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<j.S> . P^^uJ. 



A COMPILATION 




MESSAGES AND PAPERS 

OF THE 

PRESIDENTS 



Prepared Under (lie Direction ol ike Joint Commitlre 

on Printing, ol the House and Senate. 

Pursuant to an Ad ol the Filly-Second Congress 

ol the United States 

(With Addition and Encyclopedic Index 
by Private Enterprise) 



/ 



\ PI 






l/.lf 



Copyri K ht. 1911, 1912. 1913, 
Copyright, 1914, 1916, 1917 

BY 

Bnnmo or National Lituatou 



Government 

Is Man's Most Exalted WotL 

Republican Government 

Is the Supreme Type of Organization. 

The United States Government 

Is of All Governments the Best. 



Therefore, the men who performed that 
most difficult of human undertakings — 
the establishment of law — and who per- 
formed that task with a success without 
parallel, — the men who constructed the 
American Republic are leaders whose 
works have proved their wisdom con- 
summate 



That Wisdom is concretely bodied forth in the 
Mkssa<;ks and Papers <>k tub Prbsidbnt& 

In these Papers our Chief Magistrates and the 
statesmen, jurists, financiers, warriors who 
composed their Cabinets discuss questions 
perpetually before the voter, and define the 
fundamental policies on which is based 
this greatest human achievement. Their 
Doctrines form our Governmental Gospel. 




THE ENCYCLOPEDIC INDEX 

CONTAINS 



More than 25,000 page references to the official utterance* 
of the President*, interspersed with *ome eight hundred ency- 
clopedic articles on American history and politics, elaborating 
ana going into the details of every subject discussed by the 
executives. 

A summary history and description of every branch of the 
Government — Executive, Legislative and Judicial — outlining the 
development of each department from its beginning to the present 
time, together with all bureaus and special commissions. 

An analysis of each administration written by competent con- 
temporaneous authority. 

Definition and summary of the treaties between the United States 
and all foreign countries. 

The growth of the Army and Navy, with the latest official facts 
of organization, strength and equipment. 

History of each State from original territory to present time. 

A brief description and history of every country in the world, 
and the trade and treaty relations of each with the United States. 

Synopsis of all political panics, their platforms, growth and 
achievements. Leaders in all the great political movements since 
the organization of the government, together wilh their votes, are 
given in detail, as well as the origin of popular nicknames and 
campaign cries. 

Accounts of the wars engaged in by the United States, together 
with a recital of the causes thereof and a brief account of each 
battle fought by American soldiers; also important foreign wars. 

List of Federal courts and commissions and digests of such lead- 
ing supreme court decisions as tend to interpret the constitution. 

Discussions of public questions of national policy, such as Monroe 
Doctrine, Panama Canal, Interstate Commerce. Banking. Agri- 
culture, Exports, Imports, Mining, Slavery. Woman Suffrage, 
Trusts. Prohibition, Labor. Tariff, etc. 

Aboriginal inhabitants, characteristics and early home of each 
tribe and nation, their wars with the while settlers and decline 
before advancing civilization. 

More than a thousand selected biographical sketches of eminent 
American statesmen and leaders in the country's development. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIC INDEX TO THE 

MESSAGES AND PAPERS 
OF THE PRESIDENTS 

Serves a Double Purpose. 

Pi««t: 

Assuming that the reader desires to investigate a 
specific subject, — the Index provides him with a suc- 
cinct digest on that subject and underneath cites the 
numbers of pages where Presidential references 
thereto may be found. Thus, after reviewing the fun- 
damental facts involved as presented by the digest, the 
reader is aided in forming his own opinion on the ques- 
tion by the arguments advanced by the Executives. 

Second: 

Assuming that the user is reading a Presidential 
Message, — the Index provides him with data on every 
question mentioned, and. by the page citations, enables 
him to compare the views of various Chief Magistrates 
on the same subject 

Sea the aatalyii* of each Adminncratioa under the name of abe 
EsecBlive. Trine analyta are paragraphed under tubheading* (inch aa 
" Slavery ~). M thai oo« may readily trace the development of a quealioo 
a nr n efh. many Adaiaiilratioai, and find die narrative toniinuoui. 

Sea the biographic* of men faaou* in American Statecraft. Warfare 
and Dip l oma c y, aa well aa the biographic* of preaent Cabinet Minuter*. 
Seaaion, and Coo gn e miu . which appear under iheit rctpectiva name*. 

Set THE AbTXLUI 




■ United State*. Coveraearat of.* 
" Cootbtatioa. Supteme Couit 

Dae-ioe. oo." 

State. Treaaary. War, Jnatxc. Port- 

eCce, Navy, Interior. Agricul- 

aara. Commerce and Labor, 

Department* of. 

" Partje*. American Political." 

■ Wan of. or Affecting, th* United 
BmmT 



' Batltaa by United State* Force*."' 

" United Slate.. Hirtory of." 

" Foreign Relation*." 

" Nation*." 

"Stale* and Territories" 

" Dank* and Banking." 

" Lawi." 

" Law. Term* of." 

" Indian Tribe." 

"C*og.ephy." 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Portraits of Presidents, 
Public Buildings, Monuments, 
Places of Patriotic Interest, 
Historical Paintings and 
Contemporary Cartoons 



(J The collection of pictures appearing in the first ten 
volumes of this set can safely be said to be the best eve 
gathered together for the purpose of illustrating the his- 
tory and progress of our country from every viewpoint. 

•J The pictures themselves almost tell the story of the 
development of this Nation. They appear in about 
equal number in each volume, and in direct connection 
with the text matter, therefore in chronological order. 

<fl On the back of each of the historical illustration plates 
there is found descriptive matter which adds value to 
the illustrations and important historical data supple- 
menting the messages themselves. 

fl In the forepart of each of the first ten volumes will be 
found a list of the pictures contained in the given volume. 






FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS OF STATE PAPERS 



Idliu, Jobs, Coinage Proclamation, 256. 

Miaa, John Qoincv, Proclamation of 

Tonaago Duties (ant and last pages), 

»n 's Note to Senate Relating to 
formon Trouble*, 3135. 
jton-Bolwer Treaty, of Taylor's Ad- 
ministration (final page), 2867. 

Orrdasd'a Prorlamatioo on Utah 'a 
JUmiasion to Union, 6154. 

Oiteliad'a Signature to Proclamation 
h into Union, il 1 55. 

DcUrstlon of Independent- {Original 
Drift of), 4. 

D*»luatioo of War against Spain, 6295. 

Declaration of War with Bfodi 

Fillmore's Fugitive Slavi' ition 

Slave Procliimutiuii 
(net page), 2693. 
Oarfc: ■,, the Senate. 4602. 

Onot'i Centennial Proelanintion. 4376. 
Orut'i Signature to Centennial Procla- 

antion, 4367. 
Ofiat't I'meUmatlou Calling for an 
l Session of tbi 1976. 

•^.b'b (Bcnjsmln) Proclamation 
Abutting Washington to Union, 

Risen 'a (Benjamin) 8Ignnturo to 
amation Admitting Washington 
i Union, 5376. 
1" Pauncefote Treaty, 7762, 

iielamation, Maryland Rall- 
ned Strike (first page), 1470 

iture to Proclamation, 
nd Railroad .Strike (last : 

oo 's Proclamation about the Pub- 
> Land* in Alabama, 1011. 
Ji'kton's .Signature on a Stat* Docu- 
■*nt. 1201. 

■ %'t Nectralitv Proclanin 

j «m»'i Thanksgiving Proclamation, 

IB*. 
/•baton's Riiraaturo to Thanksgiving 

Precis inatioo. 3531. 
I 



lint Emancipation Proclamation 

(flret, last, and intermediate pages), 

8*61 
LSni -y-iburg Address, 3373. 

i hi '■ 1.. iter to Mr*, liiitiv, ..::n 
olo'i Signature to Emancipation 

Proclamation, 
Lincoln'* ProelamatJ admitting Weal 

Virginia into tho I'niou. BSS9, 
Lincoln 'a Si^nnti: n« to PrOOl 

Admitting West Virginia into Union, 

3.190. 
Monroe Doctrino (page from Monroe's 

8eventh Annual Message), 791. 
Monroe';. Letter to a Friend Explain 

ing National Policy, 759. 
Pierce's Proclamation against Cuban 

Filibusters (first page), 2769. 

tfon against Cuban 

Filibusters (second page), 2770. 
Roosevelt's Proclamation of Special 

Holiday for Celebration of Centennial 

of Lincoln * Birth, 6064. 
Rooeovolt's Announcement of Cent.n 

ninl of Lincoln's Birth, Last Page 

ami Sijmature, 6965. 
South Carolina '8 Secession Ordinance, 

3151. 
Tafl "a Proclamation of the Death of 

Vice-President Sherman, 7730. 
Taft's ami Se.rctai ;. Knox's Signature 

to Announcement of Death of I 

President Sherman, 77 1. 
Taylor 's Signature on a State Docu- 
ment, 2566. 
Tyler's Signature on the Ratification of 

tin- Webster- Aehburton Treaty. 2026. 
Van Buren 's Proclamation Revoking 

Tonnage I>utle«, 1549. 
Washington's First Thanksgiving Proc- 
lamation, (it;. 

ubbnrton Treatv, Ratified In 

Tyler's Administration,' 2025. 
Wilson '« Engagement Book, Pago from, 

8016. 
Wilson's Neutrality Proclamation at the 

Outbreak of tl"' European War nf 
'68. 
Wilson's Neutrality Proclamation. Lust 

Pnge, with Signature of Secretary 

Bryan, 7969. 



ENCYCLOPEDIC INDEX 

to the 

Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



XOTE. — The pages of the Mismom AMD Paphw or tub PeCrdbnts »ro con- 
Mttthfly numbered from Pago 1 to the last page of the last message received 
Men going to preta, without regard to the division into volumes. The index 
mater* therefore refer to page* only. The pago numbers in each volume are 
taiiatrd oa the back to assraro quick and handy reference. 

v?aen a word or group of words is followed by the symbol (q. v.), (which see}, 
ai irtMle under that word or group of words is listed in the Index, and should 
W eiBialted. 



A. n. C. Arbitration.— rmrlog the Mexican 
■mtiuto of i»ia 14. dtlseai «t Iks Doll 

M Sttlrs »<i«»red nsany Insults and abuses, 
•» til ss leas of llf*- and property, si 
as* 4 lb* warring factions loaoUat 

Eston culminated uo (be Bib of April, 
»b-n * pa K »• 

!• %u aru-s-.t-d nt 1 ampin* and th« 
•tOitry of I tiled 8-ates mall wa- 
tts* slih Admiral Mayo, eorumandlnc tba 
**R Is (be harbor, demanded a salute to 
-laics lit as partial reparation 

fi--es* by the Americans. 
I reflated t>j I i and 

f Wilson ba.ked Admiral kWl 
srltk aa order for (be occupation 
its by Aavrlrao land and naval 

•■tsa. I Page tfcl 

■•' wore ready to begin the 

f«tvj overland lo Mexlro City 8 
*SM, Ike Argentine minister nt Washlng- 
■*. fcabcr da i.iai Risxlllao sabaaaador. 
uf fcoor Snares, lb* Chilean minister. 
r'.lft^i their service* aa mediators to 
•t* U« dlfereaees between the two 
slnstsrs. [-resident tClltoa accepted 
P^ssVes of (be dtpiomate and appointed 
■»•» Joseph R. Lamar, of the Supreme 
fen. and Frederick W. t>ha>*n. an at- 
*»ej, of St. l-ools, to represent the 
JisHs. liueeu also appelated delegate*. 
•}' aedlalora mat at Niagara Falls, Can- 
's* Kat tO. asd by J use 12. bad a. 
*•» • plan tor a provision! government 
» Nfsieo to casuist of a president ami 
• iMset of four leadlBf Mcxfaas. who 
■"asl save been neutral daring the revolu- 
*• Presides! WlJsno demanded that a 
rsasilrstlooatlst sbonid he chosen a< pro- 
•Wseal president, but the ru. -dittoes re- 
fSatd to san.-Mnn thla. June 22. peace 
Mteolt were slrsed whereby tb* I'olted 

aaiitn.t-.ined l»s . Islm for a salute to 
[ and waived (be question of a war 
l(y frosa Mexico, aa wsll aa elalmt 
— 9sg*a dn- -a. with the 

a*4erttaedln« tnat tbeae weald be taken up 



and adjusted by the provisional govern- 
ment. 

kUHnwhlle the revolutionists were 
lng In on Mexico City, and Carranxa. the 
Constitutionalist leader, was asked to par- 
ticipate in the arbitration lags ..u 
condition that be agree to an armloti. e 
he tvluted. JuIt 0. a federal elec- 
tion was held in Mexico and lluerla wax 

Ulanqucl 
Vl.-i-l'r.-slclinl K-w of the populace par 
llclpated in Hi" voting, and ten days lat»r 
lluerta resigned and boarded the German 

i-r Oie.irfen at Vera t'rui and del 
for Jainnxa Don Francisco Carbajal, mln 
nt foreign relations, was placsd la 
ilis.ee of the government at Mexico City, 
and Invited Carranxa to come Into the dty 
and form a provisional government grant- 
ing a general amnostj to those who bad 
auppcirled the lluerta admlnlstratlon. 

/ B. Plot— William n. Crawford, of Ceoc 
gla. was a prominent Democratic-Republican 
candidate for the Presidency la 1824, Dur- 
ing the early part of that year a scries of 
i signed 1 °A. U " appeared In a Wash- 
Ingt.io newspaper charging him with mal- 
feasance In offlce as 8»cretsry of the Treas 
ury. They were written by Mnlsn Kd- 
wards, of Illinois, who bad just been ap- 
pointed minister to Mexico, and who 
acknowledged tbrlr authorship. Apr. 19. 
I'.dwnrds presented a memotlol t.» 
(be House of Representatives making specific 
charges. Tbsse be tailed to sustain, and 
Crawford was exonerated. 

Abaco Island f Bahama*), negotiations 
for cession of lands on, for erection 
of lighthouses, 845. 

Abandoned Farms. — The reasons given for 
fsrm sbandonment sre the Impoverish:..' HI 
of lb* toll, through lack of f/rtlllrer and 
rotation of crop*, the meager financial re- 
wards of ordinary farm labor, and the 




Abandoned 



tessages and Papers of the Presidents 



disinclination of country-bred Dion and 
woolen lo remain on farms when (bo con- 
veniences and luxuries of life arc to be 
found In ibo cities, and enjoyed wlib great- 
i:f ii The city man who lakes ula 
family to the country l> uaiiatly actuated 
by two motive* — sentiment and the high ■ 0»l 
of living In the city. When a tuau only 
one generation from Ihe farm Inula • gg» 
wiling at <.u cents a dur.cn. broiled chicken* 
at a ilullai. and Hi o Hud of apple* he form- 
erly fed to bogs bringing a cvul apiece In 
elty market* be I* ant to long for the 
aiiiindatit loud <>f hla boyhood days. 

In hla "Altrurla." a novel, printed In 
lain. William Ucon Uowells, on Am 
novelist, predicted that »oon the railroad* 
would i"' Imploring unm to gu from the 
cities and till the soil Mr W. C Urowo. 
I'realdmt of Ihe (few York Central Rail 
rood. Ill a speech In New Sort City In l-iui. 
ileclared that there lire IC.IMIO square inlU-v 

nf practically abaod .1 (arm* In "-••■■. Vork, 

New t :i> j.: 1 11 in J Ihe smith null tnlil.lle Smith- 
ci n Slates, and that there are 2.700 acres 
of abaudiiiu'd Illlabli land within two . ■ 
jiiurury front N-w ioti • ii.v which can 
ii. purchased for fan an acre. Mr Ilrown 
declared himself willing to head a million- 
dollar syndics!.' i., huy ami rcclaltn tbssjsj 
abandoned farina In a practical effort to 
decrease the coal of foodstuff* to the con- 
sumer. 

Many men with city experience nnd mod 
■I n Indnati lal sad bu li 
miming profitable whore the country-bred 

farruei- wlih only (he conventional method* 
has failed. The back-to tin-farm movement 
wan given considerable Inipetna l>j Ih 
v. lopim nt nf Intenalvt fanning in the V 
by Irrigation, by tbi railroad*, the Depart 
ment of Agrlcultut. ami the high pi-h 
foodstuff a lu the rlilea. 

■ 'resident Roosevelt appointed n commis- 
sion to Invcilmiti the rondllloiia at farm 
llfl in America, and he dlaruaars [ho 
lion fully In a special message (page Tl'SU). 
(Sco also Country Life Commission.) 
Abelman vs. Booth.— An Itaportanl Su- 
preme Court case maintaining the con 
tlonalltv uf the fugln i« of 18150. 

booth wa* tried before ». > "iiwui".»loner ap- 

nied by the united Btatea district court 

Of Wisconsin for violation of the fugitive- 

alav* law. i . it" appear | H .fma> the 

; i court, railing i • was 

iu,|iri...iie.i i.v Abelman, ihe Dnlted Blatea 

marshal for the distil- i bnl »u* released 

by the supnine emirt of the Btats on I 

..f hiiorus corpus. Later he was Indicted 

i lie t'nllcd State* district court, but 

was ogaln released by the State supremo 

eonrt. In is:,* tin- case came before lb* 

I nltad States fsUpn-iiic r,,in-i i;,,. -i, 1 1 ; : . i 

.1 the um-iinatltntlouallly of the law. 

The court upheld the law and reversed the 

-iu of the State aaprrruc ami [. 

Abolition Party.— An antl slavery party 

organised In 1630, which later alxorhrd the 
Liberty Tarty (q. v.). and the National 
Anti-Slavery Society (q. v.». It* mission 
having been fulfilled by the emancipation of 
the slave*, the party did nm In . i- 

after the Civil War. <»ee Abolition- 
lata.) 

Abolitionists.— A term applied during and 
log the Civil War to the members 
of ihe New England Anti-Slavery Society 
and those who hold with them that "lm- 
median unconditional ■ rim n.l (.:< i !• .n .vllln.nl 
•-ipati'latlon »n the right of every slave 
and that ho could not no withheld by hla 
master an honr without aln." The first 
noclet] aboil lion of slavery sra* 

formed la I'rooaylvonla In 1T74 : New York 



followed to 1786. Rhode Island In 1186, 
Maryland lo lisil. and Connecticut, Vir- 
ginia and New Jersey before 17uj. Among 
UN picsldeuu of ihe New Vork society 
John Jay and Alexander Hamilton. 

-i ■• • i i. l ti:u. \» i ninin i.iuid Harrison 
began Ihe publication In linai.ni of a paper 
called Tnc Uterulor, which advocated the 
Immcdloi.- liberation of slaves, regardless 
of all laws or constitutional provlaloai to 
the coniiaiy. At tb.- beginning .if ihe fol- 
lowing year be organised ihe abovo named 
with Ihe foregoing us its chief doc- 
trine Near Ibc close of l&l.i a similar 
society wa* formed In Thlisil. -iphia 

From il.li i line forward the quoitlon be- 
came one of national Importune- '" con- 
sequence of his uacumpi'.iiin-luK uii.-ranccs 
fjarrlaon k-a^ Indicted by gruud juries lu 
several Southern State* and rewards 
offered for bis rouvicih.n. Vu/k 

iii-,..'i. Emancipator was another organ 
of the Abolitionists. Rome strong 



pbleti "■■ in. sQblect were 'Justice and 
Expediency: or. Slavery Considered with a 

View Id It. Rightful 



edj ' : "Abollllon." by John Wbl 
Haverhill, Mats. ! "Appeal In lb-half of ifiai 
Claaa of American* Called African.. 
I.ydln Maria Child : and "The Sin of Slav- 
ery and lis Remedy," by Elltur Wright, a 
professor In the Western Reserve C 
Abolition sentiments were not confined 
lo i In- N.iribern States. The feeling 
against the abolitionists ran high nnd riot* 

frequent At Al Illinois, In 1s:iT. 

Klljnh T. I-oveJoy. an abolition editor, ITU 
mobbed and killed, and In l.s.'is. l'.-nnsyl 
vanla Hall, In I'hllailelphla, was but 
In 18.18 many of ihe party desiring to 
nominate candldniet for otDcc. a pro 
Ing lo which the "flnrrltonlnns" objected, 
wltbdn-w. i«e„ Abolition i-arty and lllue- 
tratlona opposite MM, =U28.) 
Aborlglneg.— A word used (a OMlgmlU ih- 
inhabllants of a country, In 
America Hi" lerm la applied generally to Ihe 
Indians found by the i*ily s.-tller*. 

Abrogation.— In international law. the act 
of ! ..-I lklne or discontinuing, as the abroga- 
tion of a treaty. 
Absentee Shawnee Indians. (Sec Indian 

Tribes.) 
Abyssinia (Ethiopia). — The total area of 
ihli.plnu I inplrv la eailluuileil nt 3S0,- 
000 to lOOiOOO Bngllab aquare mill . srltfa 
a total population of from 7,000,000 to 
torn about half are Abya- 
Rlnliinr-, the rcmnltidcr being Unllna. negro 
tribes on the went and south frontiers, 
ami D-.ninkll» ami Somali* on the 
About one (bird -if Ihe who 
erc.1 br Abymlntan Soaiiilllnnd The 
boundaries of ihe empire are defined on the 
west, north, and ooi ihi-a l, 
touch. In order, the Sudan: the Italian 
. of MxiMowoh (Krltreu); the French 
colony uf DJIbutl; ami the I 

ud rrolectornle. Northwnr.la the 
houmlnrv- la about IS" 30' -N. lit., falling 
just south of Knssnla. 

y/iyitnrl Ftatvrr*. — Western Abyssinia 
1* a plateau, wltb peaks rising to 1 - - 
000-18,000 feet : Eastern Abyssinia con- 

sUts of the liuunhli and Bomall lowlands. 

a ufurol /fesource*.— Western Abyssinia 
contains some mineral wealth : Iron and 

cool am noi ei imoo, and gold la 

washed In various streams, while salt, salt- 
petre, and sulphur arc also procurable. 
The lower country ami deep valley gorges) 
ore very hot ; the higher plateaus arc well 
watered, with a genlol ciimnie. In the 
hotter regions, sugar cane, cotton, coffoe. 



Acclamation 



ntttr. etc 
sstat. wkcat 



i«iH*: In the mldille gone 
. wkcat. barley, wlM orungi-s nutl 
rtktf trull ueea, lot. .H-. 

If* riliirated ; and above 0,000 feet aic 
•ictUral pasture* wlr.li som* ooru cultliu- 
Ik*. Tkwia- are ii. In tu* year, 

• 4ry winter ami a rainy summer from 
Mr to Scpleasher. Th* chief rivrr Is Hi. 
else ' - s, males, .lonk.j.. ■ 

p*tt and sheep, ami camels In Ibc low- 
a** 1 *, foam ■ largo portion of tbu wealth 
•I tkr people. 
n UJ»r».— it was visited by the Portu- 
i!»Z. Th* I :il I monarch- 

io oue klngd tn In 185S. 
U UTJ Kaaaal. of TUjre, wbo bail aim turd 
IV title X«*ua Neguat I Kin* of Ktnj«). 
nicn*M4 ■■ Jofcanm-s II, Kmperor of 
Ktaktfla. At 111. death la 18«9. Mrnellk 
II (U- nof supreme rulrr. Del 

U, 1«S». lb* Italian Government assumed 
a protectorate • ml*, am! by a 

stbstaiurnt treaty with King Mcnrllk. the 
reentry come wbolly cuder Italian Influ- 
By an n, . i:i, 

1*9*, Ilalj nl Grrat llrlt.iln un- 

dertook to preserve the Integrity of Abys- 



M 



uoT*rmmrmi.— >;-*--« Kcgost or Klugof 
Kinra Menel.k II IKIng of Shoo.. TH* 
r» la a fcder.it Inn uf tt» Kin 
•i. Godjoni, Jlmroi, KurTa anil 
!». and of tli* terrltortes con.iuered by tbc 
.Dt Kingdom of Shun: th* omwnrd 
•lea Of their alli-fluiir«- lo the 
Koaperor iiflnic a contribution lo I hi 
filal rcvenoe. In 1908 a Coucrll of Minis- 
ter* waa runiiliutn) by t !■- with 
UJ Kystsu. grandson of M«-nrhk, l*r**ldent 
•f tn* Council. 
Sept. 80. m«. I-iilJ. than rail 23 year* 
:. waa depot m. uulaero- 
lltu, succeeded to til- 

System la Ixised upon th* 
of Jaatlnlan, and there la nn appeal 
from th* courts lo the Binp.r -. I' 
property lo Inml li-lng little known and 
the marriage tie being i-ji-.ly dissolved by 
etlher party, there la little aortal collar- 

>.J.^.iri.,. anil KcHpton.— The Abysslnl- 

■aa are Christian and th* Emperor claims 

deare th* eon of Solomon 

Ik* gwr*w of So*ba. The M. 

(AlMiraa kUttkeoa) and the priests and 

■una decree subject to tbu 

I'ulrlarrfc of A sod bare 

I "i religion*. Judicial aud edocn- 

e*. 

•VodateUon 4*4 Imitvlry. — The principal 

tonsils nrc agriculture, rattle breeding 

lib t exports are eof- 

•cat. hid- Irory and 

provisions, irnti anil amtnunl- 
trado 
ll ipon .tiny on ill 
rwwta la X per rent, flu" roMrna, 

• la lb* hoaa* of lb.- rotT** plant, 
• fctrw forr.' o( the rlilef r.TportH. 

Cetlota. aacar iwnn aid Tlaea floartah. Iron 

< nre 
ral-.-d Am.-rlnn rtay aiilrtlnf. hardware, 
roaeum an- lnitioit.-d. It 
»a» a- May IS I'm. Hint I.1J 

baa boeo proe'.almi<d Rmperor after 
an eaTort br bla conaln to wreat the coTern- 
•rnt from blm. -xnorta are cof- 

fre. mm. wax. ca'd. Irory and clret. Paa. 
'ulrrnta domlnatr : largo herd* of cat- 
Ik. atteep aad goati are rala.-d : excellent 
knrarw aad lone wooled lber-p In higher ole- 
Manilfaetnrea prlmltlre: aomc 
raarh. and worklnr of lintlirr and merals, 
■ ravaa trade Important: hld*«. aklna, 
wax. cum, coffee, gold, oitrleh fealb- 



.1 .I.-, .->. ii-ni >: ,-,i r..r bu i:,„ iui,,i bi i r 
cle«. 

Yrnnaportatlou la g«n*rnlly nirrled on 
iiy mni.-s. doukeyu tad pack horaci in tb.- 

i by cuiucla in tin- luwlanda. A 

rnllwny baa Juat uceii bull 
amanlcca. 1 lo- poni- and I'l.itnipha ore 
I ■ .- .ii. ii ininugemcnt, and Abv»lnl.i 
has becu admitted to the l'oital Daloa 
Tclegrupba nnd telapbonea baft Dwa 
Mmcii-.l. iin.l 11.I1111--1..11 t.. the luternu 

legrnph Couveniion baa 
aougtit. 

Armv— The active army ronaUta of th. 
Imperial Trooua, numbering about MA 

men. armed wliu i Ifle 
tlllory aio". 1 1 :i I In linraenien 

feudatory 8i.-it.-ii niiiiuiiiln local urrolc*. 
available for Imperial purposea In time of 
war. 

rowa*.— The CaplUI. Adln Ababa. In 
Shim, baa a population of about uu.ooo ; 
llarrar contains about 40,000; and Dlra 
Daw a from 6.0o0 to T.000. There are an- 
clem 111. -int. •i-inrnl remains at Akaum. 
UoDdar, and Aukolxr: modern archltertiira 
is very poor, while drainage and sanita- 
tion in* unknown, 

Fnrtign Relation:— Great Britain. Franc* 
and! Italy possess territory bordering the 
Abymdnlan Krnplrc and have entered Into 
an sureement to respect the Integrity of 
the Empire. Tbo raited Ktatet. Austria- 
Hungary nn.l "Ji-rmniiy liurc llaTDcd '-oronier- 
nni trcattcf with the Krnplrc. There are 
fi-pretentatlTCj of France. Germany, tirest 
BtlUIn, Italy. Kuaala aud the II. 8. A. 
at the capital, I Sec also Afrlra.i 

AcAtlemw, MUiUry. (8co Military Acad- 
emy.) 
Academy, Naval. (See Naval Acad- 
emy.) 
Academy of Sciences, National, commis- 
sion from membership of, to formu- 
late plans for forestry system. 6167. 
(Sec also National Academy of Sci- 
ence.) 
Aeapulco. Mexico: 

Controversies between American con 
8ul at, aud Mexican authorities, 
2695. 
Imprisonment of American citizens 
In. 2720, 2834. 8837. 
Aeapulco, The, seizure and killing of 
Ocn. Barrundla on, and action of 
American minister to Guatemala, 
discussed, 554-1. 
Conduct of commaider Relter regard 

referred to, 5569. 
Papers regarding, transmitted, SMS. 
Accessory.— In lnw on* wbo Is guilty of a 
felony, not by commit Hug the offense In 
peraon or as a principal, nor by being 
present at Ita comml«Kl..n, but by being In 
■one other way concerned iio-reln. a» by 
ndvlatng or Inciting another to eomtnlt the 
crime aceallnc the onVnd.-r or In 

any -.. cape puub-htiient. 

An nee.-aaory ttrjort Ihr fnrf la one who 
• ■Is or Incites another to commit a 
fob.ny nnd who l« not present when the 
n.-i 1. lone; nllrr the /«el. one who rvrvlrea 
and conceals or In sny way n«al«tK thf of- 
fender, knowing him to haa-c coromltteal 
11 f..|..n laws of different States vary 

as ro Die punishment of seccusorlen. 
Acclamation. — in i.Ki.lotive l.idle«. th» set 
of voting by ayes nnd nays : also called 
voting flea rorr 



Accounts 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Accounts and Disbursements, Division 
Of, AATlculturo Department.— An linpor- 

■Malra <-'f lb» I!ur>';iii nf Avrleulture. 
It lim complete charge and aupervlalou Orel 
tin- fiscal affairs of tbo Department. It 
audits anil pnj* all account! and adju«t» 
claim* . ■■:.in . i ''.,. rtment: decide* 

auratlona Involving the expenditure of pub- 
nida: prepare* advertl-om. nt-. ncheii- 
ule* and contract! for annual (upplicK. 

l«a«a, sgt irnl letter* o{ authority, and 

:iii letter* to th« Treasury Department and 
licpurtnifiii of Justice: Issues r«->in i-l t l"»n-* 
fur UM purchase of auppllc* and requeata 
tur transportation prepare* the annual esti- 
mate* for appropriations. • 
An Idea of thf work .1 n. division may 
■ m the .1:11.1:1. hi nf a. .-ii i. f 
that in d recent rear tin" wer received. 

audited mill Jin 1 • I 118,031 account*, amount- 
ln| to 110.730.108.02. Hon than 4.".00 of 
llii'»e acrounta. 

combined aeci ["Here wercalao aw 

and aent to the Trenail rj for payment 4.368 
account*. In the payment of tbo I1A.021 if- 

: above II was neci irj to 

draw 24* requisition* on the Trenaury and 

laaua 22.V0M cheek*. To earrjr on the work 

mrtment of Agriculture fur ttiln 

year Couarcsi a| 1 *i:i.j>: u:;il fur 

■In addition to permanent 
aunual approprlutlona amounting to {0.32O.- 

Iieclal appropriation* ul II 
HH. maklnit 11 total .if 821 801 
eoat of maintaining the Department >>f 
Agriculture hm crown from J7.04a.DS8 In 
I'mr. 1 • tB 010,708.08 fi-r 1010. 

Account*, Public, ayatcrn of, ahoold rjo 

improved, 1 120. 

Achocn, nntivn Kingdom of North 

Suinntrn, wnr bl rbitida, ncu- 

triililv preserved by United State* in, 

1191 ' 

Acknowledgment. — An acknowledgment ll 

the act of declaring the (SMMIOfl of an 

in. in In fue an otllcer authorized to 

10 *ucn declaration. The officer 

certifies to the fnet of audi declaration. 

. M kn>..« ledge of the peraou ■ " 

declaring. • or deed* of land to 

be entitled to 1 I mu«t Orat bo 

ai'kuuwiediied h.fore a proper oojeer. Most 

of (be Slate* have forma of acknowledg- 
ment*, which ahniild be followed 

Acknowledgment a may be taken in gen- 
eral by notar.c* pabrc. in*tlcc* of Ibe peace. 
Judge* or Clerk* of i.« of the higher 

{radea, Registers. Mnalera lo Chan 
..nil Cuuimlaaloner*. town clerk". M 
and Clerk* of Incorporated cltlea, wllliln 
their respective Jurladlcilona. 

Seal* or thali aqolralenl 1 .-.r whatever la 

Intended n« inch) are ncccs-sarv In Alaska. 

client, lielawaro, Dlalrlct of Co- 

Florida, Idaho, llllnola, Malm-. 

Massachusetts. Mbhlgan, Mloae- 

aota. Missouri. New llauifshli-o New Jcr- 

aey. New York. Nnrlh Carolina, Oregon. 

fennaylvanla. Bonth Carolina. Vermont 
Irglnla, \V»«I Virginia. Wisconsin, 
mlng. la slmost all the State, deed* by 
eorporatlona must be under ami Form 
a.r« pn scribed 01 Indl 
of noil of ibe states en.pt Connecticut, 
Florida, Loul*la> icknowledg 

ment by wife la required in Alaxka. 
Arkanaas. Delaware. District of Columbia. 
Florida. Uenrgia, Idaho, Kentucky, l.oolal- 
ana, Montana, Nevada. New Jersey, North 
Carolina. Oregon. Pennsylvania. South 
Carolina. 'I Texas. One witness 

to the cotecntloo of .1. > <i- is required In 
District of Columbia. Maine (cuatomaryi. 



Maryland. Nebraska, N-w Jsrtay fiiKuali, 

' iklaln Two 

lo the execution of deed* are rexiult.-d la 
Arkansas. Connectlrul Florid 1 irgla, 

l.oulHlana. '■' 

ah Ire. Ohio, Oregon. South Carolina. Texas. 
V.tuiuut, Wlaconsln. 

Acre Right. --The ahare of a citizen of a 
New England town In the eumniuu lands. 
The value of the Sere right wa« » 
quantity In each town, but rorled In differ- 
ent towns, A ten-acre lot or right In a 
certain town w«k equivalent i" 113 arrea 
"f upland and la of meadnw. and 

a certain exact p: .'0"it ■ • - ■ ■ wa* uialntaln.-d 
bttwauu Um aeie right and ttlasla lands. 
Act Of H08tlllty.— An iinfrl.-ndly repr*aon- 
tnli.in calculotesl to provoke war: or conduct 
of a warlike nature .n the port of one 
country toward another. When the un- 

: war-Ilk* net la of audi a D 
aa to preclude or make undealrnhle any 
attempt at a.ljimtment by arbitration of 
diplomatic protoat and repraaentatlona, 11 

heenliie. an OTel I 111 I |o ».), iiinl I- I 
mount to a declaration of war on the part 

.if the ..ffellih r. 

Acts of Congress. (Sen H.1K m 
Acts, Public— Public acta nve ilia law* of 
a Slate nod of Hie DDllcd Slatrss. State 
recorda are the regHlered dieda of property. 
Journal! of Mflalataras, iii. .1. 

g* are the recorda of courta 1 
the Constitution each State must give full 
faith and credit to the public ucla. recorda, 
uinl Judicial proceedllUDi * ■ f as 
Blat« (twenty-four) let valuo of 

ihl« prorlalon Is that II preventa .1 
Inwaulu. When a eate ha* been J 
hi sua Siaie. it rji 11 not be opened in the 
conrts of another State. 

Ad valorem.— Duty on imported good*. 
1 on the value thereof, rather than on 
their quantity or quality. 

Adams, John.-1707-1801. 

1 hi id Administration— Federal. 
I lot frertdeal— Thomaa Jetforaon. 
Secretary of fliofe — 

Timothy Pickering (continued 1. 

John Marshall, from May IS. 1800. 
tfrcrrfury of the Trrmwv — 

Oliver Wolcolt (.xiutlnued). 

Bamuel Dexter, from Jan. 1. 1801. 
Cfrcrefury 11/ War — 

Jamea Mrllenry le..nilunei|i. 

Bsmual Dexter, from Isuu IS, 1800. 

Roger GrUwold. acting from Feb. 3. 
I '.hi 
Secretary of the Kai'j,— 

irsv Cabot appointed. Declined May 
8. 1708. 
llenjamln Sloddert, from May 3, 1798. 
.lffo n" — 

lea l^e (contlnuedl. 
• d 
Joaepb llaberabnm (ennilnurdi. 
Parly AflllutHon.— Adama waa *Msentlally 
a Fcderallil an. I In common with bu party. 
dlatruated Ibr •••if-g.ivernlng pov 
maaaea. He believed In Strong centra] gov- 
ernment by a elnn. SOI Ii.t. ditnry. out 
0« I'll by merit He waa ilemnrrallc to the 
extent of believing timi e.iualliy meant that 
an iTieii should have equal right* In Ihi 
of (he law: but that In hereditary rights, 
capacity, advauiage.. and poaltlon, all men 
< equal. While il.e-preal- 
■l,nl and presiding otBcer In Hi.. Rentl 
wna frequently caller! de by 

hla casilni: llona »if ritol Impor- 

tance In the maintenance of the policy of 



Adam 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Washington. Tbl* occurred no fewer than 
twenty times In on* oeaslon of Conge 

Fifth fungus* Dm mil In extra «es- 

•inn »i Philadelphia, iih) i;., i;»i to oon- 

•Ider the threatening relations wlili I 
Jonathan Dayton, tcdcrnllst. of New Jer- 
•ey. was eleeied Speaker nf tlie Uoum The 
H(* Of the three filjc"'" already built si»s 
authorised nnd were culled 

for. An act an panted puulshing priva- 
teering on a friendly, tuition hy a flue of 
$iii.<hm>, nnd Imprisonment for ten yeiira. 
The Room Committee on Way* nnd Heanj 
wn» firm urgnnliod at tbl* session. 

War v\ll> Fr.im-r Thrtatmtd. — Adama 
appointed Jobs Marshall, lillnldBc Gerry 
and C. <'. riockney eommlaalonera to ti.-at 
with Fran. ■ I : ■ an ' la ■'■"' ■ Oct. *. 
17D7. and were apprnarbed with n pro 
tlon to bribe members of the French Dlrec- 
"i lJ'-y refused with iiidiK'n ». Im- 
plicating Talleyrand, the : 
el foreign AtTmr - . and worn ordered out of 
Fiance. It waa on IbU occasion thar Mr. 
I'lnckncy U reported to have given ut tar- 
auee to rhe famoim •enteiie. .1. taring that 
the United State" bad "Minimis for de- 
fense; not one rent fnr tribute." Partisan 
feeling was general ami blttcl throughout 
intiy nml ilitilumaey was strained to 

ii unoat to atert actual hostilities with 

Fiance. 

Congress organised the Navy Department 

• nd authorized a provisional aunv of in,. 
cmmi nun. Harper's Ferry »« (elected ns n 
site for a government armory and m&nu- 
fa> tory. Washington was appointed rom- 
maader-ln-chi. f 01 1 1m army with the rank 
of Monti -n hi <;. ii. u.l I lie [intrlotlc song 
"Hall. Columbia." was Br«t sung In May, 
ITB8. i ■..tiiriiatiil.-rs of ►hips of wat 
Inatracttd to wise French artued vcs*cl» 
attacking American mcrchant-mro or rn't- 
ctlng about the coast for that pu 

' in e with France was 

■.•I. 'I and In July all treaties with 
that coutiti ■«red Told. Although 

several nasal engagements took place, a 
state of war did .-. or, ling t. . inter- 

national judicial opinion The parage of 
the Allen nnd Sedition laws Iq.v.) was one 

• if till llelMl.le ne|- ,,f the fifth C.lUgr«»S. 

Xlarrb :ii». 171MI from 

France that n represent n tire from tho 
lulled States would bo received with the 
' r. .peel .In.- a powerful nation" Adams went 
William Vans Miirrnr as Minister and a»- 
•oclatrd with him Chief Justice Ellsworth, 
of Connecticut, nml Gov. Imvlo. of \<»rth 

Carolina. All were r. Iv.-.l by Nnpolfon, 

first Consul. 

rnrtign Policy —Party lines and party 
strife during the Adnms ndtululat ration were 
largely Influcncd by foreign 'ban by 
domestic pollllrnl Irsties. Despite the hu- 
miliation Inflict. ' tonne Republic 
by both Franco nnd Great Itrltaln, Adnms 
resolutely followed Washington's policy of 
sirlel neiitralliy. It waa difficult to steer 
safely between the hitter feeling against 
Great Hrltsln which the Democrats ill»- 

Sand the dislike f >r France majnl- 
BMM by tbe Federalists. The decrees l»- 
•ued hy France against American commerce 
caused Adnms to eont»ne Congress In «pc- 

flal session soon after his inauguration, 
n his metsage on Ihla occasion ho review* 
the situation and asks Congress to consider 
how war with France may be averted. Ho 
•aid: <pag- '.".'i-.i "I shall Institute a frr.h 
attempt at negotiation and shall not fall 
to promote and accelerate an nrcammreda- 
tlno on tortus .-01111011 tile nlth the rlifliis 
duties, Interests, .mil honor of the Batfoo.' 
The special commission composed of Flack- 
ney. Marshall, and (lorry was «.ul to 
Frsnce. Inn was not openly re,. 

Thro followed |bt X. 1. Z. nfTnlr (o. t\). 



and the publicity of the despatches relating 
to It aroused great excitement in Europe 
•nd a storm of Indignation In America 
From all parts of ilia 1 nlled states came 
tho war-cry. Minions for defense; not o«»e 
cent for tribute," It was then that the 
nucleus of the navy was formed, am: 
army strength, md and commanded bv W 

Ington. who 11 pied the rnnk of lieutenant 

general. Then the French directory saw 

had committed and mad* 

overture* to the t nited Mat.-. A da ins met 

tliniigo his manner of doing so hy 

appointing Vans Murray to negotiate peace 

nutniionlxcil llnmiliou and lil> friends and 

lit about n rupture In tut cabinet 

Adams always stoutly maintained that this 

waa the most meritorious act of his lift : 

and later generation* have so icaiMcd. "I 

tlolre." he .sol mi other Inscription oyer 

my gravestone than this : 'Here lies John 

Adams, »hu took upon himself Hi 

iiinij of pence with Franco In 1800. Tbe 

Stringent lllletl no. I •edition BCl*. p***ed 

Inter In this adtnlnlstrodon. greatly In- 
creased the unpopularity of Adn 

Flnaticci— Adams Tory closely followed 
Washl rr the na- 

tional debt as rapidly as possible. v> far 
as the exigencies of war would peimlt. He. 
howeror, de|in ii. .1 doing «> by means of 
Flrsl Annual Ad.ii. ■-- ipagc 
lie .nt.l : The national defense must 
be provltl.-d for as well as the rapport of 
Government . but both should be accom- 
llshed ns mm n M DOMlbls by IminedlaU 



I 



and as little as possible by I 
Feb. l'J. 1788. In a special message (page 
2S^t he repotla a balauce on hand ot tm 
beglnnluh- of the Tear of fid in his 
Fourth \nniial Mis. nice 1 page '.'W7I be la 
iola to re|Kirt to Congress a greater rev- 
enue rinri ncr 'he j.-ar tlum ever before, aud 
says: "Tbli result affords conclusive evi- 
dence of the great resources of this coun- 
irv and of the wisdom and cm,! 
measures adopted by Congreaa for the pro- 
of • nerce and preservation of 

• credit." In his reply 10 the Senate 
(page 3021 he fully agrees "that the groal 
Increase In revenue Is a proof Hint Hie ueaas 
urea of maritime defen-o wire founded 111 
11. This policy baa raised us In the 
esteem of nations." Kv proclamation of 
July 22. 170T (nag* 2,10 1 all foreign silver 
coins, except Snanlsh mllbd dollar! nnd 
parrs of such dollars, shall cease to pass 
current or to be legal tender within lbs 
United States after Oct. IB. 1797: nnd all 
foreign gold colna shall case to be legnl 
ti mt.T after July 31 1708, It also re- 
cords the fact tbnt c.iinnge of allver began 
at the Mint of the t'nlted State- on Oct. 
15. 17Bt: and of gold on July SI, 1 

Ttrlfl— Jnly 8, 17!>7. nn act was passed 
"laying additional duty on salt Imported 
Into the t'nlted States and for other pur- 

p.»o»." 

/•uhblc rV'if.— During the administration 
of John Adnms tne nubile debt of the ITnlted 
States stood as follows: Jnnuiiry I, 1708, 

t'.i 12: l.Ofl. JTS'm.s coo vv : 1800, 
*Z976.itMJS; 1801. $83,038.0:0.80. 

,,,,,,.. — The retallntori tiroblhltlnn of 

trade with certain of tbe French West Indies 

was rcmoTed by proclamations In 1709 

These applied to porta In the Island at 

Ihitnlngn The defensive measures 

nd.. Tii.-ii in Congroai for the protection of 

merchnnt vessels under convoy of an armed 
frlrnte together with the renewal of amity 
ami friend. hip with France, caused a rsnld 
recuperation In commercial circles. Com- 
merelai transactions In the country for the 
year 1800 are repreiumlcd as followa: 

Total money In circulation. *2fl.8O0,00O; 
Revenue*. *l0,849,74'> ; i:«i»ndl(ur.«, »7.- 






Encyclopedic Index 



Aijams 



tlljSTO: Import*. Wl.33l.T68: Export*. 

Mbrtcwl Completion of fnno'eti —In tbe 

ntib Cona-rvaa tbe Senate of thlrtj-mo 

■takers waa mad* op of tw»nty-o*»c I cder- 

•Dus and clev»n Ifc-ir-ocra!. . the llmne, of 

Jto »»i»n, was made up of fifty -one red- 

■tallica and nftyfour [K-mocrau. In tho 

Rita Coograaa to* Stoats, of tbirty-tmo 

BsBbera, was aud* up of nineteen Krderal- 

Imi anil thirteen Democrat • : 1 1, . - |[c.ii«e. of 

MS awmbers. vraa mad* up of afiy-sev«o 

iuiI forty-eight Ucmocrala. 

The .M»tb ('vngreo, tbe last to auembls 

U ItlUdrlphla. «»tl Dec. 1. Wn. and 

TaaoaWr* Sedgwick, of Massachusetts, waa 

tSKted Upeaker death 

of WaaatlBftoa (Dec. 141 waa a-.: 

Caofnaa Dec 19 (pare 3*7 1 and In bla 

•aIo*y Hear? Lee of Virginia us«.I the 

amrtrable pars»c. "First In war. Orti lu 

S**ce and Brat la tbc bcarla of hi- 

r-itnrn " At ttilp sestlon a go!d medal waa 

searded to Tliumaa Truitun. Wbi 

Band Of the Cewi'Molfos. bad captured tbe 

rrrarh ablp of war L'lnrurffmtr an.) tbe 

frigate ta rcageeac*. The frigate Meorpe 

iifffow carried tribute money frt.ni toa 

t'nltrd State* to tbc Dei of Algiers aaul was 

required to carry lb* Dcy's imlnom 

aBttaepia. 
Saercetor Ktrte* — When tba electoral 
rote* were coasted iry It waa 

feoad that Jefferson and Burr. isemnrralle. 
Republican candidate*, bid each 73 ». 
Jobs Actar=«. IV.l-mil-l. *'..'., ami C. C 
ttockncy rederali«t. rtl nrni Jobo J»T, 1 
The tic mh«o Jefferson and Borr win 
sent to tbc II'iiim- to decide and after 
•arm day* lo whlcb thlrty-«ls hallota were 
tikeo. Jcffcraoo aod Uurr were elected. 
Aita*w L John: 

Annual addresec* of, 240, S61, 279. 295. 
Addresses of Senate in replv. 241, 
288. 282, 2M. 
Beplie* of President, 246, 257, 283, 

Addrewe* of House in reply. 247, 267, 
883, 300. 
la. of President, 848, 270, 286, 

iklcal a Vetch of. 217. 
ilotional amendment relative to 
postponement of meeting of Con- 
lUggcated by. 240. 
ith of, announced and honor* to bo 
paid memory of, 914. 
Referred to. 930. 
Death of Washington announced by, 

Addrcaa and replies. 288. »!>. 290. 
Wvtaloa between people and govern- 

tnent discouraged ny. 229. 
Exequatur* iseaed consuls of Franc* 

revoked by, 260. 
Finance* dieeuased by. 228, 243. 252. 

265. 281. 297. 
Foreign policy discussed by, 228. 
Hostile policy' of Franco diseusaed by, 

MS. 
Inangurnl address of. 218. 
Oath of office, notifiea Congrens of 

lime and place of taking. 1220. 
• granted insurgent* In Pnnn- 
293. 
Portrait of. 210 




ProelaVBattSou of — 

Commerce with Franco, restraints 
on, removed, 27s, 

Exequatur* of French consuls re- 
voked. 260. 

Extraordinary session of — 
Onagri si. 18ft 
Senate, 306, 1220. 

Foreign coin.., legal tender of, 239. 

Inaorrectioa in Pennsylvania, 276. 

Land for lighthouse designated, 
1221. 

Pardons to insurgents in Pennsyl- 
vania, 293. 

Retrain ts on commerce with 
France removed by proclamation, 
278, 292, 204. 

ThuiikagiviBK 2.'.*, 874 
Property of United States in posse*. 

aion of, discussed by, 305. 
Senate requested by, to postpone ad- 
journment, 257. 

ial eetaion meeBBiro of, 223. 

Address of Senate In reply, 229. 
K.j.ly of Pi. 

Ail.lresn of House in reply, 232. 
Reply by President, 234. 
Thukaciviag proclamations of, 258, 

274. 

Adams, John Quincy.— 1825-1829. 
Tenth Adiuitii-fuii'iii — iii-m. ■• intic- 
BapnbUcan, 

ri. ■■-/•.■■ rldenl -J.iim c (alhoun. 

B oorttory of State — 

Il.-iiry I'lay. 
Srotc(urv of f*« Trtrosury — 

Secretary vt War— 

Jam.-s BartMur. 

im.i B Porter, from May 3rt. 1838 
eVetrfory ...f the s.u-y— 

Samuel I.. Soutbatd u-unilnuedl. 
A ttorneuOentral — 

William >', ,,i i.-i.iiiintiedi. 
FaMmMiar-Oeaei 

John McLean (ronllniii^li. 
Pdrf« Agination. — Tbonah trained In 

5 alltlrti and diplomacy by his failu-r. John 
nlncy Adams soon manir.-.i.-.i Independ- 
cue* of political ctiotiic lit and action. H» 
broke wlih tbe federalists «-ln-n he gave 
aoquallfled o Jefferson on tho 

I-oulMnna Purchase, ami. later, on the em- 
barcu. Rpsaklag nf iii>- )'.il.-rall»i. di 
inn thf Leobcrd sitmr. bi :nii "Tbla was 
tbe cauw which ma from that day 

and forever from the councils of tho 
ratlat patty." It waa not long until ba 
• active In RrpuMIran circles, both as 
a diplomat and as a Cabinet ofllrvr liurlng 

hi« admlnlatratlon, he was whig no far as 

faroTtng Internal Improv.m-nr.. the national 
bank, and high tariff on Imnortatlonr. As 
- i 1'ri-ildrot, he w«» elected to Congress 
18311 br the nntl-Matunlc party, but tie 
there maintained n i>erfrct|y Independent 
attitude. When he left <v.oer««« nc suo- 
I the Abolitionists, snd from ISSll 
until lbi". he waa Here* In bla denunciation 

ii Vnlncy Adams became Chief Maris- 
by popular choice In an election where 
pel tonality was conriTned more than party 
affiliation The eleninn of 1824 was not 
rernlatcd by I'oocreaslona I caucua, whlcb 
had lost Its Importance wltb the waning of 



Encyclopedic Index 



Adams 



mum 

3 



ikt Federalist*, nor by national convention, 
vika av>d> of nomination did Dot oiiginatc 
■aUl formed hy Hi.- Auil-.Mma» In 1S-.0. 
: —lb* rvnlcal wan '■■<'• fur all. a_d 
■'■■ <i 19 four candidal!-": Adauia. 
Je-kwa. Crawford, aad Hay. Twent? 

190k part la th* election, which wai 

MoXot. 2. Tbla la la* «a-ll*»i election la 

-pr>-ar» a record of th* popular 

•Mr, at ceeat of toe electors were cooaeo 

If rUI israaa. That record abowa that 

recelred l«a; 

, Adam*. 108.321 : Wlllfcji 

. and Henry Clay. *0.&S7. 
7*» il utrd on Feb. 0. 1SJS. 

pit Aa-lrew Jaektoa. HO ; John l}uloey 
Aaua- m II Crawfuid. 41: aod 

~mt Clay. 
i<f< >• Jl-t.it —Xm no one received a 
•rooeedrd on llic ttO" 
, M> elect a l>realdenl from tbe three 
Mkm raadWJatr .-ludcd clay, the 

KaopuUrof Ihe canitidalea In the Home. 
Vjltvy Adam* waa elected by the 
tk»* of ihlrtrva State* : Jackaon received 
•Mre, and Crawford fuur. The electoral 
Mlow tad electrd Join C 
riialnt. with 183 ToletL la the electoral 
raUate. aavl three Xe-r York men. who were 
rvrtrnrd a» Clas d In acc-rdaace 

tactr Inati i • la) aroold hare 

keen oae of the three to g.> to th" 
•ad U» reiult mixta t bavo been very d-r- 
f'rrat. Tim *a< it.e a-woed titan that the 
Ifeaae waa called upon Co cbooa* a PreJl- 

fa.Mlco.1 Compicr-Oft of Congrtf.—la the 
Mart-. a* S.nat.- 

of forty-elflu im-mlKTa, waa made np of 
CatrtT«I(bt tiemocraii and tea Whig*; and 
Oar Bona* f 113 meoiN'ra. waa made up 
ind 131 Demo- 
ln toe Turn 
i the Banal v. eight member*. 

_ and* up of thlny*cv*ii Federal!*!* 
ill (Irrm W aim ; and the lloa«*. 
ta *n * > r*. ara* made up of elghiy-Sve Fed- 
n.mociata. 

lor*, waa elected 
Speaker of the lloc«e In Hi* NloelccnC 
pea*, wbleb nnmberrd anion* Ita member* 
rdwar i i Maasacanactte, and 

Jama* K. folk, of Tenne««*n. 

In 1R2B the Smith Amcrlran Sialr* railed 
a general ronere** lo meet la Panama a-.d 
•nil. ' ■ b» repreaented 

ipaca Ml). IroMa* the deba-n on the *iib 
Jeet Id the Renal* Jobo Randolt* r-f 

aeaoelalloa of Aaimi a"d clay a* 
aad the blackleg. A 
followed between Clay and Ran 
dlatporarancc of William M- 
a-.ecdalg.ir.. V. Y.. Sept. 12. 18W. 
._» to the AntlMawnlc party. 
faaVaa Attain — Nnscron* Ireatle* wer* 
sm4* wltb Indiana during Adam*' admin*.*- 
tratlow, among tbeai tb* eeaalon of the lande 
of aaoat cf <■■■■ i ■ ■ • Inhabiting tefrttory 
ea*t of th* Ml**l*(lpe>1 Itleer and their ra- 
o*-val to ib» Indian Territory. The refu*al 
of raw Creek* lo be bound by a treaty -IgO'd 
by tbetr cblef* formed Iho sable*! of apodal 
aa n s a gs by Mr. Adam* inagc 890 1. 

Taeiir. — Two *<t» relatlte to the tariff 
were •*aar4 la thl* administration — thai of 
•». and of Mar IP. 1S2JJ. Hp^ak- 
ci( of th* lil'»- lo bu Fourth Annual Ilea- 
•■«* rpaire VS«> I'realdrtit Adam* Mid: 
•a-iT of ill* rttt »e««ltin wa« In II* 
nVralla not acceptable lo lh* areat Internta 
^f aay portion of tb* t »t»o to 

tie la'erett* wh'eb It wa« apecU'lT 1n'»od-d 
f* aerre. If* object w»* to balnn'o th» 
bardeaa ot>on aatlre lodiMtry lmno*ed br 
>i of formica law*, tmt not t* 
r.ti. ih* burden* of ono aeClon of 
i«V*a t' f-a".>rd«l to a-'.'h.-- 

If any of tb* dalle* Impoaed by 



I 



fmra 




the art n: . -»ni;f»rlurer by 

a*£i* i .<' plan 

a tautul luvi ul -'t u- ;•. o*. irli'na. callaT.it* 
hy Uie p.aclical riUiilcQiO of i 

■la tho*e which 
i y and re- 
more or rupply the place of ihoee whlrh 
only alleviate one crcat national 1m 
hy tin- aepreaali 

Imtrrnal lmprov<m<»t.t. >| o( 

Prewlilcot Adam* dJSi mlly In r«- 

Earil in Inii 
He predeceeiora. In bl< Inuucural 
Adilre** lima* 8U4I bo aald : ' 
lo their eonauraniailou laQM imn:. se* of 

nl In imr i 
• iImiiii .1 I17 hlin (Mouroel 

will embrace Ihe whole aplirre of ro- 
gation*. 'I 

awat .1 hi* 

Inarurii collar Mil*- 

faction. It I* tbni from wbleb, I am >a l«- 

liy who are in future ages to 1 

will derive llK'lr mo*i fertent 
Btatliuili? to Cbi of in. Inlon : 

111 whlrh the hctictli-ent a' lion of II" 
lior-rnmetu will bo moM deeply felt and 
arknowk-deed. . . . The extent and 
Itatlon of the pevan of pit tieurral Got- 
lo thl' trai 
lanl rubject will be acttlrd and ae. 
knowledced lo tbe common Milafacllon of 
all. and every apceulaiii* *nuple will ba 
wired by a pracliral 1 lug." 

bt of the 
Cnll'd State* durlns the adml^lntrntlnn of 
President Adam* atood n» f- ■ 1 1 ■ 
ary 1. I82«. t 

■ ■Oi:.. ST ; lollttv 
•M.421.«13.0T. 

In Mm Rnrond Annual Meiaaxe ' rune 024) 
Ibc I'realdent »»r.i : "It l» well for u*. 
hotrivrr. to b.< admon' ■wlty 

nf abiding l>7 the maxim* of the mo»t 
onoojy. and of re«ortlnc to all 
ible and nvfu; 
•ulrig with Iteady and In 'i 

I lie total dl«chnrjre . : In 



hla Third Annual il ::i li« 

«av« : "The dn-p ;■ 

rittaen* of all ela*«e« i nl n 



nl dtMc-hanrc of the nubile delit 
will anolorlae for the cainnxuen* wltb 
whlrh I deem It my doty to uree thl* topic 
upon tbe connlileratlaii of Coiiitrc a i of rec- 

"dlna to them ai-«ln (he observance 
of the atrleteat economy In the application 
of the public funds." 

flnuiir'.- In hi* Fourth Annual Mcaxafe 
(nag.; U771. at the clo»e of bla admlnlatra- 
t!'-.u. Pretldrnt Adam* mi nhb- 10 *ay: 
"Tba eondlilon and pi-onpi'i >enue 

are more favorable than our mo»t nanitulne 
exne-ta'lon* hnd antlclnatcd." lie rennrtcd 
a bnlonce In the Treimry. Jnn. 1, IS'JH. of 
•.1.841.072.&3 : with a 1 fa I -alanca 

of over $9,000000 on the firtt of tbe corn- 
Ins year "The receipt* for the pre«ont 
year have amouated to near two tnllll "n* 
mora than »n antlclnated at tbe ••om- 
mrneevneot of the la«t ac-it-lon of ConeTe»»."* 
The African Slnvo Trade.™ 
■ nlil Pr>*lilent Adam* In hi* Flr«t Annual 
>!"«»***» inane 875), "ha* lon«- been exclud- 
ed from tbe n*e of our One. and If •'■me few 
rltlxen* of oar ronnfr have rontlnunl to 
•el. Ihe law* of the l - -1nn «* well a^ thoa* 
of n-'nrr nnd hnrrinnl-r nt deflaoco by per- 
•■•vrrlnir In tbnt aimmlnahlo traffic. It baa 
been only by rheltrrlinr iln m«e|ve» unibr the 
banner* of other nn'lnn. |...- rnmeir for 
»'■.• fral rx-lnclon of the trade rhni our- " 
But the Intensity of feellna with which tbe 
"•••blent loathed alaverv earn-, sal In It* 

I force when, an •X-Prewjn'ent, h<- r*- 

tTirnrrt tn Conrre** *o.l 

fought th* prMlavcry force* and brought 



Adams 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



about tin- repeal of thy "gag-law" which the 
ilori-p liiaiual the Abolition- 

IlU, 

Adams, John Quincy: 

Annual iih-hhh^.-h of. '•"'•, :n<\ 944, 
r7& 

Astronomical observatory, establish- 
meet of, recommended by, 789. 

Biographical sketch of, 857. 

Commimioncr to negotiate treaty 
witb Sweden, nomination of, 254. 

Death of. announced and honors to 
b© pan! memory of, 217". 

Election of. notification of, 858. 
Bflnly of, 858. 

Finance* discussed by, 869, 923, 952, 
977. 

Foreign Policy discussed by, 862, 868, 
U4, MB, '."'■!, I'-:-'. 950. 

Inaugural address of, 860. 

Internal Improvements discussed by, 
982. 

International Congress at Panama 
dismissed by. (Hoo Panama, Isth- 
mus of.) 

Minister plenipotentiary of the 
United states to the court of Bu- 
lla at St. Petersburg appointed by 

President attdlaon, Tom 26, iaoi>, 

456. 
Oath of office, notifies Congress of 

tune ami place of taking, 859. 
Portrait of, 856. 
Private SO tary of, assaulted vrhiln 

di I ii. Ting message to Con k i ''»«, flits. 
Proclamations of — 

tv.iniiiereial iataMOUIM with Brit- 
ish colonial ports suspended, 941. 

Discriminating 'duties suspended on 

■els of — 

Hanover, 910. 
Italy. 04& 
Extraordinary session of Bcnate, 

m 

Facsimile of, opposite 948. 
Howard for apprehension of Willis 
rson, 943. 
Secretary of State, 604. 

Correspondence in regard to claims 
against France, Mt 
State of the Union, discussed by, 865, 

916, 944, 978. 
Tariff discussed by, 979. 
Tribute paid memory of Jefferson 
and Adams by. 930. 
Adamson Law. (See Railroads, Eight- 

hour Day.) 
Addison. The, impressment of seamen 

from, 2772. 
Adelaide., international exhibition at, 

discussed, 6116. 
Adjutant Oenerai. (8ee War Depart- 
ment nnd Army.) 
Administration.— This term !• generally 
applied to (fas President and his Cabinet. 



The President as chief executive offlcer of 
tn« nation may direct, without consults- 
tlon, the acts of any departmental chief, 
(ulded solely bj- the Constitution. II'- l* 
authorised, however, to consult the heads 
of Departmsata. Washington con 

trltb his Atlurncy-OcncrsI snd Secretaries 

of State. War, and the Treasury. When In 

179k rue Navy Department was rstabll 

llrnjamln Stoddcrl. Us eln.-i 

offlcer. ass admitted to the President's 

council. The rostmastcrs-fJcoenil were 

not catM Into council until 18:29, during 

William T. Harry's Incumbency. 

tarlrs of tbe Interior, of Agriculture and of 

Ctttatucrci. ami I. >r were Invited to ssett 

St the council table Immediately upon in- 
establishment of their Departments. 
Admiral.— The highest rank In the United 
States Navy. The word Is derived from tbe 
Arable amlr-al, ami means "chief of the." 
It «m early uxeil In England as the title of 
tb* commander of the nnry. In the < 
States the rank was first created sepeelaUj 
to confer houor upon David O. Karroeut- 

July 11, 1H02, upon recommendation of 
President Lincoln, Farrajrut. then ret 
to courteously but unofficially as Commo 
dor*, received the thanks of Congress for 
his distinguished services In capturing New 
Orleans and opening the lower Mississippi to 
tna Union forces. I'pon the reorganlsatloa 
of tbe navy In the ssme month tic wn« 
placed first on tbe lilt of rear admirals. 
Further successes on the lower Mississippi 
and In Mobile iisy Induced Congress b 

Iireas tbe gratitude of tbe country by creot 
ng another and hljfher grade for Farragut 
— that of VI. -r Ailinlral — tn which offl. 
was confirmed Dec. 21, 1844. After the war 
between the States Congress created the 
office of Admiral and conferred It upon Far 
rsgut July 25. 1898. Vice Admiral David 
D. Porter succeeded to the title In 1870, and 
upon his death In 1801. tbe title became ex- 
tjnet. For distinguished services In the bat- 
tle of Manila Ray. May 1. 181)8. George 
Dewey was promoted by Congress to be Ad- 
miral of the Navy, a grade above admiral 
and corresponding to admiral of tbe licet In 
the Urltlsh navy and a similar ono in other 
navies. 

The naval appropriation bill of 191.*. eon- 
talned a provision that after June 1 of that 

Spar tbe commanding officer of the Atlantic 
ret. the Pacific fleet and the Asiatic fleet. 
while (sirring as such, should buve the rank 
of Admiral, and tbe officer serving as second 
In command of those fleets should have tbe 
rank of Vic.. Admiral Under thai Isw 
Prank K. Fletcher, Tbomai II. Howard snd 
Walter Cowles were named ••> Admirals. The 
Admiral's flag has a navy blue background, 
on which four stars sre arranged Ilk* the 
points of a diamond In tbe middle of tbe 
pennant. Tha rank of Admlrnl In the navy 
corresponds to that of General In the army ; 
that of Vice Admiral to Lieutenant General, 
Rear Admiral I first nine class I to Major 
Oenernl and Rear Admiral (second Bine 
class) to Brigadier Oenaial. 

Admiral, re viral of grade of, recom- 
mended, 6345. 
Admiral F. Tordenaklotd, The, appro, 
priation In bebalf of owners of, rec- 
ommended, 3328. 
Admission Of States.— The Declaration of 
Independence declares "that these United 
Colonies are. snd of right ought to be, free 
and Independent States" (page 4). It* 
adoption on July 4. 17T5. created as such 
the original thirteen States of the Union, 
vis. : Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 






Encyclopedic Index 



Aeronautics 




C Georgia, Connecticut. Uuurbuntu, Mary- 
kud, South Car. Hampshire, Vlr- 

, New York. North Carolina, aad Rhode 
-bortly before thii date several 
if the Colooaea bad modltted their original 
damn and »«i*bll*hed lesjrpeudcnt local 
pononu. Oct II). 1780. Ibt Continental 
Cstgresa pa w rd a resolution providing 
tut western territory which mlKbt be 
"ceded to tb* United State* 67 *"7 par- 
dciavr Stat* aball be dlapoai-d of for the 
«ooon t<a<5t of v.. Stales and 

W arltScd and formed Into d'.-Mnct repub- 
Bets Slate*, which iball become members 
if tke federal Union and bate tbe tamo 
Stat* of sovereignty, fn-edum, and Indc 
•eidrsc* aa tb* other 9UI««" ; and In ITUD 
la* 'Voatltutaon nude Ita provision for 
U« adaalaalon of new State* tpagc M). 

*t*et of th* State* that hare been ad 
■died atnee tbe foraatlon of tbc original 
bare achieved atatchood from a con- 
. of territorial orgauUatlon prea-.-rlb.d 
Cotter***, although aome have not con? 
Kb tbt* process. 8ocd territorial or- 
at Ion >n Brat eatabllabrd by CtJaV 
to JJoly. 1I8T. when It passed the ordl- 
* prorldior a government for tbe 
orthwrat Territory i*. r, 1. Tbe method 
direct admiukm la Uluatrat.-d by V«- 
arbleb was formed oat of territory 
d by X««r Tort and New Hampshire: 
. which wn annexed : and California. 
able* waa admitted soon after the Mexican 
air. a-lthout welting to U vreanlxrd aa • 
ataal atep* by which a 
Territory become* • State are: (li A peti- 
tion to Congress expressing tbe desire of 
th* people for admlolon; <2l an enabling 
1 t n«-wd br Congress stating tbe eondl- 
lt«a>« of admlaloa ; <3i the adoption of a 
•anatltntloti and a form of State govern- 
aeat ay a contention of rj-l-rat-a cboacn br 
the people: <«i tbc ratlaVrnilon of the 
eaatftltuiloQ and the *!<--tlon of Stale oO- 
eer* 07 lb* people: and 14) a proclamation 
by the UreeloVot announcing that tbc Terri- 
tory has become a State. 

The question of the admission of Ranaaa 
aader a o astltutk.n whtrb permitted »la»- 
err or one which forbade It became a na- 
tional political qoeallon between lH.-.fl and 
IM. Pro ala very and antl-slov.ry par- 
_ aesjt colonials Into iry to 

a roaalltaflon. and th.- anlmoal- 
betwern the** became ao blttrr aa to 
riot and bloodshed. iS.-* Kansas: 
>mptoo Coortltatlon : Wyandotte Con- 
tain t»o 0.1 

provisions for the admission of New 
Mexico aad Arlxoae Into tbe Union at 
State* were made by Chapter 310 of tbe 
if the Second Session of th* alxty-flrat 
t-Mrma apfroTed June 20, 1810. Coo- 
>i>Ml convention! were held In both 
Terrltorlea uader tbe provision* of the 
nboTernentlnned art. State Constitution* 
were franjed asd submitted to the people 
for rattSratloo asd were adopted. The 
Conciliation of Ailioea having contained 
'liton presiding for the recall of the 
ladtrtary h-r tbe electom and tbe Conitlta- 
tloa of New Mexico having contained a 
ebtuae "atteaptlnc to annul and »et a*ld- 
tbr iwondary line" heretofnra leaallj rno" 
hetweeo tbe Territory of New Mexico and 
the State of Teta«, Mid Conxtltntlon» falleJ 
rerelra the approral of tb* Praaldent and 

the Flrtt Seaaloo of tbe ilxty lecond 
a Joint reaolutlon "to admit the 
Itnrlet of New Meilm and Ar:«ona 
tjtaM an en'ial fcntlnc with the original 
' wa» adooted. wbkb admitted both 
Trrrlrortea to autebood conditionally : tb* 
eaorftrloa being lb* elimination of tbe ob)ec- 
tie— bit p-oTlilona from the State Conitl- 
twta»aai adopted by tbe peopt* of tbc re- 



1SM. 

g 

t-erotnc 



•pectlre Terrltorlea. Tbe llrat Stat* to ba 
Joined to tb* ortgllla)] ' nlon of thirteen 
Mat.-* an \. nn,, iit. in 17B1. and Ihe but. 
Arliona. In 101 

Tb* following tabic abow* the order and 
date of admlKlon to tb* Union of the **e- 
eral itatea, a> well as tbc order aad date 
of ratification of the Cooatltutlon by th* 
vrlKlual atuu-s : 

OMorsUL *r*Ttia Ratified tb* 

biataa Cuiiatitutiaa 

1— DeU-aro. Doe. T. ITkJ 

3 — Pennsylvania Dec, 13. 1787 

3— New Jersey iv,- 18,1787 

*— <Jenrcl« . Jan, 2.1788 

o —Connecticut Jan. It, 17H8 

tl — Massachusetts F*b. 0,1788 

7— Manlaad.. April 38.1788 

8 — aoutii Carotins NIs, 33. 1788 

t— New Hampatm, Juno 21. 1788 

10— J irnnia June 28. lTfjg 

11— New Y..rk July 28. 1788 

12— North Csrolina . Nov. 21. 1789 

13— Hboda Island May 28. 1780 

aisTxa soairmD to T«e catow 
Stats* Admitted 

1— Jsranout. Msr. S. 1791 

2— Kentucky Ju„. I.J7M 

J— Tennsaase. . . June 1. 17BD 

♦—Ohio 10.1803 

*— Louisiana. . April 30. 1813 

ft— Indlsns Dee ll.IHlo 

'— Miaslaaippa 11, e 10.1817 

I nit a ra i 11,.- ;<. isia 

.8— Alabama. .... Dee. 14,1819 

10— Maine afat 

'»— «7«ou" Aug 10. 1MJ1 

13— Arkansas June 13. 1838 

13 — Michigan. Jan. 34, 1837 

Is— Florida. Mar. 3.1844 

14— Texa* Dee 28.1844 

'S - L°"»- Dee. 28.1848 

17— Wisconsin . May 29. 1848 

I*— Tsllfntnis S, pl 9. 1848 

19 — Minnisuls. May II, 1848 

20 — Oregon Feb. 14, 1840 

-"Sss j, u . SO Is,. I 

32— West VirginU June : 

23 — Nevada Qra. 31,l«ft4 

24— NobrasU. Mar 1.1807 

24— Colorado Aug 1. 11(70 

20— North Dakota Kerr. 2, two 

27 — South Dakota Nor. 2.1889 

28— Montana Nov. 8, 1888 

»—Wash.n.tnn Nov. 11.1888 

3)1— Idaho July 3.1100 

31-aVt-yoming July :: 

32— Utah Jan 4. 1890 

33— Oklahoma N„v. in, 1007 

•14— New Mexico Jan. I 

34— Anson* |,i 14. 1012 

Admission of States (toe also th« sev- 

•■ r:il BtaataSj Kcconatruction; Reato 

ration): 

Acts for admission of cartain South- 
ern States vetoed, 3846, 3848. 

RocommcndatioDg rot»ardinir, 3033. 

a im 

Admittance. The, seizure of, on coast 

of California, 2156. 
Adobe State —A nickname for NYw M»x- 

i t.i. (Sea alio Ktatr*.) 
Aeronautics.— Th* ■ naelgatlng 

th.. air ba* an authentic blalory dating 
bach 10 A. D. 07, The free Hying balloon 
or acrostic 1» a apbcrl-al big filled with gaa 
specific grnrliy Is lighter tban the 
■ Ir near the surface of tb* earth : It can- 
sot be steered, and la at tb* mercy of the 
air current*. 



Aeronautics Messages and Papers of the 



A dirigible balloon baa an elongated en- 
velope, auij I. equipped with a woior, pro- 
and a rudder, and cod be steered in 
■ moderate wlud. 

Klyii • which are not lifted In- 

to tin.- air by g»» bags are generally known 
a* aeroplane*. They are respectively class- 
Illed na monoplanes, biplanes, tilplaues, etc, 
according a« they consist of ou» or a cum- 
plane surface*. 

The Ftcnch army. In a battlo with ttao 
Austrian* ae Maubcrge. Jnni k naod 

an aerial vessel for •-■ ng the posil- 

tlnn of the enemy, and balloon* were used 
during the civil war In Che Called States 
Bud by the Kronen at tb* aleg* of Paris. 

Experiment* with plane mirfare* ill 
at high *pocd wont Or»t successful In 1843, 
when tb* English Inventor ll.nn.in flew 
the flr»t aeroplane, In America the plon- 

S-s In mecnaolcal flight were Orlave 
anute, of Chicago, and A. M. Herring. 
The first subvutitlal advance In flylug 
machine* was n 

many. In the o-vmtlca and eighties. Ills 
reicarcbc*. followed by practical demonstra. 
Hon of aeroplanes. lm ;bo basis of 

ill . .. hi. n! i'i..fes*r>r 

• uglry. of Ihe smiiv..iii.-in loitttutlon la 
Washington, began ciprrlrnent'bk- In 1SBD. 
and Dew aero** the 1'otomo Rival in 1SII0. 

The Wright he i . Wilbur nod Orvlll*), 

following Ihe line* of l.niiglcy and Llllen- 
thai, scado their first nights under motor 
power lu 10113. July I. lliiis. tllenn II. 
Curttaa fl-w in n biplane at the rate of 
forty mile* an hour. 

1 nt.-i iint l..ijnl in., ilng*. the possibility of 
serin: mi nt i-ontra't* and offer* of 

prtits by newspapers and aviation societies 
gave gr.at Impetus i i ,, patent of 

aeroplane* In 1009. 1010 an. I 1811. The 
Wright brother* and <■ r-nn II , C 
tinned to be tho foramoct experimenters In 
America, a* well a* winning fame and 

«j sit In September. 100ft, Oreille 
'right had almo*t met the lent re- 

Iulretaents for a practical acioplnnc for use 
a Hi., nini.v. when oni of his pm 

'Iyer. 
Vn.. and the machine fill to earth, killing 
I. but v., who was a 

Jnasengcr, ami Injuring Wright. 

H .1 

the specifications laid down by the govern- 
ment anil won a beau* of J25.000 for ex- 
. edlng thi itlpulated peed and the 
Wright machine was pun-hased bv the |0»" 
eminent for tho use of the Signal Corps. 
The American avint - the 

most conspicuous winner at the Ithclrnn, 
Praflci In 1009. winning the 

Jame- QordoO Hennett run and $5,000. A 
few weeks previous he bad won the SHers- 
111c Amcrir.m iijp for the second time?, 
i b« Ni •« York World offered a prise of 
» li 1,000 for mi- first aviator to fly from 
Albany to N-« York or vice venu. Cnr- 
tl«s made this trip, winning the prlM. 
Way 2!>. 1010. He covered the distance In 
2 hour-. M minute* on tb* wing, an aver- 
ago of 04 miles an hour. June 30, 1010, 
Charles K. Hamilton won a pill* offered 
by the Sew York Timet and the Phlln- 
i UMOtr by flying from N*W York 

B Philadelphia carrying n message from the 
of Sew Tort lo tin. Coventor of 
ad returning Nov. 7, 1910, 

Phllln 1". 1'nrmalee flew from IlBrlnn to 
mis. O.. a distance of (12 miles, la 
DT minute*, carrying 200 pounds of mer- 
chandise. Charles '1. Weymann, an Ameri- 
n ib.- James dot-don Uennett fuji al 
i land, Julv 1. 1B11. 
The use Dl laehlnea on -.urines of 

war ha* ari of military 

on ii nf all countries, particularly In Lnrope 
where huge araiaaicnta arc tho rule Their 



chief use*. It ha* b lined, bare 

been for scouting ami dropping explosive* 
or combustible*. The mo«t nicer *>ful .i 

Grlmcnu nt bomb-di"|.|iln« mnib 
1 were tliowj of CMBoid |l. Ilarmou. at 
Mtaeola. U I . .V I. Gun* to bilng down 
aeroplanes have been glvi-n some attention, 
and tb.- Krapp woi-ka, at Ksxen, Uermany. 
I':'.. a gun capable of shooting 

from 20.000 to 35.000 feel Into ihe air. 
wbercaa olr craft are scarcely discernible 
'"■:■ ""J 10.000 fwt. (Sec European War. 
Aortal Wart art. i 

At the clow of 1610 France hm! thirty 
aeroplanes building anil In comtnli'.l.'ii for 
military *«-rrlce. The flrst nsc of the aero- 
plane under condition* of actual warfare 
occurred at Clodad. Junrrs, Mexico, In I b 
It'll when Charles K. Hamilton 
rrwiKil the Mexican border from ths lull 
ed Slate*, made a circuit . i-liory 

supposed to be occupied by the Insurgent 
army and dUoovereo Baal On iii-.uig.nr* 

tired lo distant mountain fasti, 
Aa a naval auxiliary tho aeropl.i.,, prom 
hwa to be of great value In rising to a 
height of a mile or more to Inspect thsj 

io*c of ocean visible from 
an elevation. The use of the aeroplnn.. u. 
war mat revolutionise military tactics by 
discovering the exnet location, armament 
n tut numbers of the enemy, and might proves 
destructive by dropping explosives upon 
battleahlps la (he euemy's llnca. 

liming 1011 and 1012 a number of flights 
were undc. lit v nf 

carrying mall by aeroplane. In connec- 
iinn wiih the aviation meet at the Kaaeau 
lloulcvard Aerodrome on I-ong Island. 

N. Y„ In S.. ubei lull, an aerial post 

was maintained and letters carried to 
In. and delivered to the po«tm*«ter. 
On one oceanlnn l'ostmatleMieneral lllt.li 
e<irk was • nastengcr on a biplane and per- 
sonally carried a mall sack. 

All world record* for cross-country fly- 

r«re brok«n during Ib* New Vuk to 

Los Angeles flight nf Cnlbralth l: llodgera. 

who li-fi Mo- |. ii.-n. I r.:.v. N, Y., on Bub- 

■lay. Sept. IT. 1011. and completed hi. 

flight to il. *►( on Sunday. Nov. 

S. at Pasadena. I'sl. Kodgers flew a 

i me. and during hi* long trip the 

Ine was repeatedly repaired, ao great 

was the strain of ■ in- long looroas In the 

tlr. Rodger* Ib eHtlmab-d to here covered 

4,2.11 miles, nithi'iigh Ho- a<-lual route a* 

mnppcd out was but 4.017 mile*. 

.lan. is. 1011. R Ely flew from aviation 

llel ii San KmnelKeo to deck of tJ. 8. 

Ctulner frnalo, anchored In 8nn 

i«co llay. In flight nf sixteen mln 
duration. Ely, Hying * CurlU* biplane. 
landed on a specially built platform at the 
..f the vessel. letter sfully 

aro»e from the deck and relumed to the 
aviation field. This mil tbe flr*t aeroplane 
to land upon tbe deck of a Teasel. 

Stephen MeOordon established a new rrna* 
country passenger-carrying (light r, 
Apr. I, 101(1, when be flew from Newport 
New* to Washington and return, about MO 
miles. In 4V6 hour*. 

(6f« klao Army, Signal Corpi ; Navy, Ffji- 
ing Corps, nod for proetleiil tines In war, 

.... Botopau sTifi AtrM Worfan.) 

Aeroplane.— An airship which Is be»v1er 
t' un air. a* dlitlngulshed from llghterthnn- 
nlr innchloe*!, such as balloons 01 
(0, i i .See Aeronautics; European War. 
Atrial ii «., fan | 

Aff*lrs, ForeJUrn. (Soe Foreign Affnir*, 
Foreign i'.,li.v of United 8tate», 
and also tbe aeveral powers.) 






Expense incurred in, for which no 

■ -•on was made by law, 108. 
Report on, transmitted, 6200. 
Afghanistan <<-»tl*>l Kfcornasna by itan 
uatlrt.) Ii u Independent Asiatic StatO 
on the ootawtii frostier of Inula, lla 
■tea U esUrnalrd si - 
•tun sallM and It* population at ... 
two. It 1« bounded on the weat by IVr- 
•U. on aha aooUi by Urttlab I 
oa to* uoriU by Hum's Id A>lu. »uj on 
ik* nut by tbo puajaub ami uortiiwc-t 
frontier Provtuc. of Hritlab India. 

«oot»p*|i — Th* population Is mlxed. 
Tbr Afghan* (or ImnaUi bar* D*(ti 
doculnant stacc KIT. e-pciially In >. 
bar. Next eanii iitary 

an4 rouiiuvrrlsli nod lb* Tajik' 
oils, who are cultivator* or retail trod- 
tb* lu*>Afrt,un frontier are 
I'nibua lrll»»». who nre much 1d11u< 
r tbe mullah*. All are Suanl II* 
I .urn at-1 Kliil- 
who twfoiig to i ho tthlltr MCt 
TM oatloaal foafoe U Pu 
Mrp* bate been taken lo develop i 



hitherto conlrollnl by the Mullahs. 
/•*»H<ul r*afvrea.-- Mountains, eblef 
Hi which ar* tbe Hindu K 
hi at the • ii- -v, ■ 

IIOS belnr generally over 4.00(1 feet Tin re 
t<# greut river bailn*. tbo Onss. tbe 
rltW"*. and II 
dry, with eitieaw temperatures lo winter 

lll.T. 

'. rjlinnlitan and 
tsepeodcnclea IU> 
i' La op of tbe Kail 

Rahman Ktmai 
lb* Ac l Unb- 

man Khun ■ •r.itili»t>e<l ■ aiml 

nt nad Introduced a r. 

works, po- iiuaiieo and 

trade, ete. l'or the purposes or local goi- 
rrttniruf. the country l« divided Into six 
peo«-i Tarfc- 

i««n, Psrrar and lladnl b Ka- 

•cl.im noil Waktuni. which nre under 
nor* 4 buikim ■ . with subordinate no- 
We* and Jodse*. police ami reveaii* offl- 
eera. The Afghan law* nre I'lncnlc mcrrd 
1 1 law*, and tbote or itn» Amir. 
«im u i|i» Court of Appeal. Tlie lair la 
balky and the ertnV il law arrere. 

rorrto* «»-*al**«« wpb. 

the Amir, tbe "bun or Afgbao- 

Kan baa no foreign relation* with any 

'-l*m blalory or Afghan: 
rmm IKS1. wben AluJorrnLna ma rrmt- 
aJsed aa rater. Tbe British Ooverameat 
nigi. -r»» the Mfrty and lnl»f 

rl'y or Afibaaaelao acaluat . ny i 
yoked attack, provided thnt the Amir ncied 
a* a frlvaxl aad ally. By tbo Anglo Rm- 
•un coa>- 

drelared Afghanistan be IluaaUn 

sphere- of Influence, and eneneed to con- 

I Bllll Af- 

., ■ i. : 

' ula and l{i.-«M should enjoy 

• nnd fn-Ju'fry and roaimeree — 

nre Indiiatrloua rultl- 

•. and tbe country n»» become fnlrlv 

acttled. p»iie»ful and prmpsroui. Tbi>r* I* 

r.'r.tloa and all pmrlintile »oll I* 

are generally two crop* 

' wheat (rr* staple I 

hart* rl**. millet. 

nalae and it.ii. whl;. Tl.-h 

la frtiM*. Hbeep and tran*pnrt nalmnl* 

•*4. Tb» u>antifaef.ir»% inelnda »l!k- 

trooteb and hair clotb*. and carpata. Salt, 



Africa 

allver. copper, conl, Iron. lend, rehlea and 
The export* to India *r* 
raw wool, 

■ bile the liui-ori. tuereitom arc 
ly cotiou yum 

i KiHid*. t«M aa<l ■ 
cbna i'iiK...in. dullei an h" 'i u.-n- i-. 

a lirgc export of wool to Persia and llu»- 

liMlllU, M 

bflwr nge. 

id) are generally 
1 trnfflc. b 
In* lasnroved. Good* an- . ,, . ,1 by 

riulnml*. 'i [M to 

. »re tbe Khallmr I'nn*. f r- >m ) 
to Peshawar (101 mlle*i, alone win 
iiiiiinr Hrrlca has been eatabil I 
Amir, and the road 

i ■ '. i he Bind I'libln 

rnllwoy termlnntea at Cbaman. nn the 

• r. f.ti niihi from K 
which a line rood ol M run* to 

KahtiL 

Toiens.— Capital. Kabul, about 130.000). 
The chirr commercial center Is Kanduhor 
130.000). (See also A. la. I 

Afognak Island (in Gulf of Alaska, 
iratrd from Alankiin Peninsula by 
8hi lands In, *.-t a] 

as public reservation by proclama- 
n, 5705. 
Africa.— The are* of Arrlcs I* 1 1 1 mil- 
lion iquati- boot three time* (hat 
of Europe. ll» extreme longitudes an 
W. at Copt Verde and 51 ' ):. nt Cop*. 
iirul. The extreme latitude* are 
• i In 37" N. ami 0*M A; 
la 85' ».. *t n dbitnnr* of d 

nillCI. It I* nun nun, ,1 I .- n nil 

iii IhP Bnrr« 
tbronrh w I 

may t>e considered a* a great penlnaula or 
llic Eur.i • a 

The nation* of Afrlen, with the feflB of 

Kvernmsnt and the capital of each, ft* 
» : 

Arc* Popula- 
---,. Ma. . i(oa 
Afcyxlnia (F.mpir«>. Adla Ab- 

ab* :ifl»l.(«0 7.000.000 

Eir«-pt(Con-ili.i.ui 1 :uM,l.Ciir.. So3,aD0 11,400.000 
liberU (ItepubUel. Monrovia. 4B.000 1 .'00.000 
Mmocm (Em! 220,000 £,000.000 

Sudan ICon-rlnminlum). Khar- 
tum fl.VI/JOO J.7IO.00O 

Fntorl*. 470.000 «fj00,000 

A"n a'* PinuMHoa— t*ln"d* adjaennt 
e.mlnrnt of Afrlen. tbelr «lxe and 
tbo (overniaent to which thi y I 

Ar»* Ponula- 
Nsnie and CnTemment So. Mil** 
Aseewloo. British 38 ISO 

Aaoraa, Portu«u«« oao ::' 

CaJiarv laUncla. Bpanwh i^OO 

Cape '. iisuom 1.80(1 1 

7S0 SOflOO 

Mularuni, Frtneh 338,000 S." 

Ma<l*ira. Portiutueae SIO I9AM9 

Maun TM f. 

Ii 

Rodrlruei. Britlah SO 3000 

Ba, Halana, British 80 S/SOO 

Rrvrhrllra. British 150 

Hoeotra, IlnUsh 1.400 12/XK) 

PAyUeal Featurrt. — Afrlra la broadly 
a tableland with few mountain rsng.-*. 

■ tbo Alias, tbouarb lnolntcd penk* 
rl«c to a AM*. 

KIlliTino- 
Jnro nnd Rnwen 

IKimerun l'enkl. If nn lrrt-»"l.'r Hue I* 
rawn from a point on tbo West Coast. 



Africa 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



a little eoutb of the Equntor, to a point 
near the middle of the KM Bet, AfrU-a 
..■ divided i irly equal pacta 

which differ considerably In character. 
Tli.- ..i . miiprlaea two re- 

lowland aeparated 
ti • ii ■ I ih- plateau* of i 
and Tuslll. The southeastern part con- 
►IM. of gn 11 1 UNM "' highland* and pla- 
teaus bralB a I' Of river valleys. Ths) 
river* of Africa drain Into the Atlantic, 
the Mediterranean, mid tba Indian Ocean. 
BoQl Hi" Senegal anil Gambia art ua%-l- 
gnl.lc for sonic distance In t lie rainy ar.n- 
•on. The most Important river which 
Dow* Into Hi' iJulf ••( liulm-ii la Hie Nig. '. 
'I li. I In the plnlmil »"iithw«-Kt 

of I. nke Tanganyika. From Stanley Falls 
to Stanley Tool, a broad, imilgnliln river 
fluwii for 1,000 mile* A. theac are them- 

... \: i - i':..i- rlvera, in bboi na a mourn of 

water la carried down to tho mouth. Ow> 
lug to the depth nf lit-- i in, Urn i. ui- 
iii. hi deposited doff Ml reach 'he surface 
In the form of n delta, but forma autima* 
rlne rldgca r..iW10 feet In height fm 
300 inlli'H oo MCO -I'M' of I"* ■"•''nil rim n- 
n.i. Th" Oman Hirer rises In the Drnk- 
enabcrg Mountnlna not far frum tho Eaat 
Coast and recolvoa the Vaal ami i.ili.r 
fin i" i he Nile i-laci in ihr aonth 
of Victoria Nyau/n. the largest lake In Af- 
rica, of about ti i .i "f Scotland, and 

break" through the plateau to i ■ 
hi I he Murchlson Falls Into the All., n 
Nyanxu, mom 1,000 fe. ' below toe level of 
the larger lake. Owing to the Oat char- 

aeter of tin inlTJ, =nd the large amount 

of water whl.-h bun no 

txienslr* awanip vegetation, the "•odd, 

baa been formed In thla part of in conrae. 

At Khiirluiu It r Ives the Kim- Nile, 

which, with the oilier Abyssinian riier*. 
la largely the source of the Nile floods, 
due [.. the lllonaiiiili r.illiM .if !h" Aliysaln- 

imi Platean, and farther north the At- 
bnr*. which brings down the alluvium 
which baa helped to fertlllie Egypt. From 
tiii>. point it reeelvea no permauenl trlbo- 

nnil iiiivi. .v all 

of nhlcb the first In nt Asanan. 

I'lie extensive delta fmineil north of Cairo. 

where ihe Nil,- leare* Hi. Ions narrow v«l- 

Ihe ninat fertile area In N.irlh Af- 
rica. Iter ween the Mle and Tunis tnc 
Sahara reachea the Mediterranean and 

art i". ptmaami ■treama. The Sn- 

Is parity occupied l.v plateaus and 
tu—intnln* and partly by steppe* and de»- 
en , 'ihleh contain oases. Africa Is cut by 
the ['.junior nearly halfway between n» 

me points ■" thru rither m.-rc- limn 

quarter* of the oonttnrot lies with- 
in the Tropica and receives the sun"* 

ray* vertlcanj nt least once ■ rent, Ex- 
cept ..ii rhe more lofty umuntalna. Atrl.a 
has no arena with cold winters, where tbe 
ti mporature l« 32* F. or less for one 
or rool lanmi i ■• 111. b ire le«a 

.11 f In any iriiuif h. I! I i. ■ li,r..f..i". 
I generally of tropical ruber thnn 

temnerati idltloaa, In which then- Is no 

ri-MttriK -imsui for vi-v> lailoii, except In 
eonaaqnence of want of rain, 

Ethtioaraiihii- — Four main groups of na- 
tive rai i i Ingnlshed In Africa, 
tbe Bcmtl Ic nod Unmltlc, 
Cancasic type In the north. Ihe Negro, and 
(he HOttentOl mnl Hushinen In the mml h. 

PaHtirnl /Mi-islon*. — Africa Is appor- 
tioned among the power* of Kuropc as fob 

Great Britain— Rnstiti-lnnd, I'.-chiinnalandl 
Protectorate. Clpa inlony. Central Africa. 

'.i'iI. :i Pr.'lietotate, ITgnndn 
ale. Zanrlhar Protectorate. Mauritius. Na- 
tal, Niger Coaat Protectorate. Territory 
of the Royal Niger Co., South Africa, Weet 



Africa, Zululand and Islands, and the Boer 
colonics 

France — Algeria, Senegal, French Sou- 
dan and the Niger Uauoon sun Guinea 
Coast, Congo Region, Somali Coaat. Mada- 
gascar and Islands. 

Germany— Togoland, Cameroon*, South 
Weal Africa. East Africa. 

— Kritrea, Somaliinud. Tripoli. 

Portugal— Angola, th* Congo, (Jul oca. 
Eaat Africa and It-land*. 

bpain— Kio de Oro, Adrar, Fernando Pa 
and Island*. 

Turkey-Egypt. 

i he Congo Stat*. 

Area Papula- 

Bummary Sq. MUcs lion 

mlcnt |.,i.iih»i _-t ■ I K)l i.lMMt 

)l-lif>«n 

1!..810 tO.OOO.000 

French «,3Oa0O0 30/100.000 

Goiman II.W.WH 

ItaUoa K)l,i -■ 

Portugua* SUOflOO o.onofl00 

Spanisli 86.000 340,000 

(See Vulon of South Africa.) 

British BApT AFRSi i eonprfoaf the 

main portion --f Ihe highlands of eaatern 
equatorial Africa. The sin-face In eaat 

idunlly to lowlands ■■! 
w-Ki ami unriliwesl I" valley "f I 
Mle, The prluclpul river Is the Mle; 
Tana ami Jiilm chief ils.n. em- rlnc ln-.ll- 
.-.in. Huh many Internsllng lake*>; 
northern bail ..r vieioria Nyan- 
u. l'olltlcnlly the district la divided 
iiuuinG Hi. pruteci'iriites nf Eaat Africa, 
.•.I loir. 
A'ast Afiira Protectorate Includes the 
coaat from Jnba Rher to Ocrman East 
Afrb-n ami Inland lo I gauda linrdefl 
Higher pl.iteaim. clothed with luxuriant 

(I"-, -inliy ml ipieil in stock rnla- 
M.iuiiinHn, id chief fiiy, baa 

n iiiw barbor; population, SO.tlllO. I.nniu 
and Klsniayn, chief porta In the north; 
Viiugn and Takaungo, sontb. 

r -wHifa Protect' nhere 

of British Inllneiice IWKi; Iii.Iii.Ih I'g.mda 
proper. UBon to the east, and L'nyoro and 
olhor countries weal. 

■'(.— Zomlbar. an Im 
porlant Mohammedan 

■ •' M I'". spendcoce con- 

Onned 1801: placed nadei Brin-h nrof-c- 
tlon 18UO. Znntlbar, free port ; chief tn.de 
centera In this region: Mohamnu di-ui 
prevails; (hrUllnii infralont eelnbllahcd. 

OKttUAS P0BSKB810S8— German JTaat 

.tfrirn. — Uermnn possessions In East Af 

rlca were a ilred l^-<."i t .. I son, Sphere of 

iiilirmvs a coast line of about 
O'JO miles, stretches aouth from Brlllsh 
East Africa to I'-i ; 

wsatnuril to I.nk-'- Nyaaa and Tnngan- 

Cblcf prodneta: Millet, bananas, 

sisal, coconnnts. cloven. eaatOT oil. sugar 

I able*. Natives have large 

banana nlantatlona, nixo cultivate Indian 

corn and pnbw. On coaat lands are Cer- 
ruon plantations of cacao, ma, va- 

nilla. toblCCO, and India rnlil-er : In more 
elevated district* coffee I* grown. Among 
native* tho goal Is the noal .-mnnmn do 
ini'stlc animal; cattle and sheep also 
raised. Exporta. Ivory, sisal, India rubber, 

eoffeo. Chief aeaport- : Dar-ea-Salaan, 

Bftgamoro. Kllwa. Protestant mission oo- 
cletles, 7 ; ltouan Catholic, 3. 

Knmrrult eltcntla between British Ni- 
geria and French Equatorial Africa. Be- 
came irutectorate. lS.ss: In 1IUI. 
France ceded a\*t 100,000 square mile* to 
Germany, giving colony outlets t" fongo 
Baalo. Value of Imports, iti.Odi.OOO: 






Encyclopedic Index 



Africa 



chid? cottooa. Hit. rice, spirit*, wood. 
aasj ttteo. «. »s1.740.ixhi 

smarted. *|.S«.«, I1.00U; 

■Sim aerr 1)00 Itory. fcfJO, I; 

cacao. »eM),«XH>. Dnnla Is tbe chief town, 
■DMlatne, 22,000; bnoa, scat .if corcn- 

■MM. 

Jli'J —This grew oul >'f ll»' 

Coatso Interoattoaal Association, fi.uodnl 
IMS by lxviml-1 II. King of 11.1i.-1.mik. and 
organised by Stanley, nrst Ocvernoi 
• r»l. ll*m 

tnllty dretaraii. .-d ua- 

il« aoverelgnty of tar King, wbo. lSbo. 
basques! bed bis smr-relga rights lo Bel- 

STbe 
oo«o River and lt» many tributaries are 
th* gjej| natural fral urn of the eouutry. 
fWt! -ory. palm nuts, 

and pains oil : offer noil tobacco thrive. 
Boat*, rai'ltal and port on Congo River. 
Banana, ump.. 

— Discovered by Portuguese IB 

from mouth of 

Coatco «o Cunrnr River, over 1.000 miles: 

aarroanded la-laud by Belgian < 

•th Booth Africa, nod <;»noaa Southwest 

.1. OH palm ii. i f>>«Dd below 10* 

swath : eotTee grows wild In nearly all billy 

ii Arabrls; coltoo 

la grown In ai« ' .saamedes. sugar 

la lowlands; other productions are ri 

wax. t»e" a, flab. 

sad Ivory. Trad* la largely wllh rortugal. 

In 100b 1.741 vessels of i..ui 

-its. Mnlacbltc, oop- 

Ki-um. and Iron found In 
rgr gold nlao exists. 8. 

• sr.Oa. capital and seaport. Pott 
ader. arat of dah salting Industry. 
rtt i:\r II EQUATORIAL AFRICA.— 
I Hal.iin na en- 
•abllabed by lb- FrctKa In 1843: authority 
M Lopes and Ojrowe Hirer 
In 1M';: Interior between ti|o»f and 
Congo r»piui.-d hj do flrana 1- 

larjrr n ii. I, 

• latest recognized by Berlin Conference 
Region cast of Kaiuerun and north 
ta Lake Tchad rom-erled in .' r. u.-li 
fllnee then growth by eiplnraiton and mil- 
itary occupation. In 1000 three autono- 
anons - i Oabun, Middle 

Congo, ami I'll" coat), 

iry la well watered led covered with n 
•eaali* forests. Cotton, tobacco, clnna- 
■son. pepper, noma, resins, nt.l 

irodaccd. Libreville, capital of Ua- 
boo and seaport. 

IVO PROTECTORATE^ IR'it- 

;he reatan on anuth and 

a ial sb e cca of Lake Vyatn. Imports, cot- 

provisions, hardware, etc.: ex- 

porta. eno"es> cotlon. tohaceo. Blnn 

chief town; fcoaha. »e*l of ndmi: 

■ K — 

rfsssaTy lying between t>e Molopo and 

Zaa»- the 

i. an Itcnabllc and MatabcSe'md 

'■> f.-rman Southwest Africa Rnll- 

w«r •xteada from Bulnwayo to the ''ape. 

MIIODEKIA.— The territorr within the 

K-r» of Infl he ncirth of 

kaanalaad and the Colon of South 
Afrlr». IHrlded Into Xortbero and Sonth- 
era HhooV»1a \<j the Znmli. la of 

hardwoad timber alinnnd. India rubber. 
I Mir*, and cotton Indleenoua. Cniintrv 
Heb In nalnerala: jnM, ellrer. eom.n 
aeaMt. ml, anil an'ImnnT exl«t. Hallabury. 
rvpttal of Sontbern Rhodraln. 

ittmrnwf: /-is;- » pri ca .— Kir«t 

Fe**n«nr«*> aaftlementa made <in w«t eon«t 

■nl at lT formed IMP*. 1'nat.eaalona ill- 

rldad Into 0r» dla'rtera Moiomlil.v-. Lon- 

Marqaaa, Inbamhane. Qulllmane. and 



tV,7 



REUNION, «r BOURBON.— lalaad about 
110 inliea aootbircM of Maatllloa. French 
ponesaloa alocc IV 07. 

ST. UELKSA. In South Atlantic about 
1.200 :ulli-» from Treat conat of Africa. 
iJlxi-ui-ered hr fortuxueae l.M 
lo Kaat India i to lt>3t. 

Now a Brltlth colour. Nnpolcon I lm- 

prtaoaed -arc Wis to 1881. Araa, ■*: 
oquare miles. Population. 3.280. Cli- 
mate mild and aKrvcablc. Capital. James- 
town. 

UAUAOASVAR.—Axx laluud known lo 
tbe ancients and aaiiy Arabs; drat de- 
scribed by Marco Polo ; rediscovered by 
PortanaM la ISM: Franca laid otala U 

the Inlnnd In 1042. t'hrlailnuiiy w 
iroduccd In i war between 

French and nstlvea In 

i- nh.-il in IV, i, ob protei-tnrati The l< 
land and Its d. ; were declared • 

French colony In i- 

Jf.ii -Ialand In Indian Ocean, 

600 miles e*»t of Madagascar. I>l»co 
by Portugo. : no British 

E'salou, ISU < hlef export raw sugar. 
ea language French ; offlilal lingllih. 
Louis, capital. 
rRBXCH rn \»«/0>V». — Jlfjerta.— 
Original Inliablianta were Nuruldiann or 
ra conquered by Komnux ami »*»0' 
dais. Turkish poaaanleB 1010 to 1710. 
l'lriitlcal po»er alxteeiilh to nineteenth cen- 
tilii.i . defeated by (be United Siaira In 
1815. Algiers taken by France 181J; Con- 
stantlue. 18117. The Kabyles were sub. 
dued and iM-al-KsMW wni captured In 
1 U . 

runii.— Invaded by Frcnrh 1270 ; by 
Spanish, II ime a Turkish n»v- 

inca UTS ; ruled by beys and long noted 
aa a piratical state. It was u 
Frnncc IM1 

««nfooi colony ronsl.ts of foar munlcl 
pnl communes of St. Loula, the capital of 
the ealODVl Dakar, n fortified naval els- 
mid seat of Oorernmem Oeneml of 
ii Wen Africa | Ruiixrpie ; and Ooroc. 
nren 43» square miles; terrltorv ■■! dlrecl 
naiulul.iraili.n. nren 74.000 square miles 

■-•(»co woa di-lached from Sene- 
gal In 1800 nnd flrat known as Klvlcrea 
nil »nd Colony. The coast territory et- 
nd between Sierra Leone nnd 
i-u..-.- >:• ilnen. 

«»' , ' < ".5i Coii'l — Annexed by France 1S02- 
m. I he COlonj extends Inland between 
Uberla and British Gold Const, embrac- 
ing K.-^ng and other slates on north. 

flare. ^rbea Inland between To- 

galand nnd British Logos: and northward 
• French Military Territories. 

1/anretuiii'o, formed Into a protectorate 
!n I'ih-.i. ronslats of five d | r»r«a 

in, (i.irgnl. Hiildlmakii and Tagnnt. 

Upper .'..i.... i: mi. I Virrer, extends i... 
tsvecn Irory Const on the south and Al- 
K^rlnii st.bere on the north. 

MOROCCO, the Mauritania of th* an- 
elrnts: conquered br the Arnbs aboul 
Prenent dyn»«ly. Scherlffs. pretendeii I,- 
nts of Mohaiiinieil e. Inbll.be,] | D |a>, 
Most nourishing period if country lu7»- 
lftos. Slavery of Christiana nlioll«hed 
1*14: plrncy prohibited IS 17. The tonta- 
rm fffoatlaf toirard Wnhnrn unsettb-il TlM 
cniintrv eomprlan n -'Tell" „r fertlll 

ipenlng upon the Atlantic, an ei». 
rnled region beyond traversed bv ranges 

of Atlas slountalni (Ayashlo m .-.mi - 

and the eastern >.r desert region of Sa- 
tin rn. (oast district Iniereseeted bv nn. 
mcrona abnrt rivers. Tin- .-llmnte Is warm 
nnsl geiiernllv healthful. The nnr'hwest 
hin suffldent ralo from October to March : 
Orourbts not u"comraon In southwest H..II 
?n '•'•""«. jcarlnn snd monntnln valleva fer- 
llrt: J-Ielda ahuudantl.r uinbr rudest cultl- 




Africa 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



I 



ration, Produru : Wh*at. barley. Indian 

corn, hemp, benna, Ua (topical and *ul>- 

il fruits; date* a regular crop In 

YVeultb of Arabs conxliia of oil- 

lle. horaeo, sheep, and oatrlcbea. Manu- 
factures coruprtio carpel". WW Uatbcr, 
•voolans, allk*. Jewelry, anddlery, esrth»n- 
ware. •(<■ Mineral deposits— undeveloped 
Ini'linle In. ii, in ■•• 

antimony, lead, etc.: One nm round. 

tli.' northern capital nod leu 
commercial city: Morocco lontborQ .-aiil- 
lal and baa manufacture* of mora 
leather. Tanglor. aenport and chief • • 
of trade. Rdurntion la limited to i i h- 
log* from nlsm pre- 

m religion. The Sultan i be bead 
..: Ibt religion. Tbo army comprLe* 

--'mil ii mi.), r Kuropcun duel- 

timl on additional forco of 8,000 rul- 
Itla and 10.000 lufantry. 
SPAMBll ' ..110X8. — Canary It- 

Became a --'pnnlsb possession. I*PS. 
Spain. Bn 
mountainous dlver»lllcd by plain* and val. 
] f producta. augur, cochineal, 

hi. ; other product*, tobacco, alio, 
barley, and tropical fi 
capital. Santa Crtii de Tenerlffe : rhl*?f 
arl Palmna. Religion, ltomnn Catholic. 
Jclo dc Oro and Adtar— area, "3.000 square 
population, 12,000 — under nowroor. 

Islnnd* with Kubgnvcf nor 

in RIO da Oro. !•'. innnilo To nnd Ann.n- 

■ . iiiuiinliiliioua Maud* In Gulf of 

1 '/TUB POBBEBB10SB.—Car<« 

Vtrilt li/andi discovered and colonized by 
igusa HtlO. Ilaa flourishing cln. 
. plantation*. Other product* In- 

i.i, tobacco, sugar, brandy, pulm 
..il. rrnltl Cattle, sunt", pigs, numerous. 
Manufacture* : Salt Bonp. Ilucna, pottery, 
uml Ii ither, Iron nnd amber In aoutberu 
Uland«. Capitol. Pr.im 

Porfupwe Oulnte — On Sencgnmbla 

ctMBt. surrounded on land aide by Frencb 

Imluclei Illssago* Archipelago 

: ..: i . i I- inn.l. Chief prodncti India 

rubber, wax. oil, seeds. Ivory, and hldc«. 
Capital. Bolnma. 

Thomat and Prlacp lilandt.— St. 
i In. mil- iSao Thorn*) dlacoTercd by I 
rueae. 14701 with Prince Inland lllba do 
ripe), Ita dependent, forms proilnce 
of Portugal. Volcanic and mountainous 
7,028 fecti with lux- 
uriant T«1P Plllimlc llllbellKbfUl i 
rnln tbnn on malnl/m/i. chief prod- 
coffee, cacao, cinchona: sugar end 
ranllln also pm I'll il. '"|.| i.le .t- 
So.. Thou.c. Chief ton n nnd port <l*rlnc« 
Island) Sao Antonio. 

Mailrlro /abimt*. — Island* known to an- 
and vlaltcd by Arabs In Ibc twelfte 
century; redlaenvurvd and colonized by 
Portugue*e, 1*20. Very monntali 
. pica ItuWo, 8 000 fi ••' I Notable bi 

I fur ICurnpenn Invalid*, Mean tem. 

S: hlghe»t. S3 dcg. : lowest. 
I deg. Sugar run.., tobacco, md •II tmp- 
.1 Hnropeaa frnlts irrown; wlnea fa. 
BOtW, i ■ , ii- ■ -t> :i 1 capital. 20,8-1-1. 

BRITISH POBBBBBlOS'R.—nnia Cnn»f — 
Danish settlements transferred to Fng- 
land, I8S0 lultnn. 1872; colonial 

prernmrnl sstnbltshcd. 187* : A«hnn»*e 

Flscrd mi. lei- itrltlKh 
nasi regions level: Interior hlllT. S«II 
fertile. Products? Palm oil and kernel". In 
,ii. rubber Sola nuts, ana Bulbar. OoM 
.iwirlt.iii.il Akrn. capital nnd 
eb'ef elir. Cape Const Pestle. Ralla-a™. 
Iffi) him... THecr»nh. l.Sil:t mil" R 
tl.,n m-iiilv In linnda of religion" limit,.. 

IMinoo, — Territory discovered b] Porttl 
fiieec. 1**7: fort eatabllabed by English. 



IdSO; became British possession, 1783; 
annei- - Leone. 18-11: independ- 

ent colony, ls.SH. I'roducta and ex: 
Ground nut", bide beeawax. rice, cotton, 
corn, and India rubber. Itatburit, capital 
»ud chief city. 

Sierra /.cone— Nortbwvat of M 
Unauccenatul attempt made to colonlxc lli> 
♦■roteil alavca, 178i ; territory aanexed by 

■■in i. Kvl : became Crown 
180.. Const an nndulitlng plain: I . 
elevated plateau*. Koreala extenxlre. Boll 
fertile, rice yielding abundantly In Inte- 
rior: oMton plentiful: indigo practically 
wild. BajtorU Imliide pnlm oil and palm 
kernel", gfngjr, ground and kola nut». trop- 
leal fruit*. India nil. In 

an II In produced; workers In gold 

and "llrer are numnroua and .kilful. Free- 
town, capital : mow important ataport 
(fortiflad) ox We»t Africa. 

\i ■..ii«. ii.nnii. .1 on rhe eau by Ka- 
merun. we*t by Pahomey. and dlvhled Into 
two dlvl'iorik. Northern and Soutl.iru Nl. 
gerla. About Dlna-taotlu of the area waa 
formerly within the terrltorlea of the floy- 
nl Nlgar Company. In I8SI-87 whole of 
Nigeria was declared to be under ItrltUb 

Srotectlon ; In 1000 It waa transferred to 
Irect ImptrlaJ nduilnlttratlon. 
jh'Orfaem •...•..-- Product* of the Inw- 
conntry. pnlm oil : Inland region, rubber, 
ground nut", *ncnbutlcr, If 
atock. oatrlcn feathers. Cotton growing la 
1 on : tobacco nlao grown. Mineral* : 
re I» In rich depo.lt*. silver al»o 
found. l'rotcdant missionary soclcttea 
liio. Induatrlal schools. 

Setll! a. colony and prop 

ate of Southern Nigeria and Lagos. The 
chief producta nre paltn-nll, cm i 
coffee. Ivory, bide*, carthnuts nnd fi 
Ulnerali: Slansanaae ore, tin or.', lignite. 
end monastic. Lagos Is tbe cnpltnl and 
Important port. Kallway*. In all Nigeria 
ovor 700 miles, connecting Logos. Jebba, 
:n. uml Knno; telegraph mileage, 
0,000 

Britlth BomnUlanJ. — lb-came a proteo 
IRS*. Region ■ 
lo Xlyado, with nn area of 08.000 souare 
mlli-s. Import* : chiefly rice, textile*, nnd 
date*: exports: aklaa bid**, o.trlrh feath- 
ers, cattle, sbeep. and gum. Berber*, chief 
(Sec also Union of South Afn. 
UOKRIA.— Country settled 1833 by 
negroet. »eni out under Amerleau '""I 
• nl- ill. .ii Society: declared Independent. 
18*7. Ij low 

and sandy: Interior bin* and mountain* 
are co> t ■ < I "lili boootlful f../.- Is, dlrtral- 
fled hr well wnt. i. .1. ferllli 

■ rp . n- .ir.- St Johni ond 

ritmata nnbaaltbfnl, seasons wet and drv 

horte^l no i| 

slmoat constant land and ara brrecrs. I'of. 

fee — renosrned for u« excellence- nod gin- 

ger are chief products. M 
■ rrowroot. HugHr rSM, Ctr*a>1a, nnd vege- 
tables readily produced. Fruit* nre »bnn 
dant nnd finely flavored. Exports — Lead- 
ing artl.-lo- coffee, pnlm ml nml pnlm 
g rubber, cocoa, sUfAT, arrowroot, 
Ivory, bides, and plnsaaro. Import"— fev 
tlle« .rovlslona. hardware, tobac- 

co, furnltore, cte. Monr ivln. i-npltal. 

min/.ix «7O0TJrTT»sr .iran- 

Heclnn annexed be Oermany In 1R<I*. Poa- 
n« xtend along the const !M0 miles. 
FOYPT— One of ,nrlle«t sent" of rl. II- 
Isntlon renowned nllke for Its great an- 
llmiirr nnd former «nlendor. Mode"i hi*. 
tnrv begins With th* i-.n.|ii.-l In- Mi 
medsna, ft»8 A D. r taken tor Mamelukes. 

became Turkish province. 1B17 
Vft.l.-.l l.v Xn.n.l. .,■■ 1 ??"•<% : rfv'oreil in Tor 
key, 1801. The New era began with M*> 






•start iter Of present .1/no«tjr : 

raLft, -m-i Ciaal was 

if iui il la lot.. i. A iijii..- molt ouiier 

A>aM !"»■*«, )■ 

-ppolnted. Mah- 
als* i a In Sudan rei cun- 
4«strr : li.- great natural (*atutca 

">• lUVor irrt. Th* 

_as Ha ac 1 .\)i>u: 

- aaaual Inundation and d»;n»ll °* 

luaa I miser of I 

and dry ; fruiter north but Me, 

i 
ttsJm delta. Van res- 

;ootf wnters of Nile nl Aaauno : 
Irtfccat'd aira ctcittantlr lucr.-ni.lix 
raalal lin.-»il"n «<-ur.< imi or three 
mass annually; la winter, cerenis; bod*. 
•atr. miw, »ucir. ami ilea; autumn, rice, 
saalt*. ail 

■■•> oVo»-. .tie Copts, 

lag*, dwell 
ohiitly la ; 

leesa, 970; commas museum of 
t>o*>|iif-s. Alexandria, founded 
>tau.«-.-> Ul oiit.r nml caJef »»a- 

tBuei Canal. 
-lonxing to state. 1B10. 1.443 
1 X.IM) 
naUaa. ***ra Cabal. ST ml-m lunar. COS' 

,...:i»y tributary lo Turk, » 
I bvmlbally In I. Khedive nml 

uppvrted since )«Hi by urltub 
ad c I -cr ». 

■•spttan Sou-ten extends from 
Ecyptlan Iron- 'gl*n 

and from Red S-a to .Murines of 
Wafts' ii, Otador- 

««» ( ran mi. formerly Dervlah eai 
WadT Haifa. Convection of 1809 pro- 
»**>• for i>.rrrnor-«>cneniI appointed by 
Bs?ypt wlifc contest of Ornat Hi 

I. concurred. *uei..i«ively by 
Ar»t-s aud Turka, f. .rosed una* of Hurbnry 

■ H : re coo- 
il en- 
r. and Tot war. 

•tly desert: mountain. ma 

Coast Use soo tulles: 

B, to- 

Maa>. ostrich 

•a. hfitca, 

i avnn rid - 1 empire, 

•-...•.led oa th.- north by Eritrea, oa tba 

•set by IHnnkll country asd £ 

•m Ike » -jib ai-d » 

Africa and on the swrthweet by I he 

:be direct desoearlnrit of tbe ancient 

reet- 
laar aail.m ' i ehiin-n which nwea 

-i>dance Co the Coptic l'alrtarcb of Alex- 

frpo — 

I tilled l*90. A«aab 

It. il 
Raa Kn»ar to Sir»li of Hob-el- 

lasd niiout 

_a. Petri fHhi'rl'i at Ms«"»un and 

Areh't. .rry Is banda of 

... fortified • .*- 

• r cla> 

Asmara, aeat of government. 

■.. of rtb- 

•.del In 1S9S and " 
I Italian 

ti of co»«t ex- 

Bmiat froeu Una Alula to month of Jobs 

rttuxca rOfisrHSIOS-R. — Otof* and 
>■■«. I by 

rn*~ t*««. s vd-n. 

aart«aoa>d by Eritrea, Abyaalnla. and 







African 

British gomajlland, extendi Inland about 
forty mlk 

I ' lea. Chief litlea. ubock and Tajurah 

Alrica: 

Ageota sent to, to r«<«ire alsvet 

taken froB 683, 

Citizens of" i itM mu\ 

:■• riflitH of iuliaiiitaiiUo 
Native* of, in slavery. (S*o African 

Wave Trade.) 
Naval force of United States ata- 
tlonod on coast of, referred to, 
2173, 307 1, 
Repressing liquor trade in, sugges- 
tion* made br Bel;: i.li.V 
8lavcrjr on coaat of, 4l«0. 
Veaaela of United States velxed oa 
coast of, 1857, 3017. 
Africa, Tlie, attempted seizure of Mr. 

Fancfact by eommamler of. I 
African Blava Trad*.— Prior to the dlacor- 

ny of Am ... ., IUH ollnr >4TagH 

race>. latod or pnt to deaiU ua 

captives taken In war. Tha dVportnn 
to* captives to the mln™ and plantation* 
of (be New World Increnrcd the laluo of 
the Afiloan and made alarrry railoi- than 
deall- inet'a fate. ■iltloo 

uf ca|iti»i.^ also led 

wbkh war for tbt pro»|H-cllve gain In bo- 
man chattel*. The aborigines of Aim-rlca 
ha vine proved tuo weak for im- viork ra- 
aulred of theos. n. wln> 

K»aae»*ed a la tee part of the Afi'lcnn coa<t. 
i-gan the , ii'"i tail.in i.f m which 

tbey were Imllai I 

i-ld World. BlI .!■ Im Ilsoklna was the Drat 
RDgllabman to rneoce lu alar* iistfTI-' 

linporlallnri nl ilk™ nlavea was an- 
Ihorlied In 151T. lixtreme rrw liy arid 
iBhuman treatment chnrai-terlxed 
traussporcatloii. Thej wan llalil 

ami Sanln |inm i the 

mlrie". In 1019 a Dutch v.--- I bruiteht a 
eoreo of alavea into th« Jamas Ulver. 
Twenty neciue* antra >-.•!.! i.> vir h -mia 
Hi., treaty nf I'lrcchl. 
Orvnt Brltoln o eonttacl tor 

lupplylne tlavea to il I In 

I'hls •ilmulalc.: trade gen- 

erally. Krvcnl of tha Colon lea attempted 
to prohibit the Importation of alavea but 

I Itrlintn t. 
Vlrrlnla pas*ed several acts forbidding tbe 
traffic, hut He y were vetoed by the Bt-lt- 

lit, :r ■■•■<■ nl n III 

by tynorylTiinia In 1713; 1711 and 1717, 
and by Massachusetts In 177i. 

Slavery was problMted by Hlmdc Island 
acid Conneeili-ut In 1774 and ' all th' 
: « tinder (be ' (Ion cove- 

I Oct. 24. 1774. nnd forbidden by 
nearly all i luring the Revolution. 

The slave-trade q riant 

one In 'he formation of n utl n. 

The Houihern Stales, except Virginia and 
ilartland. Insisted (hat no 

I 'io traffic. 

A eomrimtnlxe was llnnli. lllow- 

IOC Cooiresa lo prohibit It after 1S0B. Tho 
aet of Mar.-h 22. 1794, problbliid the carry- 
loar e-f slav« from one foreign 
another by American cltlrens: that of May 
10 '"'O, allowed rolled Stales war ahlpa 
to selte "Win encased In such tmfflc; 
thnt . 1R03, pr> is lo- 

af slaves Into States which hod 
forbidden slavery. In 1S09 tbe Impona 
lion of slaves Into the raited States was 



African 



lessages ana 



'residents 



forbidden, The acta of April -«. ISIS. and 

March J, jhiu, nuihorlird the President to 

M'nd cruisers to the coin of Africa to 

:ho slave trade. A* no restrictions 

srerv • vir placed spun Ntave tiad- 

ini: before Its abolition la 1800, Itai urroptl- 

tlout trade la Impuitcd slaves was Dot ea- 

t Ircly given up uotil that time. 

African Slave Trade. (8ee also Corn- 

jiroiniHf of I860; Kansas-Nebraska 

Act; Missouri Compromise; No- 

groes; Slavery.) 

Abuses of United States dig referred 

to. 2134. 
Act for suppression of, referred to, 

6621. 
Agents sent to Africa to receive 

slave*, 603. 
American citizens engaged in, 22 IS. 
Information regarding, requested, 

2907. 
Cargo of African negroes— 

Captured on coast of Cuba, and re- 
turn of to Africa, discussed, 3058, 
1184, SIM 
Landed on coast of Georgia, re- 
ferred to, 3005, 3069, 3086. 
Stranded on coast of Florida, and 
removal of, discussed, 907. 
Ceased in United States, 3779. 
Correspondence regarding — 

Referred to, 2268, 2287, 2426, 2428, 

2538, 2765. 
Surrender of slaves to Unit«<! 
States cdii' ul f l.-rred to, 1944. 
Dlaenased by President — 
Adams, J. Q.. 875, 967. 
Buchanan, 3086, 3124, 3126, 3180. 
Lincoln, 3254. 
Madison, 470, 562. 
Monroe, 583, 631, 783, 812, 819. 
Taylor, 2553. 
Tyler, 2215. 
Van Buron, 1836. 
Excluded from use of United States 

Hag, 875. 
Foreign slave traders discussed, 3446. 
International congress at Brussels for 

abolition of, r.lTl, 5". 13. 6363. 
Interpretation given act prohibiting, 

632. 
Laws for suppression of— 

Amendments recommended, 2553. 

Should be more severe, 1903, 1931. 

Liberation of slaves by authorities of 

Nassau, Now Providence, 2064. 
Proposition to Oreat Britain to abol- 
ish mixed courts created for sup- 
pression of. 3989, 
Treaty regarding, 4055. 
Punishment for engaging in, should 

be same as for piracy, 779, 812. 
Referred to. 1755, 20C1, 2173, 2202, 
:?)(>, 2208, 2587, 2630, 3015, 3071, 
3121, 3185, 3413. 
Removal of negroes — 

Captured by American vessels, to 
Llboria, recommended, 3058, 3124. 



Captured on coast of Cuba, 3038, 

3124, SIM 
Stranded on coast of Florida rec- 
ommended, 967. 
Seizure of slaves on board the F.n- 

OOMssM and Kntrrpritr, 1499. 
Suppression of and suggestions that 
Great Britain be askod to discon- 
tinue the naval force maintained 
for its suppression, 3779. 
Desired by Government, 631. 1836, 
1030, SOBS, £215, 3086, 3254. 
But interpolations into maritime 
code not permitted, 1930. 
Referred to, 849, 850, 881, 678, 827. 
IBS, 2553, 3180. 
Squadron kept on coast of Africa 

for, 2173. 
Treaty between fivo powers of Eu- 
rope for, 2011. 
Inquiry of Senate respecting, 

and reply of President, 2068. 
Protest of American minister to 
Franco regarding, 2011, 2048, 
2297. 
Treaty with Great Britain regard- 
ing, referred to, Hlti, 818, 819, 
886, 201B, ;:imh, 2071, 8088, 1878, 
3281, 3328. 3366, 3380, 4017. 
Vessels transporting slaves should 
bo seized, 632, 7X3. 
African Squadron, instruction to com- 
manding officers of, referred to, 2173, 

Ageuta, Indian. (See Indian Agents.) 

Agitator.— A person who. cither by speech 
or nation, endeavors to change viUtlug con- 
ditions, I'h- term may be employed la a 
complimentary sense as srnonomous with 
inner" (q. v.), hut Is often r-. - i r i . t -.1 t.. 
* person who endeavors to disturb condition! 
from ulterior or sntl-constructive motives. 

Agricultural Census recommended, 5982. 

Agricultural Colleges and Experiment 
Stations. (See Agriculture, Depart- 
ment of.) 

Agricultural Experiment Stations dis- 
cussed, 5384, 5888, 5980, 6347. 

Agricultural Implements.— from the 
earliest times and In all countries until the 
beginning of ins Nineteenth rvotury agri- 
culture wan distinctly manual labor, 
■ and oxen were used for plowing and 
harrowing, but tbe labor of planting, cul- 
tivating and bariotlng was all performed 
hy hand, drain sat sown broadcast by 
hand, cot with a sickle, gathered with a 
fork and thrashed out mi the barn floor 
with a •-lull Con was cultivated with a 
boe and Its hoiking was made a social 
event of rural communities. By therte 
primitive methods tbe farmer was unable 

to ptnrti much of a tnirtriii* to exchange 

for the fabrics of the cities or for export. 
The only part of America where farming 

E roved s commercial snecess wa« In the 
outb, where alar* labor was employed In 
the cultivation of cotton and tobacco. The 
Invention of tbe cotton gin. though not 
strictly a farm Implement, made s com* 




■w-retal crop of a plant theretofore of only 
ordinary domestic value. 

From the first tuin.ug of ihe toll to tbe 
gathering of tbe crops American inv.ntlie 
genius baa lightened the labor ami m- 
craaaad the proOla of agriculture so that 
lb* farmer* today enjoy a gn-ater amount 
of comfort and wraith than aur other da.s 
.-«n«. 

w to 18iO tin- manufacture of agri- 
cultural iBijiln. << hardly be coD- 
•Idered aa more than a hind trade, and 
la oo »easc a* a factory industry, aa the 
t>rm la at present understood. Idea- had 
hewn evolved, and, no a xmall Rale, cie- 
ruted. which contained roucb that II 
prosed procesie. aad facilities of ih» lat- 
ter part of lb« nl irjf braugkl I" complete 
fruition Implements were made In small 
•bop* with an nw.uge capital of 13,074 
per •-aiabllabavat. The evolution of tbe 
luan-ili.-iurr froaa the amall shops of too 
blacksmith aad wheelwright to Uu) Im- 
mense eat m day 
eabodara all ibr phases of the <l 
ment of tbr modem fa.te.iy system. In 
a lar. < men. by tbr aid 
of anarblnrrT. ito Ike work thai, without 
machinery wowld require 3,140 I 

TV ■< reaper waa flr»t put on 

tbr market at a aurcnxful machine for the 
fcarr. ta of 

«WI nnii BotU lumped to f3Z.ITA.l01, 
•bout Ave tlmra tie avenge of tbjr- pre- 
ceding forty ycara, and Saereaard rapidly 
to IgOOl The wheat crop, which bad not 
kept pace with Hi.- growth of population 
from 1830 to 1819. gniii.il more Hiaa 70 

Kerot la the decade between 18411 and 
•. aad from a total crop of 84423,373 
bushels la a hil- 

.usheN to 1915. Cyru« II. MrCormirk 
inherited tbe Idea of making a (tain 
reaper from bin father, who hid |>n 

In IS Hi. 
TU csaeajrlal eleaienta wblch made the 
■ per finally successful were Hi.. r,-l, the 
rider, tbe rcri|>roe»iitig knlf». unit the 
m loiter a self raking attachment 
the place of the man who had raked 
train by baed from tbe platform. 
The Mar-ib harvesting machine bud 
:ti wblcb carried the grain from 
tfce platform over tbe mn«t.r wbi-cl to two 
mea wbo stood on a footboard and bound 
tbr sheave, on table* attached tn the 
machine. By 1875 twine blnilltijc attach 
m»nt» bad been patented. 

Tbe aatoiMtle acir binder, Invented by 
Joba r. Appleby. se»m» to have been tbe 
culminating; Improvement made In gtaln 
hou-vestlDg machines, ami la used In ono 
a or another a* aa attachment i i 
•eater to bind bv far the Inrr'st pnrt 
the grata harvested In thl« and other 
_ set Me*. Now a million hluders are In 
u»» on Americas farm* and a lance export 
buslnrsa hat grown op. Through tbe me 
of A&e-rlean tiervmliig machlnra Arg»n- 
Una. Australia and Itimla lm-. bfCOflM 
large exporter* of wheat, and alagle car- 
roe* iblpped to Kntooe contain more of 
fbeae machine* than the entire output of 
any Poronean manufacturer In thl« line. 
la Kanaa*. N<Vra«Aa and other Weatern 
State-, header, art ored. wblcb col "f Ihe 
»*alk 'T"t below the hrad. elevate tbe 
wheat Into a w»c»n readv to be hauled to 
««Jier and leave the atraw atandlnir. 
Id California, clrecon and Waiblne'nn tbe 
combined harveater carrlea a thrashing at- 
taebtneof. which H operated bv the trae- 
ttoa wheel, to that a wide switb It cut and 
tfcra«h«d and delivered la bam aa the 
maehlse la drawn arrowa tb* Aeld by bortea 
or a traction csrtne 

Tfce aaowlnc oaacblar. the corn planter 




and the two-borte cultivator, dlxtlnrllvely 
American Inventlona. have served tbe Mime 
ttuip.j:- in proniotUuj tbe production of 
nuri hay aa the reaper In the cereal 
flrida, 1 'aimers trie unable to product 
Utc atock. poultry and dairy producta on 
a commercial «ralc until they bad labor 
anvltiK macblnery for the cheap ptoduciinn 
of hoy and com. 

• Ic|.x In the development 
»f the harvettlnc machine are rccoi.; 
tbe l'atent Ufnce a« folloi 

Ili'iper* — llarri'Mier, Itandrnker. II 
arlf-raker, ISOC: dropper. 1SC1 : adluatablo 
awlicb reel rakea. 18U5, 1875, 1»VU and 
I8S4 

llarve«ler Illndera — Cord knott.r. 
wire twlat.-r. IS50; straw braid twlater, 
lt>i7; cleaner an.', binder, 18<i2 ; aelf-trlp- 

fisr.7: wire twlater. 
Si (.* : antomntio trip. 1H70: atraw loonvr, 
1»70: vlbrntluc binder. 1875; low-down 
binder. 1ST*, coin nretuor automatic trip, 
'; low-down oblique delivery, I8S4. 
Ilcnn and riover HarT*at«rI — Clover har- 
vester, 1840 ; clover atrlpploa: drum bar* 
venter, 1854 ; clover bend cutter and 
breaker, 1S30; bean atnlk culler and 
bnndb-r. is.'.o. elofaf 'i.lrnl drum bar- 
i, im.i ; bean midcrsronnd cutler, 
1800; clover head itrlpper. 1877; tiean 
■talk puller. 1- I 

Cora Barretter*. — 4'utter. 1844: ear 

•tripper, 1850; ear stripper, busker and 

•heller. 1850; rnti.-r and ahoi-ker. 1853. 

l--.t, 1850; IiU-Ii tod low cutler. 1H50; 

nnd abocker. 1S40: picker and 

bnaker. 1807; picker, bntker and -hoeker. 

1 enit.r busker and abocker. 187.',. 

Cotton Hnrvesteia — Toothed picking; 

disk* and cylinder*. 1800; hnnd picker. 

1855; liniKh mrlpper. 1850: exbnuat flei- 

Ible i ■ fnn blower, 1808 ; aaw 

and Milliner hrnah 1MT0 electric belt, 
1K70: picker Mem. 1S72: toothed cylinder, 
1«74, 1883: revolving picker »(cm». 1S78, 
1001. 

UP and Flax llarvestere — Revolving 
pulling drum and hand. 18.1* : roller. 1853: 
ractprocattaf, i.iiiiing jaw. 
poller, 1800 ; alda delivery, 
stalk cutter. 187:. 

Combined Hennera and 
Rcnper and thrnh.i. IBM: Ihraakar, «ep- 
arator and atcjaar, lH4il; head cutter and 
deliverer. 1849: harveater and 
thrn«her. 1*77: steam harvester. 1879; 
hiail.-r. thrasher and separator. 1888. 

llcrse Rak.s Flopoi.-i 1833; spiing 
tooth. 1880: dunit.lng -nlky. 1848: draft 
1850: self dnmnlnr. 1852: aprlng 
tooth aclf dumping. ls.'.H : draft dim 
18C6, 1858. 1800, 1878, 1884; drag dump 
Inar, I860. 1870. 

Ilorae Hay Fork«. — Rnlral fork, 1807 ; 
hnrponn. 1807, J8»4. 1881 ; tilting. 1*70; 
grapple, 1880; handfork. 188a. 

Ray Rackrra and leader" — 1848, 1850. 
1888, l.xoii. im;i. 1804. 1808, I80T\ 1888, 
1870. 1870, ISf 

Hay Tedder. -1855. 1801, 1803. 1805. 
1807. 1870. 18S.T 

K*X% to horveKtlng machines the thrash- 
IntT mochlne l« the moat Important featnre 
of the e.|ultnni.|it of modern agriculture 
The "ground hog" thrasher came Into uoe 
early In the nineteenth century. Thrash- 
ing mills, with fanning and screening de- 
virei, were »et in In England In 1800. but 
these were aratlnned at aom* central point, 
and the grain had to be hauled to them. 
The tlrtt nnrtnhle thrashing machine with 
cleaning devices waa made hr Hiram A. 
and John A. Pitta, of Wlnthroo. Me.. In 
and fieorge Wc<t>nghnuae began 
making 'hrsiblng machines In Fonda. N Y. 
about 1840 Ha later removed to 8cha- 



1888: sralk 
1870, 1871 : 

Thrashe 



Agricultural Messages and Papers of the Presideixls 



nectady. N. V., and patented n number of 

ii |>ai . inn Bud 

U tlie "wind stacker," by wbleb tbe *unw 
Is bloarD by a ravolrlnc fan through a 
► teel pipe to the atrnw ntnck, thus 
»»viug tbe labor of several men. Auto- 
matic bond cutting find feed lug a- 

• ml automatic khIh v. ,. 
also conic Into general u-c. and 
rnrlucs to replace hour* In tho Held have 
il ti.-w liupetlll .'rum tb( DM Df Hi" 

Internal combustion engine and wider 
knowledge ot the auto trm k. 

gialn drill U a recent Implement 

• in Hi., in. in I : ■ In .1 -..il in 

for n i feed . Mil nu lamad bo 

i . JniO|i A \ V . 

In 1BSI, mill iii.ir general u i i-»tne with 

tin. H 
Tbe tint puc-nt on a practical corn 

planter *bn i» 

of II::- I li>- (.;..|>rge 

D. llnworlh. of tbe same State. 

1 Itlvatoi Ida In a great 

variety of lal fanne 

of all I* an arched ilch «.(r*ddli» the 

Il drawn by i» two 

gang*, or frame.", one on nl Ihe 

'Ircctlon of 

iln "iiefntor. who may 1 1. 1.- or srslk. Corn 

binder* and picker* .ire aim. mai 

a* well aa portable an ; 

Power corn shollcr* hare been 
in .1 ■.■ » l : i - - - - 1800. and ire liiillnpi.usa.ble 
wher-ver e..rn I- er hlpmrnt 10 

market. The flr«t -in--.---.riil mnrhlne of 
thl» type oa» Invented by Augustus Adama. 
ndwlch, III. 
1 1..- plow In primitive form antedate* 

id, wliii. ii appear* to be a 

rtmple Implement, the ii 'oved American 

ill.."- ..( todaj i- Mi.- produi ( i.r alow 
lotion, eai ml -uidy and oiueh mechanical 
■kill i;m. .1 1- .ii in,- .I .... . in. nf have 1,,.,'u 
Inrgrlv dll ird eataulWhlnit upon 

a mathi'iniiflcnl basla tbe proper linen of 

:ird which ralaea and turn* the 
fur mi w allce President Thomas Jed 
published lil« view* on thin subject In 1708. 
jclbro Wood ot Bclplo, (S, v. took on I » 

(inti-nr In 1818 for n plow with o mold 
linrntc piece*, no they could 
l„ I-, riln ,,l by 

Anionic the nnuie* that will ever be na> 

lib. the plow In America are John 

pioneer Inventor ami manufacturer. 

,. in .,i Mollne. in, rvup- 

Klled the West for many year*, and Jnmca 
llvyr. whose uerfeetlon or tbl chilled iteel 
plowshare wit* an Important »tep lu ad- 
vanced mnnufa.-i 

The history of «tenm plowing datei from 

Hi.- Invention" of Fowler and Smith In 

1834. Tho plows are In gnngs of twelve 

ii and are drawn by traction 

englu^« of from 40 to so horn p 

Machinery for •helling, sorting, alftlng 

..r grading, •< ordlng to alto the »i 
vegetable and root crop* forma an extcn- 
»lve industry In Itself. 

Agricultural Implementa In general are 
■1 Into four croup. — thnae of eitltt- 
vatloo, awdltMt and nUntlng. barrcMltig. 
and eeed separating. These groups In turn 
aro sul ,i« claase*. as In- 

dicated In I • table. At the 

census of 1849. 1.388 c-tat.lltbmcnts were 
■ d as enraged in the tuanufaeturrj of 
agricultural imtilement*. the number of 
I, -.nt the vnlue 
of their products amounted to (0.842.01 1. 
In ISiIO tb» number of factorlo had in- 
erea- . . wen mmnnra- 

tlvrlv «rosll establishment", their aegri 
capital amounting to onlr (11,834 000, and 
their oiiiimt Mag valued at little more 



than (33,000.000. In 1800 through corn- 
'!>» and capital the number of 
i-hm.-ulH had fallen to 040, the capi- 
tal bad Increased to I 

value of the output to (140.32" 

(If Ho- 77^ ,-s: in the 

in.lui.in iii 1014, Mi were locati i fa iiiiosda, 

i Ol lo, 81 In VTkscoi 

10 in Puna nila, 

4'j in ii in Iowa ■ 

gun, 33 In Minnesota, 27 In Missouri. 25 In 

ii in North Carolina ami 

Virginia. IS In '. . rmont. IS 

In Kansas. 11 In Malm 10 na< h In Alabama 

b In Kentucky, Mniua- 

ii. .iii.l Washington. O each 

nil Ml lalsod] ■ (aa. 4 

in i 'oloriido, :; .i. Ii In .'..-l.iiii-.i.. I .. 

Hampshire, Oregon. 8o«th 
ml South Dakota, 2 **y 
Oklahoma, and Weal Virginia, and 1 
each in l.niii.innn and Montana. 

The statistics for 1814 are aummarlaed la 

: .llnr, loir tabM : 

Numl«tf establishments 

Tolal VlIlM cf tiTMlUCtl 



Implcrnrnlt of tllltrrslioB 

narjler* sod seeders . . 

Hamsun* uuplcnitnl* 

Sard sapamUin 

All nlhrr prndnrt*. iorluiling [art* foe al 

elaiMSOt asri'ulturaliiotilmwnn 

Amount netlvad for rtpait work 

iKTtinnrn or Cinnr»Tio». 
Cultnatott— 

Bert 2.1S4 

r.n .ii (bona 

and hi 
Wheeled. ,. I 

. S<r*wts. 17^37 

' 

eUaai . IM.090 

H»rro»Te— 

Dtsk 211.133 

8princ-tcoth... IUsr47 Oiha 

Spiie-Uxrll.,. 5V.M4I 

PmrroM m ^imrr* 
getdai (hrotd- CVrtloo planters,. 

oaiiaiui »npjn lv.uto plantar*... 

or enilaaUl and Drills ... 

eeMw at- Seed Sower*. 

tactunenli . 61,654 hand, fiald. . . . . 

Corn plaolers— Othrr nlaauss or 

Band IIB.SSO weders 

Horn 1IJ.0W 

lUavasnwo Iimjoiam. 



u'..- I,-' 

40,5 
U.v 

60.SIIJ27 

l^otCfio 



:„- 



I .,, , Baaa 

I.lllOT... 
Plow*— 

D«k 118M 

Uuig 7S.SJ9 

tUlevcl 

Easias IS* 

Sully 1.111*1.).. lORJla 

Iktog, .... (IS.MC 

Pul»s»lser» 11T8I 



101 ... 

17J7» 

mjm 

ts,m 

4.124 



O.r.in rrarllr. . ... 38*1 
liatvcstcfs— 

Bean. 3.60S 

Corn 

Oraia 21i,3»6 

UarTnicn and 
thinho* 

eooiblaoi 

Other 

Haycerrlen .... 
Hay for tj, none.. 



Clover huBm.... 
Corn butkres.. . . . 
Corn huakan aU 

ehr«ldm 

Corn HlitUws— 

Hand 



2*4 

2.73J. 

h m 

7iJ02 
B tan Serial pkw. 



■i rj lea la ■ ii.nv) 

H»,rakr», h«s. . 1BXK1 
H*/ lUtlrrs. ... 

Hay (adders. dTOri 

Moarn 274 S2I 

Other ba;uiii tools 42.M4 
I'.iUI...!ij,..n 

hom tsjm 

Respws O0.983 

OUia J8.T74 



I.HW 
iil 

4J38 



Powrr IfcOW 

FunuvimUa.... 27.504 
Thriabo*— 

Hatsspower.. . . 302 

Knims 1(,SM 

Other 7.174 



T4.40J 

Agricultaral Prodnctg.— The agricultural 
icte of tho t'nlted Bute* are ao die. iai 
fled that It would be usolass to attempt to 
doKrrlhf all in a single article or even In 
an ordlnaiy lied rolnme. I In Department 
of Agricultur.. pnbllshes annunl reporta cov- 
rrlni; Hie Held In general and frequent spe- 
ri»i reports and bo'" 
product*. 



bulletins on egri 




Encyclopedic Indtx 



Agricultural 



To* areoojpanjlBx tabic giro the qnan- 
ttr tad roiur «.* iiui prodtx-ta oa 

i iu (be ■*(•' 
Nallta «M Cop*.— TV I 1010 

P" ik* production of pnultrr In lb* I'oli- 
•4 Mate*, la ISO*. «• 4AH.40S.3St. The 
tauawratl.i- •, rulnr-a foala. 

tanrja, freae. dncka. plgeom and pear 
Tar tail value of fuwle ral«d darlnx ISO* 
»ri«l at tli- oaiiua o/ l»IO to b* 
tStUOO.2'2. or an lorreaec of 4*.» par 
•ett or«r tlic total raise reported U D 
pan »» 

AccardtBr to tbe <Vcn« of 1010, llllnola 
aw tkr kradlac atatp Iu the BunN-r of fowle 
■ number briir 
■i JJtsaourl ranked acroed ID toll r«- 

i— ,iii i — ii ncaorn or van mrnm anna 



Qaj 



at- 

uXajtanaa* 
HakataakaM 

Cava 

Ckeac 

Hrfi«tanB>* 
M^.hjatarVi 

&!*::::;: 

Caaa- 
rata?" - ' 

»walji*4wta'.- 



kit.. 






,M» 



Sr 



j«3 



Qjiill 
gang 

•rata* 

:_;.:.... 
Qalaaa 



& 



Qanda) 



IOIoOjOM 

CSS 

ll.TM II 

ggg 

IH| M 

_«S4.J04,»K 



Vakia 



UMHi WBfcBW, 00 



IB.TM.at 
aMeXWI 

UAM.U0C 



4I«vMMC 

r.-.;i.i--:.-M- 

7.4SJJW 

•sjio.ru 

40.118.711 
J.MAtOMM 

:ii.«3.«05 

t4.lva.0M 

7,in.i»t 
iMnni 

-to'.. --I •'- 

Hjava 

uojuk 

T.'K. 

24X000 

lioaojon 

1I43X4T0 

i«jbj» 
MH/Bi/B 

; .i.i. ■:... • 



OJM! 

SaaMl! 

1 1 a 
zi.m.ta 

I0.KS.4I6 
MS4.4H 

«J.S«t.<t0 
I7D.6I04J9 






1,143,701 

t"..."'. '-I 
7O.40O 
Ml 

Btjasjooo 

100,67M» 
le) IOA40.W0 
S4.J7J.323 
IN BMH 

W.V7I.4N1 

ts43?46t 

lo)77»,0«4/r» 

4r.'.*w 
IMU -i 
7^44.745 

314*0423 

4447474 

0.;oui'i: 
I«407Jt7 

01 5e.sn.000 
■U7LO0 

Wii.wi.oto 
■AM m 

10.799.165 
«•) IOHntK',000 

4.93S.IM 
15.117,613 

1.- 

0.643411 

1,7117,117 

J.IKJ.IW 

<o)IOI.tllfl» 

aiu.wa.oji 
(ml aaJtUOO 



•raaaaaraaortaj lar V» Centoe of IMO t >"x>ir*« 
I nawraa aft- Kw Not incluJ- 

aaa. (ei Ft= prior Dec. 1. 1-14 111 In 
' leradana <«' Arcri«- price i.i 0,r rur (ftln- 
taat. 10 16J4.JM J46 ma th* umalc value of 
lata* ea3 a— b> Ike C«au. of 1910. (h) M»lo 
' ioa.fi/ni aadpavi' 
laataaa.TaiaaaalI4.7M. UKMii 
> larai prior A« IS. llttt t«> Bawd <m too 
ataa of, raSaed. J* rwaata Juno 30. 1015. 
taalx. lal Tarn. prwaJ'jta 16. 1014. 



apect. reporting the number of fowl* ralwad 

Iowa ranked 
■Ad 1. 1 ...ii.ii Hi- prodocilon of 2U.B90.147 
fowls lu 1V00. 



twutarxL caaau caora ot arirai m 1115 


(Tnaa fcoat «fo- km, «f a«» Ettinttt ■( th C*»L d ArbilU 


.-.(;!.. 


Cu- 


Com i »i 


Hacal* 


ll,,...,.: 


lluaticb 


Biuli.la 


Mum. 


t, ■.)..». 


l.,,I.IM 


II 7.000 


>. ... II ,,,; ,„. 




V40.000 




'•" 


S.IS..0* 


9.181.00C 


SO.00O 


M-x-. ,o>-U.. 








I.K.n. M--..1 


MM 






rtUM.... 


JSJflW 






Ke« rork 


54.08a.000 


11,740,000 




Sea Jeney. . . . 


1 ;|/i.i.i>i 


10,247,000 




IWajrhama. 


ao>4jDo 






gffl.::::: 


mm 

1 HO,O00 




l^uUOO 

I'J/.'ii. iiij 




6 1.000,0' Ml 




WoH Viriinu 


sjio,ooo 




3.'»>H-.0 


North • 


aJtJO.000 






jbtiaaCWulloa. 


0.71S.0011 


.w.;.').i«x> 


2.617,000 








Maim 


FlurWft 




11,644,0011 




■ 


aXOQS.000 


154.330.000 




isftaaa. 


t$.SM.i>30 






Ilkaaai 




372.t02.00D 






iuooiooo 




14.774.000 




im.ivi.'>yi 


40.SSMOO 


4,i";0'>O 


Iowa 


in, is/w) 


53/aOjOOD 


73,000400 




': - • ■ i :■ ■ 


in,4ti. , .,iKio 


Ukanrl 




-' 1 ,' '.'XJ OOL 


:-.i m.H,(Kio 


North Dakota.. 




7 VII II'IH 


143,713,000 


Nconaika 


tCIHOOO 


rtvsnifn 


i 


00.00OAO0 


JI2.OI.S0O0 


',.MI.I.',,ll,«l 


Kaoaaa 




I6.V 




Kentwkr 






S.0W.O0O 


Tmoeaea. 


i^tojm 


04.670.000 


B 163,000 


AkOauoa. 




1 8,000 




Uaakaippi..... 






4t.-«>J 




2,730,000 
39.i»o,™o 


50,$7i.000 


tyotdMi 


Okbnoma.... 


I5.44MW 


•«3J»0 


33,770,000 


Jtrtatuu 


.,,•.".«.! 


61.153,000 


3,100000 






l.l.'-.".») 
















11,709,00 


13,1(0403 


New Mraan... 


J,1S0J»« 




141O40O 




HOMO 


11,000 


3.330400 
1405.000 


Nevada. 




UfMJXC 


MlODO 


10414400 


Wiekioitoa... 


Hl'.i"'.' 


LISMOO 


1 


Qnaaa 

CalJaruu. 




rlOiOM 




ioaj.000 


3.410,001) 


7,040,000 


Total buahaa. 




3«6.I50J»0 


4O44774OO 


Total arraa. .... 
Total (ana • >i . 


fi.r.'Mi'Ki 


10'J,27JJXO 


6V.4 17,000 


Oct I 


I-.-.'" ■•-■'. Mill 


I.V1 .l.ic.oa-, 


BlllaT.ni 


Tuld per Kie. . 


37 1 


37.7 


16 


1 inn nrioa pal 








haab.O" 1 


IMS 


1TM 


»W>9 



•ft*a*a**7eaaMl* «J fanaat Oaa aialiUai as Cat, 1. WIS. 



DOMr-.nc ANiiiALa, 1913 



Number 
Milrli row* aud olhor 
•auk I 527.000 

Hceaee 10407.000 

Muloa t.380.000 

ShMp and Uml- . . . 51,183,000 

ni.i7K.ou0 

a:: <i-<meatioaolnula. 101.140.000 



Mm 



M7S,333.OO0 
645,345fl00 

aoa.iiw.ooo 

15.501.783,000 



njr the C.nni of 1510 there were on forma and 
rancee in United »(al« 01.803.S0.; 

■iued at 31.400,521.007; lioraee 

: I R33,li:i. 1 

l.- , '«.7«), valuf.1 ■ : aaaaa 

irroa. 1OS.O08. valued at 111,200,111: abeep 

unit.. 52,447.861. i-alued at l:-.',MI.'«. 

i8. 145,670. valiiad at 3300.33j.308: (oata, 

a,0l5.1il, valued atlO.170,423. 



Agricultural Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



ma >inru, ntLo or ctuu mora nt utm nm (Reported by the Department of Agriculture) 



y«»™ 



Indian Cora 



M» 



14.... 
1914.... 



Diutiela 
1, 002,007.033 

2.078. : I 
2.I04.102.SK' 

i. .■,_•;. ',1'i.v.u 

a,iM.J78,»3a 

2.4B7.4S0.034 

2,927,410.001 
3^92,320.000 

2,aof.6M.i>i«> 
MM i IB, no 

MSBdBO,000 

2.431.4*1,000 

S,lJ4.74lU>"» 
2.4«3,00<i.<«>0 

2.073.804 .ono 



«bul 



Uuslicla 
630.110.108 

i iu.ooo 

SW.32fl.505 
748.iOO.218 
670,01... ,008 
11,83a 
452,300,417 

' 
634,087,000 

Mil., .. 

f'«.37B.25B 

C35.121.000 

B2I SI3N.0OO 

! 

743.233.000 

901^)17.000 



o»u 



busbele 

098,737^,00 
730.004,000 

730.808.724 
12.712 
7M.OU4.1U0 
804., 

943.210.197 
004.004,422 
7o4.443.000 
.--ir.i.-.i, ix.fi 
1,007.142.080 
1. 180.311, IHKI 

l.ii- 137,000 
1, 1 ?2. 130.000 
1.141.000,000 
1.417 l 

i.JSl.'.i-iL'.iinii 



Bsria a 

lluabrtla 

00,084,127 

44.702, i hh> 

48.92i.S33 
100,93 
U4.S44.023 

i:m,74«.was 

130.651,020 
178,9 1(1,484 
153.507.000 
10C.750.000 
173,341 212 

100.240.000 
223.S24.000 
17->, 1 80,000 

;':;'.• i. m.,«»i 
isn.'i27. 



I!>C 



Hualirla 

24.047.000 
23*81.741 

2.v9»:.v27 
•1ll,J44,8:t0 
33 -5.10.502 

le^SMia 

27.741.515 
28,4*4,052 

31.S00J000 
M.881^00 

29.S30.447 
34*07.1)00 

.!-. r.i.i.i.K) 
41 181.000 
42,770,1X10 

r7.383.QO0 



Bu<k«bc»t 



Huahcla 
14,997,401 

11.722.000 
11,004,471 
»MtM6 
14,124.039 
I4.sa,770 
14,243,044 
l.',0UK.330 

14,041.937 
14.290,000 
14.«r : 

17 ,508,000 
17,A4!l,OO0 

13,833,000 
11. -.41,000 
15. Vio.OOO 
11.840.000 



The Censua of 1010 gives Ilic following 

fnrni ttntlatlcs for t !••-■ I'iiIi-I Suites : 

total number. 0.301.502; total 

acres In farms, 87* r , .is,;i25 . Improved 

nri.,% lii fiinim, 478 451 T.'.O ; nil ■( Innd 

la farms. 328.475.074.ICH: value Of build- 
ings oa forms »(1..12,',4*.1.62S I vnluc of 
itiiNli'UD'iil* iu,il inn, I, lurrv ,m fnrni* $1,- 
IH.7S3 value |iir acre of land and 
buildings. 830.60: value per acre ,,f In ml 

•ion». »:i2 in. Value ,.r wniii, produced 

on farnia In 1111.*. eatlinntcii by .Secretary 
of Agriculture, *10.S01.08rt,000. 

.''■'I " Product! Tha Thirteenth CcBMt 
presented tbe following condensed nnnlysla 
of Iho dairy Industry of t!i, I uiti-d Stales 
for Ihe ceuaua year IBOfi 
Total number of cowa kept for 

mlllt 81.7B6.T70 

Milk produced no farina, gala. S.Si : > 
Total pounds of buiter made l,i'll).4l 
Total pound! of cheese modi-. 320. 5,12 1 SI 
Condensed milk produced. Ilia. 404.700.:. 1 1 
The quantity of milk report") wan pro- 
duced on farma reporting lfl.IM10.2V8 dairy 
cowa and dura nut Include ■■•tluiaifi for 4.- 
050,1.14 rowi reposled aa dairy cows liy 
farmers but for nbleh no atarement waa 
git ro of quantity of milk produced. In 
many cases tba raaaon for not giving tbe 
quantity of milk produced xvna that Cb* 
farmcra were unable to make even a rough 

estimate <: rally speaking, bowel r, 

these cowa were on farma In tbe "•••tern 
and southern part* of the United States 
whera tba production la likely to be leu 
than lb* average f,>r otbM porta of tba 
country. Also, many cowa reported »" dairy 
cowa are as a matter of fact milked . • r 1 1 v 
a very amall part of tbo year. No citlmaM 
la Included for the "cowa kept for tultk" 
no! on farma 
Axriccltuial Products: 
Boot Sugar — 

Culture of, 6865. 
Coffee- 
Production of, 6731. 
Commerce with foreign countries in, 

4973. 
Corn — 

Commerco in. restrained by Groat 

Britain. 138. 
Introduction of product* of, into 
Eiiropo discussed, 5764. 
Cotton- 
Captured and forfeited referred to, 
KM. 



Commerce in, reforred to, 4973. 
Culture of, in — 

African possessions of Portugal, 
8884. 

Braail, 471L 
Discriminating duties on, from 

British North American colonies 

discussed, 996. 
Duty on, Lord Aberdeen "a letter re- 

i; : t r , ] : r i [_' . 1134. 

Perions eugaged in bringing out, 
order regarding, 8439, 
Exportation of, discussed, 5887, 5979, 

0171. 
Hay, exportation of, prohibited, 3476. 

Order rescinding, 3532. 
Referred to, 4800. 
Rice— 

Duties on, discussed and referred 
to, 1243, 1931, 2112, fi] 
•.■•in. 
Production of, in U. 8., 6727, 6906. 
Tobacco- 
Duties on, in foreign ports, 1648, 
173S, 1909, 2167, 2192, 2909, 3120. 
Exportation of, to countries at 
peace with United States, orders 
regarding, 3379, 3434. 
From Netherlands and Dutch col- 
onies, tax on, discussed, 4979, 
4986, 5088. 
Growth, production, and trade of, 

referred to, 2133. 
Internal tax on, removal of, rec- 
ommended, 5474. 
Trade with foreign countries to bo 
promoted. 1888, 1713, 1822, 
2167. 
Referred to, 1806. 
Value of annual production of, dis- 
cussed, 5642, 5744. 5764, 5978. 
Agricultural Land Grants. (Soo Agri- 
cultural Colleges.) 
Agriculture: 
Advancement of, recommended, 88, 
60. 61, 77, 78, 194, 197, 318, 361, 
3776, 4457, 4530, 4947, 5112. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Agriculture 



;troM ttate of. PTS, 1T47. 
Brierenee- to, 93, 173, 210, 3333. 
Acricoltsrt, Bureau of: 

Appropriations for, recommended, 

Diactuaed, 3334. 3-132, 3364, 4066, 
4106, 4364, 4645, I 5383. 

Employe*" in — 

To participate in decoration of 
grave* of soldiers, 4733, 4818, 
4*99, 5078, 5350. 
To participate in dedication of 

Washington Monument, 4879. 
To witness inauj{urutiou of Presi- 
dent Cleveland, 4881. 
Enlargement of facilities of, recom- 

mended, 4530. 
Establishment of, 3334. 

Recommended, 2536, Mtt. 2663. 
2714. 3253. 

rred to, 4060, CUT. 
Experiment stnt:. i nda- 

384, 5489, 6980. 
.'.384. 
tritiution. (Soo Seed Dlstri- 
botioa.) 
A«rSroltore. CommiMjonar of: 
Reply of. to 8en»t* resolution regard- 
ing disease* prevailing aj 
• •ice, 4435. 
Report* of, referred to, 4158, 4364, 
J, 4462, : 
Agriculture, Department of.— This De- 
paiu Ksenitlvr Branch of t ii •• 

Owsnatent had Its origin In the recom- 
avaatttoo of Washington. As early ns 
t*t 7. 1T!>0. In bis eighth anneal address 
I**** lMl ilut '•n-lib reference 

tutor to Individual or nntlrni.il wi-lfnrc 
nrvutuie Is of primary Ii. and 

»' Isr ssiue time orged the Importance 
nl i( lioanls . . . 
-I wltb collcs-tlng ami diffusing tn- 
nraatlon. and ennMol by premiums and 
will (v'cnUrj al<l> to encourage and as- 
• .very and Improve, 
■ret." Ttie •eminent* expressed by 
"'"•Waa-i.il were r. -l:.-r Med anil enlarged 
ryco I. .ucccssor* 

1 1 1 3 ) . 
fross the very beginning of Hie tlovern- 

Kr.-«eul»tlres boil sent 
! seed* ii nil cutting* of agrlcu 
eodaet* tn be trlr-l In 

a*st la 1A3S Congress rnmle an itpprnprl*- 

tlaa of Sl.000 f..t ii: at ro»- 

nnd fur tile pi, 

.ml statistic*. Thfs work 

• . ■ ,. I ■. nl filTli-.-. which 

WWs: (trpartmcnl of state ontll 

tbe Department of tip* Interior 

i part of It. fo to 1840 Ibi 
r .1 work win carried on by itie Com- 
alas*,. Rllsworth, 

n .peels 1 
flettl. under tbe direction of ttie Cnrnuil*- 
loser, was rmtdojed for the work. 

