia, and the characteristic cupping 
of the disc. 

For [he differential diagnosis between acute glaucoma and the 

ordinary inflammalory conditions of the eye, the student is referred 
to the valuable table on pages 162 and 163. 

In the noninflammatory types of glaucoma and optic atrophy the 
contrasted symptoms of the following table (Randall) are usually 
found; but It must not be forgotten that they may be wholly absent, 
or obscured if present. 

Taiiulattiin of Symptoms. 
ffoHiiftammalo-y ClaucoKia. Opiic Nmif.- Atrophy. 

Tension increased, Normal. 

Cornea hazy and anesthetic. Normal, 

Anterior chB,mber sballon or obljteraled. Normal. 

Iris atrophic and discolored, Nornml. 
Pupil dilated and sluggish or fiied, 
R<.'ffejc j-e/fowishgrccQ, "glaucous." 


Tabulation of Symptoms.— (CoHft'»«crf.) 
NoxiKjIammstory Glaucoma. Oflie Nervi Alrapkf 

Pedbratiiig vessels dilaled and tortuous. Normal. 

Sometimes history of pain with obscurations. Painless loss of vision. 
Uoilateral character usual al HrsL* Bilateral geneially. 

Limitation of field usually to ulisiiI side. Concentric limitHlion, 

Color-tields commcnstirate to form-fields. Disproportionate loss. 

Rainbow vision about lights. No halos. 

Knee-jerks unaffected. "' 

Optic disc cu|>ped, margins overhanging. 
Halo of choroidal atropb}' usaal. 
Nerve-tissue greenish in ^hadovr. 
Arteries and veins pulsating. 

Glaucoma usually attacks persons past ftfly, alibough even childreo 
may be affected. Ametropic eyes are most often affected, 
eyes are generally attacked, although the second eye may not be dis- 
eased until many years after. Prompt treatment and careful prophy- 
lactic measures are important factors in delaying or preventing a 

Varieties.— Acute inflammatory glaucoma is characterized by it 
abrupt onset, the signs of intense inflammation, marked pain, an i 
dilated pupil. It may result in a few hours in total and incurable 
blindness, the condition known as glaucoma futminans ; or it may 
progress through successive attacks to a condition of stony hardness 
and total blindness called glaucoma absolulum ; or the inflamma- 
tion may not subside, leaving what is known as a chronic inHam- 
malory glaucoma. The general rule is a gradual subsidence of the 
disease with a permanent increase in tension. Simple glaucoma, or 
simple chronic glaucoma, Is free from inflammatory symptom 
is of slow development. Often Ihe cupping of the disc is the only 
sign; and when the media are opaque, the disease is easily over- 
looked, or mistaken for amblyopia, optic atrophy, retinitis, etc., and 
blindness results. The visual field contracts first on the nasal half. 
Infantile glaucoma, or hydrophthalmos, is a condition In which there 
is more or less uniform distention of the whole sclera as well as exca- 
vation of the nerve-head. The eyeball is unnaturally large, the 
tension is raised, the disc gradually excavated, the cornea hazy, bill 
Ihe anterior chamber is deep. Malignant glaucoma is a term ap- 
plied to a sudden and destructive omWist i.i i.'nc iva 
sometimes shonly after the pettormav»c« o^ an miec\oift-i , 



Secondary glaucoma is due to an increase in tension from inflam- 
matory changes about the iridic angle consequent upon diseases oC 
the iris, lens, retina, choroid in high myopia, or intraocular tumors. 
Hemorrhagic glaucoma is dependent on hemorrhage from the inlernal 
ocular coats for the increased tension. 

Prognosis. — Unless treated, glaucoma is almost certain to result, 
sooner or later, in complete and incurable blindness. It is of utmost 
importance to make an early and absolute diagnosis of this condition, 
especially in the simple variety, in order to prevent a fatal termina- 
tion. Strange to say, glaucoma has been repeatedly mistaken for 
iritis, notwithstanding the dilatation of the pupil in the former discs 
and contraction in the latter; and to the great injury of the patie 
atropin has been repeatedly instilled, soon aggravating the con 
tion to blindness. Generally speaking, if promptly and properly 
treated, the prognosis of acute glaucoma is favorable ; it is doublfut 
in simple and infantile glaucoma, and unfavorable in the other 

Treatment consists in three methods: (i) Miotics, as eserin and 
pilocarpin, to contract the pupil. (2) Operation by paracentes 
iridectomy, sclerotomy, and incision of the hgamentum pectinatura. 
(3) Massage. 

Miotics are the first resort, and often cut short single attacks 1 
glaucoma, and they are also valuable before and after operation. 
Pilocarpin and eserin are commonly employed, and are long'co 
linued. Paracentesis relieves tension only for a short time. Iridec- 
tomy is of extreme value, and has some remarkable curative influ- 
ence both in dissipating the increased tension and relieving the visual 
disturbances, and even eventually curing the process. It should be 
broad and done upward, for cosmetic reasons and to prevei 
sequent dazzling. The earlier the iridectomy, the belter the result. 
Restoration of vision can not be expected if there is much excavation 
and atrophy of the nerve-head. 

Sclerotomy has been advocated in cases of simple glai 
which the visual disturbance depends on the changes of the optic 
nerve, and in infantile and hemorrhagic glaucoma. A Graefe's 
racl knife is introduced into the anterior chamber at a point c 
spending to the puncture in cataract extraction, but onemm.remo'jed. 
from the corneal margin. The couciVerpvmt\.iitt \s TuaifciS.^'^'*^ 
-.ponding to this at the olVier side ot the a,w\.ei\Qt '^^^■a.-Ktottt." 




sawing motion of the knife, the section is enlarged upwar 

ily a bridge of tissue, about three mm. broad above, remains undi- 
vided. The knife is then slowly withdrawn from the eye, care being 
taken that the aqueous humor is slowly evacuated through the lips 
of the wound, A drop of eserin is applied and the eye bandaged. 
Prolapse of the iris must be treated on general principles. lacision 
of the ligatnentum pectinatum is performed by cutting through the 
filtration angle, or spaces of Fonlana, with the point of the knife as J 
it is withdrawn in sclerotomy. The good effects of sclerotomy havofl 
not been definitely established, I 

Massage of the eyeball, systematically pursued, at first by the ' 
physician and afterward by the patient, is of undoubted value. The 
result of massage is almost instantaneous; immediately the eyeball 
grows softer, but the effect is not lasting. However, five minutes' 
massage, exerting considerable pressure, practised several times 
daily, is an important aid in the treatment of glaucoma. Alternate 
firm palpations with two fingers upon the portions of the eyeball that 
can be reached by rotation of the eye to all sides, and through both 
lids, is perhaps a better method of effecting massage than by rubbing. 
Simple vaselin, a very weak yellow ointment, or a salve containing 
eserin and cocain, may be used in conjunction with massage. 

The proper correcting tenses, both for distance and for near, should 
be applied in cases in which vision is still serviceable. 

Anatomy, — The orbits are situated on each side of the cenlial I 
facial line, between the forehead and face. They are formed by ihe 
following bones: the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, lacrimal, superior 
maxillary, palate, and malar. The first three are common to both 
orbits (Fig. log). 

The general shape of the orbits is that of irregular, rounded, quad> 
ra ngu I ar pyramids, the apices extending inward and forming ai 
at their imagined point of junction of about 40°. The average widtlj 
of the orbit in adult males is 40.5 mm.; the height, 35 n 
dimensions in the female are slightly smaller. 
The orbit is in connection w\\h V\ie nei^Vfeorwi^ ^wwm: 
I cavity by nine foramens, fissures, at-i ca-naXa— \\t. 


sphenomaxillary, supraorbital, infraorbital, : 
ethmoid, posterior ethmoid, malar, and lacrimal. The orbit is lined 
with periosteum and contains a cushion of fat, upon which re^ls the 
eyeball and its immediate appendages. 

PERIOSTITIS is an inflammation of the periosteal lining of the 
trrbit, particularly prevalent in scrofulous and syphilitic patients. The 
I may be so extensive as to involve the frontal sinuses 

F.O. 10 

me. 4- (■ 


■. 5. Lscn 





Md (in 

acKS. i; 

1. Slyl, 

M pro 


and produce necrosis of the underlying bones, A blow or a. fall is 
usually the exciting cause. The symptoms are dull pain, swelling 
and edema of the skin surrounding the orbital edge, and, if necrosis 
has taken place, a fistula discharging foul pus and bony debris. 
Cicaltiiation of the fistula may lead to ectropion. The eyeball 
rarely involved. 

Treatment consists of leeches to l.Vie \em9\«, c.o\4.t(>m.Tp«.'SiKa,-K^*i-v 
jftoe palien t is syphilitic, the adm\T\isVTa\:iOn il ■mett\i\\si'= ■asvivs.Q^-'''" 


If the disease reaches a. suppurative stage, antiseptic poultices, ii 
and drainage are indicated. 

ORBITAL CELLULITIS, or inflammation of the connective tissue of 
the orbit, is due to periostitis or to any suppurative or inflammatory 
process in the vicinity of the eye ; even inflammations about the roots 
of the teeth may cause it. Erysipelas, anthrax, and pyemia 
result in metastatic orbital abscess ; and, finally, infection after injury 
to the orbit or its contents is a cause. The symptoms are pain, fevei 
general prostration, swelling and redness of the lids, edema and 
increased tension of the conjunctiva and Uds, exophthalmos, fixatic 
of the eyeball in a straight or deviating position, causing visual di 
turbance, and, after the pus escapes, a discharge from the otbi 
In unfavorable cases panophthalmitis may ensue. Metastatic a1 
scesses generally lead to death. Extension into the cranium is always 
to be feared. 

Treatment consists in prompt incision, preferably at a spot showing 
signs of pointing, drainage, and antiseptic irrigation, 

INJURIES TO THE ORBIT may cause fracture of the bony wall 
laceration of the soft parts. Foreign bodies maybe received a, 
retained in the orbit for varying periods of time. They may escape 
into the nasal cavities or they may cause orbital inflammation, and 
even death. Luxation of the globe is generally produced by a wedge- 
shaped foreign body crowding between the eyeball and the orbit. 
Formerly, what was called "gouging " was resorted to by contestants 
in brutal fights, the object being to dislocate the eyeball from its 
socket with the point of the thumb. The danger is blindness from 
laceration or overstretching of the optic nerve. 

Fracture of the orbit may be detected by palpation. If the neigh. 
boring sinuses are opened, there will be much emphysema about the 
lids, made worse by blowing the nose. There is late appearance (two 
or three days) of extravasation and ecchymosis of the lids. If the 
optic foramen is involved, there is. sooner or later, blindness from 
pressure or injury of the optic nerve. When fracture of the orbil 
produces enough hemorrhage to cause exophthalmos, the prognosis 
is bad. 

Treatment.— After orbital injuries the affected parts should be 

Ihoroughiy disinfected, and foreign bodies removed. The ptoxiinity 

^ the brain to f he orbit renders the ptogivosis doM'ta\^»\ "w 



fractures or infected wounds. Rest and cooling compresses are in- 
dicated. In luxation, vision maybe lost through stretching of the 
optic nerve, but may return after reposition of the eyeball and reten- 
tion with a pressure-bandage. If the lids are closed tightly behind 
the globe, preventing replacement, the external canthus should be 
divided at once. The longer the eyeball is dislocated, the worse the 
effect upon vision, 

TUMORS OF THE ORBIT cause exophthalmos In the direction of 
pressure. The other symptoms are disturbance of motility and vision 
and pain, all of which vary according to the size and malignancy of 
the tumor. The chief tumors are osteoma and encephalocele of the 
orbital wall ; tumors of the optic nerve ; and cysts, sarcomas, and 
vascular tumors, arising in the neighboring cellular tissue. Agenuine 
orbital sarcoma is extremely rare, and carcinomas never originate in 
the orbit proper. All orbital tumors of any considerable si(e or 
malignancy should be removed after enucleation of the eye. There 
is little hope of treatment of encephalocele. 

EXOPHTHALMOS is protrusion of one or both eyeballs. If one eye- 
ball alone bulges forward, there is hkely to be a local cause, such as 
abscess, injury, aneurysm, or other tumor, and it should be treated 
accordingly. Protrusion of both eyeballs is probably the result of 
some circulatory disturbance, such as exophthalmic goiter (Basedow's 
or Graves' disease) ; injury to the internal carotid within the cavern- 
ous sinus (pulsating exophthalmos); or of some condition causing 
thrombosis of the ophthalmic vein. In such cases local treatment is 
of no avail. In exophthahnic goiter the significant symptoms arc 
exophthalmos ; absence of the normal, simuhaneous drooping of the 
upper eyelid as the eye is turned downward (von Graefe's sign); 
greatly increased rapidity of the heart's action; and tumefaction 
of the thyroid gland. 

ENOPHTHALMOs is a term applied to retraction of the eye within 
the orbit. It depends upon the absorption of the orbital fat, decrease 
in the contents of the orbital vessels, or great loss of fluid from the 
body after intense purging. Traumatism involving the walls of the 
orbit may produce enophthalmos on the side affected. Senile enoph- 
ihalmos is bilateral, and is due to the gradual absorption of orbital 
fat in old persons. The same coTid\tio'[\.tev\\w. va t'm.'WiaSi.o-n.'iiaxs- 
faslinff or disease. 




PUNCTURED AND INCISED WOUNDS about Ihe sclerocorneal mar- ^| 
gin are especially dangerous on account of involvement oriheciliary^ 
body; chronic cyclitis, and even sympathelic inflammation of the 
other eye, resuhing. Wounds of Ihe sclera are accompanied by pro- 
lapse of the choroid and retina and loss of vitreous. Detachment of 
the retina is a serious sequel. Injury to the lens or its capsule re- 
sults in traumatic cataract. Corneal opacity is liable to follow a cor- 
neal wound, and the opacity will be greater if the iris prolapses. 

One of the great sources of jianger in penetrating wounds of the ■ 
eyeball is the liability to infection, which is augumented by the im- H 
possibihly of disinfection on account of the depth and narrowness of H 
the traumatic canal. I 

Treatment consists in thorough disinfection of the eyeball and ap- 
pendages with a 1 : 50QO mercuric chlorid solution, closure of the 
wound with a conjunctival suture, sprinkling with finely powdered 
iodoform or one of its substitutes, and an antiseptic bandage- Pro- 
lapse of the iris should be combated by restitution, abscission, 
alropin, or eserin. If the lens is injured, atropin and iced com- 
presses are indicated and the ordinary treatment of traumatic cataract ■ 
instituted. Injury of the lens through the pupil offers the best prog-j 
nosis. In case the retina is completely prolapsed and much vitreout 
is lost, causing blindness, immediate enucleatio;i may be necessary. 

