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Development of the Flag 


THE oevELOPMENT OF THE fVA'-i-j^t T«. J7^ »■ lIurM Sff flig hi 
■UtulDi> b*gin<i)n|. «4i><i Hi* C»iiHif%l CcnfMk liMittid »t btniwr diilitii 
BMiy Rau, H cwuiittd si thlrlaan iicriiDUdMlt«*niwnn«/ i(d mi Mhrtt, and t 

with Efiflwd, muktd b^ nvM brilkut tctimt 
thlititn rtripn fof 111* unton. 


•:%',: >' onuL-.i'Aii 3-*' 'O TM3lif<IOj3V30 :' 





Is Man's Most Exalted Woik. 

Republican Government 

h the Supreme Type of Oi^anization. 

The United States Government 

Is (rf An Govtfnmeots the Best 

Therefore, the men who performed that 
most difficult of human undertakings — 
the establishment of law — and who per- 
formed that task with a success without 
parallel, — the men who constructed the 
American Republic are leaders whose 
works have proved their wisdom con- 

That Wisdom is concretely bodied forth in the 
Messages and Papers of the Presidents. 
In these Papers our Chief Magistrates and the 
statesmen, jurists, financiers, warriors who 
composed their Cabinets discuss questions 
perpetually before the voter, and define the 
fundamental policies on which is based 
this greatest human achievement. Their 
Doctrines form our Governmental Gospel. 





More than 25,000 page reFerenca lo the oSciaJ utterancet 
of the Presideiitt, intersperted with tome eight hundred ency- 
dwcdic articles on American hirtoiy and politics, elabtfating 
and gcHng into the detaili of evcfy Mibiect dilcutted l^ ihe 

A summary history and description of every branch of dte 
Cjovemment — Elxecutive, Legislative and Judioal — oudining the 
dcveltqunent of each department from its beginning lo the present 
time, together with all bureaus and special commisMons. 

An analyMs of each administration written by cocnpetent coo- 
temporaneoui authority. 

E)e&nitioD and summary of the treaties between the United Stales 
and all ioragji countiies. 

The growth of the Army and Navy, with the latest official bcti 
of oifuuzatini, strength and equ^ment 

Hirtoiy of each State from original territory to present time. 

A brief description and history of every country in the w<ffld, 
and the trade wd trea^ relatioas oi each with the United States. 

Synopsis of all political parties, their F^atforms, growth and 
achievements. Leader* in all the great political movnnent* since 
the organization of the government, together with their votes, are 
gjven in detail, as well as the origin erf popular nicknames and 
campaign cries. 

Accounts of the wars engaged in Iqr the United States, together 
with a recital of the causes there<rf and a brief account of each 
battle [ought by American soldiers ; also important fra'eign wan. 

List of Federal courts and CMnmissions and digests of such lead- 
ing supreme court decisions as tend to interpret the constitutioB. 

Discussions of public questions of national policy, such as Mcmroe 
Doctrine, Panama Canal, Interstate Ccmmerce, Banking, AgrU 
culture, Elxports, Imports, Mining, Slavery, Woman Suffrage. 
Trusts, Prohibition, Labor, Tariff, etc 

Aboriginal nhabitants, characterisdci and early home of each 
tribe and nation, their wars with the white settlers and decline 
before advancing civilization. 

More than a thousand selected biographical sketches of amneot 
American statesmen and leaders in the country'i devdopment 




Serves a EXjuble Purpose. 

Anuming that tlie reader clesirea to investigate ■ 
specific subject, — the Index provides him with a suc- 
cinct digest on that subject iand underneath cites the 
numbers of pages where Preadential references 
thereto may be found. Thus, after reviewing the fun- 
dammtal facts involved as presented by the digest, the 
reader is aided in forming his own opinion on the ques- 
tkn by the arguments advanced by the Executives. 

AssonUDg that the user is reading a Presidential 
Message, — the Index provides him with data on every 
question mentioned, and, Iqr the page citations, enables 
him to ccmpare the views of various Ouef Magistrates 
on die same subject 

Sm itt nJydi at mcIi AUBklratioB ndv Aa mm^ of im 
Enu rt i w. TImm imdjtat an ptngrtfibitd nDdar — »>— ^B-f (neb m 
** Skmy "^a M All «>• m*7 ntiiHj traca dis dmlopmenl of ■ qnMtioD 
Anoi^ mmj AibkuMratica*, aad tad dM BarraliTa caaliDDOoi. 

Sm ifca biop^Un of am faBooi m ABwican Sttlaciafl. WarftM 
mi Diplammej, m wdl m ibo Uofr^iluai of prwal CaluiKl B 
b trhicli ^pcai ^dar I 


See the Amcuii 
It of.* * Batdai hf lUtod Stalaa Forcaa." 
"lUlad Slalca. Hntoty of." 
"Foraipi RaUtwaa." 
Siaia, Ti iai M/ , War. JvtiM. Pait- ' NaBont.'' 

sfica, Nny. laNner. Apical- ~ State* and TanitonN." 

tan, Caamaica iDd Labor, " OiDki ■"'^ Dankiaa.'* 

DqwrtMBkof. "Lam." 

" PattiM, AMarieaa Policed." ' Law, Tanu of." 

"WMaf.arAfadiacdiaUHld ' b£a> Tratak" 



Portraits of Presidents, 
PuKJC Buildings, Monuments, 
Places of Patriotic Interest. 
Historical Paintings and 
Contemporary Cartoons 

CfThe coDeclioii of pictures appearing in the several 

volumes of this set can safely be said to be the best ever 
collected for the purpose of illustrating the history and 
progress of our country from every viewpoint 

(| The pictures themselves almost tell the story c^ die 
develoiHnent of this Nation. Tliey appear in about 
equal number in each volume, and in direct c(HinectioD 
with die text matter, therefore in chronological order. 

C| On the back of each of die historical illustration plates 
there is found descriptive matter which adds value to 
the illustrations and important historical data siq>ple- 
menling the aiessages themselves. 

Q In the forepart of each vcJume will be found a Est 
of the illustratioos thereiD. 


Facsimile Reprotxxtiotb of State Papers 

Arthur '■ Annonneement of Prendent 

Qftrfleld'a Death, 4641. 
Arthur's Signsture to OfSeial An- 

Doaneement of PrNident Qufield'B 

Death, 4642. 
Buchanan 'i Note to Senate Belatbig to 

Utah UaoucreB, 3135. 
CUTton-Bnlwer Treat}', of TKjIor'i Ad- 

tnmiEtratiou (final pa^e}, 2S67. 
Cleveland's Proclamation on Utah's 

Admission to Union, 61S4. 
Cleveland's Biniatnre to Proclamation 

Admitting Utah into Union, 6155. 
Coinage Proelamation of John A.dams, 

Declaration of Independence (Original 

Draft Of), 4. 
Declaration of War against Spain, 6297. 
Declaration of War with Uexico, 2312. 
DeeUration of War of 1812, 607. 
Fillmore's Fugitive Slave Proclamation 

(lait page), 2693. 

Oarfleld (Note to the Senate), 4602. 

Grant's Centennial Proclamation, 4366. 

Giant's Signature to Centennial Procla- 
mation, 4367. 

Grant 's Proclamation Calling for an 
Extr& Session of the Senate, 3994. 

Harrison 's (Benjamin) Proclamation 
Admitting Washington to Union, 

Harrison 'a (Benjamin) Slgnatore to 
Proclamation Admitting Washington 
to Union, G4S6. 

Ha7es' Proclamation, Uar7land Bail- 
road Strike (first page), 4470. 

Hayes ' Sienatnre to Proelamation, 
Maryland Railroad Strike (last page), 

Jackson's Proclamation abont the Pub- 
lic Lands in Alabama, 1043. 

Jackson's Signature on a State Docu- 
ment, 1203. 

Jefferson 's Neotralit t Proclamation, 

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation 

(first, last, and intermediate paBes). - 

Lincoln's Signature to Emancipation 

Proclamation, 3360. 
Lincoln 'i Exhortation to the People 

not to Plunge into Civil War, 3253^ 
Lincoln 's Proclamation Admitting 

West Virginia into the Union, 3381. 
Lincoln 'h Signature to Proclamation 

Admitting West Virginia into Union, 

Monroe Doctrine (page from Uonroe's 

Seventh Annual Message), 791. 
Monroe's Letter to a Friend Explain- 
ing National Policj, 761. 
Pierce 's Proclamation against Cuban 

Pilibnsters (first page), 2779. 
Piirce's Proclamation against Cuban 

Filibusters (second page), 2TS0. 
Boosevelt 's Proclamation of Special 

Holiday for Celebration of Centennial 

of Lincoln's Birth, 7348. 
Boosevelt 's Announcement of Centen- 
nial of Lincoln 's Birth, Last Page 

and Signature, 7349. 
South Carolina's Secession Ordinance, 

Taft's Proclamation of the Death of 

Vice-President Sherman, 8130. 
Taft's and Secretary Knox's Signature 

to Announcement of Death of Vice- 
President Sherman, 8131. 
Taylor's Signature on a State Docn- 

meot, 2566. 
Tyler's SiCTatnre on the Ratification 

of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 

Van Buren 's. Proclamation Bevoking 

Tonnage Duties, 1S51. 
Washington's First Thanksgiving Proc- 
lamation, 66. 
Webster-Ashburtoa Treaty, Ratified in 

Tyler's Administration. 2023. 
Wilson *B Neutrality Proclamation at the 

Outbreak of the European War of 

1914, 8352. 
Wilson's Neutrality Proclamation, Last 

Page, with Siguatnxe of Secretary 

Bryan, 8353. 






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i_ 1 







to the 

Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

NOTE. — The pages of the Mebbaqes and Fapebs or ths PsBsmxinB are con- 
Becutivdy numbered from Page 1 to the last page of the last message received before 
gtung to prtm, without regard to the division into volumes. Tike index numbetB there- 
fore refer to pages onljr. The page numbeia in each volume are indicated on the back 
to aasora quick and bandy r^erence. 

A. B. 0> Arbitration. — Dnrlag the Ueilciii 
nirolnUaa of 1918-14. cltliens of the Unit- 
ed States mffered man; IsBults and abnwB, 

inditloD that 1 

Tbia > 

handa of the warring faclloDS. 

anreaalon culminated on the 9th of April, 
1914, wben a poymuter or the V. 8. a. 
DotpM» was arretted at Tamplro. and the 
deUTerr of United fitatea mall was Inter' 
(ered wltb. Admiral Ma^. commandlns tha 
Oeet iM the harbor, demanded a iaiute to 
the nnlted States titat as partial reparation 
tor the Injnrlea aaatalned fa tbe Americana. 

demand with ^n ordei 
of Vera Cmi by Amr" 
lorees. (Page 8314.) 

ready to begin the 
mmey overuiia to Meilco CUT Senor 
:aon, tbe Argeollne minister at Washlng- 
~a, Benbor da Gacoa, " — "*"- — ■•-— ^~- 
id Senor Sunrei. 

proffered their HrTlceB i 

good oOees of tbe dlplomati and appointed 
Jntllce Joaepb S. La.uiar, of tbe Snprcme 
Conrt. and Frederick W. Lehman, an at- 
tonie7, of St LouIb. to represent tbe United 
Blatea. Huerta alao appolnled delegates. 
The medtatora met at Nfagam Falli. Can- 
ada. Uar 20. and by June 12. had agreed 
upon a plan for a provisional garerament 
(or lleiico to consist of a president and 
a cabinet of fonr leading Mexicans, wbo 
■honld have been nenlral dnrlng tbe revoln- 
UoD. President Wilson demanded that a 
Conatltatlauallst should be cbown as pro- 
Ttslonml president, bnt the mediators re- 
fnsed to oanctton tbis. June 22, peace 
grotocola were signed whereby the United 

npd II 

SUtH abaud 

tbe Hag and — . 

IndtmiutT from Ueilco, i 

claim ror 

. salute 

well t 

n at ■ 


dne American rit liens, wltb tt 

proceedlDES c _ 
ree to an armlatlca. 
It D, a federal elsc- 
ijou was neio in aierlco and Hnerta wsa 
re-elected Trestdent and Benor Btanquet 
Vlce-l'resldent. Few of the populace par- 
tlclpa.ted In the volEng, and ten days later 
"■■—'- —signed [-■■ ■-— — — — - "- — 

(or Jamalci ~ 
Ister of U 


Si.'i, r^°'*:^iss -opp-^'' 

e''gDTe''mment'at Ueiico Citr, 
larransa to come Into the cltf 
proTlelonal goiemment grant- 
1 amnesty to those who bad 
I Huerta administration. 
A- B. Plot— ■William H. Crawford, of Geor- 
gia, was a promlaent Democratfc-Republlcan 
caodldate foe the Presidency In 1824. Dtir- 

iftlers signed '■A. B.- appeared In a Wash- 
ington newspaper cbareing him with mal- 
. ._ ..».. __ ^ .. .^^ gj jjj^ Treaa- 


wards. I. , 

pointed minister 
iL'knowledged theli 

1 Just 


Uexlco, and wbo 

--_-_ -nthorsblp. Apr. 19, 

1SZ4. I^dwarda presented a memorial to 
the HoDSe of Repreeentallves making specIBc 
charges. These he failed to auaUln, and 
Crawford waa exonerated. 
Abaca laland (Bahamas), negotiations 

for cession of lands on, for erection 

of light-houses, S45. 
Abandoned Farms.— The reaaona glyen for 
farm abandonment are the impoTer1sbmi>nt 
of tbe soil, through lapb of fertiliser and 
rotation of crops, the meager Hnanclal re- 
wards of ordinary farm labor, and tbe 
disinclination of eoun try-bred men and 
women to remain on farms when the con- 
veniences and luxuries of ))fe are to be 
e cities, and enjoyed wltb great- 


Abandoned Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Aliuidcmed Funu — CoiiHnucit. 

one generaUoD From tbe {arni flnds egi 
■elllni at 60 cents a doien, broiled clilekeD 
at a dollar, and tbe kind of apples be (om 
erl; led to bon bringing a cent apiece I 
cUr marketa be la apt to loDg lor tb 
aboiidaDt food o( bis boybood days. 

m blB "Altn 


-jvel printed 1 

_38A William I>ean Bowella, an American 
noTellit, predicted tiiat soon tbe railroads 
would be Imploring Doen to _go (rom the 
dtlea and till the soil, Mr. W. C. Brown, 
PnaldeDt of the New York Cenlral Rail- 
road, In a apeech In New York Cllr la laiO, 
declared that there are ie,00« square mllea 
Of practically abandoned (a '~ '" — "--■- 

Fnim tbls time forward tbe queatlon be- 
came ona of national Importance. In coD- 
BCQuence of bla nncompromlalnf attetancea 
tiarrlaoD was Indicted b; n«nd Juries la 
several Southern States and rewards wera 
offered for bla coQtlctloo. Tbe New York 
Weekly Bmanclpator waa another organ 
of tbe Aboil tlonlsta. Borne strong patn- 

be pnrcbaBed for 120 an i . 

declared blmself willing to head a million- 
dollar s7Ddli-al:e to bu; and reclaim these 
abandoned farms In a practical effort to 
decrease the cost of foodstuffs to tbe con- 

n with dtj experience a 

s have made 

em Industrial 

farming prolllable where the counErj-nrca 
farmer with onir the coDTcntlonal methods 
has failed. The back-to-tbe-farni movement 
was given consldeiible Impetus by tbe de- 
velopment of Intenaive farming In tbe West, 
by Irrlntlon, by tbe railroads, tbe Depart- 
ment ot AcrlcDlture and the bisb price of 
loodatnin fn tbe cities. 

President Boosevelt appointed a commis- 
sion to Investlsate the coDdillona of fai'm 
life In America, and he discusses tbe jDues- 
tlon fully In a spe<dal message (page 7ZS3). 
(Bee also Conntry Life CODunlsalon.) 
Abelmao vs. Booth.— An important Su- 
preme Court caae maintaining tbe constltu- 
tlonalliy of the fncatlv&^lave law ot 1850. 
Booth was tried before a commissioner ap- 
pointed by tbe United SUtes district court 
ot Wisconsin for violation ot tbe fugltlve- 
atave law, and ordered to appear before the 
district court. Falling to do so. b» w» 
Imprisoned by Abeltnan, the Onlted 

. ; court of tbe Stal 

-f habtat coriiua. Later be w 
before the United States district 
was agala released by "" 

by ti 
of n 

■e on aVrlt 

as Indicted 

I supreme 

B befor. 


Wert V 



Expediency; or, Slavery Considered with m. 
View to Its RlgbtfQl and Effectual Rem- 
edy"; "Abolition," by John G. Whlttler, 
Haverhill, Mass. ; "Appeal In Behalf ot tAat 
ClasB of Americans Called Africans," br 
Lydla Maria Cblld ; and "Tbe Sin ot Slav- 
ery and Its Bemedy," by Bllsnr Wright si 
professor In the Western Reserve ColleKe- 
Abolltlon aentlmenta were not confined 
solely to the Northern Btatea, The feellug 
against tbe abolitionists ran high and riata 
were frequent. At Alton, Illinois, In 1837, 
Elijah P. Lovejoy, an abolition editor, waa 
mobbed and killed, and In 1838, Pennsyl- 
vania Hall, In Philadelphia, waa bamed. 
Tn 1838 many of tbe party desiring to 
ilnate caudldatei tor office, a proceed- 
- ■ ■■ o1)Jected, 

log to which tbe "Oarrlaonlans" 


Aborigines. — A word used 


designate tha 



America the term la applied generally b 
Indians found by tbe early settlers. 
AbsentM Sliftwn6a Indluig. (See Indian 

AbTBsInU (Ethl(q>i&). — The total area ot 
tbe Etbloplsn Empire Is estimated at B50,- 
OUO to 400,000 English sqaare mllea, wltb 
a total population ot from 1,000.000 to 
8.000,000, of whom about belt are Abys- 
slnlans, tbe remainder being Qatlas, negro 
...1 — ,_ ..._ . ._j — Qfii frontlera, 

I la o 

and Dsnaklla and Somalia . 
About ooe-tblrd of the whole. 

Soma Ills nd. TbB 

, Booth bad 

pleaded the anconstltatlonallty of tbe law. 
l^e court upheld tbe law aad reversed tbe 
declaloQ ot the State aupreme court. 
AbollHonlCtB. — A term applied during and 
preceding tbe Civil War to tbe members 
ot tbe New England AoH-Blavery Society 
and those who held with them that "Im- 
mediate unconditional emancipation without 
expatriation was the right of every slave 
and that be could not be withheld by his 
master an hour without aln." Tbe Brst 
society for the abolition of slavery waa 
formed In Pennsflianla In ITT4 : New York 
followed In 1785. Rhode Island In 1786, 
Maryland In 17B9, and Cod nect lent, Vir- 
ginia and New Jentcy before 1782. Among 
The presidents of the New York society Were 
John Jay and Alexander Hamilton. 

Jan. 1, 1831. VfUUsm I.loyd Garrison 
t>egan tbe publication In Boston ot a paper 
caVied THa lAberatar, which advocated the 
immodlste liberation of slaves, regardless 
of all laws or constitutional provisions to les 
tbe contrary. At tbe beginning ot tbe fol- In J 
lowing year be organised the above-named the 
society, with the foregoing as Its cblet doc- was 
trine. Near the close of 1833 a «inili«r Kin 
society was formed In Philadelphia. 

boundaries of Uia empire are dellned on ttia 
west, north, and northeast, where thejf 
touch. In order, the Sudan ; tbe Itallna 
colony of Unsgowab (Eritrea); the Frencb 
colony of DJIbuti ; and the Brltlah So- 
mali land Protectorate. Northwards the 
boundary Is abont IB* 80- N. lat, laillUK 
Just south of KasaalB. 

Phl/atcvt Feature: — Western Abysstnia 
Is a platean, with peaka rising to 13,- 
000-lS.OOO feet ; Eastern Abyaslnla con- 
sists of tbe Danakil and Somali lowlandSL 

Ifalural Aesoaroei. — Western Abysalnia 

coal are not uncommon, anil gold la 
washed in various streams, while salt, salt- 
petre, and sulphur are Rlao procnrable. 
The lower country and deep valley gorgea 
arc very hot ; tbe higher plateaus are well 
watered, with a genial climate. In the 
hotter region^ sugar cane, cotton, coffee, 
robber, etc., flourish ; In (he middle aone 
malie, wheat, bsrley. wild o ranges and 

other fruit , 

are cultivated: and sb 
excellent pesturea with 

I feet 1 


easoDS In the year, 
a dry winter and a rainy summer from 
June to 8eptpml>er. Tbe chief river la the 
Blue Nile. Horses, mules, donkeys. oiCD. 
goats and sheep, and camels In the low- 
landSi form a targe portion ot the wealth 

I visited by tbe Portn- 

if the people. 

nutorg.—u . . _ _ __ __ 

lese In 1492. Tbe various small monarCh- 

B irere united Into one kingdom In 186S. 

' '"'" ■lassal, ot Tlgre, who liad aasamed 

NeauB Negost (King of Sings), 

ned as Jobannea II, Emperor ot 

,_ At bla death In 1889. Menellk 

II (born 1B42) became supreme ruler. Oct. 


Encyclopedic Index 


JUymnU (EtUopU)— CwNiHwd. 

1S> 1889, tbe Italian QoTerDmeiit ammod 
a protectorate over AbiMlDla, and b; a 
mbagqiwiit tceatr wltb ElnB Menellk, the 
emiiitty came wbollj under lullan Infla- 
ence. Br an aKreemeat alKD^ Dec. IS, 
1»0«, Ital7. rnnce and Oreat Britain nn- 
dmook to picaerra tbe intcKrltr of Abr>- 

0« v e r mmtt x I—Kegta Ncgnit ». . 
•"-— " ■'- II (Kins of Bhoa: 

lo. and of tbe tecrltoriea conquered br tbe 
dominant Klnsdom of 8boa ; the ontward 
and Ttalble algn of tbelr alleglaDce to tbe 
Empeior being a contrlbntlon to tbe Im- 
perial rerenoe. In 1908 a Council of Ulnla- 
term was constttnted by the Bmperor wltb 
Ui Exaam, frandaoD of Menellk, President 
ol the ConndL 

Tbe Jndldnl Sjatem la Cased upon the 
coda of Juatlnlan. and tbere la an appeal 
(rom tbe conna to the Emperor. Pdrate 
property in land being little known and 
tbe uarrlBKe tie being eaellT dlasoived bj 
cither partr. there ia little aodal cober- 

^Ick. the Bon of Solomon 

and the Qneen ot Sheba. The Hetropoll- 
un (Abaua Hattheoe) and tbe prieeta and 
■"" — '" B defrree aubject to the 

ProdMcHon aad rndtutry.— The principal 
MrsDlts are ajrlcnltni^ cattle 1)re«irng 
■ad bnntlnf. The cblef eiporta are cof- 
fee dret, wax, bldea, mbber, 1tot7 and 
Eld : the chlet Importa belni cottone, 
rdware, provWoos, anna and! ammani' 
lien, petroleam and (laaa. Bxteraal trade 
la lncreaaU>K> The Import dn^ on all 
food* la S per cent, od ealornn. 

Abnalnia to the home of the cottee plant, 
which rnmlahea one ot the chief eiports. 
Cotton, nigaT cane and Tinea flonrlah. Iron 
la abundant. Cattle, aheep and boraea are 
raised. American eray ahlrtlnK, hardware. 
ammnnltlan, petroleam are Imported. It 
vaa •anonnced on Uar 18, 1911. that U] 
Tasn baa been proclaimed Emperor after 
an eKort br his oonsln to wrest the govem- 
ownt from him. The chlet eiports are cof- 
'"■-, inm. wax, gold, ' • . . _ 

-' •-' 'J domli 

taiu iDtereata dominate ; large herds ot 
tie. aheep and goats are raised : exec 
horsea and long-wooled sheep In hlghei 
Tatlona. Uannfactorea primitive ; mum 
doOi. and working of leather and metals, 
ett Caravan trade Important; hides, skins. 
Irary, wax, gam. coffee, gold, ostrich teath- 
era, etc., exchanged tor raaaatactored artl- 

weat and by can 
railway baajnat 
tnniloca. Th< ~ 

in the 

n built 

le posts and ' 

r French 

-ixfer n«nefa^ management, >D<r Abysalnla 
baa been admitted to tbe PoaUl Union. 
Ttiegrapha and tel«>honea hare been con- 
" — ' , and admission to the lotema- 
Conventlon haa been 

ifnnip. — nie aetlTe army eonalsts of the 
InMHal Troopa. namberlng about 300,- 
000 men, armed with rifles, with same sr- 
Ullenr and troops of Oalla horsemen. The 
rcudatory State* 


Towfu.— Tha Capital. Adls Ababa, fai 
Bhoa, haa a popnlatlon of abont au,000 ; 
Uarrar contains about 40.000 ; and DIrs 
Dawa from S,0O0 to T.OOO. There are an- 
cient architectural remains at Akaum, 
Gondar, and Ankober; modem archltectore 
la very poor, while dralnags and stnlt*- 

Forilgn Aelolfona. — Qreat Britain. Franc* 
and Italy paaseas territory bordering the 
Abyssinian Empire and hBTe enterea Into 
an Bfceement to respect tbe Integrity of 
tbe Empire. Tbe United States. Austrla- 
Hnngary and Oermany have signed commer- 
cial treaties with the Empire. There are 
representatives of France. Oermany, Oreat 
Britain, Italy, Rnssla and tbe tJ. 8. A. 
at the capital. (See also Africa.) 
Academ;, MUltur. (See Milituj Acad- 

Academy, NkTaL (See Nftval Acad- 
Academy of Belenceg, National, eommig- 
sion from membereliip of, to formu- 
late plana for forestiy ayatem, 61S7. 
(Bee also National Academy of Sei- 

Acapulco, Mexico: 

ContraveraieB betweeit American con- 
sul at, and Mexican aathoritiei, 

Impriaonmsnt of American citizens 
in, 2720, 2634, 2837. 
Acapnlco, The, leiznre and killing of 
Oen. Barmndia on, and action of 
American minister to Ouatemala, 
discussed, SSa. 

Conduct of commander Beitei regard- 
ing, referred to, 5560. 

Papers regarding, tranamitted, G565. 
AcceBSOTT. — In law one who Is guilty ot a 
felony, not by committing the olfense In 
person or aa a principal, nor by being 
present at Its eommlsslon, bat by being In 

-'her way concerned therein, as by 

or Inciting another to commit the 

..- by concenllDg the offender or In 

any way belplng blm to escape punlabment. 
Ad acEeiaor; before the fact 1b one who 
eonnsels or Incites another to commit a 
felony and who Is not preaeot when the 
act la done : after the fact, one who recelvea 
and conceals or In any way asBlstB tbe of- 
fender, knowing him to nave committed 
a felony. The laws ot different States vary 
as to the pnnlshment of accesBorlea. 
Accounts, Fnbllc^ system of, ekould be 

impioved, 1120. 
AcliMn, native Kingdom of North 

Somatra, war with Netherlands, nsn- 

tralitj preserved by United Btatea in, 

Acknowledgmdnt. — An acknowledgment la 
the act of declaring the Keen Hon ot an 
Instrument before an otBcer antborlied to 
cerlify to ancb declaration. The offlcer 
certifies to tbe fact ot soch declaration, 
and to his knowJedge ot ttie person so 
declariog. Conveysnces or deeds Of land ta 
be enticled to be recorded toust flrat be 
acknowledged before a proper ofBcer. Hoat 
of tbe States have forms of acknowledg- 
ments, which abontd be followed 

Acknowledgments may be taken In gen- 
eral by notaiies public, faatlcei of the praca, 
Jndgea or Clerk* ot iCoiuta of the Ufhec 



Admowledg Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

■radei, Reglitera, Uutera In Chancerr, 
Court CommlnlonerB, town clerka, Uaror 
mnd Clerks ol IncoriMiratcd dtlei, within 
their mpectlT* jurlsdicCloni. 

Seals OT their eqalvnlent (or wbitever Is 
Intended ■■ sucb) are neceasair In AJatika, 
ConDectleut, Delaware, District o( Co- 
lumbia, Florida, Idaho, lUtnolB, Ualce, 
Maryland, Uaasacbasetta, Hlchlgan. Minne- 
sota, Ulsaoarl, Mew Hampshire »ew Jer- 
sej, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, 
rennarlTanla. South Carol loa, Vermont, 
Virginia — ' " '- "'"~ 


I deeds by 


tin preacrlbed o. -, — 

ol most of the SisteB except Connecticut, 
florlda, LoulRiana. Separate acknowlcdg- 
nent by wife le required in Alaaka, 
Arkanus, Delaware. District of Columbia, 
Florida, Georgia, Idaho ,_^ Kentucky, '"' 

Carolina, Oregon, 

Carolina, Tenneeaee. Tcii 

_......._ .i ^__j^ jji required 


itloQ ol deeds 

mbla, I 

Lonrslana, Hlchlgan, tlit. 

ahlre, Ohio. Oregon. South Carolina, Teiaa, 
Vermont. *" '" 

required In 

Florida, Georgia, 

■ •' Hamp- 

llaceball. from tlay 13. IBOO. 

Bamnal Dexter, from Jan. 1. 1801. 
etoretam ot War— 

' — a UcIIenry ( — -■ — •'■ 
-1 Dexter, fi _ 
Qrlawold, acting ] 

,.»-., of the Stvu— 
Oeaitx Cabot appointed. Dedloed Hay 

Benjamin' Btoddert, from Uay 8, IT98. 
Attorney- OmMra I — 

Charles Lee (continued). 
pottm a* ter-Oeneral— 

■ Federalist and' In common with bis party, 
dlntmsted the aelf-«>TerDiDB power ot the 
mniif I He bellsTM In strong centTsl goT- 

fltted by merit. He wbb democratic to the 
extent of believing that equality meant that 
all mcD should have equal rights la the eyea 
but tbat Id heredlUry rights. 

capacity, advBnta„. . ^- 

are by no mcBDB equal. WhI 

dent and presiding oUcer In t 

was frequently called upon to decide by 
bis casting vote quoetlons of vital Impor- 
tnnce In the maintenance o( the policy of 
Washington. This occurred no fewer than 
twenty tlmea In one session of CoDgT~~~ 

The FIttb Congresa flrst met In e: 
slon at Philadelphia, May 1* '""' 

f Mew Jer- 

r Jersey, North 

lied nod 80.000 mlUtla wen 
lor. An set was passed pUQli" 
teering on a friendly nation b 

S10,0«l, -r"" ' ■ --- 

Tbe Hon 

was first orgaulied at mis session, 

TFar vHlh francs TAreafcncd. — Adams 
appointed John Marsball. Elbrldge Qerrj 
■nd C. C. rinckney commissioners to treat 
wlih France. They met In Paris Oct. *. 
1T9T, and were approached with a proposl- 

Acre Eight,— The share of a citlsen of a 
New England town In the common lands. 
The Talue of die acre right was a fixed 
quantity In each town, bnt varied In dllter- 
cnt towns. A ten-acre lot or right In ■ 
certain town was equivalent to 113 acres 
ot upland and twelve acres ot mesdow, snd 
a certain exact proportion was maintained 
bttween tbe acre right and salable lands. 
Acts of OongrasB, (See Bills and Acts.) 
Acta, Public,— Pohllc acts are tbe laws of 
a State and of the United States. State 
records are the registered •deeds oC property, 
joamals of kglslatares. etc. Judicial pro- 
ceedings are the records of courts, noder 
the Constltatlon each Stste must give full 
fslth and credit to the public sets, records. 
and Judicial proceeding of ever; other 
Slate (twenty-four). Tbe cblcf value of 
tbls provision Is tbat II prevents endless 
lawsulta, When a case has bcm decided 
fn one State. It csnnot be opened In Om 
courts of another State. 

AtUDU, Jclui.— 1797-1801. 

Third Administration— Federal. 
Tiee-Prettdtnt — Thomas JeCfsmon. 
V of Btato 

'clgn AfTalt-B, and o 

France. It was on this occasion thst Mr. 
PlQCkney Is reported to have given utter- 
ance to the famous sentence declaring that 
the United States had '■Millions tor de- 
fense : not one cent for tribute." Partisan 
feeling was general and bitter thraugboat 
the country and diplomacy was strslned to 
the nimosc to avert actual bostllltles with 

Congresg organised the Navy Department 

mandcr-ln-chlef o 
of l.1eutennnt-nene: 
"Hall, Columbia," 
1798, Commanders of ships of i 
Instructed to seize French armea vessels 
Bttacklnit American merchant-men or hov- 
ering about tbe coast for that purpose. 
Commercial Intercourse with France was 
suspended and In July all treaties with 
that country were declared void. Although 
several naval engagements took pi see. a 
state of war did not exist according to Inter- 
The passage of 

the Allen snd 8 

( the Fifth Congress. 

ief Justice Elliworlh. 

of roonectlfot, end Gov. Davlc. of North 
Csrollna. All were received by Napoleon, 

„.. . -Party lines and pa 

Strife dnring the Adama administration w 

more largely Influenced by foreign than by 
domestic political Issues. Despite the hn- 
mlllatton Inflicted upon tbe young Itennblie 
by both France and Great Brilsln. Adsro* 
resolntely followed Waflhlnglon's policy of 

tested by tbe FedersUsta. The decrees Is- 
sued by France against American commerce 
caused Adams to convene Congress In spe-- 
clal session soon, aftw bis Inaagtiratloil.. 
In his mestags on this occasion he rsvlewn' 


Encycloptdic, Index 

tbe illiiBtloii and uki Cancrem to conilder 
bow wmr with Fraace roey be sverted. He 
■■Id: (pme 226) "1 stull Initltule a freah 
BKcmtit at netntlatlon and iha]] not fait 
to promote and acprlcrate an arrommoda- 
tlon on Irrma oompalLble wltb the rlelitiL 
dntlea, lulereals. atul honor of tbe natroo/* 
The apeclal commiaslon composed of I'lnck- 
DP7. Uarahall. and Gcriy was sent to 
Friuicr, bat was Dot opeatT r«cvlTed. 

Then fallowed (he X. Y. Z. affali' (4. v.). 
and the publlcltj of the deapatchps rplaiioE 
to It arouKd sreat eidlemeDl in Europe 

' detenalve meaaurea 

oegollate peace 

army streoKtheDed and commanded hj Wash- 
iDctoD. who accepted the rank of lientenant 

SneraL Then tbe F'rencb dlreotorji saw 
e error they had rommltted and made 
OTertarv« to the Uolted States. Adams met 
them, ttioaf|n hla manner of doing ■" *" 
appolDtinx Vana Mnrray to [legollate 

■ntaKonlied HamJKon and hia trleai. 

brought about a ruplurp in tbe Cabinet. 
Adams alwaTH atootl; maintained that (hia 
was the most merltorloua act of hia life; 
and later treoeratlons have ao testlSed. "I 
dealre." Ii» aald, "no other inscription over 
mj gtarratone than this: 'Here Ilea Jobn 

AdBDU. who took nppn hlTn«"l/ tho .■»..u....l. 

Ulltr of peace with 

stringent alleo and aedltlc 

later In this admin let ration, greatly In. 

creased the anpopnlarltT of Adama. 

niHHce«. — Adama Tcry closely followed 
WashlDKton's policy of paying olf the na- 
tional debt as rapidly as possible, ao far 
as the eilsencles of war would permit. He, 
BO*»Ter, deprecated doing bo by means of 
loana In hia First Annaal Address ipage 
2S3I he said : "The national defense must 
be proTldcd tor as well as the support of 
OOTernment ; but botb shoo Id be aecom- 

tllahed as mnch as possible by Immediate 
lies, and as little as possible by loans." 
Feb. 12. ITB8. In a special messaKe (paee 
3S2) he reports a balance on hand at the 
beglnolnK of the year of (15.404. 24. In hia 
njnrtb Annnal Hessage (page 26T) *" 

Banto Domingo. ,_, — . „, 

adopted by Congreaa for the protection of 
merchant vessels under convoy of an armed 
frlKBie. together with the renewal of amit* 
anil Mendeblp with France, caused a rapid 
recuperation In commercial circles. Com- 
mercial IranBacllons Id the country for tbe 
year 1800 are represented as tollowH : 
^ Total moDpy In clrruiallon. «2e,B00,000; 
Revenues, S10.64S,T49 : EipcDdl lures. S7,- 
ITO.BTl.Vso'"'"'''' »*'^-252^«8i Sxs>OTU. 
™,J*?"'iJ™' Comp/ertoft of Coaffreai.— In the 
Fifth Congreaa the Senate of thirty-two 
members wa« made up of twenty-one Feder- 
Bllals and eleven Democrats ; the Hoaae. of 
lOS members, waa made up of flfty-one Fed- 
eralists and flfty-four I>emocrats. In the 
81»th Connress the Benate, of thirty-two 
members, was made op of nineteen Federal- 
lata and thirteen Democrats : the House, Ot 
ion members, waa made np ot flfty-aeven 
Federalists and forty-elRht Democrats. 

Tbe Slith TongresB. the last to assemble 
In^ Philadelphia, met Dec. 2. 1799, and 

Bee. 19 "(pajie 287)7~a 


peace and Brst Id' the hearts of hla^ 

French ship of war I.'/B)ii(rj7FMte and the 
frigate La Venocanct. Tbe trlgate Oeorva 
n'os/ifni7fan carried tribute money from iba 

e to report 

3 Cong 


o the n 

of AUters and n 

dence of tbe creal resonrcea of tbla 

try and of the wisdom and eSlctencv of tha 
measure! adopted by Coogresa for the pro- 
tection of commerce and preaerratlnn of 
^bUc credit" ,!n his reply to the Senate 

mded In 
a In the 


PtihUe I>«M.— Dorlnc the administration 
of Jobn Adam* the nnhllc di-ht of the Dnlted 
State* arnnit aa follows: Jnnnnrr t, ITPR, 
t7».2?8.R2».12 : 1700, tTR.408 flfll>.77 : ISOO, 
«82.970,2»4.SS : 1801, SSa.Oag.OKO.SI. 

Coataiercie. — The retaliatory orohlbltlon of 
trade with certain of the French West Indies 
prodanaUons la 1799, 

required to carry the Dcy'a ambasaador to 

Succfairor Bierted.— When the electoral 
jotes were counted In February It waa 
round that Jelrerson and Burr, Democratlc- 
ReoubllcHn candidates, had each T3 votes: 
John Adamo, Federalist, en, and C. C 
Plnckney PederallKt. 84, and John Jay, I. 
The lie between Jefferson and Burr waa 
sent to tbe House to decide, and after 
seven days. In which thirty-six ballots were 
taken, Jefferson and Burr were elected. 

Adama, John: 

Annnal addresaes of, 240, 281, 279, 295- 
AddrcBsea of Senate in replv, 244, 
265, 282, 298. 
Beplies of Presidant, 246, 267, 283. 
Addresses of Souse in reply, 247, 267, 
283, 300. 
Bepliee of President, 24S, 270, 286, 
Biographical sketch of, 217. 
Constitutional amendment relative to 
postponement of meeting of Con- 
gress sngiretted by, 240. 
Death of, nnnonneed and honors to be 
paid memory of, 914. 
Referred to, 930. 
Death of Wadiingtou uinotineed bv, 
287. ' 

Address and replies, 288, 289, 290. 
Division between ]>eopIe and govern- 
ment disconrafrsd by, 229. 
Exequaturs issued consuls of France 

revolted by, 260- 
Finanees discussed by, 228, 243, 2S2, 
265, 281, 297, 


Messages and Papers of the PresuUnts 

4''"Tnff. J6ba--ContlnueA. 
Foraiffu policy diicuwed b;, 228, 
Eoitile policy of Praneo discuased b;, 

Inangural address of, S18. 
Oath of office, notifies Congress of 

time and place of taking, 1220. 
Pardons granted iniurgentB in Penn- 

ejlvauia by, 293. 
Portrait of, 217. 
Proclamations of — 

Conunerce with France, restniitta 

OS, removed, 27S, 292, 294. 
Exeqaatars of French consols re- 
voked, 260. 
Extraordinary session of — 
Congress, 222. 
Senate, 306, 1220. 
Foreign coins, legal tender of, 239. 
Insurrection in Pennsylvania, 276. 
Land for light -ho osa designated, 

Pardons to insargents In Pennsyl- 
vania, 293. 
Bestraints on commerce with 
France removed by proclamation, 
278, 292, 294. 
Thanksgiving, 258, 274. 
Property of United States in posses- 
sion of, discussed by, 305. 
Senate requested by, to postpone ad- 

jonrnment, 257. 
Special session message of, 223. 
Address of Senate in reply, 229. 

Beply of President, 232. 
Address of House in reply, 232. 
Seply by President, 234 
Thanksgiving proclamations of, 25S, 
Aduna, John Qnlncy.— 1S2S-1820. 

Tenth AdmlDlBtriLllon— Demoerstlc- 
Vtct-Pretldtni— John C. Cslhoan. 
Btcrttarg at Blate — 

Uenrj Clsr- 
Beeretary of the Treatury — 

RIcbsrd Rasb. 
Bterelam of War — 

Jsmea Bsrboar, 

Peter B. Porter, from Hay S6, 182S. 
Secretary of Iht Savg— 

Samuel L. Soutbsrd (continued). 

WILlIsm Wirt (contlnned). 
Poi tmaefer-OeneroI— 

John McLean (contlpafdl. 
Party A ff notion. — Tboueb trained in 
BolltlCB and diplomacy by his father. Jnbn 
QulncT Adams aoatt msnl trusted Independ- 
ence of political thaugbt sad action. He 
broke with tbe Federalists wben be lava 
unquBllflcd support to JelTersou on tbe 
Lonialana Purchase, and, later, on the em. 
bargo. Bpeslting of ttie Federalists detend- 
Ihe the Zieopard sTsIr, be aald : "Thin was 
the cause wtaleh alleaaled me from that da; 
and forever from the munclls of thg 
Federalist partr," It was not long onrti he 
became active fn Repuhliran circles, both as 
a diplomat and as ■ Cabinet ofBcer. Daring 
his admin I St rat Ion, he was Whta ao far as 
farorlDic Intemsl ImprovemeDta. tbe natlanal 
bank, and bl^ tariff on tmportatlona. Aa 

(1831) by tbe anU-Masoale party. L 

there mauitBlDed a perfaetljF lodepeiHIeiit 
attitude. When be left Coosress be sop- 
ported tbe Abolitionists, and from 1836 
antll 1849 he waa fleree In Us denuDdatlon 

jDhn Qulnn Adams became Chief Uasla- 
trale by papular choice ta an election vbera 
personality waa cancerned more than party 
afflllallon. Tbe election of 1824 was not 
regulated by Congreaalonal cancua. whleb 
had lost Ita Importance with the waning ot 
the FederallslB. nor by national eoureutlon. 
wblch mode of numloatlon did not originate 
nntll formed by the Antl-Maaona in 1830. 

Vote.— Tbe contest was tree for all, and 
narrowed down to four candtdatea ; AdacnB, 
Jackson, Cravford, and Clay, Twenty-four 
Slatea took part Id tbe election, which was 
held Nov. 2. This la the earlleat election In 
which there appeari a record of the papular 
vote, as most ot the electors were cbosea 
by that means. That record shows Uiat 
Andrew Jackson received 1(16,678 votes ; 
John Qnlncy Adams, 10S.821 ; William H. 
Crawford. 44.282 ; and Henry Clay, 46,E87. 
Tbe electoral vole, counted on Feb. It. 1S25, 

Kve Andrew Jackson, BD ; John Qalncy 
lams, 84 : Wlulnm II. Crawford. 41 ; sna 
Ueary Clsy, ST. 

Vote in flouis.— As no one Kcelved m 
majority, the House proceeded on tbe same 
day to elect a President from tbe thre* 
highest CBQdldates, This excluded Clay, thn 
most populnrot the candldstes In the House. 
John Qulncy Adams was elected by tba 
votes of thirteen States; Jackson received 
seven, sad Crawford four. The electoral 
coUese hsd elected John C-'Canioaa Vlce- 
Prealdeat, with 182 votes. In tbe electonU 
college, had three New York men, who wera 
relumed as Clay men. voted In accordance 
with tbeir Inatnictloni, Clay would have 
been one of tbe three to go to the House, 
and the reault might have been very dif- 
ferent Thla was the second time "~' ■*■- 
House was called upon to cbooss 


■>. — In (h« 


i'DtftfcoI I7a»ip)e«(0)t of Congrtti.' . 

Nineteenth Coagress <1825-1S2?) the Senate. 
o( forty-eight members, was made np of 
tblrtv-elsht Democrats and ten Wbigs: and 
..._ .. .. „.. ._ ^^g Bitdt np 

the tlou 


■nine Fedcn 

.- the Twenl 

I the Senat^ of forty-el^ 

1 134 I 

was made up o^ thirty-seven Federallsta 
and eleven Wtalgs : and the House, of 218 
memliera. was made up of elghty-llTe Fed- 
emlista and 128 Democrats. 

John V. Taylor, of New York, was elected 
Speaker of the House In the Nineteenth Con- 
gress, wblch numbered among Its members 
Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, and 
James K, Polk. o( Tennessee. 

In 182S the South American States called 
a general congress to meet in Panama and 
Invited the United States to be represented 
(page 684), During tbe debate on the aub- 
*— t In the Senate John Randolph referred 
"■- .-i.-- , (|( ^ajojB and Clay «- 

that of the Puritan and tbe blackleg. A 

*uel follnwed betwreu Clay and Randolph. 

The dlsapoearance of will' — " 

duel follnwed betwreu Clay and Rando 

The disappearance of William UonMn 
from Canandalgua. N. Y.. Sept. 12, 1826, 
gave rise to the Antl-Masonic party. 

InHan Altatri. — Numerous treaties were 
made with Indians durfng Adams' admlDla- 
tratlon, among them tbe cession of tbe lands 
of most ot the tribes InbabltlnK territory 
paflt of the Mississippi River and their re- 
moval to the Indian Territory. ^ The rr_tasaj 


Etuyclopedie Index 

UaaMt Jtdm Qidiicjr-CoaKMKd. 

UjV Z2. 1824. and of UiT ID, 1828. Spnk- 
fac ot the latter In bl> Foartb Annual Mel- 
on (pa«e 980) Prealdent Adams aald : 
"The tariff o( Ibe lart ■eaalon was In Its 
■elalls not acceptable to tbe sreat Intereets 
■f bd; portion of tbe Union, not eren to 
Um iBtereaU wblcb It was ipeclally Intended 
lo aerre. lla abject was to balance the 
bardeoa opon natWe Indoatrr Imposed bj 
the operation o( foreign laws, but not to 

Krarale tbe bardens of one aeclloD of 
Union bT tbe relief atfordeij to anotber. 
. - . Bnt If an; of tbe dotlea ImpoMd br 
Ifea act only relleTe the manufacturer b; 
csKntTatlnK tbe burden of tbe pltnier, let 
a isreful rrvluil ot Its prtitlaloni. enllstit- 
«iied bv the practical eiperleace of Its ef- 
fecta, be directed to retain those which 
Impart protection to natlre industrr and re- 
■Kive or mppl; the place of tboee vblcb 
only alleTlate one xrcat national Intereit 
hj tba depreaalon of anotber." 

Imtemal ImprovematU, — Tbe pollcj ot 
PtcsMent Adama differed materlallj In re- 
nid to Interna] Improrenient from those of 
•la touoedlate predecessors. In bis Inangural 
Addresa (pace 884) he said: "To pursue 
to their consummatloD those purposes of 
Improrement In oar comtnou coadlllon 1n- 
MltDted or recomineDded by him [Monroel 
vUI embrace tbe whole sphere of m; obli- 
l>ttoB& To tbe topic of Internal ImproTe- 
B«nt emphatlesIlT orged by bim at bis 
InaaxntatJOD, I rtcnr with peculiar aatli- 
faetlon. It Is that from whtcb. I am salls- 

Aed, the Iin)x>rn mllllOUS of nnr nnntar- 

Itj wbo are In fatare ages t 

continent will derWe 


tbelr most ferreut 

itltsde to the founders of tbe Union ; 
' In whtcb the beaeflceDt sctlon of lis 
^ ~""' ■" "" deeply felt and 

, iubject will be settled i 

udwle^ed to the commoD satlsCac 
MIL and^eTery apeealallTe scruple .. 
aomd b7 k practical public blesslns." 

Dabt.— The ] 

nbllc debt of the 
e Rdmlulstratlon of 


Id hla Second Aimnal Mesnaffe (paae 924) 
the President says: "It Is well for 
■ leadmoi- ■ ■ - ■• 

1 eipedlenta l 

anlnc with steady end lufleilble iwrwier- 
ancc tbe total discharfre ot the debt." Id 
his Third Annoal Uessaee (pare 9S2) be 
Min : '"The deep aollcituds felt by. our 
doaaaa of all classes thronshout tbe union 
fin- tbe total dlaeharce of the public debt 
will apologtie for the eamesfaiesa witb 
whieb I deem It my duty to artn tbis topic 


9TT1. St the close of his admlulatra- 
Prnldrnt Adams was able to say : 

e reported 

. 1828, of 

U.8fil.B72.83 : with a prospect ot a balance 
of OTer SO.O(X).000 on tbe Ilrst of the com- 
tBK year. "The receipts for the present 
TMT have amonnted to near two milllnns 
■MMv ituts waa anticipated it the com- 
■nwmeot of the last session of Cauaresa," 
gl»e«rr.—"Tb» Atrtean Bla« TrmJe," 

•aid President Adam* In hla First Annul 
Message (pa«e 87G). "has Ions been exclud- 
ed from the ase of our aag. and If some few 
cllliens of our country hsTe continued to 
set tbe laws of tbe Union, as well as those 
-• "•■■— -ind^^liQmanlly, a t_ defiance by par- 

■ of ottter nations less 

tal citlncliDD ot tbe trade than ou 
— '-'-nslty of feeling with which 


President loathed i , ^ ™. ,^ .„ 

fullest force when, as et-Presldent he re- 
turned to ConKress sod, alagle- banded. 
fouKht the pro-slarerj forces and brought 

, *<^i'm ff. Joibn Qnlncy; 

Annual inessageH of, 865, 91S, 944, 

Astronomical obaeFvatory, establiah- 

ment of, Tecommeuded bj, 602. 
Biographical sketch of, 897. 
Commissi oner to negotiate treaty 

with Sweden, nomination of, 254. 
Death of, annoanced and honon to 

be paid memory of, 2477. 
£lectioD of, notification of, 668. 

Beplj of, 858. 
Finances disenssed by, S69, 923, 952, 

Foreign Policy discnsaed by, 862, 868, 

884, 895, 903, 922, 9S0. 
Inaugural address of, S60. 
Internal Improvementa discnsied br. 

International Gongresa at Panama 

discasaed by. (See Panama, lath- 

mns of.) 
Minister plenipotentiary of the 

United States to tbe court of Bna- 

sia at St. Petersburg appointed by 

President Hadison, Jane 26, 1809, 

Oath of office, notifies Congress of 

time and place of taking, 859. 
Portrait of, 857. 
Privats secretary of, aassnlted while 

delivering message to Congreas, 966. 
ProcIamatioDs of — 

Commercial intercourse with Brit- 
ish colonial ports suspended, 041. 

Discriminating duties suspended on 
vessels of — 
Hanover, 070. 
Italy, 942. 

Extraordinary session of Senate, 

Secretary of State, 604. 

Correspondence in regard to claims 
against France, 834. 
State of tbe Union, discussed by, 865, 

916, Q44, 978. 
Tariff discosaed by, 979. 
Tribute paid memory of Jefferson 

and Adnins by, 930, 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

AdamBOn Law. <Bm Bailroada, Bight- 

htmr Pay.) 
AddiMn, Tm, impieument of leunen 

from, 2772. 
Adrtalaa, intenutional exhibition at, 

diseuBsed, 611(L 
AdmlalMtratton. — Tbls term li general Ir 
applied to tbe Pruldent and bK Cabinet. 
Tba Pmldent u chief ezecntlre oIDcer of 
the nation mar direct, wlthoat conBnlta- 
tloB, the acta o( anj departmental chief. 

fnl^ aolelr br tbe Conatltntlon. Be la 
anthorlied, howerer, to coninlt the heada 
ol Departmenta. Waahlngton consulted 
with bla Attomer-General and Betretarle* 

iKiit, the 
met^lr a 

Admission of Statu.— Th« Dedarattoa of 

of stale. War, and the Treaanrr. 
1798 tbe Narr Department waa er' 

Benjaniin Stoddert, Ita chief 

oOeer, waa admitted to the Frealdent't 
conncll. The Foatmaater^Oeneral were 
not called Into council nntU 18S9, during 
William T. Ban? 'a Ihcnmbener. Secia- 
tariea of the Interior, o( Agrlcnltnre and of 
Commerce and Labor were Inrited to aeata 
at the council table Immedtatel]' upon the 
eatabllehment of tbelr Departmenta. 
AdmlnL— 41ie hlgheat rank In tbe United 
fltataa NaTT. The word la derived from the 
Arable amlr«l. and meaaa "chief of the." 
It waa ear^ uied in England aa the title of 
the commander of the navr. In tbe United 
States the rank waa flrat created eapeclallr 
to confer honor npon David G. Farragnt. 

Jnlr 11, 16S2, upon recommendstion of 
Prealdeot Lincoln, Faminit, then referred 

to conrleonalv ' " - .^.- 

dore, received t 

Hoat of the State* that have been ad- 
mitted aince the formation o( the original 
Dnion have achiCTed atatebood from a con- 
dition of territorial organlxatlon preacrlbed 
KCongreaa, althongh aome have not cona 
roogh thla proceaa. Bach territorial or- 
ganltatlOD waa flrat eatabllahed b* Cod- 
greaa in Julr. 17ST, when It paeaed the ordl< 
nance pravldlog a aovemment tor the 
Nortbweat Terrltorr Ta. c). The method 
of direct admlsalon la Ulaatmted by Ver- 
mont, vblcb waa formed ont ot terrltorr 
claimed br New York and New Hampablrei 
Teiaa, which was annexed ; and Calltomla. 
whldi waa admitted eoon alter the UezlcaA 
war, wlthont waiting to be onanlMd aa a 
Terrllorj. The naual iteps br irtilch a 
Terrltorr becomea a Stat* are: <1) A petl> 
"-- *- Coureaa expreaalng tbe dealre of 
le for admlealon ; 12) an e ' " 
, — jd by Congrea* atatlos t""- 
a,pf admlsalon ; 13) tbe adop 

t pasaed bf Congrea* atatloc the coDdT 
-^_r .„. ' Hon of a 

3 and the election of State olB' 

cera br the people : and (6) a proclamation 
br tbe Prealdent announcing that the Terrl- 
torr baa become a State. 

The question of tbe admlailoB of Kanw^ 
under a constitution which permitted slaT- 

, and the offlcer serving aa second 

d ot those Oeeta ahonld have the 

: of Vice Admiral. Under that law 

Frank F. Fletcher, Thomaa B. Howard and 
Walter Cowlea were named a* Admlrala The 
Admlral'a flag baa a navy blue backgroond, 
on which tour atars are arranged like the 
pofnta of a diamond Id tbe middle of the 
pennant. The rank of Admiral In the navy 
J. .„ ti„t (,( General In the 

that of TIee Admiral to Lieutenant General, 
Rear Admiral (first nine claas) to Maior 
General and Bnr Ailmlral (second nine 
claaa) to Brigadier General. 
Admiral, revival of grade of, recoin- 

nended, 6345. 
Admiral F, Tordenaklold, The, appro- 
priation in behalf of ownen of, ree- 
omvended, 838S. 

tlHU* aent colonlsls Into the territory t* 
help form a conatltntlon, and the anlmoal- 
tlea betweeu these became so bitter aa to 
caoae riot and bloodehed. (Bee Kanaaa ; 
Lecompton Constitution; Wyandott* Cod- 

FroTlalDna for the admission of New 
Mexico and Arlaona Into the Union aa 
States were made by Chapter 310 of tha 
acts of tbe Second Session of the alz^-flrat 
CougrcsB. approved June 2% 1910. 0»- 
stttntlonal couveDtlona were held In both 
Territories under Che provisions of tba 
above-mentioned act. State ConstltatlanB 
were framed and submitted to the pimim 
for ratlllcatloa and were adopted. The 
CoDstltntlon of Arlaona havlDg eontahied 
a nrovlslon providing for the recall of the 
Judiciary by the electors and tb* Conatlttl- 
tioD of New Mexico having contained a 
clBuae "attempllng to annul and aet asMa 
tbe boundary lines heretofore leitallr run" 
between tbe Territory of New Mexico and 
tbe Btafe of Texas, aatd ConBtllutlooa failed 
to receive tbe approval of tbe Prealdent and 

At the . 

. Goo<:jlc 

Encyclopedic Index 

.. Naw Uexlco snd Arlioott 

upoB SA aqiial footbiK wlOt tta orlsliial 
BMtM" WM Mloptad, wblch admitted Imth 
T«rrltoii«a to Btrnteliood MDdltlaiiUI; : the 
condllloa b«bu th« aUmlnatlDD of ttie objec- 
tloaabl* praniloiu froin tbe State Coiutl- 
taUou adopted br the people of the re- 
■pecdra Terrltorlea. Tbe flnt State to be 
Iptaicd to Ute orii^al Union of thirteen 
state* waa Vensoat, In ITVl, and tbe laat, 
Arlcona, In 1»12. 

The tallowlDS table ahowa the order and 
date of adnUnuiD to the Union ef tbe eev- 
ct«l atatea. ai well aa the order and date 
of ratlBcatlon Of tbe Couatltotion bj the 
ortCbkal atataa ' 

Ratified th* 

.._.._ CoDBtitOtiOB 

1— Dahvan. D». 7. 1787 

- ~ ..Dee. 12,1| — 

I (am abo the i 
eral BUtea; Beetmetnictloii; Beato- 
Acta for admieaion of certain Bonth- 

eni Btat«s veto«d, 3846 3818. 
Beeominendationa regarding, 3033, 
AdmttUitM^ Tlis, telEnra of, oa coaat 

of Galifomift, 24S6. 
AmaunUew. — llie aclfnee of naTlfaUng 
the air baa aa anthmtle blatotr dating 
teck to A. D. er. Tbe free flrlns balloon 
•r acniatat ■• a aphertoU bax flued wltb ma 
wboaa oecUe SiaTltj la l&hter than the 

n elonfated en- 


A dirigible balloon haa ■_ _ 
velope. and 1« equipped with a 
pellen and a rudder, and 
a modecata wind. 

ririns machinei wblctt are not lifted In- 
to the air by gai bags are generallj known 
aa aeroplinea. They ace reBpeetlTel; claia- 
Ifled aa monopIaneB, biplanes, trlplanea, etc. 

— . — Menberge. June 13, 1784 need 
au oEflal Tenel for reconnolterlns the poal- 
tlou of the encmr, and balloona were oaed 
durlnx the drll war In the United Statea 
and br the French at the alege o( Pari*. 

Eiperlmenta with plane anrtacea driven 
at blsh apeed were flrat BQCceaatal In 1848, 
when the EnsllHb InTcnter BeoaoD flew 
the Drat aeroplane. In Anurlca tbe plon- 
eera In mechaalcal lllaht were Octave 
Channte, of ChlCBKo, anf A. U. Hecrins. 

Tbe arn anbatantlal advance In Byiiig 
machinea wa* made by Llllentlial In G«f- 
maoy. In the aeyenttea and eikbdea. HIa 
reaearcbea, followed by practical demonitra- 
tlon of aeroplanea. have formed the baals of 
all labeeqaent ftchieremeiit. Profeeaor 
Lansley, of the Snitbeonlan loallttitlan tn 
Washington, began experlmentlnB In 18SS, 
and Bew acroaa the Potomac River In 1806. 
The Wright brotbera, Wllbar and OrrlUe, 
following the llnea of Langley and Llllen- 
thnl. made tbelr flnt fllghii under motor 
power In IMS. July 4, 1908, Qlenn H. 
Curtlaa flew In a biplane at the rate of 
lortr mllea an boar. 

International meetings, the poailblllty of 
aecnrlog government contracts and olers of 
prliea by newapapera and aviation aodatlea 
gave great Impetus to tbe development of 
aeroplanes In 1809, 1910 and 1911. The 
Wrlgbt brothera and Glenn H. Cnrtlaa con- 
tinued to be tbe loremoit experimenter! In 
America, aa well aa winning fame and 
nrlies abroad. In September, 1908, Orvllle 
Wright had almost met the government re- 

anlrementa for a practical aeroplane for aw 
1 the army, when one of nil propeller 
bladea broke during a flight at Fort Hyer, 
Va.. and the machine tell to earth, killing 
Lieut. Bel fridge, U. 8. A., who waa a 

Kwenger, and aerloaslr Ininrlng Wright. 
J^. 1909, Orvltle Wright fulfllled all 
the epeclflcatlona laid down by the govem- 
ment and won a bonne of f2S,000 for ex- 
ceeding the atlputated speed, and the 
Wright machine was pnrchaaed by the gov- 

s the 

8 hours, 46 minutes 

, ng bi ie09, winning tbe 

_ Gordon Bennett Cud and tB.oCO. A 
« weeks previous he had won tbe Selm- 
!o American Cup for tbe Second tlm& 
le New York World offered a prise of 
0,000 for the flrst aviator to 6j from 
bany to New York or vice versa. Cur- 

a made tbls trip, winning the priie. 

Hay Se, leiO. He covered the distance ID 

o .. .. _i__... „^ mg ^inj an aver- 

— June 80, 1910, 

* prlie offered 

ny tbe New Tork Tlmee end^ the Phlla- 
detphla Ltigtr by flying from New York 
to Philadelphia carrying a message from the 
Mayor of New York lo the Oovemor of 
Pennsylvania, and retumlnf. Nov. 7, 1010, 
Philip P. Pamalee flew from Dayton t« 
Columbna, O.. a distance of 6S mile*. In 

— .tea, carrying 200 ponoda of B»er- 

Cbarlea T. Weymann, an Amert- 
the James Gordon Bennett Cup at 


Messages and Papers of the PusidetUs 

wmr hu sCtracteil ttie BttaDtloQ of mUltarr 
n Ot All «aantrlea, partlcalarl; In Barope 
— k — g arinameata are tbe rule. Tbelr 

, It ba* been decermlned, baTe 

been (or ■codUhk and dropplni explosives 
or eombnitlble*. The dobI ■acmmlnl ex- 

Gtlmenta *t bomb-droppiiiB nude In Amer- 
i were tbow of Clifford^ B. HBrmon. »t 
Ulneoli, L. 1., N. T. Oud* to bring down 
moroplasea taaTe been (Iven »me attention. 

^fjh.rT»*.»Ti (called Xboruaan by tha 
uatifea) la an Independent AMatle atata 
on the noiUiven frontier of India. lU 
aiea 1* eatlmated at 248,000 Ecgllah 
aqnare mile* and Its population t' " 

and tbe Kntpp worka. at Eesen, Oennanr. 
have produced a sod capable of abootlng 
from S0,000 to 3S,000 feet _lnto_ the Blr, 

_[ the cloie of 1910 France had tblrtr 
aeroplanes bolldlng and tn commission for 
mlllurj aerrlee. The Arat use of the aero- 
plane undei conditions of actual warfare 

occurred at Cludad. Jnarei. Heilcq, In t 
ruaiT, 1911, when Charlea K. Eamll 
croased tbe Ueilcan border from tbe " 

«d States, made a circuit orer the tecritor; 

] Inspect tbe 

armj and dlseoTerM that tbe InsDrgents 
bad retired to distant monntaia taatnesses. 
Aa a naTKl atudliarj tbe aeroplane prom- 
laea to be of great value In rising •'> - 
lielabt of a mfle or more to Inr-" 

wide expanae of ocean Tislble fi 

an elevation. The use of the aeroplane In 
war mar reTolutlonlie mliitarr tactics b; 
dlscoTerbg the exact locallou. armament 
and number* of tbe enem;. and might prove 
deatractlve by dropping eiploslTes npon 
battleships In the enemr'i lines. 

Dntlni 1911 and 1912 s number of night* 
vera undertaken to show the possibility of 
earrrlng mall by aeroplane. In connec- 
tion with tbe aVlatlan meet at tha Nassau 
Boulevard Aerodrome on Long Island, 
N, Y., In September, 1911. 
was maintained and lalti 
Mlneola, and delivered .. , — , — 
On one occasion Postmaster-Qeneral mitu- 
cock waa a passenger on a biplane and per- 
sonally carried a mall sack. 

■ " — orld records for cross-conntry fly- 
>__^__ — .__ . ^..^ {g 

aerial post 
the postmaster. 

1 daring tbe New York t 

Los Angelea flight of Calbralth P. Rodsera, 

who left Sbeepsbead Bay, N. T.. on Sun- 

',T. 1911, and completed bis 

..-. .eft Sbeepsbead Bay, N. T. 

day, Bept '"^ — - — 

flight - ■' 

on Sooday, I 

B, at Pasadena, Cal. Rodgers flew a 
wrtgbt biplane, and during his long trip the 
machine was repeatedly repaired, so great 

s the strain s 

._ ._..g Jonrney In the 

air. ^lodgers Is eatlmated to have cover^ 
4,281 miles, althonsb the actual route 
mapped out was but 4.01T miles. 
Jan. 18, IBlliB, Ely flew from aviation 

I repeatedly repaired. 

.. . .,.. . Jonrnt.., _ — 

n have covered 

, lionsb the actual ~ 

I out was but 4.01T miles. 

"3, 1811. B, Ely flew froc 

r 8an Francisco to deck of U. — 

Cruiser P«tmtyUxMia, anchored In San 
Francisco Bay, In flight of sixteen minutes' 
duration. Bly, Oflng a Curtlsa biplane, 
landed on a ^leclally Dullt platform at tbe 
stern of tbe vessel. Later he auccessfulty 
■rose from the deck and relumed to the 
aviation Seld. This was tbe first aeroplane 
to land un>n the deck of a vessel. 

Stephen HcOordoD established a new crosa 
country passenger-carrying flight record, 
Apr. 1, 1S16, when be flew tram Newport 
News to Washington and return, about 800 
mllea. In 4H houra. 

(See also Army, 84flMl Oorpt; Navy, fly- 
inp ConiSi and for practical uses In war, 
see European War, Zeppellnf.) 
Affftli^ ForelgiL (See Foreign Affaire, 
Foreign Policy of United Btatea, 
and also the several powerB.) 
ExpenBS Inetirred in, for whleh no 
provjaion was made hj law, 108. 
Beport on, tranamitted, S800. 

The AtgTia_ _ ,._ 

dominant since 1T4T, eapeclallv Id Kanda- 
har. Next came tbe OhIIsals (mllltar* 
and commercial) and the Tajiks (aborlgl- 
nalB, who are cnltlrators or retail trad- 
era). On tha I ndo- Afghan frontier are 
many Patban tribes, wno are much Influ- 
enced by the mullabs. All are Bnnnl Ho- 
hammedaDB. except tbe Haiaraa and Eiill- 
baebes, who belong to tha Bhllte sect. 
Tbe nstional tongue Is Pushtu. Beeeetly 
stepa have been taken to develop educa- 
tion, hitherto cotitroUed by the If nltaha. 

Phviical Ftaturet. — Moantalna, chief 
among which are tbe Hindu EusB. cover 
Ihree-fourtbs of tbe country, tha eleva- 
tion being generally over 4,0«l feet. There 
— ' three great liver baalns, the Oxua, the 

Qovernmtnt. — Amir of Afghanistan and 
Its Dependencies. HablbuUah Kahn 
("Lamp of the National Religion") suc- 
ceeded his father (Abdur Rahman Khan) 
Oct 3, 1901. Tha Amir (Abdur Bah- 
man Khan) established a strong central 
government and Introduced a regular civil 
and military organisation. Including offlcers 
for public works, posts, police, flnance and 
trade, etc. For the purpoaes of local gov- 
ernment, tbe country Is divided Into six 
provinces, Kabul. Kandahar, Herat. Turk- 
estan, Carrar and Badaksban (with Ka- 
frlstan and Wakhan), which are under 
governors (hakim), with subordinate no- 
bles and Judgea. police and revenue on- 
cers. The Afghau taws are Islamic sacred 
laws, tribal laws, and tboae of the Amir, 
who Is tbe Court of Appest. The law la 
bulky and the criminal law aevere. 

Forelfftt RelatUmt.—Bj agreement with 
tbe Amir, the "buffer State" of Afghan- 
istan has no foreign relatlona with any 
Power except the Government of India. 
The modem history of Afghanistan dates 
from 18S1, when Abdurraban was recog- 
nised as ruler. Tbe British Oovemment 
engaged to preMrve the safety and Integ- 
rity of Afghanistan agaltnt lay uupro-' 
voked attack, provided fbat the Amir acted 
as a friend and ally. By the Anglo-Rus- 
sian convention of Angnst, 1007, Russia 
declared Afghanistan outside the Ruaslan 
sphere of Influence, and envaged to con- 
duct alt her political retutlona with Af- 
gbanlatan through Great Britain, and that 
Great Britain and Rn-sla should enjoy 
equality of commercial fatdlltles. 

ProduoffOA and Indiutry and Commerce.— 
Host of the people are Industrious culti- 
vator^ and the country has become fairly 
settled, peaceful and prosperous. There Is 
excellent Irrigation and alt proBtable soil Is 
ntlllsed. There are generally tiro crops 
a year, one of wheat (tbe staple food). 
barley, or lentils ; the other of rice, 'millet 
malae and dol, while the country Is (ten 
In fmlta Bheep and transport animala 
are bred. Tbe mnnnfactnres Include allk. 
woolen and hair cloths, and carpets. Bait, 
silver, cooper, coal, Iron, lead, ruble* and 
gold are fonnd. The exports to India are* 
mainly fmlts snd nnta, raw wool, and 

8U/ wblle the Imports therefrom ere chief* 
r cotton yam and piece goodiH metals 


Encyclopedic Index 

Inther food^ t»a and ■□c>r. Tbe A(- 
gftMl cuatomB dDtlea are heavy. Then la 
a larce export of vdoI to Fenia and Rna- 
al^ eottoa and allk goodi, sugar, etc., 
bciDS taken in vxcbaDge. 

IVatHptfrlatlon.— The roads are geeerallr 
ODraltabla far wheeled traffic, but are be- 
los In proved. Ooadi are conTeyed by 

Bek-anlmala. The chief trade routes to 
lla are the Kbalbar Paaa, from Kabul 
to Fetfiawar (181 miles), alons which a 
BwtoT Bcrrlce has Iwen established b; the 
Amir, and the rond troni Kandnhnr to 
Quetta (IZS miles). The SlDd-Plshln 
lallwar termtnates it Chamfln aa the 
fmntl«r, es ml lea from Kandahar, from 
whlc^h a floa road of 818 miles runs to 

roBMt.—Capltal, Kabul, aboat IBO.OOO). 
TIm chief commercial center la Kandahar 
<S0.000). (See also Asia.) 
Atogaaik JOmoA (in Gulf of Alaska, 
separated from Alaskan PeDinsnla bj 
Sbelikof Strait), lands in, set apart 
MS public reservation by proclama- 
tion, 5795. 
AfMca. — The ar«a of Africa la 111 mli- 
Uon square miles, about three tlmea that 
of Barope. Its extreme lougltuiiles are IT* 
W. at Cape Verde and Bl' E. at Cape 
GvardafuL The extreme latitudes are 
Cape Blanco ia ST* N. and Cape Agnlbas 
Id 8S* 8.. at a dlataoce of a^ut S.OOO 
mllea. It Is surrounded by seaa on all 
■Ides, eieept in the narrow iilhmua 
thraaEh which Is cut the Sues Canal, and 
may be considered as a great pealnsnla of 
the Enraalaa contineDt. 

The nations of Africa, with the form of 
■oTemment and the capital of each, fol- 

Anm Popnl^ 
Bq. Hilea tioa 
Abnrfnia (Emriie), AdI* Ab- 

dta 890,000 7,000,000 

E%yiit(CoKlomL>)iam).C*lra. 363,200 11.100.000 
Ubi^dtenubliB). MoaniTia. 48,000 1,500.000 

Morooeo (EmtilRj, fai 230,000 B.000,000 

Sodan'tCoiHlamudaia), Khu- 

«UB »BO,000 3,780,000 

DnkB of Booth Afaia (Britidi), 

FteUrio. 470,000 fl.000,000 

Arem diid Population. — lalands adjacent 

to the continent of Africa, their aiie and 

the goremment to which they belauK are : 

Aies Popak- 

Nane and GonnuBSDt Bq. Milea liaa 

Aanai^oo, Britbh 38 ISO 

AavM, pBtMiHK 920 MMX» 

CUMR bUada. SpaiMi. 9.800 300.000 

Cua Vaide Idasb, Portawosaa 1,SOO 180AOO 

Cooacn Uaodi, Fr«Mh TH IVMNO 

MvlaCMSu, Fnaofa. TtMOOMOOMO 

Mad^a, PoitiinNie 810 ISOJWO 

MHBithM.Biitfib. 7)0 STD/MO 

BsiBiGarRnidi 970 180,000 

Soditeaas. BritWi. « 3,000 

8t ffana. BtitlA SO 8,000 

8oeotra.Brlti*...'.V.V.'"::i!I 1,400 13,000 
Pkgtteat PeolKTM.— Africa Is broadly 
a tableiand with few moantatn rangea, 
•xecpt the Alias, tfaounb Imlnted peaks 
rtos -to a eonstderable eleTallon la Abya- 
■iBia, Id East Africa (Kenya. Kiliman- 
jaro and Bnwensori), and In Went Africa 
(Kamemn peak). If an Irreimlar line la 
drawn from B point on the West Cnss^ 
a little Boiith of the ICquntor, to a point 
n*ur the middle of the Red Sea, Africa 
D ba dIvMed Into two nearly eqasl parta 
'-■- -'—— " — "■'- Gi character. 

