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Special attention is called to the Andover Publications, 
embracing, among others, some of the most valuable Com- 
mentaries, Grammars, and other* helps to Biblical Study 
published in this country. Great care is taken in the man- 
ufacture of the books to secure accuracy, clear type, good 
paper, and neat, strong binding. 

The Andover Publications will be sent by mail, well 
protected and post-paid, on receipt of the prices affixed. 
To Clergymen and Theological Students a reduction of 
twenty per cent from tliese prices, will be made on all books 
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(Descriptive Catalogues furnished gratis to all applicants. 



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Professor of Theology in the University of Beme. Translated from the 

German [by Bev. Albert H. Newman]. With additional Notes and foil 

Indexes. Grown 8yo. pp. 413. $2.26 

" It is a thoroufjjhly scientitic and almost exhaustive treatise on the whole subject i 

It is in three parts : I. The General Principles of Hermeneutics ; II. The Singlo! 

Operations of the Scripture Interpreter ; III. The Religious Understanding I 

Our Author adopts the grammatico-historical method, and rightly holds that our 
dogmatic preconceptions must not be the standard of an interpretation of Scripture. 
It is with us a fundamental projMJsition that we are to interpret the Holy Scripture 
upon the same grammatical, historical, and logical principles on which we interpret 
any other document, never forgetting, however, that he will with such aid most 
deeply penetrate into their import whose soul is illumined by the Holy Spirit. To 
learn how most wisely and accurately to do this, the student can have no better 
guide than Dr. Immer's erudite volume. We heartily commend it to our youn 
ministers in particular, in the belief that in mastering it they will greatly enric' 
their teachings of the sacred word." — Methodist Quarterly Review, 



By Geo. L. Gary, of the Meadville Theol. Sem. 12mo. pp. 72. 76 cts. 

This work is designed for the use of those persons who, thong. Teviously un- 
acquainted with the Greek language, would nevertheless be glad to ren^' the New 
Testament in its original tongue. It contains what is absolutely necessary for the 
understanding of the New Testament Greek. Prior to publication, these lessons 
have been used with several classes In the Meadville Theological School, and seem 
to have answered the purpose for which they were designed. Those familiar with 
them have been able to proceed at once (with the assistance of some good N. T. 
Lexicon and Buttmann's Grammar of the N. T. Greek, — or Winer's) to the 
reading of the easier portions of the New Testament. 


Lexicon to the Old Testament ; with an English-Hebrew Index. By 
Benjamin Davies, FlvD., LLD. Garefnlly Bevised, with a Goncise 
Statement of the Principles of Hebrew Grammar. By Edward 0. 
Mitchell, D.D. 8yo. Gloth, $4.25 ; Morocco backs. $4.50. 

In a critical notice of the first edition, made for an American Journal in 1872, 
bj the present editor, it was remarked : 

" It IS in many respects an improvement upon either of the Lexicons now in use. 
Dr. Davies modestly calls himself the editor of the work, but it is anything hut a 
mere revision or compilation. Nearly ever^ page l»cars evidence of original thought 
and independent investigation, and many improvements have l)cen made upon the . 
work of previous lexicographers in the handling of roots and derivatives. 

** While the Lexicons of Gcsenins and Fiirst have been made the chief basis, — 
as they must Ikj for any genuine dvanee in this direction, — the definitions havo 
all l>ecn re-written and condensed without Iwing abridged, so as to make them 
more convenient for rofcrcnce, and the whole work less bulky and expensive." 

Practical use of the Lexicon for six years since, and the work of revision, now 
completed, — m of which every article has been compared with Tregol- 
Ics's edition of Gcsenins, — has served only to confirm the judgment then expressed. 
So far from being an abridgment, the jn-esent edition will be found to contain oror a 
thotisand more Ilcbrew words or ff/rms than appear in TregfJles's or Roln'nson*s Gesenius, 
besides incorporating into the body of the work all the grammatical forms coutained 
in Kobinson's Analytical Appendix. 


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CoPYRIO.HT, A. D. 1879, 
By W. F. draper. 

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Ever since the first edition of Dr. Davics's Hebrew Lexicon 
appeared in England, it has been the wish of many Hebrew 
teachers that it might be made accessible to American stu- 
dents. The accuracy and completeness which characterize 
the work, and the convenient and attractive form in which it 
was issued, were a decided improvement upon the features 
of existing Hebrew lexicons. Unfortunately, however, the 
cost of importation was so great as to put the price of the 
book in this country beyond a fair market value for a work 
of this size, and thus beyond the reach of ordinary students. 

Shortly after the death of the lamented author, and while 
the present editor was performing temporary service as 
teacher in his place at Regent's Park College, the English 
publishers requested him to undertake the care of a new 
edition. Arrangements were also made to issue the work 
simultaneously in this country, so that the full benefits of 
the latest revision could be presented to the American public 
at a moderate cost. 

The duty of 8iy:)crvising the edition was cheerfully under- 
taken, both out of regard for the work, and especially as a 
tribute of respect to a reverend friend, whose ripest years had 
been given to its production ; but it was with little concep- 
tion either of the labor or of the pleasure which would be in- 

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volved in the undertaking. It soon became evident that to 
do justice to the real merits of the Lexicon, nothing less 
than a thorough revision, and a careful collation with the 
standard authorities would suffice ; the result of which has 
been the correction of several hundred errors and the^ ad- 
dition of nearly a hundred new words or forms. 

Yet, on the other hand, every day's labor bestowed upon it 
has given new occasion to admire the conscientious fidelity 
with which Dr. Davies made use of the materials at his hand, 
and the accuracy as well as breadth of scholarship evinced in 
his treatment of them. 

In a critical notice of the first edition, made for an Ameri- 
can Journal in 1872, by the present editor, it was remarked: 

" It is in many respecta an improvement upon either of the Lexi- 
cons now in use. Dr. Davies modestly calls himself the editor of the 
work, but it is anything but a mere revision or compilation. Nearly 
every page bears evidence of original thought and independent in- 
vestigation, and many improvements have been made upon the work 
of previous lexicographers in the handling of roots and derivatives. 

" While the Lexicons of Gesenius and Fiirst have been made the 
chief basis, — as they must be for any genuine advance in this direc- 
tion, — the definitions have all been re-written and condensed with- 
out being abridged, so as to make them more convenient for refer- 
ence, and the whole work less bulky and expensive." 

Practical use of the Lexicon for six years since, and the 
work of revision, now completed, — m the course of which 
every article has been compared with Tregelles's edition of 
Gesenius, — has served only to confirm th^ judgment then 
expressed. So far from being an abridgment, 7Ae present 
edition will be found to contain over a tfwusand more Hebrew 
words or forms than appear in Tregelles^s or Robinson^s 
Gesenius^ besides incorporating into the body of the work all 

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the grammatical forms contained in Robinson's Analytical 

Judgments may differ in regard tp the wisdom of certain 
original suggestions of Dr. Davies in the department of 
comparative philology, but they were offered by him as 
tentative merely, and do not affect the definitions. 

It has been thought desirable also to preface the work with 
some introductoiy notes upon the elements of the Hebrew 
language. Experience proves that it is better, if possible, 
for pupils to take the Bible and lexicon in hand at once, and 
acquire the habit of using them, instead of spending time 
upon an intermediate lesson-book and vocabulary. They are 
thus sooner prepared for an intelligent use of the grammar 
and a conscious mastery of the language. 

There is gratifying evidence that the use of Hebrew as a 
college study, and for purposes of comparative philology, is 
increasing in this country, as well as in England. There is 
also a growing interest in all departments of Old Testament 
interpretation, through the systematizing of Bible-school work. 
English literature is becoming enriched with critical and exe- 
getical works based upon the Hebrew text, and intelligent 
laymen are beginning to ask for helps to the profitable use 
of them. The importance of some knowledge of Hebrew, 
even to an ordinary reader of Scripture, is beginning to be 
appreciated ; but it is not generally known that the language, 
in its essential elements, is much simpler than Greek or 
Latin ; and, considering its limited vocabulary, is more easily 
mastered than many modern languages. 

It is to be hoped that the day is not far distant when this 
ancient language will take its place at the beginning, rather 
than at the end, of a course of linguistic studies, and when all 

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who can use the Greek Testament, or understand commen- 
taries upon it, will be equally familiar with the simple and 
majestic tongue which conveys to us the greater portion of 
the oracles of God. 

As a contribution towards such a result, this " compen- 
dious and complete Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon," already 
taking a foremost rank in England, is now placed within the 
reach of the American public. 

£. C* M* 

UHZYXBsrrr Squabs, Chioaqo. 

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Davies's Hebrew Lexicon lias been compiled witli special 
reference to the wants of learners, and for this pui'pose will 
be found to contain many more explanations of difficult 
forms than appear in ordinary lexicons. 

In order still further to adapt the work to this end, a con- 
cise statement of the principles or elements of the language 
is now prefixed, designed especially for the use of teachers. 

Pupils who undertake to master a new tongue, written in 
an unfamiliar character, need to be approached at first with 
as few words as possible, that their way may not be blinded 
by excess of light. If a brief outline of the principles can 
once be thoroughly memorized and applied in practice until 
some facility in translating is acquired, the next step to the 
details of etymology and syntax will be comparatively easy. 

The notes here appended are the result of an experience 
of fifteen years in teaching Hebrew to beginners. They are 
believed to embrace all that is essential for the student to 
commit to memory in his first attempt to read the language. 

If the teacher will see that these formulas are perfectly 
familiar and practically understood, and will give a thorough 
drill in the paradigms of verbal forms and in the work of 
translation, he will find the process of instruction greatly 
simplified. (ix) 

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Every pupil should have a copy of the grammar of Gese- 
nius ^ or Green ^ for occasional feference, and after some 
facility in reading has been acquired the whole grammar 
should be thoroughly reviewed. To facilitate this work, 
references are made from the notes to the fuller discussion 
of principles in each of those grammars. In cases where the 
statements in the notes are not exhaustively complete or 
miimtely accurate, on account of the brevity here aimed at, 
the student will find the apparent error corrected in the 
larger grammar. 

1 Student's Hebrew Grammar. From the 21 st German edition of Gesenius's 
Hebrew Grammar, as specially prepared and improved by E. Roediger, Ph.D., 
D.D. Translated by B. Davies, LL.D. (3d copyright edition). London. 1876. 

* A Grammar of the Hebrew Language. By W. H. Green, D.D. (3d edition). 
New York. 1876. 

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I. CONSOirilfTS. (Gesenius, §§ 5, 6, 80 Rem. 1. Green, $§ 8-8.) 

The Hebrew alphabet consists of twenty-two consonants, 
of which six are aspiratbs, viz. n, B, D, 1, 3, 2, called 
TiBS ^33 (B'ghadh KpTioUh) ; four are gutturals, viz. 
y, n, n, ft^, called ynJIfi^ (Jkakha); and four are QUi- 
ESCENTS, or vowel letters, viz. *^, 1, n, ft^, called ^'\'n^ 
(Eh^). "'"'''' 

For parposes of etymology the alphabet is also divided into 
eleven radicals and eleven serviles, the latter of which are found 
in the expression absi ni^s-'ir.'^K (Ethan, Moses, and Caleb). 

n. TOWELS. (Ges. §§ 7-9. Gr. §§ 10-15.) 

There are nine vowel signs, representing five long and 
five short sounds, one Q serving a double use. 


8H0BT. t 


(d as in 
* a as in 

laWy or 


a as in mat 
i met 





t pin 


ior- d 
ilor- tJ 






6 not 
& put 

m. SYLLABLES. (Ges. § 26. Gr. § 18.) 

The ideal Hebrew syllable is composed of three measures 
of quantity, of which a consonant forms one, a short vowel 
one, and a long vowel two. 

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Every syllable begins with a consonant. If it ends with a conso- 
nant it is said to be " closed," and takes a short vowel. An open 
syllable consists of a consonant and a long vowel. 

Exceptions. — (1) Accents often reverse the rule, permitting the oc- 
currence of short vowels in open, and long vowels in closed syllables. 

(2) Quiescents ("^'fifi^) with ... are considered equivalent to long voweb. 

(3) The conjunction *) (and) sometimes stands alone, as :i, at the 
beginning of words. 

IV. SH'YA. (Ges. §§ 10 ; 26, 4 ; 22, 8. Gr. §§ 16 ; 20.) 
jco emptiness (.), indicates the intentional omission of the 

vowel. The consonant over it must be articulated alone, 

or joined with a preceding vowel. 

Composite Sh'va, made by adding to ShVa one of the short 

vowels, is an arrangement to accommodate the gutturals, which 

have no articulate sound. It is not reckoned as a vowel. 

y. DAGHESH AND MAPPiq. (Ges. §§12, 13, 20, 21. Gr.§§ 21-25.) 
e?? a dot (•) in the bosom of a letter, hardens aspirates, 

doubles them when euphony requires, and doubles all other 

consonants. ^ 

When found in final n , however, the dot is called p^^DTS bringing 

out or uttering, and merely denotes that the letter is used as a 

consonant. (Ges. § 14. Gr. § 26.) 

The dot which is placed over d and to is called a diacritic point. 

(Ges: § 6, 2 n. B. 2. Gr. § 3, 1.) 

Tl. METHEGH. (Ges. § 16. Gr. §§ 44, 45.) 

ana a bridle (,), a secondary accent, is given to all open 
syllables which are followed by Sh'va. 

It thus helps to determine doubtful syllables. It is usually found 
on the second syllable before the tone. 

§ 19, 2.) 

7^5 and r)ii3n yr;? . The sign ^ is Qamets in all accented 
syllables and in all open syllables. In a closed syllable 
unaccented it is Qamets-Hhatuph {hady Qaraeta). 

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Exception. — When followed by a guttural with its own sign, viz* 
Hhateph-Qamets or Qamets-Hhatuph {r: or t) it is Qamets-Hhatuph 
though found in an open syllable and with Methegh. 

Tm. PATTAHH FUBTITE. (Ges. § 8, 2. Gr.§17). 

nriB PattahJi (.) under final 5, n, n is uttered hastily before 
the consonant, like tlie English e in fire. 

This as well as composite ShVa is not reddened in f:>rmiDg the 

IX. DEFINITIONS. (Ges. §§ 14, 16, 17. Gr. §§ 2/, 48, 46-48, 64, 
82, 97, 98, 219, 229, 230, 283.) 

1. Maqqeph. (Ges. § 16, 1. Gr. § 48.) 

ti^-q connection (-) unites words so as to make one word 
with regard to tone and pronunciation. 

2. Raphe. (Ges. § 14, 2. Gr. § 27.) 

^7 «q/2 (-) is the opposite of Daghesh, as ^^ (Ps. cl. 4) 
in place of 355 (Job xxx. 31). It rarely occurs. 

3« Masorah. (Ges. § 3, 2. Gr. § 46.) 

rnSoo tradition is a collection of remarks upon the text 
by Jewish Rabbins, who are hence called Masorites. 

4. K'thibh and 4}'ri. (Ges. § 17. Gr. §§ 44-48.) 

a"«ra) written ; a term used by the Masorites to describe a 
reading in the text. 

■^I? read; a term applied to corrections of the text, made 
by placing the proper consonants or vowels in {he margin. 

6. Pretonlo Towel. (Ges. § 26, 3. Gr. § 64, 2 ; 82, 1.) 

A term applied by some Grammarians to the long vowel 
which comes before the tone-syllable, and which may be 
omitted upon the shifting forward of the tone. 

6. n Deflnite, InterrogatiTe, Local, and Paragogic. (Ges. §§ 85, 
37, 90. Gr. §§ 219, 229, 230, 283, 284.) 

•(1) Definite. The consonant n with Pattahh, prefixed to 
a noun with Daghesh, is called n definite, and corresponds to 
the definite article the. 

A prefixed preposition usually elides the n , and takes its pointing. 

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(2) Interrogative. When prefixed n has .. it indicates in- 
terrogation, and is called ^ interrogative. 

Before gutturals or initial ShVa it sometimes takes full _. 

(3) Feminine and local, n affixed mih accented ^ denotes 
the feminine gender (See XT.) ; but without the accent it 
sometimes indicates tendency towards a place, and is called 
n directive or local. 

(4) Paragogic. To certain verbal forms n is affixed as a 
a modifier of the sense, and is then called n paragogic. 
(See XX.) 


§ 60, 4.) 

1. As the gutturals and n cannot be doubled, a preceding 
short vowel is usually lengthened. 

n and n , however, sometimes retain the preceding short vowel, 
and are then said to have Daghesh-forte implidtum. 

2. They prefer Pattahh. 

Other vowels preceding them are frequently changed to Pattahh. 
(Ges. § 22, 2 a. Gr. § 60, 1.) 

8. They take composite instead of simple Sh'va. (Ges. 
§ 22, 3. Gr. § 60, 3.) 

4. They take Pattahh furtive. ( Ges. § 22, 2 b. Gr. 
§ 60, 2.) 

XI. ACCENTS. (Ges. §15. Gr. §§ 28-42.) 

The relation which each word in a sentence bears to the 
rest is marked by signs called disjunctive and conjunctive 
respectively, according as separation or connection, with 
reference to the following word, is indicated. 

These signs are usually placed over or under the consonant ito 
which the tone vowel belongs, and thus serve as accents. 

Exceptions. — Two of these signs, (^) D^r^^ i/^thibh and ( ) Hd^V*? 
rti*p t'ltsha g'dholali^ are placed invariably upon the first letter of the 

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word; and four of them, (*) itnbho s'ghoUa, (* ) «|D*Jt zarqOy ("*) &OOB 
pashta, and ( ) f^JlSp K^'^^P^ Vlisha q'tannak, upon tbe last letter, irre- 
spective of tlie tone. Tliese accents are therefore called prepositives and 

N.B. — The pause accents, especially (^) p^sp siUuq and (^) 
rorH athnahh (Ges. § 29, 4. Gr. §§ 64, 65), 

1. Lengthen short vowels. 

2. Restore dropped vowels. 

3. Change Sh'va to Seghol. 

4. Change composite ShVa into its long vowel. 


Personal Pronouns (Ges. Tables rv, v and § 32. Gr. § 71). 

The Relative, Demonstrative, and Interrogative Pronouns 
are : 

^XD^ wktchj that, who, com. sing, and pi. (sometimes abbreviated 

thus, is). 
ni this, that, masc. sing. 
TKT this, that, fern. sing. 
(^1 thts^ that, com. sing.) 
rt» these, com. pi. 
■na whof what person J 
rra which ? or what f when the first radical in the next word is 


a guttural. 
"Tto which ? or what ? when the first radical in the next word is 
not a guttural, with Daghesh in the next letter after the 
Maqqeph. Sometimes also rro . 

xn. PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. (Ges. Tables pp. iv, v and § S3. 

Or. §§ 72, 220, 239.) 

The sign of the definite object nn is combined with the 
pronominal suffixes thus : 

ACCUS. l«t pers. 2d pers. m. 2d pers. f. Sd pera. m. 8d pcrs. f. 

Sing. Tik me tjnk thee ^rk thee irk him nnk her 

Plur. ^5rk us dshk you (l^^K t/ou) crk them irk them 
The sufiixes DS, "jS, on, and in, are called grave, and always 

take the tone. Pretonic Qamets is therefore usually given to the 

prefixed preposition. (Ges. § 103. Gr. § 233.) 

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XIY. NOUNS, (Gee. §§ 70-86. Gr. §§ 181-194.) 

Nouns are of four classes, according as they are formed 
from their triliteral root either by, 

1. Yocalization, whose form is, 

(1) Monosyllabic, including Segholates. (Embodying the simple 
substantive idea.) 

(2) Dissyllabic, with the second vowel unchangeable. (Embody- 
ing adjectives or nouns of quality.) 

(3) Dissyllabic, with the first vowel unchangeable. (Embodying 
participles and participial nouns.) 

2. BedaplicatloD) by doubling the middle radical of 1 (2). 
(Embodying intensive adjectives, abstracts, or diminutives.) 

8. Prefixing^ fi^, o? n, or \ (Embodying verbal nouns, describing 
the agent, place, time, quality, or object, and proper names derived 

4. Affixingr 3 or \ (Embodying denominatives, derivative adjec- 
tives, and abstract substantives.) 

XT. GENDER AND NUMBER. (Ges. §§ 80, 87, 88. Gr. §§ 199- 

There are two genders, of which, in the singular, the 

feminine is distinguished by the termination n- or n-. 

(Ges. § 80. Gr. §§ 19G-198.) In the plural the masculino 

usually takes d^ and the feminine ni. (Ges. § 87. Gr. 

199-201.) The dual, which is used only of couples or pairs, 

takes D^r in both genders. (Ges. § 88. Gr. §§ 202-203.) 

XTI. CHANGES IN FORM. (Ges. § 92. Gr. § 204.) 

Changes produced by adding the terminations of gender 

and number. 

1. When added to a closed final syllable, 

(1) The feminine n converts the syllable into a Segholate. 
(Gr. § 205.) 

(2) The feminine h- , the plural D"^ or ni , and the dual D"^ 
change no vowel in the final syllable, except .. , which is sometimes 
rejected. (Gr. §§ 206-207.) The final consonant, however, is some- 

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times doubled. (Gr. §§ 93, 94.) Segholates revert to their original 
form, and in the dual and plural usually take pretonic ^ . In the 
dual n^ becomes rv-. (Ges. § 95. Gr. § 208.) 

2. When added to an open final syllable rw is rejected. Other 
vowels are retained. (Gr. § 203.) 

8. In the penultimate ^ and .. are rejected, except from most 
nouns terminatiug in rw. (Gr. 210.) 

XYH. CONSTRUCT STATE. (Ges. § 89. Or. §§ 212-21G.) 

Construct state is a term which describes the condition 
of a noun when modified by the one following it. This state 
produces a contraction of form, as follows : 

1. The feminine rv- becomes r^ ; the dual D'^^ and the plural 
fi^ become >;. 

2. In a closed final syllable ^ is shortened to _ ; so is .. when 
preceded by pretonic ^. 

3. In an open fmal syUable rw becomes rv . 

4. Pretonic ^ and .. are rejected; a short vowel being substi- 
tuted if necessary. 

N.B. — The Construct form is taken by feminine nouns 
before light suflBxes, and by all nouns before grave suffixes. 

Other suffix modifications correspond with those produced by the 
plural or dual terminations. (Ges. § 91. Gr. §§ 220-222.) 

XTin. YEBBS. (Ges. § 41. Or. §§ 81, 107.) 

Verbs have three radicals, named, 1. Pe (d), 2. Ayin (9)^ 


3. Lamedh (b), respectively, from the old form brjB to do. 
They are divided into four classes : 

1. Regular. These have no weak or doubled radical. 

2. GatturaL These have an ::ryn^ for their first (D), second (r), 
or third (b) radical. 

%• Contract. These double their second radical (viz. ^t or 9?). 

4. Qnleseeiit. These have a vowel letter in the root, making "^D , 
•©jor ''S, Kb, and nb. 

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XIX. CONJUGATIONS. (Ges. §§ 39, 40. Gr. §§ 76-85.) 
Verbs have four species or conjugations, viz. 

Active. Passlre. \ 

1. Simple. ^ Qal. i?B3 Niphal. 

2. Intensive. Virs Piel. lirQ Pual. 
8. Causative. i>'^?Bn Hiphil. iytT^ Hophal. 
4. Reflexive. ^5?rn Hithpael. 

Verbs have three moods — Indicative, Infinitive, and Im- 
perative ; and two tenses — Past ^or perfect), and Future 
(or imperfect). Qal has two participles (active and passive) 
the others one. 

Tlie Absolute Infinitive is formed by changing the last 
vowel to i , except in Hiphil and Hophal, where it becomes .. . 
In the penult of Piel and Hiphil the "^ becomes . . 

Exception. — A prosthetic rt is pixjfixed to the Niphal, and 9 becomes 
assimilated by Daghesh-forte, with pretonic y under the first radical. 

The Construct Infinitive is formed from the absolute , in 
the Qal by rejecting pretonic ^ , in the Niphal by changing 
the last vowel to .. , and in the other forms by restoring the 
last vowel of the past (or perfect) tense. 

XX. MODIFICATIONS OF VERBS. (Ges. §§ 48, 49, 58, 59. Gr. 


1. Paragogric t^7 is appended to the Ist and 3d persons future 
to express desire, and to the masc. sing, imperative to modify into 
desire. (Ges. § 48, 1-3. Gr. §§ 97, 1 ; 98, 1.) 

2. Jussive Fatnre is a modification of the 2d and 3d persons 
future to express wish or command. It changes the form of the 
regular verb only in the Hiphil, where V becomes .. . (Ges. § 48, 4. 
Gr. § 97, 2.) 

8. 1 Conversive is prefixed to the past tense with Shva, and 
to the future with Pattahh Daghesh, to indicate conformity to the 
tense of some preceding verb or expression. (Ges. § 49. Gr. §§ 
99, 100.) 

Digitized by 



4. Verbal Suffixes are joined directly to those forms which end 
in a vowel. If there be a final consonant it usaally takes _ or ^ in 
the pret., and or .. in the future and imperative, except before 
the grave suffixes :] , C3 , 'p . Emphatic and pausal forms take also 
3 epenthetic 

Exception. — In the stem of Qal past the first vowel is rejected, and 
the second vowel restored or lengthened. Other forms suffer no change, 
except that a few which are uninflected reject or shorten their second 
vowel. (Ges. §§ 58, 59. Gr. § 101.) 

XXI. USE OF TENSES. (Ges. §§ 125-127, 134. Gr. §§ 262-266.) 

The past (or perfect) tense is used in all cases where the Greek 
would employ the aorist, perfect, pluperfect, or future perfect, in 
either mood. It also represents the present when regarded as a 
continuation of the past, or as a statement of general truth. (Ges. 
§ 126. Gr. § 262.) 

The future (or imperfect) tense also represents general truth, or 
present truth extending into the future, and hence habitual acts or 
states. (Ges. § 127. Gr. § 263.) 

The idea of our present tense is most commonly expressed by 
the active participles, whilst the passive participles correspond to 
the Greek perfect passive participle, and the Latin participle in 
-ndus. (Gea. § 134. (jr. § 266.) 


To find the triliteral root of a verbal form, reject the ser- 
viles, and there will remain one (1), two (2), or three (3) 
radicals. In case of, 

(1) Prefix 2 (or •') and affix h; e.g. i:;?. 

(2) Kthe first radical has Daghesh, prefix a (or •») ; e.g. «5ft (n^). 
If the second radical has Daghesh, double it ; e.g. siab . 

If neither radical has Daghesh, insert i (or ■») ; e.g. M|? . 
If ^ precedes, change it to '' ; e.g. y'^nin . 
If •< succeeds, change it to n ; e.g. ''ian . 

(3) These constitute the root- 

Digitized by 





§§ 100-103. Gr. §§ 283, 235-238.) 


•JJH surely^ only^ but. 
•'ba without, not, 
CBK except, no more, 
^^i alone, 

irws now, 

t - 

»b not. 

by upon, 

D9 with, 

nnn under, 

^i^\ in ike presence, 

^^'Q since, 

» — 

"pa between, 
15a around, for. 

(Ges. pp. IV, V and 

DD /Acre. 

"lis? yc^. 

iicn , iicrK yesterday, 

hji^^nx afterward, 

i^a opposite, 
•1:15 before, 
•'baa without, 

• s • 

*»nx '»nnH q/^cr, behind, 

bxx beside, by, 
*>5a according to. 

The prepositions a tn, <o, /(?r, against, a ZtX^, cw, b to, ^br, and 
S /rom, wiore than, by, etc. can be joined with pronominal suffixes. 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 


Digitized by 









B. D. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Ihis work may be regarded as new, though not claiming 
to be original. Experts will find on every page some fresh- 
ness, indicating a measure of independence and of endeavour 
after progress, not however in a dogmatic but in a tentative 

The irregular and the harder forms of words will be found 
here placed in alphabetical order in the body of the Lexicon, 
and not (as usual) put by themselves at the end. In explanation 
of these forms and also of many diffictdties pertaining to 
the syntax, frequent and fitting references are made to the 
Student's Hebrew Grammar or Roediger's Gesenius, pub. by 
Asher & Co., London. 

In the treatment of the letters (e. g. Hi n and ^), much 
has been done more fiilly to indicate and illustrate their 
affinities and interchanges, and also their formative uses or their 
e£fect in word-building (cf. Gram. § 81, Bern. 1). Some of 
these letter-changeft (e. g. "l^^), though rare in Semitic, as 
elsewhere, and therefore open to some doubt, may, however, 
be favoured by analogy in other tongues (cf. E. dairy -> F. 
laiterie «= L. lacteria, E. day - Irish lia « W. dy^ = L. dies. 
Sans, dasan » lasan « L. decern — Uxa « Lithuanian -iUca 
in dwylika « SocoSexa), and especially by the fact (so often 
overlooked), that the letters in question may really be both of 
the same class, for both *! and b are either dentals or linguals 

Digitized by 


— VI — 

(see Gram. § 6, 4, c), as also T and ^ are both linguals or 
X)alatal8, and therefore not unlikely to pass the one for the 
other, as in pta = pna. 

In the handling of roots and derivatiyes (see Gram. §§ 38 
and 81), and especially of those that seem to have more than 
three radical letters (see Gram. § 30, 3), sundry improve- 
ments have been attempted, e. g. njlj III, by^ I,tW?'5, "jab II, 
rnj, bfcj n, Tm?, no? n, a^jB, ng, «i^p, ba^, insto, trnt, 
najnij, nt'^a'n, ptron, n'^^iJiO, ^'^fijo, n^:©, nw^7p«, tnn^, 
TOari. — It will be noticed that many roots are here surmised 
to be mimetic (else onomatopoetic, see Gram. § 1, 4), e. g. 
nn« IV, nb 2, icab, O^O II, b?« U, though they have not been 
so reg$urded by others, and though our Sanskritists may deem 
it undignified or unscientific to allow words to have such an 
origin, and hence must needs, for instance, connect E. cow 
with Sans, gd (to go) and not with Sans, ghu^ which is prob. 
mimetic and akin to n75 (which see) to low, Arab. ^, Syr. 
1^, ulo, 1^*; comp. also Sans, kaukalis (r. hich to sound), 
x6xxo6, x6xxi>, xod?, L. cuculits, cucurio, codxo, E. cuckoo, cock, 
quack, W. gog, gwccw, Gaelic k&ach, Manks kivag, which are 
all mimetic. 

As the Assyrian tongue is now allowed to be Semitic 
(see Gram. § 1, 2) t, various words (e. g. a'^^njo, liano, noxba) 
are here tentatively traced to that source, rather than to the 
usual Sanskrit or Persian. 

Much attention is, also given to the affiilities and analogies 
between words, in different forms and of various dialects or 

* See Prof. Key's Estimate of the Sanskrit Language as the Basis 
of Liuguistio Science, in Philological Society's Transactions for 1862 — 3, 
pp. 113—160. 

t See also Dr. Schrader's exhanstive and conclusive article on the 
Assyrian Inscriptidns and Language, in the Zeitschriffc der Beutschei) 
Horgenl&ndischen Gesellschaft, 1872, pp. 1—382; see Gram. p. 2, Note^. 

Digitized by 


— m — 

languages (e. g. ah, Dh, njnb, S|92$, '^?^); for there is now 
happily a growing conviction, that no tongue can be learned 
with proper interest and profit without paying heed to compara- 
tive philology. Even English is of late beginning to be studied 
in this more excellent way, owing largely, if not chiefly, to 
the labours of Germans and Americans. 

A work of this sort has for many years seemed to me 
to be needed; and at last, after vainly urging others to do 
it, I committed myself to the task, finding encouragement 
from Dr. Payne Smith, the Dean of Canterbury, from Dr. 
Gotch, President of Bristol Baptist College, from my old 
American friend Dr. Hackett, Professor of Biblical Litera- 
ture in Rochester Theological Seminary, N. Y. State, and 
from Dr. W. Wright, Professor of Arabic in the University 
of Cambridge, who was often consulted with advantage. 

As however my health was impaired and I had not much 
spare time for giving effect to my plan, I was glad, in preparing 
the work for the press and carrying it through, to have ex- 
cellent help from two good friends, F. Bosworth,M. A. and 
A. J. Towell, both of whom, when theological students, were 
among the foremost in my classes, showing uncommon taste 
and aptness for languages, but especially for Biblical scholar- 
ship. The former gave his friendly aid in doing the letter 2- 
The latter did admirable service in preparing most of the 
other letters and in revising every sheet as it passed through 
the press. 

For valuable hints or words of encouragement I feel in- 
debted to a number of learned Hebraists and other orientalists, 
both at home and abroad. Special thanks are due to Dr. 
Johannes Eoediger, Assistant Librarian*) to the University of 
Leipsic for his aid in connection with the press. 

*) Now [1875] Librarian to the University of Breslau. 


Digitized by ' 

— vin — 

Credit is jusfly accorded to the publishers and to the 
printing-office for so well carrying out my reqnirementSy in 
regard to the types and the general style of the book, which 
win praise from alL 

If it please God that this Lexicon, notwithstanding its 
many shortcomings, shall answer the end by really aiding 
students to gain a good knowledge of the Old. Test. Scriptures 
in the original tongues, the coveted reward of my labour will 
have been youchsafed. 

London, October^ 1871. 


Digitized by 



Ubeat pains haye been taken to make this work, as 
now issued, still more worthy of the favorable reception it 
has met with, as shown by the ready sale of the first edition. — 
The English-Hebrew Index, now added as a help to com- 
position in the sacred tongue, has been carefully prepared by 
T. G. Booke, B. A. Lond., one of the chiefest among my old 
students and beloved as a son. — I am indebted to various 
friends for useful hints^ especially to Fro£ A B. Davidson, 
D.D., of the Free Church College, Edinburgh, and also to 
J. Frederick Smith, the translator of Ewald's Introductory 
Hebr. Grammar, published by Asher & Co., London, 1870. 

July, 1875. B. D. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



*^* Ck>ntractioii8 of Heb. words are often made by using simply the 
first letter with a stroke, e. g. 'b for ^Atf, a for nro, '"n for "na^, see Gram. § 5, 4. 
The proper accent of each word is here marked under it by (-;-) e. g. y^ 
when it does not fell on the last syllable , where it usually does (see Gram. 
§15, 2); but Mkt?i(^h (being only a subsidiary accent) is not often indicated, 
but left to the student to supply, according to Gram, § 16, 2 and Bem. 
— The pause accent (see Gram. § 29, 4) is here mostly marked by (— ) 

def. , definite y a form of Chald. words,, 
called emphatie in many Grammari. 

dem^ demonstr., demonstrative. 

denom.. denominative. 

diff., different. 

disj., dlsjunot., disjunctive. 

Dor., Doric. 

da., dual. 

E., Bngl., English. 

ed., edition. 

e. g. (exempli gratia), for example^ 

Egypt., Egyptian. 

eUipt., eUiptical. 

epic, epicene. 

epenth., epenthetic 

eip., especially. 

Eth., Ethiop., Sthiopie. 

Ethpa., Ethpa*al. 

etym., etymology. 

enphon., euphonic. 

f., fern., feminine. 

fin., finite. 

format., formative. 

P., Pr., French. 

flg., figurative, figuratively. 

fir., ^om. 

fut~ future, called imperfect in E5diger*»' 
Gesenius, see 8tadent*8 Heb. Gram^ 
S 40, Note. 

6., Ger^ German, 

Gael., Gaelic. 

gen., generally. 

gen„ genit., genitive. 

gend., gender. 

gent., gentil., gentMc, see Gram, f 8S, 9, 6. 

Gram. J StudenVs Hebrew Grammar i. e. 
B(BJ{ger*B Oesenins, 91 st edition 
translated by Dr. Darles, pablishodi 
by Asher A Co., London. 

Gr., GreeJt. 

Heb., Bebreffi, 

Hiph., HiphHl. 

Hith., Hithp., Bii3kpa*el. 

Hithpal., Hithpal^el. 

Hittapalp., mthpoApel. 

Hithpo., Hithpol., mthpolel. 

Hoph., HopVal. 

Hotbp., Hothpa., Biothpa*el. 

hyperb., hyperholkdl. 

abbrer., abbreviation. 
abs., absoL, absolute. 
abst., abstr., abstract, 
ace., aceuaatleve. 
ace. to, according to, 
act, active. 
adj., adjective, 
adT., adverb. 
afform., afformative, 
Amer. Ind., American Indian, 
Aph^ Aph*el. 

%pi^SkVoe., apocopated, also called jussive, 
~ see Gram. | 48, 4. ^ - , ^, 

Apoc^ Apocalypse, Book of fterelation. 
»Pp7*PPO«7 «J>PO»<t*>«» ■•• ®'*°*- 8 ^^^' 
Arab., AroMc. . . o ,, 

Aram., Aram«an, see Gram, i 1, »| ii. 
App., Appendix. 
Armen., Arwenton. 
ait., article, 
Aasyr., Assyrian, 
Beng., Bengali. 
Bret^ Breton. 

e., const., oonstr., eon«truee; 
card., cardinal. 

Cant., Ointieietf, Book of Solomon's Song, 
ef., confer, i. e. compare or consult. 
Cbu, Chald., OAaldee. 
eobort., cohortative. 
cog., eogntus. 
colL, collect., collective. 
com., oomm., common gender, 
comp., compare. 
coner., concrete. 
eond., eondlCtonal. 

eon)., eonjunetion, conjunctive, conjugation. 
eoQjng., conjugation. 
conjnnot., eonjimctive. 
const, constr., construct 
eonsec, eonseeuHve. 
contract., contracted. 
Copt., Coptic. 
cop., copulative, 
correL, correlative, 
Bagk., DSyAP«». 
Bagb. fL Daghesh forte. 
Bagh. 1 impl., Daghesh forte implicitumf 

see Gram. | 32, 1, Rem. 
Ban., Danish, 
dat., daMve. 

Digitized by 


— xn — 

i. e. (id est), (hat is, 

i. q. (idem qaod), 9am9 <is or equal to. 

often indicated by a as tlie sign or 

imp., imper., imperat., imperative. 
impers., impersonal. 
impl. (L. implicitnm), impUeO. 
indef., indefinite. 
inf., infln., infiniHvs, 
intens., intensive. 
inter)., interjec, inUrfectUm, 
interrog., interrogative. 
intr., Intrans. intransitive. 
Ir., Irish. 
irreg., irregular. 
Ishtaph., Jshtaph*el, 
Ital., Italian. 
Ithpa., Hhpa*aL 
Ithpe., Ithpe^eL 

Kelt., KeMe, see Oram, f 1, 4, Koto*. 
L., Lat., Latin. 
Letarb., Lehrbuchj In quoting Xwald's Ans- 

fdhrlicbes Lehrbuob der Hebriiisclion 

Sprache, 7tb or Stb edition, 
lit., lateral, literally. 
Lao on., Laconian. 
loc, local, see Oram, g 90, 8. 
MSB, manuscripts. 
m., masc, masculine. 
Maq., MaqqWph, 
mid., middle, 
mod., modem, 
mimet., mimetic, commonly called onomatO' 

poetic, see Oram. § 1, 4. 
neg., negative. 
N. T., New Testament, 
Niph., Niph*al. 

Nithp., mthpa'el, see Oram. | 65, 9. 
n., name, noun. 
num., number. 
obs.. obaol., obsolete i. e. not occurring 

in the Bible, tbougb perh. in other 

Heb. books, 
obj., object. 
O. B., Old English. 
opp., oppos., opposed to, opposition, 
ord., ordin., ordinaL 
orig., original, originally. 
p., person; also pause, see Oram, g 29, 4. 
Pa., Pa*el. 
Pared., Paradigm. 
parag., paragogic. 
parall., parallel, see Orsm. g 9, 6. 
part., participle. 
pass., passive. 

patr., patron., pairowymic, see 6ram.g 86^1,5. 
Pe., Pe'aL 
Pent., Pentateuch, 
pert., perfect 
perh., perhaps, 
pers., person. 
Pi., PPel. 

Pil., JVIel. 

Pilp., PilpeU 

Phen., Jntenieian. 

pleon., pleonastic. 

pL, plur., plural. 

plnr. excel., pluralis exeUentia, see Oram. 

I 108, 2, ft. 
plup., pluperfect 
poet., poetic, poetry. 
Po., Po^el. see Oram, g 66, 1. 
Polp., Poipal, see Oram, g 66, 4. 
pr. n., proper name. 
pr. n. f., proper name feminine. 
pr. n. m., proper name masculine, 
pref., prefix. 
preform., preformative, 
prep., preposition. 
prepp., prepositions, 
prim., primitive. 
prir., privative, 
prob., probable, probably, 
pron., pronoun. 
pronom^ pronominal, 
prop., properly. 
prostn., prosthetie, 
Pu., Ptt'al. 

q. T. (quod vide), whieM see. 
r., root 
rad., radical. 

redup., redupUc, reduplicated* 
ref., reference, 
refl., reflexive, 
reg., regular. 
Rem., Remark. 
rel., relat.. relative. 
8., Sanskrit 

Sam., Samar., Samaritan, 
8an8., Sansor., Sanscrit or ffansfcrit. 
Sax., Saxon. 

sc, Bcil. (scilicet), namely. 
Sept., Septuagint 
Shapn., Shaph*eL 
sing., singular. 
Blaron.. Slavonics 
St., state. 
BubJ., stibject 
sub St., substantive, 
snf., suffix. 
8wed., Swedish. 
Symm^ Symmachus. 
syn., synon., synonymous, 
Syr., Siyriae. 

Talm., Tolmild, ToAnAdie. 
Taph., Taph'et 
Targ., ToryAm. , 
Tiph., Tiph*el, eed Oram, g 66, S. 
tr., trans., transitive, 
transp., transposition, 
Turk., Turkish. 
Vulg„ YuigaU. 
W., Welsh. 
wbn uihieh, 

w., lOitil. 

Digitized by 


Lexicons constantly used or occasionally consulted 
in the preparation of this work: 

GESEHIUS, Thesauros Linguae HebrsesB et Chaldsese Yeteris Testamenti, 
in 4to. Finished in 1857 by his accomplished disdple and honoured 
{Hend Dr, JEUzdiger^ to whom at his death he intrusted the com- 
pletion of the great work, which is now justly regarded as the chief 
authority in Hebrew. *- Lexicon Manuale Heb. et Ohald. in Y. T. 
Libros, 8yo, 1833. Founded mostly on the above Thesaurus. Edited 
in English by Dr. RohiiMon in 1855, with great improvements, and 
now forming the best ftiU Heb. Lexicon extant in our language. — 
Hebr&isches und ChaldHisches Handw5rterbuch iiber das Alte Testament, 
7te Auflage 1868, edited by Dr, Dietrich^ who has much improved the 
work throughout, especially in the treatment of roots and derivations. 

Ff^EST, Hebr&isches und Chaldaisches Hahdwdrterbuch iiber das Alte 
Testament, 2te Auflage, 1863. Edited in English by Dr, 8, Davidson^ 
with the author's own Bevision, 1867. — Yeteris Testament! Concor^ 
dantis, including much lesdcographical matter,folio, 1840. — Hebrftisches 
Taschen-Worterbuch uber das Alte Testament, new edition, 16mo, 1869, 

Lt^s Lexicon, Hebrew, Chaldee and English, 8vo, London, 1840. 

Winer f Lexicon Hamiale Heb. et Chald. in Y. T. Libros, enriched with 
If S notes by the lamented Dr, Havemick of Kdnigsberg. 

Digitized by 


Modem Semitic Alpha1)ets. 









K ' 



1 J. - 






3 b, bh 



wS ..a A 






a g. gt 



"X *^ X 






"I d, dh 



? r - 







n h 



W 9L — 






1 w 



o a — 







T z 



1 > - 







n ch 



W» WJift 4ft 






« * 



-< -N * 







" 7 

^ -. 


%^ taA A 







•]5 k,kh 



t t » 







b 1 



V.v :^ 







Da m 



>6 >iV^ 




13 n 



V -TV 








P 8 



Off wtt a 








w < 










^ V :k 




Cl B P, pli 



%A wA a 







ys 8 
P q 







1 r 



* r - 







113 8h 



^j^ ^«j^ ▲ 












n t 



Z £w — 



1 " 



1^ 1 




• Syr. Vowels: 'a, * e, " i, '^ o, "^ u. 











Arab. Vowela: ^ a, ^- i, ^ u. 



f - 








Digitized by 


Ancient Semitic Alphabets. 

Maab Stoor 9Mar 
Gram.* 2 2. 

PlKrnician Corns 
and loacription* 

Old Hebrew 



Hfb. biter. 


^ t= 


^^ Fx^ 





^ ^4^ 


4 9 y 


3 3 3 





















n rt 


Y S ^ 

H 1 



1 1 1 




T ^ 

= ^ 








H H 


H H 


W <U 








K A 

? A 






J 1 



O U 


oo o 





n 1 





<»?f f ? 



\ \> 

fc> n 




q A 






i-M w yj 

w tv 


X/ >a/ 



X X 

-h n 

+ x 

A A 



Digitized by 


Digitized by 




CS 'i'2^^ the first letter Ib the 
Heb. Alphabet, and hence used as the 
numeral fbr 1 (cf. Apoo. 21, 6); but 
K stands for 1000 (t)bK). Its form 
on early Phenician monuments and 
Heb. coins ib ^ or ^, whence the 
early Greek A and the later A; see 
Table of Ancient Alphabets (at be- 
ginning of this Lex.) and Schrdder's 
Fhonizische Sprache, Taf. A. Its 
name ^ (Chald. Kfi^ pi. *p&^) is 
firom C)^ meaning a yoke-heakf ox 
or heifer; andits oldest figure probably 
pictured a bovine head , the form and 
name (hence ^X^a) suggesting by the 
initial sound the force of the letter, 
which resembled the Gr. soft breath- 
ing O or the Fr. A in harnmej but 
was quiescent <rfter a Towel (see 
Qtnm. § 6, 2, 1). 

S interchanges — 1 with n (esi>e- 
cially in Aram.) e. g. "?p« = "Tpn, 
r«^ = nrjb, R'j^n = n^p; —2 w. t 

e. g. *IK2'= -ria, l3K^ = oib; — 3 w. 

■^ e. g. r)e«= cid:, tKi^=tn':); - 4 w. 

T or a e. g. rafi<=n5J=n50; — 5 w, 
n e. g. o;?fi} = O^; — 6 w. 5 e. g. 
B5K=oa5, awj=ipi, «T9a=Ch.5oa; 

— 7 w. D e. g. TOK = *ltt;3; — 8 w. 
t5 e. g. t30K = Ono; — 9 w. X e. g. 

— 11 w/n e. g. n;K in ^ njtj L 

K is often prosthetic, e. g. in rr^^ 
(rp:?5), e)d^ (C)|), 13» C»), farrw 
Cr^)t ^^t in such cases it might again 
disappear, e. g. inj'iJK =» jSt; Vw^ 
= Aram. Watp, %a^ ; «rr3=^3tT3» (cf. 
•fli = 'TH^); in the formation of 
nouns it may have perhaps an inten- 
sive or coMsative force (prob. of Hiph. 
or Aphel origin), e. g. aja^ very de- 
ceptive, n^TK home-bom. But gene- 
rally tbis prosthetic use of K is 
simply euphonic, and analogous to 
dffitaipco = aitaCpco, fta^oXo^ » ^o- 
Xoc, dfxeXYco = L. tnuZ^eo <= E. 
mt^, Pr. eaprti «*: W. yspWd =» L. 
spiritus, i^Olc = X®^^* — In the 
formation of verb-stems 'the K is 
often an inorganic radical i e. does 
not belong to the ultimate or mono- 
syllabic root: 1) as initial, e. g. *19^ 
p^; 2) as medial, e. g. WJ, xb^\ 
3) as final, e. g. tra, Kt^. 

^CS (c. *^3M, nx only Gen. 17, 5, 
in prop, names SK, n^l, "^a^j, ^Si*; w. 
suf. -^ij, ?p:3«, t-^ajf, tr^^if, osr^ax; pi. 
n^nN, c. rias, w. suf. TC^ onbfij or 
or-rrK; see Gram. § 96, 2, and below) 
m. father, natural or spiritual. Then 
from the idea of father -hood, the 
word came to express: 1) benefactor, 
cherisher or swdainer, in the material 

Digitized by 




Benae. 2) teacher or adviser , father in 
the intellectaal or moral sense, hence 
applied to teachers of the people, 
old men, prophets, priests, viziers, 
kings; e. g. Gen. 45, 8 axb '^po'^^^^ 
r:in^andJie mademe forafaJther to 
Fharaohf i. e. appointed me his 
Vizier. 3) lord or possessor (as en- 
joying paternal rights), nearly the 
same as ^a, this meaning esp. ap- 
pearing in composite Heb. names, 
and in the other Sen^tio dialects. — 
As founder of a family or a race, 
a^ signifies: 1) tMef of a family or 
tribe (like Cpi^, nia^ m^ Wfch, nip, 
K*^, ms^n 1^), hence aK n^a 
father's house , i. e. descendants of 
the head of a clan. 2) forefather ^ as 
•jiWTJ a«j i. e. Adam. 3) founder 
of a guild or profession or fra(i^, L 
e., the first worker or inventor, Gen. 
4, 21. — This noun is primitive, for 
although following the analogy of 
those derived from a ti'h verb, 
both an and DM are mimetic words, 
tc^Len from the first and simplest 
sounds of infant lips, and are fami- 
liar as nursery names in most lands : 
ai^ Aram. iLf, K^K (hence d^.Ba, 
Gal. 4, 6), dnica, icaicac, lj.papa, avus, 
E^pOfpapOy farther, ica-xi^p, Ii.|)a-*cr, 
Sans. p%4r% G^L abj Turk, baba, 
Amer. Ind. appd, 

a« Chald. (w-suf-^a^ •rpaK, 'TpQ^, 
def. Kax, pi. irjaK, def. «nrjaH) m., 
father, i. q. Heb. aij, Dan. 2, 28. 

IM (w. suf: "^aK, pi. a'^SK, c. *^^) 

m. prop, blooming-freshness, then 1) 
62t)89om-<ime, blooming-age (hence 
^Pt], IfT]Po<«L.jm5e9)or also &ri^A< 
verdure Cant. 6, 11; Job 8, 12 "iSKf 
in t<8 thriving or greenness, 2) fruit, 
hence Ohald. a^ fruit-month i. e. 
August, and in the Targ. aK stands 
frequenUy for rraKUJ, ^-^ r. aa^ 

32$ Chald. (Talm. ailK, def. K^, 
Syr. i^f, w. suf. mapM w. Kfin inser- 
ted for Dagh. f.) same as in Heb., 
fruit Dan. 4, 9; hence Chald. aaJS to 
produce fruit 

3M shorter form in prop, names 
for *^aK and interchanging therewith, 
e. g. C)D;a« and CjO^aK. 

3&(, see aiM. 

I (obs.) akin to a^ to be 

bright or fresh, then to thrive, to bloom, 
by a common metaphor, as in tTJ, 
y?Ji ^!ID, to yield blossoms. 

■3 jy n (obs.) proh. mimet to be 
hollow, only in Aram, a^ia^ fiute; see 

KrQ!32$ (Persian) pr. n. ul i>erh. 
from bagci-ddta L e. Gk)d-given: cl 

l5c^ (^*- ^5*^ ^^ ^^) ^^f 
prop, (o be severed, forsaken (see iri^), 
hence 1) to stray in solitude, Ps. 119, 
176 n^ rvo a straying sheep, lost in 
the wilderness; Deut. 26, 5 lak *ns^ 
a wandering Syrian, leading a No- 
mad's life and roaming about in a 
foreign place, ct Is. 27, 13. 2) to 
lose oneself, to vanish, e. g. of the 
loss of heart (ab), of hope O^jpn); 
part ni:» *Ta» (rarely c. n^fiO lack- 
ing counsel; then transfered to use- 
lessness, e. g. refuge (bi3^) vanishes 
Job 11, 20, the vision Cpm) is useless 
Ez. 12, 22, w. h or y^ of the pers. for 
whom something is in vain. 3) to 
perish, to be undone, of men, beasts, 
etc. ; hence lak perishing one, in this 
sense also at times w. f^^ ^^ Deut 
4, 26. — Pi. ^SK (-1- for -r- as in 
pgt) , 1) to sever, scatter, to dissipate 
e. g. "pn wealth Prov. 29, 3. 2) to 
destroy (of things), to bring to ruin 
(of men), to rob e^ g. ab tAe under- 

Digitized by 


■D« 3 

itanding Ecc. 7, 7. 8) to give up for 
lost Ecc. 3, 6, opp. to ^X — Hiph. 
*r3HH and ^"Sttin to cause to go to rtnnf 
to deitroy^ Nam. 24, 19, also w. the 
additions, Q^ ^"^S?' &?^9^^ njl-jlJ. 
— JTT'?^ occurs as the 1 pers. fdt, 
in Jer. 46, 8 (see Gram. § 68, 2, 
Bern. 1), the rad. K having quiesced 
and then disappeared. 

|IIIJ$ Chald., (fat. nSK;, ^5^-^) 
same as Heb. "i^K, to perish Jer. 10, 1 1. 
— Aph- nann to (fe«*royDan.2,12. — 
Hoph. T^Vi, by a Hebraism, pass, of 
Aph. to be destroyed Ban. 7, 11. 

T3i^ (for'iak or after the form ^r\\ 
$bh)m. afmihilaHonf ruin Knm. 24, 20. 

rria* t l) abyss Prov. 27, 20 
E'thibh. ' 2) lost thing Ex. 22, 8. 

tTDM nu in the KWbh for 
p>t3K PrOv. 27, 20, but possibly it 
should be read ^SK. 

^taSm. 1) destruction Job 31, 12. 
2) place of destruction, the abyss, 
reahn of the dead Prov. 15, 11. Per- 
sonified j\pa$$ci>v, rendered AicoX- 
Xofov in Apoc. 9, 11; cf. ViWD. 

tJ^ISH Ez. 28, 16, for ^paNK Gram, 
§ 68,2, Bem. 2; firom r. naij. 

fias also tJ^s (0. xm) m. da- 

strueUon, Est. 8, 6; 9, 5. 

MZL2S (»r»)prob.8ame as 
njfil to breaihe after, to long for, then 
1) to be wiUing, w. h of the pers. to obey 
Ps. 81, 12 . 2) more active volition, to 
(==yxq), w. ace. of the nonn or w. inf., 
but always of the will as resulting from 
inclination and not design. — This 
mimetic root, taken Arom the act of 
audible breathing or panting is found 
in n^K, any, nnK, wn, rnn, a?;, awj, 
Arab. Sl^t, Sans, vd (breathe), ftY]}xi 
(da>), L. aveo, amo, pius, W. awd, 


aiwen (i e. afflatus, the muse). Beriv. 
•na^ Ti'»a«, m>«a», perh. aK. 

rOR m. only Job 9, 26, perh. akin 
to aK thriving vegetaiUm, hence reed, 
bulrush, cl K^ 

n:|8; (pi. D'^aK) nu elephmt, akin 
to Bans. t5^«, L. e&ur and our 
ivory, IXe^ac; only in D*^ah (perh. for 
D*^aMn) in the compound Q'^anpiB el&- 
phmfs teeth or tusks, Copt. EBOY 
(ivory); see D'^anj^. 

■jillaSt, see ais Chald. 

UM only c of a2|t in pr. names; 
80 too in Phenician. 

K%3M Isai 28, 12 for ^Ot^ from 
r. n;)M; see Gram. § 23, 3, Bem. 3. 

*n3K m. (according to Abulwalid 
flrom r. ha») craving or need Prov. 
23, 29, like "j*!*^^; but Elmchi takes 
it for same as *nK woe I Cf. alpol, ol>a(. 

D^Qfct (for wa«, c.^wate is, i, s, 
pL D'^Wa^, r. D3tJ) m. prop, foddering, ' 
hence a crib or rack Job 39, 9. 

ttiaS (w. n cohort. rroSafit) i p. 

ftit. of ttSna; see Gram. § 72, Rem. 2. 
nili^ see a^ 
t^ia^ see aiK. 

rOcS (obs.)prob.i.q.n5T,rTa9,to 
slaughter, the t (or Cd) being exchang- 
ed for fit as '^ for 'int; cf. oXaCvco 
•= CaXaCvo), CoY^v «- L. jugum = E. 
^oX:e; hence 

nrOiSI (for ma^ or n5J) tslaugh- 
ter, murder, only in Ez. 21, 20 (where 
rrau in parallel clause), the Sept. 
making it a^^Yia. 

ft'^a^ (only pi. Wrwaw, r, rraa 
jr)m.melons Num. 11,5; Targ.')q&&bQ 
i. q. jxY)Xoic^ico>v. 

"OR inteij. Job 34, 36 howf ah! 
Prob. mimetic akin to *«^ and "^a; 
see nai;. 

Digitized by 




•QK pr. n. f. (PP i8 fother) 2 K. 
18, 2, for which njai| 2 Ch. 29, 1. 

"QM Kio.1,15 for K*tn;$ Hiph. fat. 
of ttia; tee Gram. § 76, 2, f, 

bK*^3M pr. n. m. (perh. fkther of 
might) I'bh. 11, 32. 

C|DW^!I1M pr. XL m. (father is ga- 
therer) ExT 6, 24; see C]0;nK, C)0;V» 
and e)OK. 

n^!lM (r. n^tj I) m. prop. «2)rout, 
hence ear of grain Ex. 9, dl , time 
o/" ear* (like tt5^*in, ^'^), S'^a^ «hh 
mwdh of 'AhKibh Ex. 13, 4, i. e. of 
blooming or of green ears; this month 
Abib, later called *^}, began with the 
new-moon of April (the Babbins say 
of March) and was the first of the 
Heb. year, Ex. 12, 2, Deut. 16, 1. 

b;5''a» also ba'^a^ pr. n.f. (father 
is exultation) 1 Sam. 25,3.32; K'thibh 
V»a!Qtft 1 Sam. 25, 18, see i-lli, \'^l, 

rri'^ai^ Jer.46,8 forW56W,r.n5». 

'p'^SH pr. n. m. (father is judge) 
Num. 1, il. 

yrSSpr. n. m.(perh. father knows) 
(Jen.^25, 4; cfc ST'bs, srrtT^. 

' ' TT J V' TT t 

n J3H or ^n^lIlK pr. n. m. (father is 
n;) I'sam. 8, 2;''2 Ch, 13, 1 ; but nja^ 
is pr. n. f. in 2 ()h. 29, 1 ; see "^n&t 

MfTiiS pr. n. m. (father is He) 
Lev. 10, l-^cf. te*^aK, fctsin'^^t 

T^iT^SH pr. n. m. (prob. father is 
renown) 1 Ch. 8, 3. 

b^rj'OK 1) pr. n. t (fether is 
splendor) 1 Ch. 2, 29; see b^in, bWl. 

^r^*^?^ pr. n. m. (father is 
strength) Num. 3, 35. 

■ji'^IlK (r. naj}) m., prop. a^J. de- 
siring or legging^ poor Beut 15, 4; 
hence as subst. a |70or man Ps. 70, 6; 
'fra^ *^3!p poet, for D'^ai'^^x the poor, 
Vs! 72, 4. 

ilTl^QM t longing, then lu8t, only 
in Ecc. 12, 5. Others make it sti" 
mulant, specially caper-berriea (mo- 
dem Heb. *p)*i^ berries in general). 

2te*OM pr. n. m. (father is jgood- 
tiess) 1 Ch. 8, 11; cf: htX2Xf, 

btt'OM pr. n. f. (father is a shelter) 
2 Sam. 3, 4; ct riit. 

D^!32^ pr. n. m. (perh. father of 
day) 1 K. 14, 31; cl ^^J-^Sfit. 

bKSS^^SK pr. n. m. (father of Ma'el) 
Gkn. 10, 28. 

"tj^tt^l^K pr. n. m. (father is king) 
usual title of the kings of Philistia, 
(Jen. 20, 2; 26, 1; comp. Hing, i}^ 

3'13*^!l)j^ pr. n. m. (father is noble) 
1 Sam. 16, 8; ct tvom, 

D9!l*^!l^ pr. n. m. (father is plea- 
santness) Judg. 4, 6. 

*15*^I3S pr. n. m. (father is a light) 
1 Sam. 14, 50; usually 'laa^. 

v|D^a» pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 6, 8, for 
C)&&p^ which see. 

^ity^Si^ pr. n. m. (father is help) 
Josh. 17, 2; patron. '»'nj»7 '^a« the 
Abiezrite; see ^jrv. 

liab?^a» pr. n. m. (father is 
strength) 2 Sam. 23, 31. 

^l*^ (r. *^^ I) subst. (prop, adj.) 
m. strong one, a hero used only of 
(}od, Oen. 49, 24. 

TSK (r. ^59 I) a^j. m. very 
mighty, mainly, hence subst. 1) a 
valiant, A '^'ra^ Uie stout-hearted, 
Ps. 76, 6; obstinate Is. 46, 12; poet, 
used of a bold bull Ps. 50, 13, of a 
spirited horse Jer. 50, 11. 2) eminent 
one, a chief, d'^yirj ^^aK the chief of 
the shepherds; ^"^^"^^ anb food of 
the mighty (manna), Ps. 78, 25, Sept. 

Digitized by 




D'J'^lWt pr. n. m. (fiither of exal- 
tation) Kmn. 16, 1, 1 K. 16, 84} ot 

3itb^!3M pr. n. 1 (father of wan- 
dering) 1 K. 1, 3; see yo, 

TiTT'D!^ pr. n. m. (father of suo- 
coar) 1 Gh. 8, 4; see 9!ra3. 

■fl'OrSi^ pr. n. m. (father of rec- 
titnde) 1 Ch. 2, 28; cf. ynxlin. 

^Ifl'S^ pr. nl m. (father of gift) 
1 Sam. 26, 6; see m 

Efib'O'DM also DiblDl^, pr. n. m. 
(father of peace) 1 K. 1 5, 2,' 2 Ch. 1 1, 20. 

*tt^^!3K pr. n. m. (father of abun- 
dance) 1 Sam. 22, 20; Kark 2, 26 


Ms (poet.)onlyinHith. tofiotrl 
or eddy, to mount vp in a cohimn, 
said of smoke rolling upwards, only 
in Is. 9, 17: akin to i^\ TJWJ, "^53. 

y32S (fut.^^) akin to boK, b&^ 
r6a,i5}, iw, prop, to foRov sink down, 
to droop ; hence to vniher or Umguisk, 
of a green field Am. 1, 2. — Hipb. 
to he sorrowful, of men, Ez. 81, 15; 
to cause to languish Lam. 2,8. — 
HIth. prop, to show oneself drooping, 
hence as in Qal to motim, w« biP or 
h» of the pers. on whose account. --^ 
Cf. a<paXXa) « L. fallo = G. fallen, 
fehlen = E. faU, faU, to feU = W. 

^3CS (obs.) akin toib^ tow<?e, to 
he moist', hence to he fresh or green; 
comp.8yr.V2ir^a«g. Hence bn» II. 

^?^ I (c. -igx Ps. 35, 14, pi. ^ast 
Is. 61, 3, f. n^ax, pi. nftax) adjl 
f>un«mift^ Ps. 35, 14 or languish- 
ing h&m. 1, 4; r. ^5?. 

b^S n (r. b5«)f .»ik»«*«po<,w«idcw, 
nVhsn iajc fAe ^ea< meadow l Sam. 

6, 18, where others read "jaK forb^fit. 
This noun occurs in sundiy proper 
names, as: — 

b'D& 2 Sam. 20, 18, for the fall 

reya n-^a bas, w.nioc niaj, 

pr. n. £ (meadow of Bdth Maakha) 
2 Bam. 20, 15, a town near n^^ 
(which see) at the base of Lebanon, 
west of Dan or Paneas. Also h^tf 
and &*;<» '», 2 Ch. 16, 4. 

D^tplSn blgi$ pr. n. t (acacia- 
meadow) a place in the plain ofHoab 
Kum. 33, 49, prob. also called tm^l^ 
in Num. 25, 1, Mic 6, 5. 

U^ICTQ baj pr. n. f. (meadow of 
▼ineyards) an Ammonite town Judg. 
11, 33; later 'Ap8Xa(tictX<i>v. 

n^VVQ 51IW pr. n. t (dance-mear 
dow) a town in Issachar Judg. 7, 22. 

D^ ^22^ pr. n. f. (water meadow) 
city at the base of Lebanon 2 Ch. 16,4. 

0^1215? ba» pr. n. f. (Egyptians* 
meadow) place near the Jordan Oten, 
50, 11. Others read bax mourning 
to suit the context better. 

ba» (w. suf: ^'b^K, r. b5«) m. 1) 
mourning Gen. 27,41 ; 'k tH^ to make 
a mourning, w. b of the pers. for whom 
Gen. 50, 10. 2) a wailing cry, Mic 
1, 8 J hence wn ba« mouminff for 
an only son i. e. intense grief Am. 8, 10. 

y^ adv. 1) afOrmatiye, tntfy, de- 
cidedly (early Heb.) Gen. 42, 21; 
2) adversative (late), hut, yet, Dan. 
10, 7, 2 Ch. 1, 4. — Akin to ba (w. ^ 

prosth.), Syr. %^, Arab. Jj; perh. 
from obsol. r. bba « bbfi to separate, 
in Pi. to decide-, It fi'tp.' 

ba» or \Of[^ (c. ba!«) m. rwer, 
stream, perh. river-district, used of 
the bank of the Choaspes C^b^M), Dan. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


jiuCS I (obs.)akin. to Maa to buUd 
and "i^^ to be firm^ then perh. to flow 
steadUy, Deriv. -j^K, n}5^5. 

jZliS n (obs.) perh. L q. 15«, to 
turn round. DeiiT. ^nk. 

"plK (in p. "jng ; w. 8uf . "faax, pi. ft'^S^K, 
c^iOkjl (m. onlylSam.l7,40)8fon€Ex. 
7,19 ;rocA:in Gen.49, 24. ^"jaNls. 30, 30 
hailstone, tV^^ 'k Ez. 28, 13 and in 'ij 
Prov. 17, 8 precious stone; M^'Stoa '» 
Lev. 26, 1 jpidwre-sfone (hence mosaic); 
5b|g '^ Zech. 9, 15 sRng- stone; fig. 
a weiffht, n"Jfi2Pn '« Zech. 5, 8 the 
lead weight, same as b'^asi 'k Zech. 
4, 10 the plummet; VTS '« Is. 34, 11 
plummet of desolation; r. "jsM L 

•ja* Ohald. (del Kjnis) f. a «tonc 
IHuL 2, 84. 

ina 'jlfcj Josh. 15, 6; see -jna. 

^vS*T 1^ P''- ^ ^' (stone of de- 
parture) name of a place, 1 Sam. 
20, 19. 

v13^ 1^ P^- ^ ^' (»nalte stone) 
name of a place £. of Jerusalem, 

1 K. 1, 9. 

ntyn "jSK pr. n. t'(the stone of 
help) name of a monument at Miz- 
pah, 1 Bam. 7, 12. 

I^fij (= IfiK a round plate or rfM) 
m only dual Df 33^ (i?atV of disks), 
hence 1) mirZtd/f-stoo/ oonsistingperh. 
-of two disks Ex. 1, 16. 2) potter's 
stool or wheels, in the East consisting 
-of two disks Jer. 18, 3; r. "ja^ IL 

njSK pr. n. f. (perennial, r. lawl) 

2 K. 6, 12 K*thibh, name of a river; 

iiee n5a^c 

tdlDK m. prop, hand, priesU^ 
girdle Ex. 28, 4, ornamental belt Is. 
22, 21; from 133^ w. M prosthetic: 

•Ohald. fi<*i3«ia. 

6 *0« 

^!W pr. n. nu 1 6am. 14, 51 ; 

see .'i3*»aK. 
~ • -t 

DiliJSl to /eeeZ, to /o^fen, of beasts; 
but only in part. pass. WSK fattened, 
Prov. 15, 17. The orig. meaning is 

prob. the same as in the Arab. j&ifT 
to collect, to bring together; then to 
fill in, to cram. Deriv. WaK, 0«l^. 
niayaH i!:(only in pDBx. 9, 9 
pimples, blains, blisters; firom 5!ia(w. 
K prosthetic), Ohald. Pilp. 5355 to 
ftot/ wp. 

jiJiS (obs.) to 6c wAito, to shine; 
to be conspicuous; akin to yia, vgs, 
}^a;, Ohald. fiaa» <in. Hence 

Y^ pr. n. t (perh. tin or 
brightness) name of a city in Issa- 
char, Josh. 19, 20. 

■pCMJ pr. n.- m. (perh. gleaming, 
r. 75^) Judg. 12, 8. 

p5iS I (obs.) to pound to dust, to 
crush; hence pSfct — Prob. a mimet. 
root, the ultimate forms pa, "p, afi, 
pfi being expressive of beating, 
pounding, cl WD, Ger. pochen, E. 

P3^ n (Qal obs.) akin to pgn, 
to gra^ round; only NIph. p^fttj to 
<iw«c rotmd one another, hence' to 
wrestle, to struggle Gen. 32, 25; akin 
in sense to bp|&3. 

p!2M m. dust, esp. fine and light 
Is. 5, 24, the coarser being "nw Deut^ 
28, 24 (cf. p5, prii0; r. p^lj'l. 

njJlJK. (c. npa^) f. powder (of 
spices), only in Oant. 3, 6 iai'i np^ 
powder of the merchant, i. e. aro- 
matic; r. p^ I. 

l»lCS I (obs.) to be strong or 
m^A^y/ perh. akin to ^a}, 'njs. Deriv. 
*nafi^ 'T^aij. 

Digitized by 



I^CC n (obs.) akin to ^p^, M'nf , 
Aram, rt^, %a^ (to fly), Arab, ^t, 
i^ (alacer fiiit), Bans, bhri, 9£po>, 
L. fero, E. bear (to Hft), whence 
bird i e. borne aloft; ef. 6pvu 
from 5pvu{i,ty L. avis >= Gaelic ean^ 
W. «Mm B ol(Dv6^ from oTcd (^ipco). 

"OH (r. 15i} n) m. tMng at 
jwiton, Is. 40, 31. — Hence denom. 
HipiL "fV^ ^ ^6 totn^ to aoor, 
Job 39, 26.' 

rrCW (poet.) t pinion or ttTin^ Job 
89, 13; pi, in Pi. 68, 14 mrrt'ia« 
her wings, 

DiTQK pr. n. m. (father of a 
multitude, as explained in Gen. 17, 5 

root ezpressiye of the din and noise 
of a great throng) Abraham; also 
d7a« Abram. 

'sj'lOK m. the Egyptians' word in 
hailing Joseph, Gten. 41, 4^, perh. a 
noon (like HS'ja) from ?p;f in inf. or 
imper. Hiph. or Aph., to bow the knee, 
to bk88f hence good ludc! hail! Others 
takeitforCk>ptic AqpFK or ATTpFK 
bow thehettd, 

D'lQM pr. n. m. (Uke taT^SM, lather 
of exaltation) Gen. 17, 5; also W^'^, 

"nSQK pr. n. m. 2 Sam. 10, 10; 
tee *n9^3K. 

DiblSSM pr. n. m. 2 Sam. 3, 8; 

fUk, see rvbiK. 

2^02^ (obs.), in Arab. VI , to /Zee; 

fiCM pr. n. m. (fagitive) 2. Sam. 
23, 11. 

^bSl^ Is. 63, 8 for ^^ni^an, r. 
Vx| iomnil see Gram. § 53, Rem. 6. 

JuM and SOK (perh. akin to ^^, 
yi>, 7(70^ pr. n. m. royal title of the 


Amalekite princes, Num. 24, 7, where 
the Sam. Pent, reads ^0^^ prob. same 
as the Phenician yo» for Amalekite 

Titan-king. Hence tbe gentilio noun 


"^M (osed of Haman) Est 8, 1. 
10; hence the tradition of his Ama- 
lekite origin. 

WK, ^DN, nn^, npOf. Hence 

STOK f. 1) band or «c Is. 58, 6 
Htfia ni^AM j^o^e bands\ then &i4fk2fe, 
e. g. ait» max ^wn^rA o/* A^(>p, 
Ex. 12, 22; 2) fig. band or froop 
2 Sam. 2, 25; 3) a compacting to- 
gether'^ hence arcA, esp. voiUt of 
heaven, Am. 9, 6. 

TdS (poet) m. nu^/ only in Cant 
6, 1 1 rii« nsa nu^-^ardcn. — tiix perh. 
i. q. Persian aghvs (nat) ; but perh. 
it comes firom t^{|( to bind, as nuts 
form bunches. 

^PS^ (r. ^^fij) pr. n. m. the com- 
piler of the 30th Ch. of Proverbs. 
The name may be symbolical, like 
nVip, and denote assembler, L e. a 
member of the wise men's assembly; 
comp. nist^ b$a Ecc. 12, 11. 

n*^ wS t a grain or berry, as the 
smallest coin -weight; hence small 
coin, only 1 Sam. 2, 86; prop, some- 
thing round, i. q. nry^ ; r. "inj IV. 

T^CS (obs.) akin to l^t;, to clHaler; 
see Xiy^ 

i?3CS (obs.) akin to ^>|, b;^ to roff 
(of watw), to /toti^ in lootw, to weU; 

bafc^ m. only in Job 38, 28 io •*5» 
welUngs of dew, poet for dewdrops, 
r. ^2^; some make it reservoirs 
of dew. 

D^^bl^K pr. n. (2 wells) of a city 
in Moab, 8 miles fr. Areopolis Is. 15,8. 

Digitized by 





In Josephtis M^^K, ^^YoXXa, Ant. 
14, 1. 4. 

U3CS (obs.) akin to Q% to gather, 
to flow togdher; hence U^tf 1 and 

Um^ (obs.) akin to D^9, tobebefU 
down* to he sad. Deriv. Q3^, Q^K 2, 
lia?* 2. 

D3t{ adj. m. &OK;e(! doion ; Is. 19, 10 
VS9 *^a^K 80(2 ones o/* soul, 

D3K (c. Q^^ Is. 41, 18, bntabsol. 
in Is. 35, 7, where Q^a is understood, 
pi, D^'ttafie, but c. "^oajt like ''W) m. 
1) place where water collects, a pool 
Ps. 107,35, Gen. 7, 19; r. aj?. ^) sedge, 
flag or reed, which bends to the 
wind; r. MK. The reed -brakes in 
the swamps served for shelter against 
enemies, and were often set on fire 
by them, Jer. 51, 32. 

■jiHOS m. 1) i. q. DJfiJ 1, poo/ Job 
41, 12. 2) i. q. Q}K 2, rope, prop. 
rushcord, ct a^ovvoc, Job 40, 26. 

\XS (obs.) prob. akin to "pa, "j^^, 
to enclose, hence to hold or contain; 
hence Aram, (i^f, K»nM vo^, M;>p2i$ 
pif. Hence 

■jaK (c. -j^^, pL niaa^) m. 6awn, 
cupt *^I?^ VM 6(mn o^ roundness, 
the round bowl, Cant 7, 3. 

V|^ (obs.) i. q. Ohald. C)|^, Aph. 
5)|K to envelope; hence 

CJSI^J (only pL D^aa») m. M«n^« (of 
an army), troops, only in Ezekiel, as 
in ch. 12, 14; but comp. &*i&a9 Is. 8, 8. 

yJS (fut. ^^^ akin to "TSia, to 
gcUher e. g. crops, Beut. 28, 39; to 
assemble (see '^'^Uf), to fold up, hence 
n^SiM. This stem had also the mean- 
ing of gaining, hiring. Akin to "i^J I, 
Ohald. "laj, d7e(ptt>. Hence 

R'^aS Ohald. (c.n"3jj«, del «n*J^) 
t roll, letter Ezr. 4, 8, L q. Heb. 

n^att; r. ^^^ 

C|il3K (^ prosth.) m. clmched hand, 
fist Ex. 21, 18; r. Cl!i|: ct Ger. griff, 
our yrod, grip. 

^"J3^ (only c pL "^iona^) m. 
basins, HbaJtion bowlB'Saask 1, 9 ; r. D^|. 
-— « is prosth., V-T- i« a very an- 
cient noun -ending ; see under letter b. 

Pl'IMl (pL rvi-iftK) f. roZ^ seroU 
(only in later Heb.); then a letter or 
epidle, esp. used of royal briefs or 
edicts, 2 Ch. 30, 1. — Prob. r. 'lax 
to gather together or roll up, cf. n^3i^, 
${YcX(i>(i.a, L. voZumen; but it may be 
Pers. or Ethiop. akin to i-j-^apo^ 

IK (like roQ) vapour, mist, prop, 
what wraps and conceals, Gten. 2, 6; 
r. *rtK. 

TK see rvitifit 

Zl^S I (Qal obs.) akin to 32$^ and 

^Vn, to languish. — Hiph. to cause to 

\ pine, to vex, only 1 Sam. 2, 33, where 

i inf. y^y^ for yn^rxh, see Gram. 

! § 53, Bem. 7. ^ ^ 

Zl JCS n (obs.) i. q. Arabic •! jf , 
I to train, hence in 

I ^fiCl*1l$ pr. n. m. (perh. Gk>d*s train- 
i ing, Arab, adab (culture) and bfet) 
! Gen. 25, 13. 

1 I JCS (obs.) to be strong, Arab. 

; Jl, akin to ^«, fW, Tt^, perh. to 
Tpo, Deriv. ^, *riiK, i^K, yi-nK, -j";^. 

T?^ (powerful one; perh. akin to 
'^^) PP* n< o^a Syrian and an Edomite 
deity and of kings, 1 K. 1 1, 17 ; ct Tin. 

TIS|, i. q. tnsj, only in pr. n. Q'J'^ 
1 K. 12, 18 perh. for DT^m. 

rrWfcJ Is. 38, 16 for »TW« 1 ftit. 
Hith. of Vto; see Gram. § 64, 2, b. 

Digitized by 





DT!^P8.42,5, Ifat. Hith. of m^, 
w. «uf. 0-7-. 

MTi<, see nri*ti». 

•n» pr. n. m. (for f^Wt mighty 
one) Ezp. 8, 17 ; r. 'TTfif. 

DnTR, see oH^ 

T^ (r. mi <^ T*^* ^- "^ ""^^ 

pi WT», c •'ST^ w. suf. *^3H^; w. 
pref. -iriK^ '»?T«:!, ''?^) m. 1) ruler, 
lord, used of a master, hnaband, Ck)d, 
etc; esp. wben a person addresses 
another as superior and styles him- 
self las Gen. 33, 44, or herself rroij 
1 Sam!"!, 11 or nnsno 1 Sam. 25, 27; 
2) oumer, possessor, 1 K. 16, 24. — 
Peculiarities in this noun are 1) that 
•p^ Ex. 23, 17, Mai. 3, 1 (rarely 
TTw'ps. 114, 7) is always spoken of 
God, in the same way as the super- 
lative title (Gram. §. 119, 2, Bem.) 
trrwh 'i^ the Lord of lords Deut. 
10, 17; 2) that the plural is used 
strictly as such only in Is. 26, 13, 
Dent. 10, 17, Vs. 136, 3 O'^riK lords, 
and Gen. 19, 2. 18 '^fn^ mp lords; 
but elsewhere always as a singu- 
lar, both in sense and syntax, not 
only of God (Ps. 136, 3) but also 
of men e. g. ^nfijj ^^f% * hard 
magter Is. 19, 4;' y^t^ ^3?? <» 
the servant so his master Is. 24, 2. 1 
This construction, often called the ! 
pktraUs exoeUenticB (Gram. § 108, 2, > 
b), was prob. used first fbr the abs- \ 
tract idea of a quality or dignity, 
and then for the person possessing 
it; comp. our lordship for lord, also 
a4*» diviniti/ or godhead for Ood 
(Gram. § 108, 2, Bem. 1 and Kote 2). 
— The form 

■'BTK is used only for the supreme 
Lord, ?K6pio«, and serves generally 
as a Q'ri or Massoretic reading for 
mm, see Gram. § 17. — The ending 

^-;- is prob. for -^ my, so that 
*<j4x prop, meant my lords, then (the 
force of the suffix being neglected, 
as in Syr. ^^, Fr. Monsieur) the 
divine majesty. The Lord (as above) ; 
see Gram. § 121, 6, Bem. 4. But it 
may perh. be only an old a^. ending, 
akin to the later *»-:-, so forming a 
denom. from ifi^Vf and meaning 
masterful, Apxt>t6<;, Gram. § 86, 2, 
5; cf. •'TO. 

"^TK pr. n. m. (strong one) Neh. 
7, 61, same as ^ ^^' ^» ^^> '• ^' 

^TT^*^ pr. n. f. (perh. two hills) 
city in Judah, 2 Ch. 11, 9; now 
DUra, westof Hebron. Comp. AScopa, 
Ao>pa, Jos. Antiq. 8, 10. 1. ib. 14, 5. 3. 

Pliffc*, see ni^fit 

lpt!( Chald. (i. q.Heb. \t«, nj, ftrom 
rrr) adv. prop, there, but used only in 
relation to time then, Ban. 2, 15. 
With a prefix ynt^ in that time =» 
then, Dan. 2, 14. 

D^*^ 2 8am. 22, 43 for U'^, 
1 fut nTph. of p|?J, w. suf. D-::-; 
Gram. § 20, Bem. at end. 

^"^^ (r. ^njj) adj. , m. prop, he- 
girded,mighiy ;heiic4 l)ffreat or large 
Ps. 93, 4, potent Ps. 136, 18. 2)illuS' 
trious or noble Ps. 8, 2; e. g. ^VO 
QWnjj bowl of (i. e. for) princes 
Judg. 5, 25; Ttblh '^T?^ ^ ^^^^Z"* ^Z" 
the flock, i. e. the shepherds Jer. 25, 
34. 8) of moral greatness, excellent, 
Ps. 16, 8 09 "^ffln-i? '^T?^? «^ 
(or even) the excellent in whom is 
aU my pleasure, i. e. I delight in them 
alone: Gram. §. 116, 3; §. 123, 3. 

SV7H (Pers. akin to d«p60 pr. 
n. m. Est. 9, 8. 

U JCS (obs.) perh. akin to Dtfrt to 
stampdwm, to make soUd by treading 
on, to (torn: hence ni3^, the proper 

Digitized by 





names trfii^ tt^, *n3^ and perh. 


U j iS (Qal only^^i^) prob. akin to 
Ui or rnjTK (see below under D"!^), to 
be hhodrcohured, tl^T^)tfq sra^fij ihey 
were more ruddy than corah Lam. 4, 7 
(^ar other red-coloured objects cf. yia^ 
}^«ion, "npn). — Pu. only part dnxtt 
Nah. 2, 4, pi. B'^'J«« Ex. 25, 5 coloured 
red (Gram. § 62, Bem. 4). — Hipli. to 
shew a red hue^ only in *ia''';«^ Is. 
1, 18. — Hith. to redden (of wine), 
to sparkle Prov. 23, 31. — Deriv. 

aiK, D^ Btr?!?^ '^r'3?8; comp. d*;. 

D*JK (-without inflection; about the 
root see below) m. 1) the name 
of the first human being , 'Ad<£{i, 
Adam; hence mostly w. the art. 
D7^ Gen. 1, 26. 27 (ct bjajrj, 'jDian 
Gram. § 109, 2), whence the ex- 
pression 07^5 or O'T^TTa, child of 
Adam, poet, for a man, a mortal (&v- 
OpcoTcoO Num. 23, 19, Ps. 8, 5, very 
often in Ezekiel when he is addressed 
from God, e. g. ch. 2, 1. 3, also "^32 
ny$ as the usual term (= D*^^M) 
for men^ Deut. 32, 8, 1 K. 8, 39, comp. 
Syr. ^J i^. 2) man, Gen. 1, 26, col- 
lect, for mankind, men generally; 
Is. 29, 19 071$ '^5''''?? ^ poor of 
men i. e. ihe poorest; 0*1^ fiCnD a 
unld ass of a man Gen. 16, 12 1. e. 
a very wild man, D^IJ '^ny those of 
men who sacrifice Hos. 13, 2; esp. 
ordinary or mean men as oppos. to 
«r^ Ps. 49, 3, Is. 2, 9, also for any 
man, a/nybody Lev. 1, 2. 3) mam (a 
male, like 1^) only £cc 1 , 28, 
where wvmam mSK follows as its op- 
posite, 4) pr. n. f. (firmness) name 
of a city on the Jordan, Josh. 3, 16; 
cf. mjT^e, "rety^ — 071J (&v6p<i>7ro;) 
may perh. come from r. D^ expres- 
sive of man's ruMwesB or brightness 

of connexion; but probably (as the 
account of his creation somewhat 
implies) it is akin to rra"Tj|5 (r. OiX) 
ground, for God is said in Gen. 2, 7 
to have fonned na^Wr-p. ..o^^jn-nK, 
which is analogous to the Lat. homo 
from humus, and to ^afxaqeviQC and 
a^T6^6cuv applied to man as earth- 
bom; or else it is akin toD^ orPAiD? 
(r. na^ n) likeness, for God said in 
Gen. 1, 2^ let us make man nto; 
iDh^Q72...D7fe< after our likeness; ct 

1 Oorl 11, 7'' 

DTJ (r. D-Tfit) adj. m., nan« t, pL m. 
a'^a*!^ blood-coloured or red Is. 63, 2, 
of the horse Zech. 1, 8; ruddy, of the 
bloom on the cheek of youth Cant. 
5, 10. Subst. reddish pottage of len- 
tiles Gen. 25, 30, Sept. I^T)(ia 7cu^^6v. 

0*^ 1) pr. n. 1 Jer. 49, 17, the 
mountainous country, Edom, Idumea, 
reaching from the Dead Sea to the 
Elanitic gulf of the Bed Sea, after- 
wards called baa Ps. 83,8, TepaXijvTf,, 
(jM>alene, now Jebdl; aSg '^^^Idume- 
ans Ps. 137, 7. 2) pr. n. m., the father 
of the race of Edomites Gen. 25, 25. 
80, in tradition variously explained; 
see 1^9$ and '^^. 3) for D^fi; AranuBO, 
comp. 1 Gh. 18, 11 w. 2 Sam. 8, 12, 
as also a*i^f6r th», hence also a*^ai*^ 

2 K. 16, iiK'thtbh) for a'^ain^ (Q'rt). 

tnijl (r. a^^) f. a red precious 
stone Ex. 28, 17 (Targ. Ipa^ the red), 
Sept. adlpSiov, L. sardius, our car- 
neKan or garnet, 

th^ Job 31, 34, 1 fut. Qal or 
Niph. of UTffn, 

Unn^ (reduplic form, r. a^) 
a4j. m.', rijww f., pL t rfm'^y^ 
Lev. 13, 19 reddish, red spotted; on 
the form see Gram. § 84, 2a. 

rroiK (r. anx; o. tvsrr^, w. suflf. 
T97«!i pL ^'^^T^) ^ prop. fir7n 

Digitized by 



gnmnd, earth', henoe 1) land or 
mlf for treading on Gen. 1, 25, for 
tilling Gen. 2, 5, as pnlverifled, hence 
Gike '^B;) (Ziisj 2 Sam. 15, 32, opp. 
to hyQ Gen. 8, 8; ni^'v^ ;b*^N fwan 
o/" t^ land or Atis&ondman Gen. 
9, 20: rnriH ink fover of the soil 2 
Ch. 26, 10; also used for the produce 
of the field Is. 1, 7. — 2) tract of 
land, territory y country, as Mjrn itq^ 
'8 y^ «7?r? '7«i lience nia-T^ Ps. 
49, 12 landSy domamSn 3) (Ae ir^fe 
earth, the gbhe Gen. 7, 4; 4) pr.n. f., 
a city in Naphtali Josh. 19, 36. — 
Comp. chh, also Ohald. denom. ta^ 
wn to c<Mf <2otim to theyf'ound, 

rWTK pr. n. f. (fortress) a city in 
the circait of Sodom, Gen. 10, 19. 

naW Is. 14, 14 for TTOf-tn^, Itat. 
Hith/of rw; Gram. § 54* 2^ b, 

TiOT^ (r. D^) adj. in. 1) red (in 
the hair) Gen. 25, 25; 2) ruddy (in 
the cheeks) 1 Sam. 16, 12. 

*W1K pr. n. fl (perh. human) city 
in Naphtaliy Josh. 19, 33, together 

^V» (fr. dS«) a4j. m., t nw?5, 
pL ri^K, JSdomite, Idumean Deut. 
23, 8, i K. 11, 1. 

Q^-Biyt pr. n. (red i. e. hills), a 
range of hills between Judah and Ben- 
jamin Josh. 15, 7. 

RtJtfTS pr. n. m. (Pers. = &8|XTfj- 
To;, unsubdued) Est. 1, 14. 

IjCN (obs.) akin to Ti», ^flK, prob. 
iP, to make firm, to settle, hence to 
fide, govern. Deriv. fi^ 1^ TJ«, 

JT» (strong), see Tj^i?. 

^ (perh. also "(m) pr. n. m. 
(stnmg, r. "p^) Ezr. 2, 59, Neh.7, 61. 

i;jg (pL 0*^37^ c \57») m. /bim- 
^otuMi' Job 38, 6, pedestal Cant 6, 

11 -n» 

15; hence the 5aM8 of a pillar or 
timbers underlying wooden pa rt i t i on s 
Ex. 26, 19. 

"^D^K, see under fT^ 

''3*1K appears in compound pr. 
names sometimes as a Canaanite title 
(cf. A5a)vt;), sometimes in Heb. pr. 
names; e. g. 

pTIIl"'^pTH pr. n. m. (Adonis L e. 
lord) king of Bezek, Judg. 1, 5; 

1VS1A or Tl^5*^ pr. n. m. (PP is 
lord) 1 K. 1, 5. 8. 

D'^pTfc^ see Ti^ 

pTSpwTi^ pr. n. m. (lord of 
righteousness), a Canaanitish king 
of Jerusalem, Josh. 10, 1. 3. 

DJ^'^SHK pr. n. m. (the lord stands 
up, i. e. to help) it occurs Ezr. 2, 13. 
8, 18 for itftjaSat 

tJI'TT* (see D'jlTr;) pr. n. m. (the 
lord is exalted) 1 K. 4, 6; also prob. 
shortened into B7i"iK 1 K. 12, 18, also 
D-ViTn 2 Oh. 10, 18.^ 

T -J » 

I JCS (Qal obs.) prob. akin to ^1^ 
to gird around, Arab, ^jl to get 
strength, prop, to ujrap aboxU, hence 
to be ample, large, great] then fig. to 
be powerful, honourable; cf. eSCcovo? 
said of men. — Niph. to show oneself 
strong or magnificent Ex. 15, 11 ; in v. 
6 '^'^niO part w. •» paragogic. — Hlph. 
'^•^WJ to make honourable, iRustrious 
InUi 21. Deriv. ^^ •I'TK, n^ rrt^ 

IflR (perh. honour, or Pers. dtar, 
fire) Est 8, 12 (Chald. Ezr. 6, 15) 
name of the 12th month of the sacred 
year (from new moon of March to 
that of April) ; but in the civil year the 
12th was bsii»&5 Neh. 6, 15. •nsj was 
perh. the name of an old Syrian deity, 
as ns9 and bA^ « i'ii^ 

Digitized by 





^^ pr. n, (perh. threshing-floor), 
cf. ■»5«, w. n loc. ri'JJK, a place in 
Judah, Josh. 15, 8. Also pr. n. m. 
(grandee) 1 Ch. 8, 8; see ■^^Srijri. 

TJ* (r. -rtK) m. 1) - rm^ 
prop, a wrc^^nff garment, hence a 
mantle or tunic Mic. 2, 8. 2) adorn- 
mentf splendour \ hence (ironically) 
'^P'P *^ <*« «pfefwfii jwtcc/ Zech. 
11,' 13. ^ 

•Tn« Chald. (only pi. c ^yt^ t 
threshing 'floor Dan. 2, 35 i. e. a 
large, elevated spot and stamped 
hard, as usual in the East; prob. 
from "T^ 

"HH m. i. q. TTK, perh. a Syrian 
deity, mighty one; perh. in ">ia7?55, 

"Ija'J'T* Ohald. (only pi. dell 
^'HJi'^) ^' I)&u^* 3, 2, a name of office 
in the Babylonian kingdom, meaning 
perh. noble judges^ or astrologers of 
(the god) Hdar, 

^Y^ Chald. adv., Ezr. 7 , 28 
correctly, exactly , prob. akin to tm 
to study, or perh. ancient Pers. darast 
i. e. rightly, 

'^iS'Tl^ (pi. D'^JSntW, Babbin. also 
•jiS^^) m. Sapeix6c daric iCh. 29, 7, 
a Persian royal gold-coin, value of an 
Attic ^pU(TOO( (about 20 shillings 
Eng.); prob. from Pers. (2ara(king), cfL 
our coin a sovereign and see »j;7?, 
also faST?. 

^^"TIK in 2 Mss. of Ezr. 8, 27, 
for the shorter f^^^*^' ^^ Q being 
prosthetic, and "pS"} T^3~ oiily a^j. 
endings akin to -x6c. Sans, -has, 

DTK, see ^Tt^ 

?|ba7T* (= ^ TW5) pr. n. m. 
(the king's majes^) of 1) a deity of 
the Sepharvites, who were taken at 
colonists to Samaria 2 E. 17, 81; 

2) son and murderer of Sennacherib 
king of Assyria 2 K. 19, 87. 

yjTS Chald. (= rr\) f. prop, arm, 
hence fig. power Ezr. 4, 23; iq. Heb. 

V^i'W pr. n. t (strong, ftom ^77?) 

1) city in Batanea (Bashan), Kum. 
21, 33, Sept. 'ESpaeCv, '£$paiv, Eu& 
*Afipaa, PtoL A^a, now Dra^a\ 

2) city in Naphtali Josh. 19, 87. 
fi^l'nS (from the m. 'i'«i«; w. suf, 

in^iw, nn'rns) t i) adj. hacwriant, 
manning, noble, e. g. Ei. 17, 8 fLl 
n'l^ a noble vine. 2) subst L q. 
*m large garment, mantle 2 E. 2, 13 ; 
"T^ ,'^Qen. 25, 25; 3) glory Zech. 1 1, 3. 

ID jCS (only in Qal inf. abs. xsrhtf) 
U q. X^'H^Jb. 28, 28 to tkre^ out 

mnb^andlllQ^^ {w.watr^^^ 

arw, awi, 1 pers. anx Prov. 
8, 17 and nnk MaL 1, 2; infl often 
n^) i. q. nnK, prop, to breathe 
after, hence to tore as between 
sexes, to /ii«f (» n^ => d7audcu) 
1 K. 11, 1, or as between pM>enta 
and children, or as friends, to be 
aUached Gen. 37, 4, 1 Sam. 20, 17; 
hence to delight to- do something la. 
56, 10. ~ The modifications of this 
notion are partly shown in tUe 
construction; e. g. w. ace of tbe 
pers. or thing to love Gten. 24, 67, 
Prov. 4, 6; w. i to shew love to some- 
body Lev. 19, 18; w. a to delight in 
Ecc. 5, 9 (like p^^); w. \ before Hie 
inf. to like to do something, Hos. 12, 8 
pvA atiK he oppresses w. pleasttre* 
w. "^3 in apodosis to be glad, thai — 
Ps. 116, 1. Part. m. ank, 1 P^K, 
once w. *^ parag. in c. "Wnk (Hos. 
10, ll)a friend or a loving and totted 
one, a beloved, '»a)ik my friendla. 41, 8, 
ef. ^iXo; 6eou James 2, 28, meaning 

Digitized by 


more than 9? Prov. 18, 24. — Wph, 
only part an&O 2 Sam. 1, 23 being 
bved, amiable. — Pi. to love fondly^ 
only part 'atygQ friend Zech. 13, 6*, 
moitlj lover or paramour Ez. 16, 33. 
3rQ|< (onlypL b^i^n^ m. 1) omotirs, 
flg. in Hot. 8, 9. 2) loveliness, rb;f$ 
b^SHM Prov. 5, 19 a hind of loves, 
fond wordB for a cherished wife. 

3ITlj (w. suf . asn^ pL n^afw) ™* 
ioof, fig. ibr lovers, Hos. 9, 10; 
amours Proy. 7, 18. 

^T^ and 371^ 1 fat Qal of nhl}; 
•ee Gram. § 68, 1, Bern. 

rDTQ^ f. 1) a 6>Wfi^ (verbal nonn, 
prop, infl c of arnj, Gram. §. 133, 1); 
hence w. ace of the object 1 E. 
10, 9, Hos. 3, 1. 2) love Cant 2, 4. 
d)a^(concr.), a beloved (sa if fern, 
of 2hK, as nalbiQ of t{^) or a darUng 
0int2, 7. 

3rpnS(prob. redap. form Pe'oTef 
of ahK) to love excessivek/, only in 
Boi,A^\B^Qni(^(='WWt^they love 
intensely, where, however, the per- 
•onal-ending itself is repeated, cfL 
"mias w. ^ repeated, r. nQ2(; 
Votperh. wre may trace ^nh (for %'3fi) 
to arp to give and translate <ftey tove 
(to say) 'give ye. 

%U1 ^STEK Hos. 4, 18, see anahM. 

IIJCS (obs.) prob. akin to *t«, to 
kstrongjei. *il^J Hence 

TSj pr. n. m. (might) Gen. 46, 10, 

SrjH inteij. i. q. tt\ mimet, of 
grief ah! oh! at al, L. heu! 

iWT^ pr. n. m. (prob. water) a 
tiyer between Babylon and Jerusa- 
lem, where Ezra rested w. the re- 
taming Jews; hence £zr. 8, 21. 31 
ms via and Kirw •mun the river 
iAat?a, into which another river 
fl^ flowv, not far firom M^^Oa 


(perb. a region in the Caspian range 
in the N. £. of Media). Whether 
rn^ is to, be read, and the river 
Adiava in Adiabene is to be under- 
stood (Ammian. Marc 23, 20), or 
whether it is to be taken as a design 
nation of the Euphrates, cannot be 
determined. •^- K^n^ is not Semitic, 
but Pers. a& or ov, 8. Spas, L. aqua, 
Goth, akva, Fr. eaiu, O. E. ey, W. 
wy, avon, meaning water, stream. See 

TVTS (r.'TtfTlj,) pr. n. m. (strength) 
Jndg. 4, 1, 'AcbS; see ink. 

^TijTS 1 fut. Hiph. w. snf. 3 s, 
m. and 3 demonstr. for ^B^iM firom 
rrn l; see Gram. § 53, 7, § 58, 4. 

VW i. q. rx^ •*«, adv. where? 
Only hi Hos. 13, 10 KIBM TjSibo "triK 
toAere is thy king then? But some 
take it for an old pronoun *^ or 
«n a= inm w. »{ prosth. as in n^^; 
but also 

17* 1 fut. apoc. Qal of hjn for 
rmx Hos. 13, 7, yet not in Hos. 13, 
I 10; see above. 

I -?nb^ I (Qal obs.) i, q. ibn to 
5e bright, to gleam, to shine; — Hiph. 
to shed brightness, to give light, 
only Job 25, 5 to/ even the moon, 
W;k! iki it douses no brightness, 
i. e. is not free fh>m dark spots. 


'riCS n(obs.) perh. akin to iVT, 
^S, to l^Vin and contain. Hence 

bnij (w.suf. ^bn^ ?;^ 'ohoVkha, 
in pause ^^ also ^pnk, ibliM and 

rftrw, w. n'^ioc n^j^pi. b*»t^ and 

rbritiC) m. l) ton^, of the Bedawin g 
Arabs or Komads, but also the Ta- 
bernacle, e. g. rvnsrt i*jijt, Wo ifiit, 
designations of the sacred tent, also 
called bnkn IK. 1, 39 (cf. D-J^n, 

Digitized by 





ba^ah). Hence the shell or exterior 
of the Tabernacle, In distinction 
from "j^a the dwtUin^ or interior 
hangings; so also poet. Ps. 182, 3 
■»n'^a inK paviHon of my dwelling ; 
bnijQ fDtd, VrjK am^, a tent-dweller or 
nomad, 2) dwelling -places hence fA« 
fempfe i. q. bs^n Ez. 41, 1, also the 
palace of the son Ps. 19, 5 (compare 
rk'21 Hah. 8, 11), also for vA^'haU 

Ez. 40, 16. 3) fig. like the Arab. J&l 
people^ family Ps. 78, 67; 83, 7; Is. 
16, 5, Zech. 12, 7; ^poet, patriarchal 
stock Judg. 5, 24. 4) pr. n.m. (tent- 
dweller or nomad) 1 Ch. 3, 20. — As 
black hair -cloth, not white canvas, 
forms the Arab's tent covering, bnk 
can not well come from hf^t^ to he 
bright f as most think; hence perh. 
another root may be assumed, biiK II 
to eontainf akin to i^n 5, b^, 16^, 

Arab. Jk.| ligavit, detinuU. Hence 


^t JffSlIIprop.denonuofih»(ftit. 
brwj) to tentf i. e. to pitch tents, to 
move with tentsQen, 13, 12. — Pi. fat, 
in;? for bn^7 Is. 13, 20 (cf. C)|g for 
vfs^ Job 35, 11) to encamp; see 
Gram. § 68, Bem. 2. Cf. htl^ II. 

bSlfcJ (only pL t'^V?? ^rov. 7, 17 
or nw^ Ps. 45, 9) m. lign-^does^ aloe' 
trees Nnm. 24, 8, Cant 4, 14. ~ Like 
^•y, tA, this word came perh. with the 
commodity from India, and hence 
d-jfaX-Xoxov, EuX-aX67) and our word 

TOfJJ pr. n. f. (perh. fem. form 
of bnk tent) as symbolic term for Sa- 
maria £z. 23, 4; others take it for 
Rbrit;^ her tent^ because Samaria had 
her own Temple. Cf. W^rtK. 

I^'^^Sl^ V^' a- «i- (fether's tent 
or family), Ex. 31, 6. — bfii* is em- 
ployed in pr. names in the same way 

as D?, w^«, n:>as (rv^a). 

rD^vTlfcJ pr. n. f. (my tabernacle 
in her, TX^" for TO-) as symboUc of 
Jerusalem Ez. 23, 4. 

ntia^btlR pr. n. f. (tent of the 

T T • t: T *^ * 

height) wife of Esau Gen. 36, 2 ; also 
a tribe of Edomites Gen. 36, 14. 

HibilR (see VjX) t aloe-trees^ for 
their frag^nce planted in pleasure- 
^dens among nard, myrrh, etc 
Cant. 4, 14. 

Sn^BJTK (Ps. 77, 4) 1 fat. Qal w. 
h cohort from !ig^; Gram. § 75, 
Bem. 4. 

IMCS (obs.) akinto'iiRtosWwc, 
to he luminous \ hence 

*1 iijK pr. n. m. (perh. luminous, 
cf. '^'T!i», Boman Lucinius) 'Aapcov, 
Aaron ^ first high-priest, brother of 
Moses Ex. 6, 20; as he was the an- 
cestor of the priestly family, the 
priests were called 'jhrifij **3a, prtsj rra. 

IK, c. is (r. njK, cf. Ip) m. 
wiU, choice y desire, only in K'thibh 
of Prov. 31, 4 nor for princes ^^ i» 
the desire of strong drink; where 
the Q'rl has ''K where? = not. 

IK coiy. or, either, inclusive and 
exclusive (Lat. vel and out) prob. 
from njK, as the Lat. vel, tw, from 
velle (volo). It indicates 1) or, i. e. a 
free choice between different objects, 
without making either prominent 
Deut. 18, 2; at times repeated iK — nn 
Ex. 21, 31 whether (either)— or; but 
the following gradations also occur — 

2) or rather, modifying what mvsls 
said before, e. g. 1 Sam. 29, S 
a*^3^ tiyiia. or rather these years ^ 

3) where the modification not only 
extends the first statement, but even 
formally sets it aside, or else, unless, 
perhaps, Is. 27, 5. 4) or if, Lev. 
26, 41, ellipt for ^^ IK, putting quite 
a distinct case; hence 5) as condi-^ 

Digitized by 





tional particle if (idv, m) 1 Sam. 
20, 10, distinguished from dK which 
expresses not the disjunctive idea 
but pure contingency, and from ^b, 
nsuall J employed in wishes. Of. ^b, QK. 

^S(perh.K'thibh inProv. 31, 4) adv. 
=» •« where? = not; but see 1^ above. 

iSflS pr. n. m. (prob. will of God, 
from IK and i^) Ezr. 10, 34. 

^^N (obs.) prob. mimet akin to 
^ n to &e holhto, Aram, nna^ (flute) 
«=E. pipe^fife = W. plbeU = Gael. 
pioba; cf. nnA I and pr. n. nik. 

lis (pL niak, r. a!|«) m. l)prop. 
water-MUf kathem bottle for water 
or wine Job 32, 19; comp. "nb, TOH. 
2) the hoQoto heUy (of coigurers), in 
which the conjuring ipirit (tc^Ocdv 
Acts 16, 16) dwells, and speaks as 
if out of the earth Is. 29, 4; hence, 
it means sometimes this demon 
Lev. 20, 27, sometimes the conjurer 
iirf(a(r:pil».^bo^) Is. 19, 3. 3) a necro' 
MOfieer, 1 8am.28,3, who wakens the 
dead out of the earth, in order to 
unveil the future, cf.niKnb^^ 1 Sam. 
28, lamistreis ofnecromaney, a witch. 

tfUiM (r. aw) pr. n. (hollow 
pastes) a place in the Arabian desert 
Kum. 21, 10. 

^*fflK pr. n. m. (camel deeper) 
1 Oh. 27, 80, overseer of the camels 
of David, Arab. J^^t. 

bM*, see bait 

I*ICS (obs.) akin to "W , tr. and 
intr. to turn, to wind, to surround, 
then, in general, to be strong, mighty, 
cL Vnn, 11^, etc. Deriv. ^WK, Tko, 

■PK (pi. D^«) m. prop, turner, 
I e. a piece of wood for stirring the 
fire; then a fire-brand Zech. 3, 2. 

rrfTM (only pi., r. "TW) t prop. 

turnings or surroundings, then dr- 
cumstances or causes, hence account. 
Gen. 21, 9 MTix b?, like "ns^ b?, on 
account of, riprm)V( b? Josh. U, 6 on 
account of thee, 'i^-ni'tiK-b^-bj 
Jer. 8, B for an causes that, i. e. for 
the very reason that. 

I \ ICS I i. q. rra^ (which see), prob. 
Niph. hTk; to be desired or fitting 
Ps. 93, 5; njKj for niKj to be desired, 
lovelgVs.SS, l,Cant.l,10;8eeni5J. — PI. 
to wish strongly y to crave for, to strive 
after, usually said of the soul WBJ 
Prov. 21, 10; comp. Is. 26, 9. — Hithu 
nj^W (fut apoc. ixn^) Prov. 23, 3 to 
long after, prop, to shew oneself de- 
sirous, w. b for somethirij^ Prov. 
23, 6; w. the ace. mxn n!i«nn Num. 

' ' T -I I- T - J . 

11, 4 to long a longing i. e. to lust 
after. Beriv. iK 0'»), perh. *»165, nj^ 

njwa 1, "^iwi}, prob. rn«j. 

niDS n (obs.) mimetic and akin 
to '<K^=^''iK, L. vm, G. weh, E. 
woe, Gr. ^so, arab. ^53! (howl);- 
all taken from cries of men or animals 
(cf. the boio-wow of dogs). Hence n^ 

n fiS in perh. L q. mn to measure 

T T -» T r 

or mark off; only in Hith. tmngrti 
Num. 34, 10 yow measure or marXr o/f 
for yourselves; but perh. only a cor- 
rupted form for Br^??^ =■ DTyi^^ann. 
Beriv. rn^ 2, perh. nriM a sign. 

tVe^ XV (obs.)}}Utofest, 
to dwell. Beriv. "^K coast or isfe and 
al>oi9t;, laai^; ct Arab. ^y\ to dwell, 
Syr. Jol (see B'. Payne Smith's The- 
saurus Syriacus). 

•Tli^ (c. Wfit, r. nijj I) f. (fcsire 
Beut 12, 15, lust or longing Jer.2, 24, 
often w. ifnDJ 1 Sam. 23, 20. 

VBS (obs.) perh. i. q. nn to look 
cut or hope; hence 

Digitized by 


I* 16 

^V^ pr. XL. m. (perh. hoped for) 
Heh. 8. 25. 

^t^ pr. n. m. (perh. emigrant, 
r.b.{|()Gen.lO, 27 a Joktanite, who 
became patriarch of the Arabe in 
Uzal, at present, Sanaa. 

JlD^mK Jer. 4, 19, a mixed form, 
from ni«rri» and M^^ see i^n, Vnj. 

"^S pr.n. m. (perh. longing r. MJJJI), 
son of a king of Midian, Num. 31, 8. 

*ifc^ (=^in) mimet. root, see "^infij, 

1) inteij. iooe! of complaint Is. 3, 9 
or of threatening w. h Num. 21, 29 
or ace £z. 24, 6; cf. o?, oua(, Tu.vcs. 

2) subst woe Prov. 23, 29. 
n^ ifij inteij. woe I w. b Ps. 120, 5. 

The same as "^iN, w. n-;- parag. as in 
nrttj, M^^?^, f»|i^ and often in nonni 
and verbs, cl Gram. § 90, 2. 

b'^K (r. i^ I; pi. tAr^^ and 
f^biftj) m. mostly prob. trty, jjcr- 
verae^ hence 1) adj. foolish Prov. 
29, 9, Hos. 9, 7; then subst a/boZ 
Trov. 7, 22, opp. to taW Prov. 12, 16 
and to D3rt Prov. 10, 14. 2) wicked, 
godless Job 5, 3. 

^b^» also ''biR. i q. i^nx w. 
ac|j. ending **-:- (see Ghram. § 86, 2, 5) 
fooUsh Zech. 11, 15. 

'xp'ta b'^K Jer. 52, 81 pr. n. m. 
of a king of Babylon, successor of 
Nebuchadnezzar. «^-^ Perh. the name 
means a mighty warrior, see b^ I 

b'^lbiS Hos. 11, 4 for b'»D»t«, 1 p. 
sing. fut. Hlph. of bsK; Gram. §. 68, 
Bern. 1. 

biifct Ps. 50, 13 for b?k 1 ftit Qal 

"CS (obs.) akin to b^iKland W 
to turn or twist; hence to be wrong 
(in mind), to he foolish. Hence, perh. 
Niph. bfcjiJ from b^W to act the fool, 


Num. 12, 11; but see b^ L Deriv. 

i'^ig, ^-^ft}, nigwu 

X^ lor T'^^ (obs.)to hnUoT 
twist together, hence to be strong, 
mighty, as in pm, mp, "iwiD. I>eriv. 
iiW, ix, W<, i:«^,' ijfii, W and 


n (obs.) to be before or in 
front of, hence to ^o before, to begin; 

Arab. J^T, Chald. b^M. Deriv. ^na 

K'thibh of Neh. 12, 38. 

5^ (r. b«W I) m. prop. stre$tgth, 
then &(% Ps. 73, 4. 

"•blK Zech. 11, 15, see b-^^fit 

"•i^ pr. n. m. of a river by Susa 
in Persia, Dan. 8, 2, Gr. EuXaio^ 
later X^aoiric (ct Plin. Nat. Hist. 
6, 27), now the Kerah. 

"^b^ adv. from Sk 5 = tl ^ and 
^i not, therefore = if not Num. 22, 
33, Sept tl }xiQ ; then whether not Is. 
47, 12, ordinarily perAaps; hence em- 
ployed in fearing, doubting (Hn.2^ 5, 
or hoping Am. 5, 15. 

DTb^ (only pi. c. ^h^ K'thibh) 
m.2K.24, 15 the mighty ones, prin- 
ces; the Q'ri has '•^h'%, the usual form. 
See b^K subst. above. 

Db^ I(perh.for disw; o. d^, pL 
ft*»abx c. "'abx, r. Q^X) m- 1) prop. 
something boimd or jointed together, 
hence vaw^, arcA,AaZ/, as D'^TisaTi nb^x 
1 K. 7, 6 the pillared vestibule, the 
porch; WBOsn abx the hall ofjttdg- 
ment 1 K. 7, 7. Sept in 2 Ch. 15, 8 
render it vao^. ~— As to the root, 
comp. m^i< vauU from ^^ to bind; 
perh. nia^ix Is. 13, 22 citadels may 
come in the same way from D^ : but 
Gesenius, Ewald and others trace 
ab-ix to iw U to be in front; ct 
icpovao;. 2) pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 7, 16. 

Digitized by 




DNjSn(prob.akiii to *l«) adv. 
(adyeraatiYe) prop, if not, hence hut 
perhaps, then but, nay hut, as may 
suit the sense Job 2, h. Gen. 48, 19. 
— Prob. the ob is akin to trA, Syr. 

Ua^ Arab, p not, and the ^ is or 
as in •'i-^ 

wrongne98, hence 1) /b% Prov, 5, 23, 
2) godlesmess Ps. 38, 6. 3) perh« 
front rank (r. b^iK II), Prov. 14, 24 
rijx G^Vds ninK precedence of fools 
is foUy or foickedness, w. play on the 
meanings of nV^ 

U'VS (obs.) akm tottrr, rr9n, fioii, 
an mimet. like our hum, hubbub and 
ezpresflive of noise, tomnlt or alarm; 
•ee tmt 

n^21K pr. n. m. (loquacious or 
boastful, r. ^92( I) Gen. 36, 11. 

T\S (obs.) prob. akin to -pn, hj^ 
rnx (which see), to breathe; to blow or 
pant (cfc ian), to be va4n as breach; 
hence ^. 1) to &e noUUng, naughty, 
uncked; then fh>m hard Ireathing, 

2) ft) tfwfe eff^ort, to labour or ft) 
toil, to be exhausted, to 'suffer, 

3) to earn by labour, i e. to get gain 
or wealth; cf. ipY(£Co}Aai. Hence ^Ift, 
fiet, and perh. yjt^, "pKPl, pr. names 

■j3H(r. -pK; w. 8uf:^'i«Jer.4,14, 
WtK, pL D*':'!^ Prov. 11, 7) m. 1) prop. 
breath (&r|xo<). Hence fig. nothing' 
ness, vanity Is. 41,29 (cfl iarj &rea^, 
^aanty)', then naughtiness, worthkss* 
mess, sinfulness, hence sinners are 
often caUed IJtJ 'ijii Job 31, 3, 
cf '9 -Ti^ 'k "nbas;; falsehood, hypo- 
crisy^ deceit, e. g. ^JK r\Dto fytn^ 
Up Prov. 17, 4; idolatry 1 Sam. 15, 
23 (cf. ban, V*X), hence TjH'n*'? in 
the projects scomfdlly for b^'tt^a 



Hos. 4, 15; alio idol U. 66, 8. Also 
perh. )'^ Ez. 30, 17 for •;« in Egypt 
and in "j^H t^!^ Am. 1, 5 vaS^ of 
the idol, L e. Baalbec (Heliopolis in 
Syria), see )itL 2) labour or sorrow 
(cl b^J), dw^ew, e. g. •'SiK-'ia Gen, 
35, 18 son of my sorrow; ta^ii^-dni 
Hos. 9, 4 ^cmi 0/ sorrows, i. e. 
fimereal repast (cf.W dnb); •);)« nnrj 
Hab. 3, 7 Wkfer (iw^c»»;^cf: W. 

■JIS, "jk (pi. d-^riK Ps. 78, 51) m. 
1) weaUh Hos. 12, 9; force, used 
like Ks poet, for son Gen. 49, 3, ct 
Ps. 105, 36. 2) pr. n. of a city 
in Lower Egypt on the east bank 
of the Kile Gen. 41, 50, bearing the 
same name in Coptic (l)H and mean- 
ing the sun, which was there wor- 
shipped, hence the Greeks named it 
HeliopoUs and the Hebrews rb^XQ rf^a 
Jer. 43, 18, perh. DW ^i"*? Is. 19, 
18. 4) pr. n. m. (idol or power), see 

151^^ and 13N pr. n. (powerftd 
or rich; the ending i— , as in •ffTJ'j, 
la?, "ft^tO, being not the suffix but 
the formative ending "p'^) a oity in 
Benjamin, Neh. 7, 87. 

m*>3i» f. pi. in rthibh 2 Ch. 
8, 18 for rri^S^ ships; perh. a parti- 
cipial form from f^ m, comp. njah, 

135 iS pr. n. m. (prob. wealthy, 
r. *|iiK 3, w. the a^. ending d— , as 
in d^^) Gen. 36, 23. 

■JS iK pr. n. m. (strong, from "p'» 
w. a4j. ending ■)-;-) Gen. 38, 9. 

v]*l2S (obs.) perh. akin to t\P^ to 
swrround, to contain; hence perh. 

TB^ Jer.l0,9pr.n.ofagoldrBgion, 

whence dna and anj were brought. 

"^ If Heb., the name is perhi^s 

from an obsoL r. Y|p^ akin to Arab. 


Digitized by 





y^ vantage-ground, high region; or 
trim *^ coast and T1| gold, hence 
gold-coast \ bat some identify it with 
^"itflK, t and ^ being interchanged, 

as in pra = py^. See T^io. 

^^si«,^Bi«,^^Bit( IK. 10,11) 

pr.n. of a gold region, which the ships 
of Solomon in company with the Fhe- 
niciaas (ships of Tarshish) used to 
Tisit, on their retom landing their 
cargo not far from Berenice, now 
Aziwn O^ TW 1 K. 9, 26 and 
brihging gold (bht, fins), sandalwood 
(Q^^?3^ ^KD&.mocha),precious stones 
(hn^ 1^5), sUver (tlDJ), ivory 
(d-^an-jw), apes (fi*^Sip), peacocks 
(e*<^3Pi) 1 k. 10, 22. Hence 'iK am, fina 
goldofOphir; also ^*iViM alone for^oiU 
Job 22, 24. — Whetherthis region is to 
be songht for in Arabia or in India 
is not yet settled; nor can the deriv. 
of the word be given, btit see T&iK. 

IBiS, lli* (c 15—, pi. &•'»«, r. 
IjQt^ m. u?^/ ibc 14, 25, roZZer of a 
threshing-machine Prov. 20, 26. 

yHS 1) intr. to be compressed, 
narrow Josh. 17, 15. 2) trans, and 
rei. to press Ex. 5, IS; to press one- 
self, to haste, e. g. dTWJ yif Prov. 
29, 20 Aosfy tfi Ais speech; w. IQ ^o 
/brc^e oneself away, to withdraw Jer. 
17, 16. — Hiph. ywj to j^M 
on, to urge, w. a of the pers. Gten, 
19, 15. — Akin prob. to Ohald. -J^K 
to press close, perh. to Heb. yri^, 
yi^J, also V^n and tV?. 

"Sis (c.'i2Ci«,pl.Pfl''^?x,*uw,r. 
h;ti}) m. prop, what encloses (cf. Onin, 
bVI5), hence 1) receptacle, granary 
Joel 1,17, treasury for silver and gold 
2 €h. 82, 27. 2) what is enclosed, 
b«nce store, stoc^ 2Clh.ll, 11, treasure 
IK. 7,51. — In Zedt. 11, 18 "lanVl is 
perh* written far *l]nKn.'— Hence 

the denom. ^fpf to gaOier intou^trea^ 
sury, fig, lay up in store Is. 89, 6.— 
Nipb. to be laid up in store Is. 28, 18. 
— Hiph. (only 1 fdt. rt^iti) to make 
treasurer, w. to, Keh, 13, 13. 

fT^SiS Neh. 13, 18 for rTT'Stt 

(cf. rrrek) for rn'^a^^ttj i fat Hiphl 

w. n cohort, of r.n2^; Gram. § 68. 
Bem. 1. 

iTS or lOV (after the form tf<a) 
prop, to bum, hence intr. to be or 
become bright (Jen. 44, 8, *i'i« (perl 
impers.) it is bright 1 Sam. 29, 10. 
Fig. to shine or to look bright Is. 
60, 1. — Niph. ^^KJ (fdt ^VC) to 
become bright 2 Sam. 2, dt^ to be 
illuminated Job 88, 80 where tSftb 
for *viMn^; part brightened^ splen- 
did or glorious Ps. 76, 5. — Hiph* 
•VW (fdt ^)pTO^,tocauseto bum, 
hence — 1} to Kghi (a fire), to 
kindle, e. g. natp HaL 1, 10; 2) fig. to 
make bright, to lighten e. g. the eyes, 
etc. Ps. 18, 4, to quicken or twttiePs. 
19,9; to%A<iip&*^39f^eoNfiiefuiiioe, 
ts cheer Ecc 8, 1, said esp. of God 
to look graciously Ps. 80, 4 (w. and 
without m%) w. b«, i^, a, i, r« 
(WK) Ps. 67, 2 towards, upon, at, to, 
wUh anyone; also to enligkten the 
mind L e. to teach Ps. 119, 180. Z)to 
shed Ught, to iUwnmate Gen. 1, 16* 
Ct rnfcj 8, perh. rnj, 'tis;, "wn. 

^ (pi. d^7i« only in Ps. 186, 7) 
m. (f. only Job 86, 82) collect, Ught, 
as the light of the snn Job 81, 36, 
but not used for a Ught or luminary 
Cm^), hence day-Ught Keh. 8, 3, 
Ughini/ng Job 86, 82, ihe sun Job 
87, 21, the dawn Job 24, 14. Used 
fig. for happiness Is. 9, 1, instructum 
Is. 51, 4, d-'^n ^K Ught of life L e, 
life itself Ps. 56, 14, W^ ^^K bright- 
ness of aspect, cheerfulness Job 29, 24, 
i^'jte^ *vi« HsraePa benefactor or 

Digitized by 





feodlerlfl. 10, 17, so fi^ift "ViK U 49, 6. 
— On *nk9 in Am. 8, 8 see *nK^ 

*AK m. 1) a fiame or hlaze^ hence 
li^ *AK flame of flirty ftammg fire^ 
henee "mt^ "PMl Ez. 5, 2. 2)»^'k, 
only pL tn^ prop. Ughts, then regum 
9f J^U, ft« ease Is. 24, 15, opp. to 
Bjri •««. 8) ilg. ^Af offmOi^ rcre- 
Zo^ion Knm. 27, 21 , nsnally in nnion 
w. was\ (cIPb.48,8) sigm^ring KgM 
and fndh, Ex. 28, SO D*wni D*nMn 
tte TJrim and the Tkummim (Sept. 
^XiDOK xol aXiQOsia), i. e. the sacred 
lots or emhlems (gems) on the breast- 
plate Cfdn) of the High Priest. See 
DWU The supreme judge in Egypt 
also wore suspended from his neck 
a small image in sapphire as a vi- I 
sible symbol of truth. 4) pr. n. of a ' 
etty of the (Thaldees in Mesopotamia 
Gen. 11, 28 (see trnto); which name 
was seemingly still borne by the 
Persian fortress Ur, according to 
Ammianus (25, 8); but ^^ in this 
case would prob. be akin to "Vi a 
mOMNtotfi, a fastness; cf. Zend and 
Sans, vara (fortress). 5) pr. n. m. 
(perh. illumination) 1 Oh. 11, 85; cl 

rrfttl IL q.*lisi, KffkfBt, 189, 12; 
Ilg. happiness Bst 8, 1«; ef. ITTilt 

lVrtJK2 Ch. 82, 28 for tthij cribs, 

''^flS pr. n. m. Ex. 81, 2 (ct 
Ocirav6c), from ^)M w. the a^j. en- 
ding ^— -• 

SSrH^K pr. n. nw (lig^t of Ood) 
lCh.e^ 9. 

PPT^, VP^ pr. n. St. (Bght 
of ItJ*2 Sam. 11, 14; Jer. 28, 20. 

th'lSi or ri^ (only pi.) t green 
plants or herbs 2 K. 4, 89; Is. 26, 19 
'k h^ dew of plants L e. refreshing 

influence; r. *riK to be bright, fig. to 
sprout; ct y}, 

WMkS (obs.) perh. to be strong or 
fnanfy, to support, i.q.m2<n. Hence 
perh. Xb^, IT^ftjt I, t^"^ i, 

mZS I(ob8.)akin to TT^ and 09 
to cut in, to engrone or mark\ hence 
perh. n-lK I, r« I. » 

Zl*»S n (fnt. VNtKl aslbtag prob. 
akin to rnK to be wUHng, to agree, 
w. b of the pers. Gen. 34, 15, or 
fbUowed by ^idk 2 K. 12, 9. 

mX m (obs.) prob. to come in, 
\ q. nnH. Deriv. frnvL 

n*BS IV (obs.) perh. akin to xtT}, 
Ohald. ^^ to be, to exist, Deriv.nrvu 

riiS I (pi. nink, r. nw l) m. tm- 
pression, engraving, tnark (written), 
hence in general 1) a characteristic, 
sign, token or proof, e. g. the sabbath 
Ez. 81, 13, circxmicision Gen. 17, 11, 
sacrifice are mentioned as tokens 
{symbols) of the covenant between 
tXp^^ and Israel; rvrtlM P8. 74, 9 
sanctuaries, as the Arab. ^a^. 2)iiii- 
litary ensign of the several tribes 
Kum. 2, 2, while ^Vn was the standard 
of 3 tribes together Kum. 2, 2—9; 
fig. signs of times as trnsialb^ rlhM^ 
Gen. 1, 14. 3) in the most diversified 
fig. sense as e.g. memorial l>eot6,8, 
monument Bz. 14, 8, warning, premo- 
niHon Is. 8, 18, prodigy in general^ 
a wonder or miracle Deut 4, 34 (like 

)niK n ( w. 8u£ "TiiK ; see r^ Haign 
defl ace) perh. meaning existenae, 
being, then adjf (el o&ri^); t,rmiV. 

TM demonst adv. of time (prop. 

that time), then, in relation both to 

the past, at that Urns (<Hn. 4, 26) 

wheie therefore the perfect tense is 


Digitized by 



MTK 20 

snitable, and also to the ftitare, 
thereupon (Ps. 96, 12), also w. pert 
in fat. sense (Ex. 15, 15) and w. 
fut. in perf. sense (Josh. 10, 12); 
but tij is never pleonastic, since 
tfcrp? (Jer. 44, 18) is = tKa since 
(prop. /rom t?Kd ftme), nor ever cansaL 
YKQ (absolute) from then (since), as 
tx of the past, hence = former^, 
before, heretofore; also (relative) of 
the point of commencement in the 
past, hence followed by a noun (Ps. 
re, 8), an infinitive (Ex. 4, 10), or a 
finite verb (Ex. 5, 23), which may be 
rendered ever since. — tK is akin to 
fit (dem. pron.) just as our then is tcf 
the, this, that, there, and as x6xt, 
Lat. turn, tunc are to 6, i^, t6; ct 
•'TX, Chald. i:«5K. 

CsTCS or niCS Chaia.(part. pass. 
MjK Dan'. 3, 22 for mg, inf. Kta for 
KWg, w. suf. Pi;jta Dan? 3, 19) to light, 
to heat, — Akin to ttJ^K I whence \C§ 
fire; cf.Sans. u8h = lA,uro (ustum) = 

^TCS (obs.) perh. akin to nfQ^ and 
ah2f,to shine, which idea is often 
transferred to blooming, blossoming. 
Deny, ^'m and 

«3T^ P^* i^ nL (perh« blooming, 
r. atl$) 1 Oh. 11, 37. 

I T JS Ohald. only in part. 1 H^t^ 
as a^j. ^ttled or decided Dan. 2, 5. 8. 
Ot the Talm. It^S^Db M^tl^^ decided 
to his purpose. — The root is perh. 
akin to 'i^, f^ I to set, hence 
different firom h^, which most prefer 
(since 1 = i, as Sj-J = bj-j), and so 
they render K^K •»» Kr»k» the word 
(i. e. decree) is gone forth (L e. Aos 
been issued) from me. 

OTT» Ohald. perh. adj. settkd, 
firm Dan. 2, 5. 8; but see on nt^ 


SITS (for aitg, r. atJJ) m. Saaco- 
itO(, hyssops an aromatic plant, which 
was used in bunches (tm^) in the 
sprinklings of purification Ex. 12, 22. 
The Phoenicians brought the name 
to Greece, as they did also many 
others, e. g. h^jji (6'^pb) o^xoL' 
(JLtvo^ K^ aixu6c, p^ x6p.tvov, ^^ 

liT« (for ^tK, r. \ti$) m. 1) band, 
fetter Job. 12, 18. 2) belt, girdle Is, 
5, 27. 

"^S (same as t^ Ohald. TTJaj) only 
poet, demonst. adv. at that time, then 
Ps. 124, 3. 4. 5. 

I^^TS Job 32, 11, 1 ftit. Hiph. for 
ptKK (see TtK); Gram. §. 68, Bern. 1. 

rriSTS (w. sul Wjnstjsj) 1 a sacri- 
ficial term (r. "nat), a remembrance' 
offering (Sinao), Sept. |j.vT2fA,6auvov 
(see Acts 10, 31), Vulg. memoriale, 
which brings the offerer into remem- 
brance before God, or which brings 
Gk)d into honourable remembrance 
with the offerer Kum. 5, 26. Hence 
incense Lev. 24, 7; hence perh. as 
denom. Hiph. in Is. 66, 3 ^*^3Tn to 
offer, to cense. 

yTCV (fut.'^iw Jer.2,36for'4t»t\ 
or "^ptKI^ to glide, move away, hence 
to depart, to flow off orebb (of water) 
Job 14, 11; to vanish (of help) Deut. 
32, 36 where rtnj is 8 p. f. perf. 
for nbt«; to be gone (of food) 1 8am., 
9, 7. — Pu. only in part ifi«a 
Ez. 27, 19 prob. for ^2^3 spun, hence 
yam; L q. Chald. bt5, Syr. Sp^ 
to spin. — Akin to b'ff,ftt, itj L 

y TCS Ohald. (imp. itx for it^j Ezr. 
5, 15) to'go, to depart Dan. 6, 19. 
5TS m. departure, hence, pr. vu 
j btfijtJi* lax (the stone of parting) 1 Sam. 
i 20, l9;r.1JtK- 

Digitized by 


its 2] 

Ms IBzr. 5, 15 for itK, see itst 


■jTij; (dual D^W, pL c. rvijJJ^ from 
■)VK only in a prop. n. in Josh. 19, 34) 
i the ear; so in the phrases 'IXn "na^, 
•HI 0)9; '^ nw, 's nV», \n^i 
*« rmB, 'fcfe ^aan: b^^tk rwawm for 
caimng ears to heat' Ez. 24, 26. — 
Hence perh. as denom. Hiph "pTHH 
to Usten attentively, prop, to prick 

vp the ears (aMn to Arab, ^^y ati9- 
cuttavit, from ^il) w. ace. Job 34, 2, 
Gen. 4, 23 or i, in Ps. 77, 2, i? Prov. 
17,4, ^ of pers. or thing. Spoken of 
God, to hear is to answer Ps. 5, 2; of 
men, to obey Ez. 15, 26. — We find 
in Job 32, 11 *ptfi^ fat. 1 pers. for 
■pttjlt, and in Prov. 17, 4 part pTg, for 
■pwo. See pr. names mi^ ^^l^t '*?;9- 
■ — The root is prob. ^JJ (obs.) akin 
to^, 'gio to be pointed, sharp, from 
the shape of the ear; ct dx^ point, 
and dxo6o>, Sxpov and dxpodofiai. 
Of Aram.Kyta<, |jjf, Arab, ^l oSc 

(d>T-^Of ^* aurts » at<9 in aus-^mUo 
(=» aum H- ceUo = xeXXo), hence to 
prick the ears), G. ohr, E. ear, 

jTCV I (Qal obs.) prob. to point, 
to sharpen; hence perh. Hipb. "pTMn 
to sharpen or prick the ears, to listen; 
but see under )UfL DeriT. irtj, prob* 
]rk, pr. names "gK, nnSTfit 

jTcV n only PI. "gK to weigh or 
prooeEcc. 12, 9. The root is perh. akin 

to fn, Arab. ^^ <o ire^A; hence 
C5J|^. — Part. pL iy»3Wa Jer. 5, 8 
belongs to ^ or "(P. 

]TK (only w. sol rjgv0 m. u^eajTon 
or mi'Zemen^ Dent 23, 14 (cf. Chald. 
'pmartHS); r. ^t^L 

rriWD IJS pr. n. (perh. Sherah's 

▼5 V 

ear or top) of a village bnilt by an 
Ephraimitess (rnm) 1 Oh. 7, 24. 

tOFl t^i3TH pr. n. (ears L e. 
smnmits of Tabor) a city in Kaphtali 
Josh. 19, 84. niaj^ is from TJK {ear 
or j>oinQ. 

roiH (r. nat w. K prosth. like 
at3;s,Sj3^) an obsol. adj. m, drying 
up, hence perh. as denom. Hiph. 
rpajxp to mofe (fry e.g. 'Tnjls.19,6; 
see M5t. 

"^JTS (a4j. from ijk) pr. n. m. 
(perhl long eared, cf. L. awrUus) Knm. 
26, 16. 

n^STH pr. n. m. (prob. ear of Pn) 
Neh.'io, 10; see TJK. 

IrTOs (obs.) perh. akin to ptn and 
Arab. ^^\, to grasp or hold (so 
Dietrich); hence 

D'^TK pL m. m(znac2e9, bonds Jer. 
40, 1 ; prob. L q. d"*!??. 

iTcV (fat 'iW, w. suf. -^ynwi Job 
80, 18) akin to 'TJ^ 'nbK to bind, to 
wrap round, hence to gird, w. ace. 
6. g. d^^^n ^^6 loins Job. 38, 3 i. e. 
to equip. Like all verbs of clothing, 
it takes the ace. of the garment (Gram. ' 
§. 138, 3),*ritse *i«&^ girded w. a girdle 
2 Kings 1, 8. — Niph. part ^tzo 
girded, w. fi Ps. 65, 7. — Pi. to gird 
around, to arm, w. double ace. WX^ 
for *^p^fi<n 2 Sam. 22, 40; also fig. to 
put on joy or strength Ps. 18, 88; 30, 
12. — Hitb. to arm oneself la, 8, 9; 
to gird oneself, w. the ace. Ps. 98, 1. 
—— This root is akin also to ^^, ^"yt 
n, Sans, sird (string), aeipd, L. series, 
Or, seUf GaeL sraith. 

yilTH (rare for ynj w. K prosth., 
r. yiT) t the fore-arm Job 31, 22, 
the arm Jer. 82, 21. 

IT^TH (r. rnj, w. k prosth., c rnw, 
no pL) m. 1) native, indigenous (of a 

Digitized by 



tneX growing wkareitipraAgnp Pa» 
87, 85; also of apeno^ umxtioe'Lttw, 

16, 29. 2} n. m. » trrr hence 
ty^^ a patronymic a^. m, oied of 
the deaoendaats of rntfec i. e. Itnr (see 
1 Oh. 2, 6) said of Ethan 1 E. 5^ 11 
and Heman Ps. 88, 1. 

THT^ see rnj^j. 

r liS ICc'^M, in pr. names h($ and 
VifiJ, wTsuf. W, 5pr!^, ^Hfij, 1'Ti^) 

Gram. § 27, Bern. 2, »), JWJ^, ^W^ 
ttD^Wi) m. 1) 6ro<A«r (see tmif 
mker), whether fdlly such Oen. 
42, 4, or by step-fath^ Jndg. 8, 10 
or step-mother Jndg. 9, 21; when 
greater definiteness is needed the 
degree of relationship is indicated by 
a^a, lana, ^Tl^ rn^sqa. 2) fig. 
in still more diversified senses (like 
aK) e. g. a) friend^ in reference to 
brotherhood in heart and sonl 2 Sam. 
1, 26; in a more extended brother- 
hood in lineage, for a brother of the 
family, of the race, of the land, e. g. 
p) Jdnaman (in any degree) Gen. 14, 
16 (prop, nephew, clch. 11,31); t)one ! 
of the same tribe Num. 8, 26 ; d) a 
fellow country -man Ex. 2, 11; in 
xeference to other men and peoples; 
t) a confederate^ an dUy Am. 1, 9, a 
neighbour or feJhw^man Lev. 19, 

17, or a fellow^ a match (as to like- 
ness or companionship) Job 80, 29; 
hence C) the use of hfit w. a preceding 
»•»« for L. dUer— otter, the one^the 
oiher, one another, even of inanimate 
things Ex. 25, 20, if they are masc, 
e. g. Gen, 13, 11 WK h^a W^K one 
from another, 1. e. from one another; 
''T»9^« «^''fi< Gen. 42, 2S one to the 
other, L e. looking to one another; 
Gram. §. 124, Bem. 4. So n^ is used 
«l80 w. $;} Jndg. 6, 29. — In Ea. 

22 intK 

18, 16 fxtf maj perh. be either for 
"HiK or for tJB. —* The word is prob. 
primitive and mimetioy like 3^, QM; 
yet it is inflected partly as if fhmi 
a r. ttntf and partly as from a r. 
nni; (Gram. § 96, 2), botk pei^ 
akin to nm, *in^, tty^ mtamipg 

PIN n(mimetakin to r. rffj^m) 
intezj. ah! oh! alaaf (ct Keltic ack! 
och!) exclamation of grief, w. ^ 
Ez. 6, 11. 

HR m (r. WTJ I) t prop. /Ire, 
then fire 'Stove, the fire-pot which 
in the East warms rooms In winter; 
only in Jer. 86, 22. 28. — Akin to 
m, Sans.uaA (to bum), koria, iay(jii^ 
L. vesta, ifftna, «8- tom. 

HK Ohald. (pi. w. suf. ^pJH Szr* 
7, 18) m. brother ■» HK in Heb. 

Hi^ (only pi. d'^nk) m. prop, how- 
Ung8,t'tLenhowlet,owl,U.l3, 21, named 
after its dolefid cry; akin to rtif ah! 
nnK UL — Comp. G. uhUf L. uhUa^ 
P. hibou. 

nWlM pr. n. m. (father's brother) 
Ahdb 1 K. 16, 28, king of Israel B. 
C. 918—897. 

lUlM pr. n. m. fi>r afi)n«; Jer. 
29, 22.* 

l^nM pr. n. m. (perh. lovely, r. 
SSn with ^ prosth. and a^j. enduig 
l-^) 1 Ch. 2, 29. 

nn JS i. q. TIj; to wiife, only In 
Hith. 'n nm? utwte ih^seif Ea. 21, 
21 ; see under IHM. 

Tt^ rarely TTK m. (c, *1ty$, pL 
tr^yv^Jt nni« (for tm^), in panae 
nriK) a cardinal number used as an 
aclj. one (etc, \iioL, Iv, L. mma, -a, 
-i«m) but "k /frst in specifying 
order of time, as •flW 0^*^ first day 
Oen. 1, 5, Ear. 10, 16, Vhn^ ^«l^ on 

Digitized by 


ihefira of ihe month OwlB, 5.(cf; \da 

tuv aa^^drcuv Acts 20, 7); placed 

twioeBx. 17, 12 or thrice 1 Sam. 10« 3, 

it expresses a series (like L. unm^ 

aUerttertiu8)fir9t, second, third, where 

rac, *W or "^^ can standin 2d meiaber» 

)vai 'vxtffj^^irt^ the one ^the other 

in2Saiii. 14, 6 (cf.Gram.§ 124,Bem.4}f 

also a distributioii one each Num. 

13, 2; perh. like our a, an (= one) 

I K. 20, 13 Ttjij fionj (Uke itpo<pi^T7)C 

ti;) a certain prophet. 2) anybody^ 

tome one, either in the absoL state 

as T1jif9 "Th^ tri'VjrTO ^« 1 Sam. 

9, 8, or in constr. state bSMl in^ 

Gen. 2«, 10 an^ one of the people, 

hence nn» px, Th« fc6 1 K. 8, 56 

noioe^. 3) the nmneral may single 

oat an object as already known or 

uniqae, hence the same Gen. 40, 5, 

$ole Ez. 7, 5, so also bTtfiM same 

Gen. 11, 1. The pL is also fbr indi- 

vidnab, some, a few. L. aUquot Qen« 

27, 44, but seldom for the sing., e. g. 

cnnj^ rt} Ez. 37, 17 they become 

one i. e. united. 1)1^ £zr. 2, 64 as 

one i. e. together, so also *tnt^ tntQ 

1 Bam. 11, 7; ^ in^A Is.^27, 12^ 

Ecc 7, 27 one after the other, one by 

one, — Hence perh. as denom. *t)t^ 

once in Hith. to unite oneself Ez. 21, 

21. — nnx may be primitive but akin 

to ^mf, W, Sans, ika, Ixaaroc, W. 

yc^<% (ct G. emige). 

FlMiSCobs.) to jotn, prob. denom. 
from nx ^roicA^r. Deriv. hJTj^j n, 

VTJJ (Sept. ftx»^ *X^ Coptpi-aehi, 
in Heb. only collect, sing.) m. what 
grows by the water, marsh' gram, 
fedye, bulrushes, Nile-grass Gen. 4l|, 2, 
Job 8, 11. — Perh. from Mlj^ to ^'otn 
or Mk7, as L. juncus from jungo] 
G. Mms from (tnisft; cf. Targ. 
iq^ reedt and rope, also oxoivo^ 
(PKob« from ix«>i o^i%9tt>) rush^ rope. 



VW|, also "flj^, for n^ drotter 
in pr. name^ 

TTK (for ^rtn«, r. *ff«J) pr. n. m. 
(union) 1 Oh. 8, 6, for which also 
•rriJJ in (Jen. 46, 21. 

t7jri&$ I poet. (r. njn to fcfl; cf. 
irjljx) t intimation or declaration, 
only Job 13, 17. . 

rrjn» n poet. <?. nn^j to j<>ii») 
£ broArhood, only Zeoh. 11, 14. 

TlHK pr. n. m. (perh. brother- 
hood, r. mij n = nnx), interchang- 
ed w. n;n« l Ch. 8, 4. 7. Patron. 
•^nhKh 2 Sam. 23, 28. 

i1^ni$ ChalcL (c. n?jnis) t « 
Heb. nin^ I declaration or «o/u^iofi 
of a riddle Dan. 5, 12; r. Kin. 

^y^rW pr. n. m. (perh. swartky, 
r. Wn w. 1^ prosth. and a^j. ending 
Vr) 1 Oh. 4, 2. 

^iHK (r. "in^j; pL w. suf. '^'lirn} 
Bx.33,23) m. l)hinder part, bach-side, 
rear Is. 9, 11, pi. c. -^nnx Ex. 26, 12; 
as adv. behind, backward, back 
(opp. W^, wm in front), behind, or 
in reply to the question wliitherl 
bachioards, back e. g. *iinfij*ij, '^ :nbj, 
'^f a», '^ a^; w. pref: ^inj|6 fcocife- 
vori Ps. 114, 8, v>. averted face 
Jer. 7,24; ^iM^ /rom deAtni 2 Sam. 
10, 9; lin^ same as ^^in^i in reply 
to the question where^ Prov. 29, 11. 
2)generally, the west, western quarter, 
wl^ch the Shemites spoke of as be- 
kind, as if they were looking to the 
rising sun (opp. d'Tg t?ie front, the 
east) hence also adv. behmd i. e. in 
tJj^ west Is. 9, 1 1 . 3) after-time, future, 
e^ g. nini;^ in the future Is. 41, 28. 
opp. ttJQ ^ pasL — Hence perh. as 
denom. Hith. V;^^ in Ez.21, 21 to 
turn oneself towaras the west, as some 
would read f6r ^HJi^ttJiJ. 

Digitized by 





T\in^ (c. nirwt, w. suf. Wm, once 
irihK Num. 8, 7; pL prob. m'iW 
see Gram. § 96, 2, only w. «uf. tpn i r w jt 
£z. 16, 55 as from mij, also T|n'*''*T^ 
Ea.l6,52,W^ Job42,ll asfr.riT^O 
t sister (with the same shades of 
meaning as tv^ brother); fig, a female 
rdation Job 42, 1 1 , a woman of the same 
tribe or people Gen. 24, 60; an aUy^ of 
confederate cities or states Ez. 16,55. 
It means other w. tvB^ preceding it 
(even for things), as in nnirtr^M tv^ 
(see Gram. § 124, Bem. 4^) the one 
to the other Ex. 26, 3, like -^K ^:hft 
l*fn^ ; also a femaie confidant or bosom 
frietid Prov. 7, 4, Cant. 4, 9. — m>nj 
(Aram, nn^ jLl) is prob. for niTO 
or riiHK, as fem. of ^MH a M^, just 
as in rri^an. 

TnCVakinto'TniJ.Chald.'TriK; fQt. 
trjib, once tn"'' 2 Sam. 20, 9, rarely thgj 
1 K. 6, 10, Gram. § 68, 1 ; fat. 1 pers. w. 
n-;- cohort, njnk Cant 7, 9 ; imp. thfij, 
•'tnx Buth 3, 15), 1) to ffraspf seize 
(opp. IT^jn Eco. 7, 18) w.accofpers. 
or thing Ps. 56, 1; also w. a Gen. 
25, 26; to hold fast, w. ace, as rvha^ 
tJie eyelids Ps. 77, 5, so that they 
cannot close in sleep; fig. to seize (ot 
terror) Ex. 15, 14 (ct <p6poc ft' lx«t 
^sch. Agam. 1. 1243), bat also to lake 
fright (as in Engl.) i. e. to be seized 
by terror Job 18, 20; also to catch, 
capture Gant. 2, 15, e. g. b^^i^ 
D'^'td:?, dW; to Ao« %A<, grasp,^ 
aco. or a, e. g. a"Tn Wh« (cf, L. am^ 
plexus yladium) holding the sword 
Gant 3, 8. 2) to join together, fasten 
in, e. g. ^*ipa in the waU 1 Eingi 
6, 6, hence also to cover over i. e. 
to bind together with beams 
1 Kings 6, 10 (cf: 'WK, d^), to aAtft 
/a«e e. g. nInV? Neh. 7, 8. 3) to toJfee 
otrt (by lot) w. 10 Nam. 31, 30. — 
IViph. mM to be caught Ecc. 9, 12, 

seized or AeW Gen. 22, 18, bat tnsb 
Josh. 22, 9 to become possessed of m&y 
perh. be denom. from IWtm (a pos- 
session); to put oneself in possession 
Gen. 34, 10. — Pi. mx to shut up, 
only in Job 26, 9 TO3-'»» ItJWj 
shutting up (veiling) the face of his 
throne. — Hopb. (only part ta^'ttTKo) 
to be joined, fastened w. b 2 Ch. 9, 18. 

TtlH Job 23, 9 for ntnx, 1 pers. 
fdt Qal apoc. of r. njlj; cL Gram. 
§ 76, 2, c. 

THH pr. n. m. (seizer or possessor) 
Ahaz,\K. 18, 1; Sept !^X*^ » •'^ 
sephas Axo^C?]^ king of Judah B. ۥ 
744—728. See M^TlTfit 

n JHH (for hwrw) f . prop, a thing 
held, a holding, e. g. 'lag Gen. 23, 4, 
hbro Nam. 27, 7; then property, 
whether movable or immovable, Lev. 
25,45. Perh. hence denom. Nipb.iniib 
(for mx5) to put oneself in possession, 
w. a of the thing Josh. 22, 9. Hence 

ins pr. n. m. (holder) Neh. 11, 13, 
in 1 Ch. 9, 12 ti'^rrP. 

n^'tm, Ti^im pr. n. m. (Pn 
holds) Ahaziah, 1) king of Israel, B. 
0. 897—895, 2 K. 1, 2; Sept 'Oxo- 
Cfac 1 K. 22, 40. 2) king of Jadah, 
B. 0. 884, 2 K. 9, 16; cf mxiSTi. 

DJHH pr. n. m. (perh. a holdings 
r. mt$ w.* endig d-;-) 1 Ch. 4, 6. 

t^YHH pr. n. m. (possession) Gen. 
26, 26.'''* 

ririCS I (obs.)intr. to bum, be on 

fire, hence n^ ID; akin to Arab. S^l 
A€a^, and to ts^ L 

MnCSn(ob8.) perKakinto mij; 
ITK brother, hence to jotn; hence rprifit 

nnjS^ra (obs.) tocryahr oh!; 
hence to groan, to howL Hence d*frft(. 
-*- Akin to mimet MiJ HI, G.odk/ 

Digitized by 


Hekxen^ "W. oehl ochain (moan), J^^^* 

n|t3n» Gen. 31, 89 for MJKOriK, 
1 fat.' PL of Kon (cf. Gram. § 74, 
Bern. 4), w. snf. 3 8. fern. 
Ilh*, see rfirWL 
*n^ pr. m m. (peril, brotherly; 
•^-^ adjective-ending) 1 Ch. 6, 15. 

"TO^ pr. n. m. (prob. union, r. nn^; 
cf. Zeuctc) Gen. 46, 21; see imVL 

ttJ"'nS pr. n. m. (prob. for ^H^ 
father's brother) 2 Sam. 23, 88. 

KTTN Chald. Q)l. fr'rttp i. q.Heb. 
rmi w. » prosth., a riddle^ enigma 
Dan. 5, 12; r. Tin. 

JTtTS, ^n^JHH pr. n. m. (bro- 
iher,\* e. friend, of FP) 1 K. 11, 29, 
2 Ch. 10, 15. 

TVnr^ pr. n. m. (prob. brother 
of renown) Num. 84, 27. 

ilT* pr. n. m. (brotherly, for 
•yhlT^"2 Sam. 6, 8. 

tfTHH f. pL sisters, see'tliny. 
' HT't^H pr. n. m. (perh. brother 
of nnion, r. THJ) 1 Oh. 8, 7. 

D?fDT[H pr. n. m. (brother of 
goodness) 1 Sam. 14, 8. 

TO*flH pr. n. m. (perh. brother 
by birth, r. tV;) 2 Sam. 8, 16. 

tVi^"77i5 pr. n- in. (brother of 
death) 1 Ch. 6, 10 bat in 6, 20 niTO, 
hence Maold Lnke 8, 26. 

ipB^S pr. n. m. (brother of a 
kingJlWfni&cA 1 Sam. 21, 2. 

TQTK pr. n- T^ (perh. brother 
of a gift) Num. 18,22. 

yiTQ'TR^ pr. n. m. (perh. brother 
of anger) 1 Sam. 14, 50. 

VIT* pr. n. m. (brotherly) 1 Ch, 
7, 19.' 

S'TD'TTHl. pr. n. m. (liberal brother) 
1 K.7, 14.' 

T : t • 

D^irtlK pr. n. m. (perh. brother 
of pleasantness) Ahtnoam 1 Sam. 
14, 50. 

TODTIS pr. n. m. (brother of 
support) Ezl 81, 6. 

iry^Sl. pr. n. m. (brother of help) 

Dj^^TlM pr. n. m. (brother stands 
up) 2 K. 25, 22. 

D*WK pr. n. m. (brother exalted) 
Hum. 26, 88. 

y'^lTfc* pr. n. m. (brother is bad) 
Hum. 1, 15. 

*1l11DTlS pr. n. m. (brother of the 
dawn) 1 Ch. 7, 10. 

I'C'flH pr. n. m. (brother of song) 
1 K. 4, 6."* 

bShTIH pr. n. m. (perh. brother 
of folly) 2 Sam. 15, 12. 

b>T» Ez. 89, 7 (w. Dagh. t impL 
fromibn) 1 p. fat Hiph. I tuiU pro- 
fane, but the form hm Deut. 2, 25 is I 
ioiU begin. See Gram. §. 67, 5, Bem. 

abtJK pr. n. t (fat) of a place in 
ABher,*Judg. 1, 81; from J>n% w. 9 
prosth., like aja«, "»T3«, njt«, etc 

"•bm Va. 119, 6, also ''bnS 2 K. 
5, 8 (prob. from ftt} oh! and *^h « 
n^=!ii would (^/) particle of wishing: 
oh that! Cf. ''^*. 

^'bnS pr. n. m. (perh. sickly, r. 
n\n 1 "w. fi^ prosth.) 1 Ch. 2, 81. 

rR9bHH(n-;- toneless, as inhi^i) 
t, name of a precious stone Ex. 28,19; 
89, 12, Sept. dftidu<JTOC amethyst, but 
JosephuB has axiTijC agate, cf. Apoc 
21, 20. — If Semitic, fT?^"^ i» V^^ 
from Q^ I to &e sound or /Srm. 

ttn^flM (Achmethd, hence JSb&a- 
tdfia) pr. n. t of the chief dty of 
Media (K^JT!? TW? Tf ««?ra) Si«^« 
6, 2; hence the names 'AYptlxava 

Digitized by 



(i» and b interchanged) and later Mb^ 
maddn, meaning according to Lassen 
(Ind. BibL HI. p, 86) licicoaraaCa 
place far horses. 

^'SOnS pr. n, m. (perh. from 
|5Tja non^ I will trust in PP) 2 Sam. 
23, Si.""" 

^IHH, see nn^ below. 
IHIS Ohald. prep, after (by He- 
braism for "Jnij or ir«a); see '^^JTit 

iFjiS (Qal only fdt. 1 p. -irw «. 
'nngl5;"cfT'yX') (».<icZ(^ Gen. 82, 5. 

— Pi. im, 8 pL rrwfbr r«T« Judg. 
5, aa, ftit. infij*;, parti ^'^yyiio Prov. 

23, 30i 1) trans, to delay^ hinder Gen. 

24, 56; fode/erEx. 22,28. 2)intran8. 
to linger Ps. 40, 18. — Hipb. Win « 
^i-^nxn (ct T^ain — T^a^in) only fat 
nnt> (Q'ri) intrans. to tarry ^ w. "pa 
won 10 'ilti*l anJ Ae u^oa behind the set 
time 2 Sam. 20, 5; but see ^. Hence 

"ins (w. Dagh. t impl. == ^HiJ, 0. 
•nriK, pi. D^'^nx, Job 31, 10 "pW, 0. 
•niTK; f. n"jrtt<, pL nrinx; Gram. 
§22, l)prop.tarryiBg, delaying, hence— 
A) adj. 1) following, next, second (ct 
L. secwndMS from sequor) Gen. 17, 21 . 
2) another, other, different e. g. d'^I^K 
0-»nn5{ other Oods i. e. idols Ex. 20, S, 
^y^ ^y^ « different spirit Num. 
14, 24. — B) adv. 1) absol. in^ else- 
tcJiere, in another way, perhaps in 
Ps. 16, 4. T9v^ ^nst another way they 
hasten, i. e. after idols; but better as 
adj. to another (god). 2) constr. 'nrB$ 
a) of place elsewhere (Gen. 22, 13); 
P) of time afterwards, then (Gen. 
10, 18). This *ttT55 appears very often 
as a particle. — C) prep. 1) const, 
sing. *tnK, like the adv. a) of place, 
behind, often w. verbs of motion, as, 
*^t?H tfTif M9, tjin, also w. prefl as 
irnw/Vomcy^Ps. 78, 71; p)of time, 
after, as •)$ ijj^ Lev. 14, 86 prop. 

26 li-m 

after 90, hence therei^pon. But tut 
more firequently, 2) const. pL ^y^ w« 
su£ ^yyi, Y'TTW, ^^q^ used as subst. 
in 2 Sam. 2, 23 nr^jm ''^nxa tiTtt* 
tAe %tn(2er jpari of the spear, ct £z. 
41, 15; else onlji as prep, a) of place, 
behind, after, hence like *ifTK w. verbs 
of motion, as rn, -j^, tr3> K^f, Ka, 
'''!?q^ J^V?' *^® ^' 0*1^®' verbs, as 
B-iW J«r. 50, 21, K-JU, hJJ, kVq Josh. 
14, 8; p) of time, (rfter, afterwards, 
w. inl Gen. 5, 4; "jD •'•TTj^ prop, after 
80 i. e. thereafter, thereupon, for 
which lat^ nkt "^^TW Bzr. 9, 10; ct 
Chald. nyj ^'pyy^ after this Ban. 2, 29. 
With other prepositions, as 'nnxg 
from behind (once in 1 Ch. 17, 7 
•^'TTp-IP), i •'^ini^ of place, behind 
2 Sam. 20, 2; or of time, after Neh. 
*i 7; 15 •'tjnaso 2 Sam. 3, 28; T^T^"^ 
behind 2 K. 9 18, where ^K denotes 
the direction and 't^ the position; 
'k*^$ behind £z. 41, 15 prop. t«pon 
parts ^e^imi, like *^dlf ^$ before m 
Ps. 18, 48; ^yvx^ in n-^awi ''Vwa 
«£;. the spear hindwards 2 Sam. 2, 23, 
but see above under C, 2. — D) coiy. 
mostly w. *t\§5^, as ^m ^nx, "im "^^nx 
after that; without 'iS« Lev. ^25, 48; 
a^so^m)^'^yil$ after that Oten. 6, 4. 

'ini^ pr. n. Ancestor of the Hushim 
1 Ch. 7, 12. 

^"TJS Jadg. 5, 28 for nrjK 3 perf. 
pL PL of "^n^; Gram. § 64, Bem. 8. 

•jiiriJ^ (from *in¥ 6e*tne0 a4j. m., 
njiirjK f. hinder, 1) hotter, Zoter (opp. 

f^TP) 'T^^'?). T'^^tlK ^'^ a ^^ d<^ 
Prov. 81, 25, finyi ^I'ti following gene- 
ration Ps. 48, 14, d"*?*"!™ after ones 
L e. posterity Job 18, 20; hence but 
as in Is. 44, 6. 2) weitem (see ^'n^ 2) 
e. g. Ti*^n«n tajn ^ west Sea, L e. 
the Mediterranean, the east sea bang 
the Dead Sea (Joel 2, 20). — As adY« 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



weMdnrtiy i^tf% Dan.n, 89; ate 

f»j^Tq«^ W^t:s^ ot toe Beo. i, ii. 

rnrS^ pr. n. m. (perh. an after- 
biother, for rocpfy 1 Gh. 8, 1. 

brnnS pr. n. m. (perh. bebted 
a ramj^urt) 1 Oh. 4, 8. 

•nnS (Sch^'ri) Chald. adj. m. but 
nsedXr t mTrjj w. tei^ Dafli. 2# 89, 
nw 7, 6, 1^ 7, 20, prob. becauae in 
each of these cases a king was really 
meant) which prob. caused the adj. 
to be put in the masculine. 

■^nS aft^Tf c. plor- of •irjK, see 
p. 28. — Also Ohald. after Dan. 2, 
29, w. suf. •(W'^rBS I>an. 7, 24. 

''TTR Ex. 28, 12, see ^tl'm. 

T"!^ WriT^Jf) Ohald. prob. for 
•jnrw, Heb. lillnx, only in Dan, 4, 6 
'pyvf *v$ Cprop. itff afterwards) at lad. 

n'^rjK (also Chald. in Dan. 2, 28) 
t latter tinner hence f^e /Wwre, ifc 
end (opp. ri'^'ij) e. g. o'najJi ^''?J|| 
b. 2, 2; then the uttermost part, 
as b^ ^'^^.^ PS' 1^1 ^* ^* M 
ocmorste, iAose who come after i, a. 
fosteriJty Ps. 109, 18. 

JTIH Chald. adj. m. L q. Heb. 
Thri»r«'ie r^yj. 

IVSinSt(prop.a4j.f:of'»?Tl'nK; ct 
manrijp) adV. 6flcftiwird» Gen. 9, 28. 

D'«3nTOn» (c ^iy Est. 3, 12, 

Persian) m. pL only in Est. 8, 9; 9, 8, 
Ezr.' 8, 86, where it signifies sa^ 
trt^ or viceroys. The^fi^rwjri^ 
^a'Ckashdar-pan » ehashadra-pan 
(hence old Gr. iSaTpdinj^ and the 
vignal aaTp&iDQC) which Bohlen 
makes the salbrap of ihemitHaary force, 
but others better guardian of the 
province, from the old Persian hihiir 
(province) and pd>w6n «« M» (guar- 
dian). Neither explanation, however, 
•aits the Heb. orthography, as the 

first member of the compound is ^^n^ 
(khsha), if we may judge from the 
wwds, W^3-«rj?» T??"«^»T^, ^y^^ir^ 
lahair cannot ai^ly. The compound 
is rather from kh^ (^17n^» old Per- 
sian Tcsahya for csaya, modem shah 
(king) and darpan, oldPenrian derb$n 
(oourt- guardian), hence perh. it 
means hinges comi- guardian. 

Ban. 8, 3) m. pL same as the Cieb. 

llrtnllDrtK («l^3l^-^«) once in 
K'thibh Qhmx Est. 10, 1, usual 
title of the Persian kings, as rtn^ 
was of the Egyptian, hence used of 
Sep^nc (Est. 1, 1), Kaftp6(n)<; (Etc 
4, 6) and 'AffTui-pjC (Dan. 9, 1). -— 
As to the etymology, the first part 
of the compound, as above in'j^'WSjn^ 
is khsha {fint^ = csaya, modem Pers. 
shah (king), which is also found in 
*ApTa-£(a<; (great-king) a name of 
the Armenian princes ; the other part 
tb^]», K'thibh ^», agrees in ortho- 
graphy with the name of SipStj^ 
as deciphered in the cuneiform in- 
scriptions , kshhershe (= kshehrshe) 
or kshwershe, where also, as here, 
the w (*l) appears unstable; and 
as the ancient Persian khsh often 
appears in Greek as S and in Heb. 
as lb, Eep^Yj^ is at least in the old 
style of writing ('ApTa-) £ep£rj; quite 
the same name. 

"©IWR (see tri;!i§n»p only in 
K'thibh Est. 10, !• * 

^•TniDnS pr. n. m. (Persian, perh. 
royal courier, a^. from ^WWiJ; •«• 
next word) 1 Ch. 4, 6. 

'J'nniDnS (Pers.) m., only pL 
lrt"jn«3ri^ Est. 8, 10, some beast for 
riding (named in connection w. 1D3^ 
b^b) used by the Persian post-riders, 
and called Tf^vr^aoft o/'tAematv Est. 

Digitized by 





8, 10. AcGordiBg^ to the Babbins, who 
render it dromedary, it might be from 
Pen. shMltfwr a camel (c£ dromades 
come^t, Onrt. 5, 2) and wm (king), the 
l^^-beingthea^jectiye-ending; itmay 
be fiMde, from Pers. asUra « Saos. 
o^&otora (mole) therefore regU 
but the latest g^ess makes it 
provincial from lahatra (proyinoe). 
See Tia'x 

r^HH (for rnrw =» rnnfij, in pause 
tnhM, from m. ^iriKy which see) t nn* 
meral one, also firsts bat with yarions 
shades of meaning as in the nu ^iTi^ 
rtfl^ means as an adverb onee^ e. g. 
Ez. 80, 10 hjT^ nn^ once a ^ear, 
m^ yAxA rm i K^ lo, 22 onc« m 
<^cc yeoirff, tim nn^j njri nn^ 2 K. 
4, 35 once Ai^Aer and once thither, 

t^HK Chald. imper. Aph. of nm 
to descend Ezr. 5, 15. 

STTinH 1 p. sing. fdt. Niph. of WTrt 
(w. h-;- cohort) Jer. 17, 18; cfc Gram. 
§ 67, Bem. 5. 

tDH (w. suf. "ilfiM, pi. trmii r. ttD^ 
akin to 0!$i = ttKi (o^), XaOco, L. fo<-eo, 
^0 hide) m. secrecy, concealment in 
speaking or moving, hence 1) &*^^K 
wutterings, sorcery, then sorcerer, 
necromancer Is. 19, 8. 2) often as adv. 
stealthily, secretly, softly, IK. 21, 27, 
also w. ^ as in ^lit^ prop, at my ease 
i. e. slowly Gen. 33,* U; o^b TJ^ to 
^o gently, of the waters of Siloah 
Is. 8, 6; nrsi '^i-i3i<^ (act) gently 
for me to the youth 2 Sam. 18, 5; 
•?]a5 OKb *t^"; Job 16, 11 a word gently 
(spoken) with thee; but see verb o^. 

tti^ Job 23,11 for rra«, Ifutapoc. 
Hiph. of TO}; cf. Gram. § 76, 2, h, 

lOi^ (obs.) tojwjncfrafe, fofficZ: 
tn; akin to nnj. 
^ TPIJJ m. 1) fewAf^m (rAomnu* 

paHurus Linn.) Jndg. 0, 14. Ps. 58, 1(K 
2) pr. n. Atad Gen. 50, 10. IL 

1%^ (by Syriasm for li^dM, henoe 
the -::- not changeable, r. 1^) m. prop, 
what is twisted, spmi (linen or cotton), 
hence yam, thread, only in Prov. 7, 16 
D^^ "j^idM Egyptianyam, OL dd^vi). 

LJUlS {dba.)tohide,conceal, akin 
to TOJ. Deriv. »«. 

U LJCS (part. DQM) to close e. g. 
the mouth or ears so as not to speak' 
or hear Prov. 17, 28 ; then of windows 
dosed with lattices £z. 40, 16. — 
Uipb. only in fut. apoo. QDf^ to 
close Ps. 58, 5. 

jLjiS (obs.) perh. akin to^D;;, K9D 
to hind, to plait; hence I^DK. 

lU^ (M.'^x^^)toclose,sh¥lup, 

w. i?,"pZ 69, 16. Cf. n^Rj, n^, nxj. 

— PL (obs.) to &ind or Aomper. Hence 

'1&Mpr.n.m.(perh.lame)Ezr.2, 16. 

^tDM adj. lame, prop, hampered, 
as i3''B7 *!? •!»« Judg. 3, 15 han^pered 
L e. disabled as to his right hand, 
hence left-handed. 

^9 (perh. a pronominal root) adv. 
interrog. where ? correlative to *^TK, but 
used in this form only w. suf. as i^$ 
where (is) he? h5JX wAerc (art) <Aow? 
DJ^ (once in Zech. 1,6 Drt >Tjfi<) where 
they 9 and in the forms h^K, "pi?. 
More used in its construct form, as 
follows: — 

^ij (c. form of ''^) adv. interrog. 
wheref correlative to Chald. '4i«a«»n 
there, as its lengthened form "pfit 
{where! = not) is correL to "p here! 
'^ (like *^M) never stands w. sul, and 
like that also passes for no, noi (only 
in Q^ri of Prov. 31, 4, but see under 
*l^). — Before pronouns and adverbs, 
it gives to them the force of inter- 

Digitized by 





logttiTes; see under ht**»K or W»», 

T^i »TT^t ^Ta'^^i >^?r^» ™^«- * 

T$ I (prozL root) interrog. adv. 
where? bat implying a negative 
answer nowhere; hence in some com- 
pounds as a formal negative (cf. Gr. 
a- piiv. or neg., L. in-, G. and £. im-) 
as ''p}*'»K Job 22, 30 not-innocent 
le,guiUy; ^33-^ pr.n.(5TifjL0(;, in- 
ghrious) 1 Sam. 4, 21 ; iaj'^K pr. n. 
(iXopc, i«n-M;«(Wcd) 1 kT 16, 31; 
perh. also ^^H'^M pr. n. not-taU i. e. 
ikort Ex. 6, 23; cf. n^. 

*WI n for -n^ inteij. tooe/ ^-''tft 
fTfi; £c6. 10, 16 iooei to thee, land; 
4 ■« (Ecc 4, 10, if this reading is 
ri^t) woe! to hsm. 

"tjl m (mimetic like ih, '^K; see 
n}^ n) m. prop, a Aoto/^ then Aoirfer 
so named firom its nocturnal cry 
Cf waU; only in pL b*^;*K Is. 18, 22 

T$ IV (prob. f or •'J^ r. njij IV) m. 
pL D^, once •p?« Ez. 26, 18, c. "^^K; 
prob. a&0(2e, hence 1) coast i. e. a 
maritime settled country as Tyre, 
Sidon, Tarshish, Ashdod; in the pi. 
usually of the distant sea-board parts 
of Asia Hinor, the east and the south 
coast of Arabia. 2) shore'landj L e. 
dry, habitable ground in opp. to the 
sea and rivers, Is. 42, 15; hence 
fiT^ ^'^ the distant coaO-^andi^ 
tax the islands of the Mediterranean 
Ps. 72, 10, also for the islands and 
coasts of India Ez.27, 15. 3) itHand^ 
as "un&a *«m tsfe of Cc^htor (Crete) 
7er.47, 4. Of^rooi and see ri^KlV. 

^^^ prob. akin to h^, a^ to 
le eoffer, then perh. toilful, hateful, 
found in perf. Qal only in Ex. 23,22 
^pajkTW '*a^'! (hen IwiUhatethy 
kcier$, but very often found in the 
participle used as a noun, namely 

i;$k or a;;iKm.(rcmf.) enemy, w. 
sufc ^^% rjiTk, pL mrk, c '^^^; 
t w. sufl. **Pa^ my shenenemy Mio* 
7, 8, abo construed w. aco. as proper 
participle, ll^-nK ^'yit hating Damd 
1 Sam. 18, 29; r. 3?$. 

haie Gen. 3, 15. 

tO^, see a:?k. 

T^ m. a turn or fate (cf . n|lb)» 
hence calamity Ps. 18, 19, ruin Job 
31, 23 ; r. I^K <o turn or fuM (like 
aw, cf. rvi^rlK. 

n^K (for nj^^ akin to "Hjt HI; r. 
n^ .m) t 1) name of a clamorous 
bird of prey, unclean among the 
Israelites Lev. 11, 14, Sept. Ixxty, 
Vulg. vultur, perh. a /a/!cron called 
by the Arabs ydyd (from its cry), 
but it may stand for the entire 
class of vultures. 2) pr. n. m. (falcon) 
Gen. 86, 24. 

n^Sl (from •'8;, as njjh ficom Tp; 
in Jer. 87, 19 the K'thibh ^^^^^^^ 
is perh. an old pL form) adv. interrog. 
1) where? where now? (correlative 
trjin here). Like **&!, it may imply 
a negative answer Jer. IS, 20. In 
Zech. 1, 5 Dn n;^ is for D^ u^^ere 
(are) they? 2) indet anywhere Job 
15, 23, where it concludes the sent- 
ence; ct Nah. 3, 17. 

n JK (only pL ^"^iQ m. prop, eriers, 
howlers, hence jack^ Is. 13, 22; see 

^1^ pr. n. m. (greatly ii\jured 
or hated, after the form ^I's^) Job, 
the well-known hero or leading per- 
sonage of the book that bears his 
name; Sept.' I^ p. Cf. 'Odo9atu<fhmi 
6du9(70(jLai to hate, 

iST^ pr. n. f. (unwedded, iXo^oc 
L. Agnes), Jezebel name of the idola- 

Digitized by 


nr» 80 

irons wife of Ahab king of Israel 
1 K. 16, 31. Hence Isabella. 

tenog. adv. where f where now? Job 
38, If. With ^ it makes rm t^ 
wherefram? Gen. 16, 8. See nt. 

tpS (for nD-t^) ady. 1) how? 
The h^ = n';D implying comparison, 
and *^ having interrog. force. 2) 
without interrogation Bnth 3, 18 
how. 3) as inter), howl oh Juno! 
Ps. 73, 19. 4) ironical, w. implied 
negation, hence like **K eqoal to a 
negative Ex. 6, 12. 

TD5"**SI pr. n. m. (dTijtoc, in- 
glorioos, see *«&( I) 1 Sam. 4, 21. 

rO*"^ (see tr«) adv- 1) like ip«; 
how? Deut. 1, 12 and without in- 
terrogation how Dent. 12, 30; also 
as inteij. howl Is. 1, 21. 2) like 
*tQ; where? Cant. 1, 7, the hS ex- 
pressing direction, where there? See 
•»«, ri|. 

TlS^ ftrom •»« w. suff. tXf-^ where 
(art) (kou? Gen. 8, 9. 

nb'*5 (only in 2 K. 6, 18, Q'ri 
"b*^^ ti^Aere^ .indirect interrogative. 

naS'^K (tor nss-W) adv. how? 
Omt 6, 8. 

/^J^= v'^I(ob8.) toiwm^mom 
rotind, Gr. tX^o (tlXioi, slXoco); ct 
b^SL, b!in; fig. to he girded, strong or 
firtn (cf. P^, 'fp); hence 

bjK (after the formiljg; pLD^ijifJ, 
prop. m. but f. in Ps. 42, 2, iBtensive 
of i?fi^ prop, a strong ram or buck, 
but esp. fiag, hart; Copt. ElOy^* 
Except in Ps. 42, 2 (where b^;$ is 
fem.) rbj^ or hVjK was later used 
for a hind; r. V»K or b^w I. 

bl'Jjl^ (c i'^K, pi. d'^yxjonce fi^ljj 
Job 42, 8, c '^b'^K and "^i^J r* i'^J*) nu 


prop. «frofis^ one, hence 1) a m^eA^ 
or foremost man, e. g. y'J^ "^Vvx 
(Q'ri) the nobles of the landW. 24, 
15. 2) ^eoi or strong tree (Spue, lu 
ro6wr), hence the oak, terebinth, palm 
(comp. nbx, "j-ftx) especially in the 
plurald*^yK,d''>^5Is.57,6. 3) raw, so 
named perh. for the strength of his 
horns Gen. 15, 9. 4) A term in ar- 
chitecture for pilaster or buttress, 
and so called either for its likeness 
to the ram's horn or for its firmness 
and strength 1 K. 6, 81, £lz. 40, 14, 
(Aquila xpCcofia, else xpiic); hence 
sometimes pillar or post; sometimes 
frieze, ornamental framework for 
the door; in general, some promi- 
nent part on the firont of a building 
or waU (akin to bb^K, r. bsiK n to &e 
tft front), the nature of which nansi 
be fixed from the context. 

b^ ('• ^) lai, power or foreejoxiij 
Ps. 88,* 5. 

' fl^^ (c. nijK, pLnftjK, o. nft^^ 
Cant.' 2, 7) f.1iini, m^ »^^« *« 
hind in the field Jer. 14, 5. Used as 
a term of endearment for a woman 
or wife Prov. 5, 19. See hb^X. 

^ib^ pr. n. (deerfield) 1) Leviti- 
eal city in Dan Josh. 19, 42, now 
Yalo. 2) city in Zebulon. Judg. 12, 12. 

pb^H pr. n. (Oakland, see fftfij) 
1) city in Ban Josh 19, 43; Sept 
*EXmv. 2) pr. n. m. Sept. AlX4m 
'EXoDfJL Gen. 26, 34. 

W>«, see nV^st 

rftb^K (r. h^) t stv9^ or 
force, then help, only Ps. 22^,20^ 

VbT* 1 fut. Hiph. of b^ (Jer. 
48, 31); see Gram. § 70, Bedi. 

n^b"^ Mioh. 1,8 1 wimgo for 
nA^ (to sound more like thk rt^V^^ 
before it) for '^b5<, r. t^^J. / 

Digitized by 


tfy^ or DbK (pL fi-'aV^K, rviisV^^) 
m. usually w. fi''V« Ez. 40, 16, a term 
in architecture, perb. projection^ 
moulding^ but very obscure though 
prob. akin to oiw (r. Dix) or to i^ 
(r. V« H), the 0-7- in^ the latter 
case being a formative ending aa in 


obi* pr. n. (w. tv^ loc h?jy»« 
tMM, prob. iMdm-trees) of an encamp- 
ment of jthe Israelites in theWilder- 
MS8, Hx. 15, 27. 

\y^i( Chald, (det Kjb^X) m. tree 
Dan. 4, 7. 8; ot Heb. 'if^ fi^; r. 

hbl* and riibT$ (prob. « rtV»« 
palmgrove) pr. n. of an Idumean sea- 
port (ElaniticQiilf) on the east branch 
of the Arabian Qulf, 1 K. 9, 26; 
Sept AlXcttv, AlXAft; Joseph. AlXavi^. 
The ending rv-^- Is Ph^ddan, as in 
rft Schr6der*sPh5n.Sprache, p. 170^, 

r6*» o. at. of rftj^ a Atfkl; fern. 