CONTUSED WOUNDS OP THE EYEBAi,L are the result of blows 
from the fists or a blunt instrument, " Black eye " usually results. 
There may occur hemorrhage into the anterior chamber, and some- 

(Umes when this clears up, vision is lost by a coincident retinal hemoTrJ 
rhage. The iris maybe torn from its attachment (iridodialysis), on 
the lens may be dislocated. In severe cases the globe is ruptured all 
the weakest point in the sclera, opposite the point of impact, about two 
to five mm. from the cornea. In such case the vitreous escapes and 
the iris may be prolapsed in the rent. The ciliary body and Ihe retina 
are very susceptible to serious injury. A curious result of rupture of 
the eyeball is seen in those cases in which, by an accidental blow, a 
cataraclDus lens has been removed and vision thereby restored. The 
prognosis of ruptured eyeball is aWays sevio\i^.an4 ^catiij injured | 

K become sirophied. ^^H 




Treatment consists in careful disinfection, the application of ice, 
eserin or atropin, a bandage, and rest in bed. A bruised iris must be 
carefully excised. The various camplicalions should be treated as 
they arise. If Ihete is an extensive rupture of the sclera, conjunc- 
tival and scleral sutures may be necessary to prevent complete pro- 
lapse of the vitreous. Nothing can be done for iridodialysis, except 
iridectomy. A dislocated lens must sooner or later be removed. 
Hemorrhage into the anterior chamber and subconjunctival hemor- 
rhages will usually absorb without treatment. 

It is always important after injury to the eyeball to determine 
whether or not a foreign body remains within the eye. If it can be 
seen by the naked eye, focal illumination, or the ophthalmoscope, the 
diagnosis is easy. In other cases in which the media become quickly 
opaque, or the body lies concealed in the sclerocorneal covering, or 
is near the ciliary body, it may escape detection. In these cases the 
patient's general and local condition and the nature of the injury 
must be carefully considered. If there is no point of exit, and there 
is absolute history of entrance of a foreign body, we must believe 
that it remains in the eye. The surest way of locating a foreign body 
is by the Riinlgen rays. 

Prognosis depends on the location of the foreign body, its chemic 
nature, and whether or not it was aseptic. Aseptic and chemically 
unirritating substances, however, have produced alarming inflamma- 
tions in the ciliary region. Infection from a foreign body in the eye 
may result in panophthalmitis and speedy destruction of the globe. 
Itut there have been cases in which small aseptic foreign bodies 
have remained for years in different parts of the interior of the eye, 
even in the sensitive ciliary body. According to reliable statistics, 
the loss of the eye from foreign bodies in the anterior chamber is vir- 
tually nil; in the lens, thirty per cent.; and in the vitreous, seventy- 
It must be remembered that a foreign body remaining absolutely 
quiet within the eye is at all times dangerous, both to the affected eye 
and to its fellow. 
Treatment. — Foreign bodies should aVwa^a \ie letouxti VtQwv'^e 
mfaer. A lens with a foteigvv'feoA'i m"^'^t^*»-^°^^'^'^ " 

^^ late 

3 OF T 

later be extracted. If the foreign body is in the vitreous, Ibe 

treatment depends on its nature. In such case, if the foreign body 
is of iron and can be located, it should be removed through a scleral 
incision by the electromagnet. Aseptic substances, such as copper« 
wood, stone, or glass, may be permitted to lie quiescent and be tr 
expectantly. At the first sign of inflammation they should be r 
moved by a pair of tine forceps through a scleral i 
symptoms are indicative of much ciliary involvement, enucleation I 
should be performed or active sympathetic inflammation may quickly 
set up and destroy the uninjured eye. Of all operations, removal of _ 
a foreign body from the eye should be performed under the strictesi 
aseptic precautions. 

A good rule in cases of foreign body in the eye seen soon after ibel 
accident is to secure the patient's assent to the application of themag-^ 
net, under anesthesia, and in case of failure of extraction, to submit 
to immediate enucleation. However, if there is evidence of intense 
ciliary inflammation in the injured eye or signs of sympathetic in- 
flammation in its fellow, it is not safe to lose time in attempting C<-^ 
Eraclion ; the injured eye should he removed at once. fl 

PARASITES IN THE EVE are usually the cysticercus, the larva offl 
the tape-worm, which may also be found in any part of the body, 
Li ebreich gives a good ophthalmoscopic image of a living cysticercus 
Threadworms have been found in an opaque l( 

»and in the vitreous. It is possible that remnants of the persisteni^J 
hyaloid artery have been mistaken for worms in the vitreous. ^^M 


Deflmtion. — An inflammation of the ciliary body, iris, or chorot(^H 
or a combination of any or all of these in one eye, due to injury ^^H 
the other eye. ^^ 

Cause. — The usual cause is an injury to the ciliary body, or incar- 
ceration of the ciliary body and iris in a scleral wound. A foreign 
body in one eye. causing cyclitis, is often followed by sympathetic in- _ 
flammation in its fellow. The manner in which sympathetic inflam-i^ 
malion js produced is not clearly understood. Mackenzie suppose4^| 
that sympathetic inflammation passed (torn ftie \ei.TO3. of the injurcd^^ 
^^^c. cbrougb the chiasm. tothe retina oU\icQV\itxc^c. Xltw-KV-roiaaM 


suggesledthat germs travel along the optic shealh through the chiasm 
inio the sheath of the opposite nerve, and thence into the eye. Bac- 
teriologic infection of the sym pat helically affected eye can rarely be 
proved. A more recent nervous theory is that the path of irritation 
is from the first eye through the ciliary nerve to the ciliary ganglion, 
through the sympathetic root of the latter to the carotid plexus of the 
same side, then through the circle of Willis to the carotid pli 
the other side, and then in a centrifugal direction to the ciliary gang- 
lion and the ciliary nerves of the second side. The time of outbreak 
of the secondary attack after the original lesion varies from 
On «ffct weeks, but cases have been reported from two weeks to forty 
years afterward. 

Symptoms and Diagnosis. — The premonitory symptoms are those 
of sympathetic irritation — asthenopia, photophobia, lacrimalion, re- 
duced accommodation, cloudy vision, and a mild pericorneal injec- 
tion. The aqueous may be moderately opaque and the disc slightly 
reddened. As the stage of true sympathetic inflammation ensues, we 
notice signs of inflannmation corresponding to exacerbations of in- 
flammation in the exciting eye. The ciliary region becomes ex- 
tremely lender; cyclilis, iritis, or some form of keratitis become visi- 
ble. The pain and cloudiness increase, and the visual acuity steadily 
diminishes. Synechias may form, and the intraocular tension be- 
comes at first increased, and afterward diminished, as atrophy begins. 
It is the rule, after varying improvement and relapse, to find an 
adherent iris, cataractous lens, or atrophied globe from deficiency in 
vitreous, causing retinal prolapses and incurable blindness, despite 
all treatment. However, it is possible to retain some indistinct vision 
In favorable cases, but the process is always prone to relapse, and the 
inevitable result follows. 

Treatment is m^^n^^^nd must interrupt the nervous connection 
between the eye first involved and the one showing signs of sympa- 
thetic inflammation. It has been suggested that this be accomplished 
by cutting the ciliary nerves. Several different methods have been 
suggested, one of which is to cut completely through the optic nerve, 
expose the posterior pole of the eyeball, and cut the ciliary nerves 
entering at this location. Evisceration has also been proposed. The 
only certain method of prevention and cure is enucleation of the eye 
first affected. This Is so Important a aubjetV \.^ia.'>. \Vfe 
laid down by Fick are given here as a guidf. 



(i) IF the first eye is blind, painful, and sensitive to pressure,! 
cteation is to be advised ; it is to be urged if the patient lives away 
from a surgeon, and thus may be in danger of overlooking the begin- 
ning of sympathetic inflammation. If the patient will not consent, 
he should he told to seek aid at the first sign of visual disturbance or 
of inflammation in the other eye. 

(2) If the first eye has a foreign body in it, is painful and sensitive 
lo pressure, enucleation should be urged even if the eye sees ; it is to 
be supposed, of course, that the foreign body can not be removed in- 

(3) If sympathetic inflammation or even irritation appear in the 
second eye, the first must be enucleated at once. If the first eye Is 
not blind, but still retains a certain visual acuity, and is lo some ei- 
tent quiet, both patient and surgeon will hesitate at such radical pro- 
ceedings. There is, however, no general rule for such a case; we 
must carefully compare the visual acuity of the first eye with the de- 
gree of irritation in the second ; the more there remains to rescue in 
the second eye, the greater price can be paid by the first. 

If the sympathetic inflammation is fully developed, enucleation 
proves of little value, and we must lessen the pain by cocain. atropin, 
warm compresses, and bandages, and confine the patient to bed. 
Mercurial inunctions and subconjunctival sublimate injections have 
been advised ; iodids and mercurials may be given orally, but despite 
all treatment the eye is generally lost. 


EVISCERATION OF THE EYEBALL is performed as follows: The 
cornea is removed by making incision with a Graefe knife, so as to 
include one-half of the corneoscleral margin, and complete the cir- 
cumcision with scissors. The contents of the globe are then evacu- 
ated by means of a special scoop, care being taken to remove ihe 
choroid unbroken, by carefully peehng it from the sclerotic, backward, 
until ii is only fastened at the lamina cribrosa. The interior of the 
eyeball is washed out, and after all hemorrhage has ceased, the edges 
of the sclerotic are stitched together and the conjunctiva united over it. 
In Mule's operation the opening is enlarged vertically to admit of 
lAe introduction of a hollow glass or s\\veT w iX'Msvvnvmv •■ijhi 
Tbe margins of the sclerotic are now llT.Ueivert\c^\\^i ■0-5 ' 


silk sutures ; the conjunctiva is then sutured at right angles to the 
scleral closure. Two points of importance are strict antisepsis and 
the checking of all bleeding in the cavity before the glass ball is 
inserted. The advantages claimed for this operation are that it leaves 
muscular attachments to the stump and offers a movable ball on 
which to insert an artificial shell; that it keeps the orbit filled out; 
and that it lessens the danger of meningeal infection, sometimes 
following enucleation. The cosmetic improvement is by far the 
greatest point in its favor. The operation is of particular value in 
staphyloma of the cornea and in disfiguring leukoma. The disad- 
vantages are the uncertainty of result, possible infection, and sympa- 
thetic involvement, though the occurrence of the latter is rare. 

Some operators practise insertion of the glass sphere in the 
capsule of Tenon instead of the scleral cavity. The operation is simi- 
lar to an enucleation except that the recti muscles are secured with 
sutures before dividing them. The glass sphere is placed in the 
cavity previously occupied by the eyeball, and the sutures holding 
the four recti are tied tightly together over it ; care must be exercised 
to secure adaptation of the sutures, so that [he tendons assume the 
same position they occupied in the hving eye. This operation 
eliminates all the dangers and disadvantages of evisceration or Mule's 
operation, and leaves as useful a stump, 

TOTAL COMBINED KERATECTOMY is the name given to an opera- 
tion which Panas has most successfully used for several years 
in all cases in which enucleation is ordinarily indicated. A half- 
curved Reverdin needle is introduced through the sclerocorneal 
junction, passed back of the iris and lens, coming out at a point 
opposite. The needle is then armed with a thread and allowed 
to remain in place. The cornea is detached as in evisceration. 
The iris is removed by forcibly tearing with a pair of forceps. The 
speculum is gently raised away from the globe by an assistant. 
The lens is next removed with a scoop, care being taken not to lose 
any vitreous. The Reverdin needle, armed with its thread, is now 
withdrawn and the suture made is lied. Two sutures, one on each 
side of the middle one, are made and tied. The projecting angles 
of the wound are trimmed wiih scissors, and the wound is dressed 

.t;on,— The patient is placeil oiv ^n apetwitv^ vi£d«i-»-^ft| 


1^ pre! 

preferably, anestheliied with ether or chluroform, although st 
local anesthesia with cocain alone is used. After thorough disinfec- 
tion of the eyeball and neighboring parts, a speculum is introduced, 
the arms of which are widely separated. A fold of conjunctiva is 
seized by a fixation forceps in the left hard, opened with a pair of 
enucleation scissors curved on the flat, and cut close entirely around 
the circuiTiference of the cornea. The separated conjunctiva and 
capsule of Tenon are pushed back with the closed scissors. The 
tendon of the internal or esternal rectus muscle is seized by the fixa- 
tion forceps close to the insertion and divided back of the forceps. 
One blade of the scissors is passed under the tendon of the superior 
rectus, which, with the tissues surrounding it, is divided close to the 
globe. The inferior rectus is Iheri severed at one clip ; the globe is 
then rotated forward and toward the nose, the scissors passed back- 
ward, and the optic nerve and the adjoining tissue divided. The J 
globe is then seized with the fingers and forced from the socket, and I 
the remaining tendons and attached tissues separated from it. In- ^ 
stead of crowding wet antiseptic sponges into the orbit to check the 
hemorrhage, it is better to simply irrigate the cavity with sterile cold 
water, and thus avoid crushing and lacerating the remaining muscles. 
These muscular remnants are then puckered to a point with a " purse- 
string" suture, and afford a more or less movable stump. When the 
bleeding has subsided, the cavity is washed out with a sublimate 
solution and an absorbent sponge or wad of cotton is placed over the 
orbit, leaving free drainage, and a bandage applied without exerting 
undue pressure. The old custom of immediately applying a pressure- 
bandage after enucleation to check hemorrhage is not advisable. It 
is better lo delay permanent bandaging until the hemorrhage has 
subsided. The dressing may be changed in twenty-four hours, and 
the parts cleansed with a sublimate solution and a new dressing 
applied. After the fourth day (he bandage may be discarded, and the 
patient given a. mild antiseptic wash to use in the eye two or three 
times daily until the wound is completely healed. 