The northweateni part comprises two re- 
gions of comparatlTe lowland aeparated 
Ey the Atlaa and the plateaus of ^IbesU 

the Uedtterranean, aad the Indian Ocean. 
Both the Senegal and Gambia are niTl- 
gable for aome distance In the rainy aea- 
-"" The moat Important river which 

— " ■tQa\ 

— .„ the pi 

of Luke Tanganyika. From Stanley Falls 
to Stanley Pool, a broad, navigable river 
flows toe 1,000 miles. As these are them- 

water Th carried down to the mouth. Ow- 
ing to the depth of the ocean, the sedi- 
ment deposited does not reach the anrtace 
In the form of a delta, bat forma subma- 
— - -"— - B,000_ (eet ln_ height for over 

800 miles o 

the Vaal and other 

large rlvei_. _ _ 

of Victoria Nyania, the largest lake In Af- 
rica, of abont the area of Scotland, and 
breaks through the plalean to the north 
by the Mnrcblson Falla Into the Albert 
Nysnia, some 1,600 feet below the level Of 
the larger lake. Owing to the Bat char- 
acter of the country aod the large amount 
of water which has no sufficleot outlet, an 
extenalTe snemp vegetation, the "aadd," 
has been formed In tbls part of Its course. 
At Khartum It receives the Blue NIK 
which, with the other Abyssinian rivers. 
Is largely the soorce of ine Nile floods, 
due to the monsoon rains of the Abyssin- 
ian Platean, and further north the At- 
bara, which brings down the allavlum 
which has helped to fertlllie Egypt. From 

this poiDt It r 


ivlgatlon la I 

The e 


North Af- 
rica. Between the Nile and Tunis tbe 
Sahara reachea tbe Mediterranean and 
there are Qo permanent streams. The Sa- 
hara la partly occupied by plateaus and 
mountains and partly by steppes and dea- 
erta which contain oases. Africa Is cut by 
the Equator nearly halfway between Its 
extreme points, so that rather more than 
three-quarters of the cootlnent lies with- 
in the Tropica and recelvea the ann'a 
raya vertically at least once a vcar. Ex- 
cept on the more lof^ maoDtaina, Africa 
haa no areas with cold winters, where the 
tempera tn re Is S2* F. or less for one 
month, or cool summers, which are less 
than 50° V. In any month. It Is, therefore, 
■— — ■ — - If ■ ' ■ —--- -'- — 

_ ■ vecetatlon, except Tn 

conaequence of v — * -* — ■- 

Stltnofmiplty. — 

tlve racea may l> _... ._ _. 

the Semitic and Hnmlllc, Ijelonslne ti 

Cancaalc type In the north, the Negro, and 
tha Hottentot and Bushmen In the aonth. 

PonUcal DivMont. — Africa la appor- 
tioned among the powers of Europe aa fol- 

Great Britain — Basntoland, onjuunuBiiuiu 
Protectorate. Cai>e Colony. Central Africa, 
East Africa Protectorate, Uganda Protector- 
ate, Zanslbar Protectorate. Maurltlna. Na- 
tal, NUer Coast Protectorate, Territory 
of the Royal Niger Co., Bonth Africa. West 
Africa, Zulaland and Islands, and the Boer 

I and OnlnM 



Messages and Papers of the PresidetOs 


CoMt, Coiup Beclon, SonuUI Coaat, MaOa- 
gaacar nnd iMtDdi. 

_aeriiiaiiT^-Togolaiid, CnDwnMiu, Sontb 
Weat AMm, But AMca. 


e Congo State. 

Ara> Papuk- 

8q. Mita> lion 

iDdepsndMit 1,700,000 2aOOO,000 

Balun 800,000 ISM>0,000 

BiiCuh 3,132,840 40.000XKIO 

Fnooh (,300.000 34,000,000 

Gcrmu 930/MO 16,000.000 

Kalltn Sei,QOO 1,7M,000 

PonuKuue SOOJWO 9.000.000 

E^MDiib as,oao 

(See Dnlon ot Soutb Africa.) 

■dbLq portion of the btghlanda of eastern 
equatorial Africa. The surface In east 
alope* groduBll; to lonlaada ot coast; 
weat and north west to Taller of Upper 
Nile. The pdndpal river la the Nile; 
Tana and Jaba chief rlverB eoterlng Indi- 
an Ocean. Baa many IntereBtlng lakes ; 
embracea northern half of Victoria Nrao- 
■a. Folltlcallr tbe dlalrlct la divided 
amoDK the protectorates ot East Africa, 
Uganda, and Zamlbar. 

Satt Africa Protectoratt Inclndea the 
coast from J aba River to Oerman East 
Africa and Inland to Uganda borders. 
Hlgber plateau b, clothed with Ininrlant 
KraaseB, eapeclatlr adapted to stock rela- 
ing. Mombasa, capital and chief cIIt, has 
a line harbor; popolatioa, 30.000. Lamu 
and Ktamani, chief ports In tbe north ; 
Vanga and l^kaangn, sonth. 

Voando Proteetorat« came under Bphere 
of British influence 1890 i inclndes Uganda 
proper. Usoga to the east, and Uoforo and 

Zanzibar Protectorate, — Zanilbar, an Im- 
portaoC MohammedaTi power noder Imans 
of Maskat lese-lSOT ; IndepeDdence ran. 
firmed 1861 : placed under BrUlah p'otcc- 
tlon 1890. Zanzibar, free port ; cblef trnde 
centera In this region : Mohammedlam 
prevails ; Christian missions established. 

GERMAK P0BSB8SI0NS.—aerma» Eatt 
Africa. — German posBeHSloDs In East Af- 
rica were acquired 1885 to 1890. Sphere of 
InOnecce embraces a const line of shout 
620 miles, stretches south from British 
East Africa to Portuguese poaaesslons and 
westward to Lakea Nvaaa and Tangan- 
jlka. Cblef producta: Millet, bauanaa, 
sls«l, cocoanuta. ctovea, castor oil. sugar 
cane, and vegetables. Natives have large 
banana plantations, atao cultivate Indian 
com and pulse. On coast lands are Ger- 

nilla, tobacco, sod India rubber ; In more 
elevated dlatrlcts coffee Is grown. Among 
natives the goat Is tbe most common do- 
mestic animal ; cattle and sheep a!so 
rntsed- Binorts, Ivory, sisal. India rubber, 
coffee. Chief seaports : DBT-^s-Balaam. 
BrigBmoyo, EllwB. Protestant mlsalon so- 
cieties, 7; Roman Catholic. 3. 

Kamtruir extends between BrltlBh Ni- 
geria and French Equatorial Africa. Ba- 

France ceded over 1 00.000 sousre milea to 
Qennan}', giving colony outfeta to Coogo 
Basin. Value ot Imports. 16.065,000; 
chlefl? cottons, salt. rice, spirits, wood. 
and tobacco ; exports, 14.740.000 : rubber 
npotted. 11,800,000; palm oil, 1^61,000; 

popDlation, '22,000; buea, aeat ot goveltf 

— Eritrea, Soma 111 and, Tripoli. 

-oringal — Angola, the Conga, Guinea, 
EMt Africa and Islands. 

Spain — Bio de Oro, Adrar. Fernando Po 
and Islands. 

Tnrkey — BgTpt. 

°— —- a— The < 

S by Leopold 11, King of Belgian 
■"'■ed bi Stanley, first aovernoi-u.-- 
loundaries of state deUned by neU' 

trsllty declurstlons 


riarsiions laoo ; aiaie pini:«i u"- 
ilgnly of the King, who, 1S8», 

I wi. — verelgn rights to Bel- 
Belgium In 1007. The 

s many trlbnta 

bequeathed 1 

the great natural feat'ureB' of the" c__ . . 
Cblef products : rubber. Ivory, palm aata, 
and palm oil ; coffee and tobacco thrive. 
Boma, capital and port on Congo Btver. 
Banana, seaport on Congo River. 

ANQOLA. — Discovered by Portuguese In 
1486. PosBesslans extend (rom mouth ot 
Congo to Cnnene Blver, over 1,000 mile*; 
surrounded Icland by Belgian Congo. Brlt- 
lah Sonth Africa, and German Southwest 
Africa, on palm not found below 10" 
south ; coffee grows wild In nearly all hilly 
districts, chief eiport (rom AmbrU; cotton 
Is grown In district of Mossamedes, sugar 
Id lowlands ; other productions are robber, 
wax, vegetable oils, cocosDUts, oxen, Bsh. 
and Ivory. Trade Is largely with Portugal. 
In 1908 1,741 vesBels of 1,003,004 ton* 
entered the four ports. Malachite, Cop- 
per, salt, petroleum, and Iron found la 
large quantlcies ; gold also exists. B. 
Faulo de LoaodEi. capital and seaport Port 
Alexander, seat of dsh salting Industry. 

Tbe drat trading post on Qabnu was cb- 
tabllsbed by the^'rench Ip lS4;i: authority 
extended to Cape Lopea and Ogowe Blver 
in 180^ : Interior between Ogowe and 
Congo explored by de Grazia 1S78-80. 
large tract of country anoexed ; French 
claima recognized by Berlin Conterencs 
1885. Region east of Kameron and north 
to Lake Tchad conceded to French ISB4. 
Blnce then growth by exploration and mil- 
itary occupatloo. in 1906 three aatono- 

colODles formed : Gabun, HIddle 

>, and UbBngl-Shart-Cbad. The conn- 
I well vfatered and covered with ei- 
I foreats. Cotton. tobBcco, clntia- 
>epper, gums, resliis, and dye wood* 
oJ^uced. Ubrevllie, caplul ot Qa- 
d seaport. 



s of Lake 

ike Nya 
Ions, ha 

ton goods, pro vIl , , .... 

ports, coffee, cotton, tobacco. Blantyi 
chief town; Zomba, seat o( admlnlBtTatla 


The territory lying between tbe Molopo *nd 
Zambesi rivers and extending from tbtt 
South African Republic and Hatabeleland 
west to German Soalhwest Africa.. Rail- 
way extends from Buluwayo to the Cape. 

RHODES/A,— Tbe territory within the 
British sphere of Inflnence to the north of 
Bech nana land and the Union of Sontb 
Africa. Divided Into Northern and Sonth- 
ern Rhodesia by the Zambesi. Foreats ot 
hardwood timber abound. India rubb^. 
Indigo, ana cotton IndlEeooua. Conntiy 
rich Id minerals; gold, silver, copper, tin, 
lend. coal, and antlmonv eilat. SaliabnTT, 
capital of Boatbem Bbodeeia. 



Bncyciopedic Index 


1.2(10 mllea Irom ' 

■^' ired br P — "' 

il India 
Now a BrlUib colou;. NHpoii 
prlKtord here 181B lo llj^fl. Area, ii 
■qoaie mll«. PopalatlOD, 3,ZB0. CJI- 
■»t* omd tod acreeable. Capital, Jainea- 

MADAaA80AR.—AD laland known to 

the ancleou and eailT Arabi : Ilrst de- 

"1 by Ma_rTO__ Pol^oj twilBmveted by 

.._j In- 
UDdnceiJ ID lHlu-lH:itti wac between 
rreach and natlre* In 1682 1884 and 1HU5, 
mulled In French prolectorale. The ii- 
land and Iti dependencle* were declared a 
french colony In 1KS6. 

MiURITIVS.—lBltLtii In Indian Ocean, 
""" — '■— — ^t of UadagsHcar. _ Discovered 

tropical fruits; dates a regnlar crop In 
ioiittL Wealth of Arabs eonslsti of cat- 
tle, horaea, sheep, and oatrlches. Hann- 
factaies comprise carpets, lesaes, leather, 
woulens. silks. Jewelrr, saddlery, earthen- 
ware, etc. Mineral depoalls — undeveloped 
— lucluae Iron, gold, silver, msngsDese, 
antimony, lead, etc. ; line amethysti found. 
Fes Is the no n hern capltsl and lead Ins 
commercial city : Morocco southern capi- 
tal and has maoofactures of morocco 
leather. Tangier, seaport and chief center 
of trade. Euucatlon Is limited to teach- 
Inga from Koran. Mohammedanism pre- 
dominant rellElon. The SutUn ta the head 
of the religion. The army comprises 
aboat 12,0UU men under European dlscl- 
vUne and an additional force of 8,000 - ' 
Iltla and 10,000 infaoti 

Spoken laDsuage French : oHlclal Engile 
Fgrt Lonla, capital. 

FRBNOB POtlBEaeWNB. — Aloeria.— 
Orlgtnal Inhabllanta were Namldlans or 
Berbera, conquered by UamaDs and Vau- 
dala. tarklsh poaaesalon IDia to 1710. 
Piratical power Aiteenlh to nlueieentti cen- 
to rtes i defeated by the United »tates In 
1816. Al«lera taken by Fraoce ISIB ; Cod- 
nantlne, 1837. The Kabyles were snb- 
dued and Abd-el-Kader waa captured In 

rttali.— iDTaded by French 1270; by 
Spaalah, 163&; became a Turkish nrnv- 
Inca IS76 : ruled by bey* and loi 

-. 1 piratical a 

rtance 1881. 

" 1 colony c 

It t 

occupied by 

I of four munlcl- 

, ot Bt. Louis, the capital of 

tlw colony : Dakar, a fortlQed navsl sta- 
tlon and aeat of OovemmeDt General of 
French W»st Africa ; EtuBsque ; and < 

area 43S square — "— ■ ' — ' • 

admlolatrBtlon, i . _, __ 

Fnneli Ovinta waa detached from Sene- 
gal Id 1800 and Drat known as RlTlerea 
da Sod Colony. The coast territory cx- 
tcnda Inland between Sierra Leone and 
Ponagoeae Guinea. 

la and 10,000 Infaotry. 


Adml'DlstratlTely part of IpaTn. 

raountalnouB, diTeralBed by plains and Tal- 
ley a. Chief producta. sugar, cochineal, 
and wine ; otiier produets, tobacco, siii^ 
oil, wheal, barley, and tropical trulta. 
Capital, Santa Crua de Tenerllfe : chief 

Sjrl, Palmas. Hellgloa, Roman CBthoUe. 
lo de Oro and Adrar— area, 73,000 square 
miles ; populatloii, 12,000 — under OoTcrnor- 
ablpof Canary Islands with Subgoremor 
at Itlo de Oro. Fernando Po and Anna- 
boD, fertile, mountainous IslaDds >□ Qulf of 

Verde itfaada discovered and colonized by 
Portuguese 1400. Has Ooorlsblog cin- 
chona plantatlooa. Other products fnclude 
coffee, cacao, tobacco, sogar, brandy, palm 
oil, fruits. Cattle, goats, piga. numeroua. 
Manufacturea : Bait, soap, linens, pottery, 

lalnud. Chief prodacts: 
luuuci, ~a., oil, seeds. Ivory, and tuun. 
Capital, Bolsma. 

SI. Thomas and Prtnee fslanils. — Bt. 

i Brtllab Gold Coaat. embrae- nrlant 

._ on northeaaL 

atretchea Inland between To- 

' lb LagoB J and northward 

UigjCoDt •od other 

to the French Military T'crriCortes. 

Ms ars Inula, formed Into a prote 

In 1009. consiiu of Ave districts, Trana, 
Brakna. Qorgol. Quldlmaka and Tagaiit. 

Opper Benegat and tligvr, eitends be- 
tween iTory Coast on the aonth and Al- 
gerian apbere on the north. 

MOROCCO, the HaartUaU of tba an- 
denta: conquered by the Arabs about 700. 
Preseat dynaaiy, Scheriffa, pretended de- 
aeendanta of Mohammed, established 1518. 
Moat floariahing period of cooDtry 1S70- 
160S. Slavery of Christians abolished 
1814: piracy prohibited 1817. The south- 
ern frontier toward Sahara unsettled. The 
miiolry comprlaea a "Tell" or lerlH" m- 
I opening opoD the Allaollc. i 

iAyasblu 14,tf^ _.. 

— .. desert region of C. 

hara. Coaat dlatKct Iniereaected by nn- 
■Mrona short rlvera. The climate Is warm 
and generally healthful. The northwest 
baa snlBcleat rain from October to March ; 
drougbta not nncomoioD In southwest. Boll 
of coaat region and mountain valleys fer- 
tile: ylelda abundantly under mdest culti- 
vation. Products : Wheat, barley. Indian 
MOi Mmp, bCBsa, and tropical and anb- 

. . than on moinlnnd. Chief prod- 

DclBi colfee, cacao, cinchona : sugar aod 
vanilla also produced. Capital, Cidade de 
Bao Thome. Chief town and port (Prince 
Island) Sao Antonto. 

Hadelra Jilandi. — Islanda koown to aa> 
dents and visited by Arabs In the twelfth 
century ; redlacovered and colonlaed by 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 


Slerro LtotM. — Northwnt of Liberia. 

«IeT*ted pJatcBna. Fomta r 

fertile, rioe ,-■"-- 

Tlor ; cotton i 
wild. Export I 
keniels, KlDBer 



Vklital/ ^fr 

Important MHport 

> tne I 

■ .J". .' 

, . __t hj Daliomey, and 

two dlTMolu, Northern and Southern Nl- 

gria. About Dlne-teDtlia of th« area waa 
rmerlr within the tarrltorlei of the Roy- 
al Nicer Company. Id 1S64-8T whole of 
Nigeria waa declared to t>e under Brttlsb 
protection ; Ib 1900 It waa traasfened ta 
■%. — ^ Imperial administration. 

Xorthmn HigeTia. — Product* of the low- 
coDDtry, palm oil ; Inland region, rubber, 
ground nuta, eheabntter, Ivor- •-''-- " — 

', hldcB, 

B aud 8t. Pauls. 

._.„„ ■ Bt. Jobi 

Cllnuite anbeallbful. teasouB wet ana ary ; 
hottest month January; heat mitigated by 
■Imoat eoDBtaot land and wa broeira. Cot- 
ttt — renowned for Its eicellenM— and (rin- 
ger are chief produeta. Malie. rice, cotton, 
arrowroot, angar pa DC. ccmls. and *ege- 
titbles rpadlly produced. FmIti irs sbna- 
dant and finely aavored. EiporCn — Lend- 
ing articln, coRee, palm oil und palm 
kernel!, robber, cocoa, sngnr, arrowroot. 
Ivory, hide*, and plansava. Imports— tex- 
tiles, clotblDg, proTlnlons. hardware, tobac- 
co, fnmltnre, etc. Monrovta, capital. 

Region annexed bv Qermany In 188<. Po«- 
sesslons extend along the coast B30 miles. 

EQVPT.—nas at earllpBt spsIs o( cItII- 
Icatlon renowned alike for Its great an- 
tiquity and former anlpndor. M™Jp^^ his- 
tory begins wllb the conquest br Mofanm- 
medsns. S38 A.D. : taken by Mamrlnkps, 
12S0: becnrae TuTklmh proTtnce, 1517: ID- 
*aded bv Nanoleon. 17BS: restored to Tur- 
key, ISOl. The New era heican wllb Me- 
hemet All, launder of present dynasty ; 
reigned, iaOfi-49. The Bnei Canal wan 

are the Blver Nile and tbe deaert. The 
Mile has Its source tn Victoria NyanM: 
by its annual Innndatlon and depoalt of 
loam Is great fertiliser of Egypt. 

Climate of Upper Egypt contlnnoaaly hot 
end dry ; farther north not season Is April- 
Novemiwr: temperate, December-Usrcb. 

Rainfall scanty, except in della. Vast res- 

■- ' — "~od waters of Nile at Asaoan : 

1 constantly increasing. Per- 

, cereals ; sam- 

groaao dues, sncsDuiLcr, ivury, □iqch, iitq 
Stock, ostrich feathera. Cotton growing ia 
carried on; tobacco also grown. Mlnemls; 
Tin ore Is In rich deiwslts. illver slao 
found. Protestant mlsatonary societies 
hsTe Industrial schools. 

jSonfArrw liigeTla. colony and protector- 
ate of Sontbero Nigeria and Lagoa, Th« 
chief produeta are palmnil]. cotton, cocoa, 
eolfee, iTory, hides, earlhnuts snd fruits. 
Ulaerals: uangaaese ore. tin ore, lignite, 
and monaslte. Lagos Is tbe capltnl and 
Important port. RsIIwuya, In sll Nigeria 
over TOO mllea, conneetlni; Lagos. Jebba, 
Znuem, and Sano; telegraph mileage, 

' British BonaHiand. — Became a protec- 
torate 1881. Region extends from LabadO 
to Zlyads, wltb an area of 68.000 square 
miles. Imparts: chiefly rice, textiles, and 
dates; exports: skins, hides, <!•"-■-•- •— "- 
—I, cattle, Kheep, r-^ " 

irrlgste^ , 

cnnTsI Irrigation assure 
crops annnally ; In wint 
mer, cotton, sugar, and r^n: , muiuiuu, 111.-E, 
malie, and vegetablea. The Nile Valley 
knd delta are densely peopled. The Copt& 
deacendanta of ancient Bgyptlaea, dwell 
chiefly In Upper Egypt. Arabic languan 
ta spoken. Cairo, capital, on Nile ; fonnd- 
ed by Saracens. 070 ; contains mnsenm of 
sntlqtililes, masqnes. Alexandria, founded 
832 B.C.. commercial center and clilef set- 
port. Port Said, at moutb of auei CsnaL 
Bsilways beionglnE to state, IBIO. 1,44» 
miles. aoTsmment telegrspbs. 1010. S.J50 
miles. Buea Canal, 87 miles long, coD- 
neets Mediterranean with Hed Sea. Qot- 
ernment, principality tributary to Turkey. 
Power nominally In bands of Khedive and 
Ministry, supported since 1882 by British 

Egyptlsn frontier to Uenndo snd Belgian 
Congo and from Red Bea to connnea of 
Wadal. Chief towns: Khartum. Omdnr- 
man (capital, formerly Dervlob capital), 
Wndy Haltn. Convention ot 18B8 pro- 
vldea for aovernor-Genernl appointed by 
Egypt wltb consent of Great Britain. 

TB/POC/, conquered, successively by 
...v. ..,.. vr._.i.. tnttaei ope of Barbary 

StoteB : 

by d'urkey, 1S3S. Attempted 1 

1 by Italy, and Tarcv-ItaUan w 
lurface mostly desert : mountain! 

B, uLuvfl, uBLjiiid feath- 

id gum, Bcrbera. cblel 

-„. ,..^v - Union of 8oDth Africa.) 

LIBERIA.— Coautrj settled 1832 by ^e« 
necroes, sent ont under Amerl.»n Col- 
onTsntlon Society; declared Independent, 
1847. Tbe cosst lands sre generally luw 
and sandy; Interior hills sad monntalns 
ars covered with beantttul forests, dlveral- 
fled by well-watered, terllle vslle*. : thn 
largest rivers s" "• ■*-"■ 

bounded on the north by Eritrea. „.. ._. 
eaat by Danakll country and Soma II land, 
on the south and west by British East 
Africa, and on tbe northwest by the Sndan. 
It Is the direct descendant or tbe ancient 
Ethiopia, poBsenes sn ancient aud Inlerest- 
inir nntinnBi chrlsttnn chiirch whicb Owes 
o the Coptic Patriarch of Alex- 

ITA'lIAV POaBEBfTOVS. ■— Brttrea.— 
Colony of Eritrea constituted 1800. Aasah 
occupied 1880, town and Island of Msssaua 
188S. Colony now embraces coast ot Red 
Bea from Rss Kssar to Strait ot Bab-el- 
Mandcb, OTO miles, extending Inland about 
200 miles. Pear] flsberle* at Uasaana and 
Dshlak Archipelago ; Industry in hands ot 
Banians nndlans). Massaua. fortified sea- 
port and Important center of commercial 
exchange. Asmara, acat of government. 

Italian eoBfoHIoitrf— Sultanate of C»t- 
bta placed ander Itnllan protection ISRB : 

Duth ot Juba 

Bomati Coait Frolectorvtt actiulred by 
France 1864. Situated on Gulf of Aden. 
snrronuded by Eritrea, Abyssinia, and 
BrItlBh Somalliand. extends inland about 
forty miles. Trade chiefly wltb Interter 
conntrlea, Chief cities, Oboek and Tajuah. 


Eneyeiopedic Index 

AiteaU Mtit to, to leceiva bUtm 

tkken from venel*, 633. 
Citieena of Dnited States mnst not 
TioUt« rights of mh&bitanta of, 306. 
Natives of, in Blaveijr. (See Afriun 

Slave Trade.) 
Naval force of United States sta- 
tioned on coast of, refened to, 
2173, 3071. 
BepTMsing Honor trade in, Bogges- 
tions made bj Belgimn, 6363, 6426. 
Slavery on eoast of, 4160. 
Teasels of United States seited on 
coast of, 1857, 3017. 
AMcS) The, attempted seimre of VLi. 

Faoehet bf commander of, S344. 
AAleait Slave Trade. — Prior to the dlscoT- 
•rr of America ncgraes, like otber uvage 
lacet, eltlier enslaved or pnt to death the 
captlTC* taken In war. The deportation of 
the eaptlTe* to the mines and plancstloni 
of the New World loereaied the value of 
the African end nude alaverj racber than 
death the prlwuer'B fste. Thli dlsposltioD 
of nptlves also led many pettjp chleFs to 
wace war tor the proepecllve xaln In ba- 
man rhattels. The aborlslDn of America 
bavlna proved too weak for the work re- 
quired of theit. the Portasuese. who 
Bceaeeied a large part of the African coait, 
becan the eiportitton of nesroee. In whleb 

•*- Imitated by other uatlooa of the 

■"- '~bn Hawklna was the Brat 

>ce Id slave traOc. The 

ir negni slaves wss au- 

Eitreme emelcy and 

characterised their 

were landrd at Haiti 

and pla«d in the 

^Dtch veasel broaght a 

caiso of slarei Into the James River. 
Twenty neuron were sold to Virginia 
•ettlcrs. In I71S, by (be treaty of TJtrecht. 
Onat Britain obtained the contract for 
■applying slaves to the Bpenlsb West Id- 
dlea. Thla atlmnlated the slave trade gen- 
erally. Several of the Coloolea attempted 
to prohibit the Importailon ot slaves, '—' 

lah dovemment. 


also those passed 

17U, — ■■ "" 

... s m 1774. 

Slavery was prohlbKrd by Rhode Island 
and Coonectlcat In 1774, and b; all the 
ColiMin under the non-ImporCadon cove- 
aaat at Oct. 24. 1774, aad forbidden by 
■early all Oe SUtM during tb« Revolution. 
TlM alave-trade qoesttoa was an Important 
one ta the formation of the Constltntloa 
Tike Soathem Statea, except Virginia and 
UarylaDd, Insisted that no — •-•-"-- 

h ». 1794. prohibited the carry- 

faig of ilaves from one foreign couDtrr to 
another b* American citliene : that of May 
itt, 1800, allowed United States war «hlps 
to aelie vcasela engaged In such trsfflc; 
Itat of Feb. 28, ISaf, prohibited the fn- 
trodartlou of slsves Into Btatea which had 
forbidden slavery, tn 1808 the Importa- 
tlaa of slaves Into the United States was 
fOrMddra. The acta ot April 20. 1B18, and 
MarcA S, ism, antborlacd the President to 


•end cmtaera to the coast of Africa to 
■top the slave trade. As no reslrietlona 
were ever placed npon domestic alava trad- 
ing before Its abolition In ises, the snrreptl- 
tloas trade In Imported BlBves was not en- 
tirely given up until that time. 

African Slave Trade. (See also Com- 
promise of 1S50; Kanaas-Nebraaka 

Act; Missoori Compromise; Ne- 

gioea; Slavery.) 
Abuses of United States flag referred 

to, 2134. 
Act for suppression of, referred to, 

Agents sent to Africa to receive 

slaves, 663. 
American citizens engaged In, 221S. 
Information regarding, requested, 

Cargo of African negroes — 

Captnied on coast of Cuba, and re- 
tnm of to Africa, discussed, 30S8, 
3124, 3126. 

Landed on eoaat of Georgia, re- 
ferred to, 3065, 3060^08£ 

Stranded on coast of Florida, and 
removal of, diacotsed, 967. 
Ceased in United Btatea, 3779. 
Correspondence regarding — 

Beferred to, 2268, 22S7, 2426, 24S8, 
2538, 27SS. 

Surrender of slaves to United 
States consul referred to, 1944. 
DlBcasaed by President — 

Adams, J. Q., 875, 967. 

Boebanan, 3086, 3124, 3120, S180. 

Lincoln, 32 S4. 

Madison, 470, 562. 

Honroe, 583, 631, 783, 618, 619. 

Taylor, E553. 

Tyler, 2215. 

Van Buren, 1836, 
Excluded from use ot United States 

flag, 875. 
Foreign alave traders discussed, 3446. 
International congress at Bmasels for 

abolition of, S47], 5543, 6363. 
Interpretation given act prohibiting, 

Laws for sappression of — 

Amendments recommended, 25G3. 

Should be more severe, 1903, 1931. 
Liberation of slaves by authoritiaa of 

Naasau, New Providence, 2064. 
Proposition to Great Britain to abol- 
ish mixed courts created for sap- 
pression of, 3889. 

Treaty regarding, 4055. 
Punishment for engaging In, should 

be same as for piracy, 779, 812. 
Beferred to, 1755, 2064, 2173, 2202, 

2219, 2268, 2587, 2630, 3015, 8071, 

3121, 3185, 3413, 
Bemoval of negroes — 

Captured by American vessels, to 
Liberia, recommended, 8056, 3124. 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

AMcan BtoTa Tradt— oooHMMd. 

Captored on coast of Cnba, S06S, 

3124, S126. 
Stranded on eoaat of Florida »c- 
ommendsd, 967. 
Seiznre of staTes on board the E*- 

comivm and Bnterprlie, 1499, 
Snppreision of and RuggeitioiiB that 
Great Britain bo asked to diteon- 
tiDne the naval force maintained 
for its snpproBsion, 3779. 
I>eiired bj uovenuneut, 631, 1836, 
1930, 20S2, 221S, 3086, 3254. 
But interpolations into maritime 
code not permitted, 1930. 
Beferred to, 649, 650, 6S1, 678, 827, 
958, 1867, 2048, 2082, 2SS3, 3180. 
Squadron kept on coast of Africa 

for, 2173, 
Tiea^ between Ave powers of En- 
rope for, 20 IL 
luqoiry of Senate respecting, 
and replj of President, 2068. 
Protest of American minieter to 
France regarding, 2011, 2048, 
Treaty with Great Britain regard- 
ing, referred to, 810, 812, 819, 
886, 2016, 2048, 2071, 2082, 3272, 
3281, 3328, 3366, 3380, 4017. 
Teasels transporting slavea shonid 
be aeiied, 632, 783. 
African Sqnaditm, instruetion to com- 
manding officers of, referred to, 2173, 
Agents, Vidian. (See Indian Agents.) 
Agrlciiltnral Oensna recommended, 5982. 
Agrlcnltnral OoUegea and Ezperlmant 
Btatlona. (See Agrienlture, Depart- 
ment of.) 
Agricultural Experiment Statloiu dia- 

euased, E3S4, 5888, 5980, 6347. 
A^coltnral Implementa.— From tbe 
Mrllcst times and Id bII conntrles until the 
beclnning of the Nineteenth centar; agrl- 
enltare was dlatlnctl; maanal labor. 
Horses and oien were used (or ploirfas and 
harroirliig. but tbe labor of plantlnz, cnl- 
tlTStlDE and banestlaK wai all pprforined 
b* band. Orala was sown broad east by 
hand, cat witb a idekle, satbered witb a 
fork and tbrasbed ont on tbe bam floor 
wttb a ctub. Com was caltlvated with a 
boe and Iti haakloE was made n social 
event of rural commnnltles. By these 

SrlmltlTC melbodH tbe farmer was unable 
> produce mucb of a bui-ijIus to elchaage 
(or tbe (abrlcs of the cities or for eiport. 
The only part of America where farming 

EroTcd a eommerdal snccesB was In the 
ODth. where itave labor was employed In 
the cuItUatlon of cottnn aod tobacco. The 
Invention of the cotton gin, tboagb not 
■trlctly B farm Imptement. made a com- 
mercial crop of a plant thereto(ore of ooly 
ordloary domestic value. 

From the Drst tnmlns of tbe soli to the 

of eomtort sad wealth than tar othsr daaa 

of cliUens. 

Prior to ISSO the manntaetura of agri- 
caltural Implements could bacdiy be con- 
sidered aa more than a hand trade, and 

'- - - - factory i--— - ■•-- 

t understi 

cuted, which contained much that the Im- 
proved processes and facUIttei of the lat- 
ter part o( tbe century btougbt to completa 
(niltlon. Implements were made In souU 

manufacture fro 

the small shops of the 

ment of the modern factory system, fit 
• laife western plant aoo men, by the aid 
of nachlnscy, do the work that, wlthont 
machines would reqalre S.140 men. 

The McCormIck reaper was flrst pat an 
the market as a sncceasfal maetame for i 

harvest of 1840. In 181T the exports of 
wheat and Hour inaped to >3a,lT8.1Sl, 
aboDt ave times the average o( the pre- 
cedlnjr forty yeara. and Increased rapldir 
to 1660. The wheat crop, which had not 
kept pace with tbe growth of popnlatlon 
from 1B39 to 1849, gained more than 70 
prr cent In the decade between 1S49 aod 
1SE9, and from a total crop of 84.823,272 

inherited the Idea of making a grain 
reaper from his father, who had patented 
an Imperfect revolving scythe lo ISIS. 
The essential elcmeo'- —>■'-'- — -j- ->— 

tbe grain by band from the platform. 

The Marsh harvesting machine bsu 
toothed belta which carried the grain from 
the platform over the master irheel to two 
men who stood on a footboard aod bonnd 
the sheaves od tables attached to Iha 
machine. By ISTS twine binding attacb- 
meots had been patented. 

The automatic selt binder, invented bj 
John F. Appleby, seems to have t>een the 
culminating improvement made In grain 
barveatlDg macblaes, and Is used In one 
(ono or another as an attachment to the 
harvester to bind by (sc the largest part 
of the grain harvested In this and other 
countries. Now a million binders are In 
use on American farms and a large export 
business has grown up. ThrouRb tbe ns* 
of American liarvestlng machines Argen* 
tins. Australia and Russia have become 
large eiporters o( wheat, Sod single ca^ 
goes shipped to Europe contain more of 
these mschlnes than the entlra output of 
suy European manafactnrer In this llos^ 
In Kansas, Nebraska and other Western 
States, headers are used, which cot off tha 
...... ._.. titlow the head, elevate the 

a wason ready to be hauled to 

' and leave tbe straw standing. 

Oregon and Washington the 

— _ traction engine. 

The mowing machine, the com planter 
and the two-horse cnltlvator, distinctively 
American Inventlooa have served the same 
purpose In promoting the production of 
corn and hay as the reaper In the cereal 
'-"' Farmers were unable to produce 

stalk Jos 


I nnttl uey bad labor 


Encyetopedie Index 


nTlDg Dweblnery for tlM cbMp prodacUon 
el bftj mod com. 

Tb* prlnclpa) (tepa 1b the deTdopment 
ot tlM urreatlDC mschlDe are rerorded In 
the htcQt Offlee ■■ tollom : 

— HHTTMter, h&ndrakei, ISOS ; 
ISM; dropper, 1861; Adjustable 

, 1ST6, 

m and 

(wttch nt 

Barreater BInden — Cord knotter, 1863; 
wire twUter. 1866; straw braid twister, 
UBT; (leaner and blndeis 1862; aelf-trlp- 

,^. cord knotter, 186'/; _ 

18W; antonatlc tr]p. 16T0; straw looper, 
1810: vIbratlDtf binder. 1875: low-down 
Msder, 1878; compreasoc automatic trip. 
18T9: low-down obhqne detlvenr, 1884. 

Bean and Clorer Harrestera-^lover bar- 
Testet, 1849 : clover strtpploK drnm bar- 
TCBter, 1S04' clover bead cutter and 
breaker, 1866 ; bean stalk cutter and 
bondler, 1869 ; clovet spiral dmm bar- 
reater, IMl : bean nsderground cntter, 
■•*" - eloTer head atrlpper, 1877 ; beut 

stalk puller, 18T9. 
Con HarrestcTB — Cntter, 1844 ; 

1864," 'IBW": lil^ and low cntter,' 1859] 
cntter and abocker, 1666 ; picker and 
bn^r, 1867 ; picker, busker and shocker. 

I to the atnw ataek, thoa 

larce steel plpa ta — 

saving the labor ot aeveral i 

matlc band cuttlni and fwdlnji a 
ments and antomaQc train welrtera 
leru nae, anil tn 


knowledge o_ 

The gialo driU 1 __, 

-' econoDj on ths tann. The flret patent 

the uie of conimerc! 

The flnt patent on a practical com 
planter was bsued to George W. Browb, 
ot Illinois, In 1863, and Improved bj Oewgt 
D. Haworth, of the same Stat*. 

Com cDlttvatora are made in a gTcat 
varletr of forma, but the essential teatara 
ot all la an arched aile which atraddica the 
row. Is drawn b; two horset, and has two 
gangs, or tramea, one on each ^d* of the 
row, which awing f reel? onder direction of 
the operator, who our ride or walk. Con 
binders and pickers are also mannfaetored, 
aa well as portable hoikers and fodder 

shredders. Power com sh-" — ■- — ■ 

In DEC since 1860, and l., , 

wherever com is grown for sbinmeat t 

1SS6: braab itrtpper, 1869: eibaust 
Ibis pipe, 18M: fan blower, *""" 
—1 atrlpner bm-* " 
"■■ -ileker at— 

Hemp and Flax Harvenlera — Bcvolvli^ 
pulling dram and band, 1838: roller, 18E2; 
tedprocatlnK. pulling ]aw, ""• ■ -*-" - 
poller, 16s8 ; side deliver; 
stalk cntter, 1872. 

Combined Beapen 
Beaper abd tbmsner, looo ; mn 

arator and sacker, 1846; head i — 

side deltvercr, 1849 ; harvester and 
Uraahcf, 1877; steam barrerter. 1879; 
bender, thrasher and aeparaCor. 1868. 

Horse Rakes — Flopover, 1823 : spring 
both, 183»: dnmplUK solkr, 1848; drafl 
lumplos. 1860; self dumping. 1852; sprlog 
ooth self damping 1866: draft dumclng, 

sber, 1836; tbrasber, 


1870; 1876, 18S8. 

— 186S. 1861, 1862, 1860, «lve ludnstr; In itself. 

lotion, carefcil study a 

sktIL BITorta at Improvement have been 
largely directed toward establishing opon 
a mathematical basis the proper iTnes of 
the moldboard which raises and tnns the 
furrow slice. President Thomas Jeffemon 

SDbllahed blH views on this aubjeet In 1798. 
ethro Wood, of Belplo, K. Y., took oat a 
Ktent In 1819 tor a plow with a Diold- 
ird In three Mparate pieces, so they eonld 
be replaced by new parte when worn. 

Amoog the names that will ever be •■• 
Bodated with the plow In America are Jotm 
Deere, pioneer Inventor aod mannfactnrer, 
whoae establishment at Hotlne, III., anp- 

81 led the West tor many years, and Janea 
liver, whose perfection of the etallled ateel 
plowshare was an important step in ad* 
vanced mannfactnre. 

The history of steam plowing dates from 
the Inventions of Fowler and Bmltb In 
1864, The plows are tn Ktogs of twelve 
to eighteen and are drawn by traction 
enctnes of from 40 to 80 honwpower. 

Uachluery tor abelling, aorttng. alftlag 
or grading according to aiae tbe varkma 
vegetable and root crops forms an «xt«B> 

log nwdiine is the most Important feature 
oT tbe eqalpment of modem agriculture. 
Tbe "ground hog" thrasher came Into uae 
(ariy In the nineteenth century. Thrash- 
ing uUlt, with fanning and screening de- 
vieta, were aet up In England in 1600, bat 
these were staUoned at some central point, 
and the grain Iiad to I>e lianlpd to them. 
Tbe flrat portable thrashing machine with 
cleaning device* wu made by Hiram A. 
and Jolin A. Pitta, of Wluthron. He.. In 
1830. and Oeorge Wentlnghooiie began 
making thiaablng machine* in Fonda, vrt., 
abont 1840. He later removed to Rche- 
Mctady, N. T.. and pateoted a nomber of 
nsefnl Imnrovementa In separating and 
cleaning drvicen. A notable improvenient 
Is Ibe^^rlnd ataeker." by which the rtraw 
Is Mown bj a tevolTlnc tan ttarongh a 

Agrlcnltnral Implements IB cneral ■ 

vided Into four groups — th«M of enl_- 

vatlon. seeding and planting, liarveBting. 
— J, — ■ 4j_-,^ Tbeao fTooiM in tnm 

iiarveating machinea the thrash- divided Into four groups — th«M of enitl* 

d separating. 
llvlded Into i 

aged In the mannfactnre of 

are aubdlvide- , 

dicated in the accomnanyina table. 

censue of 1849, 1.3'~ — t^--- 

reporti>d aa eofraged 

agrlcDltnral ImpteiL 

bands employed being 7.2S0, and tbe valna 
ot their products amounted to 86.842,611. 
In 1869 tlie namber of factories had in- 
creased to 2,076. These vrere compara- 
tively small psrabilshmeDts, their anregate 
capital amounting to only S34,Sft4^aoa and 
their output being valued at little more 
than 162.000,000. In 1900 throagb com> 
blnlng ahop* and capital the namber ot 
establishments had fallen to 640. tbe capi- 
tal had increaaed to )3E«.281.08e, and O* 
T»lQ« ot Um ontpnt to |140,S39,2«9, 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Acilctiltiml ImitfeiiMiitt — Conttnued. 

Of tb« TT2 eatabUihmeDti ennEed In the 
ladaatTT Id 1914, 8S were located Id IHIdoIb, 
07 Id Ohio, SI In WIicodsId, D8 Id New 
Torb, *» Id PeDDSjIyuila, 49 Id CalUonila. 
43 In iDdlana, 40 cich In Iowa and Ulchl- 
UD, 35 Id MlDDeaoU, 27 In Mluoarl, 20 Id 
TeDneasee, 22 eacb Id Nortb Carolina and 
Tlnrtnla, 18 Id Georgia. 14 Id TennoDt, 12 
Id Sanaas, it Id Maine, 10 each in Alabama 
aDd New jeraejr, 7 each In Eentnck;. Maaea- 
cbuaetta, Nebraaka, and WaablnatoD, 6 each 
In CoDDecdcnt aDd Mlaaiaalppt, Id Texaa, 4 
In Colorado, S each in Arkanaas. Florida. 
HarjrlaDd, New Hampablre. Orefon, South 
Carolina, BDd Soath Dakota, 2 each la 
Idaho. Oklahoma, and West Virginia, aad 1 
eaeh Id LonlalaDa aDd MoDtana. 

The atatlstlca for 1814 are SDlnDiarlted In 
the following table : 

enumeretlan eorered cblekuu, goliie* tovlt, 
....I , du(-ki, ptgeoDi — •* — •-— >- 


was the leaai_„ 

ralaed during 1009, t 
352,888. MlBHo— ■ -" 
epect, reporting 

:he total valus reported tut 

the CeDiai of I9I0. IIIEnoIa 

' ' in the number of fowla 

nomber belQs 32.- 

d aecoad In tbia re- 

_, --,--jDg the Dumber of fowfa raised 

Id 1909 aa 31^13,210. Iowa ranked tblrd 
and reported tbe prodnctlon ot 38,990,147 
fowla Id 1909. 

' OOut 7,174 

Agricnltnnd Products.— Tbe agricniiurai 

Sroducta ol tbe United Statea are ao dlversl- 
ed tbat It would be useLesg to attempt to 
describe all In a single article or even in 
an ordinary alied volume. Tbe Departmeut 
o( Agrlcultare publiabes annual reporta cot- 
erlng (be field In general aud frequent spe- 
cial reports and bulletlnB on agrlcultarsl 

The accompanrlDg table givea tbe qnan- 
Htr and value of the principal prodncta aa 
reported In tbe lateat cenaua, 

Poultrv and Eggt. — The Cenaus of 1910 
gave tbe productfon of poultry In the Dnlt- 
«< SUtei, Id 1008, M 4e8,«8,304. Tbe 

Fieuni npcrM fw , . _ 

fur 1914. (a) Ym priM Nof. IS, m4. <b) Not ht 
- ■ ..- _._-^ . .... ,^1,-. . 

la of IfllO. t V\ 

1«4. "' "^'- 

i. 1, 1914. I 

, plulatkoiai 1(0> 

WMl,U3allroa.Titasdattl,71D. 0) Natii>dkiA«p» 
(J) Farm pries Au. IS. 1914. (k) Baaid im die 
Tilot of nfiiwd, icT jmi (Ddii« June M, 191S. 

dsasa odjr. '-' " ■-- ■ - "■ — 

._e Cenaus c 
fnrm atatlatica 


Encyclopedk Index Agricultunl 

mi. QiOiivdjOdo ; Improved 
acm m uiiiiO, 478,451,750; valne ol land 
In fanm, 128,476,671,169; Tilue ol build- 
Insa on faims, f 6.325,451,528 : TmIus or 
Implcmcnta tna macbinerj on farniB, tl.- 
2a5,149.7BS' value per acre of land and 
bnlldlnn, 139.60 ; Talne per acre or ISQd 
alone, t32.40. Talne of wealth produced 
Ml farmi In 1915, estimated b? Secretarr 
ol Acricnltoie, 110,501,680,000. 


Nambv Valoa 
Mikk eom lad other 

cattle £a,fi27.000 11,827,428,000 

Hone* 20.507.000 2,278,222,000 

Mala. 4,386,000 G46.24S.000 

fibeep and Umba. . . . A1.4S2.000 202,770.000 

SviM gl,lT8.Q00 60 3.10B.OQO 

la..lH, 140.000 

Zfobv Prodadt. — The Thirteenth Cenias 
lireaented the following condensed anatrel" 
or tbe dairy Indnitrr of the Called BUtes 
tor Ihe ceniua Tear 190S : 
Tola! number of cowi kept tor 

milk 21,795,770 

Ullk prodaced on ranns, gala. 6,813,099,474 
Total pounds of butter made. 1,019,415,203 
Total potinda ot clieeie made. S20.G3Z.18l 
Condenaed milk prodneed, Iba. 4&l,79e,544 

The qa*Dtlt7 of milk reported waa pro- 
duced on Uitaa reporting 10,009,298 dairy 
eova and does sot include eHtlmates for 4.- 
IMKI.184 eowa reported ■« dairy eowi by 
CanneTa bat tor which no etatement wM 
slTea of qnantlty of milk produced. In 
loaay cues the reason tor aot giving the 
ODUtlly of milk prodaced was that the 

« fc.j (^ make evea a rough 

ly speaking, t 

1 farms In the 
- the Unit - 

.__ .1 likely t_ __ _... 

than the average for other parts of tha 
coDntnr. Also, many cows reported as dairy 
cows are as a matter or tact milked only 
a Tcr; small part of tha year. No estimate 
la Ineloded fbr the "cowi kept for milk" 
aot on farms. 

. (EaportadbythsDepkrtinMrtotAr^eultm^ 


Acricnltonl Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

B«et Sngkr— 

Culture of, 6S69. 
Coffe« — 

ProdnctioB of, 6731. 
CoBunere* with foreign coantriM in, 


Commetee in, r«Btnined by Orent 

Brit&in, 138. 
Introduction of prodneta of, into 

Europe ditcnsMd, 6764. 
Cnptorod and forf eitod referred to, 


Commerce in, referred to, 4973. 
Coltnre of, in — 
African poiMMiou of Portugal, 

Brazil, 471L 
DiMTiminating dntiee on, from 
British North American coloniee 
diicuBBed, 996. 
Haty on, Lord Aberdeen 'a letter re* 

garding, 1134. 
Peraona engaged in bringing out, 
order regarding, 3439. 
Exportation of, diacnaaed, 5SS7, 5979, 

Hay, ezportBtjon of, prohibited, 3476. 

Order reaeindiug, 3&3E. 
Befarred to, 4800. 
Bice — 
Dntiea on, diacnaaed and referred 
to, 1243, 1931, 2112, 2181, 2274, 
Production of, in U. S., 6727, 6906. 
Tobacco — 
Dntiea on. In foreign porta, 104S, 
1738, 1909, 2167, 2192, £909, 3120, 
Exportation of, to eonnttiea at 
peace with United Statea, orders 
regarding, 3379, 3434. 
From NetherUnda and Dotch col- 
oniea, tax on, diacnaaed, 4979, 
4986, 6088. 
Growth, production, and trade of, 

referred to, 2133. 
Internal tax on, remoTEl of, rec- 
ommended, 6474. 
Kade with foreign eonntriea to be 
promoted, 1088, 1713, 1822, 
Beferred to, 1S06. 
Value of annual production of, dia- 
coaaed, S642, 6744, 5764, 5978. 
AgrinltnTal Land Orantt. (See Agri> 

cultural CoUegee.) 
Advancement of, recommended, 6S, 
60, 61, 77, 78, 194, 197, 318, 361, 
3776, 4457, 4530, 4947, 6112. 
Proaperona atate of, 978, 1747. 
BeferBBce to, OS, 17S, S40, 3363. 

Agilcnltiire, Biman of: 
An>ropriationa for, recommended, 

Discuaaed, 3334, 3462, 3S64, 4066, 

4106, 4364, 4645, 4947, 6112, 6383. 

Emplojeea in — 

To participate in decoration of 

gravea of soldiera, 4753, 4818, 

4899, 6078, 6350. 

To pi^icipate in dedication of 

Washington Uonument, 4879. 
To witneaa inangurution of Preai- 
dent Cleveland, 4881. 
Enlargement of faeilitiea of, recom- 
mended, 4630. 
Establiahment of, 3334. 

Becommended, 2556, 2622, 2663, 

2714, 3253. 
Beferred to, 406S, 4947. 
Experiment atattons, recommenda* 

tiona regarding, 6384, 6888, 6980. 
Food adulteration diacnaaed, 5384. 
8eed diatribntion. (See Seed Diatrl- 
Agriculture, Oommlarioner of: 

Bepl; of, to Senate reaolntion regard- 
ing diaeasea prevailing among 
BWine, 4435. 
Beports of, referred to, 4158, 4364^ 
44SB, 443S, 4462, 4578. 
Agrlcoltnre, Department of. — This De- 
pBctment ot the EiecutlT* Brnach of the 
aoremmeDt had Its origin ]□ the recom- 
mendacloD of WaahlDiton. Aa enrly aa 
Dec T, ITBO. In hia eight ti annual addrea* 
(page 1st) he aeld thnt "with reference 
either to ladlvldaal or Datloeil 


> or p 


- - — urged the Importance 

or the "eBtBbllBhmeac of boarda . . . 
charged with collecllDE and dlffualof In- 
formation, and enabled bj premluma and 
anull pecuniary aids to encourase and aa- 
alst a aplrIC of dlacoverr aoif Imptore- 
mcDt." The aentloKOts eipreaaed br 
Waablngton were reiterated end enlareed 
apon br all or nearly all ot hla aacceaaoia 
(pagta 8TT6, 4457, iSaO. 4MT. Bll^). 

From the verj beglanlag of the QoTem- 
ment Ita forelgu repreaentatlTei had aent 
home aeeda and cnttlnga of agricultural 
producta to be tried Id the Cnlted Statea, 
and In 1BS9 Congreaa made an appropria- 
tion of fl.OOO tor the dlBttibulloa of eia- 
terlal thoa collected and for the publica- 
tion ot aKTlcultnnl etatlatlea. Thla work 
waa eetrneted to the Patent Ofllce. which 
belonged to the DepaTtmeut of State until 
1840, when the Department ot tbe Interior 
waa eatabllabed and tbe Patent ofllce be- 
--- - •■ Dd to 1849 t" - -■ 

cnltaral work y 

but from that time ootll ^861, a apeclal 
onclaU under the direction ot the Commle- 
•loner. waa employed for tbe work. 

Har IS. lStl2. en act waa approred 
which crteted tbe Department ot AaricDl- 
ture. the dutlee or which were to "dlffaM 
uerful InfnrmatloD on a objects connected 
with asricniture la the moat general and 
comptehennlrc seQM of tbe word, and to 

Frocare. propagate, and dletrlbute among 
he people new and raluable aeedi and 
planta." It was provided that the 1: 

ot tblB I 

I abonid be a Oommlaalonw 


Bncydopedic Index 


of AsTlcaltare, 


I to tbal of Dth«r elTll officers ap- 

polnted by tba President. 

Tbe bBraaii waa mada a tnll eitcntlTe 
dcpanmmt br an act of CoDgres* ap> 
proTcd Feb. B. 1889, and placed under 
a flecretarjr, who was made a member of 
tbe President's Cabinet. To promota tbe 
aerienltaral inteteels of tbe eonntrT In the 
moat thoroncb maaner an act ot Coagresi 
approved Uarch S, IsST, provided tor tbe 
establlahmeDt of airlcultural experiment 
Stat Ion* (see AKrlcultural Collegee and 
Experimental Btatlonsl, In connectloa with 
the SKrlcnllnral colloKCS In the sereral 
states and territorlea, and placed tbe Com- - 
mlsaloDer ot Airlcaltnre over these Bta- 
ilooB In an advisory and, admlDlstratlva 

To represent the Department of AErlcnl- 
tnre Id Its relation with these experlmeaC 
stations, the Office of iliiperlment Stations 
was established In the same year. 

The Agrlcaltiiral colleaes eatabllshed In 
the several states and territories In ac- 
eordance with tha tend srsnt set of Con- 

sntss of JnlT 2^ 1882. — — " 

relation to the Departme... .. _„ 

fnrtber than that the agrlcultaral aiperl- 

Ot Oct. 1, luDV/, i.. ..UK ..«u. 

rreo H> ibe Department of Agriculture. 
Some other Important b — ■ 

, ' tbe condition of the snlmnl In- 

dualrles of the country, has wide powers 
of lEsspectlon ~~' ■"'" '" '" """ 

raliu of II 

and supervision I 

try. Biii_ 

charge of the 

tlonsl forest rercrireB. (See Fc 
BurraM_ of Bntomologi '" 

Paratry (1881), which baa 
_ . ._^__,.__ jjj ,j|^ jy|_ 

IV (1863). which ob- 

iiig iDjnrioDS Insects and their relation to 
plant and animal life. 

Ssreaw of Chtrntttry (1863). wbe 


Idea the li 

Df adi 

..-- -_ 'estlgatlon of food products 
Into the United States, anslysls 

rated products, and experiments 

determine tbe effect of adulteranta upon 
uie hnman sratem. 

A«re«« 0/ etaUttiet, orfcaQlEed as tbe Di- 
vision of Statistics la 186S and made a 
bnrean In 1908. This barcan la the old- 
est distinctively atatlatlcal SKency of tba 
OovemmeDt, Its work being The tatherlag 
of atawrlal of Interest to tha agrlcaltnrlst, 
trom all parts of the world. 

IsrMdfural Ooritoe*.— Large tract* of 
land In tba notthweat territory were grant- 
ed to tta* states formed therefrom, to b« 
•old br tbe leglslalares or by tbe Fedenl 
Oovemment for educatlonsl nnrpoies. As 
early as 1T85 Congresa. foreshadowlDg the 
permancDt policy ot the nalloD la ehcoar- 
aging edD«B(loQ, enacted thst one thlrty- 
Mith of all the pnhllc lands should be set 
apart for and dedicated to the cause ot 
eaacattOB, and by the act of July !S. 1T8T. 
tbia le t rvntloD was wads perpetual. The 
(ortber to raconnge and dignify the scl- 
enee of tanabaodry. Cnnsreaa. by the Uor- 

80,000 acres for eacb Bmatoi mbA Baprs- 
lentatlve In Congress ta wblcb tbs states 
are respectively entitled by the apportion- 
ment under the cenaus of 1860," but ex- 
cepting mineral landa. to found colleges 
of agrlcolture and the mechanical arts. 
This act was nmended by an act of Hatch 
~ 183S, which provided that all mone^ 

.. In Bome aafe manner to be preac'rlbwi 
by the legislature ot tbe several states 

., the prlacfpal. 


, ._ , , ,__ __ remain fop- 

Inviolate and andlmlnlsbed. 

act approved Aug. SO, 1890, Con* 

, bave no organ I 
lent ot Agrlcuitui 
agri cult oral aiper. 

Gneraliy departments ot 
jes, and that the presi- 
dent of eacb of these colleges la obliged to 
make sa annoal report to tbe Secretary of 
Agrlcoltnre. ^, - 

^Tltm Weather Bureau (q. v.). an Impor- March 
--I bnncb ot the Depart] *'"■' '' 

crea provided an annual appropriation ot 
llS.OOO for the year ending June SO; 189a 
and an annual increase of this amount for 
ten years by an additional sum of fl.OOO 
over the preceding year, tbe annual amount 
to be paid tbcreatter to eacb state or ter- 
ritory to be 12(1,000. Tbls appropriation 
must, however, he applied only to In- 
strnctlon In agriculture, tbe mecbanlcal 
arts, the EngllBh laDKnaae, and the various 
branchea of mathenutlcal, pbyalcal, natural 
and economic science with apeclal reference 
to their application to the Industries of life. 
College InitruFtloa In agriculture la 
given In the colleges and unlveraltlea re- 
ceiving the bcnoflti of the acta of Congress 
of Joly 2, 1802. August SO. 1890, snd 
March i, 190T, which are Dow In opera- 
tion In all tbe states and territories ex- 
cept Alaska. Tbe total numbet of these 
iDaillatlons It sUty-elibt ot which alxb- 
Bve maintain couraea ot Inatruction In agn- 
cnltnre. In twenty-tbree ftatea tbe agtlctil- 
tnral colleges are deMrtmeuta ot the atate 
universities. In ilileen states and terri- 
tories separate institutions having courses 
In agriculture are malntalDed for the colored 
race. All of the agricultural colleges for 
white persons and several of thoae tor B»- 
groes offer four-year courses In agrlcnltare 
— - -— ----- -■• boche" ■ 

and lis related m 


degrees, and many provide tor graduate 
....... •— It Blitr of these InsTltn' 

eclal short, c 

also provide apecla'. . .. , 

ence, courses In the different branches ot 
Bgrlcalture, luclodhig agronomy, horticul- 
ture, aalmal husbandry, poultry raising, 
cheese making, dairying, sugar making, ru- 
ral englaeerlng. farm mechanlco. and other 
technical subjects. Officers ot the agricul- 
tural colleges engase quite largely In eon- 
ducting farmers Institutes nnif nrloiu 
other lorms ol college sitenilon. 

The agricultural eiperlnient Matlou, 
with very few exceptions, srs departmeiits 
of the agricultural eolleges. The total 
number of persona eugagea In the work of 
edocatlon aud research in tbe tend-gmnt 
collegea and the experiment stations In 
1918 waa T.65I, the number ot stndsnU 
(white) In Interior eonrses In the eolluKS 
of agriculture and tnecbanle aris, 47.218; 
tbe total number ot students In tbs whola 
Institutions. 88.408 (not Including stndsnts 
In correspondence course* and extenBlon 
Bchoots). tba number of students (white) 
in the tonr-year collece eonrses In agri- 
culture. 1S.4SS : tha total number of stn- 
dents In tba Institutions for negroes, 8.H1, 
ot whom I.T9S were enrolled In agricul- 
tural courses. With a tew exceptlMB, 
each of these colleges offers free tidtlOB 
- "— *t of the atste In which It la 
. the excepted cases scholanhtBa 
1 promlxlBg and eurgetle « 

I eacb state a quantity eQaaf 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

land irant ICt of Julr 2, 18S3) : 

AlBbBtni — Aliiba.1111 Falrtechoic Initltnte, 


AktIcuIiumI School of the TuikeKM Kor- 

mal IndoMrlal lualitute, TuakegM In- 


A^icultnral and McChaDlcsI College for 

Arlsona— Uo^Tpreltr of Arliona, Tacsoo. 

Arkaiuaa — College of Agriculture of th« 
OnlTeralir of Arkoiuai, Far«t'B*lll«. 
Bnincb Normal College, Plae BIntf. 

Caltfornla — College of Agricaltnre of the 
UnlTtnltr oT CaUfornla. Berkeler. 

Colorado — Tbe State AgrlcultoT*] College of 
Colorado, Fort Colllni. 

Connecticut— Connecticut AgrlcaltDral Col- 
lege, Storrt. 

Florida Agricultural and Ueohanlcal Col- 
lege for Negroea, Tallnhasaec. 
GeoKla — Georgia State College of Agrlcal- 

Oeorgla State Indnatrlal College. SaTan- 

Hawall— Collsge of Hairnll. Honolulu. 
Idabo — College of Agrlcnlture of the Unl- 

vrrsltr of Idaho, Moacow. 
II llnola— College of Agriculture of tbe Tlnl- 

__Ilege „ 

Terallv of llllnola, Urbnn 

er^llj ol 

of Agrlcnlture 

Iowa— Iowa State College 
and Mechanic Arts, Ame_. 

lEaDBaB—Kansaa Btate Agrlcnitnral Col- 
lege, Mnnbattna. 

Kentucky— The Colleire af AgHciiltnre of 
the State UnlTerslty. Leilngtob- 
The Kentucky Normal and ^nduatrlal 
Inatltute for Colored Peraona, Frank- 

tiOtilBlanfl — LoDlalana State Dnlvenlty and 

Agrlcultaral and Mechanical College. 

Baton Boitge, 

BouthPrn Unrreraltr and Agricultural aod 

Mechanical Colfege of Ihe State of 

.ollege of Agricnitare of tbe Cnl- 

.....I. St. Paul. 

Mlaalnalppi — MlaalaitppI Agrlcnltnrnl nnd 

Hechanlcal College, Agrlcnltural Col- 

„lege. , . . „ . „ 

of Agtlcaitur 

Bechanle Arts, 

Neir Jcraej — Rntgera Bdentlfle S 

New Jersey SUte College (or . 

lit ol Agrlcnlture and tb* Mechanic 
■rt»), Niw - 

liege U 
-ind til 

Aiisi, iicor Brunawlck. 
New Heiico— New Mexico College of Ag- 
riculture and Mechanic Arts, State Col- 
New ^rk— New York Btat« College of 

Agriculture, Ithaca. 
North Carolina— Tbe North Carolina Cal- 

l«e of Agrlcaltura ajid Mechanic Arts, 

We«t RRrelgh. 
The Agricultural and Mechanical College 

(or the Colored Bace, Greenaboro. 
North Dakota — North Dakota Agricultural 

Colleger Agricultural College. 
Ohio — College of Agrlcultnre of Ohio Btat« 

UnlTeraitr, ' Col a mhos. 
Oklahoma— Oklahoma AgrlCDltnral and U»- 

cbnalcul College, Stillwater. 
Agrlcultaral and Normal Unlrenlty, 

Oregon— -Oregon State Agrlenlturat College, 

lege. State College. 
:o Rico— College of AgrI 
UnlTcralty of^Porto ftlt 

Halue — Ct.„„, „. _, 

Terally of Maine, Oroni.. 
Maryland— Maryland Agricultural College, 

College Park. 
Prlnceaa Anne Academy, Eastern Branch 

o( the Maryland Astlcultural College, 

PrloceM Anne. 
Uaaeacbnaetta — Maaaachuaetta Agricultural 

College. Amberat. 
Haaaacboaetta Inatltnle of Technology, 

iland ^tate College. 

The Colored Normal, Indnatrlal, Agrl- 

cuItaraL and Heciisnlcal College or 

South Carolina. Orangpburg. 

South Dakota- Sontb Dakota State Colleg« 

of Agriculture and Mecbanlc Arta, 

alty of Teuneaaee. KooiTllle. 

Texas~-AgrlcultDral and Mpcbanlcal Col- 
lege of Texas, College Station. 
Pmirle View Slate Normal and Indus- 
trial College, rralrle View. 

Utah— The Agricultural College of UUh. 

Termont — College of Agrlcnitura of the Dnl- 

Teralty of Vermonl. Barllagtou. 
Virginia — Tbe Virginia Agricultural and 

Mechanical College and Polytechnic Ii»- 

atltnte. Blackaburg. 
The Hampton Norma] and Agrlcaltnt«l 

InMltnte. Hampton. 
Waabl net on— State College of Waahlugton, 

Tbe Weat Virginia Colored Inatltule, la- 

Wlaconaln— College of Agriculture of the 

Unlveralty of WiacoaalD, Madison. 
Wyoming— College of Agriculture, Dnlvar- 

attr of Wyoming, Laramie. 
Location of Experiment BtaUona; 
Alnhnroa (College), Anbnrn. 
Alabama (Canehrnke), Unlontown. 
Alabama (TnskegM), Tnakegee Tnalltntft 
AUaka, BItka (Itampart, Kodlak, aad 


--'i, Fayettevllla. 

Bcboni of HInea and' Metallnrin' of the 
Dnlreralty of Mlsannrl. Holla. 

' Lincoln Inatttnte. .Tefferaon City. 

Alontana— Montana State College of Agri- 
— " — t and Mechanic /"- " 

Delaware, Newark. 

Hawaii (Federal), Honolulu. 
Hawaii jSngar Plantera'), HonOlvItL 
Idaho. Moscow. 


Encyclopedic Index 

VaaMCbOMtU, Ambent. 

Mlcblcan. EaM LaaBlnK. 

"' '- "-"Teralty l'«n», Bt P 

ICDltunl College 

HlnuMU, UDlveraltr V 

Mtnoarl (ColI*ft). Colnmbla. 

UnooH (Pnittl. HoaDtala OrOTa. 

HoDtaaa. Bowmait. 

Ndinalu. Lincoln. 

Nerada. Reno. 

N«w Hampahlre, Dorbam. 

New J«rMr (State), New BniDnrlck. 

N«w Jaraer (College). New BrtiDlwlck. 

V*w lleslea, State CoIIeKe. 

Vew York fatale) "- 

New York (Cornell), 

North Cbi , „., 

North Carotltia (StiteV, RaJeUh. 


;). Ral 

West Balelgh. 

, „ Uh. 

Nortli Dakota. A(rtcaltur«l College. 
Ohio, WooBtcr. 
Oklaboma, Stillwater. 
Oregon, CnmlUa. 
PeonajlTanta, Blate CoHege. 
FeanaTlTanU (loBtltnte of AdIdibI Natrl- 

tlon). State College. 
Porto Blco (/ederal), MuTanei. 
Porto Blco <8nnT). Rio nedru*. 
Rhode lataad. KlnicrioD. 
flontb Carolina, ClemaoD College. 
Sooth Dakota, Bmoklngs, 
Tw>i i e «aM , EaoxTlite. 
Teia«k College Btatlon. 
rtah, Logan. 
Venuon t,llnTllngton. 
Virginia (College), Blaeksbnrg. 
Virginia (Track). Norfolk. 
WaahlDRton, Pnllmmu 
Wtat Tlrylnla, Uorgontown. 
WlacoDKlo, Un dlBon. 
Wromliig, Laramie. 

w»i BUMmu—k taw approred 
18S7, proTlded for the eiUb- 

-ODder the direction of the ag- 

ilmltiiral collejm. or sgrimltnral depai?- 
menta of collegea, eatabltahed In each 
■tatc or territory tn accordance with the 
law of Ju[7 2, 1842, mentioned nlMTe — 
of departmenta to be known as Agricnl- 
tnral Rsperlment Slatlona. It wag pro- 
Tided that the datles of tbeae RtatfoDS 
abODid conalat In condnctlog orlglnnl re- 
aearcb a* to tbe pbrilologr of plants and 
aninala: tbe diaraaea to which tber are 
aabject «nd their renudlea ; the cbemlcal 
compoaltlon of naefnl plnnta; tbe rompara. 
tiTe adTanlana of rotative cropplngs as 

Kmed under varying lerlea of eropH; 
I analrila of aolli and water; tbe cbi>m- 
leal eompoaltlon* of nnlnral and artlfleial 
•—"•—Taj the Mientlfle and economic 
■ loTOlTed In the prodnctlan of bnt- 
trr auu cbeenc ; and anch other matters 
healing dtrectlr npon tbe SKrlrultnrnl In- 
*_— J— .. ..._ r....... o... „ mtKht tie 

currying on this 

work the act provided $10,000 a rear to 
each atat« and terrltorr out of funds pro- 
caedlDg fmrn the sale of public Innds, 

Agrlcnitural experiment stations are now 
■Mintalaed In whole or in part \ij the fed- 
eral nremment, and- exist In everr state and 
terrilorr. Tbe total smonnt expended In 

one recent rear •• ™* -.= — —...-.. 

near]* fanU wi 

dnatrie* of the United States a 

ment statlona repreaent one of the moat 
Important Instltntlons In tbe IlDlted 
States, doing much to promote IntenalTO 
terming and to show Isrmers how to re- 
dnce costs and derlvs the greateat benedt 
from tbetr cropa. 

Tbe fallowing pervons have held tbe of- 
flee of Commiaaloner of Agriculture in the 
order named: Isaac Newton, PennsTlvsnla ; 
Horace Capron. lIllnolH : FredeHck Watta, 
PennsrlTSnla ; William G. Le Doc Mlane- 
aota: Georga B. Lorlng, Hassachusetu ; 
and Norman J. Colman, MIsaonrl. 

Following to a list of the seeretariea 
of agriculture and tbe Presldenta DDder 
whom thtj serred : 

Wilson! ! 

Ncnnan J. Colmaa, Miwniri . 
Janmiah M. Rxak, Wbconrio 
Tline Morton, Nebnaka. . , 

David F. Honrton, Misioiiri'. '. '. 

For more dotii led informallon ns to the 
■cope of the activities of the Department 
of Agriculture consult the Index references 
to the Presidents' Ueasages and Encrclo- 
pedlc artldea under the following head- 
Forest Reserve. National Foresia. 

Forest oertlce. Weather Bureau. 
Agrlenlttm, Deputmsnt of: 

(Nation of, discuased, 6486, 

BUcuBSed, 5554, 5641, 6763, 5886, 
6978, 6169, 6346, 6390, 6465, 6655. 

Educational work of, 6S05, 6D06. 

Efforts of, hi behalf of farmers, 7S09. 

Expenditures of, 6888, Sesi. 

Experiment SUtions of, 6733, B906. 

Forest Seivies recommended, 6910. 

Land reserved for use of, 6709. 

Law officer for, recommended, 6487. 

Statistical diviaion of, GB82. 

Busar-beet culture, 4534, 5564, 6280, 
«347, 6356, 6415, 64S5, 6865. 

SagttT cane experiments, 684B. 

Transfer of Weather Service to, 5487. 

UsefuIueSB rindieated, 70S1. 

Works of, 6655, 6727, 6906, 6927. 
Alabama,— One of tbe soutbem gronp p( 
states ; nicknsmed. tbe "Land of Floor- 
ers." Tbe name ts Indton and meana 
"Here we rest," and has been adopted as 
the motto of tbe Slnte. Alabama Is bound- 
ed on the uortb bj Tennewec, on the east 
br Georgto, and on tbe west hj UlBsUalnpt. 
A smsir portion of the sonthem boundarr 
extends to tbe Gulf of Mexico, the re- 
mainder being aepnrated from the Oulf br 
the wcMern projection of Florida. It lies 
between lat. B0° IS' nnd 85° north and 
between Iodjc. 84° 58' and 88° 85' west. 
It Is aboot 330 miles In length from north 
to south snd Its grentest width Is 300 
miles. It contains 61.098 Hnare miles of 
area, or abont 83.000,000 acres. The State 
was admitted Into the Union Dec. 14, 1818, 
seceded Jan. II, 1861, and was readmitted 

Ksct of Congress Jnne 2G, 1868 (pages 
21. 885T). The population In 1010 was 
2,188.093, of which 4B per cent, are ne- 

The staple prodnctloD of Alabama to >eot. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidettis 

, wheat, and all 

AlBliaiiu [■ particatartT rnbln luTtierBl de- 
poilta. A vela o( bltamlDoua coal rum 
cut ward from Tuamlooas Into Georgia. 
Th« atataarj eranlia of Alabama li amonz 
th* b«at In tbe CmCed Btalea. Tba chief 
IndaatiiH of the Btate are farmlns am] 
the maunfacture of Iran aod cotton fabrlca. 

ibi coal [iniidactlon' of Alabama had 'ool 

- _,r —--. J that 

of the total mlD«ral ontpuC, amooDtliii In 
1018 (0 123,083.724. 

Tbe nnmber of mannraclurlDK eatabUih- 
menta In Alabama having an annQBl outpDt 
Talaed at S6D0 or more at tbe beglDulug of 
1916 waa 8,340. Th« amouDt of capltafln- 
Teated iraa (218.062,000 sItIds occupatloD 
to ST.Sia penoni, Dilng material valued at 
f 106.882.000, and turning out flDlabed 
r>oda worth 1176.897,000. Balarlea and 
walel paid amounted to 880,000,000. 
JU>1»11I* lies «lso Cottfedent« BUtes; 
TiuMlooaa, Ala.): 

Direct tax due from, requeat of 
United BtAtea for pajnneot of, 3579. 

Fifteenth amendment nttifled bj, 

Fonrteenth amendment latifled bv, 
Proclaimed, S837. 

Indian depredations in, 1045. 

Indiana attempt to eiUiblisb govern- 
ment in, 1020. 

lAnda granted to, in aid of raUroada 
referred to, SfiSO. 

Ifemorial from colored citizena of 
Hont^merr aaking righta of cit* 
iienBhip referred to, 4259. 

Property owner* in, ahould be com- 
pensated for loaaes snstsined, 1474. 

Provisional governor for, appointed 
and reatoration of, into Union, 3521. 

Sailroada In, memorial from legiala- 
ttin of, asking ffxtanslon of time to 
eomplata, 8879. 

Alabama Olalma.— During the CIvU War In 
the Cat ted Statea the Queen of England 
laiued a proclamation of neutralltr. Uaj 
13, 1801, granting belllgereat rlghca to both 
comttatants and forbidding her lubjectg to 
take part with either. Great BrltalD'a 
laws prohibited the equlpmeac ot auy laud 
or naval forces within her dominions to 
act against anj friendly power. Notwlth. 
BtandiDg this problbltlon, tbe AtabaiHa, 
FlOTida, aeorola, Shenandoah, and other 
vessels were built In Great Britain tor tbe 
ContederatB States, and, regardlen of the 
temonstrances of the American rolnistr;, 
were allowed to escape from British ports 
fitted oDt as commerce destrofera. In less 
than two months the Alabama bad taken 
tweal7-seTen prliaa. After a long cruise 
among islands of the Eaet and West ladlea 
and along the coast of Bcasll tbe AlabaM« 
came to anchor at Cherbourg, France. Off 
th.s harbor she was sunk by the U. S. B. 
Krartarae, after having deatrored 68 ves- 
sels and abont 86.650,000 worth of prop- 
ertr. After the war the United Slates 

Bressed a claim for damsges against Great 
rllHln. Afier much dtscoiislon It was 

arbltrallon composed of Charles Francis 
Adams, appointed by the President of the 
Vulted States; Blr Aleiaader Cockbnm. by 
the Qneen of England ; Count Federlgo 
Sclopls. by the King of Italy : H. Jacques 
Btaempfll, by the President of Bwltierland, 
and Viscount d'ltaluba. by the Emperor oC 
Braill. The Commisaioners met at Geneva. 
Swltierlatid, Dec. 16. 16T1, Count Sclopis 
presiding, Tbe United States was award- 
ed 816.600,000 tn gold In latlafactlon for 
all claims. All cfalms to Indirect dam- 
ages were rejected, and Great Britain waa 
held culpable for not doing more to pre- 
vent the sailing and success of tbe cruisers. 
Tbe award waa paid. (See Oensva Tri- 

Alabama Olalma: 
Arbitration of, proposed hy United 
States, and repl^ of Great Britain 
diacQBsed, 35fi5. 
CommlBsion to take proof on, reeom- 

mended, 4096. 
Correspondence regarding mode of 

settling, 4075. 
Coart of Commissioners of — 

Discussed, 4244, 4296, 4356, 437S. 
Time of dniation of, extended, 
427S 4296. 
Discussed, 3565, 3656, 3777, 3087, 

4056, 4321. 
Transfer of Indemnitor to United 

SUtes referred to, 4312. 
Tribnnal at Geneva for tettlement 
of, award of, 4138. 
Commissioners to report on dia- 
tribntiou of, appointment of, 
recommended, 413B, 4190, 
Payment of, 4190. 
Case of United States and counter 
case referred to, 4115, 411S, 4119. 
Difference of opinion regarding 

powers of, 4120, 4122. 
Discussed, 40B7, 4138. 
Ijegislation in connection witk, 

urged, 4104. 
Referred to, 4161. 
Alabama Indians. (See Indian Tribes.) 