TT^n ny » (Aifid 0/ tt« <Iairfi, 
fig. for (Ae mtfi^ nm, called gaxeUe 
by the Arabs) in title of Ps. 22, 
denoting the subject or the musio. 

wS^^ or U^ (ol^s.) i. q. Ohald. 
Paei D^ to alarm, akin to DVi (see 
6%), to 5e fioti;^, to rage. Hence 

D''« adj. m., r^^ t, fearM, 
ierribk Hab. 1, 7; L q. KTD. 

D;^ (like V?»t) m. only pL Cn?^ 
1) terrors Ps. 88, 16. 2) idok, as ob- 
jeete of «we or terror, Jer. 50, 88; ct 
t^^tea from yb^. 8) &*tQX pr. n. m. 
(gianta, prop. fH^ts), the original 
dwellers on t&e Amon(now el'M^eib), 
in the nei^bourhood of Areopolis 
(now Babba) Qen. 14, 5, who were 
driven ont by tha Moabites Deut. 
% 10; r. tr«. 

31 P5 

rraT* (0. na-'K, w. n-;- loc. 
hng-^K, pi. nio'^) f. terror, fear, 
e. g. ?|bo rvgni^ the fear of a Htiff, 
i. e. which he inspires Prov. 20, 2; 
T. ft^ortt^ 

I^St L q. "pK no^only in 1 8am. 
21, e Tm-vryH m there not here? 
as if we had 'j'^WT. 

*jTlJ (from "^^ and K} where nowf) 
1> where? only w. pret 10, as 'p6$a 
(Talm. T7IP for t^-p?) w*«we? 
Josh. 9, 8; and also without a ques- 
tion from where Josh. 2, 4. Once 
in K'thibh 1M» 2 K. 5, 25. 2) perh. 
like the simple interrog. forms *fK, 
*(^ only more constantly implying a 
negative, where? ^^ nowhere/ or more 
prob. aftdn to "pK to breaike, hence 
to benauffht; heaceno^Mffmee, non- 
emtUy as in Is, 40, 23 y^ trvf\ "Jfjtn 
who gwdh (L e. bringeth) prinees to 
nothmgnets, Hag. 2, 8 Mf^ri? T¥P 
ainothing in pour eifee. Henoe,ftot, 
VH-DMi/'fiotGen.80,l. Itdenotesthe 
idea of negation or nonentity only 
w. nouns, after which it stands in 
its absolute form as in Gen. 2, 5 bfi^ 
y^ prob. man (was) a nonentity (i. 
e. there was no body) to UU ii^ 
^nmnd (see 7^ below). Only in Job 
85, 15 it stands as a neg. befbre the 
perlin%^ ngf y^ prop, (as) nothmg- 
nest hie anger vieitei, i. e. his anger 
Tisited not witii chastisement. — 
Wit& prat t^ a) as notkmg, like 
yni> to fioAI^'ls. 40, 28; ^) tAout 
woMng i. e. next to nothing, almost 
Ps. 78, 2 (like C9$al). — "pjf^ (see 
also under 1 above) «) imtAowt, Jer. 
80, 7 Vib^ *pfi}P lit. from nMimg 
as tt, L e. without its Hke; p) of 
nothing, worm (or kee) ihan nothing 
Is. 41, 24. — Before particles "^^a ^M 
not 6ssieies, "Ti^ ^ not aiMr^ 

Digitized by 



"["^S (coDstruci form of "pK above, 
as *^K of *^M; seQ its use w. suffixes 
in No. 3 below) adv. always negative, 
bat perb. originally interrog. 1) as 
tbe absolute y^V^none Gen. 47, 13. 2) as 
construot before indefinite nouns, 
ioithout, as ^Dtp» 'pv^mthoiU number 
Joel 1, 6, ni$ "p^ ioithota father; be- 
fore the participle, nobody, nothinff, 
**ID3 T^^ Ps. 19, 7 lit. notkmff of 
Mdden, i. e. nothing is hidden,* or 
without a thing hidden; before the 
infinitiTe, without, "pan T^K without 
understanding Ps. 32, 9, or also w. 
h before the in! 2 Oh. 20, 6. 3) often 
as negatiye of to 6e (» O? A Job 
9, 33 there is not), "^i y^there is not 
to we, i. e. I have not (cf. ohx ijrt 
yLOK, non est mihi), *^) rb X^ she 
had no chUd Gen. 11, 80, esp. w. 
suf. ''M^ lam not, ?jy»K, "rg'^K, Wk 
Ae is "not, tnf^», Dajij^, OJ'^K, poet. 
'ia'»3'»» Pf. 73, 5. — The negative 
notion may sometimes be rendered 
4ts nobody, none^ sometimes as 
without; sometimes, nothing, hence 
mi fVt nobody, in^ *pK not one, 
none, n^KQ )*^ notA^, V!d pK 
notfttfi^ at aU. It always retains its 
force in union w. other particles, 
• M yjbtn -pj^, "Vibft -p^j none besides 
me, *i^ "p&t none to. me; after 
anothe r negative, it strengthens the 
negation (as in Greek, see Gram. 
i 152, 2) as pK 4aa not at aU 2K. 
1, 3. — With pref. "p^ is mostiy « 
1*;tt, only it Ib placed before the noun, 
to which it gives the notion of ne- 
gation as rv^n "pMa wiUiout waU 
£z. 88, 11 (equal to tOA); tf^yiK 'pfift 
prop, to (one) without forces, i. e. 
to the powerless; awl*** 'p«n timn- 
Aa5tte(2, but pfiQ is iJso to/^ — no^ 
before; "pii to loAom ^ is not, i e. 
w. the addition of the verb to be. 
— AU tiiese ^j, -^i^, •«, -p^, 71^, 

82 W« 

"pK, are pronominal stems, prob. hav- 
ing nothing in common w. a verb. 

"yiTT^ Ps. 73, 5 they are not, 
from I^M and suf. iT^"^, Gram. § 91, 
2, Bem. 3. 

HTT^S pr. n. m. i. q. "ity^aK^br 
which it stands Num. 26, 80; pa- 
tron. •^'^JI^Kj cf. iw«. 

T1SI% or UBI* (c. niD^) Ephah, a 
dry measure, accord, to Josephns a 
fi£5t}i.voc or 48 ^o^vixe; (about IV9 
bush. EngL) or a I^ (L. amphora) in 
liquid measure « 10 *^o^= Vio *^97 <» 
^. Thus Mic 6, 10 "pn ng^ Ephah 
of leanness, i. e. scanty, tvA[d tio^ 
Deut. 25, 15 fuU Ephah; W^J MB^ 
Pi^ov. 20, 10 tioo kinds of Ephah. — 
Perh. fh>m VpR, akin to Ck>pt. (DtTTt 
measure, Sept ol^C 

flB'^S (■s'»^ interrog. and htt Aefie) 
adv.interrog. l)foAefe?(irou)Is. 49,21. 
2)how? what sort? (icoio;) Judg.8,18. 

i^iB"^ or KiBI$ adv. demonst. so 
therefore (o5v), for Kifi "^j where 
*^M, as often, has not interrog. bnt 
demon, force. See M*ifiK, I'feM, Mk 

til* (perh. lengthened from t^ 
from l^n, hence im^M, ^ inpr. 
names, pL (poet.) b^^b^K only Ps. 
141, 4, Prov. 8, 4, Is. 53, 3, usual 
ft'nDj^ (for Wtbis^ from tcriag, r. «g^ 
n), c. ''iDp^; poet^tt^ ''ia Ps. 4,8, 4e» 
8) m. 1) a man, prop, a strong one 
(see note below); a) as to force, in- 
tellect and courage (Ii. virakin to vis, 
cf. ^^ft), 1 K. 2, 2, hence like our genUe- 
man to express some eminence in 
opp. to b^i^ common man Is. 2, 9, 
Ps. 49, 3 (cf. dvi^p, 4v6pa>ico^; L. t?ir, 
homo); P) as to vigorous age 1 Sam. 
2, 33; 7) a male, as the stronger ser, 
hence even of male children Gen. 4» 
1, beasts Gen. 7, 2, and of the male 
in marriage, a husband Gen. 2, 24; 

Digitized by 





S) fNOft, as indiyidual, a person Ex. 
4, 10, as collectiYe, men la. 21, 9, 
mankind as opp. to God Job 9, 32, 
to beasts Ex. 11, 7. — Hence also in 
cases where neither sex nor strength 
nor age is regarded, it stands for 
inhabitants Judg. 12, 6, citizens Gen. 
24, 13,warriors or subjects 1 Sam. 23, 3, 
li^ being also used collectively for 
peopk Josh. 9, 6; perh. relations e. g. 
tf'OJK tan^ Ez. 24, 17 bread of men 
i. e. food sent to mourners by 
relations and friends; e) implying 
origin, possession, use etc., in union 
w. nouns in the genitive, to supply 
the lack of qualifying adjectives 
(Gram. § 106, 2, a), as ^wn ttJ^K 
1 Sam. 16, 18 a man of form i. e. 
handsome (L. formosus), ^^"W 'K 
Ex. 4, 10 a man of words i. e. fluent 
(Ifc faeundus) and in like manner 
mi stands before m D'^aoK, ni3sia«, 
n^, dr»o5, rw, Vrr, p^, ^, 
pi*, ^?r79, »^»»3^o, "pro, ^'»ti, ^Jn-^to, 
b», D?rtt^, wsan, ninato, niann, 

etc. — 2) w. gradual laying aside 
of its nature as substantive, it an- 
swers to an adj. pron., a) in, opp. 
to r«, rn»5, J*!, e. g. Lev. 25, 17 
irrwTi» vr^ wn A ht ye sAotf 
not oppress a man his fellowy i. e. 
one another (see Chram. § 124, Bem. 
4) OT one — the other; p) at^ one, 
somebody (Sept. xU) C^en. 13, 16, so 
too &TK, rb«, d'^JK 1 K. 20, 17; 
Nom. 1, 4 mA ^K tt^M lit. a 
man a man to the tribe i. e. one 
to each tribe; 7) each, Gten. 15, 10 
«n wni* ■i'Tra w^ eocA itot* of 
U over agamst the other (Ut. its 
friend), — From xiT% perh. we get in 
Is. 46, 8 the denom. verb in Hithptf el 
^StriNnn show yourselves men 
intelligent; cf. avSpC^evOs. 

Hote. t7-K may perh. be primitlye, 
kok mora prob. it comes from ViDM n 

(akin to WS^ II) «o le strong, perb. akin 
to T<, L. vit mm «tr, Sans, virtu, Gael. 
/•or, W. gior (also tor, as dy «w thy 
man). With its other form VnSM (for VpK?) 
from tDjM II may be compared Sans, nar, 
AviQP, L. nero («= nerTUs, vsOpov), W, ««r 
(the Almighty), nerth (might). 

nitonD'^H pr. n. m. (man of 

shame) Sept. 'lepoad^, Josephus 

UpoaOo;, son of Saul, 2 Sam. chaps. 

2—4, who is prob. also called i?^^ 

in 1 Oh. 8, 33. 

TliTO'^H pr. n. m. (man of fame) 
1 Ch. 7, 18. 

lilO'^fcJ; (dimin. of «^, like Tirft, 
f'nj^) m. 1) prop, a mannikin, then 
pupil of the eye (cf. x6p7), xopAaiov, 
xopacr(5iov, Lat.. pupa, pupuia, pu- 
piUa; see on h5a),but usually w. 
y^;$ Deut 32, 10, once y]^ na liOT* 
Ps. 17, 8 i. e.j)wpt/, eye's daughter. 
2) fig. «A« midst, the heart or centre, 
as nb'j^.TflC^^ Prov. 7, 9 eyebaU of 
the night i. e. midnight; ?jm •p;^'^ 
Prov. 20, 20 (K'thibh) eye-ball (i. e. 
centre) of darkness, where the Q*ri 
has I^Wfij which some render dark- 
ness, as if ftrom "p^tfn; cf. I^l^. 
littHD'^K pr. n. 2 Sam. 10, 6. 8, 
'^ti^'tjt for -n^ pr. n. m. (perh. 
manly) 1 Ch. 2, 13, Sept. ^UaotiL 

t^ (firomrflKlV) m. 6«»n^, exist- 

n^'Sl Ohald. (=Heb. iti?; cf. oia(a), 
def. WJ'^ (Tabn.), pi. WK (in an- 
cient form) m. being at eanstenee, 
perhd^ps possession, but always as a 
particle expressive of being, tJtere 
is, there was, etc In Bib. Ohald. 
always in pi. *<?'»« Dan. 5, 11, 
as "^Z "Tf-^, ^^ W«, "^n-V K^; 
w. suf. li^^rr^Vi Dan. 2, 26 thou art, 
'^irT'fijt he is, KJJT^ toe are, yia'^f}"''* 
yot» are. Before participles it re- 
presents, like xSf2i the substantive 

Digitized by 



34 -D« 

verb to be, — The r. is n^ IT L q. 
Heb. HIDJ to 6c J see IST. 

'jin'^fcj (Q'ri after the form lir^n) 
m. ingress f entrance, only Ez. 40, 15 
TirPKTT *wb the door of entrance, like 
ftK^nn'c'zech. 14, 10. TheK'thibh 
'pnK*« prob. means the same and 
stands for TiTO"; after the form f^'^xt]; 

r. nw m =» roj^ 

"15*^^1 Chald. there is Dan. 5, 11; 
see n'»« above, 

"l^*^ pr. n. m. (adj. ftom n'^K 
existing, perh. mighty) 1 Ch. 11, 31; 
but '^nx in 2 Sam. 23, 29. 

JfcWjT^ pr. n. m. (God is exist- 
ent, or perh. for ix 'W with me 
is God) Prov. 30, 1. 

DrC'fct'Ps. 19, 14 for Dnx 1 ftit. 
Qal of D^n ; see Gram. § 67, Bem. 3. 

*ll3r|''ij pr. n. m. (palm-coast or 
isle of palms) Ex. 6, 23. 

■jPCS (for fn'y^ ai modified into 
3, once inx Job 33, 19), pL o*^3ir«, 
adj. very extended, lasting, hence 
1) of time, constant, lasting^ in n*n 
•jn'^K continual strife Job 33, 19; 
w. water, rivers, etc. often used as 
snbst. continuity, constancy, strength^ 
as llt'K ni'Vja sitreams of perpetuity 
Ps. 74, 15, iPiDp in-n^a awn his how 
shall abide in strength Qten. 49, 24, 
TT^ ^1} perennial pasture (others, 
abode of strength) i. e. Idmnea Jer. 
49, 19; in'^K bna never failing brook 
Dent. 21, 4; hence without hfj^ in 
1 K. 8, 2 we have D^snxn ni"« the 
month of flowing brooks, i. e. '^'TOn 
(Chald.) the 7th month of the Heb. 
year, from the Oct new moon to 
that of November. 2) firm, dur- 
able, hence 'fT^^ "^ift a strbng people 
Jer. 5, 15; hence Q"'?n'^, a) mighty 
ones or nobles Job 12, 19; P) poet 
rocks, Yys TH^^ Q^PO'^W *^ rocks, 

earth^s foundations Mic 6, 2; t^o 
perh. also 'fy^ nnj dwelling of 
rock;]^eTh.rockyoThardia'Prov. 13,15. 
- — The r. ^nj (whence w. K prosth. 
frnx; like ajrx) is akin to ^ri, nir, 
•\Dlj; Sans. ton=Te(viD=iL. fefuio=>G. 
(^nfn=W. taenu, etc 

"jO*^ pr. n. m. (persistent) a poet, 
singer and wise man in the time of 
David 1 K. 5, 11, Ps. 89 (title), Sept 

?P$ (pronom. root, akin to ■'S, nfe^ 
1?, 15^) adv. 1) prop. perh. like ""S a 
relat coig. Srt, L. quod, that, hence 
before dependent and governed 
clauses, e. g. Gen. 44, 28 and I said 
thai C^K) he is surely torn in pieces, 
Zeph. 3, 7 I said that ("?]&() thou wouldst 
fear me; hence, like *^9 and Sxl it 
is left untranslated before a direct 
quotation (oratio recta), or else like 
*^S, it can in all these cases be turned 

! into a particle of asseveration sure- 
ly, certainly, yea, 2) adversative 
term, hence = but, yet, however, as 

; also '^a, e.g. Is. 63, 8 and he said, yet 

1 (i\^) ^y people are they. Hence only 

\ w. notion of limitation, in its widest 
range of meaning, e. g. before the 
perf., to which it gives the force of 
a plup.; before nouns and adjectives 
where it must be translated just as 

' the sense or context requires, e. g. 
0^!/ (IK) this time Ex. 10, 17; onlt; 
joyous, i. e. quite joyous Dent 16, 1 5 ; 
only (nothing but) vanity Ps. 39, 12; 
only vainly p"^*! T\^ Ps. 73, 13 ; before 
imperat only hear thou Jer. 28, 7; 
before ftit. !|^3«n Mt-n« T(^ only tftis 
may ye eat Lev. 11, 21. — '^« p^ 

I only alone, an intensive only Num. 

I 12, 2. 


(obs.) akin tq ^}^, ""(^A 

to bind together, to fortify. Hence 

Digitized by 





^3H pr.n. (fortress, r. *rst^) city in 
Mesopotamia, Sept. ^PX^^ OT^] ^^ 
pmj = poa*] ? ) Gen. 10, 10. wliicli 
Bochart compares w. the river 'Ap- 
7A3tjc in the region of 2iTTaxr)vi^. 
Ephraem Syms read 'nsM (tillage) 
and explains it as Nisibis in Meso- 

PiSi* 1 fut. Qal of nns; Gram. 
§ 67, Bem. 3. 

2T3K (r. ^T^; w. K prosth. as in 
the form '^js^) m. prop, deceit, faise- 
hoody but always used as a^j. (w. 
iin understood) deceitful, lying (opp. 
to Tt^K), only Jer. 15, 18, Mic. 1, 14, 
where nta^ stands for ^t^ ^Tij a 
deceitful brook, disappointing the 
traveller. See 3t3. 

yV^ pr. n. 1) i. q. n''T|,city in 
Jadah Josh. 15, 44. 2) sea-port in 
Galilee, on the coast of Asher 
between Acco and T3rre Josh. 19, 29; 
Greek *Ex8iirra (a-woftfl), now Ztb. \ 
See n^ns and vqts. 

"^T2$ prop, subst. but used as adj. 
ULhard, firm\ hence \)hardy, coura- 
geous, hold Job 41, 2; in a bad sense, 
harsh, cruel Lam. 4, 3. 2) violent, 
deadly, of poison, Deut. 82, 33; r. 
•ns = nisip. Hence 

■njIpSt adj. m. fierce, cruel Jer. 
6, 23,^Prov. 12, 10. 

M^nTaSl tfier<;ene88,horriblene88 
Prov. 27, 4; the abstract ending n^ 
being attached to the adj. '^'^^T^^; 
Gram. § 86, 6; cfl tVin'^'TS. 

r^'OM £. prop, an eaUng, hence 
a meal 1 kings 19, 8; r. h^ 

IStDH pr. n. m. (perh. serpent, r. 
CSdc) Philistine king in Gath 1 Sam. 
21 Ju. 

/J&^ Onf: ib§5, w. pref. ib«6, w. 
fat fts^ ^3»; fut. ijih, in paose 

isK-i, once liyi'' or Asr» for nia*» ' 
1^.42, 5) perh.' akin to f^\^ll io end, 
hence prop, to bring to nothing, hence 
1) to eat, w. lb, a, ]a or ace. of the food, 
w. unimportant shades of meaning; 
part, i^ the eater Judg. 14, 14, 

i. e. the lion: cf. Arab. jTyi as an 

epithet of the lion. Often used of 
the sword, fire, hunger, pestilence 
which waste or destroy, of idols 
which consume victims; note the 
idioms, to eat the ground i. e. its fruits 
Gen. 3, 17; to eat bread, take food 
1 K. 21, 7, also to take a meal Gen. 
31, 54; w. the neg. A » to fast 

1 Sam. 30, 12 ; to eat at anyone's table, 
i. e. to be fed by him Ps. 41, 10; fo 
eat before God, i e. to eat the sacri- 
fices Deut 12, 7; to eat ashes like 
bread, i. e. to be in sorrow, Ps. 102, 
10; to eat one*s oum flesh, i.e. to pine 
away Ecc. 4, 5; to eat the flesh of 
anyone, i. e. to act cruelly towards 
him, esp. to backbite him Ps. 27, 

2 (el Chald. "pSTip iz^ to slander 
Ban. 3, 8); to eat words, i. e. to re- 
ceive them gladly Jer. 15, 16, hence 
the vision of the roll given to be 
eaten in £z. 2, 8 and Apoc. 10, 9; 
to eat a people i. e. to destroy them 
Deut. 7, 16; to eat from (Ask**) 
upper rooms, i. e. to take away 
from their size £z. 42, 5; nnitt^ bs^ 
to taste of what is good Job 21, 25; 
nn^a^ VokMehU Job 20, 26 is prob. 
for sin^SKn (so Ewald in Lehrb. d. 
Heb. Sprache, § 253; but Gesentus 
takes it for ^^atfin in Pi.; the sense 
either way beiog it shaU consume 
him, — Mipb. to be eaten Ex. 12, 46. 
— Pa. to be consumed, by fire Neh. 
2, 3, by sword Is. 1, 20. — Hiph. 
^^3X81(^1^ b^^afcr, inf. once i'^an for 
p^^^KH £z. 21, 33)^0 cause to consume^ 
V^^y^ Hos. 11, 4 give to eat, 


Digitized by 





JC5 Chald. (fut. bsx:?) same as 
Heb. 5?^; Ban. 4, 30. On "j"«^|5 b:x 
see y"nj5. 

iiijt (w. suf. i^Dij;) m. 1) eating ^ 
the act itself; hence ibD^ "^B^ accord* 
ing to his eating Ex, 12, 4. 2) food^ 
esp. of fruits or of com, provision 
Gen. 1 4, 1 1 , fig. food of fire orof beasts, 
prey Job 9, 26. 

5iS or 53ift pr. n. m. (perh. from 
i?!lK I am able, r. ib;) Prov. 80, 1. 

nba* 'dkhld(r, i?5f) f. forl)3k 
/boel Gen. 1, 29. 

TjblDI^ Ex. 33, 3 for ?]^3X 1 fut. 
Pi. of ribs n w. suf.; Gram. § 27, 
Bern. 2, a. 

(prob. 13 w. ij prosth. or 
:.) adv. i. q. Chald. "^aJj, 
Syr. ^soTT^, so greatly ^ hence 1 ) con- 
firming(Targ. KOl^tpa), ccrtotn/y Gen. 
28, 16. 2) limiting, bitt.^et Is. 53, 4, 
Ps. 31, 23; see "jS, No. 3. ^ 

VjJCS (prob. aMn to Cft^ I) prt^ 
make to bow dotcn^ i. e. under a load ox 
toil, hence to urge on, to press, only 
Prov. 16, 26 nrT*? '\^\^ CjDK-^S for 
his moiUh (i. e. his hunger) presses 
on him i. e. drives him on. — — Cfc 
Bans, kampf xAjiirTO), xuitxoi, L, 
cubo, cumho, W. cammu. 

jr]5K m,^T6b. what causes to bend, 
hence weight, fig. authority, pressure, 
only Job 33, 7 my burden (*«B2^) 
tt?tff no^ be heavy on him; in the 
Sept. if) xe£p M-Oo as if for '^BS, iden- 
tifying C)3J5 w. C)3; so too KimchL 

513H Mic.6,6 for C)2« 1 fut.Niph. 
of C)Ba. 

IJiS (obs.) to dig, to plough; 
akin to •nsiS, rrjs, inp, ^pj, xpauco, 
Xapaaffto, L. coto, caelo, Sans, ^o/j 
all of mimetic origin (see Prof. Key's 

able Paper on the sound kar, in 
Philological Society's Transactions 
for 1867, p. 875). Hence *15» and 

*OHm. tillage, so taken byEphraem 
Byrus 'for *T3X Gen. 10, 10. 

*fflfc* (pi. CJ'i'TBX, c. "^ti^K, w. suf: 
dS'^'lJSK; w. firm -;-) m.prop. a digger, 
hence tiller of the land, husbandman 
Is. 61, 5. — Cf. ^Dg, aYp6c, L. ager, 
G. Slcfer, E. ocr^;^ akin to ^5 cul- 
tivated land, 0*55 vineyard; Arab, 

)in, Syr. ]^|, ^i^sJantfman. 

n^lJSH Hos.3,2 for njMJl fut.Qal 
w. suf. from n^3 XL 

iCDCS (obs.) = WS$, DD5 to roU 
or cot/ up, as a serpent. Hence perh. 
pr. n. t^z:<. 

jr|"v25H pr. n. f. (fascination, r. 
tjirs) city in Asher Josh. 19, 25. 

5S I or 5H old demon, pron. 

slightly pointing out a thing = bST, 

ix, nVg (weaker than til), like tJutt, 

yon, hence its gradual sinking into 

^^e article the in Arabic, but in Heb. 

I onl^ exceptionally in '^ir^ajix, D'^B^&^S?; 

! in S. a word of negation, akin 
\ to b'lbx t%ing of notight from ^bn 11; 
hence proj^l) subst., nothing, only 
in Job 24,^5. 2) a negative par- 
ticle (cf. ^h,\), K^, '^^, ^\), adverb 
of dissuading (Vr deprecating (not of 
direct or strict prohibition, where Hi 
is usual) = jxi^, ^ we, lest, that n4>t, 
nay! (I beg); a) Wways before the 
future of the verb. (Gram. § 152, 1) 
in the apoc form (w^ere practicable), 
but w. h-;- cohort. lU 1st person, e. 
g. Ex. 16, 29 tc-'X xij:: ix may no 
man go forth. Job 20, 17 K"*"^ h^may 
he not see. Gen. 22, 12 ?|T« nb» ix 
stretch not forth thy hand, Ps. 25, 2 
mjia^ b5< may I not be ashamed. 

Digitized by 





alwayn in the tone of entreaty, not 
of command or of direct denial; ^)not 
before a verb, but denying a sen- 
tence or thought understood, e. g. 
KJ-i^< Gen. 19, 18 no, I prai^l i. e. 
let it not be so (ct ^y\ for ^\ 
TOOTO 7£vTjTat); ''tj'ba-iH nay! my 
daughUra Buth 1, 13; ^9~!»^ no 
dew (bel) 2 Sam, 1, 21; nfiik-i^ no 
occasions I 2 Sam. 18, 16. Perh. making 
a sort of negative noun in )ni^~b^ 
immortalify Proy. 12, 28, &!ip^^ (as 
one word) irresisiible Prov. 80, 31. 
8) s fiV) interrogative, where a nega- 
tive answer is expected, only 1 Sam. 
27, 10 pe made no incursion to-day? 
but see Gram. § 153, 1. 4) in Ez. 
9, 5 V^ stands for b&(, as ^K at times 
stands for b? in later books. 

J^ Chald. same as the Heb. above 
In Ko. 3 but only in Bib. Chald. as 
in Dan. 2, 24. 

5K I (c. bx, *^^ in pr. names, w, 
suf: only '»bfi< Ps. 18, 3, pi. B'l^ dbx 
Ex, 16, 11, c. -i^K; r.bilKl) m. l)i.q. 
b"^ (c V«)a strong or a mighty one, 
a hero, e. g. D^ia bx /Ac ^o o/" fAe 
naiionSf spoken of Nebuchadnezzar 
Ez. 31, 11, d^Tiaa ^^h^ the strong ones 
(I. e. the mightiest) o/* /Ac heroes 
Ez.32, 21. 2) abstr. strength^ power, 
hence in Gen. 31, 29 '^1'^ ^xb-BS"* ti 
« (L e. belongs) fo the power of my 
hand, also negatively Deut. 28, 82 
^ ^^ "pK */ ts wof (i. e. per- 
tains norb) to the might of thy hand; 
ct bfit'^avf. 3) especially is b&< used 
in the meaning God, synonymous w. 
W^, O'^S'ftg mostly w. the qualifying 
woAs '»n, fl'^fe, '•TO, B^i5, /Ac Ktnn^, 
ffMOsi A^A, almighty, eternal Ghd; cf. 
"viaa ^K /Ac mighty God or Aero, the 
SCesiiah Is. 9, 5 and 10, 21, but in 
poet even without such words. Je- 
lioTah is also called ^t^i (w. the ar- 

ticle), or d%WbK V«, iigi^ vAk Ik, 
^*^^$ ^9< O^ S^o^ o^ other nations 
merely bK is used, but mostly w. 
additions *it, *i5(i, ^ns^ strange god, 
or ^K'Kb Deut. 32, 21 a no -god, etc. 
— Herewith are coimected the idioms 
mountains of God Ps, 36, 7, cc(2ar8 
o/'God Ps. 80,11 i.e. the loftiest, the 
highest of their kind. The pi. O'^Vfij is 
also used for *^jinK or m; hence poet. 
Ps. 89, 7 D'»bK ^l'^ sons of God i e. 
angels, see Gram. § 108, 3. — In pr. 
names, ^M appears sometimes un- 
altered, as in ^K^D^, sometimes as in 
■gnlbfij, wig, in the latter case it 
interchanges w. b?5, ""irr;, etc. — 
D*^>K in Job 42, 8 is for 0'»V«J raura, 
seeb'V; r. i^K I. 

51$ II (c. ix, nearly always "^f, 
poet. c. pi. "ibk, w. suf. "ibx, ?pb«, 

•j-^bx, -irbfi^, fis^bx, p-^bfi^, Brp§{<, 
drt5^t, once Dfpbjt Ez. 31, 14, poet. 
ia'^bK Ps. 2, 5) perh. an old subst. 
/Vow/ (r. isw n, but see Gram. p. 229, 
Note*), used only as a sign of motion 
or direction to a place or object; 
hence practically this 

5JjJ is a preposition, always "ix 
(followed by M^q^ph) except in 
2 Sam. 8, 7, 1 K. 7, 34, hence in the 
construct form, and meaning, to, to- 
wardSyUnto, into; a) in local relations, 
irp6;, *eU, L. ad, versus, in, hence w. 
verbs of motion e.g. M^SDeut. 17, 8, 
•qbn, Kia, 2!|\» Gen.8,9,''iro Ex. 25, 16, 
nb^ Num. 24, 12, K'^^ Gen. 19, 8; 
P) in intellectual relations as to the 
direction or reference of the mind 
(often implying also bodily move- 
ment) e. g. w. ilortfl Gen. 20, 17, MJT 
Num. 25, 1, ttJ"n^* Is. 8, 19, hD|, 
dnsn Jer. 26, 3, aa^rn Gen. 6,^6, 
where the notion of local move- 
ment or tendency is always pre- 
sent; also against, w. hostility im- 

Digitized by 


plied Gen. 4, 8 T»n«-i^ -p^ dgy 
and Cain rose against his brother.^ 
With Terbs of speaking it indicates 
the person or object spoken to or of, 
e. g. w. ^vqtf Gen. 3, 16, Jer. 22, 18, 
^WO Gen. 37, 10, Ps. Q, 7, 'i^'n Gen, 
8, 15, Job 42, 7, njx Jer. 27, 4, Is, 
23, 11; at times it stands for *?firrbM 
into, ioithin, n^3n-b« into the house 
C^en. 19, 3, pVj-i« tbb 'nOFntiri Lam. 
2, 12 life is poured out into the bosom, 
—With verbs of likeness, to, {^cording 
to, ixoWlB, 14, 10, n^^Bz. 31, 8. — With 
yerbs implying addition, together 
ioith, besides, Lam. 3, 41 ^'S^h vcm 
^M-bM Q-WD-^K let us raise our 
heart (in addition) to (L e. besides) 
t?ie open-hand to God,— "Before nouns, 
e. g. '^p-i^ Josh. 17, 4, according to 
the mouth, L e. at the command; 
niVnjn-b^ Ps. 5, l for the flutes; 
inV-iri-bfi< at the table 1 K. 13, 20; 
0^:np"?K among thorns Jer. 4, 3 for 
the fuller 'i''2-bK Ez. 31, 10. — Com- 
pounds, '^'^rjy;"?X to behind, after, w. 
verbs fccr, 30, non; *^»fir^K where- to, 
whither Ex. 32, 34; ma'^'^-i^ Ez. 10, 2; 
0|rr!5« to for-nothing Ez. 6, 10, diffe- 
rent ftom Dsn; n'^aa-bx to within, 
inside; b^a"PK to over, against, etc. 

5i$ in also S^^H, dem. pron. pi. 
for m, nfi<T, <Ae8C, only in Pentateuch 
and 1 Gh. 20, 8; see M^K. 

^5^ pr« n. m. (strong) 1 K. 4, 18. 

'©•'SabH m. hail, Ez. 13, 11 "^anx 
By»^b« Ut. «<<me« of the ice, Le. ^ii?- 
sUmes; from ttPnj ic«(Gr.xp6<JTaXXov) 
and the old Heb. article; see hi^ L 

D'^a^abK, see o'^aob^. 

T*5f ^ pr* T^ na. (God's friend, 0eo- 
91X0;)' NunL 11, 26. 27. 

•^'t^ : 'v P'* ^' °^ (perh. Gk)d*s ac- 
quaintance) Gen. 25, 4. 


88 ribH 


to worship or Oftorc, rft^n fo swear 
and b^ ^od or might, see r. b^K I. 
Hence rrftfit 


I (obs.) L q. bm I to be 
strong^muscular, fleshy, hence tri^; 
ct i^ bodg Ts. 73, 4. 

n^N n perh, akin to i^ to 
toiU or utm/^; or perh. denom. from 
%« God, prop, to invoke God, hence 
1) to afflrm or swear by God Judg. 
17, 2. 2)to intreat God, sometimes for 
harm « to curse Hos. 4) 2, some- 
times for pity = to bewail Joel 1, 8; 
but this use of M^^ is very prob. mi- 
metic, akin to h\^l, b^.— Hiph. to 
cause to swear, to adjure 1 K. 8, 31; 
in 1 Bam. 14, 24 iKJ»1 from hbK** for 
n^K?: Gram. § 76, 2, c. 

hbfcj (w. sut ^Th\^ w. firm -^; 
pi. niPX) f. swearing, 1) oa<A, curse^ 
ni&a K^ <o come *n/o an oaJth, i. e, to 
swear Neb. 10, 30, rt^ K'lnn fo caM«e 
to come into an oath, i. e. to make 
swear Ez. 17, 13; nbx^ h;n to be for 
a curse Jer. 42, 18; nb^-n?M oaih of 
cursing Num. 5, 21. 2) a corcnan^ or 
ctgreement, as being sworn to, Gen. 
26,28. — CtWMw, GaeLio, &, oath. 

nb« (r. iiJK I.) f. 1)00^ Lq. ni^ 
but more usual, and meaning also 
terebinth, strong and hardy like the 
oak (cf: 6puO Gen. 35, 4; 9f. •pl«. 
liiy: 2) pr. n. m. (strength) 1 K. 16, 6. 

nbn Chald. (def. Knb«, pL X^) 
m. God, L q. Heb. I^i^;, i)an. 2, 20; 
also for idols, Dan. 3, 25 "pn^ ia a 
son of gods, 

iT^t^ i. q. "ptK f. oak, as being 
strong Josh. 24, 26. Either a modified 
form for ri?Vt from r. b^K L, or from 
ibj< IV w. like meaning. 

Til}^ pron. dem. pL com., same 
as bM in w. dem, n — as in hSJT. 

Digitized by 



39 t|4^M 

It refers to what follows (Gen. 2, 4) 
or precedes (Gen. 9, 1 9) ; mostly placed 
after its noun, as in Gen. 15, 1 
tf^ ^"^"Wn, rarely before it(SeixTt- 
xit) as in Ps. 73, 12. Chald. "piSL 

rtig, pL tDTliN, see' rni)85, 

^^1$ Cbald. inteijec. see! h! Dan. 
2, 31, same as ^^ (^ » ^); akin to 
n^'i^ 6pd<D « Xoico s Xe6a9(i>, Sans. 
Icic^ £. fo/ =r look!, W. ZocA/ (in 2ocA 
acw! B Xtt)9ge ixei, look there!) 

^bi$ (later Heb.) coxg. if Est. 7, 
4; for A-Q<|t » Byr. o^, uniting 
-wish and condition. 

»?6§ (w. pref. gftfcft Dan. 11, 38 
and w. W. irftKV HaV. 1, 11) m. a 
god, Ood (esp. in the pi. 0*^« for Pn 
the true God), Aranu in^K, oi^) (on 
which cf. D'. P^yne Smith's Thes. 
Syriacns); see r. n^^ Job 12, 6 K'^an 
vrz Pf^» he brings a god in his hand, 
i.e.his fist is his God; of. dextra mihi 
deus in Virg.^n. 10. 773. —The nse of 
the singular (as = ni^MH) for the one 
true God is more late or poetic (Neh. 
9, 17, Deut. 32, 15, Job 3, 4), the 
more ancient and usual form being 
the Plur. D^^K (often called jpZwroZis 
exceOentuB or nKyestaticus, see Gram, 
§ 108, 2, b and the Note on Bem. 1 ; 
comp. B^3T?p, perh. because God 
was conceived of as the sum and 
substance of infinite foraes (see ^^ 
3X cf. &*^^9a, Q'^ipi. As implying 
oneness of essence, this pi. is mostly 
construed w. the sing., except w. 
adjectiyes which at times take the 
pL (Gram. § 112, Kem. 3; § 146, 2); 
but the plur. is \ised also to desig- 
nate a god Deut. 32, 39, and even a 
goddess 1 K. 11, 6. — Prob. used of 
ruiers, priests (Ex. 21, 6; 22, 8; 
Ps. 82, 6) as representing power or 
God, cf John 10, 35; but w. the 

article (tt*tft«h) only forthe Eternal. 
— Its most important constructions 
are a) before another noun, as *^lt 
npr; God of Jacob P8.20,2; P)afber 
another noun, where various relations 
are expressed, as ta^^^K *^da sons of 
God i. e. angels Job 38,'7; mi>\^ rt^ 
fnan of Gi>d i. e. angel Judg. 13, 6, pro- 
phet 1 E. 13, 1, godly man Deut% 
33, 1; tJVfbK K'^bj prince of GodLt. 
Abraham Gen. 23, 6; but w. trnds or 
&&0 we find tX\tX^ nearly always for 
God; 7) expressing what is pre-eminent 
or superlative, as godlike or belongs 
ing to God, e. g. D'^r&K "nn very great 
mowntoin Ps. 68, 16; D-^rri^^ nW'iJ y:^ 
a city great to God, i e. in bis eyes, 
hence very great, Jonah 3, 3; cf.Acts 
7, 20 aateioc T(f> 6e(j), 

iftfc^ I m. prop, ingaiheri/ng, hence 
time of harvest, 6th Heb. month, 
from the September to the October 
new-moon, Neh. 6, 15; r. ttij=sii| to 
gather in or glean; Chald. b^9 grain. 

b^bK n m. « Wk nought in the 
K'thibh of Jer. 14, 14. 

•jibs (w. -:- firm, Gram. § 25) m. 1) 
prop, strong one, hence oak Gen. 
12, 6. Used in many names of places 
e. g. ta'^syi^Ta I'ftK pr. n. (magicians' 
oak) Judg. 9, 37; ^isn 'fi^ pr. n. (oak 
of Tabor) 1 Sam. 10,^ 3; K^aa •'ji^ 
pr. n. (Manure's oaks) Gen. 13, 18. 
n'nia 'k pr. n. (teacher's oaks) Deut. 
11, 30. 2) pr. n. m. Gen. 46, 14; hence 
patron. "^Ak Num. 26, 26; r. tax L 

*| i>fc$ m. 1) oak Gen. 36, 8; a mo- 
dified form of "jftx, as nix is of M^X; 
r. i!i» I or \h^ rv. 2) pr. n. nu 
(strong one) 1 Ch. 4, 37. 

Cj^bfc^ or Cjbfct (r. tjb^:) adj. m.prop. 
firmly joined, adhering to; hence 
1) coached, familiar, a friend Prov. 
16, 28; Di*n?sn Spkw the friend of 
(one's) youth, i, e. hwhand, Jer. 3, 4, 

Digitized by 



same as 9^ in verse 20. 2) attached^ 
domesticated or towc, as C)SikK tas 
Jer. 11,19 a tame lamb, much attached 
to its owner. 3) ox i. q. C)^g, 
(as being tame) of com. gend., sir wifii: 
^'^'^9^ <M«r kine (cows) burdened, 
i. e. heavy with young Ps. 144, 14. 
4) denom. from C)^K (family, prop, 
attachment), head of a family, chief- 
tow, to whom the fellow-members 
are bound Gen. 36, 15, tpuXap^oc. 

WbfcJ pr. n. f. (perh. wild beast's 
lair, akin to xtf^ lion, Xu; butTalm. 
turha hominvm) a station of the Is- 
i-aelites in the wilderness, Num. 33, 
13j r. ttftK=»tt3J|ilII. 

"tatbK pr. n. m.(God's gift, Bec^Sco- 
poc) 1 Ch. 26, 7: cf. intl^ 

'» C*7 (perh. akin to nV^) prop, 
to 6c fwrWel, only Niph. h^w «o be- 
come fo%d or oorrvp*, in a moral sense 
Ps. 14, 3; see hVi. 

It T j^ P'^' ^ ™* feod is gracious) 
2 Sam. 21, 19. 

?« for PK 6?0(i in pr. names. 

"•bS Job 8, 22, see "iij to. 

I^b§ pr. n. m. (God is father) 
Num. 1, 9. 

^^?^ pr. n. m. (God is mighty) 
1 Ch, 11,"46. 

•"''^iS''^^ pr. n. m. (perh. God 
Cometh; cf. (jLapavadd 1 Cor. 16, 22) 

1 Ch. 26, 4. 

"n V^ P'^' ^' ^' (^3K)d is a friend) 
Num. 34,' 21. 

2^C ;^ pr. n. m. (i. q. rw\^) 

2 Sam. 5, 16. For which also yi'iira 
1 Ch. 14, 7. "*'' I 

•^^t^ t fat-tail, weighing 10 or ' 

12 pounds on oriental sheep, which , 

was burnt as sacrifice Ex. 29, 22; r. ' 
rt^ I to be strong, bulky, cf. bw body. 

40 bsrbH 

T • v: 

n^bK or Vl^bK pr. n. m. (pn is 
God) *HXia(;, Elijah 2 K. 2, 6. 

^•^ r^ pr. n. m. (prob. ftj is God) 

1 Ch. 26," 7. 

^^•^'^V'SS pr. n. m. (prob. He is 
God) Job chaps. 32 — 35 , EHhu. 

""^^^in^bK pr. n. m. (towards W 
my eyes, according to Ps. 123, 1), 
Ezra 8, 4. 

''P'^yi^'t^^ pr. n. m. (to IT| my 
eyes) 1 Ch. 3, 23. 

^^-l"^ pr. n. m. (God hideth) 

2 Sam. 23*, 32. 

fj'irPbH pr. n. m. (prob. (Jod of 
harvest) 1 K. 4, 3. 

^^)^, (Pl. ta-^W^) adj. m. nauyht, 
of no value, akin to ix, xi, not, 
hence subst. 1) D'^Wfcj nothingnesses, 
idols Lev. 19, 4; i^g" "•»**■» healers 
of nothingness, i. e. worthless physi- 
cians Job 13, 4. 2) vanity Zech. 1 1, 17. 

ff^ifc^ Job 42, 8 rams, see hik I 

^bJ5''5fct pr. n. m. (God is king) 
Euth 1, 2." 

Y?A^ ]\^ Chald. (akin to Heb. 
^&K) demon, pron. these Dan. 2, 44; 
from the obsol. sing, bx fAw, w. the 
pl. ending ^"i— as in y^in, l-^jK, "js^. 

fl^rT^ P'^- »• »!• (God increases) 
Num. 1,' 14. 

^.lir*?^ pr. n. m. (God is help) 
Gen. 15, 2. 

"^P*^? <^ pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 8, 20, i. q. 

^T<^: P^- °- ™- (perh. God of the 
people) 2 Sam. 11, 3; bx-^JS? 1 Ch. 3, 5. 

T§'''?SS P^- ^' ^' (perh. God of 
purity) Eliphaz Gen. 36, 4; Job 2, 1 1. 

^I"*?^ pr. n. m. (God is judge, r. 
bbs) 1 Cii. 11, 35. 

Digitized by 





VibS^'bS pr. n. nu (perh. God 
distiiiguishes him) 1 Ch. 15, 18. 
tSDS/'i^ pr. n. m. (Gk)d is rescue) 

1 Ch.'3, 6,'\iit obD^K 1 Ch. 14, 5. 

*)^''ifc^ pr. n. m. (Gkxl is a rock) 
Num. 1, 5. 

8, 30, hut^-pybK Ex. 6, 22. 

K^5j^pr. n. m. (perh. God loathes, 
r.Ksjp; cf.*Apoc. 3, 16) 2 Sam. 23, 25. 

D"'I?^bH pr. n., m. (God sets up) 

2 K. 18, 'l8; also d^K'iri;» 2 K. 28, 34. 

5D^bH pr. n. f. (God of oath) 
Ex. 6, 23, Sept.*£Xt(7a^T; cf. Luke 
1, 7, Elisabeth. 

rra"*!?^ (Samaritan W^bg) pr. n. 
of a westejn race of men; hence also 
of their land on the coast of the Me- 
diterranean sea, whence purple was 
fetched £z. 27, 7 ; who are named (Gen. 
10, 4) among the descendants of Javan 
(^ = 'ldlove<;, ^Icovsc) along w. Tar- 
shish, etc. ; hence prob. Elis in the Pe- 
loponnesus or, in a wider sense, ^e2^ 
or JEoHSf as the shell-flsh, producing 
purple, was very plentiful on the 
Laconian coast, the gulf of Corinth 
and in the Archipelagus; see 1^\ 

WID'^bfcji pr. n. m. (God is salva- 
tion) 2 Sam. 5, 15. 

i'^C^bfc^ pr. n. m. (God restores) 

1 Ch. 3^ 24. 

THID^bK pr. n. m. (God hears) 

2 Sam.^5, 16. 

yiS^bn pr. n. m. (God saves) Mi- 
^mh, the'Prophet who lived 896—825 
B. C, 2 K. chaps 2—18. 

t3BlD'^bS| pr. n. m. ((3k>d judges). 
2 Ch.'23, U 

STt^bK 1 Ch. 25, 27; seennfiplb«. 

, TIT • « ' ' T IT • Tt 

II5K Chald. dem.pron. plur.^^e, 
i. q. 'pfex = Heb. niij, from ^«i; the 
final Ti is prob. an old demonst. ending 

akin to L. -ce in ec-ce (= i-xei, W. a-cw, 
Old W. i/'cJia there) iUic for iUe-ce^ 
Fr. ^, oe, ct; cf. Tp. 

V^Nl (obs.) to lamefd'y dearly a 
mimet. r. akin to bih, ttj, dXoXdtco, 
IXtXeu, E. (Uas! halloo, f^U, howl^waU, 
G. haUen, geUen, L. ul^lo, W. wifh, 
Gael, ual-lam. Hence '^^V^ 

V vN n (obs.) akin to ifcfi, fc6 not, 
hence to 5eo/^no account, whence W^ 

V^fc^ m (obs.) akin to i^5, to 
gather in, to hartest] hence ^bxi. 

. y ^JS IV (obs.) to be Mtrong, akin 
to infiTlj^n^^ I; hence Jl^ Ti!w!^ 

''bbR inteij. ato/ Job. 10, 15 
•li *V>tk, alas! for me; see ttn L 

U^S (Qal obs.) to bind, see txphfk, 
hence used in the derivatives a) for 
the binding and arching of a build- 
ing (see Db^), like ^^; p) of being 
tongue-tied (see Di«, fibx, ''abby;); 7)of a 
silent, lonesome life, destitute of sup- 
port, hence unmarried or widowed, 
Bfiph. fibfiO, to he tongue-tied (ct 
5t9(i.6< T^c ^XfOffOYjc Mark 7, 35) 
hence dwmb, mute Is. 53, 7. — PI, 
b^ (intens. of Qal) to bind tight, 
bind together Gen. 87, 7. 

tabs, pi. tritf^, rvittbi$; see oV^ 
D^ Ex. 15, 11, see b« I - i-JJ. 
Dblit (poet.) m. 1) dumdttess, silence ; 
pjx D^K Ps. 58, 2 9i2enre of justice 
i. e. dumb justice; but obx here may 
well mean binding, hence bond of 
justice. 2) prob. name of an old song 
or music Ps. 56 (tiUe) ti^prn Dbx TOV^ 
silent dove among those afar off (perh. 
the Exiles, cf. ^iT[ Ps. 74, 19); r.oV^ 

DbM, see tAj^ L 

D|l$ (pi. D'^S^Is. 56, 10) ac(j. zn. 

Digitized by 





tied (L e. tongne-tied), dtmbj as a 
permanent bodily defect (Gram. § 84, 
9), hence the P^el form, Va. 38, 14. 

U\^ 1 K. 7, 7 (in some texts), 
another form of qW< parch. 

D|(t Job 17, 10 (in some editions) 
for tJwK but. 

D'^a^ljW m. pi. 1 K. 10, 11 (but by 
transp. D-^o^iibK 2 Ch. 2, 7) aktrng-trees, 
prob. reel 8an(2a^i/700(i. •— ' The name 
prob. consists of !l!|Q ftom Sans, moc^ 
(sandal-wood) and the art. ht$ (he. 

JliabH (from th^\ pi. 0'^-r-» '^'i— ) 
f. something tied up, hence a bundle 
of com, a sheaf (cf. o*»ras, I'^a^) Ps, 
126, 6; r. tht^ 

^Tn^2bt^ pr. n, m. (perh. the tall, 
r. ^^) of a people and region in 
Southern Arabia, perh. the AUttmcsotcs 
of Ptolemy, Gfen. 10, 26. 

Ubia^fc^ pr.n.f. (prob.-'T^b^ T\^ 
king's oak) city in Asher Josh. 19,26. 

1^*?^ adj. m., fiJ^^X f., »»^« soli- 
tart^f vndotved Jer. 51, 5; fem. as 
concr. a undow, Syr. l&.^\n>|. Gen. 
38 11; fig. also a state deprived of 
its king Is. 47, 8; r. tihif. 

\^y^ m. widowhood t fig. of a 
state without its king, only Is. 47, 9. 

ns^bn (pi.ni3obK,w. suf-Tpniaa^^) 
f. widoio Jer. 49, 11; see ')^b^t. 

mS^bi^ f.(only pi.) cidatels.paktces 
Is. 13, 22. Perh. from tki^ to bind^ 
to archj cf. d^lK haU\ but prob. same 
as n'iMa'^X which someMSSgive (b=*i). 

WMbi* (w. suf. prnsijobx, pL 
O^^rvna^^N;) f. widowhood Gen. 38, 14. 
Pig. of the captive Jewish people Is. 
54, 4; from 'pj^K. 

'^5^bfc< adj. m. (from D^« 9%lence\ 
only in union w. "^5^0, nameless one, 
whose name is passed over in silence. 
Hence pronominaUy a certain one, 6 

$eiva, such a one (comp. our Mr. so 
and so) Buth 4, 1. 

•jbH, see y^h< Chald. these. 

CWbfcJ pr. n. m. (God is delight) 

1 Ch. li,%6. 

■jWifct pr. n. m. (God is giver) 

2 K. 24, 8. 

■©bl* (perh. for "^ta^VK) pr. n. of 
an AJssyrian-Babylonian region Gen, 
14, 1, perh. same as '^te'bjj, which the 
Jerusalem Targ. gives for it (see ^^P, 
't^^tn) and which is mentioned Is. 
87, 12, so that ^< (oak), bn (hUt) are 
only additions to *1^ ^'^ prob. for 
^TOH Assyria. 

^^bl^ pr. n. m. (God is witness) 
1 Oh. 7. 21. 

iTlJbS pr. n. m. (Gt)d is adorn- 
ment) 1 Oh. 7, 20. 

'^TWiH pr. n. m. (God is my 
praises)* 1 Ch. 12, 5. 

*1jybl^ pr. n.m. (God is helper) Ex. 
6, 23; Sept. 'EXea^ap, later AaCapo;. 

KbsbK and nbjbH pr. n. (perh. 
God is high) a city on the east of 
Jordan, so named perh. from the 
Moabite worship of fi'^b? bx, in 
Beuben, and now called in Arab. 
'El-'Al, Num. 32, 3. 

ntol^bjj pr. n. m. (God made) 
Jer. 29, 3. 

P^iS (fut. C)^HJProv.22, 25)prob. 
akinto'oSij, Chald! Hth, C)5^, to bind, 
to join ; hence ^b^ a family, a thousat^d, 
i. e. a crowd, and an ox (see VfUs^) 
as being attached, tamed or taught; 
hence to learn, Prov. 22,25 Cj^Wn-IB 
lest thou kam. — PI. to cause to learn, 
to teach, w.2 accusatives Job 15, 5 ; part. 
p|i^=t)fes<^ Job 35,11.— Hiph., denom. 
from 5)ifi5, Ps. 144, 13 n-i'^VKQ bringing 
forth a thousand. 

P|bjJ 1) only pL D*^Bb^ tame or 

Digitized by 



43 OK 

dcmesiicated (beasts), only of the ox 
«nd cow, com. gend. (Hke ^ouc, L. 
ho8^ £. beeve, Kelt. 2m, bo, once Cj^l^ 
in Ps. 144, 14. 2) prop. co9ii5ttia<ton 
(of ntunbers), hence a imUiUude (cf. 
ran*!!), then one ^Aousand 1000, dual 
D'^K 2000, pl.&'^&bKtAouaan(28. The 
object nombered stands mostly in 
the singular after the numeral, later 
often the other way. — From this 
the denom. Hiph. part. ni&'tVK^ Ps. 
144, IS makinffthousandSfi. e. bearing 
Tery many. 3) a union of a thousand, 
i e. of a great number, hence some- 
times (hke nnBDt)) a family, a sub- 
diyision ofatribe Judg.6, 15. 4)pr.n.f. 
of a city in Benjamin Josh. IS, 2S. 

C)bS Chald.a<Aou«and(Heb.C)bK) 
Dan. 5, 1. 

tdbBbl^ see xAtf^htK and obfi. 

5?B5JJ pr. n. m. (God of recom- 
pense) i Ch. 8, 11. 


i^yS (Qal obs.) akin to )«IK to 
press together \ only in PI. I^ifij^ to 
press hardy to urge strongly, Judg. 
16, 16 ; i. q. Samar. T'^&jCi = "n) to force. 

■J^bK see Wr>8. 

WpbK (perh. for b5< not, put ex- 
ceptionally w. D^ in imper. rise thou 
not) m. only in Prov. 30, 31 Dlpb^ ^1^^ 
"is:^ a Jcing against (u$ as in Ps. 94, 16 
and ^K implied) whom rise thou not 
Le., who is irresistible, or with whom 
the people is (as if B^Jp were Arab. 
^ people, w. the article ix), but it 
may be with whom God is, the true 
reading having been prob. &*^^^K, see 
Gram. Note 3 on § 35, Kern. 1. 

rDJJSfc^ pr. n. m. (God is maker) 
1 Sam. 1, 1. 

123p!^M pr. n. of a small town 
perh. in Galilee, birth-place of Nahum. 
Nah. 1, 1. gentUic "•Cpbx. — Perh. the 

name means God of Uie bow; cf. 

xffip =^jrwo, 

iS^ (obs.) perh. Iq.XB^Ulto 
be strong; hence perh. wbK, 

ibinbfcj pr. n. (perh. God of 
birth) a city in Simeon Josh. 19, 4 
md Judah Josh. 15, SO; see l^n. 

HpFlbS, Jig — , pr. n. (perh. God 
of consternation, see r. M^) a city 
in Dan, Josh. 19, 44. 

pPbH pr. n. (perh, God of re- 
storation, r. ^pn) a city in Judali, 
Josh. 15, 59. 

Uw^ (pnm. and mimetic; w. suf. 
■^ax, pi. n'iaK;f^properIytheftr8tli8ping 
or lip-sound of a babe, em, am, ma, 
hence mother; DKJ n^ Est. 2, 7 father 
and mother L e. parents. Q$ has the 
same shades of meaning as '2lf, Ps. 
27, 10; being used also for step-mother 
Gen. 37, 10, grandmother 1 K. 15, 10, 
or any female ancestor Gen. 3, 20; 
fig. for a benefactress Judg. 5, 7, oumer 
Job 17, 14; then transferred to 
mother-earth Job 1, 21, to a people 
Jer. 50, 12, to a metropolis (L q. tv^t^ 
niother-city)as the mother producing 
and sustaining the inhabitants, hence 
y^ iap), w, t», him, k;»|, DSmj, '^m 
are usually thought of as feminine. 
D^J'n'15 28am.20,19ocifyan^wo^^, 
L e. metropolis; ?p^ Bfi< the mother 
way, i.e. the chief road firom which an- 
other branches off as a cross-way Ez. 
21,26; perh.=Tj^3 im*l. — D^is inflect- 
ed as if derived from Q^ (really a de- 
nom. from this noun), but is doubtless 
(like n^) taken from infant lips, as 
most nurseries in the worldcan testify; 
cf.San8. md, Gr. (jLaia, fidfifia, finJ-TiQp, 
L. mam-ma, ma-ter, Kelt, mam, Ger. 
Amme, Ger. and Eng. ma-mo, mut-ter, 

mo-^Aer,Arab. J omm,Coptmau,Esqui- 
nK>am'^>ma,Haltese am, Slavon. mo-^i. 

Digitized by 





DM (perh. a pronom. root) akin 
to "p, Syr. ^, Chald. "JK, •)«, Arab, in, 
Copt an, Ethiop. 2m; cf. Gr. fiv, IJv, el, 
Lat an, en, St, W. Of, 08, also E. if, 
which answers very much to QK in 
sound and sense, perh. also in origin: 
all these particles prob. being origin- 
ally demonstrative like Wi, in, rt, Byr. 
)oi, ^ ; hence prop, there! if now I 
But practically DM is an interrog. or 
conditional particle, like our if, 1) 
adv. interrog. (like ti, Gr. ^, Ijat. an^ 
num?) if? whether? — a) in a simple 
or direct question (for Jt) withoutbeing 
dependent on a foregoing clause 1 K. 
1, 27. — P) in an indirect or dependent 
question, el, if whether j usually after 
verbs of asking, inquiring, doubting, 
looking 2 K. 1, 2, Cant 7,13.— 7) in 
a disjunctive question whether — orl 
the clauses of which are connect- 
ed thus, OK— n in Josh. 5, 13 nPK sisVr 
«'»*^XP-DK whether for us art thou or 
/or our /be8?0KJ —n Gen.l7, 17 (L.wre 
— 8ive)t DK — DK Job 6, 1 2, w. emphasis 
on 1st clause DK*]— 7)i<ri Job 34, 17. 
If the question is continued further, 
with different subjects, then there 
may stand n — tiiV\ — rt, or more varied 
h— OK— K^n— nPs.W,9.— 2) Here- 
with many connect a negative sense 
no, not (as if = vb, only in eflfect, 
not in reality, any more than our if 
is ever really no) especially in protest- 
ing and swearing, e. g. Ps. 95, 11 I 
sware IIKS^'OK if they shall enter, 
Sept. el elffeXsoaovxai (cf.Heb.3,11), 
Vulg. w introibunt] where neither 
• el is strictly neg. any more 
i and if, but the not is only 
d ft'om the clause to be mentally 
id, thufc if they shall enter then 
h will be in vain, which cannot 

jpj. if, in conditional sentences. 

»i OM if not, w. the fiit. Judg. 4, 8, 
also w. perf. ''in'n?? ok Ps. 7, 4, Ruth 
2, 21 !lkpDKn?,>civTeX£<je>aiv, 
w. a participle Judg. 9, 15, w. infin. 
constr. Job' 9, 27. — Here belong 
also those cases, where OK (like t/) may 
be conveniently rendered by when, 
since (Gen. 47, 18 Am. 7, 2), comp. 
G«r. wenn (if) = ti^ann (when), or 
other shades of meaning suited to 
the context; OK *^S after a negative 
clause is but^ else after an affirmative 
it is for if, that if; in wishing OK, at 
times united w. Kd, is if now! oh 
thai! — In composition, OKH = Kbrt, 
Ji^nonne^ expecting answer Yes Num. 
17, 28, Job 6, 13; vb OK, a) is not? 
Is. 10, 9; P) if not Ps. 7, 13; 7) after 
a negative hut Gen. 24, 38; cf. el 
jiT^, L. nisi, Chald. K^K for K^-OK 

tIU©JJX3H (Hos. 4, 6 in some texts) 
1 fat Qal of DK13 w. suf. Tj and K for n 
cohort., perh. meant to be pronounced 

VCB^ or ilBH Chald. (pi. 'j'^aK) t 
ell, cubit Dan. 3, 1 ; see Heb. rraK. 

niiJhS (obs.) perh. akin to DQK 
iojoin; hence perhaps 

TOJJ (w. suf. "^noK, TpJttK, pL 

ning^, o. nirroK, w. suf. orpnhoK) 
f. hand-maid, maid-servant, female 
slave, hence 'k'-jSi son of a female 
slave = slave Ex. 23, 12. ^OK was 
used for I even by free women in 
addressing a superior or master 1 Sam. 
1, 11 ; Chald. K^K and iin^K, also flDK. 
-— h^K is prob. mimet. and akin to 
OK; cf.fiaia, Jj.mamma,Vf.mammaeth, 
G. atnme, all used for a nurse. 

tV2l^ i, q. h^a'^K terror: r. D'^KorOJiK. 

JlBfct (cnaK, dual O'nayi, pi. HIBK; 
from OK mother) f. 1 ) mother-city, ame- 
tropolis; thus in the phrase in 2 Sam. 

Digitized by 



8, 1 David took the bHdle of the me- 
tropolis out of the hands of the Fhili- 
stines, 1. e. subdued the city. 2) a 
foundation, G"»l3Wi niax Is. 6, 4 foun- 
dations of the thresholds. S) mother 
(j^eth. joint) of the arm, i.e. fore-arm 
below the elbow joint; hence, as a 
measure, citbit, ell, aboute= 18 in<dies; 
^g, measure, as in TR^a na«; Jer. 61, 
13 the measure of iky robbery. 4) pr. 
n. of a hill (perh. mother-hill i. e. chief 
hill) 2 Sam. 2, 24. 

TWtk (fh)m Ok, cf. tsk^) f. a 
people, a community or race; only pL 
D^ Ps. 117, 1, nia« Gen. 25, 16. 
rtifiK tik^ Num.26, 15 )Uad of peoples; 

et Arab. £ol ^vmmah a people. — 
Prob. akin to DK and so meaning 
those sprung from a common mother 
(ct iTttTpidi); but see DQet 

fTBH Chald. (pL I'^K, def. «*»«) 
1 a people, tribe Dan. 8, 4. 

nintiK, see na^ 

■pOiJ I m. 1) a builder, architect 
(= "lOX); in Prov. 8, 30 used of wis- 
dom, personified as a female artificer, 
but without the fem. form (Gram. 
§ 107, 1, Bern.); but some take it here 
for supporter. 2) pr. n. m. of king 
of Judah, B. 0. 644—642, 2K. 21, 18. 

"pJSK n for "jian a multitude, only 
in Jer. 52, 15 by a Ghaldaism. 

^MK m pr. n. of an Egyptian 
god, Amon, 'Afi-fAcbv, Jer. 46, 25, in 
the ancient Egyptian language, Aum, 
folly Aum-Be 1. e. Amon-Sun. He 
was chiefly worshipped in Thebes 
(Viojj-W Nah.3,8, Greek Ai6(j7coXtO. 
Amon signifies according to Cham- 
poUion, elevation; cf.SfJipcov, h.umbo. 

yaotii (for-pOJ}; pi. D-iyiax, O-^aQK, 
c ^»Ta^) m. prop, a stay or prop, then 
frtutiness, fidelity, Deut. 82, 20. The 
pi. designates , 1) as a collect, abstracti 



fidelity, Prov. 20, 6 b'^iiag ^K a man 
of fidelity, te. trusty, 2) concrete, Ps. 
12, 2 where fi'^iiiQK as part. pass, of 
)'0^is trusted ones, irtaToC the faithful. 
nS^aS (from -jsiox; pL Wi^iaK 
Prov. 28, 20) f. 1) firmness, Ex. 17, 12 
njsiax ^^ W and his hands were 
firmness, i. e. firm. 2) security Is. 
83, 6. 3) faithfulness, of God Deut. 
32, 4; also of men towards God, 
hence faith, trust, Syr. jialSn.qi, 
SeptitfjTK;, Hab. 2,4 comp.Gen.15,6. 

rVOit^ pr.n.m. (courageous) father 
e prophet Isaiah, Ib. 1, 1. 
■•SH pr. n. m. Ezr. 2, 57, but "paK 
in Neh. 7, 59. 

D'^aS for d*roi5<, see fi*^, D'^SL 
D^^^I^M, see nsK. 

■jiD'^ttK pr. n. m. (fWthfnl) for 
'jidOM 2 Sam. 18, 20, as if from a form 
1*«aM « Syr. ^A^ trtie. See Tba&t 

m. 1) strony, nb yiQi^ mighty in 
strenyth Nah. 2, 2; w. 3^ Am. 2, 16 
^^^"^^ 0/^ heart, bold; }^BJ$ *^lripi t^ 
conspiracy was strong 2 Sam. 15, 2. 
2) abstr. «fre«i^A Is. 40, 26; r. 'poK. 

TBfct (r. '19^ n) m. high, hence 
a) perh. mountain-top Is. 17, 9; P) 
tree-top, ^"^a^ a^*ia on (^ Ac<wf of 
the tree-top Is. 17, 6. Cf. '•'nfag, D^K. 

!7122^ or 1?^2^ akin to ^nM 

- T •• T 

(which see), to /off, to droop, to lan- 
guish, only part, ^n^^ nbaM rri^ how 
is ^y Aear^ ^»i^tsA€(2 (through 
passion) Ez. 16, 80. — Palal hhiQH 
(so nbiafi<, hWa«, nWaK, !ii^aa<) to 
be withered (of plants) Is. 24, 7, lan- 
guishing (in sickness) Ps. 6, 3; also 
to mourn Is. 19, 8. 

^^^^ (pl*&''^^?K) adj. m.languid, 
weaJc^ 01^ Keh. 8, 84. Bedupl. from 

Digitized by 





i«K; perh. the -:- has remained firm 
from the original intrans. notion; see 
i»K. Cf. ajipXuc. 

UUCS (obs.)akin toQ^, &^ft to 
join, to combine. — This root is prob. 
connected w. the primitive D^ tnotJier, 
as the natural bond of union; also 
w. n^if , the same word modified and 
expressing dependence or subordina- 
tion, hence a woman dependent on 
the family or bound to it, as also mtttO 
means a woman tied to the femily (cf. 
SouXt] from Seoi, L. famula from ft|i.a 
» simut); hence a people as being a 
union (ct S^fioc) was called rr^M, D?. 

CK3I^ pr. n. f. (a rendezvous) city 
in Judah Josh 15, 26; r. DQ^ 

I^Q^ I akin to r. pK I, -j^;, 1) 
jrans. to make firm, to founds to prop 
up, to buUd, hence njak pillar, "j^^fij 
and ifiTQ^ architect; to sustain, to 
nurse i. e. to carry Lam. 4, 5, hence 
the part, yak sustaining, hence nurS' 
ing-father or guardian, TraifiaYco^fSc, 
Num. 11, 12; f. njw a nurse Buth 
4, 16. 2) intrans. to be firm, hence 
to be reliable, trusty, faithful', part, 
pass. d'^s-laK prop, depended on, i. e. 
the faithful, iriaToC, P8.31,24.— Nlph. 
a) to be made firm, part. *)«» Dipnj 
a /frm, imrc place Is. 22, 23; iowi & 
ye shaU not be established or secure 
Is. 7, 9; P) to be durable, lasting, 
sure Hos. 5, 9, "j^&g n*^a an abiding 
house (posterity)! Bam. 2, 35, but 
also of a chronic sickness Deut. 28, 
59, of an unfailing supply of water Is. 
33,16; 7) to be nourished, carried, as 
a child, Is. 60, 4; 6) to be faithful, 
true, such as can be depended on, used 
of Gk)d Is. 49, 7, a servant Num. 12, 7, 
messenger Prov. 25, 13, a witness 
Is. 8, 2. — Hiph. to hold firmly, w, 
a on to something, hence to trust 

in, to credit as true, absol. Is. 7, 9; 
to believe w. a (MWa Gen. 15, 6 in 
the Lord); oftener w. \> Gen. 45, 26, 
Ex. 4, 9; w. -^3 Job 9, 16; also w. 
infin. Job 15, 22; w. ace. Judg. 11, 20; 
perh. to Jtalt, of the war-horse in Job 
39, 24, where others prefer to believe, 

JQCS n (Qal obs.) akin to •j-re; 
right hand, hence denom. Hiph. 
(fut r^^:;) to turn to the right Is. 
30, 21 ; cf. Gen. 13, 9. 

jHiS Chald. Aph.TQ-tT Dan. 6, 24^ 
i. q. HipK. of "|a^ I,/o trust; part, 
pass. I^*^ Dan. 2, 45 trusted, faiikfuL 

133K m. prob. exercised, skilled, 
hence architect, artist. Cant. 7, 2j 
r. 1?^ L 

1^ adj. m. fiirm, faithful, hence 
a) subst. fidelity, )Tgt^ ^^ GM of 
faithfulness Is. 65, 16, comp. Apoo. 
3, 14; P) adv. truly Jer. 28, 6, cer- 
tainly, chiefly as confirmation at the 
end of sayings Njmi. 5, 22, Ps. 41, 14. 
Hence d[i.ifjv often in Bib. Gr., Neh. 
5, 13, but Sept. mostly y^voito so 
be it! Ps. 72, 19; r. ^^ L 

■Jttk m. truth, faithfulness. Is, 
25, l;r.')OKl. 

"^X^^^T.yq^l^tVifiaxdness, hence 
allowance, L e. wages Neh. 11, 23; 
firmness i. e. a compact Neh. 10, i. 
2) pr. n. of a mountain ridge of An- 
tilibanus (Talm. ffj^x) Cant 4, 8; 
hence also name of a river 2 K. 5, 12 

(nowj^j^ Baradi, Greek Xpujo^- 

f6ac) because it flowed down fh)m 
'Amana. The B?thibh in 2 K 5, 12 
has njnx (a and n being often inter- 
changed). — The name may refer to 
the mountain's firmness or the river's 
perennial flow. 

iTSttj^ (only pi. Wirik) f. columns^ 
pillars' 2 K. 18, 16; r. -J^ L 

Digitized by 


roax 47 

T S T 

nj'fflj C^na,from -pjk) f. 1) • 
bringing up, fostering, Est. 2, 20. 
2) for D}^ Cdmnam) as adv. fru7^ 
Josh. 7, 20. 

nSag 2K. 12,16for n'AViH fidelity. 

^iSSM pr. n. m. (faithful) 2 Sam. 
8, 2. Cf. frn2^;. 

D3!i3i<, Dw^(from li2k)adv. trufy, 
certainly Job 34, 12, Gen. 18, 13. 

ro^ f. 1) perh. as sing, of 
rviacK in 2 K. is, 16 €olumn$, posta^ 
2) fostermother Buth. 4, 16 ; r. -jOK I. 

f^iSc^ (fut. ira^r) proh. akin to 
]ran, ban, Dp»,prop. to be sharp, 
hence to be alert, strong; used of 
the f^et, to be swift (comp. )^K); 
of the mind, to be dauntless 2 Ch. 
13, 18; w. 110 to be stronger than, to 
prevail over. Gen. 25, 23. — PI. 
1) to make firm, i. e. stiff and un- 
bending, e. g. Jpjab-n^ y^w\ S> 
thou skaU not make thy heart hard, 
L e. obstinate Deut. 15, 7; to make 
strong, i. e. establish e. g. a house 2 Ch. 
24, 13, heaven Prov. 8, 28 j to make 
courageous, bold, through assistance 
given, Deut. 3, 28; to confirm, e. g. 
the sinking knees. Job 4, 4; 2) to set 
off or pick out, to select, e. g. D^^a 
the son of man (i. e. Israel) whom 
thou hast chosen (nrax) for thyself 
Ps. 80, 18; w. a to select among Is. 
44, 14. — Hiph. to act courageouely 
Ps. 27, 14. — Hith. to shew one- 
self bold, alert, hence of alertness 
1 K. 12, 18, of firm resolve Euth 
!, 18. Hence y^^^ and 

J)0^ (pi. f^p^^) adj. m. active, 
, , used of horses in Zech. 6, 3, 7; 
but others refer it here to some strong 
colour, e. g. deep red (after the Sept. 
z^^^i in some texts), as if we had 
y^t which see under yan. 

- T 

VSijt m. bravery, strength, only in 
Job 17,' 9; r. I^X. 

WQl$, Y22i<, see y^Zl^, 

nS^K (r. yax) f. strength, only 
in Zech. 12, 5. 

*^l2fc< pr. n. m. (brave) Neh. 11, 12. 

XT'SCOA, Vl"2r:)« pr. n. m. 
(strength of t^*;;) king of Judah, B. C. 
840—11, 2 K.'l2, 22; 14, 1. 

iQN I (ppob. mimetic, see V^I; 
cf. our mumble, murmur) fut. "laftO 
w. disjunct, accent and in pause, but 
"^ax^^ with conjunct, accent and 1 
consec.,1 p. sing, ^"q^^ inf. c. ntoH, 
*ibK2, nbKb (always for *ibxb), l) to 
say\ differing from "^a? to speak, nig^ 
being almost always followed by what 
is spoken, which ^a^idoes not reqvnre, 
e. g. Lev. 1, 2 speak "la^ to Israel 
and say n^^K^ to them (here follows 
what is to be said). So 1bKi,lit. 
for to say i. e. saying « namely, \a 
used as a fbrmula of quotation, 
where then the very expression 
follows Ex. 6, 10 or the aec. of 
what is said Jer. 14, 17, which latter 
but rarely appears to be omitted, 
e. g. Gen. 4, 8 Cain said (it, namely 
what God had spoken to him in 
V. 7), where the Samar. adds robs 
tridn let us go to the field and the 
Sept. SieXGcttjiev eU xi ireSfov. — The 
person to whom one says a thing 
is put w. bx or i Gkn. 3, 16. 17; 
also o/^whom 2 K. 19, 32, Gen. 20, 
13, Ps. 3, 3; or w. ace. as in Gen. 
43, 27 your aged father WyM "^m 
whom ye said, i. e. ye spoke of; hence 
w. h to name or call Is. 5, 20, so 
^ntit$ named Mic. 2, 7; also as the 
context requires, it may be to admon- 
ish Job 36, 10; to promise 2 Ch. 
32, 24; to praise Ps. 40, 11; to an- 
nounce Bx. 19, 25. 2) to think Ex. 

Digitized by 





2, 14, elUptically for the fall ex- 
pression nia *ia^ to say in thp 
heart i. e. meditate Gen. 17, 17, Ps. 
4, 5 (cf. 9T)|jl( in Homer). 3) to com- 
tnand, chiefly in later Heb. as Est. 
1, 17, in 1 K 11, 18 ft 'nan m\ he 
ordered bread for him, •— Niph. 
*iaK3 ^^ ^^ *^*^ ^' V» ''^ *^ somebody 
Num. 23, 23, Ez. 13, 12; w. i also 
to 6e named Hos. 2, 1; ft-^^gjO* winp 
holy shaU he said to him L e. Ae shaU 
heealledlM, 4, 8. "najp (impersonally) 
U is said^ esp. in quotation Gen. 
10, 9, Num. 21, 14. — Hiph. to cause 
to say, w. the ace. e. g. ^j'^'^ofc?^ Se has 
made thee say, t e. has pledged 
thee, Deut. 26, 18. — Hith. ^ttKnn 
to boast or lift up oneself Ts. 94, 4; 
hut this might belong to ^Q^ n. 

iQN n (obs. unless perh. in Ps. 
94, 4) to be high; akin by metathesis 
to D'5K (cf. ioto = Dbia) and Dyi'J. 
Hence '^''OJJ, "^"^iaK; perh. also the 
title EmtTf denoting eminence^ used 
of princes. 

IQJS Chald., 3 fem. n'na^ for 
h'no^ futSax;^, inf. "^^kq, "npo i) to 
sayt by mouth Dan. 2, 25 or by 
■writing Dan. 7, 2; part. pi. y^^Q^ 
saying they are, i. e. it is said Dan. 

3, 4. 2) to command Dan. 2, 46. See 
the Heb. *^q^ L 

*1^5St poet, (in sing, only w. suf. 
i'noH Job 20, 29, pi. D•''^o^5, c. •'•nust) 
m. i.q. "^OK, l)a8ayingt word, utters 
ancey i&< '''^o« words of God Num. 
24, 16; "^Kb '»t?»^ TTO he gave beau- 
tiful utterances (poetic effusions) 
Qren, 49, 21, i.e. he spoke with grace; 
cf. "^10^, nra, rm, "ipg, nax, D?b •^ijok. 
2) utterance = ftcAesf, bxg nait n^ng 
Me portion of his behest from Ood, 
L e. his divinely appointed lot Job 
20, 29; r. "nttj I, 

^fiS Chald. (pi. "p'^fiK) m. lamh, 
prop, for ^ti5 wool' bearer, cf. L. 
laniger (from "noJ = Heb. "laX troo/), 

Ezr. 6, 9. Syr. J^f, Arab, y^ 

lamb; prob. hence dfjivoc. 

^^^ pr* n. m. (perh. tall, r. •ngfc* 
n) Jer. 20, 1. 

*1ttijl (poet.) m. 1) a word, poetic 
speech (cf. lire;) Ps. 19, 4, song of 
victory (iiciv(xiov) Hab. 3, 9. 2) 
promise Ps. 77, 9. 3) like ^^"n a 
matter or thing Job 22, 28; r. ^o» L 

nbj* (obs., r. ^ttK H) m. Height, 
mountain range , hence gentilic 

•TH3S (c ntitftt, pi. ni'iiD^ c nSwjt; 
r. "^nx I) f. utterance Ps. 18, 31, 
poetic speech, a song Gen. 4, 23. 

rnai* f. i. q. rrir«, only Lam. 
2, 17. 

^ jM^ pr. n. m. (mountaineer or 
highlander) Amorite, a Canaanitish 
race of people on what was subse- 
quently the Mountains of JudahGen. 
48, 22. Sept. 'AjJio^f aiot; their land is 
named in Josephus AjxcDpTTic, 'Ajio- 
p(a. Prob. from "^t^ r. "lax n. 

^'^tiS pr. n. m. (prob. eloquent, 
r. "nax I) Neh. 3, 2. 

n'^^aS, 5in^/^ pr. n. m. (pro- 
mise of inj; cf. Beo^paaxo;) 1 Ch. 5, 
37; 2 Ch.\9, 11. 

iS'^ttfc^ pr. n. m. of a king of 
Shinar Gen. 14, 1; perh. for Pfi'j^; 
for Cj'JtpK = Cj'JX (tl'JK) w. Q inserted 
for the Dagh. f., w. i-^^ as dimin, 
ending; cf. 'AffaTra^iTic, a region 
of northern Assyria, also *TT93"B*^X 
proper name of a Shemite. 

1Z3/JC( (obs.) akin to u?nQ,to^a8a 
away. Hence 

Digitized by 




VtSK xn. prop, of time, hy-gtme^ 
past^ hence \) yeater-night, last night 

(cf. Arab. jmaI ems, yesterday) used 
aa adv. Gten. 19, 34; yesterday in 2 K. 
9, 26, opp. "ilj^ = 'nn»9 after-day i. e. 
to-morrow. 2) n^Af in general, only 
Job 30, 3 rMff\XD ttS^K the night of 
desolation, L e. nightlike wastes, as 
JOmchi, Bashi and other Babbis ex- 
plain ; r. xboiL 

t(B* (for njjK, w. suff. •(»»«; r. 
yatk I) 1 firmnmVn, 19, 10, hence 
1) certoM^y Josh. 2, 12. 2) faOh- 
fuiness Is. 59, 14, trtdh Qen. 42, 16, 
tmeAeafiednew Oen. 24, 49, nsuaUy 
in connection w. non, D'iM. See )'giif I. 

lnnX|!^ (only c. and w. suf. 
•iWTPRD^, ph c. ninros^) f. a sack or 
bag Gen. 42, 27; perh. prop, clothe 
trmsk rsyo to spread otst, like nnmso 
ciodk from rrto; cf. plQ. 

"TraS pr. n. m, (tnithfal, from 
rvQVt w. adj. ending ''-7-) Jon. 1, 1; 
where the Syr. has ^£^ Maxdatoc, 
as if they took *^Piq for "Vrp^ 

TRMJ Chald. adj. t for ma^OfK 
(r. "(ttjj) strong, pou?erful, perh. loe*- 
/^;)peiI, from "p^^ ^JP^i regarded aa 
the seat of str^igth, Dan. 7, 7; on 
the nse here of the masc. form for 
the fern, see on '''VIK. 

■jS interrog. adv. where? whither? 
1 Sam. 10, 14, in the Targ. for •»», 
shortened for ^V (cf. TTVi^ and "jm), 
hence "j^ whence? 2 K. 5, 25; )l^ 
until when? how long? Job 8^ 2. 
Barely for njK which see below. 


i^M Chald. Ban. 2, 8, of tener JTl^ 
pron. i pers. i. q. Heb. *i^ X In 
Dan. 7, 16 ro6| Wn Ut. my spirit I 
Q. e. eren mine), the tt^ used for 
empbasis; see Oram. § 121, 8. 

8^ (also mjj Jon. 1, 14) Vnw5 
for Ki"!njj, interj. of intreaty, a* now/ 
ah I pray thee! at the beghming of 
a sentence Bx. 82, 81 where the 
merely enclitic MJ cannot stand. In 
very pressing intreaties the K} can 
be repeated Gen. 50, 17. 

MSLStt Obald. Dan. 4,' 9, see Sfit 
3^3fijl Chald., see r. arr;. 
nSM pron. 1; see K3K. 

tT3H interrog. adv. whither? (prop, 
to^c-war^i? from 1^ w. h-^ local) 
in double questions, hj^*] — MJS"*^ 
whence? — and whither? Gen. 16, 8, 
or Y^iM — hjijj whither? — ond 
trAenilc? Judg. 19, 17 , or TOX*] — "^oi 
to whom? •— and whither? Qen. 82, 
18; njfip? «ZJ «7Acn.^ how long? 
Ex. 16, 28. Some texts have h|M 
for nj^ in Ps. 139, 7. — Without 
interrog. hjH^ njg hither and thither 
1 K. 2, 86.^42. 

tTJfcJ i. q. njK, flfom •}« w. n-; 
for h-;- loc. 2 K. 5, 26. 

n JCS I mimet. akin to rm, "^nU, 
19$f P^> ^ m^Ai to iam«ni Is. 8, 
26. Hence ms^ 1^9^; cf. av!a. 

nj]^ n (Qal obs.) akin to 
hjli I, txx^ in, to &oiff or incUne, 
hence to m^f or approach f hence 
perh. nx ttTt^A (for nSK). — PI. hS« 
prop, to make something tend or 
incUne some way, hence (said of 
God) to cause to occw Ex. 21, 13. 
— Pa. to he made to occur, to befaU 
Prov. 12, 21; Ps. 91, 10. — HHh. to 
seek (for oneself) opportunity or 00- 
casion, w. i against somebody 2 K^ 
5, 7. — Hence njsun, hj^. 

n JflS m obsol. in Semitic but 

T T 

prob: akin to vioi, to swim or floaty 


Digitized by 


L. no, Bret neHi, W. novio, fiatn. 
niv; perhaps akin to fo fiah^.L e« 
swimmer; hence ^^ ^^ 

tTl^V^ Jon. 1, 14; 4, 2; see M^K. 

13^^ pers. proh. u?e, only in 
K'thibh of Jer. 42, 6, where the Q'ri 
has the common formt|3hdK, but the 
former is hotter here; hence the 
suffixes ^3-;-, ^~;~» ^'^T'f and the 
afformative >I3 — e. g. ^hui^, 

ySi^ Chald. pers. pron. m.; "pSI^ 
f. i. q. Heb. dn, -jn, t)iey Dan. 2, 44j 
7, 17; from I'm, "pii and the prefixed 
demonstrative particle ")» = fri. 

IZJiSH (= Chald. V3K, whence 
perh. pL D'^lCJX, c. 'nrSK; but see 
Note on tt3*^) m. 1) human being, 
like Q'JX, but only in poetry; rarely 
for man as individual as in Job 5, 17, 
usually collective (hence without a 
pi. form) for mankind Deut. 32, 26; 
poet. »i:x-,a Ps. 144, 3. Often in 
poetry w. the accessory notions a) of 
the crowd (cf. ^^^oc = It, valgus), 
hence V^^ ^"^^ ^* ^ vulgar gtyhts 
Is. 8, 1, i. e. in the popularly le- 
gible writing; p) base men Job 25, 
6; Ps. 8, 5. But the meanings a and 
p do not necessarily belong to the 
proper sense of ^Bffis:^; see Ps. 8, 6. 
2) pr. n. m. (a man) Enosh Oen. 
4, 26. 

MJS (Qal obs.)akintoh3^I,pn 
II, pjK, only Niph. hdio to lament, 
to moan, ^SupeaOai, w. h^ £z. 9, 4 
or w. IP Ex. 2, 23 of the object for 
which one mourns, also absolute 
Lam. 1, 4; said of animals Joel 1, 18. 

nnDK (w. suf. ''JnnjR, pL ninjs) 
f. complaint Ps. 102, 6; sigh Ps. 31, 
11. In Is. 21, 2 rmnsx-bs aU her 
sighing i. e. cansed by her, the 
snf. should have Mappiq, ^T-^;r.ri;M. 

Mn3K Ohald. pers. pton. L q. 

60 ■> !,5«| 

jHeb. Wrj^, tec Dan. 3, 1^; alsorafJl^ 
£sr. 4, 16. 

^nDfc< pers. pron. 1 ^1.' com. we; 
once ^SX'Jer. 42, 6. As inr all pers. 
pronouns, an ( — 3K) is prob. a de- 
monstr. prefix, and ^ah is perh. equal 
to ^5fic, w. the prosthetic letter n har- 
dened for K, like the Chald. TJfJ^IJSL 
The shortened form ^T^i (Gen. 42, 
•11) occurs but 6 times. 

! I^^nj^ pr. n. f. (perh. panting) a 
city in Issachar Josh. 19,19; see ^nj. 

'^?H<in pause "^SKjpers. pron. I p. 
com. X from '»-7- (a form for I still 
retained as a suffix) w. demonstr. 
prel an. Usually in the. nom. case 
(J), rarely in oblique cases (mg,me)9a 
explained in Oram. § 121,3. See *^3bi^ 

*^5^ m. ship, mostly collective sAtp- 
ping, a fleet, 1 K. 9. 26; no pluraL 
Very rarely a ship, and then treated 
as if fern. e.g. in 1 K. 10, 22; a'^©'^?^^ 
oar-ship Is. 33, fl. — The etym. is 
doubtful; but it may be ftom nj» 
ni; cf. vauc, L.tkm9, Sans. n^iM, Pers. 
S^U, Arab. |3)U, Ger. nachen, 

n^3H (pi. r\i*5K, once K*thibh 
rri^yiK 2 Ch. 8, 18) f. a ship Jonah 1. 
3; a noun of unity, therefore taking 
the i^lural Gen. 49, 13. 

il^K f. sighing, lamentation Lam. 
2, 5; cf. av(a; r. nj^ I. 

■pSfcjl Chald. theg; see )^l!(. 

D9^M pr. n. m. (the people's 
sighing) 1 Ch. 7, 19. 

^ JN (obs.) perh. to be pointed or 
sharp. Hence perhaps 

1]3M m. perh. some |70tn^tool or 
instrument used in building, an awl 
or graver, for marking and designing 
(comp. '^*^^); hence in the Sept and 
Symmachus d6ai{Aa« (steel point), used 
for engraving, ct Chald KDJ^ 6v<>^ 

Digitized by 


Only in Amos 7, 7 "rpK n^in wo/Z of 
the graver, 1. e. btdlt by plan and 
measure; v. S I set tKe graver (sc. 
of desolation) in the miM of my 
people, i. e. I will destroy utterly, as 
if by plan and measure. But most take 
^3K here for tin or lead (Sans, ndga 
or vanga), and hence j7^t}tfii«^, which 
suggests substantially the same mean- 
ing in this very obscure passage; 
eomp. Is. 34, 11. 

*ODK(in pause "lap^) personal pron. 
com. gend. I, the primary and fuller 
form belonging to the ancient period 
of the language, and hence oftener 
found in the Pentateuch, but in later 
writings e. g. Ezekiel, Ohronicles, it 
gives place, w. few exceptions, to the 
shorter form '^afit — It is formed like 
the Coptic AN OK from the demonstra- 
tive particle an, and the wide spread 
pronom. form oki, Sax. tc, Dutch lAr, 
6er. ich, i-j^, L. ego, £. I, Sans, aham; 
•ee Gram. § 82, Note on Bem. 1. 

|J^ L q. hjfie, I, only Hith. ^iwsn 
to bemoan onese^Iam, S, 39;^ mur- 
mur Num. 11, 1; Sept. 7077uCeiv. 

JCS akin to t^, Syr. ^f,prop. 
to press, to urge, hence to force, only 
in Est. 1, 8. 01 Syr. wffljaJ, di^iaaio, 

D j2S Chald. i. q. Heb. DjK, only 
in Ban. 4, 6 no seerH presses thee, 
L 6. troubles. 



JCS (fnt. t^0 prop, to breathe 
Utrough the nose, to pant or snort 
through anger, hence to be angry, 
w. 2 dl somebody 1 K. 8, 46 ; Ps. 85, 6 ; 
absolutely Ps. 2, 12. — Hith. to be 
angry, w. 2 of person against whom, 
Deut. 1, 37. — This root is mimet. 
akin to rwjB, lt«, nw, '^i, Cjiej; 

TTvIm, L. paveo, B. pant, blow, 
breathe, pu/f, snuff, G. schnauben, 
or some such sounds in all tongues, 
expressive of breathing and often also 
anger or temper; cf. ip-irvicov direi- 
Vfi <; xal ^<Svou Acts 9, 1 . — Hence CjKlI 
nose, anger, Syr. |ijf (pi. |if) face, 
Arab. JaU 

5^1 jJS Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. C]?^ 

C|5H Chald. (only pi. •pBpfcfi, w. suf. 
■^hiejN) m. face, prop. f^« nostrils 
of man Ban. 2, 46; i q. Heb. D^^ 

tnSSfi^ f. name of an unclean bird 
Lev. n,* 19, Beut. 14, 18; so called 
from its hard breathing or hiising, 
when provoked, hence angry bird\ 
according to the ^&^t, sandpiper (^a- 
pa8pi60; others say the heron\ 
others the parrot, as in the Arab, 
version; r. Cg«. 

p JCS (fut p^fcg) prop, to cry w. 
angui8h,hexiceto groan, of the wound- 
ed £z. 26, 15. — Nipfa. to sob, sigh 
Ez. 24, 17. "^ Mimet. and akin to 

riJij, pan, p». Cf. fi-yx®* ^- ^"^^ ^*°* 
and Swed. anJcen, Ger. enge, W. ^n^, 
E. anguish. Hence 

•nijDK (c npjK) f. 1) a cry o/'cm- 
^i«A, moam^i^ Ps. 79, ll,HaL 2, 18. 
2) perh. a kind of lisard, so name 1 
firom its cry Lev. 11, 80; ct r© 2. 

\Z3 J(S I (Qal only in part. WStf) 
to be evU, dangerous, deadly, of an 
incurable disease or wound Job 
84, 6; fig. of grief Is. 17, 11; of an 
evil day Jer. 17, 16; morally 
of the heart Jer. 17, 9. — Niph. 
to be dangerously iU, sick unto death, 
2 Sam. 12, 15. — Akin to ttS^ 

^.▲a , ^m , Arab, jfii; vooeo). Sans. 
na{f, L. ncceo, F. nuire, "W. nuweid, 

IS jb( n (obs.) perh. akin to 1^ 

Digitized by 


% 52 

to he strong. Hence, perhaps, t^{j, 
Chald. 1^5; cl naj, "laj. 

WS^ Chald. (def: Wtia&f Dan. 2, 38, 
aUo M\^^ Dan. 5, 21, K^ldKDan. 4, 13 
K'thibh, pL Q*n»5^J)an.4, U)Auwa» 
being, marit i. q. Heb. mvu See 
Note on t^^ 

D^^TDDK m. mew; pi. of fl^at which 
see; also of Chald. tiSK in Dan. 4,14. 

ri^JS (obs.) perh. akin to nj^ to 
in^li^e to, to meet. Hence perh. rMLL 

prep, with for njK; cf. Arab, jls 
to meet,. 

rBnSS; Chald. (Q'ri rTP3J$) i. q. 
Heb. mn, pron. 2 p. s. m. <^(m, Dan. 
2, 29 (£^m nn + 1»; see htw), for 
which Pi^ in com. g^end. is alwajrs 

put in the Masoretic QM. Arab. cJI, 
Byr. ^f, Maltese^f, Ethiop. an^ta. 

I^ISK Chald. (i. q. Heb. dni^jt) pron. 
2 pers. pi. m. of nnpx, ye Dan. 2, 8; 
in Targum isin^, Syr. ^o^f, Arab. 


strong^ hence «o Aco/. Chald. KbK, Syr. 

|j0|,Arab. Uif;ctoa6oi,9u>C(u. Hence 

^5,^ VT' J^r?^' (healer or physician) 
king of Judah (B, C. 95,6— 9;14) 1 K.. 
15, 8. 

Owi^ (ob8.)perhapsakinto?!ltfo 
trouble^ iniure^ hence liOKj cf.Arab. 

^j| to hurty perh. xiJSo) fo t;«r, L. 
cceJo, G-. schadenf^ E. sca^Ae. 

'sp''^ (r. "qox) m. unguent'flasky 
only 2 K. 4, 2; cf. '1!U15{ from "lax. 

11DS m. trouble^ harm Gten. 42, 4; 
r. noat 

*lteK (£6r "Vtoat, pi. D'^'TOK Ecc. 
7, 26) m. ftond, fetter Judg. 15, 14; 

--IT - 

*»^KJ3 ^''^ '^ fetter-house, jprieon 
Jer. 37, 15; r. *ibJJ. 

^%l^ Chald. m. same as Heb. *1«99 
bond Dan. 4, 12; r. lOK. 

Cj*OR <r. C10») m. f*c in-gathering 
(of truit), harvest Ex.23, 16; Cpptfti An 
the feast of in-gathering. Bat. S4, 
22. Cf. ^^y\, a**!^ -inxa, -ji3i^. 

I'CfcJ (r. -ibx) m. fettered one, 
prisoner Job 8, 18, Ps. 68, 7. It 
differs from ^^X, which is more 
participial; see.Gten. 39, 20. 

I^'SK (intensive form for ^i*^^ 
m. 1) captive Is. 10, 4. 2) pr. n. m. 
Ex. 6, 24. 


E?S(obs.) to pour Ottf, toan^ini\ 
akinto tp&(of. ia«='VlsJ), t^bjl, perh. 
•^i deriv. TpGat 

UwCC (obs.) akin to &!ib, bto^, fo 
«ct <o |w*f 6y; fig. fo A«Q) together \ ct 
Chald. 1^, Byr. ^1. Hence 

D^ljc (only pL D'^a^^) m. store^ 
houses, granaries Dent. 28|. a (c^ 
nn^^g, -ly'K). 

njDSpr. n. m. (perh. thorny, ftom 
nab after the form aTDi<) Ezr. 2, 50. 

*1§5l5'$ P*"' ^' °^* o^ wi Assyrian 
Satrap, said to be H'5'S?^J «?^ Ezr. 
4, 10, — Perh, front the Zend uhaina 
= osna great (i. e. KS"^) and par 
prince (i. e. K.'J'^l??); but it may be 
Semitic, akin to Heb. ^atih to aUock 
(, Gen. 43, 18); cf. iiriTreaeiv tivu 

t^SOfcJ pr. n. f: daughter of, the 
Egyptian priest Potiphera, wi£s* of 
Joseph, Gen. 41, 45; Sept, ^Atievld, 
*A(ievv£d; Copt. AC-NEIT; hence 
n? is = n-']? Neit ('AOtivtj, Minerva) 
and D« (=lb*=:8ans. as, Kelt, ys, is) 
she w; i. e. she is of Minerva i. e. 
devoted to her. 

^5^^ Zech. 7, 14 for d:ot^ 

Digitized by 





1 Alt. PL of "W^; sea Oram. § 28, 8, 
Bern. 2. 

C|0c5, ftitC|bK;,w.8uf. -niKw?, w. 

K dropped in tfok 1 Sam. 15, 6 for 
fe^WCK for Cp&W Mic. 2, 12 (w. n-;-, 
n|Ok Mic. 4, V) , C)bh Ps. 104, 29 for 
t^Xei for CpKPl Ps. 26, 9; prop. 
to scrape or su^ep together, hence 
1) io ^oM^ (fruits) Ex. 28, 10, Buth 
2, 7 ; (money) 2 K. 22, 4; (^nne) Dent. 
16, 18; (people) i.e. to assemble Ex. 
8, 16 J w. i? 2 K. 22, 20 or w. V^ Gen. 
42, 17 of the pla^ to which. 2) to 
gather or draio up, e. g. the feet 
Gen. 49, 33; to with-draio e. g. the 
hand 1 Sam. 14, 19, light or bright- 
ness Joel 2, 10. 3) to gather to one- 
self, to redeite Dent. 22, 2, Josh. 20, 
4. Hence to restore i. e. to heal a 
leprous person so as to be again 
received into society 2 K. 5, 3; to 
gather up or keep together (said of 
a marching army, cf. L. agmen clau- 
dere), i. e. to bring up the rear, Is. 
58, 8. 4) to gather in or take away; 
thou gatherest or tokest hack their 
life Ps. 104, 29; God gathers my 
repiroach, i, e, he takes away Gen. 
30, 28. -- Niph. 5)0X5 1) prop, to 
gather oneself hence to he gathered, 
w. b« (Lev. 26, 25), w. V(2 Ch. 30, 3), 
w. hi (2 Sam. 17, 11) of the place fo 
which; w. fe also against somebody 
Gen. 34, 30. 2) to he taken away, in 
death e. g. Gen. 49, 29 'iferVsr tib^a he 
was gathered to his peo^, i&o 
WPbK"ix Judg. 2, 10 (comp. Num. 
20, 26) i. e. to betal^e oneself to 
them (in hi^KSi, Sept. ^dv]c, the realm 
of the departed), distinct from 
mere burial Gen. 25, 8; hence to 
vanish, to perish Is. 16, 10. 8) to 
he received back^ i. e. restored, ^d 
of a healed leper Kum. 12, 14, of 
exiles Is. 11, 12. 4) to he put hack 

of the 'sword Jer. 47, 6. — *W. to 
father rft%cn% is.62, 9; to take in 
or entertain hospitably Jndg. 19, 18; 
to bring up the rear, to hold troops 
together Num. 10, 25. — Po. to he 
gathered together Is. 38, 4; w. i? 
against Hos. 10, 10; nB&&(>&Qi:^ they 
are gathered in crowds Is. 24, 22. — 
Hitb. to gather themselves together. 
Bent. 33, 5. — tfCt^ is prob. mimet. 
akin to Vpo, C)t^, h&D, all expressive 
of shaving, sweeping, scraping to- 
gether; cf. L. scabo, G. schahen, 

CjCK pr. n. m. (assembler) chief 
singer and poet in David's time 
(1 Ch. 6, 24) Asaph, whose descendants 
even in Nehemiah's days were still 
singers, Neh. 7, 44; r. S]DX. 

ClDK (only pi. D^BDX, c. ''BDK) m. 
gatherings, D'^DOfijn n-'a house ^of the 
stores, i. e. store-house 1 Ch. 26, 15; 
D-^-wen '^bfit stores ofthe'grO^s Neh. 
12, 25. 

tjCijt (pi. c. •'BDX mc, 7, 1) m. 
leasing, in-gathering (of crops), har- 
vest, Is. 32, 10, fig. h'Wn Ia 33, 4 
the locusVs harvest i. e. locust-eaten. 

mBOH (r. C)DX) f. gathering to- 
getJier, assemblage or crotcd. Is. 24, 
22, where it serves as adverb. 

nStpi^ Mic 4, 6, see r. cj^ 

nBOfc< (only in pi. niBDK) assem- 
blies, mBDX *^fe2 masters i, e. (mem- 
bers) of assemblies i. e. of the wise 
(D'^iasn) Ecc. 12, 11, orperh. masters 
of collections, i. e. compilers or 
authors of books. 

D'^ECK, see tjoi^ 

t|SOk 1 Sam. 15, 6, 1 f^t. Qal, 
but in 2 K. 22, 20 part. Qal,' of tf^ 
w. suf. 2 p. sing. 

C]l^BpK m. prop, crowd of i^^ople 
of all sorts <5r from all quarts SCrkped 
together, hence used of a i9Hxed 

Digitized by 




mUttUuM, only in Num. 11, 4 tl^»3»fj 
(w. K qtdencent) the rabble. Bedupli- 
cated fonn (ot our riff -raff) like 

12,' 8^ 

feO'l^M Obald. ady. dUigentfy, 
carefuQy, speedily Exr. 5, 8; Sept. 
itoCftcDc, iici}JieXa>c, iici8l6tov. -— 
Said to be of Persian origin ta-pama 
(perfectly); but perh. it is Semitic, 
fh>m *^Vff in Aphel or Hipb. form, 
w. old adj. or adv. ending W— (ct 
JijSrjjt); so also perh. from 7pi7CD 
we may best derive ixpi^cbc* 

Mn&DM (Pers.) pr. n.m. Est 9, 7 
(cf. 'A<iica84TT)«, 'A<jic48tjc as a Per- 
sian name, Diod. Sic. IL 38) perh. 
f^om asp (horse) and da=data (given), 
horse-ffiven i. e. gift of the god Bra- 
mah who had the form of a horse. 

iDJS (fdt *ib«; or ^ib«;, w. sat 
and pret wy»?1; int w. i, ^iwA, 
*lbH^, part pass. D'^'^sion = D^-Tn?^ 
Ecc.^4, 14) akin to y^if, "itftj, 1) to 
bind together, to fetter, to hold captive, 
though not bound 2 K. 17, 4; fig. 
bound by the fetters of love Oant 
7, 6; y^\^ prisoner Gen. 40, 3. 2) to 
fasten, e. g. the foal to (^) the vine 
Gten. 49, 11; to yoke fast or harness, 
e. g. the kine to the cart 1 Sam. 6, 7; 
hence to make ready or prepare (a 
carriage) Gen. 46, 29; tv^T}^ "^ 
to join battle 1 K. 20, 14; fig. <o pro- 
mise solemnly, in a vow of absti- 
nence, e.g. •hcfiri? ^^ ^bjA to bind 
a restraint on himself, i. e. to take 
on oneself a solemn engagement not 
to do (opp. 'I'nj to vow to do) Num. 
80, 3. Cf. Chald. I^M (to bind) to 
forbid, ^"^K (to loosm) to allow. — 
Niph. *)^ to be fettered Judg.16, 6; 
to be hM captive Gen. 42, 16. — Pa. 
to be token captive in war Is. 22, 8. 

'^M (perh. restraint) iami in 
Assyrian pr. names, as in ^^i^^ 

nOK, *©!$ (c tt "W, w. suf. 
Wj^sj, pL fTJ^) m. voio of afc««- 
nence, restraint, inhibition Num. ch« 
80; *^^ ns^ Num. 80, 14 oaJth of 
abstinence ; r. "19$* 

*0» Ohald. (c. 'ipK, def. R-n^jj) m. 
prohitlition, interdict, Ban. 6, 8; 
Sept 6pia(Jiic, ^7}&a. 

li'5in'*lOK pr. n. m. (Sept and 
Euseb. 'AaopSdv; Tob. 1, 21 S^cp- 
$ov6c, Alex. 2axepd(<>v; Joseph. 
'Aaaapax688oi^, ^acjupp^i^), king of 
Asysria after Sennacherib (about 
B. 0. 696) 2 K. 19, 87, Is. 87, 38. — 
Prob. Semitic ftx)m ^i^K CTOfiJ) re- 
straint and "p^ffi (r. n^) flAorp; hence 
perh. sharp disciplinarian, 

D'IDK Hos. 10, 10, 1 fht Qal of 
id;, as^if *TDJ, Clxam. § 71. 

•IF©^ pr- n. f. (Pers. «;ls-. sitareh. 
Sans. «frt, a<jTi^p,L.fl«f rum, Ger.«fer», 
E. star, Breton steren, W. seren; cf. 
n'lrnOP) wife of Aha8uerus(Xerze8); 
she was before named tH^U (myrtle) 
Est 2, 7; Sept 'Eafti^p, Esther. 

9M Ohald. m.=»Heb.y9, toood Ban. 
5, 4, Ezr. 5, 8; K and 9, 9 and S 
being often interchanged, as shown 
under each of these letters. 

t|M I coxgunctive particle, same 
as Syr. s^f, Chald. t)M, Arab. «J, a29o; 
denoting generally addition, acces- 
sion (of something greater or more 
important), hence too, yea mare, 
even, also (comp. D| w. like foroe). 
It adds emphasis e. g. b;Qi;r-t)K 
yea truly Job 19, 4; it ex- 
presses augmentation e, g, to thee 
belongs the day n\';^ ?jb C)» and 
(added to that) to thee the night Ps. 
74, 16; thou art beautiful, my beloved. 

Digitized by 





and (in Addition to that) gracious 
Cant. 1, 16. — Componnda: Q4"t)«$ 
added to which^ yea also Lev. 2ft, 44; 
'«a-C)9 added that, yea more thai 
Hab. 2, 5, in Gen. d, 1 for *^ 7)Mn 
is f^ even (L 6. can it be) that God 
hoik said? Hence (like L. ttedum), 
after an afftrmative clause, how 
much more 2 Sam. 4, 11, bat after 
a negatiye, how much less Job 25, 6. 
— C)fe| is prob. ftom ;)8», akin to IJ 
AooJ(r(wbencetheconj.'j), to SanB.ii&A, 
op (to join), oi^co, &KTC0, Ger. haften, 
ffS n (tor t^ r. t^y, V. suf. 
*W, dual D']tt9> no pi.) nu prop. 
hreaffiing, hence the member by 
"Which we breathe, the nose Num. 
11, 20; also anger, C)K It^ breath of 
the nose, i. e. the violent breathing 
of a passionate person, Job A, 9; 
often in the dual Q"^ 1) prop. 
the nostrils Gen. 2, 7, but mostly fig. 
anger, as in D*^ tfnfij «/otr o/" anger, 
i. e. long-snffering Ex. 34, 6; ns)p 
fi^ »Aor* (i. e. quick) of anger, 
impatient Prov. 14, 17. 2) the face 
(a part for the whole) Gen. 3, 19, 
e. g. nr^D"^ thefaceto the ground 
Gen. 19,' 1 ; nn i^i 1 Sam. 26, 23, 
before the face of David, for the 
nsual ^^A, 3) two persons (Kke D''3B, 
irpiaoncov, L. persona), 1 Sam. 1, 5 
C^s? WIS ^i^ one portion of two 
persons, i. e. a doable portion. 4) pr. 
n. m. 1 Ch. 2, 30. 

Vj^ Chald. i. q. Heb. C)IS I> a^> ^o 
Dan. 6, 28. 

DiTSSS Dent. 32, 26, 1 fut. Hiph. 
of rw^ w. sal D>T — ; see Gram. 
§ 76, Bem. 19. 

l£)IS(fiit. 'rmo) tobind, to gird 
round, w. h of person and a of ob- 
ject> Lev. 8, 7. - — Prob. akin to *Tft^ 

r^s, 05^ Arab, ji* (fo bind). 

^S^ see Tift^ 

•T^BK (c n5^ w. saf. ^fi^; 
r. ng^) t 1) a girding or /iMfeti- 
ing on, e. g. in^^ nwh ^Vettc o/" 
tfe fastening Ex. 28, 8. 2) a covering, 
coating Is. 30, 22. 

■j^S* (w. waL ian^K) m, coffife, 
jpa^, only inDan. 1 1, 45 ; Syr. ]l^i. 
— Perh. fipom *ittj to bind, to arch (ct 
tk\^ mj^), formed like yysL See p^. 

n£)2S (imp. ttK for ttK Ex. 16, 

23, fat^rw^ once Vttxni 1 Sam. 28, 
24) trans, to bake Gen. 19, 3, in Lev. 

24, 5, w. doable aoc (see Gram. 
§ 189, 2); h^ baker Qen. 10, 1, fern. 
pi. trm 1 Sam. 8, 18; D^'liOJ "lig 
chief- baker. Gen. 40, 2. — Niph. 
n^J to be baked Lev. 6, 10. — Cf. 
8t|m), dirT&Q), icIirTO), W. j7o5u, L. 
popina. Sans, paktas (ircTTTo;)^ G. 
&a<;X:en, oar 6aA:e; also L. cogiKt 

HH*, see n^. 

^ Ex. 16, 23 hnp. Qal for «fi{ 
from ntt^ cf. Gram. § 23, 3, Benu 2. 

1&K, KiBtlJ (from Kb, nb) demons, 
adv. 1) prop, here, bat always of 
time (like irori), notr Men, in ani- 
mated discoorse, e» g. do this then 
(K*iB^), my son Prov. 6, 3; now tJien 
(ifi^), who is he? Job 9, 24. 2) stiU w. 
the original meaning, similar to rca, 
thus, e. g. Job 24, 25 if not so {\t^y, 
also affirmative w. "jS so, KibM *};? DM 
f/'so notr Gen, 43, 11. 

TIBS, HBK (c. "TitK; r. 'Tjij) m. 
1) covering, ased of the apper gar- 
ment of the priests, an ephod, a cope 
Ex. 28, 4; of a king (acting as-priest) 
2 Sam. 6, 14; Sept iiru>}jL(( shoulder- 
garment 2) idol or image Judg. 8, 
27. 3) pr. n. m. Nmn. 34, 23. 

TSi^ (obs.) perh. i. q. Arab, jil, to 
spring up, to be high; see T^ 

Digitized by 




\iJiS <ob8.) ftkin to rpm, rn^, to 
fm/ft to pant. Hence 

rpBi^ pr,n. m. (panting) 1 Sam. 9, 1. 

VBH (r. bfiK) adj. m., nb'^fiK f. 
prop, drooping, hence bending down 
in the stalk, 2afe, linrtpe, Ex. 9, 32. 

D'^B2|t, see C]K IL 

P*^BH I adj. m. strong f powerful, 
hence subst. G'^p^ftK strong ones, fig. 
rn§!inj '^B^ 6ar« of «)j?per Job 40, 

p^^S^ n a4J. m. (c. p^p0 flowing, 
hence sabst. stream Ps. 42, 2, a 
river-bed Is.. 8, 7, Beorbottom 2 Sam. 
22, 16, t^oA^ (cf. bm) w. a stream 
Bz. 6, 8; perh. from pfiK I »= p?85 to 
he deep; but see p&{$ n. 

p^BM pr. n. (fortress) of a city in 
Asher Judg. 1, 81; called also p&K. 


'SCS (obs.) akin to bsK, bfij 1, 
prop, to faU or MitA, as the sun, to 
aef, hence to become dark \ Arab, jll; 
also said of plants, to 60 droopii^ or 
tender \ hence 

bBK adj. n^. 9Wfde98, dark, e. g. 
the day Am. 5, 20. 

^Bk m. swnset, darkness. Job 8,6; 
fig. eonceahnent Ps. 11, 2; miacAonce 
Job 23, 17. 

TOBX (r. bfijji) f. dorA:n«w, ^toom 
Ex. 10, '22 (cf.'ifik), w. ni^b Prov. 
7, 9; opp. D^W Isl 58, 10;^rrbB9. 

55BIJ pr. n. m. (prob. judgment) 
1 Oh. 2,' 37; r. Wl}. 

jDeS (obs.) akin to n» I, to turn, 
to rei)ohe; hence 

■jBijt (pi. w. suf. I'^JBK for •njfi^j 
m. a round, a turn (comp. icepfofio^), 
season, t''3B^-i? "la*; "la-j a word 
spoken in its turns, 1. e. in due 
season^ only Prov. 25, 11. 

56 ro)^ 


D£)2S! i.q.D^ to end, to faU, to 
vanish (cf. Dn) Gen. 47, 15; hence 

DBK (dual D^WS?, 0. iOt«) m. 1) 
«w<I, ''inK - "^Oftfi^ ""ejufe • («nfrcmtti«f ) 
of the earth, i. e. distuit lands 
Deut. 88, 17; msfit the two ends 
1. e. the soles of the feet, Ez. 47, 3 
0*^2$ *^Q u^dtor t^ covers <^ soles, 
cf.'^b'^s^a, D-^iPio "ns. 2) adv. not, 
tri^ottf, prop, subst. no^fn;^, nobody, 
e. g. a2{ Aer princes are nothing 
(b&K) Is. 84, 12; is there pet any one 
w. theef and he said, no one (D|M) 
Am. 6, 10; not, e. g. not (Tliixq D&M) 
from with me i. e. not by my order 
Is. 54, 15; hence D&M^ in nothing 
of = Ria without, e.' g. hJijFi DBKa 
«?i^Aou* Aop« Job 7, 6; TO DBKH 
nobody more? 2 Sam. 9, 3; bfi^Q of 
or /Vom nothing i. e. as a nothing 
Is. 40, 17; *^S DDK esccepf fAot Am. 
9, 8; hence only, however, yet Num. 
18, 28. -- 'PBt^ Is. 47, 8 same asDBX, 
formed as *^nb!lt. Gram. § 90, 3, a. 

D'^ia'n CBfcjt pr. n. of a place in 
Judah 1 Sam. 17, 1; see D*^ DB. 

^^a^ (obs.) to breathe, to blow, 
to hiss; mimet. r. akin to TV^, MKD, 

»7ID, 9B^, Arab, ^ll to anor^, E. to 
puff. Hence 

9BI^ (in pause 9feK) m. i. q. bnti, 
breath, hence JBljra = l^tW; only in 
9&KQ &S^:^ ^our work is o/* breath 
i. e. of nothing, vain, only in Is. 
41, 24, where others read ObRD with 
the same idea. 

nySK m. (f. Is. 59, 5) prop, the 
blowing or hissing one (akin to »Bs), 
hence poisonous serpent Is. 30, 6; r. 
!^^ or rcp^. — The ending n-^ may 
be modified for n-^-; cf. rt^bj, nnnt 
and others. 

Digitized by 



>\SGS (poet.) ptop. to join onj 
hence to press or crowds to Surround 
w. ace. Ps. 18, 5; w. V? Va, 40, 13. — 
Prob. akin to *ll hook, Sans, op, ubh 
(join), &1CTC0, ot^co, G. haften: deriv. 


'^ I (obs.) perh. akin to p^' 
to he sunken, deep, hence perh. p^'^ 


'i^n (obs.) perh, akin to pa, 
p^^ perh. tVS^l, to pour omt, to flow, 
push forth. Hence prob. pHIJ II 
stream, also va2^/ cf. inj. 

pScC akin top:il^, pan,<o lOffKZ 
or twist, hence <o 6e /?rw or strong; 
only in Hith. to force oneself, pttJttJ^J 
'^'^^ ^^ ond I constrained myself 
(i.e. did myself violence) and offered 
the sacrifice 1 Sam. 13, 12; to control 
oneself Gen. 43, 31 ; % con^^assions 
towards me restrained themselves i. e. 
did not shew themselves Is. 63, 15. 

pa* pr. n. (fortres*) 1) eity in 
Asher, Josh. 13, 4; called also p*^BM 
Jndg. 1, 31. 2) city on the east of the 
sea of Galilee, 1 K. 20, 26. 3) city 
in Issaehar, near Jezreel, 1 Sam. 4, 1. 

n^BWk pr. n. (fortress) of a city in 
Jadah Josh. 15, 53 ; r. pfifit 

iDc^ I (obs.) i q. y:3f, -«i to 
break, ta crumble or puherise; hence 

\Sts n (obs.) i. q. ^55j(= "«?) to 
cover, where 9 is weakened into tt; 
hence *ltt^ 

*n£)fi^ni(ob8.) = rno I<o hear, 
to carry; hence Dt'^BHi T'''TP*- 

tSK m. I) ashes, j^rop, pulveriring, 
(cf. p^ dust, r. pp^ to he pounded\) 
hence nfix—^irp |?r(H;cr65 of ashes 

57 "©^ 

i. e. worthless Job 13, 12; *^ ri^ 
feeding on ashes, i. e. delighting in 
vain things Is. 44, 20, cf. nn njV, 
^^^ *^(mark the paronomasia) efuft 
and ashes Job 30, 19, fig. of worth- 
kssness, 2) animal ashes, perh. in 
Num. 1«, 9, for 1^ which is the re- 
grolar word for that idea; r. "itx I. 

"flSH m. cover, esp. head' cover, 
1 K. 20, 38; r. "iftf II.; cf. Chald. 
KnofQ <tir&an, Syr. |jrA^9 Arab. 

n^^» (pi. b'^n— ) m. <^ yottiv 
(of birds), a nestHny Beat. 22, 6 ; from 
n^9 w. K prosthetic. 

'p'^'TBS m. litter, palanquin, ^o- 
pctov, L. ferculum, only Cant. 3, 9; 
r. "igK m = n-j^ I. 

D^^BfcJ 1) pr. n. m. (frnitftdness; 
r. ny^ L, w. Hprosth.; cf. Gen. 41,52) 
name of the second son of Joseph, 
Ephraim, who was afterwards the 
head of a tribe. Gen. 41, 52. After 
the division of the kingdom, an 
Ephraimite dynasty was for along time 
at the head, hence Ephraim » Israel, 
Is. 7, 2. 2) name of the tefritcnry of 
the tribe, so called after the founder 
Num. 1, 33. 3) mount of Ephraim 
(p^yBiK "nh) extending from«l3ie plain 
of Jezreel to the mountains of Judah 
Josh. 17, 15. 4) forest of Ephraim, 
(B^TSK ^^y near Gilead 2 Sam. 18, 6. 
5) pr. n. of a city in the wilderness 
of Judah 2 Sam. 13, 23 ^ VnsS, 
the L<ppalfjL of John 11, M and 
'E^p^v in Eusebius. 

"O'lSK Chald. (def. pL VCyf^) 
m. £zr. 4, 9. Inhabitants of a state 
^'^^ in Assyria, perh. for Farrhasia 
in the east of Media, or Frusias 
(Cellar. adPlin.Ep. 10, 15), or better 
Persia (D^f) w. M prosthetic 

Digitized by 


"wm '58 


pi, K^?—) pr* n. of a people (or perh. 
two tribes) in Assyria, concerning 
Whom nothing is known Ezr. 4, 9. 

n'ISK Gen. 48, 7, w. h-7- local 
™:?5«?; gentiUc '»n'T^ l) pr. n. dl 
(fruitful) = D:«5fiK Ps. 182, 6. 2) pr. 
n. of a city in Judah, Buth 4, 11, 
elsewhere called Dili n^a Gen. 48, 7; 
more fully fin^fiK tife H'^a Mic. 5, 1 ; 
hence 'T^'JBK an I^hrMite, Beth- 
lehemite 1 Sam. 17, 12; pL b'Vi^lfiK 
Buth 1, 2. 8) pr. n. f. of a wife of 
Caleb and hence perh. the name of 
a place,(hn*jB^ iab»),l Ch. 2, 19. 

aIS^^ (obs.) Arab. cSt to avert; 
perh. the r. of nw'a a portent. 

t©K Jer. 20, 7, 1 fut Niph. apoc 
for nnDK, from nno. 

DriEp($ Chald. adv. in the end, at 
last; prob.forDOBl^i fi:omr«H = bteJ 
w. the adverbial ending D^ — , as in 
Dkno (but peril, i. q. Pers. ^t ji end, 
at last), pTpnpi D-^ate DhoNj ami 
at last thou eausest damage to kings, 
only Ezr. 4, 13. 

-i^JS I (obs.) perh. for ^ij to 
shine, or for a^w to fashion; hence 
perh. l^iaiK. 

^^ffS n (obs.) perhaps akin to 
na^ *o be wilUng; hence p:cj. 

■J12I22K pr. n. m. (perh. splendour, 
r. a^ I) 1 Ch. 7, 7; Wl^ax 8, 3. 

"pilSK pr. n. m. (perh. willing, r. 
aanjn) Gen. 46, 16;'»:tNinNum. 
26, 16. 

53S» (w. sut '»5a:cK, pi. nwasx; 

r. »ax n w. fit prosth.*)'f. /Jfi^er Ex. 
81, 18, forefinger Lev. 9, 9; 5>a^K rt» 
Is. 58, 9 to stretch out the finger, by 
wayofmocking(cf.Per8ius2, 33); fig. j 
finger-breadth, i. e. measured across ; 

the 4 fingers Jer. 52, 21; tslt^ 'tt 
finger of God i. e. his power Ex. 8,^15; 
81,18; w. ti^Ja*?, foe 2 Sam. 21, 20. — 
From 9a^ II to catch, tdke^ as in Ger. 
and E. finger is from fangen = 0. 
E. feng to catch; ct SAxtuXo^, L. 

digitus, from Slx'^ftai. Arab. gl[-*|, 
Syr. yLsT^ finger, 

5a2» Chald. (pL irapj) f: /?n^cr 
Dan. 5,' 5; toe Dan. 2, 41. 

rCrSH Ps. 139, 8, 1 fut. Hiph. 
Tg^, w. n-^ cohort.; Gram. § 71. 

b^'SlJ (r. iaw; c. pi. ^\h^,^) m.prop. 
leaning upon, hence 1) a no&fe, perh. 
as leaning on his ancestry Ex. 24, 
11. 2) for b^ side, on which some- 
thing leans ■''Tnxn *^Y:x^ the sides 
of the earth i. e. its extreme parts 
Is. 41, 9; like ni'xip. 

b'^SK (pi. c. '^b'W, ni —Jer. 88, 12) 
m. prop, firmly supported, hence 
joint, e. g. of the hands Jer. 38, 12, 
i. e. the knuckles or perh. elbows 
Ez.^ 13, 18; r. bac^. 

^5fy (obs.) akin to i^,to lean 
on, hence bxx, b'^XK, i-^SK. 

bSK (w. sut •'b^j) m. prop, fti^ 
{ port,'side^i:i^T^ from the side 1 Sam. 
20, 41; as prep, beside, at, near Gen. 
41, 3. Hence denom. 


^CS to put aside, to take awa$f, 
separate (cf. aaa, voa^iCco) Num. 11, 
17, w. yo of place; w. i of person 
for whom Gen. 27, 36 to select for 
one, — Niph. to be separated, of 
space Ez. 42, 6. — Hiph.(fat. i3»J3; 
to take away, sever from Num. 11, 
25. — - Perh. i»< w. this meaning is 
akin to bx3. 

b?^ 1) pr. n. m. (noble) in pause, 
b»} 1 Ch. 8, 37, 2) pr. n, of a place 
(side) Zech. 14, 5 ; r. ixj. 

Digitized by 


Vrbffl* pr. n. m. (pepH. WJ has 
•elected) 2'Gh. 34,8. 

D!2S (obs.) peril, for tsg^to be 
strong; hence 

t32Z^ pr. n. m. Ci. q.B^ »*roagih) 
1 Oh. 2, 15. 

rnR» (1. q. rmf w. M prosth., 
r. WM! "i) gtejhchain, ankle-^hain, 
prob. in Nmn. 31, 50. 2) arm-hand, 
bracelet; perh. from its similarity to 
the ankle-band, 2 Sam. 1, 10. 

pllK 1 fat, Qal of pi;; Gram. 
S 71. 

"TlSi^ alpn to "n^ ,fo Acop *o- 
gether, icre up 2 K. 20, 17. — NIph. 
to be stored up Is. 23, 18. — HIph. 
cause to store up, i. e. appoint some 
one over the stores, Neh. 13, 13, fat. 
1 pers. JT^ysj and I made treasurers. 
Deriv. lifct 

"CSK pr. n. m. (treasare) Gen. 
36, 21."" 

"liK 1 fat. Qal of 'nxj or ^t^ H; 
Gram. § 66 or § 71. 

?y^S» Jer. 1, 5, 1 fut. Qal w. snf., 
r. *!?; h] bat in Is. 42, 6, 1 fat. Qal 
w. suf., r. "i^. 

TtT^ prop. aAi^mAntensefy glow- 
ing, sparkHng, hen<5e sabst., gem, ^^^ 
rni;»t perh. carhuncle-stoneSt only in 
Is^ 54, 12; r. mg to 6iim. 

ipS only in Deat. 14, 6, epic, 
roe, roe-&«dfe,Lat. coprca, eapreolus; 
others, copra, she-goat; in either case 
pK is the stem, w. ending i = f* ^ — 
Perh. from p3« = P3?i for its slender 

neck; more prob. like Arab. ,3^^ 
she-goat it means beautiful; r. Arab. 
Jif (o admire; cf. '^a^. 

n^S 1 flit. Qal of npb; Gram. 
§ 66, Bern. 2. 

59 an^ 

•ItTpR Is. 56, 12. 1 ftit. Qal of 
n^, w." n— cohortative. 

rwrjl^'l Sam. 28, 15, for r^^ 
r. «n5;'Gram. § 48, 3, Bem. 

•4^, see •»"i«. 

i^'Ti^ I (obs.) perh. i. q. rn^ 
to be strong, courageous; cf.^Yj-^ 
the mighty one. Mars; &petoc 
brave. Hence perh. M*;!^ pr. n. 
^^, ^^"^t pr- ». is^T^J, perh. 

\X^ n (obs.) perh. L q. rtn:$ HI 
to bum, to glow; cf. 'nifct 

in« pr. n. m. (might) 1 Ch. 7, 38. 

y»'1K (K'thibh) m. hearth, Ba. 
43, 15i fr. H*^ H; Q'ri has ij*^*^ 

3»n» = b«7$onlyinpr.n.*6KT^ 

bfcO^ see b«TK. 

^Vnk (only w. suf. taiK*^ Is. 33, 7) 
m. ^ ''strong one, the mighty one, 
hero, and collect, heroes, formed perh. 
from «•;?« (fcnK) and the ending ^— 
(ace. to* the form bo"]5), to which also 
the donbling of the I points (D^— ). 
Others take it for iK '^'« lion of God; 
bat fail then to account for a) the 
shortening of the -^nH into ^K, p) the 
doubling of the / in ?K for i». 

■^bSpK pr. n. m. (heroic) Gen. 
46, 16, Num. 26, 17 : in the latter case 
it is patronymic for ''"5^&$T«, from 

DbH*W Is. 33, 7: see bx^K. 


JgS (fat. 3*-«5 akin to ^Vy,to 
bind, stitch, weave, only fig. (as in 
wecme plots, xaxi ^duTstv) to lie in 
ambush, to lurk, w. b Dent. 19, 11; 
w. to of pers. Judg. 9, 34; also w. 
ace. of object Prov.l2, 6; part, a'^k 
(me who lies in wait Josh. 8, 2; col- 
lect, an ambush, UersAnrwait Judg. 

Digitized by 


aiK 60 


20, SS, — PI. only part WanwjlMrife- 
cr«, UersHthwait, w. ij Judg. 9, 35. — 
Hif^h. (only fat. n*;^, aoe. to Kim- 
chi = atJK?]) to lay wait, 1 Sam. 16, 6. 

!2*^1$ pr. n. t (amlmsh) of a city 
in JudsJi, Josh. 15, 52; gentilic *ta*T$ 
2 Sam. 23, 35. 

3*^ m. 1) ambushf a hiking Job 
38, 40. 2) lurkinff-place, eoveri Job 
37, 8 (cf. a^KO, -rioo). 

S*^ (w. guf. Sa^ ^97$) »• P^^' 
tinOf laying plots Jer. 9, 7. 

bKSl'^S; (folly, bfita-lK >T»a, q. V.) 
pr. n. of a hamlet in upper (Milee, 
^Arbila in Naphtali, Hos. 10, 14. 

n!^")K m. locust Ex. 10, 4, esp. 
the kind appearing in large swarms 
{gryUus gregarius) ; r. rtn'j to he many, 
to WMinw, henoe prop, swcarmer, 

na'^» (i. q. a-jk, only pi. c. h'O'V) 
f. collect, ioeavinga, hence ifi^H[^i4e8, 
only in Is. 25, 11 he i. e. Ood makes 
his (Moab's) pride fall doum together 
w, the plots of his hands. 

na'^JH (r. ntlX; pL nia-TX) f. prop. 
the Icctttced work, hence a window, 
being closed w. lattice and not glass 
Hos. 13, 3 ; dove-cote Is. 60, 8; cAtm- 
ney, for the smoke passed out through 
a latticed hole, Hos. 13, 3; nia*^ 
D^W windows of the hea/ven, perh. 
sluices, to letdown the rain Qen. 7, 11. 

M3*nK pr. n. f. (dove-cotes) of a 
place in Judah 1 K. 4, 10. 

JS'lfcJ f. (ob8.5a^w. K prosth.) 
m. nranx, c. roa^ix; see Gram. § 97, 1 
1) card. numb, four, before noun Gen. 
23,16 or after noun Josh. 19, 7; also 
fourth (Zech.7, 1) in specifying time; 
w. suf. Wjra'TK the four of them Ez. 
1, 8, 10; dual, GW?*^ fourfold 2 Sam. 
12,6;pl.D'^5a"TK^orty Gen. 8, 6; often a 
roimd number, perh. in Gen. 7, 1 7 , Jon. 
3, 4, E«. 4, 6j see ^T^ "npa^, ri\ 


2) pr. n. of an Aaakite giant after 
whom was named the city, riTip 
55*TK => "p*^^ Gen. 23, 2. 

ja'IR and n Jai* Ohald.i. q JBteb, 
four Dan. 8, 25. 

3 JCS (fut. Ah; Is. 59, 5, 2 pen. t 
*«9'>Kr) Judg. 16, 13) 1) to piait, the 
hair into locks, Judg. 16, 13. 2) to 
weave, e. g. of the spider (hence apax*r^ 
and L. aranea; cf. Ger. spimte, E. ipt- 
der, from spin) Is. 59, 5; part ^i'lk a 
weaver Ex. 28, 32, f. tiyyi 2 K. 23, 7; 
pi. m. D'^a^nk weavers]' m"^ ni» 
weavers' beam 1 Sam. 17, 7.*Cf.a^', 

yVk m, 1) plait or braid (of hair) 
Judg. 16, 14. 2) weaver's shuttU Job 

M*1K (ab'n w. K prosth.) l) pr. n. t 
(i. e. prob . cloddy) of a region in Bashan, 
east of Jordan, having 60 cities, Deut. 
8, 4, 13. Some compare w. it a a^^ 
in the Mishna, and hKTi!;*^'^ in the Sa- 
maritan translation. — The meaning 
is (from a^n) rich in clods, i. e. deep- 
soiled,' fertile (lp(p(i>Xo;). Its present 
name is «-a^I) Rajib; it abounds w. 
ruins. 2) pr. n. m. (heap) 2 K. 15, 25. 

■jia*^S Chald. m. i. q. Heb.-J^j-^. 
Perh. from a*^ to weave, w. T insert- 
ed (cf. i;»n^9, i;P"9?), therefore, 
prop, web, perh. purple Dan. 5, 7. 

73^S m. box, chest 1 Sam. 6, 8. — 
Prob. 'from tax = mx <o hold, w. •! 
inserted as in 0*^3'^ for oa^. 

1^3*^ (i. q. Chald. )^'y^) m. perh. 
prop, web or cloth (r. a'Tfcj); or from 
DS"; = Dp*j to work in party-colours^ 
hence, in general,jnirpfe (Sept.irop<pu- 
pa, Vulg.|mrpMra)Ex.26, 1, a precioua 
dye got from certain shell-fish found 
on the coasts of the Mediterranean; 
diff. from n^an the cerulean purple. 

Digitized W Google 




Also fig. for pwrjfie dothlProw. SI, aSr 
BAtter prob. from Sans^ rdgamtu^ 
dyed red or purple, 

TjN (ob«.)pro]>.-T?; todcflccnd, 
or rtr\ to mfe. Hence 

T]K pr.n.m. 1. q. 'TW (descender 
or nrier) Nmn. 26, 40; hence gentil. 
n. "^ NoAi. 26, 40. 

]j*HTS pr. n. m. (descender or 
mler) 1 Ch. 2, 18. 

pawerfmL Hence perh, •t^, nyiK, 

iTT^ n (poet.) ioimC or j>Jiicit 
Osiit, 5, 1, Ps. 80, 18; to collect 
(see Th;|); ct oi!pe>. Hence perh. 

M^jK in (obs.) i. q. K-TK n, rrnjj 

to hum, Lat. ore-o, ar-deo, uro. 

Hence iic-^lR. 
» •-» 

iPSS IV (obfl.) mimet. and aWn 
to Sans, ru, rav, dran, Apico, W.rhyOj 
L. rugio, rudo, B. roar; all obviously 
onomatopoetic. Hence *n«, rp*tt 

rn8| C^rd) Nwn.22, 6, for ^ imp. 
Qal Qf ley^; cf. n^^ from ajp. 

^nSt Chald. (pronom. root)- prop. 
there/ hence sect hi Dan. 7, 2, 7, 13. 
Froni,*m s= i^jsairi demonst. pron.; 
Coptic ro, or, to: perh. akin to rv^"^ 

■fnSi pr. n. m. (perh. descent, r. 
T5?) Nmn. 26, 17; gentil. '^'Ti'TH Gen. 
46, 16. 

^3"^ pr. n. f. (for W w. K prosth., 
place of reftige, r. nni) an island-city 
on the Phenician coast, north of Tri*> 
poU, ^A^aZo^Arvad Es. 27, 8, now 
Hmoddj hence gentU. n. "^Il-iv^ Gen. 
10, 18. 

Pn^ (^nto pluck; pi. jy\^ 

0. nr^ f . manger ^ crib or rode, hence 
in general, 9taU or «<atftfe, 2 Ch« 

32, 28. Byr. ]1^^, Arab, ^j! crfft. 

A «ta0 of horses, cf G. gespann , E. 
span or jwir, l K. 5, 6 tj^t G'^y^TS 
D*iQ^ ni*>K. /br^ thouiand staUa 
{spam) of hordea. 

WIS (only pL tyn'Jjt E«- 27, 24) 
adj. m. prep, cedar-likey hence firm; 
denom. from t*TK, r. fTK. 

nynSj, aee nj^TSj. 

rPJ^TW pr. n. f. (height, r. D'^i}) 
city in the region of Shechem, Judg. 
9, 41; perh. for n^n 2 K. 23, 36; 
Ensebius makes it Bemphin, not far 
from Diospolis. 

D^^inSj K'thibh for h*^^ 2 K. 
16, 6. ^ 

DHniSj Is. 33, 10 for Doi'Viij 1 fat. 
HithpoL of &n; see Gnun. § 54, 2, b, 

■jin» (w. art Ti-T^sjn, c. ^hH; r. 
h*JK <o colled) f. (m. in 2 Sam. 6, 6; 
but f. in 2 Ch. 8, 11) prop, receptacle, 
hence, box, chesty for money 2 K. 
12, 10, for a mummy, i. e. a cofpn. 

Gen. 60, 26; Arab. ^Jy\ and ^f^ 
wooden che^, esp. co^/l?». Chiefly 
used for the sacred chest of ^e tables 
of the law, the ark, called riWh •p'v 
the ark of the law or testimony Ex. 
25, 22 ; n-^W Ti-»» «♦•* ©/"eAe covenant 
Josh. 8, 6; rrlrr> t1i» l Sam. 5, 3. 

f^)^'* pr. n. m. 2 Sam. 24, 20; 
see n"«3'nK, 

T jN(<^^S')P®'l^-akinto}^K,pr^. 
to be pressed together, hence Aard, 

firm; Arab. }^ to 6e compact, firm. 
Hence perh. B^'t'Tii} in Ez,27,24 cords 
firmly twisted. Hence perh. Vina » 
ri^lijTS; and certainly 

V^ jxu l)cedar (prop, firmness, r. 
T'nfefe) the cedar of Lebanon, a tall 

Digitized by 





tree, Is. 2, 18 , Am. 2, 9; wide-spread- 
ing Ex. 81, 8; formerly plentifol on 
Lebanon Ps. 29,5, Is. 40, 16. 2) cedar' 
work i e. wainscoting 1 K. 6, 18. 

Chald. Kt-ju, Syr. ]\i\^ Arab. jjt. 

nr^lH (from riK) t (w. coUect. 
force; *cf. JTO, 1^5) cedar-work^ cedars 
wainscoting, Zeph. 2, 14. 

D'^T'^ Ez. 27, 24; see W^ 

J l_CS I (noftttQalftheperf: only 
in Job 34, 8) to ffO, to travel or 
journey/; part. Jn'nk travelling, hence 
wayfarer (ct naio) Judg. 19, 17; 
d^n'^TftaJer.9,1 lodge of travellers. 
Deriv. JTnk, ^njTK, pr. n. TVy^, — 
This r. is akin to ?|^rt, Sans, arch 
(to go), Ip^-o(jiai, iX6-eiv, perh. L. 
mercor (cf. fipyjc = Mars\ F. war- 
cier, marchand, E. tnarc^ mercAon^ 
(cf. pedlar from ^0 pa(2; L. pedris). 

i 1 JCS n (obs.) akin to •^, to 
orrot^e, to appoint, Deriv. JiH^. 

n^H pr. n. m. (for tyy^ wanderer) 
Ezr. 2, 5. 

WiJ (pL mrrjK, c. niirn^, w. sut 
anh7$, DijhTk, ?rf5''nTx» T5"T«) ^ 

1) *i>ay i.,q. ^"nn but in this sense 
only in poetry Gen. 49, 17; fig. walk, 
manner of life Ps. 119, 101; lot or 
destiny Job 8, 13: also poet, for tra- 
veUer Job 31, 82, in pi. Job 6, 19; 
cf. WTTk. 2) manner, course (of na- 
ture), O'TOS rriik Gen. 18, 11 the 
course (L e. monthly) like the women. 

tinijt Chald. (pi. in^TK, w. suf 
?jnn"K}) f. same as Heb. Dan. 4, 34.. 

iTJTTk (from unk) f. prop, a jour^ 
neying; then company of travellers, 
caravan, Gen. 37, 25. 

fin'IH (r. rrw n) f . *ft« appoint 
ed measure (of food), portion; hence, 
allowance fbr support Jer. 40, 5; ni:^ 

tw 2 K. 25, 80 constant support; 
a meal or mew Prov. 15, 17. 

■^H (pL D'>^'JK 1 K. 10, 20; else- 
where rvi'^'TK 1 k. 10, 19) m. lion, 
prop, the roarer, from r. irj^j IV, or 
perh. the courageous beast, &pct-oc 
from n^ I , after the form '^hlf (ct 
•'nb, fcr i, w:"^ Num. 24, 9 ; ni^^ "rm 
young lion Judg. 14,5; ni'nK •¥» ZumP 
whelp Jer. 51, 38; fig. an emblem of 
strength and valour Num. 23, 24, of 
fierceness and cruelty Prov. 28, 15. 

iK'^'IH m. 1) perh. great hero ■- 
bK*TN, V5t'T« (cf. b?3'''T« in Phem- 
cian, Arybas)tOT lion of €hd (fSor 
^ "flK), i e. lion-like champion, heroi 
a)collect.2Sam.23,20nKi:2 bfienM W 
two Kon-like champions of Moab; 
used of Jerusalem in Is. 29, 1 perh. 
for city of heroes, but better for 
Ood^s altar, p) hearth (r. n^jstlll) of 
God, i. e. the altar of burnt-offering 
Ez. 43, 15 (i'ri. 7) pr. n. m. Ezr. 8, 16. 
""T^it pr. n. m. (perh. Pers. 
worthy gift) Est. 9, 9. 

^^'Q'J^'^ P'* ^ ™' (^®"' worthy 
gift) Est. 9, 8. 

[ iTT)^ (for tmts, collect for '»'T«). 
1) m. lion, Gen. 49, 9, 2) pr. n. m. 
I 2 K. 15, 25; cf. Cctur de lAon. 

TTT^ Chald. (pi. def. WJ^CT^ ^^^ 
7,4) m. same as Heb. lion, Dan. 6, 8. 

rr^ (pL rri''>H) i. q. rn'TK. 

•^"II^Is. 16, 9 prob. for tj^^ 
1 fut Pi. of rn"j. 

?p'''^ pr. n. m. (Assyr. lion-like, 
L. JLeoninus)^ a) king of Ellasar, G^en. 
14, 1. P) officer at Babylon, Ban. 
2,14. — i^TK is /ion, 'jfi(=^-:-) is the 
adjective -ending = Sans, -ka, -x6c» 
L. "Cus; see under the letter d. 

D'HR, gee 1«IK. 

"O**^. (Pers.) pr. n. m. Est. 9, 9: 
perh. Bans. Arydsdya sagitta Axise. 

Digitized by 


tp» 63 

^jjK (cibB.) perh. akin to '^, to 
he arranged, adjusted^ hence perh. 



I J> (ftrt. ?j!!^r!) akin to ^-J?, 
propk to sir tick, hence to &e ^^, of 
branches Ez. 31, 5; of time to wear 
on. Gen. 26, 8, £2. 31, 5. — Hipb. 
to stretch (i. e. jnU} out, the tongue 
Is. 57, 4; to lengthen days Dent. 22, 
7; to tarry long Ecc. 8, 12; fig. to 
put off, ddt^t e. g. anger (DK) Is. 
48, 9; Ite 5« made long 1 K. 8, 8* — 
Akin to Syr. w(, dpI^cD, L. r^o, 
O. reichen, K reocA, V. rhawg. 

?pS| Chald. (= Heb.- TrnK), part, 
pass. Tp^ adapted, fit w. bEzr.4,14. 

t^J^ a4j. m. loi%g, found only in 
constr. St. tn^ e. g. '^^ ^y$ Ee. 
17, 3 long of pinions L e. long-winged; 
nrj ^j^K fon^ 0^ apiri^ Ecc. 7, 8, 
L e. long-snffering , opp. to short- 
tempered; D^BX 'jfTic fo«^ 0^ temper 
(hence Sept. and N. Test. {Jiaxpodu- 
fio^) forbearing, long-snffering Ex. 
84, 6. 

"JJT* m. 1) a putting off, delay, 
^ TQK Jer. 15, 15 L e. patience. 
2) pr. n. (length) a city Areca, 
Arecca (in Ptolem.) on the Tigris, on 
the border between Sasiana and Ba- 
bylonia, Gen. 10, 10; hence, gentil. 
r«< Ezr. 4, 9. 3) pr. n. of a city 
in Palestine, hence the gentiL n. 
••arp Josh. 16, 2. 

ipH Bdj. m. TO'TK f. long Job 11, 
9, enduring 2 Sam. 3, 1. 

•f^ (w.suf: iyT») m. length Gen. 
6, 15; w. D^o; Ps. 21, 5 length of 
days, great age; d"^ -jyjijft as long 
as life i.e.for Ufe Ps.23,6; 0^"?^ Tfi» 
patience Prov. 25, 15. 

SST^and n3"3St Ohald(from'?l>5) 

f. a jm)2o9i^ifi^, con^nieanctf, Dan. 
4, 24; 7, 12. 

HSS*^ Chald. (w. snf. Rn^S^X) 
f. i. q." R^a-i (w. K prosth.) ifen^ 
Dan. 5, 6; prob. by metathesis for 
"n*;^ Syr. \Ahio knee. 

T\1f^ and nS^IK f. adjustment 
or bandage, hence healing, 'k «^nQ^ 
Is. 58, 8; '» nnta Jer..8, 22 Aeo/in^ 
amca or comes on, hence K ni?n 
Jer. 33, 6 to heal; of walls fo r^air 
Neh. 4, 1 ; see r. tj^^. 

'^3']'K Chald. (def. pi. K?;?^) a4j. 
m. £zr.'4, 9; gentilio fh)m tl"^ Gen. 
10, 10. 

''S'llH genta. n. from Tj'JK 3, Ar- 
chite, Josh. 16, 2. 

U JC^ (obs.) i. q. on DK-;, rTO"J, 
oa'n, onn, o-nh, on? m, to he high, 
^nce tnt^, 'p^ 

Uy^ (o. &•?«) pr. n. (highland) 
Aramea, in its widest extent inclu- 
ding Mesopotamia (tiy^ D'nK Gtea. 
24, 10) but chiefly Syria, Judg. 3, 
10, 1 K. 10, 29. Aram is mentioned 
as the son of Shem in the ethnolo- 
gical table in Gen. 10, 22; the Greeks 
called the people Apipioi, 'Apa]xaiot; 
among the Hebrews, however, the 
name stands only for Syrians, con- 
strued w. sing. 2 Sam. 10, 14, w. pi. 
2 Sam. 10, 17. The several districts 
of Aramea were piDa*i D^ 2 Sam. 
8, 5; d;)%*5 D'T« G«n. 24,^10; 0*?K 

nj^o 1 Ch. 19^" 6; rai^ g-tk Ps^ 
60, 2; arn n-^a d^iisi 2'sam. 10, 6; 

d";K 1^ (Jen. 26, 20.* 

D^M pr. n. m. (high one) a) grand- 
son of Nahor, C^n. 22, 21. P) an 
Asherite, 1 Ch. 7, 34. 

]'\TCr^ (pi. 0. niso^s, M if from 
njfa'TS) m. palace, fortress, citadel, 
Is. 25, 2, Am. 1, 4; usually com- 

Digitized by 


prelMnding many buUdings, benee 
w. n^a 1 K. 16, 18. 

^'y^ L q. ^y^ fern, n'^tf^ adv. 
in the Aramean or Syriac (tongue) 
Ban. 2, 4 ; tee tTf^, 

"^"IH gentU. m., tfvfxt^ f. (i Ch. 
7, 14), pl* Q*^"^ Arameans, Syrians, 
of western Syria 2 K. 5, 20; of Me- 
sopotamia Gen. 25, 20; by aphsere- 
sis O'nD'Tn for tnn^ 2 Ch. 22, 5; 
see Oram. § 23, 3. 

"•Sta^H pr. n. m. (cf. L. Palati- 
nns, from fsTN) 2 Sam. 21, 8. 

jjj^ I (obe.) prob. akin to Arab. 
,^1 adhina and ^) ranna (prick up 
the ears), also j^)l arina (to be 
alert), hence to be 8harp-ear§d^alm4; 
hence Syr. jjjf wild goat, rogTK 

'I'llSt n (obs.) perh. for 15^ to triU, 
to make a tremulous noise, of a tall 
tree when moved by the wind, hence 
perh. T3«, nj*jK. 

T^?! P"^* ^ "*• (pefli* wild goat; 
r. I^w i) Gen. 36, 28. 

■jhfcj, see f'nK ark. 

I'lfcj m. \)ihe pine (tree) Is. 44, 14; 
cf. 1"jn. Perh. from T^^ II, because 
of its tremulous sound when shaken 
by the wind. 2) pr. n. m. (a pine) 
1 Ch. 2, 25. 

rOS^M com. gend.,aAare Lev. 
11, 6; Arab. ^^ ^amab, Syr. s^S\ 
ameb the same word, but without 
the fem. ending ri-7- of the Heb. 
form. — The word nj"^ belongs to 
all the Sem. dialects, but as no 
obvious or satisfactory root has 
hitherto been found, one may ven- 
ture to suggest that it is akin to 
yy^ I, and comes ftom "jTk ear (= Tjk, 


ct p|»- p?!, Arab, iyi = 555, E. 
blaze =blare) and the a^j. ending -ab 
or -eb, Sans, -bha or -ra, Gr. -po; (see on 
the letter n and on ^tk); so that it 
means eared, L e. having long or 
sharp ears. This result is fitvoured 
by analogy in the L. auritus ( of 
hare and of ass), in W. ysgywumog 
(hare) fh>m ysgyvam (ear); and it 
may also throw light on L. oftiffM, 
W. asyn, P. fine, Gr. 6vo^ (cf. L. 
pono for po-sino). It a»%no, 8p. amo, 
Ger. esd, E. oss, all referring to the 
animal's long eofrs (see on ^TM). 

^*13*JH and P"^ (noisy or mur- 
muring, perli.r.);^w. K prosthetic) 
name of a torrent and valley (bro) 
Num. 21, 13. Present name v'^-Wl 

tVV]\^ pr. n. UL (perh. joy of JtJ, 
r. 13"?)' 2 Sam. 24, 18 K'thibh. 

15*?^ pr. n. m. (perh. sharp-eared, 
r. I^Dk'I) 1 Ch. 3, 21. 

^DTiJ pr. n. m. (perh. jubilant, r. 
11^ w. K prosth.) a Jebusite, on the 
sito of whose threshing-floor Solo- 
mon built the tomple, 1 Ch. 21, 15; 
hJ^iK in K'thibh of 2 SauL 24, 16. 
Elsewhere niJ-lH 

^ jJS (obs.) perh. akin to p^, to 
flee. Hence perh. ?^WD. 

^S ^^^^- (*^^*-) *• ^- ^®^- r^ 

y^H Chald. (def. «rj») m. 1) tA^ 
earth, ban. 2, 35, i. q. Heb. yy^ 
changing y into 9, as often in Ara- 
mean. 2) the ground, and as adv. 
on the ground, hence lono, below, 
w. 'jp, Dan. 2, 39 ^p Ky^K Unoer 
than thou. 

^y^ Chald. adj. m., f. n-^r*^ as 
subst. fAe bottom (of a pit) Dan. 6, 25. 

?r]'n^^(obs.)i.q.hfi'jn, lytostreMi 

Digitized by 


ovt, lie extended^ Arab. 3^^, hence 
perh. Vf^ region, in "TOSB^T^. 2) to 

knit, plait, Arab. Ji^ to knot^ akin 
to H6^ I, ^aTTTCu; perh. hence IB'^ 

il|^ m. r^iony prop, an ea:^an«e, 
only in l^aO'V. 

^IB'TK pr. n. f. (perh. border, r. q'Tfij 
2 w. format. T-;-) of city and region 
of Syria, not far ft:omn:9n, 2B:. 18, 84. 

T1DI^^|J< pr. n. of the third son of 
8hem; also of a people and region 
named after him Gen. 10, 22, prob. 
the province Af j^aTca^ixtc in north 
Assyria. The Chaldeans are said to 
be derived form this Semitic race; 
and the name comes perh. from 
tj'IK region and "Ws « "ites or *»^ito 
(which see) Chaldee; hence Chaldean's 

fjS (obs.) perh. akin to njj, 

Arab. J^ to be compact, ^ to be 
firm or hard; hence 

•pj (w. snf. i2nH, w. art. ^nxQ, 
w. n-;- locn^-TH, pLnis-TK, chi^^nx) 
f. (rarely m. as in Gen. 13, 6), 1) the 
earth, the land as hard and firm in 
opp. to the fluid and waving sea 
Gen. 1, 10; ^ earth or globe in opp. 
to the heavens Gten. 1, 1, in this sense 
indnding the sea. 2) earth, as a 
material Ps. 12, 7. 8) the ground, 
rc|rK to the ground Gen. 83, 8; one's 
eowntry, fatherland, esp. among 
the Hebrews Joel 1, 2; land or field, 
as property or estate Gen. 23, 15; 
territory Buth 1, 7. 4) inhabitants 
at a land Gen. 11, 1. The pi. riisCnWi 
signifies lands G«n. 26, 3, esp. 
heathen lands 2 Ch. 18, 9. — Arab. 

J>)t, Aram. KJ^K, \l9]. 

^y^ pr. n. m. (perh. firmness) 
1 K. 16, 9. 

65 »rcni5nm« 

P'lH Chald. (i. q. y"iK, » changing 
into p;' def. Kgns<) f. the earth, only 
Jer. 10, 11; but often in Targums. 

I JffS (1 pers. perf. "'f^i'^fif, imper. 
ltT« 'ifrS w. h cohort, for nk Num. 
22, 6, fut. *)»;) to curse, w. ace. Judg. 
5, 23; 0'i»i-'>"n*;« day-cursers Job 3, 8, 
magicians who professed to make 
certain days unpropitious. — Wph, 
only part. O'^^TKi cursed, w. & of the 
curse Mai. 3, 9. — Pi. '^'7$ to curse 
greatly Gen. 5, 29; ^^yxm d^ ike 
curse-causing waters Num. 5, 22. — 
Hoph. *i«!in to be cursed Num. 22, 6. 
Deriv. nn«a. — Prob. akin to JnbK IL 

Arab. Ji to abhor, detest; dp(£-o|jiai 
to curse f api curse, 

^T T ~ ^^' ^' ®^ * district in Ar- 
menia (ien. 8, 4, still so called, 
between the Araxes and the lakes 
Van and Orumia; then for Armenia 
Jer. 51, 27 a'I'jK (cf: rra'^tth, ^}T^). 
Targ. makes it ^^"np, li-n-np, Kja^^np 
(cf. Kurdistan). 

** j^ pr, n. m. (for •'niJi moun- 
taneer) 2 Sam. 23, 33. 

125 ji\ (Qal obs.) prob. akin to tthj 
to grasp or scire, <o appropriate. — 
Pi. bnx, usually w. ace. n^, to tofte 
to (b) oneself a toife (like Ki^J) Deut. 

20, 7 ; without Tvm, to espouse, marry 
2 Sam. 3, 14. — Pu. 3. f.perf. rtbyx 
she is betrotJied Ex. 22, 15; part. pass. 
rntt^SKiQ betrothed Deut 22, 23. 

125 jlS (obs.) I q. Arab. ^JJ to 

«ec^ a/)5cr something, to desire. Hence 

IniD^^H f. desire, longing, only Ps. 

21, 3, Sept. filTfjat;. 
)nhi<, see nSHx. 
SFClDrOn'pK (Persian) Ezr. 7, 

1. 7, also fcW^ronri'^H Ezr. 4, 8, 
Wj^WOTniia; 4, 7, pr. n. m. 'ApraJ^- 

Digitized by 


Et^C} king Artaxerzes (named FseudO' 
Smerdea) Ezr. 4, 7; Artaxerxes (Lori" 
gimanus) Ezr. 7, 1. The spelling 
appears to be that of the inscriptions 
ol' Nakshi-Bustanii and of several 
^^ihlevi medals, akin to ^Wa- 
hhetr, i. e. mighty king, 

UJK (r. «bVK I; w. suf. 'hJSK Job 
18, 5, oa«»< Is. 50, 11) f. (rarely m. 
as in Job' 20, 26) fire Ps. 104, 4; the 
fire ofGody i.e. lightning Job 1, 16; 
fig. anger, of God Deut. 32, 22; zeal, 
ardor, of men Jer. 20, 9; war Num. 
21, 28; ^ m^ to kindle a fire, excite 
y^'BX Is. 60, 11; destrttdion Job 15, 34; 
heat or scorching of sun Joel 1, 19; 
flashing of weapons Nah. 2, 4, of 
gems Ez. 28, 14. — Akin to nx n. 

TOK Chald. (def. WBK) L q. Heb. 
t'Stj/JreDan. 7, 11. 

TCH (= tn) m. existence, "being, 
h 3nce there is 2 8am. 14, 19, Mic. 6, 10 ; 
prop. part, of ttWK = fflK IV to 6«, 
See n-^. 

TZJHC^sA) Chald. (pi. det KJT^) 
m. foundation Ezr. 4, 12; r. VhA; II. 

^lSe\(ob8.)perh.i.q nm,Arab. 
k^f, i,rf>i tA ., to <Atn^. Hence perh. 

bSlIDH pr. n. m. (perh. for ^K a^ 
God*s thought) Gen. 46, 21; hence 
patron. "^^aOK Num. 26, 38. 

^^ISK pr. n. m. (perh. thoughtful, 
1 . ixbvi) Gen. 36, 26. 

52LTDH pr. n. m. (prob. swearing, 
r. 55^ w. M prosth.) 1 Ch. 4, 21. 

b?3TDH pr. n. probably i. q. -tti^K 
nttSa q. v« 

ni23c% (obs.) akin to m6 to shed, 
to pour out; i. q. Chald. II^R, Syr. ,-^) , 
Arab. li3 to water, Deriv.Tt^K, fTT^ 

TOS m. outpouring, hence a place 
wliere a brook pours down, ravine, 

66 m|H 

water-guSg ; only in D'^ilJJ •!»« r<i» 
vine of torrents Num. 21, 15. 

fTl^¥ (pl- f^'J'TOK) f. outpouring, 
hence the base of a mountain, gullg 
or ravine Josh. 10, 40; Mawn rviTO^ 
<^ ravines of Pisgah, i. q. the foot 
of the mountain Deut. 8, 17. 

Tl'TOH pr. n. (stronghold, r. Trd 
w. K prosth.) one of the five royal 
cities in Philistia Josh. 11, 22 (called 
*AC«>TO^ Acts 8, 40), now a village, 
EsdUd; gentilic a<y. •'^i'^ Josh. 13,3, 
fem. ri'>7i>rBK (pi. nl^^rim), as adv. 
in the Ashdod dialect Neh. 13, 23. 24. 

MIDH f. declivity, sloping descent 
= rrroj, so some would read for 
n^ l»K in Deut. 33, 2; but see r\X 

ntDS (obs.) i. q. tWK, xifmn to 

T T ^ » -T 

he firm (cf. i;, L. vis = vir); fig. to 
heal. Deriv. n->W, IT'^TO, tt»l\ 

mSH (w. suf. on^) f. /Jrc, only 
Jer. 6^ 29 (in K'thibh) 'rTjip on«Kg 
by their fire the lead (is consumed); 
where the Q'ri is n"nB5 OR WK« 6y 
/Sre /Ae /ea(2 is consumed; i. q. KCBK 

mSS; f. (for rn^JK fem. of OTtt, c 
rndx Gram. § 96, 2, w. suf. "Vim, 
?]ri^, once ?pn;r« Ps. 128, 3; pL fi"*^ 
for D'^JK by aphseresis, c. ''1D3, once 
hiT2^ Ez. 23, 44) woman, of any 
age or condition, married or unmar- 
ried Gen. 2, 23; female of animals 
Gen. 7, 2; trt/e, opp. to husband Gen. 
24, 3; Tpafif n^ wife of thy father, 
step-mother Lev. 18, 8, cf. 1 Cor. 5, 1. 
rwtA — ft np\ to take to onesdf — 
for a wife, i. e. to marry Gen. 4, 19; 
term of reproach for a weak, cowardly 
man Is. 19, 16^ prob. pleonastic or 
in apposition, in haST tv^ harlot Josh. 
2, 1, wA'>B nm c<mcubi7ie Judg. 19, 1, 
njttVK"rnBK' widow i K. 7, 14; 

Digitized by 





nyoj rn^ prophetess Jndg. 4, 4, 
rpi^niS'; n^ Lev. 24, lO; w. gen. 
o{ attribute, i^ n»x a woman of 
wrt&Buth 3, lljVsj-TO nw guorrc^ 
»0)w« «?o»Han Prov. 27, 15, DiJ^aj nm 
a harlot Hos. 1, 2; emphatic of a true 
wmum such as she ought to be, Ecc. 
7, 28. FoUot^ed by nirttj or fWn 
one— OfiofAer (see Gram. § 1 24, 2, Bem. 
4). Cf: Chald. KTftj^ def. fiCnPiK, fiCntW, 
pLr^; Syr. )iaj), pL U3. 

HBH (from BK /frc w. old fem. or 
collect ending !T-^ as in n;i'TK, hnb? ; 
c n»K, c pi. "nSK) m. sacrificial firey 
lienceMm/Sce(cf.irupa fromirup)Lev. 
22, 22; offerings in the widest 
sense Lev. 24, 7; cf. the expressions, 
w>ni niTj rr^^ msK sacrifice of 
swed odour unto the Lord Lev. 1, 9, 
K^, *^ •acrifieea of the Lord Lev. 
2, 8. 

rMtH* (only pL w. suf: mn^«nbK 

in K'thibh) piUar^ prop Jer. 50, 15; 
r. noK. 

■fna* (c. 'pwSg; r. TWJ n) m. dark- 
ness, gloom, only QVi of Prov. 20, 20; 
where the K'tbibh has'j'nrK, which see. 

^ft'O} or *1^nW^ (only w. suf. 
tTW»<, pL w. suff. V^'T^K; r. •nOK I) f. 
1) step, going P«. 40, 3, my foot took 
hold of his going i. e. I kept to the 
path he set me Job 23, 11 ; fig. con- 
inut Prov. 14, 15. 2) i. q. 'nsRBKn, a 
■pedes of cedar, Arab, sherhin', only 
in pL o-ncK-na yo to ruling thy 
deck they have made of ivory{i. e. 
of ivory inlaid in the wood-work), 
iumghterii. e. a inroduct) of the sherhin- 
cedars, Ez, 27, 6; r. *TOJ H. 

■fllBS also "rtSS f. 1) i. q. "nsiW}, 
a step, going Job 31, 7. 2) pr. n. f. 
(peih- a plain, w. h-^ loc. fTy"?^* 
r. IWJ n) Assyria Hos. 9, 3; fully 

« jnK Is. 7, 18; nHai ^nK fondo/ 

Nimrod ■■ ^^^ Mic. 5, 5; originally 
only a small province (now Kurdis- 
tan) w. the chief city fT)r?» "''^li^e *^® 
were the cities no^, nbs, "n^tP r\iam 
Gen 10, 11. 12; but afterwards Assy- 
ria in its widest extent (Is. 10, 9, 10) 
so that even its sections. Babylonia 
(2 K. 23, 29) and Persia (Bzr. 8, 22) 
bore the same name; Ptol. 'Affffupta, 
Strabo * AxoopCa (yip» Ohald.). 3) perh. 
Syria Is. 19, 23, according to some. 
4) D'^TnSK pr. n. of an Arab tribe 
C^n. 25, 3. 5) perh. pr. n. of a city in 
Assyria Gen. 2, 14, later Seleucia, 
6) pr. n. of a district in Asher, whence 
•'Tn^ 2 Sam. 2, 9. 

*l^nifiS pr. n. m. (blackness, r. 
^) 1 Ch. 2, 24. 

n^TSH (^shya)t support, founda- 
tion, only in Q*ri »T^ni'n^ Jer. 60, 15; 
r. )i^. 

T T , 

SIS'^S pr. n. (high or celestial) of 
a god in Hamath 2 K. 17, 30; prob. 
akin to rmv to he high (whence d^pb 

ni"^ Mic 5, 13, see rrn^&t 

ib'^H (pi. c. ^*M3i^ m. 1) fown- 
datum, then ruins, L e. site of a 
ruined building, only in Is. 16, 7; r. 

xmg^ n = mb». 

rnD*TDH (pi. fi'>t^ Hos. 8, 1, 

WW^^ Cant. 2, 5; r. tm BL) f. cake, 
prop, something pressed together 
(cf. nwp^,irXax6ei(;), hence -t^^ 
D*<ia9 raisin-cakes, for idol sacrifice 
Hos. 3, 1 , for a journey 2 Sam. 6, 19 , 
for refreshment Cant. 2, 5. 

T| wis (obs.) perh. akin to ^ m, 
t|d&I,to hind, to knit together. Hence 
perh. 'rp^K, Vsm 

ipSK m. perh. prop, string, hence 
testicle i only in Lev. 21, 20; but as 
it is used also of the female in the 

Digitized by 


trsngs 68 

Arab. &£![, the root may rather be 

akin to Arab. ,jL# (rigare, ^^kytvsi), 
hStb, p^ n, n^, all meaning to pour 
ovt^ to ioater or u»ef, hence T{^ may 
refer to the sexual use of the part, 
and be the origin of ^px^C (r = s as 
often). Cf. L. testis^ testiaUuSy prob. 
akin to tingOf ri-f-fto; cf. It tastare =» 
Qc. tasten = L. tango = 6tY7-ava) = E. 

0*'^1&M Jer. 25, 3 inf. absol. Hiph. 
of &a»;'8ee Gram. § 58, 3, Bern. 2. 

b3Tpi<(pi.nftiDi»5<, c.ri>>3:rx,rft)3m; 

perh. from "?pfiK w. the dimin. ending 
b^— , cf. iiD|i, ^^"TH, ib^Tp; else ftom 
bp^ to bind together) m. 1) prop, a 
gtringing together, hence a cluster or 
bunchy as of grapes Is. 65, 8 ; w. Q*n;^ 
Num. 13, 23; w. *)&& Cant 7, 9;V3;rx 
iwn 6t«7M?A 0^ cypress blossom Cant. 
1, 14; prob. date-clusters Cant 7, 8; 
ct Talmudic D**^ hm i^sm cluster 
of eggs L e. ovary, Chald, bio 
grape-bunchy perh. from aiD to bind. 
2) pr. n. of a valley (rich in grape- 
clusters) near f *^ari Num. 13, 23. 3) 
pr. n. m. of a Canaanite Gen. 14, 13. 

T33T23K 1) pr. n. of a son of "nak 
GexL 10, 3. 2) pr. n. of a Japhetic 
race and region named after him, 
TjS^ in the vicinity of Armenia Jer. 
51, 27; the modem Jews fancifully 
take it for Germany. 

*fil?H (r. '^^Uy w. Kpro8th.)m. 
1) traffic or wares Ez. 27, 16. 2) 
present or tribute Ps. 72, 10. 


(obs.) to be fimiy pressed 

together; akin to 'pdlj, Arab, jif to 
be firmly rooted. Hence 

ilDH m. a tamarisk Gen. 21, 33. 

Di&2^ Num. 5, 7, also DlS^ 
Lev. 4, 13 (fat fttfij};, pL la;^;) 


akin to Q^, Da:^, cf. 83rr. ^Vi*Mt 
1) prop, to lie wild or vjastCy to be 
desolatCy e. g. 'ji^np'iD Hos. 14, 1, najo 
£z. 6, 6 . 2) fig. to be laid wasity to be 
condemnedy i. e. to be morally ruined 
Ps. 34, 22, Jer. 2, 3, Prov. 30, 10. 
3) to be guiltyy to transgresSy w. h of 
the person against whom Lev. 5, 19; 
w. 2 Hos. 13, 1 or ^ Lev. 5, 6 of the 
thing wherein. — Hiph. d^litf 9 to 
be destroy edy of flocks Joel 1, 18. — 
Hiph. prop, to make desolatCy hence 
to punish or destroy Ps. 6, 11. 

DIDK (pi. O-'om) m. A) /autt, gum 
Gen. 26, 10. 2) an act incurring 
guilt, a trespass Num. 5, 7. 8. 8) the 
sacrifice whereby the guilt was ex- 
piated, a trespass-offering 1 Sam. 6, 3, 
Is. 53, 10; it differs from DMun (see 
Lev. 5, 1—26); r. Om 

DlT^J adj. m. guilty y 1. e. either 
charged w. a fault Gen. 42, 21, 2 Sam. 
14, 13, or under obligation to expiate 
a fault Ezr. 10, 19 ; r. fim. 

TOlDH (pL niaiax, w. suf. wwi« 
Ps. 69, 6J f. prop. inf. Qal, hence fTOW<i 
rn to trespass in it Lev. 5, 26, but 
mostly as a subst 1) trespass Lev. 4, 3, 
trespass -offering Lev. 5, 24. 2) cori- 
demnoHon 2 Ch. 28, 13. 8) fig. idol, 
•jiiM t^aTW^a W^ttT} those whoswear 
by the guilt (idol) of Samaria Am. 
8, 14, where some take it for n^^CK 
goddess of 5.; see K^"^. 

I^H (r. wm-y only pL d*^JWDK) 
m. soliiudeSy unidet-ness, i. q. r^;;obs 
region of shadeSy hence fi'^n^3d'>8QirN:^ 
in the desolate places as the dead Is. 
59, 10. The Babbins render it dark- 
ness. Others taking it for &*>3ra:9 
(Gen. 27, 28, r. "j^'^a) read in the fertile 
fields we were as the dead, 

rrp^m, rn^a^»,(c.n«jbw*,pu 

ni'iaa^^; r. "no©) f. l) a nigU^oatdkt 

Digitized by 


ttie third part of the night, ^oXaxiQ 
L. vigUia Ps. 63, 7; the first watch is 
called rvh^^ OM'n head ofthevmtches 
ham. 2, 19; the second n'^t^KH 
r^nrvtfli the middle toatch Jndg. 7, 19 ; 
and the third ^'^ ^"^^ '^ *'^^' 
mng watch £x. 14, 24*. In N. Test, 
age there were 4 watches, after the 
Boman custom, Hat. 14, 25. 

^'■tott* t same as mattJK, Judg. 
7, 19. 

"jlpIS^ I (obs.) to he hard, firm, 
Chald l^^ 1. q. fCgsi ; hence pr. n. ildVK. 

|1D2S n (obs.) to heobseure, dark; 
hence perh. *)^K. 

331SH (w. suf. '^^V^ m. a window 
or lattice, prop, breathing or cooling 
place Judg. 5, 28. Windows in the 
east are latticed for coolness. — The r. 
is ^ (w. K prosth.), akin to 1^3, Cj^J 
to breathe. 

njIDK pr. n. (fortress, I) of 
two cities in Judah Josh. 15, 33. 43. 

■jyOH pr. n. (support, r. IjSrd w. 
K prosth.) of a city in Judah Josh. 
15, 52. 


UBS (obs. akin to V\\X^, 9^ 
C;^ aU mimet. to express breathing, 
whispering, mutterin g ; hence the my- 
sterious noises or tokens of coi^urers, 
to use magic, 1. q.Syr. sjt^f. Hence 

CjTOJ Chald. (prop. part, of tpax, 
only pL T^?^ clef. M;&m.) m. ma- 
gieiam, enchanter Dan. 2, 27. 

Cp&S Heb. and Chald (pi. Heb. 
crtnlK) m. enchanter, magician (but 
different fr. S);#3^) Dan. 1, 20; 2, 10. 

iTBlBK (w. suf: inaw; r. nt^ i) 
t 1) quiver, prop. ^riMper, ^oWer 
(c£ cor hohter for a pistol-case) Is. 

69 niBR 

22, 6; ihB^ *t32 «ofw 0/ Ai9 ^MiDer 
i. e. his arrows Lam. 3, 18. 2) perh. 
pi. T^xbt^ (r. h^ n to heap) dmg- 
hiHa 1 Sam. 2, 8; but perh. better 
make DbuSK a dunghiU as m. sing, 
from rov (w. K prosth.) to depoHt. 

TlDIDH pr. n. m. (prob. horse'snose) 
of a chief eunuch Dan. 1, 3.'--^B5diger 
takes the word fh>m the Persian 
asp (horse) and ndsd (nose). 

"©TDH m. measure, portion (from 
r.'lTOtoAo&2)2Sam.6,19; the ancient 
versions render it piece, as if from r. 
-initi I to break. 

T\&^ (only pi. ninwcK) f. dung- 
hiUs, only Lam.4, 6; r. fi^ to «c^or 

T&it^ (r. n^i^ w. K prosth.) m. 
prop, a deposit or dung, then dung* 
hiU Ps. 113, 7; nbir«n "t?^ dung-gale 
Neh. 2, 13; cf. 3, 13.' 

n^lfiS 1 K. 19, 20, see r.p^ I. 

1 15)5101^ pr. n. of one of the five royal 
cities of the Philistines, between Qfiza 
and Jamnia (Sept. 'AdX^Xcov, l Mac- 
cab. 'AaxaXcoviov) Judg. 1,18; gentil. 
adj. ''S'i^jJ^ Josh. 13, 3; still 
called ^jUSL^ \Asqaldn by the Arabs. 
— Perh. the name comes from 
h^ to weigh, l^ence a balance, 
as expressive of its traffic; cf. Taren- 
turn, Tapac = talentum, tAXovtov. 
As the district was said to be rich in 
onions, these were perh. called on 
that account, ascalonice, escalotes, our 
shallot, a kind of onion; but more 
likely this vegetable got its name 
from L. esculentus, 

^IPS I akin to ^i^ n, to go 
Prov. 9, ejhence'n^l. 

\XD^ n akin to nt^, to be 
straight or even (cf. "i»x 2, 'nsRas, 
*l4^0Kn); fig. of the straight-forward 

Digitized by 





course or progress of undertakings, 
hence to he prosperous; hence *iim 
in •'TPX. — PI. to make straight, to 
direct M« steps Prov. 4, 14; to ca%ue 
to step, to lead along Is. 3, 12; fig. 
to r^ht or defend Is. 1, 17; to pro- 
nounce happy, to congratulate, ^Q^t, 
jxaxapCjco, Gen. 30, 13. — Pii. "t^ 
to he led along Is. 9, 15; to he made 
happy Ps. 41, 3. 

• llpiS (obs.) perh. akin to I^^J, 
to hind; henoe perh. ^K^n^ and 

*n25K 1) rel. pron. for all genders 
and numbers, who, which, also that 
which, what (on its rather notable 
syntactical usage see the Gram. 
§ 123). As the most important par- 
ticle in dependent sentences, it stands 
at the head of clauses where it 
strongly marks relation, and is supple- 
mented by a pron. or suffix accord- 
ing as the ^^ may belong to the 
subject Deut. 20, 15 or the object 
Jer. 32, 3; e. g. he who lives (*)m 
Vtm) Gen. 9, 3, where Kin forcibly 
adds the nominative idea to the 
merely rel.*)»X; whom he imprisoned 
(iK^S "im) Jer. 32, 3, where the suf. 
1— adds the objective idea to "i^. 
This supplementing is necessary, if 
^^ refers to a subordinate notion 
e. g. 'i'T'^Cp *^^ whose harvest Job 5, 
6: ii *)^x to whom, where ncK 
expresses neither the subject nor the 
object; but *i^ is sufficient alone if 
it refers (adverbially = where, when, 
why, how) to substantives of place 
Qiea, 35, 13, time 2 Sam. 19, 25, manner, 
reason or way 1 K, 11, 27. — 
As ^VK prop, expresses merely rela- 
tion, it may express that idea in 
various constructions (see Gram« 
§ 123, 1) e. g. bm ^^ where, "n^ 

fi^o whence, rvoid "uu^ whither; even 
w. the pron. of the 1st and 2nd per- 
sons (W'ra "nibK, ?pP«ap>i *nbK); on 
the contrary, in most languages it 
is possible only w. the 3rd person. 

— When the context or the sense 
of a clause readily suggests the rela- 
tive idea, the relative pronoun is 
very often omitted (as in Engl.) 
e. g. fin^ fc6 Y^;2 in a land (which 
is) not theirs Gen. 15, 13, a pit 
(which) he made Ps. 7, 16 (see 
Gram. § 123, 3). — "nffiK is often (as 
in Engl.), esp. in poetry, used as 
involving its antecedent, i. e. a per- 
sonal or demonst. pronoun (Gram. 
§ 123, 2), e. g. n^iri trysn "iWt Jer. 
32, 24 (that) which (= whai) thou 
spakest comes to pass, 1 K. 5, 22 
•'bx Tmhvb ^ttfe< r« '>n5a« I have 

- - T J I- T V -; •• • J I- r 

heard that which (= what) thou 
aentest to me. 2) rel. coxg. (Ghram. 
§ 155, 1) (hat Ex, 11, 7, because Deut. 
8, 24, as Ex. 14, 13, how Job 87, 17, 
when 1 K.8, 9 ; w. prep. '^^§^55 in that, 
lt^5 as, ^1^ since, ^m-i? for tlud. 