Ma< . an act was »pproved 

which etenled tbe brpartment of Aerlenl- 

i itlae of which were to "illiriiac 

tbe moit general and 
'.•• of the word, and to 
.lit* 3 moor 



the people new and valuable seeds and 
plant*." It wss provided that tbe bead 
of tbl* bureau should be a Commissioner 
rrlciiltiire. to bold office by a tenure 
uniilnr io tbut of other civil officer* ap- 
• I by I he I'reMdent. 
ii>.- i.ui.hi wns made a fnll executive 
deparn enl by an net of Congress ap- 
proved Feb. 0, 1889. and pi: 
a Sr.-rvi.iry, who wns made a member of 
Ho- President's Cabinet. To promote tbe 
nsrlculiurnl Interests of the country In the 
iugh manner an act of Cmigrea* 
nppri.ri.ii March 3. l-rdt". provided for the 
establishment of agricultural experiment 
stations i.s.-e Agricultural College* and 
tatlon*), in connection wltb 
tbe ngrlenltnrnl colleges In the several 
states nnd territories, and placed the Com- 
■ .hit of Agriculture over theHe stn- 
tlons In on advisory nnd administrative 
capacity. 

i nit the Department of Agricul- 
ture In It* relation with these experiment 
ms, tbe Office of Experiment Station* 
was established In the same year. 

Agricultural colleges .--inhii.tird In 
the nrrernl state* nnd territories In ac- 
cordance with the land grant act of I an- 
IMaa of July 2. 1868, >,nvp „o organic 
relation to tbe Department of Agriculture 
ler than that the agricultural experi- 
ment stations ;in- generally department* of 
iltural colleges, nnd that the preal- 
of BBI Ii ■•. the*e colleges Is obll. 
mnkc an annual report to tin- Secretary of 
Aeri culture. 

Ttie Weather Bureau (ij. v.). an Impor- 
tnnt branch of tbe Department, «.-i» an- 
ihotlied by Congress Feb, 4, 1 871). under 

Ho- direction ..f Ho- v.'nr Department, but 

i act of Oct. 1. lMifl. H wns trans- 
ferred to the Department of Agriculture. 
Some other Important bureau* are : 

Of .inimal Induitru (established 
14), which, beside* Its Investigation* to 
Improve the condition of tho animal In- 
dustries of the country, bns wide powers 
of Inspect Inn and supervision a* to the 
of lire stock. tSee Animal Indus- 
try, llurcau of.) 

tturinu ■■'. I .irestr;/ (1881), which has 
ehnrjre of the administration of tb* no- 
tional forest reserve*, (flee Forest Service.) 
in of y,'ii(nmo.'or/v (18031, which ob- 
tains and disseminates Information regnrd- 
liu; Injurlou* Insect* and their relation to 
plant and animal life. 

Bureau af Cliemiitry ilSflSl, whose work 
Includes tho Investigation of food product* 
Imported lnrn the Cnlted State*, analysis 
of adulterated producta. and experiments 
to determine the effect of adulterant* upon 
tho human system. 

Bureau of HtaUntle*. orranlrcd a* tbe Dl- 

ilea In 1803 and made ■ 

ii In 1908, Tbi* bureau is the old- 

•■•I illitlnctlrely stall. n.-ni agency o( ibe 

i:ov.rnment. Its work being the fathering 

of material of (ntereal to the asricultnnat, 

fma all parts of the world. 

Aprleullural Callrget .— Ijirge tract* of 
land In the northwest territory were grant- 

»d tn tbe states formed therefrom i 

• legislatures or by tbe Federal 
Oovernment for educational purpose*. As 
e«rly »s 1T8S Congress, foreshadowing the 
permanent policy of the nation In encour- 

• ring education, enacted that one thirty- 

• li'h of al! the put. tte Innd* should be set 
apart fe.r and dedicated to the cause of 
eduentlon. and by the act of July 33, 1W. 
this reservation was made perpetual. The 
further to encourage and dignify th» *cl- 
enca of husbandry. Concres*. bv tlo Hot- 
rill Act of July 2. 1802. provided "tlmt 
there be granted to the "everal states . . , 



Ency<lopfdU Iwdtx 



Agriculture 



U tooust of public land, to be appor- 
laser d i., r*<B tiite a mutilij equal to 
JU.auQ Km tot neb Seoator and K»pre- 
a-*ij . to which the atatea 

lb* apportion 
■MM ander ibr ■ 

r naii.ral lands, to found colleges 

, iicaltar* atxJ th» mrcbanlcu I ana. 

TM» act wae amended !•; an art of Hatch 

■ •-. a bleb provided thai all ox.ucy 

: by lb* .talcs from, tU« •-> :■ 

Ual apoortloocd by tb* geoernl Govern- 

ami ana* be Invested lc »< lb* 

■■! State* or Id tb* several slate*. 

Cr la aome safe nsannrr lo 1— prescribed 
f IW legislature Of tbe i-t*rnl slate* 
Ut neb a dubm a» to yield ami !*«• ibau 
It* (~r c*ot., ibe prlacfpal fo remain f « 
ntr in WW if and ua.i i 

Ry to act approved I <:ii). Con- 

ffaaa amrlded aa aanul appropt In I loo of 
11 VW for law year radlng June 30. 1800. 
and i» aaaual larrc*** of tola !»*» 
tea j»ir. l.t aa additional raaa of J 
em tk» prreedta« year, la* aooual amount 
la at MM tbereafler lo each state or i. r 
ItUrt lo li» »^5.O0O. Thla appr-.pr. 
asset, krrrm, a* applied only lo In 
aOaMlas Is agrlcaltarc. lb* nieebnalcal 
tat CiKll-b bDrga<r, mod tbe various 
•suras* •* raaibeautkfll, physical, aatural 
•a* araamuU- acWtir* with special rrfcrenco 
to rklr eapllratloo lo Ibe Industrie* of lift. 
-t» last ruction In agrlmllur* it 
0— In Ibr colleges and universities re- 
f Ik* twaeota of tb* ;• ..-res* 

SiO, and 
lt»s which are .|i*ra- 

"•• la all 111* atatea aad terrilorlce ex- 
rrat *u»ta. Ttte total aucalier of 
bWtllllaaM la aU HI-' 

• ■• a*J*<alD course* of Inn ruction In agrl- 
rsJtare. lo twroty three atalea tb* BfTlcul- 
taral reiircaa are department* of the flat* 
aahantttrt • -o atatea aad u-rrl- 

Isrhs separate lnatltallnna lisvlng eouraea 
a irrlni tnrr ate maintained for the colored 
■ agricultural college* for 
»W peraoaa aad aeveral of Iboae for n»- 
•rw* «4Vr four year coarace la agriculture 
•a* In related •••Icoec* leading to bachelors" 
asjivsa, aad many provide for graduate 
"•It. Aboal aizty of tbeee Institutions 
ala* provide special abort, or corrraoood- 
our*** lo lb* dllfereat branches of 
ixilriilluc-. tnrlodtng nf.-.nocnj. bo, 

al baabandry. poultry ralalnc 
rbrrat malloc. dalrylac. riigar aiaklcg, tu- 
larin aarcbanlea. and 

n»c*ra o* Ibe agrlcul- 

. i.eoa eacace oulle larfly In roo- 

*VI lag fanu-r.' lattltulea aid varlooa 

(»fa»a of rollr(e eiinialoa. 

Tfc» aerlrnltoral fTprrlmrnt atalloaa. 

•lib aery few *J »re denarii. 

irol eolteeea. Tb« total 
auaaher of pt-raona eaxaged la the wnrt of 
nad rearareb In tlie laad- grant 
^^■r* ami tbe rzperlnaent aiatl.-.nt In 
I. Ibe nomber of atudeata 
i.tl- lor conraea lo Ibe r .i. 

ure and m«-hotile arta. ♦: 
• nailier of atcden"" l'i Ibe «'hole 
MS (Brtt laclndlag at nil 
r* coarse* ami 
. m >v»r nt .linl. i t« i ' 
•■ foar-year eoltec* conraea In agrl- 
rallf '"til !>■='" 

ata. I SOt. 

were enrolled In agrl.nl- 

taral rnatr»- • v.rii a f»rr eioeptl"n«. 

*aeb of tae«* eollegea ofTera fr*» (altloo 

la ..in.', it it 

•imI f.iaf •'tw.lnrablpa 
■ii. • ng aad en. r 
4*a|a aad lo - -itka are fnnn>t 

fo* aeane to earn part of tbelr eipeniea 



by tbelr own labor. Tbe expenaea are 
from 1126 to | be avbool year 

Laxatimi '■! agri.'iiiiural collvcr* (In 
log only loatltutlooa catabllakcd undct ibe 
laa-1-gruut ad .,f Jul.. 2. 181 
Atabaum— AlubauiN I'uljirebolc Ibflltote. 
Anl.i 

■ uliural Heboul of Ibe Tin 
i IikIii.iii.iI laatltule, Tuakegee In 

Sill' 

Agricultural and Mecbaaleal College fur 

V -in.il 

Aficooa— I'nivrralty of Arlaona. Tucaeo. 
Arkniiua — I'ullrav of Agrl. I lb* 

I'nivrralty of Arkama*. I'ayeit" 
llraDrb Normal follege. Iloe Bluff. 

rnli— 4"olleire of Agrl f tbe 

I'ul.erall Hrrkeley. 

Colorado The State Agrl illaral Codege of 

.rado. fori ('olllaa. 
Cuaarctlcut— t'oooi-cllvut Agrtinillural Cnl- 

. \i--. M.rra. 
Iirlnwiire — Helnarare College. Newark. 
State College for i 
Derar, 
Florida— follege of Agriculture of tbe DbJ- 
Ity of Florida. Oalneavllle. 
Florl.l.. Agrleullaral and Mecbaalral CoJ- 
lege for Nea i u ea. Tallabaaarc. 

-orgln Stale lolk-gr of Agrlcua. 
lure. Albena. 
Oeorcia Rtate In.lurftrlal College, Savan- 
n.ih 
Dana.ll- College of Hawaii. Bo»" 
Id j liu -rollege uf Agrlruliara of Ih* Ual- 

reralti • r Matin, Mmtow. 
Illlnola- -College of Agriculture of lb* Uni- 
versity of IlllnoU. I i 
ledlann— Aebnol mire of I'uniiie 

r«liy. Iji Kn.iette, 
Iowa — Iowa Smte rollege "f Agrlcullltre 

'I.i-linnli- Aril Anioa. 
Kanasa— Kfliiaaa 8tn(e Agricultural Col- 

lets, .Mrnliutlan. 
Kenln.:.' The i nllege nf Agrl'-uliurc of 
the State ii 

The Kentucky Noriunl and lmltiairlal 
Inatluile lot Colored Pcr»ou». Krank- 

rprt 

Loolslnoa— Louisiana State Cnlxr'lty and 
iltnral ami 
Bai 

ratty ni.d Agricultural and 
JIcchnnic.il College of I!.. 
I-oulalaua. Scotland li Igtla, llaton 
Rouge. 
Main. of Agriculture of th. 

verslty of Mnlm-, Orono. 
Maryland— Maryland Agrlcullurnl College, 
College Park. 
Prlncoaa Anne Academy. Kaatern Hr i ■ i 
nf Ibe Marylnnd Agrlcullitral I 
I ■ . i I J ■ . - : . .lull.' 
Muui hii... 1 1 fc -Maaaarfcnaett* Agricultural 
illeae. Amh. 
Mnafarhusetia Institute of Technology. 

Beaton. 

Michigan— Michigan Agricultural College. 

Kait Loafing. 
Minnesota — College of Agriculture r,f th.. 

1'nlverslly -f Minnesota. Unlvernlly 

farm, sr Paul. 

Mlaoiaalnpl - MtaaUallipl Agrl'llltllrTlI *0d 

Mechanical College. Agricultural Col- 

Al.-orn Agrlculinral and Mechanical Col- 
lege. Alcorn. 
Mlaaourl- <■ II. ;.-. of Agriculture of the I'nl- 
lly .if MlHUinrl, r.il.inihla. 
School of Mines nnd V nf Ibe 

t'nl.ersliv of Mlaaniirl. Ilnlln, 

I-ir ii Inrtltnle. Jeirerson City. 

Montana— Montana Stale College nf Agrl- 
i nil nre and Mechanic Arts. Boteman, 
Nrbrnaka— College "f Agriculture of rh. 
Unlreralty of Nebroaka. Lincoln. 




Agriculture Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Nciuda— College of Agriculture of the fill. 

rmlt]l "i Kti -Kiii. llcno. 
New Hampshire — New Hampshire College 

;rlcultur« i the BfcfeMla An*. 

Durham. 

Nfw Jersey— Rulgeni Scientific School (the 
New Jeraey Stale College fur tin- Bene- 
lit of Agriculture and the, HKMOlC 
Art*), New Bruu-.o|ck 
New Mealco— New Mexico College of Ag- 
riculture and Mechanic Aria, Stuto Col- 
New York— New York Stale College of 

Agriculture. Ill' 
North Carolina— The rfortt Carolina CW- 
leg* of AgrU-tiltutv and Mechanic Am. 
Wet Bali i. -h. 
The Agricultural and Mecliniilcnl College 
rm i he Colored Kacc. i>< 
North Dakota— North Dakota Agricultural 

College, Agricultural Colli 
Ohio • "llegi Of Actl. ultur.- .f Ohio Stale 

University, Coluniliu*. 
Oklahonin— UklKliouin Agricultural ami Me 

chaatcal College, BTIIIw* 
Agricultural and Normal Culveralty. 

Lang-ton. 
Oregnu— Oregon State Agricultural College, 

Coming. 

I'liunln— The Pennsylvania Slate Col- 
lege. BtStC l"llcge 

Porto Rico— College of Agriculture of the 
University of Porto filco. Mnyngncx. 

Rhode I aland — Rhode Island State Col 
KlugilOD, 

South Carolina— The Clemaon Agrlculttiral 
College of South Carolina. Clcmson Col- 
lege. 
The Colored Normal. Industrial, Agrl- 
luliurul. and Meehnnlcal College of 
sniitti Carolina, Orangeburg, 

South S..111I1 liakoi I "liege 

nf Agriculture and Mechanic Art», 

Brookings 

Tennea»ec— College of Agriculture, tliilver- 
alty of Tennc llle. 

Texan— Agricultural nnd Mi-i'lmnlcal Col- 
lege of Texas. College Station. 
Prairie View State Normal and Indus- 
trial College, Pinitle V 1 1 • « . 

1 lah •Mo- Agricultural College of Utah, 
LoguD. 

i.r in. .tit — College of Agriculture of tb' I M 
Ter»lii of V. 'mil nit. Burlington. 

Virginia — The Virginia Agricultural and 
Mechanical College and p..l,\ ■■ • ■■nit.- In 
■tltote, Rlackshiirg. 
The Hampton Normal and Agricultural 
Inatltute. Itnriit'i ■> •. 

Washington — State College of Washington, 
Pull man 

Weat Virginia— College of Agilculture of 
\v, t Virginia iniv.-lty. Mutgiiu- 
t..n 11. 
The Weil Virginia Col. .red Inatltute, In- 
atltute. 

College of Agriculture of the 
1'nlvrr-ltt of Wlscooslu. Madlonn. 

Wyoming . . liege, of igl IcultoB . cm i at 
slty of Wyoming, EaiMaM 

Location of Experiment Slnuoi 
ma (Collegel, Auburn. 
Alabama ICnuchriike), I'tilontown. 
Alabama (Tuskegeel. Tuskcgce Institute. 
Alaska, Sitka (Rampart. Kndlnk, and 

Fairbanks 1. 
Arliona. Tncaon. 
Arknnaaa, Fayettevlllc. 
California. Rorkeler. 
Colorado, Fort Colllna 
Connecticut (State!. New Itaren. 

nectlcnt IStorra). Storm. 
Delaware. Newark. 
n.irldn. Gainesville. 
Georgia, Riperlment. 
*4unin. 
Hawaii I Federal). Honolulu. 



IIuir.ill (Sugar Planter!'), Honolulu. 

ldubo, Moscow. 

lllluol*. Til' 

Indiana. I. a Fayette. 

Iowa. Amen. 

Kan»ii». Sliiiiln.ii.'iii. 

Kentucky, i.Mngton. 

(Sugar). New Orleana. 
Louisiana (State), Baton lion.-,-. 

Louisiana (North), Calhoun, 

Louisiana iltlcc). Crowley. 

.Maine, orono. 

Maryland. College Park. 

Mai.sachu.citi,. Amherst 

Michigan. I'.ant Lansing. 

Minnesota, University Kami, .st Caul. 

Mississippi, Agrleulliirnl Coll 

Missouri (College). Columbia, 

Missouri (Fruit), tfoanull OfOVO. 

Montana. Roxeuiau. 

Nebraaka, Mm-oln. 

Nevada, Reno. 

New Hampshire, limi 

New J- lie). New Brunswick. 

New Jersey ( College i. New Brunswick. 

New Mexico. Hi . 

New York (8(ntr), flenera, 

New Yo.-k (Cornell), U 

North Carolina (College). West Raleigh. 

1, Raielgh. 
North Dakota, Agricultural College. 
Ohio, Woootcr. 
Oklahoma. Stillwater. 
Oregon. Corrallla, 

h anln, state College. 
Pi in.' \ Iran 1 1 (Ioatltuta of Animal Nntrt- 

Hon). Slate t ollege. 
POrtO BtlCC •. Federal). M.irngnea. 
Porto ltlco iSugarl. Rio Flcdra*. 
Rhode Island. Kingston. 
South Cnrollna, Clemaon College. 
Mouth Dakota, Brooking*. 
Teoneiaee. Knoxvllle. 
Texa*. College Stsium 
I'tnh. Logan 
Vermont, Burlington. 
Virginia (College), Black-burg, 
Virginia I Truck 1. Norfolk 
\\ a-hlngton. Pullman. 
Weat Virginia. Morgantowu. 
Wisconsin, Mndls.ui 
Wyoming, Laramie. 

Eroerlmtnl Btationt.— A law approved 
Uarcfi -', IMT, provided for the eatab. 
Ilnhuieni— under the direction of the ag- 
rlcnlturnl colleges, or agrl.-ullnr; 
menta of collage*. il In each 

atate or territory In accordance with the 
law of July 2. 1802. mentioned above— 
of department* to be known a* Afi 
tural Experiment Stations. It waa pro- 
' 11. 'I that the duties of the«e stations 
should consist In conducting original n 
search aa to the physiology of plantl and 
animal*; the diseases to which they *r* 
subject and their remedies, the chemical 
composition of useful plant* ; the compara- 
tive ndvunlagei of rotative cropping* a* 
pursued under varying aerie* of ■ 

inalyal* of aolla and water; the .loin 

1. 11I '• pofltlOM of natural and artlflclnl 

fertlllaera: the scientific and economic 
question* Involved In th. production of but- 
ter ati.l eh.. ; nnd such other nutter* 

hearing directly upon the agrlcnltin i 
•luatrles of the Unlt.-d Si n.« :,* mlgbl be 

deemed advi i-- by the dtroctora oi the 

ral atationa, For enrrring on thl* 
work the net provided fllt.OOA „ y rMr t,, 
each etate and territory out of funds pro- 
ceeding from the sale of public land*. 

Agricultural experiment stations are now 
maintained In whole or In part bv la* fed 
eral government, anil exist In every Mate ami 
territory. The total amount expended la 
one recent year waa 13,0.13,440, of which 
nearly half was received from the Na- 






Encyclopedic 



Alabama 



•seal gorerament. Agricultural expert- 
arss natlooe represent ooe of toe moat 

ustotuat lnatltutiotia la it* tnited 

iistrs, doUg Burb to promote latenalve 
Urniag tmC to show hnwn how to re- 
•tct costs sud derive tb* f rratr»t beaeal 
tree tbrlt crop*. 

TV following prcuH have a*Jd the of- 
k» of ComalBtoncr .r Agriculture In tbe 
•MttMatd: but Ni-wtoe. I'enasrlvanU : 
llaracs Caaron, llllaola: Frederick Watt*, 
rvso- hone- 

lieorge 1». t»rtnx , MiimcIiumiu ; 
ad Tarawa i. Caiman. Ml- 

Fettoatng la a Hat of the sccretartee 
«f agrouilure and the President* uader 
• win I bey served : 



asa 



Sww -I aaaaSaaBM 



N'ovmaa 1. Colaaao. Maaoun 
; Ituak. « aeoasaa 
Morton. Kaoratka, 
lavs 



bMiiaaaJinaii.i, 
Oewaaal * Marts* Mor. 
I li W aa. liaawa Wttaoa. i 



David r. Howaoa. Maaouri. 



1 



isst 

l.v, 3 

Boj 

100* 



IV asirc d>ull*d Information aa to tha 
aespv at I be seliiltk-v .,[ Hi.- Ih-imrimrai 
»l agitrar! lb* ladcx reference* 

re 'br President*- Mcasace* a»d Kaeycto- 
peak inletr* auder the following liuil- 
laga. 
Aeraiata and Dla- Uortlcvjltaral Board. 

h i i w wat*. Dirt- Insecticide and Fun>- 

aaasf gtrtde Board. 

Adail Industry, tasmectioa. Oa*re of. 

■*"» Markets and Rural 

naaitcai Harirj. Organlaatioa. Of- 

**m of. hee of. 

CaaaMry. Bureau National Forest*. 

_* _ Plant Industry, Ilu 
OWmimatra. Ro- reac 

_/•» Public Koada a ad 
niaauliu. Bureau Rural Engineer- 

«t I'HBce of. 

ftntMta. OaVe of. Pu'JIcatlon*. Dirt- 
ttttraaent S t a • •ton of. 

Referee Board of 
"*» a t i a aa W fbt. Coaanltiaat Sclen- 

laaj and Deng In- Ron*. Bureau of. 
_e*etlon. Board of- Btal»» Relation 

"fart twrrter. Weather Bureau. 

Arnniltera, Department of: 
Creation of, dUea****), M86, 
Davruaacd. M f63. 5886, 

6169. 6346, 6390. 6455. 6655. 
Educational work of, 6905, 6906. 
Effort! of, ia behalf of farmer*. 7909. 
Expenditure* of. .1*96. 5981. 
Experiment Statiotu of, 6733, 6005. 
Fore**! Service recommended. 6910. 
Laail referred for na* of. 6709. 
Law offle*-r for. recommended. 5437. 

of. 5998. 
8aurar h~t culture. 4534. 5554. 6230. 

8347. 0356, 6415, 6455, 6865. 
Sugar eane experiment*, 6849. 
Transfer of Weather 8orrice to, 5487. 
t'aefaUraa vindicated, 7091. 
Works of. 6655, 6727, 6906, 60S7. 
Alabama.— Or* of ibe aonihern (roup of 
atatea: alrknamed. the "I-and of Flow- 
TV» o*n>e la Indian and mean* 
"Bar' and baa been adopted *« 



the motto of tbe State. Alabama la bound- 
ed on the nortb br Tenseaeee. on tbe eaat 
br Georgia, and on tbe weat br Mississippi. 
A naiall portion of the aoatbero bonmlary 
extend* to the Gulf of Mexico. Un 
malader being separated from tbe a-j|f br 
the wettern proji-nlou of Florida. II Ilea 
beiwren Ixl. So* 13' and S3* north and 
between long. M* 53' and 88* «5' waat. 
It la about! aSO mflaa In length from o.rrth 
to aootb and Its area text width la 200 
mile*. It contain! SI.HUB a^nare ml lea of 
area, or atimu .13.000.000 aerea. Tb< 
waa admitted l:>< 

acceded Jan. 11. 1HI. and waa readnltted 

br aet of Co ag raaa Jim.. ."., lHoS Ipagea 

. -i. lae popuUilon lo 1010 waa 

H.Otw, of whle* 45 per ceot. are ne 



Tbe staple production of Alabama I* rot- 
toa. though corn, onta, wheat, and all 
kloda of rantablea *:•■ i<n>doml in aban- 
dance, besldo« batter, dice as, and lumber. 
Alabama la partlculorlr rich In mlni-ral de- 
posit*. A eela of i.it<uulnou< coal runs 
eastward frosn TnaraluOM Into <ie*>rgla. 
Tbe atntunry granlle of Alabama la among 
the oral la tbe United States. Tbe chief 
Indnatrles of tbe State are farming and 
Ike manufacture of Iron and miioo fabric*, 
too l» grown on about 3.434.000 *cr.-». 
and th- jlelil In 1»15 waa l.OM.tiOO I. 
Other nrlil crone were: corn. 3,'*' 

. S4.000.000 buahela. valued at 842.- 

l.'MMI 

. is, fj.ssd.noo: ii«r. 1*0,000 icrea, 

166,000 tons, 82,150.000. There are more 
than 171.<MM» bnrwa In lb-- *u 
Bbont ».'.'. :.^.%.'mmv : x.yi.inh) molra, xlT.000 
rattle, worth 811.300.000: 178.000 alie.p. 
im». and I.1TD.O0O pig.. 87.050,OOOl 
Tbe wool clip of IWB weighed .iboul .'iS-.'.SMl 

Knd* and sold for »iy:..ocn Aboul 
.O00 gallons of milk are renrly prodm-rd. 
from which are made twentr million poundi 
of butter and 40 000 pooBJal Of Chet 

Tbe Iron ores of Alabama, tboogh naferi- 
or to those of l^ke Uopcrlor, hare a com- 
pcnuitlcg advtntagi- In l.ilng near beds of 
good coking coal and ,.f llmi-xlonr Kiinnhl- 
tor fluxing, so that Birmingham, the Pitt*' 
burgh of the Couth, con manufacture pig 

cbeapei than any other place in tii- 

world. Before 18*12. when th^ boom h*gan. 
the coal prodortloD of Alabama had not 
aaaewnted to aa much aa half a million tou> 
la any one year: In 191.1 It wa* i I '-.;- :.^- 
tons. The raltae of the coal product of 
Alabama It apmoxlmat, li two iIiIhN (hot 
of the total mlsrral outpul. amounting In 
1P1* to 833.08.1.724. 

The number of manufacturing establish 
meola lu Alabama having no iinounl output 
T*lue«l at 85"" or morr nt the Iw-glnnlng of 
1915 woa 3_24<l, Tbe nniimnt "f capital la- 
veataxl was 8218.0«2.0on giving occupatsaa 

!.' HI6 perao: iterlal mlm-d at 

-32.0*0. and turning '"it llnlahiv) 

gooda worth 8175JW7.I Sularle* and 

wage-a paid amounted to 880.0110.000. 
Alabama (see also Confederate State*: 
Tnacalooaa, Ala.): 
A«t prescriblnit nnmber of district 
attorney* and marshals in, vetoed, 
5785. 
Direct tax doe from, request of 
United States for payment of, 3579. 
Fifteenth amendment ratified by, 

m ia 

Fourteenth amendment ratified by, 

>r:. 

Proclaimed, 3837. 
Indian depredation* in. 1645. 



Alabama 



Messages an 



tlu Presidents 



Indian* attempt to establish govern 

n«Dt in, [09 
Lauds granted to. in aid of railroad* 

referred to, 3580. 
Memorial from colored cltixani of 
Montgomery asking rights of cit- 
itenship referred to, 4-. ■-. 
Property owners in, »buuM bj 

pensn'ted for loucs sustained, 1471. 

Provisional governor I itotod 

and restoration of, into Union, 35111- 

Railroad* in, memorial from !<••. 

tur« of, asking extension ot time to 

inplcte, 357l». 

Alabama Claims.— During the Civil War In 

the I oiled Stales llie Queen of England 

Issued a proclamation ot neutrality, May 

13, 1801, granting belligerent rlghis to bold 

combatant* and forbidding her subjects to 

lake part with tithU Ureal Britain's 

Ian* prohibit. I li iiiilpmaat ol any land 

oi naval forces within her dominion 
•CI »e*ln*t any friendly power .Notwith- 
standing lbl» prohibition. Hie Alabama, 
tali, and other 
were built In Ct\nt Ilrltaln for tbe 
■ lor-ate Suuea, and, regardless at till 
remonstrances of tbe American ministry. 
on Hiliii-i] porta 
tlll«l oul a» commerce destroyer*, lu les* 
than two mouth* lb. had taken 

twenty-seven prlxc*. After a long cruise 
among Island* ol Indlea 

and along the coast of Brazil tbe Ala-tamo 
io anchor at Cherbourg, France. Off 
III » harbor xlii' *.-i» Kinik bj Die \~ 8. 8- 
Kear*arge. after having dcatroyed .'id ves- 
Ki-in and about *i!,.'iOD,000 worth of prop 
Afler tbe war tli" lulled State* 

Blessed a claim for damages agnln.tt ilr.-ar 
la After murh discussion It mi 
agreed to submit the Baiter to a court of 
arbitration composed of Charles Francis 
I*, appointed by lent of the 

foiled Slates; sir Alexander Cockbun 
the tjueen of ICnglnn.l : fount 1' d 
Sclopls. by the King of Italy : M. Jacques 
Sim ut|itll, by tin' President of Swltxcrland. 
and Viscount d'ltaliiba. by the Kmperor or 
Braz.IL The commissioner* met at Geneva. 

,1871. Count Selopla 
presiding i ■"■ I Blted Butte* wag award- 
ed S13.500.00O in gold In aatlsfactlon for 
all claim*. All claims to Indirect dam 
mgn were rejected, aud Urcst Britain mi 
held culpable for not doing more to pre- 
'lic tailing aud aucccii of the cruiser*. 
The award wa* paid. tSco 0«n»Ta Tri- 
bunal and illustration opposite 4056.) 
Alabama Claims: 

Arbitration of, proposed by United 
8tntee, and reply of Gmt Britain 
discussed, 3565. 
Commission to take proof on, recom- 
mended, 4056. 
Correspondence regarding mode of 

settling, 4075. 
Court ot Commissioner* of — 

Discussed, 4244, 4290, 4356, 4372. 
Time of duration of, extended, 
427S, 42!Mi. 
Discussed, 3565, 3655, 3777, 3987, 

4056. 4321. 
Transfer ol -iy to United 

State* referred to, 4312. 



Tribunal at Oenova for settlement 
of, award of, 413$. 
Commissioners to report on dis- 
trOmtla Of. appointment of, 
recommended. 4139, 4190. 
Payment of, I 

i United States and counter 

com referred to, 4115, 411S, 4119. 

I'm of opinion regarding 

powers of, 4120,4122. 
Discussed, 4097, 4138. 
Legislation in connection with, 

urged, 4164. 
Kef erred to, 4161. 
Alabama Indians. (See Indian Tribe*.) 
Alabama, The, destruction of, by too 
■-mrgc referred to, 3457. (See alao 
Alabama Claims.) 
Alamo.— Originally built a* a church, situ- 
..I'll nu the San Antonio Rlicr nv-u :-■ m 
Auiiiiilo. Texa*, a a rtad luio a 

In r. -Unary. J888, It was OOOU 
pled by Colonel W. B. Trails with 140 
men who were In arm* against th 
meot of VI- li.-... i in- parly was besieged 
by aome 2.000 Mexicans under Santa Ana 
from February 23 until March 0. when lb* 
place was aurr.-nilered to Saula Ana under 
the promise of his protection. At the com- 
in mil of that general, however, th* »lx 
MS, Including David Crockett and 
Colonel Bowie, famous frontiersmen, were 
mia— trad, and the bodlea of their cosa- 
rade* were mutilated. Thereafter Texan* 
were roused to fury by the cry. "ltemei 
th* Alamo!" In allusion to ID* 

made by Hi- Ureeks i-r antiquity at 
Thermopylae, this struggle was sometimes 
relet red 10 as th« Tll-I iiiopyla: of T> III. 

AlasVv — lllrtory. — Alaska derives Its 
HUM from an Kngllsh corruption of the 
native word "Al-ay-ei-*a," probably mean- 
ing "The treat land" or "Mainland " 

The region now kuown as Alaska was 
flrat explored by th* Kuaalan officers Bering 
mil Chlrifcen In IT41. Russian iradera and 
trapper* soon entered the country and 
through their activity other nations became 
Intertaicd In HiIh region. Spanish n 
tlons la 1774 and li"» visited tbe south 
eastern shore and In 1778 the Kngllsh Ex 
plornr. rapt. James Cook, made «xtei 

,i Hi, coast fo* the lirtti«ii Gov- 
ernmcut. The first settlement was ton 
tho Russians at Threa Saints on Kodlak 
I liiml In I7S4. nuil In 1804 the RussUO- 
Aiucrtrao Co. founded Sitka, making It the 
seat of government In the following year. 

In li rod* and regulation ol 

Russian posiKxslotiK la America were given 
over to the Russian-American Co. for a 
term of 20 years, which was afterward* 
twice renewed for similar period*. 

In 1821 Russia atlempted by ukase to 
exclude foreign navigators from Bering Sea 
and the I'acllic coast of har possessions, 
which caused a controversy with the lulled 
States and Groat Britain. The question 
mi set tied by :. treaty with th* United 
Stale* in 1824 and ons with Crest Britain 
In 1820, by which the boundarlc* of the 
Russian possession* in America were per- 
manently UN 

In March. 1807, Alaska wna purchawd 
by the li 'or the. aum of $7.- 

■JIMI.IMMI in gold, and III October of the 
same year the forma' transfer was madn 
at Sitka. 17 t« !->77 Alaska w*» 

governed by the War it, although 




Encyclopedic Index 



Alaska 



i nutota* tn» from the beginning oot- 
id ay the I/ea.uiy IMpartawnt. anil 
I Ik* Ult*x Ibe control mtrd from 18T7 
1 lie IIIHK ot the art of 18B4. Thl* 
UnW over AUuka the lawn •.( thi- 
ol Oregon ao far •• tbey were ap~ 
created a Judicial dlatrlct and a 

?ut In fore* Ih* mining lawa 
Half*, and gave tke country 

BKtratlvr lyatean. 

Tat laSux of aattlera after tbe 4laeoi*ry 
•f (ttd In tbe Klondike Id 18V3 rendered 
ant *4eo.wate lawa oeeeaaary. Id 18S9 
ud 1900 Coagreaa mad* protlalona for a 
mat of rltll aod criminal taw, and In 1W0.1 
(a**ed a boaaeatead act la the nwantlmc 
» •enon* boundary diipute bad artaro be- 
tatee ib» United Stale* and Canada re- 



catdttg tbe Interpretation of tbe treaty of 
Id. Tola waa tattled In 1003 by an agree- 
a*oi whereby tbe aeaeoaat of Caaada *i- 
Uaoed on Carlber north tban 64* 40-. 

»> lie act of May T. lBOfl. Alaaka waa 
£ita p*»er lo Hart a Drlrcale lo I'onirtM. 
TW ad of lonil 24. 11*1 1. provided for 
at creation of a Territorial legislature. 

Qfmphf. — Al*«ka In lla greatest ex- 
text it excluded batwero ih* meridian •■' 
Ur«**l longltede and !*:;• ea«t luorltnit ■ 
•ad bttween tbe parallel* of SI* and 
V asrtb latitude. It U bounded on the 
•*»•» »» tbe Arctic Ocean, on the w-«t by 
U» arrtk Ocean. Bering Strait, and Bering 
»»*. «■ the aoutb and aoutbwr-t by Da 
! Ala.ka and the factor OrWB, and 
•a tbr eart by tbe Yukon Territory and 
Mlka Columbia. The eaitrrn boundary 
"'"a Oat Arctic Ocean to tbe B> 
•* Monat 8t. »:il»» U tbe one buadred and 
•Hty-SrM meridian: thence aoutheattward 
•a NrtUad Canal It It Irregular and can- 
•*< bi dearrlbcd In general term*. 

Altai* I* In approximately tbe »w tail 
•Mr as the Sr-andinax Ian IVnlnanla ; Point 
Barrow. It* nortxtrrnino-t i. .int. l< In . 
tke «ax latitude aa North Cape; inxon 
EiStaee. ■ bleb mark* lu southern bound- 
'■• early oo tbe tttw parallel a* 
"■r-tkageo: Bt. Klla* la In tbe latitude of 
•ktaaxnla and St. Petersburg; aod Sitka 
» Jt lb* latitude eh. The 

fafc cf the «eatrra terminal of th. 
"aa Stand* l» almoat Identical with that 
•■< tat New Mebrlde* lalaad* and I* tbe 
•at u that of New Zealand, on. - - 
"i*c» of vri'/i, tbe tnort weaterly point 
< »V aaloUnd. I* nearly a* far wet n 
Jb» bMBaan Islands. Thin a person travel- 
's" rn» New Tork to Attu Island, the wcat- 
'"■•■l of an rhaln. •■!! ■ ii' tig 

• rriaelwo will hare accom,- 
«• Ulf the Journey from cast to a 
Tbt area of Alaska Ii a 
■jaw ntflc*. ooe-flflb th»t of the I I 

"■*». Tb* popular conception "' ,l '" ■•»■• 
*«*•**» la baaed on map* of North ftmer- 
•J. which alway* ill. tort It. Th« map of 
'••a. supertax post w l on a mnp of the 
i-lew of tbe same rcalc. demon - 
•«*»ksi that the distance from the eastern- 
's* U th# «ral>rain. n Al*«ka I* 
71 ta tbe distance fmm tbe Atlantl 10 
_r*dnr In the latltade of Lo* Aneele., 
■a tkai Ik eortharnmoMt and •mitli -rn 
"• arlala are oearly *• far apart 
■J't'eaa and the Canadian bound*, rle* of 

V ruin maa* of Alaakn 1* nenrly reef. 

•Jraar and la carted out from IM eon 

' -nil* Hay on tbe north ami 

wjhajof Alatka no the aouth. An ex 

.1 lb* *oiltheart la fornlahed by 

k «»e»||ea panb*- i 

!•> the ovithweal ti the Alnakn 
■wanli ml 

^ifaaaraphy. — The main topographic fea- 
•»*" K Abuka arc aUallar to tboae of tbe 



wi-.ti-m I'nlt.-d statex The highland* of 
i. like Ibone of tbe Cnlted «tate« and 
Canada, are In avncral parallel to th. 
Hue, and tbe four topographic I 1 

» are fairly well d 

Ibrougbout weatrrn Canada and 
into Alaaka. Along Ibe Pacific eoaat of 
Alaaka and Rrliuh Columbia la a rooun- 
tainou» belt 60 to i'00 mile* In width, which 
I* Ibe weaternmoit of tUo foar province*, 
and may be daalgnat.il n 
tain *y*lem." II properly include-, the 
-nlnou* Alexander Archipelago and 
Aleutian Ixland*. a. well aa a number nf 
other lalnnd groupa. While thl* refli 
In the main raged and mountalnou*. It* 
rangv* ate ill.im.r nml oftan aMWrktM ly 
broatl valley* or lodcntntlnna .-■f Ihr 
line, forming In cevctal caie* large baalaa. 
Ilk» that of the Copper ltl> r 
a aectlon of the loner tlopc whl.h drain" 
Into the Yukon and Kii-utukwlro. I'- vater* 
reach the I'acirn throaaxl aiteam* flowing 
IrkM-rerae to the axla ..f .. in*. 

Kaat and north of the Pacific M -uritalna 

I. the Central 1'lniiou region, correapond- 

In i> in. .ud wnj with the Central 

Plateau of the we«teru Cnlted State* anil 
lunula. Thl* belt l» dmlm-d largely by 
nkwlm Klvetk Into Ber- 
ing Sen. and Include* n nm .-.-laud 
arena of considerable extent. Ka*t and 
nr.rtli of the plateau priiilne*. * broad Cor- 
dillera form* the north 

Rocky Mountain ayatem. The drain*!.'" ■■' 
the miulhern alone* of the mountain* I* 
chiefly tributary to tl"- YtlfcOB, while lb* 
rn alopo drain* Into the Ar. II.- 
in-, hi 

The Great l'lnlna ea»t and north of 'he 
Rockle* form an area of Ion relief which 

Ilea bctae,.n the u<ilern exteOBtoO of the 
Itocky Mountain* and the Arctic Ocean and 
la dealraal.il the Anil, -fop* region." 

CUmatr— Tluuigh Alaaka I* often locewly 

referred to aa an Arctic province, yet nearly 

luarlera of It* area Ilea within the 

North Temperate Bone Geographic poat- 

tlon and extent relative to oceanic bodlei. 

togottwr with r — 1 1 • - f . hnvi brongbl about 

fh.vl.iil condition* 
rn«t« In climate Iwtween different part- of 
the Territory. Thi" general climatic prov- 

: - Ii "f » III -li in turn lu.-ludl • ii i i 

ber of lubordlunte province*, are rccog- 

The climate „r the eonatal province I* 
compnrnble with thnt of Scotland nnd the 
li.iiivUu Penlnanla, In rurope but I* 
anmewbat warmer Tbat of the lnlnn.l i. 

Son I* not unlike the climate of Alberta, 
ukatchewan, and Manitoba. In Canada. 
The northerly province bordering (•"• Polar 
Hea 1* tbo only one In which Arctic condi- 
tion* prevail. 

The precipitation of *outhe**tern Alaska 
varlcat from about 117 In.-h. . at Ketchlkau 
in k*M than 10 Inchea nt Skagway. While 
there la hot little *now near »ea level, tin r.- 
I* a Tory heavy fall In the mountain.. At 
Whlto Pa-- r Ktinwfaii ; 

but la probably le»* than 4 feet 
on the Chllknt trommlt. Tin- hlgheal r. 

■I ner I- -n|i. rature In aoutheaatern 

Alaaka Is W* tT. ; the lowctt winter ti-m- 
peratnre — 4' I*. 

In the coBvtal region, siieii-hlng from 

Katalla to Seward the average tempera- 

tnr.. for the three aummer month* I* about 

: of the three winter mouth*, from 

o 80* F. The lowe-t I 

recorded in thl* region It 14' K : the 

lilcheat 82* K. The total ,ll»illt 

5-8 feet nt Sewn nl 13 feel li Valdei about 
. ft on Trail Creek along the Ala-ka 
Northern Itallroad. about .1f> feet at Child* 
Glacier on the Copper Klvrr Railroad, and 



Alaska 



Messages and Papers of I lie /'residents 



• bout 18 feet at Thompano Faaa, C tOMti 

r.y ihc Military Koad frum Vahl 

BOOM o! the ooM Important climatic fcit- 
ture* of the coa»t of Alaska to ablpplng; are 
the severe wind* fiblch Mow In and uut 
of th* valley* that travemc the i-..*-l 
range* and their connecting north. '1 be ic 
hlow toward the land In aummer and) to- 
ward tin- sea In winter 'I'h.' -evei-eat are 
the outward wind*, which are inn«t common 
Uurlug January. February, and March, when 
i.'lui'ltlaa nf tli» and TO unb* an hour are 
raid to be not Infroijucnt. 

I in- Aleutian Island.* and the Alaska Pen- 
Insula have a cllmato charn.i. rlied by com- 
paratively moderate temperature and lens 
inimiiliiT than that of the Pacific coast tp 
the east. Cook Inlet baa quit-- a din 
.limit- from i hn i of tin- outer coa«t line. 
I he highest recorded aummer temperature 
I* 87" K. : the lowest wlntiT temperature, 

in I Tin- climate ..r th* lower .-■■. 
ami ..r I It.- Matnnuxka Volley* differ* ngnin 
both from that of Cook Inlet and of the 

■ ■tii. r roaat Hue. Here iba lumtnere art 
kiniwii in he warmer than on Cook I ni-t 
and the winter* are probably milder. The 
low* i temporatur. recorded at thin local- 
ity during i lie 1:111111 period w«« — 12* F. : 
■he hlgheat M* F. The lower Copper Hirer 
Vailoy haa iinirh the name climate a* that 

lit tin coll. I At Kolinbott, the 111 It! fid ter- 
minal 01 the Copper Hirer A Northwewtera 
Kallroad, the snowfall I* ahiuit I fbet, and 
tin' i-t t. -.mi ■ "t tomperolurc* recorded are 
--.II- and "0- F Thl« station l* 2,000 
feet oborc tea level and clo*e to a Elacler. 
At Copper Center th« total precipitation 1* 

about I" I"' i." .iinl n wfall about :i 

f. rt. Kilreme* of temperature* of — flO' 
and 85* havo been recorded. The total 
annual j . r ..- 1 1 . 1 1 n 1 1 ■ >i i In tbt upper Ynk.ui 

carle* I- ■•-» 1 ly from 10 io 10 Im 
The rui'«n temperature fur the three aummer 
month* at Falrbank* la about All* P. : the 
mean temperature for the three winter 
ini.iitliN about —12* P. The pre. Ipltatbrn 
on (be lower Yuk..n and Kutkukwltu la 
about IT to 20 tnche*. Along the abort* 

■ >r It-'tltiK Sea the mean «umtner tempera- 
inre varle* from 40' to SO'. The cli- 
mate of the northern half of net In*; Sea 
la romparable with tbat of the Provlnoe of 
Archangel, In northern Ru»«la. a region 
which rapport* some agricultural poplula- 
(Ion. Tho arctic province, which Include* 
lb., im.. ml of the Pnlar Sco. a* well s* 
the drainage baxin« of the tributary rlrer*. 
I* almllar to that of the Ucrlng Sea. but 
colder, 

One effect of climate 1* the frozen condi- 
tion of the Ktouiid which prevail* In much 
of the Inland region At Fairlmnk* Iba al- 
luvium I* In many place* froten to bed- 
rock, ground frost having been met with to 
a depth of over Sin it lx to he noted 

that unli«» the cover of moss and vegeta- 
tion la atrlpped. only about IS to 24 Inche* 
nf the surface thaw* timing the aummer. 
On removal of the vegetative covering the 
ground thaw*. *o that the froxen eubsall 1* 

no detriment to agriculture. Tb* gintiud 

wever, not everywhere froxen In Hie 
Inland region. The bed* of the larger wnter- 
i are u*ually unfroeen. and till* aUo 
hold* trne of the gravel hetiehe* along th* 
vailoy walla and other deposit* of alluvium 
which are drained. No permanent ground 
fro«t occur* along the I*arl(1e littoral, and 
the aame probably hold* true of mom .if the 
na and ttaianoaka Kami. There I* 
cooBlderaiile permonenrly ftor.cn ground In 
i he copper River Vnllcv. exnerlallv along 
the foothill* and *lope* ot th.- Alaska 
Hinge. The experience of thoae long rc*l- 
ib'tit In Alnvkn the cilia*, 

be Tery healthful. No eitreme« of cold or 



heat occur along tbe Pacific *caboard. Tb* 
executive rnln* rbataclcrlstlc of many part* 
of tills dlattlct are. to be «ure. disagreeable. 
but experience demonetrate* the f»rt tbat 
th-y have no adverse effect on health. 

tif i in- Yukon It may bo nalil thai 
aummer* are cool and that bright clear 
'••. «:ii. i pi nilM iim I or be i Im.. vii-- 
arldlty of the climate make* th* extreme 
ti iii|n mturr* of wlot.-i All 

who have lived In thlx inland region are 
agreed that the winter cllnuuc It. far mora 
healthful than In many pan. of th* state* 
where the temperature i. higher, but where 
there I* an exeeaa of bumldltv. !U*ldcatx 
of the Interior bare no f.nr of the extreme 
I'. ii pri rail! luring the winter 
month*. The truttt 'ooracr between Fair- 
bauki ami Valdcx I* made by men. women. 
a inl children and offer* no aerlou* hardship* 
except when atorm* art encountered I Q 
tin ..Hi. r luiail, the more humid cllmi, 
Seward IVnlnsule I* much more Irving. 

Here the winter norm* at vera una taw 

absence of timber give* no abetter. Tbe 
oimm.r climate at ?tomc I* delightful. 

I'aiwlutto*. — According to tbo cenau* of 
llild the total population of Alaska *n 

of which t ii 30.000 were white* 

I''"- e '■» «'«• taken In winter, when 

permanent residents • aumeratM. 

and tb. e Ogam (hoitld therefore be aug- 

no n|. il l.v Bjany il "ml .. i . - 1 . t - - " : ,g 

the annual aummer mlgiatom t>. Alaaka 

of mitieix. cannery anployea, tad oti 

but of ...or. i n., i imiuding touiltt*. Skag- 
wav bad a population of 872 I 
la alto eailmateil thai Hurt art 'j.ihjo or 
S.000 more In (he Kb. mill"- and other Cana- 
dian ininiiig district* ot tbo Ynkon. Th* 
town of IlaTne*. on I.ynn Canal, had a pop- 
ulation of 44S iinioi. and the total of the 
ttiliutary dtatrlct ra about l.ooo. Th* 
coaatal town* of Prince i 1 . mmm Boand and 
ot region* had pnpulallona In 11*10 
at follow*: Katalla. 18H: <"ord" 
Seward. .134. The lncor|>oriiUtl town of 

1 had 810, t.. which ihould be added 
aome COO or i00 more, representing th* 

Jopulatlon of a lettlem. m ;. ad- 

ii.. nt, ii'.t Inelii.leil uliiiin the city limit*, 
.'here are no fart* avolloble regarding the 
population of In* Coppei itlier Volley, a* 
. mill wax taken before (he Inflitv r 

lie. due to the completion of the rail- 

road The population of the Keiial Peti- 

itiuiiio. Including Reward, i» about 

ami (lure are between i.e. .1 TOO In tbe 

Cook Inlet region. Including the Si: . Una 

Valley, in i»lo tn»n wan nearlj 1T.000 

ni- iii tbe Alaaka pait ,-r the Yukon 

and In the Kti«kokwlm ltailna. Of the** 
nearly B.000 vtcre In Falrlianka ami the ad- 
la. , nt i . tr ... 1 1 Th* population of Fair- 
banki wn« :: '. n ( lMOi : Ohena is. Tan- 
ana, at the mouth of the river of tho »an»« 

iii. 308 ; Rampart. R:I II. .1 -pringx, 101 

tjot/i'nmeitt. -The executive poereff la 

texteil In tbe to . ei u..r, ttlio l» appointed 
in the rrexblent f..r « term of four year* 
by and with the advice and conaent ot tho 
Seiiaie. Th* governor may veto any bill 

!a«tcd by tb.- Territorial legislature with- 
B three day* after It I* presented to him. 
Tii.- ii'g|*iaiiir* may overrule tbe ftto by a 

two-thlrdl ■■> i ill Ho tiiembvra to which 

each hou*r I* entitled 

The 1,'clalattve power 1* ve«|ed In a Ter- 
ritorial leg-uiatnre ronalittng of a Sena'e 
and a House of Renresentailve*. The Renal 
eonal-tt of « members. 2 from each of ih.- 
four ludlelnl division* Into which Alaska I* 
now divided. The Hou«e of Kepreacntnt'T-si 
l* nf 111 inemher*. 4 from each of the 
four ludlelal division*. The term of each 
member of the Senate is four veers, one 
member from each Judicial division being 




two year* 

IV tegltiator* convene* biennially at 
Jimii. ito capital, oa tt. -ay la 

VUrcti la odd year*, and the length . 

.Inli nl to 00 day*, but to- cor- 






_ . I* ««power*d to call a rpeclal s-mIco. 
•hirh afcall act cootloiK loagrr than 15 
say*. KMMloea for member* ol the leglsla- 
tsre ar» held every two year, ou the erst 
Tataday after Ibe flr»t Monday In NoTara- 
brr of eaea erea year. 

Taa Wkttl po»« of tbe Territory la 
testes*, to tbe I ol ted State* D:- 
tar Alaska, which ha. the mdc jurladlc- 
Uca a> the district ooarta of tbe m.trJ 
teat*"* and hae general •urUdlctloo It 
erbmlnal. emit/, and admiralty cause* This 
court u divided lato four divisions. pr«- 
•slesl over by fosjr ladgc* appointed I 
rrcsadeat. by aad with the adi'.re and ton. 
•tat of lb* Senate, for a lertn of four year*. 

Tbe Territory electa a Delcxi' 
tee**, who aay parawinai 
aba baa no Tola. Beginning In 1014 tbli 
D * It ga te I* *:«ted on the tame tUt. a. 
*»a» t era of the legislature. 

r»»iro LtnJ:— Local land offlrea are lo- 
at Noaae. lalrbank*. aid Juneau. 
s-ie-re settle* for puM.'- lands should b» 
j or general for the Terrl- 
tcd at Juneau. 
By the art of Acguit J*. 1013. tbc gen- 
"«i of tb« raited State* a<.t . 
^applicable were extended to Ala.kn 
•sets-stead law. however, had been 
rfatnly extended with certain liberal taudl- 

by tbe rectangular tystcm are 
ided from -.rate baaea 

tl meridian*. d'.Mlngoi 

• Rlrrr. the Falrasuka, and the Scea- 

llafl, 
A ouallBed peraoai taay make a horoeatead 
eatry In Alaska for not more than 
arre* of ■ .r»-i»d or aa.urvcyrd land 

aaay. however, lie allowed for 
laad etoadlug more tbin )<;» i 1- along 
il» abiwe of any aatatfabae wai.r. and alonf 

Iff of at leas' 

raaarred between all claim" If *nv of the 

Had settled aooo la nararreyed. th i 

elalai avust be loraled In a re.-'n 

rt«4 more thae 1 mile la length br north 

aad south line*, run according to tbe true 

nvrVl 

• ■»a*l Fartitt. — Tb* coast forest*, which 
rnaat-rt— th» moat heavily timbered areas 
in Alaska, are nearly all Included In tbo 
Tasagaaa and Cbugacb National 
Tftrat- ar» nc-1, r the J'-.r'.-d . lion of the 
' Kerne* of the United State* De- 
partaarat of Agriculture. 

Tbe be«t estimate* available place the 

• laud of mercbantat'i :> the 

and on the chaj.-a.-li at s.iK'O.- 

nrd feet. ,n*l«ts 

Ufa* ir% aod Sitka *prn"\ at. 

though Iherr- la considerable wt.r. rn red 

raslBf aad aom* yellow rypren, •• i. • 

Cat Tannaa. The tlaaber Is roltabli 

ecaMtracllon material, flnltb. and a mj 

tint It auliali'' for pnner |-nlp. 

for the manufncMire of 

palp are eery faroraMe. Loccloc .1 -a 

are •baft, since (he . if the tlaa- 

ber la tllMtrd srlthln a stir.rt dl'tnnca nf 
Dm atsar* llac. Tran«nortail..o • Ibe n..lnt 
nf maanti'mre is comnar: - 
llaalled <ii.i rjc"«"er for purposes of tnami. 
t I* arallable and may lie >i..| with- 
■ait enarrr for the t»n jfa.ior-- of nstlnnnl 

of manufac- 
rera, all of which mast be iltuat'd on tide 




water, deep-aea traaipoTtatioa la available 
to Cha graal world markets 

The beat data available Isdlrate that at 
ktaat T0O.OtXl.""Xi board fectjwr annum can 
be cut Indefinitely from th* Tonga** Xation- 
reat and at lia>t SO.000.OiiO from lb* 
Ohugach. This w-ll leave a very larje ran 
plua for export after supplying local n-ed*. 

Mature tlislxr on either forest may be 
iiaaal on r. ;mt. A sutOclent 

• rounot of timber will be la any 
sal* to Justify fully tb. 

'Ct>"t and maoufanare. Keaaonable 
cutting periods srlll be allowed, baafd upon 
aaarket deinnuds and the rapacity of tbc 
I'aynont Is re-ju'red OB the basl* 
of actual or icale meajurrnirnl In compara- 
I small amounts ioimedlaicly Is ad- 
mice of rutting, thua doing awny very 
larcely with carrying charges. S« 
which the value of the timber eir-f<l 
cu»t V adTertlaed ac Last 30 day*. Set- 
tlera. farmer*. a, and 

other* may take 

of charge and with- 
out permit In amount* not exceeding 2U.00O 
board fert. or ;.'. eprdl ol wood In any 
one year. 

/■oil.il Kerrlce. — The domestic rale* of 

■•■ *nd o matter 

moiled at any point In Alaska to any other 

Eiu that I or In the I'nltvd 

■ nt'-s or lit postt-sklpna, wllh the follows 
log exception*: 

no- graduated lone rate* on fourth-da** 
or domestic parcel-pott matter do m-t ap- 
ply, tbe IHltlaee ral^ on t»r be- 
Iwern any point In Alaska and tbe I'nlted 
noj i«.. point* In 
n being 12 r.-nt* for i-s.-h poun-l or 
' on pnrcel* exceeding 4 
ounce* In weight, i-gardlet* of dlttancv. 
Tha rate of poarngo mi gold eoln, gold 
on, and BOM dual ..rr.-red for malllnc 
-tl any two point* In Alaska or br- 
i any point In Ala-kx and any 

•r llH lOTKSi-SKluil . 

be '2 cents an ounce or fraction th< 
reanrd'vs* of dlstsnee. Burh gold 

■tt. or gold 'i i" lnclo*ed 

In sealed package* not exceeding II pound* 
In weight and neat by registered mall. 

■'.uref*. — Tt «lth '< Mask* 

It at pr»»;nt Its most Important resontca, 
but the T.rrltury also Include* exlen*lve 
tract* of farming and grating land* and 
mnny water power*. Kxeellcnt timber oc- 
cur* la row \l*.ka. while Is* In- 
innd ; valuable for local u»e. 
arc aim valuable (liberie* along the 
rarifle aeaboard. 

The developed mineral resource* of Alaa- 
ka Incladt go'd lodes and eon- 

:n. and silver deposits, together with 
petroleum, marble, and gypsum. There are 
. \(i iiKlve field* of bituminous ami llt,-- 
nltle conl mid inme Iron ore*, which nre 
Braetlealli undevaioned. In addition to 

.us- qnlek- 

• llvrr. and other ores, and prnt. graphite. 

'... and mica bat \* m f.und. 

I lode mining hns been carried on In 
sou tin la*M since 18R2. and 1* a 

larcc and «' 'ii iiev-iop, ci kaduatry, The 

ml lode production I* about 

i $4,000,000 should be 

d to 1019 lopper mining began In 

l and ha* made rapid ttrlde* during 

:i«t few years. The total copper pro- 
duction U .T I---II t -HIIXMllKMi pounds. V«lll-d 

at ■13.145.O0O. Of this, "q, 940,000 pound*, 
valued »t nlmut *4.«v.lo.0OO, represent* tbe 
I of 1012- 
I'l*r.T ITillilliK. begun lit JuneAtl In IMQl 
w*a extended to i Uasln la 1»-Sfl. 

No very important dl*roT«ri*a Of plactjr 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



gold wore, however, mode In Alaska until 
after Um Kloodlka rush of IHBS ThU 
brought S lar*e mi ml ll< into the 

Territory and led to the finding of golil at 
Nome la 1698, at Fairbanks In 1901, and 
la tin' In in ISM 

Meanwhile the other smaller distiki. 
developed, notably th.. ,• ,,( (he Yukon. 
thi Copper, and the su-ltim Koalsi Tbs 
lotal gold output of all the plocer mine* 

iia» a -I.: ie of |i i: n 000, a all 

plari-r-mln 111..1I ..r 1013 In* no 

mated voluo of |r.\(Hii>,i»iO. Sliver una been 
■rail. Incidental to sold and copper 
mining, to t Ii .- t.o»l value ..f about Jl.Bi)*,- 
000. The vain* of the output of tlo. mar- 
lil". gyiituui, pctrulcura. lead, rte., to the 

■ ■I 1012 I- ■ |1 

Tb« exploitation <.f mini deposits on 

inlet in 180*1 I'T the Hussions was 

the flrnt attempt .it any form of mining 

within ih.- Territory ml of coal 

rrltory up to the cloto of 1SMJ 

la Insignificant, being les* than SO.000 

liiirlnii I upward 01 1- 

.- non tooa of coal have hero Imp 

Into the Territory. 

To nun up, Alaska has produced to 
dale mineral wealth hnvlug an nggre- 
rata Talne of *2aB.n(Hi.000, of which 
■-. I... . n Hi,'.', lo tin 
year MIS. This output It remarkable, 
considering that laigc mining operatloni 

• re practically confined lo II i-ial re- 

eaally accessible to ocean ii an • 
portatlon, and thol th* vast nn 
wealth of tb» Inl |.i I'"' richest 

of Hie Bold placer*, It alii 

Gold placers, copper, and gold 1. d e 
mines hare hern ope Had lo centra] 
Alnska. and oUtci u >>■ i In- 

tall; to gold mining. There ha* alto 
been a amnll oulpiii of nvnl nul 
lean. Of the kinds of mineral depoalt* 
which ar* practically iih.i tlwri 

• re ritrn.li ni lead ore*. 

tin nod antimony depo I" ad- 

dition to .lopoalM 

I,. IV,' Ii.', n (i, lili.l. bill 

rolue remain* to '■ P OTen 

Aurlfrroua gravel* arc rare wldelr dl*> 
irlinitnl in oentral Alaska, ami their , t- 
ploltatlon bn» yielded g,.Id t„ the value 
of nearly fon.otiii.iMKi Moat ,.f thl* bas 
been taken from depn very 

rich, for the high cunt of operating here 
i..l ih.- exploitation ..t the no. re eg- 

dcpoalti .'.f i r gold ' 

The i "f mining In tin- Ini.-ilor 

has In a Inrgr measure detctio'] the pi,,-- 

fi.uu searching f,,r nurlf. r,m< 

(odea, ao only the richest and most I 

ably situated of auch de| ir. could he 

SrofltBbly exploited undei | II- 

lOM Gold lodes have, howev.-r. I..ell 
found In many pari* of the province ami 
have been full* mined In the 

Kenal lvnlnaiila. In Will." Illtrict 

of the Snsltna Baaln, and In the Fair- 
hank* district 

The copper dcpoalta of centrol Alaska 
are among lta moat Importnul raoil 
The only developed copper district la that 
of the Chlilnn Valley, from which one 
I'ineatt In 1911. 
Ilie coal fields of central Alaska are 
extensive and include *nme of the be«t 
n.al of the Territory. High-grade steam- 
Ing and coking bltutiiln.>u* OOtll a* wll 
aa miii' anthracite are found In the Iter. 
Ing Itlver and Maranuska coal fi.-ld». Mmli 
M ttilai coal Is crnahed and will fuml-di 
a large percentage of alack, and In many 
Iniiaiiee* the coal bed* have been ao dc- 
form-d a* to prevent their profitable min- 
ing. Wblle the percentage of the coal 
bed* that can be piotHsbly mined can 



.••rtnlnod hi actual exploitation. 
nMind thol U.cbc two field* 
contain much workab! : a higher 

(rode than aa.i tli.tt part 

North Arnerleau Contloout tribu- 
tary to the l"ncil|e Occnn. 

< om.,1- r- . — Up to the clooe of Ifl'J 
Alaska produced uiltiiiai*. luhcry piod- 
and fura to the value of about 
140(1000,000. Ala.ka'* commerce In 

aid shipments ol food product*. 
no i -'ImnilUe, machinery, lumber, cool. etc.. 
and r- nun ►hipn 

tier, salmon, ballbnt, tic The nversi 
aual lolue of tula growing commerce dur- 
ing the Bra yean ending with Via la 
nearly f3O.O0O.U0O. 
Th.- areraxe raloe ..f t b. .diss- 

'I Annually li.iro the t'nlu-d State. 

lo Alaska, duttng tha Ifjar* ending 

with ! The hlghe-i 

during Hi-- i" i".i for any one year 
H «ai tli.Tua.3ao, the loweJl 
'It*. Au arera. 
23 per ..iii ..f ibe above inuunl va i 
made up of the shipments made to St. 
Michael nud Yukon llilHlli III.- i : .elude* 
some shipment* to the Canadian Vui- 

It Is estimated that during Mil* five 

NaW period nn average of some 1'.'," n> 

rchandfce were shipped into tb*- 

Vukon region. This Includi th< 'r»m. 

Idltarod-Innoko reftoa, Into the 

liiiii.iin region, and Int.. Ibe t'.iiiadinn 
Yukon. The greot.-it aierago for any on* 
year waa OO.uOO (1WW), and the i.i 

HOI I \ baa been 
that of tblt freight an ncerace of 24.O0O 
tona Is shipped into the laliiiauks-ltam- 

(art region, ib- high, 
or VMM and the lowest lO.ooo ton. for 
1011. The Information nt hand uadlraies 
that about 8.5U0 tons bare heeti an: 
shipped Into th* Innoko-ldltai 
dining the yean. l»l(l ami Hill. A kiiioII 
am. unit of freight I* also carried Into 
Fairbanks over the military road during 
the winter month*, aud some also roaches 
i.nkokwlm Valley by d meats 

to the mouth of that stream. 

The In and Olll bouml passenger traffic 
M <io. I from Alo-ko. not Including tour- 
ist! or cannery empl. 

places, amounted to SO.Oli". In lliln 
and s.'l.'J'.i.'l In Hill. A part of thli 
resents the travel Into the Klondike aud 
e tie i 'li:-tilei. of the fin 
HO • Ol (hi* travel was to and from 
coastal points. The average annual pas- 
seiifer navel to the Kalrbanks regii 
steamboat route for V.Ooii Ii rati ma ted 
to be Bbonl .'.'Hill, ond 1,000 to the Iilito- 
rod Inuoko region. About H00. In addl- 
ii.oi. travel In and out of Knlrhsnk* b7 • 
•toge during the winter months, and prob- 
ably 1,000 go In and out OS HOI In ad- 
dition to these there are also severs'. Iiun 
dred who travel in and out of the Idwa 
md-Innoko n-glon by the Ku»kokwlm 
lil.'-r or by the winter trail to Seward 
The nv.tni.-i' ..vlue of the ..iiti.umiil ship- 
ment* from Als«ka for the ih 
Ing In 1911, aud Including mineral prod 
acta, rtali, furx. .".- , i. .< The 

highest toIuc for nny one year ws* $.t5,- 
nin.TOl (1011). and th* lowest IM.lSl, 

4IM I191IH The only ouIIh.uii.I shlp- 

ments from the Yukon and Kuskoksrtoj 
Raslna ar.- gold and slitter. The same 1s 
true of th» Sii*ltn» lts>.1n and a large 
port of the Copper lllver Ha sin where 
there 1*. bo in* which which boa 

i"',.n ahlpplnt for two years. 

WMio much of the vnlne of the ontbouod 
.hlonii'iiis 1» repreieiited be gold, silver, 
and copper, the treat er part of the actual 
tonnage Is made up of the fishery products 



Eneycbfedit index 



Alaska 



which are not dependent oo Inland traua 

Thu WB tr w l« carried oo by tmlt 
WU.A at; betweco Ala>ks aad areat COMI 
In laporMDc* la Indicated by 
clearance* *t>d uuiac 
lo 1910 ■ total of I. 
with a. total tonnage of 3X1.710. 
and 41*. aggregating 

Alaika port*: l»ll tki 
were ill i,.i-.. with an aggrr- 

_ rrtlb an act-regal* !.■»•. 
»i Tradr la foreign bottoau »a» sa 
103 inali, with aa 
aggregate of :nol tooa. entered, and 
soo Tiaanla. with a* aggregate •' 1-. 
bam, gbw.no) |„ :•..!! .;i.; , ... is. i.i-i, 
aa aggregate of 18T.M» Ion*, .niirrd, and 
Ul tMKl>, •lib ao aggregate nf ISW.- 
ared. Tbe*a- agurca for foreign 
Mil.: • of til— 

Canadian eteanie: ikon. 

In* trnnV nn Hi.' Yukon aad lit Irlbu- 
carlra U carried i« bi .> titer •learner* 
rarrtag la lapacirj fic-m r. to Ut 
Haw. and arilh aa aggi.vai* til tonnage 

• atuer* 
as the Kaakwkwbxt. ■ 1th a net tonnage of 
About «J0 irwli clearing from 
IliSrt t~**i are regularly engaged la 
Akaakn trafflc. Tbli doe* Dot lD'1-nlo Hi" 
•baling atrip*, cannery tender*, or amall 
nu»tlar BM 

rraweaorfalaea.— AUata la a Territory 
of Beat •!!». «.' 'ib tbat of the 

Mai ana of the tniir.3 State*. At 
■■I ti i of It* area lie* aorta of tbc Kodl- 
arbtea b .ib of the 

.oiiwin of ib. 
tflafy U Arctic, aad It nlone preach I- 
M-ak and frown a«p*- " porutaiiy iuo 
mik A.a.ka 
Alaaaa thcr* l» aa area greater than 
of all (be 8lale« caal of the UUili- 
and north of toe Ohio River and 
i. •• rapa- 
;not aa tunny wcll- 
•altlad and rl.I. 

I-arlde moantnln *y«-cm front* the 
eaaat, extendi or '■' ''"'uuMn In 

a ana* are aad railing oat la the Alalia 
rvnlii 

-..r»; r*Bge« wl Mn*ka 

flag* •oiillirrn Al».k*. of 

rrlnc* William Sound, and aa a 

- i-i.a .ting lb* comparatlv.iy -mall 

• alter* from tbi Iwo gr««t Inland 

■ ib* Yukon and Hi" Ku-k"kwlm. 

•barns lb*c l, > ■ n>< °' 

...|y low dlrldr H-.ih u great 

.lno« char- 
»j-t,.i ■'• bottocD land* and 

-Hag upland*. 
TW Yukon Ulrrr ealrr* the Bering Sen 
at * latlttadV wblcb prohibit* I 

r.*r.i aa a connection n-lth ocenn- 

*..!»- eotnra«re* exrepilng during three 

• r BMOIha. The «nm» may In- >a d 

ot Ibr Kiwkokwlra. though ocean com- 

may reach Ita mouth for an nddl- 

aaanu gaonth. Botb of tbe«« rleer* bare 

II rnlrari-e-. ibal of the Yukon h»- 

ablftiog ebanoel of little d>rth 

flat*, and Hi* eotranee to ih ■■ 

lalm. while d^rp TOOUgl for tlie 

ia atenoer*. la ejlremelr 
and not writ knows. Oore Inaldo. 
neb pre«eola a lone .IreteVi of 
i the nrdlnnrr rir.r 
Yukon |a narlrai.li. un to White 
• na'a. ano.it '2 -.km inl>a, and lt« 
ef-,!- •:, ih» Tanana. la navlanhl.. 

rhwna. near Pairbanka. 

Mia been aarlgateal much 

*llb dlffleulty The Kna- 

-i I* na»lgab> to tb« Voile*, about 




dfcW abore the Takotoa. or about OOO 
mile* from tbr mouth. Hoth uf 

us limy tiaylgai 

and togelbc 'bout \0W Bites of 

Davlgabla water* m tbi- iwu •}- 
open aeaaon 1* about tlirw to three and a 
half month*. 

I'll."' a aanac yalt,-j» with 

navigal/le water*. Of thear Ib 

S.Mltna are I irapoMaat. 

'Ibrae t»o rllei Impuiiati a. 

nff. ring toe beat po- 
lo* the coaatal range than foi 
EuriMiavN of narlKatliui rhi I .ppcr Kltor 
r.ak- ,,• riiuga.-h Kali* . I.ul Willi 
a alope; »o alevp aa to uak.- natt. 
ealL arid ha/iinloui, ihwugb not TmpoMlble. 
A nnmber of good harbor* along (be 
l-a.-lOe aeacoard of Ala>ka Art 

I w!ih nenr-r.j inland iwlnl* br rail- 
roada and tmlla, or by wngon roaua and 
trail* onlr. All then* liarbora »• far w. .t 
.■ Cook Itii.-i arc open I I (he 

year, and are from I.ihni to l.iuti Matute 
from fuget Sound porn. At t.ie«»nt 

a »uti ,i i kU 

Irlpa • i lined nllh lb- roor.. 

laaraortant of the .ud In addition 

•iime freighter* carry cv«l and 
pllea north and bring bark eargoea of tl-li 
ig the summer. <if about 
thrr* and a half mnnth*. ocean *(eam<^* 
mnk- the trip between l'Ug»l Soun.l and 

Kt. Michael and $ u al^o an 

oeenalonal *teamcr to the month of tbc 
I In Bering Sea 
trcllrendt. — The following tabic give* In 
ronrlac form t !■ • - data .. d mllesgr, teml 
nala. and gauge of cxlitlog railroad* In 
finatei 

Ml- 
Boulheaatern Ala**: 

Ul.ii. r» *od Yukoo route. Skajway lo 

White Paw i narrow raurr). Termuial at 

WW HniM.Yukuii Trmtory— total mileage. 

10. mi JO « 

Yakuui -»itliem llailway. Yatuut to Sink 

I t liima ran. • ».0 

Topper Kiv<-. OopBat Ri«ee A N'ortliwwUen 
Itailway, rordora to Kannlrott liUn-larrl gauge) 

fTUe aamo eoronaay hat b.iilt a few n> •■ 
tra.l at Km " Mi*ka Paeifir Railray 

A Tmtiiuat Co. hue *l»i dooo i .in" nork. At 
\a.M>i a fr« mil~ of Irack oi the Alaaka Hum* 
Kailway wen laid In IJW, and poma «wk wm 
prevUmiV door on the rowef ttiver A North- 
waleni llailwaj and uo the Vtldr* A Yukon 
flailaay I 

Kenai rVnianb: Alaela Northeni llailwiy. caward 
■ -'it near hc«d of Tuinagvo Arm iilaodard 

JI.6 

main: Taimna Villey R*il**y. Ftirlianltl 

aid ftiHi* ta Chataoika (narrow gauge) 1*0 

Seward Praltmla Railway, Noma to Rheltoa 

(narrow gauge) UO 

ParMreak Brand). Seward I'eniniuh Railway 
(narrow gauge) . 6.S 

men Rivar Railway. Council 
- Craek nundard aaue.) » S 

v. .1.1 caw Railway. CoudhI «9 Ophir Creak 
(narrow gauge) SO 

4000 

The art approred Anrnat 24. 1012, pro- 
rlded for the appointment by tin 
of a tall road eommlaalcn conalatlng of an 
otrlrer *>( the Rbjrtoaar COrlM Of the Arrny. 
a arcolnglat In charge of Alaakan aiirven. 
an officer of the Kii"hi.rr Corp* of In*. 
Nav». mil a.l r who ha« had 

practical experience In railroad con I 
Hon. 

Thla body am nnthnrtiod, nnc. VnaVtnstca 
to conduct an examination, tato io« \.t*n»- 



AlMka 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



portatlon question in Hi.- Territory of 
Alaska, lu examine latli . ir.iui 

111* vaboard to the coul fields ami to lho 
Interior and navigable wiinwiji ; |o tk> 
cure surveys an.l other information « mi 
Jrl.IJ.-rl to railroad-. Including: COll Dl COB- 
hi ruction and operation ; to ootaln Inforuna 
tloo In reaped to inn coal fields and their 
proximity to i&i!romt p. on-*: and to make 
report to C« ■;•• -tii.-r "lili iln-lr con- 

clusions and recommendations In i- 1-.--1 : < 

th.- Im .t and UI..-.1 available 1 - f..r rall- 

ronds In Alaska which will 1 
country and the resources thereof to* the 
use of tbo poopla of Ho- United State.. A 
public act li»..-.l upon th.. 11,-pori or th" 
Alaaka Kail-say i.'iuninlaslon, approved 
.Match 12. IBM, authoi1r.es tin- Prcsfil. ni of 
the I'nltrd Hint.-* to I. ..ni.-. con- 1 1 on. and 
operate railroads lu th.- rerrltory ..( Alaaka. 
The coat of the work Jiitli..u/cd by tliU 
a.-t u not to axci-ed 185, 000,000. 

H'liyon rwirlt and trail* arc being con- 
•Iruetcd by tho Board of u.-n.l . ..mml*- 
■toners for Alaaka. which U nudci 
-—■■!•■ rvixion of the Secretary of War. The 
mileage of rood and trail eutn.11 u. Tod and 
maintained Is n« follow Wagon 

winter "led rood, HIT : trail. 

l'robahly the roost Important ton.! 
I .1 bj Ho- Board of Road romnil 
• rs Ib the one (hat eonncrla Fairbanks with 
Vnldea on the coaat and with fhltlna on 
tbo Copper Hirer Railroad, and form 

Km-iit winter route between Fairbanks ami 
outside world 'in thla route through- 
out the winter month* a regular stage com- 
pany operates a ling carrying freight, pas- 
sengers, and mall. In the early winter 
and In the spring wheel stages are and. 
ton through must ..f the wlutcr season 
home sleds carry the (raffle. An the ser- 
Tlco la expensive tbo freight and passvn 
(er rate* are high 

The Kuxkokwlin Valley iiio! (he Idltarnd 
tcetlon. Immediately adjacent thereto me 
much more poorly provided with transpor- 
tation than the \11kon and Tnunria Valleys. 
A winter sled rood hn« been hum from the 
end of the Alaska Northern Unllrond at 
Kern 1 reek, on Turnagaln Arm, tip tho 
KuMtna Valley, and across Hie divide loto 
the Idltarod region. 

At the present time the interior of Alas- 
ka l» most conveniently accessible during 
th* three or four summer months. Juu ■ to 
S.-pti ruber. Inclusive. Fairbanks, the cen- 
ter of ttie Y.ikon-Tnuann Itnuln, rnsv lie 
renclied by two rotltci The Si 
a 1.000-mllc steamer trip, (hrough the In- 
Isnil passage, to Bkagway. then 1111 rnllei 
of rail over the White Pas- t. trait* Dora*, 
the head of Yukon navlgndon. A tron»fer 
Is here made to a Canadian rlv.-r steamer 
which reaches Dawson, ar.o miles aowo- 
•tream. From Dnwson an American st-amcr 
Is nasd t.. I- 'sli-baiiks, a further di-tar..--- 
• f IjOOO miles. At the 0" ottrnej 

consumes two areeka going In. but ordinarily 
connections cannot be made promptly and 
more time Is required. The outward trip 
by thla routa would require much knjretr, 
This tool. I. used i-hledy for high-class 
freight and pssacng." 

Most of the freight, b- t..-v.r, for Fair- 
banks li shliiped to St. Michael by ocean 
vessel*. Here It Is transshipped to river 
steamer* which er> exposed to thi 
before entering (be mnutb of the 
These steamers carry the freight up the 
Yukon and Tanana Rivers. The mileage of 
thla route Is about 2.700 mile- "I 
travel and about 1.100 miles of river travel. 
sod usually iccuple* ii". or x no. nth '1 1 1 1 - 
route la open for a shorter summer Reason 
than the other. All ratea arc high, which 
la a.-rounted for by the short season. BS> 



pensive fuej, and coat of transshipping on 

I". ih i..-> Id n. biiilon to having to bear 

no- logb rates, all goods have their sale 
price Increased by tho necessity of financing 
lb.- nine months' Mora**. 

1 in- Kuskokwlm Is not ao 
well served. Small steamers reach Bethel, 
ond a tea rlToi steam >uta freight 

1.1 rlv.-r points DMlM the camps, v. 
tbey arc hauled, usually during the winter 
eeaaon. 

Telegraph and Crj6l* Hi graph 

and cable lines and a wl reins syttem are 
constructed and operated by the War De- 
partment fbi military cable Una be» it> 
Kouthern terminus st Scuttle, Wash., where 
connection la made with the commercial 
raph eompnn 
I r/Hrulturn. — The conditions 

-oil In AlDika have prevented 
speedy settlement of the Territory by farm 
rhe only markets available are local 
ones and transportation baa ao far been 
too expensive to seek ouUlde or distant 
n.srk. i». Farm labor la scarce and in 
many places very high. The coat of clear- 
lug land of trees and the removal of moss 

► almoi t in .'bililtlY.'. 

HCofCon one! irsindrci 
. for the education of natives and the 
i-elu.l the supervision 

..r 1 be C'»minlrwitiu..i .1! I'.diieatlon. In the 
schools Instm. 'li. .11 In carpeutry, cooking, 
and sewing la emphasized. 

The Importation <.f reindeer from Siberia 
Into Alaska begun "1 '•''' la 1 rtter 10 tar- 
nish man-rial for food and clothing for the 
no in the vicinity of Hi ring Htiall 

There had long been a disagreement with 

Great Britain over th* location of the 

bound ■ 1 ' ouadn and Alaska. 

to a difference In the Interpretation 

of tr«ats mad I between Russia and 

Britain In I8J.".. ilellnlng thla In 

and on the discovery of gold In 

Alaaka, In INOS-fM, this matter reached a 

serious stage. The main point of dllTrr 

ence was whether the boundary line should 

li. thirty marine leagues (mentioned In 

Ho- K11-.I0 litest Brilaln treaty - 1 

cost from the wasiern bimndnry of the 

Islands off the Alaska const, or that dls- 

• >-t ..t the mainland coaat. In 1899 

a provlslooary boundary traa agreed upon, 

nud on Jan, 24. IU03 a trenty was «l 

lnie.i-ri i;reiit Britain ond the United 

Rtate* providing for 11 •rlbunal of three 

It and ih:.-. A rlcan commissioners 

to settle rhe dispute. The rrenty was rnrl- 
tled by the Dotted BUM* Senate on Feb. 
11, 1003. and on March S ratifications were 
exchanged between the two govarnmanta. 
Thc commission sot In l.onrton nnd on Oct. 
1". 1908. made a decision mainly In favor 

f tfai -rates, groining Canada ae 

- ir Ihe south, in 
end of the boundary nnd giving ber Wales 
and Tense Islands. In Portland Canal. In 
-.:". 1 n -or-. .v ,.f (In biiiinilary thus 
determined was begun by engineers of the 
United Sm.-. mid Canada. 

The general question of the public lands 
was opened up Sy President Tnft In throw- 
ing open to private entry lu July. 1011. a 
trnct eonlnlnlng IJ.gnti seres of land "n 
Controller Bnv. nenr (he Bering coal fields 
Mr Ta.fl on July 2d. 1811. aent a apodal 
message to Congress for the purposa of re- 
assuring the American people that the al- 
leged danger of monopoly was not n real 
dung.- 'fi|. In (his message f«. t>.) 

he set forth ot considerable length hi* rea- 
sons for throwing open this tract of land 
for nrlrali Mttrj 

The Sixty-second Congreaa on Aug. 24. 
1912, passed a law creating n territorial 
g..i '-•nruenl for Alaska and establishing Jo- 



Eruyrfopidic Index 



Alaska 



u •» tbe capital. 1= orjft lo dcTttop 
mlDral [ and prevent • 

rd monopoly of tbe coul acids a 
cousalaalon mil appointed 10 COO- 
examination Into tee tr-anaporu- 
a In lb* o! Alaska, 

tbe report of tbU commit U-e was 
_ legislation provtdlBC (or purchase or 
i ol rallioada and the kaalna or 
tbe coal laoda. The an uf Much Us, 1UJ4. 
aetborlud to* President to pnrcBUiu- "r 
coaiiroct 1.000 mitts of railroad at a coat 
•ot to exceed $34,000,000 to connect ono 
ur more uf IB* open Pacific bartrora on 
*Mta«n> ■■■«•! of Alataa with tiir navigable 
rlrers of the Interior, nod with one oi morr 
of tb# known coal Held*. TbU railroad mar 
to leased or operated by tbc government. 
gress may see 01. To* act of Oct. 
S provided tor the lease of cnal lands at 
no cents a too for tb* coal mlncd. 

Imperii from Alatka tn Fiscal V'car JPId. 
— Alaska's aalra to the '-ilea In tbc 

naral Tear 1910 asjgregnted neiirly s.Vl.000.- 
oou. ■ iim double ib» annual average since 
1V12 and only exceeded hy lb 
inea when awaaured by their sates to I 
uv h lor to tbc great war. In 

addition to this. Ala»ka abi|>|H-il lo ua In 
I9I.V1U cold valoed at sin.S'Xi.tMMi and 

»t*r «ilur of 1760.000. both from It* 
i'«a niln*". 

Tbe predominant fcatore of the year's 
trade, according to an aouljsl* i 
lljrrau of Foreign ami 
DepartD.Mii of Conimrrre, au tbe : 

■ei anions Alaalta'a export 

ten, these*.? >n and 

an tbe leading In c"i>- 

■ i regulua from Alaska 
iritated 117 mlllKii pouDda. valued at 
. million dollars. Thla li four tlmea 
tbe «»#rat thru years 

loed Imports of Ibal 
•Uaa from Chile. Cuba. Canada, am) Jl< 

i line foralCD nourees uf tbla form of 

: nhtpped lo tbe Culled 

'he laat fiscal rear amounted to 

;i« inUOon ponnda. salued at 18-* million 

del ta ra. an Increas* of 2< million pounda 

ever IV1S and ot 

The following- table auounarliea by lead- 
lac article* tbc shipments of Alnakan prod- 
•cta Into the United sum during tbc laat 
three Ileal yr« I 



sgs 
5& 




Total dontetlie 



W.QWJM0 vimxssi gi.«mooo 



Alaska-Yukon Pacific Exposition corn- 

r052, "103. 
Attempted occupation of portion of, 
by Great Britain and Canada, 6097. 




Attempts of Great Britain and Can- 
ada to establish post routes in, 
6007. 
Boundary lino with British posses- 
sions— 
Commission to determine, recom- 
mended, 4141, 4918. 
Discussed. U U. 4917. 4080, 5368, 
5400. 5958, 6063, 6370, 6430. 
679-, MM 
Keport regarding, referred to, 
498S. 
Cession of, I* Bt at M — 

Discnaaed, 3778, 38S6. 
Referred to. 1 

Treaty regarding!, referred to, 3719, 
3722. 
Appropriation for payment un- 
der, recommended. 3719, 3778. 
i UaaiMB in. cruel ir. afincnt .of, 5083. 
Coal field* of, 7001, 7654, 7720. 

« district established »t Sit- 
ka, 3865. 

• n government suggested 
for, 7430, 7535, 7788. 
■ .ilium of, 6725, 6792, 6799, 6918, 

6919, 70J 
Controller Bay, opening to settle- 
ment of land on, discussed, 7979. 

to CoD| l 1150,7399. 

Kduculiou in, appropriation for, rec- 
tanmanded, 1607, 548 I, B 

of Hudson* Bay Com- 
pany upon timdi of, :i$98. 
Oovernment for — 

Act providing for. 4879. 

By commission, 7436, 7580, 7722. 

Discussed by President Benj. Har- 

•r., 5760. 
Municipal govornirtc 
ed by President Beuj. Harrison, 
5483, 5641. 
Recomm^nd-'d hv President- 
Art!. ur, MSI. 4781, 4771. 
Hares, 4522. 4573. 
Tnit, 7436, 7535. 
Oovernment railroad suggested for, 

8101. 
Importation of breech-loading rifles 
and fixed litiiiiiuiMi.iiii into, for- 
bidden. I 
Instructions regarding, modified, 
4711. 
Lands in — 

I"ro.'!nnintioii modifying order re- 
serving. 612. 
Set apart as public reservation by 
proclamation. 6795. 
Legislation, recommended, 3722, 6269, 

6400, 7436, 7535, 7722. 
Light-houiv on coast of, point to be 

selected for, 3902. 
Military arrests in, 4312, 4313, 4314. 
Military Department of. 3S30, 6269. 
Mineral wealth in, discussed, 6063. 
Necessity for development of, 7616. 



Alaska 



Messages and Pafers of the Presidents 



Picture of, 4769, 7458. 

Port of entry In, I'Ntabliubmeiit of, 

recommended, 54S4. 
Privilege! of hunting, trading, and 

flahing in, referred 
Property rights of Mttree, i5920, 6921. 
Public Land* of, 6697, 6799, 7419. 
liitilwara in, should be built and 

operated by government, 0911. 
Referred to, 3818, 3S29, 6269, 6352, 

6453. 
Report of governor of, 4975. 
Report of Lieut. Kminnna, 6941. 
KoHourcoH of, Diunt bo used, not 

wasted or monopoli 

w it h i ii limit? of. (Sen 

Bering Sea.) 

Seal islands in, aalo of, rteosmadad, 
3990. 

Survey of eoatt of, urged, 8019. 

Territorial Governmi n un tid- 
ed for, 7911. 

Alaska Salmon Commission, mantl 
6934. 

Alaska- Yukon-Pacific Exposition. — For 
the purpOM of exploiting the reaooreaa and 
;»■ -i ••in lal r 1 1.-« of (be .Ma»ka and Vukuu tcr- 

■ ami I" di 
the v.. pro pert* Of i lie I nit. I sun. -m 

mada, as well m to fouler Ibe trade 
of the countries bordering on tbe Parlllc. 
an lriteiii.iili.nal exposition wn< Imld at 

tab., from June |, to Oct. 15. 
i 100 ii v. n exhibition palaces were built 
on ihc ('ampin uf the I'm-. IV« . 

Ington (a tract of 224 acre*). The 

6 "tinea prellmlnnrjr to opening were SIO.- 
ihi.iioo. The fundi were raised i>v ap- 
latlona tiv the federal government Ihc 
State of Wiisiilmrmu nnd the City of Scuttle. 

Albania. — An cxtcnalve tract of tbe we»i- 
eru littoral of tlie Balkan Penmanla, from 
the aoutbern frontier of Montenegro to tbe 

in frontier of Urocce, within theac 

are Included an area of clone on 

22,000 .iiuare mile*, with a population of 

to three and a bnlf million pciaons. 
of tliln area abuut 1 -_'. ■ »><> ..pi iiill.-Htni.ve 

been ll tn la, '.I 'C, mill Mi .11- 

(enegro, leaving the area of the autoao 
mou« portion at about ]i >.«•"<> <i|uarv mil*-*, 
with a population .if "J.ihki.ooo, or whom 

•bom i :'i» i n.' Albanians and tbi 

matnder principally Serbs, Buigum n mi 
kg. 

HMory.— Albania (tin governed by native 
rnleni tint ll Hie ■ I....- , I I lie llilrleenth • n 
i ni when the Kingdom of Albania wa« 
il by tbe Sicilian llouac ■ ,( Anjon 
I In- kingdom waa perpetually at war with 
Servla. and for miuir yearn with Venice, 
until the advance of tbe Mohammedan 
.1 1 he Indi peud' in-. ..f t he 
kingdom In the Stteentb and sixteenth eon- 
lurlea. From 1 r.T I to 1913 Albania wa« 
under Turkish role, forming the vilayet, of 
fjtcutsrl un, i Jannlns and the western por- 
tions of the vllaycfa of Koasovo and M.-n- 
»»llr. The Balkan Want of 1012-13 w*re 
nominally caused bj the de*lr« ..f the Allied 

Stole. I I'.nlifiirl ii and 

flrreoc) to free the Albanian" from Turkish 

lie. and one of the pretext* of the 

tlr«i war waa tin nabllltl of Turkey to 

.mi th- Albanian rising*. 

Uy the Treaty of London (May 30, 19131. 
the Ambassador* of the assembled I'owera 
agreed i| lie principle of an autonomous 



Albania, and the throne waa accented by 
i.i re Willi id o( V 

lima of s«tvI» to ad- 
dllb.ual Albanian l.ull.rv I - - . I tod lUllOQ 

lighting bei •. and 

to a threat of Interference ou tin- part of 
other Tower*. Servla finally ulthdren fr«o 
•be disputed territory In 191X. 

owing iii prea'ure from Austria-Hungary. 
hut the new country la atlll a prey to In- 
ternal dltsenslons. 

j'l.iiMporfaflon. — Albania la traversed 
from Seutatl I In Hi. north i lo Valona <la 
the southwest) by a railway from Most- 
■enegro. and line* from Servla cross the 
eastern frontier at t'Uriul. Dlbra. ana 
St ruga. The principal porta an- Duratxo 

The di llmlnatlon of tbe southern bound- 
ary iwh-r* Ali.-inin 1* eontermlnona with 

the extended Klngd f fit I I 

;.. i N biii mated to an lnt< n 

mission. 

The capital I* Scutari, population 30,000. 
Albany, The, cruise of, referred to, 

nn, 

Albany Convention.— one of the impoT- 
tnm predecessors of the Contlnnol I I ■ 
areas and among the Ural <i- '■■ 

taken toward nntlonil union Vpon a call 
Issued by the Lord* of Trad* eafnaol 
it. from the Colonies ..f New Ilnmp- 
«hlre. Massachusetts, lthodc I- I 

neetlcut. New York, l'eun»rl> anla. and 
Mm ■-. Imiil. in.-i at Albany, N. Y., i-u June 
19, 1754. to arrange a treaty with the 
Six Nations of Indian*. Benjamin Frank- 
. lMn.nl iiinl the Ii adopted a 

pl I., fot olonl ii anion, it pi 

a preildrnt general of all the Colonic*, with 
power, and ii grand council 

e i I of from two i" -even ileii-gatea 

from each Colony. cho*cn by lavmM) for 
a term of three yearn each. Thin I 
council wan to be authorlxed to 
force* for tbe common defense of the 
CoIoabM and to levy tnxea for their main- 
tenance and hove control of nil i 
affaln. The plau wa* rejected b- 

uiMe It fare too nnu-b 
the Colonic*. 

Albany Regency. — a eomblnatloa ol 
Uctanj of the Democratic puny, p 
Hem tiraoDg tbete were Martin Yon Buren. 
wini.im L Harcy, John A. Uli. and S-H.it, 
Wright. Tbl» combination wai it waa 
charged, orgnnlxed t . ■ manage and control 
that party In New York State from 
1S20 to 185S. Tl laatlon waa ipille 

thorongh and complete, and lt« Huceesi w»* 
mainly dne to thla fart. A majority of 
tboae In the eoiiil.liintlou n-.lded lu Albany 
oi operated from thai eJty. Tbe name 
aroac from this circumstance. 

Albemarle, The.— a Confederate lion-olad 

mm built on the Roanoke Itlvrr. below 
Weldon. N. C In IMS. She wna destroyed 

aritn n torpedo nv LJenl w. it. fmtiing 

on the night of tier. •_>-, i- Be- 

fore her deitriietlou aha did mueb iln 

I of the I II 

title mi ralaed. towed to Norfolk, and aold. 

Albemarle. The: 
Doatructlon of, M87, 
Referred to, 6306. 
Engagement of. vsith llM ffoaMCH 
referred to, 3411. 
Albion. The, seizure of. rtfi n»4 to. 

9636, 
Aldrlcb-Vreeland Currency Law. — A 

ineaaurc paiaed by Cougreu May 30, 1908, 







to reader lb* currency of tbr I'sltcd State* 
■or* rUallc by placing It within Hi* power 

national banks in Irntisfuiiu all 
*Me avail, i. lulu luo.icy In re- 

Tho 




Encyclopedic Index 



fun/oat of lb* U« wu» t. 
<e4 wa* lb* direct reault of Ibe Du«n<UI 
- law provldsd 

ii.i gOTcruuieoial s'lpervlaUMa errr tin- di 

• «. shall rjiKp lo be printed and 

■ » baad al all times a apt rial luur of 

n .-j amounting to 50 per ceot. of tbo 

cotaMaved capital stock of all to* national 

uinks. To secure a purOou of tbla •mar' 

i taank must lie a 

aaraiuer vt a currency astoclatluD formed 

by at leaat leu banks having a coir 

• apllal of not I' .000.000. Stale, 
county or tti«ntcip*l bond*, commercial pa 

[r other raluablc and reaillljr col 
-sets oioj be used aa accurlty, pro 
cum tbr approval of the 
.tl-.n and tbe government. If tbe 
. nine ilia eorraoi 

I to tbr bank. It wna 
by tbr <;ias*-Owea currency law 

Aleutian. 'rUndt — a chain of tfxral UW 

Island* extending from lb* western «x- 

y of Alaska near (be continent of 

The area la about 6.000 square 

...i-c I be lubahllant*. a half elvliii.-d 

>>ug race, about ".two In nutn- 

I -rlously regarded aa *f Aslatte 

at Atuerletin origin. Tbetr trade U chlcriy 

to fish and far*. Tbe Island* belong to tbe 

) reaaon of the acquisition 

utka. Tbey were discovered by the 

■aaatana about tbe aalddl* of the elghi- 

I rrolory. 

Alan, Tfca, convention, between Xlcav 
ajrua and CoeU Hi' a signed on, 6326. 
,8*e> also ' W.) 

"er Archipelago Forest Raaerve, 
proclaimed. 6897. 
AlaxaradrU. Vs.: 

Art iaecrporatinn; church lb, eetoed, 

<:i 

Blockade of port of, removed by 
.'.371. 

Br: 1 <2. 

PlTrpcTty in. destroyed by Britiah 

force*. SM, 
A. la-rand ria County. D. 0.: 
Courthouse is, unsafe and new obo 

recommended. 1*121. 

Jail erected la 

Metro-cession of, to Virginia by proc- 
lamation. 2320. 
Alfalfa.— a left rodder plant, na- 

kc rallcr' of Central Aala li 
I ultlvated In Rurope foi 
J.OOO yeara. and wan Introduced Inin 

1b* Spanish cooomeal in i»:i II waa 
morti from cr. 

II apread rapidly oaer the r«r - .fic slid 
•Italia «l»" II I- now 

Bvte*. extensively rro wo than anjr oiber 
forage crop. Tbe word alfalfa 

.snl.b Ian. 
me*n "lb* t>*«t feed " ll la alao known 

n unrtrht 
branebltig - three feet high. 

• lib Irlpte liarl. Mil Irrrgula 

I lie (l.»rr., WBltb 
On looae. pernocahle Mill 
'-nlly dear-end «o ten or 



• ffet. It grow* heal oo rich, aaudy, 

i |..iiii» i.f a calcareoua nature, 

anil does not succeed on damp *o)l or tenn 

Two j-ear* are required tuor- 

"UKhiv to ri*abll>b a field, but wbun one* 

inhcd tbe plant endurea many > 
The crop la rut wben ibv planla ar> 
iiiit Into bloom, and ik>ih fmui two to m 
Ilium, aecordlac to UM lenarUi of Hie aea- 
aou. Tbe ordinary annual yield varies 
from tbree to eleut lon« of dry hay per 
aere. cured hay la rrllabed by 

nil rum animals, and U useil bulb (Or 
fiileiuuK ami n. ilk i i 

ilallea of product Ion garnered by tbe 

Census Bureau show that In ItlOD t 

«i.- LTOS^O^ acre* devoted to alfalfn In 
8ta(e«, from ■ h.'.imk 

of hay waa cut and KSB.Mlii bushels 
of need catbered. 

Algoclraa Oonreation.— ai a conference 
•if tbe Power* at Algeelraa, Spain, Jan. 1« 
to April 7. 1000. France and Bpaln wer* 

•atoned to maintain n 
roecan coaal. Tbe town Ilea on tbe weat 
aide of the Bay of (Ilbraltar, aeveu mllea 
Kumpa Point. The oonrtotloa was 
> In reaponee to many coinpl.unts by 
paCBfl and Americans that treaty rlchts 
were not respected by Ihe Moors, and that 
life and property of foreigner* wer* unsafe 
lu Morocco. It was participated la by Unit- 
ed Stale*. Cernany, Anxiriu-lIuiiiMry, Rel- 
Sam, Spain r'rsnce. Orenl llrltalu, Italy. 
a Nethcrlonds, Portugal. Kosala and 
Sweden. The treaty wan published Jan. 22. 
(See Treatlea.l Before tbe end of 
the year French troopa were landed at L'lda 
and Caaaliliin.i.. Jn.i. 11, l'.iOH, th. rellg- 
...I-. aiiilioritien of Morocco deponed Abdel 
Axli and proclaimed bis brother Mulnl Il.nld 
Sultan. Ills embaaay to rlerlln wna r. 
recocnltlon without consent of tbe I'owers. 

. .- i- MoroceOj 

Algaclraa ConvanUon, ratification urged, 

7062. 
Algeria. — A French poaaeaalon on the 
north coast of Africa, about 3-13.800 miles 
In area and containing a population of 
about 5.600.000. TMl Include* Ibe aci|iil- 
llUon Hin.e 1001 Of aom* 240.000 aquar* 
miles of territory on tba south. The chief 
native p*opl« ire Berber* and Arab*. It* 
caplt nl IM principal rliy la Algiers. It 
comprise* the an- lent country "f Nnmldla 
aad a portion of Mauritania. For many 

ceotnrlaa u burl i i band of eoraalra, 

who hanatad Ibv o ll of the Mi-dltcrra- 

nenn Sea and the Atlantic Ocean as far 
». ihe Norlh Baa, prerlna upon I la. 
mere* of all nation* which refused to pny 
them tribute. To pny this tribute »*• 
dec-med wiser by many European power* 
in. in i,. wage war agnlnst them Follow- 

Ine 'he eXHlnple* of other lliltlnm. the 
rrnited State* signed a treaty In 1T»8. 

agre-ing to pny tbe l'-v 11.000, fOT lh« 

American captives and promis- 
ing nn nnnnsl tribute pages 115. 171- 

Algeria made war against Ibe I i 

i In I SI'.. Commodore Decatur, with 
silled ngnlnst the I >• ■ .. nud iioi 
with such i b* was enabled 10 

Indemnity from the I>ey In 

iiy renouncing all claim to trlb- 
rite, presents, or ransoms, and a pi 
not to reduce prisoner* of wnr 

..47). France ha* alnco r*.Iucod 
rln i" Hie dominion nr In 

organizing it aa ■ colonial poae n t j oa 

ii 1884, of which It la now the most Im- 

fiortant. Tin- cnief laaouri f the coun- 
ry I* agTlciiiinr,- 8lne* 18TI5 there h«v* 
I., .-ii \ number of extended revolt*; and In 
recent year* tbe country ba* suffered from 



Algeria 



Mfssagcs and Pafvrs of the Presidents 



serious anti-Jewish ugltullous (See olao 
AfrlcaJ 

Algeria: 

Consuls of United State* in, 160, 380, 
506. 
Banished, 503. 
Change in pay of, 131S. 
Power* of, shoui.i bt Increased 

Salary of. nliouU lie iii'T.':i»od, 888, 
Unjustifiable proceeding! toward, 
by Dcy of, 411. 
Declaration of war against, recom- 
mended, 580, 
Hostile attitude of toward United 

States -12, 589. ■"•■ 
Imprisonment of American citizens 
10, 90, 115, 140, 160, 102, 107, 
199, 589. 
RorVrrod *o, 144, 143, 202. 
Treaty of peace with, 564 679. 
Treaty with, transmitted and dis- 
cussed, 11.1, 174, 178, IS I, 107, 
679. 
Annulled by Algeria, with alterna- 
tive of war or renewal of former 
treaty, S60. 
Tribute to be paid by United States 
to, 115, 174. 
Pavment of, 325. 
Vessels sold to. B8t*. 
War with United State*. (See Alger- 
ia* War.) 

Algerine War. — The countries on the Med- 
iterranean coast of Africa, from Eft-rot to 
the Atlantic, namely. Morocco. Algeria, 
Tunis and Tripoli (whlrh art Uuown col- 
lectively »» lh" Bartuiry Powers I lnnl Iv.-.-n 

In the hnblt of preying on II oiiaierce 

of nations that refuted to pny a tribute to 
them. Shortly after the Revolution t he 
opcrotloos of these pirates were directed 
■gainst our eommoree. to protect whleh 
i r - :. i !.--» purchasing Immunity by the pny- 
meat of yearly tribute were nerotlnted 

wini Hi. Barbary Hintm— in t'sn-iTSi 
«iiii Morocco, i" IT88 with Algiers, in 

1700 with Tripoli, and In 1709 wllh Tunis. 
It 1812 AlKlers ileelari'd war against the 
l mi .1 States. As soon as Hi. 
commencing against Englnud bad been 
liroueht to on .in], our government I 
Us attention to Alglnr-. The Al. 
war wns short mid decisive. In the spring 

•>f ibis Ton i.iin.' Decatur wos aeat with 

ir len vi-s.nls !.i chnstlat tbl pirates. 
In June be captured the largest of their 
frigate*, and soon after took another vesael. 
Iletated » treaty to the Dey of 
Algiers, which was signed June 30. 1815. 
m diminishing all claims to trlbuta In tha 
foi ute 

Algerine War (see also Algeria) : 

Declaration of war by Congress rec- 
ommended. 539. 

I'ev of Algiers begins war against 
United States, 428. 

Information of amicable settlement, 
428. 

Termination of, 647. 

Threatened by Algiers, 560. 

Treaty of peace com In led, 
Algonquin Indians. (See Indian Tribes.) 



Allen and Sedition Laws.— Two impor- 
tint acts of Congress passed by the Federal- 
Ims In 1798. Their Importance consists not 

ik-Ii In their esecatlsl character a: 
fi>i tii it they largely caused the downfill 
..f Hi.' Federalist putty as In their position 
In American history us a landmark beyond 
which It Is uonfe for the law-making pow- 
er to go. During the French Rerolotlofl 
American reeling wns high and mint. Many 
public speakers and writers openly advo- 
ented Intervention by the i nlted suites la 
of, the dm side or tha other, de- 
nounced the neutral atlltude of the Oov- 
u.liv iind ungrsti ftil, nml 
l Invectives upon the Admlnlstt 
The fact that many of the newspapers In- 

li the Government was mi bitterly as- 
sailed were In the hands of foreigners. 
had tnnch to do with the passage of the 
alien net. This law I the Presn- 

dent to order out of thin country all inch 
aliens as ha might Judge to be dangerous 

to the pence ami safety of the i 

finite or engaged In plotting agnlnst them 
The sedition net provided heavy Ones and 
at fur any person who should 
oppose the Vnlted Ststes Gov- 
ernment or laws, or who should print or 
publish any false scni i malldons 

writings ngaln«t Hi.. (J i. <'.. ngress 

or the President Intended to bring dlsre- 
ot li in i ii apon 'In in nr tn »ilr up 
sedition. These laws were regarded by the 
Republican party of that day as uneon- 
stitm li Itnoi 'l by lbs Keo- 

Ini-lij unit Virginia resolution* as subversive 
of the Ilbertv of speech and the press. 
They expired In IROo and ISOl respective- 
ly. (See glsjo Kentucky and Virginia ltcso- 
lutlona.) 

Alton Contract Law, amendment of, 

rieommeniied, 634S, 6455. 
Allen Laborers discussed, 6065. 
Allen*. (See Naturalization.;! 
Aliens In United States (see also Nat 
unitized Citizens): 
Al.hieiion of foreigners claiming pro 
taction of United State* *houii 1 1 
made a crime. 2550. 
Allegiance of, to Government dis- 

i-ii ,,.l inn] order* regarding, 8318 
Claims of. eonrt to try, recommended, 

4191, 4248. 4897. 4360. 
Liability of, toperform military duty — 
Discussed. 3381. 
_ Proclaimed, 3369. 

Number of, employed in Executive 
Departments, report on, transmit 
t.wl.6102. 
Offenses against treaty rights of, 
should be oognitablo in Federal 
courts, 5618. 
Allatoona <Ga.), Battle of.— in the nope 

of drawing Gen. Sherman's army OUl al 

[it, the Confederates. 80,000 all 

Gen. Hood, threatened his mllMad 

C'tiiintinlcntlons with Nashville. Oct. 5. 

1864, n division of Hood's Infnntry appeared 

I •.■ is, where were stored 

nlioni 1,300.000 rations. The post wns 

held by Col. Tourtelotte. who was I 

forced by • --. (tuts Increasing the 

Colon i 'Mi men. The nttielt wns 

made on the 6'h. Tli I r 

8,80 A. >t. mull night, whrti the Confed- 
erates withdrew, leaving 231 dead nnd 411 
prisoners. Corse lost 70T man and waa 




Encyclopedic Index 



Amelia Island 



woaodsd. Hoed created tb* Coots 

10, end tkmua'i army r .i!...w<d bim 

to iiojlr»'i:k by way of Home, toil tben 
returned to Atlanta. 

AileclUlOt.— Acccrdlns to Blackstonc. nl- 
trclaaee U "le** tbe tie which binds ttio 

rii for that 
pivtccil-a which the awerclini nffunlt tbe 
•ubjaet." Natural or Implied •! 
tfc.t obllk-ailoa vblrU one owes to tbc B»- 
of wblcb bo Is a nstorolborn clllxrn 
so lone »» be remains such, and 
oat arU* frnna any express promise. 
■ al)e*-t*ncc la tbat obflgmtloB i 
i from an expressed oatb or promise. 
Local allrxlauce la tbat ouedUtice »<! 
po.-»ry aid Out by an alien to tbe State or 
cotnxaenltr In which be reside*. Local al- 
oe) I* temporary and expire* with 

ce. Oath of, army ©Secr- 
eted to subscribe anew, 3219. 
Ailcatown. Pa., act I 'n of pub- 

n» at. vetoed, 6243. 
AUiaaca, Tbe. firine upon, br Spanish 
■ rt mi l disavowed by Spain, diieuaaed, 

eoe& 

(See Entente Allies and Euro- 
War.) 

Of Land*. (Sen Lands. In- 
dian.) 
Al*nir*nt*> Oqaando, Tbe, mentioned, 

eir. 

Alaop Can.— Tbe Alaop ease, which waa 

Klac George V of England, a* 

•rutrator. ssas a dispute with lU Republic 

' forty year** standing. It jr»w 

' a debt Incurred by a Brntlllon to 

in* dra df Aiwip a Co., of Valparaiso, 

•ered Chi lea o concern with An. 

-m. la settlement of tbe debt tbo 

Brailtlan aaad* otcr to tbo Cbllran fltm 

certain claims from Bolivia lylnar la terrl. 

• bleb was afterward, at a malt 

be war of . la 

Secretary Knox demanded tbo refer. 

- claim to Tbc Hot-lie. but Cblle 

ebyeeted to this uatew b«r government waa 

•1 to tii* the arcumrnt tbat Alsop * 




id been expressly excluded from the 
n*bt* of American natfncila by tbe Cbllcan- 
American CUlma Tribunal la 1800. tbc 



Aawrteaa Gorerameot bavins Insisted on 
tbla exclusion. Then Secretary Knox Is 
tand is ultimatum demanding reference 
of the ct*e to The Ilac'ie or Daymen! of a 
aalUbM dollars to tin- I nl'cd States. I'l n 1 1 
ty *a alternative win. offered of reference 
of lb* claim to Klax lidward as arbitrator. 

hlie w»* tadcenl to accept this. Dec. 
1. ltJOB. KID* Kdword died, and Ma ton 
and aoc c i— n r oa July 10. 1010. rendered 
Ma award In tbe ai-"[> claim. 
liai.tam to the Alwp Arm In full settle 
■sent, and Cblle paid cbl« amount tlirons-b 
tla* Cnlted Btate* Government Not. 18. 
l»IO, Th* ortrlnsl amount of tbe clnlm 
was tf*i.i»*) with Interest The swnrd 

-crlred with satisfaction In tbc l"nlted 

Alta Vtla Zalaod (Santo Domingo), 
claim of citizens of United Statea to 
guano on, MST. 

AltarnaJiA River, canal from Tennessee 
Biver rred to, 1027. 

aVltrolas.— Dl»intcriftedn«a», especially ts 

applied to pabltr weal : conduct having tbe 
rood rather tban self-interest for 



Amazon Elver. (See also Brazil /'Ayr! 
cil Feature*.} 
Exploration* of, by officer* of Navy, 
2712, 2724, 2762, 4449. 
Appropriation for, recommended, 
4201. 
Free navigation of, denired, S744. 
Attempt* to secure, unsuccessful, 

Opened to commerce. 3776. 
Ambassador.— Till* term was lone errone. 
ously uaed in reference to our caroy* to 
. u conntrle*. 1 siat^a did 

not .v Inmatle reprnenutlrea of 

TiI„-1xt r.iuk tbon envoy or minister until 
the year 1B03. when l.y net of ' 
• hut year (be blither : 
Thiimaa I''. Bayard was raised to tbe rank 
i- lador to <;r.-.it li: las the 

first to hold thni rank. Ambaaeadori are 
iiuw .ln.y aOCredlted to Argeutlno. Great 
liritnin. Truoce. Italy. Ccrtunny. Rusjla. 
Mexico, Japon. Turkey Kr.iall. and Aus- 
lrla-11 nnd receive sal' 

arlrs of <17.S00 per nnaum. In nnelent 
times ambassador* were appointed on aue- 
clnl occasions. Meiliieml repiilillcs. like 
Venice, both received and sent ambassador* 
Ambassadors (• . rs): 

Elevation of mlsaloOJ of — 

Great Britaio, France, Italy, and 
Germany to grade of, and like 
action of United State*, 5874. 
Russia to grade of, nnd like action 
of United States, 6335. 
Announced, SK74. 
Official residence* for, recommendod, 
6072, 6155. 
Ambuscade.— 1 — Ambush. 2.— A cuarded 
and concealed place where troop* wait fur 
the |iurp..<M of mnkloif a surprise ultack. 
3.— Tho troops In such a place. 
Ambush. — A Millns place. (See Ambus- 
cade.) 

Amelia Island.— A small Island off the 

norUiraat coast "f Plorlda, between tbe St. 

Mary'* and Ssxniu rlvei Daring Spain's 

I'm nf i l.irlila It became 

01 pirates, imuirglers, fu- 

r .inlaws. These not 

preyed apon the commerce of friendly 

nailoni. but extended their operatlou* In- 

Isml. rObDtnk •" '-' American set- 

tlern In (ieorg-la and PIoiMa. General 

Miii.fbeu-j with a small force. In Mnrch, 

1812. took of the country undei 

a itilKliiterjirolatlon of tils nrder« to protect 

American j.r.iperty In Kast I'lorlda. nnd 

President Monroe promptly disavowed tbe 

act as unfriendly to Spuln. with which 

country Decollation* wer» at the time ua- 

der way fo It was Inter o.i-n- 

Eled by a band of adventurers orennlied 
r General McOrejror In Philadelphia. 
Tbo*,. aM up In Independent rorernmrai 
nn .t cl ..Hon by tbe I'ntted 

Ftates and other powers. They entered 

■ ateerlaa ami rone 

(line, nnd were finally sunpresaed br the 
nl'isl Stntfi force. The Inland cam.- Into 
nf the fnl'.'d Slste* with the 
ec««lon of Florida, Tbf Msnd and Its Iti- 

hal.ltnnts were I soot « seYlons nnnoy. 

nneo to Monroe nnd formed the subject of 
several entninunlcatlons to Concresa. 

Amelia lalnnd.— A coast island. N. E. 
of Florida, between St. Mary 'a and 
Nassau river*. 



Amelia Island Messages and Papers "f th dents 



<>iial governments not responsible 

for unlawful conduct of persona in, 

601. 
Governor Mitchell ordered to rextoro, 

to th? Spanish, 493. 
Possession of — 

Inquired into, 620. 

Twin bj Utthews, 492. 

In lawful expedition! to, discussed, 
582, 590, 592, 601, 609, 620. 
Amendment*.— One of (be cblef defect s of 
the original Articles of Confederation wan 
he niu-nd-d by the 
uunnlmous consent of the thlrti 
Three needful ■•linnuci having foiled of 
ratification, a com palled In 

idments. The result of the 
•■■'iiiiiTiitlona of tbli convention l> the prcs- 
rnl I provide* for 

■ mi admenta tn ihe following woran; 
Congo tern -thirds of both 

Houses shall deem It shall pro- 

i... .■ mi. iictiin ii . i.i i iii ■. Constitution, or, 
mi th" ippllentlon of the legislatures of 
two-thirds of the several States, shall call 

psnllon for proposing ai 
which In either ease, shall he v.iii.i •.. tu 
Intenta ami purposes, as port of this Con- 
stitution when rntitii'ii i.y Hie legislature* 
Of throe-fourth* nf Hi' 1 MTfTal Slntrs or by 
atloni in three-fourth thereof, n (he 
one or the othst mod* of r»tlflcntlou mir 
lie pi the Congri i • . pruvldsrd. 

etc, (Art V 

Man/ amendments to the Constitution 

-.-.I. '■"' only seventeen 

Issen ratlflod. Tncy rclote to (1) 

freedom of speech, tho press, and religion : 

(2) right t.. establish 8tme nillltla: (3> 



in,: of ir....|iK in private bouses ; M) 
security sgnlnst unreasonable search and 
s.-lxiirv ; (61 capital trim*; (6) crti 



pr iiii.ni: <7i trlnl by Jury under com- 
mon law: ihi forbidding oxee»*lve bull or 
tines and cruel and unusual punishment ; 
i'. relation of cuntitutlnnal to natural 
tlL'hts: (10) power* reserved to the State*; 
ill. .lilts ..f in. ii r.-» i.l.-tit - mi.mIii.1 State* 

In Federal coo rta; (12) (lection of l'r-*i 
deut and Vice-President: (131 slavery: (14 
mid 181 abridgment of the franchise, etc., 

■.Urn; illll l.ii. •- ,.ii In. ..iii.-M -. (17) 
t'l.Tiion of senator by direct Tote. 

The Grit tea of the*.- amendments were 

•mi. mill.. i i.. in.. Mi-vnr.ii Mm.. legislature* 

by a resolution of Congress wlilch pn'nl on 
26, 17h:>. nt th- Qrst session of Iho 
blest Coniress. and tier- rutlllid by a *uf- 
r i. -in anmnei ..f sum- on or i. ,.',,,-. Dec. 
18, 1701. The eleventh amendment wnsi dc 

iiiiiri! adopted Ian. s. lTim; the tweirih 

1«04: Hi- thirteenth Dee. IK. 

18*8: tho fourteenth July as. IMS; tbo nf- 

h March SO, Ift70; th- sixteenth, Feb. 

29, in- iwa. 

Tho sixteenth omendment Ii as follow* : 
The Congress shall h*vc power to I:iy mid 
collect tax** mi income*, from wl.i 
source Jenreo, without npiinrtionmcnt 

■mong th* n-v-ntl States, and without re- 
gard to any censu* or enumeration. 

seventeenth amendment I* as fol- 
low ■ I 

1, The Senate of the foiled States Klinll 

i.. ecaul .1 ..i ("■■. Bttutton tram . n.'ii 

Stat-, elected by the pi-opl- thereof, for 
six years; and each Senator snail hnve ono 
vote. Th- eh.tors In each State shall hare 
the qualification* requisite for elector* of 
the most numerous branch of the state I.-g- 
Is la tares. 

2. When vacancies happen In the I 
sentatlon of niiv Stale in the Senate, the 



ItJ of such State sbsll bass 

Pro- 

nny State 

may emposri itlTe thereof to make 

temporary appointment until th* peo pis fill 

-• by election u» the legislature 

3. Tbli amendment ihnll not be io eon 
•trued n» to effect the el. 
any Senator chosen before It becomf« 
a* part of the Constitution. 

Amendment. Constitutional: 

Proposed by Johnson, 3840, 3889, 
By Tut t, 7390, 7391. 

America.. — The entire Western Continent 

or grnod division of the world, Including 

North, Central, ond South America and the 

ut Islands. It wns named In honor 

if Amerigo Vespill-rl, .in earl) 

litis nf the conotry received 

publicity. It w«s visited by Norse 

navigators n* early as about 1000 A H 

I n. I there arc myths of Chinese and !rl«h 

dlscoverl-s. but It was not until after Its 

1402 thai It bt- 

pnerally known t.. Kuropeana in a 

treatise on Ihc new try pntiiished In 

1BOT. called < inuoL-riphlai Introduction by 

iller, n teacher of geography In 

..r si in- in , the 

name of American was proposed* (See 

North America and Booth America.) 

America, Four Hundredth Anniversary 

of Discovery of: 

i vi ..i is.v M.i.iri.l, Spain; 

World's Columbian Exposition.) 
Observance of, enjoined by proclama- 
tion. 5724. 
American Committee) on War Finance. 

(Soc Pence Societies.) 
American Continental*.— Uniformed pa- 
triotic corpa compoaed of descendant! of 
officer! and aotdlcr* of the War of the 
i. H. in 'th- Muff hendqnarl i- and 
offlees nf the Adjutant are Prexel Iiulld<ii(, 
Wall and Broud Streets. New i"ork. 

Americoa Cross of Honor.— This Uf**av> 
Ine order was orsjonlzed A. D. 1898, and la 
composed of persona upon whom the f nlted 
Slut— i ;..-.. nun. hi ha* conferrvd th* 
•avinc medal of honor stay l 

I!in -..ii". rut. -.1 the order, ami the fob 
dwlDE ntfli-ers were ele.i ii H. 

Ilerml \'l-e 

I. nt : Harry A. fleoree. Secretary, and 
Richard Sb renaurer. All persons 

who h lal nf 

honor under an] ael of couerei* oi- 

plhle to ineuiherKhlti In th- ot.ler 
berihlp fees or nnnunl dm* nr. --II. -'.it 
from nny member of this order, only rob 
nntary contrlbntlona belnc receevtd to as- 
sist In ravine the current expvose< 

The cross of the order will be conferred 
annually upon ill- person alio has rendered 

ervlci in saving iir 
who. also, ha* received (he medal of honor 

nf iii- I nlted State* Government. 
American Federation of Labor. (Seo 
Trndc Unions.) 

American Flan Association.— Organised 

-■■'•*. It* II ' Hue ritg. 

One ('..inn ill.' Its object 

Is to secure National and : ilation 

Cor 'he protection of th* fin-, from di 
lag and deseerotlnif uses, and to secure a 
general objervnnce of Jan* 14 n« "Klas; 






Encyclopedic Index 



Aiueric.iu 







««mmh.i.]ij l n an a* 

adopted Ibo lolled State* tit.. Tbe in» 
onU !■ eunipoaed of luilivUual member* 
•■4 ■!«.. tlM member* of the Kloc Cora- 

Seletlea for the parsoae 
IC aeatluo > 

li of our coontry «»d P"- 
11 from dntecraiiou. 

American Legion. — an organisation 

foteMd lo II the Max* of 

a* of the luit.j state* qualified 

tlcba* by prrrloaa mllltii .nlcal 

ripclicBtt woo> eapreaa I 

i-owd la ewe Ibe goternnient 

• I nay Use need ibelr sen 

ilp <o&>l*t* of nx.'ii of ssperlteu 
ihc mur, na*y or oi*;lo in Uio 

• Til OillltU Of ally 

-tally trilard In toy of 
\b* owmeroua vocations drawn U|hio t i 
Ion. of modern »,vrlarr. 
saKBt »» atiaiWn. invito I ion. operation of 
4 ml trad<-« lo whleb 
.»d allllrd manual Utx>r i- 
(•Uiyd. elao those trained lo rargery. medl- 
«txl nanlng The torn of application 
•oty atirb Tocaflona. Toe 
r year, and member* 
•wH'UO to wear a button .-on-uutii: 
■ lar In a white Held siirroaoilctl 
kf a red I I 
AaMflcaa Merchant Marino, tier- 1 for, 

767 i. 
American National Rod Otom. (See 

Bed CruM, Amcricun National.) 
American Parly »alnj of 

ia» (unreami. naovenwnti agnltut alien* 

Hair brro common, la Xew York City, a 

.f foreign popwtallon. ibl* . 

,a Udc to lie*, twin axUaled. and 

. nd of aucresa I I had 

acalu "bta 

tb* iv'fcig l*arty «•• breaking aaubder. a 

ii Ujood organUalloa, <*Id to bate 

wa r* of 7«._ or 'Trio Or- 

biar Spangled Baauer. ■ wa* 

fnratnt. Itow of lu members tint had 

I'd lo to* higher d.gr.e. 

Hi.' aim* and 

r ib» on-anliatlco. and taui 

..r of I di -•': I US r«- 

In* tin- ..*•' ili'-ui ill- nilc of 

:i meetlac> of the par 

it «. 

• imjrtt of slavery, and attempted to draw 

•»r* tbat were tlrsd of agitaiiou on 
-infilling Itaelf to tlgo 

3 and aliens. Its i-rln- 

\carrleaiit m>i»t rule America." 
Tbe brat Balfeni party 

•-ft In r»briiary, IS.'A It farored more 
imngynt nataralliaUon la« • j ..ppoaed for- 
etgs ls*mlg>*Hoe salTrage and offlre-aoldlnj 
br fa**lfn*«.ro rltlaea*: opposed tbe with- 
drawal of tbe Bible fro-- »>< public .rhoola. 
laore. of New York. wa« Domi- 
nant a> atd Au.'-i.ir Jackson 
-o for V|.-e-l're*ident "i'liea* Doml- 
- rsdorxd by a Wbli 
llaa hi kWtember. Fillmore carried but 
hi* total popu- 
t wa* about dSO.CKKl. 
!W»0 Presidential (andldaie* were 
amlA aomlnatri? nc'itlor came. 
' %<oa Porlv I After 
•nilnaore'a defeat, the parry lo 1- 
tke Siaie elertlosa Ir i and 
■ It *i« atlll 
-ubera la Coagreaa. <««• 

• all lfl..i»ii' /""- 

-e<t<a>d oarlr of Una a»nie >■■ rnurol 
ed a* oopoallloa to aecrcl ■Odette*, uallke 



lao Brit, wliiili bad 1 1 > — • I r l>"n *ikU a »o- 
el»t> "• wa* adopted by the mem- 

ber* of the Nai iloo Amim-Iuiuhi 

when Hint 

form demanded prohilililon •■! the talc of 
I'lbntb. the wlib- 

dlfiwnl ..( 

and li iroblMllon of cbelr oath*, «r- 

bll ration of Ini- 

1100 of the Ullile It 
rewirli'llon of land inonoj.jlle*. reaui 

lu l he Ind »ni 

til anil 

llll- 

eola, waa nominated for ii-M-nt ami 

rkpatrlck for Vlee-Pr*aldent It 

i were again mn-.l- In ISSI tha 
■' l*onteTOjr, Wlllolr.a In favor 
of Bt John, tbe Prohibition eandldM 
hi* a»uraoi-i< ib»t he "atood on eTery plank 
of Ibe An" rl' no r'lalform." 

ran pnriv wn« oreonlced by 

ii li-l'l In I'hlluuVlplila, Sept. 

: lalforni di i 

m of Iminlg - nitn- 

ralliail'in ..f f ■■.. i rlmental t" Ibc 

! the rnltc.l Slati-i 

amendment of the naturalization lanx ><> 

a* tu m«:. n year* - residence a 

!■■ .'ituroahlp . ezelodea from 

nablp ill anarehlM*. tuclalltt*. and 

other dangerout ebaraeur* ; condemn- alien 

proprietorship In land: granta of lan.1 to 

rorpoi.- ;".tert» Amerlran prim lpl.-a 

.-1om of re .i hip 

and belief and the i ration 

of Chureh ami Stale ami <|. Int. ■ In fator 

of ih* mnroieMSt d( tb« Honroe Dot I 
American Patriotism. Chair of. (Sc* 
i: of American Pn 

American Pence 8ocirtjr. Katloail Head- 

ijoart'- do Xnli'llng. Washington, 

D. C. Onraolxed la Sew York Cliy, May 
8. 1S2S, and for bed by Hie merging of 
many state and local aoel. 
of wbleh. the New Yuri:, dated baek lo 
1815. Iiorated lu Rotlon from t- 
11111. Moved headquarter* to \\ n»hi 

May 1. 1011. (See Peace Societies) 

American Protective Association.— wiii'* 

disclaiming to be a political party, tbla 
aaaodatlon, popularly known an the A. P. 
A., turn luri'ieu.eil re»nlia la many loeallilet. 

Iia pin.. i| , In ■ i-iuiform 

mliipieil -ii l>e> Moloea. Iowa, In 18Ut, ore 

(I l proteellou of ou • -rUn free 

< - > no public fond* 

..i". to be '.'ed for nectarliio pur 

po«e< : IS) preferring and inulntnlnlng the 

r n iii< ot ..f Hi- l ■ 

.ii reetrictloo of immlgrntlon. and 
(5) extension of time required for nnioral- 
Itallon. The aaaoelatlon wna organlaed In 

ISSI. nod >""U J.iiil it'll atleti'ti-d eooliell* 

la nearly every State of the Union. 
American Republic*, Bureau of the In- 
ternational Union of. (See also Pan 
American Union. International Amer- 
ican Conference.) 
American Republic*. Bureau of: 
Building* of, 6B24. 

' "tiu« of. transmitted. 5U78, 5785. 
;3S, 6349, 6381, MM, 
Feport of. transmitted, 5647, 5769, 

5007. 0001, 6090. 6183. «34'> 
Collection by goverotnenta of debts 
iat their eltiaena, from otoor ooun- 
trie*, by force of arm*, referred to 
The Hague Tribunal by, 7061. 




American 



Ussages and Papers of the Presidents 



Conference at Rio Janeiro, visited by 
8ocroury of Btato Boot, 7058. 

American Bights Committee. (Sco Pro- 
paredness Societies.) 

American Seamen. (See Seamen, Amer- 
ican.) 

American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers, memorial -.of, relating to 
Ericsson transmitted. 5565. 

American System. — in his minimi message, 

December. 18*8. l'reslilent Polk dlSCI 
what lla author* ntid advocates called ilie 
"American sjftctu" (3004). He Insisted 
tbat this so-called system was foondod do 
- ili j.ii r I il r.- fi.uii the . :irll.--l l . . . 1 1 . - >- of l lie 

Government: ihii 11 ,|. -ponded on an en- 
largement of tbe powers of tb« I 

uiucnt by const met Ii < not 

warranted by a Just Interpretation of the 
Constitution. One brnncb of the new »y*. 
tem. It waa claimed, was tin foment 

of * large national bank. The next branch 
was a high protective tariff, levied DOl '•- 
raise the revenue needed, lint fur prcdeet Inn 

merely; the next wu n comprehensive 

scheme of Internal Improvements, and Anal- 
ly a plan fur Ilie dl-irlluitliiu of the pro- 
ceeds of the sales of Hie public lands among 
tbe Slates Hut the term "American sys- 
tem." ns most generally understood. Is n*ed 
to denote the poller of protection to home 
Industries by means of high duties on lm- 

Sorts. The term was probably flrst n«ed 
y Henry Clay In tb« debates which pre- 
ceded the enactment nf the tariff law of 
1S24. when he called bis plan of protective 
duties ii ml Internal Itnprciveiiiriils tb* 

"American system." 

Amertcaa Union Against MUlUrlam. 

(Soe Peace Societies.) 
American Wood Preserving Co., purchase 
of machinery from, referred to, 4676. 
Americanism, President Roosevelt de- 
fines, 6915. 
Americans in Europe: 
Board of relief established for, 7063, 
Belief, protection and transportation 
home of, 7961. 
Amlstad Case.— The ease of tbe United 
State* ajnliiHt the Spanish vessel, .tmdr.id 
A cargo of kidnapped Africans woo bad 
been landed near Havana. Cuba, hy n Porta 
guese slaver waa shortly afterwards placed 
almnrd the Spanish vesmd .tml.itoii for ship- 
ment to Puerto Principe On the vo 
the negroes took possession of tbe vessel 
and ordered lbs etwm to return to Afrles 
but tbe sailors brought her Into American 
waters, where, off the coast of Long Island; 
she was captured b> a Pnlted states war 
vessel and carried lui" Hi s I -niton. Conn.. 
Aug. 20, 1SS0. On a libel for salvage the 

Supreme Court "f die United States bald on 

appeal that the negroes, bnvlug been kid- 
napped from a foreign country, were free 
lm ii. and not bound by treaties wltb Spain- 
Am Is tad, Tbe: 

Appropriations for claimants in caso 
of, recommended, 2401, 2742, 2977, 
3042. 3092. 
Claims arising ont of, 2634, 2720. 
Negroes taken on board, referred to, 

1856. 
Reference to, 2128, 3172. 
B»l«a*i> of, demanded by Spanish 
minister. 1805 



Amity.— From the literal meaning, •■friend- 
ship, '• the word la employed In latcruatlnnsl 
relations to Indicate friendly understanding 
snd co-operation: applied especially li 
section "i i.i treaties, «» a treaty of umlti. 
or a treaty of amity snd commerce. 

Ammunition. (See Anns and Ammuni- 
tion.) 
Amnesty.— An set of pardon for pal 
Offense*. The effect of It Is ihat tbe crimes 
and offenses against the State specified In 
tbe net are so obliterated that they csn 
never again be charged against the guilty 
parties. When nmnesty Is proclaimed with 
out restriction as to persons or localities It 
l» culled ii1i»m!ii!c. Numerous Instances "' 
qualified amnesty are found In ancient and 
iiinili II When TUrasybuIus over- 

threw the oligarch] nt Alliens he procl 
on amnexy. excepting thirty tyrants and * 
few of tin ir followers, Prctldout Lincoln's 
first aiunoty proclamation ->' pied nil offi- 
cers or agents of the Confederate govern- 
ment, all uriny officers above tbe rnnk of 
el, nil naval officer* above the rank 

..r llenteasnt, all persons who left the serv- 
ice of the United States to participate In 
the Insurrection snd all those who had re- 
signed from nie military or unvnl servlr 
afterwards participated la rebellion : nlso all 
tini-.e win. had Heated colored persons or 
tho.e In char,:. • of ihem otherwise than as 
prisoners of war (3414). Dee - . 1808. 
i nt Johnson proclaimed absolute am 
ncsty (»WW). 

Amnesty (see also Pardons): 
Proclamationof Pre«identLincoln,3ll4. 
Discussed, 3390, 3455. 
Persons entitled to benefits of, do- 
nned, 3119. 
Referred to, 3508. 
Proclamation of President Roosevelt, 

6718. 
Proclamations of President Jobnson, 
3508, 3743, 3853, 8906. 
Authority for, discussed, 8895. 
Circular regarding, 3539. 
Persons worth moro thnn $20,000 to 
whom special pardons Issued, re- 
ferred to, 3583. 
Referred to, 3659, 3669, 8788, 3779. 
Recommendations of Presidont Grant 
regarding, 4107, 4209. 

Amphion, H. R. M. 8., protects Amer- 
ican interests, 6809. 

Amphitritc. Tbe, mentioned, 0318, 

Amsterdam, Netherlands: 

Accounts of bankers of United States 

in, rendered, 113. 
Loan contracted with, 120. 

Anarchy, legislation for suppressing, 
recommended, 6643, 6644. 

Anatolia Collcgo (Marsovan, Turkoy), 

Sartial destruction of by mob, and in- 
enmity paid for, discussed, 5878. 
Ancona, note on sinking of, 8117. 
Andorra, — A neutral, autonomous and semi 
Independent state on the frontier of France 
and Spain In the Ksstern Pyrenees Area 
173 English square mile*. Population 6.000. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Annapolis 



(Hvrmmtnt end PtovU — The Siite Is ill- 
vSS X d Into the «ix couimoB'i ur patlsbe* of 
IKoni Vlclll*. Caolllo. Kocatnp. M*— ana. 
OiTloo and Ban Julian d* Lorln. wbn-li are 
•ab-dltlded into fifty-two pveMot: mid l> 
under thr Joint •uurraloijr of Franca and 
tk« Spanish Ulsbop ol 

ran* at* a'.l Uusnan Catholics. Tb* peo- 
ple at* virile and IndepeuoVnt, encased 
as* Inly la paxvral pursuits and arrU-uTiate. 
Fiance nan arrccd to extend a i 
at* railway ifrom Toulouse to An. from 
Ax southwards to Andorra Vlcllla. and 
Spain to continue tbe liorcelon* lllpoll lino 
to Andorra Vlcllla. wblrh won I 
come a station on a Toutoute. Barcelona 
line acroaa tbe ryfcncea. Tb» rvniral rot- 
nr.uj.-at It administered by a Maml Coun- 
cil of twenty-fossr members (four from 
mro communei. tbo executive power re- 
|c*-£yad!c of the 
Council, Tbe Kreneb rtepublfc (throne* 
la* fftffl ■ stern Pyrenees) an.! 

K Bishop at I'rgcl recelT* a tribute of 
fr. and 160 it. respectively. 

*r two d*1ccatc* iMl tbe pr/fet 
of tbe Pattern I'tnnec * to p*y i*-.e t 
and ressew the bond of fbtellty. Tbr capital 
It Andom) VlcUla. population 000. 

Anglo- American.— An American of Enrllsh 
biita or t*e«<«it Loosely, any tacli peraon 
»"-• amatatatnt a divided alleclafK* between 
.1 State*, arltb prof- 
for ibe former. 
Animal Industry. BnrMn of.— This bu- 
na* of tt>« Department of AjtricolttrsJ <Q. 
T.| atakaa < disease* of animals. In 

( chemical, bactsrlokstlcal. and zoolog- 
ical lavratlgilloM. 1U activities Include 
■klryltvc and aelau! breeding and feeding. 

sdxulatstratlse work of the bureau 
frastita of tbe Inspection of Import and 
export animals and of vessels for their trans- 
awtatMsj ; auperTltlon of tb* interstate 
aWTCtnenta of cattle anil Imnertloo of Ur* 
stock and their products after slaughter for 
food CO— a mptljc : eradleatloa of nnlmnl 
dUeaaast: supervUlon of wronu for us* 
with animals: and management 
avratal firai at Beltselllc and Uetbcada. 

ricntrns; dlnsats amoe.c domestic animals 
Is tb* Important task of tMs bureau, and 
an tat Idea of tbe macaltude of tbo work 
at»7 be rained frosa the statement consere- 
atlrelr made by the officials, estimated on 
the basis of data for thirty years, that 
isual direct loss** from oalmal dis- 
ease* are approximately %:'V: »KK}.000. Soma 
of the mo-t Tlrolent disease* are bog 
ekolsra, Texas ferer and cattle ticks, tubcr- 
calovla. eeotaeiou* abortion, blackleg, in 
dunut, foot and moath disease, (lander*. 
of sheep and cattle. para*lt<>. nn.t 
_J sUtcasrs. Tbo efforts of the bateau 
materially lr«s***d all of tlseae- 

-> Of meats by the areata of tb« 
tu of Animal IndaHnr In one recent 
• il a totnl of Slid establishments. 
■ ■•' in ■.'«; eitie* and towns In the 
i Mstrt. The nnnil>-r of animal 
aan c ts d at tb* tlase of slaughter was approx- 
• 100. divided as follows: 
00 coat*. 
>*«*». iS.WW.tXKi : swine. M,24T,- 
Th*> earcaaswa condemned on this In- 
'•in and desirojed to prevent their use 
-•man food numbered SOO.rtiNi 
Tale bureau co-operate* with the stnte 
■■ rroatlob of boys' pie clubs, 
soVr it* patronage these club* now 
• »nd hav- 
i ooo. The dalrr dlvltton of 
U* bareaa has for lis objei t t!>* Improve- 
■Mat nf dairy hards. In this connection 
csif t.tlvr bull associations are formed. 







and farmers are asalsted In the orennltntlon 
of co-operative creameries and furoUtied 
adrke reonrdlnr building*, equipment, oper- 
ation nml management. When n sufficient 
numbar of pairona la reported, wltb cnoucb 
to moke the etlnbllshnient of a 
creamery practicable, the < fur 

nlsbc* blue iirlut p.aus for a bulldlnit aud 
marbluery with estimates of cost. 1'ractlcal 
assistance Is clTca also bo creamery man- 
apsfflcnt. 

Animal Indiutry, Btumo of: 
Approprintion for, BSSf, 6979. 
Inspector and assistant inspector in, 
recommendation that diplomas and 
examinationa bo required of appli- 
cant* f< 
B>port of, 67 

(See also Agriculture, Department of.) 
Animals and Animal Product*. (8co 
also Agricultural Products.) 
Commission appointed to report on 
unheaUhfulne** of, discussed and 
recommendations regarding, 4793. 
Contagions disease* among animal* 
.li-.-uM ...I. I-TS. 4580, 4771, 0118, 
53S3, 5764, 58S7. 
Exportation of, <liscn«scd, 4878, 5554, 

5763, 58S7, 5978. 
Importation of, into United State*— 
Discussed, 5887. 
Laws prohibiting, in certain casos 

recommended, 5197. 
Proclamation removing prohibition 
on, 0025. 
Preserves for native animals, recom- 
mended, 6911. 
Restriction* upon Importation of, in- 
to foreign countries — 
Austria, -1916. 
Belgium, 5956, 6325. 
France, 4693, 4758, 4789, 4916, 

5194, 5545, 
Germany, H738, 4789, 4916, 5957, 

6061, 6330. 
Great Britain, 4519, 5764, 6178. 
Correspondence regarding, referred 

to, 4979. 
Decrees of — 
France regarding, 5517. 
Oermauy. France, Belgium, and 
Denmark regnrding, 6100. 
Discussed, 4947, 6554, 5641. 
Bemored, 0616, 6641, 5763. 
Annals of CongTem— A record of tbe de- 
bate* and .-• of Congress from 
tbe commencement of tbe First Conire**, 
Ma reb 4. 1789. to tbe close of the flrat ***- 
.Lin of tu.- i:i-.-bt«riitb Con«r**». May 27, 
18'24. Tbe Annul* nlwi contain many valu- 
able State papers, public document*, law*, 
eorrenpomlenec. (See Coner**- 
be: I'unKretaiunal Becord ; Regis- 
ter of Debate*. > 
Annapolis, Md.: 

Ai-t for erection of public building 
nt, reasons for applying pockot 
veto to, r.nTi. 
Naval Academy at. (See Naval 
Academy.) 



Annexation 



Messages and Papers of lite Presidents 



Annexation Utn tt". adoption of to* 

Federal Constitution I Idual •!»!« 

ceded 10 I he Culled States nil territory 
west of the Unci they established as their 
sestcrtl liouuilnriri. In lb* orlglnnl eli. li- 
ters 11 .xi mil il i to ilir 
OCWD, 1)111 j. .illy .ml) to Hi. MU- 

ni>>i|>[i .1 and I 

ware . -sessions, lu 1800 Loulsf 

.iii.i Ml t. i r... . .1 .! l.y Slisln to l-'i.iii. e tUld 
wsa nc'iulred by the lulled Stall 
the latter April 30. 1808. by payment of 
110,000,000, The urrltui .1 all 

of iii. le of l I ■ ««i 

of Hie Mississippi Kl«er. together with New 
Otleani and the adjacent OlalrlCt eaat j 
Arknn«ii«. Iowa, a portion of 

Idaho and Minnesota, all of the UnUol as. 
moil of Kanaaa, all of Nebraska and Indlnn 

Teirlli rv. pint ,1 Colorado, iiin.t nf Wyo- 
ming, and the whole of Montana, and con- 
tained I.I , :.!.. -. [■.■!.. ^L'. 

I : i ■ wh« . ded lo the United States 

I17 Spain for $5. .il."' Tcs.ni. which hud 

fur Him- yeiiiH .jlsieil a* an Independent 
St-- III' Pulled Mmtea 

ae a Btati i ' ■ ■ As a reauli "f 

the Mexican War mid iln- payment of *1S.- 
2&0.000 [u Ml ileu in. I Jin,'""!.""" 
territory Including wool are now California 
n ii*l I'tnh mid portlona of Xew Mexico. Ne- 
»uiId. Arizona, Wyoming and Colorail 
added, in.' later the southern pari nf Art- 
toua and New Mexleo were by the lin.liileu 
Treaty purchased from Ifasleo. Alaska wn* 
oeniilred In 180" By purchase, the price 
being K.-OO.OOO, and Ilnwull In 1808 by 
Ity the Treaty of Pari,, between 
H". lulled Slate* and Xpnln hi the cl" ■•■ 
nil .1) An. . . I .... in. 18B8. 

Hi" Philippine Itlnndi OnUB, "! the La 
.■.rim.. I.liiml-, I'iiitiii Klen, ami il. 
• f lines were ceded to Ibe United Htntca. 
Tlltlllla, T«n, Oiicaliiga ami Ofu, of Ilia 

in i,- 

treaty with Orent Rrltaln and Germany. 
Wake mi'l other atnall island* In tbe Paclnc 

i i he I'annroa canni 
(•■■ Panama Canal) was acquired In 10O3. 

Annual Addresses of President— 

A.liinis. .I.ilni. Li", 2C1, 279, SOS. 

Washington, 57, 73, 95, 117, 130, 154, 
I.. 1!'!. 

Wilson, 8286. 
Annual Messagea of President — 

\ linn- John (aildrcMiea), 240, 261, 

Adams, J. Q., 865. 916, 944. 973. 
Arthur, MM, 4713, 47.17, 4" 
Bnebtnu, U8T, 3028, 3083. 3157. 
Cleveland, 4909, 5082. 5165, 5358, 

Fillmor. . 19, 2609. 

Grant. 8981, 4050, 4096, 4138, 4189, 

4238, 4286, 4353. 
Harrison, Benj., 5467, 5542, 0615, 

.',741. 
Hayes. 4410. 4444, 450(1, 4553. 
Jackson. 1005. 1063. 1107, 1154, 

1238, 1316, 1366, 1455. 
Jefferson, 314, 330, 345, 357, 370, 393, 

413, 439. 
Johnson, 3551, 3043. 37 
Lincoln. 324.'. 8327, 8880, 3444. 
McKinley, 6251. 6307. 8886, 8419. 



Madison, 458, 467, 476, 499, 519, 

.-17, 
M.i.r.i, 580, 60S, 623, 642, 667, 754, 
776, 817. 
Ma. 2740, 2806, 2960, 2930. 
Polk, 2283, 
Hooaevolt, ii. ■■■■ 0973, 

.198. 
Taft, 7 109, 7492, 7644, 7766. 
Taylor, 8647. 

r, 1927. 2047. 2110. 2187. 
Van Bur. 1700. 1746, 1819. 

Washington (addresses), 57, 73, 95, 

117, 130. 154. 174, 

Wilson (addresses), 7906, 8015, 8102. 

Antarctic Region*.— Lands discovered 

' An tare tie regions *n> almost ev.ry- 

Inaccessible. Recent exploration* 

have determined the character of the polar 

region «i an elevated land mam of contl- 

in mil proportions, conuln. I coal 

nod other mineral wcaiih Antarctic re. 

glons as compared wlih Arcllc aie remark 

nbii. for low temperature. While iceberg* 

• Ocean aie carried south aa far 

as Ihc 40tb pntdllid, bergs and il 

Antarctic are I mod even In summer. 10 
degree* nearer the equator, lo the 
warmest part of midsummer Ibe temper*. 
ture is practically si point The 

entire region la within the snow Hue. 

■: lat 
71* 1" 8.. ViVil.VII i ls-:ii l,i. -4 
Itcis (I841-421 lat, . ited a 

laud • alu range, 7.0O" 

feet high ; Hn.;.d coast from J2d on 

s. ami W. ; named U Victoria 
I.ond: on It observed on active ec 
M; Rrcbu 1 1 S.300 foot) A Belgian ex- 
pedition, Iii iuiiml.ni , I 
reached lat. 71" :»I' .V, i 

i IK!>" II I lat. 78' 84- ; 

int 83' IT*: Shocklpton t ictoo. lot, 
i.ii located S. M.-i 
at 72" 28' 8. loft* lti i:. AiiiumUeo dis- 
covered the south pole In 1912 
Anthracite Coal Striae Commiiaion, re- 
ferred to, 6737. 
Antl-FeUerallsta. — * lartj which 

d the adoptluo and ratifleattoa <'f ibe 
Constitution. Its fnadamental principle ,i< 
.ii. m to the strengthening nf lbs Na- 
tional iJ.ieernraent at ibi ■ r the 
Htotca. Ueoigo Clinton, Georg Mi-.iu. au.l 
Patrick Henry were li« lenders Tbeli 

Hi waa shown In tho Klr»t and f. 

wes. They oppox-d llauilliiin and 
his followers and ehaiii|.liui~d a itri I 
atractlon nf ihe <vni»iiiu(ion as against 

■ Miii federalism They later became 
merged into iln- Republican ■ ler the 

leadership of Jefferson There have been 
many political parties, icrn. As 

their nniii"< Imply, tbev have opposed 

i. measure, organisation, or person. 

Ii acting at political parties, the? are 
not nies in ihe atrlct sense <■ f 
r..r Ihey have no nfflrm 
claims nre negative Orfanlaed with spe- 
1 ■"" pemr with 

ihe I. mi.. Prominent among quail |ianl"« 
the Antl-Lecompton Antl-Ma 
sonic. Anti-Monopoly. Antl-Nebraaka, and 
Anti-Ren ten. 

Antl-Maaonlc Party.— in 1S20 wniintD 

Morgan IDd Imvld C. Miller, of lla'avla 

N. v.. announced iimt riiry were iboi 
publlsb an evpos* of Preo-maaonrjl Itefore 

il" i k won produced • ;i» arreted 

for debt and coollm-d In the Jail at Canon- 



Encyclopedic Index 



Anti-Trust 



daafua, wtieno be dlaappearrd on (be nlfbt 

Han-: It w». charg. i 

shown to b* liar. ttiat h- had h«i fixally 

with by asemtx-rs of the )li"AK order. 

: mniiii to iliacoitr hl« wbrrratKiuts 

' opposition la the order. 
> Weed began the paH" 1 ' 

sgsirer at Rochester. 

< tuOTcDltna was txid by tbo 

;ene»*» r.iunty at Le Roy. 

. mud • rolltltal party urxanlt-d It 

• as clalnsed lk«l many of the State oftVUIa 

»»rt Ma~.ua a... I their fraternal 

oMlcationa a* r - than rlirir dfll 

The Antl Mao-Mil.- feellni: .few rap- 

Tti« pari/ cast 3\(» I New 

:. 1W0. tbourb nsaoy of the Intl'r wan 

■rdfesa of Masonry. 

la IST.O. a national essofen- 

ili.o an at Philadelphia. Francis Orann--. 

» Tort presidio k - In 1831 ttioy uom- 

it .-ar- 
rl*a oaly the State or Wnnon- '•■ 
throtnrb • Deaaoeratle spilt, fbry elected Jo- 
s-pb Kltn>r ro»»raor of I'.nnir'eanls Af- 
ter lbl« dale the Antl-Mawnlr party de- 
dlont aa rapidly as It bad ariiro. 
AnU-MooarcMc&L — Opposed to n eaonar- 
rbUI form of eoremmeot 
Ad tt Monopoly Party. -Tb* AntlMonop 

rar.liat1.iD of tlic ".'nlted 8ta'< 
at Cnleaio. Mar II. 1SSI. and nominated 
Benjamin F. Butler, of Massachusetts, for 
the Prssjldeoey. It adopted a pi 

■ oomlcal srorernmeut. and the to- 
rn and enforcer ist.le !«■•. 
• rstatc Commerce Ijiw (one 
aaa alar* been eoarledi. - labor 
Blia-aas. pr-.rldlne IndnstrUI Arbitration, a 
ra, a graduated Income 
las. p«yrn- nt of ih.- national dent at It aaa- 
tares and Utile 
-d ih» tarl* and the groat 
of laad to corporation*. Their nominee was 
alast awlert. I :-eeq>ark later party. 
ticket- being knarna aa the I'm- 
•la's party I 130.000 TOtoa. 
AaU-NflDr»alBa.-Oppo»ed to the Kanaaa- 

- I V.l. 

Anti-Saloon LoaCTje. — Fonaded In 

and la Installed In practically entry State 

•f tha Haloo. The League UuonsbM 

a employs MM) persona. wti- glee tbelf 
i* la law wort of utlon. 

and It baa ore* 10O offices frorr. 

rear loo.'" 

K«jf antl saloon literature. Tbe annual 
rotne la about (100.000. 
Antl-TnMt Law.— In 1887 Congress rn- 
ai-ted tbe Interstate Commerce Law. bar- 
lac for Ita purpose tb* regulation and con- 
trol of the btjali • « 04 C .mtnon earrtera rn. 
Reed la commerce J.e<ween the Slate*, 
of this law wna to pre- 
sent fsiorltlrm asd unfair .il~-rl«alnatIon Is 
fr»!e!.t ratpaL whkb bad. It wa« cialim-d. 
] larr*)y to ta» opbutMinr of 
. I asnnopnl: i and 

ar.irtrd to tbe dlaidrint ' .-• 

Tbla waa amended and 
paired la IH0C »t th» Sherman Anti-Trait 
liw. It urorldea tkat nil cootrnc!., torn- 
Mnattnca In form of ririte. 

.-ptraela) In realralnt of loier«t.ile or 
nmrriH' are tlleinl. and tbat 
I participating I -mrnt. 

* or at* irillty of a 

•astr and subject to a peoaltr for 

itaan e.f the act. Tbe alatnte also pro. 

tbat all «;ood< In Iraoaportatloo In 

loo of tbn act aaay be seised and 




forfeited by tbe Corarninent. and that In- 

' 'iiiisja may be broocbt by 

Om Aliorni r-tienvrul under tbe act. Al 

:b nuppleznentnl ncta wtra paaaed la 

1IMJ3, on lie Hon of tbi 

■ 1. 1 1. lbs Sherman law «i.< I 

lii'tteci in the puipua*! for which It 

was Intended, I. ... reatrululng the srowtb 
of monopollea >.r truata, »u called, and 
it .,;.. r.ned ugnliial .iinlile and 

. , of i rail. 

nib t '"od and bad. 
irlclam of the luw v, 
when Hi.- Bupreme Coorl decided Hint a 
I re da union boycott was a cooaplracy In ra- 
air.-ilnt of trade. 

Tbe law <-fe.tilnR tbt Department of 
foruoierce and Labor prorldcd for a Hu 
MM of Corporatloni. whose duty It Iboold 
t>e to collect data renatdlua: truaia, wlil.-h 
»ni- lit he UNtd In shaplnf further leglsla- 

Tbe dcclslona of tbe Supreme Court and 
of the i ..ii. . i States Clrcall Coorl ludlcat* 

flint II.. .-,... rnluelit hna III. |i. 

rent rnmhluntloiis amonc rallroada or maau- 
raciurlne corporatlona enganad In Inter- 
atute bualnaaa. erro when aucb comblna- 
il. .ii only teuda toward mooopoly. (»*• 
Becnrltlaa Case.i 

ille the luw aei-ma effective afalsat 
rnllrooila. It was set at defiance by tbe 
Addyaton Pipe and Sleel Cuinpany which 

aa ih.. •:. , im lirouKhl 

asatnat It by the Attoroey-Oenernl, sold 
out tbo all defendant coiupanlca to a New 
Jereey i-orjiiiratlun and i-outlnm-d llm si- 
lec'il unlawful practices. (Sec Addyalon 
Caaw.) 

Commlaalouer Garfield, of the Bureau of 
ratlona. recommended, and l'i. 
Kooaerelt bna unrad upou t'ungreaa the 
aaraanllv of n federal locorponnlon law. 
IHIM3. 7071.) To compel a nrporatloi 
loie biialneaa In any Stale to secure a fed- 
eral franchise to transact huslnraa In nu 
State l> of diiiililful conatlliillonnllfy 
It. K smith of tb. 
reau ..f ('..nmratk.ua In 1008 aald : 
porai' comblnattoti aeemi to be not only an 
economic necessity but also lamely an ac- 
complished fact. It la not fbe eilateucs 
-.f lOdaaTtrtal nosrn - , Sul rather Ita misuse. 
thai la tbe real problem." Senator Bcvcr- 
Idce told the most utKeuf leelslatloc 
ed by Iuck. was a law rrsxallalnc 

corporatlona for honeal pur- 
poses, rrealdent Rooaerelt deviated It 10 
he "profoundly Immoi in the 

statute I - .. law. DomtniUy In the Inter- 

eat of public morality, that really puts a 

Sre»mi public Immorality i.y un- 

klni lo forbid ho from dolnc 

what in n- r t..- d..n. ler umdern busl- 

aeaa conditions." (7075.) 

The entire status of antl tnut lejla lotion 
Id the I'n una altered i. 

it "C. 

•atabllahlnz the Federal Trade Com- 

mU.lou ; nu. I by th. I. III. 

A on ■ rn I. known ■ 

Clnjton Antl-Truvi Low. Tbe articles m 
tbn Inde* und»r the head of Federal I 

• Ijiw 
■list he read carefully for an adoiunte un- 
derataadlnc of the ami Iroal rlfuatlon In 
the oxintry nt ent time. 

Follow In* la a complete Hat of suits 

i ted by lbs 

1 Btatca onder tbl eli-rmnn Antl 

Traal Us-. A c-.mt>let- index to ttie rarl- 

nua case* will be found nt the end of the 

article 

PitKimrEXT lUaatao*'* AnvfUtiTraaTioii. 
— Resen Ca«.-». 

fWllllnin II H. Miller. Attorney Oneral. 
March 5. 1H>'>. to March «. IWS.\ 



Anti-Trust 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



1. United State* v. JeMle-o Uovntotn 
Coat Company. Suit against the members 
of the 'Nashville Coal Bicba,ftg», ' com- 
posed of iiirlDiis rniii-iuliiliif companies op- 
. ruling mines lo Kentucky and Tennessee. 
niul nf iM'moOt and flriiiM dealing In coal la 
Nashville, formed for Ike purpose of filing 
and regulating the oiiipul of coal. 
A preliminary Injunction wns denied on 
Oct. 13, 1MIO. Upon full bearing the court, 
on June 4. IROi, h»-l<l Ion to 

be In violation nf lb* outl-truxt law and 
enjoined the further carrying out of the 
agreement. 

/ | id Stale* ■ . OreenAul >t nl. A 
proceeding by Indictment nraiuat tbc offi- 
cers of III." Distilling am) Cattle 1-Vcillng 
Co, I Whisky i'rii-i i for an all. 
tlon of the antitrust law. Indictment 
quashed, ax allegations were beld not to 
constitute «n often i under the stiiline. 

2a. In re Cornlnn. Application for 8 
warrant of rr-movnl from Ohio to Mnssnchu- 
setts to on»wcr to (he Indictment found In 
the O'eenhut case. Application denied and 
prisoner db-churged. 

M in T ■/•■•rrit Application for n 
writ of habeas corpus to secure a dlaeli nt- 
fruui nri»-.-,r niul detention upon n warrant 
for remoial from New York to Masaachti- 

actta to nnxwer to tbe Indictment f I in 

the Orecnhut co«c. lvtltloner discharged. 

la n i.'.ik, Petition for writ of 
nabene corpiiN to »•-. •• from tbe 

cuatody of the innr.liul. by WOOD) lie wns 
held awaiting an order for tbe remo-. 
Greene to Mb asm 10 the 

Indictment In tbe Grecubiil caw. Prisoner 
discharged. 

8. Cnllrcl Staler e. .Vcl.on. Indictment 
of n number of lumber il ulera for con- 
spiring together to raise the price M lum- 
ber In Violation of the anti-trust law. DM 
murrrr to Indictment sustained, the 
holding that an agreement between n num- 
ber of dealer* lo rnlae prlcea, unless they 

controlled nenrly the •nilr mmodlty. 

could not operate as n rcetralut of I rude un- 
der the act. 

4. United Slat') v. Tram Ifi-nmi-i 
frriaht Auoeiatton Bill Med Jan. 8. 
1802, to enjoin the operations Of a com- 
Mini I Ion of rnllrnaila engaged In Interstate 
formed foi the purpose of tuuln- 
mining "sual nmt reaaonaole rates." etc. 
BUI dismissed by Circuit Court ; decree of 
dismissal nitlnnnl by Circuit lonrt of Lp. 
peals, and reversed by Ibn United Btutca 
Supreme Court on March 22. 1897. Inn il 
decree entered on June T, 1 sfl7. 

0. Pnlled Stnl< . i. Rrorl *tmm/i A mill 

K mated Council or Vric Oeleam ct al. Suit 
reatraln defendaota, a combination of 
workmen, from Interfering with inter. m t- 
and foreign commerce, In violation of I lie 
antl'truat law. The Injunction win grunted 

ami the law held to apply i mliliniiloiia 

of latiorera aa well as capitalists. Thla de- 
cree waa affirmed by lb* Circuit Court of 
Appeala. 

ft. United State* v. Patterson et al. 
Caah r*gl*tor cnae. Indictment of mem 
of a combination formed f- t the p 
of controlling the price of etas n gi«-t»r*. 

A demurrer waa auatnlncd aa to certnln 
counta of the Indictment and overruled aa 
to otbera and lenve granted fo Pli special 
demurrer* to the counts whieti ever* •"- 
rained, The special d#murr»ra were beard 
on June 1. 1803. and the demurrer. 
ruled, the court adhering to lt« former nl- 
Ing. Letter of Attorney-iten'.fal dited Oct. 
16. 1803, ahowa cnae waa allowed to laps* 

because of r ■neillntlon of complnlnlrig 

witness with defi-ndnuta. 

7. United htotei v. E. 0. Knlaht Com- 
sooy IBugar Trust I- Bill In eoulty lo en 



Join tbe operations of the Bnxar Trott. 
charged with s ilolatlon of the aati-truat 
law. The bill was dismissed Jan. 30i 1894. 
• I waa taken to the Circuit Court of 
Appeala and tbe decree stormed. 1'rom 
lecleton an appeal ■ »• taken to tne 
Supreme Court of the rnii.-d .-tat'-«. where. 
tli- decree of dltmlaial vu sfflirued- 

I'ni -.i>i -.r i iikumh HaooaO AD- 
MtKi-iTNATiorr.— i;ight cases. 