Bticyclopedie ItHtx 

iUTmma, The, deBtnetlon of, hy tlis 
Ktartarge referred to, 34S7. (See also 

Aluno. — OrlElnally built aa a cbarcb, alta- 
•led on tlie 8bd Antonio Blrer, debt San 
Antonio, Texas, it was converted Into a 
fort. In Febmarr, 1886, It was otxa- 
pled bT Colonel W. B. TraTla with 140 
men who were In Mim% igalDit the govern- 
ment of Mexico. Tbe part; was besieged 
bj some 2,O00 Mexleana nnder Banta Ana 
from Kebniar; 28 anlil March 6, when thH 

Blaee waa aarrendered to Bsnta Aaa under 
le pnunloe of hla protection. At Che com- 
maad ot tbat seneral, however, the six 
inrrlvorL Including David CroclieCt and 
Colonel Bowie, famoni frontiersmen, were 
massacred, and the bodies of their com- 
ndra were mutilated. Ihereatter Teiana 
werv^roDaed _to fnrjt by^the cry, "Hemeniber 

nfeiTcd'to as tbe Tbermopyla of Texas. 
AUlkv — BMorg. — Alaska derives lU 
name from an EinKlish cormptlon ot the 
natlTe word "Al-ay.tkHM," probably 
lag "The (reat land" or "Mainland." 

~"" ■"" — ' known as _AlBsha waa 

_ _ '*!. S 

trappera sooa entered the coantiT and 
throogh tbelr activity other nations Eiecama 
faitereated In this rqdon. Spanish expedi- 
tion! In 1774 and 17TB rleited the south- 
eastern shore and In 1T78 the English Ex- 
plorer, Capt. James Cook, made eiteoBlve 
lorreya of the coaat tor the British Qov- 
enuMDt. Tbe llrat settlemeDt was made by 
tbe Boaatans at Three Salnta on Kodlak 
Iiland In 1TS4. and in IS04 tbe Sasslan- 
American Co. tounded Bilka, making It the 
seat vt jBOTcmment in the (oltowing year. 

In ITM the trade and rernlatton at the 
Snsslmn poearaslons In America were given 
DTcr to the Bnsslan-Amerlcao Ca. for a 
term of 20 yeara, which was afterwarda 
twice renewed tor similar perloda. 

In 1821 Bassla aliempted by nkasa to 
CKlnde toreln navigators from Bering Sea 
sad the PacUlc coast of her possasslona, 
which caosed a eoatrovaisy with tbe tinlted 
Btalaa and Great Britain. Tbe qnestlon 
was aettlea by a treaty with the United 
Btatea In 1824 and one wltb Great Britain 
Id 182B, by which the boundaries of the 
n — 1 — .._, In America were pei- 

ras pnrebaied 

., ..- ^9 sam ot (7,- 

200,000 In loldL and in October of the 
MSM year the formal transfer was made 
' Sitka. Prom 1867 to 1877 Alaska waa 
vemed bj the War Department, althoagh 
_e caatoma were from the begliuiing col- 
lected by tbe Treasury Department, and 
with the latter the control rested from 1877 
natll the panage of the act of 1S84. This 
act extended over Alaska the laws ot the 
State of Oregon so fsr as they were ap- 

aible, created a Judicial district and a 
dlatrict, put In force the mining laws 

by th 



aible, created s 
district, put L „ 

of tbe United States, and gave the country 
aa adminlatratlve system. 

The Inflnx of settlers after tlie discover* 
of gold in tbe Klondike in I6BQ rendered 
arare adequate laws necessary, in 1899 
and IMO Congreas made provlalona for a 
code ot dvU and criminal law, and In 190S 
passed a homestead act. In the meantime 
I bonndary diapnte ■ - ■ 

meat whereby the seacoa«t of Canada ez- 
taded DO farther north than S4'> 40*. 

By the act ot Hay 7, lOOG, Alaska was 
given power to elect a Delegate to Congress. 
The act of August 24, 1912, provided for 
the creation of a Territorial legislature. 

Oeography. — Alaska In Its greatest ex- 
tent fa hicluded between the meridians of 
130° west lon^tnde and 173° east longitude 
and between the parallels of SI' and 
72° north latitude. Jt le boanded on the 
north by the Arctic Ocean, on tbe west by 
tbe Arctic Ocean, Bering Strait, and Bering 
Sea. on the eoutb and eoutbwest by the 
Qnlf ot Alaska and the Pacific Ocean, and 
on tbe east by the Yukon Territory and 
British Columbia. The eastern boundary 
from the Arctic Ocean to the neighborhood 
of Mount St. Ellas Is tbe one hundred and 
forty-Qrat meridian : thence southeaEtward 
to Portland Canal It Is Irregular and can- 
not be described In general terms. 

Alaska Is In approximately the same lati- 
tude as the Bcandlnsf Ian Peninsula : Point 
Burrow, Its northernmoet point, la in aboot 
the same latitude as North Cape ; Dlion 
Bntiance, which marks Its southern bound- 
ary. Is nearly on the same parallel as 
Copenhagen : St. Eliaa la In the iatltnde of 
^*— 'itlanla and Bt. Petersburg; and Bltka 
.- ._ the latitude ot Edlnburgb. Tbe longl- 
tade of the western terminal ot the Aleu- 
tian Islands Is almost Identical wltb that 
ot the New Hebrides Inlands and Is the 
same aa that of New Zealand, and Cape 
Prince of Wales, Che most westerly point 
of the mainland, le nearly as tar west ss 
the Samoan lalaDds. Thus a person travel- 
ing from New York to Attu Island, the west- 
ernmost of the Aleutian chain, on reaching 
Ban Francisco Will have accomplished less 
than halt the Journey from east to west. 

The area of Alaska la about B86,400 
square miles, one-fifth that ot the United 
States. The popular conception ot tbe sbe 
ot Alaska Is based on mapa of North Aaier- 
IcB. which always distort It Tbe map of 
Alaska. Buperlmposed on a map of the 
Untied States of the same scale, demoik' 
atrates (bat the distance from the eastern- 
most to tbe weateromost point in Alaska Is 
Xa! to tbe distance from the Atlantic to 
< Pacific In the latitude ot L>os Angeles, 
and that Its northernmost and southern- 
moat points are nearly as far apart as the 
Mexican and the Canadian boundaries of 
tbe United Statea 

The main maaa ot Alaska is nearly rect- 
angular and Is carved out trom the con- 
tinent by Mackenile Bay on the north and 
tbe Gulf ot Alaska on the south. An ex- 
tension to the southeast Is furnished by 
the so-called panhandle of southeastern 
Alaska, and to the southwest by tbs Alaska 
Peninsula and tbe Aleutian Islands. 

I'opofrraphu.— The oialn topographic fea- 
■ * Alaska are slmilaj to Riom of f- 

TlDeT'aDd the four "topographTc provinces of 
tbe United States are fairly well defined 
througbont western Canada and continue 
Into Alaeka. Along the PaclOc coaat of 
.,„,.. ... T>-..,.v Colombia is r ~— — 

miles in wldtL. 

_ .„. ot the foar provlncea, 

and may be deelgnated the "Pacific Honn- 
tain system." It properly Inclades the 

Jiander Archipelago and 

Aleutian lalanda. as well as a oamber of 
other Island groups. While this region Ik 
In the main rugged and mountalnoua Its 

, _.., ranges are distinct and often separated by 

tbe United States and Canada re- broad valleys or Indentations of the coast 


.r IndentL 

line, forming In several _. . 

like tbat ot the Copper Blver, 


Messages and Papers of the PresidetUs 

Into tbe TnkOD *nd KnBkok 
teacb tlM FmclBc throash it 

tnui«vciM to the azla ol the 

Eut and north of tha PaclBc 

la the Central Plateau twlon, correapond- 
Ide In a broad war with the Central 
Plateau of the weatem United Btntea and 
Canada. Thli belt 1b drained largelr b; 
the XakoD and Kustcokwlm Rivera Into Ber- 
ing 80. and Inelndea a aamber of lowland 
arena of considerable extent. Eaat and 
oortb of tbe plateau proTlnce, a broad cor- 
dlllers form* the northem eiienilon of tha 
Bockj Uonntain •yatem. Tbe dralnaKo ot 
itae aontbetQ ilopea of the *-'" '- 

Tbe Qreat Plalni eaat and north of th« 
Bocklea form an area of low relief which 
Ilea between the weatem eitenalon ot the 
Bocbr UonntalQa and the Arctic Ocean and 
Is dealfnated the "Arctic alope teglon.'* 

NorUi Temperate Zone. Oeograpblc posi- 
tion and extent relative to oceanic bodlea, 
tosetber with relief, have brontht abont 
pl^alcal conditions prodnclni atroOK con- 
fraita iD climate between dllAreat parte of 
tiie Terrltorr. Three general cllniatlc proT- 
Incea, each ot which in tarn Inclodea a num- 
ber ot nibordlnate provlncea, are recog- 

The climate of tha eoaatal provloee !■ 
comparable with that of Scotland and the 
BcBDdlnavlan Fenlnaula. In Europe, but la 
■omewhat warmer. That of the Inland re- 

Kin 1* not anllke the cllmats ot Alberta, 
■katcbewan, and Hanlloba. In Canada. 
The northerlr proline* bordering tbe Polar 
Sea la tbe onl; one In which Arctic condl- 
tloni prerall. 

Tbe predpllatlon of aontbeaatem Alaaka 
varlea trom abont l*^ Inchea at Ketcblkan 
to lew tban 80 Incbea at Bka^waf' While 
there la bat little snow near aea level, there 
U a T*rj heavy fall tn the monnulns. At 
White Faaa tbe winter anowfall la about 2B 
to SO feet, but iM probably leal than « feet 
OD the cliilkat sammlt. Tbe blEheat re- 
corded annuner tempera tore In ■ootheaatem 
Alaska la B2* F. ; tha lowest winter tem- 
peralnre — 4* F. 

In tbe coastal reglan, stretching from 
Katalla to Beward, tbe average tempera- 
tare tor tha three aammer monrha la about 
St* F. ; of tbe three winter moathi from 
20* to 80* P. Tb« loweat temperature 
recorded la Ibla region Is — 14* F. : tbe 
' fbest 82' F. Tbe toUl snowfall la about 

9 feet at Beward, 13 feet at Yaldec, abont 
o feet on Trail Creek along the Alaska 
Kortbem Ballroad, about 30 Feet at Chllds 
Glacier on tha - - - - 

about 16 feet — ,_ 

by tbe unitary Boad from 

Borne ot the moat Important climatic tea- 
tare* of the coast of Alaska to ahlpplng are 
tbe Bsvere winds which blow in aniT oat 
ot tha valleys that traverse the coast 
ranges and tneir coanectlng florda. Tbe^e 
blow toward tbe land In snmmer and to- 
ward tbe •« In winter. The severest are 
the outward winds, which are moat common 
daring Jannary, February, and Harcb, wbcn 
Teloeltlea of 60 and TO milea an bone are 
■aid to be not in frequent 

The Ateutlan Islands and the Alaska Pen- 
insula have a climate charaeterlied by com- 
paratively moderate temperature and lesa 
Kaoiidlty than that of tbe Paciflc coaat to 
th^ taat Cook Inlet bw qolte » dlfltrent 

ES fee 

climate from that of the outer co^at Ibw. 
The htgheat recorded summer tempentnrv 
la 87* P. ; the loweat winter temperature. 
— 40* F. Tbe Climate ot the lower Bus to* 
and of the Uatanuaka Valleys differs again 
both from that of Cook Inlet and of tti« 
outer coast line. Here tbe summers are 
knowD to be warmer than on Cook In]«t 
and tha wlntera are probably milder. Tbe 
loweat temperature recorded at thla local- 
ity during the aame_penod was — 12* F. : 
the highest 84* F. The lower Copper River 
Valley has much tbe same climate aa that 
of the coast. At Kennlcott, tbe lolaod tar- 
— ' — ' -( the Capper River k Northweatem 

,-0^ are 

.- I station Is 2,000 

feet above sea level and close to a glader. 
At Copper Center the total ptvdpltatlon la 
about 10 Inchea and the saowlall abont S 
feet. Eitremea ot temperatnres of - 

Baalu varlea locally ^m 10 
Tbe mean temperature lor the _ 
months at Fairbanks Is about 

.. .. 10 li 

e lor the three au 

for the three winter 

12* F. Tbe precipitation 

months about - _. . 

on tbe lower Yukon and Kuskokwlm la 
aboat 17 to 20 tncbes. Along the sborea 
ot Bering Sea the mean aammer temperai- 
ture varies from 40* to IH>*. The cli- 
mate ot the northem halt of Bering Sea 
Is comparable with that ot the Province ot 
Archangel. In northern Russia, a region 
which supports aome agricultural poplula- 
tlon. The arctic province, which Includes 
the littoral of the Polar Bea, as well aa 
the drainage baslna ot the tribntary rivers. 
Is similar to that of tbs Bering Bee, but 

One effect of climate Is tbe troien condi- 
tion of the cronnd which prevails in much 
of the Inland region. At Fairbanks the al- 
luvium Is In many places froien to bed- 
rock, gronnd frost havlDg been met with to 
■ depth of over 800 feet It Is to be noted 
that onless tbe cover of moss and vegeta- 
tion la stripped, only about 18 to 24 Inchea 
ot the suitace thawa during tbe aummer. 
On removal of tbe vegetative covering tha 
ground thaws, so that ths troien subsoil la 
no detriment to agriculture. The ground' 
le, however, not everywhere trosen In the 
Inland region. The beiu of the larger water- 
courses are usually uatroaen, and^tbls alao 
boida true of tbe gravel benches along tbe 
valley wails and other deposits of alluvlUEO 
which are drained. No permanent ground 
^ost occurs along the Paciflc littoral, and ' 
the same probably holds true of most of tile 
Bualtua and Uataunska Baains. There la 
considerable permanently troien ground la 
the Capper River Valley, especially along 
the toothilla and slopes of tbe Alaska 
Bange. The experience ot tboae long 

dent In Alaska bas shown the climate to 
be very healthful. No extremes of cold or 
heat occur along tbe Pndflc seaboard. The 
eiceHSlve rains character la tie of mauy parts 
ot this district are. to be sure, disagreeable, 
bat experience demonstrates the tact that 
they have no adverse effect on health. 

Of the Ynkon It may be said that the 
tnmmers are cool and that bright dear 
weather prevails most of ths time. The 
aridity of the climate makes the extreme 
temperatures ot winter easy to resist. All 
who have lived In this Inland region ara 
agreed that the winter climate Is far more 
bealtbrul tban In many parts of the States 
where the temperature Is higher, but where 
there Is an excess of humidity. Residents 
of the Interior have no fesr of the extreme 
cold that often prevails during the winter 
oootlia. Tti« winter Jonmey between M^ 


Etuychpedic Index 

AlMks.— CmMmied. 

bankB and Valdex li made br msD, wanen, 
■sd dilUren and oITen no Mdoua bardsblpa 
tmpl wbeo atorma are enconntered. On 
the oUwr hand, the more hnmid dlmate of 
Seward Penlnanla Is warb more trvlng. 
Here the winter atorma are aeveie and tba 
■faKHipe ot timber jElvea no abelter. Thn 
■t climate at Some la deilgbUnL 

FopmlMUf. — Aecoidlng 
MID tlw total pppnlatfo- .. 
6S.TDIX of which about 80.000 

the e 

I ot 

_. e whiter 

winter, when onlj 

id tM enumerated, 

^,— .1 BlMmld therefore be aug- 
mented by manj thousaada, representlog 
the aDnval aammer migration to Alaaka 
ol mlnem, cannery employes, and otliera. 

permanent resldenti could b 

but of conrae not Indod 

vaj bad « popnlatltin i. , 

b alao eatlmated that there are 2,000 i 
3.000 more In the Klondike and other Cana- 
dian mlnliu diatrlct) of the Xukon. The 
town ot Haines, on Lynn Canal, had a_pop- 
nlatlaii of 44S (1010), and the toUl afthi 
(rlbntary dlatrtct -■— -■ - r-^" 

tdjaceot regions I 

_, . popuiatlona in 1910 

_■ toUowa: Katalla. 188: CordoTa, l,lC2j 
Beward, 6S4- The Incorporated town of 
Taldea had 81(K to which ahonid be added 
aome 000 or TOO more, repreaentlnK the 
popnlBtJoD of a aettlement Immediately ad- 
htrat. not included within the city Itinlta. 
Then Br« no tacts BTsUable regarding tbe 
popnlatloD ot the Copper River Valley, aa 

r... , tairen before the Influx of 

■ ■■ 1 of tbe rall- 
_) Kenal Pi 

load. Tbe popnlatkni of the Kenal Pm- 
Inanla, tDclndlng Seward, Is about 1,700, 
~ id^ere are between 600 and 700 In the 


(tween 6O0 . — 

Cook Inlet region. Inelnding the 6n>ltna 
Valley. In IBIO there were nearly 17,000 
reddents In tbe Alaaka n"rt »f thP Tnkon 
and In Uie Knak^wim 
-"irly 8,000 wr— '- "-' 
ent recton. 

I, at the month of tl 

nearly's.WW 'were"iirFairbank8''alid the ad- 
tecenl recton. The popalailon of F^lr. 
bulks was 3,C4I (l&lOj ; Chena, 188 : Tan- 

— _^ ..__ »i. -f y,g rlTer of the same 

""; Botapringa, 101. 

u.....n-~>'> elecutlve power Is 

TMted In the governor, who U appointed 
by the President for a term of tonr years 
by and with the advice and eonaent ot the 
Binate, The fovenior mv veto any bill 
passed by the Territorial legislature wltb- 
Ib three days after it ll presented to him. 
Tte legislature may override the veto bv a 
two-th&ds Tote ot all the members 

each h 

a U entitled. 

ritorial I^^latnre conaliMng __.._. 
and a Honae of Bepresentatlvee. The Senate 
mnslsts of 8 membeis, 2 from each ot the 
tear IndlclBl divlalona into which Alaska la 
now divided- The Houae of Repreaentatlves 
constats of 16 members, 4 from each ot the 
tour Indldal dlviaiona. Tbe term ol each 
member ot the Benate la foar yrara, one 
member from each Judicial division Oelng 
elected every two years. The term of each 
member ot the House ot Representatives Is 

Tbe iMlslsture convenes biennially at 
Janean. the capital, on the first Monday In 
March In odd years, and the leneth of tbe 
session Is limited to 00 days, bul tbe kot- 
emor Is empowered to call a special aPMlon, 
which aha II not eon tin oe longer than 15 
days. RlecHona tor members of the leglala- 
ture are held every two years ou the flrst 
Toeaday after the first Monday In Novem- 
ber ot each even year. 

Tbe ladldal power of the Territoir Is 
nsted tn the Dntted Btates District Court 
Ibr Alaska, which bas the hum Jorlidle- 

sided over by tour Judges appointed by t 

Presldect, by and with the advice and ev 

sent of the Senate, tor a term of four veai 

Tbe Territory elects a Delegate b 

tonr la located at Juneau. 

By the act ot Aogust 24, 1918, the g«i- 
eral lawa ot the United States not locally 
Inapplicable were extended to Alaska. The 
homeatesd law, however, had been pre- 
-< — >- extended with certain liberal modl- 

belng extended from three separate bases 
and priDrlpal ineridlana, dlatlngnlshed aa the 
Copper River, the Falrbanka, and the 8ew- 
arif Meridian. 

A qnallfled person may make a homeatead 
entry In Alaaka tor not more than S30 
acres of anrreyed or nnsnrveyed land. No 
■neb entry may, however, be allowed tor 
land extending more than 160 rods along 
the shore ot any navigable water, and along 
such ahore a apace ot at least 80 rods Is 
reserved between all claims. It any of the 
land settled upon la unBnrveyed. then the 
claim must be located tn a rectangular form 
not more than 1 mile in length by north 
and soDth Ilnea, run according to the true 

National Porettt. — The coast forests, which 
eompriKe the most heavily timbered area* 
In Alaska, are nearly all Included In th« 
ToDBSBs and Chugach Ntllonal Forests. 
These are under the JarlsdlctlDn ot th* 
Forest Service of tbe United Statu De> 
partment of Agriculture. 

The best estimates available place th* 
total stand of merchantable timber on the 
Tonsass National Forest at 70,000,000,000 
board feet, and on the Cbngach at 8.000,- 
OOaOOO board feet. This timber consists 
largely of hemlock and Sitka spruce, al- 
thongfa there Is considerable western red 
cedar and someyellow cypress, chleSy on 
the Tongsss, The timber la suitable for 
construcUon material, Bnlsh, and a very 
large amount la suitable tor paper pulp. 
The conditions for the manufacture of 
pulp are very favorable. Logging distances 
are abort, alnee tbe great bulk of the tim- 
ber la situated within a abort distance of 
the shore line. Transportation to the point 
ot manufacture Is comparatively cheap. Tln- 
llmltcd water power for purposes of manu- 
facture Is svsllsble. aud tOKf be used with- 
out charge for the manufacture of national 
forest products. From points ot nanutae- 
ture, all of which must be altoated on tide 
water, deep-sea transportation is available 
to tbe great world marketa. 

The beat data available Indicate that at 
least TOO.OOO.OOO board feet per annum can 
be cut Indefinitely from the Tongasa Nation- 
al Forest and at least 80,000,000 from the 
Cbugach. This will leave a verr large sur- 
plus tor export after supplying local needs. 

Mature timber ou either forest may be 
purchased on reasonable terms. A sufficient 
amount of timber will be included In any 
sale to Justify fully tbe Investment required 
tor logging and mauufaclure. Reasonable 
cutting periods will be allowed, based upon 
market demands and tbe capacity of tbe 
plant Payment la required on the basis 
ot actual or scale meaaureneDl la eompaia- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

.tlT«lf ■mall AmoaDta ImmedUitely lu nd- 
.TBDce of cutting, thug dotnx ftway vcrj 
Urcclr with CHrrylnx cturges. SaleH In 
wblcli the value of tbe tl[ub«r qiceeda flOQ 
iDuit be advertised at least SO days. Bet- 
tlars, farmera, pioepectora, llsbermeD. and 
Dtben may take timber trom these foreita 
for personal use tree of charge and with- 
out permit In amounts not exceeding 20,000 
board feet, or 2S cords of wood In any 
one year. 

Postal Bervtee. — The domestic rates of 
poBtnee and conditions apply to matter 
mailed at aay point Id Alaska to any other 
point In that territory, or In tbe United 
States or Its possessions, with the follow- 

The graduated aone rates on fourth-claas 
or domestic pa reel -post matter do not ap- 

fly, the postage rate on such matter be- 
Been any point In Alaska and the United 
BCstes and between any two points in 
Alaska being 12 cents tor eaeb pound or 

The t 

1 coin. 

Id the United States 

'°^ J 

per, tin, and silver deposits, together wl& 
petroteum, marble, and gypsnm. There are 
-'-- EiteHBlTe^fleldH of bltumlooDS and llg- 

; cool and some 

■liver, ana omer ores, ana peat, gn 
Ubestos, and mica have been found, 

Oold lode mining has been carried i 
•ontheastem Alaska since 1SS2. - ' 

well -developed In dust 17. 

vHiue uL Lue total lode production fs 

(ST DOaOOO, of wblch t4,e0O,00O shoold 

cr«ilte<^ to 'iSlS. Copper mining benn In 
1900 and has made rapid strides during 

■t 113,149,000- Of this, 28.M0.000 pounds, 
Talned at sbout $4,630,000, represents tbe 
4Dtput of 1813. 

Placer mining, begun at Jnneau Id IB80, 

of 1 SSB. This 

the Copper, and the Sualtna 

total gold output oF all the placer mines 
has a value of 1145,000,000. while the 
p'acer-mlne cutout of 1S12 has an estt- 
maled value of jlZ.OOO.OOO. Silver has been 
recovered, Incldectal to gold and Conner 
mining, to the total value of about tl,800,- 
.000. The valus of the oatpat of tin, mar- 

- -. _.r . . to tlM 

close of 1912. Is about tl, 000,000. 

The exploitation of coal deposit* oa 
Cook Inlet In 1804 by the Busstons was 
the first attempt at any form of mlnlnK 
wltbln the Territory. The output of coal 


1 say two points Id AIbi 

— T point In AlSRka and any point 

r.,j Di.. ... -possessions shall 

oe -i cents an ounce or fraction thereof, 
regardless of dletaoce. Such gold coin, 
sold bullion, or gold dost shall be inclosed 
(□ sealed packages not exceeding 11 pounds 
in weight aod sent by registered mall. 

Hesouroe*. — The mineral wealth of Alaska 
la St present Its most Important resource, 
but the Territory also Includes eiteoslve 
tracts of farming aud grazing lands and 
many water powers. Excellent limbec oc- 
curs (□ southeastern Alaska, while the In- 
land forests are valuable for local use. 
There are also -valuable fisheries along the 
Taclllc seaboard. 

The developed mineral 
ba Include gold loi"- 

, and peat, graphite, 

Into the Territory. 

To sum up, Alaska has produced to 
dote mineral wealth having an aggre- 
gate value of 1229,000,000, of which 
about t22,000,000 Is to be credited to tUe 
year lfil2. This output is remarkable, 
eoDsIderIng that large mining operstlooa 
are practically conflned to the coastal re- 
gion, easily accessible to ocean trans- 
portation, and that tbe vast mineral 
wealth of tbe Interior, except the richest 
of the gold placers, Is almost ODtoncbed. 

Gold placers, copper, and gold lode 
mines have been operated Id central 
Alaska, and silver has been recovered I 

extensive <^a1 fields, 
i.u and antimony '■ 

have tteen found, but their commerdai 
value remains to be proven. 

Aurlferoas gravels are very widely dl» 
trlbuted In central Alaska, and their ex- 
ploitation has yielded gold to the valao 
of nearly t90.000.000. Most of this has 
been taken from deposits which were very 
rich, for the high cost of operating here 
prevented the exploitation of the more ex- 
tensive deposits of leaser gold tenor. 

The blgb cost of mining In the interior 
has Id a large measure deterred tbe pros- 

Setor from searching for auriferous 
des, as only the richest and most fsvor- 
ably gltnated of such deposits could be 
profltably eiplolted under present condl. 
tlODB- Oold lodes have, however, been 
found tn many parts of tbe province and 
nave been success fully mined In the 
Kensl Peninsula, In Vtlllow Creek district 
of tbe Susltna Basin, and in tbe Fair- 
banks district 

The copper deposits of central Alaska 

Th. "f ">* Chitlna Valley, from which 1 
L-"? mine bezan shlnmeDtii In mil 

mine began shlpmenta In 1 

The coal fletds of central Alaska are 
extensive snd Include some of the best 
coal of tbe Territory. High-grade steam- 
ing and coking bituminous coals as well 
as some anthracite are found In tbe Ber- 
ing River sod Mataouska coal fields- Much 
of this coal la crushed and will furnish 
a large percentage of slack, and In many 
instances the coal beds have been so de- 

formed a 

that - 

3nt their profitable mlD- 


only be determined _, „,. 

yet tbe fact remains thst these t 

contain much workable coal of 1. _-, 

grade than any now known to that part 

I hl^er 

I Continent trlbn- 

ot the North _ _. 

tary to tbe Pacific Ocean. 

Commerce. — Up to the close of 1913 
Alaska produced minerals, fishery prod- 
ucts, and furs to tbe value or about 
(460.000,000. Alaska's commerce Indades 
northward shipments of food prodacts, 
merchandise, machinery, lamber. coal, etc, 
and return sbloments of gold, sliver, cop- 
per, salmoti, halibut, etc The average on- 
osal valas of tUs growing comnterce dnr- 


EncycIopeiKc Index 

I eDdtng with i&u u 

lag the flre jrc 
anrlj «SO;00(f;o. -. 

The aTenise value of the mercbandlao 
•hipped ■miiullr from the Culted Btatee 
to iJuka, darloi the five ;een eDding 
with IQlT, la. ne.T40^S&3. The hlcheet 

nUna dnrtiig t 

atlng the five jeara eDdiDK 
• $10,740,266. The .••'->•— 

"-Jill period (ot mj on. , 

, , S17,T09,S3IX ^he lowest 

ami, «lB.lTIX10e. Ad average of about 
33 per cent ot the aboTs wuiaal value Is 
Blade np ot the ahlpments made to Bt. 
MIdual and Yukon Baaln. This Inclndea 
nne dUpmsnti to the Canadian Yukon. 
It la eattmated (bat durhig tbla flve- 

.._ Thla Includes the traHle 

Inio the idltarod-Innofco region. Into the 
Tanana reslon, and Into the Canadian 
Eokon. The neatest average tar any one 
rear waa SO.OOO (1»0»), and the lowest 
M.S0O {1»10>. It baa been eetlmated 
that ot thin freight an averan of 24,000 
tmia ia shipped Into the Kalrbanks-Eam- 
part re^n, Oie bitfkeat being. 83,000 tona 
lot IMb and theloweat 107>0O ton* for 
mil. Ttie Information at hand Indicates 
that abont 8,000 toua have been aonoallr 
shipped Into the lunoko-Iditarod regioa 
duAog the jeara 1010 and IBll. A small 
amount ot freight Is also carried Into 
Fairbanks over the military road during 
the winter months, and some also reachea 
the Knakokwlni VsUe; bj direct shipments 
to the month ol that stream. 

Tbe In and out bound passenger tratBc 
to and from Alaska, not including tour- 
Ma or canner; emploTeea bound to re- 
OMte places, amounted to 60,910 In 1010 
and 43,2»3 In 19U. A part ot this rep- 
rewnta the travel Into the Klondike and 
other dUtrlcta ot tbe Camadlan Yukon. 
Host of this travel was to and from 
coastal points. The average annual pas- 
senger travel to tbo Fairbanks region br 
steamboat ronta for lSlO-11 Is estimated 
to be about 2,000. and 1,000 to the Idtta- 
rod-Innoko r^on. Aboat 800, Id addi- 
tion, Irarel In and out ot Falrbaaki by a 
■tage during tbe winter montha, and prob- 
ably I.OOO go in and out on toot. Id ad- 
dlUon to tbeae there are alao several buD- 
dred who trBTsI In and out ot the Idlta- 
nd-Innoko rwloti bj the Kuakokwlm 
Blvcr or b; the winter trail to Sewarr 
The average value of the outbound shlp- 
nnita from Alaska for the Ave rears end- 
ing fat 1911, and Including mineral prod- 
ocU, tub, fars, etc, la >32.S00,8B2. Tbe 
hlriktat valae tor anj one rear was ISS,- 
aiO,T01 (IBll), and the lowest «S»J61,- 
404 (1910). The only oatboand sbip- 
menta from the Ynkon and Kuskokwlm 
Barioa ars gold and silver. The same is 
tme ot the Snsitna Basin and a large 
part ot the Copper Blver Basin, where 
tbetB IM, however, one which which has 
been ahlpplng copper ore for two rears. 
WbllB maeta of the value ot the ontbonnd 
Alpmeats Is represenied by gold, silver, 
and copper, the greater nart ot the artoal 
tmnage la made np of the Oaheiy products 
wbleta are not dependent on Inland trana- 

Thla CMnmeree la carried on by Teeaele 
which ply between Alaska aod west coaat 
parts; Ita Inporunce Is Indicated by the 
tMOToa <H dearances and entrances ot 
*HB*u, In 1910 a total ot 4B1 dometitie 
, with a total tonnage of S9n.T4IX 
■ and 410. aggregatine 884,907 
eared Alaska porta; IBll the en- 
•ramm wero B14 vesaelB, with an amcre- 
■Bta tonnage of 420,980, and clearances, 
49S «saelt, with an aggregate tonnage ot 

421.B0B. Trade In foreign bettoiBi waa aa 
tollowii In IBIO, 3B3 vestela, with an 
aggregate of 244,094 tone, entered, and 
806 vessels, with an aggrenite ot 1S3,2!)4 
tons, cleared. In lailTSOT veSMts. with 
an a^regate ot 187,849 tooa, entered, and 
331 vessels, with an a» regale oC 160,- 
047 tons, cleared. These Tgures tor toreljcn 
boltODiB iaclude tbe clearancen of the 
Canadian steamers on tbe Yukon. 

The traffic on the Yukon and Ita trlbo- 
tarles is carried an by 58 river Bteamera 
varying In capacity from 6 to 008 net 
tons, and wllb an aggregate net tonnage 
ot 14,081. There are atso 12 steamers 
on the KuBkokwlm, with a net tonnage of 
1.608. About 00 veeeelB clearing from 
Pnget Sound are regularly engaged In 
AlBHka trafflc. This does not Include tbe 
whaling ships, cannery tenders, or small 
gasoline boats. 

I'ransportatlon. — Alaska la a Territory 
ot great Size, about one-filth that of the 
total area of the United States. About a 
quarter of Its area lies north ot the Endl- 
cott Range, which la Itself north of the 
Arctic i;&cle. This portion o( (he Ter- 
ritory la Arctic, and It alone presents the 
bleak aud frozen aspect popularly asso- 
ciated with Alaska. Sonth of this range 
In Alaska there Is an area greater than 
that of all the States east of the Ulasla- 
slppl and north of the Ohio Blver and 


ble of 1 

and DliDU'B llue. which U a 

tailing oat II — 

This system Is widest In tbe 
several ranges which divide central Alaska 
from soutnem Alaska. Just' north of 
Frluea William Sound, and stands as a 
barrier separallng the comparatively small 

coastal valleys from the two great Inland 

''leys of the Ynkou aod the Kuskokwlm, 

ch themselves are separated by a com- 

Seward. summer months. 

T^- ' 

at L — ., 

tbe stream as a connection with ocean- 
" "Opting during th 
.e <ame may be ■ 
ol tbe KnuoEwim. though ocean o 

merce may reacb its moulh f-_ ^ 

tional month. Both of these rivers have 
difficult entrances, that ot the Yukon be- 
ing a sbltt]n^ channel of . little .depth 


1 addl- 

mad fists, 
:wlm, whfl 

- _jptb 

and the entrance to the 
e deep eDoagh for tbe 

Once Inside, 

, each presenta a long . 

navigable water for the ordinary river 
boat. The Yukon Is navlnble up to White 
Hone In Capada, about 2^00 miles, and Ita 
greatent tributary, the Tanana. la navigable 
Without difficulty to Chena. near Falrbanka, 
and at times lias hern navigated much 
farther, though with dlScuity. The Koa- 
bofcwlm Is navigiable to the Forks, about 
60 miles above the Takotna. or about 060 
miles from the mouth. Both of theiw 
Btrpams bave navigable tributaries whleb 
extend their scope as transportation routes 

halt months. 

_. . other lesser valleys with 
waters. Of these the Cooper 
tna are the most Important. 
I rlvara ara .more Impartaot «a 


Messages and Papers of the Presidertts 

oSerluf tbe b«at ponibllltlM of penetrat- 
IDK tbe coastal range br rail Hdch Uimii f^r 

Krpoaea o( naTlgatloD. Tbe Copper Blier 
:alu tbrongb tbe Cbogacb Banee, but w[th 
a ilope BO aceep as to make navlkatlon dlO- 
CDlt and btuardaus, tbousb not ImnoBBlbls. 

A nntaber of good harbor* alODS the 
Paclllc seaboard ol Alaslia are now eon- 
BTCted with near-b; Inland points by Tall- 
roads and ttallB, or b; wbeod roads and 
tialla ODl;. All tbeae barbors as rar west 
as Cook Inlet are open tbroughout tbe 
rear, Bod arc from l.AoO to 1.400 statute 
miles fram Puset Soand porta. At present 
a Bommer steAmtioat serrice of about sla 
tripe a montb la maintained with tbe more 
Important of these ports, and In addition 
■ome freighters carrr coal and other sap- 
pllea north and bring back cargoes of fish 
and ore. DarloK tne summer, of abont 
three and A half months, ocean steamers 
make the trip between Pnget Sound end 
8t Hlebael and Nome. There Is also an 
occasional steamer to the mouth ot tbe 
Kuskokvlm and other points In Bering Bea. 

Kaanad*. — The following table gives In 
concise form tbe data as to mllesge. termi- 
nals, and gaofe of existing railroads in 

Whits Pus lai Tikio imris, Sscnr to 

WUta PiH (uttDW tuge). Tniini s" 
— HYnb " '' ---■-■■ 


Otcdm lo Kauintt Mudard (Bu«a). lU.O 

ptsrinsiT duw aa Un Cwpw Rinr A Hortli- 
MMnfuOmr ■»! n ^ Vslte A Yukon 
KssI Fmaola: AhAs Nivtfasn Bubnr. Bswud 
tB s pint oesi iHad dI Twiusuei Atm (itudud 

tSdb Bsuii'TlittiB'ViD^ lUiinir, FsMuk) 
sad CAsu Ui CbMuiki (surnr ^uge) i 

Bmid Pidisiils Rsihnr, "ddc to BkAlaa 

Pmtnsk BnuKfa. 'Sgintd FoiiDsnbi lUilin)' 

CfHsdl C5lr i SolnwD RIw Biiiw»! Cninol 

to ftodopa Creek (itudird gun) ! 

Wild Oua Ruhny, CouMil to 0^ Cretk 

of a railroad « 

oOcer ot the Engineer Coi 

a geologist In cbargs of Alaskan sDrreTi 
— -" -^'> Englr-- -" 

don In respect ti. 

prozlmltr to railroad r 
report to CohKress, t — 

al fletds and their 

tbe best and most avallakle rontea for i«ll- 
roads In Alaska wblcb will derelop ths 
conntrr and the resources tbereor for the 

a Katlwai Comi , _„ 

Uarch 12. 1B14, autborlieB the President ot 
the United Slates to locate, conetrae^ and 
operate railroads In tbe Territory of Alaska. 
Tlie cost of the work authorised bj this 
act Is not to exceed $3S,0OO,O0O. 

Wago» roads and traUi are being con- 
structed bj the Board of Hoad Commls- 
■lonom for Alaska, which Is under tbe 
supervision of tbe aecrelarj of War. Tbe 
mileage of road and trail conntructed and 
maintained la as follows : Wagon road, 
882; winter sled road. fllT : trail, 2,167. 

Probabir the most Important road con- 
structed by the Board ol Boad Commission- 
ers Is the one that connects Fairbanks with 
Valdei on tbe coast and with Chltlna on 
the Coppt^r Blver Railroad, and forms the 
present winter route between Fairbanks and 
the outside world. On this route tbrough- 
out tbe wintpr months a rpKular staee com- 
pany operates a line carrvlng freight, pas- 
sen gen, and mall. In tbe early winter 
and in tbe spring wheel stages are used. 
'-"* through most ot tbe winter season 


_ jwfin Valley a 

[mediately adjacent thereto, are 
more poorly provided with transpor- 
I than the Yukon and Tansoa Vaileya. 
a. niQter sled road has been built from the 
end of tbe Alaska Northern Railroad at 
Kem Creek, on Tumagaln Arm, up the 
Husltna Valley, and across tbe divide Into 
tbe Idltarod region. 

At the present time tbe Interior of Alas- 
ka Is most conveniently accessible during 
tbe three or four snmmer monlhs. June to 
Beptember, Inclusive. Fslrbanks, tbe cen- 
ter of tbe Yukon-Tanana Basin, mav b« 
reached by two routes. The flrst Involves 
«. 1,000-mile steamer trip, through the In- 
land passage, to Skagway, then 110 miles 

Tbe Koskokw^n Valley and tbe Idltarod 
section, Immediately adjacent tber ' 
oorly provided with t 

o( the Army, 
jkan sorveys. 
Corps of the 

who has bad 

railroad constmc- 

Thls body was authorised and Ingtmeted 
to conduct an examination Into tbe tran^ 

Krtatloa question In tbe Territory of 
aska: to examine railroad routes from 
the seaboard to the coal fields and to tbe 
Interior and navigable waterways : to se- 
cure sarveys and other information with 
respect to railroads. Including cost of con- 
struction and operation ; to obtain Informa- 

, , ,_■ tlie White Pass to White Horse, 

the head ot Yukon nsvlgatlan. A transfer 
In here made to a Canadian river steamer 
which reaches Dawson. 4(t0 miles down- 
stream. From Dawson an American steamer 
Is used to Fairbanks, a further distance 
Of 1.000 miles. At the best this journey 
consumes two weeks going In, but ordinarily 
connections cannot be made promptly and 
more time Is required. The outward trip 
by this route would require mneh longer. 
This route Is used chlefiy for hlsb-c&ss 
freight and passengers. 

Most of the freight, however, for Pair- 
banks la shipped to at. Michael by ocean 
vessels. Here It it transshipped to river 
steamers which are eipoeed to tbe open aea 
before entering the month of the rtver. 
These steamers carry the freight up tba 
Yukon and Tasana Elvers. The mileage ot 
this route la about 2,700 miles ot ocean 
travel and about 1,100 miles ot river traveL 
and usually occupies abont a month. This 
route is open for a shorter snmmer season 
than the other. AH rates are high, which 
Is accounted tor by the abort — 

The valley ot the Kuskokwlm t* not so 
well served. Bmall steamers reach BetheL 
and a few river steamers dlstribnte freight 
to river points nearest the camps, whence 
they ara bkuled, nauall/ dnilikg tbe winter 


Bticyclopedie Index 

Alukft. — ComUnued. 
relMrnp't oitd Cable Hue*. — Ttlesntpb 

wlnileiB ■jBtem ars 

OHMted b/ lUe Wu- Ue- 
mulUrj oDle line * 

^t BMtUe, W"*- 

li made with Uia 

• tar been 

•peedy aettlemeiit of the TerrttoTr br 
era. The only markets availat'- -~ 
ones aod traniportatloD has 
too expenalve to seek outside or qihibiii, 
BiaAeta. Fann labor 1b scarce and la 
many placta verr hlsh. Tbe cost of clear- 
ing land of traea «ad tbe rpmoTal of moga 
U as great aa to teem almost probibltlTc. 
EtneaUoH and Rdftdeer eervioe. — Tbe 
■chool* lor tbt edneatlon of natives and tbe 

I carpentry, cooklns. 

Tba ImportAtloi) of relodeer from Siberia 
Into Aluka benD In IS92 In order to tur- 
niah material for food and clotbing for the 
Baklmo Id the vldnlty of Berlns ^rait. 

nwre bad long been a disagreement wltb 
Great Britain over tbe locotloa of the 
boandary line bcCweeii Canada and AlaBbo. 
owIdb to a difference In tbe Intetp relation 
of a tnaty made between Kusela and 
Qreat Britain In 182C, deBolng this boond- 
ary : aod on tbe dlscjTery of gold in 
Aluka, in 18B0-IM, tbli matter reached a 
■crlooa Itan. The main point of dlfter- 
enca waa wnetber the boundary line abould 
be thirty nurlne leagnea (tnenllDned In 
tbe Roaala-Oreat BrlUIn treaty of 1825) 
eaat from the western bonndary of the 
IsUnds off tbe Alaaka coaat, or that dla- 
lance eaat of the mainland coast. In ISBO 
a nroTlalonary boundary waa agreed npoD, 
and on Jan. 2i, 1003. a treaty waa signed 
between Great Britain and lue United 
Btatea proTldlng for a tribunal of three 
Brltlsll apd three American commissioners 
to aettle the dispute. Tbe treaty wm ratl- 
fled by tbe Cnlted States Benate on Feb. 
11, 1903, and on Uarcb S ratlflcatlons were 
exchanged between the two goremmenta. 
The rommlaslon aat In London and on Oct. 
IT, lOOS, made a declsloD mainly In fator 
of tbe United Btatea, granting Canada ac- 
cesa to the Paciac only near the southern 
end of the boundary and glrlng ber Walea 
and Pease Islands, la Portland^ Cnnnt. Id 
Jnae, IBM, a surrey of the bonndary tbMS 

The general q 

of the public lands 

il ones ,- _ 

, jp by President Taft in tbn.. 

Injc open to private entry In July, 1011, a 
tract eoDtalnlag 12,600 acres of land on 
C0Btt«Iler Bay, near tbe Bering coal fields. 
Ur. Tatt on Jiily 26, 1911, sent a special 
meaaam to Cougreaa for tbe purpose of re- 
aaouliu the Amarlcati people that tbe al- 
leged danger of monopoly was not a real 
danger (pan T599>. In tbis message (g. v.) 
he act forth at eoniiderable length bla rea- 
Bona fbr throwing open this tract of land 
far private entry. 

Tba Blity-Mcond Congreaa on Ang. 24, 
1912. paaaed a law creating a terrTtorlaf 
gDvemment for Alnsha and establlsblag Ju- 
neau aa the capilnL In order to develop 
tbe mineral posstbllltiea and pre vent a 
(hreatened monopoly of tbe coal Qelds a 
railroad commlsalou waa appointed to con- 
duct an ezamlDatlon Into the transporta- 
tion qneatloB In the Territory of Alaska. 
Upon tbe report of thla committee was 
bued legtalatlon providing for pnrchaie or 
Ms iatiii ctlon of Mllroada and the teaatng of 

coBstract 1,000 mllea of 

not to exceed >!)6,000,000 to connect 
-■" the open Faclflc liarbors — 


■Ivers of the inti 

if tbe ■ _ _. 

operated by the 

22 provided f( 

with the navigable 
lui, BuJ wltb one or mr~~ 
fields. This railroad n 

_BDd_wltb one o _ 

. . BL The aVt"iT'ort. 
the lease of coal land* at 
for the coal mined. 
Ittporti jroM iUitka in Ft*eal Year 1916. 

n double the annual average si 

year prior to the great v 
to thla, Alaska sbrpped t 
[Old valued at tia,260.ODO 

The predominant fcatura of the year's 
trade, according to an analysis made by the 
Bureau of Fordap and Domestic Commerce, 
Department of Commerce, was the rise of 
copper to first place among Alaska's export 
staples, thereby sopplantuig aalmon and 
gold as the leading ilema. Receipts of cop- 
— In ore, matte, and regulus from Alaska 
egoted IIT million pounds, valued at 
mUllon dollars. !nilB is tour tlmea 

verage for the precedlog tluee yaata 

and eicee9s the combined Importa of that 
claaa from Chile, Cuba, Canada, and Hezlco, 
the leading foreign sourcea of tbla form of 

Canned aalmon shipped to the United 
Btatos in the last fiscal year amounted to 
210 million ponnds, valned at ISU mlllloti 
dollars, an Increaie of 24 million pounda 
over laiK and of 40 million over ISU. 

Tbe following table anitimariieB by lead- 
ing artlclea the shipments of Alaskan prod- 
ucts into the Unite-* ""— -■— ■-- -- .— . 
three flacal years: 


a the United Statea during the last 








»4,om; eio,m 


101 ,«a 

Alaska- Ynkon -Pacific Expoaition com- 
mended, 7052, 7103. 

Attempted occupation of portion of, 
by Oreftt Britain and Canada, SDS7. 

Attempta of Great Britain and Can- 
ada to establialt post routea in 

Bonndarj Una vith Britisli poatet- 

CoaimiMion to determine, iMom* 
mended, 4141, 4918. 


Jf «Mg« and Papers of the PreadetUs 

DiflcuBMd, 4141, 4917, 4SSII, 6306, 
5400. S9S8, 6063, 6370, 643G, 
6792, 6826. 
Beport regarding, refarred to, 
Cewion of, to United State! — 
DiBCiuBed, 3778, 3386. 
Beferred to, 3798. 
Treaty regarding, referred to, 3719, 
Appropriation for payment tm- 
der, lecommeDded, 3719, 3778. 
Chinamen in, cruel treatment of, 5083. 
Coal fleldB of, 7561, 7S64, 77S0. 
Collection district eetablislied at Sit- 
ka, 386S. 
Commiasion government suggested 

for, 7436, 7535, 7722. 
Conditiom of, 6725, 6792, 6799, 6918, 

6919, 7019. 
CoDtroller Baj, opening to settle- 
ment of land on, discussed, 7979. 
Delegate to Congress from, 7050, 7399. 
Education in, appropriation for, rec- 
ommended, 4G6T, 6483, 6453. 
Encroachments of Hndsons Bay Com- 
pany upon trade of, 3S98. 
Government for — 

Act providing for, 4879. 
By commission, 7430, 7535, 7722. 
Discussed by Presideut Benj. Har- 
rison, 5760. 
Uunicipal goTemments reeoinmend- 
ed by President Benj. Harrison, 
6483, 5641. 
Be commended by President — 
Arthur, 4651, 4731, 477L 
Hayes, 4522, 4573. 
Taft, 7436, 7536. 
Oovemmeut railroad suggested for, 

Importation of breech-loading rifles 
and flzed ammnnition into, for- 
bidden, 4282. 
InstmctioDs regarding, modified, 
Lands in — 
Proclamation modifying order re- 
serving, 612. 
Set apart as public reservation by 
proclamation, 5795. 
Legislation, recommended, 8722, 6269, 

6400, 7436, 7535, 7722. 
Light-house on coast of, point to be 

selected for, 3902. 
Military arrests in, 4312, 4313, 4314. 
MilitaiT- Department of, 3830, 6269. 
Mineral -wealth in discussed, 6063. 
Keeessity for development of, 7616, 
Port of entry in, establishment of, 

recommended, S4S4. 
PrivOeges of hunting, trading, and 

fishing in, referred to, 3829, 3830. 
Property rights of natives, 6920, 6921. 
Public LandB of, 6697, 6799, 7419. 

Bailways in, should be bailt «nd 
operated by government, 6911. 

Beferred to, 3818, 3829, 6269, 6352, 

Beport of governor of, 4976. 

Beport of Lieut. Emmons, 6941. 

Beaources of, must be used, not 
wasted or monopolised, 7912. 

Eteal fisheries within limits of. (See 
Bering Sea.) 

Seal isluids in, sale of, recommended, 

Survey of coast of, urged, 8019. 

Territorial Oovemment recommend- 
ed for, 7911. 
Alaska Salmon Oommlaaioii, mentioned, 

Alaaktr-Tnkon-Faclflc Exposition. — F'or 

the pnrpoK o( eiploltlne the lewnrcei end 
poteotlallt§es of the Alsiks and Yakoa ter- 
ritories and to demonstrate the progress t>t 
the weBtern parts of the United SUtea 
and Canada, as well n* to fHter tbe trade 
of tbe countries borderlns on the Padflc, 
an International exposition was held at 
Br?a<tle. Wash., from June 1, to Oct. IS, 
1D09. Eleven exhibition palaces were built 
OQ the Campus of the IlnlverBlcy of Wasb- 
inxton (■ tract of 22B scree). The ex- 
pensei preliminarr to opening were $!(>.- 
000,000. Tbe funds were raised t>T ap- 

SropriHlIonB by the federal Rovemment, toe 
(ate of WsBbluston and the CIt70f Seattle. 
Albania. — An eneoelve tract of the west- 
era littoral of tbe Belkan Penlnsuls, from 
tbe southern Icontler of MoDtenesro to the 
Dorthern frontier of Greece. Within tbesa 
limits are Included an area of close on 
22,000 square miles, with a populailon of 
three to three and a half million persona. 
Of this area about 12.000 square sillea have 
been absortted by Servla, Qreece, and Uon- 
Cenegro. leaving the area of the autono- 
moas portion at about 10,000 squsre miles, 
■ ■ ■ 2,000,000, of whom 

, — , years with Venice. 

until the adrsnce of the Hobammedan 
forces eitlngulihed the Independence o' " 
kingdom In the Qfteenth and sixteenth 
turrea From 1571 to 1913 Albania 

tlona of the Tilajets of Kossoio ..._ _. 
astir. Tbe Balkan Wars of 1912-13 iv<:'i 
Domlual It caused br the desire of the Allied 
States (BulgarlL Bervla. Uoatenegro and 
Greece) to free the Albanlana from TnTklab 
misrule, and one of the preteits of the 
" - - the inability of Turkey to 

the AmbaBsador 

of the assembled Powers 

J reed upon the principle ■ 
banla. and the throoe was accepted by 
Prince WlUIsm of Wicd. Since tb.t data 

Df the treaty the claims of Serrla t. __ 
dltianal Albanian territory led to desultorr 
flgbtlng between Berbo-A I banian forces, and 
to a threat of Interference on the pati of 
other Powers. Serria flnall; withdrew from 
tbe diaputed territory In Octot»er, 191 S, 
□wlnR to pressure from Anstria-Hunfarr, 
bat the new country Is still a prey to In- 
ternal dissensions. 


Encyclopedic Index 

TrmMjiortation, — Albania I* IrtTcrsMl 
from Bcatarl <lD tbe norib) to Tslgoa (la 
U* (ODtttirnt) by ■. rallinir from Moa- 
tenccro, and lines from Servia ctou tbt 
caittra frontier at I'lireud, Dlbra. and 
Slmn. Tbe principal porta are Uuraiio 
aa<t Valooa. 

TbB dellmlBatlon of tbe Bonthern bonnd- 
ai7 (wbers Albania li contermlnoUB with 
tkc extended Kingdom of Greece) bs> re- 
cnll7 bpen entrusted to an Intematlanal 


,.J"fnJm "tbe Colonies of "New Hamp- 
■hli«, Uanacbasetts, Rbode laland. L'on- 
■wctient, Mew York, FennajlTaDla. and 
Harrland, met at Albaa;, N. Y., od Juqb 
la, 1764, to arrange a trentj wHb tbe 
Hi NatlDDi of Indluns. Benjamin Frank- 
lin proposed and the raaTentlon adopted ~ 

i' br tbe Lords of Trade, c 

has coTemmental anperrlslon over tbe na- 
tional bnnkg; sball cause to l>e printed and 
kept on band at all times a special Issue at 
CQirencj' amounting to GO per cent, of tbe 
combined capital atock of all tbe oatlonal 
bauks. To secure a portion of (bis emer 
gency bank r— - ' - ' — ■■ *— - 

._ municipal b 

[ler or otber valuable and r 
bis assets mn; lie used as security, pro- 
tided It first secures tbe approval of tbs 
association and tbe government. It tbe 
securities are acceptable tbe curreDcjr la 
Immediately forwarded to tbe bank. It waa 
superseded br tbe Olaas-Owen CDrrencr law 
of iei3 (i. D.]. 

Aleutian TaTnwila — A chatD of abont ISO 
IslsDda extending from tlie western ex- 
tremity of Abiska near the continent of 
Asia. The area Is about B.OOO sonars 
miles. Tbe Inbabllants, a balf-clrlllied 
and decllnlOK race, about S.OUU In num. 

a president- genera I o 

1 Brand council I 

from each Colony, chosen by aswmbly for 
■ term of three years each. This grand 
conacU was to be aotborlwd to equip 
forces for tbe common defense Of the 
Colonle* aod to lery taxes for tbdr main- 
tenance and bare control of all Indian 
alfalra. The plan wsa rejected by tbe 
CrowD beeaoae It gare too mncb power to 
the Colonies. 

fl't^tiy Ktgency. — a combination of poli- 
ticians ot the Democratic party. Proml- 
Mnt amonf these were Uartln Tan Boren, 
William L. Uanrr, John A. Dli, and SUaa 
WrtghL This '■-- '• — - 

Tbeir organliatlon was quite 

mainly due to Ibis fact. A majority of 
those In the combination resided In Albany 
or operated from that city. Tbe name 
•rose from thla circumstance. 
tjbmaxlt, nifl. — A Confederate Iron-clad 
ram bnllt on the Boanoke Blver. below 
Weldon, N. C. In 1863. She was destroyed 
with a torpedo by Lieut. W. B. Cusblng 
on the nlEht of Oct ZT, 1S64 (349TI. Be- 
fore her destmetlon ebe did much damage 
to reMela of the United States. In 188T. 
She was raised, towed to Korfolk, and sold. 

Dntnietion of, 3457. 
Referred to, 6306. 

Engagement of, with tlie BaMOCiu 
referred to, 3411. 
Allilmi, The, seimre of, referred to, 

AUrld^ViMUnd Onrronc; Xaw. — A 
meania passed by Congress May 30, 1908, 
to render the currency of tbe United States 
more elastic by placing it within tbe power 
of tbe national feinka lo transform all suit- 
able arallable assets into money In ra- 
spooss to soy Unanclal eme^ency. The 
purpose of tbe law waa to prerenl panics, 
and waa the direct result of tbe flnaoclal 
strtsgency of lOOT. The law provided 
thai the Cemptroller of the Cnrrcncy, who 

d fur 

Tbe h 

Busslana altout 'the middle of the elgbt- 

Alert, The, conTontion, between Nice- 
\ and Costa Hie* i' ' 
also Oreely, A. 1 , 

Alexander Archipelago Foieat Eeaem, 

proclaimed, 6697. 
Alexandria, Va.; 

Act incorporating ehnrch in, vetoed, 

Blockade of port of, removed by 

proclamation, 3371. 
British retreat from, 582. 
Propertj- in, destroyed by British 
forces, 530, G32. 
Alexandria Connty, D. 0.: 

Conrt-honae in, unsafe and new one 

reeotnmeaded, 1621. 
Jail erected in, fl30. 
Betrocession of, to Virginia by proc- 
lamation, 2320. 
Alfalfa. — A legumlDous fodder plant, na- 
tive Co tbe valleys of Central Asia. It 
has been cnltlTated in Europe for more 
tbnn 2,000 years, and was Introduced Into 
Mexico and boutti America at tbe time of 
tbe Bpsnisb conouest Id lS.'i4 It waa 
brouRbt from Chile to California, whence 
It Bpread rnpldly over the Pacific and 
Rocky MonnttilD stntfs, where It Is now 
more eilenalTelT grown Ibno any olber 
forajte crop. The word alfalfa Is derived 
from tbe Arabian and comes to us throuih 
tbe SpaolBb lanKUaee. It is laterpretcd to 
mean '*the beat feed." It la also known 
■ - ■ - Dprlgbt 

„.. ._. teet b-"- 

...,.., , I leaves sod IrrpRular 

pie flowers, which tcrow In loose clusters 
like pea Qowers. On loose, permeable soils 
tbe roots frenuenlly descend to ten or 
twelve feet. It Krows best on rich, saody. 

and does uot succeed on damp soil or tena- 
cious clay. Two years are required tbor- 
ouiiblr to esiatillHb a field, hut when ducb 
establlabed the plant endures many years. 
The crop Is cut when the plants are com- 
Ins Into bloom, and again from two to six 
times, according to the lenrtl) of the sea- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 


.___. __ cured hB7 la rellibed by 

mil firm anlmala, and Ib n«ed both for 
fitteDlDi taA milk prodnctloD. 

BulUtiM of production latbered br tb« 
Ceoias Bareau ibon that In 1909 tbtra 
were 4,T(Rf,20:j acre« dei-oted to alfalfa la 
the United Slate*, from wblch 11,849,098 
tona of bar waa cat and £G9,5Be bosbelB 
of aeed satbered. 

AlcMlni OonTaitIon.~At a canf«reti«« 
of the Powera at Alfedias, Spain, Jan. U 
to April 7, 19(M, Fiance and Bpaln wen 
commlialoDed to maintain order on the Mo- 
roccan eoaat. Tbe town Ilea on tbe w«t 
Bide of tbe Bar of Gibraltar, aeTen mllea 
from Enropa Point. The convention waa 
called In reaponie to manr complalnta by 
BDropeana and Americana tnat treaty Tlshta 
wera not leapected br the Uoora, and that 
life and propertr of torelsnera wera unsafe 
In llorocco. It waa participated la by Dnlt- 
•d States Oermanr. Aaatna-Hnnnrr. Bel- 

flam, Bpaln. France, Great Britain, Italy, 
bo Nethcrlanda, Fortusal, Ruaala and 
Bweden. The treaty waa publi shed Jan. 22, 
190T. (Bee Treaties.) Before tbe end of 
the jtut French troopa Were landed at Ulda 
and Casablanca. Jan. 11, 1908, tbe rells- 
oaa aulborltlea of Morncco depoaed Abdel 
Asia and proclaimed hla brotber Uulal Hafld 
Saltan. Hla embsaay to Berlin wsa refused 
rseOKnltlon wlthoot consent of tbe Powera. 
MgtditM Oonvontloii, ratifleation urged, 

Alsnitk — A Fmcb poweialoii on the 
north cout of Africa, about 343, BOO miles 
In area and contnlnlnK a popnlntlon of 
BboDt 6,600,000. TblB Includes tba scqul- 
altloD since IHOl of aome :>:ia,UOU square 
miles of territory on tbe soulb. Tbe chief 
natlTC people are Berbers aod Arnba. Ita 
capital and principal city la Alslcra. It 
Gomprlae* Che anclcnl; country of Numldia 
and a portion of Mauritania. For many 
centorlea It harbored a band of coraalra. 
Who hannted tbe coaata of the Uedlterra- 
■nd the Atlantic Ocean 

tbem trlbnta. To pay | 

I tribute ' 

deemed wlaer by many European powera 

...__ .. against them. FoUow- 

of other nations, the 

Ing tbe examples , — 

United Btate* signed a treaty In USE, 
BgrMlni to pay the Dey 11,000,000 tor the 
ranaom of American captlTcs and promla- 
lag an annual trlbnte (lee page* 110. 1T4). 
Al^ria made war agalnat Ihe United 
States Id 181S. Commodore Decatur, with 
tcD Tcaaels, silled agalDsl: the Dey and met 
with such BDCceaa that he was enabled to 
exact Indemnity from the Dey himself, sad 
also a treaty renouncing all claim to trib- 
Dte, praaenta, or ranaoma, and a promlae 
not to reduce prisoners of war to slarery 

iiee page B4T). Ftsdcs b> alnce rednced 
Igerla to the dominion of her Govern- 
ment, organtiliig It as a coloulal poiaesBloa 
In 1634, of which It is now tbe most Im- 
Tortant. The chief resource of the cann- 
ery Is sgrlcnlture. Since 18T0 there have 
u>n a number of extended revolta: and In 
t yeera the country baa auDered from 


Conanls of United States ia, 189, 8 
Banialwd, 60S. 


Change in par of, 131S. 
Powers of, shonld be inereaaed, 238, 
Salary of, sboold be increased, 238. 
Unjustifiable proceedings toward, 
b7 Dey of, 441, 
Declaration of war against, yeeraa- 

mended, 539. 
Hostile attitude of toward United 

States, 42, K3S, S60. 
Impriaonment of American eitiaena 
in, SO, 00, ]15, 140, 160, 198, 197, 
190, G30. 
Referred to, 144, 14S, 202. 
Treaty of peace with, 554, 679. 
Treaty with, transmitted and dis- 
cossed, 116, 174, 178, 184, 197, 
6S4, 679. 
Annulled by Algeria, witb alterna- 
tive of war or renewal of former 
treaty, 660. 
Tribnte to be paid by United States 
to, 116, 174 
Payment of, 325. 
Vessels sold to, 237, 
War with United SMtes. (Bee Alger- 
ine War.) 
Algerlne War.— The countries on the lied- 
Iterranean coaat of Africa, from Egypt to 
the Atlantic, namely, Uorocco. Algeria, 
Tunis and Tripoli (which are known col- 
lectively aa tbe Barbary Power*) had been 
In the habit of preying on the commerce 
of nations that refused to pay a tribnte to 
tbem. Shortly after the Bevolutloo tbe 
opera tlona of theac plratea were directed 
against our commerce, to protect which 
treetlea parchualng Immunity by the pay- 
ment Of yearly tribute were negotiated 
with tbe Barbary StateB— In 1T83-1T8T 
with Morocco, in 1T9G with Alglera. iu 
ITOS with Tripoli, and In 1T99 with Tunia. 
In 1812 Algiers declared war agsluBt the 
Untied States. Aa soon aa tbe war then 
commencing against England bad t>een 
brought to an end. our government turned 
Ita attention to Algiers. Tbe Algerian 
war was ahort and decisive. In the spring 
of 181D Commodore Decatur waa sent with 
nine or ten vessels to chaatiae the pirates. 
In June he captured tbe largest of thrir 
frigates, and soon after took another vessel. 
Be then diets ted a treaty to the Dey of 
Algiers, which waa algned June SO, 181S, 
rellniiuUblng all claim* to tribute In the 

Algerlne War (see also Algeria) : 
Declaration of war by Congress ree- 

ommended, 639. 
Dot of Algiers begins war against 

United States, 428, 
Information of amicable aettlement, 

Termination of, 647. 
Threatened by Algiers, 560. 
Treaty of peace concluded, 6S4, 679. 
Algontnln Indlaao. (See Indian Tribes.) 
Allen and Sedition Lava.— Two impor- 
I of CongresB passed by the Fedetal- 

ro8. Ti ■ ■ 

In their 

t they li 

„. ».. .Federaiisl , , , 

to Aawtiean history aa a laadaurk iMyond 

of the Federalist p 


which It la unufc for the iBW-maklnB pow- 
er to go. DurlDg tbc freuub RuTulutlon 
AmeilcaD feeling was high aod bitter. Man; 
public speakera end wrileni opeuly advo- 
ralFd InterveutloD Lr the Uolted States la 
fa*or of the one side or the other, de- 
noBsced th« neulral atlltude of tbe Qur- 
eromeBt ■■ cowanllf and UDsrateful, and 
bcBpeil Invectlfes upon f— ■-•—'-'-•—-' — 

Encyclopedic Index 


The tact that nurnr o( the a 

trriy I 

had much to do with the pasaage ol the 
alien act. Thla law anlhoiiied the Preal- 
dent to order oat of thla coontrf all auch 
aliens aa be might Jadge tu be daajccrDaa 
to the peace and aafety of the Unlled 
States or engagnl In plottliu; against them. 
Tbe anlltlan act provided beavr flnes and 
bspiliioument tor an; nprwm who should 
eon^ie to oppose tbe United Ststra Oot- 
ernment or Inws. or who should print or 
pabllah an; false scnnduloiis or mnllclous 
writings sgitnat the GoTemment, ConirreHB, 
or the Presldpnt Intendod to bring dlsre- 
pate or hatred npon them or to iiltr np 
sednloD. These laws were r«)[arded bj the 
Repabllcan party of Ibnt day as unron- 
■tltnllounl and were denoimced by tbe Kpd- 
tnety and Vlrglolo rrwilutlDiia as Kulivpnrive 
of the liberty of speech and the pn-ss. 
Tlker expired In 1800 and 1801 respective- 
ly. (Bee also Kentucky and Virginia Beso' 
AUn Omtimct Zaw, ameDdment of, 

recommended, 6348, 6455. 
Allm lAboma discossed, 0065. 
Ahmm. (See Naturalization.) 
Allant in TTiilt«d SUtM (see also Nat- 
oralised Citizens) : 
Abdnction of foreifpieri claimiDg pro- 
tection of United States sho^d be 
made a crime, 2650, 
Allegiance of, to QoTernment dis- 
enssed and orders regardiDg, 3318, 
Claims of, coort to tiy, recommended, 

4191, 4243, 4297, 4360. 
Uabilit; of, to perform military duty — 
Diseaaaed, 3381. 
Proclaimed, 3369. 
Number of, employed in Execntive 
Departments, report on, transmit- 
ted, 610B. 
Offenses against treaty ligMs of, 
■honld be cognizable in Federal 
eooTts, 5618. 
Anatoaoa (Oa.), Battle of. — In Oie hope 
at diswins Qen. Bherman's armr out of 
OeoTtla. the Confedetales, 80,000 strong 
under Oen. Ilood, threatened hla railroad 
eemmnnlcallons with NaabvlUe. Oct. 0, 
1M4, a dlTlBlan of Rood's Infaalry sppeared 
before Alletoona Pnan, where were stored 
about 1,000,000 rations. The post was 
held by CoU Toiirteloite. who was re-en- 
foreed by Oen. Come, thus Increasing the 
..'... -01,844^ ' 


prisonen. C — ._. — — 

■hnsrif wonnded. Hood eroasnl the Coosa 
Oct. 10, and Sherman's army followed him 
to GayfesTllle by way of Borne, and then 
retomed to Atlanta. 

—According to Slackatone, al- 
"leaa the Ue which binds the 

□ the ■OTcrelgn la rctom for that 

1 which tbe ' — *" — '- ■"■- 

-- Natural or 

that obllgaliuD which — .. _,- 

tlon of which he la a natural-bom dtlsen 
or subject so Ions as be reioBlne such, snd 
II does not arise tram any eiureiw promlw. 
Express allegiance Is that obligation which 
■rlsvB from uu eipreased osth or promlae. 
Local allegiance Is that obedience and tem 
porary aid due by sa alien to the State o 
couiuinuilr ' ■-'— " - • ■ ■ 


AllagUncfl, Oath of, army officers di- 
rected to sabscribe anew, 3219. 

Allentown, Pa., act for erection of pub- 
lie building at, vetoed, 5243. 

AUlanca, The, firinc npon, by Spanish 
Teasel disavowed by Spain, diseuaeed, 

Allotment of Landg. (See Lands, In- 

Almlranta Oqjimio, The, menUoned, 

AlBop Oaw.— The Alsop case, whlrh was 
aettled by King George V of England, as 
srbitrator, was a dispute with the Kepnbilc 
of Chile of forty years' standing. It grew 
out of a debt incurred by a Braslliao to 
the Unu of Alxup A Co., of Valparaiso, 
a chartered Chlleuu cuucern wilh American 
roemiieni. In Belltemeat of the debt the 
Brailllau made over to tbe Chilean firm 
ccrlalu claims from Bolivia lying In terri- 
tory which was afterward, as ■ result 
of the war of 1870, ceded to Chile. In 
1009 Secretary Knox demanded the refer- 
ence of (he claim to Tbe Hague, but Chile 
objected to this unless her government was 
allowed to use the amiuient that Alsop A ' 
Co. bad been expreaaly excluded from the 
rlgbts of American nationals by the Cbllean- 
AmerK'BD Clalma Tribunal In IDOO. the 
Amerlciin aoverompnt having Insisted on 
this eicluBlun. Then Sd-retary Knox Is. 
sunt an ultima turn demanding reference 
of tbe case to The HaKoe or payment of s 
million duliara to tbe Unlled States. Final, 
ly OD nlleruatlve was olfered of reference 
of the claim to King Edward as arbitrator, 
and Chile was ioducrd to accept thla, Dec. 
1, 1000. Klug lildwiird died, and hla son 
and succesHor on July 10. 1810, rendered 
bis award lu the Abwp cliilm. Il asslcned 
£187,000 to the Aliwp firm In full setllc- 
uipDl, sad Chile paid this amount tbrongh 
the United Stalea aovemment Nov. ik 
1010. Tbe origlnsl amount of the claim 
was £GOO,000 with Interest. Tbe award 
wos received with aatlafactlon In the United 
AlU Tela Island (Santo Domingo), 

claim of e!tizena of United States to 

guano on, 3827, 
Altamaha SiTer, canal from Tenneiaee 

Hiver to, referred to, 1027. 
Amaion Blver. (See also Braza Phyl- 
enl PealurfB.) 

Explorations of, by officers of Navy, 
271E, E7E4, E762, 4449. 
Appropriation for, recommended, 

Free navigation of, desired, 2744. 
Attempts to Secure, unBueceBsful, 

Opened to eommerca, 8774. 


Ambassador Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

AmbUSAdOT. — This term was long errone- 
onslr naei In reCerence to oar envars to 
(orelKD countries. The United Stites did 
oot DP point diplomatic representatives of 
higher rank tbuii envoy or mlalater UDtll 
the Tcttr 1»03. wben li; act oC March 3 of 
that year the hittlivr grade nne establlsbed. 
"■'• ". Bajftcd was raised to tbe rank 

duly 1 

credits a to - 

Heilco, Japan, TutlicT, Brail I. and Aus- 
trla-Uungnry (58T4, 0335) and receive snl- 
■rlea of (IT.SOO per annum. In aacleot 
tlmeH HmbaBsadora were sppolnted on spe- 
cial occnslona. MedliEvil republics, I^e 
Venice, both received and sent ambaaaadora. 

B (see also MinUters); 
Elevation of misBiong of — 

Oiettt Britain, France, Italy, and 
Qermany to grade of, and lilce 
action of United States, 5874. 
Bnsaia to grade of, aad lilie action 
of United States, 633G. 
Announced, SS74. 
Official residenceB for, recommended, 
6072, 6155. 
Amalla Island.— A small Island off the 
Doriueast coast of Florida, between tbe gt. 
Hary's aod Naaaan riveia. During Spnla's 
nominal occupalloa of Florida It became 
the rendeirous of pirates, HmuBKlera. fn- 
Kitlve slaves and other outlaws. 'Theae not 
only preyed upon the commerce of friendly 
nations, but eitended Ibelr oneratlous In- 
land. robtilnE and murderlaic American set- 
tlers In GeorEia aod Florida, General 
Matthews with a smaii force, Id March, 
1B\'2, took poaaeaslon of the country under 
a misinterprets Hon of hia orders to protect 
American property In I^lnst Florida, and 
l-reaideot Monroe promptly disavowed the 
set aa unfriendly to Spain, with which 
country negotiations were at the time un- 

bv General McGreeor In Philadelphia. 
ThoM ■!■( up an inOcpendent uoveniment 
ned rpcORultlon by the United 


t It MT 


gllnir, and were DnallT suppressed by the 
United BCatea forcen. The Mnod cnme into 
poEsesaloQ of (be United Stales with the 
cession ol Florida. The Island and Its In- 
habitants were a source of BcYlous annoy- 
ance to Monroe, and formed the subject of 

Amelia Island. — A coast isIiiDd, N. B. 
of Florida, between St. Mary's and 
NassEin rivers. 
Colonial govemmentH not responsible 
for nnlawful conduct of persons in, 
OoveToor Uitcliell ordered to restore, 
to the Spanish, 493. 


a of— 

Inquired into, 620. 
Tabeta by Oen. Ttfatthevrs, 4S2. 
Unlawful expeditions to, d is cussed, 
ESZ, 590, 592, 601, 609, 620. 

— One of the chief defects of 

t of the thirteen States. 
Three needmi changes having failed of 
ratiocation, a conveatlon was cAled In 1T8T 

deliberations of this .. , 

ent Constitution, which provides for 
amendments In the following words: "The 
Congress, whenever two- thirds of bo til 
Houses shall deem it necessary, shall pro- 
pose amendments to this Constitution, or. 
on tbe application of the legislatures of 
two-thirds of the several Stales, shall call 


of three-fourihs of' The several^ 8tateB~o"r "by 
conventions In three-fourths thereof, as the 
one or the other mode of ratlBcatlon mar 
be proposed by tha CoDgresa ; provided. 

Many amendments to the Constitution 
have been proposed, but only seventeen 
have been ratmcd. They relate to |I> 
freedom of speech, the press, and religion ; 

quartering of troops In private houses: <4) 
-jrlty aealDSt unreasonable search and 
iure:_(6) capital crime; (Q) criminal 

prosecutions; (7) trial by Jury under com- 
mon law; (Bl forbidding eicesalve ball or 
Does and cruei sod unusual punlsliment ; 
(8J relation of constitutional to natural 
rlEhts; {10) powers reserved to the SUtes : 
(111 suits of non-residents against States 
In Federal courts; (IZ) election of Presi- 
dent and Vice-President ; (131 slavery; (14 
and IS) abridgment of the fraocblse, et&. 
by States; (16) taxes on Incomes; (17) 
election of senator by direct vote. 