— On "1^ as prefix, see 'to, 

*11&J pr. n. m. (prosperous; ct 
E^$a([jLa)v, Felix) 1) a son of Jacob 
Gen. 30, 13; gentil. n. '''TOJ Asherite 
Judg. 1, 32. 2) pr. n. (fortress) of 
a city Josh. 17, 7. 

^HDH (pi. 0*>'7fe<) f. 1) i. q. -israfej (r. 
•n^ l)step, going, fig. way Job 23, 1 1. 
2) sherhin-cedar, 0''*t«k na = made 
of sherhin^edars Ez. 27, 6 ; r. m^ U. 

^^IW^ (only in pi. c. •'^W* and w, 
suf. ipyoii, fiS^^, '»*^7^, WT^!^ 
Prov. 29, 18) m. happiness, prosper* 
ity (prop. i^\, felicities, hlessedncsses); 
used only before a noun or prono- 
minal suf. as a sort of inteij. *^^x 
•ntbfcj fliW Ps. 1, 1 happy the tnani 
who — ; ri^y^ happy (art) thou! 
Deut 33, 29; r. "n^ H. 

Digitized by 


¥ • 



Tat (w. Bot ^^fym) m. happiness, 
only Gen. 30, 13; r.' ^i^ H. 

11S1* t for 'n^ step, only Job 31, 7. 

bS'^S pr. n. m. (God binds, r. 
-itpX) 1 Ch! 4, 16. 

nbyplDl* pr. n. m. (God makes 
happy) 1 Ch. 25, 2. 

!Tn?5*> JTl'^^ Mic. 5, 13 (pi- 
n^ndiS, rrt^nrasjp f. prop, happiness (ct 
h, Foriuna)', hence Jj^a, name 
of the Phenician and Syrian goddess 
of blissfulness or fortmie (A^po- 
5tTTj, Venus) 1 K. 15, 13 (elsewhere 
n;r»?), united w. b$a l K. 18, 19i 
the pL for her images 1 K. 14, 23. 

bK^^» pr. n. m. (i q. bxT^^ 
Num. 26,' 31. 

M^tBJ* Cliald. m. waa Ezr. 5, 3; 
cf. r. "y^ n to he upright; or perh. 
r. "jOfij I to he strong. 

©*ID^ I (obs.) L q. Chald. »J», 
rr^ to 6«m, to glow; hence WK, Jtt^ 
mrii. ' — Cf. Sans, vsh (to bum), L. 
«rV(t«-w), aT6(i), L. (zstas, G. Aews, 
our *ea<, W. <x^y» (a kiln). 

IDlDi^n (obs.) akin to Arab. J^ 
to make firm L q. fi^ to he firm 
or strong, Deriv. OT^, fT^I^'^^^ 
— Hithpo. wi^*Kr*i to «Aof(? oneself 
manly or sfrow^ Is. 46, 8; but this 
may be a denom. firom ttTK. 

t\W^ t (c. of mSK, Gram. § 96, 2, 
but perh. the absol. state in Deut. 
21, 11, 1 Sam. 28, 7, Ps. 58, 9, Jer. 
13, 21) woman; see ntKt 

bfcffl"*D55^ pr. n. (perh. hoUow-way, 
r. ig©' for i?l^') of a city of Dan, 
Josh. 15, 33(Sept'E^a6X, ^AaraaiX, 
Buseb. 'EaOaooX). 

*fl1F)ipS Chald, m. insurrection 
Ezr. 4, IsVr- "^^T?- 

IIRITO pr. n. m. (perh. uxorious, 
from niOK) 1 Ch. 4, 11. 

VP^S Chald. Dan. 5, 3,perf. 3 pi. 
for y^tyxo, r. txr^yb, 

JiamriJ^ Josh. 1 5, 50 and 3ni2FllDk:^ 
Josh. 21, 14 pr. n. (perh. renowned, 
r. 3?^^) of a Levitical city in Judah, 
not far from Hebron. 

f^S Chald. m. i. q. Heb. n*ix, sign, 
token, portent Dan. 3, 32 ; r. niX I. 

PH (in pause Pfi{, i. q. '^nx) pron. 
f. thou Gen. 24, 23, for an-ti, as nnj< 
for an-ta\ nx may stand also for the 
masc. ns^, Num. 11, 15,Deut.5,27. 

Pi? i. q. JiljK pers. pron. m. fhoUf 
1 Sam. 24, 19. 

Jn^J I (w. suf. inx pL OTnX, D'^FtX 
Is. 2, 4, w. suf. Da-^nK Joel. 4, ig) 
m. plow-share, coulter, hoe 1 Sam. 
13, 20, prop, the cutting instru- 
ment, r. WK I to cut in, io dig\ but 
as the forms tTT^, B3^P)^ occur, 
some consider n» as derived from 
nr« = n-iK i. 

rH^n (beforeMaqqeph-n55,w.most 
suffixes rk, but see below) emphat 
pron. self (prob. akin to auTo;, Gram. 
§ 117, 2, Note) prob. from an old 
demonst. pronoun, e. g. Josh. 22, 
\1 is it a trifle for us lisrrx 
*i3?B this very iniquity of Pe'or? 
It is generally a sign of the definite 
accusative, hence used 1) w. suffixes 
in order to express the ace of the 
personal pronouns; e. g. Gen. 12, 12 
si'sn*; Tinxj *>nk ^y^ they kUl me and 
thee they will save, where the em- 
phasis or antithesis requires the per- 
sonsd pronoun. So if the verb 
two pers. pronouns as objects, where 
the suflf. on the verb can express 
only one, the other is then put w. 
nk and the appropriate suf. as 
^nk m«, «nk us, ir^ him, «nk her^ 

Digitized by 






^ m. Tjnk t thee, Djnx m. (bank), 
lanK £. you, dP« m.'^nk f. them 
(rarely dnnj Gen. 32, 1, DnrilK Ez. 
23, 45, "inniK V. 47). 2) before sub- 
stantives, mostly if tbey have the 
art. or a suffix, or are in c. state 
or are proper names or otherwise 
made definite (Gram. §117, 2)- e. g. 
Gen, 1, 1 God created T^) ^y^^ nx 
ywj theheavensand the earth; ''a-nx 
whim? that which "nwTO; thk 
m-r«: aU V»-r«. On the rare 
cases where r\K stands before an in- 
deanite ace. (e. g. Ex. 21, 28 «^K-p« 
ni^X-n« iK) see Gram. § 117, 2, Rem. 
— On the few cases where r\H seems 
to stand before a nominative, see 
Gram. § 143, 1, Bem. — Cf. Chald. 
n;, Syr. awIjperh.Heb.ttS?, Gr. oWo, 
L. esBentia, Sans, vasu, G. wesen, W. 
ioydh (presence). 

ln» m (-nj*, w. suf. •»!?«, Tjrw (in 

p. ^«)» fern. ^P?*» ''P*!^ ^35^1 fi??«i 

D^; but in Kings, Jerem. andEzek. 

•'rik, ^?|nk, see Gram. § 103, 1, Rem. 1) 

prep, af, hy, unth, toward Ps. 67, 2 

(perh. for nax approach or nearness^ 

r. njij n), -TK a?d ^0 lie with Gen. 

19, 33 ; "HK *Tar *o sfand with, to help 

Num. 1, 5; TK tr^yi nns fo male 

covenant with Ex. 34, 27. It is equal to 

d», the two hardly differing except 

perh. like pLexi and auv, the former 

perh. expressing accompaniment and 

the latter (D2P) connection. In Gen. 4, 1 

J Aavc gotten a man (chield) Jiirn-nj* 

i. e. with his presence 

Sept. lxTY)aaji.T)v 5v- 

6eou, Vulg. per deum, 

— rwp from with, 

I Gen. 8, 8 (like D9p, 

ce^'un), after verbs 

sending, receiving, 

tg. "^PttO Is. 44, 24 

xuToO in John 5, 30) 

buttheK'thibh "^riK *)a gives the best 
sense wlio (was) with wc? — - Prob. 
akin to {xex^, )i.e(Joc, L. meduia. 
Sans, mid (adapt), G. mit, 0. Norsk 
tnd^, E. u^A. 

t^ also niS, sign of def. accu- 
sative, see m n. 

i^njS, ntl&5 Chald. (= Heb. 
nnj) 3.^peri. pi. inKjlhf. Kna=«nxo, 
imp. pi. Hnx, to come Dan. 7, 22, Ezr. 
4, 12. — Aph. '^ry^n, inf. mrm, to 
bring Dan. 3, 13. ~ Ho ph. (a sort 
of Hebraism for Ittaphel) to be 
brought, perf. 3 pers. f. T\'^Ty^ Dan. 
6, 18, pi. siwrj 3, 13. ^ 

bySlHH pr. n. m. (with-Baal) king 
of Sidon 1 k. 16,31 ; Joseph. 'Id(5paXoc, 
ElOcopaXo; (tea InK w. him Baal). 

nriS Deut 33, 2, SilJi^ Is. 
21, 12 (pi. TsPK = «Kr« Jer. 3,^2| fut. 

nnx;, KW,r«?ils. 41, 25, pi. *i*^r«^ 
w. suf. ''^;r«^ part. pi. f. ni^nk, imp. 
^'^, see Gram. § 76, 2, c), to come 
(poet, for Kia),w. h or T? of the pers. 
Jer. 3, 22, Mic. 4, 8; to befdU, w. ace 
Job 3, 25; to go, pass away, of years 
Job 16, 22; rii^ni'Kn coming events 
i. e. the future Is. 41, 23. — Hiph. 
to brifig i. q. «*iarT; si-^rn for *i*^r«in 
3 pi. perf. in Is. 21, 14, but 2 pL 
imp. in Jer, 12, 9. Deriv. 'J'in"«. 

nriM (=3 m^X, as in Aram, and 
Arab.; in pause m^) pron. 2 pers. 
m. sing, thou J also written PIK and 
PtK. The real root-syllable is iiT), to- 
gether w. an older form iin (analogous 
to ^n), as the fem Fi tc, together w. 
an older form ''Fl (analogous to '^), 
an being only a prefixed demon* 
strative particle as in '^sbfcj an-oki. --^ 
Cf. Sans, tvam, L. tu, au. Dor. xu, W. 
ti, G. dUj E. thou, 

yninjj l fut. mth. of 5^;, Gram. 

Digitized by 


■pn^ (pi, nbrfi^ f. ahe-ass Gen. 
32, 16, iainK-ja son of his she-ass 
poet, for his ass's colt Gen. 49, 11. — 
Generally traced to "jHS (an assumed 
root) to go slowly; but it may well 
come from "jiK, Arab. ^^j|, ear; hence 
the long-eared, as in L. aurUvs, asi- 
Wis, G. esel, etc.; see on naa^*. 

"JVIH Chald. com. gend. furnace, 
o^fen Dan, 8, 6; prop, fire, akin to 
itiK, aidsiv, A!tvtj, J5fno, W. odyn 
(a kiln), tan (fire). 

pW» (K'thibh of Ez. 41, 15) m. 
a break or offset, in buildings, a gal- 
lery, Targ.r'T,8ept.(JTodt,ir8p((JToXov; 

*W» (only K'thibh) i. e. "nn^ (from 
^PCX) 2 pers. pron. f. i. q. PiX thou, 
only Judg. 17, 2, 1 K. 14, 2, Jer. 4, 80. 

T!^ pr. n. m. (perh. for rnp« 
with PlJ) 2 Sam. 15, 19, 22; ''n**^ in 
1 Ch. 11, 31. 

WjfcJ for ^•inaj imp. pi. of nr^; 
Gram. § 76, 2, c and § 23, 8, Bem. 2. 

P*t^ L q. punis m. an of set, 
porUco or ^oflefy Ez. 42, 6; r. pnj. 

t3I^ (older form ^^^) pers. 
pron. 2 pL — fisftn (the an is only 
a demonst. prefix) is still met w. in the 
«if. nn; ct CJhald. 'pPOK, pniS Syr. 

BTilSj pr. n. of a district in Egypt, 
Ex. 13, 20; Sept. 'O&coji., Copt ATIOM 
L e. boundary of the sea. 

b^fians Mic. 2, 8, biisrij* i sam. 

4, 7, biaPlH 1 Sam. 10, 11 (, 
like i^-bx) prop, before; hence 
adv. yesterday; but in Mic. 2, 8, Is. 
30, 33, aforetime, of old. See b^a, and 
i^ shortened from bian*. 

jijiS (obs.) perh. to take short 
tfeps, like the ass ; but see "pHX above. 



irS, see '|n'»K. 

■jFJH only Ez. 34, 31, i. q. njRK ye. 

JlSniJ^ m, |)rc«en*, reward, esp. 
a Aar^fV Atr« Hos. 2, 14; r. nipil 
w. M prosthetic. 

JlSPK Gen. 31, 6, J13PH B«. 18, 
20, pron. 2 pi. f. ^e. 

^5tlH Jer. 3, 22 for ^NnK=^'^n« 

IT T ' rr T r T 

we come; r. mjK. 

"•SriH pr. n. m. (perh. munificent, 
r. njPiI) 1 CJh. 6, 26. 

■jSriK (w. suf. •'lanK pL &^:5^«; 

r. 55n li = njri I w. k' prosth.) 'm. 
1) ffiftf present, esp. a harloVs hire 
Ez. 16, 34, Deut.23, 19; fig. of fruits 
or produce, as if gifts to or from 
idols Hos. 9, 1 ; Is. 23, 17 Jl|5n» (for 
mt)») her gift. 2) pr. n. I'ohl 4, 7, 
one of the sons of Helah. 

pijiS (obs.) perh. akin to prj, 
pro, to remove, to shift forward-, hence 
perh. p!inx, p'>rw. 

^?15^^ Jer. 22, 24, 1 fat. Qal of 
pn};'see Gram. § 58, 4. 

iZjCS (obs.) akin to "nifiK, "Too II, 
•T^n I, to go about; hence a''*V«, ct 
Qyr.]lj,\ place and 

*l)nS Chald. (det vnm] m. place 
or room Dan. 2, 35, Ezr. 5, 15; •»? lr« 
i. q. Heb. 'nttJx Dl'pa ptec u^A^re « 
toAcre Ezr. 6,' 3; hence *infi<a i. e. 
•nn&ita after Dan. 7, 6; w. suf. '^na 
after thee Dan. 2, 89, of. Dipa. 

'^''^tJN! pr. n. (places, r. ^tr») a 
place in south Palestine Num. 21, 1, 

iiriCS Chald. (obs.)prob. akmto 
Heb. TON, ItWco, Sans.twA, to bum, 
hence "pnx 

nijN (obs.) akin to nm, nro^ 
rviK 1, to cut OT smite (cf. Sans, kat 
= L. gtiafto, tn-cufio); hence n^ L 

Digitized by 


«^ Betht the 2d letter in tbe Heb. 
Alphabet; hence used also as the 
numeral for 2. Its early form on 
Phenician monuments and Heb. coins 
is A or ^, whence the Greek ^ or 
^ and B. Its name n'^a (Eabbinic 
pi. 'j"'n'^3, wn'^a) is from n^a house 
or tentj which prob. its earliest shape 
rudely resembled; the form and name 
(whence Gr. B^ta) suggesting by 
the initial sound the force of the 
letter, which is like our b (a) or softer 
like bh or v (a); see Gram. § 6, 3. 

3 interchanges — 1 with its kin- 
dred labials \ a, & (see under each), 
e. g. K'^na=K*'^g, aa='ia, i)^a=i:?B, 
bna = "^Ir*, Chald. 3"?^^ = Syr. 
^5oi, ')ia'''?l = "jia'^?; — 2 w. palatals 
and gutturals, e. g. *)!ia = IID = *^S|SI, 
^nr I, "nJin I, ^sip I (cf. ttw; = xw;; 
iTcro; = L. cgtms = Gaelic each)\ — 
3 w. dentals, e. g. ain = n^n 2 (cf. 
Si; = L. bis), — The doubling of the 
Beth is changed in the dialects (or in 
words ado{>ted from them in western 
languages) into m&, e. g. in Aram. 
asiax = L. ambvhaia; fea'n';, Mepoji- 

3 seems in some words to be a 


= >^ 


to the 

unders) and prob. adjectival, though 
the force is now lost; cf. the adj. 
endings -tji.o;, -jjicov also -^t);, -P>o; 
(e. g. axpi-pT^; from fixpo;, xoXopo; 
= x6XoO; Sans. -6^ OJ) in vali-bha 
(wrinkled) from vcUi (wrinkle), -va 
(^) in kesa-va (fair -haired) from 
&^a(hair); It.-hus inmor-hvs, acer-bta. 
21 A) pref. prep. (Gram. § 102, 2 
and § 154, 3, a) generally used to ex- 
press in, mthinf cmwng (iv), but 
with differences of meaning, evolved 
perhaps in the foUowing order: 1) the 
purely local, temporal, or circumstan- 
tial idea of being , resting or acting in 
or at any place, hence — a) tn, at (in 
answer to wherel) as H'^aa in the 
house, yy^2 in the land, D'jaTSa tn tJie 
Acat7en«, Sj^a in the gate, ^""^ppa in 
the sanctuary, "pra in or ai the well; 
and in many idioms (where its proper 
force of in is not lost, though we have 
to render it differently to suit our 
usage); e. g.' l^ja X"^ eye to eye, 
njra hs^, Tiinna tsin, O'l-^a di\ 
nara naiC, D?Ba'nrB. 'in the* sense 
of in, etc., many sorts of verbs are 
construed with it, especially verbs of 
believing, confiding, delighting in, or 
the contrary, e.g. a nriTS, "pai^Jn, nipa, 
nori; ^ ^"n^, wa, k'dn, 5rB, bra, ^:2; 
verbs of inquiri^ig or choosing, etc. 
e. g. a ^n^, i)5<ia; a •iria, .1^7, ar«j, 
riato, i'^a, t^^, -(r^y, bs^a, brj, n^a, cp; 
verbs of sense (bodily sensations or 
mental perceptions) e.g. a nx^, njn.^o 
Took at, a 5a;» fo listen to, a r:''*^^} ?o 
smell of, a x'np /o call on, a t'M fo 
approach to, to touch, a pa^ i?o c&ar€ 
<o, a P^'F^fJ, a mx, fo faA:<? hold of, 

Digitized by 


a m to touch, 2 9d& to light on or 
hit, 2 rnto to wusc on, nan, 'V'sn, 

n^, S *^a^, in which cases it may 
be translated upoUy over^ concerning. 
With this notion of rest in, atj etc., 
M then connected — p) the idea 
of accompaniment, toithf at, hy^ in 
the sense of nearness or of in- 
strumentality, whether this accom- 
paniment has the notion of helping, 
or attending on, serving as an in- 
strument, or of ruling and effec- 
tuating, which we may have to ren- 
der in Eng. by in^ throughfiy means 
of, etc as in msba, D'^sma, JW^na. 
Hence by prefixing a to substantives 
a great many adverbs and adjectives 
are in effect expressed, e. g. n'aa 
wiih (prop, in) might, i. e. mightily; 

so -•'TiDSi, 'Tj'nBa, -^Wa, nswaa, nyiana, 

^a, O^a. In this signif. it stands 
after the verb which by its help ex- 
presses the idea of accompaniment 
ihy, through) e. g. a »a3, xa, nn;, o^p, 
Tp9; a ^S5 to do work through some- 
body; a rroj to receive interest 
through somebody, i. e. to make a 
loan; a ysco^.—f) upon, when raised 
objects are spoken of, e. g. ^na upon 
(prop, in) the mount, 2) The idea of 
motion (eU), as it were in to some- 
thing, hence a) at, towards, but always 
implying nearness and so differing 
from ix, in which motion towards, 
bat without proximity, is expressed 
(in answer to whither?). In this 
way several verbs of motion are 
construed with a, e. g. a "jn; to give 
in or into, a r^^ to tread in or on 
(see Gram. p. 325, Note'). So too 
verbs of ruling (cf. letter P above) 
a ns5 to keep in, to restrain; a rrtn, 
tela; verbs of contending or opposing 
in any way, e. g. a a*^*^, Dn^3, "na?, 
»p, pnt, im, ciup,* nnn" i^, 
(in such cases the Lat'too uses in, 

76 ^ 

with the ace. case in the same sense}. 
— Fig. ^ is used for marking a rule: 
in (the manner), according to, e. g« 
'?]'TTa in (according to) the manner, 
'^ana according to the command of, 
n2C^a according to the counsel; hence 
often according to (L. secundum), 
as, like as (like :p, .for which perh. 
it is sometimes an error in writing). 
P) within, among, as a part in the 
whole, e. g. Q***^^pa among the 
conspirators » a conspirator, ^aa 
among all, "^^^tba among my helpers 
= my helper Ps. 118, 7; and in this 
signif. the a is used with verbs the 
action of which refers merely to a 
part of the whole, as a iis^i to smite 
among (i. e. part), -rw nan to smite 
(i. e. all). So too a inf}, nn», baK. 
•y) in regard to, e^a 9k brief way of 
including the whole, e.g. hs«'iaa C)i:>9 
(among) in regard to fowl and cattle; 
used fig, e. g. Job 23, 18 God w'flJKa 
in one, i. e. He is one or unique; 
also Is. 40, 10 pma Kia; Ee comes 
in a strong one, i. e. as mighty; cf. 
F. en in vivre en honnMe homme. 
Its use in these last examples has 
given it the name Beth essentice. 

As to derivation, this prep, a is 
prob. akin to fc^ia or to n^a (so Oe- 
senius and most) or 'p^ (so Ewald, 
Lehrbuch, § 217, g) but Fiirst and 
Dr. Payne Smith (Thes. Syriacus, 
col. 429) regard it as a primitive in 
the short form b*, ascertained by 
a comparison of languages; the 
former labouring in vain to prove 
nearness to be its primary sense, 
but the latter accepting in as its 
original force. — With suff. "^a, ?(a, 

naa, in p. and fem. tja, I'a, na, ^3a, 
Dsa, laa, onaandoa, nana, inaand 
nana; w. other particles T?a, TOa. 

B) a also appears — 1) as abbrev. 
of la in some proper names, as ^"T^a, 

Digitized by 


a 76 

D^l^ still more freqnenily in Arabic. 
2) as abbrev. of h'^a, only in tbe 
names of places, e. g. rtjpnc^a i. q. 
:jTV»a; but in neither case shonld 
this abbrey. be stretched too far. 
8) perh. also for tea e. g. "pa for 

iSisa = -p^p tea. 

^ Chald. in, same as the Heb. 
above. r 

sS2y see Kia. Gf. Sans, vd (go), 
3A-(o, paC-vco, pa-$o^, L. via, vo-do, 
0. E. wade (go), W. 6an< (oflf). 

nnia i k. i4, 12 inf. of x^a, but 

n5<a 1 K. 13, 7 is imperative. 

njHSl Buth 1, 19 inf. of Kfa, w. 
suf. 3 pi. f. and h-^ demonstr. (see 
Gram. § 32, Bem. 7, § 91, 1, Bem. 2). 

•TJja (for rw-'a,) f. entrance, only 
Ez. 8, 5 (cf. fn^V); r. Kia. 

TD5ljJ<Sl Chald. a^j. (only in fern, 
def. KPi»!iKa) evil Ezr. 4, 12; r. «j$a. 

ncs3 (Qal obs.) i. q. "nsia, to 5ore, 
<o rft^, so in general many roots mid. 
K (K 9) are identical with verbs mid. 
^ fi''^); hence — Pi. ^xa 1) to carve in, 
to engrave on tables Hab. 2, 2. 2) 
to dig out (the sense), to explain Deut. 
1, 5. — Akin to ^5, L. foro, G. 
hohren, E. hm-e, <ppeap and papa6pov. 

*K3 (with n-^ local n"j«a, w. 
snf. ;nKa, pi. K-wa. c. nSxaVf. 1) 

eU of 


- i 

of a 

of a 
t, 33, 


D*^b« ^, see -wa. 

T^*l tb "nSQ pr. n. (perh. weU 
of the living looking one) of the well 
of Hagar Gen. 16, 14. 

yatD 1»a pr. n. (well of oath or 
covenant) of a city on southern 
limit of Palestine, Brjpjapei, Gen. 
21, 31. 

^3 (prop, "nka, K'thibh for -ria 
2 Sam. 23, 15) f. prop, pit, hence a 
cistern, reservoir, pi. mixa Jer. 2, 13; 

r. 'ixa = -niia. 

^"^^ P'- n. m. (a well) 1 Ch. 7, 37. 

•^"^^ pr. n. m. (a weU) 1 Ch. 6, 6. 

""^^ pr. n. (wells) of a city in 
Benjamin Josh. 9, 17, Ens. Bir)pu)0, 
now el-Bireh; gentil. '^n'^xa 2 Sam. 
4, 2 and '>nSa 1 Ch. 11, 39; cf. '>'na 
for *^*7xa. 

"Ilj'^-^a nh«a pr. n. of an 
encampment of the Israelites in the 
wilderness Deut. 10, 6, called also 
lljr: "isa Num. 33, 31; see •))»:?. 

^"^^ pr. n. m. (L. fontanus) Hoa. 
1,1.. • 

ISJSS (fat. tiKa:») prop, to haoe 
a had smell, to stink Ex. 7, 18; fig. 
to 6c 6a(J, ioicJced (see Hiph.) i. q. 
Chald. wxa. — Niph. ©fijaa to sheio 
oneself had, to become hateful, w. 
a,"r«, i. e. to he in iH odour with 
some one 1 Sam 13, 4. — Hipb. 
ld'»Kan 1) prop, to cause to stink Bcc 
10, 1; fig. to make loathsome, w. a 
Gen. 34, 30; W'^'^T^ DniCKan ye 
made our odor stink Ex. 5, 21. 2) to 
stink Ex. 16, 24; fig. w. a to he 
hateful 1 Sam. 27, 12, Prov! 13, 5. 
— Hith. to make oneself hateful, 
only JittJxann, w. xa 1 Ch. 19, 6. 

ISiO Chald. to fccevO, w. te to 
displease Dan. 6, 1 5 (opp. ODa); see tfeta. 

Digitized by 





XBX3L b^osh (w. sul *i^) m. had 
BmeU, stench Am. 4, 10, Is. 84, 8 (cf. 
njni); r. »Ka. 

rnSISt^ f . a bad'Smelling plant, a 
weedy only Job 81, 40. 

Q*in!0 m. pi. prop. adj. had 
(e. g. D*^^9^, but as subst. had 
grapes, toUd grapes Is. 6, 2; r. m^ 

"ttnKS Chald., see ^, *ina. 

nn^ (only c. naa w. -;-flrm) f. only 
Z€cli.'2, 12 -ps nna oppfe o/" tAe 
f^e, the pupil, perh. from n^a (cf. n*^a 
Talm. AoZe, pif, Chald. tC^^gate); but 
as the jmpi/is also called yT$ na ^i^^ 
Pa. 17, 8 lit. monntArin ofthie daughter 
of (he eye (1. e. the little image one 
aees of himself when looking into 
another's pnpil), and simply *^^ ra 
Lam. 2, 18, it is likely that h^£ (prob. 

for ^1^^} Arab. ^y{ pueUus, akin 
to^) isamimet.word, akintoL.^mpa, 
pupxQa, Syr. ia^, )Jaas (see Dr. 
Payne Smith's Thes. Syriacus), our 
babe, baby, hoy, h.puer, Tcau, N. Am. 
Indian pappooSfW. hdban,¥,poupon, 
which are all taken, like ^ and &K, 
from infant lips; cf. x6pT) a girl, also 
thejmpil of the eye, 

'O^ P^^' Jii' ™' (perh. boyish, 
akin to rna) Neh. 7, 16. 

baa (w. n loc. hin^) ^&e^ Bo- 
byioH, pr. n. of the chief city of 
Babylonia Gen. 10, 10, also the king' 
dam of this name Is. 14, 4, which at 
the time of the Persian supremacy 
also meant Persia Neh. 13, 6. ^ — Ac- 
cording to Gen. 11, 9 the name appears 
to atand for h^^ from r. hh^ 2 and to 
mean confusion; akin to ^s'^^a, Syr. 

V n\n to mix, Arab. J^J? coi\j. n. 
to utommer, G. habbeln, E. babble, L. 
hdOms, ^ip^apo^ (see 1 Cor. 14, 11), 

all suggestive of confosed or unin- 
telligible speech. 

*baa Chald. (pL def. »:>na)Ba5y- 
loniati, gentilic from iaa Ezr. 4, 9. 

3S (only K'thibh) m. food Ez. 25, 
7 (cf. ^aYco); it should, however, beA^ 
(cf. :ianfi), imless the Q'ri ta &ao^^ is 
correct, as in all the ancient versions. 

"32 (fut. 153';, Ifta*^ Mai. 2, 10) 

1) to <?<wcr, whence laa clothing, 

2) fig. to conceal, hence to ac< covertly, 
to deceive (cf. i?^), to cAeof, abs. Job 
6, 16, or w. a Mai. 2, 14, rarely w. ",Q 
Jer. 3, 20, or ace. of the pers. whom 
one deceives or faithlessly forsakes, 
Ps. 73, 15; part, trn^h faithless ones, 
revoUers Is. 24, 16; -p^n li^ the wine 
(i. e. the drunkard) is treacherous 
Hab. 2, 5. Hence 

133 (w. suf. 'I'lsa, pi. fi'^'ija, c 

•^^ajj'nTOa only Ps. 45, 9, w.' suf. 
5pn4aa) m. but f. Lev. 6, 20, covering, 
clothing; hence 1) esp, outer-garment 
(Hke i*^5«) Gen. 39, 12, covering 1 K. 
1, 1, a cloth Num. 4, 6. 2) conceal- 
ment, treachery Jer. 12, 1; rapine 
Is. 24, 16. 

WtJlS f. pL treacheries Zeph. 8, 
4; perh. f. sing, like nlaan. 

1133 (w. the -;- firm) a4j. m^ 
only f. fiTiaa faithlm Jer. 8, 7. 

*^33 pr. n. m. (if not Persian Ba- 
7aToc Herod. 3, 138, perh. for •'la la, 
»»^ ft=»»ili a son of the people) Neh. 7, 19. 

^D33 on account of, see )hl. 

StOS pr. n. m. (Pers.) Est. 1, 10; 
i. q. Kt}3iaK which see. 

irOS, WroS pr. n. m. (Pers.) 
Est 2,* 21; 6,^ 2;' prob. i. q. KWa. 

13 I (w. suf. •'na, pi. D'^^a) m. 
separation, isolation (r. ^5 '0* hence 
I) a separated thing, part; pi. parts of 
the body, members, limbs Job 18,18; 

Digitized by 





•ina n:a part for part Ex. SO, 34, see 
under lab ; hn^Q ik^ 15a Job 17, 16 
into the seclusions or solitudes of the 
grave they (hopes) descend. 

tS n m. prop, thread, t/am, cord 
(r.TO n to 6in<i), a) coll. linen, white 
linen (cf. 'pa), na *>&JM t^Atfe linen 
breeches Ex. 28, 42; pi. fi-i-na absol. 
linen clothes Ez. 9, 2; P) branches, 
so called from binding and inter- 
weaving, hence only pi. D*»'na, 'a TV30S 
Ez. 17, 6 to put forth branches, rroa 
'a Ez. 19, 14 staff of branches; then 
poles, staves Ex. 25, 13,prob. as being 
made of branches; y) fig. nobles Hos. 
11, 6, bearers or supports of the state. 

^a in (only pL D-^^a) pratings Job 
11, 3; then praters, Uars la, 44, 25; 

r. Tiain. 

(S ii prop, to prate, hence to 
lie,'to invent 1 K. 12, 33; part. sing. 
Neh. 6, 8 taK-Tia (for fiij*ia) prating 
them; akin to M^a, nna IIL 

J jZl I akin' to la^j, tta, 3«a, 
Chald. »ta, to be cut off or severed^ 
to be forlorn, part. TTia, Hos. 8, 9 lonely,. 
— The primary syllable na, na, ta, yz, 
i» "T^?, i»^, nrja, bna, *ina, tta, 5^, 
*isa is prob. mimet. and suggestive of 
cutting, cleaving, then dividing, etc. 

I j3 n (obs.) perh. akin to 1fi« 
%d; nence 1§ n. 

I j3 m (obs.) akin to Wja, «oa, 
)-Xo7etv, to prate; hence ia IIL 
ja m. separation, loneliness (r. 
[), then adv. separately, alone 
, 10; also Tfai Ps. 4, 9. 

a pr. n. m. (part) Gen. 36, 35. 

^, see '^5. 

■^a pr. n. m. (perh. for JT^^a?) 

ja (pi. fi'^V'ta, r. i^a) m. name 

akin to bna, 
hence Niph. 

of a metal, by which a kind of tin 
is understood Num. 31, 22 (xadoi- 
Tepoc, Aram. K'J'^p&a); the pi. fi'^b'^na 
Is. 1, 25 signifies perh. the sorts or 
parts of tin-alloy, or the dross which 
had to be separated (r. i^^) from 
the pure metal. 

yrH (QaL obs.) 
Tia I, to separaie; 
i^5 to separate oneself, to live alone, 
w. ya Num. 16, 21; hence fig. to go 
away, generally, to be separated, shut 
Ota Ezr. 10, 8; w. ix, b to be sepa- 
rated to or on something 1 Ch. 23, 
13, hence to be selected Ezr. 10, 16. — 
Hiph. to sever Lev. 1, 17, to divide 
or part (cf. 'r'^'iBn), fig. to distinguish 
w. T^aJl— I'^a Gen. 1, 4, Lev. 10, 10, 
Ti^-y^^ Is. 59, 2, b-pa Gen. 1, 6; 
but in the sense of severing from 
w. )'Q Num. 8, 14, to shut out, w. 
tea Is. 56, 3; to separate to, w. V 
1 K. 8, 53; absol. Ez. 39, 14. 

?ia (c. ina) m. a part, only in 
')7k"b'ia Am. 3, 12 piece of an ear. 

ribna m. psox-x^v, psaxiov, 

bdellium, prop, sweet-smelling resin^ 
or the gum-drops of an Indian tree; 
hence, from the granular form, 
pearls, with the whiteness of which 
the grains of manna are compared 
Num. 11, 7, mentioned Gen. 2, 12 
along with the ruby (DSitp) and gold, 
as valuable products of India (hb'^'jn 
which the Targ. on 1 Ch. 1 , 23'ex- 
plains as «n;b5*ia nsijpda *nr« place 
of the production of pearls), " This 
word is prob. from r. V^a to eav 
tract or select as precious; the ending 
^-r- being diminutival or adjectival 
and akin to ^-r- in abpc, tJ-V" '^ 
•rjnSa, p-;- in pm^, and to -ax6c 
(cf. <p(fcpfjLaxov fixJm ^'ipiAOc); se^ 
more under letter h, p. 191. 

Digitized by 



y^ pr. n. m. (perh. "(^,3 Danitey 
hence in Targ. for Samson] better 
for ^^a? ss= li^O?) name of a judge 
in Israel 1 Sam. 12, 11. 

p j3 (obs.) akin to p*?a, 1) to 
break through , to make a breach; 
whence p^a. 2) as denom. to repair 
a hreaehj to rebuild 2 Ch. 34, 10. 

P33 (w. suf. •rjBHa Ez. 27, 9) m. 
a breach, a gap 2 K. 12, 6; hence 
denom. pna (only 2 Ch. 34, 10) to 
repair dilapidated buildings. 

*^2l pr, n. m. perh. for *^Pp|a 
fjL. e. slabber) 2 K. 9, 25. 

IjZl Chald. (1. q.Heb.'lTa,*lttt; 
Pa. ^^'to scatter Dan. 4, 11. 

nnS (obs.) perh. akin to bha to 
T T *^ 

be siient, sftiU; hence to be empty ^ 

waste; hence 

^rS (for nna) m. toastenesSy emp- 
tiness; akin to ^iMri and thrice used 
in assonance with it, Gen. 1, 2, Is. 
34, 11, Jer. 4, 23. 

UMiin (obs.)prob. akin to y^to 
ihinef gleam. Hence 

tSlS m. marble (used for pave- 
ments), perh. alabaster ^ only Est. 1, 6; 
Sept. (j;iapaY8{TTj«. 

Sj^rpl Chald. (c. wiTia) f. ea- 
gerness, haste Ezr. 4, 23; r. pna. 

^Tl^ a4j. sou dazzling Job 37, 21; 
r. -tTa. '^ 

^''Sna 2 Oh. 1, 4 for'j'^sma, i. e. 
f^ (see fSi) w. a and art. for relat. 
(see Gram. § 109, Bern. p. 245). 

^riu (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
r. ino"''l to Aa«fe. — Niph. l) to be 
alarmed^ to tremble Ps. 6, 8. 4. 
2) fig. to do something with alarm, 
hence to flee Judg. 20, 41, to hasten 

79 niana 

after something, w. i Prov. 28, 22; 
hence the secondary notion of sud- 
denness, to perish suddenly Ps. 104, 
29; part. f. Mbnaa as subst. sudden 
ruin Zeph. 1, 18. — Pi. ina, fut. 
ina*^ to make to fear, to alarm Ps. 
2, 5; fig. to cause to hasten Est. 2, 
9. — Pu. to be hastened Est. 8, 14, 
n^rtbo r^^nz property hastily gotten 
Prov. 20, 21. — Hipb. to hurry Est. 
6, 14; to frighten away 2 Ch. 26, 20. 



^V}^ Chald. (same as Heb. ina) 
not found' in Pe. — Ithpe. inf. as 
subst. rtnarti hastening^ speed Dan. 
2, 25. — Pa. to terrify Dan. 4, 2. — 
Ithpa. to be terrified Dan. 5, 9. 
nbna f. terror Lev. 26j 
sudden ruin Is. 65, 23 ; r. bna. 

UFl^ (obs.) to be dumb, mute, 
said of cattle, as devoid of articulate 
speech. Hence in later Heb. D^ is 
also used of beasts, as *^a^Q is of 
men. — • This root (in Ethiop. behm) 
is mimet. like dm, W^, fian, n^n, 
ftucD, E. dumb, hum, mum, L. mw-tus, 
Sans. m<i;tas, piudoc, W. mud, all 
being taken firom nature. Hence 

rrana (c. nana, as rh^ from 
rtfc<b, w* suf. 5|tni)ha, ^Jsnrirja, pU 
niana, c niana) f. prop, dumb beast, 
then cattle, as collect., esp. tame 
beasts Oren, 1, 24, hence used of 
sheep, goats and oxen; beast of 
burden Gen. 34, 23; poet, also of 
wild beasts • Hab. 2, 17; often w. 
y^Tj Is. 18, 6, JTTSri 1 Sam. 17, 44, 
•^Ti^ Ps. 8, 8, *^'Mic. 5, "7; naJlSl 
including both "jK^C and "i^a Gen. 
47, 18. 

W'OnSfprop. pl.ofnana)6e(wte; 
but prob. used as a plur. excel. 
(Gram. § 108, 2, b) constr. w. sing, 
masc, behemoth, hippopotamus, the 
Nile-horse, only Job 40, 15; but 

Digitized by 



most now say it is Heb. only by 
adoption and slight adaptation from 

the Egyptian or Copt. TT-FgB- 


MCDOyT p-ehe-mooiU (whence also 
came lititoic^xajjioc) meaning tJie 
ufoteT'OXfas the hippopotamus is called 
also in Italian bo-marino, 

lij^ (obs.) perh. to be pressed 
together f to he thick; perh. hence 

yrCL (pi. rviaina Judg. i, 6) f. the 
thunA (w. nj), but also the great toe 
(w. ^'I) Ex.^29, 20. 

"Jjli pr. n. m. (thumb) from whom 
the name of a place fSiia *)^K Josh. 15, 6. 

pn^ (obs.) to shine, then to he 
white; Aram. p^OK, ^^ousf . Hence 

pnS m. only Lev. 13, 39 a whitish, 
pale skin ' eruption L e. scurf or 
tetter; Sept. ak<f6^ (= L. albus), 

irj3 (obs.) i. q. Syr. >oLd to he 
bright, white; hence ^n'ti^. — This 
r. is akin to itup, irpi^6u>, Sans, prush 
(bum), L. fwr-nus, G. feuer, E. 
/Ire, bright, 

y^TSi Bz. 26, 15 for awa inf. 
Kiph. of a'Th w. prep. a. Perh. the 
-7- is owing to dagh. f. impL in 
the n (Ghram. § 27, Rem. 2, 6). 

r\*1!T3 f ., pL ri^a» trAtfe spots on 
the skin, Ley. 18, 2.89; r. ^9. 

!n53lDna Lev. 26, 43 for PW^na, 
Hoph. of &av w. suf. 3 f. and 
>. a (see Gram. § 58, 3, Bem. 1). 

SlZl (perf. fca, pi. ^xa, ^fca Jer. 
18, fut ftb;) 1) to enter w.'bx, b 
place Gen. 6, 18, or w. h-^ 

Gen. 12, 11, poet. w. ace. Ps. 

4 (cf.L. ingredi urbem), also w. 
>f the pers. Gen. 6, 20; often w. a 
^0 within, to penetrate Ez. 2, 2. 
>ccurs in various relations, as 


rrv^- (to) in v^ to go to a woman 
Gen. 19, 31 (of. L. voire spoken of 
sexual intercourse); to go in (spoken 
of a bride) Judg. 1, 14; to ^0 ouf and 
in Ka!| K:r 1 Sam. 29, 6 L e. to 
conduct oneself; w. ta^n *^3&b before 
the people i. e. to be their leader 
2 Oh. 1, 10, also as in Josh. 14, 
11; to enter (i e. to become a 
party) in a covenant n*»'Taa Ez. 16, 
8; to enter upon an office 1 Ch. 27, 1; 
to enter into days, i. e. to be far 
advanced in years G«n. 18, 11; to 
set (of the sun), prop, to ^0 in (oppos. 
K^J to come ou^\ to go to (bK) on^s 
forefathers, i. e. to die Gten. 15, 15 
(cf. Vf^y, to come in, spoken of pro- 
duce Lev. 25, 22, revenue 1 K. 10, 
14. But its first and oldest sense is 
to go, when the end to be arrived 
at is added and the goer is thought of 
as on the starting- point, e. g. M3K 
»a-^3fc< whither am I going? Gen. 37, 
30; fig. to live i. e. go about, w. n», 
D9 to associate with, 2) to come i. 
e. to arrive (oppos. ^jbsj), w. iK, b?, 
*!$, b or ace. of pers. or place (cf. 
nnK and Ip-jKpiKOLi, to go or to come), 
hence w. a to come ufith something, 
i, e. to bring Ps. 66, 13; fig. to bring 
forward, to mention, e, g. fcO^ 
nHnnja IwiU mention the mighty ads 
Ps. '71, 16 (cf. *i*»aTfc<) i. e. I will 
praise them; w. ^, ix to equal 
2 Sam. 23, 19; of things, to come to, 
to reach, w. *^^A to come before 
i. e. to be considered Gen. 6, 13, K? 
i? to come upon, to attack, of foes, 
also of poverty, which falls upon 
any one, in this sense poet. w. ace 
or^; to9urpme(see K2^); to arrive, 
to be fulfilled (wish or petition) Prov. 
18, 12. — These grammatical forms 
need to be noticed: 8 f. w. suf. soriKa, 
2 f. nK^ and tlMa, 8 pL ^Ka but 
Hfiia Jer.50, 5, 1 'pl.%3^ ^a; inf.KS, 

Digitized by 


V. cof. :k^ h^i^, in pause 9|fedB, 
fp, njljp; imp. Wa, MK^, ftit 

fio;, «an, r«bn, w. suf-^bti, ^jn^bn 
Job 22, 21. — Hipb. RW (ftot. fira;, 
apoo. fiO^) catisatiye of Qal in all its 
meanings, bence 1) to cause to come 
f fi, to brinff In L e. lead into Gten. 6, 
19, hence io place the hand in the 
hoBom Ex. 4, 6f to put into a grave 
2 Ch. 28, 27 ; <o lead in (the bride) into 
the honse Jndg. 12, 9. 2) to lead to w. 
i, i«, to bring, bring forward; to 
tfffer Gen. 4, 4; to Imng on (eyil 
or good) w. i?, b, btft; to let come, 
to fuifil promises, wishes Is. 87, 26. 
8) to bear, e. g. v>\o bean (trah) 
iU9 God in Ats ^kond Job 12, 6; to 
^am Pb. 90, 12; llg. w. H^Qf^ toi^ 
upwarda, to MftTg. 74, 5. — Mark 
tiiese mph. forms, K^^ T^KS)?, w. 

siitrir«ran»2pL&nfiran; parttra^ 
tad -ntt, inf. w. prep. VC^A (for 

rwb),' imp. •'an, aon, »ian,'ftot. i. 

sing. *n»$ — Hoph. pass, of ffiph., 
8 fern, rwan Gen. 33, 11. — Of. Sans. 
9d (go), ^€0, ^-vo, pddo<, L. va^. 

I1*U (obs.) akin to aaK, aa;, to 
Mfoio; hence Aram. a^SK /fute, Lat. 
mnimbaia (flate-player), the m being 
inserted for Bagh. f. as the n in the 
Arabic form ^-^l; cf. Syr. t • on n, 
S. jnjpe, pf«mp, W. i)f5, j)l&e0 (a 

3rQ'(obs.) perh. akin to Syr. 
]!!^ food, Sans. &Ai^' (eat), ^a^- ttv, 
ioeat^to feed; see ^, ^^. 

VQ (fat. wa;) akin to ma, wa, 
prop, to tread or trample, hence 1) to 
dapise, w. ace Prov. 1,7; bat oftener 
w. i, to sAotr contempt for somebody 
Prov. 11, 12. 2) fig. to treat with 
impwUti/, w. b Prov. 6, 30; hence 

nSl nu 1) contempt Job 12, 21, 


deHston Pioy.. 12, 8« 2)pr.n.m.Gem 
22, 21. 8) IV. n. of am Arabian family 
Jer. 25, 28 ; gentilic 'n^ Job 82, 2. 

tWBl t prop, contempt, fig. ob- 
jects of contempt, only Neh. 8, 86. 

^^ pr. n. m. (perh. Bozite) Ez. 

rWi^, seenbb. 

**%^ pr. n. m. Keh. 8, 18, perh. 
L q. •'aa Neh* 7, 16. 

?p!Zl prob. akin to ^, pan, Tjab, 
to tangle, hence to perplex; only 
Niph. Ifiaa to 5e perplexed Est 8, 15; 
part pi. &*iaap Ex. 14, 3 entangled. 
Hence Ma^aQ. 


(obs.) akin to ^a; I, ^^J H, 

Arab. J\{, J|{ flow, esp. urine, etc 
1) to spring up or issue forth, to flow; 
hence b^ia 1, ^^a^. 2) to produce, of 
branches, cf.i^a 8,ia, ian. — -Prop, 
mimet. akin to Sans. j>li«, pX6a>, ^Xucd, 
L. buRio, fluo, pluo, E. /Iot9, G. wal- 
len, buhlen. Hence 

b^ m. 1) a streaming, rain, hence 
probably the name ^ ItiJ 1 K. 
6, 88 ravfirmonth, the 8th Heb. month, 
from the November to the Decern^ 
ber new-moon. ^ here may perh. 
be for the idol ba«b$^ 2) produce, 
increase Job 40, 20, i. q. hH^aPk 3) 
bough, prop, what isproduced, hence 
^ bna Is. 44, 19 droneA o/^ a trse, 
i. e. a (2od(r or log of wood. 

U*ul (obs.) to be high, prop, ft) 
rise upwards, to tower; hence tvf^ — 
Prob. akin to pco}t6<, poov6<, <}aeL 
5en (hill), L. mons (mineo), Breton 
menes, man^, W. myn^ydh, ban^ 
pen (top), ponio (swell np), i>one (hil- 
lock), E. bank, bench, G. ftoifm. Pars. 
bam (top), (on (tree). 

'p!llor'p!ZL(28ing. ^,partpL 

Digitized by 





W^^ iobt and ftil. from "psi) prop, to 
sepmrate^ didingwM, hence to mark, 
then 1) L q. Arab. ^l{, to be clear, 
h^ce ^0 diacerf^ w, :f, ^ and ace.; 
to notice by the tenses, e. g. eyes, to 
$ee ProY. 7, 7; the ears, fo hear Job 
23, 5; the touch, to feel Ps. 58, 10. 
2) to attend, w. hti Ps. 28, 5, ^ Ps. 
73, 17, b$ Dan. 11, 30, a Dan.' 9, 2 
ir. ace. Ps. 5, 2. 3) to percewe, w. 
"^a 1 Sam. 3, 8; to know, w. aec. and 
h Ps. 130, 2 ^Wu Amotre8< my thought 
Vjb; fo Aarc in»ight Jer. 49, 7. — 
Uiph. -iiaj (I sing. '»tti?a3, part, yiaj) 
<o sAotr one8elfTcnowmg,inteUigent,Th^ 
*a^ knowing of speech, L e. eloquent 
I'sam. 16, 18. — Pil. laia (fut. 8. 
sing. w. suf. ^M^^'s*;) to consider w. 
attention Deut.'32, 10. — Hipb. l/W 
(2 pi. dnria^^arj, part. "pa«; fat. -paj 
apocpa;, in£ pan, w.8uf.T(3-»an,imp. 
^n) 1) to cause to understand, to 
teach w. 2 ace. (Oram. § 139, 1) or 
w. h of pers. and ace of thing Job 
6, 24; mostly however agreeitig 
with Qal, hence — 2) to perceive Is, 
28, 19, w. a fo take notice of Neh. 
'8, '12, to he skilled in Dan. 1, 17, 
hence y^'q knowing, wise, skilled 
Pjfov. 8, 9. — Out of the Hiphil form, 
by the rejection of the preformatiTe 
rr w. its pointing, as perh. in other 
verbs 'Ct, a new Qal Cps^) was perh. 
made, but w. the same meaning as 
the Hiph.; thus "^frira (for w'ran), 
inf. •j'^a Cpan), imp. fa, W'^a; perhaps 
.no verb ^"y can be taken as strictly 
radical — Hithpol. ^^iann, prop, fo 
make oneself attentive, hence to fix 
the attention w. bjc Is. 14, 16, i? Ps. 
87, 10, 1? Job 32,*12, a Jer. 30, 24 
or ace. Job 37, 14, in general, to 
mark or consider Jer. 2, 10, to com- 
prehend Job 26, 14, Ps. 119, 100. 

t^VSipr. n. m. (height) 1 Ch. 2, 25. 

**3^ pt. n. m. (perh. wi»e, Kfia^ 
Keh. 11, 15; a^ -laa In 9, 4. 

D13 (ftit. wa;, wro i. q. oaj, nj?, 
to tread, hence fig. 1) to tread to the 
ground, to trample on (enemies) Is. 
14, 25. 2) to despise e. g. food Prov. 
27, 7 ; part, d-n^'a for trp^ Zech« 10, 5. 

— Pil. tqiz (once Dlbia Am. 5, 11> 
to trample on, of the hostile invasien 
of the Holy Land Jer.l2yl0. — Hoph. 
part.b^^a down-trodden la, 14, 19.— 
Hithpol. part. fern, in Ez. 16, 6, 
^yon^ nwiana trodden down in thg 
blood, i. e. polluted and despised. — • 
W2 is a mimet. r. akin to T^, titl, 
Sans, pad (foot), £. jTod, path, foot, (K 
fuss, pfad, ndcToc^ irofi*6^ Ii» j^ed^ 
W. pedol (horse-shoe); all expressive 
of a treading sound or foot-£all; oL 
oar pit-pat. 

)/*£} (obs.) to bubble up, akin to 
55«, Kaj, Syr. ll^, »aj, roa, ct 
Chald. :f^ to bubble forth^ Ck>pt» 
6€BC to 5ot/ ufwHence ns^asafet 

l^m (obs.) to be whHe^ Mning. 

— Akin to Y^, ya;, crta. ChaW. 
yi^l^ )^5, 1^3^, O. Oer. biess, mod. 
(to. loetss, £. white. Hence W^9 and 

y^ m. pu(7tfoc» 5y88«i«, fine 
white doth, cotton or linen Es. 
27, 16 (cf. Luke 16, 19), so called for 
its whiteness (cf. TO, *^^Tt); r. yia. 

yS iS pr. n. of a rock (irtiiiting^ 
guttering, r. "pa) 1 Sam. 14, 4. 

pIZl (obs.) akin to ppa prob. 
to ;70ur out; henoe to moAre fimp(y, to 
desolate; hence 

•1]^^!ZI 1 emptiness, only Nalu 

*lp1IIl m.prop.adenom.fW>m"i|^a, 
hence a Aerdsman, but used in Am. 
7, 14 for rty^ shepherd. 

Digitized by 





PlZI (only inf. w. jprep. 1«a^) 1) 
i q. "JKa, to bore (L. forare), to dig; 
baace i^, io imestigate Ecc. 9, l. 
11) perlu <» protect; akin to Sans. t?ar 
(to defend), G. io«Aren, O. B. V)^c 
(defend), Zend, vera (rampart), Pars. 
bora (castle); hence perh. n'T'a. -*- 
•^tt is prob. akin also to ^tt, 'iJn, "115, 
•wa^ -i^; cf. ic<i><»xo;, iroo4«»Kelt. 
cds, Tintoc *■ I<. e^i». Hence 
^ia (w. n^r loc- »T*?a, pL riSa, 

r?ub Jer. 2, 13) m. \) pit 1 Sam. 
IS, a, hence dungeon Is. 24, 22, fally 
•ii»3 TO Jer. 87, 18; the grave e. g. 
■rfa-n? Prov. 28, 17 to the gnwe; 
TD-tyri*' descenders to the grave i. e. 
the dead Ps. 28, 1; "lia-iasx stones 
of Gte grave^ i. e. stone graves Is. 14, 
19; '^ia-'TST? the recesses of the 
^nipe,it8depthsls. 14, 15. 2) cistern, 
wU Gen. 37, 20. 8) pr. n. rn&h Sia 
(kettle-hollov) 2 Sam. 3, 26.' " 

WTZI (ea, rrra, nra, •vixa, Droa, 
«a7ia; ftit. iHa;;) Aram, nna, Jm^i (of. 
Ifc pudco) 1) i. q. -pa, prop, to turn 
white, to pale, e. g. the sun Is. 24, 23. 
2) perh. prop, to change cokmr, to 
tnmpak or to bluih (for shatine) Ezr. 
9,ft (some men txtrnpalei others tam- 
ing red, wh«n they feel ashamed; of. 
q^ yrn, Taim. T»a^n), mostly w. ip 

of the cause £s. 3d, 32. Fig. a) to 
U disappointed in hope Job 6, 20; 
io come to shame, to be deceived w. 
)0 Jer. 2, 36, hence »ia-T? 2 K. 2, 17 
fteii ta being ashamed i. e. till they 
felt embarrassed, p) of inanimate 
tlungs e. g. Hos. 18, 15 Aia fountain 
inB 6e ashaaned, i. e. dried up. — 
PfL M^ to (2e/6^, prop, to shame or 
<^ua|!PMiit expectation Ex. 32, 1 (cf. 

trra-tp). — Hiph. xcrm and xirqSn 
interebaaging forms w. ra^, fut. 
^^y 1) to im^ to «Aame, to deceive 

(expeCtethWi) '3?!!. 14, «; io'iisg^te 
Prov. 29, 15; 2) to ttcf deceptively, 
basely, hence part, tt^a «Aawe/M^ 
%oicked (opp. b'^abg) Prov. 10, tk •*- 
Hith. wiann to^ to oneself Bhame^ 
hence to 5e ashamed Gen. 2, 2S« 

WTZl (obs.) perh. L q. tJ*^ to he 
bad, — Pil. wwia perh. to bring evil 
on, perh. in b^-V? D»6ia Attk 5| 11, 
but see wa. — Hiph. I w^an to 
oc* 5arf/y Prov. 14, 35. — Hiph. ll 
m^ain to become bad or cotntpi^ 
to perish Joel 1, 12. 

fT^^ f. 9Aam6 Ps, 83, 48. 

DSDlDia Am. 5, 11 prob. fot 
Daooia inf. Pil. of Dna ; see tbtB. 

niS Chald. toi>a«» #*« ni^A*, to. 
^c (cf. Heb. 1^) Dan. 8, 19; prop, 
to house, the verb being denom. from 
n^a Aouse. 

7!H Zech. 4, 10 tor ta or rT!tt to 

T3 (w. suf. wa; r. na) m. spoil, 

plunder^ mostly w. i rr»tt Is. 42, 22, 
or b inj Jer. 17, 3. — Cf. G. tewte, E. 
5oo<;y, P. butin, It. bottino. 

CST3 (only in 8 Pi. pi. ^k;I|) ptil^ 
for ma, to tread do^on, to destroy, 
only in'ls. 18, 2 I'yiR tf^nj ^«Ta Itfl*^ 
ti^6 fond floods (perh. hosts of to^ 
tread doum; others better tafrefiibr 
9^a, Chald. 9!a, Syr. "^^ to eut up^ 

divide, referring to Ethiopia as divMed 
up by rivers. . 

nT3 (part nr?a; toLt, apo<J»«av) 
L q. 1^ to tread, hence to despise, -w, 
ace., b, b?; l-^j^a n*5 Est. 8, 6 and 
he scorned w. his eyes, L e. he forked 
disdain; '»*»D'nn mia Prov. 19, 18 de- 
spising his oum ways, i. e. living 
recklessly. — NIph. only part, rtna, 
pi. d-^taj, despised Is. 53, 3. — Hiph, 

Digitized by 


only inf. liiraii to make etmtemptible 
Bst. 1, 17. Hence 

ntS (c. n'trj) adj. m. despisedf only 
It. 4^ 7 ic&a-ma despised of soul, 
i. e. of every man. 

TVfS^ (r. tt^) t L q. I^prey or 6ooty 
Ezr. 9, 7, often w. "^yo or Vbi;^ Dan. 
11, 24. 

TT3 (pi. Wa, «TTa or wa Deut. 
B, 7, ftit. ta;, inf. ta, imp. pi. wa) 

1) L q. na to (2e8pi8e Zech. 4, 10. 

2) i. q. *na prop, to cut offj hence to 
plunder or spoil, to rob (same in Aram, 
and Arab.) w. ace. of the pers. or 
place which is plmidered, Ocen. 84, 
29. — Nipb. tbj (pi. whj, inf. tin, 
fat Ta^) to &e |)/un(2er^ Am. 8, 11. 
— Pa. to be robbed Jer. 60, 37. 

li^^ja (r. nta) m. contompf Est. 1, 18. 

il|*t^1'^3 (perh. for rvj n*»a place 
of olives; ni'^t, n'n being perh. only 
another form of HJT «= Pi^J) pr. n. of 
a district in the south of Jndah, 
Josh. 15, 28. 

xJ2 (obs.) perh. to be hard, firm^ 
ef, PaaaX-tT)^ tro9i-mar5fe, of which 
Pliny says, qnem vocant basalten, 
ferrei coloris atque dnritiei, unde et 
nomen. — Hence perh. bna, the "^ 
being inserted as in W^S for D)sa. 




(obs.) L q. p-^a (T = ^) to 
dreoAr forth (of light), to 6c bright 

pT3 m. i. q. p*J5 briffhtnessj light' 
ning, only Ez. 1, 14j r. pT^ 

PJ^ pr. n. (lightning) of a city 
not far fh>m Scythopolis 1 Sam. 11,8, 
8ept. BeC^x. 

iT3 (ftit. ^ita^) to scatter Dan. 
11, 24. — Pi. to disperse or rou^ Ps. 
68, 31.— Akin to 'ITB, Aram. 7}a, J^ 
to scatter. 

MnT^ pr. n. (Pers. emasculated) 
a Persian eunuch Est. 1, 10. 

"pn!^ m. i. q. ina a trier of metals» 
assat/er Jer. 6, 27 (on the form see 
Gram. § 84, 3); r. -pa. 

ipnSl (w. Dagh. impL) m. watck* 
tower, only in Is. 23, 13 Q'ri; iw 


^Via (for ^na w. Dagh. impl^ 
hence pL D'n^na, c ^yti^; r. "Via II) 
m. prop, ripenecl or mature, hence 
a ^oufA'Buth 3, 10, arrived at man's 
estate, but unmarried, and liable to 
military service, hence often for 
f/otmg warriors Is. 9, 16. 

ni*lVTa f. pL i. q. fi^i^ina time of 
f/outh, youth Ecc 11, 9. 

D'^'J^na m. pL young days^ youik. 
Num. 11, 28 I'^p from hi$ yomtk; 
r. in^ n. 

yn^ (for 1^115) only in K'thXbli 
of Is. 28, 13. 

yf}^ (c. *i"«ria) adj. m. choeen^ 
subst. choice one, rnrrj *r»na e. g. 
Moses Ps. 106, 23, pious men Is. 65, 
9, the Messiah Is. 42, 1; r. IQa L 

xnl-Zl prob. akin to i?a 2, 8yn 
^•^n loathing (Mod. Syr. %.^ 
to envy), to loathejto abhor, iir. a Zeoh. 
11, 8. — Pu. only part, nitja^ (in the 
K'thibh, nWma QVi) Prov. 20,21 r*n) 
nbnh^ on tn^mtonce atvied or 

jn3 (flit ina:') L q. *in^ I, 1) 
to try 0>y heat), prop. perh. to tiuiiss 
to ^tow, to melt (like Cj'ts), to jwir^ 
(through fire) e. g. Job 23, 10 he puri* 
fies me (from dross), I came forth 
as gold, 2) fig. to test or proiK e. g. 
the heart Ps. 7, 10, God J|[aL 3, 10« 
3) fig. to t&o^cA, prop, to i^ wesHgate; 
hence "pn? u^oto^toi^er. ^ • Niph. to 

Digitized by 




^ 85 

be tried Job 84, 86. — Pa. only Bz. 
21, 18 TTja it is tested. 

ins, m. prying-place, watch-tower 
Is. 32, 14. 

■pS m. trial^proof, Wa 155 Is. 28, 
16 itone of proof i, e. a tried foun- 
dation-stone; prob, hence paaavo^ 

*in!3l I (fat. "1>tj:») 1. q. in^J, 1) 
prop, lo^glowj to maJee hot, to melt 
e. g. metal by beat, hence fig. to try, 

furnace of affliction Is. 48, 10; ct 
Note. 2) to examine, hence 2 Ch. 84, 
6 K'thibh BTpna "iH^ A« searched 
their (the idolaters') Aot«e8. .3) <0 
qiprove (after trial), to cAoo«e, w. ace. 
Job 9, 14, a Dent. 16, 7, i§ Job 36, 
21; ft "in^ to choose for oneself Gen. 
13, 11; w. Tp to j)re/er Ps. 84, 11; 
part. *iVTa (pi. c. ^ym) picked, chosen 
Judg. 2o] 15. 4) to cfe^W in (cf. 
L. dUigere, delectari) w. aoc. Gen. 
6, 2, ^ Is. 14, 1, h 1 Sam. 20, 80, 
and V? 2 Sam. 19, 89 (cf. no 3 w. 
fe). — NIph. VD3 to be chosen, w. 
ia to he preferred Jer. 8, 3 ; part nrjas 
c^oten, w. -jOcAcncerf^n Prov. 22, 1, 
vr, h of the person, to fee pleasant to 
iom'e one Prov. 21, 8. — Pu. only 
in Eoe. 9, 4 K'thibh^m'; to be selected. 

K o te. 1p^ «nd '^ ftTe the same (the 
litalds r and n being often interchanged) 
and may be traced to the ultimate or 
monosyllabio root ^n "^ "TT, perh. akin 
*« '^f "^ «o >•«**» a"5^ «o jparcA, x«lu), 
»;]l64o, xdp9<o, L. ardeo, ealeo, cand€o, 
tarhOf O. 9iaA««, koAltf, E. ^low, codl, 
tkar, W. fftoTM (heat), glo (coal). 

"ins n (obg.) prob. i. q. /laa, 
(Hiald* naa, to 6eripe,ma<tirc; hence 
"ttrojaa -wta a youth. 

ffnrQ pr. n. (perh. hot places, 
r. 1155 i) of a town in Benjamin, 
beyond the monnt of Olives 2 Sam. 

8, 16; gentiL 'tasj'ina 1 Oh. 11, 83, 
once ''an^ia 2 Sam, 28, 81, 

J^tDlH, niDlH mimetic and 
akin to fcCja, tn^ m, patTO-XoYeiv,!*, 
blatero, G. plaudern, to prate^ to 
babble; hence PI. Moa to toOri^yor 
ra«% Lev. 5, 4. Henoe Koar and 

•TO21 (only noia Prov. 12, 18) 
m. prob. idle taiki prating, opp. to 

n'DlZl I (fat. n^'i) perh. akin 
to nriB, nne to 5c open^ hence 1) fig. 
to confideyyr. a Ps. 28, 7, b§ 2 K. 
18, 20, ix Ps. 4, 6, w. h Jer. 7, 4, 
part, nsioa trusting (see Gram. § 50, 
3, Bern. 2), w. ^ Is. 26, 3. 2) to /eeZ 
confident, to be secure (cf. "rpso) e. g. 
Prov. 11, 15 he who hates suretyship 
no'a lives securely; hence to 6c tm- 
conccmcd, in a good sense Is. 12, 2, 
and a bad sense Prov. 14, 16. — 
Hiph. n^^ipan (fat. apoc. noa?) to f»a*c 
»cct«rc Ps. 22, 10; to inspire with 
confidence, w. ifc< Is. 36, 15, b? Jer. 28, 
16. — Perh. akin to Sans, pat 
(expand), ireTao), L.jpo^co, pando; of. 
our openness in the sense of confidence. 

nOm n (obs.) perh. to &6 
bulging, thick; hence perh. rrn»a» 

TTOa (r. noa I) m. l) confidence^ 
security Is. 32' 17; TOai as adv. 
securely (for which also hoa stands 
Mic. 2, 8), especially w. a®J Lev. 
25, 18, I?:? Deut. 33, 12. 2) pr. n. of 
a Syrian city 2 Sam. 8, 8, for which 
in 1 Ch. 18, 8 we find nnao (perh. 

nnpSl f. «rws<, security Is. 80, 15 j 
r. no? i. 

•jiTTOSl m. strong confidence Is. 
86, 4; hope Ecc. 9, 4; r. no? I, 

Digitized by 


t tVfmE)& f . pL lit confidences, then 
tranqui&fy Job 12, 6; r. n^ L 

yi2mi prob. akin to Vts, ^a, 
to ««;«r, hence to leave of e. g. work, 
to rut or cease, only Ecc 12, 8. 

^tDm Chald. i. q. H^b. ioa. — 
iPa. ^a (pi. )i!)ija, inf. kVus) prop, to 
'Separate, to hinder Ezr, 4, 21. 

|LJm1 (obs.) perh. akin to in^ 
to stretch out; hence to distend (ct 
^a), to expand either in length or in 
•^eadth. Hence 

]0a (w. snf. ''ioa) £: 1) prop, helfy 
(from expansion) Prov. 13, 25, often 
womb (generally w. OS) e. g. Ps. 22, 11 
•njftfi l^jaa /rom the womb of my 
-fwoiAer;''';oa '^^la Gen. 30, 2 /rui< of 
pie unmb, children; in Job 8, 10 
•^DO^ (for •»»« l^a) wy (i. e. my 
mother^s) toomb, cf. Job 10, 17. 2) fig. 
iAe tnnermo^f part, the heart e. g. 
Prov, 18, 8 l^a '»'^'Tn chambers of the 
heart; i^K® i^a Jon. 2, 3 (^c 6e% 
(Sept xoikia, Vulg. ven^) o/* <^ 
^ave (Sheol); cf. a^]j. 3) a term in 
architecture, a beUy, on the pillars, a 
kind of protuberance 1 K. 7, 20. 4) 
,pr, n. (perh. paunch) of a city in the 
tribe of Asher Josh. 19, 25. — Cf. 
W. |M><en, E. pudding, paunch, G. 
hauch, all expressing the ideaof bul- 
'|;ing or protuberance. 

n303 (only pi. fi'^awa) m. pistacia- 
fiwt Gen. 43, 11, so called Arom the 
bellied shape; r. 1^ 

D**^Sl pr. n. (prob. pistacias) of 
a city in the tribe of Gad, Josh. 
13, 26. 

**Si particle of entreaty (from y^ 
petition, r. rwa; cf. ba for ira), 
prayi always united w. "^aS^ e. g. 

66 nj^ 

(Jen. 48, «0 -^aSDI ^a priQf (Sept 
de6}Jie6a) my liDnl i. e. by my lord's 
leave; cl Aram. Va:^ Syr. 

I^a, see rva. 

I^IZl, see fia (0 discriminate. 

]% (c.fromTja;r.'pa)l)i 
tion, interval, dual D'^'^a the space 
between two hosts (xa fxeTaC^fLia); 
1 Sam. 17, 23 D^^ah HTM t^ man 
between the two hosts (Sept 6 dv^p 6 
)iejatO() i. e. the champion, Goliath. 
2) prep. (pi. nSy^a, c. ■»5'»a), w. sut ■«3^ 
TjJ'ia (in p. Tg-^a), ia-*!; also in pL r^^^ 

nj-o^a, fia'^ri; ^r?; and pL t nira, 
na^Inira,'' Dnia'^a) between, among 
(if the limits are included) e. g. 
^■•n^rpa, awn-pa amon^ 6rett- 
ren, between the eyes, L e. on the 
forehead. For between — and we 
find the idioms 'pa^— "pa Gen. 1, 7, 
b — 'j-'a Gen. 1, 6, -pab — •j'^a Is, 
59, 2, b^ — "p? Jo^ 2^ 17 J hence 
the verbs which express separation 

(b-wi. nban, tej inj, -its, -rp-irn, 
ri;, M», njtf, fan, nsn) mostly 

take this prep, in one of these pleo- 
nastic ways ; sometimes this pleonasm 
means whetlier — or (L. sive — swe) 
e. g. Lev. 27, 12, 2 Ch. 14, 10. 
The pi. forms ni3*»a, '<3'»a are used 
esp. w. pi. suffixes. — Compounds: 
nira-bfct, I'^a-bx, inbetween; "p?"^? 
up bettoeen Ez. 19, 11; "pa*? frofn 
between, hence Gen. 49, 10 D'^bsn fa's 
prop, /row between his feet i. e. from 
his begetting; pleon. •|'»a«— 7»a^ Ei. 
47, 18 out from between; h nna*^?? 
from among Ez. 10, 2 (cf, b bw> 
b rrop); i-^aa is. 44, 4 in between, 

I^Sl Chald. same as Heb. bettoeen, 
Dan. 7, 5. 

nS^ln f. dise^erttmen^ i^nefersfdM/t- 
ing is. 33, 19; nra r?; (« laiarti) 

Digitized by 




et pmsst imiffkt t*w/^ a$ to ihe 

imm 1 Ob. 12, da, d trm '^ 
£8tl, IS. 

nj^ for W'^a Chald. L q. Heb. 
MndenUmding Dan. 2, 21. 

ITI^ (only pL d^a) f. c^^, ao 
caBed for ite whiteness (r. ^2i), D^2p§ 
rlw forsaken eggs Is. 10, 14. 

ipniij^^'Si ps. 45, 10 for ?rn''"i;??a 

fir. T5J t JT^ (Gram. § 20, 2^h)! 

^^ m. K?eff, only Jer. 6, 7 Q'ri 
for the K'thibh nna. 

nra (Ute Heb.) f. 1) ca«ffe, ci- 
iadelj palace; often in the phrase 
rrnai ^tiw^ as in Neh. 1, 1, but in 
Neh. 2, 8 the fortress of the temple 
it prob. meant, called also Bapi< 
sod Antonia. 2) a chief citg, e. g. 
Sbusban Est. 9, 6. — rTT»a may 
well be Semitic (= tvn^ strong, 
hence strong -hold); bat perh. it is 
aldn to Sans, pura (fort), Pers. ham 
(sastle), poipic, pupaa (citadel of 
Carthage), icupYO^ Syr. |V|in. 

rn^a Chald. (def. SWrfa) '• 
/br(rM», citadel, spoken of tha chief 
city Eebatana £kar. e, 2. 

rrt'TSl (oidy*'"5"yia)f.i)afaccs, 
ras<2cs 2 Ch. 17. 12 ; formed from trr^ 
and the fern. a^. ending t^*^3-;-* 

n*;!^ (w. n-^ loc. nn-ja, c r^?h ^. 
n-;- loc. nn'^^ w. suf. in-^a, ?jn^5, pL 
B^ bdttim perh. for D'Toa, sing, roa, 
or bdttim, c. TO, Gram. § 96) m. 
1) prop, any building (r. iij^ as $6(jlo< 
firom $e|ici>) or eot;er< (r. Kia to enter), 
besce himse, tent, hut, castle, palace, 
tanple; for all these regarded as 
stractnrea or things entered into 
were each called a Aouftf. Fig.h^ar)^ 
Oen. 15, 8, n'^a-T»b'; Gen. 17, 12, 
a home 'bom slave (Ii. Tema); 
tt ^iv q Bcc 1 2, 5, house of eternity, 

L e« grave, n^} in later Heb. stood 
for a part of a house or palace, as 
Est. 7, 8 y^yj rejtdt} tr% wine-drinking 
chamber i. e. banqneting-hall; tt^a 
D^}r? Est. 2, 8 the harem. 2) jp2tiee 
in the widest sense: a) place of 
tarrying, for men, beasts, the dead; 
hence for nether -world Job 17, 13, 
haunt Job 29, 6, nest Ps. 84, 4, cob- 
web Job 8, 14; P) place where a 
thing is found or kept; hence re- 
ceptacle, box, ease, xtm^ nna Is. 3, 20 
scent -cases, smelUng - bottles ; tm^ 
D*mab£z. 87, 14 places forjhe bars; 
ynt D^P«9 n-'aa 1 K. I8, 32 about the 
space of 2 seahs of seed; cn»x tr«a 
Job 8, 17 stony spot; nS'nap-rv'a Neh. 
2, 8 grave-yard; rviaro n'^a Pror. 
8, 2 place of streets L e. where th^ 
meet; 7) in general the inside, what 
is within (opp. to yvi) esp. so in the 
adverbial use e. g. txtvvL towards the 
inside; Jth-jm, n-^a? on the inside, 
within; h n*>a, b n-^ao, n"«aa^, tritWn 
something; h n*^ao ^ fa within 
something. 3) house in figarative 
sense, or what in our mind belongs 
to a house, as wife, children, people, 
servants, who, taken together, make 
a family, rbce, people, hence for 
all these, e. g. hovise (people) of 
Israel; house (tribe) of Levi; house 
(family) of David; aK rr»a father's 
house, ancestral fa$nify, sub -division 
of a tribe (diff. WJ^D^); pi. rrtafcf rt^ 
ancestral houses (Gram. § 108, 3, c), 
in which case however T^^ is often 
left out, If xath, *iifii, H-^tW (chieftain) 
precedes. Barely tv^a appetffs to 
mean goods or property Gen. 15, 2. 
4) IVia stands in the names of many 
cities and places, as 'pKTria (idol* 
house)'a city in the tribe of Benjamin 
Josh. 7, 2; b6rn^a(Gk>d's-house, now 
Beitln) Gen. 85, 1, vb Josh. 18, 13; 
gentiL "^bKH ma the BethdUe 1 K.. 

Digitized by 





16, 34; iaxn-rv»a (dde-houae) n^ty 
in Samaria Hie. 1, 11; bKarfern*«a 
(6K>d'8 covert -bonse) Hos. 10, 14, 
Arbelain Galilee 1 Mace. 9, 2; n*fa 
Yiam b^a Josh, is, ITclty inBeuben; 
^•ya n^^a l Ch. 4, 31 city in the 
tribe of Simeon; rna tT>a Judg. 
7, ^4 (for h'^as 'a passage-house, of. 
BTjOa^apol John 1, 28) city on the 
Jordan; *rjj ma (waU-house) 1 Ch. 
2, 51 city in the tribe of Judah; 
b|ba ma (place of rolling off) Neh. 
12, 29 city between Jericho and the 
Jordan; Vm^ ma (camel-hoose) Jer. 
48, 23 city in Moab; D^inban ma 
Jer. 48, 22 (place of 2 fig-cakes) city 
in Moab; pa'n ma (Dagon's temple) 
city in the tribes of Jndah Josh. 
15, 41 and Asher Josh. 19, 27; 
r¥h3*fV^ ma (place of i^astes) Num. 
38, 49 city in the tribe of Beuben; 
•TJJOPrt ma (place of binding) 2 K. 
10, 12 city not far from Samaria; 
n^yn ma (summit -house) Josh. 13, 
27 city in the tribe of Oad (Livias), 
called also )yj ma (mountain-house) 
Nnm. 32, 36 ; rbyn 'a (partridge-house) 
Josh. 15, 6 a Beigaminite city ; ma 
IgtJ (grace-house) 1 K. 4, 9 city in 
the tribe of Judah or Dan; yinn 'a 
(hollow-place) name of two cities in 
Hie tribe of Ephraim Josh. 16, 8, 5; 
'US 'a (pasture-place) 1 Sam. 7, 11 a 
Philistine spot in the tribe of Judah; 
D'W 'a (the Tin^ard-house) Jer. 
6, 1 city in the trihe of Judah; 
n\lK^h 'a (place of lionesses) city in 
the tribe of Simeon Josh. 19, 6; 
tart ma (bread-house) Bethlehem 
Buth 1, 1 city in the tribe of Judah 
now Beit Lahm, gentilic adj. ma 
will 1 Sam. 16, 1 Bethlehemite; 
n^^b 'a (place for a gazelle) Mic. 
1, 10 city in the tribe of Benjamin; 
trf^ 'a (garrison-place) Judg. 9, 20 
name of a castle in Shechem; 

■fm 'a (place of abiding) J«r. 48, 
28 city in Moab; na9Q 'a (perh. 
dingle-house) 2 Sam. 20, 14 oky at 
the foot of Hermon; rria^rjQ 'a 
(chariots'-house) Josh. 19, 5 city in 
the tribe of Simeon ; ^^3 ' a (leopard- 
house) Num. 32, 36 city in Moab; 
1*19 ^ a (pleasure-house) Am. 1, S 
a royal city of Syria; nj^t? 'a 
(perh. strong-as-death place) Neh. 
7, 28 city in the tribe of Jodah; 
paj 'a (valley-house) Josh. 19, 27 
city in the tribe of Asher; t\W^ ^S 
(perh. echo -house) Josh. 15, 59 
in the tribe of Judah; T^ 'a 
(echo-house) in the tribe of Naph* 
taU Josh. 19, 38; DWn T^ 'a 
(shepherds' binding -house) 2 K. 10^ 
12, V. 14 ^ 'a; txyys 'a (desert- 
house) Josh. 15, 6 a border-town 
between Judah and Benjamin^ 
O^n ^a (escape-house) Josh. 15, 27 
in the south of Judah; *yv^ '^ 
(Peor - house) Deut. 3, 29 city 
in Moab; yJXR 'a (scatter - house) 
Josh. 19, 21 place in Issachar; 
•«:£ 'a (rock-house) Josh. 15, 58 city 
of Judah; Sirfi^ (street-house) Judg; 
18, 28 city of Asher; M^ ^a (house 
of the giant) 1 Ch. 4^ 12; ^^tsj 'a 
(quiet-house) Josh. 17, 11 also l^'a 
1 Sam. 31, 10, *pu 'a 2 Sam. 21, 12 
city in the tribe of Manasseh, later 
Sxu66itoXi(;, now Beiadn; nus '^ 
(acacia-house) Judg. 7, 22 city on 
the Jordan; VO^XO 'a (sun-house) 
Josh. 21, 16 a city in Judah, gentiL 
'wm 'a 1 Sam. 6, 14; rnon 'a 
(apple-tree-house) Josh. 15, 53 in the 
tribe of Judah. '— Perh. n^a comes 
from r^a to lodge^ but more prob. 
from hja to build (so Gesenius) or 
Kia to enter (so Dietrich), rAa being 
really a denominatiye verb derived 
from it, as G. hausen from Sous. 
Possibly ma may be akin to Ger* 

Digitized by 




bm$, bude^ £. bye, booth, Polish buda, 
Gaelic both, W. bwth. 

ti]jl Chald. (c. n-^a, def. WJ-a, 
nn*;?^ w. mf. Rn^^a, pi. ^W) m. i. q. 
Heb. house Dan. 2, 5; KJtja n'^a 
treamre-house Ezr. 5, 17, Kjnipo m^ 
house of the records, the archives 
Ezr. 6, 1. 

'pn'a (c. '|n'»a) m. palace Est. 1, 
5, akin to n'ja. 

CU3 (obs.) » naa, to drop or 
tftcHe, ^0 flow scantily; hence 

H3^ (pi. 0*^73) m. prop, tridc- 
Unff, weeping, hence pr. n. of a tree 
similar to the baisam-shrub (prop. 
dripper or weeper i. e. of gum or 
lesin) 2 Sam. 5, 23; Ksan pis^ pr. 
a. of a valley Pa. 84, 7, where perh. 
the balsam-tree grew, with a play 
on hsa weeping, or where perh. 

they had scanty supply of water. 

nD3 (fnt,n3a'^,apoc. Jpj:?)prop. 
io flow in drops, hence to weep Gen. 
48, 30; to weep at or for, w. ace. 
Gen. 23, 2, w. b? Lam. 1, 16, b^ 
Sz. 27, 31, b Jer. 22, 10, but w. b? 
also to weep against or before Num. 
11, 13, i«pon Gen. 50, 1; partf. rrj?ia 
Lam. 1, 16. — Pi. w. aco. to beweep, 
to bewail Jer. 31, 16. — iba in Mic 
1, 10 perh. for wa tn Aecho; else 
hit abs. Qal of haa. 

rDSl m. weeping Ezr. 10, 1; r. 

ttoS (pi. ni'^ba mostly of beasts 
but tr»*fea of men ; r. *i?a) m. prob. 
opening i. e. of the matrix (see Ex. 
13, 12), henoe first offspring (whether 
of men or of beasts) Neb. 10, 37, then 
ihe first-born, firstling Gen. 26, 13, 
the eldest son on the father's side 
Gen. 49, 8; also fig. foremost or chief 

(since the first-born son had many 
privileges, cf. JTiiaa), e. g. Job 18, IS 
nja *Tiaa chief one of death, i. e. a 
most deadly disease; D*^Vi *^^iy^ the 
first-born of the poor i. e. the very 
poorest Is. 14, 30. Hence perh. denom. 
Pi. ^$a io make a "liaa i. e. to give 
one the birth-right or the flrst-bom*« 
share Deut. 21, 16, but see *ia^ 

*)^33 (r. ^laa) sing, only in Is. 
28, 4 (in some texts), else only pi. 
D-'Tiaa, 0*^*130 m. first-fruits, *fym 
D*»a35 first-ripe grapes, early grapes 
Num. 13, 20; D'^^iasTi DMb bread of 
the first-ripe grain Lev. 23, 20; d'h 
D'nsiaan dc^ of the first-fruits Num. 
13, 26, else the feast of weeks EXr 
34, 22; later irevTY]X0(7TiQ 2 Mace 
12, 32 (cf. Acts. 2, 1 the Pentecost) 
because falling 60 days after the 

rnisa, rnba (r. -laa) f. d 

first offspring (pi. ni^iba) Gen. 4, 4. 
2) seniority Gen. 43, 33, birth-right 
Gen. 25, 31; mb:^ OBi6p the right 
of primogeniture Deut. 21, 17. 

n^^S, 1. q. n'T^aa, only in Jer. 
24, 2 ni*i!iaan ''DKn^s of the first-ripe 
ones 1. e. the best figs; r. **)3a. 

JT^telZl f. early-fig Mic. 7, 1 ; probu 
also in Is. 28, 4, where in^aa stands 
in some texts. The Moors call it 
becfwre and the Spaniards albacdra, 

l^'liDS pr.n. m. (first-birth) 1 Sam. 

MD3 f. weeping, only (Jen. 85, 8j 

^'D'SL (in pause ''aa, w. sut ''^aa; 
r. haa) m. prop, trickling, hence 1) 
dripping of water in a mine Job 28, 1 1 
(cf. Saxpuov and M^*?). 2) weeping 
e. g. 2 Sam. 13, 36 bl^j "^aa hai; to 
weep a great weeping i. e. make • 
very great mooming. 

Digitized by 



CSS pr. n. (Weepers) of a place 
Jud^. 2, 1. 

nTlDS (from 'I'^aa for nisa) a^j. 
t first bom or eldest (dAxightAT) Gen« 
19, 81, opp. tt'j'^ youngest. 

n^Sm f. i. q. maa toeepit^, only 
0en. 50, 4. 

lJi!3 (Qal obs.) akin to ^^tio 
break, to bttrst open (e. g. the matrix 
or shell), hence to ripen, to mature 
(ct L. maturus from mater), to 
be early, fresh or young. — Pi. 1) 
^0 hear early fruU, e. g. £z. 47, 12 

fii^nf A«, its monthly crops soon ripen. 
2) to treat one oa a first-bom, i. e, 
to give him the birthright Dent. 
21, 16, cf. ^iba. — Pu. to be treated 
as firstling Lev. 27, 26 i. e. to be de- 
voted to God. — Hipb. to bear a 
first child Jer. 4, 31. — Pu. and 
Hiph. may be denom. from *niaa. 

camel Jm. 60 6, ef. baj for any camel. 

*0S pr. n. m. (perh. firstling), 
gentil'*'»*jaa Nam. 26, 35. 

iTjSI? (from 'laa) f. yowng she- 
camel, only Jer. 2, 23. 

rriba, see n-jlaa. 

VTi3 pr. n. m. (prob. for tWl^a 
youth) 1 Ch. 8, 88. 

"npS pr. n. m. (adj. from *iaa, 
youthiftil) 2 8am, 20, 1. 

?S I (also ba in compounds) m. 
prop. L q. ''^a (r. nba) noMifii^ Ps. 
17, 8; hence adv. not (only poet* for 
vb), before verbs in the perf. Ps. 10, 
11, but chiefly in the fut. Ps. 10, 4; 
then it may mean (like bK) that 
not, lest Ps. 10, 18; rarely not yet 
i, e. scarcely Is. 40, 24. The following 

90 nba. 

f T 

forms also appear "^^a, "^^a, ■^"Vs, 

•':?r-^a. » " ' 

b3 n perh. for tea but prob. *)r 
ba, only in "T?^^ (which see). 

vS Chald. m. heart Dan. 6, 15, 
prop, purpose, resolve; Syr. Ua. — 
Prob. akin to l^a or }/>^ to discern 
or iudg^; perh. to Sans, vol (to 
choose), L. volo, ^ouXi^, Qi.woUen,^ 
will, W. ewyUys. 

b!^ (akin to tea « b2^ peili. t>eget- 
ter, a male, r. ha) m. Bel, BeUts, Is. 
46, 1, the Babylonian god (answering 
to the planet Jupiter, hence Jupitur 
Belus, with the Sabeans S«iifi the 
planet Jupiter); see *«a^, 11, 

fcS^S Chald. (i. q. Heb. nte), only 
in Pa. fit. K^a*; Dan. 7, 26 to vex 
or hurt, in Targum for 3>^. 

jTKipa pr. n. m. (prob. strong-will 
or stout-hearted, from b^ and fix) 
father of king Merodach-baladan Is. 
39, 1. 

n^lSHba Dan. 7, 1 for na«ci?. 

3^3 (obs.) akin to pte and p^ 
to break forth, as water or as light; 
hence Hlph.rian, fut. a'»te?, part. 
a'^teg, 1) to cause to break forth, to 
spread abroad, e. g. *W devastation 

w. ^5 ®^ *^® P®"* •^°** ^» ^» 2) to 
tnoA^ bright, to cheer up, i. e. put 
on a bright face Ps. 39, 14, Job 9, 27. 

n^!^!^ pr. n. m. (perh. brightness) 
Neh.^12, 5; r. Aa. 

"'Sl^Sl pr. n. m. (perh. bright) Neh. 
10, 9;*r. ate. 

Tlba pr. n. m. (perh. for Tii -ja 
son of strife) Job 2, 11. 


n Vi (futnte'])akin toisK, baj, 
1) to /"otf otoay, to fail, to be worn out. 

Digitized by 




of <flotiie8 (perh. aldn to iroXati^), 
w. ^99 from %iipfm i. e. from off 
the back Beat. 8, 4; fig. of the 
wearing out weA falling to rain of 
the heavens and the earth It. SO, 9, 
like nsed np clothes. 2) to faU off^ to 
^sademoatyy as the body through age 
Gem. 16, 13, troubles or illness Job 
13, 28. — PL to cause to wcaU away 
Jjum.Sf 4; to bring to an end, to spend, 
Job 21, 13 DiT^Q*; niaa ^bs*; they pass 
ihdr days in good fortune; fig. to 
kmrass (a people), oi^y in 1 Ch. 17, 9 
^iri^, where iri&s^ is perh. to be read. 
fPSl Jo8h.l9,8, 8eenV:P2)andrirte. 
^tfy^ a^j.m., H^a f., worn out, of 
clothes Josh. 9, 4| of nature Ez. 
28, 48; r. nba. 


m^^ i. q. i»Ta Job 24, 17 to he 
HwM; only in Pi. t^ (K'thibh of 
llzr, 4, 4) to terrify, to scare. Henoe 

jntl^S (sing, only in Is. 17, 14, 
I*, rvin^a, c. nnnb?; r. f^^) t L q. 
n^a, terror, sudden ruin, rrinba 
t\y^ Job 24, 17 terrors of death- 
shade; Job 18, 14. n*ih^a ^^ Icing 
of terrors; Ps. 73, 10 nihi^-p sisan 
tJb^ peris/k from sudden terrors, 

JTjbS 1) pr. n. f. (perh. ti;nid) 
of the mother of the tribes of Dan 
mod Kaphtali Gen. 30, 3. 2) a district 
in Bimeon 1 Ch. 4, 29, also h^a 
Josh. 15, 29 and nba Josh. 19, 8. 

■p^i^ pr. n. m. (timorous) Gen. 
St, 27', r. nb|. 

iba Chald. (r. hia) I toU, tribute 
"Emr, 4, 18, prob. consumption, as a 
tmK on articles consumed or as a con- 
amDing of the people's substance 
<e£. DQ), excise. 

HibS (only pi. c. 'Wilbf and 'fjba 
Mtee) m. oiddothes, rags, only Jer. 
38, 11. 12 (cf. Syr. U^)\ '• f^ 

^Hfl^b^ Dan. 1, 7 fr. n. m. 
giv^i to Daniel in the Babylonian 
Court; see "n^iDba. 

^^jSi (r. ni^) m. 1) destruction, only 
in Is. *38, 17 »»b^ mOffQ ^^ Pijxdn 
thou didst hug my sc^ from ike pit 
of rum L e. didst tenderly save me. 
2) lack, nought, nothing; hence as adv. 
of negation i. q. vb, joined w. nouns 
or verbs, a) no, un-, wit?iOut, as Job 
30, 8 D^**^^9 no-name, unthoutfame 
i. e. infamy; fi']Q-'»ba (= ■»taa in lack, 
&&:a in the parallel clause) wUhoui 
water Job 8, 11; taipj—'ia without 
(a vacant or clean) place Is. 28, 8; 
irnp^-' »ia unanointed 2 Sam, l, 2l; 
nssiarpia unturned Hos. 7, 8. P) 
not, before verbs perf. Is. 14, 6 
•rjtoJi ''ia and fut d*ipn ''ia Job 
41, 18. — With prepositions, ''iaa 
innotts without, e. g. Job 35, 16 
n5*i"'%na without knowledge i. e. un- 
awares Job 36, 12; 4^ after verbs 
of motion Job 38, 41 isk 4ai, or 
of result ph-'»bai Is." 5,' 14; 
nn-»teb fearless Job 41, 25; ^"sq 
because not Deut. 9, 28, M> thai not 
Job 18, 15; '^ilf -• 1? tm lack or failure 
ICaL 8, lOj '^ba-^^ became not Gen. 
81, 20. Seei5,*Ki. 

yba m. (r. Wa 2) mixed fodder, 
provender (ct KiBDo) Job 6, 5; 
hence the denom. ftrt. \>W in Judg. 
19, 21 and he gone fodder. 

niB**ba (for n^-^iiy) subst L q. 
tvcpm vh prop, not-anything, L e. 
nothing, merely poet, in Job 26, 7. 

bjJibS^ (from •»>:& not and i?; in 
Hiph. to profit) m. prop, no-profit, 
hence 1) worthlessness, wickedness, 
as ^^^a V*^ worthless or o^on^ioned 
mon 1 Sam. 25, 25, so also w. "^ 
1 Sam. 25,17, w. 1^ 1 Sam. 1, 16 a 
wicked uioman, w, ^ Ps. 41, 9 an 

Digitized by 


evil ihin^, 2) destruction Ps. 18, 5; 
also destroyer Kah. 2, 1; hence in 
later usage and in N. T. BeXCaX or 
BeX(ap 2 Cor. 6, 15 for 6 irovT^p^^, 



'yi(fot.yaj)akin to i»ia, ia;, 
baij, iaw l) to weUup.flow, to pour 
over, part. pass. Ex. 29, 40 i^h^ over' 
flowedj i. e. poured over; hence to be 
anointed Ps. 92, 11. 2) fig. to pour 
together i. e. to mix (cf. L. con f undo, 
coYX^w)» to confound (of language), 
Gen. 11, 7 hbaj (1 pi. fdt. Qal w. n-^ 
cohort, for to^J, see Gram. § 67, 
Rem. 11) let us confuse Qri^i^ their 
speech; hence baa. 3) denom. from 
b^'ba, to mix food, to fodder (beasts) 
Judg. 19, 21. 4) perh. to mingle in 
sexual connexion, to defile; hence 
l)erh. ban, cf. bjn. — HUhpo. Wiann 
to mix oneself, w, a Hos. 7, 8, 

U^^ prob. akin to D^, only 
inf. Diba P8.32, 9 to check or restrain, 
w. a bridle; Syr. >vSo. 

D^lH m. denom. from obsol. bba 

ftill used in Arab. jJLi fig (cf. n^a 
from ^a), only in Am. 7, 14 bba 
D'nQipi^ nipper of sycamore-figs, i. e. 
helping to cultiyate and gather a sort 
of figs or mulberries produced by the 
real sycamore-tree; prob. an em- 
ployment of the shepherds; of. h^j)3 to . 


y J (fat. a^^-]) mimet. akin to 
anb, Syr. I nsS, . msSj 1) to eat 
greedily, to swallow down, said of 
men Is. 28, 4, beasts Ex. 7, 12; 
fig. to destroy utterly Prov. 1, 12. 
3) fig. ^^ "S^ba t^ Job 7, 19 until 
I swallow down my spittle i. e. 
for a moment; ellipt. Num. 4, 20 9^33 
(int Pi.) hke a swallowing down (of 
spittle) i, e. /or a moment. — NIph, 

9ba9 to he swaUowed up (by ifoes), 
i. e. to be overcome Hos. ^, H; by 
^ne Cj^'io) i. e. to be intoxicated 
Is. 28, 7 (cf. -p^ •'osibr; Is. 28, 1). — 
Pi. 9^a (in pause !l9ba Is. 3, 12, ini: 
ria Num. 4, 20, fut sia*;, ?iaK) i) 
utterly to swallow down, but only fig. 
fo swallow down iniquity i. e. to 
practiie it freely Prov. 19, 28. 2) as 
in Qal, to destroy Job 2, 3, annihilate 
Ps. 35, 25. — Pu. to be destroyed, 
exterminated Is. 9, 16; 2 Sam. 17, le 
lest y^a*) it be ruined (i. e. lest there 
be ruin) to the king and his troops^ 
— Hith. lit. to swallow up oneself, 
hence to vanish away Ps. 107, 27. 

yba (w, suf. "nAa, i^ba) m. i) 
prop, a swallowing up, then irAof t» 
swallowed Jer. 51, 44. 2) destruetum 
Ps. 52, 6. 3) pr. n. of a pers. Gen. 
46,21 (patron. *^9ba Num. 26, 38), also 
of a town, called also ^C^ Gen. 14, 2* 

y^a Num. 4, 20, see if. »b:} 2. 

T!?^2^ f^n^ba only w. pref. "JO, 
•'^jVaa ; from ba or ba and TJ prep.) 
prop, not umto or oa far oa, nothing 
to or /or, only w. suf. pi. ''3?ia €(eiu 
14, 24 not /br me, L e. do I ask any 
thing, but in Gen. 41, 16 it pertains 
not to me; Gen. 41, 44 ^;t;^9 vriJtho%it 
<^; 'n?^? besides me Is. 43, lU 

Dl^bSl 1) pr. n. m. (destroyer^ 
firom 9^9 w. ending b-^-; ot Arab* 

Jd{ swauower) a heathen prophet, 
Sept. BoXaafAy Num. 22, 5. 2) pr. n. 
of a place 1 Ch. 6, 56. 


p x3(Qal only in part. w. suflT. 
irtj^a^akin to As and p'^a to break 
out or jjour forth, hence fo dcvaatccte 
Is. 24, 1. — Pu. to be laid woBte^ 
only in part. ^V^^ Nah. 2, 11. 

pba pr. n. m. (devastator, r. pte) 
Num. 22, 2. 

Digitized by 




*SM&b2l Ban. 5, 1, once "^fCK^a 
Dan. 7, 1 (Babyl.) pr. n. m. of the 
last king of the Chaldeans. — The 
name perh. means ''Bel who (is) 
prince** from ia — tea, «»=» ni^ (as 
dgn of relative or genitive) and 

pr. n. m. (searcher, from 
tii Chald. to search) Ezr. 2, 2. 

rfca (r. rta; cf. nba, r. mja) 
L q. P9, ^a, *^^a, prop, lack, nothing; 

Tlb^ 1) adv. not (= wft, 4a) 
1 8am. 20, 26. 2) prep, (for *rb^l 1. q. 
Kba) i9ttAou< Gen. 48, 8, besidesQen, 
21, 26; w. sal "^^a besides me Hos. 
IS, 4, bat also t&ithoiU me in Is. 10, 4. 
8) coiQ. (for *m^ *^^a) besides that 
Ban. 11, 18; DK ^nlba Am. 8, 4 
wiiesi. Before noons (like "t^a, K^a) 
not, without, im-, as 1 Sam. 20, 26 
•vho "ria not-clean, unclean, "Viia 
tro Is. 14, 6 without cessation, un^ 
Temittinff; before inf. w. i of pnrpose 
or resolt for not, lest Lev. 26, 15 
rffe 'vtai /br not to (2o i. e. so oa 
Jiotto io, Ban. 9, 11 t^xs6 *«ri^a^ so 
<t8 not to hear; more rarely before 
the ffaiite verb, in perl Ez. 18, 3, in 
Alt. Ban. 11, 18. — With prepositions 
ypb'A (once i *«te^ 2 K. 23, 10) be- 
fore int to not, so that not Ex. 9, 17, 
before the finite verb so that not Jer. 
23, 14; ^^an because not, w. snf. 
Num. 14, 1*6; •Vl^a'^i? until not, w. 
pert Kom. 21, 85. — The form 
*iaba is from h^a w. the old genitive- 
€odi]ig "^-T- (Gram. § 90, 8, a), like 

•TO3, w. n-7- loc. JTHoaf, pi. 
nia^rol rtuD!}, K7thibh •'nio^ w. -p 
film ^see Gram. § 25), bat Q*ri '^ty&n 
la. 5fiy 14 as if from raa (Gram. 
f 87^ 6, Bern, 1), w. saf. trta^, 


Tpni'oij, wi'oij (r. esia) f. prop, an 
elevation (ct Pu>)jl-6c), hence 1) a 
height 2 Sam. 1, 19; esp.a sacred or 
aUar-heiffht 1 Sam. 9, 12; the 
sArines or chapels boilt on emi- 
nences were called nioa}^ "^ 1 EI. 

13, 82, the priests nia^ •'STS 1 K. 

12, 32; sometimes tv^^ is for tv^^ 
h^:^ fA« AiZ/-sArtn« to signify the 
places of onlawful worship on emin- 
ences in or near the cities 1 K. 
11, 7, on the hills of Judah 1 K. 

14, 23, and in the valley of Hinnom 
Jer. 7, 31. Some of them were only 
a sort of curtain-tents, called nia^ 
niK^D Ez. 16, 16. 2) strong-hold, 
fastness, hence fig. Ps. 18, 34 Ae sets 
me inlaa-bj on my high places, i. e. 
in safety; Am. 4, 13 (of God) tread- 
ing yyi ''f}?^"^? 0^ *^ citadels or 
fastnesses of the earth, i. e. possess- 
ing it as its lord and king; so 
too in Job 9, 8 and Is. 14, 14. 8) a 
grave-mound, sepulchre (cf. pcofti;, 
L. fumuluB) in Ez. 43, 7 and perh. 
also in Is. 53, 9, where this sense 
answers well to *i*i^p in the parallel 
clause. See the r. D^a. 

of circumcision, i. e. a Hebrew) 1 Oh. 
7, 83. 

i^, see ia. 

r\ il2^ pr. n. of districtNum. 21, 19, 
fully te^ nia:; (heights of Baal) Josh. 

13, 17. 

Iltta 5^«tt^ c. pL of naa (as 
if from naa), prob. for 'IJ'iaaf (Gram. 
§ 87, 5, Bern. 1). 

1^ (pi. W^) m. a sage Jer. 49, 7 
prop, part r. *pa. 

tpa <>9n. 49, 11, i^ Num. 24, 8; 

w.'fut ^ tga, ?!??; pi. t3^?|, o. "i?; 

Digitized by 




t.nsa) m. 1) «on (cf. ra), faUy '^ajTa 
i»utn-cfttilE{ Jer. 20, 15 (ef. oi^; A^^^jv 
Apoc, 12, 5); a Hri^f $<my a prince 
Is. 9, 5, ftOly 1Ti«T9 Ps. 72, 1 ; pL 
b*^3a «Dn« at times for children 
Gen. S, 16 (cf. tixva). — Pig. «on« 
*>/" *^y /alAer Gen. 49, 8 or of i»y 
mother Gen. 43, 29, i. e. my brothers ; 
Joel 4, 6 sons of Javan (cf. ole; 
'A/attov) 1. e. Greeks; sons of the 
poor Ps. 72, 4, i. e. the poor.— The 
ivord 15, like 5^ father, m brother, 
is very manifold in its applications. 
Hence a) as to age, bo^/, a you£h 
(like itai;) Prov. 7, 7. p) grand-eon 
Gen. 29, 5 (so n;^ in Ezr.*5, 1>, esp. 
tr^ Gen, 32, 1, fdUy OT?a "tsa Ex. 
32,7. 7)(ie«ce9k2anto,j)os2ert(y, hence 
in the names of peoples, as *(co9 *^7a, 
ix'jtor; 'a, rrjvr; 'a, ilmwoni^e*, iJ- 
raeliUe, children ofJudah i. e. Jinrs; 
for ink(dntant8 of any city or place, 
e. g. Ps. 149, 2 ff^s •'^a «on« ofZion 
i. e. its people, n3"«'ran'''3a Neh. 7, «•; 
f6r a communiti/, hence e. g. Am. 
9, 7 b'^3 "^aa Ethiopians, 8) a foster- 
son or a t&att^ jnipt/, disciple, protigi 
or /^ovourite (of. irai^ /tiKtM), e. g. 
1 K. 20, 35 sons, of the prophetSf i. e. 
their disciples; children of the Utfing 
Ood i. e. those whom He cherishes 
Hos. 2, 1 ; also for angels and rulers, 
see under QT^» ^^^* ^^> ^ *<^ ^f 
the house, i.e. a slave horn and bred 
in the house (Jj,vema); sons ofBashan 
i.e. rams reared in its pastures Deut. 
32, 14; sons of the qwner, i. e. arrows 
Lam. 3, 13; sons of the East i. e. 
dwellers there 6^n. 29, 1; Job 1, 3; 
Judg. 6, 3. c) of beasts, a young 
one, as youtig pigeon rtJ'i^Ta Lev. 

12, 6, idi^n? ^^ f^ ^^^' ^^' ^^' 
moreover of plants Gen. 49, 22 n'^BTja 
young branch. C) purely fig. express- 
ing a certain dependence, e. g. of 
time, in stating age, e. g. Exl 12, 5 | 

rtjtrf^ one year dd, Qmi. i^ U *)i 
rl^rnv^TattinbOOyearsM; Jon.4,io 
son of a night, i e. produced is one 
night, but G«n. 37, 8 son ofoldsge 
means a son bom when his iHlher 
was old; or of property or quality, 
as son of wickedness bj^!^a*]a 
1 Sam. 25, 17 i. e. a wicked man, 
D^x-^a Is. 56, 2 a human being (Sept > 

&v0pco7ro;), ^^rp)a a valiant 2 8am. 
2, 7 (comp. xixsa 67caxo^^ 1 Pet 

1, 14); but nisn va in Beut 25v i 
\oorthy of a smiling^ r ng " ) a 1 Bsm. 
20, 31 worthy of death (cf. ulo; t^c 
diccoXcCa^ John 17, 12). 2) "Jl^pr. n. 
m. 1 Ch. 15, 18; perh. also in ]9^ 

Ps. 9, 1. — ^From "{a or ^ is got perh. \ 

a denom. t\v^ in Niph. (only in fat ^ 

n^^K) to obtain sons Gen. 16, 2; but 
see n^:a to buUd. — This noun "jS or 
yn is prob. primitive like a;^ ni$i D^ 
and is the same as *na (the liquids n 
and r often interchanging), see on 
na^ whic^^^vskin; but neady all 
regard Mj^ aS^^e root 

!{^^ but only in pL fsa, 
c^ *^3a (in sing. "^ only is used) I>an. 

2, 25; Byr. ji, pL ,-Jo. 
a'TJ'^asrja pr. n. m. l K. 4, 11. 

see aTS'^ajt 

"SiS-^a pr. n* m^(so« oi m 
sorrow) Gen. 35, 18. \ 

ira-^a pr. n. m. (son l( a Bert) 
1 K. 4,' 13. Y 

"n^^."^ pr. n. m. (son of aVfi*®'^ 
IK. 4^9.'' \ 

1]n~]a pr. n. m. (son tV^W 
or T»fi5 a Syrian idol) of a 111^ ^ 
Damascus, 1 K. 15, 19 ; 20, 1 ; 2 J^ ^* 

Db?T^a pr. n. m. (perh. ^ ^ 
wailing) Jer. 7, 81. \ 

t\HiT*]S pr, n. m. (perh. m\ 
strength) l'Ch.4, 20. t 

Digitized by 

Google i 


^ftn^y^ pr. n. m. («on of libertjjO 

1 1:. 4, 8. * 

Tn"'j3 pr. n. m. (son of valour). 
2 Ch. 17, 7. 

■JSH^TS pr* lu m. (son of pky) 
1 Ch. 4, 20. 

TOn^'jS pr; n. m. (son of kfaid- 
nemflK. 4» 10. 

•pq^'^ pr. n. m. (son of the 
righi4uuid, i.6. of good luck) 1 Sam. 
9, 1 in some texts for )''0"3a. 

''J3?"'jS pr. n. m. (son of my 
people or confederacy) Ckn. 19, 88. 

^J!I1, see h». 

TOKJ, inf. abs. hba, const. ni3a, vr. 
8nf.*iprrl3a Ez. le, 8i) i) to buM 
Gen. sT 20; w. ace. of the thing 
Gen. 10, 11 (rarely w. i) and of 
the material 1 K. 18, 32 (rarely 
w. a); to lay a foundation l K. 6, 1 
cf. 2 Ch. 8, 1; w. ace. of the place, 
to buitd upon 1 K. 6, 15; w. a Neh. 
4, 4 to build up in something; w. 
^7 Lam. 8, 5 fo build against. — Fig. 
to form, tr. V Gen. 2, 22. 2) of places 
in ruin or out of condition, to rebuild, 
fo resforeAm. 9, 14, Ps. 122, 3 Jeru- 
$akm n^an fhe rebuilt, Mai. 1, 4 
«e irifl restore rfQ"jnfA<» waste^laces, 
3) fig. fo grant famUy prosperity 
L e. descendants 1 Sam. 2, 35; to 
make prdsperous, of peoples Jer. 24, 6. 
-* fiipb. to be buHt Num. 18, 22, of 
penonsin Hal. 8, 15 to be promoted; 

a la. 44, 28 fo 9e rebuilt; ilg. in Gen. 
1«, 2 rngs ''i%< rip^Ta perhaps I shall 
be IwU up (i. e. have sons) from her. 
^ Heice njM, n^ri, Tjja, n:^?, 

I '^^ and perh. ^a, na, la. 
^i roil, JA35ohaa.(Lq.Heh. 

95 «^a 

fi;^) fo build Dan. 4, 27; part. pass. 
naa^Ezr. 5, ll; infc w:jo,n;:2Q Esr. 
5," 9. — Ithpe. to be buUt £«r 4» 13. 

^3^ 1 Sam. 25, 8 for ^3Ka, r.fitia. 

"^^S pr. n. m. (perh. building) 
Neh. 7, 15. 

r\i3^ daughters, see n). 

?j';ni33 Ez. 16, 31 for •jp'^Ja inf. 
of n3|, w. sul 2 fern., see Gram. 
§ 78, Bem. 2. 

U J^ (ohs.) to bind; akin to Sans. 
mmt (to surround), G. unnc[en,binden, 
£• «niu2, 6incf; L. vincio, "W. ftaiuM? 
(= 5anaO the broom plant, so much 
used for binding; cl airaproc. Henoe 

- 1 - 
"^^ pr. n.m. (built) 2 Sam. 28, 86 . 


Py^ ' "^SSl pr. n. (sons of lightning) 
of a city in Dan, Josh. 19, 45. 


rWS pr. n. m. (perh. »; built 
up) l' ci. 4, 86 i q. Vi;»* 

rnSl f. (i. q. ITja) budding &. 
41, 13*;^ r. nsa. 

D*^;^ 1 Sam. 17, 4 for b^^jpa, 
see Va. 

tn^ soff^, s«er fa; Gram. § 96. 

■pQ^OS pr. n. m. (son of right- 
hand, i.*e. good luck) the patriarch 
Benjamin, founder of one of the 12 
tribes Gen. 35, 18; gentil. '^a'^a'^,1? 
Ps, 7, 1, plur. •'p'^a'; ^^ Judg. 19, 16. 

^J^ m. (i* q- n;:a) butUiim^ 'Eol. 
4>1, 12 after iSa» i&na, *);^, n h^ 

i;;3a Ohaia. L q. fietr. 8«i/«fil^ 
l&r. 5, 4. 

ti'^^21 pr, n. nb (prob. Mur son) 
Nek. 1(C U, 


Digitized by 





D'T]^"53 pr. n. Jer. 49, 28. Ez. 
-25, 4' 10 (LXX. KtUfi). 

Oj3 Chald. to be cmgry Ban. 
2, 12; akin to W2, W^t (cf. D59=bW). 

riTDSl pr. n. m. (perb. for tv^} 
bubbiiiig) 1 Gb. 8, 37, K^» 1 Cb.9,43. 

n*n*ID3 pr. n. m. (in council of 
tn;) Neb. 3, e. 

■©Si pr.n.m.(perb.i.q.'^:|5brigbt) 
Ezr. 2, 49. 

DD^, see D!iSi. 

IwZl (obs.) prob. akin to Aram. 

" y T 

^^a, )j&s to contemn, bence of fimit 
contemned as unripe, to be sour, to 
be unripe; bence *)ba and 

"1021 m. collect, sour or unripe 
^^ropes l8.18,5 (but D*^l^9u^^aj>e9). 

*0a m. « '^oa, only Job 15, 33. 

K^a, see n?£. 

lJZl(obi.)perb.akintoTi^eo 6e 
s^^ated, removed. Hence perbaps 

^?a and ^y^ w. suf . -naj, wa, 
?rT?a, in p.^Rra, Tjnya, ■i'l^a, iroa, «T^a 
and ^a'^iJPa Am. 9, 10, oarwa, 0753) 
perb. prop, subst. m. removal, bence 
behind', early considered as a prep, 
made up of a and *19, Tbe meanings 
in use sbow tbe following wide di- 
versities: 1) near sometbing, by the 
Me of {perh. likeL.apu(2),as 1 Sam. 4, 
18n§w *i^ ^2attJ^8%deoftheplace 
03 of the gate, for wbicb l?*b« 
stands in 2 Sam. 18, 4. 2) behind 
(dose to), di£fering from lir^ wbicb 
expresses behind at a distance, esp. 
tbns in tbe expression n$a ^^b ^0 
s^iff behind (close to) an object, e. g. 
Judg. 3, 23 he shut the door i^i^Q 
behind him on going out; Gten. 7, 16 
twa «f/!er ^bim (i. e. at his beels) 
After be got in; bir; 19a "n^^ l Bam. 

1, 6 to close behind (or about) the 
womb i. e. to render it barren ; Job 
1, 10 hast thou not fenced 'm^ behind 
(or around) him? Judg. 3, 22 and 
the fat closed up aribn ^a behind 
the blade, i. e. so tbat tbe bilt also 
penetrated; Job 22, 13 Vd'tJ "TO 6c- 
hind the darkness, i. e; wrapped in 
gloom. 3) nearness (implying motion) 
away among, amidst, as Is. 32, 14 
ni^Wo 15a away among coxes; Joel 

2, 8, nV^ 19a aimong the missiles; 
bence it may at times be rendered 
through, out of, e. g. Gen. 26, 8 
Yi^W n|a through the windoss 
2 Sam. 20, 21 rminri n$a tArtn^A 
the wall, i. e. by some opening 
in it, as in Acts 9, 25 $ia too 
TcC^ooc. 4) nearness (motion or 
rest), all round sometbing (cf. 
No. 2), bence around Ps. 8, 4, 
differing from a'tao round about, 
witbout implying nearness; esp. with 
verbs tbat denote placing roimd, fen- 
cing in, closing up, covering over 
(•^50, *^1J, TpaJ, )h QW3), hence for, 
equivalent to about, esp. with verbs 
of interceding, asking, satisfying, 
(or compensating), coveripg, standing 
up for in conflict (^^riTi, IDS^ p$t, 
pjrtnTT, w^i, «i9}, yyoi W); Job 
2, 4S'i5 l?a ni5 skwfor ikin, L e. 
is given to satisfy or as equivalent* 
With pref. prep. l?aa from &eAind» 
w. ), as Cant. 4, 1 1^:??^ n$a»/brfA 
from behind thy veil, 

^1^2^, see ^. 

n^lll (ftit roa-;, 2 pi. p^ai? u. 
21, 12, imp. pi. ^*^;a Gram. § 75, Benu 
4) i. q. $iia, 9^3, to'&«6&fe, to loeff «p, 
hence to froti;* Is. 64, 1 1^ ^^|^ 
d*^ fire boils water; fig. to boU over 
w. strong desire, hence to ton^ /or, 
to seek. Is. 21, 12. — NIph. to be 
8V}ollen, then to MoeS o«i^, to prqjedt 

Digitized by 





U. 80, 13; fig. to he sougM (mt ObacL 
6; hence TO, **jl, 

n?!Ili fids Cbaia. fo pray, 
Dan. 6yi'4 WW^ ^S he prayed hU 
prayer, w. 075, -^ and Q'7l8"p3. 
t) (0 jedk Ban. 2, 13. — Pa. "tpS <o 
|ift^ eomest^ Dsn. 4, 83. 

V:^ COiald. (w. sQf. mm); r. tt|:|f> 
t prayer, peHUon Ban. 6, 8t 


^19^ pr. n. m. (peril, torch, r^ 
*^ JSeor Num. 22, 6, Sept. Bea»p, 
Irat in 2 Pet. 2, 15 Boa<Sp, » for S. 

iTftWSJ (w. fi«l 5pW^) m. pL 
lerrort Pa. 88, 17,Job 6, 4; r. n?f 

Ti/Zl (obs.) perb. for t^ (cf. 
trc) as K^) as denom. from T2^ (r. 
n^), hence lo 5e «(ftm^, firm; hence 

n^ 1) pr. n. (perh. flrmness) the 
piDar on the left hand in ftont of 
the Tonple 1 K. 7, 21; of. ^:?;, the 
Bime of the other. 2) pr. n. m. 
Eath's hnsband, Buth 2, 1. 

ui^^ (flit. XXS!^]) prob. mimet 
akin to Ma (which seeX Ohald. y$^ 
8yr. ^ ^Sn, to heat or etriiie (w. the 
iooii, hence 1) to kick Dent. 32, 15. 
2) w. a, to tread or trample on, fig. 
iff despise or 8pum 1 Sam. 2, 29 

''SSi m. prayer, only Job 80, 24 
'9^ mV fioi4^A^ is prayer; r. h^!}. 

P^^ftg Is. 11, 15, see ts^ 

T:Pa Ps. 78, 20 for "iWlf ; r. "WI, 
T9S1 m. collect, cattle Ex: 22, 4 

(fiken^ra, Ii,p€CUS,'H>oris)^op.fidd' 

eottfe, fkrom ^:( to brotose, 

iJ^-a (fai prop, names b^ ^92^ 

Aram, ^a, hence b&) w. sol '^^ 

^i;K9; pL ta^ (at times for ring., 

cf. Gram. } 108, 2, h), o. •455, w. 
8uf., O"^?*, "PT*?? «. fo*'^^ possessor, 
prop, a begetter (see below). It de- 
notes: 1) possession and control, e. 
g. n-jan tej Judg. 19, 22 master of 
D*«Wp b99 Joel I, B husband married 
in youth; Is. 16, 8 fi'^ti ""b^^ mostors 
(warriors) of the nations; hence in 
onion w. noons (see Oram. § 106, 2, 
a) to mark property, as 2 K. 1,8 
lord of hair, i. e. haiiy,Gen. 87, 19 
nirfbrtn '^ the dreamer, i. e. the one 
haying dreams; Q'^'^^'n b$5 ^^x. 24, 14 
one haviny a lawsuit or controvert, 
as to what any one ought to haye, 
but has not Proy.3, 27. 2) before the 
names of cities, uihahitants or citizens 
Jodg. 9, 2. 3) ^S^ pr. n. of a Pheni- 
cian deity (Belos), prob. the planet 
Jupiter, which howeyer the Greeks 
always called* HpaxX9Jc; see ^a. The 
pi. fi*^V?a means images of Baal Jodg. 
2, 11. — "iy^i is fireqoently found in 
Punic inscriptions and in pr. names, 
as in Hannibal (^^*^in fayour of Baal), 
Ha8drubal(b^rit$help of B.), Adher- 
bal (b^^'f'Tx'^hero of B.), Abibal 
(b^^j'tat^ father of B.), and we find 
h?a} in Heb. names, as t^*^ to^ 
Jodg. 8, 38 also n*na bK Jodg. 9, 46 
co/venant-god, cf. Zth^ 6pxio^ or Dem 
fidius; a^a| ^ fly Baal (see avat); 
"^tm-b?^ see n*i9^. 4) also place, as 
possessing what it contains (d n*]^, 
in onion w. names, e. g. with *i|, fts^i 

■riatn, ')So'Tn,Tc^, D^arji, "jte, tJtAm, 
"i^n. 5) pr, n. m. 1 Oh. 5, 5. — Hence 
0*^^$% ^)^ niV9a,ba, and perh. V^as 
denominatiye. — The root being very 
nncertain, b^a = b$ is giyen here as 
a primitiye, which is common to 

the Semit. tongoes, Syr. S^, Axab. 

^, Ethiop. 5a {; is aUtt 
to ^ to flow (of seminal flow in 1 

Digitized by 




ual connexion), hence to marry ^ to 
he hmband. — Hence perh. b^^. 

by^ Ohald. Ezr. 4» 8 i. q. Heb. 

b;9, also ^a. 


V^ (fat. ^^'7) perh. denom. 
from bra, or rather akin to V^Sl, 
1) fo he hmband or moafer, to ruie 
Is. 26, 13, w. i 1 Ch. 4, 22; w. ^ 
Jer. 8, 14 to marry; trf^ toa to be- 
come kushand of a wife, to marry 
Mai. 2, 11; part, act pi. (for sing.) 
"n*!^^ f^ husband Is. 54, 5, part, 
pass. fern. rA^a Is. 54, 1 and Gen, 
20, 3 tea nira f»amci to a hua- 
5an(i. 2) fig. perh. akin to pna, 99S, 
to r</ecf or despise, w. a Jer. 31, 32 
(cf. i?)ji.6XTj<ja Heb. 8, 9).* — Niph. to 
he married Prov. 30, 23. 

TOJa f, 1) a mistress or possessor, 
e. g. n';ia>i n^^^ mistress of the house 
1 K. 17, 17, aiK 'a a toitch l Sam. 28, 7, 
comp. the use of the masc. bra. 2) fig. 
for a region or city, in pr. names, a) 
city in the N. of Judah Josh. 15, 9^ 
otherwise tea n^nR D*'^'; n:";p; P) 
in the S. of this tribe Josh. 15, 29, 
otherwise hte, ri^fte. 

F) v9^ pr. n. (prob. mistresses) of 
a city in the 8. of Jndah Josh. 15, 24. 

rViaa '^b?^ P^. x^. (perh. Baals 
of heights) of a district Num. 21, 28, 
called also tea n*i»a Josh. 13, 17. 

15'^" ^?5 pr. n. m. (a gracious 
lord) Gen. 86, 38. 

yj^5y3 pr. n. m. (whom the lord 
knows)*! Ai. 14, 7, also yjjiK 2 Sam. 

n^bya pr. n. m. (Pt; is lord) 
1 Ch. 12, *5. 

C^bya pr. n. m. (perh. forlfi^tea 
lordly, from te^ ct V^a^ and see on 
a^ af a formative ending) Jer. 40, 14; 

bat some texts have d*^tea, so too 
Josephus in Antiq. 10, 9, 2. 

f^b^ (for nte5, fem. of bja) 
pr. n. ' (mistress) of a city in Dan 
(Josephus BaX£&), Josh. 19, 44. 

I'ySl pr. n. of a place (Sept. Bat Av) 
Num. 32, 3, perh. for •;> tea (» tea| 


^y^9 flJ^S pr. n. m. (perh. 
for KW-^a 1. e. sorrowful, see on 
a on p. 75) 1 K. 4, 12; 2 Bam. 
4, 2. 

ll/iSl (ftit. ^';) akin to K'nsj, rna 
n (see below), 1) to browse, to feed 
upon; prob. hence y^:^ cattle and ^33 
(which see). See Pi. and Hiph. 2) to 
consume w, fire, to bum up, Ps.83, 
15 OB fire "OTn kindles up a forest; 
mostly w. a Job 1, 16 God's fire fell 
from heaven and burnt up the flocks 
and the servants, 3) intrans. to hum 
(esp. of combustible materials bur- 
ning up of themselTes), JTi^a nDj 
Is. 34, 9 burning pitch; hence to be 
kindled Is. 1, 31, Hos. 7, 4. 4) as 
denom. of "W or '1*^3, to he hru- 
tish Jer. 10, 8, see under tja. — 
Niph. to become or make onesdf 
brutish Jer. 51,17; cf.Syr. 9^^f 
to 5c /Jcrcc. — Pi. "T^a (fut. 'TO';, 
inf. "^a) 1) to /«6(2 on, to consume, 
e. g. field or vineyard Is. 5, 5, w. a 
Ex. 22, 4. 2) to set fire to (wood) 
Lev. 6, 5, to light (a fire) Ex. 35, 
3, to bum up or consume Is. 44, 
15. 3) to destroy or su^eep <Xv)ay, 
w. 1» /row somewhere 1 K. 22, 47, 
w. '«'Tj» a/lcr somebody 1 K. 14, 
10, i. e. to make a clean riddance; 
^a rpr\ is. 4, 4 a spirit of destroy^ 
ing (extermination). — Pa. to he 
kindled e. g. a stove Jer. 86, 22. — 
Hiph. (causative) like Pi. in all its 

Digitized by 



Itoee xnesaiBgs. --^ This r. is prob. 
mimetic, found in Semitio (as above) 
and in Gr. fopa (pi-ppA-oxio), W. 
|Hwr, pani, bora, L. wro, B. forage^ 
browse, bread, G. brod, 

*(?3 m. prob. akin to *^'Wn, prop. 
6nififf^te89, ntupidity; '^a ^"^ a man 
^ br^dishness Ps. 92, 7, bat else only 
u a^j. shifMd, br^dish, Ps. 49, 11. 
Hence the denom. 15a (fat. W"J) to 
be h^dish Jer. 10, 8; part, "ija Ps. 
94^ 8 brM^^sk. — Niph. ^na io becwie 
brvi^tk Is. 10, 11. 

M'^ff^ pr« n. m. (perb. a brand) 
1 Oh. 8, 8. 

•TjyS t a Jurntn^, e«p. of crops 
in the field Ex. 22, 5; r. ni^a 2. 

1S^!Zl (obs.) perh. akin to Obald. 
}^=Heb. C3^ to tread down, hence 
<9 be valiani; hence 

RffiS^ pr. n.m. (valoar) of a king 
of Israel (953—980 B. C.) 1 K. 15, 16. 

rrTD53 pr. n.m. (perh. for n;il»5 
work of PP) 1 Ch. 6, 25; see under 
letter a, p. '74. 

JTWySySl pr. n. (for ti^XOS n'»a) 
ot a Levitical city Josh. 21, 27, bat 
in 1 Ch. 6, 56 rtht^. 

niPSl (Qal obs.) akin to Syr. 
j£s, to ^ear. — NIph. n§a3 (waa 
Ban. 8, 17 for '*)riwa) to be afraid, 
w. •'iBa 1 Ch. 21, 'so and "^afiia Est. 
7, 6 0/ some object (cf. K*?;, 7^, 
niTtt, nna). — Pi. n?a (3 sing. f. w. 
w£ wnsa, ^roa for ^htwa, part. 
t ?ja»9 ^1 Sam. 16, 15 from r\$aa 

for rTOM; fat. TW^) to terrify Job 
3, b; to come iipon suddenly 1 Sam. 
16, 14. Hence 

nroa f . fear or terror Jer. 


99 n^ 

ySl m. slime or mtre Jer. 38, 22; 

TTOSCa Ez. 47, 11 for WiiB? 
firom nsa. 

nSlSl (pi. w. snf. i«»n«sa Ez. 47, 
11) f. a swamp or marsh Job 8, 11 ; 
r. 1^, in Talm. ^axa. 

1^221^ (r.^l9)^ 
steep, only K*thibh of Zech. 11, 2. 

1^2^ m. perh. in Job 22, 24 for 
^iH^ ore, bat see *fCL 

Vtf . * 

"^Sa pr. n. m. (bright) Neh. 7, 23^, 
see ■'05. 

TS^ m. 1) prop, cutting off, hence 
grape- gathering, vintage Is. 24, 13, 
like •T'ag cropping off (cf. 'I'^OT, 
tSVii ^"^^J?)* 2) adj. m. in Zech. 11, 2 
Q*rt* where the K'thibh is ^ntt^, 
inaccessible, lofty; r. '^. 

7]£Zl (obs.) to be peely, to have 
coatings; akin toi^^ to strip. Hence 

bSa (only pi. D'li^) m. prop. 
peeling's of, hence owionsNam. 11, 5. 

blSp^Sa pr. n. m. (in God's shadow 
L e. protection) Ex. 31, 2. 

r\^b2£^ pr. n. m. (stripping off) 
Ezr. 2, 52; bat in Neh. 7, 54 n-Al^^. 

^"'bSa, seerAi:f5. 

3^^3 (fat 92^^ imp. 9ia, w» 
saf. t3^ Am. 9, 1 for &9:ia) akin to 
WD, "lia, 5pa, 1) prop, to cut up 
(Tahn. to ftrcafc ftreo^); intr. to be 
wounded Joel 2, 8; ^xa in Jer. 51, 
13 is perh. infln. w. saf. ^p Ka 
•jpata HBK thy end cometh,the eU of 
thy cutting off, i. e. when thon shalt 
be cat off as a web according to a 
fixed measare; in Am. 9, 1 djja break 
them in pieces (for D?xa). 2) torend 
in pieces, to spoil or plwnder Job 27, 
8; esp. in Prov. 1,19 5Sa $S*a (cf. G. 
geld 'Schneider, a money -sharper) 

Digitized by 




gaming htcre, eostortioner or /Vou- 
dulerU dealer. — Pi. ^s^ (fat 9tn*;) 
to cut off Job 6, 9, to ro6 Ez. 22, 12; 
fig. to finish, to complete Zech. 4, 9, 
hdnce to /uij^ sometliiiig Is. 10, 12, 
Lam. 2, 17. 

??a (in pause »:?a , w. suf. to^a) 
m. prop, a catting off or seizing, 
hence fig. 1) gain, Gen. 37, 26 :^"ria 
tohat profit? 2) esp. unjust gain, 
aithg lucre Is. 83, 15, Ex. 18, 21. 
8) plunder, robbery Mic. 4, 13, Jer. 
51, 18. 

y^^Il (obs.) 1. q. pga to ^tisfc 
otif, Aram. ^^2Ca to 5i^5^ (m^; hence 
p, naa. — The S and p are inter- 
changed in sundiy words, e. g. V*^ 
«» Chald. K5"«. 


to moeS up, to blister or 
to have tumours, to gaU (of the 
feet) Dent. 8, 4, where Sept. has ito- 
XAflh^ffov, but in Neh. 9, 21 fiic^f A- 

pSa m. (tof^A Ex. 12, 84, as 

•welling or rising by fermentation 
Hos. 7, 4. 

t^pSa pr. n. (perh. a swelling) of 
a district Josh. 15, 39. 

l!SZl (fat "XSy^) 1) to cut <w* 
or offe, g. grapes (hence p^rpoc) Lev. 
25, 5, to ^ot^er tn (the vintage) w. 
ace. of the vineyard Deut, 24, 21; 
hoice 'i'»2t^ grape-^mtting (cf. y^ 
com or fruit cutting), "laca vintager 
Jer. 6, 9; fig. of a destructive foe 
Jer. 49, 9. 2) to restrain, to sepa- 
rate offonaU sides, hence to fortify 
(of walls, citiesX in part pass. 'Vista 
(K'thlbh *r»2ta Zeoh. 11, 2), forHfied, 
strong Deut 3, 5, Is. 2, 15; fig. Ps. 
76, 13 he restrains or cuts off *ixy) 
the spirit of princes; Jer, 83, 3 
^^ seduded i. e. things cut off 

from view or Inowledge. — Nipk 
(pass, of no. 2 but only fig.) to he 
restrained or debarred, Job 42, 2 tb 
h^ta ^aa 'isa'^ fto pltm is precluded 
from thee, i. e. too difftcult for thee. 
- Pi. *i^ (tat. nso-;, int -Ta^) to 
/bHt/y Jer. 51, 53.Prob. hence 

"tKa (onlyin Job 86, 19 '^) for 
"^j perh. hence ^iroXXov, metoL 

"^ (in p. ^xg, pi. ti-'Tja) m. 1) 
ore or precious metal, L e. gold or 
silver Job 22, 24 (as being mined 
or dug out, r. ^^a). 2) pr. n. (a 
mine) of a Levitical city of refuge 
in Beuben (Sept. Boa^p) Deut 4, 43. 

rTISa (r. -isca) f. prop, inclosure, 
hence Mic. 2, 12 sheep-fold (cf. K^ao). 
2) pr. n. (prob. fortress, i. q. 'Xf^t) 
ot a city in Edom, prob. the present 
Busaireh, south-east of the Dead 
Sea Is. 63, 1 ; but in Jer. 48, 24 it 
appears as a Moabitish city, having 
prob. changed masters. 

finSa (r. ^t^) m. jcUadd or for- 
tress Zech. 9, 12. 

n'llSa (pi. nnna) f. prop, a cutting 
0^ (of rain), hence drought (Sept 
Appoxfa) Jer. 17, 8; r. "Txa. 

p^iaj^a, paj^a m. l)skinbottle, 
flaik 1 K. 14, 8, so named for its 
bubbling or gurgling when emptied; 
r. pWl or pB^; cf. Syr. ^on^^, also 
p6fi.poXo;. 2) pr. n. m. (emptying) 
Neh. 7, 53. 

ftJl^ai^a pr. n. m. (prob. empty- 
ing by'rn) Neh. 11, 17. 

'^J?^!?? pr. n. m. (perh. emptier, 
r. pp^ w. "l-T" as formative ending; 
see on the letter *i) 1 Oh. 9, 15. 

*^a pr. n. m.(prob. i. q. rrjpajps) 
Num. 34, 22. " "^ * 

Vl*|?a pr. n. m. (same as '»;?a) 
1 Ch. 25, 4. " ' 

Digitized by 





y*p3 (only pi. 13^?^pa)xn. flssure, 
defty esp. breach in a waU Am. 6, 
11,18.22, 9; r. 5pa. 

i?)?3 (ftit. rpa';, inf. w. «uf. 
BSJja) akin to 5^, ST?^, 'nga, *o c%a 
or cfeore osuneier, hence to wound 
Bz. 29, 7, to 9plU (wood) Ecc. 10, 9, 
to dkide (the sea) Ex. 14, 16, henee 
(o rip up Am. 1, 13, to open up (a 
•pring) Ps. 74, 15; to Aofc^ Is. 34, 15 ; 
ig. to break into (a camp or a city) 
2 Sam. 23, 16, to invade 2 Ch. 21, 
17. — Niph. 2^ to 9plit oneself, 
hence fig. to be rent 1 K. 1, 40, 
to open up (of the gromid) Num. 16, 
31, to break forth^ of water Prov. 3, 
20,]ight Is. 58, 8; ^. to be stormed 
(of a dty) Jer. 52, 7, to be hatchedlB, 
59, 5. — Pi. ?]ja (fat. 555':) to split 
or rend Gen. 22, 3, Hab. 3, 9, to haich 
Is. 59, 5. -- Pu. to be rent or ripped 
Josh. 9, 4, Hos. 14, 1, Ez. 26, 10 
fTJJQB W a city broken into, i. e. 
tftken. — Hiph. to cause to open up 
It, to storm (a city) Is, 7, 6 ; w. Vk 
to break through to, 2 K. 8, 26. — 
floph. to be stormed (a city) Jer. 39, 
2. — Hith. to be rent or cleft HQc. 
1, 4, Jodi. 9, 13. 

9pSl m. prop, a split, hence J9arf, 
hiif, but only of the half-shekel Gen. 
24, 22, Sept. 8paXK-^- 

tOp2l f. Chald. vaU^ Dan. 8, 1. 

iVffS^ (c. roija, pi. rviipga; r. :^a) 
f.«wi3feen^ftn#nd, a depression, valley 
(prop, a split or rent in the hills) 
Dent. 8, 7, Is. 41, 18, also a wide 
jlain (in open country) Gen. 11, 2, 
Sept. iceSfov; fagiJ^ Wjja *Af valley 
or pJotn o/ ieftowon, between Anti- 
hbfuraa and Hermon Josh. 11, 17; 
often united w. names of places, e. 
g. ^T} n$)ps 2 Ch« 35, 22. 

P|?3 mimet. akin to ptl3l, ^31, 
to gush or &i45&2e ou^, to pour out, 
to empty (esp. a bottle ^a{pa), hence 
1) trans, to empty out, fig. to despoil 
(a people) Nah. 2, 3, to depopulate (a 
land) Is. 24,1. 2) intrans. <o ^ejpoured 
out, henc0 spread abroad, Hos; 10, 1 
pg'a *;&]} a spreading or luxwriasA 
vine. — Niph. p5J (ngQ3 fem. like 
nbaj Gram. § 67, Bem. 11, fat. pa*^^ 
vol, pan) ^0 be emptied out Is. 
24, 3, to vanish (rnin) Is. 19, 3. — 
Po. ppia to depopuMe utterly Jer. 
51 , 2. 

I|P!3 (Qal obs.) akin to ^3^ 
Spa,l) to eu^ or cfeavc open, hence 
to plow (the ground), hence ^^ 
plow-cattle, like L. armentwm for 
aramen^um; fig. to break forth (of 
light), hence "^^S daybreak, 2) to 
trcoifc tn*o, to seorcA (cf. L. rtwart); 
hence Pi. "iga (fat. '^Spa';) to <fi«tfri- 
•wtnoto, w. YT^ '^^' ^^» ^^» w. b to 
judge, to consider Lev. 13, 36, w. ^ 
to consider w, pUaswre, to admire Ps. 
27, 4, w. ace. to consider or ixmcicr, 
for the sake of defending Ez. 34, 11 
or of punishing (cf. rk";iya). 

^jP!ll Chald. i. q. Heb. "Ipa, 
Pa. *^Epa to search, to investigate 
Ezr. 4, 15. — Ithpa. to be searched 
Ezr. 5, 17. 

^a (pL o*n^a; r. "^a) com., col- 
lect., ^TO]^.plowing'beast(cf, L. armen' 
turn s aramentum), cattle (for fidd- 
labour) Ex. 21, 87, fem. in Job 1, 14, 
used for a single head or beast, on 
ox or a cow, a beeve (Txb, cf. fkl, 
nte; Cp5, "Titt?), but mostly it signi- 
fi^ oxen, homed cattle, for which 
the plur. Q*^*^ is found only in Am. 
«, 12, Neh. 10, 87, 2 Ch. 4, 8. — 
-ijja-l^ buU^alfOen. 18,7, ^^-^ n|> 

Digitized by 





yowng ox Kmn. 29, 2, ^^"l^ ^^9 
yowng calfli&y. 9, 2; constr. as fern, 
pi. cows in Gen. 38, 13 nib? ^ 
m4ieh kine; hence npia Aercismon 
Am. 7, 14. — Ewald prefers to trace 
•^Jj!} to "Tga fo cfeavc L e. the hoof; 
hence cloven-hoofed beast. 

•^IgSl (pi. d'^^^Ija) m. prop, breaking 
(of the morning-light), day-break^ 
Moming, r. "ipa (but "ipa as r. of 
•nga may be akin to 11^2 to glow) ; 
^"3^ "^ '^5?"1? Ex. 18, 14 from dawn 
tUldark; ^iglnn n'Jb^ <A« fnomin^ 
fToicA Ex. 14, 24; hence ^^ is esp. 
the next morning Ex. 29, 34. As ady. 
in the morning, early, *^|^iii Ps. 5, 4, 
'ngaS.^igifi (poet) Ps. 30,' 6; distri- 
butively morning by morning, each 
morning, ijjaa ^^^aa, 'i]5ab 152b, 
D-'-igab, D-'^gab Job 7, is'; in Ps. 
90, 14 *^^aa has perh. the sense 
soon, for which *^^ab stands in Ps. 
49, 15. 

n*!]5^ (c. n'?55) f. a searching or 
ifuipec^ton, only in Ez. 84, 12; r. ligs^, 

Tn^^tscrutiny or animadversion, 
chastisement, only Lev. 19, 20; r. "npa. 

1S|7Zl (Qal obs.) akin to "^p^, 
Ghald. ^a, to searcA for, to seek 
after, wish for, to choose; only in 
Pi. o^a (fbt. v^a*;) 1) to seek 
earnestly, abs. 2 K. 2, 17 and w. ace. 
Gen. 37, 15; hence 1 K. 10, 24 to 
seek the countenance of the king, 
i. e, to visit him in order to obtain 
his faToor; to seek God O^TiK Wga) 
Ex. 33, 7 is to apply oneself to him, 
to worship him Ps. 40, 17. 2) to strive 
after, to aim at, e. g. '& n^'n some one^s 
hurt Ps. 71, 13, 'b %a some one's life 
(either to take it Ex. 4, 19 or to pre- 
serve it Prov. 29, 10), w. b Job 10, 6, 
Prov. 18, 1. 3) to demand, w. f^ 
Is. 1, 12. 4) to entreat, w,)^, ■'asfep, 

from somebody Dan. 1, 8, w. ^ for 
somebody Est. 4, 8. b) to inquire 
about, w. la Dan. 1, 20. — Pu. to be 
sougJU Jer. 50, 20. 

fTOIja (w. snf. '«nd^)t entreaty 
Est. 5y8;r. tfig^. 

*Q I (poet, in Ps. 2, 12, w. sul 
•^na Prov. 31, 2) m. son, only in these 
two passages in Heb. for )Sl, bat 
usual in Aram. ^S> r^* ^ ^^ % 
12 ^a ^p^a kiss the son (see v. 7 and 
comp. Is. 9, 5), some take ">& for 
purely or sincerely, as in the Yulg. 
adorate pure, cf. *^ n. — "i^ and 
la are the same (^ ^ 3), and of mi- 
metic origin (see on "ja and ttX^)» 

*Q n (r. l-na) adj. m., rr?? t 
1) appro©«l,cAo«cn Cant. 6, 9. 2)|mre, 
clear Cant. 6, 10; aai *X^pure of heart 
Ps. 73, 1. S)clean i. e. em^y Prov. 14, 4. 

^ in m. for ^9 cof9>, only Am. 
5, 11^ 8, 6, Ps. 72, 16. 

IS, *Q m. 1) grain, com, prop. 
what is consumed, food, as gar- 
nered Gen. 41, 35, or in the field 

Ps. 65, 14 (cf. Arab.^ wheat, Ij. far, 
farina), 2) field, as yielding pasture, 
grain and other articles for con- 
sumption, hence the country Job 39, 
4. — • Prob. firom M^ II = ^^ to 
feed, popa, cf. L. pascuum; but said 
to be from *)^a to sever or cleanse. 

13 Chald. I. m., w. suf. rna, pL 
T'aa (see la) son Dan. 6, 1, 7^5 -^ 
a son of the gods Dan. 3, 25; also 
grandson or descendant Ezr. 5, 1. 

*Q Chald. n. m., def. «•??, /Se^ 
country Dan. 2, 38. Arab. ^, Syr. 
|L, Heb. ^9. 

"^lil , once lia (r. "ina) m. 1) cfeott- 
ness, purity, d'^j; *na Ps. 18, 21 jmri^ 
o/* tAe hands, fig. for innocefice. 

Digitized by 


tn^ 103 

2) for l^'Tb, prop, what cleanses, henoe 
joft of lyty alkali (for soap) Job 9, 30. 

5021 (fttt. vn^) l)prop. to cut 
or eatrve; hence to form, to create, 
esp. of God's makinff or oreotiti;^ the 
world Gen. 1, 1; Ti^^oA K'n;; Gen. 2, 
S he made creatively, i. e. perh. 
by maVIng it anew out of chaos, cf. 
rrite^ V«ian (Gram. §. 142, Bern. 1). 
— Niph. to he created Gen. 2, 4; 
to he made or d^meEx. 34, 10 1 K'^na tXP 
« creoM people (i. e. that was yet 
to be bom) Ps. 102, 19. — Pi. VCTL 
to cut oir felUsk forest) Josh. 17, 18; 
to cut doum, to kill £z. 28, 47; to 
4Xurve,tofashionEz.21,24. Cf.Arab. 

1^ <o CK^ or create. 

CSjQ (Qa] obs.) akin to n<n:;II, 
ar^, vk^, to feed; hence Hipli. to 
^ause to feed, to fatten 1 Sam. 2, 29; 
hence V^^ 

j!j'55ha same as ^p*^, ^'i;j 
(which see', the n and S often inter- 
changing) 2 K. 20, 12. 

"tnSl pr:. n. (perh. my planning) 
of a place 1 Gh. 4, 31; see under 
ri-^a p. 88. 

riT^ISl pr. n. m. (PP created) 
1 Ch.'S, 21. 

■^•la (like irnn ; only pi. d'^'^'tj 
1 K. 6, 3) m. name of an uncertain 
fowl; •perh. geese, since they caMe 
or ^ii66/e so much; for the word is 
mimetic like our habble, Arab, yjtyf 
harbara, Jj.murmuro, pdppapo^; see 
tmde r bl^ 

lj3 i. q. *ryif to scatter, hence 
to haU Is. 82, 19; hence 

Ti:^ m. hail Ex. 9, 18; also l^fit 
n^ hatlrstcne Is. 30, 90.. 

T^ (r. TS^\ pL d'^^'ja) a^j. m. 
Itedraoed or (espfiit&M (of colour), 


spotted or piebald Gen. 31, 10, Zech. 
6, 9. — Hence irap6oc, Jj, pardu^; 
also (r « n) wAvdijp, L. panthera; 

cf. Syr. ]i&^|L leopard, W. brith 

(spottedX Arab. J^ astripedgarment. 

*T13 pr. n. (perh. hail) of a place 
Gen.^16, 14; r. "Vy^. 

nT3 I (obs.) i. q. Kn^ <o cut; 
hence rk'»*ia. 

m3 n akin to «?^, W (which 
see), rm m, to feed, to eat, 2 Sam. 12, 
17 Dl* n*!^ to eflrf bread, cf. 13, 6. — 
PL to devour, only inf. ni^a Lam. 4, 
10. — Hiph. rran to came to eat, 
w. two ace, 2 Sam. 3, 35. 

m3 m akin to '^'n^, to se- 
parate or select 1 Sam. 17, 8. 

?fi*Q Josh. 24, 10 int Pi, for 
*yha ftrom r. "jp^ 

"Sj^l^Q pp. n. m. (blessed) Jer. 32, 12. 

Di'ia (only pi. D'^tfiia) m. varie- 
gated cloths, only EJe. 27, 24 Maf 
D^o'ha treasure - cAesfv (^ jwWy- 
coloured stuffs, prob. damask; r.D^Sf, 

IDi^Q m. 1) tree of the fir class, 
cypress or jnne Is. 55, 13, the wood 
of which was applied to many uses, 
e. g. for floors; musical instruments, 
lances, etc. Hence 2) a spear Nah. 
2, 4. 3) musical instrument 2 Sam. 
6, 5. — Prob. from r. "TyL w. old 
formative ending Xif\*, see under 
letter t; but cf. W^, na. 

TfTSi (pi. D^niia) m. cypress or 
pine Cant. 1, 17, i. q. ^'13; « and n 
often changing, esp. in Aramean. 
Of. ppAOo. 

^M*Q f. perh. in Lam. 4, 10 for 
rfn^ nourishment, but see r. n^ n. 
. t\T(^ f. food^ nourishment, only 
Ps. 09, 22; r. rrn^ n. 

Digitized by 


l"'ttVi"lLi 104 


nri*rGl pr. n. (perli. for >Tn*i*«a 
wells) of a city in Aram Zobah 
£z.47, 16; some take it for B/jput^c, 
now BeiriU, the yfeill known Syrian 

TjZl (obs.) perH. akin to XiTi^ I, 
b'nd, T^D, to cut or pierce; perh. hence 

nil^ia pr. n. m. 1 Oh. 7, 31 
K'thibh, TTTpi Q»ri (perh. ftom 
*ia son and nM, nit olive, hence 
glistening; or perh. wounds, from 

^1*1^ (w. snf. •'iT'Ta) m. iron 
or sfee^ Gen. 4, 22, named for its 
hardness or its use in cutting; 
fig. iron sceptre Ps. 2, 9, L e. hard, 
strict rule. Cf.Chald. ind, Byr. J3]|i 
iron. Pig. a /*etter Ps. 105, 18, iron 
tooZDeut.27,5, 2 K.6, 5. — The root 
perh. is bta (which see), or rather 
t^lj w. ending b-^, as in io*!?. 

^^"["13 pr. n. m. (steely, cf. L. 
ferrens) 2 Sam. 17, 27. 

r I jZI (fat. rriy^) prob. akin to 
tvy^ I, p'na, JTT^, p^ all mimetic of 
sound of breaking; hence l)to break 
through or atra^, to flee ttnth haste, w. 
'»5dB aen.35 7, ''Ifiio Jon. 1, 3, lo Is. 
48, 20 of the pers. from whom one 
hastens, or flees away, w. "i^a from 
the power of somebody Job 27, 22, 
n&m from near 1 K. 11, 23; w. b^ 
Num. 24, 11, J) Neh. 13, 10 or ace*, 
of the place lohUher one flees 1 Sam. 
27, 4; w. TQ of the place whence 
one flees 1 Sam. 20, 1; w. "^^X to 
flee after, to foUow 1 Sam. 22, 20. 
w. ifirca Ex. 36, 33 to push 
h something = to boU through, 
prop, denom. flrom JT^'Ta. — 
yy^ l)to put to fligJd Joh 41, 
rtveoiM^Neh. 13,28. 2)denom. 
ryi to boU ox bar 1^ 26, 28. 

n\ J*^ 


Tarj'lla gentil. n. Barchwnite 9 
Sam. 23^ 31, see trnna. 

"•"JSl m. perh. serenity, only Job 
87, 11, from n'na m like "^nB, or 
rather as explained under ny^ and *n. 

"''^Sl pr. n. tn. (for "^^yjO, L. fon- 
tanus) 1 Ch. 7, 36. 

»*na (r. iCj^) adj. m., Mfip'Xa t 
fed, fattened of beasts 0en. 41, 2, 
men Dan. 1, 15, fat or rich (food) 
Hab. 1, 16, m^yfn the failing Zech. 
11, 16. Of. L. ad/eps, akin to daps, 


nK*^a f. a creation, a now^^ 
new thing] only Num. 16, SO; r. Kn|. 

n^'ia f. 1) food 2 Sam. 18, 5. 2) 
fatted, a^j. or part. pass. f. (after the 
Ohald. way) only inEz. 34, 20 rrna nto 
a fat sheep , where however some 
texts read MK'^'ja from «'«'ia; r. trja. 

rt'^'ia, trna (for n-^ia; hence 
pi. GWn^) I) adj. m. fleeing or /ii^ 
tive Is. 43, 14; /2eef, quickly gliding 
(of a serpent) Is. 27, 1. Job 28, 13. 
2) pr. n. 1 Oh. 3, 22. 

H'^'ia m. 1) i. q. m^ia fugititfe^ 
prob. in Is. 15, 5 •7'n''*Ta her fleeing 
ones. 2) fig. a bar, cross-bar, prob. 
passing through (rings or other 
fastenings) to hold boards together 
Ex. 26, 26; also a bolt or bar for 
securing a gate or door Neh. 3, 3. 
In Jon. 2, 7 the bars of the earth, 
barricadingits reces8es,orVlM!tf ;r.rni^ 

D'^'^Sl (for D-^^Ka weUs) pr. n.of a 
place 2 Sam. 20, 14. 

nJ^^ja pr. n. m. (gift, r. yna) 
Gen. 46, 17, patron. 'V^'ja Kmn. 

t\*'*na (r. rna i) f. prop, cutting 
up (of beasts in sacrifice, see n*^); 
hence fig. contract or covenatU Geiu 

Digitized by 


21, 27; peril, the custom was fbr the 
covenantiog parties to pass between 
the parts of the cut up victiiu (Gen. 
1 5, 1 0). Tms} is used for any covenant 
(between peoples Josh. 9, 6, friends 
1 Sam. 18, 3, persons marrying Mai. 
2, 14), but preeminently the covenant 
God made with the patriarchs, later 
with Israel, hence sometimes used 
for promise, law, or parts of the co- 
venant; Ez. 30, 5 n-tw y"j« the co- 
venemt'land^A. e. Palestine; MaL 3, 1 
n'^'W "rp^a the messenger of the 
covenant, i e. Messiah; Deut. 9, 9 
n-narr rvni ihe law-tables. More 
rarely rn*l2l is taken elliptically for 
mediastor of (he covenant Is. 42, 6, 
token of the covenant , i. e. circum- 
cision Gen. 17, 10, people of the co- 
venant Dan. 11, 28. To conclude an 
agreement or covenant is expressed 
by n^ Gen. 15, 18, d-ipi, "jrij, n^, 
rrnaa wDeut.29, i i/na Ka j to break 
it, by a W,^ bin, ngi, IW. — in form 
and sense, n'^*>a may well come from 
rn^n (o eat, hence prop, not a cutting 
wp (of the sacrifice), but an eating of it 
tcgdher, or a feast, as a token of the 
agreement made between the parties 
(see Gen. 31, 54), which is also implied 
in nbo r^y^ Num. 18,19 covenant of 
salt. This derivation, first given in 
Lee's Heb. Lexicon, was received with 
some favour by Gesenius and others. 
t^'nSl(from'Taw. fem. ending n*'—) 
L prop, what cleanses (r. "^"I^a), hence 
vegetable aOcaU, salt oflj/e, for wash- 
ing Jer. 2, 22 or refining Mai. 8, 2, 
named together w. *nrg vCxpov, which 
was a mineral alkali; but the former 
was obtained from various alkaline 
or saltish plants. Cf. borax, come 
prob. through the Arabic. 

^Jj3 (ftit. q^) prob. akintop^ 
iohreak, hemc^ to break dmoHiih^nc^ 



1) to bend, 2 Oh. 6, 18 0*72^2*^ ^^ 
lit. to bend on the knees, hence t^ 
kneel, comp. Dan. 6, 11; Ps. 95, d 
Oh come, r^^^^aa let us kneel (before 
God) i. e. worship or pra^; brace 

2) to bless (often in Piel) but in Qfil 
only part. pass, t]^ blessed, esp. in 
the style of greeting, Buth 2, 20 
nirri ^^, Gen. 24, 31 rtjrvi •^ii'^. 

— Niph. \fiad to bless oneself ot to 
be blessed Gen. 12, 8, see Hith. — 
K- tpa, ^a only in Num. 23, 20, 

Ps. 10, 3 (fwJ Titja*;; ini X^, 1^ 
Josh. 24, 10), 1) to adore, to wor^ip 
(by praising, invoking) on bended 
knees, w. ace. of the obj. (cf. Mat. 
17, 14 70V0iceTa)V ahx6s) Ps. 104, 1; 
sometimes w. the addition U^a 
Deut. 10, 8 in or at the name i. e. to 
worship the divine name by invoking 
it. in prayer. 2) to suppKeate some- 
thing (of God), either a blessing,hence 
said of priests Num. 6, 23, of prophets, 
Deut 33, 1, of dying parents Gen. 
27,4; or sometimes a curse, hence fo 
<!urse 1 K. 21, 10, Job 1, 5; 2, 5 (cf. L. 
sacerin good or bad sense); in general 
to bless w. ace. Gen. 27, 27, rarely i 
Neh. 11, 2, w. 2 accusatives to bless 
w. something Deut. 12, 7, also w. a 
of the thing Gen. 24, 1 ; in the same 
way God is said to bless, to prosper 
(men) by his word of blessing Gen. 
1, 22 and giving it effect Gen. 12, 
2; to greet or salute (at meeting) 
1 8am. 15, 13, to wish weU (at 
parting) 1 K. 10, 66, to bid fare' 
well; hence to part with or re* 
naunce, peih. euphemistically to 
curse in Job 2, 9 noj OT*?? T?9 
curse God and diet^--^ Pu." tH!^, 
part, ^'as, to be blessed Job 1, 21. 

— Hiph. Ipan to make to kneel 
down, e. g. camels for resting and 
drinking, Gen. 24, 11. — Hitll. to 
bless oneself Deut. 29^ 18, w. a of 

Digitized by 


the God whom one inyokes Jer. 4, 2, 
or the person whose prosperity one 
invokes for himself Oren, 22, 18, where 
the pass. shaU be blessed suits well, 
as seen in the Sept. (comp. GaL 3, 8) 
and Targfom, and as proposed hj Ge- 
senins and nK>8t. — Deriv. "^a, 
nan:?, nsna, vrjana, wijyyj^, prob. 



Chald. i q. Heb. 'q'tj to 
kneel Dan. 6, 11. — Pa. "l^na i q." 
Heb. r^na to bless, w. i Dan. 2, 19. 

1|^a (dual Q'^ana, c. ''5'Ta; sing, 
only in Is. 45, 23) f. a knee, prop, a 
break or bend\ Ez. 7, 17 d-'Sna-to 
off knees, dual w. plur. sense (Ghram. 
§ 88, 2, Bern.); r. ^pa. 

tpa Chald. f. i. q. Heb. ^a, a 
knee Dan. 6, 11. 

^K!in^ pr. n. m. (God blesses) 
Job 32, 2. 

Tty^ (w. n interrog. ns^an Gen. 
27, 38,'w. suf. "^nana, c nana; pi. 
niana, c. niana) f. i) blessing, as God's 
benediction, a divine gift or bene' 
faction Ps. 3, 9, or as a desire or 
supplication for blessing Gen. 27, 12 ; 
in Prov. 11, 25 naia tt^Uhesoul of 
blessing, i. e. a person of beneficence 
or liberality; nana '^P« *IU» 2 K. 18, 
31 tnake ye with me a blessing, L e. 
peace, regarded as good fortune. 2) 
concr. happy or blessed man Gen. 12, 
2. 3) pr. n. f. of a valley by Tekoa, 
perh. for h^na, 2 Ch. 20, 26. 4) pr. n. 
m. 1 Ch. 12, 3. 

nS'ia (o. nana, pL niana, w. the 
-::- immovable) f. a pool or pond (r. 
"Tp^), perh. so named from the kneel- 
ing or bending at it to drink or to 
draw water Nah. 2, 9, Is. 7, 3; but 
possibly it may come from "qna to 
break or gush out, — Hence Span, al- 
berea, through the Arabic 

n^S^S, VTjip'ya pr. fL m. (bless- 
ing of Pn) 1 Ohl 3, 20, Zech. 1, 7, 
Sept. Bopa^ta^. 

tJia Ecc. 3, 18 inl Qal of nn^ 
w. suf. D-^. 

U j!3 (obs.) perh. akin to 0^^ 
to bind, to interweave; hence perh. 

tnSl Chald. disj. conj. but, yet Dan* 
2, 28. Prob. akin to D^D to sunder, 

?5*13 pr. n.(perh. field of settle- 
ment , ^a and rcja) of a place near 
tthp Num. 32, 8. 

^^Q (obs.) perh. to make a 
present, said to be akin to Arabic^. 
Hence perh. 

7121 pr. n. m. (perh. gift) Cten. 
14, 2. ^'' 

nyi2l t perh. a present in 1 Ch. 
7, 23; but others prefer making it in 
evil, i. e. a misfortune, 

pj3i akin to pta, to break or 
send forth lightning, to flash forth 
Ps. 144, 6; hence p*}^, npja. — 
Prob. mimet. akin to T|'?a I; of. Lat 
frac-tus, G. brechen, B. break, wredc, 
W. briw, brau, brag (crushed barley, 
malt), rhwyg, rhych, Breton frika. 
Gr. fi^Y-vujii, Sans. r^/. Hence 

p'la (pi. DTri:^) m. 1) lightning, 
prop, flash (r. p"na); ann p-na flask 
of the sword, i. e. gleaming sword 
Deut. 32, 41; poet, also simply p^ 
Job 20, 25. 2) pr. n. m. (thunder-b<^ 
Punic Boreas, cf. L. belli ftilmflo 
forScipio) Barak Judg. 5, 1. 

D*1p'^3 pr. n. m. (perh. breaker, 
r. p'la w. old format, ending t^i — ^ 
like 0-;- in 0^*^^ and tb-p in ^6^ib^j) 
Neh. 7,^55. 

■jgnS (only pL tr^lffyH m. prop. 
what breaks in piaoet henoe en««fterf 

Digitized by 




or ihretiien (noim of the form y^) 
Jadg. 8, 7y said to be sledges or Toll- 
ers set with iron or flint teeth; ac^ 
cording to others they were certain 
thorny plants; r. p'n^. 

T^^^ t emerald Ex. 28, 17,' so 
called for its brilliance; r. p^^ 
— CI i&apa^fio;, a(idpa7$o;, L. 
«mara^dti9, whence our emerald , I*, 
^meroude, G. mnaragd. 

I^PJS 1 a later form for HgJ^ 
£z. 28, 13. 

Tj3 (1 pers. perf. '»nfi"pa, inf. w. 
«a£ nn^ Ecc. 3, 18, like "^ from 
^r;?^) akin to K*ja, 1) prop, to sever, 
c g. Ez. 20, sV d-nTan •«ni'na I 
separate the rebels; part. "tnacA^isen, 
selected 1 Ch. 9,22. 2) tobeckan in a 
physical sense, polished Is. 49, 2; in 
a moral sense, pwre, n^*^^ M^ pure 
speech Zeph. 3, 9. 3) to prove or fes^ 
£co. 3, 18 D^^sV /'o'' ^ i>rore tAem 
(ct -Ttoi in Ecc. 9, 1). — Nipli. ^^5} 
(imp. ^'^ Is. 52, 11, part. *^a3) to 
ftiake oneself pure (in a moral sense) 
Ps. 18, 27. — Pi. to pwrify or 
e2earMe Dan. 11, 35. — Hipb. to clean 
(com) Jer. 4, 11, to cleanse (arrows 
from rost) i. e. to poHsh, or sharpen 
Jer. 51, 11. — Hi lb. to purify one' 
selfDssi, 12, 10; to shew oneself pure 
Ps. 18, 27. In 2 Sam. 22, 27 *-i^in is 
used for 'I'^ar*) in Ps. 18, 27. Hence 
^ n, ^ TV»'^, perh. Iti^f — Cf.L. 
jnsnts, putus, W. |mr, |>gr, E. pure, 

IDjiH (obs.) perh. akin to n^, 
lo^ eti^, to pterce; henctf perh» tbi^a, 

TlSnSl pr. n. m. (perh. son of 
wickedbness, i. e. wicked, ih>m ')2 
:n5rj) Gen. 14, 2. 

r*n2l (obs.) perh. 1 q. «ina 
io cut- or hew; hence T&yh. 

15 '-S jn^' T^ (perh. same as JTXjt^a) 
of a city 2 Sam. 8, 8. 

*li\D2l (always "nftoan w. art.) pr. 
n. (perh. sedgy, r. ^iSj^ U) of a brook 
near Gaza 1 Sam. 30, 9 ; Sept. B<S90p, 
Josephus BiveXoc, now e^Sheria, 

•TliiD^ also fTltea t 1) ^M 
tidinffs, good news (O. E. gospel) 
2 Sam. 18, 22. 2) reward for good 
news 2 Sam. 4, 10; r. "nl^a L 

X ISmI perh. akin to b^l^ to loooe 
(of. bi^a » &9D), aaXoc, L. so/to; 
hence 1) to 6««(5/6 t»p, to boil, to be 
cooked Ez. 24, 5. 2) fig. to ripen 
(as if boiled or baked in the sun) 
Joel 4, 13; of. iriirTco, itlao(i>, L. 
coquo, G. kochen in this twofold sense. 
— Pi. br^ to cause to 5oi/, to cock 
(flesh etc.) Ex. 16, 23; part Vt^ a 
cook Ez. 46, 24. — Pu. to be boUed 
Ex. 12, 9. — Hipb. to fn<2^ ripe 
(prop, to cook) e. g. grapes (Hn. 
40, 10, to bring them to maturity. 

70^ a^'. m. boiled Ex. 12, 9; 
fem. riVva, as subst. something 
boiled or «o<2tien Num. 6, 19. 

•^^1233, see iti. 

D^^4 pr. n. m. (for &V$*19 son 
of peace) Ezr. 4 7« 

Ul&!3 (obs.) to smell sweet, to 
be fragrant; Aram, d^a, y>mn, akin 
to W sweet smell, Arab. ^Ul{, 
pdXffaf&^oc, our ^o^som, &aZm, F. 
baume. Hence di^, bi^a, bi^, 
rai^a, bi^a*;, bi^na. 

D1S& (w. suf. *«oi^) ^ 5a&am) 
balsam'tree, only in Cant. 5, 1; r. 

DiS^. and tDteh (pl.b*iQ^) m. 1) 
balsam-scent, fragrance Is. 8, 24. 
2) sptcc, ^picery b"^ ^"^ chief 
spices Cant. 4, 14; bj^'l^ Bx. 80, 

Digitized by 





■> &tbn-ha;p fA« 9u;e«^ cane Ex. 30, 23; 
QlKa-!)3 t^^ Ez. 27, 22 the best of aU 
8pieery. 3) ^ halsam-treef Cant 6, 2 

ttOlSQ pr. n. t (fragrance) Gen. 
26, 34. ' 

rntea, see rrji©^ 

IIZO (obB.) prob. akin to ID^ to 
he expanded, level; hence ^l^ and 

1^^ pr. n. (in prose '^^i the 
champaign country) of a region east 
of Jordan Num. 21, 33, famoos for 
oak forests Is. 2, 13 and meadows 
Bent. 32, 14; Samaritan 'psna, Sept. 
Ba9dv,EnsebiasBa9avtTi<; Joeephos 
BaravaCa, Batanea, now el^Bottm. 
'--' Perh. the name is akin to Dl^ 
referring to the fragrant yegetation. 
"pP^ (only w. n-^ loc. or parag. 
nji^ from r. tsisi w. the ending 
rr^ perh. as in "|t*^fc, which see) dif- 
grace, only Hos. 10, 6. 

rOlZQ shame, only Hos. 10, 6; sec 

D1p!3 to tread daum Am. 5, ll; 
•ee waT "^ 

^inZI I (Qal obs.) prob. akin 
to -D^, -in^, "nnf, Chald. 'TOtt, 
8yr. i^tfyto /a^ open; hence in Pi. 
I^a Jer. 20, 15 (fat ^;'), 1) to 
announce, to teU out, mostly what is 
pleasant, at times wliat is unpleasant ; 
hence w. the addition of niD in the 
ace as in 1 K. 1, 42 ^t^s^n nio thou 
ufiU announce good; riWi ^va^ 
to announce praiselB, 60, 6, rmb^ help 

1 Ch. 16, 23; in 1 Sam. 4,\7'it is 
ttsed where even a defeat is an- 
nounced. 2) to tell good tidings, to 
bring good news, w. ace. of the pers. 

2 Sam. 18, 19; e£ t^n*^^^'^^^ '^^^ 

Xaiv Lnke 8, 18. — Hilh. only in 
2 Sam. 18, n kt the king "rjjpp^ U 
openly t6ld\ cl 'Vnf. 

^1D!Z1 n (obs.) perh. to he fresh 

or cool, Arab. ^ grassy; henee 

perh. "iTwa. 

l1p!3 m (obs.)perh.fo9t(«27 out, 
to he plump, akin to *\^ H; hence 


*lta (c. 1193, w. sufl -n^a, pL 

B'l'Ti^a Prov. 14, 30; ct 9(£pxt0 nu 
1) fleih opp, to bone (in the bodies 
of men and of beasts) Gen. 2, 21; 
hence hody (opp. ibfiD) Is. 10, 18; 
^a r^yi bo^ fatigue Ecc 12, 12; 

perh. for skin (as the Arab. ^) 
in Ps. 102, 6. 2) fig. a) » 9(ip^ for 
a human being, a mortal, ^'^ ^l 
2 Oh. 32, 8 human arm (L e. mortal, 
weak), p) for allmen, mankisul Gen. 
6, 12; as opp. to Otod or spiritual 
existences Is. 31, 3, implying frailty 
and sin Gen. 6, 3. 7) for aU Iwing 
creatures, men and animals. Gen. 
6, 13. $) blood-relation Gen. 29, 14 
(cf. ^). In Gen. 17, 11 perh. for-ilpa 
mryf the parts of shame, L. pudenda, 
Ex! 28,42; r. *^i9a lO. 

itoa Chald. (def. K'jtoa) i. q. Heb. 
"nta, flesh Dan. 7, 5. 

1l!i(l9SL Ex. 82, 1, see PIL of r. vHa. 

nsa (w. sut ?|rn^; r. vha) f. 1) 
shame Vs. 40, 16 (perh. prop, change 
of colour), fully O**?! rwa Dan. 9, 7 
colowring of face; disgrace, dishommr 
Is. 54, 4, 'a VS^I^, n^y to be covered 
w. shame. 2) a contemptuous wovd 
for idols Jer. 3, 24. 

f^lD!^ i. q. nva only in ni$$7?* 

Kl I (fem. of "ja; contract ftom 
i>}:fornjg,Syr..iijL W*; w.suf.n5a, 
pLrdd9,c.niX|)£d^iUer Gen. 11,89; 

Digitize^ by VjOOQ IC 




alBO fike *(& used in many senses: 
bence grand 'daughter, femak de- 
dcmdent Gen. 6, 2, oiopfed Awf^Wcr 
Est. 2, 7, ^otm^ irofmin Gen. 30, 13, 
duct;^ MaL 2, 11, tnM^^^ of a 
dty Is. 3, 16, just as )3l also is used. 
1^ is nsed not only w. names of 
cities and lands or W for inhabitantSt 
bttt for designating age in the female 
sex, daughter of 1, 2, 10 years, i. e. 
a female of that age; and in poetic 
imagery, e. g. Gen. 49, 22 dcMghter 
of a tree, i. e. branch; Bcc. 12, 4 
daughter ofwng, i. e. singer; Ps. 17, 
8 daughter cf the eye, i. ^ ^^ irapil; . 
daughUr of the city, i. e. the sab- 
vAs or adjacent district Norn. 21, 25. 

ra n (^ tn^) m. in Ez. 45, 10 
but f. in Is. 5, 10, haJth, meatore for 
Ufuids abont 8V) gallons; hence p&- 
Toc Imke 16, 6, and perh. Qer, hvUe^ 
boUick, Sng. huU] r. T^ 

Ka Ohald., pi. "prns Bzr. 7, 22, 
hath (measure); 1. q. Heb. n^ IL 

t3**a*1-|r\a pr. n. (daughter of 
many) of a gate Cant. 7, 5. 

55©"r\a pr. n. t (daughter of 
oath) mother of Solomon 1 K. 1, 15; 

JTOTQ pr. n. f. (daughter of 
oath, y>nb softened from y^xb) 1 
Ch. 3, 5. 

nriSl (obs.) perh. akin to nn^ 
■B nne, to breakup or destroy; hence 

rBna t desolation 1 q. hFft, only 
la. 5,V 

fTFQ (only pi. nima) f. desolation, 
only Is. 7, 19 rnvmn -t^rg the valleys 
cf desolations; r. ma. 

bSfifQ pr. n. (perh. abode of 
God) of a place in Simeon 1 Gh. 
-*, 30, but in Josh. 19, 4 iw^; also 

pr. n. m. perh. for iHVffl (maa of 
God) Gen. 22, 22. 

nbWQ (pi. nfl)»irffl; r. bn^) t 
virgin Gen. 24, 16, prop, secluded, 
chaste (icopOlvoO; also used of a 
betrothed virgin (not yet married) 
Joel 1, 8, Sept. v6fji<p7). Fig. of 
cities Is. 23, 12 and comtries Lam. 
1, 15, perh. as not having been con- 
quered. — Perh. i^na is Mk or 
young daughter, firom n^, bn— being 
a diminutival ending, as in Vrtn. 

D'^b^Pfi riL]fi,virgin8tate,virginity 
Lev. 21, 13'(cf. tnpAj, D-'aijt, tn^); 
fig. tokens of virginity Deut. 22, 14. 

njJtjS pr. n. £. (daughter of IBP) 
1 ChJ 4, 18. 

DTD houses, see n-*^. 

^lyU (obs.) akin to \n, to se- 
parate, to seclude; prob. hence hVv>5 

pllj prob. akin to nna, to cut 
up; oni/ Pi. pna to cut to pieces 
Ez. 16, 40. 

'nllin akin to "inft, only in Qal 
and Pi.^CVa) to cut to pieces, split, 
only Gen. 15, 10; hence "ina. 

*lWa Ohald. for ir«a (i. q. ^TfX^ 
in place of), hence after, "jpria a^ 
t^ Dan. 2, 39. 

•una (w. suf. tina) m. i>iece, jHire 
Gen. IS^IO; also aspUt^^T^ ^yj Oant 
2, 17 ntown^atns of fitting i. e. moon* 
tains cut up by gorges or defiles. 

■jllPa m. a ravine, only in 2 Sam. 
2, 29 'p*'^?*? ^ P'^- 1^ o' ft ravine on 
the eastern bank of the Jordan: 
perh. for "j^n ma Num. 32, 36. 

nXnUl (obs.) akin to pn^, Wj:j 
and nn^ to cut or mark out, henc4 
1) to measure; hence naiL2)to cut 
off, to destroy; hence nta. 

Digitized by 


J QitnU, the 8d letter in the Heb. 
Alphabet; hence used also for 3. Its 
early form on Phen. monuments and 
Heb. coins is A i whence the Qreek 
"I or r I , the Boman C and G; 
see Table of Ancient Alphabets. Its 
name i^l, ^^A is from hiQ^ camel, 
the head and neck of which it rude- 
ly pictured; the form and name 
(whence Gr. Fdixfta) suggesting by 
the first sound the force of the letter, 
which as in Qreek was our g hard 
(as in ffody ffet), but with a slight dif- 
ference between A ffh and % g (see 
Gram. § 6, 3). 

3 vnkrchainge^ — 1 with its kin- 
dred palatals (see tmder each) e. g. 

t3}=w?, 'n^-tta^ |L»H^, -r?! = np, 
*iafit = *iD^ = tb:j, even with ^, as ana 
=i^ n (ci nto =^), ci K ^0 = 

x(<D»!<0,K^ate=O. B.j(ate«W.ic*; 
— 2 with gutturals (see under each), 

l^o)^; — 8 with labials, e. g. 
i^a = BopXo;, (cl -yXl^apov = pX£- 
^apov), perh. i?J = to? = ^r??i l"it 
the interchange of these sounds is 
most familiar in other tongues (see 
under a p. 74); — 4 w. liquids, e. g. 

TOTd = rft© m, ct 11671^ = |i6Xic. 

]i seems to be a formative ending 
(akin to "^-7- and rT-7-) in a^J» from 
ipx, ayt>i from -pn. 

»a (for rwj; r. rwa) a^j. m. 
e&fei, i^rotMf Is. 16, 6. The c. pL 
*tKa only in the Q*ri of Ps. 123, 4 
ir:')'*! '^^jprotkl ojipreMOfYy but see 

ma I 

(frit. HMf *;) akin to K}!;, 

miQ fo fproti^, io grow up, of plants 
Job 8, 11 ; to riae, of swelling water 
£z. 47, 5; prob. to 6e high, of the 
head Job 10, 16. Fig. io be exalted, 
majeaAic, of God Ex. 15, 21 ; also to he 
haughty, see Ka, txt^ Of. Syr. 

nl^a n (obs.) to he deep, hoOow, 
hence *>|, K*;!, K^a, ni'sja. — AHn to 

Arab, t)^, L. cavus, Bret, cat;, 'W. 
cau (hollow). 

rifcja t j>r«fe, only in Prov. 8, 13; 
r. ma L 

nSa (pi. d"TO) adj. m. lifted up, 
high, lofty Is. 2, 12; in a bad 
sense, haughty Jer. 48, 29; often for 
ungodly (opp. "ij^) Prov. 16, 19, Sept. 
6ppiaTa(; r. rw| L 

bM%<3 pr. n. m. (God's nugesty) 
Num. 13, 15. 

rn^ t ea»z7to^ton, in a good 
sense, highness, mc^esty Deut. 33, 26; 
in a bad sense, pride, haughJlineu 
Ps. 73, 6, fig. of the raging sea Ps. 
46, 4; exceUenq/, splendour Ps. 68,35. 

D y^a (only pL) m. redemption, 
only in Is. 63, 4 *>^Ma my redemp- 
tion, the pi. being used here perh. 
as abstract (see Gram. § 108, 2, a); 
but it may well be the pass. part, of 
b^a my redeemed ones. 

•jifi^a (r. n^; c. ffiW, pL ta^'iifttt) 
m. prop, mounting, swelling, fig. 1) 
excellency Is. 4, 2; mqjesty, ap^;? TiKI^ 
the Majesty of Jacob, i. e. Jacob's 

Digitized by 





God Am. 8, 7 (cf. ^M^cri n^ iSam. 
15, 29), but the Holy Land in Ps. 
4^ 5j 1TWT "pHa <Ac ^fory or pride 
of Jordan, Le. its green and wooded 
banlu Jer. 12, 5, Zech. 11, 3. 2) pride, 
hoMffhtiness Prov. 16, 18, Is. 16, 6; 
pride of waves Job 38, 11; pi. only 
Ez. 16, 56 ^M«J thy arrogances 
(cH L. superbicB^ F. hauteurs, our 
high airs). 