(Itlchard Olney. Atinrni) M'Jenernl March 
e\, i>'ic i . June v. I 

Attorney-General. Juio I I March 5, 

18»7 1 

1 falfed «fof« r. Buocne V. Deb' rt <rt 
Petition tiled on July 3. 1804. In the United 
Htatei Circuit Court for the I'Mri I "f In- 
dlan.a, aeeklng to r««lrnln lute ference by 
Aiiii'ilcnu Kollway Union and forty-ntnc In- 
dividual defendants with mslls and Inter- 
■tat* commerce carried by «ii raiirondu op- 
erating In Indiana An injunction waa Is- 
sued on July 3, 1804. which was com 

lO futee until SipNn t 10, IS'.m. when 

the cnae waa dismissed at the Inatance of 
the Government. 

la. Vntied Slate-i f, Agler. Information 
charging contempt of court in dl'obcylnf 
In Injunction retraining Agler and others 
from interfering with lnt.i»inte rommerce 
and obstructing the molls. Information 
Qunahed. It waa charged that Agler waa 

" in- inber .f the .'. rlran Railway Union. 

Hi- members of which order wer» on a 

strike and bnd been enjoined under tbe ontl- 

truvt law from Interfering with the enrry- 

unilla nuil from ObetruCttBC lu- 

io commerce. Informntlon quashed 
This la one of the "Dabs" coats. 

2 rn..v.i State* >• KlUolt Suit to re- 
atrnln Klllott. Debs, and other members 
of tbe American Ilullwny Union, from car- 

their unlawful conspiracy to In- 

•Miii Inieratate commerce and to 
obatni't i in- carrying of the malls, la rlo- 
latlon of the nnil-lruat law. Pr-llmlnary 
InJUDCtlOU grnntcd, A demurrer to this Mil 
wna overruled. Final decree entered Aptll 
6, 18-utl, against 200 defendant*, and tem- 
porary Injunction made permanent. 

5. Unll.rl Statu i pea* el ol. Petltlun 
n Juiv ^. 1804, in the circuit Court 
for the Northern District of Illinois, alleg- 
ing conspiracy to obstruct tbe nialla and 
• with Interaiate commerce. A 
temporary Injunction was Issued on July 
2. 1804, for violation of which contempt 

Frocc'dlnga were Instituted. Orlglnnl p»II- 
lon dismissed on July 28. 1809. at tbe In- 
-if the Government. 
3a. United fifafea v. Debt et ol Pro- 
ceedings In contempt to punish Deba and 
f.ir disobeying an Injunction reatrntn- 
:.. in r-.iui Interfering nun interstate 
commerce and with obstructing the malls, 
by means of a conspiracy. In violation of 
the nntl-iruat law. Defendants found guilty 
and punished. 

Sb. In rt Dco», pefffioner. Proceed- 
ings Instituted July 2. 1BD4. Application 
for n writ of hnbrna corpus to aocure a dla- 

eliiirge from Imprlaoomeni fordlsoberli 

Injunction of the Circuit Court for the 
Ninth. in District of Illinois, restraining 
Dflis and others from ron.plrlng to Inter- 
fere with Ititemtnte commerce. In viol 
of the anti-trust law. Petition for tbo writ 
il. nl. -il 

4. Pslfed State* p. CauMy. Cssaldy 
and others were Indicted under sei 
r.liu. fnlted States Kevlaed Statutes, for 

"in--- i uimit offenaea against t n»- 

Unlteil States, which acta . - -n- 1 - -l In n 
1 dug nnd conspiring to reatraln trade 
ntid comma :■ the States, In viola- 

tion of the nntl-trust law. and grew out of 
the Pullman strike In California. The trial 



Encyclopedic Index 



Anti-Tnist 



tailed Cve nioctb* and recalled In ■ AIb- 
agreement of the Jury. A nolle orvteiui 

entered Jul 

o. ef**ra r. L'aiferf Srufrt. Indictment 
of tbr DtBbtn of on aaaociatlcn of deal- 
er* to Coal at Rail Lake ' -ring 
Into a complracy to rrgultlc tbc price of 
«oaL Indictment reiurnrd Nov. 4. 
Moor* wa* tried ami roni 
trtrt Court of I'inti upon tbla Indie. mint. 
Tbe Circuit Court of Appeals rcvoracd Ilia 

H Hini aa n of <■ -.•■<■ llo .. [or Uh m^™ iii«i 

■ poa Ibe admlaUon ol i Stole It 

«ii no longer a -T.-rrlii.rjr" within tL* 
meaning of the anll-trn*t acl. and tbe com- 
blsattoa waa aot In restraint of Interstate 
commerce. u4 the eoart therefore bad so 
jdrttaU 

&. I'ai'erf .Talcs B. Joint Traffic Alto- 

hi Hi I 
• i enjoin tbc alleged Tlolar i 
Ik* aBtl-truat law by a combination of rail- 
raada. The C' •' iu- 

MIL asd tbr Court nf Appeal* elllnn. 

1. Tbne Judg- 
•rota were reversed by lb* Unit oil Stan* 
"upeeine Court. On March 3. 
ma* waa i 

•ncot or article* 

A-hlyilom Pipe oh.; 
It In 



Sail 






to Msrcb 79. lander C. 



gt'rl Compamy. 

ISOO. Bill Id kj.jIii tlu opfTt- 

H« of ib» Caai-lroa pipe. Truat. which 

attempted to control 

Mp«. Th* Mil wn* ; 

■ 

reverted Ibr deere* of the Circuit I 

iM remanded the om, with i. 

to eBter a decree for tfce OovcmBBtal 

appeal irt tbe nf 

U niTlrmi'd. 
0- i 
taailiub-d Oec. .11. ISM. Bill to reatralo 
tbr operations of th« Kattwu I Ity |.|t« 
Stock Kxebaoge." organised to control Ihc 
•bJpm»nt» Focfc. Tbc lol n 

araa granted, but on appeal lbs Supreme 
Court reversed tbe i!«rw of ibe I Ircull 
• oil »-r iii.:.-.l the case, with Instruc- 
tion* to itlamlf i i U ' 

Ftcsintrr JfcKnruct'a Admisibtilitiox 
— Tbr»» e»i»« 

rnb McKenna. Attorney-fiend nl, 
March t. Ial>7. t« June 25. 1806: Jo 

ISM, 
. Knox, 
Attorney-General. April S, 1001, lo Jun* 30. 
ISM.] 

IndrrioM ». failed Molt: Bill In 
tejulty to Katrala the operation* af 
Traders' Live srock Kicbaage." of Kansas 
Oty, an aaaoclatlon formed for tli* purpose 
of buying cattlo on tr. marki 
•tilt waa Instituted June T, 1897. I 
Clrcolt Coort of tbe United State* for tba 
Western Dlatrlel f MaBaouri. 
temporary Intuortlon waa Rraotcd and the 
|M M Ike i n of Ap. 

. _oa '•.,,!« of 
tba Cnllrd Statca for Inalnictlona npi n ■■■ r 
tain Buaallona, ua.lnr 
t»on « of tbr act of Mar.-li ?.. IR01 I2fl 

S281. T 
tba d»cr»p ' • 'irt and reman.]- 

«d Ibe caac. with dlroettoi, ia tba 

MIL boldlnc tb.it lb- art 
were no: a rlolnlloa of tbe nntl trunt law. 

»<-<orioi» Salt brougbt per in. 
'-.r ls)Btioti..ii tr, r».irii'n Hi.- 
if • comblnatloB of coal doalon i 

Coal Dealer*' Amortntlnn of rail. 
fwntla." A taropornrj in !■ action waa crani- 
ad frora wblcb bo appeal waa taken and 



rla furiba Elitbtb CI 
waa certified to the Supremo Court of 



Anal decrea ordered Mny 2, 1800, granting 
relief prayed for. 

3. (Tairrd Mate v. ChcAaprake and Ohio 
Futl Company ri oi. Bill niod May a 1800, 
to annul a contract and dlaaolro a com- 
lr I mi Hon of producer* and ahlppcra of coal 
In Ohio and Waal Virginia, engaged In min- 
ing coal and making coke Intended for 
uii.iit agreement to 
trll the bum it not lex* Hum a memoran- 
dum price, lo be fixed by IB UMUtlTt 
committee appointed by the produrvr*. !>•• 
frndanta enjoined, contract declared Told 
and lili-k-al. ami tin. <umblnatloo dlaaolred. 
Atari... ■ nit Court of Appeal*. So 

al taken. 

PRB.tumsT Hoo*rvBt.T'« AcittKtarniTioN. 
. — forty f.>ur vaaea. 

I I'll : Knox, Ai ncral. 

April 5. 1901, to June 3n 
II. Moody. Attorney-Ooneral, July 1, 1004. 

to Dec. 16. I0OO; Cbarlea i. ltouat>ait. 

Attorney-tJencral. Ucc. 17, 1000, to Harcfa 
4. UiOO.J 

I. Vniled Stale* v. Northern SecurlUc 
Oreol A'orlacra B'ji Co.. Northern Pa- 
cific H'u Co. el at Tbl» ami wax brought 
oil March 10. 1002, In tbe flrcult Coon .f 
the United »taie« for the DMtrlct of Mlnnc- 
aota. to enjoin the dif.ndnnt, the North 
. ■ r.. . fr.mi piircinialng, «ri|ulr- 
log. receiving, holding, voting, or In any 
manner acting a< the owner of any of tba 
Btutri I of the r-.ipltnl atoek of the two de- 
ni rnlluay companlea. and to reatraln 
the defendant railway companlea from per- 
mitting the aacnrlllaa cuuipnuy t>> ioto any 
..I Hi., i... I: . | k.tI.J rnllwnya. or from ex- 
r any control whatsoever over th* 
ite acta of either of aald railway 
companion. It doing charged that the BC- 
eurltlea company wax formed for the pur- 

Eioao of li'-oiilrliiK u iiiiijniliy of tin. -niil. 
■I stock of tbc two rnllway companlea In 
order thnt It might In that way eltcct prac- 
llcally :i ooii»nllilatlon of Iho two eom- 
by i-ontroliing rate* and realrlctlng 
and deatroylng competition. In violation of 
[itl-Traal Law. The Circuit 

rl on April :i 100) Btereo a decree 

In favor of the Government ui prayed for In 
tbe petition, and tbla decree waa. on March 
14. linn, ntrirtiied by the Supreme Court of 
the United Stm 

1. UnWad Stdjag v. S.H/» rf Co. «f at. 
Soil brimriii ,ii May 10. 1002. In the Cir- 
cuit Court of tbe United Stalea for the 
Northern I>Utrlci ..f lir.n.iU to realrnln the 
drfendaota (commonly known aa the Beef 
Truatl. who are engaged In the buying of 
live atock and Ibe aellluir of dreanod inoiita. 
frmn . imi'Iii.- i. ni in onl.iivful conaplrocr 
aotared Into between themaelvea nna with 
llio varlnua railway companlea, to auppraaa 
competition and to obtain a monopoly In the 
ptirctiuc of lire atock nod In the lolling 
of dreaaed menla. A preliminary ri ■ 
tug onlor waa grantee] on May 20. 1002. 
Tbe defendant* having demurred to tbe 

i.iii, niiik-. on April 

1$. 1003, overruled the demurrer* and 

?l a |.i. Ilinlunry Injunction. The dc 
III* hnvlnit failed to anawor, the ir!. 

nn May 20, 1H"3. entered an order making 
tbe decree flunl and perpetually enjoining 
Ibe further operation* of the trim. TM 
defendants, on Ane. 14. 1903. appealed 
from the final dacre* of the Circuit Court 
lo the Supreme court .,t ibe United state*. 

where deeroe wna afflnned Jon. 90. 1900. 

S. Palled .if.if/» K Trie Fe.b-r.i! Boll 

in« .i ol. Hull broughl In tin- Clr- 

cuit I'.iuri of lb* united State* for th* 

ii rn Klutrlet of California, on Oct. If}. 

1002. to real rain tba detendMU i>a«\so 



Anti-Trust Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



as tl»- Salt Trust) from unlawfully combin- 
ing 11 ml conspiring I competl- 
(Ion In tbc Uuuufncl ' 

in-', ml at tba ttocki M nalna, 

In rloUUon of the Sherman Anil-Trust 
Law. A temporary f -straining order waa 
isaued OD Hint Unto, and the enuae coi 
mi for Inni. 111: a Nov. 10, 1802. 

(bo Injunction pandewM Km, thus, 
n cfToct, ranking the restraining order per- 
No appeal wn» taken from tbli 
order. 

4. United fifafet. «'. 77ir Federal Sail 
Compaiiu. mi Fab, -'\ I'.io:;. the grand 
Jury for the ' nlted state* Dletmi • •■mi 
for the Northern District of California, re- 

■ i an Indlcimi.-nt n k.i 1 11 -• t tin' Suit Trust 

Br baring -. i . . i . . ■ . ■ i tbc antl-lruat law. Ob 
liy 1 I fad guilty, ami 

th# court sentenced It to pny a floe of 
»),iXh> y.IiMi »tl paid. 

5. United Stale v. JoektonitU' H imi. 
*0U Orocvrs' Association. A proceeding in 
equity, Instituted on Hcpt, 1L'. 19011. in the 
United i rcull Court foi 

era Dlalrlcl of Florida for the purpose of 
dissolving I loo of wholesale gro- 

cers operating In violation of the null trust 
lav. Not. I, l'.lOT. dismissed. 

0. United Stat" i. '.'• nnal I'opcr Co. 
if ol. Dec. 27, 1001. a bill la equity «•■ 
riled lii Hi.' Cll ' of the United 

Stairs for the District of Mlnni la i 

tba General Uttper Co. «Dd twenty-threw 
kiii. .us engaged In the uiuuufiie- 

Kre and sale of papi r alleging Ibal they 
d rntered Into coinlilnotlon and conaplr- 

II ■>■ To restrain trail* ami con roc in the 

manufacture of newe print, runnlln, 
and other papers by making i 
I'apcr Co. their common snles agenl ' »n 
May II. 1900, tba i'i'iui unliTi'il IndumPOl in 
of tba GoTexnmrnt. diasoiiing ih» 
. '"inliln iil"ii nud affording ull relief prayed 
for In Un' I. Ill 

7. United Htatrt r. Armour & Co. ■ 
After the nflUnniu-'o !>y the Buprcme I 

of the deer f tba Clrcull Cnnrl In 1 i I • I 

t Swlfl .\ Coinp in) [above n fi 
to) complaints from rartoua quartera iter* 

ruddo to the department that lit ml. Inn 

Hon *tin continued Tba department tnera- 
iipon began an rxhauallrc Inquiry before 
to* croud Jure for Ihe northern district 
nf Illinois, which reunited In Hi" i-'nni Of 
sn indictment i. n .luiv i. I'.ni:., againai Ar- 
mour & Co.. J. Oitdcn Armour. president : 
I'nirli'lc A. Vnh-nuii. , Irc.i urer Arlhur 
Sccklcr. gcrn-iil manager; iimniii* j, Con- 
ors. superintendent, and tunul 1 Ho 
jObcrt. assistant treasurer, of Armour it 
a.; the Arimi'ir 1'nckltie. ' inrlc* 

W. Armour, president: Swift A Co.. nnd 
Loot* B". Swift, president: La wr.-nt'O A. 
Carton, ITCMnror: i>. Bdwln llarlwsll, sec- 
ret n-v nnd Albert II. Vecdcr nnd Robert 
r. M. -Manna and Arthur F. Kvnns. agenta 
of Swlfl A <'...; Hi.. Pnlrbank Canning Co., 

and Kdwsrd Morris, vl [in ddenl ; Ira N. 

Morris, seereinry of III* Pnlrhiink Cnnnlnic 
Co.: tin Cudaby Packloa Co., and Kdwnrd. 
A. Cudniiy, rlca-prcaldral and (antral man- 
ager of tho Cudahy racking Co. 

Agnlnst this Indictment many preliminary 

ions were urged. All were disposed 

nf in taror «>f i)i" Ooean nt, neapi cer- 
tain special plena "f Immunity In bar, hns»-i» 
upon Informoilon concerning the mntters for 
whi.ii iii" defendants ware Indicted, which 
tbey had given to the ni nf Com 

ami Labor. Tbc court sustained the 
pleas so fnr aa lh« ludlvliluil dr-fendanta 
were concerned nnd OTerri niih 

respect to the corporations. Dismissed Feb. 
ft. 1911 

8 r*<fril fitutrt i: MarAndrriet A 
rorhtt Company el ol In June. 100ft. Iho 



grand Jury returned an Indictment agnlnst 
the MncAndrewa A Forbi-s Go, th« 1 I. 
Young in., h corporation ..f Maine, and Karl 
JungbluUi and llowii.-.i I fottnft their 
rrspectlre presidents, for Illegally combiulng 
and conspiring to rvgulitte (he Interstate 
trade and Kale In llcorbr paate, an article 
used la the uanufn. 'un- •■{ plug 
In*: lobai ra. l"t. nilnnts 

d plena of not guilty, with leave to 
withdraw or demur on or before July », 
IflOH Jul] fl, I xf all 

of fhe defendants. I' demurrers 

oi-erruled. Dec. 19, llluft, irl.il i-i.iiuiiei 
Jan. 10. 100? M 

mud guilty on Ural and tb 
of Indictment. Ihe J. S. Young Ox guilty 
on fltst ami third r.iniiis ; rerdlcl of ac- 
quittal as to Individual defendants. Mae- 
Andrews A Forbes Co. fined (10,000. J. 
8. Young CO. IHi"'t «».iiiiu, 

8a. fhe Tobacco Trull OOIM. {Hal* 
V. Iltnkel; Ur.lhitcr v. ffentef.) 

grew .nit of an Investigation by a 
il K'snil jury In the Southern I 11 
of New York or the Aiinilmn Tubarrei 
Co. and tbn MacAudn-ws A a*orbi Dl 

llsved 10 I'. '. I. dating the anil trust lavrs. 
the mailer having been brought to the at- 
tention of the grand Jury by the a dttOO H of 
the Pepnrtiiieni of Justice, special counsel 
having been appointed for the purpose of 
Investigation and prosecution. Subp 
f f avoal Icovai were aerved upon the' officers 
Ol Hn ompanlea directing tbcm to pro- 
doee tmpers ami otbei documentary tori- 
I u. belonging to (he corporations. Tbev 
refused to obey tbc subpoena to answer 
questions propounded to them. Tin- 

riiit Court adjudged (hem la contempt smi 

' mltted them nnlll they should produce 

(be bonks and answer fhe qoestlona. Tbey 
applied i" another Judge ot the same conn 
for u-rlM of bnbens corpus, which, upon 
heiirlug, were dls.h irgeu. Upon appeal the 
RuprrToe Conrl aflmad the orders denying 
the writs. 

9. Cnlfrd SfdrM e. IrVfronoHfo* Veal 
Compasy ?.' ni urn filed In equity In 

in the United States Circuit 
i ..iiii for Hawaii. In i ht opi-ratlon 

of alleged unlawful combination! in ia> 
• i r. iint of tbe-trude In beef nnd beef prod- 
acta. Demurrer i" bin rermled Oct. 2. 
i I r.n.iiin-. 1017. 

10. United .Sfuf.s e. .Yum' Retail Qto- 
cert' .!■>... ni tn. ii Koi ♦, 1!>"'<. Hie de- 
portment directed the United States atlor- 
ii a] fan Un- S nd Division of Alnaka lo 

die n bin in aqolty against tba Nome Ketnii 

ttlon, alleging a eon 
Hon to Ox prices and to suppress eonipe 
mi- in. Hull wns promptly Inatliuied. 

wherni|i"ii Hie il.-f.-iiil inn agreed to th« 
entry of a decree granting nil the 

I for In lb" petition. A decree dl» 
solving; ihe cnniMiiiuion wa* entered accord- 
ingly. 

11. I .nii.f eTfOfaa V. T'-rminal Railni.it 
.("Oftoltoii of St. I.oult et at PetltJOfl 
tiled III i Ir.ult COOrl Of United Stales .'or 

(he Knstern l>t«lrlcl "f Missouri on I 

i in - ., to enjoin tbc defendant rnllroada fronl 

.oinliiiiliig an unlawful combination 

Inm between tln-m lo operate RadK 
Brldgo and Merchnnts ltrldge n- 

age of Interstata commerce. Upon dls> 

:n. ni of Circuit Judges cute was ear- 

tied to Hi.- BupraBM Conrl and •■vna re- 

iniiude.l by that court for further pro- 
ercdlntM The petliloii was then dlsmlswd 
by tin- • "1 r. nit Court, nnd an appeal was 
taken to the Supreme Court, where, on 
April •_".■. 1012, th* decree at lbs Ctrcoii 
Court was rcranad nn.l Ihe <-n«e remand- 
ed with directions to enter a decree In en 
funnily wltb (be opinion of the Supreme 



Encyclopedic Index 



Anti-Trust 



A controreray having artacn as to 

ther tin -- or tbe three 

jn.lgca had tarUdlcikoa ■ writ of 

Kbiiiitiiii waa Med age IBM tbe dlatrlct 
i .tamed hr It 

perme Cowrt, Tbe form of Anal decree to 
l» entered l» now under confident loa by 
tba circuit ladx*». ll>» rctpeetlv* firilr* 
bilu rnhmlli"! their tlewt OD !>*•■• 

. entered a Baal 
ibe govero- 
o.*t. believing tli»t |b* dtcfcf did not 
oat tk*> aaaadat* and opinion of th- 
ine appeal 
»j. jrtur.1 In " M. TW decreo 

I judge* wu amrujrel. 
rafra r. J.lf<i» ** Jtoftlatoa 
in failed Slate* 
•if Hawaii. 

;i,U»tion to control 
ik' trad* In lumber In tbat Ter 
Anawera "led Jan .•. IfliW. Dcdalo*. ad- 
• bimI petition ordered 
dlarnlated March Ml. Kill 

11 Hr* r. or(j ri. 

rf a." Illll (I'd March ;. 1'JiBi. In too 

! 
, fa I' :ig»ln*t tbe Ollf 

■ ... and a nambev of other eorpo- 
:.vldi»al*. In which II 
alleged tbat Ihey »crc caalntnlnlng > 
Maaitoo la reetrelat «f ira-l* la tbe annltec 
i|« of elevator* 

June 1. 1P09, a decree wne entered by , 

ant dUaolvlng tbe comblnatloa and granl- 
IM t> 

II P '• trmdea 

/ >i-«'f Cor-pO' 

i Id lb* Dlnlrtct Court of Oklahoma 

■ 

g competition and main 

Miy 

enne granted to Cram 

• guilty and 

Dare tmpovd aggregating tJ.'MM). which 

paid. 

r. .VoflOMl A- 
lit. «f al. Bill la 
:■■■::. |g it, 1 
for Hie 
^^^Ka »■■ 'I'll A««oclnl!nil 

•f Reiall :■ * J combination 

■ ii me earn 
of drug* and proprietary medicine*. Mar 
» 1> , . J by ngr,. , 

gl'tog lb* tJorerntnfOt all lb* rvllrf prayed 
for la lb* p»U': 

18 r-'alfr«7 Matt* r. Vtr/inU Carolina 

•■«!««» ef al. afar 2.V 

O* rVderal inoil Jury for it- Middle 1>1»- 

.". nareaer. upoo Information far. 

tlabrl by tbe lieparttser.' 

ranted «o tadletincut agalnnt thirty-one 

corporation* aod iwcnty-Oi* Individuals en- 

fa(*d la Ibe fe-r'l IIt-t Im-ln*** In the 

State* of (forth Carolina. South Can 

Ueorgla, Florida, Alabacaa, Ml.alnlppl. 

Ariaaeae. and TeUBcaae*, chargluc them 

wlib engaging la a conspiracy In violation 

• leral anti-truat art and with 

caaanlrlag to cossmll an offense nenlmt 

la* L'oll«<d aiatea. tIb.. tbe nfnrrMld ca- 

mtt» ■ <**n 544D of tbe 

kritaeVj Minutes. Tb* fertllli*r maanfae- 

C*r*ra eoeribkned to fix tbe pr.,-- of 

Iter* la tbe territory in.-uil,,r-,l | 

ajaartloB tb« trad* among ibeuiacliea ae- 

rvrdtea; to aa acreed p*rroiii»i{p. July 11. 

IMC all tbe defeadunla appealed to lb, 

tMra* Coart from 

njrt of tb* En»l- 

*ra l>t*triet of VlrclnU dmylnr tbe rl.hr 

af aalxaa corpm and reminding tbem to 

tbe raatoily of tbe marabal for rrmoTal 

ta tbe Middle rriatrlet of TeiHwaa** for 

rn»L Tb* eaae before tb* Supreme Court 

•a. argued on Dee. a. ISO*, aad on March 



«. 1907. tbe jajflV ''oort 

rereraed n-- led i" Unit 

court fur r 
• lib i 

di motlona, plena la 
abatement, and di-iuuriers filed. July 5, 
»ud deiuurr«r» 
plen In u'-»ieiiieut allowed, and Id* 
dlctmcnt Qua«b,-<1. 

JT. I«tra v. .trarriroa 7e« Coat- 

Cay *l ol. July Ii I'.icm;. Indlotment re- 
ined In tbe Supreme CouTt of tbo Dla- 
Wei of (" liarglug :iu unlawful 

i price* and 
(timpelltlon In tbe anlc of Ice. No further 
actios taiga, 

l.:Kite4 Stales v. ChaniUr let, and 
Kept. 10, I BOO, 

ii I i„ , be in-, 
f.r lb* (errllory "f i>l;lnbotna Bgaln> 

let lee and Cold i'laut and 

ot b.-ra. rburKliig 

tlon terrltoor In (be matter of II 
Ice. May 5, 1007. demurrer filed by de. 
femlant Ororea and overruled. May 20, 
bj rimiiilb-r I,-,, in,, I 
Cold St," I 

■ 

ef of Kept, 21. II in.li. ' ,,,.ni returned 

*Cnlual Alfred M. Uloyd and atbera In lb* 
M-uii-t Court - 

li'ima. charging i comblnntlon to malulalu 

price* uu,l reatrlet oouipctltlon In the aale 

,,,l •■ ..I. 

7*. t.'rillrd «fof^» c. /•ropft'e /or ««4 

*"*r<f Coii(io«r. a corporation, and If. B. 

urnad 
Ib the iNatrlct Court for tbe Territory uf 
Arliona, charging n cotnbluitloD to control 
and reatrlct competition In tbe aale 
of Ice. Jan. \ 1007, trial commenced. Vrr- 
not guilty a» to l'eople'a Ice IM 
in, I Co. and company held to next grand 
Jury. Trial ■ ' W 

Oct 1C. 1VKI7. plea III bur Died. 
Oct. IT, 1007, plea In bar auatalned. 

21. i.nnin.f lumhrr 

Coaipoau- tt al. <i. ' 

r.-tumej in ibe DUtrlet Court f .t the 
Territory -.f Arlaoaa, eburglng a combina- 
tion to control prl. id 

ii Ian In tb* aale of lumber. Jon. 2, 100T, 
trl.il Verdict of not guilty 

aa to Demund Lumber Co. Jan. 1, 1907. 
raaea against Chamberlnlti Lumber Co. ami 

Valley Lumber t'... oftBtll 1 0»« » - » ■ ■ ■ 

May «. I'.niT, DOllOO mad* to court to 
- acquittal Mi, Hun , 

nt. Mar 0. 1007. mo- 
tion auatalned and verdict of acquittal re- 
Dad, 
S3, t'arieif Staf" v. PhaniT Wholciala 
Vcat aad iVodooe Coaipaay, a corporation. 

Itn-l't. and S. J. Tribottt. <>i 
IPO0 Indlrlmenl re-turned In tbe Dlatrlct 
[■errltory of Arlaona, charg- 
ing » combination to control prlcea and re- 
atrlct competition In tbe aale of iiieata. 

Jan. 7. 190 " "' '- 11 v "" : ' 

not gnllty a* to I'Ihi-iiIx Wbnleatile Meat * 
Produce Co. Jan. 

iralt^t Hurley .lw uilaaed. * 'T.llct of gollly 
>• to defendant ». J. Trlbolct. Jan. 12 
1!HI7. Trlbolet arnteneed to pay flue of 
tl.OOO. Jan. 0. ^007. caas agalnat Pbotnli 
Wbob ■ *'o. dlBrolaaed. 

Appeal to tbe Supreme Court of tbe Terri- 
tory of Arlxoua. Supreme Court afflrtued 
declaloo of lower court, line paid. 

23. fjalfrd Sfafc* r. Standard Oil Com- 
mw *f ,V. J ef al. Nov. Id. 1900. Mil la 
e-jultr Bled In United Statca Circuit Court 

tern DlKirlrt .,f Mlaaourl 
tbe Bundnrd Oil Co. nnd other*. In which 
It I* alleged tbat they are maintaining a 



Anti-Trust 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



combination Id restraint of trade In th? 
manufacture and sale of petroleum, COBB 
argued lu Clrrult Court April 1900] de- 
clslon by uminlmoua court in fuvui uf Iho 

QoTtramcnt Nor. M, 1009. appealed to 

Supreme Court; argued M.«reti. llllU, te. 
argued January. I It 1 1 . Ud Judgment of- 
Crmed May 15, lull. 

24. r mi. . T. B. II ooo et at. 

lice X. ".IllMI. Imtlclmoul returned In II. ,■ 

District Court for tin- r.-rni.irjr of Okla- 
homa, charging a combluntlon BDd con- 
Slrscy In restraint of trail* and commerce 
the talc of lumber. Han b 
pica of not guilty. Change of judge grunt- 
ed ou application of defendnuia. Dlav 
mlsscd. 

-:. United Matt* r. Atlantic tnrentment 
Company it "I II'. II. 1007. Indictment 
returned lu the United BUM Hytrin Court 
fur the Southern District of '.'•■' rgla nglilllHt 
the Atlnutlc investment Co. and others 
charging a combination lu restraint at 
trad* mill commerce In the lllllllrr .if Hi... 
ninniifiii-iiiri- iiml nl< of turpentine r-'cb, 
18. 1B07. four corporation! aud two Indi- 
vid uala, defendants to thin Inilli i 
entered plea* of guilty. Bad tba COM lire 

Sewed a flue of i.'i.OOu upon each of the six 
t-t, ndauls, making a total of |30,0 
28. United Blalet w. Ameriran Srating 
Company <-f ul. March 1J. I»0T, Indlef- 
DBCDl reliiriird to the District COUrl •■< 'lie 
Northern District of Illinois charging a 
violation of tlie sii. -i iniin Anli-Traat l.aw 
by ^imaging In a cninlilti.itl,,ii in i 
trade In the manufacture nnd anlc of school 
and church furniture. April 1. 1007. da- 
feiidaut COrporatiODJ elitercd plena of guilty, 
with one exception. May 20. 1907. tinea 
Imposed aggregating 1-13.000. Defendant 
K. II. Stafford Manufacturing; Co. Bli 
murrer April 8. 1007. M.iy 31. 1907, de- 
murrer overruled and plea .if guilty mi- 

teted. ntMuiHKed Jan. 47, 

27. United Staff V, American Stating 

(-••inpuni/ •! ill. March 12. IIKI7. lull In 
cjulty 11 led In the United Stnt.s Circuit 
Court for the Northern Dlatrlel of mi- 
nola nguiii"! me American Beating Co and 
Hi which It Is alleged tbnt they are 
maintaining a combination In restrain! of 
trad' lu the manufacture and sale of 
mi. i Chorea furniture. Aug. 15. 1007. de- 
cree entered granted perpetual lnluuctlon 
against all defendants, except P.. II. 

r Manufacturing Co., B, II Staflora D, 
Stafford, nnd E. U. Bentlcy. Ai to 
three defendant* tils case was dismissed 
Jan. 27. It 18. 

28. f.'ntteil Mate* v. Santa lllla Ulnlng 
Company and Santa Kilo Store Company. 
April 4. 1007. Indictment returned In the 
district of New Mexl.,. charging - viola- 
tion of section 3 of the Sherman \nll- 

Trust Law for engaging In a combination 
In restraint of trade. Iieuiurrer tiled and 

li il I'n r S I .iXlii Imposed mi ein-b 

defendunl : total, ts.'mv. Appeal taken to 
the Supremo Court of the Territory of 
New Mexico, where Judgment of the lower 
court wne reversed, aud the case was sub- 
sequently dlsmli. .. I 

29. t'nifcrf Stain r. The Beading Com- 

(lanu et al. r-iltlun filed June 12, l'.KiT. 
n the Circuit Court for tin- llnntern 1M«- 
trlct of rcnnaylvnnln, to dissolve a com- 
bination ntnotiv.- the BOthraclts eoal-carrrlnaj 

roads nnd other.. n ml.er 8. linn, n 

decision was handed down by the Circuit 
Court adjudging that defendant* wsrsj 
Joined In n combination In restraint of trade 
through the Instrumentality of the Temple 
Iron Co., but dismissing the charge of the 

K till. Ill S* to the So-called lir, per reill. COO- 
lets whereby It was alleged the lm|.-. 
pendent output was controlled, and also the 



chnrje* as to certain so-called minor eoeo- 

ions. Cross appeals wire tal- 
the Supremo Court, where I .f the 

lower court. In so far as It adjudged the 
'xlants parties to a co in r. 

attaint of trail. be In-irumetitallt 

of lb* Temple Irou Co., was amnio. i 
was reversed us to the so-called «i 

contracts with In-: cane 

and wiik further modified by dh 
tulwlug the petition la other respect* with- 
out prejiil 

30. tofcj i'. Adflonnf Vmb 

rrame Company «f al, July 1, 1907, In- 
dictment r*l mini In the District Conn foi 
ihe HflBtern District of P 
log a conspiracy to restrain Interstate trade 
and commerce In the manufoctu:, 

iiirelln material In violation of 
the 8h*nnnn A-.. Law nnd 

6440, K. & Pleas of guilty enier-d j.ii.1 
"gtfrcgatlns 13.000 Imposed aud col- 
lected. 

Untied Statu v. American Tobacco 
Company ct ul I'.m in eqult] Hied July 
10. i'.m.. by the United Slates again 
American Tobacco Co. ami which 

It was alb Bed tt m iiutnlnlng 

a eouibiiuiiii.u in reatrainl of trade and 

Commerce In the nun ml Mlc Of 

tobacco, 1906, decision rendered 

in fnrof en thi ■; rnment tzcapt u to 

Individual defendants aud certain i 
snd Other corporation* t'rm« n, 

takeii to the Supreme Ct.urt. where 
'.van argued M.ii'l. linn ami rear* 
gned Jnnuary. 1011. Mar 2U. lull, a de- 
cision was rendered lustalnlng the Govern- 
ment OS every point, nnd the ease w:m re- 
in m,l-d (o tho Circuit Courl nnd the tin- 
lanful i,, ml. lu. ill, ,u was dl'.'olved In ac- 
cordaiicc with the decision of tb 
Court 

M. United Stalrt a, /;. //. Stafford 
Manufarturlnti Vompanv ct el. July 10, 

i Indictment returned In the in 

Court for I ho Si.rlli if Illl< 

nola chargltiK u .erinan 

Aini-rrii-t Law by ennKlng In a coinbl- 
tuition lu testtalnt of trade lu the mono. 
fncture and sale of kcIkkiI and church 
fnmltore. I'lmHsed Jan. 2T, 1013. 

33. Unil.,1 etatn v. B. I. du Pont d* 
Kemow ,( CO. rt uf. July .10, l'.Mi, 

In equity Died In the 

District of Delaware against i:. I. du Pont 
de Nemours A Co, and others. In which it 
Is alleged that they ate maintaining a com- 
bination In restraint of tl ■ • t • in the manu- 
facture and sole of gunpowder and 
high explosives. Jno ill, • deci- 

sion was rendered holding ciuhlnatlon II- 
legul and urderlna iti dusolntlon. Flnsl 
• dlsmlclng the combination was ap- 
proved by tie c mrl June i:;, 

34. rutted Slate* o. One Hundred and 
Seccntufivi Cigarette: Oct 2ft 
1007, liifonnntlna filed In the District Court 
for the Eastern Dlstri.-i of Virginia cov. 
crlng -.-n of cigarettes 
under Section (I of the Sherman Antl , 
Act. Cigarettes subsequently roleasci 

der bond. Decree of dismissal entered 
Jan tl. lOU. 

SB. t7ntt*d statrr i- It l). Corbel! Sta- 
tion., ■/ Company -t ul. Nov l, (901 in- 
dlctxni i in the District Court for 

tna Dlstrlci of a rt jr. .tm charging a combi- 
nation lu reitralut of trade. Nov. I, 1907, 
demurrer filed. Not. 14, I00T. dniurreni 
austnlued a ml ilerendnnts referred to in-it 

<rnnd Jury. •>«. 28. 1008, reindicted. Nov. 
. 1009. vei iillty. 

■ '■'> Culled Btatee v. Union Pacific Coal 
Company <■' ;:ui7. Indictment 

.1 lu the District Court for the Dls- 



retiiru. 

trlct of Utah, charging 



a conspiracy to 



Encyclopedic Index 



Anti-Trust 






violate *nd • elolatloo of tbe Sb*niina 

Act. Jan. 6. 1906. deinnrrer uJed. Hatch 
X 1908, demurrer aunalaed •« to Brat 
coiiti aod oicrruled. »• lo accond count. 

It. 1908. verdict gulilT March 20. 
190». One- tie* 413.O0O Imposed. 

Korean 

Circuit Court of AppeaW, aid tbe ault mi 
aPanittatd M»r. 

1 a». U Simmon' 
el at. J a 
Id ib* l>litrtct Cosrt for the Southern l>la- 

it Alabama charging a oiuitilcntlon 
lo r»- :rade aa>d co«nn-.< r ■ la In* 

batter of It* maaafactarc anil anle of 

ngxregntlrii J. 1 ' 

r«a<l Company . • . n bill 

la equity i 

Ike rolte-l i li 

•1 conspiracy la 

'ii the part 

of Ike woilltd Hnrrliima line*. June 23, 

1911. <|>eUU'.« I • to (be ef- 

'.at the road* Involved were not earn- 

d tbe •■oiui.iiiniiiin was 

Dot a i (Motion, if law. Hook, J,, dlsaeat- 

lac. Ao appeal au taken to Supreme 

which tiusiil.il down • dectit.m rf> 

teratng Hi' 

Bantered at St. Paul, 
tua.. on June 30. 1013. 

39 CnUi J. Ray ft til. 
14, I'.-.'S, rcturni'il In Hie 

Ore* i > i item Diatrl 

Lmbbu agalnai scventy-nro Isbafm, 
efcargiox a eooblnatloo ao.1 caoaplr 
restraint of foreign trade asd coimorrrc, 
la rteutloa of the ghtrui-iu Aet. See son- 
coder following esse. 

40 J. Hot 't <I 
Feb. l the 
CIreuli Court fi 

Lo-.l»Una ag»i- borers, 

"ig a combination nnd conspiracy Id 
realm »t»tc trad* ii'i 

la notation of tbe ghvrrm.in Act. 

• 

dai- < to 

tbrre defendants and fine* amount iDg to 

udg. 

meot of the : wm arjltn 

It faired Bi .1 ■ 
tt «l. I 
la th- 
balers D1 

caaMnstlon la restraint of trad 
aern la the naittcr of th- manuf 
•ad tale of plumbers* sapplars. Jane SO, 
1910. dlaxolsacd. 

42 I mi'.i Btatn r. American .Vd I 
April 11. IPIIS. In- 
dictment returned lo tbe I nlii-d Kmii'i Clr- 

tjr Ik I 
Georgia, charging a coi rglut 

te- and wmwrrt In the mutter of the 
re asd aale of i 

Its lodivld- 
aal defendant • Fine* aggregating «1T 
feMoard and two nVfendanta »- 

i»ooih« la 
Oaart of Appe.ila and Judgment aalranrd. 
rarl rrjutad by Surrciu* Court. 

1913. on (roejod of error In J ml 

t» lorr. A ti -uiity waa 

Banded down Id Jane. 1914. 

43. Vnttei gtitra c. Sen- lor*. Jveio 
M m *U , cut ItartforJ Relltaad Company 
IMS, o bill la ■ •: ilty *i» 
lo lb* Circuit Court of tin' inlted 
' Maaeachototta, 
jib; the New llirm Cc with coro- 
•M attempting to combine and ot- 
to eocobta*' tiaeVr one cofamoo 
he varloii* railroad noil tleetrlc 



rallwar cratena In New F.n*!.ind In Tlola- 
... .SJr." 16 &ncrm «> Act, Olamlaasd Jane 

■14 { iMied Kfafra r. JoHm H. ParltA .1 
el Juno US, Hhjs. lodletmriil rrlut 
Ho- ( Ir.-ult c.iirt of ttir 1 uiloil Stall 
lb* Southern Dlatrlci iork. cbara- 

ln« a combluutlon In re-trnlut «f trade In 
tbe mailer of the ninimf.i. 

.. June ID. IPOS, defendaon plead 

(iiillir and aenteneed to pajr nnea jj;^ 
ax * ... h w,.Tc i.iliii 

uiiExr Tarr'a Aiiui\i«Ta*Tlon.— 
Elehtj-ulnc «»..«. 

1 1 :•.-.». \V Ml.-kertbam. Altorn 
Mtirch I. 10OD. lo Id urh I 101 

1. failed «fur/» iv Am. R, 



SM*o (.'unipUNu ■ ' g| I, ,li ,. nl mi. I. I 

mas law Julr 1. 1009. .v pii, i of ii,.' 
• of limitation* u»« luterponed b] the 



Jefcndnnl Kl>»»il. which waa taken la the 

''ourl. where It nun .1. |i|. ,| In 

of the Oorernmeal Man 

trial of the cat* resulted In dlaner. 
of I 

2. t'nifVd eiaUt r. 4f6io /lor 6 fautF 
Company n nl. IV. 
returned lo Southern IHatrl. t of 
rttarxlii* combination lu toirnlnl .A 
In paper board. K.'h. 7. i;i|i>. nil I 
aiita plead Ktillljr uml (Ii 
157.000 were aiaeaicd anil 

Vnllta State* v. Jonn .X. Ktecra ef 

oi. iniii. tm. nt rami 

trie! of K.iilii.fci- fab. 17. 1010. .huriilnjc 
eenaplracr to rcatraln trade. Thla l> the 
ao-cnlled "Nlibt Rider" i-a»c- where tbe re. 
atrnltit eunalaird In preventing tbe ahlp- 
meot of tobacco In lnter»t»ii 
by men in of lloleu.-e and Inilinldatlon. 
A ftci .r demurrera aui! 

: ..'ii- In abatement u nini win had. 
and on April in. loiti. a rerdtct «f guiitr 
waa i to eight of twelve defend- 

ant! nnd Onea aggregating |3,A0O Imposed. 
Appealed to Circuit Court of Apprala ar- 

t I >....-,. 1 1 . . r . mil. and the judgment 

.! Mny 11. 1012. TI' 
were remmuted by the Prvaldeiit to payment 
Ot coata of milt. 

4. ratted Wrote. ,.. Xmpertol W*adO« 

«.4»» Cvinpeinar rt at. Indictment foil 

weal. i-.-nnls April 7. 1010. elmrg- 

tlcn and eunaiilraer to enhaoce 

if window glaaa. [(cmurrera to 

tta* lodl.-liiieiit were oTerruled. and on Not. 

'" I |.l'' ' "t ii.. I it< Ddara war* ■ B- 

lered ond One* ■nr-gnting |i<i.ihm> aad 
co«;a were imimaed and colVeri. 

8. failed Sfafea r. .Vafioanl Pecking 

Company el ml Indictment returned la 

in in-irl'tof Illlnola. Mar. h .■, 1910, 

Charging combination to rextmln trade In 

lueata. Ih-mnrrer to Indictment ana- 

Illlln-d June -Jli, 

0. failed Slatra r. national Packing 
Company rl al. Northern llllnoln. Rill la 
- charging combination In reatrului of 
trnde In frvab menta nnd praying for dis- 
solution in.,) March SI, 'in"). Llamlaeed. 
iiltutc tbe proaecullou of 
later criminal cnae. 

7 ( mi'.' A'tutea f Armour Pactlna 
Comr.'/iil/ ef ot. Indlctmciil rfluined at 
Savannah. (Jr.. In April, 1010, charging 
control prlcea nnd reatrlct 
comprtliii'i, Demurrer ainUlned m to »«»- 
ond count on May 21, 1»14. .Voile pro«r«a{ 
■■nt-red March 9. 1915. 

8. r.'nlfed fitatta v. UUaamH Pertfie 
Railroad C'ompaay and Itremyfoair olher 
retlroooa. Fetltlon to rcitraln vtelatlon of 
Bbarmon law flle'l May SI, 101 I 

reatralnl- m that day 

cd Joining adeancea Id freight rntee In west- 
ern trunk-line territory, which would ho»a 
tieeome elfeetlre June t. 1910. Thereupon 



- 



Anti-Trust Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



llronds. after coosultattnn rrllti the 
hi, withdrew tln-lr ptupooed ad- 
in frclgUl ud «"«-r thi< pus- 
•uk' of Ilia acl of June IN ". I'l". tug Bl*t- 
i tu the Interstate Com- 
in.f .(• Com Ion Then ifloi the Inter- 

Qmlanoa enjolnsd tfai 

rate advance* wlili-li lb* ti-miiotury re> 

siraloli i i i'.i Hi" depannnunl. 

on (lay 81, 1810, bail 

i iv lata tfftct ui"i ii"' ptUtiaa «n» dis- 

U. I nil tit state* <: Southern Wholi 
Orvcert' Association, lllll i barg- 
ing combination iu rcguiuts pi ■! ae 

• -. — .11 1 in.', Bled II Birmingham, Alu.. 

Jim.- It, 1010 
between the <•>. 

. lid . I • -.1 r.-.l. . i ti in 

to. ami passed bj m irt Oct. 17. 101 1, 

perpetually rcsiiiiliiliii: Un- association, IU 
officers and m- mi..- . .-. fi.n.i doltur, any and 
•II ol Im ■< ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 1 1 1 1 ■ i -- ■ i r i . ■ . i ,,r B "f the 

ti n -. i ■ - : .-i t - ■ i in.- agreement with the 
.mil contempt in were 

In mi a petition r..r mi. ■« show canst* 
why an attachment for criminal conteiuiit 

<>f conn f'.i alleged violation. ..r • i ■-■ ■ ■ -< ■ u< 

Oct. IT, 1911, -li.iulil not l"«lle wim 
Died In the District Court at lllruilneliam, 
Ala.. Poll. 10, 1U13. The association and 

lliri'i- of 11 U.I.- f. .Illi-I t'Mll!.V of 

contempt ami nuva aggregating tb.dvo were 
Imposed. 

Id (.'Rlfrd State* r. Qrtot Lake* Tow- 
ing Company et at. Petition Died In N..»ili 
era I>i..irii'i <if oiii.. ,ni Juna i:>. khii. 
sgjlust an aliened comtilnallou uf towing 
facilities on the Great Lakes, A decision 
In favor i.f Hi.- Hiivrrnuivut waa banded 
down I ■ b ii. 11*13. Th* plan of dlH.iilu- 
tlon la now under i on by the 

Marl A il. i r a. ei nlnu tbe .i. olutlon 

win ••atered on I", i. I 101 but ID* gov- 
ernment believed il. hi the decrci would not 
afford adequate relief, nu.i ippealcd to the. 

ii i '.I 12, 1011 the Milt 

oil, ill.iul,...il li.v tin- |i.ill|..ii of the gov- 
ernment 

11. United State* v. rhleago Bun 
Bat Board. BUI nsklug for dissolution 
tiled at Chlcngo. June 13, 1 !• 1 1 ». i .1. amir, r 
to tin' in'tlUun waa sustalucd with lcn»e to 

■mend, ami in amended pttltloa waa oied. 

Set for bcnrlug an DMItir I reporl OH Jnn. 
s. mil. rii,. ,!,-.■ u.i- - 1 - ■ - 1 < i - < 1 fnmral.lv 
tn the government and a decree to that 
■it. . i wa ■ Hi. red do i let 12. ion. 

B DlrMfla ..I. .•■•■-, V. frank Itaynr, 
JameM J. rnffen et at. Indictments ft- 
! Now York City, against aliened 
Cotton pOOl eonaplralom, Aim. 4. 1010. De- 
is were sustained as to eerinln i-imnis 
of Indictment and nverrulcd aa to others, 
and Hi.- (iiivi-rn i appealed to the Su- 
preme Court, where ense was argued No- 
vember 1011, and reargued at the October 

term, 1912. Decision by Supr.- Court 

Jan. tt, 1013. sustaining Indictment*. Pui- 
trn entered plea of guilty Pen. 11. 1913. and 
was mUd J-t.Oflrt. Indictment dl-un- . .1 
a» to other defendants, nnd anotli. 
dlctment was returned July 1. 1013. See 
ease 6. under tbe first administration of 
President Wilson. 

13. f'nltrd Ktate* 0. Standard Sanitary 
Mfanufaeturimi Company 't nt Petition 
filed at llnltlmore July 22, 1010, charging a 
combination, under cover of a patent Reeoe. 

lac arrangei I. in restrain competition 

and enhance prices of enamel ware. Pour 
volumes of testimony w^re taken and case 
set for argument at Itlcbmond on June IS, 
111, nnd I", lllll. In a decision romler-d 
Oct. 13. 1011. the court sustained »ll the 
Government's contenilnns, nnd a decree wna 
entered Nor. 25. 1011, from which an ap- 



peal waa taken to tbe Supreme Court. l> •• 
nil. .ii of lower court ni!n mill Nov. H. 1013. 

Judgment pi lied dl isolu 

is. r in'tcd Mute* e. Loult r. Built et 
ol. Indlciment mtiiri v the gran.. 

at Chlcag- . i". against 

ten prominent Individuals' engaged In tbe 
meat-packing luduatry. Defcnaanu have 
tiled numerous pleas lo 
all of which n. i In favor i 

i. in. -in. in r, nil .i i . i i: 

Jadfi Kohisant for »m ..f certiorari 

..i i. ml. hi that anti-trust law 

was unconstitutional Petition 
Ihifendanta appealed to Supreme Court and 

in. .ii. hi Die. i 
stay of trial pend 

l: i ■ i ilal lastluit over three months 
Hi,. |u . .-i.ll.-l of ai-.jnl 

10. ( ii.ii.I ftiafca p. John Nearinn J 
gany and Contolidaltd !:■ 
tng I- Indicted Jointly by PederaJ grand 
Jury nt Boston in October, 101U >■ 

n r to iii'll.iiiii-iii raotalned Ji :::'.. mil. 

10, in. and 17 A. Sec nt the end od 70 
10. ' n ten) .- r I. • . . ; 'Inand null 

1. r III.- n:u 
mill/, nnd ti' 
W. Henri, of ltoston, doing IiiiHlneas lis the 

■ oi un/. 

ly Indicted at Boston In October, 
for violation of the Sherman law. ]• 
rer to Indlciment luatarDOd June 23, 1011. 
10 A. See at tbe end of TO, 
17. r'Hlted Utatet v. Horatio W. Hrolfi 
and Cvrut X. //oinjood, Indictment ralni 0. d 
In October, at ltoston. charging violation 
of the Sherman law. 
incut KiisiabMd Join- .-:;. i:u i 

17 A. S.e at tlo- . ml oi , . 

-In Hi.- : ladjlci m. a : 

wUlrii wen found almi tbe 

Oovernmeut charges that i 
ants hiive attempted lo dlvldl i-rrltory 
i.,i«ccn thcmn-ivcs tbroughotit New 
Knglund. so as to avoid rompi-ilHon slid 
drlie out compel Itora 111 the hide and 
rendering business.) 

18 United Mijfri .. ^fiinilnrd .Suiurnrj, 
ilanula' tuilnu '"onipumi ct at. In addlilnn 
to the above suit In equity (No. 13. auprat, 
Indictments were returned by grand Jury at 
Detroit on Dee. 6, 1010, against the an 
corporations and Individuals charging the 

acta. Various demurrers ami dll 
plena have been tiled, argued, nml overnilea 
After I irlal listing six weeks tbe Jury 
reported a disagreement on March 14. 1012. 
Retrial In February 1013, resulted lo a 
rerdlcl uf guilty and tinea aggregating 
$51,000 were Imposed. 

10. 1'nit-il ../if., v. Amr-iran Xuoar 
Refining Company et dl. A suit In 
waa filed at New York on NOT. -s. ftjO, 
against this corporation. In OlScera and 
agents, and Its uwned and controlled 
poratloiiH, aiin.-klng It aa a comi>ln.iii-<n in 
restraint of trade and praying for Its dls- 
aalutlon. The. •■"•■•■ was ready for trial In 
■ oi 1915, mil tbe presiding Judee sug- 
gested postponement to await the decision 
•it the napremt Court In the Mar- 
aud Steel caeca. The case was still pend- 
ing In 1017. 

^0. Faired Statet v. General Electric 
Company et ol Bill In equltv filed at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, on march 3. 1011. charging a 

Iiliiuilon In Incandescent electric lamps. 

Thla suit la the outcome of an extensive 
luatlon Into the electrical Indu'trv. 
I.lke the enameled-ware combination. It 1s 
founded on a cross-licensing arrangement 
under pntento. A formal decree ba> 

iu:r I up. .11 Netween counsel for the Oov« 

lent o ml tbe defendant companies, nnd 
wna submitted to and passed by the Cir- 
cuit Court Oct. 12, 1011. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Anti-Trust 




fulled Hlal't ». rarrfarton «l «L 
IniUctmetil returned Id tbe Nurtbern Dls- 
.: i Sept. I*. I«l"i. 

. ...llloa 10 restrain trad* In pat-lag 
and paving Mock*. Deraorrcr over- 
6, 1911. Nolle prcaeqol « 
jao* 5. 101*. 

('aired Stalf v. Hamburg Ameri 
lamutkr. PacMlaMri 
*-4 fll\"t. i Irons Atlantic steamship 

Ci 'ooiMnailon of alcamahtp line 
lle.fi at«rage tr»«Bc on the Atlantic Ocean. 
1 i.= 4. 1011. at New York Lily. 
complete and caa* eat (or argu- 
IT. 1*14. 0a Oet I-'. IBM, a 
anfavnrahle to the ■ win 

_ dan. and an appeal to tti.- 

<: ■»« takea. On Jan. 10, lOlC, 
; . rsed tbc decision ot 

IB* lower court However, lb 
fowrt refused to decide the oiir.li«n. 

n la* ground that 111* European War 
had rendered then Boat. 

i «.t<4 tiitlr, v. inillam C. Otrr, 
prfUrnl J lata llos and Paper Company, 
D1 returned April 28, 1011. 
IB lb* Soutbrra District of New Vort, nl- 
Uwj a ai a combination and con«|ilr»i-y In ro- 
of Interstate commerce In piper 
board. Dt .-rented May 0. 1018. 

I'll."., tf- defendants wit! 
their plea* of aot guilty and offered plea* 
i,. r-oalewolere, walcb th* court ae- 
l and lined them $16,000 
.1 r-iUtS Matt i t>. /.'or fern Blatrt Re 
1 
I ■( New ^ . 10. 1011. 

charging ta# Eastern Slate* Lumber Deal- 
ers' Association. Ila offlrera and member*. 
»i'b a coasplra.. In restraint of trade 
fbroogb the lnalrnroealallty of black lists 
aa4 trade Batreements Derision by lower 
ewart In far. r of UoTcroinent Jnn. «, 1013. 
ac4 desert* entered March 1. from which 
appeal waa taken to Supreme Court. Ar- 
rant at October term. Decided June 22. 
IBM. soatalMng tbc decree of th* district 

™5l Trrfted fffafaa c. /«<wo n'nlflnp. John 
K muring, f'n«rlr« H. H. .it* J. 

II***, oad IFI/Kom I. GrcuUlVlri Indict- 
ned by the grand Jary at Bo*> 
In*. Him., no May 2B, 1011. charging a 
aaMblnatloa to restrain trail- In milk 
laraawhoot Use New England Blatea Pend 
. r was sustained con- 
crslaur conspiracy and monopoly In r«- 
•rralat of irnd*. but overruled con. 
ramMaatlnns la restralat ol 

1 a plea .if nol 
■« May 4. 101 1. Certain of 
aata eulrred pica* of nolv eontrmlt*'. and 
Ike ease la being peoseeuttd against tin' 
aUsrra. 

railed Store* r. Itaar Whiting. John 
t irwiin.;, rnarlea II. Hood. Bdteard J. 
Hot*, aad William .1. lir«»l.ilrm, and Wit- 
ham A. Hunter, 8ecrrt.,, v of ProtUOtrt" 
Way 2A. 1011, Indictment return.il by 
tie grsad Jatry at Boston, Mass., charging 
.'piracy to restrain Iradi- In Hit 
tkraofVmt the New Knglnod Slate*. I'end- 
But. IBM. A oVmarrcr waa niataln. < 
rrralac conspiracy accl niunoiniir In i. 
ttrakat of trade, bat OTerruled concornlnn 
rvaiMnallona In rotralBt of trade, to which 
rt>at\- i not miFlty 

lefrocf- 
- ntcred Pleaa of nn\/j ovn/cn.fccc, and 
•e U Vina- proareulad ngalc.i tba 
Mm. 

rmite* Mat" r. 7,ue>r>cr Crrr/lnrf/j' 
Barest of f«/u- I al. Indictment 

Htaraed Jane 2X 1011. In the Northern 
Dlatrlrt of llllno^p. chnnrl >•• t»c- 

r« n«- 

•Mlatloaa, coverlag twuty-tlirce States 



rrom ivnti»yl«»iil» to th* radoc cooat. 

hi a conspiracy by means of a ecntial 

• lllui bureau lo control tbo tu. 

iitac of lumber bj forcing the pro 

through the retailer lo (be consumer, oud 

real ruining tbe trade of the inauufuctnrcr, 

ilcr, and consumer, and ellmluutliiK 

for lb* trade of lbs eonau r 

Ucmurrer Blvd. Nolle proar-jul entered 
June 6. 1918. 

28 (o SO. Paltrd Motet v. PhlUp I • 
Smith rf at, Indlctaii tied at N'i« 

York City. June 39, 1911, agalnal varlons 
Indltlduula i-barglng violations of Sections 
1 and '.' of the . ': tbc 

runduet and operation of the llnilergi.iiin.'. 
ile Aasoclatloo. Telephone Cable 
Aaaoclallon. flue Magni't Wire Aaa.iilath.il, 
Wire Hope Manufacturers, Ilorsenboe M D 
ufacturym' Aasoclatloo, Ua.l encnscl lint. 
i and tbc llubbor-cav. 
errd Wire Association. 

Defeinlutitn appemeil mil pleaded, and 
toe* aggregating ♦li.'B.'OO bnve been Itu- 
■ I I il- 

SI. f;n'fc<f Blafca p. Periodical JNloMsa 
tug Vamyanu ltlll I" MQlt) IM II 
York In June. 1011, inliprn 

of the 00 called Magnilne Trust. The trlnl 
retailed In an equally divided court, and 
t .f dismissal was entered May 29. 
1918. 

88. f.."n«cd Sliifra t'. Jay B. Pear. ■ 
ar Indictment relumed tgnln 
manufacturers aud jobbers nl i I 

July 10. 1011, for combination aud 

IS lb* uirinilfin-llir. Mill ..lie ...f 

wall paper. Deriiurn-r ov«rnil*d May IS. 
1012. V.nllet of not guilty Mny 21. 1011 
30. t'nlled F/fafaJ v. Lake Short at 
Wniyun Southern It. R , Ciirsapral"* if 
Ohio It It. ffooWao V.lh'rV R 
,f Ohio Ctntrol Itv . A'onaic/ia .1 XI. 
Rv„ Icrn It It. and 

nlhers. ltlll In equity filed »i 
Ohio, Ang 4. 1011, t" nr. In i.-otnbll 
and con«plrsey In restraint of trade. De 

eltlon "f lower '■""" In fnvoi ■< • n 

neDl lh-c. 28, 1012. I'rn|.ii«eil plan of 
.ii .iiitloa btlng considered b 

N r III. I'M .. n nupplemetl1.ll i! 

ng (ho relief to be granted was en- 

i ir I I, I'll I, n final decree 

waa entered, awarding In lb* Bavin tin- 

f..r by the government. 

10, - ,..i / fforf. 

I „i i',iiii..i, ni.-.i ,n Detroit Mleb. 

Aug. .11. 1011, alleging COB <l UD- 

lawfnl restrnlnt of trade on the part of 

ni. ml llelllll l.'imtiii 

l»en|em' Asaodatlon, The 8 i I'nlili.hlng 

... Lumbermen's Heci 
r.:m ..f Infirm itlon, la»u<« Joined aaV 
tliimny eompli 

41. mired itrulcs v. Standar* V. sod 
Cumpanu .( nl Petition Bled In toi 
cult Court at N»w York City In Meptcmber, 
r.n i ht m mi"! ■• of iho ao-i 

illai •'■' ! 'i n ■■ praj log f; i Injune- 

lion agnlriHl 'In- further ro ■ .-fTeci 

of trad* ni.Tc.in.nl- nnil bluatlon and 

eonsplrncy In monopolise ti.nl . 09 M 

of answer, decree was entered m 
deftndanla March 11. 1012. 

42. I'nfwd eiraf^e t'. Ilunlrr Ulllllno 
Ompnnu, BldetteeJI lflthnu un.l f'li 

..mt;. an.1 Prank Fattt Indletmenl <■■ 
r.,rn...l by grnnil Jury to DIM Met Court for 
the v,..i,.|ii I>l«trlit of Oklahoma. 
t'i 1011 on one com. charging vt" 
of'Becil.in l of the Bliennan Act. Demurrer 
overmle,l Pee. lfi. 1012. «ml vcr.ll. i *f 
rullty renderad. Fines aggregatlug $2,000 
were Imposed. 

4S. Vrtto* Mat* ■ - . p . ''' ihm.Io^. 
Onrfioar. E. P. Hove, F.* P. BUM, 



Anti-Trust 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Qee. W. Broicn. and Jan. J. Morrow. Two 
liiilii'tim-tit* returned by ili« grand lory »t 
Koeton. Maea., BmiI, 19. 1911. charging 
combination, conspiracy, and monopoly In 
trade Id oboe machinery. One imiii-tmont 
• tinilucd and one partially overruled Ap- 
peal biken hi government, 'I 
wh» dlnmltsed. 

44. I'nii. r. The r\itorndo and 

IVvniiitni/ Lumber Dealers' .tfiot-iuftan and 

the Lumt.' ilurrau of 

Inforui-iifit Bill M equlij Bled al Denver, 
Colo., Sept. 26. 1811. for Injunction nealiant 
defendant* for conspiracy in reniniln trade 
In lumbu arid Hn product*. Tcilltuony 
complete, further notion deferred awalt- 
lag decision of rcameru Slates Lumbar 
Den lent' case. 

I. | a<fad .•-'(of! v. Willard O. Ilolllt 
rl ol ivtltlon nied In October, mil, at 
St. rnul. Ulna., In ilu- 1'nlted States Or* 
cull Court, against Hi.- Lumbermen's sec- 
retaries' Bureau of Information, 
hermon Publishing ( ompony. and certain 
Individual*., slbtgtng .-.iniplrnc** and com- 

liliuilli.il In III" him: 

complete. Further action deferred await- 
ing dvrlalnn of i :.i i.m States Lumbar 
Heiili i no. The cam- win dually arcocd 
In Dec.. 1914. 

40. f.'nffr-.l «lofr» v I '.n ,i vfnfrj Sleet 
Co<i>oiutu,n and ether* Petition for 'In. 

{uiu'timi nml ill* <.ulm luii til. .1 .it Treuton, 
I. J.. Oct. IT 1911. ThJl .iir*., 

issue nd leatlmooy on behalf of 

urn in ha* been laki n. The eni i 

am i iiiirini.* Oci i .'i I mi Juno a, 

ii dad ilon ad i ■ lo i i>e ■ >> •■! m u <.» ■ i 

banded lown ind on Repl 10 I91JI a tie- 
• i • entered dim el Un m. 

An ap|n m| ban been taken tu tl 
.unii 

47. United Statet v. Jar Cotton tt al. 
Defendant Sot, 15, I01 1, 1ml 

■ ■ Routhcrn District ,,r Mi.-i- >lppi r..r 
irliu: in '.••train Inti rc late comi 
dnrlui ■ strike on the 1 1 II i ■ - *1 x 

ral Itnllrond. The •trlU<- hnvInK been 
i.iiuluiited, no furllier anion bun been 
token. 

48. United Statet v. Xatlonal Oadk 

Itrqtmrr Co. tt <il Petition tiled I m- 

\. mil. in Ctrcoll Court. Bontborn Dl 

or Ohlu. aliening ennnpltn. i .;„.,,• 

manufacture, sale, and ■btpment of 
cash register* nud other regteterlog devlei <. 
inue joined and taking of win 

shortly I mnienci d. i ■• prose- 

cution of rrlmliiol ense. The verdict 
again.' ii ilof.iiiliiiiti i 

aggregating *l :ir and lull ieni 

in- mi. inn 

Sent were Imi ii bs tin • oni I i in- lie- 
iiiIiuin appealed, and ibe appeal was ar» 
i'iiiiI l-'f. re Hi., circuit Con I lobc-r, 

ini i. Tin. civil case awaits the .H- iiii.u 

nf the nnr*rnl In the criminal caac In 

March, 101 ".. the court of nppenl i 

the judgment nf tin- lower court. 

ernment made application to thi 

r.uin fur, n wilt of certiorari, which worn 

ii. Bled 'in June 14. 1815. 

In the civil ense. n decree was entered 
on F»li. 1, rue, finding thnt I 
anti hnil violated the prcrltdnaa of the 
antrtruit net. The decree forbh 
of any i.f t ii.* mean* to that md wtilcJi it 
enumerate! — the defendant* consenting t .. 
the entry of the decree. The criminal it... 
..iillnf -n. 're driippeil, after a derl Ion 
unfavor.ible to the government 
handed down by the Court ■•( Appeals. 

49. Pnllrd .'•' If*. 

chincry Co. rf ol retlilnn ii nits Bled 

I 12. 1811. In Circuit Court, matricl of 

ii iniH.'ii., alleging iiMnntluriK and 

coDxiilriu'lei lu re»tralut of luterMatv aod 



foreign trrule In shoe macblnery. and prey- 
int.- fur perpetual redralnlng order, dluo- 
nf luiiinuny, and reetoratlon of nor- 
mal conilltionk. Ii-Jtlmony now being taken 
lu open court Tba trial tai mini 
ill Juue. 1811. on the retiill of which will 
depend tin- criminal actloo to be token. In 

1813, n decision adverse to 
government wan banded down, and an 
pml wa« taken in the Supremo Court. 

."* «i _ 

Two Indictment* returned Dec. 16, 1911 
in the Southern Dlatrlci .if icalaa. 

member* "I l.oni i Atwociaili.ui r-t 

••iiiiiiiinlng. con-ipltlug. and agreeing to In- 
terfere with lairratate opi I t r. -• 

i ng Company which had de- 

clined to recognlie one of the coosnlratora 
known n> the "walking delegate." See note 
lu fiillnrrlua; ennr. 

61. Untttd 8tat«l c .4. ttalne* tl ol 
Two Indictments returned I ul. In 

Hie Southern Dlatricl ■■( rrorlda for com- 
bining, cootplrlug. and agreeing upon rnhre. 

■*itb refer- 
ence i" the employment el irorkroen to load 
ecasela with lumber fur lut-r»tat. khlnment. 
Si rr. — Two above en*.:, 
for trill i ii-fendnnla entered pleat M 

Eiillty and were n-ntenced each to four 
oura' conflnemi 
BS I ii""' ••-"■■'I'- • c'ooal 

I'lumblna Supply Ataodatlon rl ni 
tlon Oled Dec. Ifl. 1911. Il 

Southern iiiMirii-t of Coifti rolo, alleging un- 
lawful reatralsl of trade and eomnien I n 
plumbing aupplle* on the IMelfle conat. De- 

: lolnlni fi ndnnlM rrom further com- 

milting the art* complolncd of wai entered 
Jan. OT 1912. 

63. United fifofci t». The Kefton* 

| Cmc COmjiu.i.i/ cf ei. I'elllli'li Oli-d 

20, 1911, In the Circuit I ourt. Ktutcrn 
inaylvanlo, alloglng unlawful 

In Blied watch coxa and 
id praying for a permanent de- 
urderlng the com- 

pany nml enjoining defendants rrom further 
unlawful acta complained 
of i i taking of t. itlmonj 

fund iti. ca ie u now ready for 
i in ca-.- waa argued lu Juno 
In Janu try, 191 •■ ra mnded 

doa ii. id parti; unfa- 

the - 'Vi rnmrnt, and u deci 

tin ■• I ntered lo 

pro 

the di'felidnnlH lied to tl" 
prune COOrt 

C*. I 'lifted fil'il' ■ Vurol 
Start al I'elltlon nirj Jan- 
8, 1812, hi in. s.iuihern 
rieoi llviflng unl . ■ ful com- 
bination and con .if In- 
i r-i.'it.. and foreign commei .- In i .M'"ntln* 

■ rruleil .1 , 
I '.it ::. I '.'fi'inliiul miHpi int. it I 

Miir.-ii. int.:. .m nil-Hint of liiiiin'lal dlf- 
Ocultlni, and alnco tlien no further action 
ini . been lakt n 

55. ' ni'-ii Rloti i 

lf.lilll/il. /(/. ,'lin I 

I I , 
trie! ul 

nud i irM'-'ti liidlvldu il il.-fi nil.i . 
Ing unlawful blnntlcoi and . "iiitdracy 

fur thi 

brake btlatoeM, nml fUliu; nml in int.ilnlng 

l«r hrnken. pica ., 
ni.'iit overruled aihii ■». l:n.- ii.i,, 
overrulod March 

iillty M'nl nolo 
.-regatiug *<*|^00 were Impoo 

i(r# f. T»r Vorfn t> 
inaj if Trading Cm. cf ul. JudlcUue 



Encyclopedic Index 



Anti-Trust 



mw*s Pen. 12. 1012. la tb* Firm DItI- 

■too. Dlatrlct of Alaaka. Ctiurr: 

inn wlili conaplncg to monopolise and 

■MDODOllXlBC lb* MSI i M»ug«.iy. 

••« ewe* r. Pact«o 4 Arctic 
»y 4 \«. in.Hi... 
r«tan>e«i !■ ■ 
*on. Dltirk't of Alaaka. cherglng de 
ion *llb engaging I" 

and naonopvlliing tbc irnu»por- 
bualneaa Wivmi the brad of Lynn 
M and 1b» b»ad«»t»r» of the T 
U*rr> Dewmrrer mummed no Mny 3, 

Wliarm 4 Trading Co r' uncut 

retnroed Pen. II. 1912. In tlir- 
alon. Dlatrlct of alaarg, i-Iutii'.ng defend- 
I 111 with I irncy 

eomblontloo la restraint of irndr and 
e by way of combining to* ft r 
al Kkazwny under od* manage- 
. and (2) with raonpollilng II 
bnalocaa at Sk.ir.wnr. Demurrer over- 
OB Miy 3. 1111V. Flmt dial r. 

itoent of Jory on Jan. 27. 1013. 
.-jry. 1014. tli< 

• .1 plea, r.f ,1 nn 

I 

■« to Indlilrt-jxl defend* > 
VniUd Stolei i /'m-lftc 4 ftreflfl 
■ 
rrtnr- ' .'. in the nr»t 

• of AlmkJ, rbarcloi 
with 'C'sBlnt In i lo 

J* aa4 saonnpcllxing tbc atttimtlilp 
atloa bet* 1 and 

Colombia pocla In (br south and 
ay Id tb* norili. Demurrer au»- 
pl at to corpora?... n defendant* 
;-»0 appvui to tbc Supreme 
•Irmcot waa rrTcravd and 
i—a n ii Tl 

la "V lie defendant corpotui 

ml.rrd p»e»» of galltr and p-ji,| Am 
frrcatlec as. -,im. |n.!l.-tineO| dfcmlwed ua 
to liullrld'ial drfeadnnta. 

00. failed ftfatea <• Jonn IT. Patterion 
fl al. lodh-tcrent returned Feb. 22, 
In tbe. Hontbcrn Dlalrtci of Ohio, a: 
J»bn H- Pntierx*. prcldi-at. and twenty- 
"lclal* and employee* of lb.- S'o- 
" fax* IS- r. alleging 

_ Iraey In retrain! of im-rilate trado 
coeimercc In cnab regl»t«r», rrtnltlu* 
as ■Blawful moa.,p.,l> f lb. 
Drnmrrer . M2. Trial 

rtaultfd In a tcr.Hct of guilty aa to twenty- 
aloe af tbc thirty ."■ and Bnee 
aggregating |1.1.%.tXMi acnienrea 
raaclag from nine n>-.ntt« to "lie year were 
>l "'t Tbe d. IPDMM, and t •>«■ 
Oaaift O* Appeal* annulling f 
tare* eoaat* of : 
ta*T tb* U>lra »cry narrowly, tbc pro>«cu- 

lmerfCYIB-.4Waffe 

Meaauftto Co»i- ii in 

racUy fll#i* 

il.inta 
•Ub comMnlnc and ••"u-'pHlun rnr,.t!;, 

iirfol con 
*•«!• and alliiwtnic rclintn, for Etaa pin- 
Jaw of apcwrlnr a tnminr-.ly of « I . .- I . ■ 
il Imiinoa porta 
te tbc Atlntitic 

lalaada. .1 

TiklBi- 'i»lf of Oi 

■twt Dcarlnc completion. 

• axtitM) oafarcraK'c In Ibe 

• uded down, and an appeal waa Uk.'n 

H !t» Sr.:ir.MIIV C -Jtt. 

«3 i.'fat r Vttlrr, 

Irtrtitrv. Vcu' Tor* Cft.ir«*l Comnnav 

ladlctavtit rctor&«l April 2 1912. 

la Uc Eaatcra Dlatrlct of Sew York charg- 



ing defendanta wltb rratrmlnlnK Intarauto 

|rodt> and ...nun. in la -li.ir. .i:il. I i.-i-inrmr 

auotalncd Oct. 17, 1813. 

113. UnlttJ fitulci 0. InKfnuHcin.il llar- 

vettrr t.oinnunv 'I at Iviltlou Bled April 
'12. Id i lie 

Uluncaoia, allcglnir the acouliltlon and 
.. monopoly In harvvatlDK 

and aerk'nllurnl ma. bluer? nnd liupli n 

and in In.- Tratltuony tnkrn. expcdltlnjc 

.■ ill.'. I. mi. I raw argued 

• Ir. nh Judft I al luring No 

una mi AtiguHi ii'. lot i iii.. 
led in fnviir ..f t iir- governmeni 
nnd i i-.n wna ordered. Tbi 

ilia |,|„ii,ii to il.. Bupremo i 
Tin- appeal mi. argued In April, 1915. and 
on .lime 2. IVM, III" Supreme Cou. 
■ I. red Hi.' ■ 'I I- Ibe doi !■• t r..i 

rcargument at Ibe inn brrro, IV10, wbra 
a deeUion favorable to i wo> 

.1 down 'in appeal wn» taken to 
the - irt 

ill. r -j i F. dlumtniiin Com 

fanu of MmrWca. I'lllllnn fl|.-d May IS. 
B13, In tbe Ulatrlit Court. Weatcrn l>ln 
til.-i of lVnnayl. nt " furl her 

Of and reatr.ilnt qpon ').. lot»r- 
atatc nnd foreign ti 
alurnlnam and aluminum ware* • 
decree granting relief aubatantlally o» 

Srnycd fir waa nnter.-d at rittilmrgh on 
one 7. 1012. 
«S. fnlled St.i'e. r. fiemian RUh k'n 
et al. Fetlilon filed May 18. 1912, In the 
IiUtrhi Court, Boutbarn Dlatrlct ot .New 
v. .il:. ii" pro 

clucilon of conV*. capeclnlly In tb* Srnte of 
Mo Paulo. Braxll. and to withdraw a birga 
i. market by pur 
chaae. Motion for preliminary Injn. 

I. (Jpfifl the Bdilce of tbc Stnt- D« 
partinent that i 

made by tbe Brnxlllnn OoTCTDinenl that 
the entire iinuiiiliy of coffee whli-b wax 
being withheld from marki I had b**0 aold 
to a large number of deaiera tbroi 
ih.. fnli.it Stiitm. on order of dlauiliaal 
wan entered May 20. 1013. 

... Inilrd suit', v. Ctlncc Mac 

. I ..I v. i it, ..ii filed June S. 

1012. in rbo Dlatrlct Court. Southern Dla 

Irl, i of N'.tt York, charging defendnnla. aa 

romtnoa .nrrlcra of freight nnd pnwnger* 

between porta of the I'nltcd Statea and 

porta In the R..|,,,l,lli- of nrnxll. with nc 

,|,,'.ring and mnlntnlnlng a ►nhnianllnl mo. 

■ by menni of contract*, rebate*, nnd 

unlawful ii'-n. nnd praying for nn 

annulment of wild rnntracit ngrcernenta. 

etc. I««nc joined nnd tcallmony In chief 

on behalf of CloTemnient ha* been Intro- 

ItH 5, ., di ■ I. Ion unfaror- 

ni.h- t.-. the government wan banded down 

ami an appeal >m taken to the Supreme 

l-onrt 

87. Pnifrvl Stair* e, Ccafinl-XTe«» Puh- 
r.illlnn (ll.-d Augt|*r », 

1912. in the nwtriet Court. Nortntrn Dla. 

trl t ,.f llllnola, charging defendant* with 

envnging in unfair oompelttlon agalnai i-aeb 
other nnd ngnlnKl other* engnged la com- 
pvtlng Induatrlea, with the Intent to r,- 
«ir,in and nionnpollxe Intel i i,- ir.,.1.- and 
id : ndi pi nn ,i 
' crinllng relief a* prayed 

for entered nl Plili go nn Aug. 3. 1P12 

08. t""«fe.f Sfofc* v. AHOPtofgd fl<IJ- 

poiferi and /i(»frir.ut'<r» of f«e Vnilft 

ami Cunu.fu ■ lltlon filed 

Aug. :i IMS, in ih.. Dlatrlct Court, North 

' datrlct of llllnola. charging defend. 
nut-, with eng:>clng In a combination and 
In plane unlawful re»irnlui« upon 
lnic-r«fnte nnd fnrelen trade nnd eomtn.-r. . 
lo iioattn. Hearing on demurrer anl tot 
Jan. "JO. 1911. The demurrer nu oitrt- 



Anti-Trust 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



I the cose tried. ■ decision f n • 
to tho government handed Sown In March. 
1018, anil a decree graining |bc 
prayed for entered In July. 1010. 

CO. r.'iHf«il Mil. . i «»!»» 
/■olcnl* L'ompony el at I'ctlilai: 
Au». 15. 101.. In the District loiin, 
*rn District i.f Pennsylvania, to remove 
the re»tralut* which defendants hare In- 
po»cd upon Interstate and foreign trade 
and commerce In machines, appliance*, and 
apparatus, r latlni la toe motlou-plcturo 
art. ami upon person* engaged I 

trade and coma* Phi taking of lee> 

i .n , in. r mi iich iir nf i,..-.. mm. in 
bus beeu eotnpli i i ' > ] . . - irgucd 

In Nov.. 1!>I I. iin.l ii iTOrabh) CO 

the lOTernuicnl wan handed doarn on 

■H.V A decr-cu grunting tin- relief 
prayed for wna entered in January, in HI, 

■ 
tn the Bapn ii" I ■ ii rt. 

70. trailed matte c. Colrin .V. Paifne 
ri a I. imi.i'iiiii ni i. ini'iH'ii Auguat SO, 

in District of Tenia, 
charging defendants with eognglug In n 
piracy lu restraint of Interstate and 
foreign trade mid Commerce In til* and 
oil products. Nolle prosequi eni ed I 
26, [013. 

(IB, 10, and 17 A.) Fnl'fl Kfnlej r. 

' ..n.i.nil.il..' 1V1 ; llldli'lnn 

i t. 31. I'.n-'. In tli- li • of 

Massachusetts, charging monopoly of Inter- 
state im.de aud commerce In render!, . 

Icrlllls. Hit 1 I !• I II. pleil 'it nolo enu- 
re by defemliini and fine of $0,000 
IBM • I. 

ti Statu i CenmoUdattd Rendering 

Company ■! «i Indictment relumed Octo- 
ber 31, 1012, m iba District ol 
•.eft*. charging monopolj "f Intel la • trad 
and rniniini . in rendering mol rlali D« 
I. 1018, plea nf i. uderi' by corpora- 

tion aud fine of xm.oimi Imposed. Indict- 
ment imlle prussod aa to Inillvlduiil il-- 
f. adapts, 

KoTaV -Theae actions' wen- Instituted 
■a a reault of dcuinrr. r* bavins been sus- 
lulneil In outf "..'., 111. uinl Ii. and are 
therefore not counted n* nddltlnnnl ca»«-*. 

71. united statu r. Tht Warier Hot**- 

ehorrtf .Vufinmil iMOOfoflOfl of 

ImrrleU and Older/ Petition tiled 

12. 1012. In tho Eastern Dlatrld ,,f Ml.l.l- 

f:nn. charging defendant* with enr 
n I I -iiiuliluatlnn and conspiracy In restraint 
nf trade and commerce In drilled horse- 
Hioea, adjuatabla calk*, and rubber hoof 
pads, some of the, defendant* did not eon- 
i t, and ascrcen were entered asalnut 
Hi. ni. rteinurrerx of Hie 01 
ruled, whereuiion (I itcd to the 

entry of a decree against tln-m. wlileh was 

ni.-d in Ian., 1016, ordering 

nnllon. and granting the relief 
sought by the gorcrnment n« to the aaeeral 
defendant! 

72. tnlted State! v. r/i/Iii.MjiMn Jon- 
H»5 Con ''■ Hon« "' I • • nrlatmn i I nl Pi ll 

linn fled I i:i. 1012. In the Ensii-m 

Dlatrlet of Peaaarrranla, rhnrulug defend- 
■ mi wllh unlawfully Interfering with Itl- 
teratate commerce In candles and ennfee. 
Ilona. Couaem decroo entered Feb. 17, 
161S. 

73. fatfrd Btatri v. Kl"in Board of 
T'lhV tt at. Petlilnn filed December 14, 1012. 

In i ii- Korlhern ituiriet of lllloola, charg- 
ing defendnnfa with comhltilntr anil ci 'ti 

apltllll.- III til- Intere-l nf 1 iillnili, r "f lirrr 

.ilxlng eonrerna to rv»tr'i!n iDleritnte 
commerce In butter and butter fat, and 
arbitrarily flxlnc the price thereof to obtain 

throughout the Pulled Ktntc*. l««ne joined 
and taking of testimony In open courta will 
be commenced on Jan. 8, 1014. On April 



IT, 1014, a decree waa entered enjoining 
the defcndnuti from continuing certain prnc- 
tl»ea by which price* of Imll-r >.yer a 
were arbitrarily fixed. 
74 Cnttcd Utotee v. CAarlea «, Mt'lrn. 
J fhambrrlin. vwi Altred IV. bmilfi- 
Imlieiiiii ni rcttirncd lh-cemb. I 
101 m the Southern I>l*trlct of Nei. 

i i i ibluntl ntplracy to 

reaiiain mtei Inle commcro* by prertot- 
Ing I In ;lon of auli 

tbc Central Vt ml Hallway Company (It- 

nlf a kul»ldl:iry of the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way Companrj from Palmer, Ma**., to 
I'rorldeuci-, It. I. j from \s bite litTer Jonc. 
Ilea, Vi., to I'.o.ic.ti ; ii ml from Boston to 
Black(toae> connecting there with the Tal- 
lin r rrovldcnco line. Cuae at l»«u» await- 
lug trial. 

76. railed Sfafei v. Kcllouo Tno>tr.t 
Corn Flate Coiapuay «l ol Petition tiled 
Dee. 20, 1012, in the eastern PUttb 
Mu-hiKun, alleging that tbc bastnaaa pulley 
of the defendant company in fixing and 

ring resale price* on Kellogg'* Toast- 
rtakea I* unlawful and tend* te 

'in and monopolize Internists com- 
, induct. A motion to dl>- 
mlwi the petition on grouii' 

■ of the case wan argued In 
ion. lu a decision imniled down on April 
ii 1010. the contention of tin- gortrn 
wn* maintained and on H- \ 
decree waa entered In accordance with the 

70. United State v. Page tt al. in- 
-turned Feb. 6, 1013. al Port- 
l.iml, [)l*lrlcl nf Oregon, charging fifteen 
Individuals, through the medium of (be 
Produce Merchants" Exchange, of Portland, 
with unlawfully controlling the purchase, 
distribution, and sale of approximately DO 

pet cent, el in* prodaee. fruit, and vege- 
sblpped Into the Btate nf uregon 
The defendants entered pleas of guilty on 
Peb. 21. 101S, stnl lines nk-.-tegatlug IK.4&0 
were InpoKi 'I and eollei : 

77. tfnlted Statu r. At.Htlcr-4ri.»M 
/.«»( Company el ul I'-iltlna filed 

I '-.'i. 7 lOl*. In Ibe District Court. Batters, 
District Of Mlehlgnn, aliening the unlawful 
conirol by defendant of the Inlrrslnte tr*d» 
and commerce In shoe and boot last*, both 
patented nnd unpatented. Con-" 
w*»eniered at Detroit. Midi. onFfO 7. lpiri. 

78. United Ktatrt e. failed fiaoe *fa- 
e/i/mrv f'niripr/ny of Veir Jrrtey el al 
Petition filed Feb. 8, 1013. In the District 
Ceufl nt rrenton, N. J., seeking to bar* 

annulled an alleged unlawful ,. 

rolvlnc -Inseam trimming machines." The 
disposition of the cane Is awaiting the d)e- 
.f the eivli case In 40 lij. r.). 
TO. See No. 

80. rnit-,i Bt0t44 i>, Board of Trade at 
the City of rin.-iiijo rf nf Petition Hied 
Feb. If. 1013, In the District Court «t 
Chicago. III., attacking nil- 33 -.f the r bl 
cago Bi rd of Trade, by virtue of which It 

i- alleged the price of nil corn. out*, wheat. 

uinl rye arrlrlnc In Chicago at times -hen 
tin- hoard or trade is not in se.slon is arbl- 
trnrlly determined. Motion to a'rlke oul 
Certain portion* of defendant*' answer ha* 
been nrgned, nnd the roHng of the court 
I* awaited. The ruling of the court wn* 
rarorable. and a decision faTorai.i" la th* 
goyerninent was handed down on '■ pi B, 
An approprlnte decree wni rnlered in 
December of th* name year. An appen: 
been taken to the Supreme I'mut 

81. ITalfed »fofe* ■ Thi Clerelan4 
Pfoiie Couipimy rt ni. Petition tiled l>ii. 

1013, In the District Court at C 
hint. Northern District of Ohio, charging 
defendnnt't with establishing and maintain- 
ing a practical monopoly of the (ton* bual- 






•:-ot contest the catc wna <IU- 
tu* entry of • draw oc. 
i»K the nrllof prayed for liy 
l-« I'lvirumrGL 
83. t «ir«.J Sfofre r. TA* DehJicare, 
.1 irn rVnil/ouif Compimy 
7»» Ptdanarr, Lo»-i«iira«»a 4 Wttl- 



i ibw Ui 









r.iin.io Bled February 
i n Court 01 Trcnion, 
•.. J. .i.-rtfoa- d>fea*laaia win 

.1 la which If bad in ii vk>. 

iatiua uf lb* eoanaaodlllra clauae of 1b* 
hfamtale-. ■■• i(, and mil) enler- 

aa* lata an nulawful contract abcrrt.y iiio 
r.tl a nioaniml.} of ilia 
•• -.il product.! alone tlia 
I lu* It nil road Company, n 
•f II. taking of trail- 

ttouy baa I aD<T 01 

uinx pre.iarrd, F.«i-«iltlnr certificate filed 
..- .rt for beorlnc on Juo. ft, 1314. 
PH. a drd-aon advet 
II w»» handed down nnd an 
appeal «a* tai.'n to 111' !*i|ii 

The - iiaoexly r- ■> 

the rtVvl.inn of tb« lower court: nnd in 

purv-. mlutr 

:'.. f'.rlWdlnx tbr Mlln.nd fr- , 
ia«r tnuwporUnc Id internal- 

i i and pur- 

ported to bate Urn nolil i 
pany and and furliliMliiii '"Hi 

the rallruad aad ibe cx»i 

r earn In; out or enforcing the con- 
■ i*» Ihem. 

Tie IdXMalrv 
Ktyidlrr (v.»|<uki> rf «r I'-illlun Bird 

;n the District Court at 

of Ohio, 
la( defendant* wliii fmapirliiK 
i nnd iiiooupollc- it--- ii nnd 

i 
Tba c 'i led f-»t I'" 

avt well focedral an.i 
■laird without prejudice on January 7. 

• v. Inttrnol 
SrnfArrfio*. of 

trlrl l-ourt 

•rrwll 

law with ili« i iioatneaa of iii» 

inpanr. A lem 
rtnrary liilnni-llc-a vu granted nnd wiib 
a»a." ' I 

II Ke- 

e. f-4a.r1.1ay «i nl Petition ftl.il 

' I HI In rh- Platrlrt Court HI 
-binriax di ■ - lit. 

anenttpottxlog Inii trad* and 

nairca la corn peodorta. and praying for 
Ike dlaaC" ■-•■mMnallon. A 

oWtaVaa favorable lo tbr ut m • 

l«aa]rd aU a n on June id. 191H. and a tlu.il 
•Vffwe r" Car, 13. Iflfl. 

an Called /Jr.it.-. i ... ln.rric.ia 

• llllon ftl.il v 

iniA la the IKairtrt Coon ni T mi ton, 
J charging defendant* with mou 

•ir»«d Industry. Ana-n.i- of di- 
31. I 

a n W ree «-■■ entered dlaaolvlng the 

irvid 
ao.1 J. nail I". Our., l.iiu.. ami 

arporaUoo*. and ra- 
ng la certain unfair 
• araloat Independent taanoferturer* of 

<• The /lurrounna 

tdraaa VarAinr r'..~<t>gay rf «' P. - 

"arrtl .1, 101 
Drtralt. Mlrh.. al|r E lnir llial • 
■ rrr -nnr.-J In a i-on«|drMey to DiooopnllK 
lararatata imlr and rommrrcr In a.ldlnr 
naacblaaa. A < r*r wi> eiitrml 

al Drtroll on Mnrcli 3. l > 



I PTorarrr, 

.i ui r 





Anti-Tnist 

■ i.jfra a. dmcrinan > 
Praotaoti fvmpaa* ti ml. lvtitlun flli-d 
Ma rili in the Dlatrlci COBR at 

chnrxluK ' Willi 

.I tor nnd 
nlbg tl.o trade of cuoipriliut* |j 
■ coal i.ir and i" tfcv nam] 
lure . . oonl- 

tar pitch, and nlbcr 

. .ii.~ i.i .1. rr.- ...i- ■ in. n .1 ..i. Mm. . h i, 

i.'ii 
8ii. i ..ii- i siafaa r. /. .-■.".' 

../• f-'f /...Ul'< I I ..I I Villi. .11 

ii i lir m-iri.-i rouri 

allrKlUR ii •! Hi.- 

I Mn 

rrnu to aupprmt and elliulniile cotnprllili-n 

In Tarluua rai.-» fur tin nai.«i aid 

h..fr .-...l fr. .in the Sinn ..t llli Ii ".- 

cll.r of 8t I<oula. Mn. 

Ktcd by the earrtvra Wor» ..i.i.. I.I i.j thr 
i Jan. 

:.".'. 191 .. ami ■» dl 

i si iii io. nun, 

r qui atlon Of tin- Ht- 
lalrncr of a romlilnnti'.ii. 
00 i -ui- .1 aial< . ii. alien !'•■ ' 

iv i-i .1/ I'.lltlon ni. .1 A pi li n'. 
1009, In (he I'lrrull < 
trlct of .Vi-w York, 

ifnrtiin-ra t..r i-nt.-rlnn Inlo a 
:il .-! r i ii l 

til Hi r«-tip««:t to the maniif:u'tiir.-, 
•■ni*. -iiipnn ni and dUtrlhotlon •>( 

mnnlla and oil r 

Ion ..r in. ii ni 

. tliir.-lu. win ent.-i .-.I ■>. 

PMCNIIiGN'T Wll-X'lN'.S AtlUIMKTIUTIilN 

( .ini.i - .• IfcBd rnoldi M **fV, 

Mareli I, 1BI3 Aon, I 

i| v. Ant. 10, 10] | ,| 

1. VMU I ■ lirparlurr 

VuHHf nip tt of. Pi 

May 27. lOlil. lu Ibi- tUatrloi 
at Rorhratrr. Wrati.rn IHmrlrl of Near 
i- 1- entrrr-d Into 
n ii idracy and combination nnd davlaml 

■ lid M-- IKI Ill I 

• iruliilui; ninl iii.ni..|i"ll7lni Ihr niniiiifncturc 

ami aal* of blc/cta and motorcyelo pnrta 

and] eimatrr brakea. An aarei'd . I. -. ■ ■-.- .■ wn« 

rati ni Rorhraler on May 'J7. 1W13. 

•i fntinl xiofri r. n'Affn el al. In- 

di.-tniiiit raturnod -i. v. 1018, [n ih< 

r... tin Southern Dlatrlel ..r 

Vlrclnln, osnlnat nln .-. n m 

of Ihe mil.-.l Mill.- Work.-rn ..f .V11..1I111, 

ail.-ilui; a eonaplrary in Interfere with in- 

trralni. to TCe In conl mined In Waal 

Vlrrlnln. Th» mar art '/■ 

01 I, 11 li.ivlui: bern 
tiy a dl-trkt nttorney ailtliout nutl 
anil bi-lnc Willi, ml f mi mint Inn. 

,t. r nir<.i Matt* v Battman Kodak 
Oompanp .r ui Petition ni.-d June 0. 
1018, In the Dlatrlrt Conn nl Rurfalo. 
in Platrtci ..f N.-.v York, allrirtnit 
tin. I .: in...- ncqntml n mononnly 

nf tan i.n-lnea« of manufacturing, ni-lllnc. 
ninl (ll>iiltiii!lns photographic lappllM. 

, i|i to the lorernmenl »«> 

handed dotro on Aug. 24, IB1B, and ■ .1. 
.■ranting tl.. «-.- 1 i . r ~..ic-lii ad ail 

.n .inn.. 1014. An tppMl "•"» taken 

to the Kupn , me Court. 

4. Cnllrif Klattt v. The Quaker O.ifi 

. .- nl I'.i Ii l,in til. il .Inn.- 1 1, 

1913. In the DUtrlet Court III. 

lAtlon to re*traln and roo- 

;..• Inii-rxii.i.- im. I.- i.n.l i-iiinmerce In 

oatmeal produrta and tijr-prodnen. llr a 

two t.. MM v..!.- of in.- I'irre elreult Judgra 

alttlng for the ca»e under the expediting. 



Anti-Trust 




Messages and Papers of the i' residents 



act ■ decision ui i to the govern- 

ment was rendered, and no appeal baa bsvu 
g to the Supreme Court. 
6. United m»m i. law" '* ol. In- 
dictment returned June .'.'», 1013, In the 
liUirlct Court for tl " District 

of Oklahoma against The Oklahoma 
ernge Company mid two other corporations 

>u<> the officers thereof, alleging a cod. 
•piracy l" reatrnln and monop • ■ Intor- 
•laic trade mm 
vegetables. Demurrer mini aliu-d Oct. 1. 10 13. 

6. at** m. Thompion <l ol [a 
dlcttmni returned Jul) I, una. In t)i 

trict Conn for tin- Southern nlMtrlci of 
New York alleging inai the defendant 
spired to run a corset m OOttQIl Ml the 
New York Cotton Eicbnnge. Latfttadaata 
entered |ilra» of nolo contendere In I' 
her. aggregating 11S.UO0 

WITV aMPMKd. 

7. I nihil CJIofta r ImrnViin Telephone 
d Telegraph Company el ml. IVllth.n filed 
July St, 1013. In the District Court at 
Portlnml. ■'!.., aceklug 10 destroy a mo- 
nopoly of the telephone bi Ineaa on the I'a- 
cine Conn. I Joined and taking of 
testimony cm i..imir ol Government i« 
ncarlng completion. The defendants agreed 
t.. meal the detnanda ol the government ana 

• ■ - 1 . ■ 1 1 . 1 1 . -- ■ Ion wiih en- 
tered "ii Mil ii to, lt»H. 
liy iiw tarnu of Uii 

■ 'in •: m nf It- holdings Hi the Western 

to n> to maiku 
tna control or the lattei ■ tu 1 1- lad 

■ lit Tlie dVfen.. • ii"t to inaki' 
any further direct or Indirect ai.in|..ltlon of 

none companies. And the 

defendant agrees t nn. > i II 

nil.', wllh tli.' 'f in 

• i - - 1 ■ ■ uMeut comniinlce. 

8. I uii', I Stole* r. /.'(iK/int; Company 
<t n!. < .\ni bracltc coal comblnntlon.l I'c- 
i u i. .11 in eqult) in. .1 s. ;.i -■ I01S. I" Hi" 

i rt nt Philadelphia, l*« . against 
u • • .uihliintlon consisting of Hemline Com- 
pany and arnlini.ii corporations, -hart- lug 
It with restraining and ■sODOpollalaj tr.-iil» 
In anthracite roal. The ea»e wa» argued 
In .Inn ... it'll '.ii -1 rr.1-. :; : 
il-l.'ii pnrtli fa psrtlj unfavor- 

able to the government win hnnded down, 
nod an appeal to the Supreme Court wan 

taken. 

0. J/aMed Stale, v. Tlir lYoffOROl IVaoIe- 
•ate ,/• ii >■/<■•.• ti.o. laffon ef at IVtltlon 
Bled Not. 18, 1013. In Hi" Dlatl mrt at 

New York City charging drfendanla with 
ronaplrluir to • llintnaio all competition— ox- 
cept as between wholesale™ or jobbers — for 
tli" tiade of all classes of retail i),. alert Is 
lewelrv and lewelrr products, A ill 
favorable to the government wan granted 
Jan. SO. 1914. 

10, Vnitei Stale' r. American Can 
Company ef ol. ivtltloti 0b<l Nut. SO, 
1013, In the Dlatrlei Coorl 11 Baltl 
Md.. allegtnc monopodia tlon of the bull- 
neaa of making Hi 1916, 

III." .11 .trl- i 

ii Ho. Am Company wna a 

combination In restraint nf trade, but since 

ti ii- relief granted i.» the coaH 

the retention of the bill il .' , k '.-ping «)■.■ 
ilnatlofl un.ler the supervision < f tN» 
I sin taken !•■ till supreme 
Court. 

11. fn«erf Afofev r. John P. White 
el nt Indictment returned Dee. 1, 1913, 
In the DUtrlct Curt. PnablOi Colo., rharir- 
Ing officials ami members of the I'nlled 
Mine Workers of America with mononolli- 
Ing all illBgera of roal and mine laborer* 
and with rritralnlnit Interstate commerce 
tn coal. The rase »n» nolle promed on 
J ma. S. 1910. 



12. UMted Btatet v. riant J. Baytt 
indb-tm. in returned Utt '. 
In Mo- luirlct Court. 1'ueblo. Culo , cbirg- 
lua a combination uud cou>plt.ic/ by mine 
workers to Interfere with Ihc uiiuiua of coal 
in i "lorado aud in truiiiportadun to aud 
sale In otber Mate*. Tbv ca*e wa» ruWIr 
yi:r%t4 on Jan. s. 101*1, 

IS. I 'mil a .stoic, c. /jioulikwit PaeiAe 
Company, Venhul I'ac/lc Uull**y Com- 

{any el ol. lvtltlou lu equity Oit-d 
1, LB14, In the Dlatrlct Court nt Suit Lake 
in-. I lah, i" com : n I'eclflc lo 

julsh lla conttol ot Iho > • ■ ti 1 1 n I 1-aclOc 
Tli" cam v. .i In Die,. I 

11 lnlt«l blatf i. Lehiak Valley 
ny et ul Ivtltlon flir4 
March 1H. l •],, lo toe Ulatrlct Court at 
New York City, N. Y.. charalne the de- 
findanta with hailua inoiiopoilted the pro- 
ductlou. trail of anlnra- 

1 from trlbutury to Lehigh 

Vail.... i,..i.i..ii compauj in rlolatloa a| 

the Ami I'rual Act, and charging the eald 
ll, Hi... ol Compauy with truuipurilng In In- 

,ii::o"i".. eoul in which Ii bus an 

I in ,-r. - 1 , in i oiljtlon of oodlty 

Clauive ..f tbo Ai-i i , Uegulutf t'oiumarea. 
A decision adrer«c to t" government wee 
handed down In Dee.. 1914, mid an appeal 
to tin- su'i.ni" Court wai takes. 

IS. I .H ■ , .• ul. In- 

dl. t iii.-ii t returned Jim.. *. 1014, at Den 
mtbern District ot Iowa, charg- 
ing defendants with hailug entered 
a combination In re.'.ralut of trade Is 
pliimiiiiig suppllea. 

In PaV, 1918. a Tcrdlct of guilty was 
n mdod don a. TI ■■ ill feuilnnl made ■ I BO- 
i l'n for a new trial Tha lii'lgc Imposed 
fines nggregntlng *4.immi ag.sin«t * •■! the 

<s. ■ .ii.i. i, t - i ml granted .-i a>rii ..f arroT o* 

to them: and pending a decision l>, 

ordered tin can to ttand 
In the motion for a new trial an i 
remaining :i ilofendanta. In an opinion 

;!i,. Circuit Court "f 

Aim.. iu for the Eighth District euatalned 
the conviction. 

16 Called Statei v. The American 
Wringer Coin nun o <l ill. Indictment !*• 
turned May •.".'. 1HH. In the HI 
for the Western District of lVnuiylvanla, 
charging defendants wllh unlawfully engag- 
nation In restralnl >.f Inler- 
atnlc trade and commerce In ci.iihes wring- 
ers, im S".,. i:: 1914. fbe •Vfendanu an, 
nleaa ol aolo coai/-ivlrre and wrr* 

17. tailed Sfofee c. Booth Pltheriet 
Company et al. Indictment returned July 

" 1014, In in" DUtrlct Court at Seattle. 

, chnrrlng defendanta with entering 

Into a combination and conspiracy la re- 

of ini.r.iatu trade and commerce 

in fresh II sh, 

18. rnlt'.f .-t".'. i V. The tttui Tor*. .Ve* 

ill / r.'Anipanpi ef ol 

Petition tiled July 25. 1014 In the DUtrlct 
I for the Bonthern IMatrlrt "f New 
York, allerlng monnpollzatlon of ir-.in»por- 
foiini" in New L'nglaad and pray- 
ing for a involution thereof. Reenu t 

the ahaky tlnan.-lal rollilltlon of the rail- 
mad ii.l of tic i 

lh" Invcitment markets ami i 
i« conditions of New England. Hit- 
ration wna avoided and the folb-wlnr plan 
nf voluntary dissolution wna Incorporated 
In a inal deeri 17. 1014. 

1 — 'i ■ a tin. New na- 

ironani ami t'.e \"«- York t%niral 
,,i fo r t'.e lolol ooerntlon of the Boa- 
ton and AIMny Rail road was canceled. 2— 
The New Haven Company gave up control 
Boston «nd Maine Uallrnad. »— - 
New lloven Company dUpoced of Its 
Interests In trolley lines of New England. 











-Tbe New Bav*o Coaapany dtap m d of it» 

•t» la •teamahip lines between New 
a«l POStf. ami >•■ Vork. l-htln.lelpl la, 
and otuer Atlantic >cx-porta. S— 
. jeratioa of the reUatlon of control 

R. Haven Coapaaj over il 
hum oo U.*k Island Sound w«» tab- 
Bktr.'. nalnatluo to tbe Interstate 

iv.mtr niU»lou according to tlic 

acorlsloa* of tbe I'aaama i>cal A. i 

The criminal aapecta of tbe case Brora 
Dei! ucclcetei] «i-3 
turned ajcalBsl 21 oUcer* and • 
i .vi-u rotnpany. >Se. 
IV L'nttttl niiiut r. Wcrtcm t'ontd 

•Mae Vrtkamtj, el el. lllltlcUD*Ol I. nine it 

Aug. 7, i:«li in '<irt ul 

Chicago. Northern lilairtcl of I I 
durum defeudaata with having • 
lato a cooibln.. mu- 

aafaillli Interstate trade la cantaloupe*. 
20. A ti 

Bent wn- 

uaabla on 

i. again*! 31 comatlMloo lucre; 

»» tr . ngaginf In 

fix arliltrarl'.v unit wttln-jt 
ta^Bha tbe price* at wh'.-'i 
**<•» U saMttbt a;..l mid In th.. 
fadombla. A di-murn-r win overruled oo 
Mai I, : ■• crmt.T ••[ tl.. ■!". 

.tie defen.' • nolo 

irrt. a-ij 
roan. 

Aa tadtctm-tit w»< returned Oet ... 101*. 
la the din for the wentrru 'th 

ttiet «f {Vaosylvaala. elm 
vMual*. each a irabi-r and 

tall dialler to plumbing autuillr-. aitii 

■ n o e iaaly of the tajsines* of sclllr.. 

vbit tl «1. An 
■^Hbeot wo* rrturaed no net. 31. 101 4. 

Slot tbr dlitrl. 
tall. I Individual*, each a mn»- 

r ptnaher and a retail dealer hi plumb- 
- with entering Into a coml.ln* 
■o reetrala trade In plutahl- . 
narrrr and motion *rr* 

Aral** In Janu*rv. 101 5. In 

iry returned a rerdlct of nilttT 
aa-ataat 13 af th.- defendant*, who paid toe 
one. aggregating ST. i were lui- 

D04*v! MITt. 

23 r. Roetrfeflre rl of. 

• B*» 'lit >»• ftrn-nM no 

tbe dtitrtrt ennrt fur 
• w Vork • 
lac 21 rVf»nrl»nt», each at acme time a 
director or as oaVer of the Ww Tork. New 
Hirrn and Hartford Railroad, with .nnaplr 
tar to maawpotlae tin- transportation fnriit- 
ttar of New England After nomerou 
I I !i la abatement tm-i 

ease went to a trial, and 
oo Jia P. 1916. tbe lory retort 
4trt a< not guilty •«• 
ut< tad it • la| the -*■ 01 

f'l.lni.iln 
toast fnit waa retained on .Inn. 
■rt for tbe sooth- 
era alatrict of Htm York, rfcaraln* tlf 
aVfradaata with rojalilalng and concplrlnc 
ajopoHxe tnteratal« trade and com- 
_ la the derrtrt. llaMrrace and wrcrk- 
lac baalaim In New Tork aartor and It* 
rtrnaw aed ilonic tbe AtUnttc eoaM of 
•5 State*. A drtniirrer waa mi- 
tttnaa *n April 

2*. natterf «»fin r C*rl r Kl»n rt oJ. 
(Araoatoeft Potato itblppera Aaaoelatlon.l 
An uaaVtxaeot waa returned oa March 4. 
IMS. ta tbt dUtrtet eotlrt for tbe dtatrUt 



defl 

I 

r.-r 



'■tacbuaetta. charvloic tbo dcfcndaoU 
wltb enterlni; Into a combination anil m 
»plrary In 

A demurrer woa overruled and a rerdlct of 
tulltv nu- returned on Oct- 10, 1010. 

Jrferi; ef 
Blgbt iii.ih'itiicnta were returned In tbe 
dlxtrii-i rouri it: 

nf lllinnlH Hi Jnn. and Apr. 1910, nualnat 

I'll! 
ulwir uiii"ii-. cliarirliiii Hk-jji wlttl 
and cuuxplrlPK t" prevent in Cbleagij 
1 1 anlpDed from otuai 
»lat«>. I iiinTir. r- wore overruled 

. ■ al 
On Apr. .'7, 1913 two Indlctmenl 
returned In tl" dl-trlri cimrl fur r ■ ■ • - imith 
nrn .larirlng a eon 

none labor unlonn and nnaln 
In ii i i ■ 1 1 ii i - 1 ii r- . .*• in Clili 

lnnt»l h "i elei irlcal appli- 

ance . ' ii « fixture* manufactured 

Demurreri wire argued aud 
uled. 
25. t Hlffd m < Oo 

\ pi-rlilon wa» filed June 
I91S, in tin- dfatrlcf court I ■ 
at Indiana, cbantlni idanta 

■ lib combining to rotr.iln and attemptluie 
in monopolln trade ami com- 

. and i.utnts t ■• 
A linndllne nf Rl | otuet 

iiuiiHbli mnl ii:il«- A decrve Rrant- 
' li.-f »-»ui;ht by tbe government 
wii- »-. it b the de- 

cree, the d-'feniliint" not rootcatUlg, 

20. f ii r . • ; gtate i: Unltnl .sin..- ifaa- 

■II «o> 

■nt. is. 1016, in tin- dlmrlct eoorl 

fur I Mi-...url. chorK- 

Inc tliut the no called trine clau«e* In the 
p defend mta In 
tin. eondncl of tbalr bualneal violated «cc- 
IIOD :. i lartoii Art. A 

r ....- rranttd kl n. Uom 
the petition »a ad <u Bppll. 

for ii I't- I sjunctlOD wax n 

i Nor. 12, 101S. a 
motion to dl.imlm tin p, -ntinu, on ground* 
Its of the ease, 
wuk overt II 

30. IMfOd "Mtea . H ■■'''• ", Buchanan 
ef ail. Ao indictment wai returned on Dec. 
'J-. I'M.". In the district court for the south- 
\in Tork, charging the de- 
fendanta with conspiring to rcatraln. pre- 
vent and hinder foreign commerce in mill 
tary •nppllea and atorea. A motion b* 

Swa« overruled on Jim.- 30, ml.".. 
rt.iln nf th.- il.-f. ndnnta realdlng In the 
■ v.iumbla Instituted proceedings 
i-lr removal to New York* 
::i. [..if..; BtatfM -. rram Bopp rt of. 
On Fch. 11. r.ilrt. an Indictment was re- 
1 aicalnat the defendant* in the dU 
trlrt court for the northern dlstrl. t of Cal 
IfornU. charging them with eooaptrtaj t" 
rratraln and d-atrov Interstate and foreign 
eomm.-r.-.- of Oil l'nlt-.l Htate* in muni- 
tion* of win etc I'.-ni'urer* and motion* 
I.. i|'i-i-li wan .1. iil.-.l ..n March 80. 1018- 
l'|.ill.. , St.. i ...cell ef at. An 

was returned on October 2T. 
IHlii. In the district court for the district 
of Oregon, charging officer* nnd agent* of 
nine cement ma-. apanloa wltb 

engaging In a c lid and 

with monopollxlng interatnte trnde and com- 
merce in cement on the Pacini- eoaat. 
The Indictment charge* the defendant* with 
apportioning territory and maintaining uni- 
form price*. 



Anti-Trust Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



INDEX TO ANTITRUST CASES 

Prtttient JJarrtton't julminirliaUnn 

Xam* Sumbcr of eatt 

lir«l»tcr Cnac II 

Corning. In m 8 A 

butliuoi nn, i Cattle Feeding Co 

llreeuc, in re 2C 

lllll et al 

i,i:i,-,„. Mountain « - -. • i Oo I 

KnlKht Company, IS. C 1 

ill.- i "«i l'.iclmdjee 

2 

i ion ,t ill 8 

Shu r Tru»l T 

Terrell, in '■ ■-•li 

■nrl Freight A«*oclatl,,ii 

WhUky Tim i 1 

Workln.-in, ii -. \iii.i Ik'inmi t.-.l COUOCll 

Km i .i I. nns 5 

Pntidcnl Cltcrlonil'* MmttUltrMl l in 

AM fnlff of rate 

tone I'lpe and Steel Company " 

Al.-I.-i 1 A 

- i id* 4 

: r ..ii I ■ Iii«- Trual 7 

Deb* -t ul I. .-{. .'< A. 311 

Itlllott , ■ 3 

llopkina et »1 .. 8 

Jolnl I r . II,.- V lull, mi II 

Knn»ll« CUV I, In- BtOCk llx.-lmni.-, K 

Moore 3 

PrttldcHl UeKlHkV* Jdmiaieliollon. 
.Vnmc .Vumnrr of catc 

And*! ion 1 

Cbcvapeake and old.. Fuel CO 

i',ml ll ,'," 2 

Trader*' Live Ht",'k Uv-Iimiu-. ....1 

t mU t M Ituotiult't AJmlnlftiaUon. 

Xamo Xumbrr of caie 

Aiiin mid RobJnaoa et nl 13 

American lee Co. et nl I . 

American Navnl Store* Co, et al « 

'1 2ft 27 

American Tobacco Co, ••! nl 83 

Ammleu. K. A.. LumlM-r Co, al »l 14 

Armour A Co, et al 7 

Atlantie Inveetmrnl ■ ., ,-t ol to 

Beef I nii.tl 2. 7, 9. 22 

Si, nun. i- in and cola Stow** rinut . 
sureties Co»e .1-1 

Coal Caaaa. 20, ffl 

' ii D. Statl i.v Co. ,i nl- • ■ 

I lemund Lumber Co. et nl 21 

I>ruggl»t* Cnara .18 

till foil | ite Nenumra Co 

Had* Bridge Caw 11 

lor Trum 13 

ft al 3,4 

FertHlaer Co«e m 

tore ca»e» 20. 37, :i'-' 

(leneral Paper Co. et al 

C.loyd. Alfred M.. et al... 1» 

Great Northern icniiroad l 

Halt v. Henkel 8 A 

Hiii rlmnii Ilallrond Unca 3S 

HogB, T. B„ el al 24 

ust IT. 1*. 20 

Jacksonville Wbolet.aU Grocer*' Aato- 

elation 5 

Ice Pnato Caie ... .8 

Lumt* : i ., 12. 14. 10. 21. 34 

MacAndrew* ond Forbca Co, et al 8 

M, Mt.ter v. Henkel SA 

era 2, 7, 0. 22 

vints' Bridge Case II 

Metropolitan Meat Co. et al 

N«tlonnl A-.,„ hill, ,ii of Retail Drugglsta.13 
.Notional Umbrella Frame Co 30 



New Tork. New ITaren 4 Hartford It. R 

*t nl 

Betall lirocera AaaoelaUom 10 

Northern I'arllK- II I; 1 

Northern Sccnrltlee C i 

"ii I-: levator Co. et al 

Papon Cm:.,-, 8. 41 

.1,,. n II.. et al... h 

People'i lee a Fuel Co 

PI it ix Wholmuil* Meat anil Pr 

Pin T. Supplies Caeae 

I ,« ,l,-i I «■ r 

Rn Iroad i'„,-- 38, i:. 

Kay. I i el nl SO I 

Reading Company et al 30 

i;, in: fiii.. 

SMlt Trn.l 3 

Santa Rita Mlulne Co. and Santa Klta 

st, ii- Co .'s 

Simmon*. Chaa, I„. et nl 

Stafford, K II.. Manufacturing Co. at al_33 

Standard oil Company 32 

Stationery ■ aae is 

Sllnfvatcr, Joaepb, et "l 41 

Swift mill Co. .-t al J 

Terminal Railroad Association of 

Louie 11 

o Trtwl s 

mine Case* 

I'mbrrlla Caaa 

i nloo p ,. IBi R i: Oo et al 

Virginia Carolina Chemical Co. et al 10 

PrcMtnt Taffs Adminiitrotton. 

Some .Yambcr of CO«« 

Adding- Mm blue I'M..-. ^T 

All, in lloj Mini Paper • o 

am, ii Brother! Co. ,-t nil oo 

Alumlnui nipiiii ,,( America ... 

Aiin-rleiiu-Atlatle Strain- lilp Ci 

American Coal Prodneta Co SS 

Ami, il, mii Viral S|,,r. , I'u .'.» 

American Sugar Refining Co .1. 10 

ran iiii. i.i I'-, SO 

\ mi. ,ii r Packing Co 7 

Associated IHIIpostor* and Distributor* 

,,f the i\ 8. iiiei Canada «w 

Hlackw.il Milling and Klevetor '"• « 

Burroughs Adding Machine CO R 

.'.ii, ReaUter <*a>e '.0 

tVntral-Weat PiihilKblnK Co <',T 

Charcoal Cute 412 

ipeakc and Ohio It. Ii- .t al H 

ird of i rndf 

. Iiuiti-r nnd Egg Board 11 

mnd Stone Co 

Coal Ctae* M. 83. M 

Tar Own B| 

Cu*»ter-Brake Caae 

Coffee Caac 

Colorado and Wyomlnf Lumber Dealer*' 

A»»oclatlon 14 

f'onfectlon* Cn«c 72 

Connolldiited Rnnderlnc Co. .13. 15-17 

r.-.idui-tx KvrtnlnK Co S3 

Cotton. Joe. et al 47 

ii Pool Cute 12 

ware and Lackawanna Railroad and 
Delaware and Lackawanna Con I Co... S3 
Bnnern State* Retail Lumber Dealer*' Aa- 

•oclatlnn 24 

Elcetrlcnl Worker*' Union 84 

rislu Board of Trade 73 

i namel Ware Ci-, 13, 18 

F. and M. AuocJatlon 90 

Pint Magnet Wire Aanoclatlon 28-341 

Ko|i. Frank 

freight Rate Caac* 8, 37. «1 

geer. Wm. C. et al 2S 
eneral Klectrlc Co 20 

Croat Lake* Towing Company 10 

,-t nl 50. 51 

lininluirg Amerll ,.-k»tfnbrt Ac- 

tl-n C.eneiisrbaft 22 

Hapgood, Cyru* 8 17 



Encyclopedic Index 



Anti-Trust 



Bi;nt, Frank; Patten, James A.; et al.12 

Hartwlck. Edward E., et al 40 

Heath, Horatio W 16. 17 

Hide and Rendering Cases 15, 16, 17 

Hocking Valley Railroad et al 89 

Hollls, Wlllard G 45 

Horseshoe Manufacturers Association. 28 3tt 

Hunter Milling Co 42 

Imperial Window Glaaa Co 4 

International Brotherhood of Electrical 

Workers 84 

International Harvester Co 63 

Kanawha Jt Michigan Railroad 39 

Kellogg Toasted Corn Flake Co 75 

Keystone Watch Case Co 58 

Kindling Wood Trust 41 

Krentler-Arnold Hinge Last Co 77 

Lake Shore k Michigan Southern R. R. 

et al 39 

Lead Encased Rubber Cable Associa- 
tion 28-36 

Lumber Cases 40, 44, 45 

Lumber Secretaries' Bureau of Informa- 
tion 27, 44. 45 

Lumberman Publishing Co 27 

Magazine Trust 37 

Master Horse-sboers National Protective 

Association of America 72 

HcCaskey Register Co 83 

Meat Packers Cases 5, 6, 7, 14 

Mellen, Cbarlea 8., et al 74 

Milk Cases 25, 26 

Miller. Julius P 62 

Missouri Pacific and other railroads.... 8 

Motion Picture Patenta Co 69 

National Cash Register Co 48 

National Packing Co 5. 6 

New Departure Manufacturing Co .V. 

New York Charcoal Co 62 

Nl*ht Rider Case 3 

North Pacific Wharves and Trading 

Co. 56, 58 

Oil Case 70 

Pacific and Arctic R. R. and Navigation 

Co 57. 59 

Pacific Coast Plnmblng Supply Associa- 
tion 52 

Page et al 76 

Paper Manufacturers Case 90 

Parrtngton et al 21 

ratten. James A., et al 12 

Patterson. John H., et al 60 

Payne. Calvin N 70 

Paving Brick A Stone Case 21 

Periodical Publishing Co 37 

Philadelphia Jobbing Confectioners ... .72 

Pierce. J. B.. et al 38 

Plumbing Supplies Case 52 

Posters Case 68 

Prince Line, Lim. 66 

Railroad Cases 8. 39. 57. 66. 74. 80 

Reardon. John and 8ons Co 15. 16 

Rubber Covered Wire Association. .. .28-30 
St. Louis Terminal R. R. Association ... 89 

Shoe Machinery Cases 43. 49, 78 

Slelcken, Herman, et al 65 

Smith. Philip H. W 28-36 

Southern Wholesale Grocers' Associa- 
tion 9. 79 

Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Co. 13, 18 

Standard Wood Co. et al 41 

Steel Trust 46 

Steers, John S. . et al 3 

Stone Case 81 

Sugar Trust i.l. 19 

Sulzberger , Ferdinand 16 

Swift. Loula E., et al 14 

Telephone Cable Association 28-36 

Terminal B. B. Association of St. Louis. 89 

Thread Out* 86 

Toledo & Ohio Central R. B 39 

Trans-Atlantic Steamship Pool Case 22 

Turpentine and Resin Case 54 

TTnoerground Power Cable Association. 28-36 

Doited Shoe Machinery Co 49. 78 

United States Steel Corporation 46 



Wall Paper Case 88 

Watch Case Case 53 

Whiting et al 25. 26 

Window Glass Case 4 

Wlnslow et al 43 

Wire Rope Manufacturers 28-36 

Zancsvllle and Western Railroad 39 

PrttMent Wilson's Administration. 
Name number of case 

American Can Co 10 

American Telephone and Telegraph Co.. 7 

American Wringer Co 16 

Anthracite Coal Cases 8, 14 

Aroostook Potato Shippers Association. .2r> 

Artery, Michael, et al 26 

Booth Fisheries Co 17 

Bopp, Franz, et al 31 

Bowser. 8. F.. et al 28 

Boyle, Michael, et al 27 

Buchanan et al 30 

Camera Trust 3 

Canteloupe Case 19 

Cement Case 32 

Central Pacific Railroad 13 

Chapman. Isaac E.. et al 24 

Clothes Wringer Case 16 

Collins et al 20 

Cotton Corner Case 6 

Country Produce Cose 20 

Cowell et al 32 

Eastman Kodak Co 3 

Fish Case 17 

Hayes. Frank J., et al ....12 

Hlppen et al 5 

Irving et al 22 

Jewelry Trust 9 

King. Carl C. et al 25 

Knauer et nl 15 

Ix-hlgb Valley Railroad et al 14 

MeCoach et al 21 

National Wholesale Jewelers Association 9 
New Departure Manufacturing Co. et al. . 1 

Oklahoma Brokerage Co R 

Plumbing Supplies Cases 15. 21. 22 

Potatoes Case 25 

Quaker Oats Co 4 

Reading Co. et al 8 

Rlntelen. Buchanan et al 30 

Rockefeller et al 18. 23 

Shoe Machinery Case 29 

Southern Pacific Co. et al 18 

Telephone Trust 7 

Thompson et al 6 

Tin Can Trust 10 

United Mine Workers Cases 2, 11, 12 

1'nlted Shoe Manufacturing Co 20 

Western Canteloupe Exchange 19 

White, John P.. et al 2. 11 

Anti-Trust Law (see also 8hennan 
Act, and Assistant to the Attorney- 
General.) 

Amendment of, would control trusts 
and monopolies, 7916. 

Amendments suggested, 7131, 7343. 

Appropriations for enforcement of, 
needed, 6712. 

Common stock ownershp, 7650. 

Confiscation not the purpose of the 
statute, 7649. 

Definition of, to clarify, 8151. 

Effectiveness of the decree, 7649. 

Enforcement of, 6712, 6790, 6975, 
7073. 

Explicit legislation under, 7910. 

Federal corporation commission pro- 
posed, 7654. 

Federal incorporation recommended, 
7652. 



Anti-Trust Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Force and effectiveness of statute a 

mattor of growth, 70-16. 
Fntilo provisions of. pointod out, 

7131. 
Government administrative expert* 

needed to aid courts in trust 

dissolutions, ~<J-,t. 
Importance of tho Anti-Trust Act, 

7055. 
i iiiorporatlon voluntary, 7688. 
Interlocking directorates, discussed, 

7!>1.'.. 

Lack of deflnitoness in tho statute, 
7051. 

Labor organizations should bo ex- 
empt from, 7104. 
islation needed to rlnrify, 7910. 

Legislation urged, 7193. 

■ litlcations of, needed, 7078. 

ISovmmbI *"' '' ,, l"' ri1 "f, 7650. 

New remedies suggested, 7n.il. 

No change necessary in rule of de- 
cision, merely in tho form of ex- 
pression, 7645. 

Opinion by Judgo Hough cited, 7131. 

Regulation of trusts bj Bi I uot 
hamper business intere>t», 7 ■ ' 1 -I . 

Remedy In equity by dissolution, 

7>. 17. 

Should be made clearer and fair.-r, 
7'UH. 

Situation after readjustment, 7647. 

Bin ej new . - . , 1 1 1 1 1.- 1 1 1 1 . • -< , 7<; 16. 

Strengthening of, 7101. 

Supremo Court decisions on, citod by 
Taft, 7044. 

Supplemental legislation needed, not 
repeal or amendment, 7652. 

Taft message on, 7644. 

Trust heads' attitude toward, 7126. 

I m.-rtainty of, hampers business. 
7816. 

Voluntary rcorganirntion of other 
trusts at hand, 7050. 
Anti-Trust Legislation. (See also Roose- 
velt, Taft and Wilson, aud Assist- 
ant to Die ATKoney-Gcnoral.) 

Advice and guidance of trade com- 
mission desired, 7916. 

Co-operative groups of individuals, 
7917. 

Effect of uncertainty regarding, 

me. 

Ilolding companies should bo prohib- 
ited, 7917. 

Individual punishment for business 
irregularities, 7017. 

Individual suits should be based on 
government findings, 7918. 

'•..iivlduals put out of business, 
7918. 

Industrial management usurped by 
investment bankers, 7915. 

Interlocking directorates of corpora- 
tions, 7915. 



Monopoly Indefensible and intoler- 
able, 7915. 
Not to unsettle business, 7914. 
1'rinciples of, discussed, 8040. 
Production and transportation busi- 
nesses, separation of, 7916. 
Railroads, financing DMM Interstate 

Commerce Commission, 7915. 
Railroads, harm done to, by finan- 
ciers, 7915. 
Statute of Limitations should run 
from conclusion of government 
suits, 7916. 
Trade Commissions needed as guids 

to justice, 7910. 
Trade Commission to direct correc- 
tive processes, 7917. 
Trust* and monopolies, control of, 
7018. 
Antietam (Md.). Battle of— after tbe 
severe engagement at South Mountain, 
Leo's army concentrated to tlio u..i . r t 

Mnsll stream flowing Into 
til* I" use Itlrer. eight miles above liar- 

E.i 1 Perry- Ucre. near the town of Sharps- 
urg. between tbe Potomac and tbe creek, 
Lee awaited the return of Jm-kson, wbo 
hud In • • (o capture Harpers I 

According to l'ederal accounts, Lee bad not 

iu tUuu 23,000 men uiiill Jackson's two 

illusions en nil Later In- mis Joined by 

D. U. lull's, McLaw's and Anderson's divi- 
sions. This raised lb* strength of Lee's 
eomniaml to hit -t.i.iMKi i-iuiiliat.-ititH. Sept. 
IC. 1802. McClellao't urtuy aboni v 
strong, was re-en forced to 87,144, of wblcb 

force bore the brunt of tbe battle. On tbe 

.if the 10th Booker's di .1 

i (lie cn-vk inn! b»ssn su stuck, 

which darkness ended. Fighting wss re- 

sntued nt daylight on the 17th ami 

t in. nil all day, with varying- success snd 

t.fiiiii- slaughter. Darkni j it mi 

end to the carnage. McClcllan did not renew 

the attack On the lsih. but ordet* were 

Issued lo resume ilirlulnir on the 19th, 

During the nlgbt of the lStti, however, th* 

ilerates withdrew to tho west of tbe 

Pol s I proceeded toward Martins- 

pari A few days later MeCIellan occupied 
Martlnsburg. The totnl loss of tbe Union 
army wu» 1,010 killed) : of tbe 

< onfederatoe, 2.1,800. Other estimates of H, 

Confedi r in loss sre 0.m>" m 12, he 

ofnelul Confederate nccounts claim that this 
nit s drawn battle, snd that the total ef- 
r i tlve fore* of Lee was a little mors 
H) This was called by the Coated* 
tiu battle of Sliarpsburg. (See Illustration 
te UT7.I 

Antiquities, American, Preservation of. 

— Ciiil-r Hie in-t e| CWiiKt- 1 June 

8, ](>(">. Interdepartmental regulations gov- 
erning the excavation, approprlstlon, etc.. of 
prelil. objects of "iniquity 

hove been promulgated l.y the Secrctsrles 
of the Interior. Agriculture nud >'■ UT ftp 
plli ntlona In make rxeai 

on the public lands. Indian reservations, or 
the national monuments named below should 
be addressed to the Secretary of tbe Inte- 
rior. The following have been reserved 
from entry and set aside ns national monu- 
ments : Devils Tower, Wyoming : Monte- 
zuma Castle. Arl7.mii ; Petrified Korest. Arl- 
r i ■ ii Uorro, N»w Mexico: Chaeo Can- 
yon, New Mexico: Mulr Woods. Csllfornls ; 






Encyclopedic Index 



Apportionment 









Ritual Bridges. Vrnb: Lew!* and Clark 
Cinra. Montana: Tuasacimrl. Arl: 
Navajo. Aitf.-im : Uukantuwcap. t'tnh : Sho- 
ming: Uran Qulvlrn, 
New 

i lib : I'lnn i 
•ola : Colorado, Colorado. I i 
ii.ii"Q«l tnuautacBIa '■ 
bavc alao beea art n-i- 

placed! under far Jnrladk-tlou of tbe Sec- 
retary i-f .: 10 wlium 
regard thereto ebould be addreaaed. 
Antipodes?.— People* living on the extreme 
■ea aU ta aide* of the earth : an-ciUI-d from 
tka Creak n-ord* whlrh m.'«o "wlih 
•ppaadte." AUo, lb* opposite portion! of 
Caw car I h. 



(See Indian Tribe*) 
(See Indian 



Apichw TtHilaffll 
ApalachleoJa 

Apollo, The, seizure <■'• b T American 

Government referred to, 469. 
Appeals, Court* of. (8e* Court* of Ap- 

Appeais to a People Over the Head of. 

Its Government. - Kreo Id tUawa of peace, 
taare la prrcrdenl In Americas blatorr for 
"bine the prOfde of i foreign *»r*rnm«ot 
ailrr wberv tt.r United State* ha* not 
d with lt< negotiation* with time 
.neat Itaelf. Ihirluj: Ibo CItII War. 
Lincoln, al 

: a a. a a, . « a - a ». ■ _. &. a t L^aa^alaaaataw ah^aa 




both the 
Easll.b 



>ple__to .the 



Kii.'IuikI 

i 



mid 



Xana. **nt Henry Ward Beecber to plead 
law <Mae of taw North to popular meeting* 
■ Eaocaad. with great *ucce»» In |8T0j 
daring taw war between Germany and 
•"ranee. General Bnrntlde made no offer to 
carry • wggeatton from Iii-umr.-V to the 
French Government, although Ibe offer waa 
-pled by tb« Frencb. 

Appotntlnc Power of President. (See 
Uve Nominations.) 

Appotntmeut to Offlce. (Roc Exoeo- 

Nominal 
Appointment*, Division of Postmasters, 
PosVOfflce Department.— Tbla divi-ion 
under tte taperrliion of the Flrat 
Aaalstaat Poatmaiter General fa. t.). By 
*e*Vr tm. effective April 1, 

1*17. all ncatmaiterahlo-. In the DePirt- 
■Mnt of the l'o« t 'Office are placed under 

i8e» Civil Service; 
hnk* Ckimaalasann ; I'oet-OOre Depart- 
Meat. I 

Appoeaattox fVa.). Battle of. -After the 
bait* of Kami Hie. April ?, 18*5, Lee 
moird off toward the went, closely followed 
Vy Meade oa the north lido of tbo Appo- 
■ m learning of tbe arrival 
•a* awpply train* for Lec'a Army at Appoanat- 
toi Station, puv' I r r ' 

with all the cavalry. L»*'a ImpWr.- 

now nppnr>-ui. Grant aent biro o 
t»Me ln>l:l»g aairreofler. I.ee replied, o«k- 
iiia. and flrnat laahted upon Ibe 
'be Confederate 
rtbrro Virginia. Oa tbe eight 
a* April 8 Cuacer. who waa lu Sheridan'* 
Menace-, ranched Appomattox Station. 
ware* the Coafederate "■Ihiht had Juat ar- 
Ha attacked tbe force* and eap- 
mred 2S gnna and 4 supply train*, a hos- 
< park of wagon*. Daring 
Ue algbt Sheridan came op. and by day- 
light waa Joined by (Jen. Ord'i command 
and the Fifth Corp*. Law waa bow only 




■ Ilea from Lynchburg, hi* objective 

Joint. At tlin. unilei ,ppo»- 

ae force*. h.< m Goidou to maka 

a re-coanolsNuce uud otcnek. Him 

'• withdrew '. aldi I r. 

the line* of ord'« and Orlffio i comma 
lino of I in Hi Gordon sent forwurd n while 
OnaT. d I • then dispatched a 001 

Gen. Grnnl requesting lew, uhlcb 

li.'lnir iilliiw.d closed with the algulug of 
Iva "I ►nrreuder of Lee'* anuv and 
rollowera, about 21 nun :i „ „ -i ■ > . . 
OOceri ind men «.ru rmruled Iprll 12, *nd 
alloweil tu relnr.i 1 1; bomea, Al) gp. ■ j t > . 
lie property wn< turned over, luit IDS "*- 
Cera were allowed to keep ihelr aide nrm* 
unit bulb offleera uud uieu to rei.ni. ilnlr 
prl«ntu buraea uud bugaajte. 

Apportlonmont.— The watribntloa of ten 

rearntatlon In the Federal Mouse of Repre- 
»niU:ivi- .-in. I lu tb- general aaaemhi: 
the varlius Slalea. lu I irntal 

Congrea* ea.-h stale had but on- IttM 

LoDg ... Mi., nil, ,n arei thl moiter of repre- 

•eutatlou finally led to the oatabllahmeot 
of two Elouaea of Congreaa— the Senate, 
tea ahould I I lepra- 

■entatlou : 

anil (hi ii which each State ibould 

hn»e repn .i ni;iil,.n In proDortlofl b 
!.,|>ulailon. Trmldent Waablngton retoed 
a bill on ihlx aiihji'i (116). A cen*a* waa 
laken and 1 R.-|,< wnHiillim.il foi 

.".d.ikiii luhabltantH Thla nil* gor- 
. ipponlooinenta for 70 year*, though 
the i»tfo >n (bangi-d from time tu nun 
». in.- population (in i 

In order to keep ibe number of member* 
■ i . I. fixed quantlt] tb* Thirty- 

llVllll ii.. 

•entntlve pupiilailon by 233 aftir each cen 

»u», and b] Hi.' quotient that obtained 

Ibe repi popnlmlou nf 

State rill" gar* lb* number of 

'.-niatlvt* to whl.-h each Slate waa 
hen ih, total iniiiiii.i fell 
■horl illative* were allowed 

the Slate* having the larg.-n fr*i 
• fir-r ,i Aerardlns to the apportion 

in. hi art .if Jan in, 1001, it wo* provided 
that after March 3. 1»03. the llouac 

.inpoaed of 3 (1 mbi i i, to !..■ ehoaan 
In ill-iii. i I of rontlguou* mid 

pnc-l lerrllor) nml 
o« prartli-able an equal number of luhnhl- 
, .i. b dlatrlf! .1. .Hi! 

lative n wn« also prorloed thai In r»a«. 

>.f mi Inor.-n**' allowed any State. »ueb addl- 

llooal •■ •hall be alaetad liy th" state at 

larae tin i ll tbe 8late ahall i«' redlatrieted: 
and Hint whenever a new State la admitted 
in He It. preventative r Rapre- 
Mi-d 10 It ahall he In addi- 
tion to the number 386. According to tbe 
renin* of 1000 the ratio of apportionment 
«ra« 104.182, aud a- HiIm gar* on I; 
Repreientatlrea. Nebra«ka and Virginia 
wen- en.-li allowed one additional, making 
a i ola I >.f .186 Representative*. (Sen alao 

llr an act of Onngrei* approTed Aug, 8. 
101 1, the ratio of representation under IN 
thlrre*n(b e«n<u» wo* flxed at on* for each 
212.«07 of population. Inervaalne tbe i.uui 
ber of n-pn-wn tail ve» to 486\ The orenra- 
panilng taMe ahnwa the ratio of represen- 
tation In each Congret* under lb* Con*tl- 
tntlou . 

Apportionment: 

According; to census of 1890 neces- 
sary, 5553. 
Approred and reasons therefor, 
£012. Vetoed, 116. 



Apportionment Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

APPOBTIONMENT OF CONOBESSIONAL REPRESENTATION 







Rati 


m under Con 


'.Itt'itum and 


at each Census, J 790 ia 


1910, 


by Slattt 






Consti- 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1S20 


1830 


1840 


1S50 


I860 


1870 


1880 


1S9C 


1900 


1910 




















. 


•o 


^ 




£9 


8 


St* to 


| 


§ 


B 


g 


§ 


8 


% 




30 

g 


C*4 

— 1 


© 


5 


to 
1 




g 


*5 


C*3 


*o 


o 


t- 


© 


s 


CO 


«e 


*» 






rt 


eo 


m 


' ^ 


••> 


**" 




' 






*"* 


n 




Reprtsentation 


Alabama 








1 


3 


s 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


■ 


9 


10 


Aniona 




























1 


Arkansas 






. 






1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


S 


8 


7 


7 


California . . . 














2 


2 


a 


4 


e 


7 


8 


11 






















1 


l 


2 


3 


4 


Connecticut. , 


6 


7 


j 


7 


6 


6 


4 


4 


4 


4. 


4 


4 


6 


6 


Delaware .... 


1 


1 


i 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Florida 














1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


1 


4 


Georgia 


a 


2 


4 


e 


7 





K 


8 


7 


9 


10 


11 


1) 


12 


Idaho 






















1 


1 


1 


2 










i 


1 


a 


7 





14 


19 


20 


22 


25 


27 


Indiana 








i 


.1 


7 


10 


11 


11 


13 


13 


13 


IS 


13 


Iowa 














2 


2 


6 


9 


11 


11 


11 


11 


Kansas 


















1 


j 


7 


X 


8 


8 


Kentucky 




9 





10 


12 


a 


10 


10 


9 


10 


11 


11 


11 


11 


Louisiana, , - 








l 


:i 


3 


4 


4 


8 


6 


8 





7 


8 


Maine . 








•7 


7 


a 


7 


6 


8 


B 


4 


4 


4 


4 




e 


8 


8 


6 


« 


8 





6 


8 


6 


8 


'• 


8 


8 


Mossachusetti 


s 


14 


17 


13 


13 


12 


10 


11 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


IS 


Michigan.. 












1 


3 


4 


e 


9 


11 


12 


12 


13 


















'J 


a 


a 


8 


: 


9 


10 


Mississippi.- . 








1 


1 


2 


4 


5 


5 


6 


7 


7 


8 


8 










1 


2 


a 


7 


9 


13 


14 


18 


16 


16 


Montana 






















I 


1 


1 


2 


Nebraska 


















1 


1 


S 


8 


« 


8 


Nevada. 


















I 


1 


1 


1 


1 


I 


.V Hampshire. 


a 


4 


ft 


(I 


6 


8 


4 


3 


I 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


New Jersey . . . 


4 


6 


6 


fl 


e 


6 


I 


8 


S 


7 


7 


8 


10 


12 






























1 


New York ... 


6 


10 


17 


27 


34 


10 


34 


33 


31 


33 


34 


34 


37 


43 


North Carolina 


5 


10 


12 


13 


13 


13 


9 


8 


7 


8 


9 


9 


10 


10 


North Dakota. 






















1 


1 


2 


3 


Ohio.. 






1 


'1 


14 


10 


21 


21 


19 


20 


21 


21 


21 


22 






























8 


















1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


3 


Pennsylvania . 


8 


is 


IS 


23 


58 


28 


24 


25 


24 


27 


28 


30 


32 


38 


Rhode Island 


1 


2 


o 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


South Carolina 


fl 


>.. 


8 


9 


9 


9 


7 


6 


4 


8 


7 


7 


7 


7 


South Dakota. 






















2 


2 


2 


S 


Tennessee 




i 


a 


e 


9 


13 


11 


10 


8 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 
















2 


2 


4 


e 


11 


13 


18 


18 


























1 


1 


2 


Vermont 




2 


4 


6 


5 


« 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Virginia 


10 


19 


22 


23 


22 


21 


15 


13 


11 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


"Washington.. . 






















1 


2 


J 


S 


TV est Virginia 




















.1 


4 


4 


6 


6 


"Wisconsin 














2 


3 


6 


8 


9 


10 


II 


11 
























1 


1 


1 


1 


Total. . . 


05 


106 


112 


188 


213 


242 


232 


2'17 


243 293 


332 


357 


386 


43j 



* Included in the 20 members originally assigned to Massachusetts, but credited to Maine after ha 
admission as a State March 15, 1820. 

Note — The following representation included in the table was added after the several census appor- 
tionments indicated: First — Tennessee, 1. Second — Ohio, 1. Third — Alabama, 1: Illinois, Is Indiana, 
1: Louisiana. 1; Maine. 7; Mississippi, I. Fifth — Arkansas, 1: Michigan, 1. Sixth — California, 2; 
Florida, 1: Iowa, 2: Texas, 2; Wisconsin. 2. Seventh — Massachusetts, Is Minnesota, 2; Oregon. I. 
Eighth — Illinois. I: Inwa. 1: Kentucky, 1; Minnesota. 1; Nebraska. 1: Nevada, I; Ohio, I; Pennsylvania. 
1; Rhode Island, 1; Vermont. 1. Ninth— Colorado, I. Tenth— Idaho. 1; Montana. 1; North Dakota, Is 
South Dakota, 2: Washington, Is Wyoming, 1. Eleventh — Utah. 1. Thirteenth — Alabama, Is Art- 
■ona. 1: California, 3: Colorado, 1: Florida, 2: Georgia, 1: Idaho. 1; Illinois, 2; Louisiana, 1: Massachu- 
setts. 2; Michigan, 1; Minnesota, 1: Montana, 1; New Jersey, 2; New Mexico, 1; New York, 6; North 
Dakota, 1; Ohio, 1; Oklahoma, 8; Oregon. 1; Pennsylvania, 4; Rhode Island, 1; South Dakota, 1,'TaxasV 
2; Utah, 1; Washington, 2; West Vlrgioia, 1. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Arbitration 



Appropriations.— Artie]* 1, section 7, 
clause 1, of the Constitution provides tbat 
"AU bills for raising revenue shall orig- 
inate In tne Bouse of Representatives" ; 
a similar privilege has been claimed by 
the House In the case of appropriations of 
public money, but In this case the claim 
has not been Insisted on. Previous to 1865 
the appropriation bills were. In the House, 
considered by the Committee of Ways ana 
Means, bat Id that year the Committee on 
Appropriations was formed. By a rule of 
the House and Senate, appropriation bills 
must Include only items authorized by ex- 
isting laws, and they cannot contain provis- 
ions changing existing laws. But this rule 
Is frequently disregarded. These bills must 
be reported to the Committee of the Whole, 
and may be reported at any time, taking 
precedence of any other measures. This 
rule puts vast power into the bands 
of the chairman of the committee, and of 
late years this power has been used to 
choke discussion on the subject of the 
tariff, by withholding the report of the ap- 
propriation bills until the end of the ses- 
sion and then Introducing tbem at a time 
when, the most urgent duties of Congress 
having been performed, tbat topic Is most 
likely to come up for discussion. In the 
House the yeas and nays on the passage 
of these bills must be recorded. But bills 
are frequently passed under a suspension 
of this rule. In the Senate this Is not neces- 
sary. The Appropriation Committee In that 
body was organized In 1867. the Finance 
Committee having previously had that mat- 
ter In charge. The appropriation bills are 
made np from estimates furnished by the 
beads of the executive departments ; these 
are usually much reduced In the House, and 
these estimates are again usually raised 
by the Senate (which body has less politi- 
cal capital to make out of a claim of 
economy.) : a compromise between the two 
usually results In appropriations consid- 
erably lower than the amount asked for by 
the department officers. Tbls necessitates 
the passage, at the beginning of every ses- 
sion, of a bill to supply the deficiency of 
the previous appropriations : tbls bill Is 
known as the Deficiency BUI. 

Besides the appropriations there are 
"permanent annual appropriations," or 
money expended by the treasury by virtue 
of laws whose operation Involves the ex- 
penditure without a specific appropriation 
renewed each year, as Interest on the pub- 
lic debt. (See Riders.) 

Arbitration (International) and Dis- 
artnaisant. — The movement In behalf of 
universal peace between the nations baa 
made great progress In recent years In the 
Interest It baa created snd In the number 
and character of Its advocates. 

An International Peace Congress meets 
annually. Its eighteenth annual meeting, 
held at Stockholm In August, 1910. was at- 
tended by about 700 representatives of 
various countries. A "Palace of Peace" 
has been erected at The Hague through the 
munificence of Andrew Carnegie, and con- 
tribution* to the adornment of tbls splen- 
did building have come from all the prlnct- 
Eil countries. More recently Mr. Carnegie 
as donated a fund of $10,000,000. the 
revenue of which la to be used In the In- 
terests of peace. 

A Permanent International Court of Ar- 
bitration waa established at The Hague 
by a treaty of Joly, 1889. wblch was signed 
and later ratified by twenty-four powers. 
Representation In the court by non-signa- 
tory powers wai provided for by protocol 
of June, 1907. The permanent court con- 
data of men of recognized authority on In- 



ternational law. The members on the part 
of the United States are Senator Kllbu 
Root, John Bassett Moore, Judge George 
Gray and Hon. Oscar s. Straus. (See 
Hague Peace Conference.) A number of 
cases have been tried by this court — one of 
the most important being the Atlantic Fish- 
eries Dispute, which threatened the friend- 
ly relations of Great Britain and Canada 
with the United States, and In which a sat- 
isfactory settlement was reached. (See 
Great Britain. Treaties with. Here, under 
the heading Arbitration, will be found the 
essential principles of all International ar- 
bitration treaties.) 

The movement for disarmament, or the 
limitation of armaments, has made little 
material progress. It was opposed by Ger- 
many at The Hague Conference In 1907. 
Great Britain Is willing to Join the other 
powers In a plan to reduce armaments, 
provided they shall all agree to It, not 
otherwise. The Balkan Crisis In 1908, and 
the Italian-Turkish war have discouraged. 
If not, for the time being, destroyed, all 
hopes of any agreement between the powers 
to disarm, or reduce armaments, In the 
near future. The principle that to be pre- 
pared for war Is the Biirest way to preserve 

feace Is likely to be adhered to. The road 
a universal peace Is evidently not yet In 
sight. What progress the movement for dis- 
armament had made In the United States 
was completely nullified by the European 
war of 1914, and millions were spent to In- 
crease both army and navy. (See also Hague 
Peuce Conference : Peace. International.) 

Between August 7. 1913. and September 
15. 19H. the United States, through Sec- 
retary of State Bryan, signed pence treaties 
with the following 26 nations: Argentina, 
Bolivia. Brazil. Chile. China, Costa Rica. 
Denmark, Dominican Republic. England. 
France. Guatemala. Honduras. Italy, 
Netherlands. Nicaragua, Norway. Panama. 
Paraguay. Persia. Peru. Portugal. Salvador. 
Spain, Swlterland. Uruguay. Venezuela. 

The following text of the treaty with 
The Netherlands will serve to show the 
nature of all the "Bryan" treaties : 

The President of the United States of 
America and her Majesty the Queen of The 
Netherlands, being desirous to strengthen 
the bonds of amity that bind them together 
and also to advance the cause of general 
peace, have resolved to enter Into a treaty 
for that purpose, and to that end have ap- 
pointed as their plenipotentiaries : 

The President of the United States, the 
Honorable Willlnm Jennings Bryan, Secre- 
tary of State ; and 

Her Majesty the Queen of The Nether- 
lands. Chevalier W. L. F. C. Van Rappnrd. 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of The Netherlands to the 
United Stutes : 

Who. after having communicated to each 
other their respective full powers, found to 
be In proper form, have agreed upon and 
concluded the following articles : 

ARTICLE I 

The High Contracting Parties agree that 
all disputes between them, of every na- 
ture whatsoever, to the settlement of which 
previous arbitration treaties or agreements 
do not apply In their terms or are not 
applied In fact, shall, when diplomatic 
methods of adjustment have failed, be re- 
ferred for Investigation and report to a 
permanent International Commission, to 
bo constituted In the manner prescribed In 
the next succeeding article : and they agree 
not to declare war or begin hostilities dur- 
ing such Investigation and before the re- 
port Is submitted. 



Arbitration 



Messages 



^opers of the Presidents 



ARTICLE II 

The International Commission ■hall \- 
red of five member*, to be appointed 
n» follow*: One member ihall be - 
from each country, by the ' 

Ol 000 i ■ i ■ ■ u 1 1 •.- r .hnll Ih- choseli by 

a hi ir- -• u'.i' third cow 

the flftii member shall be I d by common 

agreement b iwecn tho iv... Government*, 

I Hint lie -linll >■ ■ ■ ' be • 

Itber • ountrjr. The exf* D 
Hir i . -im|i i- paid by iii.' two 

(Soverumenu In .■.- 

Int.-rti ill I ' 'i shall lie 

appointed within six Ih" n r 1-t the i » 

change of the ratifications «f tin- lrca.tr; 
ii. i i ae mi li ihall bi Dili ng to 

the mnnner of thi original appointment. 

AltTiri.i-: in 

In case the llluh Contractln 
■ hail have luii.-.i i.. ii.i.iui ■ dispute by 
diploma be metti ihall il mo*. 

It r.. the International Coniuil 
f..r liivralliniiluu and report. The Interna. 
ii. .in I Commission may. howevei iponta- 
• il. i u» •ervlcv» to that effect, 
.mil in Km ii ,n ... it ...Hi i :..i 

eminent! nn.i renueit their co-operation u 
iii. .ii. 

The in-ii ContractilUt Parties agree to 
furnish the Permanent International Com- 
ii with all Hi" means and fnelliu 

The report of tbo International COmml* 

hull bt compli h d e/Itbln year 

the date on wlil.ii It shall dccUn 
i ■ ligation to hi unless the 

itik'ii Contracting Parties •.imii iiniit or as- 
trad the nun' by mutual agreetni ol 

report shall lie prepared In trlplli do 

copy xlm II i»' in in. .i t h Government, 

'"•I il"- third ri't.ilned by the I' ml • 1 ■ -n 

for It* (II.-. 

Tin- MU'h iViiitrnetlng I'nrtle* reserve the 
ilfchl In BCt Independently .in tbi -nl.j.rl- 

ol the dispute ■Iter the report o( 
the Commission aball hove been 011111011 

ARTICLE IV 

The present treaty shall lie rntllled by 

Ih.' I'r.iil.l.lil i.f Hi.. I nil. .1 Slilli-j nf 
in. by nnd u-lth the advice and .-"ii- 

"tii ..r Hi.- s.'ii.iti- thereof: umi by her 

ty the Q n ol The Netherlands : mid 

the ratification* •hnll be exchanged a* soon 
a* possible. It shall U mmedlatvly 

aft«r the exchange of rntilleniliuiH. and 
•hnll continue In force for a period of five. 

; nnd it khoii thereafter remain in 

force until twelve month" nfter one of the 
High Contracting Parties have glTcn notion 
to the other of an Intention to terminate 
It. 

In wltnoas whereof, the respective plen- 
ipotentiaries h»ro signed the present treaty 
and have affiled thereunto their seal*. 

Done In Washington on the eighteenth 
day of December, In the year of our Lord 
nineteen hundred and thirteen. 

A« will lie seen, when any dlapute arises 
hetwecn the rolled Statea and one of the 
signatory nation* which cannot he MttUd 
by diplomacy. It coca before n permanent 
International commission. This comniinKlon 
Investigate* and rcporto. baring a rear In 
which to accomplish It* work. During thl* 
year, the nation* are not allowed to doclaro 
war. When the report la made, the no- 
Mom may disregard it. If tbey so desire: 
but the delay and the Investigation, with 
their ennaeouent sobering of International 
and national thought, should make a, r>- 
aort to anna extremely unlikely. 



By Dec. 13. 1811$. tbo following coun- 

II .. ha, I lie. n ndil.'d '■-' In. 

which have signed the peace treaties; Ecus- 

eo, Bw. .len and Kuosla. 

Ar.nialh,.; I" : h.-tn.-i n 1821 

and iuiki, 2R1 treaties of arbitration bad 

I" an !;.■ leal ... nation* nf the globe. A .-- 
such trestle" there 
were 104 In .(Tret Iii lDtrii. In IPO*. 

h.-l nsking 

.iri.itratloo compulsory, an.1 ever 10t> by 

the Hill. .>I the I ... r . . | . . in 

Acce-r •• In M i IMMl t- l""l. 

nil Of 
tin in narhy glees 2S»7 

Instance period In wblcb the 

principle of uri.iirniion was applied. The 

an Is 
ilea history Is that concerned 

with the If.il.iiiini i-luiins (il. v.). 

Amon* the treaties providing f c, r nnllm- 

it'. I ninl iini)inilll|ed nrhlt! 

helween .Vrgelil lie, IflOJ; Uen- 

mark and N therlond. 1900; Denmark and 
Italy, I 1 1 :. and Portugal, 1991 

l:i a Iti.ielnra. i Inn leimi In. Nlcara- 

-ailvador. iut)7 ; Italy and Netherlanda, 
IMO. 

Arbitration. International: 
Arbitration Cowl »t Hagne, United 

States and Mexico lirat to use, 6718. 
Arl.itration treaties, ratification 

■OJced, 7!)inl. 
al iKimeiit-, limitation of, diseuaaed 

by President Tnft, 7404 
A i iiniin.ni % limitation of, necessary 

:.. 
Attitude of Great Britain nnd the 

United 8t&tr» discussed, G874, 6134, 

0178, 6241, 6267, 6i;i2. 

Cnnvenliiin with rapnbllM Of Smith 
and Central America for a> 
tL» of pecuniury clninis, 7982. 

I < u ■iiiiiin.'iit. naval, inipoulbklitr of, 
7113. 

Uiseuaaed by President'^ 
— velt, 6P23, 6993. 

Interparliamentary union for, 6796. 
nil nt ions of naval arinatte 
hopelessness of, 7113. 

Failure of trcnty of, referred to, .1623. 

Movement for, among Powers, 7 

Of Pecuniary Claims, convention 
South and Central American He- 
publics for, 7982. 

Panama nnd Costa Bica, Colombia 
and Haiti, 7657. 

Points of, screed upon at Hague con- 
ference, 7118. 

Ratification of treaties naked, 7D06. 

Relation of United States to move- 
ment for, 82S5. 

Beporta adopted by International 
American Conference regarding, 
transmitted, 5518. 
Referred to, 5623, 

Treaty for, with Great Britain and 
France, transmitted, 7617. 

Treaty of, with German}', lack ol . 
plored, 8289. 

Treaty with Great Britain regan 
discussed, 6178, 6242, 6380. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Arbitration 









I'uitoi! States n. Mexico, report of 
Hague Tribunal on, DM. 

crucian claim* iubmif.'.l to 
Useve Tribunal. 6717, 6731, 89M. 
World Court Ions the hope mi I 
of Aaneri 
Arbitration (Labor).— Siii-iuiiitntr dla- 

l-ai^l id employ- 

m and employee-* io a Joint romatliicr. 
minimi 1 of representative* or botb purilea, 
■-*• »M fottn.l i S the 

t— > *r or CMtty ■ lrlk.« ami lockout*. *o 

'ran ago. An ^ uoni- 

.trator* la u.uailj •■•I. -ted or 
ear* n lo tbo i he** la 

' >g aa odd awmber of ih. 
— aat n o. The acthod of procedure i> u n 
■ t*ffii««l by trad* at 
wrmmaUat: 

:. and rod' o acuity brought 

*h_«t 07 tbe tnurfeirnc* of State or ■■>» 
■.tonal labwr but.au. in the later*** of toe 
BabUc. wbo efbro Buffer tbrnugh the Inter- 
optao* of aerrlce* on which itey 
rata* 10 depetid f. imodl. 

de* amnari 1 nlih. T 

• nor law of lm«, known o« ibe 
rrdaaaa law. peortoca dlatlon and 

arMtrailoa. by tb« labor boreae . 

r. iu 

»"» carTlt-ra no. i 

to compel 

ntloa. bm tlila haa brrn 

in many casta ; bill when 

1 lo by both |iariln» t., a dlaputr llu> 

• 1 in Cmiiu fa> 
lo»»«iis.iili>b» of labor dlnpi 

'jjt oeganlard labor, nod 
■taaage. rnglar. : Now 

"1 boa- Itratloa for trade dla- 

far aa U known, the (Iml ■trikc to nc- 
■— took place lo New 
T'«rit amine Ilia lowraeytnrn '"»•■ 

■Din i rtw w i kiTa of Philadelphia 
atrwrk in ITD*. In 

■ ra onMn. 
l**K. from l*L'iO lo red a nam- 

. .rrlke* f..i 
t»ai lime *irlke» ha.) 
axaBrne. 

Too Aral Inatanec Of arbitration In the 
. -carted «i 
i»«-eti. ... ihth of 

1 tbr »r»t tr.idr ngrce- 
•- •u'l.'O — In tl» Iron Induatrj hik! 
Isrj; In 1870, 
. In ibe ctitt.. ..f lb. 
rnoo' 
IrUJ arbitration wa. ealaf 1 

The board cnaMtatcd of five repre- 
fjeaa . 

uakm powrrfal la iraat in.ln.in. ana 
f ipm m ir.' rarer* it 

r»v»v- 1 eoncemv 

r*« wage*: lot lb- agreement waa ahro- 
whlrb Hate lite mnn- 
afaciarara were able to maintain Ibe 




f Ihe great 
mad atria** awoke the country for Ihi 
tlaae to lb" attloaa pninUta prevented by 
Ike anlafonl'in l»tn. and. labor 

fact tint lb.' >trrnctli of labor 
■ Uona could no longer be ■!. 



' aa been estimated that In tbr Dnlted 
■tarn fr. r."-.. th.-i 

•beat JT.ouo atrlke*. In tbe latter year, 
team abnwed that tbe record of tt* United 
State* la that reaped wm at follow*: 




rnlted Stale*, one alrtkc to every l.TOCl 
•rcrfci 

■iti.y . inoi itrika to every 

France I lfKKI I to ever; 

•roraui 

■ Ireai Itrltain |I!>|| .. one to 1 
worki 

IdlQI - ,r In. 

I''" 1 - ''"' I tbt L'f.i! mill I ■ 

i ■ on apnl 1. 

lined 
it pr.ni. 1. .] f.. r lo. al arbitration ouij 

Inw 
•'). Ily Ittlft f 

.n bad pa«».ii Inw. prorldlii 
aonie form of loduatrlal arblti 

a autea which ha 1 Inw*. 

elBbt 

able 10 much of a pot. null. He *t- 

1 Itor. 
1 are atv two dnet formv of nrbllra- 
llon In the United siaie*. <" 

■ 
altva>-« on nder Ita aervlcp*. The 

Other provide* for vol 

|«•l^l» whi .1 f..r It nrlf» 

1 imon.-nt board* 
nine utale* hoe ,1 nine 

< hnve lMi|h foma. 

Owlni: i' Itlon of onrnnlie.l ]« 

i" t to la which 

n rupporied iij rapli 
roluntai ■ 

1 ■ 'ioi.nl- to iceepi 1 n. iwsrdl tod 

irbltrntlni a*en. 
I 

I8M, v.".v Zealand hat bad 

pulaory ar tllhouab ibe t 

are not leenlljr blntln 

About TOK . ' .1 by 

Half ..( nil atrlkea Mem i 

nnd 

-vheo orvunu.'ii | itona limn 

il union . ■ || n Ti.in. 

irlkea are for higher 1 

l' 1 f. r ..f Hi.- uuloll no I 

11% acaii o wnirea. 