The first ten of these amendments were 
submitted to the several State legislatures 
by a resolution of Congress which passed on 
Sept. 25, 1TS9, at tbe first session of the 
First Congress, and were ratlfled by a suf- 

— '— — '— of e— " "-- 

dared odopted Jat 
Sept. "" '-•' ■ ■ 

25, 1B13; the BeventeentbTMa'j 'Il"'iil3r"" 
Amendment, Oonstttutlonal: 

Proposed by Johnson, 3S40, 3889. 
By Taft, 7390, 7301. 
America. — The entire Western Continent 
or grand division of the world, Including 
North. Central, and South America and the 
BdJecenC Islands. It was named Id honor 
"' '-aerlgo Vespucci, on early explorer^ 

: the stiteeDth Feb. 

discoveries, but It war* uul uuui aiLtfr KB 
discovery by Columbus in 1492 that It be- 
came generally known to Kuropeans. In a 
treatise on the new country published In 
I50T. railed Cosmoi;mphl& Introductio, bj 
Waldseemflller, a leacher of geography In 
the college of St. Die In the Vasgea, the 
name or American was proposed. (8e4 
North America and Soath America.) 

America, Four Humdredtli AnnlvarMtry 

of DUcOT«r7 of: 
Celebration of. (See Madrid, Spain; 

World's Columbian Exposition.) 
Observance of, enjoined by proclanur 

tion, 5724. 
AmerlcaD ConUnentalfl.-'Unlfonaed pa- 
triotic corps composed of descendants of 
oOlcers and soldiers of the Wsr of the 
Revniatlon. The staff headquarters and 
ofBces of thd Adjutant are Drezel Balldtng. 
Wall and Broad Streets, New York. 


Eneyclopedie Index 


*mi*m» ohim of Boon.— Tbil iife-MT- 
Ins otdcr wma orsanlEed A. D. 1898, and la 
coBpoMd of pcrtoiu DiKin whom the United 
StatM Oovctmnent hal conferred the llf«- 
BTtag medal ol honor. Utj 1, 1606, Con- 
neaa Incorporated the order, — •• •'■- '-' 

Etfahlp I 

r annuai dues are collected 


TTlce In tovlng lite and 

, also, haa received the medal of honor 

of the United Statea OoremmeDt. 

. nsg Assodation. — OrKanlted 
rtb. IT, 1898, Its motto being, "One Flit, 
Om Coontry, God oTer alL" Ita object 
U to aecare National and Slate leglilnUoiL 
for thB protection of the flag from degrad- 
las and deaecratlng Dies, and to secure a 
general obaerraace of Jane 14 ae ■■Flag 
D«j," becaoie on that day In 1777 Congreaa 
adonted the United States fias. The AsBO- 
etallan Is compiled of ladlrldaal membera 
and alao the members of the Flog Com- 
mitter of p«triatlc aoclellea for the pamn» 
of foateiing pnbltc aentlment In tan 

Amazlcui Xa^on. — An organtcaUon 
formed In ISIS to enroll the namea of 
dtliena ot the United States qua 1111 ed 
either by prevlona military or technical 
•xperlencs who eipreaa tbeir wHllngneaa 
to itapond In caae the goTemmect abould 
at any tlm* need their aervlcea. The mem- 
berahlp conalata of men ot experience Is 
Qie uny, navy or marine corps or In the 
Nation^ <]naM or naral nllltla of any 
lUte; men eapedally trained In any of 
the nnaerona Tocatlana drawn npon to 
Meet th« conditions of modera warfare, 
inch as STlatlon, n«Tlgatlon. operation of 
motDr ors or cycle*, and trades In which 
technical and sillied mannal labor la em- 
ployed : also those trained In anrgery. medi- 
chw and nnrstng. The form ot application 
tarries nbont seventy snch vocations. The 
does arc 85 cents per year, and members 
•rs entitled to wear a button conalstlng 
ot a bin* star In a white Deld aurronnded 
by ft Kd ctreio. 

Jaanictll Part7.— Trom tli« beginning ot 
the nrenuMnt, moremenla against alien* 
ban bMn ammon. In New York City, a 
eentcr of foreign popalatloD, thli anbject 
bad, ttom time to time, been agiuted, and 
after a period ot sacctas In 1844, It had 
again innk ont ot view. Abont 18S2, when 
the Whig Party was breaking aannder, a 
secret, oath-bonnd organisation, said to haTe 
been called "The Sous of '76,^ or "The Or- 
der of tbe Btar-Spangled Banner," was 
fonned. Those ot ita niembera that bad 
Dot been admitted to the lileher degrees 
were kept In Ignorance of the alma and 
Bans ot the ornnliatlon, and their constant 
answer of "I don't know" to qnestlona re- 
nrding the society aave them the title ot 
"Snow-Nothlnn." All meetlnga of the par- 
ty were aeeret. It carefolly aroided tbe 
Bobject ot alaTery, and attempted to draw 
the Totcra tbat were tired ot atcltaHon on 
tbat aaWect by ecmflBlng Itaalt to Tlgorona 

opposition to Catbidle* and alleni. It* prtn- 
dple was "Americana must rule America." 

The Qrst national convention of the party 
met In February, 1856. It favored more 
stringent naturallsatioa laws; opposed for- 
eign Immigration auBrage and oOce-holdlng 
by tarelgn-born dtlsens ; opposed tbe with* 
drawal ot the Bible from the public schools. 
Ulllard Elllmore, ol New York, was nomi- 
nated for President and Andrew JaAson 
DonelBon for Vice-President. Theae nomi- 
nations were endorsed by a Whig coDven- 
tlon in September. FlUmore carried bnt 
one atate, Maryland, while hla total popo* 
lar vote was abont 8B0.000. 

In 1860 Presidential candidate* wero 
again nominated, but auder auotber name. 
(Sea CoiMtKuJIoHal Pn(oii Purtji.) After 
FIllmore'B defeat, the party in 18ST carried 
the State elections In Bbode Island and 
Uaryland. and In 18G9 It was Btlll represent- 
ed by a few members In Congreas. [Sm 
Anti-Uasonlo Party.) 

The second party ot tbla name wai found- 
ed on opt>oaltlaD to secret societies, anllka 
the first, which bad Itself been such a so- 
ciety. The name was adopted by the mem- 
bers ot the Matlona) Chriatlaa AModatloa 
when tbat body began In polities. Ita plat- 
form demanded prohibition ot the sale ot 
liquor, recognition of the Sabbath, tile with- 
-* ' ~' •*■" charters ot secret Bocletlea 

IPKlslatlve prohibition ot their oaths, a 
'"'u of International' diapntes. tba lb* 
ot the Bible Into acbools, tbe 

burst Ion of L 

ematlonal' diapntes. tba li 
„ .he Bible Into sc"— '- *' 

of land monopolies, i 

of apecle payments, Justice to the Indiana 
and a direct popular vote for Prealdeut end 
Vlce-Prealdeot James B. Walker, of 1111- 
nolB, was nominated for President and 
D. Klrkpatrlck for TlcB-Presldent. In 1880 
nominations were again made; In 1884 tba 
nominee, B. C. Pomeroy, witbdrew In favor 
of St. John, the Problbltlon candidate, on 
hlfl aaaurance that he "stood on every plank 
of the American platform." 

A third American party was organised by 
a convention held In Philadelphia. Beni 
le-lT, 1887. Its platform declares the 
"present system of Immigration and nato- 
rallutlon of forelgnera detrimental to tbe 
welfare of the United States ; demand* 
amendment ot the naturallsatioa laws so 
as to make fourteen years' reddence a 
prerequisite to citlsenahlp; eicIndeB tvom 
citizenship all anarehlats, socialists, and 
other danjterouB characters ; condemns alien 
proprietotahlp In land ; grant* ot land to 
corporations ; reasserts American principle* 
of absolute freedom ot r*""" ■"'" 

American Uerdiaiit Hailna, need foi, 

American National Bed Oross. (See 

Bed GroM, American National.) 
American Peace Society.— l^BOobal Head- 
qoattera, Colorado Building, Waahington, 
n. C. Organised In New York City, May 
8, 1828, and formed by the merging ot 
many etate and local societies, the oldest 
ot which, the New York, dated back to 
181B. I.->cnted In Boston from 183T to 
1011. Moved headquarters to Washington, 
D. C, Hay 1, ISll. 

American ProtectlTa AnodatloiL— While 
disclaiming to be a political party, thi* 
aaaodatlon, popularly known a* the A. P. 
A., bsB loQuenced resultB In maiiy localities, 
Ita principles, aa set forth In a plattorm 
adopted at Dea Uolnea, Iowa, In 1804, are 
(1) protection ot our Doaasctariai) fie* 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

AmnlcBa FretactlTa Amol — Oo»r4. 

^ property to be — — _..__ ^„,- 

pows: (3) preierTlDg and malDtalolu the 
ConBtltotlon and GoTernuient of the Inilted 
State! : (4) reatrlctlon al iDUDlgratloii. aod 
(G) eiteDiloD or time teqalred for natural- 
Itatlon. Tbe aaaoclatlon wbb orBanlaed In 
188T, and aooQ had well-attended eounclla 
Id naul7 cvarj State of the Union. 
Amailcaa Bridles, Bniwn of tlu In- 
tonifttioital Union of. (See also Pan- 
American Union, International Ainer- 
ieui Conferonee.) 
American Sopnisllei, Bnr«an of: 
Buildings of, 6S24. 
BnlletinB of, transmitted, 6678, G78' 
Discussed, 6338, 6349, 63S1, 6436. 

Collection by goTenunents of debts 
dne their citizens, from other conn- 
tries, hy force of arms, referred Ut 
The Hague Tribunal by, 7061. 
Conference at Bio Janeiro, visited br 
Seeretary of State Boot, 7058. 
Amoilcaa S«atnni. (See Seamen, Amer- 
Amoricaa Sodety of MacTianlcal En- 
glnMn, memorial of, relating to 
Ericsson transmitted, 556G. 
Anwrlcan By rtm i- — tn hla annnal meaaage, 
December, 1848, Prealdent Polk dlscuued 
what Its aothora and advocetea called the 
"AmeilcsQ lyBtem" (2604). Be luslated 
that thlB ao-cslled aratem was fonnded on 
a departure from the earliest policy of the 
Oovernment ; that It depended on an en- 
larfement of the powers of the Federal 
OOTenmuot bj conatractlon and was Dot 
warranted by a Jnit Interpretation of the 
ConitttotlOD. One brancb of the new sya- 
tem. It was claimed, was the esCabllBhme 
of a larse national br ' 
was • hlgb protectlv 

raise the revenne neei___. , 

merely ; the next was a comprebenslre 
■cbeme of Internal ImproTements, sad final- 
ly a plan lor the dIfltrlbuCloa of the pro- 
ceeds of the aatei of the public tanda amoni 
(he States, But the term "AmerlcaD syB- 
tem," as mast generally nnderatood, Is used 
to denote the policy of protection to home 
IndustrleB by meuB of high duties on Im- 

Krts. Tbe term was probably first used 
Henry Clay In the debates which pre- 
ceded the euBctmeDt of the tarlft law of 
1BS4. When be called his plan of protectlTe 
duties and internal ImproTcmentB the 

Amoiicau Wood Freserrlng Co., purcliase 
of machinery from, referred to, 4676. 
AnMtliULnlBiii, President Boosevelt de- 
fines, 6016. 
Amoiicuu In Ennpe: 
Board of relief established for, 7962. 
Belief, protection and transportation 
home of, 7961. 
AmtataA Cue,— The case of the United 
States against tbe Spanish veBsel, Amiitad. 
A caito of kidnapped Africans who had 
been landed near Havana, Cuba, by a Portu- 
gotsc slaTer, was shortly afterwards placed 

aboard tb« Spanisb Tessel AmMoJ for sup- 
ment to Puerto PHncl);ie. On tbe Toyage 
the negroes took poaaeaston of the vessel 
and ordered the crew to tetum to Africa ; 
but the sailors brought her Into American 
waters, where, oft the coast of Long Island; 
she was captared by a United States war 
Tesael Bnd carried into New London, Conn., 
~~, 1838. On a libel for anlvage tbe 

Supreme Conrt of tbe United States held oi 

1 .1... ..i.- ^ having been kid 

country, were free 

appeal that the negroes, having been kld- 

-* ' forelgD country, were free 

- ' by treatlea with Spain. 

napped from ■ 
men, and not boa 
Amlfd, Tbe: 

Appropriations for claimants in case 
of, recommended, 2401, 2742, 2977, 
3042, 8092. 
Claims arising ont of, S634, S720. 
Negroea taken on board, referred to, 

Beferenee to, 2128, 3172. 
Beleaw of, demanded by Spanish 
minister, IBOS, 
Anunnnltloii. (Bee Arms and Ammnni- 

AmnestT. — An set ol pardon for political 
olfenses. The effect of It is that the crimes 
and offenaea agalnat tbe State specified in 
the act are so obliterated that they can 
never again be charged against the gnllty 
parties. When amnesty Is procUlmed with- 
out restrlGtlon as to peraona- or localities It 
is called absolute. Numerous inatsnces of 
qoBllfled amnesty are toand In ancient and 
modern blatoTy. When Thrasybulua over- 
tbrew the oligarchy at Atbena he proclaimed 
an arauesty. excepting thirty tyrants and a 
few of their followers. President Lincoln's 
first amnesty proelsmitlon excepted all oOl- 
cers or agents of the Confederate gorem- 
ment, all army offlcers above tbe rank of 
colonel, all naval ofllcers above tbe rank 

of lieutenant, all p ..— .^- 

Ice of the United 

tbe Inanrrectlon, a: 

signed from tbe mllltsrv or naval service and 
afterwards participated In rcbelllan ; also all 
those wbo had treated colored persona or 
those In cbarge of them otherwise than as 
prisoners of war (3414). Dec. 2S, 1808. 
President Johnson proclaimed abaolnte am- 
nesty (SaOB). 

Amneity (see also Pardons) : 
Froelamati on of PresidentLineoln,3 414. 
Diieussed, 33S0, 3465. 
Persona entitled to benefits of, de- 
fined, 3419. 
Beferred to, 3508. 
Proclamation of President Boosevelt, 

Proclamations of President Johnson, 
3508, 3745, 3853, 3906- 
Anthoritf for, diacussed, 389S. 
Circular regarding, 9539. 
Persons worth more than $20,000 to 
whcm special pardons issned, re- 
ferred to, 3S83. 
Beferred to, 3659, 3669, 3722, 8779. 
Be commendations of President Qrant 
regarding, 4107, 4209. 
Amphlon, E. B, M, 8., protects Amer- 
ican interests, 6809. 
AmpUtrlt^ Tlu, mentioned, 6318. 


Encyclopedic Index 

Amtndan, ITctbMlasdi: 
Aceonnta of b«itken of United Btfttea 

in, lendeTed, 113. 
Lo&n contTftcted witb, 120. 

AwtoU* Ocdlaga (Manovan, Turkey), 
partial deetmctionof by mob, and in- 
demnity paid for, diseuued, GS72. 
i, note on sinkitig of, 8117. 

& nential, •ntonomoni and leml- 
t ttate on tbe frontlei of Franca 
and Spain In tlie Butcrn Pyrenaet. Area 
176 Bn^lah aqnue miles. Population 6,000. 
il dii4 People.— The Btate Is dh 

, ^.. _1 Franco and 

_, & Bishop Of TJrgel. Tbe Andor- 

nas are all Boman Catbollcs. The peo- 
ple are Tlrila and Independent, eonsed 
BatDly In paateral pnranlCa and airlcnllure. 
Ftance liaa aneed to extend a branch line 
of railwar (from Toolouse to Ai). from 
Al aonthwarda to Andorra Vicllla, and 
Spain to coDtlnoa the Barcelona-Blpoll line 
to AnOorra Tldlla. which would tbos be- 
come m. atatlini on a Toolotue-Bareelona 
Uoe across the PTNnees. Tbe central sot- 
cfnmeat Is administered b; a Qeneral Conn- 
dl ot twentr-fonr member* (Conr from 
each eommnne), the tieentlTe power re- 
■tdtnc In the Syndic and TIce-Snidle of tbe 
Coondl. The Prencb Repnbtlc ( through 
the priettt at the Eastern Pyrenees | and 
the Blanop of Drael receire a tribute of 
•60 fr. and 460 ^r. respectively, Erery 
alienate year two delegatea Tlslt the priftt 
et the Eaatera Pyrenees to pay •'le tribute 
and renew the bond of fidelity. The capital 
is Afidorm TlcUla. population 000. 
aiiiiiw.1 IndnstTF, Bnnan of.— Tbe Bn- 
rean of Animal Industry ot tbe DepaKmeat 
ot Asrlcaltnre has charge ot the work re- 
lating to live stock. In general It deal* 
with the Inreatlgatlon, control and eradica- 
tion of diseases of animals, the Inspection 
and quanntlne ot live stock, tbe Inspection 
ot meat and meat-food products, and with 
animal hnabandry and dairying. It InveaU- 
galM the existence ot communicable dls- 
easea In live stock, makes original aclentlflc 
Invsatlgatlona as to the nature, cause and 
prevention of anch diseasss, and takes meas- 
nrea for their repression and eradication. 

The Animal Husbendry Division gathers 

iiifr.Fipatlon and mnhea studies aod eioeri- 

s concerning tbe breedlog and fi 

them free of chsrge 

to health oOeer*. The Dairy Dlvtslon 
makaa tnveatliatlons as to the manafactarea 
of bottar and cheese, iDClndlog Buropean 
vsrietica of cheese, aa well as the sanftary 
handUns of milk supplies. The Heat In- 
spection Division Includes the ante-mortem 
and pMt-mortem Inapectlon of cattle, abeep, 
■wine and coats alaughtered for food. A re- 
port Issnea l>y speclallata In 191D QnilB that 
''tbe methods Uild dawn In the regulations 
sre solBcleDt tor Insarlng wholesome meats 
and for the protection of the public health. 
Thess resnlatlona are honestly aod elB- 
dmtly carried out." A live stock experiment 
rtatfi^ ja ipplntalned at Bethesda, Hd. 

Appropriation for, £887, 6979. 

Inspector and assistant inspector i% 
recommendation that diplomas and 
ezuainationB be required of appli- 
cants for, 6887. 

Eeport of, 8734, 6857. 

(See also Agricnlture, Department of.) 
^tiimf tiff ajid. An^imtl frodncta. (See 
also AxricuItQral Product!.) 

Conunisefon appointed to report on 
nnhealthfnlness of, diBctused and 
recotnmendationB regarding, 4793. 

S383, S764, SSS7. 
Exportation of, disciuaed, 4578, E554, 

S7S3, SSB7, S978. 
Importation of, into United Btatea^ 
DiecuBBed, 5887. 
XiawB prohibiting, in certain tamet 

recomniended, 5197. 
Proclamation removing prohibition 
on, e02G. 
Preserves for native animals, recom- 
mended, 6911. 
BestrictionB upon importation ot, in- 
to foreign eonntriea^ 
Austria, 4916. 
Belgium, 6956, 6326. 
France, 4693, 4768, 478», 4916, 

5194, 6545. 
Oormany, 47S8, 4789, 4910, S957, 

6061, 6330. 
Great Britain, 4919, 6764, 6178. 
Correspondence regarding, referred 

to, 4979. 
Decree! of— 
France remrding, 6517. 
Germauj, France, Belgiiun, and 
Denmark regarding, 6100. 
Diecnsaed, 4947, 5664, 6641. 
Bemoved, G616, 6641, 5763. 
Awnalrt of OongTOS!,— A record ot the de- 
bates and proceedings of Congress from 
tbe commencement of tbe First Cohgresa, 
March 4, 1T80, to tbe doae of the first ses- 
sion of the Eighteenth Coogmu, Hay £7, 
1824. Tbe Annala also contain many valu- 
able State papers, public documents, laws, 
and mcch corteipondence. (See Congros- 
Bionsl Qlobe ; CocgresMonsl Bccord ; Begta- 
ter of Debates.) 
Annapolifl, Hd.: 
Act for erection of public building 
at, reasons for applying pocket 
veto to, 607L 
Naval Academy aL (See Navnl 
Aimoxatloti.-~Arter the adoption ot the 
Federal ConatltDtion tbe Individual states 
ceded to the Dnlted States all territory 
west of tbe lines they established bh tbdr 
western bonndarlea. In tbe original char- 
ten this territory extended nominally to the 
P&clllc Ocean, but nallv only to the Mis- 
sissippi River, for Louisiana and Florida 
were %panlah poaaeaalonB. In 1800 Lonld- 
ana was retroceded by Spain to France, and 


Messages and Fafns of the Presidtnts 

■ wai imutrpd br the United States f 
thp IntltT April no, IBIU, br p^juien' 
tl5.nno.000. Tbe tcrrUorr pmbrnccd 

of Ihe MISRlsHlpni RIvtT, tORether -'-^ ' 


dlBlrlct I 

nf kaii»D8. all oi 

Tprrllory. pari of Colomdo, moat or njo- 
tnlng. and Ibe whole of Moataua, and coa- 
talned 1,171. H31 snnnre mlleH. Feb. 22, 
181U. Florida was c^ed to tbe United States 
br Bpnla ror (5,000.000. Texas vrhlcb had 
for nine rears cilsted as an Independent 
Bepublle, was added la the Dulted Slates 
■R a Stale Dee. 29. 1S4S. As a result o( 
tbe MrTlran War and the pnTment of tl8,- 
250,000 lo Meileo and f lO.OOO.OOO to Texas, 
territory Including what arc now Calltornla 
■Dd tllnh and portions of New Meileo, Ne- 
Tada, Arlionfl, Wfomlng nad Colorado was 
added, and later the soutbern pnrt of Arl- 
■ooa and 14pw Moiico were by the Gndaden 
Treaty nurchaaed from Meileo. Alaaka was 
■cniilred Id 1867 by piircbasa, tbe price 
being 17.200.000, and Bawall In 1808 by 
treaty. By the Treat; of Paris, between 
tbe United Slates and Spain at tbe elose of 
the Rpanlnh-Amerlcan Wnr, nee, 10, 1898, 
tbe Philippine lalands ; (iunm, ot tbe I.a- 
drone iiifands. Puerto BIco, spd tbe Isle 
of I'inps were reded lo the Uolted Slatea. 
Tiitulla. Tau. Onexlnga and Ota, of tbe 
Samnan croup, were acqiilred In 1890 by 
trealy wllh fireat Britain and Germany. 
Wake and other small Islnnds In tbe Paclflc 
were taken In 1899. The Panama Tanal Zone 
(see Panama Canal> was acquired In 1903. 
Annnftl Addresaes of Prpnident — 

Adams, John, 240, 261, 279, 295. 

■Washington, 57, 73, 95, 117, 130, 154, 
174, 191. 

Wilson, 8286. 
Anniud Ueasagea of President — 

Adams, John (addresses), 240, 261, 
279, 295. 

Adami, J. Q., 865, flI6, 944, 973. 

Arthur, 4624, 4713, 4757, 4822. 

Bnehanan, 2967, 3028. 3083, 3157. 

Cleveland, 4909, 5092, 6165, 5358, 
5G6fl, 5955, 6058, 6146. 

Fillmore, 2613, 2649, 2699. 

Grant, 3981, 4050, 4096, 4138, 4189, 
423S, 428S, 4353. 

Harrison, Benj., 5467, 5542, 5810, 

Hayea, 4410, 4444, 4509, 4553. 

Jackson, 1005, 1063, 1107, 1154, 
1238, 1316, 1366, 1455. 

Jefferson, 314, 330, 345, 357, 370, 393, 
413, 439. 

Johnson, 3551, 3643, 3756, 3870. 

Lineoln, 3245, 3327, 3380, 3444. 

MeKinlpy, 6251. 6307, 6356, 6416. 

Madison. 458, 467, 476, 499, 519, 532, 
547, 558. 

Uonroe, 580, 608, 623, 642, 667, 754, 
776, 817. 

Pierce, 2740, 2806. 2860, 2B30. 

Polk, 2235, 2321, 2382, 247«. 

EonsBvelt, 6641, 6709, 6784, 6894, 6973, 
7023, 7070, 7198. 

Taf t, 7409, 7492, 7644, 7766. 

Taylor, 2547. 

Tyler, 1927, 2047, 2110, 2187. 

Van Buren, 1590, 1700, 1746, 1819. 

Washington (addresses), S7, 73, 96, 
117, 130, LM, 174, 191. 

Wilson (addresses), 7006, 801S, 8102. 
Antarctic Beglonfl. — Lands discoTered 
within Antarctic regions are almost every- 
where InaeeeBBlble. Recent eiploratlona 
bare determined the chajactcr ot the polar 
region as an elevated land-mass ot contl- 
□ental proportions, containing beds of coal 

from Arrtic Ocean are carried south as far 
as tbe 40th parallel, bergs and floes from 
Antarctic are found, even in sammer. 10 
or IS degrees nearer the equalor. in tbe 
warmest part of midsummer tbe tempera- 
ture la pracllcally al freezing point. Tbe 
entire region la within the snow line. 

fzptoraltORt— Cook (IT72I reached lat. 
71* 10" a.; Weddeil (18Z3I lat. 74° 8.: 
Ross (1841-42) lat. 78' 10' S. ; sighted a 
land wltb mounluln ranges 7.000 to 15,000 
feet hlEti : traced coast from T2d parillel 
800 mfies 8. and W. : named It flcloria 
I.and : on It ohserred an active volcano. 
ML i^T^bua (13.300 teet>. A Belgian ex- 
pedition. De GerlBcbe commandant (I899I, 
rearbed lat. 71' 3U' O". Borrbgrevlnk 
(1808-1000) reached lat. 78' 34'; Bcott 
(190*^1 lat. 82* IT': ShackleCon (19001 lat. 
88* 23', pipedltlon located 8. Magnetic Pole 
at 72° 2B' 8. 105- 16' E. Amundsen dis- 
covered the south pole In 1012. 

Antbraclts Oool Strike Commialon, re- 
ferred to, 6737. 
Antl-FederallBta.— A political party which 
opposed the adoption and ratification of the 

Conatttntlon. Its fundamental principle waa 
'ngtbenlng of the Na- 

Patrlck [lenr; were Its leaders, ^elt 
Btrengtb was shown In the Firal and Second 
CongresseB. Tbey opposed Hamilton and 
his followers and championed a sCHct con- 
struction of the Const itntlon aa against 
monarcblal federalism They later becama 
merged Into the Republican party, under tbe 
iradershln ot Jefferson. There have been 
many political parties, termed "antls." As 
Ihelr nsmes Imply, tbey have opposed some 
speclfle measure, organisation, or person. 
Thongh acting as political parties, tbry ate 

nuch 1 

tbe a 

of the 


for they have no afllrmatlTe n 
clatma are negative. Orgnnlied with spe- 
rlflc purpose to oppose, they disappear with 
the Issue. Prominent among oaasi parties 
have been the Antl-Lecomnton, Antl-Ma- 
Honlc. A ntl -Monopoly, Antl-Nebraaka, and 

Antl-MaBOnic Farty.— In 1826 William 
Morgan and David C. UlUer, of Batavla. 
N. T.. announced that they were about to 
publish an etposS ot Free-maaonry. Before 
the book was produced Morgan was arrested 
for debt and conflned In the Jail al Canan- 
dslmia. whence he dlsanpeared on tbe night 
ot Sent 12. 1826. It was charged, but never 
shown to be true, dial he bad been foully 
drall wllh by members ot the Masonic order. 
as Bll artemnts to discover his whereahonts 
were iinavalllng. The of '-reiterated rhargea 
arooRcd a bitter opposition to the order, 
and Tharlow Weed began tbe nnbllcatlou 
nf >ha inH.M.onnri- B»qBir«r at RoTbester. 
entlon waa he'd by the 


Encychptdic Index 


AnttHBKiila Fartr— CooNno^A 
waa ctolmed tluit many ot tbe Btat« oOclal* 
mtn Maaoiu mud renrded (betr (ntenul 
oUlsaUon* «■ mora blndlDfC tbui tbelr cItU 
MlbL Tbe ADU-Uuonle InIIdz xnw rap- 
Idl7. TtaB pmrtr cut 83,000 Totca In New 
Tork Stair fa 1828, TO.OWiD l»i», acd 128,- 
000 In 1830, tbonfh naor ot tbe latter were 
uII-JbcIuoii men raurdlesi ot Maionrir. 

Id September. 1^0. ■ natUnia] caaveD- 
tlon met at PbliadelpUa, FraDota QranKer, 
of New York. preildlDK. In 1831 tbey nom- 
inated William Wfrt fir Prtaldent, but car- 
ried onlj tbe Bute of Tenppnt. In 1S35. 

dlaed *■ rapldlj aa 
AnU-Honopolr PutJ.— Tb« Antl-UoDop- 
•IT Onanlaatlon ot tbe United Btatea met 
■t CblcM<^ H«r 14. 18S4. and Dominated 
^. Butler, of Haasacbunette. for 
■laeacr. It adopted a platform de- 

F economical soremment. and tbe en- 
and entorremeni o( equitable laws, 
K an Intentate Commerce Law (oae 
.« been enacted), ealabllablng Labor 

1. proTldlng Indnatrlat ArbltratloD. a 

Urect TOte far Benatora, a graduated Income 
tas, pajment of the national debt as It ma- 
tare*, and "foaterlng eare" for agrlcultore: 
wbll* It denonnred tbe tariff and^tha xrant 
■rf iBBd to rorporatlona Tbelr nominee was 
■IM Mlected b; tbe Greenback Labor party. 
Ibe Joint ticket belns known as tbe Peo- 
ple'! party. It polled 130,000 Totea. 
AnU-SalOOn I^lguo.— Fonnded Id 1880. 
and la Inatalled In practlcilly erery Btate 
of tbe Union. The Lengne throngbont tbe 
nation employ* BW) persot 

entire iim> 

._ ork of this losIltntloD. 
ana ii nai orer 100 otBcea from wblcb were 
dlttrtbeted daring tbe year 100.000.000 
pocea ot antl-aalooD literal are. Tbe annual 
CS^ la about 940^000. 
AoU-Tmrt Ii«r.— In 18ST Congma en- 
acted tbe luteratate Commerce Law, baT- 
Inc for Its purpose the regulation and con- 
inX of tba boilneM at common carrlen en- 

Bied In commerce tietween tbe States. 
le main ebject of tbie law wbb to pre- 
Tent fSTorltlam and unfair discrimination I 

^ , enterpiieea and 

worked to the dtaadvantage of smaller com- 
peting eoncem*. Tbla was amended and 
=S |g 1990 ,a the Sberman Antl-Tmst 

or conaplradea In restraint of Intel 


IntenatloDal commerce 

lay be brongbt by 
tnder the act. Al- 

XI. and tbat 
insplracy are gnllly ■__ .. 
oubject to a penalty for 

n. Tbe statnte aloo p~ 

I that all goods In transportation 

Ttolstkm of the act may be selied * — 
forfeited by tb* GoTemment. and tbat la- 

SoetlOD proceedings —- *•- ' -* •— 
e Altoraey-aeneml 
though •npplemental 

IWt, on tbe ncomm .. „. 

toney-Oeneml, Ibe Bbermnn law wan found 
iDeffectnal In the ptirpoiies for whieh It 
was Intended, i, «., revtralnlug tbe growth 
of moBopolle* or trnsta, so-called, and tbat 
it operated against both reaaonable and 
uareaooDable reatralnta of trade, and pro- 
hibited all combinations, botb good and bad. 
Fnrther criticism of the law waa Invoked 
when tbe Snprcme Court decided that a 
tiade union boycott was a eoaaplraey In r«- 
Mnilat ot trada- 

The law creating tbe Department ot 
Commerce and Labor provided tor a Bu- 
reau ot Corporations, whose duty It ahould 


of tbe United States Circuit Court Indicate 
tbat the goTerament has the power to pre- 
vent combinations among railroads or manu- 
factarlng corporations engaged In later- 
slate business, eren when sucb Combina- 
tion only tends toward monopoly. (See 
Northern Securities Case.) 

While tbe law seems etfecUve against 
railroads. It was set at detlaace by tbe 
Add/ston Pipe and Bteel Company, which 
pending the decision of a case brought 
against It by the Attorney-Oeneral. aatd 
out the sli defendant companies to a Mew 
Jersey corporation aod continued the al- 
leged unlawful practices. (See Addyston 

Commissioner Oarfletd, of tbe Bureau of 
CorporatioDs, recommended, and President 
Booecvelt has urged upon Congress tbe 
necessity of a federal iDcorporntloo law. 
{6943. T0T4.) To compel a corporation do- 
ing business In aay Stole to secure a fed- 
eral trancblBe to imnBact business In an- 
other Btate Is ot doubtful const llatlooallty. 

CammlBsloner H. K. Bmlth of the Bu- 
reau of Corporallons In 1008 ssld : "Cor- 
porate combination aeema to be not only an 
economic necessity but also largely an ac- 
complished fact. It la not the existence 
of InduBlrlfil power, but rather Its misuse, 
that Is the real problem," Senator Bever- 
Idge said the most urgent leglBlatlon need- 
etfby honest buBlneas was a low Jegalldng 
capitalistic corporations for honest pur- 
poses. President Roosevelt declared It to 
be '"proroundly ImmoraJ to keep '*"" 


tute books s law, nomlnnlly Id the Inter- 
^.^ at public morality, that really puts o 

Sremlum uih>d public Immorality 6y un. 
eriahing to forbid boneat men from dolns 
what must be done under modern bi 
uess conditions." (TOTS.) 

Foltowlng Is a complete list of suits 
brought snd prosecutions Instituted by tbe 
United Btatea under tbe gherman Antl- 
TTDSt Law: 


— Seven Cases. 

[William H. H. Ulllei, Attomey-Oeneral, 
March 6. 1880, to Uarch S, 1883.] 

1. XJtMad BtaU* v. JetUca UouHtalH 
Coal Company. Bait agalust the members 
of the "Naalivllle CoaT BichaDge." com- 
posed of Tsrlons coal-mlning compsnles op- 
erating mines In Kentucky and Tennessee. 
•Dd of perSDDi and firms deHllDg In Coal In 
Nashville, formed for the purpose of llilns. 
pticee and regulating the output of coal. 
A prellmlDary InluDctlon was dealed on 
Oct. 13, ISBO. Upon full bearing tbe court, 
on June 4. 1891. held tbe comlilnatlon to 
be Id violation of the aotl-trast law and 
■Djolned the further carrying out of the 

2. Vnittd Btatet t>. Ormnhut et oL A 
proceeding by Indictment against the olB- 
cers of tbe Distilling and Cattle Feeding 
Co, (Whisky Trust) for , so alleged viola- 


s Bl1»atlc 

tbe G^eenhut c 

from arrest snd 

tor removal from New Tork to UaMachn- 

Appllcatlon for a 
secure a discharge 


Anil-TniSt Messages and Papers of the PresidetOs 

held a 

Aatl-TniBt XiKV— ConHnwd. 

utta to answer to the tadlctment foniid In 

tbe OraenhDt case. Fetltlooer dlscbarsed. 

2e. in Tt Ortmt. PetUloa tor wriL of 
babeaa coniiu to accnre releiRe from tbe ' 
'nitody of Ihe marahii], bj whom lie nas 

.1,1 itlng an order for the removal of 

.a UissacbuBetta to answer to the 

iDdlctment In the Oreenhut caflc Prisoner 

B. VMted Btatvt v. Seltoit. IndlctmeDt 
or a number of Inmber dealera (of con- 
aplrlne toielher to raise the price of lum- 
ber In TloUtlon or tbe aatl-truat law. De- 
mnrrer to Indletnient «iiBialii«d, tbe Mort 
holdlnc that an afreement t>etweea a num- 
ber ofdMlert to ralae prlcei, iiDlets tbej 
controlled nearlj tbe est Ire commodltr> 
eould not operate aa a restraint of trade un- 
der the act. 

«. I7nlt«it SlolM V. Traiu-UtuauH 
Frriaht AttaetatloH. Bill tiled Jan. 0, 
189% to enjoin tbe oiieraiioiia of a com- 
bination of rallroada engaged In Interstate 
eoiDinerce, formed for tbe purpow of tnaln- 
talnlDi "joat and reaaonable ratea," etc. 
Bin dismrased br Circuit Court ; decree of 
dlanlaaal alBrmed by Circuit Court of Ap- 
pealB, and rereraed by the TJulted Btatea 
Bupreme Court on Uareh 22. IBBT. 

6. Vmted Btatf v. WorUnt/men't Antal- 

Gnalsd Council of New Orleant at al. Suit 
reatrain derendanla, a combination of 
workmen, from Interterlns wllb luteratate 


Pottaraon el al. 

United Btatet ^ 

of controlllni the price of caab regiili 

A demurrer was au stained an to certain 
eonnta of Hie Indictment and overrule as 
to others and leaTe granted to file special 
demurrers to the connta which were sus- 
tained. Tbe special demurrers ware heard 
oa June 1, 1893. and the demurrers artr- 
ruled, tbe court adhering to <ta former rul- 
ing. Letter of Attomer-Oeneral dated Oct. 
18, 1BS3, ahows case waa allowed to lapse 
because of reconciliation of complainrng 

— - ■#fc ilafanHaTil-a " 

wllneta with defendants. 

7. Vniltd Btetei v. S. O. Knlglil 
•anv IBngar Trnat). BUI In equfcj 
join the operations of tbe Sugar 

Knipht Cam- 

Appeal » 

a tbe Circuit Court 

and obstroetlng the malls. Infbmstloa 
quashed. It was charged that Agler was 

a member of the American Hallway Union, 
the membera of wblcb order were on a 
strike and had been eujaiued under the astl- 
truat law from Interfering with the carry- 
ing or tbe mails and from obstructing In- 
terstate commerce, InlormatloD quaabed. 

e of the "Debs" 

Tbia li 

2. UnUed Btatet v. Elliott. Bult to n- 
Elliott, Deba. and olher members 
Railway Dnion, from car- 

Injunction granted. 


rrer to this bill 

crce entered April 

a. 18B6, against 2W defendanla, and 
porarr Injaocllon made permanent. 

8. DMIed Btatet V. Debt tt aL Petition 
filed on JulT :;, 1894, In tbe Circuit Court 
for the Northern District of Illinois, alleg- 
ing coDsplracj to obstruct the malls snd 
to Interfere with Interstate commerce. A 
temporary Injunction was Issued on Joly 
" 189' '" -'-'—— -• — -'-- • ' 

lolBtion of T 

_. _J94, 1__ ._ ,_ 

proceedings were instituted. Original peti- 
tion dlamlsaed on July 28, 1S99, at the in- 
stance of tbe GoTemment 

Sa. Untttd Btairt v. Debt et at Pro- 
ceedings In contempt to punlah Deba and 
others for disober Ing an Injunclion restrain- 
log them from Interfering with Interstate 
commerce and with obstructing tbe nulla, 
by means of a conapiracy. In Tioialioa or 
tbe aotl-tmst law- Defendants found guilty 
and punished. 

Sb. In re Ilebt, Bstlllimar, Proeeed- 
luga Instituted July S, 18B' •— "— >— 
• — 1 writ of habeas corpus 

1 contempt 


Injunction of the Circuit Coart 1 
Nortbern District of Illinois, resti»uiu( 
Deba aud others from conspiring to inter- 

4. United State* r. Oatiidv. Cassldy 
■ud others were indicted under section 
C440, United Btstes Berlsed Btatutes, for 
conspiring to commit oVenses agsinst tbs 
TJolted States, which sets consisted '- - 
iblnlog and c 


D of II 

tl-trust law, and 

— — appeal was taken .. 

Sopreme Court of the United States, wliere, 
tlw decree of dismissal was alllrmed. 


HiNisTBiTion — Eight cases. 

(Richard Olncy. Attorney-Oeneral. March 
«, 1893, to jQue T, 1S9S; Judaon Harmon, 
Attorn e;-Oeneral, June 8, 1S9S, to Uarcb B, 

1. Vnitti Btatet t>. Sugent Y, Debt et at. 
Petition flled on July 8, 1894, In tbe United 
States ClrcDlt Court for Ihe District of In- 
diana, seeklnjt to restrain Interference by 
Auieifcan RaiTway Uoion and forty-nine tr.- 
ditldnal defendants with mails and Inter- 
slate commerce carried by all rallrosda op- 
•ratlng In Indlsna. An Injunction was Is- 
sued on July 8. 1894. which was continued 
Id fun-« imtll September 19. 1898, when 
the case was dismissed at the Instsnce of 
tbe GoTemment. 

la- UtUted Btatet v. Agler. Information 
charging contempt of court In disobeying 

the Fnnman strike In Calffornla."fhe~trisi 
lasted Are months and resulted In a dla- 
agreetnent of the Jury. A nolle proaagHi 
entered July 1, 189S. 

S. IToore «. E7sited Btatet. Indictment 
of the members of an association of deal- 
ers In coal St Salt Lake Oly for entering 
Into a conapiracy to regulate the prict of 
coal. Indictment ret u rued Not- 4, 1890. 
Hoore was tried and convicted In the Dla- 
trlct Court of Utah upon Ibis Indlclineat. 
The Circuit Coon of Appeals reTeraed tbe 
JudjnneDt of couvlctlon. for tbe reason that 


in ti -trust act. and tbe com- 
t In restraint of Interstate 

, tbe court therefore bad no 

Jurladlcllon of the offense. 

e. United Blatei v. Joint Troflto .<»»«. 
datfon. Bult instlluled Jao. 8. ISCK 
in equity to enjoin the alleged " 

—t of Appeals afBrmed t 

:ircolt Court. These Jodg- 
ersed by the United States 

i ceiDiiwret 1884. 

Bteel Compann. 


if In 

rf«a o. Addvatan Ptpe »*4 

Snlt Instltnted Dec 10; 

Ittlty to snjoin the oftr*- 


Encyclopedic Index 


UoBi of the Cut-Iron plp« Tnitt, which 
attempted to coatrol tbe price of cavt-lroD 
pipe. Tbe bill wai dlunTned hj tbe CIt- 
colt Court. Tbe Circuit Court ot. AppealB 
tcTcrsed tbe decree of the Clrcnlt Coart 
Rod remanded tbe caw, wltb Initmctloiis 
lo enter * decree Tor Ibe GaTemment. On 
appeal to tbe Supreme Court the action at 
the Clrcvlt Court of Appe&la trai afflrmed. 
& (7«iled jSfafai o. Bapkint tt oL Btilt 
butltDtcd Dec 31, ISM. Bill to reitraln 
Ibe operatlona of the "Eansai City Live 
8<ock Bschann," orsanlxed to control the 
ablpment* o( llVe stock. The iotuDctlon 
wu (ranted, but on appeal tbe Sopieme 

r«.^ ™ > n.. J Qj (j,j (fircnit 

!, with Inatruc- 

Cotllt f«vtried tbe decree 
Court and remanded tbe < 
UoiM to dlamlsa tbe bllL 


IJOMpb UcKenna, Attoraar-Oeneral, 

Hareb i, 1897, to ' — — """ ■ '— 

-^BIB, Attome/^J 
Birch 29, ISO 


e *f tbe Clrcalt Conrt and remand. 

Ml the eaae, wltb dlrectlona to dismiss tbe 
Mil, boldlns that tlie acts complained 

Suit brouKbt Dec. 10, 1897. 

Btll for Injunction to restrain the opera- 
"* — ~f a comblnatloD of coal dealers known 

"Coal Dealera' AaaoclatloD of Call- 
" A lemporarr Inlnnctlan i ~ ~ 

I wUr*- — ■ 

nllet prajed : 

S. VuUei atatat v. ChMapeafe« and OJilo 
rati Oompanif et aL Bill Hied Uar 8, 18TO, 

...._jia, ennged In tain- 

Ini coal and making cake IntcDded for 
"wcatera ablpment," nnder agreement to 
Kll tba aaina at not lesa than ■ memoran- 
dam priM, to be died by an eiecntlTe 
(MimlttM appointed by the producer*. De- 
feadanta enjMned, contract declared void 
•nd lll«al, and tbe combination dlMolved. 
AarmtCbT- Circuit Court of Appeal*. Ho 
appeal taken. 

P «a « ii) a n T BooanBLT'B AnmniSTXiTiov. 
—TMlT-foor cues. 

[Pknander C. Knox, Attomer-Oeeeral, 
April 6. 1&01, to June SO. 1904 ; William 
B. Hoodr. Altoreej-Oeneral, Jnlr 1, ISM, 
to Dec IS, 1006: Charle* J. Bonaparte. 
Allomey-iJeneral, Dec. 17, IDOe, to March 

1. UMt»d BtatM c. northern Secwitte* 
Ca, Great Sorther» S'y Co., Xarlliem Pa- 
tife K'w Oo. et ol. Ttili ault was bronght 
on Uarcb 10. ISOS, In the Circuit Conn -' 
the United Stales for tbe District of Mil 

lUreb L 

to liirch'!!9,"7eoi-'"pillandw C^ __ . 
Attariw7i.aeDeral, April 6. ISOl, to Jnne I 

1. Awfef^oH e. Ontted Btata. Bill In 
equltr to restrain the oberatloiia ot "The 
Tradcn* Utb Stock Exchange," of Kansas 
Cttr. an aaaodatlon formed for the puTpose 
ol barlnc cattle on the market. Tbl* 
■nit waa Innltnted Jane T, 1897, In the 
Clrcalt Conrt of the United States for the 
Weitem District of UlsKiurL Decree of 
lemporarr inJunctlDO wa* granted and the 
ciM appealed to the Clrcalt Court of Ap- 

r[* tor tba Eighth Circuit. Prom there 
was certlfled to the Supreme Court nr 
the United Statea for Inatractlons upon i 

mantlet aetlnt a* the owner of any of tha 
Bb&rea of the capital *tock of tba two de- 
fendant railway companlea, and to restrain 
the defendant railway companlea from per- 
mitting the aecnrltle* company to Tote any 
ot tbe stock of said rallwaya, or from ex- 
ercialng any control whatsoever over tbe 
corporate acts of either of said railway 
companlee, tt being charged that Ibe se- 
curities company was formed for the pniv 
pose of acoulrlng a malorlty of the capi- 
tal stock of (be two railway companlea in 
order that II might In that way effect prac- 
tically a eouaolidatloo of tbe two com- 
paoles'by controlling rates and restricting 
and destroying competition, In vlolatloD M 
"■- "■■ Intl-Tmat I^aw. The Circuit 

the petition, and thm urum wmi, un mBrk-ii 

14, 1904, aflrmed by tbe Supreme Conrt of 
the United States. 

3. trmiad fitalea v. ewiti i Oo. et ol. 
Suit brongbt on Ma^ 10, 1WJ2, In Ibe Clr- 

Irom carrying out en unlawful conaplracy 
entMed Into between themsetret ana with 
the various railway companies, to auppreaa 
competition and to obtain a monopoly In Uie 
purchase ot live stock and In Ina aelllnx 
n/ iln.iuH.d mpHtH. A preliminary restraln- 
Dted on Uay SO, 1902. 

-jTing demurred to the 

.-. -jurt, after bearing, on April 

18. 1009, OTemled tbe demurrers and 
— inted a preliminary Injunction. The de- 
- — -..-i — f.ii.j •- Boawer. tbe cour* 

t ot tbe act ot March S, 1801 (28 

tntered an order making 

Ibe farther operalions o 
dBtendantiL on Ang. ' 

from the Bnal decree o_ _ _ 

to tbe Bupreme Court ot the Uniled State*, 
where derree waa aOrmed Jan. SO, 190B. 

8. Unlteit Blaitt v. The federal Soft 
Oompany et ol. Suit hroo^t In the Cir- 
cuit Court of the llnlTed States for tbe 
Northern District of California, on Oct. IS. 
1902. to restrain tbe defendants tknown 
aa the Salt Trust) from unlawfully combin- 
ing and conspiring to snppren competi- 
tion Id tbe manufacture and aale of salt In 
.._ jjj jjjg Rocky Mountains, 

ot 1 

nan Anll-Tmst 

_ ...jiporary reatralnlng order i 

lastied on that date, and the canse coming 
on for bearing, the Court, o- "- " '" 

n Not. 10, 1902, 

No appeal was taken from 

1b£ tiMfllTlnc, holding; 'rating, or' In any 


'"*."viUtea BtatM V. The Federat Bait 
Compaav. On Feb. 28, 1903, Ibe nand 
Jury for the Dnlted Btatea DislrlcC Court 
tor tbe Northern District ot California re- 
turned an Indictment against tlie Sail TmM 
for having violated the aatl-tmst law. On 
llay 12, 1908, tbe trust pleaded guilty, and 
the court sentenced It to pay a fine ot 
$1.0oa which was paid. 

S. UnUed State* v. Jaektouvttle JVhoU- 
tale Oroceri' Amodalion. A proceeding in 
equity. Instituted on Bept 12, 1903, in the 
Dnlted States Circuit Court for the South- 
ern District of Florida, for tbe porpose of 
dIsaoMng a comblnsttou ot wbolesale gro- 
cers oDfratIng In Tloltilon of tbe anti-trust 
law. Not, 1, 190T. dismissed. 

e. DnUed etata c. Ocoeral Paper Co. 
et al. Dpc. 27, 1904, a bill In equltv waa 
tiled In the Circuit Court ot tbe United 
States tor the District of Hlnitew>ta against 
the General Paper Co. and twenty-tbi«a 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Antl-Trnst Ximr—Oimitiiwii. 
stber conmratlona eugHgrd In the maDiirac- 
tare aad ule ot pnper, lUeglng that Ihey 
had eutrrei] Into coDibinatlou and complr- 
acf to restrain trade and comnieroe In the 
mannfacture of news print, maalla, Ober, 
and olber papers by making the GeDernl 
Paper Co. their commoD sales aeent. On 
Uay 11, 1900, the murt ordered Judgment Id 
fsTor of the OovcrampDl, dlBSOlvIng the 
ramblontloD and affording all relief prared 
for In the bill. 

7. I7n(ted fitatei e. Armour S Co. et a'. 
After the afflrmance bj the Bopreme Court 
of the decree of the Clrcnlt Conrt In United 
Btates T. Bwlft A Company (above referred 
to) complnlDtB from varloua quarters were 
made to the department that the eomblua- 
tlou still continued. The department Ihere- 
npon began an exhauBtlve Inquiry before 
the grand Jury for the northern district 
of Illinois, whleh resulled )n the relura ot 
an Indictment on July 1, IB05. agnlDit Ar- 
mour A Co, J. Ogden Armour, president: 
Patrick A. VatentlDO. treasurer; Arlbnr 
Neekler, general mnoagcr : Thomas J. Con- 
nors, auperlDlendent, and Samuel A. Mc- 
Robert. assistant Ireanurer. of Armour A 
Co.; the Armour Packing Co., and Charles 
W. Armour president ; ^wltt & Co,, and 
Lonla F. Swift, president; Lawrence A, 
Carton, treasurer : D. Edwin Hartwell. aec- 
retary and Albert H. Veeder and Robert 
C. McManns and Arthur F. ETsns. agents 
of Swift * Co.; the Falrbank Canning Co., 
and Edward Morris, vice-president ; Ira N. 
Morris, aecretary of the Falrbank Cnnnlng 
Co. : the Cudaby Pecking Co., and Kdward 
A. Cudahy, Tlce-prealdent end general man- 

objections were urged. All n'ere disposed 
of In favor of the OOTemment, except cer- 
tain special pleas ot Immunity In bar, bawd 

t sualfiined the 

o the corporations. Dismissed Feb, 

"' 4" United States v. MacAndrrtrt A 
Forbtt Company et at. In June, 190(1. the 
grand Jury r— ■■ -- •—"— • — ■ — • 

Jungbluih and Howard E. Young, their 
respective preeldcnls, tor illegally combining 
*Dd conspiring to regulate the Interstate 
trade and aale In licorice paale. an article 
used In the manutactiire of plug and amoli- 
lug tobacco, snuff, and cigars. Defendants 
entered pleas of not guilty, with leave to 
withdraw or demur on or t>efore July 9, 
1906. July 9, J90e, demurrers filed by all 
of the defendants. Dec. 4, 1006. demurrers 
overmled. Dec. 19, lOOB. trial commenced, 
Jan. 10, 190T, MacAndrewa * Forbea Co. 

lodrews ft Forbes Co. fined tlO.OOO. J. 
8. Toung Co. fined tS.OOO. 

Sa. TAe Tobacco Triitt Ca$ei. (Pole 
V. EwkeJ; UcAlHUr e. Benlrel.) These 
eaaes grew ont of an lovestlgntlon hy a 
Federal grand ]un tn the Southern District 
of New York of the Amerlc-- '^-^'- — 

k Porb 

I Co., b 

Co. and the Mai .. _ _ . .. _ , . 

lleved to he violating the antl-truat laws, 
the matter having been brought to the i " 
tentlon of the grand jury by the ofllcera 
the Department of Justice, special conni 
having been appolnteil for the purpose 
lovMOiktlao and proEecution. Bn^ptnn 

cult Court adjudged them In contempt and 
commuted them until they should pn>dtl«* 
the books and anawer (he qneatlona. TheT' 
applied to another Judge oi the asms conrt 
for writs of habeas corpus, which, npon 
hearing, were discharged. Upon appeal tti« 
Supreme Court afflrmed the orders denying 
•<■ <ts. 

OctoW,' 196B,"i'n the'UniVed s'tates'c 

Coarl for Hawaii, (o restrain ths operation 
of alleged unlawful comblDBtlons In re- 
Btralnt of the trade In beef and beet prod- 
uets. Demurrer Co bill overruled Oct. 2, 

la Vnitea Btatrt v. Name RetaO Oro- 
eert' iiiociation. Nov. 4, 1903. the de- 
partment directed the United States attor- 
ney for the Second Division of Alaska to 
flle a bill la equity agalnat the Nome Retail 
Grocers' Aaaorlallon. alleging a comblns- 
tlon to fli prices and to auppceaa compe- 
tition. Bull was promptly Instituted, 
whereupon the defendants agreed to tbe 
entry of a decree granting all the rell«f 
prayed (or In the petition. A decree dl»- 
Bolvlng the combination naa entered accord- 

UnlttS State* v. Termtnel RaantaS 

wful combination 

tered Into between them to operate RailB 
Bridge and Merchants Drldge aa a common 
agency of tnteratnte commerce. Upon dla- 

rled t 

t Circuit Jndgea 


the Bui 

ceedlaga The petition wsa then dlamlased 
hy tbe Circuit Court, and an appeal was 
tsken to the Supreme Conrt, where, on 
April 32, 1912. the decree ot the Clrcnlt 
Couri was reversed, and the case remand- 
ed with directions to enter a decree Id cqn- 
(ormlty with the opinion of the Supreme 
Court. A controversy having arisen aa to 
whether the district Jadge or the thre« 
circuit fudges had Jortsdlcllon a writ of 
prohibition was filed agalnat the diatrlct 
Judge, which was sustained hy the 8ti- 
nreme Court. The form of final decre« to 
ed la now under consideration by 

12. Cnitti BUtet o. Allen A AoUnnna 
et ol. Bill Qled in October In United Btat<4 
Clrcnlt Court for the District of Hawaii, 
alleging unlawful combination to control 
tbe trade In lumber In that Terrttorr- 
Angwers filed Jan. 2, 1906. Decision iid- 
verse to Government and petition ordered 
dismissed March 80, 1911. 

13. Vnltei Stale* v. OtU Blevetor Co, 
et aL Bill filed March 7, 1900. in tha 
United States Circuit Court for the North- 
era District of California agalnat tbe Otla 
Elevator Co. and a number ot other conw- 

June 1. 1908, a decree was entered by c-u- 
sent dissolving the combloitton and nant* 
Ing the relief 

H. United Stale* e. P, A Aaudna 
Lujnter Company et at. Indictment i«- 
turned In the Dlitr'"' '^ • ..'■ 1K.^?I _ ■«- 


Encyclopedic Index 

Haj 4, IVOS, (or Tlolatlon of tbe BhermBa 
A«t Id TMtrlctlDC cotoHtltloD aad mnln- 
talnlncoHca In tbe mite of lumber. Uaj 
13, IHT, cbuise of vennc grnoted to Grant 
CDonty. Sept. 2S, IDOT. pleas of inlltr ind 
linn Imposed tggngttlag t^.UOO, whlcb 

15. Dotted Btatet v. J/attonal JHOoia- 
Hon e/ RMall DnngUU et_ oL. BUI. in 

Indiana aialDit tbe MalioiiBl Aiwoclatlcm 
of Hctall DniKKlits, aliexliiE a comblnatloa 
In Tcatralnt of Intcraute Iraile In Uc aaie 
of drun and proprietary medldiiPB. Uay 
•, I0OT, flnal decree enlered by agreeinpnt, 
KiTlns the GoTernment all tbe tellet prerea 
lor la the pelltloo. 

IS. UiMei Btalet v. Virtrimia-naroUna 
ritmioal Conpaav et ol- hst ZS, 1S06, 
the Federal vrand Jurf for tbe Ulddle Dis- 
trict of Tennessee, upon Intonnatlon fnr- 
nlahed by the UepsrlmeDt of Justice, re- 
tnrn»d an indictment SKainst tblrtr-one 
corporations and twenty-are iDdiTldunis en- 
KSKKd In tile fertiliser business in the 
States of North Carolloa, South CsrollDa. 
Georgia. Florida, Alabama, MIbbIbbIppI, 
Arkauaaa, aod Teuneasee, cbargtui ibem 
wltb engaslng In a conspiracy In Tiolntlan 
of the Federal sutl-tnist act and with 
eoaaplttng to commit an oSmw nEsinst 
tbe United BUtes. vis., the atoreiiBid con- 
■plncr, fa Tlolatlon of section 6440 of tbe 
Bevised Btatates. The fertiliser mamifac- 
tnrcn combined to Bi the price of fen 11- 
Ixera In the territory mention^ and to 
apportion tbe trade amoag tbemselTos ac- 
cording t« an ureed percentage. July 11, 
lOOe. ail Iba defendants apnealnl to tbe 
Saprenie Court of the Hulled States from 
•n order of tbe Circuit Court of tbe Eaat- 
ern Diatrirt of Virginia deoylng tbe right 
-» 1... ._.. ending thPm tO , 

triaL The ci 

4, 1007, the Jud'gmenT of the "circuit "Court 
for tbe Eastern District of Viraluls was 
rerersed and tb« case remanded to tbst 
conrt for further proceedings in accordance 
with the oplalon of tbe Supreme Court. 
April IT, 1908, Tsrlons motions, pIpnB In 
■utement, and drmurrers flied. July 8, 

t habeas corpus and r 

ent qnaahed. 

faiMd States v. American let 0am- 

Sny et al. Jnly IS, 190«l. Indlrtment re- 
rned tn tbe Bnpreme Court of tbe Dis- 
trict of Coinmbia, cbarglug an nnlawful 

eompetltloD la the sale of Ice. 

Cold t 

. Oha*Her loe and 
aga nam n al Bent. 19. IftOO, 

t returned In the District Conit 

tor the territory of Oklshoma agnlust the 
Chandler Ice and Cold Btorage Plant and 
otbcTS, charging a combination to anpor- 
tloB terHton in tbe malter o( the aaie of 
Ice. Hay B, lOOT, demurrer Hied by de- 
fnidant Orovr* and oTCmiied. May 20, 
1907, demurrer flied by Chandler Ice and 
Cold Storage Plsnl. Dlsmliisea. 

IB. rznfled Btatft v. Alfred M. atoii'l 
M oL Bnt. 21. 1906. Indlcimeat returned 
uaiiwt Alfred U. Qloyd and others In Ibe 
IHatrlet Court for tbo Territory of OHIa- 
homa, charging a combination to maintain 
prices aod restrict competition In tbe sale 
of Inmber. Dismissed. 

Za Vmti** Btain v. People's let a»d 

In the District Court tor tbe Territory of 

Arlsona, cbarglaa a combloatlon to coatrol 
pricca and restrict competition In the sale 
of Ice. Jan. e. 1907, trial commenced. Ver- 
dict not guilty BB to People's Ice and 
Fuel Co. BDd company held )o next grand 
Jnry. Trial of W. B. Xount continued over 
term. Oct. 18, 1007, plea lu bar flled. 
Oct. IT, inOT, plea In bar suelalned. 

21. Cnited StattM v. Demund Luntbtr 
Company et al. OcL 23. 1606. Indictment 
returned In tbe District Court tor the 
Territory of Arlsona, charging a combitia- 
tlon to control prices and restrict compe- 
tillon Id the Bale of liimber. Jan. 2. lOOT, 
iced. Verdict of not gulltf 

as to Dcmund Lumber Co. Jan. 7, 19OT, 
caaeB agalDst Chamberlain Lumber Co. and 

Valley Xum"-- "- ' ' 

May 8, 190T, motion made 1. ., 

Inatruct for acquittal. Motion argued and 
taken under Bdvlaement. Mov 0, IDOT, mo- 
tion nuBtalned and rerdlct of acqultui re- 

P. T. Hurlev, and S. J. Tribolet. «... ^^, 
lOOC Indlclment retnmed In tbe District 
Court for the Territory of ArlBona. charg- 
ing a combination to coatrol prices and re- 
strict competliloD Id tbe sale of meata. 
Jon. T, 1907, trial commenced. Verdict of 
not guilty as to Pboinli Wboiettle Meat 4 
Prodtice Co. Jon. " - " 

Appeal to tbe Supreme Court of the Terri- 
tory of AriBons. Supreme Court affirmed 
declnloD of lower court. Pine pBld. 

2S. Unttea etatet v. Btandard Oil Com- 
panw of N. J. et al. Not. 10, 1900. bill In 
equity flled In Uclted States Circuit Court 
for tbe EBBtem District o( Mlasouri agnlmrt 
tbe Standard OH Co. and others. In whicb 
It Ib alleged that tbey are maintaining a 
combination In realraint of tmde In the 
manufacture and sale of petroleum, Ciisa 
argned in Circuit Court April, 1900: de- 
cision by unanimous court in fSTor of tbe 
aoTcrnment Not. 20, 1900. Appealed to 
Supreme Court; argued March. lOIO. MK 
argued January, 1911, and judgment af- 

'3..f?!?''.f .ft 

Brmed Uay 16. 1911. 

24. DnUed Blatr* t. .. 

Dec. 8, 1000. Indictment i ._ 

District Court for the Territory of Okla- 
homa, charging a combination and Coh> 
splracy In reslrsiut of trade and commerca 
In tbe sale of lumber. Msrch 2n. 1907, 

I prices and restrict ed 

I on appric 

25. United Btatee v. Allaatlo f Hpwtmeaf 
OompoRV et al. Feb. 11, lOOT, Indictment 
returned In the United States District Court 
for tbe Southern District of Qeorgia against 
tbe Atlantic InTeatment Co. and othenL 
charging a comblnatloa In reatralut of 
trade and commerce iu the matter of the 
maniifneture and sale of turpentine. Feb. 
IS, 190T, four corporatlouB and two Indt- 
Tldiiaia. deteudanta to this Indictment. 
enlered pleaa of guilty, and tbe court Im- 
posed a tlue of tn.000 upon each of the six 
defendants, making a total of 130,000. 

26. United Sfotei t>. American Beattna 
Company et al, March 12, 1907. indict- 
ment returned to the District Court of tba 
Northern District of Illinois cbsrglng a 
Tlolatlon of tbe Sherman Anti-Trust Law 
by engaging in a oombinatlon In reatralnt of 
trade in the manufacture and sale of school 
and church fnrnlture. April 1, 190T. d*. 
Itndaiit corporatloB* aatorM pleaa of (uUty. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidenti 

.._„ to. Died de- 

Aprll S. IBOT. Mar 31, lOOT, dc- 
■Miuiicr overruled «nd plen of ngt guilty «n- 
tered. DIsmlBwd Jao. 27, 1S13. 

37. IlnUtd atatet v. American Beating 
Catapatiii et al. Marcb 12. 1607, bill In 
eqnitr filed In the United States Circuit 
Conrt far tbs N'orthern District of 1111- 
tiols agalnit the Amerlcao Beating Co. aud 
Others, In which It Ib alleged tbot Ihe; are 
nil Into In log a comblDBtlon In restraint of 
trade in the manufncture and sale of icfaool 
and church furniture. Aug. IS, 1907. do- 
cree eolered grnnted perpetoal Injunction 
■galnat all deiendauls, eicent fl. H. Btal- 
tord ManufactDTlng Co., E. B. Stafford, B. 
U. Stafford, and B. Q. Beutlcf. Aa to 
theaa defeDdanta the case was dlimlaaed 
Jan. 27. leiS. 

28. ViMei etatet n. Banta Slta Mtntnff 
Coiamny anit Santa Rita Store Campang. 
April 4, laOT, indictment returned In tha 
dTatrict of New Mexico charging a viola- 
tion of section B of the Bhenuan Antl- 
Tmat Law far eagaglne In a oomblnallon 
tn reatralut of trade. Demarrer flled and 
OTerruIed. Fine of *1.000 Imposed on each 
defendant : total, 12,000. Appeal taken to 
the Supreme Court of the Territory of 
.„p„( ^, (^j 

1 the case n 

New Mexico. ' 

in the Circuit Court locthe Ena 

trlct of rennsrlTBola, to dlaaolve a coa 
blnatlou amoni; the anthraclle conl-carrvln 
loads and others. December 8, IBIO, 
decision was banded dovn by the Clrcul 

ami sain s t 
e so-calTed 

. in so far as It adjudged the 
defeadsDts pnrdes to a combloatlon Id re- 
straint of trade rhrouEb the InalnimeDtalltr 
of the Temple Iron Co.. was affirmed, but 
Iras reTcrned as to the ao-called 65 per 
cent, contract* with Initrnctlona to cancel 
them, and was further modified bj dis- 
misBlUK the petition In other respects ,wltb- 
oal preladice. Instead of abvolutely. 

30. Vnlted Statft v. National C7n»r«Ra 
Fmnf Companir et al. Jalj 1. 1807, la- 
— t retorned In the District Court for 

conspiracr tL 


SI. United Btatet v. Amertoan Tabacco 
" - ■ ., jqulty nii-d July 

States against the 
I. and others. In which 
t was alleged that they were maintaining 
J COmblualtoD Id restraint of trade and 
commerce In the mnnnfactnre and snlc of 

1 defendants and certain foreign 

and otber corporations. Cniaa appeals 
were taken to Ibe Supreme Court, wber* 
— 1 argued March, 1910, and 

manded to the Circuit Court and the un- 
lawful combination was dJuolved In ac- 
cordance with the deciaion of the Baprema 

32. United State* n. B. H. Staff erd 
ManufacturinB OOmpanv et a). July 10, 
1907, Indictment returned in the District 
Court for the Northern District of Illi- 
nois eharglDg a violation of the Sherman 
Anti-Trust Law by engaglEg In a combi- 
nation In restraint at trade In the maan- 
facture and aale of school and church 
furniture. Dlamlased Jan. 27, 1913. 

S3. United Siata v. B. 1. dit Pont de 
HeinaUTt S Co. et al. July 30, 1007, hill 
In equity filed In the Circuit Court fat the 
District of Delaware against B. I. do Pont 

de Nemoura A Co. an-" -"• — ■ '■■-'- " 

is alleged that they a 

alon was rendered holding combination Il- 
legal and ordering Ita dlssolntlou. Final 
decree dlaaoivlug the combination was ap- 
proved by the court June 13, 1812. 

31. I'Hlled State* c. One Hundred and 
Seventgtlvt Catet of Cloarettet. Oct 28, 
1907, Information filed In tbe Dlatrict Court 
for the Eastern District of Virginia cor- 
erlng the seliure of 17C cases of cigarettes 
coder Section 6 of the Sherman Antl.Truat 
Act. Cigarettes subsequently released no* 
der bond. Decree of dismissal entered 
Jan. 81, 191S. 

35. Untied Statee v. B. D. Oorbett Sta- 
tfonem Compang et al. Not 1. 190T. In- 
dictment returned in the District Court for 
the District of AriiooB charging a combi- 
nation In rpslralnt of trade Not. 4, 1907. 
demurrer filed. Not. 14, IBOT. demurrers 
auBlalned and defendants referred to next 

8 rand Jury. Oct. 28. 190S, reindicted. Not. 
, 1B08, Terdlct not guilty. 

36. United States v. Union PacUlO Coal 
Contpanti et ol. Not. 20. 1B07. indictment 
returned In the District Court for the Dis- 
trict of Utah, charging a conspiracy to 
Tlolate and a violation of the 
Act Jan. 6, 1908. demurrer filed. March 
2, 1908. demurrer anstalned aa to first 
count and orerruled as to aecond count. 
Dec. a, 1908, Tcrdlct guilty. March 29, 
1909, fines aggreitatlng f 13.000 Imposed. 
NoTembcr, 1909, Judgment reversed by the 
Circuit Court or Appeals, and tbe ault wai 
dismissed March 2l. ISIO. 

37. United Btatet v. Chat. L. SUntnom 
et at. Jan. 20, 1908. indlrtment retamed 
in the District Court for the Southern Dis- 
trict of Alabama charging a combination 
in restraint of trade and commerce In the 
matter of the man u fact u re and sale of 
plumbers' supplies. Dec. 1. IStO, pleai of 
guilty, and fines aggregating (269 Impoaed, 

88 United Statee o. [rnlDH Paeifte Ratt- 
road Compang et al Feb. 1, 1908, a bill 
In equity was filed In the Circuit Court ol 
the nulled States tor tbe District of Dtah, 
charging a combination and conspiracy Id 
Tlolatlon of tbe Sherman Act on the part 
of the so-cslled HarrlmsD lines. June 23, 
1911. decision by Circnit Court to tbe ef- 
fect that tbe roads InTolTcd were not com- 
peting lines and beoce tbe combination was 
not a Tlolatlon of law, Hook, J., dissent- 
ing. An appeal was taken to Bupreine 
Court, which handed down a decision re- 
Tersing tbs lower conrt on December 2, 

t St. Paul, 

1912. Final decree entered I 
Minn . on June 30, 1918. 

United Slatet v. B. J. Raw et al. 

Feb. 14. 1908, Indictment retnrBed II 

Circnit Conrt for the Eastern Dlatrlst of 
Loulslina against aeventy-two laborer*, 
cbatglog K combination and conaplracy la 


Encyclopedic Index 

combination In 

1 DIMrlct of LouUlaDB, 

mtrmlDt ol for^sn trade and coniiMrM, 
In vioUtloa of the Stiermau Act See not« 
niider followInE case. 

ia Untied Btatet v. B. J. Rag at at. 
Feb. IS, laoB, iDdlctment retumpd In the 
Clrcnlt Court for the Eaitera District of 
LoDlilaoa agilast Kvenlr-tiTi) laborera, 
durxiDg a comblDitlon and cooBplrac)' la 
r«tnlnt of Interstate trade and commeree. 
Id Tlolatioa of the Shennaa Art. 

NoTK.— Jan. 26. Iflll. caaea conaoli- 
dated for trial. Verdict of gullly aa to 
tbree defeodauta and Snea amounllng to 
tllO Impoaed. Appeal granted and Judg- 
ment of the lower court waa afDnned. 

41. [7Blt«d euta t>. Joieph Btltfcattr 
at sL Feb. IS, laoe. Indictment retamed 
In Ibe United Btatea Clrealt Conrt for the 
~ " ~ ' arglDg a 

of the manufacture 

and aale of plumbers' auppUea. June 2S, 
ISIO, diamlaaed. *^ 

42. VMttd Biatf c American Naval 
Start* Cowipany et at. April 11. IMS, In- 
dictment returned In the United Statea Cir- 
cuit Court tor the 8onCbem District of 
OeoTCla, charging • combloatlon tn realralnt 
of trade and commerce In the matter of tbe 

manafactorr *-•* "'" "' * -Ine. May 

10. 1900. Ti e iDdiTid- 

nal defendai g tlT.600 

Impoaed am icenr«d to 

three montl to Circuit 

Court at A anrmed. 

Certiorari e Court. 

jDdraient Ol i June 9, 

1013, on rr< >'a charge 

«. balled isfate* v. Vrvi York, Xeie 
IF .,^ Harl/ori Kailroad Company 


Btatea for the District of UaasachuB 
charging the New Haven Co. wltb • 
bluing and attempting to combine and 
templing to combine under one com 
— ntrol the Tarloua railroad r— ' ''- 

SB. leoe. 

44. Vnlted Stale* v Jottn B. Fartt «t 
oL June IS, 1B0& Indictment returned in 
the Circuit Court of the United Statea for 
tlie Southern DIatrlct of New York, charg- 
ing a combination In reatralnt of trade In 
tbe matter of tbe manufactnre and aale of 
papers. June 19, 1908, defendants plead 
cnlltjr and sentenced to pn; flnea aggregat- 
\aiisa,W)0. which were paid. 

PaBainE:tT Taft's Admin 

?aBainE:tT Taft's 
ughtr-nlne cases. 

(Ceo. W. Wlckersham, AttomeT-OeneraL 
Hareb 4. 1909.) 

1. United Btatei v. imerlcan SKfror Re- 

Sntng Campany et at. Indictment undir 
hertnan law Jolr 1, 1909. A plea of Ibe 
.e of llmllatlons was Interposed br the 

at the Inrr. 

2. Vmtri Blalet f>. AlUa Boa A Paper 
Company rl at. Dec T. 1909, Indictment 
tetnmed In Bonthem District of New Yorh 
durglng combination In reatralnt of trade 
In paper board. Feb, 7, 1010, all defend- 
1 plead gulltr and nnes aggregating 


1 aud 

ment of tobaeco In Interstate commetM 
b; meana of violence and iotlmldatioi). 
After the orerrullug of demurrers and vari- 
ous pleaa In abatement a trial waa had. 

gued November. 1911. aud the Jiidgmi 

was affirmed May 11. 1B12. The aenteucea 
were commuted by the President to payment 
of coats of suit. 

4. United Statea o. Imperial WtndoiB 
aiaii Company et at. Indictment found In 
western Penneylvanla April T. 1810, charg- 
ing comblQalloQ and conspiracy to enhance 
tbe price of window glaaa. Demurrers to 
tbe indictment were overruled, and on Not. 
10. 1910, Dleaa of nolo contendere were en- 
tered end Does aggregating (10,000 nnd 
coBta were Imposedand collected. 

6. C Riled jStofe* v. National PocMho 
Cofflpanii el at. Indictment returoed In 
Nortliern DiaCrtct of Illinois, llarcb 2. 1910. 
Charging combination to restrain trade In 
fresh meats. Demurrer to Indictment sus- 
tained June S3. ISlO. 

e. Dniled Blala v. Xatlonal PaeUng 
.* „i »-..., — iiiinola. Bill In 

In order to facilitate the prosecution of 

later criminal cnse. 

T- United Btatee v. Armour Packing 
Companv et at. Indictment returned at 
Bavannnb, Oa., In April, 1910, charging 
combination lo control prlcee aud restrict 
competition. Pei^dlug on demurrer, 1014. 