WM (w. firm -:r) f. 1) rising, 
mauntiHg i^, Is. 9, 17 "p^ tim 
a mmuUing Mp of smoke, Ps. 89, 
10 DVj nnxja too rw^fi^ owr <Ae 
wocfllw^ (or pride) of the sea, of God. 
2) hfliness, vaunting, rviK^s iina'n ^^ 
speak in haughtiness Ps. 17, 10. 
8) omamentt splendor Is. 28, S; 

fi'Wa (only pL D^?'i''M) adj. m. 
J>roiKf, only in K'tbibh of P». 123, 4; 
but the Q'ri reads d*>:l*^ "^ proud 
ones of oppressors i. e. prond oppres- 
sors (Gram. § 112, Bern. 1); r. hijal. 

ftilJja t pL «afley« Ez. 7, 6; 



K3 (fat. ifctt';) 1) trans, to re- 
kase, to set free what was bound or 
fettered; hence a) to deliver, to save 
from enemies Ps. 107, 2, bondage 
Ez. 6, 6,- captivity Is. 43, 1, dangers 
Qen. 48, 16, w. ace. of the obj. and 
p (Ho«. 13, 14) or 1?o of the person or 
thing from which, Jer. 31, 11; to 
redeem what is devoted, holy, i. e. 
to release the restraints on its use, 
Lev. 27, 13; to ransom what is sold, 
i. e. to buy it back from its possessor. 
Lev. 25, 25 ; hence Job 3, 5 2^ dark- 
Hess and decUh-^hade ^h»y^ redeem 
H i. e. may they recover possession 
of the day, alluding to Gen. 1, 2. 
P) With on to demand hack the blood 
of Uie slain, i. e. to avenge it on the 

^ayer, only in part. Wt^ iisrift the 
avenger of blood Deut. 19, 6, without 
13^ in Kum. 35, 12. 7) As the right 
of redemption and duty of blood* 
revenge belonged only to the next 
of kin, hence ^MIA stands for a blood- 
relative Lev. 25, 25, Buth 3, 12; ^Al^'O 
(one) of our kinsmen Buth 2, 20. 
h) The b^iA had to marry the child- 
less widow of his kinsman, hence ^K( 
(denom.) to act a kinsman''8 part, 
L e. to marry the widow, Buth 3, 13» 
2) intrans. (perh. akin to ^19) and 
\bn JJ) to be loose, free, i. e. to be 
unrestricted, hence pfofane, for the 
Hebrew considered what was holy as 
debarred and inaccessible to the un- 
clean; but this sense is obsolete in 
Qal (cf: the Babbinic *-iPi^ set free, 
L e. lawful, opp. to *n!|^< bound, L e* 
forbidden; comp. Ps. 146, 7); hence 
in general, to be desecrated; comp* 
bVn n, also b^a. — Nipb. i) ^3 to 
be redeemed, released Lev. 27, 33, 
Is. 52, 3; to ransom oneself Lev. 25, 
49. 2) ^3 (Gram. § 51, 2, Bem.) to 
be profaned, poUuted, e. g. by blood 
Is. 59, 3; Lam. 4, 14. — Pi. h^t to 
defOe Hal. 1, 7. — Pa. bfib to be de- 
filed, part. h^'O polluted (food) MaL 
17, 12, to be made unconsecrate, L e. 
to be degraded from sacred office 
Ezr. 2, 62. — Hipb. to soU, to make 
unclean, with blood Is. 63, 3 (only 
perf. 1 pers. *4!^i>^ by Aramaism 
for "^nittCiri). — HithJ to defile oneself 
w. unclean food Dan. 1, 8. 

54i3 (only c. pL "^^J) m. profa- 
nations, only Neh. 13, 29; r. ilHiJ 2. 

n^Sfl £. 1) redemption, esp. repur- 
chase of a field that had been sold, 
Lev. 25, 24; hence right of redemp- 
tion Jer. 32, 8, comp. v. 7 w. XSW&2 
expressed;. dVi'S) tn^MA perpetual right 
of redemption Lev. 25, 32; price of 

Digitized by 



redemption Ler. 25, 26. 2) r^aticth 
3kip, which involyed the right of 
redemption, ^^} ^^ £z. H, 15 
fum of thy l^Hpy L e. thy rela- 
tives; r. bi|^. 

!ia (r. Mj; w. rof. "^ai, pi. d*>aa, 
tnia^) m. something gibbous^ bulging 
up, arched, convex; hence 1) ridge, 
e. g. of the altar, i e. its fop (Sept. 
Tb IS<]/o;) Ez. 43, 13; hence the hack, 
of men Ps. 129, 3, of animals Ez. 
10, 12; of a shield, its bosses Job 
15, 26; hdwarkn, ramparts in Job 

13, 12. 2) a vauM, hence brothel (ct 
L. fornix), betanse prostitutes often 
sat in such arched cells or booths 
Ez. 16, 31; <Ae rim of a wheel 1 K. 
7, 33; W? nHaa lit. arches of his 
eyes, i e. his arched eye-brows Lev. 

14, 9, only the fem. pL being used 
in this sense. — Gf. xG^oc, 'L.gibhus, 
W. cefn, G. giebel, B. gable, 

!13 Ohald. (w. sof. *ia|) m. ^ 
dooA;, as in Heb., Dao. 7, 6 V$ 
|3n:^| (m Us hacks (pL for shig. like 
T^ vtora) but the Q'ri has m|, Sept. 
iicdvo a&T^c In the Targ. and 
Tahn. n|-^, '^Sl*^ is a prep, t^poft, 
*■ "^^f-b? in Heb. 

Sa (part of a^li), only in pL D^aj 
p^tm^Aers 2 K. 25, 12, in K'thtbh; 
see anft. 

3^^ (only pi. b*fa|; r. n^) m. some- 
thing cut out, hence 1) piece of wood, 
hoard or plank 1 K. 6, 9. 2) pit, 
cistern Jer. 14, 3. 3) i. q. aia locust 
Is. 33, 4, perh. so called for its cutting 
off vegetation. 

!l'a , ^ia pr. n. (a pit, r. a^A) of 
a place 2 Sam. 21, 19, but 'nj} in 1 
Ch. 20, 4. 

^ Ohald. (del K^ft, pL f^; r. 
3^) JXL pit, dm, of lions Dan. 6, 8. 

112 ijia 

isD3^ (obs.) akin to 341» <o cvi 

out, excavate; hence 

tOa (pL b*^:^) m. <n«femli.80, 
14; i>o^£z. 47, 11. 

!ll!^3(ob8.) akin to mi,:$^ t\m 
to he ciAfved, rising as a hill or sinking 
as a hollow; hence to he erookedf 
bent. Deriv. aa, lira*. Ct xuicx«. 

!IU31 Chald. (obs.) akin to Heb. 
n^Si, 1) to dig; hence nk 2) io fo 
convex, high; hence n|. 

naa (oniy pi. niaa, cf . aa) f. art* 
or brow of the eye Lev. 14, 9; feOoe 
(of a wheel) Ez. 1, 18. 

noil (3 perf. f. Knaa Ez. 31, 5; 
mt nnaa Zeph. 3, 11; fut Rja'i 
3 pL fem. iTJ^^^a^R Ez. 16, 50 for 
hjnjan) akin'toiaj, l) to he high 
or' taU, a tree Ez. 19, 11, the 
heavens Ps. 103, 11, a man 1 Sam. 
10, 23. 2) fig. to he exalted Job 
36, 7; a^ naa heart is high, I e. 
takes courage 2 Ch. 17, 6, in a bad 
sense, to be haughty Ps. 181, 1; said 
of a person, to he proud Jer. 13, 15. 
— Hiph. Pr2?n to make high, exalt 
Ez. 17, 24. Adverbially w. inf. Vn:ji^ 
C)*i5 they make high to fly, i. e. they 
soar on high Job 5, 7, but without 
Cp5 in Job 39, 27 to fly high (see 
Gram. § 142, 4, Bem. 1), comp. Is. 
7, llj Ps. 113, 5. Hence 

rOa adj. m- high (i. q. nb}), only in 
constr. as in Tvsip n^a taH of stature 
Ez. 31, 3; a^ nasi haughty of heart 
Prov. 16, 5. 

rpa (c. ri'aft) adj. m., nh'ai t 
1) high or tall, of stature 1 8am. 
9, 2, a tower Is. 2, 15, moun- 
tain 57, 7, gate Jer. 51, 58, wall 
Deut 3, 5, horn Dan. 8, 3, gal- 
lows Est. 5, 14; fig. high-minded^ 

Digitized by 





Wp^ ihe proud Is. 5, 15. 2) sabst. 
height 1 8am. 16, 7; mh^ pride 
1 Sam. 2, 3. 

m. 1) ibe^A^ 1 8am. 17, 4; Job 11, 
8. 2) Mffhneaa^ majesty Job 40, 10. 
3)j)rkfe, ab nak pride of heart 2 Ch. 
32, 26; rpn Jnni ofrrogance Prov. 
16, 18; t)M roil lit. 2o/i^ine89 o/* nose, 
1 e. (ftsdom Ps. 10, 4» 

rOJ (obs.) - Syr. \L^, to 
gather or coOed; hence 'i^ 

FATDa 1 haugMiness Is. 2, 11; 
r. I^A. 

b^a also b;ia (r. ^n;; w. snf: 
'f/Ol, pL D^^ll w. sing, sense 1 Sam. 
5, 6, cfl tip\».axa for xlpfia, E. hor' 
ders for 5orc2er) m. boundary -Hne 
iptolo. akin to ^an ttoisted cord), hence 
]) fimi^ or bound in general Dent. 
3, 16, Judg. 11, 18; dj toft <A« 
leesfem border Num. 84, 6; e^^e or 
margin £e. 43, 13. 2) a bounded di- 
sHd, region or country included 
within borders, '^^'^^ toj Gen. 
10. 19; b*;3?o ittft-i^ Ex. 10, 14; 
1«^ tef-lis 1 *Sam. 11, 3. — 
Hence the denom. h^} to bound, 
see p. 114. 

tifQA (poet, pL mVna) t border 
Tm. 28, 25; margin of the land, sea- 
thore, Ps. 74, 17; Umit Nmn. 34, 2; 
tlien a bounded district Dent 32, 8. 
liSia also ^a (r. *^^) m. 1) as 
adj. strong or mi^Af^ Oen. 10, 8; 
*^ ^ is. 9, 5 mighty hero or perh. 
unghiy God, as in Is. 10, 21, comp. 
Bent 10, 17. 2) snbst mighty one, 
here Jer. 5I9 30, Is. 8, 2; in bad 
•enic, ^Ofi* Ps. 52, 3. — I'll ^iaa 
«M^% ontf of strength, L e. a) w^% 
tcomor Judg. 6, 12, or simply war- 
rior Josh. 1, 14; p) iw^% on« in 
waUh, L e. Texy rich man Bnth 2, 1 

comp. 2 E. 15, 20; 7) fti^^ one of 
worth, L e. an energetic successftd 
man 1 E. 11, 28. 

S'^.^a Chald. (det V^R^QA; r. *15I) 
t might Dan. 2, 20, 23. 

rn^a (r. ^nj}; w. snt '»n'T^a») £. 
atret]^ £cc. 9, 16; valour Judg. 8, 
21; fig. force, provjess Judg. 18, 21 
mightiness of God Is.. 33, 13, Ps. 
145, 11; mighty acts ni'nnsft of God 
Deut 3, 24 ; victory Ex. 82, 18; oppreS" 
sion Jer. 23, 10. 

Ili^n (obs.) akin to R^, to be 
high, of the forehead; hence 

HSia adj. m. prob. high offore- 
head, L e. forehead -hold, only Lev. 
13, 41, while li'ng (lit smooth) means 
5aZ(2 behind Lev. 13, 40; hence 

nnl^a t bald forehead Lev. 13, 
42; fig. baldness or bare place on the 
outer or right side of cloth. Lev. 
13, 55; opp. WI'J^ 

'^^a pr. n. m. (collector, r. h^ 
Keh. 11, 8. 

D^a pr. n. (cisterns Jer. 14, 8» 
or locusts Is. 33, 4) of a place Aot 
far fh)m Jerusalem Is. 10, 31. 

rO^^Sa t curdled milk, cheese^ 
only in Job 10, 10; r. )^ 

yiia m. akin to roajS^ xfiiceXXov, 
chalice or goblet Gen. 44, 2, comp. 
Jer. 35, 5; fig. the cup of flowers, 
calix Ex. 25, 81; r. 9^ 

*l*^a3 adj. m., nr^ t mighty, 
ruUfig, leading, but used only as a 
subst lord, master, only in Gen. 27, 
29. 375 fern, mistress, but used only 
for a queen, L e. king's wife 1 K. 11, 
19 or king's mother 1 K. 15, 18. 

rr^'M, see •l'»af 

tZri^a m. something sftifene<2^ fro- 
zen, hence prop, iee^' fig. crystal, so 

Digitized by 





called from its similarity to ice,- only 
Job 28, 18: r. X^ 

1) to turn, to plat or combine, to twist 
together, as a cord or rope, hence 
ioa, nViaa, witeft, >i)|?o; fig.' <o he 
high, hence ^^ft, b^ 2) as denom. 
of biiaa (fat Va^*;), to ^oufui or limit, 
as in Josh. 18, 20; to se^ as a bomi- 
dary Dent. 19, 14; w. a to border 
upon, as in Zech. 9, 2. — Hiph. to 
enclose around Ex. 19, 12, 23. Hence 

)33 pr. n. (Arab, jl^ jebelmorm- 
tain) of a Phenician city, now JebeH, 
the little momitain; in Greek BupX.oc 

(Y = p, cf, 7Xi^X">^ = P^X»^) ^• 

27, 9; gentil. n. *>iaft Josh. 18, 5; 
pi. d*>tea 6K5/ito8 i K. 5, 32. 

)!13 (r. iaj) pr. n. of a monn- 
tainoas region Sonth of the Dead 
Sea, Ps. 83, 8 ; 8tm called Jebdl (hills). 
' bia, see Via». 

pbia (forn>«rf*cnworJSr, 
hence something laced together, 
nn^ai twifi9 ioreaihrUke chains Ex. 

28, 22; r. h^. 

\D!^ (obs.) L q. a3J, IM, to 5c 
^&oi», to ctirtw, hence fSSi AtmcA- 
&acA;e(2, fba^ peaky mouMtain, TcnoUy 
ridge, nraa cheese, prob'. from the 
bulging form. 

"plSi adj. m. Ai<mp-5a(^e({ Lev. 
21, 20. 

S133S Job 10, 10, see nrnK. 

"{iDa (only pi. D*^ra») m. &acX;, 
ridge, d''«a| 'ti mountain of ridges 
Ps, 68, leV in V. 17 O-^mA d'llin in 
apposition; cl Homer's icoXuSetpac 
OiSXu{i.ico^, H. 1, 499. 

y^A (obs.) aMn to nS}, 933, 93]^, 
to be vaulted, curved, bowUshaped; 
hence to &e orcAeeZ, Ai%; hence 

553 pr. n. (hill) of a Levittcal 
city in Benjamin, about a mile north 
of Jerusalem Josh. 18, 24; also called 
1»>Qj3a 5>3a 1 Sam. 13, 16. 

fctPna pr. n. m. (prob. hill) I C3h. 
2, 49. 

JT5:ia (pL n-toft) f. 1) hiU Is. 40, 
4; di-w rtKja Hab. 3, 6 At/fe of eter- 
nity, Le. primeval. Zion is called iks 
hiU of God (njir; nwa) Ez. 84, 26, 
as Bethel in earlier time was called 
Wi^ n^aSi 1 Sam. 10, 5; the -word 
seems to be used for troa in Jer. 3, 
23, hill of idolatrous worship. 2) pr. 
n. of several cities lying on hills, e. 
g. a) city in Bei^amin, which as the 
birth-place of Saul was called ra33i 
iilK^ 1 Sam. 11, 4; gentil. n. wa> 
1 Ch. 12, 3; p) city in Judah, Josh. 
15, 67; r. 55*. 

■jiyM pr. n. (of or on a hiU) of 
a city of the Hivites Josh. 10, 2, in 
Bei^jamin Josh. 18, 25; gentil. n. 
*tp^nA 2 Sam. 21, l. 

^^a m. small cup, hence the 
calix or corolla of flowers, e. g. <Ae 
flax (was) blossom, i. e. was in flower, 
Ex. 9, 31. — Prom !Da w. the 
dimin. ending ^ — , akin to xox- 

t^Tlia pr. n. (hill) of a city about 
3 miles north of Jerusalem in Ben- 
jamin Josh. 18, 28; called also rCKU 
D*^K}1 1 Sam. 10, 5, where {nrob. 
Qod's ark was in the house of Abi- 
nadab 1 Sam. 7, 1 ; rrai$ 'a (hiU of 
Ammah) not far from tv^t in Bei^a- 
min 2 Sam. 2, 24; a^ft '% (leper's hill) 
place to the west of Jerusalem Jer. 
31, 39; n^'^sm 'a (perh. the hiU of 
beauty) in the sojath of the wilder- 
ness of Ziph 1 Sam. 23, 19; ItTiart I 
(perh. the archer's hill) a place not 
far frdm Oilgal Judg. 7, 1; DHp"^ '9 

Digitized by 





^(hffl of FfainehaB) a oily in Epbndin 
Josh. 24, 33. 

lZi3, also nZD (henceSpl. in 
p«Me ro} 2 8am. 1, 23; fat ^la^l) 
akin to fiaj, *IM, prop, to bmd'or 
Mai together, hence to be strong or 
imgkty Gen. 7, 18; abo to prevail^ 
wereome Ex. 17, 11, i-jn -^nj to 6c 
flM^A^ Ml meam, i. e. rich and do- 
minant Job 21, 7; w. i§ (wcr P8.117, 
2; ▼. 10, •»lo naj tt<y are stronger 
than ^ i e. too mighty for me Fs. 65,4 
(c£ GeiL4, 13); w. ^ among 1 Oh.5, 2 ; 
w. i according to Jer. 9, 2. — PI. to 
make strong^ to help, w. ace. Zech. 
10,6, 12; d*»i;n '^ to strengthen forces 
L 6. pnt forth more strength Ecc. 10, 
10. — Hiph. to make valid or confirm 
(h'»^) Dan. 9, 27; to exert strength, 
prevail Vs. 12, 5 (see Gram. § 53, 2, 
Bem.). — Hith. to shew oneself strong, 
w. I5 over the enemy Is. 42, 13, 
L e. to conquer him; to be defiant, 
w, i» against Job 15, 25; to grow 
insolent Job 36, 9. 

133 (pL d-n^li ; r. *in}) m. l)strong 
one, a man (chiefly poet, for tnH) 
Ps. 84, 9; a warrior Jndg. 5, 30, 
Bent 22, 5; but also like "IDJ, it is 
used for male, hence a husband 
Prov. 6, 34, and also for a man-child 
Job 3, 3; when used in opposition to 
God, it is a human being, a mortal 
Job 4, 17, as woman in the East is 
scarcely taken fiito account; d'''?5?i 
man by man Josh. 7, 14. 2) pronom. 
Kke tT'X (Gram. 124, 2, Bem. 1), each, 
tnery one Joel 2, 8. 3) pr. n. m. (a 
brave) 1 K. 4, 19. 

^^3 archaic or crude form of 
y^ (Gram. § 84, Nos. 10, 11 and 
Koie^ m. a man Ps. 18, 26, comp. 
S Sam. 22, 26. 

■C3 ChakL (pL ^^35, defl Kj:»as, 

M if from ^) i. q.Heb. ^ a man 
Dan. 2, 25. 

'TS3]()r.n.(fort, r. ^) of a place 
Ezr. 2, 20 ; prob.forli:KU,cf.Neh. 7,25, 

"133 Chald. (c pL •n^fl) m. hero^ 
mighty man Dan. 3, 20. 

"TSS, see *^i5ia. 

KJ'TM Chald., see "laj. 

iS*^1M pr. n. (mighty one of 
Gk>d) of an angel Dan. 8, 16; ol 
TaPptTjX Luke 1, 19. 

P^^a (for n7»aa, rrok, fem. of 
'^'^aj; w. sut ''Fi'jaj) f. /ady, i»«<rc« 
Gen. 1 6, 4, Prov. 30, 23 ; Ti\'A'^T^ TTtljj^ 
mistress of kingdoms Is. 47, 5. 

\DZ13 (obs.) to freeze, i. q. Arab. 

jmX; but prob. akin to tin} (of. 
Chald. nai » «^» to coUect) in the 
primary notion, to draw or gather 
together, hence to be compact; hence 

lltDS pr. n. (elevation, r. a^) of a 
city in Dan Josh. 19, 44; comp. Chald. 
Kn^l. YttppaOa in John 19, 13. 

33 (w. n local mj, w. wot ^t;^ 
pt ni'aa) m. roof, prop, covering 
Josh. 2, 6, 8; fig. cover of altar, 
L e. the top Ex. 30, 3. — Perh. from 
tMKl I, redup. MJMf w. the meaning to 
be high (cf. tt^O); but prob. from 15| 
to ctwcr, whence "japj, hence aaa =» 
Ml = aa (like 'JJ';? from "n?*!?, r. "i^^). 
Cf. L. tectum from f^o, W. ^, Ui, 
fr. tot, GaeL too^A fr. tuighim, G. 
(2aeA fr. decken, E. fAofcA fr. decX;, 
ffTlyT) (= tIyoci) fr. ax^YO), Sans. 

*13 (r. ^a I) m. 1) coriander, prob. 
because the grains have on them little 
furrows Ex. 16, 31. 2) fortune, prop, 
a deciding, apportioning, w. the art 
l|n the (god of) destiny, i. e. Baal 
Is. 65, 11. 


Digitized by 





^ 'll Mine 88 *1| 2 (r. nui I) ai. 1) 
Utck *1}S1 Gen. 30, 11 in K'thibh, Sept. 
tii t6^ inJuckfforiunatdi/, but 
.the Q'ri has nj Ka fi)rtune cometh. 
2) pr. n. m. (lack in Gen. 30, 11; 
^but troop is the sense implied in 
Gen. 49, 19; cL ^ifiH^) son of Jacob, 
and head of a tribe; *1J bnd the brook 
of Oadf i e. Jabbok, 2 Sam. 24, 5; 
gentilic n. ^% QadUe Dent. 3, 12. 
8) pr. n. m. Gn<^l^) of a prophet in 
time of David 1 Sam. 22, 5. 

/ta'ia Ohald.(only del pLKJ^ja^a) 
ireafwrtTS Dan. 3, 2, 8; same as ^U 
(*l«Bt), which see. 

*l3'ia in pr. n. ^iJ^Mi *ih (cavern 
of the defile, r. ^} D Kmn. 88, 32, 
station of the Israelites in the Wil- 
demes, same as tTjiy^ Dent. 10, 7. 

ia*73 (w. rt loc. rtj^ — ) pr. n. (a 
defile, r. ti} I) of a place in the idl- 
demess Dent. 10, 7, L q. ^iJTan "ih 
Kmn. 83, 32. 

ijH I (Qal obs.) akin to ttj, 
*nn, t£ I, ^SD, Tn?» '<> «*^> ^ ♦w^^ 
a gath; hence perh. ^^A troop (c£ 
L. octea), *12 fortwne (as deciding or 
portioning oat events). — Hitbpo. 
"Tiiiriri to cut Qx wound onesdf^ in 
monming Jer. 16, 6, in idolatry Dent. 
14, 1, 1 K. 18, 28. — The ultimate 

root na, ti, in, yn, ^, ro, ^, yp etc 

(for hewing, cutting etc.) is mimetio 
and akin to E. euf , gash^ scathef Sans. 
folh, ^X^CcO) D. c(S(2b, G. scheiden, 
achadent see Oram. § 30, 2. 

Tin n (8 pL ftit. Wlj; Ps. 
94, 2l7'akin to ^^{J, perh. ttbji to 
bind together, combine, to troop; they 
eombineagain8t(^:$)the8oulof the just 
Ps. 94, 21 ; hence prob. 'mj troop, — 
Hithpo. t?^nh to croi&d or troop 
together Jer. 6, 7, Mio. 4, 14. — Of. 
W. cydio (to join). 

T13i Chald. (imp. rt) to Aw cc 
cut dowk Dan. 4» 11^0, d Heb. n^|X. 

mS (obs.) akin to 'tJJI, to «J« 
otiM^, crop off; hencemj, "nj, rrf^ 

fTia or fT|5 (only pL w. ffift 
Wlla) 1 &anX;8 of a river, prop, cat- 
ting or tearing away of the eartk, 

Josh. 8, 15, Is. 8, 7.'-^ Gf. Arab, j^ 
coast, L. Htus from kedo, dxriQ ff. 
fiYVOfit, also K shore firom fiAeor. 

iTn3 f. prop, fortune, then epithet 
of the star Y enns as the sign of godd 
fortune. Only in pr. n. Itj J *l?n (court 
of fortune) Josh. 15, 27. 

*Wia (pi. d'^wa, once rvi'mii Jer. 
48, 37) *m. I) a cut or gash Jer. 
48, 37; a furrow Ps. 65, 11 ; r. Till. 
2) prob. from r. ^fll, a troop or 
band Gen. 49, 19; Wp '»5a sofw 
o/ tAe troop, troopers 2 Ch. 25, 18; 
poet, ^mii na daughter of a troop 
L e. soldiers Mic. 4, 14; ''ITTJ 
hjiTj (an<& o/ W;, his angels Job 
25, 3, his inflictions Job 19, 12. <—-- 
Of. W. cad (army), Irish catha, lu 
ccedes, Ohald. M^a^l 

!Wia, bTa (cVhj, iSa, also -Vji 
in Q'ri Nah. 1, 3; r. iin)a4j. m., r*hf 
f. ^neo^ in the most various senses, 
e. g. in size and extent, vast Knnu 
34, 6; mightg Gen. 39, 9; mVa in^ 
Solent things Ps. 12, 4; distinguiahed 
Ex. 11, 8; nibSft mighty things Job 
5, 9; ii*ian fisn the high or cfti«/ 
priest Hag. 1, 1; tA€ day is sHU 
great, L e. it is yet high day G^n. 
29, 7. Of age, older Gen. 10, 21, 
oldest Gen. 27, 1 (see Gram. § 119); 
of stature, taU Josh. 14, 15. — As 
subst in ^} bna greatness of thi$^ 
arm Ex. 15, 16. 

Digitized by 





rfesrts, n^na, rfena (r. i^) 

£ greatness, moQesty of God Ps. 146, 
8, of a king Est 1, 4, of a coiirtier 
Ert. 10, 2; rmown 2 Sam. 7, 28; 
mighty ads rrii«rtft Ps. 145, 6. 

Cp'ra (only in pL d**-, MB-; r. 
flpl) m. re2:>roacAea or reoUings Is. 48, 
88; 51, 7. 

nSTra l Mom> only in Ez. 5, 15; 

"fna pr. n. Josh. 15, 58, see *nH|u 

'na pr. n. m. (fortimate) 2 K. 15, 
14; also a Ga(2i^ Deut. 3, 12. 

"Ha (pL trfni 1 Bam. 10, 8, c 
•wjjGen. 27, 9; r. rtij) m. a Wd 
Got. 88, 23; mostly w. d*^?, as wtj 
arw ifcub o^ t^ ^oote Gen. 27, 16. 

""^a pr. n. m. (fortunate, from Tft 
2) Kum. 13, 11. 

bSTia pr.n.m. (God's good luck, 
i e. fk-om him) Num. 18, 10. 

n^ia (only pL Wi''7» K'thibh 
fat Q'li wtij) 1 5aw*», only 1 Oh. 
12, 15; see m|. 

nj^a (<»ly pi. ni*7j; f^m -na) 
£ a tih^kid, only Oant. 1, 8. 

Vna (only pL D^'i?*; '• ^?) i»- 
jnrqp^ twitted or tfreat)^ t^W^; 
bence, 1) fringes, tassels Dent. 22, 
12. 2) fig. wreaths, festoons on the 
capitals of columns 1 K. 7, 17. 

V^a (r. tbn|) m. A«<^, hence 1) a 
thoek or stack of sheaves Ex. 22, 5 , 
Job 5, 26; 2) a mound over a graye, 
a tomb Joh 21, 82. Ct nca. 

^3, once yl3 in Job 81, 18 
*ja,^ Gram. § 121, 4 (fat iw), 
propw i. q. Aram.Np^, V^», to Wwd, 
Mse (ct V?}), hence to 6« firm, 
iktmg (akin to Syr.%^ nape of the 
fiedk, for it0 strength) as in other 
Hubs of binding, eg. b^l^ ^Wl, ptlj; 

then gen. to&e or become great (fdU 
grown) Gen. 88, 14, high or extoUed Ps. 
35,27, wi^% Jer. 5, 27, rich Gen. 26, 
18, important Gen. 41, 40, prccionf 
2 Sam. 26, 24; to grow up Job 81, 
18. — Pi. ^!f& (at ^d of a clause 
imtk see Gram. § 52, Bem. 1) to cause 
to grow, let grow (hair) Num. 6, 5, 
(plants) Is. 44, 14; to magnify Josh* 
8, 7; to bring up (children) Is. 1, 2; 
fig. to extol or praise, w. i Ps. 84, 4, 
or w. ace. Ps. 69, 81. — Pa. to 6e 
brought up (of children) Ps. 144, 12. 
— Hiph. to make greaJt or 2ar;^e 
(favour) Gen. 19, 19; to wa^ %A, 
to lift up Ps. 41, 10; ^I'nan w. or with- 
out nitoji (cf. Gram. § 142, Bem. 1) 
to do great thingsVs. 126, 2, Joel 2,21, 
to ac^ proudb/ Ps. 88, 17, Joel 2, 20; 
to nwJfce ^c(rf the mouth (w. rt^ and 
i?) i e. to speakinsolently Obad. 1 2, w. 
m;£z.85,13.— Hith. tosAeto onese^ 
^eo^ Ez. 38, 28; to &e^at;e proMd^ 
Is. 10, 15, Dan. 11, 86. 

Via (pL c *>Vi3i) a4j. m. growing 
Gen." 26, 13, 1 Sam. 2, 26; strong, 
lusty w. "n^^ Ez. 16, 26. 

bha, see iii*. 

Wa (w. suf. iVift, once iVrj Ps. 
150, 2) m. greatness Ez. 31, 7; fig. 
Aonour, majesty, of God Deut 8, 24, 
of a king Ez. 31, 2; "X^ 'a gfeatness 
of heart, i. e. pride Is. 9, 8. 

b'na pr. n. m. (huge) Ezr. 2, 47. 

nbna, see nVi> 

n^yia, ^n;;y!a pr. n. m. (great 
is m) 2 E. 25, 22, Jer. 39, 14» 

"WJia pr. n. m. (I magniiy, via. 
God) son of Heman 1 Oh. 25, 4. 

5*13 (fdt Txy^) akin to ^ I 
(whichlee), 5t|, 5!^ I, 5^; H, »=?& 
i^ €wt off (beard) la. 15^ 2, to hew 

Digitized by 





down or feU Is. 10, 33, fig. to destroy 
(a city) Lam. 2, S; break asunder 
Zech. 11, 10, 14; to cut off (arm or 
bom), i. e. to destroy power 1 Sam. 
2, 81, Lam. 2, 8. — Nipb. to be cut 
down Is. 14, 12; to be extirpated (of 
a people) Judg. 21, 6 \ to be cut off 
Am. 8, 14, Ez. 6, 6. — Pi. 9?9i, bat 
$9 w. distinct, accent, to smash 
Beat. 12, 8; break to pieces (bars) 
Is. 45, 2; 6reaA; o/f (horns) Ps. 
75, 11. — Pa. to be felled Is. 9, 9. 

■jWia pr. n. m. (prob. feller i. e. 
mighty warrior, r. 9?}) Judg. ohs. 
6—8; Sept, TeSediv. 

Diria pr. n. m. (a catting down, 
perh. of trees) of a place in Benja- 
min Jndg. 20, 45; r. yi| w. ending 
B^— , like d^Ttt. 

*?yi3 pr. n.m. (prob. feller, r. 9^1; 
ct "^pr^) Nran. 1, 11. 

V] j3 (Qal obs.) akin to T»|, 
Arab. %3j^ fto cut off, hence fig. to 
use cutting words, — PI. tf^l to re- 
proach (cf. tp'nSi); esp. to blaspheme 
2 K. 19, 6, 22. 

C|*n3, see Cp^. 
nBl3, see rnera. 

n j3 (ftit 'I'na';) akin to '^'in, 
*i$h, 'nsi;, to hem in, enclose, sur- 
round; hence to Aed^e ort(7a27tn, f/^ 
way rnk Job 19, 8, "^fr; Lam. 8, 9, 
so that one cannot go forth; to waU 
up I^B a breach in the wall Is. 58, 
12; *i?a 'ft to immure Lam. 3, 7; 
^? '^^J \ ^0 build a waU round some 
one L e. for protection Ez. 13, 5; *yi% 
waU-maker, a mason 2 K. 12, 13; cf. 
G. maurer. Hence 

Tia (c.*Vjft,w.8uf.'h'^J(3Tam.§98, 
6;pl.w.iuf:i3STa)com.gend. l)waU 

of a Tineyard Norn. 22, 24, of a 
court Ez. 42, 10, of a city Mic 
7, 11; a fence Ps. 62, 4. 2) a 
walled place Enr. 9, 9; ^t} p^ 
to breach a waU Is. 5, 5, '} h;^ to 
2)ui2i a troZ? Mic. 7, 11. 3) pr. xl 
(enclosure) of a city in Judah 1 Gh. 
2, 51; gent "^Tja 1 (ni. 27, 28. 

*ina l)pr.n.m. (waD) 1 Oh. 8, 31. 
2) pr. n. (fortress) of a city in Judah 
Josh. 15, 58, now Jed{ir. 

*1fia pr. n. (fortress) of a city of 
Canaan Josh. 12, 18. — Also the con- 
struct form of *^^; see above. 

rTT!3 (pL ni-na, o. rh%, w. sul 
*^^^lil 'r. •Tft) f. 1) iilaff, of a 
city Ps. 89, 41, of a vineyard Jer. 
49, 3; comp. na^iizTia. 2) an enclosure, 
fold or pen, ifict' r&n sheepfolds 
Num. 32, 16. 3) pr. n. (wall) of a 
city in Judah, Josh. 15, 86; gentiL 
n. W^lft 1 Ch. 12, 4. 

f^'^'^'^a pr. n. (folds) of a dtj in 
Judah, Josh. 15, 41 ; r. "Vj*. 

D'jtjll'ia pr. n. (two-foldB or pens ; 
cf. WWDigi)' of a city in Judah Josh. 
15, 36^ * 

•nna, see y2i 3. 

PTia 1 L q. rma a waU, only in 
Ez. 42,* 12; r. yi^ 

IDln (obs.) akin to tnii H, 
COiald. ^ft, Syr. M^|-^> to heap vp; 
hence xcrn^, 

na Ez. 47, 13 wrong reading 
for ht; but perh. it is an inter- 
change of 1 for t, as in A^ for T^ 
Ez. 25, 7. 

nnn (fut. nm*^) perh. akin to 
MtjU to &e A^A, hence to 1^ «fp,flg* 
to remove (cf. Syr. )oi^to escape), 
only in Hot. 5, 18 "Vfl^ fiSQ Hna^^ fi6) 

Digitized by 






norvfiUihe hurt remove from you 
i e. heal; hence 

itia t (peril, akin to n^, ol Syr. 
U^ escape) a Ufling up, escape; 
n% T^2 179^ A a glad heart makes 
a good escape L e. makes a happy de- 
liYenmce Prov. 17, 22, comp. Prov. 
15, 18. 

IQil (fut. Tl?*?) *o bow down, 
w. V; over some one 2 Kl. 4, 34; w. 
ri-;- loo. 6ott7 down rcrjK to tfte 
^rotmi 1 K. 18, 42; prob. akin to 
Aram. tOi^) fT^t Sam. "pPA. 

13 (w. sut rQl, tijl; r. Wm.i q. 
"Btiie ftoct; only ^| '^•nr;^ ^^^T? ''r« 
«i€ ^a«t tAoi« ca«f 5dUiu2 thy back 
1 K 14, 9. 

13 Chald. (c lA, K*il, w. sot RJI, 
i^) m. i. q. Heb. 1|, fA« (odB;, (od^ 
in general; bnt used only fig. for the 
middle, midst, iaa » tpna «f> ^^ 
midrf o/" Dan. 8, 25; Kiab'e "rpni 
M^o tibe mtdse of Dan. 3, 6; KiA-fTa 
«> ^pma /Vom Me muZsf ofDsoL 3,26. 

13 (for rn|; w. suf. •'la, TJ-jJ; r. 
til}) m. 1) the back, body in general 
Prov. 10, 18, comp. 18.38,17. 2)the 
middle, midst, ^V] *)| ya from the 
midst (of men) are they driven forth 
Job SO, 5. Cf: Chald. Mia*}^. 

Kil^, see 11 Chald. 

D*I3 (oh0.) akin to n^;, n|y;, fo 
deave, to dig, hence tiff or plough; 
also to on^ off; hence 

1^ i3 m. 1) i. q. as locusts, prob. 
to called for its catting anddeYonring 
(r. M»), Nah. 8, 17 'O'iJi nil locust, 
locusts, L e. nothing but locusts (see 
Oram. $ 108 , 4). 2) pr. n. (cistem) 
of a place 2 Sam. 21, 18. 

^*i3 m« (pL or collect) iwarm 

of locusts Nah. 3, 17. — The ending 
'^T i« perh. adjectival, as also in 
•i^ (see Gram. § 87, 1, c). 

3n3 pr. n. m. 1) prince of the 
land of Magog y\y!^ y^ Ez. 38, 2, 
oomp. ro>7 in Apoc. 30, 8. 2) son of 
Shemaiah 1 Ch. 5, 4. See Ai:i!9, A^; 
perh. from t^^ to be high, redupL 
K^KSi perh. to be gigantic; akin to 
aia^, aj^ and perh. to ^Cya^ * Qt^T^«» 
ruYY]c and Kauxavoc. 

r)3 I (fat. W) 1) i. q. 'nj I, fo 
cu^ or'troun^I Gen. 49, 19, Hab. 3, 16. 
2) fig. to decide or destine, hence *i J, "^^ 

rlll n (obs.) to &ttui, join, akin 
to Ti» n, *13^ ^; hence W. 

m3 and 113 (obs.) i. q. n^ft, 
a^ (o be curved (either concave or 
convex), arched, hence 11, 1$, "n'}. 

ni3 t 1) for ^l (r. njft) ftod^, 
prop, ridge, back Job 20, 25. 2) for 
njM « n^Ki (r. n^) a K/lttw^ «p Job 

22, 29; prWc Job 33, 17. 

rtja Chald. f. pride Dan. 4, 34. 

n 13 (only in pi. 0'»1>, w. suf. "rfjjl) 
m. prop, body, hence person, only in 
K'thibh of £z. 36, 13—15. 

Ij3, see rnj. 


akin to n9, ViBin f o /lee, to 
hasten away Ps. 90, 10; perh. hence 

Tia m. refuge, perh. in Ps. 71, 6 
•»nii my refuge i. e. whom I hasten 
to; but see ril|. 

btia (w. suf: pL rt|'ili)^m. yowng 
bird, esp. yowng dove Gen. 15, 9; 
eaglet Deut. 32, 11; r. hn n. Ct 

Arab. Jj^ « Syr. tf^o]. — Prob. 
mimetic of the sound made by young 
birds in the nest, a sort of whiz, 
wheexe or whistle, as the Kam^ 
suggests. Comp. E. ^oofe, G. gana. 

Digitized by 





L. anser, xVi ^' 9^^ called fo 
for its hissing or hlomng. 

TJiapr. n. (perh. refage, r. m) a 
region, according to the Talm. pm, 
the ancient Oagaca, siimmer resi- 
dence of the Median kings 2 K. 19, 
12, Is. 37, 12; iria -inj Wwcr of 0<h 
gan 1 Ch. 5, 26. 01 fauCavixic. 

rl*lH or M 31 (inf. w. sut waa 
Job 38, 8, imp. *n for ^rna Mic. 4, 10) 
1) intrans. fo breai forth, burst forth, 
of water Job 38, 8, henceyirrA. 2) trans. 
to hear a child Mic. 4, 10; to deliver, 
Ps. 22, 10 for thou fttap 'Tii art my 
hringer forth from the wonib, where 
nk is a rare form of the part, (see 
Ghram. § 72, Bem. 1). — Hipb. ry^yn 
(part, rpio, fat JT^r, apoc. mn) *o 
6rtfa^ forth, of an army Jadg. 20, 
33, comp. £z. 32, 2; to rush b^ tnfo 
something Job 40, 23. • — n^a is prob. 
mimet and akin to tt^^a, fivai, ^Ico, 

ni3 or n"'3i Chald. to rush, 
only'Apb. nitfio rush forth, of the 
wind Dan. 7, 2. 

^a (w. sot •rift Zeph. 2, », pi. 
O'yia, K'thibh tr^iVa, 79, 10, c. '^it; 
prob. shortened from '^ft, fem. nv}ft; 
r. njj) m. bodf/ (like ij), j^erson (of 
a single IndiTidnal, perh. in Oen. 
20, 4); but esp. a body corporate or 
politic, a people, esp. of Israel Is. 
1, 4, of. Ps. 33, 12, of other nations 
Dent 28, 36, of the heathen Is. 8, 
28 (ct fOtoc, '^'ft, opp. to Xaic, ft?, 
often in Sept and in Luke 2, 32); also 
troops, of beasts Zeph. 2, 14; swarms, 
of locusts Joel 1, 6. — The pL is mostly 
used of the heathen natlom e. g. 
Ps* 185, 15* 

nyja (r. rm) t body, Uving Gen. 
47, 18, or dead, a corpse Kah. 3, 8, 

celestial Ez. 1, 11; of beasts Jiidg» 
14, 8. 

13*^3 pr. n. (nations or gentiles) of a 
people in Gilgal Josh. 12, 23, QaSlee 
Is. 8, 23, Asia Minor G^n. 14, 1. 

"3 also V'S (tat, bnajrihibh 
Prov. 23, 24) akin to iij I, iii, ^n, «(► 
go in a circle, to whirl or to turn 
round; hence 1) to exuU (dancing 
romid for joy), to rejoice Prov. 23, 
24, comp. Ps. 32, 11. 2) to treuMs 
(for fear) Hos. 10, 5; ^a Ps. 2, 11 
tremble ye, but it may well be rendered 
rejoice or worship ye. Ct ot^aXXA©* 

fibia, also XiA (r. nia n) f. acOb, 
captivity 1 Ch. 5, 22, 'ai 6«;, "^ 
to go inio banishment Jer. 29, 16; 
49, 3; 'ah *>^3 equipment or oul-ft 
for exHc Ez.'l2, 7. rA^a stands also 
for eociles Jer. 28, 6, even when re* 
turned troja banishment Ezr. 10, 8» 

l^la pr. n. (perh. circuit, r. i^) 
of a Levitical city in Batanea^ after- 
wards in Manasseh Deut 4, 43, which 
gave name to the province Gaulanitis. 

VTa^a (r. ^a) m. pU Ecc 10, 8» 

p3 (obs.)rperh, u q. -ga, to protect, 
shelter; hence 

^^a pr. n. m. (peih. protected) 
Gen. 46, 24; the patron, is of the 
same form Num. 26, 48. 

^3 (inf. ?'ia and y)a, tat. W> 
perh. akin to M^n m, Ttv^ to bind or 
twist, hence to writhe or to be in con- 
tortions; hence fig. of dying, to ex- 
pire Ps. 104, 29; frequently in union 
w. mo (Jen. 25, 8. — Perh. better to 
breathe out, taUnr 9if as li- trm I, 

V|*1Ill(ob8.)prob.akinto nn|,:^a, 
fa 6c gibbous, bulging; hence ttwa. — 

Digitized by 





P|-|3 n (Qal obs.) akin to Cpn I, 
to endose; only Hiph. t{^m to shut, 
doon Neh. 7, 3. 

nffS 1 6o<fy, corpse 1 Ch. 10, 
12, comp. 1 Sam. 31, 12 (later Heb. 
tfB), akin to ia, Wa. 

'TflS I (fat. W) akin to -^anj, 
Cbald. '^'J, to coflccrf, gather together , 
Pb. 59, 4 4? '*^^3^» they join together 
agamst me; hence fig. like Cp^ito 
meet together, to sojourn or dw^ctf 
Gen. 12, 10, of a whole people 
Ex. 6, 4 ; part, la, wa *>;3} scj/owmcr* 
of my house Job 19, 15, f. n-^a 
BTfia Ex. 8, 22 (Sept a6(JX7jN0<;). 
— The place where is put w. a 
Judg. 19,16; the person with whom, 
w. D:P Gen. 32, 5, or a Is. 16, 4, 
or W» Bx. 12, 48; poet w. ace. 
of the person Ps. 120, 5, and of 
ih» place Jodg* 5, 17. — Hithpol. 
•niarti to gather oneself together 
Bos.*!, 14, to sqjoum l K. IZ, 20. 
Ct a7etp<D. 

r|3 n i. q. W to be afraid, w, 
>p of obj. in Ps. 22, 24, Job 41, 17, 
"oao Knm. 22, 3, poet, also w. ace. 
DOTtt 32,27; w. i of that /br which 
one fears Hos. 10, 5. 

*1P1II m (obs.) L q. nw VI and 
iW, to irink, sttck; hence 'T*!*. 

rP rV (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

yitto hoU up, to seethe, to effervesce, 
hence ■V'ft; perh. trans, to excUe, 
provoke pi. 140, 8. — Cf. G. giihren, 
^ yearn. 

"TFD V (obs.) perh. i. q. "^'U, to 
roll, of round things; of. tr^, ^upoi;, 

tia (pi. c. "^Tlft, w. snf. rftyh%i 
r. Ttt ni) m. i. q. •TW prop, a suck- 

ling, hence a whelp, e. g. of a Iion« 
Jer. 51 , 38 ni'^'JK *>"Tia Kotw' tafte/jp9, 
VTfr^ Nah. 2, 18 Aw whelps. 

*l^a (pt o'»>ift, rth«) m. 1. q. -rta 
X) a yoring animal that still sacks, a 
whelp Bz. 19, 2; fully nu-^n^a lion's 
whelp Gen. 49, 9; young jackal Lam. 
4, 8; see 'V'ttp^ 2) pr. n. 2 K. 9, 27, 

^53 *1^apr. n. (sojourn of Baal) 
of a place in Arabia 2 Ch. 26, 7. 

)rn3i (c. Wa, pi. nft-jia; r. b^i) 
m. a ^rounded stone or pebble used 
in casting lots (comp. ^^o^ tad 
xX^poc). 1) a lot Lev. 16, 8. To cad 
lots is expressed by the following 
verbs, w, i"jia in ace, rn; Jo^. 18, 
6, »TT> Joel 4, 3, 'Jf>wn Josh. 18, 
8, y^ Lev. 16, 8, iw Is. 34, 17, 
iW Prov. 16, 33; the lot faUs, i. e. 
is cast, 'an ifi} Jon. I, 7; the lot comes 
up or otU (from the shaken urn) 
upon br /or some one, i§ 'a nte Lev. 
16, 9, or h 'a K^ Josh. 19, 1; but 
the object affected by the lot is put 
w. i? Ps. 22, 19 or iw Joel 4, 3. 
2) allotment, what falls to one as a 
portion, esp. an ir^ieritanee Judg^ 1, 
3, Ps. 16, 5. 

1'lia m. throat, only in K'thlbh 
of Jer. 2, 25 for Tina. 

t9^ (obs.) prob. akhi to Itia, 

D^ I, to pour forth (of. Arab. J^ 
to shed tears), to heap up; hence 

"IZAa m. mound (ot X'^^^)t ^**^> 
esp. clod of earth; hence Job. 7, 5 
m^ 5o(2y is clothed w, worms and 
clods of earth, i. e. w. clotted dust; 
tn^ in K'thibh. 

ta (pLC^ft; r. m)m.aaieaHng, 
a fleece Dent 18, 4, cf. roa; a mown 
field Ps. 72, 6; TjVy? "^ja the king's 
mowings Am. 7, 1, prob. the earliest 
in the season. 

Digitized by 





*l!^ta (pL -pTa!* E». 7, 21, as 
though the sing, were ^^»; in the 
later Heb., however, the pL is T^an) 
Heb. and Chald. m. receiver of the 
revenues^ treasurer Ezr. l, 8. — 
The word is said to be Persian, but 
t| treasure (whence -{^Za, oxa gazette, 
i. e. a store of news, also magazine) 
is really the Heb. TJA, though ^^ stands 
for the Pers. ^\y ^vdr (ct *i5m),the 
same as the Ger. -bar in 9ch(xtzbar, 
nachbar, B. -hour in neighbour^ L. 
-ber in mulciber, -fer in lucifer and 
Sans, -vala in dantdvdla (elephant, 
prop, tooth-bearer). 

nT3 (obs.) i. q. tW, «o cirf of««, 
hew, hence mj. — In P8.71,6 •'m is 
perh. part, hjia w. sul my (Ze^tverer 
from my mother's bowels; but see til. 

TiT3 pr. n. (quarry, r. hj}; ct rft*np) 
of a place, whence gentiL n. *«3itli 
Oitonite 1 CJh. 11, 84, 

rija (r. m) t a fleece Judg. 6, 88, 
^^y *^^99^ ^^ cutting of the wool 
in V. 87> 

^y\l^ 1 Oh. 11, 84, see n% 

TT3 (fdt th;, apoc tjJ5, inf. ta, 
t^a) to shear off (wool) 1 Sam. 25, 4; 
to crop off (hair) Job 1, 20; but also 
w.^the general notion to cut off, 
seveir Num. 11, 81. — Niph. only 
Nah. 1, 12 WTaj (Gram. § 61, Bern. 
6) ihey are cut off, extirpiOed. — 
AJdn to ^nal, which see. 

Ija pr. n. m. (shearer) ICJh. 2, 46. 

f^^^ta f. cutting or hewing, 'a '»3n^ 
hewn stones L e. squared 1 Ch. 22, 2; 
also n-'ta alone Ex. 20, 25. 

I (fut. i'tr) prob. akin to 

ly - V — - Y., r— '• •«-*- v^, Y^zne jiock ts cm off from me fouu 
n|, "^ta, i^, 1) to cui OT strip off \ — Niph. to he cut off 2 Ch. 2^, 21; 

I (the skin), to flay Mic8,2. 2) toteat 
or snaich away 2 Sam. 28, 21, Gen. 
81, 81; to seize Job 24, 9. 8) fig. to 
rob, e. g. a house Job 20, 19, fields 
Mic. 2, 2; to steal a right Is. 10, 2; 
to plunder a person Prov. 22, 22 ; fig. 
to evaporate water Job 24, 19. — 
Niph. to be taken away (of sleep, 
njw) Prov. 4, 16. 

^ly ^ (^^^') prob. mimetic, to 
peep, twitter, as a young bird; prob. 
hence btl'a, which see. 

5Ta m. robbery, plunder Ez. 22, 29. 

bT5 m. robbery Ez. 18, 18; r. hn L 

nbta (c rtta) f. i>/tin(fer. Is. 8, 14 
"^S?*? *^!* robbery of the poor, L e. 
what is taken from him; r. bta L 

UTS (obs.) akin to m, ^ta, &D3, to 
cut off, hence to devour; hence 

DTa m. 2ocu8{ (prop, devourer) 
not yet winged Joel 1, 4. 

Dja pr. n. m. (devourer) Ezr. 2, 48. 

i'TS (obs.) i.q.Ti^, to cut off, or 
hew down; hence 

5ta (w, suf. i>ta) m. «tom, <nmJ^ 
of a felled tree, the stump, Job 14, 8; 
then stem in general Is. 11, 1 ; a st^ 
ling, even of a young tree Is. 40, 24, 
perh. as springing up from a stump 
(comp. trm in Is. 58, 2, Sept ^a; 
cf. Apoc. 5, 5). 

lT3 (ftit •nh;» Is. 9, 19, •ntjn Job 
22, 28) akin to *n^ also *nan 11^ to 
cut; hence 1) to cut down, /W/( timber) 
2 K. 6, 4. 2) to slaughter, kill Im. % 
19. 8) to <fttn(fe (d;) Ps. 186, 13, 
(^V) 1 K. 8, 26. 4) (fut IIJH) to de- 
cide Job 22, 28 (cf. ^{nn). 5)intran8. 
to ccoac, to /at^ Hab. 3, 17 nbass© ita 
JKX the flock is cut off fromifie folL 

Digitized by 





nms X am cut off L e, I perish 
iJm. S, 54; to be decreed Est 2, 1. 

iTDi Chald. same as Heb. ^!|, 
<only piaart. pi. T^'njJ), fo drfmmtie, 
Y}]1 deciders of fate, those who cast 
nativities, Dan. 2, 27. — Itbpe. 
*JTir« to he cut off or oirf, 3. fenu 
r^^inat Dan. 2, 45, and rrmf} in 
Dan. 2, 34. 

*ffa (pL D^^ja; r. •»!&) m. 1) !»«?«, 
pari, of a victim Gen. 15, 17, of the 
sea Ps. 186, 13. 2) pr. n. (perh. 
precipice) of a city in the western 
lK>rder of Ephraim Josh. 10, S3; 
rdCi]pa in 1 Maccab. 7, 45. 

J*T[3 Chald. (c n^tj) t decree, 
decision Dsoi. 4, 14; r. ^tsl 

fT^3 (r. ">!}) f' prop, a cutting 
cff, hence prob. deso/ofton, only in 
Lev. 16, 22 rnta j^'JfirbR into a land 
ijf seclusion i. e. a desirt, Sept. sU 
7?jv fifaxov. 

♦TJT3 t 1) «i< (of the body), 
figure! form Lam. 4, 7 (ct a^). 2) 
a part cut off in the temple, i. e. a 
AaU or court £z. 41, 12; r. ^ta. 

*^Ta pr. n. (Gezrite, inhabitant 
of *nu) of a people 1 Sam. 27, 8 

nSk (w. sut "rt perh. =» "lihc) m. 
tewJN^ /brt^ hirthVa. 22, 10; but 
jee alK>ye nnder ntt 2. 

Minn (obs.) perh. akin to JT», 
id gush^io hurst forth (cf. hs^^-rfw) 
iMQce perh. "jini, like yi*^ from n*;i|. 

■jina (c. "pna) m. perh. prop, era- 
cuatum, hence 5e%, only of creep- 
fling animals Gen. 3, 14, Ley. 11, 
42; r. nm or perh. in}. 

"wa 2 K. 4, 81 also "^Jra 2 k. 

5, 20 pr. n. m. (prob. valley of vision) 
aenrsat of the prophet Elisha. 

tjik Ps. 22, 10, see m. 

!7n3 (obs.) akin to W| and 
prob. nij I, to ^fotr, M*r»/ hence 

5Ha (after the form Drm: only in 
pL D"*?!?!! c. Wft) t otirmn^ or Iwe 
coats Ez. 24, 11 (black coal being 
Qrn, see Prov. 26, 21); fig. for the 
l^kning Ps. 18, 9; b? trinj nrtj 
in^ (o hurry huming coats on 
his head, L e. to vex one sorely 
Prov. 25, 22, comp. Bom. 12, 20. 
— Alriii to xi^Xso^, L. caleo (whence 
earho), G. kohle, W. glo, E. coal, 
Gaelic ^ttoZ, 

mbna (w. sof. 'nnVm) f . same as 
im, "iSal Is. 47, u/ To put out a 
coal 2 Sam. 14, 7 L e. to destroy 
the last hope or scion of a family 
(cfc C<«>i^opov). 

Dnil (obs.) 1. q. !»m, (0 glow, 

same as Arab, ^a^ (o flame; hence 

Dn^ pr. n. m. (perh. live ooal) 
Gen. 22, 24. 

yj^ (obs.) perh. akin to nm 
(which see), or to Aram. "jnA, ^<t^1 
to incline or hend, 


huim, or i q. Arab, 
(lou^, to lurh; hence 

"Una pr. n. m. (burning or a lark- 
ing place) Ezr. 2, 47. 

''a, also »^a 1 Sam. 17, 52, K'^a 
Zech. 14, 4, K^ Is. 40, 4 (c «''a, H, 
PI. nSK''a, ni"*^; r. nw II) com. 
gend. a depression, valley (perh. 
akin to 7^), 1) w. the art. "^an pr. 
n. of a camping place in the region 
of Moab, Deut. 34, 6. In the names 
of places '^a is often used; e. g. 
d*»T-|a C'sn) "^a (K-^a) (valley of son or 

(obs.) perh. i. q. hni to 
^^ to sink 

Digitized by 





•one of BSxmom 3 K. 23, 10, also eaQed 
QSh n Josh. 15, 8 (hence "y W rn oi in 
lS'.Te8t.),K';|njer.2,23; nig 'ft (^^a^lej 
of salt) near the Dead sea, 2 K. 14, 
7; V^Xtnn i| (yalley of craftsmen), 
place near Jerusalem, Neh. 11, 35; 
d*9hsh 'a (perh. hyena-dell) a -valley 
in Benjamin 1 Sam. 13, 18; also 
eeveral others. — •»§ a hoUow difPers 
ftom bna a deU w. a brook or tor^ 
rent, and from ri||p^ and p^ which 
denote a more open and extended 

"^a in K'thibh Gen. 25, 23, see "KB. 

K^l 1 Sam. 17, 52, see *t|. 

M^^a Zech. 14, 4, see *t^ 

M^^a Is. 40, 4, see *t|. 

Ta (r. ^J n) m. thcw, sinew or 
tendon, Gen. 32, 33; tig-is in^ T^l 
a wwfti^ of iron is thy neck Is. 48, 4, 
L 6. thoa art stiff-necked. — 01 W. 
gwythi (muscles). 

n il, see r^a. 

""^3 Chald., see ma. 
. Ira pr. n. (gushing forth, a 
spring) of a place near Gibeon 
2 Sam. 2, 24. 

TUT^ pr. n. (a stream, r. l^; 

of. Arab, y^w^i^ used beibre the 
names of several large riyers, as 
the Ganges) of a river in Paradise, 
perh. the Ethiopian Kile Gen. 2, 13 ; 
also of a stream near Jerusalem 1 E. 
1, 83. 

T^a, see •»tm. 


^ to roU, see ^a; hence 
)^a m. prop, a revolving, hence 
1) Offe (cf. ^1^) Dan. 1, 10. 2) exul- 
tation, joy Jer. 48, 33 , Job 3, 22. 

y^i i. q. h'^l (exultation) but only 

in the pr. n. f . i^y^'Stit 1 Sam. 25, $, 
also shortened into ^'^SK. 

rib'^a f. eoDultation,Js. 35, 2 rt^ 
VfTl 3^ O'f^ shouting (see Gram. 
§ 115, 4). 

rt^^a Is. 35, 2, see hin. 

ro^9 pr. n. m. (protection, t; 
•pa) 1 B:. 16, 21. 

r3 to boil t*p, see *fla rV; henoe 

T^ or ^ m. lime, as effervescing 
when slacked Is. 27, 9. 

Ta Chald. (del K7»a) m. Ume, 
plaster Dan. 5, 5. 

*l*^a 2 Ch. 2, 16 sci/owmcr, see ■». 

Q'^a m. ({wf , clod, only K*thibh 
of Job 7, 5, see V^a. 

l^**? pr. n. m. (perh. cloddy) 
1 Ch. 2, 47. 

ba (exultation, in ^^^^K); see Vj. 

ba (pL Q-'ia; r. iba I) m. 1) Aeap 
of stones Job 8, 17, ftilly w. fi^»» 
Josh. 7, 26; d^a ruins Jer. 51, 37. 
2) a /bwn^atn, a toeff, so called for 
the rolling or welling up of its water. 
Cant. 4, 12; in pi. billows^ rolling 
waves Ps. 42, 8. 

ba for 1) ba in Ps. 119, 28, imp. 
Qal of »a. 2) for r*| Ps. 119^ IS 
imp. apoc. Pi el of rAa. 

^a (w. suf. n^a) m. bowl for oil 
Zech. 4, 2; r.bWlI to be hollow. — 
Prob. akin to ^gToXiS;, L. gatdus, W. 
caweU, E. galley, yawl, G. ioBe. 

m m 

!S^3 or n^3 Chald. (part. act. 
vkl, n-^; part. pass, "^a, -tia) to 
open up, reveal Dan. 2, 19. — ^ph. 
•^ban i. q. Heb. ffiph. nij n, #o 
cauAe to migrate, to lead {tteoff 
captive Ezr. 4, 10; see '4*;. 

• —ic^ (obs.) prob. akin to a^ 

Digitized by 





tit} n» io shear away^ shcuot faff (the 
beard); hence 

3>|3 m. border, only Ez. 5^ 1. 

9^3 pr. n. (perh. fountain of 
bubbling; h\ and 9ia) of a mountain 
in Ttwachar 1 Sam. 28, 4. 

baba (r. ttj I; pi. irS»b8) m. 1) 
tdbee// of a chariot Is. 5, 28, of a 
-well £cc 12, 6. 2) a whirkoind Ps. 
77,19. 3)chaff or sttibblCj OB whxThng 
before the wind Ps. 83, 14, Is. 17, 18. 

baba Chald. m. a wheel Dan. 7, 9. 

baba (c. ijia) nu 1) w^^ of a 
thre^iing-wain'ls. 28, 28. 2) babsii 
pr. n. (the circuit, or the rolling 
away Josh. 5, 9) of a place near Je- 
richo Josh. 4, 19; perh. iAV} rr^^ 
in Neh. 12, 29 is the same. In Josh. 
12, 23 Via is perh. to be read for 
i»^: so the Sept., Maurer, Winer, etc. 

r5a?3 (w. snf. in^Aa, pi. w. suf. 
erfeffa) 't sktiU or head Judg. 9 , 53; 
'fig. (like onr head) for individwU^ 
Sz. 16, 16 an omer t^\\^ to the 
kead^ L e. for each one. So called 
ftom the round shape of the head 
(r. h^ I). Comp. Chrfd. VOPbA^, 
roXYodot Mat. 27, 33. 

1x3 (obs.) akin to "An I, fo cover 
wr, enclose; hence 
Tba (w. 8ul'»^ttnu prop, a co»«r- 
tn^, then Mn Job 16, 15; ct Arab. 

Sij-, Syr. iJiJ^aWefe. 

n v3 I (fat. nVa% apoc. ia;) 
•kill to rtg^ perh. ^^ ^o make hare, 
to wbrip or vncover (in Piel); fig. 
l9 disclose, to repeal, esp. in the 
plmse 'b Itk M^a to uncover some- 
body's ear I'ssm. 20, 2, i. e. to lay 
it open for whispering something 
into itf to uncover a secret Am. 3, 7, 
i. e. to disdoBe it; to vncover a hook 

Jer. 82, 11, L e. to lay open a roUL 
— Niph. to be discovered, laid hare 
Ez. 13, 14; fig. to be revealed, laid 
open Job 88, 17. — Pi. n^a (ftit. 
apoc. ia*;) to uncover (w. hi'TJ the 
sexual parts for cohabiting) Ley. 
20, 11; to open (the eyes) Nunu 
22, 81; to reveal Job 20, 27; to 
betray Is. 16, 3; to remove the 
covering (w. i? upon) Lam. 2, 14. — 
Pa. to 6c stript Nah. 2, 8. — HIth. 
1) to «ncot?er oneself Gen. 9, 21. 2) 
to ^iacZbfle t^^"* ^ ST- the heart 
Prov. 18, 2. 

n^^ n (ftit. apoc. W^ perh. 
atin to^ Jba I, to /?in^ away; hence 
to (Irwc tnfo exUe (cf. ioip, late 
Heb. ^!|ldVo exile). But esp. intrans. 
the joy of the land is chased away, 
L e. banished Is. 24, 11 , comp. Am, 
1, 5; nfta-T? wntil the carrying 
away of Jerusalem, i. e. until the 
captivity Jer. 1, 3. — Niph. to he 
removed Is. 38, 12. — PI. to roU along 
Jer. 33, 6; to dwe/brf* Ps. 119,22. — 
Pa. to 6c banished Nah. 2, 8.— Hiph. 
to drive into exile 2 K. 25, 1 1 . — Hoph. 
to 6c banished Jer. 13, 19. — Very 
probably rhl I and II are etymologi- 
cally one and the same, as moot 
Lexicons assume. 

rtba pr. n. (circuit) of a city in the 
mountain range of Judah Josh. 1 5, 51 ; 
gentil. n. '^A^^ QUonite 2 Sam. 15, 12. 

nba, see nVia. 

tl^a t 1) i. q. i|, a well Josh. 
15, 19. ""2) i. q. ^a, howUshaped capital, 
of a pillar 1 K. 7, 41. 3) oil-bowl, 
L q. ba, Zech. 4, 3; cf. 7auXoc, E. 

''iba Chald. (c Wia;r. Kba) fem. 
exile,^vafb^ ^2^ exiles Dan. 2, 25. 

Digitized by 





iftS (only pL O^b") m. prop. 
round blocks, logs; hence in derision 
idols Ez. 8, 10. 

Dib? (c pi. •'oftft; r. Dbj) m. 
covering, mantle Ez. 27,24. — Perh. 
•akin to ^Xajiu^. 

■jiba Josh. 21, 27 K'thibh, see )Y^. 

Wba, rt| Chad. 20 (w. .7- firm, 0. 
rflbft,£.-»rfti{;r.hbjll) tacarty- 
4ng away, captivity or exile Ez. 1 , 2 ; fig. 
exiles oTcapHvesJer, 24, 5, cf.Is. 45, 13. 

»lnS|ba Chald., see *J. 

n x3 (Qal obs.) akin to nij I, 
perh. prop, to be smooth, then to be 
bare, bald. Hence Pi. n^A to make 
bald, to shear or shave (head, 
heard) Dent. 21, 12, 1 Oh. 19, 4; 
fig. to devastate (a land) Is. 7, 20. 
— Pu. to be shorn Judg. 16, 17. — 
Hith. 1) to shave oneself Jj&w, 18, 33. 
2) to cut off the hair from oneself 
(w. double ace., see Ghram. § 54, 3, c) 
Num. 6, 19. — Akin to Syr. - "^^ 

^Jf Ohald., see K^ft. 

'ji'^ba (cf. Tlite; pi. m^hl; r. 
rt} I) m. 1) table or tablet (for writ- 
ing), made of smooth or polished 
material (wood, stone or metal). Is. 
8, 1. 2) metal plate, mirror Is. 8, 23, 

b'^ba da. D-'i**) a^j. m., hb^ia f. 
(pL wVis) fuming, rolling, of a door 
1 K. 6, 34; but used most as subst. 
2) prob. a ring in Cant 5, 14, Est. 
1, 6. 3) circuit, region Josh. 13, 2. 
4) pr. n. (circle, r. Wj I) Galilee Is. 
8, 23; Wjrt Josh. 20, 7, Sept. ^ 
ToXiXaCa; cf. *yss. 

nb'^ba 1 circuit, (Jw^nrf Ez. 47, 
8; see h^U, 

<? pr, n. (prob. fountains) of a 
place north of Jerusalem 1 Sam. 25, 44, 

f^-ba pr. n. m. (perh. revealer^ 
r. nh'l) 1 Sam. 17, 4. 

X^3 I (1 pers. perf. ^n-fh, 3 pL 
Aba Gen. 29, 3; imp. hi, Wa, also b^ 
in Ps. 119, 22) to roll, cause to ium^ 
w. ace. hm 'j to roU away (e. g.. 
shame) /Vom upon Josh. 5, 9; bx 'j^ 
b$, to roll (from oneself) fo or upon 
(another) Prov. 16, 3, Ps. 37, 5. — 
Niph. iaj. pi. *m, fdt. br, 1) to 6e- 
ro^Zsd together (as a scroll or Tolmne), 
Is. 34, 4. 2) to roll oneself along, as- 
billows Am. 5, 24. — Po*al bVia to- 
be rolled Is. 9, 4. — Hitbpo. Vwsri 
to roll oneself down (w. b?) upon 
some one, i. e. to attack him Oeiu- 
43, 18. — Pilp. iaia to roU, w. acc^ 
Jer. 51, 25. — Hithpalp. ^hm to^ 
roll oneself along. Job 30, 14. — 
Hipb. ian to roU, a stone Gen. 29^ 
10. — Prob. mimet. akin to dVi^ 
n:?^ n, i^, ibji, Vxi IV, xoXfctt, W- 
chwylo, E. trAeeiL 

7 x3 n (obs.) perh. aMn toVmi^ 
to hollow out, excavate; hence perlu. 
W, hba 2. 

55a Chald. m. prop, a rolling^ 
hence ftiUy bba "jSK «tonc of rolling, 
i. e. great and heavy stone that had 
to be rolled along Ezr. 5, 8. 

bba (c. »a; r. »a I) m. 1) dunff^ 
ordure, as of rounded or globular^ 
form 1 K. 14, 10. 2) turn, eircum^ 
stance, occasion, but only in union w.. 
21 and used as prep., bbas Gen. 39, S 
(w. suf. ?]Waa Gen. 80,* 27; Obftaa^ 
Deut. 1, 37) on account of, for the 
sake of, like nink. 3) pr. n. m. (perlu. 
roller) 1 Ch. 9, 15. 

bba (w. suf. ftia Job 20, 7, pL 
trhhi Zeph. 1, 17; c. "^Wa Ez. 4, 12> 
m. i. q. iia 1, dung, ordure (of men)r- 

Digitized by 





^nr. hoBa or stoob of dmff(ot men) 
Bz. 4, IS; r. ibi L 

ibba, see iii. 

*^7^^ PT. n. nu (perh. dnngy, of. 
i^ l)*Neli. 12, 36. 


I Vil (ftit. cfra-J akin to tta I, to 
roll or /(>2t2 toffethcTf only in 3 E. 2, 
8; henoe 

Db3 (w. sal 'na^a) m. atoraj)pfn^ 
together, a mass; hence unformed 
mibstance, foetus, embryo, only in Ps. 
189, 16. 


' w C7 (obs.) perh. akin to Q^|, 
(o wrctp loffether, hence to &e tight 
car ^ord, sterile; henoe perhi^ 

Tiaba a4j.m.,rmji|f. prop. *ard; 
of stony gionnd (akin to tki, et 
ore^^^ lj.sterilisy, fig. nn/rui^M^ of 
a -wife Is. 49, 21, of a night without 
births Job 8, 7; shrivelled, famished 
Job 15, 84. — The ^ is prob. a for- 
matiYe ending, as in ^rifp; see p. 135. 


I (Qal ohs.) akin to 9^^, 
to flmg or hurl — Hith. to fling 
oneself about, fig. to quarrel or /i^/^ 
ProY. 17, 14; to (e violently excited 
Prov. 20, 3. 


ViJ n (ohs.) perh. to 6e «ft;f, 
Aoref; of. Sans, joto (frozen), h,gelu, 
glades, coQum. Hence *i^bl, perh. 

K^ y3 (obs.) to he hard or roi^A; 

et Arab. jjUi^ to 5eAard — Prob.a 
9^ n, w. ^ as format, ending; see 
p. 135. 

TJbS 1) pr. n. m. (hard or rough) 
Gifeai Kum. 26, 29; patron. "t*i9bft 
OilSoid^ Judg. 11,1. 2) pr. n. (hard 
or rough country, or for ^b| Gen. 
SI9 47) of a dty and- region between 

the Jabbok and the Amon Qen. 31» 
21, Hos. 6, 8. 

^?^3 pr. n. (hill of witness) of a 
hill Gen. 81, 47. 


^;i (only in Cant. 4, 1; 6, 5> 

prob. akin to Arab. ^fJ^, to sU, lie 
doum; thy locks are as a flock of 
goats ^a "ins ^\Yb which lie doum 
upon mount Qilead, i.e. as if hanging 
from its side or brow, of. xa6^&at 
Ix ica^cov in Soph. Antig. 411. 

f^^a, see r^b{. 

D3 (r. 00)1)001^. akin to b9, prop. 
accumulation, junction, addition; 
hence the following meanings, 1) to- 
gether, e. g> tiysb D| (L. amhoy 
both together Gen. 27, 45. 2) also, 
even, in the way of accession, e. g. 
^iiyi^n? *\^^^ hi also by hit 
U)orks is a youth knoum Prov. 
20, 11 comp.l4, 20; in this sense, it 
stands w. the pronoun repeated for 
the sake of emphasis e. g. ta^ &nn 
M'Vi she even she, i. e. also she her- 
self Gen. 20, 5, *t3^ D^ '«»'ia bless 
me, also me Gen. 27,34 (Gram. § 121,^ 
3); w. neg. not even, not so much 
08, Ps. 14, 3; also yea, intensifying 
the verb, hK^n w nK*n see, yea, see 
i. e. only just look 1 Sam. 24, 12; or 
in union w. *^3, as '^3 q^ even wJien,. 
although Is. 1, 15; or adversatiye, 
even Uien, even so, i. e. yd £z. 16, 28.. 
"^ D| and d9 are akin to L. con^ 
cum, cumulus^ Gr. £6v, xotv6c, Tajxo;, 
^,gan, cym (= cyd); Sans, sam, Gr. 
&;jt.a, 6{jLoo, L. simul, G. sammt, E.. 
safN«, Sax. sam. 

iSuHl (Qal obs.) akin to 99f 
Chald. to absorb, drink up, — PI. to 
sujoUow Job 39, 24. — Hiph. to cause 
to drink Gen. 24, 17. Hence 

K^a m. 5u/nMA, prop. a5sor5enf 

Digitized by 





of moifltore (r. MQ}), esp. Egyptian 
papyrus, paper-reed (papyrus Nilo- 
tica), from which also vessels and 
boats were made Ex. 2^ 3, Is. 18, 2. 

I %l^ X (obs.) i. q. Arab, a^, prob. 
Aram. >o^, Q^ft, to cid of, dUnde, 
hence to measure. Hence isa, perh. 

1 UH n (obs.) perh. akin to Dpj 
(to join) w. ending 1 (as in TBJ), 

Arab. S^ and Ohald. D^ft (o hind 
together; hence to &e strong, valiant 
(comp. ^nj); hence prob. T^jfu 

"t^a m. prop, a dividing ; hence 
a measure, prob. an eU or c%ibit (r, 
^A I; comp. h'lito), only in Judg. 
8, 16; ct Syr. fi^^lLoa^ cubit 

*113a (only pi. D^a) m. mighty 
men, warriors (comp, ^iSd; see Bodi- 
ger*8 note in App. to Gesen. The- 
saurus, p. 79), only Ez. 27, 11 (r. 
nsft n); perh. dwarfs (r. *1Q| I). 

^^533 or iSa m. 1) prop. part. 
pass, a weaned chMVn. 131, 2. 2) pr. 
n. m. (weaned) 1 Oh. 24, 17; r. Vq)II. 

b'flMa (w. sul 5jboa, pL d-»Vi»Ji) nl 
1) bearing, deportment or (feacrf 
(good or bad); Mly U*^ 'j 6e- 
haviour or (ieserf o/* <^ A<7n(29 
Judg. 9, 16; in a good sense, benefit 
Ps. 103, 2; in a bad sense, punish' 
ment Is. 85, 4; to return or rep(^ 
(o one Ai9 desert i him^ n^nfin Lam. 

3, 64, w. i? Ps. 94,2; w. ©fc^'ia Joel 

4, 4; also i 'ji tbd Is. 69, 18; w. to 
Joel 4,4; r.^L 

ri^tta (pL nftai) f. benefit 2 
flam. 19, 37; punishment Jer. 51, 56. 

TQ^ (obs.) perh. akin to Qg^ 
(by transpositionX ^ ^ hard, firm; 

hence in Talm. nT:q| ^omore) and 
the following. 

*lT^a pr. n. (for litoft, prob. syca- 
more plantation ; perh. only a transpo- 
sition for D)?^ sycamore) of a dt^ 
in Judah 2 GlL 28, 18. 


yd I (fut ht^^) akin to ^Q^ 
ioli n, 1) to 6car (a burden), hence 
ioj. 2) to tear or behave oneself Uh 
wards any one, to requite, mostly 
construed w. ^^ Ps. 13, 6 or ^ Beat 
3?, 6 of the person; hence fig. to 
reward, recompense; in a good sense, 
to benefit, w. ace. of pers. Is. 63, 7, 
also w. aica Prov. 31, 12, w. rniD 1 
Sam. 24, 18 , or in a bad sense, to iM 
treat, w. addition of :p^ Ps. 7, 7, or 
n^*; Prov. 3, 30. 


yd n(fnt. bbli*;) prob. akin to 
^p&, l)intrans. to matur^ to ripen (of 
fhnts) Is. 1 8, 5. 2) trans, to moA^ manure 
or ripe (fruits) Num. 17, 23; to wean 
1 E. 11, 20 (i. e. to treat as mntare, 
orfittobe takenfrom thebreaat), more 
ftOly in Is. 28, 9 nblTO '^b^ojk weaned 
from milk (Gram. §116, 1). — Nipk 
to &e weaned Gen. 21, 8. 

b^a (r. i^a I; pL b-^WJ, tee 
Ghram. § 93, 8, Parad. VlLl)* com, 
gend. bearer, carrier L e. the heart 
of burden, a camel, male or female, 
Gen. 32, 16. — Same as io''*, Syr. 
•if ♦•- 

Ulta^, Arab. J*iw; hence xofniplo^ 

Y<&ftfta, Irish cot^ F. c&omeats C3opt. 
(TAHOyA , Sans, kramila. 
nbMa, see hbijosi. 

^^a pr. n. m« (camel • man) 
Numu 13, 12. 

iK ytta pr. n. m. ((3k>d ia my re- 
compense) Num. 1, 10; Sept. and K. 
Test. FafjiaXii^X. 

Digitized by 

Google J 



DD3 I (obs.) aldn to b99 to join, 
gather iogeiher, combine, hence b| 
and perb. ria^^. -«- Aldn to bh I, 
IfOLiioQ, Sans, ^omon (a couple), L. 
cum, B. c^iim, W. cym (as in cym- 
^281^ companion). 

U^^ n (obfl.) perb. akin to 

•*J^^' fi^ *o strive after, long for; 
bence, according to some, tJny^. 


Uif (obs.) prob. akin to Gbald. 
79a to dig, but perb. i. q. y5g <o 
gadier; bence |^!|fi Ecc 10, 8 perb. 
may be a |H^ or a gathering -place, 
rtceptacle (comp. ni|3a). 

vQA (fat •Tba'j) akin to igj n, 
1) intrans. to come to an end, to ceaae, 
to fail Ps. 7, 10. 2) trans, to bring to 
an end, to complete, w. i? Ps. 57, 3, 
w. *t$a Ps. 188, 8, wbere to finifih a 
matter for CT5a, i?) somebody, ii to 
cany on bis canse. 

lU^ Cbald. taperfect, only in 
part. pan. ^"npa Ezr. 7, 12 finished. 

"^^ 1) pr» n. 1 (completion) 
H08. 1, 3. 2) pr. n. of a people prob. 
the Cimmerians Oen. 10, 2. ^^ This 
^oi is akin to KifAftlpiot, W. Cymri, 
L. O^ni&rt, OimM and Krim; the 
root perb. being *tD3 (0 &e darik 
(whence d^Tt*na:p darkness), as they 
andenily lived in the dark or northern 
parts of Ana, comp. Horn. Odyss. XI, 
14, 15 Iv^a $k Ktftpieptcov dvdpwv 
^fi^C TS Tz&ki^ xe, ij^pt xal ve^iX^ 

♦TH2D3, VT^tia pr. n. m. (m 
eiHDpletes) Jer. 29, 3; 86, 10. 

■ja (w. 8ut ^n, pi. D''?! Cant 4, 
13; r. "pj) com. gend. prop, a place 
hedged or walled aroond, hence an 

snclosurey a garden, ort^un^ park, 
(Jen. 2, 8, comp. Is. 39, 4. fj? V 
Gen. 8, 24 pleasure garden, Farof- 
disc, caUed also hjrn "(J Gen. 18, 10, 
ONlbbj •)! Ex. 28,' 13; but pW 1| 
Aer& garden, kitchen -garden Beat 
11, 10. 

3 J3 (ftit ab}*;) akin to a| back, 

Arab. yJ^ side, prop, to put behind 
or aside, to secrete (cf. vo9f (aaoOat 
in Acts 5, 3), hence to steal, w. ace 
of thing Gen. 31, 19; to rob, w. ace 
of pers. 2 Sam. 19, 42; part 1 pass. 
hi^ -tnidSi Gen. 31, 39 stolen by day (see 
Gram. § 90, 3, a) ; fig. to deceive (cl L. 
tergiversari) Gen. 81, 27; esp. w. ab to 
steal i. e. to deceive the heart i e. to 
evade notice Gen. 81, 20: c£ xX£ic- 
TSiv v6ov Hom. n. 14. 217. — Niph. 
to be stolen Ex. 22, 11. — Pi. tosteal 
often (see Gram. § 52, 2, Kote'X 
to jn//€r, Jer. 28, 30; to (lecetM 
(w. ab) 2 Sam. 15, 6. — Pu. (int 
abs. DSa Ghen. 40, 15) to ^ stolen 
Ex. 22, 6; w. b^, Job 4, 12 ^5^ "'i^ 
n|^^ to tne a trord umv stolen, L e. 
imparted to me as if by stealth. — 
Hith. to steal oneself away, L e. to 
sHnk off 2 Sam. 19, 4. Hence 

2|3 (pL 0*^:311) m. ihief^L. 22, 1 ; 
b'OSd *^:)^ ^011^9 0/ ^««t^ Is. 1, 23. 

•1^53 t (w. suf. iroa*) a tt«A 

thing stolen Ex. 22, 8. 

)n!^3 pr. n. m. (perb. Copt, o£ 
Kvouf U; prob. theft) 1 K. 11, 2a 

TaSa Gen. 81, 89 (for nn^J) 
part. pass. fem. constr. st w. *^ 
parag. from r. ajA (Gram. § 90, 3, a). 

n33 (r. 15}) f. garden, park Job 
8, 16; pL nisi groves Am. 4, 9. 

nSa f. garden, chiefly in later 
Heb., Est. 1, 5; r. 13 J. 

Digitized by 


■ m 

121a (obs.) akin to C^d, Chald. 
I^srp, Syr. li^, to gather together; 
hence to store up or hide; hence 

na (only c. pi. •'Tja) 1) prop, 
things collected or hidden; hence 
treasures Est 3, 9. 2) che^ for 
heeping yaluablea , treasure - cJiest 
Ez. 27, 24, where some render it 

Tia Chald. (only pi. c "^tpa, def. 
KJtpft) m. treasures Ezr. 6, 1; n'^a 
KJtSA Aemse of the' treaawres^ treasury 
Ezr. 5, 17. 

?jT5a (only pi. tf^STji) mu frffl- 
«uric«l only 1 Ch. 28, 11; from r. Wa 
w. old format, ending "Jj-j-; see under 
letter a. 

I J3 (1 perfl '»ni» 2 K. 20, 6, infc 
abs. pa Is. 31, 5) akin to l^?, perh. 
•jan, i», i», to cover, g%Mrd, w. to 
2 K. 20, 6 lujiU cover over this city, 
L e. will defend it as w. a covering; 
w. iK 2 K. 19, 34. — Hiph. (ftit. 15; 
Is. 81, 5) «o (fc/ewd, w. to Zech. 9, 
15, w. ^^ Zech. 12, 8; hence 15^. 

V] J3 Chald. (obs.) akin to Heb. 
C)5?, C)55i; to cover over, hide, hence 
Cia w%, for ppa (fe)5a), as na is for 


l^llnSa pr. n. m. (gardener) Neh. 
10, 7, written ''insa in 12, 4. 

to low, of cattle 1 Sam. 6, 
Le Ar. j0,Syr. |1^, j 
(of men or cattle), 
(to mntter), L. ceva, 
to (cf. coo and caw, 

Gowing) of a place 
Jer. 81, 89 hrt^a. 

' TIT 


180 «S5 

Vg/3 (fdt. tea-j) akin to i«J 2, 
b^n, to profane, hence to de/£2e; fig. 
to aftAor or r^'ecf , to cosf a«7a^ Lev. 
26, 44, w. a Jer. 14, 19.— Niph. to be 
cast away (in disgust or dishonour) 
2 Sam. 1, 21. — Hiph. to r^ed; his 
bull (invo, or A« cow) casteth not 
away or refuseth not (the impregna- 
ting seed) Job 21, 10. 

5?a pr. n. m. (loathing) Judg. 
9, 26. 

b?a m. loathing, only Ez. 16, 6. 

1/3 (ftit. -^r) mimet. akin to 
Syr. jii^ to roar, *IW m, ung I, 
perh. ^a^, to cr^ ou/^, hence to call 
out at, to scold, w. a of the pers. Gen. 
37, 10; to re6ttA:c w. the ace. or w. a 
Ps. 9, 6, Is. 54, 9; bska '| to rebuJ^ 
(i. e. to check) the devourer Hal. 3, 
11; ^'^^ J ^0 c^i^^ ^ «ccd, L e. 
stop it from growing Mai. 2, 3; '( 
D^a to rebuke the sea, L e. make it 
quiet Ps. 106, 9 {ct Mat. 8, 26 ire- 
T(jJLr)ffe T^ OaXajffiQ). — This mimet. 
r. is akin to Sans, gri (to cry), 
7r)p6a), L. garrio, Grer.girren^ W. 
mo. Deriv. n'lja^a and 

vrr« • 

rriya (c. n^ya) f. rctuArc Prov. 
13, 1.^ 

lDi/3 (fat. l6?a7) perh. akin to 
toaa, to ^ tossed dbotd, to be shaken^ 
of the earth Ps. 18; 8. — Pa. irri, 
to be violefdly shaken or dism^i/ed 
Job 34, 20. — Hitb. to be shaken, 
of earth -quake 2 Sam. 22, 8 Q'ri, of 
the waves of the sea Jer. 5, 22. — 
Hitbpo. XBSirin to be shaken, to stag^ 
ger or reel, as one drunken Jer. 25, 
16. Hence 

Wa pr. n. (perh. earthquake) 
of a part of mount Ephraim Josh. 
24, 80; tt:?a •'inj valleys of Gaash 2 
Sam. 23, 80. 

Digitized by 





t9^ 2 Sam. 14, 10 inil confltr. 
Qal of 3>^3 to totted 

ttW^ P^* '^ "^ (perh. their gmi- 
^ng or* touch, r. WJ) (Jen. 86, 11. 

Cja (pi. c. -^I; r. C)fi}) m. i. q. a| 
tt« hacJc or rui^e; Prov. 9, 8 on f^ 
ridges cfthe heights; flg. &(wfy, person, 
iaaa in Ai9 oum person^ by himself 
alone Ex. 21, 3. 

Cl? Chald. (pL -pttl; r. Cfil) m. 
tr&i^ Dan. 7, 4. 

|E)3 (obs.) akin Xo^'^^.toU 
hent^ curved, winding. Hence 

1B3 (w. sul njsa, pL mej) com. 
gcni '(m. only in Hos. 10, 1, 2 K. 
4, 39) a vine 1b. 7, 23; ftilly l&J 
)^ the vine of wine, L e. the grape- 
vine Num. 6, 4; ttinf 'fi a field vine^ 
L e. a ivild Tine-like plant 2 E. 4, 
39, bearing -wild cucumber. — Gomp. 
SfireXoc (perh. = dpL^C and etXco or 
tlklaawi), L. vtfis (= viwcn) from 
vieo; but see nj$. 

V|S^ (obs.) akin to ^, to he 
gibbous^ ewrved; hence t)^, akin to 

lS3 (obs.) akin to -nsj, -na^ n, 
*i9d n, to (tnd; hence to (e Aar(^ 
xi^oii^, esp. of a tree; hence 

*>Ba m. prob. cji[p»iew, gopher-tree 
a hard tree, used for ship-building, 
yielding a kind of resin or pitch, 
only in Oen. 6, 14 *^h *t^ gopher- 
fmbers. — Akin to *i^, xuicdpivao^ 
li, ewpressus. 

n'^Sa (from •Iff) f. prop, remn 
0f £le g6pher4ree^ pitch; then trans- 
ferred to suipkwr or brimstone Gen. 
19, 24. 

■Q(p«rt of •!« I)m., rnjt,prop. 
dwMng or sojcfwrmng Ex. 12, 49; 

then w. n;»j, a sqjoumer Ex. 8, 22; 
inAo^tton^ in general Job 28, 4. 

"13, once Ta 2 Ch. 2, 16 (r.^nJiai; 
w. suf. ?p|, H-ii, pL D^) m. a «o- 
jowmer, stranger (not a native rntx). 
Num. 9, 14; a foreigner Gen. 15, 
13; a visitor or pitgrim Ps. 39, 18. 

^a Is. 27, 9, see "V^l Hme. 

^a Jer. 61, 38 i. q. •nsi* a whdp. 

^"^a pr. n. m. (perh. i. q. txy^ a 
grain) Gen. 46, 21. 

" j3 (obs.) mimet. akin to aij, 
D^ perh. Cj-nj, to scrape, scratch, to 
tear off, -— Of. the mimet. 7pa^, 
L. scriho, W. crafu, ysgrafu, TSi, grave, 
scrape, Ger. graben. Hence 

i'^a m. scab or acuri*^ .Beut 28, 
27; as a^*. scabbed Lev. 21, 20. 

^'!)a pr. n. m. (scabby) 2 Bam. 
23, 38; but a^ja roaa pr. n. (hiU of the 
leper) of a hill near Jerusalem, Jer. 
81, 39. 

na'na (pi. D^WD m. fcer»y Is. 
17, 6; r. •>:?} n = >^ I to fee round. 

'^'!}a*?a (only in pL w. suff. 
5pnSa'^j r. -nnj m) f. <Ar<wrf, gullet, 
but always of the external throaty 
the neck Prov. 1, 9. -— Akin to 
Thj, Yap7aplcov, L. gurgulio, Ger. 
gurgel, E. gurgle, all taken from the 
rough, rolling sound in the throat. 

tD^^n^ (obs.) peril, akin to V^iA 
to ca8^ /ot^A i. e. mud (said of the 
sea in Is. 57, 20); hence to be slimy, 
miry, hence 

Va^a pr. n. (perh. clay soil) of 
a region in Canaan; gentil. n. *npj^Si 
Girgashite Gen. 10, 16; 

I J^ (Qal obs.) mimet. akin to 
tt^J, o!)n, o:0T, inn, rrn, to scratch 
or scrape out; then to scratch in 

Digitized by 





gtaieraL — Hilh. to Bcratch oneself^ 
w. 2 of mfltniinent Job 2, 8. — Cf. 
the mimetic ^opaTtco, ItaL grot- 
tare^ L. raderej E. grate, scratchy W. 
carihu^ Ger. kratgen; of, n;}}. 

M W I (Qal oba.) perh. akin to 
*T?*j» *^yjf to ffloto, fig. to be angry f 
excited. ~ Pi. rrja (ftit. irnj'j) to 
inflame, 9tir up Qfi^) strife Prov. 
15, 18. — Hith. to excite oneself, 
against (b) anybody Jer. 50, 24; to 
he angry Prov. 28, 4; to contend w,, 
make war upon Deut. 2, 5; w. J^^^lJ^p 
to contend in battle Dan. 11, 25. 

n W n (obs.) 1. q. •>:>} m, to 
swaUfno, gurgle; hence fVja 1, "p'l}. 

•T^? (formed like nap) f. 1) some- 
thing swaUowed doum(T. nnj n), esp. the 
cud, ITja ^\^. to bring up the cud 
Lev. 11, 3, rn| *ina to swallow the 
cud Lev. 11, 7, both need for chew- 
ing the cud, 2) i q. •ii'^, a ^rain, 
kernel, used as the smallest weight 
and coin, a gerah, the tv^entieth part 
of a shekel Ex. 80, 18; r. •jnj == V>1 
to be rownd. 

■ji^ia (c. Thj; r. rrjjn) m. throat, 
as the organ of speech Is. 58, 1 , of 
swallowing Ps. 69, 4; to cry w, the 
throat, i. e. aloud Is. 58, 1; neck 
Is. 8, 16; akin to H'ng'^l) which see. 

tW^ t plade of sojourn, an inn, 
only Jer. 41, 17; r. *i^a L 

"3 (Qal obs.) i. q. *itj, ^Tng, to 
cut off, sever, — Niph. only in Ps. 
31 , 23 ■'Finji I am cut off, Deriv. 
1.n| and 

"PS pr. n. (a waste) of an unknown 
region, hence gentiL '^*ia, Deut. 1 1, 29; 
•^na 1 Sam. 27, 8 (Q'ri'Wa) Qirzite, 
or Oerizite, 

^*T?? pr. n. (always w. ^ mount 

of the Gisrizites) of a mountain 
opposite to Mt. Ebal on its south side 
Josh. 8, 33. 

'jT'nS m. i- q. B^T&i ^»» flacc Deut. 
19, 5/ r. na L q. "ntj (Gram. § 82, 1, 
Note *). 

LJ j3 (obs.) L q. D*^, to carve or 
Ao22otr (mt (a vessel to hold some- 
thing), hence io^3^t 

^ j3 1 (obs.) akin to •i^J IV (as 
iyj to ^-nn), mod. Syr. %^ (Stod- 
dard's Gram. p. 12) to roU; hence 
pTob. b'^A a pebble used as a fot. 

^nn n (obs.) akin to "T^ E ,fo 
be rough, sharp; hence 

5^5 acy. m. «Aarp, only as o. b^i 
in rthibh of Prov. 19, 19 h^^"^^ 
stem of anger; perh. for ^ron-Vj* 
as in Q'ri, cf. fteYaX^Oufio^ 

b'lb, see i'jiJi. 

U j3l(obs.) akin to tHQ, to over- 
lay, to cover over; hence 
• 0*^1 (pL B'TQ'ja) m. prop, on«^ 
skin (cf. Talm. W^ip); fig. body (comp. 
^liJ 6o<fy in Job 18, 13), Gen. 49, 14 
0*54 "Tion an ass of body i. e. well- 
grown, stout; bone Prov. 17, 22; 
like d» for 8c//; »cry, 2 K. 9, 13 
niisnn dnj-bx upon the steps them- 
selves i. e. the very steps, the bare 
steps. Hence 

U j3 n(denom of tJ-nj) to fiWn, 
to flay, Zeph. 3, 3 "i^a^ sia-i} bA t^ 
eto not flay (i. e. devour) in the mor- 
ning (but consume iall at night). — 
PI. to strip, to lay bare (the bones) 
Num. 24, 8; fig. to lick clean (the 
sherds) Ez. 23, 34. 

D'la Chald. (pi. w. saf. 'firno";!) 
m. bone Dan. 6, 25. 

Digitized by 





^MHS pr. n. nu (bony or strong) 
1 Ch. 4, 19. 

1^3 (obB.) perh. akin to ^2} H, 

^7| I> to ro^ hence (o 2n^ mo^ 
smooth. Hence 

1^ (w. mif: '»3'TJ la. 21, 10, w. 

n-^ loc nj-Tj MicU, 12, pL nia^^ 

Joel 2, 24, <L nia*ift Ho8. 9, 1.) m. 
(t in Jer. 51, 33) 1) prop, a roUinffj 
hence level place, area, before the 
gate of a city 1 K. 22, 10. 2) threshing' 
floor Buth 3, 2; ''S^J'Ta eon of my 
threMng-floor Is. 21 , 10, L e. my 
poor people crashed as com in the 
threshing; fig. for grain Job 39, 12. 

OnH mimet. akin to fen», D^, 
y^ 8yr. ^mtt'f^, to break or crush; 
only intrans. Ps. 119, 20 mp sold 
hroaks OTO^a) for longing, — Hiph. 
1o break in pieces^ crush, e. g. the 
teeth ir. gravel stones, Lam. 3, 16. 

— Cfc onr mimetic crush, crash, 
crwitk, crack, P. icraser, G. krachen. 

27j3 I (flit. rD'i)akm to rip, to 
/ear or cut off Jer. 48, 37, to curtail 
Ex. 21, 10, hence to restrain or limit 
Job 15, 4. 8; to take off (the eyes) 
w. IP Job 36, 7. — Njph. to be cut 
off from Cpo) Lev. 27, 18; to be 
iftiftimsAeJEz. 5, 11; hence to be less 
esteemed Nam. 9, 7. 

5^3 n (Qal obs.)akinto^'HJIII, 

Aral), g^, to swallow (water).— PI. 
(fiit. r?}^) to JntiA: up Job 36, 27. 

jZjjS perh. akin to a^iS, Cj-^^to 
MM^ to ^fYMp (hence Cll'^iJK, ^fi-jj^), 
only in Jadg. 5, 21 to snatch awag, 

— Comp. G. greifen, E. ^i?c, grab, 

"TD I (fht. ih;; w. saf. »in;iSi'i) 

akin to "W^ Chald. ^"J, tocofl^Hab. 
1, 15; to snatch away Prov. 21, 7. 

I j3 n (Qal obs.) to aoii^, hence 
rtjaa. — Pa. *j^ to 6c Mtoed a«uft- 
der 1 E. 7, 9. — Mimet. akin to yipiiti}, 
xe(p(D, Sans. cMr (hew), S. shear. 

Ij3 m only in fat Qal ^l"; 

(which may be Niph.), mimet. akin 

to n'ja n, fop-fapilu} , gurgle; hence 

to chew the cud, only Lev. 11, 7; 

hence n*ia'TJU 
»« I- 

. I j3 IV (Qal obs.) akin to iV|i; 

i^iR I, -i^ n, ^5^ (whence perh. 

M'njjK, akin to }^^^^) what is rolled 

or folded ap, a letter), to roU; hence 

— Hitfapo^el *^5iann to roff itself, to 
whirl, of a tempest Jer. 80,23 C^^^'srn 
in 1 E. 17, 20, and Hos. 7, 14, belongs 
to^^al). — Akin to Sans, char (to 
stir), L. curro, W. gyrru, 

n'^S pr. n. (circle, r. "n^j IV) of a 
city in Philistia Gen. 20, 1. 

IZD*^ (obs.) i. q. tni to crush 
or pound, esp. grains; hence 

Via (w. sof. ni^) m. a crushing, 

123'^3 (flit, timr) akin to "iniV, 
perh. to V^^^n, l)to ({rtt^ cAose, w. 
'fSDQ Ex. 34, 11; to seni ato(x^, to 
divorce (a wife) Lev. 21, 7; to ca<< 
ouf mire (of the sea) Is. 57, 20; to 
pillage (hence m^^p 6oofy) Ez. 36, 5; 
fig. to produce fruit, hence ^"U. 

— Niph. to 6e (7rtt;en ouf Jonah 2, 5; 
to &e sw^t away Am. 8, 8; to (« 
driven or to^e^f (the sea) Is. 57,20.— 
Pi. una to ea^^ w. ace. and ip Gen. 
4, 14. — Pu. ^^4 to 5e expeUed Ex. 
12, 39. 

15^3 m. a putting forth (of 
firuit), hence a yield, product, only 


Digitized by 





in Deut. 33, 14 O'^ri'j'; ©"la produce 
of the months j r. tthj, whence alao 
•TO'ia (pi. ni^na) f. driving otrf, 
QectmentoT expulsion^ only in Ez. 45, 9; 
Sept. xaxaSovaaTeCa oj>pressu)n. 

lllD'na pr. n. m. (expulsion, r. 
•JJ'iJ) Gen. 46, 11; gen til. "•JW^a Oer- 
shanite Num. 8, 23. 

Dw3*^a pr.n.m. (expulsion, or perlu 
stranger there, as if = D^ *it) a 
son of Moses Ex. 2, 22. 

"^STD^a, see TittJia. 

IDS, -ttS| Gen. 19, 9, tx^^, see b^|. 

TO3 imp. pi. of ttJaa ; hut STOS in 
Josh. 3, 9 and ^m 2 fern, in Buth 
12, 14 (Gram. § Bd] 1). 

^^tOa pr. n. (hridge, r. "^XQfi of a 
district in Syria 2 Sam. 3, 3; gentil. 
't*7^is& Ckahurite, a people at the 
foot of Hermon Beut. 3, 14; also a 
people in the South of Palestine 1 
Sam. 27, 8. 

0183 I (Qal ohs.) akin to )!2!)ft, 
WSi, to gush out, to rain, — Pu. d^ 
to he rained upon Ez. 22, 24, where 
iTOVft is proh. for haT^d; hut seeQtt?a. 
— Hiph. to cause to rain Jer. 14, 
22. Perh. denom. from QV2i. 

UlSIl n (ohs.) perh. akin to m 
(ib^a), to touch; hence to he tangible; 
hence perh. D^J n. 

O^a I. (pi. d'^a^Si, c. ''ara)m. an 
out ' pouring f gushing rain, heavy 
shower 1 K. 18, 41; &r» 1M Zech. 
10, 1; nij^ wm Joh 37, 6; r. ud% I. 

DlCik^ n pr. n. m. (perh. tangible- 
ness, firmness) Keh. 2, 19, also ^Xim 
in 3, 6. 

DlSSi i. q.Q^^ rain, perh. in mtv 
Ez. 22, 24 her rain\ hut see dtbj I. 

traa Ohald, (w. sufc Pi^tjft, Tirtaioa) 

m. &od^ Dan. 4, 30 ; proh. akHi to 
Heh. d^a il. 

^*/<21Sa pr.n.m. (perh. tangihlenesa) 
i. q. dira, Neh. 6, 6 ; r. d^ II. 

TlDa pr. n. 1) of a region in Egypt 

Gen. 45, 10. 2) a city and district in 

the mountains of Judah Josh. 10, 41. 

•— * If Semitic, the name proh. means 

cloddy, fertile (r. ^a), cf.Horaer^s £pi- 

pcoXaS; perh. loeUrwaiered (akin to 

diua I). 
"•» • 

^183 (ohs.) akin to Syr. cal^, 

to stroke, to caress; hence 

K&lSa pr. n. m. (perh. a caressing) 
Neh.'li, 21. 

*T03 (ohs.) i. q. *i^, to hind; 
hence to build a bridge, whence "WJ; 
Arab. ym^. to bridge, Syr. |^^;(^ 
fe^upav Ceu^ai Herod. 1, 205; see 

ID (DIl akin to tD^d, d)Sa II, only 
in Pi. to touch or feel, to grope for, 
w. ace., only Is. 59, 10. 

r^TCa, int Qal of ttJJJ. 

M (pi. ni'na) f. l) wine-press, 
trough, in wh. the grapes were prey- 
ed, from which the juice flowed into 
the n^ (67CoXi^viov) Joel 4, 13; rp^ 
nj <o frecki the mne-press Neh- 13, 
15; r. nnj, or perh. better from, ',5 J, 
hence nsa =» n|. 2) pr. n. of a Phi- 
listine city 1 Sam. 17, 4; gentiL 'W 
Oathite, Gittite Josh. 13, 3. ^Vnn m 
pr. n. (wine-press of the excavation) 
of a city in Zehulon Josh. 19, IS; 
•jia'i n^ pr. n. (press of pomegranates) 
of a city in Dan Josh. 19, 45. 

B'^F!? V^' ^' (^^^ winepresses) of 
a city of Beiigamin Neh. 11, 33. 

r\*Via (prop, adj.f. fromnD 

Digitized by 




of » tone or musical instnunent Ps. 
8, 1, either brought tromOath or perh. 
popular among the vintagers; or from 

*5D3 pr. XL (perh. ' akin to *iti!i 

bridge) of a district in Chaldea Gen. 
10, 23. 

nij^ (obs.) perh. akin to ^ 
to ctUin^ to scoop Qfr hollow out, h^nee 
perh. n§j see p;. 

\ DiUOi, the 4th letter in the 
Heb. Alphabet; hence used also as 
the nummd for 4. Its form on early 
Phenician and Heb. inscriptions is 
/\ or '^ , whence the Greek A and 
jthe Boman B. Its name n^ (Bab- 
binic pL 1'Vlb?) is the same as nbj 
ioorj and its primitiTe triangular 
form vasprob.intended torepresenta 
tent-door. The form andname (whence 
the Gr. AiXxa) served to suggest by 
the initial sound the force of the letter, 
which is either cf (n) or softer aff dh 
O) *= our tA in ihou; Gram. § 7, 8, 

T inUrckcmges — 1 with its kin- 
dred Hngnals and dentals (or sibil- 
ants) t, D, i, Dy 2C,, *J, to, n (see under 
each), e, g. bi^ = bit, bttt « fea, 

(cf. Saxpoov == L. tacrxma, odor = 
ofor = SCij), »n = bte H, m^ = riM, 
p5 « P5 (cl also ana = 5*^J), C)^ = 

nra = ci:i^, 'T^ n = ^ =;p, 

(cf. %ifiis> = L. cwro, xrjfiepiovCa «= L. 

ammowta), "Ti = T^(Chald. nn), KW = 

Chald. K9ri?«= Syr. l|?i, !>:!?= bn^; 

— 2 with a, e. g. "np; - ^g^ (cl 

Sic « L. W», 65eXo< « 6peX60. — 
3 w. K, as nbn t= hb^ 

n seems to be a formative end- 
ing (peh. akin to Xe(jLic-d$-oc fromi 

Xajiica)) in nf*nb from Cj^^, l^:? in 
'I'T^jp for ''as from Da^ (cf. 6ja6c 

from Dfi^, TO© akin to dp», *ia:j to 
dp^, ™^D to ttJ^D, nnoba to d^j. 

OT Ghald. pron. demon, f. fp m.), 
akin to Heb. m, riKT, this Dan. 7, 8; 
used as a neuter this thing (else *^ 
hj"?i). K-jb K"j this to that, i. e. to- 
gether Dan. 5, 6; K-J-p? K? tWfi /roin 
£Aaf Dan. 7, 3, i. e. from one another. 

HJS •I(inf.haw Jer.31, 12, Gram. 
§ 45, 1, h) akin to a:?^ I, a^"n, KSn, perh. 
njn, to meft or fiow away^ to languish, 
esp. of the pining of the eye for grief 
Ps. 88, 10; of the spirit (t*BJ) Jer. 31, 
25; of a person Jer. 31, 12. Hence 

nSOT f. a melting away for 
anxiety, fig. dread, only Job 41, 14. 

■jiSOT (r.afcW;cTia^)m.opwwi^ 
away^ of' the soul Deut. 28, 65. 
SH'n i. q. an a fish Neh. 13, 16. 

jJS •! (fut aK77) prob. akin to -^^ 
prop, to he crushed; hence fig. to be 
depressed, anseioM or despondent 
Jer. 17, 8, w. ace. Is. 67, 11, w. yo 
Jer. 42, 16, w. b of the pers. for 
whom one is anxious 1 Sam. 9, 5; 
w. IP of that from or on account of 

Digitized by 





which one fears Pb. 88, 19, et Jer. 
42, 16; hence 

3K*n pr. n. m. (fearful) of the Edo- 
mlte "Who murdered the priests at 
Nob 1 Sam. 21, 8. 

rDSfl (r. a«^) f . a$ixiefyt depression 
Bz. ^ 16; agitation (of the sea) Jer. 
49, 28; cf. M^^ 

M^S •! (fat n«T«, apoc »T; Ps. 
18, 11) akin to ^tr»^, to dart, to fly 
swiftly (poet for t^), of birds of 
prey Deut 28, 49; of Gk>d,P8. 18, 11 
and He did fly MW on wings of the 
wind; hence Wy and nrj^. — Ct 
Sans, dka, dha/v (to haste), 0£-eiv. 

HOT f. prop, rapid flier, name of 
some bird of prey, prob. the gledeheY, 
1 1, 14; Sept 7641, vuUure;Yxilg. milvus, 
kite or glede, this last name being 
quite analogous, since it comes ftrom 
gUde and refers to the bird's dart- 
ing, rapid flight 


'JX -T (obs.) prob. akin to bH, 
to he tottering, to be poor. Hence 

^1, see"Th4. 

S M or 'Sn (pL d'^a^) epic. 5ear or 
she-hear 1 Sam. 17, 34; h^Ofd ^^ a 
hear bereaved of her young Hos. 
13, 8; pL Q'tan she^ars 2 K. 2, 24; 

r. aa^ n. 

2^ Ohald. a hear (masc or fem.) 
Ban. 7, 5. 

Cs3 "T (obs.) perh. akin to n^^, 
a^, (0 flow; hence 

feQ^ m. a/T^nenee, fvhess; only 
in Beut 83, 26 as thy days, so rf^"^ 
thy affluence (Sept 1^ i^X^^ ^^^)i ^* ^ 
let thy prosper^ be as long as life. 

^^^ I (Qal obs.) perh. mimet. 
and akin to 'n^ I, W. Uanar, Bret 

lavaret, Irish lovra (^ « 1), wbenoa 
perh. palaver, to speak. — PI. (c>bs.) 

ai? (akin to Syr. ^ nnj^ Arab. »ST^ 
to noise, to scold), to tattle or hlab, to 
slander, whence h^X — Po. a^ to 
cause to speak, to make taOcatwe, of 
wine Cant 7, 10. 

10*1 n (obs.) aUn to Arab. 

^), to he hairy t shaggy; hence 
perh. a^. 

iSmTi (obs.) akin to agi;, to flow 
out, to evacuate (the body); cf. 7i*^a'n. 

TtS^ f. tattle or tatk Jer. 20, 10; 
esp. report or rumour Qen, 87, 2; akin 
to Syr. l^^lo^y; r. aan I. 

•170'^ (pL d'»*;bn Ps. 118, 12) f: 
1) a &ee Is. 7, 18; perh. from "i^*? » 
a'T^ to sting (hence a sftn^er). 2) pr. 
n. 1 of Bebekah's nnrse Qen. 85,8; 
of the prophetess Judg. 4, 4 (cf. Mi- 
Xioaa). «-*^Most derire this noun from 
*l3n n, hence swarmer-, but perh. 
it comes from 'n^'n *» n^} to triU or 
AtMii => 0. summen, hence a 5«eeer. 

MJ V Ohald. i. q. Heb. rejt, n^O^ 
to sacrifice Bzr. 6, 8. 

tlS*^ Chald. (pi. IT'?'?) m. a «am- 
/fcc Ezr. 6, 8; i. q. Heb. TO J, rT50. 

'ji'O'n (only pL tryi'^an; r. na^) 
m. discharges (of the body), dun^ 
2 K. 6, 26 (inQVi), for D''3i'» '''nri (in 
K*thibh) excrements of doves; cL 

*rS^ m. 1) iA^ inner or hinder 
sanctuciry (of the temple), else called 
d'tfl'j^ flShj?, the west chamber, prob. 
from ^a^ mtohe behind; but it may 
well be fh>m ^Vn to «peaAr, And hence 
oracle, Aquila and Sym^^Achus XP'')" 
jjiotTKrii^piov, Vulg. or^acdvm l K. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


6, 5. 2) pr. n. (pasture, r. *19?II) 
of a city in Judah Josh. 12, 13; alio 
in Gad Josh. 13, 26; also near Jericho 
Josh. 15, 7. 3) pr. n. m. (perh. oracle) 
Josh. 10, 3. 



j^*J Chald. (obs.) 1. q.pSpj, to 
stick or join together^ henoe T^^^i^. 

V Jr •] (obs.) prob. akin to ijT, to 
jpress together, hence 

ribn*! (c. rian, pi. d'^i^n) t a 
Bolid mass, a cake 1 Sam. 25,18|2K. 
20, 7. 

rDS'n pr. n. (perh. a cake) of 
» city, only Ez. 6, 14 prob. from 
the (Arabian) desert to Dibiah (in 
Qyriac, AbL^s? is the name of An- 
tioch); bntGesenins and others con- 
fider nbs^ a corruption of )^^3*l. 

D'^^2'n pr. n. m. (perh. donble- 
oake) Hos. 1, 8. 

DTi^n^ (w. n-;- loc n,^n>y9 

pr. n. (perh. doable-cake) of a city 
of Moab Num. 33, 46; also w. m$ 
Jer. 48, 22. 

P3^ and pjlfpm 2K.8,8, 
nijp^ Job 29, 10, Jlpn^j 41, 15; ftit. 
pa-T^, inl njjW (»2%a Dent. 11, 
22) akin to "rp"^, perh. "jpo, to cfeflvc 
<o, as the tongue to palate, w. b^ 
Ijam. 4, 4, w. i Ps. 137, 6; to adhere 
to a i>er8on, w. ^ Buth 2, 8, w. If 
T. 23, w. h (y^)) Ps. 44, 26; to cling or 
piT89 fl/ter, w. *^yv$ Ps, 63, 9; hence 
fig. to cAose, to j7urM<e, so as to hold 
Cast the object of pursuit, w. ace. 
Gen. 19, 19, w. ]} Deut. 28, 60, w. 
•nrw Jer. 42, 16. Also absolutely 
to cleave together Job 41 , 15. — 
P«. to be firmly stuck together Job 
88, 38, w. a Job 41, 9. — Hiph. to 
cause to ckave, w. ilj Jer. 13, 11, w. 

:f Deut. 28, 21 ; to cAose (^/l^, jpurme, 
w. *^yy$ Judg. 20, 45, w. ace Gen. 
31, 23, w. ]} Dent. 28, 21, and then 
as in Qal, to overtake 2 Sam. !» 6. 
— Hoph. to &e fna(2e to cleave, i e. 
to stick fast, w. ace Ps. 22, 16. 

pOT adj. m. (pi. DT5Q^, ng5^ t, 
cleaving to, w. a Deut 4, 4; w. b 
2 Gh. 8, 12; attached or steadfast, 
ProY. 18, 24 nt$Q p3^ more attadki 
than a brother. 

py^, m. 1) soldering or welding of 
metals* Is. 41, 7. 2) joints, only pi. 
b*«p9'n, in coat of maU 1 K. 22, 34, 
or perh. armpits ; r. pa^. 

P5 •( Chald. (part pi. fpO^) to 
cfeat?e togHher (i. q. '^, pan) Dan. 
2, 43. 

i«^^ I perh. mimet and akin 
to aa^ I, Arab. 4#U, Syr. ynnl, to 
speak, in which sense it occurs in 
Qal part act "^Ti speaking Ex. 6, 29 
(usually in Pi el), part pass, "lan spoken 
ProT. 25, 1 1; inf. w. suf. Tj^an uiy speak- 
ing Ps, 51,6. — Niph. W? to speak to 
one another f to converse Mai. 3, 16; 
w. ^? of person against whom Hal. 
8, 13; w. ^ about whom Ez. 33, 30, 
cf. Ps. 119, 24. — W. W (in pause 
na'n) 1) to speoX;, where what is 
spoken needs not follow (as it usually 
does after "is^ to say, cf. XoXtiv and 
X^Yeiv, Ger. reden and sagen, L. loqui 
and dicere) hence it may stand abso- 
lutely as in Is. 1, 2. The person ad- 
dressed may stand w. hif Gen. 12, 4, 
w. h Judg. 14, 7, w. d? Deut 5, 4, 
w. HK Num. 26, 3, perh. w. to Jer. 
6, 10. But the meaning may be mo- 
dified ace. to the prep. e. g. speaking 
to is construed w. IbK Gen. 8, 15, w. 
h Judg. 14, 7, w. f (of an inward im- 

Digitized by 





pressioii or rerelation) Zeoh. 1, 9, Hab. 
2, 1, seldom w. ace. Gen. 37, 4; 
speaking o/, w. ace. Buth 4, 1> w. & 
1 Sam. 19, 3, -vr. i? 1 K. 2, 19, w. i^ 
C^bM) Job 42, 7; speaking against, w. 
b| Dent. 13, 6, -w. a Num. 21, 7. 
2) to promise Dent. 19, 8, or to threaten 
Ex. 82, 14; to comnumdf w. ^M £z. 
1, 17; to u^om 1 Sam. 25, 17; to 
sing (a song) Jndg. 5, 12; these and 
other shades of the meaning to speak 
arise as the context may suggest. 
To speak to a woman (w. ^ 1 Sam. 
25, 39, w. i Judg. 14, 7) L e. to iVOO 
her; nb ^9 *ia^ to «peaAr {soastolay) 
on the hearty i e. to comfort (icapa- 
(tu6eta6at) Gen. 34, 3; bnt when n^ 
occurs w. the suf . of the person who 
speaks, it means to speak to oneseif, 
to solHoquise, ma^-b? H'ja'TO 1 Sam. 
1, 13; of God, b? 310 IIM to apeo* 
^ood o&out some one i. e. to promise 
it to hfim Num. 10, 29; i9 tx^^ latj 
to threaten evil concerning some one 
1 K. 22, 23; niaiw i^n to spcaJfc ^ood 
f/itn^« i. e. kindly, w. ^K Jer. 12, 6, 
w. nK 2 K. 25, 28 ; OibtD San to «pea* 
peaceably, w. d5 u^fA some one Ps. 
28, 3, w. ix to promise peace to, Ps. 
85, 9, also w. rw Jer. 9, 7; w. a to 
bespeak peace in, Ps. 122, 8; w. i 
to 6|7eaAr /or, on behalf of Est. 
10, 3; n« ttBM'n to speak judgment 
toith i. e. pass sentence on Jer. 39, 5. 
— Pa. to be spoken, promised Ps. 87, 
3 ; w. i to be bespoken, i. e. asked 
for in marriage Cant. 8, 8. — Hith. 
to converse, part. *»5^ (see Gram. 
§ 54, 2, b) Num. 7, 89, part, fem, 
:pr)Sat|a perh. thg things spoken (in 
converse) Deut. 33, 3; but see fl^a*?. 

l^V' n (Qal obs.) to drive 
(cattle to pasture), hence ^^y^, "la^ 
perh. also to drive or «nfltei au^ay 
(of the plague), hence perh. iai and 

— V\,to destroy Ps. 127,5, 2 Ch. 22, 10 
(naK in parall. 2 E. 12,11). — Hiph. 
^'^a'ti to <irtr« or lead, w. Wttj to wid- 
jiigate Ps. 47, 4; 18, 48 (paraU. in 
2 Sam. 22, 48 'PTlO ftom ^nj). 

IJ •! m (obs.) perh. iddn to 

Arab. ^J to 56 behind; hence perh. 
•IW 1. 

nj"! IV (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 

a*!^, Arab. y)»^» ^0 5c «Aarp, to <<%; 
hence perh. ^"S^, H^ia'n (which see), 
and also — Pi. to destroy in Ps. 
127, 5, 2 Gh. 22, 10, but see na^ XL 
Oomp. al^fii^ L. octea for sharp point 
and 5a^^. 

^"5 (c. ^a"n, w. suf. "^w, pi. W'la!:, 

0. *»5a"n ; r. 15^ I) m. 1 ) speaking, speech, 
word, hence 'i^'j "pap skilled in speech 
1 Sam. 16, 18 i e. eloquent; the same 
meaning w. the pL e. g. ta'^'ia'n w^» Ex. 
4, 10 ; also a word Job 2, 13, Gen. 44, IS. 
Fig. command Josh. 1, 13; precept, 
of God Num. 23, 5, of a king Est. 
1, 19, as their words ire commands; 
0'»*;a'nrt r^"iz» the ten commandments, 
L e. the decalogue Ex. 34, 28; pro- 
mise 1 K. 2, 4; oracle Jer. 1, 4 ; re- 
velation Is. 9, 7; a saying Prov.4,4; 
counsel 2 Sam. 17, 6; proposal 1 K. 

1, 7; report 1 K. 10, 6; W tm 
^5 STjJi^ ^Ac tt7(>ri of »TJ tfo* upoTJ. 
some one 1 Ch. 22, 8 ; w. Ib^ to some 
one Jer. 1, 4. — 2) the purport of a 
word, i. e. what it is the sign of, hence 
a thing or matter in general (so too, 
nip 2, cf. X670C, l:ro;,f>i|xa, Ger.saclte 
from sagen), when it means an event 
or occurrence, e. g. hJJl *ia^n Geiu 
20, 10 this matter, also pi. d"»na'nn 
ni^ii Gen. 15, 1 these things i. e. 
events; so <^ matters, acts i^^yf^) 
of Solomon 1 K. 11, 41; the events 
of the days 1 Ch. 27, 24, i. e. chro- 

Digitized by 




ikioleB; ihe history of the ir%Me ^V\ 
can 1 K. 9, 15; ih^ aecowvt ofQcod's 
mighty deeds Job 41, 4; the matters 
fn^^) of sins Ps. 65, 4; W^ ^nn 
•iaina a day^s business in Us day, 
L e. regular daily task £x. 5, 13; 
a cause (in law) Ex. 18, 16, fully 
tsW^ "in*^ 2Ch.l9,6; a reason Josh. 5, 4; 
f'w iVa a litigant Ex. 24, 14; b? 
^yn on account of Gen. 12, 17 or i? 
•'^•n Deut. 4, 21 ; lic^ l^-n to ftccawse 
tAflrf, before verb Deut. 22, 24. — 
Also something, any thing Gen. 18, 
14; in^ -pK there is nothing Judg. 
18, 7; ig^-b^ every thing Num. 
31, 23. 

^^. (pi. O-iW Hos. 18, 14; perh. 
r. '^5'7 H) m. a leading or driving, 
hence destruction, plague {<^t Arab. 

^j dleaf^) Lev. 26, 25; murratn 
among beasts, cattle-plague Ex. 9, 3. 
The pL signifies the different kinds 
of death, the most terrible of which 
is rm *Ti3a Job 18, 13 *^ first-horn 
of death. Often w. the art. "la^n 
(like ni^) Dent. 28, 21, see Gram. 
§ 109, Bern. 1, h. — Perh. the r. is 
nan IV to be sharp (akin to Arab. 

w/^i to be incurable), hence a sting 
(■fa^n), whence perh. the quotation 
from Hos. 13, 14 in 1 Cor. 15, 65 
-Koo aoo, Oivaxe, t6 xlvxpov; 

13*1 m. speaker, perh. in Jer. 5, 
13 "^a^ the speaker L e. the Spirit 
of God which speaks in the prophets; 
Tjut most take it for ^a";!! (so Bept, 
Syr., Vulg.) or for ^^'i 'i^&J he (hat 
speakelh^ see Gram. § 109, Bem. 

W (w. suf. Tna-j, d-na-j; r. ^ann) 
m. i. q. la'TO pasture or raw^e, 
where cattle are lead (cf. our sheep- 
walk) Mic. 2, 12; d-jana perh. for 
D^arraa as in their own range or 
pasture Is. 5, 17. 

•11*51 only in pt. n. "^yj ift(no 
pasture) 2 Sam. 17, 27. 

^1. pr. n. Josh. 12, 13; see nw. 

8';jd'n Chald. (only c. n-na^) f. 
i. q. Heb. n'r^'ri, cause or rec«o»,b? 
''trn':>a"n <o the end that Ban. 2, 30. 

"n^h'n, perh. n'n3'n(0nlyc.n:)a^ 
w. "^parag. '^n'nan Ps. 110, 4; r. 
•la^ I) f. cowsc, ««t* at law Job 6, 8; 
cause or reason nw to because of 
Ecc. 3, 18; 1^ ntQ-n b? on account 
that, so that Ecc. 7, 14; n^nner or 
orrfcr, "T^W-b?. afkr the manner of 
Ps. 110, 4, Sept. xaxoL t^v xaSiv, cf, 
Heb. 5, 10. 

niS'^ (only pi. ni*^^) Lutterance, 
word) ^nina'TO »'t^ Ac receives of 
thy utterances (God's) Deut 33, 3, 
Sept. iSiJaxo aizb tAv X^yov aJ>TOo; 
but comp. Hithp. of *Q^ I, 

rT;^h'=|, see rr^ia^. 

^^yy^, pr. n. m. (perh. pastoral 
or eloquent, r. WI or n) Lev. 24, 11. 

f^'^'3 P^- ^* (perh. pasture-land, 
r. *ia"^*II) of a Levitical city of 
Issachar Josh. 21, 28. 
• trm (only pi. niW; r. 15"jII) 
f. prop! a drift, a float, hence rafts, 
only in 1 K. 5, 28. 

Syr. wHs?, wAS?, fo «<icAp or glue; 
hence tti^^, perh. also ni^5-' 

TID'I (in p. «a'n, w. suf. "^to"!!; r. 
ttfa'J) m. perh. what is soft and sticky, 
hence 1) honey of bees Lev. 2. 11; 
T,5^ai:pK «b"n ^jib^ Ps. 81, 17 from a 
rock with honey will I satisfy thee, 
or perh. from the rock of honey. 
2) hmey of grapes, syr^ or must 
Gen. 43, 11. Among Ae Arabs this 
syrup or must is largely used (as 
our sugar or treacle), and is called 
jM^j dibs* 

Digitized by 





MV^^ 1 1) lump offatt fig. &iimp 
of a <^a^lel, which is a mass of fat 
Is. 80, 6. 2) pr. n. of a place (camera 
hump) Josh. 19, 11. 

OT (pL d**?^, e. ^i^^i r. nj^) m. 
a fisk Gen. 9, 2. 

M J •) (ftit. m't^) perh. akin to 
ml^ (^ e to), to increase, to mu^^/^ 
abundantly (like fish or grain), only 
Gen. 48, 16; hence V\, ^n, fx^, 
perh. 1)^. 

ni'n (c. n^-sj; r. nj-H) t a fish 
Dent. 4, 18; mostly collect. /EsA Gten. 
1, 26. 

pi'n pr. n. (fish-like or prolific, r. 
Mjn) of an idol in form of a fish 
(a'j) 1 Bam. 6, 2. In the mythology 
of the conntry it has the feminine 
ending, whence Knw Aepxrrco (w. "i 
inserted, as often), a fish-deity having 
the form of a woman, a mermaid. 


^J '^ 1 (ohs.) perh. akin to b^ 
ip$, Chald. igPi, to suspend^ hence 
perh. to float or flutter; hence iaj. 
Comp. DDJ (= TOJ = Ktoj), whence W. 

bW (w. suf. -iiw, pL d-'iw, c 
■ia?; r. ia^ I) m. banner or standard 
(prop, a pendant) Num. 1, 62; 2, 2; 
cf. niMI, 2. Hence 


''Jy n(fot.iaT;, part. pass. iW) 
denom. from ijj, to «6< up or 
display a banner Ps. 20, 6, hence 
fig. i«5 distinguished , conspicuous 
Cant. 5, 10. — Niph. ijnj to 6c 
furnished u>. banners, nftft'iSD rta^'K 
terrible as the bannered hosts Cant. 


M'i (ohs.) proh. akin to >^}^,to 
grow, to increase; hence 

T?*? ^"^ W^) °^* ^^*** o' com 

Gen. 27, 28 ; but also bread Lam. 2| 
12, made ttom 'ff^ 

ij^ proh. accord, to the Targ. 
and Sept., to gather, i. e. to brood 
over the yomig or eggs in order to 
shelter and cherish or to hatch them; 
said of the arrowsnake in Is. 34, 15, 
of the partridge in Jer. 17, 11 ^^ 
partridge gathers (i. e. eggs) andhas 
not laid them. — Perh. akin to *>^ 

T^ (Mend), only in pr. n. Ti^^ 

tH, see fix 

T^ (dual, tm, c "m) f. brtoA 
of the female for suckling Prov. 5, 
19. — Prob. = ^ (which see), Chald. 
^; cf. titOt), E. teat, W. teiJi. 

Ml*) (Qal obs.) prob. to go 
slowly,"^ softly, — Hith. rmn (for 
rmnn) to more slowly, is. 38, is 
•nnnai-ba n-j^i^ I M?ti/ ^o «o/% all 
my years, 'TS'iXb ^3 being in the ad- 
verbial ace, (Gram. § 118, 2, b). In 
Ps. 42, 5 dT'i'X n'la 't? d^ the 
word df!W is prob. for dnb rmnK 
(see Gram. § 121, 4) and ought to be 
rendered, I moved slowly for them 
(perh. as their leader) to the house 
of God. — Perh. mimet. akin to 
Heb. m§lB, Tahn. tm to leadgerUh/^ 
cf. our dawdle, toddle, Arab. t«>t«> 

171 (w. h— loc. nm) 1) pr. n. 
(perh. low country) of a people and 
region on the Persian gulf, (Jen. 10, 
7. 2) pr. n, of a people and region 
in the north of Arabia Gen. 25, 3. 

TiyT] Ez. 25, 13, see ftj, 

D''5'TI pr. n. of apeople descend- 
ed from Javan (i. e. greeks), perh. 
Dodoneans Gen. 10, 4; T^ ^TP- 

mn •) (obs.) i. q. ::xt^ shine, 
gleam; hence rnJrro. *. 

Digitized by 





ill -1 Ohald. (obs.) to glUter; 

afW Ohald. (def. fiqm, ^") »»• 
gM Dan. 2, 82; L q. Heb. nnt. 

tTI (gentilic n. ftrom rW; det pL 
ttyi-J, in K'thibh »S3?) J^- "^^ 
bitants of Babistan, or from Pen. Sj 
ildi (a Tillage) and so it may mean 
the colony of villagers £zr. 4, 9, 
prob. the Aaoi on the Oaspian sea. . 

UQ *7 (Qal obs.) mimet akin to 
tPPi andOQ^ Ger. dumm, our dumb. — 
NJph. DTHd to be dumb 'foundered 
or astounded Jer. 14, 9. 

i|J •] akin to in, 1) to run, 
to course (of the hone) Nab. 8, 2. 
2) to run on, i. e. to endure or last. 
Hence ^f^t\ and 

rnrrn (pLrfl*Vj5)f:anin, ara« 
Jndg. 57 22. 

si's!, see a^ 

«2*n (Qal obs.) akin to ^ nM^, 
yy$9 to /toto or |)ine awai^. — Hlpb. 
n'nr? !• 4* ^^n^ ^ cofWMMia, part. 
nin-na LeT. 2«, 16; hence fT^. 

JrN and U •] (Qal obs.) denom. 
of a-n, to /foA, Jer! 16, 16 diri^ij aful 
thy shall fish them; hence 

yy^ m. a /Ss^ Jer. 16, 16 in 
Kthibh, for aj^ in QM. 

rD^"!? t a fishing, fishery, HtW 
n}^ fishing hooks Am. 4, 2. 

jPN (obs.) akin to W, 1) to ftoiZ, 
bence W a pot 2) fig. of the heart, 
to be warmed, moved, hence (like 
Byr. ?o?) to tove (i. q. 'i^), hence 

Ti'n (w. But "H^i, pL 0'*ti"!i) m. 1) 
ioife (between the sexes), esp. in the 
pL, e. g. mh nn to be intoxieated 

w.emhraces 'Ptoy.7,1B; W^ retime 
of loves i. e the tender passions Ez. 
16, 8. 2) concr. an object of love, a 
beloved Cant. 1, 13; a friend Is. 5, 1 
(cf. Syr. Jm), esp. uncle, father's bro- 
ther. Lev. 10, 4; but in Jer. 82, 12 
^1 stands perh. for *Tm "ja a nephew \ 
r. Wi, whence also 

IVI m. 1) a boiler or pot Job 41, 12, 
i>l. d'nj'n 2 Ch. 36, 18; ct Syr. ifo? 
kettle. 2) abasket{QompaixeBng.pottle, 
for fhiit) Jer. 24,2,pl.O'«W!2K. 10,7. 

'Tl'5' ^"5 (ia later books, as Ohr,, 
Ezr., Neh., Zech., rarely elsewhere, as 
in Hos. 8, 5, Am. 6, 5) pr. n. m. (ver- 
bal a^j. from ^"n, beloved) David, 
1 Sam. 16, 18. Perh. for ^y^ )'^ i. e. 
the Messiah, in Ez. 84, 24.---^ Cf. the 
proper names Aidco (tTT% lovely), 
<I^iXiQTY)c, OiXiQ|iQ>v,''£paoT0<, Caras. 

D'WnVl, see ^X 

TTtn (fem. of t^) aunt, father's 
sister Ex. 6, 20; or uncle's wife Lev. 
18, 14; prop, female friend. 

Tm pr. n. m. (for *frr\1 loving) 
lOh. 11, 12, for which ^fyh in 2Sam. 
83, 9 K'thibh. 

VTJ'Tl^ pr. n. m. (for VTj^"f^ love 
of i:n)^2 Ch. 20, 87. 

"Til pr. n. m. (prob. loving) 2 
Sam. 28, 9. 

T^l (only in pi. tr^iXm; r. W»; 
cf. ^^nh, pL niKb^b) a4j. m. prop, 
pot-like, basket-shaped, then 6a subst. 
1) baskets Jer. 24, 1. 2) prop. 
amatory, pL love-apples Gen. 30, 14, 
the apples of the Atropa mandrch 
gora, which fruit the orientals still 
regard as a ^(Xxpov to excite love. 

M N I (inf. c. rm) prob. akin 
to n'T^lJfcO'j , 1) to be sick, unwell, 
esp. of the monthly flux of woman, 
Lev. 12, 2 ram n^d the uncleanness 


Digitized by 





of her iickening, i. e. her courses. 
2) to be sad, to lanffuish, see Mi^. 

n 1^ n (obs.) perh. akin to nio 
TT '^ 

to spin, hence (cf. Arab. ^^ to hide) 

to clothe, hence ni*TO 2, 

ni'n(r.njni)adj.m.,hj^f. l)wc%, 
ioeakly, namely of a woman in her 
courses Lev. 15, 33; Is. 30, 22 nj-j a 
menstruoMiS cloth i. e. defiled w. men- 
stmal blood. 2) sick at heart, sad 
Lam. 6, 17; xoretched Lam. 1, 13. 

rj*]*! (Qal obs.) L q. nm, mj, 
to <2rtre or push away, hence Hiph. 
to thrust away, cast out Jer. 51, 34; 
fig. to rinse, cleanse, an altar 2 Ch. 
4, 6, blood-guiltiness Is. 4, 4. 

•^•1 (c. \17; r. tm I) m. 1) languor, 
illness, hence Ps. 41, 4 "^i-n »n:> ftcrf 
o/" sickness. 2) what is 'sickening, 
hence loathsomeness, •'anb '^n foo^A- 
«omcncs«c« o/* wy 6rca<f, i. e.iny loath- 
some food Job 6, 7. 

"^J^n m.(inten8. of^])^, likeiwp) adj. 
faint, sick at heart Is.' 1, 5; r.' nj^ L 

y^ in 1 Sam, 22, 18 K*thibh for 
A^, which see. 

T^'n , see ^l-j. 

^yv\ i. q. "n?^ toi^OMnd; to bruise 
(in a mortar) Num. 11, 8; hence nana. 

TjN=I m. i. q. Arab. ,iXi j a cocJfc, 
prob, akin to 'Jj^i^ <rea(fer (cf. ^^ = 
tt^Tj), so called for its strut or for its 
treading on the hen; hence 

Pfi'^pW f. name of a bird.fAe 
hoopoe (ace. to the Sept.), but more 
likely the rock or mountain cock, a 
kind of grouse Lev. 11, 19, Deut. 
14, 18. -— The name comes from 
ng'^S= tfsrock and "r]-1^, Arab. ,^j, a 
cocA;; orperh. better from r.'r5!|^(=T]nn) 
w. old format, ending t)-7- and fem. 
ending tv^, as n^j-n^ from I^JX or )Vf, 

UT7 (obs.) i. q, ors^, Cr^, (which 
see) to be dumb, fig. to re<^; hence 

TVCVl f. 1) stillness, hence fig. £%« 
^ave, the land of silence Ps. 94, 17. 
2) pr. n. of a place in Arabia , Is. 
21, 11. 3) pr. n. of a tribe of Ish- 
maelites Gen. 25, 14. 

n^^-S^I adj. f. (fifom "^aw an obs. 
masc.) 1) still or silent, Ps. 62, 2 my 
soul is silent to God, L e. looks to 
Him in quiet confidence. 2) subst. 
siletice, as adv. silently Ps. 39, 3; 
rest, ease firom pain Ps. 22, 3; de- 
votion in, Ps. 65, 2. — It may perh. be 
from nM after the analogy ofnjsia, 
the 1 changing into ^l. 

U&n 1) adv. (r. tMtj w. adverbial 
ending D-;-) silently y in silence Is. 
47, 5. 2) prob. subst. dumbness, si- 
lence Hab. 2, 19. 

ptoa^'n pr.n.(for pto? or pto^tf), 
only in 2 E. 16, 10. 

j1 -1 or y^ (perf. f^, tut. -fi^-y 
=? 1'J'TJ, only Gen. 6, 3) akin to fnx, 
n^K, 1) to tread or press doton (like 
xb^), to subdue, hence to have power, 
to rule, thus prob. in Gen. 6, 3 
thrsh D"j.Hn '•m '|'i'i;-&6 my spirit 
shall not rule for ever in (or over} 
man, i. e. the divine and controling 
principle of Hfe must be abridged in 
men (comp. Gen. 2, 7); but the Sept. 
(00 jJL^ xaTajJLefv^)and the Syr. and 
Vulg. render shaU not remain or 
dwell, as if they read "jSli;: others 
prefer shall not be humbled or debas- 
ed, 2) •j'^'n to rule, w. ace. 1 Sam. 2, 10 ; 
to contend (at law), w. D5 Ecc. 6, 10; 
hence to judge (in the East always 
connected w. ruling), but in this sense 
only in the form 1*ffi (perf. T^, ftit. 
•j'n;); used of God Is. 3, 13; of men 
Gen. 49, 16; in various shades of 


Digitized by 




T : 

meaniiig, e, vindicaie or defend, 
w. ace. Gen. 30, 6; to punish, w. ace. 
Gen. 15, 14, w. a of obj. Ps. 110, 6. 
— If Iph. 'p'lj to contend w, one another 
(before a judge) i. e. to litigate 2 
8anu 19, 10 (ef. CDCS). 

7N Chald. to ruk or judge, 
only (part pi. 'J''3«fn) in Ezr. 7, 25 in 
K'thibh, bnt Tr^'^ Q'^™* 

■^W m. judgment, only Q'ri of Job 
i», 29, where the K'thibh has -p?; 
see Tf^ro. 

yrPl (in pause ^Vh Ps. 22, 15) m. 
wax Ps. 68, 3; r. i^}"!, which see. 

fM •! (ftit. yrr) prob. aJrin to 
ym, xd^, to leap, ftkip, dance; hence 
H(g, to rejciee Job 41, 14. 

pn prob. L q. pgj, perh. in — 
Hiph. P*^ to bruise or crush 2 Sam. 
22, 43, bnt see pff^. 

\r\r\ Chald. (obs.) to hole out or 
around, hence p;;^. -— <* Akin to Sans. 
laueh (to see), Xuxt) (Xsuoacu), L. 
iuar, £. lock, W. (^ma (see here) 
IK l^ma (d a 1); see on %p. 185. 

rR I (obs.) akin to "VID m, to 
pierce (of thorns); hence perh* *i*n?- 

v\^ n, to wwe roun(2 or turn 
dbavt, fig. to turn oneself round (L. 
versari), to cofUinue, hence to dtreZZ 
P», 84, 11. — Akin to ^, "nTJ n, 
ISO n, Syr. 1^?. 

rH m (obs.) perh. akin to W, 
to tsrrange; hence "i^^ 1, ffWa. 

rN Chald. i. q. Heb. *|!»n H, to 
Ju^ Dan. 4, 9, part pL 'p*^'?j Q*" 
y r y r g Dan. 2, 88; hence 170, li^ 

"ri'n ori^ (pi. d-iTin, ni'i^; r.'isi'i 
H) zn. 1) prop, a revolution or round 

of time, a period; then of man's life, 
an fit^c, a ^cw€rafion, Sept. 7£vea 
(Ecc. 1, 4) i. e. prob. a period of some 
30 or 40 years (comp. Job 42, 16), 
but of about 100 in the patriarchs' 
times (comp. Cten. 15, 13, 16 and Ex. 
12, 40); ni^j ^i^ generation and 
generation i. e. every generation, 
forever Ps. 61, 7, also 1^ nin^ Ex. 3, 

15, in; 'H? Ps. 10, 6, iti *ym2 Ex. 17, 

16. For ages, future generations 
niT! is used, as in Lev. 23, 43; D'^nin 
is only used in ^^yf\ *Xn signifying 
eternity, perpetuity, as in Ps. 72, 5. 
2) a race or class of men, e. g. of 
the godly Ps. 14, 5, of the wicked 
Deut 32, 5. 3) dwelling, hence ^li^ 
niSM dwelling of ancestors, i. e. the 

.grave Is. 88, 12, Ps. 49, 20 ; cf. Arab. ) tJ. 
4) also IK^ Josh. 17, 11, pr. n, of 
a city not fieir fi-om Carmel Judg. 1, 
27; perh. in the sense of a circle, ot 
L. urbs es orbis. 

"IW m. l)iH/eof wood (r. IJI*! ni), 
prop, something arranged or set in 
order Ez. 24, 5; ef. n^VTO. 2) r. 1W n, 
a baU Is. 22, 18; a circle Is. 29, 3. 

IXyPl Chald. pr. n. (circle) of a 
plain in Babel Dan. 3, 1. 

Deut.25,4(fut.ti!|*r)akinto tT}, XBui, 
to tread out (grain by oxen), to thresh 
Deut. 25, 4, cf. Hos. 10, 11; to crush 
enemies Mic. 4, 13. — Nipb. XOhj, 
inf. c. »W Is. 25, 10, to be trodden 
out. — Hoph. xaynn to be threshed 
Is, 28, 27. Hence ^575. 

W -7 n (obs.) perh. akin to p^, 
to spring, hence 'jiTi;''^. 

slSrrl Chald. same as to I in 
Heb., to trample to pieces Dan. 7, 23. 

CSM •] Chald. (obs.) perh. mimet 

Digitized by 




aHn to na^, nro, ITO, Arab. Uj, 
to jMm9M2(in obscene sense); cf. |jl6XX(o, 
L. molo (whence muUer), E. to miU, 
to maU\ hence MIlTj. 

nn -1 akin to JW, Itj}, to push 
or (Arfi9^ (2tH<^ fo overthrow Pb. 118, 
13, part. pass. f. w. art. IT^WflJ 
Pa. 62, 4. — Niph. n»r[i (fat sinj^ 
perh. for Pm] Jer. 28, 12, but see 
Prttj), to be thrust doum Prov. 14, 32. 
In Is. 11, 12 W3 is for W3 from 
mj, also Is. 66, 8. — Pu. hlTl (3 pL 
tim) to &e fArti^ doum Ps. 36, 18. 

»1)TI Chald. (r. Km: pi. 1*^m) f. 
prob. concubine Ban. 6, 19 ; perh. a 
table, as if akin to the Heb. r. n^D 
to spread (mi, then fig. food; the 
Eabbins prefer iiw^rumentso/mtisu?. 

MIJ •) i. q. nm, Arab. Jj, to 
t^rfwf ; only in ftit. Niph. ^n^ Jer. 
23, 12. 

*Tpl (in pause W) m. a thrust, 
push, hence a fall Ps. 56, 14; r. hm. 

^n •] Chald. (part, im, pass. 

i^m) perh. akin to bm, to «KnA otray, 

hence to 5e afraid Dan. 5, 19; part. 

i'^m fearful, terrible Dan. 7, 7. — 

. Pa.^im to torrt/y Dan. 4, 2. 


rj'l (obs.) perh. akin to *ffn to 
grow (grain), or to "jno to grind. Hence 

1^1^ m. prob. ^atn, mtZfef Ez. 4, 
9; Syr. tLiO?. 


to nm, to push, 
sten, hence C)*im 
w Est. 3, 15. — 
^ oneself, to hasten 
M Est 6, 12. 

yr^) perh. akin to 
ush, to press upon, 

Joel 2, 8; part, pnn oppressor Jndg. 
2,18; Arab. jjL J, Syr. wA^?, to rcpwiw. 
"^ (c. 15, w. suf. "i^) m. 1) perh. 
akin to Sans, di (to lack), tv-6eia, 
want, need, MaL 3, 10 '^'i -i^a 15 
«nft? (there be) no lack, 2) fig. «*/i^ 
ciency, enough, prop, what meets 
I the want (comp. Gten. 42, 19 flTy 
DD^rm <*« supply (lit. famine) of your 
houses; also XP^^^ ^^^ **^ ^^ 
ii«e, Oer. bedarf both ti'ani and 
supply) as adv. enough; w. suf. Tg? 
cnow^A /br tAee, % sufficiency Vtoy, 
25, 16; djn meeting their want, suffir 
dent for tJiem Ex. 36, 7. Hence 
*»'T3 according to need of, i e. as 
much as the case denmnds, "^ 
inito enough to redeem U Lev. 25, 
26: 'ah^ nanx *n3 as (the abundance 
of) <A« locust for multitt^ Judg. 
6, 5; fig. perh. proportion, *^ji in 
the supply of i. e. for, e. g. C« ^*}^ 
for the fire Hab. 2, 13; p*!"! r?a/'"W' 
nothing, in vain Jer. 51, 58; bat 
also ^2 so often as, 1B*J« T?? <" 
o/Ken as the trumpet (is heard) Job 39, 
25; so too *»^, Dr«a5 '^^ OS o/feJi « 
t?iey went out 1 Sam. 18, 30; w. finite 
verb, ^a;iK '»3» as often as I speak 
Jer. 20, 8. '^ The r. is perh. akin to 

Arab, yj desertum, 

^ Ohald. particle, originally 
a demonst. pron., like Heb. hj, 
of which it is an altered form 
(^ = t); but used only as 1) reL 
pron. serving for masc. and fenw and 
for sing, and plur. w?U), which, that 
nana '^n ki*! db the palm of the hand 
that wrote Dan. 5, 5; but aUo w. 
a very slight force of the relative 
(where in Heb. the mere genitive 
would stand) as in "^ns '»"n *in5 stream 
which was (of) fire Dan. 7, 10; 
D^^'i'^a 'n Kba%*i the temple which 
(was) in Jerusalem Dan. 5, 2, It hence 

Digitized by 





stands as a sign of l^e genitiTe is 
all its nses, vq^TQ *n fi(^to the kvng'$ 
eajMn Dan. 2, 15; Knb^ ^ nqyb 
God!8 name Dan. 2, 20, lit. his name 
who (is) God; or in general, like the 
Heb. ^nSM (Gram. § 123), only more 
frequently employed to express any 
relation; n^ -wi where (= wj "Wt^ 
Ezx. 6, 1; yinnfja •«» tr^se dwelling 
Dan. 2, 11. In Dan. 2, 9 •p (^ is 
inserted between the relative and the 
noon, K^^ 15 "WT u^Aic^ dream, if — . 
2) relat coqj. that Dan. 2, 23; 5e- 
tfoiwte fAo^ Dan. 4, 15; in this way 
used quite like *1VK and *^, some- 
times eren when an entire relative 
sentence is introduced, ^'TOfJ'J^^''^ 
that he should give him time Dan. 
2, 16; in introducing a quotation, or 
the veiy words of the speaker (like 
^, Srt) •nai nns^"n n^-noK he 
said to him (that) 'I have found a 
man' Dan. 2, 25. With prefixes: "^ 
(» 'itCM^) 09, 09 soon as, when, Dan. 
3, 7; ' ^ after Dan. 4, 23. — rV-^ 
£isr. 6, 9 prob. without, cf. |f^ 

3»TT "^ (of gold L e. spot rich 
in gold, Sept. Kara^u^ta) pr. n. of 
a place near Sinai, Dent 1, 1. 

lu*^^ pr. n. (pining or wasting, 
T. 3P?) of a city of Moab (uowDibdn) 
Nam. 32, 34, for which also fs'^n 
(a => S) occurs in Is. 15, 9, perh. for 
playing on the word D^. Also of 
a city in Jndah Neh. 11, 25; written 
also rmQ*«^ Josh. 15, 22. 

y^, see a^X 

3^ (r. yn) m. fisher Is. 19, 8; 
ilso in QVi of Jer. 16, 16, for which 
in ffthibh stands m 

I C^ (obs.) akin to nyi I, Sans, 
ndi 8«;o<D, Ii. wido, W. ton (wave), to 
wet, to flow, fig. to dye; hence 
b™, 7P> TC-ft "i^ 

SlJ? i. q. hK^ (which see) t Dent. 
14, 13, pL Is. 34, 15, a bird of prey 
inhabiting mins, prob. the kite or 
glede; r. n^ to fly fasL 

. it^'Sj (tor iW; r. iTjn I) t prop, o 
/Md or d^e, hence vdc Jer. 36, 18; 
not necessarily black, for Joeephns 
says the Hebrews made use of various 
colonrs for writings 

'^IT^, see Tia-^i. 

r •] Chald. verb, see yfiU 

"pj m. judgment Ps. 76, 9, in 
general, j^/oce of judgment, ^H5iino/, 
perh. in Is. 10, 2; cause for judgment 
Dent 17, 8; wrong or^utft, what is 
judged, Job 36, 17; right, justice. 
Est. 1, 13; controversy, dispute Prov. 
22, 10; r. T«j. 

1'^'=! Chald.(def. «r«y, rt}'^:}) judgment, 
right Dan. 4, 34; tribunal (the Arab. 

^f5iJ (!fi£'dn) Dan. 7, 10; 8en<«nce 

or jpuntsAmen^ Ezr. 7, 26. 

■jj'5 (o. 1??) la. a ji«^ 1 Sam. 24, 
16; r. "p^ 

1^ Chald. m. o /IM^ Ezr. 7, 25. 

Hi'*''! pr. n. t (prob. strife, r. 7^) 
(Gten. 30, 21. 

S;;5'^'5! Cfhald. pr. n. (only det pL) 
Dinakes, an Assyrian population 
removed to Samaria, Ezr. 4, 9. 

T&^ 1 Oh. 1, 6 in some texts 

pj|1 (ancient participial form from 
pm i)^m. a 2boXr-ou^ or woAch4ow€r 
used by besiegers, 2 K. 25, 1 ; pyj hj^ 
V5 (Jer. 52, 4), b? p!)^ TOJ (Ez. 26, 8), 
to rear a siege-tower against a place. 



Digitized by 





tD'J'n m. prop, threshing J hence 
threshing-iime liev. 26, 5; r. CVi I, 

"^lin (r. tPta n) m. 1) a kind of 
rock-goat or antelope, named from its 
springing Deut. 14, 5. 2) pr. n. m. 
(antelope or leaper) Gen. 36, 25. 

'jlD^'n pr. n. m. (antelope, r. ^irvn 11) 
Gen. 36, 21. 

tj^ Ezr. 4, 16 this, fem. of ^ 
which see. 

Tjl! Clhald. demonst. pron. m. 
Ezr. 5, 16, *T!^ f. Ezr. 4, 15, this, from 
"vi and «•; (Heb. m) w. demonst. 
ending H":- as in "^Ik; ct L. ti/t-c, 
W-c, P. ce-ci, 

Ip (in pause TJJ, pL w. suf. T^yn 
Prov. 26, 28; r. "Jja^) adj. m. (TwAcii, 
oppressed, wretched Ps. 9, 10; but 
prob. as subst. victim in Prov. 26, 28 
•pan Kjirr 'ipig xmh a lying tongue 
hateth its victims, or perh. its con- 

C%D "T (Qal obs.) 1. q. tfi^, to break 
in pieces, to heat small, fig. to oppress. 
— Nlph. part. K3^3 broken, contrite, 
w. nb Is. 57, 15^ — PI. KW; iK35 
to crusA him Is. 53, 10; to break in 
pieces Ps. 72, 4; trample doum Lam. 
8, 34; to o^RpreM Is. 3, 15. — Pu. 
to be broken, crushed or bruised Is. 
53, 5; to be humbled or contrite 
Is. 19, 10, Jer. 44, 10. — Hitb. 
(fut. MS^*;, see Gram. § 54, 2, b) to be 
crushed, humbled Job 5, 4. 

S3'5 (pi. c "^lim) adj. m. prop. 
crushed, hence ^moZ^, &roA:en in spirit, 
contrite. Is. 57, 15; as subst. dust 
Ps. 90, 3. 

MJ •! (fut. narih Q»ri of Ps. 10, 
T T -.I. ^ » 

10) i. q. «3^, ^an, to crt*sA or bredk, 
intrans. in Ps. 10, 10 K'thibh nsnj 
ty^ and he breaks doum, he sinks. 

— Niph. to be crushed Ps. 38, 9; fig. 
of the heart, to be contrite, Ps. 51, 
19. — Pi. to break, e. g. bones rnw 
Ps. 51, 10. 

nSI? f. crushing, Deut. 23, 8 
rwn TW mutilated by cru^ing (of 
the testicles) ; r. t{?7« 

*'5'n (only w. suf. djsj) m. a 
dashing to pieces, hence collect 
breakers, only in Ps. 93, 3 ninnj 5ixt3^ 
o;af; <^ /toois /t/15 up iheir breakers, 
1. e. scatter them against the rocks 
or on the beach ; r. tm. 


•|W ;^ (obs.) i. q. ns?, Tfn, pg^ 
5pj, all mimetic (Gram. §30, 2, Bem.) 
to crush, fig. to 6fi wretched; hence 

?p, nan. 

I^^ Chald. demonst. pron. (prop. 
pL of "^ and ^) <Ae»e, but con- 
strued w. the sing, this Dan. 2, 31, 


\D \i Chald. (obs.) akin to Heb. 

**?Ii **P7» 'o pierce, to penetrate (as 
the male, cf. ^i?^); fig. to impress 
(on the memory), to remember, hence 

'nS'n Chald. (only pi. "p^^sn) m. 
prop. i. q. Heb. *^dT, a ma£?, but esp. 
the male of sheep, a ram Ezr. 6, 9. 

'jhS'^ Chald. (def. !^p3^ m. re^ 
cord, register Ezr. 6, 2. 

»^5'l5'n Chald. (only def. pi.) m. 
i. q. pan^ the records, '"j IttD ftooJb of 
the records Ezr. 4, 15. 

b^ (in pause in, pL d^'in; r. ft^) 
adj. m. 1) moving or swaying to anfi 
fro, tottering; hence weak 2 Sam. 
3, 1 ; poor, lowly Ex. 23, 3; thin, lean 
2 Sam. 13, 4. 2) as subst. i. q. r'bn 
(toor, only in Ps. 141, 3 Vn-^^ rv^S3 
TTDb watoA <Aot« orer ^ door of 
my lips (Sept. 6upa), comp. Mic. 7, 5. 

Digitized by 





•—Of. T^X-ac, tXi^-jwdv, VT. Uawd 
(poor). . 


\^'l to leap or sprinffy w. V;? 
fo fe<^ over Zeph. 1,9. — PI. a!w 
fo feap *t^A, to bound Is. 85, 6; also 
to leap over, w. ace. of obj. 2 Sam. 
22, 30; w. i? Cant. 2, 8. 


(fat. rA't;) akin to »n, 
tao (which see), to move to and 
fro, to swing, wave; to draw (in 
a swinging way) water from a well, 
Ex. 2, 16; fig. to draw oui what 
is in the heart or mind Prov. 20, 
5. — Pi. ni^ to draw out, i. e.' to 
save Ps. 30, 2; of. dv-rXIco (= Ava- 

n|^ (r. ib^) f. prop, something 
lumging down or pendulous; hence 

1) ikreadwork, the weaver's thrum, 
from the hanging down of the threads, 
la. 38, 12; locks of hair Cant. 7, 

6 (cf. Arab. Cf\j the toft of the 

palm-branch that hangs at the top). 

2) poverty, 2 K. 24, 14 05 nifti 
people's poverty, prob. for <Ae poor 
people; also in pi. wn mi^ Jer. 
52, 15; l^gn nftg tA^Voor of the 
land Jer. 52, 16. 

'^ r^ (fti*- ^Vr) *o trouble, make 
birind (water w. the feet) Ez. 32, 2; 
i q. Syr. ^^^9 ; perh. akin to rhtt 

"bl (r. rtn) m. bucket, for draw- 
ing water Is. 40, 15. 

"6^ (r. ni^) m. bucket; d'^o i»"^ 
T«^ waters stream from his buckets 
i e. his posterity shall flow on 
as the water from the buckets at 
the well, only Kum. 24, 7, where 
TjV^ doVydw is prob. in dual 0')3^,^ 
coi]^ of buckets (so often used 

in pairs), perh. alluding to the two 

n^^J, Vrb'n pr. n. m. {P^ hath 
aayed) Keh. 6, 10, Jer. 36, 12. 

^"^b^ Prov. 26, 7 for *^, from W-J. 

Wi^b'n Jer. 11, 16, aee tA"^, 

• ^^<^ V^' ^' ^' (weak or wavering) 
Judg. 16, 4; r. \hx 

H*'^'5 (only in pi. ni^Vj, w. -^ 
immovable) f. branches, boughs, as 
waving to and fro, Jer. 11, 16; Syr. 
|/V>^i branches; r. n^n. 

3* persT siil^ Is. 19, 6, ^S>5 Job 28, 4, 
rt^ in Prov. 26, 7 is perh. for ^) 
akin to \h\ = b^D I, 1) <o mot;c to 
and fro, to be pendulous, to wave, 
hence to totter, hang loose, w. "pq, e.g. 
ri&Bfn d^<pitt3 tn^tf the 2 legshang loose 
from a lame man, i. e. as useless 
things Prov. 26, 7; tSi^KS ^^ £j^ 
(miners) Aawi^ doton from men i. e. 
away in the pit Job 28, 4. 2) to be 
slack or weak, to languish, fig. of 
shallow water Is. 19, 6 ; of the eye, 
to fail Is. 38, 14; of persons, to 
be poor Ps. 79, 8. — NIph. to be 
brought low Judg. 6, 6. Deriv. i^, 

y?] (obs.) perh. to be thick, 
whence Chald. rob^ gourd. Hence 

■jy b'n pr. n. (gourd-field) of a city 
in Judah Josh. 15, 38. 

n?^ ^^^^ ^) fodropordrtp, 
of a house Eco. 10, 18; to «%ed 
tears, w. b^ Job 16, 20; to /2bw 
away, as it were in drops, of the 
soul Ps. 119, 28. — Prob. mimet. 
akin to C)bj, Syr. wal^, G. trqpfen, 
triefen, E. drop, drip, dribble^ W. 


Digitized by 





t|?3 fr* ^^ ™' * dropping or 


dripptnff (from a roof) Prov. 19, 13. 
'jiSi'n pr. n. m. (prob. i. q. 
Chald.*= T^bsin blear-eyed) Est. 9, 7; 

r. CjH 


V*] (ftit. pVr;) akin to rA| n, 
<o bum, to fUane, d^'pbti ftumin^, ar- 
rows Ps. 7, 14; w. a to 5e< on fire, 
to kindU Obad. 18- fi'^];^^ Q?;^ 
dfimin^ Ztpa, i. e. expressing ardent 
affection Prov. 26, 23; fig. of anxiety, 
which seems to bum up the soul, 
•»» piyi the poor doth 5iim, i. e. is 
deeply anxious Ps. 10, 2; of hot pur- 
suit, persecution, '^y^ ?t?^? ^^^ 
didst hotly pursue after fne Gen. 31, 
36; w. aco. iJ^bn d'nm-i§ on the 
mowntaina did they hotly pursue us 
Lam. 4, 19 (comp. G. naehfeuem), — 
Hiph. to kindle (fire) £z. 24, 10; to 
inflame, as wine Is. 5, 11. 


^•j Chald. to bum Dan. 7, 9. 

t fever, as the burning 
disease, only Deut. 28, 22 ; r. p^. 

lnb]J (w. suf. I'ni^, dual W^] 
w. sufl ?pni^, c. '»n\^, pi. wnVi, 
c nini?!; r. i^*;, see Gram. § 94, 
2, Bem. 2) f. door Prov. 26, 14; 
the dual signifies folding -doors or 
gates Deut. 3, 5; the plural nln^n 
^Ae leases of a folding-door or gate, 
1 K. 6, 34; door Judg. 3, 23; pages 
or columns of the roll or scroll of 
a manuscript, which resembled the 
opening leaves of a folding-door, Jer. 
36, 23. The radical meaning refers 
to the fact, that doors hang and swing 
on their hinges. — Hence nij, SlXxa. 

0*5 (c. dn, w.suf. iWj DDijn Gen. 
9, 5, pL d^'an, c. '^gn) m. i) blood 
Ex. 7, 19; dn-i? isK to eat (flesh) 
w, the blood 1 Sam. 14, 32; ipj dn 
innocent blood 2 K. 21, 16; also blood- 

guiUiness, murder, esp. in iMs sense 
the pL d^a^ Gen. 4, 10, Ps. 51, 16; 
fina^ itTK a man of bloods i. e. a mur- 
derer Ps.5,7; d-w n'^a, V*i^, *oittc 
or dig infamous for murders, 2 
Sam. 21, 1; 12 r^Tf} Lev. 20, 9 Ais 
blood is on himself, i. e. he forfeits 
lus life. 2) fig. sap or juice of the 
grape (red in Palestine), hence wine 
Gen. 49, 11; perh. in Ez. 19, 10 
^sna "f&AS :p3M thy mother is like the 
vine in Viy sap, i. e. of the same sap 
as thine ; but others prob. better take 
^pana here for ^n^a in fky likeness. 
— d"! is prob. akin to dn^ to bered, 
but some refer it to Ms^ I to flow; 
cf. G. blut, E. blood, akin to pXuo, 
^Xuo>, L. fluo, 

MIO N I (obs.) perh. akin to !^ 
to flow, hence perh. d^ bloods 

m12 M n (ftit. noT^, imp. rrePi 
Cant 2, 17) to be similar or like Ps. 
102, 7; always construed w. ^ Ps. 
144, 4, or bM Ez. 31, 8; w. pleonastic 
h Cant 2, iV; 8, 14 ?I^-nati be thou 
like (for thee), see Gram. § 154, 
3,e, — Nipb. to become like, to 
resemble, w. ace. Ez. 32, 2; w. S Ps. 
49, 13.— Pi. nan to liken, compare, 
w. i Is. 46, 5; w. ix Is. 40, 18; to 
use similitudes (like im) Hos. 12, 
11 ; to liken in one^s mind, hence to 
think or deem Ps. 50, 21 ; to tnediioie 
Num. 33, 56; w. ^ to purpose against 
some one 2 Sam. 21, 5; to remember, 
w. ace. Ps. 48, 10. — Hith. rv0r% 
(Gram. § 54, 2, b) to make oneself like, 
w. i Is. 14, 14. DeriT. rvia^, "ji'^a?. 

M/O •! in i. q. Wi, Da^,<o 6c 

T T • " 

dumb, silent; fig. to re8<,Lam. 8, 49 
my eye weeps na'rn vb\ and rests 
not; hence trans, to moXre silent, to 
destroy Jer. 6, 2, Hos. 4, 5. — Niph. 

Digitized by 


rrOT 149 


to he dedrayedf of indiTiduals Hos. 
10, 15; Is. 6, 5; of nations Zeph. 1, 11 ; 
of cities and lands Is. 15, 1. 

ni3 -l Chald, i. q.tVf'nUio be 
Uke Dan. 8, 25. 

nB^ (r. b^) f. eUence, Le. state 
of death-like stillness, vtter desolaUam 
Ez. 27, 32. 

nWl (r. ng?! n) f. resemhkmce, 
likeness Gen. 1, 26; image 2 Ch. 4, 
S; Is. 40, 18; model 2 K. 16, 10; 
shape, form £z. 1» 16; as adv. like, 
as. Is. 13, 4; w. 2 Ps. 58, 5. 

'W and "^^ (r.rra'jIII)m.«*iff- 
ness, rest, ■»»; wa in the quiet of 
my days, i. e. quiet time of life Is. 
38, 10, 'Tjb •^cn ix fe* tt<rre be no rest 
to thee PS..83, 2, i. e. bestir thyself. 

D^'n, see D5. 

■J^13^ in. i. q. Man, a likeness, only 
Ps. 1?', 12; r. rran n. 

UIS'? (3pl.!?tt5,fut.D^,d7i,pL 
9Bjn, ^a"^ imp. DtiT mimet, akin to 
am, em, na^ ni, i) to be dumb, 
silent Lev. 10, S; w. h to be silent, 
for any one, i. e. to listen attentively 
to him Job 29, 21 ; to be struck dumb, 
to be amazed Ex. 15, 16; to rest^ 
leetve off, of the weeping eye Lam. 
2, 18, of the bowels Job 30, 27; to 
stand stiU Josh. 10, 12. — Niph. 
OTJ OnsTQ Jer. 25, 37; fut. D^, ^^^ 
Jer. 48, 2) to become silent^ hence to 
be destroyed, of persons 1 Sam. 2, 9; 
of a region Jer. 48, 2. — Po. doin 
to make silent, to quiet Ps. 131, 2. — 
Hlph. tim to make silent, to destroy 
Jer. 8, 14. — Cf. OdjiPo;, G. dumm, 
stumm, B,dumb, W.taw; also fioTT^c, 
Ij. mtt^ttf, W. mud, B. mute, mutters- 
all taken from nature, like hum, G. 
^tmtni^n, Dpn. Hence 

ni22n t silence, stillness (of the 

ivinds), a calm Ps. 107, 29; h^i^ Vip 
rr^ sound of a genJOe murmur 
IK. 19, 12; 3^'.c« iipj n^j^n stillness 
and a voice I hear, i. e. a slight 
whisper (Job 4, 16), or prob. better 
silence (there is), and a voice Ihear, 

yOrl (obs.) to dung or manure 
(so Arab. ^^ J) ; but this word is prob. 
a denom. from yo^; perh. akin to 
dm, KQ9, to be foul. 

l^S^ m. dung, manure 2 E. 9, 37, 

n513^ pr. n. (dung-heap; cf. "W. 
tomen dung-hill) of a city in ^ebu- 
lon Josh. 21, 85 ; r. )Tgf^, 

^>Q •! (fut. :fTsy) perh. akin to 
tW I, prop, to flow, hence to shed 
tears Jer. 13, 17 (Ohald., Syr. and 
Arab, the same); hence 

yW (w. suf. rjff0 m. tear, collect. 
tears-, only fig. tears of grapes and 
olives, i.e. the expressed/MioM,only in 
Ex. 22, 28. Cf. 6axpuov Tuiv devSpcov, 
Theophr., L. arborum lachrymae, 
Plin. 11, 6. 

n!W^ (r. a^-J; pi. m*5d7 Ps. 80, 
6) f. tear^ collect, tears Ps. 6, 7; 
man •^315 i^n my eye /^ows rfow^i 
tears Jer. 13, 17; see Gram. § 138, 
1, Bem. 2. 

\12rl (obs.) perhaps akin to^rj 
to triU or i/?Wr, hence perh. '^t^t^. 

1Z3)Q •! (obs.) prob. akin to Arab. 

£^J aequalis moUisque fuit (locus); 

hence prob. pto^ (which see), though 
gen. supposed to come from 

PlS^I (obs.) Arab. $lij 
(prob. only a denom. of jJA^J) to be 
quick, active. 

Digitized by 




plB53'n pr. n, (perh. activity, w. 
ref. to its traffic; but see below) of 
the city Damascus Gen. 14, 15, the 
capital of Syria, situated in a plain 
80 fruitful and fair as to be often 
called Paradise. In order to play on 
the word plSa (in Gen. 15, 2), pto"? 
stands for '^J^^aii, that is Damas- 
cus for Damascene. In 1 Ch. 18, 6 
pwn stands for pOW\ the Daghesh 
forte being resolved by a Syriasm 
into *»; in 2 K. 16, 10 pbann occurs; 
this is the usual Syriac Sform, and 
appears to have sprung ft'om pb^'i? 
by softening *n into ^ (comp. tiy^ = 
an^), — Prob. from obs. r. ioi"; 

(=3 Arab. «£^j to he level and soft 
i. e. fruitful and fair, cf. i^= J2t), 
w. the old adj. ending p-^ (comp. 
p7S9, often in Arab. e. g. ^^JUb^ from 
Jib) ; see on letter M); hence the prob. 

meaning level and lovely spot, so well 
suited to that charming place. 

plD'J'n (some Mss have pba^) m. 
damosA;' Amos 3, 12, a kind of silk 
stuff, so named fh)m pi^-f, where it 
was manufactured. 

1*5 1) pr. n. m. (judge) of a son 
of Jacob Gen. 30, 6; of the tribe 
descended from him Josh. 19, 40; 
hence patron. ^Y^ DaniteJyxdg, 18, 1. 
2) pr. n. of a city, otherwise ^b, to 
which the Danites gave name. Josh. 
19, 47, Judg. 18, 29. 3) perh. name 
of a Phenician deity (Eshmun), hence 
pr. n. )^ HJJ (perh. Dan the piper), 
of a city 2 Sam. 24, 6 (see ^S^ ; perh. 
shortened for yn in Ez. 27, 20, 

1*5 Chald. demonst. pron., hj'n 
def., com. gend. (Heb. Mt) this Dan. 

•i, 18; n:is i. q. nxts, e. g. a'^Hs na^TS 
thtis it was written Ezr. 6, 7; MJ^ » 

(Heb. riMT bs) on this accowd, there- 
fore Dan. 3, 16; njn '^^n^ after this, 
afterwards Dan. 2, 29. 

bW'l, seebx^sn. 

3 J •I (obs.) perh. akin to yni 
(= "j-j, w. ending a-::-, see a^ija), to 
be yielding, impressible; hence isi^ 

nW pr, n. (perh. whisper)' of a 
city in Judah, Josh. 15, 49; r. ITJ. 

nSTlD^ pr. n. (perh. stenchy) of a 
city of Edom Gen. 36, 82. — The r. 

may be tm = nar = Arab. ^J to 
stink, w. old a^j. ending n3-;-;see 
on nna'^K, and cf. JTIT = mt ■= Aram. 

Tr« I - ' TT "T 

nan, ^?. 

"'5'n Judg. 18, 1 ; see 1^. 

b^.^?'5 P"^- ^ ™- (God is judge) 
Dan. 1, 6; Ez. 14, 14 hVQX 

Jj'l (obs.) perh. i. q. Arab, j^, to 
whisper, murmur. Hence nn. 

75 (prop. inf. of 3rn; pi. o'^rj) m- 
knowledge, opinion Job 32, 10; pi. 
dW d'lari perfed in sciences, i. e, 
all branches of knowledge Job 37, 16. 

yn imper. Qal of TT^. 

rW'n m. i. q. a?"!; in pr. names. 

nyn (inf. of rT;)i.knowledge Ps. 
73, 11; w. ace. M;!t;tk rw prop, 
io know Pn, i. e. the knowledge of 
the Eternal, Is. 11, 9; pi. nw sro'^rj 
1 Sam. 2, 3 , see Ti 

nyn Prov. 24, 14 for ?n imp. of rn, 
w. n cohort, (see Gram.§ 48, 3, Bern.). 

iJ^^T^ pr. n. m. (prob. knowledge 
of God) Num. 1, 14; but in Num. 2, 14 
we find it ii^sisn (n = 1). 

^5 •] (ftit. '^) akin to "^J, Syr. 
^? , perh. to ^^"n, prob. fo ^reod or 
stamp out, hence fig. to quench^ to go 

Digitized by 


bn 151 


out, of a light, t^yrj d^'i ^ the 
Uxn^ of the wicked tkaUgo oui Prov. 

13, 9, L e. their welfare shall come 
to an end; hence to he destroyed Is. 
4S, 17. — Niph. to become extinct, 
of the drying up of irater Job 6, 17. 
Cf. extinffuere aqnam, Liv. 5, 16. — 
Po. ^ fig. to be extinguished, de- 
wtroyed, of enemies Ps. 118, 12. 

^5^ (oba.) i. q, im, to fear; 
benoe ^^^^ 

W?^ (prop. inf. of 5^, sometimes 
used w. ace., see Gram. § 183, 1) 1 
a knowingy knowledge, &*ty^(| nrt 
knowledge of God Hos. 4, l, n^ 
■V^ Jcr. 22, 16 the knowing me, i. e. 
knowledge of me (God); perception 
Ttov. 19, 2j dcff^, n?5 4aa tr&Aotrf 
design, unawares Dent. 4, 42; tn- 
ai^iU, wisdom Proy. 1, 4; inteUigenee 
Prov. 1, 7; tw yij fo know wisdom 
Prov. 17, 27; fws twefy Prov. 18, 
16; n^^ &6 unfci«e?i^ Job 34, 35. 

nS -7 (obs.) i. q. Arab. ^^ J, j, 
fo <<rtjie or push against; hence 

''B'Jj (in pause ^ti^ m. 8<iif»t5Zin^- 
hlock, offence, only Ps. 50, 20, Sept 

p£)*7 akin to hf^toimaA, t^msi, 
to press, i. e. to drft;e on, a flock Qten. 
33, 13; to ibiocAr a< a door, w. Ib9 
Cant 5, 2. — Hith. to jm^A oneself 
{against a door), w. b$ Judg. 19, 22. 

n^Sn pr. n. (perh. cattle-driving) 
of a station in the wilderness Num. 
83, 12; now el-Tobbacha, 

P^a^.m., n^f.(akinto'^)5eaton 
small, puherised, hence fine, of dust 
Is. 29, 5; of spices Lev. 16, 12; also 
as soibsL particle of dust, atom Ex. 16, 

14, Is. 40, 15; fig. lank, of hair Lev. 
18, 80; thin Gen. 41, 8; shrivelled. 

withered Gen. 41, 6; slight, of voice 

1 SI. 19, 12, of a person, shrunken, 
dwarfed Lev. 21, 20; r. pgj. 

P^ m. (prop.ini: of ppj) fineness, 
hence ft$ie cloth, only in Is. 40, 22. 

i?P •] (obe.)prob. akin to ij^to 
f0aoe, of a tree; hence Arab. J9j, 
Syr. iLofajMilm-ft^ (for its waving); 
perh. also 8dxTuXoc (pakn- fruit) 
whence our date, F. datte. Span. 
datil. Hence 

TO)^^ pr. n. f. (place of palms) 
of a district in Arabia Gen. 10, 27. 

PJ?J (fat pn;) i. q. ?J3^, 1) to 
heat to pieces, to pound or crush to 
powder Is. 41, 15; of grain Is. 28, 
28. 2) to be pulverised, to become as 
powder Ex. 32, 20. — Hipb. pyn to 
break to pieces {tat, Ap,pi^ 2K.23, 
6; inf. py^, adv. very small, fine, 
Ex. 80, 36; fig. of utter destruction, 
thou shaU break in pieces many 
nations Mic 4, 13; inf. py^ (for pyj) 

2 Ch. 34, 7 ; f&t w. suf. D)?^^^ for dU*;^ 
2 Sam. 22, 43. — Hoph. to be beaten 
out, pyr^ DTjV bread (com) is beaten 
out Is. 28, 28. Deriv. P5, p^ 

Pi? -1 Chald.e. q. Heb.pp^), to be 
beaten sinaU; np"; (for ^)W) i)an. 2, 
35 fhey were beaten smaU, — Aph. 
p^ (3 fem. n^ Dan. 2, 34; 3 pL 
lp\irj , fut p^, w. suf. Wp^, part 
p^no, f. ngri^ Dan. 7, 7) to break 
in pieces Dan. 7, 19. 

I)? •? (ftit -^Jw) akin to -iS?, 
and lat, to 6orc through, pierce, 
stab Num. 25, 8; fig. to curse, con- 
temn Zech. 12, 10 (cf. 8v ijexiv- 
TTj(jav John 19, 37). — Niph. to be 
thrust through Is. 13, 15. — Pa. 
*i^ to 5e t^niaf through Jer. 57, 10; 
«to^(ed (slain), by hunger Lam. 4, 9. 