Thi lalea har- 

ln-.- permanent bonrd* of arbitration Intel 

fully in ..'. of [hit ntiinlH r in 
atate, from ivmi lo 1011. there 
■trlkes. In :'.:. : of which the Ilurrau of 
Ion and Arhltrntlou Interrenetl— aue- 
illy In about 30% al thl* in 
rMM-nllnir about 10".i of the win 
Of ntrlke*. 

108. the hlluinlnoti* roal work- 
er* hare bad an ajr»ement with tbe on 
ernlon. and alnce 1002 tin- anfnraelU 
worker*. 

In .1 .red the BTeat Intrr- 

nnilooal Uarment Worker* Strike In [few 
York Pity, which am llnnlly teriiilniited by 

Hi loptlon ..r I. protocol nrorldlnic for 

Ion from both »ide». Tht union waa 
...I. mi. I preference win t.. I.e pnbl 

ii. nenbtia, hot there wn« to i»- no 1 

■bop. Tbor* h .in arbitration board of 

:i board of aanlltry control com- 

'•I aeven. and a grievance cinmlu. .■ 

of four. There l« a flflyf.oir hour week 

nnd a nine. hour day. with double pay far 

ml n definite minimum wane 

arale. 

Very tlmllnr I* the agreement between 
flnrt. Srh.ilTiicr and Marx. .1 Chicago, noil 
their tmploreet, except for the fact that by 
the term* of a new ngreement adopted In 
IttlcX Ihe worker* obtained eren more Mb 
eral Icrma than tho«e mentioned above. 
There la a preferential union agreement 



nation Messages and Pap, . nts 



■ Imllnr to llinl mentioned above. 11 trail* 

I 
Kin »nd nil ait-itrjltuii luard ». ■ 
, kind of court of ii-i There. U a 

week and a aalalnum w«« 

f wiiiaro, 

■ ».*k. ui> ■ artek. 

Taw 1P16 acrevnitot granted ■ 10* la- 

crea»e Id wait* om tli» aurvcru, 

IPll Is feature/ la 

of the workeit 

nt '.. .u ill.IrllnlliJ 
•a to provide a 20<.'« Increase for tboae re- 
r wage*, and a 8% Eacrcaav 
lag tt« hlfbcr wnzea. 

t.). uaxed la 
l»l*. crcntrd n SUtra I'.-.irJ of 

Mcdl.. 'li-aia- 

tlnn and C in 

■ 
i..:.t to i 

den of it» aerfl J f r ■•!!• 

Uii facl t i.i. i lu 

■ ralea between rallrvm. 
era " 

eeaafully In the 11 atlier case*. 
how.". :ay the pa of a 

voluntary eanllu) 
lac bitterly all attunpta at 
•rblcrii! ii i . r . . i . i [hi 

eedur. .f their rlklit to 

itrlke n-il 
In September, ilroad 

Srother'.i.-iil- thrrat.ned to D 0f> 

n to obtain an UI day. mei' 

failed : and a -;. 

a« of i t.nw 

Railroad 
lu -I'Ui of the fact that I - ttn.-rlcao 
"f Ijitior »aa ■ • 

Cler- 
many, 

April 0, '. '' • ' 

Tear approxlmat- 

1 II fur tin- mi > .^ilne 

tear. In addition to II VOTtl 

■ 

nf for 

uolttcc for tin' Nimo 

I rlodpla of Infior arbitration 

i- tc Icatri i- trial 

OCOrdlnj to the 

ii.I CO 

v arrnnre- 

in. iii in .cnlxed ai 

ln( neither to capital nor to labor, 

imt to both and time tin- relaUoaa be- 

Cweeo and employee i m 

agreement 

aeconMu i 

See ntio Lat- ) of| IjU-nr Bta- 

Com- 

Arbitratton (Labor): 

Arbitration r ,) of deputes 

betwwa employees and employer* 

urged, 7089. 
Failure of, in roil 

smi. 
Machinery for en t>g*- 

M) of eootrovv 

plover" ami employee* reeommend- 

«d, 703fi. 



M for, during war with Germany, 

Arlii.i D;.. .., , .■ i,. 

the dHrectU.ii "f atate au 
ti 

ui-ailuo. aiMiiu im..; in m official acate 
report In .am- rcntleman en 

d*aror<d :e '•ccaccunlal 

plaan be odor of pi-lwa to CO* 

Bat the Idea of 
at tile* apart a flay for the work had 
oilflnttcd with ex-Oovernor J. Sterilai 
j«ka. who, about 1S72, In 
dared toe Governor of that atate to U»u» 
a proclaniu ntlog; a day ;.-. 

plant.* state. la 

"Oavor ..ibday. April 22, 

•raa mud., a legal bolklay by ihe Legtala 

: 

Si moM 
reea. 

example, of Nettraaka arai aoon fal 
lowcl nd with ctnnd t. 

■ I- aald. In |>lRDilni' 
a tul I lion niul ..■ 
Ban I! lay laar w«» pasicd le 

■ 

Near J»r 
aey. IVnneylnnla. Florida Alabama 

California. K and 

la. in WTtral other itawi lea oh 
aervaae* baa been arv-und by . 
mendadnn of rhe Crance. the C. 
of the Rri.iii.'n or I..- stale acrlcultural 

ie first Ohk> Arbor D.i 
Children of ClDrltinktl Jolo#.l la au ai 
live . .:tn of plaatlnc 

il.-ii- Inar them to an- 

te la DO! uniform, but la 
qaunlly late In A| ly In May, vary- 

Archive*, public bailding for, recom- 

. . 
Arctic Circle. Knot •• ar<-- 

art csttmni 

In area. Tin- mo 

. Ill ill. ...Ml. ,, 

PRll Lai, : 

Hall. Nai ly. Naiiten. and 

Ic It mr.uil.-d aa a Danlao poaaea- 

alon. 'I tin . . i. ■. f I .'. nlilpelaco 

Hi Aroerlca bel. n lintaln 

waa flatted by Dut.-b narl 

.■ I-. ■ ill I -.•!•. I> IimK.III,- - til H 

■ ■dlao exploiera of tl»e 

la and Kohruer 

alao bi Land 

■ aa <i. lie Auvtrlm It 

lied rbi of theae 

frigid Inndi are tenlaklna. blubber, rod 

mt» and Ivory. 
Arctic Explorations.— Ar.f.n esploral 

to the north of the American cna I Ineat be- 
gin wiih i Davla (IMS- 
..I rmhu (MM) who dltcovared th.- 
atralta and bay which bear their nnmo 
In 1012 Itenry itered Mnd<0Bt 
Bay ami wlnti-rrd tbere. but wai abandonad 
men the next aprlii*- and perlabed. 
In ' lohn Franklin aallid on aa- 
•■xpi'ditiun from which b 

turned. In th« eour-. 

1 in- hl« iiartT ..r lmrn their fat 

I . ulllleat 

reft] thorou thly pxplorad and 
Dapped. From the an 
r««ch«d Parry Sound. dUcovered by Parry: 






Encyclopedic Index 



Argentina 



bit crew. Joining by fledge the eastern 
squadron under Sir Edward Belcher, waa 
the only party 10 accomplish the Northwest 
Passage ; Collinaon, sailing at the same time, 
rousted the northern shore of the conti- 
nent, reuehlng, without knowing It, the 
b'-ni 1 of Franklin's death on King William 
Land. From Ihe east between 1849 and 
1*50. eight expeditions, lifted out by tin- 
British Government, by private parties, and 
by Lady Franklin, searched In vain for 
1 ranklin and his men. 

The work of American explorers begins 
with the Grlnnell expedition under De 
Haven and Kane. In 1850. Information 
obtained by Dr. Rae, In a land Journey In 

1854. had already made evident the loss 
of Franklin and bis men : but Lady Frank- 
lin determined to make one last effort, sent 
oat. In 1859, the Little tux, under the com- 
mand of McCllntock, who obtained a record 
(the only one found) stating the abandon- 
ment of tbe ships and Franklin's death. 
But little hax been done in this Held since 

1855. although in 1898 99, Sverdrup (Nor- 
wegian) visited Jones Sound, traced tbe 
west coast of Grlnnell Land, and discov- 
ered several Islands. Two American ex- 
peditions, (hose of Kane In 1853. and Hayes 
In 18«0, undertaken with the object of ex- 
ploring Smith Sound, discovered Kane Sea 
aod Kennedy Channel, and reached 80° 35' 
and 81* 35 f respectively. In 1870, C. F. 
HalL an American, who had already spent 
several years among the Hudson Bay 
Eskimos, searching for traces of the Frank- 
lin expedition, reached 82° 11' In the sea 
north of Kennedy Channel : a record which 
was surpassed nvc yearn later by the Brit- 
ish expendition under Nares, with 83° 20'. 

In 1881 an American expedition under 
Dear. A. W. Greely was sent to establish 
one of the International CIrcumpolar Sta- 
tion! at Lady Franklin Bay. It secured 
valuable scientific data, made extensive ex- 
plorations, and a party under Lieutenant 
Lockwood reached the farthest north up to 
that time attained. 83° 24'. In tbe fall of 
1SS3 the party was forced to retreat to 
Cape Sabine, where they were rescued the 
next spring, after much suffering and the 
loss of several Uvea. 

In the Interior of Greenland. Important 
explorations have been made hv Norden- 
skjold in 1870 and 1883: Nans.n In 1888; 
and especially bv the American exnedltlons 
command. -d by Lieut. Peary In 18SU. 1891- 
92. and 1893-95. In these expeditions, and 
In a longer and still more successful visit 
In 1898-1902 Peary determined the north- 
ern limits of Greenland, besides exploring 
Grlnnell Land and reaching 84° 17". 

July 17. 1905. I.lent. Peary sailed In the 
new ship Rooierelt on another expedition. 
intending to push hla ship as far north as 
possible through Smith Sound and make a 
da«h for the Pole by sledges. 

This trip proving fruitless, a second voy- 
age wae made by tbe Rootevelt, leaving 
New York, July 6, 1908. and arriving at 
Etah. Greenland, Aug. 18. Proceeding 
thence overland. Lieut. Peary arrived at 
90° N. Lat. (tbe north pole* April G. 1909. 

The history of hoaxes and tinman gulli- 
bility contains no more amusing episode 
than the claims of Dr. Frederick A. Cook. 
of Brooklyn. N. Y., that be reached the 
north pole, April 21st. 1908, one year be- 
fore Peary. The denunciations of Peary, 
who waa being cheated of his just reward. 
merely heightened popular Interest. Very 
few were sufficiently conversant with con- 
ditions In fhe arctic zone to pass Intelli- 
gent Judgment, but sympathy went mil to 
the haggard doctor, when he related Ids 
odyasey of days and nights of suffering 
and danger. 



Spitsbergen and the seas north of Asia 
have been the Held of many expeditions. 
The exploration of Spitsbergen, discovered 
by Barents (1596i. was carried on by Nor- 
densklbld In 18U3-<i4, and 1872 ; tbe Islands 
served as a starting point for Andre's Ill- 
fated balloon (ISilii, and were visited by 
Wellman (American). 1894. Franz Josef 
Lan— discovered by the Austrian expedi- 
tion under Weyprecbt and Payer In 1873, 
was chosen as a base for the Harmsworth- 
Jacksun expedition In 1893. and the two 
expeditions sent out by William Zlegler of 
Brooklyn, under Baldwin (1901), and 
Flula (19031. neither of which succeeded 
In reaching Its objective point, tbe north 
pole, lite Duke of Abruzzl's expedition from 
the same quarter In 1902 was more suc- 
cessful, reaching 86° 34'. the farthest north 
ever attained. A French expedition led 
by tbe Duke of Orleans was. at the begin- 
ning of 1900, somewhere north of Franz 
Josef Land. In 1893, Frltblof Nansen, a 
Norwegian, entering the ice north of Asia, 
allowed himself to be carried by tbe cur- 
rents until, leaving his ship, be reached 
by a aleilge Journey Sli' 14'. 

The Northeast Passage, long an object 
of English and Kusslan exploration, was ac- 
complished by Nordenskjold In 1878-79. The 
westernmost of the Asiatic Islands were dis- 
covered by the American expedition under 
G. W. DeLong In the Jeanne! tr, which, set- 
ting out from San Francisco In 1879. was 
crushed In the Ice. DeLong and the larger 
part of the crew perishing during the re- 
treat. Late In 1905 the Amundsen expedi- 
tion returned with valuable discoveries con- 
cerning the position of the North Magnetic 
Pole. 

Argentina. — A republic occupying the 
greater portion of the southern part of tbe 
South American Continent, and extending 
from Bolivia to Cape Horn, a total distance 
of nearly 2.300 miles : its greatest breadth 
is about 930 miles. It Is bounded on the 
north by Bolivia, on the northeast by Para- 
guay. Brazil, and Uruguay, on tbe south- 
east and south by the Atlantic, and on the 
west by Chile, from which Republic It Is 
separated by the Cordillera de los Andes. 

Pliyiral Feature*. — On the west the 
mountainous Cordilleras, with their pla- 
teaus, extend from the northern to the 
Southern boundaries: on the east are the 
great plains (known as EI Gran Charoi 
and the tr<ele>s pampas, which together 
constitute Ln Plata, extending from the Bo- 
livian boundary In the north to the Rio Ne- 
gro : and south of the Rio Negro are the 
vast plains of Patagonia. Argentina thus 
contains a succession of level plains, broken 
only In Cordoba by the San Luis and Cor- 
doba ranges, and In tbe northwestern 
states by the eastern spurs of the Andes. 
The Parana River, formed by the Junction 
of the Upper Parana with the Uruguay 
River, flows through the northeastern states 
into the Atlantic, and Is navigable through- 
out its course: the Pilcomayo. Bermejo, and 
Sa'ado del Norte are also navigable for 
some distance from their confluence with 
tbe Parana. In Buenos Aires the Salado 
del Slid flows southeast for some 300 miles 
Into Sumborombon Boy ( Atlantic). In rhe 
south the Colorado and Rio Negro rise In 
the extreme west and flow across the pam- 
pas Into the Atlantic, many similar streams 
In Patagonia traversing the country from 
tbe Andes to the Atlantic. 

Ili-toiii. — The Argentine wns discovered 
In 15111 by Juan Diaz de - Soils and the 
capital. Buenos Aires, wan founded In 
1SMI; It remained a Spanish colony until 
1817. when It gained its Independence un- 
der the leadership of Jose de San Martin. 
The official designation of the country is 



Argentina 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Argentine Nation. Pntagoaln nod Tlerra 
:|. ; i a A uii aiina 

and Chile In U8I 

1'i.un [880 in 1802 the country was iiadar 

the dlctatoiahlp of Kusat. Braill 

gcntlna were nill.il lu a ■ I'm a 

guay from l.H ■■:<' In UMI2 ii tils. 

Of conildt-inblr bitterness arose with 
Chile. respecting tb« uuunmeots and 
nf llnlr n ipCCtTve Davl ' ll iv!a i'i. nltl 

in January, 100 
which It was agreed Him both navies "■■.-' 
!n :>.. im.iiuiini.il at Identical ■tranctbi and 
Him . , 1 1. in. n bring bum rot bi • i ti 

Kiiii'i lu Mn inn i . .i«. were to 

sold. 

AUgA ASD POPfl.ATInN 

Area ■Papal* 

iirw 8q Mile lion, lllll 

Buraos Aires I17.7J8 1.070.000 

Catainarca. ... 47.531 108, 7SS 

<■,.,,!. ,t.> ..' ..ii 480.185 

um ... ■■:■ -i) 332,144 

vs.nt i 

Juju. . . 18.977 02.477 
Memiota to. I V.i, 

Bi* aa.60t oa.floo 

la. . 08,181 152.087 

SanJun... 33.715 I 

flan Lin- 38, i3S 112 HM 

-S.nl. I <-.->■-. 

SantlawidelKttero.. OT.704 

Turuman S.020 300. 183 

Total IWiuoss 018,898 5,110,300 

TtaniTOSics 

53.741 20.370 

CI. ill. hi. . 03.427 20.500 

I urinosa II 102 I". m\ 

-•. MX} 

Murioni 11.282 40.321 

Souqura ,-..., 42.345 20,740 

.-..,. .nil 

,., 

Santa Criii. 10P.M2 5.10s 

Tierra drl 1 i.r r ... . i. -Si 

Indian Niun-l.. 40.518 

Total Territories. . 512.871 207.430 

Capital:— Hucnos Alms. 72 1,358,079 

Gland Total . . 1.131.811 0.730.781 

•Thr ii..|nihi(i..ii fisurra, arc the eatitnatca nl the 
National Statistical Society n - r*n h having b-eeo 
takrn for 20 years. The languaac «-i lbs people 
ii Spanish anil Uieir religion Koman Catholic, the 
Ionian element (1. 750.0001 brine cornpoanl nf 
•J0.00O Italian.. 450,000 Spanish, and 100,000 
h. wilh 30.000 Kniliah, 25,000 Auatrlans, 

22.000 Germans, 17.000 suu». ami 250,000 of 

various nationalities. 

...ii/., nf Tba constitution In that of 

1.. I. ml Republic modelled upon that <if 
ii.. 1 tilled sinira of Ainrrlra, and cmbod- 
1.1I in the rundaro<-ntal law 01 Mar 25. 
1853 1 with amendment of Nov. 11. 1859). 
1 be iv. -hi. m and vi, . -iv 

r "It yrora hy an electoral colli ge. 

President- (Oct, 12, 1910-1020). MM H 

lrlgo.. 

There las responsible Ministry, appointed 
by lb, t, consisting of eight Secre- 

larlca of State. 

Puiigrcai -II. anunally i- 1 lo 

September 30 and consists of n Senate of 
thirty members niro from each of the four- 
teen Provinces, and two from the enpltnli, 

, I, . i, ,1 il.. nn el.i t... . f,,r nine 
yeant. one-third being renewnhl r) three 

rears: and of a chamber of Deputies nf 
20 membera, elected bj ll •■ pi iplc fur four 

Teiir- llllil olie lull r lellin ill. le every t WO 

year*. 

The Judicial System conalafa. like Hint 
of the United States, of a Kcdcr.il Supreme 



Court and Hie Court* of Appeal, wllh Pro 
rlnclal Couru In each State fur nun-national 
in single -tale causes. 

I'rotlnrttun ond /ndujlru. — Of the total 
arm about one-third la suitable for agrl- 

d cattle rawing, and I 
are tn-M b] H at r..r 

•ale or loaac to colonWU. In 1011 cloce 
on 00,000,000 acre* were under cultivation. 
« beat, ronlxe, oat*. llnHccd, rotlon. sugar. 
nnd tobacco beta* Brown, win:. 

. .1 ■: ' ■ I lied '-!.- 

500, on i hi ii«.' atock Is 

lu led ::n. I HIM. . .mi,., 

"<hjo sheep, 4,000.000 gonts, on. I I. 

: ,i pig" ' the loti 

■ I at $1.060.1111.1 n 
l» a large export Irnde In froxen and • 
seven factories being In ope. 
.. .in nnd ItrltWh rapltal. 
w'.OOO Industrial citnbllabmcnls. em 
ag close on 330.000 persons, the out- 
put Including cottons and woolens, but at 
tir,-«,-nl falling to supply tin demand 
lome consumption. The mineral o 
Include! gold, silver and copper, and roaL 
pell.. I. .urn, manganese, wolfram, and •« t 
.4rmv.— Herrlec In the Army Is unleerial 
and compulsory on all eliit.-na beiwe. 

of ^ii in,. I 40; fur 10 yearn In tba 
Active Army: then 10 yearn In the National 
!: 6 years In the. Territorial Guard. 
ICatnbllshrucDt Ih 2.000 offleers 
and 19.000 olhera. TI 
of il.- A. 'ilve Army is 120.000 I 
of too World.) 

V.i-W — Two nremlnought liatlh 

,.1 Mil. I /' 

knot!, 12 12 Inch guns). 12 torpe'l"- 
t,..ni destroyer!, and 12 torpedo-boats were 
IWD en. I. : a recent naval i 

ih.. remalalng ihlpi being nve imall 
ib-thlpa. seven cruisers, and seventeen nnlts 
..r torpedo i-raft -. the navy Is a 
nimiit 5.000 men The navnl port l« lialila 
Blancn. (Hoe Navies of the world.) 

KiNirrtffon — 1'ilmnry Mucntlon 1» secular, 
free nnd nominally compulsory from lin- 
ages of six to fourteen hut Schools arc 
maintained by provincial taxation, and con- 
trolled by provincial boards. Secondary 
I ilinntlim ii i-iiiiirollcd by the Federal 
eminent. There arc also naval, military, 
mining, nnd agricultural schools, 
are National i i il Corttoba and 

Ruenoa Aires, anil fr.nln.lnl fnlrcralltra 

at Iji Tlata. Santa K*. and 1'aranfl. 

Kailwavt — On Dee. 31. 1012. there 
38.029 kilometres! „r rallwa< i :i mn 

• open nnd working). Of the total 
length open, 3,071 kilometres 12.220 mllesi 
wore the property ol 

inalnder being owned by Cnmpnnlei wltb 
a t..i«l enplinl of over £170,000.000. of 
which over £150.000.000 was supplied tj 
British Investors. The capital baa an rfll- 
clpnt arrvlcn of tltctrlo trama 

Pott OffleeM anil Trtcgraplii— In 1012 
Hi- r.- wire 2,005 poat offices. In 1U11 there 
2.028 t.-l.-crnph offices and 13 i Ldlo 
iph stations: the former poasji^^H 
19.1 .. : klloi .i Dm . wlHi -: . . 

niotrva of telegraph wire. 

e'Mppfar;.— Tho mercantile marine In 1013 
228 steam [171,681 tonsl and 
00 sailing vessels (32 1 h.- tia 

her ..I ng vetnela entered In cargo 

to bnllnat at Argentine porta In 1912 
«« 4.85S steam vessels <ll,220,CiO toos), 
mi. I 280 sailing vessels. 

The prlneltinl ports are Buenos Aires. Bo- 
rarlo. Iji l'lstn. and Hahln Blanca. 

v„irii«.- capital, Buenos Aires. 
population H910), i :;.... i.u.i other lowoi 
are Ball)* ll mien. Itnrrncns al Sud. Chlv- 
IIi.it Coticordln. Cordoba. Corrlentes. C.-jnl- 
guaychu. La Plotn, Mi-ndoxa, Parana. BJO 



Encyclopedic Index 



Argentina 



• uarin. Iloaarlo. Salts. San Juan. Sao Lull. 
Sen Nicolas. Santa ft. TucunuiB. _ 

Metric 8t»I Ijbta, Moiutu, 

and inrtvocj i» comp'il- 

Hi.' Peso fit 100 
(Yotavos. equal (o I'l-OtM Anaerlcan money. 
bat tb» circulating un-d,ura la paper. Br 

• CoeiTcr.t<.u Ijiw of ISOT a gold »t.i- 

baa been adopted and Ibc paper peso la con- 
ilble at -4» r 

rgeatlna depemla entirely upon the out- 
m.-hlnery utnl related 
r „il»cU and before the European wnr the 
["oiled Xtate* raa a PC i Uermeny 

.gland !• •applying thin Uric market. 
... ix now i>. tore Ami 
maaufactur i" .niincntly an 

unportaat |-ir< u( ilil« trade. German liuusr* 
.applied leading ti'hulcal and Iniluttrlnl 
x'haola with machinery nod uinehlne tools 
fre» of chare* to that the future engineer* 
ead ab*p oOklale vould naturally favor UN 
Orioast m - 1 

I'r»rloc» to the war Germany furnished 

4tXS per ceat of the talaccllancou* machln- 

••<! by Argcmui.i. England 21.8 

per rent, and the United Stale* IJI.O per 

ilea wa« flrat In aup- 

plylax "par* parte fur machinery with 211.1 

lirrmatur <u »wiuul with 

1 ilurd with 21.7 per 
It la a . nri. bi !■■• I that MJ.O par cant 
. rr »'"« Imported 
froaa Auelralln. the I i standing 

tecowd in the il-t with :: I and 

i-iuila tfcird nlr niii'd 

Metr ■• i 'Mil ..f the ll 

nd MX* per i. in. 
Tbe doiiltiaDt |ki England Iti the 

•apply of railway plant nml rolling 

■ apparent, a* that country furnished 
"3.9 per rent of the I n 

■ I Ike passenger eouchea. and 47 

nr». Iff Hi.- -l.-.-l mil 
.-•a. England beld 21.8 pel rani Oar 
-at. nod the United 

inaoua 
railway material, England atipplle-1 over Tu 
per c- ..Ttiiana led In nilaccllnncoue 

i. railway material, sad aupplleil > i I 
Hf ra»t of ike dynanioa and electric motore, 
it • b* latl 
;*r r»nt. Prance furnished i«i t* |nt 
cent of tlie autMnolilln. the United States 
1».3 per rent, and Oermauy 10,1 
The following are tbi 

for tbU «: - The very few 

Aaserlrao ho-u». I la .1.. luielncss 

la Argentina f. 

treat meaiure. nf tbelr failure to adapt 

re of the 
The Aaeerlcan manufai hirer was 
teat to scud out traveling oelcMucn with 
little or oo fcnowl"lire «if the country's lan- 
guage or neetome — selling, or endeavoring 
■ell, tulnly from catalogues nnd price 

lie di- 
■era) payaaent for hl» goods mail ngnlnat 
, plug itetament> in Saw fork. The fael 
tt«i Rarop< 

i.'lllilea haa beew an Important fn. r..r. 
Kurope. alao, baa mad* large love«tmenta 
rgeotuu and praotlmlly all 
< laaportar.' - the nil: 

power plaata. etc., are In the huQdf of Ku- 
paeeaba. The fart that Argentina tin* a 
large and free market In Ruropt for Ha 
produ ■ Itbout Ha Influence. And, 

HoaH). It mewl be confeaaed thai 

paw bare had the laeentlv* of really n 1 

>•■ market, white many AmerlcanK have 
W»n only mildly : 

Anemone Bapubltc: 
aafrleultural (ixhibition in, 7414. 



guag 

NMn 



Bsttleahips for, rongtructoil by Amer- 
icana, 7j501, 7 

Boundary qaaatiCD with — 

BSuil nibmitted lo Pre«ld«nt ot 
United 8tatcs, 5867. 
Aw*r,l nf. dilCBSUd, 0058. 
Chile referred U>, iSS9, G323. 
Parngnny aubmittcd to Prcaident 
Of I'tnte.l States, 4449. 
Cables of American eotnpnny, quee- 
tiona r rate charges im- 

poaed upon by, 6323. 

ma of. against United Stat**. 
•1910. 
ins of United States against, 
8, ISfcM. I sou. 
Adju*tod, 63^4. 
Coined silver, and product! of, re- 
ferred to, 5908. 
Consul at BttMOfl Aire*, recommenda- 
tion PegTillntt aalary of. 4819. 
Cordiality of relations" with, 7408. 
Diplomatic relatione 1 with Buenos 

Aires discussed, -116. 
Imprisonment of American citizens 

in, 632. 
Independence of Buenoa Aire* assert- 
ed, 612, 627. 
Internal disorders in, -1563. 
Joint reaolntion relating to congratu- 
lations from, vetoed. -I'-iM 
Mil -i-l r 1. 1 rjnitad Statea in Buenos 
Aires, return of, 1171. 
BlSteT to be sent to United Statea, 

1370. 
Beeoive,], 1706. 4718. 
Outrages upon American vessels in 
Falkland Islands discussed, 1116, 
1246. 
Revolution in Buenos Aires dis- 
cussed. : 
Tariff laws of, modifications' in, dis- 

• i, 60S& 
Treat v with, S708, 881 I, 41 

Return of, requested, 4888. 
War between Buenos Aires and Bra- 
zil- 
Peace concluded, 977. 
Question:: I'nite.l Slates 

ud Braeil arising out of, 929, 
951. 
ATgcntln*, Treaties ▼lth. — In 1803 a 

treaty wns concluded with the Argentine 

icrntlon grunting the (Jolted States 

tree nnrlgiillon of the rlvcra I'urnnA and 

I'ruguuy. followed by nimilni 

uf frlendablp, commerce nnd nnvlgsllon, 

mid provided fur the exeban -mntlc 

oneulnr agents. An eztradiili>u on- 

Tcntlon wna algiieil In IS'.iil pmrldlng for 

the extrndlilnn nf prl«oners aeeiised ef Hi" 

: Homicide, or nttempied 

i hie : itson biirglinr: nousebrenl 

in violence, actual, attempted "r 

ened : Inrceny of vul- 

ue of »2oo : rorgary, ..r (be ottai i ire i f 

tin- thing f.u---.'.l : I'liunterfeltlng : emhanle- 

ment of public or private money la execia 





Argentina 



tages and I'apcrs of tfu PresU 



i: 



r-f ISOO: frnuil. com- 

I J ■ bullae, tinnier, an- 

"fflwr 

I company. »k' ' ' N pliDlnli- 

able by the Uw* of bolli count :..•- per 

tape: abduction : klduapplus or i 

nic ; any act COH 

laleat, the object of o endanzer 

lhe *afety of any person irn«ello£ or lip las 

i railway : crime* committed at »ea. 

and t radius la al»«e* wb'ii the often** la 

iilinlnnl under elic Uwi of both couotrlc*. 

Arid Linda. {Sec- Lands, Public; also 
Irrigation.) 
Boclanintion of, 6301, 7004. 
Arixona.— <i»* of tbe «outhw*«tern state* 
of Hi' ' liai Ueui." It 

la aeiarut.-' in on ii.- 

if > 'auroral 

*d od lb* n. oa 

the eaat by New Mexico, and on tap aoutb 
tiy t!i It II** be- 

tween the parallel* ,.l SO' and S7* imrtb 

lat. ana t: nil 

45' u«t ton*.. Iii.'IiiiIIiis »ii are* of 1 13,954 
*i|uare mile*. 1 1. .' arc 

tiucrl, Cooabnllo *I«rl- 

lac gold, allter, ntd Copper. In 

»ra portion of tli* State tbcre arc large 

I and lb* lumber tt I 

■do*. 1' li much 

broken by tbe eroaloo of the atreama. which 
• hi deep tort** la Hip rock*, tbe Oram! 
-nine polal* be- 
tas raorc than a tulle di 

i'ii.- greater portion at I hi 8tntc wo» 

acquired by treaty with Mexico In 1S48, 

iilti" by the (ind.ilm Pun-haae of 

Statlatlca of aericultnre collected for the 

i«m i laui plac* ' b* at ■ 

farms In tbe State in ».'.";*. - 

id Im- 

pro» Tbe 

numltered 8H4 V,- 
boraca. 00,578. II .'-'"' 

1JV0.723, »■!.-*<>(> -l :: Tli* ..■■:••■,■■. 

me of tbe prli.i-lp.il field 
for : .i| I 
405.000 bn*liel*. $4>" 
ncrea. rlOO.ouo biitlu-W. ITOo.000: uma.ll.O00 

acre*. '-'■'... iiii-ii.i , $i.m,imii 

000 s. ■ ' ■ tin The 

i ,. ili.n .if cop- 

r ■::>'. im - 

51 pounds, valued tit *37.?S1.8lVi n «le- 
from tbe figure* of lflOO, and tin- 
report » tor 101 1 r <!*- 
.-llui- in tbo production. The Ur*e«t pro- 
ii 1011 ■ >» Ith 
'ill mil ill*- 

irl.-i : 1.000 (iniinda. Tbe 

fnlle.l ii lh» Jerome dlalrl i 

•bowed n deerenie from 

Ii.nin.l • im« 

lor*, landa nre tnaorable tvt Hi- <■ irlBS of 
rattle and ahiYp. The federal 11 
art prorliled f..r lb* Irrlniirliiii i 
of tnnd In i be rtfll Rivet 
Arlioii'i in the -lid at In* year 
. ...i ..f til .'.00,000. The population In l&UO 
a-aa 204.S54. 
Atiiona Tartitory: 

Act to authorize lear-inv of land* for 
educational pnrposu lto«d, 

6102. 
Admission to Statehood — 
Joint act for, vetoed, 7636. 



Proponed, 70S 
KexotnroenOcd, 7258. 
Appropriation for, recommended, 

atn. 

Barrack*, elc. within limit* of Mil- 
itary Depart::> 
of, n 

Hill to authorize ibMiance of boi 
aid of railroad 

in outrage* in, dl*i'u**ed, 41*33, 
4943. 

Land* in— 

Clan Bpenian and Mexican 

Sranti, dinusacd, 5434, 5510, 
Ml. 
RceonU oi -imsat 

Set apart aa pi i| Ion bjr 

I i. . i.. i ... i . 

Lov. i.-aai 

for aupi' 

latnation again*!, 
Population of, 3045, :w»9. 

r, rccom- 

Arkansas. 

It I- bounded by .Mlaaoarl oa 
■ 

Irrom both of wblcn It la «t-»rnii I by tbe 
ll*al».<l|i|>i liber), on tli- Math by I 
• in the weat by Texna »n4 I 
TerrltorT. It extenda from lat. 83* t" 
:to' n 

wett. It contain* 53.33o «)uare rtil!<*. and la 

Br 

a»ioe of tin' 

■no ii need Ar'kftnaatr. Tbe Slate 

ii foreafa nf oak, plae. walaut, 

pmd'i. < il, Iron, an 

: ir.e^ lae 

: 

I ... 

•« 

. i iliin. ..r 
'. by the Krini'h In Ii'--'.. and f, 

Iitirl ol 
ulxeil a* « Terrltorv 
1819, 

June '.'J. 18«8. I'opuU. 

at :'..lM,- 

I 
aad 

'.i. i ii. hi |, ( nt>d 

i 

■ 
and milk, 

Tim niiinT.rr of mavntacturtng aslai' 

n annual < 



1*1.1 ■*« 'J. in 1 I 'I in 

i.t 
n 

worth *H.5,fi«l.i>i'ii. Solarlca and wasta paid 
auiouut.d tu i24.oifi.0O0. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Armageddon 



Arkansas la first among the states In the 
production of two minerals — bauxite and 
novacullte. the former being the ore of 
aluminum and the latter the source of the 
larger part of the oilstones produced In the 
United States. The principal mineral prod- 
uct of Arkansas, however, Is coal, (be an- 
nual value of which constituted over fifty 
per cent of the state's total. The total 
value of all the mineral products of 
Arkansas in 1013 was $6,780,760, accord- 
ing to the United States Geological Survey, 
compared with $6,258,726 In 1912. The 
coal production waa 2,234.107 short tons, 
rained at $3,923,701, in 1913, against 2.100,- 
819 tons, valued at $3,582,789, In 1912. 
The coala of Arkansas are generally of high 
grade, particularly In the eastern part of the 
coal field, where they approach anthracite 
In character. The semlanthraclte of Arkan- 
sas Is an excellent domestic fuel and reaches 
markets as far north as Kansas City. 

Banxlte, from which aluminum Is derived, 
is second among the mineral products of 
the state. It is mined near Benton, in 
Saline County, and in Pulaski County. 

In 1913 the stone quarries of Arkansas 
fnrnlshed products valued at $525,050, ex- 
clusive of novaculite and of limestone 
burned for lime. In 1912 the quarry prod- 
acts were valued at $513,844. The clay- 
working industries, while not highly de- 
veloped; take third place and in 1913 pro- 
duced an output valine! at $529,624. an In- 
crease of $67,019 over 1912. The sand and 
gravel pits yielded $320,639 in 1913 and 
$393,639 In 1912. The only metalliferous 

[products of Arkansas besides bauxite are 
pad, zinc, and raanganlferous ores. Other 
commercial mineral products are fuller's 
earth, gems and precious stones, lime, min- 
eral waters, natural gas, phosphate rock, 
and slate. 

Arkansas (see also Confederate States) : 
Act for admission of, into Union ve- 
toed, 3846. 
Acts of governor should be legalized, 

801. 
Admission of, into Union, constitu- 
tion adopted, 1444. 
Boundary of, 795. 
Constitution of, referred to, 3830. 
Defalcation of officers in, 941. 
Election disturbances in, and claims 
of persons to governorship dis- 
enssed, 4218, 4219. 4252, 4273. 
Proclamation regarding, 4226. 
Lands granted to, in aid of railroads 

referred to. 3580. 
Marshal of United States in, advance 
of public moneys to, referred to, 
2835. 
Military governor of, office of, abol- 
ished, 3377, 
Public lands in, proclamation regard- 
ing unlawful possession of, 1106. 
Restoration of, into Union, discussed, 

3423, 3452. 
Road in, from Little Bock to Canton- 
ment Gibson, 932. 
Secretary of, appointment of, re- 
voked, 3377. 
Arkansas Northwestern Railway Co., 
act authorizing construction of rail- 
road by, through Indian Territory, 
'etoed, 6012. 



Arkansas Post (Ark.), Battle of.— Jan. 

10, 1863, an expedition under command of 
Gen. McClernaud and convoyed by Admiral 
l'orter's fleet of gunboats, moved against 
Fort HlnUuian, at Arkansas Post, on the 
Arkansas Hirer. Jau. 11 a combined at- 
tack wus begun, which was maintained un- 
til 4 o'clock in the afternoon, when the 
post, with 5,000 prisoners, was surrendered 
to the Union forces. The Federal loss In 
the action was 977 killed, wounded, and 
missing. 

Arlington Cemetery: 

Appropriation for memorial amphi- 
theatre recommended, 7048. 

Memorial amphitheatre at, recom- 
mended, 7686. 

President Wilson's address at, 7948. 

Arlington Confederate Monument Asso- 
ciation. — During the administration of 
President McKlnley the Confederate dead 
burled in the City of Washington. D. C. 
and vicinity were removed to the National 
Cemetery at Arlington, Va., the old home of 
Robert E. Lee. where they were relnterred 
in a plot of ground set apart by the Presi- 
dent for that purpose, and designated 
"The Confederate Section." 

The Arlington Confederate Monument 
Association was formed for the purpose of 
erecting In this section a suitable monument 
to the dead there burled, and to stand, in 
a larger sense, as a memorial to all those 
who lost their lives in defense of the Con- 
federacy, as well as to the cause they 
represented. 

The Association was formed aa a com- 
mittee of the United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, the President-General of which Is 
the President of the association. The 

monument was completed and unveiled by 
President Wilson, June 4, 1914. (Page 
7948.) 

Armada,.— A group of war vessels maneuv- 
ering, or in action. 

Armageddon. — In the peroration of his 
speech on the eve of the National Repub- 
lican Convention at Chicago, June 17, 1912. 
Mr. Roosevelt, after denouncing what he 
termed fraudulent practices of corrupt poli- 
ticians, called upon bis hearers to take the 
side of the people against the dishonest 
party managers, saying at the close: "We 
stand at Armageddon and we battle for the 
Lord." The expression is not a quotation, 
but is based on several passages In the 
book of Revelations, Chapter XVI, notably 
In the 16tb and following verses. The 
word Armageddon Is used in an apocalyptic 
sense as a synonym for the battlefield — 
whether above the earth or In the under- 
world — on whkb the final victory over evil 
waa to be won by the forces of righteous- 
ness. It was here that the kings of the 
lower world were to be gathered by the 
Dragon, the Beast, and the False Prophet 
to make war on the Lord. Revelations xvll, 
14, reads : "These shall make war with the 
Lamb and the Lamb shall overcome them ; 
for he Is I.ord of Ix>rds and King of Kings 
and they that are with him are called and 
chosen and faithful." Specifically Armaged- 
don Is a corruption of the Hebrew words 
Har Mageddon, signifying the mountains of 
Meglddo. The reference in the passage in 
Revelations Is probably to Meglddo. but 
some authorities refer It to the plain of 
Ksdraelon. or Jezreel, In Galilee and Sa- 
maria, famous as a battlefield from the 
time Gideon overcame the Mldlanltes to 
Napoleon's victory over the Turks. 



Armament 



fcssages and Papers of the Presidents 



Armament.— 1- — Soldiers or sailor* oa a 

war footing. - — Fijulpmcut and munition* 
for war purposes. 

Armed Neutrality.— In itbo the powe-ra 
of northern I 'u rope — ICussla. Sweden, and 
1 1. umai i. formi d " confi igalast 

i .in i:>ii.i, rb«a ni war wiiii the Fulled 
si.... and pi. .claimed the. doctrine that 
neutral ahlM bad lb* riKhi to vi»it en* 
ports i.f belligerents, iha( free »lilp* mak* 
roods, auil that blockade* to be rccog. 

. niu-.t I"' cITerliial. Tl .. murles 

assumed a threatening poalllon and ■ 
iii. ... ■ opsl ai ,i- Ian. I'., i 
ratified In I Ram of Ihi 
were to he respected by belligerents. ■ 
Hi Haiti rejected Hie principle, and Nelson 
anil 1'nili. I I I. II . -.- 1 at 

C,,]., .|:l.:i,-. ,| \|.lll S. USUI 'I : 

the dlcaolutlon of tbo armed neutrality. 

For months before Ihc United States fin- 
ally entered the European War on April U. 
1017, there wn» much dlaruMloo In el:.' 

United States concerning the advisability 

of adopting a poller of armed neutrality 
toward* Ccrmany anil Austria. As Hi. t> ha 
waa uaed In tho«e daj«. It win understood 
en a situation where American mer- 
ill.'" lit ships would be aupplled with gun* 
nnd gunners, In or.: • to prated ( hoinaelwW 
In iiivi. they were attacked bv a aubmarlne 

pi ihe Centra] Poww whan i:.imony 

announced that, beginning with February t. 
1017. she would "Ink on nlirht nil 
found within the blockade sone ahe 

D around the Ilrltlsh Isles. France and 

Italy, iln- [.Tin "armed neutrality waa 
iip'iuiened lo mean thai armed merchantmen 

might fire at sight upon a aubmarlne. with 
out wnltlng to bo attacked, n» Hie hostile 
Intention* of Ihe hmI.ih.i rln- wight lie pos- 
tulated. Despite ..pposltlon from a email 
croup of Senators, who prev.-ni i 
..r Hi.- Mil .■ u r lii.ii-.' 1 ti _- I -r. "iii. in u n 
adopt armed neutrality. In the rioting days 
of the Sixty fourth Congress (Feb. -, 7-Mnr. 
5 I'll T i. ihe policy «'"• I 1 "! lulo '•"' 

the United States OoTcrnmonl it aid not 

to lie practicable, however, as Presi- 
dent Wilson himself admitted In hla mc«»isgo 
to Congress on April l. 101T. In which he 
a«ked for ii deelarailnn of Ibe existence of 
a state of war with the Imperial German 

I...I. IT.IU. Ml. 

Armed Neutrality: 

Confederacy of, discussed, 2308. 
In Middle States, discussed, 3225. 
Armenians. — Inhabitants of Armenia. 
I'elong to the Aryan family of nations. 
Armenia Is the classical namo of lb« He- 
brew Araial. Assyrian Hrarlu. the country 
ml:, trots (he shores of 1-a.ke 
Von. between the Upper Euphrates and Me- 
dla. forming Ibe juncture between the high 
la u nu of Iran and the table land of Asia 
Minor. It la tbo original seat of one of 
ihe old clvilUed peoples In the world. Ac- 
cording to their records Uiey were- goe- 
crnod In ancient limes by Independent kings, 
but afterwards became tributary to the 
A.-jrlan- After the Assyrian period Ar- 
beoanM a dependency of Persia and 
Media. Subsequently It was conquered by 
Alexander (he Crest, and later It passed 
under Ihn nominal supremacy of Parthla 
and Home, Then It was ruled by Persian, 
Rysanllnr. and Arable govern. irs until Ihe 
dynasty of the Itanraildei. which camo to 
all . ml In I (MS. The line vestige of Ar- 
menian I nee waa destroyed by tlie 
Mamelukes In 137ft. Since that date tb«y 
nave been without an Independent state. 



£ 



(heir country being divided between Persia. 
Turkey, ami ltim-ls. They "(ill lia<« su 
in. I. |.. mi. ni . mil ■ h with the seat of gov- 
. 1 1. in. nt at Constantinople. 

In 1M>4 the greatest cruellies wer* rls- 
Ii. il ii|miii Armrnlanx In Turkey, In part 
because Ihcy were Christians. It we« 
claimed that some of those, upon whom ont 
■ ... ,:. n i. d wen persona ■ Ii I 

deelar.il their Iniemlon lo become citizens 
..( ibe United Slates. Our consuls were 

In lo mak* Investigation of them 

slriM'ltl. - and ernellli" and In tba diplo- 
matic corre s pondence which followed assur- 
ances were given by Turkey that our 

:. should I"' :-. -.Tiled Olid prOl iCted III 

all their rlgbu (page. .v.is:i. '.>. "' 

OUT). 

It wan lenrni-d. however, that an Ar> 
meolaa lournal pobllabed In r 1 1 1- eoontrj in 

Ihe Vrm.ii iily eonn» - 

readers to engage lu rebellion oKalnxt Turk- 

Ish nulhiuliy In the Asiatic pro' 

i ml.- j eomplalued that Armenians sought 

American rllltenabln «lih Ihe In tent I 

elnlmlng the protection "f Ihe Fnifd 

when convicted of sedldous practices lu Ibe 

Inn. I .if Hi, |r I.I il li 

The Ottoman gtirrrnmenl ani »d lis 

Intention to expel from II* dominions Ai 
lana who hate obtained nntutallradon 
In the Fulled States later Ibnu 181 
Armenians: 

Cruelties nnd atrocities committ.-l 
upon, in Turkey, dixeusaed, 5989, 
6D80. 01-17. 
Investigation of, by AmerleAO con- 

Ktll •' ■ 

Referred to, 6000. 
Obtaining cltlnnahip in Tinted 

Btatea and n turning to Turkey ex- 

|..'ll,',l. ili.seusscl, 5872, 8435. 
Tronl iii-tit Of natural:. . .1 iIiiatk of 

1'nitcil States of Armenian origin 

l.y Turk.-; . li Hi i. 
Armies, Cost of.— The Fnite.i BUM Aim 

:i|.p:-..|.rliil Iiiiim fur 101(1-1017 nine. ml to 

' "»3. nol Including lb" 

by tin- MTersl States on their Katloaal 

Ouard or the sums paid for pensions to n- 
volunteers. Tin- Jtarj approprlallons for 
101 • l« amount to tmii.iJttlJSOo, an In- 
crease of S4U.8o3.801 over the prevloua 
year, but n lni.r Sppn bt IPIfi for 

enlarging (he Nary swelled (Mi Increase to 
fl3U.S4S.2ST. The cost of the British A] tn] 

■■■' Una in Mtlmates foi 1018-1 i o ml 

• il to t'J2 4,300,000. Tbe eatlroalea for the 
Nnvy for 1013 14 nre placed si *22l. 140.000. 
The estimaieii military (ipendllnn of (he 
German Umpire In Ihe budget for 1U12 Ft 
nmounteil to flS3.000.000, neludlng • 
illturea on Culoulal troops, The Oerman 
Naval estimates for 1013-14 amount.-,! to 

J 11 1.800.000. Tbo military I. iiiitie. 

or 101S ahnwed au estimated expenditure 
of lfl0l.431.SSO for the military establish- 
ment. Italy during 1913-H expected to 
spend about f." 1.000,000 on her Nnvv. and 
about fSa.D2&000 00 her Army. The mtll- 

Ssry huilx't of Russia, ordinary nnd extTBOt 
Insrv, for lBl.t-14 called for |S17.800 
and tbe Navy expenditure* tn 1013-1 I • 
have amounted to about fl22.BOO.0OO, The 
Army estimate of Aiisiro-Httngary for 1913 
was ft2,.1OO,00O, and for the NBT» f42.- 
00(1,000. The military expenditure of Japan 
' 'This does nol inchiih. cost ol (nrtifirstiona. 
Miliisn- Aoademy, etc. but onlv lot the 
T This Includes conMrucllon of shins, Naval Acad* 
euiv. Nsvy Yards, ete J F.seluding eost of Co- 
lonial troops nol serving in Franco. 






Par l»ia-M were- about ftfi.00O.O00. All 
nlliuln for foreign Annlca Had Navle* 
tii' U-.n largaly ci«ved*d. ©wlag to the 
c»a-r»l war Id l.-=r- 

Armor and Armor Plate: 
IH- 59, 5S8S, K>72. 

Manufacture' of. in l.'mtcd Stlttw roc- 
otnaiendrd, 5100. 

18, 5635. 
AmoclM. ( Sw* Arms ami Ammui. I 

Arwap 
Artaiaa of the World.— The following ta- 
iiii- aba** footing of tin- land 

..f it.- c»i i in ii»»l atan-t of Europe, 

»f Jnpan : alau u{ Ibv arrnndnry M. 

£»irap». A«u «».d AniTli.i. complied from 

i.f.-i *Mil!.itil.- ilai.t li.-futv lb* central 
»«r of lUlt : 




■ — 



t.taoooo 

MMUOOO 

3JO0XOO 

M0.0DO 

BMCO 

I. .....,, 

BSS 

•MHO 

&oo,ooo 

6O.OOO1 

4'l.l»... 

«0klK». 
H,000l 

7*. 000 



Total 
Ftrt-urtli 



•J00.000 
tjOOOjOOO 

r. ,500.000 

-HUH.. I 



82.000 
HL0OO 

70.000 



• Empt aa lo aama of iW prlnn'pal and ■ lea of 

eaifc* Slatja, it u iiou>*l«l » I • 1 1 
■ «t f « of the tvaarvaa or auu-ary luitxa could 
k. arftaaa *ad Bade cfleeuv* wiiaea • canetder- 
. J tan* lo eoaa male*, all rwn of 
. v a» •onlb-d aa talioual aaaartta and 
w* pints trained a Including Colonial Uoopa. 
Maelodaaa rvcular foeeee at bona, la the Ccdooiea. 
eaal 70.000 MB in India and mfturiing Ibo native 
laAaaanny rfibm 17S0U0 rlorludaaarmy i»- 
attn ao-l territorial (;*. 
tragr at a ti aa rt 36.000 .Evrluairaeftroot- 
eaaaa. /Traiu-J National militia /i.,.™/ 
araj undbr proaeni guwrnmeat loeonriilct* 7he*e 
.' I ?.CCO tnra cudv r ajma in ibe recent 
■ Proviortal troona available in raja of 
NaUoaal iwl. or mllliaa partly trained 
PUminal aunarta. Papulation oearlv all negroee. 
l O n ii ath pnrvfaue lo pnarut trmlutioo Tba Pn> 
< all nil Oovovnoaant citima to hav» an army of 10.- 
000. and propoaa lo (octtoae ll lo 100,000- 
Arm» and Annnunitlon. — The ti*# of Are- 
arae followed eloae upon Ike Invention 
utani 1330) of guapowdar. The na« of 
papa a ill I lo military operation* In I'ng- 
fcad ala fa from 13*4. Gibbon write* of a 



cannon sued a| Ihi -lege of Adrlanoplc by 
ioM II I" 1543. During lbnt rear 
Ibe Brat Kngllr.h ■iinii.'ii mi inxi ai I . ;. 
Bold, i in' arqucbuac and mutket 

' ■ -cadre Improvement* 
■m Hie large guoa. Tbo Nwl*a are I 
have bad 10,000 aruu 
*li«- battle ol inrdt. 

under Kmperor Cbarlea V. wltb a force i I 

-. •■ iii.'tiualnni ami Sim mn • k.- 1 . .■ ■■ il.-- 

featlni i of France, Ibe efT 

aea of ilie flrenrmi turnlne Um lltft "'. 
bmili'. Tin. Olnlloek eame Inin u»i In 
•m La Into Kncland andei v, uimm 

111, und Hi* elTectlTelr uaed n« Into us 
is 10 in tba Britbtb irm;. The I.aodcravr 

• ■• armed bla followpra arlll 
1031. The I't-rcuaaon breeeb-loadlnz rifle 
waa In use throughout Ibj «nilt»- K-volu- 
llonnry War, ihougb lli» lllniloek wua Ibo 

priui'ipal aTcapon uaed 

The rrat proctl. n I bl Ii loading Orearm 

made iu iho I'm itant- 

..i h) iiuii in i-i i aboni iooimi mm 
ninde for iin- Government. 1 1 j . - In 
•upertntendlng Ihflr manufacture at tht 
llar|K.-> Vntf Ata.'nnl until hi« death In 

ipitt. in IBM Coaaren made nn np- 

mtlon for brecchdoadlng rltl.-a, and 

- In lhl« arm wei Ddm I 

HI Hi" lir.-aklny mil "f Ibe ilvll \N ii r. dur- 
ing tin- profreaa of which me Oorernment 
nianufactuied and puichowd at home and 

abruai hi tmall arma -. 

n.i'11 'li and .'10 different pail*ro«. Among 
theao were breith -loading rIOea and car- 
bln.-a and a magailne guu -Hie Hen/e. 

In i und 18T2 boarda of offlrent 

were appolnt<d to report upon a dealrable 
♦mall arm. and their Inreatlgalluna I. d to 
i lie adoption in isT:i of the Springfield rifle, 

a III- I In U"e f,.r twenty Venn.. 

The decade between 1680 and 1HU0 wit- 

I ii further -I- •> iiitun.-iil In •mull 
la Ibe ■iitiatllutlon of magstlnea fur Hi- 
•Ingle breech loading npparaiua. a dc 

tba ball and tba -idnptiun 
of RBokelcn r»-wder. 

The forma of gunpowder u«ed In military 

o|K-ratIona In Amerlen oh well an In forelfo 

trlea until within the lax few yeani 

were eascntlally the aame at tho-w u«ed a 

e.-ntury or more ago. Krer alnec Hi-- In 

Ion of gun riitlnn - 

l.Vi:. -i'|,-nl 111. :i I f. 11II..11 li:. i heell -llr^'.-l ril 

to Hi.- iimniife.-iui.- ..' unokeleai powiler. 

n tba tltat to 

otind I -.1. i. -:iii iraoktleta powder 
for line In atnnll arma. The material naed 
la a form of melinite and belong* to the 
ul iro.-.-iliil.-.-. «.r nllro-cuo-cottoa prrpara- 
tlont. The powder lo not absolutely 
amokeloaa, but the flltn of amoke nrlalng 
from In.llililiiul rill, tiling la not Tltlble 
fmm Don than -"-'Ki rniilx 

AfBoag Hi.- iut-»t njii..»ivi ■ produced in 

the United St»tea are cannonlte. fulgurite. 
prosmultr. Amerlcanlte. and Hebm 
Th- Army baa aevelu It the <tor 

ace of powder. Hi" prlni H»nl one of • 
l» near Dover. N. J. i'owder for both 
I.ranili-i. Of ' I >-• aerrleo la aupplled by pri- 
vate flrm». rmJeetllM for ttie natal guna 
aro made at the Naval <;un foundry at 
1 1 i Th* annor-plereine 

aliella are carefullv mn.liln. -I and i tnp •'.! 
and much more exp. moke than 

In i-'i-' the 
Statr* adopted the ICrng .1 rut-off 

: magnilne rifle. Tlie rllle adopted In 

no", and -till In I« tb.- rolled Blotea 

(SprltiL-'leldl niHgaalm- title: lt» enllbre la 

iiillllmetr«» or .110 In.. It« rcloelly 2.- 

<■ ml, in penetrotlon power at 

b.lng !•* 7 ill white pine, and It ear- 

r!e» Ave round* of tl Dillon Theae 

rlflea are made chiefly at the SprlngPeld 
and Itork Uland Araeoal*. 



Anna 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



7%e approtaJ uhle of miliary nfl» in oat by the puocipal eouatrtei (/ Ibc *wM it eompiWl from *># Lie* iraJUhte 
m . 1 ImmM fcfr trttjUcolQ- mule, tiowercr. -; u if not up |r « M'h l>. to PI 1 BI a— Mia MMi^iM «p 1» data, 



r until.. 



I mud SUM 

Ar*nuliu» 
Aiul/Uk-Hung 





KadMd.. { 

frinw 



teu 

ES * 

Fwu. 



Ml,,. 

ErnSu 

TWUy 

t'iueu»/. .. 



Nftau or M.»i#l 
nf ilon 



Mmnliclirr 
Mum. .. 



Muk. 

M»niilirh«r*bVi 

i*anricino-CW«u» 

\i, ■■ 

\l.,., -. 

Minnliohw .... 
Tbre» lb. rifle. . 
Maunr 
U ■ 

Mm. , 

Schnuill-Rubin. . 
Mumt 

Hub. 



iw: 
180 
ISM 

IWI 

l or, 

\m 
\m 

IBM 

itm 
i an 
ill 

IM 

LSM 

IHJ-l 

I VIM 

IW» 



901 
»l« 









OrafUig or JieLet 

Of 



'.«t 

StMi... 
Ciipro XicUl 

.Si. id I V»l«d Suxl. 

• •I 

,-d 

•-UI 

CNipro .'• 

SukjJ l... 

N*W l.'u»UJ MU«J. 

i 

NicUUrnuu Skiver 
Cupro Kit 

NlekalCVi 
NiebinJ C«w, . 











Mm 


II 


*> — 


Y«ei. 


as 


*.&» 


CI 


MO 










J63 


t,in 














B9 








(i 




iii 




115 




4U 




JIM 








MO 




S4* 


I.IW 


no 


*.!» 


Mfl 


:,im 


SM 


J.*» 


SM 












1W 




S?4 




SW 












117 

3<U 


1., 0(30 



I : a I 

,..,1 



MM 

i.oeo 
. mo 

7. ICO 

ijro 

v ■„ 

;.w< 
i.mo 



FyitMiUikj* 

Ml-.'--- 
NitiwtUiAow 
NltrmSulaw 
Vr aUji 
NlUccetluj— 
•fce» 
.tat 

UlkN 
KilmotUiloae 

Nilrw.11,,1- 

llulM 
Silf-.tl.itat 

ii. i. £ 

XilMwl.il... 

NitMelWoW 

Nil/or. 

NllmUulur 

K.rUiul.e ilea 

NiUoMUula* 



itrooaDulaM 
N'ilrMallula* 
S.trweUJojf 

Ur>4ltd pawear 
.-mat rl —rlUw 



In 1008, the entire or my eDd tbc national 
guard, with the *xeeptl..n of the Btal 

im add Nevada, had been auppllcd wlib 

ill. I ml. I . '.,'t lUQSktUi 

inn:: Dl ISOn ammu- 

nition. Till* ride tin k pre/red to be mora 

:nl. a,- nun.', and rapid than 
of the Krag Juikwi.' ii im* which II re- 

ii> d To. 1 1 ; ■ ■ - 1 ' i ■ ' i ' ■ i ' of tba aim 

lion of the rood.l of IIKHI. wltti 1<» 

Srd bullei ..r flat trajectory, repr- 
ic latMl advance In figbtlug material of 

ii i i i -., -ii •rona 

At ilui preaent time no gri-iu 
nl«H In Hi,' pffi ml' of 

with »hli-li iin- ernili 
po*.r» aro aupplled with record to t li ■ - 1 r 
rang™ and «biiutliiir gualltlii. It t« well 
known tlmi tba tlfMttotnaaa of any arm 

da im-aily 
,.r ii-. ii., ii who u»e It, and tbat, otber 
thlnir* h"lne iHjual, lb ilior- 

oachly lnntnicio.1 Ui,i 

Sf rli* rid* art tbc most eOrteal In < 
■'bile ii" "uiuiils Infllcii'd by the ni" 

tmoll calibre blgh »o] ) rlflm in 

fain) and yield more rmillly ii> iivati 
fhan tboaa tnaile by tbc ruo* nf larjr-- <nii 
mine alow-liin iilns bbicli powder 
formerly In u«e. yet It I tli»t 

i.i. n iili t.y Hi,- irualli-r ballet, ■ 
killed or mortally wounded- are a* com 

tlctely put out of ICtlOa a If struck by tba 
imr, 

The aiilninntlc rWo la. beyond qu, 
the mllllury weapon of tha mar fl 
Nearly all of the principal conntrlea of 
ICurope 'in'., been pxpcrltncntlnc with rlfl.- 
of tti 1 1 type, hi well n- the United Btataa. 

Oeimany ndopted an anlomnili nl in 
rollllary n. • In l9ftR The Milim Suit — 
ha< rer-nllr adopl-d ■ >- In pla,» 

of tbo aerelce revolver, ttie Poll nnioinatle 

,,|. ,1 nud rigid rxperlt 
«nd teafa hv n ' mini "I unuv iiffl, 

la regarded aa a remarkably effective waap- 



■ 

n.ln.1 La tugarli' 

in outomali , i a U-octk 

of 8. it Inches: leii^in ..f iMirrv! 
in. lie. . wi khl • .ilbiA Mi 

dgei iu luBgailii. 
Arms and AmmuuitScm: 

io, 37D5, 
i '.in eij of. to — 

State araenaU rfferre<1 to. i 
Exportation of, Older ]-r..hiliiioK, 
3328. 6469. 
Extended, '.■ 
Modii. 

Bi , omi endi i 373. 
Baa. 
Gunpowder, manui ■ reetion of, 

1608, i . ' 
Loans •■: 

M -mall arms t, 

me. ii. 

of— 

. SOI, 471. 
Should l.e encourntfe.1, 80S, 297, *4S. 
BtaUmi ut of, 0f»7. 
Pnt-. at 1 

proeurcment and prop.-rtlca <.. 
Dl of, 7ti7. 77i),7»0. 
Ml, 
Ter. ■ t of Polutnliia 

to receivi 

the i|uota of a State with least 
ti'i'regctitatloB in CoDgrcaa, 6188, 

no. 




Encyclopedic Index 



Army 



Army. — The earliest American military 
establishment consisted of two parts, the 
continental army, organized by the Conti- 
nental Congrrss June 15, 1775. and the mi- 
litia {q. v.) organized by the States, aver- 
aging between the years 1775 and 1781 
about 60,000 men, though often not more 
than half that number were in active ser- 
Tice. The War Department (o. v.) was es- 
tablished by act or Congress Aug. 7. 1789. 
Nov. 5. 1783. the army was disbanded and 
1.000 men retained until the peace establish- 
ment could be organized. Though tempo- 
rarily increased by Indian wars and 
troubles with France, the federal forces 
numbered only from 3.000 to 5.000 men at 
the outbreak of the War of 1812. During 
that war the number of regular troops was 
more than 85.000, and 470.000 mllltla were 
enlisted. Up to the time of the Mexican 
War the army averaged 9.000 men. During 
that war the regular troops enrolled num- 
bered 30,000 and the volunteers 74,000. 
With the return of peace the regular forces 
were reduced to 10,000. and later Increased 
to 12.000. 

During the first year of the Civil War the 
regular army was Increased to 35.000 by 
the addition of eleven regiments, viz. : One 
of cavalry. 1.189 officers and men ; one of 
artillery, twelve batteries, six pieces each, 
1.909 men: nine of Infantry, consisting of 
three battalions of eight companies each, 
22.008 officers and men : but the number of 
mllltla and volunteers was very much 
larger. President Lincoln's first call. Issued 
April 15. 1861. was for 75,000 men for 
three months' service (3214). Later enlist- 
ments were mostly for three years. At tbs 
beginning of 1862 the number of volunteers 
In the army was 550.000. and during the 
next three years It was 900.000. At the 
close of the war the Federal army num- 
bered 1.000.000 The total number of en- 
listments was 2.213.363 (41561. 

In 1867 the "peace establishment" of the 
United States army was fixed at 54.641 
men. It was then reduced by successive 
enactments to 25.000 enlisted men In 1875. 
At the beginning of 1898 the peace estab- 
lishment of the army consisted of ten regi- 
ments cavalry, 8.410 : five regiments artil- 
lery. 2.900 : twenty-five regiments Infantry, 
1.1.525; one engineer battalion, 216: total, 
25.051. This did not Include brigade and 
staff officers. At the outbreak of tbe Span- 
ish-American War two additional regiments 
of artillery were added to the regular 
forrps and the line of the army wan re- 
organized on the basis of two battalions of 
four companies each to the regiment, and 
two skeleton companies. In case of a 
declaration of war these skeleton companies 
were to be manned, and. with two other 
companies for which authority to raise was 
granted, were to form the third battalion 
in each infantry regiment. 

Voder the provisions of a law approved 
March 2. 1899, the regular army establish- 
ment was fixed at about 27.700 officers and 
men. To meet the exigencies of the ser- 
vice In the newly acquired possessions, the 
Presldi-nt was authorized to maintain the 
regular army at a strength of 6.1.000 en- 
listed men and to raise a force of 35.000 
volunteers, to be recruited from the country 
at large or from the localities where their 
services are needed, "without restriction as 
to citizenship or educational qualifications." 

An act of February. 1901. abolished the 
"rtnteen" from the army, that Is. prohibit- 
ed the sale of beer or any Intoxicating 
liquors at the army posts. The organiza- 
tion of the army was further modified by 
•n act of Congress approved Feb. 14. 1003. 
*olrh created the General Staff Corps. 
Tola consists of the Chief of Staff, who 



AUTHORIZED 8TBBX0TH OF THB ABMY IN 1916. 

Source — Report of Chief of Staff to Sec- 
r ' ,ar V,of War. — Toe strength of tbe eo- 
tlre Military Establishment authorized by 
the President, under the statutory limita- 
tion of 100,000 enlisted men, on June 30, 
1915, by branches of service, is shown In 
tbe following table : 



BRANCHES Or SERVICE. 


Offi- 
cers. 


En- 
listed 
men. 


Total. 


General officers 

Adjutant General's Dep't. 

Judge Advocate General's Dep't.. . 


25 

23 

17 

13 

183 

•601 

248 

85 

100 

3 

7 

87 

80° 

262 

748 

1,608 

31 


'8.403 
•4.012 
1.S42 
744 
1,471 



' 14.148 

8341 

19.019 

35.339 

599 

832 

6.125 

350 

7» 

110 

7 

75 


25 

a 

17 
13 

•6388 

"4.611 

2,190 

830 








1378 

3 

7 

67 

14.957 

6.803 

19,767 

36,945 

630 

633 

8,125 

380 

729 

110 

7 

75 


Professor*, U.3.Military Academy. 

Chaplains 

Cavalry 


Field Artillery 


Coast Artillery Corps 


Infantry 

Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry. . 

U. 8. Military Academy 

Recruitins parties, eu 

U.S. Disciplinary Barracks guard*. . 

Service-school detachments 

With disciplinary organisations.. . . 






Total Regular Army 


4,834 
182 


97.248 
6,733 


102,082 
6,915 


Actual Aggregate 


8,016 
4.7B8 


102,981 

101.195 


107.997 
105,993 



■ Include* the enlisted strength (6.000 men) of the 
Quartermaster Corps, which men, under the prortslons 
of the act of Congress approved Aug. 24. 1912 (87 
Stat. L.. 5C-3i. are "not ti be counted m a part of 
the enlisted force prodded by law." 

> Includes 9 7 officers of the Medical Reserre Corps 
assigned to actlTe duty under the provisions of the act 
of Cougreae approred Apr. 23. 1908 (35 Stat. L., 
66) . 

■ Authorised strength of the Hospital Corpa. which, 
under the act of Congmts approfed Mar. I, 1887 
(24 Stat. L., 435), la not to be counted as a part 
of the enlisted strength of the Army. 

Tabic tthowlnR the actual strength of the 
Army prior to the passage of the army law 
of 1016. 



organizations. 


Srainora 
Ju.ii 30, 1915. 




Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


General officers 

Adjutant Generals Department 
Inspector General's Department. . 
Judge Advocate General's Depart- 
ment 

Quartermaster Corps ' 

Medical Corns 1 

Medical Reserve Corps 


25 
23 
17 

12 

185 

422 

97 

34 

207 

85 

63 

3 

84 

7 


4.792 
3,993 


Ordnance Department 

Signal Corns 

Bureau nf Insular Affairs 

Chaplains 


1.948 

740 

1.371 






Total 


1,244 


12,844 



Army 



Messages and Papers of the 





Hnuwoni 




Jok»:o. IV1S. 


OKUAMLiriON*. 










BoBMd 




Offiosrs. 


i.wn 




47 
44 


oso 




0S& 




4f 

SO 


LOW 




H77 




16 

46 


l.l'I'J 
043 




40 


MB 




48 
46 
47 


M 
MM 




oe& 




44 


1,1X11 


TwsK Ih Cavalry 

Thirv-MM s»»lry 


4« 

47 


li.1l. 


Fourteantli Cavalry 


43 


910 


Fiftaccih Cavalry 


47 


HI 


Additional Offi«». 

IMarhol niticars 1 


12 
47 




I'liawKUol 


31 






T7» 


11.0411 


nnAFWMArtWwr 

Satuu) Field AMillsry 


41 
37 


OB 
885 




40 


955 




OOI 




40 


1AX31 




a 


Egg) 




i 










a 








Ml 


'..■'.1 




7M" 


19,181 




4* 
47 
47 


1,414 
1,803 

ns7 






47 


VflO 




48 


1.730 




47 

48 


880 






47 


l.rCtt 


Uiahtb Infantry 

Kuiih lufulry 


48 

u 


Wl 
1.744 

M 
8.10 






Elsrsnu Infantry 


46 

4A 


Twelfth Infantry 


■1^ 


1,831 


TWtMnth lofaouy 


4; 


l.l(X) 




47 


I B9 


Fiftssnth Infantry ...... 


4(1 

« 

46 


Mj 

■-., 
032 


SevtoteeoUi Infantry 


kuthteouUi I«fi»i.try . 


46 


820 


Nioatcnith Infantry 


45 


804 


TwoBlisUi Infantry 


44 


80* 


T«nity. Oral Infantry 

Twruly-«etond InfanUT 


47 

48 


8S0 


Twanty-thinl Infantry 


44 


1 B IB 


Twenty.loiirth Infantry 


40 


Yin 


Taenly-Ollh Infsntry 


H 


Ml 


T*-culy-sLUi Infanlry . 


43 


01H 


T-STnty-savrnth Infantry. . 


46 


fl.17 


Tweoty-mnih Inluntry 


40 


1,177 




40 


040 


Tlnrlirlli lufiuilry. 


31 


| ■ 


Port* Him ll-»imrol uf Infantry 


12 
04 
07 






















718,133 






623 
31 








f aauals and noruiti at depots and 




d.mo 












7 MM 




Total, IWular Army. 


1,818 


85.765 




III 


5.430 








I.TM 


101. IDS 







takes tbc place of tbc Commanding General 

•if 111.- An • (*ll«d 

h.v ih. I from in.- regular army not 

below tbc grade of brigadlcr-gcncrnl. and 
forty-two oOcvn of minor grade similarly 
.1 i... Hi.- i-i. Mil. iii n I ill.- doty 
of the Ijenrral smrr Corpt to prepare plana 
f.ir tbc national defense aud for the mo- 
i. ii... hi. hi ..r lb., inllltarj forcei la time "f 
10 MM Hi.- Secretary uf War la In- 
creasing the ellk-lcury of tbe military cstab- 
llyhni.-ui . and In ca»e of war to act aa a 
Board of RiratPKj- Tbe t'hlif of. staff 
bai • uii.-rviKlon of all troops of tbe line, the 
Mllliiuv Secretary"* t>mce. tbc Inspector- 
i i in. JihIii. tern t.ii ■ Quar- 

l.-l-lliii-.l. l '■ .--.-. V.. ill. .il l':i.. MDil 

tnilium i- Dcpnrtuirut*. tbc Corps of Kn- 

nU ■ mid Signal Corpa. 

The army reorganisation law of 1016. *p- 
i] .lulu- ;i. provide* thai tbc Army of 

tbe I mi. .1 ill <i»i ..I ih.- I 

lor Army, tbe Volunteer Army, the (Hi, 
- Corpa, the Ellllsir-.l k« -• 

in. "s ii t ...mi i Quart) whit* la Uw aerrlce of 

th.- United State*, and »neh other land 
force* as »n. i in u or might ih.-r.-n. 
authorised hy hnv. 

(TOatpOtfliOa '>! Ilir Itrt/uUir Army. — Til" 

.r Army of the i iiit.-.i sun... Includ- 
ing .-lUtlni; organisations, wn* made t. 
»i-r of i'.-i t-.-K iiii.-n i . ol Infanti 
in. ot ■ of CavaJry. :'i regiment* ol ri.-i.i b 

till. iv. a Cooat Artillery Corpa. the brig* " 
division, army corpa, and army hen-hiu 
ten, with their detachment* and In* 
Qeneral Htaif Corpa, an Adjutant Oei 
Department, an lns|icetor tl.-n.-nii'M M 
mini, .link:.- A.lv... nto i ;. nerol's llcpar 
in. -iii. Q later Corpa. M. --ll.nl Depart 

in. -ol, Corps nf Kuglnccra, fferdnitni-u Ih 
meat, Klk-nnl Corps, the ofbeeni of the liu 

nun of IntnUtr Antra, to* UUKU I'.urtan. 
the detached offleera, detached DOD-coaunla 

atoned ulfteer*. t'lutplaloa, the Regular Army 

i; i ••-, a* w.ii aa tin- oin.-.-i • nn-i . i 

in. ii mi Hi.. re|lr»-.l ltd ii iiiitlonal offl- 
eera : nlao the pi-ofeaaora. Corr* of Cndcta. 
general Armi aervlce dela buianl and da 
iiirhmiiii- ..r Cavalry, in-id Arttiler' 
glnevrw. nnd bund of the I'nlteil Stnti-a Mill- 
ini\ Ai aileinj . Ihi' iioul inuiniiiinilt 
xtnff oOlei parties, recruit 
depot ileturhinenls, and unasalgned recruits ; 
.- school detachments dlsi Ipllnnrj 
guard*; disciplinary <irgnui>atlnns: Indian 
Scouta : and such other officers and en. 
in.-ii ns ma) I..- provided for. 

i in- low 0XM * ■iiliiimuni of 100.000 filht 
Ing regulnrH. below which It will be the 

..I Ho- War Dapartaunl bo i thai the 

Army ne/rer (alia. Thi» mny he in. i 



ol Corps. 3JS7 of Hi. 
ana 1 Corpa, and ft,i."ii> utinxalitn.ol rx\\U<—\ 
m. -ii. ii total of ■.■nil, lim men In peace. The 
force may he Increased by executive ordei 
without rnm-r.-.-lnnul BCtJoD to about 2flS.- 
000 men ond U'.OOO offlcer*. 

Tin Null. .nil IJiuird, when rnK.-.1 to full 
wnr MP'nicth. numlicrs almo<t SDO.OOn 
The ilr«t drnft army autborlaed by the 
Hlxt.'-rlfth < -- .■•-..-■-. ■■< iii May. 1H17, provides 
for 347.107 olBcers and men In addition to 

the abort, 

ftroff J»«» nf aa.— Reetlon B of tbe Mil 
for tho locreaae of the arm) pasaed by 
I'onicrosa nnd npprored 1 ■ v the rr.--lil.-nt 09 
Mm- 1M. 1017. made provl Ion for a draft 

army nf DOO.O ten which, srlth thi 

lion ..r offlcers and other mininrv nnlts. 

fin tin total - : the fon a thai proi i.t.-d 

I IBT. AI a the sues 

..I ji and 80, IneluatTe, arere subject to the 

draft, which, according to figures given out 




Encydopi'dic Indue 



Army 



K3S 



&y l»r Oi»n« Bureau. would thua aclcct 
!i* military khI'i- about 1 ll 

age limit.. The draft 
«■■ arranged according to tbe wi»i« of tbe 
Ki'iil iUIm. and from compulsory unl- 
i.r.ll rv£Utrutl..|i Ink r, BDoa |l m- ... . Ii- 
Mil »l»o provided for the selection of a 
second similar fore* In cane of neceulty. 
>lt*_) 
Those eiesnnt'.l fn-ra llir drift 

and oBtiaN of tbe several atales 
•ad of tli-- i thoa* Ib 

Industry whom the I'r in It 

llltnry « 
■taUter* and theological atodenta. those lie- 
nuclei to a well-esu 

whose I. art. ff.rMd partiripatlog In war. 
»nd tbcaw found upon rumination to be 
•orally or pbyalcally unlit for servlr. 
•'O In tnad<- for tbe *o-e.i 
ttosni objectors"' to, r). but all ensen 
bo>» claim dan 

provided for under the lam- w.-r. i 
before local civil board*, wltb tb* right 
-t appeal to tbc higher court*. Refusal to 
<1 • mWnniiiiMr hy 
'■Ttalooa of tbp art. and made thoae 
PiunaJ guilty of sarb toUdemcanor snbjcet 
to act snore tban a year's Imprisonment, 
swrtbermore. such person* became auti mat- 

leadstcred apon rrlcaac from Iroi" 
wear, aa though they bad been registered 
•t the drat con. -trailou. 

To* remaining arctlona r tbc -"I In- 
creased tbc regular nrrov to full war 
rafted lato tbc national aorvlce 
i i! ilnfi 
Of volunteer lnr»nlrT. If 
r. t deemed audi action ndrluhlc; 
d awn from 
ttS Bi'.ntMT for thoa* receiving lc»- I 

121 monthly at ti me of the passage 

i *fi monthly for those receiving 
at that time b> ii and 

proatblted tbe sole of liquor at or nenr army 
training ean»p*. wltb other provl-nm f-.r 
safeguarding lb« morabi of army nnd ramp 

life. 

C*a****af**a 0/ JTrfnaaVe. /Hrislona. 
— Tb» tnuMIe troopa of tbe K-g.ilnr Army 
• organised, n* far aa 
seaetlrable. 

- autborlicd. In time of n 
nratsned bo-iilltlen. or when In bla 

opinion the Interests .if tl rvlce 

It. to orcnntio Ike brigade* nud 

■i* Into aocli army con" 

•a may be necessary. The typical Infantry 

fcrigaile la nude to consist of n 

ter* and Ihrse r.-glaseots of iBfantr] tbe 

I airy brigade of n ii.-n.|.|iinrtera 

. ■ elaaeela of Cavalry '. the typical 

»V*d Artillery brigade o4 a ' uai 

• aJ thrr» i The 

■ 

Jvalry. odc I'i-M 
ry brl'ail. 

L-oat battnlloB. one aero Bqii 
amaltten train, one supply train, OM 
r trail iry train. The 

i'ihIi) dlrlalon la mad* to conalat 
iradsjttarters, ibne Caralrr brlgadea, 
"•• reclatoit .if ri.-hl Artillery (borw 
aattajto - 1 ooi field 

•Irnal ballalloB "' r. .nj-ri.li, one aero aquad- 
.ln. one aiipplr train. 
••• etii la, abd one aanltary train. 

TV» typbal arm- malat 

* » bcad.juarterv two or more Infnnli 
rlatnna, oo- gailea or a 

I Artillery brl- 
i. one tetecrapb battnlliin. ami »DI 
I batlalloc. nnd «ncb ammonltlon. idp- 
■ r, and aanltary tralna aa the 
llteBt may deeaa Beceaanry. Karli 
tialn. ammuaitlon train, aanltary train. 



and engineer train ahall rooalat of aurh offl- 
ivra and cnlUted men nnd ahall be orxanUad 
«« Hie I'reelilent may prcacrl 
rera neccaaary tbarawlCb |o be litalled 
mi lei ib- provlnlon. of acctlona 20 and 27, 
. 2, 11.01. 
real OjJIcer* of thr I.lnr. — Ol«oer« 
curiinilMluii.-d lo anil holding In the Army 
ilo- "ilk-ii of a general olilccr aaall 
tin known aa general - -111 • - 
otne-ra cuminlk-iiini'i! to anil boldlmj In the 
linn that of a n 
.Mill Ho- rank of a general 
I. Khn 1 1 be known aa general 
. of the aloff. The number of general 
o«cera of the line nuw aiithorlwd by | n if 
i four major gcnarala 
and nineteen t>rli:.i ■ ! l.-i- ayjBBfaJi 

That bereafi- .- in tin I |ie«ce major gen- 

cml» of Hi.- line tuall be appointed (ran 
oMccra of the grade of brlgndler general of 
tb«- line, nnd brigadier g.-n.-rala of the line 
pointed from onV-.-r« of thl grail* 
"oel of the line of Hie Kegular i 
Oencral ataff Corp*. — The Oenerat Staff 
Corpa ahall conal.i o( I CUM "f Staff, de- 
d In time of peace from major generala 
«.f the line: i AaaUtanta to the Chief of 
Stuff, Mb,, -n.ili he general ufll era -.f the 
i| whom, not abore tbe grade of 
brlxadler general, ahall be the preal.l.nt of 
Uta Army W«r Collate; 10 coloneln; 10 
mint cnlunela ; IS major*: and 1. 
i,, i.,- iletalled from correapondlbg 
In the Army. All »mceni detail- -I In 
iff Corp* ahall be detailed 
therein for period "f four jenri 
■oonar r^ii. |e aervtai in lb* Qen 

oOlcer* ma} l»- i«»i ilj 

• •Klcned to duly Willi mi., brancfe Dl IM 
Army. 

Adfiitunt niniiiili firprrrfmrnf l» 
tn iiiii..i.t of tbe Adjutant General aril 
rank of brigadier general V niljul 
gerjeral nlih ili,< rani. ..i colonel: 1^1 .i.lju 
laata-g.-u-i.il with i lie- nink of ll-m 

I; and 30 a.ljutnnl* *■ n-rnl with tbe 
rank of BUjor, 

V'Ar ln'ptctor (IcnriaV* llrparlmrtil. — 

Inipector Qeneral with the rank of 

II— r general: 4 lnapeclor* general with 
the? rank of colonel R In i ■■ > ■■: -. n. r.ii 
with the rank of lieutenant colonel: anal 18 
ior» general with the rank of major. 
,/urfoe Adroeuf- llfimrtmrnl. — 

'•ii-- ..riiti- <:-inr,il with tbe 

raak of brigadier general ; -t Judge adiocate* 
with t e rank of colonel ; 7 Judge nd>-- 

ink - ! lieutenant .■"h.nel : and 20 
Jmt.te advocate* wltb tbe rank of major. 

QuarlertntuUr Corp*.— tine quartermas- 
ter Oeaeral with tli. rank ■•( major g.-ii.-r.ii . 
^ aaalatanta with the rank of brigniJlcr gen- 
eral; 21 colonel*: 2* lieutenant colonel*: 
M tn.ii-r-: lso captain*: and tbe pa] 
clerk* now In b*o »hall 

i-r bare tb* rank. pay. nnil 1 
mi. .-> of a second lleutenanl nnd tbe i'r.-«i- 
•leat In nutborUed i" ippolnl nsd CDmintl 
Hon iIi-jii. bj and wltb tin- adrift tod eon- 
MBri of the Senate, aecond Hentenaau in 
tin- Qunrtennaater Corfu United 

Tin- t..|/il enllate.l vtrenglh Of UM 
Quartf-rmajtcr Corp* and the uumher In 

each grade ahall be limited ami llx.-d D 

lima t" tluio by the President In accordance 
with the ne.-.lK nf th* Anni Ud 

►i»t of .|nart. n nreant* - nloi 

grade: araartermuter *ergpant*: ■ergeanta, 
ml eoi porala . roota ; pri 
to ten. Ilrat cla>n: nnd nrlvatet. 'I'hc mini 
bar i" tb* viirlnii* grade* «hall nol - 
the following t>*ri-entng»* of tbe total an 
ttiorlied enllated Rtrength of the gmrter- 
r Corpa. namely : Qnartermaater aer- 
geanta, aenlor grade. Vj of I p*r cent : ouar- 



Army 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



tcrmnatT »rcMnt«, <l per rent: Mrrmoli, 
flrat cl jt : avrflruti 

i 

Corps ahull Ur - i 

saiaota, (color fi II l»- in 

Id Hi 

Knl-ir :n h'-i • -|a*>L All work 

tram on.J rtpaU that 
*• he r I lie 

. ii. .iv pro- 

!>>■ Ill«* " 'lie I17 

1 .'■ at Mill 

l/r.' Imr»f.— flua Suraaon 

with the rank of ninj-.r gen- ii* 

■ 

1 ' • 

■•■•!•«.« I 

t.» r|,|, .v , 

Klnw. thr I ■!■ era of which 

: . 1 1 ■- 

1 « b«- 

11 .1 r fc'i-m 

f. , 
in.* «-\i ■■••i. 7 '..I • i| en- 

IlK'.'.l 

h ' 

»n»e ihjl! 

■ 
II lake 
■ 

h 1 n. 1. : 
- r, ih-- agei 'LUrr 

.I.- riii. I. • «.f 

1 the Medli 1 1 • 'orp« 11D1I u|ion p»|. 
ini: Hi.- ■MiialnalloD* !• 

• an- 
1 

■ ■ .il Department nl II 

ma Of 

I In lull 

Tin nl n»pnrl- 

■1 ..f [he 

Dol '"■ Uiilii.l'.i 111 ' itrvofftb. ff 

|..irl .■.' 1 
IWleil 
pltal •• 
author* 1! il Ilopnrt- 

. irrc»-nni«. 

I I pel cent : corporal*. "• and 
cooks. 6 t- nii.-r of hor*c- 
•-boer*. andriler*. farrier*, and nnrti«nir» 

not ateee'l I . I 

company or Ilk* orc*nl> 
• h. niirnher of private 

r nrl- 
vnl»«- PrlTnt#«. rlrn ■In.., ..f il 

MrlM* for ratine" for n«l 
A« dlapenMry aa- 

l.lll |i» Mil 

a* aiiry ...nth 

president l« nnthorweii to appoint 

i1»mii.«I *tir**or.«. who are chlMo-a of iln' 

1 "■.•in Hi.' ■(*■ r,f VI atvl 

-■. It the rate of 1 for "-ai-h l.ono en. 

ilatsd n il hi 'in- my. IVsinl 

surgeons shall bare toe rank. pay. and 



allowance* of flrat llnttconats tattl they 

I iaur* 

■ 
ninj hot' 

pay, him I ,. 1 

tli, in '.'J v,.«r« - 

P»y. 11 

1 1 • nroooa with ruck, pay, 
mcea of Diiijur ahall not at any 
: 1 .*>. 

-retnry of War 
to gr.u. i" 

■ 
ami mio on aoy aollltary 1 

fupy f.17 tin 
ne» erected hy th» I 

null r.M.-nl.illi'i> nx Hi* Secret! 

11 population !■ 
rase 1. 1 

..... 

Dcera, wlin "" 



... 

. - , 

1 ml I Iln 111 lilted u.rs 

reglm-nt'. ncl 2 ntoUBtfJ 



Mi'iitroanl* : 
nlot ci 

nippli 
A'.irjts; 1 aerfejint 



■r I'l'iiii- 111 1 



■".. *•• " ■• <• 
Jor* ; 1 

' 

I 1 '. ' ■ [at I I'' 
of 1 1 .li.fi. 1 ; 1 Ii. hi. 11. mi . .l.-ni'l : 

2 moan r .'n.-it.. 

1 i>-k ; 1 was> 
'■ flrjil 
and combat train, ami 2 1 

Each bo 1 of Entl- 

italo, 1 

t«ttnllon 

; oti 

I COD' 

-i > •" 

■ " 1 ; 3 aer- 
ff»»aota. Or' * 

Ply 1 Mnlile aerre.n 

oka ; 19 prlotra, 

1 " ■ t.-|"I of T hand 
. 1 11 
IJ.'IIUI . V l.iirnl -.. . : tor . 

rhlr.l ■-!«■ 

tTTO • II 

. 

' of 1 ma: ; mat 

Daata: 1 : 

i bnttalli . nit 

crada : 1 corporal - I 
wagoner for each aur 
itul eombal I 
Each n 
► hull cnnalal of I raptaln: " Ural 1: 
not» ; 1 aecond II 

»not«. flnt clan: 1 D*OB(i 

1 aiipply targMDt : 1 HjI.Ii> >»••;. jnt ; 4 »er- 
ceanta: 8 "i'iti: j aaa- 

illor : 2 rv,nu«; : tmrlera : 12 prteaiM first 

ik for 
i«o. Tin* •*nll«t^.| force «>f ih* 1 
<■< F.n 

Una dI 
'. — Tine f" 

» r 11 1 1 1^ 

.plain* : 42 1 

"Innn..- > 1 

.1 --it.'h .. 

grades now anthorlicd by Inw aa tat Prtart- 



Encyclopedic Index 



Army 



dent may direct. The Secretary of War la 
authorized to detail not to exceed 30 lieu- 
tenant* from the Army at large for duty aa 
student officers lu the establishments of the 
Ordnance Department for a period of 2 
years; ond the completion of the prescribed 
course of Instruction shall constitute the 
examination for detail In the Ordnance Ue- 
partmexxt* 

Signal Corps. — One Chief Signal Officer, 
with the rank of brigadier general ; 3 colo- 
nels ; 8 lieutenant colonels ; 10 majors ; 30 
captains ; 75 flrst lieutenants ; and the avia- 
tion section, which shall consist of 1 colo- 
nel : 1 Uentenant colonel ; 8 majors ; 24 cap- 
tains ; and 114 first lieutenants, wLo shall 
be selected from among officers of the Army 
at large of corresponding grades or from 
among officers of the grade below, exclusive 
of those serving by detail In staff corps or 
departments, who are qualified as military 
aviators, and shall be detailed to serve as 
aviation officers for periods of 4 years unless 
sooner relieved ; and the provisions of sec- 
tion 27 of the Act of Congress approved 
Feb. 2, 1901, are hereby extended to apply 
to said aviation officers and to vacancies 
created In any arm, corps, or department of 
the Army by the detail of said officers there- 
from. 

Aviation officers may, when qualified 
therefor, be rated as Junior military avia- 
tors or us military aviators. Each aviation 
officer shall, while on duty that requites him 
to participate regularly and frequently in 
aerial Bights, receive nn Increase of 25 to 
73 per cent In the pay of his grade and 
length of service under his commission. Mar- 
ried officers of the line of the Army shall 
be eligible equally with unmarried officers, 
and subject to the same conditions, for de- 
tail to aviation duty : and the Secretary 
of War shall have authority to cuuse as 
many enlisted men of the aviation section 
to be instructed In the art of Hying us he 
may deein necessary ; the age of officers shall 
not be a bar to their first detail In the avia- 
tion section of the Signal Corps, and neither 
their age nor their rank shall be a bar to 
their subsequent details In suld section. 
When It shall be Impracticable to obtain 
from the Army officers suitable for the avia- 
tion section of the Signal Corps In the num- 
ber allowed by luw the difference between 
that number and the number of suitable 
officers actually available for duty In sold 
section may be made up by appointments la 
the grade of aviator. Signal Corps, and that 
grade Is hereby created. The personnel for 
■aid grade shall he obtained from especially 
qualified civilians who shall lie appointed 
and commissioned in said grade. The base 

riy of an aviator, Signal Corps, shall be 
150 per month, ond he shall have the allow- 
ances of a master signal electrician and the 
same percentage of increase In pay for 
length of service as Is allowed to a master 
signal electrician. 

The total enlisted strength of the Signal 
Corps shall be limited and fixed from time 
to time by the President In accordance with 
the needs of the Army, and shall consist of: 
Master signal electricians, 2 per cent of the 
total authorized enlisted strength of the 
Signal Corps: sergeants, first class. 7 per 
cent ; sergeants, 10 per cent : corporals. 20 
per cent. The number of privates, flrst 
class, shall not exceed 25 per cent of the 
namber of privates. Authority Is hereby 
given the President to organize. In hi* dis- 
cretion, such part of the commissioned and 
enlisted personnel of the Signal Corps Into 
•ach number of companies, battalions, and 
aero sqnndrons ns the necessities of the serv- 
ice may demand. 

Chaplain). — The President Is authorised 



to appoint chaplains In the Army at the rate 
of not to exceed, Including chaplulns now 
lu service, one tor euch regiment of Cavalry, 
lufuutry, Field Artillery, and Engineers, 
and one for euch 1,200 officers and men of 
the Coast Artillery Corps. 

Vetcrinariant. — The President Is author- 
ized to uppoint veterinarians and assistant 
veterinarians In the Army, not to exceed. 
Including veterinarians now In service, 2 
such officers for each regiment of Cavalry, 
1 for every 3 batteries of Field Artillery, 1 
for each mounted battalion of Engineers, 17 
as inspectors of horses and mules and as 
veterinarians In the Quartermaster Corps, 
and 7 as inspectors of meats for the Quar- 
termaster Corps ; and said veterinarians and 
assistant veterinarians shall be citizens of 
the United States and shall constitute the 
Veterlnury Corps and shall be a part of the 
Medlcul Department of the Army. The Sec- 
retary of War shall from time to time ap- 
point boards of examiners to conduct the 
veterinary examinations hereinbefore pre- 
scribed, euch of said boards to consist of 
3 medical officers and 2 veterinarians. 

Infantry f'ntfs. — Each regiment of In- 
fantry shall consist of 1 colonel, 1 lieuten- 
ant colonel, 3 majors, 15 captains. 1(1 flrst 
lieutenants, 15 second lieutenants, 1 head- 

Suorters company, 1 machine-gun company, 
supply company, ond 12 Infantry compa- 
nies organized Into 3 battalions of 4 com- 
panies euch. 

Euch battalion shall consist of 1 major, 
1 first lieutenant, mounted (battalion adju- 
tant), ami 4 companies. Each Infantry 
compuny In battalion shall consist of 1 cap- 
tain, 1 flrst lieutenant, 1 second lieutenant, 
1 flrst sergeant, 1 mess sergeant, 1 supply 
sergeant, U sergeants, 11 corporals, 2 cor- 
porals. 2 cooks, 2 buglers, 1 mechanic, 19 
privates (first cluss). and 56 privates. 

Each Infuntry headquarters company 
shall consist of 1 captain, mounted (regi- 
mental udjutnnt) : 1 regimental sergeant 
major, mounted : 3 battalion sergennts ma- 
jor, mounted ; 1 first sergeant (drum ma- 
jor) : 2 color sergeants : 1 mess sergeant ; 
1 supply sergeant ; 1 stable sergeant ; 1 ser- 
geant : 2 cooks : 1 horseshocr, 1 band leader; 

1 assistant baud leader ; 1 sergeant bugler ; 

2 band sergeants; 4 band corporals; 2 musi- 
cians, first class ; 4 musicians, second class: 
13 musicians, third class ; 4 privates, first 
class, mounted; anil 12 privates, mounted. 

Each Infantry mncblne-gun company shall 
consist of 1 captain, mounted ; 1 flrst lieu- 
tenant, mounted : 2 second lieutenants, 
mounted ; 1 first sergeant, mounted : 1 mess 
sergeant ; 1 supply sergeant, mounted ; 1 
stable sergeant, mounted; 1 horseshoer ; 5 
sergeants: corporals: 2 cooks; 2 buglers: 
1 mechanic ; 8 privates, flrst class; and 24 
privates. 

Each Infantry supply company shall con- 
sist of 1 captain, mounted ; 1 second lieu- 
tenant, mounted : 3 regimental supply ser- 
geants, mounted: 1 first sergeant, mounted ; 
1 mess sergeant ; 1 stable sergeant : 1 cor- 
poral, mounted: 1 cook: 1 snddler ; 1 horse- 
shoer: and 1 wagoner for each authorized 
wagon of the field and combat train. The 
President may Increase a company of In- 
fantry by 2 sergeants, corporals, 1 cook. 
1 mechanic, il privates (first class), and 31 
privates; an Infantry machine-gun company 
by 2 sergeants. 2 corporals. 1 mechanic. 4 
privates, first class, ami 12 privates. 

Carnlrir T'nitn. — Each regiment of Cav- 
alry shall consist of 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant 
colonel. 3 majors. 15 captains, in first lieu- 
tenants, Ifi second lieutenants. 1 headquar- 
ters troop. 1 machine-gun troop. 1 supply 
troop, and 12 troops organized Into 3 squad- 
rons of 4 troops each. 



Army 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Koch ■quailron (hull cmuUt "f 1 I 
. Il*ut*ll*nl (squadron adjutant), and 
4 Crooptti Bttcb troop In aquadroo -"hull eou- 
plain, 1 arac Lieutenant. 1 

lieutenant, 1 Ural aorgcnnl. I m, 

1 supply sergeant. 1 stable sergeant, 

grant*, H corporal*, 2 cook m, 

1 -ml. Hit. 2 bugler*, In private* (Unit I 
unit 30 privates 

:. >!•■;. . I >) 1 1 : 1 r I . r. tr.mp* • hull 0OI11 -I "f 

] cupculn (regimental adjutant i. 1 i>-cliu.-ij 
fill aergcunt major, '-'. aquadron Beruyaa |h 
nnijiir. I first siTK''nni [drum major), 3 
color sergeants, 1 men sergeant, l 
M rgeant, 1 atnhlo sergeant, 1 sergeant 

. 1 borscahocr. 1 saddler. 9 private* 

!H»t clam), and 9 private*. I band I 
***l«tnut bond lender. 1 Hergennt hugh-r. 
i band sergeants. 4 band corporal*, 2 njuaj- 
cum* (llr-i dOM), I mu-lcian* (second 
clan), and 13 musicians (third cta»»). 

li b machine pin troop shall conalat of 
1 euptalu, 1 firat lieutenant, 2 Mcond 11*0- 

1*1 t*. I first sergeant. 1 mess serg.-nnt, 1 

supply *crgcnnt. 1 »tnble sergeant, z hurar- 
»inrri-», r. sargeanta, S corporal*, 2 cook*. 1 
mechanic, ] saddler, 2 i>utrt<r-. la private* 
illrtt class), and 33 private*. 

Bai h supply troop shall consist of 1 cap- 
tain I regimen lal supply offl. 1 1 1 
lieutenant*. 3 regimental supply sergeants, 
I Ural m'rgenn(, 1 iuea> sergeant, 1 
aergcunt, 1 corporal. 1 cook. I horseehoer, I 
' ladlcr, auil 1 wngouer for each .inttiorlied 

wagon ,.r in,- ii.- i .1 nn,! ,■ i. .ii train The 

President mar Increase each troop of ruv- 
nlry by 10 private* (Or»t cla**) and 23 pri- 
villi'*, tli,' hi'iii)i|iur(<'i-H triinp liy - *.-r- 

grant*, ."> corpornl*. I boracanocr, •'■ pri 
vule* (Drat class), nud 1H private*: eni-h 

IiIih -cun troop by 3 sergeants, 2 i'»r- 

. 1 i -baulc, 1 private itltst cla**), 

ii in I it private! racb supply troop by 1 
corporal. 1 cook, 1 toddler, and 1 borne' 
■hoer. 

Held ArllUtrv fail-. —Tin- ILIil Artll- 
including mountain artillery, light ar- 
tillery, home artillery, heavy artilleri 
and siege type*), shall consist of ISO gun 
or howlticr batterle* organised Into 21 

In time of actual or threatened hostlll- 

tie* the I'i. .id. nt i« authorised t.i prgaola* 
-ii.ii number o( unmunltlon batterle* and 

battalion*, depot batterle* and battalion*, 

mid »ueh nrlfllery pnrk* "Ith audi niim- 

nii grade* of personnel and »uch or- 

giinlyatlon* a* ho may deem i '■ ju. 

Kneh regiment ..f Klold trllllerj -ball 
i nii-l-t of 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant colonel. 1 
captain. 1 hcadqiiiiiti-is ci.mpony. 1 supply 
• I'Miiuiny, and Mich niinilier ol |UO and 
in. wit iit battalion* a* the President tuny 

illl.rt. 

IjhIi gun or howliier battery ahall con- 
«l*t of 1 captain. 2 Hr»t lieutenant*. 2 

- ■ ■ ■ ■ t > ■ i i ii-m t. liniitM, i tit-t Mneaat, 1 sup- 
pic -ergennt. 1 stable aorffoant, 1 mesa ser- 
geant, o sergeant*. 1:: corporal*, i rhl*j( 

in. h.'iule. 1 auddlor, 2 liiir-i'ttioer*. 1 ma?- 
i Imtilr. '.' bugler*, 3 cook*. 22 prlvata* (flrxt 
clnaa). and "I private*. When ' nll-t.-d 

ii i'f the Qaarttrtniiter Corp* nre nt- 

Inched for such poaltion* Iheri' nIuiII lie 
added to each battery of mountain artil- 
lery I pnrkmnHtrr (aergenni. flrat elan*). 
1 ntnlttnnt packmaater luergeont), and 1 
enrgudor (corpornl). 

■ '.nil headquarter* company of a regl- 
m m ■■! .■ battalion* ahull con*l*t of l cap- 
lalO, 1 Hr.t lieutenant. 1 regimental aer- 
geant major, 2 battalion net Jnr. 1 
f!r«t »orge»nt, 2 color aergeant*, 1 me** »cr- 

fi.'it. 1 »upply icrgeant. 1 *1anhl (erftant, 
aergeant*, corporal*, ' nr, 1 

r. 1 mechanic, 3 bugler*. 2 cook*, S 



prlrate-t lflr*t claj«), 15 prlvatn, 1 band 

1 H-rgniut 
bugler. '-' band K«rgi-ant«, * band ■ - 1 > -• . i . . 
2 niii-i. lain Hint elata), i nio*lel*ni 

mi I iu»lclon« iiiiir.i cla**). 

when I r.irlnient con»l*t* of ibn 

III.' bead- 
Mil ill. ■!.. rompany I battalion *cr**eant mi 

recant, 8 corporal*. 1 bin i 
private nit»i claaa), and . prh 

i ■■ i "i'ii rompany of a regiment at 
iw.i battalion* ahall con*l*l nf I captain 

1 nr*t lieutenant, -• r* thai plj *er- 

ta, 1 llr-t Herg-uut. 1 ine«» n-rg- . 

■ "ill, 1 cook. 1 In.: .i -Ii...t 

2 private*, and 1 wagoner r..r each *nthoi 
Ixed wagon or the llcld train, v. 

unlit conalat* of 3 I.mi.. aball 

ddeil in Ho- aupply company 1 aecoud 
lieutenant, I ri-glmental tnppl] •■•rgennt, t 
private, nud 1 wagoner f..i- each leldltlonal 
u 11 1 in .rued wagon of tile II. Id '.: 

1 li gnn or howltter battalion ahall 
con*lat of 1 major. I captain, nud batterle. 

i.untaln nrtllletv bun 
and lii:lit nrtlllery gun or ho»ltier Ii 
Ion* aervlng with tb« Held nrtlllen 1 
fan try ulvtoloni xtiall contain 3 bott 

' to id 
artillery tun or howltaer battalion* «hnll 
.•niiiiiiii 2 batterle*: the rretldenl may, In 

bin .II11 rctl.in, Incre the hi 

PMI1.1 of n regiment of 2 battalion* by 

2 nergeunt*. 5 corpornl*. I ln.r-o.li. 1 1 

t private iiii-i cla**), ao'i 
private*; the headquarter* companj of * 
in ..f 5 liottnll.iiiM bj I Mergi-aot. 7 
corporal*, 1 bor*v*boer, 1 mechanic. 3 rook*. 
2 piivnte* 1 »i r it claa*), and 7 1 ■:■..• 1 .. ih. 
dy company »f ■ reglmenl or 2 hat 
tallona by 1 ,-orporul, 1 .ml,. 1 

• in 1 1 amidicr : the tmppl] companj for a 

•11I oi -: battalion* by 1 corporal, 1 
11 *.. 1 hor»e*hi..r. and l nadil 
or howltaer battery by .'{ aergeant*, 1 

furali., 1 boraeahoer, 2 mechanic*, 1 i. 
J privates (Or»t claw*), iin.i 37 private*, 
tfoatt Artilleri) Corp»- — 1 Chief of Coast 
Artillery, irltfe the rank of brigadier g»a- 
erul ; 21 colonel*; 2 1 lleutennni colo 
72 major*; 3«0 captain*; 900 first lleuten 
nnt»: 300 aecoad lieutenant* ; SI *ergr«uta 
major, wnlor grade: 04 lercennta in 
Junior grade; 11 ma*tvr electrician*; 78 
engineer*; HI) electrician sergeant* (flmt 
cinxi ; 273 naalatant rnglneen 
trlelun aergeuut* (wcond cluaai : 106 

■".ii; '.i;: radio scrxeanta; "',2 maater nn- 

net*: 2U.'l Otat aergeantx; 203 supplj 
l.iiiiI.; 2tvs mew aergennt*: I'lm 
gcanta: 3.100 corporal*; 
mechanic* ; 320 Iniglerx ; 0,223 to 

■ la—) : 15.875 private*: and 1% band*. 

' ■ <-i| at liereliilicfm c provided f.ir (tie 
Engineer bnnd. The rated men of tin 1 
Artillery Corp*. *hall contlat .if m 

• I.-, trlclan* ; obaeriera tflr-' cla plot 
lei-.,; chief planters; couwnln* : chief l.i.i I 
.1 observer* (second cla 1 run com- 
m.inder* and gun pointer*. The total 

I.. 1 of rated men shall not .v. t.i i.t.m 
Conwalna »hnll racclv* $!i per month In 
addition to the pay of their grade. 

J'u//.i A'iVo AVpimrnf of InlanXry. 
1 ii,.' aanu 
numb. imlssloned nffii ei ■ ax 

on 11. 11 K nr* lire., illi.'.l In In 

other reglmanta of Infantry or th<- Army 

The . nl.irn I of nald regiment ahall be 
tailed by the Proahlent, from among oiti- 
cer* of Infantry of the Army not below the 

f lieutenant colonel, for a peril 
4 year*. 

All men hereafter enlisting In said real- 
ment -.liiiii t... native* of Porto Klco. All 
.nllKtuienti In the regiment ahall hereof ter 





Encyclopedic Index 



Army 



be lac sua* as It provided herein (01 Ibt 
RrcnUi Arm). and Ike regie-rat. or sny 
I r-erevf. may be ordered for forth* out- 
»Me Ike Island of l'orlo Klce. 'I'll- par 
•Bd "f members of MM rcjtf- 

na p.-oviu. 
i«« fur »tTlcers oad eulirted men of like 
fT*4«. IB the Regular Army. 

i to Moo Regiment of 
Infeutry. . who brhl 

reenmlBslous Id tbe I'orto i 
K'Om-tl of lufaiili I»Utt. 

■Ball DOW ami hen-after lake rank la 
cnJrt Id ihe same relative ont*r r 
tbeas la ■ I'.Uo Provisional Kegf. 

akrat of Infantry „ J no* SO, 1000* sub- 
ject to any loaa la rank do* to fall 
MX M«mtnniiiT.. for promotion or to seu- 
UnL 
•;ii*sf Appelitlmenfj ro ffr JVo- lilondl. 
. -after all appolntim-nla of ;•• 
•IWr than graduates of the railed States 
i the grade of afvuod 
:»di la the Itrcular Army Shall tx 
sewWtomtl for a period of two years, at 
Ik* close of whl'h period .u.-h aptolat- 
ments thall be suilc, permanent If tl 
fatal*** .tin 1 1 bavr drtuonetrnted. 
sack regulations *• ' 

»tU». tbelr suitability anil moral, profes 
•tonal. •••! physical fitness for such i 
B-ni appolatment. 

tmr- Jferfr <m Fire Increment*. 

— Kicrpt aa ofbrrwi.. 
»be lax l ease s In th» coma 

nisei of tbr Regular Army shall 
I* ms.lr la fltn aoaii -.'.«. curb of 

II be. In e«. i h ann, 

department, aa nearly ui | 

rakW. ooe-nfth of tti— total I 

1ml for earn ana, corps, ami department. 

•keif Officer.*. — Thai od July I I 

ie af th* Army shall be lncrea>"l b] 

tra sa V er a of (be Cnislry, IVId Ar- 

y Corps, and Infantry 

• 

to colon." 
available fur ilctarbaseBt from tbrlr ; 
• uly wltt 
:iy. Ibt usnnl period of wall 

Said citra oflU'cii., to- 

B»lker wltb the 200 detached officers pro- 

for t'T the Act of Congress approied 

■li.ill OD aoil after J 

th* Detached Officers' List, 
sod all pualUooa vacate! liy officers u> 

id lb* officer* «« assigned. 
■kail ba subject to tbc provisions of sec- 
ttoo 27 of the Art of Congress app 

1. wltb reference to details to 
Ua> atao* Corp*. 

/.'«lutmr«l. iii I'.lr .(>itiy — Oil 

SI. 1910, all enlistments to 
K. rnlar Anur shall be for a term of 
T yewrs. the fir»t 3 year* lo b» la the »nit» 
mikl with the orcaalaatlons of whlrb 
tbaa* radiated form a part aad. except aa 
•tbarwtae provided herein, tbe laat 4 yeara 
l» the KeraUr Army Ueaerre bereUiafter 
prorUIrd for; at tho iip.miint: 
roatlaaODa wrvp-e wltb aueb ortanUa-ion-. 
riiaaf under a flmt or aoy anbeaquent en 
Uataarai. aoy aoldler may ba r»-»nl'.«tml for 

ti<al of 7 rear*, as aboTe pr 
for. Is wllch arent be shall reorlTo but flesl 
dtoebarn from hla prior ealutmrnt : after 
lbs e-rplratloa of 1 year's honorable serr. 
sea aay rnllsiMl bud arrylac wlthla th» con- 
ttaental Uailtt of tbe Inltrd States whoae 

■op. hsllery. or drUrhmrnt 

ai»Wr shall report blm aa p«.n< i--n t and 
naVtlratlr rralci) m*T. Id ibe dlacretloo 
•f the Secretary of War. br furl...; 

KegitUr Army Reaerrc nailer soch 
renlstloaa aa tba ^e<•retarT of Wnr may 

bat do Eiaa tarmcbrii t.. iti.. 




rrarrve ahnll be eligible to ro-*all<t In tbe 

service an til th. :n j of 

7 years; In all tallatmeiita accomplbibsd 

the proilaloDi of Ihli .v. t :i )eur» 

I as an • ii 1 1 -i iii.-n t period 

sjputlna .-i.nl Inuuus errvl.e pay: any 

i] ofileer dlxbnrceil with an 

excellent character xliull i led. at 

serr- 
. : .ii.: ill. .1. fr..tu 

h ui.. rank nml tnda 

belli I... blm .il Hi" t if hla din. : 

re enlists within 20 days after the iime 
of such lUachnree ; no person under tbe uu- 
of 18 >-;it* shall be cnll.tnl ..r mui 

of Hi.- United 
al no. i\ rttten eonssol ..it nil 

Kiiardinim, provided th.it such 

parents or Buariilun» en- 

bo U| .ii-.ii. ill on. | control ; the 

authorised in hi> illf:reilon 

1 II" II of postmasters of the 

.I. third, no. I fourth classes In prmur- 

Injj (I iKh fur Ho- Aiioy, 

o-i I ;..;■ • i. Ii i". run ji. , . i . t . -. 1 f..i .ul -i m.-T. t 

[master proi ui mit his 

' tlLlll re. . ,in of »,"i. 

In addltfen r.. inllliury tralnlnc. soldiers 

ui Ho- .i in., service ahull hi .-■ 

' " II I'l'.'l llllilty to ItUdj nml I" 

' upon ..in. .ui. .mil lines of 

baraeti i u to Isi reaaa in. ir uillunry 

cfflclenry toil enable tbem to r. turn to civil 

r Industrial. « rr- 

rlal. snd sjeueral business occupations I 

- may be employed u. nil ih- 
Aa-my officers In rIiidk such lu.tru. n.n, 
uii.l Mit of huh imtrucilon may eonsin'. of 
vucan r | n aerkulturs 

or tbe mtchanlc arts. 

Fay <>)(•■ irrf Men.— Tlie i. 

If P"' n of certain grades of 

'.rmy created In this Art slmll lie ss 

' oll "*»- i" i.» : Quartermaater tcroant 

lor elude), gunrteniiastrr Corp*; lonn- 
•unt. Medical li..pnrtincnt : 
msiKter rnglnerr (senior grndel. Corp. of 
■wftlneers ; and Imn.l leader. Infantry I'm 
airy. Artillery, nnd r„rp. or I 
haepltsl si -t ileal DrpaMurm 

master inulu.ir i junior y ,.» of 

r *. IM : siTK.ant (first clasai. Sledl- 

ral Deportment, $ifi ; sergeont (first elaisl, 
corps of BnjiDoen -uppiv »er- 

s*«ot. Infantry. Cavalry, Field Artillery. 
in. i corps of KoKlneera: battalion luppfi 

' M ' l.i..- ■■■ rs; and aa.ist- 

i nglncer. Coast Artillery Corpa. J-45" 
asslatuiit i. nn. I leader. Infantry, Cavalry 
Artillery, ami Corps of lOnglneers; snd ser-' 




serzeant, and stable sergeant, Corn of En. 
Eloeers; sergeant Medical Department. *3tl ; 
■aped] ssriMSt, IttfAtttr] i-n-nlrv. and At 
till.ry; mesa sergeant. Infantry. Cavalry. 
and Artillery: cook. Medical Department: 
horseaboer. Infantry Cavalry. Artillery, 
corps of Engineers. Signal Corps, and Medl- 
ral Department; : subls sergeant. In! 

nvolry : radio •ersaant. Cooat Artillery 
Curps; and musicians < second class). In- 
fantry. Cavalry. Artillery, and Corps of 
Engineers, $80: musician (tliir.l clam, in- 
fantry. Cavilry. Artillery, nnd Corps of Rn- 
Klneera: corporal. Medical Depanment, 121 • 
aaildler. Infantry. Cavalry. Kleld Artillery, 
Corps of Engineers, and Medical Depart- 
Sril- ."'.m'.'"'"''- 'o'" n try. Caralrr. lad 
field Artillery snd Meil .1 1 , rtment : 
farrier. M.-. ll.nl ■■, i.nnmeut . and wngi 
Infaiilr.v field Artillery, snd Corps ..f i:,i 
Hi i.ilvate (first class), Infan- 
try, Cavalry. Artillery, and Medical Depart- 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



I. N. Hi nii ii • ntalaw.i 

puy or n ' 
ane»« MW Hulk 

-I ara of the Army. (For Uta-r 
i pay. an 1*1 f. 

bore i 

riMl MirnV.iJr .,' 

I imm lu the K-inlir Army abn.ll 
f til* final 

nation of hi* "year i- ■ -.t ex- 

iirtor to ripliottnn of iw r 

fllll Whrli ,iii • Ill I in.. II U f'it; . 

ilar Arm) 
■ball b* cloaod ami lit ahnll bo paid In full 
to tin 

I 
■ llacharfed i by m»in of 

l!«Ottl it il 

■ 'if on rulliited ■ .n oceurrlnc 
bin II I IM'lllbcM ... 

!il-. fur anpport. a» 
may, In the dUrrftli'ii M UJM •"-• 
War. i 

.« nr be 'i 
Ur Army R •"•log 

in...'. 
roan la dlacharfrd by purchaae . 

hall b>! furlouxbed to the 
i 
AVpulor Army ftcarrre. — The lUTfnlar 
Army R 

: In* 1 1 

to or 4-allat^il In the Keunlur Army K< 

■iii.I.t Hi., pr.ii I. I..TI- .i 

the Kejniar Army w 

Krt-il nt ' 
ij fur the diiriea of a h.Mit hi 
«5 y»nr» ol 

■ 
.... ii. I- Regular Arm j ic -• i 

reaer. 

•r to orjji • .'itbir 

Army Reserve, or uny pnrt thereof. Into 

• i. ' imei ..f any arm 
ii.. in :n ioi ii mm ii"- na hi 

<i rlbe. nnd t.i ai 

..I Hi. Offlcera' Reserve <'..r(.*, unit he may 
■iiirn n.i'r. il.. i| any 

purl ili rent for ii-.'.il 1 r Inlnu '• r a 

aervUta to recall ■•. an. I pay 

irlnit snrh periods of train- 
Ins . nnil In 

• villa r 
iner u< be 

II ur nny 
i in art In? n»rvlce for 
i na he may determine the < i 

nil »nll»l:ni'nln In 'ho 
l»r Army. Including thoae In the 
Regular Army Reserve, which nr 

ik of war 
!>iie In fore for one year, in 
initiated by order "f the Secretary 
ar, i"ii nothing herel • ■ con- 

■ i to shorten the time otf 

• ■ 

Uriitltl.-nilcm. and lu. it !..«>. nnd i ■ 1 1 
rumlltlnn i 

it ibe 
uli- nf IZi ii j"iir arblti 

■ tor IrwIH /I'.'.'rn m Time •>< "Tor. — 

the President, 
the tin-nib. r» of the ICi-cii i. 
■nail. »o long; oa they may remain to active 



aorvko, NCajTa the t-ty anil allowance* -. 
> I neo of the Regular Araay of 

I .e nil. til r ■ 

a aunt equal ■... f 

in y thall hove beioo. 
Hi.. II 

•.vwiatafeaor fi.»m 

tied to report fur duly 

.... 
i 

09 artlvo duty la the service of the United 

of Othtr Dipm • • 
meat. — Tin- President iubj 

State", without 

reaervim, for keeping In ' Inf- 

lux, ii ..■ Rr.-lll : 

ii... Rtaltat. 

reaerve organUatlona. 

.i rime o/ War. — Kor the 

Ki Ik* 
■ 

■.•■* and teal 

1 mental limits of 

thread 

:>i«!l. by proclamation, have 

nf lb* 

nl therein wl'.. 

■erfbivl. any perioo who ahull bar- 
discharged honorably fr.nu »«M Army, with 
cbaracti r ■ I, ami 

who. having been found . iiiall- 

H...I f..r tli. 

SO years of aire, ahull rcenllet In the line 

of aail.l Arm iroaa- 

loal Deportment wltbla 

■I In aald 

tir.icluii 
B| ■ ' '• .liiib ahall be «.mpnt.Ml at 

nth fur the flral 
year ol 

■bora hla la»t dla.barte fi ■ 
Army anil th- 1 date of bl 
thorclE (int. 

il. m . b «.f »•; I" ■: ( the 

ill yur i.f -• 
*t i»r month for the third year of 

Si.-iimi ; aod iii tin- i.iti of 12 
: hat 
mi ti.innty in exo^ia of |30t> ahall Ik* pa 
any :• ' tbla «M> 

tlon. 

■ us Vi« . i>OM f,,il Km. 

No »llh»l..|l II... .i.-ttt« 

aervlce of the United State* lo th* 

ami Marlni i 'anaellvev, 

whether a non mtlM- 

el«n. • i.l-red. 

■ ncan 

In nor pumnlt. Imalnen. or performanr>e In 

life, fur miii r.«, or othl 

the "nine • rr with th* etia- 

r i.| regular encairem^nt 

arts, 

I u-lth th 

tin.ifi v^r tn, purpoat '; la 

the loatructlon ■ tonnel .ind care 

linnal 
.••••I to 

detnll fi..in the InfnntrT. favnlry. Kleld 

Artllh 

lery i anil Slirnal 

Corp* of the Regular Army not to exceed 




Encyclopedic Index 



Army 



1,000 sergeants for doty with corresponding 
organizations of the National Guard and 
not to exceed 100 sergeants for duty with 
the disciplinary orgaDlzutious ut the L'nlted 
States Disciplinary Hurrucka, who shall be 
additional to the sergeants authorized by 
this Act for the corps, couipunies, troops, 
batteries, and detachments from which they 
may be detailed. 

Officer/' Reserve Corps. — For the purpose 
of securing a reserve of officers available 
for service as temporary officers In the Regu- 
lar Army, as officers of the Quartermaster 
Corps and other staff corps and depart- 
ments, as officers for recruit rendezvous and 
depots, and as officers of volunteers, there 
shall be organized, an Officers' Reserve 
Corps of the Regular Army. Said corps 
shall consist of sections corresponding to 
the various arms, staff corps, and depart- 
ments of the Regular Army. A member of 
the Officers' Reserve Corps shall not be 
subject to call for service In time of 
peace, and whenever called upon for service 
shall not, without bis consent, be so called 
In a lower grade than that held by him In 
said reserve corps. 

The President alone shall be authorized 
to appoint ond commission as reserve offi- 
cers in the Officers' Reserve Corps, in all 
grades up to and Including that of major, 
such citizens as, upon examination shull be 
found physically, mentally, and morally 
qualified to hold such commissions ; the 
proportion of officers in any section of the 
Officers' Reserve Corps shall not exceed the 
proportion for the same grade in the corre- 
sponding arm, corps, or department of the 
Regular Army, except that the number com- 
missioned in the lowest authorized grade 
in any section of the Officers' Reserve Corps 
■ball not be limited. 

No person shall be appointed or reap- 

K Inteu a second lleutenunt In the Officers' 
serve Corps after he shall have reached 
the age of 32 years, a first lieutenant after 
he shall have reached the age of 36 years, a 
captain after he shall have reached the age 
of 40 years, or a major after he shall have 
reached the age of 43. When an officer of 
the Reserve Corps shall reach the age limit 
fixed for appointment or reapiwlntment in 
the grade In which commissioned be shall 
be honorably discharged from the service 
of the L'nlted States, and be entitled to re- 
tain bis official title and. on occasions of 
ceremony, to wear the uniform of the hlgh- 
e«t grade he shall have held In the Officers' 
Reserve Corps ; nothing In the provisions 
as to the ages of officers shall apply to the 
appointment or reappointment of officers 
of the Quartermaster, Engineer, Ordnance, 
Signal, Judge Advocate, and Medical sec- 
tions of said Reserve Corps. One year after 
the passage of this Act the Medical Reserve 
Corps, as now constituted by law, shall 
cease to exist. Members thereof may be 
commissioned in the Officers' Reserve Corps, 
or may be honorably discharged from the 
service. 

OffXcerf Reserve Corps <n War. — In time 
of sctnal or threatened hostilities the Presi- 
dent may order officers of the Officers' Re- 
serve Corps, to temporary duty with the 
Regular Army In grades thereof which can 
not, for the time being, be filled by promo- 
tion, or as officers In volunteer or other 
organizations that may Ih» authorized by 
law, or as officers at recruit rendezvous nud 
depots, or on such other duty as the Presi- 
dent may prescribe. While such reserve 
officers are on such service they shall, 
by virtue of their commissions an reserve 
officers, exercise command appropriate to 
their grade and rank In the organizations 
to which they may be assigned, and shall 



be entitled to the pay and allowances of 
the corresponding grades In the Regular 
Army, with Increase of pay for length of 
active service, as ullowed by law for offi- 
cers of the Regular Army, from the date 
upon which they shall be required by the 
terms of their orders to obey the same ; offi- 
cers so ordered to active service shall take 
temporary rank among themselves, and in 
their grades In the organizations to which 
assigned, according to the dates of orders 
placing them on active service ; and they 
may be promoted, In accordance with such 
rank, to vacancies In volunteer organiza- 
tions or to temporary vacancies in the Regu- 
lar Army thereafter occurring in the organi- 
zations In which they shall be serving ; offi- 
cers of the Officers' Reserve Corps shall 
not be entitled to retirement or retired pay, 
and shall be entitled to pension only for dis- 
ability Incurred In the line of duty and while 
in active service. 

Instruction of Officers of the Officers' Re- 
serve Corps. — To the extent provided for 
from time to time by appropriations for 
this specific purpose, the Secretary of War 
Is authorized to order reserve officers to 
duty with troops or at field exercises, or 
for Instruction, for periods not to exceed 
15 days In any one calendar year, and 
while so serving such officers shall receive 
the pay and allowances of their respective 
grades in the Regular Army ; with the con- 
sent of the reserve officers concerned, and 
within the limit of funds available for the 
purpose, such periods of duty may be ex- 
tended for reserve officers ns the Secretary 
of War may direct : In time of actual or 
threatened hostilities, after all available 
officers of any section of the Officers' Re- 
serve Corps sholl have been ordered Into 
active service, officers of Volunteers may 
be appointed In such arm, corps, or depart- 
ment as may be authorized by law. 

Reserve Officers' Training Corps. — The 
President Is hereby authorized to establish 
and maintain In civil educational Institu- 
tions a Reserve Officers' Training Corps, 
which shall consist of a senior division 
orgunlzed at universities and colleges re- 
quiring four years of collegiate study for 
a degree. Including State universities and 
those State institutions that are required 
to provide lnsl ruction In military tactics 
under the provisions of the Act of Con- 
gress of July 2, 18«2. donating lands for 
the establishment of colleges where the lead- 
ing object shall be practical instruction 
in agriculture and the mechanic arts. In- 
cluding military tactics, and a Junior di- 
vision organized at all other public or pri- 
vate educational Institutions, except that 
units of the senior division may be organ- 
ized at those essentially military schools 
which do not confer an academic degree 
but which, as a result of the annual Inspec- 
tion of such Institutions by the War De- 
partment, ore specially designated by the 
Secretary of War as qualified for units 
of the senior division, and each division 
shall consist of units of the several arms 
or corps In such number and of such strength 
as the President may prescribe. 

The President may, upon the application 
of any State Institution described In this 
Act. establish and maintain at such Insti- 
tution one or more units of the Reserve Offi- 
cers' Training Corps : Provided. That no 
such unit shall he established or maintained 
at any such institution until an officer 
of the Army shall have been detailed as 
professor of military science and tactics, 
Dor until such Institution shall maintain 
under military Instruction at least 100 
physically fit male students. 

The President may, upon the application 



Army 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



of any estnbllihrd educntlouul Inallti 

iicd States other thon n 
institution described above the authorities 
ot which agree to establish and maintain a 
two years' elective or compulsory course of 
mtlttui lie u> ii minimum tor Ita 

idiialcolly (It male students, which rnurae 
ti hen entered upon by any student aball, 
oa regards (Oeb atadi prerequisite 

EM graduation, establish and maintain at 
■uch institution out ot don unite of the 

Itcvcrve Officers' Training Corpa. 

The S«crc(ary of Wnr In nulhorlr.nl to 
ard ouree* of theoretical 
ami prnctlcnl military (ruining for unlia 
ol th* Ri ■••r»e Officer* Training Corpa, imd 
mi mill .if ( In- -in. ii dlYlaton alinll be or- 
ganised or maintained ne 
Institution the authorities of which Tall 
or necii' i to adop .1 curriculum the 

prescribed couraea of military training fur 
[b« sudor division or to devote ot leaat an 
n v. -rnipj of thrre hoar* per week per aen- 
dcmlc y*ar to euch military training; anil 
no unit of the Junior division ahall bo or- 

nlsed or maintained nt any educational 
ItUtlOD the autborltlet of which fall or 
neglect to adopt Into (heir curriculum the 
prescribed couraea of military trulnlng for 
DM Junior division, or to devote at least 
an average of three hour* [hi week per 
academic year to auch military (rah. 

Kllglhlllty to membership III til" Reserve 
Officers" Trnlnln b.ill I" lluitleil 

in -in. 1. hi .1 of institution* in which units of 

ii. h corps may 1 stuhllahod who are 

citizen* of the United Slnii", who are 

in. 1 i-h* than 14 yenra of age, and trkoae 

condition imllenteH Hint they ore 

[1 ully (It to perform mlllinry rimy, or 

n 11 1 in' an upon arrival at mlllurj in. 

The President la hereby author. M to di 
tall auch number* of officer* of the Army. 
either acIlT* or retired, not above the grade 
ot colonel. «a may bo neceaaary. for duty 
n« professors and a**Utnnt professor* of 
:iy aclencc and tactic* at Institutions 

where one or r*. DUltl Ot th* R rw QnV 

citb' Training Corp* nre run lrit.-i Ined ■ bill 
the total number of active officer* M d*> 
tnlled nt educational Instlliillnua aball not 
exceed 300. 

The President U authorised to detail for 
duly at lii»ll(utlon« where one or more 
units of the Reservi 1 mining 

Corpa in'* itiuliiiiiiii'-il auch number •■( m 
listed nun, I'll tn r active or retired or of 

the Regular Army Reserve. « he inny .1 1 

1. ui 1 In- number "f active non- 
commissioned officer* no d"tiill"d shall not 

exceed soo. 

The Secretary of War Is nnthorlxcd to 
Issue to Inatltuttoni a) which on* 
units . . re oiBcer*' Training Corp* 

are 1n11lniii111.il nub public animals, arms. 
uniforms, equipment. 11 ml meuua of truna- 
|...ilntlon as he limy -Ii .'in ii". .'-i.'ir.v. im.l 
to fornce at the »»pcnae of the United 
Stole* public animals «n Issued. He shall 
require from eoch Institution to which 

CropertJ of 'li" Doited states la Isaued a 
rod In the mine of the property Issued for 
tin- "nre and safekeeping thereof, ami for 
Ita return when rMhui I 

The Secretary of War la authorised to 
iiinin: . ror the further practical in- 

atruction "I Hi" iio'inlii'v of Ihc Reserve 
OuVrrs' Training Corps, no auch camps to 
Im' maintained fur 11 period loner thnn six 
weeks In any one year, except In time of 
actual or threatened hostilities: to trrms- 
pOTt iioinl'ir- nf nick rorpf to and from 
each camps at the expense "f lha United 
States so far as appropriations will per- 
mit: to subsist lli.'in nl Hi" BXpellM of the 
United Mates while traveling I" and from 



auch uialnlng therein 

U an iipprvprliitlon* . 1.. 

Aim), neb "Hot military 
forces a* 1 "nl time to time an 

thorite*, and su. . iiru 

ho may doom necessary for the military 

ig of (he members of auch corps while 
In attendance at such CauBD*: to preacrkV 
regulations for the government of Bock 
corps; and to authorise. In hL. 
the formation of company mill- tbercvf Into 
bultu.; :;iui-mul unit*. 

The President alone, under in. h regula- 
tion* as he 111:1 v prescribe, Ii outli 
appolol in Hi" Officer*' Ui.ni.rvi' Corps any 

at* of Hi" miiI. ir dlvlalon ol the Ri 
•i" 1 'i'i.. 'i-.' Training Corps who 
bar* Huttafactorll;. completed the 1 
training provided for I 

ii" Junior division who shiill Iup- 
satisfactorily completed the couraea of Dill 
tiny training prescribed for th* aenlor di- 
vision irther train 
below, and aball linv ■, sach 
liriicth-.il Instruction subsequent to gradi-a- 
ii.m:i- thi Secretary of War sbnll • 
who ahull 1 axe of 21 
year* uud who shall agree, under oath In 
writing, to nerve the ate* in the 
capacity of a reserve officer of the Army 
during 11 period of at least 10 years 
the date of bis appointment as such •• 
officer. 1. ui th* total number of reserve ..m 
cere 
any Qualified gradual Ing a post- 

En any Institution shall not 
eligible for || 
officer while undergoing ■■ 1 ■• 11 [». stern dua(r 
...in.,". 

When any member ,,f n„. senior dlrlsloo 
'ill" r»' Trnlnlng Corp* has 
I'oiupleieii two academic years of ... 
In that division, and bus been selected for 
further training by th* president of the 
Institution ..f military 

<• i"n. " uud tactic*, and lmu agreed In wr.1 
lug lo "oiitlune In the Reaervi ' 
Training Corps for the remainder of lil.t 
Htntlon. devoting live 1 

Eat week to the military trnlnlng prescribed 
y the Secretary of War. ami has agreed 
In writing to pursue tin- courses in 
training prescrll.. - -ecretarr ( .| 

I I mni I..- fin in. ii". 1. nl Hi.- . -,|., : • 11 . 

l lilted State*, with commute 1 1., 
slsteace at *uch rate not • •. ing ttii 

of tin- gun -,., 1 1,,. 

Army, as may be fix. | Br y f 

War. during the remainder of his •• 
In the l; ■ rneer*' Training 1 

Any ph.vlcnlljr lit male cltlx*n of the 
I nlte.l Stot-«, bel ...-. u the ogi • of II and 
"J7 rear., who shall hate grudiiated . 
i" Hi" date ..1 this Ait from mil educational 
Institution at which an offlrer of the Arms 
way detailed as professor of military s. 

I who. while a student at 
•uch ln«Htiiil..n. completed course* of mili- 
tary trnlnlng under the direction of BTJch 

profeaaor of military n utnee and tactics *ub- 
atanllnlly nqulvalfnl to tboae prescrlbml 
pursuant (n this Act foi tin :.i.,n 

shall, after aallsfaeforlly 1 

additional practical mllliary training n« ibe 

tary of War aball 1.1. icrlbe, 1.. 
fur appointment to the Officer*' Re 
Corn and *• .1 temporary additional » n.i 

lieutenant 

The Prealdnnt alone la hereby authorized 
to appoint and commls.lnu as n temporary 

" 'id lieutenant of Ihc Regular Ami ii 

tunc of PMC* l..r purposi's of Instruction, 
fur n period not exceeding six month*, with 
the nllo*nn"oa now provided bi law for 
Hint grade, but with pay nt the rat* ef 
1100 per month, nny reserve officer an- 




ted pursu-tnt to thli Act asd to attach 
to a tialt of the Regular Army for 
and training •lorlov ! cor- 

ny tU appointment ai such 
•mM Umuum, and bihiq the expiration 
of**Kb*»m - with Ihi Uegu -r Ami] »uch 
oSm thai! revert to hli stains aa a reserve 
oBVxr. 

resers* officer or temporary second 
u 1 1. 1. A«'t 
to retirement o. 

.""i im-hkIoo only 
ty liKwrred Id line of duty la 
v' evrrlca or while serving with the 
-in/, 
mat Oaeral of th* Army alioll. 
—Irr the direction " 

i*rj of War. obtala. compile, and 
cootlaually u|> to date all obtainable 
■attMl aa ti> th" name*, age*, nddr»s». 
carpal' M for apt 

• .» of the Army, 
la tlrnc of wjr or olhi y, >-f men 

who. by ri'tur. 
•v training In civilian cdu- 

led aa qualified and available for ap- 
peioiaseat aa nwh cemralwIoartU om.tr*. 

. i«o r'nmpr. — The Secretary of War 
Is »»rrlij noth"; 

fw Use military lt..trudlou aad training 

•f asv I i. aa may He selected for 

each t»*triKtlon and training, upon tlieli 

as*aUratV»n ami »n.l.-r »uch lerma of enlist- 

*»»ut atvl regul" . dud 

War: to u»e. for the 

sazrpoa*. of maintaining said ramp* am! lm- 

r-iilag aallltary instrnrtlnn and training 

theme inch arm*. .. onter- 

■ i 1 

importation »• ttia United 

ai be may d«m u.-.cjsaiy . to fiir 

at the eipeaae of the l/nltr.l Ktntea. 

mi*, subsistence, transportation by the 

mil and direct route within such 

a a to territory aa the Secretary of 

_ may preacrlb", an-) taoll.nl supplies 

isc-os rccelvlor on at aalil 

ixmi-a dorlcg tbe pe rlod of their attendance 

thereat, to aatnorts- 

I appropriation*, a* h- may 
deem no-rsaary for water, fuel, light, tern- 

Clary airortnrea, m.t in nrlera 

■ officers nor barrack* for nu-n > 
lac anil damages re*ultlu>.- ->er- 

.ii-l oilier i lib Dial In the 

e-»latce*Bce of aaldeaaapa. an-1 the the 

'fliio In oiMiet mm there- 
to | n 
•Cram ton at aahl camps, fur cuah an-l nt coat 
sew pla* 10 per ronlun qua i am) 
acdaanee property, the ouioiiat of 

my one persou t- be limited 
<• tvat wl iii Ired for bli proper 
tsjalpauent. The r Wnr l» author- 
ised farther to preacrlw- in. 11 

I and prartl--al In pur- 

•**■>! by pe-rsntis attending tbe cnmpf an- 
tbtrlfJ by thU 

itonng which toxh camp« shrill he nialn- 
■ :be nilea and regulations 
. ernaie&t tkerenf . ami to am. 
men of the 
.ci iiuch Dumber* an 
MB* (aattca aa be may li 

lie purpose 

-ml rMarrs of eol 

Itarj arrrlet with the Kneloeer. 

atcoal. anil 1^ : I the 

Or4nance ami Mniu-r ,i- .-r the 

■ecnUr Army, an Knll«tei| Kenerre Corps, 

■ if enlllte.l i 

li tfni.r. «-r naileti n«- may tie di-s1(T- 
aat~l ay the l"i I tne to tinie. 

I* aerswy aatlk»rl*i-<l. "uch antbortintlou tn 
be f«ecllee en an.l afli-r Jul) 1 



i. .li 

I 



Tlnrr- may be enlliteil In the grade or 
firoilca apecllled. for a period of four year*. 
he prtwTtlieil by 
ItlacDi of the I'nlteil State*. 
or persona who have doclared lli-lr 
tliMix it. become citizen* of the i 
State*, «ubject to men phyalcul. educational. 
od-1 practlcul riaiiiliiulluu :i • urn; In 

i-d lu i.iiil nil.-. l.-i- ini-n enllatlDB In 
•old erode or erode* .vrtlll.iit«* of . 
iiii-nt In the F.n Bhnll 

be liwued by The Adjutant QtoenT of the 
Army, but so audi man Kimil b* enllati 
•ntil enrpa nnleaa he aholl be fODOd phytri 
. mentally, and morall] qaaliflad ti> 

hold iUCb ■ ■ rnll.-iiti- nod untcal he nhnll 
h- bttween the nge* of 18 and *5 years. 
The certificate* no «livn ulinll confer upon 
when i''i: 
F purpose* of Instruction nml traluluir. 
mi. I du.-inc lh« period uf tactl a. live serv- 
li», InetructlOD. or trnlnln*, all tin as 
It/, rlcht*. ami prlvlh-icrM «.f like g 
M Hi.- Refalay Army; (be Becrotary ox War 

la hereby authorize, to l**m- to i abert 

of th.- Bnll .tiiI t u per- 

in who i.iivi- participated In at 

oue cDcotni ut f.u th* rallltaurj loatrDC- 

rJon .if cltlwn* eoadorted ooder the sua. 
t.li-.-« of the Wor Dcportmeot. dlatli. 
row-ttrs or knot* deafened for wear with 
i I. Iltaa clothlntc. 

The uniform to be worn by enllxfi-d men 
of the Ellllnt.-i) I: irp», except corps 

lOadsnln. shall be the same a* pietr il 
for enllkl.-.l men of the Ri-itulnr Arm] Ki 
in lieu -if iiuv money allow- 
ance for clothlne Uicrc ahull be l-mied to 
each ■ mi of the- I T.n- !,.,| ]., 

peace such articles •:( ■ loth 
Ine nnd equipment a.- th* I'rcaldcot may 

L'pon a call by tin- l-r. -Id.-nt for a volun- 
teer force th>- memben of ti>.- Enlisted He- 

Corp* m.ry l»- luunt.-r.-il Into the ».-rT- 
Ice of the United Stat.-K n> Tolunteers for 
duty with the Army i 

Hutu In tbe sold corps, nnd shall be en- 
titled In ttM l.iiy nnd allowance* of the 
■ ..: ri |i..:.dlng grade* In tbe It-culnr Army, 
with Increase of pay for li-ngUi of serrlce, 
aa now provided t>J law for the Regular 
Anas. 

3/ Hilar [i Equipment «n<* tntlructori nt 
Othrr Xrluiali nnd Coiiepe*. — Smli . 
tentage. and equipment n» i try of 

War altnll deem .... -«<nry for proper mili- 
tary training ihnll he mppll.-d \i\ Ho- <;.,, 
crnment to *chool* end ..dl.c. <. having a 
course of military training preacrlln-.i i . 
rretary of War nnd having not I— i 
than 100 pbyalcnlly lit nml.- Rtmlent* above 

-.- Of 14 j.-:ir«. iiu-h-r nu.-h i all 
r-irnintlon* aa be may prescribe; and the 
tan of War anthorlied to detail inch 
< ••riirni- -i-.n.-.l and nnni-omiiilHNl<>ne.l uoV.-r* 
of tbe Army to mild MbOOlt and mllege*. 

Composition of Ihr Uillllo. — The mllltlu 
Of th* United Mate* etiall con*l*t of nil 
. hi. bodied male . ltlt.-n» of tin Catted 
State* mi 1 nil other nhle-bodled male* who 

have or Hhnll hi leclnred rli.-lr lnt.nii..n 

ome citizen* of the- United 81 
bull be more than IS year* of ih 
nml. not more than -I.'. years of .... and 

•old mlllll* .ball b- dlTirJcd int.- th 

elssnea, the National <3u*rd. the Naval 
Miuti.i. nnd tin- Uooraanlsad Mint in 

IpOSlNOM of Hi, V.itmnnl Oimrif. — Tbe 
Matlonnl nunrd shall con»i«t of ii.. rem 
lorly enlisted mllllla between tin- nge* of 
:;•! ■*."• years orgnnlxi-il. armed, and 
equipped, and ..' med nfneer* be- 

tween the i. -■- -.-. i.i Jt nnd 04 years. 

mpfl.XM 'i.,i.i U.hfi.l Hutu. --Tbe Vl.-e 

Prealdent of the UnlU-d State* ; the offlrera, 



Army 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



.nil-..., of the CownmtBt 

■■ t'niied Stiit! » .iti.t of I 
- ■ml Trm ti Hi>- lulll 

fntesi; 

. "it by 

'll» I'll!!.. I lOO "I 111'- 

'. kllil nary j*r> 
ih.' I i mil lucre 11 luully 

eeaployed Id lhi> aea 

rchent within the I ntted States, .hull 

mill 11a ilutj without fgird 

10 age, and oil pi u I n'j" 1 »f nr- 

llgloua belief •hdll claim exempilim from 

nulltai . lbs D ntloun bold- 

■ in h belief l.v mi. -h hall I." 

■ilmliiof m the 

fr.nn i Ice In a combatant 

in i BO person ao exempted ahull b* 
|il fri.in inn i in any enpi 

(hnt th' rri'Klil.'nt tha\l declare to ha 
i.iiiniitaDt. 

tntjnjflon o/ Vdfloiuil Gu.irrf I'mllt. — 

il 
the organisation of II il Guard l< 

the iam« n» Hi alar Army, 

-Ml. J. ■■ ' In I il h ;. li~r.il . X- 

uiay tic fliilh.irti'.Ml by the Sccre- 

.U.iu, .'. .■ 1,1. i ..r uih-r TfOOp* by the 

i t r...-i>- In 

llin.' of y- '.I hut 

lllllllllll- In ' lll.llll- 

teonn iry. 

art -The 

"f the Null.. mil 

within 

i ir fr..m ii . 

ill. Ii 

.-ii. b H Datoi hi. I ::■ or ■. ntal Ivi In i on 
grrae from nob Slot', nml n numhrr to bo 

i.iitl.'il 111 III' I' 1 

nil.) the Mstrlct ..f Columbia. aDd 
Khali hi- Inore*.. .r tn 

ih' proportion of lea* (ban "0 per cent 
uiilll o total pcuf atrength of not leaal 

than SnO enlWIeil " for • 

' ongreta iii.ll have bet-u 
.1 lii full wmr 
tli. the National MIMtla Include 
-i in 

.ton. ' Viill.m.Tl '.'il.l'rf In Hrl- 

■ may 

e«len Hi. Nations '".ii.nl of the several 

and Tcrrltorlci and th" District ol 

i "I Ida l" llll l U nml "lli.-l 

• i titer 
.r the Itegulnr 

itiMiuii.i -M'li unit*: arbors 

ni' orgnofxed within n St.it.. 
ir 'in- District "( Colntnb 
. ommandln* officer* thereof ahall not be dis- 
placed under the provlalons of tbla sec- 
Unit 

rhirft of sug of you— ■ ■■< oi- 

Thi President may detail one offi- 
cer of the H-gulnr Army oa chief of Huff 
l.i r Army or the 
' 
of auff of any division of the National 
Guard In the aervlce of thi hi-.. 

idlulnnlt Qrarnil of Stntct, K!r. — Ailju 
tunla Benetal of tin Btato s, and 

i nf Columbia nml the nfflcera vf 
utlonal Guard ahall make reportn to 
hi mn> lir. 
Appropriation. I aporftonmen t. and Dfs- 
ftiimrment of Fundi ."" thr Yafis 
— Money ahull be ppi ly f'.r 

Itlonol Guard. I- 
Inif the expense of providing anni. ordnnn<e 
etnrcA. qatl i terina -'. r Rtoraa. ""'- camp 
k - e. nod nil nther military enpiillea for 
l»«oc t« th' National Guard, apportioned 
if-' Hi" several 6 tat' ind I ■! Iloi It) 



d men 

"i« National Guard In 

«ueh States and Tcrrltorlea at the date of 

/.'lid.li.i. til. ir. ,..'| Ov.ird. — T»e 

I"-: li.ll III • nil -Hu- Ul la II. - 

rear* 

of which at 
ind i tie llu.v years In 11" .N«- 

(Mienf fontrurt, -Knllatrt 
in.-ii In -in- .NuiWmal Guard of th» • 

lei tit.. i lea. an i Co- 

•. coo- 
i. "urnln an oblhcatlon i- 
feu.l the Conatltutlon ..f th 

l lit nt of 

ill.- Inlt'-.l Stntea ahnll be r^rornlted hm 

mhet ■■! ' :nil»r toe 

i tin nf thl» Ai r i \plred por- 

»»nt enllatment con: 
« Ii- ii any men • niUtineiit rontrart dne» not 
Ion. tl" enlUtrd man 
united aa u nien 
Nnti. .lull Guard until bave ^itrned 

an enllatment .-.uir.-.l nn.l taken ati.i 
ed to the folloa Inc oa iti 

..d alreadT l.i 

enllatment 

Dilated tbla ^~— 

oldler la the 

i'nlirt Slatea and "f 

ate "f , fot I tii i" rlo 

yeara In aervlce and three year* in Hi 

■ ondltlona pre»rrU.ed by 
law. . i, j proper 

near that 
1 will hear ttu» faith uud alleclan 

\lli"ri.., .-iti.l t,i the 

of . and that I will aerv.- I 

■•ally and finihrull) acalnal an 

mlea whomaoever. and thai I "ill obey the 

order* of the Prealdent of the tilted Stafa 

and "f th« (Draroor "f the itnti "f . 

api«loted over me accord- 
ing to law and the rulea and article* of 

Hereafter all men collatlnc for aereleo 
in the National Gnard ahnll »U'n an .• 
ni'nt ontrart and tak. 

.mlh i In the preceding acctl*n Of 

tbla A. i. 

[Uf I nlKfrd Vr« from Ih 

' ...i M»te>1 man dla- hargrt 

from eerel'.- In the National Guard ahull 

. .i dlacbanro in wrll 
nnd with »ucl» claaaltlcatlou aa la pre.. 
Regular Armj. 

• nth for .Virllonot Ornirt Oftrirt. 

inilaal .1 odlcera of the National 

'.:..-il .-f ill" u i . n llorurt, 

and ■ of Colombia now aerTtnx 

under conunlatlona regularly loned ahall 

ui In ..in.-.. ii>. officer) of the National 

Quart! >.iti t the l»«oan" of new 

mlaalona: Prorhfed. That said officers hare 
nr nhall lake and aubacrlbe to tbe 
ii.iinulng oath of office : 

I. .1" aolemnly swear fhat I will 

support nnd def i>tltntlon of tb* 

I States and the com ' th- 

State of , agalnut all enemies, foreign 

and ih thai I will hear true faith 

oca to the a»me : that I wir 
the orders of tfie Prealdenl •>' the t'nlted 
Stut^K and of lh« eovertior of the State of 

: that I make thla obligation freely. 

without any mental relocation or purpose 

-Ion. and ihnt I "ill well and falth- 

rg" the duties "f Hi" -.trice of 

In Hn- National Guard of the I'nlled 

Stntea nnd of the Slate of 

iv hi. Ii I am about to enter, so help me God." 

.trmoinmt. Hqnipmrol. and Vnilurm »f 

the Trollonof (iuord— The National Guard 




CSS* 



of lb- foiled States «hall be aulfora**], 

srtn*d. is! equipped l1lk the «am* lyi» of 

ulforms, arms, sod equipment* ■ 

Tba r&irr»larj .« ontbori/ 

procure, by porch*** «>r n> ur fn.'iure. and 
te IMU reqal- 

■ItVuc. flutes ami 

■^■^■Wsrl" 
tfce Naliiul i. 

Columbia, torn of rolled State* 

■ervlca amir, "lib all »r.-*.. 
artillery. •**:«: lei. tac.Lsrr. colli artillery. 
Kraal, and Moitarr mat*ti»l. a c coat rem eat a, 
1*14 anlJorn.* ckittlsi. equipage, publica- 
tion* Itary nurva of all siu'J*. 
ua* public aeUaaU, a* are necessary 
l*> arm. ■nitons, and equip them fn. 

'ii't'fii" to Con/newt l« TAaf 0/ Rtfutor 

Arm;- .| : I »!l|..t. 111 

'•■in which ia now or may 

,,1 .-nC 

..•*. nail tn* 

I u. 

..'■.■■■-. 

iltl shall .< 
aed laUructli'n Ir. 

prartlr*. l". i i«n than forty <lclil time* each 
■jail, lo addition , arllcl- 

n eexampawnjt., aaaa*ut*r«. or 
lag outdoor tare 
ai I*. »>• lo training each y.«r. 

■arl*>lloc targve pri 

/nxf'i'.i o/ Jkr .Vafio.a/ Guar*.— The 

to w atad> at Ira it 

■ ■ <raL Bad If neceianry by other 
ay, ifetni. 

in* whether 
line of lb* pr- 
lit 
rtber ill tiu.tr>! I* 01 

red Dora puvw I lu- 
ll nii.l other ouallSratloBt i i 
wlteir ii.iinll'.li i.-. I II ■ 

. r. .f !,• 

«lw>0. ui ibd bring 

trait- • I fur aril. 

th* ft»»il »r co««t defense, noil whether tbr 
!• arr being kepi Ui accordance wlih 
lb* t*^oir>oi*ei« of law. 

-»(» .l»i» Uanr; 

r»ui.' 

T any i.irt 

laaai iSaarO in cacaBDpss i at*. uia- 
■a. ot otli. out- 

■ •t-itt- 

II* ur 
ltl r-Bj'.Ui- Hoe • 

• 
■ 

. T- liiu I I'll 

-ndlng grndc* of the 
■rcvlar Knar. 

new Umblft (o /.own 
Niilounl 
Oaaxt wbeti 

tbey • 

la, !• be aril. ■ law* 

■•4 resrnli.ii ; tbr K- 

Army. *.. far at filch lnir» and i 
are «p:.i! - this lo »ftlr*r» 1 1 
wboa* perssaoeh- 

. Hi.. 
retired Hal. It (tot coatpinplalnl hy eiutlag 

'.rranlaatlonii In 
. courlnu 
In the Nttvoual Guard •hall be of three 



n 



kinds, namely. general courts martial, spe- 
cial courts martial, and mimiu 

h i ii.' ■ nnitltuteil Ilk*, 
ami have cognUance of the *ni." 
ami poaacM lit* powei 
maota. at »lmlUr rararta prorldccl lor by 
tbe lawn and reiralntlona eovi-iuiai; iln- 
Armj ..f tbi- Dolt. 

.' Whtn Oratltd «««.. 

. — When 0>Dft*M ahall bu 

tborln-il the uar of the o:. rurcea 

for aoy purpoae re 

mi.' of troopa In «»o<-»> of thnw 

of the Recular may 

draft lliary wrvlce of the United 

v to serve thereto for lh» partod Of 

to* war unl*« louwr ilUrharsrd, an) or all 

Natloonl liuard and of the 

Reaervr. with lh* aame pay 

UD.I ,1 

of lb. .-inv .•[ Him aamc grail* 

th* «imi' prior •• 

ftffffii* /'( Pttuwiit — Wheo any officer or 
■■Dilated iiinii .'f III* .'• 

of war i" 'i b] r-n«"ii ..f wonnda or 

i.'il nlillr In 111-' 

active arrvkii nl Ilia tun..: KiatM la tlm» 

hi- beneflli 

of tli. lawa existing at tin- ciin- -f 

bit service, nu.l 

I iiiifil Siatr-, In ,ir or In i 

log to hi* plare of rsaldenoe nfloi 
t inch ati 

. f wounds or dlinlilll 
tic* received lo auch acll 

. peneloo la»«. 

hall, within a limit of How 

at, have (till 

. ly with or enforce any re- 

..r any reuulntlno pro- 

mulgni'-.l I aid thereof 

War. 

urd of such BUM »lmll Ur 

■ i in pari, ii- the I'real- 

lvlng from the 

.im any pecuniar] or othi I 

It. or prltllag rlted or pro>l.i..i 

. i •*. 
Afr 'In/'..- -Tin 

<■ 111 t Ira 

» a land furc* and in illliin. 

: h. ..\i. ui 

e Diimbci thereol In tba Quota BUI 

H'uuld Othl :-'l|llir»ll- 

Jmo.'iUiltlOn at !■-■ I,.. ...im.nl Jfuna- 

torlur •. tTlc. — Th. .•*..! r. tnrr of 

I authorized to appoint a board of lie- 
'•■■ i'|i lli.ru and 

Illcen <■: ctai 

tc and report b reaul 

ability, and prarilcablllty of tba 

".■in-, n 

and e.|nl|.in.iii. showing In aald report tbe 
romp itlons. 

iniiriu inr. itni ill 

plants and those mannfncturrd lo prli.it* 

. Hi" .in ur i.f ini. in ry to 

i. .ill.: neat plant* fur 

nannfacturt of irma, iininliion*. and 

■ Tint t he i ;■ 

mrnt plant* and *r«*nnl. art DOW rlolng In 

the ■ afactnrtai arms, munitions. 

. 1 I tit liui ii.'-i I 

,,n ..r ,i- hn 
maniifnclun-d a lnr«e pnrt of It* own arnia. 
for l lie lam four 
y<«im. 

•f(»lll(.)f> r Mint? MlJlll* Of 

. , ii nnalal of ll 

I III* A mix .hull 
b» convened by the Secretary .if War within 
alaiy daj» alter too approval nf this Act, 



Army 



Messages and Papers of the 



f„r th- iiiirpiiHK of Investigating and rr- 
portlng ilium pimt »»-irJ« nc muo of the so- 
called euugresalonal medal of bono! liy or 
lii War Depai unent . tin- mih » 
. i.\', i>, ,,.. trtstn whal modal* of honor, if 

an), have been awarded or Ixxueil fur any 
CanM Other iluiu distinguished conduct l»y 
an oOlcer or enlisi. n m-m Inaction Involving 
„ nnil conflict »uh mi enemy to nub officer 
or mllatea man or oj uoopi with which M 
mil serving at the time •>( »tieh o.tlnrt Ami 
,,, I,,, . in. ii ..ilil board ulinll iiini 

-hi. I report that «alil meilul was lasued ("i 
aur cause ■■< tii-r than iii.n hereinbefore 
iin! in. • i, ,,ui'' >f lii'- recipient "f iii»' medal 

I. .1 -lll.ll III- .11 |l l.i II (i.-IIIUI ll.-II I i ■. 

tbo otll- In I me. la I of honor lint. It ahull In 
a misdemeanor for him to WW oi publicly 

display (aid i lul. and, If be whuii still Im 

in [oi krtny. he •.hull I"- required to return 
>«ld medal t" toe war Departmonl for can- 
lou. Maid board ahall have full nml 
■ , i m. i,, and no of nil record! per- 
taining to iin' award or lam* i>r m edal* of 
honor by or through Ibc War Department. 
'iin' actual and neceaaary expensca of xnlii 

i 1. 1 and II maiuber* shall be i>ald out of 

any appropriation* available i"i ittngtnt 

npraat* of tbc Army of the War Depart- 
ni.'iit. 

/'rotecflon 0/ Hi' I nl/orm, — II shall be 

unlawful for any penon noi an nil ■ ur 

rallstoil in- in of tin' ruiti-d States Army. 

Nary, or Marin* Corp*, i" Waal the duly 

pr> •■.. :li"-il uniform of the Cm 

Ann), Navy, in- Murine Corpa. or any Ala- 

tlnctlvs pnrl of »ueb uniform, or n in 

any pnrt of which I* similar to ■ rtlatlni live 

tun I "I the duly pre ■■ i Un-il iiiilforiii • •! Hi" 
i State* Army, Navy, or Marine Corpa. 
-i.iik Iin) Scout* and honorably <lb> 

Any person who offends against tb» pro- 
of ttiii- lection aboil, on i om Ii tl"U, 
be i labed bj n fine nol exceeding gxuo, or 

by iini'i iM'titueut not exceeding all tnunilix. 

in- by liiilll .mil Hue uli.l Imprisonment. 

A aoldlor after (our yearn" continuous 

either oudar a Oral or any suba.-. 

■ 1 1 ■ - - 1 1 1 cnltatinenl, ma) be r*-*oll*lod f«ir 

wti'O years and receive a Una I discharge 

1 1 -in hi ■ pi loi All i up in. "i aftei tbrrc 
yean." ruuiinii.nix service may, uimn his 
written request, be furloughca and leans- 
r.ii'ii i" tbo B ree. ICnllstmenl perloda 

fur sei • i .■ I'll', iiu ■ counted as four years. 
First enlistments ai nflnad to men be- 

. iv.. ii Hi,. Hi.-. o( 18 ami SB year». All 

...l.ll.'l i r. e.-lve. in n. I. MM. .11 In tie If puy. 

rations, clothlnf. bedding, and medical at- 

i, 'in l:iu. i' wlill. with the colors. 

I'u Mewing !• a oomplet* 1 1 -> e of tin- com- 
mander* of the army •liu-e 1)70. together 
With their rcapocUT* ranks and the period 
of command; 

Gran, George Washington, June 17, 1773. 
tu 1 23, l .' 

MaJ.-Gen. 11. my Knox. Doc. S3, 1781 
tO, 1784. 

fapt. John I >ough (y (arllllery). June 20, 
1784, to Aug. 12. 1784. 

I, I, 'in -■'.. 1 Joalab lluroiar (lufnnlry). 
l .'. 1784, t" Mnr.li I. 1791. 

MaJ.-Ocn. Arthur Ml <lnir. Moi.h 4, 
17IH. t.. March B, 1702. 

MaJ.-Grn Anthony Wayne. April 12. 
1701V t" Dec I '■ i .'"'' 

Itrlg.-Gcn .In s Wilkinson, l— I \ 

i July 13, 1798. 

I ,. ui '•• ii Oi orge Washington, July IS, 
! . U. 1700. 

MnJ tl.-ii Alexander Hamilton, Dec. 14, 
1790. to .luu.- 10, 1800 

Brig.-'len Jninw WilkiO'-'iiii. Jnn.. LB, 
1800. [0 ,lun 27. 1S12, 

MaJ.-Gen. Henry Dcnrboru, Jan. 27. 1812. 
to June 15, 1816. 



MaJ.-Gen. Jacob Rrown, Jon* in, ISIS, 

24, 182S, 
MaJ.«..ii. Al.innder Macomb, May 29, 

MnJ. i.. ii. -iV, ni,,.!,! S.,,tt. Juiy 5. 1841. to 

No*, i. I80L 

Mai. <len. tienrgo BrlabM UcCUUaa Not. 

1, 1MI.I 

Majii.n II, in Wiiger llsllerk. July 23. 
. tu Miiuli B, 1HII4. 

I'lysxes .-..,,i| - ii Grant. March ». 
1804. i" Mail i, I, 1808 

i William Terumaeh Rbermao, Mar.-b 
:i i . •-,,.. in - - i , ■ 
(Jen. Philip Henry Shctldon, Nov. 1. 1883. 
to Aug. C, 1888. 

Lieut- John McAllister Scbofleld. 

Aug. 14. V II ISHJ. 

Lieut-Gen, Nelson Applston Miles, Oct. 5, 
: -■' - o '• ig, R, IPOS 

I.I.iii Gen Samuel U. M. Young, Au. 
lDOli, to Jan. D. I',' I. 

Lieu „-i it Chaffee. Jan. 8. 11*04. 

to i . i. i 1000 

Lleut-Cen. John C. Bates, In. 1. 1000, 

to Bent i ■ ii"". 

' Ciu. Arthur M.-Artlmr. Sept. If.. 
1000. to June 2. 1009. when he m> i 
under the opvrallon ..r ibc law, and the 
rank i Inct 

Ol uernl Tnsker II. Rllxx l» Chief of Staff. 
(Hot War, l)e|iarlnieni of.) 

Ri mil,, ./„u„( of timu for H**v orwissi 

fici niiuiii - The nimoiinccrocnt of the War 

i 'epai ' ,i , ei nlng the ■"" nl 

..I American force* sent to Europe t,> fight 
iigninxt German] was „• follow*; 

'"I'll" i ' r nrllllery strength to In- 

nil increased. A dlvUInn will 
fter Include only four Infs 
iintit. lu two brigades lii plnce of tbc old 
till I Ion ',! three brigades, eaeh ■ uu 

Ing three regl nts of Infant, 

will still b, 

lery In .mil .Ilil»l„n Thus, In the new 
organisation, there will lie three i.-^lmsntt 
of field artillery In every fnur r. 