An artificial eye may be worn after a lapse of two or three weeks, 
if all inflammation has subsided. Early application of the artificial 
eye is advisable to prevent absorption of the orbital fat. It must be 
remembered that the orbit is very tolerant of foreign bodies ; how- 
ever, to thoroughly accustom ttie orbit, ^iie sTi^AcXaX c^e should not 
be worn over a few hours al a. lime (m 'tbe %.\f,i. \fM ia.-^-., *\.<i'»,J 


sert an artificial eye, it is lubricated and the broad outer end slipped 
under the upper lid, which is slightly raised. The lower lid is then 
drawn downward, the patient directed to look down, and the eye is 
gently manipulated into place. Irritation of the stump by an artificial 
eye has led to sympathetic inflammation of the other eye, and must 
be guarded against. An artificial eye should be taken out at night 
and placed in water. 

nant growth, is performed by splitting the external canthus, separat- 
ing the entire periosteum with all its contents from the bony wall, 
except at the apex of the orbit. Enucleation scissors are introduced, 
and the stump cut off close to the bone. Profuse hemorrhage is best 
checked by actual cautery. If the neighboring skin or the lids are 
involved, the incision must be made into healthy tissue, and the dis- 
eased parts removed with the orbital contents. 


Airol is a. subslilule 
the addition of iodin. 
ind hypopyon. A ten 

Alum i? a useful ast 

for iodoform ; it is practically dermatol with 
It is said (o be efficacious in corneal ulcers 
per cent, vaselin ointment is used. 

chronic conjunctivitis, and maybe 

used in solutions of from two to eight grains to one ounce of boric solu- 
tion, dropped freely into the eye three or four times a day. Crysiab 
of alum cut into smooth pencils and fitted into handles are useful in 
chronic palpebral conjunctivitis. They are applied to the lid in the 
manner described on page 165, The point of the pencil should 
never be allowed to become sharp. 

Anesin is the newest local anesthetic. It is said to be an aqueous 
solution of acetone-chloroform. A one per cent, solution is usedio 
produce local anesthesia, and it is described as twice as powerful. Il 

produces no local 

Antioosin is a sodium salt of nosophen. 
strengths (^ per cent.) in inflammations 

Arecolin hydrobromatc has been used < 
I : 100 solution, 

Argonin is one of the numerous silver- 
ing lately. It is used 
gonococcus, in one to two p 

Atropin is generally used 

and does not produce 

has been used in weiik 
r portion of 

a powerful local anodyne, and 
and cycloplegic, As a ijiydr 
of four grains to the ounce, o 
i/iaes a day. From ten days 1 

compounds appear- 
conjunctivitis, particularly diat due to tlie 

the form of the soluble sulphate. 

commonly used mydriatic 
c, it should be prescribed in solutions 
drop of which is apphed three or four 
two weeks ate required for the eye to 

recover from the effecls of such a so\M\.\Dtv. 'We'ikGx MJiis.Sj.aa-.Vfiw 


grain to the ounce) ma.y be combined with boric Licid in cases in 
which routine administration is desirable. The contraindication to 
atropin and all other mydriatics is increased intraocular tension. All 
solutions should be labeled ■■/oiicna'ro/j." In cases of idiosyncrasy, 
the dryness of the throat, flushed face, general excitability, etc., are 
indications for the suspension of the drug and the administration of 
opium, its physiologic antidote. A full dose of paregoric is a ready 
remedy in such cases. Often in cases of sluggish iris the atropin 
solution should be heated before instillation into the eye. 

Atrupin sulphate, gr. j 

I>istiUi;d water, 3 ij. 

Directions. — One drop in each eye three times a day. 

For ordinary mydriasis and cycloplegia. 

Atropin, BT. ij 

Cocain, Kr. X 

Vaselin gj. 

Dissolve by warmlli. 

For use when an oinlment is preferahlc to drops or when there ts intense 

Bleeding, in ocular congestion, particularly for the relief of pain in 
corneal and irilic inflammations, is a very valuable procedure. It is 
most satisfactorily effected by the application of three or four leeches 
to the temple of the side affected. The Heurteloup artificial leech is 
really a cupping instrument, which exhausts the air in a long glass 
cylinder applied to fine incisions over the temple. It draws the blood 
more rapidly than the natural leech, but has not given us as good 

Boric acid is extensively used as a mild antiseptic lotion in solutions 
often grains to the ounce. It is hardly to be classed as an antiseptic; 
but on account of its soothing qualities, is to be recommended in 
cases in which onl^ a simple lotion is necessary. 

The following are common formulas : 

Boric acid, i:r. si 

Distilled water 5 iv. 

Ifiaihe the eyes freely several limes a day. 
Boric acid fir. xl 
Camphor water,) , . ,.. 

'. DistiHed water, r^ "='' o'-V 

fittbe ibe eyes freely several limes a day. 


^^^r BoToglyceriil is made by heating together sixty-two parts of boric 
^^H acid and ninety-two parts of glycerin at a uniform temperature of 
^^H 300° F,. until the mixture is reduced to 100 parts. A glycerite is 
^^H then made by adding loo parts of glycerin, warming and liltehug. 
^^H This fifty per cent, solution in glycerin is the strength ordinarily used, 
^^H and is conveniently dispensed in two-dram collapsible tubes. Boro- 
^^f glycerid is a most valuable application in all forms of conjuaciivids. 
I but finds its greatest use in trachoma, for which it is by far the most 

valuable application. It is an excellent antiseptic, and may be pre- 

I scribed in aqueous solution of less than ten per cent, strength. 
Calomel is a valuable local application in phlyctenular ophthalmia. 
chronic keratitis, pannus. and in small indolent corneal ulcers. It is 
used as a line, dry powder, and is dusted direcdy upon the cornea 
with 3k camel's-hair brush. It should not be used if there is much 
ciliary irritation. A second application must not be made until the 
first is absorbed, and the drug should not be used if the patient is 
taking full doses of the iodin preparations. 
Camphor water has been greatly used in combination with bone 
acid solutions in the treatment of conjunctivitis. See BvrU acid. 
Cassaripe is a concentrated semisolidjuice of the cassava-ptant of 
the tropics. A ten per cent, ointment has been used in cases of ulca 
of the cornea and purulent disease of the conjunctiva. 

Cautery by heat is of great use in serpiginous and chronic indakal 

ulcers of the cornea, in corneal abscess and fistula, and ia obsdoalt 

cases of pustular keratitis. A probe or strabismus book, or aa; 

properly shaped metallic instrument, may be used ; but tfa« galvaa*- 

cautery is to be preferred. 

^^^ Cocain. — The chief use of cocain in ophthalmic siugeiy is lo pm- 

^^L duce conjunctival and cotneal anesthesia, citho' for the idief of pais 

^^H in iritis, cyditis. hypeiesihesia of the retina, etc-, or to tvadiice loot 

^^F anesthesia for operations on the eye. It is also ased as a teaipaaaty 

^^^ wydriatk fioc ophthalmoscopic purposes, in wfaicfa case aay tettdea^ 

to produce glancoaia after the examination is taiAfd b easily averted 

by a drop of a scdntioo of escrin, }j of a giain 10 the onacc Fat 

anodyne parposes, swdi as tke use ia iritis aad cycfiti^ **«-, a n 

better to asc atiopia, on account of the transaent aclioa crf'cBcam aai 

tht possAh dangers from its long-continued ttse. In iiiiniiini^ ^ I 

oocor iwo grains lo the ounce ~Aa»<f^>e a&die&xnvi4iBaiT aaixs^Mk < 

•aodastrinfcotwasbes- l\ ta trt«io«iii-i c 



^atment of iritis, and with hamatropin to facilitale mydriasis and 
cycloplegia. The greatest use of cocain is in operative ophthalmic 
surgery; it has even been used in some cases of enucleation. It 
should be prescribed : 

Collodion is used in dressings for wounds of the eyelid or eyebrow, 
and is freely painted over the skin In cases of senile entropion to pro- 
duce contraction of the relaxed skin. 

Copper sulphate (" blue stone ") is occasionally employed as a col- the treatment of chronic conjunctivitis, in the proportion of 
^ of a grain to the ounce. In the form of crystal or pencil applied 
to the everted tid, it is used in trachoma. The old lapis divicus was 
composed of equal parts of copper sulphate, potassium nitrate, and 
alum, molded into a pencil. 

Duboisin is sometimes used as a mydriatic and cycloplegic. Re- 
covery takes place in from five to seven days. 

Duboisin sulphale, gr. sa 

Diililled wafer, 3ij. 

ElectrolyBia has been used both as a means of cure in chronic in- 
flammations and as a means of diffusing drugs into the eye, and 
facilitating absorption. It has done some good in corneal opacities, 
trachoma, and pterygium ; it has been recommended as the best 
method of applying eserin in glaucoma and atropin in iritis. 

Electrotherapy has been urged in scleritis, iritis, iridocyclitis, vit- 
reous opacities, and purulent keratitis. The anode is placed against 
the closed lid, and the kathode against any part of the head or neck. 
Commencing with 0,5 ma., the current is slowly increased to a ma. 
or more. Reuss believes that faradism is preferable to galvanism in 

Ephediin hydrochlorate has been used in five per cent, solution to 
effect mydriasis without causing ciliary paralysis — as, far instance, in 
iritis or ophthalmoscopic ex.amination. 

Eserin is the most common miotic. Its effect on the accommoda- 
tion lasts only a few hours, but the pupil may be contracted for several 
days. It is used in glaucoma, in peripheral wounds of the cornea, 
and in some forms uf corneal ulcer, It is pl«»:n\K&'. 

VistUled V 




has recently been offered as a substitute for cocain ii 
ducing ocular anesthesia. Although several enthusiastic reports of 
its advantages over the older drug have been pubhshcd, its pOMlJon 
in ocular therapeusis has not been definitely established. An espe- 
cial preparation, Eucain B hydrochl orate, has been maitufacliued 
for ophthalmic practice. It does not dilate the pupil nor affect ac- 
commodation, and is less toxic. On the other hand, it possibly favors 
hemorrhage, its anesthetic effect is less complete, and it is more dis- 
agreeable to the patient than cocain. Both have the same effeci 
on the cornea and upon intraocular tension. It is used in two per 
cent, solution. 

Euphthalmin is a recent mydriatic. It acts within two or Ihiee 
minutes, and is supposed to have no effect on the accommodation, 
corneal epithelium, or intraocular tension. Mydriasis lasts about 
seven hours. It is used in five per cent, to ten per cent, solutions. 

Fluorescin is used to mark out the precise area of denudation in 
corneal abrasion or ulcer. It is prescribed : 

Liquor potassa, 3J 

Distilled water, giv. 

A drop applied over the cornea, and washed off. 
A spot denuded of epithelium becomes yellowish-green. 
Formalin Is a forty per cent, aqueous solution of formic alddiyd. 
It is a powerful germicide, and is valuable in the disinfection of in- 
struments. Solutions of Ji per cent, are usually strong enough in 
ordinary surgical antisepsis. For septic corneal abrasions and cor. 
neal ulcers, the local application of formalin in 1 : aooo or 1 : 30CO 
aqueous solution is of great value. It is also used in full strength to 
limit and remove malignant growths. 

The sterilization of instruments by means of the vapor of burning 
paraform pastils is the best means we have. A number of conve- 
nient formalin sterilizers have been marketed. 

Glycerin is used as an excipient, particularly in the form of glycerol 
of tannin and in boroglycerid. These preparations are valuable in 
all forms of palpebral conjunctivitis. 

Hamamelis (Witch Haiel). — The ordinary dislillale of hamamelis 
/siip/eas/ng' anodyne and sedative application in acute conjuncti- 
vitis. It should be diluted witb one or \"«o -^a-t^.^ o^ -water, and siaT_j 
becombiaed with the ordinary bovic adi -bAutwiv. Tu'ot-a 

id siaT I 




Heat and cold are valuable antiphlogistic and analgesic local 
measures. In general tetms, ice-cold applications are more soothing 
in conjunctival and lid inflammations, and heat in diseases of the 

Holocain is an efficient anesthetic and germicide. Many observers 
report that it is superior to cocain in nearly every operation. It has 
apparently little or no effect on the conjunctival vessels, iris, or ciliary 
muscle. It is used in one per cent, solutions. Hoti says that it is 
more painful and irritating to the conjunctiva than cocain. Its anti- 
septic properties are greatly in its favor. It has been used with suc- 
cess in the treatment of suppurative keratitis. 

Homatroptn is a useful mydriatic and cycloplegic. It is especially 
serviceable in office practice, in which it is often desirable that the 
paralysis of accommodation shall not extend over one or two days. 
In such cases it should be prescribed; 

Homatropin liyilrobroniBle gr. j 

Cocain hydrochlorale gr- ss 

Distilled water, 3ij. 

Before refraction, one drop of this solution should be used in each 

' the eyes, five or six times, at intervals of ten minutes. The ac- 
commodation usually returns by the end of the second day. 

Hydrogen dioxid is an excellent detergent in purulent ophthalmia, 
sloughing ulcers of the cornea, and suppuration of the lacrimal pas- 
sages. It is used in fifty per cent, strength of the ordinary fifleen- 
volume solution. 

Hyoscyamin is physiologically the same as duboisin in hs action. 
It is prescribed as follows : 

Hyoscyamin hydrobromate fir- ss 

Distilled water, g ij. 

Ichthalbin is a compound of ichthyol and albumin, said to represent 
all the desirable properties of ichthyol without its disagreeable odor. 
It has an analgesic action. Wolffberg has given it intentally in 
about forty cases of glaucoma and iritis, in doses of eight grains thrice 
daily. It has been used locally in pannus and keratitis. 

Ichthyol has been used in fifty per cent, solution, to which a little gly- 
cerin may be added, in all forms of palpebral can^^iiw.^VH'CWi. 'NS-'w.'*^" 
Implied in the form of a ten per cent.ovnVnieiA'wi caat^ oS^J*^'' 


lodin has been used locally Iq trachoma, starting with >i per « 
solution and increasing slowly up 

lodofonn is a valuable remedy in almost all forms of corneal di 
ease, and is used after operations on the lids or after enucleation. 
is also useful in diminishing vascularity of the cornea, and in clearing 
up correal opacities. It may be dusted upon the eye in fine powder. 
or applied as an ointment, with or without massage, in strength of yi 
to one dram to the ounce. After dusting iodoform on the cornea, the 
upper lid should be pulled outward and downward over the cornea, 
and held in place for a few minutes; otherwise tnovement of the lid 
or eyeball will brush the powder off the cornea. The only objection 
to iodoform is its odor. 

Iliol (sUver citrate) and actol (silver lactate) have been used 
purulent conjunctivitis and keratitis, but little is known of them. 