8. United State* v. Utoeoart Poci/lo 
Aallroad Company and Itcenlv/our oCJier 
rollroada. Pellilon to restrain violation of 
Sbennnu law filed May 31, 1910, and tem- 
porary restraining order Issued on that day 
enJolulDg advances In freight rates In west- 
ern trunk'ilne territory, which would have 
become elfectlve June 1. IfllO. Tbereapon 
■■ ■ 1 with the 

I. and a'fter the pas- 

log Into effect > 

9 pelltlon 1 

0. Untied Slalei o. SoutAarn IThoIeiara 
Orooeri' AnociatUm. Bill In equity charg- 
ing combluQIloa to regulate prices of ne- 
censltles of lite, filed at Birmingham. Ala., 
jDOe 0, 1910. An agreement waa reacbed 
between the Government and defendant's 
coanael, aud a decree prepared, aubmltled 
to, and passed by the court Oct. IT, IBll, 
perpetuallr reslrnlnlng the asflnclatlnn. Its 
ofllcers and members, from doing any and 
all of the sets complained of. Some of the 
grocers violated the agreement with the 
Court and contempt proceed Ini^s were 
bronght on a pelltlon for rule to show caaae 
why an attachment for criminal contempt 

of P 

t for alleg 

— _ i Btate» p. John S. Steer* e( 

■L Indictment returned In Fastem Dlii- 
trlct of Kentucky Feb. IT, 1910, charging 
eonsplracr to restrain trade. This Is tbe 
BO-cslled -Night Rider" ease where the re- 
■tnlnt cnnsfsted Id preventing tlie ship- 

Ala., Feb. 10. 1!>I3. The association 

three of Its members were found gfllty of 
contempt and flues aggregating IS.COO were 

10, railed iStafea v. Oreat Lakei Tow- 
ing Company et ai. Petition filed In North- 
ern District of Ohio on June 19. 1010, 
against an alleged combination of t<-— '-- 


Antf-Trnst Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

AnU-TrnBt iMw—Omttniud. 

down Ftb. 11, 1013. The plan of dletolo- 

tlon U Dov under conaliJeratloD bj tlie 

Sag Board. Bill aaklng toi 
died ■! ChlcBBo, Jnne 13, 1910. 
to ibe petltloD wat BUBtaiQEd »ilu 
■mend, and an amended petition wi 
Bet for beirlDB Od mHitcr'i report 

12. Vnltea Staiu 
lat^tt A. i>a(leii el at. inaici 
: Cfty, agalnt 

Prani Hatrne, 

Indletmratt were Mtnraed br RUd loir at 

Detroit OD Dec. S, 1B10, ■ninn tb* hum 

corporatloDa aod IndivldnaTi chkrflnf tb* 

same acta. Vnrlaui demurrer* and dlutdij 

pleaa bave beea tiled, argued, and OTerrnle&i 

.u,u..uu *"er a trial iBBtlns sl» "eeki tb« lurr 

morm reported a dlaagrei^meDt on Marcb 14, IBl^ 

■ Hetrlal lu Febrnarj, 1B13. reaatted In & 

verdict of Kulltr and flaea aEEiecKtlDC 

tSl.OOe were Impoied. 

,n .._,j,. „j_j__ _ ±,„er1e«* Sugar 

... Vnlted I 
ReflnitiB Com) 

turned. New 

aod tbe GoTernmeDt appealed to tbe Su- 
preme Court, wbcr« case waa acgued No- 
Tember, 1911, and rearsaed at tbe October 
term, 1912. Decision bj Bupreme Court 
Jan. 6, 1913, anatalnluK Indlctmenta. Pat- 
ten entered plea ot sulltr Feb. 11, IBIB, aod 
was fined {4,000. Indlc^lmenl diamlaaed 
aa to olber defendeDta. and HDOtbei In- 
dlctmeuc waa returned 3vlj 1, 1918. Bee 
case No. 6, page C6. 

13. Unlled State* V. Standard Santtary 
Manufacturtna Company et ol. Petition 
Hied at Baltimore July 22, 1910, cbarelng a 
combination, onder cover o( a pafent Tleena- 

nponu et al. A ault Id egaltj 
New York on Noi. 28, JvlO. 
BgumiL iQia corporation, Ita offlcera and 
afieuta, and Ita oivned and controlled cor- 
poratlona, attacking It aa a comblnatloD In 
reatralDt o( trade aod praiius lor Ita dts- 
aolutiou. Feuding, leit. 

20. United 8lalct i: a«*trat Stectrio 
Oampaay et oI. Bill In eqnltv filed at Cleve- 
land, Oblo, on Aiarcb 3, lull, cbarelnB a 
combination In [ncundeBcent electric umpa. 
Thla ault 1 ■ • " "^ 


and enbauce orlcea ot e 


affirmed Not. 8, 1913. 

- V. Lotil* F. Siclft et 

Indictment celnrned by tbe grand Jury 
■~" '- September, 1910, against 

tea prominent iDdlvldaala eagaged lu tba 
meat-packing Indoalry. Defendants hnve 
filed Dnmeroua pleaa In bar, demurrera. etc., 
all of wblcb nere decided In facor of tba 
Government. Defendanta applied to Cir- 
cuit Jndge Eohlsaat for writ of certiorari 
based OD oontenllon tbat autl-truBt law 
waa tincoDitllullouaL Petition dIsnilSBed. 
DefeodanlB appealed to Supreme Court and 
gave notice of tnollon Dec. 4, 1911, for 
■lay of trial pending appeal. Harcb 2T. 
1912 after a trial laBtlnit over tbree montba 
tbe Jury returned a verdict of acqulttaL 

IB. United Slalet d. John Reardon A 
Botu Company and Canaolldated Render- 
ino Co. Indicted Jolntlv by Federal grand 
jury at BoBlon In Ocfoher, 1910. Demur- 
ler to Indictment Bnstnlaed June 23, 1011. 

16. United Statet v. Ferdinand. 8«Ii- 
herger, doing buslneas under tbe name of 
John Reardon A 8om Company, and HoraUo 
v. Beath. of BoBlon. doing bualneaa aa tbe 
"" ~ ■ -'-- Joint. 


founded on a croas-llc 

under patenta. A forn._. 

agreed upon between counael for tbe Oot- 
emment and tbe defeDdant compaalea, and 
waa aubmlttpd to and paaied b* tbe Clr- 
caft Court Oct. 12, 1911. 

21. United Btatet o. Purrtneton et al. 
Indictment retamcd lu tbe Kortbem Dis- 
trict of llllnola Sept. 14. 1910, cbargloc 
combination to real rain trade In paring 
brlcka and paving blackii. Demurrer over- 
ruled Nov. 0, 1911. Nolle proaequl entered 
June 8, 1918. 

S2. Vniled Statet «. Bamburg-Amer^ 
kenitcJie Packettahrt Actien QeiitUcltaft 
and otheri. (Traua-AIlBnttc alcamablp 

Bool.) Combination of ateamablp llnea regu- 
itlog aleemge tratBc on tbe Atlantic Ocean, 
Suit filed Jan. 4, 1011. at New York City. 
Teatiinany cotaplete and caae act for argn- 

Paper Compann, 
1 April 28, 1911, 

.. Indictment r , 

In tbe Soalhem District of New York, i 
leglug a coinblnatlon andconsplracy In 

21. United Btatei v. Eaitertt Btatet i 
talt Lumber Dealert' Aiiociaiion. Suit 
equity died at New York on May 19. 1B1_. 
cberglug tbe Raatern States Lnml>er Deal- 

Ita offlcera and memben. 

Contalidated Renderit 

■ Indicted 


. BoBtoD In'Oelobei, 

if tbe Sberman law. Demur- 

Ined June 23, 1011. 

. Horatio W. Heath 

Indictment returned 

cbarglug violation 

tbrougb tbe Inst mmenta lit y of black llaU 
and trade agreemenia Decision by lower 
conrt In favor of Oovernment Jan. 0, IBIS, 
and decree entered Marcb 1, from wblcb 
appeal waa taken to Supreme Court. Ar- 

fued at October term. Decided June 22, 
29. Vnited States v. Uaac VMttng, Jan* 
K. WhiUHg,_0}iarlet H. Hood, Bdmard J. 
Hood, DRfrVtlllam A. Oraufieln. Indlct- 
tbe grand Jury at Boa- 
,y 26 IBll, charging a 

combination __ _ 

-, „.-„ throiiabout tbe New England State*. Pend- 

, Demurrer to Indict- log, f914. 

B 23, 1911. ^(3. United Slatei V. Itaae Whiting, John 

last three Indictments, K. WMtIng, Oharlet E. Hood, Sdicari J. 

Id Blmultaueousl;, the ffood, and William A. Orautttein, and WU- 

(tea that tbe defend- Iloia A. Eunter, Secretary of Producer^ 

ted to divide territory Co. May 26. 1911, Indictment retomed by 

ves tbrougbont New tbe grand Jury at Boston, Maaa., cbargtug 

avoid competition and a conspiracy to restrain trtde la milk 

Itors In the bide and througbout tbe New England States. Pand- 

18. barfed Bialet v. Standard Banltarg 
Manufacturing Comgany et al. In addition 
to tbe above aslt Id e^nlt^ (No. 18, aupta), 

'. 1914. 

rftniDcd June 88, 1911, la Um NortbiKS 


Bneyehpt^ Initw 

itIm Of tonrtMii letafl lumbermeD'^ __ 

■OCtatlOlM, eOTvrlng twentj-tbicv Btate* 
tram PennajlTBDla to the Pacific coait, 
^ttt ia a coupincj by meaDi of a ceatrai 
COOtroUlaC burMD to conlrol tha market' 
1d( of lumber b; forclDg tbe prodact 
thronih tha Ntalter to the cODSumer, and 
icMtvltiInt the trade of the mannfaclDrer, 
wholeaalec, and coDSDmer. and ellmlnatlns 
competition for the trade of the conaumer. 
Demoner filed. Nolle proaequl entered 
Jbds «. 1&18. 

28 to 3& UMtta BUtte* f>. PMttp B. W. 

iBdiTldiliua charsiuB (lolatloui of Sectloua 
1 and 2 of the ahtl-tniit law tbrongh tbe 

^wer CabI* , , 

AnodatloD, Pine Uagnet Wire AsBodatlon. 
Vln Bope Uannfacturera, Horaeahoe Man- 
nfactDivra' Association, Lead-eDcaaed Rob- 
ber Cable Asaodatlon, and the Babber-coT- 

Vatted BUxte* v. Perlodieal PttblMh- 

B entered ttaj 29, 

: Cleveland, 


manatactnren and Joblwr* 

Ohio. Joly 19, 1911, for coi 

eonapiracy In tbe mannfaniire and nle of 
irall paper. Demorrer OTerruled Uar 13, 
U12. ferdlct of not cnllty Uay S4, 1912. 
8t. ElnttMt Staiet v. Lakt SHore A 
Mleklami BoutlKnt B. R., Cheiaptata A 


Boctlnif Yalleif A. R.. Toledo 

4 Ohio CcSfral Bjf., KanaKiha d inehlga* 
Mp^ Immetville J Wttiem R. R. and 

•sd (Mnsplracy Id icslrslnc of trade. _ . 
dalon of lower conrt In (»TOr of Qovern- 
ment Dec 28, 1912. Proposed plan of 
'atlon belDK considered by conrt. 
Unlitd State* o, Sdieard B. Bart- 

el al. Petition filed at Detroit Mich.. 

Anc, SI, 1911, altering coaaplracy and an- 
I — <-i — ._... f,f ,„ag on (,,, pg^ o( 
— ■hlBsn Retail Lnmbec 

, The Bcoat PnbHiihln( 

Co., and tbe Lnmbermen's Spcretarles' Bu- 
nan of Information. Issaes Joined and tea- 
tlmonj complete. 

of tbe Ulchln 

«oIt Conrt at New York City In aeptemutr, 
1811. against the membera of the so-called 
Kind) Ins Wood Trnst, praying for Injunc- 
tion anlnst the further carrying Into effect 
of trade agreements and combination and 
COToplraej to moDopollae trade. On de- 
fanlt of answer, decree was entered against 
defendanta UaTCb 11. 1912. 
_ 48. VMttd _flta(_M__c. Hvnier VflHnfr 

Boaton, HtH., flcpt. 1ft, IBll, 
combination, consplraey, and moi 
trade In shoe machinery. One li 
— J partially oyemi 

Vjiovilmg Ltunbcr Deaitr^ a. 

tht LambarmcH'* iS«oretar-lM' Bitreau of 
Intorttation. Bill in equity filed at DenTer, 
Colo., Sept. 2S, 1911, tor Injunction against 
defendants for conspiracy to restrain Irada 
In lumber and Us products. Testimony 
complete. Farther action deferred await- 
ing decision of Eaatem Statn Lumber 
Dealers' case. 

IS. Vtrited Btatet v. WtOard O. EolUt 
et al Petition filed In October, 1911, at 
at. Paul, Minn., In the United States Cir- 
ca It Conrt. against the Lumbermen's Bee- 
retarlea' Bntean of Information, Tbe Lum- 
berman Publishing Company, and certain 
IndlTlduais, alletring coniplracy and com- 
blnailon In lli«lamber trade. Testimony 
complete. Farther action deferred await- 
ing decialoD of Eastern Btatea LumbM 
Dealen' case. 

46. VHfted jBtofes v. VMtti Btaia* BtttH 
OorporalioK and olAers. Petition for In- 
junction and dissolution filed at Trenton, 
N. J., Oct. 2T. 1811. Tblrty-seren cases. 
Issues Joined and testimony on behall of 
QoTernment baa been taken. 

47. Vtiitti atattt V. Jot COIlow at al. 
Deteadanti were, on Not. IB, ISll, indicted 
in the Sonthem District of Mlsalsslppl for 
coBsplrlDg to restrain Interstate commerce 
doling course of a strike on tbe Illlnola 
Central Railroad. The strike having been 
terminated, — •—.■-— .^i— •-— i.— 

further action : 

48. VtiUed atatet o. SaUonal OatJt 
Beoiiter Co. et at Petition filed Decem- 
4 1911, In Circuit Court, Soutbern District 
of Ohio, allesing conspiracy and monopolj 
In tbe manufacture, sale, and sblpment of 
cash registers and other re^stering devices. 
Issue Joined snd taklng^or testimony will 
shorlly be commenced. Delay aus to pross- 
Cntlon of criminal case. 

49. Vniled Btatet v. Vttltei Bhoe Uo- 
ehlnerv Co. ef at. Petition In equity filed 
Dec. 12. 1811. In Circuit Court, District of 
Ha Bsachn setts, alleglDg comblnatloai 

SC - 

rades tn restraint of Interstate and 

r_*V, £IactH«lt Villfap anil Elersfor 

CMB^aiiV, and rrant rolls. Indictment re- 
tsmed ay grand Jory to District Court foe 
tba Weriem District of Oklsboma, 8«it. 
10, IBll, on one count, charging Tlolatfon 
•t Seetloo 1 of Ule Sberman Act. Demurrer 
•Terrntcd Dec 19, 1912, and rerdlct of 
g«llt y randered. Flos* aggregating $2,000 

^%». StMei Btmttt s. 8. W. Wtnthne, 
Wm. B*rhoitr, B. P. Bow, Bd, P. Hard, 
On. W. Srotos, and Jot. J. Btomw, Two 
h Jcf s t i ntnnad br tba ftuA Ivry at 

foreign trade la shoe machinery, and prey- 
ing for perpetual restraining order, dlaao- 
lullon of company, and restoration of nor- 
mal candltloos^ Testimony now being t«ken 
In open court. 

50. VtHUd State* e. A. ffolxet el at. 
Two Indictments returned Dec. IS, 1811, 
In the Southern District of Florlds against 
members of Longahoremea's Auoclatlon for 
combining, consplrEag, and agreeing to In- 
terfere with Interstate operstlons of tbe 
Uason Forwarding Company nhlcb hsd de- 
clined to recoKuue one of the conspirators 
known as the ^'walking delegate." See note 
to following case. 

51. Vtilled State* v. A. Baintt €t aL 
Two indictments returned De<:. 16, 1911, in 
tbe Bon them District of Florida for com- 
bining, conspiring, snd sgreelng npon rules, 
rcgnlatlons, reqnlrcmeats, etc., with refer- 
"-- -- uployment of workmen to load 


els with iL 

Horn.— Two Bbo»8 1 

r trlaL Defendants 

illty and were sentenced each 

iiuii u^. Ad, 1811, In Circuit Court, 
Boutbem District of California, alleglug un- 
lawtol restraint of trade and commerce In 
plumbing BDpplIea on the Padflc coast. De- 
cree anjolnlnf dalandnnti tioB tnrtbei cm- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

ulnlDf tba act! eonplalued of wu mUted 
Jan. a, 1912. 

03. Vnitea Btatf v. The Keniiont 
WaUh OoMt Oanpanv el ol. Petltloo filed 
Dee. 20, IBll, lo the ClTcnlt Court, £aBtFrn 
District of PennirlTBDla, allesInK unlawful 
cnntnelB, combinations and coBiplraelea t 

tlonal Cath ^ , , , 

1 conaplracjr In reacralnt of Intentata trad* 

._j .^ ^^ r*gl«ie[», malting 

1_ .. i^e lodnit^. 

monopoilie trade In flUed watch cam and a8S£csatl 

iTHlcbea, and prarlng for a permanent d«- raasine i 

eree oKlerlD|E the dtuolntlon of the com- "'V^"^, 

Dan? and enJolDlns deCendantB from further ?f' y. 

verdict of culli; i 
. _ thlrtr deiendan.. 
araresatlng tlSS.OOO and Jell 

! Of lh« thlrtr 

lendanta and 1 

pan; and enjoining deCendantB from further 
CommiltlnK the na law fat acts complained 
of. Innea Joined, tablns of teatlmonr com- 
pleted, and caae la now read; for trIaL 

blnatlon and conaplracr hi rcatralnt of la- 
teralate and foreitn commerce In taipentlne 
and realn. Demnrrer overruled Jan. 3, 
1918. Defendant aacpeDded boaloeM In 
Harch, 1913, on account of financial dlf- 
flcnltlea, and alnce then no tarthai action 
baa been taken. 

es. (Jailed ainlM V. V«w Dtpartta* 
Uanjaelrtring C7ompa«y et ol. Indli^tment 
returned Jan. 8, 1012, In tbe Weltem Dla- 
trfct of Mew York against alz corporatlona 
•nd elahteen IndlTldnal defendantB, charg- 
ing unlawful combination and couaplracr 
(or the puriMBe of monopollalng the coastar' 
braka bnalneaa, and flilng bdiT malntBlnlnK 
price* for coaater brakea. Plea In abate- 

laaue Joined. 

-_ ViHttd Statu :. 

Bt«an»hip Company et oL Petition la 
equllF filed Uarch SO, l"-~ ■ - -■ 
Dlatrlct -' " — >■— ■- -' - 

with 001 _ . . _, -_ 

to unlawful contra eta and pooling agreo- 
menta. and allowing rebatee, for tha por- 
poM of aecurlng a moDopolj of the bud- 
neaa of tranaportlng freight between porta 
on the Atlantic eoaft of the United BtatM 
and porta In tbe Philippine lalanda, Japan. 
China, and the Par Xaat. laar- •-•^^^^ 
Taking of ttatlmanr on behalf o 
ment nearlng completion. 

«3. DMtti Btata e. JuHut F. VOIer, 
Seorelanr, HaiB York Charcoal Oowipany 
*t ol. Indictment returned April 2. 1912, 
In the Eaatem Dlatrlct of New Xork charg- 
ing defendant* wltb realralnlng Inlersteie 
trade and commerce In charcoal. Demnmr 
anatalned Oct. IT. 1913. 

S3. VittA BlaltM V. Intenmttonal Bar- 
vetter Oempanir et nl. Felltlun Died April 

80, 1912, In the Dlitrict Coo" '- — 


po*ed in Haj. IBIL. 

5& Vnittd Btatet v. The Vorlh Padfto 
Wharce* A Trndlns Co. el at. iDdlctmeut 
returned Feb. 12, 1912, In the Flrat Dlvt- 
alon. District of Alaak*. charging detend- 
anCs with conaplrlus to monopallae and 
monopollalng the coarbualneu at Bkagwar. 
DeiDurrei tustalned Har 8, 1913. 

07. Called Slotei 

meat retnmed L 

DlTlalon, District < 

(endants with engaging In a eonsplr — .. 
monopollae and monopollalng the transpor- 

M, 1912, In tbe Flrat 
f Alsaka, charging de- 
ting Id a eonspTracT to 

08. T}*Hai Blatee v. The North PatHlto 
Wharvei A Tmilno Co. el al. Indictment 
returned Feb. 12, 1S12. In the Pint DlTl- 
alon, District of Alaska, charging defend- 
ants (1) with engaging In a conspirac; 
and combination In restraint of trade and 
commerce bjr way of combining the four 
wharrss at Bhagwaj under one manage- 
ment, and <S) wltb monpoUalog the wharf- 
inger buslneaa at BksgwaT. Demurrer over- 
ruled on Ha? 8, 1913. First trial reiolted 
in disagreement of Jnrr on Jan. ST, ISIS. 

B9. tJnlted Matei «. Pncljfa « Anrtto 
Bfrflirat' 4 WactoaHaK Do. el ol. Indict- 
ment returned Feb. IS, 1812, In tbe First 
DlTislon, District of Alaska, charging de- 
feodaati wltb engaging In a conaplracr to 
monopollae and monopollilng tbe atesmablp 
transportation between Paget Sonod and 
Britlsn Columbia porta in the aonth and 
Skagway In tbe north. Demurrer sns- 
tnlocd, except a* to corporation defendants 
to count Ho. S. Tpon appeal to the Supreme 
Court the Judgment was reversed and tba 
case remanded for further proceedings. 

00, ViMei BtaUt t>. Jo\» B. Palttrten 
tt at. Indictment returned Peb. 32, 1912, 
In the Southern Diatrict of Ohio, against 
John B. Pattsraon, prealdent, and twentj- 

Mrllflcate llled, and ease argued befon 
three circuit Judge* at Bt. Faul during No- 
vember, 1913. 
•M. (7ailed fliales «. AlanifiiMin Cor»- 
ot AmeHca. Petition Bled Uar IS. 

. eactfle a Arelto Stat* 

191^ In the'District 'Court, WMlern' Dli? 
trict of Penuaxlvanla, to prevent a fortbet 
monopoly of and restraint upon the Inter- 

June 7, 1912. 

ec. Dnittd Stale* e. Btrma» Bleieke» 
«l ol. PeUtlon filed Ma; 18, 1S13, In the 
District Conrt, Bouthem Dlatrlct of Mew 
York, alleging conaplracT to reduce the pro- 
duction of eoiTee, aapeclallr In tbe Stale of 
Bio Paulo, Braall, and to withdraw a larg* 

per cent, of coffee from the market bj 

chase. Uotlon for prellminan InJun 
denied. Upon th* aavlce of the Stati. _ _ 
part ment that rspreientationa bad tteen 
made by the BraiUlan Ooremment that 
the entire quantity of colfee which waa 
belns withheld from market bad been *oId 
to ■ large Dumber of dealer* throughout 
the United Btatee, an order of dlaniaaal 
wa* entered May 39. 191B. 

eo. Called Stale* v. PHnM LiM 
(LImiled) et aL Petition filed Jnne 0, 
1912, In tbe District Court Boutbera Dia- 
trict of Mew York, ch*rglng defend**!*, a* 
common carriers of freight *nd jwstengers 
between porta of the United Statea and 
ports In tbe Republic of Braill, with ac- 
quiring and maintaining a substantial mo 
nopoly by mean* of contracts, rebates, and 
other unlawful act*, *Dd praying for an 
annulment of said contracts, agrecBMnt^ 
etc. laaue Joined and tesHmony In ebtet 
on behalf of Oovernment baa beeo Intro- 

6T.' United Btatee o. Oentret-Wett Pak- 
HiMtV Co. el aL Pettllon fllrd August 8. 
1912. In tbe District Court, NoRbem Dl*- 


Mncyctopedie Index 


*Uwr and aialiiat otbera eniased tn com- 
petlDf IndtuuteK with tbe Inient to re- 
atraln and moDopolUe loteretate trade and 
coounerc* In plBt« and reailv-prlDl matter. 
Conaent decTM siaDtlns relief aa prajed 
for entered at CHcaxo oa Ans. 3, 1012. 

OS. Unittt «taie* 0. AiioeiaUd BttU 
t> rt f» nU DtMtrtbmton ot tha ViMed 
UmtM ami Oaaaila tt at. Petition flied 
Anc. S. )S1% In tbe Dlatrlct Court, North- 
an DiBtrict of llUaola. charging detend- 
anta with cncagliic In a cDtDblantloD '~' 

£<boit /. ChambarUn, oui Alfrei W. BmtiJt- 
era. Indictment retomed December 2S, 
1612. Id the Bonlhern Dlatrlct of New York, 
charging a combination and consplnc; ts 
reitraln InterBtata commerce by preTent- 
Ing the GODBtrucllon of aabaidlarj lines ot 
the Central Vermont Railway Compaar (It- 
aelf a aubsldlarj' of the Grand Truoh Ball- 
way Companj) from Palmer. Uaaa., to 
ProTldence, B. I. ; from White River Junc- 
tion, Vt., to BoatoD 1 and from Boaton lo 
Blackatone, connecting there with tbe Pal- 
mer- Prorldcnce line. Caae at laiue airalt- 
lus irlaL 

8iaUt V. KtUooa Toatttd 

Dec. £ 

1 Dlatrlct of 

Anc- IS, 191', In the Dlatrlct Court, Baat 
am District ot PautiiylTanla, to remove 
tba rcMralnta which defendanta hare Im- 
» "" '' niw"^ Intentate and foreign trade 

— In machlnea, appllancaa, and 

— . The taking of tea- 
1 behalf of Oovemment 

lllchlgan, alleging that tbe bnalneaa poller 
ot the defeDOaol company in flxloi and 
enforcing reaals prlcea on Sellogg'a Toaat- 
ed Corn Flskea la nnlawfnl and tenda tv 
reatraln and monopollH Interatats Com- 
merce In aald product. 

Ptodnce Merchanta' Exchange, ot PortUnd, 
nlih unlawfully contmlllng the pnrcbaae, 
dlatrlbutlon, and aale of approximately M 

■piracy In reatralnt of Interalate and 

-n trade and commerce In oUa and 

■dncta. Nolls proaaqui entered Feb. 

fon>«il Oct. 81, 191? In" the 'District ot 
MaasaehuaettB. charging monopoly of Inter- 
Uaie trade and commerce In rendering ma- 
terials- Dec. 1, leiS, plea of nolo con- 
tendere by defendant and flue ot ffi.OOO 

VMal StatM s. Conaotldated Rendering 
COMHtiir at aU Indictment returned Octo- 
ber 81, 1812, In the Dlatrlct of Maasaoha- 
■etta^ charging monopoly of Interstate trade 
kod commerce In rendering materlala. Dec 
1, IftlS. plea of nolo contendere b* eoriMra- 
tloD and Bus of (3,000 Impoaed. Indlct- 
■MDt nolle proaaed aa to IndlTldual de- 

Hon.— These actions wei« Instituted 
aa a result of demnrrers having been sus- 
tained In cases IS, IS, and IT, and are 
therefore not counted aa additional cases. 
71. DMted Statem o. TAs UoMler Borit- 
Cftocrt' SatUmal Proitetive Aueetatta» of 

I drltled borse- 

ot trade ._ 

■hoc*, adjoatabia calks, snd mbber hoot 
peda. Pending on demurrer. 

12. Dmitet Statei b. PhltadrlpAIo Jet- 
MiV Ctmjeeltonen' Atsoctation tt bI. Peti- 
tion fllMi Dec- IS. 1612, In tbe eastern 
Dtstilct of PennsylTanla, charslag defend- 
snta with nnlBwtnlly InterferAg with In- 
tentate commerce In candles and confec- 
tlona. Conaent decree entered Feb. IT. 

78. I7s(t«f State* «. Elgin Board of 
TraiUrtal. Petition Died De<;pmber 14, 1612, 
to the Nortbem District of lUlntds, charg- 
lu defendant* with comblnlna and con. 
■piring In the Intereat of a num^r of large 
centnllilna concerns to restrain Inleratate 
commerce rn butter and bntter fat, and 
arbltntrfly adnc the price thereof to obtain 
throngbont the onlted Statee. Issue joined 
•Dd taUng ot testlmtmy In open eonrti will 
M mMBcmcad od Jan. 8, 1914. 

14. VwUtd atom «. OMrtM B. Venea, 

waa entered at Detroit, Hich.,onFeb. 7, 1918. 

TS. United Blatet v. Catted Bhoe Ita- 

ehtnerf CompaBii of tfew Jersey tt -' 

alleged nnlawfnl t 

Tolrlng "Inseam trimming machlnea." 
T6. Bee Ko. 6. 

80. United States v. Board af Trad* •( 
the City of Chieoffo st aL PeUtlon flitd 
Feb. if, 1913. In the District Court at 
Chicago, III., attacking mle 88 of tbe CU- 
cago Board of Trade, by vlrtn* of w"-"-"- " 
la alleged the price of all com, oats. 

and rye arriTiog In Chicago at tlme_ 

the board of trsde Is not in aesslon Is arbi- 
trarily determined. Motion to strike ont 
certain portlona of defendant*' answer has 
been ai^ed, and tlie nillng of the court 
Is awaited. 

81. United gtatn v. The OlwetanS 
jBtone Compaiur M ol. PetltloD filed Feb, 
12. 1618, In the District Coart at Cleve- 
land. Northern District of Ohio, cbarglog 


Ing a practical monopoly o 

82. I7«it«d State* o. The 

Lackawaniia d Veitsr* ffadroad Oomoanif 
and Tht DHateare, Lacliateanna 4 iTeft- 
em Coal Compaau. Petition died Febmary 
18, 1618, In the District Court at Trenton. 
N. J., charging defendsnta with transport- 
ing coal In which It had an Interest in tIo- 
lallon of tbe commodltlea clause of ths 
Interitate-commerce set. snd with enter- 
ing into an unlawful contract whereby the 
Coal Company acqalred a monopoly of the 
Bale at anthracite coal produced along the 
line of tbe Railroad Company, In vloratlon 
of tbe antl-truBt act. Tbe taking of testi- 
mony has been completed and briet la 
being prepared- Eipedltlng eanlflcate died 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Reaitter Company et ol. Petition Died 
Feb. 20, lSi3. In tbe Dlitrlct Conrt at 
ClcTslaad, Norttivrn DiBtricc of Ohio. 
cborctiiK defendaalB with coDsplrluK to re- 
Btmln and monopoUie the nmniitHClure and 
iaie of account reglatm and appliances. 

84. United Btatet v. Ijittmatimial 
Brotherhood of EUctrical Worlxrt. Local 
Vniont floi. » and 134, et aL PetllloD 
nied F«b. 24, 1913, In Ihe Dlatrlcl Court 
■t Chicago, Northern District of llUnoH, 
■ecklug to tDjQla dcteadanls from iDterfer- 
Ins with the Interstate bDnlneu of th« 
Postal TeleKraph-Calile Company. A tern- 
porarr InJUDctToa wai granted and Is atlll 

85. United Btatet d. Com Produett Re- 

SBlnfr Company et al. Petition filed 
[arch 1, 1B13, Id the Dlatrlct Court at 
New York Cltr, charging defendants with 
tnonopotlilD^ Inlemtote trnile and com- 
merce In corn products, and prajlng for 
the dluolntloa of tha combination. loiue 

80. antted Btatet v. The imfrtoan 
Thread Company et al. Petition Died Uarch 
8, ISIU, In the Dlntrlct Court at Trcntou, 
N. J., charging defendants with monopalli- 
Ing tbe thread Indnntrr. Answers oi de- 
fendants filed Sept. 10. 191.1. Issue Joined. 
. 87. United Stolea c. The Buironght 

engaged In ■ conspiracy to monop 

__. _ _ _. Cool 

Produett Company et ai. i'etitlon filed 
March S^ 1013, In the District Court at 
New Tor^ Cltr. charging defendants nllh 
monopollilng the supply of con I tar and 
nslralning the trade of competitor" i" th" 
purchase of coal tar and In tbe a 

of the bnalnes* of manafacturlog, selUng, 
and distributing photographic aappllM. 
'■au« Joined. 

4. Vnited Btatee v. The Quaker Oate 

' * ■ Petition filed June 11, 

' ■" : Chicago, 111.. 

consent ^rc 

89. United Stale* v. Termtnat Railroad 
Aitociation of Bt. Loni* et at. Pclltlon 
filed Uarch 4, 1913, In the District Coart 
at 8t. Louis. Enatern District at Missouri, 
alleging a coDsplracr on the psrt of tbe 
members of the Bt. Loula Con) Trnfflc Ru- 
reau to suppress snd eliminate competition 
In various rates for the transportation of 
■oft coal from the State of Illlnolf to tlie 
elt7 of St. Iioula, Ho. 


IJsmes C. McBejnoldi, Attomey-OeneraL 
Uareb 4. 1913.] 

1. United Btatet v. Tlte Sew Departure 
Itannfacturtna Company et at. Petition 
filed Uay 2T, IBIS, In the District Conrt 
at Rochester, Waslern District of New 
York, alleging that defendants entered Into 
a conspiracy and combination and devised 
B license agreement for the pnrpose of re- 
straining and moDopotlKlng tbe mnnufacture 
and sale of bicycle and motoreyde parta 
and coaster brakes. An agreed decree was 
entered at Rocbester on May 27, 1913. 

2. United Btatet v. White et al. In- 
dictment returned June 7. 1013. in the Dis- 
trict Court for the Southern District of 
West Virginia, agnlnat nineteen members 
of the United Mine Workers of America, 
alleging a conspiracy to Interfere wllb In- 
terstate commerce In coal mined In West 

8. United Btatee v. BattmaH KodaM 
Company et al. Petition Sled June 9, 
1918, ia the DlttrlM Court at BoITbIo. 

I In the District C 

to restrain and i 

Campan)) < 

1913, In the t^iair 

alleging comblnat „ 

Dopollie Inlerstnte trade and commerce in 
oatmeal prodncta and by-producu. Isau* 

0. United Blatee v. Bippem et al. In- 
dictment tctnmed June 26, 1918, Id the 
District Conrt tor the Weatern District 
of Oklahoma against The Oklahoma Bnik- 
ersge Comimny and two other corporations 
naa the olBcers thereof, alleging a con- 
spiracy to restrain and monopolFse inter- 
state trade and commerce In fruits and 
vegetables. Demurrer sustained Oct. 1, 1913- 

6. United State* v. Thampton el al. In- 
dictment reCurned July 1, 1DI3, In the Dla- 
trlct Court for the Southern District of 
New York alleging tlutt the defendants Con- 
spired to run a corner In cotton on th« 
New York Cotton Exchange. Defendant* 

merlean Tclepfiotis 

July 1 

Portland Ore., seeking to destroy 
nopoly of the telephone business on the I'a- 
clBc Coast. Issue Joined and tsblng of 
testimony on behalf of GoTernment Is 
nearing completion. 

8. United Statei v. Reading Company 
et oI, (Antbraclle coal combination.) Pe- 
tition Id equity filed Sept. 2. 1913, In ths 
District Court nt Philadelphia, Pa., against 
a comblnntloo conslallng of Reading Com- 
pany and afflllated corpDrallona. charging 

Lonopollilng trade 

coal, issue Joined. 

9. Cnileit Blatei v. TIte National Vhole- 
il« Jeaelcrt' AitotHatipn et al. Pelltlon 

filed Not, 18. ] 

e Dlstrl 

conspiring ti 

the trade of all classes of retail dealers in 
Jewelry and Jewelry produeta. 

10. United Btatet v. American Can 
Company et al. Petition filed Not. 29, 
1S13, In tbe District Court st Baltimore, 
Md.. allcgInK monopolisation of the busi- 
ness ot making tin cans. 

11. United iSlatss V. John P. White 
et al Indictment rstnmed Dec 1, 1913, 
in the District Conrt, Pueblo, Colo, charg- 
ing officials and me miters of the United 
MTne Workers ol America with motiopolls- 
Ing all diggers of coal and mine laboren 
and with restraining Interstate commerce 

12. United Btatet v. Pranlt J. Bayet 

** -' Indictment retumei? " — ■* ■■"■" 
II strict Court PueW 
mtilnatloD and eons 

fere with th( . 

1 Its transportation t 

sale In other S 

13. United L.- . „.,_ 

Company, Central Paoilta Raltaay Com- 

. southern Paciflo 

ductlon, ttansportBtlon and sale of antb 


Encyclopedic Index 

dte coal trDin mlDM trtbntBiT to Leblzh 
VtUtr Ballroad Compaiv tn Ttolttloit ot 
th* Antl-Tnut Act, and charglag tbe uld 
Railroad Company with tnniportlns In tu- 
tenUtB comiDerM coal In wUch It^wi an 
iDtereat, In violation of the CommodltT 
Clanae of the Act to Begnlate Commern. 
IB. Ualted Btatei v. KMiter et oL In- 
dictment retaroed June 4, 1014, at Dea 
Ifolnea. Sonthem Dlitrlct of loira, charg- 
tng defendant! with bavlng entered Into 
a comblQBtloD In restraint of trada In 

IS. Vmittt Btata V. T\e Ameriean 
Writtaer crowMnv si al. Indictment le- 
torned Har 22. 1S14, In tbe District Conrt 
for the^featem District ot PenDBTlTanla, 
charclnx defendants with anlawfnllr engag- 
tni ui a combination In restraint of Inter- 
■tate trade and commerce In clothes wrlng- 

.-j, mi in tha DTstrict "Coort'at SesttTe, 
Waah., cbarclng defendants with entering 
Into a combination and conaplracr In re- 
straint of tnterstate trade and commerce 
In fresh Bsh- „ ^ „ 

18. VnlUi Btatet v. 7Ae V«W 7ort, lltv 
Baten A Barttord Battroaa Companv et al. 
Petltlcn Blfd inlT 23. 1811, In the Dlatrlct 
Conrt for the Sonthem District of New 
Tort, allegfag monopolisation of tranapor' 
latlon tat^ltfes In New EBgland and pray- 
ing tor a dlMolntlon thereof. 

19. Untua Btattt v. We*t«m Oanta- 

hwpe Emehanae et al. Indictment returned 
Aag. 7, 1914, tn the District Conrt at 
CbTeago, Northern Dl strict of Illinois, 
duirg{ng defendants with having entered 

^u„ ri combination to restrain and mo- 
Dopollxe Interstate trade In CftntalDi]i>e& 
jlatt-Tnut Lav (see klso Shermui 
Amendment snggeated, 7131. 
Common stock ownerghp, 76S0, 
ConAaestioD not tbe purpose of the 

■Utat«, 7649. 
Effectiveness ot the decree, 7649. 
Szplieit legislation nnder, 7910, 
Federal eorporation commiuion pro- 
posed, 7654. 
Federal ineorpoiatioa reeommended^ 

Force and eflectiTeness of statute ft 

matter of growth, 7646. 
Fntile provisions of, pointed ont, 

Government administrative experts 
needed to aid courts in trust 
diMolntioni, 7651. vt the Anti-Tnut Act, 

Ineorpontion volimtaiy, 76S5. 
Lack ot definitenees in the statute, 

Labor organizations should be ex- 
empt from, 7194. 
Legiuation orged, 7193. 
Uovemont for repeal of, 76C0. 
New remedies suggested, 7651. 
No change necessary in rule of de- 
cision, merely in the form of ex- 
pteudon, 7645. 


Opinion by Jndge Eongh oited, 7131. 

Bemedy in equity by dissolution, 

Should be made dearer and fairer, 

Situation after readjustment, 7647. 

Size of now companies, 7648. 

Sopreme Court decisions on, elted by 
Taf t, 7644. 

Supplemental legislation needed, not 
Tspeal or amendment, 7662. 

Taft message on, 7644. 

Volnntary re organ i tuition of other 
trusts at hand, 7650. 
Anti-Trust Legislation. (See also Boose- 
velt, Taft and Wilson.) 

Advice and guidance of trade com- 
mission desired, 7916. 

Co-operative groups of individuals, 

Effect of nncert^nty regarding, 

Holding companies ahonld be prohib- 
ited, 7917. 

Individual punishment for business 
irreguIariUes, 7917. 

Individual suits should be based on 
government findings, 791S. 

Individuals put out of business, 

Industrial management usurped by 
investment bankers, 7915. 

Interlocking direetorates of corpora- 
tions, 7915. 

Honopoly indefensible and intoler- 
able, 7915. 

Not to unsettle business, 7914. 

Production and transportation busi- 
nesses, separation of, 7916. 

Batlroads, financing under Interstate 
Commerce Comnussion, 7916. 

Bailroads, harm done to, by Snan- 
eiers, 7915. 

Statute of Limitations sbonld run 
from conclusion of government 
snits, 7916. 

Trade Commissions needed as guide 
to justice, 7918- 

Trade Commission to direct correc- 
tive processes, 7917. 

Trusts and monopolies, control of, 
Antietam (Md.), Battle of,— After tlia 
severe enfagement at Bonth Honntaln, 
Lee's armr coacentiatsd to the west of An- 
tietam Creek. ■ small stream flowtng Into 
tbe Potomac Blver, eight miles abore Hai- 

Ears Ferrj. Here, near the town of Bharpa- 
nrg. between the Potomac and the creek, 
Lee awaited the return ot Jackson, who 
bad been sent to eaptare Baipers Perrr. 
According to Federal accounts, Lae bad not 
more than 26,000 men until Jackson's two 
dlvlBloDS came up. Later be was Joined b- 

16, 1862, HcClelUn's arm;, about 70.000 
strong, was re-enforced to BT,164, of which 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

4,S20 were cnTalrj. About 60,000 ol tbls 
force bora tha brunt of tba battle. On tha 
eTcnlng ot the IStb Booket'a dlvliloa 
croned tbe creek and benn an attack, 
wblch dtrkQM* eoded. Flkhtlns waa re- 
aumed at dayll^bt on tbe iTtb and con- 
tinued all day, with rarylng t -"■" 

c alanrbter. Darkneaa ajcaln pnt 
<uu .u the carnan. UcClellan tUd not rei 
tbe attack: on the 18ih, bnt ordera i 

tbe 19th. 

. ._t of the 

, — -rard Mnrtloa- 

burg. A tcir daya later UcCleJlao occupied 
UartlnaburK- The total loas of tbs Union 
armr waa 1S,4S0 (S.OIO klllHl) ; of tbe 
Confedera tea. 26,896. Other eatlmatea of the 
Confederate losa are 9.000 to ]2,000. Tbe 
offlcial Confederate accounta claim that thla 
vaa a drawn battle, and that tba total ef- 
fective force of Lee waa a little more than 
SS.OOO. Tbii waa called by the ConfedeiatCB 
the battle at Bharpaburg. 
AntlqidtlH, American, FrsMiratlon of. 
—Under the act of ConKCCBa approved June 
8. lOOe, Interdepartmental regalatlonB gor- 
cTDlng the eicavatloD, appropriation, etc., ot 

Ereblatoric raina or objecta of aatlqultr 
ate been promulgnted by tbe Secretariea 
of tbe Interior, Agriculture, aod War. Ap- 
pIlcatloDs (or permlla to make eicaiatlDiiB 
on tbe public landa. Indlnn reaerratlona, or 
the national monumeala Damed betow abould 
be addressed to tbe Becrelary of tbe late- 
rtor. Tbe following bare bcea reserved 
from eDtrr and aet aside as natloaal monu-. 
menta : Devlla Tower, Wyoming : Monte- 
■uma Caatle, Arlaona ; Petrified Forpat, Arl- 
■ona : Rl Uorro, New Mexico : Cbnco Can- 

E>n, New Mexico; Unir Woods. California; 
atnral Bridgea, Utah; Lewis and Clark 
Cavern, Montana i Tumacarorl, Arlious ; 
Na«BjD, Arlaona Mdukuntaweap, Utab ; Sho- 
shone Cavertw Wyoming: Oran Qiilylra. 
New lleilco: BItka National Monument. 
Alaska : Ralniww Bridge. Utab : PInnaciea, 
California ; Colorado. Colorado. Eleven other 
national maouments wllhlo national forests 
have also been Bet aside under this act and 
placed under tbe Jorlsdlctlon ot tbe Sec- 
retary ot Agriculture, to wbom Inquiries In 
regard thereto should be addressed. 
Apsclie Indiana. (See Indian Tribes,) 
ApalacIUcola Indiana. (See Indian 

Apollo, Tbo, aeimre of, b; American 

Ooverainent referred to, 669. 
Appeals, OonrtB of. (See Conrto of Ap- 
Appointing Power of President. (See 

Executive Nominations.) 
Appointment to Offlce. (See Execu- 
tive NominationB.) 
Appomattox (Ta.), Battle of.— After the 
battle of Farmvllle, April. T, ISSS, Lee 
moved off toward tha west, closely followed 
bj Meade on tbe north aide of tbe Appo- 
matloi. Sbermao learning of tbe arrival 
of Bupply trains for Lee'a Army at Appomat- 
tox Station, puabed forward lor Ibat place 
with all tba caralry. Lee's hopeless condi- 
tion being now appkreot, Orant scot bim a 
note Inviting snrrender. I/ee replied, ask- 
ing for terma, and flrent Insisted upon tbe 
Ddcnndltlonal snrrender of tbe Confederate 
Army of Northern Virginia. On tbe nlgb» 
of April 8 Cnater, who waa In Sberidan'i 

ta adTanee had Jntt ar- 
1 the forces and cap- 
4 aapply tralna, a hoa- 

irk of wagona. Dnrlng 
came dp, and by day- 

ncbburg, bta objecUve 
ereatl mating the oppoa- 
d Oen. Oordon to make 
id attack. Sberldao's 
I one aide and revealed 
d Griflln'a comma nda In 
>n sent forward a white 
_ D dispatched a note to 
Gen. Orant recn eating an Interview, which 
being allowed doaed^ with tbe algning ot 
article* of surrender of Lee's army and 
camp followera, about 27,000 men. Th« 
aOcera and men were paroled April 12. and 
allowed to return to Ibelr homea. All pub- 
lic property was turned over, but the on- 
cers were allowed to keep their side arma 
and both offlcers and men to retain tbelc 
private horses and baggage. 
Apportionment.— The distribution ot rep- 
leaentatlon In tha Federal Bonae ot Bepre- 
fentatlvea and In tba general naaembllea ot 
the varl->iu States. In tbe CODtlneDtal 
Congress each State had but one *ots. 
Long contention over tbe matter of repre- 
sentation Onally led to the eatabllsbment 
of two Houses ot Congreaa — the Senate, 
wbereln all States ahould have egnftl reprs- 
sentatlan regardleaa ot area or population, 
and the House, In which each State shonld 
have representation la proportion to Its 
populallon. Prealdent Waablngton vetoed 
a bill on thla subject (110). A census was 
taken and 1 Representative was allowed tor 
every 30,000 iDbabltauta. Thla rule gov 
erned apportionments lor TO yeara, though 
tbe ratio was changed from time to tlma 
as the population Increased. 

In order to keep the number of members 
of the House a flied quantity, tbe Tblrty- 
flrat Congress derided to divide the repre- 
sentative population by 233 after each cen- 
sus, and by the quotient thus obtained 
divide tba representative population ot 

when the total i 
SDorx 01 xan. Representatives were aitowev 
tbe States having the largest fractions 
after division. According to the apportion- 
ment art ot Jan. 16, lOOl. It was provided 
that after March 8, IS03. the Honae shonld 
be composed ot 3SG members, to be ebosen 
In dlBtrlcta composed ot contlgnons and 
compact territory and containing as nearly 
.. n.-^i. ._ . K— „, inhnbT- 

tfonal ones shall he"eiected~by"Tbe~8tat6Vt 

larze nntll the State aball be redlstrlcted ; 

and that whenever a new State Is admitted 

tbe Union the Representative or Bepre- 

.... .. .. _^_.. . ^ ^^|_ 


" ".lat. 

of "an Increase allowed any State. anelTsddT 

sentatlTea assigned t.. __ _ 

tlon to the number 3Se. Accordlnc t 
censns of IMO the ratio of apporfloDment 
was 194.182, and as tblB gave only SS4 
Representatives. Nebraaka and VTrglnla 
were each allowed one additional. "JAtng 
a total of 886 Bepresentatlvea. (See «lao 

Bv u act of CongreiB approved Aof. 8, 
Elll. the ratio ot representation under the 
was Died at one for each 

ot April 8 Custer, who was In Sheridan's tatloo 
advance, reached Appomattox Sutlon, tntlon 

panying table' abows the ratio of~repre>.eu- 
tatlooln each Consress under the Co&atl- 


ETicyclopedic Index 


IjpgortbnunMit— omtfiiMd. 


nu. 1700 lo lOJO, by Stalf 


















































' "7 


































M««)— ■ 









































S33| 3S7 



h. th- 


vivn^Iy uricDcd to MuMCbu 

UM 4ft« it* 













1; LooWuiB, 1: Munc, 7; Mioiunppi. 1. fifth — ArktuuM. 1: Mictiisui, '.. _. 

Ftdtida. ■; Iowa, 2: Toaa. Si WneoiuiD. 2. Bevcdth—MainachuBMta, 1: Mtnoeaou, i: Onion, I. 
F lrtl k ' niinoto, I; Iowa, 1; Keatucky, 1; MioneKXa, 1; Nsbnxka, 1; Nenda, 1: Chlori: Faaanlvaiik. 
I: Bhoda latead, I: Vcnnait, 1. Nioth— Colorado. 1. Tealh— Idabo, IsMontun, 1 : North Dduita, 1; 
tomk DtkotM, 3; WaAlnftoo, 1: Wyomina, t. Elemith— Utah, 1. TblrtecDttt^Alabama, 1; Arl- 
nwk, ];CUirfimla, 8; Cnhiiado, 1: Florida, if i Grania, 1; Idabo. 1: Illinola, 2; Louidana. 1 ; Maaacfau- 
mua, t: UlclitoB, Ij WasMOta, 1; Montua, 1; New Jsney. 2; Now Me^, 1; Now York, Si Nonfa 
O^Ma, li ^Wjjl^iMdaliow, SiOnnn, 1: Pnn«FlraalB, i; Elboda Uaod, 1; aouth Dakota, 1: Taaa^ 


AppGffticRUtinLt Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Aeeording to 

uxj, Essa. 
Approved and rensoiiB therefor, 

8018. Vetoed, 116. 

A pp t O pil»ttOB».— Artkl« 1, MCtlon T, 
cUldm 1, of the Conitttntlon provide! tbKt 
"All bills tor laliInK rereDne ilia II orls- 
iDste Id tbe Bodbc of Repre«eatatlTes" ; 
« (ImllKT prlTlleK« bai been claimed b; 
die Uouae b the cue of approprlatloiu of 

C' He joonej, but Id thU case tbe claim 
not been Inalited on. PreTioua to 1B6S 
tbe approprlatloD bills were. In tbe Honae, 
coDsldeTed bj tbe Committee of Waj-a and 
Ueaaa. bat bi that rear the Committee on 
Appcoprlatloni was formed. By a rule of 
' the Houae and Senate, appropriation bllU 
mnet Include only Items anthorteed by ex- 
tsllog laws, and tbej ouitiot contahi proTls- 
loni chanfflnB eilttlDc laws. But thli role 
Is freqeeDtlr dlsTesarded. These bills must 
b« reported to Che Committee of tbe Whole, 
and mar be reported at any time, taklDK 
precedence of any other meaaarea. This 
rule puts Taat power Into the tiBnda 
of tbe cbalnnan of the committee, and of 
late years tbls power hai l>een used to 
choke dlicuselon on tbe subject of the 
tariff, bj wlthboldluK the report of the ap- 
propriation bills antll tbe end of tbe aea- 
sloQ and then Introdnclni tbem at a time 
when, the moat nrsent duties of Cougreaa 
harlDS been performed, ttiat topic Is most 
likely to come up tor dlsrUBslon. In tbe 
House the yeas and nays od the paasase 
of these bills muaC be recorded. Bat bills 
are frequently passed under b suspeniloD 
of this role. In the Senate this Is not neees- 
ury. Tbe Appropriation Committee In that 
body was organised In 1667, the Piaance 
Committee baTlDR previously had that mat- 
ter In charge. The appropriation bills are 
made up from estimate! tumlsbed by tbe 
heads of the eiecatlre departmmts : tbese 
are usually much rednced in tbe Bouse, and 
these estimates are again usually raised 
fay the Senate <wblch Body haa less politi- 
cal capital to make out of a claim of 
economy) : a cwmpromlse tietween the two 
usually results In appropriations consid- 
erably lower tban the amount asked for by 
tbe department offlcers. This necessitates 
tbe passase, at the beglnnlnK of evetr ses- 
sion, of a bill to supply the deHclen^ of 
the previous appropriations ; tbls blU Is 
known aa the DeticleDcy BIIL 

Besides the appropriations there are 
"permanent annual appropriation s," or 
money expended by the treasury b; virtue 

Approprlatlona : 

Acts making, vetoed. (Bee the sev- 
eral subjects.) 
AppTopriatioD bill, special sessioii 

messages regarding failure to pass, 

2927, 1404, 4472. 
Appropriation bills failing to pass, 

effect of, diseussedj 3101. 
Qeneral legislation in appropriation 

bills objected to, 2B93, 3020, 6363. 
Power of Congress to designate officer 

to expend, discussed, 3128. 
Beference to, 2918. 
Should not ba made unleas neeessarj, 

Suspension of, referred to, 1839. 

Aiabia Is a peninsula In the •onthweaC 
of 1890 neees- of the Aalatte continent, fonninc tha con- 
oectlsK link between Asia and Africa, and 
Ues between 84* W-W' B. long, and Vl" 

W-ii' StK N. lat Tbe northwestern limit 
Is generallr taken from Akaba, at the bead 
of the Gulf of Akbar, to a point la tbe 
Syrian Desert about 150 miles northeast. 

remaining land boundaries are In the form 
of a horseshoe, encompaaslnx the Srtlaii 
Desert, and deacendlng In a sontheasterlv 
" — "— -0 tbe head of the Persian Qnlf. 

Qnlf and Golf of Omaa. 

Turkish dependencies have a total 
area of about 438.000 square milea (tha 
greater part inhabited b; tribes only oom- 
bially subject to Tnrkey), with a popnlatlos 
estimated at 8.400.000, almost entirely Mo- 
hammedan. The Importance of Eelai de- 
pends upon the pilgrimages to the holy cltlea 
of Medina and Becca.^edina ("tbe City"). 
820 miles by rati from Damascna. and the 
present terminus o( the Hejaa Railway, haa 
a permanent population of aboat 20,000, 
and Is celebrated as the bnrlal place of 
Mahomet who died In the city on June 7, 
632. Tbe Mosque of the Piepbet (BOO feet 
In length and over 300 In breadth) contalna 
the aacred tomb of Msbomet. Mecca, the 
birthplace of tbe Prophet, Is forty-five mttea 
east of the seaport of Jidda, and about 
SOO miles south of Medina.^ and has a fixed 
population estimated at 60.000. Tbe city 
contains the great mosqne sorronnding the 
Kasha or aacred shrine of the Moham. 
medan religion. In which ts the black atone 
"glyen by Qabriel to Abraham." placed In 
the southeast wall of the Kaat>a at such a 
beigbt that It may be kissed by the de- 
vout pilgrim. 

Arapaboa Indlanfl. (See Indian Tribea.) 
Atbltratloii (Intainatlonal) and Dla- 
unuuneat. — Tbe movement In behalf of 
universal peace between the nations haa 
Interest It has created and In the number 
made great progress In recent years In the 
--^ character of Its advocatea __,__ 

and other able 

and leodlng_men of many countries. Ti 
late King ^Idward of England waa glvi 
tbe title of "Peacemaker'*^ because of h_ 
encouragement of Inlematlonal comity and 

An International Peace Congress meets 
annually. Its eighteenth annual meeting, 
held at Stockholm In Aognst. ISIO, was at- 
tended by aboat 700 representatives of 
various couDlrlea A "Palace of Peace" 
has been erected at The Hague thronKh tbe 
munlUcence o( Andrew Cam^e, and con- 
trlbntlons to the adornment of this splen- 
did bnlldlng have come from all the prlnel- 
CSl countries. More recently Mr. Camegle 
as donated a fund of flO.OOO.OOO. Iha 

f which la t 
~The^ British Peace I 

e nseil In the In- 

._, _ _ _.„ety, founded In 

1816, advocates gradual, proportionate and 
Bimnltaneons disarmament, and tbe settle- 
ment of interna tionsl diepates bj pacific 

methods, especially by arbltn 

._ ._.„■- jjjg pojicy of j^ iie»co or- 

IntemallDoal Conrt of Ar> 

Is praetlcallj' the policy < 

isallons to-d». 

bltratlon waa esubllshed l. -,__, 

by a treaty of July, 189S, which was signed 
and later ratified by twenty-four power*. 
BepresentatloB In the conrt by non-al|Ba- 


Encyclopedic Index 


BliCi Of men of recognlied auiborlir o 

Axbltntton <L«t)9r).— finbmittlne dii- 
pated po[dU of axretmeDt between emplo;- 
en and empIo;eeB lo ■ Joint commliiee. 


Boot, Jolui Bauelt Uoore, luige George 
Qr«7 ami Hon. Oiear B. Straus. (See 
Htsnc Feace CoufereDCC. ) A nnmber of 
eaaea haxe been tried hj this conn— one of 
the EBost Imporunt being the Atlantic Fisb- 
tiiti Dispute, which threatened (be frlend- 
I7 relations of Great Britain and Cuiscla 
with the United SUtei, and In which a sat- 

^° number of c 

_.-.-. Is usuall; Belecced bf 
each of the parties Co the dispute, these Id 
turn seleCLlng an odd member of the com- 
mission. The method o( procedure U usa- 
all; preHcrlticd by trade agreements between 
labor organlzallona and employerii. Arhi- 
tratlon — •■ '■'-" ■- 

AttiltratloD treatlea are not intreqooit. 
Such treaties between the Dnited States and 
I Britain and France, lespectlTel;, the 
— ••'- '• —•-■-•- ■- -trongl* nrged by 
pending In the 
ucuaic, TtuiKu •■=■. uuni'ir, postponed their 
farther coDBldetstloD until Its next session. 
The moTenleDt for disarmament, or the 
UnltatloQ of armaments, has made little 
material progress. It was opposed b; Ger- 
t The Hague Conference In lOOT. 

Gteat Britain la willing to Join the other decision' of 'fee' 

power* In & plan to reduce armamenta, 

proTlded the; shall all agree to It, not 

otherwise. The Balkan Crisis in 1908, and 

the ItallaD-Tnrklsb war haye dlsconragBd- 

If not, for the time being, destrored, all 

hopes of an; agreement between the 

ruptlon of serrlces on whicb the; hare 
come (o depeud tor the supply of commodi- 
ties necessary to lite or bealtb Tbe fed- 
eral lat>or law of 1SQ8. known as the 
Erdman law, provides (or tbe mediation and 
arbitration, by the labor bureau of tbe 
Department of Commerce and Labor, In 
cases of disputes between Interstate com' 
man carriers and their employees. There 
Is no power but public opinion to compel 

found effective Iti many cases ; but when 
agreed to by both parti 

ration Is Bnal. 

1 1908. 

,„ ^ , „ -J the 

near fntnre. The principle that to be pre- 
pared for war Is the surest way to preaerre 
peace ta likely to be adhered to. The road 
to nolTerMil peace Is cTldenily not yet In 
light. What progress the movement for dls- 
•tmament had made In the united States 
waa completely nnlllfled by the Earopeau 
war of 1014, and mlltlona were spent to In- 
crease both army and navy. (See also Hague 
Peace Conferenee: Peace, IntersatlonaL) 
Arbitntloii, lounifttlonal: 
Arbitration tre&tieB, istification 

Mked, 7906. 

AttitQde of Great Britain and tbe 

United States diBcnsaed, B874, 6154, 

6178, 6241, 6267, 6432. 

Arbitration Court at Hague, United 

States and Uezico first ta use, 6718. 

Cbamizal boundanr qaeetion with 

Uexieo not aatisiactorj, 76SS. 
Claim of Alsop k Co. against Cbile 

settled by, 7657. 
ConTention with republics of South 
and Central America for arbitra- 
tion of pecuniary claims, 7982. 
Failpre of treaty of, referred to, 5623. 
MoToment for, among Powers, 7656. 
Panama and Costa £iea, Colombia 

and HaiU, 7657. 
Botifieation of treaties asked, 7906. 
Beports adopted by International 
American Conference respecting, 
transmitted, 6518. 
BMolntian of French Chambers fa- 
Toring treaty of arbitration re- 
ferred to, 6060. 
Treaty for, with Great Britain and 

France, transmitted, 7617. 
Treaty with Oreat Britain regarding, 
,. ^_ gj78^ ^2i2, 6380, 

. , „„ _jglaL_, , 

and New South Wales have estab- 
lished boards of arbitration lor trade dis- 
putes. (See also Labor. Bureau of, Labor 
Statistics, Labor Question and Strike Com- 

Aibltratlon (Labor): 

Arbitration (compulsory) of disputes 
between employees and employers 
urged, 7089. 
Machinery for compulsory Investiga- 
tion of controversies between em- 
ployers and employees recommend- 
ed, 7036. 
Albcr ]3ay.~Tbe first suggestion of tree 
planting under tbe direction of state au- 
thority was made by B. G. Northrop, then 
Secretary of the Connecticut Board of Ed- 
ucation, about 1803, !□ an official state 
repots. In ISTe this same gentleman en- 
deavored to stimulate "centennial tree 
planting" by the offer of prizes to tbe 
children of Connecticut. But the Idea of 
setting apart a day tor the work had 
originated with ei-Governor J. Sterling 
Morton, of Nebraska, who, about 1B72. In- 
duced the Goveroor of that state to Issue 
a proclamatloa anpolatliiE a day for tbe 
nlantlng of trees fhroughont tbe state. In 
honor of Mr. Morton bis birthday, April 22, 
was made n legnl holiday by the Legisla- 
ture, and provlxloD wns made for awardlDg 
premiums to those who put out the most 
trees. It Is Bald that nearly TOO.OOO.UOO 
Arbor Dny trees are now la tbrlrlng condl. 
tlon on the prairie tracts of the state. 

The eiample of Ncbraaka waa soon fol- 
lowed by Kansas, and wltb grand results. 
Arbor Day In MInnceota, flrst obBcryed In 
1ST6. rcaulted. It Is said. In planting over 
a minion and a half of treea. In &Ilchl- 
gan the Arbor Day law was passed In 1S81, 
and In Ohio In 18S2. Since tbcn Arbor 
Day has been observed In Colorado. Wla- 
conehi. West VlrglDla. Indiana, Vermont, 
N'ew Hampshire, Ms atuichu setts. New Jer- 
sey, PennsylTania, Florida. Alabama. Mis- 
souri. CalUomla, Kentucky, Ualne and 
Georgia. In several other states Its ob> 
B^rvance has b«eii secar«d by the recom- 



Messages and Papers of the Prendents 

Albor Day — ConUnued. 

DMDdadoD of tlia Grange, tba Omiid ArmT 

-' ■>•- uepublie, or b} lUte aKrlcnltaw 

Op the ant Ohto Arbor Da; tbe 

cbildrtn of (.'iDflnnatl Joined L- 

tlv* nlebratlou, la tbe form of plHDilDg 
memorial Irrea bdi) dedlcailag Ibfin to au- 
(bon, italeimen, and other dlHtlngalBhed 
dtliena. Tbe date !■ not Bnlfortn, but la 
□anallr late In April or earlr la Ua;, T&rjr- 
Inr from JaDuar; to MarctL 

B. O. Northrop taja concerning the Tftloe 
of tbe obaervance of Arbor Daj' : "While 
foreiti abonld not be planted on our rich 
anble landa. there are In New Engluid 
and all the Atlaatle aratea larie areas of 
barrena, wortbleu for fleld crops, that mar 
be profltabl* devoted to wood-growing. 
Tbe feaalbllltr of reclaiming our moat 
atcrlle wastes u proTcd by nutnj facts both 
at home and abroad. Onr Atlantic sand 
plalot were once covered with foresta and 
can be reforested. Over 10.000 acres on 
Cape Cod, which thirt; years ago were 
barren, aandf plains, are now covered with 
thrlTlng planted toresta." (See Hollda^L) 
Arcmclioii, Fiance, exhibition of fishery 
and water cnltnia at, referred to, 
3578, 3584. 
Anas Oajra, guano deposits on, 5679. 
AicUtm, pablie building for, recom- 
mended, 7728. 
AzcUc CHrcla.— Enown land! of the arc- 
tic ccclou are estimated at 1,233,000 square 
miles Id area. Tbe moat Important la 
Greenland, dlacovercd b; Eilc the Bed Is 
986. Later eiptorers were Darts (158S). 
Kane, Hall, NareB, Greelf, Nanaen, and 
Peary. It Is renrded as a Danlab posses- 
sion. The Islands of the Arctic Archipelago 
of r>orth America belong to Qrpat Britain. 
Spllzbergen was Tlslted b; Dulcb navl. 
gators In I9S6. It belongs Co Russia, and 

..„ _ _ mbia and KolgneT 

also belong to Bossla. Frans Josef Land 
waa discovered bt Austrian explorers. It 
Is nnlnhablled. Tbe productions of these 
frigid lands are sealskins, blubber, cod liver 
oil, fars sod Ivor;. 

AfcUc Expedition, Becond, publication 
of second edition of, Buggested, 4606. 
(See also Exploring Expeditions.) 
Arctic BrploiatlonB.— Arctic e«pl orations 
to tile north of tbe American continent be. 
gin with Froblaher (1576). Davis (1685- 
B8), and Baffin (16101 who discovered tbe 
straits and baj wblch bear tbclr nsmeB. 
In 1612 Ilenrj IIudHOn entpred Iladsons 
Bay and wintered there, but was abandoned 
b7 his men the next spring and perished. 

For 200 Tears nothing more wbb done In 
this direclton. allboughTJearne (_1770) and 
Mackenile (ITSSi had located tbe moutliB 
of tbe Coppermine and Msckenile rivers 
and traced a part of Ihe coast, while Vitus 
Bering (1641) and other Russian captains 
explored the shores of Alaska. Tbe reports 
of ScoreBby, a Scotch whaler. In tbe sum- 
mer of 1817. excited new Interest In the 
Srohlem of a northwest passage, and tn 
818 the British Govemnipnt sent out an 
expedition under John Robk. Ross pene- 
trated Lancaster Sound for some flfly miles, 
bat, believing It was closed by m6iintalns, 
returned to Rnglsnd. His second In com- 
mand, W. E. Parry, sent out the nest year. 
sailed over the sunposed mount a Ins and 
reached Helvllle Island In longllude 114°, 
wbers he wintered, but was nnable to ep 
tnrtber. Id 1827, bowevsr, in an eipedl- 

oa^ed I 

ti tte «Ma- 
■', wbicb te- 
— - hlgheat lati- 
tude alUlned. An expedition &i 182»-38 
nuder John Hobb and James C. Hoaa made 
eitcDsire eiplorattops In tbe region of Om 
Korth Magnetic INile. L^nd expedlHaas bj 
BIr John Franklin (1820-21}, Franklin aod 
Blcbardson ll82S-2e), Back tl83S-84), 
Deaae and Simpson (1838-39), and Itae 
(1846-47) pracLlcall; deleralned tlw Dorth- 
em coastline of the continent. 

In 184S Sir John Franklin sailed on an- 
other expedition from which he never re- 
turned. In tbe coarse of the cipedltlona 
to rescue bis party or leam their fate Um 
lalanda and cbannela north of the cotttlttolt 
were pretty thorongbly explored and 
mapped. From tbe west, HcClnre (18501 
reached Parry Sound, discovered tiy Parry ; 
his crew, >>inlna by sledn Ihe eastern 
sqnadron nnder sir Edward Belcher, waa 
the only party to accomplish tbe KorthwesC 
Psssage ; CoUlnson, aalUng at the aame time, 
coasted tbe nortbern shore of Qie conti- 
nent, reaching, without knowing It, tbe 
acene of FranEiln's death on Klu WiUian 
L^nd. From tbe east between 1849 and 
1850, eight eipeditlona, fitted ont by the 
Brillah Government, b; private partlea. and 
by Lady Franklin, searched In vain for 


it American explorers begins 

wICb the Grlnnell expedition under De 
Haven, and Kane, In 1830. Information 
obtained by Dr. Rae, In a land Journey Id 
1854^ had already made evident the 1 — 

' UcCUntock, who otitained a record 

ly one found) stating the aliandon* 

ment of the ships and Franklin's destb. 
Hot little bas been done In tbis fleld since 
1SS5. although in 1BS8-99, Sverdrnp (Nor^ 
weglan) visited Jones Bound, traced the 
treat coast of Grlnnell Land, and discov- 
ered several islands. Two American ex- 
pedltlona, ibose of Kane In 1853, and Hayes 
'- I860, undertaken with the objecf -• ~ 

plorink Smith Sonnd, discovered Kane Bea 
and Kennedy Channel, and reached SO* BB' 
and 81° 35' respectively. In 18T0, C. F. 

Hall, a 

Eskimos, 'searching (or 1 

f the Frank- 

lin expedition, reached 82> 11' In the sea 

north of Kennedy Channel : a record which 
was surpassed Ave years later by tbe Brit- 
lab expendltlon under Nares, with 83' 20*. 
In IGSl an American expedition under 
Lieut. A. W. Greely was sent to establish 
one ot the InleraBtlonal Clrcumpoiar Bta- 
llona at Lady Franklin Bay. ft secured 
— , — •... ..,_.|||j|, jg(g_ made extensive e- 

ploratlona. and a party under Lieutenant 

r ... . .... (^^ fartheBt north np to 

' — 24'. In the fan of 

Lock wood r... 
that time alUlned 

1 EulTerlng and tbe 

Cape S , 

loss of several " — 

ex nio rat ions have been made by norden- 
skjflld In 18T0 and 1883: Kansen In 1888; 
and especially by the American expeditions 
commanded iby Lieut. Peary In 188H. 1891- 
92, and 1893-95. In tbese expeditions, and 
In a tonscr and still more succesaful visit 
In 1898-1902 Peary determined tbe north- 
em llmlTB of Greenland, besldea exploring 
Grlnnell r.ard and reaching 84* IT'. ^ 

Jnlv IT. 190S, lyleut Peary aalled In tba 
new ehlp Roacevelt on another expedition. 
Intending to poab bis ship as far north aa 
possible throuEh Smith Sound and make a 
dash for the Pole by Bledges, 

This trip proving fmlUesa. a MWDd n^ 


Encyclopedic Index 


Aittie BxploraUons— CiMiiMwtf. 
ue wu made b; tbe Rooteoelt, letTlos 
Sew Tork. Jaly 8, 1B08, and arrlTlng at 
Etah, GrecDland, An(. 18. ProceedlDB 

e year be- 
ol Pear*, 

blllt7 (ontalna i 

than tbe dalnu 

ot Brookljii, N. .ft., ftftjBL ftiE 

■wrtb pole, April aigt, ISOB, 

(ore Pe«r7. The den u Delations of Pear*, 

who was behiK cbcated of hU Jaat reward, 

merelr belK^iteaed [lopalar Intereat. Ver; 

lew were anfflclrDtlT conrenaal with con- 

dlUoDi In the arrtle loae to paa> mtelU- 

Rnt Judgment, bat >;nii>athT nent out to 

me haisard doctor, when he Telatrd his 

odTner of daja and olgbta of BuffeTlnK 

aad dBBger. 

BpltibergcD and tbe aeaa nortb of Asia 
bara been the Held of many eipedltlona. 
The exploraltoD of Spltibereeo, dliooTvred 
^ Barenta (IBM), was carried od by Nor- 
dnwUBld In 1803-04, aud 18T^ ; tbe lalAads 
■erred aa a atartlDs point for Andrd's Ill- 
fated ballooQ I189T), and were Tlslted by 
WeUman ( Amerlran ) , 1804. Frani Josef .„ diacvvered by the AusCrlBD Expedi- 
tion onder Weyprecht and Paier !□ 187a, 
waa eboaen a* a haie for the Ilarmiiwoctb- 
lackaon expedition Id 1893, and the ' 

River, flowa throogh the nortbeaatem atatM 
iDto (be AtUntlc. and la aavlKable throngb- 
ont lla coarse : the Flleomayo, Bemejo. and 
Balodo del Norte are also narlgable for 
some diBtance from chelr eoDfluence wltb 
tbe Psraaa. In Boenoa Aires the Salado 
del Bud fiowa aoutheaat for some 800 mllea 
'-'1 Samborombon Bay (Atlantic). Id the 
.t .1.. i..i — i J m. Hfgt^ rlae in 

Ujn, unc 


of which Bucceeded 

nlng of 1306, aomewhere __ 

JoMf Laud. In 1833, FHthlof N'anaen, a 
tiorweclan, eotering the Ice north of Asia, 
allowed blaaeK to be carried by the car- 
reuta nntU, leartng bla ship, he reached 
by a Bledge Joome* SP" ' " 

The Northeaat Paa...„ 
of Engllah and Raaalan e: 
c«iDplTah( ' 

Paaaage. Iodk an objert 

impllahed by Nordenakjaid In 18TS-T9. The 
..eafemmoat of tbe Aalatlc Islaiids were dla- 
corercd by the American exneditlon nuder 
O. W. Deling Id the Jeanntttr, which, set- 
ting ODt from San Francisco In 1ST9, was 
cmahed in the Ice, DeI.ODK end the larger 
part of the crew perishing during the re- 
tieat. Late In 1905 tbe AtDundBca eipedl- 
tloD retoraed with »a1aable dlacOTerlea con- 
eemlng the poalUon of the North Magnetic 

AignitllUl,— A repnbllc occnpylng the 
greater portion Of the aonthem part of the 
Bontb American Continent, and extending 
from BollTia to Cape Bom, a total distance 
of nearly 2,300 mllea : Ita greatest breadth 
la aboot 930 mllea. It l> bounded on Ibe 
north by BoIItIb, on the nortbeast by Para- 
gnaj', Brazil, and Urusuay. on the sonth- 
easf and aoath by Oie Atlantic, and on tbe 
weat by Chile, froni which Republic It ia 
■epaiated by tbe Cordillera de loa Andes. 
Pkytlcal Featurei, — On tbe west the 
nMnntalDons Cordillera^ wllh their pin- 
tesna, extend from the northern *- "" 
•ootliem bonndarlea ; on tbe east 

grmt plalna (known aa El Gran 

and tbe treeleaa pampas, which toeethi 

■■— - -,, Plala. extending fr— '^' " 

lary In the north to I 
DDlh of the Rio N'eg 


VB*t plalna of PataKonla. Argentina tbua 
eontmlDB a aaccesilon of IctcI plalDi, broken 

: Colorado and I-, 
e weat and flow a 

a the p 

paa Into the Atlantic, many ai 
In Patagonia traieralng the 
'iDdea to the Allanllc. 