Digitized by 





— Perh. akin to our dagger, Swed. 
daggeri, G. degen; these may how^ 
ever be akin to our dig, 

*^5ft. P^' ^ "*• (P®J^^' for ng5 la 
swordsman) 1 K. 4, 9; cf. ^jpra."^ 

^"5 m. a pearl, only Est 1, 6, 
so named for its radiance; r. n^ L 
*^*5 Chald. m, i. q. Heb, ■i'i?i, age, 
generation Dan. 3, 33. 

"i'n, see "nn. 

NH y (obs.) L q. "n^n I, fig. to 
pierce the mind, or i. q. Arab, l/j, 
»)ii to reject, refuse. Hence 

]i»'15 (for llK-nJi, c. TiK'W) m. 
abhorrem:e, tbis •px'rib fo everlasting 
abhorrence Dan. 12, 2; object of 
horror Is. 66, 24. 

— I jT (obs.) perh. akin to na^ IV, 
Arab. »-*) j, to besharp, pointed. Hence 

•jian^ (^r'ftAon (only in pL 
nliia^yn ddr^bhono'th) goads, ox-goads, 
Sept. PouxevTpa, Ecc. 12, 11. 

y^ya ddrbhdn (i. q. yiann) a 
goad, 1 Sam. 13, 21. 

yrj (obs.) i. q. ^^, to «e«p, 
ireod; hence i^yra, 
> yn'J'n pr. n. m. (perh. pearl of 
knowledge, as if 5^ in) 1 K. 5, 11; 
for which also the contraction yyn 
occurs in 1 Ch. 2, 6; but perh. for 

rrri (cf. ypyg « '^p^py 

^T^'^ (r. nntj I) m. a prickly or 
iAomy plant, caltrop, thistle Gen. 
3, 18. 

Orn (r. D^i^) m. the soidh (as 
bright, in opp. to lifi^ the dark north) 
Ez. 40, 24; poet, soitth wind Job 
37, 17. 

^'TTl (r. "n^nil) m. prop, wheeling 
about in swift circling flight, hence 
1) a swift or swallow (fem.) Ps. 

84, i. 2) freeness, spontaneowness, 
*mn'iT^myrrh flowing spontaneously 
i. e. pure Ex. SO, 23. 3) rdease, 
freedom, h "n-inn K-jp to proclaiin 
liberty to any one Is. 61, 1; njo 
liiim the year of freedom, i, e. the 
jubilee Ez. 46, 17. 

Wj'J^ pr. n. m. Darius, Dan. 
6, 1.. Ancient Persian forms were 
Daryawes, Darayavush, said to mean 
preserver, Herod. 4p?M7jc. 

W'^'J'n Ezr. 10, 16, see tthn in Pi'eU 

•j Jy (ftit. Tpf^) mimet. and akia 

to a^5, Arab, gjj, Sans. <ra^ (go), 
rpixio, E. <racA:, frcod, tramp, G. 
<r«^ W. ^roedio, Irish troigh foot 
(Gram. § 30, 2), to step, tread, walk, 
w. ace. of the way Job 22, 15; w. 
a to walk through, in, Deut. 1, 36; 
w. yo to come forth Num. 24, 17; 
w. b? to walk over, on, 1 Sam, 5, 5; 
to tread upon Ps. 91, 13. To tread 
the bow niag Ps. 7, 13, i. e. to place 
the foot on it in order to bend it 
for stringing; OW ^n to bend 
the arrows, perh. to set them 
against the string for shooting Ps. 
58, 8. — To tread the wine-press 
IS expressed as follows, Sp; '^ Job 
24, 11; n* '7 Neh. 13, Ibl n^a '? 
Is. 63, 2; irn^o'-n, 63, 3; tn:i^^^ y^ '•! 
Is. 16, 10; also 1\y; alone Judg!9,27; to 
treadoutolives, n^'nMic.6, 15. — Fig. 
to trample on, to Ireat w, cont^npt. Is. 
63, 3, perh. Ps. 58, 8; w. a Hab. 3, 15. 
— Hiph. Tj-i-^^ 1) to cavae to walk Is. 
11, 15; w. a to cause to walk in a way, 
to guide Ps. 107, 7; also to walk, w. 
ace. of way Job 28, 8; to make a 
treading, to tread a threshing-floor 
Jer. 51, 33; to bend the tongue, i. e. 
get it ready (as a bow) for sending 
hurtful words Jer. 9, 2. 2) Arab, 

J)J1, Syr. ^jj), to tread upon, i. e. 

Digitized by 




overtake w. ace Judg. 20, 43* Hence 

Tp'Tp and 

sf^ (w. inf. -iXTn, dnal d^tfiW 
?rov.*2iB,6; pi. 0'»S';^, c ''ST?) com. 
gend. (nu 1 Sam. 21,' 6^ fiem. £zr. 8, 
21) a going, way (as action) r^T\ 
^Tja io go in one^s way Prov. 7, 19; 
'7 *TiD?, Sept. fcot^9ai &Wv, fo maAre 
Ofie'f journey Judg. 17, 8; also tra^ 
or road which one walks in, e. g. 
M^?*3 ITJ^ <*« hinges way, the public 
highway Num. 20, 17. To go the 
way of ail the earth i. e. to die, 
Josh- 23, 14. Kg. 1) mq^nner Gen. 19, 
31; mode of life Prov. 12, 15; comp. 
1 K. 16, 26; ways of God, i. e. his 
methods of manifesting himself Job 
28. 14. 2) lot or destiny Ps. 10, 6; 
o-nya Tjnja after the fate of Egypt 
la. 10, 24. 

]lfi'T5 (only in pi. &'»5brw) m. 
a dariCy a Persian gold coin, Ezr. 2, 
69; same as TiS^^fiJ, which see. 

UJN (obs.) akm ta "n-i^ I, to 
shine, to be bright; hence trnx 

pWI'5 1 Ch. 18, 5, the resolved 
form ofpben, the ■» serving for 
the Daghesh forte. 

y^n (obs.) == y^jto scatter, to 
sow: hence "•ri'Tfit 

' • I : r 

7j*7 (Jhald. (obs.) L q. ^Pyj; 
hence * 

y^*!! Chald. (pi. w. suf. ''n^T!) 
com. gend. (i. q. Heb. 9i"iT) arm 
Dan. 2, 32; see »"nK. 

> JJ pr. n. m. perh. a false form 
for yri^ 1 (Jh. 2, 6. 

p jH (obs.) perh. akin to TJ^^, 
Arab. |3>*)) '0 hasten; hence 

'pp'l'n pr. n. m. (perh. hastener) 
Ezr. 2,*56. 

J-i I (obs.) akin to '^m, -the, 
'VTI, <o ^{fforn, glitter; hence •«. 

I J •! n (obs.) perh. akin to 'im, 
to turn or drtt^e a&ou^, noeep along; 
hence '^•n. 

wDj-l (fat «h7;) akin to tt5^?», 
?(!«, Chald. on^, Syr. >^f?, prop, to 
tread or &ea^ out, hence 1) fo 2(iy 
open, to search for, to seek £z. 34, 
6; to investigate Dent. 13, 15 (comp. 
"^S^)* 2) in general, to 5e intent 
on something, hence fo seek often, 
make inquiries about the welfare of 
any one Deut 23, 7, Ps. 38, 13. — 
The constructions are various, ac- 
cording to shades of meaning, Xb'y^ 
h» to seek for a place Deut. 12, 6; 
to inquire of Qod Job 5, 8, of oracles 
and idols Is. 8, 19; h Xffyj to seek or 
go to some one, w. a request Dent. 
12, 30; to search out 2 Sam. 11, 3; 
-njj Xb'yj to seek, visit, the Lord 
2 Ch. 16, 12; to care for, Deut. 11, 
12; "inK Xffyj to seek after Job 39, 8; 
i? xoryn to inquire concerning 2 Ch. 
31, 9; to investigate, £cc. 1,13; D9a '^ 
to inquire or ask from some one 1 K. 
14,5; ni«J '^2K.3,11; al80w.a2Ch. 
16, 12. — if jph. ttjnna to be sought out, 
i. q. ^D, 1 Ch. 26, 31 ; fo 5e required, 
of blood Qen, 42, 22; to allow one- 
self to be sought or visited, to grant 
access, w. i Ez. 14, 3, Is. 65, 1. Inf. 
abs. »*n^K for tt^-nTi in Ez. 14, 3. — 
Pi. only inf. l^'^^rjfor n^>i? (the "^ perh. 
serving for Daghesh forte) to tn- 
vestigate Ezr. 10, 16, but the reading 
is very doubtful. 

CSlZ3 "T perh. akin to ^m, Xim, 
D'TJi, prop, to sprout, to be fresh and 
green Joel 2, 22. — Hiph. K'^c^ to 
cause to sprout, to produce herbage 
(VHW^ Gen. 1, 11. . Hence 

Digitized by 





M V|l m. fint shoots, tender grass 
(SepJ'*xX6Tj) IB. 66, 14; VtW p-T 
greenness of herbage L e. green her- 
bage Ps. 37, 2. Diflf. from *)•»»;. grass 
for mowing Prov. 27, 25, and fr. atoj 
Aer6 running into seedQen, 1, 11. 12. 

liS-i perh. akin to m^ io &« 
fresh, Arimng, hence to 6c or be- 
come fat Deut 31, 20. — PI. to make 
fat, marrowg Prov. 16, 30; hence in 
sacrifices, to make or pronounce fat, 
L e. to accept as well-pleasing Ps. 
20, 4; to remove (irbn) the fat ashes 
of burnt beasts (Gram. § 52, 2, c) Ex. 
27, 3; fi^. to anoint Ps. 23, 5. — Pa. 
to be made fat, of ground soaked w. 
blood Is. 34,7; of men, L e. to become 
affluent Prov. 11,25; fig. to be satiated 
Prov, 13, 4.— Hotbp. fwn for "psgrti 
to be smeared w. fat, of a sword 
Is. 34, 6 , see Gram. § 54, 3, Bern. 

yn (pL mm, c. *^}m) adj. m. 
fat, "fertile, of asoil Is. 30, 23; fuU 
of sap, of a tree Ps. 92, 15; rich, 
affluent, mighty Ps. 22, 30. 

ym (w. suf. •'JW) m. 1) fatness 
Judg. 9, 9; nourishing food Job 36, 
16; fig. fertility, Ps. 65, 12. 2) fat 
ashes of sacrificed animals Lev. 1, 16 ; 
of burnt corpses Jer. 31, 40; diff. 
from "nfiK vegetable ashes ; r. "jm. 

M (c m or m, pi. dw, o. ■»n^)f. 
mandate, edict Est 1,8, £zr. 8, 36 ; taw, 
8/aMeEst.i,l9; isb n^ xoijt 1d'^a*^a at 

his right hand was fire, a law (sta- 
tute) to them i. e. the pillar of fire 
that guided them; or perh. a firs 
of law, referring to the burning 
mount Beut. 33, 2. "^ The r, is nn «■ 
TWO to set; and n^ is equal to the 
Pers. ddta, 6ct6v, dor^v, L. datum, 
E. set, something appointed, and there- 
fore in the Persian age used for pn; 
but others take it for nT», from rrr 
to lay doum, to set, hence a law. 

M Chald. (def. KM) f. an edict, a 
law Dan. 2, 9; collect, law Dan. 6, 9; 
rtn^K n*i^ in the law (L e. worship) of 
his God Dan. 6, 6. 

t^ or nrn f. a spring, perb. for 
n;7 (r. rn^i=fca^ to flow)-, hence "nm. 

KJHjJ Chald. (def. K^m) Lq. Heb. 
Kt^, tender grass Dan. 4, 12; ot 
Syr. ll?i. 

•TSM Chald. (only def. pL «;^?) 
m. one slciUed in the law, ajudgeDan. 
3, 2; prob. from M, w. the formatiTe- 
syllablen9(cf.'nat»). InPehlvidohifter 
is a judge; Pers. ^^I^I^JfJ lawyers, 

1^^ pr. n. (two cisterns, dual of 
Talm. n^ cistern, w. n loc. Hj'^tyV 
r. nj^) of a place in the North of 
Samaria Oen. 37, 17 ; in 2 K. 0, 18 |m. 

^M pr. n. m. (perh. giTen, cf. 
Heb. n^, or like L. fontanus) Num. 
16, 1. 

Ifrh Gen. 37, 17 and 2 K^ 6, 13, 
see yth. 

Digitized by 




n He, the 5th Heb. letter; hence 
used also for the nameral 5. Its 
oldest form as discovered in Pheni- 
cian and Heb. inscriptions is ^ or 
^, whence the early Greek ^ or jj 
and the common E. Its name Kh 
comes prob. fh)m hlh to breathe and 
means vent-hole (i. e. }^9^ a lattice 
-mndow, which its form rudely pic- 
tared); the initial sound and the 
shape suggesting the power of the 
letter, which is A (as in hiss), except 
after a vowel, where it generally 
quiesces (Gram. § 8, 3, Note ^) unless 
it is marked n (with M&ppiq, see 
Gram. § 14, 1). 

M wterchange8—\ , with its kindred 
feeble letters (Gram. § 7, 2, Note ') 

«. % ^ e. g. n-jg I = R-jg n, ^j - 
•wa, •^bn = ?|^r, stTi5 = *nto;--2with 
its kindred gutturals n, 39, M, e. g. 
nro n = 'nn^ I, orn = Dsn, art n 

= axb; — 3 with palatals a, S, p, e. 

g. nnx = aa5, *ina ii = *i5a I, n*i^«a 

p^t ; — 4 with sibilants, e. g. Tj^rj ■» 
"n^j ibn= W^ I (cf. Ipiro) = L. «erpo 
IB E. creep; Aram. Shaph'el STJ^^, 
^£ oiliiil' = He^. Hiph'il nnbn from 
an^); — 5 with *i, e. g. m^ DI «= 
•in^ ;— 6 w. n, cf. Gram. § 80^ 2. 

n appears as a formative prefix 
in some words, e. g. ^laJj (= lauj) 
from *J'^a, O^ akin to fcWJ, ?pj to 
T|^, prob. akin to the Hiph. forms. 
But as a formative ending it is most 
familiar, namely as h-p, 1) accented 
and marking the fem. gender, see 
Gram. § 44, 1 and § 80, 2, a (cf. the 
fern, ending -^ -i), -a in Sans., Gr. 

and Lat.); ^ 2) unaccented, after 
nouns (called M-;- heal, Gram. § 90, 
2), or accented after verbs (M-p co- 
hortative, Gram. § 48, 3). — This 
final n appears as rt— in a very few 
cases. — In the pronouns HSPIK, Man, 
hjrt, the ri-;- is a sort of demonst. 
ending (Gram. § 32, Bem. 5 and 7). 

'Ht n» *}i *} (short forms of bn as 
closely prefixed to a noun, see Gram. 
§ 35) originally a demonst. (or rela- 
tive) pronoun, like our tJiat (see Gram. 
§ 109, Bem. p. 245) but commonly 
called the article, since it answers 
to the Gr. 6, ifj, to and our the (never 
to a or an, see Gram. § 109, Bem. 1). 
The original h very seldom appears 
(see T^n), but is incorporated into the 
first letter of the noun, which is 
then doubled as shown by daghesh 
forte, e. g. *J5fn, '^a*TB*^, which 
however is often omitted if the first 
letter has no full vowel, e. g. ^a^ah, 
9^B^, and always if it is a guttural, 
e. g. OW, iw. Before K, *i, usually 
also before », n the P&'th&ch (-7-, d) 
is lengthened into Qa'mSj (-^, a), 

^ «' T^ (^«^^ r^)^ ^iyi^ "Vi^ 

dSH; but rt is used for n before n 
chd and M ch^ e, g. ihn, WTTi, "^btTM 
and before 5 and n when the accent 
is not on them, e. g. D''%'Vi, "jWy, 
tVT&itjn (but see more in Gram. 
§ 35, 2). The syntax of the Heb. 
article is essentially like that of the 
Greek or the German (der); and its 
use may be seen fully in the Gram. 
§§ 109—111. — Dl*n (comp. Scotch 
the day, Lat. hodie) means mostly 
this day, to-day, as in Gen. 4, 14; 

Digitized by 





mjijn Is. 7, 14 (Sept. i^ iropWvo;, 
cf. Mat. 1, 23) the virgin, prob. 
pointing to the class (see Gram. 
§ 109, 8, Bern. 1, 6), or perh. for 
^n^i? (the art. as in Gr. serving for 
possess, pron.; cf. 2 Sam. 19, 27 
niaqn for "^Tiarpj wsinn in Josh. 
10, 24 is for ^Ar\ '^•m tJuU went (the 
art. as often In Gr. used for relat. pron.). 

r[» n» n* n interrog. particle 
(Gram. § 100, 4) introduces question 
(cf. ^), whether it is direct (Job 2, 3), 
or indirect (Ex. 16, 4); whether the 
answer is wholly uncertain, cf.Lat.-ne f 
2 Sam. 18, 82, or an affirmative is ex- 
pected, cf. Lat, nonne? 1 Sam. 2, 27, or a 
negative, cf. Lat. num f (Gen. 4, 9). In 
a disjunctive question whether — or? 
we find BK — n (L. utrum — an?) 
Job 4, 17, at times ft — hi Sam. 
23, 11. — Before gutturals it is h e. g. 
TjbKh Ex. 2, 7, or n e. g. pjhrt Num. 
13, 18, ■•abijn; before K, also n, as 
O^Kn Num. 16, 22, Dtwn Judg. 6, 
31; but before "^ like the article 
sa^jn Lev. 10, 19, also before simple 
sh'wa, as "jain Gen. 17, 17; on its 
syntax, see more under OK and in 
Gram. § 153, 2. 

n, n prefixed, see rt, ft. 

KH Chald. inteij. lolbeholdt Dan. 

3, 25; Heb. Kh, Syr. |fli, Arab. \i. 

Sn inteij. fo/ Gen. 47, 23; akin 
to in, Kn, ijv, L. en. 

KH Chald. to! "na Krt lo! as, for 
yM«f a«Dan. 2, 43, whereit ispleonastic. 

^J^JIKn Is. 19, 6, Hiph. of mtfi< 
as denom. verb, or for *in'5Tn, r. hjT. 

'^^'^^^ (compound of hij and Wi) 
inteij. aha! exclamation of joy Is. 
44, 16; esp. at the defeat of an 
enemy Ps. 35, 21. — Mimet. like our 
hahal W. oho I L. eial elo, Amer. 
Indian 'minne-Ao^* (laughing water). 

tjCBDWl Num. 11, 4, for tfX^ 
w. article. 

in» n^O, fern, "^aj pL W, imper. 
of an;. 

TITfcQh Is. 80, 5 for tt^ain, BSph. 

of Twa. 
Snafl (only pi. D'^anan; r. arr) 

m. g^ti, offerings, only in Hos. 8, 13. 
^n Hos, 4, 18, see Wj ^an^ 
pian Is. 24, 8 inf. Niph. of pga 
''Stl Buth 3, 15 (r. am), Gram. 

§ 69, Bem. 2. 

D5fc^"'n}l Num. 32, 17 (r. Ki^X 

Gram. § 76, 2, f. 

^^^"■50 Num. 16, 14, see Gram. 

§ 76, 2, f. 

^5M (fut. ia»T;) akin to nax, 
njK, anx, to breathe,^ to blow (Talm. 
to exhale), hence ban; fig. to 5e tfain, 
2 K. 17, 15; to acf or spedir vainly 
Job 27, 12; to Aaw a vain hope Ps. 
62, 11. — Hiph. to fitaA:e vain, to 
seduce to idolatry, to befool Jer. 23, 
16. Hence 

ban (c. ian Ecc 1, 2 like :nt 
Num. ii, 7, w. suf. "lian, pi. ta^ian] 
c. "i^an) m. 1) a breath of atr,* a 
gentle breeze Is, 57, 13; brec^ of 
the mouth Ps. 144, 4, and hence fi^. 
as an image of evanescence, vanity, 
emptiness Lam. 4, 17; as adv. in 
vain Job 9, 29 ; idols^ as vain or worth- 
less Deut. 32, 21 (cf. 1 Cor. 8, 4); 
idolatry 2 K. 17, 15; pi. fi-'^sri 
vanities Jer. 10, 8; esp. idols Ps! 
31, 7. 3) exhalation, mist Ecc. 6, 4; 
11, 8. 3) pr. n. m. (evanescence) of 
Adam's 2d son Gen. 4, 2; Sept,*ApsX. 
bnn Ecc. 1, 2, d*an b^n vaniiy 
of vanUies i. e» veriest vanity (Gram. 
§ 119, 2 Bem.); see ban. 

J JFI (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 
^j^, pw;, to 6e *ard, perh. lienoe 

Digitized by 





•^art (only pL D'»3arj) m, perh. 
stone '-wood, ebony -wood (oBoaUy 
black), 80 called perh. for its hard- 
ness, only in Ex. 27, 15, in K'thibh 
ir«aain. — Akin to iptvoc, l^cXoc, 
Ij. d>enum, £. e&ony, G. edftiholz, 

all prob. ftom i^, Arab. J'T, to he 
dark; hence prob. also G. abend, E. 
even-tide, evemtit^ (ct n^nr, Ipc^oc). 
*Qn Jer. 4, 11, inf. Hiph, of -^ti^. 

iSnakin to rna I, Arab. ^, 
to divide, to partition out, only in Is. 
47, 13 ^yao ■»n^ (J»tmfcr» of the 
heavens, i. e. astrologers, who parti- 
tion the heavens for augury. The 
KHhibh is 'xb TOi (^«K), Bept 
doTpoX^YOi TOO o&pavou. 

ten pr. n. m. (perh. exile, ¥• 
n^n i) Bet 2, 8, also W t. 8, 15. 

JMf (obs.) i. q. n}n (which see) 
io fpeoJb Boftfy, tohisper, then also of 
the silent speech or mnrmnr of the 
heart; hence y^^ 

MJM I (ftit. r\trr^ prob. mimet 
akin to ^^, 2Ji}, Syr. |JLoi, Arab. 
\afUb, ^x^^> Sans, vach (to utter), L. 
voffio; 1) to murmur, to have a deep 
tone, as harp or lyre hence pj^!; 
to coo, murmur, as a dove Is. 38, 14; to 
9igh, moan Is. 16, 7; to mutter, as 
enchanters (see Hiph.); to rumble, 
mutter, as low thunder, see njn Job 
37, 2; to ^OWi Is. 31, 4.* 2) to 
tpeak, absol. Ps. 115, 7; w. ace 
Job 27, 4 ; to sing, w. ace. of subj. 
Ps. 35, 28; in this sense of the verb, 
dear and distinct utterance is im- 
plied. 3) of the silent tones of the 
heart, w. a to meditate on Josh. 
1, 8; w. i and inf. nw^ nwj^ he 
mediates (what) to answer Prov, 
15, 28; w. ace to think upon Is. 33, 

18 (cf. ^YlofAat); also in a bad sense, 
to devise,plot Ps. 2, 1 , Sept. iftcXirTj^av, 
cf. Acts 4, 25. — Po*el n}h (Gram. 
§ 65, 1, only inf. W) to imagine Is. 
59, 13, but perh. inf. of mn II or 
Hiph. of nj\ — Hiph. to* mutter, 
only part. pi. O^artg Is. 8, 1 9 whisperers, 
i. e. enchanters. Cf. nsilD. 

nun n (inf. ian Prov. 25, 4) 
i.q. njj n, to separoto, remove (dross) 
Prov. 25, 5 ; to foAre away, as a violent 
wind Is. 27, 8. — Po*el (Gram. § 
65, 1) perh. 1':^^ Is. 59, 13 to remove 
or banish; cf. &7C0, L. ago. 

nsn (r. nan I) m. f»ii«rfimrift^, 
whispering, then sighing, moaning 
Ez. 2, 10; muttering (of thunder) 
Job 37, 2; meditation (perh. a kind 
of soliloquy) or a sofinef Ps. 90, 9. 

iSh Is. 59, 13 inf. absol. Poel 
(Gram.§65, l;75,Bem.2), r.mniorll. 

)nWl f. meditation, thought Ps. 
49, 4; r. mn L 

^ySl Est. 2, 8, see wn. 

S"*?!! (w. suf. •'i'^an) m. L q. nan, 
s^Att^, moaning Ps. 5, 2; complaint 
Ps. 89, 4;r. ajn. 

yi^a?! (c. •p'-'an, w. suf: ■»3i'^an Ps. 
19, 15) m. 1) the murmur, duU sound, 
of the harp (cf. njrin Is. 14, 11), '^hy 
*n*l?:j pjn on the murmur on (he 
harp Ps. 92, 4; hence, a style of 
music Ps. 9, 17, perh. a subdued 
or soft playing, as a pause, or some 
peculiar sort of harping. 2) medi- 
tation Ps. 19, 15; in a bad sense, 
plot, device Lam. 3, 62; r. mn I. 

yOXl (r. I^n) adj. m., nj-^an f., perh. 
covered, endosed (^VJ3)i only in Ez. 
42, 12, which is very obscure. 

mbsn Jer. 13, 19 for nnl»jn, r.nijn. 

j3n (obs.) perh. akin to ^}, "ja?, 
to surround, to cover. 

Digitized by 






prob. akin to Syr. w^|^, 

Arab. ySRib to flee, whence Hejrah 
(Mahomet's flight). Hence 

■on 1) pr, n. f. (flight) Gen 16, 1. 
2) pr. n. of a country on the Persian 
Gulf, hence gent. n. "^nan 1 Oh. 11, 
38; pi. D'^'ian Ps. 83, f, D^-iaft 1 
Ch. 5, 10 = D'»?-ian Hagarenes]' the 
people of the country. The place is 
now called Bahrein, 

"TTf m. i. q. *rT^n, showt or cry of 
joy Ez. 7, 7; r. Tin I. 

■fi'irn Chald. (only pi. V^n^"!, def. 
^Jf^ir?) m. prob. a guide, counsellor, 
vizier Dan. 3, 24; KSbn ''t??'?? ^c 
hinges ministers Dan. 3,' 27. — P«rh. 
from mfj (akin to 656;, L. ra«fo, 
Sans, voff go) w. old ending *)a-- (as 
in ^^TSi which see). 

i jrj I (obs.) mimetic, akin to 
m; I, (y6a>, »i!in, mh, bbn, ^o sA^mf, 

cry, roar, sing i. q. Arab. I^ to roar, 
crash. Hence "Tn, Trvi. 

I J'^^ 11 (obs.) perh. to he power- 
ful, strong, akin to ttk. Hence perh. 
t?*!5 in some pr. names. 

TBI pr. n. (perh. mighty, r. ^ 
n) of a Syrian deity (see. Wj"W)- 
also of men Gen. 36, 35, 1 Ohr. 1, 30. 

^Jin^ pr- ^'^' (Hadad is help) 
2 Sam. 8, 3. 

']*113'nTltl pr. n. (perh. Hadad is 
high, see 'jia'n) of a place Zech. 12, 1 1. 

n^M perh. akin to nT« m, 
to stretch out (the hand), only Is. 
11, 8; to point out or lead (the 
way), guide, i. q. Syr. >*5<ji, Arab. 

tS^\ akin to 65<5<;, L. vado, irarliD, 
Deriv. ^'!frf\ 

^^Sl P'- ^' (^o' ''^?^i ^?}) o( the 

Hindoo country, India, Est. 1, 1 ; Syr. 
0|Jai, Arab, j^; in Sans. Sindhavas 
(i. e. seven rivers), Scinde. 

D V '^ P'^* ^' ^^ an Arabian people, 
the Atramites, between the Him- 
yarites and the Sachalites Gten. 10, 
27; perh. for D^J 'ni'Tn (Ador is exalt- 
ed); see D'Tinx. 

ID^'Hll Is. 25, 10, Niph. from W^ 

''^in pr. n. m. (perh. mighty, r. 
T?*7 II) 2 Sam. 23, 30; in 1 Ch. 
11, 32 "i^n. 

M - V ^^^ *^ ^^' ^^ ^' '^ 
tread to pieces, tread doum (the 
wicked), w. nrin Job 40, 12 ; fit Arab. 

•^•xA to tear doum (a house), to 

U JM (obs.) akin to Din, D^ 
to stamp hard, to tread or beat upon; 

tSin (only in c Dhrt, trhh; r. o^) 
m. prop, something trodden on, hence 
foot-stool, a hassock; D'^ba'i mn n^t 
is stamped hard hy the feet i. e, foot- 
stool, Ps. 110, 1. Cf. Chald ©33, Syr. 
U^AOA footstool, from ons to <read 
or trample. 

U jQ Chald. (obs.) akhi to xiji- 
v(D, to cttf* into par^; hence 

OTn Cliald. (only pU "piaWi) m. 
^'ecc, portion, 'j'^a^n *ia:p to iwaAtf 
|7iccc«, i. e. cut to pieces Dan. 2, 5. 
— Akin to T^pioc, Kelt, torn (mor- 
sel), Syr. \^]^ part or member ; tf. 
|i4Xtj (= jxlprj, X — p) iroieTv 2 Mac 
1, 16. 

W jn (obs.) akin to KTTj, to ftc 

.^rctftt, to «proW, Arab. JLoj to be 
green. Hen<'9 

Digitized by 





O'TH (pi. w^&f}) m. myrtle Is. 41, 
19; pi. Zeob. 1, 8. 

iTDTn pr. n. f. (myrtle) the Jew- 
ish name of Esther, Est. 2, 7. 

y] JM (ftit. c)W, inf. c. cpn, w. 
sof. RB*in) akin to Cj^d, to thrust^push 
Kiun. 35, 20; w. "p from and ix in^o 
Job 18, 18; to overthrow Jer. 40, 15; 
to repube 2 K. 4, 27; to drive out, 
expel, w. *»3m3, •'Jfite Deut. 6, 19; 
9, 4. 

I jM (ftit. 'y^pT) prob. akin to 
■^?3 I, prop, to shine f gleam, to he 
eonspicuouSf hence *y^iirj a mountain 
1b, 45, 2; then fig. to be splendid, 
glorious, iimba ^rtii splendid in his 
apparel Is. 63, 1 ; to honour or favour 
Lev. 19, 32, Ex. 23, 3. — Ntph. 
n^ to be honoured Lam. 5, 12. — 
Hith. to make oneself ghrvms^ fa 
hoQgt oneself Ptot. 25, 6. 

I i< J Chald. same as Heb. ^tj, 
only— Pa*. V.nfoAottowrDan.4,31.34. 

■m (c. ^yii; pi. trwi. c. '^yin) 
m. ornament, splendour, pomp Ps. 
45, 4, xcHp ■••n'Tti a(2ommento o^ <A« 
Sanctuary, i. e. holy ornaments Ps. 
110, 3, see on rrrtn; 'V^JY^ ieauti- 
ful trees Lev. 23, 40; majesty, of 
God Ps. 104, 1 ; honour, dignity Ps. 
149, 9; r. "ntfJl. 

T7n (r. "Vti) m. adornment, spiers 
dour; rflaia ^y^ ornament of the 
kingdom, i. e. Palestine Dan. 11, 20; 
cf. "^aan y^ in v. le *^ land of 
adornment, also Zech. 9, 16. 

inn Chald. m. i. q. Heb. 1*Tn; 
w. suf. '"^yt} Dan. 4, 83 my majesty, 

"Tin pr. n. m. (splendour) perh. 
name of the Syrian fire-god; see I'JH. 

*nn, see Q7*j. 

iTftl (c. rrm-, r. ^r^) t i. q. 
*VJ>1, ornament, glory Prov. 14, 28; 
wnp n^pjn Ps. 96, 9 holy adorning 
L e. holy-day or festive dress. 

D*rtl, see o^n'in. 

1T5*l^n pr. n. m. (only another 

viv : — : *^ \ J 

reading for ^JISTp^Ji which see) 2 Sam. 
10, 16. 

•IJlOTn Is. 34, 8 Hothpa. of yti, 

Wl inteij. haf ah! oh! of grief, 

Ex. 30, 2 ; akin to rhK, in, '^In, •'ix. 

■j'^SiTtl 2 Ch. 29,36,seeHiph. of r.-j^a 

111 inteij. of grief, L q. '^iM, oh! 
too/ Am. 5, 16. 

SW m., Kin t (pi. bn, nan m., 
in, n^ f.) he, she, it; personal pron. 
of the third x>er8., but orig. a demon- 
strative (akin to 6, ifj, W. o {ev) he, 
hi she) making the subject prominent^ 
without the K in pr. n. ^•T'Vk (for 
K!in*^^K) God is he Of that one. With 
the curt. KVin, it means thai, e. g. 
K!inn wwj that man Job 1, 1, 
Dnn Q'^ajn those days, vcTfn rty^ in 
that time Iffic. 8, 4. After a noun 
or pronoun it may be like a&x^c, L. 
ipse, self, xm Dab vim ^p», iPj"; "^A 
therefore the Lord himself (Sept. 
Kupioc a^T^c) «Aa^ ^ve you a sign 
Is. 7, 14; Mnn nnK ^Aoti art t^ 
same (Sept. 6 a^xdc) Ps. 102, 28, but 
in Ps. 44, 5 thou art He, my king 
(Gram. § 1 21, 2), comp. ''»^'^!» Kin-^a 
who is he that shaU condemn me? 
Is. 50, 9; cf. Gen. 20, 5. Often it may 
appear to serve for the 3d pers. perf. 
of n^ meaning is, was (but see 
Gram.§121,2)e. g. wn OBiD D'^**»E "^S 
for God is judge Ps. 50, 6, n'lf? "^3 
K'ln for she was barren Gen. 25, 21; 
or at least it includes in itself the 
verb rm e. g. '•sSk V(Tt he is my 
master Gen. 24, 65, in which case 

Digitized by 





it stands for the logical copula 
(Gram. § 144. 1); clearly emphatic 
in such constnictions as "n^ Mn fi6ri 
*^b did not he Bay to mef Gen. 20, 5^ 
>i^rnoi'» wn «2^g rnrn the Eternal 
our king, He ahaU save us Is. 33, 22. — 
The pi. on m. seems to he shortened 
from wn (d Chald. nat ifirt', Arah. 

^X <» Q^ from QsinK. — In the 
Pentateuch K^l stands for the fern. 
as well as the masc. e. g. yi^ ^^'^ 
Kim and the gold of that land Gen. 
2, 12 , where the punctators pointed 
it (and expected it to he sounded) 
as K*^, hut it should always he 
pronounced like the masc hu (see 
Gram. § 32, Bem. 6). The form 
KTi rarely occurs except in the Pen- 
tateuch, see 1 K, 17, 15; Job 31, 11; 
Is. 30, 33. 

»VI Chald. m., Kin f. i. q. Heh. 
he, she, it, Dan. 2, 22; w. substan- 
tive verb implied he is, she is, etc. 
Dan. 2, 9; for the subsU verb., Dan. 
4, 27. 


^. ^ (unp. K;in, fut. Ksirp short- 

T T " ' 

ened for «VP) i. q. nin to be, AfA 
infiTKin l»6^n to the snow he says, he 
on the earth Job 37, 6; x^n^ tXQ there 
shaU U he i. e. remain Eco. 11, 3. 
Deriv. Kirn. 

Is 'M, n 'n Chald. (ftit. Kirt 
Dan. 2, 28 for Kirn, pi. "plib m., IJIrtb 
f.) to he, i. q. Heb. trn, ^ Often em- 
ployed w. participle of principal verb, 

e. g. KJi'^ga n'»;)n ianbp J was hok- 
ing at the horns, i. e. I considered 
Dan. 7, 8. — The \ as preformative 
of the 3 i>erson in the future (as 
above) is akin to the Syriac preform, 
a, e. g. Ti'jHo n^rt thy dweUing shaU 
he Dan. 4, 22, Syr. ^,.^0:^^ looO, 
the/ and n being often interchanged. 

©• fiT" ytft ^ y^i and the y and n 
also, e. g. nsr = a^, see Gram. § 71. 
T5^n Chald. to he destroyed Dan. 
7, 11, Hoph. of nnfijl after the Heb. 

iT^ain Chald, inf. Aph. of na», 
in the Biblical or Hebraistic Chaldee, 
to destroy Dan. 7, 26. 

Win Lam.1, 5 Hiph. of mj w, 
suf. PI — . 

rin (obs.) 1) akin to W I 
(which see), a^Sacu, to sound forth, 
to sing, hence to make famous, to 
praise. 2) akin to ibn, to sAtne,. 
hence to hloom. 

Tin m. 1) akin to 0^617, u^toroiM^ 
sound, as iVp ^rt fA« sounding of 
his voice i. e. peal of thunder Is. 30, 
30. 2) renovm or splendour of God 
Ps. 21, 6, of a king 1 Ch. 29, 25, of 
a war-horse Zech. 10, 8; hloom (of 
manhood) Prov. 5, 9. 3) pr. n. m. 
(perh. renown) 1 Ch. 7, 87; ct 

STTin Hiph. of n^ L 

n^iTin, vi^'Tin pr. n. m. 

(perh. for PP nmh praise ye tn^) 1 Ch. 
5, 24; 3, 24. 

•^77'^> njT*f^ Iff. n.m. (renown 
of J:n)Neh. 7, 43; 8, 7. 

mn (part rrfn Neh. 6, 6, imp. 
rnn Gen. 27, 29) i. q. tm, n;^ 
hirj, na», prop, to hreathe, hence 
1) fig. to live, he or exist Ecc. 2, 22; 
imp. •»?r! Is. 16, 4. 2) to breathe 
after something, to desire; hence 
h-jrt desire. 8) to ea:pire, die; hence 
nnn ruin. 

T ~ 

nin f. i. q. njh 2, ruin, Is. 47, 11. 

njn Chald. to 6e, lee Rjn. 

•^3n (pl. n-i'in) £ 1) desire, cupid- 

Digitized by 




acay the desirt of the wicked ProY. 
10, 3 (r. nvi 2). 2) ruin (only in pL), 
calamiHes Ps. 57, 2; nivj -i^j de- 
itructive pestilence Ps. 91, 8; mischie- 
voumess Ps. 5, 10; nistfi "jit^i tongue 
o/" mischiefs i. e. mischievous tongae 
Prov. 17, 4. 

D?Tin pr. n. m. (perh. for DJTirrj 
He will ruin them, r. tm 3) of the 
king of Hebron Josh. 10, 3. 

"nSl inteij. i. q. "^IK, in, o^aC, ot. 
1) of grief, oh! woe! alas, '»rKj ■n'n 
oh! my brother 1 K. 13, 30. 2) of 
threatening, ho! woe! Is. 1, 4, w. ifcj 
Jer. 48, 1, w. i? Jer. 50, 27, w. i 
Ez. 13, 18 woe to! 8) of exhortation, 
ho! Is. 55, 1. 

JJ'H ] Ohald. (only fut ^'J Ezr. 
5, 5j inf. rjfro Ezr. 7, 13) i. q. Hebr. 
^ (comp. -pK = ]^bK), to go. --^ Of. 
oiyojiat, T5xeo. 


_ . (obs.) akin to iVi, to 6e 
bright, to ff learn; hence P**] in 

•r • -t 

WT^VJ Ez, 16, 4 inf. Hoph, of 
n^, for nnb^n (comp. Gram. § 27, 
Eem. 1). 

nbbin (r. Vin; only pi. nftVin) 
f. /b% Ecc. 1, 17; wickedness Ecc. 
9,3. — The ending Hi" may perh. be 
a form of W*, and so tiftiin be sin- 
gular, in the same way as niQSn. 

^b\T\ Ps. 78,63inPiL of iin. 

tflbbin 1 i. q. nbiln fatfy Hcc. 
10, 13. 
ObTTl m. Is. 41, 7; see Din. 

Dnn mimet. akin to b^, rron, 
to roar^ to be noisy (in tumult, con- 
foson); hence to agiMcy Deut. 7, 23 
d^ he confounds them w, great con- 
fuion. — Nlph. (fat. oh^ to be 
M Aff^frud or agitated Buth 1, 19. 

— Hiph. to cause confusian, to make 
a hubbub Mic 2, 12, fig. to «t^A atoud 
Ps. 55, 3. 

D^Sl pr. n. m. (confusion, r. 
Qgn)^l Oh. 1, 39; D^"»n in Gen. 
36, 22. 

jmH (Qal obs.) 1) i q. •)«, to 
breathe; hence fig. as in b^ to &e 
vain, /i^A<; hence perh. yt\, cf. Hiph. 
2) i. q. *|W 2 to tot/, to earn or ^^ 
6y labour; hence "pr?. — Yfipb. 
•pm to mdtc %A^; nii^^ laWf] and 
ye acted lightly to go up i. e. weni 
up heedlessly Deut. 1, 41. 

"jin (pi. D'»yin Ez. 27, 33) m. i. q. 
"pK wealthy riches (prop, earnings) 
Prov. 1, 13; hence worth, value, e.g. 
Tin K^a without a price, i. e. for 
nought Ps. 44, 13; as adv. enough 
Prov. 30, 15; Sept apxcL 

TDTII 2 Oh. 3, 3, see W, 

l^ri (obs.) perh. i. q. ym, to 
cut, to wound, hence perh. "{'Jp. 

^%1, see 23tn pr. n. 

lin or *n (pi. c. -j;!"!*!) m. 1) i. q. 
•nrt mountain, hence (ace. to best 
reading) ^ '»7iM <Ac eternal moun- 
tains Gen. 49, 26, Uke obiS ni^aii 
in the other member of the paral- 
lelism; cf. in Deut. 33, 15, Hab. 
8, 6; but the Massoretic text has 
15 •'•tin my parents, as far as — 
(cf. Eng. Version, after the Lat. 
Yulgate). 2) pr. n. of a mountain 
where Aaron died Num. 20, 22, 
hence called by the Arabs Jebel 
Neby Hdrun, Mount of the Prophet 
Aaron. 3) pr. n. of a point or spur 
of Lebanon Num. 34, 7. 

S2inGen.8, 17imper.Hiph.of K2r, 
inQ'riKarn, theK'thibh being Kapn. 

DTtalOin Zech. 10, 6 Hiph. of 

Digitized by 


T T 

a^, w. Buf; a mingling of D^nnwrt 
and D'»n'ia'Wi. 

• n 

y^^W] pr. n. m. (for 5a^>Tj 
rn hears) 1 Ch. 3, 18. 

?y?in pr. n. m. (deliverance) 1) 
Joshua's early name Num. 13, 8. 
2) king of Israel 2 K. 15, 30. 3) a 
prophet Hos. 1, 1. 

n^?:Din pr. n. UL (PP saves) 
Neh. 12, 32. 


in (Qal ohs.) perh. akin to 
xcnrt, to haste; cf. d>0e(D, 0£(i>, W. 
gtcthio. — Pi. nnin to make haste, 
to rush upon, only Ps. 62, 4. 

*lTl1il pr. n. m. (perh. survivor) 
1 Ch. 25, 4 ; r. nn; i. 

bfy.Tn Is. 44, 20, see bwi and 

rnrn Chald. Dan. 5, 20, inf. Aph. 
of *Tlt. 

]^FOa'?!Tn Chald. Dan. 2, 9 Q'ri, 
Ithpa. of igt. 


. f I i akin to tiTh, prop, to see 
(a dream), hence to dream, only Is. 
56, 10, Sept. IvoicvtaWlxevot; cf. 
Arah. ^5JJb to talk at random, esp. 
of one delirious. 

^b^'^Jl Lam. 1, 8, Hiph. of i^t; see 
Gram. § 72, Bem. 9. 

^?n Is. 1, 16 for ^Sjnri Hith. of 
nat; Gram. § 54, 2, b. 

UTtfir\^ Ez. 6, 8 inf. Niph, of 
n'nt, error for Qani'ntrt. 

•^"Q^nO Josh. 6, 17, 3 f. Hiph. 
of Kin, for n^Stfin, see Gram. § 75, 
Bem. 21, a. 

"^ :7?1 ^^^' ®» ®' ®^*^er irreg. 
Qal w. the interrog. n, or for "^nb^Pin 
Hiph. of hyj, w, ti interrog. 

tjrtn 2 K. 13, 6, and ^tJlTl Jer. 
32, 35,"for H^^Oy^ Hiph. of Kon. 

162 rm 

bnn Ez. 20, 9 inf. Niph. of h\r\. 

VHtl Is. 53, 10, Hiph. 8 pers. 
perf. of Vibn. 

tSJn Ps. 144, 5 imp. Hiph. apoc. 
of noj, for nort (see Gram. § 76, 2, b). 

Saan Deut. 24, 4, Hothp. of 
K«0; Gram. § 54, 3, Bem. 

W^ Prov. 7, 21, 3 f. sing. Hiph. 
of rraj, w. sufc 

^tl inteij. like 'in, "^ih, hut used 
as suhst. sighing, lamentation £z. 
2, 10; it may he a shortening of '^'n:, 
as ^^2 of isiar 

^"^n (Pl- B f^lv!) pers- Pron. f . 
3 pers. sing, she Buth 1, 3; as subst. 
verb, she is, was, e. g. nx*^o raSa— 's 
KVi because she was beautiful of 
appearance Est 1, 11; sometimes 
for the neuter, it Ecc. 5, 18. It is 
used as widely as iXTi, which see. 
The pi. "in prob. was orig. "pn. 

TJTI m. slwut of joy, vintage-cry 
Jer. 25, 30; war-cry, shout of the 
soldiers attacking Is. 16, 9; r. ^rtnl 
which see. — Prob. mimet. akin to 
•ti, bbvj (r. ib;, n = i), E. huzzahi 
hurrah! G. hussah, hurrah (s = r\ 

Arab. 5)A exulting joy, Lat. aiat! 

rri^^n (only pi. mw Neh. 12, 8] 
f. choirs. The form is perh. cor- 
rupted for ni*nn, as l Ch. 25, 3 may 
indicate ; r. 'nn = HT I. 

n^n (fut. rw, apoc. \y^^ inf. 
abs. n%*5 and n*j Num. 30, 7, inf. c. 
nw, once n>^ Ez. 21, 15, w. pref. 
ni'-ihi, part f. njin Ex. 9, 3) akM to 
^'i^t fiJO prop, to breathe, live^ but 
usually 1) to be, whether w. the 
meaning to exist, live, fTJtTH fc<> I 
should not be Job 3, 16; or to be soi^e- 
I where, e. g. trf^^ Dtjnna w^Aen they 

Digitized by 





were in the field. Gen. 4, 8; or to 
he, as the logical copula between 
sabj. and predicate, e. g. y^^n^, 
viai Vih ttnTt and the earth was 

|T , T J T 

desolation and emptiness Gen. 1, 2. 
GoDstraed w. }> of the pers. to be to, 
e. g. npnsi yicL ft •'?Tp and there was 
to kim sheep and oxen, i. e. he had 
or possessed them Gen. 12, 16 (see 
Gram. p. 351); to be for something 
e, g. nhxpb w*; and they shall be 
(serve) for lights Gen. 1, 15; ^o prove, 
turn out to be, e. g. W] sjp^nnn 
D^JfiO ^lew yourselves strong and 
he for (i. e. become) men 1 Sam. 
4, 9. With ttP, to be of the party of 
1 E. 1, 8; to lie icith a woman Gen. 
39, 10; to be in the mind 1 K. 11, 
11; w. te to be over for protection 
1 Sam. 25, 10. In union w. the inf. , 
of another verb, it expresses, to be 
cppoiTited, e. g. ^vr^h tmi and it 
$haU be for burning Ja, 5, 5; to be 
about to, 6. g. Ki'ab xman w and 
the sun teas about to set Gen. 15, 
12; to be necessary to be done, as of 
daty, e. g. "niD^ *^?^ T^^ ^*"^ *^ 
^«rf« must (or Aa5 fo) fee shut Josh. 
2, 5 (see Gram. § 132, Bern. 1). 
2) to come into existence, invt Wi and 
there was light Gen. 1, 3; to become 
something w. ]> Gen. 2, 7; w. aco. 
nte a*^ ■*TFfl and she became a 
pittar of saU Gen. 19, 26. t^vk W} 
means sometimes to behave oneseljf 
as a man i. e. to become a man, as 
above in 1 Sam. 4, 9; sometimes to 
hdong to a man, as a wife whom he 
marries Bent. 21, 15. 3) to come to 
pass, occur, e. g. ft n;n no 5»35^ iKh 
»e know not what has happened to 
Itim Ex. 32, 1 ; very frequent in the 
form '<T*i. e. ff. D'^ia'^n -i-^ln^^ ir?ii 
^^sm and it came to pass after these 
(kings Gen. 22, 1 ; also w. fut. n^fJJ 
and it shaU come to pass Is. 7, 18. 

— lliph. m^} to be done, made to 
be Mic. 2, 4; msii STiNn a desire 
accomplished Prov. 13, 19; so also 
prob. Dan. 2, 1 lft5 tir\Ti^ irot^ 
a»kf Aw «fefp was finished upon him, 
i. e. left him; w. h to become some- 
thing Dent. 27, 9; w. nN« of the 
author IK. 12, 24; to come to pass, 
happen Judg. 19, 30, so also prob. 
'^nftn?! ■'r^'*;]*7? I happened that I 
was sick Dan. 8, 27. 

tl*n (Q'ri for njrt) f. ruin, ca- 
lamity Job 6, 2; ^. TrjtJ i. q. rtjn 3. 

?jTl adj. (i. q. tpx) in Chald. form 
howl 1 Ch. 13, 12. 

bVT] (c. bs'in m., f, only in Is. 
44, 28; pi. Dfta*^, c. ftsVl, nftsVj 
only inHos.8, 14.) l)prop. capacious 
building, hence a palace Am. 8, 3. 
2) rrjrr; i?^ Eternal's palace i. e. 
<Ac fmi?fe of the Lord 2 K. 24, 13; 
used even of the tabernacle before 
the temple in Jerusalem was built 
1 Sam. 1, 9 ; poet of heaven as the 
palace of the uniyerse Ps. 29, 9. 3) 
the sanctuary (6 va6c), between the 
porch and holy of holies 1 K. 6, 5; 
r. ian = b!i5 = tej. 

bSTl Chald. (def. Kis^^) 'l)palace 
of a king Dan. 4, 1. 2) the temple, 
o^WT^a *>^ K^?^ '^ temple that was 
in Jerusalem Dan. 5, 2. 

'*5"'b"'Jn Ex. 2, 9, Hiph, 2 pers. 
imp. of T\^^t ^^^ assonance w. '^PJT}' 

55T! !»• brightness, then 6r^A< 
8/ar, morning star, i. e. Lucifer 

morning Is. 14, 12; r. bbn. — An- 
other hh'V} is the imp. Hiph. of tt^ 
which see. 

U"^in, see n^tn. 
I'tttl Hiph, of fg;. 

Digitized by 





Binrj pr. n. m. (confusion) Gen. 
36, 22] i. q. tJOin 1 Ch. I, 39. 

l^'^n pr- ^' ^' (P*^^- faithful, 
trustftili'i. q. Aram. liO'^^', r, ^W I) 
1 K. 5, 11; perb. Bame as "|^» artist, 

y2^ Chald. Aph. of IjOVL 
TT} m. a hifif Sept. Tv, name of 
a measure for liquids, equal to 6th 
part of a n5, about 5 English quarts 
Num. 15, 4. — If Hebrew, it comes 
perb. firem r. Ipii, 

^t\^T[ Chald. Aph. of KP^. 
TlTl Chald. pass, of '^n'p; r.Ktj^. 
?jn imp. Hiph, of Hd}, see Gram. 
§ 76, 6, b. 

D2l3ri Lev. 13, 55 inf. o. of Hothp. 
of DM, see Gram. § 54, 3. 

•^n 2 Sam. 9, 1; Job 6, 22 j see 
•»3n llS). 

b'Wj E2. 21, 33 intHiph. ace. to 
some for b**?)^, r. b?K; but perb. 
from b^3 which see. 

tJSH Hiph. of naj, w. suf. ?|-7% 

xDm (obs.)to «aA», receive, hold] 
fig. fo 5c «frow^, firm, i. q. i?;, ^12; 
hence ia'W?, cf. "trrj from Tin. 

D3n Hiph. of nsj, w. suf. Q-7-. 
%3n 2 Ch. 29, 19,1 p. perf. Hiph. 
of ips. 

"^iSn Hiph. of hSJ w. suf. "i?— . 

yH i. q. "^S?, ^5«7,<o AmH, 
tnjiire,only in fat. Qal 'Hsrin, w. i. 
Job 19, 3. But perb. for ^STO from 
•nan, which see. 

•T^Sn f. (c. n-ian w. firm-) a 
regarding, oKertaxmng, e. g. n^i^^ 
WT^SB tte discerning of their faces, 
i. e. prob. the expression of their 
looks, only in Is. 3, 9; r. ^3J. 

bn 1) Demonstrative - particle, 
which forms the basis of rtb« and 
the Heb. article, also xbn, w. its 
denominative verb K^nj, and the 
adv. Cfbn. The fundamental meaning 
is, there^, yonder, 2) The Heb. article, 
on wh. see under 'rt. 8) interrog- 
particle, which passes into the pre- 
fixed n, except perb. in Dent. 32, 6, 
nin'' i^ as some read, but most 
prefer njrribn. 

SbHlfor in, but only w. n-^ 
loc, fiH^n (ha-l^'d) to that side, t/on- 
der-ward; 1) of place, n^n m prop. 
approach yondenoard i. e. stand 
off Gen. 19, 9; nnbrj; D'ia P»?^^l ^'^ 
<Aow Shalt proceed from there ami 
beyond 1 Sam. 10, 3; ^ij^ Tpra 
from thee and further, i. e. beyond 
thee 1 Sam. 20, 22; h nt<hm from a 
distance w, respect to, i. e. beyond, 
Am. 5, 27. 2) of time, K^TXn D^Vra 
n^bni from that day and forward 
1 Sam. 18, 9, Lev. 22, 27. Hence the 
denom. verb 

C\^n n only in Niph. f. part. 
nx^nsn she that had been removed 
far off Mic. 4, 7. 

riHbn ha-l^d, see under vbfiL. 

inHbn 3 pers. f. perf. Hiph. of 
rifitb, Ez.'24, 12, for nnxbn. 

iVn Job 29, 3 inf. Qal of bbsj, w. 
suf. i— . 

b^Vri (only pi. tt'^bii^rr; r. iVrj) m. 
r^oicings, feast of thanksgiving (at 
the vintage) Lev. 19, 24. 

Dibn, see D'in. 

t>n demons, pron. m. and f. this; 
m. fbn »^T ^*M rocAr Judg. ft, 20; 
f. tin n'^as^nsri this Shunamiteas 2 K. 
4, 25. The form seems apoc. foom 

nibn m. this, min ww-na icJU> 

VT - » r» - • T 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

IT^rj 165 


is this man? Gen. 24, 65. It is formed 
of Tit and ht^. 

^^n f. of njin, Mm, only inEz. 
36, 35 mjcsirT iftin -j^-TKn this land 
that is desolated, 

tfbn or r^ (pi. D^D-^^n; r. r^n) 
m. a going^ step, only in Job 29, 6. 

rO'^bn (r. -r^^) f. only pL nis'^bn, 
1) goings, progress Nah. 2, 6; |>ro- 
cessions Ps. 68, 25. 2) toagSf Hab. 
3, 6 W« tt?ay8 arc as of old, cf. Heb. 
13, 8; n-ia nwbn f^ wags of the 
house, i. e. domestic afibirs Prov. 31, 
27. 3) caravans, companies of tra- 
veOers Job. 6, 19. 

^^n or Vp"^ (fat. TI^PP nsnally 

^^ as if firom "rj^;, inf. abs. "rfftrt, c 
rsK w. snf. • ■^Fob; imp. Tjb, w. n-;- 
hsi, ^ji, Slain Jer. 51, 50; part. 
!|Vri, see Oram. § 69, Eem. 8) probab. 

akin to ?pn, r\vb, rrnsj, 2px^H'*'» 
Syr. ^^01, Arab. ^^ <o ^o /oa^ E. 
iMiiir. 1) to go, in the most varied 
semeS) as a messenger Is. 6, 8; before 
inf. w. i Ot&a.. 8, 19; to be going to 
die, i. e. to be near death, -w. b Gen. 
25, 32: w. another finite verb, ^sVi 

1 fMu :it:9i thg fcent and made a 
feast Job 1, 4: applied to inanimate 
objeets, e. g. to spread, of a name, 

2 Oh. 26, 8; to extend, of a border 
Josh. 16, 8; to float, ronn Tfbn;; 
ffW •'3*"b? and the ark floated on 
the mtrface of the water Gen. 7, 18; 
to flow, of water 1 K. 18, 85. Bnt 
it al«o expresses the continuance of 
the action, hence to continue, keep 
on; in this sense "^fbn is mostly so 
used that it is combined w. the prin- 
cipal verb of the continued action 
(see Gram. § 131, 3, Bem. 3X either 
w. inf. obs. and a^j., a« in Ip^n "i^^ 
bn;^ and he went to go and growing, 

i. e. continued growing Gen. 26, 13: 
or w. two inff. abs. as in Ipbn. ^3*1^^ 
nio^ and they returned to go and to 
return, i. e. continued to recede mope 
and more Gen. 8, 3; or with part, 
and adj. as in atJg'j Tjbh ^bjn and he 
went going and approaching i. e. kept 
drawing nearer and nearer 1 Sam. 
17, 41: the same idea of continuance 
is expressed by the verbs tAi^, K2(^ 
in union w. another verb, 2 Sam. 15, 
30; 16, 5. — In the following instan- 
ces the verb may perh. have an in- 
tensive meaning, Ex. 9, 23 (IfbliP)), 
Ps. 73, 9 fj^bm), Ps. 91, 6 0?f«T>), and 
may be rendered to go fast, to ruth; 
and the unusual form of fut. C?|bnin, 
r^rn for the usual r^) may have 
something to do w. this increased force. 
— Often w. h pleonastic (Gram. § 
154, 3, e) e. g.' '»b r^^ I will go for 
me, i. e. will betake me Cant. 4, 6. 
2) Fig. either a) to walk, i. e. to hve, 
pursue a way of life, w. a of the 
way wherein Deut. 19, 9; of the rule 
whereby Ps. 89, 31, one walks, or w. 
ace. Is. 33, 15 t^prf "^ walking 
righteous wags, i. e. living rightly; 
also w. a4j. Q'npri Ps. 15, 2 used as 
SidY, uprightly; or ^)togo atray 1 Sam. 
15, 27; w. •}« 1 K. 2, 41; w. D^O 1 
Sam. 10, 2; nK^ Jer. 3, 1; *«3^Q Bee 
8, 3; w. *^}^'Q Judg. 6, 21 ; to disappear, 
of a cloud Job 7, 9; <o be gone, of 
the breath Ps. 78, 39; to depart, to 
die 2 Chr. 21, 20 (comp. Arab, iuib 
to perish). The following usagea w. 
prepp. should be noted : bM of pers, to 
whom Num. 22, 37, against whom 
1 Sam. 17, 33; also of place to which 
Gen. 22, 2; w. h of place whither 
Judg. 19, 9; w. n-;- local Gen. 28, 
2; w. ace. of place whither Judg. 
19, 18; but w. ace. also to walk, to 
go through Deut. 1, 19; w. ^ up to, 

Digitized by 





on to Judg. 19, 18 ; w. ^X^ i? whither 
2 8am. 15, 20; w. a to go in (about 
in) Josh. 5, 6; to enters go into Is. 
38, 10; to go among, with Ex. 10, 9; 
w. r« Gen. 14, 24, w. D» Gen. 24, 
58 to go withy accompany; also, to 
keep company toith Job 34, 8 ; w. "lafi^ 
to go before, to lead Ex. 13, 21 ; w. 
•»Tn^ to foUow Gen. 24, 5. — Niph. 
^ibrtj prop, to make oneself go, hence 
to be gone, disappear Ps. 109, 23. — 
PI. X^ to go about, walk Ps. 115, 7; 
w. a to walk in, i. e. meddle with, Ps. 
131, 1; to waOc, live, w. a of rule 
whereby Ps. 86, 11; to go, flow, as 
streams Ps. 104, 10; to glide, as ships 
Ps. 104, 26; intensive of Qal to go 
swiftly, to speed, of arrows, Hab. 
3, 11; of God Ps. 104, 3; to rove, 
to ravage, of foxes Lam. 5, 18. 
Part. Tj^'iio rover, ravager Prov. 6, 
11. — iiipb. ?|-'Vn, •?5''b-'n Ex. 2, 9; 
part Q'^s^na leaders Zech. 3, 7; 
prop, causative, hence to cause to 
go, to lead Deut. 8, 2; of things, 
to lead off, carry Zech. 5, 10; to 
make flow, of a river, Ez. 32, 14; to 
cause to recede, of the sea Ex. 14, 21 ; 
lo cause to go away, i. e. to destroy 
Ps. 125, 5. — Hith. Tjlnrn to walk 
oneself, to take a walk (irepirareiv) 
Gen. 3, 8; to go about Ex. 21, 19; 
also w. aco. of place Job 22, 14. 
Fig. as in Qal, to walk, to live, w. 
^ of the rule whereby Ps. 26, 3; to 
behave Ps. 35, 14; esp. to walk w. or 
before God Gen. 5, 22, 17, i (comp. 
Heb. 11, 5, 6); to flow, of wine Prov. 
23, 31 ; part, r^'ntva roving, rnvaging, 
Prov. 24, 34. Deriv. rifin, ^T^^, 

•j ^M Chald. akin to '^sin, in Pa. 
to go, wWk Dan.4,26. — Aph. Tj^nK 
to go, part. pi. T'sbna Dan. 3, 25. 

Tjin m. 1) a way, course, then. 

concr. i. q. TJ^ ^fi< way-farer 2 
Sam. 12, 4. 2) course, stream, "^Vn 
tT\ the flow of honey 1 Sam. 14, 26. 

?{bin Chald. m. a way -tax, toU 
Ezr. Vl3. 


^t \ (fut. in;; inf. in, w.snC 
•iin) t)to be bright, to shine (cf. Arab. 

ji, ^Xioc, W. haul sun, Qer, hell); 
113 iina in tfe shining, his kunp 
(suf. repeated for emphasis, see Gram. 
§ 121, 6, Bem. 3) Job 29, 3: fig. 
to make display, ^im'h^ do not 
make a display, i. e. boast Ps. 75, 5, 
part. Q*«W'in boasters^ fools, Ps. 73, 3; 
perh. this part, may stand for V^Tva 
and therefore belong to the Po'eL 
2) to give a clear sound (mimet. akin 
to G. hallen, gellen, E. halloo), akin 
to hh\ — Pi. i^n 1) to send forth 
tones, to sing, esp. to sing praises, to 
praise w. ace. n;- Ain praise ye the 
Lord Ps. 104, 36; w. i to sing praise 
to 1 Ch. 16, 35; w. 2l of the obj. in 
whom the theme of praise is found 
Ps. 44, 9; w. iK to commend to some- 
hody Gen. 12, 15. 2) to diffuse 
brightness, i. e. to be celebrated, in 
pr. nn.: intrans. to glory, w. a and 
ace. Ps. 56, 5; w. i? tfpon, because 
of Ps. 10, 3. — Po'ci Win to make 
foolish or mad Ecc. 7, 7; to make 
appear foolish, to put to shame Job 
12, 17. — Pu. to be praised, to be 
celebrated (in song) Ez. 26, 17; part. 
iirt^ praised one, i. e. who is alone 
worthy of praise, of God Ps. 18, 4. 

— Po*al. part. Wno made fooHah, 
i. e. mad, raging, ''i^ina those mad 
against me Ps. 102, 9. — Hiph. (fat. 
in;) to cause to shine Is. 13, 10; to 
give light, i. e. to shine Job 31, 26. 

— Hith. to make oneself praiseworthy^ 
to win opp/aw«e,Prov.31,30; to make 
a display of oneself, to boast Prov. 


Digitized by 





20, 14; w. ^ of the theme Vs. 34, 3; 
'w. t9 to boast in company with Ps. 
106, 5. — Hithpo. to shew oneself 
mad L e. to rage Jer. 25, 16; to 
he mad, to drive on futioMsly^ of 
ehariots Nah. 2, 5; w. 2 of the 
thing in or on which one is mad 
Jer. 50, 88; to feign oneself mad 
1 Sam. 21, 14. 

yi}] pr. n. m. (praiseworthy) 
Judg] 12, 13. 

D^n I (fut Xhn^ Ps. 74, 6) 
akin to OTJ, 13^, prop, to stamp^ 
tread hard, then to beat, smite Judg. 
5, 26; to break to pieces Ps. 74, 6; 
toB dH-i for D5II thin (see Gram. 
§ 29, 3, b) Tie who smites the anvUf 
i e. the smith Is. 41, 7; to stamp, 
as a horse's hoof Judg. 5, 22. Fig. 
X^ *rMVn smitten of wine, L e. drun- 
kards (ct oIvoicXt)£) Is. 28, 1 ; to snap 
<#I8. 16, 8. Intrans. to break up, of 
a scattered host 1 Sam. 14, 16. 


_ ^1 J n (ohs.) perh. akin to 
\hn (cf. o?Ji = hhl), to shine or sparkle; 
hence tfes^, which see. 

Din (from in w. the ending b^— ) 
adv. of place, hither Ex. 3, 5; 
tAn-T5 hitherto, thtis far 2 Sam. 
7, 18; here, in this place Gen. 16, 13. 

D^ pr. n. m. (a smiting) 1 Ch. 

WfiSiSl f. prop, a smiting, hence 
hammer, mallet Judg. 5, 26. 

On or on pr. n. (perh. multitude, 
r. »5n, cf. Ttirfca in Spain, Copia in 
Italj) of a region where the D'^W 
dwelt, prob. among or near the Am- 
monites Gen. 14, 5. 

on I (r. rmrj] Uke D^, only pi. 
w. 8uf. BSTon for fi^pan) m. bttstle or 
ftoiae, crowdings of people Ez. 7, 11, 

where the words tsJTO, ttsfarrs, tifvcin 
make a paronomasia; ci, ')'iQ>7. 

Drj n (w. M-;- parag. n^ri, see 
. Gram. § 33, Bem. 7) m. pers. pron. pL of 
K^rr (w. the same manifold usage as 
fe^n, which see) ^A€;y, without emphasis 
Gen. 37, 16; emphatic, as marking 
a class, they, such as they Ps. 37, 9 ; 
demonst. pron. Qlin Q'^a^^ in those 
days Gen. 6, 4; expressive of subst. 
verb, en Slab xin are they not ours? 
Gen. 34, 23; sometimes for the/bn., 
as in Buth 1, 22 (Gram. § 121, 6, 
Bem. 1), and prob. even for the 2nd 
person, as in Zeph. 2, 12. — With pref. 
rnana by them Hab. 1, 16; Ws such 
as they, 2 Sam, 24, 3; nani for them 
Jer. 14, 16; Tmtvq from fAm Jer.lO, 
2; drro in Ez. 8, 6 is for DH rra. 

WnHBTj pr. B. m. (Pers. ham- 
data =» &'(ia 6ot6;) Est 3, 1. 

M/2m (fut rrarn, part.trrain 
and h^Qin) mimet. akin to QVi, Don, 
G. Aummen, to hum, to make a mur- 
muring or confused sound or noise 
e. g. to growl, as a bear Is. 59, 11; 
to snarl, as a dog Ps. 59, 7; to coo, 
as a dove Ez. 7, 16; to groan Ps. 
77, 4; to sound, as an instrument 
Jer. 48, 36; to roar, as the waves 
Jer. 5, 22; to splash, as the rain (see 
•jlon 1 K. 18, 41); to make a din, 
as a crowd 1 K. 1, 41; to be inter- 
naUy stirred, to be agitated Ps. 
42, 6; part. >Tja*h W a noisy city. 
Is. 22, 2; ni'^oin noisy places or 
streets Prov. 1, 21; ID© nan a^ron^ 
drtnA; is raging, i. e. produces noisy 
mirth Prov. 20, 1; to buzz about 
i. e. to behave in a noisy and disor- 
derly manner Prov. 7, 11. Deriv. 
en, "jion, h;an. 

rtarii see m n. 

T •• •• 

DTran Ez. 7, 11, see QTr I. 

Digitized by 





*t53f1 Chald. Ezr. 4, 23, them, used 
chiefly as ace. of liari; comp. Syr. 
^1 mostly ace. of ^oi. 

p^ (c. "ptan, w. suf. once Osj^Cj' 
w. short iJ Ez! 5, 7; pi. d**3t^!; 
r. h^rj) m., f. only Job 31, 34; nowe, 
sound of rain 1 K. 18, 41, of singers 
Am. 5, 23, of a crowd Job 39, 7; 
fig. a mxtUitude Is. 13, 4; a crowd 
e. g. of women 2 Ch. 11, 23; a troop, 
Judg. 4, 7; confluence of waters, 
Jer. 10, 13; abundance , wealth Ps. 
37, 16; concr. the rich Is. 5, 13; 
?P5^ 'pQ'^ ♦'^^ ^f ^^y ^W'cfo, i. e. 
stirrings of thy sympathy Is. 63, 15. 

'jiSftl Chald. (also ian Ezr. 5, 11) 
pers. pron. m. pi. they, Ban. 2, 34; 
same as the Heb. nn. 

rOI^Sfl pr. n. (multitude, r. nan) 
of a city, which is to be near "^ft 
aia ^idn in the prophet's Tiskm Ez. 
39, 16? 

n^Mtl f. sound (of a harp) Is. 
14, 11; r. rv^n, 

y^t} 2 Sam. 14, 19 for •po'^l, 
Hiph. of denom. verb TOJ. 

'^'*^n (^th. r. nan, like n^sa 
from naa) f. sighing, inw Ais 
tyioontn^ Prov. 19, 18; but better 
his killing, prop, to cause him to die. 

11?l''53f1 1 Sam. 17, 35, Hiph. 
1 sing, of n!ia, w. suf. 3 sing. masc. 

toBil Job 24, 24, for sOQJin, 
Hoph. of "rjDa, Gram. § 67, Eem. 8. 

^IDM (obs.) perh. akin to fiAa 
to be full, hence plenteous, numerous, 

cf. Aral). J*i to rain continually. 

nb53iT, also n^^XSl f. abundance, 
force, of the wind Jer. 11, 16; mul- 
titude, of a host Ez. 1, 24; cf. Kibs. 

u12m (perf. Qal contracted 
only in *»raan Ex. 23, 27; fut. OT), 
mimet. akin to Tv^ (which see), prop. 
to make a noise, to raUle, hence to 
set in commotion, discomfit Josh. 
10, 10; to impel, urge forward, the 
wheels of a car Is. 28, 28; to scatter, 
destroy utterly, Deut 2, 15. — Niph. 
ftit. drr2 to be moved, prop, to be in 
a stir, as a city Buth 1 19. 

jUn perh. denom, tew "pon, 
hence to make a noise or commotioH, 
only in Ez. 5, 7 became of 0?3«n 
your making uproar (i. e. rebeliion) 
more than the heathen; but see 
under "pan. 

T97 ^^' ^' ™' (V^^^ Mercury) 
of a Persian Est. 3, 1. 

if*3^ Chald. (K'thibh Tp3»n) m. 
necklace, perh. chain of pearls for 
the neck or wrist Dan. 5, 7. — 
Akin to ^avo;, (lavidxTjc, L. mcnile, 
said to be from Sans, mani (pearl), 
but perh. Semitic from *)aK I to 
support (cf. ajiovoi), w. old adj. 
ending Ip-r" (c^* "^T under letter D). 

W/3n (obs.) perh. akin to GCn U 
(cf. ^ = tja^). Sans, mash (hew) 
L. messis, G. meiss (a copse), to break 
or cut of; perh. hence 

D53irj (only pi. D'wn) m. broken 
twigs or sticks, brushwood, only in 
Is. 64, 1. 

tnSln 2Sam. 17, 10 inf. Niph. ofOfeO. 

Vpin Josh. 14, 8, a Chaldaism 
for teon, Hiph. of TXOQ, Gram. § 75, 
Bem. 17. 

lUM (obs.) perh. akin to 'Y^ I, 

to flow, Arab. ^ to flow, pour, 

fifjL^poc, L. imber; perh. hence "^fa n a. 

Dlniian job 17, 2 inf. Hipli. of 

Digitized by 





tPia w. suf. and euphonic Daghesh 
(lee Oram. § 20, 2, b). 

bron (prop. inf. ffiph. of htgt) 
m. iominionj might Job 25, 2. 

"jn I pers. or demonst. pron. fern, 
(pL of K^^) they, but this original 
form occurs only in connexion "with 
prefixes, "(Tia Gen. 19, 29; fn'f Ez. 
18, 14; y}h therefore Buth 1, 13; 
inb therefore Job 30, 24; "jnc Ez. 
16, 47. Otherwise only Mjn is used, 
which see. 

"JJl n (w. Maqqeph -|n Job 8, 19) 
perh. a demonst. particle yon, this, 
tW, but used as, l)inteij. fo/ behold! 
Gen. 3, 22; more frequently nsTt 
which see. Cf. DX, ijv, 2) a cond. 
particle, if Is. 54, 15, for which DM 
(a kindred word) is more usual. 
Cf. GBt, Syr. S, 5v. 3) an interrog. 
particle, whether? Jer. 2, 10. 

"{il Chald. like 1>3 H in Heb. but 
only w. the meanings 1 and 2, e. g. 
lo! Ban. 3, 17; if Dan. 2, 5; repeated, 
if 'if, whether-or Ezra 7, 26. 

tTSn ("in w. n-p parag., Oram. 
§ 33, Bern. 7), 1) pi. of VfTTi, they 
(fem.) Gen. 41, 19; themselves (a^taC, 
L,ipsae) Gen. 33, 6; n|rin w. article 
those 1 Sam. 17, 28. Like the other 
pers. pronouns, it includes the subst. 
Terb Gen. 6, 2, and serves for it Gen. 
21, 29. liike Ip it is united w. pre- 
fixes, e. g. n»i^ Num. 13, 19; nsfTO 
Ley. 4, -2; rwb Ez. 1, 5; r^^tTf'as 
ihey, such Job 23, 14; nin^i n|rTS 
9HcA ond^ such things 2 Sam. 12, 8. 
2) adv. of place, hither, to this place, 
Gen. 45, 8, this sense coming ftom 
the original demonst. meaning w. 
^7 loc.; r^JTj rxsn this way and 
thai way Jwh.' 8, "^20; n|rn tpaia 
from thee (md hither, i. e. on this 
side of thee 1 Sam. 20, 21, opp. to 

n^^^; :pa73; mn-^i? hith9<&, thus 
far. Num. 14, 19; here Q&&. 21, 23; 
repeated n|rn njn A«re and <Aere 
IK. 20, 40.*" 

narj (rarely rari Gen. 19, 2) i. q. 
f} n, inteij. lo! see! (pointing oul^ 
Gen. 12, 19. With suf. it may seem 
to imply the verb to be (but really 
the suf. is in the ace, see Gram. 
§ 100, 5X e. g. ?ITO ^Jfli behold us! 
(L e. lo! we are) in thy hand Josh. 
9, 25; '»3jri (in pause '^Jjn Gen. 22, 1, 
•^gn 22, 7) behold me! i. e. here I am; 
r^ lo! thou art Gen. 20, 3, fem. 
"Tgn Gen. 16, 11; isn behold him! 
Num. 23, 17; KV} or si3Sn Josh. 
9, 25 see us! (in pause ^^ Job 38, 
35), nin Gen. 44, 16; Uim Deut 
1, 10; b|h Gen. 47, 1. In union with 
thepartioiple,h!ri mostly indicates the 
future, e.g. n!w^ •^rjh 6«AoW/ HwiU) 
send Jer. 8, 17; sometimes the past| 
Gen. 37, 7, or the present Ex. 34, 11. 

nSl Hos. 4, 17, imp. Hiph. of 
tl^ Gram. S 72, Bern. 9. 

nrojl (prop. inf. Hiph. of 1^) f. 
rest, remission of tribute Est 2, 18. 

DHlfl Ez. 5, 18, see r. DHJ. 

ITin Hiph. of IT»I3. 

Jl'^in Hoph, Of n«. 

QSTl prob. pr. n. m. of the man 
to whom the valley on the 8. E. 
side of Jerusalem once belonged, 
where children were sacrificed to 
Moloch; hence DSl-l^ K*^* J«t» 7, 32; 

Din 'ij;;j •»» 2 K. 23, 10; din n 
(hence Y^svva Mat. 5, 22) Josh. 15, 
8 the Valley of (the son of, sons of) 
Rinnom^ the west side of which 
was later called K^ ^pn dxcXfiapia, 
field of blood Acta 1, 19. — Ferh. 
the name is firom 1^ to weep, cry. 


I |(obf.)perh.<o2cim«n^,trAiti€^ 
akin to ^ naej, Arab.,^. Deri v. D9Ti 

Digitized by 






(obf.) perh. akin to 9^'^ 
to sink, to be low; Arab, ^iub: hence 

93n (perh. low land) pr. n. of a 
city of Mesopotamia, perh. 'Ana on 
the Euphrates 2 E. 18| 34. 

bySn Chald. Aph. of tt^. 

TOJSn Chald. inf. Aph. of W5. 

ilBSn Is. 30, 28 int Hiph. of CpL 

J*tesn Num. 24, 7 for «fenh, see 
r. Ki93. 

CSn (perh. apoo. imper. Pi. of 
h^i) inteij. At4«A/ silence I Hab. 2, 
20. Adv. silently Am. 8, 3. — AMn 
to our hist! whist! W. hust! L. sf / 

^Q^ (Qal obs.) mimet. akin 
T T ^* 

to ^^2^, «Ca>, Arab. Jjb, to speak 
loWf be still, wfetrf.— Pi. (only imper. 
on, apoc for nwi, si©n Neh. 8, 11) to 
keep still, to be silent; see on above.— 
Hiph. (tot, apoc. Dh?) fo ^mA, to stilly 
only Num. 13, 30. 

D*'*J%!n Ecc. 4, 14, see r. no^ 

T\'^'&n Hiph. of rm, after the 
Chald. form (Gram. § 72, Eem. 9). 

rttGDH pr. n. Neh. 3, 3; perh. 
i. q. nW9 q. V. 

nWDH pr.n. 1 Ch. 9, 7 : see riKSiiO. 

nriCn 2 sing. perf. Hiph. of WD. 

ntyn Prov. 7, 13 for ru^, Hiph. 
of tjy (Gram. § 67, Eem. 11). 

bVn Ex.33, 12 imper. apoc. Hiph. 
of h>5^ for n^jn. 

nb?n Hab. 1, 15, for ni^r Hiph. 
of ni5*(Gram. 63, Bern. 4). 

iTJBtl (only pL) f. prop, slack- 
ness (r. Ab), interval Lam. 3, 49. 

^Sn (fot. ^jbrp, 1 p. t]B?T9 
Zeph. 3, 9) akin to tp^, pax, Arab. 
rfOl , to turn, the hand 1 K. 22, 34, 
the neck or back Josh. 7, 8; also to 

I turn about (intrans.) 2 K. 5, 26; to 
i <um 5acA;, ^o fiee, Judg. 20, 39; to 
turn, to change Ps. 105, 25; change 
into, w. ace. Ps. 114, 8, w. h Ps. 
66, 6; to turn (intrans.), to be changed 
to, w. ace. Lev. 13, 3. — Fig. to 
overturn, destroy Gen. 19, 21, w. a 
Am. 4, 11; to turn away, pervert 
(words) Jer. 23, 36; also of a moral 
perverting, e. g. ^^Stin your perverse- 
ness! Is. 29, 16. — Niph. "r^na (inf. 
abs. tpfiST?) to turn oneself about 
Ez. 4, 8; iab^a 'i^ana turning himself 
about with his tongue, i. e. using a 
versatile or false tongue Prov. 17, 20; 
with a to turn against Job 19, 19; 
w. i?'ls. 60, 5, ix Josh. 8, 20, h 
Lam. 5, 2 to timt to, 1 Sam. 4, 19 
yTi"^^ rj'ite JiDfinj her pains turned 
themselves upon her, i. e. came upon 
her. To be overturned, destroyed 
Jon. 3, 4; to be changed to, w. ace 
Lev. 13, 25; w. h Ex. 7, 15. — 
Hoph. ^TXn to be turned against, 
w. b? Job" 30, 15. — Hith. to turn 
oneself, of a brandished sword Gen. 
3, 24, of a moving cloud Job 37, 12; 
to be changed Job 38, 14; to over- 
turn oneself, to tumble Judg. 7, 13. 

'^Bn or tjStl m. the reverse, 
contrary, only Ez. 16, 34; r. '^*i. 

TjSn m. perverseness, only Is. 29, 
16 osapfj your perverseness ^huiperh. 
inf. of T^Bn. 

inSSfl f. overthrow, destruction, 
only in Gen. 19, 29: i. q. Jissna. 

T^BDSn (redupl. from r\Xl^) adj. m. 
very crooked, perverse, tortuous Prov. 
21, 8, opp. to "i»;; cf. hph^. 

Di*)S)f1 Lev. 26, 15 for 05W 
inf. Hiph. of n^Ttt I. 

SSil perh. pr. n. f. (brilliant) of 
an Assyrian queen Nah. 2, 8. — 
Prob. better taken as Hoph. of 23J. 

Digitized by 




"PtiSn Josh. 9, 12 fiith. denom. 
from rtp5, Ghram. § 54, 2, a. 

nbSBl f. dc^twroncc Est. 4, 14; 

|^|l (oba.) perh. akin to )'fn, 
to drfend, also to )^1\ hence 

■J^ m. amumr Ez. 23, 24; r. 1^. 

'0''B2n Ex. 2, 3 ffiph. of 1B^ w. 
Daghesh enphon. in the 3, Gram. 

yipn pr. n. 1 Oh. 24, 10; perh. 
i. q. yp Ezr. 2, 61. 

■pS^ pr. n. Ezr. 8, 12; see T^jf. 

D5n 2 Sam. 23, 1, see Gram. 
§ 72, Bern. 9. 

*l?1 (w. article nm; w. n loc. 
rnn Gen. 14, 10; w. article and n 
locrrnnn Gen. 12, 8; w. suf. '''37?, 
vnn/tyiiV|; pi. 0*177, c. 'nn, poet. 
^yp^ w. suf. ')'»77, 0'^^';^! I>eut. 8, 9) 
m. a mountain (cf. Gr. l5po;) Is. 30, 
25; collect, mountains, mountainous 
region Josh. 14, 12. With the article 
•ffin, a) the mountainous tract of cen- 
tral Pale8tineGen.l2,8; p) the moun- 
tains of Judah Beut. 1, 24 (the hill 
country, ^ 6ptiviQ Luke 1, 39); 7) the 
mountains east of the Dead Sea, 
Bioab, Gen. 14, 10. In Ex. 19, 2 = 
Sinai, in Deut. 33, 19 = Zion. *)n is 
often found in pr. n., as, e. g. ^n 
^''O Mount Sinai Ex. 19, 11; "in 
■nan Mount Tabor Judg. 4, 6; "in 
fscin Mount Lebanon Judg. 3, 3; 
r. I'Tn to be high. 

"VT, see "Tin. 

K*^*! pr. n. (mountain land) akin 
to 'Apia, for Media magna. Great 
Media, Erania, called jUacUl el-Jebdl, 
the mountains 1 Ch. 5, 26 (in the 
paraUcl passage 2 K. 17, 6, it is-'T^), 
bat it is esp. the mountainous part 
of Media. 

N 'M (obs.)perh.akinto»nxri; 
1^ to glow, bttm; hence bftT*?- 

rVl^'^il Est. 2, 9 part pass. pL 
1 Qal of nx"; w. article. 

bViyn m. i q. bx75, b^p^ (which 
see), prob. hearth of -Grod Ez. 43, 15. 
yn Judg. 20, 38 for na-in imper. 
apoc. Hiph. of Ha'J. 

ll'ln (ftit. a*irr>) akin to Arab. 
^, to strike, smite down, hence to 
mi, murder Gen. 4, 8; <o slay, 
slaughter, in war Is. 10, 4; to slaugh- 
ter, beasts Is. 22, 13; to destroy, 
plants' Ps. 78, 47; poet, to hiU, of 
grief Job 5, 2. In general w. ace., 
but also w. b 2 Sam. 3, 80; w. 3 
to slay among Ps. 78, 31. — Niph. 
aTJi to be killed or slain Ez. 26, 6. 
— Pu. yyi to be slain Is. 27, '7. 

yV\ m. a slaughter Est. 9, 5, 
Is. 27,"7jr.ann. 

rO'lil f. slaughter, nj Vp i«2t tJie 
flock^ of "slaughter Zech. 11, 4; Kn 
t\ym the valley of slaughter Jer. 

M 'M (part rrtin mother Cant 
3, 4; perh. d'^'ifin parents in Gen. 
49, 26, but see ^"^tx) prop, akin to 
"^77 1 c^» 19? » 1) '^ conceive, to be- 
come pregnant Gten. 4, 1, w. b of 
the father Gen. 38, 18. 2) flg. for 
a mental conception, to meditate, 
purpose Ps. 7, 15. 3) to have in- 
crease, posterity, only part. pi. O'^Tin 
parents, perh. in Gen. 49, 26; part 
f. nni'n mother Hos. 2, 7. — Pu. 
nrh (inf. abs. i'nh Is. 69, 13) to be 
conceived Job 3, 3; to conceive in 
the mind, to purpose Is. 59, 18. 

tTT] adj., only in f. ITyj (c. n^) 
pre^nan^ Gen. 16, 11; nbb n*^ , 
pregnant for to bear, L e. near her 

Digitized by 





confinement 1 Sam. 4, 19; tki3 rm 
ever pregnant Jer. 20, 17. PL mnn 
Am. 1, 13, m^T; Hos. 14, 1; w. b 
of man to or by whom Gen. 38, 25. 

rrri Gen. 14, 10, see nn. 
^ 'n jn Chald. (obs.) redupl. 

Pael-fonn of rnsi, Heb. n^ io 
conceive in tbe mind, to diihk; 

iTnn Chald. m. conception^ 
thought; pL fancies Dan. 4, 2. 
i*in Is. 59, 13, see mn. 

Dni^ffl Is. 33, 10 Hithpolal for 
ooi-inn, r. on, see Gram. § 54, 2, b. 

y^'^, (w. firm -:7-) m. conception, 
only Gen. 3, 16 Tjai'in thy pregnancy-^ 
r. JTin. 

T T 

*'*?'^*'*^ >»• perh. mountaineer, 
hiffhlander 1 Ch. 11, 27 ; r. n"Tn. 

ni^^" Hos. 14, Ij see nyj. 

1 ' T*^ (^' Ann -J-) m. conception, 
pregnancy Euth 4, 13; r. rvy^. 

D'Hn Ps. 75, 7 prob. exaltation, 
prop. inf. Hiph. of r. D«n. 

D'^'^n Dan. 8, 11 K'thibh, Hoph. 
of un, perh. like U^^pn Dan. 7, 4. 

•^'^n f' ^Jf tearing down, a ruin, 
only Am. 9, 11; r. W. 

MC"^?! f. a tearing down, de- 
struction, only Is. 49, 19; r. ^yj, 

U JM (obs.) akin to D^JX, D^in, 
n^'; n, ^o rise up, to be high; hence 

D'Jtl m. in pr. n. D'jrj n'^a (high 
place) Josh. 13, 27, 

D*^n pr. n. m. (exaltation) of a 
Canaanitish king Josh. 10, 33. 

D'^n pr. n. m. (exalted) lCh.4,8. 

^S^n Num. 17, 10 imp. Niph. of 
0971=0:1-1, see Gram. § 67, Rem. 5. 

■pSJ^Tl m. only in Am. 4, 8, pveb. 
ifor yionx a fortress, castle; r. OTjj 
U^ISrS^ 2 Ch. 22, 6 for O"^^!!^' 

Tjij (obs.) perh, akin to r. ty^ 
to be high; hence 

']"jn pr. n. m. (high) of Abraham's 
brother Gen. 11,26; also in yyn ma 
Num. 32, 36, for D'jrj 'a Josh. 13, 27. 

JM (fut. onrn is. 22, i9; 
&irn Ex. 15, 7) <o tear, to break or 
puU down, a wall Ez. 13, 14, cities 
Is. 14, 17; to tear or puU out teeth 
Ps. 58, 7; fo tear down Is. 22, 19. 
Fig. to destroy a people Ex. 15, 7, 
In trans, to break in, w. ^K Ex. 19, 
21. — Niph. to be torn down, de- 
stroyed Ps. 11, 3; to 6c overthroum, 
of mountains Ez. 38, 20. — Pi. to de- 
vastate or destroy Ex. 23, 24; to ex- 
tirpate, Is. 49, 17. — .Mimet. akin to 

Arab, j-^b, OD*; I, y:r;, dpdaaa), 
^T)(7jco, G. reissen, 0. E. ritte. 

DTl nuonly in Is. 19, 18 O'Wr-iT? 
perh. lion-city, AeovtoiroXic, a city in 
Egypt (taking DITJ prop, destruction 
for fo'on because he is the destroyer). 
But prob. the true reading is CtH 
sun, or 0%"]! may be simply a softer 
form of O'DH, which see. 

t\y^, Ps. 37, 8 imp. apoc. Hiph. 

of n^S.' 

M:*1f1 Lev. 26, 34 for mrtn 
Hiph. of hrf;, see Gram. §75, Bern, ll 

0*^*11!, see "in. 

' JM (obs.) prob. akin to rrCT, 
8p-vopLi, Jpoc, L. or-ior, to riae^ to 
swell, to be high; hence "nrt and 

'Till (only w. suf. •» W) m. moun- 
tain, only in Jer. 17, 3 "mn my 
mountain, i. e. Zion. 

'*1"1»J I*s. 30, 8 my mountain, see *ttT. 

Digitized by 




"^"^ m. mountaineer 2 Sam. 23, 
S3; "Wn in v. 11. 

IllDn Is. 42, 22 imp. Hiph. for 
aori, from aW; (Jram. § 29, 4, (?. 

tJW^ P'^* ^' °^* (perh. rich, i. q. 
won) Tch. 11, 34; •)»; in the pa- 
rallel place 2 Sam. 23, 32. 

tJCn, also D Wl hdsham, for D^rt 
Hoph. of QSlip. 

TO^ Job 21, 5, see D^®. 

IWOlZn (prop. inf. Hiph.) f. a 
coMsing to hear, announcement^ Ez. 
24, 26. 

3?ttn imp. apoc. Hiph.cfnr^al in 
Ps. 39, 14, but of 5?» in Is. 6, 10. 

rftBtiil Neh. 3, 13 for nifil^xn 
from rw?it 

^l?Cn (prop. inf. Hiph.) m. a 
keeping' quiet, resting Is. 32, 17. 

rnnnTDH mth. of mo , see Gram. 
§ 75,'Bem* 18. 

rPirSnTCn (prop. inf. Hith.) f. 
prostration in worship 2 K. 5, 18. 

ytiyffOn mthpalpal of :$T0. 

tjn^DTin Chald. Dan. 3, 16 int 
Aph. of ann w. suf. 

rniKl Hith. of nnj; Gram. § 
69, 2^ 

Tj^Ftfl m. a melting Ez. 22, 22 ; 

rotSnPin (prop. inf. Hith.) t a 
6c/H«ndtn^, affection Dan. 11, 23. 

Wil Is.21, 14, imp. Hiph. of nrx. 

Tp'^I^tlls. 33, 1, 8eeHiph.of D:gn. 

Tjnn pr. n. m. (perh. verity) i.q. 
SjJb (Persian) Est. 4, 5. 

^ijll (a secondary root, form- 
ed from the Hiph. of }^T\ II), only 
Pi. bnn (fut. bnrr) to moclc, deride 
w. a of person i K. 18, 27; Sept. 
[jLOXTTjpCCeiv; see bbsj II. 

bnn, ribnti Hiph. of b^ n. 

inn (only pi. O'^inn) m. mockingSf 
derision^ ]^oet, mockers, only Job 17, 2. 
DFin Job 22, 3, fut. Hiph. of dan. 
PR3nBr\Jl, see mo or rra. 

iniSOKl 1 Sam. 10, 13; inf. Hith. 
of KSa as if from ma. 

nijli (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
rni, wn.— Po*el rtnntorushagainst, 
w. b?, only Ps. 62, 4; but see TWl. 


I Wdu>, the sixth Heb. letter; 
hence used as the numeral for 6. 
Its form in oldest examples appears 
variously, e. g. ^, 7» Y» 55» 1 , prob. 
representing a hook, a holdfast, which 
its name 'il denotes: hence the old 
Greek Boiu, known as the Digamma 
(F , Lat. P) and the numeral ((;) for 6 ; 
see the Table of Ancient Alphabets 
and Schroder's Phdniz. Sprache, Taf. 

A. Its sound is w, a semi-consonant, 
hence easily passing over into a vowel 
H OT (see Gram. § 8, 3, 5, § 24, 1), 
and seldom used w. its consonant 
force, as in 'iin, "iVw* "^^l^i ^^^ 
mostly becoming •» at the beginning 
of a root; as in ■t^J for Tbj, Arab. 

jJ^ walada (Gram. § 69). 

1 tnterchanges — l w. the other 

Digitized by 



feeble letters H, rt, "^ (Gram. § 7, 2, 
Note ^, e. g. C^ia n = T»5<2, ©siSi I 
= Aram, ma, zSir), ^V = nb'', 
•p-n = T^^r; — 2 w. the other labials, 

e. g. II = aft = c)a, pAn = pan, rrajn 
= Chaid. wn, nfioio = nc^eo; — 

3 w. Uquids, e. g.^bn=r ChUd. r\^n, 
n^l = n^2t, IW^ = UJ^?; — 4 w. the 
guttural if e. g. n^a IE = ^o, i^ia 
=V9a. — On 1 as a paragogic or obs. 
ending in some rare cases, see Gram. 
§ 90 and § 123, 6, Bem; 4. 

^ — is old adj. ending in 1^03, 
akin to a— in na37«$, Ch-in t\\6t\ 
see on letter a, p. 74. 

1 (before simple Sh'wa and the 
labials C], TO, a, it generally takes the 
form 4; before an accented syllable 
and monosyllables, generally J; but 
see the details in Gram.§ 104, 2, Bem. 
a—e) cop. coig. and^ xa(, uniting 
words Gen. 1, 1, and clauses or sen- 
tences Gen. 1, 2. The following 
usages are to be noted, but see Gram. 
§ 155, 1, Bem. a — e: — 1) it serves to 
connect a species w. its genus (or a 
part w. its whole) e. g. tabt^Ji^J'^') msirn 
Is. 1 , 1, where the latter is a part 
under the former. 2) it denotes ap- 
position (w. more or less of empha- 
sis) and may be rendered even^ e. g. 
^"TBl "^"^J? <* watcher even a holy one 
Dan. 4, 10; txa^yy ^^^p % inheri- 
tance, even wearied Ps. 68, 10. 3) at 
times it seems to be used rather to 
make a word emphatic than to unite 
it, e.g. iw« — biaSi^ and the border 
— even for a border Josh. 15, 12. 
4) it sometimes connects two words 
so as to express one complex notion 
(8v $ia SooTv, Gram. § 155. 1, a); e. 
g. two nouns, d'^'TSia^Ji ninkVprop. 
for signs and for seasons ^ i. e. for 
signs of seasons; two verbs, ^^^^ 
T'^W? ^5^ ^ow can I endure to see? 

Est 8, 6; Gram. § 142, 3, a. 5) with 
a noun repeated it helps to denote 
diversify or doitbling (Gram. § 108, 
4) a^; a^a with a double heart {at 
5ii|/o^oO in Ps. 12, 3, ov distribufion 
(Gram. § 124, 2, Bem. 1) "T^? ^SJ^t 
'rv^ elders of each city Ezr. 10, 14. 
6) 1 — 1 = both — and, aa;;*] tm 
did; both chariot and horse are 
stunned Ps. 76, 7; also disjunctively, 
whether — or, wa KS1351 iia^^ wht- 
ther he sell him or he be found in 
his hand Ex. 21, 16. 7) it connects 
two imperatives, and makes the latter 
express a promise or threat, the ful- 
filment of which depends on com- 
pliance w. the former (Gram. § 130, 
2), e. g. Gen. 42, 18. 8) it introduces 
the apodosis (Gram. § 128, 2, c) e. g. 
sim^nn Dain dk if or when he slew 
them, then they sought him Ps.78,84. 
9) at times, owing to difference of 
idiom in Heb. and Eng., it may seem 
to stand for but, introducing adotr- 
sative clauses, e. g. niK5* nnSniD lam 
black and (bid) comely Cant. 1, 5; 
or for, introducing the cause, e. g. 
0^3^ T^ '''!>''??'• and (fo}) in my house 
there is no bread, Is. 3, 7; or there- 
fore, introducing the inference e. g. 
sinnitcx^ and (therefore) I wiU cast 
him away Ps. 81, 13; or that, intro- 
ducing the aim or result, e. g. fTOi5|Sj;"J 
and (tJiat) I may be avenged Judg. 
16, 28; or introducing clauses as in 
D2-ttr^1 TVS^'UV^^andifthouknowest 
and (that) there are among them 
Gen. 47, 6. 

1 called Wow consecutive of the 
Perfect is simply the cop. coig. and, 
so joining the past as to seem to turn 
it into the future, when the verb 
in the perf. follows another verb in 
the future tense, or in the impera- 
tive or as participle w. ftit. force; 
see Gram. § 126. 6. 

Digitized by 




•1 w.Daghesh forte, or J before gut- 
turalB, Wato consecutive oftheFtUiire, 
the conj. and prefixed to the future 
and seemingly turning it into the 
past or present; see Gram. § 129. 

JTl pr. n. of a region or city in 
Arabia £z. 27, 19; perh. ^Aden on 
the Bed 8ea. 

Hffl pr. n. (perh. a gift, r. anj) 
of a district in the country of Moab 
Num. 21, 14. 

13 (pi. d'^IJ, c. -^J w. firm -p) m. 
prop, a holdfast, hence a nail or 
hook Ex. 26, 32. — Perh. akin to 
T/X, Sans, vai to bind, L. vieo, vi- 
men J (Z(p7]. 

iTl (obs.) prob. akin to 'itH, "^X 

to hind, Arab, ^jj to carry ^ bear a 
burden; hence 

*1t1 m. hound or laden (w. guilt), 
guilty/, only in Prov. 21, 8. 

KflJ'jl P'^' ^* ni. (Pers. perh. well- 
bom) Est. 9, 9. 

/brfA; i. q. Arab. jJy, hence 

^51 m. child, offspring, only in 
Gen. 11, 30. 

*l51 (in pause *i^2)°** ^^*^i <^^y ^ 
2 Sam! 6, 23 Q*ri, for the K*thibh nb;, 

{1^31 pr. n. m. (perh. distress, r. 
hJJ) Ezr. 10, 36. 

■©Si pr. n. m. (perh. for *^ttn 
expansion, r. no^) Num. 13, 14. 

"'S^ 1 Ch. 6, 13, perh. a pr. n. 
(strong, r. "p6«), but prob. for ^V^, 
ct 1 Sam. 8, 2. 

^'PlBI pr.n.f.(Per8.^^jabeauty) 
Est 1, 9. 


T Ziiyin, the seTenth Heb. letter; 
hence used also as the numeral 
for 7. Its name yn perh. means a 
weapon (Syr. \1J[ weapon, prop. 
ornament), and its oldest form Z, 
and ] in some early examples, may 
perh« rudely picture a sword or 
spear, and its sound z was sug- 
gested by the first sound in the 
name; its form and name appear 
also in the Greek Z, C (Z^ta) and 
our Z. See the Table of Ancient 

T interchanges — 1 w. other sibi- 
lants, e. g. *W I = n^I, *ttT| = T??» 
»T = Tp^; — 2 w. Unguals, e. g. 

nst «= 'ijj^, n5j = rn»; — 8 w. '^, 
e. g. pt9 = pna, D?t ='d?7. 

T seems at times to be a format, pre- 
fix, e. g. inC)?iT, cf. Syr. \(n^ (perh. 
Shaph'el of >^ Aph. f!^ to harm), 
prob. of Hiph'il force and akin to \l? 
in a^T^®, which see; cf. IJSt. 

T is also a format, ending, e. g. in 
tnn?, Ttu'io, wan (akin to ttj in t«*in), 

often in Arab, as in )«^ to curse 

from *^, cf. J»»^)^ sterile (L e. 

accursed); akin to adj. endings m 
Sans. -a«, -is, -us, Gr. -0;, -t)c, -ic, 
-DC, -oc, Lat. -fw, -es, -is, 'Us; see 
under letter \t. 

Digitized by 





3^T or DCST (obs.) prob. akin 

.. X -T 

to C)5J , to be angry J fierce; hence 

SiJT (pi. d*»nKt, c. '^n6$t w. firm 
-^) m. 1) M70//' Gen. 49/2?; *»5Kt 
a'TS u^o^ves of (i. e. prowling at) 
evening Zeph. 3, 3. 2) pr. n. m. (wolf) 
of a Midianitish prince Judg. 7, 25. 

IHHT dem. pron. f. this 2 Sam. 

23, 17; nKT WT tJie one — the 

other 1 K. 3, 23; see the masc. m, 
a]89 fern. TVi, 

iTntkl this, only in Jer. 26, 6 
K'thibh, where the Q'ri is r«t. 

mImIT (obs.) prob. mimet. akin 
to Diot, QtQi, G. summen, E. Aum, 
6iax; lience l%nt. 

I JT fo present unth, to endow, 
w. ace. of pers. and thing, only in 
Gen. 30, 20; hence the 6 following 
words — 

IIIT pr. n. m. (endower) 1 Ch. 2, 36. 

tllT m. gift, dotory Gen. 30, 20. 

^•^1 pr* T^' nti* (perh. for Tm^l 
gift of pr) Josh. 7, 1 ; cf. Ze^eSaioc 
in Hat. i, 21. 

JH'^IlT pr. n. m. (God's present) 
Neh. 11, U. 

fT^I^f J ^8T^5| pr. n. m. (m; 
presents) 1 Oh. 8, 15; 26, 2. 

l^T (r. aaj; c. pi. '»aiat) m. 
prop, a buzzer, a fly, a m%^squito Is. 
7, 18; n^ law death's flies, i. e. 
poisonous, £cc 10, 1; a^iat b?^ 
(Baal Zebub) /orrf of flies, i. e. able 
to control and avert their swarms, 
the name of a Philistine god 2 K. 1, 2. 

"WHT pr. n. m. (endowed) 1 K. 

"l^T pr. n. m. (nmch endowed) 
Ezr. 8, 14. 

iTIttT pr. n. f. (dowered) 2 K. 
23, 36, where K'thibh ITT'at; r. n^J. 

b^T, also b:2T 1 K. 8, 13 (w. 
rt—- loc. nbsT Hab. 3, 11) m. 1) prop, 
a surrounded or inclosed place (cf. 
our home from hem), hence a hc' 
bitation Ps. 49, 15; the habitation 
of God, heaven Is. 63, 15; mz 
bat a dwelling-house, i. e. the Temple 
as (Jod's dwelling 1 K. 8, 13; Hab. 
3, 11 nbat *TQ5 n^"^ »OT sun, moon 
«^a9K28 homeward, i. e. stays at home, 
not coming forth to shine. 2) pr. n. 
m. (home) Judg. 9, 28. — The pr. 
n. b5»at fea, BssXCe^ooX Matt. 10, 
25, prob. means lord of dung, b^t 
being here akin to Chald. bat dung; 
this slight change from a^at serving 
perh. to express contempt for the 
Philistine god, and perh. alluding to 
the connection between flies and 
dung or putrid things. 

]t^], see l^at. 

M JT (fat nat*]) akin to nag, 

Syr. ^^A), to slaughter (cf. ^f^0L'ff^), 
tokiU animals, for food Deut. 12, 15; 
also for sacrifice 1 Sam. 1, 4; w. 
b 1 K. 8, 63, w. -lafib 1 K. 8, 62. 
— This verb seems to be used 
of sacrificial slaughtering not by 
the priests » but by a private person 
at his own cost Num. 22 , 40 , Deut. 

27, 7. — PI. nat (fut nat-;) to 
sacrifice 1 K. 12, 32; to sacrifice 
largely, to slay nuiny victims, 1 K. 
8, 5; to sacrifice repeatedly Hos. 4, 
14. Hence 

rOT (w. suf. TOt; pi. D'TOT, c 
*»nat) in. 1) a slaughtering, of men 
Is. 34, 6, of beasts for food, hence a 
meal or repast Gen. 31, 54; a 'n '* t t l \ 
quarrelsome feasts Prov. 17, l; a 
sacrificing Lev. 19, 6; a sacrifice, 
the slaughtered victim Is, 1, 11: 

Digitized by 




opp. to IMq 1 Sam. 2, 29, to Hit? 
Bx. 10, 25;* D'ns^ mt sacrifice of 
thankagivinffy or the peace offtHng 
Lev. 3, 1; O'^ajn rat the yearly sch 
crifice 1 Sam. l', 21; HhW^ naj eA« 
family sacrificial meal 1 Sam. 20, 29. 
2) pr. n. m. (slaughter) of a Kidia- 
nitish prince Judg. 8, 5. 

rtnat f. a Sacrifice only in pi. 
V. saf. arv^nt Ho8. 4, 19 ; r. rot. 

^'^T pr. n. m. (perh. buzzing) Ezr. 
10, 28; prob. a mistake for "^^t as 
in Ezr. 2, 9; r. 3nt. 

rn'^at, see rmat. 
^^!IT pr. n. m. (gained) Bzr. 
10, 43. 


□T (fat. Van) prob. akin to ^5^, 
1) to roH, to be round, cf. Chald.iaj, 
dung in balls, as of goats, etc. 2) to 
durell (cf. n^'n); w. ace. of pers. to 
c(^bit toith Gen. 30, 20. Hence 

l^bST, also -jb^T, -jJlbtlT pr. n. 
m. (prob. habitation, see Gen. 30, 20) 
of the tenth son of Jacob Gen. 35, 
23; the tribe of Zebulun Num. 1, 9. 
Gent. n. -^^^at Num. 26, 27, as if 
from p(2\, 

UT Clhald. to gain, to buy, VCPO 
•pSjT "j^FiSK ye are gaining the time, 
i. e. making delay Ban. 2, 8; hence 

3T m. skin of a grape, hxisk, only 
Nam. 6, 4; r. ^nt to surro%md, 

TT (pi. D^*7T; r. TSff) m. proud 
Prov. 21, 24; impudent Is. 13, 11; 
tmniton HaL 3, 19; impious Ps. 
119, 21. 

"pTT (c. yi^it, as if from ffjt =s*t>it; 
w. sttf. Tjrtr 1 Sam. 17, 28) m. pride, 
haughtiness Prov. 11, 2; tgb •p'^tt 
priiif of thy heart Jer. 49, 16. 

•TT 1) dem. pron. m. (as fem. only 

in Josh. 2, 17, perh. Judg. 16, 28; 
the reg. fem.. b6ing n«t, rarely ht, 
•it, com. It, Gram. § 34) this, (pi. rfe< 
these, which see) pointing to what 
is present, while HTi refers to what 
is fore-mentioned (Gram. § 122, 1, 
Bem.). It stands after the noun it 
defines, and as an adj. takes tlie 
art. if the noun be definite (see Gram. 
§ 111, 2, Bem. 6), e. g. rwrt oi'^a 
on this day Gep. 7, 11; rwtn rn^KJi 
f At9 troman. When it stands before 
the noun, it implies the subst. verb, 
e. g. t^p"^ hi05 di^n nt this (is) the 
day the Lord hath made Ps. 118, 24. 
It stands by itself, absol. this, this 
one, cf. ouTOC, e. g. 'nii'TQ m TO (his 
one (was) yet spedking Job 1, 17; Jit 
finij ■»» ^Aw, an afflicted one, cried 
Ps.34,7. Bepeatedm • • • • ht =<Aw— 
t*a<, the one — the other 1 K. 22, 
20; rtt-bx m K'ljj one cried to the 
other is. 6, 3.' — ' kj nt "^a t©*» (Is) 
this coming? Is. 63, l"; hj wff "no 
wAo w this one? Jer. 30, 21. 2)relat. 
pron. just as our £ng. t?ud, both a 
demonst. and a relat. e. g. oipa ^ 

(= which) thou hast founded for them 
Ps. 104, 8. This use of m, oftener 
^, is confined to the poetical books. 
3) as adverb of place (prop, this 
spot, cf. €»8e) here Gen. 28, 17; njs 
hence Ex. 11, 1; TWi rwa on this 
side and on that side Num. 22, 94; 
nt nsn to Aere/ Cant 2, 8; alko of 
time now (cf. 8i^), nt njj? noto yiaf 
Bttth 2, 7; "^IW m npc? C/twO n<w 
I know 1 K. 17, 24, mw n»a m 
notiT so many years Zech. 7, 3 
d'^WPB MT i»ow ftt^e Gen. 27, 
36; this use frequently occurs 
particles of interrogation e. g. 
m-rta what (now) then? Gen. 27, 20 
nt' tvA why then? 4) In union w 
prefixes it expresses many demonst, 

Digitized by 





relations, e. g. hJ9 here Gen. 38, 21, 
then Est 2, 13; nrs such a one, 
Gen. 41, 38; msi n'ta f^us and thus 
Judg. 18, 4; tifittsi rKtS so and 90 
2 Sam. 17, 15; rKtb therefore; *^ 
rvcth wherefore? Jer.^ 5, 7. — The 
various usages and constructions of 
the fern, nttt correspond to those of 
the masc. JlT. — nr is akin to Arah. 

I J, Aram. |5oi, K^, •«!, -^, ->,Ethiop. 
•e, sa; Sans, sas, 8$, fo^, G. (2er, 
die, das, E. f^, fAiff, that, then, -$e, 
-8( (in 5-8e, 6-6(), L. -^, P. ce, ci. 

iTT m. (only 1 Sam. 17, 34 in some 
texts) a corrupted form of tVD a lamb, 

nr (perh. the original form MT, 
whence fiKT; of. % 4T) dem. pron. f. 
fhi$; used hy itself in later writings 
£co. 2, 2 ; elsewhere always in xmion 
w. some pref. e. g. m^l Mt^ tkua 
and thus Judg. 18, 4. 

JljJ (ohs.) akin to snsf, hJT, 
fo sAtne, glitter, as gold, hence fo &e 
bright yellow ; hence 

aflT (c. ant, hut ynvi m Gen. 
2, 12,^ Gram. § 10, 2, Rem.) m. ^oW 
Ex. 3, 22. When a numeral precedes, 
b^ is to he supplied, e. g. M'^'b? 
aJT| fen (shekels) of gold Gen. 24,V£ 
Fig. perh. golden light or briUiance 
Joh 37, 22; oii^ for its golden hue 
Zech. 4, 12. 

MnT (ohs.) akin to Arah. libj, 
Syr. \m\, to shine; hence IT, l^^t (for 
Wt), n";!. 

DllT (Qal ohs.) to be foul, ran- 
cid, Arah. ^}; perh. akin to K»0 

to be unclean, — Pi. to make loath- 
some, only in ttni I'njh imasit Aw 
life makes it, the food, loathsome Joh 
33, 20 (see Gram. § 121, Bern. 3). 

Dn][ pr. B. m. (loathing 2 Oh. 
11, 19. 

nnT (Qal ohs.) akin to THfr 
*^^» "^^^j "^'D? I> perh. ^JTJJ, to «Aine, 
hence Hiph. ^*^t\ to shed light, to 
shine Dan. 12, 3; fig. to teach, i. e. 
enlighten the mind, w. douhle ace 
Ex. 18, 20; to warn, w. ace. of pers. 
and IP of the thing, Ley. 15, 31, w. 
la from Ez. 3, 17. — Niph. to 
be taught, admonished Fs. 19, 12; 
to take warning Ez. 33, 4; to beware 
of, w. "pa Ecc. 12, 12. 

l|jT Chald. i. q. Heh. "Tnt, pass, 
part, "nm admonished, wary Ezr.4, 22. 

*lJTT m. brightness, of the sky 
Dan. 12, 3; r. nm. 

IT (also I'^T; r. nnj) m. brightness, 
bloom, hence, the name of the month 
of hloom, Ziv, the second Hehrew 
month ftom the new-moon of May 
to the new-moon of June 1 K. 6, 1 ; 
folly in Chald. HW? 'J'n n^ the 
month of the brightness of flotoers. 

IT f. a form of SlT and nxt, this Hos. 
7, 16, relat. that Ps. 132, 12, i. q. -lOX. 

^T dem. pron. masc. or feni., sing, 
or pL Ps. 10, 2; 17, 9 (only poet, 
for m, tW) this Hah. 1, 11; as a 
relative, Jisg^ siT-naj^a in the net 
which they hid Ps. 9," 16; la. 42, 24 
i^ ^SH^n ^T against whom toe have 

J-IT (fut. air) akin to t)Slt, CpS II, 
asm, Chald. ar^io flow, as water Is. 
48, 21: used of menstruation Ijev. 
15, 25, of seminal discharge (^onor- 
rhosa benigna) in men Lev. 15, 2. 
To flow with, to have abundance of; 
w. ace (Gram. § 138, Rem. 2), y^ 
m'ti abn naj a land flowing with 
miUc and honey Ex. 3, 8. Abaol. ar 
^jgas thy vaUey flows (w. blcM>d) 

Digitized by 





Jer. 49, 4. Fig. to pine moay^ to die 
Ijam. 4, 9. Henoe 

Sr iT m. flwB, menfltraal Ley. 16, 
19; semmal in the male Lev. 15, 2. 

^-IT (obfl.) akin to A^ n, 
indose, enveiope; henoe ^m 

In] prob. mimet. and akin to 
*n^, CIco, L. (estuSj G. sieden^ E. 
seeihe^ sUw^ all expressive of the 
hissing or sizzling (aCC<i>, W. 8lo) of 
5ot2tft^ water; fo &<H/iij7 (with pride), 
to act proudly towards^ w. V$ Jer. 
50, 29, or w. b§ against Ex. 18, 11. 
— Nipfa. only in part. T«tJ for fitj 
«o<2den, boiled, as snbst pottage Gen. 
25, 29. — Hipb. T>m (fat. T>t;) to 
eeeihe, prepare by boiling Gen. 25, 
2^1 to act insolently, wickedly, as if 
to boil over with passion Dent. 1, 
*3; •na'* "^t; "^^ who shaU be so 
presumptuous as to speak Dent. 18, 
20; w. i^ of pers. against whom 
Ex. 21, 14. 

rlT Ohald. only in Apb. inf. 
irijn (like Heb. T>m) to act proudly 
I>an. 5, 20. 

I I II (obs.) prob. akin to Jia^n, 
am, fo shine, gleam; deriy. n'^lj. 

riT I (obe.) akin to^tl, to sprout 
or Sfpurt, to shoot forth (as milk firom 
a fiill breast), to flourish, to abound, 
eqpu of the froits of the field; perh. 
a r^dnplication of IT bloom, r. h^t. 
Deriy. Pt 1. 

riT n (obs.) perh. akin to nsi-nn, 
*m I, to fNOt^ to ofMl /Vo, to range 
tSHMt; henoe Pt 2. 

D^W pr. n. of an aboriginal 
people, perh. same as the D^t^at, on 
iha barders of Palestine Gen. 14, 5; 
the name is perh. rightly rendered in 
the Sept, lOvTj \<ripp6., as if from W I. 

Urnr pr. n. m. (perh. strong, r. 
nCJl «= )^TO) 1 Ch. 4, 20. 

firm -;-; r. rnj) f. comers of an altar 
Zech. 9, 15; comer colwmns of a 
palace (cfl mfi from nsd), Ps. 144, 
12 let owr daughters be rfr^tD 
^a^ n'^aan niawra as comer pillars, 
sculptured in the style of a palace, 
i. e. may they haye the gracefolness 
and strength of palatial eolomns, 
representing female flgares, which 
were well known in Egyptian and 
Grecian architecture and called xa- 
pu(£Ti$e( (from xdpa head), becaose 
they bear btirdens on their heads. 


akin to btK, ^, to shake or 
pom' out Is. 46, 6; <o put aside, re- 
move, hence hb^. — Hipb. i^n 
<Gram. § 72, Bem. 9) to throw away, 
despise Lam. 1, 8. Hence 

H^^T f. removal, a putting aside, 
nsed only as a prep, besides, except, 
in c. th^ (also *^% Gram. % 90, 
3, a) and w. sof. ?{nb^t Buth 4, 4 
besides thee, "^n^fl besides me Is. 
46, 5; nb^t eaccepi 2 K. 24, 14; "^rtJlT 
(old c. St. of n^) nsed often for 
^% «• g- ^P T^ ea»ept a voice 
Dent. 4i 12. 

pT I (Qal obs.) i. q. -p;, to tiowmA, 
to pamper. — Hopb. TTWi to be nou- 
rwA^d, iwmpctiwi, e. g. D'^ij^o fftD^ 
well-fed horses, only in Jer. 5, 8 in 
K'thibh, wh^^ Q*ii has tf*^ 
weighted, i. e. haying heayy testi- 
cles. Hence )iVQ, 

j*lT n (obe.) to point, sharpen; 
then to shape, form; hence ^t, perh. 
nift 2. Of. 155^, 15^. 

I-IT m (obs.) akin to Arab, j^l) 
to deck, ^^) ornament, hence to decAr 

Digitized by 





mttr adorn; hence perh. hjtt 1, and 
pr. n. nj^t. 


Ohald. only in — Ithpe. fat. 
•pw;, to be weUfed Ban. 4, 9. 

njit t 1) harlot, prostitute (part. 
£. of n}T, or perh. I^T m referring to 
meretricious ornaments, cf. £z. 23, 
40) Ley. 21, 14. 2) perh. i, q. Ghald. 
Xy, fceapon, prop, something pointed 
(r^l^ n), nism ^ Zances 1 K. 22, 38, 
where others render it the harlots, 
after the Sept. al ic6pvau 

^T Ez. 16, 34 for n)T Pn. of 
n;|, see Gram. § 52, Bem. 4. 

•/•IT (fat. Wt;) perh. akin to :^t;, 
io move, shake Est. 5, 9; to tremble 
Eoc. 12, 8. — Pilp. a^rft to agitaie, 
disfuiet, part. ^trpTc those who 
harass thee Hab. 2, 7. — Akin to 
8yr. |aXB to seek eagerly, Sans, sd 
to throw, osCfOy atwo, W. 8^2o 
shake; hence TW^t and perh. h9T. 

?IT Chald. (part. pi. ^WJ in Q*ri, 
l-frit in K'thibh) i. q. Heb. Wt, <o 
dc*(^itefed, Dan. 5, 19 •pwij I'ln 
'^TiQ'Tg^o they were trembling before 

il91T f. a sAoMf^, disquieting 
Je^ 15| 4, where Q'ri is nj^J; a 
^MoXftri^, terror Is. 28, 19. 

VJlT (obs.) 1) L q. ait, tps n, «o 
flow, flow out; hence n&t and Cpt L 
2) peril, as in Ghald. to lend, borrow; 
hance tipT 2» 

hT L i. q. *rtD I, to be turned 
away^ estranged Ps. 58, 4 (nv for )nt, 
Gcam. § 72, Eem. 1), or to go away, 
hence part .^T strange Is. 28, 21, 
hence stranger, foreigner Ex. 30j 33 ; 
flg» heathen, barbarian, hence nj bK 
strange god^ L e. idol Fs. 44, 21 ; nnj 

strange woman (L e. wife of another). 
an adulteress Prov. 5, 3 (d ?^ Pa« 
Prov. 6, 29)j D'l'TJ enemies Is. 1, 7, thoae 
not natives of the country being 
looked upon as hostile (cf. £&ivo;, 
L. hostis, prop, outsider, fh>m ix, er). 
•inipK^ rrjt ^m my breath is strange 
to my wife, i. e. offensive Job 19, 17. 
— NIph. only Is. 1, 4 ^im nw they 
have turned themselves away back- 
ward. — fkoi^lk. to be estranged, part. 
^IMO Ps. 69, 9. On Is. 1, 7, see D-'^IJ. 

nT n or ill (ftit. W, apoc 
'^r;i)akin \tk, 'i^jll, ntjil, "^Tal,!) 
to press together Judg. 6, 38 ; to bind, 
to gird, to bandage, perh. in Is. 1, 6 
Tnt fiA (Gram. § 72, Bem. 1) they are 
not bound up or they are not pressed 
oui, but see under rxy\ XL 2) to crush 
an egg(nr'a) Job 39,1 5; rryn part 

pass, for tTm (Gram. § 80, Bern. 2, d) 
cru^Aed egg Is. 59, 5; to squeeze, 
to press out, to squeeze out, as a 
fleece (tin) Judg. 6, 38; hence "^T* 
•m-Jt, -n'ta. 

iTj^ IB. I, 6, see *m n. 

Tjit 2 K. 4, 35, see n":?J L 

STT (projection) pr. n. 1 Oh. 2, 33. 

nntl (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
rffjD to remove, hence — NIph. (ftit 
rvn) displaced, w. hrq Ex. 28, 28. 

nnt n (obs.) L q. pB! to btnd, 
knit; hence Tiljo and IT»tq. 

PnT (part iht) akin to Chald. 
in^ <o creep, glide, *i^ "i^'t crotofers 
0^ the dust, i. e. serpents Deat. 82, 
24; fig. to sUnk away, to be Hmid 
Job 32, 6; hence 

t^brtt pr. n. (rhn'm pK the anake 
stone) of a stone near Jemaalem 
1 K. 1, 9. 

Digitized by 






I J \ (obB.) i.q. ynb to be dense, 
thick, strong; hence nrtit. 

^ dem. pron. akin to Mt, only in 
■»t^, which see. 

I T I see "nr. 
■flTT (r. W; cf. d'-n? from "ViS) 
a^j. m. seething, boiling up, raging, 
of waves Ps. 124, 5. 

TT (for rt}], r. mt) Chald. m. 
brightness Dan. 2, 31; cheerfulness 
(prop, brightness of foce) Dan. 5, 6. 

rr m. 1) fulness, exuberance, 
pnlaa py A«r glorious abundance, i. 
e. her friU breasts (comp. O^TidPi nib 
in 1st danse) Is. 66, 11; cf. abVj 60, 
16. Bat perh. PT is here only a softer 
form of 'pX, r. W I. 2) (aoc. to 
Kimchi and Abnlwalid) an animal, 
%oild beast (r. m II) Ps. 50, 11; but 
the Sept. oipai^TT^c and Ynlg. pui- 
chritudo favour feriUitg. 

Sr*t pr. n. m. (perh. abundance) 
1 Ch. 4, 37. 

|TJ**T pr. n. m. (fulness) 1 Ch. 23, 
11. See feU^^T. 

HJI pr. n. m. (for RJ-it) 1 Oh, 
23, 10. 

?7 pr. n. m. (agitation, r. MT) 
1 Ch. 5, 13. 

5f7 1) pr. n. (perh. flowing, melt- 
ing; r. tfni) of a place in Judah 
Joch. 15, 55; gentU. pi. DW 1 Sam. 
28, 19. 2) pr. n. m. (pAvh. lent so. 
by Ood, r. tpi2) 1 Oh. 4. 16. 

tlSn pr. n. 1 Oh. 4, 16, 

Wp^ Is. 50, 11 fierg darts, and 

DT?*^ pi. of pt burning arrow, 
in ProT. 26, 18 (in many MSS) for 

^71 (c n**?, pi. OWt, prob. from 
nnr J ct it, mjj) m. prob. shining or 

brightness (cf. 'iW from %'T|), hence 
olive-tree Gen. 8, 11, Judg. 9, 9, ftQly 
nw y9 Hag. 2, 19; its ftruit Me oTiw 
Is. 17, 6; n-j 'rp'3 to frcod dives, in 
order to press out the oil HGo. <(, 15; 
n-n TDlg olive-^ Ex. 27, 20; ■)»§ m 
oil-oHve Deut. 8, 8. — Hence the pr. 
n. D'Ti'^ "in f^ Mount of Olives, 
near Jerusalem Zech. 14, 4, ct to 
8po4 Tu>v ^Xaifov Mat. 26, 30. 

T5*^ l?'- '^^ "*• (olive-tree, Arab. 

^f^i) 1 Oh. 7, 10. 

"TJT pn pause "r^ adj. m., !T;pt fc, 
transparent, clear, of oil Ex. 27, 20; 
jmre, of fi:ank]ncenseEx.30,34. Fig. 
in a moral sense, clear or pure, free 
from fault, blameless Job 8, 6, Prov. 
20,11; r.^H. 

CwT Chald. (obs.)L q. Heb. nat, 
to be clear, transparent; fig. to be 
pure, in a moral sense; hence 3at. 

MDT (fut. rw») akin to KDt, 
tpt, p^t I, to be clear or pure, fig. 
to be faultless Job 15, 14; then to gain 
or unn in a law-suit Ps. 51, 6. — Pi. 
n|t to cleanse, make pure, the heart 
Ps. 73, 13, the way Ps. 119, 9. — 
Hith. txsfn (for n^tnn Gram. § 54, 
2, b) to cleanse oneself^ make oneself 
pure Is. 1, 16. 

^5T Chald. (cWDt, def. WJW) t 
purity, cleanness in a moral sense 
Dan. 6, 23. 

m^'ittT (r. ^\) t prop, transpc^ 
rency, clearness, esp. ^fass or crystal 

Job 28, 17; cf. Arab. ^U.) ^2a«8, 

^W (w. suf. :j70t) m. i q. I^t, 
only coll. males Ex. 23, 17; r. laj. 

^fSSl pr. n. m. (prob. mindful) 
Num. IS, 4. 

Digitized by 


?P» 182 

'^ pr. n. hl (pare) Ezr. 2, 9; 

M -I ^^'P^ ^^' ^0 **^* ^?J ^ ^* 
c2ean, j>Mr«, 6fvA<, of the skies Job 
15, 15 y of Stan Job 25, 5, of snow 
Lam. 4, 7. — Hipb. "^r} to make 
clean, to cleanse, n|5 "^ina "^r^?!*? (^nd 
should I cleanse my hands w. alkali 
Job 9, 30. 


iDT I (tot. •Jbri) akin to Spn 
prop, to prick or jpierve, to j>ene<ra^ 
(cf. n3t a male) ; hence of impressing 
on the memory, to remember, w. ace 
Dent. 8, 2; w. i Ex. 32, 13; w. a Jer. 
3, 16; to keep in mind, w. i of pers. 
and ace. of thing Jer. 2, 2; to re- 
coflcct Jer.44,21 ; to mention (cf. ffiph. 
-»*»3«ri) Jer. 20, 9. — Niph. to be re- 
membered Job 24, 20; w. i of pers. 
for or against whom Ez. 18, 22; 
w. iK to Ps. 109, 14; also w. ^}A Nmn. 
10, 9; to he mentioned Job 28, 18; 
but in Ex. 34, 19 to be bom a male 
(denom. of tDj). — Hiph. "natn (w. 
suf. 037am Ez. 21, 29) to bring to 
remembrance 2 Sam. 18, 18; to make 
mention of, w. ace. of the thing Is. 
49, 1; w.Vk Is. 19, 17 or w.i of pers. 
to whom Ps. 87, 4; to praise, cele- 
brate Ps. 71, 16; to offer a memorial 
sacrifice Is. 66, Z\ to caU to mind 
Oen. 41, 9. 

IJT n (Qal obs.) prop, denom. 
from *13T a male, hence to bear a 
male; i q. Arab. /3 FV. — Niph. 
(ftit. "iWt) to be bom a male, only 
in Ex. 34, 19. 

\*^I fr. *i?t I) m. a male (opp. 
^dgp), of men Oen. 1, 27, of <^ni m ft ia 
^n, 7, 3. PL d^'^lSJ Ezr. 8, 4. 

t;^ and "OT (r. IjJ D m. f^ 
^^mb, ranee Ps. 9, 7; memorial, u e. 

naw« Ex. 3, 15, Ps. 30, 5 inrrg *15] 
W» hofy name; praise, laudVa, 102, 13. 

^T pr. n. son of Jehiel 1 Ch. 8, 81 
(called rrnjt in 1 Ch. 9, 37). 

■jiTDT (cTii3t,pLD*»3'i-tst,n'':yh3t) 
m. i. q. IDT , ;nemorta4 w. i of pen. 
/or whomT e. g. bx^ "^aai 1*1^^ 
as a memorial for the sons of Israd 
Josh. 4, 7; l"iiat -^aas stones of me- 
morial, i. e. of the persons whose 
names they bore Ex. 28, 12; XWQ 
•p't^ memorial offering, i. e. not to 
expiate but to bring to remembrance 
Num. 5, 15; a record or accowit 
(6ic6ji,VT)|i.a) Ex. 17, 14; -pat 180 
book of record MaLS,U; niaSat *40 
book of chronicles Est. 6, 1 ; trrtst 
memorable sayings (cf. bi^) Job 13, 
12; a celebration Lev. 23, 24. 

"^^l?! P'^* ^ ™« (memorable) Bx. 
6, 21. 

rj^St and ^n''*]5J pr. n. m. (J«; 
is mindful) SepU^a^apiac 2 K. 14| 
29, 2 K. 15, 8, Zech, 1, 1. 

fc^^J or n^T (obs.) akin to 
nb'j, to lift or drau; (water), hence 
perh. ^t(ri]\ 

J yf (obs.) akin to xbj, bit, Syr. 
1)9, V^], to draw or /^ out; hence 
iijo. Cf. Apse. 

tfi^l (r. iij) f. baseness, aiffed- 
ness, only Ps.12,9 DJK •'^ab rflkt fins 
toA«n baseness is exalted for (L e. 
among) the sons of men, 

btbt (only pL D^At; r. iVj) m. 
L q. Soib, inbpj, «^t, tio^ of a 
vine, only in Is. 18, 5. 


y\ (part ibit) jnrop. to move to 
and ftro; hence to tcave, of a twig (cf. 
W^), hence itit; hence fig. to sfuike 
or scatter oJout, to squander; V^ a 

Digitized by 





squanderer, prodigal Dent. 21, 20; 
*itoa •<iVtt squanderers of flesh, i. e. 
gluttons or debauchees Prov. 23, 20. 
Since what is squandered is apt to 
be considered mean or bad, ibj came 
to signify to he mean, had, vUe Jer. 
15, 19. — Niph. in (Gram. § 67, 
Eem, 5) to he shaken, to quake Is. 
64, 2; also in Judg. 6, 5 (An = ^iVtJ, 
Gram. § 67, Bern. 11), unless perh. 
in this place it be fronritj. — Hiph. 
Wi to despise Lam. 1, 8 (Gram. § 
72, Bem. 9), cf. i«. - — Prob. mi- 
met akin to W'n, Wd II, ^^131,2, 
Sans, sal, atiXoc, WXtj, L. salio, Bret. 
sala (to bound), W. siUo (to clean 
grain by shaking). 

C|5 vT (obs.) perh. akin to tffj 
(w. i inserted), or better akin to anb, 
tg^ (w. formative T, cf. aJ^i^), *o 
^fcw, to hum; hence 

nsjbt (pi. ntoljt, c. nte^t) f. 

glow^heat, of the hot wind (^y^-JI 
eS'Simiim) Ps. 11, 6; of famine (comp. 
Xij«.b(; aWoij* in Hesiod. Op. 361) Lam. 
5, 10; of *nger, wraih Ps. 119, 53. 

5] /F (obs.) akin to V\\l!, to drop, 
iri^k: hence 

nSbt pr. n. f. (dropping, perh. 
myrrh) Gen. 29, 24. 

riBl (r. dot) f. 1) thought, pUm 
or pfoi Prov. 21, 27; counsel Job 
17, 11. 2) mischief, erimeVs. 119,150; 
then esp. lewdness, incest Lev. 18, 17. 
3) revoU, apostasy Hos. 6, 9. 4) pr. 
n. m. (planning) 1 C}^ 6, 5. 

mat L q. mat, see Wat. 

rniMt (r. *t»t ; c. rntl, pL w. suf. 
ttrnfat Nah. 2^ 3) f. prop, what 
has a tremulous motion or trilling 
soimd (see on O'jia'n), hence a vine- 
shoot Is. 17, 10; a twig, hranch Bz. 
15, 2, 

^tf!JSl1 Ps. 17, 3 for •^ni'at Ihave 
purposed (r. fiat), or for "^niat tny 
thoughts, from rt^t i. q. h^t (see 
Gram. § 91, 3, Bem.). 

UTuT (obs.) mimet. akin to tiVt, 
•• s • ^^^ 

0«n, tt«t, *tOt, Arab. ^J^J, G.«i«wwn«i, 
to Awm, &i«r, murmur, expressive of 
din or noise as of a crowd; perh. 

Dtttt pr. n. (only pL O'^iatTat, peril, 
noisy throngs) of a race of giants 
who formerly dwelt in the eastern 
part of Palestine Deut. 2, 20; ct 


"I"^! (c. -v^at, pL W't^tj r. -lat) 
m. a sw%g Ps. 119, 54; song of praise 
Is. 24, 16; poem, hymn 2 Sam. 23, 1; 
song oftritmph Is. 25, 5; *i'^rj ro 
the singing time (either of birds or 
vinedressers, i. e. spring) Cant. 2, 12. 

Tn^'UI pr. n. m. (song) 1 Ch. 7, 8. 

D'DT (1 pers. perf. 'Vioat and 
•^int PsTl7, 3; fut. ta'h, pi. »iat; for 
stain, see Gram. § 67, Bem. 11) prob. 
akin to tttat, to hum, mutter, hence 
to medit(Ue\ct njn) Prov. 30, 32, to 
consider or propose Prov. 31, 16, with 
inf. e. g. n'TOJb ^atj they purpose to 
do Gen. 11, 6; absol. to form apian, 
to resolve Jer. 51, 12; to plot Ps. 
31, 14; hence 

DHT m. i. q. rat a plan, purpose, 
only in Ps. 140, 9. 

TQs (Qal obs.) to numher, mea- 
sure out, hence to arrange, to deter- 
mine, only in — Pu. pass. part. pi. 
D'»3ata ow Bzr. 10, 14 appointed 

I'JQT (pi. D'^sat) m. time, staled 

time Eoc. 3, 1 (Arab. ^\Zy Syr. 
^\), later Heb. for n?. 

Digitized by 





7uT Ohald. same asHeb.'int. — 
Ithp. Its'itn to settle, determine to- 
cher Dan. 2, 9 Q'ri, bat in K'thibh 
y^V^ (1^*^J?W^) ia Aph., w. the same 

'jBf Chald. (del «jaT, pL -pjot) 
i. q. Heb. "p^t tiane, but Uke I9i», on 
c^^pointed timet eeasan Dan. 2, 16; 
and also of sacred times, festitoais 
Dan. 7, 25; K^^T na o^ (M <tm« 
Dan. 8, 7, fjT'; "jaj ^ wen to a ««i- 
8on and time Dan. 7, 12. In pi. used 
adverbially (like Heb. Q*^p9D, L. vices), 
e. g. nnbpi -pj^jt ttrce ^imes, ti^rice 
Dan. 6,' 11. 

\u\ (fat. *ibn) i q. Arab. JI3, 
Ethiop. zamara, Aram. ^], ^^T, 
prop, mimetio and expressive of a 
qaick or sharp movement or soand, 
to vibrate (as trees when lopped, 
or shaken by wind, cf. Ibt), to twang 
or whir (as tight strings when strack 
or sharply toached, cf. n-jaj, "niot^), 
comp. <|>aCpcD, <|/dXX(u (see more below): 
hence it means 1) to tottch or strike 
masical chords, to harp or sing (obs. 
in Qal), hence '1:9 J (Aram.), rnoT, 
niajij. 2) to clip or prune (a vine) 
Lev. 26, 8, hence rniaj, rrjaro, rmpa. 
~T Nipb. to &e cu< or j^ntned Is. 5, 6. 
—Pi. *iat (fat. natj)intens. of Qal 1, 
to jpfay or harp on chords Ps. 83, 2; 
then to 8ing or c^n^ as accom- 
paniment to the instrament Ps. 9, 12, 
hence to praise, celebrate, w.^Jadg. 
5, 3, w. ^K Ps. 59, 18, and w. ace. 
Ps. 47, 7 ; w. a of the instrument Ps. 
98, 5. — On this vety dif&calt root, 
see Hapfeld in Zeitschrift fiir die 
Konde des Morgenlandes, IIL p. 394, 
lY. p. 139. — As kindred mimetic 
roots, oomp. tVfj, D9T, DtTpt, E. simmer 
(the sound of gently boiling liquid), 

L. susurro, Ger. stmren, tdMrrm, 
ail^m, W. sio, sisial, GaeL siansoH, 

IMt Ohald. (def. K'J^J) m. musie, 
playing of instruments Dan. 3, 5; 
Syr. y^}. 

1BT Ohald. (pi. X^'^1) m. singer 
Ezr. 7, 24; Irab. )U). 

'ittT m. prob. a species of gazelle 
or awielope, only Deut. 14, 5; so 
called perh'. for its quick motion (r. 

'^TQiy, cf. Arab. ^} to escape (as a 
wild goat). 

I'D! Ohald. (obs.) i.q.Heb.W, 
to make 'musicy to sing; hence "raj. 

itor (r.*i9t; only pLw. sol OT'!*!) 
m. prop, vine-branch, fig, family- 
branch or member Nah. 2, 3 ; cfl trrm\. 

tTfCn, see miat. 

n^%3T f. sound, of musical strings 
Am. 5, 23; soruf, of the voice Ps. 
81, 3; fig. y^n rrpa) Gen. 43, 11 ihe 
lanffs cekbrity i. e. its most famous 
or choicest fruits. 

^^T pr. n. m. (sung or celebrat- 
ed) 1 k. 16, 9: perh. also fftr na-yjt 
as patron, of ^^Dt Jer. 25, 25. 

T^^T P'' »• nL (celebrated) Gen. 
25, 2.* 

tt^Xi^ f. i. q. nnsT (see (Ham. § 
80, Bem. 2, b) song, i. e. the sabject 
of song Ex. 15, 2. 

TT (pi. D^5t; r. •ptn«'))J) m. what 
is formed or shaped (Syr. ^, P^p> 
hence sort, Icind, Tt"ifi< "gia from 
sort to sort, t e. of every kind Ps. 
144, 13, 2 Oh. 16, 14. 

•■p Ohald. (only pi. c. "^Jt) m. sort 
Dan. 3, 5. 

jl^T (Qal obs.) prob. akin to tffif 
in *YM^, to 6e pendulous, to wave, 
wabble (as a tail), hence SJt. — PL 

Digitized by 





ajTy denom. of aj|, to hurt or cut of 
the tail; fig. to smite the rear of an 
anny Josh. 10, 19; cf. o^a, oupa^Ca 

ajT (pi. rriaij, ©. nHajt) m. eotf of 
an umnal (Syr. iiaae^; cf. lljatt 
a hanging on, Gliald. Cp^ appendage) 
^ 4, 4; end, 8t%mp, Is. 7, 4: also 
fig. for what is posterior^ mean (opp. 
to Wi) Deut. 28, 44; cf. Arab. JJ\ 
«t^J) no9e and tail, i. e. high and 
low. Hence the dendm. a|T, see 33}. 

/)JT (fat.hjj'^ ,;)perh.akin 
to rnj (d rnj = Aram, nyn, wJij), 
55 , L. serere, to scatter, sow, hence 
1) to beget, cohabit; then to commit 
fonncation, of men w. ^( of the 
woman Nnm. 25, 1; of a married 
wcnnan, to commit adultery Jer. 8, 1 ; 
of an onmarried woman, to play the 
harlot; w. ace. £z. 16, 28 (perh.al80 
la. 23, 17, w. nj* perh. with); w. a 
Ea. le, 17; w. bjj Ez. 16, 26; w. '^yim 
Deat 31, 16 of the paramonr. The 
hnshand from whom the woman 
whonshly departs is put w. p Ps. 
73, 27; ''nnxp Hos. 1, 2; nTOa Hos. 
4, 12; nro Ez. 23, 5 (cf. Num. 5, 19); 
bp Hot. 9, 1; b9 (against) Judg. 19, 
2; Vr {upon L e. presuming on) Ez. 

16, 15. Part, f: np a whore, harlot 
Oen. 38, 15; more ftiUy n;it trm 
Josh, S, 1. PL rvbV Hos. 4, 14. ^ 
2) fig. a) tised of religious apostasy, 
or unftiithftolnesB to dod, regarded 
as whoredom or adultery, since the 
covenant between the Eternal and his 
people Israel was compared to a 
marriage union (cf. Jer. 3, 14), to go 
a whoring, w. '^yy^ of the idols Lev^ 

17, 7; w. nnm of the true God Hos. 
4, 12. ^ Of idolatrous superstitions, 
to go a whoring after Ley. SO, 6. 
1) Of interoourse and traffic among 

the nations, to commit fomicoHon 
Is. 23, 17. — Pu. rwt (Ghram. § 52, 
Bern. 4) to be gone a whoring, 
nssff fi6 Tpnns^ Ez. 16, 34 they go 
not a whoring after thee, — Hiph. 
hjm (fut. apoc. IJJ) to seduce to 
whoredom Ex. 34, 16; to eame to 
commit fornication. Lev. 19, 29; alio 
as in Qal, to commit fornication 
Hos. 4, 10. 

m3T pr. n. (perh. marsh or bog, r. 
rr^t) of dwo districts in Judah, one 
in the plain Josh. 15, 84; the other 
in the moimtains Josh. 15, 56. 

D'OttT (perh. from -gt — njl) m. 
pL whoredoms (i^ e. habit of forni- 
cation. Gram. § 108, 2, a) Gen. 88, 24; 
^T^) T?^:?J B'^^st T^ a whorish wife 
and bastard children Hos. 1, 2: fig. 
unfaithfulness to God, apostasy, idO' 
latry 2 K. 9, 22; intercourse between 
nations, foreign commerce Nah. 3, 4. 

t\^1 (pi. D'^nsot; r. h^J) f. whore- 
dom, only fig. idolatry Jer. 3, 2; 
unfaithfulness or rebellion (against 
God) Num. 14, 83. 

MJT (ftit. njn) prob. akin to 

^?J» *^! ^^^ 'T?J» to scatter, hence 
1) trans, to cast away, r^ect Lam. 
2, 7; w. ace. and ip, "^fci D"iWo npTW 
and thou hast cast off my so%U 
from peace Lam. 8, 17. 2) intrans. 
perh. to dissipate, evaporate (of stag- 
nant water), hence rtist, MJtK (which 
see). — Hiph. »T»5tn to cast away, to 
profane 2 Ch. 29, 19; to dismiss (w. 
IP) from a sacred fkmction 2 Ch. 11, 
14; to reject 1 Ch. 28, 9.. The form 
irfStKn in Is. 19, 6 the rivers turn 
dry or stagnant is a denom. Hiph. 
from njtK (which see), cf. Itbj. 

1^ (obs.) perh. •■ n)}> heaoe peril. 

Digitized by 





P3J I (Qal oba.) prob. akin to 
M||, fo cflw^ or fArotr, to hurl, hence 
^0 «prin^ or leap forth (ci p^j). — 
Pi. p3t to spring forth (as the lion) 
Dent. 33, 22. 


n (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

.yj, Arsim.p^.to compresSf hence 
perh. pt 2; cf" ppj m. 

rjJT f. sweat, ?pBK rota 6y f^ 
sioeat of thy face Gen. 3, 19; perh. 
prop, agitation, r. 5^; cf. ^l\ 

rfl?! f. for na^it (cf. n-jte for nV:?) 
agitation, terror, as Q'ri in Jer. 15, 
4, as K'thibh in Deut. 28, 25; r. §^t. 

■jl?! pr. n. m. (agitated) Gen. 
36, 27* 

Tyr m. a little Is. 28, 10; adv. 
a little while Job 36, 2; r. W. 

Cf. 13?Q. 

Tyr Chald. a^j. m. rn-^Jt f. Z»«fe, 
wwff Dan. 7, 8 (Heb. *l'»?k);'r. 1§t. 

^^T (Qal obs.) i. q. 'j]?^ to quench, 
extinguish; fig. to bring to an end. 
— Niph. ?(?«, Job 17, 1 togti •»»; 
my (iays are extinguished i. e. 6roii^A^ 
io an end, where many MSS have 
•ons, as if ftora r. Tpn. 

U^T (fat. diJn Num. 23, 8, d?'5'i 
Prov. 24, 24; imp. h^t for tv^'yt 
Num. 23, 7) prob. mimet. akin to C)?t, 
^^1 also; to D^n, to he agitated, to 
rage, fig. to he angry, esp. to show 
anger against one by punishing him; 
w. ace. e. g. njiT; a?t-*i^ ta^n ^ 
peop/e against whom the Eternal is an- 
gry Mai, 1, 4; w. i? Dan. 11, 30; part. 
njrv] DWt an ol^ect of the Lord's 
displeasure Prov. 22, 14: hence to 
curse Num. 23, 7. — Nipb. to he 
made angry, vexed; O'lasw D**?^ a 
veooed countenance Prov. 25, 23 (cf. 
&**B^'l in Gen. 40, 6); hence 

D?t (w. suf. "Wt) m. raging, of 
the tongue Hos. 7, 16; wrath, 
anger Is. 30, 27; esp. of God's anger 
as shown by punishment Ez. 22, 24. 

nS't Num. 23, 7, see r. tm. 

yp\ (ftit Cpt!) akia to ttW, iio 
boil or dtift&ils up (perh. by heat, ct 
ft)?bt), to effervesce, hence to 6e an^i^ 
w. i? Prov. 19, 8, w. D:? 2 Ch. 26, 19; 
to 5e troubled Gen. 40, 6; to 6e AiJ^- 
gaard, from long fEuting Dan. 1, 10; 

)*1«?| &4j* D^ ofi^yyi esDctto(i i K. 

20, 43. 

Cl?T (w. sut iWJ) m. oi^er, r<v« 
Prov. 19, 12; judicial anger, of God 
Mic. 7, 9; rage, violence, of the sea 
Jon. 1, 15 . r. Cgt. 

p5T (ftit. P5^n, inf. p*«, p?t) L q. 
the older p?S, to cry out, w. i? Jer. 
30, 15, h Is. 15, 5, •'Jfilbp 1 Sain. 8, 
18, w. ace. Hab. 1, 2; to c»y out 
to some one, w. ii< Ps. 22, 6, b 

1 Ch. 5, 20, ace. Judg. 12, 2. — 
Nipb. to he called, convoked Judg. 
18, 22; hence to assemhle, as by 
a public crier 1 Sam. 14, 20. — Hiph. 
to make an outcry Job 35, 9; to 
make proclamation Jon. 8, 7; to 
cry out to Zech. 6, 8; to convoke 

2 Sam. 20, 4. 

P^T Ohald. i. q. p9t to cry oirf 
Dan. 6, '21. 

P?T m. Ottfcry Is. 80, 19 *{g»?; 

fljjyf f. i. q. hg!«, outcry, com- 
plaint Is. 15, 5; cry for help Prov. 

21, 13; boisterous shout, of a tyrant 
Ecc. 9, 17; w. gen. of obj. cry 
against Gten, 18, 20; r. p$j. 

IrT (obs.) L q. the older •^^s, 
perh. akin to ^yL, prop, to 6e j}re«8e«l 

Digitized by 





fogether^ hence to be amaUf Httk: 
hence WT, "Tjto, perh. n^. 

iST (obs.) akin to Arab. ^J, to 
be fragrant; hence 

■pTBT pr. n. (fragrance) of a city 
in north Palestine Num. 34, 9. 

rffiT (from C)^ 1, as nt^ from 
ifp) 1 prop, a floid or resinons sub- 
stance, hence pitch Ex. 2, 3. 

pT (only pi. 6*^1, nip-^t Is. 50, 11) 
m. 1) flamet L e. burning arrow, 
fiery dart Prov. 26, 18; r. ppt n. 
2) fetter, bond Is. 45, 14; r. ppj HL 

1^ (c. IP^) <A« eAM (bearded) LeT. 
IS, 29; the heard 2 Sam. 20, 9 (cf. 
74vtiov, also L. mentwn, both used 
for chin and for beard), — • Perh. 
traceable to } (format, pref., see p. 
175) and T5 Qpp IS) to be pointed, 

prominent, akin to Arab. isJ cacumen 
montis (ct L. wentum from mineo 
to jut out), whence perh. ^Ivoc, 
x6woc W. ^eh, Pers. jano, G. Wwi, 
£. cAin; hence prob. the denomi- 

f) {tat, TPY?) prob. denom. of 
^, perh. to have the chin sharp or 
hanging down, hence to be oldOen, 

18, 12 (used only of persons, yon of 
things). — Hiph. -ppm (cf. •pabn) 
io grow old, become aged Prov. 22, 6; 
poet, of plants Job 14, 8. 

"JEJ (c. Tpt Gen. 24, 2, pL li^Jpt, 
c '•Jpl, pi. f. niapT Zech. 8, 4) m. 
an old man Gen. 19, 4; also used 
as adj. I^n 0^*7 the old man Judg. 

19, 17; w. "pa oWer <Aan Job 32, 4: 
also e2(2er, w. the notion of magis- 
terial dignity (cf. our aldemum^ 
P. seigneur « L. senior), e. g* "^Jip! 
^^cp^ e2ier9 of Israel, i. e. the chief 

men, mlers, etc. (cf. Arab, j^ sheikh, 

old man, also a chief); pi. f. tvispt 
old women Zech. 8, 4. 

1^ m. old age, only in Gen. 48, 
10; r. TBJ. 

tlSf>1 told age Gen. 24, 36, Is. 
46, 4. * 

D*^|^T m. pL o£i age. Gen. 21, 2; 
D'i3^,-'j5 fon 0^ oW age, i e. bom 
when the father is old (cf. XT^Xu^e- 
TO^ in Homer) Gen. 37, 8; r. Ipt. 
On this plur. see Gram. S 108, 2, a. 

V]pT i.q.Ohald. C)gt, perh. akin 
to n^i^, to raise or ^/l tip Ps. 145, 14. 

>>l|r T Ohald. to raise up, hang 
up, only in vft^ W^pTir; Cpp,^ <»nd 
Aufi^ lip A« (the criminal) shall be 
fastened thereon Ezr. 6, 11; i. q. 
Syr. ^jk^y to crucify* 

ppT I (ftit pP) 1) prob. akin 
to p'gd, to run, distil or trickle as 
the rain Job 36, 27; to refine, to 
percolate or fiUer, of wine (see the 

Pu. and Arab. J^ ^n» newk, 
strained); hence to refine^ of metals, 
Job 28, 1. — PI. pgt to refine (me- 
tals) , fig. of the purifying of God's 
servants, only in MaL 8, 3. — 
Pu. to be strained, fined, of wine 
Is. 25, 6; to be refined, of metals 
Ps. 12, 7. 


\r\ n (obs.) prob. akin to mff 
to bum, flame, glow; hence pY 1, 


m (obs.) prob. akin to 
p}t n, Aram, pjn^ y.niZ, to compress, 
to tie; fig. (Tahn.) to bind, oblige; 
hence pT 2. 

IT m. sirowi^cr Is. 1, 7; see "Wt L 

IT m. prop, what binds or hems, 

hence rim of an altar Ex. 30, 3; 

border of the ark of the covenant 

Digitized by 






Ex. 25, 11; edge, of a table Ex. 
24; r. "VH n or ^i-nt IL 

tX^l t. for rnj (r. "W I) «om€«^i'n^ 
strange^ loaJthsome, hence K'nT^ mn 
to become a loathsome thing Num. 
11, 20, Vulg. nausea. 

pfc^"it, see rm^ 

jl iT (Qal obs.) i. q. m to flow, 
stream; akin to C|^t in Cj'^f]!; cf. 
Arab. .SjJ to flow. — Po. a'JT to be 

fluid, VM2p siaw nja w^ ttmc 
t^ are made to flow (after the frost), 
th^ fail, i. e. in summer they are 
dried up Job 6, 17. 

iiS'^t pr. n. m. (prob. for ?nt 
bna Babel-bom) Hag. 1, 1; Sept. 

TiT (obs.) prob. akin to l^to I, 
Syr. }\\, to grow tangled or luxuriant; 

TIT pr. n. G^ixuriant growth) of a 
valley Num. 21, 12; of a brook 
Deut. 2, 13, which is now called 

n^T l(fut.rrin, apoc *it;) i. q. 

TT f 

Aram, vcn, |99, to strew or scatter, 
Ex. 82, 20; to winnow, by scattering 
or throwing up and down before 
the wind Is. 30, 24; to rout, an 
enemy Is. 41, 16. — Nipb. to be 
'scattered Bz. 6, 8. — Pi. rnt to 
scalier, strew Prov. 15, 7; to scatter 
abroad, disperse Ley. 26, 33; fig. 
to winnow, to scrutinise i. e. to exa- 
mine or test as if by winnowing 
Ps. 189, 3. — Po. rrjt to be strewn 
Job 18, 15; part. pass. TVyi!rQ spread 
out Prov. 1, 17. For n't hi Ps. 58, 4 
see "W I.— -Mimet. akin to h^t, 5^t, 
p'5 and 1^1 1, Sans, sri, str% L. sero, 
steiiw, 9Top£(ii, 9Tipvu|i.t, G. streuen^ 

E. strew, straw, W. samu, gstrad. 

iTjt n (Qal obs.) i.q. -W n(whioh 
see), only in Pa. h'nt to bepresasdout 
in Is. 1, 6. 

y^lT, see ?St. 

ClTj! (P«'li- >^. C)^ w. T inserted) 
m. i. q. Syr. )£j^9^ a heavy shower^ 
only Ps. 72, 6. — Prob. from Aram, ni, 

V * 

yby (to urge or impel) w. old format 
ending t)-r-, akin to C)-::- in Cj^ 
(see on letter t), hence prop, a driv 
ing shower; of. nj^aw. 

"^T^? (prob. redupl. ftom *lWtlI 
i. q» ^1^) m. girded, e. g. W'lt 
d'jno onc^H o^out fA« loins (prob. 
w ar-hor se or a wrestler) Prov. 30, 81. 

/ I iT (fut. n-tt"^) akin to Jtit, 

-T , ••• r 

njt, Arab. ^J, Aram, nj^ ^i.^^ 

prob. to scatter (e. g. rays of light) 
hence to shine forth, of the sun in 
the morning, to rise Gen. 32, 32; 
to break forth, of Ught Is. 58, 10, of 
the glory of God Is. 60, I; fig. to 
break out, of leprosy in the skin 
2 Ch. 26, 19; to come forth, of a 
birth, ct rni 2; to sprout, of a plant, 
hence n*^tK; henoe 

triT m. 1) scattering out or break- 
ing forth, of light, hence aun-rise, 
only Is. 60, 3 'rjn'it Rjb brightness ef 
thy dawning. 2) pr. n. m. (ofibpring 
or dawn) Gten. 38, 30; patron. ^tX^ 
Num. 26, 13: cf. 'niTiC Gkn. 46, 10. 
see mt 2. 

H^ttlt pr. n. m. (Pn shinei forth) 
1 Ch". 5, *32; cf. also Vrnnn 1 Cb. 

D'nt i. q. m (after tlie form 
pw, d'1^3) m. perh. inundaHon, 
d'^'nr na&nos oa ^Ae desolation of an 
inundation Is. 1, 7; but better w. 
Sept., Yulg. and most critics to take 
0'»'jt as the pi. of l|, strangera, foes. 

Digitized by 





U jT i. q. t\% a"iT, to flaw, hence 
io flood or wash away Ps. 90, 5. — 
Po. trh (Oram. § 55, 1) to pour out, 
e. g. rvbs on^ smn't <A€ clouds poured 
<mt waters Ps. 77, 18; hence 

BTT m. a pouring rain, a storm 
18.4, 6; Yja ta^t a Aai/-»^ormIs.28,2; 
^ D-JT a «iorm o/ a wall Is. 25, 4. 

•T^^ f' o ^wAtt^ or emuMon 
I (of seed), spoken of Instftd stallions, 
i only in Ez. 23, 20. 

I 7jT (ftit. :?:«•;) akin to rnj 

(which seeX ^Xi ^ scatter, spread 
0¥t (hence prob. Silt arm), disperse 

Zech. 10, 9; as in Arab, gjj, Syr. 
\)], to sow (seed) Job 31, 3; w. ace. 
of the seed Lev. 26, 16, w. ace. 
of the field Gen. 47, 23; w. double 
aoc Dent 22, 9; to scatter or shed 
(ieed), as a plant or tree when the 
«eed is ripe Gen. 1, 29. Fig. of 
moral actions (comp. QbI. 6, 8), e. g. 
to sow, righteousness Prov. 11, 18, 
iniqnity Prov. 22, 8, mischief Job 
4, 8, the wind Hos. 8, 7, light Ps. 
97, 11. To sow a people, i. e. to 
nmWply it Jer. 31, 27. Also to plant 
a tree, w, two ace. Is. 17, 10. — 
Nipk (fdt. yyn) to be soum, as a 
tod Bz. 36, 9; to be scattered, sown, 
M leed Lev. 11, 37; to be propor 
9^ed, as a race, Nah. l, 14; to be 
"•ofe preffncmt, of a woman Num. 
5,28. — Pu. ant to be sown, only Is. 
40, 24. — Hipb. to yield seed, w. 
3nj, of plants Gen. 1, 11; absol. to 
\ wioefpe seed, of a pregnant woman 
I !«▼. 12, 2. Hence 
I rj (in p. »^, c. sr^l, S'nt Num. 
11, 7; w. suf. "^IP-Jl, pL only in DD^i*pt 
j 1 Sanu 8, 15) m. 1) sowing Gen. 47, 
I 24; henee also the time of sounng, 
I 9eed4i»ne Gen. 8, 22. 2) what is 

sown, seed, of plants Gen. 1, ii; 
of com Gen. 47, 23, of men Lev, 15, 
16: also what springs from what 
is sown, a plantation Is. 17, ii; 
a crop, of grain 1 Sam. 8, 15; 
yrain, produce Is. 23, 3; posteri^, 
of men Gen, 12, 7; famify, race 
2 K. 11, 1. 

jnt Chald. i. q. Heb. ^^f^aeei 
Dan. 2, 43. "" 

?^T or Jilt (pi. Bt?St, nHsht ; r. 
5^J) f., rarely in. as in Is. 17, 5,' the 
arm Is. 40, ii; esp. the fore-arm 
(diflf. from njp) Job 31, 22, Ppa^itov, 
L. braehiuni; also the shoulder or 
fore-leg of animals Num. 6, 19. 
Fig. strength, force, might, e. g. 
•ita ?i'nt arm of flesh, human might 
2 Ch. 32, 8; I'^Tj '»5i-it arms (i. e. 
forces) of his hands Gen. 49, 24; 
§i*it «r« man of arm, i. e. powerful 
man Job 22, 8. Jilt *rx^ Ps. 10, 
15, 't yia 1 Sam. 2, 31, 't KS^ Job 
22, 9, all mean to destroy power, re- 
sources, ability, etc. ^i'nt in good 
sense for Jtelp Ps. 83, 9 , or in a bad 
sense for violence Job 25, 9: see 
yhtK. — Perh. the r. is an obs. 
r^, akin to Chald. finn (to bear, 
carry). Sans, dhri, Pere. <i3r, L. 
traho, G. ^ro^cn, E. draw. 

?^! (only pi. D'^r'lt Dan. 1, 12; 
also W'lt Lev. 11, 37, pi. D*'55»*it Is. 
61, 11) m. seed, things sown, vege- 
tables; r. »tt. 

1^11 (only pi. !r«53nt) m. seed- 
Aerft^, iHiZse, vegetables Dan. 1, 16; 
r. :P1t. 

H Jf (0^8-) akin to a^jj, D^J, 
i. q. Arab. J^j, fo /fow, jpour, of 
water; perh. hence tf^\y,. 

P jT (fut. pin) akin to n^t, perh. 
to Pit, to sccOter, hence to sprinkle, 

Digitized by 



diiBt Job 2, 12, cinden or aahee Sz. 
9, 8, ooa]£ Ez. 10, 2, water Num. 19, 
18, blood Lev. 1, 5; w. i? to sprinkle 
upon Ex. 24, 6. Intrans. to he 
sprinkled or scattered, ti^l ro-^to D| 
•ia also grey hairs are here and there 
on him Hob. 7, 9. — Pu. py to be 
sprinkled Num. 19, 13. 

~\ iT I (Qal obs.) prob. mimet. 
andakm to L. stemtto, Breton strevia, 
W. treum (to sneeze). — Po. njit 
(Gram, i 55. Dtosneeze, only 2K. 4,85. 

inT n (obB.) i. q. "im n, Arab. 

)}, to bindj to gird up, hence to 
he active, nimble; hence *it, I'^nt. 

IB^t pr. n. t (Perg. golden) Est. 
5, 10. "" 

tViJ^ f . f Ae ^tttfe /Jn^cr, p«rlu for 
tnsi (see *)$!). Then perh. the space 
from the thumb to the little finger, 
a ^an Ex. 28, 16; but others perh. 
better derive it from JTJJ to spread^ 
hence a stretchy a span, 

CSilT (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 
•£#15 to be angry; hence 

WFit pr. n. m. (perh. irascible) 
Ezr. 2, 8. 

Df\T pr. n. m. (i. q. ItJ'^t , an olive- 
tree) \ Oh. 23, 8. 

"llnT pr. n. m. (Pers. perh. i. q, 
"Oyo star, ct "^tnOK) Est. 1, 10. 

n ChHh, the eighth letter of the 
Heb. alphabet; hence used as the 
numeral for 8. Its form on Phenic. 
monuments i^ » or ^, and on Heb. 
ooins Q, whence the Sam. H and 
the Greek H. The name H'^rt prob'. 
means a barrier or fence, from r. 
few, v4^ to enclose or surround, and 
is the same as^Hxa. 

The soimd of this letter, the harsh- 
est of the gutturals (see Gram., 
p. 25), seems anciently to have been 
sometimes softer, like a double h, 
sometimes rougher or stronger, kh; 
afterwards marked in Arabic by 
different characters, viz. ^^hh, and 
^r^kh. Hence the same Heb. root 
appears in two forms in Arabic, as 
nan to kiU, Arab, ^y and ^; to 
break or dash in pieces; bat oftener I 

the various senses of one Heb. root 
are indicated in Arab, by this double 
pronunciation, as pifj — I to be 
smooth, Arab. {^ to make smooth 
or hare, to shear; — 2 to 8¥nooth^ to 
shape, Arab. ,JU. to form, crecAe, 

T\ interchanges — 1 with the other 
gutturals K, n, 9, but specially the 
t\ (see under each); — 2 with tlie 
palatals (because somewhat alike in 
sound), specially w. ^i, as in V^ = V% 

Tin = T?a; w. a, as in Ttn =.nrQ, 

dnh = Arab. ^, "inns^ •)a3=nn»; 
also w. p, as in Tilj = tTg, iTnj «= 
^yL to rise (as the sun), Vpa =» 
Chald. ttina = d**u to seek; — 3 w. 
labials, e g. "n^n = *l!ia = "T^ (ci: 
tirico; L. eqma » Gael. eacK)i — 
4 w. dentals, e. g. CglJ = tjJD (of. 

8pVl-^0^ = 8pvl-6oc); — 5 Witll si- 

Digitized by 




Ulants (Eirald's Heb. Lehrb^ 7th ed. 
p. 144^ Kote^), gpecially with D, as in 

T^=P<iffavoc, rTBn = <JiTOv; withst, 
a8mb9n = dd:s, ^fen = ^; also with 
o, as ii oan «= 0519, Mn = o^; 
fr5p=Aram.KWip,|^9Cuo; cf. ^eip- 

oopy6c = stirffeon, "W. chwech = E. 
«m; » li. «ex a Sans. sAo^A =» Heb. 
ld», fin = Copt. a)OH shorn. 

1^'Z' is an old format, ending in 
rAHa (wh. see), ninsw, perh. p6d?, 
piob. of a4j. or dimin. force (see Prof. 
Key's paper in Philol. Society's 
Transactions, 1856, p. 295)^ akin to 
^r-^ in i^jpi, ^-r"ii^ ^T?^ (^®® under 
letter 3), p-^ in pto? and p*l— in 
p^t^, and to Sans, -kas, -x6c, L. 
-««, G. -ich or -^, B. -icA:, -«?, -ocAr, 
W. -flcA, -ag, -eg, -ig, -og, Gael, agh, 

in (r. aan; w. snf. "^an) m.&o8om, 
so named ftom hiding or cherishing, 
only in Job 81, 33; Chald. KSH, 
K^Vl, fiOin, Sam. 511; aU akintoCp 
Chald. Ma%P, Syr. cio^; whence 
throngh' the Arabic came Ital. alccvo 
= onr aicwe and (by insertion of the 
liquid) xoXiroc = Ital. ^o//b = onr 
g^; comp. L. sifi/us, also G. 6ti«en, 
ibr both bosom and 5a^. 

CsZlM(Qalobs.)i.q.ranto wrap^ 
or AieZe, akin tosati, K&n, tfm, ion, 
*l^, TSOn, p^; the idea of folding, 
binding, covering, embracing, pro- 
bably lying in the syllable an, tfn, Cjd, 
tp ^ee Gram., § 30); comp. Arab. 

UL, .^^, ju., Copt. ict»n, ic^n, 

aQ expressiTe of hiding or wrapping. 
— Miph. Kan| to hide oneself, to Ue 
hid, w. 3 or ^of the place Gen. 8, 8, 
1 Sam. 10, 22; Job 29, 8 <Ae yowng 
Men Mif? tfi« ^M|y^ and At({ £A«m«elMt 
i. e. gave place to me with reyerenoe. 

V. 10 JiRgnj dvnsj Vip the voice of ihe 
princes was hid i. e. checked (Gram. 
§ 148, 1). With infin. it may serve 
as adverb ((h^m. § 142, Hem. 1, like 
XavOdveiv with part), Gen. 31, 27, 
rrA nxani noi why hast thou se- 
crdig fled? — Pu. fo 6« made to hide 
oneself i. e. to slink or skulk away 
Job 24, 4. — Hiph. erann (3 perf. f. 
nnfctatfin josh, e, 25 for nx^^ann. 
Gram. § 75, Eem. 21, a) to hide or 
secrete Josh. 6, 25. — Hoph. v^Srxn 
to be hidden Is. 42, 22. — Hith. Lq. 
Kiph. (but intens.) to secrete oneself 
or to lie concealed Gen. 8, 8; Job 
38, 80 ^^rrm trio pMS as in the 
stone the waters lie hid, i. e. are 
fh>zen hard, or perh. better as the 
stone the waters are wrapped (L e. 
compacted) together, favoured by 
the Yulg. di»rantw, Syr. ^^i'i n5V, 
Chald. y^^, and by ^\rv] they 
are held fast together, in the parallel 

J13M L q. van, prob. to fold, 
cover up (whence hh, bosom); then 
to embrace, to love, only in Dent. 
38, S, where the part, nih may 
perh. be a denom. of ^, hence to 
imbosom, to caress, to cherish; but 
most take it as akin to snK «= Aram. 

n^, > nn^, Arab. *,^^, to love, 

'DSn pr. n. m. (caressed) Hchcib^ 
another name of Jethro, father-in-law 
of Moses Num. 10, 29. 

MJM (see van) in Qal only« 
in imp. **nn hide (thee) Is. 26, 20, 
and in the deriv. '|i'*ijn. — Niph. 
nana (inf. ronf?) i q. warn, to con- 
ceal oneself Jer. 49, ^0; siK^l^ 

>T?>?* ^i^TW'T? <*»*^ *^ ^^* 
gone forth from the camp to conceal 
themselves 2 E. 7, 12. 

Digitized by 





nb^H Chald. t wrong, harm 
Dan. 6, 23; r. inn. 

"ftSn pr. n. (jm^ction or con- 
fluence, r. lan I) of a river (Arab. 
yyi^) in Mesopotamia, which flows 
into the Euphrates 2 K. 17, 6. See 

iTj^SJl f. a stripe, weal, i. e. 
mark of a stroke or wound in the 
akin, only in li. 53, 5; r. *i^ II. 

rn^Slll t a wound, cut Gen. 4, 
28; rJ'y^ TL 

Ul^in (fat. td'anr) prob. akin 
to on^, Arab.kuft., to beat off, leaves 
or fruits w. a stick. Dent. 24, 20; to 
hetjA out, grain w. a flail, to thresh 
Bath 2, 17. — Niph. to be beaten 
out, threshed Is. 28» 27. 

"On Is. 26, 20, see nan. 

Fl^3^ pr. n. m, (pn hides) Ezr. 
3, 61 [in Neh. 7, 68, TTf^TS^ 

'p'On m. a hiding, concealing, 
only in Hab. 3, 4; r. n^n. 


^ I (ftit. iarn Ex. 22, 
25, Vsrp Deut. 24, 6) 1) to wrap to- 
gether, twist, bind (akin to ^nn I, 
ran, i5j, ia^), hence tan (?oni, iah 
binder, rope (of. ian «= xa)i,iXoc « 
ca52e)^ 2) flg. to bind, to pledge an 
exchange or security for something 
loaned, w. ace. of pers. Job 22, 6, 
w. ace. of thing Ex. 22, 25 (oomp. 
Oto, fa'??). 3) to twist, hence to 
act tortuouslg, w. ace. Job 34, 31, 
w. h Neh. 1, 7. — Niph. hm t& be 
pledged, perh. in Prov. 13, 13 (but 
see ian n). — PI. to twist, to writhe 
for pain, hence to bring forth a 
child Cant. 8, 5; cf. hun. 


n(Qalob8.)i. q. wn, 
to wound^ hurt, — Niph. to be hurt, 
destroyed, perh. Prov. 18, 13 (see 

ian I). — PI. to destroy, to dewutate 
Is. 13, 5. — Ph. to be broken, of • 
yoke Is. 10, 27; to be sAoH or ga$p- 
ing, of the breath Job 17, !• 


CJhald. (Pe. obs.) i. q. 
Heb. i^n'n, Pa. h^n to overthrow, 
destroy Dan. 4, 20; to hurt Dan. 
6, 23. — Ithpa. to be overthrown, 
destroyed Dan. 2, 44. 

53H (sing, only in Is, 66, 7, pL 

B^tan, c. "itan; r. ban i) m, prop. 
writhing, mostly in pi. for pains of 
a woman in labour (^^tvsO Jer. 
13, 21; pangs in general Job 21, 17; 
D'ltatJ tli?» Job 39, 3 to cast forth 
pangs i. e. painfully to bring forth 

Ssn (w. suf. "itan, pi. o-^ban, c 

itan^'josh. 17, 5; ajid ''ban Ps. 18, 
5) in., but f. Zeph. 2, 6, i)r. ban I, 
cord, rope Josh. 2, 15; a measuring^ 
line Am. 7, 17 (fuUy ma ban Zech. 
2, 5), or what is marked out by 
such a line, a portion Ps. 16, 6, on 
estate Josh. 17, 5; then a district, 
region, ttjn ban ''a;^^ inhabittmts of 
the maritime district Zeph. 2, 5. 
2) a snare, a toil Ps. 140, 6; -^an 
in^t Ps. 18, 6, nig -^ban Pa, lie,' 3 
snares or meshes of Sheot (deaUi) i. e. 
things that threaten and destroy 
life. 3) a band, troop 1 Samr. !&, 5. 
4) r. b^ n, destruction, desokOum 
Mic. 2, 10. ^ All the significations 
may come perh. fh>m the meaning 
to bind. 

ban Clhald. (def. Mtan) m. h^^ 
harm, ^ina '^rnx-Kb bani and there 
is no AtfW on them Dan. 3, 27; 
damage or loss Ezr. 4, 22. 

biUl m. 1) pledge, y^ iA Van 
A« fefttrncf^ no< ^ p2ec£^ £z. 18, 12; 
ban Mb Van ^ taketh not a pledge 
T. 16. 2) perverseness, perh. inKeh. 1^ 

Digitized by 





7, bnt prob. for V315 inf. aba. of 

5?n m. prop, a rope-man, a 
denom. from ban rope, hence a ship' 
nan, sailor "Ez. 27, 8; collect, in n"? 
^rH master of the sailors, the ship- 
copfain Jonah 1, 6. 

52in m. only in Prov. 23, 34, 
strengthened form of inn rope, 
hence a cable, ship^s cable; perh. 
more likely a mast or helm, as fast- 
ened or worked by means of rope- 
tackling; r. i5n L 

n^iH f. i, q. ihn, j)&<ty« or 
pawnEz, 18, 7; r. ian I. 

fj" (obs.) i. q. ym, to he 
sharp, either of smell, to have a 
strong smeU, hence y^^n a kind of 
onion (Talm.); or of colour, to be 

bright, reddish (Arab. Cf^); hence 

nbSlTl ^ * bright - coloured 
ik)wer, a sort of lUi/, also the bright 
meadouhsaffron Cant. 2, 1. — From 
a masc. form ixnn came the fern, 
by adding tv-^ (see on nns'ifi^); and 
i-;- is the dimin. ending attached 
to the root yw (see on letter i). 

n^32prt pr. n. m. (perh. lUy of 
Pn, for ^tjiign, firom iS5rT, r. y^ 
Jer. 35, 3? 

pj" (inf. pan) akin to pan, 
pa^ n, p$K, l^a^, to fM the hands 
£cc 4, 5; to embrace, w. ace. 2 K. 
4, 16, absol. Ecc. 3, 5. — PI. to 
daap, hug, the rock Job 24, 8, the 
dnnghill Lam. 4, 5; to embra^ie, w. 
ace. of pers. Gen. 33, 4, w. i of pers. 
Gen. 29, 18; hence 

P^n m. folding of the hands, 
w. xrn^ ProT. 6, 10. 

pTp3n pr. n. m. (embrace, perh. 
rednpL from r. pS"; cf« •WT^) Bop 

5aA:X:u^, 01^ of the minov prophets 
Hab^ 1, 1 ; but see ptt^^. 

IJlllakin to ian I, "^^ II, 
to bind ox string together, to unite, 
e. g. of nations, to &« a/7ie<i G«n. 
14, 3; part. pass. D'^a?^ I^an jotwed 
to t^ofo Hos. 4, 17; to adjoin, to 
attach, w. ^M Ex. 26, 3. Fig. to 
charm, fascinate, L e. to make speU- 
bound Ps. 58, 6. — PI. n^n to join 
together, connect, w. ix, e. g. 5^3J7^, 
an'nx-bK trm ny^itrnx and t^ 
8^( fasten the curtains the one to 
the other Ex. 26, 6; to form a league 
with (tar) 2 Ch. 20, 36. — Pu. nan 
(once perh. nan Ps. 94, 20) to be 
joined together Ex. 28, 7; to be com- 
pacted, of a city compactly bnilti w. 
vtrr Ps. 122, 8; to be allied, w. ace 
(for dat., see Gram. § 121, 4), ^fpaiTjn 
ni^n vm shall the throne of mischiefs 
be confederated w. thee? Ps. 94, 20. 
— In Ecc 9, 4 nna'jK'thibh (w.Vj) 
stands prob. for nan*^ Q'ri, to bt 
joined, — Hiph. n'^ann to combine 
or compose. Job 16, 4 tta^^r rtnianjf 
d'^^a I would join together against 
you tiTttA tror(28 (Gram. §1 38, Bem. 8, 
Note^. — HHk to aUy oneself with 
(D9) 9 Ch. 20, 35; i|it (Ia Syriac style) 
wnannn Dan. 11, 23. ' 

Ijn rr(obs.)i.q.i5nii,to*w^. 

*ClH (pi. D'^nan) m. perh. conjuror 
Is. 47, 9; r. I^ni. 

*On (pi. d^n^n, c -^nnn) adj. m., 
nn^n (0. nnan) t associate Judg, 
20, 11, used as snbst. a companion, 
friend Cant.l, 7; r. nan I. 