Jequirity has been extensively used to induce acute purulent c( 
jimctivitis in desperate cases of trachoma, and it should be resorted 
lo only with the greatest caution and in extreme cases. It should be 
used only when there is pannus. The infusion is prepared by macer- 
ating three parts of the pulverized seeds in 500 parts of cold water 
for twenty-four hours, and adding 500 parts of boiling water, cooh'ng 
and filtering. A mild solution is applied to the eyes three times 
daily for two days, or until sufficient inflammation is produce) 
Each application should he followed by irrigation with a baric 

Mercuric chloiid (corrosive sublimate) is probably the most salt! 
factory agent for the disinfection of the diseased surfaces of the eye. 
As a usual eye lotion in ordinary cases, it may be prescribed in solu- 
tions of 1 : 8000. In such strength it can be safely used several times 
a day without exciting or causing irritation. A solution of i ; 3000 is 
possibly better for cleansing the eye and adjacent tissues before ao 
operation, and for irrigation afterward ; or as a lotion when there is a 
profuse purulent discharge. The stronger solutions, 1 : 500 and 
I ; 1000, may be used for disinfecting instruments, and for irrigation 
in dacryocystitis or in purulent ophthalmia. The 1 : 5000 sublimate 
.s of especial value as an eye-wash in edematous afTectii 



nes I 
:e AM 


I of the lids. The ordinary formula for a i : 3000 sublimate sob^^f 
tionis: ^^| 

Mercuric cblorid ^: Vk ^^M 

Distilled water M- ^^M 


What is known as Panaa' solution consists of mercuric iodid one, 
potassium iodid five, and distilled water 20,000 parts, Ii is used for 
irrigation of the anterior chamber, and possesses no advantages over 
simple sterilized water. 

Mercuric oxid (yellow oxid) was introduced into ophthalmic thera- 
peutics by Pagenslecher, and the ointment is sometimes known by 
his name. In blepharitis and phlyctenular ophthalmia it is of par- 
ticular value applied to the lids at night, using a piece the site of a 
large pin-head. Massage with Pagenslecher ointment is of service 
in chronic keratitis and pannus, and in clearing up corneal opacities. 

I It should be prescribed : 
I Yellcw mercuric (amorphous) gr- X"] 
I, Vaselin, gj. 

Nosophen has been recommended in corneal disease. 

Opium. — The wine of opium was much used by old surgeons as a. 
collyriumin the treatment of conjunctivitis, but has passed out of use. 
The acetate of morphin is a convenient anodyne in acute conjuncti- 
vitis. Five grains of acetate of morphin, Ji of a grain of acetate of 
zinc, and ten drops of dilute acetic acid, to the ounce of water, have 
been recommended as an eye-wash. 

Picric acid, 5 or 10 : 1000, has been used in blepharitis and as an 
antiseptic collyrium. 

Pilocaipin is a decided miotic, but much milder than eserin. It 
can hardly be recommended in preference to eserin, although some 
authorities claim thai it is entirely free from the tendency to produce 
iritis. It is prescribed : 


^^Klocarpin is also often used systemically in cases of severe ocular 
disease, to produce diaphoresis. 

Potassium permanganate is used as an antiseptic lotion, in strength 
varying from one to five grains to the ounce. 

Protargol is a ptoteid compound of silver containing' eight per cent. 
of the metal. It has many strong advocates as a substitute for silver 
nitrate. It is not so painful, is more germicidal, has greater penetrat- 
ing powers, and does not form a precipitate wlA. a.\W-wv«i- \V\i.-sa 
been used in all forms of coniunct\v\\ts m s,\.\tu%'ii?. lA^i\ v^o "S 


cent, to fifty per cent. A two per cent, soluiion is generally used as 
a collyrium. Recently there has been considerable dissent from the 
numerous favorable reports, and there has been an inclination to re- 
strict its use to the milder inflammations of the conjunctiva. 

Pyoktanin is an antiseptic and weak analgesic, and is used in solu- 
tions of 1 : 1000 or 1 : 2000. It has been recommended in inflamma- 
tions of the conjunctiva, cornea, and even in serous iritis and 
Sanoform has been recommended as a substitute for iodoform, 
Sassafras, in the form of the officinal mucilage, is a popular domes- 
tic remedy in the treatment of acute conjunctivitis. A very satisfac- 
tory combination is : 

Boric acid Rf, J^ij 

Mucilage of sassafras pith, ^ij 

» Mercuric chlorid, S'- A 
Sodium chlorid, gr. x 
Camphor water, 1 t .u x: 

Scopolamin is recommended as a substitute for atropio, botli for 
cycloplegia in refraction and in the treatment of iritis. It is pre- 


ScopoUmin hydrobroamte, Sy- )i 

Distilled water, 3 ij, 

DfRECTIONS. — One drop in the eye every fifleeo minutes for an hour. 

It is claimed that the ciliary muscle is paralyzed one hour after the 
first instillation. The paralysis lasts about seventy-two hours, and 
can be shortened by the application of a weak solution of eserin used 
several times. 

Silver nitrate is a valuable astringent and andseptic, and may be 
applied to the lids in a one per cent, solution in ordinary mucopuru- 
lent conjunctivitis. A two per cent, solution may be used in cases in 
which there is profuse purulent discharge ; or a less strong solution 
may be dropped into the eyes of a new-born infant, when there is 
reason to anticipate ophthalmia neonatorum. Stronger solutions 
may be used in cases of severe ophthalmia, but it is advisable to neu- 
tralize it soon after application with a normal salt solution. After 
application ofnhraXt of silver to tlieMsA^-^ sWvi\i\«;'«a.sted with 
absorbent colton and warm walet before \ic\'ns ^^^-"^^^ "^^««^ "^^ J 


lunar caustic, or the " mitigated stick," is often of value in reducing 
proliferated granular tissue in the conjunctiva of tlie lids. 


Silver nitrate, gr. v 

Distilled water, gj. 

)ne instillation daily, in orilinary mucopurulEnl i^Dnjunclivilis. 

Silver nitrate, fir. x 

Distilled waler ,^j. 

!>ne application daily, in profuse purulent conjuncliviti^ and opbTlia] 

Distilled wnler, , 5j. 

For aUernale use in trachoma. 

Suprarenal capsule is said to be an ideal hemostatic and astringent 
in all congestions and in operations. Ten grains of the extract are 
macerated for thirty rninules in two drains of water and then filtered, 
the filtrate representing a one per cent, solution of the extract. Supra- 
renal capsule is put up in five-grain tablets, which may be dissolved 
In a cold boric acid solution. 

Tannic acid is u5ed in chronic conjunctivitis, either in solutions of 
two to five grains to the ounce, dropped in the eye, or in strength of 
ten to thirty grains to the ounce, painted on the everted lids. In cases 
ofold granular lids, the full strength of jjlyccriteof lannin (Glycerinum 
Acidi Tannic!, B. P., one part to four) may be applied to the everted 
lids. The old domestic remedy fut "sore eyes" — tea-leaves — owed 
its efficacy in some cases to the tannin in the leaves. 

ThioBinamin, gr. j to gr. iij, has been administered internally or by 
hypodermic injection to hasten absorption of corneal opacities. It is 
of doubtful value. 

Toluidia blue, a member of the anilin group closely allied to 
methylene blue, has been employed as a collyrium in strength of 
t : 1OO0, and as a stain for corneal abrasions and ulcers. It b a very 
effective antiseptic, and is not irritating. 

Xeroform represents fifty per cent. Iribrom phenol. It has been 
used for its antiseptic action as a substitute for iodoform in corneal 

Zinc acetate and zinc sulphate are used either separately or in cav\- 
bination in the milder forms of conjuntimtKii' 
■ of one to two grains to the ounce. 


Zinc chlorid is a useful remedy in many forms of acute conjunc- 
tivitis, or it may be applied to the everted lid in trachoma. Rather 
weak solutions of X ^o two grains to the ounce of water may be 
given to the patient to drop in the eye. This substance should be 
avoided if there is any severe corneal affection. The following mixture 
may be used freely in all mucopurulent inflammations about the eye : 

Boric acid^ gr. xl 

Sodium chlorid, gr. x 

Zinc chlorid, ... gr. ij 

Distilled water, Jiv. 

Stain with pyoktanin, and doubly filter after standing. 

The patient should be told that this lotion will smart at first, and 
that he should instil it in the eye when lying on his back, and not 
close the eyes violently and squeeze it out, but draw the lids together 
gently and roll the eye slowly about for several minutes. 


Mercuric chlorid, gr* ij 

Potassium iodid, . . giv 

Distilled water, "^ ^ ^^^^ ^ -• 

Syrup of sarsaparilla, / * oh 

A teaspoonful three times a day. 

Mercuric biniodid, ST- ^} 

Potassium iodid, ,!^ i j 

Distilled water, 5j 

Syrup of sarsaparilla, q. s. ad 5iij. 

A teaspoonful three times a day. 

Useful as a tonic, alterative, and antisjrphilitic ; and indicated in all acute 
and subacute attacks of inflammation of the eyeball in which internal medica- 
tion is suggested. It is also valuable as a preliminary to operation on the eye. 

Mercuric chlorid, g^^- ij 

Extract of belladonna, gr. iv. 

Make into 40 pills. 

One pill three times a day. Useful in all forms of chorioretinitis. 


Instruments are best disinfecledb7\mmws\oTv\xi^t.Os\5AA^xxcv7X\Tv, 
bojJ/nff water, or exposure to supetVitaXeeL sV^am\xv ^. ^\«^y«x. ^ 




malin sterilizers are now manufactured. They consist of air-tight 
compartments in which paraform pastils are burned. Immersion 
of instruments iit such solutions as pyoktanin, mercuric chlorid, and 
carbolic acid are other less valuable methods. Corrosive action is 
to be avoided, as the edges of ophthalmic knives are very easily 


Acc. . 

. Accommodation. 

m. . . 

. Meter. 

Am. . 

. Ametropia. 

mm. . 

. Millimeter. 

As. . 

. Astigmatism. 

O. D. 

. Oculus dexter — Right Eye. 

As. H. 

. Hyperopic Astigmatism. 

O. S. 

. Oculus sinister — Left Eye. 

As. M. 

. Myopic Astigmatism. 

O. U. 

. Oculi utrique — Both Eyes. 

Ax. . 

. Axis. 

OK . 

. Both Eyes. 


. Base (of prism) down. 

P.p. . 

, Punctum proximum, Near 

B. I. . 

. " " " in. 


B. O. 

. ** '* " out. 

Pr. . 

. Prism. 

B. U. 

. " '< " up. 

P. r. . 

. Punctum remotum. Far 

cm. . 

. Centimeter. 


Cyl. . 

. Cylinder, Cylindric Lens. 

R. . 

. Right Eye. 

D. . . 

. Diopter. 

R. E. 

. Right Eye. 

E. . . 

. Emmetropia, Emmetropic. 

Sph. . 

. Spheric, Spheric Lens. 

F. . . 

. Formula. 


. Symmetric. 

xl. . • 

. Hyperopia, Hyperopic, 

V. . . 

. Vision, Visual Acuity, Ver- 



1^. • • 

. Left Eye. 


= Plus, Minus, Equal to. 


. Light-difference. 

00 . . 

. Infinity, 20 ft. distance. 

L. E. 

. Left Eye. 

c • • 

. Combined with. 

L. M. 

. Light minimum. 


• • 

. Degree. 

M. . . 

, Myopia, Myopic. 



□ Derivations a 

I' of Medici 

Abduction (ai-d„k''shHn) [ai, from ; 
duttrt, to lead], llie power of 
the ejitemal recti of drawing the 
eyes outward, measuied by tbc 
maiimuin ability lo preserre single- 
ness of the image with prisms 
place<] bases toward tbc nose; il is 
commonly from 4° to 8". 

AchromBlopsia {ah-kro-mal-op'.ii- 
aA) fa priv. ; XP'-'I"', color; ijtic, 
eyesight]. Color-blindness. 

Adduction (ad-iiuk'-sAun)[adiiu- 
etri, to bring forward] . The power 
of the internal recti to move [he 
eyeballs outward, measured by the 
maximuro ability lo preserve single- 
ness of the image witli prisms 
placed hases toward the lempies ; 
it varies from 15° to 40°, 

AmatJToais {tim-aie-r^-iis) [o^ov- 
p6ea; to darken]. Partial (or total) 

Ametropia (ah-mit-rt^-pf-ak')\a 

defoelive refractive power of the 
media (or to some abnormality of 

Aniridia (aH-i-rid'-i-ah') [(iii priv, ; 
I/iif, the rainbow]. Absence or 
defect of the iris. 

Anisocoria {nn-is-ii-io'-re-aA) [avi- 
DOf, uoeqnal ; Kiii^, P"pi']- 'n- 
equalitj in the diameter of the 
Am sometropia {ati'is-o-Biil-ro'-pe' 
ah) [fiiilffor, unequal ; /iiTpm, a 
measure; iiV', the eye]. A dif- 
ference of refraction in the two 
Ankyloblepharon {angkil-obUf- 
flf-on) Faj-itij^, a loop; ^'ht^apov, 
the eyelid]. Adhesion of Ibe cili- 
ary edges of the eyelids. 
AnophthBlmoB {an - off. thai'- mei) 
yiv priv ; oifffa>.fi6(, eye]. Congen- 
ital absence of the eyes. 
Aphakia {ak-fa'-kf-ah) [n priv ; ^- 
Koc, the crystalline lens]. The 
condition of the eye without the 

Aplanatic (aA-plan-al' -ik) [n priv,; 
TrP.niiitiV, lo wander]. Pertaining 
to rectilinear lens ; eoTTefted for 
aberralion of light and color. 

ArcuB senilis {ar'-ktis stn-i'-lh) 
[anus, a bow ; sfiUs, of the old]. 
A ring of fatly degeneration seen 
about the periphery of (he cornea in 

Asthenopia (as-tfieH-o'-pi-ah) [a 
priv.; aOevat, strength; uif', eye]. 
Weakness or speedy fatigue of vis- 
ual puwer. 

Astigmatism (as - liY - mal-izm) [a 
priv.; miylia, a point]. The eon- 
dilioii in fiVAcX* la.'j^ we\ 
IQ tt ^\nt in iota* "a\«m ' 




Blennorrhea UiUit-or-t'-ah) [p^v- 
va, mucus; jihi-v, la flow]. Ex- 
cessive tnucousdischirge. 

Blepharadenitls ( Mef-ar-ad-eH -i' - 
iis) [l3it<j,npoi', the eyelid; rirl^i-, a 
glund ; iTif, infUiRinialioTil. In- 
flammation of [he Meibomian 

BlephBiilis {hief-ar-i'-tii) {l}lt(^a- 
pat', ibe eyelid ; irif, innamma- 
lion]. Inflammation of the eyelid. 