It ' f the ratio uf tlir 

nine in uddlt ■ trench mortal bat- 

1*1 ' lv BtllH Il.'.l I., enell illvlnlim 

in , -iin- ■ itun arm U also materially 
enlarged. A machine gun battalion •-, 

•• ponies hai been m I II "f «ch 

illvlslon. In nddltl.'u i maehlno 

gun companies Included In each regiment. 
ri" I merlcnn division will he mndc by 
-:. i i" con "i m ;■:.!. 1 1. .ill' to the 
unlt« utlllsi .1 bi tin I ui. mi- Allies, nun ng 
whom a division number* approximately 
10.000 min. 'in. reason tot tn* ii,aug» U 
timt tbc iiiii-i'ui aj heretofore made up of 

n t 28 000 men i>- too unwieldy foi 

Is ..f trench warfare with to large 
a unit, sure and swift communication srltb 
all pan* l» dlfrleiilt. The proht. m 
met was bnslcnlly one of moblllt] for tin- 
iieeullar neicl. 01 Oghtlug on the ».. 
front 

"Ihe smaller slued units call for mnlu 
lennnei ol all unllx at full llghtlug strength, 

i',,r tbti puri,.'-.': r ne battalion* win b* 

led. Tin nlli : (112 mew 

each and are listed m the general order as 
"separata training ixittnUont.' The num. 
i" r ..r tin-,, hnttallons baa nol been m„,u 
public Detail* of regimen, i ,- 
are al*A withheld f..r military reasons. 
•Tl,,. tn» ..riler provide* for ormy corns 

inn! mini... null* whleb have |il i, li' n lis 
existed only on paper alnce the Civil War 
Corps wire organised during the Sp 
war, i : .nluully operated a- 

to iiny grent extent. 

h nrmy corps will consist of three 
Infantry divisions, corps headquarters, and 
certain army corps troop* not specified. 



Bart) artsy will normally consist of three 
or Korr array corps, amy heado/aarteri. 
sad crulo army troop* But spcelii .1 

he, new order each lofantTy dM 
■Ids will be cofnpawd o» follow*. Un- 
ix »• lti.j|._»: 

■ '■i'inrt.-i> isnni* an at 

"t)B* asarhUic gun battalion of tool cora- 

IMDU* I II.. I 

"Two Infantry brigade* of two regiment- 
s»1 one e tutulluo (foul om 

aaolm ... ii t« 

three infantry brigades of tbrc* rtgUnani 

I artillery brlgaii- regl 

•eats and mi trench faortar bnr- 
except trend* e»»rUr tw ■ i 

H»M signal battalloa (win. i. 
-CM** train headquarter* and tun 

IBM). 

•nt» ammunition trnln <*aa*e). 

"Ob* supply train <*>».. 

"OB* engtoc-er tritln iwmc. except tli.it 

Catuon lad at ii.' ii..! 

rluaVd In »-«• fUm. 
•Oa* aaBll.ii. train of i 

roaanW and four amlolnme i-ompa- 
Blea (car 

ore* filiation prat-Idea for no 
raralr 
pfr— -lit 'iiottltnln] rill* for 01 

11 Uao call* 
inaoroo, wtlie the new plan 
fir Boar, the aircraft uulu helug otb- 
rralv pro* lilt'. 

Th* order »fecI1e* alit'-n divisions of 

v>» Bation*i in. -mixed and nan*- 

n ii< . and 
namU-rs i cb of 

t unit. In each i!ItI.i..ii, It 
r-ro»i n to* sixteen dlvbilon* i I 

.sard bow organised (ball I-' 

I'MllllaJ to conform to the new plan 

practicable after their arrival In 

ilar army, tbr National Cuard. 
lb* Batlonal araay Bill nil . m 

it aaaxlnuaa streagtb. an Infanii 
nut ■■ - prti met officer- and 
Ikoa-a: 

anil 
I headquarters and ticadniisrtrrs 

eoeapan, 
3 battalion* of four rlO«. companies 

(Ml 

1 •oppli compel, v 

I machine din ouipaty its 

1 medical detaebmeat M 

ajns 
Each rtflc company baa a iireacth of 230 
m»n and 4 ofll. 

company headquarters ij officer* an. I :- 
oirni and foar platoon*. Each platoon 
cooprtscs: 

and Men 
I BBaiawiirri \t 2 

1 BBCtloa bombera and rifle grenadiers . ', 22 

2 MVttoas riflemen. 12 each 21 

1 section auto rltaaea (4 guns) 11 

50 

The ouchrnc sun compiny baa 6 officer* 

n-lsta of tbe headqiuir 

■ 1 oncers and II men). 2 plntoona 

wltb 1 oaVer and 46 m-m. and a 

train IIS tneni Ita armament U 12 ma 

ehtne guns of heavy type nad 4 spare gnna. 

Taa transportation equipment of tin 

St U: » combat wagon*. 1U rolling 




kitchens, « baggage and ration wairoaa, IS 

ration earta, IB witter ciirta. S medical 

cartx, 2* mi inn. jun cart* .•,!• ildinu 

. H riding niuli ifi iuu1i<r. 2 

■ »itii aiii... i.u«. i avMor car. 
tl i.i. 

'II..- nnmbar "f m -n and ollli.-if In tile 
. follow* : 

baadquarter* JtM 

l in. i :hm,. ,-im batiallon of « compa- 

iii'- 768 

- i'ii 

of 2 Infantri rcjzlmenu and i 
Hinililni . if a i om- 

I . . I'. I2n 

l field Aril l.i >poacd 

:: ii. Id krtlllcr) reKlmenta 

and i trend rtai buttery ... B.OBtJ 

l fi.-M »iiru.i i battalion Ml 

l r.'tliin hi ..r Kncliu'er. I.wttl 

i ii .in i.i idiju irtei . and military po- 

887 

1 amrniinlt'.iin trnln 9H'i 

1 aupply t ruin 172 

ir.ilii 84 

1 wniii posed "I 4 field 
ii.'-pltnl companies and I ambu- 
lance companlea 940 

27.152 
For mors detailed Information as to tbo 
•COpe and activities "f ID* Army as «sll as 
..in tonaiilt Hi.. Index i-.-f-rencc* to 
Hi - Tresldenu' Messaees and the Kncyclo- 
(■•■■II .- articles under the following beading* : 
Anns and Amniniilii 

nnl». Aiilllery. 

fongbt ' ilea troops. 

wiiu-ii nr.- arranged nlplinlieti. 
riwll War. Military F-dueatlon. 

ForiKli-nllona. I." oltitlonary \Nnr. 

1 1 . ■ I ■ ■-> 1 1 War*. Spaolsb Ani.-rl.iin 

W ii. '■'- - 

Military A.ndi-my. wai in-iinitment. 

Milllnr. li.p.iil nl-. \\:>:«, IoitIkii 

Array fnec nlso 4nna ud Ammunition; 

■I Depart- 
in."' 
Annuities for families of deceased 

noliliers recommended, 4425. 
• rivalry tactics for, prepared, 927. 
' - Mitlcato of matil (.-ranted enlisted 

iin'ii, n.l.lilioual pay to, 4735. 
•ThnnRcs in. 6669, 0670, i 
Chaplains for hosp 1 ' 
Clothing accounts of enlisted men in, 
raferre.l to, lililn. 

Mnnni.-i.-inr.'.l m Pnited States, re- 
ferred to, 635, 685. 
Command and rank in. (So* Officer* 

of, nosf.) 
Commanders of. (8ee Encyclopedic 

Index nrticlo, Army.) 
Commanding officers and men 

praiaed bv Roosevelt, 6693. 
Conduct of. in Mexican War, dis- 
cussed, 24S1. 
Courts-martial In. (Soe Courta-Mar- 

tlal; Courts, MUitary.) 
Drsertcrs from— 

Efficiency of, 667, 6671, 6805. 

Pardons granted. (8co Pardons.) 

Shot, referred to, 2287. 
Desertions in — 

Discussed, 4033. 




Army 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Legislation regarding military Stat- 
ute of limitations as applied to, 
recommended, 4524. 
Portion of pay withheld bo as to 

prevent, 871. 
Reduction in, 5550, 5631. 
Discussed by President — 
Adams, J. Q., 871, 925, 953. 
Arthur, 4636, 4724, 4832. 
Cleveland, 4932, 5099, 5373, 5877, 

5966, 6158. 
Grant, 4062, 4147, 4202, 4243, 4304, 

4360. 
Harrison, Benj., 5550, 5631, 5754. 
Hayes, 4424, 4451, 4524, 4569. 
Jackson, 1166, 1251, 1332, 1387. 
Jefferson, 317, 333, 373, 394. 
Johnson, 3561, 3649, 3773, 3881. 
Lincoln, 3249. 

McKinley, 6320, 6341, 6385, 6449. 
Madison, 461, 471, 479, 490, 513, 

533, 538, 549. 
Monroe, 619, 680, 757, 780, 823. 
Pierce, 2748. 2819, 2941. 
Polk, 2260. 2276. 2481. 
Roosevelt. 6669, 6693, 6721, 6999, 

7068, 7110, 7234. 
Taft, 7371, 7428, 7513, 7515. 
Tyler, 1942, 2121. 
Van Buren, 1607, 1754. 
Washington, 52, 57, 75, 114, 118, 

176. 
Wilson, 8106. 
Education in, 4570, 5879, 6669. 
Elections, interference in, by, in- 
quired into. 1315. 
Prohibited, 3866. 
Enlisted men in, limits of punishment 

for, 5602, 6034. 
Eulogy on the army of the United 
States by President Roosevelt, won 
by their gallantry and efficiency in 
the Cuban and Philippine cam- 
paigns, 6693, 6921. 
Executions in, contrary to law, re- 
ferred to, 635. 
Expenditures of. (See Finances; War 

Department.) 
Field Manceuvers of, 6670, 6927. 6999. 
General 8taff of, 6670, 6805, 7069. 
Imprisonment of American citizens 

by officers in, referred to, 4009. 
Increase in, 1714, 2553. 

Recommended, 429, 534, 538, 1473, 
1606, 2276, 2354, 2559, 2623, 2666, 
2714, 2748, 2819, 2830, 2941, 
2987, 2989, 3249, 4330, 4424, 4637. 
5476, 6341, 6721, 8106. 
Increased pay for officers and men of, 

urged, 7492. 
Indian campaigns. (See Indian Wars.) 
Indians enlisted in, discussed, 5631. 
Insane asylum for. (See Govern- 
ment Hospital for Insane.) 



Inspector-General of. (See Inspector- 
General of Army.) 

Intoxicating liquors, order prohibit- 
ing sale of, in, 4592. 

Lands granted persons who have 
served in. (See Lands, Bounty.) 

Large standing, unnecessary in time 
of peace, 317, 1389, 1607, 1901, 
2263, 2733. 

Legislation for, referred to, 3585. 

Measures for efficiency of, recom- 
mended, 4148, 4248, 4304. 

Medical Corps — 

Improvement of, urged, 7111. 
Recommended, 4148. 

Medical Department of, reorganiza- 
tion of, referred to, 3282. 

Mileage system, repeal of law abol- 
ishing, recommended, 4304. 

Military establishment act vetoed, 
203. 

Military peace establishment dis- 
cussed, 680, 2453, 3561, 3881. 

Military statute of limitations 
against deserters, 4524. 

Modern rifles for, recommended, 5631. 

Nominations — 

Correspondence regarding, 2269, 

2367, 2368, 2436. 

Reasons therefor, 1773, 2296, 2367. 

2368. 2370. 
Withdrawn, 695. 

Northwestern, referred to, 602. 
Number of men and officers in, re- 
ferred to, 3578. 
Office of Inspector-General in. (See 

Inspector-General of Army.) 
Officers and soldiers" of temporary, 

discharged, 296. 
Officers of— 

Absence of, orders and proclama- 
tion regarding, 3320, 3364. 
Accounts of, referred to, 806. 
Additional grades of, 2632. 
Annuities for families of deceased, 

recommended, 4304, 4362, 4451. 
Appointments and promotions, bre- 
vet rank discussed, 1002, 2559. 
Appointments and promotions of, 
1773, 2269, 2296, 2367, 2368, 
2437. 
Recommendations regarding, 
5099, 5374. 
Assignments of, to duty referred 

to, 3268. 
Brevet rank conferred upon, for 

service in Indian wars, 2008. 
Brevetted, 811. 
Commissions of brevet and staff, 

referred to, 2559. 
Details of, to colleges and univer- 
sities, from retired list recom- 
mended, 4570. 
Increase in number of, recom- 
mended. 114, 490, 504. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Aroostook 



Law authorizing retirement of, 

when incompetent, 2624. 
Letter of John Bandolph, jr., de- 
manding that certain, be pun- 
ished for insulting, 291. 
Pay of — 

Equalization of, with naval of- 
ficers discussed, 1254. 
Inequality in, between naval of- 
cers and, discussed, 1023. 
Question of restraining, from 
usurping powers of civil func- 
tionaries, referred to, 2632. 
Relative rank of — 

Referred to, 1773, 2633. 
With officers of Navy referred 
to, 2624, 2633, 2669, 2714, 3240. 
Retired list of — 

Details for colleges and univer- 
sities from, recommended, 4570. 
Recommended, 2624, 2714, 2871, 

4724. 
Repeal of act limiting numbers 
on, recommended, 4425. 
Organization of, report relating to, 

transmitted, 995. 
Pardons granted deserters. (See Par- 
dons.) 
Partial reorganization of, 2872. 
Pay of — 

In depreciated paper, 1315. 
Increase in, discussed, 2819, 7492. 
Revision of, recommended, 1475. 
Payment of, resolution providing for, 

approved, 3350. 
Promotion in, 6670, 6999, 7000. 
Provision for support of. (See War 

Department.) 
Provision for aged horses, 6722. 
Punishment for enlisted men in, 

limits of, 5602, 6034. 
Quartermaster-General of. fireproof 
building for records in office of, 
recommended, 4524. 
Quartermaster 's Department, appoint- 
ments in, referred to, 1773. 
Rank and command in. (See officers 

of, ante.) 
Reading matter for, recommenda- 
tions, regarding, 4425. 4451. 
Reduction in, referred to and dis- 
cussed. 549, 698, 705, 3561. 3881. 
Re-Enlistment after 10 years, repeal of 
law forbidding, recommended, 5878. 
Referred to, 631, 3578, 3585. 
Regulations — 

Compiled by General Scott, 795. 
Crrders promulgating, 5602, 6034. 
Referred to. 4425. 
Reorganization of, 6671. 

Commission to report upon — 
Appointed, 4352. 
Referred to, 4376. 
Time to report, extension of, rec- 
ommended. 4361. 
Beeommended, 2872. 



Report regarding, transmitted and 
investigation into referred to 
with a view to proper action in 
the matter, 291. 

Repeal or amendment of act forbid- 
ding use of, as posse comitalus rec- 
ommended, 4452. 

Rifle for use of, 6159. 

Adoption of, recommended, 5631. 
Selected, 5878. 

Rules and regulations compiled by 
General Scott, 595. 

School buildings for posts of, recom- 
mended, 4451. 

Size of, 6669, 6671, 6721, 6927, 6994. 

Smokeless powder recommended, 5631. 

Staff corps of, recommendations re- 
garding, 1606, 1754, 3994, 4102, 
4202, 4248. 

Subsistence Department, appropria- 
tion for, recommended, 4304. 

Subsistence of, referred to, 594, 706. 

Sunday, observance of, by, enjoined 
by President Lincoln, 3326. 

Surgeon-General of. (See Surgeon- 
General of Army.) 

Transportation of, from Council 
Bluffs to Oregon River, 795. 

Volunteers for, acceptance of, en- 
couraged, 416, 429. 
Army and Navy Forces, mobilized on 

borders of Mexico to protect interests 

of citizens of United States during 

uprising, 7659. 
Army League. (See Preparedness So- 
cieties.) 
Army List and Register.— An official 

Eamphlct, published monthly by the War 
lepartment, containing: the names of all 
active and retired officers of the United 
States Army, with their addresses : the 
names and locations of all organizations 
connected with the Army. Including both 
voluntary bodies and official army posts and 
camps: and the ranks of all men nu the 
active list, with an account of nil changes 
In the army organization since the previous 
monthly Issue. 

Army Medical Department. 

Enlargement of, 6935, 6936, 7000. 
Rank of officers in, 7000. 
Army Medical Museum, building for, 

recommended, 4572, 4780, 4833. 
Army of the Republic, Grand. (See 

Grand Army of the Republic.) 
Army Ordnance Department. — Enlarge- 
ment of, 6936. 
Aroostook War.— Between 1837 and 1839 
the settled boundary between Maine and 
New Brunswick onm<> near leading to ac- 
tive hostilities on the Aroostook River. The 
governor of M.-iinn sent troops to drive off 
the Intruders and erect fortifications, and 
Congress authorized the President io resist 
the encroachments of the British. Presi- 
dent Van Buren sent Gen. Scott to the 
scene, who arranged a truce, nnd It was 
ncrced that the country should lie occupied 
jointly, as before, pending adjustment of 
the boundary, which was definitely settled 



Aroostook 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Aug. 9, 1842, by the Aabburtou treaty 
(pagea 1*33. 1738. 17+71. 

Aroostook, Tne, claim of owner* of, for 
compensation in searching for 1>" 
and property lost >n itmoi I ">«i<Ia, 

4119. 

ArMIUlt.— Armories and arwiito were not 
citnbllshcd In tbo trailed Stales until the 
hczlunlng o( the Revolutionary War. In 
1770 powder was manufactured In Virginia 
and brass <.iiduuq were cast in Philadelphia. 
An arecnal waa establish!. 1 at Carlisle. I'n.. 
tbe tame year. Washington In 17 77 chose 
Sprlngtlcld. M«>. nt a nullah!'' location 
tor an arsenal, and stnall arni» won manu- 
factured wen in 1 7^7 Thl» Mta 
mi-nt. now tbe chief smell arm* manufac- 
tory, baa a capacity of 1.000 rifles per day 
The arsenal at llarpcis Kerry. W. va.. »ai 
begun In 17U5. anil from Umi da 
number waa gradually Increased until 
when there were 28 arsenals ecatt. -i. -.1 ..».-r 
die country iidpal onea nt prcax-nt 

In uae are at AuguMn Of : ll.nlcla. Cal. ; 
Krankfoid. I'a . ; Spilngflcld. M«««.; Gov- 
ernor! Inland. N. Y. : Rock Inland, III. : 
San Antonio. Tex.; I'mter, N J Water- 

town. Mnea.. ami W pellet, N, 8 Ord- 

nance, arms, aminiinlil.in. and necouter 
ments are manufactured II many of llieso 
places, tbo Idea being to devote men to a 
apeclal Hue of fabrication. Thu» th 
labllahmcnt at Wat-i >ll.-t la devoted lo the 
manufacture of heavy ordn 
and aasetnbllng of grin* are carried on at 
Itork l«lniiil nml li.nl. In. in uell .is the 

making of Iratln-r | 1- Naval runs and 

projectiles are made at Washington. O. C. 

Art em lis: 
Atij-uBfa, Oft., referred to, 893. 
Erection of, anil armories on Weat-rn 
WBttn rtfnrad to, "05, 7S1, 808, 
2079. 
Establishment of, recommended to 
utilize the Iron min>n nn.l work* 
nt Berkeley iiu.l in thfl Stale of 
Virginia, 99. 
In the South. 333. 
Frutikford, Pa., arsenal at, referred 

to, 4001. 
Location for magazine*, referred to, 

.,sii. 
Replenishment of. recommended. 2.15. 
Rock Island Arsenal, appropriation 

for, recommended. 4680, li.'iv 
8alo of, not ■ 1 - . - - f I. i .'iin ..ruin, -ill rec- 
ommended, 8094, II 19, 484& 
Schuylkill Arsenni itlon for, 

recommended. •178"). 
Si tog for— 

Appropriation for. 772. 
Referred to, 178, 2H9fl, 4148. 
Art. (See Science and Art.i 
Art Exhibition. (See Int. mill lOMl Ex- 

Inl.ition of Fine A I 
Arthur, Chester A— Sept 20, 1881-Marcb 
3, 1885. 

Twenty fourth Admlnl-' ivi.m (COnttl I '- 

Republican. 
Secttaru of gintr— 

James Itlnlne i.-oniluucdl. 

P i. rr.llnghuisea. 



tfexvrfarv el Ihc Treasury — 

William Wlndoat (continued). 

ran.: .1 I . 

nam 
Hugh HcCullocb. 

0/ II. I' 

Robert T. l.m--..:.. < . ..iitlaued). 
gttrclnrv of (fte ,Soi|i— 

wn.nm II. II u ui iconllnued!. 

William B. CbaBi 
Becrcta'v »/ t/ir Inferior — 

Samuel .i Kirkwood, 

Henry M. Teller. 
I'oitmrnltr tltntral — 

Jam.', (continued!. 

i mi. .(by O. Howe. 

Walter i]. (lresbam. 

Frank Batten, 

4ff0> '.' HI "ll — 

M.icVcagh I com lowed). 
Benjamin II. Urcit m . 
Arthur wae the fourth vice-president te 
■accord to the office of President through 
llM) death 01 tin m. ' mi., m ; and the second 
uci •.: tbroucb death by assassination. 
He took the oath of office In Nev. 
Sept. 20, ISSl. Arthur cmi limed oioat af 
• iarfirld'a appointees a* beads of depart- 
ment v 

fnrly AfflUatlun — President Arthur early 

'I -i mux null-slavery sentiments froea 

Mi ruler, n bo took pari In the omuuav 

Hon. at t'tlea In t- . ,' • .. sutl-»lav»r» 

aoclety. Mr, Arthur In hi* law practice 

Urc part aa counsel In scrcral 

case* In which the rlchta of colored : 

were concern. . I. lie lieeam- n Henry Clay 

Whig and raat his first vole for Central 

geotl in ISM', lie was present at tbe R«- 

"u convention at Saratoga and. In 

1S5I1. took an active part In tbo Frstnont 

iv4 



Sobl 

.niiiimlitn, From 18«2 to lsT^. whtli 
ungvA In hl» law practice, (iencral Arthnr 

touk an * i-l I v.- pact In noUtlC*, 

Pubfa Debt The public debt of tbe 
I nlii-d Slates durliiB the mlmluls'.railon of 

President Arthur • 1 as fntliiws Julv J. 

HWI, tl,Slft.«r>i),19«,'£t; '' v -. ?1 •■Tr. 

1.VS3. »1.K1B.TSI.SM.13; IK84, 

si i s.r,«.t«ir».39. 

In his I'lral Annual ^tetKBge (pajje 4G35> 
the President Mil,] "In view, bouevcr. of 
the heavy load of taxation mhlch out i 
baeo already borne, we may Wei 
whether It Is not the part of wisdom to 
reduce the revenues, even If we delay a little 

tbe payment of the debt." In aid B nd 

Annual Men-w Ipaif" 47111 lie 
I renew the expression of 
that iii.-li rapid cxtlnsulsbment of tbe na- 
tional Indebt-Mlneaa as la now taking i 

Is by nn means a cai I i-onrratnln 

It In a eanw rather for lerloits niipreln-nalon 
If It continues It must speedily be followed 
by one of tbo » i 

the repori "f Hie Secrotary. ruber the 
surplus muni lie lilie In the Ti.--.-irv at 
tbo fjorc niiient will be fotcid to buy at 
i i ales Its bonds not then redeemable, 
and which under such clrcatnauaoea can nut 
fall to command an ennrim 
the swollen terenuea will be devoted i 

Sravacant exiieii<llture. which, as experleaee 
as taught, la ev.r the bane of an over- 
flowing treasury" In hla Third Annual 
Meisace (page 470S1 he aald : "There are 
ii reasons, however, why rbe national 
Indebtedness should not i"- thus rapidly «t 
llnculnbed Chief among them It tbe fa. i 
that only by excessive taxation la such 
rapidity attainable" 

Tariff.— lo hla First Annual Message 
fpnee eflHil) the President aaya: "Tb» 
tailff laws >l-ii ii m: hut, thai a 

due regard may be paid lo the conflicting 
Interests of our cltliena. Important cbangre 
should be made with caution. If ■ careful 







can a*t be made at this mitos, a 
.i» »». lately approved by 
la* r-eaaie and t» now rewuo 
the Secretary of the Trras-ary. wuulil 
leaa lighten the labors of Congress srl. 
Ills aubtrct »i-ai t be brought to Ita consid- 
eration' Id bla Sceosd Annual Message 
(pace 47221 he tan .vent tarilt 

sj^teni U la many respects uojuat. It makes 

Its hcorOta. Tbl« (art ni practically MC- 
©cnlied br a atajorlty or each Uuuae of 
i«i|nM (a th# passage, of the act creating 
the TarlaT Commission. ... If a eeo- 
«ral rrvlstm or tb« larlaT shall be round t» 
be Impracticable at tbla session. 1 express 

-.* that at Unst some o( lb» more coav 
apamoaw inequalities of the present law 
amy be corrected before your final ndjonrn- 
Btent- One of them .... the oret-s- 
stty of amending toe law by v. ti : ■ 
Datrh ttaodard of color la adopted at the 
•aat at the aaccharlne alrcngtb of wears Is 
loo obvious to require eomaarat." la bis 

a Ancusl Mfwip (pace 4R39I be 
says: The healthful enlargement of our 
trade with Harope. Asia, and Afr'.ta should 

S. hi by rtdu ni on such 

their ware* as neither we n<.r Ihe 
laiilna States are Ottrd to prodoce. and 
fnsss caanUnc ourselrea to obtain In return 
a better etarlei I ,•!.. < of feed, of 

raw mate: maoufa<tui 

srMct It see** to mc tbat many 

•C la* ■ ■ b arrelling elements la the great 
national conflict uetwi<a protection and 
ade atsy Dint be turned to good ae- 
■nt . lbs' ;r may be reduced ao 

ao sangsr to overtax the people : thai ; 
dalles Buy Ik rets 
harden s.,me that our shipping '"• 
. near be Ju 
__iey axed oa firm bases, and. above all. 
saeh a aally of li libllshed among 

sirs of the Americas rystcm a« will 
treat and ever- Increasing advantage 
I* theta si 

fheaseatrsf Time— President Arthur .-nll.-d 
aa selrraatlonal conference to establish a 
sal versa I meridian from which to reckon 
these flare, world. Twenty-five 

nallaaa participated In (be conference, wblrh 

,rid at Washington In October. 
aad Ike saerldlan of Orreowlcb was n erred 
aa«a <i-i 

Tale • TlssoB of the i 

ttabr* law foor tlate neiloa*. 

I frrrtrr— la bin first Anneal Mei- 
aaga <p*g- I ■■ President fully dii- 

cwaas- lie repeats bis 

ts s-t forth la his letter of nee- 
■I II o of Ihe 

describee tha aalleut fee tor 

ud selects from It wch elements 
as I* aeeass applicable to American condl 
ntete. Among these are: A pun tleally 
i»»ur. of or Inn ii? agi 

•ad a retiring ol oin- 

.isoloatlon before appointment for 
sad promotion no v. are 

toaea or 

AqajBB i Message (page 4733). la ur.-l" 
Oas bi -aid : "'In tin- Judc 

■Wt of not a rew who 1iae» Kiven slody 

i. to tlili matter. Ihe i 
snpnt II ni which tl: 

lb* has e- ling the minor 

attWaf IB Ihe pabllc aerel 
»a»t^ : of remoTals ard at>P'>mt- 

avat* a.-e here al«m glton A code of raid 
iSag Ihe coedarl of rltll terries em- 
— ■ »»• prooultf 

.Mr Bll|h.>rllT of III- 

This wide wn» further 
■Maleavalnl and am. ■ 

latat ITU i snider ttie «me antborlly. 
laaai ni>. and the repo.-t of Ibc Civil 

4 



Jtervlce Commission n , i i . , pag« 

1773) in lbs i-i. Idi ni « Third li 
aajre. In apeaklzil of the .-tli-cla or the 
ri. il s.rvir.. reform, the President aa>-» 

(pagcsbU»i In bin !•" th Annual Mi 

d ihe ei- 
of u« frleoda in securlnc 
potent and fnltlif ul public aervants and In 

Setlug the appointing officers ol 
(rtvnioi.ul rn>m the pre- 
Importmn g the loi«.r or eiain 

Inlns the claims and pretensions or rival 
candidates ror public emplojrmrnt " 

8lor Hauli TriaU.— Harly In Arthur's 
admlm .• tti-citlon wo» directed 

to the Indictment In Washington or John W 

• in. M. Pi-rk JTihn ;: 
.si,.|.Ii..ii 1 1 as J. 

ltradr. William II. Turner and J. L. Sander- 
son for con«pln«.:.i to rtofnad tl>.- govern 
! i inili for tuall ».'i . Star 

ttoutea.) 

Internal Improremenlt. — President Ar- 
thur's atlitudr ti.uaid tlila graai 

nU l-'lrsl Annual Jli'imp ipage 
44MO) where be lid : "I advl»c approprla- 
tlcna for such Internal Improvements as the 
wladom of 

linportau.i li" necessity of lav 

proving the narlEatlrui of the Mis- 

juslines a special allusion to the aub- 

I suggest the adopt Ion of some 

measure fur toe rtnotml Of oh-tru 

which now Impede the navigation of tbnt 

great channel or commerce.^ <Ja Aug. 1, 

1S82. the President althheld his signature 

v rlver-and-harbor bill Jii>i.r..|.i lniinjc 

Ihe sum ot H8.743.S75, In doing so be 

raid I page 4707 1 : "Vly principal oDlectloo 

to the hlii In nun li contains uiitiropilailona 

fur porpoaca boI (or the commas defense or 

i welfare, nud which do not promote 

inning |h* Sin'c 'ih..- r, r .i 

in-, the coBtrary, an- entirely fur 

the benefit of the particular localities In 

i It Is proposed to make the lm| 
ni-nts. I ragard «0eh appropriation of 
Ihe public '■■'! ' bi 

given by the Con<tltutlon to •■■.ngre«» and 
ihe Pretldent." On Aug. 2. 1882. this bill 
was passed by Congress over th Pri rldent'i 
in this connection It l« worthy of 
note that In three of his annual message! 
(pages 4725. 4771. and 4H:»i tin 

■i ..f a Con 
llonal m which would permll 

President to laaent tn pans of a hill and 
without belug Obliged 
i. ill on Breniiut of one or 
two objectionable p-iiutg. 
Arthur, Chest* r A.: 

A n in in I incRMigeH of, 4624. 4713, 4757, 

is:..'. 
Biographical sketch of, 4618. 
Miami-Allison Act diticuMv.t by, ami 

I inoniiation* r*jfar(lin}f, 46.13, 

1720, 4830. 

diactiMcd by, 4647, , 
I, 4773, 4-S39, 4863. 
>ol lector of port of Now Turk, su»- 

|,. ■ ■■'(. -1463. 

Constitutional ameinjuniit reRarclin» 

roval of separate items of bill 

tun I veto of others recommended 

by, 4725, 4774, 4840. 

Death of. announced and honora to be 

paid memory of, 5081. 5082. 
Death of President Garfield— 

Announced to, and reply of, 4604. 
DIscusMd by, 4820, 4024. 



Z*cy<lopcdu Index 



Asia 



Finance* diacusaed by, 4952. 4719, 

4763, 4S!». 
Icaurural addr*.a» of, 4< 
Internal improvements diseaseed by, 

4 <H«. 
Oata of office adroinUtcrod to, 4815. 

I 117. 
Power* of Federal anil State Oowra- 

bmbU dUcuaaed by, 4707, 4771, 

iMa 

Proclamations of— 
Ii»v of mourning in memory of 
:i<-ld. 4621. 
.ting dutie* on l 
from Cub* aad Pn. sua- 

• d. 4810. 
Oniiea on foreign vessels suspend 

•>»ry aession of Senate, 
4a* I, 4* i •>. 
Hundredth anaiversarr of -it r 
v Waahington of 
mission at Cornmander-ln Chief, 
4810. 
Quarantine re(folatioaa, 4812. 
Thanki giving, 4«S3. V, 

, Traaty with Great Britaia, termi- 
nation of, 4807. 
Unauthorized of land* 

i T.rr.-cry, 4811. 
. ful combination io Utah, 

i 'a Indoatrial ud ' 
anial Kxpoaitioa. ' 
ttttaaf the I'niot I 
Tu.S .t.Kotaod by. 4636, 47*1. ■ 
TaaakagtviBK proclamation'. o(. 
10, 4746, 4M& 
■a—age* of — 
'"iinrwi immigration, 4690. 
Pliarncera by sea, 4705. 
WW of Fits-John Porter. 4808. 
tnera aad ITarhora. 4707. 
Warmseed. 4« 
AittdM of Confederation. 5. 

Spin of, 13. 
•Wdaj Of War.— »u»»* end regulation* 
*"*• saaaaace of tbe Army and Nary, la 
•*■■» to the act nUea. general order* 
5*e*el*l nature are Issued by the War 
"Wrswaj as oceaston requires. 
ARflkry.-Tbe btatory of artillery bcclna 
•*•*"» afire the tnrealloa of gaapoader. 
■•»»**td by Mm Moor* of Algrclras. In 
i i dward 111 bad four 
"•■••M Creey la IMA, Iturlng the >li 

■ «rat«ry fcraan gun* anil >«•• 

5»"«llUa were e.loftiJ t hr-.iiuttcii i Kn 

"f» lOHtTua Adolpbua, «»>*•'■ ICTeat- 

if lo'rt«Iu.-<l the Initial Ion ay* 

•* «at mteced tae uae of artlileri r.. * 

J** 1 b) Konip". Nain/lrv* u«--d much of 

■bMltary a»ore« to hl« skill In ihr 

•Wnhttaa of artillery. In hi. warn are 

■ u» ant IcasaHtaat .•ff..r„ of the coo- 

aajaooa of »>• la those dsy* 

"■** <mi/ \w . , lh» ma"ln< of 

*•* XsdoImb HI made a special stady 



■ f ill.- | '. .1 ..f UtUltfl aod Ihe irenll.-- 
hnrun and mainly written hr him I* a 
-i.imlnril work m i Dnrll 
run War <;.*. WlllUm V. Karri dl>! 

to Improve Hi. .»ik»iiIi > I. mi 

..r ili.. Union Armi Tbe amires 

-■*■< about 15.0<" 
aod -IS.OOO men. Aceonlliijc lu 
reorganization an of I'et. . lutii. ih 

I organisation of tbi- o 1 1 1 ! 1 ■ - r y nrm 

wan discontinued and the atni euro. .,! 

aad designated a* the artiiic 
COBttat" of 

and li'i; tatter tea of coast artin 
(irtl.-era of the srilllery t-oraa are n fill 

n the ntaff of Ibi 
tf.-n.-nil officer commanding the 

coloncla; rhtrty-nlne major*; IDS captu 

I IT. •.•. 

ants: twent; major wllh rank 

■i arntal mrrwiotain* >■■ 
Infantry: and iweniy-aercn aergeanta 
major wllh rank, pay and allowance of 
battalion arrEcanta-major of lnfaatrj Tbi 
accrpx*ie of euh-f. .1 ui.u inu-i imi 
eeed b.-if. tor the Held artlllci ■ and ' 
foe the coaat artllkrr. IS*.- aUo Army: 
Araeoal*: Arm* and AmmtmltU) 

ArtUlory School of Practice aj ] . 

Monroe, Va., 940. 
Artists. Foreign, tariff . I 

BgaiaiL I7M, «84, aW4, 5091, 5501. 
Arnndel Manuscript*, ropy of, placed in 

l.il-rnrv <•? i VmgreM, 1445. 
Arro, Tho, ledmre of, by Haitinn au 

thorities, 2680. 

Aahburton Treaty. — * irouiy roneluAtd 
I lanington, inf. B, 

I : i- i ■ . 1 1 n aod tbi -i'ntc«. It 

wa» nccotlnted by I ml 

It aetll. IR Ml.- 

Sntad 
■ 
about aeToo-tw, iftlin «.f th.- tetrltory • 
hml li 

i-r (tie treaty for tbe 
Btipi". and tbi 

mutual eitrmlli I 

(8ee 
(irent llr.i lea with.) 

Aahbnrton Treaty: 

Reference to, 81M :60, 3071. 

AabevUle, N. C. lot I n of 

lie Luilding in, veto, I. 0060, 
Asia.— The artn of Aala U 17-4 i 
wjuare tnllef, end It extend* oTcr neaily 

if the land anrfaie of tin- 
Tbr dl>lan 
the wilt .-.^.t . f ,\. i m„j 

.at Cn|«i |I.M W.) la • 

iic latltuil.-*. Can., fh.-ii 

80" N i and Cane Bum i»o 
north :nlle» span 

Asia la bounded br the oi<an on all aldm 
except the weat. Th. Utlimun or So. .-. 

.aiiali cont 

i] ..o Hie nlr tiv the I ' 

Monntalna .ir,.i ihe t'ral ftlivr. In Ihe 
•iiulliwMt Ihe Taller of ttie Haoych, whli-h 

' fn.m Ihe f- . : 

■ •I Hie linn. I» now tnken at th. Hue between 
the two continents, oliliuiifli tin- <-., ,,, 
WOa f. 

The lulnn. 
. the nontheaat, betwi . i 
«.f Aala and Auatral i Ivhleil Into 

■ 
Timor I..1IH. the K--I l. land i ihe 



tessagcs and Papers of llu Presidents 



Moluccas. Asia la assumed to be the hlrlh- 

■f uimikiuil. Ii uu* certalnl] 
acene of many hlgl.li ,|......|..p,..i cl 

III* cv>uqucal< In I: 

atM hi,, neat religions r,r n... 
world. 

I hi Nations of Aala. with the form of 
K'>v.<rnmcDt anil capital ol , ...-h, folio* 



Alrl.eny.tan (Monarchy). Kabul. 
Bhutan (Monarchy). I'unakh* 



China IVkioc 

Maps! '••!..'. .i.llv,. Khatmiudu 
Oman (Muiurcihyj, Miiwai. 

■ i.Miiliarctiv). Teheran, 
liuaua in A U 

i. Baiwkak. 

Turkey in A.i» ■ Monarchy). 

The Rati India Inland*. the govern 
to which they belong in,, arra In ■ 
mlloa and p. arc : 



Bone-, 



■ 



,111)0 



Popula- 



000 1.300.000 
C»leb~. KMbtrlanda 72.000 000,000 

Java. Netherlands. «S.100 28.00Oj000 

lanan-Rumlaa JN'cthcih. KIIOJOIIIJ 

Leaser Sundaa ', Porlujeil , .^not, 

Molucca*. Nelhrrlan.t. 43.000 400.000 

Extam | UniUx i suim... . ns.000 B.aoo.ooo 
Ire. Netherlan.U IflMOQ S.MO,000 

PAmiMl Ftolurt*.—t\u northern coast la 
wlihlu 111.. Alclle i u.l... 
The subacli ; fri.i.'ii, only a 

frw Inches of tin- upper sulfate thaw- 

,.ni»hc» arc 

ilx in.. Hi.. Ni w 

Slh, ilnn Ialanda and Wrangcl Island, la 

llio notthrait, A»la reaches to within thlrty- 

-ii ml • northwest pmlnaula of 

North America, I i. It U eepnraicd 

b] i In- (.hallow Bering Strait, arblcb divides 

III.. Arctic from tho I'n.in.- Ocean. The 

u rou . i>..iilnMilna 

and Inland*, both nf which are u ii 

talnona. The peninsula of Kamchatka, tlsk- 

l aland, and the KurlU* mark off the 

.sen nf OkBOUk. an. I I" tin' south the 

Island* of Japan ami tin: tn nlnMila of 

form the boiimlnrlea of (he SCO of 

Japan. Tim Iargi-at laland off tbl» coast 

la Hi,- ii BtalSOUa Ixlaiid .if I'ortnuad- The. 

,,ni Hi.. Pa- 
clllc by tbe Philippines and Uoroeo. IndO- 
I'hlua forma a bilge peninsula »trcteblng 
far to the aoutb wltb ooa lung arm, tho 
Malay 1'colnsiiln. which nearly i 
Eouator, and two leaser projection*, the 
growing- di'ltaa of lb,.- Mekong and Ira. 
waddy, Sumatra la separated by the Ma- 
lacca Strslt. the eaateru ii*c» between the 
Indian Ocean nod tin . to which 

Singapore owea Ita Importance. Tbe Dec- 
can and Arabia project as la ice peninsula* 
Into the Indian iii-..iui The Island at Cey- 
lon la the only large Island and l« nearly 
Joined to tbe mainland by Adam'* Bridge. 

it of Ormui and tho Strait of 
Bab-el. Mitndcb lead to tbe Persian Gulf 
and Red Sea respectively. To the north 
of the Bed Sea the Gulfs Of Baa and Aluba 
form opening* to the north. Tho fa 
la acparated from tbe Mediterranean by the 
letbmua of Buei, through which la cut tho 
Knei Canal, while tbn latter lend* to the 
rift valley of the Head See. The Sea .if 
Mnrmora between the Black Boa and the 
-Ki!»nn la bounded by narrow channels, the 
mihI tho Boaphorus. Comtnn. 
tlnople bn« a unique position al lbs west 
..f Hi.- strait on the ICuropean aide. 

AM* niav l„ divided Into three main 
natural dlvlxl.n 

Tbe Northern Lowland*, an extensive 



plnln rlslnr gradually to the south and 
cut. 

nut. ana and folded llsngcs. — More than 
■."In Ilea a . 
■ Inllr plateau* extend ■ 
: to Kaitern Aala at varying elevn- 

tableland*. — The Dccean, Ceylon and 
Arabia f..rm tablelands of old rork »i 
Hie folded 

tie nf ih.. :. -i ..f Aim Tba Dccvan of 
i' nlnaulai Imlln la n fragment of oEd band 
ru by rp.. 
an-aa ma. ,\.|» 

In whl. h there i. marked difference In cll- 
Tha AroUe Area, wher* th« tem- 
|iei-aturc In no month rxreda 60' F. The 
Mberlan Arva, .. i. ^reat winter 

cold but where the hardier cereals cu 
-rimer. The Central Ar.a 
of Inland dim. 
n Area. coiuprMiu: I 
rulllvatrd and iiiipulnt-d regions e,f a.i« 
This Includ ' I ., Indo-tnilna. and In 
Tbe r.pinrorlal Arm. which baa two. 
rainy *.-aaon* and a lilti. 
Thl* loclades the laland a-m 
Sumatra, Java, etc., (o the aoutbraat of 
Asia 

tlOfll iXfatiOH*.— Th" of 

China, ih, ,. Af- 

rhaniktau. I'erala, Nepal, Bhutan, and Oman 
■ d : Arabian tribe* ore Independ- 
ent, and Ii. 

l'i en. ii r-,ei tn iii, Turklab n and 

Pot i xeaalona. 

Asia: 

Commereo with, ertenaion of, r»eon- 

nie.iileil. S6S4, : 
Coolie trade with, referred to. SMI. 
Immigrant* from, slionlit b«< prov 
against lan-len*. assault, 7372. 

Asphalt— A genernl term applied to ner- 
rrul varieties of hydrocarbons of a bltunil- 
Dona nature, varyius In hanlnnu from aetnl- 
ilul.l i . ..nll.l. it la u>cd for paring pur- 
pose* Id the United States. Moat of to* 
asphalt uaed In the Hnlted States Is 
brought from tbn laland nf Trinidad, off the 
coast of Veneau- ia Other Impott* ere 
f: in Bermudez. Veneruela. It I* alto 
found In Southern California. The supply 
lalncd from Pilch Lake, a 
n tn the crater of nn 
volcano. 13S feet above bm Ii 
crater cover* an ni.-a nf about 114 acre* 
and la 13.". p at the center. Tb« 

l,v I* Rradunlly renewed by tba 
atnnt exudation of a.,: ..rn »ubwr- 

ranean aoureea to the extent of about one- 
friiuili of that removed. Surrounding tba 
crater li a depoi.lt of land pitch, tba over- 
flow of re»t times. Tbe Bermudci scpply 
come* from a moras* on the main land 
consisting of numeroua email lake*. The 
California deposit exist* In the fortn of 
large hanks of blfumlnoue aaodatone (aaod 
'ted with aapbaltl. Theae decoalta 
are control]. . I l.y the American Aaphalt 
• hlch bold* a coneeaalon from 
the British government to work Pltcb Lake 
on frinldad. 

Althnnirh then> was a decrense In tba 
production of natural aaphalt In tho fnlt- 
cl state* In 1013. Including all the vari- 
eties of natural aaphalt and saphnltlc sand- 
atone and limestone, there wna a far e/i 
corresponding Increnae In the output of 
ninniifiietureil or oil naphnp ng to 

the United Slate. Qeo Oil 

aaphalt ohtnlnerl ns n r»aliloe from tin 
tlllnrlnn of Mexican. Olllf, mid Clllfoml* 
naphaltlc oils, and even from those of tbe 
MliMle Wen, Is becoming more and mora 



Assistant 



•ir . ;,crc l« cwrrespondlnsly lese 

elopaxnt of new sourcea 

I lit • 
natural asphalt In 
lloed 
a dc-ctt-«- 
tnaja. rained al SSI 

oil, the on -tur«d or 

i. :iL.it In 1U13 wni 4. :■-.. ::>"■■ Hi.-.-. : ions, 
valo.-,S 1157. aiMin-.- 

to- I ed at ».< i 

I Into the 
inmnUoa in 1013 

The 
Wand of Trinidad ' ho (renter 

part of i 'O*. 

Asphaltum. ihspoaition of lands in Utah 

AipUnrall, United States of Colombia: 
Claims I ruclion of, 

bapritoumcnt of American citizen* 

raent of passenger 
oaea on ships plying between New 
York a. 
Vranrb front, duties on, suspended, 
-t-Tl. 
lanntnillin of American President*. 

di*e«fak»(l, <•<". 
cola; Garfield; alcKini. 
Aany OficM "re establishment* maln- 
tanvnl fey Ike gorsrnnwnt In which sold 
.■in may be deposited by 
<z*j r*celvln» Ita vain*, leaa 
inaili ' to return Tl 

uy: iuv- 

Lotala. M«- iDsxadwood. 8. 

and more tlinn 
'Ike (Old a- I iBBd by the 

ice la handled tl. 
Aaaembly. — "**» lover bonae of tbe State 
lUtar*. lo avsny State* eorreapondlnr 
w of Bcpmratatlvca in tbe Na- 
usea] Ceafrea*. 
jartrl — • AttoiBeyi-Oeijerai.— There ar# 

racbt la number, eoeb recelvluc a salary of 
I&.000 je» assist la preparing 

saaalnai. and la nreulox eaaea befor ■ 
■"naiiasi f >lt* In tbe 

fwirt of tTslr v represent the 

Q***fnea«at in tbe clKs&ratlua. etc . of 
Attorney-General and Jus 

A —1 stent Po««ma*t«T«-OaaonU. — There 
ir rf tbeae. dedrnnled aa Brit, second. 
laird, and fourth assistant poatmait. r 

•sal SfcHr aalsrles lire tn.600 • year 
- aCnlol«tratloa of tbe i><— t •! >'. 



*eil«- 



1 



*er*l— Ha* 

tntaaeots. solarlm am! illow- 

ami nf Hi" i '■■• ' 
i.r of mall 

neons Transport 
IVImm 
.Iway mull serve- 

nadt li n matters. I Sec Division 

-Qaaeona Trim 

r-Oneral— Has 
rfeerar of •tamp 

(Mtrrfd ninll lo v \. postal sa' 

i anal other finanelal responsibilities 

fourth assistant Postaaaater-tieneral — 






llaa chare* of the rural mall serrlee <q. v.) 
uini Kuppllea. 

(See rout-Office Department: I 
ral; 1'osUI Service.) 

Assistant Secretaries of tho Treasury. 
— There arc three uulatant secretaries la the 

icpartmcnt who in th Ik-ally 

lit, nml who arc dlstliii:- di ti.-.l In 

ih.. administration of tin. Depot 

lurlea a. it is* arc appointed 

• it, .il, at. by and with II 

:■■ and their yearly tialarlea are 
Sft.OOO each ,; secretary 

falln tin. nipi-rilxlon of tbo departmi-ir 

service (ij. v.), tbe public 
health non-Ice (see Health Rcrrlce), and th- 
work of th* supervising architect (o. ».). 
Iher iKDlstant seerotary falln the 
inn of the work nr I he 
of tbe United Stat-s (q. v i. 
trollir of the i/urrency (q. v.i, the .: 
tee of tbo Treaiury (o. ».), the i 
Monies |m Beeenue, I'iiMIi). tbe • 
trolli-r of tbo Trvamiry |q, r.l. the Director 
.in of CnirrnTlne and I'rlotlnc 
• ini and PrlntlnK. Ituri in of) 
in- Mini iq, v.l. tbe Com- 
mlaslonei ,.; |nl ana (q. r.) | t 

i ».». nnil li..- uudltora «q. 
Another apdatnnt aecreUry of tbe 
treasury <'iperTi>e« the ailmlnlatntlon of 
I'.ircnu of War Itlxk 
Insrirance (q. v |. nml llaatloni of 

nts (q. t.>. tRoe Trcsxury Do- 

putmaoE) 

Assistant 8«cretary of th* Interior. — 
Thta officer wo* i hi net of Con- 

(Teas approred March M. 180Z. and 1» ap- 
polated by l.n!. by nod wlr 

consent of tbe Senile, nlth a yesrly aalary 
of S4.&00. lie lm» DO "tated ■! 
■ the Secretary of the Inti i 
artnilnl'lrntlon of tin- Di 
Interior IVpartment : Secretary of the In 
barMr.) 

AsslsUnt Socret*ry of State, State De- 
partment.- Tbia officer mired from the 
wbo woe the only other officer 
antborlied to servo uml. r | 
State, when that office area created In 
17e9. It was not unt. i 
of nsslstnnt necrvtnry of »tnte was 

: l>> law. Tin- ataUtnnt secretary of 
state Is appointed by tho l>resld< in. i.v and 
with the consent of the Renntc, and bin 

i wlnry Ik *:..ii(HI, He has both ron- 
eral ami I m over the acllvl- 

tles of tbo entire department, ami pul 
Into actlT.- operation the policy el 
R*e State Ueportmcnt . 
of State. I 

A wilt unt Secretary of the Navy. — An 
•selatam teeretar* of the Kaey was ap- 
pointed by act of Cong-rets In 1883. but the 
act »•• repealed the foUowtnl rear, Tin- 
present offlc* of aulatant aecretary In tbe 
N'uvt Department was cre« iiy 11. 

Incumbent la appouitcd I 
ITealdent. hy and with the consent of the 
Senate, and nix yearly xalary Is $.*i,ihm). He 
an- nx .--nerni a- .ilium in th,- Secretary 
Of Nary In the administration of tl ■•■ In 

Sunt In addition hfl» parttculai 
nrl-.ll. r |. .ti n»er natal yards and docks Iq. 
I... i .ii.t Ho. Marine i"Tps (q. ».), 
(Sea Navy Department: Nary.) 

A— Intent Secretary of War.— -The offlr* 

of n«»l»mnt lei Ullll of war was crented 

on March 8, 1*00. The o- 

of war la appointed by tba pi 

and wltb the consent of the Senate, and 

receives a yearly salary of Sfi.OOO. Ills 




Assistant 



Mt stages and Papers of the Presidents 



nrr Hi- *• ihii Secretary of 

Hnr In il. 

<inl he fj 

■ton .mi, o\ i • be • in. i ten wbicb • " 

. r ..(T.rl III.' pulley nf (III' ') 

ment. and whleb "111 not srree to eatatillah 
a precedent tor it. (Sen Wit Lv-pnr uncut.) 
Awlitint to the Attorney-General.— Tho 

■ us (.>r too li. |n.riiii. ni ..r .lunllce 

«if $11,000 lis yearly uiinry for an na«l»iiirit 
In Hip Atto raL, TuU officii 

r Match 3, ] I U In 

. or in.- work "f Hi.- li. |. in mi. ni uf 

■iii'ili verlnx tin- application nf the 

Anil trust and Interstate Ojmmcrec lnw». 

1 1. |i..rl in.-ri i A 1 1 • 1 1 1 . •.. .1:. -li- 

Anil truat Law: Antl-truil l^'Klnln- 

merce: Interstate loin 

mores Art ; inti-rt-iaic i*uuimor<c I'omuila- 

Aaeutnption of But* Debts.— Early in 
ihc second acaalon of the Flr»t Codcmi 

Aii'imiili r 1 lnuiili..ii. Secretary or 

■ . .riiiii.-n J.iJ tint la order to rewtore 
vrrnmi'Dl 
' nnil pur Hi- foreign debt ..f tii.- «'-.ii 

federation (813.1 00) II debt 

|»I2.' u 

.... unpaid debi "i the States 

. busett*. 1 "on in- 1 York. New Jer- 

sey, and Suiuii Carolina favored the plan. 
be laiirr clause, 
■van auntalucd In her opposition by 
ind. 1 .... 1 1.- 1 . 1 inn] N, w Hampsnuv. 
III. iiiiin. 11. . i.r North lamllna thmun 

again. 1 the 1 nure d (eated n for the 

1 bal 11 v.u-. i\iv.iii later, and passed 

All* t. lTliii. II ».i- ■ In mi. .1. bj .1 
Mnmlon of It. friends wliii those .if Iho 
measure lnntlnt Hi.- I i-iii-ral capital on 
tli* Potomac. The emounl mil 
be assumed by ihi- 1 ; 1 . v . - r 1 1 1 : 1 ■ ■ 1 1 1 in in. 
iti «»< jai.rjixi.' 

i.-tiinllv assumed wiis 
1.1250,000 Ipn> than rtiai num. 

Astronomical Observatory. (See Mete- 
orological Observatory; Naval Ob- 
servatory. I 
EMablirln. . recommended. 879. 

Report df Simon Howoomb on im- 
provements for, 4790. 
Asylum.— In Ua pnetlco-pollttcsl use. the 
l.rm iliiirni irrlxliii- Amerliu 114 a place? of 

refuge tu arnica down-trodden 1 pie from 

-. .linn 
erf Land." 

Asylum. Military. (See Soldier*' 

Homes.) 
Asylum, Right of, discus 
Atchison and Pikes Peak Railroad Co. 

referred to, 3<538. 
Atlanta, The. (Sec Wn huu1.cn. The.) 
Atlanta, Oa.: 

inn- ofi and orden regarding 
tiration of. 34 

Collection of reoudni of officers' an.l 
old around, r ef erred to, 8W1. 

Cotton Erpoaltion at, 4831. 
AtlanU (Oa.). Battle of.— "n the al|)bl of 
July 21. ISM. Oca 11..1..1 trencferred his 
forces before Allnntn to a point near D*k». 
tnr. «r»'.'i' flire '■■■ 

man came ks on 

Tree iWl ni. nn.li. noil. |.i. .... ..1...1 in 

Inrent the city. At 11 a. m. ul 

Hood aurprlii'd tlie lefi wing of Sbermnn's 



army. ■ uder Mi I a sodden mote 

rocui from Decatur. Tbt whole line was 

-:-d. Oen. Mi'1'tii.rM.u was 
In I be action, and I be command of tbe 
Armj of tne n« 

Logan. After four hour* of Hcbllsc llir 

iterates retired lulu Ibelr luuln tio.-k» 

Atlanta. leaving their dead art 

Hvuudod on the field. The total i ..nfederate 

I, inn was ciiliuut.-.l ni aliout »,ia.io. Tbe 

Federal loss waa 5,723 killed, wuuailed and 

nan now drew bis line* 

Closely around Atlnnln and prepared foe a 

to cut off I 
auppllea from Macuii. Aua> 25 be inif up 
dea of a direct «le«-e. Sept. 1. bow 

Hardee 
bavluirlH'cnrrpulsedat Joneaboro, Hood hU» 
Dp US mugaslnea and eraOaeteil lb* city. 

Atlanta, U. 8. 8, mentioned, fJSDd, 09C9. 
Atlantic Islands.— The Atlantic Oveati aai 
a lanf.- numtur of bordering; Ulands— lae 
li lalni and West Indlea are moat lot 
portanl | Mlanda In the deep oceau llk- 
tii.- Kermudlan gtuup are few. 
/celoiid. Hoi il. ..men aboo: 

I uiiixl with Norway l^<f2. I'.i.i,..l to Den- 
mark I3W1. Area. S0,7»il -luare • 

II eontalna mam hoi -prlng* an.-.' 
canoee, the largrat of whlcb la Mt. Mekla 
It la aublect to *arlh..|uak.». 

Hermvda la a xroan of *i0 coral Ulandi 
580 mllea east of Xorlli - They 

lis J'-.-i in 1. 1.- ■ . . 
11(12 They form a Brltl.h coloi 

ttahamai srr noli d loi nf 

dl«orery by I'olumbiia, M»2 San Saleadoi 
< w«illi> K l.i Settled by llrltlali. 1029; 
ceded |o Knglnnd. 1783 . llrltlali i'iowii Col- 
i.ii. The group comprlaea 20 Inbsbiied 
and many uiiiiiioiiiii,ii lilanoa 

Atlantic Ocean: 
Cannl from — 

Orcnt Lakes to, eommiaalon to con. 

aider con*lrui'tii-ii of, 6179. 
OoU of Mexico to. discussed. {rOS. 
Junction between Pacific and. re- 
ferred ti I67C 
Desired. 8813. 2988. 
Atlantic Telegiaph: 

EMietl I, IttS. 

Illustration of layluc of, opposite 
1808. 

ferred to, 3329, 3382, 3445. 
AtllXCO (Mexico). Battle of. Immediate- 
ly afnr i iii I..: He of Humontla Oen. Lane 
l forwnrd to relieve tbe (arrtnon at 
Pncbln. Dot 18, 1847: ae learned that Bea. 
wllh a body ■'< Rucrltlne, wns at All!-. 
town about 10 l.-nxuea from Peroie. The 

.-il. -my was encounter n the afternoon 

"t Ho- mill i'i" '.r tbe city, driven inio 

ami ilirniicli tbe city, and dlaperaed. 

M "lb-an lo»a run vet .. . ltaa than 

519 having been killed sad wounded, wbiie 

llie Aliiril. iiiiK Ii.hI ,.ii!y two DB1 

AtTOClUes, Belgian, Bryce Report on. 

(See Bryce Report on Belgian Atrwe- 

• ii.e.) 
Attainder.— The ertlnctlon of civil rlxhta 
and prlvllcgvs In an Individual, and the 

forfaKnre of bis property to the xorera- 

ment. In Kngland, under tbe common law. 
It followed as a matter of course on a 
comlcllon and norii.nr.. to death for trea- 
son, and to some eiteot on w-ntence for 
..iii.r crimes. A Hill of Attainder la a 
legUlatlve conrlcllun of crime, wltb a> 















aroleane of d'aih The *ren««it cay or 
n*T o*t be a1<*n ■ i rial, Koreijo «or- 
erameat* ba«» employed tbla OK-itjd of 
rttaambaa' •■: il r» without (li- 

lac ihcm lb* opportunity of ■ rr(is:n 

irlaL Th* crime axaloat which 

of Attainder are aitully directed U 

r. attalsdVf followlnc 
of dra'b for treason formerly ■ 
frliur* of tb» coadcninid pervma (■late 
to ib» goT«-tnr»mt, mil by corruption of 

tlo«l. a« It 11 r»lli<l. ;.r.*.otrd bla lli'lni 

froai knb»ililsr '.rKHIatlTe eonrlrikin" 

i loim> punlBlim-Bi* l«aa ttina death 

.111.1 I'.LO 

f the 

v«ra> Atialnder." o«cd lo tbo 

That 
ItnniMI prohibit* th- p*»»*£. r.f Hi 

\ttali. lAr- 

i 'tloa 9. rln'i-' 3». nod further 

prtil I il courlctloaa of 

traaani 

• ■on (ball wnrk 
corrupt ban of b(««l or forfeiture except dur- 
la« Ike life of rhp peraoa attalnr.1.'' The 

■ ilnr within flit- iirnhlhlilnst .if the 
rnaaflinirnB. to art of Conemt nltnnd at 
lb lie who bail >sratid on ihn ' '■■nf .-i>. rat.. 
•Me ha ill' <ItII War. reanlrlni 

i- aa oatb nrg-aiuinc n-.> neb di« 
ley abontd be allowed 
t.» pr«. 11. In i 
fSaw Trra- 

Attonwy-OcaanL— Tbe olllce of air.., 
r*n*imi *bi created by an art of 8 pi 

la appointed liy th* I 
•rat alia law ranarm*tlo£ nate. 

II* la a in. mi. t i.f ..ml .. 

»rr of tVJ.WH) per yi.»r. All 
nn-.rr*cT» ntid mar- 
. I.l.iin 
a, tain work brio* n 

Hi- l« *»*l«tr4 by a aollclti r 
. tight aialauoi att. 

it. I'... i iiill.i- and 
■- I*r*rinitot. (See 
Jaaafoa, l-partmeat of.) 

Attorney 0*o*ral (are also -in hoary 

8r»1cm Department of): 

Compensation to, roforrod to, 607, 

Putin of, 2265. 

to and con-lu.' I .ill 

ea- <ni r t in 

which the tale, annul. I 

rand or iBtereatnd. 807. 

Member of board to examine quota,* * 

of .state* under call for troops, 

Mo>!ifimiiori« is office of, recommend- 
>. S266. 

treaty of Ohont, lhSB. 

Kejrarilirx if person* 

rharced with crime* referred to, 

ins. 

Opt n ion ■ of. compiled, 1856, 2832, 

26*3. 
atacoaunrDiUtion that he be placed 
head* of other Ex- 

e. .artmi.iit. *<0, 

"5, a«s. 

Attorney tn Chart* of Titles. JaMlc* 
Department. — Tala obot i .ilona 

pwra*n aad condemn*!.. 




land by the Pnl 

IHpai •■ ..- [..rxKi 

Attorney*, Dlitrict: 
Compensation of, i jrirSQ, 

27n. 4770, 4836, II 
Nr.'1'i.Mty .if :i in,; i'.. mi f.-e bill for 
guidance of, referred to, 
Auditors, Treasury Deportment. —There 
»r.. vix inalltan bg th* Departnwat • ■■ 

Treamiry — one •uperilnlnc areount* In to* 
ircoimta In tlm 
War iK-inrliiii-nt ■ ■ j . ^.l ooa 1 
tn the Intrrlor I . ■ 

. pnrtmont lij 
ono tin -.- in tin i i un i • : .. ■ 
v.l. -i .un! Other 

di-imn . rllton drlw- 

ui th* 

vartom 

TreaMirv Ivr.wtment, and lllu>i: 

kviF.) 
Augusta (0*->, Siege of.— in th" latuan 
nf IT80, CornwalH* ntatloned 

Bfown. with a I 

«nrrl-..i; In wm principally 

..f their Indian nnxlllnrli*. In Ibi njrlni[ 

of lb.' foil ..... (irvene 

I, I-,. |'| 

. pnrilaana Inld 

ImiliiK ilay '.'". Jnna 

n. I Till. I 

hilli-d nnd w.. 
The luiii-ii loat nfty-two killed 

ik on the Hrlilab able 

am. .in: 

Auatln-Topolovampo Railroad, ■ 

a n-ith Mexico M< 
par. io, 147". 

Aiustralasla. — '>no of tlm two ill. 

it Ik tubdh ■ Dgra. 

Aurirnlla prop.r i .j | i and 
Ulainareli Arehlpiibufo, N» . Sol- 

.' II. I.rl.l 

nliy |.lnii.1«. Auatrnll* and 

Oceanl 

AuBtralla.^Tiii. larrltory " f Hw ii.mmon- 
wraiiii ..r AtutraHa Inelud tneol 

nd of Taniiiiiiilii and 
part of H.. ipual. 

Aii»trall» i mainland i lip 
xll land hiii 

It Ih Kiirr ded by ti;- followlns » 

. Hie Timor nnd Arafura Sea* anil 
Torre* Strall ..... 

Rtrall (wlilrh aeparntta Taanianla 

from ih.. . nil Southern iieean, 

and Weat, Indian Ocean, The eoaaMIn* 01 

roxlmaiclj and 

.i th. I'ontlni-iit 

l« h*1 loi lo 

and l ' ;• HI' Ka« loncltodi 

l. U' I'"' 

nnd rmm \.. rll. to Sonlli I.H" : • 

/**»! N'earlj ill r.nnd the 

co*»t and In i-antcrn and H>utliraalern Aua 

iralla, aln-irhliiK r:i r Inland from the .-iia»ial 

ranjre. In a rich «r>i.. . nilnilrnblv 

adapi ■ .mine uf aheep. Tn. 

Ire mountain ; a It* rt«* 

near lb* aoulbe* i poll Include* a 

■ il 
t place*, none of Hum being "f 
any great beiKht. Th* prtndpBl rli.r« are 

th. Barraj i arle*. ih* Hor- 

nlire, l^arhlaa, *n.1 |i»rl!i, 

• M'li fall 

tbi a hi 1 1n- M.uth ooaat; ou ih« 




Australia 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



cast eoa*t. tho tlnwkcibury Ham r. I lar- 
anoa, Kirliuiuud. Brisbane. Mury. Uoi 

:. mill Hu the 

Swan Mm .ill. on. i; mi.-, Athhurion, 

Mi.'. Dc Urey. and I « the 

i. ..Mil, ■!,.■ Dp] idafe, ''i.i. Victoria, ami 
Italy; and the Roper, r li -- Hinders, and 
Mltcbrll. win. b iIiIi.hkIi mil. the « . ill f nf 
umrla, Lekt-i arc numerous, but 
Dearly all nra unit ; Hip scarcity of i h<- 
tea, however, 
tnlilgnt. l i ■-. 

.ml* <omprl»« g"lil 
copper. Iron, and «inl In Hir*- qitaiiilt lea. 
antimony. 1 1 ■ . i . - ■ 1 r v . i It. 

I i ..ii c iii'iio- til.. .in M ir.'h 21 

(Autumn). June 21 

[UK j, and Doc. 22 i Summer). Tba 

dry, bui. except in Ine 

tropical coast-land of Hi" north the 

in. i,i i e vei . a lien naftclal to 

.. in (In- range of temperature hi-Uig 

r II, mi lli.nl of Other i ..ui.l r I . - limi- 

larly Mtuai. 'I 

tjarrrnmrnt i III In that of 

» I' . •l.-ral Comtnonwealib within ill. 
;il|.ll... III.' .x.-.-utti •■ : 

ed la Hi" Sovereign (through the UoTernor- 
Ucacrul), nsslslcd by a tVd-tai r.i.-.utlve 

i- and »«eh 
ttoaorary Minister* who may bo appointed 
Hi.r.i i. The Cooatltutloo rests on [be 
fundamental law of Mur.-n IB, 
by the Imperial rnrllaiiioni an July 0. 
1W00 : and the Conimonwi slth ws» Inaugu- 
ratod on Jan. I. 1001. Undsr the Coastt- 

t ill Inn Hi" I'iiI.tjiI lli.i . riiiii'-nl ;." 

I and on i « a» «ur- 

rendered by Hi" fedcratlug Sim.-. Hi" 
c. iir.ii.iiu of loKlalatlvii power being la the 

ill* of Hi" various S'nti 

*tatoil, tbo i-iiiiin. i. it In.-iii'l" n'i 

uid uavbrai|"D, 

limine.-, di'fi h»e. pout offices and trlogr.t|diN, 

mill con. Illation and 

ration In i-iimsw.. Industrial «lls- 

fivlih authority to nw.ii mo the con- 
i.i ..r railway, nnd tlgbtbouu* marriage 
and dlToroo, emigration ntnl linmU-in i n 
currency ai ig, ami weight* and 

measures. 

adca ajid raruLATlos 

Ana ia 

But™ and Capital* Bagllah Dae. 30, 

1012 
Now South Wolaa 

3(10.100 1.777.MI 

-..--1 1.3S0..-.''.l 

R.,lll'l .!.■ 

«:m,n»o 

:ri.buue) OT 

lobar!)... 26.216 197.305 
Wr.i'11, A'j'traUa 

(Pert I., 975.920 120 

\,. II I,. Til r. II 

521,020 :i.i7.-. 
I squill 360,000 
in- 
born.) 912 1.040 

Totml 3.061,04 1 4,u&3.350 

Tho IVil.'T.it PtTflfmtWt consists of a 

Senate and a floi f Beproa e ntatlata. 

The Sonme eontalai thirty -all members, ilx 

ft..m ,aoh of ii 

fur «1x joan by universal suffrage. The 

Home of ltepn-«*ntatlv«-s. similarly • 

for a maxima f iimn. 

m. ii. I., r. proportionate to Hi" papal 
wirli a tnlultnum of fire llepreaontai i rei 
fur each Stale. Tho I loose of Beprrurnta. 
111).' 1810, l« mail" Up 0* Iw. iiTy-lcven 

fur Now Booth Wales, tareuty-o' 

torta, tea from Queensland, seven from 
South AuMralla. and Ave each from Tas- 



mania and W'.jt.'tn Australia, and consists 
of thirty-eight Liberal* aDd thirty »«ven 
members of the Labor I'arly. 

There l» a Federal High Court with a 
Chief Jtn lice and *ii 

lnal and appellate jurisdiction, subordinate 
to Hi" onni Appeal Court o( tba 
pin) Hi" judicial > uiamlttea of rha Privy 
laciL 

.i nml Vaas;, — In 1913 lh«r» «rat a 

total n"'i Ptbip ..f Mo- Ih-fenss forry of 

-I oflleers and 
men were aervina lu the Nary and t.HSS 

the Army. 
i iti. r figure In. 
and '.lots. 

\n was entered lata <1002> 

I.t the Commonirealili and Iraperlal C 
mealJ undi-r which a natal force was to 
Ik- nialaialiiril (for i.n year* I00r:-13i In 
AiiKiiaiu>:aa aral 

of Admiralty, In return for annual con- 
tiibml..u« from Australia and 

the agreement. Tlil< ui;i 

alio for the rnnlnicnnnce ..r :--..|-.v ai a 

nrst-rlaas aaral station, and foi 

a of aa\al radii- in ilo- Hoyal Xary 
by tbe Australian and New Zealno.! 
ernmrnts. Thin agreement Is mors- .1 
"feniic scheme, undii 

.rains 
certain ship* of war. wbirh fora »n 
tiullan squadron of the Koyal Nary, under 
i hi • -..iiioiaud of a Coi 

in .i pears, and an Intecral part of His 

ICastern Fleet of Ihe Rojal Nary In Urns 
of war. Ship* ol \tiatrallan Navy 

are known as f/.lf-.t S. tills Majesty's Aus- 
■ 
Ixhl. -Tho Commonwealth has cow un- 
il.-rmkiu re»pon> ili! Illy fur th- N .. 
Tei-rii -iid Hi" l'ort atafttt* i 

nulsita ltallwa; Debt, wboie eoiablDed 
amounts ar* £5,071.847. The other Siai- 
rrmnlu ai the .-liarge of the S'Sie 
(;oeernments The total of the Piiblk 
of the several States on Jui. 
was £277.121.005 IN.8.W 

ualla 
. • ,. enslaiul I I 
mania 111.302.411, oud Western M>i 
--3.52SI. 
Production and Indiutrv. i»ted 

Talne of the product' of Hi.. Common . 
In mil wn 
I-mtoral. EBO,T20v0O0: Palrying 

Porests and Fisheries, £5.728,000; 
Mining, £23,4SO.OOO; Mniuifartiirlug. £f>0,> 
T.'-T mill. I i.nnl of 100. 

3 In- land are« or the Cnoimonwi »l'h Is es- 

tlnial-.l nt 1.0" Of n-hl- h 

i 042,1)0(1 were under r-ultliatlon In 1011 
12. 

In 1013 the Cnmmoiiwi-alth prodoeed 
734 000,000 lbs. of wool Inn In th" greawMi 
ncalu "00 It... lu 1911 : U 

nun ii- of butler, as "• n. s 

in 1011: l''..l4T.i"«> i '■■ ••■■■ agalatt 

in 1011, and 54.370,000 Ilia 
ou and hams, agalnn 53.2*5.000 lb*. 
In 1011. 

ilue of gold prod u red was 
£0,SS0.00O: sllv. r ni 

0: tin. £1.344.000 ; coal. 

1I.41H, ili" ralua of all mlnerala pro- 
duced lu 1913 bclo 000. 

•i fin iio-i .- — lii 191S -her- arcH In Ihe 

Oemmi 

■ ■ 

nmounii.l to i tiUnl 

and tnaelilnory C84.4S0.XDS ; of mi' 

. : 7,749; vain, added bj manufar. 
ture ii, and total value of flaal 

output £148,715.109. 

A'/ilfirapi. — Tho total length of Gorero- 




Th- Croat earnlnca of all Oovrrnment 
la mil 12 «eie tli.luO.0H5. ■arklag 
- <;i.«mh. and n«t cam 

rait of 2*. ti4. per 
train rallr. ac.il i -g a reiurn on 

tbr total co»t i x>) of 4.13 per 

crat, aa a tain it 4.45 per cent. In tui" n 
. !■■ Au-iic«lliu mercantile ma- 
ria* cos*.- 

i-bji abO 1.31G ulllnc wate 
taanai, cxbef niioii aot Kifpropclled, 27« 
teaari . • total of 2.7 tU vea- 

■>!■ liaaeci ami 

r,in of veaacla engaged la overtea 
(ractr at tb* varloua Auitrallta porta Id 

j fullowa 



Ohnad 




the iv* j 

(loamac* la parcaibeara) : 

Taar 

loos 2.022 

1010 

ItU 2.030 (5.1WJS7; 

Tb* welcMa. mrarorea and coinage are 
Maatlral with Ibote uaed la th* I 
BlaffioBL 

lai, raaWrra, In the F.-d 
• r»l Irtttrtri. Mtcbawd I 

. I. to b* laid cot • 
capital at IB* t'oniaaouwitl h. Meanwhile 
Ik* atal of coverouuot U Htlboti 

There were Blxlera clttea with 

a population txc*<dinc 20.O0U at tbc ccnaua 

of ii 

iSSf.inQ: M-lbonrne 

•-'It . 

Perth IW.A i, H-J,- 



8rtt*aa« i 

ilaa... Sa.t 

■ 



i'.' 



i. IlalUrat 
: 2.00O; Ho- 
Broken till 

<.»S0; Chart nra 

I; I-a'jiR'.itoii iTsa.), 
ihiO; Horkhamp- 



33: FrftDMiile (W.A.I, 80.- 
• lao Orent- 
riey.— The continent of Aiutralla wat 
iih naimjr. It wat 
"itcb la IfMMi. New : 
Walra »»• viilicd nod named by Caplalo 
Caoit Ii A Brltlib ti.-nal colony wa* 

^^■fljfb'd at K.'itor In 17«*, and at Brit- 
Bane. 

» made la Weatern Australia In 18SB. 

rla hi 1S7.4. and at Adelaide la 1W0. 

_B^^B»r/ of cold Bear Batlmrat. New 

th U'alct. la 1*51. care atronff linrxf:* 

usmlcratlon. 7 nwenlta of 

ua «aa errata In 1900 t.y the fed- 

o( (Saw Sou i li Walra. 

YVIor i Auntra'la. W»at- 

rra AuatraMa. and Tamtanla. Toe Gov*r- 

-ral la ann.. Intra by th* frown. 

U tfef old-at lUt*. 
tydney. IB* cardial ani 

• po*>alallon of 021.000. Fore»la cover 

aoa-araartar of tbc turfara, and the nil. 

•I area waa renort'd In 1011 at 3.- 

ii acre*. Braid** wb*at. corn, aad 

tobacco *0,0O0 terra wcrr ood>r cllroi fruit. 

-c*a, U» TtcM Wise rrnor<rd 

.Ma caa«a. In loio a.vr.i 

i^.n^d from trblcb "tr* 
alS.33S.000 poauda of wool. 



■jfla ■»• orlclatllr B part of Nur 
■ tut wan uiadr a >.. 
in 1801, I arrra 

valued at a»T •150,000. and cxpoitt 
nO. ,.f wlilcb lll.7SU.000 «ns 
Mvlbuiii-iio, ih- ban * |. 

Hon ol 

QarCIKliiml HOI tIm ;lalll Cook 

la 1. nl> wc-f 

1S23. Th« alaplc production of tbc Mute 
Ii jroo luctloa la 1010 bclns 

,tr It lb« principal 
manufacturt-d an 

7. AttafrnJM «oa proclaimed a Brlt- 
Uh province In 183il. and II no 

eeallti 
i -a of South Aiiaiinlla «ji 
380,070 tQuat'* mIU-», to wlileli tile north- 
ern territory added 
Th* climate resemble* that of eoutliern 
K.-ance or Italy. Tin- wine prod 
wa» more tlmn three million galloon- Suear 
cane ami fi ilto crown, Aci 

It the capital and commercial center, btvlnx 
a pppu'atlon of >' 1911. 

H'c*'"it Aurfi largacl Au«trt 

llan state. It ha» an area of 97o.0'J0 

Huorc ml|e». 'I I 
twenty million iln- 

rludlnc tUCtlytpna) In *>.prrlally viv - 
for ihTpijiiildlnc and brldgewoik. owlne to 
lu durability. 

Anatralian Ballot. (Sco Ballot.) 

Australian Svutcin of Military Training. 

— Amlr.ill.-i to, i i B*l aid mil venial arrv- 

lco dnca 1003. At tb« ac« of 13, the Aut- 

■i ;•■> enlern ii v, inn' 
aa a Junior caitet. lntll tbc age of i 
«;.-!nl. 00 li"iirn n y.iir In CTmntatlft, 

nc up" cxnrclnes, and eauy military 

maneurcr> ilrn a uniform from 

v.rmncnt. but no musket. From tb* 

age of M-18, he la enrolled at * I'Olor 

cadet, when he recrlvct a codec rifle, Inter 

cbanveil to the r*culatlon army rifle when 

•oiwt Butnclciit I ■ handle It. 

Ho now obtalnn careful .irill in roarchlne. 

' ry tactlca. with 

il attention to mnrl; Dui 

Itur thcie four yratM, lie mimt rccr I 
leaat 24 drill, of J bony each. 12 drill« of 
2 houm each, and 4 drllla of 4 faotin Men 

At tlie am Of IN. B« loillH the i 

army, and remain* In It until bt t> 2*J. 
nltbiMieb he la llible to nervier in ID 
reaicbea t»e age ^.f «0. DurltiK bin M yenra 
In th* rvgnlar army, be deroten to trnlnlnz 
10 d.1- "irn each yearly. It la »»|I- 

mated that tbla aystcm lion pr. 
trnlla with a i-ltl».»n army of I2i)00». with 
ISO.'"" - can bn lent to 

ii Limit only by a referrmluui vote 
of the eltlwna i ilr»t 

re-feren«1um till . u i,, tltow ■ • i •• rlptlon 
for ti ,-many during tho European 

wnr wna voted down on i ' II»10 

BwIm Hyntiin of Military Training: 
Compulsory MlllUry Sen i 

Austria fAvifrO-ffinvaHail ilonarrb « )■ 
— Th* larc. R« I 11 as the 

Caailueut "f Boropa, ittnatcd between I'." 
Int I lode and 9' 30' l"-, - 8A> R. Inricl. 
trdr. with a total arei of 67fl.077 I 

1 2110 ■ i.l i|iinr,. mile<i. and a 
total population 1 1010) of 

an noa 

Area. Fngli.U F-rtimate.1 

Bat i. , |q IfDai l'o r ,ni.-,-i„n 

Arntrtan Empire I15JT74 2S.S67.808 

Klncdom of Husxary. . . I»,W5 20JM0.678 

lartttorita 

Boania and llenrcovlna »,7«0 l^SIJM 

Total 201,030 t)M0*7t 



vi-;trii 



tessages and Papers of the Presidents 



ueifrnmrnt.— The Amtro Hqngnrlan Mon- 
archy cnnslsla of two ■ la tea, ibe Kioplra 
of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary, 
and of the Provinces Bosnia and licrce- 

fOTloa. Each •■ r Hi. BtalM has Ita awn 
onsiltutb-.ii and Parliament, and for moat 
branches of State affair* Its own Mlnlwtry 
ami Admlnl Iratlon but the] arc closely 

il lb.' ituler 
and by o peruum-tii • ..n-iltwtlount I'nlnn. 
which, up.iu Hi.' common prln< i|.i- ■' po« 



session and defense, «n ilri pi... mimed 
i\ ill' 1'raa-innl.' ol 1T2S, anil baa 

since been regulated b Coin- 



promise" I AusglclchKlcgTonsi nf 181(7. 

.ling I., i in mi for- 

eign affair* and the greater part of war 
affairs tArmy and Nn*yi. together wl 
finances coucerulng rhem. and tbc admlnls- 
ii a 1 1. hi of Die Territories, are dealt with 

luiiiMii in. 11 1 - tries i be control of the 

nl.f'l- nn.l Un- 
voting of tbc common hudgi I I. 
by two delegations, each consisting of OO 
of i. hum 20 arc chosen from tbo 
rid and of Hungary, 
and «0 from the Lower llcni«e of Austria, 
nnil u( lluiiKari giitiona aw elect- 

ed for one y.ar. meet alternately at Vienna 
and Buila Fcsth. and appoint Ihelr own 
i. in and i.-nt. In every 

roon affair* belongs lo Ihc two Pn 

and en.ii Smie provide* separately fur It* 

. ..m rii.Tii i,.n to di" com rpenswa. The 

proportion to be coBtiibuted boy . n< n stnte 
T» fixed by mutual agreement, renewable 
every ten years. 
Hftmy. — ln connection with tbo Aus- 

l Into 
a commercial and customs union In I80T, by 
whl.ii tiie t«.i state* form on* comm 
ami riiatontt territory ; and posses* tho *amo 

in of coinage weight! "ml mea 
and n joint bank of ls*ue. In the tame 
way in. lb* quota agreement, thU union la 

tellell lllill ,'\,'|l lell ' ■ 

Following the assassination nf Archduke 
.ii.l and In- wlfi at ReraJsYO by a 

tti nl-lll. -nwl to liiiT- i n In. i ■ 

Tlan »ocletle*. nnd with Si-rrlnn officio I eon- 
nlvanee, Austria nn July VS. 11)11. declared 
war against Servlu. and an army was lm. 
ni.illni.lv ".'in ■ Belgrade Ttia 

Servian government Il.il to Nlsh ami [ire- 
pared f..r reKlataiii-e. i See European War.) 
/felon (ay Sovereign. — Karl Krnns Joseph 
(Charles I). Bmperor .if Austria, Apos- 

Klng of llungarv I King ol 

finlmatla, i tfavonla, Kallcla, Lo- 

dnmerta and lllyrln. King nf Jenn-alcm. 

in. .-. -iteii hi-, grand aired 

Prnna Josef who died Nov. HI, 10ir.. after 

.1 of sixty-right years. 

Armu He Common Army of the Austro- 

Hungarlan Mnnatehy la recruited by mil- 

mpulaori service f'.r nil mule rob- 

Jecta between the ages nf 111 nnd *2 In 
ustrln, Hungary, and Boanla-Hersegovlna. 
Tli- avallnl.le military force ul-.. Inellldea 
the Austrian Ijindnehr and I indatllrm and 
the Hungarian ll..n v.-.t ." • i l.nndwur) and 
Ncpfolki li • i l.aiidaturm). 

The Peace Establishment of II 
Army l» 17.M0 officers, 4,700 um.lalx. aod 

V. III! other- 

Thc Aii*trlan Landwehr consists of 8,- 
680 officer* ami 

Tho Hungarian Landwehr connlata of 
3,000 OITleer* ami 20,000 ..(h.r- 

The War ... lit ..f the Mobilised 

Field Mi', nun nil rnnk- with 

about I in" frnm the other formation*, 

I rmlc* of the World.) 
/—The Navy la admlnUtcrcd by a 
depnrtmrnt of the War MInlatry, and 
manned by 1,300 officers and 111,300 men lo 



1012. (For the latsaf r.porta at to preaeat 

••tab ee Navka of the World i 

lltuie on 
Common Affair* (Del Ira Affair*. 

Flnate : r.i.anl ..! i 

\ derived 
ihc net proceed* of the t'uatoms, akd 
from the matileiilar eutitrlbi 
... i. |, .■ n , :u.. I i ; ,n i . ..:. ; p. ., 
cent |. The iu-,i,,tii- receipts for IPHl wers 
1.000 crowns iloa* 

from Austria mm», while 

llutijrsr.i - than nmoun . ,i t ■ i p. i ■■ 

us. 13 crown* equal to II I 
State* money.) 

The , ,>., King- 

i! of Hum:-.!' i.. * ..-iialn sum 

■illy for the service of the lh-bl of 
Auatrla controlled before the year 1847. 
(Sec Hungary, Fltionee. ) 

Al M III. \.— The Atwtrlu Umpire com- 
prlaea the following provlm I., : Aua- 

trla, Fpper Atlanta. Ituli-iula. 
t'arlDthla. t'aralola, iMlmatu, i;allcln 



and .. Mornvln, Knliburc. 8i- 

l-«la. Kiyrlo, Trleate and Dial 
Vorarlberg. 



Fh, .-e*.— Nearly trirec-foortUa 

of Anntriii I-. high ground above the 600 
fu.it level, with three nialD mountain sya- 
iii' nr.ii Ibibemla- 
Morovlan inotin I 'intra 

traverse the country, while 

irely within IU bonndarle* ; the Car- 
pathian! form a frontier with Hungary: 
the Hub, mis Moravian '-close 

link up il" Auatrlan 
in. nun . x* Of 

I Kurupe. The remaining fourth part 
la occupied by fertile plains, «,f which th- 
in tjalli in. i he capital la ea 
i ti.- Danube drnln.-d Tim 

Danube. Joined by the Inn. ent. 

Ilavarla at the gorge of I'noau. The 
iter rises In .-a ■ tern Calbin. and ea- 
ters Russia at Ohotln. Tb- VUitila rises) 
In Sileala. and forma I he boundary of 
Kiiaxlan I'nlanil Th> inler baa Its i 
In Moravia. The Elbe, after n win. ling 
course of 183 mile* In Bohemia, enters 
Saxon.. The Adln (or Btch rl*e* in ths 
niiuiiitnlna of Tyrol, and Hows Into the Adri- 
atic. 

man »l inieiit l* that of 

a euiu.iliiitli.nal moo. i reign 

hearing the title of Kmoeror, and th» *aic 
■in the order of primo- 
geniture! In the male line ,.f tbc lloaae 
of llabalmrx I.uihrliifen. aod after the fall- 
ur» of He mule, in ipe female line of that 
house. tSee Austria-Hungary.) 

Hi" Relcharnth (Council "f the V.rnplrel 
eoual house*, the ll.rrenhaua 

i 1 1. .use of Lords) and tbe Abgvordneteiihaus 
(House of Dspuuas). 

The Herrenhnus consists of the I" An-h- 
dukes of the Imperial family : uf S'.' of tbo 
landed nobility, in v. i. ,• dig- 

nity li ■: of 5 prlnre arebblabops, 

7 prime bbfbopa, and 5 archbishops ; aod} 
nf 108 members nominalist by the Krnperor 
f..r life. f,.r public sen-Ire — a total of 3T2 
mstnbera m 

Tho Abgeordneteiilinm It ef.mpnsed of 310 
deputh i, alerted i". universal manhoosl suf- 
frage Itweuty-four year*) and by secret bal- 
lot. 

The courts of first Instance are the or|t) 
Btrtrktorrlrhte ilMttrlct Courts ■ and th» 
73 Superior Dlsttlrt Courts i»tth Jury 
| nlUched. Sup. rvl-lmi r.f, and ap- 
r- ' !■■ ft. un. I In r ruin li n: . ... In , ,1 In 
nine Provincial Appeal Courts at Vienna, 

.re. Innsbruck. Zara, |* i 

BrUno, Cracow, ami I.einii. ■: .reme 

Court and Court ..f Cassation m \i.una la 

ii prune Court of the Empire. Caava 

of conflict between different authorities ar* 



Austria 










***M by rtir Tribunal of Ike Empire at 

TlOM. 

th» klnxdoeni and count rle* represent- 
ed to the All. Irian ll»l<b*raih pou»M aelf- 
■ortravot fur matters awl ctpr»«aiy re- 
**racd by tbr central EOTrrnun.ui of th» 
Kaplre. In addition, there art communal 
ccrcDiriu » ,'lvc ron-mlttr**, th« 

COBBttl of I lie tows of TrVale having lh« 
f inriKDi of a provincial i diet* 

1 fur alx yeari, 

•bd «-*.i-t of a tingle chamber, wltb an 
•*wll>v connrlL 

revrnu* of Austria for th» 

Br i:u:i >i< s.ht.iT.voou rrowna. and 
expenditure wa» 3.137.190.000 crowna. 
to the Getwral Debt of A-s-trln eemtract- 
*d before Um war lt"".<. the kit . i .hi .if 
tlaagn over tr'.ono.ooo m- 

nwll rowna In 19131. for 

aaorriaailoo and Interent. Tl 
ua Dec. 31. 1013, %a« ;• I 
and the ipecial debt w*» I 

allow — Primary education In free 
aluorr between tb.- «:.•» of <5 and 
' 00 per cent, of tlw attend 
Tlic i.-bnola ere rnnlmalnad bv 
local taiatlon altauat exclojtv. Ij 
ary rdaratlon I- d to lb* ccatral 

pw rnaom i boom. 

Ct ■inula and Ileal-. ■ ■• ' ■<■ tot 

relil** and icrtialt-al hU:h «ch. 
reweawfiow 1—S lmtm*tiy — Agri. n.tur.. la 
|W Baoat Important Sudaniy ol Ik* Inhab- 
: iBArc «ban ou-bilf of if. 
— ooewpied therein, 'if ihf total area 
•vwl 94 • It prndorilve. 3d P'r 

raring aral > land and 1 1 
■aMarva asd tn-aduwa, and 32 per cent. 
— Btta. The arable land produci* wheat, 
. uatt. milre. potato-", angar 
... taralp and talacellaneoua cro 
a neat and malic b»ve alao tn be Imported 
. »rv Tb* garden* produce a 
and tb* elaeyar.i 
i he mcadnwa and paatnrea 
home*, cattle, i bu p , 
r I* conducted on «cientln 

i ■rtodK denudation* arc met 

•J't'WO' 

eU*t (A, form a valaaul* aoureo 

alia. 
1/.... .:n,f UinrraU — lo addition lo gold, 
(of i»r. laad and tin ore* In pro- 
.'. and 
^^■■nm While the Mlt rein.'. ..f Ibe t'lr- 
»«t In the wart 
mlbe* or Wlellrtka In Cnil.-lo. and of Hall- 
I i Auatrla. aie the moat 
faaaooa. 

Aaairia li Doted (I Urinal wa- 

t the alkaline aprlnga of t'arla- 
■cjenbad. l*l<a«hllbel. 
moat fre- 
quented »»■ 'In world. 

"0 are dependent on 

rarlooe In. ■ ibllahment*. and Ana- 

. • abundantly equipped for Induatrlal 

r ob account of Ita rlrhne«a in raw 

•*nll* It* rlaera ofTer tmfb power 

avl in lu addition to lb Iron and 

lllea ami iri/i 

^^^Byl T ' 
aad woodwork, brewing and dlatllllnit. chem 
titiB and Matlooery. and ti*aeco 
traara -anee. 

Tb» ara flahwrlri of the Adrlntle ee. t .t 
"•» alleal rmplur ab< I 20,000 
U jra u aa Tb» river aad lake I 
ataa Import ant. captdally In BotemU. 

rr»a»pocra»»*a and C*mmv»lmllnn— In 

--3,000 kllomi-lrea III - 1 ..f 

^^■kr wwra oi- u ami ■. ..M.-li 

• <l or work il I 

aad 1X00 owned and worked by eompaalea. 

Id 1910 lb« IcKctb of naTl«abl« rltrcrt and 





eanala «ier*dod «.fXKi ■ 

tail;., 000 inllua b.-lns navlcabi- 

on the Danube and Kibe. 

GM post offlcoa In Anattla 

S1011 in of- 

e«w with and 

ea of wire, Teli 
la full operation and are. eatenalvelj u 6 

and 10.114 aalllni; rrmela of I 

7*o arm. — Capital. Vienna, on lb 
l'u|ii:l 

i . : I * i 
l/<aibcrc. ituG.11.1: <!iar. i meow. 

i . 
128 ; l llaen, 80.313. 

Hi n sr.-nr lOWkUd en.-lreled 

by tb.- i arpatbl id oc- 

u of i in- Danubo froin the 

SiiKi- of foaaony t.. Uu • li.m Ratal" of 
raova. Tbe aBatera portion • known aa 
Traii«)lTan; 

Elan name belnc 
Icbenbil men. from rbe wren i-j 
Slum Intadera of tin rlxblb o-ntiir] 

I lie i'ni'|inl 
ami the Troniylvanlon All i and 

form an annex of the ilun- 
(torlaii criiau, extend eaattaanl 
Adrll of the Save with 

i 

Krncra ofld tjiktt.— The Danube IDunal 
i Kunuary from a fortM In Ibe 

i ilnM« eantu . .1 i hiiiiIi- 

r. arda t. n uu Ibe Drmre : 

il It la met at Zlmony 

by Ihe Sari- and Bow. Ill Wlda «tr.atn 

n llunrarr and "'erTla to lb 
(.in ci the ftnllaehla (llumanlani tmuod- 
ary. 'riie Hauui 

lta emir— In llunzary »nd In the ireit 
hlitbway ami ibe outlet Into the Riaek Sea. 
Ir« trl ■ i n:nl Drare. are alan 

mrljahie to the Alpi I 

ai.it. Tha Tiaca, aihb b dlvldea llunmry al- 
WMtern and eastern 
portion, flow* In a winding hut 
eourec aoutbwird. Of the northern trlbu- 
tarl.-a the li the [.. itha In the 

. rnmeitf — Tin. OOnlHtntlon li 
on the rrngmatlc Stinellon oj IT. 1 :: iind on 
andamental law of 18«7. and la that 
of • i Bj hereditary In 

tin*; Ixirralne dyn-aaty. rind after the — 1 1 im- 
tloo of the male. In the female line of that 

The Ituncarlnn Parliament eunalata of a 
nen and a limine of I: 
'ill.- li. hi of MajEOatat 
alat-d I in - on of IPU-lSi of If. 

Arehdiik. *. r.O I ■■. ■. I. -i».i|.-al DlKnltarh<a. 

in. .•. nihriat oienibfi 
Delecatra from I'rontla Slnrnnla. the Oo»- 
ernor of Plume. '°'.>0 hereditary nnblea and 
80 llfo memtu'ra appolntad li> the ■.■■ 

a total of Silt 

'III.- Il.ii-.- ,,r lieprraenrai 
4"-"t membera. of whom 413 are eleet>d by 
an aleetori In Hunaary and 40 by 

tb* Diet nf I'r.iatli Slaamiln Parliament 
nnnii.iliv. ami baa a maximum dura- 
tion of Ave yrara 

li ■! rt" of tlrat Inatance arc ih.- It 

County I'ourla and ISA Dla con. 

■ ■■ i in ih,. ij i, 

... i nl 
Unngary at lludapeat and on.- of Croatia- 
Blawonla at Kdgrab. 

fro'l". '.on owd !'■''■ 

nf I [ungn p and lta matrnlil.. m 
Tldo ei -il nf 

lb* entlr# |Hi|uilailon. only 15 per 
being etiKagvd In Ibe virion* Industrie*. 



Austria 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



The agricultural holding, »n> mated to 
number about .s, 000.000. o 

000 were in* than f acrr.. and > I Ooo.ooo 
under 100 acre* each. All the great plnln» 
prod- i Ileal qa i II 

The in. -a;. i:lon« which cnrelop 

Hungary, the wo; lie Danube, 

Mil. I the tMlslriS Of till- |l|;i . 

d witii foiy»t« which contain 

l>< .ii. pine, .iiid other valuable irwi. wblib 

lo llutncirv to export i Imber and I 

fl'liK lotal ai»n -la In 

ail w»» K,!>s-"-.iu-' -int. . 1 1 i>,.-t«r«*» 

ret.) 
Lignite. Iron anil coal are woo. In nd- 
dltlou to gold ami hIIvit, 
■una l>< in, 
•melting mdtiatrlr*. Snlt H ai;o largely 

1 .., . . , 

Wearing, metal, atone, glnsi, wood, brew 
Ine. and ii mploji miwt 

.<( i h d popiitai Ion, but manu fn r - 

il tv»i h 
egrlcnll 

Inland l'l«hcrle« are of great In 
The rlrer Tl*«.« 1» nattd to be 

"ono part ash to two parti «ral 

Si v ami free, nml la m i 
nxntlon. There are numerous Infant 
witb mtialug itnff* for 3 (o J 
rear*, Willi Lower > Ii iin -ii in ry Srhoola 6 
to 13 yearn land Itepetltlon courses 12 
to 18), The an 

per cant 
Fitian-T.— The sVuatro-nangartan Mou- 

ar.-ln has n Hi (it. lull In II 
pendltuTC o( tin- Kingdom of lluiigai' 
mm of OO.trjl.MM crown* la art oildc on- 
ni ;i 1'iinlrlbulUm to ■ ti - ■ sol rice of 
Hi,. General Debt •, rwntracti ii be- 
fore 1807. 'I'll'' "i Wil il"ln of llnngiirr for 

1011 waa aiati-d nt «^IM,558,000 crowns. 

Transportation and Commtinlra'i is "I 
ti.ml length of Hue* open and emrklni: In 
1011 »n« i::.u:;;: mil,., of wlil-li 10,0*2 
Wirt owned and worked. il 

,:.■ i It I I lie .if 

river* and canala ar* available for trnns- 
port. Tli.T,. u, ii. i,,:;:;i pi»t .iiii.rH and 
4.769 telegrnpb omcc*. The sea-going mer- 
cantile marine amoiinta only to tome ] 10,- 

| ton*. The chief port It Flume, on 

the Adriatic cnaat of Croatia. 

icn*. — CaMta.1. Ii" lb" Han- 

nbc. I'npulatlon 10,971 i • 

towna have over *0.000. 15 exceed 30,000, 
and 21 exceed 20.000 Inbabltania. 

Trade irlfh Hit fulled State*.— The value 
Of tnerrhaudli* Imported Into Austria Hun- 
gary fr..m tin. I nlied Mtate* for tb* rear 
1018 wa* <■ and good* to the 

ealoo of |10.1()'.',*1* were acnt thither, a 
balance of 14. 128,282 lo faror of the United 
State*. 

flOS.V/x X.VO HERZEOOV1S1 coraOTliie 
• It dl«tr|et». covering an area of 10.760 
•oiiaro roller with a population, Ivv tin- 
renins of 1010. of 1.808,04*. bealdca the 
military garrison of 33.7SA. Tho tahabltanti 
are 8lav* and the language la Servian. 

Ooi-emmeaf.— Tha administration of Boe. 
ola-Herregorlna wo.* handed orer to the 
.Mi-tro Hungarian Monatcby by the Treaty 
of Berlin (1B7R>. and In lf'OS rhi 
King extended hla aorcrelgnty orer tbo prov- 
ince* by autograph letter. 

Tbe filet of 02 member* (73 elected and 

SO nominated* deal* with bnma n"alr», 

, Bnan.-e. and nubile worka. The lo. 

eal revenue waa estimated at 70.110 47.1 

Si nil. the expenditure at 7D,5S3,- 
13 crown*. 
Cardial. Scrajevo 'Homo-Scroll, on the 
Hn.nu Hirer. Po-mlatlou f 10101 f.l S72. 
Other town* are ^rn»tar lrj,385, Banlalnka. 
1«.7D3, and Tuila 11.333. 



Austria (ace also Austria Ilnngary): 
.rui^ d'affalroa of, to u at tad 
itutlrawal of, referred to, 

1 EBB ratal relations witb, 1114,2004. 

Confederate envova *«ut to Great 

liritn • rafamd to. 

I SJIdeJL) 

OoBtnl of United Stutca to Vienna, 

Consular convention witli, 4023. 

•.live criminnln, convention with, 
for sun. ni. r ni, BM1 
Importation of Ajmrieaii prodai I 

lation aguinnt, diicuased, Mlft 
Imprisonment of Amarican eitiaeaa 

by, S689. i'74'J. 
Minister of XJnitcd State* to bo sent 
to, I 
■inns opened with. 1708. 
Statement of, regarding peace offer, 
HIS!.. 
Reply of Kntente Allie* to, 8183. 
Treat; with, transmitted and dte- 
175. 1008, 1026, 1097, 
1105, Iiaf, 2*3*, BMl. 
Correspondence regarding, Kfvrrvd 
to, 

Refo.r, ,1 t0, I "70, 1114. 

Troops of, departing to tlexioo, 

f erred to, 858 
Voascla of, iliserimlnatlng duties on, 

suspended by proclamation, 1003, 

■ 

War with Hungary, sympathy of 

lent with latter, 

K L'.179. 

Winaa from, duties on. (Sec Wines.) 

Auatrta-Hnngory (aoo also Austria; 

Hungary): 
Claim* of, regarding subjects killed 

inconflict in Pennayl v n nis.03S4,0363. 
ConMilnr convention with, 4098. 
i:tnpro»»-qucen of, nasaMinntion ot, 

6324. 
Expuliion of American eltixena, 6425. 
Minister of, to United States, re- 
ceived, 4718. 
Minister of United 8tates to, appoint- 
ment of A. M. Kelley as, and re> 

fusal to receive, diacusacd, 4910. 
Naturalisation treaty with, 4089, 

4098, 4142. 
Neutrality of United States is war 
with— 

Bolgium, 7977. 

Franco, 7973. 

Great Britain, 7975. 

Italy, b< 

Japan, 7977. 

Russia, 7974. 

Sen- la, 7969. 
Tariff law* of, avidtaea of modifica- 
tion of, proclaimed, 5718. 

Discussed. 5717. 
Trademarks, treaty, regarding, 4114. 





Trwtita with.— Tb, 
commerce ■nil aavlralloo of 1«."J 

in. 1«SL It 
laatiBf for 16* apace of ten years, 
■lib rrttewal Jruia year lo year ther 

ly of ,v-iiuu*rce mill 
aangatlua belweva tbe (»o roaujlrii 

■ ! -.'0, property, (ml the 
■•». cbar*-r». and 
. ao.1 rc-exporta- 
iIod of prodacts la vcanela of I be one parly 
m the other under reciprocally .■.ultablo 
naatwlae trade, whleu la ex- 
cepted from lb« operation of tola treaty. 
•ablL.buieot of cotuolar raprearatm- 

»re aad a*eola I* a«r<»d ojmb oudrr coti- 
loaa of Ibe axwl favored nation; bat 
Meb coaautar agciite who rnxagc In trido 
« u account •Hill Orlt* froea 

lege but ate cltliea* la 

atnlamr traaaactluau. 

«trtrv4uio«.— An extradition contention 

»j» mdi 

rxtredliloD nf crlnilnala and fiigltivea from 
.• iiviw'i! i anrdcr. ua- 

aanlt will. 

robbery, forgery, mnklcg or circclntlng 
rfrlt money, or ealaraiefxariit ■•'- 
xffeaxr I* lo tie ro- 
larOol In Ibe light of the law* of tbr i 

i which, an ■lylnta la eoughr. anil not 
••I tvw where Ibe offence waa committed. 
.-oiiil-n» of the treaty am un| 

Itlcal off end- 
are of clllieai of ibe country. All ex- 
peuae la to b» bora* by ibe country etklnf 

rua ■ unit* n new 

eno» in the country of a.rlcm. aiicb of- 
nmat be dlapoaed of before extradl- 
Wee la pert . treaty extcnde frnea 

rear to year, aubjeet lo all monlba' notice 
«f tttratloa lo - 

the cltlxeo- 
arallxatlon eonvrn- 
■ 
Aa.trll Hungary act 
Axeertcan cUltcna tboae of Ita 
. hate realdcd In the lulled 
■aba tor a period of •»* year*. Rod who 
Jr«r toeottie Ha c.tlton* by r. gulir and 
■Btl Ultra II tat Ion proceatra: and reel.iro- 
•Uy tse t'nlted Statea recornlxea one of 
J» awn people woo baa almllarly 
JenM to lb* natornllKitlnn Intra of Aut- 
• ntatary: bail Ibe decearntlnn of In- 
atOai la mil In either <u(iniry retarded aa 
•tfiranutl-n. '. .,,.: ■ i-.- itloa in om totro- 
•Meae aoi grant lo Ibe peraon Inu i. 

B tberonerqurncct of a i 
f*t to lemlgratloii, aehject. of coorte. lo 
•-lolly doea Ibli npplt to 
g"a wfca bate wx:gbt to etcape nillltnry 
toatrU'Iluiignry. A n.itui 

f- .reign rltltcn- 

iiu a axed period of 

■*ars«. Tola treaty vi I to en- 

■Bet let a period nf tea year., and lb 

nw frei. rear, atibject to all 

•"J""' notice of termln 

g M l ■■»*«■— Tbe r ii of trade- 

■ther than Ihe owner la pra- 

I legal redreaa la accorded to 

'•ware on Ibe asm* taroa and 

^•M lo ctrlietia of both evomtrle* tin- 

» «*e prvrialnna of a tradrmrrk enrea- 

■" itorlalnn-d June 1 he life of 

«?*»emarl[ ahnll bo thit :.r.,M,!rd by 

J* Ibe country In whlrh 11 originated. 

*! *>e» It becotnea p-;i , -y at 

' then public property In Iba 

^^^^^■iMnrr eontrartlnjc p>»*<r. 

rk proteetlon. ilupll- 

ibe Pntent 

»ber 

and 

yeart - 



a* wama to i-rtnn 
.JaaaealaaaMoai^ To nrulnle 
amp Of Itnaalrraala a aataralhu 
Uaa ana proclalor.l Aoe. |, 



«* aaailro trade-tun rk 
at Waablactoa and In the Cbamber 
!»«am» aad Trad* at Vienna 
"■a. Thlt treaty. orU'nally of ten j 



Automobile 



dnratlon, now ll»e« from year to year, tab- 

(10 one years notice of i.-riulnalton. 
t waa luterprvu-d !• 
rlKbta. 

^<-6iir..rin«. — Ulfferencca of a local ua- 
".- aa to tii • itloa Of u.itlea 

ImpoulM.- of hei v diplomacy are 

' ibe rcmaoeni L'oori of 
ArMiiinlon ut Tbo llnxuo accordlua; to a 
convention algncd Jan. 
Austro-Ainencaa. —An American of Aua- 

i'lrth or di- I 
Automobile Trade. — Karl]' cx.ierliai-ntcra 
lor rebli Ii 

■•bleb uaod beary and 

tban cool. I.i h -tit toblcie tnoiora 

road* poaallilc by the aucmtirul pro- 

ii and the 

notlve 

power In tin.* ».•«>. or ipiaollnc enxlura la 

furplabed by a aucceasion .. j , .;.i(.ilona 

wJil.h lake place within ilm .,i,„i,. r ti , 

►elf. Iboroby J.|u« away with tbo ■■unbtr- 

boddc bolUr and furnace. 

la I Mil two Uerm.ma. fiottllcb Dalatler 
and farl llcot. wurkinx tndepondonlli 
applied the caa rojlnc Kticcv>afully to road 
tvbUclr*. linimior. wbn waa manager of 
' ' I to lina Kngln „i Ucnli, 

Itunla. fltd-d hi. ..mall air cooled oaolor 
lo a lo,., ,ne It aat i 

; ont and . ■ rear 

? ,lcl! .'..j!r ln f <■«■'»••" '■' Ba of a bait 

In 18*9 fie eomtru i a iwncyllndei 

,-, which attraciod tbo attcnilon of 
ttaaaira. Panbaid ami i. i larla, 
*bo I tight, and Im- 
mediately began tbo , ruction ,,f tbo 

•aaa>atlally mcdirn motor cur. tbo Iliat of 
arblcb wna brou^-i 

Carl Bern iimt Bon 
looial cylindi-i-. water-Jacketed engine to a 

■ In , I ,.,, rln •■ It waa pi 
the rear axle Bad : ank- 

•haft, thaagltlii: 

poalll, • ftmut IiiMir.d »ta- 

blllty In Ibe ati 

crank. haft waa cohl ,. ,,i et »r- 

Ins to a abtut horizontal ahnft. whlib waa 
in turn eonpled to a countn >lialt by a 
belt. The enda of tbl haft were 

connected to the road wb.-eU by ibalna. 

early aitemptt by American Inveo- 
1 'I horacleaa carrlaty^ 
fined to atiam , i.ullt 

loo motor of unkuoi 
•lam. IMirlng tbo elghtln a Mi 

lit out u i , : .] with a 

alenin motor. fr.llo» , trlcyrlea 

-ly cv.ulpp.-d. alilch were the prede- 
ceawra of the llgtit atran 

Imonta In 

>n« la al.o rlalnnd l,v It K. I Id 
Mlohlj-an. who In 1*36 be»an tbc 
.tin, Hon of a )iam«l<"<« carriage. Tbl a 
tehlcle, completed In IS«7. waa drat ailed 

I ateam endue giun-d lo Ihe rear 

waa ,,f Ibe norcuplne' type 

anil KnxriHiii. waa the fii- I 

mnchlno waa remodeled, u.lng a flanh 

. that la, tin ileam -not generated 

only 

ltd* DOfBD bull, line : imiort 

for ooru-li'M rarrlagr., wb 

Ion in 1895, bare proved practical 
ami .nccratfol. 

Chorlea and J. F. Duryea eomtdcttd tMl 
flrat aniomobllr In 18H2 Tlolr aerond ear, 

ted In 1803. embodied all the *a- 
aontlol utomoblle. 

Tbe» Duryi ■ agon Comrony wna 

onrainlred. nnd the thirteen nuloinobllea. 
Onlabed In I w.r.. ihe 

flrat Dianiirartured for nlc In tbe foiled 
Statex. Tbc price of tbeae Teblclca. fl.SOO, 



Automobile Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



was considered loo high for »n untried 

mil rtrrlagy, and 
prevented Hi" Im 
gnrollnc automobile in America. A tare* 

majority of plant ■ r» ling for Ih* iudna- 

Iry ti> Hi. . ii mi « o( 11)0(1, ii.nnii. ii. •..■ 

In Imi'.i. tin- dat ... mtUI 

beginning of the automobile buitocaa ID 

.•..ii... let. 

dufomoMlr Engine- — There ore three lypca 

of II 

hn.| UH I l:. .III..' I I 

.] the loon, ami the electric i 

ati.l thiol. h populated aoe- 
tlona, brcauae ..r iii. nr having; 

a charging station lin '•• In* bnt- 

-,-d although i 

itlotitf 
,-rved tO DBCfttftM Tin- liuin'.rl Of BlOC 
trlca. Tin- KOtollni' other 

band. And a obtainable 

everywhere, and has lesa weight Id pro- 
p. ,.'...n tn horsepower than the other form*. 
/"«.' ■ :■ in pt-c bar* beat made 

and ore *tlll tolng tnndc to uw Other formt 

of fuel in ih. automobiles bul up to lb* 

ill time without in. irked aucceas. In 

ilir. ether, kerosene, nleohol, ami 

naphthalene bat objec- 

tlona to ketwene are the diHtcully of in- 

dtirlnc raporltatlon and the clogging nf 

>.v the rvUiM Toe chief 

objection to alcohol la Ha cottllncsa. 

;.-ii.i.h..— Tin. principle of the 

gasoline .->■;- It..- uaed In nutumobllec l« that 
.tin. i combuatlon. iv ut 

gsaolluc Ih .prni-d lulu an air-current In 
iirbureter. the rc«ultnnt combination 

of air and gnaollhe betel then eompi 

In the amber At one end of toe 

located the spark plus, which 

i the mlituro by an .-l.-.-t rl<- apnrk 

and cau«ca It to cxplod.- Tbe '-xnnnalon of 

11 xpid.w.ii <lri\.. hi. i tin platon, and 

power 1» goncn I 

■ ■ilirnrrr — Tile h»r«c|>nw ■ r nf the en- 
gine l.i fonnd hy multiplying the rtlnm.-t.-r 
cylinder* b multiplying thin 

Sroduct hy the number ..r cvlh 

UtCll<ttli> ' nf ihl fnU'-lh- -TltO 

I'Yi'ii- in the gnaollm engine muat ba 
atartcd hy moving the puton. lmil the 

Sunt ai-vi-ral year*, thin » | Halted 

i> turning a crunk h* hand, but now au 

afectxu 

Martina appnrtitut la In general use. 
Thin la operated by • Rtoragi which 

la re-charged by the engine after the lat- 



ter g»lH |Dl and la anally mi 

nlso to provide tfee current for Ignl 
ti. ii. lighting etc. 

■ 
the mixture of air and ga»ollne through 
: Mir ap-ali 
.lly closes tbla TmlT*. and thou coca 
Ignition i 
through the medium of the apart pint the 

of which tends down tin 
Ita •..'•nrid duwn -Iriiki- J i: - 1 before Ih* 

completion of Ibta stroke, the exbansl 

i in- Inirnt ensrs. 
any »f wbl reatato i« 

• I upstroke, of tbc piston, 
which cnroplotee the cycle. 

-,-parate openings for 
n nf gaaoline 
me b) r..r.-. .i in by the ruction 
the engine, the amount heln 

force "f gravity nr pr ire. mother valve 

r.gtiliitlug Ita quantity. The 

let mi v the t«t»t mm 

The .n.ni.i,, i,',! eyeteai la now In gem- 
cm! inc. whereby tbv main ga>nllr>* tana. 
moved fir r r. .in tin- engine, tbe 

no N'lng pumped from It lato a 
.1 tank near < from 

which It la forced Inf. the carliur. i 

■•nn may occur through 
tin- inn k. • und break ur the Jump »pjrk »)•» 
fi-m. although the latter la i onl- 

vertal. A high teoalon current, nrlalng 
frtna ainracr ballerina and ■ aparl 
rauaea an iart to lump l»-twe»n 

two electrode* In the apark plug, which are 

about '.. in- ii i rt Tbr curreat may 

come nlao from n inngm-m. 

The niu/fl'r la II drum of alieet ati-el OHril 

t., .I. nil, ii the inn i- arblch would otbrrwlae 

i ,t gaan are emitted. 

The .'xlinn i -'■■ paaanl through IL 

and nt. reduced gradiufly lo atrao-i 

Keaanre bj being poaaed through cham- 
alxe 
A poollao •■" i..ratlre. aa tbe 

rapid explo»lona would otberwlte make 

i lie wafer-ei 
t-m N the more common. In tl 

the .•■• ll'i.iri - ere i atructed "i two walla. 

and are cooled hv hnvlnr wnter flow In the 

■a. The water lt-.-lf. cai'iraliv. 

Ik tbareby hratanl, aod I- In ■ .1 by 

the radiator be] I DdW tb* nlr 

cooling :..-•! in. :i fun bnrtra nlr over the 
eyllnd.r. u id- ii N covered wllh -hurl n«l« 
tn rnellltflte the eoniliietlnn of heat Into 
ti '- 



DetTHDRer on m MtnTacmai or Atmntoaaaa. »«» Anovoaae Boom »*> ?»rm 



■Si bflej 



i.tifMirL,,!.,!,. 

IraJicind 

parti 



Ihtel 



Numlarr of e*tiLii»hmrntj ' . 
r«nmni «nt»gTrtl in mjuuif»rtur« 

>Y;.fkr i*-t- >r-8 r,n*J llrm mrml»r» 

fWUrtal tmphyfm 

Wi«e tftram |fcT«r»4« numb«) . 

Primary hor-epoTvcr 

Capiuf 

"IT* . 

Valur of perrfucto 

Value adiied br maou/actura (»alue of pnxlueU !<• eon of truteriabj 



■JO 

DMI 

M 

12.830 

79.307 

im.iwj 

M.W1.000 
17, ,000 

.,.,..,.:-, Km 

3I0.6J2.000 



700 
1.160 
iT.Tll 

r>i.v,i.iv«i 

lojsoo.noo 
Man,ooa 

l>l.u)l.ll-.i 
st.eti on 



i m 

:i.'.nv: 
7*0 

lUM 

UT.0tt 

irs.nM 
wn:. 
i.T».«M.eeo 

•0,000 

I01.'." 

SMJOa.OKI 

'■ ^.■.■M .(Mil 



' In addition, in 101*. 33 aatabllthmeata primarily encwnl in otW hnm et min.il«rpir», nojilwvl aatuauiblka lo lha 
rxl'io of to, 636. 030. and 434 ai tab! i*b meat* nf Ihi* ehvaeter maoiifacturtd an ira mil part* In the valna of 

tin MVU70; ia 1000. aiiniW utabluluarala productd •utomobUa . ilucd it 1330,080 irnj aulomobilo bodisi add t*iu) 
viluedatM.4lW«6. ^ 



Encyclopedic Index 



TV r*M*>*iora may fu«*iIon by i 
«M-M> or tb* air tab* pracsa*. In th» 
ferBsr, Ike water 1* cooled by paaalox 
omO iMn metal pipe*. over which a coa- 
atait rtrrenl of air paaac*. Is tb« la 
Oc Mm ar* Inserted Into tie "Jiir. 
WW» (»» autoaoobllc la In rapid motion. • 
..-. naturally ibrouxb th* radl*- 
iw Wbeo Iht aatomoMIc la driven slowly. 
Ir I. nWnlii.il by the rcro- 
lata* ••! a fan. wbkb la il 
twJaf-Oaft. 

Uartcarion t* aecratary In iarl- 

•a* part* of th* roclnn w»ll- 

■■• a fool of nil at tin 
•a* af lb* i-r.ink i«..-. lato wlil b th* 
malpla arOa.lie* at earn r 
• i/iar— t»» oil ta-tnjr. ilrlTi'ii tn all part« 
«yal*aa of fabfi- 

■• the '.il aim tii 10 cau 

ataaavc rabrteai. Inatl.Wi of the 

in -ii 

re*, .onaectkm between tM 

laaft anil s latin I- effected 

•j aaaaaa of * frtetlnn lotcb 

a *jo*Dt<d cloa* to th< fly ••hi-'. A va- 

may be oMalaed. and 

-.mmbudon Include* also si-artn 

u* cannot 

UrtaiMi Dll .-*ar- 

« i- lo carry power frbm the 

.-•ilrra uf |b» axle at 

nihil** follow the pneuma- 
• tlr*. al- 
ia, ar* equipped with •"' 

th* arenr 
tb* air twlng contained in an In- 
i- i ma. held to i in' 

»v.u i. r twit*, majr be »n«lly reaooved 
«M trvlUd with tbe tlr.- alrefldy in 
ay*, lata*. 

-•* train ar. uatinlly apcratcd by 
M; emergency brak*a by band. 

1» ai| b* operated, according to Hi'' 
■alMi nenr** at i I""" l-n cent* 

fa) Ms aallr. In *ltlc«. whet* charging 
baaattlr available, electric truck* ar- • om 
•al lata g*o*T*l o 

Tat tataat atep» Id aot'imoMIc building 
*m baraj lav araaored sun-carrying ma- 
•la* aad the farm tra 

TV* rapid growth of IB* bwatneaa la 
•aara by tbe fart thai the ouaabi-r of *«• 
Mfagarnta maklr.g n 

*•! lb- ra «oii' 

t» fn.t» • < 
(aaOaanl demand for auintror.il-. and 
ry and abroad tin* 
a reaiartal.r. In*r*a«* in aal- •. ttia 
Jr» far tb* year ending with Jon.. .10. 
. a* compiled by Alfred K**vc«, g. 
aaaai ham- 

*• w Co*»- 

■aa, a> b*«* born 70(1.53" rar^. ralurd 
•Waaal* > M'h it aa ad- 
maw of It p>- of 
■an no aaara ii-m 10 dm i r.i la rataa 

•w rv prrrlcna twlre av>ntbi. 

aaki »f jam-nwr can of all I.- 
*«ar 10. wbl. I -.-ar In 

•» Maatry. wi i I, for wlilch thg 

■aafarlorara ramlTnl »4.Vi.fH1.131. ablla 

JQ'aHlmatrd al ■ lined at t''2,6i'l.- 

Tb« rienrrf for iwi-tv* a>onibi i-udlDg 

a»H l»l«. -J car*. rau».nuHr 

■f* i^mavrrlal ral-wd al allgjbtly mora 

Ap i ifeooaooo. 

B will b* ontrd that wbll* llir numb. t 
•' ran in-r. »~.1 ;in per cent, the valor In- 
I»r cvat. Inilii^tlnit Ika 
***|» l »aln» lb* mn*»r« bnre been fliin' 
*rl a a»ri aa nati'ifiriurloc eo»ta were 
aaani av>wn am 
■ •VaaaU c*>o>tnie||ao. 



i:xporl> of automobile* and motor trncka 
reached a total In the > 
Joue. 1915. far In exceat. of any or. 
twelre montb*. They totalled W10.1;.. 
maeai op of mot.-r tnicka tr. tM tnil 

-< ralnrd at $S1.- 
113.033. Thl* value repreaentr.l 
hlrlea made up of 1.1.DD6 motor trncka anil 
23,880 paaaenGrr .-ar. i.. tbl« ran I* 
ail.l.-il partK ti. tb.' ralue nf t7,SiS,18J. fir- 
ing a lolat of {Us.luT 

1915 
Motor T*blcl.'. 

.71 IN 

Paaawocer car* 

aold .. :.",» H, 

Molor trucU 

aold 

Talue 
aataa . .|1,0HS.028.273 lOBl.::- 

It-tall Trtlu* 
Of P«MH n 

r»ir. ..il.l . . i r.ii 

Retail raltie 

'■(■■■ -J0.2?a I35.1i 

Ar.-rair.. retail 

prir* paaaen- 

oan . . 

Arrrace r 

piice Irifki 1.X00 MOO 

No. cylinder* In Ctrm 

' 

f 

* or « . 1« 

* or h . r> 

6 or 8 a 

« or 12 1 

I. •• 3 

lal i5o 

In 19lrt. then- ».t .1 car* and 

truck* lu lb- li.lt.-.l • m.iii. 

2,S(»0.0(Ki were tbelr 

o»ea. Thla number r*pmt*nt* appr.iti 
80* Of tM t'.tnl nunii- r In th* world 

Autonomooi Qovernmant for Cuba dis- 
cusaed, 61.12. 6261, 6284, 6308, 6600. 
(Seo alao Ciit,n.'i 

Autonomy. — Th.. rlttit to mimnitoClw 

n^rit In »ni form: not subject to any 
Mwa nth^r than •elf-mado Inifi 
AuxUlary Nary in Spnnish American 

War, fi:u:. 
ATerysboro (N. C>, Battlo of— Jlareh 

18. INS! Oco si... urn, In the adriDi 
tbe Union Armj enrountcrod tho Confedci 
at-« under On. Ilardee near ATery*boro, 
In t he narrow. awnTOBpj n.-.k botween 
Fear and South rl»*n 

hold Sherman Id cheek until Johnaton could 
rnnientrato hi* army at aome point In hi. 
rear. Incvnaant ralna h.nl made the crmind 
ao aofl thir mi deep In 

tbe mod. A cerere fliihi tnok place amid 
ahower* of rnlu nml sn»t« ■■( wind. The 

Kimia line advanced int.. In th* aften 

and the Confe.l 

field. IcavlnR Km dead upon the field. Tb* 
ral loaa wua aeventy-aeven killed and 
477 wi.iiikI.-.I 

Aves Islandj. — A group of nma.ll itilnnija 
In the ('iirilihean Sea, belonging to 

Venezuela. 

Arlatlon. (Sop Aeronautics, also Army, 
'ling Corpt, and 
for application to military usoa aoo 
Huropcan War, Zeppelin*.) 



Bad*. 



Mcssages and Papers of the Presidents 



Back-Stair Policy. — A term uh4 Id deri- 
sion against aerernl of tho Presldonta for 
itlng that their poller 
«»» dlctat" ret friends, who were 

ngura lively admitted by way of tlio back 
(tain. 

Bacon's BebeUion.— An Insurrection la 
1076 of the people of Virginia, led Uy 
Nathaniel Bacon. In HITS lb* Crown as- 

: tho entire Provluc* of Virginia for 
"DO years to tarda Arllm-tnii ami 

; . r. with power to collect for their 
own use nil unit rents, escheat*, ami dul 
to name sheriff* nml other ■•Hi. . r»: to make 
new counties, and In general to ■• 
authority of tbsntut* rulers, sir William 

ley, the English governor of Ihe Colony. 
w.i* wry unpopular hi n.oounl "f lilt op- 

Boi to free education and a free pn 
o seemed to think that the function of 
a governor wai to get na much na poululo 
Hi* colnulsta for himself and Ms mns- 
tora at tbo letiat poatllilo cost. lie also 

!rovod lnefflclenl In lirotectlug the settlers 
gainst tli* ravage* of the Indiana, He laid 
a the people and restrleiid 
the franchise. An Indian uprising During 
wl In the *tale, a fore* of 600 men 
rilliered to march nenlnst them, Ilcrkeb-y 
band. Tus coloolaU 
Hocon, wDo wna I |>« »i'Ul n r lawri-r, na 
:. and despite Hi- >• f laal of tho 
governor to eomml**lon Dim. ba led du nj< d 
against and defeated the Indiana. Berkeley 
: pr icl con » rebel, not- 
withstanding which the people elms* blm a 
memiicr of the new assembly. Oo bla way 
lo Jomcatown lie was arrested and tried hy 
th* governor and hi* council, but wa* re- 
i on purolo and left Hie capital. Be 

rn. .1 i- nil noo men and again if 
' d a commission, which was grouted. 
While Bacon woa successfully 

. mipalgn agalnal the Indian*. 
Berkeley ngnln proclaimed Dim a rebel and 
a traitor. Bacon then burned Jnineatown, 
the governor taking refuge on an English 
Teasel In the lnrbc.r. The rebellion wna 
.1 on in a desultory way until the 
death of Bacon In 1077. when it collapsed 
rot iv. mi .if .» leader. Tbo English executed 
twenty-three <.f the pnitlolpnnt* In tula 
rebellion. It la notable a* the Brat formi- 
dable real'taneo to colonlnl authority In 
Brltlah America. The algnldcnnce of Ita oc- 
currence Juat 100 ycara i>. i 
»sa often been remnrked. One of Bncon'a 
iiit to de-ith for hl> part In In* 
. lillnm Urummond. who lmd 
■- i .1 for a few ycara na tbo Orat governor 
..f North Carolina. 

Baden. — A German grand duchy, of south- 
ern tiermn&y and n alat* of the German 
Empire. The reigning duke la Frederick 
II. it In bound. .1 b. li. an and Bavaria. 
on tho north, Bnvarla on the northeast. 
Wllrttemberg on the cn«t. Kwli/.-rland laep- 
; mainly by i.nu- Contianoi and the 
i on ID* Mouth, and Aliscc and t lie 
Rhino lMlitlnute (separated by the IIDloel 
00 tb» went. Ita capital I" (.'srlsrubc. It 

Godaces grain, wine, tobacco, hemp, pota- 
ce, bops and chicory, manufacture* »llk 
good*, chemicals, rlock*, machinery, wood- 
enware, brushes, paper, etc. 

Oot-rrsmrsf.— The government I* a constl- 
itillnnnl hereditary monarchy under a grand 
.i Landing with nn Upper llouae 
aud a CDnmber of alxly-lhree K.-prescnta- 
Uvea. It *ends rhree representatives to 
the Herman Bunde«rath nnd fourteen to 
the It. i isiag. it entered tbc i: 

..Ion In 1MB. i Ived a Conatltotlotl 

In IMS nnd lieeam* a member of the (Jcr 
man Umpire in 1871. It ha* an area of 



B.S23 *q. m!!-» and a population (1010) 

of 2.141.832. (8e« alao Germa 

Baden, fugitive criminals", convention 

with, /or surrender of, 2888. 
Baden, Treaties with.— Tn* extradition 
treaty of 1857 and the naturalisation con- 
vention of 18GB were not affected by the 
Ion of the German Empire In 1871. 
The extradition treaty of 1Sj7 wna pro- 
d on May IP of that year. The ex- 
tradltsble crimes are; Murder, assanlt with 
Intent to kill, piracy, arson, robbery, for- 
miking or circulating counterfeit 

Kr.ney. nod embrtxlcrncnt Of public tona- 
». Evidence of gnlit sufficient to convict 
within the country of atylum mint be 

d. The expense must be born, 
the country asking aurrender. The treaty 
doea not apply to political offender*, nor 
la either niiiinn bound to deliver up lis 
own citizen*. Commission of a new crime 
within the country of asylum riuare th* 
In tried and, If guilty, to b* 
pnnlshed there before surrender, 
trenty remained In forco until Jan. 1. I 
nnd thereafter from year to year, *nl 
to on* year's notice of Intention to ter- 
minate. 

The treaty of 1808 I* a nnturallxatloo 
trenty designed to regulate no- 
tion of tintnrallted ellliana by t 

v, and was proclaimed Jan, 10, 1870. 
eonntry agrcea to recognlre as 
xena thoae or it* former aubj have 

conformed to th* natural); 
lavs of the other country. No lmin»nltT 
from punishment for crime* committed be- 
fore emigration, aovlng the llinl 

.1 hy the law* of the original 
try. Especially dor* this refer to the lia- 
bility of a lornur citizen of Bad. 
non-fulfillment of military duly. But he 
shall not be eabjert to punishment for thla 
offence union* he »hnll haw etulcrnlrd while 
drafted "r la actual military serflos, Pro- 
vision Is mode whereby a former citizen 
may. If be desire. ea*lly reaume hi* eltl- 
setislilp. This trenty m* mad* to rn 
years and therenftrr from year to ■ 
subject to twelve month*' notice of inten- 
tion to termlnnte. A prntucol win signed 
In Munich on -^lny 2ft, 18«i*. In forth 
plnnntlnn of tho ocveral causes. <8c. 
man Empire.) 

Badger SUt*.— A nickname for VTV 

ii.. (Sep also States.) 
Bahama Banks, negotiations with Groat 

Britain | .a of kojs on, 

to United SUtcn, 013. 

Bahama Islands, formerly Luciyos.— A 

chain of Islands stretching from n.-or the 
north coast of Haiti to the east coast of 
Florida. They are separated from l-'lorlda 
hy lb* Gulf Stream and from ruua by 
the Old llnbnma channel. There are some 
3.000 of lbe»c Ulotid". but onl> 
of any *ltc. The prlnclnal one*, beginning 

at the northwest, an- Great Bniiamn. 

Alineos, I I, uiliera. New Providence. Andros. 
Cuanahanl or Cat Island or San Salvador, 
Wailing Island. Rxuma, l^ing Island. 
Crooked IsiniidR. Marlguana, Inngns, Utile 
Inngun. Cnlcos. and Turks Island. Th* 
climate of these Island* Is very mild and 
salobrlons, even In winter. The soH la 
th u hut producca cotton, malxe. pineapples, 
oranges, etc 

Hittory.— The Bahamas wor* Columhu*'* 
earlb-.i alseovery, but rticr* Is some . 

5s in whli'li of the islands be called San 
• Ivndor. The islands were occupied by 
the English In 1(120 and Anally aecured to 



them by the treaty of 1*83. Area, about 
b.*CO so,. Dlln . population ll>C0i, 61 

U4K.»n apltol If Nassau. New 

ProTldeace. A ■ ; «. isoi, an riecutie* f»un- 
dU and a I council of olu* mem- 

bera each and a representative e«>ctn 

, olo» raeaabcra coosUtuie the gorern- 
savor. 

Luring the Clrll War la rnit"d States 
Mockatfe runners nude their beado/i 
lo tat Bahama a. especially In New Cmtl- 
eVec*. Tli» Is. sods bar* some reputation 

• « a Winter rr- 

November to Slay. rarlea fma 60* lo 70*, 
aad during the remains!, r of ibe year from 

Bahimi Islands, postal convention with, 

Bsll— A legal term representing money . or 
other ralaaMe security. rlJkcd to guarantee 
the appearance of a pcraon released from 
ustody of the law 

f'""r TlmllUM Tbo baking lad 

arcceding to the Uit fader* -lands 

thirteenth la tbe II- 1 .an Indua- 

trtea la point of rain* of products. Itrrud 
la rvrulaily sblpp-d by a laigu number of 
bakeries tbroogbout tbe count ly a distance 
of a bundrrd and fifty agile*, aad In ■ raw 
lastanrcs It U thousand 

7bi« list !• ex^ptk- 

pnalttr conditions sake It possible. Lcngib 

penda entirely on tbo lm-al 

bread market and on the express i 

The margin of profit oo bread generally li 

assail Shipments of bread will not ntand 

ornllaat espresa ratf, and dim sent 

loag distances alwaya go»a to a markrl 

iperlor article to 

*k*<J locally la equal to n sonu-whit 

Inrrc- Tbe capitalisation of lb* 

haltnat liuU«lty la gh a»t federal 

"">) at ft; larg. 

hread lu the Colled Slatra 

aerate a mm(«r ■■■! 

^B 1h Ward Baking Company and ibe 

OaajataJ lUklog Company • : k and 

•Orr cltt. - id Company of 

Miany 
Balllasor.-. Md.. the Scbulie Making ' 
,y of Chicago, tbe Aascrlcan Ilakery 

apany of Consumers' 

Bread Company of Kansas City are among 
mi la lb* country. 
Tbe taking lndu-tiy '• growing by lean* 
and bosjnds aad very llio-lv by tbla time 
rtftr^T twelfth or even blgber In thi 
of American Industrie*. At the time of the 

irtb In rnlue 
of tne prodact In a i latrlea with 

atvoawl prolucra valu-d at over a bundled 
atllllOO. The per cent of Increase f. 

wa> 126.8 per 

to rata* of pcoi' " the 

i awrtod only by aocb product* a* worn- 

i ibllea, electrical ma- 

-. wire, bcv| augnr. raanu- 

artsrc*] tee. pbotographlc appaiatua, ele. 

Tn» history of bhcult baking In tbe 

I State* la a record of ll 

■moi of a uaall and obscure business to 

iduatry of national lomortanee. Tbe 

It. ii.'-ii.vi through French f • ■ ■!■> 

tann. nvnns twice baked, and bad 

:« military 

*f Ihe Jloman* was Iwlnr prepared 

n. In Fnropc all tmall rakes 

•a" Soar, with sweetening aud flavor- 

added, are ealli In the 

FtatA* tbe word "cracker" wa» uaed 

__«»• the early predaefloni of crttp 

«n*w«a>taiied donga, and Uti-r eiti>n6Vd 

to tatetade lbo<* with totb «»M-ti-u.iur and 

■aror. Whro th»»e Aanerlcao crackrra 

• «« ant to Europe they wore Included 



under th" ganeral name nf tlicult*. and tbe 
term la coming Into a wl 

led ui ibo 

1 Slate* nan tliut of 'i'beoi 

aon. of V ■■ i-arly 

n» 1708 modn a laige ronn.i . lap uiu-m 

loaf, or cracker, which, unlike ordinary 

I would keep for a 
th Ik rca.on It "»4 favored Among Ibe sup- 
of tailing Teuelt. 
Joaliuu i ,,Ton In Milton. 

Ma-«. In 1801, and began the maniif>< 
of bla water crackers which lat»r arhlevrd 
a national repuiiitinn. and K«n 

c'J at .Mi-iiotumr (now Arllng- 
loni, Slavs., In 1R0S. Iu llott.-: 

till carl led "l\ the Ijii i:.. -i.-. , .1 -.- p» 

muuy year*. Other Doted N*w England 
firms were Tbuiaton. Hall k Co. of t'am- 
bi Idf. Sprln C. li. 

, and Ihirks & 
Sarage. of Ilnrtfmd. The etirlleit New 
Vork cracker baker <«»• I'-plualui Tread- 
woll, wbo b-'gau bualn 

I'.iliiekerhoffs atoned In 1H50. The Ijir- 
rnbee Company, of Alban. 
1800; mode in sarin i 
"t [at other bakers rngMed in intentiate 

trade In the em luafry. 

and who contributed to 1t» national lu 
lane* were J. It. Vanden.rr, „f New 

skill- 
man, of llaltlno-re: llaslc k llorrlv of lie- 
troll . .aret Bakery, of N,. w i"ii • 

li«n«: Th- 

.Marvin, of 1'ltraburg: and Hosier & Weyl. 
■ ■< :-■!. Louis. These and many others joined 
la tb« rnro for recognition ihitiuglioui Ho- 
country, sending Ihelr retirewnts 
Mnlne to siregnn, and from the lakes t» lag 
ng to South America, 
:nl la. 
Cniil gbonl IRK) machinery in the bla- 
moat unknown, A ma- 
chine was then invented uMeh rolled the 
dough Into a thin > oasslng 

nlnns ou an endlex* belt or apron, "as 
cut Into tbe required shape by a s'nmp 
nnd falling automatically, iu thin 
wnr about n dun-n cruel, at at 

a llni. Mi- 10 Imke dee 

or six bnrrela of Hour n rlny in Important 
Innvase over the preceding average rata 
nf one bai 

Iu 1S40 ibo discovery of gold In Coll- 

and Ibe con«eiiuent den 1 for 

■rs as a aultnlde ortlcle of , r 

food proved a marked sllruulu* to the bis- 
cull trade. I'l enlarged 

alenm posrer was Introduced ' rk the 

(nom. Tbe els II w:ir gar* n second 
groat Impetus to tbe Industry nnd the 

me rl-it .lie oven* bring lined li 
their BBTjacIt* t" BMt the Inerenaed de- 
foi iii or.- ill for army nnd nnvy 
rations, ,t mecbanleol reel oven. con»l»tlng 
of a series of long Iron pans r. In 

a framework, nlmlliir In action to a Ferrta 
no- whole enclosed In a largo brick 

oren chamber, was Invented I iM* again 

: Ionised Ihe 1>Imou1| linking bu i 
\vnh nil* device the capacity of a slngdt 
i from Ibo average rale of ».lx 
barrels bo lw*nty-fli or rela of 

fl-sur per d-ii . Tbe lis* of thei ■ reel e 

itll now all the large 
pl.mts hnvi- a dally e.spni r. of 
lo llflv in iiar per oren. 

The biscuit linking tio-lru-s. Una not es- 
caped the national -oil con- 
centration. Four holding i-i.iiipanlea now 
d nesrlr all Ihe larger plants b 

ntrr. The first of these, tbo N'eiv York 

lilseuit Company, Inelude* tl 

■ lu New Kngland nnd New 

'i. in New York 
City, baking a thousand barrels of flour a 



Baking 



(essagcs 



*ep«rs of Ihe Presidents 



day. Tbo American Biscuit Company ran* 
OBt large factory In New York, ami tbt 
United States Biscuit Company controls tbs 

frlnelpul factories lu Ohio, Indiana and 
ith.uul .urns bakeries 
In Dearer, t'olo. ; Cedar Unpkla ami Oea 
■ -. Iowa; Rock Inland. III., an.l 

Si n ilatlca of tin- linking business n> a 
a>hol«, uaclodloi bread eraekem, plea. 

i ■ 

rii l anon 25,863 t-itut.llshmi'iila In the 
United ScmIvh. waite- 

Dg goods to 1 1 1 ■ • ralua 
of siui.mi3.ooo for tbs rear. The coat 
<>f ma 

imounl clla- 
trlnuted In wugea n> lira.034.0O0. Hi 
these 

llk-iii.'. slum .ulistuntinl luercuaca over tbo 
01 1809. 

Balance of Power.— 'The term used to do- 

:-dtion nf lb* rartoae trout 

nations of Mm world Iota eUlaac ■ in tbat 

one griuiii will equalise the other | 

1 'i i'i' ■■ ' nun* ng nation fr an pi •"• ■ 

log upon a weaker, Practically all Dcnca 
ternia after modern warn bavi .Inmn 

up aa (n j.i-..' 1. 1. . r -I be lai I i 

Tlina, before the ontbi Kurope in 

war, Russia wua allied with S.rrla to pro. 
tool ii" lattei i .nintrr ag-alnst tli 

i Hi mill *ni 
with Irrance. aloof wliii n runn- 

ing UM Triple- BntCBtC (Q. >■ I. ugnlnat 
nermany unci ber associate- bo to* Triple 
Aiii-ui. ■■• ii| »• i. it wiih thonirht that tii« 

organisation Of the great i otrl. 

Europe Into theae two alliances v. i ■ l Bro- 
th* balance of power between them. 

Balance of Trade.— The differ. 

n. i„ twi ru tbo eiporla and Importa of a 
country l» called Ita balance of tiade. 
Balkan States. — A general term referring 
to those >n r pai n the 

llnlkuii peninsula III the southeastern port 
.it Kurope, Including the countr] sontb .if 

i in- h m iimi n. mill. e rlrera, H 

Paliunttn. parts of Croatia nnd Kn 

land. Albania. Bosnia. 

negro. Scrvtj. Bulgaria. Kuropoan Tui 

• . and pnrt of Rumnnln. In the pnllt- 
leal aenae It uaunlly applies '" Ruls 
Benin. Montenegro. Ruuiaolu, Turkey In 
Burope and Oi 

Hulk-in Quulion — Situated na It la. 

riartllng the i . ami ' !■■• 

[rail Of I.ardnnclles. and composed of na- 
il, ins holding rnrlanl political ami religious 

Vitus. Illls group i.f 

aa a coustant menace to rb.- peace ..f Kn- 
rope. Political tronlilea In the peninsula 
an generally rrfrrred to a* the I. 

<Jiii-.ii. .ii 

Hi. i '.m-.-i. -. of Berlin, which nttcmntod 
to aller Hie man of Kurope after t lie R«s- 
alan victory nf 1»"S. In falling to recn 
Hi.. Just clolins of tho different nstl..nnl1- 

ib'» in riie Balfcana, i. responsible. f.<r nil 

of subsequent rwtlc«<ne- 
rebelllon, and the ulilmaie general Knro 

Ci.au war, begun in 1014, In which Ruaala. 
ranee England. Italy and Rorvla were 
allied ngulnst Austrln Hungary. Germany, 
i in '. . i and Iini. 

TM.. ,-ial pons era of Kurope In 1903 
ordered these three reforms in 'I ai 
(li The Turkish Inspector General nin-t 
hare two >-t » 1 1 ag»ni» ai'p.ilnii-d by the 
rowers: <2l there shnU be Ini.riiutl.itial 
gendarme* In Tinker. . :i i the three 

shall be III rc- 

ftrb'ied in power 

The Prime Minister of Bulgaria was su- 



ited March 11. 1907. Then la* peas- 
nut Rumanians demanded much in 
land reforms. 1 

let of 

lu IU deaths .um! 

mi., nii. 

•proud an. I pronounced as to frlgbien 

-. ami ntiract the attention of all 

I iin.pe. Thla .-■■ nl affairs routln- 

. Ill ll I. He lu 

if thai rent llulgarls declared ber- 
iree from thi I nil olbrra. 

and i'i -'I'll i 

Novl n.i.'i.- rnllv 

' by Turkey. The Turkish 

"hlc-ti 
lin.t I- 

lloand re- 

in., mil-.. I Independence ■ • i ■ -1 union f--r 

Bulgaria BUd e; Am.. 

il to the 

Hun I i II.. .nla in. I 

f i. .ina i,..i.. ben of right in annex. Tbo 
i bud autborlit-d tbrir or- 
i 
iiniietiii i ■ - - ■ ... M. ii Turkey waa wholly ne> 

■ l ■■'■ hold her i rtorni 

in. me Kurope seeim-d lu «•-,. in ii 

ilr.. .if Auslrln'e desire for the 
erty ..f in* i-r. . 

plan f,,r [hi 

fllllll. . 'I he "I . 

ernmenr appealed lo the powers SerTka 
ami I . were rend) 

. m ,,f g 

ignlse Aas< 
trln's Infrlngomeul of ihe Treaty of Ber- 
liu- oclalraed Itaelf a de- 

i. nnd Great Brli :<iaaaa 

ami ll 

under eonaldomil.... 
with the Turkish gorerinneni t.nte i 

N, ';.-".it Lii-,-1,11 : 

lied Bnlgnil. I go 

Turkey ultb a - 

lio.ier f..r a.-eeillng ... Ilnlgarlao In- 

The enlmlmin 

.llitl. ulil. in a 

proto.-ol slg - - 

TurkUh ii- 

per cent, Turkish moi 
clgnrelto piip.-r anil 

were f I'i, Mil* 

ami lleri.-eiivina srere to enjof p. 
and religious ' . rr- 

i on lm I- i.ir.l i -.- from 

Austria, lu May 1910 In. • wu aasern- 

parllamenl ami an oalh ..f nlloglnnce was 
tnken to Ilia King ..r ihe i 

As .-nrly as Psbniari mi me goyern. 
■ I Rulgarla, Serbia, 

■ ' i'" 1 ■ lo o ■ 'in. land- 

Ing and formed ■ for Ihe t.iirpose 

of securing the | . . m ,r their 

patriots and en from Tn 

domtoatlon, ami the bi 

state l key la 

:. ■-... H iii Mbnnla had aim., 
m.itters to a cr i 

i in Minister ..I 

nwer« thai 

.la the Balkan ftatea frors 
upsetting the ulnlua quo In Kuioprai 
key. on. I en 

nindei.. tlor M.i, i. 

Austria's pun u to praeenl war. By 

iii.. i: ii-in ; Hi- ■■ the proposal seem.xl fa- 

I . 
upon It ss n Ihrenl of Kumpeau lol 
lion for tbo ulterior purpose of taking the 
Macedonian prorlD.es from the 
the Sultan. 




Encyclopedic Index 



BaaOCaU) 



i Hub""** liar.- During lb* peace 

n luiy jin) Tart 

i- Balcarlan frooilcr. ot"1 t 
Itwlcarlao* ■■>•> bi-caa a BBobllltati 

rnaooVd it-ii Hi.' [iti>inlwM 
wad' - Treaty of Berlin be 

I. deelarlag that Ibe power* of 
Karope bed trmjioriaed too lone, linleana 
.ailed 'Inula. 

VloalrOrgi" »r.<l II ....... .11 tori* n.»ln-l 

Turkey, at... imi.ooO nayo- 

aet* awirroandi- 1 • tj 

Tbe -ncauwhtle had ' 

• twlraroriiix to concert nna.urea to prevent 
■ ar. Keprr-»fMalli.-a of Aimtrla- 
Huusirj a:id RuMila at S.,.t». Ite.grnde. 
nd Aihena annituucnl to tin- Bal- 
kan aJlle* Iba alllluiS- of tin- I'-.u.r* aa 

r Ruaala ami Auatrla 
dVcta 'lalkan Stale" : 

bi Power* . t . rgrtlcally ro- 
of t be p. 

• nf oa Article XXIII 
utr of Berlin, tber will lake Id 
t.and. tr> I." f the Balkan |. 

..Ill firm 
a(uo4 tbal itrw ..forma nliall ooi affect 
. n.init ..; i... s.i Ufrt- 

hi;:. II I in; .-■ 

Tar l"»»rti t ut r ri to lliem 

• ollrctlvc ulterior aludy of 
ram 

lea* war break* 

'Wan mat** tad 

10 Kaplir, liny will permit at the 

i*»l **" toe roaiiu-i no modification of tbe 

:rop*an Turkey. 

Taw I'.i . • • i- I., tin' 

--•ntatlooa almllar to 

lb* i 

ataai 






J prrvloaaly I Oct. 0. I»l'.'l 
war oo Turkey and tbe utber Bai- 
ts mill- iK'tnaada which Turk«y 

M. atlalatcT of I r 

of tb* CoddcII 
lying: 
irrlial nf tbe Turk* in Kn 

haae 
Beit* ceaaed lo **■!*« r. The relatione be- 
. tbea* bnv« ncicr bean olbar lain 
roatqueror 

led aa a nntlua: nbe 

ireh oor ki '. 

•*: ilirf Balkan nation*, baa 

tbe pulling lata •■' 

li would aaaure the 

M Uvea of tbe Cbrlatltn popula- 

lut oil baa 

teen la rain. We ore convinced ' li . t war 

b aow the oaljr ancans of attaining •otOD- 

•wj i rvla, wbrro a majority nf 

k» Dotmi'H. li are Kerb*. I enuafdi-r I ti ■ t 

S people merit our .(Tort all tin- 
»y were altogether abandoned 
.rtn» undertaken 
'/ llw great Puwef*. DM Srrvla mn.i m- 
«**> tbr I I Koaaovu uirii tbe 

auallat of Novt-Raaar, 11. por- 

0* of ibe Til: ulan. wiiii tb- 

*aaa t of iba Adriatic, where there are an 
■rat Kim ,im> (be aoribwejicrn 

of MonaMir. luclud- 
a* Ulr rvbrlda. 
'Knid'« Oil utoootny muni he 

n la MeceitonU. Altonla, Tbeaaaly and 
**v Al tbe bead of II 
awuacra icer. PbrlatlaD soT»ra- 

.: an Aaieniblr. 
. •eetativca wh<^ae nuthoilir will 
dnaro broDoeUoaattly from (be earloua 

fKbUBg besaa oa Oct. 10. 1012, and 



w«« prosecuted with the tit moat vigor by 
Bulgaria, u>tlsted by HctTla, MrmieiK-gro 
himI lini'ii., Afl»r liivmllng Ailrl 

uliitiiclng alDToat lo (he Black Sei, 
peace wan concluded at i. . , &i\ 

IbVia >"1 all Tbrare to tin- l-:ooa MlUlt 

l fell to (ho abarc of Bulgaria, u. 

u» ijuria of Macedonia to tbe weal of llul- 

Id D rompalgo of eight wi*«i Ihr- IHIkan 

allien hud -v. i in ibe 'I'uika from AU>anla. 

.. Macedonia and the greater pan el 

Taraee. Tbe Turk* were ! ..u of 

only Ore Important poallloiiH, li> the 

term- ity of peace alencd In Ixin 

don. rurkey rellnqulahed bir Kuroiwan tcr- 

writ of i lldla line, all of 

wbuii. ascapt Albaali led to pM 

rata 'Ann «Un reded to Hie »lll.-. 

and Hie iII-.|Mi.itlnn ..f (bo Aigcan lulandi-. 

nanclnl »-ttlcmenta and exact drllinl- 

(atlon of boiindarlea waa lefl (•■ Hie Powara 

T»o I. hi ralca now broke out 

llalknn alllee. They both re- 

lated to frontlei delimitation*. National 

Qg ran »u high that a aedlement 

Unary dlniouintle rbannnla 

'nil.it. and each waa anally determined by 

military action. 'liny (rati ml '.'f tba 

ui nf new 
»ary by Ibe elimination of (he link fr..r» 
■ iid (he greater part of Thrace. 
Bulgaria, a party to both dlaputca, waa 
U'd in ea.li ■vtitrovprMjr. 
Ilavliiir bi war agalnlt tbeb 

cotnnioo enemy lo an M-.ue auccr<tful be- 
yond their moat «ani:iilne ho|>e». the Balkan 
allien f. II ..'it over a dlrUlou '.r Ibe 
'liielr original plant cont"in|.l"i. a n lolnl 
campaign for the liberation of Macedonia, 
and at tin- oui-.i in. n expeclatlona did 

• f Tiirkej 

from (hit ono nrorlnco. The unexpected 

•.f !i,i Itulgarlana In Tbiacc. how- 

.■I tbe proapeel of eomjueat and 

nl'ered the concert of the bIIIik. Wfblli 

tbe Bulgarlana roneentraled moat of tbali 

troopa Sofore Adrlanopte and Tebataldja, 

■ rran nor: ilmiia 

and occupied territory far beyond lb. 

II. laid down In the treaty of alliance. Is 

Bouthern Maeedotila the il.-iekx were d«- 

■!•■<! at all coita M held ni.'ir eonquaat 

i.f Salonika. Tbua tbe Servian* and Oreeka 
i ui ted In a common Intereat agalnci 
(hi'lr dominant iiartn-r. In a bloody alrug- 
gle In Macedonia In Jnlr. U18, tbg Bul- 
garian! were beabiB at all polnm and driven 
within Ibelr own fronllcm. Here they were 
aiiarkerl mi (Ii» luirib by Kuroanla In 
Hi Hied to for 

Hon. which ended with the treaty of 
luraat, Anaaat tl. lOl.t. by which Bul- 
garia waa »i lipped of her newly acquired 
wotern poiaeMlnna ami Mdad a part of 
bat former t. rritory to Rnmanla During 
thl« aei-ond war. In which llulKXria waa 
wnral'il by her former allloa. Turkey reooeil 
and (he adjacent territory. 
Bulgaria waa unable to endure a third 
wur. mi. i ..n s.-pt. i». 1013. algncd a treiity 
nt CoDJiantlsopK by which the Turko-Bul- 
uua traced op the Marltxa 
Ttlier from Ita moatb 10 a point neor Man. 
dr». tod Hi' n,.', pnaalng weat of Denmtlka. 
lift both that town and Adrlanople to 
Turkey: Cloae to Muatapha Pa aba the line 
in tn .u.t'Aard. and. poaalng north of Klrk- 
klllaae and aouib of Malko Tlrnovn, terml- 
', on tbe lllnck Sea at 8vetl Stefan. 
Iba territory lu Kuropo allotted to 
Turkey by tin- Ir.iitv of I»ndoo iaa« urae- 
■ doubled In extent by tbe Treaty Of 
Conatanti boplO. 

Such muttera aa were left to Interna- 

arbliratlon or (o aeiilement by the 

Powera were never aailafactorily adju-ted. 




Balkan 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Berils nursed • grievance ngalnat Austrla- 
llubgsry on account of being dipm-id of 
a seaport on tbe Adriatic. Ecrrla look 
possession of Albania, bill will ord*:- 
by Austrln-Uungai > ii, ■• growing hatred 
between the two count lien culminated In, 
th* asssm. nation at Sarajevo. June 28, 
lui-4, of Crown Prince l-'ranela Ferdinand 
of Auatrla and In. wife. Amtrla charged 
that r waa part of a wide.; 

Gluteal plot known and perhaps Instigated 
th«- moot, and demanded 

a vole* in the investigation and punlshmeut 
of the crime. Austria**, determination waa 
opposed Of Ruaala. and when the latter b«- 
gsn mobilizing her forces In Auicual, l'.i||, 
after Austrian armira had lordrd In Bel. 

Eradc. tier-many took up the cauae of Aua- 
na. and Fiance came to tho mil of Russia. 
Tbe Immediate enusc of the F.uropcan 
war of I'.'Mlo moy bo t n 
lltlcal sltuatlou In Ihn Balkan*, and the 
general war r.allj- crew out of tbe Pultun 
wart of 1011 and 101U. Tbe result of 
Uiaae arani was to bring Ruula and Ana- 
trla-llangary Int. ill Ion. Iloth 

had In . ii ill. 111^ fur years for mastery of 
■ . nliimiln Tli- growth of Austria- 
Hungary east and south to the JTCgeau Sis, 
taking In Bosnia Ilci .mil Soma, 

mi "i" tin of Austria. llungatla ho.i 
permanently attn.-h-d. Kotuia and II 
govina wore recent ai-qiilsiiluna. Kcrvla waa 
trill ueeemary anil i;. rable to th« 

culmination of tbe Austrian ambitions. 

Ituscla. meanwhile, was equally desirous 
of obtaining a port open to fh«j 

errancan without passing through the 
I>*rdsncll<--i by i D enl of Turkey. Russia, 
therefore, encouraged tbe Pan-Slav Idea In 
ID* Balkans to block Austria's nmhlllnn-i 
alhern iteoslon The collapse of th- 
Turkish empire In Ruropo, ns a result of 
the Balkan league, rcalil in Inn of 

Russian diplomacy, scored a point In favor 
of Kuoin. Tho second Balkan wnr. In 
which ibe alil-K fongbl among ifcrmai 

.i counter diplomatic 
piny nf Aii«tna. for a time It ruptured 
Slavic solidarity. 

During ih.. gen-rsl Furonrnn war of 
I'M I 10. the n-t 'f'l- of the ball 
• ii closely wat.'hi-il by tbe belligerent*.. 
AfuT early attacks on Belgrade by Aus- 
trlons. Id lf>14, rm military were) 

carried on lo Servla for nearly a year. Rn 
manls. RultmHa and Hi"" malntal-icl 
ncitirnlltv until In OctOb f, IBIS. 
I Teuton ormy hegon t" 
-,.ii hern ! Ion .i -« . w.ili DU evident luten- 

i via K ii ■ 
dlnaud of Bulgaria moblllted his armle* OB 
the f r ..iiilr and ibo-lan-d his action to be 

iTvailnn nf tn-tii mil t v- Russia 

Immediately demanded the demobilisation nf 
the force* and the dlvrulstal of Ibe (icrman 
officers who It wa* said were In command. 
French and VnelNh IrnonaV which Imd been 
oneratrni In Ilia Dardanelles, were landed 
at Salonika In tl i part of Oreeec 

il In Bulgaria The Orcrlnn govcrn- 
led against tola violation of 
nentraf terr . ' 

Bv the middle of Decenibrr, 1!»1B, tha 

Aiivtrn i;. in in and llulenrlan armies had 

■I nil of S.-ivln. Montenegro and part 

of AlDtnll la mnlnlalnlng her n.-u 

trail! v. iiiMiiiitt.il Ho- belligerents la 

i srrltory In noranan f lln-ir mllltnrr 

operations. Bnurnantn Joined tbe cnlentc 
August 27. 1VI10. 

Bellinger. B. A.. Oontrorarsy Concern- 
ing. 'See Plnchot-Balllnirer Contro- 

rr.) 

Ballot— t.llerally a little hall. Th« term 
la applied to all msthoda of secret voting. 



bsraus* formerly all sucb votes were takeo 
by black and while balls placid In the same 
bos. or balls of only one color wan depos- 
ited In ill ft. -i cut boxes so airaured that 
Don* but Ibe voter could ate which box 
received his ball. Tbe Orecks nstd marked 
ahells resfraaoN), wli tana ostra- 

cises. The itomana u»ed tickets for secret 
voting aa early as law II. C. The Orst ant 
of tbe ballot In tho Utiited States waa in 
tho selection of a pastor by the rtalcm 
i linn h, July 20. 102P. During tbe urn* 
year It was used In ecclesiastical and mu- 
nicipal elections In tin :,.]«. bat In 
l:ugl*t)d tin- custom waa not established un- 
til 18*2. though secret voting was actually 
employed In the parliament of Scotland In 
eases of ostracism two centuries earlier. 
In n: :'. I II began to be uaed In elections for 

Kvcrnor of Massachusetts. The constlru- 
ma of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and 
North Carolina, whlrii were adopted In 
]..•;. :. int.. vnilng by ballot obligatory- 
Home of the aoutbern Jtalea were slow to 
adopt the ballot system of i-loo 

method having prevailed In Kentucky 
mid state elections up to a late date. 
In Alabama. Florida, Indiana, Kansa.v 

l.ini.hinn, .Nivalis. Nnrtb fsrollna. 
rlvanla. Tennessee. Texas, and poaal- 
bly other states, tb« constitutions t. 
tho legislature* (o vote tira rorc. In Ufa 
Congress jiassed a law requiring all Con. 
gresamen to be elected by ballot. 

.tu.rtoli.in ttallol.— Ullls embodying th* 
Australian ballot system wore Intro- 1 
In the legislatures of Michigan and ,s-w 
York In 18S7, but failed of passnge ihkii 
lxsii, when tbe system was adopted In a 
slightly mndiriid form. In 1888, tbe sys- 
tem was adopted at Louisville. Kv.. and In 
Massachusetts. Tbla method requires the 
namea of all the candidate) for all the 
offices to be placed on one ticket. The 
voter retires to a private booth and Indi- 
cates his choice by making a murk oppo- 
site a party emblem or a candidate's name. 
This system of voting waa first proposed by 
Francla 8. Dutton, a memi- 
latur* of South Australia. In 1801. Ita 
use In tbe rolled States waa first advo- 
cared In 1SS2 by Henry C.eorg* In a 
pamphlet entitled "Icngllsh Elections." The 
Australian ballot has been adopted In some 
form In all the states oxecot North Caro- 
lina. South Carolina, Georgia and Nevada. 
in inlopted It, but Inter returned to 
the old system. A modification of the bal- 
lot, used In some Ioe*MM.« i« th.. ».wniled 
machine In which tbe voter Indicate* 
his choice by pressing knobs which record 
his vote upon slips of paper aad record 
also th* number of TOlea cast for each 
candidate. 

Mmir Balloti— The abort ballot It an 
attempt to simplify elecilooa by placing 
a few officers In nomination at one time 
and providing (hat only Important officers 
be elective. Two short ballot amendments 
were submitted at the special election held 
In California. Oct. 10, 1011, and both 
adopti il. 