^On Ohald. m. eompamon Daii. 
2, 13, same as Heb. nan. . . 

society' or company, of priests Hos. 
6, 9; nan n**! a Aotiw in coiwmonProv. 
95,24. 2)afl^orcAarmI)eut.l8,ll; 


Digitized by 





in I^ 47, 9 Tf^^n is % ^eOs or 
fA^ 9na,^t(?tan« (see *^3I7). 3) pr. n. 
m. (association) Gen. 46, 17, also 
*ian Num. 26, 45, patron, "^n Num. 

*^ar! m. i. q. "^an, an «M0- 
ciate or porfncr, only in Job 40, 
30, where the pi. D*^*}an means 
partners in business (fishing), as 
shown by B'»555:» in next clause of 
the verse. 

S'lan Chald. (pL w. suf. m-nan) 
f. an associate, companion, then (like 
rwn) fettaw Dan, 7, 20j see n^n. 

rria'^Sn (pi. nii-) f. stripes or 
streaks (prop, bands) of the tiger, 
only in Jer. 13, 23; r. *15IJL 

rnan t society, company, only 
fai Job 34, 8; r. *ianl. 

^iian 1) pr. n. (alliance) Hebron, 
a city in Judah Gen. 13, 18, now el* 
KhaJlU, 2) pr. n. m. Ex. 6, 18 ; patron. 
•»3San Num. 8, 27. 

'^'^5'^ f. junction L q. nnanp, a 
place where something is united Ex. 
26, 4; r. WX, 

nion, ioife MaL 2, 14^ r. ^oni. 

lyjin (Alt. t^:, once v^n; 
Job 5, 18) prob. akin to 'S(bn (cf. 
:!^n^ = 3^) I ^0 ^tn(2 on a turban 
^xn Ez. 24, 17 or tvm'O Ex. 29, 9, 
sea-weed Jon. 2, 6; to bind up a 
wound Is. 30, 26, w. ^ Is. 61, 1, w. 
^9 of pers. Ez. 24, 17 ; w. ace. of 
pers. and a of thing Ez. 16, 10; 
part van a binder up, a healer Is. 
3, 7; to saddle an animal, w. ace. 
Gten. 22, 3; to shui up Job 40, 13; 
to restrain, 1. e. rule Job 84, 17 (cf. 
11R). — PI. to bind up a wound, to 
heal, w. h Ps. 147, 3; to check, r^ 

strain Job 28, 11. — Pu. to be bound 
lip as a wound Is. 1, 6. 

DlSan m. pi. perh. f/ama or 
threads (r.wan to bintt), sold by the 
Tyrians at Came, Gtesiphon, Aden, 
Saba and elsewhere Ez. 27, 24. 

il JII (obs.) perh. to excavate, 

hollow out (cf. Arab. Ct^ to be 
low, hollow, of ground); hence nsrng 
cooking-pan, also 

ron (only pi. D'^an) m. things 
cooked or baked in a pan, only in 
1 Ch. 9, 31. 

5n (w. art am, c. an, w. sai. 
•^an, pi. D-^an; r. aan) m. festiotd 
(celebrated w. processions and dan- 
ces) Judg. 21, 19; either the feast 
Ex. 10, 9, or the festive sacrifice 
Ps. 118, 27. an n«? Deut 16, 10, 
an ajn Lev. 23, 39, to keep a festi- 
val, of the passover Is. 30, 29, 
of the feast of tabernacles 2 Ch. 

5, 3. Cf. Arab. ^ a pilgrimage to 


San (for nm, r. aan) t vertigo^ 
dizziness or trepidation Is. 19, 17. 

Jjlp (obs.) perh. akin to ban, 
iSi'jn, to hop, spring; hence 

asn (pi. D'^aan) m. l) locust, perh. 
so named fh>m its hopping or spring- 
ing (r. aan) Lev. 11, 22. The Sama- 
ritan name naa*in is the same w. *l 
inserted (see Gram. § SO, 3, Bern.). 
2) pr. n. m. (locust) Ezr. 2, 46. 

tQ5H also fT^Sri pr, n.m. (loooat) 
Neh. 7, 48,Exr. 2' 46. 

«k«|rl akin to a^in, to turn abimt^ 
to move in a circle, hence to detfice, 
prop, in a circle 1 Sam. 80, 16; to 
reel, of drunkards Ps. 107, 27. Fig; 

Digitized by 





fo eekhrate a festival or hoRdaif w. 
processions and dances Ps. 42^ 5. 

ri^n (obs.) prob. akin to Mgn, 

Arab, f^^ to cut intOf to cleave; 

TSn (like -^SCp; only in pi. c •^an) 
m, ci^, fismre; rjon -^iiana '^nal'' 
My dove {$ in ihe clefts of the rode 
Cant. 2, 14; efDcovofton for dwelling 
in, as still seen in tbe rock-homes 
of Idnmea, e. g. 9^Qn *«2ana **93tD tn- 
hdiniing in the excavations of the 
rock Jer. 49, 16 (Gram. § 90, 3, a); 

*ii3n (only in c pi. "^^ian) a^j. m. 
girded^oiHy inEz. 23, 15 "Tinj— -^niin 
girded w, the girdle; r. *i)h. 

fOn (r. ^IT\) m. a girdle 1 Sam. 
18, 4; hence 

iTfUri f. d ytnlfe 2 Sam. 18, 11; 
a^pron or )dtt Oen. 3, 7. 

'^Sn pr. n. m. (festive, £rom 3if; 
▼. a^. ending Vt" i« ^^ "^-r) Saggai, 
the prophet Hag. 1, 1. 

''^n pr. n. m. (festive) a son of 
Gad, Nnm. 26, 15. 

iTjan pr. n. m. (festival of tP) 
1 Chj6, 15. 

T\^Sn pr. n. f. (festive) a wife of 
king David 2 Sam. 8, 4. 

yjri (obs.) perh. akin to aon, 

Arab. J^p^i to hop about, leap or 
spring^ like a magpie, etc.; hence 

Sl^n pr. n. f. (partridge; Arab. 

jii., Syr. ]^) Num. 26, 33. 

yri (ftit •tirn) perh. akin to 
■tt?, 1) to Wnrf ortmtKf, gird, w. ace 
of the part 2 K. 4, 29; w. a of the 
girile Prov. 81, 17; to gird on, w. 

ace of the thing pat on Ps. 45, 4| 
fig. Ps. 65, 13; so hfljfjn iwn girt w. 
a new sword 2 Sam. 21, 16; w. gen. 
p^ rvvian girded w. sadccloth Joel 
1, 8; w. ace both of pers. and of 
girdle Ex. 29, 9; w. h:^ of part Ps. 
45, 4; absoL to gird oneself £z. 44, 
18; w. yo of place (prob. elliptical) 
in 2 Sam. 22, 46 Drii*i(iDao nftr*; 
a$id they gird themselves (coming 
out) from their strongholds, bat perh« 
better they limp or hobble out, L e. 
come forth w. trembling, for ^^J? 
here stands for ^yj^ in the parallel 
passage Ps. 18, 46 (comp. Mic. 7, 17). 

TH Ohald. (once Heb. forim 
Ez. 83, SO) numeral adj. m., mi, 
K^n f. one, same as the Heb. nnK 
and nilM (which see). Used perh. for 
oar indefinite art. a, an (better for 
t(c indef.), e. g. in d^x an image 
Dan. 2, 31; f. tm first (placed after 
the subst. in c. state) rm n^ year 
of one, i. e. first year, or year 
one Ezr. 5, 18; before numerals *in 
is adverbial (multiplicative), times^ 
**? ^S rc^3)b-in one seven times more 
than Dan. 3, 19; rrro as one, L e. 
at once Dan. 2, 35. 

in (r. *nn) adj. m., mn f. sharp, 
of a sword Ez. 5, 1. 

Mfin Ohald. t nam. acQ. •fie; 
■ee 4t Chald. 

tiCTn I Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
rr?Ji to r^oice; hence rtJ7J« 

fc^nn n Chald. (obs.) perh. 
akin to Heb. ran, to split, cleave; 
hence perh. *fpj. 

*nn (ftit. W for tit;, like 

■■ T 

ig) akin to Tfj, Tr^, to be sharp, 
pointed Prov. 27, 17; to be eageri 
qu,ide, fierce Hab. 1, 8. — Hlph. (ftit. 
nn5 for nrn) to MaryenjiKHn* (iron); 

Digitized by 



fig. to sharpen^ hrightent Prov. 27, 17 

iron becomes sharp by iron (vr^ tor 
W fut, Qal), and a man sharpens 
ttc face of his friend (W for nn? 
fat. Hiph., see Gram. § 67, Bern. 8). 
— Hopb. to be sharpened (of the 
fword) Ez. 21, 14; hence 

"nn pr. n. m. (sharpness) a son 
of Ishinael G^en. 25, 15, but "Vrn in 
some texts. 

n iH (fat apoc. Vi; Job 8, 6) 
to rejoice or be glad Ex. 18, 9. — PI. 
to gladden Ps. 21, 7. *~-Perh. mimet. 
akin to Tihl, m; I, qfSoi, ^yfikfti, L. 
gavdeo, also ^afpo) (1 = p). 

rnn pr. n. (sharp -flowing, r, 
Titi) of a city in laaachar Josh. 19,21; 
see T^5. 

1^'nH m. 9Aarpne88, |Knnf, only in 
vm ■''T^'nn 9Aarp iwwi^ of potsherd 
Job 41, 22; r. Tin. 

rrjTH f. joy, gladness 1 Ch. 16, 
27; alfko Chald. in Ezr. 6, 16, w. the 
same meaning; r. tvxn, 

""TH Chald. (only pi. w. suf. •»»Ti^ 
in. breast Dan. 2, 32 , i. q. Heb. ntn. 

Tnn pr. n. (sharp-peak) of a city 
in Beiijamin Ezr. 2, 33. 

inr\ r ^nn (ftit. v^rm) p«rh, 

■•i»' ••^^ -IT'* 

akin to Arab. Jja., to be slack, 
to leave off^ cease, desist, w. ^ and 
infl, to leave off, cease nbi to buUd 
Gen. 11, 8; also w. inf., e. g. A'ln 
5^ oeose ye to do evU Is. 1, 16; w. 
subst. iy} ^b*in £A€:y 2eat;e off agitation 
Job 8, 17; fo re9f, i. e. not to be used 
Judg. 5, 6; to fail Dent. 15, 11; to 
Id alone, w. ip Ex. 14, 12, also 
without IQ Jadg. 16, 7 ; ^ abstain, e. 
g. ft ai»a 5bWj fAott sAoli abstain 
from leaving (U) to him Ex. 23, 5; 
to desist 1 E. 22, 6. — Hiph. perh. 

(ace. to some) to cause to eease Jndg. 
9, 9. lu IS '^\7^ for "^P&jnnn 
(Hiph. w. n interrog.), bat better 
to abandon for ''PJ^JHrt (Qal w. JJ 
interrog.). Hence 

^y} (o- ^"T^) a4J- m. 1) /otTtn^, 
/ral^ Ps. 39 y 5; forbearing Es. 8, 
27; destitute, forsaken, d*nr« Vfi 
forsaken of men Is. 53, 8; cl Job 
19, 14. 

5*fl^ (pause i'TTi) m. resting-place; 
fig. /^ ^ave, only in Is. 38) 11: d 

^ l?^ Judg. 5, 7 in some teats 
for Ann; see Gram. § 20, 2, c 

''inn pr. n. m. (forbearing) 2 Ch. 
28, 12. 

under Wj above. 

p Jll (obs.) akin to TPJ, to he 
sharp, to pierce or scratch; Arab, 
^j^ to be sharp-eyed; hence 

pin m. Mic. 7, 4, and PJI Prov. 
♦ ^ * 
15, 19 a prickly thorn, Arab. 3*>^ 
me/oTt^ena 8pino«a. 

b^'in pr. n. of the river ISgris 
(prob. sharp or swift-flowing, from 
r. p'TtJ w. ending b— , as in i^^j 
hence Aram. Mbs'n, £2^i^9, and Gr. 
T(7pi(;) Gen. 2, 14. 

I JM prob.akui to *Vj}, -ina, Syr. 
>i^ to surround, inclose; then to 
beset, of the sword, only in a"T! 
&n^ n'Tm a sword that hems them 
in Ez. 21, 19 ; hence ""'^ 

Tffi (c. "^nn, w. suf. 'i'nnn . f. n 
loc. n^nn, in pause *Tj*iri; pL ^^^JTIf 
o. ^yv}) m. an efu?^09ttr«, rooni*or 
chamber Gen. 43, 30; a (ad-r-dm 
2 Sam. 4, 7; a &rK2e-cAam&er JiJg* 

Digitized by 





15, 1; a store-room Prov. 24, 4; re- 
cesses or inmost parts Prov. 18, 8; 
chambers of the south Job 9, 9 , L e. 
the farthest south, or perh. the store- 
houses of the sonth-wind; nja ^^nn 
ekambers of death Prov. 7, 27. 

"TTl PJf* n. Gen. 36, 80; see TTlT. 

i\^}^} pr. n. (perh. circuit, r. 
Ttn w. ending *;{-;-, as in Tp^O) perh. 
of a Syrian deity, then perh. of a 
Syrian lung, after whom Syria is 
called 'n Yy< land of Hadrach Zech. 

y jn (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
tnp, ifyj II, 1) to be bright J fresh, 
neWf i. q. Aram, vm, 2) to be polish' 
ed or sharp, cf. ni^TTj 1. — PI. 
to renew 1 Sam. 11, 14; to restore, 
of destroyed dties Is. 61 , 4 , of al- 
tars 2 Ch. 15, 8, of daily life Lam. 5, 
21, of the spirit Ps. 51, 12. — Hith. 
to renew oneself Vs. 103, 5; hence 

WTH adj. m. rnhn f. l) new, of 
a cart 1 Sam. 6, 7, a house Dent. 
20, 5, a wife Deut. 24, 5 ; fresh, of 
grain, etc. Lev. 26, 10; I \\^\\\ some- 
thing new Jer. 31, 22; pL T^tm 
new things Is. 42, 9. 

WTH (w. suf. irin, pi. o-OTi, o. 
"Vyji T^' »73) m., perh. f. in Gen. 88, 
24, 1) the new moon, the new moon 
day, the first of the lunar month, 
which was a festival among the 
Hebrews Kunu 29, 6; then month 
i. e. the time from new moon to 
WW moon Gen. 8, 5; 0-»o; xfffx 
wmth of days, i. e. a fall month 
Oen. 29, 14; V^'^a a month old 
Lev. 27, 6; t3*n2rin new moons 2 Oh. 
2, 3. 2} perh. a sharp sword in Hos. 
5, 7 (see Xffxn 2), the same as ni^ttj, 
8) pr. n. t (new moon) 1 Ch. 8, 9. 

tllSnn 1) in 2 Sam. 21, 16 asharp 
^new sword, for mjTq a^. 2) pr. 

n. (new-built) of a dty in Judah 
Josh. 15, 87. 

*nDTrt pr. n. (new) of A etty 
beyond Jordan 2 Sam. 24, 6. 

n jri Chald.(obs.) same as Heb. 
tZ^. Hence 

HTH Chald. a4j. iicfo Ezr. 6, 4 
(Heb. idjn), once in Heb. pr. n. itMJ 
>irnn Kew Hazor in Josh. 15, 25. 

iXn or mn Chald. (Pe. 
obs.) i. q.*Heb. Wn, prop, to ftreotte, 
then to speak; akin to frjn, rrri. 
Sans, vo, aijco ^ dtu> a L. aio. — 
Pa. K^n <o sAetr , declare, w. mcc. of 
thing and D^g of pers. before whom 
Dan. 2, 11; w. ^ of pers. to whom 
Dan. 2, 24. — ' Apb. K;?m (infin. 
njjnh) to shew or declare, w. ace. 
Dan. 2, 6, w. h of pers. Dan. 2, 16. 

Jn^ (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
aan (to involve), to be bound, in- 
debted, whether in money or goods, 
or in moral responsibility or penalty. 

Cf. Arab. «^W, Syr. «£Lm, used of 
debt and of guilt. — PI. a*n to in- 
eriminate, inculpate, only in Q^Wi 
"^"iTiM ye make my head guilty 
L e. cause me to forfeit it Dan. 1, 
10; hence 

3^n m. debt of money, onlyjn 
a-nb; ain inyar! he restores his debt- 
pledge (see Qtujn. § 121, 6) £z. 18, 
7. — Perh. akin io L. culpa, as ah 
to x6Xicoc. 

rr^^n pr. &. (hiding-place, r* n^) 
of a place north of Damascus Gen. 
14, 15. 

3*in akin to a^n, VCSf U wuke 
a eirck, to mark out w. a compass, 
only io Job 26, 10; hence 

3^n m. cirdSf vault or arch, avi 

Digitized by 





D*;^ the arch of heaven Job 22, 14; 
^ngn V(n the compass of the earth 
Ia'40, 22. 

nH (ftit. nun;) to tie knots, to 
make intricate, hence rrrn (cf. Arab. 

jW conj. TL to tie knots); w. rrPTi 
to propound a knotty question, to 
put forth a riddle Judg. 14, 12, 
Ez. ir, 2. — Prob. akin to naK, TpJ, 
nrnj, ct Gr. IjiLirXexetv alv(Yji.aTa; 
but poribu akin to "inn <o &c «Aat]> 
or Vfitti/, hence <o propose wittf/ or 
«^rp jpoiitto. 


nin I (Qal obs.) i. q. Wn, 
to breathe, to live; see the kindred 
roots rrtn and rrh. — Pi. nin fo utter, 
teU, w. ace of thing Job 32, 10, w. 
ace or i of pers. to whom Job 15, 17, 
Ps. 19, 8; see-Chald. Kin. 

n IM n (obs.) perh. akin to 
JT5, mp, to wind, coil (cf. Chald. 
Knirj serpent), hence to encircle, 

njn f. 1) r. njn I, life; hence 
pr. n. of the first wonuua, Chdunoa, 
Eve Gen. 8, 20, as the mother of all 
living C^n-bs t»), 2) r. njn n, a 
round tent or encampment, a hamlet 
or village Kmn. 82, 41. 

^'^n P'f* >*• (prob. villager, from 
hjn 2) Bivite, Sept. E&aioc, a Ca- 
naanite tribe Josh. 11, 8. 

nn (obs.) prob. akin to Wn, 
non, to corcr, to theUer; hence fimj 
a haven. 

*^inpr.n.m.(seer.nm)2Ch,83, 1». 

nun (ob^) perh, to ci«^ in<o, 
to hook fast; perh. akin to njjn, njrr, 

Arab. ^ to rend\ henoe 

nin (pi. Wrin Cant. 2, 2, t3W[ 
I6am.]3,6) m. 1) AooXr Job40,26; cf 
nn. 2) a i^iom, thombtish Job 31,40. 

U'lFl Ohald. perh. akin to Heh 
n^Si, to bind, to sew, — Aph. to patdi 
up, repair, only in ^ts"^; sij'^SK </iey 
repair the foundations, only Ezr. 4. 
12; hence 

WH m. thread or «frtn^ Judg. 16, 
12; isj Tji'^to 'i^l iDsino /r(WJ a thread 
even to a shoe-latchet, i. e. the merest 
trifle Gen. 14, 23. 

n^^n pr. n. (perh. sandy, from 
Vin) of several regions, 1) on the 
Persian Gulf^ as the eastern limit of 
the Ishmaelites Gen. 25, 18. 2) a 
land of the Cushites in the south of 
Arabia or on the coast of Abyssiuia 
Gten. 10, 7. 3) perh. India and Arabia 
Gen. 2, 11. — Perh. the n^w of 
Gen. 2, 11, famous for its gold, took 
its name from bin sand, and may 
point to the region ivhere, as Hero- 
dotus relates (B. m. 102), the sand 
(ipd|j.}i,oO was so rich in gold. 

yin, *?*n (fttt. bw and 
bw, apoc bm Jer. 51, 29, brr Ps. 
97, '4, br*^ 1 Sam. 31, 3, inf. absoL 
b^n for bin Ez. 30, 16) akin to b^>, 
V'a and bw, 1) to move in a cirde^ 
to dance Judg. 21, 21. 2) to turn or 
twist oneself, to writhe in pain, esp. 
of the pains of parturition Is. 13, 8; 
hence to bear a child Is. 45, 10; 
hbin a travailing woman Jer. 4, 31 ; 
also to tremble, to be afraid, w. 
IP 1 Sam. 31, 3, ■«3C? Deut. 2, 25 or 
''3B^tt Ps. 114, 6 of the cause. 3) to 
whirl or hurl dofon upon some one, 
of a storm, w. b? Jer. 23, 19; of a 
sword, brandished for destruction, ir. 
a Hos. 11, 6; fig. of retribution, w. 
b$ 2 Sam. 3, 29, of the hands vio- 
lently laid on, w. a Lam. 4, 6. 4> I9 

Digitized by 





he firm, gtrang, mighty (cf. "^j 
n;5) , heDce fig. of a man^s ways Ps. 
10, 6, of prosperity Job 20, 21. — 
Hence we get the meaning Ho he in 
(mental) strain or intentness about 
something, L e. to tcait Gen. 8, 10. 
5) trans, to surrmnd, enclose; hence 
Vj, i-^n, etc. — Hipb. ^iTtn (fat. 
Vnj, apoc. inj) to cause to tremhle 
or quaJee Ps. 29. 8. — Hoph. hrm 
to he horn Is. 66, 8. — Pil. Wn, 
intensive of Qal in all its meanings; 
to dance in a circle Judg. 21, 28; 
to hring forth, hear Job 39, 1; to 
create, form Ps. 90, 2; to tremhle 
Job 26, 5; to f£?ai* or hope for, ex- 
pect, w. Vjob 35, 14. — Another 
ton (to pierce) Is. 51, 9 belongs to 
Vpn. — Pul. to he horn Job 16, 7. 
— ^Hithpol. tonnn to twist oneself , 
to writhe w. pain Job 15, 20; to 
tchirl, of a storm Jer. 23, 19; to 
icai^ /or, w. i Ps. 37, 7. — Hithpalp. 
bn^nrn to 6« pained, e. g. iH^^H^! 
lira rtAi^ and tJie queen was greatly 
pained Est. 4, 4. — Prob. akin to 
b^s, "fta V, Topoc, X^P^^» xaXwc, 
xoXCco, K coi L. ^j^rtw, gurges, G. 
iSrreis, W. chwyl, chtcym. Hence 

Mn (r. inn) m. sand Ex. 3, 12; 
•o called for its whirling and rolling. 

bW pr, n. (circuit) of a Syrian 
region near the source of the Jor- 
dan Gen. 10, 23, now called j*;) 
AJysUl 'Ard-el-EiUeh. 

C'li i (obs.) to hum, to he 
scorched; akin to n^n, Dpn, Oli;, 

Arab. frf^,to &e hlack; hence 

D^n adj. m. hlack, dark-coloured 
Gen. 30, 32. 

rr^in (c. n^, dual, d'rjbn Jer. 
99, 4;^i^'riwn Is. 26, 1) X troff Ex. 
14, 22 i toum-waU Is. 22, 10; r. rran I. 

CmH (fat. wn;, brn) prob. akin 
to rion, nos, to cover, protect or 
•i«!«; hence to |?ity, to Aave cow- 
j>a«won on, w. i? Ps. 72, 13; to &« 
concerned for, w. i§ Jon. 4, 10; to 
«pare, w. ir Joel 2, 17. 

VJMn (obs.) akin to ?.Dn, to en- 
dose, shelter; hence 

fjiH, ir|n (r. tfin I) m. coa«f, shore 
Deut. 1, 7; Aai^en Gen. 49, 13; cf. nh. 

DSW pr. n. m.-(harboured, r. Cpn) 
Num. 26, 39; patron. '»»Wn. 

j^n (obs.) to swcr, divide (ct 
•jry'n to «c»cr, in the Talmud) i. q. 
n^n to divide; hence 

Jn (pi. ni»n) m. 1) party-wan^ 
of separation, i. q. y^n; in 
general that which is divided and 
separated from us, the outside-, hence 
whatever is outside of our place, a 
street (as being outside the house) 
Jer. 37, 21, pi. ni:£«in streets Is. 6, 
26; hazaars (streets of shops) 1 K. 
20, 34; the country, fields, pasture 
(as being outside the city) Job 5, 10. 
2) adv. without, abroad Deut. 23, 14; 
w. n loc. 1 K. 6, 6; w. art. y^nn 
Judg. 19, 25; w. prep, 'pna in the 
street, wit?u)ut Gen. 9, 22, in the fields 
Gen. 24, 31; y^n\ abroad Ps. 41, 7, 
and nwii 2 Ch. 32, 5; y^m on 
the outside Gen. 6, 14 (opp. T^y^'d), 
also y^nn« Ez. 4i, 25; h y^m 

(S^en. 19, 16 or ^ HSnrnp Ez. 40, 40 
without; h "pna-ix to without, w. verb 
of motion Num. h, 3; ya ynn hesides, 
perh. more than, only in Ecc. 2, 25. 

p*in (obs.) akin to pan, Arab. 
j51a., to ufrap up, enclose, surround. 
Cf. aan. Hence 

. pin, m. (K'thibh for pn) 6rca«<» 
or bosom, only Ps. 74, 11. 

Digitized by 





ip^n Prov. 8, 29 for 'ipti," inf. Qal 
of r. ppj w. 8uf. ; cf. Gram. § 67. 
pp^n pr. n. 1 Oh. 6, 60; flee ppHJ, 

IjFl (fat. Tirp) to become ffray^ 
white; hence to turn pale, w. B*^aD 
Is. 29, 22. — Akin to 1&^ fo 5e 

whitiah in n'^BS) lead; cf. Arab. ^W 
fo he fulled white, of a garment; 
hence "Tin 2, 


I J Ohald. (obfl.) same as Heb. 
IIH; hence Ijn, 

^in (obs.) akin to 'i^IEC'n© I, 
to hoUow out or bore; cf. *1^ '^d. 

*lin m. 1) r. ^^n, a hole, in the 
lid of a box 2 K. 12, 10; socket of 
the eye Zech. 14, 12; opening, for a 
window Cant. 5, 4; cave, cavern Job 
SO, 6; den Nah. 2, 18. 2) r. *i:)rj, white 
linen, only pi. poet. •»t;if» Is. 19, 9 
(see Gram. § 87, 1, c), 

*l^n (pLD-^Tin) m. 1) r. lin white 
linen (Sept. puaao;) Est. 1, 6; cf. 

Arab, ^ji white sUk. 2) r. *wn, hole 

of a serpent Is. 11, 8; dungeon Is. 
42, 22 (cf. xaXap, x<5c, L. cavema). 
8) pr. n. m. (free or noble, r. I^n 2) 
Ex. 17, 10. 

"I^n OliAld. adj. m. loAi^e Dan. 
7, 9;"r. \in. 

"•^in m. pL white linen, bpssus- 
dothea (Sept. p6a9oO !■. 19, 9; see 
Gram. § 87, 1, o. 

"Hin, see -nh, 

^^n pr. n. m. (nobleman) 1 Ch. 

ySn pr. n. m. (perh. linea-weayer) 
ii. 5, 14. 

y^^n Eco. 10, 17, see iH. 
nVl pr. B. m. (noble-bom, r. 
2) 1 Oh, 14, li jftlso U'y^r 1 K. 7, 40. 

"•3H tD*1W pr. n. m. (perh. free- 
bom is my father) 2 Ch. 2, 12. 

■pin pr. n. (cavernous, r. "WT) of 
a Syrian region east of Bashan Ez. 

47, 16, AupavtTU, now called ^^l)^ 

IDin (fut. i»!in;, 8 f, xam for 

»nn Job 31, 5, Gram. § 72, Eem. 9) 
1) ^0 flee, to make hast^ 1 Sam. 20, 
38, cf. Job 31, 5; to make haste to do» 
w. h and inf. Ps. 119, 60; to make 
haste for, w. ^ and subst. Ps. 22, 20. 
Part. pass. w. active meaning, b'^cn 
hasty, quick; hence Yeady for action 
Num. 32, 17. 2) of the emotion or 
Btimng up of the mind, to be eager, 
excited, inf. w. suf. Job 20, 2; to be 
addicted e. g. to feeding Ecc. 2, 25. 
— Hiph. 1) to expedite, speed on Is. 
5, 19. 2) i. q. Qal, to haste Ps. 55, 
9; to flee in haste Is. 28, 16; hence 

rW^in pr. n. m. (haste) 1 Ch. 
4, 4; patron, ^^rann 2 Sam. 21, 18. 

^^ri pr. n. m. (hasty) friend and 
eonncillor of David 2 Sam. 15, 32. 

D^'W^n pr. n. m. (perh. alertness, 
X^Ti) Gen. 46, 23. 

DtiVl pr. n. m. (alert) 1 Cb. 1, 
45; also DOT Gen. 36, 34. 

iV^ I (Qal obs.) akin to rv^, 
to be afraid, terrified, — PI. W. fo 
destroy, whence perh. njn Ps. 74, 
19, but see njn. — Hiph.V'^nn (fut. 
w. suf. WJl'J, see Gram. § 21, 3, Eein.) 
to terrify Hab. 2, 17, but see nnn. 

Il'in n (obs.) to euf^round, en- 
circle; akia to Byr. ^^l*, Arab. IbU. 
to fence in, hence prob. the name of 
the letter n'»n « nTlj. 

ORih (r. ertj) m. 1) f^wwf-rin^ 
j(}en. aa, 1 ^ Ex. 23, 1 1 ; womsaspended 

Digitized by 





npon the breast, as among the 
modem Persians , Cant. 8» 6. 2) pr. 
D. m. (seal) 1 €h. 7« 32. 

CsTn, see njn. 

A|(Tn pr. iL (Grod sees) of a king 
of Syria 1 K. 19, 15; hence n'*^ 
^in hcitse ofHazael i. e. Damascus 
Abu 1,4. 

niM (fut. njrn, apoc. tnp) Mic. 

4, 11, in pause Tn» Job 23, 9), proh. 
akin to Tin, n^, prop, to divide, 
to nmder, whence perh. nm = •^Tlj; 
fig. to discern (cf. xpCvo) » L. 
eemo), to select Ex. 18, 21, hence 
mh 2, rom 2 ; nsed (mostly in poetry) 
for rw'j, to see, to look or gaze at 
Bz. 24, 11; to behold a vision from 
God Hab. 1, 1; w. i to see for, i. e. 
on behalf of Lam. 2, 14; to contem- 
n&ife, w. ^ Is. 47, 18; to perceive Job 
S, 17; fig. to prophesy £z. 10, 8. 

nin Chald. i. q. Heb. mn, to 
8ee Ban* *5, 5; inf. KTrm £zr. 4, 14; 
absol. to behold, look on Dan. 2, 34. 

iTTH (c. rnn, pL trim Lev. 9, 20) 
perh. prop, the divided pari (in the 
body), then (he middle-part or breast 
of animals Ex. 29, 26; r. nm ae nn 
<o cut, divide, 

rnn m. 1) part of mn, seer, 
projSiet 1 Ch. 21, 9. 2) for niim 2, 
covenant Is. 28, 15; but in this sense 
perh. akin to ntn, cf. n^'na. 

irn pr. n. m. (sight) Gen. 22, 22. 

*n Chald. (def. Kjm, pi. c. -ntn) 
m. a vision Dan. 2, 28; appearance 
Ban. 7, 20; r. mn, 

STPJ (c Jirn) m. a vision, e. g. 
•prn oibn? ?iA:« fA^ cir0cnn of a 
nigit-vision Is. 29, 7; esp. a vision 
imrn Ood Lam. 2,9; apropheey Hos. 
12, 11 ; « revelfUion I Sam. 8, 1; r. njn. 

. T(yfn t a vision or revelation, 
only 2 Ch. 9, 29; r. njr. 

niin Chald. sight, view Dan. 4,8. 

tWn (w. -;- firm; r. nm) f. 1) 
ccm«ptcttoti«nc««, wtn yyig horn of 
visibkmss, i, e. conspicuous Dan. 8, 
5; a vision Is. 21, 2. 2) covenant 
Is. 28, 18, see nth 2. 

TTn (obs.) akin to nm, ypj, to 

c%it into, Arab. jL to pierce throtigh, 
transfix; hence rm.^ — Ferh.mimet. 
akin to Sans, chid, a-jilZtD, L. scindo, 
coedo, Or, schneiden, scheiden, E. cut, 
O. E. shide, W. cnwd, cnaiv, GaeL 

bfiJ'^tH pr. n. m. (seen of God) 
1 Ch. 2379. 

n^TH pr. n. m. (n; beholds) Neh. 

■ji^Tn pr. n. m. (yision) 1 K. 15, 18. 

'p'^jn (;, pLniai'^^m) 
m. a vision Job 4, 13; hence a rc- 
velation 2 Sam. 7, 17; Tiw -^a vaCey 
0^ vision Is. 22, 5, i. e. Jerusalem, 
situated on the head of a valley, the 

{ seat and centre of divine revelations, 
comp. Is. 2, 3, Mic. 4, 2, Luke 13, 
33. 34. 

rin (c. rm, pi. D-'ptn) m. prob. 
arrow ^ hence ligldning Zech. 10, 1 ; 

! fully niVp rm flash of voices, thun- 
der-flash Job 28, 26; r. tm. 

■^''Tn m. a boar, smne Prov. 11, 
22; isji wn a boar out of the wood, 
L e. a wild, boar Ps. 80, 14. — Prob. 
ftrom "^m to turn, because swine 
attack w. a wheeling or sideling 
motion (c(. verris obliquum medi- 
taatia ictum, Hor. Carm. HI. 22), 
which perh. explains also the 
origin of X^^^^ ^ perh. akin to 

Digitized by 


r[n ^ 


TTH pr. n. m. (boar) Neh. 10, 21. 
pin (ftit. ptrn) prob. akin to 

V^9 ^'Ji P^'^^ ^^*"» P'^P* ^ ^^*^ 
fast, also intrans. to he bound fast 
Is. 28, 22; to hold fait or cleave to, 
w. a 2 Sam. 18, 9; to be firing per- 
Mstf in doing anything Dent 12, 23. 
Trans, to strengthen Ez. 80, 21; to 
help 2 Ch. 28, 20; intrans. to be 
strong, of a people Judg. 1, 28; to 
he severe f of a famine Gen. 41, 56; 
to be pressing, of a command 2 Sam. 
24, ^\ to be stronger than, w. yo 1 
Sam. 17, 50; prevail over, w. ^9 2 
€h. 8, 3, w. aoc. 1 K. 16, 22; to get 
strong or toeU, to recover Is. 39, 1; 
y^^ PVZ ^^ strong and resolute 
Beat. 31, 23; to be established, of a 
kingdom 2 K. 14, 5; to be obstinate, 
hard, of the heart Ex. 7, 13 ; to press 
upon any one, to urge, w. ^9 Ex. 12, 

33, w. aco. Jer. 20, 7. — PI. p?ri to 
gird, w. two ace. e. g. ^S]^)?^ ^^?^ 
U7. thg girdle I wiU gird him Is. 22, 
21 , w. ace. of part Kah. 2, 2; to make 
strong, fortify, a city 2 Ch. 11, 11; to 
repair, ruins 2 K. 12, 8 ; to heal Ez. 

34, 4; to assist, lit. to strengthen the 
hands Jndg. 9, 24, also without ^ 
Is. 41, 7; w. a^, to harden the heart, 
make obstinate Ex. 4, 21; w. fi'^SD, 
to harden the face, i. e. to be bold, 
impudent Jer. 5, 3; 5^ ^yi ioi *lpJITj 
theg confirm for themselves an evil 
matter, i. e. persist in it Ps. 64, 6. 
— Hiph. p^tm to bind fast, to fasten 
on; w. ^ and a, to make fast the 
hand on, to seize , w. the hand Gen. 

21, 18, also without n; Ex. 4, 4, Deut. 

22, 25, w. i 2 Sam. 15, 6, w. br 
Job 18, 9; w. ace. (poet.) Is. 41, 9. 
Also to retain Ex. 9, 2; to contain 
2 Ch. 4, 5; to obtain Dan. 11, 21; to 
maintain, w. a of thing Job 2, 3; <o 
cleave to, w. by Neh. 10, 80; to make 

strong, w. ace. Ez. 80, 25, also intrans. 
(see Gram. § 53, 2, Bem. 1) fo de- 
come strong Dan. 11, 32; to repair 
a building Nah. S, 14; to htJp, w. ^ 
Ley. 25, 35, w. ace. Dan. 11 , 6. — 
Hith. to be strengthened, confirmed, 
of a new king 2 Ch. 1, 1 ; to strengtJi- 
en oneself Gen. 48, 2; to take 
courage 2 Ch. 15. 8; to shouf oneself 
brave 2 Sam. 10, 12; w. "^srij against 
any one 2 Ch. 13, 7; w. a 2 Sam. 3, 
6 or w. D^ Dan. It), 21 for some one. 

pin (pi. d-^pjn, c. ngtn) a^-. nu, 
npmf. firm, e. g. ai— «pm firm of 
heart, i. e. obstinate Ez. 2, 4; strong 
1 K. 19, 11; w. IP stronger Pa. 35, 
10; violent, of a wind Ex. 10, 19; 
severe, of disease 1 K. 17, 17, of a 
faamine 1 K. 18, 2. 

P.T^ a^'« strong or powerful Ex. 
19, 19, 2 Sam. 3, 1 ; r. pm. 

PI'j! (w. suf. •^ptn) m. tfreyyfA, 
assistance, only Fs. 18, 2; r. pin. 

ptn m. strength, might Ex. 13, 3. 

njJTH f. prop, infln. of ptn(Gram. 
§ 45, 1*, b), the being strong, e. g. 
in^ma when he was strong 2 Ch. 12, 
1; W riptna when the hand was 
strong, overcoming Is. 8, 11; 'irgjns 
in^3 while he is strong in his 
wealth Dan. 11, 2. 

hJ^W t strength, force, Trj^nTi 
by force, violently 1 Sam. 2, 16; 
strengthening, repairing, of a baild- 
ing 2 K. 12, 13; r. pvn, 

T?Tn PJ^' >^ i*^ i^J Btrengtb) 1 
Ch. 8,* 17. 

f^JIPin, Vl^pin pr. n. nu Orn 
strengthens) 2 K. 18, 1. 9. 

iTn (obs.) akin to ^yj, Oliald. 
*iTn, Syr. 9\^ , to turn rwmd, ^ence 
prob. wrj a boar, 'T'tn, ^nt"?- 

Digitized by 






titj nu (w. sat. 'TT], pi. ^"^Ttn w, 
Dagh. impl.) L q. hin 1, a AooX; or 
rinff, which was put into some ani- 
mals' nostrils, and to which a string 
was fastened for leading or taming 
them 3 K. 19, 28; a hook or brooch^ 
part of female toilet Ex. 35, 22« 

ITH m. i. q. nn hoolc^ ring^ only 
pi. D-^WJ Ex. 29, 4 in K'thihh. 

C\Ijn (fut. R^rr; inf. R'fon, 
'bn only in Qen. 20, 6) prop, to faU 
or miM , not to hit the mark, et 
dfiopxavco (see Hiph. Judg. 20, 16); 
of the feet, to misSf i. e. make a false 
step, e. g. Koin Di^a'^a ytf he who 
Aiirrtes uj, his feet misses (comp. our 
adage 'the more haste the worse 
speed') ]^rov. 19, 2; to miss^ not to 
find Prov. 8, 36 (opp. to VGL^ in 
V. 35); Konn fiA*] X\)^ n-TgW and thou 
shaU inspect thy pasture (flock) and 
shaU not miss (anything) Job 5, 24; 
to stn, to fail in one's duty Job 1, 
22; w. T^W to sin a sin Ley. 4, 3; 
w. b against any one Gen. 20, 6; w. 
a of that wherein one sins, whether 
a pew. Gen. 42, 22 or a thing Neh. 
9, 29; w. b$ of the thing respecting 
which one sins Lev. 5, 5, also w. ^ 
Ley. 5, 16; to miss (by sinning), to 
forfeit Proy. 20, 2, comp. Hab. 2, 10; 
«9n "TO; "ia^-j^-rx his oblation 
wMch he hath forfeited Lev. 5, 11, 
ct y. 7. — Pi. Kwn to bear penalty 
for sin, to atone^ w. ace. Gen. 31, 39; 
to make a sin-offering of Lev. 6, 19 ; 
to free or cleanse from «n, of men 
Nimi. 19, 19, Ps. 51, 9, of a dwelling 
Lev. 14, 49 ; w. i? of that respecting 
'vhioh atonement is made Ex. 29, 
56. — Hiph. K^n*J to make a miss 
Of failure y L e. not to hit the mark, 
of a dinger Judg. 20, 16; to cause 
to m Ex. 23, 83; to make sinful^ 

guUfy Deut 24, 4; <o condemn as 
sinful Is. 29, 21. — Hitli. to lose 
oneself t to disappear^ i, e. to miss 
one's way or be lost through 
terror Job 41, 17; to purify one- 
seif by a sacred rite Num. 19, 12. 

Httn (for Kon; w. suf. "^Hon, pi. 
B-^son, o. '«onV. firm -7-) m. l) 
sin^favXt Lev.^ 19, 17; ^ KW rrJi 
it is a sin im anyone, i e. such a 
one is guilty Deut. 15, 9. 2) pwnisk- 
ment of sin, penalty Lam. 8, 89 
(cf. t3t$Bj); r. K^n. 

RlSn (only pL d'«^, w. sut 
»T^on, w. firm -;-) m, a sinner (the 
form implies a hMt of sinning. 
Gram. § 84, 6) Gen. 13, 18 ; or a guilty 
on« 1 K. 1, 21 : r. KUH. 

riRDtl Heb. andOhald.f. l)asin 
Ps. 32, 1. 2) a sin-offering Ps. 40, 7. 

STKOn f. 1) a4j. sinfka Am. 9, 8. 

2) as subst. i. q. nMSH a sin Ex. 34, 7. 

3) penalty for sin Is. 5, 18 ; r. K^. 
rfi$ten Chald. t sUH>ffering Bir. 

6, 17 Q'rL 

r^tSn, once HW Num. 15, 24, 
(c. r«^, w. sut Wijn, osTK^n Ex. 
32, 30, pi. niwfnt o. n^nn, rmn) 
f., masc only in Gen. 4, 7, 1) sin 
(Hn. 4, 7; sinfulness Prov. 14, 34; 
prob. sinner iu Prov. IS, 6; idol, as 
a work or occasion of sin, e. g# the 
calf Deut. 9, 21, cf. HO0. 10, 8; "^ 
r^n water of sin, i, e. used in pu- 
rifying from sin Num. 8, 7. 2) t»n- 
offering Ex. 29, 14; punishment of 
sin Zech. 14. 19 ; r. KW. 

nSlSn Bz. 33, 12, see ion. 

HDD (fut. niarn) akin to 
nsni|3D^, ns^, i) to hew, cut wood 
Deut. 29, 10; to feU trees Jer. 46, 
22. 2) intrans. to be cut, marked 
w. ctUs, hence to be party-coloured, 

Digitized by 





striped, of bed-coverings; part pass. 
ntaon gtriped- cloths or coverings 
Prov. 7, 16. — Pn. to be heum, sculptur- 
ed Ps. 144, 12, comp. on miT. 

rDtan (only pL niaon) f. tapestry, 
prop! party-coloured fabrics, only 
Prov. 7, 16 ; see son 2. 

nfirt (pL D"«Bn, also •j'Wl Ez. 4, 
9; cf. Cbald. "piph) f. wAeo* Ex. 9, 
82; rittn abn /«< o/' wheat Ps. 81, 17; 
man ni^^is abh /a* o/" X:u2tu!3^ of 
wheat Dent. 32, 14 jL e. the rich 
flour or farina of wheat. The sing, 
nijn is gen. wheat as growing in 
the field, the pi. D'^idh as in the grains 
(Gram.§l08,4,Eem. l)Jer.l2, 13; r. 
DSn n. — Prob. akin to aiTOV, Sla- 
vonic tito (com). The r. may be ol?n, 
akin to »3n II referring (as most 
fancy) to the 6r^A<co^<mr of the grain 
and its whUe meal (so in the Teutonic 
and Keltic tongues, e. g. Ger. toeizen, 
E. wheat, W. gwenith, Breton gwin- 
«X or perh. akin to nnn to crush 

or pound, Arab. Ua. to maul, hence 
analogous to L. triticum from tero 
(to bruise or grind); cf. *iao. 

TOH Gen. 20, 6, hibn Ez. 83, 12, 
int c. Qal of fi^on; cf. iSram. § 74, 
Bena. 2 and § 75, Rem. 21, e. 

Wlfln pr. n. m. (perh. warrior, 
r. TOH) 1 Ch. 8, 22. , 

(obs.) akin to nnn, nn^, 


f to cut or dig, fig. to 

eaiplore; Arab. hL to cut in; hence 
pr. n. KO'^on. 

■^ttn Chald. m. a sin, w. suff. 
Tpon Dan. 4, 24 ; r. Kon i. q. Heb. Kan. 

K^^n Chald. same as Heb. 
rwTjn, a sin-offering Ear. 6, 17 

^"^n pr. n. m. (perh. explo- 
ation, r. ogn) Ezr. 2, 42. 

P'WT pr. n. m. (w»verer, r. ten) 
Ezr. 2, 57. 

^?^Pn pr. n. m. (captive, r.rjisn) 
Ezr. 2, 54." 

^LJFI (obs.) akin to *ign, b^, 
Arab. JhL, to be shaky, to wooer; 
hence pr. n. b'^an. 

UOn (fut O-jn;) akin to DMj, 

bnd, Arab. ^»hL, to muzzle an ani- 
mal, to close up, hence to restrain, 
only in "rjb-DwnK J restrain (my- 
self or my anger) towards thee Is. 

. H^~ (^*- ^^^) ^^ *«*^ 
capture Judg. 21,-21, Ps. 10, 9^ hence 
pr. n. WD*<on. 

iUn (obs.) akin to ion, Arab, 
^b*., to wave; hence 

*lttn m. «^oo^ or <w^ la. ii, i ; 
switch, rod Prov. 14, 8. 

tDOn (obs.) i. q. xbr'3, to beat 
or pound i. q. Chald. tVQ to crush, 
to smite in war; hence pr. n. TOWn. 

T\XSn Num. 15, 24, see nitijn. 

'^ni(c. in, pi. D-^^n; r. n;jn -s rrti) 
adj. m., njn (pi. ni^n) f. ali^e^ Uvtng 
Josh. 8, 23, opp. na; very often of 
God as "VT bx everliving Qod Josh. 
3, 10' (cf. Ps. 106, 28); also tJ-^rlbt 
d-i^ Jer. 10, 10 (cf. 1 Thess. 1,9)"; 
quickening or reviving, prob. in 
n^n n?^ at quickening time, i. e. 
either nature's reviving in the spring, 
or a child's quickening in the womb 
Gen. 18, 10 and 2 K. 4, 16; frtsk, 
uncooked, of flesh 1 Sam. 2, 15, 
raw Lev. 13, 14; living i. e. fresh, 
of a plant Ps. 58, 10; livif^ i. e. 
running, of water Gen. 26, 19 (cf. 
Arab. Cm*I| #UJ| dead water, i. e. 

Digitized by 





ttagnant); pL D*f^n ih€ living, men 
Ecc. 4, 2; D'^*n y'T^ ^ond of the 
UpWfft opp. blK^ Ps. 27, 13, alBO 
w. art. tf^fTrt '^ Ps. 1 42, 6. 2) subst. 
life, Lev/ 25, 36 rpm *vn life of 
ihy brother^ but in tbis sense mostly 
in the plur. 0*^*11 (Grain. § 108, 2, o) 
Gen. 2, 7; "«r;i /or life! a form of 
salutation like our long life to you! 
B L. scdve! 1 Sam. 25, 6. 3) concr. 
he who lives or remains; e. g. 'iMa 
''rt i0el? to (or ofy the living one 
Gen. 16, 14. 4) before tbe noun (for 
emphasis) in words of an oath, as 
tiT'Hs "^ living is God, i. e. as €hi 
Uoeth! 2 Sam. 2, 27; "^jhi; "^n a« the 
Lord Ivoeth! Jer. 44, 26 j also ^n 
lTj>rj Jndg. 8, 19; sometimes it 
occurs thus in the o. state, ?prt^K ^ 
by the Hfe of th^ Ood i. e. as thy 
God Uoeth! Am. 8, 14; where •jj'^^ -in 
means as the worship or way (of. o^c 
iicts 9, 2) lives! i. e. by its sanction. 

^ n Gen. 8, 82 perf. 8 nng. of 
». '»?J, Gram. § 76, 2, g, 

**n Ohald. (def. Kjn, pL p^n) a^j. 
m. o^toe, livnt^ Dan. 4, 31 ; pi. l^)n 
the living Dan. 2, 80; also as subst. 
Ufe Dan. 7, 12. 

5HtJ pr. n. m. (God liveth) 1 K. 

16, 34. 

rrrfl (r. ^n) t prob. something 
involved, ingenious^ hence tricA; or 
tnfti^ice Dan. 8, 28; a riddle 1 K. 
10, 1; poetic saying^ song Ps. 49,, 5, 
Hab. 2, 6; like W^, a jprovcrft, 
maxim Proy. 1, 6; a parable Ez. 

17, 2; oracle, vi9ton Kum. 12, 8. 

I I 'I I I (for which Ti occurs in 

T T 

Gen. 5, 5; and tv^t} stands for 3 fem. 
npTjTi in Ex. 1, 16) i. q. mtj, fo Kvc, 
htj exist, akin to rr*i; w. ace. of 
time (kn. 5, 5; w. a of place (i^) 
Lam. 4, 20, of the means 2 K. 4, 7; 
w. b$ of what supports life Gen. 

27, 40$ to Hve again J6b 14, 14; to 
live afresh, get well Gen. 20, 7; w. 
yo of what one recovers from 2 K. 
1, 2; to revive Gen. 45, 27, also 
Judg. 15, 19. — Pi. n«n to cause to 
live, to make alive Job 33, 4; w. 
9^t in ace. and y^ of the male, to 
quicken seed, i. e. to become preg- 
nant Gen. 19, 32, comp. €ten. 7, 8; 
to quicken, of com Hos. 14, 8; to 
make lively or prosperous Hab. 8, 2; 
to save alive, let live Qtea. 12, 12; 
to bring to life again 1 Sam. 2, 6; 
to refresh Ps. 85, 7; fig. to revive 
i. e. to rebuild, repair a city 1 Ch. 11, 
8. — HIph. njnii nearly as in Pi'el, 
to keep alive Gen. 6, 19; to save 
life Gen. 47, 25; uA nS-^nni for to 
save life for you Gen. 45, 7. 

HTl n (obs.) i. q. nin n, to 

T T 1 T r — » 

coil up, to enclose, collect; hence 
perh. rtjn 4. 

JT^n or tiCri Chald. (imp. 
''•^) L q.'Heb. rnn,* to /we Dan. 2, 
4."— Aph. KTTK '(for timQ, part. 
KITO, tojpre«ert?« alive (opp. to iag) 
Dan. 5, 19. 

Jl^n adj. m., rm (pL ni^^n) £, 
lively, vigorous Ex. 1, 19; r. n;ni. 

n^n (c. n«n, "iniH Gen. 1, 24, 
(jhram. § 90, 3, b, an old form chiefly 
used in poetry Ps. 50, 10; w. suf. 
•injn) f. 1) vitality, hence Hfe ■* 
tlB^, and like it applied to natural 
appetite, e. g. njri vAq to satisfy ani- 
mal craving Job 28, 39; ^ nm the 
life (i. e. vigour) of thy hand Is. 57, 
10. 2) animal, beast Lev. 11, 47; 
prop, living thing (cf. Cwov) ; hence, 
collect, animals in the widest sense, 
animal kingdom Lev. 11, 46; qua- 
drupeds, opp. to birds, reptiles Gen. 
1, 30; wild beasts, opp. to tame ani- 
mals Gen. 1, 25, more fiilly n^n 

Digitized by 





^Tf^ w^ heagU Ex. 23, 11; n?n 
nj5 beast of the reeds, i. e. crocodile 
Ps. 68, 31; n^'J njn rat;enm<9 6«i«* 
Gen. 37, 20. 3) livinff creature, an 
angelic being £z. 1, 5 (cf. Co>a, Bev. 
4, 6). 4) a 5afu2 o^ men, a troop 2 
8»m. 23, 11. 18 (see Mjn H) « njTTQ in 
V. 16; a^opfe, only in in^-SQ©; ipnjn 
Ps. 68, 11 thy people hofee dweU 
therein; Ps. 74, 19 WW n*ni inn'bJS 
TJJin ^w fkrf thy turtle-dove to the 
troop of eagerness L e. to the eager 
or Tiolent troop, or perh. better de- 
liver not to a mid beast the life of 
iky turtle-dave, n?ri standing for rm 
(see Gram. § 80, Bern. 2, a); r. n^ L 

IXyVi Chald. (def. Kn'J'^n, wjiitt, 
0. nW; pL 1J"t!, def. WjJ^^n) tan 
animal, a beast (i. q. Heb. I*pn), 
Dan. 4, 12; K-ja nw (« Heb. n?n 
JTTi^n) collect fccoste o/" the field 
Dan. 4, 20. — Prob. Kn'»n fcco*^, 
x^To;,'L.oe<t(9, eah4«, cahdus, perh. 
G. Afof jjre, W. cath, E. caf , are all akin. 

M*n (r. rnn I) f. /t/e, only in 
W*n r^a^e widowhood of life i. e. 
widowed-life 2 Sam. 20, 3. 

_M akin to rwj I to live, but 
only in "^ Gen. 3, 22, and f. 
Ex. 1, 16; see "^n n. Hence 

0*^^11 m. pL (see Gram. § 108, 
2, a) life, as a state Gen. 3, 14, as 
duration Ps. 63, 5; fig, livelihood 
Frov. 27, 27; see 'm 2. 

^ Jj, see inn, hence 

bTl, alsobll 2K. 18, 17, Job 20, 18, 
Is. 36, 2 (c. i'TJ; pi. Cbjn, w. saf. 
CipWr) m. 1) power or mightZeoh, 4, 
6; then like ns applied poet, to the 
vigor of vegetable life, strefigfh, prO' 
duce, of a tree Joel 2. 22, cf. tils 

Job 31, 39; Wi rm to make i. e. , , , , ._ ^ 

pui forth (Ghram. p. 124, Note*) I for'-gn, as iTHft » yb^, w « D^ 

IHWcr, Jo migUily Ps. 80, 14; nc^ 
i'^n mighty men, heroes 2 Sam. il, 

16, also b-^n *^» 2 Sam. 2, 7. 2) fig. 
riches, wealth Gen. 34, 29; W] ITO? 
fo make wealth, get riches Deiat. 's, 

17, Buth 4, 11. 3) force for war, 
hence an army 1 K. 20, 25; lij 
i-Min captain of the host 2 Sam. 
24, 2; i-jn *^3a Dent. 3, 18 soldiers. 
4) in a moral sense, hofiesty, vitiue, 
worth, i^n H^pK honest men Ex. 18, 
21; hyi ntfK the woman of worth 
Bnth 8, 11,'prov. 31, 10; Vjn— ^ 
a person of int^frity i K. 1,''52; 
r. Wt. 

bTt Chald. (c. Vfn, w. sut i^^-^n) 
m. strength Dan. 3, 4; /brc« for war, 
host or army Dan. 3, 20. 

bTI, bn (Obad, V. 20) m. L q. 
Vri, 1) host, army 2 K. 18, 17; 
in Ps. 10, 10 (Q'ri) d^s bn Aosi 
of afflicted ones, i. e. a wretohed 
rabble, but the E?thlbh S«<sb»5 is 
better, see ^isjn. 2) fortificatioH, 
bulwark, rampart or moat (cf. vrs) 
2 Sam. 20, 16; r. im. 

5*in m. pain, pang , esp. of par- 
turition, always w. mM^ Ps. 48, 7; 
trembling, terror Ex. 15, 14^ r. Wu 

TryT) (r. Vin) f. a writhing, pain, 
only Job 6, 10. 

tirn t i. q. Wi 2, jfmijTf*, ftM*- 

fcorA; Ps. 48, 14, where many prefer 
to read Tifm her bulwark. 

Db'^R, Dfcjbn pr. n. (perh. for 
d? b^n people^s fort) of a city mear 
the Euphrates 2 Sam. 10, 16, 17. 

\?,'^ pr. n. (perh. fortress) of a 
Levitical city in Judah 1 Oh. 6, 43; 
caUed ^h in Josh. 21, 15. 

I'M (another form for )n, or perh. 

Digitized by 





VL grace, heaufy, only in Job 41, 4; 

yrj m. i. q. "pn, a iirafl, par^y- 
ioa/?£z. 13, 10. Hence 

^iSTTI adj. m., hfiat'Ti t ou^«r 
£z. 10, 5; civU as opp. to sacred, 
as not being within the precincts of 
the Temple 1 Ch. 26, 29. 'f^mh <m 
the outside 1 K. 6, 29. 

pTJ, rarely pH Prov. 17, 23 (w. 
«if. ij3nn Ps. 35, 13, also '»prj Job 
19, 27} m. bosom, of a person Lam. 
2, 12} p^ i:^ to lie in the bosom, 
as a wife in her husband's 1 K. 1, 
2, as a child in its mother's 1 K. 3, 
20; ngrri nmthe wife of thy bosom, 
1 e. thy loved wife Deut. 13, 7 ; dM 
pT| b« Jer. 32, 18, p^ in a-cn 
Ps. 79, 12, to repay or return into 
(fte bosom i. e. to requite. Pig. breaxt, 
Mtfui Job 19, 27. 2) bosom, of a 
gannent Ex. 4, 6; pna ^intp a pre- 
sent in the bosom, i. e. given secretly 
Ptoy. 21, 14. 3) bosom, of a chariot, 
i e. the inside or the enclosed part 
lK.22,d5, of an altar i. e. the hollow 
where the fire burnt Ez. 43, 13. 

rP'17 PJ^' i^ m. (nobility) Gen. 
W, Ij r. "ny 2. 

tflTrt 1 K. 7, 40, see trrri, trm. 

^SVT] pr. n, m. (also ttvr^n and 
Mn, prob. noble) Stram, king of 
lyre, friend of Solomon 1 K. 7, 40. 

trn L q. «>in, to hasten, only 
imper. h^ in K'thibh of Ps. 71, 12 ; 

wf] m. haste, nsed only as adv. 
histify, speedily, only Ps. 90, 10. 

h?n f. perh. tor WT a wild beast 
(etx^TOc) in Ps. 74, 19; but see hjn. 

vOi^ Gen. 1, 24 c. state of hjn 
w. i J parag. (Gram. § 90, 8, b). 

Tpl (pi. c. •'IT; r. "tjan) m. perlu 
a man-trap, to catch one by the foot,, 
only in Hos. 6, 9, as some take it} 
but see txsn, 

!]n (w. suf. "W; r. ^>J) prob. 
for "^ (Arab. .^U^, Syr. iii«» , cC 
m for nstn) m. prop, what tastes 
or masticates food, the g^ums, palate^ 
inside of the mouth (cf. c*)rripV3); 
thus i^sn l^na in the midst of his 
mouth Job 20, 13, comp. Hos. 8, 1; 
palate, as organ of taste Job 12, 11, 
as organ of speech Prov. 8, 7; in 
Oant. 7, 9 and in Proy. 5, 8 th» 
hissing mouth may be meant. 

M-j" to wait for, w. i Is. 30, 
18 ib *^3in-b^ all waiting for h^n 
(Gram. § 116, 1). — Pi. ran to wait 
for, w. ace. Job 32, 4, w. ^ Is. 8, 
17; to tarry 2 K. 7, 9; to delay 
2 E. 9, 3; w. ^ and inf. to wait in 
order <o Is. 30, 18; prob. '^sn in Hos* 
6, 9 stands as infin. for niisn (see 
Gram. § 75, Bem. 17), as n"jr (Ez, 
21, 15) for n-nn, and ttJO (Job 10, 
16) for tyivty, but see Tp. 

nSH (r. "^h) f. prob. i. q. "rf^, prop. 
tcuting, hence a bait, a hook or 
angle w. a bait, nan Tp^WfJ to cast 
the hook Is. 19, 8; rwia ?JC« fo draw 
out w. a hook Job 40, 25. 

•"•SH Hos. 6, 9 inf. Pi. of han, for 
nisn, Gram. § 75, Bem. 17. 

riySn pr. n. (dusky) of a hill 
near the desert of Ziph 1 Sam. 23, 
19; r. i?n. 

U^'Sn Chald. adj. m. wise Dan. 
2, 21; esp. a wise man, a magian 
or magician Dan. 2, 12; r. 05n. 

IjDn (obs.) perh. akin to pin, 
to seize; hence perh. tp. 

y^n (obs.) perh. akin to bns^ 

Digitized by 





m. (in; has sad- 

t|in, to he black or dark; fig. fo 
sadden; cf. *i'Tp. Hence 

n^bsn pr. iL 
dened) Neh. 1, 1. 

^''^SH (c. '^W?? "^^ V- Pft"^«» 
Oram. * § 90, 3, a) adj. m. prob. 
darkling, of the eyes as affected by 
drinking, only in Gen. 49, 12; r. bsn. 

MbbSn f, prob. a trotibling, 
darkening, of the eyes as affected 
by drink, only Prov. 23, 29; r. iatj. 

Upn (fat. Qsn;) to be toise, to 
gain wisdom Proy. 6, 6 ; to gain by 
wisdom, w. ace. Ecc. 2, 19. — Pi. to 
make wise, teach Job 35, 11. — Pa. 
to 6c mcwfeti^wc Prov. 30,24; to be weU 
trained, of a magician Ps. 58, 6. — 
Hiph. 0*^317(1 to make wise, part. f. 
Ps. 19, S. -^ Hith. to think oneself 
wise Bcc. 7, 16; to «A«r oneself 
wise, w. i Ex. 1, 10. -^ Prob. akin 
to Ujn tasting, r. TpH which see; 
comp. Q^O. 

DDn Chald. (obs.) L q. Heb. 
13^ to be wise, whence 

D5H (c. oan, pi. d*^t??n) adj. m., 
rraan (pL wo?n) f. iMse ((Jo<p60i 
in/eZ^t^en^. Is. 3, 8; n^*D3n toise of 
• AeoH Ex. 28, 3 ; understandittg Dent. 
32, 6 ; discreet 2 Sam. 13, 3 ; cunning 
Job 5, 13. Often coupled w. "jin; 
Deut. 4, 8; opp. to ^55 Dent. 32, 6, 
^■•Ig Prov. 10, 14, iw Prov. 10, 1. 
PI. O'njsn magicians Gen. 41, 8. 

tmSn (pi. m'aan Prov. 24, 7) f. 
wisdom (ao^ia), as sXriZ^ in an art 
Ex. 28, 3 ; as proficiency in learning 
Dan. 1| 17; as the principle of true 
religion, piety Job 28, 28 ; or as an 
attribnte of God Job 12, 13; in 
later nsage, science or knowledge Dan. 
1, 17; r. dsij. 

nain Ohald. (def. W^arj) f. 

wisdom, of GU)d Dan. 2, 20, of man 
Dan. 2, 30. 

■Oi^in pr. n. m. (wise) 1 Ch. 
11, 11. 

fiilDin pL f. of n^Di; (as plur. in 
Prov. 24, 7, but sing, in Prov. 9, 1) 
wisdom Ps. 49, 4, prop, wisdoms to 
match the nidiinsn in parallel clause; 
wisdom being in these passages per- 
sonified, the usage may be poetic, 
like the plur. excellenti® , Oram. § 
108, 2. 

riiT<2in t wisdom, only Prov. 14^ 
1; prob. pi. like niaan, which see. 

iDn i. q. "^afj, Arab. Jci, to 

if^re, only in Job 19, 3 in some 

bn 2 Sam. 20, 15, see Vtu 
bn m. unconsecration, unholiness, 
as opp. to icrTJp Lev. 10, 10; common 
use, as opp. to private Ez. 48, 15; 
r. bbn n. 

iS^n I (obs.) perh. akin to 
i^n n, to be sullied or rusty; hence 

i^^n n 1. q. rtni, to 6e sick, 
only in 2 Ch. 16, 12 'T'hy'^z fitVp!] 
and he (Asa) became diseased in his 
feet^see Gram. § 75, Bern. 22. 

n^^bn f. 1) a soiling or rtui, on 
a copper pot Ez. 24, 6. 2) pr. a. t 
(sickly) 1 Ch. 4, 5. 

D'^fc^bn m. pi. necklaces Can. 7, 2: 
see "^^n. 

D^bn 2 Sam. 10, 17, see dWi, 

J yjl I (obs.) perh. to stick on 
or smear over, hence to be sticky, 
greasy, fat; perh. akin to aa^, r)V^ 
(aXe{(p(o, XtiroOf hence perh. a^ 

Digitized by 




r^l I n (obs.) perh. akin to 
fih I, to be white; hence 
sbn (w. suf. "^nbn, c. abn Ex. 23, 

19, Gram. § 93, 4) m. mUk, fresh 
milk. Gen. 18, 8, opp. to ^xin sour 
thickened mUk; r. ain IL 


Sbrt, also Sbll Is. 34, 6 (w. suf. 

•iaVn,' pi. «in* c. ■•abri) m. i) /af- 
n««», fat, of victims Lev. 3, 3, of man 
Judg. 3, 22 ; ^g.ihe best part (dir otp^i^ ) 
Num. 18, 30, y^ aSn fat of the 
land, i. e. its best fruits Gen. 45, 18 ; 
d-'ari ain Ps. 147, 14 fat of wheat, 
i. e. its best flour or farina: also 
non rrf-'te abn fat of kidneys (es- 
sence) of wheat Deut. 32, 14. PI. 
pieces of fat or fat parts Lev. 8, 26. 
2} pr. n. m. (fSatness) 2 Sam. 23, 29; 
but "iVn in 1 Ch. 11, 30 and ''^in in 
1 Ch. 27, 15. 

Hbn Is. 34, 6, see ain, 

ilS'^n pr. n. (fatness) a city in 
Aaber Judg. 1, 31. 

■pmin pr. tu (prob. fruitful) of a 
city of Syria Ez. 27, 18, Aleppo; or 
else the village Clielbon, about 9 
miles north of Damascus, stiU noted 
for its vintage; r. a^n L 

nSSbn f. galbanum, iaK^a'i'r\, 
Syr. I^Sm, a gum of strong odor 
Ex. 30, 34. — Perh. from ain I. 

iVr 1 I (obs.) perh. to hide (like 
rts), hence nin. Cf. Talm. l^n to hide, 

I vTl n (obs.) akin to Syr. 
I^«, to dig; hence ^iVn, tvi^X^, 

X^n pr. n. m. (perh. conceahnent, 
r. "t^Iq 1 Ch. 11, 30; but ^i^n in 
1 Ch.'27, 15, ain in 2 Sam. 23, 29. 

^brt (w. suf. "i^n; r. *»in I) m. 
perh. prop, hidden or tnd^ite ftm«, 

209 nVi 

T T 

hence 1) duration, life, age (aloiv) 
Ps. 89, 48. 2) tAe world, nbrj ■«aw^ 
inAa2)ffan^9 o/* the world Ps. 49, 2, 
comp. O^t? Ecc. 3, 11 and alii>v 
Heb. 11, 3; Ps. 17, 14 ^\nq O'^na 
men of the world i. e. worldly men, 
comp. the use ofx69|xocinJohnl5, 19. 
ibn m. mx>le, prop, digger (r. 
nbn n) Lev. 11, 29: cf. n'jBTBn. 

rnbn pr. n. f. (mole, r. lin II; 
cf. Taim. m^!in weasel) Suldah, a 
prophetess 2 K. 22, 14. 

*^^r^ pr. n. m. (long-lived or 
worldly) 1 Ch. 27, 15. 

n Vn I (fut. apoc. in;: 2 K. 
1, 2, inf. niin) i. q. Kin n, perh. 
akin to ^in 2, ^oXdo), to ^ZocA^n, 
retor; hence to be weak or feeble 
Judg. 16, 7; fo 6c sick or iff Gen. 
48, 1; w. ace. of the part affected, 
''''i?"?"*^ *^V0 (Sept. Iir6v7)(je xou; 
TuoSa^ auToO)^ suffered in his feet 
1 K. 15, 23; w. ace. of the disease 
(cf. voseTv viffov) 2 K. 13, 14, comp. 
Cant. 2, 5 ; nbin n^'j a sore or pain- 
ful evil Ecc. 5, 12; to feel pain, 
from a blow Prov. 28, 36; hence 
fig. to feel hurt or grieved for, w. 
i? 1 Sam. 22, 8. — Nipb. nim to 
become weak, exhausted Ze;r, 12, 13; 
to become sick Dan. 8, 27; part. f. 
ninj nsg grievous wound Jer. 14, 
17, pi. nHina the diseased Ez. 34, 4; 
to 6c pained, grieved, w. b? Am. 6, 
6. — Pi. to mafte sick or iff Deut. 
29, 21, prob. Ps. 77, 11 K'^n "^Tfhn to 
sicken me is this i. e. this is my grief, 

— Pu. to be made weak Is. 14, 10. 

— Hiph. nbnn (but "^inn in Is. 53, 
10, see Gram. § 76, Bem. 17) to make 
ill, to afflict Is. 63, 10; used adver- 

. bially (Gram. § 142, Eem. 1), e. g. 
jpisn "^niinn I Juive made painful 
to smite thee i. e. have smitten thee 

Digitized by 





grievously Mic. 6, 13; to become 
sick (prop, to contract or show 
sickness, Gram. § 53, 2, Bern.) Hos. 
7, 5; fig. to sicken, make sad Prov. 
13, 12. — Hoph. rbm to be hurt, 
wounded, l K. 22, 34.' — Hitb. to 
make oneself ill 2 Sam. 13, 2; to 
give oneself oui to be HI, to pretend 
iUness 2 Sam. 13, 5 (Gram. § 54, 3). 


T T 

n (Qal obs.) perh. akin 

^ P^0» ^T^^eto, to smoothe, to stroke, 
^ Pi. (imper. apoc. in 1 K. 13, 6) 
to flatter or court, always w. *<3D of 
the pers. Job 11, 19; to supplicate 
Ex. 32, 11. 


T T 

j m (obs.) akin to Syr. 
^, Arab.^^lL, to be sweet, comely, 
fl^. to adorn,' hence *^\k 

fl^^ (c. r\hn, pL nlin) f. a cake 
2 Sam. 6, 19; esp. sacrificial cake 
Lev. 8, 26; so called prob. for the 
round form (comp. •^3S); r. i^nlV. 

^^l^n (pi. ri'io^n; r. aini) m. a 
dream Gen. 20, 3; fig. a fancy or 
foUy, trifle Ecc. 5, 6. 

pin pr. n. (perh. strong-hold, r. 
b^n 4) of a city in Moab Jer. 48, 21 ; 
of a Levitical city in Judah Josh. 
15, 51; called also 'j^'^n 1 Oh. 6, 43. 

■jftn (pi. o-'ain Joel 2, 9, niain 
Bz. 40, 16) com. gend. prop, hole (for 
light), a window Josh. 2, 1 8 ; •|ii)lTri 1T^ 
through (L e. out of) the window 
Gen. 26, 8; r. ttnL 

y^ pr, n. Eelon father of Eliab, 
Kom. 1, 9. 

''5*l^n na. perh. window-work Jer. 
22, 14, an old plur. for D*^3':in i^n- 
dows (see Gram. § 87, 1, c); r. ttnL 

C|lbt3 m. a passing by or forsaking, 
only in Prov. 31, 8 tf^n ija children 
of desertion i. e. orphans; r. C|bn L 

rnC^bn f . overthrow or de/W Ex. 
32, 18; r. t\r\, 

Ti^n Ps. 77, 11 prob. inf: PL of 
thn I, w. 1 p. sing, suffix. 

n5n pr. n. of a province of 
Assyria, whither a part of the ten 
tribes were transported 2 K. 17, 6; 
prob. KaXaxT)VTQ (Strabo XVI, l) on 
the Armenian border, perh. same as 
nb3 in Gen. 10, 11. 

b^nbn pr. n. (perh. full of holes, 
r. ibn I) of a city in Judah , now 
Sulhul, near Hebron Josh. 15, 58. 

»^5nbn f. trembling Nah. 2, 11 ; 
anguish Is. 21, 3; reduplicated or 
Pilp. form from r. i^n, comp. Hith- 
palp, bnbnnn. 

LJ^M (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
ybn n, to draw out, hence perh. to 
press for information; used only in 
— Hiph. to ascertain, only in I K. 20, 
i 33 (where the Vulg. has rapuerunt 
verbum), where si0^n?5 is for 'JO'^^n^, 
as pa'T^ for ^p'^aw in 1 SanJ 14, 
22, see Gram. § 52, Eem. 4. 

^<^, (pl. B-^iri for Q^'^l^n, Gram. 
§ 93, Eem. 6) m. 1) ornament, neck- 
lace Cant 7, 2; r. f^t} HI. 2) pr. n. 
(ornament) of a city in Asher Josh. 
19, 25. 

<^, (in pause "Vn, w. suf. i-'in, pL 
d'^'^^rp m. prostration, suffering or 
sickness Dent. 7, 15; grief Ecc 5, 
1 6, where i-^bti is perh. for ft *»Vn ; toil, 
calamity Ecc. 6, 2; r. hbn I. 

*X?1 ^' i- q- ^'^^y trinket, orna- 
ment, only Hos. 2, 15. 

b'^bn I (r. h\n I; pl. d*Vt!) m. 
flute or pipe Is. 5, 12 (cf. n^-»rp); 
hence the denom. vetb. b^ V to pipe^ 
play on the flute, 

b'bn n (r. \bn H) a<y. m. unam- 

Digitized by 





8eerated,open,commonorprofane;BkLBo ! 
subst. desecration^ hence w. h— loc. 
nV^, rtbn CMil'61) fo or for pro- 
fanaJtion or abhorrence (Gram. § 90, 
2) as exclamation of aversion (Sept. 
fjL^ 7ivoiTO, Vvdg.ofcfiif/) God forbid! 
far be UI e. g. rvi^n fiA ^Y)^ ^^' 
minaiion! thou shall not die 1 Sam. 
20, 2; w. b of pers. and ")« w. inf. as 
in wn 'nn'ns niz::;^ ?A rtin /ar fcc it 
/or t^ ^0 acf like this thing Gen. 18, 
25 ; also w. dX and finite verb, e. g. 
pnn3»-d» ^ ^V^^*? abhorrence to 
mef if I justify, Job 27, 5; used ab- 
solutely 1 Sam. 14, 45; w. )'Q of pers. 
5ecafi8e of whom the dread or aver- 
sion is felt, e. g. rrlTJI^ *^i ^^Yi 
rmsf^'^ profanation (i. e. a curse) 
to me fromthe Lordlif I do 1 Sam. 
24, 7. In 1 Sam. 20, 9, the meaning 
is somewhat modified a profanation 
(i.e.forme)fo thee (i.e. for thy sake) 
ihatiflknew — I would not tell. 

nS^bn f. 1) a change i. e. a suit 
of clothes (d'^'ija) 2 K. 6, 5; also 
-without d'^'ija Judg. 14, 19. 2) change 
of life, amendment Pa. 55, 20. 3) a 
military term, exchange of soldiers, 
T®''^ my relief Job 14, 14; mB-^bn 
'^'sy VGTi changes and a host are with 
mc, i. e. a host constantly relieved 
or renewed, one foe taking another's 
place in succession Job 10, 17 ; WB*^bri 
as adv. by changes or relays, alter' 
nately l K. 5, 28 ; r. t)in L 

nS'^brt f. prop, a stripping off, 
from the bodies of the slain, spoil 
or booty Judg. 14, 19; r. ybn H. 


(obs.) i q. Arab. .iUa-, to 

be black, gloomy, fig. to be unhappy, 
wretched; hence 

llbH (found only w. M— loc. 

ngin* Ps. lo, s, in pause robn Ps. 
10,* 14) m. wretchedness, Ps. 10, 8, 

«br» ^«?brt 1*^3'^? his eyes secretly 
look out for wretchedness, L e. for an 
opportunity to oppress the poor; as 
concr. wretched one (Sept. 6 ict<i>x^C) 
Ps. 10, 14, 

nSbn, see "nin. 

''Sbn prob. for ''Sin (from "^bn 
w. adj. ending ''-:-, Gram. § 86, 2, 5) 
adj. m. only in pi. Q^KSbti the poor, 
the toiling ones (Sept. ol ire><TjTe;), 
only Ps. 10, 10 in K'tjiibh, see 

^^n I akin to iin, to turn or 

- T 

move round, hence to bore through, 
to perfwaie (w. a revolving motion, 
cf. ttn IV), cf. b-'bn, -jibn, bbn i, 
nirnj; fig. to writhe, to be pained (ci. 
bin 2) e. g. Wn ^A my heart writhes 
or aches Ps. 109, 22. — Pi. bin fo 
«fa6 Ez. 28, 9. — Po. bVn to pierce 
or i4H>un(2 Job 26, 13, part t^bbino 
Is. 51, 9. — Pu. bbn to be stabbed 
Bz. 32, 26. — Po*al.\Gram. § 55, 1). 
part bbho pierced Is. 53, 6. — As 
some think, this root bbn I is really 
one w. b^in (which see and the 4 here 
following), since the various senses 
may be all unfolded from the idea 
of turning round (as a borer), then 
to pierce, then to open, then to b^n; 
comp. Gesenii Thesaurus Ling. Heb. 

^V) I n (Qal obs.) to be loose 
(of what was bound), to be free, then 
to be common, unconsecrated or pro- 
fane, — NIph. bm (for bnj, cf. Gram. 
§ 67, Bem. 5 ; inf. bnn, like Dsrr; fut 
bo;;, bnn) to be umhciUnoed, defiledlj&y. 
21, 4. — Pi. to undo, dissolve a co- 
venant Ps. 55, 21; to make common, 
of a vineyard (before held to be 
hallowed) Deut 20, 6; tomakepubUc, 
i, e. to prostitute, of a daughter Lev. 
19, 29; to profane or desecrate the 

Digitized by 





priests Is. 43, 28, the temple Mai. 2, 
11, the sabbath Ex. 31, 14, the divine 
name Lev. 19, 12; to pollute '^l'^ the 
marriage-hed Gen. 49, 4; }nxb Vm 
to undo (i.e. overthrow) to the ground 
Ps. 74, 7. Cf. bh, bbn 2, Wn. — 
Pu. to he desecrated, Ez. 36, 22. — 
Hiph. (fut. bn^ bnx) fo foosc, undo 
or break (one^s word) Num. 30, 3; to 
profane (the divine name) Ez. 39, 7. 


VI I m (Qal obs.) prob. i. q. 
ttn n, prop, to set loose or free, to 
open up (cf. Chald. «'j^ to foo«c, fo 
begin). — Hiph. inn (fat. in;, apoc. 
bn;) to fre^n, (Jen. 9, 20, also w. 
inf. (Jen. 10, 8 ni'^i im he began 
to be etc. In Hos. 8, 10 ^r^^ stands 
perh. for ^li^^rn*! that they may wait 
(i. e. ccosc) /rom #Ae burden (KtBBO) ; 
bro Lev. 21, 9 is for imshe begins. 
— Hoph. in>in to fcc 6c^un Gen. 4, 
26. Deriv. nintn. 


' ^n IV (obs.) 1. q. hm, to turn 
roundy to revolve; hence n^n. 

^Z** ^ denom. from i'»bn I a 
flute, hence part. Wn a piper Ps. 
87, 7. — PI. (part''iinQ) to pipe, 
to play on the Wn i K. 1, 40. 

bbn (c. bin, pi. d^^iin) m. l) subst. 
one thrust through Job 24, 12; in 
genera], dispatched, slain. Dent. 21, 
1 ; r. ibn I. 2) adj. m. nWn f. un- 
clean, unholy "Ez, 21, 30, then defiled, 
a prostitute, Lev. 21, 7; r. Wn II. 

D'^bbh Ps. 87, 7. see r. iin V. 


^ I (fdt. tfin?) prob. akin 
to Bb» (n - w, p. 191), ni^ n, to fcc 
8a/« and «(mnd^ hence 1) to &e s^ron^ 
Job 39, 4. 2) to be at ease or rest, hence 
to 5feQ>, esp. to dream Gen. 37, 5 ; opp. 
*o VTT!' — Hiph. 1) to nto/rc ti?e^ or 
strong Ifl. 38, 16. 2) to caww to drcaw 

Jer. 29, 8. — • Cf. Sans, svap (to rest o\ 
sleep),S7rvo;(akin to Si:Tio;),lvuirvtov, 
L. somnus (=» sompnus), somnium. 


_ n (obs.) perh. akin to 

abn, to be white; hence perh. n^^aifT. 

Dbri Chald. (def. Koin, pi. I'nabn) a 

dream Dan. 2, 4. Also a Heb. pr. n. m. 

(strength) Zech. 6, 14, but *»"n^ in v. 10. 

roi^Afrt f. white of egg, albwnen 
(r. tbn n), or perh. purslain (so the 
Syriac), only in Job 6, 6 M^^ l"^ 
slime of albumen, or perh. purslain- 
broth, said to be very insipid. 

ID'^abrt (c tmAn Deut. 32,13)in. 
hard stone, flint Job 28, 9 ; fully "»« 
b^oinn the flint-rock, perh. quarti 
Deut. 8, 15. • — Prob. from an obs. 
r. dbn = tkn I (to strike) w. format 
ending von-^ (see on letter ©); c£ 
oar flint, prob. akin to irXi^TTca, L. 
plango, fligo. 

pn pr. n. m. (strong, r. bvi) 
Num. 1, 9. 

C]^n I (ftit. t^rr) 1) to glide 
or move o/bn^ Job 4, 15; to pass 
away, of rain Cant. 2, 11; to pass 
on, DX^ ^^^] ^^ thou shaUpass 
on from there 1 Sam. 10, 3 ; to pass 
away, perish Is. 2, 18, perh. of 
flowers, to change or U7i^AerPs.90}5; 
to |7as8 beyond (a law) i. e. to ^ran9- 
gress Is. 24, 5. 2) to |)aw f&roM^i^, 
hence to transfix or pierce Jadg. 5, 
26, comp. Job 20, 24; to sprottt forUi 
as a plant, prob. in Ps. 90, 5; to 
move or rtw^ on, of the wind Is. 21, 
1, of a stream Is. 8, 8; to nian^ on, 
assail Job 11, 10, to o/^er Hab.l.ll, 
Ps. 102, 27. — Pi. to put atpoy, to 
change, as garments Gen. 41, 14. — 
Hiph. to change, clothes Gen. 35, 2; to 
substitute la. 9, 9; to revive, of a tree 
Job 14, 7; w. rys, to renew strength 

Digitized by 





fia, 40, 31; also without tfs Job 29, 
5feO to recover elasticity, of a bow. 

i Hence C)^, ciiin, nv^^n. 

I n^O ^ ^^^''^ ^'^^^ *^^ *® 

, 3^, 3^, to j72ait hair; hence perh. 

t] ^n m (obs.) perh. akin to 
aSf, to cut off, to shear; hence perh. 

5|^ri Chald. to pass away, of 
time Ban! 4, 13. 

J!\yn (r. q^ni)m. 1) exchange, only 
as prep, instead of, /br Num. 18, 21 ; ct 
8jT. > ?iS i». 2) pr. n. (change) of a 
city in Naphtali Josh. 19, 33. 

f ?n I akin to lin I, Chald. 
*^?r|i T^n, to cover, to clothe, hence 
rsbrm; fig. to arm or equip, hence 
part. pass, y^in armed Num. 32, 29; 
Is. 15, 5 ajjio ''Sbq armed men or 
loarriors of Moab, cf. 'a •^^iaa Jer. 
48, 41. — Niph. yhn^ to arm oneself 
Ktim. 31, 3. — Hiph. y^^m to make 
vigorous or strong Is. 68, 11. 

YzT} n (fut -J^rp) akin to 
Chald. Tsn, to break away, to toith- 
draw, w.-ja of pers. ona ybn he hath 
8epar<Ued from them Hos. 6, 6; 
trans. >) take or (fraw o;f Deut. 25, 
9 ct Is. 20, 2; to draw otd (the 
breast or teat) Lam. 4, 3. — Ifiph. 
yhn3 to be extricated Prov. n, 8. 9; 
to be delivered Ps. 60, 7. — PI. to 
strip or spoil Ps. 7, 5; to jwff out 
stones from a building Lev. 14, 40; 
to deliver, set free, w. ace. of pers. 
Ps. 6, 5, cf. Job 36, 15; w. "ja of the 
danger Ps. 116, 8. 

ybn (only dual n^^jhti; r. -p^ I) 
t the girded or strong parts, the two 

hips or loins (cf. B'gna) Job 38, 3; to 
come forth from the loins of any one 
i. e. to be begotten by bim Q-en. 
35, 11 ; to have the hands on the loins 
i. e. to have pangs as of child-birth 
Jer. 30, 6. Cf. Chald. y^Tpt Syr, 
1^ loins. 

f?^' ^'^ t?} (1 ^' 2, 89) pr. 
n. m. (strength) 2 Sam. 23, 26, but 
Y\T\ in 1 Ch. 11, 27. 


(fut. pAm) perh. akin 
to pi;, ppb (which see), prop, to 
lick, then 1) to be smooth (cf. pin i), 
whence 2) to lick of or consume, 
hence to plunder 2 Ch. 28, 21 ; to cut 
up, to share 1 Sam. 30, 24; to distri- 
bute or divide Josh. 18, 2, w. D5 
of the pers. sharing Prov. 29, 24, 
w. h of pers. and 3 of thing, Job 
39, 17, nj'^aa sn^ phrj-vih he gave 
not to her a share in under- 
standing; w. b| to distribute or 
appoint (in classes) over 2 Ch. 23, 18. 
— Niph. pbna to divide or distribute 
oneself, to be parted, of light Job 
38, 24, of a whole troop formed into 
divisions Gen. 14, 16; to be distrir 
buted or allotted of land Num. 26, 53; 
in 1 Chr. 23, 6, 24, 3 the Pi*el-form 
(found in some texts) seems to be 
intended. — Pi. to divide, booty Gten. 
49, 27, Is. 53, 12, a land for ex- 
ploration 1 K. 18, 6; w. b of pers. 
to divide or apportion to Job 21, 
17; w. a of persons among whom 
Is. 53, 12; to scatter Gen. 49, 7. — 
Pu. to be divided out or shared Is, SS, 
23. — Hiph. p'^hrrn i) to make smooth, 
mechsoiicaUy Is. 41, 7; to make 
smooth the words or the tongue i. e, 
to flatter Prov. 2, 16, Ph. 6, 10; also 
w. h^ or ^5 of the pers. 1*8. 36, 3, 
Prov. 29, 5, to offer flattery to any 
one. 2) to obtain one's inheritance 

Digitized by 




or share Jer. 37, 12. — Hith. to 
divide among themselves^ to share 
Josh. 18, 5. Hence pip^rj, ngbn? 

pbn adj. m., ng^n (pi. nfpbn) f. 
1) smooth t not hairy Gen. 27, 11; 
hare or 6aW, p^tjn *^n fAc 6arc 
moiintain Josh. 11, 17. 2) fig. 
fiatlering^ of the mouth (ns) Prov. 
26, 28, of the palate (?jn) Prov. 5, 3; 
deceitful, false Ez. 12, 24. The pi. 
nipbtn is perh. used as subst. flatteries 
in Is. 30, 10, Ps. 12, 3; see ^l)?Vt!* 

. pbH Chald. (w. sut npbn) L q. 
Heb. pbrt, /o^ or portion Ezr. 4, 16» 
Ban. 4, 12. 

pbn (w. suf. •^p^n, pi. d^pbn, c. 
•'pw, once ""pin w. i)agh. euphonic 
Is. 57, 6) m. 1) baldness, bareness, 
of a woodless district, Is. 57, 6 •'pb»^a 
^ih bnj tn fAe tare (open) places 
of the vaUey is thy lot, i. e. thou 
earliest on undisg^uised idolatry (w. 
a play on pirj in its 2 diverse senses 
in this place); fig. flattery Prov. 
7, 21. 2) portion, share Josh. 18, 
5, pins pin in like pMions 
Deut. 18, 8; spoil Job 17, 5; what 
is apportioned, property Josh. 14, 
4; hence field, land (i. q. Syr. Va^ 
field, cf. i\xeX6a|jL(i i. e. ^copCov 
a7{iaTo; Acts 1, 19) as property 2 K. 
9, 10; also tJie dry land as opp. to 
the sea (D-inri) Am. 7, 4. 3) lot, Sept. 
|jLep{c» Ecc. 2, 10 (cf. ^"jia); sAarc or 
interest, njma pbn DDb-^'>«youAavc 
no interest in the Eternal Josh. 22, 25. 
4) pr. n. m. (portion) Josh. 17, 2; 
patron, ''pbn Num. 26, 30; r. p^n, 

pbn (only c pi. ■'pin) adj. m. 
smooth, only in ^''S^X ''plbn Tv^n 
five smooth stones, prop, five smooth 
ones of stones 1 Sam. 17, 40; see 
Gram. § 112, Bern. 1 ; r. pbn. 

214 Bfen 

T - 

nijbri (only pi. rdip^n) t flatteries [ 

Ps. 12, 3; see pbn, npbn. 

nijbn (pL mpbn; r. pbn) t i) 
smoothness, the smooth of the neck 
Gen. 27, 16; pi. slippery places Pa. 
73, 18; flattery Prov. 6, 24; pL 
nipbn flatteries, Is. 30, 10; nBic ' 
ni'pbn Ps. 12, 8 (v. 4 'n 'r^sb) flatter^ 
ing lips, 2) portion of a field, w.trrsj 
Gen. 33, 19, also without n^ 2 Sam. 
14, 30. 3) npbn, pr. n. (portion) 
of a Levitical city in Asher Josh. 
19, 25; written npbn (old fern, 
form) Josh. 21, 31. 4) pr. n. (npbn 
d'^'Tan field of the swords) of a place 
near Gibeon 2 Sam. 2, 16. 

»^)?bn (only pLn-ipbrpf. fUOteries, 
only Dan*. 11, 32; r. pbn. 

•^<t! ^ portioning, division 2 
Ch. 35, 5; r. pbn. 

''pbn Is. 57, 6 for ■'pbn, see Gram. 
§ 20, 2 6. 

*^pbn pr. n. m. (perh. for \ i^'ljl^J, 
portion of rr^) Neh. 12, 15. 

»^^pb^ and Vl^Jpbn pr. n. m. 
(portion or lot of PP) Hilkiah 2 K. 
22, 8. 

pbpb^ ('• ^^» ^^- ^^?^y «« 
Gram.'§ 84, 23) adj. m. , ' n gb ^y jffj 
(only in pL nipbpbn) f. smooth, oBed 
only as subst. 1) slippery places Ps. 
35, 6. 2) flatteries Dan. 11, 21. 

f^'ipbpbn, see pbpbn. 

f^pbn, npbrt, see npbn 3. 

TZ3 XM (ftit. vArp) perh. akin to 
nbn I, ^aXaoj, 1) to enfeeble, rdax 
or prostrate, to overthrow Ex. 17, 
13; w. b? to triumph over Is. 14. 
12. 2) intrans. (tat thm) (o he 
prostrate, to succumb Job 14, 10. 

Ijfen m, a nerveless or feeble man. 

Digitized by 





\ -I 

opp. to niaa, Joel 4, 10; i q. Syr. 

Dn I (w. 8uf. "^an, rj'^an, Gram. 
§ 96) m. a father-in-law Gen. 38, 
13; fern. ni^n. — Prob. r. rran I, 
akin to D-DJ (which see), 7a|jLpp6;, 
Copt. U)OM shorn father-in-law, see 
Ewald's Heb. Lehrbuch, § 149, 1, h, 

Dn n (r. Ban; pi. ti^mn) adj. m. 
toarmy hot, as bread just backed Josh. 
9, 12, as garments Job 37, 17. Also 
as subst. 1) pr. n. m. (swarthy) of a 
son of Noah, whose descendants 
are enumerated in Gen. 10, 6 — 20. 
2) pr. n. of Egypt among the na- 
tives (i. q. Copt. XHMB blackland) 
Pa. 78, 51. 

on (w. suf. ian; r. dan, Syr. 
>a^, Arab. ^ to heat) m. heat^ opp. 
to ^p cold, Gen. 8, 22. — From this 
Semitic source (the same root being 
also found in Coptic) came, through 
the Arabic, our alchymy, chymist, 
having reference to heat as the dis- 
solvent, or m^ans of analysing sub- 
stances, hence chymistry is fitly said 
to be the science of heat, 

JSlSn (obs.) prob. akin to xnn, 
to wrap together, to thicken or curdle; 
i. q. Arab. U^; hence nxan. 

S52n Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
Tv^r^ lI,to ie hot, to bum; hence 

2(12n, tXnn Chald. f. l. q. Heb. 
nan, heat, anger Dan: 3, 13. 19. 

R12n anger ox wrathTi9Xi, 11, 44; 
see nan. 

nXBH (r. xan; perh. j)L Wxan 
ioft curd^ Ps. 55, 22, see nixana) f. 
curdled mUk Gen. 18,8; milk, slightly 

curdled or still liquid, nxan ^y^} 
rivers of milk (Sept. po^tupov) Job 
20, 17. 

)^n (fut. ^n^ lan; Is. 53,2) 
perh. akin to D^, 1) to be toarm 
or eager, to strive after something, 
to desire or covet Ex. 20, 17. 2) to 
take pleasure or delight in something 
Ps. 68, 17, w. b pleon. dni (Gram. 
§. 154, 3, c) Prov. 1, 22, w. ace. Is. 
63, 2. Part. pass. "Wan desired or 
chosen; hence a delight Ps. 39, 12; 
DTi'nnan their delights, i. e. idols 
Is. 44, 9. — Niph. to be desired, 
only part, ^lana desirable Gen. 2, 9, 
precima Prov. 21, 20. — Pi. only 
in ^^nnw^l ■'XnWi 'i^:|;3 in his shade 
I greatlg delighted and sat i. e. sat 
to. great delight (Gram. § 142, 3, a) 
Cant. 2, 3; hence 

TOH ^* attractiveness, pleasant- 
ness , San •^'T^na attractive young men 
Ez. 23, 6; *Tan"'»nto pleasant fields 
Is. 32, 12. " * 

rTn/3H f. 1) desire or longing, fcAa 
n^an tinthout a longing after, unre- 
gretied 2 Ch. 21, 20. 2) ddight, 
n^an )^'tx a delightsome land Jer. 
3, 19; n^an ^h'S precious vessels 2 Ch. 
32, 27. 3) object of delight, in a good 
sense Hag. 2, 7 ; in a bad sense, lust, 
D'»TU5 n^n toomenf delight, prob. 
name of a Syrian goddess, Ana^tis 
Dan. 11, 37; r. nan. 

nitari, also niiTOn f. pi. (ct 

L. deliciie), pleasant things, delights 
Dan. 11, 38; pleasantness, 'n "^n^a 
goodly garments Gen. 27, 15, 'n ^i'S 
precious articles 2 Ch. 20, 25, 'n Dn^ 
dainty food Dan. 10, 3. ninnan ffl^X 
a man greatly beloved, a favorite 
Dan. 10, 11, without W^ Dan. 9, 
23 WW ni'wan thou art a favorite 
(of God); r. nan. ' 

Digitized by 





I'J^n pp. n. m. (pleasant) Gen. 
86, 26; also Tjon 1 Cb. 1, 41. 

MlSn I (obs.) prob. akin to 
DQ^, to bind or jaiUy to hold, enclose; 
hence perb. on I, oyn, nan, nan, 

MyQPl n (obs.) i. q. dan, to he 
hot, to glow; hence nal^. 

rron (c. nan, pi. nian; r. dm) f. 
1) heat, excitement, throngh -wine 
Hos. 7, 5; hence wine, as heating 
Hab. 2, 15; heat, anger Gen. 27,44; 
nan w^ Prov. 15, is or nan tea 
(Prov. 29, 22) , a man of hot temper, 
nann di3 ttc cup of wrath, 1. e. of 
diyine judgment Is. 51, 17; comp. 
Apoc. 16, 19, Job 21, 20. ¥ig. poison, 
on account of its inflaming effect 
Deut. 32, 24. 2) i q. nnan, milk, 
only in Job 29, 6. 

TttSn f . warmth, heat of the sun 
Pi. 19, 7; poet. tJhe sun Cant. 6, 10; 
r. Dan. 

bn^Brt pr. n. m. (perh. God's 
anger) 1 Ch. 4, 26; r. dan. 

*flSrt (pl.D'»'tian) prop. part. pass, 
of *ian , which see. 

ni*n53H, Me rthari, 

^^ran pr. n. f. (perh. the dew 
is father-hi-law) 2 K. 23, 31. 

VKln pr. n. m. (spared; r. ian I) 
Gen. 46, 12; patron, "^bnan Num. 
26, 21. 

y\TStn pr. n. (warm or sunny) of 
a city in Asher Josh. 19, 28; also in 
Naphtali 1 Oh. 6, 61 ; see nan. 

yi Brt (r. yan 3) m. a violent man, 
robber, pan V^m correct ye the 
oppressor, only in Is. 1, 17; where 
others prefer to read vindicate ye the 

oppressed (Sept. &8txo6ftevo<), si 
if -pan. 

p^lSn (r. pan) m. oompamng, 
hence prob. girdle. Cant. 7, 2 **S^ 
tj??"?'; the girdlings of thy hips. 

"li^ (pi. d^rj; r. nann^m., 
fern. 2 Sam. 19, 27, 1) ass Gen. 13, 
16; so called for its strength (r.*ttn 
in) in carrying, or perh. for the 
reddish (r. *^an I) colour of its skin 
in southern lands; d^& "Viar ass of 
body, i. e. stout ass G^n. 49, 14. 
2) prob. 1. q. *)an 3, a heap or load 
Judg. 15, 16. 3) pr. n. m.(ass) Qen. 
33, 19. 

•Tliari f. L q. -rian 2 and "lah, 
heap or load, but only in dual d^n*^!! 
two heaps, only in Judg. 15, 16, where 
it forms part of a paranomasia. 

nian (uke mm) f. of oni, 

mother-in-law "Ruth 1, 14; r. nanL 

LJ yU M (obs.)perh. akin to Chald. 
D^n, to crouch; hence 

tDljn m. prob. a species of lisard 
(Sept. ffaupa, Vulg. lacerta), only in 
Lev. 11, 30. 

rroiOH pr. n. (perh. place of 
lizards) of a city in Judah Josh. 
15, 54. 

y^H adj. m. salted or seasoned, 
Y^n i*^l«a salted fodder i. e. provwx- 
der sprinkled w. salt, to make it 
more relishing to the cattle, only in 
Is. 30, 24; perh. same as rt4^. 

'^''^i see "n^n. 

i^yQH I (ftit. Warn, inf. n>an 
Ez. 16, 5) perh. akin to 4|JLaX<5;, to 
be mild, tender; hence w. i?, to pity 
Ex. 2,6 or to spare 1 Sam. 15, 3, 
Mai 3, 17, also w. ifc} Is. 9, 18; also 
of things, to spare in using, w. V? 

Digitized by 





Job 20, 18, w. VfcJ Jer. 50, 14> w. i 
and inf. 2 Sam, 12, 4j hence ^Xtin. 

5!Qn n (obs,) akin to ia| I, 

Arab. JX, "i^n IH, in5, prop, 
to carry, then to toi/, tire; hence 

nban f. |>i«y Gen.l9,16; inbrm 
tn W» (rompa««io» Is. 68, 9; r. ion. 

DiOn (perf. 1 pers. T'^j i^^- 
fih, once D«n (w. i, Dart) 18.47, 14, 
w. suf. and pref. BfiJ^a Jer. 51, 39; 
fat. fih;, apoc. DltJ, also the more 
intranfl. form DIT^ Deut. 19, 6, W] 
I K. 1, 1, pL wn Hos. 7, 7) akin to 

nsin, nan n, on;, Arab. ^, ^^^a-, to 
he warm, hot, of the day Ex. 16, 21 ; 
to get warm Is. 44, 16 j impers. w. h 
of sabj. e. g. D^}b ^'n U is warm to 
them, they feel warm Eoc 4, 11; 
the inf. w. pref. B^rt in Is. 47, 14 
may be for QpHi for to be warm 
(Oram. § 67, Bem. 10) or perh. for 
m^rt for their warming (Gram. § 67, 
Bern. 11); fig. to be heated, of the 
mind P». 39, 4, by wine Jer. 51, 39, 
by hot Hos. 7, 7, of cattle to be in 
heat (sexually) Gen. 30, 38, see dnj. 
— Hiph. fin^ to be heated, to bum, 
w, Inst, B'«V'?? fi'^'O'vl^ ^^^ ^^ ^'^^ 
inflamed among the terebinth-trees 
Is. 57, 5. — Pi. ttan to make warm, 
to hatch eggs Job 89, 14. — Hith. 
to VHirm oneself Job 81, 20, Hence 
en (which see) and 

TBrt (only pi. D''3^W m. suns or 
stm-images (consecrated to l^n bra 
the Phenician son-god) Lev. 26, 30; 
r. Bon. 

DIDPI (ftit. Dbn?) akin to yTOT}, 
prop. 1) to be sharp, fig. to 6c bold, 
oppressvce, trans, to iMe w, violence, 

to hurt Jer. 22, 8; to i^^e a law 
Zeph. 8, 4; w. i? of pers. to t«c vuh 
lence against Job 21, 27. 2) to ca«t 
(totmCw. violence) Lam. 2, 6; to shake 
off (w. violence) Job 15, 38. — NIph. 
©grij to 6« violently treated, to be 
exposed or disgraced Jer. 18, 22. 
Hence DT^nn and 

Dan (w. suf. "^^q, pl.D'^rpm. 
1) violence, wrong Gen. 6, 11, Ogn is 
a witness of wrong, i. e. wrongful or 
false Ex. 28, 1. 2) fig. wealth wrong- 
fully obtained, ill-gotten gain Am. 
8, 10. 


(ftit. i^ri;, hif. trton 
Hos. 7, 4) akin to D^n, prop, to &e 
sAarp, pungent, 1) of taste, to be sour, 
of fermented bread Ex. 12, 89; to 5« 
acid, as vinegar, hence I^^QH; to be 
«a2to(2 or seasoned, hence y^^. 8) 
of colour, to &e &r^H dazzling, deep 
red, b^ja y^art deep red of (tn) 
^armen^s, i. e. in purple apparel Is. 
63, 1. 3) of the mind, to be eager, 
violent, hence part, fdn a violent 
man Ps. 71, 4. — Hiph. to sour, to 
ferment; only in part, P^S^tro some-' 
thing leavened, fermented, prop.w^ 
causes to ferment Ex. 12, 19. — Hith. 
to be bitterly or violently moved, of 
the heart Ps. 78, 21. Henoe 

ySJn m. 1) anything made sour, 
leavened dough (i. q. nra) Ex. 12,15. 
2) violence or extortion Am. 4, 5. 

VBn m. vinegar (from wine or 
other fermented drink) Num. 6, 8; 
sour grapes, perh. in Prov. 10, 26; 

r. iron. 

p/JM i. q. pan, to inclose, en- 
compass or gird, hence p^nan; also 
to h*m ttmtui, to go away Cant. 5, 6. 
— - Hith. to turn oneself, to rove 
about Jer. 81, 22. 

Digitized by 






^ l(fat.-jan;)i.q. -^gslfo 
5e Ao^, to 6i*m, hence (cf. Wn) trans- 
ferred to colour, 1) to have a glowing 
colour, to be red, of wine f^orf) Ps. 
75, 9; hence perh. ^iw i, n^an^, 
■»on. 2) <o fcoi/, ferment (perh. hence 
n^n), to foam, of the sea Ps. 46, 4 ; 
also to bubble^ swell, rise in hea^s; 
hence prob. "lah 3, "nion 2, JT^Ian, 
perh. *iari. — Po'aral. Wan' (see 
Gram. § 56, 2) to be in a ferment, 
or to yearn, of the rumbling of the 
bowels under strong emotion Lam. 
1, 20; also to be red, of the face in 
weeping Job 16, 16. 

iQM n (denom. ftrom •nafi) to 
cover 10. bitumen, to pUeh Ex. 2, 3. 

i/jrl m (obs.) perh. akin to 
ban H, to bear or carry, to toil, 
hence prob. ■)ian 1. 

llSn rv (obs.) perh. akin to 
•igy 1, Syr. Vl»ai», to collect; hence 
perh. nan 3, ^iun 2, -ign. 
*l!an ass, see 'I'ian. 

^lan (r. nan I or perh. nan m) 
m. &a9aXT0(;, bitumen, pitch G^en. 
11,3; so called prob. for its boiling or 
biibbling up as in pits near Babylon 
and. in the Dead Sea, or perh. from 
its being collected fh>m such sources : 
hence the denom. nan n to pitch, 

"ISH m. prob. something ferment- 
ed, hence wine Deut. 32, 14; r. nan I. 

"I^Sn Chald. (def. «nan) nu wine 
Dan. 5, 1; i. q. Syr. 1^.^^. 

"ittn (pi. o-in^jn) m. 1) r. nan I, 
clay or loam (perh. so called from 
the idea of oozing or bubbling), pot- 
ter's earth Is. 45, 9; morter, cement 
Gen. 11, 3; mire, mud Is. 10, 6. 2) 

a boiling, foaming, of iraves Hab. 8, 
15. 3) r. ngn IV, a heap Ex. 8, 10; 
also a dry measure, a Jiomer, aboat 
IIV2 bushels Lev. 27, 16. 

1'^^'^ pr. XL m. (perh. ruddy) 1 
Ch. 1, 41; but )^n in Gen. 36, 26. 

©^n I (obs.) perh. akin to 
T^ I. Oan, yian, to be sharp, bold, 
strong; hence ©ah and its deno- 

^QM n (denom. from Woh) 
to arm the loins, to arm oneself in 
general, part. pi. pass. D'nrJan arm- 
ed Ex. n, 18 (cf. ynhrj Josh. 4, 13). 

, IMJI f. (o. T»an), n^^an m. (0. 
nwan) card, number five (Gram. § 
97, 1) Gen. 14, 9; the pi. B'^an 
fifly; dpw^ O'nsan fifty rightetm 
men Gen. 18, 24. ~ On the origin 
and affinities of this numeral term, 
see Gram. § 97, 1, Note*. 

"O^n I m. prob. loins, waist, as 
the seat of strength (r. ^an I) 2 
Sam. 2, 23 (cf. "{nh, |^bn, of like 

tian n m. a fifth (cf. JSn a quar- 
ter), a fifth-part rate , paid as a tri- 
bute Gen. 47, 26. Hence 

lOH ri denom. of ©ah, only in 
Pi. to fifth, i. e. to take the fitfth 
part as tax or rate Gen. 41, 34. 

tririan girded, armed men Judg. 
r, 11, see ian n. 

•^•^^n and "^''Jjn m.. tmvn, 

Ti^ji^TOn f., ord. number from ©an, 
fifth; n'nsann nj-wga in the fifth year 
Lev. 19, 25; a fifth part (fem.) Gen. 
47, 24. PI. irreg. w. suf. I'^niran Lev. 
5, 24 its fifths, i. e. its fifth part. 

D'^'Ban fifty^ w. suf. i*»;san his 
fifty (men) 2 K. 1, 9. 

nBH pr. n. (citadel, fortress, r. 

Digitized by 





ngJJ I) of a eity in Syria on the 
Orontes Kmn. 13, 21; gent, name 
TPajn Samathlte Gen. 10, 18. Tlie 
Gredu called it 'Eici^dveia; the 

Arabs still call it Sl^ Mamah, 

ttDH (c. n»n) f. a shin -bottle 
Gen. 21, 14; prob. from nT^r> I to 
hold or enclose. — This deriv. is 
fAYom^ by the nse of r«n in the 
Talmud for ba^-pipe, shepherd^ 8 bottle^ 
also a sack, 

HBH pr. n. m. (warm-ftpring; r. 
ran) 1) of a city in Naphtali Josh. 
19, 35; called also nfcW nan Josh. 

21, 32, fan 1 Ch. 6, 61; also 'AfX- 
^.aoo^ (near Tiberias) Joseph. Bel. 
Jud. 4, 1. 3. 2) pr. n. m. 1 Ch. 

r\23H Josh. 21, 32, see n§n. 

TH /ot^Ottr, i. q. in, only in pr. 
names, e. g. i«*^3n, Phen. b5a'«lin 

"iH (w. suf. W; r. isn) m. 1) /a- 
vowrahle indinationt favour, grace, 
kindness Ecc. 9, 11; in «^ Gen. 6, 
8 or in fc^i^J Est. 2, 15(w.'^3''52) to find 
favour in the eyes of any one; 
D '^rya 'b in inj to ^»e f^e favour 
of some one in somebody^s eyes i. e. to 
cause the latter to look favourably 
on the former Ex. 3, 21. 2) grace- 
fulness^ attractiveness f charm Prov. 

22, 1 1 ; fn rt^ a graceful chamois, 
Prov. 5, 19; ffpfs^ a stone of favour, 
i. e. charming, precious Prov. 17, 8; 
•jn rtn the spirit of grace i. e. pious 
and tender Zech. 12, 10. 3) pr. n. 
m. (grace) Zech. 6, 14. 

TWn p. n. m. (= T^ in favour 
of Hadad) Ezr. 3, 9. 

nSn I (fut. mn?, apoc. irn) 

akin to lan I, 5», ns^in. perh. 13lfi, 
xXCv<0, to bend or ^tim, to incline, 

of the day towards su;Qset <Fadg. 19, 
9 (cf. Qi^ ni'SD); hence to «ef^/e down 
in a place, poet, to dice/? in Is. 29, 1 ; to 
encamp Gen. 26, 17, of an army Ex. 
18, 20, of locusts Nah. 3, 17; w. b? 
against, to besiege Ps. 27, 3, also 
w. a Judg. 9, 60, w. ace. Ps. 53, 6; 
w. P /or any one, to de/etKi Zech. 9, 
8; w. b "SKiQ to form a camp around 
Ps. 84,* 8. 

n (obs.) prob. akin to 


•pp n, to be pointed, to pierce; hence 
n*<5n. — Ot W. gufdnu to pierce. 

TUSn (only in pi. nSsn; r. '|3'3 I) 
compassions, mercies, only in Ps. 77, 
10. In Job 19, 17 ■'niin is prob. 1 
pers. perf. Qal for '^nisn and means 
I moan or sigh, r. Tin 11; but perh. 
for wsn (Gram. § 91, 3, Bem.) my 
appeais for pity. 2) pr. n. f. (beauty) 

1 Sam. 1, 2. 

TpSfl 1) pr. n. m. (perh. teaching 
or initiation, r. "Jpn) of a son of Cain, 
Sept. *Ev(i)^ Gen. 4, 17; patron. 
•»Din Num. 26, 5. 2) pr. n. of a city, 
otherwise unknown Gen. 4, 17. 

flSn pr. n. m. (favoured, r. laj I) 

2 Sam. 10, 1. 

•J^ adj. m. gracious, merciful 
Ps. Ill, 4; r. 15H I. 

Min (only in pi. rviW; r. njn I) 
f. akin to Chald. WSn, Syr. Uol-i*, 

Arab. *ify^, a trader^s tented booth 
or arched stall; hence cell or vault, 
used for prisoners, only in Jer. 37, 16. 

r\i3H f. perh. a sighing, aery for 
pity (r. 1375 n) Job 19, 17; see njn. 

n jn (obs.) perh. akin to »T^n, 
ft7^o>, L. ango, to press or fasten to- 
gether. Deriv. perh. WJ for njn, 

ijin for nym. 

Digitized by 






JJt ( I (fat. ttbm) perb. akin 
to ^{sn, 1) to spicCf to season or 
flavour^ of a fruit-tree that matures 
or mellows its firoiti hence to ripen 
Cant. 2, 13; cf. Arab, hi^ to ripen. 
2) to embalm a corpse (by spicing) Gen. 

50, 2; i. q. Arab, hi^, to embalm. 
ODn n(ob8.) be reddish, 

i. q. Arab. bA^ to bered, of leather; 
see Mtth wheat, 

03n Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
OJTI H; hence 

Stt3n Chald. (only pi. X^) f. i. 
q. Heb. ni^n, D*^Utl, u^^o/ £zr. 6, 9. 

DtDSn (only pi.) m. embalming of 
dead bodies, only Gen. 50, 3 ; the plural 
refers prob. to the Tarious parts or 
processes and ceremonies in the 
transaction (cf. Gram. § 108, 2, a). 

^*t53n, see «03n. 

iiJ'^SH pr. n. m. (favour of God) 
Num. 34, 23. 

•Jprt (only TpiM*^^^TC}m, initiated 
men i. e. trained or drilled (for 
war), only in Gen. 14, 14 (cf. our 
irainrband); r. ^n. 

•^^^ f- ff^oce, favour, only Jer. 
16, 13;r. -gnL 

MH (r. nan n; pi. D'^rpsn 2 Ch. 

23, 9; nin'»3rj Is. 2, 4) f. spear 1 Sam. 
18, 11. '-«-' Perh. akin to Sans, kuntas 
(lance), x^vto^, dLx(SvTiov, L. contus. 


(fut. -rjiny prob. akib to 

Arab. iu^,fo bruise or masticate, 
Chald. T|5J!!i perh. to 03n I; hence 
1) fo taste, whence ^ri palate. 2) 
denom. of ^ fo yiw a taste or re/t^A 
(cf. i(Xpua>, L. tmdKO); hence fig. a) 
to teach or ^rotn, comp. Tpan, Prov. 
22, 6 1371 -^tt-l)? 'wb 'Tjin tm6t4e the 

boy (on ^ w. ace. see Gram. § 154, 
S, e) at the entrance of his course; 
comp. Horace in Epist. 1, 2, 68 — 70 
nunc adbibe puro pectore verba, puer, 
— Quo semel est imbuta recens ser- 
vabit odorem testa diu. P) to dedi' 
cate (perh. w. some idea of seasoning 
or flavouring and so preparing for 
use, cf. DSn), of a dwelling house 
Beut. 20, 5, of the temple 1 K. 8, 
63. — Perh. akin to Sans, ghas 
(chew), 7eua>, xvdu>, xvuco, G. kauen, 
E. gnaw, W. cnoi, Irish cnoot. 

nSDH f. 1) dedication (of an altar 
or building, Sept. iYxaivtajJLOc) Num. 
7,11. 2) sacrifice of dedication Num. 
7,10; r.'jpn.— Cf.i7xa£vtaJohnlO,22. 

nSSn Chald. f. L q. Heb. dedi- 
cation Dan. 3, 2. 

UJn (obs.) perh. akin to D», 
to be hard or frozen; hence 

DSrt (obs.) m. perh. akin to Chald. 
D3n:c, stone; hence perh. ^^an. 

DSn (from IH w. adv. ending D-7^ 
cf. Q^i"^) adv. prop, by favour L e. 
without fee or reward, gratuitously, 
for nothing Qen, 29, 15; in vain, 
i. e. without efifect Prov. 1, 17; w. 
bx, Bjn"^^? to no purpose Ez. 6, 10; 
without cause, undeservedly Job 2, 3; 
Q|n-'<a'^ blood without cause^ L «. 
innocent blood 1 K. 2, 31, c£ Prov. 
26, 2. 

bKtiitI pr. n. m. (prob. for ^^ 
God is gracious) Jer. 32, 7. 

pttjn m. prob. stone, then esp. 
hail'Sione or hard-frost, only in Ps. 
78, 47 ; prob. from dDH w. the dimin. 
ending b-;-. So Sept. ra^vrj, Aquila 
xpuo;, Syr. I^-Jlx^, Vulg. ;>rt«i»<i, 
but Kimchi ^inan ij'nBO "po, others 
say ants (n^ai) or locusts, 

jjrl I (ftit. trans, ^hj, ohoe 

Digitized by 





•gm Am. 6, 15; w. snf. swm Pi. 
6772, siSin*; Is. 27, 11; ^tin for 
Jjin*; GeiL^^S, 29; inf. w. suf.'DDJK! 
Is. 30, 18; njpn Ps. 102, 14) iV q! 
nslj I, to incline towarda^ then^fig. 
io he ffracions to, to favour Ex. 33, 19, 
imper. w. sui. ■'Mr Pa. 4, 2; to ftc- 
sUno ffraciously on, w. 2 ace. Gten. 
33, 6; fo pity Prov. 19, 17; fo be 
duxritdble Ps. 37, 21. — Niph. ina (cf. 
TW, Gram. § 67, Bem. 5) to 6c piiied, 
commiserated, only in Jer. 22, 23 
TijTTE-rra Jiow thou (f.) art to he 
piiiedi but perb. better how thou 
bemoanest thyself, from r. "yn n. — 
Pi. 'jgn to make pleasant, of tbe voice 
Prov. 26, 25 (cf. 'jn, nsn). — Po. "gin 
to be kind to Prov. 14,21 ; to be fond 
of Ps. 102, 16. — Hoph. "in^ to be 
favoured, pUied Is. 26, 10. — Hith. 
prob. to bow down oneself, tben to 
seek fawmr, supplicate, w. h Est. 4, 
8, w. i« 1 K. 8, 33, w. '»3fib 1 K. 
8, 59. ' 

j JM n (obs.) perh. akin to rjJ8$, 

Arab, yj*., to groan or sigh; bence 
yoirBF\, perb. n'isn. 

I JM Cbald. to show mercy to, 
to compassionate Dan. 4, 24 (inf. 
ITTO). — Ithpa. to tn^reof, supplicate 
Dan. 6, 12. 

"jSrt pr. n. m. (gracious) 1 Cb. 
11, 43. 

SMSn pr. n, m. (God is gracious) 
Jer. 31, 38. 

'*?5'^ P'* ^' ^^ (gracious) 1 K. 
16, il" 

rr^an, Vr^Jift pr. n. m. (m is 
gracious) Avavla^ Dan. 1, 6, 2 Cb. 
26, 11. 

Dirt pr. n. of a city of middle 
Egypt, only in Is. 30, 4; called by 
Herodotoa (11, 187) 'Avixjk, but by 

the poets generally ^Hpax^iooc 
7:6Xt(;, Heracleopolis, by tbe Arabs 
^Uibl. Perb. it is tbe Egyptian 
name for Hercules. 

V] jn (ftit. Cisn;) prob. akin to 
C)3S, 5155, Cg^, prop, to cover, to hide 
or becloud, bence fig. to pollute Jer. 
3, 9; intrans. to 6c polluted, defiled, 
as a land w. blood Ps. 106, 38, or 
a person w. crimes Jer. 23, 11. — 
Hiph. to pollute a land Num. 35, 
33; to make profane, to seduce Dan. 
11, 82. Hence 

tl5H (pi. D'^wrt, c "^jn) adj. m. 
profane or impious Is. 10, 6; also 
subst. a reprobate Job 8, 13. 

r|3n m. fic;>ro6atofte89, godlessness, 
only Is. 32, 6. 

HBDJl t pollution, impiety, only 
Jer. 23, i5; r. ClilJ. 

pjn (Qal obs.) akin to pj^ 
pD5, Cbald. p|tD, prop, to be pressed 
or narrotr. — NIph. to strangle or 
Aany ortc^c// 2 Sam. 17, 23. — Pi. 
to strangle, throttle Nab. 2, 13. — 
Mimet. akin to Arab, i^;;*., Byr. 
^Al^, "Eth.hdnHqd, Sans. an^ (press), 
Jy^o), L. ango, G. cn^, E. awi^ttwA, 
W. yn^, ati^au (deatb). 

jTinSfl pr. n. (prob. pleasant, r. 
Ipni) a city in Zebulon Josb. 19, 14. 

lOn I (Qal obs.) perb. akin to 

Arab, jm^^, to bow or bend tbe neck, 
comp. rTi'»bn; bence perb. to incline 
oneself, fig. to 6c gracious, pious; 
bence 'TOn, T»on. — Hith. to shew 
oneself kind, to be merciful, w. dip 
2 Sam. 22, 26. — - Perb. akin to 
b^h to cotter or cActmA. 

nOn n (Qal obs.) I q. Cbald- 
* ^ ^ 
^n^ Arab. jMM^, to a6tMe or imsuXt, — 

Digitized by 





PI. T»h to reproach or spurtif only 
Prov. 25, 10. Hence *tTl II. 

TDH I (r. Wil, w. 8uf. 'W!; pi. 
D^^Wj, *c. *»W?) ni. 1) kindness , good- 
wiU Gen. 21, 23 ; compassion Job 6, 14 ; 
d:^ *tyn m^ to do a kindness to 2 
Sam. 3, 8, w. nx Zech. 7, 9, w. i? 

1 Sam. 20, 8. bx Wj noj to in- 
cline favour towards Gen. 89, 21. 
2) piety, religion, Wi "^m^ religious 
men Is. 57, 1; D^^rj jpiows deeds 

2 Ch. 6, 42. 3) mercy or favour of 
God Ps. 5, 8; nog^ Wj faithful 
or cowman* mercy 2 Sam. 2, 6; Ps. 
89, 2 D'^'TDn mercies or benefits from 
God; B'^?a»f|n ^17 ''W fAe «ure 
mercies of David, i. e. the mercies 
bestowed on him in perpetuity Is. 
55, 3. 4) i. q. "pi, gracefulness, beauty 
18.40, 6 (Sept. 66£a, cf. 1 Pet. 1, 24). 
5) pr. n. m. (mercy) 1 K. 4, 10. 

*TDn n (r. ^n H) i. q. Syr. |^, 
reproach, disgrace Lev. 20, 17, Prov. 
14, 34 and perh. Job 6, 14. 

•^Tl^'^. P^* ^' ^' (mercy of In;) 
1 Ch. 3, 20. 


sing, f . 


(3 pi. siDH, also ^*^gn; 3 

Ps. 57, 2; fat. TOnj, 
pi. TI'Wt;; see Gram. §'75', 
Bem. 4) akin to xtPfn, to flee, to take 
refuge, w. a of place, b^a ni'onb to 
take refuge in the shadow (i. e. covert) 
of Is. 30, 2; fig. to trust in, w. 3 
Ps. 2, 12; also f be trustful Ps. 

m. (refuge) 1 Ch. 

] acU. m. strong Am. 

. 1. 31; r. IWj. 

re, only Is. 30, 3; r. nan. 

''T^J r. Wfl) 1) 
nerctful Ps. 12, 2; f. 
, *Ae«^orAr Job39,18. 

2) |>iou9, go^y Dent. 33, 8; bs tM, 
«(iin* Ps. 30, 5. 3) m«rt?y«i ^fociims, 
of God Jer. 3, 12. 

{Tj'On f. the afectionate or kind 
bird (L. avis pia), the stork Lev.U, 
19, noted for affection. 

nXn Ps. 57, 2, see Gram. § 75, 
Bern. 4. 

yVn m. prop, the browser, name 
,of a kind of loaist 1 K. 8, 37; r.VCT. 

I'^n adj. mi^% Ps. 89, 9; r. 

TSrt Ohald. adj. m. weeding, 
deficient in weight Dan. 5, 27; r. 

vOn (fut. bbnu) akin to itj I, 
"1!?, "^^E*! tocut or eat off, to browse 
Dent 28, 38 ; hence Vw. 

Don (fut. CibTTJ) L q. Wn, 
dnn,to «fop up, to muzzle the mouth 
of an ox Deut. 25, 4; to impede or 
stop passengers Ez. 39, 11. 

*|pn (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
isn I, prop, to bind together, hence 
l)tobe strong, mighty; hence fion, 
•jW. 2) to be rich, to amass wealth; 

hence "j&n, Arab. y)J«* whence our 
magaxine, — Niph. to &e ktid up, 
75^2 ^^ J "^SW}:; Kb if sAa5 nof 6e siored 
up nor hoarded Is. 23, 18. 

Ipr, see -jion, 

iPn Chald. i. q. Heb. -JW; 
only Aph. -jDnn to possess Dan. 7, 
18; hence 

l^n Cliald. (del Kjtfi) m. strength, 
might Dan. 2, 37. 

l^T} m. ricA«8, wcflflA Prov. is, 
6; WS!)^*; iDh trcattA (i. e. plenty) of 
deliverances Is. 83, 6; r. pn. 

^9*^ (Qal obfl.) aJdn to 6j^ 


Digitized by 





^ io iirip or peel off, — Pu. 
wdupl. OMh (^ierh. for C|5>?W[), part. 
mro Kokd, peeled off (Oram. § 55, 
7) miQ p^ a MTop scolicd off Bx. 
16, U. — Prob. xnimet. akm to 
mitTO), h.mbo, G. schaben, schuppe, 

POn Chald. (obs.) perh. akin 
to 3ljn <o 6ind, to Ao« or stick 
%«ttef, like toogb clay; hence 


Cpn Chald. (def. XBOn) m. c^, 
]»tt«r'« e% or earOkenware Dan. 

2,83.43; cf. tJ"Tn. 


(fat. wn, pi. ntjh^) akin 

to itn which see, prop, to he cvi 
of, ience 1) to he diminislied Gen. 
8, 3; to fai/, to 6e vf anting Ecc. 9, 8; 
w. i, Deui 15, 8. 2) to want or tefc 
Deut 2, 7, Ps. 23, 1. — Pi. to make 
few or tower, w. -j^ Ps. 8, 6 (Sept 
^Amwaa; itopa, cf. Heb. 2, 7). — 
ffiph. ^-^am to cause to failU, 32, 6 ; 
^ftferiffdrU Ex. 16, 18. 

•yn Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 

*^; hence ^I'W. 

'?V fc ion) a^j. m. lacking J 
^f^^^ing, w. ace. l K. li, 22; w. •)« 

2 Sam. 3, 29; 'A *iDn ZociWt^ mind 
^- », 32; but perh. a subst. in 
^^' 10, 21 lack of tmderstanding, 

y^. m. VHMt, poverty Prov. 28, 

22; r. i&n. 

J^ Pr. n. m. 
^)2Ch. 34, 22. 

P^ "»• «^an^, deficiency Ecc. 
'»15j r. -^on. 

"^it! (r. :)fin n) adj. m. i>o/MAed or 

m. wtferf Deut. 28, 48; r. 
(neediness, r. 

rubhed, smooth^ fig. dean, guUtlesSi 
only in Job 33, 9. 
Cin, see Cjin and ah. 

1J\Sm (Qalob8.)i.q.nBn,akinto 
«an, qcn l, to cover^ hide.— Vi, «Bn, 
to io covertly or secretly, only in 
2 K. 17, 9. 

MSM i. q. «»n, to cover or veil, 
the head 2 Sam. 15, 80 or the &ce 
Est. 6, 12, aa sign of grief. — Pi. 
to overlay w. gold, etc, w. two aoc. 
2 Oh. 3, 5 (Gram. § 139, 2). — Pu. 
to he covered Is. 4, 5, but see tvifn, 
•— Nipb. nenj to he covered Ps. 68, 
14. Hence 

nSn f. 1) covering, protection, Is. 
4, 5, but some take it here as Pu. of 
rrBH; also a canopy or curtain (of a 
bed), hridaJrCouch or hride^s chamber, 
Ps. 19, 6. 2) pr. n. m. (shelter) 1 
Ch. 24, 13. 

TSn (ftit. ifatTJ, inl w. tuf. *^tttj) 
prob. akin to Tgg, ttD, to leap, start up, 
in order to flee 2 Sam. 4, 4; to 6e 
«tortW,atorme(IDeut. 20,8,P8. 31,23. 
— Niph. tonj to haste away, to flee 
1 Sam. 23, 26. Hence 

ttTSn m. haste or hurry Ex. 12, 11. 
D'^BH pr. n. m. (coverings) Gen. 
46, 21 ; r. t\Vn L 

ISn (obs.) prob. akin to fpni, 
to enclose, or to "jfij, IfiS, to 5cwd or 
curve. Hence 

■jSil (only dual d^^^Bn, c. ^npn, w. 
suf. l''JB*3) m. a /fef , i. e. the hand 
as bent (comp. t{i) or as holding, en- 
closing, in dual the two fists, xba 
da-'SBn the fill of your ttoo fists, i. e. 
two handfuls Ex. 9, 8; Syr. jiao-i*. 

■•SBn pr. n. m. (perh. boxer, ftom 
•,W1) 1 Sam. 1, 3. 

Digitized by 





WSn I akin to MSn, to cover 
or protect f w. b?, only Deut. 38, 12; 
hence prob. VJn, 

mSM n (obs.) perh. akin to 

Cirj; 1. q. Arab. iJ^, to acrape off, 
hence perh. to lay hare; whence t)n. 


sJ\ i(ftitirBrn,ifarijPg.37,28) 

prop, to bend{ci!. Arab. JiJtA, to bend 
wood) Job 40, 17; fig. to tncKne^ 
to be favourably disposed, w. :n to 
delight in Gen. 84, 19, Is. 56, 4, 
w. ace. Ps. 40, 7; to toUl, or choose, 
to please Cant. 2, 7; w. fin. verb Is. 
42, 21, w. int and h Ps. 40, 9, inf. 
without b Job 13, 3, Is. 53, 10. Hence 

ysn (pi. n^^sn, c *^2an, w. snf: 
tsrp^Sin) adj. m.,^nSBn V, taking 
pleasure or delight in, loving Ps. 5, 
5; w. inf. and h, HK MiJT^^ B'^??^ 
rjjw ^in^ pleasure .(for) to fear 
thy name Neh. 1, 11 ; wiMng 1 E. 
21, 6. 

ySH (w. sut •'SBn, pi. ff'sttri) m. 
1) prop, inc/tnofton, hence pleasure, 
delight Prov. 31, 13; vnU or choice, 
cherished purpose Is. 44, 28; dcwrc, 
longing Ps. 107, 30; ycn *<5aK (fe- 
9ire(2 or |>reciofi« stones Is. 54, 12; 
fifudy, pursuit Ecc. 2, 1; matter, 
business Ecc 5, 7 ; r. "j^n. 

PQ'**SSrt pr. n. f. (my delight 
I mother of king Ma- 
21, 1; also symbolic 
Is. 62, 4. 

at. *iBn?) prob. akin 
cut in, dig Jer. 13, 7; 

21, 30, Ex. 7, 24; 

h Ps. 35, 7; to dig 
>aw, of spirited horses 
I fig. to search out, to 
bgle its prey Job 39, 

29, a land by scouts Dent 1, 23 
(in this sense, cf. "igh). 


(ftit ^dn;, pL noJT)) prob. 
akin to "npn I, to turn red, for shame, 
perh. different from ^42 (which see), 
but both signify a change of natural 
colour as effect of shame, to he 
ashamed Ps. 35, 4; w. d'^afi Ps. 34, 
6 ; w. l^p of cause or origin Is. 1, 29. 
— Hiph. ^'^^ar^ to cause shame Prov. 
13, 5; 19, 26, to he ashamed Is. 54, 
4; fig. of Lebanon ignominiously 
stripped of its beauty Is. 33, 9. 

*lBn (r. *ifin) m. a hole, only in 
ni'iB "nDnb to the hole of ffte rats, as 
some texts read in Is. 2, 20; but see 

*^?']!1 1) pr« T^- n^ (blushing, r. 
*l|n) Num. 26, 32; patron. -^^TDn. 2) 
pr. n. (pit or well, r. *firi) of a city 
of the Canaanites Josh. 12, 17. 

D^*|5Bn P'^' ^ (*^"^o Pi^ O' wells) 
of a place in Issachar Josh. 19, 19. 

y^SH pr. n. m. (Copt perh. priest 
of the sun) Hophra, one of the Pha- 
raohs of Egypt Jer. 44, 30; 'Aitpiij; 
in Herod, n. 161. 

Pl'^B'lBH (only pL ni'*iB*TDn, r. 
•nen , see' Gram. § 84, 23) f . digging 
or burrounng animals, prob. rats, 
only in Is. 2, 20, where the reading 
nS'^D^ifinb (in one word) is better than 

Arab, jtia- to flow together, perh. 
akin to ui^iD II to flow forth, fig. to 
he free. — Pu. t^n to be aet free, to 
be free, only in Lev. 19, 20; hence 

T I X» -IT 

IZJDn n (obs.) I q. Arab. Jiil 
to stretch or lag along, of a oovering 

I (Qal obs.) perh. 1. q. 

Digitized by 





or a bed, hence Td|h; fig. to he pro- 
stratCy weak, side; hence Wttten. 

"Oj^n l(ftit.t»rn, pi.>it»Bm)L 

q. Chald. OBn, perh. akin to najj, to 
digt then fig. to $eek out Prov. 2, 4; 
to deme Pg. 64, 7. — Niph. to^n? to 
he seardted out Obad. 6. — PI. to 
search hard Gen, 31, 85; w. ace. to 
search out 1 Sam. 23, 23; to search 
ikrough Zeph. 1, 12. — Vl^ to he 
sought dUigentfy, perh. in Prov. 28, 
12 hat see ton lI;tobe devised, Ps. 
64, 7 ^aWTQ tDI|n a (2mM«{ (L e. ela- 
borate) liei^ 

IDlDn n (Qal obs.) perh. akin 
to ttjgn, to veil, envelopj oonaeaL — 
Po. to he concealed, perh. in Prov. 
28, 12; part. toDHtt Pa. 64, 7, but see 
tBh L — Hith. to disguise oneself 
1 Sam. 38, 8, cf. 1 K. 20, 88. 

WSn> m. a device, a discovery, of 
aplanPs. 64, 7; r. to^n L 

XDSn (iK. gut •wn; T. tesnil) m, 
1) a 'spreading out, WDh—n^ia ^or- 
ments or cloths spread out £z. 27,20. 
2)couch, *iinpn D'Tifi^amot^<^(2ea({ 
is my couch i. e. the grave is my bed 
Ps. 88, 6, but perh. it is free amongihe 
dead (Sept. iXeudEpoc, so too Yulg. 
and Syriac). 

ntiSH (r. Tron I) t freedom liev. 
19, 2o' ■ 

tn^Sn t prostration, iXlness^ 
n*^ ll ja ^ J rr»5 tt« Aoiwe of sickness, 
infirmary 2"ch. 26, 21; r. t^n H. 

'*tDBn (pi. trfOBSn) a4J. m. /f«c, as 
a libented slave Job 8, 19; "n^Bh n^ 
Deut. 15, 12, •ncipnb W Ex. 21, 2^ 
to Affid away free, to liberate; \KS^ 
•m^ to go free Ex. 21, 5; free, 
exempt from taxes 1 Sam. 17, 25; 
r. S5n. 

niSSn 2 K. 15, 5, same as mApn, 
which see. 

yn (r. ^ I; w. sat •«n, pL D-W, 
once '^Sn in K'thibh 1 Sam. 20, 38, 
Ghram.§ 87, \,h)m. 1) arrow 2 K. 13, 
17; hence tr^ "^b^ arrouHfnasters, 
archers Gen. 49, 23; fig. the lightniitg, 
God's arrow Hab. 3, 11; imfiiction 
Beat. 82, 23. 2)iirroiiM(70ttfu2Job34,6. 
3) the point of a spear, perh. in yn 
n'^JTp J Sam. 17, 7 K'tlubh; but in 
Q'ri^and in 2 Sam. 21, 19, 1 Ch. 20, 
5, we find the better reading ^ 
wood, i e. shaft or handle. 

DlSni, Dl2n&.5,2(fat. 

- T •• T 

al!«rn)akintoa^, aap, ^»jl (which 
see), to Aw 1 K. 5, 29, to % out, 
a cistern Deut. 6, 11, or a wine-press 
la 5, 2; to fwtne, coiq;>efr ore Deut. 
8, 9; to carve, pillars Prov. 9, 1; 
fig. to cZeow out flames of fire, i e. 
to fiash forth forked lightning Ps. 
29, 7; to slay Hos. 6, 5. — NIph. 
a^ to he cut in, engraven Job 19, 
24.*— Pn. to 6« corrcd out, shaped 
Is, 51, 1. — HiphCpart. f. ra»7'?)<o 
hew down, to slay Is. 51, 9. 


n (obs.) prob. akin to 
ai^, to Wnd (ct 3T$n); hence perh. 

3201 adj. m. cut or dt<^ out, perh. 
in Is. 5, 2, but see r. n^ L 

jTlitn (fut. nxrn, apoc. ytrp 
akin to ^n, ^, \) to cut off , to 
divide; w. "pa to divide hetween Num. 
31, 27; w. ^t? to divide at a certain 
part Is. 30, 28; to divide Gen. 38, 1. 
2) 'to cut in two, to hake Gen. 32, 8; 
fig. to reach to the half, DH^ WJJ fiA 
f^ halve not their days i «. they 
live not out half their natural life 
Ps. 55, 24* — Ni^h. rnjnj to he divided 
15 • 

Digitized by 





2 K. 2, 8; w. ^ of parts, io he etft 
inio (2 parts) Ez. 37, 22. 

rTT2liSln[(pl.rvi-iy'»i) f. a trumpet 
Num. 10, 2;* perh. r. napj to blare, 
to sound a blast, — Prob. this was 
straight, while the 'T^'hfi horn was 
crooked. — Prob. a mimetio word, 
expressing the crashing, rattling 
sound of the instrtiment, like L. 
taratantara, G. trarara, E. tantara; 
hence prob. the denom. *^9isrj to 
trumpet, to blow a trumpet, 

nSX^ pr. n. (Inclosed place, x>erh. 
castle), 1) a city in Kaphtali Josh. 
11, 1. 2) a city in Benjamin Keh. 
11, 33. 3). a city in Judah Josh. 15, 
23. 4) a region of Arabia Jer. 49, 28. 

nR'in "lisai pr. n. (Ohald., new 
Hazdr) of a cil^ in the south of 
Judah Josh. 15, 25. 

Tlyin (only c nto) f. sing, the 
middle, midst, n^i nixn midnight 
Ex. 11, 4; r. rntn.'"^ 

*'2IJl (in pause ''Sn, w. suf. tW, 
GcauL § 93, 6, Benu 6) m. 1) the 
middle, midst 2 Sam. 10, 4; i q. n'ixn, 
^\i^ ^ midnight Judg. 16, 8. 2) 
half, the \alf Ex. 24, 6; W^ the 
half of us 2 Sam. 18,8. 

"•SH m. 1) L q. yrj arrow 1 Sam. 
20, 36? 2) i q. W half Ex. 25, 10. 

r\iH3Bn "Sn pr. n. m. (midst of 

resting-places) 1 Ch. 2, 52; patron. 


q. "W m. an inelosure, 
, 18, cf. 35, Tjr.-^yj. 
(c. 'T'Sn) m. grass Ps. 
ik, collect, leeks Num. 

t>s.) prob. akin to Syr. 
»b. j»U., to coUed, to 

enclose, hence Arab. J^ to carry 
in the arms or bosom; hence 

"jffll (w. sufc "iisn) m. bomm Ps. 
129,'?; cf. ah, 

fCT (w. suf. '^TSn) m. bosom, 
as enfolding or cherishing little 
children Is. 49, 22; bosom of a gar- 
ment Neh. 5, 13; cf. Chald, KjaSW! 
hiding places, 

Vj^ri Chald. (Pe'al obs.) L q. 
Heb. C|5R5 I to storm, rage. — Aph. 
C)snn to press, urge on; part, t 
n&xnrpa (Dan. 2, 15) and M^sno 
(Dan. 3, 22) urgent, seoere, of% com- 
mand or edict. 

I^I^n I L q. ttj to cut, divide, 
hence fig. intrans. to divide into 
troops, part yrn dividing off into 
swarms, of locusts on their march 
Prov. 30, 27, — PI. only part. D-'XITO 
those who divide, the booty Judg. 5, 
11 ; but this may well be from yxn II, 
and so mean archers. — Pa. to be 
divided, allotted, of portions of time 
Job 21, 21. — On this and its many 
kindred mimetic roots expressiye of 
cutting, see Gram. § 80, 2. 

"f i&n n (Qal obs.) denom. of 
yn, — PI. to shoot arrows; part pL 
D'^SSnc archers Judg. 5, 11; but 
see "pen L 

ysn (pL w. suf. 5f aoh) m. 1) a 
Uttle piece or fragment, fig. a maU 
stone, collect gravel, grit Lam. 3, 
16. 2) 1. q. yn arrow, fig. Hghtmnff 
Ps. 77, 18; r. ypj L 

^ISSZn (only c ifiXfn, 'pcm) m. 
perh. a division or row; only in 

lari' 1*12211 pr. n. (perh. row of 
palm-trees) of a city in Judah near 
the Dead Sea Gen. 14, 7, 'n p:fn 2 
Ch. 20, 2. 

Digitized by 





iiSibn denom. ftrom htr'xn 

• • •-• ▼ s -t 

(which see) to blow the trwnptt; 
Imt only in part. d-^^TSatng (K'thibh) 
trwmpeUm 1 Ch. 15, 24, where the Q'ri 
has ^ma^xo as part. Pi. of 12tn. 

rnSSSJl t trumpet Hos. 5, 8j see 
"f I -1 

*l^n (obs.) akin to W, to 
fence around, inclose; hence *^^ and 
yrgn I. — — Perh. akin to X^P"^^^ 
L. hortvM, Qt. garten, B. ^ar(2en, W. 

l]£n (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
"nrtl, <o smg^ to sound forth bright 
and clear, hence perh. h'n^crj; then 
fig. (like )btj) to be bright or green, 
to bloom, hence T^i H. — Pi. "nsn 
to blow the trumpet, prob. in part. 
U'«' IJ j^j <nif?ipders, only in Q'ri of 
1 Ch. 15, 24, as some read. 

"Sn (c n?n, pi. d^'-wi, nS-ijn, 
c ''^sn, ni'iSfH; r. 'Xgn) com. incfoseci 
j)2ace; hence 1) court, yard 2 Sam. 
17, 18; esp. that around the taber- 
nacle £x. 27, 12; also those within 
or around the temple, '*a^3B»i ■'3ttTH 
(he mner court Ez. 40, 28, "^^ff^ 
njtrnn the outer court Ez. 10, 5. 
2) a village, forming an enclosure Gtexu 
25, 16, Josh. 13, 23. Hence 

■WK *lSn pr. n. (village of Addar) 
of a place in Judah l^um. 34, 4; 
called also simply n^ Josh. 15, 3. 

m 3 "TISBI pr. n. (village of luck) 
of a place in Judah Josh. 15, 87. 

510% nSH pr. n. (mare-viDage) 
of a place in Bimeon Josh. 19, 5; 
also ealled 

DX% 'tSTl (village of horses) 
1 Ch. 4, 31. 

■pS**? iSn pr. n. (fountain-village) 
of a place in the north of Palestine 

Ez. 47, 17; written also 'JJ'^ "ISTJ 
Num. 34, 9. 

byW nSn pr. n. O'ackal-village) 
of a place in Simeon Josh. 15, 28. 

■jiS'Wri "nSn pr. n. (middle vil- 
lage) of a place on the borders of 
the Hauran Ez. 47, 16. 

^*^Sn l)pr.n. m.(perh. blooming, 
T. /rgnj Gen. 46, 9; patron- '^p'^^i 
Hezronite Num. 26, 6. 2) pr. n. 
(court) of a city in Judah Josh. 15, 
25; called also lisn v. 23. 

t^^lSn pr. n. (villages) of a station 
of the Israelites Num. 11, 85. 

■nSn pr. n. m. (perh. blooming) 
2 Bwn. 23, 35 but Q*ri "hm 

D'*^Sn pr.n. Deut. 2, 23; seeW. 

M^'TSH pr.n. m.(village of death) 
of a settler in Arabia Felix Gen. 10, 26; 

cf. the region Zfyyo^ Hadramawt, 

pH I, see p'^n. 

PH n (r. ppj; only in pL c '^pl^n 
prob. for '»E*?f ^^^ "^^S ^<>^ '^ fr<"^ 
OP) m. a decree Is. 10, l; resolve 
Judg. 5, 15. 

pn (w. Maq. -pn, w. suf. *^^, 
?]|yn, also ?||pn Lev. 10, 13, pi tD^lpn, 
c/'^PJ, ''pn Ez. 20, 18; r. ppn) m. 
1) prop, what is cut in or graven, 
hence prescribed, appointed, e. g. a 
task Ex. 5, 14; allowance ot food 
Prov. 30, 8; boundary Job 26, 10, 
pn ""inb toUhoid bound Is. 5, 14; set 
time Job 14, 13. 2) statute Ps. 81, 5 ; 
also collect body of laws Ex. 15, 25; 
decree of God Ps. 2, 7; |H)rft(m fixed 
by law Ex. 29, 28; a custom settled 
by law Judg. 11, 39. 

n|?n (Qal obs.) 1. q. pgh, to 
cut into, engrave, delineate. — Pu. 
to be engraved, carved 1 K. 6, 35; to 

Digitized by 





be delineated £z. 8, 10. — Hith. to 
set bounds (cl ph), e. g. Job 13, 27 
•"W;*? ''^^^ '''^^^"i? HPO» (/or) 
the roots (soles) of my feet dost thou 
set limits, L e. dost mark for my 
feet how far they may go. 

JTjjn (c ngn, pi. ni>n) f. otpn, 
statrUe, law, T^pifi^ ngn ordinance of 
the passover Ex. 12, 43, laws of the 
heavens L e. of nature Job 88, 88, of 
God Lev. 8, 17; pL customs Mic 6, 
16, cf. 1 K. 3, 14; r. ppn. 

KKpn pr. n. m, (bent), Bzr. 2, 
51; Arom 



YJ I (obs.) L q. Arab. 
he bent or crooked, 

p)?ln (inf. w. sot ipn, -ipsin; 
imper. -w. suf. n;^) to cut into, to 
hew, in a rock Is. 22, 16; to carve 
in or inscribe, w. i? Is. 30, 8; to 
trace, portray, w. b? Is. 49, 16; to 
crdain lawi Prov. 8, 27; to decree 
Is. 10, 1. Part pgh rukr Judg. 5, 

9. — Po. pBh (ftit. pBh*;) to decree 
Prov. 8, 15: part pprra a law- 
giver Deut. 88, 21; a judge, ruler 
Judg. 5, 14; sceptre (i. q. laniD) as the 
badge of magisterial power Gen. 49, 

10. — Pa. part, pjrm prop, whai « 
ordained i. e. a law Prov. 81, 5. — 
Hoph. pnn (ftit ^pm for ^pn^, Grami 
§ 67, Bern. %) to be engraved, w. a 
Job 19, 28. — Prob. mimet akin to 

npj, "ipj, Arab. ^, Sans, tot 
(break), 64<i>, G. hacken, B. Aacft, W. 

ppn pr. n. (digging) of a town 
on the borders of Asher and Kaph- 
tali Josh. 19, 84; pp>in in 1 Gh. 
6, 60. 

''Ppn Is. 10, 1, see pn n. 


r\ I (fnt ^prp) prop, to dig; 

hence to search, examine Job 13,9, 
d 28, 27; to explore by mining 
Job 28, 3 ; to search oul, by inquiry 
Deut 18, 15; to make a survey of 
a land, w. ace. Judg. IS, 2; to exa- 
mine, of fbod, to taste Proy. 28, 30; 
to test the mind 1 Sam. 20, 12. — 
Niph. ipna to be searched out Jer. 
81, 37; to be ascertained 1 K. 7, 
47. — Pi. to search or seek out Eco. 
12, 9. 

^^D (P^- ^ '*'?h*^) m. 1) a searching 
out Job 34, 24; n;3r| I'V nosearehtng 
out, i. e. unsearchable Prov. 25, 3; 
^P^ T^""»? ^*^ ^^'^ « «o searching 
out, i. e. so as to be numberlese Job 
9, 10; ab •^•Tjari acorcWii^ of heart, 
i. e. (le^t^ero^iontf Judg. 5, 16. 2) 
a secret, the inmost or deepest part, 
of a thing, as of the sea Job 38, 16; 
unsearcha^leness of God, i. e. of his 
works and plans Job 11, 7 (cl ra 
PolOt) too 9tou 1 Cor. 2, 10). 

*n(only pL d^'lh, O^lh; r. W) 
m. a noble, free-bom 1 K. 21, 8; -^ 
d-prin Ecc. 10, 17 son of nobles. 

^H Is. 11, 8 hole; see "Tftn. 

iS ill (obs.) i. q. Arab, ^jy^ 

to ease the bowels; hence i^*!^ a 

tX^Ti m. (only pi. c ''^ 2 K. 6, 
25 for''*-«*in, w. suf. Bn'^^T? Is. 36, 
12, and tarn^ 2 K. 18, 27 in ffthibh 
(but untfxi in QVi) excrements, dung 
2 K. 18, 27; mi'^ *»nrj dwcs* dung 
2 K. 6, 25. 

11 jn (Qal obs.) L q. tfTffto 
be sharp, to cut, cf. CJhald. tJjWi 
icnife; hence y^. — Niph. S^»T3 
f wound one another, to fight 2 'EL 
3, 23. — Hoph. (only inf. abs. a^TttJ) 
to fight 2 E. 8, 23. 

Zi jin (imper. aSn Jer. 50, 21, 

Digitized by 






fut. a*Tri, a-TP Jer. 26, 9) perh. 
akin to yyo, I) to dry tfp, of water 
throtigli heat Gen. 8, 13, of the 
^und C^en. 8, 18, of the sky, devoid 
Q{ douds and vapours Jer. 2, 12. 2) 
fig. to he desolate, watte, of a parched- 
up region Is. 34, la, of sanctuaries 
Am. 7,9; to he dM(Mod, of apeople 
Is. 60, 12; trans, to lay waste Jer. 
50,21. — NIph. ainj to he laid waste 
Ez. 26, 19. — Pu? a^ri to he dried 
Judg. 16, 7. — Hipb. a'^^TTiJj to dry 
tip, of water Is. 50, 2; to make de- 
solate^ of places Judg. 16, 24, of a 
people 2 K. 19, 17. — Hoph. aw 
to he desolated Ez. 26, 2. 

Snn Chald. L q. Heb. a?!. — 

Hoph. (3"pers. fc r^y?V ^ ^« ^^ 
waste £zr. 4, 15; cf. anro. 

31jn adj. m., ra"nr[ f. (pL w. art. 
rria^ Ez. 36, 35) Ibry Lev. 7, 10; 
desoicde, wasU Jer. 33, 10; r. a"nn. 

a*TI (w. snf. •^2"tn, pL niann, c 
rrn-jn -^r. a:?n) f. l) a s^arp or cutting 
tool Josh. 5, 2; a sword Ez. 5, 2; ir^ 
a-jn tfib Dent. 13, 16, a"^ a*^ 
Josh. 1*3, 22 to smile or Wfl w. 
{mouik of) a sword, cf. a'Vja i|J 
Knm. 14, 3. 2) r. a^n, dryness or 
draught, only Deut 28, 22. 

Snn and S'T^n pr. n. (desolate) of 
whole range of Mount Sinai Esc 17, 6. 

a'Tl m. dryness Judg. 6, 37; 
tkvugkt Oen. 31, 40; desolation Ez. 
29, 10; r. a-Tn. 

na'^n (r. a?j; pi. nbrn, w. art 
nraTJj'c. rviaTJ) f. wasteness, deso- 
Wioniiev. 26, 31; pi. waste places, 
ruins Ps. 102, 7, also in Job 3, 14 
•iob rria'jn D'«abn trAo build ruins for 
themselv^, either restoring ruined 
palaces and cities, or building new 
ones doomed to ruin. 

TOTl (for w^n; r. :iyj) f. <fry- 
ne88, ^fianna on the dry land Gen. 

'jia'in (only in pL c '»r'a"!n) nL 
drought Cheats, only in Ps. 32, 4; 
r. ann. 

Mi3*lH pr. n. m. (Pers. perh. 
ass-driver) Est. 1, 10 (njiann Ett.4,9). 

U'^n (only in fut. pL Wjrn) 
perh. akin to p*?5, to tremble, to haste 
or flee, only iaPs. 18, 46; see on ^^n. 

Va'in (prob. ftom a*?; w. dimin. 
ending b-^— ) m. a locust, so called 
ftom its motion Lev. 11, 22. Ql 

Arab. J*->^ #0 leap, gallop, as a horse; 
^ll^")^ ^ ^^^ ^^ wingless locust. 

T^n (fut. T?tn) ^) ^'^ tremble, 
quake Ex. 19, 18; to be alarmed Ex. 
19, 16; to palpitate, w. b of cause 
Job 37, 1; fig. <o be anxious, w. i^ 
for 2 K. 4, 13. 2) to come trem- 
bhng, to haste, w. "p, from Hob. 11, 

10. — Hiph. 'T^'?J3 ^ ^^ *^^^' 
8, 12. — Prob. mimet. akin to lan, 
V5'n, •TTto n, Syr. 9yo, xpaWo, W. 
cry^ (ajpie), E. cradle. 

TJH (pi. d*nnn) adj. m. trembling, 
anxious, w. V? for 1 Sam. 4, 13; 
fearing, reverent, the object put w. 
a Ez. 10, 3, w. b? Is. 66, 2, w. bfij 
is. 66, 5. 

or of a' spot near it, ^nn y^y Judg. 
7, 1; gentil. 'Wj a Harodite 2 Sam. 
23, 25. 

nTin (c. rvn^n, pi. ni^rrj Ez. 26, 
16) tlfa trevMing, terror Oen. 27, 
38; care, anadefy 2 K. 4, 13, 2) pr. 
n. (trembling) of a station in the 
wUdemess Hum. 33« 24. 

rrjn (<«. ^rin;, ^06. n<i 

Digitized by 






akin to ^Vj, to bum, gloto^ used only 
of anger; ^1^ STjni and my anger 
shall bum i. e. I will be angry Ex. 
22,23, w. 2 Gen. 30, 2, w. bx Num. 24, 
10, w. b? Zech. 10, 3 a< or against any 
one. Impera. "ft rrnn it burned to AitJi 
i. e. he was hot or angry Gen. 31, 36 ; 
w. •»''5''?a it kindled in his eyes 1. e.his 
eyes flashed anger Gen. 31, 35. — 
Nipli. part pi. D'^'Vjj angry, incensed^ 
w. a against Is. 41, 11. — Hiph. 
nw (fat. apoc. ^W) to let bum, 
to kindle anger, w. 5? against Job 
19, 11; to show ardour , zeal Neh. 
3, 20; tpna p^vtyry rrjnn r<y^ after 
him Baruch zealously repaired (the 
wall), comp. Gram. § 142, 3, 6. — 
TIph. (fat. rnnn-;, Gram. § 55, 5) 
to be emulous, to rival Jer. 22, 15.; 
w. r« to contend with Jer. 12, 5. — 
Hitb. (fut. apoc. "»r!nn) to make one- 
self hot or angry, to fret, Ps. 37, 1. 
' — ■ This r. is prob. akin to ina 
(where see Note); of. L. uro, ira. 

H jPl (obs.) perh. akin to n^, 
to protect; perh. hence 

iT'n^in pr. n. m. (perh. 
Bhelter) Neh. 3, 8. 

m Ib » 

T\"irT see "fin. 


1T\T\ (only pi. D'^tsinn) i. q. Arab. 
jJS.' Syr. ]\hLt»t string of corals or 
pearls, pi. necklaces Cant. 1, 10; r. 


ym (pi. b^Hn Prov. 24, 31) m. 
a ihorn-bush or n^ Job 80, 7; r. 

!r|ttV^t1 pr. n. m. (perh. snnb- 
nosed, froinW^n w. ending q-. , see 
p. 501) Neh. 8, 10; see r. 0"nn n. 

•jiin (o. yinn, pi. thv^\ r. t^yy) 
m. 1) ^glow, heaty V^ Thn heat of 
anger Nmn, 26, 4; anger Ps. 2, 5; 
pL bursts ofamgtr Ps. 88, 17. 2) perh« 

a withered thorny sort of brushwood, 
hence a dry fagot, only in Ps. 
58, 10. 

■jiin pr. n. (prob. i. q. 'tl rv»a, 
which see) of a place near Timnath 
Serah; hence gentiL '»3*in Horonite 
Neh. 2, 10. 

vj^'^n pr. n. m. (perh. early bom 
r. V\yy II), whence gentil. "^W"^ 1 
Ch. 12, 5 K'thibh; see C|'''in. 

y^"in I (r. yy^) m. l) <Kfc* or 
fosse, of a fortress^Dan. 9, 25; prop, 
part, one sKghtly wounded Lev. 22, 
22. 2) a decision or judgment, pajS 
■pnnnin the valley of decision or pu- 
nishment Joel 4, 14. 3) gold (r. yyi) 
only poetical Ps. 68, 14, cf. ^ptwo;. 

Win n (for y^n; pL tnrnr, 
w. firm' -7-; r. "pn H) adj. m. 1) 
a^iw, ca^cr, hence imftisfrtou*, stren- 
uous Prov. 12, 27. 2) r. yy^ I, sAarp, 
pointed, e. g. )'5i"in a'^iia pointed thresh- 
ing -sledge Is. 41, 15; also simply 
y^'^rj Is. 28, 27 ; fig. a pointed sherd 
or sharp stone Job 41, 22. 3) pr. n. 
m. (active) 2 K. 21, 19. 

rK^nn (only pL niTTn) t a 
6^rp threshing-sledge Am. 1, 3. 

Tin (obs.) akin to'p'jii.q. 
Arab. }^, <o bore through e. g. gems 
or pearls for stringing; hence inn 

I I J) I (obs.) perh. akin to vrt)y 
!p|i to protect; hence perh. rwtT. 

"l^tnn pr. n. m. (burning, r. 1^) 
Ezr. 2, 51 . 

HTTin for IT^nn in Neh. 3, 8 

t-j:- »ii- 

in some texts. 

Ornn pr. n. m. (perh. brilliaiit, 
reduplicated form of onn) 2 K. 22, 
14; but rTTDn in 2 Ch. 34, 22. 

■ffnn (r. *i^) m. inftammaJ^ont 
/ever^only Deut. 28, 22. 

Digitized by 





LJ jri (obs.) to scrape, grave. 
— Hunet., akin to yyil^xoyj, rnn, 
D*?}, Syr. w4|^, Sans.Arorp (to hoHow), 
^opaxTo, L. cardo, cardims, G. 
kratxen^ K wrofeA, card, "W. carthu, 
Breton karta, skarza; all suggestive 
of a scraping sound. Deny. 0*^*^1 

"Ct^^ m. 1) a graver^ chisel Ex. 
32, 4. 2) a stylus, metal pen, prop, 
a graving or writing instrument; 
fig. Is. 8, 1 Xbm J^y^ a manCs style, 
i. e. ordinary style of writing known 
among the people* 

DtS'in (from 13'jn w. the ending 
D^— , cf. d^Tp; only pi. d'^aoT?, see 
Gram. § 93, 8, Par. YIII) m. a scribe 
Gen. 41, 8, prob. one that used the 
graving or writing instrument, esp. 
in Egypt, one skilled in cutting or 
writing hieroglyphics, hence a sacred 
icriter; pL D'^53tt")TO the sacred 
scribes Ex. 8, S. 

Utryn Chald. l. q. Heb. scribe 
Dan. 2,* 10; pi. 'paia'^n Dan. 2, 27. 

'nn m. glow, heat; C)K '^y^ heat 
of anger Ex. 11, 8; r. unin, 
■^n, see K'jn. 

■^ I (prob. r. n^n) m. prop, 
whiteness, hence white or fine bread, 
only in Gen. 40, 16 ^ •»ib baskets 
of white bread, Sept. xava ^ovSpiToiv ; 
but perh. from ^yj to roast or bake, 
akin to Chald. Kn'in cake. 

"^n n (from ^in w. a4j. ending 
•>-7-) pr. n. (cave-dweller, tpcDYXo- 
Wtt)^) of a troglodyte people in 
Mount Seir Gen. 14, 6; ph D'»'Vl JETo- 
riies Deut. 2, 12. 

■*^n, see •''Tin; r. "i^n. 

to'nn (pi. trw^) m. i.jq. Arab. 
liAiyL, purse or io.^ for money 2 K. 

5, 28; prop, something carved or 
hollowed out as a receptacle; r. ny^. 

tj'^n pr. n. m. (i. q. Arab. J^i^L 

the autumnal rain, akin to vfj^ 
autumn) Neh. 7, 24, but M^*'^ in 
Ezr. 2, 18; patron. ''B^Tn Eariphite 
1 Ch. 12, 6 in Q*ri. 

ynn (pi. c. ^ttii r-i^i) m. 

1) a ctd, slice; nim "^yi^Tn slices of 
curdA or neu; cAeese 1 Sam. 17, 18. 

2) i. q. yTTi n 2, bt-jan ■'Snn iron 
threshing-sledges 2 Sam. 12, 31. 

TZ3'''^n m. 1) a ploughing, O. Eng. 
earing 1 Sam. 8, 12. 2) ploughing- 
time Gen. 45, 6; r. ty\. 

"^"HH a4j. m., only rw")n f. in 
use, siierd, still, hence 6uZ^ry, of the 
east wind, only Jon, 4, 8; r, xbyj I. 

Tjjn I (fut. r(W) prob. akin 
to yyj, Ohald.tJ^, to roast, only in 
Prov. 12, 27 the idle man (njo*^ 
= n*a*j m*) roasteth not his game 
(IT^S); others prefer to render it 
catcheth not his game, see r\y} n 2. 


n (obs.) 1) i q. -rj-n^, to 
interlace, hence TpH. 2) to catch, 
seize, perh. in Prov. 12, 27. 

1]'nn Chald. (Peal obs.) L q. 
Heb. r\y} I, to singe, bum. — Itbpa. 
to be singed, of the hair Dan. 3, 27. 

Ipn (only pL ^^y^n; r. ^n H) 
m. lattices f window-lattices, only in 
Cant. 2, 9; ct hS^nfec. 


(obs.) prob. akin to 1^ 
to bum, to be sharp or stinging; 
hence prob. hvnn thorn or nettle; cf. 
L. urttca from f*ro. 

D"|in I (Qal obs.) prob. to shut 
in, enclose, hence D'^n a net\ also to 

Digitized by 




consign (to ndn), hence uy^ ^ ^^'"^^^ 
— Hiph. B'^W 1) to Bet apart for 
God (opp. Vm il) L e. (o consecroAe^ 
devote (to holy purpose) Lev. 27, 28. 
2) to devote (to evil or curse), i. e. to 
lay wastes destroy utterly Deut 2, 
34; comp. L. sacrare in hoth good 
and evil sense. — Hoph. D'^TttJ to be 
consecrated Ezr. 10, S^to be destroyed 
Ex. 22, 19. 

U jrl nakin to Arah. f^, Syr. 
^o|J9, to break olf, hence part. pass. 
DTin (onh) cttt off, shortened, of a 
snubhy nose, flat-nosed Lev. 21, 18 
(see qonn). — Hiph. o'^'vin to cut 
asunder, to divide or 8p/t^ Is. 11, 15. 

D jln in (ohs.) akin to D-nn, to 
be high; hence T^s*]^!* 

D^n pr. n. (devoted or high) of 
a place in Naphtali Josh. 19, 38. 
Win pr. n. m. (= twnn, D-jn 

flat-nosed) Ezr. 2, 82; cf. Byr. >o|J0 
pug-nose, perh. akin to 9i(i6c, L« 
simus, simia (ape); r. D^ IL 

D^n, 0*1)1 in Zech. 14, 11 (r. 
o^ I; w. suf. "naTi, pi. ^^vnn) m. 

1) anet (prop, enclosure) Hah. 1, 15. 

2) a curse or destruction (Bept. dvd- 
dtfia) Beut. 7, 26, cf.Ual. 3, 24; the 
object devoted, a devoted 0iing (Sept. 
dvddT)(ia) Lev. 27, 21. 

HMTlrt pr. n. (desolation) of a 
foyal city of the Canaanites Num. 
14, 45; formerly r^ Judg. 1, 17. 

I^U'iri pr. n. m. (mountain peak, 
r. D"nn ni) Eermon, the mountain 
of Anti-Libanus Josh. 11, 3; as it 
has three summits, we find the pi. 
B^3b73 in Ps. 42, 7 the JSermons (cf. 
the Alps). 

mative ending t^^-, see uiider letter 
is:) m. a sickle Deut. 16, 9. 

|1H (for Tjn; r. "T^n) 1) pr. n. m. 
(perh. noble) 1 Ch. 2, 46. 2) pr. 

n. (L q. Arab. 4dl>^ parched, Syr. 
^i^) of a city of Meaopotamia Gen. 
11, SI, Haran. 

'^'Tl, see 

l^tj "^ V^' n- (prob. double cave; 
perh. gentil. ''ph fforomfe Neh. 2, 10. 

"^Sp.'W pjf* n- ^^ (perh. from "*?} 
to snort and Syr. |aJ to poni; hence 
perh. snorter-panter) 1 Oh. 7, 86. 

D JPI I (obs.) L q, Arab. ^/Ji, 
Syr. vx^i^, to be rough, of the Ma, 
hence to 5e scabby, 

D"in n (obs.) perh. to be UrngK 
sticky, of clay; hence tWTfi, 

Onn (obs.) prob. akin to Y?h 
to glow, to shine, of the sun. 

tnn m. l)r.Dnn I, the ttoADeut 
28, 27. 2) r. ^yj, the sun Job 9, 7; 
nc^ Judg. 14, 18, prop, shining, brU- 
liance. — On Cnn in Is. 19, 18, as 
some texts read, see under D*Vi. 3) 
pr. n. (place of clay, r. Wn n) of a 
city in Mount Ephraim Jodg. 2, 9, 
but n^ in Josh. 19, 50, 

shop, only in Jer. 19, 2; r. D^ IL 
Others take the word to be, MNi-rtie, 
r. onn. 

niD'ltl Jer. 19, 2 Q!ri for rfW^ 

#?jn (obs.) prob. i q. Syr. X^ 
in Ethpa. to be ewmmg; pexh. 

hence $7^ 

5] J~ I (ftit tj-TTi;) akin to tpa, 
also tf^i (cl Sans, harp break, Lat. 

Digitized by 





earpo, "Kcafp) i. q. Arab. ^J^, to puU 
or plucJc fruit, whence C]'Tn autumn: 
fig. fo i#p6ratd, rcproacA, w. ace. Ps. 
69, 10; w. y2 of the cause Job 27, 6; 
c£. 3^^> i?^ 2) as denom. of C)'Tt 
io iHMa ^A« ate^umn and tvinter Is. 
18, 6. — Pi. ^y^ (^t. tit^n*;) 1) to 
upbraid, scom^ reproach^ w. ace. 1 
Sam. 17, 26, w. b 2 Ch. 32, 17, W. a 
2 Sam. 23y 9; to expose, to hazard^ 
as if in scorn Judg. 5, 18. — Niph. 
r|^3 to he plucked or gathered (as 
ripe fruit), of a marriageable woman, 
to he hetrothed Lev. 19, 20. 


n (only fut. t Cj-Trin) 
denom. of ({"jH, to pass the autumn, 
to vfinter, only in Is. 18, 6. Cf. pp, 
denom. of y^g, to summer, 

{Tj^l*! pr. n. m. (perh. ripe) 1 Ch. 
2, 51.^ 

fj'Tl (w. Hut •^d'nn) m. a pluck- 
ing of fruit (r.C|-nni),Aan7e«i,tttrfwwn 
also induslYe of winter, e. g. y*^ 
q*^*! mimmer csnd aMiiumn, put for 
the whole year Gen. 8, 22 j C)'JTn n*^? 
terin^-ZbiMe Am. 3, 15; fig. maturity 
of life Job 29, 4. — Prob. akin to 
XGcproc, L. corpora, G. htrhsi, £. 
crop and Aarresf.— Hence the denom. 
Yerb Cj'Th n. 

nSWl (pL M'fe'jn, c. n^lfi'nn Ps. 69, 
10; r. Cpn 1) f. 1) reproach or scorn, 
coniumefy Job 16, 10; b$ n^^i Kfe} 
#0 te*c ifp reproach against Ps. 15, 3; 
also to hear reprocoeh hecause of Ps. 
e9,€ ; ft reproach, i. e. an oftjec* of re- 
proach Ps. 22, 7; disgrace, shame 
Gen. 34, 14. 2) parts of shame, pu- 
denda Is. 47, 3. 


J) 1 1 (frit }nn:i) ^^^ *o '^"^^• 
^^, to cut in, to scrcstch; part, 
ynn f^^^ib% immnied Lev. 22, 22; 
to eut to a point, to ^Mrpen^ of the 

tongue of a barking dog Ex. 11, 7; 
to decide l K. 20,40; part. pi. urpnn 
fixed, determined, of days Job 14, 5; 
fig. to he sJiarp to ihetsate, to he acid, 
sour; hence ^'^v^p grape-kernels; of 
the ihind, to he eager, on the alert 
2 Sam. 5, 24. — !f ipli. (only part f. 
trxm, e. MWS) to he decided, decreed; 
Is. 10, 2» W^JI JiV? destruction and 
a decreed thing, i. e. decreed ruin (Iv 
dtdi $uotv, Gram. § 155, l,a); decreed, 
1. e. a decree Dan. 9, 26. 


n (ftit. inm) akin to 
y^n I, to gird oneself, to he active, 
hence yvir 11; 2 Sam. 5, 24 t^ 
y jro f Aen de M(m on ^ al^« 

]^n Chald. (obs.) akintoHeb. 
]rin, to gxrd oneself; hence 

Y^H Chald. (def. K^Tjn, w. wif. 
^!fTTl^ m. totna Ban. 5, 6; i q. Heb. 
ybn, the liquids b and "l being inter- 

j^n (obs.) i. q. x>y\, to aWne, 
glitter, of the colour of gold; hence 
prob. ynn gold, of. xp«*^^c. 

abCTH (only in pL niM^n) 1 a 
tight cord Is. 58, 6; fig. pangs (cf. 

ban) Ps. 73, 4; cf: Arab. «-»/aft- to 
bind fast, draw tight. — Prob. fhim 
•jnn n to gird or hind tight, w. the 
format ending >— (ct aln^ see 
under letter n, p. 74. 

■pPin (only pi. D''|;r73) ™- ^^JP«" 
kemeu, perh. so called for their acrid 
taste Num. 6, 4; but some understand 
sour grapes; r. yyj I. 


(Alt. phrp) mfanet aMn 

to Arab. 3>^i ^<> ^^ o^^ ^na«A, to 
grind the teeth, w. ace. o'W p'^n 
Ps. 85, 16; w. ^, O'jto 'in Job 16, 9. 

**nn (a 1 rnrj for ngrt) i* q. 

Digitized by 




rm, akin to hyj, yyj, tyj, i) to 

ghioy bum, of metal £z. 24, 11, of 
persons Is. 24, 6. 2) to be puttied 
or refined by heat; then to be noble, 
free-bom, hence "Vu 8) to 6e <&»y, 
parched up Job 80, 80. — Niph. "^J 
also in? (Uke in?, r, bill), pi, VHTfi, 
in pause ^inj; ftit. irr Bz. 16,^5 
(Gram. § 67, 5) to be burnt, torched 
Jer. 6, 29; to be dried up Ps. 102, 4; 
to get heated to. anger, w. a o^otftff 
Cant. 1, 6. — Pilp. 11371 (inf. iniTl) 
to kindk strife Prov. 26, 21. 

*nH (only pi. ta^i^jn) m. mn-bumt 
place, arid spot Jer. 17, 6; of. trrx, 

"0 jn (ftit. H^rn) akin to tlh, 
ttin (which see), yyj, niTJ, 1) to cu^ 
in, engrave letters on a tablet Jer. 
17, 1; to cuf into shape, to sculpture 
wood, stone, metal 1 K. 7, 14; fig. 
to contrive, devise evil Prov. 6, 14, 
or good Prov. 14, 22; w. h^ against 
Prov. 8, 29. 2) to plough (cf. Arab. 

*1»^), of the oatUe Job 1, 14, also 
of the ploughman 1 K. 19, 19, w. :^ 
of the cattle Deut. 22, 10; w. ace of 
field (fig.) Job 4, 8; to ca^ by cruel 
scourging, w. b? Ps. 129, 3. — Niph. 
ttjins to be ploughed Jer, 26, 18. — 
Hipii. ^*W, to cov^rive, devise, w. 
by against 1 8am. 28, 9. 

IC^n I (obs.) to be soft, sticky, 
cf. biTj H; hence fein 1. 

ID'^n H (obs.) to be rough, ct 
Din I; perh. hence bin 2. 

ID^n I (ftit tbirn) 1) perh. 
prop, to 6e tnerf or stiU, hence — 
a) as to the ears, to fre deo^ Mic 7, 
16; P) as to the tongue, to 6e (ium5 
or silent Ps. 50, 8; w. yo, to be silent 
(turning away) from Ps. 28, 1, see 
Oram. § 141. — Hipb* W^W 1) to 

be deaf 1 8am. 10, 27. 2) to cause 
to be stiU, to silence Job 11, 3; to 
keep silence, to hold one^s peace Gen. 
24, 21; w. b or ^( in respect to 
Num. 30, 5, Is. 41, 1 ; w. ip from, 
L e. not to interrupt but let alone 
Job 18, 18; w. ace to conceal Job 
41, 4tito be stiU or quiet Ex. 14, 14; 
to go away quietly from, w. ^, Jer. 
88, 27. — Hith. unnnn to keep one- 
self quiet or stiU Judg. 16, 2. 

ID jPI n (obs.) akin to Dir, 
yyj to ghw, shine, glitter; fig. to be 
green, to grow luocuriant, of a wood. 

Win (for tthn; c. Xiryj w. -;- firm, 
pi. d'»©in, c •'iin; see Ghraxn. § 93, 
4, Bem.) m. artificer or workman, 
e. g. in wood (D^:0), a carpenter Is. 
44, 13; in stone (f^t^), a nuwon 2 
8am. 5, 11; in iron (?tia), a smith 
Is. 44, 12: fig. rmmi '^xcnn workers 
ofrumBz. 21, 86;'r. x^T}! 

Wn (for tthn, pi. d'lU^in) adj. m. 
deafBx, 4, 11 ; r. »in L 

^Ijn m. (prob. part. CitJ 1 ) arfi- 
/l(w, in copper (n^n:), a copper- 
smith 1 K. 7, 14; a ctUting instrument 
or fool Gen. 4, 22. 

XSrh (w. n-p loc m^ih 1 Samu 
28, 16*, pL B'nDin; r. linrj n) m. 

1) a wood, thicket, forest la. 17, 9. 

2) pr. n. (forest) 1 Bam. 23, 15. 
ID'^n (pu o-nb^n; r. xorn) m. a 

craft or f rode; hence pr. n. D^n ryi "^^ 
vaMeg of the crafts, a place near 
Jerusalem Keh. 11, 35; also pr. n. 
a Levite of the Tabernacle 1 Ch. 9, 
15. 2) aH,aHi/?cc; 18.8,3 o-'t^^ nan 
wise (skilled) in magic arts^ i. e. a 
clever magician (cf. v3nb "j^p). 8) m- 
lence, as adv. silent^f, secretly Joalu 
2, 1; r. tthnL 

W^. (Pl- ti'»toin,c««^)nu prop. 
clay, potter's emrih (r. tnt} IX Uence 

Digitized by 



T a - 



1 ) pattefy, earthen- ware; to*ir[ ■>i» 
t^arthen vetael, piece of crockery Lev. 

0, 21 ; fenn •nan*'^ fashioner of pottery, 
Ma potter Jer. 19, 1. 2) potsherd Vt, 
/22, 1«, r. vyj XL 3) pr. n. (pottery) 
/of a city of Moab Is. 16, ll^aee Tip. 

j WSnn 1) pr. n. m. (Chald. perh. 
deaf) Ezr. 2, 52, 2) w. in, pr. n. 
<perh. hUl of craftsmen) Ezr. 2, 59. 
TO"tn, see under -ftp. 
rfO'Tn f. 1) skilled work, work- 
tnanship in wood or other materials 
Ex. 31, 5. 2) w. OTiin, pr. n- (perh. 
workshop of the nations) a city in 
the north of Palestine Judg. 4, 2. 