Blepbarophimosis [bltf-ar-o-fi-mo' ■ 
sis') [pji^apav, the eyelid ; •fS/iuai':, 
shultiug up]. AbnoTmal smallnesa 
of the palpebral fissure. 

BoUosa (i„l-/i'-!ni) [iulla, a blis- 
ter]. With blisters or blebs. 

Buphthalmos (Am/- thai' - mot ) 
[/Jo,->(, an ox i b0Ba?,^6i, eye]. Ox- 
eyed. See A'trataffloius. 

Canthoplasty [ian' - rko -ptas-le ) 
\<ia\Mi, the canthus ; wSnoOTii', to 
form]. A Eui^ical operation fur 
lessening the pressure and frictiiin 
of the upper lid by cutting the 

Canthus {kan'-lhus) [unifluf, car- 
Ihiis]. The inner or outer angle 
formed by the juncture of the eye- 

Caruncle (kar'-ting-tl) [diminutive 
offflr^, flesh]. A fleshy proluber- 
Bnce U]H)n the conjuneliva. near the 
inner cnnlhns, containing the lacri- 
mal punclum. 

Cataract [iai'-ar-akt) {KiiTapaKTii^, 
B wBlerfain. Opacity of the lens 

Chalazion (knl-a' ze-en) [j-n?.aCioi', 
a small hailstone]. A Meibomian 


Choroid (4-a'-raid) {_x^im 

e)6o^, like]. The vasculi 

Chroma tic {krg-mal'-ik) [xpi^K, 
color]. Relating to color. 

Chromatopsta {iro-mal-sp'-si-iik) 
{xptjua, color; iV«C. vision). Ab- 
normal sensation of color, due to 
disorders of the oplic centers, Of 
to drugs, especially santonin. 

Cilia {iil'-i-ak) [Hlium. the eyelid 
or lash]. The eyelashes. 

Collytium {inl-e'-rt-ani) [mkLiituis, 
an eye-salve]. An astringent, bo- 
liscptic, or medicinal lotion for tbe. 

Coloboma {kol-o-io' mah) [i 
jideiv. to mutilate]. A fissure of' 
parts of the eye, congenital or 

Conus (ia'-nus) [lum;, a cone]. A 
creacentic patch of alropbic cho- 
roid tissue near the optic papilla* 
in myopia. ~ 

Corectopia {ter-fk-to'-fie-ai) [bA 
the pupil; ^xroirot, miliar' 

Cornea ( ior' -ne-ah) [r* 
homy]. The anterior transpi 
segment of the eyeball. 

CouchinE{,forw*'-i>(f) [Ft., 
to depress]. The operation,^ 
;, of depreasid 

> the viliJ 

chamber, where 

Cycliiis isi-ili'-lii) [sfcu^nf, s 

(around the eye) ; it'(, inRan 

tion]. InflHmmalion of iht ci 

Cycloplegia (sii/o/h'-JenA) nm 

Sot, circle ; ■K/.riy'i, a slrok^ 

Paralysis of the ciliary muscle o 

Dacryoadenltis {dak-re-o-e/t-ftt-i'- 
lh\ {iaKpvnv, a tear ; lii^v. 
^ini\. \iAwMMA\on. of a ' 

if a ta^J 




DacryocyBtitia {Ja/^ re- -sis-li' -ris) 

iiinpvnv, a te^' xbOTt^, a sac], 
nilammalkiB'bf the lacrimal sac. 
DacryocyjtCoblcDDorchea {dai- 
ii'lB-bltn-or-f'-ah) {/'diiiivov, 
nbaric, a sue ; jSiimn, 
'ow]. Flow of 
m Ihe lacrimal sac. 
icryolith (dai'-rt-o-lith) [HAKpvov, 
a lear; J-Iflof, a slone]. A lacri- 
mal calculiu. 
Dacryops (liak' -re-ops) [Jris/juw, a 
tear; iii/j, Ihe eye]. Wateiy eye. 
Daltonism {dal'-lim-hm) [Daiton, 
an Eogliah physicist]. Color- 
Dendritica {den-drU' -ik-ak) {Aiv- 

Apai>, a iree]. Tree-like. 
Descemetitis {dis - im - et - i' ■ Hs) 
\_Dtirtmft ; inc, inflammation]. 
Inflammation of Desccmel's raem- 

Diopter {di-efi'-ler) [ii&, through ; 
i^of'rii, to see]. The metric unit 
of nieastirement for lenses. 

Dioptrics (di - op' - Inks) [did, 
through: ^^cafai, lo see], A 
branch of optics treating of the 
refraction of light by transparent 
media, especially by the media of 

Diplopia {dip-lo'-ft-ah) [<!(rt&c, 
double! i^'C, sight]. Donbic 
vision, one object being seen by 
Ihe eye or eyes as two. 

Discission {dis-ish'-uii) [disiistio: 
discinderc, to lew or cut apart]. 
An operation for soft cataract. 

Diatichiasis (dis-tH-i'-asis) [-!<(■, 
double ; iTrijoc, row]. Double 

Tpi'tiiv, to turn]. Eversion (of an 

Eczema {li'-zi-maA) UkQclk, lo 
boil over]. A catarrhal inflamma- 
tion of the skin. 

Edema [f-di'-mah) [oJitir/in, a swell- 
ing]. Swelling due to effusion of 
serous fluid into areolar tissues. 

Emmelropia (cm-et-ro'-pt-nh) [iv, 
iuj ,iiTi,uy._ taeasure; i^. eye]. 

BnophtbalmoB \en-off-lkal' -vw!) 
\kv, in; i-fHal/iSi:, eye]. An un- 
usually deep or posterior location 
of the eyeballs in the orbits. 

Entropion {en-lro'-fe-on) \tv, in; 
TfieTTfiu, (o turn]. Inversion (of 
Ihe eyelid). 

Bpicantbus {tp-t-ian'-tkas) [^iri, 
on ; Kave6<:, angle of Ihe eye] . A 
fold of skin passing from the nose 

Epilation (ep-il-a' -skiin) \t, out of; 
/iVhi, abair]. The extraction of a 

Epiphora (ep-if -or-ah) \km, on; 
^c^eiv, to bear]. A persistent over- 
flow of tears. 

Erytbropaia (rr- Uh - rop/ - st-ah) 
[ ^/jiiW/iiCi ted ; Bi(«(, vision]. Red 

Esopho'ria {rs-e-fo' -ri-ah) [fou (or 
einu). within; ^)tiiv, lo bear]. 
Tending of the visual lines in- 

Exophoria (tks-o-fo' -ri-ah) fjfu, 
without; ^£iv, to bear], 'lend- 
ing of the visual lines outward. 

Exophlhalmos (tk$-off-thal'-mos) 
[ff, out; ii>PnV*C, eye]. Abnor- 
mal prominence of the eyeball. 

Kovea {fo-xx'-ith) Ifovea, a sn 
pit], A depressed spot in 
macula, at which there is the n 

Eclro;>ion (fi-tro'-pe-on) Y'k 



lus, Lat. (from Sanskrit), to bum]. 
A boil. 


Glaucoma (glow-k(/-mah) [yA^vKdf, 
sea-green]. A disease of the eye ; 
so called on account of the green 
color of the pupil. 

Glioma (gH-</-mah) [y^m, glue ; 
bfia, tumor]. A variety of round- 
celled sarcoma. 


Hemeralopia (hem - er - al-(/-pe-ah) 
[i] fie pa J day ; wt/j, eye]. Day- vision 
or night-blindness. (See note 
under Nyctalopia. ) 

Hemianopsia ( hem-e-an-op^ -se-ah ) 
[?7/i£, half; dv, priv.; 6i/;«f, sight]. 
Blindness in one-half of the visual 

Herpes zoster [her^-piz zos^-ter) 
[epizTjgy creeping ; Cuarypf a girdle]. 
An inflammatory skin-disease, char- 
acterized by vesicles. 

Heterochromia ( het-er-o-kro'-me- 
ah) [eTepoQy different ; xp^f^^* 
color]. A difference in color (in 
the irides). 

Heteronymous ( het-er-on^'imus ) 
[ETEpog^ different ; dvu//a, name]. 
Of a different name or character. 
Crossed. The opposite of hom- 

Heterophoria (het - er- o -fo^-re - ah) 
[erf/)Of, different; ^op^q^ tending]. 
A tending of the visual lines other 
than in parallelism. 

Hippus Qiipf'Us) [tTTTTOf, the horse]. 
Spasmodic pupillary movements, 
independent of the action of light. 

Homonymous ( ho - mon^ - im - us) 
[6/t/($f, same; Sw/za, name]. Hav- 
ing the same relative position. 

Hordeolum (hor-de^-o-lum) [hor- 
deuniy barley]. A stye. 

Horopter (hor-op^-ter) [ppoq^ bound- 
ary; dnr^Py an observer]. A line 

representing the cunre along which 
both eyes can join in sight. 

Hyaline (hi^-al-in) [yaTio^^ glass]. 
Resembling glass ; referring to the 
vitreous humor or a glass-like mem- 

Hyalitis (hi-al-i^ -tis) \ya7Mq^ glass ; 
LTL^y inflammation]. Inflammation 
of the hyaloid membrane and of 
the vitreous humor. 

Hydrophthalmos (hi - droff- thaV- 
mos) \y6opy water ; wjtOaXfjtdc^ eye]. 
Increase in the fluid contents of the 

Hydrops (hi^ -drops) [ySpcjrjj, dropsy]. 
An abnormal collection of fluid m 
any part of the body. 

Hypermetropia ( hi-per-met-r</ -pe- 
ah) [ynep, over ; fiirpov, measure ; 
&ipf eye]. See Hyperopia. 

Hyperopia (hi-per-o' -pe-ah) \ympy 
over; o)^, eye]. That condition 
of the refractive media of the eye 
in which, with suspended accom- 
modation, the focus of parallel rays 
of light is behind the retina ; it is 
due to an abnormally short antero- 
posterior diameter of the eye, or to 
a subnormal refractive power of its 

Hyperphoria (hi- per -ft/- re -ah) 
[yirepy over; fpp6gy tending]. A 
tendency of a visual line upward. 

Hyphemia (hi -fe^ - me - ah) \{m6^ 
under; al//a, blood]. A deposit 
of blood at the bottom of the ante- 
rior chamber. 

Hypophoria (hi-po-fo^ -re-ak) [wr4, 
under; 0opdf, tending]. A ten- 
dency of a visual line downward. 

Hypopyon (hi-po^-pe-on) [v7r($, under ; 
TTvov, pus]. A collection of pus in 
the anterior chamber. 


Iridectomy (irid ek^ -io-me) pp/f, 
iris ; hKTopijy excision]. The cut- 
ting out of part of the iris. 



Ifideremia (ir-id-er-e^-me-ah) \ipL^ ; 
kprifjua^ lack]. Absence of one or 
both irides. 

Iridocyclitis {ir -id-o- sik - li^- tis) 
[tp^f, iris ; KVKkoq^ a circle ; iriq^ 
inflammation]. Inflammation of 
the iris and ciliary body. 

Iridodialysis [ir-id-o-dial^ - is - is) 
\lpiQ ; dia^heiv, to liberate]. Sepa- 
ration of the iris from its ciliary 

Iridodonesis (ir -id-o- don - e'- sis) 
[Ipig; ddvffoig, tremblmg]. Trem- 
ulousness of the iris. 

Iridoplegia {ir-id-o-pW -je-ah) \lpiq ; 
n'hpfii^ stroke]. Paralysis of 
sphincter of the iris. 

Iridotomy {ir-id-ot^-o-me) [ipiq ; 
TOfiijf a cutting]. Incision into the 

Iris (i^-ris) [IpiCf a colored halo or 
circle]. A colored circular mem- 
brane, placed between the cornea 
and lens, having the function of 
the diaphragm of a camera. 

Iritis (i-ri^-tis) \lpLq ; irigj inflam- 
mation]. Inflammation of the 

Ischemia {is-ke' -me-ah) [iox^^^t to 
check ; difiaf blood] . Bloodless- 


Keratitis (ker-at-i^-tis) \i^pa^j horn 
(=: cornea) ; ltl^, inflammation]. 
Inflammation of the cornea. 

Keratocele (ker^-at-o-sil) [Kepa^, 
cornea; k^Thj, tumor]. A hernia 
of Descemet's membrane through 
the cornea. 

Keratoglobus (ker-at-o-glo^-bus) 
[icepaf, cornea ; globus ^ a ball]. 
Distention and protrusion of the 
cornea ; when cone-shaped, and 
in the center of the cornea, it is 
called conic cornea or keratoconus. 

Keratomalacia (ker-at-o-mal-a^- 
se-ah) [nipaf, cornea; ftahiKia^ 

softness]. Softening of corneal 

Keratoscopy (ker - at - os^- ko -pi) 
\jdpag, cornea; (tkotteIv, to ob- 
serve]. Examination of the cor- 

Korectopia {kor-ek-to^ -peak) \K6priy 
the pupil of the eye (so called, 
like the Latin pupilla^ because an 
image appears in the eye) ; iKTOKog^ 
misplaced]. Displacement of the 


Lacrimal (lak^-rim-al) [lacrimal a 
tear]. Having reference to the 
organs of secretion, transfer, or 
excretion of tears. 

Lagophthalmos (lag-off-thaF -tnos) 
[Aaywf , hare ; 6^aA//(5f,eye]. In- 
ability to close the eyes (from the 
popular belief that the hare sleeps 
with his eyes open). 

Lens (lenT^ [L^^t. , a lentil]. A 
regularly shaped transparent ob- 
ject refracting luminous rays. 

Leukemia (lu-ke^-tne-ah) [Aev/c(5f, 
white ; alfiay blood], A condi- 
tion of the blood characterized by 
a relative increase in white cor- 

Leukoma (lu-ko^-mah) [\evKOfiaf 
anything white]. A white spot on 
the cornea. 

Luxatio (luks - a^ - she -oh) [AcJ^of , 
slanting (Lat., obiiquus)']. Dis- 


Macropsia {mah-krop' -se-ah) [/zok- 
p(Jf, large; 6V"f, sight]. Appar- 
ent increase in the size of objects. 

Macula lutea {mak^-u-lah lu- 
te^ -ah) [Lat.]. The yellow spot 
in the retina pierced by the visual 

MalacVa ^mal-a'-se-aK>i \y*Ova»i.o., 


oftening]. Morbid softening of 

Megalopsia {meg • al - op' - sc - :rh) 
[,,f)nE, large; hi>i%, sight]. An 
apparent increase in the size of 
objects, ascribed lo changes in the 
retinal ead-oigans and to spasm of 
accommodalion. Maerofsia. 