Sical, Buenos Aires, waa founded In 
; it remained a Spanish colony anill 
181T, when It ealned Its Independence un- 
der the leader^lp of Joae de San Martin. 
The official designation of the country la 
Argentine MaClon. Patagonia and Tferra 
del Fupgo were divided between (Argentina 
and Chile In 1881. 

From 183S lo 1852 the cotjntry was under 
the dlrtalorsblp of Rosas. Braill and Ar- 
gentina were allied In a war with Para- 
guay rrom ises lo 1870. In 1902 a dla- 
pure of eoQBlderable bitternese arose with 
Chile, respecting tbe armaments and ilxa 

ally selllcd by treaty In January. 1003, b; 
which It was agreed (hat both narles were 
to be maintained at Identical strength and 
that certain sbtpa, then being bulll for both 
— rltea In various European yarda, were to 


8q. Mile* tlon, 1013 

BuenoaAins. 117,778 1,070,600 

Catamsrca. 47JB1 108,7M 

CoHoba. 82,160 480,186 

ConientM 3S.SS0 333.144 

EolnRios. ZB,7S4 428,387 

Juiuy 18,977 82.477 

Mendoia 34,648 226,630 

Hfois 88,603 flS.eOO 

SaltL 82,184 162,087 

Ban Juan 33,716 112,487 

BanLuU. 28,535 112,898 

SuitsFj eO.giB 823.289 

Santiago del EMero 39,764 201,404 

Tuouman 8,928 308.183 

Total ProviniM 618,898 6,110,688 


Chaco 62,741 28,370 

Chubut , 03,427 »,600 

Formosa 41,403 10.408 

LcaAades 31.989 2,600 

MWones. 11,282 40,321 

Neuquen 42,346 20,748 

Punpa H,320 80,648 

Rio Negro 76,924 36,498 

aantaCrui 109.143 6,198 

Tier™ del Fuego 8,289 1322 

IndlanNomada 48,618 

Total Tenitoriea. 812,871 387,438 

Caidtal:— Buenos Airaa. 73 1,368.979 

Orand Total 1,131«41 8.738,781 

* The population flffUTea are tbe eatlmataa o( the 
National Statiadcai Sodaty, no cennis having been 
taken for 20 years. The laiicuage ol the people 
is Spanish uid thdr relikioa Roman (^thollB, the 
foreu^dement (1.750000) being composed of 
860,000 Italiana, 450000 SpaniaC. and 100.000 
French, with 30,000 Entfiifi, 36,000 Auattians, 
22,000 Ormaoa. ITMO Swlaa, and 258,000 ol 

■tatea by the t ,. — , „ 

TtM Farant River, formed by the Junction 
«t th« Dppar PaisDi wltb the vngatj 

tbe United Biaiea of America, and embod- 
ied in tlM ftwdamental law ol Hay 2S, 


Messages mid Papers of the Presidettti 

1858 (wim amendment of No*. 11, 1SS9). 
Tha Prealdent and Vtce-PreBideat are elect- 
ed for Biz 7ean b« an electoral coU«e. 

PraidenI (Oct 12, 1916-lBSO}, Hlppollta 

Tbere U a reiiratiBlbte HInlitrr, appointed 
■■- ■'■e PMBldeut, conaUtlnK of elcbt Sccre- 

Beplember ... 

IbiT^ membera { 

80, 1 

■ annually from Hay 1 to 

~~' eoDsliCs of a ttenate of 

> from eac^h of the four- 

, two from the capital), 

elected (by an electoral college) for nine 
jreare, ane-thlrd beloK renewable eTery three 
fcan : and of a Chamber of Depatlea of 
ISO members, elected by the people for four 
yeara, and one- half renewable every two 

Tlncial Courts In eacb State for Don-natlonal 

Production and Induitrv.—Ot the total 
area about one-third U aultable for agri- 
culture nod cattle ralelng. and raat tracts 
are held by the Federal Government for 
■ale or lease to colODlsta. In 1911 close 
on 50,000.000 acres were under cultlTBtlon. 
wheat, malie. oata. linseed, cotton, losar, 
wine and tobacco belus grown, wlille the 
surplus wheat Exported In 1910 exceeded 2.- 
600.000 metric tons. The live alack In 1910 
Included 30,000.000 cattle. T.SOO.OOO borse^ 
67.000,000 sheep. 4:000.000 goats, and 1,- 
GOO.OOO plia; the toial value of the live 
stock Is estimated at tl.eSO.OOO.OOO. There 
Is a large export trade in frozen and chilled 
meats, seven factories being In operation 
with American and British capital. There 
are 32.000 iQdustrlal eetablUhments, em- 
ploying close on .1:10.000 persona, the out' 
put iQclndlng cottons and woolens, but at 

E resent lalllog lo aupply the demand for 
ome consumption. The mineral output 
Includes gold. Bllver and copper, and coal, 
petroleum, mangancsei woltrsm, and salt. 
.J rmf.— Service In the Army la universal 
and compulsory on all dtliena between the 
ages of ZO aod 45: for 10 yeara In the 
Active Army ; then 10 years IQ the National 
Guard ; 5 years In the Territorial Guard, 
The Peace Fstabllshmeat Is 2.000 ofBcers 
and 19.000 others. The Wsc Establishment 
of the Active Army Is 125,000. (Bee Armies 
of the World,) 

Xavu. — Tro Dreadnought battleships 
fjroreno and Rlvaldacta} of 28.000 tons 
(2ZH knots, 12 12-1uch guns), 12 torpedo- 
boat destroyers, and 12 torpedo-boats were 
laid down under a recent naral programme, 
the remaining ahlns being five small bat- 
tlesbips, seven cruisers, and seventeen units 
of torpedo craft ; the navy Is manned by 
about 0,000 men. The naval port la Bahia 
Blanca. <Bee KHvles of the World.) 

EducaUon, — Primary Education Is secular. 
free and nominally compulsory from the 
ages of Biz Co too rt ecu. but Schools are 
maintained by provincial CaiallOQ, and con- 
trolled by provincial boards. Secondary 
Education la controlled by the Federal GoT- 
ernmeuL There are also nsvsl military, 
mining, and agricultural school a. There 
are Katlonal rnlrerHltles at Cordoba and 
BuenoB Aires, and Provincial Unlversltle* 
at La Plata, Santa F*. and Parana. 
Raaumys.—OD Dec. SI. 1912. there 

king). Of 
imetres 12,: 

PoM Ogtee* aiti TtUvrapltt.^ln ISI3 
there were 2,650 pott olBcea. In 1911 there 
were 2,628 telestapli offlcea and 12 radio- 
telegraph stations ; the fonner poieesacd 
60,lK)3Ulometici of line, with 312;23T kilo- 
metrea of telegraph wire. 

fihlppitv.— The mercantile marine In 1912 
numbered 228 steam (171,631 tona) and 
66 aalllng veasela (32,720 tons). The num- 
ber of oceaa-golng vessels entered In cargo 
and In ballast at Argentine ports In 1912 
was 4,65D steam vessels (ll420.S40 tona), 
and 2S0 sailing vessels. 

The prlnclpar ports are Buenoe Aire*, Ba- 
■arlo. La Plata, and Babla Blanca. 

ToKiit. — Capital, Bnenos Aires, estimated 
populatlra (leiO), 1.300,000: otber towns 

are B-"-- *■■ - - - .... 


gaaycuu, i^ riais. s... , , 

Coarto, Rosarlo. Balta, Sen Juan, Ban Lola, 
San Nicolas. Santa F^. Tncoman. 

The Uetrlc BTStcm of Wetglit*, V 
and Currency la compulsory. 

The currency ault Is the Peso of 100 
Centavoa, equal to |0.B64 Amerlean money, 
but the circulating medium la paper. By 
a Converalon Law of 1898 a gold standard 
has been adopted sod the paper peao la con- 

Argeotlna depends entirely npon the out- 
side world for Its machlDery and related 

Broducts and berore the European war the 
nlted States ran a poor third to Oennany 
and England In supplying thiB One market. 
The opportunity u now before American 
manufacturers to take over permauently an 
Important part of tbis trade. Oerman honaes 
supplied leading technical and indiutrlB] 
schools with machlpery and machine tools 
free of chsrge so tbst the fatnt« engineer* 
and shop ofllclalB would naturally favor th« 
Oerman makes. 

Prevlona to the war Germany fnmtshed 

48.5 per cent of the miscellaneous machin- 
ery imported by Argeotlna, England 21.8 
per cent and the tfnlted States 13.6 pec 
cent. The United SUtea waa drat In sup- 
plying spare parts tor mscblnei? with 29.1 
per cent, Germany was second with 25.5 
per cent, and England third wltb 21.7 per 
cent. It Is a curious fact that 46-9 per cent 
of the agricultural machinery was imported 
from Australia, the United States atandlug 
second in the list with 84.8 per cent and 
Canada third with 10.6 per cent. The United 
Slates furnished 63.1 per cent of the tbrash- 
ing machinery and England 83-4 per cent. 
The domlnsDt posltloD of England In the 
supply of railway plant end rolling stock 
Is very apparent, as that country furnished 

75.6 per cent of the locomotives, 89.0T per 
cent of the passenger coaches, and 47.8 per 
cent of the freight cars. Of the steel-ratl 
buslnesB. England held 31.8 per cent, Ger- 
many 29.6 per cent, and the United SUtes 
26.1 per cent. Of wheels and miscellBDeons 
railway material. England supplied over 70 
per cent. Tbe Oermacs led In mlscellaneons 
electrlc-rsllway material, and supplied 45.1 
pec cent of the dynamos and electric motors, 

' being second In tbe latter line with 

._■ cent. France furnished 86.S per 

If the antomoblles. the United State* 

^nt. and Germany 16,3 per cent. 

'e the most important rea- 

of affairs. The very few 

that tried to do business 

. — „ , .»..od to succeed because. In 

■eat measure, of tbelr failure to adapt 
lemselves to the business practice of the 
..uuntry. The American manufacturer wai 
content to send out travellog salennen with 
little or no knowledge of the country's lan- 
guage or customs — selling or sndeaTorlnc 
*- ~" "ijhjj £!™',.f"t".'?»?« "nd price 

41.4 per 


The following 

IMa printed in BncUsb. In ■•aenl h* d£ 


EtKyclopedk Index 


minded pafment tot hti foodi eaA agalnit 

■klnnlnD ilniminsn t> In Ngir SOFll. The tt'^ 

tnwl; guHTior Iblp- 
plDi tkciutle* lui been an Important factor. 
Europe, alio, baa made large Inveatmenti 

ol capital In Arsentlna and practlcall; all 
vt Out Importaot IndoatrleB, tbe rallroada, 
paver plaota, etc.. are In tbe banda ol Eu- 
npeana. The fact tbat Areentlna baa a 
It^ and free market Id Bunipc for tta 

Srwlocts 1b not wltbont Ita Inflaence. And, 
aally. It moat be confesaed that tbe Buro- 
pnoi have had tbe InctntlTC ot teally need- 
mi tbe maiket, while maoj Americana bare 
been odIt mlldl; Intereated. 
ArpmtlDo BopnUlci 
Agrienltar&l «xhibitiim in, 7414. 
Battlsahipa for, eoostrneted \>j Amer- 
ieuiB, ?501, 75M. 

United SUtei, fiS6T. 
Award of, diBciUBed, 6058, 
Chile lefened to, 4629, 6323. 
pAragna; nbmitted to President 
of United StAtea, 444fi. 

Cablea of American eompanjr, qnea- 
tiong regarding rate cliargea im- 
posed upon hj, 6323. 

Claiiua of, against United Btatei, 

Olaima of United States against, 
1846, 15S1, 480& 
Adjusted, 6324. 

Coined silver, and prodnets of, re- 
ferred to, S908. 

Consul at Baenos Aires, recontmenda- 
tion regarding aalarj of, 4849. 

Cordiality of relations with, 749S. 

Siplomatte relations with Buenos 
Airea discnased. S116. 

Imprisonment of American citizens 
in, 632. 

Independeneo of Buenos Aires assert- 
ed, 612, 627. 

Internal disorders in, 4563. 

Joint lesolation relating to congratu- 
lations from, vetoed, 4384. 

Minister of United States in Buenos 
Aires, return of, 1171. 

Uinister to be sent to United States, 
BMieived, 1706, 4718. 

Ontragea upon American vessels in 
Falkland Islands discosaed, 1116, 

Bevolutioii In Buenos Aires dis- 
enaeed, £702. 

Tuijr laws of, modifications in, dia- 
eussed, 6058. 

Treaty with, 2750, 2813, 4852, 5115, 

Peaea conelnded, S77. 

(Jiieations between United States 

and Brazil arising oat of, 029, 


AiSffntliu, Ihaatlw vith.— in iscs a 
treaty was concluded with the Argentine 
Confederation graatlng the United Btatei 
free navigation ol tbe rlreti Paranil and 
Urnguar. Thla was followed b^ anotber 
of friendship, commerce and navigation. 
Bod provided for the eicbange of diplomatic 
and consular ageats. An eitmdlllon coa- 
ventloQ was signed In 1898 providing for 
the eilradltlon of pdsoners accused ol the 
fallowing crimes : Homicide, or attempted 
homicide; arson; bnrglarr ; hooaebceanlng ; 
robbery with violence, actual altempted or 
threatened J larceny of property of tie val- 
"- "» |20<(; lorgerr. or the — ■ 

by the laws ot both c.._ , ,.,. 

Jury : ripe ; abdnctlon ; kidnapping or chlld- 
Bteallug; any act committed with criminal 
Intent, the object of which is to endanEer 
the safety of any person traveling or being 
upon a railway; crimes committed at sea, 
and trading In staves when tbe offense Is 
criminal under the laws of both countries. 
Arid I,andfl. (See Lands, Public; also 
Bedamation of, 6801, 7004, 
Alisrma.— One of the aonth western states 
of the Dillon; motto, "DlUt Dens." It 
is separated from the Pacific Ocean on the 
west by California and Nevada, and b 

45' woat long.. Including an a 

buevl, ColmSnlla, 

eopa, MobBTe, Navajo, Tepago, . 
""" '"""" The cblef Induati 

)pa, Walapal, Marl- 

PBpago, Mm«, and 

blef Industry is mln- 

copper. In the norlh- 

PBlute Indian^ 
Ing gold, sliver, auu 

era portion of the _... „,, ,„,,„ 

pine foresta and the lumber trade la rap- 
idly progressing. The surface Is much 
broken by tbe erosion of the streams, which 
«., rt^r. ,_ ... ..... ... Qranj 

B 1Q the r 

t some points he- 

Canyon of the Colorado' a. 

ing more than a mile deep. 

The greater portion of the State was 
acqclred by treaty with Meileo In 1B48, 
tbe remainder by the Gadsden Purchase of 

Statistics of agriculture collected for ths 
last Federal census place the number of 
farm* In tbe State at e.22T, comprising 
l,24e.6]8 acres, valned with stock and Im- 
provements at (76,123.970. The catll* 
numbered 824,970, valued at tl4,S24,T0S: 
horses, 9S,S7S, (4.209,726 : mules, 3,983, 
(399,447; awlne, 17.208, (113,714; sheep, 
1,228,728, (4,400,913. Tbe acreage, pro- 
duction and value of the principal Held 
crops for 1911 were: corn, 15.000 acres, 
495.000 bushels, (480,000; wheat. 27.000 
acres, 800,000 bushels. (780.000; oata, 6.000 
acres. 202,000 biiBhels, (151.000; hay, 130,.' 
000 acres. 602.000 tons, 16.034,000. The 
Btate ranks first In the production of cop- 
per. Tbe production In 1910 was 2B7.481.- 
151 pounds, valued at (37,781.376, a de- 
creaae from the flgnrei of 1009, and tbe 
reports for 1911 show a still further de- 
cline In the production. Tbe largest pro- 
dncer In 1911 was the Blsbee district, with 
lS3,00a00O pounds; the Globe-lUaml dla. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Ailiona — OontiiMtd. 

trlct produced (0,000,000 poaods. Tha 
United Vetde miDe. lu the Jerome dlttrlct, 
■bowed a decrease from the 38,000,000 
pouDda produced Id IBIO. EitenslTC pa*- 
ture l&udi Are farorable tor the rearlns o( 
cattle and aheep. Tbe fpderat BecIimatloD 
act provided lor the IrrlKatlon of 210,000 
acres of land la the Salt River reclou of 
Arliana by the end of the jenr leil. at ■ 
coat ol f«, 300,000. The population lu 1810 
waa 204.804. 

Arixoiu Teiritary: 

Act to authorize leasing of lands for 
educational puTpoasa in, vetoed, 
Admiuion to Statehood — 
Joint act for, vetoed, 7636. 
Propoeod, 7020. 
Saconunended, 72E9. 
Appropriation for, recommended, 

Barraeke, etc., within limits of Mil- 
itary Department of, eonstrnetion 
of, recommended, 4096. 
Bill to anthoriie issnance of bonds In 

Bid of railroada in, vetoed, 5523. 
Indian ontrages in, discoased, 4933, 

I^nds in — 

Claims ander Spanish and Mexican 
grants, diseosaed, fi4S4, SSIO, 
Secords of Mexican Government 

regarding, 4257. 
Set apart as pablie reaervation by 
proclamation, &S11, 6702. 
Lawlessness prevailinr in, and means 
for anporessing, diacniaed, 4540, 
4663, 46S8. 
Proclamation against, 4709. 
Fopnlation of, 3045, 3099. 
Territorial government for, recom- 
mended, 2987, 3045, 3100. 
Arkaiuaa. — One of tbe anntbem states of 
the Colon ; nickname, the "Bear Btate" ; 
motto, "BegDaDt PopuU" (The people rule). 
It la bounded bj Mlaaoari on the north, 
on the east br Teaaessec snd Ulaslailppl 
(from both of vblcb It la aeparated b; tbe 

yiialaaippl BItci " 

ana. and on the _. . 

TerrltOTT. it eitends from lat. L. .. .. 
SC north and from Iodk. 88° 40' to 84° 42' 
weat. It contalna 68.3SS aqnare miles, and In 
1810 the population waa 1,750,000. Br 
leslalatlve enactment tbe name of tbe 
State la pronounced Ar'kauBaw. Tbe State 
contains rich foreats ot oak, pine, walnut, 
blekorr, crpreaa, cedar, aod other lumbei- 
produclns timber. Coal. Iron, and bulldlDi 
■tons eifat In abundance. Tbe Mlsalaslppl 

t b; Teiaa and Indian 

BiTer bottom lands are . 

One of tb* cariosities of the 

lartte nnmber of medicinal sprli 

National toreati 

781 acrea In the I _. 

stead entrlea In 1908 covered 1S3,L 

The live slock reported tor the last federal 
census conHlated of 60S,000 barsca and 
mules, 801,000 cattle, 233,000 aheep, and 
BTS.OUO awlne. According to the laat aU- 
tlatlca tbe annual production of butter wHa 
21.680,250 pouuda : cheeae, 18,STS pounda, 
and milk, 1US,801,S9S lallona. 

The number of manofactnriiiK aatablteh- 
meats In Arkanaas bavloK an Uinaal ootpDt 
valued at 1500 or more at the baBlnninc of 
1813 waa 2,004. The amount of capital In- 
vealed waa tT6,8Se,000, (iTlnK onploTmant 
to 48,440 persons, oalng material valued at 
f44,S07,00o, and toraluk out ilniabed goods 
wortb (83,841,000. Salaries and wacea paid 
amounted to f24,81S.OOO. 

Arkanaaa Is Brat among the states In the 
production of two mlnerala — banzlte and 
uovacuUte, the former being the ore of 

UuTted States. Tbe principal mineral prod- 
act of AFkansae, however, la coal, the an- 
naal valae of which constllated over flfty 
per cent of tbe atate's totaL The total 

la the 


._ annuallr bj thouaanda of people. 

One spring In Pulton Couutr discharges 
IS.OOO barrela of water per dajr, at a 
temperatnre of 60°. The State was first 
settled br tbs French In 16SS, and formed 

Krt of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. 
was orianlled as a Tetrltorr Harcb 2, 
1819, admitted as a State Into tha Union 

819 tons, valaed a't <3.0si.TS». In 19i:i. 
The coals of Arkansas are generallr of hicb 
grade, partlcuiarl; to the eaatern part of tbe 
coal field, where tber approach anthracite 
In character. The semlanthradte of Arkan- 
sas la an eicellent domestic fuel and teacbes 
marketa as far north aa Kanaaa Cltr- 

BaniltB, from which alnmlDDm Is derived, 
la aecond amoag the mineral prodacts of 
tbe state. It b mined near Benton. In 
Saline Countr, and In PnlaakI Countr. 

In 1813 the stone quarrtea of Arkansas 
fnmlahed prodncts valued at |625,0S0, ei- 
clualve of navacullte and of Umeatone 
homed for Ume. In 1812 the qnarrj prod- 
ucta were valued at tOlS.844. The day 
working Induatrlea, while not hlghlr de- 
veloped; take third place and In 1813 pro- 
duced an output valued at 1028,624. an Id- 
creaae of (6T,018 over 1812. Tbe sand and 
gravel pits yielded (320.638 In 1813 and 
tSeS,6S9 In leiS. The only metalUferoua 

Iiroducts of Arkansas besides bauxite are 
ead, line, and manganlferoas ores. Other 
commercial mineral p'oducts are tnller's 
earth, gems and precloua atonea, lime, min- 
eral watera, natural gas. phoaphate rock, 
and alate. 

Arkanaaa (aee alao Confederate Btatas): 
Act for admiasion of, into Union ve- 
toed, 3846. 
Acts of sovemoT ahonid be legalized, 

Admission of, into Union, eonstita- 

tion adopted, 1444. 
Bonudarj' of, 79C. 
Constitution of, referred to, 3830. 
Defalcation of offlcera in, 941. 
Election dlstiubances in, and 'claima 
of persons to governorship dia- 
cnssed, 4S18, 4219. 425S, 4273. 
Proclamation regarding, 4226. 
Lands 'granted to. In aid of.iailroads 
referred to, 8580. 


Encyclopedic Index 

If&Kn'Ut fTnMHwurrf 

Mur^lial of United States in, kdvmnee 
of pnblic iROJMja to, referred to, 
UilitSTj governor of, office of, abol- 

ithed, 3377. 
Pnblie l&nda in, proelvnation legard- 

ing nnl&wfol poraeBHion of, llOS. 
Beatorfttion of, into Union, diacmsed, 

3423, 3452, 
Botd in, from Little Bock to Canton- 
ment Qibion, S32. 
SecretUT- of, appointment of, re- 
voked, 3377. 
Atkaataa Hortliwa at a m Ballway Oo, 
act anthorinng eonstraetion of rail- 
road by, throngb Indian Territory, 
vetoed, 8012. 
Artamaa Post <Aric.). Battlo of. -Jan. 
11^ 18S3. an expedition under command of 
Gen. UcClecnand and convoyed by Admiral 
Porter's llaet of gunboats, moved sBBlnst 
Fort Blodman. «t Arkanaaa Poat. on the 
Arkaniai Blver. Jan. 11 a combined at- 
tick n> beEua, which was maintBloed qq- 
tU 4 o'clock In tbe afternoon, wben tbe 
poat, witb C.OOO piiwinen, was BDirtndered 
to the Union force*. The Federal loaa In 
tbe action was 977 kilted, woonded, and 

UOngtaa Oonfedeiata Monument Ano- 
datton. — During tbe sdmlnlBtratlon of 
Praldent HcElnley the Confederate dead 
buried In the CltJ of Wwhingtui, D. C, 
and Tlclolty were removed to the National 
Cemeten at Arlington, Ta., the old bomc of 
Robert B. Lee, wBere they were relnterred 
b a plot of iToiind set apart by tbe Preal- 
drnt for that pnrpose, and designated 
"Tbe Confederate Section." 

The Arlington Confederate Honnment 
AsBodstlon was formed for the purpose of 
ererting In this section a lOltaUe monument 
to the dead there bnrled, and to ataod. In 
a larger sense, as a memorial to all those 
who Gist their Uvea In defensB of the Con- 
frderacy, as well as to tbe cause they 

The Association waa formed aa a com- 
mtttee of the United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, tbe Prealdent-Omeral of which la 
the President of the association. The 
uonnment was completed and nuTelled by 
Pretldent Wilson, Jnne 4, 1914. (Page 

AiUnffton Oematary: 

Appropriation for memorial amphi- 
theatre recommended, 704S. 

Uemorial ampkitbeatre at, re com- 
mended, 7686. 

President Wilson's addiess at, 7948. 
Annaceddon. — in the peroration of bis 
speech on the eve of tbe National Repab- 
Itesn Conrentloii at Chicago, June IT. 1S12, 
He. Boosevelt, after denoondng what he 
termed fraudulent practice* of corrupt poll- 
tlriani. called nimn his tiearers to lake tbe 
aide of the people against the dlabouest 
psrtr manageia, saying at tbe dose : "We 
stand at Armageddon and we battle for the 
Lord." The eipreaalon la not ■ quotation. 
but Is based on several passases In the 
book of Revelations, Chapter XTI, notably 
la tb* IStb and following verses. The 

„_. — onym for the t 

whether sbove tbe earth or In tbe a 

world— on whlth the final victory over evil 
was to be won by Iba tort-ea of righteous- 

Dragon, the Beast, and the False Prophet 
to mate war on tbe I/ord. Revelations ztII, 
14, reads : "These shall make wsr with the 
Lamb and the Lamb sbsll overcome them ; 
for he la Lord of Lords and King of K|ngi, 
and they that are with him are called and 
choaen and falthfoL" Speelflcally Armaged- 
don Is a corruption of the Hebrew words 
Bar Uagsddon, algulfylog tbe moantatns of 
Ueglddo. The reference In the passage In 
Revelations Is probably to Heglddo, but 
some aathorltiea refer It to the plain of 
Esdraelon. or Jesreel, In Oalllee and Sa- 
maria, tamoua a< a battleSeld from the 
time Gideon overcame tbe Mldlanlte* to 
Napolcbn's victory over the Turks, 
Armed K«nteallt7.— in 1T80 the powers 
of nortbem Europe — Bnssla, Sweden, and 

neatra! ships bad the right to visit tbe 
porta of belligerents, ttiat tree ships make 
free mods, and that blockades to !» nm?- 
t be eEtectaaL These i 

assumed a threatening position and armed 
themaelTes to repel aigressloiL By treaty, 
latlfled In ISOO. tbe Bags of these nations 
were to be respected by belligerents. Great 
Britain rejected the principle, and Nelson 
and Parker destroyed the Danish Beet at 
Copenhagen, April 2. 1801. Tbis led to 
tbe dlssolatlon at the armed oentrallty. 
Aimed Nentrallty: 

Confederacy of, disenssed, £808. 

In Middle States, discussed, 3225- 
Annenlang. — Inhabitants of Armenia. 
Tbey belong to the Aryan family o( natlona 
Armenia IH the classical name of the He- 
brew Ararat. Assyrian Urartu, Uie country 
which eiteuds from tbe Shores of Lake 
Van, between tbe Upper Euphrates and Me- 
dia, forming the juncture between the high 
plateau of Iran and the table-land of Asia 
Minor. It Is the original seat of one of 
the old dvlUied peoples In tbe world. Ac- 
cording to thelc records they were gov- 
erned In snclent times by Independent kings, 
but after wards became tributary to tbe 
Assyrians. After (he Assyrian period Ar- 
menia became a dependency of Persia and 
Media. SubBcqueutly It was conquered by 
Aleiandcr tbe Great, and later It paased 
under the nominal supremacy of Psrthla 
sod Rome. Then It was ruled by Persian. 
Byiantlne, and Arabic governors until the 
dynasty of the Da^ratldes, which came to 
an end In 1043. Tbe last vestige of Ar- 
menian Independence wss destroyed by the 
Mamelokea In 13T0. Since (bst date they 
liave been without an Independent state, 
their country being divided between Persia. 
Turkey, and Busala. They still have an 
Independent church. wItb tbe seat of gov- 
ernment at Constantinople. 

Id 1894 the greatest cruelties were vis- 
ited upon Armeulaas In Tnrkey, In part 
because Ihcy were Cbristlsna It was 
claimed tbat some of those upon whom out- 
rages were committed were persons who had 
declared their latentlon to become cltitens 
of the United States. Our eonsnls were 
sent there to make Investigation of these 
atrocities and cruelties, and in the dlplo- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidenis 

given bj Turkej tUat o 

11 wu learned, howerec, thit ■ 
Dwnlail JODnial publiBbed In this couim/ m 
the ArmeDtan laDguHge ODenlj eonnseled »■ 
mdere to eoghge In rebellloo againBt Turk- 
iBb aatborltT In the AbIbUc; proTlnces. 
Turker complained that ArroenlanB Boaght 

■- 'ilienshlp with the Intention o( 

. protection o( the UnKed SUtee 
■ted of sedltlona practice! In the 
'- birth. ^ 

AnnlM of tliB Worid.— The following ta- 
ble (bowi the peace footing of the land 
fotc™ of the principal Btatea of Europe, 
and of Japan ; alio of tbe ■econdatr States 
of Bnrope, Aala and America, complied from 
the latest BTBllable data before the Kenenl 
Baropean war of 1B14 : 

i of 1 -"" "--^ naturalliatlon 

In the United SUtea later than 1868. 


Cruelties and ktroeitieH committed 
upon, in taxkey, diaeussed, S989, 
6069, 6147. 
Investigation of, by American con- 
sul diecnseed, 5989, 6069. 
Beferred to, 6090. 
Obtaining eitixenship in ITnited 
States and returning to Turkey ex- 
pelled, diaeuased, 5873, 6435. 
Treatment of natnraliied citizens of 
United BUtes of Armenian origin 
by Turkey, 6095. 
AnnleB, Oott of.— The Cnlted States Army 
appropriations for 1916-1917 amonnt to 
•(23Z.831,04S, not Including t^^e,"I|*°^}5^;|? 

> and Navies 
> tbe 

IS regular btnet at home, In the ColoDHa. 

UoemdiuK re. _ 

and 70,000 mea in India and eioludina the iiku'* 
Indian armr of about 171,000. elncIucM aimy rs- 
■nrrea and lairitoriil locce. dEuIoriTe of Coloiual 
amiy of about 34,000. *Eieliuive of troops fai Col- 
oniea. /Trainsd National milHia. fOigaouatioo of 
BimrunderpreMntgoninmientinaoinplBla. Then 
were about 212.000 men under anna in the leoaat 
roiolution. AProi - - 

haw amounted to ebont >~l~22.S0O.0OO. Tbe 
Army estimate of AuBtro-Hungary (or 1913 
was KSZ,3O0,0O0, and for the Nary (42,- 
000,000. The military eipenillture of Japan 
for 1913-1* were about t4»,000,000. ■- 
estimates for foreign ,' — '— '—' 


Pi^mlation Dvarly all rm 
trennh previoui to Dicwat nvolutioo. Tt 
iooal Government clumj to have an anny 

general _ ... . 

Armor aikd Armor Plate: 

Discussed, 5759, 5882, 5972. 

Manufacture of, in United States 

ommended, 5100. on the large guns, i 

Testa of, disensaed, 5552, 5635. S^rbaHfe If pl^vn^ 

Aimorlea. (Bee Arms and Ammunition; rir^™'ifz°J^-KrV^Jf. 


■TluB doM not inalode'ooat of tortiflcationB, 

Anns and Ammunition. — The use of Ore- 
arms followed close upon the imrention 
(about 1320) of gunpowder. The oae of 

gunpowder In mmtarj c "-- "- "~- 

iBnd dates fro- ' 

Gibbon writes o( a 

Unbomet II In 1S43. Daring that year 

the SrBt English cannon was caat at Vci- 

fleld, BuBsei. Tbe arquebuse and musket 

- ■ red by successive Imptovemeota 

The Swiss are said to 

JuebuBlers In 14T1. At 
ID 1526, tbe Spaniards, 
__iiler Emperor Cbaries T, With a farce of 
2,000 arquebuslecs and 800 musketeers, de- 
feated FcanclB I of B^nce. the eltecUve- 
nesa o( the flrearms taming tbe tide ot 

I Eieioding 

cost 0( Cl^ 

__B flintlock came Into use In 1630^ 

was Introduced Into Rngland under William 
— --- — - iTcly r — -- 

Ill, and < 

I eftectlT^y used as lata aa 


'Encyclopedic Index 

. tbe British arm;. Tbe Laadgnve 
e armed bis followecB wltb rifles In 

tloniry War, tbangb tbe Qlntlock was tbe 
prlDcipal weapon ased. 
Tbe flnt practical breeeb-loadlng Breann 

tlooa. Tbs powder la not absolntelj 
BmakelesB, but tbe film of smoke arlslns 
from Indivldusl rifle firing Is Dot visible 
(roTn more than 300 jards. 

Among ttie latest explosives produced In 

■ the QoTemment, the' Inventor branches of tbe a 

le, (ulBurlte, 
□roKresslCe, Amerlcanlte, and Scbneljellte. 
Tbe ArmT has several depots (or the h 
age of powder, tbe --■-■-■ 
Is near Dover, N, 

pclnclpa] o__ __ 

J. Powder for both 
Vice Is supplied by pri- 

■.L.iu.u vTci '•.^^Jb,Soo smalt arms of u<r- 
tw^eh 29 aod 30 dltTerent patterns. Among 
these wore breech -load lug rlflea and car- 
bines and a msgailne guo — tbe Henxj. 

In 1806. ISdS, and 18T2 boards of offlcera 
were appointed to report apoa a desirable 
mall arm, and their Invesflgatloas led to 
the adoption In 1ST3 or the SprlngOeld rlQe, 
Which remained In ase (or twenty years. 

The decade between ISSO and 18S0 wit- 
nessed a farther development In snuill arms 
la the sabstKutlon of magazines lor tbe 
Blngle breech -loading apparatus, a decrease 
In the calibre <tt the ball, and the adoption 
of amokelCBS powder. 

The forms o( gunpowder nsed In mllltsry 
operatlona In America as well as In foreign 
coontries until wltbln the last few years 
were essentially the same as those used a 
eralnry or more ago. Ever since tbe In- 
vention of trua cotton by ScbSnbeln In 
1845 adantlOc attention has been directed 
tn the manatBCture of smokeless powder. 
The French seem to have been the flrst to 
cotapooDd a successful smoketess powder 
for use In small arms. The material used 
Is a form ol melinite and belongs to the 
nltroetllulosa or nitio-smi-cottou ptepata- 

model magailae rifle. T^e rlSe sdopli^l la 
1903 and still In use Is the United States 
(Sprlngaeld) magaslne rifle; Its calibre la 
7.62 millimetres or .30 Id., Its velocity 2,- 
SOO ft. per second, Ita penetration power at 
B3 ft. being 54. T In white pine, and It car- 
ries Ave roil ode of ammunition. These 
rifles are msde chiefly at the Springfleid 
and Rock Inland Arsensls. 

In 1908. the entire army and the national 

'd. with the eiceptloD of the Stales of 

Ida and Nevada, bed tfccn supplied witb 

».e United Slates magazine rifle, mndel at 

1003. cl- — ■■ — ' ' --• 

nit Ion. . 

of the krajt-JflrK .,,, . .- ., 

placed. Tbe Introduction of the ammanl- 
flon of the model of 1900. with Its s' 
pointed bullet of flat trajectory, 
tbe latest advance In flgbtlng ^BLena. 
the dvlllied world. 

At tbe present time no great differi 


mbered for model of 1900 ammo- 
" ' rifle has proved to be more 
— te, and rapid than tbe rifle 


rifles with which 
powers are supplii 
ranges and shootli 

of the klods of 
les of f.. 
1th regard I 

depend* greatly 


and shootlqg gualltlca. It la well 
that tbe effectiveness of any arm 
greatly on the experience and akUl 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

„. ,„^ e the moBt effldent Id 

While tbe wounda Inflicted bj the modem 
email calibre blgli Telocltj rlflei are leea 
iBlsl and ;leld more remdllr to treatment 
than thoBe made by the guni at large oOl- 
bre Dilag ■low-bumlDK black powder 
tonnerlT In nee. ;et It IB claimed that 
men hit by the atualler bullet, even It not 
killed or mortallj wounded, are as coni- 
pleteljr put out a( action *• ll BtCDck b; tiie 

Tbe' automatic rUe le, beyond queetlon, 
the mlUiary weapon of the near lutnre. 
Nearly all o( the principal countrlea of 
ICuropc have been eipetiinentlnK with rlflca 
ot this type, »8 well as the United Statea. 

Oermaoy adopted an anIomaCIc plBtol tor 
military use In IMS. The Doited Btatea 
has recently adopted tor tbe army, In place 
of the eerrlce reTalver, the Colt automatic 
plato], after eilended and rigid experiments 


'markably elTec 

__ ; weight 2 !ba. _ __ . 

calibre, .4S ; csrlrldEes In msgailne. 7. 
Tbe German aotomatic platol has a lenRtb 
of S.S4 iDCbCB ; length of barrel, 4702 
Inches : weight 1 lb. 13^ os. ; calibre, .8S ; 
cartridges In magazine, 8. 

Aims and Ammunltloii; 

Contract for, referred to, 3795. 
Delivery ot, to — 

State arBecBls referred to, 2839. 
Exportation of, order prohibiting, 
3320, 848B. 
Extended, 3436. 
Modified, 3379. 
Secomm ended, 373. 
Rescinded, 3533. 
Gunpowder, manufactory, erection of, 

recommended, 160S, 1714. 
Loaus of, to private citizena inquired 

into, 636. 
Manufactory for email arms recom- 
mended, 1608, 1711. 
Manufacture of — 

Progress made in, 301, 471. 
Should be encouraged, 255, 297, 443. 
Statement of, B97. 
Patent rifle, expenditures relating to 
procurement and propertiaB of, 836. 
Statement of, 767, 770, 7B0. 
Supply of, 481. 

Territories and District of Columbia 
to receive supplies not to eicood 
tbe quota of a State with least 
repreBentation in CongreBS, 5159, 
/trtny. — The earliest American military 
cKtshtlahment conslBted .o' two Mrts. the 
continental army, organlied by the Contl- 
nputal Conjtrcss June 15. 1T76, and the mi- 
litia (fl. 0.) orssnlied by the States, aver- 
aging bptween the years 1776 and 1781 
abont 60,000 men, though often not more 
than half that number were In active ser- 
Tfce. The War Department {ff. v.) was es- 
tablished bv art or Congress Aug. 7. 1789. 
Nov. B. 1783. the army was disbanded and 
l.ODO men retained until the peace establish- 
ment could be organised. Though tempo- 
rarilv iDcreased by Indian wars and 
tronbleB with France, the federal forcea 

r the D 

^-•= ,.™j" 85,000, and 470,000 mliltla were 
enlisted. Up to the time of the Meilcan 
War tbe army averaged 9.000 men. Uurlng 
that war the regalor troops enrolled num- 
bered aO,000 and the volunteers 74,0O0. 
With the return of peace the regular forces 
were reduced to 10,000, and later Increased 

During' the flrst jear ot the Civil War tbe 
regulsr army was Increaned to :(&,0U0 by 
the addUlOQ of eleven regiments, vli. : One 
of cavalry. 1,189 offlcers and men; one of 
artillery, twelve batteries, six pieces each 
l,90a men ; nine of Infantry, consistlus of 
three battalions of eight companies ea,cli, 
22,0X8 offlcera and men ; but the Dumber of 
mllltia and volno tears was very much 
larger. President Lincoln's flrst call, loaned 
April 15, 1861, was for 76,000 i — - 

' aerrlce (3214). Later eallat. 
meutB were mostly for three years. At the 
beginning of 1862 the n — ' — -' — ' — •-" 
■- "-^army wa- """ ■" 

>.„ ., The total number — 

Ustments wsa 1,218.303 (4156). 

In 1867 the "peace establishment" of the 
United Slates army was Oied at 54.641 
men. It was then reduced by successlre 
cnactmeats to 2C,0O0 enlisted men In 187S. 
At the beginning of 1SQ8 tbe peace estab- 
■■ ' --■: of the army consisted o! ten rert- 

8,410; Ave reglmenta arfll- 

reglmenls Infantry. 


. . _ the line of the t . 
nlzed on the basis ot two battalion 
companies each to the regiment, 


dDClaratlon of war these skeletal 
were to be manned, and, with 
companies for 

E ranted, were — — 
1 each Infantry regiment. 

which authority to raise was 
' e third battalion 

. . "eglment. 

Uoder the jproylBloas of a Ian approved 

March 2, 1899, 

.a Oxe^ at about 37,700 o 

men. To meet the exigencies of the b< 
vice In the newly acquired possesalona, t 
President was authorized to maintain r 
regular army at a strength of eS.OOO c 

to cltteenshln o_ ,, 

An act oC February. 1901. abolished tbe 
"can teen" from the army, that IB, prohibit- 
ed the Bale of beer or an; lutoilcatlug 
llijuors at the army posts. The oriranlaa- 
tlon of the army was further modified by 
an act of Congress approved Feb, 14, 1903, 
which created the General Staff Corpo. 
This consists of the Chief of Staff, who 
takes the place ot the Commanding Ocncral 
of the Army, two Kencrat officers detailed 
by; the President from the regular - - 


B of minor grade sim'llarly 
President, It Is the duty 

1 defpDSe and 1„. 

hlUiatlon of tbe mlllfarv forces In time of 
wnr ; to assist tbe Seoretsry of Wsr In In- 
creasing the pfflclencv of the mllltarv entab- 
llohmpot: and In case of war tn art ai a 
Board of Strategy. The Chief of Btatt 
hBs supervision of all trnona of the line tbe 
Military Secrotary's flfflcc. the Insppctor- 
nonami'. Judze-Artvocatprfenprars. QuaT~ 
. Bnbslatence, Medical, Pay, and 


Eiuyclopedic Index 


AOBJ — Omtttinied. 

Ordnioce Dcpartmenti, til* Corpi at En- 

gloeen Kud slxtt&l Coiiw. 


Smirctf— Seport o/ dilet of Bluff lo Sec- 
rttarf of War. — 'Tbe strenglh ot the eD- 
(Irt Ullliar; BatabllihmeDt Kutharlied b; 
tbt Pmldenl, under the Btatutoir llmlU 
tlon of lOO.OOO enllBted men. on Jnne 30, 
]B15. br branchea ot wrTlce, IB abown In 
(be following (able : 













AdnUnt (^menl'a Dm't. 



PnfaiiBn. V.S. Um^Aitiii^. 





jT^WIUjihf Amy 







t Hotniui Cons, 1 


At^utut GcDovl'i Dflpajl2Dvit. . . . 
Innetar GHunri Depuimat. , . 
Jdi%b Adrvmlfl Geonl'i Depirt- 

Onrtsmiilv Cspa 1 




OntBon Difvtaiait 



































Tweotr-flnt lofutiy 














Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

iciB, wltti their detachniL— -..- 

Oeneral Stall Corps, an Adjutant Geni 
OepattmeDt, sn ' *" 

„.„..„ . „, r — - — ' Anaj ot 

the Unlleil SCatei shall conalsl of the Re^- 
lar Army, the Volunteer Army, the OlHcera' 
Reaerve Corps, tlic Enlisted EeBerve Corps, 
the National Guard while In the aerTlce ot 
the United States, and >nfh other land 
forces as were tbea or might thereafter be 
authorized by law. 

Oampotition of tkt Regular Jrmu.— The 
Hegular Army ot the United States, Includ- 
ing eilBtlDg organizations, was made to con- 
sist of 64 regiments ot iafantrj, 25, re«l- 

i!Dts of Cavalry, 21 reglDients of B'leld Ar- 
,. _. ._..„ — <i •'•- 'rigade, 

troops, a 

AtUutant Oeneral's 

^„^4 -^ — . ^r General's Depart- 

^v-., Juilge Advocate Oeneral's Depart- 
ment. Quartermaster Corps, Medical Depart- 
ment. Corps of Engineers, Ordnance Uepatt- 
ment, Signal Corps, the officers of the Bu- 
reau of Insular 'Affairs, the MlUtla Bureau, 
the detached offlcers, detached non-commis- 
sioned officers, chaplains, the Regular Army 
BeserTe, as well as the officers and enlisted 
men on the retired list : the additional offi- 
cers : also the protesaors. Corps of Cadets, 
Heueral Army service aetachraent, and de- 
tachments ot Cavalry. Field Artlllerj, En- 
gineers, and band of the United Slates Mili- 
tary Academy ; the post non-commtssloned 
staff offlcers; recruiting parti™, recruit 
depot detachments, and unassigned recruits; 
.,1,-^i.x school detachments ; disciplinary 

- disciplinary organizations ; Indian 

- and such other olBcera and enlisted 
1 may be provided tor. 

e law tliea a miulmum of IQO.OOO Bght- 

h It win be the daty 

that the 



Ing regulara, below 
ot the War Depai^..,.^ .- ~- 
Army never falls. This may be 
to a peace mailmuia of ITo.OOu 
this In peace there will be 0,'f33 Phlilpi. — 
acoiiIB, a,4(l9 of the Quartermester Corps, 
7 21IU ot the Medical Corps. 3.3fi7 of the Sig- 
nal Corps, and 8.TQ0 unassigned enlisted 
men. a total ot 20^,169 men In peace. The 
force may be Increased by executive order 
without Congressional action to about 254,- 

po«ifion of Brigaitt, 

ned hostilities 

r deem necessary. 

and englueei train sball c 

... Bach «up- 
■ ot such o" 

„.. . iry therewith v_ — 

nnder the provisions of lectlDnB 28 and 27, 
Act ot Veb. 2, 1901. 

Omerat Offieen of the lAme, — OIBcera 
FommisBloned to and holding in the Army 
the office of a general officer shall hereafter 
be known a« general officer* ot the line : 
offlcers conuulasloned to and holding la the 
Army an ofBce other than that ot a general 
officer, but to which the rank ot a general 
officer Is atrtached, shall be known as general 
officers ot the stall. The number of seneral 
officers of the line now authorlied by law 
1* hereby Increased by four major generals 
and nineteen brigadier generals ; ProviAeA, 
That hereafter in time of peace major B«n- 
erals ot the line eball be appointed from 
offlcen of the grade of brigadier general ot 
the line, and brieadier generals ot the line 
■hall be appointed from olBcers of the grade 
of colonel of the Hue of tbe Regular Army. 

Oenrral Staff Corp,>.— The General Stalt 
Corps shall consist of 1 Chief of Staff, de- 
tailed in time of peace from major generala 
ot the line ; 2 Assistants to the Chief of 
Staff, who shall be general officers of tbe 
line, one ot whom, not above the grade of 
brigadier general, shall be the president of 
the Army War College : 10 colonels ; JO 
lieutenant colonels; 15 majors: and JT cap- 
tains, to lie detailed from corresponding 
grades in the Army. All offlcers detailed In 
the General Staff Corps shall be detailed 
(herein for perloit of (our years, anlesa 
sooner relieved. While serving in the Gen- 
•■ritl Staff Corps officers may be temporarily 

ilgned to duty with any branch ot the 


( OeiteraVt Defarttnvnt Is made 

.0 consist of the Adjutant General with the 
,-ank of brigadier general : 7 adjulanta- 
generai with tbe rBn\ ot colonel ; 13 adju- 
tants-general with tbe rank ot lleiiteDant 
colonel; and 30 adjutants-general witb the 
rank of major. 

The Intpector Oeneral'l Dtpantngnt.— 
One Inspector General with the rank of 
brigadier general : 4 inspectors-general with 
the rank of colonel : 8 Inspectors-general 
with the rank ot iieutennnt colonel : and 18 
Inspectors-general with the rank of major. 

Jfldpe Advocate Omural'i Drpartnim- 
One Judge Advocate General 
rank of brigadier general ; 4 Judg 
with t e rank of colonel ; 7 Judge nuv «».-=■.<■. 
with the rank ot lieutenant colonel : and 20 
Judge advocates with the rank of major. 

Quartenttaster Oorpa. — One Quarterma*- 

.__ „ ^, .^[^^ j^j ^jj^ Qf major genera I : 

*- '■- -^ rank of brigadier gen- 

!4 lieutenant colonels; 
ptelna; and the 


s witb tl 

ve (he rank, 
cond lieu ten an 

who fltinll 

d the 



demanded _. 

divisions into such army corpa or armaeB 
as may be necessary. Tbe typical Infantry 
brigade is made to consist ot a headquar- 
ters and three regimenCa of Infantry ; the 
typical Cavalry brigade of a beadquarters 
and three regiments ot Cavalry ; the typical 
Field Artillery brigade ot a headquarters 
and three regiments of Field Artillery. The 
tiplcai Infantry division is made to con- 
sist ot a hcadquarterH, three Infantry bri- 
gades, one regiment ot Cavalry, one Field 
Artillery brigade, one regiment of Engineers, 
one field signal battalion, one aero squadron, 
one ammunition train, one supply train, one 
engineer train, anit one sanitary train. The 

Splcal Cavalry division la made to conelat 
a headquarters, three Cavalry brtgailen, 
one regiment of Field Artillery (horsel, one 
haltallun of mounted Engineers, one field 
signal battalion (mounted), one aero aquort- 
ron, one ammunition train, one supply train, 
one engineer train, and one sanitary train. 
Tbe typical army corps is made to consist 

of a headquarters, two or more Infantry dl- flrst class ; sergeants : corporals ; cooks ; prl- 
yttUma, one. or more Cavalty brlgadea^Qr a vatea, 4rat clan; and prKatet. Thb nam- 

sent of tke Senate/ "second" 11 eii ._ 

the Quartermaster Corps, TJnited States 
Army. The total enlisted strength of the 
Quartermaster Corps and the number in 
•neh grade shall be limited and fixed from 
.J — »- ..I — ,._ *,.- "vpiiirtpnt In accorda 

nd shall c _ 
sergeants: sergeant 


Encyclopedic Index 


Amy— CmIImmI. 

ber In tlia nuloiu grades ahall not exceed 
tke tallowing percentages ot the total an- 
UorlMd enlisted atiength of the Quartet^ 
muter Corps, namelT : Qoartermaster ser- 
ceanlB, senior grade, U of 1 per cent ; qoat- 
Unuwter ■erseantB, o per cent ; ■erfeancs, 
Bnl Class, 2H per cent; sergeants. 26 per 
cent; eorporau, 10 per cent; prlTBtes, nnC 
clus, 45 per cent ; privates, t per cent ; 
man, 2 per cent. Muter electrldana now 
sntborli^ by law for the Quartermaster 
Corps shall be known as quartermaBter ser- 
nants, senior grade, and shall be Included 
Id Un number ot quartermaster sergeants, 
■enlor grade, herein aatborlsed. All work 
pertaining to coDstrncUon and repair that 
bu heretofore been done br or under the 
dliMtkin of officers of the Qositermaster 
Corps shall, except aa otbenrtoe now pro- 
ilded by laws or regulattons, be done br 
or under the direction of officers ol aald 

of brlgaQler general, who shall be chief of 
Hid department, a Medical Corps, a Medical 
Keserre Corps wUhln the limit of time Qied 
br this Act. a Dental Conn, a Veterluarj 
Csrim, an enlUted force, the Nnrse Corps 
sad mntiact surgeons as now anthoriied 
bj law, the commiseloned officers o( which 
■hall be citizens ot tbe United States. 

Iltdtoal Corr*. — Commlesloned officers be- 
'"~ "-e grade ot brigadier general, pr< 

tionallT dlsMbuted among tbe 

Eides aa In the Medical Corps no' 
bed bj law. The total number or saca 
officers shall approximately be equal to. but 
not exceed, 7 tor etery 1,000 of the total en- 

iwd t 


igth ot the RegDlar A 

e of 1 


dent for promoHon to the grade of 

b the Medical Corps ; tbe President la au- 
thoriied to detail not to exceed Ave officers 
of tbe Medical Department ot tbe Army for 


The __ 

nent ahall coneiat of the following penon- 
orl (In tbe proportions alated), who ahall 
Dot be Included Id the effectlTC strength of 
tbf Armf nor counted as a part of the en- 
Itiited force prorided by law : Master hos- 
pital sergeants. ^ of 1 per cent of the total 
aatboriied strength of tbe Medical Depart- 
ment : hospital sei^snts, K of 1 per cent ; 
sergeants. Brat class. 7 per cent ; sergeants, 
11 per cent : conwrale, S per cent : end 
cooks. « per cent; the number of horae- 
shoers, saddlers, farrlera, and mechanics 
■hall not exceed 1 each to each authorlied 
ambnlance company or like organisation ; 
the nnmber of privates. Srat class, sbalt not 
exceed 2S per cent o( the nomber of pri- 
rates. PriTatea, flrat class, of the Medical 
Department are eligible tor ratings for ad- 
..j._.._. __ ..„ — ■» dispensary aa- 
ie. (3 a month ; 

> of 1 for each l.OOC eu 

._ :he line of the Anuy. Denial 

surgeon a shall bave the rank, pay, and 
allowanceB ot first lieutenants unHl they 
have completed 8 years' service ; of more 
than 8 but Jeaa than 24 years' service (sub- 
ject to eiomlnaClon), may have the rank, 
pay. and allowances of captaina ; after more 
tban 24 years' aervke shall have the rank, 
pay, and allowances of major. Tbe total 
number of dental surgeons with rank, pay, 
and allowances ot major ahall not at any 

LDthorlty la given the B 

been Increased by vVrtne of the provlslona 
of this or any other Act, the medical offi- 
cers appointed to meet such Increase ahall 
be boDorably discharged from the service 
of tbe United Btates when the rednctlon ot 
the CDllated atreniith of tbe Army shsll take 

.. iBsloned In tbe Medical 

IS of the United States 

. twen^-two and thirty 

years and shall be promoted to the grade ot 
captain apon the completion of Ave years' 

buildings suitable for the storage of sup- 

Elles, or to occupy for that purpose butld- 
iga erected by the United States, under 
sucb regulations as the Secretary of War 

,._ _.... ,„ppn„ to b "-■•'- 

_- — .. . civilian pop 

t serloae national disaster. 

Corps of SBBtneeni,— One Chief of Engi- 
neers, with the rank of brigadier general; 
23 colonels ; SO lieutenant colonels ; 72 ma- 
jors; 1S2 captains: 148 tlrst lieutenants; 
TO second Ileuteuaota ; and the enlisted men 
hereinafter enumerated. Tbe Bngineer 
troops of the Corps of Engineers sbalT con- 
Blat ot 1 band, T raiments, and 2 monnted 

Each regiment of Bnglneers shall consist 
of 1 colonel ; 1 lieutenant colonel ; 2 ma- 
jors ; 11 captains ; 12 ilrat lleotenantB ; « 
second lieutenants; 2 master engineers, se- 
nior grade ; I regimental sergeant major ; 2 
reglmeotol supply Bergeanls ; 2 color ser- 
geanta ; 1 sergeant bugler; 1 cook; 1 wag- 
oner for each autborlied wagon ot tbe fleld 
and combat train, and 2 battalions. 

Each battalion ot a regiment of Engl- 
neera shall consist ot 1 major. 1 captain, 1 
battalion sergeant major ; 3 maater engi- 
neers. Junior grade ; and 3 companies. Each 
Engineer company (regimental) shall con- 
alat of 1 captain ; 2 fli 

ply sergeant ; 1_ atable sei^ 

:r; 2 

.t claas; and SS privates, with provision 

Tbe Engineer band shall consist of 1 band 
leader; 1 assistant band leader; 1 first ser- 
geant ; 2 band sergeants ; four band cor- 
porals ; 2 muslclana. Qrst class ; 4 musklana, 
aecond class ; 13 musicians, third class ; and 

Each battalion of monnted Engineers 
abalt coualst of 1 maJor ; S captnlua ; 7 first 
lieu tenants ; S second lieutenants; 1 master 
engineer, aenlor grade ; 1 battalion sergeant 
major : 1 battalion supply sergeant ; 3 mas- 

ants ; 1 second lieutenant ; 1 first sergeant ; 
2 sergeants, first class; 1 mess aergeant ; 
1 supply sergeant: 1 atoble sergeant; 4 aer- 

I pants ; 8 corporals ; 2 horaeshoers ; 1 Sad- 
ler ; 2 cooks ; 2 bnglera ; 12 privates, Srst 
claaa ; and 37 privates, with provlsloBB tor 
Increase. Tbe enlisted force ot the Corps 
ot Engineers end tbe officers serving there- 
with sball constitute a part of the line of 
the Army. 

Ordnance Dtpartmmtt. — One Chief of Ord- 
nance, with the MDk of bngadler gsa- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

eral; 10 colonalli IB lleatenuit eolooeli; 
82 mAjors ; 42 captolna ; 42 lint UeqteDKntB J 
Cbe orcluDCfl •ergeaiitB, as dow suthorlied 
bj lav, and aiich other enllated men of 

SradcB DOW authortecd br law as the Presl- 
ent miir direct. The Eleerecarj of War IB 
authorized to detail not to exceed 30 llea- 
tenanta from the Arm; at large for duty as 
■tuilent officer* la the eetabllahmeuta of the 
Ordnance Departmeiit for a period of S 

d tbe completlOD of tl 

. .ireacrlbed 

, ^ tructlon ihall conatltute the 

clamlDatlon for detail in the Ordnance De- 

nds; S lieutenant colonels: 10 major. . .. 
captains : TB flrat lieutenants ; and tbe avia- 
tion aecUoD, nhlcb shall coualst of 1 colo- 
nel ; 1 lieutenant colonel ; 8 majora ; 24 cap- 
tains 1 and 114 drat lleutenonta, wLo shall 
be aelMted fron among officers of tbe Army 
at large of correspondtiip gradea or from 
among oDcers of tne grade below, eiclnstve 
of those serving b7 detail In bub corps or 
departments, wno are qualiBed as mliltorr 
BTTatora, and shall be deulled to serve as 
aviation officers for periods of 4 rears unless 
Booner relieved ; and the provisions of ae<v 
tlon 27 of the Act of Congress approved 
Feb. 2, 1901, are hereby extended to apply 
to Sflld aviation officers and to vacancies 

the°A'rmj by Oia de'tall of said offlceca there- 

Avlatlon offlceti may, when qualified 
therefor, be rated aa Junior military avla- 
toFB or aa military avtatora. Each aviation 
officer shall, while on duty that requires blm 
to parUdpate regularly and (requentiy Ui 
aerial fllgbtB, receive an Increase of 2S to 
75 per cent In the pay of hla grade and 
lenjfth of service under bis commlaslon. Mar- 
ried oiBcera of the line of the Army ahall 
be eligible equally with unmarried ofBcers, 
and subject to tbe same conditions, for de* 
tall to aviation duty ; and the Seecetaty 
of War shall have authority to cauae as 
many enlisted men of the aviation section 
to be lustrocted in the art of Qylns a« he 
may deem necessary ; tbe age of offlrers shall 
not be a bar to tbelr first detail In the avia- 
tion section of tbe Signal Corps, and neither 

her allowed by 1 

that number anu luv jiuminri vl auiuiviv 
officers actually available for duty In said 
aectloD may be made up by appointments in 
the grade of aviator. Signal Corpa. and that 
grade Is bereby created, Tbe persocDcl for 
_..j ^-a^ _..^<. .. — ki-^i..^,! «-,^.g especially 

.,„_ -J appointed 

and commissioned In said grade. The base 
r of an aviator. Signal Corps, shall be 

cretton. such part of the commissioned amd 
enlisted personnel of tbe Signal Corps Into 
such number of companies, battallona, and 
aero squadrons as the necessities of the serv- 
ice may demand. 

Ohaptai'M. — The Prealdent Is aathortied 
to appoint chaplains In the Army at the i 

. —frtnoHans. — The President Is BUthor- 
tied to appoint veterinarians and Baakatant 
veterinarians In the Army, not to eiceed, 
Including veterlnarlana now In service. 2 
aacb officers for each regiment of Cavalry. 
1 for every 3 batteries of Field ArllUerr, 1 
for each mounted battalion of Engineers, 17 
as Inspectora of hnrsee end mules and a.% 
veterlnarlana In the Quartermaster Corps. 
and 7 as Inapprtors of meats for the Quar- 

Vetcrlnary Corps and shall he a part of the 
Medical Department of tbe Army. The Sec- 
retary of War Bhatl from time to time ap- 
point boards of ciRmloers to conduct the 
veterinary eiamlnatlODS hereinbefore pre- 
scribed, each of said boards to conalat of 
8 medical officPra aail 2 veterinarians. 

Inlantrv L'nitn. — Ksch regiment of In- 
fantry shall conBim of 1 colonel. 1 llep--— 


ancea of a maatcr signal electrician and the 
same percentage of Increase In pay for 
length of service as Is alloited to a mastBr 
signal electrician. 

Tbe total enlisted atrenetb ol the Signal 
Corps ahall be limited and flied from time 
to lime by the Prealdent In accordance with 
the needs of tbe Army, and shall conalat of : 
Master signal electricians, 2 per cent of the 

Signal Corps: sergeantB. first claas, 7 per 
cent; serueantB, 10 per cent; corporals. 20 
per cent. Tbe number of privates, flrrt 
dan, shall not exceed 2S per cent of the 
number of prlvatGB. Authority Is hereby 
gtven tiM FreBldent to organise. In bia dls- 

1 12 In^ntry compi 

I first UeutenoQt, i 

ttallott BhBll conalat of 1 cap- 

' ' ;ond lieutenant. 

sergeant, 1 supply 

tain, 1 Drat IK 

1 Brst sergeant, 1 . ._ . ., . 

sergeant, 6 sergeants, 11 corporals. 2 

mental ailjutant) ; 1 regimental i 
major, mounted ; 8 battalion Bcreeonta nin- 
Jor, mounted; 1 first sergeant (drum ma- 
Jor) ; 2 color sergeants : I mess sergeant : 

1 supply sergeant: 1 stable sergeant : 1 (er- 

feaut X 2 cooks ; 1 horacBhoer. 1 bund leader : 
assistant bacd leader; 1 sergeant bugler: 

2 band sergeants ; 4 band corporals ; 2 muBl- 
clans. Brat daaa : 4 mualclans, second class : 
13 mualcIauB, third clasa ; 4 privates, flrat 
class, mounted ; and 12 privates, mounted. 

Bach Infantry machine-gun company shall 
consist of 1 captain, mounted : 1 first lieu- 
tenant, mounted: 2 second lieutenants, 
mounted: 1 first sergeant, mounted: 1 moss 
aergeant ; 1 supply Bergeant. mounted ; 1 
stable sergeant, mounted; 1 horaeshoer : 5 
sergeants ; 8 cori»rals : 2 cooks : 3 buglers : 
1 mechanic ; 8 privates, Srst class ; and 24 

Each Intsntrv supply company shall con- 
sist of 1 captain, mounted ; 1 second Hen- 
tenant, mounted ; 3 regimental supply aer- 
rants. mounted ; 1 first sergeant, moauted ; 
mess sergeant ; 1 stnble sppceant; 1 cor- 
poral, mounted ; 1 cook ; 1 saddler : 1 horse- 
Bhoer ; and 1 wagoner for each autlioiiied 
wagon of tbe field and combat train. The 
FreBldent may Inrrcaae a compaoy of In- 
fantry by 2 serccants, 6 corporals, 1 cook. 
1 mechanic, B privates (first clasa), and 31 

by 2 sergeants, 2 corporals. 1 mechanic, 4 
privates, flrat clasa. and 12 privates. 

Oavalry Vnilt, — Each regiment of Cav- 
alry sbaU conolst of 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant 


Encyclopedic Index 

Amy— coaHMMd. 

tDlonel, S iDRjon, IS wptBlna, 18 flrat lien- 
tcnanta, 16 K«tnd IteutenanU, 1 beulquar- 

tera nvop, 1 IDac^' ' '~ 

timp, tnd 12 tnrai 
roDB of i tcoops » 

Bacli iquadron Bhall coDslet of 1 major 
1 Orst Uent^Dant Caquadron adjutant), aod 
4 tnwpi. £acb trDap la BQuadron ihali cdd- 
slit of 1 captain, 1 llrat lleuteoBnt, 1 aecoDd 
Ueatenant. 1 Bnt Mrgeaot, 1 >n«aa aerKeant, 
1 mppl; •crxrant. 1 stable aerfceant, S ser- 
nanta, 8 corpornU. 2 cooka, 2 oorwahoere, 
I aaddler, 2 bas1e™< 10 privatn <9rBt clasa), 
and 3tt priTates. 

Each beadqaartera tTDopi ihaH conslBt of 
1 captain (r^bnental adjDtant), 1 reslmen- 
tal •erceaot majot, S aquadron ■ergeanta 
major, 1 llrat sergeant (drum major), 3 
color sergeants, 1 meea aergeant, 1 anppl; 
■erceant, 1 stable aergeant, 1 sergeant. 2 
oooka, 1 horaeahoer, 1 aaddler, 2 prlrates 
(flral cUag), and 9 privates, 1 band leader, 
1 assistant band leader. 1 sergeant bugler, 
3 baud sergeants, 1 band corporala. 2 must- 
dans (first clan), 4 mnalclans (second 
dass), and IS ffloslelaoi (third class). 

Bsch macblntt-gnn troop shall consist «t 
1 captain, 1 flrat llentenant, 2 second lieu- 
leoauta, 1 first sergeant, 1 meas aergeant, 1 
supply sergeant, 1 stable aergesD^ 2 horse- 
sboers. 5 sergeaDta, B corporals, 2 cooks, 1 
■aedunlc 1 aaddler, 2 buglers, 12 priTatea 
(flrat claas), and 86 privates. 

Esch anppl7 troop shall conalat of 1 cap- 
tain (regimental aupplj officer), 2 second 
Ikatenants. 3 regimental supply sergeants. 
1 first sergeant, 1 mess sergeant, 1 stable 
seneant, 1 corporal, 1 cook, 1 horaesboer, 1 
■adiller, and 1 vraguner for each authorlied 
tagoD of the field and combat t 

: the beadquar 

geanta, 5 corporals, 1 horaeab 
- - I (first class), and 18 prli 

FltU ArtfOerV UnU*. — The Field Artll- 
itTj, InclndliiK mountain artUlecT light ar- 
tUlerr, horM artlUccy, heavy artillery (field 
and siege typea), ahall conBlat of 12S gan 
or howltser batteries organized Into 21 rcgl- 

unltlon batteries i 

, — :.j and battalions, 

and snch artillery parks with such num- 
bers and grades of personnel and auch or- 
ginliations aa be may deem necessary. 

Bach reelment of Field Artillery shall 
rooiiat of 1 colonel, 1 llentenant colonel, 1 
captain, I headquarters company, 1 supply 
nmpany, and such number of gun and 
bovttzcr battalions sa the President may 

Bach gun or howltser battery shall con- 
(Ul of 1 captain, 2 first lieutenants, 2 
SrcDSd lleutenantB, 1 Orat sergeant, 1 sup- 
ply sergeant, 1 stable sergeant, I mess ser- 
geant^ 6 aergeants, 13 corporals, 1 chief 
mtcbaulc, 1 saddler, 2 borgenboers, 1 me- 
duDlc, 2 boKlers, 3 cooks, 22 privates (Orst 
diss), and 71 private*. When no enlisted 
aien of the Quartennaater Corps are at- 
tached for sncb posltiona there shall be 
added to each battery of mountain artU- 
lety 1 packmaater (sergpant, first class), 
1 anistant packniaster (•ergeant), and 1 
argador (corporal)- 

Sach houlqaurtera company of a regt- 
iMnt of 3 tettallons sball constat of 1 csp- 

t»ln, 1 flrat llcnteaftnt, I regimental ser- 
geant major, 2 battalion sergeanls major, 1 
first sergeant, 2 color sergeants, 1 mess sei^ 
geant. 1 supply sergeant, 1 stabl« sergeant, . 
2 sergeants. V corporals, I borsesboer. 1 
saddler, 1 mechanic, 3 buglers, S cooks, S 

firlyatea (Orst class), 16 privates, 1 band 
esder, 1 assistant band lender, 1 sergeant 
bugler, S band sergeants, 4 band corporal^ 
2 mualdana (first class), 4 musicians (seo 
ond class), and 18 musicians (third class). 
That when s regiment consists of three bat- 
UllDDB there shall be added ( - - - 

Suarters company 1 hat" " 
or, 1 sergeant, 3 corj 
private (first class), ant 

Each supply company of~ a regiment of 
two battalions shall consist of 1 captain. 
1 flrat lieutenant, 2 regimental sopply aer- 
■ergeont. 1 mesa Betgeant. ' 

Dok, 1 horsesboer, : 

d 1 wagoner for enc_ 

of the flefd train. When 

ment couilatB of S battalions there Bball 
be added to the supply company 1 secnnil 
lieutenant, 1 regimental supply sergeant, l 
private, and 1 wsgoner for each additional 
anthorued wagon of the fleld train. 

Bach gun or howltser ttattallon shall 
consist of 1 major, 1 captain, ani: batteries 
Mountain artillery battalions 

fontry divisions shall oontain 8 batteries: 

horse artillery battalions and heavy fleld 
artillery gun or howltser battalloDs shall 
contain 2 batteries ; the Frealdent may. In 
his discretion, Increase the headquarters 
company of a regiment Of 2 battallana by 
2 sergeants, 6 corporals, 1 horBeshoer, 1 
mechanic. 1 private (first class), and fl 
privates ; ths headquarters company of a 
regiment of 8 battalloDB by 1 sergeant, T 
corporals, 1 borBeshoer, I mechanic, 2 cooks, 
. 2 privates (first class), and T privates; the 
annply company of a regiment of 2 bat- 
talions by 1 corpora], 1 cook. 1 horsesboeri 
and 1 saddler; the supply company for s 
regiment of S hattallona by 1 corporal, 1 
cook, 1 borseshoer, and 1 saddler ; ~ — 

r howitzer battery by 8 sergea 
— '- ■■ ^orseBboer, 2 mec"---' — 

Coast Arllllerv Oorjii'— 

.9. T c 

72 n 

; BSO c 

ante ; 360 second . . 
Junior grade' " — 

D Drat II 

juuiur BC&ue j tL lUHBier eiei:irit:iaDB ; 72 

engineers ; 88 electrician sergeants (first 
class) ; 276 assistant engineers ; 99 elec- 
trician sergeants (second class) ; lOS fire- 
men ; 93 radio sergeants ; 62 roaster gun- 
ners ; 263 first sergeants; 263 Supply ser- 
ges ots ; 2S3 roess sergeants; 2,104 aer- 
geants : 3,1S6 corporals ; 62e cooks ; 626 
mechanics ; 620 buglers ; 6.226 privates 
(first class) ; 1S.6TC privates ; and \& bands, 
organized as hereinbefore provided tor the 
Boglneer band. Tbe rated men of the Coast 
ArtlllerT Corps shall consist of casemate 
electricians; observers (first class); plot- 
ters ; chief planters ; coxswains ; chief load- 
ers ; observers (second class) ; gun com- 
manders and gun pointers. The total nnm- 
bor of rated men sbaU not exceed 1,784. 
Coxswains shall receive 18 per month In 
addition to tbe pay of their grade. 

i'orto Rico Re0Jm«nt 0} Infantnt. — The 
same organliatlon. and the aame grades and 
numbers of commissioned offlcen and en- 
listed men, as are preacribed by law tor 
other regiments of Infantry of the Army. 
The colonel of said regiment shall be de- 
tailed hj the FrestdenL from among offi- 
cers of Infantry of tbs Army not below ths 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Arm-j — ConUmied, 

grade of lieutenant colonel, foi & period of 

avlded herein 1 
Resuiar Army, ana the regiment, or any 
part thereof, may be ordered for Bervlce out- 
side the Island of Porto Rico. The par 
and allowauceB of members of nld r«g[- 
ment Bball be the tame as proTlded by 
law for omcers and enlisted men of like 
grades In the Begular Arm; 

__„ J aa'ld' Porto Ei'co" Pro visional Regl- 
aent of Infantry on June 30, 1_808, 

Ortpinal Appolntmenti (0 Be ProvMonal. 
— Hereafter all appointments ot persona 
other than graduates of tbe Cnlted States 
illlltarj Acade — •- "■- '- "' -=■•""'' 

^LL.^.j «. ^— J .0 the grade of second 

lieutenant In the Kezular Army shall be 
provisional for a period of two jeara, at 
the clone ot which period such appoint- 
ments shall be made, permanent If the ap- 
pointees shall have demonstrated, under 
such regnlatlODS as the President mar pro- 
■crlbe, their sultabllltr and moral, profea- 
■lonal, and phf alcal fitness for Bach perma- 
nent appointment. 

Increaat to Be Ifads in Fin* JnercmmM. 
— Except as otherwise speclflcally provided, 
the increases In tbe commlasloaed and en- 
listed p -- .- - • ■ 

■Dunel of tbe Begular Army shall 

b of 

corps. Bod department. 

corps, ana aeparuncnc, an ucaj-jj' ud irciLULi- 
cable, one-flfth of the total Increase autboi^ 
ixed for each arm, corps, and department. 
Detached Officerg. — That on Jnlj 1, 1918, 
the line ot the Army shall be incr""'^ ■— 

colonel. Inch 

nuinder shaTl report him at proflirtent uhI 
aofflciently trained ma?. In tbe discretion 
of the Secretarr of Wat, be furloughed 
to tbe ReinilBr Army Beserve under such 
regulations as the Secretary of War may 
prescribe, but no man turloughed to the 
reserve sball be eligible to re-eollat In the 
service until the eiplratlon of his term of 
7 years ; In all enllatments accompllahed 
under the provisions ot this Act 3 yeara 
■hall be counted as an enllstmcot period 
In computing continuous- service pay ; any 
noncommissioned officer dlecbargcd with on 
excellent character shall be permitted, at 
the expiration ot 3 years In the active «er»- 
Ice, to re-enllst in the organliatlDn from 
which discharged with the rank and grade 
held by him at the time ot his dlscbarae 
It he re-enllats within 20 days after tbe dais 
of such dlBchat^e : no person under the ags 
of 18 yeara shall be enlisted or mustered 
Into the military service ot tbe United 
Btatee wltbout the written cnnsent of his 
parents or guardians, provided that each 
mlQor has such parents or guardians en- 
titled to hte cnstody end control ; tbe 
President Is authorized in bis discretion 
to utilize the services ot pastmasters ot the 
second, third, and fourth clnaseH in procor- 
Ing tbe enllstmentB ot recruits for tbe Army, 
and for each recruit accepted for enllstaient 
In the Army, the postmaster procuring hlH 
enlistment shall receive the sum of (3. 

In addition to military training, soldiers 
while In the active service shall hereafter 
be given tbe opportunity to study and re- 
ceive Instruction upon educational lines of 
■uch character na to increase tbclr military 
efficiency and enable them to return to civil 

clai. and general business occupations. Clvll- 
'--[ teachers may be employed to aid the 

in agricultaro 

Tocatlonal educatloi 
or the mechanic arts. 

Pav of Certain Enllaiti Hen. — The month- 
ly pay of enlisted men of certain gradea st 
the Army created in this Act shall be as 
follows, namely : Quartermaster sergeant 
(senior grade), Qnartermaster Corps; mas- 
ter hospllal sergeant, Uedlcal Department; 

or other duty, the Dsual period of which e 
ceeds one year. Said extra officers, to- 
gether wltb the 200 detached olBcen pro- 
vided for by the Act of Congress approved 
March 8. 1911, sball on and after July 1, 

I Bald list, and tbe officers so asslcned. 
_jall be subject to tbe ptovlslollB or»eO 
tloa 2T of the Act of Congress approved 

) details t 

nglneer (Janlor grade). Corps < 
uuKuieeis, f flS ; seraeant (nrst class). Medi- 
cal Department, (50 ; sergeant (flrst claas). 