^111 i. q. xcnn, Chald. mn, 
akin to ^apaTXcu, to cut in, engrave, 
inscribe, w. b?, only in Ex. 32, 16. 

nnn (obs.) l q. ^n n, <© 

shine, glitter; flg. to be green; hence 
n'TJ pr. n. (i. q. VOTp a wood, 
thicket) of a wood in Judah 1 Sam. 
22, 5. 

Htpn (fat. 38^, before Maq. 

-aen?) akin to a»n II, W5n, Syr. 

^^L*^, Arab. >,iiiifc (to compute), perh. 
to CJTSS, to bind or wcare (cf. 3^); 
hence fig. to combine, to think (cf. 
COT), mbwrrg aim to devise devices, 
-w. b» Jer. 49, 20, w. b? against any one 
JGc. 2, 3 ; n^ m^ to contrive evil Ps. 
35, 4- ; to count for or a«, w. b i Sam. 

1, 13, w. two ace. Is. 53, 4; w. ace. 
and 2p Job 19, 11; also to impute, w. 
ace and h of pers. Gen. 1& 6; to in- 
rent Am. 6, 5^ part, ni^ K^eover Ex. 
26, 1 ; 35, 36. — Niph. at^nj to 6e 
redG;«>fte({ 2 K. 22, 7; to &e reckoned 
or imputed to any one, w. ^ Josh. 
13, 3; "w. ij 2 Sam. 4, 2, to ^ esteem- 
ed Pro^. 17, 28, w. f or iia's as Job 
18, 3, Hoc 8, 12; w. ta^ wUh Pa. 88| 

5. — PI. to compute Lev. 25, 27; w. 
HK, to recAron with 2 K. 12, 16; to 
tAin^ fiii4cA o/* Ps. 144, 3; to ponder 
Ps. 77, 6; to purpose or |?ifln Ps. 73, 

16, of. Prov. 16, 9, w. i^Dan. 11, 24, 
w. ^K Kah. 1, 9; flg. of things, to 
<Ar«aiSen, to (e a5<m< to (cf. (iIXXcd) 
Jon. 1, 4. ~ Hith. to t«c/M>n onese^, 
w. a omon^ Num. 23, 9. 

mtpri Chald. I q. Heb. n^. 
(only part pass. pL T'S'W) to r^orcl, 
c(mn^, w. I Of, only in Dan. 4, 32. 

ildl m.^dfeEx.28,97; r. ^X^. 

'2Vn m. artificer 2 Ch. 26, 15; 
weaver Ex. 26, 1 ; r. y^fn, 

{TD'naiOn pr. n. m. (perh. for 
nj^ n^ perh. thought of the 
judgment) Keh. 8, 4. 

rO^n pr. n. m. (perh. combina- 
tion) 'l Ch. 3, 20. 

•jiaiOn (r. I'drj) m. 1) combination, 
reasoning; hence judgment, penetra' 
tion Ecc 7, 25. 2) pr. n. (perh. 
alliance) of a Levitical city Josh. 13, 

17, common to Beuben Kum. 32, 37, 
and Qad Josh. 21, 37, formerly of 
the Ammonites Num. 21, 26. 

•jill^n (only pi. rriahfn) m. a 
contriving, device Ece, 7, 29; then 
a contrivance or invention, for war- 
like purposes, engines or int/krviments 
of war 2 Oh. 26, 15. 

H^lD'l, ^rPSlStl pr. n. m. (r.; 
regard8)'l Ch. 6, 30 i 26, 30. 

njUlTCn pr. n. m. (prob. invention) 
Neh.'l0, 26. 

rrSIlWf pr. n. m. <perh. pur- 
pose of Vj)'Neh. 3, 10. 

niDn (fut rram) mimet. akin 
T T »"* 

to n^ (on) which see, to hush, to 

be silent Is. 62, 1; to be stiU, quiet, 

of waves Ps. 107, 29; w. '^, e. g. 

Digitized by 





^Sfila r ron i r ' i P lest thou be still (and 
refrain) frtmi me (see on tyj I) Ps. 
28, 1. — Hiph. tT^^ (part. Tr^m) to 
keep silence Ps. 39, 3; to rest or he 
quiet Is. 57, 1 1 ; to silence, to quiet, w. 
\ Neh. 8, 11; imp. WTi 2 K. 2, 3. 5. 

*2ft&} pr. n. m. (thonghtftd, r. 
aiin) 1 Ch. 9, 14. 

?jil25n Chald. (def. KJ^ttlq) m. 
AirA:ne99 Dan. 2, 22, i. q. Heb. ?|tin. 

SS^ton pr. n. m. (perh. naked- 
ness, cf. r.'tjigr!) Ezr. 2, 43. 

"•Kton Is. 20, 4, see Gram. S. 87, l,A 
D^Ty^rain, see pl^ 

rrOn Chald. i. q. Syr. wila», 
akin to pwj, to he needful, part. pi. 
f. ITV"! perh. in Ezr. «, 9; to hofoe 
ncedf part. pL m. "priwn, w. b and int 
Dan. 3, 16. 

5|rnDn Chald. (c. wntin) 1 ntf«d; 
♦wcc«8%,'what is wanted Ezr. 7, 20. 

■jnicn Ohald. adj. m. nawyt*/ or 
necessary, only in Ezr. 6, 9 fjfih rrg^ 
atwi what is needful; from Vnglj af 
Chald. Ijan cn^»y from lyy 

nS*WTI, see nstrj. 

d"1$n, see d'^n, D^n. 

^Bn (ftit. TjttJTij) perh. akin to 
mm, to be hushed, inactive; h«Bce to 
be dim, dark, of the eyes Lam. 5, 17; 
w. ia and infl e. g. their eyes nja^TO 
mat'^g are <oo rfiw to set Ps. 69, 24; 
to be obscured, of the son Job 18, 
6, of the stars Job 3, 9, of the day 
Ez. 30, 18, of comeliness Lam. 4, 8, 
of the ground Ez. 10, 15. — Hiph. 
■Jpim to darken Am. 5, 8; to cause 
gloom Ps. 105, 28, w. i Am. 8, 9; 
fig. to darken L e. to confound Job 
38, 2. 

^Ipn (ftit ^rn, ^;bJT« Job to 
11) perh. akin to pm, pm, to hoU- 
Job 16, 5; to toUhhM, keep hack P 
Sam. 18, 16; w. ^« /Vom Gen. 22, 12 > 
to preserve Job 33, 18, cf. Ps. 19, 14 J 
w. b, to reserve for Job 38, 23. — 
Niph. t]'«^na to (e checked, mitigated, 
of pain Job 16, 6; to de spared, re- 
served, w. ^ /br Job 21, 80. 

Ipso (only pUf^adn) prop, adj.m. 
dark, but used only as substpl. dark 
places or darkness (Gram. § 108, 2, 
Bern. 2X only Is. 50, 10, r. ^Ifgn. 

■spin (only pi. D^STTT, see Gram. 
§ 93, 8, Kem.d!) adj. m. dark, fig. 
obscure, mean, only in Pro v. 22, 29; 

TpCn (w. sufl -^st^; r. ipgn) m. 
darkness Gen. 1, 2; fig. of Sheol or 
Hades Ps. 88, 13; misery Is. 9, 1; 
ruin Job 18, 18; ignorance Job 37, 
19; wickedness Prov. 2, 13, cf, to 
ffx6Tbc Bom. 13, 12. 

TO'&n (f. of "^) f. darkness^ 
only in Mic 3, 6. 

•^5^^!. once i' 11^' IBM Ps. 139, 12 
(c. nsuin Ps. 18, 12) t'darkness Gen. 
15, 12.' ■ 

^^" (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
win (which see), bias, to be relaxed, 
weak or j}ro5<rato.— Niph. (only part, 
pi. B'^b;§na) to be relaxed or enfeebled^ 
only in Deut. 25, 18. 

y^n Chald. L q. Syr. Vl^ 
prop, to ^tow or stir up, henoe 

- *. y 

^ H Aia V) tempest; hence to slhatter^ 

to shake or beat to pieces Dan. 2, 40. 


(obs.) prob. akin to TUgn, 

to &e 6r^A<; fig. to be cffhseniL 

Digitized by 





Don pr, n. m- (prob. afflnent) 
Ezr. 2/19. 

TV ' 

"ftalZJH pr. n. (perh. affluence) of 
a place in Judah Josh. 15, 27. 

T0Xi2&^ pr. n. (perh. brigbtttess) 
of a station of the Israelites in the 
wilderness Num. 33, 29. 

D^QWn (prob. from wbn, w. the 
formative ending b-^-i as in itt^3», 
Vojn; w. n-p loc. nbwn Ez. 8, 2; 
plVin the TfiOmud, D^ipW) m. hriffht 
metal, burnished copper, gddrbraas 

JBk. 1, 4 (ct xa^^o^^P®"*®^* P'^^* ^^^ 
xoXxoXCicapov Bev. 1, 15); r. D^jn. 

■ffi^n (prob. from D^ w. the 
adj. ending 1-r-, cf. -373; only pi. 
u^ratti)Adi,m.8plendidi fig. wealthy, 
noble ia. 68, 32. 



of the 
7*1 is 
perh. a i 

(obs.) akin to tairn L q. 
, to be bright or beaidiftU. 

, splendour, ornament, only 
jilliant breast-plate of the 
Ex. 28, 15; but perh. 
to y&y bosom, hence 

P]1Drri (ftit. t)tt3n;) 1. q. tfSin, 
1) to stri^ off foliage of trees Ps. 
29, 9, the llarkJoell,7; tomakebare 
Is. 52, 10. ifi) to c^raw off, separate, 
hmce t^'M^o take off water at the 
top or smi^i^ Is. 30, 14; to skim off, 
leaTii^ the ciJlregs or lees undisturbed 
Hag. 2, 1«; Srt. pL c '»pi\on li. 20, 4. 

Cji?n (pi. : c. •'inpn) m. what is di- 
-vlded' off; a ^ock of goats, only in 
1 K. 20, 27; ^. 5iwn. 

plDH pr-f ^. akin to pin, 1^, 
PBl in,^to Ac^T^*^ ^^'^ W^ together. 

hence fig. to 6« attached to, to love 
warmlg, w. a, of amorous feeling 
Gen. 34, 8, of love to Ood Ps. 91, 
14, of God's love Deut. 7, 7 ; without 
a, Is. 38, 17 •'ia nrap "^j wp^ 
^bott Aast loved my »ou/ (deUvering 
it) from the pit of ruin (Gram, § 
141); w. i and inf. to (fe%« or tot» 
to do anything 1 K. 9, 19. — Pi. 
to join, fasten together Ex. 38, 28. — 
Pu. to be fastened together Ex. 27, 17. 

pIDH (only pi. 6T?i»H, D^pwirj) 
m. aiiadments, connecting rods or 
poles Ex. 27, 10. 

ptDT\ (w. sut ''pifri Is. 21, 4) m. 

attachment, delight I K. 9, l;r.p*. 
ptSn (only pi. trpOT) m. spoAf 

of a wheel i. a. that which connects 

the Tim and the nave, only 1 K. 

7, 83; r. pt^^ 

""ion (obs.) L q. ^xi!S, Arab. 
Jii, to Wml to^rfA«r, to combim; 

gatherings L e. of the spokes; hence 
the nave of a wheel, only in 1 K.7, 33. 

?T!TSn (c. rnf^) t a gd^iering 
of waters, a cloud 2 Sam, 22, 12; 
the parallel passage (Ps. 18, 12) has 

dDn (ob8.)akin toWBp, w;?!?, 
to be dry, withered, hard. Hence 

lUlUn m. i. q. Arab. j ^ : * » '> <iry 
^aw,Aaj^Is.38,ll; h^n^ w* dty 
^(W« o/" e^ /Iaiw«, i.e.rpadlly burnt 
up Is. 5, 24. 

nn (r. nOH; w. suf. OSPiH Gen. 
9, 2) 1) adj. nu (pL oinn) 6ro/fen e. 
g.* the bow 1 Sam. 2, 4 (see Gram. 
§ 148, 1); fig. pamu^-struck Jer. 46, 5. 

Digitized by 





2) tubst fear, dread Ghen. 9, 2, cf. 
Job 41, 25; r. nnn. 

nrj pr. n, m. (an object of 
fright, r. nnn) Gen. 10, 15; whence 
patron. "^Pin JSUtite. 

nnn (ftit. nrrn) prob. aldn 
to XO^n to haste, hence to snatch up 
(fire) Prov. 6, 27; w. -p? from the 
hearth Is. 30, 14; w. b?, Prov. 25, 22 
for coals *i»«Tb? rtjh ntj^ e^ou 
Attrrtcs^ (i. e. quickly layest) on his 
head (Gram. § 141); fig. to snatch or 
|)^Xr OM^ay Ps. 52, 7. 

nrin t (error, only Gen. 35, 5; 
r. rvjn. 

ySPin m. 5an({t^e for a wound 
Ez. 30, 21; r. inn. 

nnrin(onlypl.d'^nDW?)m. (errors, 
a£arm«, only in Ecc. 12, 5; r. nnn. 

"WH (patron, of nn which see) 
m. Efttite 1 Sam. 26, 6, pi. D^n 
2 K. 7, 6, also nn -laa Gen. 28, 6; £ 

trm Ez. 16, 3, pi. ni»prr i K. ii, i, 

also nn ni'aa Gen. 27, 46; a race of 
people dwelling in the region of 
Hebron Gen. 23, 7. 

n^^nn (r. nnn) t terror E«. 32, 
27; fin-Jiiajp lan-'nn^ in their terror 
from their mi^ht, L e. in the dread 
of them proceeding from their power 
Ez. 32, 30. » Also as fern, patrony- 
mic, see ■»nn. 

^rin (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
Y^n, nnn to cut or sever, fig. to de- 
cide, — Niph. "!pm to be determin- 
ed, w. b? concerning Dan. 9, 24. 

Xijn (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
bn», ^x^, ^r\^, to hind, surround; 
hence to stoathe, ~ Pu. and Hoph. 
to he swathed, ninn Kb bnnn ijwu 
wast verily not' swad(Ued Ez. U, 4, 
Deriv, bnr.n and 

fl>t^n t a handage^ swaddling- 
hand Job 38, 9. 

P^^ pr- »• (perh. concealment) 
of a city in Damascene Syria £z» 
47, 15. 

Urjin (ftit DTttp) akin to brtfi^ 

&Dn, &QM, DX;, Arab. ^, to ^ncfose, 
to trrajp or «/^u( tip, w. *T^ arouft(^ 
to Aufe Job 9, 7 (cl T?Si "ijO); csp. 
to 560/, w. ace. Is. 8, 16; w. a of 
the seal 1 K. 21, 8; w. ^ of 'the 
thing in which the seal appears Joh 
87, 7; fig. to seal u^, 1. e. to reveal 
under seal or as a secret to be kept,, 
w. a, Job 33, 16 D'nrn O'J^fcft on 
their instruction he puts a seal; 
to complete or finish Dan. 9, 24 DFi nV 
nlKttn (K*thibh) for to finish the 
sins, i. e. till they are ended, where 
the Q*ri is Dnnb to complete, — 
Niph. nnns to he sealed E^t 3, 12. 
— Pi. to shut up Job 24, 16. — 
Hiph. dWin to shut up, to fstop Lev* 
15, 3. Deriv. omn, nonh. 

Dnn chaid. 

to seal up ban. 6, 18. 

Orin m. a seal, seal-r^ Br. 28, 
11; see Dnin. ; 

Dlin m. perh. seal oft perfeetian 
Ez. 28, 12; r. Dnn. lb 

natjn f. a seat, seSl-rinkg €feiw 
38, 25; r. Dnn. . i( 

jnn perh. akin \ to DW, OT^^ 
to enclose,combine Joined ffinity; hence 
part. m. "|Wi /^a<Aer-tn-^ bi9 (I e. wife'e 
father; opp. Dn the hu/ ^band^s £ather> 
Ex. 3, 1-, f. njnh moil 'ieMn4aw (i. e. 
wife's mother) Dent f% 23. — Hitb. 
to form mutual affi'f^^^ by giving 
and taking daughter -^ in marriage, 
w. n»t Gen. 34, 9, w^ ' a Josh, 28» 12, 
w. b 2 Ch. 18, 1. HP ^ence 

1. q. 



Digitized by 



23» no 

•prirt (c inn, w. 8uf. t'jnn, pi. 
fi'^?'?") m« bridegroom Is. 62, 5; 
san^n-law Gen. 19, 12; in genersd, 
marriage' relation 2 K. 8, 27; "pn 
tnm a blood- spouse, designation 
of a newly circmncised infant Ex. 

rOlnn f . eapowaoXs, nuptials Cant. 
8, ii] r.'inn. 

S^Zln (ftit C)hTT;) akin to ntjn, 
CjDh, t^t ^0 catch, seize, as a beast 
of prey Job 9, 12. Hence 

JTjnn m. pr^ or rapine, poet, 
robbm, only Prov. 23, 28. 

nljln (fat. ihn?) perh. akin to 
"ira, to break through, w. a Ez. 8> 
8; to break into a house, w. aco. 
Job 24, 16; (o rmo Jem. 1, id; hence 


(ftit nn;;, in pause nrp^ 
nnn, w. n cohort, npinx) prop, io cut 
up, to break or crush (see Pi.), hence 
fig. to be dismayed (cf. L. frangi 
metu, ixicXiQTT890ai) Beut. 31, 8; 
w. '»5ttp oi ^ /occ o/* Jer. 1, 17 •, 
w. io' at Is. 30, 31. — Nipb. nn* 
(fat. niTi) to be alarmed Mai. 2, 5. 
— W. nnn to dismay Job 7, 14; ia 
be shattered Jer. 51, 56. — Hiph. 
nm (fat. nn;, in'^n'; Hah. 2, 17 for 
inn';, Ghram. § 20, 3, Bern.; "^nnm 
Jer. 49, 37 for "W*?!? ^o break Is. 
9, 3; to terrify Job 31, 34, Jer. 1, 
17. -^ Prob. mimet. akin to Arab. 

^^» ^ (which see), lj.cudo, ccBdes, 
W. cad, Gael, catha (battle), £. quash, 
squash, G. quetschen, 

rnn m. i) dismay Job 6. tU 
2) pr. n, VL (terror) 1 Oh. 4, 18. 


LJ 2^, the ninth letter in the 
Heb. Alphabet, hence used as the 
nuineral for 9 ; whence *tD (i. e. 9 + 6) 
ibr m 15 (see Gram. §5, Bern. 3). Its 
name n*^ (whence 6^Ta) prob. means 
a coiling, r. D^, hence perh. serpent, 
whicli is rudely pictured in the 
ecmmon form and in the Phenician 
^1 ^ > b* ^^ sound (indicated by 
i iyri)i» B, hard t Articulated at the 
baek of the mouth. Gram. § 6, 2, 3. 

D interchanges — 1 w. its kindred 
dentals or Unguals, e. g. *l^D II b *n^ 

TL (ct Syr. jLJ - r^% m = 5|i?, 
nro MB n^n «= prob. rob; — 2 w. si- 
IHlants, e. g. 059 « Tlil , TpID — fiD, 

3 w. gutturals, e. g. C)aD » qsn, O^IT 

I — Tpn, 'wn--wii-'«i. ' 

tD seems to be a format, pref. in 
nn^ («= »T?7-tt), akin to n-jnn (a 
variety of Hiph.), prop, to cause to* 
be hot; see Gram. § 55, 5. 

iSU, see mi. 

!3(SIj Ohald. L q. Heb. yro, to 
be bright,' good, hence to be happy, 
to rejoice, w. ^9 Dan. 6, 24. 

MttMp, see M4D. 

^t^ Chald. (i. q. Heb. niC3) adj. m. 
good Ban. 2, 32; pleasing Ezr. 5, 17.. 

Digitized by 





^iXSO pr. n. m. (God iv good) Is. 
7, 6; another in Ezr. 4, 7. 

Hi^LJ (obs.) perh. akin to niO) 
to he good, pleasant; hence nao. 

bttta (only pi. D'^b^aD; r. bn») m. 
headrdress, iurhan, only in Ez. 23, 
15 (Sept. Tiapai PaictaC, Vulg. iiar^B 
Hnctat), called so prob. because dipped 
in rich dye. 

*1^SlQ m. a summitj mountain^ 
Judg.9, 37 descending y^y^ff} ^Jiaa wp 
from the height of the land (cf. 
fii-inn -"rs"; in ▼. 36), cfl Ez. 38, 12; 
r. -nna = -lan n. 

HiJilj (imper. nbxf Gen« 43, 16) 
akin to n^T, Syr.^-^^fi?, \)to8laugh- 
ter cattle Ex. 21, 87, esp. for food 
(npt ft>r sacred nse as expressed by 
rOT) 1 Sam. 25, 11. 2) to kill men, 
to massacre Ps. 37, 14; hence 

T^SO (w. suf. mao) m. 1) a slaugh- 
ter^ killing of cattle Is. 53, 7; of men, 
butchering Is. 34, 2. 2) fig. slaugh- 
tered beast, i. e. butcher^s meat, for 
a feast or meal Prov. 9, 2. 3) pr. 
n. m. of a son of Kahor Gen. 22, 24. 

rt3tt m. prop, slayer, butcher, 
hence 1) a oooAr 1 Sam. 9, 23. 2) exe- 
euiioner, then life-guard of a king^ 
acting also as executioner of his 
death sentences, d'^naisri-^ito Gen. 37, 
36 (later 'au 1*1 2 K. 25, 8) captain 
cf the bodg-guard. 

rt^^ m. Chald. executioner, hence 
body-guard Dan. 2, 14. 

nn^Q f. a cool; 1 SaffL 8, 13; 
r. n59. 

nnSti (r. rao) f. 1) a slaughtering 
of caUle Ps. 44, 23. 2) flesh of a but- 
chered beast, meat 1 Sam. 25, 11. 

tnn'D pr. n. (slaughter) of a 

place in Syria 1 Ch. 18, 8 ; for which 
we find nisa in 2 Sam, 8, 8. 

yjilj (fat. Vair) akin to 930, 
yriSf I, Syr. vLi, ^^, Arab. ^ 
fo dip, to sink into, w. aoc of object 
and a of the liquid Gen. 37, 81; 
without ace. Ex. 12, 22; alsointrans. 
in 2 K. 5, 14 he went down V205 
D-^pya 3>3\g ilj-j^a and dipped (Sept 
IpaKTijaTo) in fA« Jordan seven 
times; ellipt. w. la Lev. 4, 17; ct 
yrr). — The ultimate fonn SD, as 
of the above roots is prob. mimetic, 
akin to Beng. duh (to sink), Mid 
and ^oiTTO), G. taufen, tief, E. dip, 
dixjc, deep, Ital. tuffare, Irish (owow 
(plunge), W. dwfn. 

¥l^?5'9 P'' *^' J^ C; ^M« plunged 
L e. consecrated) 1 Gh. 26, 11. 

^jJIlj (fut. :?a^'^) akin to ^aa 
(which see), 1) ^0 sink, press into, 
then to impress in a yielding or 
plastic substance, hence n^SD a signet, 
2) intrans. to sink, go deep, e. g. in 
mire, a pit, w. a Ps. 9, 16; 1 Sam. 
17, 49 iiTttDa -^aiin ^aan^ and ike 
stone sank (or went deep) in hisfsre- 
head. — Pu. to be sunk, over-whelmed 
Ex. 15, 4. — Hoph. yaon to be sunk, 
immerged Jer. 38, 22 ; to he laid deep, 
settled Prov. 8, 25; hence 

t^to (w. suf. te^tt, pL nij^g, 
c ni9:a;d) f. a signet, seal-ring (^en. 
41, 42 (see :?^^); then a ring of any 
sort Ex. 25, 12; 35, 22. 

ftWap pr. n: m. (signets or im- 
pressions) Ezr. 2, 43. 

lijitJ (obs.) akin to 15X, nan, 
Chald. ^m, to swell or hectve %^, 
project (as a hill); hence n^aa. 

'jiia^^J'D pr. n. m. (for -jnan a^ 

Digitized by 





good is Bimmon) of a Syrian, laHi&t 
ofBenhadad 1 K. 15, 18. 

rot) m. name of the tenth Heb. 
month, from the January to the Pe- 
braaiy new-moon Est. 2, 16. < — Prob. " 
akin to Sans, tapas (winter), Copt. 
T^^i; hence winter-month. 

r^U pr. n. (perh. pleasantness, 
r. 32D) of a place in Ephraim Judg. 
7, 22.' 

■flTW (c*rintt, -"ino; pLd-^TiriD) 
%di,m.^t riTin'tt (r.'nnij), bright^ 
dean, pure, a) physically, opp. to fil- 
thy Zech. 3, 5; P)artifioiaUy, unofle^ed, 
of gold Ex. 25, 11; 7) ritually, opp. 
to Kaij, Lev. 10, 10; 6) morally Ps. 
51, 12 ^*ino ^h a pure heart. Also 
perh. as subst. for ^iSfs puriti/ Prov. 

IH LJ (fat. •intt'^) akin to -ffn, 
•^j to shine, to be bright, hence to 
be or become clean, pure, a) physi- 
cally 2 K. 5, 12; P) rituaUy Lev. 13, 
8; Y) moraUy Ps. 61, 9. — PI. •^, 
fat ilT^'^jfo make clear or dfon, the 
heavens Job 37, 21 ; to purify, silver 
Mai. 3, 3, a land Ez. 39, 12; of 
|>ersons, ritnally Nam. 8, 6, morally 
Ps. 51, 4. — Pu. to be cleansed Ez. 
22, 24. — Hith. inar: and "tfT^, to 
cleanse or purify oneself Oen. 35, 2 ; 
see Oram. § 54, 2, b. Hence 

*nb (w. suf. WVj9 Lev. 12, 4, 
^o Ps. .89, 45) 1/ l>rightness Ex. 
24, io; Ps. 89, 45 innWD ri|T^ f^ou 
W caused to cease from his splen- 
dour, i. e. hast diminished it: this 
form is prob. for i^MtfiO or for 'i'nrtido. 
2) purification Lev. 12, 4. 

rT^ntD f. 1) apurifying, cleansing 
(ritnal)'*Lev. 13,35; ITjntt -^o-n blood 
of purification, of a woman after 
child-birth Lev. 12, 4. 2) purify 
(moral) 2 Ch. 30, 19; r. "tna 

1S*0 (Qal obs.) prob. to be wiry, 

dirty, akin to Arab. \t\h mire; hence 
in Pilp. KUKD to sweep ayoay dirt 
(cf . yiPi to clear away ashes* from Ifm), 
only .in Is. 14, 23 MQKp^:} mrtt^i^l 
"i^tSli and I wiU sweep her (Babylon) 
away w, the besom of destruction, 
cf. 2 K. 21, 13. Hence D^^tt and 

^tp Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
njD, to &Dine or bind together, of the 
bowels when hungry or perh. tightly 
girded and braced (as among Ameri- 
can Indians) for better enduring the 
want of food; hence to fait. Deriv. 

ZilLJ (perf. 3 pi. Kib Cant 4, 10; 
fat. n)$'t'7 firom ni^;) prob. akin to 
n^X n, rijt, 1) to ic bright, goodly, 
pleasant Num. 24, 5. 2) to be cheerful, 
happy, w. nb, 1 Sam. 25, 36. S)to be 
good or f£»e22, to please, used impera. 
or as adj. w. h, Ps. 119, 71 ^i n!iD $t 
is right or wcW /or me, u e. it goes 
well w. me; Job 10, 3 tf> aiisn does 
it please thee?; w. bK, 1 Sam. 20, 12; 
w. "^rra Num. 24, 1 ; w. ^5 in later 
style E^t. 1, 19. — Hiph. yw or 
y^iSf^, see its forms and meanings 
under nD\ Hence 

iSitD a^j.m., rnio t l)^oorf(xaX<0, 
in the widest sense (opp. to 9^)) as 
indicated by the root, e. g. of land 
or soil, fertile Ex. 3, 8 , of cattle in 
good condition, fat Gen. 41, 26, 
Lev. 27, 10, of trees, fruitful 2 K. 
3, 19 (cf. Luke 6, 43), of fhiits, frtfh, 
sound Jer. 24, 2, of gold, fine Qt&tu 
2, 12, and so of other things as the 
context may require or suggest, e. g. 
as affecting the senses, fair to the 
eye Gen. 6, 2, pleasant to the ear 
Ps. 45, 2, sweet to the smell Is. 39, 

Digitized by 


^n^iTK sio 



2, nice to the taste Gen. 2, 9. Used 
of persons, good morally Prov. 12, 
2, hind 1 Sam. 25, 15, cheerful 1 
K. 8, 36, happy Is. 3, 10; used of 
things, great or ampfe Gen. SO, 20, 
right or true Jer. 6, 16. 2) as subst. 
(see asio and Siaio) good, to xoXiv, 
f^ W^At morally, virtue Prov. 11, 
27 (cf. Gen. 2, 9), a^ood or benefit 
Job 2, 10, welfare or prosperity Ps. 
25, 13. — Perh. as adv. «?cff, xaXu)^, 
in Buth 3, 13. 3) pr. n. (perh. 
fertile) of a region beyond Jordan 
Judg. 11, 8, prob. Toupiov in 1 
Mac. 5, 13. 

n^wilK lie pr. n. m. 2 Ch. 17, 8. 

STO m. 1) goodness, of a thing, 
Ps. 119, 66 d?D a^ goodness of dis- 
cernment, i. e. good sense; often of 
God, benignity Jer. 31, 14. 2) beauty, 
splendour Hos. 10, ll, Ex. 33, 19. 

3) joyousness, w. A Is. 65, 14. 

4) good luck, prosperity Prov. 11, 10. 

5) collect, ^ood things, blessings Dent 
6,11. 6) the best ox choice Gen. 45, 18. 

nSltD adj. fern. ofaiD (which see 
for the meanings), often used as 
subst. like Sio 2, good, a blessing Ps. 
86, 17; a benefit Ex. 18, 9; welfare 
Job 9, 25; Ps. 16, 2 tpb? ba "^naia 
my happiness is not above thee, i. e. 
thou art my highest good ; goodness, 
Neh. 6, 191^310 his virtues; benig- 
nity Ps. 68, 11; bounty Ps. 65, 12. 

njnitD and Vl^SitD pr. n. m. 
(good is W) of several men, a) Neh. 
2, 10; p) Ezr. 2, 60; y) Zech. 6, 10. 
Sept. Tcopiac. 

mij i. q. Clhald. nId, Arab. 

i5^, ^0 ^11^716 or5tn(2, hence to spin 
Ex. 35, 25; hence njM. Cf. njo. 

rj*]LJ (3 perf. ho for no Is. 44, 
18 as if from WTO), to davb\ smear 

over, e. g. a wall w. mortar, to planter 
Lev. 14, 42 ; to besmear (eyes) Is. 44, 
18; part. pi. w. two ace. Ez. 13, 10 
hm "ink D'^no Djn ftcAoW <Aem rfa«6- 
tn^ it over (with) /iwe or whiJte-M)a8h, 
— Nipb. (inf. ntflti) to be plastered 
Lev. 14, 43. — Perh. akin to T€if7<u, 
L. tingo, G. tunchen, E. tinge. Deriv. 
h'na, nino. 

UnLJ (obs.) perh. to be sticky, 
slimy; hence perh. O'^o which see. 
Perh. also to coU; hence perh. o^o 
=a M'^D (serpent) name of the letter O. 

/22Zefo Ex. 13, 16, esp. prayer-fillets 
Cpittn) Deut.6,8 or Jeysnahphylacteries 
(9uXaxTiQpia,Mat.23,5),i.e. parchment- 
strips inscribed w. passages of the law, 
and at prayers worn as amulets on the 
forehead and the left wrist of the wor- 
shipper. — The r. is prob. C)^, hence 

n6WDo=nBo'b (cf. aai'sfromasas), but 

perhjp.iBi:io^ocot/,w.endingtf^ (see 
p. 501), and fem. n-^, cf. ^35^ 


(Qal obs.) akin to tej , to 
lift, to cast; hence — Hiph. i"'CJi to 
throw or hurl, e. g. a spear 1 Sam, 
18, 11, a person Jer. 16, 13, a storm 
Jon. 1, 4. — Hopb. iwn (fut. ia^', 
once ia^ Job 41, 1) to be cast, as a 
lot Prov. 16, 33; to be cast out Jer. 
22, 28; to be cast down, prostrated 
Ps. 37, 24. — Pilp. bote to hurl 
down Is. 22, 17; hence nbote. — 
Prob. akin to ni^, nbn, Wn, Sans. 
tul, L. toUo, xXatD, Vf.dala, towlu. 

jUj (obs.) akin to ftO 1, to be 
soft, sticky; hence "po. 

ypO (obs.) perh. akintoC]6aII, 
to bind, collect; hence rifeoio. 

niCD I (obs.) perh. akin to-'KQ, 

Digitized by 



to tvait or watch for, to expect; hence 
perh. D^^, Dina. 

r\0 n (obs.) akin to •^sft H, 
*WiI, to ^0 round, surround; hence 

■ffi} I, rrno, 'i^\ 

nU in (obs.) akin to ^'^'n m, 
■wn n, to arrange, set in a row or 
order; hence nna 2. 

■)^ (pi. D''-]!ii3, c. '»'?») m. 1) a 
waB or enclost^e Ez. 46, 23 ; r. "isio n. 
2) a row £x. 28, 17; a course or 
ron^e 1 K. 7, 12; r. *i*lO m. 

I^ta Chald. (def. ayd) m. i. q. 
Heb. *^:£, rocXr, mountain Ban. 2, 35; 
perh. akin to *ittO. 

CnU (fat. to!lD;) 1. q. Syr. OLj, 
fo /?y, to dorf or dos^ npon the prey, 
like the eagle Job 9, 26. — > Hence 
Syr. \joq4, Tttoic, L. pavo (t = p), 
G. pfau, B. ^o-cock ; perh. the bird's 
name is Sanscrit. 

in^tp Chald. (seer. MID; cf. tW from 
tm) 1 a fasting; hence 2Ay,fastingly^ 
wWumJt food, only in Dan, 6, 19. 

rTw, see D^. 

T\\Q in Is. 44, 18 for TO (see r. 
tpO\ see Gram. §. 72, Bern. £. 

IIM LJ (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
rtro, to <6^c or ikrust; hence to 
tAio*. — Pil'el njTO to «Aoo«, part. 
nop ''^TOo shooters of the bow, i. e. 
ardkers, only in Gen. 21, 16; see 
Gram. § 75, Bern. 18. 

i n jU (only in pi. ni'TO) f. the 
reins ^ as the learned Jews say, 
tracing the word to r. ITID, because 
the kidneys are covered w. fat Ps. 
61, 8, Job 38, 36. 

"pnp m. a mU, \and-miJi, only 
Lam. 5, 13, i« q. Syr. |^f ; r. yn^. 

243 \fq 

*liriO, see *thn. 
ftinD, see mjlj. 

nnij, see n^. 

- T 

jPIIj (ftit. IW) prob. aUn to 
Chald. root KVTj (which see) topo%md, 
crush Ex. 32, 20, fig. to 0{7pre88 Is. 
3, 15; esp. to grind w. hand-mill 
Num. 11, 8, fig. in Job 31, 10 ITOPi 
•vnfw "inxi fe* my wife he another's 
concubine, i. e. be sexually embra- 
ced by him (so the Sept. , Yulg. and 
Targum), cf. a like use of {xuXXco, 
li. molo (whence mulier). Part. f. pL 
nianan Ecc 12, 3 the grinders, i. e. 
the molar teeth. Deriv. TiTO and 

njntt f. miU, perh. the grinding, 
said of the teeth Ecc 12, 4, 

iMLJ (obs.) prob. akin to rtTi, 
m^, to bum, to inflame, esp. of the 
fundament; hence 

*VTtD (only in pi. D'^'jiD) m. prop. 
inflammaUons (of the anus) i. e. 
piks, emerods 1 Sam. 6, 1 1, mostly in 
Q'ri (for D*^b&^ swellings) Deut. 28, 27. 

TTt^ m. plaster (on a wall) Ez. 
13, 12; r. nna 

tS^tD m. clay Is. 41, 25; mud, mire 
Ps. 18,* 43; 69, 15. — The r. is tt-lis, 
or K^:9, redupl. KDKId. 

1"^ Chald. (def. Kra) m. clay 
Dan. 2, 41; r. "fixs = 1*10. 

rrit? (r. 'Tsitt II; pi. n-h*^) t a 
waU, around a place Ez. 46, 23; an 
enclosure, e. g. a castle in Cant. 8, 9; 
an encampment or pastoral village 
for cattle and their keepers Gen. 
25, 16, Ps. 69, 26. 

jD (in pause bg, w. sul "^Vg; r. 
Vb^ f) m. dew Gen. 27, 28. 

b^ Chald. i. q. Heb. dew Dan. 4, 12. 

Digitized by 






) perh. akin to rrVj, to hang 
ahotd (in tatters), to be torn; then 
perh. to be mended in pieces or 
patches; only in part. pass. kA» 
spotted (as if in patches or pieces) 
Gen. 30, 32, Ez. 16, 16. — Pu. part. 
patched. Josh. 9, 5 nixioo nft^p dout- 
ed sandals, 

D^Kbtt, see -litt. 

n VLJ (obs.) akin to JT^D, <o be 
fresh, young; perh. akin to OaXXto, 
TspTjv, L. fe««r, W. tgner, E. fencfor. 
Hence ^\xi and 

T^5^ (c Mio) m. prop, what is 
young, hence a lamb 1 Sam. 7, 9. 
Cf. Syr. IlI:^!^ boy, ILJ^ girL 

^P?P, see b^tt; whence 

nbobtt t a hurling down Is. 
22, 17. 

vtj (only in pL D'^tffto for D'^l'bD, 
Gram. § 93, 6, Bern. 6)'in. i. q. rAo 
(r. hitt) fawifts, in Is. 40, 11, and 
prob. as pr. n. of a place (prob. for 
ti^lAxs n-^a) in 1 Saip. 15, 4; cf. dte. 

^? W J (obs.) akin to itj, Arab. 
Jh to bedew, Jjlb coig. IX to flow 
(of tears), Syr. ., m^,; to distil, prob. 
also to araXdco, L. stiUo, to faU 
gently or in drops; hence to. 


' n (Qal obs.) i. q. ftx HI, 
^0 over-shadow, to cover, — Pi. i|a 
^0 corer (wcr, w. beams or rafters 
(cf. n^g n) Neh. 3, 15. 


Chald. L q. Heb. Wto H. 
— Aph. feas< to seek or /Jni ^ «Aa(2e 
Dan. 4, 9. 

D ytp (obs.) akin to Syr. y^, 
to QpprtEs; hence "fixkx^ perh. also 


'?^ pr. n. (oppression 6t lambs) 
of a city in Judah Josh. 15, 24, 
perh. i. q. D*»ffftl3 1 Sam. 15, 4, q.v.; 
also pr. n. of a doorkeeper in the 
Temple Ezr. 10, 24. 

■jllSiti pr. n* m. (oppressed) Ezr. 
2, 42. 


inf. HKOD 

_ wars^, 

Lev. 15, 32) prob. akin to Aram. 
^x^ ^^, to plunge; then to be 
soiled or suUied, poUuted (opp. to 
•nJTtt <o J»e 5r^A^), esp. used of ritual 
nncleanness of persons and animals 
liev. 11, 1 — 31, also of things Lev. 
15, 4 — 26. Pig. to be unholy (mo- 
rally), w. ^ of cause or manner Ps. 
106, 39. — Niph. «TOa (2 pi. fiTOoa 
Lev. 11, 43, Gram. § 74. Benu 4) to 
defile oneself, to become unholy, w. 2 
of that toAerem Ez. 20, 7, w. b as 
to what Ez. 20, 31: on ^3'<«»3 in 
Job 18, 8 see under ho^. — Pi. oto 
1) to make unclean, to profane Lev. 
15, 31; to defile, violate a woman 
Gen. 34, 5. 2) to declare unclean 
Ez. 20, 26; to unconsecrate or dis- 
gwUify a priest Lev. 13, 3, — Pu. 
to be made unclean, to be defiled JSz. 
4, 14. — Hith. (fut N^^, Gram. § 
64, 2, b) to make oneself %mckm 
Lev. 21, 1, Hos. 9, 4. — HoU^pa. 
t^^^n only in Beut. 24, ^to be defir 
^,8ee Gram. § 54, 8. Hence 

^^9^ adj. m. (pi. tt^KQO), f. mjwa, 
undean ritually Lev. 5, 2; wUkofy 
(morally) Job 14, 4; Ez. 22, 5 Wrao 
dTBrt the unclean of name, i. e. of unl 
holy repute. 

flSatJ f. only in Mio. 
same as 


(ntual) Lev. 5, 3, impurity (moral) 
Ez. 39, 24; flg. an unoletm thing 
Judg. 13j 7. . 

a, 10, 

(r. HW) t uncieanne^ 

Digitized by 






' i q. KOtt, prob. in Job 

18, 3 fis^a*^:^ ^d'^ua we are become 
unclean (i. e. contemned) in your 
eye$^ bat many prefer to reaictor H we 
are stolid, taking rn^D aa almi to 
o»(, Ohald. tMO to shut up (the 


(fdt. )b'tsr) prob. akin to 
793, "i^^, fo /^{(2e, conceal Josh. 2, 6, 
Job 3, 16j esp. under ground, to 
bury Gen. 35, 4; fig. to lay up, keep 
Job 20, 26 I'^jnBsi l^aij IpJH'i? 
ofi darkness (i. e. misfortune) is 
itoreJ up for his treasures, where 
perh. a play on the words "ptitt and 
'pBl was intended. Used ironically 
in Prov. 19, 24 ^ sluggard hides 
(L e. dips) his hand in the dish. In 
Job 40, 13 "psaa in the hidden means 
prob. in darkness, — Niph* to hide 
oneself Is, 2, 10. — Hiph. to secrete 
2 K. 7, 8. Hence "pSD^. 

CS JLJ (obi.) prob. akin to 1131, 
ffifUjto enclose, contain; hence 

K31D (w. snf. TjfiOD) m. a basket 
Bent 26, 4. 

V| JU (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
Cgti, Syr. ^Jkl4, to be dirty or foul, 

— Pi. to sulfy, defile, only in Cant 

iVtD (Qal obs.) i. q. wn, Syr. 

# T T * 

11^4 , perh. akin to tm, to iramfer. 

— Hiph. n^iph to cat<se to ii;an(2er« 
<a 2ea<2 astray, only in £z. 13, 10. 

U<lD (ftzt t3^) to tosfe Job 
12, 11; to re/isA 2 Sam. 19, 36. Fig. 
to understand Ps. 34, 9; to j^erceit^e 
ProT. 31, 18: comp. L. sapere 
(whence F. savoir), also £. tosto (in^ 
tellectnal a* well as physical). 


Ohald. i. fl. Heb. b$9; 
used only in Pa. &$9 to raiMe to 
f(U^e, to /eed Dan. 4, 22. 

D7D m. 1) losto, of food Ex. 16, 
31; flavour Job 6, 6. 2) fig. discern- 
ment, good sense l Sam. 25, 83, 
ProY. 11, 22. 3) a decision or decree 
Jon. 3, ?♦ 

D!^ Chald. m. i. q. Heb. D^ 8, 
a decree £zr. 6, 14; but mostly in 
form of 

D7D Chald. (def. H^^) m. tajste, 
relish Ban* 5, 2; fig. dttfCtfmiftcyti, 
reason (L, ro^to) Dan. 2, 14, hence 
account Dan. 6, 3; also decree, edict 
Dan. 3, 10 d9a mi» K3^ O king, 
thou hast set a decree; d9» k»li a 
torei 0/ judgment, i. e. j>nry coww- 
9eQ(>r, king*s deputy fizr. 4^ B; a 
wwffer Ezr. 5, 5; r. t350. 

I^lp I (Qal obs.) akin to Chald. 
1$D, Arab. ,^, to «^d&; only in Pn. 
fSb to be thrtut through, «oiy >n Is. 
14, 19 yn '^biQ stabbed ones of the 


n to toad^ only in Gen. 
45/17 iis^burden ye; akin to 'ff^. 

t\^ (r. C)BD I; w. snf. tfip; no 
pi.) m. collect littles ones, young 
children, prob. called so for their 
toddling, or short and tripping steps 
Gen. 34, 29 ; opp. to young men and 
maidens Ez. 9, 6, also to youths 
above 20 years old Ex. 12, 37; at 
times used for a family Gen. 47, 12 
t)an *^b according to the mouths 
(i. e. the numbers) of the family, ef. 
2 Ch. 20, 13 dmaaJi dtt^ tmtsr^h 
also their families, viz. their unves 
and their children, 

nD U (Qal obs.) L q. HM, perh. 
akin tortTDlI (ct "UTij — n'nn » n^j) 

Digitized by 





to spread; hence h|tt. — PI. MBtt 

1) to spread wide, to stretch out, 
e. g. the heavens Is. 48, 13. 2) fig. 
to cause to stretch, to make to grow, 
to nwrse, perh. in Lam. 2, 22, where 
others perh. rightly take it for a 
denom. of HBD 1, and so meaning to 
hear upon the palms, to dandle or 
fon^ in the arms. Hence 

TWO (pL rrinfio) m. l) the spread 
hand, palm, esp. as a measure of 4 
fingers, hand-breadth 1 K. 7, 26; 
Ps. 39, 6 thou hast set my days 
m'ltDD handrbrtadiihs, i e. very short; 
hence prob. nii as denom.; see VIB^, 

2) a term in architecture, a corbel 
1 K. 7, 9. 

HBb m. i q. rflpo 1, handrbreadJth 
Ex. 25, 25; r. nso. 

D'llSti (r. rtBD, where see) nu pL 
dandlings, caressings of infants in 
the arms, only in Lam. 2, 20; see 
Gram. § 108, 2, Bem. 2. 


_ (ftit. iba^) perh. akin to 
VsTjito besmear, to lay on, hence to 
charge, impute Job 13, 4, w. b9 of 
the pers. Ps. 119, 69; w.b? of thing 
Job 14, 17 '»3i5-te VwDni and thou 
imputest over (i e. more than) my 

*©Btt m. Jer. 51, 27, pi. w. suf. 
^{■^^O Nah. 3, 17, prob. an Assyrian 
military title, general, captain. The 
word, if Semitic as is likely (see 
Gram. § 1, 1, Note '), is best explain- 
ed perh. in Lee^s Heb. Lexicon as 
akin to Ohald. "ntaD (cf. bK3D) good 
chief, brave captain. 


I to mince, of gait, only 
in Jb. 3, 16 Siisin Pito "^n walking 
and mincing they go, namely the 
coquettish women in their affected 
manner; prop* to toddle, trip along, 

hence C)0 (which see). -^ Prob. a 
mimetic r. akin to G. tappen, trippeln, 
R tap, trip, pitapat. 


%/ LJ n (obs.)i. q. ^, whichsee. 

iDtP Chald. (obs.) akin to Heb. 
*tBX in, "natt, to project, to be poutt- 
ed or sharp; hence 

*iBtp Chald. (pi. I'^nBO) m. L q. 
Heb. TJM, prop, a point, hence nail 
of a man Dan. 4, 30; claw or hoof 
of an animal Dan. 7, 19. 

w£) LJ to be greasy or fat, hence 
fig. to be dull, stupid (ct yy^ I>«6, 
10), only in Ps. 119, 70; comp. the 
like use of ira^uc, L. pinguis, 

t\Bt3pr.n.f. (prob.aarop=n|bj, 
r. tm)\ K. 4, 11. 

TJ LJ to push or drive on, hence 
to persist, Prov. 27, 15 Tib C)i^ a 
continual dropping from the root — 

Prob. mimetic, akin to Arab. 0)b, 
Syr. 9|^, Sans, trad (to press), L. 
trudo, E. ^ru8f. 

TJO Chald. i. q. Heb. n», <i> 
Artist 01^, drive forth Dan. 4, 22. 

rinU (obs.) i. q. rtlj (which 
see) to be fresh; hence *^*^. 

Di^tl only in K'thibh of BuUi S, 
14 for bS» not ^ef; 

I'VjD ((ial obs.) i. q. CJhald. rno 
to labour, to tire; only Hipb. tT*yf} 
to cause to tire, only in Job 37, 11 
35 mio*^ n'la tM<A rain he (God) 
burdens (or fatigues) the clotuL Hence 

ITltD (w. suf. DDH'TD) m. <m en- 
ewm&rance Deut. 1, 12; a burden Is. 

■^Itt (r. rno) m. only in fern. 

Digitized by 





nj*!^, fresh t of a wound Is. 1, 6, of 
a jaw-bone Judg. 15, 15. 

U JLJ (obs.) perh. akin to *1«ID I, 
to wait for, to expect \ hence perh. 

0*3^ (r. 'VID I, or DtlO; ci Q'JS) 
m. prop, expectation, prospect, D^M 
}r]g Is 28, 4 in prospect of harvest, 
L e. before it came; used elsewhere 
as adT. prospectively, i. e. w)t yet, 
before, hence always w. fat. or inf. 
(except in 1 8am. 8, 7, Ps. 90, 2, 
Prov. 8, 25, where the perf. occurs). 
Gen. 2, 5; Zeph. 2, 2, w. inf. ti^ 
where also we have Kis*^ l^h D^ba 
before there shall not come (for before 
or lest there shall come), as in the 
6er. ehe er nicht kommt (see Granu 
§ 152, 2); Hag. 2, 15 ')3M D-lb D^CdQ 
/rom not yet to lay a sUme, L e. be- 
fore the laying of a stone (comp. 
fil^ in Is. 46, 10). 

JTj JLJ (fat. Sl'W, C)W Gen. 49, 
27) ct C)^n I, 1) to pl%tck, from a tree 
or plant (cf. Spiiroj). 2) to rend, tear 
in pieces, as wild beasts Deut. 33, 20, 
as enemies or warriors Gen. 49, 27 ; 
tg. of God Ps. 50, 22, Hob. 6, 1. 
^ Nipli. to be torn in pieces Jer. 5, 

6. ^ PiL Ci^a, to he mangled, torn 
in pieces Gen. 37, 33. — Hiph. to 
cause to tear up food (i. e. to give to 
eat), to feed (c£ xpi^to) Prov. 30, 8. 
Hence ns"ia 


(obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

^Jb to he fresh, hence perh. to sprout 
forth, to luxuriate; hence perh. t(^, 
t(^ 1. — Perh. akin to Opoicxo), G. 
treiben, E. thrive. 

Cl^^tt adj. m. fresh (r. Cj^JO), of a 
leaf, only in Gen. 8, 11, where it 
may mean newly phtdced of, r. C)^. 

jr|*1tt m. 1) r. tOXf fresh leaf (cf. 
n^5) Ez. 17, 9. 2) r. ^y^, prey of 
wild beasts Job 4, 11 ^Ps. 76, 5 "^W 
tiy^ mountains of prey, i. e. whence 
the enemy makes prowling inroads; 
food Prov. 81, 15. 

nS^B (r. ti'^o) f. collect, what is 
torn, cattle torn by wild beasts Gen. 
81, 89; booty Kah. 2, 13. 

S*;bSnto Ohald. m. pL only in 
Ezr. 4, 0,'Sept. Tap^aXatoi, a people 
from whom colonists were sent to 
Samaria; perh. same as the TaicoupoC 
dwelling on the east of Elymais. 

Y3dh, the tenth letter in the 
Heb. alphabet, hence used also for 
the numeral 10, The name ^^ = IJ 
(cf. di'», pi. D'^p;) means a Jutnd, 
which is rudely figured , with 
out-stretched fingers, in the oldest 
characters, e. g. ^s/, n\ (see Table 

of Ancient Alphabets); whence the 
Greek Icuxo. Its force is that of y, a 
semi-consonant readily changing into 
the vowel I (Gram. § 7, 2), which is 
sounded not as inEng. but as in Keltic 
and German or French, as in pique. 
** intercluinges — 1 w. its kindred 

Digitized by 




feeble-letters M, M, and esp. 1 (see 
under each, also Oram. § 69) e. g. 

qe: - sn?^ aj: - njn n, iV; = lii; 

*- 2 w. the liqjdids h and 3, e. g. 

t5; I = tA; m; = mj, a?; « axj 

(Gram. § 71); — S w.' its kindred 

palatals a, D, p, e. g. TTjn^Ji^a (cf. 

E.yam=G.^am), '>2rn='nta=->S5, 

^_ ... ■ ^ 

■ngj ™ "^^1 ^'^''^ =* Byr. <ii i ^ f> ^ 

— 4 w. gutturals, e. g. ho; I «= rt^nn, 

nvt » has = nan « ias; — 5' w. 

dental or sibilant, e. g. T?; n = *tWI n, 

n-n II = nn\6, afio = axn 11. 

TT T T* -T - T 

*^ appears also as a formatiye 
ending in ^—^ and •'-7-, in adj. forms 
(see Gram. §86, 2, 5) e. g. '^>a'?, •'V'?, 
"^ftli; prob. akin to Sans. -yaSf Gr. 
-io«, -aio<;, 'L,^^iu8reu8, E. -y (airy). 

SIS!! i. q- »T?* "J^ =^» =*«^ 
to long for, w. ^, only Ps. 119, 181. 

njS i. q. nxa, to he becoming, 
suUabkf w. h of person, only in Jer. 
10, 7; cf. &yr. ^]\1 becoming to, 
icplicov Tiv(. 

■^iS^, see 'ik';. 

n;3W, «i;3T«:: pr. n. m. (sn 
gives ear) Jer. 35, 3, 2 K. 25, 28; 
for which ^njan Jer. 40, 8; njat*; 
Jer. 42, 1. 

TS^ pr. n. m. (he, i. e. God, 
gives Ught) Judg. 10, 3 (in N. T. 
'Ucipo; Mark 5, 22); patron. ''•«; 
2 Sam. 20, 26. 

y{Sl"* I (Qal obs.) i. q. i^K, to be 
wry; hence fig. to be duU, fooUsh. 
-^ Niph. ht^ to be fooUah, to dote 
Is* 19, 13; toac^(/^/boZKum.l2,ll. 

^tX^ n (Qal obs.) akin to niij H, 
prob. Syr. Po, tot(^,tot9^— Hiph. 
Vsjlin (fut. apoc. ifit-p) to will, to 

venture or set about (Sept. Sp^Ofxat), 
w. h and inf., Gen. 18, 27; to consent 
Judg. 17, 11 ; to be content or pleated 
Josh. 7, 7. — Sanscr. vol, pouXo]xai 
L. vo^t), G. woUen, EngL totZ?, W. 
ewgllu; cf. Syr. ^^v^. 

^{Sl"* ni (obs.) i. q. b^K n, <o be 
in front, to begin; hence i^a, Via, 

I|S (obs.) prob. akin to *n, 

prop, to gleam, gHtter, as the surface 

of a stream in the sun-light; hence 

to flow, run fast: perh. hence 

*^'? (V. n-;- loc. rryk], pi. d^*^*;, 

c. •'^•i; once "iks for "Jk^^ Am. 8, 
8) m. i. q. "ina river, stream Dan. 
12, 5; esp. die Nile Gen. 41, 1; 
075350 •'^k'; nvcrs of ^^p^, i. e. the 
branches of the Nile that form the 
Delta Is. 7, 18; fosses or moats Is. 
33, 21 ; channel or shaft, in a mine 
Job 28, 10. «--» The name was prob. 
common to the Egyptian (Copt 
top, tApO, stream) and the Se- 
mitic; as perh. Nile is akin to bna. 
"^^ pateonym., see •>•»»;. * 


tC^ (Qal 

obs.) 1. q. Ara^* 
jM^i/, to despair, to give up or forsake 

something.— Nlph.V&<ia to despair of, 
desist from, w. "p of what is aban- 
doned 1 Sam. 27, 1; part, ibfida des- 
perate, one in despair Job 6, 26; 
impers. to be hopeless Is. 57, 10. — 
Pi. (inf. w;) to cause to despair, w. 
ace. Ecc. 2, 20. 

n;ti»% nn^*' pr. n. m. (m 
heals, r. noK) Zech. 6, 10; also 
Josiah kingVf Judah 642—611 B.a 
2 K. 23, 23. 

^"^^1 pi"- »• ^- (peril, for nj^Ffi?;, 

i. e. Pn spies out, r. n«n I) 1 Ch. 6, 6 ; 
but ''anx in V. 26. . 

Digitized by 






(obs.) i. q. Kl'a, hence perb. 
vqixi Ez. 43, 11, for Kiao. 

^^ (Qal obs.) i. q. Arab. 

^ to shout (in battle), to shout afar 
or ahud; hence aai"^. — Pi. aa"? 
to tfoA o^NMJ^ cry out Judg. 5, 28. — 
Mixnet. akin to ba^ II, b^; n, Syr. 
(aao^ tmmpet-call, Ya^^oc, 6p{a(&- 
po< (=Tpi + fapLpoc), L. MuntjpAu^, 
B. hubbub, whoop, hip-hip ! "W. iwbwh. 

7V2!] (w. sof. Mte'', once Jnia** 
Dent. 32, 22) m. prop, what flows or 
mores r. ba; Ij hence produce of the 
land Lev. 26, 4; flg. wealth Job 
20, 28. 

CflS'] pr. n. (trodden, perh. thresh- 
mg-floor, r. Da; or D^a) of a dty 
Jndg. 19, 10, afterwards Jemsalem, 
gentiL n. 'Wl'; Jehusite Gen. 10, 16, 
also I6r Jemsalem in **Otia^ ^"^^^ 
Judg. 19, 11 and without *Vt9 in 
Josh. 15, 8, Zeoh. 9, 7. 

XCt\2'^9 see ttfa^ 

*flT3'J pr. n. m. (he, i. e. God, 
chooses) 2 Sam. 5, 15. 

yV pr. n. m. (he, i. e. Ck)d, 
understands) Josh. 11, 1. 

TZr2^ 1) pr. n. m. (perh. he shames, 
r. ^13)^2 K. 15, 10. 2) pr. n. (dry) 
of a city in Gilead, fully 15ba «^a; 
Jahesh Qikad 1 Sam. 11, l, also 
-rA^ ra; Judg. 21, 8; r. ra;. 


I (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 

• ^ ^^ 

basj, te, tta, Arab. Jej,^ flow or 
run, as a sore, hence perh. nba^ — 
Hiph. ^•'ni'n i. q. Syr. V.£cf , Chald. 
Va"«n (cf. K-'an, '?pWn),fa catwe to 
/?atr or move on, as in a procession, 
to amduet Jer. 31, 9; to ftriii^ /br- 
toard or present^ gifts Ps. 68, 30. 

— Hoph. i^Vi to 6e feJ'or brought 
la. 53, 7; to 6« escorted, in pomp 
and state Ps. 45, 15; to be brought 
forward or presented^ of gifts Is. 
18, 7. 

^ J n (obs.) prob. mimet, akin 
to a^; (which see), baj, to sowfid 
atotMl or shout, esp. in joy and 
trimnph; hence fat^, ba^T'. 

yJ. Chald. i. q. Heb. ia; L — 
Aph. iavj to ftriry Ezr. 5, 14. 

^5v ^) "^* ^ stream," ma *h^ 
streams of water Is, 44, 4.' 2)'^pr. n! 
m. (stream) Gen. 4, 20; r. 5a; I. 

bmp, see bai\ 

l^f ^? Pi"- n. (perh. stream or con- 
fluence of people) of a city inHanas- 
seh Josh. 17, 11; for which Q9^a in 
1 Ch. 6, 65. 

rtS]? f. a running sore, ulcer, 
only in Lev. 22, 22; prop. adj. f. of 
obs. i^?; r. ba; I. 

D^ (obs.) perh. akin to a^ 
(ct d^a akin to b^a), to long for, 
hence perh. to become attached, perh. 

D^^ (w. suf. '«a';) m. brother-in- 
law, husbands brother Deut. 25, 5 
(cf. $ai^, L. kvir). Hence tba 4^om. 

D!Zl'] only in Pi. to act the 
brotJier-in-law, to perform the levi* 
rate, i. e. to marry the widow of 
one's deceased brother Gen. 38, 8. 

tolas'* (w.suf. ipTaiy^, •inaa'^; the 
fern, of Da;) f. a sister-in-law, a 
brother's wife Deut. 25, 7; also a 
husband^s brother's wife Buth 1, 15. 

|j^ (obs.) prob. akin to "pa, to 

Digitized by 





undertia$id; hence ha^^n in K'thibh 
of Job 26, 12, where the Q'ri has 

iWy pr. n. (perh. God nnder- 
stands) of a city in Judah Josh. 
15, 11; of a city in Naphtali Josh. 
19, 83. 

'TfKil pr. n. (he, L e. God, causes 
to build) of a ^ty in Philistia 2 
Ch. 26, 6; stiU caUed by the Arabs 
Ua£ Teima. 

n^Sa*;, t1j!3a^pr.n.m.(W; builds) 

WmI (obs.) prob. akin to 0^31 
(which see), to tread down , trample; 
hence perh. 0^*^. 

yid (obs.) akin to ynsi, Arab. 
^^^ to shine, to be splendid; hence 

pj'' (obs.) akin to pna, ppa, 

Arab. J{, to pour or ^imA /brt^ 

p2l^ pr. n. (gushing out) of a stream 
near Mount Gtilead, flowing into the 
Jordan Gen. 82, 23; now called 
^)J sS*^h ^^y Zerqa. 

^irCV^^ pr. n. m. (m blesses) 
Is. 8, 2. 


(fut. tfa''';, Tib';, pL ^:> 

Job 18, 16, inf. c. xba*;, w. prep. tba*t^ 
Is. 27, 11, inf. c. fern, form rw^ Gen. 
8, 7) to dry up, of vegetation Is. 15, 
6, of the ground Gen. 8, 14, of bread 
Josh. 9, 5, of bones Ez. 87, 11, of a 
paralysed arm, to wither 1 K. 13, 4, 
ct Mark 3, 1; to be drained, to be* 
come dry, ot water Job 14, 11; fig. 
to fail, of strength Ps. 22, 16. — Pi. 
m*] to make dry Job 15, 30, also 
Nah. 1, 4 where ^imba^l for Vnba'''»1 

(Gram. § 69, 3, Bem. 6). — HIph. tS^in 
to make dry, to wither, of vegetation 
Is. 42, 15; to dry up, of water Josh. 
2, 10. Intrans. to become dry, of 
vegetation Joel 1, 10; fig. of joy, (o 
cease Joel 1, 12. 

IDD"^ (Qal obs.) i.q.«ria (which 
see), used only in — Hiph. ttrain to 
put to shame 2 Sam. 19, 6. Intrans. 
to feel ashamed Jer. 2, 26; to be put 
to shame Jer. 48, 1 ; to cause dtame 
or act shamefuUy Hos. 2, 7. 

X&y^ adj. m., rwfa'j f. 1) dry Job 
13, 25. 2) pr. n. (dry) of a city i. q. 
«ha\ 8) pr. n. m. (dry) 2 K. 15, 10. 

IXD!^ fat. Qal of tha, Ghram. §.72,4. 

WDP Chald. (obs.) L q. Heb. 
tfa'». Deriv. n»a\ 

rroS? f.prop. «A« ciry, hence dry 
ground Ex. 14, 16; the dry land, as 
opp. to the sea Gen. 1, 9; r. xin\ 

DTSQ^ pr. n. m. (firagrant, r. Diga) 
1 Oh.y, 2. 

ftica^ t i. q. rroj?, <A« dry ^^^ 
Ps. 95, 5, Ex. 4, 9. 

ftlCa^ Chald. (def. 5WTO3?) ttc 
dr^ 2a9uf; fig. the world Dan. 2, 10. 

ifcO*^ pr. n. m. (he, i. e. God, re- 
deems) Num. 13, 7. 

TjJ (only part pi. Q^'na'h) i q. 
"a^Si (which see) to cu^ up, ^ plough 
Jer. 52, 16, Q'ri of 2 K. 25, 12; 
hence ^ 

31^ m. a ploughed field, only in 
Jer. 39, 10. 

nrQl^ pr. n. (high , r. Piaj) of a 
place in Gad Num. 32, 35. 

VVi^ji^ pr. n. m. (PP is great) 
Jer. 35, 4. 

M J I (Qal obs.) akin to !??;, to 
be pressed or pained, — Niph. ro^ 

Digitized by 





for njl's, only in part. m. na!i3 (pi. c. | 
'>a!«)/f. njsia afflicted, grieved (pi. | 
nia« Lam. 1,4), waa •'Jjo f^osc ! 
afHieted (far away) /row the sacred 
assembly (see Gram. § 141) Zeph. 3, 
18. — Pi. to put to grief (ri^'*^ = mij'p 
Gram. § 69, 3^ Bem. 6) liam. 3, 33. 
— Hiph. njin to afflict , cause to be 
grieved Is 51, 23. 

n J n (Qal obs.) i. q. mn n, 
Syr. ^^o) to expel (of. £70)); to «e- 
jMira^ or remove. — Hiph. Mjh to 
toJSre away or remove, only in 2 Sam. 
20, 13. 

^^ (w. suf. Wir, r. nj; I) m. 
affliction, sorrow (Jen. 42, 38. 

li3^ a4j. m. fearful Jer. 22, 25; 
r. nr. 


"'^T P'^' "^ (tarrying-place, r. *tsia) 
of a place in Judah Josh. 15, 21. 

?**5^ adj. m. u^earied, only in Job 
3, 17; r. »a;. 

TV (r. 5a;) m. lalow, toil Gen. 
31, 42; a work done w. labour Job 
10, 3; gain, earnings of labour Is. 
45, 14; pain or labour of producing 
offspring) Job 39, 16. 

515*5^ (only c. roa*;) f. weariness^ 
only Eco. 12, 12. 

"'5?^ pr. n. m. (an exile, r. Th\ 13) 
Num.' 34, 22. 


(obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

leT^^y to press or crush; hence prob. 

r^; see nn}. 

I/J^ (fut. »a'»'i) i. q. Arab. 55-5 

iopcdn; to labour, toil Is. 49, 4; w. 
a of the work Josh. 24,*13, also w. 
ace. Is. 47, 15; w. "na /or Hab. 2, 13; 
to he teeary Is. 40, 31; w. a of the 
eause Pi. 6, 7, Is. 43, 22.' — Pi. 

to ttjeary Josh. 7, 8. — Hiph. y'S'th 
to cauae to &e weary, w. ace. of pers. 
and a of means Is. 43, 23. Hence 

yy^ m. labour, wages (earned by 
toil) Job 20, 18. 

?3^ i. q. y^aj 3, a4j. m. loeai:^, 
eochausted Deut 25, 18; fig. of words, 
weak, flagging Ecc. 1, 8; r. 9^\ 

^^5^ Chald. (i. q. Syr. j-^) m. a 
heap, stone-heap Gen. 31, 47. 

U (only in '^';*?7» 91??) **^ 
to *^U II, i. q. Arab, ^ft^; to /ear, to 

&e afraid of w. ace. Jbb 8, 25 , w. 
•^aop Deut. 9, 19; hence "nia;. 

^^ (c* 'T?, w. suf. W, Dan; for 
dyrT Gram. § 27, 3, Bern. 2, a;"^dnal 

prop, the out-stretching member (r. 
rrr m which see), hence the hand 
Ex. 21, 24. The dual U^ is gen. 
used for the two natural hands 
Zeoh. 13, 6, rarely for the plur. e. g. 
Job 4, 3; but the pL rrt^n only for 
artificial or imaginary hands, e. g. 
tenons Ex. 26, 17, axks 1 E:. 7, 32. 
2) fig. power, force Gen. 16, 12; help 
Deut. 32, 36; a slap or «froAre Ex. 
9, 3. 3) fig. the side of a thing, e. g. 
the brink of a stream Ex. 2, 5; hence 
w. prep. 1?^ at the side of, near 1 
Sam. 19, 3, also w. like sense *l$^ 
^ 1 Sam. 4, 18, T"^ 2 Sam. 14, 
30, niJ-te 2 Sam. 15, 2, ''■^-i? Num. 
34, 3; hence also D"^ both sides, on 
each hand, e. g. d*^ W] wide on 
both hands i. e. in all directions Ps. 
104, 25. 4) fig. space or place Deut. 
23, 13, CJ^ places or parts Josh. 8, 
20; hence, |>ar<, portion D^xl, 12, 7; 
pi. T\y^ parts or times (adverbially) 
Gen. 43, 34, Dan. 1, 20. 5) fig. a 
monumental pillar 2 Sam. 18, 18; 
way-mark Ez. 21, 24. — Many idio- 

Digitized by 





matic izj>re8Bioxt8 are formed w. ^ 
which must be explained to soit the 
context, e.g.ihe hand is against (a) 
somebody i. e. does him harm Gten, 
16, 12, also mth (a) somebody i. e. 
to assist 2 Ch. 30, 'i2; the hand of 
God w (L e. rests) on (b^ fe) some- 
body 1 K. 18, 46, Ez. 1,3; to turn 
(a'nrn) the hand against (b?) some- 
body Am. 1, 8; to give the hand 
(^ TO?) i. e, to pledge by striking 
hands'2 K. 10, 15, also in the act of 
submission Jer. 50, 15, also w. MlTt). 
1 Ch. 29, 34; n;;^ nj hand to hand, 
i. e. from generation to generation, 
ever, but w. negative, never Prov. 
11, 21; TS ^y means of Num. 15, 
23, with 1 Sam. 14, 34, near Job 15, 
23, fiTja at their side 1 Sam. 21, 14 ; 
TO afUr the hand i. e. abilitg or 
manner of 1 K. 10, 13; D-^^ -pa 
between the hands, i. e. on the breast 
Zech. 13, 6 (cf. D''^? T'a = on the 
forehead), — Other forms will be 
seen under the various verbs w. 
which 'T is used, e. g. "pj, nV^. 

T Chald. (def. K-r, w. suf. '^7'^ 
Dh"n; dual YT) f. i. q. Heb. ^^the 
hand; TO in possession of Ezr. 7, 
14 ; T? ^"J *o |)fotcc in the power of 
Dan. 7,25; l^-pa /row «Ac j?ou;cr of 
Dan. 6, 28. 

i^n^ Chald. (Pe'al obs.) i. q. 
Heb. Ht; I, to utter; then fig. 1) to 
confess. 2) to praise. — Aph. fcet'n 
(part. K'tiiis Dan. 2, 23, also contract. 
«7ia Dan. 6, 11) to praise^ celebrate^ 

nblSn*; pr. n. (perh. poverty- 
stricken,* r. bfiW) of a city in Zebulon 
Josh. 19, 15. ' 

12521T pr. n. m. (honeyed) 1 Oh. 

\P I (obs.) L q. •n^, Arab. 

jj, to love warmly; hence T^ 

n r n i. q. rrr; n,to c<»* or 

i^oto lots, only in 3 pi. pert ^ 
Joel4,3,Nah.3,10,Obad.ll.0f.rTT;lL % 

MT]*J (r. WI) f. fore, /Vtwkfcfctp, 
only fig. a bdoved direct Jer. 12, 7. 

n i I (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
tin I (which see), to sound forth, 
speak out. — Hiph. min (fat. m\ 
also trftV] Neh. 11, 17, Gram. § 53, 
Bern. 7) i) to confess Prov. 28, 13; 
w. i? respecting Ps. 32, 5. 2) to 
praise, i. e, to mention aioud Gen. 
39, 35^, also w. i Ps. 92, 2. 3) (o tiiy, 
of a choir singing together, hence 
rrripi. — Hith. n^inn i) to confess, 
respecting or against oneself Dan* 
9, 4: w. ace. of charge Lev. 5, 5; 
w. b? Neh. 1, 6. 2) to praise, w. ) 
of pers. 2 Ch. 30, 22. — Mimet akin 
to Sans, id (sing), vad (speak), dstS©, 
46o>, a^^, cp5i^, W. gukd (teU). 

M i"^ n (imper. W) akin to 
n^n,^p-ob. to rn;, rrybn, rnjil, 
ma (which see) to throw or cast Jer. 
5o7l4. — Pi. m] (inf.nw Zech. 2,4) 
to throw, cast e. g. stones Iiam.3|53 
^^ for si-n:*;^. Gram. § 69, Bern. 6). 

M j"*in (obs.) to stretch forth, 
extend; hence 1J. 

^"H^ Lam. 3, 53, for W^*; fut. PL of 
mjl, cf.Gram.§69,Bem.6. CtTrH* 

Tn^ see W, 

j'H^ pr. n. m. (loving, for fi^ r. 
Ti;l)*l Ch. 27, 21. 

"jiT pr. n. m. (judge) Neh. 8, 7. 

?^*n^ pr. n. m. (much known or 
knowing) Neh. 10, 22. 
I ^Tfn'l pr. n. m. (r. rrri, praising 
I. I or confessing, from obs. sabst. FAtJ) 

Digitized by 





year of Jubilee i. e. of loud andjot/oui 
soundf namely the fiftieth year, an- 
nounced to the people by means of 
the signal horn or trompet Lev. 25, 
13; also without h3d, Lev. 25, 28 
^'*a in the Jubilee. Akin to L. 
jubUum, G. jubel, £. peal. 

y^^ pr. n. m. (perh. jubilant^ r. 
hy^ n) Gen. 4, 21. 

b^^^ m. i. q. ba;, river, stream, 
only in Jer. 17, 8; r. tej L 

T^TT* pr. n. m. (TT^ presented) 2 
Ch. sY, 13, L q. "ttr'JT;. 

"T^ri"* pr. n, m. (PP is mindful) 
2 K. 12, 22. 

WTl"* pr. n. m. (perh. HVJ lives, WJ 
short for n;n) 1 Ch. 8, 16. 

TWTl*' pr. n. m. (>n; is graoioos) 
I Oh. 5, 85 L q. "jjn^,, hence IcoAwij^ 

iTtfl**, see rw\ 

STi'' pr.n.m; (WJ knows) Neh. 8, 6. 

V?^ pr. n. m. (ft; establishes) 

B«. 1,2, L q. pajirrj. 

tTp^** pr. n. m, (fi^sets up) Neh* 
12, 10.'^ 


^"IDSV^ pr. n. f. (prob. AJ is glorious) 
the mother of Moses Ex. 6, 20. 

b^*^ Alt. Qal of isi; to he able, see 
Gram. § 69, Bern. 8. — Also pr. n. m. 
(potent) Jer. 38, 1. 

^b^*^ Es. 42, 6 perh. for %i^ 
ftife. Qal of bplf 

FrjVi** Gen. 16, 11 tor rf*i'» part 
fsm. of "1^;, see Ghram. § 94, Bern. 1. 

Di** (pL Wnj; Ghram. § 96, o. ^^ 
poets, rrio*;, dual O'nji'*; r. W») m. 
rarely t Jer. 17, 18, dap, either the 
period between sunrise and sunseti 
opp. to the night Gton. 1, 14; or the 
24 hours inclusive of night (cf. vo^- 
^ficpov 2 Oor. 11, 25) Gen. 7, 24. 
fil") is need for any special or notable 


day or season (ct i^ ^(tlpa 1 Gor. 
3,13), thus e. g. it stands for a festi- 
val day Hos. 7, 5, a birth-dap Job 
3, 1, dap of calamity Chad. 12, day of 
battle Is. 9, 8. As an adv. (« Q^'*)) 
by day Ps. 88, 2; so also Di*^ &t« 
(Gen. 39, 10), Di'^J D'i'»-iDa (Est. 2, 
11), Dl^n-is (Prov. 21, 26),' w'-'a di-' 

(1 Oh. 12, 22), Oi-^If di'^i (2 Chi 24, 
11), day by day, daily, ol'**a Di*^ as 
day by day, i. e. daily 1 Sam. 18, 10. 
With the article (biVr Gram. § 109, 
Bern., § 150, 2), it means to-day 
Gen. 4, 14; at this or that day, 
hence o*i^9 immediately Prov. 12, 
16, ^e^ Judg. 18, 10; but also« 
in the day-time Gen. 31, 40; Di«D 
according to to-day, now Is. 58, 4; 
mil DI^S as this day i. e. as things 
are now Gen. 50, 20; also about that 
time Gten. 89, 11; ol^o from the time, 
since Deut. 9, 24. The pL D'ra; 
(rarely in Ohaldee form ^pp^ Ban. 

12, 13) is used to express dt^ Gen. 
24, 55 or some days in Gen. 27, 44 ; 
or time Is. 39, 6 or some ti$ne <}en. 
40, 4; also a year, e. g. 0^aj>3 n5t 
the yearly sacrifice 1 Bam. 2, 19, 
na'iaj D'»a;» /rom ^cor to year Ex. 

13, 10. — Di*t (Syr. (iooJ, Arab. 

^yi) is Arom Q>n or n^; I to &e loorm 

or bright; perh. akin to ^(^op, ^l^^a* 

tai'' CJhald. (det »^, pL l-ns^, c 
n9i'», ^\, det »yo'f'») L q. Heb. day 
Ezr. 6, 15. 

UT- (obs.) prob. akin to r. m;, 
t»5;il, rronn, (o be warmorbright; 
hence Ot^. 

DOi'' (from, di'^ w. ending d-7-, 
Gram. § 100, 3) adv. by day Ex. 18, 
21; daily Ez. 30, 16; all the day 
Ps. 13, 3. 

71"^ (obs.) prob. to boil or bubble 

Digitized by 



upf to ferment; hence perh. "jj; and 
I*!; (of. n^rj &om 'lon I, 2). 

15^ 1) pr. n. of a people and land, 
Javan, Ionia or Cheece G^en. 10, 2; 
135 "Tjba Wfi^ of Greece i. e. Alexander 
the great Dan. 8, 21. Patron, '^r'j, 
hence ft^ij^'i "^ia «o«« of tAe lonians 
(of. olec 'Axaiwv), ^ Oree^ Joel 
4, 6. 2) pr. n. of a city in Arabia, 
now Yawan in Yemen Ez. 27, 19. — • 
This noun is perh. akin to 1^ (which 
see) fcine, and may denote vine-land, 
as Greece was famed for its wines 
and the worship of Bacchus. 

"P^ m. prop, bubbling or oozing, 
hence mire or mud Ps. 40, 3; ^"j 
nb«o mire of depth i. e. a bog or 
quagmire Ps. 69, 8; r. "pj, 

a'7?i** pr.n.2Bam.l8,3,»eea'ja'J>r. 

03'^'' (Pl- B'^51'1) t\)a dove Gen. 
8, 8; njH'' "^ja ^0119^ (fotw Lev. 5, 7; 
'^n;i*« fiiy ({ove, a term of endearment 
addressed to a female Cant. 2, 14. 
The r. is prob. hj; n to coo or mourn, 
2) pr. n. m. (dove) of a prophet 2 
K. 14, 25. 

■^3^ patron, of IJJ, only in pL 
wy\ lonians] see in Tj;. 

p3V (prop. part, of p^J) m. 1) a 
sucking child Is. 11, 8. 2) a young 
twig, as it were the suckling of the 
tree, a shoot Is. 53, 2; cf. p,6(7^oc. 

r^l^l'' f. *«^, shoot, branch Ps. 
80, 12;' r. paj. 

lWi\ see TOlni. 

tjC*^^ pr • n. m. (prob. He, L e. God, 
gives increase) one of Jacob's sons 
and a patriarch Gen. 30, 24; CjOi*^ n^^ 
(Josh. 17, 17), C]0'i'» '»3a(Num.26,28),. 
also wlDl'** alone (Gen. 49, 22) =£phraim 
and Manasseh, the tribes descended 
from Joseph; in Am. 5, 6 tfG)^ n''^ 
is the ten tribes; in Ps. 80, 2 ^rgy^ is 
the whole nation of IsraeL 

fl^BDi'' pr. n. m. (w; gives in- 
crease) £zr. 8, 10. 

nbSyi'' pr. n. m. (perh. for nfer, 
let him help) 1 Ch, 12, 7. 

TJi" pr. 
Neh. 11, 7. 

V IV * 

12, 6. 

n. m. (Pfj is witness) 
n. m. (m is help) 1 Ch. 

yyi^, see yrs^ 
IfiTi- pr. n.' 

m. (PV^ hastens, cf. 
r. TO? I) 1 Ch. 7, 8. 

plSi"*, see pyf^tT], 

•ISI^ (part, of W n) m. a /a«*io«<'r 
or framer in general, then I) a pot- 
ter Is, 41, 25; -irh '»b3 a potter's 
vessel i. e. earthenware Ps. 2, 9; a 
fashioner in stone or wood, a statuary 
Is. 44, 9. 2) maker, creator, of God 
Jer. 10, 16. 3) i. q. "WR, a treasure, 
perh. in Zech. 11, 13. 

D^'pi"' pr, n. m. 1 Ch. 4, 22, see 

*li^ 2 K. 13, 17 fut. apoc. Hiph. 
for rrri'', r. MT. 

K'lV (orn'Ti'^)Prov. 11, 25 is teder- 
ed, prob. fut Hoph. for rWj r. Trr. 

rni** pr. n, m. (perh. = rnri**) Ear. 
2, 18, but C)''^ in Neh. 7, 24*. 

iTfV^ (part. (^ of rrr) m. water- 
ing Hos. 6, 3; hence the autumnal 
or ear/^ ratn, falling heavily in Pa- 
lestine, Arom middle of Oct. till Ja- 
nuary, and preparing the ground for 
the seed Dent 11, 14; opp. to XOip'xq 
Jer. 5, 24. 

'^'* pr. n. m. (perh. for rnr« an 
archer) 1 Ch. 5, 13. 

tni** 2 K. 8, 16, see tJ^-im. 

^n aiD^'' pr. n. m. (kindness la 
returned) 1 Ch. 3, 20. 

n^SI^V pr. n. m. (rn causes to 
dwell, r. a^;) 1 CJh. 4, 35. 

Digitized by 



TOW'' Jer. 22, 23 K'thibh for 
na^'"^ part. fen. Qal of aijj;, w. •» 
paragr. (Gram* § 90, 3, a). 

nW'' pr. n. m. (perh. rn presents, 
cf. ^) i. q. rnnwi l Ch. 4, 34. 

^Tl^^ P^' n. m. 1 Ch. 11, 40; 
aee Tv^\ 

tifilDi*' 1 Ch. 11, 43, see B^irr;. 

Urtr pr. n. m. (PP is perfect) a 
king of Judah, B. C. 759 — 743, 2 K. 

"ffjl^ ^t)*"* (prop. part, of W I) 
m. the remainder^ the rest 1 Sam. 15, 
15; ffoin, profit Ecc. 6, 8. As adv. 
ffiore, further Ecc. 2, 15; w, "pa more 
than Ecc 12, 12; also hesidea Est. 6, 
6; -t ^tni'' betides that Ecc. 12, 9. 

'^ v^*^"* ^' P'^P* ^^ ** redundant 
or overlapping; TSSSi ir n'nn^n Ex. 
2«, 13, "ry^ IP f^^C**? JJev. 9, 10, 
^an n-TTVi'Lev. s.^ie, collect, the 
lobes (the flaps) of the liver. 

r,, 'Pfdt.apoc.QalofnjJI.Gram. 
§ 78, 2, 6. 

2T^ Chald. (Pe. obs.) aMn to 

Heb. at I. q. Arab. *-»}j to flow away^ 
to eacij^e; only in Shaph'el a'^tld (for 
VTfd =» Syr. ^^IojI, cf. Heb. K'^r^ttJ) 
todeliver or re^ctieBan. 3, 28, f ut. a-^t T^ 
in 3, 17 where tooint w. sof, Kjwat*^. 

FIT (obs.) perh. akin to ma II 

t q. Arab. JjJ, to gather together, 
assemble: hence 

IWt^ pr. n. m. (God's assembly) 
1 Ch. 12, 3 (Q»ri) in K^thibh *)fiOT';. 

^T^*l pr. n. m. (perh. for m; m% 
fn assembles, r. mj n) Ezr. 10, 25' 

rj^ pr. lu m. (perh. roaming, r. 
nr H) I Ch. 27, 31. 

259 ^riT 

•"»^**?|'! pr. n. m. (perh. deUve- 
rance, r. «bj) l Ch. 8, 18. 

Wn Gen. 11, 6 for w; ftit. Qal 
of d»j, Gram. § 67, Bern. 'll. 

"T??^ ''"^?I'! pr. n. m. (prob. 
for n;;'3W, ^ gives ear) Jer. 42, l; 
40, 8. 

jT^i see TSIII, 

^i^ (obs.) perh. akin to ?^T, but 

same as Arab. £J^ to flaw, run, as 
water; hence 

5T^. m. sweat, only in Ez. 44, 18 ; 
cf. hyt. 

'^'jr. pr- n. m. (he shines forth) 
1 Ch. *27, 8; r. n^J^ 

fl^^T? pr. n. m. (ttj shines forth) 

1 Ch. 7, 3. 

^^"IJ? 1) pr. n. m. (once iK?*;n 

2 K. 9, lb, God will sow or scatter^ 
r.»^^^)Hos.l,4. 2) pr. n. of a town in 
Judah Josh. 15, 56. 8) pr. n. of the 
city in Issachar Josh. 19, 18, where 
Ahab resided (now Zertn) 1 K. 18, 46 j 
^Kfir paj the vaUey of Jezreel, 
Judg. 6, 33, comp. TteSCov 'EaSpTj- 
Xd)v plain of Esdrelon Judith 1, 8. 
Gentil. n. '»^X?';t'^ m, 1 K. 21, 1^ 
n-^te-Jj: f. 1 Saml'27, 3, Jezreelite. 

nan*^ pr. n. (hidden, r.han) 1 Ch. 
7, 34. ' 

in (ftit. W) i. q, ^«, to be 
united, w. a Gen. 49, 6, w. nwi Is. 
14, 20. — Pi. W to make into one, 
unite Ps. 86, 11. — The ftmdamental 
notion lies in *inK one, as *rrij shows. 
TH]!! m. oneness, union, community 

1 Ch. 12,17; hence as adv. together, 
unitedly, of action Ps. 2, 2, of place 

2 Sam. 10, 15, of time Is. 45, 8; 
alike, equally Ps. 49, 3; all, all as 
one, w. pronouns or nouns Ps. 62, 

17 ♦ 

Digitized by 





1 ; w. a-SD, toJwlljf around Job 10, 8 jr. 
"ir;. — Itr^ Prov. 27, 17, see r. Yin. 

"nlni; Job 3, 6 fiit. apoc. Qal of 
ttnn, Gram. § 75, Bern. 8, d, 

^^T}'^ ^'''T^' ^^' *^» ^2 (Gram. 
§ 121, 6, Bem. 4) adv. prop, his or 
its unions f i. e. together Is. 40, 5; 
together^ of action Ps. 84, 4, of 
place Q«n. 18, 6, of time Is. 1, 31 ; o- 
Ixke, of mamier 1 Sam. 80, 24; aU 
together, of many Is. 10, 8 ; r. W. 

^I'nn^ pr. n. m. (prob. for "pW, 
union) 1 Ch. 5, 14. 

bS'^W^ pr. n. m. (God gladdens, 
r. rm) I'ch. 5, 24. 

Vl^'nrt^ pr. n. m. (W gladdens) 
1 Clh.'l24,'20. 

VW^ Jer. 49, 8, see W. 

51^^*^ pr. n. m. (God quickens 
or declares, r. hjn I) 2 Ch. 29, 14 

bS'^TJT pr. n. m. (God beholds, 
r. nm) 1 Ch. 12, 4. 

fl^TH^ pr. n. m. (nj sees) Ezr. 
10, is! * 

b^pTH^ pr. n. m. (God strength- 
ens, for'pKpjm, Gram. § 27, 3, 
Bem. 2, a) JSzekiel, the prophet 
£z. 1, 8. I 

strengthens) Hos. 1, 1 , Is. 1, 1 ; see 

also njpth. 

•T^jttT) pr. n. m. (prob. may he 
cause to return, cf. Chald. ^TH) 1 
Ch. 9, 12. 

"fl^ fat apoc. Qal of rmi, Gram. 
§ 75, Bem. 8, e. 

bS'fl^ pr. n. m. (God lives) 1 Ch. 
15, 18, but nw in v. 24; patron. 
''ix^rr; i Ch. 26, 21. 

Tnj (pL D-^n*;) a4j. m., rrrrn 
f . one alone, an onely one, having no 
associate, of an only son Am. 8, 10, 

w. la Gen. 22, 2; of an omXy damghier 
OTT^V Jtidg. 11, 34; Umefy, den- 
late Ps. 68, 7; forlomj toretched, as 
suffering from loneliness Ps. 25, 16; 
fig. ITpry^^ poet, for life, as peerless 
or unique, not to be equalled or 
replaced Ps. 22, 21. 

njri^ pr. n. m. (PP lives, T. frtjl) 

1 Ch. 15, 24, i. q. b«rrn. 

^T?|! ^* i^ waiting, hopwg 
Lam. 3^26;r. bl^J. 

'JPl'11^ Hab. 2, 17for'jWT;3masc 
sing, fut.' Hiph. of nrn, w. snf. 8 pL 
fem. 1-;^ in pause for I-7- (Gram. § 
20, 3, Bern.). 

^n"^ (Qal obs.) i q. i-in, to vraU, 
hope. — NIph. brris (fut. bnj'^ for bny;, 
Gram. §69, Bem. 5) to waitQeu. 8, 12. 
— Pi. brn, fut. in?*;, 1) to wait Job 29, 
21 (where nim for ibrr)), cf. Job 14, 
14 ; to hope Job 6, llV w. h Job 29, 
23 or bx Ps. 130, 7, to hope in, wmt 
for, cf. Is. 42, 4, Ps. 119, 74. 2) to 
cause to hope, w. h:P upon Ps. 119, 
49. — Hiph. b'^rfn to wait 1 Sam. 
10, 8; w. h for Job 32, 11, cf: Ps. 
38, 16. 

blV Num. 30, 8 fut. ffiph. of 
Wn n. Gram. § 67, Bem. 8. 

il$blr^ pr. n. m. (he hopes in 
God) Gen. 46, 14; patron, "^i^fjl 
Num. 26, 26. 

^brP for sibrj'; 8 pi. pert PL of 
Vjr>, Gram. § 20^ 2, c. 

Dn akin to tm, b^, Arab. 

*^, to be warm, heated; fig. to 5e 
«n (seamal) heat, to rut, fut. pL 
naW (for njrp5) and they ruUed 
Oten. 30, 38, 39, also 3 pi. fem. natr^ 
(for mam, Gram. § 47, Bem. 3).* — 
Pi. to he in heat, of a flock Gen, 30, 
41; to conceive, Ps. 51, 7 in nn fN^ 

Digitized by 




T rr ;t 

mother *^3r(Q)rn conceived me^ sea 
Gram. § 64, Bern. 8. 

"^SSVl Gen. 80, 89, see Om. 

fTOm, see dhj. 


*fl33n^ m, i. q. Arab. )y»«^, a 
species of deer or s^o^, of a reddish 
colotnr, prob. a buck Deut. 14, 5j r. 

""ffll^ pr. n. m. (perh. a relative 
or connexion, r. Man I) 1 Oh. 7, 2. 

1^11 fat. apoc. of njn I, Gram. § 
75, Bern. 3, d. 

T|3n^ Gen. 43, 29 for 5JJIT; 3 p. 
fut. Qal of lan I, w. snf. Jj-^.' * 

5r|n (obs.) akin to tffj H, 

Arab. ,^A»-, to 5c barefoot; bence 

Cjrt^ adj. m. barefooted t unshod 
2 Sam. 15, 30. 

bWZn:, b«^? pr. n. m. (God 
distributes, r. ran) Gen. 46, 24, 1 
Cb. 7, 13, patron, "^^^n? Num. 
26, 48. 

^IT Job 19, 23 for Jljm^, fdt. 
Hoph. of ppj. Gram. § 67, Bem. 11. 

IPI"^ (fut nrrwj i. q. niw to 

delay, only in 2 Sam. 20, 5 (K'tbibb). 
— Hiph. n'Trin (ftit. apoc, -ini;') to 
torfy, only in 2 Sam. 20, 5 (Q'ri). 

"in^ fut. apoc. Qal of rn»j, Gram. 
} 75, Bern. 3, d. 

TDFl (obs.) perb. akin to W, 
to unUe. — HIth. toriwi, see under 

TWT| (perb. akin to W) m. race 
or fcunify, teW? '^60 <Ac family 
register Neb. 7, 5. — Hence denom. 
Hith. fDn:?nn to unt^e onese//^ f<7. f^ 
fankUy or race, 1. e. to be enrolled in 

the genealogical tables (cf. Luke 2, 3 
aico7pd<pe(j6ai) 1 Cb. 5, 1; but the 
infin. bn^rih serves also as subst. 
register, genealogical table 1 Cb. 7, 5 ; 
ton Wib in the manner of a register 
2 Cb. 12, 15. 

tiV fat Qal of nnj, also fut. 

Nipb. of nnn. 

tMV pr. n. m. (perb. for mm 
union) 1 Cb. 4, 2. 

'^FifV Job 21, 13 ftit Qal of nnj; 
but in Jer. 10, 2 ftit Nipb. of nnn. 

td^ fut apoc. Hipb. of hCd, Gram. 
§ 76, 2, b. 

3 w (only fat a^*;, att^, '^^xm 

Nab. 3 , 8) i. q. SIM, which serves as 
pert of aia; (Gram. § 77), to be good, 
w. IP to 5e 6e^er Nab. 3, 8. Impers. 
to be good, well, w. ]b to of pers. Gen. 
12, 13; to 5e or seem good to somebody, 
w. •»3'^§a Lev. 10, 19, w. "^Sfib Est 5, 
14, w. b Ps. 69, 32; to be of good 
cheer, merry, w. ai Judg. 19, 6. — 
Hiph. y^T^ (tit. a*»ari^ y^x!n^ once 
a-'w:?'; Job 24, 21) to do weU Deut 
6, 25; w. suf. nix** 5^0^ fAou 
had done well for to see, i. e. thou 
hast well seen (GHram. § 142, Bem. 
1), Jer. 1, 12; hence infln. absol. 
a^*^ used as adv. weU (Gram. § 
131, 2) Deut 9, 21 ; to improve, make 
good Jer. 2, 33; to do good Is. 1, 17; 
to benefit, w. b of pers. Gen. 12, 16, 
w. W Gen. 32, 10, w. nfc( Jer. 18, 10; 
to be good Mic. 2, 7; to gladden^ 
make cheerful Judg. 19, 22. 

mu'] Chald. (fat aD^^::) i. q. Heb. 
ao;, to «eem good^ w. b$ of pers. to 
whom Ezr. 7, 18. 

rOtd^ pr. n. (perh. pleasantness) 
of a place 2 K. 21, 19; r. a^\ 

iTtJMJ^ pr. n. (perh. pleasantness) 

Digitized by 




of a station of the Israelites in the 
wilderness, T^. good water Num. S3, 83. 

iTO^ or nOT pr. n. (prob. extend- 
ed, r. hljpj) a Levitioal dty in Judah 
Josh. 21, 16; 15, 55, now called Yutta, 
soath of Hebron; prob. the ic(SXic 
'louda of Imke 1, 39. 

'^•Iti'J pr. n. m, (prob. protection, 
eilQlosiire, r. "Wd n) a son of Ishmael 
Gen. 25, 15; also the tribe descended 
from him 1 Oh. 5, 19. Their district 
was called 'Iroopota, Jhtrea Luke 
8, 1, and lay east of the Jordan. 

M!Qt§^ for KW??f <3Tam. § 54, 2,5 
and Bem. 3. 

yiy] P«- 188, 6 for 55 ftit Qal 
of 5^, Gram. § 70, Bem. 

^"Vll for aM3T? fQt. ffiph. of 
a^^, Gram. § 70, Bem. 

Vb;;*; fut. Hiph. of »;, Gram. 
S 70, Bem. 

14, 18; y^^ n">a <^ Aoti«e o/" toine, 
banquet hall Cant. 2, 4; folly n^a 
17jn nn^ Est. 7, 8. — Akin are 

Arab. ^3, Ethiop. iratn, Armen. 
ffinif olvoc, L. vtwum, G. tc^ein, £. 
totMe, W. fftvtn, Gael. /Son. 

tl**;? Ez. 31, 7 fut apoc. Qal of 
n»;, Gram. § 76, 2, c. 

?P 1 Sam. 4, 13 in K'thibh, but 
only an error for *i?, as in Q'ri. 

?|]) fut. apoc. Hiph. of hDJ, Gram. 
§76,' 2, 5. 

''P3TS15]' Ps.50,23,seeGram.§58.4. 

IDDiS"* Ps. 59, 5 for si55i3n% Gram. 
fi 54, 2, 6. 

^HOr^ Job Sli 15 for suiife*^ A« 
fashioned us, fut. Pil. of "j^S w. suf. 
and epenth. 3, w. the *i changed to 4. 

riw (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
riDj to be straight, even, direct. — 

Nfph. Ii9i'9 (fut. m;*;) to set one 
another right, to argue together Is. 
1, 18, Ttr, b^ Job 28, 7; to be eoth 
victed or set right, Gen. 20, 16 nripia 
(for Wijia 2 perf. fern.) fAot* ori 
reproved, or as part. fern, it is set 
right, i. e. all is settled. — Blph. 
rparin to set right, decide Is. 11, 3; 
to adjudge, w. b of pers. to whom 
Gen. 24, 14; w. -pa, to arbitrate 
Job 9, 33; fo jwow r^W, to justify 
Job 13, 15; to set right, admonish 
Lev. 19, 17, w. i of pers. Pro v. 9, 
7; to chasten, punish Ps. 141, 5. — 
Hoph. n^n to be chastened Job 83, 
19. — Hitb. r!55nh to argue, w. D? 
Mic.6,2. — Perh. Vt^j, nsi, n», nrtp 

are akin to Arab, ^j ^0 (read or 
trample violently; hence perh. 1) to 
be strong; 2) to make level or eoaH 
hence to be right, 

n^b''b^ pr. n. f. (a; is able, r. ib^ 
2 Chi *26, *3 (K'thibh).' 

establishes, r. "j^) Gtm. 46, 10; 
patron, ''paj Num. 26, 12. 2) pr. n. 
of a column in front of Solomon*8 
temple 1 K. 7, 21. 

yj .once^lj 2Ch.7,7(perf: 
■»Fite;, w! sufax 'Pftia^ Ps, 13, 5; fait 
Wd;,' c rbby, int/i^'y prob. for 
iai*! e^ i5«j^^ hence mistaken for taU 
Hoph., Gram. § 69, Bem. 3) akin to 

Arab, ^^y, 5>13, i^, Chald. im, 
prop, to Ao/ci, contain, tiien to be 
capable of, w. ace. Job 42, 2; to be 
able w. inf. Gen. 13, 6, w. finite verb 
Est. 8, 6; to prevail, to succeed 1 K. 
22, 22; to control oneself Gen. 37, 4; 
to overcome, w. ace. of pers. Ps. 13» 
5, w. h Gen. 32, 26; to master (men- 
tally), to comprehend Ps, 139, 6; dlipt. 
to be able to bear or suffer Is. 1, id. 

Digitized by 




Vj ^ , yj ^ Chald. (fat. i3;;Dan. 
8, 29, V^ Dan! 2, 10 aa in Heb.) 
L q. Heb. ibj, to be able, w. i and 
infln. Dan. 2, 47; to prevail over, 
overcome, w. h of pers. Dan. 7, 21. 

53^ Chald. fut. of iy] Dan. 3, 29. 

njb^ vrbs;" pr. n. f. (w; is 

able) 2 Ch. 26/3,' 2 K. 15, 2; we 



n;»^ 5)n;;3b7 pr. n. m. 

establiahes) Jer.' 27, 20; 24, 1. 

^'^^OT Ex. 15, 5 for i^M*?"; fat. 
Pi. of ITD9 w. suf. ^O— (see Gram. 
S 58, 3, Bern. 1 and § 75, Bern. 18). 

n?^ Ig. 24, 12 for r\yn fut. Hoph. of 
^^ Gram. § 67, Bern. 8. 

^T&2 Bent. 1, 44 nns? or sinDj, 
fnt Hiph. of nre. Gram. § 67, ""s, 
Hem. 8. 



(fat li;?; int *;, c mi, 
•jj, w. «u£. MPrti, once vb 1 Sam. 
4, 19; pert w. suf. ?J"»tt'*'; Ps. 2, 7) 

i. q. Arab. jJ^, perb. akin to 'T^, 
prop, to lay or let down (i. e. from 
the womb); hence to bring forthj to 
bear, of mothers Gen. 4, 1 , of she- 
beasts Gen. 80, 89; to lay eggs, of 
hens Jer. 17, 11. Part. fem. mVi"« 
also rrt^h, she who hears, i. e. a 
mother' Ita. 21, 8, cf. Prov. 17, 25. 
Also to beffet, as a father (cf. tCxto), 
7ew<£a>, L. pario, of both parents) 
Gen. 4, 18; n^^ parents (o\ Tex6v. 
tec) Zech. 13, 8; to create, produce 
Job 88, 29. — NIph. nils (pi. Jnfea 
1 Ch. 3, 5; inf. w. suf. inijn) to )>e 
horn Ps. 22, 32; w. n« before the 
subject (see Gram. § 143, 1, a) Gten. 
4, 18. — Pi. nV; to help to hear, to 
deliver, as a midwife Ex. 1, 16; part 
f. mVna a midwife Gen. 35, 17. — 
Pa. ^ (li^ Judg. 18, 29, Gram. § 
52, Bmd. 4) to he horn Pi. 87, 4; to 

he created Ps. 90, 2. — Hiph. n-^Vrr 
to cause to hear Is. 66, 9; to came 
to have a child 1 Oh. 2, 18; to fer- 
i^Use, as the rain Is. 55, 10; to heget 
Gen. 5, 4; to create Job 88, 28; to 
hring forth Is. 59, 4. — ii«ph. prop. 
to he begotten, hence to be bom, only 
in inf. constr. Min Dii birth-day 
Gen. 40, 20; of. in E«. 16, 4 D'J'^a 
TjnlK mian (Gram. § 71 and § 143, 
1, a) in the day of thy being bom. 
— Hith. *ii?Wi prob. denom. of 
rfl**7ViJn family -history, hence to (fe- 
clare one's birth, to he enrolled on 
the family register Num. 1, 18; cfc 
torj^nrt denom. of iDIT». Hence 

T^. (pL B'^'?V;. <5. ''!?i:, ^^ix] Is. 
57, 4) m. one bom, a male child Ex. 
1, 17; a ladoT boy Gen. 4, 23; pL 
i. q. m^ children Ex. 21, 4, the young 
of animals Is. 11, 7; D'^'ias "nV 
strangers Is. 2, 6, cf. oT«c 'Axat^'v. 

rnb^ f. of *;, a girl, maiden 
Gen. 34, 4; pL ni^l^! Zech. 8, 5. 

ronr (r. iVi) f. cWM^ood, j^«m<;b 

Ecc. 11, 9; collect youth, young men 
Ps. 110, 8. 

TO"; (r. ^;) m. one bom Ex. 1, 
22, i. q. part 'T»i; horn. 

■pb^ pr. n. m. (tarrying over night, 
r. fh I) 1 Ch. 4, 17. 

"^^T (^- ^'^V;. c. Pl. TT^*;) m. one 
6om/ n'^a *rih one bom in the house, 
i. e. home-bom slave (Sept 0IX07C- 
vi^c)Gen. 14, 14; also dMcendaiU'S\an, 
13, 22; r. nb;. 

^•'^^ Prov. 4, 21 ftit Hiph. of wb, 
Gram. § 72, Bem. 9. 

tt'^b? Ex. 16, 2 K'thibh, ftit Hiph. 
oiikn, Qvam. § 72, Benu 9. 

^T^ (fut -qV;, imper.-^i, w.h-; 
cohort, rr^b or tJ^, inf. nsb ; the perf • 
and most of the parti of this verb 

Digitized by 





belong to "?^^ which see) to go^ to 
waUc. — Hiph. "q^bhn and '^'^)m to 
conduct, lead Dent. 8, 2; to carry 
off, take away, a babe Ex. 2, 9 ; fig. 
to cause to flow off, of water Ez. 32, 
14. See Gram. § 69, Bern. 8. — > 

Akin to Arab. ^3, yi to haste. 


(Qal obs.) mimet. akin to 
V>t(, Ai^b. 3513, Syr. %i^f , 6X0X6- 
Cco, Lat ululOf ejuU), T&ngl. yell, howl, 
wail, W. wylo, Gbtel. uaHam. — Hiph. 
b-^Wi (fut. b-^Virn is. 52, 5, W:*; Is. 

15, 2, b'^i'i.'j Mic* 1, 8) to wail Jer. 
47, 2; w. b? Jer. 48, 31, w. i Is. 

16, 7 of the cause; fig. said of trees 
Zech. 11, 2, also of the gate, perh. 
as a place of wailing Is. 14, 81 ; to 
yell, as savage yictors Is. 52, 5. 

yy^ m. a howling^ of wild beasts, 
only in Deut, 32, 10 "jt®^ ii*; inrq^ 
and in a waste, the howling of a 
desert, i. e. a wOdemess fall of 
howling beasts. 

nby (c nW-*) t wailing Is. 15, 


I prob. akin to TO^, 5* H, 
to specie rashly, only in Prov. 20, 25. 


^ n (obs.) perh. akin to p^J, 
to lick up, swaUow down; hence 
perh. ^Wn, roVin, worm; but ybjII 
may well mean to roll or icfv^, 

being prob. akin to M, Arab. ^^ 
'(torsit), Sans, vai/ (turn), eiXIco 
(whence SX)i.ivc, L. vermis, G. tmrm, 
E. toorm, G. aal, E. «e/), L. vokfo, 
G. wallen, £. wallow, welter^ W. 

C] X^ (ob^) 1. q. Arab. JBJ, akin 
to C)^ fo c/t»i^ to; hence 

)nSb^ f. a sort of itching scab or 
tetter hey, 21, 20. 


pX (obs.) mhnet. akin to pgb 
(which see), to lick or eo^ off; hence 

pb^ m. a kind of locust Kah. 3, 
16 j prop, the devourer, because of 
its voracity. 

tt^pb^ m. a pouch or scrip, ase$ 
by shepherds 1 Sam. 17, 40; r. Djg^. 

D^ (r. 00; I; c. 0?, often ft; Gen. 
14, 3^, w. iVr loc* ^^f Pl- ^^) Jn- 
prop, a Aummtn^, roaring, hence 
(Ae sea Gen. 32, 13; then, in general^ 
a large river, e. g. the Nile Is. 18, 2, 
the Euphrates Is. 27 , 1 ; pi. the 
branches of the Kile, forming its Delta 
Ez.32,2. Also a reservoir, t^WW ej 
(he copper reservoir, the temple laver 
2 K. 25, 13. — Fig. the west, because 
the Mediterranean sea is to the west 
of Palestine, d; Tpn the west wind 
(prop, sea^nd) Ex. 10, 19, D;-nKB 
the western side or district Ex. 27, 
12, rr^U westward Gen. 28, 14; DJia 
from or on the west Josh. 11, 2; 
h D*« on the west of Josh. 8, 9. For 
d; w. the pr. names of particular 
seas or lakes, see under nidS, n^o, 
o'^Pno^p, na-j?, spo, a^^. ojJ? 
M W t^ great sea, L e. the Medi- 
terranean Num. 34, 6, also caUed 
Ti'nnsn 0^ the hinder sea Deut. 11, 
24;^'^3bT5n ojn <Ae /brw«r or eastern 
sea, L e. the Dead Sea Zech. 14, 8. 

D^ Ghald. (det m|:) i. q. H«b. e;, 
fA« «ea Dan. 7, 2. 

D]J (only in pL D^) m. wam^ 
springs, only in Gen. 36, 24; r. rw^. 
Warm springs are still to be found 
in that district, south-east of the 
Dead Sea. 



(obs.) perh. akin to t^. 

Digitized by 





n^;, to he bright, warm; hence 

n53"^ (ob«.) i. q. W», m;, akin j 
to Bon, rran, to he hot, hence to 
6c bright, tearm; hence ta^, pi. 

bStt**, pr. n. m. (perh. God'« day 
i. 6. Sabbath) Gen. 46, 10. 

tnr, see Ot». 

H!3|; Gen. 7, 23 ftit. apoc. Qal of 
Mino, where some texts have ra*^ fat. 
Niph. as in Pb. 109| 13, Gram. § 75, 
Bern. 8. 

trV^, see W\ 

rrO^^ pr. n; f. (prob. ^ove, r. 
w; H) Job 42, 14. 

nu prop, what supports or defends 
(cf. d)i.6vci>), hence the right hand 
Oen. 48, 14; the right side, e. g. 
■!«•; *P hand of his right side, his 
rigia hand Gen. 48, 17, fa; -p? 
n^AI ^f 1 Sam. 11, 2; tAe south, 
being on the right hand of one 
facing the east (&^ Ps. 89, 13; 
'pvtm on the south of 1 Sam. 23, 
19; T»p; in the south Job 23, 9. Pig. 
the right or proper place Bcc. 10, 2. 
2) pr. n. m. (right hand i. e. lucky) 
Gen. 46, 10; patron. *iyn3'» Jaminite 
Num. 26. 12. 

T^t (from, 'pp;) prop. adj. m. 
right, opp. to left 2 Ch. 3, 17 
(K'thibh). Host frequently in the 
patron, of ??;?a, viz. TO^'TS Ben- 
faminifs, alsoeUipt. "^pa-j 2 Sam. 20, 1, 

«b^:^ rbxr pr. n.' m. (he fiui 

up) 2'ch. 18,'7* 1 K, 22, 8. 

Jlb^^ Job 8, 21 for «i«^-. Gram. 
{ 75, Bern. 21, b. 

^^\^'2 pr. n. m. (he causes to 
reign, V. Tji^) 1 Ch. 4, 34. 

Ul3 I (obs.) mimet. akin to 
bpn, DVi, Tv^n, to hum or mdS^ a 
noise, to roar, to rage; hence &; ^ 
«ea, akin to Dintn. 

Q'D"^ n (obs.) to be pure, 
clean; hence fW'^o'j. 

TQ^(Qal obs.) prob. akin to. 
19JJ I, to support, hence "poj r^A^ 
Aofui; whence as a denom. — Hiph. 
yn^ (pt^ 2 Sam. 14, Id) to use the 
right, to he right-handed, part pi. 
tt\3^a'jo 1 Ch. 12, 2; to twm to the 
right Gen. 13, 9. 

TXKf] pr. n. m. (prob. good-luck, 
r. nj!9)'Gen. 46, 17. 

•^SB^ adj. m., n-iso"; f., right, opp. 
to left iiev. 8, 23; cf. ■»5W. 

WO'J pr. n. m. (he will with- 
hold^ rV^39) * ^^ ^» ^• 

*I1Q"^ I (Qal obs.) i. q. "nsio, to 
Ghange,^/dter. — Hiph. i'»»'»n to 
change, aUer Jer. 2, 11; where some, 
w. the same meaning, read TW (r. 
n^a). — Hith. "na W perh. to change 
oneself, w. 2 »n<o, ^y^ 07^?a 
tnto «/icir ^toiy shall ye change pour- 
selves, 1. e. ye shall enter into their 
glory, only in Is. 61, 6; but rather 
as under ng; II. 

"I!D"^ U (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
naR n, to be high only in — Hith. 
to make oneself high, Ut boast or 
glory, prob. in Is. 61, 6 in their 
glory yt shall boast yourselves, 

1?J* Is. 24, 9 fut. Qal of 'nn? II; 
Gram. § 67, Bem. 8. 

TT02'] pr. n. m. (rebellious, r. 
rnal)Vch. 7, 36. 

;^*1ia*'' Ps. 139, 20 for ?p7ax\ 
Gram. § 68, 2, Bem. 

Digitized by 






J (Qal obs.) 1. q. Xbtto, to 
feel, touch, — Hipb. ttP»">n (K'thibh) 
to cUlow to touch or fed, only in 
Judg. 16, 26. 

yW^ Eoo. 12, 5 fat. Hipb. for 
y^r, T.\l^, Gram. § 78, Bern. 4. 

T^"] Cbald. for 55^ fat Pe. of 


I IJ ' I (ftit. na^, part f: nyh) 

akin to nj9 II, to 6e im>2en t or crueZ, 
to oppreaSf of a city Zepb. 8, 1, of a 
sword Jer. 46, 16; w. suf., inj 05*^3 
^ «8 oppress them altogether Ps. 74, 
8. — Hiph. njin (fat. m*^) to treat 
w. violence Ex. 22, 20; w. "JO of 
place, to drive out hy violence £z. 
46, 18. 


I U ' n (obs.) perb. mimet. akin 
to n}5< I, to moumf to coo ; bence 
nji** (iot;«. 

nl3^ pr.n. (rest, r. TO) of a place 
on tbe borders of Epbraim and Ma- 
nasseb 2 K. 15, 29; w. M-;- loc. 
nrrii; Josb. 16, 6. 

DV^ pr. n. (slnmber, r. M3) a 
place in Jadab (Q*ri) Josb. 15, 53, 
wbere K'tbibb bas D*«3\ 


"^S^ Ps. 141, 5 fat ffipb. of W:, 
Gram. § 74, Bern. 4. 

n"^j|] fdt ffipb. of r. TO. 

ng^S]' f; L q. nj^-h, Midirer, shoot, 
only Ea.'l7, 4; r. pj;. 

pj^ (fut pr*;) perb. akin to 
h^j n, fo suck Job 3, 12; w. rsno, 
to suck the breasts Joel 2, 16. — 
Hiph. P^'ll, once pW Lam. 4, 3, 
to suckle Gen. 21, 7 part f. pi. 
r\ipr» trimi tnilch camels Gen. 
82, 16, sing, ngj"^ u^-nurM Ex. 

2, 7, w. sat I'npW 2 K. 11, 2, pL 
Is. 49, 23. 

fj^r. once fjitiS^ ^. 34, 11) m. 
some unclean bird Lev. 1 1, 17 ; accord" 
ing to some, from C)Va twUiffht, even- 
ing, and bence evening^rd, owl; 
bat better according to otbers from 
tfBOj to blow, bence perb. a bittern 
or heron, named for tbe sound or 
noise it makes; cf. rai^pFU 

ID^ ftit ffipb. of nn^. Gram.! 
67, Bem. 8. 

ib*^ ftit Qal of a^, Ghram. § 67, 
Bem. 3. 

)D"^ (inf. Tib';; w.i, 'rte'^>ls. 5i, 

16, W> 2 Cb. 31, 7; w. suf. "^ 
Job 38, 4) prob. akin to *T?^, prop, 
to set, fig. to /(mn(2, i. e. to set some- 
tbing in its permanent place Ezr. 3, 12; 
to set doum, of a beap 2 Ch. 31, 7; 
to appoint, assign Ps. 104, 8; to 2ay 
doum laws Ps. 119, 152. — Nipb. 
Wia (fut ^J";) to 6c settled, of in- 
babitants in a land Ex. 9, 18; to 9it 
dou7n together for consultation, hence 
to toXre counsel together Ps. 2, 2 ; to 
&e founded, of a building Is. 44, 28. 
— Pi. ^ to found Is. 28, 16, cf. 
Zecb. 4,9; w. ace of material (Gram« 
§ 134, 2) 1 K. 5, 3; to appoint 1 Cb. 
9, 22; to prescribe or et^join, -w. 
i? Est. 1 , 8. — Pu. to 6c founded 
Cant 5, 15; w. ace. of material 1 K. 
7, 10. — Hopb. TWn to 6e esfabUsk- 
ed; inf. used as subst. foundation 
Ezr. 3, 11 ; part ISlC (Dagh. euphon.)» 
e.g. 'TWO ^a a founded foundation, 
i. e. firmly founded Is. 28, 16. Hence 
tte and 

HD^ m. foundation, hence begin- 
ningy only Ezr. 7, 9. 

tiO^ (pL triQr\ Mic. 1, 6, Tfrw\ 
Lam. 4] 11) m. foundation^ of an al- 
tar Ex. 29, 12, of a building Job 4, 

Digitized by 





W, d Hab. 3, 18; fig. princes, re- 
garded as the basis of society (of. 
nfin.jx 0'*5''^1 ^ princes "Ez, 30, 4. 

rnte^ f. faundationt only in Ps. 
•87. Mr/-^.> 

lBD^(fh)inr. 'Tno,asawftroina'n) 
m. only in pL w. suf. •»'t^D'; wy <Wf^ 
ner$ away i. e. tbose departing from 
me, only K'thibb of Jer. 17, 18, 
"Where QW '*^'l. 

liS"; (r. W) m. corrector, reprover 
Job 40, 2, pawOlel to mria. 

"ijO"^ (only "fat. rjfy^"^) i. q. ^, 
^:, to powr; intrans. to be powed, 
only Ex. 30, 32 , perh. for '!JW*». 

nsp^ pr. n. f. (perh. He, i. e. i3k)d, 
looksi^r* n=D n) Gen. 11, 29. 

VT'SOT'^ pr. n. m. (PP upholds, 
r. ^D)'2 Ch. 31, 13. 

5]P"^ (Qal only in perf., perh. 
also imp. «tp Is. 29,1, perh. part. ClDi"* 
for qar^ is. 38, 5; but the fat. has 
the Hiph. form C)'»W'">, apoc. t^% 
tiOJ'!) i. q. Cltt}, nWD, to add, w. ifij to 
Ezl 23, 14, w. i Is. 26, 15, w. i? Lev. 
5, 16; to increase, w. ace. Job 42, 10; 
w. inf. to add to do anything i. e. 
to do again (on this adverbial idiom, 
see Gram. § 142) Gen. 4, 2, also to do 
further or longer Gen. 4, 12; also w. 
niy to do the fHoreGen.37,5.--Nlph. 
q»i3 to 6c added, w. i? upon Num. 
36,3; to aW or join owe«c;/'Ex.l,10; 
to be increased, e. g. in riches Prov. 
11, 24. Part. pL niB^ia additions, i. 
€. new evils Is. 15, 9. — Hiph. q-^wn 
(fut. tr9i% apocCfii-^, C)b*, part.O-'b'ia) 
of tlie same force and usage as Qal. 
— Cjqi'' in Is. 29, 14 and 38, 5 may be 
fat. as is sometimes the case after 
•»3Sn, '1^ being unterstood as subject 
(comp. Is. 28, 16 W "^ijn lo! lam 
he who lays). The forms tiDK**, qo«% 

C)*^^ are only varieties of Cf^, 
having arisen ftrom the identity of 
C)07 and C)C2( (which see). 

CjP]' Chald. (Pe'al ob8.)i.q. Heb. 
C)C\ — lloph. (after the Heb.) VSV\ 
to be added, only Dan. 4, 33. 

*lp"^ (fat.1 pers.-ib«, w.suf.D'TWJ 
Hos. 10, 10) akin to *m, prop, to bind, 
to tame; hence to correct, chastise, 
part, i^*"' Prov. 9, 7, cf. Ps. 94, 10. 
— Niph. "^ to 6c corrcctod, to ta*c 
noaming Jer. 6, 8, w. a of the warn- 
ing Lev. 26, 23. — Pi. "^ (fat. 'T??';; 
inf. W, Ps. 118, 18, rrtp: Lev. 26, 
18) topum^A or c^osfiae Deut. 22, 18; 
to admonish Ps. 16, 7 ; to in8tr%tct Is. 
28, 26; w. 1^, to dissuade from Is. 
8, 11. — lliph. .'nwi (ct '^'^1977), 
w. suf. ta'i*^';^; I toiU correct thim, 
only in Hos. 7, 12. — Nithpa*el 
n^55 « '^W (see Gram. §. 55, 9) to 
toire teaming to oneself, to be warn- 
ed, only in £z. 23, 48. 

^•^ 1 Ch. 15, 22 for 'nto;; r. nn^?. 
5** (only pi. 0*^57) m. a «Aovf /, for 
removing the ashes of the altar Bx. 
27, 3; r. to;. 

ySl^^ 1) pr. n. m. (perh. he shines, 
r. 7?y)*l Ch. 4, 9. 2) pr. n. (perh, 
conspicuous) of a place 1 Ch, 2, 55. 
*15"^ I (fut. ^rr^) akin to t?^ n, 
Arab, j^^, Syr. j:^, also to T?>, to 
define, fix, of place Jer. 47, 7, of time 
2 Sam. 20, 5, of punishment Mic. 6, 
9; metaph. to fix on, betroth (a 
woman) E?c. 21, 8. — Hiph. "ryin to 
set a time and place for a trial, to 
summon or arraign Job 9, 19. — 
Hoph. rm, only part! pi. fixed Jer. 
24, 1 ; set, of the face Ez. 21, 21. 

^I?"' n (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
W JS^to bring together, assemble. 

Digitized by 





— Wph. Wb tomeet w. aneanother, 
w. i Ex. 25, 22; to cime together, 
w. bx <o Num. 10, 4; to e^^rce %cfAer 
Am. 3, 3, w. i? against Num. 14, 35. 

*^'^^> ''^^^ pr.n.m.(perli. punctual, 
r.^ I) 2 Ch. 9, 29, QVi and K'thibh. 

ll?^ i. q. Arab. ^3, to <?oflec<, 
to snaich up; hence to toArc out, to re- 
move, only in Is. 28, 17; hence T* a 
shovel. — Prob. akin to fiaj, Arwn, 

J9^^^ pr. n. m. (removed by God) 
1 Ch. 9, 6; also bftt'^y^ in Q'ri, ▼. 35. 

yV? pr. n, m. (prob. counsellor, 
r.y^i)! Ch. 8, 10. 

^iy; (only pi. D^Tiy;) m. v)Ood, 
forest, only in Ez. 34, 25 (K'thibb); 


"W^ pr. n. m. (perh. forester) 1 
Ch. 20, 5 K'thibb. 

"OW^ pr. n. m. (gatherer) Gen. 
36, 18 K'thibh, Q'ri t^^^j r. ttfe H. 

T?^ I (Qal obs.) i. q. tt5, I5;, to 
6c «^on|^ or firm, hence 60W or 
shameless, — Niph. (part, tjii) to 6e 
emboldened, fierce, only in Is. 88, 19, 
where some take it as akin to t^ in 
Pf. 114, 1. 

Ti/^ n (obs.) akin to y?;, *i5; I, 

i. q. Arab. Jcj, to cfecufe, or«fer, com- 
mand; hence 

^^■"Ty? pr. n. m. (prob. God's 
command) l Oh. 15, 18; also bfcrt3> 
1 Ch. 15, 20. 

^S!?? pr. n. m. (command of PP) 

1 Ch. 24,' 26. 

^''W-, also ^Tr pr. n. (perh. 
auxiliary, r. 1t5) of a city in Gad, 
on the border of Ammon 1 Ch. 6, 66, 

2 Sam. 24, 5. -ity? o; sea of Yazer, 

perh. a noted pool or reservoir near 
there Jer. 48, 32. 

O^ i. q.nayi, rroi, tocfof^i;, 
only perf. w. suf. "^SD^^ Is. 61, 10. 

0*/, Chald. L q. Heb. y?;, to 
«mn«e/;'part tt5; (= yyit Heb.) a 
counsellor; pi. w/suf. %7i05? JUs oJ- 
iwer« Ezr. 7, 14. — Ithpa.''^9^ to 
consult together Dan, Q^S. Hence KD?. 

^^''?N see iwc^. 

^'*?T P'^' "^^ "*• (perh. forester, 
cfc n?3 1 Ch. 20, 5 (Q'ri), but i^r; 
in K'thibh. 

^T, see Tiksn. 

13?? pr. n. m. (prob. troubling 
r. ^s^) 1 Ch. 5, 13. 

^•1^ (Qal obs.) i. q. Arab. J^5, 
akin to nij, to go up, ascend or 
rcocA the height; hence to 6e eminent, 
helpful, — Hiph. to profit or Mp 
Jer. 2, 8; to oww^ w. b of pers. Is. 
30, 5, of thing Job 30, 13; to be pro- 
fited Job 21, 15; hence 

1) i. q. Arab. J03, prop, climber, 

hence the chamois, rock or mountain 
goat Ps. 104, 18; d'^fe^ '^'TO rocks 
of the unld goats, near Engedi 1 8am. 
24, 3. 2) pr. n. f. (wUd gdat) Judg. 

f^^r (c. ri»:) f. 1) a femule 
chamois, toild she-goat, "jn nfe a 
graceful chamois, pet name for a 
dear wife Prov. 5, 19. 2) pr, n. m. 
(female chamois) Ezr. 2, 56; but «br^ 
in Neh. 7, 58; r. ^5;. 

13?^- pr. n. m. (perh. climber) 
Gen. 36, 5; r. b?;. 

f^?!*:?^ Dan. 8, 22 for nj^bapi 
Gram. § 47, Rem. 3. 

Digitized by 





f^ (ots.) prob. mimet. akin to 
nj», nj5 ly to call or cry, toacreech; 
hence ^, '^J?* 

■JIP (for n»^ ; r. Ji}5 1) prop, subst. 
i. q. "jya an cmswering (as in "money 
answereth all things''), then as prep. 
becoMse of (prop, in answer or retwm 
far) Bz. 6, 9; also w. inf. DabKQ T?!! 
because of yowr r^eetvng Is. 30, 12; 
w. perf. •»» "pj o» account M(rf Num. 
11,20; "iic^ I5;j became thatOten, 22, 16; 
tn oriicr <Aa^, so that, w. fat. Ea. 12, 
12. -jsja ^ 5e0atcse, even because 
(emph.) Ley. 26, 43, also 1$p& fP^ 
Ez. 36, 8. 

I?; (r» 1?;; onij pi. fi'^aar;) m. but 
epicoene, the ostrich y so named for 
its cry, only IJam. 4, 3 (Q'ri); but 

»T3^ (cf . ^?;, f . 'i^?::) f . *^ /cwa& 

osfHc/k, always njw na (sing.) 
daughter of the ostrich^ the ostrich 
Bent. 14, 15; TO^j ny^^} (p\.) daughters 
of the ostrich,^ ostriches Is. 13, 21; 
see r. f?;. — • Of. arpoudiov (« L. 
«^ntfAia) firom arpuCai (= L. strido), 
akin to G. a^rouw, W. esft:^, Irish 
struth, £• ostrich. 

■55? pr. n* m. (perh. responsive) 
1 Ch.*5, 12. 

TT^ Is. 15, 5 for W'T?^ I*ilp. 
of *W m to raise t«p a cry. 

?Z]5"^ (ftit. t)r:, also tg*: iB. 44, 

12) U q. r. tf9, whence t^, tobe 
uearied, exhausted, w. travel Is. 40, 
81, through thirst Is. 44, 12. — Hoph. 
^giBT) only part C)ya wearied out 
Dan. 9, 21. Hence 

Cj?^ (pL O**??^^ a^. m. wearied, 
faint Is. 40, 29, worn out, exhausted, 
of a people Is. 50, 4. 

tf^l (w. pret t)5^a) m. an «»- 

hausting or su^ course, only inBan. 
9, 21; r. eg;. 

yy^ (fat. YTD akin to n3Rl, 
^ I, prop, to fasten or fix; hence 
1) to sef firmly, as the eye, w. i§ 
tfpon some one Ps. 32, 8; to resolve 
firmly, w. i? 2 Sam. 17, 21 or bx 
Jer. 49, 20 against any one. 2) to 
advise Judg. 19, 30; to admonish Ps. 
16, 7. Part, ^^'h counsellor Is. 9, 5; 
fem. nawi'^ 2Ch."22,3, pLd'^SJ'i'^ Jobs, 
14. — Niph. y?l3 (fat. y$y;j to advise 
one anof Aer, to f aX:e ootmse^ to^ef Aer, 
w. IWT^ Ps. 71, 10; w. d? 1 Oh. 13, 1 
or nMls. 40, 14, or bK 2 K. 6, 8 with; 
to counsel oneself, to be advised 1 K. 
12, 28, cf. Prov. 18, 10. — Hith. 
I^nn L q. Kiph. to consuU one 
another, to plot together, w. b$ against 
Ps. 83, 4. 

ISJ^y^ pr. n. m. (heel-catdher, 
supplanter,r.ng9l) lax<!>p, Jacob, the 
father of the Israelites Gen. 25, 26; 
hence for the people of Israel Is. 27, 
6 ; for the ten tribes Hos. 12, 3, and 
after their captivity, for the kingdom 
of Judah Kah. 2, 3. 

rnpy^ pr. n. m. (perh. Jacob- 
I ward)'i"ch.4, 36. 
i TlS'C P'* ^ °** (PCJf^* perverse, r. 
' IP?) 1^- h 42. 

t/"^ (obs.) perh. akin to n-n^ HE, 
to sprout or flourish; hence ^» 

*l?j; Hag. 1, 14 fat apoc. Hiph. 
of "W^ni. 

^9*^ (r. nr«) m. 1) a luxuriant 
spot, covered w. trees, a brake or 
thicket Is. 21, 13; a wood or forest 
Dent. 19, 5, cf. Ps, 96, 12. 2) flg. 
wild honey (prob. for 'XT xso^i forest 
honey, the jiiXi ft^piov of Mat. 3, 4), 
often stored up by wild bees in ca^ 
vities of trees and rocks and ground. 

Digitized by 



T I- 


only in Cant 5, 1. 3) perh. pr. n, in 
Pi. 182, 6 for o^*>an n'i'Tp. 

Vt?- Pr. n. m. (bare, r. rnj) 
1 Ch. 9, 42. '^ ^ 

1) forea Ps. 29, 9. 2) i. q. 15. 2, tl^ 
noney, only in 1 Bam. u, 27 wiin n-^r*, 
prob.<A«i««,^o/^^^^^ th^'conVt 
rt. being here used for simple appo- 
rition (see Gram. § ne, 5, cf. Ewald's 
AnsftihrLLehrb, §287, l,a), but Sept, 
Byr. and Vulg. make it honeycomb. 

^yP ""^ayi pr, n. m. (perh. 
woods of weavers) 2 Sam. 21, 19. 

"^ .^t P'- '^ (forests, r. ^) Josh. 

*^^?^ pr.n.m. (perh. tT* canses 
to resl^ r. tthy) 1 Cfh. 8, 27. ' 

w J^^' "^5^ Pr- n. m. (perh. for 
"?95:, »=n makes, r, Mi^r) Ear. 10, 87 
K thibh, but '^i^ in Q»rL 

^^TW;: pr. n. m. (God makes) 
1 Oh. 11, 47. 

•^r7?r pr. n. m. (IT« redeems, 
r. rrnj) 1 ch. 8, 25. 

'^Vt ^^** ^''^» *P**®- ^5 Ex. 
31, 7) akin to 5rj, prop, to Mne; 
hence fig. to ft^ fair or beautiful 
Can. 7, 2. - Pi. nD-j to make beautU 
ful, adorn Jer. 10,4. ~ Polpal (Gram. 
§ 55, 4) to be made very fair, only 
in Ps. 45, 3 nnjTp; thou art much 
faxrer tn^ ijap than men. - Hitb. to 
6«atrft/y oneself Jeir, 4, 30. — Akin to 
Sans, Wa(shine),<pact), Syr. |U(bright), 
Chald. 5B";, G. fein, E. fine. Henoe 

pl-mu;, c. nb-^^ t beautiful (xdUl) 
Cant.1,8; w.m^'T^^fau/t/Wo/'aapec^ 
1 Sam. 17, 42; w. ^m beautiful of 
figvre Gen. 29, 17; of a country Ps. 
*8, 3 ; of a voice Ez. 33, 32; of the 
works of God Ecc. 3, 11. 

nj'B-nS^ acU. f. (redupl. from 

r.rm;) very beautiful, only Jer.4«,«0. 
"B;, »iS; Ezr. 3, 7, pr. n. (beauty) 
of a sea-port in Dan, 'Wicirij, JoRpa 
Josh. 19, 46; now iJlJ Ffl/g. 

''^^ (Qal obs.) mimet akm to 
^, iyiD (which see), tojm;/; htout.- 
Hith. ngvn to ^A or pant, only in 
Jer. 4, 31. Hence 

'^§r (<^':9'P ^'TaupamUng^eagei', 
perh. in Hab. 2, 3, but see under 
rWD; Don no-^^ afuf breathing out 
molence P8.27, 12, cf. i|xicvia>v oicti- 
X^C xal ^6voo Acts 9, 1. 

»"] m. reitotm, only E«, 28, 7* 
r, rr^^, whence also 

**?■ (in pause nfc-1, w. sut •»i|)-) m. 
Jeawfy or ^foty of a king U. SS, 17; 
loveliness of a woman Ps. 45, 12. 

^% y P'- n. (bright, r. »•») a 
place in Zebulon, now Tdfd near 
Nazareth Josh. 19, 12. 2) pr. n. m. of 
king of Lachish Josh. 10, 3. 8) pr.n. 
a son of David 2 Sam. 5, 15. 

1^::?! pr. n. m. (He, i e. God, de- 
livers) 1 Ch. 7, 82; patron, -^zhtn 
Josh. 16, 3. 

^^IVi 1) Pr.n.m. (perh. he shall be 
turned, r. hr^) fether of Caleb Nuuu 
13,6. 2)pr.n.m.sonof JetherlCh.7,38. 

^S (Qal obs.) akin to nE-» 

(which see), to shine, hence to c^pear. 
— Hipb. ?Tp'in to caiMf to shine 
Job 37, 15; to shine, to give light 
Job 3, 4, cf. 10, 22; to shine fortli, 
to appear, of God Deut 83, 2; ilg. 
w. te, to /avotir Job 10, 3. Hence 

»T?S? f. splendour, beaufy, otHy 
Ez. 28, 7. 17. 

■^C P8. 105, 24 fat. apoc. BGph. 
o^ '"T;?* <^r»m. S 75, Bern. 16. 

Digitized by 




T t • 

RB? Qen. 9, 27 fat. apoc. HJph. 
of riji, Gram. § 75, Bern. 16. 

nS (obs.) perh. to $ever, to 
single out, cf. nr^; hence perh. rrxo. 

P^l Job31,37fdt.apoc.Qalof r.nn^. 

PfflJ^ pr. n. m. (extension, r. HTi^) 
'la^^, Japhetky a son of Noah Gen. 
b, 32 and ancestor of wide-spread 
races, chiefly westward and north- 
ward Gen. 10, 2— -5. 

nriB^ 1) pr. n. m. (he, L e. God, 
opens, r. nPB) Jodg. 11, 12. 2) pr. 
n. a place in Jndah Josh. 15, 43. 

bH"nF)S7 pr. n. (God opens) of 
a valley in Zebolon Joeh. 19, 14, 
and in Asher (v. 27). 


(ftit. vqrif imp. Kac; int 
abs. Kan, c. ruci; part, t once feCp 
for rw^^ Ecc. 10, 5, and rssi^ 
Deut. 2V, 67 for rwari'^ Ps. 144, 14) 
akin to Aram. VCT], \^ to go or 
come cut Gen. 24, 11; w.^Q of place 
wAenoe Job 3, 11, also w. ace. Gen. 
44, 4 (cf. iSeX6siv x^^"*^ I'- ^»'«^» 
wrbem); w. 2 6y or at Jer. 17, 19; 
to go^ out tol w. b« Ex. 33, 7 , w. b 
Horn. 31, 27, w. :^ 1 SanL 28, 1, w. 
ace. Gen. 27, 8; to march cut, ot 
warriors 1 Sam. 23, 15, cf. Am. 5, 3; 
to come forthf of the child at birth 
Gen. 25, 25 ; fig. to be descended or 
begotten Gen. 35, 11, ct Gen. 10, 
14; to get out, escape, w. "p Pror. 
13, 13, also w. ace. Ecc. 7, 18; to 
spring forth, of plants 1 K. 5, 13, 
ef. Ban* 8, 9, of water Deut. 8, 7; 
to rise, of the son Gen. 19, 23; to 
ht exported 1 K. 10, 29; to he ex- 
pended, of money 2 K. 12, 18; to 
stick out or project Neh. 8, 25; to 
extend or reach along, of a boundary 
Josh. 15 , 8 ; to close or end, of a 
year Ex. 23, 16. — ttlpll. VCm 

(part X->ria, once fiqn'Q Ps. 185, 7) 
to lead forth, w. ^Q Ex. 13, 14; to 
bring forth yegetation Gen. 1, 12, 
cf. Ps. 104, 14; to produce, as an ar- 
tisan Is. 54, 16; to make rise, of the 
stars Is. 40, 26; to separate, w. ^T) 
Jer. 15, 19; to send forth or publish 
a report Num. 14, 37 ; to draw out 
Ex. 4, 6; to exact money 2 K. 15, 
20. — Hoph. tKPn to be led forth 
Gen. 38, 25; to be brought out or 
made to flow forth Ez. 47, 8. 

iSJ£ . Ohald. (Pe'al obs.) to go 
out or come to an end. — Shaph. 
K3PW and ■»aptD (in Targum) to bring 
to an end, finishi intrans. K'^r^ib f be 
finished Ezr. 6, 15, usuaUy but errone- 
ously put under VCOO; ct Gram. § 55, 6. 

RS'' Ecc. 10, 5 for rttCt'» fern. part. 
Qal 6f r.MS;, see Gram. §75, Bern. 21, <?. 

H^ (Qal obs.) akin to n^ and 
perh. y^, to set, establish, — Hilli. 
asTtfi to set oneself, take a stand 1 
Sam. 17, 16; to stand up for, w. h^ 
2 Ch« 11, 13, w. b Ps. 94, 16; w. 
■>3Di to present oneself before Ex. 8, 1 6; 
to unth-stand or oppose Deut. 9, 2, 

alj£ Chald. (Pe'al obs.) to be 
set or furm, sure, — Pa. to make 
sure or speak w, certainty Dan. 7, 
19, where K32I? is prob. inf. for Kn^. 

J^ (Qal obs.) akin to Aa^, TT, 
px;U,to set or place, — Hiph. y^vn 
(Gram. § 71) to set, place a person 
Gen. 43, 9, a thing Deut. 28, 56; 
fig. to establish Am. 5, 15; ^0 appoint 
or leave Gen. 33, 15. — Hoph. ^ 
to be left Ex. 10, 24. 

*fT2|' m. 1) prop, what shines (r. 
W), oil Num. 18, 12. Hence \5!f 
*ViaB^ the sons of oU, i. e. anointed 
ones e. g. kings and priests Zech. 4, 

Digitized by 





14. 2) pr. n. m. (shining) Ex. 6, 18; 
patron, ^y^') IzhaHU Num. 3, 27. 

?^S^ (w. 8uf. 'rffSi'S,'\\ pi. c. WX*;; 
r. TT^) m. prop, what i« spread out; 
\) a bed Ps. 63, 7; bridal-bed Gen. 
49, 4. 2) a /foor or «fory 1 K. 6, 5. 

P^^ Pg. 41, 9, see p^^ H. 

pTO^ pr. n. m. (he sports) the 
«on of Abraham and Sarah, 'laadx, 
Isaac Gen. 21, 3; also (in later and 
softer form, Gram. § 2, 4, Bem.) 
prvsp Ps. 105, 9. The name stands 
for fliU Israel in Am. 7, 9. 

"IHS^J. pr. n. m. (splendid, r. nn^) 1 
Ch. 4, 7 K*thibh, but in Q'ri i. q. 'nn's. 

yatt2I^ Chald. fut. Ithp. of »5X; 
comp. Gram. § 54, 2, a. 

^^l^ttS*; Josh. 9, 4 fut Hith. of 
^"^is or "V):c m, see Gram. § 54^2, a. 

K''2^ (pi. c. W3r) adj. m., come 
out or descended (as of&pring), only 
in 2 Ch. 32, 21. 

I'^S^ Chald. a^J. m. estdbHshed, 
fixed Dan. 6, 13; certain, sure Dan. 
2, 45. a'«:-pD adv. of a truth, cer- 
tainly Dan. 2, 8. 

?^ J f. a /feor or aory 1 K. 6, 5 

3^^*^ (Qal obs.) i. q. A^l, Arab. 

^^, fo 0ef or spread, — Hiph. 9isn 
(Gram. § 71) to spread oviy as a bed 
Ps. 139, 8. — Hoph. a«n to be spread 
out, w. nntn under Is. 14, 11. 


^ I (fdt. trans. piP (}ram. 
^ 71; intrans. apoc. pr; 1 K. 22, 85; 
imp. p3S 2 K. 4, 41 and pSI*; Ez. 24, 
3; inf. niM|) akin to p^, "rpj, ppj I, 
to jpoiir out Gen. 28, 18 ; to pour out 
Tiietal, to cast Ez. 25, 12, part. pass. 
pis; cewt 1 K. 7, 24. — PI. fo pour 
oiU 2 K. 4, 5 <K*thibh). — Hiph. 
only in fern, part n^Q pouring 

out, only in QM of 2 K. 4, 5. — 
Hoph. to 6e poured out Lev. 21, 
10; to &e ca«f, of metals i K. 7, 23; 
part pa« mo/^ work 1 K. 7, 16; 
hence pX^Q. 

P^ n (inf. n;;2t) perh. akin to 
p^ m, as;, to be firm, compressed; 
part. pass, p^uc; Aar(2en€(2 Job 41, 16, 
fastened Ps. 41, 9; to Aarden Job 88, 
38.-~Hoph. only in part pss made 
firm or strong Job 11, 15. 

p^ III akin to a^; on^ in 
Hiph. p'^sn (Gram. § 71) to set, place 
2 Bam. 15, 24; w. *"»> Josh. 7, 23. 

p!ri 1 K.22,35 fht apoc. of pT L 

flg^^ f. a casting of metal, only 
1 K. 7, 24; r. pX^ I. 

^p2^ 2 K. 4, 40 3 pL f»t of PRL 

ni^"^ I (only ftit l;C, apoc. ■«;) 
akin to n«, n^X, prop, to jpre» 
together, hence to straiten; but 
usually intrans. to 6e pressed or 
straitened Prov. 4, 12, Job 18,7; 
impers. to 5e distressing, perplexing 
to w. i, Gen. 32, 8 ft -CPi and he 
was distressed, 

"l!^"^ n (fut. apoc. nrj. -tt^ 
Gen. 2, 7, also ^ Chram. § 71 ; part 
naPii, used also prob. for "«r« inZedL 
11, 18) akin to nt|, *cg^, prop, to 
cut; hence to /brm or fashion, as a 
wood-carver Is 44, 9 , as a smith It. 
54, 17, as a potter Is. 64, 7 ; to cretde, 
of Ck>d Gen. 2, 19, w. ace. of material 
Gen. 2, 7; to produce or arrange Ps. 
74, 17; to devise or <2e»^ 2 K. 19, 
25, w. !)9 against Ps. 94, 30. Part 
*^rh a potter Is. 29, 16; a statuary 
Is. 44, 9; a creator Is. 43, 1. In 
Zech. 11, 13 I2p> is prob. rightly 
taken by many (both ancient and 
modem) for "oriK treasurer or "tjiw 

Digitized by 





treasury (see Manreri Comumo/^ in 
loo.). — NIph. -ai) to 5e /brtncrf Is. 
43, 10. — Pa. "tfij fo dc predestined, 
of days Ps. 139, 16. — H«pb. "qpn 
to be fashioned 1m, 54, 17. Hence 

*T3g; (w. suf. iiif;) m. 1) prop, a 
shaping, hence thtMgM, as a fashion- 
ing in the mind Is. 26, 3; fully 
ab "Trj Gen. 8, 21. 2) frame or cm- 
stiMion of men Ps. 103, 14; a device^ 
i)a<<«rfiinpotter7ls.29,16; amimage 
Hab. 2, 18. 3) pr. n. m. (form) Gen. 
46, 24, patron, "t*^ Jezeriie Nam. 

*IS^ (only pL 6'»^) prop. part. 
pass, fsnnfid or fashioned; hence pL 
jHirts formed, the body or frame, as 
made np of the several memhers, 
only in Job 17, 7 ; r. "ti; IL 

^^ Gen. 2, 14, tat. of"^ IL 
■tr; fat. apoc ofxi; I or -i^ I; 
Gram« § 78. 

^t^ Ex. 32, 4 Idt. apoe. of ")%in. 

■nS^ pr. n.m. (foshioner, t.^U) 
1 Ch. *25, 11. 

n^ (fut. nyj Gram. S 71, pL 
va|:> for V^r;, Gram. § 20, 2, c) akin 
to r. nir, n%t, to 5um, 5toe, w. ^ 
1^ "^T?^ napn!} otut i< bUusesin the 
thickets of the wood Is. 9, 17; to 60 
burned, w. viK) Is. 33, 12. — Niph. 
to &e consumed by fire Jer. 2, 15; to 
bum, -w, :f at or against, of anger 
2 K. 22, 13. — Hipb. TPlfn (once in 
K»thibh tr^n 2 Sam. 14. 30; fut 
apoc. r^ Lam. 4, 11) to sef fire to 
anything (a m 'n) Jer. 17, 27, w. b? 
Jer. 11, 16; to bum in the fire (VH^) 
Joiih.8, 6; also (without VM) to 5um 
Jer. 51, 30. 

VGI7 Is. 38, 12 flit. Qal of n^ 
which see. 

3p (obs.) akhi to 2p3, Arab. 
*^\J , to dig, excavate; hence 

!!i^ (w- ««f- 'RJ?? I>eat. 15, 14, pi. 
d^ap^, c. *^^'^) m. prop, excavation 
(sometimes in the ground or rock); 
hence 1) that into which the must 
or new wine flows firom the winepress, 
the wine-vat (6iroXi^vtov, L. laeus) 
Prov. 3, 10. 8) the wine-preSs itself, 
in which the grapes were trodden 
2 K. 6, 27. 

bSCng'J pr. n. ((3k)d gathers) of 
a place in South Judah Keh. 11, 25; 
but ^UCap in Josh. 15, 21; r. ^n^. 

Ip (fut. -TK I»- 10» !«» "^V^. 
Deut 32,32; inf. t^) akin to *ri^ II 
(which see), to bum, blaze Is. 65, 5; 
part. pass. Tip; as subst, a burning 
mass on the hearthls. 30, 1 4.— Hoph. 
ipin (only ftit.) to be kindled, to bum 
Lev. 6, 2; flg. (cf. mn) of anger Jer. 
15, 14. 

Ijr ^ Chald. (only part f. def. 
KPiTp; and KPi'f R) i. q. Heb. Hg;, 
to bum, blaze Dan. 3, 6. 

Vr^^ Chald. (c.rng«^ f. a burnrng 
Dan. 7, 11. 

1p^ fut. of Tjp n to dour. 

Ciyi]^^ pr« n. (prob. people*s burn- 
ing) of a city in the mountains of 
Judah Josh. 15, 56. 

II |r (obs.) prob. akin to WgJ i. 

q. Arab. ^^3, to revere or a6«y; hence 

njj^ pr. n. m. (pious) Prov. 30, 1. 

jMp (obs.) akin to h)?;, perh. 

axouct), G. achten i. q. Arab. t3^ to 
obey; hence 

nnp^ or JTJlg^ (only c. nnjin, w. 
Dagh. euphon. ,Gram. § 20, 2, 6) f. 

Digitized by 





chedience Gen. 49, 10 (but see rfiTg); 
BX-nn;sn a mother's obedience, due 
to her Prov. 30, 17. 

*rip^ m. a burning 1b, 10, 16; 

ttlp^ m. tchat is rejected or haih- 
ed, a vomiti$iff, perh. in Job 8, 14; 

D^p^ ni. what etists, hence a Iw- 
ing being Gen. 7, 4; r. D^ or dp;. 

Ibip; (also tfip"^ Ps. 91, 3; pL 
D'^t^'j Jer. 5, 26) m. a layer of snares, 
a fowler Hos. 9, 8; r. wp**. 

bl^Tl^p^ pr. n. m. (prob. Ck)d»8 
reverence, r. n^;) 1 Ch. 4 18. 

H|§'J fut. of npi; Gram. § 66, 
Bern. 2. 

np^ fut. Hoph. of hgi; Gram. 
§ 66, Bern. 2. 

1^1?T P'* ^ ^"^ (made small) the 
father of several races in Arabia 
Gen. 10, 25. 

I^Tt P**' ^ ""*• Oi®> i« ®« ^^ raises) 
1 Ch. 8, 19. 

"^"^I?- a^j. m. dear, precious Jer. 
31, 20; r. ipj. 

"^"^^ Chald. (def. VC^'J^) a^j. m. 
precious; hence weighty, d^ficuUBsn. 
2, 11; eminent, noble, of a grandee 
Ezr. 4, 10; r. ng^. 

U|r (obs.) prob. akin to Mp q. v. 

n^Mp"] pr. n. m. (perh. existence 
of P^) i Ch. 2, 41. 

D^P*^ pr. n. (who assembles the 
people) 1 Ch. 23, 19. 

D?^K P'* "^ ^P^^ people's ex- 
istence) of a Levitical city inEphraim 
1 K. 4, 12; but D^SOp in Josh. 21, 22. 

^??1?^ V^' »• (<^e people's pos- 
session, for DT nijp;, r. rtj^I) of place 
in Zebulon Josh. 12, 22. 

yjc^ I (fut. 3>py i. q. 5g9, fe 
move atm^ or tear oneself away; 
then to be dislocated, of a limb Gen. 
32, 26; fig. to be alienated, of the 
soul, w. ^p Jer. 6, 8; w. iy« Bi. 
23, 18. 

^\? n (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
3«p I,^^ m, ypn, to tratiafix or 
pierce, — Hiph. ?^pHn to impale or 
erucifg (avaoxoXoTcCCstv) Num. 25, 4. 
— Hoph. 3?pn to 6e impaled 2 Sam. 
21, 13. 

f )c^ (Qalonlyinftit.]rpn, -pp, 
fpin Lev. 9, 24, )nJ7 1 K. 3, 15) L q. 
y^ n, to awfl^c Gen. 28, 16. In the 
perf. only y^pi^ the Hiph. ofppn. 

Yj?r 1 K. 3, 15 for Trpin,r. y^. 

\\?^ (fut Ig^'J, -np^ 1*8. 72, 14, 
-IK Ps. 49, 9) i. q. Arab, jlj, jjII 
prop, to ftc heavy (cf. -las); hence, 
fig. to 6c dear, precious, costly Ps. 49, 
9; w. "a'^a 1 Sam. 26, 21, w. lb Ps. 
139, 17; to be worth, w.^M Zech. 
11, 13 orrV^g •nn'^p; -i;dx 'i^icA I 
t<;a9 ti^or^A on their esHmaSs, — Uipk. 
n^'j^in to wa*e precious or acarre Is. 
13, 12; to withhold w. -pD Prov. 25, 
17. Hence 

^J^^ a^j. m. n-np; f. ^aw, cote 
(prop, weighty, opp. to light) <rf 
disposition Prov. 17, 27 (Qri), where 
K'thibh has ip cool; costly, precious 
1 K. 10, 2; highly prized, of God's 
favour Ps. 36, 8; dear, beloved Pa. 
45, 10. Subst. splendour Job 31, 26, 
cf. Ps. 37, 20. * 

^^ (c. ^^^ Est. 1, 4) m. preciou9' 
ness Prov. 20, 15; valtte, price Zech. 
11, 13; honour Ps. 49, 13; magni- 
ficence Est. 1, 4. 

Digitized by 





n^ Chald. m. weight or treasure 
Dan. 2, 6; honour Dan. 2, 37. 

rPJJ^ (only pL ni-i^^) f. splendid 
one, a star, perh. in Zecli. 14. 6, bat 
tee "pKBp and Maurerl Comment, 
in loc. 

?f!!j5^ 1 Sam. 28, 10 for -rj-nip^ fat. 
Qal of *rn|5 i w. «nf. Ij-^. 

^P (y««5fi*) like pg aram. 
Parad. B (perf. 1 pers. ''Fncp; Jer. 
50, 24) i. q. TDpj, wip, to lay snares, 
w.bPs. 141,9. Part.cp^'^a/WferPs. 
124, 7. The fut. 'ptjp'; in I«. 29, 21 
is prob. firom xtip. — Niph. ttjpia fo 
Af snared la. 8, 15, w. ^ (of snare) 
Prov. 6, 2 ; fig. to be ensnared Deut. 
7, 25. — Pu. to be idterly snared 
(part. d'nojpBl'' for n^'tt'iy^^a, Gram. § 52, 
Bem. 6) Ecc. 9, 12. 

TZSgj; fat. apoc. Qal of m6p. 

TX^. fat apoc. Hiph. of nwp. 

fHDp^ Is. 29, 21 prob. 3 pi. fat. 
Qal of trip. 

]|0|5^ pr. n.m. (fowler) Gen. 25, 2. 

Jip (oba.) perb. akin to Wp; to 
bind or snare; perb. bence 

iSt)n|5^ pr. n. (perb. God's bind- 
ing) of a city in Judab Josh. 15, 38; 
also £d Arabia Petrea 2 ]EL 14, 7. 

S'7^ Gen. 1, 4, see VC^. 

SS* (2 pers. pL D^«Ti <"^ce 
tan«7; Josh. 4, 24; ftit K^^, ^-nn; 
l™P-'^'?1 ; "^- ^ "^^^ 22, 25, MK-in 
w. h once fihi for Kn-^b 1 Sam. 18, 
29) perh. akin to hx*; to look at or 
eye -w. aneasiness or shyness (cf. 
rw» Is. 41, 10, o^opAeo, L. sttspicor) 
1) fo /ear, to 6c <rfraid Gen. 3, 10; 
to dread w. ace. Ham. 14, 9; w. "pa 
Pcdf 7, w. ■'3W 2 K. 1, 16, w. '^3Sio 
1 Sam. 18, 12; w. h for Josh. 9, 24; 
to be afraid of doing anything, w. 

inf. and h Gen. 19, 30; w. "p? Ex. 3, 
6; to fear lest, w. "jB Gen. 81, 31. 2) 
to fear or reverence, parents etc. 
Lev. 19, 3; God Ex. 14, 31, w. 
•^J^io Ecc. 8, 12. — Nipb. X-jiJ (fat. 
fiOJ*?) to be feared Ps. 130, 4. Part 
VCrti dreadf tdJoel 2, 11 ; aw/WDeat. 
28, 58; fearful Ex. 15, 11: f. pi. 
niK'nia wonderful or sfupe»k2ou0 deeds, 
of men Ps. 45, 5, of God Dent. 10, 
21: also as adv. wondrously Ps. 65, 
6, cf. niKica. — Pi. xnn to make 
afraid 2 Sam. I4. 15. Hence 

^"D^ (c. V^T^t Pl- ^*^y) partici- 
pial adj. m., fem. n^y^ (o. rw"!"^ 
Prov. 31, 30) fearing, reverencing, 
w. aoc. Ex. 9, 20 ; w. gen. (B'^rAx VCT) 
Gen. 22, 12; fearful^ timid Deut. 20, 
8. Joined w. the pers. pron. it has 
an the force of a finite verb, e. g. 
ink •»D» »^; I fear him Gen. 82, 12. 

Gram. § 75, Bem. 3, c. 

♦^^? ^« prop* i»^« of «^ 
(Gram. § 45, 1, b), as in Keh. 1, 11; 
then sabst. fear, terror Jon. 1, 10; 
terribleness E2. 1, 18; reverence, awe 
Gen. 20, 11 D-^rAsf r^y] fear of God, 
L e. religion or godliness Job 4, 6. 

W1^ Josh. 24, 14 for \}nrf\ imp. 
pL of fin;, see Gram. § 75, Bem. 21, 
a. Note \ 

^*^*'' 2 Sam. 11, 24 for ni'^Hiph. 
of rrj; (asif K*;;) to shoot; see Gram. 
§ 76, Bem. 22. 

^H^i;; for *l«7rt, ftit. pL Qal of «:?;. 

1*1^T pr. n. (dreadfal) of a city 
in Naphtali Josh. 19, 38. 

n^H*!^ pr. n. m. (dread of PT) 
Jer. 37, 18. 

U*!^ pr. n. m. (adversary, r. S'^'i) 
Bos. 5, 18, 

a*^ 1 Sam. 15, 5 for anx: fut. 
^ 18* 

Digitized by 


apoe. BiplL of yy^; see Gram. § 68, 
Bern. 1. 

bya"!^ pr. n. nu (for tea aS; 
Baal contends) a ramame of Gideon 
Judg. 6, 82, alao m5a'n-» 2 Sam. 11, 21. 

DIJIS'I^ pr. n. nu (prob. people's 
contention) prop. Jarobam (Sept. 
'Iepopoa|i, Jeroboam) founder of the 
kingdom of Israel B. G. 975—954 
1 K.* 11, 26; another king of the 
10 tribes, B.C. 825—784 2 K. 13, 13. 

Pltga'1'' pr. n. m. (for n»a aS"^ 
shame, i. e. the idol Baal, contends) 

1 q. b^a-r; 2 Sam. 11, 21. 

ri (fut. ^^ apoc. -nrj, in 
pause ^'V2 Ps. 18, 10; imp. T?, m-J, 
once ^n*; Jndg. 6, 13; inf. TIJ, c. 

46, 3) <o go downy descend Ex. 19, 
24, the place whMer being put w. 
te Ex. 19, 18, b« 2 Sam. 11, 10, i 
Cant. 6, 2, a Ex. 15, 5, w. n-^ loo*. 
G^. 12, 10, or w. ace. Ps. 55, 16, 
also w. gen. e. g. "Tia '•Tji'^ ^AiTfe 
^oit^ doum to the pit OT graioe, i. e. 
the dying Ps. 28, 1. Pig. of mere 
things, a stream Deut. 9, 21, a way 
Num. 84, 11, the day Judg. 19, 11, 
tears Lam. 8, 48; to come or faU 
down, of a wood cut down Is. 32, 
49, a reverse of fortune Deut. 28, 43. 

— Hiph. T^Tih to cause to go or 
come down Gbn. 42, ^^\ to Id down, 
by a cord Josh. 2, 15; to subdue 

2 Sam. 22, 48; to bring or carrj/ dmon 
Gen. 37, 25 ; to throw dozen Hos. 7, 12. 

— Hopb. tWi to be kd down Gen. 
89, 1 ; to be taken ffown Num. 10, 17; 
to be throujn doum Is. 14, 16. Hence 

Tl^. pr. n. m. (descent) Gen. 5, 15. 

yT}- pr. n. (prop, descending, i. e. 
a rushing current r. ^^JJ) the river 
of Palestine which flows down full 
of rapids from the foot of Anti-li- 



banus till it is lost in the Dead fiea, 
6 'lopSdvYj^ the Jordan, 75^ (on 
the art. omitted only in poetiy, lee 
Gram. § 109, 3) Gen. 13, 10; fT» 
•jTr Ps. 42, 7, -RWr -i^a 2 Sam. Is' 
23, the land, the region, of Jordan, 
Perh. in Job 40, 23 "j^^ may be 
appellative in its sense, either a 
Jordan or a torrent — This name 
may be mimet. (expressive of rtiflAtn^) 
and so prove akin to *Idp$avo; (a 
river in Crete), *P<5$avoc, W. rhyd 
(stream), Gael, sruth (a currentX &• 
rauschen, E. rushing' 

tfr^, Ps. T, 6 irreg. for t)H*rj or 
CjT^^ fut. Qal of C^n, comp. i^ 
Ps. 73, 9. See Cj'l'J. 

Ml (ftit n-mn w. gnl DT<3 

TT ' •* ' • 

Num. 21, 30; inf. m*;, ni'Tj, «tr; 
2 Oh. 26, 15; imp. m^) prob. akin 
to n"Tj n, 1) to cast Josh. 18, 6; to 
shoot arrows 1 Sam. 20, 36, cf. 2 K 
13, 17; w. ace of pers. Ps. 64, 5, w. 
h at Ps. 11, 2; hence my'i archer 
1 Gh. 10, 3 ; to lag sk foundation (cf 
pAXXeaOai fiaro) Job 38, 6; to found 
or erect a pillar, L e. to set it down 
in its place Gen. 31, 51. 2) to cast 
or shed (water or rainX hence to wet 
or irrigate Hos. 6, 3; part, itjn 
rain, autumnal or spring^ain Deot^ 
11, 14. — Niph. only fut nr(v^ to be 
shot through Ex. 19, 13. — Hiph. rrrin 
(ftxt. rrtin, apoc. -vi*? 2 K. 13, h) 

1) to Utrow, cast Job 30, 19; to shoot 
1 Sam. 20, 20, w. ace. of pers. Ps. 
64, 8, w. i a* 2 Oh. 86, 23. Part 
rnixi an archer in 1 Sam. 31, 3; 
d'^KTW archers 2 Sam. 11, 24K'thibh. 

2) to wet, pour; hence rtTia (i. 
q. nni'^) the earfy rain, falling in 
autumn and ^ring Ps. 84, 7 3) io 
point out, show Gen. 46, 28 (prop, 
to throw out the hand); hence to 
instruct or teach Ex. 35, 34; w. aco. 

Digitized by 





of pen. and of thing Ps. 119, 88; 
w. ace of pen. Job 6, 24; w. aco. 
of thing Is. 9, 14; w. a tn Ps. 25, 8, 
w. bK respecting 2 Ch. 6, 27; w. "p? 
of thing Is. 2, 3 ; w. ^ of pen. and 
ace. of thing Dent. 33, 10. 


h\ \' (only in 
prob. akin to K^^, 

fat. Wt^) 

trefnble, quakes only in It. 44, 8; 
where ^n*T| may perh. ^tand for 

Si'l^ 2 Ch. 26, 15 infin. Qal for 
"iTj fhwn rrjj; see Gram. § 75, Bern. 
2 and § 23,' 3, Bern. 3. 

iVfi'V pr. n. (for bK-'H'; Qod's 
foundation, r. rn^) of a deaert 2 Oh. 
20, 16. 

Hn^ pr. n. m. (prob. L q. n^ 
moon) 1 Ch. 5, 14. 

'pn; Prov. 29, 6 f <HP fr Itot. Qal 
of ia';i,(}ram.§ 68, Bern. 9. 

yVT Prov. 11, 15 fht. Niph. of 
?rj or 5?^ I. 

yVT Is. 42, 4 fut. Qal for y^ 
from Y^» 

P^*^^ m. green thing, green plant, 
onl^ in Job 39, 8; r. p"^, 

iftti^7 al«> fTO^^ pr. n. f. (pos- 
senion) 2 K 15, 83,' 2 Ch. 27, 1« 

QJTC^^ pr. n. (seat or possession 
of peace 1. e. prob. th^ peace w. 
rr* fimndation as in bwn^^, or w. 
tnrr« poBsesnon) the chief city of 
Palestine, McpotxrotXi^pi, JertiM^em 
Jorii. 10, 1; for which we get also 
in later looks 0*;Mn7 Jer. 26, 18 as 
if a dual form, and once dV^ in Ps. 
76, 3; see Gram. § 17. 

CbtfPPt'* Chald. 1. q. Heb. oVtCTT, 
jBTttBoiem JSsr. 5, 14; for which 
uVyt ' v; in Baa. 6, il. 

m (obs.) prob. akin to ttyf, 
to ivandsr or travel onward; hence 

TVy^ (w. snf. ?p!37) m* '^ moon 
Gen. 37, 9, prop, the toanderer (cf. 
"jjih "ngj Ij-Tj fA« tnoon traveUing in 
spkndtmr Job 31, 26) so called firom 
its conise and changes, rn; *^)l^ in 
the sight of the mo<m, i. e. so long as 
it shines Ps. 72, 5. rn; takes the 
art. in prose, but not nsoally in 

TjJ!. (pi- wn;, c. "W; r. rn;) 

m. 1) prop, time of the moon's coarse, 
a month, a lunar month Ex. 2, 2; 
hence same as tr*in the more nsoal 

r I 

word. 2) pr. n. of an Arabian people 
in the vicinity of Hadramant Gen. 
10, 26. 

fTI^ Chald. a month Dan. 4, 26. 

^T!^ pr. n. (odoriferous or balmy, 
r. rrn) of a city in Bex^jamin fiamed 
for its palms and balsams, Jericho 
Num. 22, 1 ; also ilW in Josh. 2, 1 
and nrp'^j in 1 K. 16, 34; ot W 

Dn^^ pr. n. m. (he is compas- 
sionated or loved) 1 Sam. 1, 1. 

i)H13n^^ pr. n. m. (God compas- 
sionates)* 1 Ch.2, 9; patron. •'iK^rn^ 
Jerahmeelite 1 Sam. 27, 10. 

y^l pr. n. m. (perh. tmsty, 
akin to Chald. ym to tnui in) 1 
Ch. 2, 34. 

tJ I (fdt OT!, ^T ^^^ 1®» 11) 
prob. akin to n^, OJJJ, p'n, Arab. 

by^ to throw down headlong; hence 
to throw or cast down; fig. w. 17 te, 
fo deliver into the power of Job 16, 
11 ; also intrans. to be rash, headlong 
Nam. 22, 32. 

^^'7'J pr* »• n^ (prob. founded 
of God) 1 Ch. 7, 2. • 

Digitized by 





^*yi ('• ^"^^y m. 1) an adversary 
Ps. 35, 1. 2) pr. n. m. (opponent) 
£zr. 8, 16. 

'^5'^^ pr.h.m. (contentions, r.S'^'T) 
1 Ch. 11, 46. 

founded by R;> 1 Oh. 26, 31 ; 23, 19. 

see in^\ 
Hil3'H% ini^'n;*, see nian-;. 

•^•T*^? (r. y:?;) f. hanging or 
eurfain of a tent Is. 54, 2 ; fig. pi. 
tenJts Hab. 3, 7. 

niyn^ pr. n. <*. (curtains) 1 Ch. 
2, 18. 

^P (obs.) L q. "?|5n, to he tender; 
esp. of the tender flesh of the loins 
and thighs; hence 

?|T (c. t]*;;; Oram. § 93, 5, w. suf. 
•^S^-^/dual D'^2!?';) f. the thigh Ex. 28, 
42; "rj^j; K^7 to come <mt of the thigh 
ofi» e. to be begotten Gen. 46, 26; 
in animals, the haunchf ham Bz, 
24, 4. 2) fig. of mere things, shank 
or stem Ex. 25, 31; side of a tent 
Ex. 40, 22, of an altar Lev. 1, 11. 

?p;i Is. 7, 4 fut Qal of "JJ?^, Gram. 
§ 67, Bern. 3. 

rO'l^ (w. suf. 'iPiD'^?, du. D':n5'p, 

c -Ton:?) f. L q. "rj::; 2I only fig. 8i(fe, 
of a country Gen. 49, 13; the rear 
Ex. 26, 22; inner parts or recesses 
Jon. 1, 5; remote parts Is. 14, 13. 

S3T Chald. t the thigh Dan. 2, 
32; i. q. Heb. '^\ 

U J^ (obs.) i. q. D-T^, D-n to 6« 

^TSh!2 Ez. 10, 17 ftxt. Niph. of D^-J I. 

Mlf)^ pr. n. (height, r. try;) of a 
city in Judah Josh. 10, 3; also of a 
Levitical city in Issachar Josh. 21, 
29, but ra^ in Lev. 19, 21. 

n^S^\ Ti-^iy^^ pr. n. 
is exalted) lepepiia;, Jeremi 

tfKly^ pr. n. m. (heights, r. 0"^;) 
1 Ch. 8, 14; but n"io'»'5'^ in 1 Ch. 24, 
80 and nio'^IJ^ in 1^ Ch. 7, 8. 

^^XSy^ pr. n. m. (perh. dwelling on 
highi r! d^i;) Ezr. 10, 33. 

m. (!?.; 
Jeremiah, the 
prophet Jer. 1, 1 ; 27, 1. 

■ ^ I akin fo rn;, to tremble^ to 
shake through fear, only in Is. 15, 4$ 

T^ Zeph. 1, 12 and »!);; 1 K. 16, 
25 fut. apoc. Hiph. of 99^ n. 

S^2 <3ten. 21, 12 fut. Qal of »J H; 
but 9;V) in Job 20, 26 fut. apoc. of WJ. 

^^T pr. n. (God heals) of a 
place in Beigamin Josh. 18, 27. 

pl (inf.p"»;Num.l2,14)mimet. 
akin to pgnll,p^l,Ethiopi toaraqat 
to spiJt Deut. 25, 9. — Prob. akin to 
IpeuYOjiai, L. nwrto, E. retch, G.umr- 
gen, perh. also to ^axd Mat. 5, 22, 
Syr. X^h spittle, hence like xara- 
iTTuaToc expressive of great contempt 

I? J^ (obs.) i. q. Arab. ,3,3, to put 

forth leaves, sprout; to become green, 
of plants. Hence 

collect, greens, herbs 2 K. 19, 26. 
pn; 1^ garden of greens qr vegetables 
Deut. 11, 10; p-j; nrn« a portion 
of green herbs Prov. 15, 17. 

PT m.. greenness, ato p^'V? 
oZ? greenness of herb, i. e. all green 
herbs, every green plant Gen. 1, 30; 
verdwre, foliage Ex. 10, 16 ; r. p^;. 

1ip"n;; nu 1) ^eenM-yfOtMo of 
decaying vegetation Deut. 28, 23 

(Arab. ^JlJ^i). %) paleness, ghastiines^^ 
of the face Jec dQ» 6* r. p^. 

Digitized by 






y\P^'im.ffreerU8h-y€lhw; only in 
T'P??^ ''^ P'« »• of a place in Dan 
Josh. .19, 46 ; r. p"T;. 

the people is spread out) of a town 
in Judah 1 Ch. 2, 44 ;r. 37pn. 

P!!!?:!;' (r. P:?;) a4j. m^ nlpnp^ 
t pi. ffr^nish, yellowish Lev. 13, 49; 
at gabst yeOoumess, of gold Pa. 68, 
14 (cf. Ethiop. wareq gold). 

IZTI"' Jer. «, 1. also "OT 

"T ' ' ••T 

(hence BTitpT;; fat. ;b^v imp. »n 
Beut 1, 21,"w:i Dent. 2, 24; tryr, 
tWJl Dent. 33, 23; inf. nib^, w. suf. 
'JJWn) akin to to'^H, 1) 6 seize or 
ta&e Ao2i o/*, hence to take into poS' 
session 1 K. 21, 15; hence fig. to in- 
herit Num. 27, 11; ©ni*** on Actr Jer. 
47, 1; w. ace. of pers, to be heir to 
Gen. 15, 8. 2) to possess, w. ace. of 
pers. to possess in place of, to diS' 
possess Deut. 2, 12. — Niph. lt?^d 
(Alt. ^^f9 ^ ^^ dispossessed or made 
poor Gen. 45, 11. — Pl.W^;? to possess, 
overrun Deut 28, 42; ^o get the pro- 
perty of, dispossess, w. ace. of pers. 
Judg. 14, 15. — Hiph. -iD^Tin (fat. 
tnyr) to cause to possess, w. two 
ace. Jadg. 11, 24, cf. Job 13, 26; w. 
> of pers. Ezr. 9, 12; to possess Nimi. 
14, 24 ; to dispossess, w. ace. of pers. 
Kunu 14, 12, cf. Judg. 1, 29; hence, 
to make destitute, poor 1 Sam. 2, 7. 

rro^J^ t a possession Num. 24, 18. 

rTlE\^^ f. a possession Deut. 2, 6; 
an inheritance Jer. 32, 8. 

"^2 Cb^^ ^^^^ "WJ; i. q. WK2 Sam. 
11, 19, Arab, j-^l, Chald. W», Syr. 
A^) nu prop. ea;t8£eftc0 (t^ civat, 
ou^ca), bence Mi^^ton^ ProY. 8, 21; 
else as adv. partide, w. force of the 
fabvtantive verb there is or exists 

(Chram. } 152, 1) e. g. Ps. 68, 12 

y^^ D'^^^ D'^y-©; there exists 
a God judging in the earth, "niOK «r 
D'^nak i^tfre arc those loho say '^oh^b, 
2 ; w. b to of pers. to have, e. g. "^Hr; 
t^ere i9 to me=I haw Buth 1, 12; 
tr ^&p 0»* <Aer« is the bread of the 
sanctuary i. e. the consecrated bread 1 
Sam. 21, 5,— With sul r^ thou art 
Judg. 6, 36, I'j^o; ^ or t* i« Esth. 3, 
8, D30^ ye are Gen. 24, 49. — Perh. 
r. trtO^, but prob. primitive and akin 
to Sans. 09, I<7-t(, L. es-se, G. i&4, E. 
is, Gael, is, W. ya or oes. 


y; tfat. 

n»5; inf. abs. aittJ 

Jer. 42, 10 for aiw;, c. rg«, w. suf, 
*^ip; imp. niD, ^(^lU; part. f. once 
n^Xf)^ Nah. 3, 8 also rQWi% w. w 
parag. *«Fqt0'» Lam. 4, 21 K'thibh) akin 
to ^ to set or place, hence 1) to take 
a seat, to sit Gen. 27, 19; w. h of place 
P8.110, 1; w.i of sit for oneself 
te.to8it (see Gram. § 154,3, c) Gen. 21. 
16; to be seated, w. a of place 2 Sam, 
7, 1, w. b? 1 K. 1, 35, w. ace. Ps. 80, 
2 ; w. i of pers. to wait for or way- 
lay Judg. 16, 9; w. D9 iffifA, to asso- 
date Ps. 26, 4. 2) ti) remain Gen. 
49, 24; w. 21 «n 2 Sam. 10, 5; w. ace. 
of place Buth 2, 7; w. b of pers. 
remain for Hos. 8, 3; hence to dwell 
in, inhabit Gen. 13, 6; w. ace. Gen. 
4, 20, cf. Ps. 22, 4, w. 5 tn of place 
Deut. 2, 10, w. i? on Lev, 25, 18, w. 
bx or i at, by Ez. 3, 15, Judg. 5, 17, 
w. W Gen. 27, 44, r\» toith Gen. 34, 
16.— Niph. air*l5 to be inhabited Ex. 
16, 35; part. f. na^*5 Ez. 26, 17. — 
Pi. nt^ to set or p&ch a tent Ez. 25, 
4. — Hiph. D*«n^'n to seat or place 1 
Sam. 2, 8; fo cause to dwell Ps. 4, 9, 
w. two ace Ps. 113, 9, w. a of place 
Gen. 47, 6, w. ^ Hos. 11, 11 ; to marry 
L e. to settle a wife in one*s house 
Neh.ld, 27; to ccMSe to be inhabited 

Digitized by 




li, 5i, 3. ~ Hoph. ni^ to be made 
to dwell Is. 5, Si to be inhabited Is. 
44, 26. 

^^'^v P^' ^* °^* (£e^ther'8 seat) 

rDI^.^ ;^^ pr, 1^ in, (dweUing 
at rest)' 2 Sam. 23, 8. 

n!^1D^ pr. iL m. (he praises) 1 Ch. 
4, 17.' ** 

l!Cl iSllS*^ pr. n. m. (his seat at 
Nob) 2 Sam.' 21, 16 (K'thihh), where 
theQ^ri has 333 '^at*;(mj seat atNob). 

Dnb ^y6^ pr. n. m. (perh. re- 
tomed'to bread) 1 Ch. 4, 22. 

D9!2\D^ pr. n. m. (perh. the people 
returns) 1 Oh. 11, 11: r. a^. 

P^ID"^ pr. n. m. (he forsakes) Gen. 
25, 2;r. pai^. 

rndjjM^ pr. n. m. (perh. seat of 
hardship) 1 Ch. 25, 4. 

n lZ3 (obs.) prob. akin to trm 

T T ^ fa • 

(which see),. Syr. fiff], to be or exist; 
prop, to have being or firmness; 
hence perh. Xff2 and ti^l^ru 

'DfiW^ pr. n. m. (he returns, r. 3^^) 
Num. 26, 24; patron. "^DV; Jashubite. 

*lfiiXCP tor -to; ftit. Qal of T^D, 
Gram. § 67, Bem. 9. 

rn^^ pr. n. m. (level, r. fTJpj J) 
Gen.'^ii, 17. 

n^tritti^ pr. n. m. (humbled by 
rn) l^Ch. 4, 36. 