MetamorphopBiB {me/-am-or-/ofi' - 
st-ah) [^ETQ/iop^iiEiv, to change 
shape ; At/v^, sight]. Apparent 
change in [lie form of t>biecls. 

Microphthalmos {mi -Am/- thai' - 
ma) [uwpdc, amail; o^oViC. 
eye]. An abnormally small eye- 

Micropsia (mi-krop'-se-ah) \_iiiKp6(:, 
small; bi"(, sight]. Apparent 
decrease in the size of objects. 

Miosis [mi-B'-sis) [>i.JO(C, a lessen- 
ing]. Ad abnormal contraction of 
the pupil. 

Mydriasis {mid-ri'-as-is) [y.ySt,ia- 
D(f]. An abnormal dilatation of 
the pupil. 

Myodcsopsia {mi-e-dts-ops'-i-ah) 
[pwMid^.like a fly; SV-r, vision]. 
Subjective lisual sensations as of 
mnscx yolitantes. 

Mjropia {mi-o'-pe-ah)\_niiea/,^a close ; 
irf, eye]. Near-sightedness, be- 
cause near-sighted people pertiallj' 
close the lids. 

Myotomy {mi-ol'-o-mi) [^it, rous- 
cle; T-o/jiJ, cutting]. Incision of a 

Nyctalopia (niklal-o'-fe-ali) [I'i'f, 
night ; i^, the eje]. Night-vision 
or day-hlindness. The condition 
in which the sight is better by 
night or in semidarkness than b 
daylight. It is a symptom of cen 
tral scotoma, the more dilated pupi 
nt night allowing a belter illuniina 
lion of the peripheral pottious i 

Ibe Tctma. Dt. Greenhill and Wt. 

Tweedy have shown l 
ing to the quite universal uaagcM 
modern times, the definiti 
words itycialopia and hrmtn 
have been the reverse of that oi 
early Greek and Li 
The proper derivation, ihetefolt, 
of Hyclalopitt would be from i*f, 
night 1 UKab^, blind ; &V> eye, the 
word meaning night-blindnm, 
Htmerahpio was likewise derittd 
from i/'ift«, dny ; a^6c, blind ; M> 
eye, and meant day-blindness. The 
attempt to reinstate the andenl 
usage can only result in utter con- 
fusion, and i( wonld be belter lo 
avoid the use of the words alto 
gether. See Hrmeralcpia. 
NyataginuB {nis-lag' -mus) [uwrni)- 
;ioc, nodiling of the head]. Oicil- 
laloiy movement of the eyeballs. 

Ophthalmometry (off-lhat-momf- 
il-ri) [if^ia^irit, eye ; ^tTiMv.teea. 
e]. Mensuration of the ejcbit 

■ the ocular muscles. 
Ophthalmo scope (off-lhaP -mt- 

lidfi) [h'fSa^ii: eKo^tJr. to * 

serve]. Instmment for examininf 

the interior of the eye. 
Ophtbalmotonometer {eff-fhal-mt 

lim-om'-ft-er) [o^X/zSr ; rimn. 


Optogram {op' -tii-gram) \; 
ibie 1 j-fjnfci', to write], A Mi 
image stamped on the retina fat 
brief perio<f. 

Orthophoria {or ■ the -/o' -rt-^ 
[o/j^dr, straighi; 0op<^-, iendU 
'^f:nd\n^ of the visual lineauii 



Pannua (fian'-m) [Lai., doth], 
Vascularization of the comea. 

Panophthalmitis (/mr - c^- Ihat- 
mi'-tis) [iruf, all ; oifKakfioz, eye; 
inc, inflaiiiinalionj. InHammalion 
of all the tissues of the eyeball. 

Parallax (par'-al-nks) \napn, be- 
side; !Mji^, othcrj. Apparent 
displacement of an object. 

Paralysis (par-ai'-is-is) {napa, be- 
side; Tjitiv, to loosen]. Loss of 
power of motion in a muscle. 

Paresis (par'-a-is) \japa, from; 
ihiai, to lei go]. Partial loss of 
motion in a muscle. 

Perimeter (ptr-im'-il-er) \jtfpl, 
arooiid; ittrpov, measure]. An 
instiutnent for measuring the ex- 
tent of the 5eld of vision. 

Periscopic (per-e-sko^ -ik) \j'tp>, 
around ; okotiiv, to see]. Applied 
to lenses having a concave surface 

Pcritomy {per-W -o-me\ \jsci», 
around; raiili, a cutting]. The 
removal of a riband of conjunctival 
and subconjunctival tissue from 
about the cornea, for the relief of 

finguis, fat], A small tumor of 
the conjunctiva. 

Presbyopia, (/tj ■ bt - s' - pe - ah") 
[upenliui, old ; i^, eye], " Old- 
sight," due to failure iu accomuio 

Pterygium (lei-if-eum) [irrt/iuf, 
wing]. A Uiangular patch of 
thickened conjunctiva with its 
apeic directed toward the cornea. 

Ptosis (lo'-sis) [jrrijmf, mwrav, to 
fall] . Drooping of the upper eye- 


Retinitis (rel-in-i' -/is) [retina, ret- 
ina; inc, intlaninialion]. Inflam- 
mation of the retina. 

Retinascopy {rtt-in-os' -ko-pe) [rel- 
ina, retina ; nmirfii', to observe]. 
The method of estimating the re- 
fraction of the eye by observation 
of the movements of the fundus- 
reflex ; skiascopy ; the shadow- 

Soft CI 

Phimosis (^-iito'-sis) [fiiiuAv, to 
constrict]. Constriction; abnor- 
mal snutllness (as of the palpebral 

Phlyclenula {^fiik-ltn'-u-lak) [dim. 

of ^ttraiwi, blister]. A small 

vesicle or blister. 
Photometer (fa-lam' -et-^r) [^'j;-, 

light; /ih-pmi, measure]. In.^tru- 

menl for measuring the intensity 

of light. 
Photophobia (fr-le-f^ -b/.ak) [^iir, 

light; ^;3dc, rear]. Intolerance 

of light. 
Pinguecula f//« jjw,*'-«-/fl*) [Lai. , 

Scimillans [siniW -ans) [sdniil- 
/u™, to sparkle]. Emitting sparks. 

Sclera (skU'-rah) [oiiSi?/»ic. hard]. 
The tough outer coat of the eye- 

Sclerotomy {skU-rof -o-mi) [mJ^- 
pi<:, hard ; csrojiii, to cut]. The 
operation of opening the eyeball 
by incising the sclera. 

Scotoma (sio-lo' -ma/i) {ntorUiv, to 
darken], A fixed spot in the field 
of vision, due to some abnormality 
in the rMitva.OT o'^MitEii.wiwva'iat 



Seborrhea {seb-or-e^ -ah) [sebum^ 
suet; poiay a flow]. An increase 
of sebaceous secretion. 

Skiascopy {ski-as^ -ko-pe) [<T/c/a, 
shadow ; anonelVy to observe]. 
The shadow-test. Retinoscopy. 

Staphyloma [staf-il-o^ -mah) {ara- 
<^v7iijy grape; bfia^ tumor]. A 
grape-like protuberance of cornea 
or sclera. 

Stenopeic [sten-o-pe^-ik) [(rrev(Jf, 
narrow; bnaloq^ pierced]. A disc 
with a narrow opening. 

Strabismus (strab-iz^-mus) [prpap- 
iafi6^, squint]. Squint. 

Sursumduction (sur^ - sum - duk- 
shun) \stirsum^ upon; ducere^ to 
lead]. The power of the two eyes 
of fusing two images when one 
eye has a prism vertically before it. 

Symblepharon (sim-blef -ar-oti) 
[ffifv, together ; /?/li0apov, the eye- 
lid]. The abnormal adhesion of 
the eyelids to the eyeball in con- 
sequence of burns, wounds, etc. 

Synchisis (sin^-kis-is) [avyxvaigy a 
mixing together]. A confusing 

Synechia {sin-e-ki'-ah or si-ne'-ke- 
ah) [(Tvv, together ; l;|fe«v, to hold]. 
A morbid union of parts. 

Telangiectasis {tel-an-je-ek^ -ta-sis) 
[rkTiogy end; ayyelov, vessel; i/cra- 
mQy stretching] . Dilatation of cap- 

Tenotomy {ten-ot^ -o-me) [rkvuv^ 
tendon; rifiveiv, to cut]. Tendon- 

Trachoma {tra-ko^ -niahL) [rpa;fif, 
rough]. Granular conjunctivitis. 

Trichiasis {trik-i^ -as-is) [Opi^, a 
hair]. Abnormal position of the 


Uremia (u-re^ -fne-ah) [ohpovy urine ; 

alfmy blood]. Blood-poisoning 

from retained urinary excretions. 
Uvea (u^-ve-ah) [Lat., a grape (from 

its color)]. The middle tunic of 

the eye. 


Vitreous {vU'-re-tis) [vi/reus ; vit- 
runty glass]. Pertaining to the 
transparent, jelly-like humor filling 
the large posterior cavity of the eye- 
ball. The vitreous humor. 


Tarsorrhaphy [tar-sor^-a-fe) {rap- 
a6q ; {ya^ij, suture]. An operation 
upon the eyelids. 

Tarsus [tar^-sus) [rapadg, the tarsus 
(a flat surface)]. The cartilage of 
the eyelid. 

Teichopsia (ti-kop^ -se-aJi) [re/;^of, 
wall; 6V"f> vision]. Temporary 
amblyopia, with subjective visual 
images like fortification angles. 


Xanthelasma {zan-thel-az^ -mak) 
[^avObq^ yellow; ihiafia, a plate 
(lamina)] . Spots of yellowish dis- 

Xanthoma {zan-th(/-mah) [fav^, 
yellow ; bfia^ tumor]. A yellowish 
new growth on the skin. 

Xerosis (ze-ro^-sis) [^^r/p6^, dry]. A 
dry condition. 



Abduction, measurement of, Ii6 

Accommodation, 31 ; association of, 
with convergence, 33 ; mechan- 
ism of, 31 ; range of, 32 

Actol, 274 

Adduction, measurement of, 117 

Advancement, 138 

Airol, 268 

Alum, 269 

Alum-pencil, use of, 165 

Amaurosis, 100 

Amblyopia, 100; ex anopsia, 100; 
toxic, loi, 233 ; traumatic, 1 01 

Ametropia, 30, 74 

Anesin, 268 

Angiomas, 153 

Angle, apical, 22 ; refracting, 22 

Aniridia, 206 

Anisometropia, 95 

Ankyloblepharon, 144 

Antinosin, 268 

Aphakia, 249 

Arcus senilis, 191 

Arecolin, 268 

Argonin, 268 

Argyll Robertson pupil, 37, 208 

Arlt-Jaesche operation, 148 

Artificial eye, 266 

Asthenopia, 98 

Astigmatism, 31, 84; cards for test- 
ing, 89 ; disadvantages of, 87 ; ex- 
planation of, 85 ; retinoscopy in, 
56 ; symptoms of, 88 ; treatment 
of, 91 ; varieties of, 84 

Atrophy of the optic nerve, 234 

Atropin, 72, 268 

Axonometer, $6 


Ballottement, ocular, 103 
Bifocal lenses, 71 
" Black eye,^" 141 
Bleeding by leeches, 269 
Blepharitis, 142 
Blepharophimosis^ 144 
Blepharospasm, 1 52 
« Blind spot," 108 
Blood-vessels of the eyeball, 16 
**Blue stone,'* 270 
Boric acid, 269 
Boroglycerid, 270 


Calomel, 270 

Camphor-water, 270 

Canaliculus, operations on the, 157 

Canthoplasty, 145 

Cardinal points of the eyeball, 27 

Cassaripe, 270 

Cataract, 236; causes of, 236; ex- 
traction of, 244 ; juvenile, 239 ; 
lamellar, 240 ; Morgagnian, 239 ; 
posterior polar, 240; pyramidal, 
240; secondary, 247 ; senile, 239; 
stationary, 240; test for mature, 
239 ; traumatic, 24I ; treatment 
of, 241 ; varieties and nomencla- 
ture, 237; zonular, 240 

** Cat's eye," 227 

Cautery, 270 

Centering of lenses, 67 

Centrad, 22 

Cha\az\oti, i/^'i 

Choked d\sc, a^o 



Choroid y anatomy of, 212 ; coloboma 
of, 218 ; detachment of, 217 ; dis- 
eases of, 212; rupture of, 217; 
sarcoma of, 216; tuberculosis of, 

Choroiditis, 213 ; areolaris, 214 ; 
central, 215 ; disseminated, 214 ; 
exudative, 213; myopic, 215; 
syphilitic, 215 

Chromatopsia, 105 

Cilia, examination of, 35 

Ciliary body, anatomy of, 199 ; dis- 
eases of, 211; injection, diagnosis 
of, 36 ; muscle, 200 ; in hyperopia, 
74; paralysis of, 212; spasm of, 
212; processes, 201 

Cocain, 72, 270 

Collodion, 271 

Coloboma of the choroid, 218 ; of the 
eyelid, 152 ; of the iris, 206 

Color-blindness, 103 

Color-perception, 103 

Conic cornea, 192 ; retinoscopy in, 

Conjugate foci, 20 

Conjunctiva, anatomy of, 160; dis- 
eases of, 160 ; examination of, 33 ; 
foreign bodies in, 179 ; injuries of, 
179; new growths of, 181 

Conjunctival injection, diagnosis of, 

Conjunctivitis, catarrhal, 166 ; croup- 
ous, 173; diphtheric, 173; follic- 
ular, 173; gonorrheal, 171 ; phlyc- 
tenular, 177 ; purulent, 167 ; sim- 
ple, 164; tubercular, 176; vernal, 

Consensual reflex, 37 

Convergence, association with ac- 
commodation, 33 
Copper sulphate, 271 
Cornea, abscess of, 189 ; anatomy of, 
181 ; diseases of, 181 ; examina- 
tion of, 36; foreign bodies in, 193 ; 
herpes of, 186 ; injuries to, 193 ; 
opacities of, 191 ; operations upon, 
195; serpiginous ulcer of, 190; 
staphyloma of, 192 ; tumors of, 
ip4 ; ulcer of, 1 87 
Corrosive sublimate, 274 
Cover chimney, 5 1 