Carps of Engineers ; regimental supply >er 
geant. Infantry, Cavalry, Field ArtlllerY, 
and Corps of Engineers ; battalion anpnly 
sergeant, Corps of Engineers ; and assist- 
ant engineer, Coast Artillery Corps, S45; 

ind leader. 

Feb. 2, IBOl. with referenci 
the staff corps. 

Enllatmenti 4b the BegnUr Army. — On 
and after Nov. 1, 1916, all eallstmenta la 
the Bcgular Army shall be for a term of 
7 years, the Hrst a yeara to be In the active 
service with the organlEotlouB of which 
those enlisted form a pact and, except as 
otherwise provided herein, the last * years 
In the Regular Army Reserve hereinafter 
provided for ; at the expiration o( 3 years' 
continuous service with such organlKHtlona, 
either under a first or any subsequent en- 
listment, any soldier may be re-enllsted tor 
another period of ^ years, as above provided 
for. In which event be shall receive his final 
discharge from his prior enlistment ; after 
tbe expiration of 1 year's honoroble serv- 
ice any enlisted man serving within the con- 
tinental limits ot the United Btates whose 
~j, battery, or detachment com- 

Artlllery, and Corps oi Englnee , 
geant bngler. Infantry, Cavalry. Artillery, 
and Corps ot Engineers, t40 ; musician (first 
class). Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, and 
Corps of Engineers ; supply sergeant, mess 
sergeant, and stable sergeant. Corps of En- 
gineers ; sergeant Medical Department, t3S; 
supply sergeant. Infantry, Cavalry, and Ar- 
tlllerr : mess sergeant. Infantry, Cavalry, 
and Artillery; cook. Medical Department; 
horseaboer. Infanti?, Cavalry, Artillery, 
Corps of Engfneera, Signal Corps, anit Meat- 

, Cavalry, Artillery, and Corps of 

It; mechanic, In&ntry, Cavalry, i 


Encyclopedic Index 


AmiT — COnHiM»d. 

Field ArtUleiT, and Uedleil DepBrttocnt : 
fanicr, HedlcU Deputment : aad «Woner, 
IntuitiT, Field Artillery, aaa Corpi of Btt- 
iluetrv, t21; prlTate (Brat clua), Intu- 
tti. Cht Jrj, ArtUlerj, and Ucdiotl Depart- 
DPUt. fl8 ; prlvkte. Medical Department 
ud bugler, (IS. Nothlns herein coDtalaed 
■bill operata to redace Ute par or allow- 
una now aatborlied bj law tot any srada 
ol cntlated men of the Aimy. 

yinol fi<Mhw9« 0/ Bniitted Mtn^So 
(Dilated man In tbe BcsDlar Arm; Bball 
recelre bla llDal discharge until the terml- 
nilloD of bla T-Tcar term of enllatment ez- 
c«pt upon Te-eDllitment aa provided fOr In 
tbli Act or >■ provided I17 law tor diaebarge 

Erior to expiration of term et enllatmen^ 
It wben an enlisted man la farlonshed 
to tbe Begular Armj Beieire Ua acconiit 
■hall be clowd and be ahall be paid In full 
to tbe dato tuch fiirloiigli becomea enecnve, 
iDCludlng allowancea provided by law for 
dlacbarged Boldters; when bj TeaaoTi of 
dnth or disability of a member o( tbe 
fimllj of an enliated man occorrlu after 
bla enltatment member! of bla tamlly be- 
come dependent apon blm for anpport, be 
may, In tbe dtwretlon of tbe Secretan of 
War, be dlMbarged from tbe lervlce of tbe 
tJDlted Statea or be furlongbed to tbe Beoo- 
lir Aimj Seaerve, uitoii due proof belna 
made of mch condition ; wben an enliated 
man !■ dlacharged by parehaae wbDe in ac- 
llre eervlce he aball be fnrlougbed to tbe 
Regular Axmy Reserve. 

Segular Arwm Seteree, — Tbe Begnlar 
Army Reaerve ahatl conalat of, flrat, aU en- 
liated men now In tbe Army Beaerve or who 
■ball bereaf ter become menHMra of the Army 
Rfaerre under tbe provtatone of existing 
lav ; lecond, all enUated men fnrlonghea 
to or enliated In tbe Sernlar Army Reserve 
under tbe provlilona of tbla Act ; and, third, 
any peraou holding an honorable ducbaige 
from tbe Regular Army with character re- 

Srted at least good who la physically qnall- 
1 for the duties or a soldfer and not over 
45 yeara of age who enllsta la the Regu- 
lar Army Beserve for a period <tt 4 years, 

Tbe Prealdent la antborlied to asalgn 
Bwmbera of tbe Regular Army Bewrve aa 
leserrea to partlcnlar organisations of tbe 
Hegalar Army, ot to organise the Begnlar 
Army Beserv^ or any part thereof. Into 
nnlta or detachments of any arm, corpa, or 
drpartmeDt In snch manner as he may pre- 
scribe, and to aaslgn to snch nnlta and de- 
tacbmienls oBleera of tbe Begnlar Army or 


a tbe Regular Army 1 

lereof for *-" "-•-■- 

not ciceedln« H 
wrrlsta tf ' 

When mobilised by order of Uie President. 
tbe members ot tbe Regular Army Reserve 
ahall, so long as they may remHlo in active 
service, receive the pay and Hllatrauces of 
enlisted men of the Regular Army of like 
grades; upon reporting lor duty, and being 
found phyalcally Dt for service, members 
of the Begnlar Army Reserve ahall receive 
a som equal to IB per month for each month 
daring which tney shall have belonged to 
the Reserve, aa well as the actual necessary 
cost of tranaportatlon and subalstenee from 
their homes to tbe places at which Ch?f may 
be ordered to report for duty under such 
auramons: service In the Regular Army Ke- 
•erve shall confer no right to retirement or 
retired pay, and members of the Regular 
Army Beserve shall become entitled to oen- 
slon only tbrousb disability Incurred while 
□D active dnty In the service of tbe United 

Uie ef Other Departmentt Of tht Oovern- 
nent. — The President may ntlllie tbe serv- 
ices of members and employees of all de- 
partments ot tbe Government of tbe United 
Btatea, wltboat eipense to the Indlvldoal 
reoervlat, tor keeping In touch with, pay- 
ing, and mobilizing tbe Regular Army Re- 
serve, tbe Enlisted Beserve Corps, and other 
reserve organisations. 

Ba-eidtttment In Time ot War.— For the 

BirpoM of utilising as an aailllarj to the 
egnlar Army Reserves the services of men 
who havq had experience and training in the 
Regular Army, ot In the United States Vol- 
unteers, ontad« of tbe contlcentBl limits of 
the United States In time of actual or 
threatened bostUltles, and after tbe Presi- 
dent shall, by proclamation, have called 
npon honorably diacharKed soldiers of the 
Regular Army to present themselvea for re- 
enlistmeDt therein within a specified period. 
subject to such conditions ss may be pre- 
scribed, any person who shall have been 
discharged hODarabty from said Army, with 
character reported aa at least good, and 
who, having been found physically quali- 
fied for the duties of a soldier, If not over 
BO years of age, shall re-enllBt In the line 
of said Army, or In tbe Signal. QuBrtermaa- 
ter, or Medical Department thereof, within 
the period that ahall be specified In sold 

G-oclamatlon, shall r— ■— - — — --"-• 
g a ■- '■'-'■ 

lounty 1 

-..■of 18 

ot the perlud that s 

ti lor the a 

receive travel expenaea and pay 
» lun iKie of their respective grades In the 
Brgalar Army during such periods of tratn- 
iDg 1 snd In the event of actual or threatened 
bastUitteB he may moblllie tbe Begnlar 
Anny Reserve In such manner as be may 
detemlne, and thereatter retain it, or onr 
part thereof. In active service tor snch 
period as he may determine the condi- 
tlans donand ; all enlistments in the 
RcRUlar Army, Including those In the 
Iteffolar Army Reserve, which are In 
force on the date of tbe anlbreak ot war 
thall eontlnne In force for one year, unless 
T terminated by order of the Secretary 

prescribed ; aobject to snch regulation 

tbe President may preacrlbe tor their proper 
Mrntlflcatton, and location, and physical 
condition, the members of the Regular Army 


therein under tbe terms of said proclama- 
tion : at the rate ot tfl per month for tbe 
second year of snch perloil ; at the rate ot 
$i per month (or the third year of auch 
period ; and at tbe rate of %2 per month 
for any subsequent year of such wrlod : but 
no bounty In excess of f 300 shall be paid to 
any person under the terms ot thla sec- 


Unlisted Jlen Prohibited fram 
ptoj/ment. — No enlisted man In 
service of the United Btates in 
Mavy, and Harlue Corps, ~~ 

missioned office 

pursuit, business, or performance in 

- • • 1. hire, or othiTwiae, 

terfere wllh the cua- 

clvil life, for emotumcn 

tomary employmi 
of local clvltUr 

and regula 



Seraeantt for Dutg toith the Xatlonal 
Onard. — For the purpose of assisting In 
tbe instruction of the peraonnel and care 
of property in tbe bands of tbe National 
Onard the Secretary of War Is authorised to 
detail from the Infantry, Cavalry, Field 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

I.OOO Berzeants tor duW i ,-- 

orgmUxBtloiis of the National Quard . 
DDt to eicecd 100 ■ergesntH (or duti with 
the dlBclpllnHrj ocgHnlMiOoQa at the United 
Btatea EHsclpluiarr Darracka, who shall be 
•ddltlooal to the sergeantB anthoriied by 
this Act (or tbe corps, compaDles, troops, 
batteries, and detacbmcDts (rom which the; 
ma; be detailed. 

OBIetri' Remne Oorps. — For tie purpose 
of aeenrlns a reserve of oDcen available 
fot aerrtce as temporary afflcers In tlie Keju- 
lar Arm;, aa oncers ot the Quartemuuter 
Corps and other staff corps and depart- 
ments, as officers for recruit rendezvous and 
depots, and as oBlcers of volunteers, there 
shall be organ lied, bd Ofllcera Beserve 
Coriis o( the RegalBr Army. Said corpa 
(hall coneiBt of secllona corraspondlnK to 
the various arms, etall corpa. and depart- 
of the Regular Am- ' ■■ ' 

X „ ,_. .. 

pon for service 
thout bis consent, be so called 
raite than that held b; him In 

bv virtue ot their commlaaiana as reserve 
offlcera, eierdss command appropriate to 
their rrade and rank in the organlmttoQi 
to which ther ma; be asalgoed, and ahall 
be entitled lo the pa; auiT allowancea ot 
the correspoDdlns gradea in the Segolar 
Arm;, with Increase of par for lenKtb ot 
active service, as allowed b; law for offi- 
cers of the Regular Arm;, from the date 
npoQ which the; shall be required b; the 
terms of their orders to obe; Ute same ; offi- 
cers BO ordered to active service ahall tAke 
temporar; rank among themsetvee, and in 
their grades Id the organiiations to which 
aaalgned, according to the dates of oriJerB 
placing them on active service ; and they 
may be promoted, in accordance with such 
rank, to vacancies In volunteer organ laa- 
tions or 10 temporary vacancies in the Roeii- 
lar Arm; thereafter occurring In the organl- 
ullona In which they shDli be serving ; offi- 
cers of the Officers Reserve Corps shall 
not be entitled to retirement or reclrrd pay, 
and shall be entitled to pcnaion only for dlB- 
ability iDcarred In the line ot duty and while 

ae umcers nenervw i^urtio, ii± «** 
to and Including thBt of major. 

Regular Ajin;, ( 

from time to time by _ . 
this speclfle purpose, the Secvetary of War 
is Bathorlied to order reserve offlcera to 
duty with troops or at field eierclaes. or 
for instrnctlon, for periods not to exceed 
IB days In any one calendar year, a ad 
while BO serving such officers shall receive 
the pay and allownncCB of their respective 
grades la the Regular Army ; with the con- 
Bent ot the reserve officers concerned, and 
within the limit of funds available for the 

Surpose, such periods of duty m^ be ex- 
inded for reserve officers as the Secretary 
of War may direct ; in time of actual or 
t.hppiitened hostilities, after all avaUable 
9 of any section of the Officers' Ke- 


> appointed c 


I of Volunteers i 

No person i ._ _„ -- -. 

pointed B second lieutenant In the Office 
Reserve Corps after he shall have reachea 
the Bge of 32 years, a first lieutenant after 
he shall have rencheil the age of ;>e years, a 
captain after he shall have reached the age 
of 40 j-ears, or a major after he shall have 
reached the age of 45. When an officer of 
the Reserve Corps shall reach the nge limit 
flied for appointment or reappoltitment In 
the grade In which commissioned he shall 
be honorably discharged from the service 
of the United States, and be entitled to re- 

1 Corps; nothing In the provisions 

as to the ages of officers shall apply to the 
appointment or reHppolntmcnt of offlcera 
of the Quartermaster, Engineer, Ordnance, 
Signal, Judge Advocate, and Meiilcal sec- 
tions of said Reserve Corpa. One year after 
the passage of this Act the Medical Reserve 
Corps, aa now constituted by law, shall 
cease to eilet. Members thereof may be 
commlBsioned in the omcers' Reserve Coij 
or may be honorably discharged fn 

•e CoTva. — The 

_B may be aulhoriied by 

Reterve OBIcera' Tr-'-' — 
Preslilent Is he ' 

which shall consist of a senior dtvlsloD 

those State iDstitulIaas that are regulreil 
to provide Instruction in military " '■ 
under the provisHms of the Act 
grass of July 2, 1802, donating !i. . 
the establishment of colleges where the 1 
Ing objec- ' " "" " " '■- —■ 

Id St ruction 
haaic arts, in- 
d a Junior dl- 
r public or prl- 

nits o'f"the "senlor~di vision may be organ- 

' those essentially military schools 

not confer an academic degree 

h. as a result of the annual Inapec- 

■b InsIltutloDB by the War I>^ 

eluding military 
vision organ! led 
' ;atlonaI 

I of f 



of the BCD lor dlvisior 

each dlvlHlon 

Ogicers' Reserve Garpt in War. — In time 
of actual or threatened hoslilities the Presi- 
dent may order offlcera of the Officers' Re- 
serve Corps, to temporary duty with the 
Regular Army In grades thereof which can 
□ot, tor the time being, be filled by promo- 
tion, or as offlcera In volunteer or other 
organizations that may be authorlied by 
law, or aa officers at recruit rendezvous and 
depots, or on such other duty aa the Preat- 
dent may prescribe. While such reserve 
offlcera are on such service they ahall, 

T Rtote inatitutlon 
Act, establish and maintain at Bucn insti- 
tution one or more UDlts of the Reserve Offi- 
cers' Training Corpa ; Profidea. That no 
Buch unit shall be cstabtlshed or maintained 
at any such Institution until an officer 
of the Army shall have been detailed >■ 
professor of military science and tacUcs, 

lilltary science an 
I Institution shall 


Encyclopedic Index 


under mlUlary ImtroetloD at l«ut 100 
phnimi? fit male BtodenU. 

The PmldeDt mar. opon the appllcatloit 
of asj ettabllBlied educational iustltatlon 
In Uie Ualled IStatee other than a State 
liutltutloD deacTlbed above the authorittas 
oC which agree to eetabllah and ma In tain • 
two je«ra' elective or compulaotr cout«e o( 
Diilltarr training as a minim nm for Ita 
phyiic^T fit male stodeDta. which conrM 
irhfD entered apon bj anr studeot ahall, 
u tenrda each itudent. be a prereqalatte 
tor graduation, eetablleb and maintain at 

Keaerra ODcera' TralnluK Corpa. 

The Secretary of War la authortaed to 
preKribe standard coursea of theoretical 
lai practical military training (or nnltj 
of the Reserre Offlcera' Training Corps, and 
no nnlt of the senior division shall be or- 
ranlied or maintained at any educational 
institution the Bulhorltlea o( which (all 
or nfulect to adopt Into their cucrlcalnm the 
prescribed courseB of mUltary training (or 
the senior dlvlaloo or to devote at least an 
average of three hoars per week per aca- 
demic year to such military training; and 
no unit ot the Junior division Bball be or- 
ganized or malntalDed at an; educational 
histltntion the Buthorltles of which fall or 
neglect to adopt Into their currlculiim the 
prescribed coorseH of military training for 
the Junior division, or to devote at least 
ID average of three hours per week per 
academic rear to aush military training. 

EUglbllllr to membership In the Reserve 
Oaan- Training Corpi shall be limited 
to BtndeDte o( InstltutlonH In which units ot 
such corps may be estsbUshed who are 
cltliens of the United States, wbo are 

each campg at the eipeaae of the United 
States HO far as appropriations will per- 
mit ; to subsist them at the expenae of the 
United States while tiavellng to and from 
such camps and while remaining therein 
■o far as appioprlatiouB will permit ; to 
uae the Regular Army, such other military 
forces aa Congress from time to time aa- 
thorlies, end such Qovernment property as 
he may deem necessary tor the military 
training of the members ot such corps while 
In attendance at such camps ; to prescribe 
regulations lor the government o( such 
corps ; and to authorize. In his dlscreUon, 
the formation of company nnlts thereof Into 
battalion and regimental units. 

The President alone, under such regula- 
tions as he ma; prescribe, is atithorlsed to 
appoint In the Offlcerg" Reserve Corps any 
graduate of the senior division of the Re- 
serve Officers' Training CorpB who shall 
have eatlefsctorlly completed the further 
training provided for below, or any gradu- 
ate of the Junior division who shall have 
satisfactorily completed the courses o( mlll- 
tai7 tralnlDg prescribed tor the senior dl- 
vlBlon and the farther training provided for 
below, and shall have participated In sach 
practical InBtrucllon BUbsequent to gradua- 
tion as the Secretary of War shall prescribe, 
who shall have arrived st the age of 21 
years and who shall agree, under oath In 
writing, to serve the Untted States In the 
capacity of b reserve officer ot the Army 
during a period of at least 10 yeora from 
the date oT his appointment as such reserve 
oncer, bat the total number ot reserve oO- 
cera so appointed shall not exceed 00,000; 
any qualUIed graduate undergoing a post- 

bodily ( 

will be ( 

rrfcaliy lit to perform military duty, 
, ,. ._.. -t miilta^ age. 

tall BDch Dombers - -' 

The President Is hereby a 

retired, not above the grad 

jr more nnlts of the Reserve — 

cers' TralDlng thorps are maintained ; hut 
the total uumtwT o( active ofQcers so de- 
tailed at educational Institutions shall not 
eiceed 300. 
The President la authorlKd to detail (or 

dutor a 

the 8e«erve Offlcera' Training 

Corps are maintained Buch number ot en- 
listed men, either active or retired or of 
the Regular Army Beserve, oa he may deem 
aeeeasary, but the number o( active hon- 
commlBHoned oScers so detailed shall not 
eiceed 500. 

The Secretary of War Is antborized to 
iBBoe to InstitotioDB at which one or more 
nnlta of Ihe Beserve OSeera' Training Corps 
are maintained such public animals, arms, 
miKorms, eqnlpmeut. and means or trans- 
partatlon aa he may deem necessary, and 
to (orage at the expenae of the united 
States public anlmali »o Issued. He shall 
ceqntre (rom each InatitutloD to which 

Eoperty of the United States la Isened a 
nd In the value ot the propert? Issued (or 
the are and sole-keeping tnerabt «nd (or 
its tetnm when leqnlred. 

The BeaetUT of War la aathorlzed to 
maintain camps for the further practical In- 
struction o( the memben ot the Reserve 
oncers' Training Corpti no such campa to 
In malnUlued lor • period loncer than alz 
weeks In any oa* j««t, maept in time dt 

oncer while undergoing such postgradoate 

further training by the preBldent of the 
institution and by Ita professor of military 
science and tactics, and has agreed in writ- 
ing to continue In the Reserve Oncers' 
Training Corps for the remainder o( his 
coarse In the institution, devoting live honrs 
per week to the rolllta^ training prescribed 
by the Secretary of war, and has agreed 
in writing to pursue the courses in camp 
training prescribed by the Secretary ot War. 
■- V he (urnlsl— ' -' •— -' "- 

slstence at such ri 
of the garrison i 

|, note. 

,, , , the Secretary ot 

War. during the remainder ot his service 
In the Beserve oncers' Training Corps. 

Any phyBlcally lit male cltiien of the 
United States, between the ages of 21 and 
ST years, who shall have gradoated prior 
to the date o( this Act from any educational 
Institution at which an oncer ot the Army 
was detailed aa ptotessoF o( military science 
and tactics, and who, while a student at 
such Institntton, completed conrtes ot mili- 
tary training nnder the direction ot ancb 
professor of military science and tactica sub- 
stantially equivalent to ttaoM prescribed 
pursuant to this Act tor the eenlor dlvtalon, 
shall, after BatittactorUy completing such 
additional practical mllitaiy training aa tlK 
Secretary ot War ahall pteacribe, be tilglble 
(or appointment to the Officers' B«Mrrc 
Corns and as a twttpowiff •ddlllonal teoond 

The President alone !• tiraelv anthorlsed 
to appiill.t and commlMton oa • temponiy 
seMnd Uegtenopt of tba Biynliir Army In 


Anny Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

AimT — CoHtlMMd. "t wacb grade or pade 

tlOO per Dianili, •■>; reMrv« offleer ail- 
pointed pannant to tbli Act and to attach 
him to a ODlt of the Kegnlar Anny for 
daty and trslnlng durlDB tbe period cot- 
ereo hy his appointment aa ailch temporary 
■ecDod Ueutimant, and upon the ezpLratlon 
of Buch serrlce vith the ReKulsr Ann; such 
offlcer shall revert to hU statiu lu a raerre 

No ' 

r dUablUCy tomrred Id line of duty In 
native service or while aervlng with the 
Benular Army. 

The Adjutant Oeneral ol the Army eball, 
under the direction and aapervisloQ of the 
I ..__ q( War, obtalD, compile, and keep 


D date all Dbtaloable intor- 

o the n , _„__. .. 

capatloos, and quallScallDnB for appoint- 
ment sa commissioned officers of the Army, 
._ .1 • .1 — -emergency, of roeo 

regarded as quallQed and available for ap- 
pointment as such commlasloDed officers. 

TrainlHg Campt. — The Secretarr o( War 
is hereby authorlEed to maintain camps 
for tbe military iDstmctlon and training 
of such clCUens as may be selected for 
such InBtructlon and training, upon their 

ment aod regulatloOB as may be prescribed 
by the Secretary of War; to use, for the 
parpDsp of maintaining anld camps and Im- 
parting military inatructlon and training 

ments. equlpmpntB. (entace, flelrf equipage, 
and tronxpnrtatlOD belonging to the United 
Stales as he may deem ncceBsary ; to fur- 
nish, at the pipense of the United States, 
nnlforms, subsUtcace. transportation by tbe 
moBt usual and direct roule within sach 
limits as to territory as the Secretary of 
War may prescribe, and medical supplies 
to persons receiving Inatructlon at said 
camps during the period of their attendance 
thereat, to authorize such expenditures, 


Beld e 

dses, and other expenses Incidental to the 
maintenance of said camps, and the theoret- 
ical winter instruction In connection there- 
with : and to sell to persoDs receiving ID- 
Btrnctlon at aald camps, for cash and at cost 
prtce plus 10 per centum quartermaster and 
ordnance property, the amount of such 
property sold to any one person tu be limited 
to that which la required for his proper 
equipment. The Secretary o( War 1b author- 
Ited further to prescribe the courses of theo- 
TCtlcal and practical Instruction to t>e pur- 
sued by persons attending the camps au- 
thorized by thla section ; to 111 the periods 
during which snch camps shall be main- 
tained : to preBcrll>e mles and regnlatlons 
for the government thereof ; and to em- 

61oy thereot officers and enlisted men of tbe 
egular Army In such numbers and npon 

EnUsted Rtgrm 
military service" with 

ay designate. 

Corps.— For the purpose 

" ' of enlisted 

-■; — — — J «^. ..vv -...u mi Engineer, 

Signal, and Quartermaster Corps and tbe 
Ordnance and Medical Departmenta of the 
Begotar Army, an Enlisted Reserve Corps, 
to ciKHlst cFf ncli ntunber of entHted men 

r the PieaUent from 

authorised, snch an, 

e on and after Joly 1. 1B16. 

tbe President, 

Dnlted BtateB, 

int citlsens o( the Dnlt 

.. , who have declared their Inten- 
tions to become citlsens of the United 
Btates, snbject to such physical, educational, 
and practical examination as may be pre- 
scribed In sold rules. For men eDlIstlne In 
said grade or grades eertlflcatea of enlist- 
ment lu tbe Bnllsted Reserve Corpa shall 
be Issued by The Adjutant Oeneral of tbe 
Army, bnt no such man shall be enlisted lu 
■aid corps unless he shall be found physl. 
cally, mentally, and morally qualified to 
hold such certlflcBte and unless he sball 
be between the ages of 18 and 4S year*. 
The certificates so given shall confer upon 
the holders when culed Into active service 
or for purposes of Instruction and training, 
and during the period of such active serv- 
.,. ._.,_.-..._ .^ training, all tbe a— ■•— 

lerebv suthoriae L to Issue to members 
._ :he Enlisted Reserve Corps and to per- 
sons who have participated In at least 

r tbe mill tar 

tlon of clttieDB, conducted under the aus- 
pices of the War Department, dlstlocOve 
rosettes or knots designed for wear with 
civilian clothing. 

The nnlfonn to be worn hy enlisted men 
of tbe ihillBted Reserve Corps, except corps 
Insignia, aha II be the same as prescribed 
for enlisted men of the Regular Anny Re- 
■i>nre. nnd that In Hen of any money allow- 
clothlng there ahall l>e Issued to 
ited man of the Bnlls' ■ " 

,. ._ Jme of peace such artlc. _. 

Ing and equipment aa the Presiden 

Upon a call by tbe Prestdeot for a volun- 
teer force the mcmbera of the Enlisted He- 
serve Corpa may be mustered Into the aerv- 
Ice of the United Slates as volunteers tor 
duty with tbe Army In tbe grades held by 
them In tbe said corps, and Bhall be en- 
titled to the pay and allowances of tbe 
corresponding grades In the Regular Army, 
with lucrease of pay for length of serrice, 
as now provided by law for the Regular 

mutary Equifimmt and Inslructora at 
Othfr Schoolt and Collegci. — Such arms, 
tentage, and equipment as the Secretary of 
War BhaL deem necessary for proper mili- 
tary training shall be supplied by the Oov- 
. .. grhools and colleges, having a 

course of mliltai 
the Secretary o" 

regulations as be may prescribe : and the 

Secretary ot War authoriied 

commissioned and i 

detail B 

of the Army to aaid achools and colleges. 

C'Dmpi>alllon of ike VltUio.— The militia 
of the United States sbaU consist of all 
able-bodied male dtiiens of tbe United 
Btates and all other able-bodied males who 
have or shall have decUred tbelr Intention 
to become citizens of the United States. 
who shall be more than 18 yearn of age 
and, not more than 45 years of age, and 
said mlllUa shall be divided Into three 
c lasses, the National Guard, the Naval 
MUItta, and the Unorganised MllltU. 

OompatitioH et the National Ouard. — The 

Notional Guard s*--" '-' -• '-- 

larly enlisted mil 
18 aM 45 yean 

all t 

t ot t 

t between tbe 


Encyclopedic Index 

SnnnpttoiM M« XOiUa Ouitf.— The Vice 
PKiideDt ol the United States ; the offlcen, 
hidldal and cxecntlTe, of the Goveinment 
of the United States and of the Reveral 
8(atM and Territories ; peraone In the mllt- 
UXJ or naval aervlM of the United States ; 
roitoinboaBe clerks ; persons emplojed bf 
the United States In the transmission ot the 
mall : artUlcers and worltnien employed In 
the annoiies, arsenals, and narj yards of 

the United States ; pilots ; ' -"•..-"- 

employed In the sea 

■s actually 

;u,u"..=" "- r^lce 0* 8T citlien 

M merchant vlthin the United States, shall 
be exempt from mlUtla dnty without regard 
— ., and all periona who because of re- 
...i belief ahall claim eiemptloo from 
Itarjr Berrlee. if tbe consdentloua hold- 

preiideDt shall prescribe, shall 

from Dllltla ser-ice in a combatant capa- 

d'-; but no person so "-' -■-" "— 

exempt from militia eerrl — , 
"'t the Presldeat shall declare t< 



d all other military supplies for 

.-atio to the number __ 

Id active service In the National Guard in 
such States and Territories at the date of 

BfMttwentt in ths National Guard.— The 
period of enlistment in the National Guard 
shall be tor six years, the Sret three year* 
of irhlch eball be In an active organization 
and the remalDlng three years in the Na- 
tional Guard Reserve. 

Federal Enlittment Oontraet. — Enlisted 
men in the National Guard of tbe several 
Slates, Territories, and tbe District of Co- 
lumbia now serving under enlistment con- 
■racts which contain an obligation to de- 
fend the ConatitatlDD of the United Slates 
and to obey the orders of the President of 
the United States shall be recognized as 
members of the National Guard ander the 
proviaions of this Act for the unexpired por- 
Hon ol tbelr present enlistment contracts. 
When any sach enllBtment contract does not 
contain HUch obUsatlon, the eollBted man 
shall not be recognized a- ' ' "■" 

OrgoHtaatlon of JlaUtmat Suard Pnfls — 
Except »■ otherwise speclfleally provided, 
the orsiuilaation of the National Guard Is 
the same as that tor the Begalar Army, 
■object in time of peace to snch general ex- 
ceptlonB as may be authorised by the Becre- 
taiT of War. 

irainteHonee of Other Troop* bv the 
Stale*. — No State shall malnUln troops In 
time of peace other than as authorized but 
nothing in this Act shall prevent the main- 
tenance of Btate police or eonitabulary, 

ViMbar 0/ tike XatUmal Guard.— Tbe 
nomber of enUsted men of the National 
Guard to be orsanlied under this act within 
one year from its passage shall be lor each 
Bute in tbe proportion of ZOO such men for 
each Senator and Bepresentatlve In Con- 
insB from snch State, and a number to be 
detennlned by the President for each Ter- 
ritory and the District of Columbia, and 
■hall be Increased each year thereatter In 
the proportion of less than TO per cent 

nnai a total peace strength of not less 
than 800 enlisted men lor each Senator and 
Bepresentatlve in Congress shall have been 

A»tisitm«nt of VaiUmal OnarS to Brt- 
Mdea and DIviaioni. — The President may 
anlgn the National Ooard of the several 
Btatea and Territories and the District of 
Columbia, to divisions, brigades, and other 
tactical units, and may detail offlcer* either 
from the National Guard or the Begular 
Army to t^mmand snch units ^ where com- 
plete nnlts are organised within a State, 
Tirrllory, or the District ol Columbia the 
commanding officers thereof shall not t>e dis- 
placed DD^r the provisions of this sec- 

OMef ot Staff of SaUonal Oiwrd D(- 
vMont. — The President may detail one offi- 
cer of the Regular Army as chief of staff 
and one olBccr of the R^lor Army or the 
National Guard as assistant to the chief 
ot staff of »BT dlvlsloD ot the National 
Qnard In the Bervlee of the Cnlted States. 

AdfutanU OmmtoI of Stales, mo^—AdJu- 
tants geoerml ot tbe StAtea. Terrttorlc*. and 
tbe DMrict of ColuuUa and Uia ofBeaa of 
tbe Hattonal Onard shall make reports ^ 
Ob Secretary of War, as He may pr^cr- 

AnropriatUm, ApporttMimewt, «t* - 
barMBMMl of Fimtt for the KaHenat Ov 
—Honey llMll ' 


oprlated annually for 

_^ . tlonal Guard, indod- 

tng ttw expense ot providing arms, ordnance 
nanm, qaaTtemuater stores, and camp 

tlie tnpport of the N 

National Qua 

in til he B 

■1 token 

for the period already served und 

r the old 

. - do hereby aeknowl- 

eoge 10 have voluntarily enlisted this 

dav of , le — , as a soldier in the 

National Guard of tbe United Btotes and of 

the State of , tor the period ot three 

years In service and three yeors in the re- 
serve, nnder the coaditlons prescribed by 
law, unless sooner discharged by propM 
authority. And I do solemnly swear that 
I wilt bear true faith and alleslance to the 
United States of America and to the State 
of , and that I will serve them hon- 
estly and faithfully sgalnst all their ene- 
mies whomsoever, and that I will obey the 
orders of the President of the United States 

and of the governor of the State ol , 

and of tbe officers appointed over me accord- 
ing to law and the rules and articles of 

oath p 
this Ai 

tional diHiri.— 


:ribed in tbe preceding section of 
Enltated Ken from ths SO' 

., ,.—.-, ted man discharged 

service in the National Guard shall 

receive a discharge In wrltinK In such form 
and with such classification as Is prescribed 
tor the Regular Army. 

Federal Oath for Sattonal Guard Offloerl. 
— Commissioned officers of the National 
Ouard ol the several States, Territories, 
and the District of Columbia now serving 
under commissions regalarir Issued shall 
continue in ofilce, as officers of the National 
Guard, without the Issuance of new com- 
missions : Provided, That said officers have 
taken, or shall take and aubscribe to the 
following oath ol office 

"I. - 

o solemnly swear that I will 

n of the 

a, foreign 
rue faith 

, B^lust all e 

and domestic; that 1 will 6 — 

and allegiance to tbe same ; that I will obey 
tbe orders of the President of ""- "-"--■ 
States and of the go^ 

; that I male 

without any mental reservation or puriHim; 
of evasion, and that I will well and talth- 
tnlly discharge the duties of the office ot 

in the National Guard of tbe United 

States and of the State of upon 

which I am about to enter, ao help me Ood." 

this obliKatloD freely, 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Axmf — Con tf owed. 

Amament, £guipinmt, ani Uniform of 
tha National Ouord.— The Ntttlonal Onanl 
of tbe United 8tat«B sball be uniformed 
■rmed, and equipped with the aanie type or 
unlfDrms, anna, and eQulpmenia oa the Kega- 
lar AnDf. 

The Secretary of War la autborlied to 

Kocare, by porcbBae or manufacture, and 
iaaue to tfie National Quard, opon requl- 
•Itlon of the governors of the Statea nod 
TeprttoriPB or the commanding leneral of 
the National Guard of the T^Btrlct of 
Colnmbla, aueh nnmber of ITnlted States 
■ervice arma, with all acceaaorlea. fleld- 
artUIeiT, materiel, enijlneer, coaat artillery, 
■iKUal, aod sanitary materiel, Bccoutremenla, 
field onifonns, clothing, equipage, publlca- 
dona, and inlUtarir atores of all kinds, 
Inclndtcg public anlmaia, aa are neceeaar; 
to ann, uniform, end equip them for field 

Bona for Oavalrv ani Field Ariilterii of 
national Ouord.— Punda shall be available 
for the purchBBe of horaoa coclormlng to 
the Regular Army ataudarda lor the use at 
Field Artlllenr and Cavalry of the FlatioDal 
Qnard, not to eiceed thirty-two to acy one 
battery or troop, and for the purchase of 
forase, bedding, shoeing, and veterinary 
servlceB, and auppUea for the Qovemment 
horses and rambensatlon ol help for the 
care of malerlai, animals, and equipment, 
men to be oompenaated, not to eiceed five 
for each battery or troop, shall be detailed 
by the battery or troop commander, and 
shall be paid by the United States dlabura- 
iDf officer in each State, Territory, and the 
District of Columbia. 

DiacipUne to Conform to That of Reavfar 
Armv. — The dlaclpllne (which Includes 
training) of the National Guard shall can- 
form to the syatem which la dow or may 
'-'-softer be prescribed for the Regular 
uy, and the training ahall be carried out 
the several States. Territoilee, and t' 

ahall be entitled to the same pay, subsist- 
ence, and transportation as officers and en- 
listed men of correapoDdlng grades of the 
Regular Army. 

Ited number of selected offlcers or 

men of the National Guard to attend und 
pursue a regular course of study at any 
military eervlce school o( the United StBlea. 
except the United BUtea MUitary Academy, 
and shall receive the some pay, allowances, 
and subslatence to which an officer or eu- 
iisted mac of the Regular Army would be 
entitled under orders from proper miiltarr 
authority, while In actual attendance at 
such school, college, or practical course of 
Instruction : in no case shall the pay and 
allowances eiceed thoae of a captain. 

Dttail ot OBictri of RemiUtr Amia to 
Dutv icllh the ^oilonot Guord.— The Efecre- 
tary ol War shall detaU offlcera of the 
active list of the Army to duty with the 
National Guard In each State, Territory, or 
District of Columbia. 

Xational Otiard, When Bubitct to Lato» 

Ooveming Rcaular Army.—Tbe Na" ■ 
Guard when called Bs such Into the s> 

of "■ ■ 


and regulations 

Army, and the training ahall be carried out 
by the several States, Territories, and the 
District ot Columbia. 

Training of tha Jlationat OnatM, — Each 
company, troop, battery, and detachment in 
the National Qnard shall aaaemble for drill 
and Instruction, Including indoor target 
pnicClce. not less than forty-eight times each 
rear, and ahall. In addition thereto, partici- 
pate In encampments, maneavera. or other 
eierclsea, Including outdoor target practice, 
at least fifteen days in training each year. 
Including target practice. 

Inapection of the National Guard. — The 
Secretary of War shall cause an iuspecttoa 
to l>e made at least once each year by In- 
spectors general, and If necessary by other 
officers, of the Regular Army, detailed by 
him for that purpose, to determine whether 
the amount and condition ot the property 
In the hands of the National Gnard la aatla- 
factory ; whether the National Guard Is or- 
ganiied aa hereinbetore prescribed ; whether 
the offlcers and enllated men possess the 
physical and other quallBcations prescribed ; 
whether the organization and the offlcera 
end enllated men thereof are sufficiently 
armed, uniformed, equipped, and being 
trained and Instructed for active duty In 
the field or coast defense, and whether the 
records are being kept In accordance with 
the requirements ot law. 

Eneamamentt and Maneuvtrt. — The Sec- 
retary of War Is authoriied to provide for 
the participation of the whole or any part 
of the National Guard In encampments, ma- 
neuvers, or other eierclses, Including out- 
door target practice, for field or coast-de- 
fetiae Instruction, either Independently or 
In conjunction with any part of the Regu- 
lar Army, and the officer* and enlisted men 
ot woQh National Quard wbU« ao engaged 


the service 

if the United States shall, from the tima 
juired by the terms of the call 
respond thereto, to be subject to the laws 
J ,-.,._. 1 — t^g Regular 

Army, go mr im uucu mnB nod regulation* 

are applicable to oiQcers and enlisted men 
whose permanent retention In the military 
service, either on the active list or on the 
retired list, is Dot contemplated by existing 

fivst«ni of Oourts-tfarHol for Nattontt 
Ouard. — Bicept in organliatlana In the 
service of the United States, courC»-martlaI 
In the National Guard shall he of three 
kinds, namely, general courts-martisl, Hpe- 
clst courts-martlel, and aummary courts- 
martial. They ahall be conatltuted like, 
and have cognliance of the name subjecia, 
and poasess lue powers, eicept as to punlsh- 
menta, as slmUar courts provided for by 
the laws and regulations goreming the 
Army of the United States. 

Fay for Sational Guard Offlcert. — Certain 
commlBsloued officers on the active list be- 
longing to organisations of the National 
Guard of jsach State, Territory, and ~' 

e. Territory, and the Dis- 
partlclpatlng In the ap- 

portionment of the annual appropTlatlan 
for the support of the National »3uard ->■-" 
ensadon for their servlcei 

of the Regular Ai 
elude longevity t 

shall receive not to eiceed one-half of tne 

fay of a captain, eicept that regimental ad- 
itanta and mBjors aoa captains Iq command 
of machine-gun companies, ambulance com- 

fanlea, field hospital companies, or sanitary 
roopa shall receive the pay hereinbefore 
authorised for a captain. 

Fay for Jfollonat Ouard SnJitted Hen. — 
Each enlisted man on the active list be- 
longing to an organliBtion of the National 
Guard of a State. Territory, or the District 
ot Columbia, participating In the appor- 


Encyclopedic Index 



darlnK periods ot service for whleb he ma] 
become lawfully eotltled to tbe aame pa; ai 
■o cntlated tnen of correBpoDdlng grade Ic 
tbe Resular Armr, at a rate equal to ^3 pei 
cent ol the Initial par now provided bv law 
for enllated men of correspoDdliig Bradea of 
Um Eegnlar Armr. 

Satlaital Guanl When Drafted Into Fed- 
eral Bertrlee. — Wtien CouEresa aball hare au- 
tborlied tbe Dee ot tbe armed land forcea 
«f the Dnlted Statea, tor any purpoae re- 
qntilng tbe U*e ot troopa In eiceBs of tboee 
ot tbe Begnlar Aimr, tbe President ma; 
dcaft Into Qie mllltarr servlire of the United 
States, to serve therein tor tbe period of 
the war naleM soooer dlrcharseii, r " 

and allowanres as offlcere and enllateil 

ot the Begralnr Army of the same grades and 

the same prior serrlce. 

Slahta to Petulani. — When any offlcer or 
enlisted man of tbe NntloDBl Guard drafted 
Into the service of the United States In time 
of war is disabled by rtaaon ot wonndi or 
dlrablUtr received or incurred while In tbe 
active service of tbe United Statee In tims 
or war, be shall be entitled to all the beneQta 
of the tienslDo laws existing at the time of 
his service, and In case Bnch oHlcer or en- 
listed man dies In the active service of the 
United States In time ot war or In return- 
Ins to his place ot residence after being mus- 
tered oat ot such service, or at any other 
time la consequence of wounds or disabili- 
ties received in Buch active service, his 
widow and children. It any, shall be entitled 
to all the bnieflts ot such peoalon laws. 

Eneotiragtmtnt of Rifle PracUce. — Tbe 
Beeretary ot War shall annually anbmlt to 
CaDzresa recommendations and estimates for 
tbe establlabment and maintenance ot in- 
door and outdoor rifle ranges. 

Phytical Btamlruiiion. — Every oDcer and 
enlisted man of the National Guard who 
•hall be eaUed Into tbe service ot the Unlteil 
Btatea as such shall be eiamlned as to bia 
physical fitness. 

SoneompliaHee with Federal Aet. — When- 
ever any State shall, within a limit of time 
be died by the President have failed c 

'used to comr'- — —' ■ -- 
,_lremeaC of tbl 
uolgated tber^i 

a- the Prealden 
e NBtlonat Gl„. 

debarred, vtholly or In part, a 
dent mar direct, from recefvlua 
United States any pecuniary or 
benefit, or privilege snthorlied o 

and equipment, end what saving has hi 

to the Oovermnent by reason of Its having 
manufactured a large part ot its own anna. 
munitions, and equipment for tbe last four 

InvettlaaUon (Joneernfoff liedalt of 
Honor. — A board to conslBt of five general 
officers on tbe retired list of the Army aball 
be convened by the Secretary of War wltbln 
sixty days after the approval ot this Act, 
for the purpose ot InveatlgatlnB and re- 
porting open paat awarda or iaauei of the so- 
called congreislonal medal of honor by or 
through tbe War Department; this with a 
view to ascertain what medals ot honor, it 
any, have been awarded or issued for any 
cause other than dlatlngolahed conduct by 

— „!■ — ii_.._j jq action Involving 

lemy by sucb offlcer 

„. „ _j _jops with which be 

was serving at the time ot such action. And 

'~ my case In which said board shall And 

. report that said medal w" " " ' — 

o mlUtlB o 

rablllty. and practicability ot tbe 

so Issued shall be St.. ._ . . - . - 

the otBclal medal of honor llsl. It shall be 
a misdemeanor for him to wear or publicly 
display said medal, aDd. If he shall still be 
in the Army, he shall be reqnlred to return 
•aid medal to the War Department for can- 
cellatlDn. Said board shall have fall and 
free access to and use of all records pei^ 
taining to the award or issue ot medals of 
honor by or through the War Department. 
The actual and necessary eipenies ot said 
board and Its members shall be paid out of 
any appropriations available tor contingent 
eipensea ot the Army of the War Depart- 

, _, ,, jrls antborisedtc ,.., 

>r purchase snch gauges, dies, jigs, tools, Oi- 
turcs, and other special aids and appliances, 
Inclndtng specifications and detailed draw- 
ings, as may be necessary for tbe immediate 
manufacture, by the Qovemment and by pri- 
vate mannfactnrera, of arms, ammuultlon. 
and special equipment neceeaary to arm and 
equip the land forces likely to be required 
by the United States io time ot war. 

Xitratt Supply. — The President of the 
United States is authorized to make such 
investigation as Is necessary to determine 
the best, cheapest, and most avaUabie i 

— aland Jorce and not to~ the Naval Mill 

N'aval Mllltia may be credited to tbe extent 
of the number thereof In the quota that 
would otherwise be required. 

Inteitlgation at to Oavenment Uaaiit- 
ftetars Of Amu, Btc. — The Secretary of 
War Is BDthorlied to appoint a board of five 
eltlxena, two of whom shall be civilians and 
three or whom shall be officers of the Army, 
to investigate and report ti ' ' " - ■ 
bllity, denrablllty. and prac 
Government manutactnrlng i 
and equipment, show'-- "^ 

comparative prices o. — . _ 

and equipment manufactured lu Ooi 

plants and those manufactured in (.ikblo 

Kints. the amonnt of money necessary to 
lid and operate Oovemment plants for 
the manufactnre ot arms, munitions, and 
equipment ; showing also what the Oovem- 
ment plants and arsenals are now doing la 

I and other 

tto manufarturiTonertriiie 

ful products by water power or any other 
power : and to acquire and designate tor tbe 
exclusive use of the United SUtes snch site 
or Bites, upon any river or upon tbe public 
lands, as In his opinion will be necessary tor 
carrying out the purposes of tiiis act i and 
to construct, maintain, and operate dams, 
locks. Improvements to navigation, power 
houses, and other plants and equipment nec- 
essary or convenient for the generation of 
electrical or other power and for the pro- 
duction of nitrates or other products needed 
for munitions of war and useful in the man- 
ufacture of fertilisers aud other useful 

The sum of 120,000.000 Is appropriated, 
available until expended, to enable tbe Presi- 
dent ot the United States to carry out tbe 
purposes provldetl for. The plant or plants 
provided for shall be constructed and^oper- 
ated solely by tbe Oovemment and not In 
conjunction with any other Industry or en- 
terprise carried on by private capital. 

Protection of the Uniform. — fi shall be 
unlawful for any person not an officer or 
enlisted man of tbe United States Army. 
Navy, or Uariue Corp*, to wear the duly 


Messages and Papers of the Presidettts 

Amy — f? on Knued. 

prescribed aoUonn d( tlie United Statea 

Anuy, Navr, or Marine Corp" "■" 

**--"— ' of BUct uniform, 

Corps, or an; dta- 

form, or a uniform 

anj part of whlcb U similar to b distinctive 

Birt of the duly preacrihed uniform of the 
nlted States Army, Navy, or Marine Corps, 
excepting Boy Scouts and boDorably ol>- 
charged Boldlera. 

Any permn who otTenda against the pro- 
Tlslons ot this section shall, on couTlction, 
be punished by a fine not eiceedlng 1800, o( 
by Imprisonment not eiceedlnr sli months, 
or by both such fine and Imprisonment. 

A soldier after four years' contlnnoos 
service, ellher under a Orat or auy subse- 
quent enlistment, may be re-enllgted for 
seven years and receive a final dlacbarge 
from bis prior enlistment, or after three 
years' continuous service may, upon his 
wrlltcn request, be tnrlouehed and trans- 
ferred to the Beserve. Enlistment periods 
for service pay are counted as four yean. 
First enllsImentH are confined to men be- 
tween tbe BEes of 16 sod B5 years. All 
■oldlera receive. In addition to their pay, 
rations, clotblng. bedding, and medical at- 
tendan -'■ '•■■ "■ ' — 

lowlnc bi ■ compTete ifst of tbe com- 
manders of the army since ITTB, together 
with their respective ranka and the period 

B 17. 177B, 

28, 1768, to 

r), Jane 20, 


, March 4. 

April 18, 

. Dec 10, 

>Q, July 13, 

Gen. Alexander Hamilton, Dec. 14, 
o June IS. ISOO. 
Brig. -Gen. James Wllkiiwaa, June IS. 
1800, to Jan, 27. 1812. 

Mal-Oen. Henry Dearborn. JkiL 27, 1S12. 
10 Inne IS, 181S. 

Uat -Oen. Jacob Brown, June 19, 181B, 
to Feb. 24, 182S. 
MaJ.-Gen. Alpiaodcr Hacomb. Hay 39, 

Mr], -Gen. George Brlnton McClellan, Not. 
I, ISni, to March 11. 1802. 

Ual.-Gen. Henry Wager Halleek, Jul* 28. 
1862. to March 9, 1864. 

Ren. ITIvHses Simpson Grant March 9, 

1. Phllln Henry 

equipment consult the Index references to 
the Presidents' Messages and the Encyclo- 
pedic articles under the following headings : 

herldan, Not. 1, 1888, 

lister Schofleld. 
on Miles, Oct. 6, 

. Toung, Anf. 8, 

ree, Jan. 9, 1901. 

Lleut.-Oeo. Arthur UcArthur, Bept. IS, 
1006, to June 2. 1909, when he was retired 
under the operation ot tbe law. and tbs 

wbtch are arranged alphabetically. 

ClTll War. Military Education. 

Forttfloitlons. Revolutionary War. 

Indian Wars. Span lab -American 

Mexican War. War. 

Military Academy. War Department 

Military Departments. Wars, Foreign. 

Amy (iee also Arms and Ammimitloa; 
Aneoals; Militia; War Depart- 
Abseuee of soldiers of, orders and 
proelamatiou regarding, S320, 3364. 

Depriving President of command 
□f, discnssed, 3670. 
Bepeal of, recommended, 3ST1. 
Fixing military eBtabllshinent ve- 
toed, 203. 
Making certain debts of aoldiers, 

lien against pa^, 4672. 
Providing for additional medical 
officers in volunteer service ve- 
toed, 3269. 

Annnities for families of deceased 
soldiers recommended, 442S. 

Appointments in, 2134. 

Appropriations for. (See War De- 

Artillery tacties tor, prepared, 027. 

Asylum for aged and disabled mem- 
bers of . (See Soldiers' Home.) 

Barracks, permanent, for, 1754. 

Battalion formation in, recommenda- 
tions regarding, 5631, 587S, 6967. 

Brevet appointments in, 3SS2. 

Brevet rank — 

Conferred for services in Indian 

wars, 200S. 
Discussed, 1002, 2559. 

Cavalry tactics for, prepared, 927. 

Certificate of merit granted enlisted 
men, additional pay to, 4735. 

Changes in, 6669, 6670, 6SD4. 

Chaplains for hospitals, 3249. 

Clothing accounts of enlisted men in, 
referred to, 4660. 
Manufactured in United States, re- 
ferred to, 635, 6S5. 

Command and rank in. (See Officers 
of, po«(.) 

Commanders of. (See Encyclopedic 
Index article, Army.) 

Commanding officers and men 
praised by Boosevelt, 6693. 

Conduct of, in Mexican War, dis- 
cussed, 2461. 

Courts -martial in. (Bee Courts-Mar- 
tial; Courts, Military.) 

Deserters from — 

Efficiency of, 667, 6671, 6805. 
Pardons granted. (See Pardons-) 
Shot, referred to, 2287. 


Encychpet^ Index 


Amy— oomMmmL 
DmertionB in — 
Dieeussea, 4933. 

Legislation regAfding militarv Stat- 
ute of limit&tioni as applied to, 
recommended, 4&S4. 
Portion of pay witblield so aa to 

prevent, 871. 
B«daetioa in, 6SS0, 5031. 
Diseaued by President — 
Adams, J. Q., 871, 925, 953. 
Arthur, 4638, 4724, 4832. 
develaud, 4Q32, 6099, 5373, SS77, 

S988, 8158. 
Orant, 406S, 4147, 4S02, 4248, 4304, 

EarriBon, Benj., 55S0, 6631, 5754. 
Hayes, 4424, 4461, 4524, 4569. 
Jackson, 1166, 1251, 1332, 1387. 
Jefferson, 317, 333, 373, 394. 
Johnion, 3561, 3649, 3773, 38S1. 
Liucoln, 3249. 

UeKinley, 6320, 6341, 6385, 6449. 
Madison, 461, 471, 479, 490, 513, 

G33, 638, 549. 
Monroe, 619, 680, 767, 780, 823. 
Pierce, 2748, 2819, 2941. 
Palk, S260, 2276, 2481. 
Boosevelt, 6669, 6693, 6721, 6999, 

7068, 7110, 7234. 
Taft, 7371, 7428, 7613, 7616. 
Tyler, 1942, 2121. 
Van Bnren, 1607, 1764. 
Washington, 62, 67, 76, 114, 118, 

Wilson, 8108. 
Edneation in, 4570, 5879, 6669. 
Electione, interference in, by, in- 
quired into, 1315. 
Prohibited, 3866. 
Enlisted men in, limits of punishment 

for, 5602, 6034. 
Enlogy on the army of the United 
Btates by President Boosevelt, won 
by their gallantry and efficiency in 
the Cuban and Philippine cam- 
paigns, 6693, 6921. 
Executions in, contrary to law, re- 
ferred to, 636. 
Expenditures of. (See Finances; War 

Reld MantEUvetfl of, 6670, 6927, 6999. 
General Staff of, 6670, 6805, 7069. 
Imprisonment of American citizens 

by officers in, referred to, 4009. 
Increase in, 1714, E553. 

Beeommended, 429, 534, 538, 1473, 
1606, 2276, 2354, 2559, 2623, 2666, 
2714, 2748, 2819, 2830, 2941, 

Increased pay for officers and men of, 

urged, 7492. 
Indian campaigns. (See Indian Wars.) 
ladiatu enlisted in, diseussed, B0S1, 

Insane asylum for. (See Oovem- 

ment Hospital for Insane.) 
Inspector-Oeneral of. (Elee Inspector- 

Qenaral of Army.) 
Intoxicating liquors, order prohibit- 
ing sale of, in, 4692. 
LftndH granted persons who have 
aerved in. (See liands. Bounty.) 
Large standing, unnecessary in time 
of peace, 317, 1389, 1607, 1901, 
2E63, 2733. 
Legislation for, referred to, 3585. 
Measures for efficiency of, recom- 
mended, 4148, 4248, 4304. 
Medical Corpe — 

Improvement of, urged, 7111. 
Beeommended, 4148. 
Medical Department of, reorganiza- 
tion of, referred to, 3282. 
Mileage system, repeal of law aboL 

ishing, recommended, 4304. 
Military establishment act vetoed, 

Military peace establishment dis- 
cussed, 680, 2453, 3S61, 3881. 
Military statute of limitations 

against desertere, 4524. 
Modern rifles for, recommended, 5631. 
Nominati ons — 
Correspondence regarding, 2269, 

E367, 2368, 243& 
Beasons therefor, 1773, 2296, 2367, 

2368, 2370. 
Withdrawn, 695. 
Northwestern, referred to, 602. 
Number of men and officers in, re- 
ferred to, 3578. 
Office of In^ctor-Qcneral In. (See 

Inspector-General of Army.) 
Officers and soldiera of temporary, 

discharged, 298. 
Officers of — 

Absence of, orders and proclama- 
tion regarding, 3320, 3364. 
Accounts ofi'referred to, 806. 
Additional grades of, 2632. 
Annuities for families of deceased, 

recommended, 4304, 4382, 4461. 
Appointmente and promotions, bre- 
vet rautc discussed, 1002, 2559. 
Appointments and promotions of, 
1773, 2269, 2296, 2367, 2388, 
Recommendatione regarding, 
5099, 6374. 
Assignments of, to duty referred 

to, 3268. 
Brevet rank conferred upon, for 

service in Indian wars, 2008. 
Brevetted, 811. 
Commissions of brevet and staff, 

referred to, 2559. 
Details o^ to colleges and univer- 
sities, from retired list recom- 
mended, 4570. 
Increase in number of, re com- 
mended, 11^ 490, 604. 



Messages and Papers of_ ike Presidents 

Law antboriEing ntlromeot of, 

whea iueompeteiit, 2621. 
Zietter of John Bandolph, jr., de- 
manding that ceTtain, be ptm- 
iahed for inBolting, 2Q1. 
Pay of — 
Eqaalization of, witli naval of- 

fieerg diBCQBBed, 1254. 
Inequality in, between naval of- 
cers and, discnsBed, 1023. 
Queetion of restraining, from 
nsnrping powers of civil fiwc- 
tionaries, referred to, 2632. 
Belative rank of — 
Befened to, 1773, 2633. 
With officeTB of N&vy referred 
to, 202J, 2633, 2669, 2714, 3240. 
Betired list of — 
Details for colleges and nniver- 
sities from, recommended, 4570. 
Becommended, 2624, 2714, 2871, 

Bepeal of act limiting ntunbers 
on, recommended, 4425. 
Organization of, report relating to, 

transmitted, 995. 
Pardone granted deB«rterB. (8e« Par- 
Partial reorganization of, 2878. 
Pay of— 

In depreciated paper, 1315. 
Increase in, discnssed, 2819, 7492. 
Bevision of, recommended, 1475. 
Payment of, resolution providing for, 

approved, 3350. 
Promotion in, 6670, 6999, 7000. 
Provision for support of. (Bee War 

Provision for aged horses, 6722. 
Punishment for enlisted men in, 

limits of, S602, 6034. 
Qnarterm aster- Qeneral of, fireproof 
building for records in ofBce of, 
recommended, 4514. 
Quartermaster's Departmenti appolnt- 

msnts in, referred to, 1773. 
Bank and command in. (8ee offlcera 



Beading matter for, recommenda- 
tions, regarding, 442S, 4451. 
Beduction in, referred to and dis- 
cussed, 549, 698, 705, 3561, 3881. 
Be-enlistment after 10 years, repeal of 
law forbidding, recommended, 587S. 
Befened to, 631, 3578, 3585. 
Eegulations — 
Compiled by General Bcott, 795. 
Orders promulgating, 6602, 6034. 
Beferred to, 442S. 
Be organization of, 6671. 
Commission to report npon^ 
Appointed, 4352. 
Beferred to, 4376. 
Time to report, eztonslon of, rec- 
ommended, 4361. 

Becommended, 2S72. 
Beport regarding, transmitted and 
investigation into referred to 
with a view to proper action in 
the matter, 291. 
Bepeal or amendment of act forbid- 
ding use of, as poue oomitatitt rec- 
ommended, 4452. 
BLSe for use of, 6159. 
Adoption of, recommended, 5631. 
Selected, 5878. 
Bnlea and regnlationa compiled by 

General Scott, 595. 
School bnildings for posts of, recom- 
mended, 4451. 
Size of, 6669, 6671, 6721, 6927, 6994. 
SmokeleBB powder recommended, 5631. 
Staff corps of, recommondations re- 
garding, 1606, 1754, 3994, 4102, 
4202, 4248. 
Subsistence Department, appropria- 
tion tor, recommended, 4304. 
Snbsistenco of, referred to, 594, 706. 
Sunday, observance of, by, enjoined 

by President Lincoln, 3326. 
Surgeon- General of. (See Suigeon- 

General of Army.) 
Transportation of, from Conncil 

BlufFs to Oregon Biver, 795. 
Volunteers for, acceptance of, en- 
couraged, 416, 429. 
Army and Kavy Forcoa, mobilized on 
borders of Mexico to protect interests 
of citizens of United States during 
uprising, 7650. 
Axmy Modlcal Department. 

Enlargement of, 6935, 6936, 7000. 
Bank of officers in, 7000. 
Army Medical Uusevm, building for, 

recommended, 4572, 4760, 4833. 
Army Ordnance Department. — Enlarge- 
ment of, 6936. 
AroOBtOok War.— Between 1S37 and 1639 
the settled boundary between Ualne and 
New Brunswick cnme near leading to ac- 
hostlUdesoD the Aroostook River. The 
_rnor of Maine sent troops to drive off 
he Intruders and erect fortlfl cations, and 
CoDgrcss authorised the President to resist 
■^e encroachments of the British. Presl- 
mt Van Bnren sent Gen. Scott to the 
«ne, who arranged s trnce. and It was 
rrecd tbat tbe countrr should be occupied 
■ ■■ • ■ idlQg sdJiistnieTiC of 

lue uonndnr7, wbtch was TleDnltely seitled 
Aug. 9, 1S42. br the Ashburton treaty 
(pages 1733, 1T38, 1T4T). 

Aroostook, Tbs, claim of owners of, for 

compensation in searching for bodies 

and property lost in steamer Oneida, 


Ananala. — Armories and srsensls were not 

establlsbed In the United States until the 

beglnnlDg of the Eevolutlonsry War. In 

17T6 powder was manufactured In Virginia 


Encyclopedic Indrx 

Anautlt CoaUHmtO, 

nd braiw onnoD nen cut In Ptatladetiihta. 
An anrnal wai eslabllBhi>d at Carlisle, I'a., 
the mme jear. WaihlDgton Id ITTT cboas 
SpriDgfield. Mam., as a suitable toratlan 

farluml thpre la 1T8T. Tbia esUbllHb- 
mpDt. DOW the cblef amall arms maDutsc- 
loiy, baa a capai^ltr of 1.000 rifles per da;. 
The arsenal at Harpers Ferry, W. Va., was 
toKDD In 1T9S, and tram that time tba 
n<in]l>er iraa grndimllr IncrenBcd antll 1860, 
<rben tbere were 2a arwoals acnttered over 
tbe coDDtry. Tbe prlnciunl onea at preaeot 
Iti ose are at AncualB. Oa. : Brnlcla. Cal. : 
FtanUord. Pa.; SpringflMd. Uaas. : Oov- 
emora Island, N. \. : Rock Island. HI.; 
Baa Antonio, Tea. ; DoTcr, V. J. : Waler- 
town, Mass., and Watervllet. N. t. Ord- 
aance, arma. aoiDiDDltlon. and accoutcr- 
nents are mannrartDrcd at man; of tbeae 
plaoea, the '■"— ■--■-- '- -■ — -- — •■ •- - 
<p«rlai llni 

lablEsbmenl __ _._ 

manntBCture ot beavy ordnance, „ 

and aasomblins ofKuns are carried an at 
Bock Island and ^nicla, as well as tbe 
makinic of leather aooda. Naval guns and 
projectiles are made at Waahlnzton, D. C. 

Angnstft, Oa., referred to, 893. 
Erection of, and armories on Western 
waters referred to, 706, 781, 808, 
Establiabment of, recomraended to 
ntilise tbe iron mines and works 
at Berkeley and in tbe Btate of 
Vii^nia, 99. 
In the Soutb, 3Z3. 
Frankford, Pa., arsenal at, referred 

to, 4661. 
Looatioii for magazines, referred to, 

Bepleniabment of, Tecommeoded, 255. 
Bock Island Arsenal, appropriation 

for, recommended, 4680, 4738. 
Sale of, not nsed by OoTerntnent rec- 
ommended, 3994, 4149, 4362. 
Bcbaylkill .^rsenal, appropriation for, 

recommended, 4785. 
Bites for — 

Appropriation for, 772. 
Beferred to, 178, 2896, 4148. 
Art. (See Science and Art.) 
Art Exbtbltlaii. (See International Ex- 
hibition of Fine Arts.) 
Artltnr, ObaBtez A.— Bept 20, ISBl-UanA 

3, 1886. 
Twenty-fonrth Ad mini (t ration (continued) — 

Becrttary ef Slate— 

Jimes C. B'alne (continued). 
F. i.'. FrellnghDyaen. 
Bteretani of the J'reoaury — 
Willlarr —'-'-— ' — • 
Cbarlci ,. . -._--. 
Walter Q. Orcnham. 
Hugh UcCDllocb. 
SeBTilorn et War — 

Robert T. Lincoln (conttnoed). 
Beerelary of the Socv — 

William B. nnnt (contlnned). 
William F: Chandler. 
Btcretary of tht ' 


Thomas L.. Jamei (contlDoed). 

Timothy O. Howe. 

Waiter Q. Oreiham, 

Frank Halloo. 
i. tiomey- Q enera I— 

Wayne UncVeagh (continued). 

Benjamin U. Brewster. 
Arthur was tbe foorth ylcc-prealdeot to 
■ucceed to tbe office of President through 
Ibe death of the Incnmlirnt : and tbe aecond 
to succeed Ihrough death by assasalQatlon. 
He took the oath of olSce In Now York city 
Sept. ^0, 1S81. Arthur continued mosl of 
Garfield's appointees ea beads of depart- 

Patia AfflUaHon. — President Artbnr early 

received strong antl-slayery a.— " ' 

his father, wno took part li 
tlon, at Ullca Id 183(j. ot toe anii-siaTery 
Boclety. Ur. Artbur In bis law practice 
took an aclive pari as counsel In scTeial 
cases in which the rlgbta of colored people 
were concerned. He became a Henry Clay 
Whig and cast hia llrst vote for General 
Scott In 18Q2. He was present at tbe Re- 

SnbllcsD conTcnlloa at Baratoga aad. In 
S5Q. took an active part In the Fremont 
campaiRn, From 1862 to ISTZ, while en- 
gaged In hla law practice. Ceneral Artbur 
took an active part In politics. 

Pvbtio i>«lit.— The public debt ot tbe 
United States daring the administration of 
President Arthur stood as tollowB : July 1. 
1881, tl,819.n50,lG4.£:) : 18S2. Sl.aTS.023.- 
4T4.2S: 188:1. tl.G38.T81,82S.lS : 1881. 

In bis Klrst Annual Uessage (page 483G) 

tlonai iQdebti'dnesB : 

If It continaea It a 

jdo - 

.. th 

I is now taking place 
LSe ot congratulation 1 
■ serlouH apprebeasion. 
t speedily be followed 
I clearly set forth in 

the report of the S. _ . _ . . 

surplus must He Idle In the Treasury or 
the Government will be forced to buy at 
market rates Its bonda not then redeemable. 

,.„._„ eipcndllur,. 

has tauRbt, is ever the bane of a 
flowing treasury." In bis Third 
Message (page 4765) he said: "Tl 

rapidity attainable." 

TaHft. — In his First Annnal Message 
(page 4636) the President says : "The 
tarltr laws also need revision: but, that a 
due regard may be paid to the conlllctlng 

the Scrretary ot the Trpi.,-.„. 

less lighten tbe labors of Congreas whenever 
this subject shall be brought to Us consid' 
erttlon." In his Second Annua! Mesnage 
(page 4722) be says: "The present tariff 
system Is In man^ renpects unjust. It makes 

of II 

a practically i 


Messages mid Papers of the Presidents 

Artlmr, Olustor A.— CtrnHnHcd. 

tlie Tarlir ComtDlnion. ... If ft een- 
eral revlaloo of tbe Isrllt atuill be loiiDd to 
be Impncticable at tbls KHton. I eipreu 

Dntcb ■(■Ddard of color !■ adopted u tbe 
teat of tbe Mccbarlue strenftb of Bonn 1> 
too obvloDR to regulre comment." In til» 
Fonrtb Aoonal Hesujce (page 4S3S)) be 
•■n: "The healthfal enlargement of onr 
trade witb Earope Asia, and Africa abouid 
be ■ought b7 redaclDg tariff bardens on mch 
of tbetr warea as neither we nor tba other 
Amerlma Btatea are Btted to produce, and 

raw materlaia. and of ( 

la to me Ibat man; 

menta tn tbe great 

en protection and 

free trade ma; thna be tamed to food ac- 
count : Ibat tbe revenue may be reduced ao 
aa no loiiKer to overtax the people ; tbat pro 
tectlTe duller mar be retained wjtbont be- 
coming bQrdenaome: thai onr ablpplug In- 
terests mar be }adlclou»lT encouraged, the 
eorrencT flied on Ann baaen. and. abo*e all. 
aacb a anlty of Interesta establlabed among 
tbe Stales of tbe American a^Btem aa will 
be of great and ever-lDcreaslDg adTantage 
to tbem all." 

Btandard Time.— President Artbur called 
Ml International conference to eatabllab a 
nnlTcraal meridian from wblcb to reckon 

time thtoaKboat 

— lona partlclpBt _ 

■ held at_ Waablngton In, October, li8\ 

Lted In tbe conference, wblcb 

■Dd the merldlnn of 'OreeQWlcb was'agrenl 
upon (pagea 4T18. 4800, 482T. 4641, BISO). 
Tbia followed the dlvlalon of tbe United 
Btalea Into fonr time bcciIods. 

Civil 8ervire.—\D bla First Annual Mpi- 
aage (page 4648) ttie President fully dla- 
cuseea tbe Civil Service. He repeats his 
*lewa as set forlb In bis letter of acceptance 
of the nomlnallon of Ibe Vice-Presidency ; 
describes tbe salient features of tbe English 
■yslem : and eelecta from It anch elements 
aa he deema applicable to American condi- 
tions. Among these are: A practically 
llfe-Iennre of office; limitation of age below 
middle life ; and a retiring allowance. Com- 

fctltlve eiamlnatlon before appointment for 
tnesB, and promotion on etBclency. are 
. , g( h^ plan^_ In bla Beer—' 

anual Mesaage (page 4T33). In urging BC- 

"- -lid: "In the Jndg- 

D tare given study 

tlon by Congress, he aald : "In the J 

offices In I 

Star RenU THato.— Early ] 
admlnlatratlon public attention iibb uiiB^>m 
lo the Indictment In WaablnctoD of John W. 
Doney. John H. Peck. John R. Miner, 
Stephen Dorsey. U. C. RerdeU, Thomaa J. 
Brady. William n. Tnmer and J. L. Sander- 
sou tor conspiracy to defraud the goTern- 
ment In bids tar mall service. (See Star 

iHteriKil Impr^vtMOtta. — Prcalitent Ar- 
thur B atillude toward this greai guestlon la 
shown by hli Flist Annual Ueaaage (page 
4040) where tie said : "I advise appropria- 
tions tor such internal Improvements as the 
wisdom of Congreas may deem lo be of 
pnbllc Importance. The neceaalty of Im- 

B roving the navigation of the Hlsalsslpnl 
Iver Jnstlflea a special altusloa to tbe anb- 
Ject I suggest the adoption of Bome 
measure tor tbe removal of obstmetlons 
wblcb now Impede the naTlgalloD of that 

treat channel of commerce. On Aug. 1, 
B82. (he Prealdent withheld bis algUHtare 
from a rlver-and-liarbor bill approprlatinx 
the sum of tlS.T43.S75. In doing so be 
■aid (page 4T0T) : "My principal oblectloQ 
to the bill Is tbat It contalna appropriations 
for purposes not for tbe common defense or 
general welfare, and which do not promote 
commerce among the States. These pro- 
visions, on the contrary, are entirely for 
Ibe beaeOt of the particular localities tn 
wbldi It la proposed to make tbe Improve- 
ment a, I regard such appropriation of 
the pnbllc money as beyond tbe powers 
given by Ibe CaDBtltallon to Congreas and 
tbe Prealdent" On Aug. 2, 1S82. tfala bill 
waa passed by Congreea over tbe President's 
veto. In this connection It Is worthy of 
note Chat In three of bla annual messsee* 
(pagea 4725. 4TT4, and 4S39) _tbe I^aldei 

won Id permit Hie 

and resection ti 

outgrown Ibe provisions wnicn lae 
'■"1 bas eatabllebed for filling toe mmui 
,.-«> In Ibe pnbllc service. Full and 
reful BtellsIiCB, of removals and appoint 

„ A code of rulea 

regulating the conduct ol civil service em- 
ployees waa promulgated by Fliecntlve order 
(page 4T48I under authority ot the civil 
service act of 1SR3, Thla code was further 
aupplemenlpd and amended by another order 
(page 4734) under the same authority. 
These rules and the report of the ClvU 
Service CommlBSlon are referred to (page 
4T73) In the Prealdent's Third Annnal Hes- 
sage. Id speaking of tbe eTects of the 
Civil fiorvlce reform, tbe President says 
(page 4839) In bla Fourtb Annual Heaaage: 
"Tbe system has fully answered the ex- 
pectations of Its friends In securii 

.^„ „ or'tbe 

1 the pressure of personal 

Importunity and from tbs labor of ezam- 
tatng tbe claims and pretenalons of rival 
cMtoMatt* toi pnbllc employnwnt." 

ended Ihi ,. 

tional amendment w 

President to assent 

to veto other parts, witooui oemg ooiigea 

to velo the entire bill on account of one or 

two objectionable point*. 

Arthur, CHestei A.: 

Annual messageB of, 4624, 4713, 4757, 

Biograpliical sketch of, 4618. 
Bland' Allison Act diseiiMed ^>j, knd 

recommeudations regarding) 4633, 

4720, 4830. 
Civil service diicnsaed by, 4647, 4732, 

4748, 4754, 4773, 4S39, 4663. 
Cbllector of port of New York, ras- 

pension of, discussed, 4463. 
Constitutional amendment regarding 

approvftl of separate items of bill 

and veto of others recommended 

by, 4725, 4774, 4840. 
Death of, annonneed and honors to be 

paid memory of, GOSl, 5082. 
Death of President Gu^eld — 

Annonneed to, and reply of, 4604. 

Diseosaed by, 4620, 4624. 
Finances discDssed by, 4032, 4719, 

4763, 4829. 
Inatignral address of, 4S20. 
Internal improvementB diacnased by, 

Oath of office administered to, 4615. 
Portrait of, 4618. 

Powers of Federal and State Govern- 
ments diaensaed by, 4707, 4771, 



Encyclopedic Index 

PioelanuitioiiB of — 
Dt; of moarninK in memor; of 

Piesident Oarfleld, 4621. 
Discriminating dnties on vewels 
from Gnbs &nd Puerto Sico bub- 
pended, 4810. 
Duties on foreign -veisela Buspeiid- 

ed, 4871, 4872. 
Extr&ordinarj seBBion of SenAt«, 

4621, 4873. 
Bnndredtb unniveraur of snr- 
reader ty Washington of com- 
mission ma Commander-in-Chief, 
Qnarantine regnlations, 4812. 
Thanksgiving, 4623, 4710, 4746, 

Treaty with Great Britain, tenni- 

nation of, 4867. 
Unaatborized occnpanc.r of lands 

in Indian Territory, 4811. 
Unlawful combination in Utah, 


World's Indnstrial and Cotton 

Centennial Exposition, 4746. 

State of the Union discnsaed by, 4S2S. 

TarifF discussed by, 4636, 4721, 4839. 

Thanksgiving proclamations of, 4623, 

4710, 4746, 4812. 
Veto messages of — 
Chinese immigration, 4699. 
Passengers by sea, 4 70S. 
Belief of Fitz-John Porter, 4808. 
Bivers and Harbors, 4707. 
Discussed, 4724. 
AtUcIm of Oonfvdwatloii, 8. 