Balls Bluff <Va). Battle of.— In October. 
1801. <ien. McClellnn directed Brig. Q*n. 
Charles P. Stone to moke o demonstration 
toword I.eesbunr, Va. Stone ordered Col. 
In -..us, of the Fifteenth Mnsaachiisecta, to 
croas tho Potomac near Ralls Bluff and at- 
tack and destroy any Confederal* estops 
found, or to report and wait fur reenl 
ments. Devrns. with about JOO of his own 
regiment and 100 of the Twentieth Massa- 
chusetts, advanced to Leesburg, tin: 
countering opposition, fell hark to ibe place 
of crossing, and was ji-j.-i iiy th* 

Confedoralea Oct. 21 Col. Biker, who was 




. 



Encyclopedic Index 



ited States Senator, arriving with ■ 
California regiment, anil the Tjuiuiui- 

I New York, as*" 1 

The Colon force* do* numii. r.il i.jiihi 
& o'clock r. x. CoL Baker waa killed, and 
lb* Federals, afirr a valo attempt to cot 
ibelr way through to Kdwaril* Ferry, w*r» 
given order* to relrcst to toe river bask 
and to »»»• th*ma*lTM aa best tbey could. 
Mas? of the retreating army w*r» drowned 
• bile swimming tfce rlier ier "? 

loaf wn» 804. The Confederates 
saet JO*. Qea. 8too*j waa arrest *<1 aod kept 
la ronnaemeut frota Feb. 9 to Aug. 16. 

Baltic Be*.— A European inland ««> 
washing the shores of Sweden. Ger- 
many, and Russia. It terminate* 
!>e Gulf* of Bothnia, Finland, 
and feign, 
Fmat tranait into and from, discussed, 

8S67, 2P<4. 
Bound due on commerce, to, impost- 

Baltimore, The: 

•itioned, 8297. 
Sailor* of, aaaaultod at Valparaiao, 
and action of Government dis- 
coaaed. 5620, 5650, 5663. 
Indemnity for, paid by Chile, 5747, 

Baltimore. Md.: 
British retreat from, referred to, 033. 
rU of t'nitcd States in. provision 
for accommodation of, referred to, 

rsM. 

Daties at port of, referred to, 80. 
Insurrection la, on day of election, 

measure* to prevent, ? D 
Mc m merchant* in, trans- 

ted. 384. 
Military police to be established in, 

3313. 
National conrenti' 1 at. for preven- 
tion of crnelties to animals, 4458. 
National Prison Congress at, referred 

to. i 
Police commissioners of, arrested, re- 
ferred to. 3234. 
Poet-office building for, referred to, 
2896. 
Bandit.— A lawless person, or oso ot aa 
•rgaalsed croup of sort persons. 

I — To expel from a country by Got- 
at aethorlty. 

; BUL (Same as Bank Note, q. v.) 
Bask Bills lens than 820 should be sup- 
pressed, 1385. 

Bank. International American: 

Charter for, recommended by Presi- 
deat Benj. Harrison, 5560. 

[Establishment of, recommended by 
International American Confer 
enee. 5505. 
Discussed. 5560. 
Bank. Manufactory.— A honking scheme 
wnlea orurlaated In Ma»a<-h'3»*ita In 17*0. 
Tk* Idea was to secure the Isaacs by tnort- 



gax* on tb* real estate of each subscriber 

amount of bl> subscription, though 

(1 ty s strong parly. It paam-il (a* 

Eleai • of Rent ntalln •. i he bank failed 

a fter Inning note* to the extent of gau.UUU. 
Bank Note.— A promUe tn pay made by 
illy authorised bank ami 

Bank Notes. (Boo Banks and Banking 

and Finances discussed.) 
Bank of Missouri, measures taken by 

Government to enforce payment of 

sums due from directors of, 941. 
Bank of Pennsylvania: 

Payment of bonds of, held by United 
Slates, referred to, 1726. 

Suspension of, referred to, 1768. 

Bank of the United States.— Feb. 25. 
17111. Confrcts lowed a charier authorising 
the Bank of the United States to do busi- 
ness for twenty years. Ita capital Mock 
was 110.000.000. of which Coligic»* nub- 

eld tS.000.0tHi, pal iv In coin and part- 
In government securities. It was mndo 
tin- fiscal acme of th» government and the 
depotllory for the public money*. It »*» 
alio amhorltcd to Ikuc It* note*, payable 
In specie, and wn« made In every way possl- 

l'n a»ury, 
and a strong power la it'" noooclal affair* 
of the country. Its cnnltnl wna divided Into 
" share* of t*00 each, payable 

fourths in six 
per cent stock of the United Stntef. It 
was allowed to hold propcriv of o I klndi 
up to rlir value u f tir..ooo,000. Inclusive 
of It* canitsi stock, and furtb r to cKi»ti:isn 
braneh hank* In the rarloti* cities. In ac- 
cordanr,. wltti t til • lot provision a branch 
w«i s tied In S . 

called an offlee of discount snd deno-lt. 
: - It* entire career the Bank of tho 
I 8'Stn« averaged annual dividend* of 
I per cent. (Sec lllustrntlou opposite 
MM.) 

Bank of United 8Utea: 

Act to extend charter of, vetoed, 
1139. 
Referred to, 1225. 
Act to incorporate, vetoed, 540. 
Agent should lie appointed to take 

charge of books of, 1382. 
Attempts to impair credit of Gov- 
ernment, 1232. 1250. 
Bills of exchange discounted at, for 
benefit of Senators inquired into, 
1346. 
No report on subject of, 1847. 
Bills of, should not be received for 

taxes, 13S2. 
Charter obtained by officers of, from 
Pennsylvania for new bank, 1471. 
Charter of, not to bo renewed, 1226, 
1250. 
Expiration of, discussed, 1025, 
1897. 
Chartered riphts of, should be ter- 
minated. 1250. 
Claims of, and course pursued by, 

issa 

Constitutionality of law cresting, 
questioned, 1025, 1092, 1225. 




Bank 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Danger* from, apprehended, 1091, 

1224, 1249. 
Deposit* in, removal of. IMA. 

President Jackson's paper to Cab' 

inrt on, 1224. 
Refuse* to transmit, to Senate, 
1856, 

Ke<«mmond«d. 1103, 1236. 

Referred to. 13H6. 

Viesra of President Tyler on. 1897. 
Directors of, nomination of. and rea- 

■oua therefor, 1260. 
Discussed bjr President — 

Jackson, 1121, 1989, 1170. 

Polk. 2504. 

Tyler, 1897. 
Distresses caused by, needlessly pro- 
Saotd, 1328. 

Reference to. > 
Flagrant misconduct of, commentod 

on, 1229, IMS, 1330. 
Government must be separated from, 

1329. 
Judicial power, attempts to usurp 

functions of, 1259. 
Money in, not accounted for, 1250. 
Kotos of, cannot bo reissued after 

expiration of charter, 1471. 
Organization of, referred to, 564. 
Panic, attempts to brine about. 1250. 
Papers and funds in possession of, 

refusal to deliver, 1258. 
Pension money retained by, 1328. 
Political power of, fund employed by. 

to sustain, 1249. 
President of. funds at disposal of for 

electioneering purposes, 124ft 
Recharter of, ■ leading gnastloa In 

cleetion of President. 1225. 1249. 
Sound currency, failure of, to estab- 
lish, 101 
Stock in— 

Government should bo notified re- 
garding, i 
Should bo sold, 1330. 
SnbMrtptiauM to. 96. 
Substitute for. must be adopted by 

Congress, 1228. 
Successor of, cannot Issue notes of. 

1471. 1600. 
With limited power*, recommended, 
1092. 
Bank of United Stat«B vs. Halatoad.— 
An Important Supreme. Coarl ease "" 

from the circuit • rt .if Kentucky In IB3B 

ling real estate, was offered 
for sale for debt The hiiju-.t Mil being 
less than three-fourths of lis apprala.il 
value, ill,* property was not sold. The Su- 
premo Court held thai It had lurlsdletlon la 
a ease to wbl'-Ji the Itank of the I n i .1 
Stares wna a part v. and Hint a law which 
forbade the •"!.. of land under execution for 
less than three-fourths of Its appraised 
value did not apply to writs of ail 
t-.ii.-il by Federal it 

Bank of United States vs. Planter*' 
Bank of Georgia.— A suit brought by the 
Bask of the l.nlis-d Bute* tor payment of a 



r 



promissory note which bad b—n In 
to it bj Bank of tieorgia. 

State of Georgia had stock la Oil* bai 
hi against the i'lsatci 
Hank and also against -hi- State Tl 

Ereme Court In IS-l derided that If a 
-•came a party lo a banking or a commer- 
cial enterprise the Slat* could be sued lo 
the course of business mi t ti .- principle that 
when a gov. partner Is 

any trading company it divests itself, so 
fsr as concern* (he transactions of that 
company, of Its sovereign enanseter sad 
tnk.x that of a private cltlien. The Stste. 
said (bi •-■-hi r through i ..l.-f Jostlca Mar 

I* ri.. t a partj -mat U, an i 
party lo the cause. It wns also held that 
i court had jurisdiction In such 

matters. 

Banking, extension of, to foreign coun- 
tries Teton 
Banking System. (See Bank* and Hank- 

Bankrupt.— A per. mi arho, beta* Insolvent, 
la by lecal process relieved from par 
Indi -iitvdneM. (Sec li- > 
Bankruptcy.— The Constitution give* 
Kress the power to r-atabllib onlfortn hank 
rupicy lout throughout the lialted .-States 
Itaukriiptey Is a state of Inability ■■■ iuj 
all debts, It Is also tbc proves* by wlilio 
an Indhliliiul may secure a discharge f 

if bis prop- 
erly ii mt with tb 
1800, a bankruptcy set «ui passed b.> 

(ail pel I ■ 

n May. 1837, a o'Uin la occurred 

In the Dnlii-il 

the amount of 1 100.000,000. On 
the heavy loeaes during the rtosn- 

clnl psnlc which uotber act was 

pa»>ed Aug in. is i j no,! repealed hj 
Another financial panic occurred In 
and most of the banks i 
payment*. A third Ithi r _ - - -.-. . 1 1 • set waa 
March -. 18>^. and r 

The present law was passed 
July 1. 1808. and amended June U, 1010. 
During the year* of nnr history wh 

mal bankrupt law .iMcd all matters 
relating to insolvencies have been under the 
eootrol of State lawn. 

Dmikraetey taw.— Rxtract* from the 

•I States Dnnkruplcy Act of Jnlr 1. 

1808. as amended by Act of Jane 26, 1010: 

Who may become bankrui 
person eirept a municipal railroad, Insur- 
anee or banking corporation shall I 
titled to Hi'- benefits of this act as a vol- 
nninry bankrupt. The bankruptcy of a 
corporation aha II nor offlccnt, rtl 

rectors, or stockholders, as such, from any 
llnlilllty iiiiib r th,. laws ..f a mate Of i.r 
rltory or or the Unll (bl Any 

ualural person, eicepl a wage earner or a 
pet ui engaged chiefly In fanning or the 
Milage of the soil, any unlnroipurafcd com- 
pany and nny moneyed business, or com- 
mercial corporation, except a munlcit>al 
railroad. Insurance or banking corporation, 
owing debts to tbc amount of one thousand 
dollars or orer. may be adjudged an lnvol. 
notary bankrupt upon default or an > 

tlil trml .lint shall be subjeel r.. Hi • 

■■I.. i unil i ut i lied to Hi.- benefits of nils ati 

DfJtlel "f ItnnkriintK. — ial In 
shall 111 attend the first meeting of bis 
.. dltors, If directed by the court 91 s 

fudge thereof I-. .Ii-. •(> and 
l« anpllratlon for a dlscbs 
comply with all lawful orders of 
(3) examine ths eon all proofs 

<.r i-lalma tiled against his estate: <4> ex* 
cuto and deliver such papers as shall be 





iof-edic Index 



Banks 






«**t4 by ifc* eoairi to bU 

Wn transfer* of til bU property la for- 
•Ifi crantrlrs : (ill lmaaed lately luforxi bli 
imlH of an; ait.wi>t by bla creditor* 
or Mber aieraocia to evade the provision* of 
Oli act. coming to bin knowledge . |7| Is 
cue of any |»T*on havlcs 10 hi. aunwledge 
aron<4 a fal»r claim against )>>» one. 
■rtwi ilint fart immediate:? to bl» tros- 
i .-tearc, male satb to, and file 
la court wlilnn tea Say. 
Maw la granted, after tbo adjudication If an 
Uvotoataty lankrupt. and with lb» petl 
• a voluntary tsnkriipt, a schedule of 
property, showing ib« amount and kind 
profverty. the Ioeatl..a thereof. Its 
cj value la detail, aad a Hat of bla 
Itora. (bowing their residence*. If 
known <lf unknown tbat fart to bo 
tutcdi. tti.- amuunt du« caven of them, tin- 
MMMmtSoD it.. ■t.i.f. tu aecartty beld by 
lVm. If any. ami a claim for itKb cirtnp- 
lloaa aa be may b* eoilthd to. all la i. 
rat*, om copy of each f..r th- dark, ooi for 
tba referee, and one for the trwttec: and 
1*1 »t»a present at tb* flrat meeting of 
»la creditor*, and at auth other time* aa 
tka court shall ardor. auMnll tn an eiatnliia- 
Oca> «aefrolo| Ibe ceodoetlnf of till bual- 
—m, lae cauw of bla bankruptcy, bla deal- 
tap • .editor* and other |>cr*ona. 

iW onv.ua t. kind, aad whcreabnuls of ln« 
ftapmy. and. In addition, all matter* 
•nara easy affect tba administration and 

. tea I Intone 
>.y bins •rail or ntfered Id evidence 
etaJast bits In any criminal proceedings. 

Prsvlded. however, Hint he shall Bl ' 
aanlrad to attand a meeting of bla credl- 
Ma or at or for aa examination at a 
■Jam more than oxe hundred and fifty mllea 
avtl from bla boas* or principal place 
'! baalaraa of to examine claim* < - 
•kaa iwraeated to bla. unleu en 
U* reart, or a Mint* thereof, for cause 
dart, and Ua* bankrupt aball be paid bl* 
•IP****** from th» . i cx- 

■aa)i| or required to attend at any pla.-» 
»**r than tb* elty. town, or village of bla 
Salatace. 

•abkraptey. Law* of: 

Mo rc-Rir.linc involuntary 

knki 

of. recommended, 1907. 2972, 
>. 4S10, 6478, 6561. 

i ted. 1907. 
Powar to make, vested in Congress, 
M, 2972. 

'orta system of. act to establish, 
referred to, 0*3. 

Buiks sod Bsnklnf ' 
lUnkiag anil currency reform urged, 

T808. 
Banking svetein — 
Control of, mill be patilir, ? 
Shoo* r itniMils and cut mas- 

ter* of Call 7881. 

Llneolt .1,34*9. 

Msdiaon. 5110. 

I 757. 

'commended, 1380. 
■at — 
Burtinn ■ 
GriBt, 4241. 



Vun liur.m. 1541. 1707, 1757. 

I.:' Bfft permit concentration 

of fund* for speculative purposes, 

Special commiaaion to makn mina> 
tion 1,3654. 

Bptv ran if), (8oa> 

Spec i r r. 
Banks.— A bank la an Inatltutlon for ra- 
ralvlac tat loney. The taiiklox 

laalliulei of the I'nltcd State* may be 
claancd aa National and Slate banks, private 
banka or banket*, aailnfi tmuu .. and loan 
anal iruat ■oiiipiin In IT81 f.o- i uajryaa 

Dl tba < on federation charier, d tbc ltank of 
North America with a capital of I luu.OOO. 
wiili a view to proildltig ihruujtb Ita notaa 
a rlrculatlng uiedluni f.ir Hie couutry 
l»out>t» aa to tbc power of Concreaa oauacd 
the hank to be i. ...v r.un.jlaanla 

la 178^. By 17S 1 baan 

r*tahll>brd, one In New Vork. the other In 
lloaton lo Hint Tear Concreaa aatabllihcd 
lb« Bank of the luli.-d Kutea. Tba char- 
ter authoring ii ,,f 'ji> j r « r a *ud 
a .-aiilial of *l(»,l)i llfth to be aup- 
plled by the I.'nlted States. In lbll < on- 
gieaa rvfu: • tba charter, Dm lux 
tin. ir.. lua 1 1 in. . of the War of imi 
State banka eilated. and ibeae larcely In 
creaact] In n>:mber. In 1810 the atcond 
.) Mn'.-. Ilatik »i i 

"JO Jtnr. with • ". ■•f 

which tjr IVdcral tjoiernment aub- . 
ouo-dftb. Tba hank waa tu har* cuatody 
of the public fund*, and 4 of In 
rector* were to bo appointed by the I 
State*, t'ongreaa paaacd an act renewing 
tb* charier In la32. but l"r< tldenl Jackaoo 
] It i1131»i. After a l'realdentla: 

: !i lil» ngbt wlrti the Link waa 
made an laaue I'r. <Meut Ja.-kaon on 
the public funda to be remored from the 
Bank of the I.'nlted Statea and plan-d In 
i.ank- (12241. In I8IIH ii,- l.ank'a 
charter expired lu 1K4I I'r l.l. ut Tyler 
I two bill* to revive It ll'Jlti. If2l), 
la 18l'i U idem Treaaury ayat-'m 

waa eatabllahed imoiUIIub thot all i 
funda of the fnlted State* alinuld be rn- 
l and paid out without the Interven- 
tion uf the bank. Between 1S30 and 180.'! 
onlv Slat- tiatikK BStat*d Feb. -\ 1803. 
tbo National bank ael waa panned Till* act 
tiroTlns dif--.ii>. II waa »uper»edcd hy the 
art of June :l, 1804, which forma the baala 
ft tbc present ayalem. 
Pa"*" — See Encyclopedic Index articles 

a-nd pAg* reference* uniler lieadino;a: 

Bank, Maaulaclory. Clearloc lloiiar. 

Bank Notea. Cnrraoey Law. 

Bank of Mlaaoun Daprnlu, Public. R»- 

Bank of PeonayWania. _. m0 1 v » 1 , ', 

Bank of Dnlted Slate* ytacal Bank of Lnllad 

B.nTO-Ce-1 N.^nalBankEaami- 

S"!"" E"- ■ »_ . Nallonal Bank* 

Bank.. Poatal Sav a* Po^i Bavina* Bank* 
Bank*. Pavinea Saint) Fund, 

llat.k.. SUta. .-"ih . „ 

o» va Bank of I nitad Buiaa Notaa 

Commonwealth of United Stales Bank of 

Kentucky Pennsylvania. 

Banks, National — Dissatisfaction and 

loaaw* In connection with the State banking 

aval-Hi Id vogue la the first half of tb« 



Banks 



lessagts and Papers of the Presidents 



nineteenth century ltd to to* ptmit of 
lin tir ili«- l-ederal Government tor tin' 
protection of holders of the .it- meting 
medium. Tbo fli.t Nstiunal tank ace of 
tbe new and comprehensive series wss aug- 
gestcd to Congress tijr Secretory Chase; In 
10111 «nd passed In 1SG3. It wot n mended 
by » law (issued June 3. 1RHI. These acts 
form Ibc bnsla of tbe present Inn. II U 
patterned after the New xorfc State bank- 
ing law, Oblcb in 1848 r.'iiult.'d clrculet- 
tn] nut.'it of all bonk, of tbat alate to be 
■ecu red by a deposit of (lock* and bonds, 
one half In Issues of Ibat atate. TIM « ■ 1 ■ - 

lug notM ware redeemable at ȣ- 
within the alate. Tb.« latter feature of tbe 
New York law w«e adnptrd from the Suf- 
folk aratem In rogue lu N--w l'-iglnnd. 

Under ii,, S'atlonnl hanking Inw, a> 
annulled \>f the net uf Mnrcb 14. 1900, 
any (Ire persons wltb a combined capital of 
f 25.000 may open a hank and ten-Ire cir- 
culating note, to the ninount of Oil pat 
of their capital Invested In United 
States bonds, but nut to exceed the par 

value of Hi i more UftU 

8,000 and km t inhabitants tho 

capital required Is SSO.OOO, while a i-npltnl 
of SIO0.0O0 It r.-.pjl . . .I la ri lM bavins; a 
population of ovar 6,000, nml double iiii" 

.t where the population excecda 00.- 
000. Tbe ratio «.f .1 medium to 

cnt'ltnl remains the same In nil pliiees. Tbe 
Inw ajic established tbe National Ilnnk 
Bureau In tbo Tren.tiry Department and 

,l tin- i>nie.. uf Cotnptrolli i of th- i 'ur- 

reacir. This act ai i 

to tbo currency of tbe country. 

annual report *f lb* ' omptroller of 

tbe Currcnrv for the year 1913 showed ",- 
48S National banks, wllb a capital of SI,- 

SI.TU2, a total in 
L'. reporting net cnrnliic-i of 8 1 '■• ■ '-"" :, 
paying I" 000,0.11. a rutlo 

of dividends to capita! of 11.40 per cent 
The clrcu'ntlon outstanding Sept. 1. 

,iMi,.niii Individual deposits. J5.- 

761.8 10; prltirlnnl resources, loana nml 

discounts. SO. 1 50.800.000 : United States 
bonda on deposit to secure circulation, 
.' ;■■:, Mm "lin I nit, d state* bond I ■ n 
band and wllb ii ■- r to secure nub- 

s, $103,200,000; snecle, «7^8.- 

800.000: legal tcuder note*. *l"0.! IO0 

aggrt-gnle r- ■ - ' 00, Scot 

1 1 i, tbe number of banks was 7. SSI. 

and I tie authorised cardial was S.t.07." 

IT.".. The outstanding rl r. iilm ton »n> 

io77.540.281, of which *1 •.•».•-' 11 ,7»0 was 

,| lij- titlir-r tlinu United Stales bonds. 

i sec ni»o CnrrtAcf I 
Banks, National: 

ulution of. (Sec Nutional Banks.) 
Discussed bv Vi. ajdast — 
Arthur, .780, ,768, 
Cleveland, 4928, 087*1, 6965, -'1:188, 

C079, 6138. 
Orant, 4190. 
Johnson, 35G3. 377 I 
Lincoln, 3331. 8850, 33S4, 3449. 

Mi) i,8ssa 

Roosovolt, 00' I. 

Van l:„r n, 1541, K07, J7:,7, 1S2S. 

WUatm, 7 
Org! Of, discussed, 4720, 4926, 

85, 0160. 
Reports 0*. examiners of, 46.".". 
Should Hnn attention of Congress, 

661, 



Tax on capital and deposits of, repeal 

of, recommendod. 463+J, 4766. 
Treasury balance deposited in, 7880. 

Banks, Pot— When Preaddtnt Jackson or- 
dered tbe public fnnds withdrawn from tbe 
d States Hank In 1833, It hocatsw 
necessary for the Administration to Hod 
some other place of lie redernl 

moneys. Certain State banks were cboeen. 
aud tbe allege Hon was made tbat tbe selec- 
tion was determined not 40 much on tbe 
f round of Otneas as on that of party Odd- 
ly. a principle also naen in vogue in the 

granting of bank charters before tbo syt- 
ol free banklog came Into naa Tbe 
banks Delected by Jackxon a. public depos- 
itors were In derision MUM "pet banks." 

Banks, Postal Savings. (80© also 
tal Savings Banks.) 
Recommended by President — 
Arthur, •:> 
faint, 4152, 4204. 
Hayes, 4074. 
Roosevelt, 7102, IS 
Baft, 7373. 

Banks, Savlnss.— The nm savings bank 
In tbe I'nlted Mates was tbe Boston Provi- 
dent Savings Ins1li11tb.11. Incorporated Uec 
U 1816 The Philadelphia Saving. Kund 
ISocletv begun bi nuine year, but 

was not Incorporated until 1810. In IftIS 
banks for savings were Incorporated In 
Baltimore, lid., .... Mass., and In 

In New York. Hartford. Conn., sod 
Newport nml Providence. It. I. There were 
In 1005 some 1 ;g banks in the 

1 Stales In win 
bad deposited 13.261,263.119. These tig- 
urea aro lb. highest reoched In tho history 
r.f till, country both with regard I 
number nml the amount of depositors and 
tbe amount of deposits, statistics of the 
savings bonks of the world, obtain. 

the licpartmcnt c-f mn-n-e nml Labor, 

show Hi:. 1 tin- 1 tes. nltb about 

■I net Cent of tbe totnl populat-- 

a, litis more than 28 per cent of, the sav- 
ings banks deposits. These Institutions 
nte f-ir the eat onraafitneat of tn< p - 
of saving money among people of slender 
nml for I he secure Investment of 

-. the profits thereof being paid as 
Interest to the depositors. 

In 1U1S there were 1,978 savings banks 
In the Cnllid States, having 10,7d 
depositors and deposits of 14.7 L"7. Ii 
an average of (430.07 to c-ich dep- 
New York bus tbe Inrgcst number of de- 
positors and the larr .alia. 
3.1H.2I0 persons having $1.7th 

la taelr ertdlt. nu average of I&4&.90 to 

■ o-ii person. The 1.710 depositors la tbe 

savings bonka of Montana bare an aver- 

->f 1781,30 to tbelr credit, nearly 

the average for the entire country. 

Banks, State— A State bank Is an In»t1- 
lutlon ihnrtcrcd by a State legislature for 

■ ,- purposes. It performs sin 
tunc Ions of National banks. After the «i- 
m of tbe charter of the Itnnk of the 
tilted Slates In 1836. and tbe refusal of 



. rr-.iiurler It, State banks sprang 
nji in lurge uumbcra throughout the : 
I-.nch atnte passed Its own law for their 

J, 1..; nni.iii or control. In many states 
hese laws were not carefully drawn and 
the holders of their circulating notes not 
snlneleiiiiy protected against loss from sus- 

? en.tons nnd fnllnres. Reiween 1836 and 
BU3 there wee* no United States ban 



Encyclopedic Index 



Barrataria 



•ttOM) bank*. ard oalr 8tsie teaks 
-a. tiring ■Unwed In !•<--• notes to 



u currency, laey svalled tkrsa- 
.c prtt lUge, snd In many Is- 
KUi' rlvtlege wot raven abused. 

i I • •ongress pa»»-.! March 7. 
"Ulating notes of bank* otbrr 
wers Used JO per 
The tills li* ira« to speedily 

note*. 
ir* to ill •■■nil- n.ooo State basks 

State: 

b regulated by 
Mvr, 

silent — 
Buchanan, 2068. 

Jii 

Tyli-r. 199ft. 
Vin I 
Mea»tirc* iboul 1 be a< 

a of, 1809. 
■ 
Pa I :oncemii g 

Uana> 

'-• '. : 

in should be | 

. 

ianner.— a it" a. a* tae flag or 

l ail ot i of s conotrr. or of an srmy. or of 

Bmocs: Indians. | B 
Sjrrtart Chtuch 

n»r Harbor. Me., acta for er-'tioii of 

lings at, vet. 

faebadot Islam- indies i, postal 

'•nt.atinr. with, 5877. 
ssTbara Frietehie. (Sor. illBflratioo op- 

pstil* 3H6 aii : 
larksrtsa. — A ssvagc; orUlsallr used to 
*wv, * person of f-r.lira language or 



•Wary 8Utes. — Tho region on 

J*T» caasl of Africa iMinlerlng; oo the 
Mnmaaeaa Sen. It U capable of high 

i early times tbc soil 
Sail i !lu/hury was known 

• u-anit times a* 1 Mia. 

-pru. sod Cynoale*. li 

rlea of Bares, Tripoli. 



fssajlsja tV» countries of Bares, 'I 
■jsss. Tunis, Algeria awl Morocco. B«- 
•nliMMU, seven di- i IsV 

i ittiarr Mates- I! 

.'crk«, Ki. 
nq |. at.oi i 
is* sod a float I' - 

tntaercsj I* Arsble, e«.oept 
the TurkUli 
inesjt dnc.lr.itr. 
I>srt of tb* rJvhteenth 

rSSBV' 

lea, Tribal* *n» »l«" 
■vie* stos) i Stale* a* Ik* price 



of safety In 111* Mrdlterrarveno, and for 
a time wna paid, but In the csrly part of 
the nineteenth century, sft*r 

peace from the pi 
u of America wn« l< 
many, France, and other Buropeau pow- 
»r». and the pirates were oomi 

i. See alio Africa. A tec run 
TrltKilltan War. and (he se rural Stales of 
and Ulu 

Barbarr 8tatee (see also the several 
loal Algoriuo War; Trijiolitan 
WsM 

agate of United States in, referred 
to, 1*9. 

intercourse with, 
464. 
Friendly dUpoM toward 

raited 8tates, 393, 4C0, 4«9, 649, 
C77. 
Friendly Intercourse i 

Reference to. 321. 321. 

It.latlons with wl 
reasonable demand- i. led 

to a i). laration of war again 

Barbecue. — A pleoJe, usually of p- 
character, where snlmals are ron>ted whole 

Barcelona, Spain, International exnosl- 

of Labor at, diseu- 
Baring Brothers ot Co, fund* of United 

BUI Mil with, 

Barnburner and Hunker. — in i*t 
• In New York Slat 

two pronounced faction worn 

llii. adininlatrnil' 

CoeMryallrea, snd the snre-liesd* of 
laj*. ktlEmotlicd aa Itadlcul*. becaatc. 
• lu.itijr other thing*, thej were i. 

Tree soil" 
lla*eni» ; nhcrcs*. the odmlnHtrntlon party 
wa» strongly pro^lsvcry. In the Demo. 
rratK- I I . urcatlon hsld at 8> 

• iillcal 
nianlpiilniloc. secured lb* organisation ot 
that body, and decided nearly all tl 

1 wnt* In tbulr own favor, and mad.< 

■' 
it tbemselvrs ; In other word", "car- 
tied off Ike hunk." and fairly won tha 
naase of -|lunk*m.'' Tb« i lion rs- 

aml aa a >iinw- 
. Ibc Whig* carried the Htste l>y over 
30.0O0 majority In the go 

On* <•( Ho atora likened I be 

boroed hla barn to rid lilmnelf of rat*, 
and tlienc-forward tb* name of Barnlio- 
mat fa*lenfd on I the IWO 

naatv*. Barnbunier snd i' ban 

died back and foith until after tbc former 
: ■ iih Ho- Uhert) p 
it Mr. \. 

iiclatsi for the l*resi'i 

llu-ik: ti ■ -. lihnlv a ei-irniption of 
honk, or kome. and was t»*ed to signify that 

i their 
goal, or I" 

Barracks.— '■"'' H or lent* for 

; --rvj. 

Barrataria, Island of. m rmatdd 

Ian-less inhabitant i aided in 

drfenso of New Orlcaat, 513. 



Bntaan 



(essages and Papers of ike Presidents 



Bataan, Province of. Ph. I., mentioned, 

6701. 

Baton Rouge (La.). Battle of— Barry to 

May, 188^ nftoi 111* tall of Kew Orleans. 

■ I Karrajrut po«»«l up lb< 

tiuililiin: » in Baton K< 'URe. Iho 
LAiilklnnn, Wllllnuu 

!ili a 
oiiinll i« at- 

■ 
n>i| i.\ iii.- inn 

III. IHLd IttA Kplod, 

bolloi i ' «e- 

1 1. .11 I In- • onfederate* wit 

I i 

" DO WB* klll.-il 

Battalion.— Aii orennlred part of on army; 

as a ' ir tiro of ' P 

■■i n r -■ hi 

Battery. A number of rnnnon with waic- 

•i. i aChat ii|ni|'iM--iir. Includln • 
iirllllft.i men . BlaO the iirm.nn. in " » war- 

i i'.-iiiI 
Inu a fort. 

B»ttle«lilp. — An armored ahlp equipped for 
uar. 
Battleships, construction of four urjted, 

B»ttl« State.— Alternative nlcVnnm.- f, K 

. i i 
Batturn Caacs.— R»forc tbe lOB of 

- , ihr i n ll«d .- : i ites. a man 
named Uravler i.mi puxebaaed ■ piainm i,.n 
on the M !»■ i- ilppl Rlvi r n 

iMri df it afterward! i u tbe vlllo 

8t Matv An allurlal deiui'll oi rlvei beach 
.i ii fr.mi til IU« illliiiK and *«■ 

ai a landing plan tor tbu 

l nder Hi" law it »» ■ - I 
Oravler ■ tnte, '• bl Ii •■• «■ pui elm ■ ■' I'j 

Kdward I Ii Irii- i-ii "I s - • • I" 

aan unprot la ll bl ■» n ■ 

Bupli on Hie .- ml ■'! nn old 

ench law elvinc nil" 

in |'n -i-l' hi Jeffei '1 l.lv- 

in .f I In- llnliiiri »"d tin- Inner Im- 
began -nil n 
ii,,. i in . ,! Tin- Supri-mi: 

I ,in ih.> -nit ii 

III, |-|, ,M. nf lllll ill , IlllMl I ilOIV Hi" 

luiiiin- ti> l.lvln 

Bavaria.— A Uafd I -"'libera «Jer- 

many, and one of tbe Utnli-a i>f ibe Oraint 

l.ni|,l," it - ■ ■ "f I"" iMii'iiniil nn-l 

I part*, tin- I"" ll nud 

■ he nni-illi-r »»»t.rti. TIi*- country 

iiin-en n iii-i.i. rye, mm, and other eercala, 

potntoc*, Imp- at. ivine. rte. 

ii,,, hi, ,-i Important mnnafnctnm an 

tile* lii-r. iniii-l i- In 

l-.llllll. 

fJorerwneaf. — lt« gorernmenl I- " 
Ktitiiti-iiiiii hereditary monarchy-" 5110 " 
klne. mi npper hone*, and n chamber of 
1 .ii deputies. Tbe reK-iilui.- king I* I., mi- 
ni ■ • inn, I, ■ i" : -I'l Hi Nurlli 
, ration In 1870 
1 ,,, hi I mi. 11. In 1*71. A • 
an mllei population in UMtO mi- r. 5 

The nrtii' • • Ol ii" I |M 01 'he 

Imi" . 

,,i adml nl • ■! Indi pi tidenlly, and on 

a peace footing ha« ahni 00 men 

Almiit Tii? per ■'' ■"' "' " 

,,,,..:. ,,„,. ■_•» per cent 

■ .i.i ■ 

Bavaria <■><■<■ nN<i Munich): 
r,„i... „ti. ii with, 8218, WW. 



Fugitive criminal*, eonvontlon wit 

for rarrenilcr of, I 
tin n •. with. 3834. 

Naturalization treaty nith, .1858. 
Bavaria, Treaties with.— These tndud 

t ikm. i "1 Ihe 

li.ll .,r 11" 

1X71 

..- :.tlun. In 
, Hi,- tin I hi of 

Ihe Inn.: lo 
fiir.-ltu.-r i.i"" hi',.- within bla klag- 

heir*. 

■ HiU right ,-1 lo 

18J0. Thl ■ ifrotl 

d'.mlnl.ir. ,1 ,,il 4* 

.,, ,• I. IV m liivi . ,,n .11. 
Il.-il Uli. , 

SI ' 

allowed two or i 

which I" ill«i r li nnil ni.-iv withdraw 

,!* from r >• wltbe, 

■' • "f 1 1 ■ i. 

fer by will, donation, or o 

f.-i re.l hi..". ildnilM .-.|n .- 

\v-,, 

Ii.,|r- .-iIkI the properti ,if the deroaard la 
lo reeelr.- the anni.- care n» that .if ii 
•i , r cltlai-ii. Dlapiitna rejiritlnc po 
i.. to lie -I i'L- in 

law*, and lijr tbe eonrt* In •> Ii'.i-Ii tli 
property la alttim, ,1 I'm eiimdl 

■ "I IS I ■■• 'Ml I'lll'.'l 

ilea The treats of iiws ni i nnturall 
ti-.n treaty. (8*< Q 

Bayard vs. 8lngleton.— Thl* la one of i 

earllcat ln»tnni>--, nf a court pa 
the constitutionality of an acl ,,f ih. 
lature. Snli »fl. Iiii.iikIii before Ihe 
■ ■I appi 

••rtnln property that b*Ml t 
i iinii-Hi.t.-il nn, | aold t" tin- defendant 
an aet • f the l.-n ■ la I nn i 

iitli.n t, In, h inn ,„ eonfifoa- 

ii,,n , r ih,. property of nll--n*. ' 

<ll-iulu<al "1 it, 
■ ,. Ith Bn 
: In I VS.;.. v i 
In til ■ I" di ' 1 hi maltha 

nffldnvit tlint tie hotda n 

ii ,.l,. ft, m M ..,, in, f f..r 

n mo- 

lion " .Indue S .. i v the 

declaring tin- act .,f the Inrlalature 

Mi-ill I and void" .Imt.ni. nt wan. 

i. ' i for Hi" 'i i. ih.- 

I l'in.l. »n.| 
If ther nnrrhase It th,- land I. f, 

IrB- 

Bayonet.— a oVtaohsiile ahnrp Inst-. 
I ibbtnc, fen the mtuar 

KOfl 

Bayonne Decree.— April 17. Ivtis. \- ; 

i i.."i.",i thai all American -.- 

u'lileh ab.-.iild < nt .-t the |i,,n« ,,f I 
Italy, nnd the Hnn*e Town* ahotili 
■i -■ '.f I lie T 

■ can now navigate tbe 

lolatlnc tin- i iv, ..I aald Btatea." la 
hi- nil. in]r at i:m.-I:ii.i1 Xiiji 

i| t>. di-iti '.'. h ..... i, i - tt all 

noutral powers. Including lb* United state*. 

Bayou State.- a ntekntme for xn»«ia»ippi 

-. Stnte*.l 
Beacon A warning llaeht or other conaple- 



of a 





'. Index 



Beet Sugar 



Bw, TIM, ami to relief of whaling 

■e*i,eSO. 
I«lli| War. -Ac iMamctloa aga! 

in» U.I1..-1II OotcrUEn lit In. JIUMh 
•«jj™d lo hate bevn 

; 
'f*1« la I'alHon loan 

iq boraca nod 
■I 



raw i , !..« .,ti lr Hie 



.r • 



n*»i* ■ Bai- 

Jiily. lb*- 'l 

i U br» > ■: I DM 

a Urf.il In iiw A i 

Mink. A Ik 1 1 n II. ,-.i ■ Hoar Flu* 

MliiUa ». 

■bu Kate —A nleknamo for Arkaaaa* (a, 

•Mafort, N. C, blockade of. removed 
lutttion, 3290. 

BMTtrOan (Canada). Battle or. -AfUt 

i In 
l be 

►o w»t II' 'I r 

BrttM aVntrtintil. on .1 ■• I ■ ti 

* Bftj lii- 

Mnm »i ml ?•"' 

*•**•, i»i..c-1id of III 
n*«ttbe Mi I- 

T*nj*f ana o*m ft pounder i-*»iu>b, ami a 

i 
Jemr State. — Alternntlf nb-knnme for 

»«ll>ej Inland (8m Libei litea- 

»t I 

a»tf Products. (8m Animal* anil Ani- 

■»' ! <ioR ami 

•aw iiora— Malt, Vlnona »n>l 

fcet tngar.— Aliiimich the manafictnre 
•f annr from mm- not'-dut"- It* peodtar- 
]U In,, . t. rUra. Ibe 

fourteen 

ll <M< •nfir m» 

*■»« fe. 

i 'V am rrnierr. I'llnjr the Klrter 
• . il i 

* nar» . float loan the 

i li' in. in 

■ • a» a 

•ad tb* leave* >• ii u M"o»«v>»y 

• M not h* gri 

"• Il iat m li no lb* name nOL bM a roll- 

aakakaabt br obacn-.t " 

. »w a>» tallowi tfcl« ndelee rellgSooalr. 

i *lfjr 

1 latrrV-. r i in, i - 

* tat. of bath kfii ami 

• mtp ret ibr pee—i»re of 
■•■ l» Ibr !■»«< wu* ill* fur mi 

IH». lint 
'J lr, 1.1 I I «llll-- 

•i,t. iii it«t. in.. 

abbJBjMbrd llfTRuk ebeniNt. All 
OMM0 »f OVfcMie* Of I 

b b*nkari 

r I Mfe i-lnlin Hi.it do 

"••War". iMI" III. aoraHUa »'"-t tlinl 

m» ». i.-laal wlir titrr- 

»arrr-»r« poMI a nit aiieeeaenr. rrini 
Q« ArbarJ. tWoted !.!• ►rtmiin.- nmr 



In a|ifl>li-£ Mar*Er.if'o ill? IndUl 

Irlal pqrpoac*. 

mi • ..I : i mi. 

■ It [lenf I'.. 

* ||ll 

8oT«rel*n Iii 

i :;: In 
I in It an. ' In :i 

cram 

'»itli 

•pert were .-..in, 

■Bed blm rn 
i ,,,| ni 

-ii. Ixiwcr S1K- In ilir iii •' 
factor] !u 

inai'li' of but n rew i 

• .1 ami tli,. , i not, «« 

wlili th« enne. ut .'! 

-. .ii, I it . 
cent* |i«t pound i 

Acnnrd'a the alien 

r Napoleou ll'mnpaiti-, and ho aent 
Keen- li 

In. iii I 
fai'iortm were Part* 

Tbone were- un*urcT»*fnl, hoi Ibn Pi 
Uiado tlw dlacuin., Hi- ii "li! Ii ... 
Hard lo r. ,iiIm,i of Hlln«-». 

rrlalill'b modern aeleiillnc nurl. nlture. and. 

• if mvalt. 

Hi" armllh "i inn! 

Ila ahl ', n baa 

nnj othi-r dUeo' At 

tlmt tliiin thii • r ibr 

pot wi-rr but twrlr.. LniNhfl* prr IGK, 

aad »t»r»«tlon Ihti-at. i il dly In- 

l .n In nit. '11111 

,' l'|..|M Ifll 

f ||P , I.- I.I ..f 

CT»ai»«.d nffarlr twofold U'bm 
!>»<Tim* coir. .ii. ,'il i.f tiiU f.i. i I,., ardcrvd 
darla* IBM and 1812 tln.u.auda of arm 

i. . linlml 

•'•I I" mid f*i ' Hi A« a 

the Indiimrr inn Urinly calabll .li, ,1 
,uc» and tbi« ylald of corr.i' 
cr-ii:-- 

man nnd F/<nrh «i-lHntl«t» lh«-n t>n- 

Gn di of tin. 

rt plnnt. nod xoo*t arODdarfn] r 
Lare bnii obtatned. Iij car>>ful acl 

of I ■ Be tlllnit.' 

In the beet baa bwn Inrrraard from 7 nor 

C»Bt II ' .... I Of 

wi-IkIw finm t»o '. r : 1 1 . . noonda. nnd from 

• Hi t.i om-.firtb of li 
W pit 

more pnri- aiiirnr than tbi- total weigh! 
i.f iii. .. beet nnd tli" >•• 

i fr .ui a alnulc urn- It mora Ihnn 
ii., -, .ii i ,i from ii good 
»lxrd tarn 

In I ■ Hi" •rltli-lKiu.H tlini I I 

nxar nu-rrti-nlnt: power than 

cane auxar tbp aanrrtlou In inndi- tlin 
a chcnilat, *!• rroimdi'd nltli nil Ida 

. ,| ilpmeot, can not dbv 

llnunl-i, i. ii. fi ill. ..thnr AKbiHiicb 

ol plant*, 
■ I tbc 

■ In < .iiii|i.. |i lull 

In a»v,.|,Tilnij ii.i'a.p, In ,11,'i.tl.' effect, in 

, iftli-iri. In nil ,i.i . ipecta. 

i ■' maple and i...ii..,t 

ninl |i of ri'llnltiR, 

l,.i fl.lli.T 

iir- ■-•.:.- it. iii ii... Impurltlea, and tb» 

• ■! Id he Idi •>! leal 

nnd ane.ir 

Pun- augar, whi r d rlrcd from beat 

or enne. U ni lib.ntl.nl na l» pun. noid. 
whether mined In ib> Itoiliv Uountnlna or 
In «li" T i ui 

The enrll.-t attempt to produce augar 



Beet Sugar Messages and Papers of (he Presidents 



frum beota In the United Stntea was made 

flun and 
ison, but tbelr effort* wire 

• .- ful. lilgbl - . i . Inter I ■ iv Id Lee 
< tilld < n i-J a small farinry at Nortbaiup- 

aueceeded Id producing a 
for which ti« 
tva* awarded ■ direr iiu-dul by tin- Mliu 
chusoit. charitable 

i-k i, 

■ am 111 both Held nod 

■ mptoii plant operated l.ut one arnwn. 

In i • ' UIhIidd Tyler, of tli ■- M"i i 

Church, purchased lu Frnin 

■I ■ facl iry, ihlppi d it to r*on l.cnv- 
Hi, Kina., by water and by ox 
hauled It from 
Tbla effort also was a falln 

o| i iir MM r- •■'. year*, ntt I 

Bfrc II 10 :.i: :li I lu- 

ll In, 1608-71 : N - ■ ' 

In failure, absorb md » unar- 

•II. I nilni 
vim niii iiijiii J to establish tbe In- 
dustry In .Mn.iicn. 

lean to wis. | from 

b. n. v 

■ mail iilnnt a- Col.. 
Although a Failure i. niii.ii 
..I •» 1. 1 .ii tunc ii" plaal *«» Idle, it iiimiijr 

'•a. Sriml times It 1ms 
reballt and rc-equlppnd Willi machin- 
ery and while running locluy. It in-i.r «IH 
pay Interval oo more than a Caere fraction 
..f Hie amount actually Invested In it. 

In 1883 our federal treasury needed 
money and as our national legislators bnd 

. fiOUt thr pu»ihllliU'S 

of producing our augur supply ai home, 
rcsa enacted n tariff Mil whh-h car- 
ried a duly of 81 ccnla a pound on i 
■nest and "I centa oi Dal no m* 

knew what soil or climate wer» required 
iroduclng hi : bow 

lo grow them nor bow to operate n n*> 
Hint- ..f .ll-.miil fnllnrt?s 

llldl - ■■' ii 

lie capitalists cautious- While I he duty 
nu more than generous, tbe »c- 
Ms.-mlnatloo of nYl.i i l 
factory teehnlvnl ton-, 
nf and capital bold aloof. Wh.-n In 1S-90, 

• uir federal t.--a»ury a-u otnrfluslng and 
«ugnr was pit el n 

-. of [so cents per pi. unci 

failed to 
attract capital, as did tin- XMI.on 40 per 
MM nd valorem bill of 1MM. 

When tbe Dlnrley bill of 1807 w«s 

Sussed ami Pmldeut MeKinley mniJe 
,iiiii- WllaOD Si-i-n i .-iiy of Agriculture, a 
new order nf affairs was cstnbll 
While tin- I mi augnr Imports 

.-ii- inii :.•.' |n-r i-i-iii -f whal II bad been 

nnili-r the Mil of 18S3 and but si* ta* 

tbe Department of 

work lo 

faToroble natural cnmlln- 
to learn DOd i 

methods ami In . iplnli !!n- Indtial - y 

it waa •)> thai a «n 

dustry. destined In supply n lagg* portlain 

of Hi- -'4 ,-.-iir wbloh 

we ntiiiuiii' . -h-iiiiil n-it I-- eon- 

ii-i.-d to a few Slates, where loi 

propltiona 
ooalT Interfere -.- 

fond prodocl i in lb* contrary. It wn 
aldered desirable lhai 
be scattered n« mw 

though on* Sinii- - r mi- group nf Slnt'-« 
! produce for n fi nil Id 

..ili- i .-i.it. To tlili ■■nd. Hi- <l 

issued a wall lii'ip. "ii 
traced tbe theoretical beet augnr area of 



I'm United Btataa ami from time to tiro* 
at It ui. ilvtaoust rated that fuiornM* cos>- 

I -itory, Urn- 
wna ii. 
the department oono ,-m»;- th 

21 I 000, .. r nail cllma 

..rii' iK*r e»-nt of 

tin. •>...■ wers planted to inci i 
would fnrnl«h nil the sugar we cos*.. : 
rrltory e^ 
from ocean to ocean and froaa Hi..- Cana- 
dian t-i-iindary I • 

nil, Ohio. ImlUr.u. 

Uezlcan boi 

■ii ' rnrlely of soil*, clay loama 
•nndr loama belnjt preferred. 
W Hi r nnd the I!u n ,.f 
..lloway and tbe Run 
•■■> work : :. 
il on the rood 
Uona throi. ronmrj 

mentH n-i'i. 

Aa a reauli ..r tha Informutlon n 
Inviting condlUona act forth In II 
ous bulledna and reports 

in 1 1 year*. »■- 1 inn - h,ei» 

eooxeil Int.. th.. in, in 

to 7r! 

Ims grown - 
one.flftb <if 1 1., u. 
tbe United Slates, enough i 
people living vest »t 
Aa a resuH .,f Hi. 
an-as nf desert land b 
where sugar beeta caa be raised more -- 
blj I p, 

'i xpnu ilon -r tbls Indnstrj laraj I 

- of the great Irrlgatlnc 
worka which ll has eon- 

I mi- led nt an ci 
Win n 

|.-n after slrnlt . 

1nr.- renin rked -..- hlin 

day you base aolred the sogar problem of 

the ' nlii'l Slnles. \nt that 

I. ' i I- im ;i:i . 

il euteeprli i 

■■■• huge dama will l-» licet »ugar 
factoilev"' 

Wilson i:new that the nee**, 
anry long haul freight rha ;■ the 

. f tin. fin 

when aalpi 
Hut with alfnlf i with 

■ i,i, I, to • 

eropa— augar and live stnok— on whl. ■:, 

.i-gea nre si. 

.ilno of ii Sugar 

h. ir gmilcat perfection >. 

under Irrigation and .-nr farmers, - 

rtnlty In the Irrigated west, have foam 

-.. he one nf Ittl || ibla If 

also tin- ni.i-i dim. ult uM.ti tbe* ran 
i.i rotating them with sugar 

I t th -I'., I 

yield* of all i 

. fore, 

Tbl« Indintry now distribute* $1: - 
000 annually l 
Is borers In the -ngnr fnctorles » 
In coal mines and otln-r Amerlcnn lls^^H 
hli h mi in h ii with mnfiltc*, . 
- y would be aeet to :- 
rlea In payment for lm|).>Tl.-d sugar, 
hut f.,r thi Industry. 

establish 
hn« distributed J Km mm - 
tollers, anil when fully developed It 
distribute ■ 

■ .i n :n. i .- • i . 

log Hi. I", yenrs In which tbe do- 
mestic heel augnr Industry hna grown froaa 



_ 



Encyclopedic Index 



Belgium 



40.000 to 700.000 tons, the average whole 

uW ptVt ol »-(ar :. I4.07 

i'«0 to $3.17 per 1W. tbe prcaeat 

■ ti«>««"i pi itat despite tin- 

■ tb» same period the prlca 

has I 

} drirluped. tbl« Industry will 

• agar ill other 

llifvgb, l:nn I . Ilir yield per tier*. 
Taw - P»r acre 

i been 
- rent daring in* past thirty years. 

; i 

tvattstaUaga arc a ault la altrr 

lu<UMI 
rar beet • 
farwir-i >ir Id 

• till nnili uail I 

whir* Cffoaiir aanolly produces. Ji.'iK.- 

' "a greater resells lima 

tn — • "[> M- 

cwrsaf aV' - two 

^^^■av-i la i !i>" 

f Briber expansion ef (he I nil n 

Inplh-ailut: i'ienuor*a eir> 
ttir'iglioi lb? i 

crop*, at present farm price*, 
would be »<-Mb »^<Vmi,im«XO0O Ulali-ad of 

la 1'ilj tt'-.t war ' sere* of 

•♦ taaa i 

| 
Mlara suit niichluory were 
'I. ead : 
a»— - 

tarns- "eat were lode- 

fwtxlc- Im> beet*. The** 

we»r r-ii'l ••» for taelr product. 

- pa!<l la . 

ilorado. 

rasas, 3 In Ohio 

' in -. I ml l- 
aaa. Iowa, ansl Minnesota. 
Belintse EtYa Indians. (See Minne- 

tary« Indiana.) 
BwtftMl 8. A.. & Co\, claim of, against 

riliutioD of award in case of, re- 
frrred to, 4988. 
Beleaguer.— To blockade nr to •urroond br 

Wilflar AtrodtiM, Bryc* Baport on. 
(8*-- Uclgiaa Atroe- 

aWgltn Belief. — When the Orxoto anal** 

nqgh Belgium lad northern France 
nrsit. Ifrls. ta*y created a Bltaatlon 
f<* tk* non-combatant popnlatloa of thoae 
alaeiet* volet soon became d**g*rat« In 
In* Ullgsat. Belgium was a country with 
« dimity of population twenty times as 
STsat ■• that of the foiled BCataa. with a 
'•••. •-rrelr Industrial, and producing 
nHf laaf than 40 per e»nt of tba food It 
" ■na m a, Tka atat-oodstd nan of the 
wawr bad flocked to tJM armies ooposlng 
en, and Beltlnm was help- 
•••a Oenntor would not dlt»rt food from 
*» InaaMtant* to fr-d the lobibltatit* 
i wblrb It b«d laraded: sod It 
•••nit as tbonrh T.Ono.wo persons would 
itttmated pop*i- 
ilehrl-im to I!»14. only 
•Otina wctc refugees n vert out of tbo 



occur ' rj : tad In nililltinn there 

i t Id 1 ■ portion 

of not ac* occur fter- 

mans, whose plight was sli that of 

the »• 

than i ii. Mm persona In n district of 19,- 

di5 in 

it wax America wh.> csme to tba rescue. 

Iloher, It)] ; lultlock. th. 

from the i :rlum, 

i in'fiire Ambassador 
I in I.' inl-iii, snd as • result the Com- 

■ ii for tin Iglam »ii> 

led. Ambassador i the 

Iiend n( II . 

<o. t. In liloirr.i!- i. mi Ann; 

who h-lll : 
nerrlrn In behall 

i. tii Euro. 
le: snd under bin dlr. Hon Hi I 
Bluei nnd nortv 

From Hi- of Un- War to April. 

lf'17. . bra ih. iti-.ronce of tlm r 
il tlin wltbdraaiil Dl 
-Minn. liniiii.'riii 

In Hi- nelk'liborhood of 
'I. Even toe offlcfil lonns made 
by the ■pTernmcnts of Rneland snd : 
t.. the Bolelan (•oTi'maienl were .kIiiiIoU- 
by the Omml-iloD. For Bel 
"■•0.000 ws« loaned by tli» IIiil-IIhIi 
.•intent, f 10.000.000 came In pi 
it .n (run i-h Kmplre. $11. 

I contrlhatrd In mon. . and In 
Btataa, and 
jil.noi. 

its France. French bnnks ami ln«titu 
1PO.000.000. 
ritatcs r.OT.Tiun.-nt In May. 1017, In 

■ 
in. -in f that country. This 

was payable In monthly Instsln 

»«•. «rl(h the un • that 

the loan would bo renewed In case of 

•ItT. 

■; wnn the chief purehattog and 
for the Oommlsslou 
ly ns to pork and wheat shlpn 
Allbotiirh prilmlili IkNofniirtlm of II 
nnbllnntH <'f the 

to pay to some extant for the naslitnnre 
ther reeelrod. yet nil th.-ir food, clothlnr, 

i infl I'rnncc through the cli 
of the Contiulxlon. By Norembcr 1. 1910. 
n u-'iterdam foi 

• ■ . 

were nlout 50 trained American nd- 
• rstors Tolunteerlng tbelr scrrleaa In 
Itrlglutu and France for the Commliulon. 
they were awlttrd by tiioii-nnds of 
llclglsni. The Commission appealed to the 
wbolo world for support, and waa snlated 
by more than 4.000 committees all ov. 
glolie engaged In the solicitation of 
and the moblUgatlon of food sin 
The relief wort IU»lf Wat in by 

«ommltt»ea in each of the ■». 

which were In the destitute district, with 
Ithdrawal of th* officials of tba Oom- 
1017. the »dmlni»triv; 
the relief went Into t'ie hnnds of tbe I 
and Pnanlsh. (Sec Belgium : France: Euro- 
penn War.l 

Balglaja. — Itclglnm nag a frontier of RSI 
talks, and la bounded on the north and 
northeast by tho Netherlands (288 miles). 
on tbe tooth by Frsoe* (381 -miles), on 
the east by Rhenish Prussia <l!0 m1l»») 
ami tba Grand Duchy of Luxemburg <WI 
i, with a low unbroken seaboard 
(North Seal of -»; mlle«. The 'poldera" 
nenr the coaat. which are protected he 
dlke< arslnat floods, cover an area of 19* 
tonare mllea- 

cVafMrw.— The Mouse iMtsal 
and its trlbntary the Bame.e dlxldc th* 



Belgium 



Icssagcs and I'apcrs of tin- Presidents 



i dlatlnot rrclon*. that of 
in- north nc.i • 
fertile plain » li !•• 1 1"' f • 
t.l. -land of 'In' Aid-iinea Id Ihe n.iilli and 

Ima foi tin 
i he blehrd inn ' IhirinjiK- Mloln .f ri 
ft belKl.' >l -'..'■■ ' i • !.-■ 

i.f III. niiilill; 

iMnnm and III Irlbulftrj Itii 

i How from Krwin 
mi. I ut ouvlcnblo atrca ui I ron 
ih.-lr courac -ii I I lii- In 

bUo ■ tributary from tfeie frontier al 
• ini.iirK. Jim 1* partly u.. i -" 

iiiaiiiH la tin Hi In-ill'- 

wnllTWIll • tlfiVC nil ■ MX- 

nf ironaport. The principal harbor 

. ..in n ml . Dtn i»"ii In Am " i p. n --' 

f.,r-|ll.-il oil 

mi iln « .-■ i. -in ■ 

Itlnnk.-nli.ii." anil Ze*0!T)0Ci 

AIIKA 1MI !•■ t 

aMaln Population 
- luui Cmi— ol 

Pruvineai 

Antwerp "-I 

hi i. i.i i.-.'.-.v 

I I .- 

1.117 
. 

311.218 

Hftiiini . 1. 1 u 

Total... ....11,370 7A3BJ94 

II | fas '. -nirMf — Belgian 

••.iilliiii "f the iln. -I. in llelgue. .i-il km inn 

ii- I liiudi r« no 

r.uiiiM l- -■ " -l '" 'I"' Klngili 

the Ni-ibcrlnnda In IMS., nn ftrniii.-.' nl 

ol r 

On On 'i 

5mm i IihIi'IH'IhIi n 

1. IH31. Pi 
ImtR wan i-hniM'n II.'i'-.IImit Kins. H 

■ I.. M .'llirnd. KIllK "■' 

ixnnjr, Prlu f :- 

Oolhn, 

of Prim ••■ Plilllpltc. I'lmiii u( l-'l.in.l. ■-.. anc 

IiIh iiiii'I- . Kmc I.coyi.ilil II., I 

A.fl«l | ! . - 1 ■ r . .1 v. 

ii In Am.-nil. l'Jl I. ii.iii 

■ , for ii. 
glan territory, Belglau pi being 

:, i.ini dcrlftrcd war ami llio 
King nf Unglnml win app< nl- rl lo I 
port tin- ncutra 

I n War "f 1014 IT mill 11 K'lili 'Mli'l i 

ih. Semite, . 1 • • ■ t . .1 f... elghi ' rai ■ con- 
■lata of 1 

i by -i" -'■"■ »•! 'i 

i nd niii • ii. ii ii-i' 'I ho 

Chamber "f Hi in ' -.-ui ii In "I 

IStl tniiiiri.fi (.nn- foi 100 Of "i" 

iltnntal, elected In- Hi., people The 
nl I iw of IMM Intl • araal 

mnle niflr.iEc nt to* in of twenl 
with |ilnr.il voting op to t li r.-. 
propcriv nml educational qunlllli 
Pnlliiro to vote U pimii-ii.'ii.ii- in low. The 

I.*wl*l '•"' , " -r - 

n- I- n linlti'.. of tin- pence In i urn 

of ii iniiiii f227), t<i.'ii'>-»'i* Plutrlct 

Court*, a Criminal Aaalic Court in each 
1',... |n. • mil Hirer I'mtrl ■ ol 

I i„ ..• la a 

ivwrl i.f ' '•'•■ -linn nt Urn 

In . -,■ . - li of ilin nl.. "a l" 

.( ii„. • .-. . • i iniiniii - Ihcre U nn 

elected f d Tin- - ii.'luclnl nnd 

Communal Council* are elected for #lghl 



yearn i hall : .ur yrarai 

■ad m. . i annually. 

The Army i» recruited hr yearly «la> 

.mil vol mill. rearli 

lu.'lml" nnlliij; in li; 

men 01 f ll for military ► 

arbo at.- n P 

. in I.:. ; . 

,: ii <;-n.! 
7 1 off] 
liarv I...- . -ii... - 

iiallty 

..f Delirium I iiatrla, Boa> 

all. 1'rn^-li. and iln- I i: l»i- 1 Kl .--.I nil hy 



la unl 
.. . and 
u la ' 
iiiiiiiiiln.il iii witB 

^rniil- In n.'.l 
■ ■ undi'i . . . :. i ..i|. i , 
Iholle prvdi 

|. rivals, 

ire ■ 

apcclAl llma- 

arlM nml Ut-s* nnd t ICnav 

.mil Ani« reowaa: 

Boyal 

There are I 'and 

I.I. Ki .11. •- at 111 

I : ouvatn. 

- -Of Hi.- 7 .'77 
- ntloa. 

I.l!80,ll 

..r nn. Mill.. it. -.1. ii iii are 

,,i 
rlarlpnl crop* an a heat, <i»fa, l.ar- 



i i 






| - poll '.. "I, flu 

li.ipx. nn. I lltl.iir f || ,-r, nl i|il .I' ■ . ■ ■■< 

ala are produced, -.. bi-m. m , .i . . 

■re I.Ki-rly Imported. Al i 

: J in.-iiid- il L' : J ' ■ i 

The 
lotal i ic I ..r- -i prodncl 9 c 

■ 

lnjc I 

"iiput 
Ik ii .'i ii i nclli b lona. Irn« 

la iillfllllli'd .n Inr -.. |ll.i ■ 

I ud 1 1 »t r ) .■ r ■ 1 1 • i 

Erent linportnnce. Toe i.rlni-'lpnl Iron t< 

•ii- nl 

|irlni:< nf spn nre atlll fr.. 

i- i-iiu iced la the 

mi. I.illi- llldll 1 1 
inn la ea i; i nnf I IlirlBC 

Some - "in I., i ...ii i are em- 

• I 

l-i.llli-l In-- lll.ll.li 

i ihl .illl-l II -in: 

[.Inning nl Vervl»r« and linen wear- 
Inj.-. pnrtii-nliirl.v In I 

lionnaelalre. nod II- 
'.iii • ii-if •■■-■ ii r»-« center at Ghent. 

In ■ .ii Iti 
Ii-Xlllca ill | 

7'rorMporfOfion Bad rnniaiuiilmKna — In 
•• i. i.:;i.i. kll I rail 

• i '.-. the sun.-, of which I 
There ware «]•■ 
hlloro. privately owned and worked 

111... am! 1 038 kill. in. -in- ii 
while tbei i.T'ii 

onda. The ii ral|: 

war* arort in 12 were 

n; rXBaVIIB 

naaienrrra 
■ irrl.il numbered 

llnea onn.nnt to l.-x. i n i|i of 

total mllrare. 

i hi '• it ute* a 

f..i.il i.nu-iii ..f 2.170 I il. in-n, - ii--,d are 

rery great!* uaed. Tha Meuae and 8am- 



Encyclopedic Index 



Belgium 



•rarerae tac coal "'• 

Srhrt ■!• waterway • -! Hi.- •. 

i ■.mi 1 1 . . - • 
1 ttrc* U slaw n Marvoal loatallatton. 
•» — Capital, Ilr»i*-l-i 

. 34TV. "ii, . i tii>r .lilr. arn 

•tw*»», UbjiM): U«««. 1 . 

olaa, Jsl.Wiu: .Namur, 

lo I untry wi» tn«. ' 

G»re ■•■ I'arla. 

i. I lij Ihn 

Gertaaa atnikr*. I** country ««- i B i:l 
aa4 ib- lobabliaau reduced tu «mv 

rh r»* fair r»r vala* 

I Kiatra f..i • »■•» 

1 r*l.- 

i.t i til i li.-t- — a ladaiire of 

IB fa»OT • llrll M»t"«- 

ry of the 
C«a» right tiank uf 111* 

»*a. 
i atllrs of ■*»(>•■-' bortli ..! 
mi-uit. ibr left bank fron xhlf 

mttf »*a i : an. I lli»ao ■•■ 

Mb i .1 ar*u amomiti lo 

*Kj«ap Hiuarr iuiln. wllb a aalli popo 
«a%a Milnaird ai dot dmn i: an i:.."<"'.- 
tW total European po|i-ilutlon (Jau- 

■•re 
illom. SOS 
ip ilrrninn 
"•: a»ljl»ii. vailed 

"*"*U« ■li-ku*««." for arbWI 

n .u rflM.^rr.-u. baa of lat. 
larreaalnr ravar*" upon lb- Dallif 
• nil Ibr. 

<pw-lal|r abior II 
i ml lis |u.ii.l.»i irlbu.- 

. *U|i- 

tta> at aaaawcllac wlifc- n«r ;. 

• mi lo liar* 
•DM m l..i»t r. ti ■ . iijr, uml 

• *!•! I 

•rWraarar — Br Uw . 
U» I-.! Rtal* nf llii' 

ffcaalaj 

* ' «M annexed llY lH-lBlnri. II ml 1- ail- 

— lal m ' f.mr. 

*• av> v.- i.ii in. MIi.Mit 

■* la* Coloaira preaidca- 

7>»* oa.f Fi'mi-. aro mnay 

""lb- ir»:l*. np*ci ill* rl.ru ; 

l> tarrta ruenoula Land aim 

rijaat. 

I a1».krr»rl»._pBlm.<>ll. 
la< a frw minor artlrlea. The 



S3 



n R«« vi I hi. 
naa. ib.i "e br*a iiI.ihi.mI with 

w*tm 

»••» Veo f..lin.l ll.tiin:- 

*7»*» fraar* . expr- 

It* fna*.-. Import* u 

a.l2.'..S(l| fraoia 
TU r1r»r la oarliaMr ffm irolOii klm- 
qr* m%* ' I 
«J Btaaaa to Matadl <M mlle.1. wli.-r- 
A* (kcaprBD 

•aana-ibiir cargo: 1ml between lhal pin •• 
•»* Unfildrlile. oo 
«■ nnl.N an.l fulN 
"•Med b* a rallr. 

p**_rma Bnnia - 

I Tar flr»«t I^akoa Rail war 

£"■ **■ 

*U»a*lr-», add aaother 

r« Kttrnlo 3S."> klbMDrll IniKlh 

■ 

. i 

ih nf teUgrapli 
aa» It, M klloustraa). 



i In capital la Boma 
, olbar towun brlOK M"la<ll H,«Wi 

. and 

Leapatdrlila. 

.hi- btfrwNM Tin r.- 1« a f»«T- 

llonni T.I1I1 •, 

ml. 11ml h Groaral lili.-.-i.iiai* 

nf Ave depart rm dmlDla. 

iratl. , Into 

two il 1 Si* a\%.j I'onp. : Afrloa. ) 

Boljiuni («ro alno BruMatt and Euro- 
). ran War of 1P14-16): 
Chirg* d'nffnirof to. 1130. 

BtatM against, 1456. 
nl rclationa t- 

Con.<nlnr .-..ii Uoi With, XSoo, 3893, 

I9> 4561. 

6 States, ex*- 
qoatara to, revoked, 8420. 

I a '• i-ntion with, for r .-gnlal inj; right 

of inhrnf iii>; mid arqulrinc prep 
ertv, 2037, 4SL'2. 4841, 4S64. 
• oi th. mi dare tndfl><63S8, 

i ..ii-. . nt i.m with, n-gnrdinx 8.1 

-' privilege extondnd, 538S. 

Dlffereare <•< Pnaet and, with Ve- 

Pnsltire orlm BrentidD with, 

li, 1124, iSUf, 

■ 
i nil- of Ami-riraii prodasta 

■it upon, 
:«3. 

II-.-. rrlrirr.l l,,.l.|nn. 

KinB ot, arbiter la mbm of tho 

■ ilana and /.i:.->r Thorn pmm, 

LotM Wted br United fitatw 

with Antwerp, l'.'H. 
Monetary • n .ntion of Latin Unioa, 

adlifkion to, dei-Iared by. 4MT. 
Xaturallr.ation tr.-aty with. 3892. 
Neutrality of United Statw in war 
with — 
trfal HunKary, 7977. 
fiemiany, 7974. 
PoMal convention with. 3775, 3883, 

4203. 
Reply to Germnny'a peare OTtrtSfM. 

RIM 
Trade mnrku, treaty with, rejranlini.', 

47tt'., 4«JS, M 
Tn-atiea with. tranaTiiitti-d and dia- 
etutaed by Pmddairt — 
Arthur, UK, 4715. 

||)3. 
I'illmore. 2097, 8704 
Grant. 4124. 42H5, 4247, 4275, 4296. 

ion, 1196. 
JohnRon, 3893. 
l.ini-niii, ::i'.-i, :ii"; 3. 

179. 
Van Bon n. IBM, l«39. 
Approbation of Helgian Chambers 
not received, 1932. 



Belgium 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



■■■ in exchange of ratillrntiona, 
1244, 2001. 
Disavowal of, by Mgtnnij dis- 
cussed, 1317. 
Termination of, referred to, 
Belgium, Treaties with.— The blatarj ,,f 

■ --.a leu 
with the kingdom •( Belgium dHulnys very 

amicable Hatlmani • ■ both kli The 
nf 184;.. ou commerce »u<l naviga- 
tion wan teimlti Belgian eovern- 

and navigation ■■ lid I I ll In lh« 
»iinie yeur win also 

Sower In 1S75. Thl ti import 

wm in pan raperMdi 

UM trenty of 1- 

By a treaty of May 12, 1S03. between 
llilulnm nuil ihe was ugrcvd 

In consideration ol I be pa) mi I 
the »ura of 1T,1«1.U40 florlna ml tr.'.'.s 
cent ■ of tin- Si liy the govern 

muni of i in' Nctberlnnda, I lie I ' Uio 

Belgians renounced forever the duties lev- 
ied upon Hie navigation of tin- Scheldt 
and Ita mouths. By 1 1 .-my wllh the United 

ii ira> air I thai this renunciation 

- il to nil tings uml the duty ahould 
never i In any furm: also 

that Tin- pll m. re- 

duced iO per cent for sailing vessels. 30 
per cent for towed vessel*, sod 30 per 
cent for ateam vessels, ajiuiild i- 

, nd. 

I Ii- treaty of 1*08 on naturalisation vena 
procliilnii-il July 30. 18U0. II sxrved to Uu 

illim by each ii > 

in the respective cooalrli 
d by legal naturalisation !■■ 
una of tho other. I'm vision was uinde 
foi- i in- punishment, auojecl to the al 
of llmliniloua. of thoae a -ulwlc- 

■ r committed prior to 

ahould Ihey return. I'n ■•l-.nt fi 

tnry service In Belgium la n ■.- . i- . I - ■ ■ I in 
leenlly noturallxetj cftlfens of the rolled 
ill provlalou la made for restora- 
tion i.i lil»..-u«lilii, If di< ii. .1 i ii-- 
remains In force from year to yenr. 
subject to six inontha' notice. 

The 001 .ii- -ii Ireaty nf IRftS 

waa terminated on notice bj Belgium on 
.l.in. : 1880. The irnde-mark convention 

88 IDlrOd, Willi III.- I tents nf 

.1 which U was n part, on July l. 
The - M wo* ter- 

led by substitution of clsuaea In the 
treaty of II 

Tin- trenij of commerce anil aarlcattoB 
of Jiii ,.••, provides for full and 

entire freedom of commtrt ml Davln- 

ii-.n. No higher .-r other casta shall bs 

Imp d iipim iiiiini.it :i ii i • ..r -in- oni- aiaie 

ug In the other; nor other oi hlgbcr 
. fees, or Imposta of uu. kind upon 
-iunlr.v In th« pOltS Ol ili'- 
ni In r. Coasting irmle privileges shnll be In 
both eases those of the roost favored na- 
tion. In tiiiiix.-ihiiuiii'iit of roods fr.uii - 
.-i.uiiiri.-H iin- duties uml formalities siinli 

be not otherwise than In the case of direct 

.itlou ond 
tlonsl (lag. 

A i-.in-iiiiir convention wss concluded In 
1*80. snd an extradition convention, made 
In 1882, wna Hiii-i-i-eded by one of mora 
breadth In limt A m i- mark convention 
concluded In 1884 wna ext nded to 

Ighta lu 1801, and ipeclfleallr ex- 
i| to iii- protection of trademarks of 
both countrli-i In China In I BOB. 
Bellicose.— Wnr 

Belligerent. — L — A eonntrj or individual 
at war. 2. — A rltlien of n country In a state 
of war. (See Belligerent Rights.) 



BoUigerent Bights.— Rights granted by 

i-nts to notions at war 

srlth each ithar, ua dlstlugulsbad from tbe 

•eta of a 
nt rlxhts were 
States by Great 
< in n proclamation by the > 
rooogulr.lug tbe • ..' war h. 

tea ami the Confederal" 

.nd :ln- rtabl to exercise 

powers on the oivnu, bill not 

recognising the national independence of 

II also enjoined 

Itrlllah aubj.-.i.. Sm Ii n rul'lon of right. 

wna altio mode by France and other 

rs of Kurope and by 
lii.mi. 

BeUlgercnt Rights: 

boo of, to Cuban ii 
! President — 

Cleveland, 606V3, fii 
Orul iiil8,42fl2. 

Mi Kiul 

Accorded Confederate Stales bjr for- 
olgn powora, discussed, 3259. 
86 

Recognition ■ [ foreign pow- 

ora Invoked by Confederate fc 
3221, 3246. 
Belmont (Mo.), Battle of.-Nov. l. 18«1. 

I . who hail .iinmsoxt of 

p.mts la eastern Mlsuoutl and southern 
Illinois under FrCmont. had * foi 
nun i ii). A Conl 

' Hen. Folk b. Id - 

vcr. Tl.i. 

|Hi»llii: 

and was eventually in 
il.fi iidi-il I... more than lift) bcaiy 

tun.. On i !,,. Mlnourl bunk opfe.. 
'ii lbs I ..iif-ii--i.it. . I. ni i I a bib 
camp nt Belmonl loir, Grant 

•if. u-i-i iii-ni -i were to Isc seat 
p in November to Join 
Frlce. lb- tli.-i- i ■ .im), aeed- 

Ing s fon-i- i con- 

- 3,000 men down tbe rtvci in 

Sornpanled i-v gunboats to attack 
mi. The bottle wua 
ISOI. Few of 111.- linn li.-i.l I. -in nttiler >r» 
'ii fore. Grant's men took the cnu|. 
were compelled to ni.oudon It and retora 

- 1 !■.»» was 

I. It'll : nil ! 

I- loss was 043 
Berals Heights (N. Y.), Battle* of- 

Alao culled battlcM of ftsrntor* and Sill' 
water. In the nntumn of 1777 tit- i-^udllleci 
of Baraoync'8 army In the upper Htidann 
lirgaa to grow serious 
ru mil us short uml ihe IIL.-i; 
fectlng i I" . 
wna remol Galea bad been aeot by 

Conrxcac to sue I Sehuyl 

The Amerlcnn army wsa dully 

ID. the t iii-i at HemJa 

':- and tbe 

H' i on Itlvri i cement took ol-ee 

. ii nl. ,,i. i 
Ainnrli-niiH. Of the were 

kiil-d. wounded or enptursd : the Aso*e1< 
cans Inst Sill. This flsbt. 
Ihe haul, of Freeman's Turin, wna on* 
tli- lli'lil- 'i held Their ground 
The Americans ahowed. bnwerer. 
Banroyns - their 

•I'll- two nrmlex rem lined almost 
wllhln cannon shot of encli other for aotn* 
weeks. Oct. 7, Burgoyn*, despairing 
of re-i-nr ir.'i in-ni», made a second attack. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Jering Sea 



M forced to r»tlrr to Ike heights near 
Mntvp. 'I'll* onarraral •treugih of lb* 
Aaacrlcan* waa t»w gre*>' 
U* Britlab- Burgoyoo w»» rom>> 
aaarroaaded liy GateV» army, win 
to engage Mm. but ! uill famine 

farced hi* capitulation uct. 17. I" 
aamba-r of troop* surrendered was 0.1 • 
whoa 2.412 were Kl- •!•••«!'» Hessians. The 
tattle of San too >* often treated t.y hit- 
!«UM aa the declilrc conflict of tbe Rot- 
..X Arnold, who sataequcnlly t 

r. <>■ the hero of these engagements. 

B«a rrankim. Th«. (8ee BotUrficld, 
Carlo*. A 

Coast*** at Milan, 4024. 
tadwlim nn — A catch-phrase 
•wed by I'reaidcnt McKlnlcv In outlining the 
proposed traimiil of tb« Filipino*. Tb* 
t***a »•• uard lu dertaloa by Democratic 
raapalgncn to 1V0O. 

Batman Law. (See White Slavery.) 
Baantnxtoa (Vt.). Battle of. — An im- 
portant conflict of la* Revolutionary War. 
An* 'yn» a*al UraWoL 

Binm with about S0O Britlab and *omc 

-a from Fort I'd ward to 
rattle aed *»Ppl 
mad to Bennington they were oppn*-.l bj 

Iihn Stark. Aug. 16. wltb a force of 
i turn, mostly ml lit la from New 

Maa»P*lilrr and I I Tin «ni;n, 

began ai>jjt 3 At 

M«el the ludlima deierted, and the 

■f l wna noon 

. who 

had bat * sent to rr enforce Bauin, ni« al>i 

r.tiil-h loaa kj- 
kUVd. and the American la rarioualy eatl- 

mated at from 550 o Kour t.ioces of 

aud many 
BBO lda were also captured. Amerlcr 

-. -to killed and aa many wounded. 
Bcnalnifton. Trie, refuge on. sought 
br Salvador, used, 

BastOOTtll* (W. C). BattlO Of .-After 

nfag*B**at at Aveij.Loro Sherman'* 

anoi- contlnsed Ita march toward Ciold*- 

bore. When near Beotuurllle. Ifarcb 18, 

1S6V Sloewm'a »<!>.i: ili,' 

Johnston bad bnnly 

■'d Stenjrt'a mid • hentham'a corps. 

llnmpton'a eatnlry, 

| liar 14,000 

Tke attack of tk* C>nf*dcrntcs was 

e3rrrte4 evalnly *guiu>t the eorp* of JetT. 

•il* A «t roc e tin- 0( baltli 
frantrd J**n*|e-.. with Mill Creek nnd a 
Ikagll bridge la hla rear. March 20 a 
trarrat attack wa» Basil' i man's 

skirmish line. During the nlgl ' 
reitested. aa It wna not Lla purpoac to brine 
••a *lth kl* small fore* a general battle 
t»» Unt at 
act a ■stlnet victory tor cltber aide. 

Barotau, the allowance made for, 328. 
Batten, Norway, International exhlbl 

Una to be held in, 3470. 
•arts* Sea (between Alaska aud Asi- 
' Bsssta; 850.000 »q. miles) ; Amer- 

Iraa vessels aeired by Russian emit- 
n, dUeuwed, 6330. 
Beriac 8aa Fuherlea.— In leSO the A i*r- 

■a Caienmant act np the claim that 
'■'taff 8ra arai aaore ckun, and claimed 
Janalltlon ot»t the eaalrm bnlf of It. 
»W». 1880, tbe Britlab Columbian aealer 

5 



Hlort Diamond »m a*lr*a f«ir tn-apatsleii;. 
Knaala prctcDdcd to arant euch rlibts n-ben 
Aluaka la IMiT. llu.uab In 182'^ Lb* 
I Statea had disputed Kunla'a claim 
to aorerclpntj' orrr the ecu beyond the 
iinuni I Until nf tiirlt.irlal Jurla- 

dlctloo. In conacqucuce of tbla new doc- 
Canadian and .\imrU-nn r»»».'la 
were aelicd by ■ Btatet oaral 

ael for taking aenl about the Prlbyloff Inl- 
and* ami lu Hi" open -' ' lu vlalatlon of the 
low* of tbe lulled Stntex. wlil'-h 
a uouupuly 04 ktal klllloK to the Aluaka 

(aftanrardi to the 
North American Tbe 

I5tltli.il cot unagee for 

illun reaseli n'lwd. 
Uccretarr uiniiie and Mr Jnltan Pt 
"Ota, th" Britlab ambaaaador, I 

affair, but could 
arrlrc at no conclti«lon. After a nodtu 
flt«nd< bad b»*n acti-ed uin-n in ISO] the 
matter wo- ft to a board of arbi- 

tration to coualat of two mcnihi'tn appoint- 

tbt i :! ■ two by ureal 

Itrllnln. nt |i t.y tbe I'rcaldent of 

Kltiu of Itnly, mid tli* King of 

Norwnr nud Swollen. Tbe membcra ap- 

.1 were, re.iierilvnly. Jtiatlce Jnlm M. 

Harlnn, of the Supreme Court, and Scnn- 

1'. Morgnn : Lord Hnnnen nnd 

sir Jobs R [). Tbompaon ; Baron de Cour- 

ttarqula i;miiio Vlaeontl-Venoeta, 

nnd f!r*«*r* W. Oram. Th* Trlliunal be- 

fan lla bck.Ioiix nt Purla. March 2 ,, lROS. 

kngnai ir> rniinwinit rendered lu fle- 

>n denylnc the right of American lurla- 

dlCthm i.illllile III.- n-'i:ll llir mile limit. 

in ..r.ier. bowerer, t" i.rmlnatlrin 

of the M-nla, the rommlaalon atlpuluted t tint 

-i il Bahlne COnM lie rngngwd lu by lleeuard 

miaclH only, ••• labll heil a • lo ■ rt 

f,.r aula In thoae wntera from May 1 to 

■ t nml for lie aenllna* within 

miles nf Hie I'tlbyloff lal.imla. aenl- 

lug with flrtatrma or In at earn vraaela. 

reatrlctlooj were made binding for 

fire reora but proved wholly Ineffective. 

another maetlnc of BaRllab A rlcan nml 

linn eoinnilaalonera wa4 helil on Nov. 
18, 1HI»7, wblcb unnnlmnoxle apbeld the 
nttlttide of th* United Suite*. In addition 
I State* agreed I., prohibit all 
•eallnc even on the Prli>r|iifT Itland* fur 
on* year. To thla Canada did not ■ 

Finally another ml -i.-.l loiuuilatlon met 
at Quebec Auguat. 1808, traiiKf.ir.il Ha 
aeaalon to Waahlngton. 1>. C In Noi • 
..f tlie mm* year, and adjourned In I 
nry. I8SM. I' baa ner»r r»n«n.|nlil»d and 
uotter bna remained in «MI» ouo. 
< See aim. I'arlB Tribunal of Arbitration.) 

Bering Sea riahertas (see also Fisher- 

Claim* againnt Ifusnia, 6373. 
Meaaurea to prevent the extermina- 
tion of seals discussed, 63116, 8155. 
Proclamations recardinp;, 8449. 
5476, 6533, 5578. 5581, 5697, 
6826, 6926, 0018, 6123. 
ilnduA r! finff — 

To embrace Great Britain and Ja- 

5>rm referred to, 6067. 
With Ritaaia restricting sealing in, 
5061, 6067. 
Questions with Great Britain regard- 
ing, 5.515, 5616, 6062, 6266. 
Adjustment of, referred to, 5747. 
Agreement for morfua t'trentfi pro- 
claimed, 5581. 



Sea Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Hi. 

Arbitration of — 

dim-l by Doited 
Treaty regarding, 303 

OoA 

i . i 

i.v Proaidi nl 01 r«tand, 
Ttil oi Arbitration— 

A- ' i" :u'. ;ill of, 

Award i i i nd recomtnan- 

.lav 
Ci Itetel at, pr.j.iroil 

by John W. Poster, 67 
Coat-cation for settlement of claim* 

r I 1 7 

. .cement of reculnl'ton* iB M 



for* >i b 
of a 

Mel fur seals of Alasltn, BIN. 
Hope .ted States 

1909. 

RofomiiMadatioii that Pri ridi nt bo 
or to prol ing of 

Berlin Decree.— An • • from Be 

IId K< •'■■"< I. It de- 

clared a lik.rk.ml*- of tin- llrtl.-i. I 
and i rdorvd all I mtllalimcn la 
■ ,i i.j 1'riMn-h i 

■ nl wnr. All I r -. i . : • • In t 

iI.M.mi. I .'■> : 

III i ... i.i. ;ll ■■■■ lauirangv wet* to Bi 
lowed i" 1 Mini' .1. I r. it. h pn*t-Ofl)C*1l. 

%rrt» to bo adnilti.-il Into 
. i. i. .I. port, and I'J * Inter Ini 

i in 
■ Dlonles, i.v whom ■ 
Hsbl Iiur* svsn on 

ncutrnl decree r.-- 

fin f.iiiir. roualdoratlon tin* que*- 

HOD v. 'I. . I ■ 'I ' III,' I I 

1 ndlrie mlrli' nol Ibi i H bl« 

. . i i... object i.f 

nf Kn.-lnn.l, a* well ni lo retail 

rlllab f..r nn onter In council Iwued 

i ■■: 'ii.- 
Mr i;.-rni in. Iliillm d, II ri, ami 
ii ill«1anee 
..hi )tO0 miles. N. 

lb* Berlin IV. r.-.-. (Hoe 
l"mlinrj:u ; Milan Decree; Order* In I 

Berlin and Milan Decrees ditwusaod 

and referred to by P« Id "t — 

.r.-i . US, i. ..I, 489, 434, 441, 

4-Ui. 
Madi»on, 407, 476, BOS, SIS, 652. 
Proclamations regarding, I.v Presi- 
dent ofadlaon, 407, 400. 



Berlin (' Penman Erapir. 

KOBgO n. 
Bermuda (Orvoj Brit- 

■liua; 
area : alavea M-i/. <| oo 

Berne, Switzerland: 

International il Cunvention 

at, discussed, i 
I"'- gre*aa at, 

disonaaed, 4: 
Bornstorff, Ambassador too. (So- 
ma, Breaking 
Bet-.y Boos House. (Si-. 
Bhutan. — A iiallre atate In th* Mxiih- 

.i Himalaya*, between !M' 
lutliinl- ami oV-M* B. locrltud... and at 
I en the north and rn»t by Tlla-i. 
and on the »outh and «-»Ht by I'.riiMi : 

mated at VO.UOO Kat- 

Itb a cupula t km »ar>- 

-laicd nt in" ..in i-una, 

tun Inly Jtndilhii-tx. and .-.mM-tlDx of nu Idle 

i>- i last ami KirueuMiix cultivator*. 

..».— From in iDtil 

.mil. i in.- dual it'.i- 

' nn.l a ti-mporal 

lual Bur.-rnmeot 

i .nil the Ttituna ivlop <(ax 

•■hi. f councillor ami -. .. ual ralcrl w-at 

13, curiae to 
n Itiitl -h 
n w.-iv an i ii. an 

allowance belm paid annually t.y tit - in 

dlnn i. :!.nt»n 

. iculded In I rrlntloa* 

■ aim under too* 
fere In It* internal afl 
Biennial Reijister. distribatlOB of: 
Act providing fur, rciiom for nt 

■ •to to, ii 
Rcferr.il to, I 
Big Bear Stato.- AK.-rnntlr- nlrknaocfor 

-i-o. (8es Voluntcor BtetaJ 
Big Bethel (Vs.), Battle of. -One of lb* 
nlnary akin Wnr. 

In JOB*. ISf.l, Mnj.-Geii. B. F. Butler, of 

cinwud af 

■ I... .1 toro • in ■ .i iters Vii 

catabllabed bi-aiK|iuirti.ra a 

roe ami waa k in eommnnd ..r ' 

in.n .inn. ii, Utitler aent llrlc.-Oi i. i: W 

I'., i ... m iiii n del ncbmenl .<f S .•>" 

• if S'l'W ^.tlk. Mil--. I.' Ini-... II ■•. atld 
Vi i Itmlil inf.. in r-, .in.i 

i.. tli-l.tilu'-- the t'Miifi'ilerntea fit Hi< ami 
Utile II. til.' I in; ' II M. ..- 

• iiiiii.l. Mn. 

mnde frvnnent raid* u| I iteral line* 

Tbe ..' i ni a aur- 

r.r.-r. iw 

• ..I .1- ■!..■ H| 

I !.. I : i. i ■ (ix the 

Mil. TIh-i.i 

Ponfi'd tt-n-i .-n.' killed *nd fiair 

wounded. Big Bethel w»« the nr*t real 

I ,ii i la dI : ■ 

Big Block (Miss.). BatUa of.-May 17. 

18-3.1. tbe day aflir Ibi 
inn., (Irani'* army pushed on lowarS 
ni. M.'i'leroand a carps, In advance, 
noon . ..BKlr 

iii' nn, I.. ,i on both -Li'-- ..f '1... Ills lilacs 

Itlvrl -, (loated oo 

tho hlirli l.luir. were .nrrliil after a sharp 



Encyclopedic Index 



Black 



engagement, the Federal assault being led 
by Lawler's brigade. The Confederates re- 
treated. Seventeen pieces of artillery and 
about 1,200 prisoners were here token. A 
portion of Pemberton'a outposts crossed the 
river on temporary bridges, which they de- 
stroyed behind them, and Joined the main 
body of the army In the retreat Into the 
fortlBcatlona at Vlcksburg. The Federal 
losa was 270. 

Big WicMtaw Elver, exploration of, re- 
ferred to, 2897. 
Bigamy. — The state of having two or more 
husbands or wives at the same time. (See 
Mormon Church ; Polygamy.) 
Bill Of Bights.— The earliest colonial or 
State declaration of American rights after 
the "Body of Laws" of Massachusetts, in 
1640, was that which accompanied the Vir- 
ginia constitution of 1776. It was based 
upon the English BUI of Rights of 168". 
The latter was an Instrument signed by 
William and Mary when accepting the 
crown of England from the Convention of 
Parliament. It asserted the right of sub- 
jects to petition, the right of Parliament 
to freedom of debate, the right of electors 
to choose representatives freely, and other 
privileges. This BUI of Rights, which con- 
tained the fundamental principles of po- 
litical liberty, was not extended to the 
colonies. Other State constitutions In de- 
fining the rights of the citizen as against 
the scope of the State largely followed 
the phraseology of this famous Instrument. 
The National Constitution was harshly 
criticised on account of the omission of 
some such guaranty of personal rights, 
and might have failed of ratification had 
not the Federalists promised to incor- 
porate such a set of statements. The first 
ten amendments stand as the partial ful- 
fil laient of their promises. (See also 
Amendments.) 

Bills and Acts: 

Aets to be published in certain news- 
papers, 4116. 
Approved but not signed, whether in 

force, discussed, 856. 
Consideration by President, time al- 
lowed for, discussed, 2993, 3060. 
Constitutional amendment regarding 
approval of separate items of bill 
and veto of others recommended, 
4196, 4725, 4774, 4840. 
Duly certified and approved which 

had not passed, discussed, 1353.' 
Effect on, of adjournment of Congress 
before expiration of ten days af- 
ter presentation to President dis- 
cussed, 3797. 
List of acts transmitted, 3963. 
Bimetallic Conference. (See Interna- 
tional Monetary Conference.) 
Bimetallism.— The use of two metals as 
m ""J at relative values set by legislative 
nuctment; the doctrine that two metals 
J« and ought, at Ihe same time and In 
toe unit country, to lie adopted as Htund- 
JJ3**« value and bear to each other a fixed 
n 'n eiubllshed by the Government. As 
!"J In this country, the term usually re- 

iSt * ,De Ulie "' *"°' <1 an( ' "I'ver at a 
f/M relative value established bv law. 
Monometallism Is the doctrine thiit only 
°w nttal ought to be so used. (See Sil- 
ver.) 



Biographical Sketches of President- 
Adams, John, 217. 

Adams, J. Q., 857. 

Arthur, 4618. 

Buchanan, 2960. 

Cleveland, 4882. 

Fillmore, 2599. 

Garfield, 4593. 

Grant, 3957. 

Harrison, Benj., 5438. 

Harrison, W. H., 1858. 

Hayes, 4391. 

Jackson, 998. 

Jefferson, 307. 

Johnson, 3499. 

Lincoln, 3204. 

McKinley, 5234. 

Madison, 450. 

Monroe, 572. 

Pierce, 2728. 

Polk, 2221. 

Roosevelt, 6637. 

Taft, 7367. 

Taylor, 2541. 

Tyler, 1888. 

Van Bu.en, 1528. 

Washington, 33. 

Wilson, 7867. 
Biological Survey, Bureau of, Agricul- 
ture Department. —A bureau of the De- 
partment of Agriculture which studies the 
geographic distribution of animals and 
plants, makes maps of life zones, and studies 
the food and habits of birds and mammals. 
It enforces the laws regulating the Impor- 
tation of foreign birds and animals. It 
looks after the protection of game by con- 
trol of Interstate trade; also the protection 
of migratory and. insectivorous game birds. 

An Important fact established by this 
bureau Is that the dreaded bubonic plague 
Is a disease of rats and that It Is trans- 
mitted to human beings chiefly through the 
agency of fleas which Infest rats and then 
convey the poisonous germ to human beings. 

A careful study of birds In relation to 
fruit raising engaged the attention of this 
bureau for severoi years. The result was 
a report Informing oniiardlsts how to dis- 
criminate between friends and foes — that 
they might encourage the one class and 

[revent or lessen losses from the other. 
Ilrd reservations (sanctuaries where flocks 
may breed safely or take refuge during the 
migration) have oIho been set aside upon 
recommendation of this bureau. 

Biological Survey, work of, reviewed 
and commended, 7486. (See also 
Agriculture, Department of.) 
Biplane. (See Aeronautics.) 
Birds: 

(Migratory), regulations for protec- 
tion, 7895, 7986. 
(Native), reservation established for, 
7959. 
Bivouac.— An out-door encampment of sol- 
diers held in prime readiness for action. 
BUby Letter. (See illustration ojiposito 

3341 anil description on back.) 
Black Cockades.— A badge first worn by 
the American soldiers during the Revolu- 
tion and later, during the hostility toward 



Black 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



K ranee (about lift") occasioned by the 

x. v. z. duputciii-*. udopioii by t ii»- Pea- 
iiniuit at n pjnloile emblem and oa a 
rejoinder I Uude worn 

liy Hi'.' Republican* ai a mark of an. 
lowufd France Ita significance In aome 
-i . - 1 : i ■ ■•■ lay in Hi" f.icl : sol n had tx • D I 
part of the Contlncnul uniform. 
Black Code.— A systematized act of roles 
for the guidance of the colored people be- 
fore slavery woa aboil 

Black Friday. — There have been several 
lihu-k Friday*. The term la often o«cd to 
designate n dark BOI 

UUM It una special reference to Frid.-iy, 
Dm. '5. I7i:>, the day on which new- 
to London thai iho young Pretender 
Charles Kdward. bud reached Derh) and 
alao to Friday, May 11. lhOO. which «■»« 
Hi.. btMBl nf thl eotni ilc iii Lon- 

don through Hi" failure "f Oversold, 
tJti.-riiey & Co. Sept. 2*. 18tM). la hull i" 
times referred I" n. Illnrk Friday In the 

lea Ou thin day g 
Of N"W York banker* advanced the prtct 
of gold to 101'f. causing a pnnli-. It sold 
at MSJ the previous eieulng. Another 

neb .i.i, ■,-...- i- . i.i iv. >■• i.i. io, i 

Joy Cooke A Co.. leading kmci lumk- 

■•r», foiled. A gl .1 cro U enaued III Wull 
Btrecl ■ it of Bnni 

In America, and the historic panic ■ •' '.s;:i 
began, ri.-.lii generally was Impaired nnd 

nm ini lumiiiiiiuiix wan (oread 

Into bankruptcy. 

BUr.k Hand.— An Italian tccrct society. 
resorting to violence to obtain It' 
demands for blackmail. Prominent It 
Auierleana have organlied oa a counteract- 
ing force the White Hand, which ba« aided 
ill.. S.i r.t Service bH ■OpprtM the activities 
Of the lilnck I lurid. \v 1 1 1 . - 1 . derlvra It* niirne 
from the (net that the miiiinuuli-allona of 
the society are often algnod »v 1 1 Ii a black 
hand, at Its olllclal emblem. 
Black Hawk War.— By o treaty algncd at 
t'ralrle dii CblcD, wu„ July 15, i-:;", Um 
Sue and Fox Indiana OOdad nil their Inn.H 
In Illlnola and Wisconsin to the United 
State*. Black Hank, a noted chief of iln. 
Irll.... refused 10 abide by the Irvnij nil. I 
rnoda war upon the whl ■ »t tlie 

mivey ..f ill.- In ml .. i i;.n-k l»luml, III., nl- 
I hough moid of the Sno* and Foxes were 
Of Hi. UbMlMrppI. In 1H31 he at- 
: "inn" IIIIiioIh villages, toil WOO driven 

on" hy the mlllil i i. r (Jen Gaines In June 

of that year. The next aprlng he returned 

with i atrong force nnd began to mo. 

the whiles. Oeii. Beoit wot sen! Sgslust 

blm wllh a for .f lulled Rtnte* troops. 

Rlnck Unwk wna defeated nt the Wisconsin 
River Jnly 21. 1832. by a detachment of 
IrOOM under il-ii. lluilee, mill IgBlB "■' H nl 
Ave Hirer. Aug. 2 of the aame year, Iiy 
Gen. Atkinson. After these successive de- 
feata Black Unwk wna compelled to our- 
render. 

Black Hawk War, discusaod, 1166, 1251. 
Black Hills: 

Emigration to, 4276, 4306, 4355. 

Gold discovered in, referred to, 4306, 
4355. 
Black Horse Cavalry.— A political term 
applied to those legislators {more or lew 
DtHMrOOJ In every Itfjalattvt body) r 1 1 .-it 
in i legtthM for tbt purpose of exncllng 

money ft friends of my meeBore under 

consideration and threaten its defeat in 
caae of non-couipllaucc. Their number la 



(reonently great toongh i» be of conslder- 
ahle luilueii'.". 

Black Laws.— Law* passed In many of tbe 
uorihern elates before the abolition of 
slavery requiring certain acta to be per- 
formed by free negroes, us a condition to 
iiiii residing In thus* states, or pr. 
lug disabilities under which they labored. 
Knch were luwa requiring th. i 
certificates i.f their freedom ; forbidding 
them to testify In case* In which a white 
man was lotcn 
the minus and from the 
and requiring tbetu to give oouds for tbclr 
good behavior. 

Black-Idst.— A list of persona considered 
i attacking Mbit 

private persona; il i bj orsulaed capital te 

Iirvvent certain clax . • of labor from nMaln- 
l.y organlied In 
[irevent certain claasn* of capital from i 
n,r |>n I r.n 

Black-Mall.— The act of attempting to 
extort money or Other valuable objects by 
threats of exposure. 
Black Mesa Forest Reserve proclaimed, 

6700, 
Black Bock (N. Y.), Battle* of. -Lieut.- 
«'ol. lilabop. with about 400 men from tbe 
British camp at I.un.lyx Lane, crossed tbe 
Niagara River July 11. 1813. and attacked 
the blockhouse at Black Rock, where tba 
Americana had a considerable quantity of 
naval Store* and ammunition. The i 
boast «ii. In charge of Cieo. ret. r ): 
t.r. with le»N than a doieu artllletUta. 
About 800 inliltla and a am.ill band of in 
dlans were acnttercd abom la Ibe Deli 

II." null:: ' , approach 

ind Potter narrowly escaped rupture. On 
his way to llufTalo, moetlng i 
of 100 regulars. , i mnl nt I 

Hi. Inradera. After n sh 
llrltlsli were driven with lo»s to Hi. Ir 
Lieut.'Col. Bishop wax mortally worn 
In August. 1MI, Black Rock was ngaln 
attacked i.y the Kriiiih ana • 
defended by the Americans. After the 
tie of Lundya Lane tin my re- 

tired to Hot i I .. n in r 

no. ml. having received re . nforccmenta, 
went In pursuit. As a prellmlnn 
ward attacking 1 ihe Rrltlxli 

oral resolved [o Ink" possembva of Black 
Rock. About 1,200 men under ; 
Tucker crossed the rlTer on Auj. 3. 
nnd were mot and driven back by 300 
Americana under Lieutenant* Ryan, K 
and Armstrong. The liniuii lost n cousld- 
erside uiimbrr; the American losa was 
slight. 

Black Bock, N. Y., works at, referred 

to, 1563. 
Black Soa: 
Navigation of, unlocked, 1008. 
Vesaels of United States excluded 

from, discussed, 1065. 
Free pajsajre for, secured by treaty 
with Turkey, 1067, 1157. 

Black Warrior, The,— The American mer- 
chant resael wblcb was seised nt riarana 
by Cnban customs officials Feb. 2D. 1SS4, 

and with Its cargo was declared i 
I'-'TilT, 2778), Tli" proceedings nroused s 
bitter feeling tigniuxi Son In, nud a special 
messenger wa* dispatched Instructing the 
in minister at Madrid Io demand, 
a* Immedlato redress, Indcmnlflcatlon to 



1 



Blockade 



MTBCM la the turn of 1300.000. Tin 
-pola to accede Ira to ibe 
Oalead manifesto. Spain nfi..-' 
evOBpeoeatlon (or tbe leisure (Wtw 
the Incident waa need as a pretext for lator 
■YUbesMexlaus »xp«dlll«ai lula Cuba. 

BUck Warrior. The, aeizure of.bv Span 
isli author ias*d, 2767, £778. 

Disavowal of, by Spain, and payment 
of indemnity, 2S09. 
[••ratioo for, teto' 
BUck Waur SUte.— A nickname for Ne- 
braska (q. t.i. (See alao Statei.) 
BUckfe*t Iodiaos. (S«* Indian Tribe*.) 
BUckMOCk'S (8. 0.). Battle Od 
rcatfacr. 118ft Ceo. Sumter started to* Kort 
Ninety Six to attempt Ita capture. He mi 
porvard by CoL Tartetoa. A sllrtnba took 
palace ■<l'« plan: 

oa tbe Tyger River. 

Tarletoe Ccd. li-avtnr nearly 300 dead aad 
woaaded upon the Held. Tli* American loss 
• as only three killed aad n«e wosjudedL 

BUdaniburg- (Md.), Battle of.— Aa early 

a* January. 1M«. lati 

nsalBitoo that 4,0f iroooa 

aad landed at Bennada. destined for toe 
Lolled State*. Tke British Admiral I 
bars arrlr*d at I.ycnfcsTrii Hit. Vn„ In 
Mates Kitfc I • I l.rls. 

la August tie waa joined bj 
al Cochrane, who took command, and 
lata* joined lo the Chesapeake by 
teterase of Wellington's :. 

The civil government at v. 
a apathetic In the face of 1m- 
danger. Washington, with Ita pub- 
dlngs and records, waa ■ 
(acted. At the sanrgeslloa of 
aster the President called n f'ntdeet 
enimeil IB Jnly anil proposed raising »" 
amy for the defence of the Federal capital 
This comprehended a requisition on the 
State* for tnllStla aggregating 03.000 men. 
The naval defense* wrre InfrsMed lo 
asodor* Barney, with a atnall floe: 
ran boats carrying 400 men. By Aug. I 
ler, woo waa assigned to the de- 
of ibe capital, had 1.000 regular* and 
almost 4.000 oil ooamand for 

IB* defense of Washington and ll.iltlroore. 
Tb» remainder of the army waa on paper. 



British, n»o\ . . ituxent by land 

and > ro. Itarney de- 

stroyed hla Botllla at Plr Polot and croaaed 



toward tbe Eastern Branch of the Potomac. 

tannine a Junction wlib Winders ndvaac-e. 

Basra bad proceeded to BUdenebcrg. about 

are mites from Washington, on the poet 

toad w Baltimore. Here nt noon. Aug. 2t. 

be two armies faced each other, th» 

BriUak, nndrr Geo. Koaa. nearly :..<"«> 

ftrsafc i.OOO of them aeasoncd by eerrle. 

It continental Rnrojie. sblle lb* defender* 

of in* cap! d malolr «f moii-.-l 

haast , ootried militia, many of them only 

■are days from their homea. The haul* 

■assd rroo aboct rutlf-pnet twelve mi t mr 

•dart and revolted la tbe utter root i f 

tje *aerlcst«. Tho British lost upward 

■> HO awn In lb* engagement. The Amei 

*™«Bnad on id 51 « 

Inraders mar b 
gjfjjta l. seized It. and homed tb. 

Bod-AJliaon Act: 
PitfKiaed by Preaident — 
Arthur, 4033. 4720, 4S30. 
Clerelaod. 4B2T, 5097, 6373. 
Barriaon, Bc=j.. 5475. 



Hayca, 4511, 45«8. 
Vetoed by Picaidont Hay«», 4408. 

Bland Dollar.— A name aometlmea ap- 
DtM to tbe silver dollar of el..- 1 altod 
States, tbe colu.- a began In 1878. 

DurliiK that *cnr Congrest pasted I!.' 

Ilnj for snch coinage. A bin 
IntTOducod In Hie House of Repr< 
lives by Richard P. Bland, of Missouri. 
July 25. 1876. providing for the free and 
' ' '• 1 coinage of silver, which bad 

uled alnci- . bin 

passed the Boom iirorldlnst for free 

bat kii» modlQod In the Senate iiy 
tbe Allison am*ndm«nt Ax tbe bill became 
n law li 
coinage tbe Mrcreiarj of tbe Tr- 

1 purchase each month not leaa than 
hh> nor more than 14.O01 
of silver bullion to b« coined loto illver 
dollara of 41iJ arrnliia . ildent 

r. rorned the bill with hla vet. 
.1' Hime da> 
House and Senate pami-d the bill over bla 
T«to. The etTecta of the low were dla- 

I by the thief Executive* from time 

me. (See Bland-Alllaon Act 1 Tnl* 
led In l«»0 by the ai 
Congreaa known as the Sherman art (q. r.i. 

Btlzxant 8Ut«.-Altcrn«tlv e nickname tor 
South Dakota. (Sec Coyote Stat.-.i 
Blockada.— A wrlldeilned principle of In- 
ternational law whli-b aseurvs to any na- 
il"' rl^bt In time of war to render 
iitrse with the enemy'a porta unlaw. 
ful, hazanluiiH. or Impoaalblc on the pnrt 
of neutrala. It was Istrodii .1 l.\ the 

ill hii ].'iS4. The principle n 
nlted I on powers la tbnt a block- 

ade to be binding muat be effective. It la 
Carried lato elTect by a force of war ablps. 
which patrol tbe ax-n ootalda tha • nemy'a 
harbor and arrvat any \<-wl« of any power 
attempting to enter Should any arreated 
nn goods or persona contraband 
of war. It la condemned by a prlic 1..1111 
and sold, the proceeds being divided among: 
IM blockade equadron. This right i» In 
controvertible, hxvlns lt« origin la t ti.- Kound- 
eat |. .1* maritime Jurisprudence, 

sanctioned »v the- practice of tbe bitat na- 
tions of enllgbti-n ic waa 
Ureat Hiite.ln In 1803: the 
Italtlc hv Denmark In ia4a-40 and In I 
ih- <:ulf of Kin. Allies in 
At the outbreak of the Civil War In I 
Ira the Confederate govornmcnl r. 
eeery Kngllsh Teasel that entered ll« 
to bring arme and ammunition aa part of 
Ita cargo. Plymouth. Nowhern. Wllmliigton 
and other North Carolina porta were much 
used by these vessels, aa also tbe port of 
Charleston, 8. C Called Btate* rtuleera 
ided these jMirte, and under the »h- 
tnbliKhed rulea of International law aelxed. 
searched and conflacated foreign vi 
alfeinpllng to run the blockade, aa well n« 
eremy'a ahlpa In transit. At the commence- 
ment of [he Spanish-American War In 180H 
the I'nife,! States maintained block- 
■t" of Cuban ports for several weeks under 
the direction of Acting Rear-Admlrnl Snmp. 
•on. which finally resulted In the but lie of 
July 8, when tbe American aquadron under 
Immediate command of Commodore 
t entirely dcKtroyed lh» Spanish fleet 
under Admiral Cervers. in the Itusto Jap- 
anese War face Japan), tbe Japanese main 
tnlned a attlct blockade of Port Arthur 
from Feb. JO. 1904, wh»n the first attack 
waa made, ontll the fall of tbe city. Jan. 
■-'. 1905. 




Blockades usages and Papers of the 



Blockades: 

i ... ■ i m s J 

i. . 

188. 
Kataliliahed bj 
Portugal, claimi of United I 
gro • 

i.'il st«t •■» 

growing out nf. Ill J. 

Id Ol \i I binding, fTec- 

Uvn, 8046. 

dfllUiM '■' ■!••' -i |Tii- 

claimed w 
Of Cuban porta, prtx "472, 

I of, ret. ri.'il to. 08 I 
Of Mexican p I enact »f, «n 

Unit.>. i Statoa, 1705, .733. 
Of South proclaimed, 3215, 

Claim* of foreijpi powers ejrielBg 

iiul • 

Honreaideut foreigners enjmi 

1*1 !,•-, i.i.i 
Referred 
Untune. 

■ certain porta, or ralu 

tlii- s<unii in ti... Interaata of 

trade and tonmn'rw. Imtli I. 

an. 178, 307, 

3431, ■■■■■ 

Of S|inint.h Main, referred to, 778. 
' it Tripoli, irai ttioni bi I trees 
Mat. i nK out of, 

Blockhouse.-* in wMi ii Million 

belli ; 
which they attach tin- •n.'iity throuk-li »u It- 
able opening* la the wnll*. 

Bloody Shirt.— a tii in 

acta of Impasaloni • »ni) 

rrlteri who nftor the el i'Itii 

Wnr endeavored .uori** and 

to aii' itndi •'< their :. 

polltknl effect, i;.'. I vinir wnr nnlmualtlee 
■ ni. i to be warlne; tin' bloody »tiirt. 

Bluo Boole. . -.) 

Blue Or MS 8t*tO.— Alternative nickname 

tor Kentucky. CSei Cbra i 

Bluo Hen 8tate, — Alturnatrrr nlnknf rati Boc 

:i|nmoad State.) 

Blua Laws. — a name applied to the early 

Of m>rnc of the Amerle, m 
•riii. Sea Haven, 

In Sjirll. nm. • 

if i ; ,,| g ., .. delll . I 

Mow«," all., uii) be lilndlni on nil off-- 1 
nnd n role to all lb 

ill. tl. ill "III! Til.- . rill Into par- 

llcalan hereaftei '" New ll in 

. ...i.- a u de' elopi .1 I !lne». It I* 

r. If tan f tie 

rule* nf conduct Often <|liet-d ll» Hill" 

l.,!'i r were ever i 

arc en f.>iinw«r "No one inall ran .m the 

Snbbuth day. <ir walk in bin irnnlen or »!•*- 
wh«r. except reverent I j !o en. I Irom • 

■Ni. woman ehall kin tier *hlld on 
Babbath or fa.ting day. - "Mi 
■halt rend common prarer. keep LbrUtmas 



Of ki I and plea. dance, 

play card*, or i 

pi I he drui illid Jewa 

harp.'' Aa klaaaa. 

■ 

on tbe l.nrd'a Day. 

i'nf York atao f"rt»ade 
the |i .1- .lay by trave 

.-.jlvnnlfi I.- 
Thoae of Heath i 
t'.M '^itli 

profa- 
ne :n u .-r tin .. i i« >. »iin tor- 

vlrv In •: ne !■ ,-!>::, ii. -ii. 

Bluo Licks (Ky->. BatUo of. Anc io, 

were 

; 

'-two, IlK-lllitlllK 

ii ...ii ..r i . ■<■ i.-: i 

Blue Light*.- I'urlnc the anromer and an 

■f ISIS, while tb# Rrltlah coma. 
Sir Thomna llni.l. frltb bll Beet, bail tbe 
of N.'-n I... ml-. i . ;■ I 

lie.-j.tnr rollle 

atteuip a***i 

. and the 
or claimed that lilt failure o»» due 
to the !\iet tli.it Line %iirn.il : 

flaaliod from I !i. I. . i 

lie- frlendi of tbe I'-iltlib and the oppo- 
nents nf the war became known aa I 
I.lartit l 

Blue 8ky Laws.— A popular dealgnatlnn 

applied to the aereral atate law* . 

the aale of tccurltli* of liulii.trinl or 10II- 

..mpnnlea to the nuMI. 
nf tin 

Ml- II- I. .1 III 

Th.iKe of It tiler Ktnte* lire 

Hie Knn>a* In nr ami follow ii* .: 

line. The ■ ii.i.. ile- 

fur I lie r rvXU- 

liillun ami aupervlilon of fnrelgn noil 

- nnd iv|-r- r,-2ii- 

■•1110* 
l..-ii.li nr ni i "<u<d 

!• - : ' ■ .f aceurltlea Uen< 

nueh eoneena; in in in- m frai 

II Illli -..- enrlli. < ; 

lllneul 

let ii.- provlalon* of the law. Tbe 

■ 

nil I'.ljllll 

(wllll i in- of hnnk« 

nnd building and hmn na«oela- 
II. mi i wbl.h offer* or negotiate* for tbe 
ilc of oi - Ixci iptloni 

bonda, nr "tier K#.-ur1tle« 

ie\.e|,t ;:..V, .rillliellt. 

bonds, national imnk atock. bolldlns 
look, or »h.-in-a In 

8tMte, Hr.ik.ri nn. I Inve- 1 in.nl enn.|i 

uni«t ohtnln llccu*** or pennlta from tea* 

Rank i oner and file <1) an 

I i i ili.lr tlnnnrlol condition 

C.'i ii .-..|.' .if nil . . .toeli* and 

..r other ., in. I. the 

llMnle e,,|. 

nil llteratare nr advertlaln* mal 

ponrltle*; iti a 
of any chattel nr conatllutliui ami hi 

. Ii Ibl .•■ do Iiii-Iiii •- '.M 

re|ire-. -Ml :.l mil 0< Vl- •■■ Ml. I IT Inll OT IM COT- 

poratl ii 

anle I* made a felony, punlatinble hy *I0.- 
OOft flue and len it-.ir* In iirl»nn. lo aomo 
atatea limken are required to furnlab ev|. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Bokhara 



dence of their good character and financial 
standing, and permission to do business 
may be revoked If the official In charge of 
enforcing the law decides that unsound se- 
curities are being offered for sale. 

Besides Kansas the following states have 
enacted Blue Sky Laws: Arizona, Arkan- 
sas. California. Florida. Idaho. Iowa, 
Maine. Michigan. Missouri, Montana. Ne- 
braska, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, 
Oregon, South Dakota, Vermont and West 
Virginia. A similar law was defeated In 
Ibe New York legislature In 1912-13. and 
Minnesota has a statute applicable only 
to the securities of Insurance companies. 

Bluefields. (See Mosquito Indian Strip.) 
Board. — In governmental parlance, a small 
body of Individuals working together for a 
definite purpose, like the Board of Strategy 
in war matters. 
Board of Food and Drag Inspection. 

(See Food and Drug Inspection, 

Board of.) 
Board of Health. (See National Board 

of Health.) 
Board of Ordnance and Fortification. 

(See Ordnance and Fortification, 

Board of.) 
Board of Trade and Plantations.— in 
1660 Charles II. established two separate 
councils, one for trade and the other for 
foreign plantations. For a time these were 
united (from 1672 to 16751. The charter 
or Rhode Island and Providence l'lantstlons 
was secured from Charles II., July 8, 1663, 
by John Clarke, who acted as agent for the 
Colony. This charter continued In force 
180 years. In 1605 the Hoard of Trade 
and Plantations was established and given 
rharge of the English Colonies In America. 
In 1768 a Secretary of State for America 
waa established, and the duties of the board 
were transferred to him. 

Boatswain. — A minor ship officer having 
rharge of ship equipment. 
Boca del Toro, United States of Colom- 
bia, vessels from, tonnage duty on, 
suspended, 4805. 
w*^h ^, — A* term of uncertain origin, applied 
contemptuously In the European War to the 
German soldiers. 

Body of liberties.— A bill of rights con- 
sisting of a code of 100 fundamental laws 
setting forth the sacredness of life, liberty, 

troperty and reputation. The Ilndy of 
abertles was compiled by Nathaniel Ward, 
{•star of the church at Ipswich. Mass.. 
rom drafts submitted. A ropy of these 
Ian waa sent to every town within the 
Jurisdiction of Massachusetts to be first 
considered by the magistrates and elders, 
and then to be published by the constables. 
"Uut If any man saw anything to be 
•ltw«d be might communicate his thoughts 
W same of the deputies" In December. 
I'M. the General Court of Massachusetts 
adopted this fundamental code as the basis 
of rommon law. there having been up to 
tut time no written law In the Colony. 

Boar War. — The conflict between Great 
Britain arid the South African republics 
Of Transvaal and the Orange Free Slate. 
Fallowing the organisation of the Trans- 
T "l Republic the British claimed suzer- 
atoly oTer the country, and sent a gover- 
nor led s military force to support their 
cfilmi |n 1870. The Boers, who were de- 



scendants of Dutch colonists, offered mili- 
tary resistance and defeated the British 
troops In several engagements, notably at 
Lalng's Neck, Jan. 28, 1881, and at Majuba 
Hill. Feb. 27, 1881. In March, the Inde- 
pendence of the Republic was acknowl- 
edged by a British treaty, and the Boers 
acknowledged the suzerainty of the Queen 
of England. 

During the following years British 
settlers, or ultlanders, protested to, tbelr 
home government that they were harshly 
treated by the locnl authorities. British 
military forces were Increased and the in- 
censed Boers demanded the Instant with- 
drawal of all troops. ' The Orange Free 
State supported the Transvaal In opposing 
British authority. 

In October, 1800, 10,000 British forces 
were concentrated nt Ladysmlth, In Natal, 
at the Junction of two railroads, one run- 
ning Into the Transvuul, the other Into the 
Orunge Free State. Here they were be- 
sieged by the Boers until they were re- 
lieved by the British General Buller. Feb. 
28. 1000. Other British forces were be- 
sieged in Klniberley. In Cape Colony, from 
Oct. 20. 1800 to Feb. 15, 1000, and In 
Mnfeklng, Bechuanaland, from October, 
1800, to May 16, num. Attempts to re- 
lieve these positions occasioned the prin- 
cipal buttles of the war. In 1800 General 
Sir Redvers Buller had 54.000 troops In 
the country. He made three futile at- 
tempts to relieve Ladysmlth. and was 
severely defeated while attempting to force 
the Tugela river near Colcnso, Dec. 15, 
1800. In January, 1000. Lord Roberts was 
ordered to South Africa with the whole 
Seventh Army Division, of 100,000 men, 
with Lord Kitchener as chief of staff. 
Cuder his direction <Scn. French, with 5.<M)0 
British, relieved Klmherley. The Boet 
general Cronje. with 5.000 men. surren- 
dered at Paurdeebcrg. In the bed of the 
Mo,], I, i- River. Feb. 27, 1000. Bloemfonteln 
surrendered to I-ord Roberts March 15, 
Presidents Steyn and Kruger escaping to 
the north. General DeWet continued to 
harass the British, and cut off the water 
supply of Bloemfonteln. The Boer gen- 
eral, Joubert. died March 27th and was 
succeeded by Louis Roths. June 5th. Rob- 
erts occupied Pretoria. By establishing 
a system of block signal houses throughout 
the country and driving the Inhabitants 
Into concentration camps the British finally 
succeeded hi forcing the Boers to sur- 
render. Peace was signed May .11. 1002. 

American Interest In the Boer War Is 
shown by the fact that the Senate vote on 
Mr. Petllgrew's resolution of sympathy 
with the Boers was 20 In favor of to 20 
against. The South African republics 
officially appealed to the I'nlted States to 
Intervene, with a view to tbe cessation of 
hostilities early In 1000. President Mc 
Klnley, however, refused to Interfere. 

The Boer force during the war was 
about 75.000. Tbe total British force sent 
to South Africa from Aug. I, 1R0O. to May 
31. 1002. was 3011.1100, The cost of tbe 
war to England was more than a billion 
dollars and 20.000 men. (See Illustration 
opposite 0503.) 

Boer War, attitude of the United 

States in, G.171, 0410, G429. 
Boise City, Idaho, mentioned, CSlfl. 
Bokhara. — A Russian dependency In cen- 
tral Asia. It Hi's between latitude 41" 30' 
and 30" 40' north and between longitude 
61* 40' and 73' •■list, and is bounded on I he 
north by the Russian provinces of Syr- 
Darla and Samarkand, on the east by the 
province of Fcrghuna, on the south by 



Boahomme Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



JtfeAortf, or Good-Man Richard. 8l>o wai 

• ■■ I " I'.. .!• •: •'•' I "'I All..- 1 • 

r, and carried American odors, 

Mho was m b Tea- 

•Ha, tnpti '1 i" ent« Hi'- ■ 

.if l.sltll, Scotland. '•'!( ati a led. 

mliorough 

ta muttered • Hri ;b n •■»■ i ■ ti.-mi >!■ .•! 

i.v.il l.y tin' Hna/iti mid rounttu t>J 

Th.' larger war ship, the- 

>, though much superior In every n?- 

BOnAommi 

\ r ntlai'1 lulllci loi >k 

bt. In the presence of thou* 

I tho 

Hrrapttf bowsprit to the /.'<•- it orM tnrutca- 

■lock nlih musketry. 

uf Iho 

iii.i-l •tuhhornli bal Ilea I" Hi" 

wnrfnrr. 

• il .if 
hum! 

■ if n. d her command 

surrender Join hla crew to 

ii ■ .1 rionliumme 

III- nurd ink In a I 

R>r picture of tin- ■••nlllct, »c* opposite 

880. 

Boodle. — W lined br crnft or 

rry: mpcclnlly duo - wlt'j f public 

officials. 

Boom. — A term uard In politic* to signify 

n systematic cat ir oBlcc; alao a 

synonym fur ••pro»pii> 

Boomer State. — -\ nl-Uunme fur Oklahoma 
<<1. v.). (flat al»o Main.) 
Boomerang.— A South Af.-h-.m missile 
■ linil'il. returns bo the hand ot 
tin- thrower; banco n campaign hnni v 
bu 1 1 

the int. ■mi. ii i i. run, ' lit B . D t.i 

poi ..■ ii itoi and i i to him. 

BotMivllls (Mo.), Battle of. When l'rcnl- 

il.nl l.ttieoln'H i -ill for Iruopa, April lf», 

he refund to f 
forming the quota uf ttic state 

r la :.i ilr, Jr., a id, ' rjnn- 

if Na- 
-ii. tlve rcglincnl 

« in ii suotbei Ml 

.• Ii rl been 1..H.I1 Will 

F, ii i . I Menu- 

h -tale 

mllltli iiup i si Louis Ma ■ 10 " 

and ..ii n» »ut- 

•i. TOO 

I" number, June l "• I uplcd .!•• I 

. 
i m I'm it be iii ; 

Ihe *f:it-_- I rOOpe ■ ■:!'■' I'll i 

Bootleggers, misdnpds of, 7014. 
Booty. — Good* ■ "in the enemy. 

Border. — A boundnrj ,i>ctnlly the 

borbood of i'i" bouudarj Baa between 

lean Border — formerly 
i hi Indian Border. 
Border 8Ut«S.— A do.Icn.itloti for tbo acT- 

artl linn, (tatet of Delaware, Maryland. 
Virginia. Kentucky nnd Missouri, lying oast 
I., in. rree Including. 

ArkaDim. North Carolina and renni 

i pie of these states were anxious, 

iiirinir and before tin Cl»tl War, for 
jiu nn d Instmcnl if I ■•■ I lnt»ry 

i ii. They originated tbo IVace Con- 



Borneo.— A large Island In Malaysia. If 
la situated In lago. 

•il on tbo coat by tbe Sc.i 
tacaaaar si 

ihe : ml ou the weal and 

i • hy the China Sea. 

HUlory.— It *». :. 1 by the 

rortugiic* In 1118. Borneo baa an area 

of about Sl.i.ooo fcjaart mile* and • popu- 

■'nyafc-ai , Two chains of moun- 

talub : ■ liland In a nearly parallel 

dlrertli >rthc*»t t.. 

. lux- 

!•. iiinl ,ln, |. '.. a arc 

i-xport'd. The mineral wealth la rreat. 

!..!.], antimony, aalt. patrolouna. tin. c 
■.ml nm, bu' era iux, ae yet. 
largely worked. 

Borneo, treaty with, 9888. 
Borough.— A political division Incorporated 
for municipal purpurea, now prevailing rn 
some IS Connecticut. : 

nnd I'cimiylvonla. tSee 
Pocket 

Bosphorus, Tho, restriction* on paaaage 
of Strnits of the Dnrdannlle* «nd, by 
alilpa of other nation*, «078. 

Boas. — In polltlca a leader who dominate 
ii poUBeal part j In Ma di.trlct, ward, state 
or otbi I dlTlKlon. 

Borton: 

lixecution of laws for return of lugi- 
■ alarca forciblv resisted in, 

Proclamation regarding, 254S. 
Reference to, 26?3. 

in. rr-forred to by Presi'leut 
Grant, 43 
liMlu.trial expedition at, discussed, 

4773, 
Navy yard at, referred to, 4G76. 
Titlo of United States to land oe- 
cnpled as, rcfrrrr-d to, 4698. 
Unlawful ussemblages in, KB I l>roo- 
Iniuatinn against and authorization 

ploy force in euppreasiBfV 

8887, B845. 
Boston Case.— Tie base ei »lare 

I from bla owner In Georgia and 
i.Mik paaaagi iioond 

for Hie roaal nf Maine, 'I 

In charged the capi 
wltb aleallng tbo slave and demanded that 
r ,.f Main. .. fugitive 

waa refUxe'i hi 

Georgia then called upon < 
a low fooipcllliu.' tin if Slalne to 

hi was 
taken by CongreiM, 

Boston. ETacuatlon of.— During tbe win- 
ter of l"7il Wuxblngton, huving reedrtd 
aotno ordnance captured at Tlcomlemga aod 
Blj of ammunition laki n i.y prlvotrers 
at aea, deterrolned to attnek Boston, then 
i.. • aplcd bj the iii Itli b. In pe 
this plan be occupied Koaka Hill 

H Ihe extremity of Dorchester N 

. >' hi. h uumuded 

night ..f March *. IV 

•I with brcnatwork*, nnd tho Itrttlih 
wero forced to rlak a general aetl.ui , 
lodge them or abandon ih» town. They 



Bourbons 









• hose the latter alternative, and nn March 
17 Uii 

. .ll«JS army aiul navy without tiring 1 a 
(am. 

Boston Fire r«f erred to, 4 US. 

Boston MiMSfTf — The Brlllab navigation 

• ci» were a *ouiec of great nonoj-»ncc and 
bns to loo American colonist*, au<l IMf 
r jr-cutloa was restated at all point*. Great 
Britain attempted to coerce the people Into 

• roraplUaep with the law* by sendli 

with three rag llootno In 

I I. : presence of tbe troop* fi 
•rrraiat" Daring 

1?W nod II if 1770 nnmeroua 

ion and IirKUh soldiers ebsrmd with 
IB* enforcement of the law*. In February, 
17JU. * preaa gang froto tbo RrltMl I 
K—e boarded a ship belonging to a Mr. 
Hooper, of Marblchciid. frbercapan a riot 

oed. Ob lb* Blrht -f Mar. r-h .'> f..:i..« inir 



■ Urge m*il rriprnM to tb* ringing of 
::* and caror Into collision nllb 
lb* soldiers. The latter fired, killing three 
persons and wouadlog arieral utt-.r. 
sotdlers w»r* tried and acquitted, btl 
Beats of tbe Hoston massacre spread rapidly 
did much to Mrcoxthea the spirit of 
. 
Boston Port Act— An tet of l-srlWoseat 
Introduced by Lord North and passed March 
:«. la rrtallalloo for tbe distraction 
of cargoes of Ira In B.wton Hsrtx.r. It 
provided for tbe dlacontlnnooce -t landing 

laebargleg. loading or - 
la e Klu ndUe to or from tbe city of Boat on 
IbMtoa lln merce was trans- 

ferred lo Salem and MnrWchcod. »ed Geo. 
Cage aritt.d la I ins I. 17 it. to 

c tb* lam- Tbe were 

■saaaVase. Mneb aympathv m-n* e«pr»«wd 
rowgbout th» Colonies, la om-iy 
place* people refna*d I" bur British good*. 

-o 1771. tbe American 
was formed, pledging: Ibe tnetnbi 
coBSaaaptlnn and nutilDtercurse wllh (irrat 
in, Irelaod aad the British West 
Indira Tbe Association Included .'.2 aii-m- 
I Insula! t'ongreaa 

Boston T«a Party.— in 17«7 Great Brit- 
•la imposed a doty on i.i ■ 

■ •olcmlrs. The Kast India Company 
prevailed ' Mil litrj la 1778 to 

snared the set nn ' ipany 

Irea. paytng Hi* duty, tb. -■ ih* 

tiiBinirn to pa* It. Tbe colonists were 
ladlgnant at this traaafer 
the eoopany lo themselves, and adopted 
tartaas rs.tbo.la to evade payavnt 

I arrived In Boston b 
•mrrylor ill ..-heats of tea, and early In 
twtailer two others arrli-.t "o lbs 
lag . • 16th an enthuslssti 

tag «*» held al r'acull Hall, and at Its 

i • . -.-I ad K) 
liiin. t..j» po*»*si!«n of Ho- three ships 
•at Oeew overboard the cargoes of tea. 
•Brcatlnc In all to 343 eh. ntecn 

etaas were also dcuroyrd In Sew York 
kubw abaat tbm Bsma Ume Hieae event* 
••••It** In Ibe p««»>i*v "f th- Kowon Fort 
*" I*. r.) nnJ were an Important part 

.In of causes of Ibe An 
ssilllOtfl. 

•onto. The. mentioned. 6»7, ittfl7. 
*wt*a. V. 8. 8., mention) i;7fl7, 

«?«*, 0771, 6835, «5B3fl. 
setsdarlca. T udnrle* of 

itrd Stat'- limit"* and 

a* aiajert of mur b dispute. The grant* of 



mertea were made by Kara- 

., 

or tin- g... 

W'joui . Ii.ui.-.n I'.. . ... i ,,i 

I'eniii 

tbe f. of the 

. ilnablo wt.i 

i arere agreed upun In 1 . 
treaty of Vermalllen. Congrew. I 
up III.- 

staleti am: .1. uf 

procedure. I n vlllc K I 

..f Orsal l 

a* well as nil other tnntter* betweeu . 
have 

Mir I'uiirl. In 
bOUBdsi'V Of Hi- .tc«. >'M .1. 

nm el ..m the soi i* Hi. 

i 

. M in., si i.-... i 

"g the wr-. 
westerotnost bead of M 

! III.' 

line, ana 

i i... I In 1 . 
tevecn ih.- I '■ p..* 

il. .iy 

i W. 

on the ej»t l.y the Bock* Mountains, "n the 

a'iMtb by latflu.lii 12 .imI an the we*t by 

claim. Spain. Greal llrltnln 

I States. By treaty with 

. Jan 1 1 [tad Bute* 

line 

- I'M'Ida In 1819 

Spain 

aln b 

coronation was agreed upon by the tresly 

Of O. DMtls- 

1V4II 

to accept lut It -..<!.• 49* na tbe 

isseaatoni iin'1 in- i'imi-.i 

-n from tn* Kneky Mountains to lh» 
cbannel between Van. 
malnloiid. (For boundary dispute* after 

1844. " irtlele* mi Aluka, Gadsden I'ur- 

'hsie and Mexican War.) 

Botanic *}».rdsn*.— Wot of Um ( 

In Washington Is a brood stretch ..' [and 

known iik Hie Mull, - ■ I he l*r»lo- 

mnc Klvcr. The part rjiC II- Mull h*-ji 
ailed i!n. i 
,i,i [n 

Willi : llBO I I" -in Hi- 

fill fountain, deigned hr Itnrlholdl 
t Is.-r W*sl along lb* Mall at ill- ground* 

..r ib* Natl i ,, 

. . r Agrl 

-. uuilcr wh -Inn great 

propagating garden*. The Mall further .-x* 
tends ■ ton kionunu al 

Bounty. — A reniml . .(T.-r.-.l hy n government 

to li* clti-. ■ ilhtmenl In 

or Navy : also for li diiKlrlal or olher h< 

' n« for I. nil. lln.- iilng ships. 

I Sec Sugar Bounty. I 

Bounty-Jumper,— A soldier who deserts 

■tin iiiii.ting for bounty. 

Bounty Lands. (8m I^tnrls, Bounty.) 

BOttfbOBS.— The house of Bow 

family of kings that ruled France for over 

two hundred r^.irs, from 1580 to lli- 

.-■r Hie iT.nrii rerolutloo, ITO1. "no of 

ebaraclcrtstlr* was nn nhslhiate re 
fnsal to keep pare wlrli CTSOtl Ksperlence 
Inuglil them nothing. This trult In their 
char.-.. their nam* to b* *p- 

piled lln American political paflUO 



Bourbons 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



any atatrsrnan or politician that rllnga to 
dead Issue* and refuses to accommodate 
himself to changes. 

Boxer Rebellion. (Soo Boxers.) 
Boxara.— The nnuic populnily given to the 
Chinos* antl-fomlgn secret society, Ib-bwti- 
Ch'uan. "Volunteer United Klete." who were 
largely responsible for the disturbances In 
that country In I POO. BxdUd by tha prog- 
rt*i of Kuropean civilization and < in- . 
itr in China they caused antl-forelgn rloU 
In vsriout pans of the empire and mas- 
aaeinl many mlaelounrlea. untl > 
and Kuropean merchants, Oo Jona 20tfa, 
they murdered the German minister. Ilaron 

nd being Joined by the Irm 
Iroopf bsalaged the foreigners and foreign 
ministers In the lintiah legation In lvkmg 
until Aug. 13, srhen tha slags una raised by 
s relief sxpsdltJoo from th- klllsd i: 
Japanese. Ktiaaiiin, British. American and 
franco "'I Hag '-"'• 1901, <'lilna agread 
to pay to the Injured powers. Austria Run- 
nry, Belgium innn-. German* Great 
Britain, Italy, Japan. The Netherlands, ICuav 
ala and the United Htatea. an Indemnity 
amounting to «,'mi.(khi.iioii tnnia i j:i:;:; mui. 
ono i fur Injuries Inflicted by Hie lloxera, 
This Indemnity Is tn constitute a gold dabt 
repayable In thirty. nine annul InMall- 
menta, due on Jan. 1 of each -,, u on ' 
1041 interest at 4 per cent, to be poyoble 
half yearly. The securities for the ■ I ■ hi at •■ 
the Imperial Maritime I'ustoma. otherwise 
unappropriated. IDCTM per nent , 

mi colors**, toe Navy Caatona, and the 
Salt Tex otherwise unappropriated. 
See Illustration opposite MM. 

Boy SCOUtt Of America. The Boy Scout 
movement can be traced back to widely 
separated aourres where constructive Ideas 
came to hoy workers and wore tested with 
varying degreea of aueceaa. In America 
•here were a number of originator* of 
methods, plans tnd principles that have 
proved efTc. lire In tlreat Britain. I 

Mr Itohert S S Undon-1'owell became 
active In organisation work based largely 

oil tbs Idea* ntiii thode of Amei 

worker" lie did this so BUCCCaefuIIJ that 
the enrollment of Ilrltlah Boy Scout* soon 
grew Into the hundred thousands, with Hie 
emphasis, not 00 the mllllary note, b 
peace virtues and learning practical trades. 
Then the movement spread CO Orrnanjr. 
France. Itnly. Australia and Sew Zealand, 
msda and the lulled States: to South 
American republics: in short, almost the 
world over, since It la already established 
In tn. countries. KwiMimv ii 

baa shown adaptation to new fields and 
nntlonolltlce. 

In Cermany the boys hav* engaged In 
the work with such eufhuslnsni snd In such 
nnmbers that the I'msslsn and Havarlan 
authorities are giving the movement finan- 
cial aid. But 11 haa been left to the United 
Slatea to ahow what the svsfem of scouting 
ran accomplish, when It returns tn the lands 
In which the larger number of Its working 
Ideaa and prlnelplea originated. While the 
number of the Boy Scouts enrolled through- 
oiii the world Is eaiiraated as not leaa than 
two million, one-sixth of the whole number 
are In the United Blaise, The emphasis 
nn,l wleniri of the movement belong here also 
to the highest plana — that of sfflelenl citi- 
zenship, aervlee anil ehararier-huildlng. 

•'The Boy demit a of America." the name 
under which the movement In the I'nltetl 
State, wna Incorporated. February 8. 1010, 
haa ne Ita Honorary I'realdent. the Hon. 

''' I row Wilson, 1'rcxldunl of the United 

■tates and [Ion Will, am ll Taft and Col. 

Theodoro Kooacvelt ss Its Honorary Vie*. 



President* Associated with, these In ap- 
: a n,i promotion of the movement are 
mi I'liiinii from all walks of public 
life, who sre members of the National • 
ell and of Hi.' local councils lu the cities 
and towns of the whole country, and a boat 
of otbera who earnestly co-operate In the 
work. 

A gi i "'og the various 

us aud civic organization* of the com- 
munity that sre engaged in boys' work, 
are brought log, 

the prom a of Jicout work. This local 

council receives a charter from th- sst< 



organliatiou giving ll minority to 

all quesllona relating to scouting 



Mill til 



in i hat district aod to pass upon all 

. nun lu many eases this 
! engages a buys' work director, to 
in- known sa tin ''ommlsslon. 

take charge of the work In that 
He 1 1 i be local 

Ihe direction and promotion of the work, 
i the leader of the Scout Master*, and 

aa sii'ii gives such InstroctJotai and help 
an mai M ueivasary. arranges Inter-troop 
meets, gamea. enrnps. and In general, makea 
uniform th* plan of work conducted la 
that community The Scnim are organised 
In patrols aud troops. Might boys eons:! 
nit'' o patrol, one of whoml* cbonrn aa the 
il trader. Three patrols make up a 
troop. The Seoul Master la the adult lender 
of Ihe troop. Already there are abo> 
local council* In a* many cltle» 

i idled States and under the direction 
of each there are from five to one hundred 
and fifty Scout Masters In charge of troop*. 

The Scout programme I* proving prarti- 
• able n« a civic enterprise. There sre many 
cities so thoroughly organized that every 
phase of hoy life In the community Is being 

i I* hi il by !j ll sctll i'" ■ Th,' BWri DM jsl 

I* adapting Itself not only to the wealthy 
classca but to the boya of the slums, to 
the newsboy, mid to foreign hoys alike 

Scouting means outdoor life and no 
health, atrcngth. happiness snd practical 
education. By combining wholesome, at- 

outd ■ activities with i he In- 

Buenos of the Scout ostb snd law. the move- 
ment develops character and worth-while 
ability. 

Scoutcraft Includes Instruction In Bret 
aid. life saving, tracking signalling -yellng. 
nature study, seamanship, enmpcraft. wood- 
craft, chivalry and all the handlcrafta 

The national organization la largely main- 
tained by public subscription* 
and Contributing Memberships are Issued to 
men and women throughout tha country 
who are financially assisting In th* dr ■■. 
xoeot and promotinn of tlila organisation 
among boya. National Headouarteis \ . 
20O Klflh Avenue, New Tork < itv nfflcera 
of the National Council: Hnnnrarv I'rcji- 
deot, Woodrow Wllaon : Honorary Vice- 
President*. Wllllsm II, Taft. Col, Theodora 
llonaevelt I I'realdent. P. H. Livingston. 
Washington, D. C. : Ylce-Prealdeats B. L. 
liulaney. Bristol, Tenn ; Milton A. Mcltae, 
t. Mich.: Pnvld Starr Jordan Stan- 
ford University. Cal. : P, L. 8eely, Ashevtlle. 
N, C : A. Stamford White. Chicago. III.: 
Chief Scout, Krnest Thompson Seton, Green- 
wleh. Ct ; National Scout Commissioner. 
Pnnlel Carter Beard. Fluahlng. N T. : Treaa- 
urer. George D. Pratt, Brooklyn, N. T. 
Boycott.— In November. 1880. during the 
Land la-ague, agitation In Ireland. Cspt. 
James Boycott, agent of Lough Mask farm, 
an estate of Lord Krne. having evicted many 
of th* tenanta of ihe eataie for refualng 
to pay rent, was besieged on his premise* 
The neighboring tradesmen refused to snvt- 
ply him with their goods at any price. Hi* 
s-rrants left and no otbera could b* la- 



Encyclopedic Index 



Bran 



to take their place*. T-« t»Ui.r hla 

una r-s--»*>«ij (o br.ug Is 
■I laburvTa ai.it to protect them whl.e 
g* the preaeate of armed cob- 
' alary. Ttil» n>etli...J of 
liar ansong lh« la ml lunier*. »nil was 

[..i late eperatloa ifali M uojikemar*. 

well as landlorda. 

Tal* policy of non-Intercourse and effort* 
• II; isolate business opponents 

— I IMroaturvd Into the United state* by 

. Knight* of Labor mil Trait* I iiioua 
•bout ISSrJ. la 1NNI two women bakers 
*f New Vortt were boycotted by tb« labor 
salon* and their frleads. I'rraona without 
Crarraocaa against lb* women wort Induced 
to withdraw Ibeir patronage. - I"be bualneaa 
•a* th* women waa eerlouly Injured, until 
tasty were relieved by receiving large order* 
for bread for ebar.i «. During 

IB* aamc year one oaan waa tonvlcted of 
attempting to extort avoney under a threat 
«j( Boycotting. Oim mas araa bojmtr. . 
(IT l»C tMtlmoay against conspirator*. 

IVosotung baa been deflaea by an Amcrl- 
eaa judge aa a "runvvlaatloa of many to 
eaaac a toaa to one person by coercing 
outer* acainat their will to withdraw from 
kiss their la-ncil. Ml business Intercourse, 
thratatb Ureata that unlet* those other* do 
av. tb* many will cause I oj to 

thano." A boycott, eteo when not accom- 
panied by vtolcBce or latlmldatlon. baa been 
proBouuced nnliwful by many eo 
*W» accompanied by violence It Is a 
rrtmlaal olfcoe* at .-"mason law. 

I*r**id*nt Taft. » ben Judge of an Ohio 
cavort, decided that while the employee* of 
aa/ person or cueapaay bad a right to 
rvfuee to work at any time, tbey bad no 
right to preTent the work bain 
others, the attempt at the Utter 
being cbaractcrljed a* a secondary boycott. 
•Jons of tbr lolled Stafa Court* In 
bo? cot ting case* have lem contraillctory. 
Id tb* case o. tbe Isanbury (Coan.l hatters, 
the eaaployer* were adjudged Injured to tbe 
ei teat of tSO.fXK). and authorised to bring 
suit agalnat tbe boycott leg organisation 
th» tassn ntan*. the 

3* Court bcld tbnt the boycotted com. 
pan/ did not bare a property right In tb* 
trade of any pa- -on: bene*, any 

oast psrann may rlghtfally withdraw ha 
patronage. Tbe Jodge disagrees with the 
dwtrlne that an act perfectly lawful when 
dots* by ana parson become* criminal when 
doe* by two or more acting In concert. 
a»d nil** that If the bo) .otter* violated 
no law In withdrawing their patrunav. 
roold aot be enjoined from continuing tbe 
it la force, so long aa the means 
•tarplnyed to make It effective were Dot 

intana 

Federation of Labor rt a I. ," I Ijtw- 

r indictment* against mem- 

>i urged with boycotting 
t*'» Waa prosecuted la the United -Stat** 
•tprea* Court and tb* remits will b* 
5M ander AntlTruat Law* ; Buck* Store 

IB* Mat** bavlng lawa prohibiting hoy- 

■*lag in tertna ar* Alabama. Colorado. 

■.dlana aad Tens. The states 

■flaws prohibltlBg blacklisting In term* 

w» a la** si a. Araassaa. i otorad. 

"t. riceida. Illinois. Indian*. Iowa. Kan- 

*Kl*n*»ota. HlaataaiCDl lappllea to tele- 

r*|a ap.'ra!f.ra asty). III irl, alontaBaV, 

Bn(ta, Nortb Carolina. North Dakota. 
PfflU l Oregon. Teiaa, Utah. Virginia. 
■»****pon acd Wlaconiln. A number of 
■Jiai bare enacted lawa concerning ln- 
I*?»»ll«n. cona-plrscy agalnat worklngvnen 

* Interference with employment, vli : 
lgajjal. Cona*ct!«t. Delaware, Florida, 
•"►ft*. Idaho <appll*a to tola* employ*** 



only), Illinois. Kanana. Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Maine. MaaaachuMTtlH uetota. 

BlUaimliipl. Miajaoiirl, .N.w llainpshlre, .New 
■ . New lork. .North Dakota, Oklahoma, 
Oregon. 1'ennaylvatUa, Porto It... KI1...1.. 
Ialaud. South H xa*. Utali. 

moiit. rTul la a u d Wis- 

. ..iihin. In tbe following alataa It la un- 
lawful for an employer to eiact auy 
•urraomeut, cltuer written or verb*!, from 
an employee not to Join or become a mem- 
ber of a labor organltatlun, as a roni] 
of emplojui.ut : « iiiifornla, Colorado. Cos 
tMCtlcut. Idaho, Indiana. Kanaas, Maaaa- 
chusett*. Mlnncaota, Mlanlaaipoi (nnpilv* to 
Cilcgraph operators . , 1 1 1 >■ 1 , Sevnua. New 
r. Ohio, Oklahoma. Oregon, I'ennayl- 
vanla. Porto lllco. Houlb CaroTlua and Wla- 
coniln. (8a* Loowe v»- Lawlor et ah) 
Boycott (teconJary ) denounced aa at 
variance with American inat 
7378. 
Bralca* and Coupler*., legislation for in- 
crvnaod aafetr in uao of, recommend- 
ed, Moil. L8, 5766. 
Brandy SUtlon. or Fleetwood (Va.), 
Battle of.— After the haulc of Cbancellor*. 
1 lllc Hooker'* army remained ln»cti 
tb* north aide of ' > mnock for 
■Ik.111 a month. June l>. 1H«5. two dlvlalon* 
of cavalry, supported by two brlga.l. . ■■: 
Infantry, were wnt across the rher to r- 

•Iter tbe Confedcrotc poiltlon. 
I'leaHoiiton was In charge of th 
ami the cavalry waa commanded hj Q*n 
•ral* Buford and Ciragg. 1 .irlven 

back after the Iom* of BOO men In one of 
moat important cavalry fights of tbo 
War. Th* only practical result of 
ion waa tbe discovery that Lee's 
infantry waa moving north by way of t'ui 
Her*, also, on Aug. 1, Oen. H11 r..nl 
with hi* dlilaliin of cavalry mel tbe 

federate General Stuart ami ipelled hlio 

to retrent until re enforced, when Buford In 
turn retreated. Between Oct. 10 and 10 
deaultorj lighting with both ravatrr and 
Infantry occi rrvd In the vicinity of Brandy 

■awn. 

Brandywine (Pa.), Battle of.— In Mu in 

tcr port of May, 1777. Washington left 
Xlorrlatown, N. J., where ho had been la 
winter quarter*. »nd took tip a strong |...-l- 
.ehlnd tbe Itnrlt.in. Howe left hla 
quortera at Now Biuuawlek nml embarked 
hla troop* for Philadelphia, Intuitu,- at. nut 
1 8,000 men nt Blk l>rr>. rtftr miles from 
the cltr. Aug. Sit. Washington, having 
Ijcen Joined by Lafayette. DiKalh, aim 
l:iakl. drew near to defend th* city. The 
■ rengtta of tb* American nrmy 
win 14.000 men, though only 11,000 were 
consider, d <-rffi-t!vo. Howe's advance waa 
Mel 11 waa not unlit Sepi 11 that he 
• ni " in. 1. -i -eil the Amerlcuns nt t.'haddi Kord. 
on Ilrnndywlne Creek, about thirty mllea 
southwest of Philadelphia. In the liattl* 
which occurred that day 'he Itrlllah 1 

a clear victory through a ■ jssful flank 

movement, executed l>y Cornwalllf. Th* 
Ann:. ilu, ill 1.000 killed, 

Nil Mid tlllsillli;, nhlln that of the 
Ilrltlsh waa eomenbnt more. 
Braxil— The moat *xt«n*lT0 Stat* of 
South America. It waa discovered In lriOO 
by Pedro Alvarex Cabral, Portuguese oavl- 
•rator. It la bounded on the north by the 
Atlantic Ocean, (lulana, and Veneiuela : on 
tlte west hr 1 oador, Peru. Bolivia. l"ara- 
BTuay. and Argentina : on th* south by t ; rn- 
nay: and on rhe east hr the Atlantic 
cean : and extend* between lot, 4' 23' «. 



.--;;. 







Bmfl 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



and X3' 4V 8. and long, 84" 40' and 

... 
a <on-.i Una OB Hi. Alii ittt ol 3 i Ml 
Hlttorf.—lt «m cl 

both hjr right of ilia- 
eoverj and lb* dictum .,: It 

. Hi,. residence ,,i hi,, eiiiad I 
il family i)i, 

Il'l lllih.peu.lcliro WU I 

In 1822 An empire «rni formed ami ; 

I, HOD Of 111- I'm tllgueae Klin: 

ibe flr.f ompi - ■ ■ ii i , in il in 
1831 Id favor of his ma Pedro li. in '••■ 

. PHI 

and a republic o iitidi*r l'r. 

lie »i ■ ,i l.il two yrnra 

l h.. by Ii" Moraam 
I'roa bi now pn ■•bb-nf. 
■i Ii, ,,f IS*0 traua- 

fi.riu, .: Hun 

ibral I nl. ,n. I 
Iibto ihnlr own lawn and mould, i 

i.ii i.l< ih i ,1 in (heir own 

i (bill 

...•iir.li cuKionin. National defenci 

Her. flnance. currenvy. and nation 

Btali jn.iloo arn rem-ivcd to the ivntml 

•owrriii... .,' i ,<i Stale ha« an alerted 

il nt nr Governor nnil n til. 

lalaturc. ralac* Iti ncecauirv revenue. Hunt* 

loaoa, anil The 

i i ii,. rarl.<uH Stat.* of I lie 

i n|. ii urn. muted In tbe nititrejrat'- lo $220.- 

i0 at the end nr 1910; their In 

Debt" to ..\- r tt'.S.OOO hi If Klog b 

lug Debti (o f.v. r I I". K)0, The lerrl- 

torr of Iffl (Aiiulm was pur.' . ,i fi 
1 1 ii.iKMXOOO f roui Bol i 

... ih.i i : in noting n ill«|iut.. u-lrti 
Hint republic through the Incuralon in 
north llollvla ..' large number* .if 

Hrailllnu mill. ii. Acre hl>« pel 
I,., ri-, i-.. .1 .in,. .a 

I In- liniii 
i and I'nrl 
of Mattn (irom iwbh'h togeiliei 
moru tian on.- half of ltrntlll ore mainly 
arid*. Iota lying, toraatxtad plolua. The 

by 
I... in,. nun, in rangca lnten<pcrard with 
fertile v till i i. The prim Ipol ran 

Kerra il" Miiro, Hi.' !•■. rr.i .1. - 

jltaflalomti. ii.ihiu feet), nn.l Ihe Berta do 

Il U .. I lln. ...ininl d 't I. In the 

..mill, .i-i of Ml . Hi" S.-rta do 

Paranao, the Kern dot lymorw gad tin. 
8errn "In ■ A ".ripe. 

Brnall In unequnlU'il foi (be ml ex- 

■ r iti rlren largest 

rlv..|. In the world, tin-' trihutarlca will. I 

I ml flow* from 

i: i Aitantle. with 

n total I. D nr i (tOO ml leu, Ita 

r hero tiiinit Irnnco, Wo 

Si.grii ipum i ml Hi n trll n 

are lln- Jurnn, '■' 

Willie tin- >l. urn in. . I II " Ilhltl 1 mi . 

of Ita outflow lolo the Atlantic. 

January «, 1914. n llmtlllnn cot I 

Ii. ml. .. 'it. eg-l'reat- 

of ' nlteil Slab •• and r"ol Ron 

■ nrti-d to (inlnre the imitMo Klv-r. 
•rhlfh (tinted Ont to b« a trlhutarv of tin- 

In- i • r |ini ' of which waa 

knon i. i Inn n.'i 1" cat iimtpb- 

er«, 0" Ihe <"n«i iirklng lVliniar-y 

2T. ai 12 miles from Ban l.ufa 

uli ,l il.. Il 
or Rlv*r of Doubt. .- Iwatera bad 

Jltlon iiirrrylng for a 
i." the river 
4119 in I - In t 

and I »» 

1914 In lat. V -■:<' 1 1, re 
ti,.- i.-.ii etid'd ami the Ail|.iiima dis- 
charged into the Madeira at 0" SO* S. lat. 



• W, I. in.- In I. 

tlnenlklieil ,■, : .. n (he Imleflnite Ca» 

tunha. Including ha o >PP*r 

»»» uaui.-d the HI .... and 

lij pul niMin (he map: It bod sever 
appeared previously on any map. 

ill" Tocantlns and Araguaya flow north- 
ward* from the plat. .ii ,,.' Mat to (.ritaae 
nud the mountains ,i[ Ooyau to the Gulf of 
l"art. Tbe I'aronabrba flows from the en 
circling mountains of I'lnuhy Into the Attaa- 
tle. I i In the south of 

Gcroea and travcrae* liahla on Ita 
way to the KuMetn eoaal. !•• i ■■ ■ -n A.agoaa 
and Bulhla on it. •») Ihrough l'nrair>j»y to 
Ita ,-,.. 

.if Hint n j me aud divide* 

ulllon 8tate from tbe ramgiinr. Tbe 

raragmay and IMrnnn. from 

lier.iiu. i.i and 

llanlle at the rtitiiary of l.a 

riata. 

angA *xd PorrurtoM 

Area in Eatleaatad 
Statai and Capitala iluh PnpuUtioa 

FMaral DiatrM 900UOOO 

73.730 7OJ000 

Alagoea (Mi.-- -. 10.230 SO0.00Q 

Amaaoua (Maoie.) .. Tr, 

Rahui.rUoXalva.1... I WO 2.W0.0W 

800400 
17.000 

Oeyaa Kiuyiil ?•■■. 

Maranhao (8ao 1 -ii« ■ I 

:.::-.:.: ';,.,.';,:., }sm 

aon««) Slt.iKXi 4.000jOpO 

!..... I-.,-. 

I'umliylii. (1-ir.l.ybal VI n 

07.500 490.000 

I'eni.n. 

I.i ... 
1.000000 
,1) 20.000 38CU0OO 

■ ir.uoV- do Sul H'utVi 

Aleenn HXUMO I.MKljOOO 

BonU Cathara 

i I 43j0O0 

:w Paulo).... 90,.'/O 4,< 

Sergipo (Acaaajo) MOO 

Total 0.an*.W7l> 31.n>A00O 

"f the total number ahmit 1.000,000 ai» 
"wild" Indiana 

aT'AMOpropAp. Tin re are Ore dlatlai-i 
in the populollni 
tier*, the aboriginal ii AW- 

can uegro alaeen n.li ' i< nf tbeae 

i xinta of all 
nationalities, principally Italian.. 

P., mi Bpanlnb. The d. 
-.-in. Itrai 
.1 Indian* are Dow mainly tillwi 
In the .mi r lniriK of tin- Int 

The llavet wer 1 and 

their Imp.irtailoti having 

gratlon In town . Bern «tute*. par- 

I] Bio Grande do Bol The official 
lauunogv »f Kraxll II Porlugv 

«oi'.iiim'nt — Ilrnill wa« ■ nlonlred by 
part ,.f il, 
i.iiinrv. nnil ii, i! ,,. an independent 

empire under Don. I 
Kins Joto \'l ..r Portugal. On 

d of tbe line, waa 
flethroneil and a republic 
The constitution on lln Fundamental 

f I'.'h. V4. IR91, will Led a 

I retmlille under Hie name of Katodoa 
Unldoa .'.I 
The ir. -nl, ni nnd Vice I'reildent ara 
I for four yearn by the direct rati 
all male Brail liana orer t- ream 

wl an read anil write, ami ar 

for lb- lug tcrma. They ore aidrd. 



liticyclofedic Index 



Brazil 



«• cxeewtlvea. by a Council of Ministers. 

• unl Congress consist* of ■ 8en- 
»•' sod <. fcaui'-r of I*!*: i 
aanuaily. on V!»y it. . 

• U computed . i e numbers 
elected for Dior. six and three years In ac- 
cordance with thrtr place la Hio ballot, 
those for losarf Ij nig renewed la 
do* rostra*. T*. 

aUU member* »l eeted for three 

yrara. The elector* for both houses arc 
all male lirsjlllans otit twctily-oiiM years 
who ran read and a 

There !• a iScpretne Fed* ral Tribunal and 
• IV- > Pllal. 

aad fixlf- 

.' federal tiutrlrt Jos- 
la administered hy ■ '• for 

Male raise*, from the lowest to the IiIl,1i 
eat cots.ru. 

Arm*.— By a law of Jan. 1. 190S. mili- 
tary service I* obligatory on all sale lira- 
illlaai fruoi rwm rears. 

The i i. •_• too 

Savy In manned by st-out 
1 -J seamen, clc (8oe 

litmani edaratloa la secular ami fret. 

It Is main- 
tain**) and controlled I17 Ibc government 

• tartooa 

la progrmlug and reading and • Milar are 
tbs> e.Mallrl.ail. !i. tot the tra 
male* at t-.ntr-c.ne 

drro attended the primary schools In 1911. 

/•ret*, ii.-.h and lnduitry.— Agriculture Is 

esteosiraxed by all the State fit<rum»ou, 

; csluce 
helnc TBrted aad abundant. In thi 
ireane so-aiti towards Hie Interior F.uropean 
and grain are reared, while other 
are found extremely fnvoraM. fur 
the raising of coffee, sag:, i-ocoa. 

India 'ropieal (it. i 

away of which are Indigenous , 
beans, caasav* root, aad ants are very gen- 
erally cultivated. TM.-e fourths of tbo 

J s supply o 
t-lct 1- Janeiro. 

-. Kao Paulo, soil lisplrlto Sin> 
in a smaller decree In the n->rtb. 
Is Inrgrlr mililrated for export, an. I I i 
being ti"»«l foe hoes* saannfactiire*. 

la grown |a large anil 
oaanllllea la lb* northern pruvine, 
■■niharr) Hw of (he »ug*r- 

arsdsuloa; sottr. Indla-rut.l-r n«n from 
the store herfhi m pi ly the 

sallsy '.f the Amnion, and Is iMpped from 
!•*>» aad Manaos. Tobn.-eo. in.i cocoa arc 
111] I . I'-shla. Th* 
|l« In 
lsla. rattle and slock raining being an Im- 
,.".«t Indaatry. 

" lbs greatest variety of if- Jul anil 

wsoda iil:in-. I f ir ibloet 

wrt. er shlphnlMIn ■ Ihem are 

**Wsay. logwood, rosewood, 
t*W«a. i 

Sre eoe >lde table. 

■ nil nxil. la the Pros 
sre mat li 
fals. Whlrh iri '.■• worked 

ar I" ii. veil to 
' tandrrda of m'l 
■*» «f It containing 9» per cent. 
Jjaig aoas metallic minerals are tin. world- 
J**" llraiillaa diamond, nntl m 
rjaasa, taaasca. beryls, garoels. etc rha 
**t glsnn.nds (cartioaoloa) are. eery high- 
»pHa«d 

S»-.f4.l."-»-lo IMS there were 1.541 
Ubavots employing i 
ng an lavrsted capital 



or on Th* establish: 

n oa 

nk« are nroslarol. i.iii the output Is 

mills, 
for Imported Ar an. I lu 

i riea 
The Import* consist of every i 
or manufactured article. In sr.lt.- of n high 

prOtvCtbe tariff. There Is s l|..Oi) cl • i 

be annual ■ 
number, bring nearly 1 .' 