** Cover-test," 119 

Credo's method, 172 

Critchett's operation, 195 

Crossed diplopia, 115 

Croupous conjunctivitis, 173 

Cupping of the disc, 47 

Cyclitis, 211 

Cycloplegics, 72 

Cylinders, 25 ; neutralization of, 67 


Dacryocystitis, 158 

Dacryolith, 157 

Dacryops, 155 

Daturin, 74 

Decentering lenses, 69 

Descemetltis, 185 

Diabetic amblyopia, loi 

Dianoux's operation, 148 

Dioptric system, 25 

Diphtheric conjunctivitis, 173 

Diplopia, 113, 114; crossed, 115; 

homonymous, 115 
Direct method, 39, 45 
Discission, 243 
Dissection of the eyeball, 17 
Distichiasis, 146 
Duboisin, 74, 271 
Duction -tests, 116 


Ectropion, 150 

Eczema of the eyelids, 141 

Electric-light-blindness, loi 

Electrolysis, 147 

Electrotherapy, 271 

Embolism of the retinal vessels, 225 

Enophthalmos, 259 

Entoptic phenomena, 102 

Entropion, 146 

Enucleation, 265 

Ephedrin, 271 

Epicantbus, 152 

Epiphora, 155 

Episcleritis, 198 



Euphthalmin, 272 

Evisceration, 264 

Exenteration of the orbital contents, 

Exophoria, tests for, 119 

Exophthalmic goiter, 259 

Exophthalmos, 145,259 

Eye, anatomy of, 13 ; examination of, 
33 ; general description of, 13; in- 
spection of, 35 

Eyeball, anatomy of, 13 ; dissection 
of, 17 ; foreign bodies in, 261 ; 
humors of, 15; lymph -system of, 
17; nerve-supply of, 15; opera- 
tions on, 264; tunics of, 15 ; vas- 
cular supply of, 15 ; wounds of, 

Eye-drops, 166 ' 

Eye-glasses, fitting of, 70 

Eyelids, anatomy of, 129; diseases 
of, 129; examination of, 35; new 
growths of, 153 

Eye-strain, 74 


Far point, 32 

Field of vision, 106 

"Finger-exercise,*' 123 

Fitting of spectacles and eye glasses, 

Flarer's operation, 147 
Fluorescin, 37, 187, 272 
Focal illumination, 36 ; length, 19 
Formalin, 272 
Fundus, examination of, 46 
Fundus-reflex, 46 


Glasses, prescription of, 65, 68; 

tinted, 71 
Glaucoma, 25 1 ; causes of, 25 1 ; 

diagnosis of, 253 ; pathologic 

changes, 251 ; prognosis of, 255 ; 

symptoms of, 252; treatment of, 

255 ; varieties of, 254 
Glycerin, 2^2 
Gonorrheal opbthalmisLf 167 

Graefe's operation, 149 
Granular lids, 174 


Hamamelis, 272 

Heat and cold, 273 

Hemeralopia, 100 

Hemianopsia, 109 

Hering's theory, 104 

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, 139 

Heterophoria, 114; tests for, 119 

Heterotropia, 126 

Hippus, 208 

Holmgren test, 105 

Holocain, 273 

Homatropin, 72, 273 

Homonymous diplopia, 115 

Hordeolum, 143 

Hotz's operation, 149 

Humors of the eyeball,- 15 

Hyalitis, 249 

Hyaloid artery, persistent, 250 

Hydrogen dioxid, 273 

Hyoscyamin, 73, 273 

Hyperopia, 30, 74 ; axial shortening 
in, 74 ; causes of, 74 ; ciliary mus- 
cle in, 74; connection between 
convergent strabismus and, 76; 
diagnosis of, 76 ; disadvantages of, 
75 ; prescription of glasses in, 77 ; 
retinoscopy in, 55; symptoms of, 
75 ; treatment of, 77 

Hyperphoria, 120 

Hypopyon, 190 

Hysteric amblyopia, 102 


Ichthalbin, 273 
Ichthyol, 273 
Illaqueation, 147 
Inch-system, 25 
Index of refraction, 21 
Indirect method, 41, 49 
Instruments, disinfection of, 278 
Insufficiency of adduction, 116; 

treatment of, \^^ 
lod\tv, 2.1^ 
Iodoform, aT\ 



Iridectomy, 208 

Iridodesis, 211 

Iridodialysis, 206 

Iridodonesis, 208 

Iridotomy, 210 

Iris, anatomy of, 199; diseases of, 
199 ; gumma of, 205 ; inflamma- 
tions of, 201 ; injuries to, 206 ; 
operations on, 208; tubercles of, 
205 ; tumors of, 205 

Iris-shadow-test, 239 

Iritis, nodosa, 205 ; plastic, 201 ; 
serous, 204 ; suppurative, 204 

Itrol, 274 


Jaeger's letters, 60 
Jequirity, 274 


Kalt suture, 245 

Keratectomy, 265 

Keratitis, bullous, 187 ; from lagoph- 
thalmos, 187; interstitial, 184; 
neuroparalytic, 186; phlyctenular, 
185 ; punctate, 185 ; recurrent trau- 
matic, 187 

Keratoconus, 192 

Keratoscope, 90 

Knapp's roller forceps, 176 


Lacrimal apparatus, anatomy of, 153; 
diseases of, 153; gland, diseases of, 
155 ; sac, diseases of, 157 ; sounds, 

Lagophthalmos, 145 

Lapis divinus, 271 

Leeching, 269 

Lens, anatomy of, 235 ; coloboma of, 
249 ; congenital dislocation of, 
249 ; diseases of, 235 ; injuries to, 
248 ; removal of, in high myopia, 

lenses, 2^; bifocaXf 7 1 ; classifica- 
tion and numbering of, 25 ; decen- 
tering of, 64; different forms of. 

24 ; neutralization of, 67 ; prescrib- 
ing. 65, 70 ; refraction by, 23 ; test-, 
62 ; testing of, 67 ; tinted, 71 ; 
varieties used to correct ametropia, 

Leukoma, 191 

Ligamentum pectinatum, incision of, 


Light-sense, estimation of, 61 

Lunar caustic, 277 

Lymph-system of the eyeball, 16 


Macula, examination of, 48 

Maddox rod, 119 

Malarial amblyopia, ioi 

Malingering, 102 

Massage of the eyeball in glaucoma, 

Media, examination of, 46 

Megalopsia, 103 

Meibomian glands, 139 

Mercuric chlorid, 274 ; oxid, 275 

Metamorphopsia, 103 

Micropsia, 103 

Miosis, 207 

Mirrors, action of, on light, 18 

** Moon-blindness,*' loi 

Morphia, 275 

Mules' operation, 264 

Muscse volitantes, loi, 250 

Muscles, ocular, ill ; anatomy and 
physiology of, ill; functional 
anomalies of, 1 12 ; nervous supply 
of, 112; normal balance of, 112; 
operations on, 136 ; paralysis of, 
128; strength of, 117 

Mydriasis, 207 

Mydriatics, 72 

Myiodesopsia, 250 

Myopia, 29, 78 ; axial lengthening in, 
78 ; causes of, 79 ; diagnosis of, 87 ; 
disadvantage and danger of, 79; 
divergent squint in, 80 ; prescrip- 
tion of glasses in, 83 ; progressive 
or malignant, 80 ; removal of the 
\tti^ Vcv, &\\ retinoscopy in, 55 ; 

New point, 31 

Nebula, 191 

Nervesofthe eyeball, IJ 

Neuritis, optic, 230 ; retrobulbar, 233 

Nenrorelinilis, 23° 

Nictitation, 152 

Night-blindness, 100 

Nodal point?, 28 

Nosophen, 275 

NfctRlopia, loi 

Nystagmus, 13I 

Periostitis, orbital, 257 
Persistent byaloid artery, 250 ; pu- 
pilary membrane, 207 


Oblique illumination, 36; muscles. 

Ocular ballottement, 102 

Onyx, 189 

Opacities, corneal, 19I 

Opaque nerve-fibers, 228 

Operations, practising, 17 

Ophthalmia, gonotrbeal, 167 ; neo- 
natorum, 171 ; sympathetic, 262 

Ophthalmometer, 91 

Ophthalmoplegia, 129 

Ophthalmoscope, 39 ; description of, 
42 ; direct method with, 39, 45 i 
inditect method wiih, 41, 491 re- 
fraction by, 48; theory of, 39; 
use of. 45 

Ophthalmotonometer, 38 

Opium, 2;5 

Optic disc, 46; nerve, anatomy of, 
228 ; atrophy of, 234 ; diseases of, 
228 ; inflammation of, 330 

Optical consideration of the eye, 27 

Optics, iS 
■ Orbit, anatomy of, 256 ; diseases of, 
256; injuries to, 258 ; tumors of, 
Orbital cellulitis, 258; periostitis, 257 


Picric acid, 275 

Pilocarpin, 275 

Pinguecula, 178 

Piacido'a disc, 91 

Points, cardinal, 27; far, 32; n( 

32; nodal, 2S; principal, 28 
Folycorit ' 

, 13 

■, 275 

1 permangan 
Presbyopia, 93 
Prescription of lenses, 65, 70; in 

hyperopia, 77; in myopia, 83 
Principal axis, 24; focus, 18, 28; 

■' Prism-battery," 117 

Ptism-diopter, 23 

Prism-exercise, 123 

Prisms, 21 ; prescription of, 68; neu- 
tralization of, 69 ; refraction by, 
2(1 rotary variable, H7; strength 
of, 22 

ProUrgol, 27s 

Pterygium, 178 

Ptosis, 150 

Puneta lactimalis, affect itws of, 156 

Punctura proxim 

Pupil, Ai^yll-Robertson, 37, 208; 

changes in the motility of, 2Cfj; 

examination of, 37 ; reflexes of, 37 
Pyoktanin, 276 

Pi^enstecher oi 
Panas' sofulfon, 275 
Ptnaas, 183 




Recti muscles, 112 

Reflection, 18 ; by a concave surface, 
19 ; by a convex surface, 20 ; by 
a plane surface, 18 

Refraction, 20; by cylinders, 24; by 
lenses, 23 ; by ophthalmoscopy, 
48 ; by a plane surface, 20 ; by 
prisms, 22 ; by retinoscopy, 54 ; 
by a spheric surface, 22 ; index of, 

Retina, anatomy of, 218 ; detach- 
ment of, 225 ; diseases of, 218 ; 
glioma of, 227 ; hemorrhage of, 
220 ; hyperemia of, 219 ; injuries 
to, 228 

Retinitis, 221 ; albuminuric, 221 ; 
diabetic, 223 ; leukemic, 223 ; pig- 
mentosa, 223 ; syphilitic, 223 

Retinoscope, 50 

Retinoscopy, 49 ; diagnosis by, 54 ; 
principle of, 50, 53 ; technic of, 50 

Retrobulbar neuritis, 233 


Saemisch's operation, 195 
Sanoform, 276 
Sassafras, 276 
Schlemm's canal, 17 
Scissors movement, 58 
Sclera, anatomy of, 196 ; diseases of, 
196; staphyloma of, 197; wounds 
of, 198 
Scleritis, 196 
Sclerochoroiditis, 215 
Sclerotomy, 255 
Scopolamin, 72, 276 
Scotomata, 109 
** Second sight," 79 
Shadow-test, 49 
Silver nitrate, 276 
Skiascopy, 49 

Snellen's letters, 59; sutures, 150 
Snow-blindness, loi 
Spectacles, fitting of, 70; preferable 
to eye-glasses, 70 
Spheric surface, refraction by, 23 
Spring catarrh, 177 
Squint, 126 

Staphyloma of the cornea, 192 ; pos- 
terior, 80 ; of the sclera, 197 

Strabismus, 126; in hyperopia, 76; 
in myopia, 80 

Streatfield^s operation, 149 

Stye, 143 

Sun-blindness, loi 

Suprarenal extract, 277 

Symblepharon, 180 

Sympathetic ophthalmia, 262 

Synchysis, 250 ; scintillans, 250 

Synechias, 38, 202 


Table of differential diagnosis of ocu- 
lar inflammations, 162 ; of paralyses 
of the ocular muscles, 132 

Tannic acid, 277 

Tarsorrhaphy, 145 

Tattooing the cornea, 191 

Tenon, capsule of, 13 

Tenotomy, 136 

Tension, measurement of, 38 

Test- cards, 59 

Testing of lenses, 67 

Test-lenses, 62 

Thiosinamin, 277 

Thomson stick, 105 

Thrombosis of the retinal vessels, 

Tinted glasses, 71 

Tobacco amblyopia, 10 1, 233 

Toluidin blue, 277 

Toxic amblyopia, loi , 233 

Trachoma, 174 

Traumatic amblyopia, loi 

Trial -frames, 62 

Trichiasis, 146 

Tunics of the eyeball, 1 5 


Ulcus rodens, 190 ; serpens, 190 


V axv "^'vWYd^tTv' ^ Q^ration , 149 


Wernicke's sign, 208 
Witch hazel, 272 




Yellow oxid, 275 
Young-Helmholtz theory, 104 


Xanthomas, 153 
Xeroform, 277 


Zinc acetate, 277 ; 
sulphate, 277 

chlorid, 278 ; 




^ Hi 



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d.DeouU.a. __ 

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BARTLEY. CIlBlcal Chemistry. The Examinsiion of Feces, 

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BLOXAU. Chemiitry, iDoreanlc and Organic Witk E>peri- 

BUHU. Bth Ed., Kcvtied >Si Engnrings. Clo., ^i; : Lea., (j.15 
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GARDNER. The Brewer, Dlitiller, and Wine Uaoiifac- 

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LEFPMANN. Water Analysla. For Suiitsiy sad Technic Pur- 

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MUTER. Practical and Analytical Cbemlstry. ad American 

m Americsn Mediul' Colleges bv Cuude C. Hahii-tdh, k.d. s6 
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:b in Electro- Che mil try. tlluimied. .7s 

by Edoui F. SiitTi 

&I lUutttalJimi ond a Coloicd Piatt 


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Voi. IL CarWylic Series. InPrts, 

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TRAUBE. Physico-Chemicai Methods. TransLaied by Hardia. 

ULZERAND FRAENKEL. Chemical Technical Aoalyiia. 

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WOODY. EBicDtlali ol ChcmlBtry aad UrlnBlyali. uh 

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MAKRIS. PiinciplBi and Prastlu of DaDtiitty. tncludini 

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j,'|io.oo'; ThunS'^'iut'lii.oo 
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Sheep or Half Dark Green Leilt 

» Geocinllv Uied in Medicine, wlA [1 

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flHes, Hu&da, NBrveLGnneliB, 

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nd Ophtha 


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»*.5°; She 




1 of Dlaeaa 

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Refraction, Including 

I and Opera 


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mul=, Usrfg 

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dEd. 'JU! 