"iti^ pr. n. m. (i. q. nyof]) 1 Sam. 
14, 49.' 

TiX02 1) pr, n. m. (for Wt»Sm he 
delivers) Joehuah, Sept. lv)900c (cf. 
Mat 1, 21), Neh. 8, 17; also a high 
priest Neh. 7, 7. 2) pr. n. of a j^ace 
in Judah N^ 11, 26; r. 9i^. 

•WTD^ (w. h-^parag.ripi5«nir Ps. 
3, 8) 1 1) help Ps. 9. 15; deliverance, 

salvation Is. 56, 1; vietorji 1 Sam. 

14, 45; welfare, prosperity Job 30^ 

15. PI. nijsmr; victories OTdeUveraih 
cesTs. 18, 51 , cf. Is. 26, 18. 2) concr. 
a saviour Ps. 62, 3 ; r. Wj. 

niO (obs.)i.q.nW3, MTO, nn^ 
to fail or sink, through hunger; 

mS^, (w. sof. ^ifV3^)m.the8inkifif 
at the stomach through want ef 
proper nourishment, only te Ifio. 

6, 14. 

^nti^ Ecc. 12, 4 fut. Niph. of HlTti, 
Gram. § 67. Bem. 5. 

pniD^ a later and rare form for 
pny^, which see. 

IDIZP"^ (Qal obs.) to stretch out. 
— Hiph.a^*n(i.q.Chald.O^:«, Syr. 
w^o)) to stretch or hold out, as a 
sceptre, w. )> of pers. Est. 4, 11. 

'^'^ pr. n. m. (perh. i. q. ■»» gift) 
the father of king David 1 Sam. 16,1. 

^^ in Q'ri of Ps. 55, 16 for K"^, 
ftat. Hiph. of K\^ n, ct Gram. § 75, 
Bem. 21, c. 

I'TD^ pr. n. m. (he restores) 1 Chr. 

7, 1 (K'thibh). 

D^UD^ Jer. 49, 20 for Urdn fat. 
Hiph. of D^«, Gram. § 67, Bem. 8. 

nj®?! ^^'E'! pr. n. m. (perh. 
existence of rr) 1 Ch. 7, 3; 12, 6. 


pr. n. m. (prob. Qod 

founds) 1 Ch. 4, 36. 

fVT^I (only pi. nio*^) f. 1) 
desolations, devastations, prob. in 
K'thibh of Ps. 55, 16 I'tt'^bj nia*^ 
desolations upon them I but see K^ II 
for the Q'ri. 2) n'te'nD^ mn pr. n. 
(place of solitudes) of a cil^ inlioal^ 
Num. 33, 49; r. Dtb^. 

■jiiQ^tb^ m. a desert or wade Im. 
43, 19;r.'wc;. 

Digitized by 



tD*ti^ m. an M man Job 12, 12, 

i. q. Syr. ^ 4i a n ; r. m\ 

*T?^0^ pr. n. m. (perh. like an olcl 
man) 1 Ch. 5, 14. 

b^ Job 27, 8 (Ut. apoc. of h^ I. 

DID (only fat. DTO) akin to 
Dsi^, Dn^, io ^0 desolate or laid waste 
Gen. 47/ 19; 3 pera. pi. f. nja^Pl 
Ez. 6, 6. 

DTD*^ (only ftit. noto^K Judg. 
12, 3, m^} Gen^ 50, 26) L q. &^, to 
•rf OP fay Judg. 12, 3 (K'thibb). 

CriS^ Ittt. Qal of D^^. 

ttiStD^ pr. n. m. (desolation) 1 
Ch. 4t 3. 

bK5M^ pr. n. m. (God hears) 
the son of Abraham and Hagar, 
MmoeZ Gen. 25, 12; patron. ■»i«?aifi^ 
MmaeUte l Ch. 2, 17. 

n;5aiD:, ^n;;?!?'©: pr. n. m. (pt 

hear8)*l Ch. 12, 4; 27,* 19. 

"^^HTD^ pr. n. m. (perh. conser- 
Tativel r. "TOW) 1 Ch. 8, 18. 

]1P (Qalob8.)prob.akintol^, 
to he sapless^ withered, old, opp. to 
Vjn, — Niph. to be old, not fresh, of 
grain Jiev. 26, 10; to be of long standr 
iV, chronic, of disease Lev. 13, 11; 
to become ancient, as an inhabitant 
Dent. 4, 25. 

jtp"* (fat. TV*'); inf. ftir Ecc. 5, 
11) prob. akin to 16$V, Ifn^, rntn m, 
to rettt ^ faUatkep Gen. -2, 21; to 
shep Prov. 14, 6; tyvajn yss^ IshaU 
sieep the death, i.e. diePs. 13,4. — Pi. 
to put or send to sUePt only in Judg. 
IS^ 19. 

"pD^ a^. m. mt) t old, last year's, 
of grain Ley. 25, 22; ancient, of a 

281 cpe; 

gate Neh. 3, 6, of a pool Is. 22, 11: 

■pO; (pi. ta^a^, c \3^; r. -^7) 
a4j. m., njW^^ f. sleeping 1 Bam. 26, 7; 
n^ ng7» "^aig^ #^gc <Aa< sfecp in the 
land of dust, i. e. the dead Dan. 12, 

2. 2) pr. n. m. (sleepei) 2 Sam. 23, 32. 
rOlD^ pr. n. (ancient) of a city in 

Ephraim 2 Ch. 13, 19. 
iJID^, see Xff2. 

5123"^ (Qal obs.) i. q. §HTd, Arab. 
gMi^ to 6e wide, roomy (cf. n?*;), flg. 

to be weU of or prosper otis; also to 
^ /Vcc. — NIph. wia (fat. ?»r) to 
fte se< /ree <nr at large, to be saved 
Ps. 80, 4; part, sx^ victorious Zech. 
9, 9, cf. Ps. 83, 16. — Hipb. ynrrjn 
(fat. ?Wi'», also ?^>P see Gram. § 
58, Bem. 7, apoc. wi*^) to cause to 
be at large, to deliver or help Ps. 3, 
8; w. "JQ from Ps. 7, 2; w. fl of means 
Hos. 1, 7, w. i in Ps. 72, 4 njab ?^"» 
*p^nK Ae causes help for the children 
of^ihe needy. Part. 9^a a saoiowr 
Judg. 3, 9. Hence 

SlffJ, rarely JTD;;! (w. sot m*:, 
?g»:« Ps. 18, 36, :j5ttj; Ps. 85, 8) m. 
prop, broad or wide place, freedom 
Ps. 12, 6; deliverance, salvation Hab. 

3, 13; safety, welfare Job 5, 4. 
7lS]| Gen. 4, 4 ftit. apoc. Qal ofrms. 
■*JW^ pr.n. m. (saving or ssilutary) 

1 Ch. 2, 31. 

n^y©^ pr. n. m. (help of Pn) 1 
Ch. 3, 21.' 

Vl^5?"^ pr. n. m. (salvation of 
W) the great prophet Baiah, * Haata^ 
Is. 1, 1. 

^IZp"^ (obe.) perh. akin to Syr. 
]Aa, to rub off, rmxb U, to make 
bare or smooth, to polish; heace to 
shine, perh. hence 

Digitized by 





nS^J or riM; m. a kind of 
precious stone, Syr. omix, rajictc, 
jflWper Ex. 28, 20, Ez. 28, 13. 

T1B& pr. n. m. (perh. bald, r. 

nsD n) 1 ch. 8, 16. 

IB^I* pr. n. m. (peril, hiding, r. 
fSXO) 1 *Ch. 8, 22. 

I vD (fut. 119^7 » once "W; 1 Sam. 
6, 12)akin to nWK, "^TO, to be straight 
or (firccf, of a way that does not 
turn 1 Sam. 6, 12; fig. w. "^rsa to be 
right in the eyes of, i. e. to pleaae 
Num. 23, 27. 2) to be even (opp. b^5), 
fig. tranquil Hah. 2, 4. — Pi. to mcJce 
or Accp s^ot^A^ Prov. 9, 15; to fead 
straight on, of an aqueduct 2 Gh. 32, 
30; to make level or even, of a way. 
Is. 40, 3; to approve or declare right 
Ps. 119, 128. — Pu. *m^ to be made 
even or beaten out fUxt, of gold in 
plates 1 K. 6, 35. — Hiph. T^WVi 
(n'^loSn Ps. 5, 9) to make level Ps. 5, 
9; to make straight i. e. hoh straight 
Prov. A, 2h let thine eyelids 'n'^iT'? 
Tj^aj hoh right on before thee. Hence 

to; (pi. D^'W', c. '^y^) a^. m., 
n-j^ (c. ntito;:', pi. n'rnr")'f., straight 

Job 33, 27, esp. of a way Is. 26, 7 ; 
right, w. •'a'^sa Judg. 17, 6; uprigU, 
of God Deut. 32, 4, of men Job 1, 1. 
3^ "•::«? right -hearted Ps. 7, 11; 
cniaba'o'inttjn upright in their hearts 
Ps. 126, 4 ; tj-Ti -ittj^ vprighi of conduct 
Proy. 29, 27; level, even, of a way 
Ezr. 8, 21. ^W! neo Josh. 10, 13 
book of the upright, prob. a lost col- 
lection of ancient Heb. poetry, which 
perh. celebrated the praises of God- 
fearing and just men. — In Ps. Ill, 
8 = ni^n rightness,0T as adv. rightly, 
c£ Gram. § 84, 1, § 106, 2, a, Kem. 

tttP pr. n. m. (uprightness) 1 Oh. 
"^ 18.* 

^Vy^ (w. suf: iw) m. straighinett, 
evenness, of a way Prov. 2, 13; fig. 
uprightness 1 K. 9, 4; rightness or 
right, l&n more than right Prov. 
11, 24; du^ Job 38, 23; r. ni^. 

^t'^t' pr. n. m. (prob. God- 
wrestling, r. nnto 1, cf. Gen. 32, 29; 
or perh- God's prince, r. Ji^ 2) the 
second name of Jacob, given him by 
God Gen. 32, 29; name also of his 
descendants Ex. 5, 2; even of the ten 
tribes as a separate kingdom 2 8am. 
2, 9. Patron, m. '»^K';»io^ 2 Sam. 17, 
25 Israelite, f. rr»iK'Tib'f Lev. 24, 10 

TOK'Tip; pr. n. m. (perh. upright 
God-ward) 1 Ch. 25, 14. 

'^y^l (c. rnXBh) t uprightness, 
only in 1 K. 3, 6; r. ^Xff;, 

l^'TtD^ m. prob. a dimin. of "W; 
= n;^, hence perh. darling honest 
one, a poetical and fond or pet name 
for hvcic^i Deut. 32, 15. 

n57®? 1 Sam. 6, 12 for na-W 3 
pi. f. *Pi. of -«?;, see Gram! § 47, 
Eem. 3. 

vD iD^ (obs.) prob. akin to TSrn, 
©tKj, meij, ttJtBp, to be sapkss or 
vnthered, dry or hard; hence 

TTTa)^ a<y. m. i. q. Xin^, prop. 
withered or dry; fig. oW, o^arf oran- 
ctcnf 2 Ch. 36, 17. — Akin to Aram. 
V*^^, . i> i i n (old), perh. to old L. 
cascus and Oscus (ancient). 

•OlDIB^ pr. n. m. (in K'thibh =« 
■ibb ttr there is hire, but in Q'ri « 
•isie^ he is hired) Sept 'Iffaixop* 
Issachar, a son of Jacob and Leah 
Gen. 30, 18. 

niD^, see rw6. 

^nrniD^ fut. apoc. Hlthpal'el for 
rrilTIW^, r. JTiyb; see Gram. § 75, 
Bem. 18. 

Digitized by 





l^lptij^nti^ Nah. 2, 5 flit Hith- 
palpal of ppO, comp. Gram. § 67, 8. 

ft? Chald. i. q. Heb. n^ Byt. aJ, 
sign of acctLBatlve case; w. suf. 'ftl^'^ 
Dan. 3, 12. 

iUV Deut. 33, 21 fut. Qal of ITh^, 
for nr^, Gram. § 76, 2, e. 

JIj, Chald. i. q. Heb. ai6;, to 
$ii Dan. 7, 9. — Aph. anin (o cou^e 
to dweU Ezr. 4, 10. 

)ij (obs.) i. q. Arab. jJj, akin 
to *15», to pierce or «tic/f tn; hence 

com. gend. a^fy, |Hn, nat/Ez.15,3; 
5TXn w tre&-jnn, whereby the web 
was fastened to the wall Jndg. 16, 
14; a small spade or shovel (to dig 
with) Dent. 23, 14; fig. a prince, on 
whom the state is conceiyed to de- 
pend Zech. 10, 4. 

rain^ Mic. 6, 2 fnt. Hith. of naj; 
Gram. § 69, 2. 

Din^ (pi. D'»o'in';, w. snf. n'>oiT;) 
m. an orphan Ex. 22, 23; a fatherless 
child Job 24, 9; r. Dn\ 

'ViXV m. a searching otU Job 39, 
6; r. -vapi I.^ 

■pTR^ Chald, Dan. 4, 9 ftit. Ithpe. 

rilir (obB.) i. q. Arab. ^5, to 
heat to. a club; hence nnin. 

"TF}^ pr. n. (prob. excelling, r. 
inj) a Iiefvitical city in sonth of 
Jndab, navr lAttir Josh. 15, 48. 

"TP^ Chald. adj. m., iKypn f. sur- 
passing t extraordinary Dan. 2, 31; 
the fern. tTTfer used as adv. very, 

exceedingly Dan. 3, 22. 


yj^"^ I (Qal obs.) akin to im, 
Wr n; ^o Jest, mock. — Hjpb. Vw 

to mock, deride, w. ^ of pers. Jndg. 
16, 10. — Hoph. to be deceived, made 
a jest Is. 44, 20. 

^TP n (obs.) akin to hipi, b^ I, 

to he high; hence 

fl^*^'? pr. n. (hilly) of a place in 
Dan Josh. 19, 42. 

Ui\ (obs.) prob. akin to Dtd; i. 

q. Arab. ^, to he desolate, hereaved; 
hence Din*', 


OP?! Pl. ^»t?^ in pause ^an*;, fat 

QibI of Drn. 
DFj^, dp;?, ^2aF)^ see Daru 
rr^ni' pr. n. m. (orphanhood, r. 

OC;) 1 Oh. 11, 46. 

jZj (obs.) akin to hjPi I, inj 
(which see), to reach out or extend L 
q. Arab. ^^^^ , to 6c perennial or con- 
stant, of the flow of water; hence 

5S'^5'^^ pr* n. m. (Gk>d bestows, r. 
IW. I) 1 Oh. 26, 2. 

l^t)^ pr. n. (perh. strong or per- 
manent, r. fy^) of a city in Judah 
Josh. 15, 23. 

^iUr ^ (^ <^^*') P^^^- **^ *^ 
■injil, ni;^, to fall or run over (some 

measure), to dut^o^ or exceed. — 

Niph. "twa to he left over, to remain 

Gen. 44, 20; part m. nnij, f. nipfia 

remnant Ex. 28, 10. — Hiph. iiniji 

(fdt apoc. "in*?) to cause to abound, 

w. a in Deut. 28, 11; to let remain 

over Ex. 10, 15; to spare Ps. 79, 11; 

to go beyond, excel Gen. 49, 4. 

l)n!!n (obs.)prob.akinto*l^II, 
*l^, to bind or tie; hence W, ^"^ 

*tt5^, see ■irvi'^. 

'^Fl'' (w. suf. 'fytv, pi. D'^-iT'') m. 
1) r. "inj n, a cord or string Judg. 

Digitized by 





16,7. 2)T,*yr'^l,ahundanceV8A7,14\as 
adv., abundantlyJs, 56, 12; remainder 
or residue Judg. 7, 6 ; eoccellence Prov. 
17, 7; as adv. over and above, besides 
Nam. 31, 32. 3) pr. n. m. (perh. ex- 
oeUence) Ex: 4, 18, but'nn'^ in Ex. 3, 1. 

fc^^Pi"] pr. n. m. (perh. excellence) 
2 Bam.' 17, 26, but "»n; in IK. 2, 5. 

nnr*; t.Uq.'^^abundanee.weiiUh 
Is. 15^ 7; r. in;l7 

^l"!?^^ pr. n. m. (perh. excellent) 
Ex. 3,1, father-in-law of Moses; but 
•nn"" in Ex. 4, 18. 

"pnpi'J m. excellence Ecc. 2, 13; 
gain, emolument Ecc 1, 3; r. '^njL 

^^Pl*] patronym. ftrom "inj 2 Sanu 
28, 38.* 

I*^! P^* i^ ™- (perh. excellent) 
1 Oh. 7, 37, but "in;, in ▼. 88. 

DTjin'J pr. n. m. (prob. reddue 
of the people) 2 Sam. 3, 5. 

trT\^^ see n^ani"^. 

DlCri'; Chald. fut. Ithpe. of Wto. 

imj (obs.) perh. akin to ncO» 
rwi (which see), to assaH subdue. 

nr)*] pr. n. m. (perh. subjection) 
Gen. 86, 40 (r. rnj). 


W Kdph, the 11th Heb. letter; 
but used as the numeral for 20((h'am. 
§ 5, 4, Bern. 3). The name CjS (or 
q9) means a bent or haUow hand or 
pakn, which also is rudely pictured 
by the earliest form or figure )|, 
whence the Greek )| or K and its 
name K^irira (see the Table of An- 
cient Alphabets). As a it has an 
aspirated sound, kh or Gr. ^, but 
as 9 (w. Dagh. lene) simply k or 
Gr. x; see Gram. § 6, 3, and Note K 

— On final ^ see Gram. § 5, 3. 

13 interchanffes — 1 with the 
other palatals A, i, p (see under each) ; 

— 2w. labials, e.g. rn»m = n'jaii, 

■»« I " *flB n;— 3 w. gutturals, e. g. 

= Arab, jli = njni = rifjn, -latl = 
*(tyo =s ^riy I «=« ^sw, "ira ^ "^o?; — 
4 w'. dentals e. g. the "^a* in '^:ihl^ is •»«- 
in l^ltep, ?p in 5pa» is the Hft* of 
nriK, D3- inDari^^ is DTT in DPjK (el 
npl^ a taytg and see Gram. § 44, 1, 

Note * and § 33, 3, Note \ also 
Ewald's Heb. Lehrb. § 190, d, 7th 
ed.) ; — 5 w. sibilants e. g. TS^ » rex, 
^0 = 'rptj, "T^IS = nw V =» *IW1 II; 
comp. on letter n, p. 190. 

t|* is an old formative or adj. 
ending in some words(8ee onM, p. 191), 
a8in'q|^,'^3^7@n, prob. akin to OQS, 
natj, TJn n, so in Chald. -rj^, ^ (which 
see and Tf^), so also in ^llplt tpt^ 
tpSo, Tpson, T^? (cf. rtna). 

3 (3 often before mono«3rlkMe or 
paroxytone words and pron. suffixes 
(see Gram. § 102, 2, c) e. g. m^, OfTB^ 
fia^, see also ias) a prefix particle 
variously used to express similarity, 
comparison or proportion, whether as 
adv. or as prep., just as the connexion 
may demand (see Gram. § 154, 3, /). 
Hence it means 1) Of, like, <m if^ 
ci>c, ci>ce(} e. g. a banqtui like the 
banquet (Ti^ims) of the king 1 8am. 
25, 86. This similarity may be as to 
size Josh. 10, 2, as to number Qen. 

Digitized by 




IS, 16, as to time Ps. 89, 87, as to 
event or hap 2 8am. 8, 38, also 
as to ax>pearance Dan. 10, 18, as to 
wisdom Gen. 41, 88. Henoe in ge- 
neral, -Witt words of number, mea- 
sure, time, about, e. g. abotU ten 
(nim) ffears Bath 1, 4; hence 
perh.'ae (of time), e. g. r6^,b? rruth^ 
at or abimt midnight Ex. 11^ 4. In 
saeh oases the Kaph of oan^arison 
CfWin tfs) retains only a slight 
trace of its proper force. Here then 
belongs a) f meaning so, a$ weU as, 
when as adv. of quality it is connect- 
ed w. )9 (thns lUi'^ aS'So) Ps. 127, 
4, or w. another ^ (thus f "3^ also 
a^*a) for comparison, e. g. rKCpns 
O^ as the sin-offering so the treS' 
pass-offering Lev. 7, 7; 3^ V&dS 
y^ tm^ as the father*s soul even 
90 the son*8 soul Bz. 1^,4. p)S mean- 
ing (rfter, according to, when it 
indicates a role or standard e. g. 
according to our likeness (Wnan^) 
Gen. 1, 26. 2) The comparison may 
be w. an ol]ject oonceived of in its 
highest possible perfection, without 
reference to any particular instance, 
e. g. noK ma> Neh. 7, 2 a very 
faithful man, L e. so as a futhfiil 
man alone can be (see Gram. § 134, 
3, f, cl <i>c dXT]6(oc); he behaved 
himself »'»'Tja:» l Bam. 10, 27 very 
gu4etfy, i. e. as only a quiet person 
does. Perh. in the same way 3 stands 
before an a^j. in DjWts Ecc. 8, 1, 
before a part, in D'^dakmp Num. 11, 
1, rnt^ Cant. 1, 7, rntos Ex. 22, 24, 
belbre an adv. in Id^sd 1 Ch. 16, 19, 
or before a subst. in r\1^9 Lam. 1, 
20, *7XB9 Is. 13, 6 i. e. very tuise, very 
complaining, utterly fainting, very 
little or few, as a very usurer, as 
death itself, as very ruin. The old 
granunarians without much reason, 
called tbis O^ qs (a of identity) 

or D^"»]3)n r)» (3 of confirmation). 8) 
the comparing together of two acts, 
as happening together or depending 
one on the other; hence the 3 serves 
for a particle or adv. of time, e. g. 
when he heard twjte (prop, according 
to his hearing) that I raised my voice 
.... then he left yrs>^^ (prop, and he 
l^, see Gram. § 126, 6, Bem. 1, 
Note') Gen. 39, 15. In this way it 
may be generally rendered before 
infinitiyes, rarely w. verbal-nouns 
2 Oh. 12, 1, and participles Oten. 40, 
10. 4) before a noun in order to 
compare two propositions, e. g. as 
the former time ("pW^Tj Tm) brought 
contempt on <%e land of ZeMon 
.^ the latter time Cp^nwj'!) will 
bring honour Is. 8, 23. But more 
usual is 19- *n^S Num. 2, 17. At 
times we have ip-3, e. g. Ti$ inbf 
n^ 'Vp:^ as my strength then, so 
my strength now Josh. 14, 11. For 
this 3-f at times stands "IS- 3 Josh. 
2, 2li also 31-3 1 Sam. 30, 24. — 
As to derivation, 3 is prob. connected 
w. the pronominal root "^3, though 
perh. only shortened from *f^ (see 
Gram. § 102, 2, Note^). See iQ3, n^, 

mjs, mj}, 1?:^ njjs, •»?. 

$ (Thald. i. q. Heb. as like Dan. 
7, 4; as it were Dan. 6, 1. 

HcO (fut ^T) akin to ^)^ I, 
83rr. ^.Ae to hurt; prop, to pierce 
(of. Chald. 343 a thorn), hence then 
to be sore Gen. 34, 25; feel pain, to 
siuffer Ps. 69, 30; be sick or sad 
Prov. 14, 18; w. ^ of cause Job 14, 
22. — HJph. to cause pain, to wound 
Job 5, 18; to sadden w. ace. £z. 13, 
22 : of mere things, to war or destroy 

2 K. 3, 19. Hence 

3I$!3 m. iMni»(of body) Job 2, 18; 
grief U. 17, 11; w. si Is.65, 14. 

Digitized by 





nJSS (Qal obs.) akin to nn^, 
rtry^^ to be deeded, sad, — Niph. to 
get sad, doumcast Dan. 11, 30; w. 
29b Ps. 109, 16. — ^aa in Job 30, 8 is 
prob. Niph. of KSJ. — Hiph. to af- 
flict, sadden, w, :A Ez. 13, 22. — 
Of. £. to cow, eowxrd. Hence 

n2^3 adj. m., pi. tr^ d^ected^ sad 
Pb. 10, 10 in Q'eL 

«S!3 I perh. akin to ^"y^U to 
surround, onlyin Ps. 22, 17 where'»'TK^ 
is perh. for Jl'WS; but it is better to 
take '^^e^ here as for-nsiSI (cf. D^n = 
Wi) to dig or pierce, and so to read 
^"n^ piercers of or nx^ they pierce 
(so Sept. &pu£av, Syr. a^^, Yulg. 
foderunt). Yet if we follow the com- 
mon reading •''^fcO as the lion, the 
sense is good e. g, as the lion (they 
surround, as in 1st clanse) mg Jiands 
and my feet, 

IJo^ II (ob%,) perh. L q. Talm. 
•W, io he dirty, esp. of water, hence 
perh. ^ks furM(2 «^ream Am. 8,8; 
but this *nKa most likely stands for 
•nk'^5, as some texts read. Perh. hence 

*lto f. dirt, muddiness, perh. 
once in Am. 8, 8; bat see ^^ n. 

■^M Ps. 22, 17, peril, for rifiO; 
see *HXS I. 

■JJJ (obs.) i. q. Arab. «I»r, to 
make round, as a balL Hence perh. 
nals for sans (cf. nDcrics for nsos^); 
but see 343. 

133) iljw Is. 24, 20 (fiit. 

•• T - T ' ^ 

123^) prop, to he heavy, weighty (opp. 
to yy^ to he light) Job 6, 3; hence 
flg. \)tohe heavy, w. b$ Jndg. 1, 35; 
toJ)e a hurden, w. te 2 Sam. 13, 25; 
to be wealthy, w. a Gen. 13, 2; to 6e 
s^iere, of a batUe, w. ^( Judg. 20, 34; 

to he heavy or <{u^ of the senses Gen. 
48, 10, of the mind Ex. 9, 7; to be 
in honour Job 14, 21 ; to ^ ghrious, 
of God Is. 66, 5. — Niph. naas i) to 
be honoured or esteemed Gen. 34, 19; 
part. pL f. ninaas as subst. glorio^ts 
things Ps. 87, 3; m. mz^ (w. Dagh. 
euphon.) noble, wealthy Is. 23, 8; of 
fountmns, abounding in water Prov. 
8, 24. 2) to show oneself glorious, to 
be glorified Is. 26, 15; w. a Ex. 14, 4. 

— Pi. naa i) to honour Ex. 20, i2j 
w. i, to do honour to Ps. 86, 9; w. 
p Ps. 3, 9, w. 9 Dan. 11, 38, w. ace. 
Is. 43, 23, of the means. 2) to make 
heavy, dull or insensible 1 Sam. 6, 6. 

— Pu. naa to &e honoured Is. 58, 
13. — Hipb. "Tia^n 1) to mo** heavy, 
as a yoke, w. h^ Neh. 5, 15; to make 
plentiful Hab. 2, 6; to «ndke hern^, 
duU, of the senses Is. 6, 10. 2) to 
make honourable Jer. 30, 19; to gain 
or ^«e Aonotir 2 Oh. 25, 19. — Hith. 
to hdnour or magnify oneself, to 
boast Prdv. 12, 9; to ma*c oneself 
numerous Kah. 3, 15. Hence 

"713 a4j. m. (c. 'laa Ex. 4, 10, 
naa Is. 1, 4; pi. wis, c ^rxss) 
heavy, weighty Ps. 38, 5; soreor 
grievous Gen. 12, 10; abund(mt, 
numerous Num. 20, 20; heavy ^ duU, 
sluggish Ex. 4, 10; difficult Ex. 18, 
n-^hard, of the heart Ex. 7, 14. 

*n3 (w. suf. •'Tna Lam. 2, 1 1) m. 
the liver, so called for its heaviness 
Lev. 3, 4. — Perh. akin to ^Trax-oc 
(^Trap), as L. caput is = G. haupt^ 
E. head, 

"TIS adj. m. but only used in C 
rn^, for which see rr^aa, 

TM m. 1) ft«atnnc89, weight ;Prov. 
27, 3; fig. violence, of war Ib. 21, 15, 
or of fire Is. 80, 27. 2) a m!%UHtude 
Nab. 8, 3. 

Digitized by 





TfKSl t heaviness, difficutty^ 
only in Ex. 14, 25. 

nm} (fat. n^) perh. akin to 
nan, Mbs, to cover or hide; hence to 
go out or 6c quenched, of fire Lev. 
6, 5, of a light 1 Sam. 3, 3, of anger 
2 K. 22, 17; of foes, to perish I«. 43, 
17. — PL to extinguish, quench Is. 
1, 31; of anger Jer. 4, 4, of loTtt 
Cant 8, 7. 

TIM (c. Tins, w. «uf. inhs) m. 
prop, xoeight (cf. pApoc o6^r\^ 2 Cor. 
4, 17),r. naS; fig. o^MrkZancc, ricAc« 
Is. 66, 12; ghry, honour, Sept. 86£a, 
of men 1 K. 13, 8; majesty or glory, 
of God Ex. 33, 18, Ps. 19, 2; esp. 
rSrr Tins (Sept. 66ca Kop(oo) Is. 
69, 19, the brightness or /Jcry splen' 
dour in which the Divine Majesty 
appeared on Sinai Ex. 24, 16, in the 
I tabernacle Ex. 40, 34, in the temple 
I 1 E. 8, 11 (ef. Lnke 2, 9), called by 
the later Jews the nr^V, see y:rb. 
Poet, for heart or soul, as being the 
noblest part of man Gen. 49, 6, cf. 
Pa. 18, 9. — In Pa. 73, 24 TOS stands 
as adv. ace. for with or into glory 
(see Gram. § 118, 1). 

nVQ3 (for JTOS as fem. of obs. 

m. 'OD, see Gram. § 94, 1, Parad. 

TLU) t 1) a^'. splendid, gorgeous Ps. 

45, 12. 2) sabst. important, precious 

^ things Jndg. 18, 21; r. ins. 

5*D3 pr. n. (prob. pledged or 
bound, r. bas) 1) of a city in Asher 
Josh. 19, 27. 2) of a whole district 
of twenty cities in Galilee 1 K. 
t, 13. 

P^^ pr. n. (prob. fortress, r.^) 
of a place in Judah Josh. 15, 40. 

*rS3 (r. •15:3) m. prop, a plaiting 
or br€ifdi^ . hence a mattress or 
qui/So. akin tdam. 19, 13. 16. 

^"^ (pl. tn^T^) adj; m. great, 

mighty (ct Arab, j^), of water Is. 

17, 12, of wind Job 8, 2, of God 
Job 34, 17; d^oj *^^ss great of age 
Job 15, 10; r. -IM. 


Jlw (Qal obs.) akm to b^ft, 
tan, Arab. J-T, to bind, combine; 
hence ^03. — Pu. h^'ifs (for b^s w. 
•1 inserted for Dagh. 1) to be girded, 
only in part ^"^^ (Gram. § 56). 

blXD (c. pL "^bns) m. a bond or 
fetter Vs. 105, 18.* 

1^3 (obs.) akin to h^, Ghald. 
prp, to &ind, to /o^ton. Hence "pa?, 

OTjD (Qal only part. m. D^) 
mimet. akin to ioas and to Q^a 
(which see), prop, to freoc?, trample 
w. the feet; hence to wash clothes 
(cf. irXovaiv) by treading them in a 
tub, so differing from yJtj to wash 
the body (cf. Xoustv). Part D^ a 
washer or /Wfer Is. 7, 3. — PI. 033 
(baa Gen. 49, 11) to fi^osA ctof^es 
Ex. 19, 10; part. Daai3 i. q. D^ a 
fuller HaL 3, 2; fig. to c2ean8e or 
purify as by washing Ps. 51, 4. — 
Pu. to be washed Lev. 13, 58. — 
Uothp. ca$n (for oasnn Gram. § 
54, 3) to be cleansed or washed Lev. 
13, 55. 

?ill3 (obs.) akin to 9^, 9^)^, 
to be gibbous or bulging up; hence 


nZl3 (Qal obs.) i. q. -QS (which 
see), to bind together, to weape or 
plait; hence to 6« strong or ^neo^. 
— Hipb. to mo^ ^9vaf or man^, to 
multiply Job 35, 16; part n^asQ as 

Digitized by 





sabBt., w. h pref. 'T' B ya^ adv. dbun^ 
dantly Job 36, 31. Hence 'n'^33 and 

133 1) m. great space or Imgih, 
a stretch; hence adv. of time, long 


agOf already Ecc. 1, 10; Syr. f^^* 
2) pr. n. (length or strength) of a 
river in MeBopotamia £z. 1, 8. 

ni33 f. a sieve, only in Am. 9, 9; 
80 named because plaited or woven, 
r. *ia!D. 

•T133 (only c ntins) f. lengfth; 
V"^ T\j}^thestretch of ground Gen. 
35, 16, denoting some measure which 
cannot now be determined; yet in 
Gen. 48, 7 we find the Sept. adding 
(as if they took nnas for nto^ a 
ride or drive) licitoSpojjLO^ a horss' 
run, i. 6. an ordinary stage of about 
10 miles, which a horse can run at 
<me heat* 

1Z03 (fat, U3:i3'^) akin to 033, 
tUKff to tread or trample on Zech. 
9, 15; then fig. to subdue, the ground 
Gen.l, 28, sins Mic. 7, 19 ( 
to cleanse, like ons); to subjugate 2 
Ch. 28, 10; to force a woman Est 
7, 8. — Niph. to be subdued, as a 
land Num. 32, 22; te be forced, 
of a woman Neh. 5, 5. — Pi. to 
subdue 2 Sam. 8, 11. — Hiph. to 
subjjugate Jer. 34, 11 in K*thibh. 

IDZlw (obs.) prob. akin to 1^3, 
VQ3, to glow or bum; hence I^^S. 

W^3 (obs.) prob. i. q. 033, to 
tread on, hence to leap on (as the 
ram on the ewe), to propagate, as 
sheep; hence tins, rrbsa, also by 
transp. ni^ and ilAto. 

^ZD3 m. a footstool, because 
trodden on 2 Oh. 9, 18; r. vns. 

^Il3 m. a he-lamb, a young ram 
fh)m one to three years old Num. 7, 

15; pi. b*^^ lambs Is. 5, 17; r. 

iD^. See also 3baD. 

rraiiS, ntoas Lev. 14, 10 (ct 

ni^^s, pL ntoi) f. an ewe -lamb, 
firom one to three years old 2 Sam. 
12, 3: prob. sheep in Gen. 21, 28. 
See also MSbS. 

"^10123 m. prop, a burning place 
<r. tfsi), a furnace, for burning lime 
or smelting metals Gen. 19, 28; dif- 
ferent from nnsQ an oven for baking. 
— Cf. xajiLtvoc, L. caminus, culina 
(» E. kiln) from xaCco ^ L. cofuleo 
sa W. c^nu (bum). 

^ (pL Dm) com. gend. a pml 
1 K. 17, 14; tub 1 K. 17, 12; r. ^U 
Gf. xaSoc, L. cadus, £. caddy. 

D*15 Chald. (obs.) i. q. Heb. 
3t^, fo Zie, ^0 deceive; hence 

3*13 Ohald. a4j. m., ronsf. fyii^, 
deceitnn^ Dan. 2, 9. 

1*13 I (obs.) i. q. 'WS (which 
see), to cut or hollow out; hencA 
prob. 13. 

J J3 n (obs.) prob. akin to *T]5J 
to bum, glow or sparkle; hence ^^ 
Wj?. — Prob. akin to Sans, chad 
(to blaze), L. candeo, £. iUn^il^ 

■nS Chald., see '^X 

^3^3 m. prop, a glowing or 
sparkling gem (r. TT^ II), a ruby or 
carbuncle Is. 54, 12. 

ijmJ (obs.) perh. akin to "VSi *<> 
Hful; hence perh. ^H^ in 

^la^b'I'lSl pr. n. m. (perh. hand- 
ful of sheaves) Gen. 14, 1. 

n3 (i. q. Chald. n^, sex n^acfc page) 
only in rt23 and n^H*; ' 

Digitized by 





lU aAv^thus, 80f oStwc, referring 
either to what precedes Oen. 15, 5; 
or more frequently, to what follows 
Deut 7, 5. It is used as a particle 
1) of time, now, e. g. MiD ^ till noWf 
hUherto Ex. 7, 16; doubled, hS-'T? 
riS"W hitherto and hitherto^ i e. in 
the mean time 1 K. 18, 45. 2) of 
place, here Buth 2, 8; JTD — ro ft«re 
— tA«nc Num. 11,81; rfe-*i? to there, 
yonder Gen. 22, 5; rbj ro At^^er 
ami ^i/A«r Ex. 2, 12. 3) of manner, 
this tray, that way Is. 20, 6 ; Mba — nba 
in i^ts monn^ — in that manner 
1 K. 22, 20. — As to derivation, rtp 
may perh. be for ^Ji^, but prob. is 
akin to 3, '»S, ")5, see Gram. 102, 2, 

»T3 Chald. L q. Heb. rtD, M^-^ 
AtfA^to Dan. 7, 28. 

nnS (fut. man, apoc. nam 

Job 17, 7, Gram. § 75, Bern. 8, 6) 
i. q. JTKa, to ftc ti^caty, /*atn^ Is. 42, 
4; of a light, to be feeble or dim (see 
ma) of the eyes, to be dim or (2ii22 
o/" 9ight, by age Gen. 27 , 1 , by 
trouble Job 17, 7. — PI. ma to 
make faint, to depress Ez. 2l' 12; 
to rebuke, w. a 1 Sam. 8, 13. Hence 

!TJ13 f. 1) adj. (from obs. m. nna) 
feeble, expiring, of a dim wick or 
light Is. 42, 3; depressed, of the mind 
Is. 61, 3; pale, faint, of hue or colour 
Lev. 13, 21, often w. M3. 2) subst. 
mUigation of a wound, i. e. healing, 
only Nah. 3, 19; r. Wja. 


^i^}^ Chald. (only part, ina) 

akin to Heb. b^ia, tej, to be able, e. 

«- ^? T*?*^*? ^'^ **^ ^^^^ ^*^- 
2, 26;'pL 'pc''3?» ^- ^ ^an. 5, 8. 

l"^ (Qal only in part, ^na) 
prob. akin to *)«, to perform or cajc- 

OMto any charge or service, hence 
to n»im«tor or serve, esp. in sacred or 
divine things, to be a priest (^ which 
see); whence prob. as a denom. we 
get — Pi. ina I) to act as priest, to 
minister before God (Sept. UpaTeuctv) 
Ex. 28, 1. 2) to dress as a priest, i. e. 
to deck oneself w. fine apparel, as 
the priests did, only in Is. 61, 10. 

1^!^ (prop. part, of in^; pL fi'^Jrtp) 
m. a server or minisi^ in sacred 
things, a priest (Sept. UpeuO C^en. 
14, 18, Ex. 2, 16; of idols 2 Oh. 23, 
17, but esp. of the Lord 1 Sam. 14, 3; 
tHe Chief or High Priest (Sept h 
dp^iepeuc) being variously styled, 
Vi^^K? W*^ ^«v- 21, 10, ^m fis 2 
K. 25, 18, ITttJart *fr&f2 (the anointed 
priest) Lev. 4, 3. Next to him was 
h3OTr? irja priest of the second rank 
Jer. 52, 24; pi. nanjan -^aha 2 K. 23,4. 

■jrD Chald. (def. «jna, pi. I'^arra) 
m. i. q. Heb. "jna, a priest Ezr. 7, 12. 

nSilS (pi. msna 1 Sam. 2, 36) f. 
priestly office, priesthood Ex. 29, 9; 

13 Chald. (pi. "p^a) f . a window 
Dan. 6, 11; prop, a hole, r. va. 
13 i. q. na, see I'a'^K or nb'^fit 

^Hw (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

UL, to shine or twinkle; hence perh. 
aaia, but see aaa. 

IW3 pr. n. of a country in con- 
nexion w. Egypt and Cush Ez. 30, 5; 
perh. for 31*3 Ntibia, 

yiiS Ez. 27, 10 (in pause 531*2, 
c. a^ia 1 Sam. 17, 5, pi. D^i^aiar r. 
3>5a) m. a helmet Is. 59, 17.' The 
form appears to be a confusion of 

a^ and :^aia. 

I'liJ (obs.) prob. akin to ^J I, 
Y?3 I, nna (which see), to pierce, to 
wound, hence to destroy; hence TO, 

Digitized by 





T^ra, '^&t% -^^ Prob. miniet akin 
to Sins. ^fM (to woond), ^^> "^ 
o(Bdo, coBdeB, Gr. achaden^ S. soothe, 
C¥i, W. ew(, cdd, Irish eol^ 

I~]l3 (Qal obs.) akin to Syr. ]la 
Arab. ^^, perh. to ^S^, Gr. xa{u>, 
to bum or brand; cf. ?3 1. — Niph. 
to be burned or scorched Is. 4S» 2. 

113 Chald. (obs.) L q. Heb. ^, 
aag, to'HoUoio otU^ to pierce; bence IS. 

TJtQ (ob9.) perh. akin to Arab. 
^^ cooj.X (tenaz fuit), to be strong, 
powerful; hence Tis 1. 

ni3 (see nb) m. «trett^ Dan. 11, 6. 

n^l? f. a burning or 5randin^ 
Ex. 21, 25;r. njS. 

3^i3 (c. nsis; pi. D^n^; r. a^ 

or 349) L q. Arab. v^^jS^, tfor Oen. 
37, 9; fig. a prince Num. 24, 17. 
bis Jer. 33, 8 K'thibh^ see Vs. 


' prob. akin to K^S, Arab. JUJ 
to hold or m^oMire 18.40,12. — Pilp. 
h'A'S to contain 1 K. 8, 27 ; to sustain, 
endure MaL 3, 2; to support or 
defend, as advocate Ps. 119, 5> as 
nourisher, w. two ace. Gen. 47; 12. 

— Polp. (cf. Oram. § 55, 4) ^sba to 
be sustained w, provisions 1 K. 20, 27. 

— Hiph. b*i2n to hold or contain 1 
K. 7, 26; ^"^anb na-^p amplitude to 
contain i. e. holding much Ez. 23, 32; 
to bear or endure Jer. 6, 11. 

D^W (obs.) i. q. Arab. ^IT fo group, 
akin to Da J (which see), to join, to 
cluster together; hence ria'nD. 

TO3 (like ajsi5) m. a ball or peUet; 
perh. collect, beads, made of gold, 
and worn as an ornament JBx. 35, 22 ; 
r. Ta3. 

I'D (Qal only partes; fbrftttin 
ntwa*; = siSSjiD"; in Job 31, 15 be- 
longs to the Pil. ^tD) L q. "fff, akin 
to Dp, to stand or exist Qien<i%% 
fan).— Nlph. fiaj, ftit fia^, i)tobe 
set up, to be h^h, of the day; hence 
in part. D'i'»n "fi^ihigh noon (axabtph 
^liap) Prov. 4, 18. 2) to stand firm 
Mic. 4, 1; to 5e established Judg. 16, 
26. 3) in a moral sense, to be firm, 
steadfast Ps. 51, 12; of things, to be 
settled QeiL41, 32; to be certain, sure 
Dent. 13, 15; part, yiaj (m.) adv. cer- 
tavfdy 1 Sam. 26, 4, Was (t) sabsU 
cer^ainfyPs.5,10. 4) to be prepared, 
Tisn (imp.) hold thyself ready I Bz. 
38, 7; w. b of pers. Prov. 19, 29, also 
of thing Ps. 38, 18. — Pil. -ffis 1) to 
place or set t^, to estMish 2 Sani. 
7, 13. 2) to confirm Ps. 7, 10; to 
establish or /bund (a citj) Bir 107, 
36; to prepare 2 Sam. T, 24; to 
create Ps. 8, 4; to make ready or to 
aim, as arrows Ps. 11, 2; fig. to 
direct or c^tply, the mind (aV) under- 
stood, w. b Job 8, 8. — Pbl. 1313 to 
be established P*j. 37, 23; to be form- 
ed £z. 28, 13. — Hiph. TW (4ian 2 
Oh. 29, 19 for ^la'rran w?« prepared, 
•pam 2 Oh. 29, 36 w. art. as rel 
proB., cf. Gram. § 109, Bern.) to set 
«fp, aa a throne Ps. 103, 19; to fovmd^ 
of the heavens Ps. 65, 7; to con- 
firm or establish, of dominion Is. 9, 
6; to prepare or make ready G^en. 43, 
25; to aim or direct, of missiles Ps. 
7, 14, of way or course Jer. 10, 23; 
to apply (sb the mind) 2 Ch. 12, 14. 

— Hoph. '\vin to be established Is. 
16, b; to be prepared Is. 30, 33; to 
be set in order, arranged Zech. 5^11. 

— Hithpol. laisrn Prov. 24, 3 , dlso 
•jil'sn (Gram. § 54, 2 b) to prep ft 
oneself Ps. 59, 5; to be estahliaheP^ 
54, 14. Hence 

Digitized by 





ytS pr. n. (perh. a settlement or 
colony) of a Phenician city 1 Ch. 18, 
8; bat *^^ in 2 Sam. 8^ 8, |»rob. 
now SeiriU. 

"{3^ (pL m^) m. edke^ iifdd in 
sacred offerings Jer. 7, !•; r. fffi 
(Ohald. Pa. ins) ia |>nepar^ hence 
sometbingmadeni^ cf. (mreonfecikm, 

Gr\^ (obs.) prob. akin to fiD^, to 
enfold, to keep or hold in, to contain, 
benee perh. biS and 0*^S; but see Oj^. 

Di2) (pL niD'a) f. prob. a holder or 
receptacle, r. 0^3 or 09$, 1) a cwf 
Gen. 40, 11; hence ht or jTorfton, con- 
sidered as meted oat by (Jod Ps. 11, 6. 
from its poach (see D*^) Lev. 11, 17. 

^13 (obs.) to he high, pointed 
or Unoerinff, crag-like; hence CjS. -— 
Prob. akin to Bans, kapala, xtfokii, 
xo^iQ, L.caim^, e(ppt4«, G.kopf, kappe, 
gipfel, B. cop, O.B. cop (headX ^a^fe» 
W. coppa. 

rU I (obs.) mimet. and akin to 
n»i,rTO I, *i5«, nnp I, -ip3, wi n 
and *«tb V, to dig, cut or |?icrce 
through; hence ina, *i'»», *1TO, ^»2, "tD. 

rU n (obs.) perh. akin to ^3, 
T9^, to ^^b«^ or hum, 
niS), seelSD. 

*1%) m. a furnace, for smelting 
ProT. 17, 3; r. •«». 

■pDlJ m3 pr. n. (smoking furnace) 
of a city in Simeon 1 6am. 80, 30; 
also simply fff^ in Josh. 15, 42. 

XCfTQ Ezr. 1, 1 Cyrus, see «h'a. 

tDliD (obs.) prob. akin to ^^3 n, 
'^TSt^, Sans. Qwih (bom), to 5e swu 
burnt, to he swarthy or hlack; prob. 

TZTD 1) pr. n. (prob. san-bumt) of 

Ethiopia Gen. 2, 13; i^entioned in 
connexion w. Egypt Nah. 3, 9 and 
Libya 2 Ch. 12, 8. 2) pr. n. m. 
(swarthy) Qien. .10, 6. ^^ Comp. k\W.Q^ 
a alfOco to &um and &^ face, 

^'W^ 1) m. a (Tn^Atto, fifiAiopiart 
Jer. 13, 23; pL tTWL 2 Ch. 14, 11; 
also bn«(d9 Am. 9, 7; fern. n*n^S 
Nam. 12, 1. 2) pr. n. m. (swarthy) 
Zeph. 1, 1. 

■jTOS pr. ri. (from ito, swarth- 
land) perh. eastern Arabia, more 
prob. Ethiopia itself Hab. 3, f. 

Coshan of double fraud) Judg. 3, 8. 
rPlDiS 1 i q. Syr. Ih^os, pro- 
sperity; only pi. rfhflWs prosperous 
circumstances, only Ps. 68, 7; r. ni^. 

^"W (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
D^3, to conserve or X:eep sa/e. — N Ipb. 
to &e A^f, reserved, as treasure, only 
in part. m. nisd, as subst. treasure 
2 K. 20, 13. — Perh. akin to Sans. 
hut (to hide), xcuOco, W. cuiiAto (to 
hide), cadw (to keep). 

X^Q pr. n. (perh. hiding place) of 
an unknown province, whence the 
Assyrian king sent colonists to the 
land of Samaria 2 K. 17, 30. 

mn^3 pr. n. 2 K. 17, 24, i. q. rWJD. 

n*lt^i3, see nnro. 

^T W (Qal only part) akin to 

a^, nscn n, i. q. Arab, ^^j.^ prop, 
to ^ind to^etifter, to combine or devise, 
hence to fabricate, to lie; part m. 
np as subst a /tar Ps. 116, 11. 
— PI. ajS i. q. Syr. ^-s^, to /te, to 
deceive Job 6, 28; w. i, of pers. Ps. 
78, 36, w. ID 2 K. 4, 16; fig. of mere 
things, to deceive i. e. to turn out 
contrary to expectation Is. 58, 11. 
-^ Niph. to &e or become a liar 

Digitized by 





Prov. 30, 9; to he false Job 41, 1. — 
Hiph. to convict of lying (cl p'^?a», 
§*mD^) Job 24, 25. Hence 

3T3 (pL ta^'ajs, c •oji) m. a /tc 
or falsehood Is. 28, 15; fig. pi. idols, 
88 cheats Fs. 40, 5, cf. £z. 13, 6. 

20T3 pr. n. (deceptdve) of a place 
1 Ch.^4, 22; L q. S'^TS and S'^TaS. 

•'atS pr. n. t (false) Num. 25, 15. 

S*'t3 pr. n. (deceptive) of a place 
in Jndah Gen. 38, 5; i. q. a*iTa{|t 

lT3 (obs.) prob. akin to *it6jj, to 

hind fast or hard, Arab. y^J to force; 
hence fig. to he strong or frrav^ also 
cruel] hence ^YSM. 

HID, once Hl3 Dan. 11, 6 (w. euf. 
'»riiD, ?p;.*3; r. ms) m. 1) strength, 
might Job 6, 11, hence nb-fitb u;eaA;- 
ness Job 26, 2; abilitg, capacity J>sau 
1, 4; re IS5 to reserve force i. e. to 
have strength for something Ban. 
10, 8; also in a bad sense, violence 
Ecc. 4, 1 : fig. strength of the earth, 
i. e. its produce Gen. 4, 12; toealthf 
riches, as means of power Job 6, 22. 
2) sort of lizard, prob. the gecko, so 
named for its cry (cf. JTjJSp Lev. 11, 

30; cf. B,kuch, Arab. ^, %o6i, xiqSi 
L. coaxo, E. qiuick. 

irj3 (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
ttSro, to conceal or /i*(fe. — PI. *flTS 
to conceal, w. ',0, Jer. 38, 14. — 
Niph. to hide itself, to lie hidden 2 
Sam. 18, 3 ; to disappear or 5e ct^ o;f 
Zech. 11, 9; w. y^i&J ")» Ex. 9, 15.— 
Hiph. to hide away Job 20, 12; to 
cause to vantsA i. e. to do away with 
(c£ d(pav(Ceiv) Ex. 23, 23. 

Mrj^ (obs.) perh. i. q. JTiS, to 
6e vigorous; perh. hence Jiis. 


jmi i. q. Arab. JaT (whence 

dlrcohot), to streak or cotowr, esp. w. 
dark pigment ((7t()i.)i.i, L. stt^itim) to 
|7aint the inner sides of tha eyelids, 
only in Ez. 23, 40, where Sept has 


IDHB prob. akin to ^, to 
conceal or deceive, hence fig. (cf. 'M) 
to waste away or fail Ps. 109, 24. — 
Niph. to dtssemftfe oneself, to feign 
Deut. 33, 29. — Pi. ms to fail, of 
produce Hab. 8, 17; to feign, to act 
cunningly, of the conquered to their 
conquerors, w. h Ps. 18, 45; to deny 
Gben. 18, 16, w. a or b of pers. Job 
8, 18; 81, 28; to lie, speak falsehood, 
w. i 1 K. 13, 18. — HIth. to fawn 
on, flatter, w. i 2 Sam. 22, 45. Hence 

XBTV^ (w. suf. -^a or W^) m. 
lying, deceii Fs. 59, 13; fig. toagting, 
leanness Job 16, 8. 

IDHS) (only in pL Q'^lUIja) adj. m. 
false, apt at deceiving^ only in Is. 30, 
9; r. 16115. 

*% I (for ''ja; r. nja) m. a hrand, 
a mark burnt into the skin, only 
Is. 3, 24. 

^3 n (pronom. stem, akin to S, 
see Gram. § 102, 2, Note <) relat. 
coiy ., in the widest sense. Its mean- 
ings (comp. Gram. § 155, 1, e) may 
be set forth as follows; — 1) the 
usual relat. coiy. that, 5ti (like *^>^) 
marking the relation of the ante- 
cedent clause or sentence (protasis) 
to the consequent (apodosis). Tlius 
a) in indirect speech after the verbs 
to see, to say, to know, to helieve^ to 
remember, to forget, etc., the conse- 
quent (apodosis) standing w. *^ Ib 
considered as if an object in the acc^ 
e. g. aiD -^a tav^fcj k*;?t and Qod sotr 
that it was good Gen. 1, 12; naib a*il3 
K^—'a it is good for a man that 
he hear Lam. 3, 27; in ^^lii^ 

Digitized by 





13-^? •? 

cases the ^t, introducing tibe second 
member is considered as object in 
the aoc^ namely, ai the object that 
God saw, as the object that one finds 
to be good. Bnt also p) in direct 
speech (as mark of quotation, like 
6xi often) where we do not want 
the coig. that, e. g. fb TXfysikri'y 
^l^oA 3^ 1]^**^ and thei/ said to 
her (that) we wiU return w, thee to 
thy people Bath 1, 10. Hence also it 
is used after 99tb Gen. 22, 16, and 
after forms of oaths 1 Sam. 20, 8; 
y) even at the beginning of a sen- 
tence or discourse, where the "^ 
marks the apodoeis of a sentence 
that is suppresised or has to be sup- 
plied Job 28, 1. 6) After other 
particles (adverbs, prepositions, in- 
terjections), where the particles 
have seTerally the force of whole 
clauses or sentences, and the *i^ 
indicates the apodosis; e. g. after 
DfDK Job 12, 2, n^ Ps. 128, 4, fiAn 
r&wn. 10, 1, h in '<ai 2 Sam. 9, 1^ 
ejK 1 Sam. 21,\ OBfiJ^Am. 9, 8, "gj 
Kum. 11, 20, b? Deut. 31, 17, T? 
Gen. 26, 13, n;» 2 Sam. 12, 10, MTti 
Bent. 4, 37. 2) as a caussd particle, 
Jre, because (when the cause or 
reason precedes) Oten. 3, 14; for 
(when the cause or reason follows) 
Ps. 6, 3; -wrhen there are several 
causes, we have ■<!? — '»3 Is. 6, 6; 
•<Dn — -^s Gen. rfs, 11. — This causal 
meaning of tlie *^ is the most usual, 
and it (or the meaning that^ under 
1 above) really holds good in most 
of the cases (under 3 below), where 
we may he. tempted to render it as 
a particle of time, when, 8) as relat. 
particle of time, Sre, when^ w. the 
past Ps. 32, 3; w. the present Ps. 8, 
4; w. the fut. Gen. 4, 12. •»? W 
and a caane to pass when or that 
(Jen. 6 1. In tbis^ sense it may stand 

as the apodosis to a protasis, mean- 
ing so, then, when the antecedent 
clause has the conditional parti<nes 
DK Job 8, 6, Kb DK Is. 7, 9, %i Job 
6, 2, "^b* Gen. 81, 42, "^bw Num. 22, 
33, ntb^ Ecc 8, 12, ^VBbi^ TJJ Gen. 22, 
16. In this meaning it is used a) 
where ^'S indicates the consequent 
of a reason not specially indicated, 
and is to be rendered wherefore, that, 
e. g. J have not done anything (*«9) 
that (wherefore) they put me into 
prison Gen. 40, 15; P) where the 
causal sense hecattse may seem to be 
adversative and to stand for but 
(simply owing to the negative in the 
context, see Gram. § 155, p. 331) e. g. 
Gen. 45, 8, although Ex. 18, 17, but 
yet Is. 28, 27. — Prob. "^j like "tto, 
was first a relative or demonstrative 
pronoun, but that sense is nowhere 
certain now, though passable in some 
cases, e. g. Gen. 4, 25 where the Sept. ^ 
makes it 8v, asif=nm Perh. the 
r. is akin to Sans, has, Pers. ki, L. 
^t, q^ia, quod, Gael, cia, ciod, 

DK ^ these united particles com- 
bine more or less the force of both, 
but often (owing to our different 
idiom) the one or the other remains 
untranslated. Hence the signi fications 
are a) such as retain the force of 
each particle, and these are, that if 
iTer. 26, 15; for if Bent. 11, 22; but 
if, only after negative Lam. 3, 32; 
p) such as coDJoin the two words 
into one notion, so that they both 
refer to the one clause, e. g. but, 
after neg. Ps. 1, 2; unless, after neg. 
before a verb Gen. 32, 27; except, 
after neg. before pronoun Gen. 39, 9; 
that (the force of the &M being lost, 
as shown in the Q'ri) 2 Sam. 15, 21 ; 
because or for Job 42, 8. 

1§"b? "^ (see Gram. § 155, 2, d) 

Digitized by 





lit. fw therefore; hence for, hecofMt 
that / have seen thy face Gen. 33, 10. 

*^1^ m. wound or hwri (cf. L. ccedes)] 
figr. caiamUy^ only in Job 21, 20; 

r. •Tn». 

TiTS (pi. c. '»TiTO) m. a aparA:, 
only Job 41, 11 ; r. *ri3 H. 

■jiTS (r. 1>0) m. 1) a javelin 1 
8am. 17, 6, Jw. 6, 23. £) pr. n. 
(lance) of a place near Jeroialem, 
fully fra Y^ 1 Oh. 18, 9. 

*11TID m. toar, slaughter ^ only m 
Job 15, 24; prob. from noun TO 
w. format, ending *ii", as in ^iSpfi? 
(see under letter ^); perh. akin to Arab. 

jjlf Vn ooig. proeci^s ruit. 

I^'^S pr. n. (prob. statne or pfllar, 
r. T>i», Pi. W, ct Mp, Pi. W»|?) i. 

q. Arab. ^^I^, Syr. ^|^, the planet 
Saturn, worshipped by idolatronfl 
Israelites, an image of it being carried 
about w. them in the Wilderness, 
only in Am. 5, 26. 

•li'^S, also ^^^2 (pi. Q'»'7i*3 2 Ch. 
4, 6 ; mn^s 1 K. 7, 38) m. a basin 
or pot; for fire, a fire-pan Zech. 
12, 6; for water, a wash-basin Ex. 
80, 18 ; a platform^ pulpit, prob. of a 
hollow or cup-like shape 2 Gh. 6, 
13; r. nw L 

''b*'3 m. a miser, only Is. 32, 5; 
r. b«i3 (to refatn) w. adj. ending '»-^, 
grasping; see *«b5. 

{I]5*'3 (only pL nittW) m. sledge- 
hammer, axe, only in Ps. 74, 6; r. 
e)ba. — Akin to Chald. fi^^Vip a club. 

tVS^^ f. prop, a group, cluster, 
hence /^ Pleiades, ^ seven stars 
Job 38, 31 ; r. e*0. 

D^'S m. 1) a |>Mr«c, for money 
Prov. 1, 14; a bag, used by mer- 
chants for small weights Deut. 25, 

19. 2)aeup ProT. 29, 31 (Q^ri D*b); 

r. w:d. 

T$ (only dtua tt'^;r.'T«»I) m. 
a fire<rodc or imm for cooking, only 
in Ley. 11, 35; perh. only in dual 
because it ooasitted of two hollow 
or concave parts (top or lid and 
the body). 

*nfirS (r. '^) m. prop, an 
upright, hence a distaff, which stood 
erect holding the flax, only in 
Prov. 31, 19. 

'ji'*5*'§ Bcc 2, 18 for fnr^ 
Oram. § 24, 1, Bern.. 

SllDS) (for nd rrs) so and so, Ihus 

TIT ^ ▼ . '' ' 

and thus, i. q. TO (which see), e. g. 
thou shcdt do to Aaron and his sons 
thus (Mas) Ex. 29, 35. In Aram, it 
assumes the form ^ so, 

*©3 (for W», r. -i-TS; c -nSS, 
dual Vp33 2 K.*5, 23; pi. D'»";»3D, c 
'^"istD, in another sense also ni'^dS, c 
ninss) f. prop, a round, hence 1) a 
circuit of land Keh. 12, 28; esp. 
^ W ^"SS the circuit of Jordan, the 
district through which it flows into the 
Dead Sea Gen. 13, 10; called also 
nssn the circuit Gen. 13, 12 (i^ izt- 
p(^(opo^ TOO lopSolvou Mat. 3, 5, now 
called ^y^l el-Ohdri. e. the ravine or 
gorge). 2) a round cake, w. Qn^, a dike 
or loaf of bread Ex. 29, 23; pL c 
rfr\vs Judg. 8, 5. • 3) a tcdent (so 
called for its round form), a 'weight 
equal to 3000 shekels of the sanctoary 
Ex. 38, 25; dual CjOJ tl'jnaa (for 
Q'^p^S) two talents of sUoer (prop, as 
to'siiver, Gram. § 118, 3) 2 K. 5, 2S. 

TD5 Chald. (pL f-ta?) a taient 
Bzr. 7, 22. 

bb, once ^13 Jer. 38, 8 (w. Maq* 
.qeph -b^, w. suf. ikD; r, i^ I) 
m. prop, a snbst. compkieneaa^ to- 
taUty, aU i. q. Vt>!(, 8Xoc i) <Ae 

Digitized by 





¥^u)k, hat mosUir rendered at «n 

Sidi.xtUj whole, in constr. state w. 

a def&nite sing, noun (Gram. { 111, 

1, Bern. 2), the whole of, aU, *bs 

fntfh oS ihe earth Gten. 9, 19, but 

rarely when the noun is not defin. 

e. g. Q^-V^n^ ^^'^9? ^' ^^^ of 

heaad aid w, whole of bomI, i. e. with 

his whole heart and his whole soul 

2 K. 23, 3 ; w. suf. ibs hi» u^2e,i e. 

the whole of him Gen. 25, 25; tjbs 

ihou (f.) whole Is. 14, 29, "r^S Is. 22, 1 ; 

thus at times after the noun, e. g. 

rfsm ^^^ Israel, his whole, i. e. the 

whole of Israel 2 Sam. 2, 9 ; rarely 

in apposition after the noun e. g. 

Van Tfitn fhe whole vision Is. 29, 11. 

2) distribntively of several things 

(mostly without the art.) all, every, 

each e. g. ib*^Kah Vs every one was 

ashamed Is. 30, 5; ^Iss i'T his hand 

against fhe whole i. e. every man 

Gen. 16, 12. 3) w. a pi. defin. noun, 

aU, all the, D^ith-bs aU the nations 

Is. 2, 2; TpniK^-teoZ/ %HKm«fers 

Ps. 9, 2 ; w. pi! suf. sisto dU of US, 

aU we Gen. 42, 11 , D3^ Deut. 1, 

22, uhs> Is. 31, 3. 4) w. sing^ collectiye 

defin. nouns, the whole of, aU, 

Mjn-te the whole of mankind, aB 

men Gen. 7, 21; also without art. 

but still defin. Gen. 46, 15. 5) w. 

aiii^. noun without ihe art., every, 

each, rna"i? every house Is. 24, 10; 

aJse, amy one, . any thing Buth 4, 7 ; 

w. negative^ it} biD n&nn fiCb <Aou 

«^ka// not lack anything therein Deal, 

8, 9. 6) every or focfc Wnd, e. g. 

ISO" ^ wer^y A:tml of ware Neh. 13, 

16. 7) as adv. wholly (icavxco^), o^ 

ioffcther Ps. 39, 6; *ri:?-b3 wholly as 

long as Job 27, 8; lb nB5-b» tr^Wy 

as Boc. 5, 16. For dis occurs tante 

2 Bsm. 23, 6; and for '^, txiff^ Gen. 

42, S6 and fonto 1 K. 7, 37. — This 

word tf^ommon to aU Semit tongues 

ms^ be akin to SXoc, old Ii. sdOm^ 
tabus, G. oiZ, B. irAoi^, oil; KelUcJbO; 

bb Ohald. (w. Xaq. -^S, def. «Hb, 
w. snl frta) i. q. Heb. , 1) w. sing. 
the whole ^,i,\\, 2) w. pi., off Ban. 
3, 2; w. suf. off o/"— Dan. 2, 38. 8) any 
one Dan. 6, 8; w. vb, no one Dan. 2, 
10. 4) as adv. wholly, altogether, e. g. 
nj^-bn|?-^^ wholly because of this. 

Hs^D (1 pers. '»n»to for "W^J 
Ps. 119, 101, fut V&^) akfai to ^ 
rft| which see, 1) to hold at confine, 
shut up Jer. 32, 8; part. pass. M^ 
shut up Ps. 88, 9. 2) to restrain, keep 
hackJs. 43, 6. — Niph. to he restrained 
w. "pa Gen. 8, 2. — Perh. akin to 
4ans. khal (to check), X(oX6co, xXcCcu, 
Ji. celo, W. cdu (to hide^ 'Sbw^ 

Kb3 (w. suf. iH^a, pL fi*«b|) nu 
1) enc^)8ttre (r. tfb^), a prison Jer. 
52, 83; fully «te H'^^ 2K. 17, 4; pL 
6*^^^? "^^ (Gram. § 108, 3) Is. 42, 
22. 2) denuircaUon, in dual &7%^9 
/wo kinds or «orte Lev. 19, 19. 

Kb§ Dan. 9, 24^ see Pi. of hVsiI. 
3Kb3 pr. n. m. <perh. restrained, 
T. kV^ w. format, ending !!-;-, as in 
y^] see p. 74) 2 Sam. 8, 3. 
'n^b3, see VH^ 2. 

n^3 (obs.) akin to t)Vn n, lo 
wea^- plait; hence aAs. 

^^^ I (obs.) perh. mimet. akin 

to Arab, ^kaldba (to bark), 6Xax- 
tI(i>, L. lalro, G. Udffen, Engl. c&q>, 
ytf^; hence perh. ais dog. 

3^4' ^ {o\iB.) perh. akin to 
Arab.* vJT, to he fierce or hold; perh. 

SbS pr. n. m. (perh. bold, brave) 
CWed^Num. 13, 6; patron. ^<^ 

Digitized by 





1 Qtan. 25, 8; perh. also name of a 
place 1 Oh. 2, 24, but here prob. we 
should read nnn&M-bM nba k^ 
Oakh went in to Ephratha (his wife, 
y. 19), Sept ^XOsXaXkp cU T<ppa6d. 

SbS (pL tt'^ate, c. "Ote; r. ni» I 
or ate n) m. a dog (prop, f Ae yc/jpcr 
or asaailer) Is. 56, 10; used as a term 
of reproach 2 E. 8, 13; fig. a male 
prostitute, a sodomite Deut. 23, 19; 
comp. xuve^ Apoc. 22, 15. 


n ^mJ I i. q. Kbs, to hold, contain^ 
reatraWf but only in the forms hiyj 
(= nAzi) Gen. 23, 6; •'Dnis (= '>3'T«^ij 
1 Sam. 25, 33; As (= fKte) 1 Wm. 
6, 10; but elsewhere xbs (which see); 
comp. Gram. § 75, Bem. 21. 


M yi) n (fut. rfta^, once rAy; as 
if a verb R'i 1 K. 17, 14; apoc, baj, 
ba; Job 33, 21) akin to Kte, W3, to 
2;e complete, finished £z. 39, 32; hence 
to be prepared, ready Prov. 22, 8; 

was prepared for him on the part of 
the king Est 7, 7; to 6e fulfilled, of 
prophecy Dan. 12, 7; to be finished, 
of time Gen. 41, 53 ; to be spent, of 
food 1 K. 17, 16; to come to an end 
t e. to &e destroyed, by judgments 
Jer. 16, 4; to t(;asfe away Ps. 73, 26; 
to fail, of the sight Job 11, 20; to 
pa«8 atra^ or vanish Ps. 37, 20. — 
Pi. (1 pers. Wte Ez. 6, 12, wte 
Num. 25, 11; inf. c. rA? also ni? 
2 Oh. 24, 10, once Mte Dan. 9, 24; 
fat apoc. h^) to complete, finish 
Gten. 2,2; to prepare, yet ready Prov. 
16, 30; to fulfil or execute on, w. a 
I'iZ. 6, 12; to finish an act Gen. 44, 
12; w. -jO Ex. 34, 33; to destroy 
tUterly Gen. 41, 30 ; to cau«c to /at/, 
of the eyes Lev. 26, 16; to |?aM or 
spend, of time Ps. 90, 9. — Pa. nte 

(As Ps. 72, 20, Gram. § 52, Bern. 4) 
to be completed, finished Gen. 2, 1. 

Tfy^ t conclusion, completion; 
hence adv. utterly, completely Gen. 
18, 21, also r^A 2 Oh. 12, 12; de- 
struction, utter ruin Dan. 11, 16; 
nbs T^ to work complete destruction 
Jer. 4, 27; w. 3 Jer. 80, 11, w. rcj 
Jer. 5, 18, to make an end of. 

nb3 (r. nte n) adj. m., n>? t 

jpinifi^, failing, of the eyeDeut28,32. 

Im^^ (obs.) perh. akin to rite, 
to 66 sfod/e, firm; hence perh. Vi^te. 

n^3 (r. btel) f. 1) aftrwfc, «p(mw 
0ant4, 8; Syr. )L^. 2) a ({oii^Ater- 
tn-2au7 Gen. 38, 11. 

n^3 m. completion, perhl in 2 K. 
13, 17; but see Pi. of n|» H. 

Dfl^S 2 Sam. 23, 6 for 0^2, 
Gram. § 91, 1, Bem. 2. 

njrtS 1 K. 7, 37 for iks, Gnun. 
§ 91, 1,' Bem. 2. 

STO (r. K^S) m. prop, conftm- 
ment, hence a prison (Q'ri) Jer. 37, 
4. In the K'thibh stands K^'te, also 
in Jer. 52, 31. 

3^b3 (r. a^s) m. 1) prop, net-work; 
hence a basket for fruit Am. 8, 1; 
a cage for birds Jer. 5, 27. 2) pr. n. 
m. (perh. a cage) 1 CJh.4, 11. -—Prob. 
akin to xoXuPt], xXcopdc, xXou^o;, 
xXop6(;, Gael, cliab (basket). 

"O^bS pr. n. m. (perh. plaited) 
1 Oh. 2, *9; but nte in v. 18. 

^^b3, TFib? pr. n. m. (perh. 
firm, r.* Pibs) Ezr. 10, 35 (Q'ri and 

nb^bS (only pi. nftAs; r. bbs T) t 
pL bridal state or (^tanns, only in 
Jer. 2, 2; ot rig^ 

Digitized by 





(fw (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

^ (imahiU planta), Chald. nh^ 
{trmk or stem), to be firm or strong; 

nbS) m. 1) halenese, strength Job 
30, 2; Aafe old-age Job 5» 26. 2) pr. 
n. (strength) of a city and proTinoe 

Ijo Anjria Gten. 10, 11. 
''bS (in pause *»b3; pi. fi'^i? for 
t:*»te, as if fi-om hte/c '»i3) m. prop. 
any thing prepared or modf up (r. 
; ^sn), or perh. better what holds 

j or contains (r. hVs I = bw), hence 

1) a vessel or utwsil Gen. 31, 87; 
garment Deut 22, 5; baggage^ "laqiD 
D'»^an t^ baggage-master 1 Bam. 17, 
22; harness or ^oXres of oxen 2 Sam. 
24, 22. 2) instrument or tooZ, Ib. 82, 
7 DW 1'»i5 •'^S as to o wiMer, A« 
tods are evil; i*^ *»^3 instruments 
of song 2 Ch. 84, 12. 8) weapons 
Gen. 27, 3; 13^^5 KW3 armowr-fccarcr 
I Sam. 14, 1 ; B^is n'»a armourf/ or 
arsenal la. 89, 2.^ 4) a oe^se/ or froof 
Is. 18, 2. 

v5 m. grasping one, a miser, 
only Is. 32, 7 ; see *'b*'». 

S'^bS, see KSlte. 

n^b^ (prob. fem. of "^is, as rn'n^ 
fromVnst; pi. ni-^te, c. ni'iVS)) f. prop, 
fl resse/ in the body; nsed only in 
pi. the reins, kidttegs Ex. 29, 13; fig. 
the inward parts, i. e. the soul or 
seat of emotion and purpose Job 19, 
27, Ps. 7, 10; the kernel or best part 
(of any thing) e. g. Txis/n ni'^te abn 
fat of wlieat kernels Deut. 82, 14. 

■ji'^^S (c. ll'"^^?) ^- I) « ^win^ or 
failing,' of the eyes Deut. 28, 65. 
2) consumption, destruction Is. 10, 22 ; 
r. rte n. 

■ji'^bS pr. n. in- (a pining, r- ^^?n) 
Buth 1, 2. 

297 ^ 

b^b3 (c. W») t^ 

dbficfAiit. It 

TM^)'t complete, t^"^^^^' 
^t\ nV>? i>cf/erf of beai^rX^'^ 
as an adv. whoUg Is. 2, 18 ;\*^*™'^' 
<Ae whole, ^•'Wj-Ws toAofe J]!' *» 
cOy Judg. 20, 40. 2)*8Ub8t. L q. A^ 
a holocaust or whole burnt-offering, 
a sacrifice wholly consumed by fire 
Lev. 6, 15; hence used in apposition 
w. hte Ps. 51, 21; r. W? I. 

ySO^ pr. n. m. (sustenance) 1 K. 
5, 11. 


ViJ I (3 pL nVXD Ez. 27, 4) 
akin to ln\^ n, to make ready, to 
perfect Ez. 27, 4; hence to deck 
esp. w. crown or garland, to crown, 
hence n^3, nbiibs; akin to Syr. 
|\>\r) a croum. 


^mJ n (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
W? n, Wg n, XT^Xeoc, to kindle or 
glow; hence perh. — Hiph. only in 
A'^^sn they cause to glow or flash, of 
the eyes, only in Samaritan text of 
Gen. 49, 12. 


^mJ Ohald. (Pe. obs.) i. q. Heb. 
V>^ I to complete. — Shaph. hhsto 
to finish Ezr. 5, 11; inf. TyV^ Ebt. 
5, 8. — Ishtaph. hh^tH to be finish- 
ed Ezr. 4, 18. 

bis pr. n. m. (perfection) Ezt. 
10, 3o[ 


^ J (Qal obs.) i. q. Arab. ^ 
to wound, — NIph. to be instdted 2 
Sam. 10, 5; to be ashamed Num. 12, 
14, w. la Ez. 16, 27*, to be put to 
shame, i. e. to be disappointed Ps. 
35, 4, w. IP Jer. 22, 22, w. ID Ps. 69, 
7. — Hipb. D^bDfi (once D^'isn 1 Sam. 
25, 7) fig. to reproach (prop, to hurt 
w. words) Job 19, 3; to chide or vex 
Buth 2, 15, cl Judg. 18, 7'^ to put to 

Digitized by 







1 SAm. 25, 8; pei;)*'— Hoph. <» 6e 
place 1 Oh. 2, >e(i 1 flam. 25, U; to 
should readme, duct^^^manUd, J eat, 
Caleb wefeo&B f^^i FAsbs. 
V. I^}»ft3 pr. n. {perh. barren, akin 
y *naS^ which see) of a region men- 
tioned along w. Assyria, only in Ez. 

27, 28. According to the Targum, 
a Median district, bnt not otherwise 
known; Sept. Xoppidv, perh. for 
£ap)i.av(a {Carmania Desevia) on 
the Persian golf. 

nab3 (pi. m'sbs Is. 50, 4i< re- 
proach Job 20, 3; shame Ps. 69, 8; 
m^ba xtf^ to put on aha$M, asagar- 
ment Ps. 108, 20. 

tflfiiS f. reproachf only in Jer. 

28, 40; r. Q^». 

robs, also robs Am. 6, 2, iite 

Is. 10," 9 (prob. also TO Ez. 27, 23) 
pr. n. of an Assyrian cily Gen. 10, 
10, which Uie ancients render by 
(HesipJum, on the east bank of the 
Tigris, north-east of Babylon. — 
Perh. akin to ns^ cane or reed, w. 
b inserted, as in TJ^b^d = ^gig, see 
also Dttja. 


9>|^3 (obs.) mimet. akin totals, 
xoXditTCD, a. klopfen, EngL ctep, d^ 
hence to strike; hence Cj^^^, 

*'5'?b3 1 Sam. 25, 33, see r. h^L 

•T^3, see rnj. 

ImUw perh. akin to Syr. olsLa 
(to fail, of the eyes) to pine after, 
long for, only in Ps. 63, 2. — Perh. 
akin to Sans, ham (to desire), Pers. 
^^ desire, xdfio>, xdlfivco. 

DiQS (for m;») prop. Wee what? 
then ^01^ great? of space Zech. 2, 6 ; 
how long? of time Ps. 85, 17; how 
many? of namber Oea. 47, 8; how 

often? of repeated action Ps. ^ 40; 
see rra. 

DriUS pr. n. n. (prob. pining, r. 
A^S) 2 Sam. 19, 88; for which tahfh» 
Jer. 41, 17 (K*thibh),>)riS3 2 Staol 
19, 41* 

irtas, Dttiffl, see on«?. 

^ISSl (w. grave sul, and before 
nouns; but *ia5 w. light suf.) i q. 
m^, the prep, f w. the indefinite 
1*9 eas m, hence 1) like !p indicating 
similari^, e. g. ijn^ im at a stone 
Ex. 15, 5; w. suf. *«3'it3» as iKeh. 6, 
11; Wm^ ^T^ as* thou, so tJbey 
Judg. 8, 18. 2) as coig. i. q. *il^ 
like as Is. 41, 25; when, as soon a$ 
Gen. 10, 15. 8) as adv. thus, e. g. 
ios mWDK Jtotff declare thusVs,7S,l5. 

031^3 Job 1 2, 3 OS to t/ou, see ixis. 

jfeS, see lias. 

Ifil^S) pr. n. '(prob. burning; r. 
Xb^^) of a Hoabitish idol 1 K. 11, 7; 
hence isia^ D9 pd<>pfe of Chemosk, 
i. e. the Moabites Num. 21, 29. 

T^3 (obs.) i. q. Arab, p*, to 
form into haUs or grains; hence 



|U3 (obs.) perh. akin to "i^a, i. 
q. Arab. J^, Syr. ^aa, to hide, to 
lay up or store away; hence fi'^s?. 
Also to preserve, to season; hence "pS. 

l^TSQ m. prop, spice, seasoning; then 
esp. etHnin Is. 28, 25. — Bence x6}U- 
vov, L. cumininnf Ot. kUmmd, our 

wU^ (only part. pass. 0^3) 
prob. akin to n^S, to toy «p, to rf- 
serve, only in Deut. 32, 34. 

iQ'D I (Qal obs.) akin to ^3. 
*ion I, t»n, to ^totr, 6icni; then to he 
scorched or swarthy, — NipiL to 60 

Digitized by 





hmU, dcon^edt of tii« tkin Iiam. 5, 
10; fig. to 6e wartny hot, of aflfectioii, 
w. te or V«, to ytam 1 K. r, 26, 
Gen. 43, so/ of. ^n I. 9. 

niSB n (obs.) akm to "raSi ^o 
;^x2!(ij^, tMOve; henoe ^^^SOt ''^^99, 

T is; 

■ft© (only pL D^*p?3) m. on ido^ 
jpriett 2 K 28, 6 ; either because the 
hwmtr of the sacrifices, or because 
clothed in hlaek (comp. Syr. f'^oA 
prop, sadness; then a priest, at 
wearing dark clothing) ; r. ^Q!D L 

TTD5 (only in c pL '»T???; ^* 
■»^5 1) m. darkenings, ohacurations, 
only in Job 8, 5, prob. eclipses of 
the sun (cfc ■^■»*«», but w. if in place 
of d). Some of the ancients took ^ 
for the prep, and ''y?J for bitter- 

tZ7!D3'(obs.) i. q. «3a3, *^I, 
to ^tow, bi*m; hence prob. ^ti^sp pr. 
n. of the fire-god of the Hoabites. 

HQp (obs.) L q. p«9 <o i«le/ 
hence rm^so. 

» s » • 

]3 place, see ]3 n. 
"^ I (r. y(S\ pi. D*^»)adj.m.ri5'W, 
frec^ /Jrm; fig. upright, honest Oen. 
42, 11 ; correct Ezr. 10, 12; w. neg. 
15 A not Hght Prov. 15, 7; also as 
adv. rightly, w^U 2 K. 7, 9. 

TS) n (r. •y?; w. 8uf.'»») m. a stand, 
base^pedestJ 1 K. 7. 29; 15 rtr?5>g 
pedestal-work lK.7,31; Tjh 15 socAfcf 
of the mast Is. 33, 23 ; place or o/5«cc, 
ns my jptoce Gen. 41, 13, i35 to in Ai« 
place or «tea^ I>am 11, 20. 

15 in pronom. particle akin to S, 
rfe TO, usually adv. used as in com- 
parisons, thus, 80 (&c, o8tidc), e. g. 
Gen, 1 7 15 "^ry ^"'^ *^ *^^ ^» ^' ^ 
as God had ordered; Oen- 29, 26 

15 N^ ik U is not dene thm. It 
stands with other particles to SnAi- 
cate the oomparisoiv e.g.1»— If as-so 
Ps. 127, 4; 15— "1^ as-so Kmn. 2, 
17; "IWO— U. so— as Gen. 18, 5; 
•haa— 15«o— asEx.10,14. There are 
distinct and manifold meanings of 15 
as adv. in connexion w* prepositions 
e. g. 15 •«?« Lev. 1*, 36 or 15 "^yi^ 
Gen. 15, 14, after so, afterwards; 15a 
in such (way), so, then Ecc. 8, W4 15? 
for so, therefore Bx. 6, 6, also w. ad- 
versative sense, j/ei ^erefore, neser* 
thdess Jer. 5, 2, ^sp. in passmg from 
rebukes to consolations Is. 10, 24; 
15-Vj on account of so, therefore 
Gen. 2, 24; 15-15 until so, as pet, 
hitherto Neh. 2, 16. 

■JS rv (pL tr*iip)m.agnat or midge; 
to prob. in 15"is^ like a gnat Is. 
M, 6; r.nj9 IL 

"{3 Chald. i q.Heb.15lII,M,iJ^ 
Dan. 2, 25. 

2SjZ) Ohald. (obs.) perh.i.q.9eb. 
n;5 to title; hence perh. M^^rp, rtdf 

n33 I (Qal. obs.) L q. Ohald. 

KjS, Arab. JsT, to surname, giffe a 
title of respect, — PL to name w. 
respect, to honour Is. 45, 4, w. 1^ of 
the title Is. 44, 5 ; to flatter Job 32« 21. 

nip n (obs.) perh. akin to Q)?, 
to 6«*e or s^. — JUdn to xvico, 
xvt4*, G. kneipen, E. yuaw, ^not, W. 
onou (bite). Deriv. perh. 15 IV. 

n33 f. a plant or shoot, something 
set, ordy in Ps. 80, 16; r. 1^^. 

nSS pr. n. (perh. cane or reed) 
of an Assyrian city Ez. 27, 28; prob. 
L q. ^3^5 which see. 

ril33, see rt». 

■p33, see njS Ohald. 

liJS (pi. rvhi5 1 K. 10, 12; also 

Digitized by 


»t| T 



w. saf. ^p^O Bz. 26, 18) m. a hwp, 
lyre Gen. 81, 27; r. njs. — Prob. 
mimet akin to )^, Arab. ^^\/' lyre, 
xiv6pa, x(vupi(, G. knarren, Kelt. 
crynUt kema, 

^rPte Jer. 22, 24 L q. )Wn^^ 
which see. 

TpnibSS li. 33, 1 mf. ffiph. of nij, 
w. 5, for TjrApTO; but prob. only a 
mistake for :|nila3, r. h^^. 

UjD (obs.) perh. L q. n» n, to 
pierce, king; hence 

D9§ f. a pnatf coTl.gnat8, only Ex. 
8, 13. 14; but perh. only a mistake for 
Q*tfia as in the Sam. codex. See "jS lY. 

M^3 Ghald. 80, thus, in this man- 
ner Ezr. 4, 8. Prop, as is said, ft*om 
^^"^If, dropping the final *i, as is 
common in the Talmud. — Perh. from 
Kjft w. the adv. ending VCQ, hence it 
may mean namely; generally refer- 
ring to what follows. 

I J«^ (obs.) L q.f(t to setf place; 
hence *)$ II, h{$. 

^^}^ pr. n. m. (perh. for rnj;», 
-whom PP set up) Neh. 9, 4. 

n^33, ^ri^333 pr.n.m.(Pnhath 
set up) 1 Ch. 15, 22. 27; also Vi;j» 
2 Ch. 81, 12, K'thibh sirr^ars. 

UjD akin to D^3, Tb;3 (hence 
x6v8u) , to collect treasures or stones 
£cc. 2, 8; 8, 5, also water Ps. 33, 7; 
fo assemble men Est. 4, 16; also fo 
cover up or Wde, hence 0330. — Pk 
/o ^o^Aer together persons Ps. 147, 2. 
— Hilb. OSSnh to collect or compose 
oneself in bed Is. 28, 20. 

JJD (Qaiobs.) akin to PIDHI, ipni, 
9^3, to bend or &0U7 (toum the knee, 
to &f fotr; then to compress or /b2ri 
u/). — Niph. to fte brought down, 
^dued 1 Sam. 7, 13; w. TTiTO Ps. 

106, 42; w. ''DIO Jndg. 11,33; to 
Mim6/e on^se/jf, to su^mi^ Lev. 26, 41 ; 
w. '»;^b 2 Ch. 84, 27; w. ''STO 1 K. 
2i, 29; w. ^^BkQ 2 Ch. 33, 12.^Hipli. 
$*^:dri to &riii^ dotw, Aumife Job 
40, 12; to Midciue 2 Sam. 8, 1.— 
Akin to Sans, ganu, ifovo, ^^afiictcD, 
L. genu, G. ibite, £. ^nee, Kelt. dwn. 

nySS (w. suf. !jr;y») t prob. 
6uiMUe or bale, collect, wares, only 
Jer. 10, 17; r. 555. 

■jJ J3 1) pr. n. m. (prob. low-lander) 
of the son of Ham, and father of 
the Canaanites or Phenicians Gen. 
9, 18. 2) pr. n. (low-land) Canaan 
Ex. 15, 15; fully fiys }nx Gen. 13, 
12; and applied to the region west 
of Jordan Num. 33, 51 ; Fhenicia, or 
north-western Canaan Is. 23, 1 1 ; JPki- 
listia Zeph. 2, 5; *}?a3 nBto tfie speech 
of Canaan (prob. the name given in 
Egypt to the Hebrew or Semitic 
language) Is. 19, 18; i. q. 19:3 id^K a 
Canaanite Hos. 12, 8. 3) a merdumt^ 
w. suf. 17^3^33 her merchanta Is. 23, 
8, the Canaanites or Phenician^ bemg 
the most famous traders in early 

03533 pr. n. m. (perh. traffic) 1 
Ch. 7, io. 

"^5^^ (Pl- *3"'?533 Neh. 9, 24; f. 
KV*a93S) Gen. 46, 10)m. 1) a Canaanite 
Gen. 38, 2; henoe ^^'Sn y^ land 
of the Canaanite Ex. 3, 17Y oipo 
•^waari the place of the Canaamte^x. 
8, 8. 2) a merchant Prov. 31, 24. 


(Qal obs.) akin to ^ 

i. q. Arab. Jl^T, to cotw, protect — 
Niph. to hide oneself, only in Is. 30, 
20; hence 

CiJS (c. tl53, dual tl'^i, c •«???, 
pi. n'iBas, c. niBj?) f. prop, covering^ 
hence 1) a wing. Is. 10, 14; hence 

Digitized by 





5)55 ^^^ ^^^- ^» *^» ^15??? ^^5? 

Bcc 10, 20 oumer or master of 
wingSf i. •. a bird or /WL Poet. 
nr\ *%^ wings of the wind, i. e. w. 
wind-like swiftness Ps. 18, 11; *^p$ 
"tlTO UTtn^s o/ <^ (iauTntn^, i* e. the 
beams of the rising Km Ps. 139, 9. 
Pig. extremity^ comer of a land Is. 
24, 16; wing of an army Is. 8, 8; 
baUkmerU or pinnacle of a building 
Dan. 9, 27 (of. ircepoifiov too lepoo 
Mat 4, 5); flap^ skirt of a garment 
1 8am. 24, 5. 

1J3 (obs.) mimet. to make a 
IremuUms sounds to triU; hence "^I'sa 
(which see). 

rii33, also ftinss i k. 15, 20, 

ffl'TSS Josh. 11, 2, pr. n. (perh. harp- 
Hke) of a city InNaphtali near the sea 
or lake of Galilee Bent. 3, 17; hence 

n-Tis d; Num. 84, 11, ni^s? d; 
J<»h. 12, 3, called in N. Test the 
sea of Tiberias John 21, 1 or lake 
of Gennesaret Luke 5, 1; r. *i3S. 

1S33 Ohald. i. q. Heb. 033, to 
gather together^ assemble Dan. 3, 2. 
— Itbp. to be assembled Dan. 3, 3. 

r03 (prob. for r«», r. n53, cf. 
n»; only in pi. w. suf. wiiS, for 
•nnSaos) f. siwmame^ official title; 
fig. one bearing a common title or 
appointment, a colleague^ only in Ezr. 
4, 7, — • This very obscure word may 
perb. mean an appointment or office 
(c£ r. 1*0, whence 1511), the kindred 
r. in Sam. '^ ^lil (ros) denoting to 
appoint or edahlish. •— On the use 
of the fem. in this term (as in miB), 
see Gram. § 107. 3, c. 

r03 Chald. (i. q. Heb.) a colleague, 
only^A. w. suf. mnjJS his colleagues 
Ezr. 5, 6; IVinjJ^ their colleagues 
£zr. 4, 9. 

D3 m. only in Ex. 17, 16, taken 
by many for a shortened form of fi^KD 
throne^ but prob. only an error for 
^:a banner. The 8am. text has K^ 

S03 I(obs.) L q. n^ toeover^ 
hence K$3. 't 

2i^D3 n (obs.) akui to 0^^ 
num5«r, <o determine^ of the seti^eif 
of a feast-day (cf. n?;, whence *7xhe 
prob. hence ;, nfls^ 

S03 Prov. 7, 20, also TO^e ^W'O 
4, L q. Syr. jjfts, a set ^^^^^^\ 
perh. <*« new or tt« /WJ ';^^ I 
named from its »wr«n^ ^^^ 
(r. »tj»n), or perh. from ir ^^ ^^ 
then covered (r. KtjS I), ^r^^ ^^^^ 

M&3, also riD3 Job; vessel'Sum, 
*»K03, ?I^?, pL r\iK03 29; sbgTf CjS 
n^) m. a chair or ts s^in^, where 
esp. a high seat, pi 8am. 25, 29; 
over-hung w. a cano/' the thigh, the 
naba^gn K&sDeutOen, 32, 26. 5) 
Est'l, 2 or hS^k nlB? Cant 5, 6. 
the royal throneh of the palm-tree, 
priest 1 Sam. 1, 40. 

tribunal Ps. 12'i;t2(^benceKV)T«« 
in general 2 K 

•^03 Chal. 
in Ezr. 5, 12 

>ohn 1, 43) m. a rock, 
\ only pL Q'»fi? Jer. 4, 

' T T(fiit mr) akin^tirUM, 
cover, m^^ anger, only in Prov. 
cealing j ~^ » -^ 

•^^iDS cov v^ , , 

Jer 5^"*^®*' ^^y ^ ^^* ^» *^» 

^r^^^fl. See eg 6. 

32, 7^?, (^» «rf' '«^) ^ ^ palm4op 
acc.rawcfc Job 15, 32; fo^ifi^'! n^S 
^. jpoZm-ftroncA and the bulrush, 
16 for the lofty and the lowly or 
ffdanls. 9, 13; r. Cj^^ n. 
' "liSS m. 1) a cup, prob. covered 

Digitized by 


J-ox.- 8, 6 or w. 3 Gea. 38, 14. -.p„ 
^^ ^«t *? P.. 80. n) to be covert 
Wax*. 7, 19; w. a Ecc. 6, 4 o, ^ ^r^ 

P?™, Oram. § 54, 2, & 

?3, »ee KMi, 

P^^^^^US ; but see hrnro. 

8, 13. 14;^iOT. 4^ y 'V, 

^^ Ezr 4, Og. a propitiating ^ft 

10'»», drop% 20 IK o\ ^^ 

'•*' . ^Zl ' ^^' 2) a garment 

common in tx» ' v^^rmcnt 

K^S w. the ad-* 

may mean nanet akin to nscp, m;^^ 

ling to what /olTHJ, tta, W (which 

hence W.n«. ' ) m. i) r. i^ i, 
333 pr. n. m. ^p. to D?n Prov. 
whom rn set up) Sex impiety Prov 
•T??3, ^STMS) pifrop. ^Ac ^^ron^' 
set up) 1 Ch. 15, 22. 2if the constel- 
2 Ch. 81, 12, K'thibh JJ? regarded by 

x<5v5o), to coflcrf treasureix* <^ald. 
Ecc. 2, 8; 8, 6, also water jl. Orions 
to assemble men Est. 4, lOjie larger 
rover t*p or hide, hence 033^ pr. n. 
fo gather together persons Ps! a city 
— Hilli. t5|»nh to collect or co, 
oneself in bed Is. 28. 20 lo 

,.? -T°<«>Wperh.akmtoA«U 
^'iw^ Job 15 27 i/"^"-*^ 

'59? m. name of the ninth >n«i»i, 
Z^ the Hebrew. bSC? 

, I '''77 Pf- n. (confldeacei «/ - 
84.1,/^ ^'- "• •"• <•*"»*) Num. 
» place m Lwwhar Jo^ „ j^ ' *' 
^aW, or a Place in Zeb^t,^' 

1^5 pr. 

^J3 (Qalobs.) akin to njni, 71 
»!0. to 6e«d or Jow doum the kn,v 
to 6e hw; then to comprew or fo 

SMirfweJiflam. 7, isjw.-rnnBP, 



■ ^^'"^ fro™ r. tea n w nM 

DO|'(ft.t.bfa=., akin tomato 
«*ear, only in E^. << 20- 1. 

Digitized by 





003 (Alt. Ds^ akin to y^, /o 
dMsMbute^ anign or reciiron, only in 
£x. 12, 4. 

y]03 (fat. tiW) perh. akin to 

Arab. ^ikJS{ i)iabep{Ue or white; lienoe 
qos. 2) to long after ^ w.bof object Job 
14, 15. — Nipb. 1) <o tv.m pale ttom 
sbame, only part. Cfbsa Zepih 2, 1. 
2) to /!on^ o/ICer Gen. 31, 30. Hence 
TjCS (in p. PjtJ; w. suf. 'W:^ m. 

1) «ifecr, prop, paleness Gen. 23, 15. 

2) moneg Ex. 22, « ; pi. mic^ pieces of 
monef/, coins Gen. 42, 25 ; also w. V^ 
understood, e. g. CjOS tf>yt thousand 
shekels o/'«tfccrGen.20,16; r. C|D3. 

7|&3 Cbald. ml i. q. Heb. tfO^, 
sUver i)an. 2, 35. 

J5^'»g03 pr, n, (prob. white) of a 
place on the way between Babylon 
and Jerusalem Ezr. 8, 17. ^ — Perh. 
akin to Kdaiutoc. 

rC3 (only in pi. ninOS; r. n^S) 
f, piUoios, cushions Ez. 13, 18. The 
form is analogous to nbj ftom nb-j. 

bS^ Is. 59, 18; see ^?. 

I^SChald. adv. perh. akin to Chald. 
yxs, here; hence now, at this timeBsxL 
2, 23; 152) "Ty ttiifi/ now Ezr. 5, 16. , 

K3^ Chald. adv. (perh. fem. of 
*ffSi) only in n35a*i and so forth Ezr. 
4, 10; also contracted, npafl Ezr. 4? 17. 

Oi/3 (ftit. DJa*;) to &c wasBrf Ps. 
112, 10;^to be angry Ez. 16, 42; w. 
bx of pers. 2 Ch. 16, 10. — Pi. WS 
to provoke, irritate Dent. 32, 21. — 
Hiph. to veXf grieve 1 Sam. 1, 7; to 
OToifcc angry, w. aDeut,31,29. Hence 

C?3 (pi. B-'OrS) m. i. q. to?3, 1) 
cmger Deut. 32, 19; pi. bursts of 
anger 2 K. 23, 26. 2) veocation, irri- 
tableness Ps. 6, 8; D^S m»X a /rc</W 
or ill'iempered woman Pro v. 21, 19. 

te?3 m. L q. b?3, 1) anger Job 
10, 17. 2) vexation Job 5, 2. 

W3, see nays. 

r|3 (w. suf. W, dnal Q^^l^^, pi. 
rviSS; r. tjfiS I) f. prop. 5end or hollow, 
hence 1) iXe Ao2A9to /km J, fAe |?aZm 
Lev. 14, 15; also the hand ki ge- 
neral Dent. 25, 12. To put one'^sond 
in one's hand, i. q. to expose^ oneself 
to great danger Judg. 12, 3. The 
dual form D']^? (c. ^Igs, w. suf. *^B?, 
?p&3) stands not only for the two 
hands Job 36, 32, but also fos. tbe pi. 
Hag. 1,11. PLn'{D3j>a/m9Dan.X0,l0; 
in Mi trn; r\iB$ palms of hands i 
Sanrw 5, 4. 2) foot or paw, among beasts 
Levw 11, 27. 3) sole, hy^ ^? ^^ ^f 
the foot Deut. 2, 5; pi." MiD? Josh. 
3, 13. 4) a pan, a hollow vessel Num. 
7, 14; pL nin? Ex. 25, 29; ybjn C)? 
the bend or dish of the sling, where 
the stone is placed 1 Sam. 25, 29; 
Tjnjn C)5 the hollow of the thigh, the 
hip'pan or socket Gen. 32, 26. 5) 
handle of a bolt; pi. niBa Cant 5, 5. 
6) r. &)&3 n, branch of the palm-tree, 
pL niD^Lev. 23, 40. 

tTjS L q. Syr. 1^1^ (whence KTrj^ac 
for nirpo^ in John 1, 43) m. a rock, 
a crag or cliff, only pL D'^BS Jer. 4, 
29 ; see r. tpS, 

mDw (fut. rmari) akin^to^KiS, 
to extinguish anger, only in Prov. 
21, 14. 

nSS (only pi. n-'to) f. a ftroncA, 
of palm-tree, only in Lev. 23, 40; 
r. ^3 U. See t(S 6. 

nS?, (w. suf. "inOD) £, a palm-top 
or ftroMcA Job 15, 32; ')iaay;'J fiB3 
the palm-branch and the bulrush, 
fig. for the lofty and the lowly or 
mean Is. 9, 13 ; r. S)&3 H. 

"1133 m. 1) a cup, prob. covered 

Digitized by 




w. a lid 1 Ch. 28, 17. 2) hoar-frost, 
covering the ground £x. 16, 14; r. 

D^'BS m. a cross-beam or a tie, 
only Hab. 2, 11 ; r. DBS. 

TS3 (pi. QWB3; r. nBS n) m. 

1) prop, akin to 'V*'^^ (which see), a 
Btrong one, hence a young lion Judg. 
14, 5, noted for prowess Fs. 34, 11, 

2) i. q. ^m^, a village Neh. 6, 2. 

•T!''SS pr. n. (village) of a city 
in Benjamin Josh. 9, 17. 


ImJ prob. akin to CjB^ I, to 
bend, i. q. Chald. bsg, to fold, double 
up Ex. 26, 9; part psoB.h^t'^ doubled 
Ex. 28, 16. — Niph. to be^ doubled, 
repeated Ez. 21, 19. Hence ^ibfiSQ 

bS3 (dual ta'^bos) m. a doubling; 
W*^ ?B3 the duplicate of his jaw, i. e. 
his two rows of teeth Job 41, 5; 
nywnb D'^Vbs two folds are to wisdom, 
L e. it is manifold, full of compli- 
cations Job U, 6; double, twice as 
much Is. 40, 2. 

_ i. q. Arab. ^^, to twist or 
bend, w. b? towards, only in Ez. 17, 
7 ; hence 

"iSS m. Aun^er, prop, twisting or 
writhing (in the stomach) Job 5, 22. 

wS3 (obs.) akin to ^B)^, YB^, 
yTQ^, to tie or bind together, to con- 
nect; hence D'^BS. 


L/«l I (inf. tp) akin to rrBB, 
aaa, fo ftenrf, ctww, to be concave; w. 
VK*n, fo hang down the head Is. 58, 
5; intrans. to be boused down, Fs. 57, 
7 '»«3B3 C)B3 my soul succumbed; part. 
Q^B>*iB3 t^se frotoed (2oion, &en^ double 
through affliction Fs. 145, 14. — 
Niph. (fut. t)3K) to bow oneself, w. i, 

Mic 6, 6. Deriv. e)S. •^^ Prob. akin 
to xoirrm, xd{jLirTa>, x^{a.v«», L. 
ctim&o, cotma, Breton halb (cave), W. 
can (hollow). 

!!r|D3 n(obs.)akintot)49(which 
see), to project or fiiount ifpiMiria, to 
&e high or to/ly; hence hfi^, n&a. 

^S!D I. L q. Arab. ^, pU, <o 
cover, w. pitch Gten. 6, 14; fig. to 
forgive sins (prop, to cover over), 
whence n^ — Pi. *idS (fiit. IBD^^ to 
cot;er over, Atde, hence to forgive sin 
Fs. 65, 4^ w. i? Jer. 18, 23 ; w. b of pers. 
Deut. 21, 8, Ez. 16, 63; w. n^S 2 Ch. 
30, 18; to ea;;nato an offence, to atone 
for Dan. 9, 24; w. b? Lev. 5, 26, w. 
n?a Ex. 32, 30, w. IP Num. 6, 11; to 
moAre otoTi^menf for an offender, w. 
b? Ex. 30, 15, w. TO Lev. 16, 6, w. 
a Lev. 17, 11; also of inanimate 
things, to expiate or cleanse Deut 
32, 43, w. b? Lev. 1 6, 1 8, w. a of means 
Lev. 7, 7; to appease or placate Gen. 
32, 21; to avert, of evil Is. 47, 11.— 
Pu. to be covered, obliterated, of vmt- 
ing Is. 28, 18; to 6e hidden, expiated, 
Is. 6, 7; to 6e forgiven Ex. 29, 33, 
w. V Num. 35, 33. — Hith. to 6e ea> 
jpiated l Sam. 3, 14. — NIthp. *1K3 
for "iBSna (see Gram. § 55, 9) to de 
connoted or forgiven, only in Dent. 
21, 8. 

lD3 n (obs.) prob. akin to "i??, 
•150, to 5tn(? or combine, hence f© 
6e strong, vigorous; hence 'I'^^s. — 
Ferh. hence also yl^upa (bridge), as 
a binding or joining, cf. Y^^opav 
CeoYvuvai, L. pontem jungere; «ee 


■^33 (pi. D'^'TBa; r. nBS n) m. 
village, hamlet, prob. a row or group 
of dwellings (cf. Arab. yU" Kefr} 
Cant. 7, 12. 

Digitized by 


^iBsn nB3 



■^ilSyn 1B3 pr. n. (village of the 
Ammonite) of a jdaee in Bei^amin 
Josh. 18, 24; in Q'ri nym:ffn 'sp. 

•^Bb m. 1) i. q. ^55 (r. *tfi3 II) a 
rlZZo^e 1 Sam. 6, 18. 2) pitch, as a 
material for covering with (r. ^^I) 
Gen. 6, 14(cf. Ghald.K*;i&^^Byr. t^&d, 

Arab.^&T). 8)c:^3wew^/?oto«r(x«icpoO, 
d'Eetma of the Arabs, used fpr 
covering or tingipg women^s nails 
w. a reddish hne (r. ^if^ I) Cant. 1, 
14; pL ty^^^a Cant. 4, 13. 4) a ransom 
(Xirpov), prop, covering (r. *^ T) Ex. 
21, 80; ivhD) -u^ ronsoffi /or Aw Zi/e 
£z.30, 12; Tj'i^ tA^ ronaom Is. 43, 8« 

'^S (only pl.D'i'Wp) m.fa;pta<iona^ 
atonement Ex. 29, '36; b'^'Wri Di** 
dc^ of atonement Lev. 23, 27; i'^ 
trmsn the ram ofeag^ums Knm. 
5, 8; r. *«S L 

tflBS t a cover, only of the lid 
of the ark, hence (he mercy-seat or 
propitiatory Ex. 25, 17 (Sept. iXo- 
oTi^piov, cH also Heb. 9, 5), flrom the 
notion of placating, see Vi, *id^; 
n^iten n^a f A« place of the propitio' 
tori/, the holy of holies 1 Oh. 28, 11; 
r. -^tsL 

lD!9!Hl (Qal obs.) i. q, l^aa, M 
tread or ^ew (2t>trM« — Hiph. V^d^ 
to ^ompfe (2bti?f>, only in liam. 8, 16. 

iHDD (obs.) akin to n&3, i. q. 
Chald. n^a, to bind or begird, to 
gurrowid, hence to deck; hence perh. 

» — 

n£)3 bind, /e»«r;part. 
pass, inflected as perf. ^tiD:p they 
tmere bound Ban. 8, 21. — - Pa. inf. 
nn&3 to bind Dan, 3, 20 ; part. pass. pL 
^■ ^nsga bound or fettered Dan. 3, 28. 
■niriBS, *1*F1B3 (pi. vrHe^ax r. 
r^) xn. 1) frdm n&a a hnop or {^jp/e< 

(L q. P^, w. the old ending *1*— (see 
on letter ^), <Ae croti?« or capital of 
a column Am. 9, 1 ; a circlet or A:nop 
of a candelabrum Ex. 25, 81. 2) pr« 
n. of a maritime region Am* 9| 7; 
hence ^in&a ^iskmd or searboard of 
Ccqplktor Jer. 47, 4; peih. Crde or 
Cyprus fn the Mediterranean, or pei4i« 
better Cky^adoeia which did once, 
as Horodotus teUs, include Pontos 
on the Black Sea, the name, Kaic- 
ica$-ox(a, being possibly Mm to 
nu=:^hB^ Vh trfpEi^ Oaphtofites 
Gen. 10, 14. 

■^3 ('»*r5)m. \)a lamb, vigorous 
and fat Deut. 82, 14; so called prob. 
from its running round or skipping 
about (r. *l'T| H). 2) prob. culti- 
vated land (r. n^ I) hence pasture or 
meadow-land Ps. 65, 14. 3) fig, (only 
pL Q*^*^) a battering ram, an engine 
of war for making breaches in walls, 
by butting or dashing against them 

(r. ^75 n) Ez. 4, 2 (cf. Arab. jt-T, 
xp(oc). 4) pUlion or saddle, a litter 
(r. n^s n); iojn *i? the camePs litter 
Gen. 31, 34. 5) pr. n. (perh. pasture) 
of the district between Phrygia and 
Lydia, Caria; hence gentiL n. ^"^ a 
Carian 2 Sam. 20, 28 (K'thibh). 

"TS m. prop, a hollow or deep 
vessel (r. ^!|9 I); hence name of a 
measure (Sept. x6po;) a cor 1 K. 5, 
2; for both dry and liquid things, 
containing 10 Ephahs = 11 Vo hushels 
or 88 V4 gallons, equal to a ^oh. 

JS l3 Chald. (Pe. obs.) prob. akin 
torrjip'l,* *WS I, to pierce, haMee to 
be pained, grieved. — Ithp. to be 
distressed, of the spirit Dan. 7, 15. 

^ J^ (obs.) prob. mimet. akin to 
C)t>» (which see), a'JJII, to grip, grasp 
or seize, hence (0 5ear; hence prob. 


Digitized by 





RbS*^3 Chald. t prop, wrapper, 
hence a mantle, cloak Dan. 8, 21; see 

n"l3 I i. q. ^*I to pteroe, «o 
(% (a weU) Gen. 26, 25; to exeawde 
(ft pit) w. h Jer. 18, 20, w. •^sfii Ps. 
67, 7, w. V? Job 6, 27; fig. to devise 
or prepare, as if by digging Prov. 
16, 27; like nbj, to open the ears Ps. 
40, 7. — Niph.'i6 he diffffedVs. 94, 18. 

mS n prob. akin to ^11^ nj^I, 
to 6wy, imrcAow Dent. 2, 6; njSHJJ 
(1 pers. fat. w. dagh. euphon. for 
>rj^j) and I bought her Hob. 8, 2. 

n"l3 in akin to fina, rna n, 

to feed; hence to mofe a feast or 
(an^tief, only in 2 K. 6, 23. 

•TJS (only pi. c. rhs) f. a j»<, 
cistern; o*vn n^ss^Acrete'cwfertw, 
only in Zeph. 2, 6; r. rrjS L 

rnS f. a feast or Aon^ue^ only 
2K. 6,"23;r. rrjain. 

3^*13 (pL D'^ara, D'O'TS) m. 1) 
Cherub f a symbolical being, com- 
pounded of four forms, man, ox, lion, 
eagle, prob. as the symbols of intelli- 
gence, might, courage and swiftness ; 
the guardians of Paradise Gen. 8, 24; 
forming the escort or throne-bearers 
of God Ps. 18, 1 1. Hence He is called 
D'^s'isrt ^Xff)^ Be who sitteth (upon) 
the Cherubim Ps. 80, 2; prob. r. ana. 
2) pr. n. m. £zr. 2, 50. 

TTQ Chald. (def. Wjhs) m. a 
herald Dan. 8, 4; r. ina. 

Tj«) Chald. mimet akin toM';)g>I, 
Syr. ]|j, XTr)p6aacD, to cry out, pro- 
claim. — Aph. to make proclamation 
Dan. 5, 29. 

^^3 m. collect, perh. executioners 
(parU^of nw to stab w. the adjective- 

ending "^-r); or prob. gentil. of "tp 5, 
Carians 2 K. 11, 4. 19, a kind of 
royal body •• guards, named together 

w. tir%y\. 

Tf^2 pr. n. (prob. dug or hollow- 
ed out, r. nna I) of a brook near 
Jordan 1 K. 17, 8; prob. now Wady 
d'Qett (cJJUiy near Jericho. 

roft'HSl, inft'nB f. a cutting off; 
then separation, divorce; nn^*tp "^BO 
a bill of divorce Deut. 24, 1 ; pL w. sul 
mr^"^ her "divorces Jer. 8, 8 ; r. r-na. 

^|j3 (obs.) akinto^^n, •O'Ta 
i. q. Syr. f'^Oito surround: akin to 
xCpxoc, xpCxoc, L. circw, W. e;^2dL 
Deriv. ip?Wt, peih. »^an^. 

33*13 (w. suf. •fStt')?) m. a margin^ 
border Ex. 27, 5. '-'Prom tp? w. for- 
mat, ending 3^ — (as in :«r)n), see 
on letter a, p. 74. 

Dbn3 m. i. q. Syr. Ua^^^* Arab. 

S/, Sept xpixoc, <ii« cro««, saf- 
fron, only in Cant. 4, 14. — The word 
is prob. Sans, katdcom, the Indian 

tD'^B?'?? P"^* »• (perh. fort or bor- 
der of Kemish « tDiaa) of a famous 
city on the Euphrates Is. 10, 9; called 
by the Greeks Kipxi^oiov, by the 
Arabs Umm?^. — Perh. the name is 
M'la. w. old a4j. ending «^-7- (•• in 
r»ain, see on letter t), akin to xpo- 
x6eu or xpoxoe{jicov, L. crodnmSn 

03*13 pr. n. m. (perh. Persian 
for eagle) of a eunuch Est. 1, 10. 

rn3*J3 (only pL n"hy)3) t. propw 
runners, hence dromedaries, only in 
Is. 66, 20; r, I?-)? Pi. <^ "i^a H. 

D j3 1 (obs.) perh^ akin tx> -^S II, 
as onB"to "^W I, to glou>j hence to be 
bright red; hence proo. ^"^7^. 

D i3 n (obs.) proti. akin to "n^ I| 

Digitized by 


♦ IV 



^^(a$ Wii to tto), todtg^euUivate; 
h&ace ^y^ and 

. D^3 (w. Bof. •»»•)», pi. tD^a-T^, c 
••tfTS; r. Dn» n) m. but fern, in I». 
27, 2, 3, prop, cultivated land, hence 
1) garden f orchard, n'j d'ts olive^ 
garden Jndg. 15, 5; D-iS-jS '^'ri the 
wu/ of (i. e. amtmg) orekard», opp. 
to a desert road Job 34, 18. 2) a 
xineyatrd Ex. 22, 4; fully nrfj dnj 
• ^orc^rd of wine Is. 27, 2, where 
some texts read isn '3 plecuwe 
garden, WJ •no'T* in Am. 5, 11^ 

ffp (denom. from D'JJ, as "ll^ 

from iga) m. a w»i«frcwcr Is. 61, 5. 

*'H13 pr. n. m. (vineyard-man) 

Gen. 48, 9; as patron. Oormife Num. 

26, 6 Cw-i? = •*?»*!?)• 

i'WS m. crimson, crimson clofh 
2 Ch. 2, 6; in the earlier Heb. "^J©, 
t^Vin are the terms for this colour. 
— Perh. flrom r. wys I w. old for- 
mat, ending i'^-T- (as in V'a'^nD, see 
mider letter i); but perh. from Sans. 
himila (cochineal). 

bB^3 (r. 0":y n; V suf. ftc^5 
2 K. 19, 23) m. 1) i. q. d-JJ a garden, 
orchard, prop, cultivated ground or 
/WrAr (opp. to the desert) Is. 29, 17; 
fa ia n iTTfcj fA€ cultivated land Jer. 
2,' 7; 'ife'^n^j; t<t (Lebanon's) ixirAr, 
prop, its forest-garden 2 K. 19, 23. 
2) Qg. garden-fruits Lev. 23, 14; 
te'JJ itn| CTM^Aeci garden-grain, i. e. 
choice early com in groats or coarse 
meal Lev. 2, 14. 3) pr. n. (a park) 
of a fhiitltil promontory on the Me- 
diterranean Sea, on the south-west 
iKnrder of the tribe of Asher, beauti- 
All in forests and flowers, Carmel 
Josh. 19, 26; often w. art. i^^^W 
(Gram. § 109, 3) lit. the Ftirk, Carmel 
Am. 1, 2; ftiUy i»^»7 ">n Mount 
Carmel 1 K. 18, 19. In Cant. 7, 6 
the head of a lovely woman is com- 

pared to OarmeL 4) pr. n. oif a cit^ 
south-east of Hebron near the Dead 
Sea Josh. 15, 55; w. h-^ loc 
n^q*^* 1 Sam. 25, 5; hence gental. n. 
•^io"!? Carmelite 1 Sam. 80, 5; fern. 
trixi^y^ CarmelitesB 1 Sam. 27, 8. 
-— ^OT5 is D'jg w. old format, ending 
i-p, as in I)BD; see letter \ p. 812. 

1'13 pr. n. m. (i. q. Arab. ^\/ 
lyre) Gen. 86, 26; see 'H'tt), 

SD'^S Chald. (w. suf. PIU^'^ Dan. 
7i »; pl. IJd-jS) f. a ^Aronc*Dan. 5, 
20; i. q. Heb. MKD (the *\ inserted 
for the Dagh. f.). 

uD j5 (for d^ Pi. of dC3, w< 
the 1 for* the Dagh. forte^ as in xsyt"^ 
for I3''a») <o CO* o;f, rfcvof#r, only in 
Ps. 80, 14; see Gram. § 56. 

Jj3 (ftit. 3^) akin to »3^ 
(which see), to how down 2 Ch. 7, 8; 
w. i Est. 8,2, w. \a> Ps. 22,30 of the 
pers. before whom; used w. njnwfin 
Ps. 95, 6; w. D'yjsrb? to kneel Jndg. 
7,5; to hmd, of the knee Is. 45, 23. — 
Hiph. y^*^ to cause to succumb, to 
prostrate enemies Ps. 17, 13; fig# 
to afflict Judg. 11, 35. Hence 

yi3 (only dual owp) t the leg 
from the knee to the ankle, prop, 
the bent part, of quadrupeds Ex. 12, 
9, of locusts Lev. 11, 21. 

DB^3 m. cotton -stuff, only in 
Est 1, 6. — Akin to Pers. ^/-O/, 

Arab. jJ/, xapwaaoc, L. carbasus, 
Sans, karpdsa cotton, also to £. 
carpet; perh. akin to r. v^T} I (to 
pluck), w. old format, ending 0-r 
(see on letter b). 

Ij3 I (obs.) akhi to rn» I, 
•T^S I, to dig, to culHvate. 

IJ^ n (Qfil obs.)mimet. akin to 
n^ II, >^} I, toga round, to roU, to 

Digitized by 





turn; to dance or skip about, — Pi. 
^5*13 to turn about, w. ^^tb before 
% Sam. 6, 14; hence tX^y^ and *nSS. 
r— Perh. akin to Yopoc, X^P^^t ^' 
^yrM«, cwrro, W. ^j^. 

ID'Til, mostly '^iSl pr. n. m. (Pers. 
JTuru^A, prob. snn or fire, perh. akin 
to *i*»» w. ending W-^, as in ^J^^T^) 
of a king of Persia, Cyrut £zr. 1, 2. 

1Z5 jD (obs.) akin to b^g, to 6e 
convex, bulging; hence 

ID'TS m. a 6c%, only in Jer. 51, 
84. — Akin to Syr. ^tfla, Arab, 
jty , W. c?ro^ (womb). 

tOID^S pr. n. m. (Pers. perh. 
black) 'Est 1, 14. 

n j3 (1 pers. pert W^, fut. 
th2^) I) to cut off 2k branch Num. 
13, 28; to cut doton or fell trees 
Dent. 19, 5; to hew doum idol images 
Jndg. Bf 25; to cut of the foreskin 
Ex. 4, 25, hence r^^^ cut or maimed 
Lev. 22, 24, fully n^md W^SDeut. 
28, 2 maimed in the male member, 
L e. unmanned; b'^)^^ ri^ to cut in 
two Jer. 84, 18; to destroy Jer. 11, 

19. 2) fig. rp'T^ n^ to maA:e a co- 
venant Gen. 15, 18, prop, to cat a 
covenant (cf. Gr. 8pxia xlfLvetv), 
referring to. the cutting up of the 
rati^ring victim, w. US} Ex. 24, 8, 
w. nijt Ps. 105, 9 of the pers. u)ith 
whom; w. h to, where the covenant 
is prescribed or dictated 2 Sam. 5, 3; 
also w. b for, i. e. in favour of Ezr. 
10, 8; w. ^? against Ps. 83, 6; some- 
times r\*i*}a is omitted, as in 1 Sam. 

20, 16; ana Tj^-rna?:) and thou 
modest a covenant for ih/self from 
iheim Is. 57, 8; instead of tny^ is 
found nja^ fidelity in Neh. 10^ 1, 'w 
word in Ps. 105, 9,. Hag. 2, 5. — Niph^ 
to be cut down Job 14, 1\ to be cut 

off, of persons Gen. 9, 11; to 5e 
destroyed, of a land Gen. 41, 86; <o 
come to nothing, of a hope Prov. 
28, 18; to be exiled Zech. 14, 2; to 6e 
masticated Num. 11, 38; to be cut 
asunder Josh. 3, 18. — Po. TTQ 
and ns\'Stobecut off Ez. 16, 4; to be 
cut down Judg. 6, 28. -r Hipb. n***^ 
(1st pers. '^Pijari) to cut off, destroy 
Lev. 17, 10; to withdraw favour, w. 
tiSi^ from 1 Sam. 20, 15. — Hopk. 
to be cut off, to perish Joel 1, 9. — 
Prob. miniet. akin to D^ (whicb 
•ee), yy\ I, i^iaato. 

. f^^^H"^? (prop. part. pass, of rni^)t 
pL hewed beams, planks 1 K. 6, 86. 

"'fl'lS) m. 1) prob. a Cretan or 
perh. Cyprian 2 Bam. 8, 18. These 
islanders had prob. immigrated into 
the coast of Philistia, and there be- 
come known to the Hebrews. PL 
^*^rro Ez. 25, 16. 2) prob. execu- 
tioner (r. ri'n^, cf. nai^ 2); hence the 
body-guards of the Jewish king were 
called ^rhW) "^Tnsq 1 K. 1, 88, the 
executioners and the couriers, or perh. 
Cretans and Philistines, who served 
as foreign mercenaries. 

2tD!D (pL wni:^) m. a he-lamb 
Lev. 3, 7; i q. to^, which see. 

rDiSS t a she-lamb Lev. 5, 6; 
L q. nto^. 

n1S3 (obs.) L q. Arab. i2; to 
cut in, hence perh. to encroach; perb. 

IID^ pr. n. m. (perh. encroaoher) 
son of Nahor, Abraham^s brotbsr 
Gen. 22, 22; perh. the father of 
the race of Chaldeans. 

^yS2i gentiL n. from irt^S (bat 
only pi. D^?ra, once D**^^ Ex. 28, 
14 in K'thibh) 1) ChaMecms, the in- 
habitants of Chaldea or Babylon Bs^ 
28, 28; hence ti^^ n^^^Dan. 9, 1; 

Digitized by 





9 ffth DaxL 1, 4; whence also Ba- 
lyylon'is called D*^^ "pKI ^"T^ 
Is. 13, 19. 2) Chaldea Is.' 48/20; 
w. n loo. rw^^ Bz. 16, 29; folly 
O'ftto in« Jer.' 25, 12; D^niio^ n? 
ffiikaMtanto o/ Chaldea (see on n^) 
for Chaldea Is. 47, 1; sometimes it 
it used not merely of the region on 
the Ehabor, but also of Babylon, 
see £z. 23, 28. 8) astrologers Dan. 
2, 2, because Chaldea was the cradle 
of astrology. ""-« In Assyr. inscriptions 
EMx = XoXSato^ = ^"^vs^j^ = modem 

Kurds, the letters b, r, X being 

interchanged. « 

■nte Chald. (def. nij^, K^J^a, 

pi. T'^f^jto, c. ■»l^Wto5 and fcTj^to) m. 

i g. Heb. *«^ito, a Chaldean Ban. 8, 

8; a» astrcioger, magician Dan. 2, 5. 

~TD3 prob. i. q. nt)S, to 6c co- 

T T *^ 

vered w. fat, hence to he sleek, only 
in Dent. 32, 15. 

y*W^ m. an axe, only in Ps. 74, 6» 
prop, a feller, r. ^i^ in Pi'eL 

y1D3 (fut. inba^ Prov. 4, 16 
K'fhibh, else only fat. Niph.) perh. 
akin to Vr^n, Arab. J^-T, to totter, 

fig. to fail Ps. 81, 11; nftto Mna 

tottering or trembling knees Is. 85, 8; 

to faint, collapse IjSLm.5,l3i to tumble 

Is. 59, 10, w. a a^atn«^ Ifev. 26, 37 ; 

fig. to (e fi?a««rifi^ or faint in mind 

Job 4, 4. — !f Iph. Vtto (fat. Vw) 

to become weak, faltering, part. Vi^aa 

1 Bonu 2, 4; ^ stumble Prov. 24, 16. 

— Fi. to tfatfM to /off, to /eff Es. 

$6, 14 (bufc tbe Q«ri is !)3W§ to be 

bereayed). — Hipb. to cai4«e to 

/Wtor or faUljMn. 1, 14; fig. to cause 

to stumble, in a moral sense, to tuft- 

wrf aCaU a, «. — Hoph. to ftc 

ffMide to siumble, to be overthrown 

Jer. 18, 28« 


D m. a stumbling or /o^ 
rtwn, only in Prov. 16, 18. 

PjIpD (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
a»«, to «pcafc «o/l/y or mutter; fig. 
to pray i^. low voice (cf. Syr. ^,i>A*>zf 
for XetTOopYeTv Acts 13, 2, and for 
6£7)5iv Tcoteiv PhiL 1, 4). — Pi. CltM 
to mutter charms, to practise magic 
2 Ch. 83, 6; part. m. Cl^?^ a sorcerer 
Dent. 18, 10; t M^Tgao Ex. 22, 17. 

CpD3 (only pi. d'^W^S) m. sorcery, 
incanidtion Is. 47, 12. 

t|1B3 m. a sorcerer, only in Jer. 
27, 9. 

lips (fdt. '1T»D*;) akin to *ti^;, 
"W?^ II, to be straight or upri^^ 
hence proper or rt^A/, w. •^sob Est. 
8, 5; to sAoof wp or sprout, to thrive, 
of seed Ecc. 11, 6. — Hiph. to cau9e 
to prosper Ecc. 10, 10. Hence 

I^IIS^ m. i. q. Syr. I^jlo, smc^^cm, 
prosperity Bcc. 2, 21; octoortto^ 
pro/f^ Ecc. 5, 10. 

DJTU) (fdt. nh^) prob. akin to 
aigjj, axn 1, prop, to carre or engrave 
on a wooden tablet; then to trrito 
Dent. 10, 2, w. b? Ex. 84, 1, w. bjj 
Jer. 36, 2, w. 3 Josh. 23, 6; IBg Sn^ 
to im/e a feWer, w. in 2 K. 10, 6, 
w. i? 2 Ch. 30, 1, or w. i Dent. 
24, 1, to or for some one ; w. ^K in 
respect to Judg. 8, 14; to describe 
by writing Josh. 18, 4; to prescribe 
or enjoin 2 K. 22, 13; to su^scrt^e^ 
as witness Jer. 32, 12. — Nlph. to 
be written Job 19, 23. — PI. to trrtto, 
subscribe Is. 10, 1. — Hence ans, 
ansa *» tansa. 

nZlZ) Chald. (fat ai^ !. q. 
Heb., to ibrtfe Dan. 5, 5; to wrile 
dMim, to record Dan. 7, !• 

Digitized by 





UPtS (c. an* w. -7- firm) m. a 
writing or feft^ 2 Ch. 2, 10; SM 
n^ <A« writing of the law, the decree 
iEst. 4, 8 ; a book Dan. 10, 21 ; a later 
Heb. word: r. ans. 

DlHD Chald. nu a writing, in- 
scription Dan. 5, 8; ara »^ ''^ 
withoiU prescription i. e. without limit 
or at pleasure Ezr. 7, 22 ; a document, 
edict Dan. 6, 9. 

rorfi f. a im<in^, a mark, only 
used of a brand on the skin, only in 
Lev. 19, 28; r. ans. 

^^^TQ Jer. 2, 10, see 

D"W3 1) gent. n. m. pi. of the 
city ro, KCttiov, L. Citmm (now 
Chethi) in Cyprus, but in the O. T. 
only the pi. occurs, D''R3, 6*^*?© Jer. 
2, 10; then Cyprians in general 
Gen. 10, 4, Is. 23, 12. 2) the inhabit- 
ants, put for the land, hence Cyprus 
Is. 23, 1; then in the widest sense 
<cf. Q^) for ifles and coasts of the 
Mediterranean l{am% 24, 24. 

n''t1i3 adj. m. beaten (r. HTO); 
l^nro )'ovo beaten oil Ex. 27, 20, 
obtained from the olives beaten in 
a mortar, and finer than what was 
got from the olive-press. 


kj^ (obs.) prob. akin to ^nn, 
y^, to surround or enclose; hence 

brb (w. snf. V^) m. a waU, 
only in Cant. 2, 9. 

brVD Chald. (pi: def. VC^hro E2r. 
5, 8, cf. ^asi) m. a «?aZ/ Dan. 5, 5. 

^ v)n5 pr. n. (prob. fortified, r. 
brj5 w, old format, ending tlP-7-) of 
a town in Judah Josh. 15, 40. 

U[jD (Qalobs.)perh.akintoara, 
sas/n, aaoj, i. q. Syr. >»Lfi,fo make 
spots, to sbil; • to carve or mark; 

hence perh. dTO, taJjao. — Nipk. 
onra, to be written, grdoed, so as not 
to be washed out, only in Jer. 2, 22, 
where most prefer to read thy tni- 
quity is stained or foul, after the 
Sept., Sjrr. and Tulgate. Perh. hence 
D)n3 m. gold (poet, for am), perh. 
what is cut out of the quartz Prov. 
25, 12; I'^B^K '» gold of Ophir Is, 
IS, 12 ; Tt^K 'S gold of TJphaz Dan. 
10, 5; but the r. may rather be an 
obs. dra = dwrj io shine ; hence perh. 
hrighi gold, 

jni3(ob8.) akin to1»J, l^n Hto 
stretch oui, to spin; hence akin to 
;Bthiop. cadana to cover or clothe. 

. rO'rQ, also t^3^ ^* ^^' ^® (^''^ 
c. nans, w. suf. I'npns Oen. 37, 23; 
pi. n'i'sns Ex. 28; 40, 'also nian? Ex. 

89, 27, used too for pi. c. Gen. 3, 21; 
w. suf. dni'ara Lev. 10, 5) f. prop, a 
covering, a Mrt or tumc^ worn next 
the skin Lev. 8, 7 ; worn also by fe- 
males Cant. 5, 3. — Akin to x^^*"^* 
Chald. -jni, ijFQ, Syr. t^t^, Arab. 

^ur /te, Zwien, also ^^ cotton, 
cotton cloth; hence perh. alsoE. goxcn, 
Irish ^Ufki, W. .^um. 

rains, see nahs. 

V\tyD (obs.) perlu akin to tm, 
to cover, hence perh* to load or 
burden; hence 

Cira (c. Cin», perh. C?ra in Is. 
11, 14^ dual fi'WS, w. suf. T«n3 
Ex. 28, 12; pi. only fig. TViBTS, t, 
ni&na) f. the shoulder, of each arm« 
as the place for burdens (opp. to 
oa^ the place between the Bboul- 
ders, the book) Is. 46, 7 ; n'JTio qn? 
reb^ious Shoulder, refoftin^ to carty 
the burden or to obey l^eh. 9, 2f ; 
i*^nf "pa between his two sbo^Mert^ 

Digitized by 






L e. the upper part of the back 
J Sam. 17» 6; fig. the side, border, 
of a building 1 K. 6, 8, of the sea 
Num. 34, 11, of a country Josh. 15, 
^; Cinsa t!\S to fly on the shoulder, 
i. e. to rush (as birds of prey) upon 
the border, to invade l8« 11, 14. 
2) pL shotUder- pieces of the High 
priest's ephod (cf. Fr. ipatUette) Ex. 
28, 7. 3) pi. side 'Spaces or flanks, 
of a gate Ez. 41, 2. 4) shoitlder 
pieces, at the ends of an axle 1 K. 
7, 30. 

iZnZ) (Qal obs.) akin to *m, 
113?, to swrrownd: hence IT© a croum. 
— Pi. 1) to hem in or environ, to 
assail Ps. 22, 13. 2) to wait, prop. 
check oneself Job 36, 2. — Hiph. 1) 
to circumvent Hab. 1, 4; to encompass, 
in a fHendly sense, w. 21 Ps. 142, 8. 
2) to wear a croum, ran VTV\J^ O'^a'np 
the prudent put on knowledge as a 
crown Prov. 14, 18. Hence 

nn3 zn. a crown or diadem Est 
«, 8. — Henoe x($otpt(, xtxopi^, Xi. 

^^"3^ (pi. ninrfe) f. copOoi; crown 
of a column 1 E. 7, 19. 

IDlnB (itit. QSriD*;} akin to rra, 
to pound, bray, smash, only in Prov. 
27, 22; hence l^a^. 

^IjiJ (1 Alt. nSK Beat. 9, 21; 
imp. pi. va) i. q. ion|^ Chald. ona, 

mimet. akin to nm, "fis, Arab. «>r, 
Lat. eudo, to heat to pieces, pound 
Deut. 9, 21 ; part, pass, rwis crushed, 
castrated Lev. 22, 24 ; ^en to hammer, 
forge Joel 4, 10; fig. to beat or bret^ 
down a host, to rout Ps. 89, 24. *- 
Pi. nro fo A^ommer, /'or^e, w^ ^ Is. 
2, 4; to break up 2 K. 18, 4;* fig. 
to crush a land, i. e. to destroy its 
eitiep and resources Zech. 11, 6. «** 
Pu. to be dashed to pieces, w. a 2 Oh. 
15, 6. — Hiph. (ftit. vi:^:) to beat in 
pieces a hostile force, to ro%d Num. 
14, 45. -^ Hoph. (fnt. W, pi. vwj) 
to be smashed, of a gate Is. 24, 12, of 
an image Mic 1,7; fig. to be destroyed, 
of heroes Jer. 4«, 5, dying men Job 
4, 20. 

T? Lamedh is the 12th Heb. letter ; 
but as a numeral it stands for 30. Its 
name 10^= "J^^^ means prob. beater 
or cha8iiser,\ienoe esp.staff or goad for 
urging oxen, an ox-goad (cf. PootcXiqS, 
also pouxEvrpov), which instrument is 
rudely pictured in its forms ^ , ^7, 
8am. 2g (P^^ ^^® Table of Ancient Al- 
phabets); tlie name and the form, 
•lightly cbanfiT®^ appear also in the Gr. 
Aaftp8a,wlxence, through theEomans, 
our Tu wbicli has the same sound. 

b interchanges — 1 w. its kindred 
liquids tt, 3, ^ e, g. im « Dm, bn^= 

^ «= Syr. n£i; nibj^ = ninjjp, 4« 

yy^ (of. Chald. h^VlT^-* Syr. Ni1.^|.V 

ma {i,fltp7atp(TT)c f Xe(pcov » L. Klitmi, 
B. cofonef sounded as comcl); — 8w. 
its kindred linguals (Oram. § 6, 4) S, 
D, n, e. g. ©A ■» WT 1, Bin I =*o?J» 

Digitized by 



%57 re w (of. Sixpoov « L. locrimo^ 
daiQp = L. /Mr, L. ca^m$to = co- 
domt^iM), ttpb = n^ij =. nrn, C)b» 
e= qgy (cf. L. Itn^ua » dingua ^ E. 
tonjsfuey, — 3 w. palatal '^j e. g. *T§b 
= 1$; I, Chald. «inp = Kim (= Syr. 
leoiJ), pi. lihV » fin; (d L.|9/cmt«9 
M It. jTiano, ffc6Xic » fit'<^TtO« — ^ as 
a in r. np^ (ng^X Owtm. $ 66, Bern. 2. 
^ is formative in sundry words; 

— 1) as final (prob. adjectival, akin to 
endhig 'las in Sans., -^ in Lat., and 
-Xoc in dstX6c, 6tJiaX6(, axoitsXoc «> 
Ji. ftx>pM/u8) in some words, e. g. b-^ 
or i-p in i»wn, b:9;ri, b-j- in bi3*i3t 

the ending having prob. a diminutive 
force, as in the last (cf. xuitdXXov). — - 
2) as medial (prob. intensive) e. g. 
«^^^.*gfiti$, Di^ — Arab. ^Ui{ bat- 
sdm a piXaaiLo^, ah » e)n » )«&X- 
ico^ — It. ffolfo « IL gulf, — 8) as 
initial (prob. only euphonic) e. g. I3l|g^ 

- ttD9, t3^> « DO^Ji Tt5b«=m^l(6f. 
Xd^^vv) «= 4x^» ®' ^^^ "* ^ '^•'^ ■■ 
Keltic avi^h, jeeur » ^icotp). 

(but b usually before the tone- 
syllable, i. e. before monosyllabic 
and barytone words e. g. iSb, n^b, 
see Gram. § 102, 2, c) pret prep, 
(short for bfcj), w. suf. 4, ?jb, "jjb, ib, 
mb, nsb, DDb etc. (see Oram. § 103, 2), 
having the same meaning of direction 
or motion to as bK (which see), but 
more used in figurative senses (see 
Oram. § 154, 8, d and e). — A) as 
impl3ang motion or direction, to, unto, 
for or towards, eUi either locally w. 
verbs of ocmiing or going (Ria, ^ibn, 
a^, etOb) Is. 60, 4, Off mentally 
w. verbs of waiting, hoping, etc. (bm, 
>^}P> f^> «tc.) Is. 42, 4^ cl 51, 5. 
Hence l)unto, oa/br 09 (in full bn;), 
e. g. >TO^ unto so^tefy Ez. 39, 19, 
Db^b /or ever Oen. 8, 22, oryfab till 

their death Ps. 78, 4. — Of number, 
up to, as many as 2 Oh. 5, 12 ti*>3ttD 
d'l'ntoyi n&wb priests as many as 120 
(cfc e{<; jxopCouc). 2) to, /br, tnto, w. 
verbs of making, becoming, etc., im- 
plying change of state or quality 
(nj5, IW, inj, dnte, 'nWj, etc.) Oen. 
2, 7, 22, Joel 3, 4. 3) Like our to or 
for, against, etc. to express the idea 
which the dative case indicates in 
Oreek, Latin and Oerman, w. verbs 
implying some benefit or the contrary 
(dot. commodi vel incommodi, Gh-am. 
§ 164, 8, e) esp. w. verbs of giving, 
taking, telling," etc. ("JOJ, ngb, -^5^ 
•lafcpGen. 14, 21, Deut. 5,28, J?8. a7, 12. 
— This dot, commodi is often pleo- 
nastic (or nearly so), as in ^b^^b 
go for thee, i. e. for thy benefit Cten. 
22, 2, ?jb n:)a flee thou, L e. for thy 
safety Oen. 27, 43, tf> h^n he tJum 
like Cant. 8, 14. — Also to express 
belonging to or possession, as in *4 id;* 
there is to me, i. e. I have Oen. 33, 
11; hence the so-called Lamedh 
auetoris, e. g. TTjb ■viajp a psahn 
(belonging) to David, L e. a psabm 
of David Ps. 3, 1, the ideas of be- 
longing to and possessing being much 
akin, as seen also in iari (jloi for ^X^ 
and in est mihi for habeo; Job 33, 6 
to/ J, even as thou, bnb belong to Cfod 
or am CMs. 4) Hence said to serve 
abo for a sign of the genitive relation, 
like our of, e. g. "n^b *)& a son of 
Jesse 1 Sam. 16, 18, ViKibb D^fiain eAe 
8pie9 ofSaull Sam. 14, 16; but tJieae 
and other examples said to express 
the genitive belong more properly 
to the dative, as in No. 3 above: 
see more on this usage in Oram.§ 115. 
5) As sign of the accusative, but only 
by a sort of abuse of its force in 
No. 8, which appears esp. in later 
style (as in Ohald. and Syr.), e. g^ 
b ngb in Jer. 40, 2, ^ bsfic in 

Digitized by 




*, 5, i a'TTj in Job 5, 2, i rM 2 Oh. 
17, 7,* cl Num. 10, 25, 'Pi. 135, 11 
(see Gram. § 154, 8, e). 6) Said to 
be a sign of the Lat. ablative of 
agent, by or fromj e. g. bxb tp^ 
blessed by (prop, to) (?oJ Gen. 14, 19, 
b :?Q^ t^ was heard by i. e. reported 
to Neh. 6, 1, of. Ex. 12, 16; but such 
constructions answer rather to the 
Gt. dative of agent vr, passive verbs 
(d I^^IOt) Totc ap^aCou Mat. 5, 21), 
and so belong to No 3 above. 7) As 
to or for^ in regard or respect to^ and 
nxnUar shades of to and for (cf. eU) 
to suit our idiom, e. g. '^^^ as to 
wealth 1 K. 10, 23, d*«q;^ in' r^spec^ 
io da^Job82,4(cf.P8.12,'7XD'^Tl* 
as for the saints, marking case ab- 
solute Ps. 16, 8 (cf. Is. 32, 1); w. 
verbs of speaking, ordering, com- 
plaining, etc conceminfff about, e. g. 
Gen. 20, 18, Ps. 3, 3, Ps. 91, 11, Is. 15, 
5; of class or sort, according to, Wee 
to, after, e. g. l>a^ after its kind 
Gen. 1, 11, iw6 perh. swh as Is. 8, 23, 
nib-Kbb as if not her own (prop, for not 
hers) Job 89, 1 6. B) where rest (prop, 
consequent on motion implied) is to 
be understood, at, fn(cf. eU for iv); 
1) of place, e. g. TtA at the door 
BesL 4^7, rvfsA in MitpakTl^^b,!, 
rtyA in the dungeon Is. 51, 14; 2) of 
time, e. g» ^A in the morning Am. 
4, 4, y^ in the evening 2 Ch. 2, 8; 
S)of slate or condition, e. g, i^^V *^ 
ueurity, L e. safely Ps. 4, 9. 0) often 
prefixed to the Infin. (as a verbal 
noon) to denote purpose, result or 
obligation (ct our for to do, eU t6 
icotsTv, li. ad faciendwfn,r\imA, cf. 
Gram. § 182, 3, Bem., also § 142, 2), 
ff. various shades of meaning not 
unlike those under A above, e. g. 
1^^ for opening Cant. 5, 5, 01*^ 
*ib9^ to day (he is resolved or bound) 
for remai/ning Is. 10, 82, DfJKa^ of 

their coming 0¥i Ex. 16, 1, ibi^^ 
tm his knowing Is. 7, 15, nionb on 
account of turning away Is. 10, 2, 
yyp m'JBb at the turning of evening 
i. e. at even-tide Geo, 24, 63, ^tvA 
for to say or in saying, 

^ Ghald. prep, same as in Heb. 
to, for, into; 1) of place Dan. 2, 17; 
2) sign of case, for dative Ban. 2, 5, 
for genitive £zr. 5, 11, for accusative 
(often, as in Syr.) Ban. 2, 10; 8) as 
prefix to Infln. after verbs of speak- 
ing, ordering, etc. Ban. 2, 25. — On 
its supposed use as prefix (prefor- 
mative in reality) to the fhture in 
Vtynh Ban. 2, 20 and 29, see under ttlTI. 

J S5, rarely S V as in Gen. 37, 13, 
perh. ib in 1 Sam. 2, 16 (akin to vA, 
•^b, ^)i, in Vi)fih, •*»«, •'b^b), prop, 
subst. nothing or nothingness (cf. ba I, 
d-no), prob. in Job 6, 21 A DJJ^'^n 
ye are become nothing, also Job 31, 
23 bs^K Mb lam nothing able; but 
else only used as adv. of negation 
(Gram. § 152, 1) no, not, absolute or 
objective negative, while V$ ^ ^® 
subjective or conditional (cf. oh or 
ohx and (Jii^, Lat. non and ne), 1> Kb 
is used w. perf. tense as in Oten. 2, 5, 
or w. fut. esp. prohibiting, as in Kb 
nb2iP) thou shaU not steal Ex. 20, 15 
(but ndf P) b&$ in dissuading, se^ Gram. 
§ 127, 8, e), nenrer w. imperative mood ; 
often alone, a verb being understood, 
as in Gen. 19 , 2, Job 23, 6. 2) it 
serves to easpress negative compounds 
(like our «n-, in-, im^) e. g. tisTi Kb 
wvwise Beut. 82, 6, T9 Kb unmighty 
Prov. 30, 25, bK && a no-god i. e. an 
idol Beut. 32, 21 (cf. 1^ Kb Is. 10, 
15), HT^ feib no-little 1. e. much Is. 
10, 7. 3) used for Kbq in questions 
expecting an affirmative answer, e. 
g. baps Kb shall we not receive? Job 
2, 10,*c£. Lam. 8, 86. 4) for Kbf 

Digitized by 





without, 6. g. 0*^93 Kb. mthaut sons 
1 Ch. 2, 30, •q'^T tkh without a way 
Job 12, 24. 5) for D'no noi yet^ e. g. 
Ps. 139, 16, 2 K. 20, \, — fcib often 
occurs w. prefixes; — 1) fifta in not^ 
in various senses — a) not »n, i. e. 
before, Job 15, 32 SaT' fciba 6c/bre 
^is dav, or beyond fjev. 15, 25 n9 fe&a 
beyond the time; P) nof /"or, of price 
Is. 55, 1, cf. 2 vb Is. 45, 13; — 7) not 
with i. e. wUhoutJ^z,22,29 Zafi^ Kba 
without justice, 2) von L. nonne? 
not so? expecting answer yes, e. g. 
Gen. 4, 7. — ■ tkh is prob. a mimetic 
or primitive word, akin to ^K, y^l^ 
Qans. md (not), na, Gr. fii^, vt)-, L. 
non, net *^i E. «o, nayt vn-, W. no, 
ni, an-, the liquids ( m, n being apt 
to interchange (see Ewald^s Lehrbuoh 
d. Hebr. Sprache, § 320, a, Note '). 

fe<b Cbald. i. q. Heb. }&, 1) no, 
not Dan. 2, 5; w. Ji interrog. Kin = 
Heb. Kbn, L. nonne.^ Ban. 8, 24. 2) 
nothing, only in Q'ri of Dan. 4, 32 
Kbs <u noViiny, but n^^ in K'thibh. 

"OT Kb pr. n. (no-pastul'e) of a 
place in Gilead 2 Sam. 17, 27, but 
nan iV in 9, 4. 

■^B? Ki pr. n. m. (not my people) 
symbolical name given to Hosea^s 
son Hos. 1, 9. 

rrotl^ tSj pr, n. f. (not com- 
passionated, r. tilti) symb. name of 
Hosea^f daughter Hos. 1, 6. 

Rb 2 Sam. 18, 12 for A or hA in 
the Q*ri, but fc^b not in K'thibh. 

JiS^ (obs.) prob. mimet akin 
to anb, nab II, to bum, to be parched; 
hence rqwbn drought, 

a'HHb 1 Sam. 2, 33 for a'^n^rjb, 
hifin. Hiph. of yjif I; Gram. § 53, 
•Bern. 7. 


nCSV (fut. ItkV;, apoc vlf) 
prob. mimet. akin to nnb, Chald. 
K^b, prop, to gasp or pant, then to 
6c fired or faint Job 4, 5; w. b and 
inf. Gen. 19, 11 fca^b JiKb^^i ami tt€y 
wearied (i. e. failed) to find, — Niplt 
to tire oneself Jer, 9, 4; to be tired 
or weary Is. 16, 12; to be exhausted, 
fem. part, njyb? Ps. 68, 10 j fig. to 
loathe Ex. 7, 18. — HIph. nxbn (a 
pers. f. nfifbn Ex. 24, 12 for nr^n) 
to make weary Job 16, 7; to treary 
ouf i. e. patience Is. 7, 13, cf. Job 
16, 7. Hence n^bn and 

HMb pr. n. f. (languid) of a wife 
of Jacob Oren, 29, 16. 

liSb Job 33, 30 for nn^rA, infln. 
Niph. of nix; cf. Gram. § 23,' 4. 

t^Mb m. i. q. Db, only in XsaA^ 
Jndg. 4, 21 in tecref, stealthily. 


?> -^ akin to OJib n, i>lb I, aoS, 
to conceal or Ai(2e 2 Sam. 19, 5; fig. 
to tiftor privily or softly, perh. Job 
15, 1 1 and a word a^b Ae (God) speoib 
privily w, thee, but most refer txsb 
here to idK, which see. — Prob. akin 
to Sans, lud (to hide), XaOcii, L. lateo, 

tDKb m. gentleness, but used oidy 
as adv. gently Is. 8, 6; see DK. 
^'tDSb Gen. 33, 14, see 08t 

*) Q? ^ (o^) P^^' Al^ to 1^ 
Tjb;, also to nV»d, r^, to go (on 
some business or errand, cf. onr col- 
loquial "to be on the go**) or trant. 
to send or dispatch Qike Ethiop. 
A&Vl laakha to send), as a messen- 
ger or minister; hence T]«b^, f^anbo 
etc. — Perh. akin to Sans, lagh (to 
move), L. legare. 

bi»>b pr. n. m. (to God L «u 
devoted to Him) Num. 3, 24. 

Digitized by 






CSy (obs.) prob. akin to t3^ 
fia^ n, to join or tmUe, to combine; 

Di<b (w. snt 'tsuA, 'm^»h I». 51, 4, 
pL ts^nsKb) m. 1) a people or natton^ 
as joined or banded together (r. DmV, 
cf. S^fioc from 8£<o) Gfren. 25, 23. 
2) pr. n. m. plnr. of an Arab people 
Gen. 25, 3; perh. the AXXoofiacuTai 
of Ptolemy 5, 7. 

Sb (w. Maq. -nb, w. suf. ^A, ^ai, 
pL riiab; r. aa^) m. fAe heart, i. q. 
^^, 80 named prob. on account of 
its canl or covering 2 Sam. 18, 14, 
Ps. 45, 6 ; regarded as the chief part 
or seat of life, hence equal toISiE3(opp. 
•^^2, ix»), the life or soul Ps.73, 26, 
Jer. 4, 18. Hence the expressions 
the heart lives Ps. 22, 27, sleeps and 
itakes Ecc. 2, 23, i5 sick Is. 1, 5; 
hence also ab, like XOK}, may denote 
sdf, as in Gen. 17, 17 la^a n»K*n 
and he said in his heart i. e. in him- 
self; cf. Hos. 7, 2 (see Gram. § 124, l,c). 
But its uses are very manifold, com- 
prised substantially under the follow- 
ing heads. — 1) as the seat of the 
various feelings, affections and emo- 
tions; e. g. of love Judg. 16, 15, Deut. 
4, 29, of trust Prov. 31, 11, joy Ps. 
104, 15, contrition Ps. 109, 16, despair 
Ecc. 2, 20, esp. fortitude or courage 
Gen. 42, 28, 1 Sam. 17, 32. 2) as the 
seat of thinking and of the moral 
sentiments, as determining a person^s 
dispositions and character; e. g. of 
thought Prov. 28, 7, purity Ps. 51, 
12, sincerity 1 K. 3, 6, fidelity lieh. 
9, 8, perverseness Ps. 101,4, obdxmicy 
Ex. 10, I, duplicity Ps. 12,3 a^J aba 
nan^ (Gram. § 108, 4), pride w. bni 
ls.^9,' 8, w. m^ Sz. 28, 5. 3) as the 
seat of volition and determination, 
e. g. 1 Sam. 14, 7, Is. 63, 4; aUo of 
knowledge and undetstanding^ e. g. 

Is. 10, 7, Judg. 16, 17, hence a^ '«aan 
fhe ioise of heart Ex. 28, 3, ab -^^ 
void of unterstanding Prov. 7, 7, 
ab iVdK men of intelligence Job 34, 
10, cf. ch. 36, 5 a^ n'a might of in- 
telligence, of God. 4) fig. the middle 
or midst, hence a^a in the central or 
inner part, e. g. of the sea Ex. 15, 8, 
of the heavens Deut. 4, 11; comp, 
xapSia T^; 7^; Mat. 12, 40. — Hence 
as denom. Niph. aa^ and Pi. aaV* 
see aaV "See aaK 

Sb Chald. (w. suf. "^ai) L q. Heb. 
ai, heart Dan. 7, 28. 


T T 

(obs.) perh. akin to Sans. 
lahh (to seize), Xapi^, Gael, lamh 
(hand), W. /Zatr (hand), to seize or 
raven; but more prob. mimet. akin 
to W. Uh) (cry), Irish liuvam (to call 
aloud), G. kuen, E. to low, hence to 
bellow, to roar. Hence VC^A «= ^A, 
a lion= Or, leu = towe, 

iri'l^Ob 1) lionesses Kah. 2, 13, see 
*^aK 2) pr. n. of a city in Simeon Josh. 
15, 32; more fully nix^^ ma Josh. 
19, 6. 

DKlb Ps. 67, 6 for d^ab lums^ 
see '»a>y 


■jlV (Qal obs.) prob. akin to 
Arab. ^ to wrap or enfold , Aram. 
tff>, i«a\, to cover iti, <o envelop, 
as the heart in the irepixapStov, 
hence a^, aa^, 'la'^a^^ Used only as 
a denom. verb from aaK — Niph. 
aa^3 to become intelligent ( 
daius), only in Job 11, 12 aiaa W^KI 
nbn*^ DTK K'ltt "n-^i aaV^ 5o«^ a ioStw 
(i. e. stupid) man will become wise 
and a wild ass^s foal will be bom a 
human being i. e. the one will happen 
as soon the other, vix.' never; but 
most prefer to render it and vain 
(empty-headed) man is void of 

Digitized by 





undergtandinfff yea a human heing^ 
%B a wild asffs eoU^ human ignorance 
being set in strongest contrast vr, 
divine wisdom; mark the play (paro- 
nomasia) on nnsa and 33^^. — Pi. 
1) to take away or steal the heart (see 
Oram. § 52, 2, c\ to captwate, by love, 
only in Cant. 4, 9. 2) denom. of ra^^^^i 
to prepare or make cakes, only in 
2 8am. 13, 6, 8. — Perh. akin to 
xerih, Xop6<, L. Mhi, E. to lap (wrap), 
w7/Zt6 (flexible). 

Mb (c. 35^, w. suf. "laab, once 
pi. Wnab 1 Ch. 28, 9, once w. suf. 
irnai Nah. 2, 8 ; r. 33^) m. the heart, 
same as J> of which 33b is the fall 
or nncontracted form. 

3?b Chald. (w. snf. ?|33i, m33b) 
m. the' heart Dan. 2, 30, i. q. Heb. 

TSb (prop, na I w. pref. i, fo or 
tn separation; often w. suf. •'^ai, 
Tpiab etc.) adv. apart, separately Ex. 
S6, 9; V^^ 6^ ihemsdves Gen. 21, 
28 =» nyja^'in v. 29; 1>jab 5y Wwi- 
self, oiom Gen. 2, 18 ; Ps. 71, 16 

<m/j^; Lb. 26, 18 ^s Tab hy thee only. 
Also as prep. (Gram. § 154, 2) e. g. 
T? "Q^ «P«*^ fr(m, i e. desnief Ex* 
12, 37, w. i? Ezar. 1, 6; also laio 
Gen. 26, 1, w. suf. 'naVa heMes him 
Dent 4, 35; *r^^ "t^lbo 6e8i<2e» toAol 
Num. 6, 21. 


i UV I (obs;) mimet akin to 

T T 

KaV (which see), to low, to roar; 
hence *^ab ^ion. 

JXiJ^ n (obs.) prob. mimet. 
akin to ai^b, anb, aA, lab n, to 
Jmm or parch; hence 

rQb f. a /lame, only in Ex. 3, 2; 
cf. nanb. 

n^? t «^ AeaH (L q. ab), only 

in Bz. 16, 30 "rp^b; for pi. niaS Pg. 
7, 10, see ab. 

njisb* see njab. 

IZnsb or nib (lO. c '^b) m. 1) 
cloiMng, a garmeni (paostly poet, for 
nja) Job 24, 7, esp. «p^(2i(i o^ire 
Is. 63, 1; fig. the covering or scales 
of the crocodile Job 41, 5. 2) a wife 
or spouse (this fig. sense often used 
in Arabic, cf. oxeOoc in 1 Thee. 4, 4 
and 1 Pet. 3, 7, prob. for the vagina), 
only in Mai. 2, 16; r. iS^b.' 

XfPOh Chald. UL a garment Baxu 
3, 21 "prPTOab their garments; r. »ai» 

t2!ll^ (Qal obs.) i. q. Arab. £ui, 
to ca«f dotwi OT prostrate, — Niph. to 
6c thrown down, to faU ox perish, only 
Prov. 10, 8. 10 and Hos. 4, 14. 

■Qb (r. nab I) m. a Uon; bat 
only in pi. nJ criHtab /tons Ps. 57, 5» 
or in pL f. ni^ab jtoncsaes Kah. 2, la 
(see Gram. § 93, Bem. 6) ; same as 

M*Qb (r. Mab) com. gend. Wm or 
/tone««Gen.49,9i w.'n«Kum.24,9. — 
Akin to Oopt. A^BOt, Xlcov, L. leo, 
G. lowe, E. lion, Irish leovan, W. &ic» 

M^lb (for mab) f. a lioness, only 
in Ez. 19, 2; see *iab. 

!TI*'ab (only pi. niaab) L prob. 
pancakes, or other fancy kinds of 
bread (Sept. xoXXupCSa^), done ap 
like rolls or twists (r. a^b) 2 Saou 
13, 6 ; hence the denom. Pi. aab % 
to hake cakes. 

trSlb l>aa. lU 48> Me D'^K 

Q y Iprob. akin to Copt. aAhY» 
dX9<S<;, Ii. aXbvs, to he white, henoo 
adj. Tab; perh. also to maks 6rtdfe«^ 
as denom. of ns^b, in Gen. 11, 8 
and Ex. 5, 7. 14; but see pb H, 
— Hipb. 1) to make white, flgv to 
purify Dan. 11, 36 ^{^^ for f^V^ 

Digitized by 





(see Gram. § 53, lUm. 7). 2) to he 
white (see Gram. § 53, 2) Is. 1, 18. 
— Hi tb. fig. to purify oneself, to be 
ckansed Dan. 12, 10. 


n (obs.) prob. akin to a^i^, 
n^^ n (cf. "jna » WD, see on letter 
9), to &ur9i, parch or 5aA:e, pezii. in 
Gen. 11, 3 B^ub nsa^ lei us bum 
(or bake) bricks^ ct Ex. 5, 7; but see 
ph I. Hence prob. trxA, rtxA, r»hb. 

■jab 1) (pi. d*»3ab) adj. m., nnb 
(pi. nisn^) 1 foAi^ Gen. 30, 35, 
Lev. IS, 24. 2) pr. n. m. (white) of 
Jacobs ikther-in-law, Laban Qen, 
24, 29. 50; r. fA L 

fjb (c -lai, perh. for 15^, Gram. 
{ 9d, 4, BeBL) a4j. fdU^, only in 
Gen. 40, 12; r. ^I^b L 

"{ab in title of Ps. 9, 1 Wa-i? 
TA, prob. for "jai tVio^lj-V? (see Ps. 
46, l)onvirgiru^ voices for ike boys, 
i e. to be rang by boys in the style 
of girls. 

il3ab(r.iabl)t f)poet.^Aemoo9i, 
rn^in Cant. 6, 10, prop, the white or 
pale, cf. rnann fAe heat i. e. the son 
(in same ▼erne). 2) pr. n. m. (white- 
ness) Keh. 7, 48. 

TtXA (pL B'^iaV) f . a brick or <t&, 
bnmt or baked in the son Gen. 11, 8; 
r. pb n.. — Not likely ftrom r. pi I, 
as if named for mere whiteness of 
eolcmr ; bat rather from the process 
of bakings in the sun or kiln, comp* 
G. hackstein^ "W. pobvaen, ItaL terra 
eotta, B. brick = P. brique «= fricot 
- Ii. frii^ mm B. fry '^ P. frire - 
Sans, bhrt^ =» fpd-^ta — E. jiorcA. 

naab (r. -fiV fl ^- 1) «^*«few««, 
hi^tneas or /tM*r«, only in Ex. 24, 
10. 2) pr. n. (white-town) of a city 
in Jndali Jo«li. 10, 29; also of a station 
of Israel in tlie wildemessNom. 83,20. 

rOlb (prob. for njni, Gram. § 80, 
Bem. 1, (2) f. prob. ^ storax-tree 
(il axfipaS), which yields a sweet- 
smelling gam (t6 axipaS, L. storax) 
used for incense (r. pb II) Gen. 30, 
87; some mistake it for the white 
poplar, as fh>m r. pM, so Sept. 
XeuxT) in Hos. 4, 18. 

rOlb or TO'nb (Sept Xtpavo^, 
XipavcoT^c, 8yr. ]L2nA \) f. 1) 
frankineense, a sweet - scented resin 
or gam bomt as perfume Cant. 3, 6, 
or sacred incense Lev. 2, 1, cf. Is. 60, 
6. "->- Most prob. not from r. pb I, 
as if remarkable for its white colour, 
which is not the fact, bat from r. 
pb n to bum; cf. 660; = L. thus 
(both from Ouco to bum), akin to 
Bans. dhUmas (ftime). 2) pr. n. (perh. 
incense) of a town near Shiloh Judg. 
21, 19; now Luhban. 

fiSSb (r. pi I) pr. n. (mostly w. 
art Tisn&i the white mountain, Gram. 
§ 109, 3) Lebanon, ACpavoc, Syr. 
^1n\ Josh. 9, 1, the celebrated 
monntain on confines of Syria and 
Palestine, consisting of two lofty 
ranges (Lebanon and Antilebanon) 
separated by the valley et-Bugd'a 
(ro^san). The name fanVin (in poet. 
*f^A Ps. 29, 6) refers to the perpetual 
snow (Jer. 18, 14), which covers the 
eastern chain (called 'pQ'TT at its 
lofty soathem point) hence the Arabs 
call it J^al ethrTh^ (the snoww 
mountains), or perh. to the whitish 
or gray colour of its limestone 
rock. — Cf. Alpes, ''OXpia, ^OXaio, 

''J^b pr. n. m. (white, r. pi I) of 
a son of Gershon Ex. 6, 17; also as 
patron. LibMJte Kum. 8, 21. 

rOnb (r. pbl) t glass, only in pr. n. 
r^^w^J Josh. 19, 26; see nma 

Digitized by 


— T 


l^a^*]) akin to n^^, to wrap up or 
cover, hence t^'A garment, thence 
perh. as a denom. to puJt <m (a gar- 
ment), w. ace. of thing Lev. 6, 3, 
w. 2 Est. 6, 8, absoL to dress or 
clothe oneself 2 Sam. 13, 18, Hag. 
1, 6; part. pass. w. ace. or gen. e. g. 
b^a xifich Ez. 9, 2, D'^^^n if(A Ez. 
^» 11 > fig. to cnfer tTito L e. to possess 
Judg. 6, 34, ct Luke 24, 4». — Pa. 
only part D'^b^So cfofAed (in official 
dress) Ezr. 3, id, cf. 1 K. 22, 10. — 
Hipb. to came to wear, to clothe, w. 
ace. 2 Ch. 28, 15, esp. w. double ace. 
(Gram. § 139, 2) (Jen. 41, 42, w. i? 
Gen. 27, 16; fig. Is. 61, 10, Ps. 132, le" 




Q^ Chald. (fut ta^'^) to put 
on or wear, w. ace Dan. 5, 7. — Aph. 
\^a^ as in Heb.jto clothe, w. ace. 
of thing and h of pers. Dan. 5, 29. 
. Tinb, see tt»a^. 

Si m, a cavity or (osin (r. vh), 
lience a /^, a Heb. measure for 
liquids, holding the 12th part of a 
■pn, about 8 '/4 gills Lev. 14, 10. — 
Perh. akin to Xaywv, Xaxxo^, L. ^aa«0. 

*lf5 pr. n. (perh. strife, r. ^i) of 
a town in Benjamin Neh, 11, 35, 
Sept. AuSSa (also N. T. in Acts 9, 
82); now Ludd, 

' J^ (obs.) perh, L q. Arab. 
jJ, to «^rit;e or quarrel; hence ^i. 

irnb(r.'T^)f.cW«-6con«^Jer. 13,21. 

f^'jb, Bee r. ni\ 

nb Chald. nothing, for Kb only 
Dan. 4, 32 in K'thibh. 

rib Deut. 3, 11 K'thibh for A, 

JIJX (obs.) akin to a^, 
n^b I^^ ^i n, to bum, to flame; 
hence a^b. — Sbapb'el (obs.) n>:^ 

(for anin, see Chram. § 39, 4, Bern.), 
Syr. %.£(n^^, to cause to hum or 
fcfazc; hence ranV^. — Perh. akin 
toC)?b, ngb, XdfiiTtt), perh. L. limpidm. 

Srtb (pi. d-^ani, c. "^an^) m. i) 
a /tome Joel 2, 5;'D'^ani •»» Is. IS, 8 
Akw o/ flames, i. e. blazing or 
flushed w. emotion, cf. Ps. 39, 4. 
2) a flashing or glittering of a spear 
Job 39, 23, of a sword Nah. 3, 3; 
hence for sword-blade Judg. 3, 22. 

^"7^ (c- »^ Bz. 21, 3, pL 

nianb, c. niarA; n asnb) f. i. q, hni 
1) o flame Is..5, 24. 2) ^/ade or poM 
of a spear 1 Sam. 17, 7^ 

^•?0 ; P^' P'* *^' ^' * people 
in AMca '(same as Q*«aAX JAbymis^ 
only in Gen. 10, 13; r. art. 

•^M^ (obs.) prob. akin to ahj 

(Ecc. 2, 3), i. q. Arab. ^, to 6e 

jjonfin^ or ee^cr, to be Hudious (ct 
97reudci> to urge on or «pe^ whence 
fficou8i^ » L. sfUieum); henoe 

3n5 m. 5fiKJ^ or learning, only 
in Ecc. 12, 12 where Sept. has jie- 
XItt), Vulg. fneditaiio, 

^ij^iohs,) perh. i.q. nsft, art, 
to dttm, to be swarthy; henoe 

THb pr. n. m. (swarthy) l Ch. 4, 2. 

nr~l ^ (ftit. apoc in^n) akin to 
nKi, to languish or /ain«, only in 
Gen. 47, 13. 

i^Mj^ (Qal obs.) perh. akin to 
nrb, to wamftff or err, to act or «pMib 
rasMyorfoolishly; hence ^ Hit bpalp. 
part P^^c behaving oneself rashiy, 
hence a fool or moidman, only .in 
Prov. 26, 18. 

■ ^50^ Chald. Dan. 2, 20 for «:^rij 

Digitized by 





•iee tinder «nri, wh^re also TJini and 
I'ini ; see on letter b, p. 312. 

UJjP I akin to 'ttA, to hum 
orflame'^s. 104, 4; fig. Q'^prft 6f*m- 
ing ones, i. e. fhrious or savage men 
Ps. 57, 5. — PI. onb (fdt. urii';) i) 
to set on fire, to kindle Job 41* 13, 
cf. Is. 42, 25. 2) to bum up Mai. 
3, 19; fig. to cofisume Ps. 106, 18; 
hence onb. 


Ijy n (obs.) i. q. irtb, OKb, 
(which see), to conceal, hence to U9e 
secret arts at sorcery; hence o*wb. 
Onb m. flame, hence fig. a /Ka«A- 
mff blade, of a sword (cl arA), only 
in Gen. 3, 24; r. onb L 

D'Wlb (only pL w. snf. orrwb) 
m. secret or fiMf^ arf9, sorceries, 
only in Ex. 7, 11, i. q. d-^i; r. 



Jl J >^ (Qal obs.) akin to bhb, 
L q. Arab. ^, to ea^, to denonir 

greedUy; only in — Hith. part 
OToHbnp prop, things eaten greedily, 
hence dainties or <»^&i^d, only in 
Prov. 18, 8; 26, 22. 

inb Rath 1, 18, atoo "jn^ Job 
30, 24, adv. therefore, lit. for 

these things; see Vli I (Gram. § 103, 

2, a. Note «). 

]ni Chald. i. q. Heb. 1) therefore 

Dan. 2, 6. 2) 6i4^ Ezr. 5, 12. 3) eoccept 

Dan. % 11; this last meaning prob. 

earner firom fit^ fsot and y} if, henoe 

B^aj«3 r»gni company or acAoo/ o^ 
(Aei»^c)i>A^te,^ taking the fiitaS Xs^i- 
|ievov as akin to nkfTjp assembly (so 
Sept. ixxXijafa), or prob. to anb 
.«fikfy, meditation or <ratni»t^. 

nifflnb 2 K. l^, 25 for r^Mxt^rii 

in parallel Is. 37, 26, inf. Hiph. of 
rw© H, comp. Gram. § 74, Bern. 4. 

15 for xi not, in 1 Sam. 2, 16, 
20, 2, Job 6, 21 in Q'ri. 

which see. 

^5 or S^b 1 Sam. 14, 30, a par- 
ticle of wishing (optative. Gram. 
§ 136, 2) oh that/ oh if! if! wouldi 
(cf. s?0&, (ix, L. utinamJ o sil sil)t 
w. imper. "^^^^ ft Gen. 23, 13 
would! hear thou me, or w. ftit. 
nw A would! he shall live, when 
the wish is probable or possible to 
be realized; but w. perf. ^A^im ft 
Josh. 7, 7 would! we had willed, 
when the thing is impossible (cf. 
Num. 14, 2), or very doubtful as in 
Is. 63, 19 r»ng Kft would! thou 
didst rend (see Gram. § 155, 2, f). U 
seems to express only anxious feeling 
or doubt in Gen. 50, 15 UOCi^ ft 
oh if he shall hate us! — Prob. the 
r. is nji n or n^K U = ^x; n (which 
see), akin to Chald. "^^in, ■»J^, Syr. 
%>a^ would that! and perh. to 0o, Sans. 
l&,\&, L. veUm, £. wo%tld! W. ewyU. 

sib Gen. 37, 10 for «b. 

8*lb 1 Sam. 14, 30, see ft. 

Jm y (obs.) akin to 38?^ (which 
see), to bum or parch; hence 

D^2^b,'D^ab Dan. 11, 43, gen- 
tilic pr. n. pi. Libyans, mentioned 
w. Egyptians and Ethiopians, as in 
Nah. 3, 9, and named prob. from 
their sun-bomt or swarthy colour; 
ct AMa^. 

JtV? (obs.) perh. akin to Arab. 

i3) to cat in, hence to scoop out; 
hence perh. A, Cf. E. lake, Gael. loch. 

rVP (obs.) perh. akin to irt, to 
be burnt or swarthy; perh. hence 

Digitized by 





Tl5 pr. n. (swarthy) of a people, 
Lud, 1) in Gen. 10, 22, prob. tlie 
Lt/dians. 2) in Ib. 66, 19 prob. a 
nation in Aft-ica or Ethiopia, called 
also D'nib in Gen. 10, 13, Jer. 46, 9. 

D'H^b, see "Vb 2, 


Ml ^ I (ftit. niV») perh. akin to 
tl?H,fo i&tndor Wni, tocoi?, hence njl? 
and nji a wreath, 'pjj'jb snake; then 
1) <o c/eave to, to accompany^ w. ace. 
sis;jb7 Ecc. 8, 15. 2) to 6i7ki onescZ/ 
(as a debtor), to borrow Deut. 28, 12, 
part nji ftorrowcr Ps. 37, 21. — 
Niph. (fat. rnk^) to jotn or ottocA 
oneselff w. to Kum. 18, 2, w.i«Gen. 
29, 84, w. t39 Ps. 83, 3. ~ Hiph. to 
2en({, w. ace. of pers. Dent. 28, 12, 
also w. doable ace. Ex. 22, 24, part. 
r^'^i^ lender Is. 24, 2 (Sept fiaveCCco). 

tVVP n (obs.) perh. akin to 
fA^ n, PK^ n, to wiQ or imA; hence 
perh. A. 


' (fdt pL !|ti;) L q. mi, akin 

to Arab. iSI to bend or incline , to 
wend or 6e»u2 osuZe, to ftim oir^ 
Prov. 3,21. — Nipb. part, rfej ^Mmed 
«(u^^ or perverted^ i e. perverse or 
wicked Prov. 3, 82 (cf. nj5, wpj); 
fully 1*»9'T^ rftj perverse of (in) hie 
ways Prov. 14, 2, cf. 2, 15; as a noon 
p^eraeness or m/Wn^M Is. 30, 12. 
— Hiph. only in tut. ^if^ (^^ Gram. 
% 72, Rem. 9) they depart Prov. 4, 21. 

TO m. 1) perh. for obs. na, akin 
to L. nux, G. nu88, E. fiMt, Kelt. 
cnUf cnoi; prob. almond-tree or Aare/, 
only in Gen. 30, 37. 2) pr. n. (perh. 
an incline, r. ni) of a town in Ben- 
jamin, afterwards Bethel Judg. 1, 23, 
w. n loc. njnb Gen. 35, 6. 



(obs.) prob. akin to Sans. 

Imeh (to hew), XoEoc, XtOoc, L. kp$t 
GaeL lioff^ W. Uech; probw fo A«io or 
ct4^; hence 

tVh (pL nimi, daal DWi) m. 
prop, what is hewn, a tabid, table 
or skib , either of stone for graving 
or writing letters on, *)!» nhS tahla 
of stone Ex. 24, 12, tr^yo^mi tablet 
of the covenant Deat. 9, 9 ; or of wood, 
a board or plank 1 K. 7, 36, roZoc or 
fold of a door Cant. 8, 9 , tablet for 
writing on (perh. covered w. wax) 
Hah. 2, 2, fig. used of the heart Prov. 
8, 8, cf. 2 Oor. 3, 8; in dual, the detk 
of a ship Ez. 27, 5. 

ti^fl^b (w. art. n'»rnin) pr. n. (proh. 
aboonding in slabs or boards, r.trA) 
of a city in Moab Is. 15, 5. 

flDirft pr. n. m. (w. art Tannin, 
enchanter or juggler, r. vni) Keh. 
3, 12. . 

XmTi? 1 akin to taxi (which seeX 
to hide or conceal; part. act.l3ib(8ee 
Gram. § 72, Bern. 1) Is. 25, 7, paaa. 
fem. tr^^h 1 Sam. 21, 10. — Hipb. 
to cover, only in fut apoc. oiji 1 
K. 19, 13. 

X2rO n (obs.) perh. to he stidctf 
or tough; hence perh. ttfb. 

toib (r. ID* I) m. 1) acorcrt n^ or vrft 
only in Is. 25, 7 d'«a$n-b3-b? raiVj oiin 
f ^ vetZ t/b^ veils over all the noHons, 
as a muffler making them look sad. 
2) pr. n. m. (perh. concealment, t, 
XAi I) of Abraham's nephew, JM 
Gbn. 11, 27, ancestor of the Ammo- 
nites and Moabites Dent 2, 19. 

]ttib pr. n. m. (prob. veiling, r. 
dA I) G^n. 36, 20. 

"^5 pr. n. m. (a binding or garland, 
r. JiJ^) son of Jacob by Leah, Levi 
Gten. 29, 34; also as patron, for ^i^ 
LevUe Deat 1 2, 8, pL &■*»* Josh- 21,1- 

Digitized by 





"lb Child, (only pi. def. R^li) 
Dftn^ EzT. 6, 18. 

n^b f. wreath or gailand Prov. 
1, »jV nnb L 

1lJ^5 (denom. from hjib) m. prop, 
a coiling beast, hence 1) a serpent 
Job 3, 8. 2) a crocodile Job 40, 25. 
3) a secHnonster (x^toc) Ps. 104, 26, 
symbol of a fierce and mighty foe 
Pi. 74, 14. 

^ V (obs.) perh. akin to -pb I, 
5i; II (whioh see), to iw^n or wind; 
hence D-^iej^, i*»b, nkW. 

Kb^b, mostly ''b^b (from sib i/and 
K^ = 1^ = Kb nof) coigunct. unless, 
t\ }jLyj, implying the negative of the 
sapposed case or idea; w. perf. Oen. 
81, 42 unless Ood ■»b n;n Tuid been 
for me etc implying that he was; w. 
fat Deut. 32, 27, w. part. 2 K. 3, 14; 
w. 1? (Gen. 43, 10) or t^ (Ps. 119, 92) 
in the apodosis. 

v^b Gen. 31, 42 unless, see K^sii. 

^5^i assumed sing, for H