1'acb Stole has It* railway tyaiem, imt 
•nt ral gOTcrnment Is dercloplng later- 

ml ..pi'tiliiK up new rontes. 

Ion. the Kedrral Gor- 
• . ui IK'S of the whole. 

- isnd 12 

ill,, itons i 
of lino ami VI ::L'7 miles ..f wli 

Tin : llraxll 

tonsp ntul vessel* I IS 

ul of S83 vessels (orer 100 Imn 

.1.753 tons, t'onsilng and river 

trnffl. .1 la ICrnxlllnii v.«».'ls. In 

.1 at 
lliajllif.ii porl 

12.'J47.i'i ". 'lip- .rs are Klo 

de Jan I ihla, lVrnai... 

Pard. UitlOUO, Mo tiraiul.i sii'l .' 
roretia. — I 

merlra 

anil ti harbors In 

the world. PopulatltH -ilmat'Ml at 

ooo. i ithei towni ..mi in. 
tlon are: 
Sao Paulo.. . Xnl.fVsl Rnnio 40,000 

Baku WO.000 -in.rioo 

Paua lB*l*m>...a0O.OOO f'„. ,i.\ . . .ui.000 

Perssunhii.. I.. 

Porto Alegrr . 'Xi.nxi ax.OOO 

Maui.:. 
Ceart 

. i.»i Araraju 

1X000 Nasal IT4M 

.If oiks'. — The rn 1 1. li- 
mine, nut almost rnili.lv par 

II. .mill!., i. .in- .■!' 
i I I . Si. ' ■ 

governnn'iit paper Is 
■ mllreli 

i.i lu 1IH2 was sin'. 

* .,r.-;.i-.i.: ihiii 'I i was 

'.::■•. an 

. • i. Int.ri it, . t.-. amounted to 121V 

.„ 

...liar Imp..: Ir- ill 

Hi,. I nil .1 Rtatni for tbe year llil.l was 

and EOOdi to tin- ralttc Of 

ilther. n balanca 
of y. r,5lT..lftS in favor ol Bi 

BritxU: 

l^nln by aaval forces of, ro- 

Bon' noation wilh ArgtBtiBsl 

I,', i itteft to I'.'. ■•■nlnnt 

,,, I ,,, . -1068. 

■ in. iwae. 

Oiti. r iiivml from. 880. 

C"Tr- i.i ivitli, riferroil to. 

L'i::n. 

i luims of Hniterl Slatc-s ajrainat, 92!», 

'";:-. 1009, 11 M, 1*45. 1594, 

1933, 2051, 3050, 3S!H>, • 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Convention for satisfaction of, 
negotiated, 2838, 2562, 2568,9618. 

Payment of. : . ^116, 2618. 

Commercial relations with, 304!*, 4078, 

4029, 5570. G663. 
Commission of United States sent to, 

BBS, 

n t ion With, referred to, 2681. 
Cotton iuli\irr in, 4078. 
Distu la, 1158, 2051. 

Duties on American goods reduced, 

'."VS. 

Imprisonment of American citizens 

in, W0, 2779. 
Mail steamship Hers ire between 

■ anil, 3565, 3586. 
MIbIiUx of, to Doited State* re 

ceived, 2889, 4718. 

i Vnited States In. official 
functions of, terminated, 951. 
Phosphates discovered in coast of, 

4795. 
Political disturbances in, discussed, 

5617. 
Relations with, 2399, 6364. 
Revolution in — 

Action of UttOriOU commander In 
■minting revolted BruUiaa ad 
miral disavowed, 5867. 
Policy of United States regarding, 

M72, 5867, 5956. 
Questions with Portugal respecting 
escape of insurgent Admiral Da 
Oama, 6958. 
Republican form of government es- 
tablished and recognition of, by 
Unite,! State*, 5543. 
Slavery in. 4100. 

Abolished, 5369. 
Tariff Inw* of. evidence of modifica- 
tion! "*, proclaimed, 5576, 
Notice of intention of Brazil to 

terminate, discussed, 5956. 
Referred to, 5615, 5747. 
Trade-marks, treaty with, regarding, 

4400. 
Treaty with, 996. 
Obligations of. to cease, 182*. 
Reference to, 1009. 
Vessels of — 

Discriminating dotles on, suspend- 
ed by proclamation, 2372. 
United States seized or interfered 
with br, 962, 2779. (Sco also 
Caroline, The.) 
War with— 

Buenos Ayros — 

Peace concluded, 977. 
Questions bet led States 

and Brazil growing out of, 928, 
9.11. 
Paraguay. 4078. 

Good offices of Unite.! States ten- 
dcre,i, BT78, -'1883. 
Brasll Steamship Co. referred to. 5634. 



Brazil, Treaties vita. — Diplomatic nego- 
tiations with llrnxll are embodied la five 
treaties: Treaty of 1828 on siulty. com- 
merce and nu ligation; Treaties of 1849 
on claim* In general and a protocol sub 
H to arbitration the claim of Decree 
C. Benner el ah, nlgm-d lo 1008. Treaty 
••t ' s 7s -nde-marks i »»e Trade-mark*. 

ttles onl ; and extradition eoov. 
n ml protocol of 1803 <*** Extradition, 

ille* Of). 

The treaty of 18.S accords reciprocal 
freedom of cominen-e and navigation upon 
e.inal term* Mini eondltlaus to Hum* by 
srblch they «re enjoined by any and every 
other nation ; Uie citizens of the respective 
countries ore privileged to conduct com- 
mercial ami professional transecttooi hi 
ihe coontry of the other nuiion upoa the 
snme lerm* nnd noder lllte conditions aa 
as liinl subjects. t'uaatwhie tr : 

ded from thin Bare 
Krwdu in of. nn.l equality In. earryinE traile 
of export or reel port or I £OOdS 

Is permitted without psyini-ol of hi 
Other duties, Iropoxls, taxes, or fees, tbao 
those in which citizen* ami subjects are 

liable. If subjected i ibergo or detexc 

tloa for military purposes, proper todem- 
iviiic-nllon Is to be paid In sll eases. Ref- 
uge, siylum. and protection Is accorded 
to rei ill ports, river*, or domin- 

ion* »f (he other country. All reasonable 
{■Klstnncc u to be rendered to vessels 
ustslnlng ships-reek or d-iinnie Is lb* 
water* of the oth ctlon 

from pirates, with restitution of prop 
• Iblc. Freedom i,f »n|e, dlscv.- 

.mil succession, in the ease of pcraosul 

goods Is grunted to Incllvl.lu il citizens nod 

subject* within the other country. 1 

n >f iin hi of the property «f 

HI and subjects of esch other Is to be 
i be -pedal enre of emii contracting paiiy, 

Kmlre fi bun "f iMiiisi-ii in .■ l> ;i 

i.i Individuals, together with protection 
the dead. 

I In event of war of one of the panic, 
with a third It Is agreed that full reeog- 
rililini nf in., principle thai the flag; cov- 
ers properly tie accorded when the prof 

iiefonus to a nation which recognise* 
this principle, but to none other, 
where the nr-utml ting shall cover the 

rrupi-rly of un enemy of one of the par 
les. such property shall be confiscate 

'ratios 

of war: sn excuse of Ignorance of decla- 
ration of war sbnll not tie valid after a 

terlod of four months shall how elapited. 
iii.iiy ..f nercc snd nsvlgstlOD »h»ll 

not extend to arms and Instruments or 
materlnls designed for making wsr by 
or land, and vessels carrying such eonti 
liniid k I- -IimII lie detained for Hie 

Bastion of such contraband. /" 

times the examination of vesaeta shall be 

.Im-iecl hi all means calculated to 

iiilsn vexntUin .ir nlntw, V 
parties nhnl] be at war with a third State, 
no citizen or subject of the other contriet- 
iug parly nlmll t| tars of msrqne 

prlMl bo get ngaln«t the other coa- 

trnctlng port/ under pain of punishment 

f.f piracy. In tl sent of wsr between 

the United Bute* nnd Uraxll. a pevlod of 
sli months sbnll be granted to residents 
to close up their affairs snd trans 
their effects! la lb* ease of n-sidout 
t tie Interior of the country this ps 
sli. ill be Increased to one year from 
1 1 in-- .if declaration of arar. s.-questrstio.. 

mi. I conuKCHtlnn of iitil.il.- nod prl 
by renion nf unr l< f-.rMild.-n The r 
Immunities, and exemptions to consular out- 
. -it- shall b* those -.f ibe most favored 
nation. These official* shall be exempt 



Encyclopedic Index 



Briscoe 



all public e*-r»ico. taxes. Imposts, and 

s, except such »• lb*y aiull par on 

' of commerce or prot«rty, ami iwx 

tbe Mine a* tbu«e imkI by rlllm-u* 

c»o&> • miuLir p*per». rcc- 

,ud archive*. >hull al nil llsaes and 

all ilrcoeastsbcee be Inviolably re- 

. and may not be wised or Inter! 

ly auy magUtrate- Consols iball 

iBtbortiy la im-i and detain 

a period out to exceed two moalb* all 

r anj private vessels 

country. 

TbJ* treaty wii drawn to endure for a 
' twelve j»-.ir«. with a renewal 

iMirimnn to terminate. Infringement 

ita eoetdli ■<>■.> by individual* rendvr* tbe 

vtdual and on« tbe Slate Sable for »ocb 

t *L<1 the «:al» pledge* Itaelf 

offender. Tbe State (ball 

u.-M any raprUal for Infrloge- 

of tbe conditions nor declare wai 

• talrinrnt of tbe I ■■ In r|. i. wltb com- 

.11 have been forwarded to 

tbe ofrsrflog Male and a mronatil* time 

allowed for repxratloo. 

tlraill aUo became a party to tbe eon- 

between Ibe fnlr.-d Stall-* and Hi- 

repafcllcs of Booth and Central 

for ibe arbtt ration of pecuniary 

etc , 

■ (■let aaa Ugocd In Buenos Aires In 1910 
•ad tnrlalaed la Wishing!' n. Jul 

lr« South and Central America. 
iBBMka wlib I 



(Mexico). Battle of.— la 

■••M. IV Arm) • organised 

«' Iwl Leavenworth, on tbe Mlax.url. It 
•ssbxea of 1.058 men and sixteen piece* of 
■••nttr*. under comasanJ of CoL PML 
**m. af iba Flr»i United State* Dra- 
!*•**. He w*« ordered lo pro" 
natal aad take poaacnton or Santa V* 
•»#, ye-. , mire Territory I I I ■•• 

***"• ih* )orl*dlctloa of tbe raited 
-! l, . ,f ** re ""re later amended to ln<:od« 
WHsia. In afty day* tbe army marched 
Pajb* abd no Au«. IS. 1840, tbe Amor- 
■*• *»I wa* goatlng o**r tbe citadel at 
*fb) H. Not a blow had 
»T cMabilahlsg a civil iMicrnment at 
jUbj Fa, Kearny stsri-il for California 
»**. 3. wlib »••*• I'nli.d Rut™ dragoons 
*• t ••Mil corn* of topographical enrl- 
t inala npply train and '.'do 
Ha* were left al Alhoguemue. Col. 
tilth hi* »W0 regiment and 
n* battery of artillery, w i 
iroeeed southward and join Wool 
I The » i ■ ■ 

I 
— tbe advance of 5O0 men baited at 
Brarrta, an arm of the itio r;r*nde. 




jb*» !!*»••. G n. Ponce de 

»*■ altb 1.220 Mexican*!, of wboi 
*•» »*sj saounted and eqnlnped. Tbe s»- 
* utterly roetrd. wltb heavy 
-w bvbadlac <•'" >' -o. while 

" •satrlcau loaa waa only 

'• **-! 

•"it* Hver, explorations of, referred 

■n»aj Santiago. Tex, commerce of die- 

• ef. referred to. 2*10. 
■"abl (8r* Baking Business.) 
****■' Titm Tti r line '■'. men who •>■ 
• ' Inlrht. to receive 
her slma-glvlne In- 
•»*•. (See eteap-Oooaea-l 
■•bi Biota. —Poring • period or eencral 
•burial depmaloa la 1837 ibe poor of 



New York held frequent rlotoua meetings, 
which) culminated Id violent aaaaulia upon 
Hour waieboUH,'*. Kiupluyuiuut waa meager, 
.-.ut* arm Sxorbltant, and Dour waa 111 

Kir barrel. In mauy Inaiancea atorca ware 
token open and pillaged by U>( owns. 
Tbt riotvr* were auppreiawd by tbe mil it in. 
BrcitUttiffa, importation of, into foreign 

countries, and rates of duty on, 
Breaking Diplomatic NegotiAtlone. (See 
Diplomatic Negotiations, Breaking 

Breakwaters, expenditures on, 1128. 
Bremen: Submarine. (Seo Deutech- 

land.) 
Bremen: 

Ministers of, received, 949. 

Postal arrangement* with, 2412. 
Treaty with, 988, 991, 2686. 

Voaacls of— 
Application for rights, 621. 
Discriminating duties on, suspend- 
ed, «0«. 
Brwrtt,— Tbe promotion, without advance 
In psy. of a military officer. 
Brevet Commissions. (See Army.) 
Breweries. (See Liquors — Malt, Vinous 

nnd DUtillcd.) 
Bnocry. — The giving or receiving of money 
or otter valuable consideration in return for 
onetblcal conduct 
Bribery: 

Proposal to class campaign contribu- 
te ms by corporations as, 6990. 
Proposed extraditionnl offense, 6791. 
Severer laws advocated, 6517. 
Bridges: 
Construction of, over navigable wa- 
ters, 4303. 
Pictures of, 2185. 
K.-f erred to, 1171, 1257. 
Brldgowator, The. corropondonco re- 
garding case of, transmitted, 5396. 
Brier Creek (Oa.), Battl*) of.— Msrch 3, 
17T9, Oen. Lincoln sanl a dvtacbmenl of 
hi* army, conslatlng of 1.500 North Caro- 
lina mlllils nnd somo Qaorglii Con tin 
unci be, <n tbe Junction of Brlei 

k with tbe Savannah Klver. In ibis 
position they were attacked by Lieut. Col. 
• i-t with somo 22000 men ami eonv 
plnieir rouieri. Oeu. Klbert. Col. IfefntosD, 
I other officers, and nearly 200 men 



captured. Nearly an equal nu >i 

i'il In bsw ln-.-n kill. . I In 
or met death In their flight throngs 
awsnaps. Tbe rcmnltider. with tbe excep- 
■ f 100 or BOO. retired tu tbelr I. 
Iirlil«li lo»» wo* ouly slxtei-u killed 
• nd wounded. 

Brigade.— A body of soldiers made np of a 
number of ■mailer units. In cavalry there 
sra nsnnlly from eight to ten aqundron* to 
a brigade: In Infantry a brigade conritt* of 

four to •!« hatulluuH or regiments. 
Brigadier. — The commander of a brigade; 
a brigadier-general. 

Briirand. (See Bandit.) 
Briscoe vs. Bank of Commonwealth of 
Kentucky.— A suit brought by tbe Rank 
.if Mi.- Commonwealth of Kentucky again*! 
Briscoe et al. as holders of a promissory 




Briscoe 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



0>.tc f-.r which tin' BOtM Of tin- Sink had 

Elrto a» a Iuab to the dinw.-r,. ...r the 

r hut Hull 

it"- honk »*» oollil 

In till' illf 

mltir mi.-li circuit . onrt > ml the 

f". Hi'' h'lil. -II II" Bl :•'! Hull till 

lucoi i iik ibi Rnnl •: I hi Ootnmon- 

lllontll nil. I 

Unit tin- ?i" 

• Ittllll ll nil iti - ..I I I"' Null. .mil I 

tillli.ti Till 

the cn«e In favor ol t 
i mi it tililn of credit. 

Brlstow Station (Va.). Battle of.— 

ona) of 

.. li.nl inn! ..'lit 1.. flu 

fun-.' ,' 

..f Hi.- 1:1 M Jackson 

111 nil- :t forced march from tin* 8b< oiinilonh 

p nuil 

Si - liy III- Im i, Auk. 

Itrln- 
d ti> M I tinK- 

mi<. 1 [oi l.i .in I I In- in >. t .1 1J 

i ■ T ■ ■ •<■ the i'.. lit. .1 ■'■ r Bwcll h! Ilrlx- 

nation :i'"i ■ i t-'"ii Hi" i it Id 

■ ride nun*«ri'il .i I" «t 3UU men. 

British America: 

Commcrcinl relktlooi vith, 1180,1131. 

I in; . ■ to, 

ureal of, referred I >,2 

In iirr.'.'i;.iii in Rt lll.'tiii'ttt 

Military expedition apain»t, procla- 
mation r<".anlinjr, 3631. 
Dbeweod, 3tW5. 

i:- , i|, rm iii- r.'lul rr. .1 
to, II 

Trcm- linf, rot favorably 

Idi ft 'I I '•• United States, 

son. 

British Colonies: 

Commercial n Intion* with, 6.12, 5688, 

;,:•-. g 
Tariff lawn of, evidence of modifica- 
tions of, proelsJoi I. 
Discussed, W47. 
Brltiah Columbia: 

. Bl I", r.'l. rr.-.l t... 

i:..iin.l-irv ling v.-.tli Alaxkn. 
Kb.) 
British Debts. ($cr Debts, British.) 
British Empire. — The Jiti irs oc- 

cuplirn nliiiui OUT SJMTter "f tOS known ItST- 
fao» of the Rlnlic. and lt« population ••*• 

'ii mi. t Of 

of the human men. The toinl area In ill*- 
trlluito't /il" r tin' Sol 

and Southern Hemisphere*, bat more than 
two-third* lie lit tlie I 
on.' third :n the WVnteru i 
Tin- Rentes! ar.'a of the empire Ilea Id 
America, bul iho larewt fubjecl popula- 
tion Uvea in Asia. 

Kthnoumithv- — I'v fur 1 1 ■ ■ • i:ivul--r por- 
tion of lbs Kmplrc H"i within i 
nle tone*, the troptt South 

itd India, Went and Central Africa, parts 
..r ill" West Ini i noil 

Honduras, Northern Anatrallft, Bort and 

the varlntia settlement* In the Malay Pen- 

itn'iln. The Yntlinnlcd white [lopulnt Id 



1*11 «K" mrtTLATIOS 

Area in I'-pulali— 

1 - i I'.nckaa in 

t »iutAl« 8q. MUe. lvl| 

i •tidi.iii. 121.00(1 4.1^00,000 

'-i t i"i iuo Mini 

I I Ulandq 'IT.' ml 

M iii Valletta), iini 3IUM0 
raltai j | 

Total. Kurope 12U12 4437&300 

.4 MO— 

ljxxmoo 3i.-..oooj»p 

UifiOO 4,ii 
lit* txtllrlunQU I.Si*a- 

i/'xi vououo 

F .1. ..■• tl ■:..'.■■ 
,,.„. 

I ii,l.| ,y M , 

i .TOO 

'■ ■■■ '"•" iSandalai. SOMW 

avooi 

trara»4k (Kurhinc) i , . . - 

Cypnu . ISOO S7IXSM 

Total, Ass 2,iiujo0 xxmamho 

Afrira — 

47t>.oco s.iroxne 

>land (Maarru) . 10,100 3" 

"0 i: 

Hwullat" ' 

■it. (8»%bur)r).., I. "--.I...* 

Cumin;. ]lf.J«» 

t.iil.l . . i:'"i.ii i 

!<l-rr« I .III . X4INIO Ml 

N-i.ill,. i « U, 

iii acoa) , 77.300 7, 

!-itrinl,lnr„l (ltr.rl.,-,,,1 CS.0CO 

mis 

(Vaio.ii. 1H1.000 

1'ju.nda (Kampala).. . . 22.VO 
Xanilhar iZatiilliii).. 

Nyaml.i • l 

2*1-234) I; 

Mauritius (Pari I ;iro.OO» 

■... . 

Bl ll' 1. ". (Ja tows)... 47 S.toa 

Total. Africa. «te 3.01S.2IS 4" 

Aaurvn— 

In (Ottawa). 

.ilUr.il aim l^bra- 
Hoi i • . I*3xm :«ttno» 

■J ■ Illattiilioii! 
HritublIomlurm.(l 

;;• i-i I ■ .... 

: 

sruoo jifljoas 

I'ldVlanil blan.l> 

l ..-lit li.il 

Booth C< JAM 

Imarlca 4.011,720 SJ6SM0 

Ati Mh ntmtl* 
Aiutiall* lYuaCanlierraV 3,tKi).nc 
Nci« Zmlatid (Wrih, IJNjBBBsl 

■TsBBsl 
I'anua [Port Morral.y) . 
Padne Manda JtfBBJSJJ 

Total. Oceania . 3.214.1 

Navy. Army, and Swnra 

"' Kto.no) 

Grand Total... :'IMU» 

the Bmplro In 1011 was ilitr mllllt.nx. 
mainly Anglo Saxon but p 

Dutch, "I'll Bl l-li. riu- rSDii 

mllllona Include 315 tullllooa of the uatlre 




Encyclopedic Index 



British 



of India and Oylon. forty million 
ark inn. ia Arab*, *ix mlllloa 

■it.-l I million 

.paladon over 210 million* 

I .Mil 
in Sikh*. J»ln. I 

TMjatM) Jrwa. am ilnder 

at* aad Idnl wnrablppara. 

- 

taaatrv rrat*. but Intro are rnree main 
.In* Ita ailmluLtt 
.-.nvrnuarnt. »•• I 
•v Th*- Drat of theur pn 
applied for many year*. 
«Virlu(KO lo tfce owe of Canada, 

Uh Afrl-u Tat aeeoo-d 
rSe U equally developed, alinoat 
»*it being financially aelf-aujipoTtlng. 
tatrd prla- l| modern «"•'■ 

be *aid (o be the outcome of III* 
h baa gradually 
rtcacnianl ■■ th. i'm-Iu-i of Um 
|i • nrljjto may r» u 

jilon (la 1887) of tbr Pre- 
rarUraa - 
Blaaaa. rrprwentl ug 
ta. nMnikn> ..f the J Kli 
nrtarfcv Hinliar gj ■ ■ ok place In 

■ .lal" I'uofewu-e wa* 
(aanpal (• In. \t tti- 

y pra- 

«*M. but alih lb- add!- 

uaau lanotii; 

iino of Ibr Prealileney 
jMa» rflaa U idled Km. 

.*abr nt Maji.ly 

i— *». r 

lUacdoa of Ureal Brit 
*»■« lielaad. and u7ik»- lirlil.b : 

■ *Jf»n i '•. 1 >•■'.■; It (if Hi.- 

rtii», r i n a n or of India. 

t^Uator The I'arllam nl of Ihe 

■Join It iho vvpremr lt-gMai.v.- 

"~ *f law Km ain-ni 

■ if the Kinir-K- i| 

Ha legl«:*llv. authority to other 

If, while re- 

• 1't.ll! an I Imperial 

.iu/b ibe c-diiiTii of lb* Colonial 

/•»a(»ijl — The Su i.-lnl Au- 

'*• Kcaplrr U tk* .Indicia 

fore which 




any K 

from Coe> • 



WOaa ta"ii» 

•»•'••».:■ itv nod from the 

fjntj of lull* am: Britain Domln- 

frfmrar— The general defence of Ike Rffl- 

•» ■ eiaarriaken by the Imperial '. 

»l aided In an Inrrenalng dVgr-v Uy lb- 

- ' lodla am. 

Jf iMminloea (aee Canada. Autiral'i. 

aad Koorh Afrl 

- "aeoiod I 
K*fular and Aoilllary troofai of 
Urn). 

•■taaa it prlne'ipt. .. Inelod- 

•-. the 
■"■Mat. 'i without - 

• .1 a limited miuiarehv. the 

.anarch befn*. ta effeet. 

rr «apporled by a ma- 

itanaa. The rata- 

awtat |. 

•rr iba KlaaT : the l#cNlnnire lllnuae of 



a"'! II" moMJ : the El- 

lin. Jn.I1 slur.. 

bo King i 

advice of the fcecrei. r..r India, 

who la aaaiaird by mein- 

brra aro ■ i> 1 1 ■ . ■ Sren-i.iry of 

(See lnd.au l.mjilre ) 
Impriinl ;i..i.,.ni'.n. ail I Irirlab domln- 
lona arc milijeel (cicepi na regnMa taxa- 

.. ..r Hi., nrltlal 
llacni, lust n" .. rTe.-iM 

a dotnlnlon in i imnlnlun la me- 

clallr m. ml. |. If ihe legialaiuro of a 

lileb la rvpiigniint 

lug n 

lori. It In i> to n hi- U 

nnnt otxaololelj .Can- 

ada. Dominion! may 

be illTldeil . «l elauea. a.vordlug to 

tno way In u hl<-h ih.'j :.r.. govf*rned : 

.■ in. vim; reaponalblc rorern 

. am aduil 
Klu. ar>. i 

.-•1. but to tin- . : uliiir. 

■ 

I 
the i n Ion ..f Soma Africa. 

(bj Where 11.. .1 by leicla- 

l»ll>i. uarmlil) «h..ll-. or partly 
ami oa eircuilre ■•oiidcII nomlnaled by the 

• tin 

■■ claaa lun . .| Hi.. 

llnhanuiH. hnrlifcil.H -, IIitmi i Ii li .1- 

ann. Jomalci, l>:.«»nl Ialanda. Uanrltlua, 

Ualta. 

itrt In goTernmenl by a 
jwrernor adiug with an exeeuilre and a leg- 
ifUIIre coonrll, tbc eouortbt l- itix Bon 

nor repretentln* 
n; -liotntnlona to g>. . mi.-i m 
.. I'tlklnod 1-1; 
I. la, ' 

i\ li.-r.-lo both Ii 
• Ire poarer* are v»«I..J In the 101 

lilbrallar. I.al.uan. 
and St. Il.iina. where power la alao r«- 
aerreil to the Crown to leclalati by f i 

il- In Smitli Africa, l:.-.liiuimil«nd. 
ilaml ar.- gov . n. ,1 in 
•ajbclanilally the tame way. but no pow.-r la 
raatrred t.. the ' 

i.. I I't.ii.-i t..rat.-. - i t.tratea are 

'lea which, aa rrgardi iln-lr foreign 
n-latlonv. arc under the iiclii.liv 

of th.. Klng-Kiuperor, <■■• ..f 

; I uililtc In. lu.l.- Ilrlll-li 
Sc.malllnnd, Nj.nn!aiid. I'gan.Si, 
Hwailland, and Nlgi-ria. 

of Itillueniv.— A apbare of 
v Ii .1. ■ • i Itu ,i aa an aren i 
uiub-ruln ml 
lo nrqnlre Inrlornce. or territory by treaty 
or anmxatlon. 

Fititrtttlom. — Educational ayatema on a 
more or Ie« uniform plan, are do 

Ih.. l..ii|ilr. under i 

of Hi goTernmenla. rnlreralty 

■rn ami In! .«l»b- 

..-« are conferred. In.1 r 

iln m||i of C* !l Khodea «.tiolomhlp- 

f. ■ ui.l.-d at MirLnn. ...::• .f •nr.u-d I nl- 

r. Theae Ithodea Scholarahlnv ate ten 

■Ma for ihre<- year*. ar« of the annual 

<>f *1.5t)0. and are opaa t 
of »n ch I'n 

nf At .trntla. nf New Zealand. Newfound- 
land. Natal. Cape of i; 1 Hop* (4), J»- 

mali-a ami Bermuda. (Kadi State of t ii — 
baa a almllar nomlnailon. 
and fifteen aebolnrahlna of f 1 .2.10 are In 
the nomination of the Herman Kmper..- 



British 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



//{story. — Tbe moat recent historical 
event of Internal wan the dii-laiatioti of 
war against ileiniany, Aug 4. 1V14. Il 
port of the neutrality of Belgium, through 

Hiiii-i iniri Uermany w»> rending troops 

for an Invasion of France. 

UMppmg.— ln 1H1S there wart 11.444 rea- 

aria torer 100 tonal flying the lirlttih flat. 

of which total »/-'i0 wrrr r.-gUtei.d in the 

d Kingdom and 2,106 In other parts 

.if t In- Km; 

Tirii .— capital, I/indon tEnglaadl. 
Population (1W11 1. 4.022.001 iwltli : uburba, 
7.2Sa,90S). 

At the Census, of 1011 there were 04 
towns In tbe British Kuiplr* exceeding 100.- 
000 Inhabitants. (S..|. tirca! Britain.) 

Villi i D IM • ■■ iimul. 

Iceland and Walaa. The lnbablianta or tbe 
Unltrd Kingdom aru almost entirely dim- 
liana, and uiiilnly Protestant*, Ibe ex.vp- 
tlona being Uvc million Koroun Catbadlca, 
ar.o.000 Jew*, and a small uumbcr of non- 

Sirietlan ImuiLi. .ui I'll.. langiing. of 

e people i« I iiitimii, with a large propor- 
Hon of Wehdrspcnklng people Is Wale*. 
The cllmaio ol Isle* la Influ- 

enced by tin- prevailing southwest wlnda 
and '" "'. Ibe fJuH Stream. 

"I in- pr»i nlllng wlnda cause a plentiful rain- 
fall in tbe western region, tbe average full 

being hlgbe-d III 1 1 .'III lid III.' I.i''' jlTrsJI 

In. iii tli" Gulf •! \l-ilro. I« a bell i.f tern- 
perate (rater, wlilch divides ai Hie Mirth- 
n eitrcmliy of Ireland and at the 
Land • Rod iCoruwnlh. the farmer current 
skirting the north of Rcotland, and rei 
lug with the southern arm In the Nori'u 
The rllninti- .if I lie British Isle* l» thus 
warmer and far more equable than that nf 
other lands between the •ame parallels, and 
lta harbors are free from he all the year 

noM 

ana* Aivn roTOLATiorr 

Area Ho, Population 

Division, and faints!* MUea 1011 

England and Wnlr. lf,.ndon) .18.SJ4 36.li 

Bcotland lEdlol.utgh) 30.704 *.76t),904 

Ireland (Dublin) M.531 4.300.210 

Uaadj . 3M »a.01» 

Total 120.063 46.370430 

Oarernmenf.— The liriti-h OasatlMtlH is 
mainly unwritten and customary, hut lt« 

Sievelopment la marked by certain outMand 
ng anil fiindaiiienlal laws. >.f wbleh the 
KTncipal are Magna Charta 11216), lbs ii„. 
aa Corpus Act (laTrv), tot **l i 
il. in. ut (1701i, the A.t of T'nloii with 

Scotland I I . 'IV ■ . II"- A,t Of I i i a ih Its 

land (1800). and the Parliament ad 

.lull I The fh-t ..Hilled annual pnrlln 

nientB and il put I administration of 

lust Ice; ihe second eatabUtbed I ha llt»crty 
of the person: the third provided for the 
i i| .innt succession to the 
fourth nud nftb ereaieil tie' I nit il King- 
dom; and the Innt enabled tin- Common! to 

pass Celllllll A"l* Ivllhollt the iilli'-r.'ll.e 

of ihe othet . hatnber Thi ranatll uent 

farl« of il"- Brlti b I'li'tiiulliin DMJ he 
hus briefly described. 
The throne It hen-dllnrr In the T'nglMi 
bnone of Kaxe-Coburg Cothn with mW.-d sue- 
cession, rho sons of the Sovereign and 
their descendants having precedent-! 
daughters, but datlghtera and their .le- 
•cendanta preference over lateral lines. 
The Miiniir.-hr N ".n • motional and llm- 
I'.l The King has a right to veto bill" 

Cued b» both Houses of Parliament, trot 
nractlr* his veto is almost obsolete. 
Parliament of the I'nlled Kingdom eon- 
alsts of two Houses. The EMM*, of Lords 
eonslsta nf Spiritual and Temporal Peers. 
the former by virtue of rhelr offlee, the 
latter by hereditary right, by election or by 



appointment. It contain* S Prince* of 
tin- lll.iml. 2 Ai hhl 

,Man|iieM«-a, 1-J I'jirls. 4U Vlacuuiils. J* 
lUahopa. an Barana. 10 8cottl.li It 

lie iVeis elerird for the duratloo it 

Parllameni. and i'» Irl.^h Kcpre*mtatl>e 

elected for life -total 0M3. T&* 

House of Commons conalsta of 070 members. 

I fur a maximum of Ave year* by dl 
rati of re^ . the 

ipmliru-atlon being ownership or occupation 
and registration. The total f re«. 

latorod voters In the t mted Ulngcecm Is 
Just over H.iiiki.iiiiii 

The laws la Kngland and Wales are ad- 
ministered by ludrrs appointed by the 
Crown, Who hold ofBce fur IK.-, nnd eanoot 
' save on petition presented by 
both Hiiii-*h of Parliament The High 
Court comprises the King's Bench, I'han- 
nnd Probst i . i , and Admiralty 
Olvlslons. Two t »iirl* of Appeal hear ap- 
peals from theae divisions, tbo altlaaau 
t'l.uit uf Appeal from all lh< rourtl la 
the Pnlted KIiikiIkiii lielnjf tbe lloase of 

l.eril.. 

Scots civil law, wlilch la entirely dif- 
ferent from that nf Pugiand, Is administered 
i.v lie Court "f Session, wblch Is a court 
of law and equity. The High Court of 
Justiciary Is tbe supreme criminal court 
In S.v.tlnnd. It consist* of all th* Judstes, 
ami as a rule It Is conflaed to tbe trial 
of serious cases. The Sheriff of each . 
la the proper criminal Judge In all .-i 
occurring wltlnu the county • 

only .in arbitrary punish Dl (Ho 

British Army, see Armlea of the World : and 
for the Navy, see Navies of Ih. 

J.Mucuieua.— Klcinentary duration la 
compulsory for all children between Ore 
and fourteen yearn of age, and la provided 
free at Public- I'llem. Iilsrv Sc "• 
talm-d by laical Authorltloi and aldid by 
SUte Oral 

:.- at. IS rnlTemliles to tli- 1 
Kingdom, of which 10 are In Kngland. 4 
il. Scotland. 1 In Walea, and 3 la It 
Theae. with date* of foun-: 
f..i.l (124*). Cambridat OSi7i. Durham 
11831). l»ndon 1 1830 1, Manchester . I: 

Blrmlnghaui ( 1! l.n 

I..-., i, i 19041, Mi. m. Id i iMoT and In 
il'.m'.ii. in Kngland; fnlver«<ty of Wales 

', In Wah.. Bl Andrews (lsll), 
C.lasjtoar (14.Cn, A 
i dlnburgh 

iin 1 1691), National mum.. .- 

1 1000 1, In In-loud. 

I'rodiieflnn and IndU'trf.— In 1901 the to- 
tal number of i tbr 
. was 15.SS8..%OI 

the largett percentage, or I'J.rVI. were em- 

Eloyed In agrleu > v. 

■£ In run', ini In mines nnd omr- 

rlM. 7.S0 In metals and machinery. 0,77 la 

building and . iiii.imi. M-ui d.02 In textile 
fabric- and 

If.iiiu'.i tin,-.. The 1'iilti-d Kingdom Ira 

: .. 

in and 40»- 

OOO.Ofui to i u m lbs. of wool tin addl 

tun tr. ir.o.ono.oon 1 1 . 

the former prlni'lpnlly frc.m the 1'ulted 
Sist.-t. tbe latter principally from Austral- 
asln. 

rno<anit oaif TToree.— The southern and 
Ion nf the ' flreat Brit- 

ain It iltnated In western Kuropr. aetweea 
Intltude ,'i0' and :.'. - 4il' north and longi- 
tude !• iff and .V 42' tre«t. It la hounded 
i\ Scotland on the north, on all other aide* 

I" " .1 "ii Hi" en»i I.v the Nortti h>» 

ihe «-.nrh hy the Bst- 
ii-h ' i. nnn. i. and "n the west by St. 
<ieorge"s r'honnel and the Irish Sea In 
length measured on a meridian from Bex- 






Encyclopedic Index 



Brother 



arte* to St. Alan's Head. Is S« aslaaa. 
Its brsadlc. beta era Bt_ David's Head lo 
8o«tb Wain and il"- N»» la liuo. Is !mi 
■lies. Wain was called by the sarly Ro 
mans Brits no lea Scnsude It »•« brought 
uadar tb* dominion of tbe r.nglHh by I 
Heary II. and hdwnid I. Tbs tndesttasteac* 
•f Hike ill"l < I.lcaeliya. who 

waa aaurdired ' nana 

Eleanor txr birth to a soo lo Caeraarron 
mard t» Ma father, called 
Prtii': i baa tills has a»»i alnce 

b«-m glvea to the heir apparent lo toe 
throne of Great Itrli aaa Incor- 

porated with i.iiglaod by an act of l'arlia- 
sacot la U 

/reread.— an Island wnt of Great Brit. 
ale. forming "ltfc li th.- Inltcd Kingdom 

by the A' OB !<>■■ north. west 

and aoatfe scd oe the taat b> final Britain. 

arpai IrWb Sea arid Kl. fli-orca'a 

anil North Channels. It extends from la I. 

. sad from lour 

3* 23' to 10* . I'Sdlng ac- 

'.no, la agriculture, and tbe ch ( manii- 

•ooieas. solrlts. etc. 

nroent U administered by a Ix.nl 

Lieutenant appointed by tba British Crown. 

bet wlih a privy coancll at Dublin 

and » i^tary tn Parliament. Irs- 

land ta r-pre»*ii''d by 103 member* la Hat 

Hoax of Coe»mon>, and the prerugc, eon- 

aaMlttS of 1TZ ajemt-T*. appoint* turnty 

rich I tat"' to «lt in rhe 

Tb. country l« divided 

lato four province*. l'l»t»r, Munster. Letu- 

•i-r and Conaangtjt. cal Govern- 

- '8 provision an 
popaitarlr :.<rlls for counties and 

raral districts. These roanella are 
tor ibr.. years and lake Ibr place of tbr 
old grand Juries and pTcaentrsrnt as. 
Thr pclDf ' 

rich. Loudoesdcrry and Waterford. 

Ta«"' " *"' 

eligible for i 1. -'Ion la bonxsgh and r ity 

coonetls. • 

Trade xith the I sited .-rules — The Talue 
of rjaerehsndlse Imported Into the 
Kingdom from th.- i nit ■'■ ki«;.-i f-r the 
year of 1*13 w and goods 

• >-f *■.•!»■•■..••'•••« MO, were sent 
ikllfce. 110 In favor 

'atea. 

British Empire. (Soo Great Britain 1 
British Guiana: 

Boundarv dispute between Great Brit- 
ain and Vene-wla reirarriinr. 

ea, 5£0<, M71. M16. M73, 
5fi58. 6004, COST. 8154. 
Arbitration of. HiH.uaaed.6S37.6580. 
Recora-arnded by President C3av#- 

land. 6WM. 
Troatj- for, 6154. 
Monrc»e doetrine reaaaerted ami at- 
titude of L'eited States reaped- 
lar.discosaed by PreaiJeot Cleva- 
laad. 6064. 6 
Tariff late* of. evidence of morli8ca- 
tiona of , twoelaimed, 56S8, 6381. 
DiBCtl-aMd, 574". 
British Hudson* Bay Co. (See HuJ- 

»ons Bay Co.) 
British North America. (8m British 

America.) 
British North American Fisheries. (8ee 
KUherlea.) 



British West Indies: 

Employment of colored laborers from 

Lnited Stales in. 1678, 268X 
Tariff laws of, evidence of modiflca- 
:i» of, proclaimed, 6688. 
Discussed, 5747. 
Vessels from Trinidad, tonnage doty 
oo, suspended. 4889. 
Broad-S«al.— The official seal of a state or 
:,.-a'"n. 

Broad Seal War.— The clerk of Middlesex 
: . SJ. J., thxesr a«| Hie .,>(-, f South 
I In the Congraalonal election of IKiH 
on account of dafects la Um relurna. The 
Demo bat tbe Whit; i 

■ I .1 irecl elei'ti-d .'mil 
!••• ■ iiinl- : Uka broad aeal of tile 
state. Who ■.'. IBS", 

i be House I'uii.ini.ii ii'.i iieiuoeral ma 
! is Whbxs out ild« of the 

■ no Clerk uf lie- House refused 
lo recogrdie the New ilsps. Ureal 

coafuslMii followed. Dec 5 John ij 
Adams traa sleeted .Spraker pro lempon. 
■ ', after much nraoicltuir. R. Nl i 
Ilrnlor. of Vlrrlala. was elecu-d Speaker. 
Tbe i eonteataiita were nnully 

seated. 

BroaoJtlde.— I. A concerted dlacbarre of 
flre-aruw or eanoon. '.'. A speech or a com- 

m ii n |. -a Hon arhlcli 1. prmumed to have «nat 

.-rr.-:- 1 en oj 

Brooklyn (N. Y.), Battle of.-July 2. 

1770| Oen. Howa arrlve.l (l ax and 

took p of siaieu Island, N "i . 

H» wiix ...iiii [oloed hi Hi !iir,.i 1'iieton 
from the sontn and Adtnlrnl Lord Hone, 
bis bn>tiiei. f:.ini Kngtoud, t, lib n rieei and 
a isnre In ii. i force Bl Aug. 1. an. 

troops had lncre:i>..-d Ihe force 

undei iinwe to n.-urij ..H.iKiii. lien. Cbarlee 

I ■ . idI i d '■■'•■. fori the rime dny that 

mi arrlrrd at Smulj- Hook. Wash- 

Incton placed Boston In I ItSIa of security 

nod proceeded to Hie lli.-lil.in.tx .if ihe 

iiinivoii, :,n Dalles ibors tfew fork. Tbe 

il e<I Atnerlenn forces numbered about 

IT.'Miit. under the Immediate eomi 1 of 

William Alexanderl 
iwho had Lee) ud l-mnnm. 

Aug 2L". 1T7*>, Iii.immi men and <0 ennnon 
were landed by tbe Btltlsh on Long Islond 
Let ween ihe present Fort RexoUTon and 
•end T-lllnui**- American troops to 
tbe Bomber or STooO nader suiiirnn cuord- 
eil a rnnce of bills extending from The 
Xarrowa to Jamaica rlll»fe. On Ihe titorn- 
|B0 uf Anr. "7 n d»»|iernte biillle was 
silrlluij waa taken prisoner and 
m was forced to surrender. The 
American loas wos 500 killed and sronnded 
and 1.100 made prlsntisrs. The ItiliUli loss 
was 34J7 killed, wminded. and taken pris- 
oners. Putnam's division of the army was 
silently withdrawn by Washington under 
cover of a foe on the night of the 20th. 

Brooklyn, The, mentioned, 6317. 
Brooklyn, N. Y., site for dry dock at, 
934. 

Brother Jonathan. — A general name ap- 
plied tn the people of tbe United States. 
Its origin la said to be as follows: General 
Washington found soon after having taken 
land of the Continental army that It 
was sadly In need of many articles Jona- 
than Trumbull, the elder, at that time 
GoTnrnor of Connecticut, was a friend of 
Washing-ton and one in arfaoeS Judgment 
Washington bad great confidence During 
a consultation on the state of tbo army, 



Brown 



Messages and Papers of the /'residents 



U'aihlngton auggealed tlml they ■ •■omit 

Brother J imbull 

Thin - iinohull 

■ 1 the meant o< procuring whnr «n« 

deiirrd. Tin- itury wim mid In the army. 

mill ill.- r. ill \ in ii demand fur any 

«»* Invnrliilily idvli '"Brother 

limn." Til.- |.i • %■•■ rl>lnl 

iinil b« lived '" HM BTI 

Brown's Insurrection.— 1'mim: the w 

ii. with n few i 
■ :i farm lu Maryland, neai it nepers 

V I | linn V, i ii ho 

rin» !!.• I phin 

f ill.- ruii.de- 
.1 lUrnci i i ii In which over I 
■Hani] !■ lll» oli- 

. ire*, sun- 
■lay ■ ■ H 

■ ii -."j in. ii, -.-i*i-.| iIm- annOffJT. 

'I he cut. irnlim were 

i I. nuil ill' ■ ii. It 

win mi iftet inking the arm- 

nlin 

lo rtee and (tehi under 

plnn. linir- 
. ■•. .-r. .H.l '•■ 1 1 1 . in- I . . ■ i In- 1'. n ■ The 
mil it I i noticd - n. i -iirr..ini.l-.l him. 

mi. I. together wlih nome murines nml 

.-.I ill i.i nml hl« party nft.-r a 

l.-ll bfl -n :i ■■ I '■ I 

J. .tin Brown 

ii. I <<ii I lee. J ' 

.■,-i ex- 

■ i'. in. in in. ilili ■! i hi- imiv 

i ■ en t he wort it rim ■ be Etotnh. 
'■-■ii Buchanan, lo bis annual 

Sage. December, I" iP, ' ft ! '"I 'M* lu- 
ll. hi i • : 
encc* in 1 1 (3484 . i 

Mlu.lrMll.il- • ppo 

Brownstown (Mich.), Battloof.— i- 

Bovernoi Ui If nf Ohio 

Kruth wlili nun, aatllf i prorleio 

ml Hull, who i 
in., n i i .mill learning 

I....H- ,.r BrttUh and Indiana 
Mm: Hi wait at r.r ..-. ii.i.i -.. M. ii :iu mouth 
• ■ Hilton Rlvt-r. i" I rcepl bl« 

fl Major Tin. null B 

I wlili HOT men Ohio 

regiment to net na na »- orl 

Kill. In In III.' i|, .iliii'l. n In i 

i hnd ' 

i wna approaching 

-lull ll found ItMI-lf 

l a in, , .,,1 u i in- -^ i . nrrotinded i, 

.(,|. v.iti, i hi a 

ri ..f iin- iv,ii by ii". iniiiniiK. 
Brownsville.- "u the Blfbl of '•■<- :xi4, 
1000, -i i lot 

ten wn« killed and mother 
wounded end he ble( of polli i 
Injun. I. 1 1 i Hitler feeling* hoc! 

1 1 - v .'.-ii i he towua- 

uid Che soldiers of the Twcntj uftii 
Infantry (colored), ntm Here atntioni-il 'at 

llron n. .i. ■ • ill- Hi » .if 

Ian ..i* VVnr, from nine to lu 
in. -n rruiii n bnttollnu o( ITO formed a plnn 
of it-vi ople of the 

town foi - real it fancied allghi v 

-••cretly left Ihi 

Bred through • leva of the 

with Hii- n-miit noted nboT«. An In- 

r.itlon »»» :n ..".•■ ii. i-iin by th« In- 

apccinr-grneral, who reported iimi lie waa 

rr.im the 
troniia thai (hey bod nny knowledgu of to* 

mi receiving thla report President Boose- 

Ii'll II . : . Ii- 1" ill. Ilili ll .?. "W 'll.illl 

honor" the entire battalion, on lb* ground 



tbnl there had teen formed a •'consplracr 

• Tcndera 
732».) Hi- assumed thai it war. Imp. 
m.-h on affray %h..uld hare h*i 
wlthonl ■■ l . ii,-.- ..f ii i, .ii 

linltnllon. : 

■ il by hl« 
He pawed tvauli 
calling f..r nil tka facta la the eaao. Sen- 
ator I.iiiU-ii i In- rrcaldenl. 

»>b. "... 1008, a • ommltti t the rWoate. 

llfl.-r Wll. 

"il ling wnsitlle wo 

"aotoe of the • I'u'ntj fifth 

Infantry." tPnge 7347.) The a.-ll 
tin- I'lvKldiint ., Two 

■i.iii o,-r» Introduced in the ■■' 

ihe dlacharged aoldlera with 
hack nny, tad I h. 

I't. -nlil.nl |i. I lull I inr 
»i|.h 

lilcnt th»t they bad mil partlclpai- -. 
and bad mi guilty knowledge of. the i 

lug in Browner!! 

". ii. l, mi Rooeerelt re«otnmcndnl that 

Hind, /inj- anldliT-i found inniMvat '■• 

ii u<- S»o»tnr I^nlr* 

.i Hi-- |»ri 
-. i liiHlate the « l . na an 

itltuttonul "f execuli', 

'y- 
Judge II- IY-I 

.■nit i miii i f..r New V . 1»0(|. 

■ 
..r Hi.- ill-, haifed 

action won legnl. and tbn 
authority therefor waa found In tbi- »i 
n( war. The nrllun waa DTOllghl under aa 
■el which allnwa (hi 
aued In i-rrtnln caeca, and waa t.. r 

..-lumenla accruing fr--iu thr 
date of hla illa,-han.-.' In Hi" •■'»! of hli 
enllatment The coie waa «|i|ieal'd I 
H 1 1 . i , im- <"oart. 

Browngvlllc, Tex., lilocka.le of port of, 
removed br i n. MIT. 

Brunswick Harbor. Oa., improscmnet 
of, r.-f.-rr.-l to. 149Q. 

Brussels. Belgium: 

Iiiti'iniil iuiikI GOOgTMR at, for a 

tlon uf African alavo tra.lt-, r» 1 7 1 , 
C543. 
International 

im. I lu. lu 

- inmi;-»ii»iier» t> 
fi-rr.-il In. 5400. 

International Monetary I'.iiif. < 
nt. hi 1802, 

Poal ■'(, iliaCO****!, -" 

■ o of. tranamilti 
Universal Km .i American 

exblbita at, diacuasi 
Bryce Report on Belgian Atrocttle*.— A 

i l:n. -l|..;i In-aded hy 

-,T llryci- formerly amlwia-:i 

.r.nt llrltaln. Ii 
gating and condrmlng repoi 
iinin iriHijia In r -n -f ll.-lglua. 

nod aftcrwnnla di i 1 : 

Hint country during the Ruropoaa War 
hi v.i. Innl oomm ' ■ • : 

ril.ii- i ipon male and fematr 

cotnbatanCH. 

Buchanan, Jamea.-- 1867-1861. 
Blglii.-.-iiiii Admlnlatrartoi <tlr. 

ii. r lent John 0. Hrecklnrldce. 

I.i iv i> I'oaa. 

J, r.mlali S. Black. 





Encyclopedic Index 



L ik liana i 






try of tJh>< Tn 

Coht*. 

' ir y «,/ U ■ 

Joseph Holt. 

Isaac T..«r».y. 

. .' Inlrritt 

Jacob TV'iui 
Pott ■.'-'• t<< (j<«<n«J - 

An «& 

Horatio King. 

jllfoi 

Kdwla M 
Bacbanan n< elected b« ti • Democratic 

.I'lnunli. J ii - •■ I 

•tdent and Jolia C. II 
iDriU .'resident, fierce, Uoagfat, 

and »"a«a were the other po*. 
candidates. b«ti ..a ballou 

taken. Baxaanan always Ii 

tWform. — The platform reiterated many 
■f ta* ptatformi of ls*0 and 
ladudlag aueh topi ~ at 

il haisk : »■' 
has the aah-trca«ury sy*f«o : supporting lb» 

lower: and objecting to fund 
(Irldloo* upon naiuialliaiiun. To IBM' 
■Ml' xt'S d 

: contending for State 

■ sly cm the aim >o nod 

:grvs* la Ifala matter ; 

tapfcaltc annniiui-.Tii.-iii to State* Iclghta. : 
a*jppe.rtlng tbe Monroe Doctrine: advocating 
the riial.ll.hru.-iiU by govern anal > 
guod comaaunlcatlca Ui»i»-. tin' Aiiaatlc 
•ad facia* nam ; aad endorsing the ad- 
ministration of President II. 1 1 

tnertcao iKr^,. 

Moo. betd at lTill*d»l- 

-".c!. nominate Millard 

• nli'iii and Andrew Jackson 

i form 

itlrig Ike goiernmrnt of America by 

Ara-etl.-onocra eltUena : refusal to accord 

oasce-li- Idlng right* to any wtu> i-, -Trailed 

in potentate* ; ml-: 

cation to twenty one years: oppovlug auy 

Ii aad 8«*l»* . » 
agent <.r :iu --v. u National 

ii held at I" 

it aad Will 
lam I. Dayton od a platform upholding tbe 

I ilbltlon by 
«"ongTe>» wlibln il .f i"'iv"gamy 

-apathy altli Kun>»< 

derail <it ii if •• "might 

make* rljrii waiullng a 

transcontinental railroad : acknowledging the 

I'.atlesallty of tin- Int. rual Improve- 

■SeBU 

f>.W at Baltlsi 

endoraed tbe aomlnn- I Ulasorc and 

•on. made by tbe American party on a 

riatfnrin announcing adbarenm to ii M 

time Whig dertrl ofj sectional 

aataconlMii and the formntu.n of geoi 

Wal parties: asd endorsing tin- aiTaalnlstra- 

•alar vol.. I Ihlrtv- 

one State* gave Mu.rinnnn l.tt.lK.lffli : Pro- 
nioait. 1.3*1 241* : i.n.1 i I The 

mh. IT*: Premont. ill and nn 

Partw At ii hi* early enre.-r in 

rbaaaa ml.-il wil u-.a|. 

proving of tlv. War . 
It a patriot' • duty always lo defend hi* 
eouatry. and ipokjt of lb* war at "glorioua 



in tn.. highest degree !<• lb* Amcrlraa char- 

adBalBUtratl.in " Hurler th- era of food 
« li.-n party and section*. 
. .1 i li.— -I j .!...., ii ItucbniiBii political 
vteWa mill, i ... in a change 111 l"! 
■faring Adam*' administration, he h-inm. 
one of Urn Damn 
friend* of Hi- i Inn who 

H -v.- Sattooal H BUbllcatiH; and he 

• t< always a lea Iocs sum ueral 

Jark-.in 

■ :trnl Cumplcslcm of Vonpn**.-la la* 
Thirty riftli • ..m- 

.. .i , . 

; 'ana. 
and live Americans: and r] 
memlH-t* uat i_ 

' i. 

.-aii». In l -;ith CrHBIEieis i 

l«il ■ BBS 

III I '■ IU..-I 

six B-i iiliiii-iiiix. and two Amerl 

1M1 Democrat! ikant. and torea 

ty .three 1ml 

Turtjf. — In at*.' 
dent Uurliaaan In bin Inauxurnl Addresa 
i!»eil) said: "ll I* beyond all qaca- 
n-i|.|- ih.il do in. t.- rvTeana 

ousbt loli. ' ii.iii llu ,■■;!> limn 

■he atunntii 

of a wise. • .mil -tlii l-nt admlnls- 

■ ratk-n .if n-- t. ■■• . -t tnn-iit V us 

tuliia i l.iu iisaln i .i I'm -i Ii tile ■ bram b 
mr lh« -.■in i. f i.-i 

Kratenn*. Indl' I ■'■ .ould 

i in t!..- real ol Ihi 
ntunlty and fBKi l a*l»t.ni with thai »pitn 
Of lalrn.'.ii ami eon hi to 

govern In the ndjii«tiu-nt of n r 
tnrlff." In h'.- Mn-inil M 

I page r'ur.L'i ,ii ■: 

he said: "In regard t- th- rnml- ot 
Ing ami colloctlnil iluii.-. under a ati 

nee tariff. I .! and 

i that *onod policy re 

autre* that (his should tie don- 
utle* In •»•••» t.> whl in i« prop- 

•*ly apnllil Tf>- |>re»-nt 

1* a atllrl 

dl*advantag-. t ndei II. wlnn price* are 

high au.l bn ilntlea rise 

In amount -.-. bi I 

tin in- contrary, when price* fall ami ha li 

struggling Bg»ln«t aU. • nr- 

dimlniih-.I In tin- same proporlloo. urmlly 

Injary." In hl» Pourlli An 
Bag*. Ipag, 
sald : "An Impression strangely -uoagti 

prvTolls to «.ir item Hint Mp, 

are ii. protective rlutlev, n 

•nn ba ilium Great Ifrltalo Hiortea 

In fr- 

from Import* It nt the present moment -,l 
i.T..il unil-r « «y*t*m of apaclflc <l 
Foirion Polifii — Domeatle affairs were 
I durliiK I" 'I'll hi Burba 
BdmlnlKtnHt.iti 'tun the foreign polii 
been ." ■- I. I 

Inaugural Ai the rn-*l- 

1 nliin .mi thai ■ 

. Iiv Mi. I .11 ,1 Mm. - ii-.i • Ii— 11 

or Ii) 11 

Impal f il-- paople. oerei by oanqiicat. • 

war. 

Do ii-lvantage w*k tahefl M l"'t .-..ii'iu-i-d 
«tntc. Inn n fnlr prl.-e us. paid <■• h-r for 

il ,l-,l territory. In til* Second Annual 

he ii .1111—- Mi- —n 

'. IVrry iivhit with Japan In 

the same mesw 1 .-, ■ th- .llffer- 

enees with (Jr. at Britain. — millions which 

"- .. 1 1 Ii in lii-ui 11-nhanan 

of th- long lUthdlnji "riutit *,f -. 

tntrm<jl /niproremrnls. — In retolng "An 

Oct making an appropriation for deepening 

1 lair flats. In the 



Encyclopedic Index 



Buchanan 






stale or Mlcblran." Ibe President, la hi* 
•leSaajre lpa*e 31*0) clearly eipresare 
bl* views upon the question : "» bit a vast 
•rid would til* exercise of IhU i 
for Jot-blac aad eorrupiloa : Member* of 
C »HHH from an boaeat desire (o prostata 
tat Interest of their conatltaeau would 
stracgle f>'f Itnprovi 'Oii'uu » lihla ihtlr own 
'-». and lb* body lt»elf mint bk» 
•enty be o-.,n»erted Into an arena where each 
endeavor U> obtain froin the Treasury 
»k m osey a* possible for bla ova 
locality. Tb« trmptallnn ' 
•Ui.r.le. A lyirem of -|oc-rollla£* jl know 
bo a .ml %.< cir.reasjve) would b* Inaocur- 
at«d nad«r which the Tnawrr wog'.d b* 
exhaaatcd and the l'ederal Government 
would b» depiircd ot the mesas necraasry 
te exeetile tbea* «r»*t powers clearly coa- 
Ided to It by the Cocutltutloa for Ibe wr- 
as** «f p wi tlan the lilnnli and vfndl- 
tills* tb« honor of tbe country." 

"•'"i- lo bU Inaugural Addr*** tpaxn 
S*3< President Uocbanaa treats the whale 
••esUos •{ slavery aa bola* sett ted by the 
rectus' ibe whole Ter- 

rlWrtal SjaeMlon." be aaya. "being Ihoe ael- 
tied seoa lie principle of popular *ov»relcn- 
t»— a pclnrinle a* ancient ■< free s»»«m- 
avat »••»•?— eriryiblnjc of a practical nature 
baa Seea declaVd." This I* the keynote to 
oedml'a acta la connection wttb 
(Ml •»>yei_ Ibe ooaa re.ir.5 noon Con- 
pa. aad It ««• for htm lo tarry oat the 
U.i *kVb Cesurxcss bad made on the sub- 
btt. There was no option In hi* ea*r. 
M asat tb. CuettlluMoa obliged bUe lo 
••. The Cettslstnre of bl* administration 
- the hand* of the pro-alavery party. 
•id rat FiTwIdeiit'i conduct in enforcing 
•alias formulated by it-r. m»te It appear 
• tbxtt be mdorsed rbelr policy .Veal- 
vat HsiWaan waa appox-d to slave-; 

wlth <*me«tloa* for eoneil- 

: be did object to the 

of unsympathetic atoll rloalsts 

affair* of other State*. He say* 

IKJl : "But thU question of do- 

lUrery b> of far (rarer Importance 

awr* political question, because 

_ *xlt*tloa coaileue It may eventu- 

•aaiaser ibe personal safety of a large 

ewika of «-ar conatryrors wber • 

gs» exan. Let erery t'nloa kcrlac men. 

•i bl* beat Influence to sap. 

1*"* ibU aaitailon. wblcb *ine 

y*» U «o if Csasgreea la without an; 

In hi* Third Annual He* 

the President makes an 

• I to bla cownlrymcn t.» 

Ibe ancient feeling* of mala*! 

"■aassaui and food will toward each other 

*a Hrree to allay the ilemoa apirtt of are- 

■"«< talreij aad .irlfe now allre la Ibe 

" Halle he warn* the peopie of rb« 

.i.troptlon of the Valon. wblcb 

• lo bellere Impoaalbar. yet the 

_ ai HariM-r* Kerry aeree a* lb* 

' • Itsaon or wbal may happen. In 

Annaal Meaaace Ipuet 

annoqner* that ~The lone- 

tntemDerale lnterfereaer of 

. nrot>le with Ibe ajoealtos of 

uthern sras.a na* ai tenxih 

Pan ad |ta ntluial effect. The did 

■mv. . Vnlon are now arrayed 

i other, and the time ha* *r- 

•♦ BYark dreaded by the Father of hi* 

laav -m» (rocrai'hlral parties 

'--»o fortun) t«y woold 

■J* t*r ibe Amrrtean r- •!« ibe 

-tan forever aad to r<-«lore peace 

nf haravn I country I 

«od iber alone, ran do It. All ih»t 1* 

f—mn lo Kconiilirt the ob)eel. aad all 

ib- »la»- sui-« bar* rat con- 

•ue aad aermltled to 

■If dnoaeallc &>*^iuilnni In Ihelr 



L« 



•bl* *»)r. 






ova way> Aa aorereljcn S!»l»« they, and 
they alun", are reason*lbte before God and 
the o iie alatcry Mlatloc imuai 

them. For tbl* lb* people of Ibe North 
.it store reaponafble and bar* no mora 
rurht to Interfere than with almllar Inslllu- 
iluoa la Ruaala or Ilraill." Spcaklos of 
.-.M.'ni"* responsibility and duly In 
Ibe teremlae*. be *ay»: "Afler all. b> 
mere than the Chief Kxecullrc of tbe Gov- 
ernment. HI* proTinev U not to make but 
lo execute lawn." Kollowlnc Soorh Caro- 
llaa'a ordinance of aereastcm of Dee. 20. 
18«0. the lYesldent la a spertal meaaafe lo 
-• trace aiSOl dweuaaed tbe rtshl 
of any State to aereda. 

Buclinan. Jamas: 
Admiixion of aUtes dlbeuaaed and 

recommendations of, regarding, 

3033, 3080. 
Annaal mcaaagoa of, 206", 3028, 3033, 

313;. 
Biographical sketch of. 29*30. 
Constitutional amendment regarding 

ulaverv. r.--. <t- ir:i.- u- 1---1 hy, 31*59. 
Corrciipondencc of, while minister at 

: - «t*raburg, referred to, 3887. 
Correspondence of, with Lewis Caaa, 

raferTod to. 3!XM. 
Cuba, ii of, diaeaaawd by, 

3040, 3060. 

Recommended by, 3041 3092, 3173. 
Death of, announced and honors to bo 

paid memory of, 3862. 3863. 
Daties on vewr-U of Italy suspended 
reclamation, 2824. 
tncea discussed by, 2D«7, 2088, 

3019,3052. 8078. 3MM, 3170. 
Foreign policy discussed by, 2900, 

2998, 3037, 3041, 3060, 3089, 3092, 

3173. 3177. 
Inauguration, aee illustration Oppo- 
site 2975. 
Instructions to, while minister to 

England, regarding free ship*, etc., 

ref. i 110. 

Internal improvements discussed by, 

ifonroe doctrine reasserted by, 3043, 

3177. 
Official conduct of, investigated, 3145, 
3150. 

•s of," 3073, 3130, 3138. 
Portrait of, 2959. 

Powers of Federal and. state govara- 
menta discussed by, 2062, 2981, 
3028, 3074, 30*4, 3130, 3139, 3145, 
815i 113,3180. 

Proclamatioas of — 

Day for voting on adoption ot cods 

f Columbia, 3021. 
Duties on vessels of Italy sus- 
pended, 3022. 
Extraordinary session of Senate, to 
act upon Executive eommanica- 
. 3026, 30H1. 3150, 3203. 
Military expedition to Nicaragua, 

3027. 
BebeUion in Utah, 3024. 




Buchanan Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



I'ni.-.t.. hi. against procc-iling* of 
House 01 S prOMBtsUtYea, "3145, 

.l.,n. 

--ion diacua* -.1 by. 3I5B, 3186. 

i»te, 2319. 

SI* i.y. 2962. 2081, 3023, 

- 
8utc of Ihe i by, 

op., 

• ulent for 
oration of bills d-.tKUMod by, 295W, 

V. i.i messages of — 

Decpoaing channel » lair 

Flats, r.'«»oni for applying 

jni.lt, I I • 
Donating lands for benefit of agri- 

.•. ■», 31174. 
Relief of — 

.... 3138. 
Horkmlay & I 1201. 

Removal of obi MUaaiS 1 

Mppi Btl ir. r.-ar.tins for appl 
poil. 

Securing bomi - tends to settler*, 

3139. 
Transportation of mail from 8t. 

Joseph. Mo., I.. I'lu it. ill.-. . 'ill , 

reasons f.>r api lying poekot veto, 

Buck. Toe. Niton of. nnd claims aris- 
ing ..-.it of, 4111, fllnS, B847, 5673, 

Award in case of, 3673. 
Bucket-Stop.- •. : in stocks. 

,l, . i.i.i. i, i. III.. !!:■ 'null', 

bucket ibopa prot oafer 

ojf ii re 
uldlng plar.- where 

if Hi,, innr 
Buckeye State. — Tbt nickname gli 

■ tracfc*r< tree w»* indig- 

i.i t In- noil, nn.l wns found In 
Innct throughout the state. IBM 

Bucks Stove Obm.— in August, mo-, tiic 

llueks Store nuil Bai 

i i- broagBl rjrooeedlngi In tin 

of ibe 1'i-m t of Col 
the oOcers of Hi>' Inn', in. I'" 

lo enjoin tbetn from conducting a 

iimi ibe . neern wa* on the "unfair" mul 
\V. .]..., - r pal nnlso" lists published ill III" 
in Tli. 
e«ked for was I 

plea tlinl tli" ii'MM- "f Hi" 

Injunction were iii-inn vi-dat.-d • 

1 Of I I »er» brought III 

Ha mm 

".itton of Ijii~ii : J.iii'i »b ■• 

i i.i .hi .m.l Frank Morrison, acCTpiarj 
right, "f Hi" Supremo i',,uri <-r 

ii,,. I 1 1 -. i : I. I ,,f .',. urn!, lii Ii, f.,." ulnilil III" 

nw • decided lb «bnt 

Hi,, def. ml i. ::illts Mr Con 

«!• ..-Ii'. II, , ,1 |0 "I HI llil||- I" Hill' III. 

• n,| M. •■'<. Mil II and Minn.-. ,ii in nine 

in,,,. in. iml sl» month*, re 

admitted lo hull nn.l the caw wa* ap- 
pealed to the Court of Appeal* of tbe Die- 



■ labia. Thin tribunal lo a dcarl- 

• i"ii '.», affltun " 

Irl.t 

in appeal wn* then taken 

Ualea, 
win. ii ..ii Miv i Iowa • 

i,l, noting tbe 

case, n 1th ' einjit 

w1tb- 

f tu» 
r Hi,- iiisii I. ' ..I r„iiini>ii 

,n|, in wa* I hut ' 
against the labor union officer* we* for eltll 

mil Id I- [iimlabi-d only by 

inii'ii 'iini' in r,.n lb" penalty fur criminal 
i int. iiiul ibervfoi not a l»jcel 

»n-lil • im ' M i-an**" 

of Organised labor <ould be enjoined ui at 
lacked legally, becnow org." ,i I* a 

nation, and. »• aucb. relb.ii 
of Individuals. II »l~, . 
Hi,- fni-t Hint l.-cal proaeculloe co«ld be 
.it lb" mil i -at at 

i .,, ,,'n, i- .i . iff.) 

Buckshot War.— The election In Philadel- 
phia -. era* of cnoatdcraMe to- 
hinged tb" 
trol of the legislature which na to e|e,i 
a rnlie.l Stui.-» Senator. The Deooi. 
ilnt< . f.T tli.- l"k-l- :*lure -., 

tied. The Democratic 
return Judge* I hereupon rest 
Whig ' ilmlng fm id. Tbe Whig 

to both tli-lr < ongn-iadoaal and Ughlt 

,ndldai»«. and II ta were ae- 

Whig secretary of stale. 

1 1,-,-, t, 1838. thi lag of 

in,, leglala 

aeta of ii'iii, -i nit* met at llnrrleborg. The 
. which wns Whir, met and ad- 

■ 
in, i in Hi" home 1 1 *-•«. iJl'.'.i. The 
ic mf^p^pj 

nod tried without ■ -IT*-* -t to obtain fed- 
eral ni.l. The Den rntle houae win ree- 

'. reitinrk mnde d.irlM 

,; !-| ,.t I In- . I. II, Ii.. • • am 

would feel ii, - effect of "ball and buekahot 
night," guv* the eplKOdo thn nam* 

uf 111.- IIii.-KmIhiI V, ., i' 

Buckshot War. documents regarding, 

ir.iii:iiuii,"i, 1724, 1729, 
Bncktails. — A name applied to tbe Tam- 
many I New York Oly from the 
fact tb.it ' the urcacliatloa 
worn buck'* tall* In their hat* a* a badge 

■ i .f ii f, ilber, II.'Iwi-.ti mi2 and 
11*28 ill- nere anil i'llnt,.inn 

',,rk Uemocrata. Tli.r Wei. II,, 
Tlcoroua opponent* of rilnioa's ranal pat- 
Icy fro . ,ii in IM7. and the naibc 

win Inter appllrd to all who opposed this 
policy tlirougli"iit the Btatex 

Buena VUta (Mexico), BattU of.— Attar 
' * hi* army bad be. ,, Gen. 
'I ■ lor, a lib leea i 
n moat I) raw militia. wa» attack. 

■ 

', Ki'h. 22, I- i; Taylor It i rent-bra 

I Ang«i»<iira, 

mini trml- 

In Sun Lulu potoal, 

. 
vt.i. -.ii- i„. nil... i I,, ik« 

Amerlriiua being but 4 men wounded, while 



Encyclopedic Index 



Bulgaria 



the enemy lost more than 300 killed nnd 
wounded. Fighting was renewed at dawn 
of the 23d and continued until sunset. The 
Mexicans retired during the night lo Agua 
Nueva. The American Ions In killed. 
wounded and missing amounted to 745 : that 
of the Mexicans upward of 2.000. Jeffer- 
son Davis In this battle commanded a 
Mississippi regiment as Its colonel, and 
saved the army by receiving the charge 
of the Mexican lancers. Hla troops were 
formed In the shape of a V. (See Illus- 
tration opposite 2121.) 

Buena Vista, Mexico: 

Battle of, referred to, 2385. 

Mutiny in camp of, referred to, 2443. 
Buenos Ayres (see also Argentine Re- 
public): 

Convention with, ratified, 7672. 

Diplomatic relations with, discussed, 
2116. 

Imprisonment of American citizens 
in, 632. 

Independence of, asserted, 612, 627. 

Minister of United States in, returns, 
1171. 

Revolution in, 2702. 

War with Brazil — 
Peace concluded, 977. 
Questions between United States and 
Brazil growing out of, 929, 901. 
Buffalo (N. T.), Destruction of.— During 
the winter of 1813 the British regained 
Forts George and Niagara. The British 
and Indians, under the command of Lieut.- 
Gen. Drummond. MaJ.-Gen. Klall, nnd Col. 
Murray, overran and laid waste the valley 
of the Niagara and pressed hard upon Buf- 
falo. Gen. Amos Hall succeeded Gen. Me- 
Clure at Buffalo Dec. 20. In the command 
of 2.000 badly organized American troops. 
On the night of l>ec. 29 Itlnll crossed the 
river at Black Bock with J.450 men. largely 
regulars, nnd a body of Indians. At night 
of the enemy 800 of Hall's troops deserted. 
He. however, made a gallant defense with 
the Chautauqua troops and Canadian refu- 
gees until he was forced to retreat, keep- 
ing the enemv In check nnd covering 'be 
flight of the Inhabitants. The British nnd 
Indians took possession of Buffalo nnd pro- 
ceeded to burn, plunder, nnd massacre. 
Onlv 4 buildings were left standing In the 
town nnd only I at Black Bock. 
Buffalo In 1815. (Sec illustration oppo- 
site 553. 
Buffalo, Pan-American Exposition at, 

6382, 6436. 
Buffalo Exposition. (See Pan-American 

Exposition.) 
Bugle. — An Instrument used by military 
forces for sounding various Order*. 
Building and Loan Associations.— Cor- 
porations organized primarily to enable 
persons of limited menus In secure homes. 
and. secondarily, to enable sueh persons In 

fmt aside a certain llxcd sum at stated 
ntervals. 80 that the investment may In- 
safe and remunerative. In the beginning 
the home-bulldlng or home-lm.vlnc fund 
came entirely from the periodic payments 
of the members (shareholders!. At present 
prepaid, full-paid and permanent shares are 
sold by the association, payable In full or 
In large part on subscription. Speclnl de- 
posits In any amount are received. Shares 
partly paid are brought to their par value 



by adding to payments made dividends ap- 
portioned thereto. Special deposits are gen- 
erally withdrawable by the depositor at. 
pleasure. Installment shares and prepaid 
shares remain in until they reach their par 
value. Kull-pald shares remain in a cer- 
tain fixed time. Permanent shares remain 
In until the dissolution of the corporation. 
These associations came Into existence In 
Kngland nearly 100 years ago, but were not 
made the subjeet of legislative enactment 
until 1836. The first association estab- 
lished In the I.'nlted States was the Oxford 
Provident Building Association, of Frank- 
ford. Pn., organized In 1831. There are 
according to the official report made to the 
National League of Building Associations. In 
1911. In the United States 5.809 associa- 
tions with assets of Jil31.807.175. The es- 
timated membership la 2.169.893. 
Building and Loan Associations, report 

on, transmitted, 5909. 
Buildings, Public: 

Acts for erection of, vetoed, dis- 
cussed, 5553. • 
Architects for, authority for employ- 
ing, referred to, 2954. 
At Washington destroyed Vy Great 

Britain, 530. 
Commission appointed to determine 
extent of security of, against firo 
referred to, 4432. 
Construction of — 
Recommended, 4577. 
Referred to, 399, 436, 1483, 1911, 
2281. 
Expenditures for, 985. 

Discussed, 4197. 
Heating and ventilating referred to, 

3110,3112. 
Illustrations of the principal govern- 
mental, ami most important in 
Washington, D. ('. (See the frontis- 
pieces of various Volumes.) 
Improvement of, recommended, 831. 
Bulgaria. — Bulgaria Is an Independent 
kingdom In the northeast of the Balkan 
Peninsula, bounded on the north by Ru- 
mania, on the south by Turkey and the 
Aegean Sea, on Ihe east by the Black Sea, 
and on the wesl by Servla and Greece. 

1'hliniral Feature*. — The Balkan range 
runs parallel with the Danube. about sixty 
miles to the north. Tbe Khodopc mountains 
extend along the southern boundary of F.nst- 
eru Uitiuclin. The western portion of Itnl 
giirin Isoeenpleil by extensive plateaus which 
conned the Balkan and Kliodnpc ranges. 

All the rivers of Northern Bulgaria rise 
In the Balkans nnd flow northwards Into the 
l>anube. the fall being often precipitous. 

ARKA AND POPULATION 

A ren Popula- 
Provincca in Square tion in 

Miles 1010 

Burgas 4,570 3.5I.500 

Kiustendil Ijcii 231.833. 

Plevna 2,!l.",7 3Aii,XIM 

Philipjiopolis 3.007 447.300 

Kuatehlik 2.0 IS 400,300 

Shumla 2.310 282.001 

8"li" 3.734 4X1, MS 

Stara-XaRora 4.0'!.-, 442,000 

Tirnovo 2.!IM> 448,197 

Varna 3,-1x5 320,012 

Vidin 1.701 237,571 

Vratin 2.R0O 312.4 00 

Total " 371202 4,337,818 



Bulgaria 



tessagcs and Papers of the Presidents 



Bulgarian. ■ language of tbe Slavoalc 

. ■ . . 
lliiloiu. — The Bulgarian kingdom was 
originally fi.nciil.ii in nth century 

liy ah inciirnlou up lluljcxnt across the liau- 
ubc. and < hi- 1 r rvitl'iDcnt In a dliln 
tli.- II- nun iByiantloci Empire ,\i tbe 
riot* a! tbe fourteenth it kingdom 

frii node* Tin' sway of the Turku, iron 
who-o dominion Bulgaria wna separated by 
a Rteti.no and Berlin 

p after an an I revolt against 

iilxmlr. innnv heroic engag. • 
marking the con. ugglc. The 

Treaty of Berlin (JalJ IS, i-:-, i ml 
I'riiiclptllU of Bulgaria n< a trllniixr.i 
State nf ; in ism; 

war broke out between Bulgaria ami her 

political uiiinii 
of Eisteru Burnetii 'i"l lliilv-.i "l 1 

ii. i. :,, 1008, Hi- iiriiii-iiiiii.i.i i.f Called 
Bulgaria wna declared an Independent king- 
dom, and < In r deolan d him- 

K>!f T-iir (Klngi "f '!"■ I' ' 

Independence «i ! bj nil Um 

U il.ni.. t.i 'I'm L y 

lining rapllnllxrri and tlie annual pavimiil* 

cllcd. In 1912 ltuli:nrin i In conjuac- 

tlun with Si-nin. Montenegro, and Cli 

alntl ill.- in touiau Ki 

■ ir wan prosecuted with the mmiot 

vlg.»r and the town of Adrlinople and oil 

Thrace ti> lb* Knoa-Mldla line fell to the 

rlian. of Bulgaria at in.. Treats of London 

u mi:-., i.i. : .-iii. ■!• with parti of 

Macedonia to the treat of Bulgaria But 

...nil war of Bulgaria agnln-;' 
former n!:|. : who wei aided by lininanla. 

0. 1S13I. by which llulgarlj i.n« it* 
iniii-li 1 ex(en«!oii. 

a pari of bW foi lory lo Run 

Turkey alio took advantage of i ilgarli 
dlfflriililet and reoccuplcd Adrlanopu 
the adjaeenl termor] i Balkan 

\."nr ..r 101 
\ ('.institutional mor.n 

In:, illl.-i. I In I'm- male l.ni- Of 1 I 

elected by lb population and con- 
firmed by tbc Subllm- l"oi ■ with U 
unt of the rower- The Constltuilim 

»-»k mi.. pi, .1 April 20, L8T9l 

rdlnaod I (Ferdinand Mnxl- 

nillau ' 'li.ii-i..* I nf Siix- 

' 

The I l con- 

slits of 21 i for 30,000 

liiiinbltnni'i. elected by direct manhood rat- 

frags fur n maximum iliiiniloii Of four years. 

Certain mailer* are ri .i/ved for- tin- '.mmf 

Bobranjc, which U almllarlv elected lwb*a 

>.ii il..iiinoilii uiih twlee tin- number 

of repr ntatlvca. There ...-.- .l.-iinriin.-ntal 

courts and court* nf appeal iSofle, Rual 
clink,, and I'lullpponoiui The supreme 
eniirt of anneal la the Court of faeaatlon 
at Sniii ilinnirnednns and 

Jewi have speclnl spiritual ,-nni-i- for fam- 
ily law and the law of Inhcrlm- 

Service In the Army la universal and 
compulsory on nil maleH between rl: 

■ and 10, The Pence Effective la ri > 1 1 
ofOcera, .'i-l n:i7 other*. War KffectlTe. Kleld 
Army. 27:, iiiH); Territorial Army. 5f> noo. 

Production ana Iwluttri/ — Ore! 70 per 
e<iit. of the population lire by agriculture, 
and mure than ntn- Ihln! of the llllnl : 
ili r eultlrntlnn. one ihlr.l being woods and 
foreita and the remainder barren mountain. 
Tim principal crop la wheat, but win. 

i, »llk, cotton, ami rice are also lnrgelv 
.■ttcd, while attar of roses I* prodii.-ea 
In large quantities from the rose fields of 
the .h.llerecl inlleya. Bulgarian homscrmns 
and embroidery are unrivalled In their vi 
cellence but auffer from the competition of 
heap and Inferior Import! from Europe. 



R*Htc4u:— In 1012 tliere were S.O0O kllo- 
. of railway open, nil U-kiuclng to 
Hi., -•'late, with ■ 10 . i 1 

Traic erMIA •*, The ralue 

of in. ' d Into Bulgaria ftoa 

the t in.. I statei for tbc year 1013 •■< 

Ji»::.V-«». and gooda to the vain.- of $i«n.- 
&37 wi r— a bajiu.-e ol 

eos lo fa. tarn. 

Bulearia: 

Diplomatic relations witb. ostabliah 

went of, recommo: 
Maoaaera '•■ 1 arks in, referred to, 
,. .. 

Bull Moose.— An emblem of too Frocraaire 

Bull Bun (Va.), Battle of, or Fir*t Bat- 
tle Of Maaaasaa.— Kvr the donbte purpuae 
nf menacing Washington uml |.i.i.nilng 
nn advance of the Federal troops lai . 

the Confe I ng iiw « 

,,; lM.i eiiiiectcd a nil 
the viiiiiliy of MaUBSs-as Jtinctlna. V«. 

poelilon was 33 nillei souihw. 

Lngton. rh*. troops -nt.i.-d 

aforecnaeal 

1 .1 irlng i he lint He, n ■ 

..ii'iiHirnl of 
senior officer Gen J. K. Juhnmon, after 
Iil» arrival on (he field, did not take the 

command Tl ggregate fere* of 

I in. hi aoldlera In a nil I gti.u 

was 3t,10( ii. Until r. .nn,. rrerr i-oro- 

Sin.v-il, ol uml tileera, 

.egao 
a general forward movemi ilia. 

Scott ndrl'.. rorcejl 

In better |" ■ ■ 

i.m bla wnrnlug was dlaregan 1 .1 
Federal army wh-. divided 

• .on nn ii .. lino- 

yon to guard the approo-i 

lin-r i illvi.i..ii«. aggrrgatltK 

r.'Hi men. ., r fyler. 

Hunter, II . adraau-esi 

lo Bull Hun, n nn,- - itoaaac 

RlYer i.. .. i 30 mile* from nnnhlanoa, 

on the w ij i . 

er'a ami 11 1 ibe 

run July -.'l and attacked Hie ■ 

nto left, slowly forcing It buck. Benure- 

tnrd's armr. win n the nei eua- 

. .f Mli..-ll -. I 000 nv;. lie 

■I Intervals during the day 
l.v 8,000 men under Jo»n 
been encamped bo the BIu'ii.hi.i .-ih ( 
uml ■■: Inn ,.i lih the mniii ami 

was thouglil n-oiild b Gea 

;lo»ed 

'.I It I nlrb IS.UKJO Bel, Be 

and I i.'.-loek In the af>r 
■ 

; ii.i.i of Johnston's nn>». 
nnder Oen. KIrby Smith, nr rived and fell 
upon the Federal* forcing This 

attack wiim followed i 

1... uml the federal i nae a 

rout. Men threw nwiiy their nrtr-« and 
equipment* at llllery lion , from 

i hell i '■■"■ a n ad 
road: soldiers, civilians, an 
era Bed panic stricken to* 
afnol axlrl 

tre.i'iiu- .trine .mil f..;: bed Weak, 

Ington July L':i The vnsna 
He were: Federal i. ■■>••»— killed. 4>-i 
wounded, I in I niNnlruir. 1.210: torsi. 
2.70* I'onri- h.rii.. lo-«.-v— killed, 

13; meal. ■ 
TIiIh bnitl. Ural very Important 

m.ni of rh* war. (Sec also arove- 
\Ihiipi»«»« <Vn.j, or 
Bull Run, Second Battle of.) 



Eneychfedtc Index 



Bureau 



Bullion. — Cold, silver, or ether metal* en 
bum, c« undefined state. >• dUUaatslabed 
from coin. 
BaQlOB 8Ut«.— A nlckaame lor MUaourl 

■ | atMi Stale*.) 

Banco*} be.— To talk hi.ticxnt* l« to »p»ak 

ret oa person* at « it stance, wltk- 

u» audience present. The 

l*n*» originated war Ihr cles* of tile dV- 

Wi» •• tk* famous "Xluomrt (Jaestlosi, 

■ogreae. It wb> 
imln I • l \\ nlk-r. n MTl* OM BMHUlfBln- 
• no resided at W»yn*»vHt*. In Hay- 
«va*\ • •r**'m county of North Carolina. 
ant tk* border of (a* adjsivot county 
-I B*eeee»b*. which was In Mb district. 

rii j-ritiemsn roae to apeak wh;>- 

Ueao* »■» impstketly r»llln* ~Q»t*< 

sae arrtret nembvra gathered arouDd Dim. 

kn*I kin (o dealal. lie p"**v*T*d. bow- 

inrlijt thai th* people 

••xpeetrd It. and that he 

•tittt to make * apoeeh for Buncombe. 

Bake HID. or Breads Hill (Maw). 
BUIkl of.— After tbe battle* of l>xla«u» 
lal C-Juvrd the British force nadcr 
Coer roa larreasrd to 10.000 men by the 

-I «f <;«aer»»> Ilowe. Ollntoo, and 
&T» fran KaujUnd. Tbeee offlrer* occu- 
lt Ik* town or Bottoa. on a peninsula 
•thadsji Into lb* baiter. On th* SOT- 
**»Bu hill* were eocamprd *oin* 20.000 
eaSMptuvd Amerleaa*. «'n the night of 
>ne In, ibeni uml 

fanwstt were *»nt ' Hunker Hill, 

i lying nnnci .-f Boa- 
Ma. TV. 

i. ar Boston, and threw 

7*f fortiaea>l"ii'- In 
Ira, about a.oon (possibly 3.SO0V 
■faa rroan d tb* harbor Id boat* and 
"•una lb* hill, which, a-at defended by 

of row r- 
*"»» Ikre* bloody ehnrcaa the Am' 

•,-n froro tli.lr poalllOD, bjvlng 
:.« and 
■ ■••■*• ammunition » 
it TV- ■ ■•• wi* si 

'W ef lb* Amerx-'n" Blioot -l.'O. Including 

• bat- 
"•skew r of killed and wounded 

»kn • an no per eent of the 



ii anions the 
Mwtle»t battles known ''•<■<■ 

Waantafi^r ibr— day*' flghtloc. the Tnlon 
Ml per cent of 
' • ht at Boat I in an 

■mitt 
Bating. — A collective mass of flaRo. espe- 

ea thipa. 
ssrcBArdaam.-A terns of reproach apply- 
■ tadlsevft ottcraaen *t poMtleal pro- 
•rtrn, due to the unfortunate reference by 
bimad Bamuel Dickinson Run-hard to the 
NtHTatle Party *• a party of -Bum. 
••aiaUm Md Rebellion" (o. r. I . 
BerMO. — From th* meaning In iieneral use. 
MBily, a pltrc whet* huitneu 1* trana- 
arM,— the word "liureaa" hn* come lata 
a*t u deacrlptlTa of a dopartmrnt of the 
t«r«rn**oi. like the I: ..hicatlon. 

Nnaa of encrarlax mad Prlntlr.r. etc. 

of Account*. Stata Dapartmaat. 

Barraa of Accouat* w*« flr*l or«aa- 

t^• r<^a.!'.,.rmrnt of th* Deoirt- 

It direct, the flnan- 

^'partment. control* all It* r»- 

:ilur»*. and «inerr1«^* tt» 

mta, |B«* But* Depart- 




Bureau of Animal Industry. (Sae Ani- 
mal Induitrjr, Bureau of.) 

Bureau of Biological Surrey. (Sa« Bio- 
lofr/ical Survey, Bureau Off.) 

Buraau of Caemlslry. (Sec Chcmiitrr, 
Bureau of.) 

Bureau of Construction and Bopalr. 

Nary Departmaat.— ThUboren-1 plni tba 
u of new vcawl* and of neeraaary 

chane** oa old «-«•!«. both tbooe 

ami t.. •!■ nti'i.-r contract In private yard*. 

r Hi >upervl*lon c-jme «' 
•tructloa ol 

alrcnafL It maintain* a «utt whlrh 
Irally eiamlon all ablp* of i 

Navy for repair* and alteration*. 

RBrj . Nary Ivpiirttuent.i 

Bureau of Corporation*. Ii rail- 

ing Corporationi under article Com- 
m. -in. nt.) 

Bureau of Crop Estlmitos. (S.-o Crop 

Eatlmataa, Bureau of.) 
Bureau Of Education. — (See Interior De- 
partment aad Education, Bureau of.) Pro- 
ii waa made tor a Comm!«»lon*r of 
IMurntlon by cnnclnient approved March 2. 
1807. lie I* appointed by th* Prraldeat. by 
and with tin- cnaxeat of the s.-uate. and hla 
yearly oalary In tO.OOO. lie adolnliter* 
..Hecllon of fact* and 
•tatl*tlc* abowlnx thn caaM • ilu<»- 

tlon In tin- varloae Bl (llTviiea »tich 

nliin iinini i n • .rina tlon. particularly Infor- 
mation concerning the orgaiiltatlon and tin- 
maaaeement nf »eh.»<l>. and methods of 
tearhlac a? *liall promote tho cauaa nf ..In 

catlaa throuthoi-t the i itry. The Iturvau 

of Bdncatlon al»o laanea imlletlnH oa the 

' Ion In tho 
■ advance of technical 
and Industrial education, aad on tin- i 
m»ot and *nfot- 

lance I««m. Tl" 
n h*« cfiarxe of the education. »tir i l l "rt. 
and medical condition ot tho Alaakan 
aatlvaa. 

In addition, thp Bureau nf ^duration 
aervea i« a kind of education clearlnit-houao 
for the country, It ndvlne* educational au- 
tborltlc* in all localltln. and maintains a 
corp* of experta who** wrvlr.a are avatlaMe 
for all manner of edurnllnnal in»Mi il 
XBot tli" Doreaa coo further — It encourage* 
to tho limit of IM ablllt* what *eem to It to 
be riealrabla tr*nd» In i-dui-ntlon, na tin- pay- 
saent nf mm» adei to teachera: 

and the eataMlabment of public (cfaool ava 
tern* organltcd Into alx year* of primary 
nnd «!x year* of Mcondary education fthe 
•o-called "Slx-and-alx plan''). Instead of the 
■ isry syitem of eight years of primary 
and four yeara of secondary education. 
• ommlwdoner of Kdiicatlnn alao paya 
particular attention to the encouragement 
ucntton after the atudent ban left 
•feeol. ami »upporta this endeavor extfB- 
alvcly bv the promotloa of the e«tabll"hm»nt 
of country Hbrnrlc*. He lo«necta. »urvev« 
nnd (trade* colleges, nnlversltle*. and pro- 
fessional schools: and ln-l»« in 
Ing and modcrnlxlng school plnnta and 
provtaton for school sanitation. In rec-nt 
yesrs tlie Bureau bus expundod much of Its 
enerrv In the srltnnliitlnti and nnrtnltatlon 
of lndn«tr1al education and education for 
home-mnl.-'nc: In the enconrsgement of gar- 
dening: and In the general Imnrovement of 
argro eiluratlnn. It Is actively helplne to 
•stnbllsb new klnderrartens and to make 
more avallabl* the various opportunities for 



Bureau 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



■'ilif-ation In lt» hem*. It nlio la eo-oper- 
• . • rlim-nt* ill the (ion-ru- 

n, .hi -tin] wltt i iii ■ anil 

welfare oritanliatinnn in promoting 

..in- at ion for .-Itln-nsblp. better facilities for 

anlslnc lmuiieruiUi 

nmi in extendus; nuthi act 

Bureau of Entomology. (Sec Entomol- 

ot) 
Bureau of Fisheries, i 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
mere*, Commerca Department.— Tim 

Ins the 
Ilea ami functions of the Bureau <if 

Stiitl-i 

i ci r Unnnfaotur tea •nh-Seed- 

mrnti. It 1» ebiirg.il with 'irseo. 

in-nl 'in. I .1. ". i lupiui nl if I! ti I 

manufacture t* both at immt and 

I u. *upervl>.«. nnd dlstrl- 

i- (fin Hi.- 10 c i.i. ulol at 

I 1M t-ouiim i ■ nt* of the 

I'm. in- well n* tiie trade reports of 

I nltcd State* consuls i q. v i. It pro- 
vide* . Iciil information which 
«lll enable American man ami 

merchant to Ini i i pltal ■■•nd with the 

It also Inucs nu- 
ll. .-nil.- kiati.ii.-i ..( txnorts, ami ranoi 

[■rodm-tloii In vHi-Miii lii'ln-irl. .. 
'I ■•■■■ I. in - in i porta ami . : . I com- 

mercial condition* nlm to be conatructlve *o 
veil n* Informing, and for tMn p irpo II 

liaa dlvlil.-il ilu i-imutrj hit mimerrlal 

tcli - I ■-■.- ! - 1 . ■ : i i>r- lilra an 
of lli<- Moreno. is-ce Commerce: 
Commerce Di'pnrtnu-nt,) 

Bureau of Immigration. (8eo Commis- 
sioner of Immigration.) 
Butmu of Insular Affairs. (&« Ini 

Affairs, Bureau of.) 
Bureau of Investigations. Department 
of Justice. — I'lil* bureau aids tu detecting 
Violation of Fcdernl Inwa. among wblch mar 
be mi o i -ini White gum Act 

<o. t.i, tiii. ajsti-trnai tat i. tin. 

United Bti • Neutrality lain (see Wen- 

tmlltyi, the Itnnlcruptey acta In. ri. 
tbc acta prohibiting pei na :c rh* Hurean, 
through lt» dtrlalon .r accountant" an- 
force* the national tanking law*. iDTeatl- 
rm.-s tnnll fr.iml 

henkrni i. ■>■ enactments Another division i« 

inliui ion nl 

d State* roiirt olli. i i ;■ I. ml: into 

i la, and In- 

ilea the chnrncti-r* of applicant- for 

appointments. (8w luatto i nt.) 

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (See Com- 
missioner of Labor Statist icO 
Bureau of Lighthouses. (Son Light- 

li'.iues.) 
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. Navy 
Department. > be & 

ii ..r i in- Surireon-reflera? of the Navy. 
It la cbam-d with auperrlslon orcr the 
rmilth nnil unitary condition* of tin- 
Natal Siailoiix In. T.I. -'""I Naral Kit 

■ .. It maintain* naral lioapltal*. a 
tarsi medical achool. and ho«pltnl and men 
leal corpa. <8ee Navy. N:,.i Deparl nl i 

Bureau of Naturalisation. (8og Com- 

ralsaioncT of Naturalisation.) 
Bureau Of Navigation, Commerce De- 
partment.- A Itiin.no of Nnvl-.-nil.m wa* 
cuii*iltutc-d In the Treasury Departon t| 



1881. traa*ferr«l I lb* D r-aMmcnt of Cets- 
mcrrv and l.al»r wluo thai i| was 

it, and w-a* 

tincot of Labor 
was separate ."hi- Itun-ac 

iniu 

'- commercial soarua* 
nmi nu-rehanl inui.-u of thi- I~Dlt..l Stat., 
i.i.-r « 

Coo 
mlaaloner of Navigation decides all ojacaTJona 

Inc to earl 
Cation, nnd prep r .- nnd [m ;i*hca aoouallr 
» lint , ,-*ael» in tbn cvinjaarr 

rial marine, with full data I'.otii. Hi 

H nf ifr Uwm of «a«l- 
cntluu and rcrouimcnd* sew law* wbei. 
II' 1* appoint- 
Ilia Prcaldai I with th*> eoe>. 

.»l^rr I* • 
nnt Marine: Commerce Depart- 

Bureau of Navigation, Navy Depart 

rjient. -uu U clamed with the 

tunnnlns of all reaiela In the Nary, and the 

which b-- na" of 

•ho conduct* the Naval 'I- Hon* 

Naral Station* i ami the Naral Oe*err- 

|i|. v.l. 'I'hri.uu-li tin. 11.' 

ii in iii.- Nary, and it «u 

i- thr 

,i,iii ,,r tin. s-v.-ii Hi if th" 

■ i-hment and the nilmlnlitrnt|..Q of the 
viii-l- a Diets Into whir 

ill » Idi'd or tin- w«r- 

fure In the Wni -i. T.I and el*e- 

iitni .ii ttu nnTiii serrtfe trade 

..■ll.ml , - . ■ S . 

Narl^i. ( 

Bureau of Ordnance, Navy Department. 

> eh a rue of the conntmctleo 

• urn of nil i "WTjer. 

tarpedoe mlin oiber 

of iriln ii It 

sbo mnnnri the L'olted Sr»t.» Naval rsnn 
.»l Torpedo Station 
(8oe Navy Department : Nary.) 

Bnrenn of Pensions. (See Pc=* : .ons aatl 

Interior Departm... I 
Bureau of Plant Industry. fSeo Plant 

industry, Burcnu of.i 
Burcftti of Soils. (8ee Soils, Bnrean of.) 
Bureau of Standards. Commerce De- 
partment.— Thi.-. bureau I* charted with 
munition nf nil m-innor . f *tnrilnrd« 
of monturements. of nuullty. nnd of mev ban- 
leal performance .in-l practice, to th.it 

Uu 
WaKtiltuttori, which are In tin -if the 

I'll. • Hiir.-.-iw /,!--..-. -mltli 

the aolutton of probl.-.< 

• -itln-r for lbs Covi-rt in- nt. a »i;ite. a 
rite, it no- nn In 

nlted Btatea. nlthonch It chanrea a fee 
for biii-Ii "I'liio-, escept that readarad t.- lha 
Uorernment or to nnv Smt-, It •erem a* 
a t.-»tlne bnrenn for nil covornmentat d>^ 

Snvnta .-t '.' It. »■ 

llvlded Into einmlnntlon* of *tnortiird> fall- 
ing iimli-r I'.- foiinwlne dlvhlo-n* 1. 
Welu- 1 I and tber- 
momotry: 3 l-:i. • -n ".< it. : I l.lu" t ar.il eplt- 
■ ■ ii Instrument "-. riiemHtrr : (l. Riic 
inc. reacareh snd teatlns: 7. Mcuilunrr: 8. 
Ilaneous materials. The Bureau la ad- 



EncyiUfcdic Index 



mlnl«tcr-d oy a Director, whose yearly sal- 
try It K.WV. 

Bureau of Steam Engineering. Kitt 
Department. — This Imr-a i p".ia» *:i rr*- 
chlnery repair* to United State* *•*-'.-. lii 
lino ha* chare*, of IB* m*«_iv?j ■■ -— *' 
the United State* Navy Yard-. '.: - .----l.:.- 
u enirlnevrlnR *tati«-n at \\a-L.r..:t.r_ it 
•to innpeet* the radio r;-I;t.-i: &: Sit 
1'nlted State* nevai stati ■*• BM *•** ••* 
•utlnn*. examine *n::ineer-.B2 civr.j.':-! 
tn the Navy Yar<l« and • n t» — .-. *a-. ! '-* 

rharee of oilier -nein-vric; «'::-:• >— 

Navy; Navy Department: Natl, stit..;.*.; 

BstMn of the Census. (See G*s.re».' 
Bantu of War Bisk Insurance. — Tie 
km of War Itl-k In«uran ■• wa- -.r-std 

«• September 2. 1!'14. in ArtVr f £»-:-! 
rommrrce In American t***«!« ar.4 :■ sriit 
*or risk lni-nrance. hat n -t car ;•.:=. la- :r- 
ano>. nn tlic hull* or on t'.e eirj-—» • f 
inrrlnn ve»*el*. From tr.» 'r-at: r. •■ f :' * 
''Ml to Novemr-r 17. li'l'i. :t ' ••! •■*--'. 
LN pollcle*. amounti-)? t> MCSW. ".«T. 
It had to cover lo**e- ani'"''iar!r.j ! ■ **.-*:. 
*MjW from which there wa« oMali-! -a:- 
"ir of |i!l.0."»r..S7. 1-avin.r to t?.- B:r-..a 
surlne thU period n *-irp:at -f ir-=.:-:=« 
or«T lnwe« of *2.::r,7.«.-.7.7::. T'\- I: :r-a : :< 
under the aupervlslon of the Tr.a«-:rv !•*• 
nartnwit ig. t.i. 

Bb«b of Tarda and Docks. Navy Do- 

ptrtatnt— The Bureau of Yard- led I">«» 
"t a r t a n a the rotted State* nary yard*. 
JJO Matlonn, dry docks, and ot:.. r navi: 
fftf. l and nlso ba* control ev-r t*.e oon- 
vtmpuon of naval ho*pitr*.l* and n*.val >■*.*- 
"*. (See NaTT iN-partmeDt : Nary: Navy 
R»Hom; Xayy Yards.) 

I tewaeracy.— A government conducted 
taraoan tlie Instrumentality of !»:reai« : 
■*• »ed to characterise l'..- oflSee-liolJVr* 
•o ronductlnc the government. 
tout Com Creek (Ala.), Battle of — 

*• t result of TecUBiaVlTa efT-rl* to In- 
**» til the Southern Indian* to j--In in a 
JJf of extermination agaln-i th- whit--*. 
■» Creek* were divided Into !»•■ fai-tioa* 
r°*for war. the other for |.ea<-. la 1>1;S 
"<»r UcQiu'on. a half-l-re^l of Tullatiun- 
■». one of the leader* of tlo- w::r Pirty. 
**l f>;rnl*hi'd hy IlrltNh air**nts a' !Vn , *a- 
J»a with lnrtr<- ouantitle^ ■* »npp!i- «. ••o- 
wr doerton of tne Spanish vviTh^r. On 
nnlncof ibla Col. Jame* «'al!>r. of \V:i-!i- 
■ttna. w-t out July 23. MS, to ,||..... r .» 
J* Intllaua McQueen had eolle*'ted :n.'! in- 
yrrepted thp auppli>'fl. i'»n the ii.-»rii)::ir "f 
•olj Ti Caller's command. Inereaw-d hy re- 
*trorr«aienl}i to 1!><I men. <ame up-»n Me- 
jfwa't party at their oainp on Burnt 
Corn Creek. The Indiana were tuirpfi*' d 
>"d Bed Into the wood*, leavlm: tli-ir pa- k 
Jonwi to the white*. They *.*.n ri-tnnied, 
"•erer. and nereely attaeked 1"bi ..f Call- 
•r'l Ben. Overwhelinliiir nuinl»-r* ei.in- 
WM Caller'* men to retreat after a hr.:ve 
|HI«tanee. Two of t'alh-r'a couimaud were 
bur! and 15 wounded. 

■OT Conspiracy. — In eon«equenee of 
JWt dnel with nnmtlton. In wliPh the 
•Wet met bla death. Burr was- lii.lleied Id 
** York and New Jersey for murder. 
!*>» llluHtratlon nppo*lte 4SB.I II" Went 
•at tad made an ext»'iis|ve tc»'ir. in tle» 
JJJra* of w''loli he made preparation* 
£f a fflsantlc hut niv*t'"rlou* .elH-ine. 
>M ml object of this la unknown. It wa* 
*aer to aepnrote tbe Ml«»lsslppl Valley 
"»■ the rent of the Union and erect It 
■a* t new nation, or to conquer Mexico. 



la 15-'« fc« ri:t*?rt * t~Vr of rf--f.-=« 
p*r».U s:- .: t.z. -: '. *-i—!-l f->r tie --• 
f. - i 1-Xi* -:•:-.• j • r. a <-:=:::zs 
• i;-i;-:-.i. •:•-:-:•. .••"•r«; i>>...:-l a 
l.-...as_t-: iv,»W-. - :->«a;w J-::.- 
:ij "- i;-..-. - !•:•: - ,. srr -:-a! :y 
liSTTH^t -,::-:. -r •:--. ■«.*«. V5rj-.SU.. 
aij ;li:-.:-:-1 ::.- :• :;. . t : [•■■'. S: :■* tira^l 
Jury f r :r-i.~.-- i- : r a wSMttt 
t»awi ■. z. t-.y •- ,r»- 1- .-*. vl^j wir Wtt«9 

-.i..* ..— .L:ry s a fr.,i :.y i..-. s ; V.: :: 

vo t ;— i :i.-: »:■--: - .M :.* V *i. va 
:,. t.v, ^.1 ;re.» :. • - .:.*!*-_. » s ..: c *t :he 
uii'.y -f 11* -.• ;t:r>. H. w?« ;.•» -..:-..-! of 
:rii*..i f r w..i: f .';r;-'.! • a. • - •> f-'i'-- 
=r- --f ;5* .t:S - r- .:••-• '•• A::::-. 3. 
»-'■:::. S. ■-:»-.«* 1 -f :!.* •' ■-.. -:!:•.: 1.. a: he 
w.t s:~- s v !■--* f-r =.:»!■ =....i r. He 
w;« '.-:-■: •-.*? • • ;r-*r.t t:r..*f:f f.r trial 
la f*\\': *•'". ■*- :: .""• r »?* ■■■**«* J no 
ftirh-r. ««^- ••; r.-:«> •! :r-' ia :!.:* *.*a+3l« 
wi« H-.rr..-.a B:-J;t-rt***t". rti m si*.' 
arT*«t-.-S. '■;• w!.> w-.« .!!*. - t:irse.! after 
B-.:-r'» a.*5::ttj:. At. zz •':. witn***** 
fct:r.«t Burr w. •» «;-a vV:1k!a*v£. *cn>. 
=:*;•;•.- ••? t" * l'::'-l ?:s:-« aru.y. and 
<■■ =,-!•■?. T-:t-::;. .f :!. aavy. Wash- 
iSiCtua Irr:r.s vs. ..a-:- «.f L.> atumeyv. 

Burr Conspiracy: 

M-_::,r..-i ! y Prr*"f:.rit. 3M. 
Pre :an.a' ■■•! a.-ai:.«t. 3?i. 
Pr-.T-s* •■!'. 4 •'. 

Bnsliwliacklng. — A term wbica came into 
-:s* ij-.r:!.' •*.•• rivil War a* lnd!cs:ias 
!rre_— .!sr wirf-r--. ;-.;r:I -.lariy t^.at of rij!:t- 
'.Tis Jr- - ' • L!r..l !:-:.-.-. — and therefor- from 
any y.idir.? ;.:a«. 

Business P-e also Anti-trust law. Mo- 
nr-l ••■':--. t/on.ii.eree. Trusts. Ineor- 
;o-ri:iv!.*. Iii'v.netion*. Interstate 
«;V.:!.mrrce. Mai-U'aetures' : 

A'lvat.taees of Cbamhers of Com- 
iner-e. »»::«. 

Antaoon:-m of government c-DJed. 
7914. 

Caj-ital. foreipn en:i!f.vrr."!:t of. -i:s- 

■ uss.-.l. 741".. 

'"onditions in Pr.-cn:l" r. 1SJ«\ 74 4>». 
'.'otniitiobs Of, si.nui.i !■•• !■<•*: ^ossli^.e. 

f'o-oj ••ration ln'c-cssnry in. *>ci\. 
t'ost :ii:«l eeoi.(*!nv tiot prowrlv 

s?u.li..l. 7-«7". 
Cre-lit extension mvo**.-.ry, R«*>, 
•*rO|i of 1!«i". eff.-.t of. r.!i, 7". I!. 
I)i|-ar;ii.i nt of A>;rii-u'.::;r.-'s U:i'.:i- 

OI:«*e Oli. 7.:7|. 

lli-i.or.—ty in. ili-nnulieoij, 714'\ 
Kxiort. e.-iitrol of, liy e*>Vi-:!.llli-lit. 

■ iurini; K:iro!«-:in War. ^'.'••\. 
Foreiirn, inii.ort.iiice of fo.st.-ring, 

7^74. 

fioveriiinciit V assistance to. *!.".l. 

Goveriiiiieiit su|'<Tvision over l>ig 
l>usine*s. liriieiits of, 7079. 

Ilamperi'il liv uncertainty of anti- 
trust law, '791 ii. 

Importance of diplomatic scrvieo to, 
7421. 

Incorporation, Koiloral — 

Arftumeiits. against, refuted, 7456. 



Business 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Constitutionality of, discussed, 

7457. 
Discussed and recommended, 

Interference with, 8038. 

Investigation of industrial companies 
l>\ Department of Justice, recom- 
mended by PrwUrat Tuft, 7403. 

Legislation on abuses of, should >»■ 
ended and existing statutes en- 
force. I, I 

Men should be relieved of uncer- 
tainties, 7910. 

Monopolies, attempted, more failure* 
iii.in mceum i", I 

Not to lie kept in suspense, 7871. 

Price-fixing during European War, 
8311. 

Profits and patriotism should not lie 
mentioned in the same breath, 8312. 

Programme of regulation of, by 63d 
Congress commended, 8015. 

Restraint of jgaJ or illegal 

according to extent of monopoly 
and methods, 7450. 

Risk of trade a legitimate charge 
upon society, 7036. 

Safe mnxim for, 1083, 

Shippers ' right to choose transfer 
routi - ■<> gooda, 7-M8. 

Trads agreements, encouragement of, 
7345. 
Butter, act defining and imposing tax 

on, and regulating ouanxkeinn of 

oleomargarine, discussed, 4992. 
Butter, Cheese, and Condensed Milk.— 

Or the 8.479 establishments la the it In- 
dustry in the Called States la 1909 50.4 
■ lit reported butter x» their product of 

chief value. 42 per cent el »". and 1.8 

■'•\ milk. Of the value of 

Sroducta abown for th* combined Industry 
he butter factories contributed f IfM.fliiu,. 
108. or 71 per rent : tbe cheese factorlea 
*44 2K3.177. or 10,1 per cent.: and the 
condensed milk factories 035,206,843, or 
12.0 per rent. Tin- combined production of 
butter In tbe factories and on farms In 
Colled Stales amounied t.> l.fllD.4; 
pound*, an Increase of 127,M62.081 pound*. 
or 8.6 per cent., over the production In 1889. 
Tho quantity of cheese produced In the 
United state* In the factories of IBs Indus 
try ami mi fnrm* during 1900 amounted to 
-32.181 pounds, an Increase of 33,187.- 
B39 pounda. or 7.4 per cent., over the pro- 
dii.tl.iu in lftOO. 



In the quantity of butler manefaetored 
In tbe factorlea of the industry, there wis 
an Increase of 2Oi.uas.I07 pounds, or 4h t 

Kir rant., during the decade 180*- 1*0* 
lucoosln nuked first In II 
butter in 1000. with 10J.> 

;ot* was second, with 88.S I 
pounds; and low* waa third, with 8 L 
1*7 pounds A II bongo tbe manufacture of 
butter was reported from 43 state* In 1909. 
lb* combined product it r.Ix states — wia- 
d, Minnesota, Iowa, XV* York, Cali- 
fornia and Mini can am uu ling ti 
002.143 pounds, represented 64 per cent 

•i I led figure* for the combined Indus 
try In tbe leading states follow : 



Malta 



«i"".n*iO 

New V 

If)»B 

Minnnsota. - . 

Michigan 

Pcnnaylv:uiu». 

nia . 

Ohio 

Vclmolil 

Nebraska... . 

Washttii 
K*n»i. 

n . . . . . 
Indians . . 
Miasooi 
(tout* Dakota 

Colorado. 

I'lal. . . 
Maim 

Cmied State*. 



Number 

.( i :..,!,- 

W s am aaai 



6,479 



Value ol 

tntam 



ITT.fttT.Tl> 
ttMAMi 

sg»a 

I7.7V8J7S 
1I.2S7.4P* 
13.M4.C05 

U'?l-l-7. 

* nfcin 

8.112J39 

7.171 .047 
|\j09OuSM 

4.030.403 

:.'i:.S.I.X 
MSB.*]*. 

».3».7« 
I.97I.03I 

i,aotjnti 



(374.tt7.71K 



100.0 



Condensed milk show* an Incrcaa* la 
production for the decade 1S09-1901) aaouat- 
Ing lo is. or 104.7 per 

cent. The bulk -if this imidui-t was re- 
ported by a small number of state*. New 
York produced 24.4 per cent, of tbe total 
quantity in r.u'iO. Illlnola 23.1 per cent., 
and Wnahlnglon 10 S per cent., the com- 

I. il output of these three states rcpre- 

..• 98. 4 per cent. (See also Dairying 
and Cattle Knifing.) 

Buttorfleld, Carlos It Co, claim of 

against Denmark for seinire of tke 

nm franklin and Catterine .4a- 

ryusfd, 4462. 5369. 

Agreement to submit to arbitration, 

sua 

Award of arbitrator. 5545. 
By Chance, claim for, adjusted, 3464. 
By-Law.— A rule laid down for tbe regula- 
tion of a legislative body. 



Encyclopedic Index 



California 



abiL— Originally sard U tie rtia * HSms 
• &*rl-s l\ t-eeaan- of latrffa* charred 
-. fire svo. Hi* mm* -» of il«« ■ ■ ■« 
tbr w«<rd.— nasselj. CTJffsrd. AlUo, 
Chaos. Arlington, aad La **iid* l i U 
i politics lb* wsed baMMWWM 
racy to achlere prlrate rad* at tb* 
of the Goreraixuflt. 

neatly, a body •» »— i ll 
composed of bnib o* depart- 
i c lo a prlrau room or cabsaet. 
la lb* 1'cited States ia« term la applied 
lo the council romiwod of Ik* hand* of 
some of to* Kxeeotlr* lM*jartm*nt» of th* 
Corereornt. with no-cm the llnMia! eoa- 
f»r» oa matter* of admlnietratlrr policy. 
Their meeting • * adn-r. of tb* Praatdeet 
u unknown to lav or tbr Coattltatlea aad 
tbelr .occlusions bat* BO blndlEC force 
Tbc Constitution does not prorid* Bar a 
Cabinet, but It authorise* to* Prcstdeat to 
i ra th* opinion la writing of to* 
principal ottrer lo each of tbc Kxeeotlre 
Departments upon u; ■abyect reistinr to 
dots** of -pert]** odsers.- 

Ington required anrb opinions fre- 
i OBsrers reeerre a yearly 
of I12.000. .See Suit nepartmeat. 
ry Department. War Department. 
_.iDrpartti.' T3c* lvjurttn-nt, 

Ivparttoeot. interior Department, 
intralcnre Department. Commerce Depart- 
■M. Labor Department.) 

(stag** bar* taken place la tar method 

taranC aad tb* Cabin* la bow r »c *r d*d 

"uWiImj board wlib whlrh tbr Prea- 

•kM bold* regular eoo»nriatlooa Proa 

M*C merely tbr hearta of tar Exrcatrre 

l">*iun*wt* rrrtain of lit a» ca b ers bar* 

art* b» recognised at an **a>n«tal part 

0* Owrernatrnt is** tiso Presidential 

and Administration.) 




OcVlal conduct of, complimented. 
Ml 

ftaav-Pacifie cable., M*3, 6719. (8e« 

ha* Ocean Cables.) 

ftiio IndUna. (Sco Indian Tribes.) 

ftalU.il prlratc la tar arm* preparing to 

■r a coeunlMloa: a atndcnt fa a 

•specially TTcat Point, pr*- 

f"Ht for Ibr rank of officer : alto a candl- 

•a »ir admiMlna aa cadet oa th* nomine* 

ba rf i ■ I Slates 

l aai ai . or ■ H l ; r act 

stft am a * In IWW f till" •■mltluMpman" 

"aaval cadet-" 1 8** 

irfarr Aesnvmj .) 

Cbtru, Military. (See Military Acad- 

Mr/.) 

EaaitBkcrit of, time of. should be ex- 

.1. 1907. 
iKrtate in eorpa of, recommended, 

•'•notion of, referred to, 2*22. 
JWerrcd t'.. ML 

ft**. -A n.llltary term applied to tb* 
>*> af SCO.000 men flral to bo raised and 
5*M try the aelivtiTo draft under tbe 
•Wlf. T,) law of < word eomea 

JJ»J fraacc wtere It hnd been api I 
Hflirtoaa croepa of toldlera cnlleu to tbe 
•*•» atiarr the different elaaxea. 

CUaki* Iadiana. u Tribe*.) 

ft** and Tonnntro Railroad Co, act 

'•* lutborir ' of bridges 

: tomrd, 5505. 

dlifona ladlana. (8«« Indian Tribo*.) 

B 



Calarera* B:s Tra* Grora, pivservation 

•r, ua. 

Oalalll Cnak (Ala.), Battte of.-la Ida 
1 1| I ilUaa acalaat the Creek Indiana On. 
nsrvt wnk atore than 1.300 Gtoraia rol- 
aatawra. oa* voaaaaa* of eatalry. aad 400 
frwPd l j ladtaaa. arrteed at ealeuee Crtek 
•a Iht airbt of Jan. M. 1SU, aad eaiab- 
■afcrw a camp oa tbe highland borderinr 
oa the avaaap or that aaoar la ktaeua 
CaaatT. AU, M aUlM w«t of Port 
Mitchell. IWfore dawn of the follow Inc 
ra t raln a tbe camp mi soddenlr attacked 



_ The aaaallaata were rece l Ttd 



wtth anan h. L followed br a baronet 
eharce. aad ded la dlcmar. T . 
dead- The wbltra loot IT killed and 



Tbey i 
illed and ISL' 
wottaded. Of tbe frteadlr lauiaoa » were 
killed and 13 woasded. Fiord retired to 
Forr Mitchell, where Boat of kla men were 
dUeaarred No orher expedition aralaat the 
Crewka waa organlaed la Georgia. 
California.— One of the Pacific Coin 
state*; nickname. -The Garden Stat*"; 
aaotto. ••Eureka" (I bare found). Call, 
forala la named. It Is said, aft.r a fletlllona 
kdaad In the Snanlah ronaanee "Ia* 8erna 
d* Eaptandlan.*' Other autborltlea dcrtre 
tb* fume from the 



_. Spanish 'words 
ente" (hot) aad "foraalla" i furnace i. 



, Tb* 
State extend* from 1st. Si* Siy'to «• 
north aad from lotut. 11«' to 124* 20* 
west, au area of 1SS.207 aqnar* mile*, n is 
boajfcded on tb* aortb by Oregon, on tbc 
east br N>Tsda sod Arlsoaa, and oa th« 
swath b* lower California, and oa the west 
by tbc Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Sac- 
ruDeato, and Saa Kraaeteco Is the chief 
elt*. Ttae 8ute U fatoous for Its beautiful 
•cenery. Its salubrlons climate, imi lis 
wealth of preclosss meuls aad choice fruits. 
(Bm Uluatratioa opposite 2«88.) 
. "ren the tiro* of Ita dlacorery to 18« 
It was practically a part of Mexico. July 
S. 1»«*. CoL John C. Frfmont assauied 
eommand of tb* lasargenta at Sonoma and 
on July 7 tbe Star and Stripes were bottled 
orer Monterey by order of John D. Xkwt, 
comma nillnic th* V- ». Pacloe soaadron. 

«»" aiscotered Jan. IP. ISIS. 
2. of the same rear, California aad New 
Meilco wen- ceded in |bi Slates 

by the treaty of Uoadaloupe llldaleo. It 
waa admitted to the I i*A0. 

as a result of tbo famous Clay coinproailae 
liaaballuaa Dam >i i ■>■ • ■ aorei i i Sec O m 
aroi .i-.- of ••••' sutkrtl . of axrlcotior* 

collected for tbe last Federal i . 
tbe number of fsru.s In the Slste at StClfT. 
wrap i I.HI acres, rained, with 

: luproTementa. at f I.CU.04.r>$4. 



S4t.O99.100: uit.Tdi rnuiea, jmh<;.h4 : 
ltld.351 swine. f.i,IO«..S83 : iTIlT.sTT sheep, 
$R.S4S,HIIT ; poultry. J3.BI I 
and rnluc of tbe Arid crops for 1011 was; 
corn, 61.000 acre*, I.S3H.O00 bushels. $1.. 
nifiOu: 0,000 acre*. 8.040.000 

la, 17.8O3.000: oats. 210.000 acres, 
7.140.000 bushel*. .*4,21S.000 : rye, 8.000 
"W bushel*, *ll«.O00: potatoes, 
" acres, p.720.000 bushels, $S.7i 
bay. 700.000 acre*. 1.223,000 tons. *13,. 
«62,OO0. The total Talne of the mineral 
products lo 1V10 wna 180.098,317. 

Tb« political occurrences In the slat* 
re of national Importance 
owing to the pa*** no by th* legislature of 
a law lliuliifiL' ownership of Innil by alien*. 
directed primarily ajcaluat tbo Japanese. 
Tbe subject It dUcntsod In dotall In lb« 

com DowieBoe betweou Governor Joasaoa 
and Prealdent Wilson. (Papt 7S78.) 




California usages and Papers of the Presidents 






i" i' < ba J ipanase began 10 

nnli. 

i lerui nl li 

I 

. klB ,i v. UN IIIHllC 

. , , ! Ililr. " fn.iii I In lull. Ill' 

■ . ,i t- ml ■■ 
I In in-, in 
"f I [8. WOfl i |i ■ 7" IIP. >l 

fr ■ 1 1 ..... - :., main I i in I l»i- I ■' our 

rwttjr ..I. ii;-. in-.. 
•| he real* too | ■■ iair. 

-x ' bltlC Hlijr" Ulrr i,i I III,. 

III til.' I • " f III' • l.f 

iuI»>iI..m i.. in minimum whrv* mi'! 

"i i i. and i iiiui-. i. in n. n--i .i (in- 

niro In frnailutt lairt, 

iiiiiiiiirin tnrlnc »'»i|nMlih 

In ratlforutn I. i ..nl 

,,t j-.iim nr ii,,.i.. ,u in., beginning 

of Hi in " . i'Ii. hi .1 ..r i .ii.lini 

in.. -n.'.i «.i» *; ■;i..i" i.imo ni|.i.i.> 

in. -nl i.. i.i; is p. - ...ii mime in ii. i-ini 
I nl s i IT.4T.*- nan, Hii'i turning oul 
Batoned cooaa wurib l7ia.Soi.oiin. 

nml itici'ii pnlil i .iiiiii .1 i.. fl 10.8' 

California: 
Adminlon of, into Union diieuesed, 

164, 
A iT:i . > - ..I report of, traiiMiiiit,-i!, 

■''.'. 8884. 
Alien Inmt law gleeUMd, 8988, »255. 

m in taking, 

('. •iiiiii i.f N.-w ' I :iii.|. tO 

l"nite<l State* of Mexico- 
Area mill nine of, 2 I Hi. 8484. 

i • inn-. and r in 

regarding 8308. 88 2356, 

838*. •: S3 8437, 8444, B 
Treaty for, trauamitted, 8437. 
•ion of, to Great Britain by 

Mi vi.'n, in i lat ii i 'ijj, re- 

fern I to "78. 

Circuit court tt 1/n ' I ■ .1 Still. 'H III, 

rn-.l In. 3 
Clnirnii of citizens "f. agal&al I'nited 
Btt 

(•.iii'.litllli.ill I ■;.-, 2570. 

Coostltatlonel convention In, referred 

'1,1 lul in M.int.T..;. . -urvy llli.l 
lli*! ll Of, -li" 01 •''!. 550 I. 

1586, 

Difficult? botWMS '"Hill of F: 

£$35. 
■iflS. 

!'!"• I '""- mi. :i;il ,il mlit.irv Inn-."-. 

in im ukoiI at, roforrod to, I 
Expedition! onulad In, for in- 
vaaioa of \u • )< a 
I'rui'liiiiiMtiiui tgaJaiL 2804. 
Poraee to be employed u, 8404. 

to land! in, de- 
feated l.y Attorney 'General, 3184. 

Geological -in. I BtaorsJoCJfftl explura- 

I .im in, rccnniiricnrlc.l. '.' 
| i'.l.l in, |,n.ilii,'liini .if. 2060. 
Gold mines dieooTered 
Government of, discussed, 2556, 85il4. 



In. liana In — 

I 'I:. : in . of J"'''* 1 ""' for »llp| Ii 

HIT. 
Colon 

ii" I iliti of, n i. tr,-.l i,., 

JS'I.|. 

Number i 

H ' <l of, referred •■ 

Irrigation of vail "7. 

Laml grant* in, uppoii I ••ona- 

mil 

recommended, 

<".im|ii H-: 

ad 

Lend la* . anion of, over, r.- 

Lau.l office in, . 2983. 

Lends in, sol apart a* rmtili.- ret 

tioii by ! 

581 i. II. 67H1, i 

Light in. D-. - im coon) of, 

refeired to, 8887, 
Line of common ication w fa 

section ..f l'n 

M.ul facilities abenld be off.. 

M.ul r.Mii.' i . ippi Hirer to, 

recommend 
Min. tuI lend 

■ii I ,!X 

Mjnera' sink.', proelun dnet 

I inli-li,-, mi. B3l T. 

Mini's in, referred to S 
Mine branch .if. in recoi 
1831. 

i "ii-irn.i urn of, ill '717. 

Natl ll Hill:: 

at election in, referred 
Payment of aettlen foe improve 

on If. .urn] \ 

iii. ii i- recommended \t 
Private land ■■'. to, 

8187. 

PabliC l.'lll. Ik In 

Modifications in laira rr>j>..- 

recommended : 
Befen !88& 

Revenue laws, oxtonalon o 
recommended, 8403. 

in. right to introduce, dli 
suceed, "i!"' 
Burveyor-OcnoTol 'a offleee in, recoat- 

2558. 
Territorial xorornment, for, ze 

mended, 8308, 2430, 2488. 
(Tola* i nl ■ ombina I proolanuv 

linn againet, 

nmittce in. application 

■nor io maintaia law 

againal oaurped aul 2H16. 

California and Oregon Hailroad, eom- 

lionere api ited to report urxia, 

referred to, 4885. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Canada 



Cambrian. Tha, ordered from ami for 
eater wal<ira i 
Stairs. 

Camden (8. C). Battle Of. (Soo San- 
der* Creek (S. C. 

Camp Alter, Va_ m, H774. 

Campaign, — an orsanlted effort on the part 

of • iHiiinrAi pa . porpoac • 

UtOlBC the ».Vvll- o at if ■ 

• ay orcaniied eflTort to arM I ,. n d». 

Campaign Contributions, v Hi.- 

» — lu » of the Wit] ••■oond COacn.-a nn art 

ovId* for II 
rotitr ' purpose of Influenc- 

ing election* at whkh rc|i ■» la 

■ t» ur» elrrtr.1. 
candidate for rrpn-tcniatlw from r 

-•ii. a<lnc or proml*- 
•■« any «nm» In ili» asBfr'i" ex«vr<1liic 
ii In any campm. 

t .r Strnal 
n alatciucoM of 
leU'lUnre. nillM lie m<il In 

!•• an lm than i< n nor im 
•aya before the time fur re-Mime nnv prl- 
■nry election or onailnm iilnn, 

•ad aM leaa than Ira nor eon' than i. 
Oij» kefore the day of tbe election at which 
l»» prrMB la to be bull. v.! for. 
OaBpalfn Lie. (8M Hoax.) 
Cinjp-Ftrn. — lo artnle.. a tire utc.allT l.nllt 
«*»4»or». In a eai lor cooklni: 

Im4 atd aeepln* the aoldlrra warm. 

OkBp-FoOowtT. (Bee Bat] 

Cttada. — The iKirolnlnn of Canada oc- 

»axta tke waola of n pari of 

Ca Norib American I 

laotloa *f Alaaka ami pari if MM roaat 
'taWarf.in. fruni *:>" north latitude :■• Mi a 
*"flr araa. and froej the Ilrlflc t.. 
itatrk Onaa. 

ana axo rorcuTiox 

I'i- .1.... 

So. 'ill- 

■• 
' 

UI3.12 

'I -» 493.338 
JJa» U*»rd I -land Mm 

■an 

Ji« . _ •'• HM UU 

"**atTwraim« 1..M1ZM IS.4M 

■ -. 7JQo.<*lo 
I population, in 1911, »•»« 3.- 
nd the urban rm 

Ismljsraiii. In Hill I ■ 
• ■ I iiela in \vule« 

■ id. and p.Ti I from I 

■ came from the 

_»"•« Dtaira ncil I rj - m rrom other eotin- 

*M 1H2-UI the Immlxraniv i i i 

bJ:' '« waa orlRliinllr dlarov- 

tor, fitea 

. I. v bi ii ii..- ;•-.•!,. b • 

The 111 ' ::■„„■ in 

"!•* Qlarfcee •n.Tll.,,1.,.1 I ,„.. Itrin.i, 

"•.«•*»* Hetv-ral Wolfe, and in 

ITT?!* - 5' : Ualn M lb.- Treaty 

•' i.n. of (tut year. Nora gcotla wn» 




by the Treaty "f I 

and IMemi 
t.|o«ril Mutnl being n 

In m I'mwn co 

• licen a pan af thi ilmlavn Uaj 

■ 

la IStMI. Bi Hi" Brltl.h North ,\ 

ailn ' 

New lSraii 

of Tin' i >oiiiinu.ii ,,r i 

waa made In th. (he adnil> 

any ■ 

i: mi 
' '"■ 

lew I'unadn ma> ii. i 

II. III! 

araunjE use The .-.-. ii 
three area. : i i 

cenerally hilly, and 
"in, with ni . . . ,,f 

I 1 h 

*. nth. in and w> ,, K in 

lerel, and 
'•of K'-ni-inlly .'. 
try. wlili oreaalonal 

n»|,ll- 

i. hi., .i.i. i.. ..r i, 

an ar ,„,,„, 

nllng to i he Brenl rlrei , -i. m 
l.aui. • ■ 

au averanc eleiatl.ui , 3 f i 
''" I" ea pre cmlneni h n i 

of walerway^ 
laiir.iiilnn mom jr, n,|, Bffn 

■ anil II... Mart 

ia i.i rred ,i ... 

l""-'"« two are n llatlnrt In char 



---.--■ . ...... -. ... i ii . ., IM ,. i .. 

n im.. for 

■reatern 
I'ralrle -■• n. ■ i ., , . ,, 
» dutanr .;. . and contain ih. 

i"" kj [, .mi ii,..-. , 

lie Hmr... 

•amxolH air Irani i.ooo to m 

"imiry iieinc ..u i ilenaelf 

I.. I * 

Wif --fanada h a »elf jj.iv.rnlnir 

Mnn ..lih!,, 

.-..ll-:ll|,|-|,.| 

Amerleu Ael of ISH7 in 

iloo ,,f Canada ij n,i,. i,. m - „„ 

i i -'.7 ■ Dominion Day.) Th. 

eellfl. ,,.,| |„ ., 

I inn) 
ald-d hj a Vrfrj rounrll 
era! and 

II . Itiijnl II 

nnunhi iad Btrathoam, 

I ■-■ r Ii:..... | ■-,.,.;,,,. :II| ,| „ 
"' ''"'i i|i | . of 

iilrin1.il f,,r lir.. b 
nil, .11, .nil. I,: 

I'I... II,, ii- ,f • 
rhnjer, ,,. 1r , n , ; 

1HII II. 1 allll.i;., i 

Jll»ll.-. || .i.linliill. i,-, I la h, Knglanil 

Of JudpK. polleo iim.-l-ii.ii. ■ | ji, 

"' 1 1)' peaee, ■■< ,. hom tin Hi it-n i , . 
• 

DIOOJ the fori in.i.,1 in. I, il lh,. ||„r 
I- III. Mi|,r.ni,. I'.,nrl nf 1,1111111:1 .• 

•n.l lmidluK three ,;, ..>.„,» m ,i 

I'lle . III.. ,.lli, I | . 

''' '"I- fmirl of i In. I pre 

•rer by u Reparole Juda 
alitlDKB may be held nnjwhere lu Canada. 



Canada 



lessages and Papers of the Presidents 



■ ■ In lh« Militia !• unlrfrrMl 
and compulsory on all nulf cttltena Ben 

'.i> Hi,. Peace i:rrcc(lvr consists of 
n Permanent Staff of 3.520 offlccra and men. 
nuil 74.000 undergoing MrviO 1 lU W»r 
EfJcctlvi -of four cIsmcs : the un 

msirrl. il men lv to. 'Hi. the unmarried DCS 
30 to 40: tile married m.-n Is i»> IB I nn.l, 

finally, the ii'imil -• Dull .In.-.. mm of 18 

.■ , :. llilal c>( -' I .3, 

• ■<■■■-'« la under the control of rho 

fii.n In. -lit 1 u . • » ■ • > r> ii ■ • hi .. Hi" coal 6*101 ml i 
n, aided by grama from the 
.I rruvinclnl Gov. -i inn. hi Then* or* 

:-. lioola (attsndanc* at tin- former betas, 

|. iii-. .rv i. wlih over 1,137,000 popllai 

and »lny u pa and unh.i It] 

ITltll 10,000 .:.!,!. >■• -wrllly 

nniv. ri i. had ahout 10.000 sludents In 
1013. 

rrtiilucllan and fn./nstrj/.— In 1811 I 
w.re ...i - acres under corn crops 

iwlient in oata 

Id 'i. n ■ Ii i ..lie t 

crops ilmv mid clover 7.003,342), a total 
..f!:.. -i. a under eultlvatlon. Th- 

l.lv.. S I. (1012) Included 

cnttli '-' 

un. I - i'..'..:. |"s- ', ordln* to the . 

n( mil there srers 8,1 ind elieeae 

irles and . - . factories tor preserved milk 

and crenm. the tot.nl rnlu.. of all dairy prod- 

ucta bolu* |39 13.089 Hi 1011. The flab- 

an un Important sonrea of wealth and 

moo .-..ii ii. i rlntjv. macken I. 

and lobsters, tin* total raNie "f <li" cntrh 

i„ i 'i ii73,I 18 The I'lmii r. 

Intli anil -lilniilc. produced In Canada In 

mil liml n total value ..r $81,G0S.2S8 The 

hove n loUl .•■lllillll.'il lie* of 

,(i(iiii)ii acre* The industrial 

I in, i in uf nil Vln.li numbered 19,318 

In 1011, «lili a total rapllal "f 11.247 

i,ii'.. He- rain* Of the products being ti.. 

|.;.-. '..::,, .;:-,'.i ; Ii 15.203 i..-rsons were cm- 

i The metals produce! in 1912 were 

I as follow.'— Uold, 1 12,559,443: all- 

n: copper, (12,709.311; 

oirk..; ion. 

rnMOporfaffon — The total length of rail- 
way" In operation on June 30. 1912. win 

20..37 v ill" total capital InroWeu being 

II 1188,037.028, the rnrnlng* bo In J *2I9,- 
ii.:;.:. and the working expenses $150,- 

;...:. in in 1011-12; r« were alao 1.308 

of • leetrlc railway*. The n-a-aolng 
ami lake mercantile marine of Canada ..n 
i . :: I I'll" ■ ..misted of 1 T18 aallln 
ael« »nd J.007 steamers i total net tonnasc 
ml. 
Hankivn.— There were 27 Incorporate banka 
Of laiue IB 101 ' wlih llaMMilex xl. 210.124.- 
864 and average eatcts »1. 470.000,473. The 
l.a'aiic of undrawn deposit* In I'oat i>m.e 
and i;..v .-111111.1.1 taring) hanks on March 
31, 1913. amounted to $87,140,484, tbi 6\ 
poattora iiiiiiiherlnK 1S0.7I1U. I'ha depoajta 
In special •nvlnita hank* on March 31. 1913. 
amounted to 340,133,851. 

tfl the United Slnfr*.— The ralne 
of mercliaii.il-. • imp.. ri- .1 into Canada from 
the l"nlt<«l (5Ute« for the year 1013 waa 

! 1.440 I".;, and sonde to Hie value of 
I 180 wero sent thither — a balance 
of 3304,573,277 In favor of tbo United 
Btarre. 

The cyatcm of wclehts and measures Is 
the aame la u«rd In England, but the unit 
of ralne It th« dollar of the United Slates. 

Canada 1ia« lldv cities with n popula- 
tion In excess „r 10.000, Montreal approach- 
ing C00.OO0. 

Canada. Dominion of: 

Ai.iin. ii.m of Allan Macdonald from, 
rofcrrcd to, 3826. 



Armed men from, seize American i 
sen, 192S. 

Attempted occupation of portions of 
Alaska by Groat Britain and, re- 
ferred to, 6097. 

Attempts of Great Britain and, to es- 
tablish pott routea in Alaska, 600". 

Boundary line with, discussed, 5470, 
5616, 6064. 

Canul t'.ll^ charged bv, negotiations 
regarding, (S . i Canal.) 

Chief juitico of, nrliitratnr 

of United States u ra. 

6335. (Sec also 6983, ft 

Chinese entering United States 
through, 5476, ST.: 

Civil war in, neutrality of United 
State* in. discussed, 1702, 
Proclaimed, 1698, 1699. 

ni relation '-nil. ::."R2. 2654, 
3989, 3999. 5748, 6332. (Sco al*o 
Wclland Canal.) 
Conference on subject of, discussed, 

5675,5678,.'.: 
Commission, h, 6370. 

1'. ninna in. (See Fenians.) 

Fisheries, questions regarding. (See 
Fisheries.) 

Hostile ii La of, to- 

ward United States, 1749. 

Illegal expeditions against, proclama- 
tion against, 4039. 

Incursions from, discussed, 3447. 

Jurisdictions of Unitod State* and, 
in Great Lakes discussed, 6064. 

Merchandise transported from ono 
port in United States, over Cana- 
dian territory, to another port 
therein, discussed, 5770. 

Natural product-, reciprocal arrange- 
ments regarding importation of, 

Outrages committed on American 
frontier by inhabitant* of, dia- 
r,i ... i, i -:•■.)■. n;v.;, 1. ;;.;,, kh. 

Parliament of. (Seo Canadian Parlia- 
ment.) 

Postal arrangements with, referred 
to, 2175. 

Postal convention with, 4203, 5377. 

8t. Lawrence, navigation of. (Seo 8t. 
Lawrenco Biror.) 

Trials In, of citizens of United States 
for complicity in Fenian invasion 
of, 3718. 

Vessels of United States seized by 
revenue cutter of, 4070. 

Vessels from Ontario, duties on, sus- 
pended by proclamation, 4S71. 

Vessels of, permission to aid disabled 
vessels in waters of United States 
proclaimed, 5823. 

Vessels of United States in Great 
Lnkes granted facilities for return- 
ing 6331. 



Encyclopedic Index 



Canals 



Wc!lnn«t Canal toll* di«eus«*d. 
Wetland CanaL) 
Can. ad a, Reciprocity with: 

• 'liar for, tranirailtc.J, 
I. 
Effect ob trad* cmiSition* forecasted. 

Effect od coat of livinit, 75S3. 
National scu|- 

ProeiaBiatipi. xtra ses- 

sion of Conirr?** for consideration 

Special saesaace of, 7587. 
of Taft o 



(8«a thea* esniW fell lato neclcet and were 



by. 



b of Taft on, I 
Farmer* n.it Injured l.v, 75S9. 
Manufacturers lea- I 

73S>1. 
Good «ff««t of, oo future ralati 

'•2. 
Annexation not forcahadowed 
:. v.-:;. 
Anuria. The, claim- arising from v. 
of, on roaat of Brazil and awnr i 
eassrd, 4 
OutaUan Parliament, expression of 
thanka froca legislative council of 
Canada for donation* for library of, 
»77. 
Cuonuu Volunteers, bounty lands to, 
proclamation regan! 

Caaaia.- I day* of railroad* over- 

■at transportation «i< a atrloua problem. 

trim icr-nirj to freirnt ttie cheapest ind 
■Ml nillibte medium. The natural «i- 
Maw. rsly uaileat'd. but 

MOaxceMltle* of IrnUKportatloB between 
sassairlal crutera Increased eaoala were 
Merced Id many part* of lb- country. 
TtetMrM work. «f tbe kind In lb* ■ sited 
taM «ft tbe So*>th Hsdtey and 
IKiMli, U kin.- imllt bi '-"!>'- 

MBsi rhnrml la 171)2. Tbe Middlesex 
'•ail. roaneetlex Boston hubor wltb (lie 
ssXflasc Mier. was compl--. i li 

'•anil, the largest and most Im- 

ESt Is Ibla Country, wo* projected by 
Ml r- 
I la 1*23. It extend* from the flud- 
Krlc at Htif- 

•t »&;.. 
Jtsjoo. ta ioca tbe i 

fcsstef N'«w Voek ruled 1101.000, 

BanH the canal syicin . I it,, mic, the 



Out Ustroreaaent being tbe 

i r> Canal to permit 
•Ojtmi of l.WiO in*. 

: 




fa Mill 1, on Luke Erie, south through tbe 
■OH *f Ohio, to tbe Ohio River at Porta- 
• distance of 317 mil-*. »«' for- 
by Uor. i 
orfc rei 

The work in completed la 
east of f * •..'.V-'<ii. Another 

mplsted In 

.- froa Cincinnati t" Dsn- 

Bile*, lined the Wrbnab 

farmlnc soother wntsr route be- 

and lake, of JtIS miles. 

uf this canal wm 13.700.000. 

'! City to 

J., 102 mile* In waft 

Newark Bay with the Iielnwure 

was begun In IS23 and finished In 

reJopmeut of railroad* 



• wholly or part j mien 

oter by tbe rnllr 

The IlilnnU *nd Mlehlcsa Canal extend* 
fmoj Chicago to La Ha II-, on n 
Rlvi-r. a distance of 103 rail** It cost 

. .».". \ Inter extension uf till* wa- 
terway I* the Hennepin I nnnl, from 
aepla. III.. Ofty mil.-, thnmgh tbe Rock 
and twenty-seen nill-» through Innd 

■ Ml«-.l>.lppl River, at Rock Inland. 
The Chefciticake and Ohio < •»ii.il. the out- 
eneae of a ion to lm- 

Iirnte omac Iiiv-r, waa 

•eguo In 1828 b] i .if piiMle • 

.•f Vlr.-I:.ln nud Completed lii 1850. It cost 

li extend* from Georgetown, 
C-, to C welsad, m.i., n distant* of 

184 mile*. Hi means of * lock* 

vntlon of ' I* attained. The 

• re and Hudson Canal, cit-ndlu*; 
from Kondom. N. Y.. to llnne«dnle, 1'*,. 
tulle*, wn* I In ivj... The 

iuiii fool nuil Navigation i 
I0S miles lone, from Mill Creek lo Phlla- 
i'a . was bernn in 1810 and com. 
I he Lehigh r.inl and Ne- 
gation Company have a einal from I 
... Coalport, Pa, An important »blp eonnl 
l« ihi- Bault Salute Marie, connecting lJik»* 
ior and Hnron, -lili-li wa* built in 
i >r fHOS.1.533. (Sea lllu>- 
trntlrin npj.. 

I lm Psnama Canal 1* described In a sepa- 
rate article. (See alao Hue*. Canal, which 
u in.,,'.,! f.,r comparison.) 

Pollnu'lnK l» i Mat of canal* In 

tbe Cnlt'd State*, tocttber with tlwlr 
length and con of con«trocil"ii : 

Albsruarle and Chesapeake— From Norfolk, 
Vn.. to Currituck Bound, n. c.. 44 milts; 

coat, with Improvement*, $1.(14). .103. 
Ancusta-Prom Sarannah River, fla., to 

Auauita, On.. 9 miles, 11, 300,600, 
Beaufort— Prom BsaofOrt, N. C. to Netis* 

Itlvcr. In cour*« of construction. 

Black surer— rrom Koine, s. v., to Lyons 

-.. ', . -. miles, $9,681 
Cspe Cod Cnnnl fSen Level Ship Canal), 
shout 13 miles lonx, to 

sstts Bsy and Bussard's liny. H2,- 

,'«H(, 

Cayusra and Seneca— From Mont-mma, N. 
v.. in \. V., 

20 mile* tV.2Tl.UM. 

□uMBplaln From IThltehnll, N. T, to Wa- 
it. N. V. si mile-. Ji 1. n. imiii 

Chesapeake and Iicl n. ire rrom Chesa- 
peake city. M.I., to l'ehiware City. DaL, 

II miles ■ 

Chesapeake and Ohio — from Curnherlond. 

M.I.. to Waablnitoo. D. C. 184 tulles, 

$11,201X827. 

inys— I'mm MlMl*alppt Itlver. I*.. to 

Bayou BInck. 1m.. 22 mllea. $00,000. 
Delaware and Rnrltan— From New 1 

Wick, N -I 'o llonlentown, N. J„ 68 

mile.. $4,888.7*0. 
Delnnam IHvUlon— From F.nM'.n, |>n , tu 

Jlrl- • 1 in, $2.43;. 

Dc* Molne* ltnpld*, at I>e* Molne* Itnpld*. 

Ml. llvsr, Zi miles. $4.B82,0O». 

Erie— From Albany, N. Y., to Buffalo, S. 

rnlnii ■:.: I - in Alllirntur River to Lake 
Uattbnaskect, N. C 4J mile*. 

Oslvcsloti nod Ilraios — From Onlrerton, 
Tex., to Ilruio* Hirer, Tex., 38 mile*. 
$840 I 

Harlem River Ship Cnnnl, connecting: the 
IIiiiIhou Itlver and I.odit Iilnnd Sound, by 
wny of Spuyten Duyvil Creek and Har- 
lem River, wa* OpSBM for trnlTlc ,m Juno 
IT, ItM Sboqt $£700,000. 

Hocking — From Carroll, Ohio, to Nelson- 
Till*. Ohio, 42 mile*. $078,481. 



I'ltul--. 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Michigan— »"r •• a 111.. 

In I .1 S ill.- Ill In 

.',.1 \. muni lun ' i 



■ ■ ■ 

Itroniinond •'mi. 

i Alliouiarlo ,s I, 82 uillvn, fi,. 

I M)M, 

Laic Wnshltik-toti— Tbroush Lake Union. 

[O l*UK<-l 
Lehigh •'•i«l and Ni 

i -tun, I'*.. 11)8 mile*. 

,,i.,i. 

,1 r.ilN of Milo Rtt- 

• . ■ 

.'■ I ami Rrlo t'linu ritioltiu.it I, 

Iilo, -'T4 iuIIcm, »S.ut;_'.r.8l>. 

i ' Icraei •'in i.. s -!■ 1 1 1 ii • 

•In . Mlmnla nml I ,:. 

|i| c i ii Itlvtr 

i.. Tonn.. 10 ml 

nml Ii-- iiifon from Clubfoot 

. ii. . k, N. r 3 mil.-*. 
miuih lili r i. a. to 

. .i River tin.. :<i mil.--. *-m: sin. 

i run ' i. • • : I. in Fort* 

ni 

i . raruiw, 

v. 1 . 88 mill - III..'. !• 

i nlilu, Nnrlbnm- 

i„, r i i Huntingdon, 

: mil—, f. - 

Sup. rlnr i 

pcrtor, 28 

■ 

port Ariimr— i"t Port Arthur T n . to 

anil ■ I 

, p*— Pnmi YVnliln.. l-lii.. to Melroee, 

Kin.. 10 mil-". t~ 

Snl> .sir. Miirl- (Miln I'nnnli— ("niim-il* 
Lnfcci Superior n d Harou ui Bt Hat] I 
IMver, :: inii-i. }•;. ":;::. :.:i:i. 

- hit — I' mm Mill 
I | |'| ill i].M,l. P* ins 

mil,., 112 ioi io i 
Sinrri-.m liny nod Lake Mlchliritn— Bi 

.1 liny mi. I I ki Mli :. : n. I . i ■ 

l.irv'M Fall- I etl Lake Superior 

Bio. M irtt Mi.li.. 

...... rn.m r 

|.l,i |»n.. I., limn ili- ' Mil.. -I.i 

mil. • ^ 

VTnlhondlnir— Prom Rocbeel "'■ ■ '•• KO«- 

n "', mill rOOl 

Wi-lliiml iSlil\. ii mi, .ii 

Inrio and I. ni-. ■-. mile*. #2.l«»>.- 

106. 
Canal* (hoc nlttn lln< several cnnnltO: 

\ tii-". i-iniiiii. Li. prat • leablllty of 

true) t, ri-l'.rr.-il to, i 

All.-uii:i!m I.V.- I I" Tim ■ I- 1 - tffj 

referred to* 1087. 
Appropruttloni for, 028. 

■ I If Of M.-xico, 

Conntitutinii.'il UK -11.11111 -ni fOt 'in 

provement of. inggt 
Gr<'iil I.:il. - in Hud fit* 

ewbted, 481 
Lands granted to State* in aid of, 

1020, 17 

i .in in,- u, I :■ t ii'Tiff regarding aid to, 
4 1451, 4. i 
Survevti for. r. -f.-rr.'.l to 

i ni.i-. of canal navi mti llacuaaerJ, 

■ 
Canal Zone. n» I'm I Canal act of 

1012 ;,[.i-. ill", I fur lli" i: M, in. hi i.y th» 



i nil .1 Stated n i land ami la* . 

ii i", ,■' n i,-- ■'■■ 

,.i. . I,. i..,ii. ..r ib^ 

, . 

,.i- i" and aeroott tfce 

huh of I'niiiitii i Into lb" I'm 
Ul 111" -ii ■•! lUl i of ilii.-,- in 
menu I..-.-. .... ni.i murk, . v.-linllinc Ibrn 

i in- in i r I "li.ii aiMI Iketr 

-,i bnrbon located "Mi. in nnui aoae, 

. I.leil III III" I I. nil 11 II|| ' 

ii.- of r.iii.ii.iii .i.H.-.i 

inn including ni; within mI<I de- 

► .■illi"il soli", ami In ii- Mill. .|i t'.ii-i.-l., lb 
lir.iii|. of I liiii.K In 

■ I nuy lam 

• lid Umll i.- di -. ril.i .1 

ctaan nlcnt or from ilim- to time 

n, .ii ,-. 

.-.iiKirii. Hon, molnli-ni 

i •■! protection ..f III" -llil . ' 

.if nti} iiuxlllm 

.i . -, or - ,,-., nli ui PI* 

i- niiili, .ii.-- 

imi, ii,.- of Panama, to acquire, aaj mMiiioaal 

Inn. I or Lin. I iiii.i.r ... ,i.-r mil Already 

i .:. or v. iii. Ii b !•■ •• i the 

tiiit in- inn-- ii.-. iii avceaaary, and 

•.link" any lann or land tindee »j>i,-r 

ii,, I ,1,-, i,,.-, | ii,.. -...-in i f--r ..I hi 

In ml 

ii iii. ii mi- in Ion : InMt 

under 

of Hi.- Canal bmk 
A'lien in tin- j niv at of tii<- Pr» - 

Hi,- ",,ii-.iiii"ii,,ii ..r ih. 

.1 i ..vnrd oonii - 
,,.i"i- in,- further f Hi.- Lib 

il Coiuinl-ulon in ... tae 

• in In autborUiHl 
ii. iii.. ..iiiiimi- ii..- i -Mi in 1 1 ii < iii.ii I'niamla- 

Kith Hi- i- 
k-.iiiU:iii..ii. -linli Hi.- i " to i-xWt ; aivd 

(he l'r.--..l. nl I-. nilllli.il/. . I ttl"r.:i!i 
- ". k,,\"f),. rllnl ,.;,.: 

: nml govern I be Qinal xonc. « 1, ■ 

a i;..- iii..r mi. 1 i.ii"li i.tii.r (u-ikoaa aa 
ii.- in i> deem 1 nmpeteul foi 

,, ..f tin- I'liliil nn. I fill il !■ i" I Ii" 

nor i.f 1 1"- ' 'ni 11 Ih> ar»- 

i...liii.il by Hi.- I'l.-i.i.iu. in .ni.i wlik 
in., mil lor ami --"lit i.f 1 In- Sonnte. cnaa- 

.ii.-, I for a i.rtii ,.f f.-ur y»iir« at $10,- 

nun |„ , . , 1 

loii .1 |„-: in. hi, ni nillliiiT ir.,v<-rnaMflt 
for Hi- i.ni". 1. ui It wan later deetded taat 
a civil ciivernmont would I." - 

11 .I policy ■■< ili* t'nlted S' 

ft'llKOII I'X "1 - - ill 1 - ■ ■ .1.1.1 

- ibllabed ■ i"- nenl rttrll «or- 

"iiiiii.iii f in 1014. am! In ad'll- 

II, ,11,, I ,nli r - limn Int. -I In 

L- 1 iiin.-iit. ( r , s. s;. s 

Bee also Panama Cnonl.1 

Canal Zone: 

Kxeeutivo Order*— 



tabllsbing pormanent govern m 
J9Z0, 
K'l.iii mni population r>f, 7C«7, 
FHxing Intoroai rate* In, 7908a 

i'',.ii,i,|,iin^ corrupting ol 
in. 7918. 
Gambling Invr in, amended, 7988. 

Got 11 nl foi ii • m I, 7<is". 

Military goreramenl fur, 7087. 
Providing conditions of 

nl in. 

Neutrality of, proclaimed, 8008. 





Encyclopedic Index 



Capital 



ler r*l»!i a nail 

i for dishonest 
manifcjlB in, 7963. 
rdrr routing to Portal Crimes In, 
7964x 

Quarantine regulations for, 7966. 
BearomtSnjr bearing of ana* in, 7903. 
Begalatins. hunting in. 7909. 

uiring aeenrtljr for tosla in • 
rases in, 7964. 
Wil ::i I dished 

in for nse of Navy, 7960. 
Cancer. — A malignant grouili afapU 
rjMllx.Ul or glandular tlsauc. havlDC sec- 
ondary growths ■!>». The dleeaso 

j rapidly iu ii 

IrWs. 11 In ewutUlly n illws- 

linn forty yeani of ax». Seolllly and lb« 
decadence of tl-«in . which hare pas-.- 
irir usefulness anil are ai» 



go p*.y\><l-tl'-n\ r(«t ar* predisposing 
■hearts r» ami tli» . -anvt .if ine disease have 



u eeewnitely determlin 

iits!* ii »■••!! n« man ore B'lli 

I flslll'S 

ii geographical i'.ik- 
* the disease In nth ami tar hu- 
man family m linr.rr..-,' Taft 
Im rveommended to I'nngresa an np- 
procirlaflita /.f aM.non for the »iudy of the 
qitractoa. 

Banter In FUhes, approprintion recom- 
mended for research work subject of, 

Candidate.— a ; ii.imi- 

lr«d -nil, especially a 
person nemlnnl .! fur .Hi.-- nf " M ICBI Of I 
party ore- 1 
Candla. (Sec i r. : 

Cannon. — A large m iUj on 

a fr»Ew. aao mry. or on a mm 

carriage. (See also Ai iltlon : 

Arsenal-; Artillery, nml Kni 
snlelc oo Anna and Ammnnltt"ti > 
Alllim. foiin<lrv for making;, rwom- 

mended, 1607, 171a, 1797. 
Cannonade. — I'endsteot llrlnr of cannon. 
Ciatefltl. — A place near a ramp or garrl»on 
■a»r* prn»t»W>n«. and esfax -i-», ere 

»elsn a enntalni 
Iijr i water or 

Carton, China. hostilities in, referred 

Cuttafisent Gibson. Arlc, road from 

i, r, I. I red |fl ilSSL 

C»»t Cod Canal (*M Canals). 
Cite rear Rtrer. N. C, art i n tmprov- 
irorcd and reasons therefor, 

trarnl r freight and paseago 

kjr <.f. referrt ij to, Ii 

"Wl»nni|t of sea roj I, dis- 

Cipt tpaxul. I treaty 

C»P» Vincent, N. Y.. prorlamatlon 
(■Mil- otl -r purl 



Capital, relation of labor to. (8e« 

Labor, discussed.) 
Capital.- ' In which bj lo- 

i rnv.irir. 

Capital and Labor. term used 

in rei. ■ jrora and emplin. 

eepccl.i nlaed bodlca "f lw 

with lone. (Bee Railroads, 

BlCbt-IIonr 

Capital of United States. -i i to tn 

ipUoo '•'■ ttotfoa Ibi 

Con^i- hi Axed plnee fo 

ll ii mat at Yoi i. l.-m 

i 

ork. 'iii. 
t'i'iia" I Itutlon n i i in 

i 

I IllludrlpliU fi" IT'" 

Uuiin. 

IliliT Hi ■ li.r.i hum.. 

lone nml alttar debate In rblcb tecllonal 

-v rnn blab, an ai I wan pamea 
2fl. 1700, MiK-ellne ■ lie i 

• 

. .in. -in i. mi 

in -,i In i'.' IS Hi 

■ • f I'uluuilila-) 

Capital of United States, si&t of 
<riiiiniii from Phil 

on diacnoasod, 881, 
298, 299, 300. 

Capita! Punishment.— In Dearly ail 

■pectfled ■ 

murder: POliowtBg 
1. "( i sccutlon and the • 



: i ., u. ■...:... m itooa. 
Alabama -Hanging; 

UiiKlnc 
Kleciro- 

Callfi.rni.i HanslnK. 
llanKlne. 

.. - I Ii Ml HlllUJ- 

lne> 
i Hanalnc. 

if l.'uluiU- 

1 1 

rii.llil:. II lllk'llllf. 
'k - - 
ilav. I :i|{. 

Ill lllll Hun 

iiola— i. : i 

in .ii. hi. i iiiiinciiiir, 
loan II miring. 
SaUMi Im- 

lirl.i.riiin 

Kentucky Blectro* 

• •iiilnii. 
l.-mi i ilnir. 

Main- 

.■in.. 

• H ■ 

Kloctroenllon. 

Ml. hi Im- 

prisonment. 

MiniH-iiiii Life 

l:ii| 

NiMiMippi — Bans- 

ini- 

1 1 i nirlntf 
nit. 

- 

. nili. ii. 
N. -. .i.| , Han : 1 1 1 w nr 

pjhoottni * i 

.f murder- 
er. 



BTiTKNAXOMnn 

N.-w naBiMblre 
i langlno 

I — Elec- 
i •■■•• ■ 

m. .... limit- 
ing. 

' l<>n. 
Nnriii CarolbM — 

i Heel r lion. 

Sorts Mukota— 

Urn 

• lulu I lei i ■ 

iiui.iliomu — I) 

tag. 

IUl l"M. 

.. ttloo -D 

ll I. In ml . 

Imprl •- ii 

Sunt!) nn — 

l!l ■ 

Bum h Dakota — 
llnnglng. 

- Hang- 
ing. 

Hanging. 

— II. nielli-- -.1 

. itLng .ii .1 1 - -- : - • 

Ii r.-r. 

II ing. 
Virginia - Bleetro- 

i-.ii 
\N n-iiiiini..ii Life 

Imp! I>nli tin-ill. 

Weal Virginia — 
Hanging, 

Illl- 
IH K lent. 

in-: Hung. 

tog. 



Capitol 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Capitol. -I'roLi CopUoliiim. the name of 
the magolflccut temple of Jupiter Caplioll- 
nns on the Cnpltollm- Hill In nnclcnt Home. 
The ifons CapltoUnitf «a« no called from 
the dmllng of a skull during the cjcavntlon 
f.ir tbo tint building. Tbo name l» ■» 
piled to the mucnloccnt. cdlflci- In which 
the Congreas of the United States hold* 1U 
sessions and to the stnteboiues which nrc 
I :ii tin- capltala of the various 
atntca. 

Tapltol la altuat'd on a low hill 
commanding one of the beat views of 
v.. i nlngton, and -hnulunle* the city with 
li" in dome. It* extreme length 

la 701 feet, and It varies from 121 to SIM 
(.ii hi wlill li : i< CODtUtl Of a main SdlBCS 

of sandttonc. palmed white nud crowned 
with on iron dome, and two wine* of 

marble. The general style la eiaxalc 
and lis column! and detnll ore Corlnthlun. 
Aa a whubr It l» one of the moat Impos- 
ing ami lii.aiitlfiil go v. •riniiMni.il build- 
ings In the world. The orl&lnnl dome 
win a low structure of nnod --■ ■ ■ ■ .- ■ •! svllh 
copper, but this was npl ecil in isr.C by 
I In- present Iron done-. .'^7 feet IiIku. de- 

by Tbi ■ I Walter snd snr- 

iii. .inn. .1 by M line itm 

American sculptor Tuoiniis Crawford. The 

comer ii I the building wna Inld by 

r i.'in Washington Sept 18. 1703. wlih 
Mn>nnlc ceremonies. The north nine win 
completed Nov, II 1800: the ih wing 

In 1811- The hit, line .if IkiIIi were burned 

by the iirhi*u under General Rosa Atuj. 34, 

1814. [Sou lllustra 5S7. 

ItUta i the found itlon "i the main build- 
ing wn* lilil March K4, lsi*. ami the wbolo 
una c In 1827, at n cost up to 

thai lime uf m:irlv 12.800, 

ah net ,,f Sept. ::n. i s.-,.>. i ■ . l -- .1 for 

i,,ii" t.i the north mill south, and 
n' I'llltinne iiihi the corner stone 
July *, lH.'l. Daniel Webstet delivering the 
nslona were tin 
• 7. nnd mlded very considerably to the 
.if ilia building, with their port 
and column! o( white marble, which 

tnln the Kcnato Chnmbrr and Unit of R(p> 

rweoutltM. 