Cloth, .So; liitorlo 


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tA;^Tc- Pi^ 

d Allai 

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y.etc 3d Edition. 


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OHLEMANN. Ocular Therapeutica. Aolhorited Tmuilallon. 
PHILLIPS. SpecUclea and EyeilaBaea. Their Frescripiion 
SWANZY. DiaeBBBS of the Eye and Their Treatmenl. «[h 

and a Zephyr Test Card. 
THORINQTON. RetinDicspy. 3d Edit! 
THOKINQTON. Refraction and Hdw I 

WALKER. Studeau' Aid In Ophthaii 




COLLIE. On Fevers. Their HiilDrj. Eliology, Dlagnoiii, Prof 


ncsls, and TtsaHnem. Colared Plates. fi.oa 

QOODALL AND WASHBOURN. Feven aiid Their Treml- 


"IT^^f;"^: * "™"" "" °-^- "^'^ '^'""■-a^ 

Rheumalic Arthrilis. dttb, 

the Pathology of HiRh Ar.erial Teosion, Headache, Epilepsy, G™i, 
Rhei,n.alisR.,Diab«a,Bright's Disuse, «c. ,ih E^lion, (3 " 


CINE (see also Hygiene and Nursing). 

BUCKLEY. TheSkin iTiHes1tbBndDl>e»e. lUus. .40 

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HARTSHORNE. Our Homes, .40 

PACKARD. Ses AlrandBathiDg. .40 

PARKES. The Elements of Health. (...5 

RICHARDSON. Look Ufe und How to Rescb It. .» 

WE3TLAND. The Wife sod Mother. ( 

WHITE. The Mouth and Teelh. [Uuimted. .« 

WOOD. Brain Work and Overwork. .40 

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CANFIELD. HygleDcof IheSick-Roem. (1.B5 


3ANSOM. Dlseaaea of the Heart. The DiurDosii and Pathology 
of Diseases of the Heart aod Thoracic Aorta. With Plaiei and other 

THORNE. The Scholt Methods ofthe TrsatmsDl of Chronic 

Heart Disease. Third Edition illustrated, Jusl S,a^y. f-ji 


STOHR. Hlstoloey and Mlctoaeopical ADalomy. TiauUted 

and Edited by A.&h««. «.n., Har«ird Medical School. Second 



CANFIKLD. Hygiene at U 

Amtrican Tsn-Book. 138 ILIuslralions. 

KEN^VDOD. Publfc Health Labor 
lions and 3 Plaics. 

LBFFMANN. EiamlDBtion of ^ 
Technical Purposes. 4<h Kdllion. II 

LEPFHANN. Analysis of Milk an 



: of IsolatioD Hos 

Hyeiene. A Compleit 

ma of Wat( 

ind thi Con 

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STARR. Tbe Hyeiene of the Nursery. Including Ihe General 
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WILSON. Hand-Bool 

Widi lllusntiiHis. Btb 
WEYL. Sanitary Reli 

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OWELL. Diseases of 

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OSTROM. HBuarc and ths OriirlDBl Swedish Hotc- 

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DAVIS. Materia Medio and PreicrlpHoa WrttiDg. ft js 
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QROPR. Materia Medica for Ntiises. |i.*s 

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mulB. Tth Edition. Revised and Enlarged. With ThuEiblndei Id 
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MANN. Forenaic Medicine and Toxicol 
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H_ WETf 






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B*'>l"»ICal STujJy nf Ihe Gfrm Tb*OTT 0* T^ill ■» 

8RAHWEI.I.. Aazmia. Jutt SimJf. 
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HARK. HedUttlnal DiHui 
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thetr tnjiiil<>iui Qutlllin and the Reilrii:Iio _ _ 

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trrilten, With oiany new ilk 

lih 3J1 Driainal ( 

do.h, t 

■eaof the Nan 

1, Enlarged^and il 

vii.''i'i'' ii^ 


OOWERS. Clinical L 
OOWEKs! Etiliepayi 


HOR3I.EY. The BrXn and Spinal Cord. Thi Simctnn md 

Functiom of. Nuntnui lUuilnllDtit. U-so 

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CANFIBLD. HyEiene oftheSick-Roam. A Book [or Nunuand 

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BLODGETT, Dental Pathology. By Aukkt N. Blodoittt, 

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COPLIN. Manual of Pathology. Including BaclcTroIagy.Techolc 

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c6BL'EN'Ti£"'Maniiai'o. ,. . 

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'^rade ChemicIS; 

Beverage*' UieK 


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maceulical Pan 


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Bntish, Frtnch. G 

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yedinMedicine. nth Edition. >i(Km^>, (>.oo 


leal PtaBrmacy. 

nacy. W,th Wo 

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ROBINSON. LatiD Orammar of Pharmacy and 

3d Edition, With elaborate Vocabularia. 
8AYRE. Organic Materia Uedlca and Pharmacol 
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SCOVIL.L.B. The An of CompoundiDE. Second Edition, Ri 

STEW^ART. Corapend of Pharmacy. Based upon " REming 
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:dical Dia^nosia. A Manual of Clinical Methodi. 

PEN WICK. Medical DiacDoila. Gth Editli 

Cloth, %i.i 

:ry much Enlarged. 135 lirustrations. Cloth, (j.Jl 

MBMHINOER. DiagnoalabrtheUriDO. idEd. >4l11us.fioc 
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of P^nniylianli. lllus. jd Ed.. Improved and Enlarged. With 
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K1RKE. PtayBiology. (ijih Authorlnd Edition. Dark-Red Clotli.] 
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TYSON. Cell E 

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BUTLIN. Sutgtiy of Meliennnt Disoase. »cl K.liUon. Illu 


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*■!• I 




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SMITH. Abdoi 

Ih'AfedicalCDtleee.Chicago. 6>3 lUutlcaitoai, 
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I Sureary. Being a SyiMnuuii Description « 

al OpeialiDus. 314 Illul. 6lh Ed. a Vtdl. Clo., fio.oo 
gicBl Bmerginclii. Fifth Edition. Clolh.t1.75 
iurelul NurtiDE. Second Edition, Revised and 
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WALSHAM. Manual of Practical Surgery. 6<b Ed , Re- 
vised and Enlarged. Wilhi.oEogTavings. (j.oo 
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THROAT AND NOSE (sre also E.t). 

COHEN. The Throat and Voice. Illiu^irated. .«e 

HALL,. Disease! of the Nose and Throat. Tvo Colored 
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HOI.I.DPETER. Hay Fever. Its Successful Traalment. (..00 
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MACKENZIE. Pharmacopccia of the LoDdoB Hospital for 

lose, and Ear. A Clinieal 
,1 drswings. id Ed. »6.oa 
Considered Fhyiiologically. 

IRIDE. Dili 

. oftb 


mill colomJ Illus. from or 


ACTON. The Fuoctions aad Diaocders of the Reproduetiv* 
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ARMATAQE. The Veterionriin's Pocket Remembnocer. 

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BYFORD (H. T.). Manual of Qyoecology. Second Edition. 
ol"hi'ch'.^fn)m''oirginai'd'r"-i^E."' ' "' """"""^ "J^^ 
BVFORD (W. H.). DiBBaaea o[ Women. 4th Edition. jo« 


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Phyiician-in-Chief, Philadelpbia UoEpital, late DemoDitratoT ol 
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Siltb Edition, Revised and Improved. Same author u No. I. 

No. 4. BRUBAKBR. PHVSIOLOQY. Ninth Edition, with 
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. .J. ..__( ^ Physiolc^y, Jeflenon Medical 

Ca?<^. 'Ph ibi''d:1pbia ,'' 


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Gnlai^. 47 lUuHratlons. 
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ELLS. GYNECOLOGY. Second Erfnion. By Wm. 
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AND REFRACTION. Second Edition. IncludiDg Tnalmint 

M. GouiD, iio., and W.T Pyl», m.p, Wilil Fwmute, Glossary, 
Tubla, and III Illusmiion., lEVEial of -wlikh are Colored. 
□. g. KORWITZ. SURGERY, Uinor Sursery, and Bandm- 

Homit'z, B.s., il.D°|clini«fpro(™oro'f&Tn"o-"lJiiMrySu^ery 

and Venereal DJseajes in Jeffcnon Medical ColleB= i Surgeon 10 

Philadelpbia Hmpiul, etc. With g3 Formula and 71 Uluslratiou. 


Mik,°l*lDad, TluuH, ciie ^cre'tloni.elc. B^Hihrv Lufkahn, 
B.D., Profeswr of OiemlMry in Pennsylvania Cnllege of Denial 
Surgery and in ihc Woman's Medical College, PhiUd^phla. 

o. II. STEWART. PHARMACY. Fifth Edilinn, Based upon 
Prof. ReminElon's Teii-Book of PharmaCf. By F. E. Stewart, 
H.D., FH.G-.late Quii-Matter is Pbarmscy and Chemistry, Phila- 
delphia CoUese of Pharmacy; Lecturer at Jefferson Medical 
CoQ^e. Cucftilly revised Is accordance vith the new U. S. P, 

SIOLOGY. Illustrated. By Wh. R. Balluu, h.u., Professoi 
of Equine Anatomy at New Yotl: CoUege of Veterinary Surgeons: 
Physician b> Bellevue Dispensary, etc. 39 giaphic lllusiratrcai. 

a Section on Emeigenciei. Bv Gno. W. Warrsh, D.n. 
ol ainica] staff, Fennjylvania College of Dental Surgery. 
Edition. Colored Plate. By Makci/s P. HaTnaLO, 
urofDIieaiet of Children, Chicago Medical Calkge. 

PriM. ndi, Cloth, .80. Inlcrlcivcd, lor taking NolM. II,2B. 

le particidar wants of the slufleol I 

it aiepartr-' ' ■■- -"--- ■-- - -' ' - ' ■ 

Careful at 

_ there is 

a for eiory word. They 


Second Edition, 
Revised and Enlarged. 

790 Illustrations, of which many 
are in Colors. 

From The Medlcul Record, New York. 

■' The reproach that the English language can bonsi ot no 
treatije on anatomy deserving to Lie laaked witb the masteriy 
works of Heiile, LaschkK, HyttI, and others, is Cast laung 
its force. During the past few years several works of grtiX 
■ve api«ared, and aoiotig 'hese Morris's" Anaitoiny" 
estined to take first place in disputing the palm in 
cal fields »ith the Geiman classics. The nomeicla. 
lure, arraDgement, aod entire general character resemble 
strongly those of the aboie- mentioned handbooks, while in 
the beauty and profuseness of its illustrations it Eurpassei 
thern. . . . The ever-growiog popularity of the book 
wilb teachers and stuileDts is an index of its value, and il 
may safely be recommended to all iuterestcd." 

.•HaniUome Deacriptlve ClrcaUr, with 
Sample Pa|:caaiid Colored niuitralloa*, 
will be aent (rea upon ■ppllcatlan. 

Seventh Revised Edition. 


PEUTICS. Seventh Edition, Enlarged and Revised, A Haod- 
iiook, including the Physiu logical Action of Dnigi, Sfiecifil Tlierapeutics 

»of Disease, Oificial iitid Practical Pharmacy, Prescription Writing, etc. 
By Sam'l O. L. Potter, .m.a,, M.rt., Pnifeasor of the Principles and 
Pmclice o( Medicine and Clinical Medicine, College of Pbyaicians and 
Surgeons, San Francisco, etc. Octavo. 929 pages. Thumb Index. 

Clolli, tte/, fS.OO; Leatlier, nft, {6.00 

Thii edition coDtaina much new matarial uadcr the 

headlagi " AlburaiD." "Animal Exlracta," "Antltoxina." 

Dr. Pori'ltK has become well known as an able compiler by hlb Compeads 

of Anatomy and of Materia Medica, both of which have reached six editions. 

In [his booW, more elaborate ia its design, he has shown his literary abilities to 

much better advantage, and all who examine or use it will agree that lie has 

[itodiiced a work containing more correct information in a practical, concise 

ibmi than any other publication of the kind. The plan of the work is new, 

and its contents have been combined and arranged in such a way that il ofTerS 

a compact statement of the subject in hand. 

Part I. — Materia Mbdica and Therapeutics, the drugs being ananged 
in alphabetical order, with the synonym of each first; then the descrip^on of 
the plant, its preparations, Us antidotes and antagonists, physiological action, 
and, lastly, its Therapeulks. This part is preceded by a geneial Introduction 
and ft section on the classification of medicines as follows : Agents acting on 
the Nervous System, Organs of Sense, Resphaiion, Cu-culation, Digestive 
System, on Metabolism (including Restoratives, Alteratives, Astringents, 
AnUpyretics, Anliphlt^slics, ajid Antiperiodics, etc.). Agents acting upon 
Excretion, the Generative System, the Cutaneous Surfaces, Microbes and 
Ferments, and upon each other. 

Fart II.— Pharmacy and PuEHcmpnoN Writing. Written for the use 
of physicians who put up their own prescriptions. It includes — Weights and 
Measures, English and the Metric Systems. Specific Gravity and Volume. 
Prescriptious : Their principles and combinations; proper methods of writing 
them ; abbreviations used, etc. Stock solutions and preparations, such as a 
doctor should have to compound his own prescriptions. IncompatitHlily, 
Phannaceutical and Therapeutical. Liquid, Solid, and Ga-seous Eitempo- 
raneous Prescriptions. 

Part III.^-Special THEBAPEt;Tics, an alphabetical I.isl of Diseases— a 
real INDEX UK DISEASES— giving the drugs that have been found serviceable 
in each disease, and the authority recommending the use of each ; a very im- 
portant feature, as it gives an authoritative character that is unusual in works 
on Therapeutics, and displays an immense amount of research. 6<x> prescrip' 
tions are given in this part, many being over the names of eminent men. 

The Appendix contains lists Df*I.Btin words, phrases, and abbreviations, 
with their English equivalents, used in medicine. Genitive Case Endings, etc, 
36 FormulEe for Hypodermic Injections; a compariaon of lo Formulne of 
Chlorodyne 1 Fortnulce of prominent patent medicines; Poisons and their 
Antidotes; DifTerential Diagnosis; Notes nii Temperature in Disease ; Clinical 
Eiamination of Urine; Table of Specific Gravities and Volumes; Table 
showing the number of drops in a fluidrachm of vartcAK. Wojirfra ■Bs.&.'ftK '«'tv^»- 
' le fluidrachm in grains, und a la.b\e tor cotixet^'n^ ttsOtattwrnei ■«•&*<>= 

(»t one ni 

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