The former Senote Chomlier Is now occu- 

El.. I l,y (lie Supreme f.iurl I lie former 
nil of Representatives Is now a Statuary 
Court to which each state contributes stat- 

n. i <>f bar moil f.uiiiMi» mnn. Among the 
special obieec of Intereal Inside >ti' the 

IntMls of the Vlec-Prcrildculs In tbo Senate 
Chamber; a number of hlMorlcal pain 

of Hie I" Mil In slr.e, In various 

pan* of ihe building; the Burble it a 

of the Senate, wtih ii» mirrors; Ihe collec- 
tion of Speakers' portraits lu the Ro|irc- 

,,*« Lobby of the Honse, and the 
massive Rotunda, with n* hl«iorieni paint- 
ings nnd frescoes. Outalde, on the east Is 
tbe plaxn. neur ihe center of which all 
clnaslc ngure of Ueorge Washington. *>n 

8m west able Story's broniu status of .1 • .lin 
arsboll. like the Washington, a Killing 
figure, la encountered by the visitor tint 
before be ascends tho stnlra over Ihe ter- 
race, it la curious to note thnt ihe umiu 
facade face* cast, os It was anticipated 
that the city would apri-ad In that 

tloni tbo reverse ha* proved '■> be ih »e 

iinil the Capitol turns Ita back toward the 
main portion of the city. 

Baa Illustration! opposite B8T, 1603 and 
troBtiapteca, Vul - "• 
Capitol: 

Cnro of, should be committed to pub- 
He agent, 500. 



Congress recommences, ita duties is, 

023. 
Destroyed by British force.!, 931, and 

illustration, opposite 537. 
Extension of — 
Appropriation of $100,000 to be ex- 
pended, £672. 
Architect engaged in, referred to, 

868ft 
Discussed, 2672. 

Jurisdiction over, transferred from 
Interior to War Department. 
2737. 
^lans submitted unsatisfactory, and 
combination ot same adopted, 
287S 

Refer. to. MM, 2915, 2917 

Heating and ventilating referred to. 

3110, 3112. 
Improvement of, interest should be 

Ink on in, 588. 
In 1839, 1093. 
Incomplete and not in a state to re- 

a -Members of Congress, 588. 
Longitude of, 6*0, 6*9, 789. 
Marble column* for, referred to. SIM. 
Secretary of President J- Q- Adams 

nsanulted in, 906. 
Washington, statuo of, to b« placed 
in, 881. 
Appropriation for, recommended, 

1170. 
Erection of. referred to, 1910. 
Wingj added to, nearly complete. 

Work of art for, referred to, 2910. 
Captive.— One held prisoner, especially la 
war. 

Captured Property: 
Cotton captured and forfeited, re- 
ferred to. 3666. 
Should not bo adjudged, without 
regular Investigation. 485. 
Car Couplers. (See Drakes and Coup- 
lers.) 
Caracas Commission discussed, 4761, 

4826, 4920, 5090. 
Caracas, Venezuela: 

Centennial celebration of birth of 

Bolivar to be held at, 47 
Statue of Washington to bo com- 
menced at, and industrial exhibi- 
tion to be opened, -1716, 47 

Carbine.— A abort rifle for the use of ear- 

ulrvinen, 

Cardenas Bay. Cuba, conflict in, dis- 
cussed, 6302, 0810k 
Tho Wlnslow rescued by the lludum 
in. thanks of Congress, et 
officers and men of latter recom- 
mended, 6302. 
Cardinal.— A prince of the Church of 
Heme, ranking In Catholic countries with 

princes of the blood royal, a member of 

th,. conclave or mered college, which i> 

the council Of Ihe Tope. Since 1173 the 



Encyclopedic Index 



Caroline 



csrdlnil* have claimed »ni! exercised the 
pil» liege of electing the li>fit 
college consists of scveuty cardinals. On 
Ma neb 1&, UTS, Arvhlilsbof. J«bn Mc- 
Closkcv. of New York, wan Bail* tbe Brat. 
lc«B cardinal. He died Oct. 10. 18S5, 
and on Jon* 7. 1888. Archbishop Juun-a 
Gibbon*, of Baltimore. »ji created 
nil. Not. 27. It'll. Pope Pita X bestowed 
tbe red bn- I. Far- 

ley, of New York : William II. O'CodmII 
of Boetoe. and Woniede Falconlo. former- 
ly of Washington, fur the Culled BUtci. 

CarlU!e Indian 8chool, establishment 

of, dUcuawd, 4529. 
Carmick ft Ramsey, claims of, referred 

to, 3065. 
Carnegie Foundation for the Advance- 
meat Of Teaching.— An Institution found- 
ed by Andrew Carnegie lo 1906. and In- 
corporated by tk* Congress of tbe Called 
State* lo 1004. Tbe Institution It en- 
dowed with 115.000.000. and Ita primary 
Mrpoae la to provide retiring »il..«in-f« 
for teachers and ©racers of college*. 001- 
terslile*. and technical schools In the Unit- 
ed State*. Canada and Newfoundland. By 
the seventh annual meeting or the trus- 
teea la 1912. Sift allowance* were being 
paid to teacher*, and • to widow* 

of teachers, at an anneal cost of SD03M&. 
ih» swrage retiring allow- 
ance I* J1.C70.0C. tbe nverage *g* of retire- 
sjent being about »eTcnty year*. 

Id tha payraeot of retiring allowances to 
professor* and pension* to widows -f pro- 
fans Bra, the foundation aim* to deal with 
Institutions rather than with Individuals. 
It ha*, therefore. foroscd an accented list 
a and officers of 
which B*y retire un.lrr nx-d rule*. There 
were In November. 1913. seventy-three In- 
..:•. .11 -h.- r In addi- 

tion 10 being n retiring allowance system 
that benefit of higher eduentlim. tl.e 
hi - lii'i'oana an cdncatfonal 
agency national In lt» Influence. Educa- 
tional problem* are discussed In the M. 
•ual report "f lha president, and In 
bulletins published by lbs fu'inilatlon. The 

(resident of tbe found, it: n ■ lit. Henry 
y, Clyde Furat i ad- 
dress, 570 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Carnegie Hero Fund.— In April. 1904, an- 

drew Carnegie created a fund of $5,000,- 
000 for the benefit of tbe dependents of 
those losing thrlr Hera In heroic effort to 
■are their fellow men. or for the heroes 
ttiessultes If Injured only. Pn-ilsliuj was 
a No tr.a.lr for medal • to be given In corn- 
memoratl' Ic act*. 

The endowment known ns 'Tin- Hero 
Fond" araa placed In the bands of a cooa- 
mission composed nf twenty-one person*, 
reeldenta of Pittsburg. F.i of 

8u»r|e* U Taylor I* president, and F. M. 
Datot. secretary and manager of the 
fund- 
la bl* letter to tb* Item F.uel Com- 
mission. Mr. Csrnef- ihe genernl 

scheme of the fund thus: "To pine 

following pw oef a l eocatlona who hnvc 1 1 

Injured Ta heroic effort to save human life. 
la bo: iter positions pecuniarily 

than before, until able to work ngnln. In 
ease of death, the widow and children or 
other dependents are to be provided for 
•he remarries, and tbe children until 
they reach a aelf-enpportlnz age. For ex- 
ce-ptlonai children, exceptional grant* may 
be osade lor exceptlonsl education. Grant* 




of sums of money may also bo made to 
or hcrolues a* (he commission thinks 
advisable — eu?li case to bt- judged <-u Ita 
suerlts." 

Tbe fund applies only to aeu performed 
within . d State* of America, tbe 

Dominion of Canada, the colony of New- 
foundland, and the water* thereof, and 
such nets must have hecu performed on at 
after April 1... 190*, 

The commission has awarded 641 med- 
als— 60S bronze, 819 silver and III gold. 
lo addition to th* i. 

been awarded for 1 Sent*, and 

ducat lonal and other special purposes, 
and for the dependent* of heroes who lost 
their lives, Including payments m: 
December 1913. on monthly nllow- 

>«"■ Pensions In force as of this date 
amount to Itl.VldO Sanaa! C0n> 

on has also awarded JIOP.IO- for re- 
lief of sufferer* from dlanater*— at Brock- 
ton. Mn»*., tio.ooo; from lbs California 
earthquake, U4.4C2; »l M nines, 

ingnb. W, Va., f3£.0(H>: at Dorr Mine. 
Jacob* Creek, Pa., a 2.1.000 : at 
Branch Ml in- s-.11 bhaca W Pa.. $10,000; 
'urtaln Mine, McCortaln, Okla.. 115.- 

IKIll ; nl Jed Mile. Jed, W. '.'.1. 110.000 

and for rellel at Ohio and Indiana Hood 
sufferers, flO.OOO. 

Carnegie Peace Foundation. (S«o Peace 

Societies.) 
Cntnifex Ferry (W. Va.), Battle of — 
After IfeCleltuI proaotlon, July ~. 
to the i->.iinii:tnd D< i in- Army of the Po- 
totnac. Rosccrans succeeded him In com- 
mand In Watt Virginia, ion. l'loj.1 (not 

a position on il iniiiv lliv.-r. eight mile* 

south of \ w. Vn.. nt Cornlfex 

Ferry, with 2. 000 Con fed ndlng 

to cut off Cox's hrlgnde from I 
army. Sept. 10 he w»« attacked In this 

Ksltloo by Boeecrana with 10.000 men. 
irkne** terntlnated • (barfj engagement, 
and tlo- next Daornlog riOTd was In the 
mountains, thlrtr mllee anay. The Federal 
lot* »». 190 killed and woundi-d. Asaong 
the former was Col. l.owe. of the Twelfth 
Ohio, who fell at the head „< t,u regi- 
me:,!. 

Caroline, The.— A steamer In the service 

of Canadian rebda which wa* seixed on 
a( r loan sol] trj lite Brltlan and buoad 

In 1830 37 a revolullonnry splrl: 
rcloped In Lower Canada. Dec. 12, 1837. 
the lenders of the Imnirrei-tlnn, under one 
Mackenzie, selxcd the Canadian Navy Isl- 
and. In the Niagara ftlt.r and act up a 
provisional government. Dec .8 the '•> 
ins, eroKslng the Nlngnr.i. after n fl^'lit 
In which severnl rebels were killed, l.urned 
the vessel (1018, 10291, The affair caoted 
gre.1t liidlgnntlmi. President Van Uuren Is- 
sued proclamations demanding observance 
of tbe neutrality laws ti The 

New York militia was cSJled out and placed 
uinl.-r eointnsud of Oen. Scott. 
Caroline. The. attacked and destroyed 
by- British forces, 1618. 

Claim on Brazil concerning;, 4220. 

Correspondence rejrardinrr, 1618, Ifi'fi, 
I83i' 10,2073. 

Diacussed, 181 

Sstisfnction demanded of Great Brit- 
ain for destroying, 1732. 
Caroline Islands.— a Pacific archipelago 
extending from lat. 3* to 11* north and 
from long. 137* to 103* east. The prin- 
cipal Island* are Tap. Ponapc. (Strong. Bab- 



Caroline 



lessagcs at\ 



the Presidents 



ellhouap. and Monk. The name usually ba- 
the IMi " I ilaiiil 1 1" lull i.ir*im» 

mi - ' , i tnBllj '" ,(l » 

,i Vap Island unill lis>l, when I bo 

■ was nettled lu f»viir of Spain, lty 

nl I . I, 12. 1800. those Islands, Willi 

>■-. |iii. hi ..r Guam, in of tin- 

in- will. Il litul In .11 rnl.nl In til" 

I nil.. I Sim. • hi imik. passed on f> 
la Into ilu- bands Of 
Dianr. The purchase prior imnl l.v Onimuy 

was about $*.<»* ')i •■■ consist of 

abort Bvo huudr.d coral I let* which am 
• mall mid *pnrn.U peopled Thr in. ml Iru- 
in. i i. mi product ninl egport I* I'opin. 

Carollne Islands: 

DltPOta between Germany and Spain 
ri'lnting to domination of, ill*' 
. M70, 
Qnaatioas •■• n ii Spain touch n 
of American cil icon i in 

Carpenters' HaU.-iinU.iinK OwMd by tb« 

Knl i.l or union of carpenters of Philadel- 
phia, it mi -tiuiUiii- to iii.- inlld balls of 
Loudon. The First nii.l Becond Contlnon* 

i .i » .iiiKreM^vM ii- i.i iii. ii- sessions lo 
ball. 

Carpetbaggers.— A ti ptoicft "i> 

piled i.. ■. ii urn northern politician* win, lu 

in.- .i.i % v ..f tba i n Q ii [ton i>f the south- 

■ in .i.i.. ihortly after lbs close ol the 

Civil War took up temporary rcsltlcuee In 
tin* south and nought election to Con 

mi. I lurl.iua Itat* ..III.-.-- Tat nun'' nroso 
frniii III,- fin-t I hnl ..i.h .i '. w ..I III in 
Inii'iiilcd to aettle permanently, and thrre- 
fore i.i 1 1 ii-.i. u was .uiii iiirii- effects in 
rnrprtbags, B • of tbem proTco I 

good anil UMi-f ul i-ltliens. while man! 

tmacrapuloua adventurers woo eougai offi- 
cial poalUona for the purpose of enriching 

III, IH-..-IVCS. 

Carriagos and Wagons.— Ages of prog- 
ran have Inti ttem .i botwi , ,, tbi 

.mi. .",., i. lie inuring ear of to-day [iii. I the 

.-linlli.l- nl : I. til Kings. Ani.'rli-nn 

live genius bn« added materially to 
thi» progress, t'nril toe advanl .if tbi 
automobile t in- American bngg) represented 

the hiKli.-ni type .if private ronvcyi e. 

bring u modification of the Kngllsh brong- 
tiii in nnd the Ccrinau lim.l -..- Che 

Ri volutl ftrj little "i muftcturlng -.-. si 

done in Hiin country Wealthy Amci 
iui|i,.rted their coaches, cerrlngcs nnd ph ie 
lona from England and Franc* The Dum- 
ber of repair sbops, bosrever, inereaoed 

villi tlii- iiiiiniier of vebl. 

rin- First American vehicle to be maim- 

faetured to any i-iteot irui the two-wln-i'lm! 

chaise, which beca popnlai in rfeit 

Knglnnd. New York and lloston were 

netted by n stagecoach route In 1770. 

lu IT70, when John Hancock married 

i liy Qulncy, bi to- S her hj 

coach to Philadelphia for a honeymoon. 

r i ii,. , ..iniu. t . f iii i -■• iii or- 

ganised Ho- Government, "the Importation 
..r coaches, chairs, .mil carriages of nil 
-...iti from England was forbidden ' In 
t7d4 Congress, looking upon carriages a* 
articles of Insnry, Imposed a tat ou tbem. 

vTttl iii,- Improve ol of roads tbi 

federal and slate aid, tbe vehicle business 
grew. The Conestugo wagon, with broad 
wheels and canvas-covered body, 
drawn by •••■- 1 n i ■ ■ - .iii- ..r bones, cam* 
Into ircnernl use In New York. New Jersey 
nnd Pennsylvania i,., N, v.. t.ecnioe 
famous, for if h coaches! Ralem anil Wor. 
tcr. Mesa., were also early noted ua nisuu- 



factorlng mlgratl, 

n-CHtwaiil after Ibe wai of 1812, 

. 

inn, •!. John sin. 

in A-lil I,.-!, inn,,, in I-.:.. ami two . 

son*, bavin 

went I.. South Bcml 

Hailed ■ hlch boa 

a i" in- tin 
i chicles in tin- world. The puni i 
more than • hundred acres of groiir„i 
|.l,,yn :i.<Kt|J workmen, uses annual! 
iiiniiiuii frei ..f lumber nuil lb., i- 
.(* Ir -n nii.l -..-,■! "i ii. ■ 

of Hi.- factory ■ v i ■ i • ....... -.i -.. 

In lvT^' the Carrla 
Association was founded by ii 

skilled workmen and i" i I 

biiilncas. Hutiln-i tir 

In family and pleasure caul 
ranki Ilr-I 

ber of pu'- --. ancee ma. 

while Inillnna beads the Hat of Statos tura- 

li.K ..ii I farm, i rmueiii nnil 

Mn. Wl>. 
nii.l N.-'.v fork tin n ■■tit about tbr<*-u,uar 
tera of iii„ slelgbs and si 

In the census re] f..i 1900 tbe 

in,--, i was in:i.ii. thai Iti in.. rarllcMt stages 

ol tbe carriage nod wngnn Imb.- 

i in- entire work of 

il.in.. nl iln- vHlalilUbmetii 

as la 
other lines <>f manuf ■ - 1 » i . 
few, If kiij. manufacturers prod- 
piutK. The makli '-vagoai 

rials as a sepnrstc Industry Is grnwlag. 
inn, for Hi,- fin lories la 
ei.il by Jliireb. April and May. bat work 

in fnii-ij i iluunun in,- ., ear r •■ 

• ni "i ■ i"- • it oers work oo 

per week. 
Carriage nnd wagon mnklns In Us varl- 

111111, ".in carried on la aVdM esi" 1 

no nii In the United States, and go..- 

lent Iii Hull) to SW '.i I i 
whom 110,028 were wage-esruerM, ami paid 

■ In salaries and wags*. Tbe 
total cost of materials »a« » 
wblcb was - quel to about half 
. i ni i .r i he total value of the products 
ilK.u. :-'••. ., ,,. -■ I Ie tin- rsl ie i Ii 
ib. mntt-rlals by manufacture wa« $7?.- 
•iii.'j.mi Many itabll ihirn ted at 

rloi ',, the ill lii'.-iitb i, • 
facturlng earrlagns and wagons have 
turned wholly or lu pari t.. iim 
inr,- ,,f automobllas. 

For tbe Industry as n whole In 191 I 
were report. tabllsbuients. 

iiiuiiiifio-iiireil 1.187,003 vehlelss, vain 
»72,2H-t,SOS, At the 1900 census there 
reported 5.613 esUbllshmvnls. with 
nn output of 1.:,S1.'.71 vehicles, valn«<l at 
J'.il.u::; ..inn. 'n,,. n.uiii,.-r ., 
thus ilecrensed during tbe five year i 
by 293, or fi.2 per cent the nuanb. 
M'lili -i. ■ I . 807.0110, ..i •.'.■.! per cent; and 
the value, by S21.7oi,002, 

Carson and Colorado Railroad, right of 
way of, throuirli Walker Kiver 1: 
ration, Nov., r, ■.!'•• rr.-l to, iT::ii, s776, 
4'.ir.:i, .-i i7s. 
Carsons VaUoy, Utah, Territorial gov- 
ernment over, referred to, 3011. 
Cartel.— An sgrei-i,,, i,t between belllg 
states relating to the methods of curry* 

nn for Ibe • i 
prisoners, declaring certain ground t*»u- 
trnl. repressing marauders, carrylsuj 

Kiatal cummnnlcatlon, ,,r n.,- in.,-. .\ mr- 
l-fhlp (soiiictlioea simply called a cartel) 



hpedie Index 



Cedax 



la nmr uai-d In rxckaaflBX prtmerr* o* 

■ •iaiiuiiiil<*i i eueaay. 

of prisoner* ara 

i .•• i If um>- m are mm- 

uartaaM l>f thr i. 

ii« easy treat with each other 

AB ••x'-bausc of prlaonera la 

krarfleial to tmth aide, which theret.y re- 

. %ru men sod Is weed the trou 

l.l* ar-l I . _o»nil3£ ami ( 

In an excbaosc. tt' i i 

lake ii lnii> »«n»ni. anil. 
. m jwndble, man la exekinxol for 
u*aa wf cjuul rank. 
Carthage <Mo.), Battle col— After fior- 

JarkMia and lila followers nail beea 

d Into Jai 

i. i>. aterllne 

ii>.| Willi a 
I VMt men, Hln> : 

the Stnt* to pro- 
i • nt» arrl«lcs rr.un Arkansas 
IC«C after iienne- 

t broach Carthage lo 

.•l.lf.Mlt lll« 

The 
« r»|»rttil • 

llll. I «"UBd(«l. 

OaTtOOO.- -A caricature in-o! In en. 

nil or a polio-. eapcrfMllr pttblle 
in pnlltkal tnra- - 
Cartoons. Early. < 'See lllu»tr:itioin op- 
IM, 15S1, ' . 
SO. 
Carr's Beballlon.— Thomse Cary, deputy 

deposed 
<ot1cllatloo of to* (Jnakera 
r~r alsfniochUliiic inen under llif i 

r. I yuars 

I to utarp On- i 
In 171 1 be attempted lo capture CnTrraer 
■ 

- aatlatnnce 
• i-l «"«<1) was force- 1 

Cam Orxcdc Buln. Arizona. (8*e Parks, 

Nation.: 
Casement, Sir Boger. (8m Roma Rule 

IrelaniL) 
Ceartle Island. Boston Harbor. 

. airnt of, vol ■ 

Caanalty. - In i,ir. r - !• 

f wounds. 

Casns-BelU - -Llterall! a mow of war: ■> 

•a -• 

if n- • r f i . - r nnllnn 

»„.-, 'J It of 

.•UBrflt. 

Catawba. The. purchased f->r Peru, da- 

Oal Ch WO uL — A word or phrase of i lar 

appe a l oftea on '1 by a p> 

rutin"; 

flit 1 1 n j : "ll kept as out of War." etc 
Catfcertc*. Tbe, seiter i 

Catherine Augusta, Tbe, --i 
marl. 

'■•-I. <8e*l; 
i ration la raw of, S3». 



Cattle: 

dltaMM among, dis- 

8784, M87. 

i "M ;ii i hi-- i' r :" •''• of 

nf, 477L 
K»| liition of. 

Animals anil Animal Pro 
Inspection of. (8< ■ I ndn- 

try, Bureau of.) 
Restriction* on importation of. (8eo 

Aiui.inl* nixl 
slaughter of, from i 
quired by urest Britain, 8784, «n 7h 
Cnttlo, Exhibition. International, at 
Hajabnrw, •■• irmtuiy, dUeaaaad, 4714, 
Cattle Plague. (See Plenro -Pneumonia.) 
Caucus, a neettng el iii- adberai 

a political parly to num.- c-.nnlldui 
■ if purl y 
i ti tbe earn Ujr nn American 



tloB, similar uii'rlliii;» lire snmcil 

In Isaalaiid. Mr. liladHtone 



bold 



: the i. .ill.. i Mil ,i 
Tbe caucus orl.-lii'i'.-.l In Hn 
pari nf Hi 

It !• IOPI I tO li I 

from ! 

» lib Hie ablpploK liualno Korib 

.1 meellni 
^•reir and rarried the uuna wlih It 
Institution at 

111 ll **• g i ; III .11. ■ ||K <'..ii 

luinil mcellnuH ffhlch iiotulnnled oan- 
dldiitra f.»r Hi.- Pi. .I.l.-ui-y .unl Vlrc ' 

.if l||M I lllll'll Mm. I l|, III |,,||l 

il until 1824. In 1S2H uon 
llf.nn wHre mnili lejlalatorc 

In IK -nt aysiem of nominating 

Into ii !■ Mm 

..■it.' xliiillnrlY : h] legla. 

tallre •omenrbat pr. 

t.> tbe Ktneral p lam, oomlnailna 

■ ■ eollonn ii..ik ili.'li place. Oaiicnaas nf 

1 

tbe ndherenl* of the aeveral political 

•iilin upon party 

Ei In chnoae Hi- of Ibe 

nnle and Bos 
Caralry. — Soidi«ni on borat-batar. 
Army. I 
Cavalry, InerettM in. recommended, 228, 

i. I96L 
Cavite, Philippine Islands, l.nti. -n, 

■ '-'I I''-" '.:' Mil - • , 1 1 : i . I r . . : i . I 

I, 11 

Cayuga Indians. (Son Indian Tribes,) 

Cayuae Indians, (s,-,- In diafl Pl 
Cedar Creek (Va,). Battle Of.— Om r 

hi.- n Ion . in Ibc CItII War. 

Aft.-r iin- raaagcmcDl ni Plabcra mil Hhcrl- 
irmr on tbo north al.i. o( 
Cedar Creek, near Hlraahunr. nml v 

ill ii. io Hn- r- turn of 
tin- Blxth Corpi Hurloe hla nh-n-nre 
Kar It. who had hern rrenf.o. -. il !■■ I 

•ill. returned np Mi- 
v.iii. ■-. i ...i.i r Creek, u 

inornlTie of Oct 10, 1864. snrprlted ibe 
-I .-l K'ma :i"'l 
deral army under 
...iiimiiiii.i ..r i;.-n vvrluht retired i 
n lien Kherldnn. a ha t ■ . . ■ 
i latter place dnrlna the fore 

i ii, i. jniii.-il tin error end ordered tbe 

battle !'■ I I i r I v ' « men n.-r.. In poi 

•eaalou of Ibc camp nt Cedar Creek a ben 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



they were attacked nbout 3 o'clock In the 
aficroooD and defeated, with henry I owe* 
(o both tides. The L'oofcderatce WW nil 
lb* (udi and camp equipage which they 

h.nl |ii ■- vloual) •".i.lin.il, .ili. uf 24 |Bal '•' 
nnd some dags. Sheridan's Ion 
In the two engagements. In killed, wound. 
.•(I and pi : BiOSO; Hi-- Confcdor- 

atc |n-n mi J. 400. This was lh"' ll I effort 
of t iif Confederate forces to occupy the 
Shenandoah Valley. 

Cedar Key*, Flu., intorfproncr- with col- 
lector of customs in, nmi action of 
Government (IhCTISMO, 6607. 
Cedar Mountain (Va.), Battle of.— June 
£tl, 1802, Gen. Pope u-ua assigned to the 

cummiiiiii of iii Mi. i i force* •■ r Bank*, 

in. nmi McDowell, known a« ill" 
army of Virginia. Knrh of the sepnrnlc 
armies had been defeated or forced Into 

reln-at by Jm-i .nil. '1'lir- I'l.iul... . . 

numbered 4H.OO0, Including 6,000 rstnlry. 
I i] "• established headquarter* ni Culpcpcr. 
tbOUl 00 uillea sonlhweat of Washington. 

i m Jackson nmi a r. inn io 

. illi', -i few mi lea aodl I of 
■ ulpepcr. Their united armies. Dim 

lint, according in Federal accounts, ?r>.ooo 
tiii-ii, iniviiii.-i-ii toward Cnlpeper. and on 

iu Ii nttneked Gen. Hunk*, wlih ii force 
of 8,000 men. at Cedar Mountain, a lull 
two mllea weat of Mitchells Station. Oil- 

fi'per County. Vn. Rank" w»» ■t.-f.-.t t.-.l. 
!,.- Federal Waiea «r*re 814 killed, 1.443 

n minded, and 020 missing. Tin- I 
erutes lost 219 killed, and 1,047 wouii'lcl. 

Cedar Rapids. Iowa, act for erection of 

PQblla buildings in, returned, 5503. 
"Colerlty, Certainty and Security." 

Slur Routes.) 
Cemeteries, National.— Tho army appro- 

prlallon bill for 1860 contained a clause 
setting nsldo $10,000 to purchase a lot 
near the i It] "f M-xIro for thn luterim-nt 
Of United states soldier* who frll DM! 
that place during the Mexican War. 

Mm,- id,- CM] War Congress lias eetah- 
elghty-fonr cemeteries within the 
Colted States. They aro mostly In the 
ftoulb. aa must of Hi. nil In that 

rr;lon. In all there arc 3T0.41& era res. 
each marked with a marble head 
n.i me ami tank of ea.h OCCUratnl l» eliWIed 
on the in-nd-stone when knnv.ii 

The following lable shows the number of 

cenetcrle* maintained bf the Federal doe- 

emmrnl and the Interment" of snldlera and 
sailors therein up to June 30. 1015: 



Nuts or Cuotot 





Asr» IN 

Arau 


liTTceWSna 


Nmi or Cramr 


□ah sag 
Del 


Tout 


Alexandria. La 

Alexandria, V* 

Aackrsnnvitle, 0* 

A adtr» Johnson (Graeoville), 


8 24 
8.40 

tit 
is 

4.115 

n 
iM n 

.0047 
S.S6 

750 
1 
20 
1 
S 

9 W 

s.ss 

13 M 


2.380 

let 

1,037 

MS 

Utt 

4.001 
34 
741 

M 

yu 

IM 

M 
a Tin 


4,530 
3.504 
13,721 

10 




.'.•■ID 


Anti-lam. Md 

' .a, Va 

BalbBtaJJ. V» 


run 

25 


Ban*>Oiwsii.b.C.... 


1,640 

3,1414 

44 

Ma 


Bewflr '». J 


100 




1.50* 


Camp NfWin, Ky 


- 5H 

4.757 




i iM 



■nocc*. Teon 

l '.sal, Va 

Cokl Harbor. V. ... 

i Mi., 
frown Mill, I ml . 

*f. V* 
Cuat«rB*liWiclJ.Mool.... 

. iiiiu, s. v 

Danville. Va 

nills. Ark 

• J. 

- 
l".it D.nirl.,0. Tim 

nM<Sbsaa,0Ua 

Fort Hirraa, Va. . 

fart Lrawnwonli, Ksim 
urt MtltHfsoh. Kebf 

as. ... 
Fort nrnilli, Ark 

'.iir,-, Va .. 

Gleadale. Va . 
Grafton. W. Va 
Hampton, Va 
Jeftawa Barr»ck\ M . 
JefTi-e.n I ii , Ma 
Ksnktik. low* 
KdoxtiIIi i di 

Lebsnon. Kv 

l^xmcton. Kj ... 

\rk 
lxiurl'-in V'M't. M.l 
Mwitiu. O* 

MnnpliUL Trill. 

Mssk •' '.!-. Mu 
Mill Spring*, Ky 
MiiIiiIi-, All 
Mound ■ . l - . Ill 
in 
'. 

New Albany. In. I 

S>.l., n. B.C 
Philadelphia, h 

l\.pl»r Grove. Va... 
Pal Hudson, La. . . 

IJ.nnrj-, III 

KWUBOnd, Va 

Buck I.laml 111 
...-. -. i- 
*n Aalonlo. Te. 
Burnnoawo, CaL... 

fcanta 1-V. N.Mrx. 

Ssran Ha**, V* 
Smph. IVnn 

i' Hume. D. C 

Bnrinnfidd, Mo 

St. Aiiguatina, Fl». . 
Staunton. V* 

Stone Rl-rtf. Tenn 

Virksbunt. Mini — 
Wlhnlc -. -. C 
ttin/lieit*r, V* ... 
Woedlsao. N. V... . 
Yorktowa. Va 



ToUl 1.5*4.370 



Aar« r« 
Aeaa* 



i ■ n 

7.40 
I ?5 

to 

I 37 
« 

is II 

3.40 
603 

3 70 
15.34 

40* 

It 

107 
I0 3t 

it 

13 

14 87 
I I- 
1.40 

10 01 
50 

* 

J 75 

IH 
2.(0 

i.n 
M 

41 01 

: 
ISO 

10 50 

II 

4 4(1 
7 00 

13 2* 
IAS 
» 

450 
7 83 

74 
1 

S 

3.SS 
37.50 
0.53 

1 u 

n :■■■ 

In 
4 
.58 
I. IS 

20.10 

to 

i 

4.80 
I.St 
3 



laiSBJUMS 



rjassjoei 
Dead 



1.400 

i, a 
MM 

37 
012 
274 
1*4 

150 
♦10 

10 

511 

5« 
1.563 

3*1 

l» 
I.4H 
IS.TM 
1.43J 

,...., 

•SO 
•54 

44* 
43 

I, til 

10* 

MM 

-is 
3;0*4 
s,*03 

410 

M 

4.121 

2,7*4 

1.110 

ta 

57 
550 

B\M 
45 

|vk- 
311 
471 

4-8 
Iff 

2,405 

»1 

1.217 

1.553 

5.10 
2,547 
12.910 

l.l.'i-i 

1.110 



IS! M 17*411 



Total 



U.470 

1.M3 
3,717 

Iffl 

s 

1.131 
l.llt 
1.431 
3.0U 

»:i 

1.447 

ill 

4014 

>v 

337 
UN 

15.111 

:.•.'•* 
I W 

11.344 

11*71 

541 

m 

1 'I. 

1.11* 

1« 
I" Ul 

I.SU 

Utf 

3.117 

ut> 

J.404 
0.21« 
IM 
312 
1.214 
IAU 
174 
I3.I4J 

ufi 

*.r* 
i*» 

..•■ 

2 : 

tS 

1.771 

;u 

1 7,0*1 

4J4) 

un 

2.IU 



01 Iliac inlcrnuinLi about U,SI 7 are Ilirx of I'i lifmlllMIS. 
being mainly in the National Cemeteriei at Camp Bitlat, 
Cj-prws IblK F.nn* Iv.tcit. Fort bunith, Uamptan. Jaflaaaa 
Barrack*. Sphn*ficld aad Woodlasra. 

The national cemetery at Gettysburg. Pa., 
la peculiarly Interesting from Its baring 
been dedicated by President Lincoln In IMS 
It abound* In numerous memorial* of tbe 
departed anldlent, inetudlng a national moa< 
iimenl. It has been thn seen* of a re- 
union of the atirtlvora of the. a-rrar battle 
rough I there July i-;i. iSrt.t The Uovrrav 
ment assumed charge of It In 1873. 






Incyclopedic Index 



Raf 



KatloaiL (See also N«- 

Evtabl. -bnwnt of, and number of 
I 'tima coldicr* buried in, discussed, 
3649. 
Government employee* to be per- 
mitted to participate in ivrcmonio* 
•I. 8ML 4)20. 4137, 4184, 4 
4282, 4552, 4402, 4443, 4508, 4552, 
4805, tm, j;.'-3, 4818, 4899, 5071, 
6550, 5463, 5540, 5609, 6832, 5W», 
6046. 
Censors.— Roman magistrate* to aurvcy 
and rate the property and correct to* man- 
aera of the people win- unpointed abont 443 
Toe old eooitltutlon of l'oan«yl- 
Taala, framed In 1770. provided for a coun- 
I censor*, to br elici-'ii two [ran eacb 
tiiy or roomy every (even ynr*. wbo«e 
duir It shoold be to Investigate tbe de- 
partments of tbe goterxinicnt and In- 
whether the roatlltutloo had Ik. . 
A new constitution »•■ framed In 1790 wiiti 
thl* provision omitted. The Vermont eon- 
^^Bso. taodrlrd after that of ]•. • 
viola, provided for ceoeom, and I hi* ro> 
eplrtmeat wa* not at-ullabed till 
fl— nnhlp. — IiifnUUon of and control 
•rer ciuiratlona and utterance*. Foreign 
atOsa*. eaa-eclnliy dur.: i|nin tV.r. 

t n aa sa tly have resorted to thin mean* of 
rmtotlne nobllclty of gGv*rnmcntnl a. lion 
iMrollllcal pUn«. but in the United State* 
atacr**** ha* Ml to l>y 

U* Oevsra, .. In ar. nilri»»rr wny. 

Ui ties only In « ir I 

BOaeat to the ConatJtotlon apeclncnllT 
(i Ik* abridgement of the freedom of 
•*»«! U» preaa. (See Eaplounae 

Canon, Beoolutlons of. — Two resolution* 
at ensure oo tbe president nave been 
laaal once by t li .- Senate and once by 
0» rinse, oo occasions where tbe ma- 
>e»y taaalng the** mis not 

»»ao>at;y large either to paa* measure* 
far Ibe prnMcnt* veto or to Impeach 
Ko. March 28. 1834. after tbree munih 
♦•aai ever an attempt to Impeaeb Andrew 
«*«, Congr«-ss resolved thot the "prert- 
•at. la Ike let* •lecullv* proceeding* In 
*rt«tL:. .Tonne, b* 

<t*a bhaatlf authority ind power not con- 
id law*, bat In 
•woili* of both " Jn'k-nn r""'' 
M »IUout Bvmlf. hi is. .7 the 
■"» Hjsangcd from the record*. Jan. 10, 
1UJ. J.,im >|. imtK, of Virginia, oil 
» rwotttioa for the Impeachment nf I'r.i 
•ajt Tyler foe "gro»* usurpation of power, 
land corrupt al power of 

rnt. high crimes nnd n 

red ncnlnn this 

d do him, bul li<- had 

M the Miata rated again*! 

_ of Jackson'* protest, and In 

i ran .i ib.. Huns* wiii him 

of the Benal 

eccaaloo. The revolution was re- 
by a rot* of 83 to 127. ISco alao 

Croon,— The Constitution require* thnt a 

■state* aball be taken 

The Brat cetMU* wn» taken In 

anaVr the supervision of the preil- 

: «anwgo*Pt eenwsea, to and Includ- 

Oat off 1840. were taken under th" 

■ton of the Secretary of State. In 

•upervlalon of the census w«i 

" to tbe newly orcuued Depart- 




ment of the Interior, and continued 

the control of that department unl 

I .. ■ -.«,• uf in. ■ .i ..f ni".: creating tbe D« 

pariment of Commerce and Labor: by this 

act the Census Bureau wa* ti- n 

the new deparlni.nl. Congress by net ap 

proved March 0, IO02. made the Census 

Bureau a permanent bureau of the Goran- 

• 

work of tbe Ccnaua Bureau 1* di- 
vided Into two main bran.: the 
;il Kintutlcal In- 
ter mo*tly made In the In- 
terval* helv.. n the d i nl»l cenm»e». The 

Thlrtienth Itrernnlal tVuaua wan taken a* 
of date April 15, Ifllft It covered the 
three main *ubjecta— (1) population, (31 
artlculiijie. and i'M inanufacturn, mlnca 
and quarries 

The permanent work of the Ceaatia 
Burrau 1« provided for hv the ael 
a;re«a approved Mnrcb 0, 1002. and an 
menu thereto. The** acta authorlx* and 
dliv.t tbe IturfSU to make Binll<ltr*l lu- 

3 nlrle* regarding the Insane, feclilsr-ulnded, 
enf and dumb, and blind, crime, nauper- 
l>m, and benevolence: death* nod bit 
the arvaa maintaining" rvvlnratlon *y*tem ; 
•oclnl and financial atatlnl.-i nf • 
wealth, debt and taxation ; rr-lla-loint b 
elerirli- light and power, telephone* and 
leleKraph". and »troet railways : trauanorla- 
tlon by water: cotton production and dl»- 
trlbullon ■ and production of foreet prod- 
The matltllcs of death* (which DOW 
cover a liule ors-r 1i*lf of Hi* conntry), 
o{ > itlea, and of production ol cotton and 
nl •■■ .-ii i.d nnnually : the 
■tatlltlca mentioned ore taken imially 
at lnti-rvala of five or ten yearn, not. how. 
:ii the same time a* the regular de- 
D use*. The net of lnOU alxo pro- 
vide* for a cetthUR of manufacture* In the 
fifth yenr Intervening between th 
ci-nsnaea. and r ti - - n.-.v rhlrteeotb I 
act further prmiile, fur n ceniiux of agri- 
culture. In 11115. as well a. In 1010. 

IB* Director of the Onsiu U appointed 
by the l*re*ldent of the I'nl !■•.! Rial-, and 
receive* a aalary of S<; 000 per annum. The 
til Director l» W'llllnm J. Ilarrl* of 
tJeorgla, The permanent ofllco organltatlon 
Include* a chief clerk, four chief ntntlitl- 
claim — for population, for manufneture*. for 
finance and municipal *tatl»tl.», for vital 
statistics — a geographer, and clclit chief* of 
dlvlxlon 'I tic entire number of imjIlTJaM 
In tbe Bureau at Washington !, 
B40: in addition lber« ir« about 700 npeclnl 

employed Intermittently In 
em utates for the collection of cotton »la- 
tlallos. The number of employee" In Wash- 
inglon wa* greatly Increased during the 
decennial census: on Novemher 1. llilft, It 
wa* 3.S0.', In addition to field employee* 

•..puLll.uH I 

Census: 

Appropriation for expense* of, rec- 
ommended, 4654, 4664, 4C90, 4605, 

Digcuraed nnd rticommendntiona re- 
Rnrdinc by Pn.-Hi.lent — 
Alum*, J. Q., 830, 983. 
Arthur, 4635. 
Clnvclnml, .'.978. 
Killmore, 2622, 2605. 2708. 
Grant. 3906, 4006, 4156. 4208. 
IJarrUon, Bi>nj„ 5553, 5640. 
Jaekaon, 1093, 1367. 
JoffcTBon, 315. 
Johnson, 3872. 



Census 



jts and Papers of the Presidents 



i „. ,.i„ 3 ! iS I 

McB 

Moi B17, 

Plane, -756. 

.it. 6676, 7104, 7176, 7228. 
Tnrlor, 2560. 
Tvlrr, 189-1, 1934. : 

1778. 
Wellington. 98, 175, 
i rarjr five yean reoommenderl, I 

In is'.'i, rem ion for. II" 7, 

ifioa. 

Law* rcgnrdinR tinio of taking, dis- 

■mi-si , |. ;>S6. 
Referred to, 1775. 
Pcn-nm. r-. i uges of, should 

I..' taken with, , 1 
Po»tnp;o on papers concerning, dis- 
•QIMd, I 

Btafi ired to, 6345, 038». 84 I MTV. 
sn|H>rviiior« ot. removed, referred to, 

Census, Agricultural, recommended, 

5068, 
Census Board inferred to, 2560. 
Census Bureau discussed, 4066, 5640. 
(Tent. ffnppet eolai ttampod wtta rarlou 
dcHlgu* were Iraued flrni i.y Dm attic* and 
tetel hy the Federal <loTernm«.-ut. Vermont 
wn* the first *mi'- to Issue coppei 
having granted p.-rii)l«-|..ri In Jan 

,ir„ ta tnalte in' in- y to 
■late for two years In October, 1783, 
Connecticut granted the right to coin CIO,- 

imm> u apcr i-.-iii r. knows m the > onnectl- 

.in oral "i 1788 in 1786 Mtixim I.- 
ewtubtl-lmd a mini tad eolBed 160.000 I" 
cent* and half cent*. In Itw «aine rear 
New .1 

i iers i" the ( UK In 1781 

the Continental Congn-** directed Bob) rt 
Uorrli to look Into 1 1 ■ •• matter of t-- 

il coinage It* i ■ ■ - -i ■ 
hand on lbs Spanlab dollar, one hnn 
nun. to !"• called ■ .-.hi in- plan ««» re- 

}t'«i, ami in I'M Jefferson proposed to 
'ongi."-> Unit tbo *inaUc*l coin lioiild bo 

ot copper. •■! which '.'oo should inn fn 

In ISTii, "if linndrii) « ••< 
■ United 11m i>''t of April nili.ir- 

lx»-d the coinage or coppei nts contain- 

in,- 264 ffralni anil lialf cent* In proportion. 
ic n.-tn of .Ian. 14. lTn::. on.i -Inn -■■, 
lTDiI, tln-li weight wii-. reduced I 

'rii- i r ininii.-i commenced In 1703. In 
18."." the olrkel •••■lit ivn-1 substituted tad 
ili.< linif ei hi .11 conilnui -l and In 1804 lbs 
i.i.Mr.'.- r. hi tret Introduced weighing fnrlr- 
elght grain* and cnnalattng of olnel 
pel --Hi -.f rapper itnil tin- remainder -.f iin 
and tin* in the calendar rear i!ii<> 

were coined l.". " •- l. 'is cent ill wnriti 

f 1,628.4112.18. Thla wn* about $2 1 

ni"r,' 1 1... 11 the vni f it'"- eenl i 

coined, nini about f 1 00.000 lew ihan 
vnlui ii 'in.'ii A proposition to i 

n iiiilfnrii pi wan Introduced In trie 

Bltty-*.-cond CongretM In l'-'l- hut fnll.'d 
of pa ■ 

Cent. (See Copper Coins.) 

Centennial Anniversary of Founding of 

Washington as Capitol to bo held in 

1900, 6347, 6404, 6456. 



Centennial Anniversary of Framing of 
Constitution. | rale, 

in P I 18 

Centennial Anmvorstry of Indepen- 
dence, proclamation recom 
d*i liver; and filing oi historical 
sketches of GO 

Centennial Celebration of Inauguration 
of President Washington to b« held 
in \.-w York. 
Pr. ii i regarding, 5153. 

Centennial Exposition at PnUadelphla. 
—An inii-iu.iii'.uai exhibition "f art*, man 
uft ii.. tod producta el end 

h. I.I at lit In in I'nrfc. Hill 

|.li In. from Slay 19 to Not. 10, 1870, It 

kind held in ihi< country, ami was mt'nded 

[ebrato tb* completion of a century 

..f iin. •xUtuue* nf ttn utes as an 

mil. i'. n. i, ni Dttton Tii re- 

i " i'leot Grant's warmed rapport 

42 10, 12 in of 

■ ei Iphlt raincribed (I I csp- 

li a I Hi uk. Congre** ippr. 

000 a* a loan, lVnn«ylTanl* iLOOtumu. and 

■ Kick* 

lullll. . :. person* pnhl »dml«-l..n, and many 
ii coantrles were represented by ex 
hii.it*. 

Centennial Exposition nt Philadelphia 
-. 4216, i: 
reprint inn for, nded, 

4271', i::i I. 

Comminniiui referred to US. 

CorTi'si'Miiiii'ti..' regarding, re» 
to. 4311, 

Executive order* regarding, 4235, 

4280, 
Government aid to, recommended, 

Proclamation regarding;, 411 

Iiemoval of government . - 

capital for permanent exhibit 
recommended, 4364. 

.its of foreign nal 
Iributcil. 4365. 
Report of board on behalf 

rive Departments, printing and • 
tribution of, re i 
4429. 
Report of commission referred to, 

4301, I II 
Results of, discussed, 4355, 4 
Centennial State.— a Dlekneau for Colo- 

in. I., i .| v .. I SCC ni 10 Ktniei.l 

Central America. — Tbt *ii Istb ibu states 

hare an area which a little rio-.-d» SOO,. 

i»'" i .- ml'. Tli.- gn ItJ Il 1 ■ r ■ - n . I U 

tpproxlmttely along 15" N. Int. from I 

. i .1 lot i'i i n.». i,, i be ..ti ' 
I* about 10 The r-|.uili.-. .f r. 
Aiini lea in-- : i'i.-iii l:. tluntei 
dura*. Nlcuragua, l*snama. Salvador, 

Pnnnmn '".innl Zone helonclng to the 
I .--laii . linn iin nr.-a .if 474 : ■ 

Will".. 

The upland* of tBI plat-an nf Mtslen am 
Interrupted bj tbi i.nland of the l-thraut 
of Tabaantepec, but list again on the 
east. The general formation a* far south 




si Co«U Rlra. where the Iilhmin narrows 
■IMl IB* mountain* t-rd to form « • lual.- 
chela. 1* that of a plateau sloping Scully 
-. ih- Atlantic nit! limply toward! 
th- I*arl0c. Oo ibW arv many mora or Ion 
parallel range*. 

.Vteorapve tin n wide tout plain on :'•■■ 
in* Mosquito Coast, uplands In trie 
or, sloping 
crntty toward* to-- Atlantic n 
l<iwirtl> tin- late*, and volcanic t>»n, which 
ii volcanic jon*. Somo 
or Hi. »- ar- a". mm am! Ma.aia 

hare been I To 

the ea«t of ttil« range li a great dept- 
o*-ciir.lrd by Lake* Managua and Mr 
erag-.in These at-.- iSralmvi . Juan 

BlTrr wliirh B'.iw- 

To the south Ibc nin ..low* 

the ci.nl- r ..f ih. . -timaa to ranama. where 

itiy on 

raaarna on 
fa sored the <oo*t ruction of Ihc canal at 
Itar c«rrriw<-»t portion. 

Central America (see alto th« several 

Affair* of, diacusacd, 0325. 

Q war in. 977. 
Commercial relations' with, 1115, 4327, 

to South and, 

for improving com' 
4M'i. '!5, 4955, 

Con*e!> of Unit. • n.«N 

in number of, recommended, 1760. 
Convention* and treat!**) between 
.: Britain »-"i [Jolted SI 
regnrding dominion over, di«- 

•d, 2861. 2SS4, 2901, I 
»58. 
Complications arising under, 2973, 

: .;:•... 
Construction of, diieoatcd, 2973. 
-apoudence regard m;;, trana- 
£894. 
.'.at ions with, nftmi 

Dipleaaatic repre*» M> taUoB of 1'nitod 
Btal 

fug i.cnlion with, 

■ 

trol America, 
of, diicuKM-d, 6325, 
0341 

mbardnmt of. (Soo 
town, Nicaragua.) 
MiaUtcr of United State* — 

Attacked ami wounded by outlaws 

2814. 
Grade of. elevated to plenipoten- 
tiary rnnk. 4717. 
2744. 
Monarchical government, Mtablilh- 

Mil ' 
Ne- in, 

19. 

Outlaw* in— 

Aiaoriean minister attacked and 
woejadcdby,2S14. 



Marauding bands of, deatt 

Sroperly of American citizens, 
iscusscd, 2S15. 
Town ocoupind by, bombarded, 

Complaint of foreign power* re- 
gar.inig, . 
Policy of United State* toward, <li« 

cuwod, 8750. 
Questions between Great Britl and 
United State* regarding, 2741. 
2901 .li39. 

B*f 

Ship Canal through, dbenwed, 1118, 
1 anal; Pan- 
ama I'nnal.) 
Tr« ■:. Oreat Britain regarding. 

(8oo Clayton llulwer Treaty.) 
Treaty with States formerly 

; •;, referred to, 1563. 2569, 
2570. 
Transmission of, to House Seflllned, 

Treaty with, trmaamittod and dia- 

1089. 
War in, fliltmi A, v.<\ I. 
Central America, Greater Kepnhlic of. 

. i.J.li Inn. nt i.l. dlacnjaed, I 

Central America.— Honduras and Nica- 
ragua Treaties proposed by President 
Tuft, 7663. 

Central American Peace Conference. - 
<-n iccoant of the frequ m revolution In 

in, I'enlral II are" n* 

Hi- wan l"iw en tbem. President Dlaa, of 

Hi >■■ '. •'■ 'i Pr Idi bi R r»U appealed lo 

the :■ public* t" confer with each ol 
• be question of :i 'Mira- 

tion and amity. In response lo riitx Invlti 
tlun all the I cntral American Statei CoifB 
■ilea, Cuit-maln. Honduraa, Nicaragua ami 

Bal*ai]ot ..Hi <|. i.-.-.ii. . t.> :i confer 

In Washington, looting from. fCov. I I to I". 
is. 1907, 

A* a resuli ef the deliberation* of tlila 

• . . .i. v.-i, i i.ni s i. igi d 
to a* follows and Blgnid bj the d< • 

..I Treaty of IV« and Vmll 
dlttonal I'onvenlloni to thi nei ■ 

llshlng a C-nlral American Court of 
Joule* Rttredttlon : On Future Confet 

run-* l :n. in. (.ii . : ' III ' '.'lliillUNl.rit lull* ; 

.itatilne an Internatlonnl Central 
Ami in ; KaiabiUhiuc a Pod* 

(Oglcal Inailtm- 

rheat convenllom provide for permanent 

legal I iii -lull r r. .in nil ih- others : forbid 

Inciting rebellion a«ln«i o ntry 

within the border* of another: iroat and 
trial iiallty, 

Becuiod of Inciting rebellion ngninst my ol 
ih- repnhllea; reroaal of any to r»oognl».c 

r iiilntlonm i gov. rnraeutl ■ Uch 
Into power In another until acknowledged 
by the freely elected repre ■ Of the 

srferene* In Internal war- 
fare. The Central An if Ju* 
ll-e was formed. 10 -onslsi of Be* Inetleea 
one from each republic, t" sit ni the 

in..... in i'. .i.i lil-a. Tills court bn* 
juil-ilii tlun over Internatloaal <]'■ 
Iween the repuiiii. • or bel i n« of 

iid the government of anotbor. Other 



I 



Central 



iessages and Papers of the Presidents 



conventions provide for unification of the 
monetaiy system of the republic!, as well 
»» weights, measure*, transportation, edu- 
cmlloD, and IM A*JT«U>|>'»<'"( "' "" emu- 
mcrcc. Industries, pence cud prosperity of 
I be couuirles of tYuti.il America. 

May '.'it. 1008b the Central American Court 
of Justice was opened at Cartago. Co»ta 
Klc». Hi the presence <>f repiex-niatlvra of 
rolled State*. Mexico, and all the Central 
American republic fill day was celebrat- 

oogbout Central America as a nn- 
tlonal holiday. The raited States tommls- 
aloner announced the gift of $100,000 fn.in 
negle to build a temple for till 
•» of tbo court. Id July. Honduras and 
Nicaragua I Rah ador 

and Guatemala. President Iiavlllo. of lion- 
dura*, charged that a recent revnii In llnn- 
duris wan organized and supported In the 
neighboring States of Guaicuinla and Sslva- 
I ... i'r....|,i, hi /.elaya. of Kloarasoa, made 
similar charge«. The latter' a elalma worn 
la lacking foinida'l.ui Th 

rlalint were examined end derided 
adversely In the following December. Tills 
wns taken as an Indication Of the ultimate 
utility of the cowl for the purpose* for 
^iih'ti It had been created. The difference! 
here peacefully adjusted « .,-.- „f (he claw 
that former Iv led to hoatllltlei. 

Contral American Peace Conference, re- 
»ult of effort* of President* of United 
Stntcs nnd Mexico, 7180, 

Central Powors.— The term npplled during 
i nroponn Wnr to the opponent* of tho 
Bnteal (q. v.). namely, 

I Hungary, llulgnrla. nnd Turkey. 

The i mi im 'led the previous term, the 

"Triple Alliance" (q. v. I. when that ti-rm 

wn» rendered void hjr Italy*! refusal to twist 

hit and AuKtrla In the European con- 
ill' t. The term "Quadruple Alliance" was 

occasionally naed i" duacrlbe :i> ntral 

I'.iwer... i Hei Bora a R u I 

Centralization. — a tiTin used to Indicate 
the tendency toward greater power and on- 
tln.rity In the [Federal QOTcTnmsnt. n» dis- 
tinguished from tho power of »tntc govcrn- 
menta: and the power of the ntnte go' 

u dlettngnlahed from local power. Tho 
telegraph, bdephnuc and railroad I *v* made 
comniunlcntlon to readily nvnllaM. 

li ii the distance bi it 
point* In the l'nltcd Rtnte« and Intel 
commerce hn* grown to he the rule, Wbereaj 
i"ii. Theae In- 
fluences bave greatly assisted the i" 
trend toward greater national centralization. 
An exnmpln of centralisation Is rising rate* 

and otherwise t\ Ifylng regulatlona for 

railroads on the part of the Federal Govern- 
ment. I See Stntc Flights.) 

Centre of Population.— Blabop Berkeley. 

writing early In the • Ighleeiitli century. 
said In his poem "On tbc Prospect of Plant- 
ing Arte and Learning In AngrioV' 
"Westward tho course of emplro takes Us 
way ; 
The four first acts already past. 

A mill shall rl Hie ilrniiui with the day; 

s noblest offspring Is the last." 

The eiiigriiph to Bancroft*! "Blator* of 

the L'nltcd States" made the first line of 

the above read as follows: 

•Westward tho star of empire takes Its way." 

The centre of population, the "star of 
rmplr.- " ol the i oiled States has moved 
steadily westward from a point rest of 
i :.■!■ imorw In 1TU0 to the city of Blooming- 
ton. Ind.. In H'10. It baa never departed 
far from the 30th parallel of latitude, and 



only twice crossed It to the south. The an- 
nexed tabic shows Ita progress: 
,. Mnvetasnl la 

< ?Ssr* Approximate Location *9S!SSS' 

:><- 3 
1780— Twenli-three miles East o( 

llsluinore, Md .... 

1SO0— Eighi~m utiles West of BaJtt- 

, Md 40.8 

IMO — Forty mile* Northwest by 

West ot Washington, DC MO 
IMO— «iil«n milce North of Wood- 

stook, v» ao.a 

1530— Nineteen miles Wrst-Pnulb- 

west of Moorenelil. \v \.- 40.4 

IMO— Sixteen mile* South of Clarks- 
burg. W. »*»• 55 o 

1M0— TwcnijMhree mil. 

of Parkersburg. W. Vs." ... 64. a 

I860— Twentj mil.-. South of Chil- 

lloothe. Ohio 80.0 

1870— Fortnight miles Es.- 

44 I 

IRSO— I > South ot 

Cincinnati, Ohio Ml 

1890— Twenty miles Last ol Co- 

liiinliui. Ind.. . 43.8 

1900— Sii mile. Southeast of Co- 

luml.iK. I ml It 

1010— In the city or Hiuoiuiugiua. Ind. 10.0 
• West Virginia formed part of Virginia until IMO. 

Cerro Gordo (Mexico). Battle of.— This 

battle was fought on April 17 and 18. 
11*47. Ten days after tbc surrender of 
Vera Crux the rangnardl of Scott's array, 
under Ilrlg.-iien. Twiggs, took up the march 
I i he Mexican capital. Tbc dksuarc 
to be covered was nearly 200 miles. Three 
dare later tiny arrlTed at th» foo4 of tie 
Orlaabi Uouoialna, !K) miles t«> ihe 
ward. Here Santn Anna, the Mexican 
President, had nku-iuhled a force of I 

On ili- heights of Cerro 
rjordo. Tbc American force did not ex- 
ceed 8,000 men. By cutting a new road 
■ round tin' mountain to th« flank nf the 
'"".I and '.iiiniltaneously assanltlng froat 
and rear the Mexicans were forced to sur- 
i iiier. Snnta Anna oaenped with aoroe 

li. c,r 7,1111" ..f Ids ariiir down th.- 

toward Jalnpa. The loss to the A me rl cans 
was 03 killed and 308 wonnded. That of 

iii. .ii.inv waa estimated to be nearly 

killed nnd wounded. The virion cnptur<sj 
3.1100 prlmnera (who were paroled K be- 
tween 8.000 »nd 4.000 Mam) of arms. 43 
piece! of hervy h i"U. and a large 

quantity of "xed ammunition. iSce ll'.iis 
tratlon oppoi It* 1 108.] 

Cerro Oordo (Mexico), Battle of, re- 
ferred to, 2386. 
Cerruti. claim of. agninst Colombia dia- 

cusacd, 0328. 
Oervera, Admiral, Span^h fleet nnder 
command of, ■" Santtajjo Ilarlior, 
Cuba, A3 16. 
DcatToyod by American 8qn»dron 

while attempting to oaeapo, 
(See alio Spanish- American War.) 
Ceaalon of Lands. (See Lands, Indian.) 
Chair of American Patriotism. — An en- 
dowment established by a gift of (23.000 
from Mayor Thompson, of 1 1 May. 

l'.MT. tn assist In the teaching of America* 
patriotism In the Lincoln Memorial Cnlver- 
slty (q. v..i. 

Chalmette's Plantation (La.). Battle of. 
— One of tho battles near New Orleans. 



Incyclopedic Index 



icdlor-.-viUe 



ifter twtsdertstve engagement at Vllller* ■ 

fUntailnn, Ucc. S3, I8ML Sir Edwin) 
akcubnm toned iii- iiriilsh arm; whh 
alom-niHin. which swelled the Invad- 
rceg to S.OOO. On th* morning of th- 
Stb. ibe British advanced to Cbalmctte'i 
intatloa exposed to tbe deadly fire of Hi I 
nWdH Jackson await, d the movement 
lib 4.000 own and 20 piece* of artillery. 
The Brltlsa were led Into toe nnpiMDt 
In 2 column under Ocnernl* Kean and 
GtM*. After fselng the heavy ore of the 
American sbarpebooter* for ■ abort time. 
. laa;d I "j ken ho m ordered ■ retreat. 
Tee British lo«* In the encasement was 
■boat l«i. The lo"« of the Americans 
»ni 9 killed and 8 wounded. One man on 
Bed Ibe Louliiona was killed. More 
__•• 800 «bot« were hnrled from ber gun* 
with deadly effect. One of them U known 
to hart killed and wounded 15 men. 

dumber of Commerce of the United 
State*. — A national organliatlon forced at 
a commercial conference called bjr the 
President of tin iste* to meet In 

Washington. April 22 and 28, 1012. It. 
published pnrposM are to encourage and 
promote the organisation of association- of 
business mea la all part* of Ibe country. 
When debatable policies affecting our 
National commerce are advocated by tbe 
Federal authorities, there ahould be 
ognitesl organization capable of expressing 
the biirtnct* opinion of tbe entire country 
available for COafcrence. alike to tbr el- 
i e and Uglslntlt* branches of the 
lament. It la the purpose of tbe 

Male* 
icrlca to act In tbl* capacity— not to 
lu lie uni 
aarlly critical of legislation proposed by 
other*, bat rather lo assume unit tbe Na- 
tional Covniimii -Hi - 1 ■ -ii.- io ml lu bar- 
nsoay with the commercial Interest* of tbe 
iry and will accept It* co-opcrallon 

eao end>o>or to make all business Icgls- 
lloa conslroctlve. 
Orposs/ollas l/rmoeraalp.— Kvery commcr- 

l' HsHoeUl I in h"t T 

purpose* il 

glble for membership In tbe Cbnmlicr. Such 

II be of two classes. Pint 

—Local or State, commercial or business, 

organliatlon* whose rpoae la tbe 

*lcv»>opniein of the commercial and In- 

(■atrial lal I tingle stale, city or 

Second— I*cil. «iate. Interstate 

iloeal organisations whoao member 

able I* eccno-.f io one trade, or group of 

trades. 

Reavcacwfolfoss. — Keen member of the 
• .if tbl lull- 'I State* 
erica »ball be entitled to one dele- 
gate and one rot* for the first twenty-Ore 
members, and one delegate and on* rote 
fee each additional two hundred member* 
la excess of twenty-five, bni no member 
•hall be entitled lo more than ten delegates 
sad lea rotes 

IsssMsW Jf-rM4*r»Alf>.— Person*. Arm* 

rsuratloua who arc member* In good 

•Uamag of any organisation rulmli t.it to 

the Oiio.be r an lor election aa 

ladlrldntl members. Individual members 

«w* the regular publlcnl « Df th- 

Cuotor and lb nil themselves of 

itlonnl headquarter*: 

■ay ■ ^uiar aud special meetlnga 

I '»» Chamber and. subject 10 lb* 
•f **»b meeting*, mny have the privilege of 
«• S r are not entitled to Toto 

w*»1 if Hted delegates of or- 

*»«*amon members Individual mciuber- 
■sj k United to S.OOO. 



Chambers of Foreign Commerce, eug- 

Seated, 7U74. 
Chambers, Talbot, court-martial of, ro- 
il to, 912. 
Chamlsal, arbitration with Mexico of 

boundary question not aalixiBctory, 

7658. 
Champion Hills (Miss.). Battle of.— 
Sberuiun waa directed io mnalfl M Jack- 
son to destroy everything thnt could be of 
value to Iho Confederate*. Oram himself 
d toward Ibe west. Pemberton, tbe 
Confederate general, with 25,000 men, bad 

left Vlckaborg hoping to cat off 

from bl* supplies and form n Jul 

with Jobu'.i'.n - forcei Lcarnmf the 

strength and position of the enemy, Grnnt 
and M.-Ph-i .uu to leavo 

■ it I li itteo f«.i i ' iv 16, 

I'embcrton'a army was encountered 
nt Champion Hills, n precipitous, narrow. 
wooded ridge twenty-five mile* west of Jack- 
son and twenty miles ca«i of Vlck 
Tbe Confederates were strongly posted, and 
It wo* necessary for tho Federal troops to 
approach the poaltlun arm-!, open fields ex- 
posed lo the or* o( 10 bal still- 

Icry. Hovey's dlrlslon and McPbcraou's 
corn*, with the exception ot flum •:.'• dl- 
vIkIiiii. which did SOI arrive till I h» battle 
vol over, began the attack In front while 
Logan'* division wn» working to the left 
:i..i i. ii Tin battle wii* hotly contested 
ninl the Confederates wen driven back 
tber had sustained heavy Ihkh. 
Ornnfa lossca were 410 killed. 1.844 
wounded, and 1R7 mhwlug— loiul. 2,111. 
Tbe Confedi rate lowi-s were probably near- 
ly the same, and lu addition 2,000 prison- 
ers. 

Champlsln. Lake. (See Lako Cham- 
plain.) 
Chaaccllorsvllle (Va.), Battle of.— Jan, 
26, 1803, MnJ .-t-i-n. Jrstept Hooker auc- 
: MaJ Gen BomsUle In command of 
the Army of the Potomac. Uy April 1 

iii. ii army was lo ex nam- 

berlng si tbe lo'clnning of lbs new opera- 

tlona I'M Ml in fun t ry . Ul.iMMi nn1l- 

i ■ 12 000 or 13,01X1 cavalry, and mora 
limn 400 guns. Clcu. Lee was nt Ftcd- 
erlcksburg. v.i.. with BT.000 Confedi 
April .s (some autborltlea say the 2Vib) 
llooker began a movement with Lee's left 
as his objective point. To cover bis real 
fie dispatched lien. Stone- 
in in '.villi m. ml nf ilii' i-nv:ilry ■■■■< ■ <! 

to ih- rear ••! ibi Confederate nrmr, at*- 
Honed Gen. .Sedgwick with 30.000 men 
opposite I- ■ org. and moved with 

alioul 70.IHKI in. ii i.iv.-riril Hi i ;; Slate* 

Ford, on the Kappa bannock. Ur April 
BO Hooker hod crossed the Bappannnnock 
With ih- nniln body of the army irn 

llll.llnbed hU li.-.l • I - j 1 1 : . t- J . I - ill I hi 11-. llor«- 

Tllle, -i' v.n miles west or burg 

The Confederate account* snv be then bad 
with him 01,000 men. Lee bad 46.000. 

■iiiing began May 2. tn- Fifth corp* 
advancing on the road to Fredericksburg 
and engaging a Confederate advance. 
The result wa* the recall of Hooker** ad- 

"i and a better portion for tbe Con- 

federates. May 2 Leo dctnclicd "Stone- 
wall" Jackson, with about SB, MB, to 

attack the F.leventh Corps, nml-r (l-ii. t>. 
i). Howard, at tbe Federal rlgut. Tho at- 
tack culminated lu the evening with a 
mule tn the Federal linen, "stoatwali" 
n.-lciun Whu Bottalty sroitBded durlni: lu 
night bv the nre of bla own men, who 
In the dnrkneas mistook him for an enemy. 



! 



Chantilly Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Tin- MSI day. Mar 9, the content waa rc- 
ncarly 11.0110 troops under Lee 

■ made a JuliL'lIua Willi II"' ' 
under Btuart. Jncknou'a liuuicdlitto- i 
■or. It rcaultcd Id g»n. i •i-mt* 

auccea*, Hedirwlek la ttie mcanllm 

Karly 

out of the I i-dcrlckaburg Helgbta. and 

the Confedcrale rear at i 

•.ill. . Lee, having defeated lh" 

greater wing nr Hi.' I .doral army and 

ii It away, reriifur I on the 

4 Hi .>( Mny tho troopa In from nf 
wick. TM llllt.T Wiih pu»li'-.l 

rccroMM i in- rlTjr »t night wiiii n io>* 

.if B, u. Hooker *lso rvernai. i 

.101 Hit III.' lllltllt "f III- Ull. .', 

Hilt tc i i i.niiih ili.'lr lo»« waa 

i." I'.iT. of "I i B.000 irere prisoner*; 

IS rani and SO, nuaketa also f.-n Into 

ii..- linnds of Ho ' I.ec'* lux 

«u about 13.000, In. i be 

battle of i III" *nn |n 

important victory woo ami Hi" - 
cat Alnit:iT > uMnlni-'l liy tho Confederates 

up i" I ual i i. i hoi ii'-i" defeated tbc 

•:iili lull-: i nlon \rn.. '.vlili-h attacked tl 

Inn i tie deuth of I.I. mi i" n. .I'l.'ii km 

a loaa from which It was well nigh Itn- 

POHIM' C >' ' -in' i. 

OhanUlly (Va.). Battle of.— Aug. si, 

III" d.lj lifter 111" hcc.M.I I...I1I" ..f 

Bull linn, or Mnnniwift, Lee sent J" 

northward for Hi "f turning 

I right wlim Coward Washington. 
headquarters were at t'entorvllla 
(in, i ii ■ i, ,1 bi --ii reenforced by Btnnaar'1 
ami Franklin's corps. Anticipating Hi" 
movement ..f i in- Confederal. 
IM- f,,n-i i in position to meet and fruMrnto 
Cbantlfly, juat north of Centervllle, 
<m Hi.- ryei Ins Of Brpt I. tijr the tronp* 
under Mellon II Hooker and Kearny. 

In Hir engage ut lienerala Kearnj 

Btavcn* were killed. Pope enae force 
full back ii|"> ii Hi.- work* m V 

. I ."i«i I' 1 ." 
Chaplain.— A preacher employed for the 
remonlei In the Rcnatc. the House 
nf ReproaentJitlv. », and I" Hi" Amu uml 

Nary. 

Chapultepec (Mexico), Battlo of.— Tb. 

reduction of Kl Molina .'."I B«f and Cnaa 
da Mala by tie". Bcotfa tray lefl tin 

tin of Mnlco Mill proti f.'l" 

I.. citadel .,f Chiiptiltcncc 'I 1> i -» waa 

niled wltn troops nud the approach*! wera 

f warded by mil"-", Bepl 13 I 
Imluary lire »n- opened on ii"- outworka, 
and "o 'In. 12th a slrntcBlc asitaiili 

i I- no. I ill" wnlln nral.'d In th" fnco Of 

a ii-rrli.l" nr". tiip American forca con- 

. of 7.180 men. Bi 28,000 of 

Innn ~ man were distributed be- 
tween Charnbuaoo mid t li .- i Ity of Mexico 
and tlio enunewnya connecting them. Re. 
Chapultepec and the City ..r M 
two causeways or ci. 
road* leading to the gates 0* Ii.'l.-n and Son 

.1 under n ii- 

Bre and Ih" divisions of Worth and 

a oilman entered the ancient acnt of tho 
ontcatitnn--. During the • .- I i 

13 t" It in. ill. -in to Hi" taking of Chapulte- 

JUl il ciip.itlon of the city the 
in. ii.nii loaa wn« 69, 'rii. M.-iliiiii army, 
strongly fortified la the rlrlnl .. ul Itn capi- 
tal numbering at nr-t rome iih.imhi, Nmt 
10,749 Ronla Anna, then l're«ldent nnd 
inder in chief «.f Ihi rfae a 
fugitive. The trophic* It": Hinn 

SO colore and atiindiirO*. "."• pleeea of ord- 
II in".- t.nil "7 v\ .11 .mull 

arm*, and an I n-i ipiauilty ..f iiruinunl- 

tlon. (Sec llluntrntlon opposite 2440.) 



Charleston. 8. C„ foreign vessel's at, re 

forrcd to, 3192. 
Charleaton, S. C. Exposition, relations 

of U. 8. liovcrnmciu to, '■" 
Cbarlc.tton (8. C>. Surrender of. 
Sir Iti'iuj Clinton had karoed of r 

uah be aest aa 
additional I '"io men to the Soma 

iiii.l. -i i , body 

- AmrrU-nn artuv nan In winter niiar- 
reenforcementa 
were aent from there to Join Gen. Lincoln. 
" ii" had 'ommand ol cm army. 

on waa leaa 

000 rec'ilur. uud mllltlu. March 20 

h" Hrltlah aquadruu, bavlc 

in I'.iiie.. Inland, near Savannali. croaied 

bar, and on April 8 pained Fori Mo. I 

trie, with a loaa of J7 men. and 

on, n filch bad I i. ahan- 

<l"ii.il h» the Americana. April 'JO Ad 

hn..t r eltli .Mm marli •! the 

with a loaa of nearly 100 men. who were 
■ .I by Ho- guard boau "ii the way 

larlealnn XI l -. I "HO innrlne . 



t/..rt Moullrl 






12, 1710, <lcn. I.lii'-.'ii ■*»» eompelled t' 
anrrender. 'I lo- Brltlab i-aaoaltlea were 7" 
allied and 189 ' The Anierlena 

Idea were nearly the • 

Included "ll the ninte cltlicna of 

llllldc pi I '■ .' r-.. D • 

plei if ordniinci were .- ipiureil. 

Charleetown, Mass, docks cooBtnicted 

at, 988. 
Site for, 934. 
Charter.— A name ■ applied to 

granu of land or apeelal prlrllegea made 
by goeernment* or IndlTldual rulera t. 
pan lea or bodlea of men for a term of y««ra 

uicrlean law a charter H a v 
gran) from th« noverelgn r>ower rooferrlBg 
' ii- ii t or pi i'. I:. .-■' upon :. muntrlpallty or 
other corporation I feuerally 

applied to the ►tatut. |. I 
artlclet of » latlon aanetuxiol 

nig a corporation, aa a cltv, < ■ 

ipanj bciiei oleni loelety. or 

.-lull liurlni; ill" eiirlj 

arog aoTcr. 
clBnly by i-liflit of dlaroTerjr. :• 

rantlnii land for puipoaea of folookia- 
H"ii 'I'M" principal 

thla purpose were th< /nlola 

Company, IflfM 1600, an-l 1'.I2. I'lvmnvia, 

H ■■" metti : 

Flantai ioti* I". i I . 

Ithml.. Inland and Providence 1 

Th" aame «ort of ch« «l«»o 

to Hi" Dutch v, :., iii.. 

Htatck-Oiicral of the Cnli.-d Netherlakd* 
In 1021 and to the Swedlih Company by 
auataruc Adolphus In in:' 4. 

Charter Oak.— ' ibrated in Aarrf 

leaa legend. According to tradition, to 
1687 Kd round Androa. the colonial gorerBor 
of Connecticut, demanded tho return of tb* 
charter of ii"- Colony During » i"- 
held to deliberate upon the action to b 
taki a th. MkI -My extliup-i: 

\V|,.-li . ■»« 

tabuing. It was ul>i that Copl Wad* 

f tb* 
charter by fcrctlnje Ii in tl"- lioilow of oa 
oak treo near IUrif.i.1 I'h 
ii. ill in great veneration. Aug. SO, 
It waa prom rated by a gal*. 
Coasta Indians, (floo Indian Tribes.) 



Encyclopedic Index 



Chemicals 



Chattanooga (Teor..). Battle of. 

Chauvinism. — An uar.^.-oiaj. cuirgcrated 
ralbwlssaa fur war. iScc Mint • 
Chauvinist. — On* a I ,-.aitm 

Ctxaycnoe Indians, (8w Imlian TribM.) 
Chehali* Reservation. Wash., allotment 

"f laMli rally to Indiana od, 

referred to, i 
Chemicals. — Tba «-brmic*i Indajatry of the 

1 Slates t» bill little mora thin 100 
j»*rs okl. «»<! iibtn fourth aunw£ ilm 

i 
before the HoroPitloo. 

:.■• Was II lUlunl 

■ jiro- 

•| in- mil 
• i.rfci..i.. palate aod ■ lit-tau la 

mfaclnrc. ns such, caa 

II I ho 

'•■■ ••lit wns Introduced, about 

. altbongb 

I. wh i H " - IninKlntTrt 

i * t ■ 

rjr nj* flrinlv 

'iilln.l-l ih ■. 

iilriy llrijis 






Kill) 
1* II 



.1. 



IBfO Igboni 'hi- iiii ,r iu 

TIlH |l«| 

f mi :~% lar'.iiilnl acvlate iidiI nl I r .. » ■ ■ of 
la .ii mi, urn- 
o.-»Ja. ».| .»tc of pi 

tmr>bi>r. copiicr**. 

•alia, 

{■gristle and nllrk- arid*, oil of vitriol, 
-o Mix-. pntt- salt- 

ilhlh-. UrUf illi.'l Ii'. 

|in ml. ..r ■ : 

I for 

• 

c 

. till r" <\ 'i' 

I.IUlii 

nnn. \ — 
VII 
• ala, VII: lu-m- 

iianiva produced by lb) Bid of 

• 
i f ■«» llasttca. 'Ml 

n nsitad (]•••* XI— Plae chemicals, 

k>«io>. noted .ii Hi- in-i 

■ 

n-'li :. 

•enrasirla' 

'.u.tiaarata la I but- ' ".upa 

in. 'I ! In- 

,.:■• ninl "■ 

■alary ninl •■ 

. V* -lit ■ , 

LfBUka): .--In-.. IL'I I IT'" p..: 

lai (i r. ■•! 

Hgsasag aMlerfi>'<. Jl.i ii-nl 

1 :h.- nl. I ..f -I-- 

I . ' 
-.'mi:.: 
&• tVailoal.. »10J»5fl.60a not 

"*»b»ri 
*• ailu. blac vitriol, copperas, >■ 



'I compounds, b\ 

■ 

•mlpburlr oltrl nl mixed ocldi • nl- 

pliurlc ninl ulirlr In rarioua proportion*) 
waa i-arrli-il "ii In I.: arpnnitc . .m'.ii.li 

Hal "T 
f l*.7L'H.l -, V and the output won isliicd 
r»l »■.. vsi Q 

i amenta engaged 

"I ill. (Illation, lei Including i 
tint- ami roaln. i be cblrl . .r imi 

itc "f had. 

i l In 1910 as 

n::.nl7.i'.i-.- i.e.. Hi. n 4. p. .-"-.M were 

i"- bunntaa and their aagca 
and •■• In rl. a umouutcil in 

n. I I In 
..r -I,- priMlu' I 

i,.|ln:i iif Kiilplinrli- nrlil la n 
matter i f I Importance, n-i Ii In 

- ■ 1 1 V III- ; 

• iniiii.nl iii.in-.iri and I-: used for 
- ili-r purport**, but nl«o tin. Iit.ly 

I "i lOal Inip'.ilniil innti'ilnl In tb« 

dyc-Ktllff IliililMlr . |ly In 

ii- production of aUsarlna colors uud of 

ii if'ti't'ir-r of sulphuric arid 

In ibn I'nli.'il :■ :i:> f.i bars been 

John Harrison, of Philadelphia, who. In 

h nl n li-ii'l ' li r capable .if pro 

. " arboye "f acid per 

• 

d J'.iwcta 

tc Wclghtm Ipunrlc sold 

In rini.ii. I;.Im i in, I in.- i.i-nnlic 

I In Ii tnld lo h«\ 

• .ful Hint (In. Hi. ii i-iUilnit N»w 
i-inv m-nl Into llqul- 
tbe fundi i. si . . .1 in. i 
Into n baiikln iow v i ■ i ■ ■ i >■ 

rin. chen 
Miii ■ mannfnctnred in rhlls- 

•Mpiii.i in iv:n i,v carter a Beattcrcood. 
in. "<t ini'iii. mini- In 

Its maimfni-iiiri. I- In the frirm of appa- 
■ i": I"' ''it !■■ ilch l< din- t.. iMv.nnl 

ii. in ,ui. i ii.. ir uuttman. It I- nsed In 

the manul 

nltrnti . dlnni nil rH 

.: "mlxeil noldn"' and uqiis i< jfja, u-nu 

i, nlti'iiKlyi-irliiH, aa no oxydlzoia 

nl .in.i for etching on nut 

siiipiiuii.- .i.i.i r:n.k>. tir.i in importance 

amonu 

■I- -ir in iitni.'l.ii fertlllsera. Paints and 

ulii.-l nf tin- Ii 

try depend 

. i ml the irrowtb 
U no rapid (tint the aklllod arorai 

ira aso won loss to-day. 

ndlns upon 

ill- .in mi. ni in. in-. ii.» are the following: 

i. i-ii and .III. i i cloth, 

■ rtlllsers, 
p. r, in i. explosives, pyroxylin, electrical. 

.1 ■ In. I-, phnn.i.i — nil-, l.iliiilni- i. II ninl 

iiiiur, artificial idling 

ninl i he r-iln. M.ni of raetala. 
'i rclutndlalng of niani lis la 

limnlii I-,, .i I.-,- ...I, i lilt] i peta 

rvlib the Ion- wares of some fm -i.- in 

. i. 'ii ..ii ti ii- i- hand, tbroufb 

l adraulasea nol enjoyed by foreign 

■am mi r ii-i-r. -i-. i-.iimi. iirni. i- exportation of 

doing ■■ii at 

i ■ • manufacture of cbcmlcnla and 

allied h"' 1 -i . the censua .»r miO rsoottg 

2.140 estnlill-hni. •.-■■ employing S8.0&7 per 

Hi in members, 

tvng* • i rled nttendanl - The 

• i.ii hr in- he of 

ih- bualnem muoiiiiled tr. »■!-::. 7."i no 

,n- of the product « urns »«'-\\OH4.R*o. 
Tin; number of establUlnueni. luniiufiic- 



Chemicals Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



turlnjr dye stuffs n ml extracts wn« reported 

■ . lo?, anting .1 capital .if »i" g 

turning out lliil»lii.l priidurls lulu 

f l -..:•.-. i. r.7-l. of which 10,270.024 iraa 

mid. '.I in ilir in...-..- of uinnufai 
More limn (30.000,000 itm lOTeitM In 
making explosives, whlcb was cnrrlod oo In 
I'lKbiy-'li tnctoi fc i tlllaer Indoi 

try Ttim onpiinllxod ni Sllil.o9T.4Sl, ami 
the output of tlic 550 factories nif worth 
flOH,m;u.'.'13. 

Of the 111 o.tiiMli-hmcnts manufacturing 
ifTn mid extract! m chief j.r ...in. i - in 
1914, 23 wcro Ki.ni. .1 In New York, 18 In 
Now Jersey, 17 In Mn-wn.-liui4i.ttx. IS In 
Virginia, y In Pennsylvania. "5 in Itbod* 
Islnliil. il in T. mi. ■...■!■, I in North Carolina. 
4 in \\...t Vlrglnln, 2 In Georgia, '.: In Illi- 
nois. 2 In Wisconsin, and 1 eu.'li In Alubnmu, 
Ciillfurnlu. I'oiui.M tlriit, luillniin mid Michi- 
gan. 

Chemistry, Bnxtiau of, Agriculture De- 
partment. — A liiircuu of tbc aVaWoulturc !►«•- 
p.-irtmcut devoted to tbc Inspection of food* 
■nd drugs Imported or entering Interstate 
commerce. It ma Leu •BtUlU for Mir .1. 
partment, nnd tests supplies for otlier de- 
partments. It a ■ In agricultural 
liacli rlology and physiology. ••►• 

Eiiiliy wlt'i food. drum, waters, paper, 
ntber, foodstuffs, insecticides nnd fungi 
mil met'ods of i Ij I-.. 

bureau especially studios t'ie chemical 
proMcmi of airrlculturc rolntlug to soils, 
fertilizer! and Irrigation win 

T'-e Korean of Chemistry, among Its other 
activities, has studied the composition of 
tin hi. an. 1. or nun. i lu I ii ihI In t - homo anil 
many processes for converting t s c raw ma- 
terials of agriculture Into finished products. 
One baa but to remember Its extended studl* i 
of •nirar, of brond and brcadstuffs. of com, 
morelnl food products, etc.. to roollr.e 
bow closelj i 1 . ncern the homo. 

Th» same could he said of Us studies of 

nnd their prcsorrntlon, nf stornge nnd 
Its relation to quality and of the extended 
activities »Hrt have resulted lu (he 
ii ■ in. -in .,f food standards nnd the carrying 
out of tbo provlstona of the national pure 
food inw. It la t'rough Pis bureau that the 
department administer* the Food and Drug* 

sample* are collected, analyses art* 
conducted, nnd hearings nre held tir fit 
bureau. A compliance with department de- 
cisions Is lecured In many cases without 
resort to the courts. (Sec Agriculture. !>■- 
pnrtment of.) 

Chemulpo, Korea, agreement respecting 

forciRi tilini-iit at, 5891. 

Cherokee Case, — The Indian tribes known 

M the ■ ■ ■ ■ r . . - 1. - ■ " mill tin- ■riii'iok. •■••." polS- 
scsscd lnrgc tenets of land In what I •• now 
tbt States of (Georgia and Nortb Carotins, 
•nd the ti e ih.. west of Ibi nv 

from lime lo lime trc«tl-« had been mode 
wilh these Indians by whlcb much of this 
land hud been ceded to i !>•• United Slates. 
Among these were the '.' rp«W«ll treaty of 
1788 nnd the Ilolston treaty "f 1701 . Hi" 
first of those Instruments hod. among other 
things, recognised Ibo Cherokee* as a na- 
tion possessing Its own Isws and all tbe 
other attrlhnlei of nationality: tbe second 
bud gun niiii. d lo them all lands not tin rtv 

by ceded \\ li-n fl 'gin In 18112 ceded her 

western terrllory to the United States, tbe 
In iter agreed to extinguish Indian titles to 

lands In Ihe stme i >er an aoon as It 

could peaceably and ren»nn»hly be done ; 
but the i aerokaei could not bo Induced to 
surrender their lands. Tho state therefore 
claimed the right to extend Us own laws 
over all lu territory, and passed acta de- 



prlung the Cherokee* of llifjr courts and 
hlnery of government : these »r:> 
follnwed by ails dividing tbe Cherokee land 
Into counties, and after allotting 100 seres 
In each In nil •■! n ' In 

lag for tbe distribution of the remainder 
i>v lot niimng tho people of tho state. 

withstanding the ttvaties. President Jack- 
son took the ground that as the slate was 
sovereign tbc United States could not Inter- 
fi iv The question now came np ' 

the United Mate. Supreme Court In tbe 
following way. A Cherokee named Tassels 
was sentenced to bo banged, under the laws 
of Georgia, for killing another Indian 
Cherokee lands. The I'nl • Su 

p' in- Court granted a writ of error re- 
quiring the state to show cause why the 
■ I.:' -iiniild not go ti> Hi" Cherokee courts. 
This wrtr was disregarded, and the Indian 
was hung. There tbe manor was dropped. 
Again, two mlaslonarlea wi 
entiling (in- Cherokee terrltorv wl 
having compiled with certain re 
demanded by Georgia enact- letting 

these lands. Their case seat carried lo 
the United States Supreme Court on a 
writ of error, and tbo judgment .-: 
einiit held Ihe provisions of our Indian 
treaties as paramount to the state laws. 
Hut tho decision was never onfot 
son Is reported to have .n I 
Mnrxbnll (the Chief Justice i has made bis 
decision; now let him enforce It." 
Cherokee ease la Important n> the ftrvt 
Insianeo of successful nullltlcatlna of '"nit 
ed States laws by a otate. The Indiana 
woro Anally persuaded to movn to the In- 
dian Territory, and by 1838 the last had 
loft tbe state. 
Cherokee Commission: 
Agreement with— 

Cherokee Indians, 5671. 

Chcvenno and Arapahoe Indians, 

C565. 
Comanche, Kiowa, and Apache In- 
diana, 6768. 
Indiana of Pyramid Lake Reserva- 
tion. Nov., 8649. 
Iowa Indians, 6508, 6612. 

Proclaimed, 5591. 
Kickapoo Indiana, 8638, 5649. 
Pawnee Indians, 5768. 
Pottawatomie and Absentee Sbaw- 
ncei Indians, 8514. 
Proclaimed, 5591. 
8ae and Fox Indians, 6503, 6510. 

Proclaimed, 5591. 
Shoshone and Arapahoe Indians, 

5649. 
Tonka w* Indians, 5638, 5649. 
Wichita, Caddo, etc., Indians, me- 
morial regarding. 5671. 
Wichita Indians, 5638,5648. 
Appointed aud discussed, 5481, 5500. 

6508, 5638. 
Lnnds acquired by, opened to Ml 
ment. (Seo Lands, Public, opened.) 
Cherokee Indiana. (See Indian Tribes.) 
Cherokee Outlet: 
Cession of, to United States, agree- 
ments and propositions regarding, 
discussed, 5481, 5638, 5760. 
Claims of Indiana regarding, dis- 
cussed, 5667. 




Encyclopedic Index 



Chicago 



Contractu and l««a«fl for grazing on, 
proclaimed null and void, 5532. 
Time for removal of itoclc ex- 
tended by proclamation, 6534. 
Fraudulent occupation of, discussed, 

[SM 
Opened to settlement by proclama- 
tion, 5838. 
Form of declaration required, 5856. 
Cherokee Strip. (See Cherokee Outlet) 
Cherry Valley (N. Y.), Massacre.— Sot. 
II. 1778. durlug a bllndleg storm of »now 
' rain, about 800 Indiana and Tories 
_.,*lar4 to* force of Colonial troop* tin- 
4er Col. lchalKi.1 AWcn at Cherry Valley 
and massacred 43 persons. Including women 
and children, took some 49 prisoners, burned 
all the bulldlexa. and drote away tbe lire 
stock. 
Chesapeake, The.— June 22. 1807. a* th* 

IT. a. s. CMttapretr was leaving Hampton 
Road*. V*., a lieutenant of tbe British sblp 
J>oa4sd boarded ber awl demanded tbe re- 
turn of three negro deserter* who bad es- 
caped from the British miDolmr Mflnm- 
*>iu and enlisted on the l'A<Mpr«*e. Tbe 
OoTprnmeot bad preTlonsly refused the de- 
mand of tbe British admiral for tbe return 
of th* deserter*. Commodore Barron go- 
enedlogly refused to deliver tbe men. Tbe 
etseer of tbe leopard then returned to bla 
•hip. wblcb Immediately opened Are on the 
CVH*nfei Th* Utter Teasel, being en- 
tirely uoprepnred for bottle, waa forced to 
surrender without nrlng a gun (414). Put 
Meat Jefferson at once Issued a proclams- 
■loa 1410) and ilfnmnil.il a disavowal of 
tbe act. a restoration <.f ih« captured 
mem. and the recall of Admiral Berkeley. 
Only tardy reparation waa made for tbe 
adalr nd It aerred to embitter 

American opinion against the Hrltlab and 
hastened tbe War 0X181*. 

Chesapeake. The, attacked by British 
■hip UoparJ, 4 in, 414, 450, 454, 400. 

Captured by the Shannon. (See illus- 
tration opposite 647. 

Claims of Peter Shackerly growing 
oat of. 1887. 

Indemnity for, demanded, 433, 441. 
Paid, 481. 
Referred to. 463. 
OimpMlM and Delaware Canal Co., 

•hares in, taken by Ualte4 States, 

no, 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal: 

Cession of Government interests in, 
to Maryland considered, 1778. 

Incorporation of, referred to, 852. 

Legislative acts of Virginia respect- 
ing, transmitted. 1037. 

Propriety of constructing, discussed, 

Subscriptions for, commissioners ap- 
pointed to receive, 873. 
Chesapeake Bay, canal from Delaware 
Rircr to. (8ee Chesapeake and Dela- 
ware Ceaal Co.) 
Chssnirnnos Forest Reserve, proclaimed, 

::i4. 
(sWysuuo and Arapahoe Beserv&tion, 
lad. T.: 



Doed for release of lands in, by Choc- 
taws and Chickasaws, discussed, 
5637, 5664, 0781, 
Opened to settlement by proclama- 
tion, 5710. 
Appropriations for, recommended, 
BOSS, 
Unauthorized occupancy of, proclama- 
tion against, 4802. 
Cheyenne Indians. (See Indian Tribes.) 
Chicago: 

Convention nt, on subject of diseases 
of cattle, 4771. 

in. rota-rod to, 4108, 4138. 
Government buildings in, destroyed 
by fire, discussed and recommenda- 
tions regarding, 4108. 
International military encampment 
to be held nt, foreign guests not to 
pay duties on baggage, G 
Memorial of convention at. in re- 
spect to enlarging wntcr communi- 
cation between Mississippi Biver 
and Atlantic Ocean, 3388. 
Proclamation granting privileges of 

other ports to, 2859. 
Unlawful combinations In, proclama- 
tion against, 5031. 
World's Columbian Exposition nt — 
Board of management of Govern- 
ment exhibits designated, 5S33. 
Chinese artisans, admission of, 
temporarily to, recommended, 
5622. 
Military encampment to bo held 

during, discussed, 5458. 
Proclamation regarding opening of, 

Proposition to observe four-hun- 
dredth anniversary of discovery 
of America, discussed, 5487. 

Beforred to, 2040. 

Beporte of — 
Deposited in State Department, 

Discussed and recommendations 
regarding, 5567, 5669, 5765, 
5769, 6184. 
Beiolution of International Ameri- 
can Conference regarding, 77. 
Chicago Fire referred to, 4108, 4138. 
Chicago Flre.-Oct. 8. ». and 10. 1871. the 
City of Chicago. III., was visited by the 
JiMt dlaaatroua (Ire of modern times. Two 
thousand one hundred acres of the city, th« 
greater portion of which was covered by 
costly stores and other bnalneea houses, 
wore burned OTer. The loss wns nearlT 
* Vim 000.000. (Sea Illustration opposite 

4130.) 

Chicago Indian Massacre.— At the out- 
break of the War of 1812 Cnpt. Nathan 
Hrald commanded fifty men at Pnrt Dear- 
born, where now atnnds the city nf Chi' 

eago, Ordered by <i'n, Hull to abandon 
the fort and Join htm at Detroit, rnpi. 
Henld's pa I waylaid lie In.tlnni on 

lag, IS, 18.12. among the sand hills along 
the lake ■bore. Tbe greater part of them. 



Chicago 



and Papers of the Presidents 



and their *ofllp« void to Col. l*roctor, vbu 

llAll < ■ Ti red 11 |,|. a.iiiln for Am. i :■ 

Chicngo, Mllwaukoo and St. Paul Rail- 
way, agreement with Indians lor 

right of way for, 4780, 478*, 

Laml* granted to, for right of vrajr 

"04-4. 
Proclaimed, B 

Chicago Biota, proclamation < 

. - .i. 
Chicago Strike, repori • ■! coma 

on, transmitted, ."•:' 
Chicago, Texas and Mexican Central 

Railway, application of. (or right of 

way aero-- Indian Territory, 
Ohichagof Ialand. I I •>, 6097. 

Chickahomlny (Va.>. Battle of. 

< old ll.-irl.or, Battle of; Gaines ' 

Battle ot' i 
Chlckamauga (Oa.), Battlo of.— Aft«r the 
tin r i !. oi lone Klver, "i Murfri 
Jim. •.'. 1883, i 

rlllc. iiml iln'ii to Pnl iboms, f«nn. June 
1' I Ito .iiauccd from Miirfreesboro 

ami k-raihi I liruvii to .-vai-Ufllc 

1 1 1 1 ■ i ■ i : . i i I'l'iim Itlsvr 

T.. Ull HI -I" 

icrnla tieorcc U. Tbotu- 
««. Ali taudcr Mi I >. McCook, Km] i 
|„ L'rll l. utli-n. 
Itie Cumberland Mountains 
8 the Confederates retired fr-Mii Cbatta 



Chickasaw Indians. (See I ■ d i a n 

Tribi 
Chief Clerk, Department of State.— Tbe 

icr officer aiithu* 1 - 

ot WlKR thai ll-- 

of adil '. I lit Hilary at tint tlin» 

wax Ssim yearly, which hint been 1m . 
Ill It I 

! elork 1- 

crctary of state. 

Wllimc own i| fionj tw 

"fllCf of I i clerk lii 11 arly >Ur* ot 

' " I ■ llurcan 

■ In I87f», 

nllll.- 
ir.itl.ni within tti" • I - - 1 - 

• f ■■ ■ 11 *. prl .lilni. 

unit mall room uruoeat.1 

Chief Magistrate. (Seo President of 
United .States.) 

Chief of Bureau of Insular Affairs. (See 

Insular Affairs, Bureau of.) 
Chief of Engineers. (8*S War Depart- 

■in nt,, heading Engineer Corns; also 

Army.) 

Chief of Ordnance. (Seo War Dcpart- 
t, heading Ordnance Department; 

also Army.) 
Chief of Staff. (See Item under G< 

Staff in article War Dcpartmcn' 
Chlef 8tgnal Officer. (See Signal Corps 

heading under War Dej . 



Chief Signal Officer of Army, printing 

iiivtin; nrrlvnl from Vlrglnln wnli nf rcnnrr «f i 1^1 .iK'.v 

i.,.nr,,r,-..,i,,„w f,,r iM i: ,,v <'i / : port oi, iMiommoaocii, -loot,, 



for Bragg, l!"i<ocrnua con' 
!. .1 li i k army n»ar Lee & <:•■ ■ 
Mill i Irllmtary 

of the Tonucasce. On lta< Sent. 

is tti,- two armies were on opposite aidea 

t.f I'lil.-l.aMM ir.-.i Creek. 
I .' 

D i 80 Uraas'* anus soi ml 

.'iii.niKi. Bragg 1 1" ni Hi-- ■ 

ii. .a ..l in.: army during the nlu'bt, ana on 

the morning oS 1 1 le 

uin ml of mi nfeil ml i til wing, at- 

li ial li li umler '1 h 
■i til battle continued nil Ony without 
nlte rc*Mli*. 'in tin* inornlnu <<( th# — ' •: li 
the Confederal -i 11m attack. 

i ho eenl or -if i in' 
I ; - .-..-.- 1 iv. Me- 
i ....i. - mi. n from Hi.. real ..f i be 

i. rum .if tat battl* fell 

iiii..ii Tlininiix, 'I In . led at 

toasrllle, anil mi Hi.- algal o 
to Chattanooga. The sVd. -i 

In the battle were 1.087 kl I. 

■ ". i.-. I. and 8Mb mlsHlnir: total 16,886, 

■I'll" Confedetate lo»« was ia.000. 

Chlckamauga and Chattanooga National 
Military Park discussed, 657ft 

Chlckamauga Indiana. (Sou Indian 
Tribes.) 

Chickasaw Case.— Throoch Hi- ritorts of 

Northern i pit la organising vlitllance 

..r, ,,'nl ki.l' if free 

colored persons n fuitl- 

llee staves, ■ writ of lull"-*- corpse was 
serves »i the mptnin ni iiw iirijj ohleta- 

sow demanding the ililk.rv nf I 

.v. .mi ii whom h was charged, ii- Intended t" 

H h. On i-vliililtlns ttielr free papers 

the women were liberated. 



Child Labor.— with the Introd 
iiiiii'lilnny which r. i , slight al- 

i.-ii:i..M an,] nil highly skilled operatives 
cemi the employment of chlldrei I 
tori** The Inveotlon of npinuina mac: 

In Krigland and tbe cotton jin In .\i 
■ ferrcS the ii-i.1 ..f ...-.it: 

crowded mllla and abopa ami furtortee, 
unelurers ends 
ally i iank< and 

IrnitthenlOH Ihe cmployu-. 

■■hlldren, uulll the i ;>\vruni<nt caaae to Ihe 
i.-.i-iii'. 

long aco aa 1784 the maglatratnt of 
I mi -:i'-li 11 ■-. Knelnnd. foond It n.'i"««iry U 
paM a resolution lhal ipnrentl 
no l.Mii-i r "work In the night oi nxir» iSm 

il... Sn|i>i-|i:.-nt Ifl^l^H 

lion eiiliMliini.-il In Uio 
lory aiipenUliiii in Knjla nil, which Selaa froas 

II lU.nt of CwBBBBkwi 

Mii.l.r ten, Mini ILoac inn: 
onlr li.' employed hull 
forbidden iiml rlill.hi'ii under alxtrt-.-i 
orrtldemtr* of Attn 
employment, and weol. :(c abowlsc 

a certain amonut of school attor.da. 

In iMiniponn coun tries tii i.iq of 

.■lillil labor la the duty .if tbe . 

out. wlilla In America I 

I In [urlndli lion of the sereral »tm 

of tli.'Hi' slates have I he siiiiio c.sle of laws 

..r celled similar itstlstrea on Hi, 

Child lal...r. ami Its cllKtCDCC ll.lk I. 

i" be > trona erll In i ■ of them 

Kor thin f.a.iii l'i 
nl^ -uih miiiinil mi'x-ni;.. i. 

". II'" ml.. I tin 

lei i bllil laliur law fur Ihe IMitrict of 

Columbia, wbleh si i.i be n guide lo iboee 




F.ncyclopcdic ft 



Child 






•tnlea which wl»nml to leaiautc agah 

...,.: xii. h ;i I iw May 
lulM Dot b»ta< a ■ •■ 

!.-- rti-w !(,«. hail i" " 

• :--nled on account of *£•■ or 

Migration. 

Mta(l«lli-« mllivlod I'V Ihc t-ll.Tl! accrc- 
io»lhilic 

.- yoart 
is.ln.irlo 

...r» <«Udrea. In prop 
■ .ding tehac 
day than . I 

Child Labor I»aw.— The mth ivinrrrraa 

fuiaard. ami PraUnl \VII*»n alimcd, B*ot 
i'. a law .' from 

labor r«r an Ihi 

,.lili« 



i In 
• ha 

Ban. 



I 



D Infr- 
ii with- 

' Ml • ! 

I. or any «r- 
ni mill, 

ia tbt> 



• »ar» h 

i Miuatrd 1 
«liKh will 
■ -n.iTiil nf iiy-li p 
a>»a under it* • hata been 

igiai ark, or i blldrra 

fc»i«-r»o Ik* ar»-« >■< II •••nr» and 14 
k*ie Iim: ■ Ifil lo work 

i boar* Id n»y d 

ur altar ih.- houi 

aa«r ..in. 

ry of 

faO. 

■ ■'. a WAir-l In miik.- an.l pulil ah 

Mil 1 IT III- 

■a* galy , ■ 

■ at any ii in.- nilaca, 
•panlra, aalll*. fm 

-. auanraitnrlii 

in produi 

ty of rarh dlnlrtrt attor- 
• Laboi ahall 
la art, ur I 

rry in- 
■— laatao. r 
, 
■Vf n»raua ahall . fn.-lnry 

nil an-1 
"t lh.« 

.- i,..,. in 
In Ihln 

acvcral 
*k»« i lira. 

who vlolnl- 

■ - 

0a« W punUhcd by ■ line or sot. more ihun 



H00, nml fur ( .i.wqamt to 

anch conviction ' . mora limn 

H.iinii. dor IfM than $100, .-r i 

in. in r..i ■ 

by both au.'l. Hue and linprli mmcnt, . 

'I'll, it do it. il.-i •IimU li<- [iroao. 
I tot iv 
- uhlpmcnl. u 

Eortn hin H guaranty Inui-d 
y Hi' wl Ihi- i; U fhip] 

i red for • 

■ .-.| or produn 'i i" i . 

f.'.-l thai «uch K bl We] p ...I I ..I in. inn 

1 111 V. Mill 

In thlrt.. ii.i... pi lor la Ihetr rem 

.iiiir- ii ii n-t.-r ii. Li iron 

yrara were - n. rallied to work, 

.■...i i h..p, 
lucturlng • I nt, In which 

In ililtiy dayi p 

gocda therefrom do hlldr n mi. i.i ii. 
of fourteen year* were, raiployi I 

DOr children between tho 

Mot fom I >.i \f--u yi 1 1>. inn- 
.1 i.i work man ii 

hum la ihi. .i.iv ..r mora ih, in : .is day* in 

any wwk or after Ihc 

IHiatui- i Ii Inn • i ho hour of idx 

■■hi. If 
ih.- guaranty contain* nuj iii-. ntnti 
of a i n be 

Die to proaecutlnu and bo <li" iin<- or 
1 In I- 1 i nun. ml pi 01 Idl ■! 

. i.hnll 
ic and inl.lr.-. • of ihi- :■ 
nml no producer, mo a 
■ lml ! P.- i.i..:-.-iii.-i| undur 
111H act f"i ih.- •lilpmcnt, -■ r atilp- 

■ ■ I Tl - | ... I- I ., I |. . || , f [| J, |, "III. " .■ 

mln.-, quarry, mill, i annei 

it, If 
■ in, within i 

'III >• p ■ r. Il Of HI Ii I" 

Hi. r. limn, of .1 I, II. I ii.i.|..|- t li.- Dee o( • !-.- 

I ii thai .if ii child u to 

.i- or iiii.M 

cin r .i i 

.. Il i 1.1 I.I NIL I Ii.i- -ill.. III t ....I fnllh 

. upon it ii- 1 ki.pt on ill.- n 

i in sin h foi .ii, ninli r .mil rondl I ton*. 

ami lii ni.ii per kidii -i - m i r I 

■ it the child to In ..I 
■nch an age Hint the ahlpmcot, delivery r..r 
'■"I ■ •• li n ■ 

tbli „,i. 

-in.-, p. r ..ii who knowlncly malm n f.il»» 

■tatemeal or pcacniii falae evldesce to ur 

in an] iuch . i miii. -in i - 1 - 1 1 

..•linlil.' to ■ 

cutlon and lo the ii r Ituprtennincnl 

• 
mi employment cartMeate 01 otner Himiinr 

oj lo Hit- in:.- ..f ih.. child, i- ; I nil 

Bar Ihc Iiiwk of ■ inn I li"l Ii i 

■latent with the provlalona of Ih 

li.-i-.i iiii- -.inn- force aod .-ffevt as a certifi- 
cate herein ptoi 1. 1 . -. I 

Tin- word "i"-r»on*' na nai-d In thli* n-f 

Individual 

'I' 001 pOr ■ I "I 1 ".'■ I'"' III.-HiImT-I Of All-, 

ncrahlp or other unln poi i morla- 

ii. -ii. ' IhJp ur .111 i v, r fur ahlp- 

in. -nt in Interstate ..r fi.relgrn oomm.-n .-" 
n« u«ed In HiU act mennn lo tranaporl ot i" 
■ lup ur ibllvar fur ihlptnenl fruin ony Stnte 
or Territory or iin- Dutrlct .-f Coluiul 
or through any other Btata or Tarrltoi 

the I n '• |. I of "'..Ininl.ln ..r to ■ 

. ; and In tli.- raae of n den lei mi ana 
only ti deliver for 

-ii, or dla- 

In I tun. 

i iiv.'ii B, Uovejoy, rhnlnnan of Ihc Nn- 

tlonai Child Labor Committee, mM o 

law ; "The luw will reach 1SO.O0O, but 






Child 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



there are l.SSO.OOO children In the United fifth with etntlatlc* of the defective, dc- 

M who mini, i poi Ibly he touched by pendent and delinquent clan**. 

n..y federal icghdntlon. These nre werda Chile.-Chlle extende down the weat«ro 

of the varloua Mn.es : the Infant hawker* . „, o.^_.i, »~„,i~« » M ™. .v, oi» s.~. 

of new. and chewing gum on our city .trceta : f""' °„ f *£}* *T.iT/5! ft, ItXl 

the truck garden conacrlnta of 1'cnnaylra- J° c, P e Horn, and I* bounded on the north 

ii it, New Jernoy. Ohio. Colorado, and Mary- by Peru and on 1b- MM I" • BO MrM nn.1 

land; .ho sweating cotton plcltera of Mia- Ai*ontlna. It Uca between ,18* rt-ll> Jl 

claalppl. Oklahoma, and Texaa: the 00.000 South latitude and 60 • SO '-76'j *V Weal 

domeatle aervnula under 10 yrara old who do longitude, wll h n coast line of 2.484 Ballet. 

the menial drudgery in n„r American hnmea ; " "" e ™[™f} b °J J ?*°$, ">' «"• ?" d " , 

anil the pallid caaliglrla In our department average breadth (north of 41 ) of loo 

atorc*," mllca. 

«.<*«• -t. «•». . **. I'hytical Featurtt.—The great chain of 

Child Labor and Labor of Women: tad** rani along it*. *n»tern limit. 
Conprota nakeil to InvcatiratO condl- »'Jh .a general elevation of 4.000 to lo- 
tion «* -ii'-, 000 feet above the IctcI of tho tea: but 
lion or, juoii. , , oun (mmmi,, nualu the height of 18.- 

Chlldren'B Bureau.— The Children"* Bu- ooo feet-. ,n ***™*- *» «■ 

"" -I .he Department of Labor wa, ere... «£«, ^». r %° w .r^elrtiS&t, 1? 

cd by Congreia In 1012 to .nvo.llgntc and „„,.,,•„„ , omh ern extremity. There are no 

I upon all mniinra pertaining to tho river* of greut «lxc. 
welfare of children »ud clilld-llfo among nil 

classes of OUT people, and especially to In Aax* A*D rOrtlaTlo* 

rntlgato tho queatlona of Infant mortality, Aft* Popu- 

Slio birth rate, orphanage. Juvenile court*. Province* English Uuon 

m, danger,.. i. ... •. 'npiuloua, nrcl.i ftq Mils* 1012 

and dlscofed children, employm.'iit and j^mcagua 5.104 135.S5S 

legislation aliening children In the aercral Antofsevu*. ., 4fl,S01 122 IM 

aiate* and tcrrllorlea. The function* of Arauro J,l«8 62,732 

the bureau are thus largely Invcxtlgn.lve. AUrama 30,'»7 6sCs74 

It ha* no power to administer anything or th„.i :|„ 4,340 102,170 

to regulate anything, and t li- . .us Oaulin 6,377 166Je6 

tho bureau itlptilntea that "no ..fllrlni. ..t r;i„i t,.V>3 «M*4 

agent, or representative of *nld burenu Coleliagua JJMO 140476 

over i hji.ctloii of the h.-ad of the Couwpridn 3,311 230.442 

family, enter any tinu need exrm -iv. i.. ,. .••,„,„ 1 „i„, u.oso isj.241 

a family realdc " It la to nerve a« a Cuneo £011 icot.701 

e, run. to which pronto can turn for definite Lluire* 3,067 nuu 

Information regarding; child welfare move- Lliuiiiuihuo. 36.387 118.073 

mrnta. ao that every Individual or orgnnlr.a- Maaallancw. 60,176 

tloti working for children can learn of and Maueoo 3.301 11 

profit f'otu the experience of other*. Maul*. MOO 119.107 

Tbo bureau baa been In active operation Nubl. 3.107 I7IUM6 

alnm Align it. ".;s. 1913. It ha* already O'IKggin.. J.I68 04JM 

pnbll bed, m rol.llili.ii to a brief circular Santiago 4,800 S06.787 

containing the law establishing thn burenu Tncna. 0,248 44.201 

and a atatemrnt of Its scope and plana, a Talea 3.802 is jv. 

nionogrnph entitled "Birth Registration on Toiapari i-.:.'ii nv.ru 

Aid In Protecting the Uvea nod Rights of Valdn-ia S.001 111.2W4 

Ity for Intending the Hog- Valr,ami« 1,774 311.800 

Istratlon Ami ' h pamphlet "Ilaby-Snvlng Ijinter Island, eta 7i -ii 

famnalgn*. What Some Ameiienn t'lll 

art DOlDI to I'tev'tit Inf.int Mitrin Total 204,740 3.60UM 

a monogrnph called "Prena:nl fare" do- ttkMtom.— There ore f.-.„r dli 

algncj for hrusc of the expectant mother m ent* In the racial dlelab sp»o- 

Tho publication!! thus far l«ued have nil , K|| „„;„, „,„, lhll Ian!*: the 

In Hi., field "f the work to promote | n ,il K -o.,n« Auramnlan Indiana, I'uecUnt, 

child health, mlor pampblctj on (be rare otlll f nn „ K „* : mixed 8panl«h Indiana; 

Ulreti nrc In the course of niepaiatlon ropean lmmlgrnnta. The latter wore 

and the result* of an Inveallgailon Into tbo ,,.„,, ,,, ,„ l01 o t ,_ oo.noo Spaniard*. 

aoclnl cnuica of Infant mortally ■ In John*- ,, ,:,,„. n Oermati«. 10.000 Bril- 

lows, I'n., will toon be published. The lntl onil jo.000 l ■ r.-n. h. Bpanlab l« the 

bureau experts to follow It wllb renorta of inngunge of the country, and the State re- 

i!"' reaul.a of r sltnllnr Investlgatlona Ue ,, in ,. Urtw „ tl ,■„., 

In typical cltle* nod rural district* to bo J7«jfnri».- It wot Invaded bv the St*d- 

conducted In the future. |,|, under Altnacro In 1R3S, and wa* fir*. 

i h. bureau ha* not a* yet. published any- settled by Valdlrla at Santiago. In IB4I. 

thing on the employment of children, but It Independence wa* proclaimed in 

ha- In the rourte of preparation a thorougli though the laat atrougbold of the 

dlee*t of all the state law* on child labor. innl* wa* not taken until 1820. After 

It propose* lo undertake In Hi" near ftltnre gaining lis Independence Chile made . 

an InvrKtlgntlon of tbo metho.i 'onqueata In Patagonia nnd tint 

bv the irveral ItAtea In the ndmtnlatratlon country was (Inallr divided between Cblle 

and . I of these law*. nnd Argentina, with the Ande* *s the 

A handbook of lretleral statistic* of eh II- bonndarr. War* wlrh 1'erti and Rnllvla 

dren I* also being prepared, li win be nub- from I«70-18M extended the northern 

ll-h-'d In live sertlont or pnru. the first boundaries, Chile haa enjoyed greater 

dealing with tho number of children In the tranqrllltr. I'°th Internal and en, 

country and their »ex. race, nn'lvltv. pnr- than the malorltv of South American l.e- 

entage nnd geogrnnhlc dliirlliiitlon : the sec- public*, hut In Ifltl'i the ooh-t was li 

ond with Ihi li of the child ponula- ropted by n elnlen. dispute with Argen- 

Hon Including the mteallon* of the birth Una over the »lxo and nrmnment of their 

re'e and Infant ninrinlltv • i !•-• third with respeetire pnvlea, The dispute wat a*'**- 

llllt»r«ev nnd school attendance: tbe fourth faetnrllv vettled In 1008 by treaty. <8ee 

with the employment of children, and tbe Argentina.) 



Encyclopedic Index 



Chile 



<JOT»'ismcnr — The <~VnMltotloo resta 04 

the fuodanxntnl law of Mar 24, 1*33. snd 

-t of a democratic Kepublle. The 

lWO-Ul. 1- far tbe not (table In 80Mb 
Amrrk*. The President la elected by Hi- 
nt* year*, tb* elretluu he- 
ld on Jus* 28 mid tb* Itmtig 
00 fu-puaiorr IS. tb* anniversary of tb* 
• ndeoe* < I81f|. The 
>le for 1, 
term of office, and receive* • 

-•On and an aUo .'.'.'.'»»,. 

Pre ■ rroa Lnce 

•uuranl o3» 1 

- l~ a Council of Stain of eleven 
members (Bvc appointed hy the rrealdvnt 
and alt cbo*-n by Congress. 

.-.•rcsa consists of n 
Scaur, iiaanber of Ixputse*. The 

tj seven BicmW. 

Cabin of III.- ■ "horol. 
.if the |>eoplc ( 

lypwtUa nf ins 

.'•a per 20.000 lahabltaata of 

uj.ni. with a minimum fraction 

r| rote for tbrc* 

S There l« • nlrers.il adolt male anf- 

re •' iw. uty-oue for la-sac who can road 
strife. 

a High Conrt of .Insilc* nt 
Ranilago iwith a Presides! elected »n- 
■ 11 nil r Appeal at «'• 

et««. Hanthieo. Serena, 'I' 

:.ir*Iso. There n 

untry 
'mate to the lll<h 
< . • . ■ i>a capital. 

- mces nr- DT Im.'ii- 

ieatea tuadcr whom 

tlepsMaietita of c-,ch i "•! for Hi* 

Mat- iitorr. The oa un .. - 1 ] . i> n • I ■ - • 

etrettd triennial connriK 
TbcpslSfe are a nntlnml f-- -d by 

tie 'I 

ara>« — By Uar or I0O0 all able bodied 
anw rliUma froaa IHlb 1 • 

slllltla. Tor the 
' ArmW* of the World : 
tar aa>y see Navies of tbe World. 

frfcaara education 1> free, but I- BOl 

i bjaV iiiT. and rtadlug and willing are 

tv imI'.oi ' male suffrage. 

:■ Ml prtt-irr ..I 

•&dar>ce of 1C9.T44. 

and a Romnn 

lagrt. The Xn. 

-ary at the capital contain* 155.- 

e»«.'«rjio« amit l*:lutlr V . — Agrlen: 
•*0 Dining arc the ptlnelj.il oreitp»ll..na 
• people. 1 t enjoy* a 

■■toil* ralofr.ll, and wheal malic, bar 
-.i". bean*. to* 

aara*. ««. 1.. pepper, ami p 

••*• ire crown - 'he vine and 

U Ctaapean rni nrt»n. In the 

I Hi.. 
■ansa are oiv.T'd with 
■larra! wealth 1- c. ■-. tho 

1 aad auiue rich fid 1 hern 

[natal north yields 
eapeclnlly nlir.i la. Iodine 

^,1.1 and allvrr, n 

.; boll] being In 

„ w*rk Id Tarnpaea, Ounnnco. and 

Shall In Alscarnv and rnrncot'a In An- 

per and silver; 

■rno and ' 
[***» are •ir.eltluc work* for copp'r 
I otter, tanncrtc*. corn and anw 1 
aaap. biscuit, rope, cloth, ebreae. 
1 oil paper factories, 
.tie*, and tbe domestic 
•try firnlsbes cloth, embroideries. 
1 < ry. 



TrOHeporturion nnd Communlraffca.— In 

1011 there wctc 3.604 Kngllsa mile* of 

lal.wny open and working, and 1,8! 8 under 

cunairiictlou. In April, itllp. the trana- 

.n Una win i-oiupivte, thua connecting 

Valparaiso with Bncnoa Aires. A luugi- 

Iwaj of 050 mllea from loulque 

D 'i 11 nwih, 1.1 connect with the southern 

ncta, U now under conatructlou by 

two btiilxh ayudu-ntr*. A line from ArPa 

lo l.a I..- 1 1. . , v 1 a 1 was opened In 1912. 

1 d :'.i|i> tin •!■• artM 1.000 poat offlcea 

Tnere were alao 1.400 telegraph 1 

land four wlrelcm nlatlons). with 21.050. 

mllea of wire. Telephones are highly efll- 

clcnt and Rcnernl. 

I "• m«rlne In 1011 consisted 

of Q* (11 1,887 tonal and 41 sail- 

• ■ sscls. (30.331 tons), a total 01 
teasels rx ms each (lhl.- 

-I- IOOII 'I'li.-r,. nt-.- t.n lines of (train- 
er* em the Chilian ronta to Kurope. the 

total number of t..-.-i« entered 1 iilil.ni 

In UHO bvlns ll.ts'J in,. 
t«.ti * 1 . 

7'oiras.— Tin- pilurlpal port l« Valparaiso. 
01 bH 1 ports .tr.. Arl-n Iquliiue, I 

Autofacaota In tne north: Onldern nnd Co- 
qui mho In -.- : and Talcab 

ptlon and Valdltla In I li- south I'he 
capital 1* Santiago, In the centre of tli- 
ry ..n a plntenn amidst maeo 

' 355,- 
oiin. (itiier town are: Valparaiso, I'oncep 
clf.n. Iquloti'-. laloa. (Tilllau. Autofagosta. 
VI fin del Mar. and 

•it..- anil of ralue l< the (old p.-so, equal 
to SO.SOa Halted Sintea money. 

Til'lr with tht I nr I lie TSltle 

of merchandise Imported Into fhlle from 
the rnltod Statea for tbe year 1013 was 

Sltl.07rt.7rV3. nnd gnoda to lk< vnlne of $0- , 
:.:»,«J0 were sent thither— n balance of 
* 11. .'.78.(1,'. 7 In favor ca fS 

Chile: 

American tmllnr. OB * lie Raltlmnr' a*. 

aatiltcil nt Valpnraiso. (Sco fln'fi- 

morr, Thci.) 

American seamen impressed liy, 2772. 

BOSI 1 «tion with Argentine 

'il .lie, ,629, 6323, 6303. 
Church of the Comjiafiia at Snntiago, 

destroy crl by fire. : 
Claims of, npaini't United States eon 
on to settle, ih eiisacd, 5S02, 
6956, 601 
Claims r.f United Btat« mrninst, 1591, 
2051, 219 i, 

(800 *l»o Baltimore , The.) 
Agreement regarding, wf«rr«d to, 

Award of arbiter. King of Belgium, 

rtfomd to, 3381. 

Commission to scttlo. discussed, 

5867, 5956, 605S, 6887. 6366. 
Convention providing for adjust- 
ment of, br arbiter, 3064. 
Payment of, HI Hi, 8485, 4289. 
Protocol relative to, trnnsmitted, 

4214. 
Provision made for, 2051. 
Consul of, to United States, exequa- 
tur to, rovokoil, 3625. 
Consulnr convention with, 2057. 
Controversy with Bolivia referred 
to, 3410. 



Chile 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Copyright privilege extended by 
pioettmanoOi 01*5. 

Foe.; : i mill i. convention with, 

for surrender of, 2912. 
Independence of, asserted, 613. 
Minister of, to I'mi,.! State, rnoop- 

tion of. referred to, 4522. 5416. 
Minister of United states in. 821. 

Anion of, i" B&rbortnfl .- runnels 

■ I awiq, 5867. 

Naval fore* of United States on 

shores of, 875. 
Procoods of cargo by tho it aertlvn in 
seized in Peru bv authorities of, 
3015. 
Award of arbiter referred tn, 3381. 

< - .i 11 v.-ri t ion rmudiagi 8084 

BalaUoHI Of, ifii lVru referred to, 

4662, 4673. 
Specie payments, rc-umptiun of, by, 

discussed. 808ft 
Treatv wit li. transmitted and 
cussed, 1158, llti'.i. 1246, 1200, 127u, 
2912, 8967. 
Vessels of, discriminntiiiL' duties on, 
suspended bv proclamation, 2612. 
Referred to. 2618. 
Vessels of United Stntcs seized or 
(.•red with bv. 1882, 2051, 
2116. 2193, 3445, 488ft (BM also 
QooA amiimi. Til 
War in. ami policy of I'niti"! states 
respecting, discussed. 5618. 
ire ,,i tu Itala by tht ; 
Stntes for violation of neutrality 
lawl dim (See also 

ButHmon, Tho.) 
War with Bolivia and Pern, 5422, 
|-,ii.:, (688 4717. 
CHaima of Onited stub • an-niir 
..ul of, discussed, 41113, 
.-..169, ".VII. 
Conditions of peace presented by 

Chile, "Ki2, 4717, 4760. 
Efforts of United States to bring 
about peace, 4522, 4563, 4582, 
MSB, 4717. 

Negotiations for restoration of 

peace, 4676. 
Terminated. 4822. 
Treaty of peaco discussed, 4760. 
Chile, Treaties with.— Muy lit. IMS, a 

convention of peine, ninliy, commerce nnil 
n.i . ii'iill'.n vt'iia ci. ii. -In. led with L'hlle. nnd 

Imad by Pre Id nl Jai I aw April SB, 
IM4 It lueluded the most favoredns. 
iion oUaae. end provided tor freedom of 
commerce and nnTiirnilon. reelprocsl privi- 
leges In business arrnlrs, luilerniilly for 

Teasels of eiiiier country detained in tho 

• r. n m vlinn f..r v I- din- 

■bled by storm or pursued i.y enemies, spe- 
cial protection mnl religious fi iloi 

Cltlscns; denned .-. ■nhnnd it Is, nnd 

prescribed rnles for tmdlnir piliii... ■ of 

neutrals, visitation and search <'f vnasels, 

Rschang* of eonsnli 

nrorlilcd for. An additional con en 

WTM coucluded Sept. 1. 1833. extend- 



ing i hi- prielleajM of the niuat favored- 

lomtila, 

the tide.. ul,, i, .,j iVuir.il America, and tbe 

l . i . . s 1 1 . • Bw de la Plata, ami Iti- 

New Granada. Venesuela. Keaador, ntd 

from II 

I 19, TO*!? 

iSiO, on notice 

glYl u i. 

' the artd- 

trul..ii of the cl.Mrir i 

Ionian, 

...n :. ii. I I. irn rnnBa- 

coieil l.. ..I. i r .. r me ml of tbe 

I was 

:iiel rendered IiIm nw-jrd 

In favor o .maava 

to the extent ..f I ii mn .»la«. 

The, :ii i ::'»J7.> 

A i: c» screed 

to In 1W2 tij- which all I'nl 
(■■iin havltiif •elulins aitiilnst Chile might 

nl in. n- to * -i ■ 
slon. The commission provided for In thU 
treaty annul.-, I :.'■ In fnvoe of 

n cltlxeaa. (we /i 

An wsa 

proclaimed 
I'liilma protoe.,1 of 18II7 awarded the belrs 

i.f I'nlrl.-lc Slilel.l lafM. 

In lvi, H conn ntlon ■ ie »gt< 
riving the general elalma eomtnltaloa. 

Till* .-olliln !• doll adjourned .lime IM, 

innrdlnir t'JH.Oti'J -.■-•libotit Im. 

i In favor of the t'nltnl 8tnt.-«, and 

JS (Old, »lll.. en 
Aii extradition treaty wa* eoncladit 
in looa. 

("lillc Bl*n licenme n i be rnnrea- 

ii. .i> batwten tha United States and • 

repulillrn of Smith .-llld IVlllrnl Ai 
Ihe arbltra' mlary claims and the 

ii.. ii .if In ■ » t« 

.1 in Itiir-nna Aln»s In l!«1fl and 
elnlnied In Wi.hlngton Jul] 20 II I (Re» 
South and Central America. Treat lea a 

China.— f'hi mi Proper for the righi»ea 

Provinces) occupies Ihe southeastaet 

ncr of the continent of Asia, and covers 

about one-third ol the total srei of I'hJaa. 

I i northern boundary Is marl;. 

i ;r..ii Wall ..f iiiin.-i. n ramp n 

orlgltinllv reinforced with bricks an i 

onry. aome 12 to --■ .'--.-i 

miles In extent, srlth numcrotM gates, 

man) of which nre now ie stian- 

doned ThlK barrlel 

third II. C. as a defer 

Ihe Moinrola of tho north, and r. 

from -iiiiin.- Ii.il-kivan on the i-ast coast 

(Uulf ••' fliili in In lon». l* 

kcatnn In the '••• t Ills K.), It I 

ii In many places nnd the t'"hlne«e 

h:i \ .- I hi in-. ' • -•". .id-. .Ill"' I 

northeastern edge. In Ihe provlnci 

1L The eastern boundary U Ihe Ciiloa 
8ea, Mini .hi Ihe auulli Hie l.ind frontier •! 
in. .ii-. »iih I'r. n. ii liid.-iiiioa and 
the Shun Stnt.« of II 

P ':■•':: \U\\- 

i n In.! in, i ii., i mill .[»n. 

//(</...-.. i lllneie elvlll.' 

eat In tho world, nnd Ha B" 1 

noon th.it ..f the family, remulnml uar 

• d in li. r....( id. -ii urn i the revela- 
tion of 11)1 1 rn t, '•'■■ ■• hi h the mil. 
..r ill.- I inp. roi "f tbe »« 

I . nil. : :. ■! 

f..rin .it fi.v.crini. in I ..r 

years the Bm| r n is Ihe supreme b*ad 

of 111,' State, leL-l-ln!:i ■ I • I'dlel II 

l.'rx mall. In i Ie- 

. the Mini: Dynasty was overcoaie 



Encyclopedic Index 



China 



lb*- 






liv tlw M-tOrtlila ff-ni III'- vxlh. Kill kit* 
t...« l--.-ou»e altuoHi eatlrriy »l™oro*d by 
rred nice. Toe eor. , . 

aolomcy 
i*-Siu'*, b-at for many year* ibe 
■-* hud b».-mu» Ihr power iu the 

ni but 

■ proTincUl am] 
rattan. 

Go-Teranirnf - '.! Initi- 

aled i>r promlfed !n th- tail lew »i->r> of 
Ik- Imperial rule, and an ex*. 
>n .1 -nled, wbllc a legl-daturc 

m promt- l A i ih» eta** 01 tie year 
191 1 ibe party of reform fom-d lb* In 
■rrial d/naaty to a -voluntary" »!■< 
tloa. ana a He-public «*• proclaimed. ■ 
wit ' T all lli» Pow- 

er, on Oct. r. 

ShK.lil born lS.".r>. elected prov|.|..nally 
let. «. 1II1S ' for 

• ■ar»i. and foraaally Inaugurata-. 

V national onatm-Wy wbk i 
i kioIhh, and a Hon 
Uvprc-M-amtlve* of :•<"'• meinbe-ri i:*-.b 
proline* waa -re-pM-aenlcd Is tin 

In Iv-oei ' oonell of State 

|.i -I..I t .1 of 

' m.ni. anil Yuan rvloctantly accepted 
lb- rMWD. .March 25. lulrt. China again 

• a rtfrabDr. with "iimn Shih-kal n« 

8. and wa« buc- 
■ramSed by LI Yuno-Miejr. 

/••K'iuif Rr-lalient.- Foreign relation* 
wilt .iiiinluDH bail- ■ ■ 

for amaay ceoturlea. In in* thirteenth ceo- 
lory tbe Vrell.iTi no" 

*nt Peking i. and w-aa employed b< 

mperor Kablal Kban a» advl.er. 
• itb century Jetmlt mlaalon- 
bad attali 
Tti* Dut.h and 1'iirlugww trader* hud f"r 
r^-ninrlc. -maintained commercial d*:illag* 
wllb tb* i n too. bat toward tbe 

.mi of Ibc mry Ibrj 

i-.r-.lv replaced 

Company. A treaty wa* firncd al 
king- In 1«- 

Britain aad ot- porta to foreign 

trad* boii realoence 

• Ioq of ibc war betweea 
Banla *r : .a Treaty and 

Additional Agree-menl -Haling to 
cherla wcr» entercl ■■ "*o Japan 

and Cblt>». April IS, 1011. 
with crt-iln International groupi of rlonn- 

inploj i»d In 
- for the null 
n cy on a allver Ian* I*. 
Th* continued exelsflvnurwa of the Chi- 
I by a loot dial" of 

• in i»ip war of fano. »hm ItrMMi 
ami French troop* i P blag. Ill 

-.■bt a alaaairona war with 

Jnp.in : ;■-■ In the loa* of Forrooaa 

ami ■ i Of Korea a* an Iti- 

d*v*nd*nt atnte. An abortive atinupt wa* 

baiIi', lii IS!>K by tin.- KmpcroT t.. Intro- 

: '-forme, but bla reoc- 

nnrr talnUlera peraiiadad the Dowager 

tprraa Ibla annti In raaaannia lb* r.-lin 

1'nder ber role b plot aii* 

r.ii.-lKii' ■" : 

and in ' Iho (.ricatlon* 

I ni; and tbe forelpi aeltl*ment« In 

. attncknl nnd li"i" 

bardfl f"r n in] w»*k«. Th* altiiatlon 

»■«« r*lleved at Pal innment 

f no a!ll*d nrmv ilaapn 

-■-.rly all the Treaty Pow*n«. and 

nd rvkiiig- «-r.- captiired. 1TW 

led III S"l 

tialnry »»lle nail! enrlr In IIMCJ Mini 
whlk-. a r acol win alirned ba. 

lw»*n tbe Knvoy* of Ibe Treaty Powtra 



n 



and 'b* Chlne»e Plcnlpot/mtlurl' rrim-i- 
mill tin- in-.- l.i linn i in 

!inlly of $'J .'ii.iiiiii.imii 
■ I-- [.iilcl « li h in 1 1 1 1 r t . inn,- ; i-. Hub 

"I Mgotlntlou* rraolted In 

i' ml trratir* — lii-twi.n Ibi I nil d 
: in and fnlna I 
ed Siatea ami < blna (Oct. 8, 10O3i : ond 
Japan ond i blna (0 t. 0, 1003). I ud*r Ibw 
two In.i Miikil-n, Tataaitaar, Obnnc-aba. 
and Antiinc In Mancburlo, were made 
Tr*aly porla. 

lmtllii: llli' Knr .pi'lili r..ir of 1914 

Heruaana out of Klnu rb-m. 
nnd later made ■ atrle* iif dVtnanda on 
■ 'lilnn. wblcb praetleally amonutrd to a 

'I'ln- M.i-.i- i'.'uii- ii bald ■ m lal ■ 
ni Pakln, Marrb J 1 -, md, .i-;lnc a» l'nriln 
mini, reorinded all nionarvhlul l*glalallon, 
realored all lb* Uwm of |b« Bapabllc «' 

i by tin' mon.ir. liml movement, nn.l 

tb*H BdJOIll ll.'l pi'l illilll.-llllj. 

Thua Maa alvn i M evldrnc* of an 

error* mode by I'arllnin.-iii 
In urging a monarcby upon the I'mildrnt, 

Ibllowlac (Oiuptiara tbe Hat of Jap 
an*ac deinnnd* upon China. »o fin a* tin ■>■ 
have been made pul.lk-. At koat on* 
dance ba* been auppr<-»*d. Thl« rvprv 
**ota tb* demand* after r*vlalon, 

. hi Inelndla ira ilraatlc 

fenti.i i Hie right to propa- 

gat* llniUlhl.ai In China. 

Cfoiip I.— Trauafer eu Dip let* to Jupnn of 

111* Ovrmau I. pon Kincbow; a pledge 

in.i in .iii.ii.iie any of tbe territory of 
sh inning province: content to 
rallnny Joining Klnucbow with CotfOO 01 
l.unckow ; Ibe - uln Ireaty 

port* In HhiintiiiiK. t" I I.'il-il later. 

tiroup m of the Pon Arunf 

leB-e to nlii'-i. V'-iu.. . : i.-l 

Mini travel and lb* right to leo»e 

or own land or work mlnlni.- ennei 

In Soin n M.iii.liiirln od Ka-i Mongolia : tb* 

.! or the Japnneae Cv.-r niiniit 10 b* 

grouting any rallronil on- 

"«. bom o I in- 

taxe*. or appointing any advlwr* In fbiolb 
Manchuria and Knal Munrolln ; a nlm-iv 
iilin-...-ar li-a>e of Ibc Klrlti-cbangcbun 
Kiillway. 

Uronp III. — The Ilanyehplu* Cotopaay 
trlir larsr**" 1 mlnloa and aleel lunklng com. 
pany In Cblni t.-. be mad* ■ Joint roncern 
of ih.' t'.vn nonOlia, iiinl BOO* of lta prop- 
erty or right* to he nil- mil .-.1 without the 

■ -Mi Df Japan; tb* company in be 

given a monopoly oner nil mlnei In It* 
nrlgbborhiHirl. iTbla compnny own* Ibe 
a-l*el work" around llangcbow.) 

>nn Pi •." latand, port or barimr on 
'bfneae eonat to be ceiled or leafed to 
nny foreign power. 

Group V. Inn amended!.— In tlmea of 

i in Chin-He liiiTeriinii'iil Khull 

apimlni ' many Jnpnne ■• adi la 

era," Japaneav aball nava tbe rtibl lo renl 

or lea«o lamia In the Interim 01 ■ lilnn for 

bocpltala. cburelie* and arbuola. 

The pnlli-e of Itiiportnnt place* In China 
to employ Jaiinnenc advNeri for the pur 
no** of orgnnizlng and Imnrevlng lb* 
Ice. China aball aend to Jnpan a com 
ni lo arrange fur tbe pnrebna* of mu 
nlilon* of wnr nnd for Ibe ndmlulftrailon 
..f .'iiiiii--.' -i-i'inii. 

I limit agree to pennll Japan to 
Imll.l ■ rnllwny connecting Wuchang with 
Kluklang and Nam-hang, alao I Una ba. 
iiteeu \;in.liiiiig and Chlo.nliim. No for- 

-I-.M1 ' ni il i mploy.'d In ill" Provlm-e 

IcleD will t Japan*** eotiaanl 

Japan lain "iilnlri'w Uronp V and China 
tmbmlttcd to the otbt-ra by a treaty algned 
May 26. 1916. 



China 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



UU ASD rOFl'LATlOS or TUB IMriKB 

Am Efttmnied 

Temlonoa and f "npiul. English 1'oj.u- 

Sq. Mil- lati 

China. Proper (Feajng). ■ i..v)imio<02.ooojOOO 

Manrhuna'Mu,.! i. (110.01)0 11.000.000 

.!.« (I NIB) 1 .07 II 3,000,1100 

1,1.-1 i Limit I 73(1,1100 B.' 

EaaUm Turkc.lju.il ".in, -l.ii COO.OOO 2.000.000 

Toul. Chin* i.M.ooOrOOP 

liartt and Religion:— Tho prevailing 
r»<* in China I- "f Mongolian origin, but 

there a re msay racei Is tloa i" ' i'iil 

no*e" In the ahorlKlnnl Loloc, Mlnotae. 
I kin n. Ilnkk.i ami HoklOB. Th* Miincbu*. 

who ruled China I about th- middle of 

ihe feveotri'iith century, uitln.iu-ii number- 

Blj fr.ini i.ikiii, in 5.OOO.I.I00, nre 

Mongola froBi Eaatero Tartary, whose su- 

,., |or mllltarj 01 di d i h» 

ii dominate the lew a lines*. 

In :i, I, lil Inn t>, Id-' I'lilii."' In the BbOTC. 

nil .I terrltorlea, whom ■. nre 

vorlou ly "Mlmulcd ni 8.10.000,000 to 4'.o,. 

Oilu.OOO, there Bre Bonn- 10,000,0 i . 

in v : 1 1 1 ■ • • i " quarter* 'if 'in- globe, particu- 
lars- In Hi.' Malay I ■ ■ i.l ii kii l.-i. North and 
South Amnion, and I I 

The principal religions art TiOlsn nod 

niiddhiKin, nMi.-h fetes Brown op rtdi bj 

Bide .in..' ihe first century of the I 
ii.ni . r:i. nntil iiu' older tiilth, i<> which be 
dale can be assigned, l« dinnnti i.. dim In- 
gulab from the monger. CunfticlniiUm U 

100 viler. il n plil|.».iplir I" I..' [.'Mil... I 'l 

religion in. i ii hai no -■-:.. i . l ■ i or in ,. »i» 
Muluiiiiniintnnlsm was Introduced In 1 1 • -• 

ii fi-nlurjr of the ClirUtlnn era ami l< 

. ii to limn -,,„i,. iio.ooo, i bi 

ents. ChrUttnnliy bai made llttl* 

■Ithongh !(■ minion i i. ,'i'H 

protected Blue* IStlo. Tin' lolnl number 
of convert a doc* nil pgreeil 1 ...hh.imhi, or 
whom over 1.000.000 an Knmnn embolics. 

CHIMA PRoPM. AKB» UO r.'i'i I.AT10H 

Ami ,n I imiutod 

Provided 

8q Mil,.. ImIod. 

Chrhlang. ■'■'.. JOO 20.000.COO 

ChiMi 120,300 2a.000.OU0 

I 111 , n -1 ; - . .-.' .< i 22.ikmi.ooo 

Hunan 07.000 IM .000.000 

Huniui 77,300 22,000,000 

Hupeh 7S.M0 33,000.000 

K .; .. I L-.,:,(HI lO.OtKI.IKM) 

KiBBciL <W,OI!0 20,000,000 

KUnam 38.600 27,000,000 

Kwarupn 84,000 fl.000.O00 

Kwanetm..: •' ': '■"" HO.IMHI.OOO 

Kweiehon oi.ikh) O.OOO.ooo 

Nganhul 03.200 21.000.000 

Shanm . 80,000 10,000.000 

Hhaniung.... ftn.ooi) lt.ikih.ihk) 

Bhenal 77.00(1 ii.ikki.oiio 

Baeobuan 170.000 0S.000.O00 

Yunnan. , 132.000 10,000,000 

Toul 1,601,000 402.0O0.0O0 

Army. — The Innd toreet cannot fej I"' 
ri-Knrdcd na cnpatilo of offen-Ov" nrarfAri 

or of withstanding, trnloed Bnropean ..r 
jnnnneHe troops, Rnercetlo meaaun of 

reform olin principally ni (Bet Annie* 
..f 111.. World.) 

Novff. — Tin- Nnvr tin' not rccoTcred from 
Hi.- effects of Hi" cnlno-Japnness war, when 
more limn ten ImportUH war rsMCll were 
aunk or cantured. 

ProdacKOB and intiuttiy.— Ttie Rich 

Province* ore e»entlnllv nerlciilMiril, tlv 
Innd helm; held on freehold tenure with a 

•mnll niinnnl nrcrD BI mi. Th" rlrh- 

eit Bone Ilea between 31' and 27* JJ., 



and Inn fwo rainy and Iwo dry aenaon*, 

1 1,.- i Ipal ' ro| < bcuai ii" i 

ly lax river ralleya, aud lea, «4lk. wheat, 
col ion, icunr. Th* northern 

'i, .in. So" N '. prodorua wkteat. bar- 
Icy, mnlxe, pens •■: the onthern 

Ha trontea 
mate, pmdi "Hon, |i«mh»», 

irrouud nun. sweei ; yama, and 

rice, " Mi. ■;>' ariiw-n. 

Tea I "i r«-ry 

largely expi land to ftaaala aad 

i"lii"h ni".. ili nearly flre-«lxtha of 
i In. . ipurlm, and •>•.■ 
loin, Hong IC.ii 
aud ' .-en crown 

for ceniurlea, and abool half the prodoce 

l« loenll) lll.xorl'.-d, 111 

to about 2'" 

ly eri'i'ii und nboul one third ..f Hi- 

I • Mipply l« derived from t'hloa, 

.-.-.. ii nn.iii hi.- ara "-"d Id bom* 

mannfacl un I 'i 1ml 

Iwo, la aupplled from the foruata of tb» 

i n n Dtalna. 

i i- ' ni in large qaatitltlei in lb* 

I n nun n. and all- 
v-r. lead. Iron, I 

'.'. hlle 

in viiiiii.m iron ore i- abui .1 

Peine loenlly nl'.orln'd. and tin la produewl 

;...i 1. The 1 Ml ll<-lil 1 ! 

,- ..1 In : eonnl -y n 

: Ii ilc. I..: 
and petroleum are pleiiiifnl. and the latter 
la no 

/.-in/ . ,; ., Mhiiii 0,000 iiiii^i w.-re open 
In 1012, ln.ln-.lve '.f tlie Itnn.-hnrljn llrM-a, 
•. till.- 2,200 mllea diun are 
Moo. 

III.- nmonnt of (tie Chlneae debt out- 
line at the end "f 1012 exclndle 
■ iin.l provincial losu* la rougbit 

mated ni Jmo.im 1 

The nnii la the yuaai, K\atl lo 

[ilit.nl 111! ecnlM I 

' 1 -Manchnrla Ilea Ii 
north of I'hlnri Proper. b..|ween 3J) , ..\ 

1:., Ira norlhi 1 1 1 nindary 
Ihe Amur River, wlih the coaat 
nee of lln-i-.ln nnd the Jepaueae de- 
j."ii.l"iii'y of Korea mi Hi- eBat, ai I 
Tnn.Kl 

in'"" 1 Mongolln on Hie wet. it I» nitrred 
liy th" Bun earl River nnd the climate la 
almllur to thai of N11 

Th.- idmlnlatratlnn , undei the control 
of Hi" Central '■• it Peking. 

The prlndpnl agrlrnltiiral pm.l 

i) nnd "I'lutn. which provide highly 
profitable 1 , 

fnpltnl. Mill; den (on the Ilnn-hol. Pop- 

uliiil1.11. 250, I. 

r.nir "f Hi" gi • hlchwnva trat- 

erne Manchuria: from r. ■. '.I'lkoVo 

nnd Klrln nnd thence to Sanalnc ami 
alet Bny : from Nlu-cbwang to V! 

IB, and lli.ni" In Taltalhnr. MerxvB 
nnd .icrorni the norl ' from 

Mn chwung aouthward icruii the l.la* 
innc peninsula to Kln-ebow; and from 
Nlu-chwong enKfrrnrd to the Korean gate 
and Antnng. Theac blcbwnya ar.- of great 

to Hi.- .-ni : 11 1 1 . . rn of 

mi. I . Icli "f Hi- ".mill, and to 

the mining district* of the northweet 

The Tron*-Sllierlnn Railway enter* Min- 
chnrln nt the western bniindary of Hel. 
iiina-kiniig and ihenci »outbca«t to Iia ter- 
mlaatloa nt \'iadivo»tok. 

JfOVrio/.n — ili.- rotol n--n of MoUOc 
In. which extend* from tb* <!reat Wall la 
ihe Bonth ' ■ In I be north, »nd 

from til.- Khlngang Mountain* In the eaat 
to Kuxinn Central A»ln In the weat. I* ee- 
tltnnlrd HI 1 07''.. .mo rugileb. niuare mllea, 
with a nomadic Mongol and Kalmuck pop- 



Encyclopedic Judex 



Cfabii 



nlitlon variooslv eonapated at 1.750,000 to 

llutory. — In the thirteenth century Of 
nrUtlan era. the Moucollao 
JrnjcbU Khin. held away over an empire 

i Ba« '" III" lianka of lb* 

t>oelp«r." anil tbe rant »r^« of 

donUuloaa la t-ot a portion or tbe former 

r*f«<il f'llvrr: — The country I- 
(rtl and oouotalnous la the onrtswi-'t. 
Altai tacei- turn* from uortlinot 
to eoutb*«*t alinoat lo 

In tt>e estrone *o«t tt' Kiiionns 
raoc* eroaace tbe southern ami nurtlnrn 
Th» greater pari nf Jin 
.p»ed by a high latili'liinil. I 
•« the Desert ll (J I 10, ai»nit 

3.000 feet auore an level, 2, r 

fr.ia r»»t to 

north to anoth. an arid, rocky wane with 

no vrfeiatlon. 

Tbe sdcalnlktrnilnn of 
Voatgoli* «raa tbe aubject of a Rutao-riil- 

♦ot alcuil No* 
•la rwognlse* 

■ nd CTilna recognises the 
isn» of that r. 
Til: i ! (or Bodl ocruplea more 

tbaa bnif tli« - 
aVaslntnaa. arlib tbe KIchteen i, 

Bbntnn a*d Brlllvh 
lo4U OS tbe south. IlrltKU India on Ibe 
. and Cfebii i an on tbe 

/■An ilnraa, — The couiiiry l« 

rulolv a lofty i i of tbe Grent 

b)gb<-st country In 
tb* world, with ll..- 1 1 1 c 1 1 : 1 1 1 . n Mountains 
aa a we»lcr» and snathcrn hoemtirr. Tb«* 
tare I* tbe rhiln of 
test ox more above tbe 
avean l' sea. 

. -Raslera Tu.- 
a oeraptea i 

>. -411a. 
I; , • lain ami 

Recent dUeorertea abow that anmcrnna 
••aaa bare been covered hy the iao< Ing 

- 0>~rt. Ibe d»r. 
«V*i beler enrly I I -tl.-in en. 

exIM main I r a< Italloaai OB the 
n-ioj« eararan I lilna. 

Emu aad India. 

r»«aV tilh tw I'nllti glttrt. — The valua 
•f swremandlae Imported Into China from 
ll... year IMS wa» 
4. and cowl, m ihe varus of $39.- 
•IOJO0 were a»ot mil 
OSm (at* also Canton): 
Aameati I n— 

Property of. destroyed. 4R23. 
Prweetfon for. diseasecd, 4006. 
« ••-. 554 I 'J8. 6366. 

American manufacture in. 4708 
Artisan* from, admission of, to 
■"arid 'a Fair temporarily, roeom- 
^■esded. 5622. 
fete uprising la, 6417, 6678. (See 

»Ua Boxers.) 
JJals connection with, 6719. 
<«aaef United State* *«ain«t, 443$, 

tm 

Caaveotion for adjustment of, 3071, 
3000, 31 
Referred to, 3818. 
laleniBitiei received, discussed and 

mmendationi regarding, 3173, 

124; 81,4630,4715,4762, 

Paraitot of, 3173, 4761. 4823. 



Commercial relatione with, 1114, 1790, 
2066, 8743, 2977, 3446, 4060, 6328, 
6366, 6014, 7010. 
Interruption of, by Great Britain 
referred to, J - 
Commercial treaty with, 6707. 
Commission to study conditions in, 

recommended, 6328, '. 
Commissioner of United ^mt»» to — 
Appointment of, recommended and 
compensation to, diacu 

Corr. of, transmitted, 

« to. referred to, 3015, 
3113. 
Report of, referred to, 2610. 

• litions in, discuaaed, 2066, 6327, 
O07, 
« SoBtnlar courts of United States in — 
Jurisdiction of, 2951. 

- It. referred to. 4675, 
5388, 5432. 
Revision of, referred to. 3111. 
Treaty residing;, 4581. 
Consular premises in, rent of, referr.i1 

to, : 
Controversy between Jupan and, re- 
garding Lew Chew Ialai 
Cooley trade, referred to, 007, 3117, 

8261.3831 
Disturbances in, discuaaed, 6418, 6678.. 
Emperor of, accession of. reftrrad to, 

Hxpenditorcs from appropriation for 
jiroviding for intvreourae with, re- 

wnd to, 'jcoa. 

I mini 1,'ml ion of Chinese. (See Chi- 
nese Immigration.) 
Traport dutlM of, 6700. 
Japanoo citizens in. treatment of. 
and action of officers of United 
States regarding, inquired into. 
5992, 7053. 
.Iii.li. uU Uiliunnl in, for trial of 
American citizens recommended. 
8400. 
Maritime provinces of. pn<sing under 
control of European powers dis- 
eusaed, 6".rT. 
Massacre of French and Russian resi- 

• 1 nta in, discuaaed, 4055. 
Military operations of Great Britain 
against, terminated by treaty, 2066. 

-I'T of. to United States — 
Establishment of legation discussed, 

4448. 
Received. 4718. 
Mini»ter of United States to — 

Appointment of, to mission by Em- 
peror referred to, 3796, 3825. 
Appropriation for support of Amer- 
ican youths to serve as part of 
official family of, recommended, 
4101. 4145. 
Instruction to, referred to, 3113. 



__ 




China 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 



Letter of, traa :i'HJ4. 

:090, 4 15>0. 
Mr. \V,,r.l del -utimit to 

iiiim luting aremooiee att< 

ing, 3090. 
Beferred to, 8! 
Bofnsal to re< i 5670. 

K.lnrn of, on mrount of illness, 

£251. 
Boat to, BUS, BOT7, 800ft 

MiHHjiiii tO, ri'i'iuiiiin-iiiliii i ■ • n thut. it 

bo raised to Bral thi--. :i'.''.ii 
Mi»- DL ($co American citi- 

:n. anit ) 
Monetary nretent of, Improved, BML 
Open Don in, 6070, 6797. 
Opium inilli.'. Ir. n-v toi <■ pri'ssion of, 
referred to, 109, U'SB. 
Log i h I a I ton regarding, rwora 
mended, 5083. 
on 1 1 foreigner! in. 668 i . 

Political raw ■ with, referred to, 

1845. 
Population of. 2066. 

1 convent Ion « it h, 8776, 
i.yi.. lllon In, 3446. 

Belat aita, 8977, 8ML 

Bcvrnui' lam of, rules regarding fines 
for breaehei >>i. i <■■■. r I rrad I 

Hulo* for seamen of Amorfc an Veaaell 
In ports, of, refund t". B68& 

Slavery in, referred to, 4539. 

Btraa Bhoc I hannel, eeawli sailing 
under American flag | -rot i i i i » «.j 
I. -mil passing through, 8806, .''.002. 

Bubjeoti of, i" United states — 
Outrages oommittod cm. discussed:, 
. (068, BOSS, 8430, '11)78. 

Iinlmniiit' In. reoOmJUl -ml-'il. 521°. 

Appropriatloaa for, 5387. 
Bagistratlon of, (800 Ohfwan lm- 
nigrattoa.) 

T pe iir.nl tn prntrct, 4033. 6419. 

murdered in, 
5868. 
Tariff of, 6679. 

Treaty frith, transmitted nntl di»- 
cunsed, 2203. 2211, 2S5I, 3037, 
8061, 8071, »osn. :• 

Nullification of nrtirle of, 3308. 
Proposed inniliflcntion of. 3781. 

510, B077, 
Vessels of, discriminating duties on, 

rep ; reclamation, 4552. 

War with — 
Praaoe, (883. 

■ In at Britain and France, bi 
if, preserved by United Bti 
in", 8087, 8089, 8174 
Japsn — 
Aatlen taken l.v United. Btatoe 

regarding, 598 8417. 

A n mi i * of (Tatted Btates re 
qnaated t" protect tabjeota of 
contestants, 5957, 6059. 



Woi into United StateR 

, fur dishonorable purposes, 

Cbtaa, Treaties with.— Tin- treatj 

I Trllh 

i lilni In i reeded by 

Hie trcnty of lt.r.0. KrTcral articles, bow- 

plj Ins •., iih mnll ii the 

•els are owned by cUlten* nf the 

III.' I : • Hill II., I 

DcM* aubjecta. puy tin- .ty ot oik 

II i c 

Kacli .1 iii" consul* at tbe ave i»,,riM to '•<- 

tiippll nnil 

weights oud uicasi iJIiib 

III I lir »l :■ lid.i r.l li( ' : tmns* at 

.uw-ns of the I " led State* ar» 
udmliied to trade villi Chinese subject* 
*» li Tk.ii i il -I i ii- 1 1. .ii- I 



States in,- to I"- made annually to the 

Eovcrm . ot • ii ot bi Bw 

V tl KlIMlll), III III' ' , 



r.,i iik,. mi, i examination f..r rcTena* i'ur 

The it-- 
,,f cltlson* of iii.. i iiii.il Stat 

i i.i embargo nnd i pre- 

l from pursuing (heir tnin»iir((„ut 
without mi mlisrraasji 

i ii. 

i 

Hip between Ihe two eoesv 
makes provision f,.i 

:1 I nil tlllU'H ill- 

lulled SI all's iiilnui'T hi China am 

• "I Hi'- prlvj i mil hi il 

or wllh the gniiTni. . r Hi" two 

I'f.'.iii. f I- nli Klen nnd <*heb-KUir.- 

minister Is also prlrll, ■. I [n mnl 

a year tn the rnpltnl of the Ktnperor M 

■ •liiini mi, I there i" roofer with a blsh 

Official, deputed for the [.. ill 

ter» nf in. ..ii Inii ■ 

i In prli Id r. or .-1 By 

i ■... i mperoi of t'hlna to Hi.- t.-prewiilillTe 
of any other for» l«n 

. lib. ml further nnilr- or forroif per- 
mis. Inn. sh.ill I e i rltht of the ml*!* 

ter of the I'nl ra la 

" Iil.'ll i-'iliiliiuiilr.-illim* may t'**« lielwe«c| 

enlatlres of Ihc two irvreramests •« 
I bed In itiiii ,,f ili^ i" i 
ritual. Nntd of the t'nlted fltssrs 

• . nl-llu; ilea r ' I ,e «e- 

eonK'd conrte*) ami hospitality In tol. 
Hie friendly relntlnna .f 

in*! f-wi" bare tW 
rlahl in pursue nnd capture plmtes who 

tiling. Kate* re»el». hut Ihr 

■ ii. I.i.. limn l„. handed ai it CM- 

ne»e aiiilmrliles fur puulshmcnt. 

Contult. The Ii tr«nt«l 

the rU-hi Ii. appoint rnnnoU himI i^'ioin-r- 
rial iiL-eiils In «ne|i parts of il - i'IiIdmS 
dominions j^ >luill In is V- 

lUK open Ii, ih. in. Cllllel ColteS 

states inn ■ . n In any *f t»» 

ports nprn. niav i .-hi housea ami pl»m» 
nf hnSltien. ami build ho 

ho pits It a mi • , meterh - : they abi ' 
bs siibjeetrd to exorbitant deninin!' 

reasonable eondlll"ii». Tl nsi..mrry |«» 

visions tire made In .a-.. ,,f siipwreel. 
ami the 'ilins Ol rial, and p 

mini ..r robbers nnd plrai ■: io*f 

Teasels boli.in.-iin.- i., I!,, I'nl ■ resti 

»l""i I '111 nntho I If fur ••» 

i innol be Spptv' 

1 I •■'• niitlnirli I. - ibnll a-. i In' railed opat 

I,, Indemnify fur loal .- Ik nr djruaaa, I 

however, u he Khown that local 

were In collusion wllh tho robbers or 



■ toptdic Index 



China 



• <»nrlarale*1 lo 

.1 ("blna -.| 

ta»a»u. la I III- pr«nTUK*i "if » nh- 



■ i-fa. Ill II 
■tit MliHictxl l«" th* province 
• iber p-.r< 

rr power or t« llio 
^■Wi ■.<• Buy be freely c»r- 

Ud nwn U in.iy pru- 
■rna* on* to in* other of thee.. 

■■ trad* may bo 
unJrr p»o- 
,sd airio. 
tlM United Sin'. 

II I." 111111- 

of the I i 

mar* ho >• Mint i 

miMit faroi «h*ll con- 

aoO exiKinnllnn 
~*jir /"h-j — V.- Inn* 

il p*/ toanuir- dmk-* of fi>ur 
(m<t per lau of 4" 

:■ f. OO* raac* per t..n Of 10 

n<u. III »H Ciiar* lo 

l.'t, Whh'll Willi 

nrrlvaU Ii* 

ii mitlnn hy 
n>Miiii>.i i, it .ii i.. i (BM Trial* 



i 1 l*» 
Port mul i>r."-t-.| f..r n pt 

another po:' 
I *oi pay dinte* n Mi I Una on '"•' 

1 .1 only upon h*r cargo or i 

I other a*»l*tnntn nuy be 
1 oihib ternia agreed I 
*T lb» panic*, or 4et*rraii» ■««• 

m. 

' ,|i« o»J roeyora.— TII8 

r ili. l"oli«l SinlM while 

a n, 'line 

.-ffli-rm on board of Mm*, lo 

.ii Information 
fnaa to l.i- i the 

<aha*» antfcorlitM noil I . n Hie 

en*.: iinnl. I'llmlfcila taking 

-.•** or oo ahlpa of elt: 
•f IW United Shitca art |o I* handed 
en, I. n ilrnind »nd 

•kill at t«- barW-d or concealed. Pull 
■r atam |. to be p' Hi' "fni--ni 

«f Wh Bath-aa. Who in . i.rl them- 



n fortT-cltBt E< 

■ i*I of it.- United 

th* 

rar-r" mo* I be depoalted 

--•■I. and fi ii true »»■ 

■a at a ar n a a ry detolla at all !»• comaao- 

n-iall for her dUohnrg*. If cargo 
without .tied pprmti the 

eg ■ „.. of 
Be lini-...i! C|mn Hi- iiii-'.t nr eon- 
Slbe mini' "•• trllllln 

.i f i,i i, port 

M Weakln 
1 la* t,Mi,„.ri of t.^riiinrf- ilnMe*, or 
•II b<- ahall reach the other 
In the ihvsi -miaul or 

*r«p>* ""- tt» maaier may call 

j friendly pnwi 
In the prvml- • In 

J»«t of itnllr* »n- i 
iwrotr-foot Wiiir* by Kbf pon 
.f c^itoin". 
c«Xln Imc-'i'il > ' ■ 
luu of the United 8t*t«« may 



ar 



>M 



ftor dll» ■•X:lllllll:llloll liy 

■ i,i .f del .'idu 

I. in | ilm c i 

i cirelan Knilu or rlci 
p I,.,, i in i 
:,,i .1 ma] in- rtwsportcd wltnont 

I. niinit clntlca on Tcaacla are to be pnld 

Impoi i iiiiii. •. on hi. i 

lh* jihmI. ; a |nirt cloarnnce l> ilron 

when all ••buruei unrc bei-n paid and the 

iMml then return* Hi Th« 

ipnnxlble for loe iWpartnn 

• ,f ii -lil|i n llli.iur ihi- pRyuiPiit of chart**. 

i ii- abniped on nppllcailon 

n .ill , . rl II. I,, Hi. 

tli.- r.iii«r of 
mm Ii iriiii-.«hl|'-uii.|it. and at bin dlacretlon 
III" i ' mi IiIuiii.-ik. Oooda i . 
iboul moo i»Tiiil»»lun an 
. conflacntlon. 
I'monal /(-l.iliona. — Cltlien* of III-' I'lill- 

mJ stntct may »ih- ii - .i, i . i . > i- - m 1 ■ . . - n I 

nl Uhlaew creditor! 

.- oonnul or 

,.- conaular i:i. Clllaana of lb* 

-i sihi.-h niiiv employ •rbolart I 

tiart of the cuiiilri' lo ii-*rb any of IBC 
"iiiiiintca and n, ,k» of nn>