Signers of, 13. 
ArtHlmT.— The hlstorr of ■rtUlery begins 
■bartlj after the Invenllim of gunpowder. 
It wts used bj the Uoors of Algeclrai, In 
Bptln, la 1343, and Edward 111 bad four 
muMns at Crecf )n 1346. Dnring the bIi- 
IrcDth eentnr; brass gnns and fast-Iron 
projMtlln were adopted throughout Eu- 
rope. GastavtM AdolphOB. Bwedpu's great- 
t«t warrior. Introdaced t"— >—••-" — — 
Mm aad redticed the aw 
nmce Id Earope. Napoli 
U> mtlltarr saccess to dib biui to me 
muUpsIalloD o( artlllerf. In his wars are 
Hen the Drat Important effects of Ibe eon. 
ccnlTStk>D ot Ore. whioh In those days 
coDld onir be prodnced b; tbe roasalug o( 
rmc. Napoleon III made a apecEal atndr 
at tbe sabject of artillprr. sad tbe treatise 
began and nalnlr written b; blm is a 
•tandard work on the aabJecL During tbe 
CWl War Gen- WtTIIam F. Barrj did much 
to ImproTe the organliatlon ' 

«od 48,000 I 


mental orgsDlEallan c 

— •■' "—ed and 

as the _ 

_. -J batteries of field artlllerr 

and 128 batteries of toast artJllerr. The 
oDnn of the artillery coTps are a Chief ot 
Arttllerr, to serre on the stall of the 
. — — Handing the 

artlllerj t 

paj of regimental sargeants-major of 

iiry : and twentj-seren lergeanta- 

major with rank, par and allowance of 
battalion seweants-inajor of Infantry. The 
aggiHite of enllated men must not ex- 
ceed S.418 for the Held artllletr and 18.471 
for the coaat anlllerr. (See alao Arm;; 
Arsenals; Arms and Ammunition.) 
Artillery School of Practlco at Fortress 

Monroe, Va., 940. 
ArtlatB, Foreign, tariff discriminations 
against, 4794, 4824, 4924, 5091, fiSOl. 
Arundel HannscriptB, copy of, placed in 

Library of Congress, 1445. 
Arre, The, seizure of, bj Haitian au- 
thorities, 26S0. 
Ashburton Treaty. — A treatr condnded 
at Washington, Aug. 9, 1842, between 
Great Britain and the United Btates. It 
was negotiated by Lord Ashburton end 
Daniel Webster. It settled the loae-dlft- 

BDted boandarr Una between tbe United 
tatee and Canada. The former secured 
about seTcn-twelftha of the tcrrltorr which 
had been claimed b; Iwtb countries, pro- 
vision was also made by riir^ tr/>niv fnr ttia 
aappressloD ot tbe slS' 
natual eitradltlon of (_„... ._ _. 
--- '- 201H, _ 204f, 2082). 

fltiTes from lus- 
, 2082). (See 
Great Britain. Treaties wltb.) 
Asbbiirton Traaty: 

Beferenee to, 2134, 2273, 2790, 307L 
Aahavllle, N. 0., act for erection of 

public bnilding in, vetoed, 5060. 
Alia.— The area of Asia Is ITIt million 
square miles, and It extends over nearly 
one-third ot the land snrtace ot the globe. 
The distance between Its extreme lonBlIudes, 
the west coaat of Asia Minor (20* B.) and 
tbe East Cape (170° W.l Is 0.000 miles. 
The extreme latitudes, Caoe ChelTaskla 
(78* 30* N.) and Cape Burn 190 miles 
_._.^ .... — .„,„ _,,.. ^p^^ 

north ot the F?qnator), are 0.8! 
Asia Is boandcd by the oceau uu mi siun 
except tbe west. The Isthmus of Sues (cut 
by a canal) connecta It with Africa. The 
boaodary between Europe and Asia la 
tormed on the west msfaly by the Ural 
Mountains and tbe TIml River. In tbe 
southwest tbe valley of tbe Manycb, whlcb 
■tretebes from the Caspian Sea to tbe mouth 
of tbe DoD, is now taken as Ibe line l>etween 
the two continents, although the Caucasus 
wsB formerly considered sa oelonglng to En- 
rope. The Islands ot the archineTago which 
lies In the soulheast, between the conllneDts 
of Asia snd Australia, may be divided Into 
two groups by a line pnHSIng east of Timor, 
Timor Ijiut. tbe Kel IslHuds. and tbe 
Uoluccas. Asia is assumed to be the birth- 
place of mankind. It bns certainly been tbe 
scene ot many highly developed clrlUaa- 
tiona and notable conquestn. In it also 
orlidcated tbe great religions of tbe 

Tbe Nations of Asia, with the form ot 
government end cspllal ot each, follow : 
Afabsnifitan (Monarchy). EabnL 
Bhutan (MoDarchy), I^wakha. 
Chioa (Republie)i Peldnc. 
India (Empin), DelU. 
Japan (EnnMrai, Tokvi 
Nepal (MoDanbr). Kb 


rolonels : thirteen llentenant- 

Kui^ln Ana (Empire). 
Sam (Kinidom) . Bangkok , 
Tutkay la A^ (HonarAjr). 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 


Tli« East India IslindB. tbe (oTemnirat 
to which ihpy b(-lflii«. Ite arcK In iquare 
mile* BoiI population are: 

Ah Populft- 
, „^ , , Sq. MilM tion 

-^ (BiiliJi 85.U00 850,000 

•""^ INelherUodi. 2(W,000 1,200,000 

Celebea, NeUuriuda. 72,000 OOO.UUO 

Java. NeUitrkodi «g,400 28,000.000 

Lewr 8and« | pormguwo. . . . 7.U00 Ssojioo 

Moluacu, NetherlAzida 43.000 100,000 

PJliJjPP'™' I United SUiWi 115,000 8,300,000 

Smwtn, Neihiiluib. 100,000 3,200,000 

PhvUtal Featwet.^Tae norlhprn eoaul ■■ 
■ImoHt entird; wIlhlD the Arctic CIrrle. 
The suliHoll la pcruiunriitlr fniii'n, onlr a 
*cw iDcbrs at the uripi'r Burfa™ thaw- 
ing In Bumaicr, vhon cxtonglvp manibcs are 
formed. Tbc mala Islacda are Ihe Nl-w 
BHnTlan Islands and Wrsngrl Inland. Id 
tbe Dortbpaiit, Asia rearbrs la wllbln thlrly- 
8li ml lea at the DDrthwmt pvninaula o( 
Korth America, Iroin wblrti it la aeparalcd 
by tbe shallow IlcrlDg sinlt. which divides 
tbe Arctic Irom the TaclUc (Iccan. The 

and Islaada. both ot whlih arc UKuallr mouo- 
talnous. Tbe prnlnsula o( KamchaUa, Sak- 
balln Island, and tbe Kiirllca mark off tbe 
Bca ol Okhotsk, and to Ihe soulb the 
Islands ol Japan and [be peninsula of 
Korea form ihp boiindarlps of the Bea ot 
Japan. The largeKt iHland off tbis coast 
Is the moiibtalaous Island of rormoaa. Itus 
South Cbloa Sea Is Koparated from tbe I'a- 
clflf by the rblllnplnos and ilorneo. iQdo- 
Cblna rorma a buge peninsula BtrctcblDg 
far lo the souih with one long arm, the 
Malay I'enlnsiila. which nearly rcacbea the 
Etiuator, and two lesser projections, the 
growing deltas of Ibe Mekong and Ira- 
waddy. Siimaira Is aeparalc^l by Ihe Ma- 
lacca Strait, the eaxtem gate between tbe 
IndUn Ocean and the China Sea, to which 
Blngannre owee Ita Importance. The Itec- 
can and Arabia project as largo peninsulas 
Into the iDdlan Oecan. The Island or Cey- 
lon Is Ihe only large Ixlaod and Is Dearfy 
Joined to tbe mainland by Adam't Bi'ldge. 

The Strait of Ormiii and the HIralt ot 
Bn)i-el-Miinileb lead to the Peralnn Quit 
and Red Sea respeetlTely. To the north 
of tbe Ited Sen Ihe Oulfs ot Sue* and Aknba 
form openings to the north. The former 
Is separnted from the Mediterranean by the 
lalhmns of Suei. through wblcb Is nit the 
8uez f-anal. while tbe latter leada to the 
nrt valley of the Dead Sea. The Sea of 
Mnrmora between tbe Block Sen and the 
.Sgenn Is bounded by narrow channels, the 
Dardnnellea and the BoanhornB. ronstnn- 
tlnople has a unlcgue position at (ho west 
of the strait on the European side. 

Asia may be divided Into three main 

The Korthern Lowlands, an eiCcBSlve 
plain rising gradually to the aontb and 

I'lHtcBTiH and Folded Ranges.— More than 
one-lwelftb of Asia lies above 10.000 feet. 
A serlea ot lofly plalrauB extends from Asia 
Minor to Eastern Asia at varying elcva- 

The Ta 1)1 elands.— The IVeesn. reylnn. and 
Arabia form tablelands of old rock wltbont 
(be folded mountains which are eharacterls- 
tle of (he reef o( Asia. Tbe Deeean of 
Peninsular India Is a fragment of old land 
smoothed and worn by river erosion. 

Five areas may bo rtlstlninilBhed In Asia 
lo which there Is marked dUrpn-nre In cll- 
mnte: The Arctic Area, where the tem- 
perature In no month erceds 00* P. The 

eoid Dirt wm% IDG UarQIw cvnvlv Cw 

be grown In summer. The Central Area, 
mostly a n-glon of Inland drainage. The 
Moniwn Areii, comprising the most denaely 
cultivated and populated reelona of Asia. 
This Includes Cblna, lQdo.cIilna, and In- 

. ..„ Arabian trlbea i..^ ^~^ 

...t. and there are Kiiaalan. British. Dutch, 
Kreacb. German, Turk lab, America n, and 


Comineiice with, extecfliou of, reenm- 
mended, 2624, 2703. 

Coolie tr*de with, referred to, 3261. 

ImmiicrantB from, should be protected 
against lawless assanlt, 7372. 
Asplimlt.— A general term applied to sev- 
eral varietlee of hydrocarbons of a bltuml- 
nons nature, varying In bordneas from sctnl- 
lluld to Eolld. It Is used tor paving pur- 
poses In tbe United Stales. Most of the 
aapbalt nsed In the Uailed Stales Is 
hrougbt from the Island of Trinidad, off the 
coast of Veneiuela. Other Imports are 
from llermudei. Venezuela. It la also 
found In Koiilhei-n California. Tbe supply 
In Trinidad is obtained from Pllcb Lake, a 
name given lo the crater of an eitlnct 
volmno. 138 feet aliove sea level. This 
crater covers an area of about 114 acres 
and Is 1.10 feet deep at the center. The 
supply Is gradually renewed by the con- 
stant eiudatloti at soft pllcb from sobter- 
ranean sources to the eitpnt of atKiut one- 
foartb of that removed. Bnrrouadlng tlie 
cralcr Is a deposit of land pitch. Ihe over- 
flow of past limes. Tbe Rermudes supply 
comes from a morass on the main land 

large banks of b . 

saturated with asphalt). These deposits 

— — .—I, -J ^j i^g American Asphalt 

. . . fork Pitch I^ake 

J Trlnldsd. 

Although (here was a decresse In the 

— j.._^.__ _. . -,gp|„,( [Q (dp p„u. 


corresponding Increase In the < 
Dinnufictnred or oil aspbnlt. 
the ITnlled States Qeologlcal curve.v. uii 
aapbfllt obtained as a residue from the dla- 
tlilslloq of Ueitcan, Onlf, apd California 

■corJlSg to 

The produi-tlon of natural asphalt In 
101.1 amounted to n2.lt04 short tons, valued 
at *7Sn.7ia. a decrease from (I5.16« short 
tons. valMPd si $8n.1.Z2S. tn 1912. On tbe 

iRlsnd of Trinidad tarnished the greater 
part of this— 12S,278 abort tons. 

dispOBition of lanfla In Otlb 
atscosndt BKST 


Encyclopedic Index 

AiptniraU, United 8Ut«B of Oolomltla: 

CUims ftrisiog out of destrnction at, 
4912, 5122. 

ImpriBoniiieiit ot Amtricftu citiMiiB 
in, 4798. 

Hal treatment of passengers and sea- 
men on ships plying between New 
York and, 341 J. 

Teassls froni] duties on, suspended, 
AsuaaliiAttoa of American FresldatttB, 

discnsaed, 6639. (See also under Lin- 

eoln; Qarfield; MeEinley.) 

tBined b; tbe Bovernment In wblcb gold 
and stlTer ballloa may be deposited by 
cltliens, Iher reeelTlng Its ralue, less 
thMrgrt, Id return. There are bIi. Esmelj, 
■t New York City ; Helena, Moiit. ; Char- 
lotte. N. C. ; St. Loula. Ho. ; Deadwood, B. 
DaC and Seattle. Wash. The New York 
Assay Ofllce la the largeit, and more than 
ball the sold and silver refined by the 
mint serTk-e Is bandied there. 
AnmnpUon of State Debts.— E:arty in 
tbe second seailon oC tbe First Congress 
Alexander Hsmllton, Seeretary of the Treas- 
orj. recommended that In order to restore 
public credit Ibi' Federal Covurnmenl Bbonid 
■Tand and pay the (orelgn debt of the Con- 
federation (SlS.OOO.OOOl. the domesllc debt 

t It a 

McPhersoD. by a 

from Decatur. The wbole line was 

soon engaged. Gen. Mcl'berson was killed 
In tbe action, and the command of the 
Army of tbe Tenni'ssee dcvolred upon Gen. 
Logan. After (our hours^of flghllng the 

Held. TGe 

imj lue unpaid debt of the 

SnsetiB. Connei'tlcul, New York, New Jcr- 
•ey and South Carolina fHTored the plan. 
VlrtinU strongly opposed the latter clause. 
She was suslalned In her opposition by 
Haryland. Georgls, and New llsmpsblre. 
The Influence of North Carolina thrown 
anlDSt tbe measure defeated It for tbe 
rime, but II was rerlred later, and passed 
Atw. 4, 1790. It was claimed, by a com- 
Unatloo ot Its frleuda wllh those of the 
measure locating the Federal capital on 
the Potomac. Tbe amounl author led to 
be assumed by tbe aoremment In the 
llquldstlon ot the Slate det'ts was 121,500.- 
o3o. but the amount actually assumed was 
t3.2I>0.000 less than that sum. 
Astronomical Observatorr- (See UeU- 
orologie&l Observatory; Naval Ob- 
EBtablishtnent of, recommended, 879. 
Beport of Simon Newcomb on Im- 
provements for, 4790. 
AB^mn, HOltaiT. (See Boldlen' 

As^nm. Blgbt of, discnssed, 3SS3, 6961. 
AtcUson and Plkss Peak BaUroad Oo. 

referred to, 3658, 
AUanta, The. (See Weehaicken, The.) 
Atlanta, Oa.: 
Capture of, and ordera regarding cele- 
bration of, 3439. 
Collection of remains of offleera and 

Holdiers around, referred to, 3SB1. 
Cotton Exposition at, 4631. 
AOanU (Oa.),BattlB of. — On the night of 
July 21 1864. Qen. Hood tronaferred his 
forces before Atlanta to a point near Decs, 
tor aboat Ore miles east of Atlanta. Sher- 
man eaiuQ up and. flndlug the works on 
Peach Tree Creek abandoned, proceeded to 
Iniett tbe city. At 11 a. m. ot tbe 22d, 

Federal lass was 8,722 killed, wounded and 
missing. Sherman now drew hla Itnea 
closely arouod Atlnnta and prepared for a 
siege, but was unable to cut off Confederate 
supplies from Macon, Aug. 25 he gave up 
the Idea of a direct siege, Sep!. 1. bow- 
ever, a pact ot Hood's forces under Hardee 
having been repulsedstJoneaboro, Hood blew 
Dp his magaalnes and evacuated tbe city. 
Atlanta, U. S. 8., mentioned, 6806, 6909. 

Atlantic IJIandS. — The Atlantic Oceao has 
a large number of bordering Islands — tbe 

British Isles and West Indies a ' '- 

portant : Islands In the deep 
the BcrmodlBU gro - '— 

e most Im- 

mark 1380, 

ea. 80,71. -, 

canoea, the largest of which Is Mt Hekla. 
It la subject to earthquakes, 

Bermuda la a group of 300 coral Islands 
B80 miles east ot North Carolina. Tbey 
were discovered by Bermudei, 1522 ; colo- 
nised 1612. They form a British colony. 

discovery by Colambus. 14Q2. Ban Salvador 
(IVaiUng f.) Settled bv British, 18-,;0; 
ceded to England. 1783 : British Crown Col- 
ony. The group comprises 20 Inhabited 
and many uninhabited Islands. 
Atlantic Ocean: 
Canal from — 
Oreat Lakes to, eommiesion to con- 
sider construction of, 0179. 
Gulf of Mexico to, discussed, S90. 
Junction between Pacific and, re- 
ferred to, 2123, 2676. . 
Desired, 2S13, 298S. 
Atlantic Telegrapli: 
Discussed, 3653. 
Beferred to, 3329, 3382, 3445. 
Atllxco (Uexlco), Battle of.— immediate- 
ly after tbe battle of Eamantla Geo. Lan* 
pressed forward to rellere the garrison at 
Puebla, Oct. 18, 1847 ; he learned that Res, 
with a body ot gnerlllaa, was nt Alliico. a 
town about 10 leagues _rror" d.„»., th- 

1 thro 

1 the attemooD 

9 city, and diaper 

Meilcan" losa was very severe, 'no Ibsb than 
519 having been killed and ivaunded, while 
the Amerlceos lost only two men. 
Attainder,— The eitlnctlon of elvl! rights 
and privileges In an Individual, and the 
forfeiture of hla properly lo the govern, 
ment. In Englaod. under the common law. 
It followed as a matter ot course on a 
._.. — — J — . r^ death tor trea- 

, ,-,ent c_ 

A Bin of Attalnde 

; for 


.. Is ■ 
wllh I 

msy not be given a trial. Foreign gov- 
ernments have emnloyed thia method of 
dlspoalog ot political offenders wltboui giv- 
ing them the opportunity of a regular Ju- 
dicial trial, 'nie crime against which 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

at atatb tor treasoD farmerlr worked for- 
feiture o( the condemned person' i eatale 
to the soTernmeDt. and by corruption o( 
blood, BB It ia calleA prevented hfii heirs 
from Inheriting. LegislatlTe conTlclloDB 
whleh Impose punlahments less than deacb 
are called Bllfs of Fains and Feoaltles ; 
the7 are Included In the meanluE of the 
words. "Bill of Attainder." aaea in the 
Constitution of tbe United BtaleB, That 
Document problblts the paasagi: of BlUa of 
Attainder 6y Congress or any State (Ar- 
ticle ]. sectloQ B. Flaaae 3), aod farther 
provides, eonccrolog Judicial 



■Ide 11 

.„ attainder of treason Bball vork 

;on of blood or forfeiture eicept dur- 

Ufe of Hie person stialned"'^ The 

Court haa •fcclded 

wllhln rbe prat 

e Con fed er 

1 dla- 

nevatlvlDg aoj 

e they should b. 

.J practice In the United Statea Courts. 
(See Treason. 1 

Att0raey-O«n8r»L— The oOce of attorney 
general waa created by an act o( Sept. 
24. 1769. He la appointed by tbe Presl 
dent with the conllrmatlon of tbt- Senate. 
He la a member of the Cabinet, and re- 
ceives a salary of tlZ.MH) per year. All 

United SlntP" AlmlTlrt iiItnrnevH finil mar- 

■halB ar. 

areaea caaes, thia work being ai 

snEordlnates. He U assisted by _.. 

Seneral aad eight assUtanl attorney a gen- 
eral, tiesidea one for the Post OtBce end 
one for the Interior Department (See 
Justice, Department of.) 

Atb>nie7-a«i»r»l (see also Judiciary 

SjHtem; Justice, Department of): 

CompeUBation to, refened to, 697, 

Dnties of, 22S5. 

Doty to prosecute and conduct all 
cases in the Supreme Court in 
which the United States should 
be concerned or interested, 6S7. 

UembeT of bokrd to examine quotas 
of Btatea under call for troops, 

Modiflcstions in office of, recommend- 
ed, 1090, 2265. 

Opinion of— 

Concerning treaty of Ohent, 966. 
BegardinK delivery of persons 
cbarged with crimes referred to, 

Opinions of, compiled, 1856, 2632, 

Becommendation that he be placed 
on footing with beads of other Ex- 
ecutive Departments, S62, 8 SO, 
lOlB, 2265. 
Attorneys, District; 

Compensstion of, discussed, 189, 2666, 
2714, 4770, 4836, 4939, 5103. 

Necessity of a nniform fee bill for 

guidance of, referred to, 2666. 

Augusta (aa.), Blega of.— la the autnmn 

of i3»H. CotDwallli etatloned Lleut-CoL 

Brown, with a Loyalist farce, at aui 
Ga. CoL Clark threatened the place lar 
two days, InSlctlnK some lost upon tbe 
garrlsoa. Tbe Brltlsb loss was principally 
of their Indlau auilliarles. In tbe spring 
of the follawiue year, while Qen. Greene 
besieged Fort Nlnetj-Sli. Lee. Pickens, 
rinrk anri ntber Southern partlaans lafd 
ta, begtonlng Hay 23. June 

Aastlu-TopoloTampo Ballroad, survey 

of, correspondence with Mexico re- 
garding, referred to, 4475. 
Auiitraliuiia. — One of the two divisions 
o( Oceania. It Is subdivided by geogra' 
pbers Into Australia proper (4. d.) and 
Melanealft. The latter locludes New Guinea. 
Bismarck Archipelago. New Caledoula, Sol- 
omon. Santa Crui, Sew Hcbcldea, and Loy- 
alty Islands. (See also Australia, and 

Australia. — The territory of the Comnioo- 
wealth of AastrallB Includes tbe Continent 
of Australia, tbe Island of Tasmania and 
part of the Island of New Guinea (Papna). 

Australia (malnlaodl la probably the old- 
est of all land surfaces Id either hemisphere. 
It la surrounded by the following waters : 
North, the Timor aad Arafura Seas and 
Torres Strait ; East, Paclfli! Ocean : South. 
Bass Strait (wblcL separates TasmaolB 
from the Continent) and Southern Ocean, 
and West. Indian Oceaa. The coast-line o( 
Australia la approximately 8,805 miles, and 
the geograpblcal poBlllOD of the Continent 
Is between 10' 39^-39° 11' South latitude 
and 113° B'-153= 16' East longitude: the 
greatest dlBtaoce l^Bst to West la 2.400 
miles, and from North to South 1,971 miles. 

Phvtieal Fea lures. —Nearly all round the 
coast and In eastern and soatbeastcrn Aus- 
tralia, atretchiog far Inland from the coastal 
range, ta a rich grazing country, admirably 
adapled to the rearing of sheep. Tbe most 
extensive moontaln system talus Its rise 
near the southeast point, and Inclndes a 
number of ranges known by different names 
In different places, none of them being of 
any great height. The principal rivers are 
the Murray, with Its tributaries, tbe Mur- 
rumbldge, Lacbiau, and Darling. In the 
Boutheastern part of the Island, which fall 
Into the aea on the south coast ; on tbe 
t. the Rawkcsbury, Hunter. Clar- 

Swan. HurehlsoQ. Gasco 



__rth, the Drysdale. Ord. VIcto 

Daly : and tbe Roper, the Flinders, and 
Mitchell, which debouch Into tbe Gulf of 
Carpcnlarla. I-afces are numerous, but 
irly all are salt; tbe scarcity aC tbe 

(SprlngI, and Dec. 22 (Snmmi 
climate la extremely dry, but. except in zae 
tropical coast-land ot the nortli, tbe Con- 
tinent Is everywhere highly benedclal to 
Earopeana, the range of temperatare being 
smaller than that ot other countrlea slmT 
larly situated. 

(Jorentmenl, — The Oovernment Is that of 
a Federal Commonwealth within the Brit- 
ish Empire, the executive power being vest- 
ed In tbe Sovereign (thtongh the Oofecnor- 


Encyclopedic Index 

OcDcrmI), tsaUted br ■ Federal BxecntlTB 
Coandt o( eeven Mlnlnprg of State and auch 
hosorar; Ulslatera wbo maj be appotntiMl 
Iberrto. Tti« Constitution leaXa oo the 
fundamental law of Uarcb 16, 1898, ratlQed 
b* Ibe Imperial Pari lament on Julf 9, 
IWX: and ths Commaowvaltb waa Inausu- 
mtpd on Jan. 1. 1901. Undpr the CoDBtl- 
tntlon ibe Federal Goremment posaeBnea 
limited and onumeraled powers as aur- 
rradered by the trdcratlng States, tbc 
residuum ot WiHletlTe power bclog In tba 
GoTemments of tbc Tarlons Stalea, Briefly 
staled, the Pnumersted powers Inelnde au- 
tborltr oT»r rommerre and nHTlgatlon. 
Ononep. defense, post offleeB and telettruphH, 
census and stillnllrg. and cnnelllatlon and 
■rbltratloD in extra State Industrial dls- 

enimenta. Tbli agreement Is merged Into 
an AnstrallaD Defense srheme, under whleb 
tbe rommoDwealth provides and malntalna 

certain ships of war. whiob form an Ana- 
trallBQ squadron of tbe Raral NaTy, under 

and diTo 

orlly t 
■nd llg 

-.jtration .„._.. 

and banklne, and welgbt* i 

Atw in Ftqmlatlaa 

Sutas and Caiutals Eiulwh Dse. 30, 

Sg. Miles 1913 
New South Wales 

(Sydoey) 309,480 1,777.SM 

Victoria (Melbaunie) B7,8U 1,380,661 
Bouth Austnlia (Ade- 
laide) 380,070 430,090 

Qiifrnilind (Bilsbana) 970.500 630,429 

Ta^nwnikdlobut}... Z6,21S 197,301 

(Path) 975,920 300,139 

Nottlieni Tetritoiy 

(Dmin) 623.020 3.47S 

Pipw (Port MorcAy) 88,460 360.000 
redaral District (Cuk- 

betn) 913 1,910 

Total 3,ae3Ml 5.083,360 

Tbe Federal Parliament coDslsta at » 
Senate and a Ilonse of Rep reien tat Ires. 
The Senate rontalns Iblrty six members, all 
from each ot the Original SUtes, eleeted 
for bIi years by onlTersai autTrage. The 
Rouse of Representatives. Blmllarly elected 
for a mailmnm of three yeara. coutains 
members proporllonate to tbe populsilan, 
wlib a minimum ot five Repreaen tat Ives 
for earb Siate. Tbe House of Representa- 
tives. 1013-1910. Is made up of Iwenty-Beven 
for Kew South Wales, twenty-one for Vlc- 
lorta, ten from Queensland. Beien from 
Soalb Australia, and five eaeb from Tas- 
mania and Western Auairalia. and conaista 
ot tblrty-elgbt Liberals and thirty- seven 
meml>ers of the Labor Parly. 

There Is a Federal nigb Court with a 
Chief Justice and sli Judges, bevlag orig- 
inal and appellsle lurlEdlction, subordinate 
to the Bnal Appeal Conrt ol tbe Bm- 

Elre, tbe Judicial Committee of ths Privy 
Army and Navv- — In 1013 there was a 
total membeiablp of tbe Defense Foree of 
240.005. of wbom 281 oDlcera and T.60T 
men were serving In I he Navf and 4,885 
ofllren and 227.422 others In the Army. 
Tbe latter figure IneludeB SO.OOO rlBemen 
nnd 146.000 cadets. 

An agreement was entered Into (1002) 
by tbe Commonweallh and Imperial (Jovern- 
menu under which a naval force wss to 
be maintained (for ten years, 1003-13) In 
Australaalan waters by tbe British Board 
of Admiralty, In return for annual eon- 
tribnllona from Amlralla (£200.0001 and 
New 7,ealBnd (£40.0001. a third party to 
tbe agreement. Thla agreement provided 
also for tbe maintenance of Sydney as a 
nnt-clan naval station, and tor tte nom- 
toatlon of naval cadets in the Royal Navy 
b7 tba Anatmiaa and New Zealand (3ot- 

t of the Royal Navy 1 

Debls remain i 

Eaaleml. ._ ., __. 

at war. Rhipa of the Royal Austra'lian Nai., 
"^ known as H.M.A.S. (His MaJeBiya Aos- 

dertaken reaponslblllly for _ _ _ 

Territory Debt and tbe Port Aognsta Cood- 
nadatta Railway Debt, whose combined 

"" £5,071.847. Tbe other Stale 

- - "-- ■ irge of the Slate 

„ -— il of the Pobllc 

Debts of tbe aevcral Slates on Jnne 30, 
1912, was £277.124,095 (N.S.W. £100.052,- 
636: Victoria £00.737.216; South Australia 
£31.080.124: Queensland £47.068,186: Taa- 
mania £11.302,411, and Weatem Aoatrella 
£26,283,02' » 

In leil ' ; 

Pastoral, ' 

107,000; 1 ; 

Mlninjc, £ 

Tbe Ian 

timated a. .. ^„.. ..,,„,„ _^.r., u^ 

15,042,000 were under cultivation li 

In 1012 the Common wealth prodnced 

734,000,000 lbs. ot wool (aa In tbe Erensel, 
agalDSt 708.572.000 lbs. In 1911: 1^7,200,- 
000 IbB. of bolter, agaluat 211.578,000 lbs. 
In 1911: 16,147,000 lbs of cheese, egalnit 
15.887,000 Iba. in 1911. and M.SlO.oSo lbs. 
of bacon and hams, against 03,263,000 Iba. 
In 1911. 

in 1912 tbe valae of gold produced was 
£0,880.000: ailver and lead. £4,217,000: 
copper, £3,304,000: tin. £1.344.000: coal, 
£4.418.000; the vaiae of alt mineralB pro- 
duced In 1912 being £20,849.000. 

JfaaufoDturea.— In 1912 there wer 
Commonwealth 14.878 industrial ei 
ments, employing 327.616 handa ; wages paid 
amouDled to £31.295.876 : the value of plant 
and machinery £34.460.895; of materials 
used £88.317.7^9 : value added by manufac- 
ture £80.427.300, and total value of flnal 
output £148.740.109. 

Ralliraifa.— The total length ot Oovem- 
ment (and private) railways open at June 
30. 1912, la stated as follows: 


7a IS 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

AnstnUa— f^t<nw<. 

Yau Enland Cleuad 

— U.2S6A7i 

M) 1.910 

io) z.oeo 

X) 3,0S3 
57) 8.017 

Tbe welihta, mpMurf_ , 

IdeDtkal wtlh Ihose used In the 

I'D irtis.— Capital. CaDbprra, Id tbc Fed- 
eral Dtalrlct, purobaaed la IBll from tbe 
fltale o[ N.8.W.. la to be laid oat aa tbe 
tapital Dt tbe Commoavealih, Ueanwblle 

... _. . .- \ien,ounie. 


for BblpballdlDK and bridgewoifc, owIbk to 
lU durability. 

AnstraUui BaUot. (8«e BaUot.) 
Anstrift (Austrn-TJungartan Monarchy)- 
— The larEcat empire, next to Buaaia. on the 
Continent of Europe, altuaCed between 42° 
61' X. lalltude and »" 30'-28'' 20* E. longl- 
tade. wilb a total area of 876.077 aquare 
kilometres (260,093 equare mllei), and a 
total population (1910) of GI,3«0,3T8. 

n at the o 
02: Uelboama 

Ana, En^i... 

8tat«* 8q. .MUh i-opulauon 

Au»tiian Empire 115.87* 28.567,898 

Eucdom of UuBouy. . . 125395 20340,678 

BoBiia and UsngcDiina. lfi.760 1,031,803 

Total ~ " 

261/129 £1,340,378 
istro.HaD^rlau Mon- 

■ -' , the Ktoplre 

- — — .„ of lIUDKarj 

Boflna. i:a<rh of tbe States has Ita own 
C'ouBtltutloD and raDlament. and for moat 

le (W.A.J, ^u,- branches of Btate alTalra Its own MlDlalrr 
aod A dm In la I ration : but the; are closely 

f Australia was bound together by tbe Identity of the Bnler 

00: Roekhamn- 

of Aostrla and the Kingdom' of lIUDgarj, 

)0. New South 

....,:. ~— ....... oed by Captain 

"ook In 1770. A Brlrlab penal colony was 
Blabllsbed at Bydney In 1T88, sud at Bris- 
>BDe, Queen Eland, In 1825. Settlementa 

t Adelaide in 1836. 
lear Baibant. New 
[BYe strong Impetua 
Commonwealth of 
BOO bj tbe fed- 

Vlclorla In 1834. and 
The discovery of soli 
South Wales. In 1851 
to Immigration. TI 

Australia was ereatei _. — . 

eratlon of tbe States of New South W 
Victoria, QupecBland. Soaih Austra'la. West- 
ern AUBtralla. and Taamanta. Tbe Qover- 
uor-General Is appointed by tbe Crown. 

NtiB SoHlh Wain Is tbe oldest state. 
Sydney, the capital and prlnclpsl port, has 
a popniatloa of 621,000. Forests cover 
ODe-guarter of the Burfacc. and tbe cul- 
tivated area was renorted In 1611 at 3.- 
381,000 acres. Besides wheat, com, and 
tobacco 20.000 acres were under citrus fruit, 
mostly oranges, the yield being reimrted 
as OgT,283 rases. In 1910 4S.n01.OO0 
sheep were renorted. from which were 
cUnned 415,333,000 pounds of wool. 

Victoria was orlKlUBlly_ a part of New 

Sonlh Wales 

' In 1851. The Impor 

DBde a 

rate rol- 
-■) were 


visited by Captain Cook 

I defense, was f 
., ._e I'ragmatle Sanction ol n]i3, and bas 
since been regulated bv the so-called "Com- 
promise" (Ausglelcb-Klegyestsi of 1867. 
According to the ConstliutloDat Union for- 
elBD alfalra and the greater part ot war 
BiTaIrs (Army end Navy), together with tbe 
floancea concerning them, and tbe admlnla- 
trallon of the Territories, are dealt with 
by common mlnlBtrlcs, Tbe control of the 
official actions of theee ralDlBtera and tbe 
voting of tbe common budget U exercised 
by (wo delegatlonB, each consisting of 60 
members, ot whom 20 are chosen from tbe 
Trner llouse ot Austria and of IluDgarv. 
and 40 from the Lower House of Austria 
and of Hungary. Tbe delegations are elect- 
ed for one year, meet aticrnstely at Vlenoa 
and Buda Pestb, and appoint tbelr own 
I 'resident and Vlee-PreBldent. In every 
other respect leglalallon concerning tbc com- 
mon afTairs belongs to the two rarliaments. 
and carti S(ate provides aeparately for Its 
contribution to the common expenses. The 
proporilon to be eontribated by each Stalo 
la flied by mutual agreement, renewable 

mnory.—ln connection with the Aus- 
glclch-Klcgyei*s the two States entered Into 

,..j of 5^1,830, 
Queen (land was 

Id 1770 and selueuieuts were ujnue lu 
182B. Tbe staple production of the Btate 
Is wool, tbe production In 1910 being 139,- 
250,000 ponnds. Sugar Is (be principal 
manufactured article. 

Bouth AuitraUa was proclaimed a Brit- 
ish nrovlnce In 1836. and the northern ter- 
■ red to the Con 

io,076 aquare mJiea. lo which the 
■n territory added 523,620 squan 

ranee or Italy. Tbe wine profliict 



D of 1B2.000 in mil. 

of 975.820 

eluding enealycpns) Is especially valuable 

Bugar (Charles 

say as tbe quota agreement, this union Is 

Following the assasBlnatlon of Archdnka 
'erdlnand and bis wife at Berajevo bv a 
itudent. nald to have been Incited by Ber- 
1th Servian olBcIal eon- 
vance. ftnatria. on Julv 28. 1914, declared 
>r Bgalnat Servla. and an army was Im- 
edlalcly sent to occupy Belgrade, The 
Tvlan governmpnt fled to Msh and pre- 
ired for resFslance. (See Plnropean War.) 
Reignina Sovprelffit. — Karl Frans Joaepb 

la, Gallcl 

»nd llivria. King of Je 
--■■-1 his grand uncle. 


. — „._ad uncle, the aged 

Frana Josef, who died Nov, 21, 1918, after 
a relga of slity-elgbt years. 

Arm]!. — Tbe Common Artny of the Anatro- 
HangarlBD Mooarcby U recrolted b; unl- 


Encyd^ptdk Index 


Tcml compolwrr wrrlce for sll male nb- 
>ci> belw«eD tne Bgeg of 19 and 43 Id 
Anitrli. Hungary, and Bofnla-HenegoTliia. 
Tie arallable military force almj locludea 
the AnilrlBD Landwebr and Landstarm and 
tb« Hannrlan HodtMb^s (Landwehr) and 
NrprDlkeleB (LandaturmJ. 

Tbe P«aee EaUbllabmpnt of tbe Actlvs 
Arau la 17,840 oflic«ra, 4,700 offlclala, and 
2eoJM)0 othera. 

Tbe AnatrlaD Laadwrbr conalata of 8,- 
•80 ofllMra and 37,000 oHieTa. 

Tlie HDiiK*rian Land web r eonalata of 
S,0(IU ottnra aod Stl.OUO oiben. 

The War Ealabllibment of tba Moblllied 
Field Army Is 81>S,000 all ranks, witb 
aboDi 1,000.000 from the other formatlona. 
<Sm Armies of tbe World.) 

Saiy. — The NaTj li admlnlaterpd by a 
department at tbe War MloUtry, and 
DtDDed by l.SOO offlcera and 13.K00 men In 
1012. (For tbe latest reports as to present 
etUbUshment, see ^aTle■ of the World.) 

COM m OR Finanet. — Tbe Kipendltnre on 
Common Affairs (Defense. Foretxn Attalrs, 
Finance Minlatry, aod Board of Control) Is 
met from tbe Common Reveaue. derived 
from the net proceeds of tbe Customs, and 
from the matrlcular contrlbatlons of Austria 
1S3.6 per MQI.) and Hnngary (30.4 per 
nat). Tbe cnstoma recelpta tor 1013 were 
lBT,eU,000 crowDa. The rontrlbnilona 
from Austria were 2GS,SSZ,000, wblle 
Huagary's share amounted to 140,140.01)0 
crowna. (5 crowns eqaal to (1 United 
Sutea money.) 

There Is no Common Debt, but tbe King- 
dom of Hungary sets aside ■ rerlain aum 
aanuallj for the service of tbe Debt of 
Austria contracted tiefore tba year 180T. 

priiea Ibe following provinces: Lower Aus. 
tria. Upper Auatiia. Bohemia. BukoTlna. 
CarlDtbla. Camlola, Dalmatla. Galicla, GOri 

Irala, Btyrls, Trieste and District, ^rol, 

PkyairaX Features.— Vta.t\y three- fourths 
of Austria Is blgli ground above Ibe 600 
foot level, with three main mounlaln sys- 
tems — tbe Alpa. Csrpstblsns and Bobemla- 
lloiVTiBn mouutalna. Tbe Central Alpa 
traverse the country, while the Eastern Alps 
He entirely within Its boundaries : the Car- 

— idIbId system i — 

Central Europe. The „ ^ 

Ii occupied by fertile plslns, of which ihs 

'main log toortb part 

Urxeat Is In Gallcla. Tbe canltal is ._ 
Ibe Danube-drained Wiener Bccken, The 
Danube, joined by tbe Inn, enters Austria 
from Bavaria at Ibe gorge of PaEsao, Tbe 
Dnlcater rises In eanlem Galli-La, end en- 
tera Russia at Chotlu. Tbe Vistula rises 
In Silesia, and forms tbe boundary of 

Dlt; Is beredllsry; of 5 prtnce-arcbblsbops, 
7 prince bishops, and B arcbblahoiM : and 
of IBS members nominated by the Emperor 
for life, for public service— a total of 278 
members Id 1012. 

Tbe Abgeordnetenhsus la composed of Sie 
deputies, elected by anlverssl manhood snt- 
trage (twentytour years) and by secret bat- 

Ttit courts of first tnalsDce are Ibe S39 

BvtiTkigeriohtB (District Courts) and tbe 
76 Superior District Courts with Jury 

Courts attached, f ■-' — -' -~- -- 

pealB from, these coui 

nice ProTlDclal AppeBi muns ac Vienna, 
Graz. Tries le, Innsbruck, Zara, Prague, 
Brnnn, Cracow, and Lemben The Supreme 
Court and Court of Cassation at VIeDDa Is 
the Bopreme Court of tbe Empire. Coses 
of conflict between different autliorltles are 
dei^lded by the Tribunal of the Empire at 

All tiie kingdoms and ronntrles represent- 
ed_ln_t^o Ao_«1ria^ Relchsratb possess self- 

_._ ._ _. — J Ibe 

Empire. In addition, there are communal 
councils wllh eiecullve commlltees. the 
council of the town of Tr1es[e baring tbs 
funr'tlODS of a provincial diet. The diets 
meet annually, are elected for six years, 
and coDsiBt of a single chamber, with an 
eiemtlve cooDcli. 

/WaoHCC.— The revenoe of Anatria for tte 
year 1913 was 3,147.473.000 crowns, and 
the czpendllare was 3,137,196.000 crowns. 

To the General Debt of Aaitrla. canlract- 
ed before tbe year 1867. tbe klnedom of 
Huncary contributes over »12.000.000 an- 
Dnally (60,010.340 crowna IQ 1912). tor 
amortisation and Interest. Tbis General 
Debt, on Dec. 31, I9I2. was 5,108,386.399 
crowns, and the special debt was 7,877,033,- 
326 cr 

lonii taiatlon a 

ary education Is controlled by t 

lOTprnment. Including tbe prlvfli.. 

lasla and Rcalnohnlpn prepare for the 

RoMlan Poland. The 

r bas Its annrce 

cbnlcsl high schools. 
Production and /nrfm(T>.— Agriculture Is 
tbe most important Industry of tbe Inhab- 
ItaniB, and more than ooe-balf of the peo- 
ple are occupied therein. Of the total area, 
about 94 per cent. la productive. 30 per 

paalnres and meadows, and 32 per cent 
woodlands. The arable land produces wbest, 
rye, barley, oats. — ' — — ■-• — 

wheat and maize h „ ., „ 

from Haogery. The gardens produce a 
variety of Trult and tbe vineyards nmdace 
eioellent wine. The meadows and pastures 


mouDialna o; 

aovemment. — The Government Is that ot 
a eonstltnUonal monsrchy, the Sovereign 
bearing the title of Emperor, and tbe snc- 
cesslon hereditary (In tbe order of prlmo- 
teoltDre) In Ibe male line of Ibe House 
of Hababnrt-Lothrlngen, and after tbe fall- 
BTt of tbe male, fn tbe female line of that 
bouse. (Bee Anstrla-Hungary.) 

The Eelchsratb (Coanetl of the Empire) 
conslsta of two houses, tbe Berrenbau* 
IKonse of T^rds) and the Abgeordnelenhaas 
(Honse ot Depntlea). 

of Deentlc 

beech, asb, elm, etc.. for 

rich den- _. 

petroleum. While the salt mines of the Car- 
parhlaDS are tbe richest in the world, tbe 
mines of WIellcika. In Gallcla. and of Sali- 
ksmmergnt. in Upper Austria, are tbs most 

bad. Marlebbad. Fran sen bad, GlesshUbel, 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

materials, wlille lui rirprs oBer both power 
and trusporL In addition la the Iroo and 
*teel iDdDstrlee, textiles and glou (par- 
tieularij la Bohemia). lealbor. furniture. 
and woodworh. brewing and distilling, cbem- 
IcaU, prlntlnjr and statlonerr. and tobacco 
trades are of great ImporlaDce. 

Tbfl sea fisheries oF the Adriatic coast 
(about 1,000 mlleE) employ about 20,000 

Trantforlation and Oommunicatlon.—ln 
1910 23,000 kilometres 114.300 miles) oC 
railway wore open and worlilon. or which 
ll.OOO were owned or worked by the State. 
aDd 3.300 owned and worked b^ companies. 

appointed by the si 

The ifouse 'of 'Repreaentath 
1C3 members, of whom 413 &ir ci^ieo oj 
an eliTtoral college In Hungar; end 40 bj 
the Diet of Croatia Slavonla. Parliament 
meets annuallr. and has a maximum dara- 
tlon of flTe reara 

The conrta ol (trit Instance are the 76 
County Courts, and 458 District Courte, con- 
trolled and supervised bv the 12 Sirfllyt 
TSbiak. There Is a Supreme Court of 
Hungary at Budapeit and^one of Croatla- 
Slaninla at ZaRrabT 

•duetlon and /ndiulry.— The fertile soil 
_ J J jnTflci ' ' 

....rked bj I 

In 1910 the iennlh o( Darlgable : 

canals e^nedcd 4.000 miles for Teasels and 
nits, eOU miles being navigable for steam- 
ers, whi-h rlJ to the number of about S40 
on the Danube and Elbe. 

TTiBre were 9.053 post ofllces In Anstrta 
(1911). There were 7.039 telegraph of- 
fices with 4T.0T6 bllomolreB of line and 
23T.847 kltomclrus of wire. Telephones arc 
In full operation and are eiteoslTCl; used. 
In 1910 the mercantile marine of Austria 
coDBlsted of 300 steamers of 3(18,000 tana, 
and 1S,11« sailing TcBsela of 47,000 tons. 
rown».— Capita f, Vienna, on the Danube. 
PopuUllan, 1910. 2.0:11.496. Other lawns 
are: Trieste, lfil,(J53 ; Prague, 223,741; 
Lemberg, 208,113: Grai, 1S1,781 ; Cracow, 
1E1,88U; UrllDD. 129.737; Csemowlta, 87,- 
128 : rilsen, 80,343. 

HUHQAKy la a great lowland, encircled 
bj the Carpathians and the Alps, and oc- 
cupying tbe basin of the Danube from the 
Sirge of Poisoor to the "Iron Gates" of 
rsora. Tbe eastern porMon U koown as 
TranEjIvanla ( KlmiThagOutai. or I.and be- 
jond the Forests: the Gorman name being 

of Hungary and^lls magnlHcent 

luletlon. . 

■ I the ■ 

rloua Induatrlea. 


The agricultural holdlnga t 
number about 3,000,00" -' - 
000 were leas tban 7 a 

All the great plaJos 
llent quality, 
e^lons which envelop 

produce grain of eic 

The mouDtalDous -_„ 

Hungary, the western basin of the Danube, 
and tbe baslna of the Drove and Save, are 
'Ith forests which contain uk, 
<. and other valuable trees, which 

ditlon t> 

The total area of the foresti. „ 
iDii wu 8,880.042 hectares. (I hecUr»~ 

Lignite, Iron and coal are won. In ad- 
"lon to gold and silver, aonie 80.000 per- 
»^8 being employed In Ihe mlnlna and 
smelting Industries. Salt 1b also largely 

Weaving, metal, stone, glasi. wood, brew- 
ing, and tobacco Industries emplor most 
of the Industrial population, but manufac- 
tures arc of small Importance compared with 

Inland Fisheries are of great Importance. 
The river Ttsxa cnielss) Is Blated to be 
"one part Bab to two parts -■ 

Slavonla, which form an aunei of tl 
earlan crown, extend caetwards from me 
Adriatic to tbe conQnence of the Save with 
Ihe Danube. 

Htven and Latei. — Tbe Danube (Duna) 
enters HuDgarr from a gorge In the LUtle 
Carpathians and flowa eastwards and south- 
wards CO I- — " -'"■ "•- " 

tbeore east 

■ e 8av€ _ 


ary. The Danube Is navigable throughout 
Its course In Hungary end Is the great 
highway and Ihe outlet Into the Black Sea. 
IIB tributaries, the Save and Drave. are also 
navigable to the base of the Alps Id the 
west. The TiBza. which divides Ilnngary al- 
most equally Into a western and eastern 
portion, flows In a winding but navigable 
course southward. Of the northern trlba- 
tarlPB tbe March (with the Lcltha In the 

■ ) dlv1di>s Hungary ' 

Croalla and pulsory and free, and la n 

taxation. Tberi 

fri'i ' 

entary Schools S 

fore 1807. The 

a over 

—The < 

Is 1 

n the Pragmatic Sanction of 1723 a 

the f 

18B7, I 

ad la t 

a roOBtltnlloQal Monarch; heredltarv In 
the male line by primogeniture of the Elaba- 
burg- Lorraine dynaaty. and after the eitlnc- 

:, In the female . 


'Hie House of Magnates con- 
sisted (In tbe Beaalon of 1011-121 Of 15 
Archdnkea, 60 Ecclesiastical Dlgnltariea, 

::e.— Tbe Austro-Rungatlan Mod- 
is no Common Debt, but In the el< 
e of the Kingdom of Hungary the 
00.a21,9S4 crowns Is set aside an- 
B a contrlbutlOD to tbe service of 

d'bt of Hungary tor 

IS •tui.i.-u m i>.304.658,000 crowns. 

Traniportatlon and ComtKunloatlon. — Tbe 
total Icngtli of lines open and working In 
1011 was 13,033 miles, of which 10.043 
were owned and worked, or leased and 
worked, bv tbe State. Over 3,000 miles of 

port. There were S.331 post ofSccs and 
4,700 telegraph offices. The sce-golog mer- 
cantile marine amounts only to some 130.- 
000 tons. The chief nort Is Flume, on 
the Adriatic coast of Croatia. 

roicn*.— Capital. BudapeRt, on the Dan- 
ube. Population (19101. 88(),37] Twmtr 
towns have over 40,000. IE exceed 30,000, 
and 27 exceed 2D,(XX> Inhabitants. 

Trade idfh the Vmud Stales.— The value 
of merchandise Imported Into Austrla-ITun- 

fary from the United States for the year 
913 was t23, 320.090 and goods to the 
value of t19.192,414 were sent tUtber. a 
balance of $4,128,282 In favor of the United 


Etieyelopedic Index 

■li dtnrlrlH, coTerlng &n area o( lv,T60 
aqnare mlln. wllh a popalatloD. bj tba 
ceaidi of 1910, of 1.S88.044. beiiidci the 
mUllaiT KaiTlaoD ol 33.T5S. The luhabllantB 
IFF SliTs aad the Imsuuie la Serrlaa. 

OocemiRnit.— The admin la I rat Ion of Boa- 
ala-HenesoTlna was banded over to the 
Anitra-Hunsarlan Hanarcbr bj the Treatr 
ol BerEln (IHT81, aod In 1908 rHe Kmperoi^ 
King extended his HorcrelKotr over the DfOT- 
lona bj autusraph letier. 

The Diet of 92 membera (T2 elected and 
2D noinlQaled) di^ala with borne affslra, 
JniUce. finance, and public works. Tbe lo- 
cal reveUDe was eatlmated at 79,129.476 
crowns In 1911, tbe eipendltnre at 79.036,- 
T19 crowDB. 

Capital, Serajevo (Boana-Seral), on tbe 
Bona RlTcr. Popnlatlon (19101 B1.872. 
Other towna are Moatar IS,385. Baojaluka 
11.783. and Tula 11,333. 
Aurtclk (Bee also Auatria-HungBiy) : 
Chmrgg d'affaires of, to United 
Statei, witbdraval of, referred to, 
CDDunereial tel&tions with, 1114,2004. 
Confederate eavoja sent to Oreat 
Britain and France referred to. 
(See Uason and Slidell.) 
Consul of United States to Vienna, 

referred to, 2583. 
Consular convention with, 4023. 
I^gitive criminals, convention witli, 

for surrender of, 2911. 
Importation of American products to, 
legislation against, discussed, 4916. 
Imprisonment of Ainerican citizens 

by, 2689, 2742. 
Uiniater of United States to be sent 

to, 1592. 
Belations opened with, 1706. 
Treaty with, transmitted and dis- 
enaaed, 975, 1008, 1026, 1097, 
1105, 1157, 2434, 2911. 
Correspondence regarding, referred 

to, 2564. 
Befeired to, 1070, 1114. 
Troops of, departing to Mexico, re- 
ferred to, 3588, 3589. 
Vessels of, diacriminating doties on, 
mspended by proclamation, 1003, 
War with Hungary, sympathy of 
American Governmant with latter, 
2550, 2679. 
Wines from, duties on. (See Wines.) 
Atutacla-HnngaiT (see also Austria; 
Claims of, regarding subjects killed 
Inconfliet in Pennsylvaaia,6324,63e3. 
Consular convention with, 409S. 
Empress- queen of, assassination of, 

Expulsion of Ainerican citiEens, 6425. 
Uinister of, to United States, re- 
ceived, 4718. 
Uinister of United States to, appoint- 
ment of A. U. Kelley as, and re- 
focal to reeeiTe, disenssed, 4910. 

Nentrality of United States in war 
Belgium, 7977. 
Fiance, 7975. 
Great Britain, 7975. 
Italy, 8065. 
Japan, 7977. 
BuBsia, 7974. 
BervU, 7969. 
Tariff laws of, evidence of modifica- 
tion of, proclaimed, 5718. 
Discussed, 6747. 
Trademarks, treaty, regarding, 4114. 
Anstrta-Htmgary, Treattea with. — The 

treat; of commerce and navlBatloD of 1829 
was proclaimed Feb. 10. 1831. It waa 
made orlgluallr for the apace of ten ^eara. 
wlcb renewal from j(-- *' "■ — 

tiroTldea for llbei .. . 
eallon bettreea tbe t.., 

dcr protection of person, propert;, and tbe 
equitable Impmlllon of fees, cbarKCs, and 
. . ■ — »yi Importation and re-eiporta- 

on their own acooant aba II derive from 
their offldal position no advaDtage or prlvl- 
leKe not Bceorded to private dtlaena Id 
similar transact Ions. 

Z>l8|KWal of Property and Consular Juris- 

„ persDD may will prop- 

ertr wltbln the other country, and the lega- 
tes or rtpreaentatlve wbo may by tba laws 
of a country be dlaqunllfled from holdlut 
tbe same aholl have two yeara, or an ri- 
tended reasoDBble time, to dispose 

same and s 


be aabject to any an- 
- — — ics. Tbe property of 

person dying without heirs shall have 

a terma : and theso shall a 

the Jn^ldal mncblnery of the country In 
— Bl^ deaer- - 

tborlly, and powi 


... _ . eitradltlOD coo' 

proclnlmpd Dec. 16, 1866. II 
dltlon of crlmlnnla and fuglllTt' 

aaylum In HODgbt. and n 

sault with lot 
'bery, foriwi 
. . micrfell roonpy. 
public money. The 
Burdcd In the llsbt or 

tM Id which an aayl ... _ .,_ . 

of thnae where tbe offence was committed. 
Tbe provlalona of the treaty are not retro- 
active, nor do tbey apply to political offend- 
ers or cltlEenn of the country. AH ex- 
penae In to be t>ome br the oountrr asking 
extradition. If the rcIuRcc commlta a new 
erlne In the country of aaylum. auch of- 
fence mnst be disposed of before citradl- 


Messages and Papers of the Presideris 


tlon la permitted. The tieatr eitenda from 
jtAt to rear, anbject to >lx montbi' Dotics 
of tntCDtlon to terminate. 

Ooiuular Convnillon. — June 2g, ISTl, « 
eonaular conTeiitioD was proclaimed deflo- 
Ins rlKbta, prltlleEeB, Immoaltlea, duties, 
and Bpherea o( action of the eoaaulH-^a- 
•ral, conaula, Tlce-conHula, and conanlar 
aeeaCs of the reapectlve conntrUH. It jfra- 
Tldea for tbe recognition of such ; exemp- 
tion from nillltarr service and witness duty 
la cases beyond their consolate dutlea 
(testlmooT In ordinary cases bclnc taken 
at the reudence when neceasary) ; tbe privl. 
lege of holatlag the national flag over their 
resldeatial or offlclal bulldlna or vessel ; 
consular papers, arc^blye^ aod records to 
be Inviolate ; freedom and ease of accea- 
don to ofll™ la provided for ; appointment 
of aubordlnate repreaea tall res la permitted; 
eonaula may call upon tbe local antborltlea 
for police and Jodlclal aid : may take depo- 
altlona of tbelr countrj-men ; may irltnesa 
wills, offlclal pnpeFs and asreemeotE, la ac- 
cordance with the Ibwb of the country 
which they represent; may act as Inter- 

tlon's papera : may arrest desertera from 
veasels of their nation ; may act as tempo- 
rnry trustee for the goods of a countryman 
[Qg wllhout belra or represeDtatlves. 
~ treaty was drawn to remain In force 

tlon to terminate. 

ffaftirnUnMon. — To regnlate tbe cltlien* 
ship of ImmigniDta a natnra Illation conven- 
tion was proclaimed Aug. 1, 18T1. Tbe 
governmait of Anntrla-IIungary ogreea to 
recognise aa American clllsens Ihoae of Its 

Beople who bave resided In the United 
tates for a period of Qve years, and who 
have become lis cltlEens by regular and 

.._ people who baa almlla..^ 

formed to the naturnlliatlon laws of Ans- 
trlB-Hnneary ; bat the declarBllon of In- 
tention Is not In either country regarded as 
nntnra Illation. NaturalliatlaD Id one coun- 
try doea not grant to tbe person Immunity 
from the consequences of a crime committed 

firlor to ImmlgrntloQ, aubject, ' 
[mllatloo; eGpedally does t 
those who have aougbt to e> 
doly In Anstrla-B angary, i- _ 
subject may renonnce his foreign cltlsen- 
ahlp If he desire, witbout a Bied period of 
residence. This treaty was designed to en- 
dure tor a period of ten years, and there- 
after from "-ear to year, aubJetrC to alz 
mo [It h 8' notice of ternlDBtion. 

rrode-morti — The reproduction o( trada- 
narks by other than tbe owner Is pro- 
blblted and legal redress la accordea to 

' "ERii 

ply to 


B of both I 

ID tries n 

to b« referred to the Fermanent Omrt of 
Arbitration at The Hague according to a 
convention signed Jan. 15, 1B09. 
Antomoblla Trade.— Early eiperlmentera 
in motor vehicles were hamiiered by tbe lack 
of englnea which naed a fuel less heavy and 
balky than coal. Light vehicle motor* 
were msde poaslble by tbe sncceasful pro- 
duction of lloDld or volatile faela aad the 
Internal combustion engine. The motive 
pover ia these gas or Easotiae engines is 
famished by a auccesalon of ei plosions 
which take place within the cylinder It- 
aeir. thereby doing away with iloa cumber- 
some boiler and furaace. 

In 1880 two OermBDs, Gottlieb Daimler 
BJid Carl Bern, working lodcpondently. first 
applied tbe gas engine succesatDlly to road 
vehicles. Daimler, who was manager of 
the Otto Gas Eoglne Worfcs, at^Deuti, 
PruBslB, fitted hla small air-coaled motor 
to a bicycle by placing It vertically be- 
tween the front and rear wheels, the rear 
wheel being driven by meana of a belt 
In 1889 fie constructed a two-cylinder 
engine, which attracted the nttentloo of 
Messrs. Panhard and Levaaaor. of Paris. 
who acquired tba necessary rights and Im- 
mediately began the construction of tbe 
easenUally modern motor car. the flrat of 
which was brooght out in 18B1. 

Carl Bern first aoolied his single borl- 
lontal cylinder, water-Jacketed en^ne to a 
three-wheel carriage. It was placed over 
the rear aile and drove a vertical crank- 
ahatt, thuB giving tbe flywheel a borlsontal 

Eaaitioa. Tbls arrangement insured ata- 
llltv In the steering of the car. Tbe 
crank-shaft was connected by bevel gear^ 
Ing to a short borizontal shaft, which was 
in turn coupled to a counler-sbaFt by a 
belt The enda of this countershaft were 
connected to tbe road wheels b; chains. 
Tbe earlv attemotB by American inven- 

flned to steam motors. An omnibus built 
In 1878 by a Mr. Fawcett of Plttabarg. 
employed a Brayton motor of unknown de- 
sign. During the elRhtiea a Mr. Copeland 
brought out B bicycle equipped with a 
■team motor, followed by two tricycles 
similarly equlnped. which were the prede- 

and gaaollne was the fuel. Later ' 
machine was remod<!led, aslng a flasn 
boiler, that la. tbe steam was generated 
only as required by the enKlaes. In 1893 
Mr, Olds began building KasoIlDe motors 
tor horseless carriages, wblcb, since tbelr 
—- -"--^lon In 189B, have proved practical 

home it Is then public property in the 
country of the other contracting power- 
To acquire trade- mark protection, dupli- 
cate copies must be deposited In the Patent 
Offlce at WashlbSton and In the Chamber 
of Commerce and Trade at Vienna and 
Pesth. This treaty, origluslly of ten years' 
duration, now lives from year to year, sub- 

!ect to one year's notico of termination, 
t was Interpreted to apply also to oopy- 

ArbUratbrn. — DUteTencea of a legal nsf 

Xnn or aa to tjie tnterprstoflon of ueatlea begli 
imposBlM^ of annbinmt wy iP" — ' — 

Charles and I. F. E>uryBa completed thdr 
flrst automobile In 189:, Their second car, 
comoleted In 1893. embodied all the es- 
sential features of the modem aatomobtle- 
Tbe Duryea Motor Wagon Company was 
organ lied, and the thirteen an to mobile*, 
flnlahed in the eummcr of 1396. were the 
first manufactured for sale In tbe United 
States. The price of these vehlelea, fl.eoo. 
was considered too high for an on tried 
snbstltute for tbs horse and carriage, atid 
prevented tbe Immediate acceptance of the 
gasoline automobile in America. A large 
majority of plants reporting for tbe indus- 
try to the census Of 190U, commenced ope> 
-^ona la 1898, tbs date of the sabMJLatlil 
ling of tiM aatDmoUte butmai in 


EticyclopetHc Index 

Antomobas Trade — Oontinuta. 

Petrol Motori.— In 1882 Beau de Rocbas, 
a CreDcb engiDeer. patented an iDtemaf 
comboBtloa CDstne, tlie crloclples at which 
liave ever since afforded the basla (or de- 
at^era of thU class of engine. The 
Simplest (orm cocilsta of a Blcgle criinder 
closed at the top and opflo st Che botloni, 
wltbin which moTca a olosel; fltdng plRton. 
eonneeted with a swloglns rod lo the crank- 
dutt. A mixture of air and the vapor- 
bed petroleum ia Introduced Into the cyila- 
der when the piston la at the top. forming 
a enshlan between the Sled top of Che 
cj Under and the moTable piston. The 

t 37,700, 1 

e SO, 1 

ued at $72,522,- 
! moDtha ending 
cars, passenger 
t allghtlr more 

rc{al, valued I 
han 1486,000,000. 

It wilt be noted that while the number 
if cars increased 36 per cent, the value in- 
■reased only 10 per cent. iDdlcatlns the 
— »— _..... .^ ,.... ,,.„g ^^jjj giving 

BHTuan on ni Ui.irnTumm or Amniosiiss, iro AtnonasiLi Bodim ii 

nln el U.(I3S,«0, uid 43 
II0J1S.CI70; in IDO», si " 

mlitnre Is then Ignited, caaslDg a 

The piston, which is Qtted gaa tlgbL 


If this 23.81 

t notable ei- 

fi the oulr thing which 
It fs driven to tlie bottc 

where its further down. 

■rreAted by (be crank. The Impulse of this 
explosive stroke Is stored In a Hf wheel 
attached to the crank-Bheft, which Is ca- 
ried aroTiiid BRsln drawlnif the piston a 
Aniomoblles are variously equipped wll 
four, six aod eight cylinder — -•— -- -•- 

Eleclria Kotori. — The electric automo- 
bile Is In less advanced state than the 
gasoline type. The only practical supply 
of power Is by means of heavy storage 
batterlea carried on the car itself. If the 
electricity gives out at any place other 
than an electric charging ---■'— "-- 
machine Is helpless. The mo 
tension of the electric autom 

■ -■ ---—■-, field „h.--= = 

ucks, drajB, and delivery 

The latest steps !□ automobile bnlldlug 
have been the armored gun-carrying ma- 
chine and the farm tractor. 

The rapid growth of the baBlness li 
ahown by the fact that the number of ea- 
tabllahments making aotomoblles and parta 
lamped from 67 in 1900 to 743 tn 1008, 
and the value of output during the same 
time from »4,748.011 to t249.2M.076. 

Con tinned demand tor aotomoblles and 
trucka In this country and abroad has 
broDght a remarkable Id crease In salea. the 
sUtlstIca for the year endlBB with June 30, 
1B16. as compiled by Alfred Beeves, geDcral 
manager of tbe National Automobile Cham- 
ber of Commerce, Inc., showing the produc- 
tion to have been 708. B27 cara, valued 
wholesale at (523,463,803. which Is an ad- 
vance of 30 per cent In tbe nnmher ot 
or* BDd more tban 10 per cent In valae 
over tti« prerlona twelve months. 

ca ssd psTta lo the valua of 

ed a total in the year ending wl 
1916. far in eiceas of any previo 
e months. They totalled 160.254,6! 


s valued at (21,- 
lented 37.876 ve- 

added parta lo the valae ot (7,833,183, giv- 
ing a total of (68,107.818. 
Nnmaa ot AtnoHosoM UiNCHCTnaro, is Karoantp 
KB Tflj Cbmsds or 1V14 

OaadiH uid,it«iai ue^i 

Pimily sod plcaavn IMJU 

Tomiigows 4H3T« 

DcliTwywBCDDiMidtnxfa 23,?l» 

AUsther i»lil 

Bei*i» 4.718 

Totsi sn,iw 

AntonomooB OoTenunent for Onba dis- 

cussed, 6152, 6261, 6284, 0308, 6660. 

(See also Cuba.) 
AnttoM Towns, Destruction of.— Th« 
news of the taaasacre of whites at Fort 
Mlmms having spread Into Georgia, Brig, 
Qen. John Floyd, at the head of B50 SUte 
militia and 400 friendly Indians, started on 
an eipedlllon of chastisement. Between 
midnight and dawn of Nov. 26, 1813. the 

The Indians fought Qercely, but were orer- 
wbelmed, driven to the wooda and caves, 
and shot. Floyd lost eleren hilled and fifty- 
four wonnded. 

Anz Ouurdfl (Canada), Battle of.— The 
flrst encounter between British and Amert- 
cant Id tbe War ot 1812. Oen. William 


Aux Messages and Papers of the Presidetiis 

Anx Oftuardi — (taiuimMd. Avaa Ldaads: 

Hull, govsrnor of the northwest Terrltorj, ClaimB reBardinK, inid, 3446. 

placed In command of lorcea Id Ohio and n j.-.- _i4.E V-»..».«i_ ».«-j 

Srdered to beeln the InTnelon of Canada. Convention with Venezuela regwd- 

croased the river July 12, 1B12, and dla- ins, 3111, 3191. 

patched Col. Lewis Cass with 280 men to- TtafaranPti tji ^ilflO 

ward Maiden. CrosBlog the RlvierB aui aeterenco to, diaa. 

Canards, a tributary o( tbe Detroit, be A-vUtlon, (Bee Aeronantics, also Army, 

era?'from"whom he leaded t™at B^ma''of'the Signal Corps, Navy, Flying Corpt, and 

enemy had been killed and nine or ten for application to military uses see 

wounded. Cass did not lose a man. -t. „_"_ m ir i.-_. i 

Auxiliary NaYy in SpaniBh-Amorioan European War, Z^riww.) 

War 6313 Aatecaa or Aztecs. (See Indian Tnbea.) 

AvetJWtoro (N. O.), Battla of.— March Artec Olnh of 1847. -Tbls society, oHk- 

le, 1865, aen. Slocum, tn the advance of Inally composed of officers of tiM United 

tbe Onion Army, encountered the Confeder- States Army who served In tlie war wttb 

ates under Gen. Hardee near Averjabpro, MciIco, was formed In the City of Mexl- 

l?».?^°5"fl"Vh"1°'''' °^n between Cape ^^ ,„ ig„ ^nd Has been continued, -with 

K8h^rn^nlScheirnntll7otaBt''on''co^^^ * "e'^ to cherish the memories iSd keep 

mneeDtratThls army at mme point in his ■"»<' '"« traditions that cluster about the 

rear. Ineeaaant rains had made the ground names of those officer* who took part In 

so soft that men and horses sank deep In the Mexican War." Membership Is con- 

"-- — -■ A severe flgbt took place amid flned to officers of the army, navy, and 

„■_ — J, 1.- _. —.-J mi.- marine corps who served In the war, or 

..... ^ . . . . I . ., .... their male blood relatlvea. Each primary 

■nd the Confederates retreated to Smith. member mav nominate as his Euccessor 

Held, leaving 108 dead upon the aeld. The mb ^n or a male biood wJatSre who dnr- 

477 woUd?d "" ""o"^""" ""^ "* m ISa-lIf' '"oV%he"'^rlmlr.^"mrm^£er^ is 

Area Mandi.— A group of small isUndi k"-™ ^ associate-member, and ou the 

in the Caribbean Sea, belonging to ,^^,„.„^^,,,^. „ 

Venezuela. are (1909) 22Q memben. 


Encyclopedic Index 

iDBornctlan la 
lere of Ue people of YtrKlnl*, ted ti7 
NatluDlel Bacon. In IBT3 the Crown ai- 
■Used tbe entire Province of Virginia tor 
thiri;.oiie jaar> to Lorde Arllnnon and 
CDlpeper, wlib power to collect tor tbelr 
own use all quit rents, escheats, and dntlee ; 
10 name ihenfra and other offlceri : la make 
atw counties, and Id general to exercise the 
■ntboHIr of absolute rulera. Sir Wllllnm 
BerkeleT, the Ensllah EOTcrnor of the Colony, 


iltlon to frei 


[ that the 

from the colon 

I the settlers 

g ^r himself and bis roas- 
ters at tne least poaslhle i ' — -■ 
proTCd Ihefflclent In proIecUnE t 
(gainst the rBYSBes of the Indian 
heiTT taxes upon the people aod ._ 

the franchise. An lodlan uprising „ 

(Kcurred In the state, a force of BOO men 
lathered to march Bsalnst them. BerkeleT 
ordered them to dlaband. The colonists 
chow Bacon, who was a popular lawyer 


leader.' and despite the rcfui 
nor to commission him. he led nis i 
.._st and defeated the ludlans. Berki 
reapoo proclaimed Bacon a rebel, 

•t the 

■reapou prociaimea dslvu h reuei, uuc 
rhslandlnE which the people chose him a 

mber of the bew assembly. Oo his way 

to Jamestown he was arrested and tried by 
the Kovernor and his council, but was re- 
leased on parole and left the capital. He 
■ODD letnmed with 600 men and again de- 
manded a commission, which was granted. 
While Bacon was successfully engaged In 
another campaign against the Indians. 
Berkeley behId proolslmed bin 
a trallor Bacon then bums'' 
the gofornor taking refuge o.. 
Teasel Id the harbor. The rebellion 
carried on Id a desiiltor; way ualll the 
death of Bacon In ISTT. when It eallBpsed 
for want of a leader. The English executed 
tweDry-tbrt« of the parllclnnnlH In this 
rrbellbn. It Is notable as the Qrat formi- 
dable resistance to colonial authority Id 
British America. The slgDlQcBuce of Its oc- 
reoce Just 100 years before Indeper-' 

a remarked. One 


liealenaats put li 

rebellion waa Wl - 

serred for a few years as the first gov^ruuc 
ot Korth Carolina. 

Badm. — A Oermaii grand durtiy, o( aonth- 
era Germany and a state of the German 
Empire. The reigning duke Is Frederick 
II. It ts bonnded by Besse and Bavaria 
OB the north. BSTBrta on the northeast, 
Warttemberg on the east Swllaerland (sep- 
arated mainly by Lake Constance and the 
Rhine) oD the south, and Alsace and the 
Rblne Palatinate {separated by the Rblnei 
on the west. Its capital In Carlsruhe. It 
produces grain, wine, tobacco, hemp, pota- 
loet, hopa and chicory, manufaclores silk 
goods, chemicals, clocka. machinery, wood- 
enware. brushes, paper, etc. 

OoDeranimt — The govenimeat is a eonstl- 
tntlonal hereditary monarchy under a grand 
duke and a Landtag with an Unper House 
and a Chamber of slity-tbree Representa- 
tlTeo. It sends ttiree representatives to 
the German Bundesrath and fourteen to 
the Reichstag. It entered the Qerman con- 
federation In 1815. received a Constitution 
Id 181B. aod became a member ot the Ger- 
man Rmplre In ISTl. It has an area ot 
B,823 sq. miles and a populatlan (IBIO) 
ot 2.1413S2. (See also Germany). 
'FTi^fT. fugitive eTiminals, conTention 

with, for surrender of, 889S. 
BuJitn, TnatlM with. — The extradltloB 
ttcatr «f 1SB7 and the natorallMtlon con- 


.._ . , year. The ex. 

iradltable crimes are: Murder, assault with 
Intent to kill, piracy, arson, robbery, for- 
gery, making or circulating conQterfelt 
money, and embeiilement of public mon- 
ies. Evidence of guilt sufficient to convict 
witbin the country of asyluiQ must be 
supplied. The expense must be borne by 
the country asking surrender. The treaty 
does not apply to political offenders, nor 

within the country ot asylum causes the 
olTender to be tried and. If guilty, to b* 
pnolshed there before surrender. The 
treaty remained In force until Jan. 1, 1880, 
and thereafter from year to year, subject 
to one year's notice of Intention to ter- 

The 'treaty of 1868 Is a natumllsatlon 
treaty designed to regulate the recogni- 
tion of naturalised cltliens by their native 
country, and was proclaimed Jau. 10, 18T0. 
Kach country agrees to recoKnlw as cltl- 
leoB those of its former subjects who bnve 
legally conformed to the nalurnlliallon 
laws of the other country. No Immunity 
from punishment tor crimes '-"-' """ 

• llml 

blflty o"a 

. .._ , _ cltleen 

If be desire, easily resume hts cltl- 
lenshlp. This treaty was made to run tea 
years and tbereofler from yesr to year, 
subject to twelve mouths' notice of inten- 

.1 — ._ . 1 — tp_ ^ protocol was signed 

.*v 9A. iftAH. In further ex- 
(See Ger- 
lUBD fjmpire.j 

Baluuiut Banks, negotiations with Great 
Britain regarding cession of keys on, 
to United States, 013. 

Batuuna Islandi, fonnorlr LncaTos.— a 

cbsln of islands stretching from near the 
north coast of Haiti to the east coast of 
Florida. They are separated from Florida 
by the Gulf Stream and from Cuba by 
the Old Bahama channeL There are some 
3.000 of these lalanda bat only about SO 
of any slie. The prlndpal ones, beginning 
at the northwest, are Great Bahama. The 
Abacos. Eleuthera. New Providence. Andros, 
Guanahanl or Cat Island or Ban Salvador, 
WatllDg Island, Ex a ma. Long Island, 
Crooked Islands, Harlgnana. Inagua. Little 
Inagna. Calcos. and Tntls Island. The 
climate of these Islands Is very mild and 
salubrlons. even In winter. The soil Is 
thin, but produces cotton, malie, pineapples, 
oranges, etc, 

Hlftory, — The Bahamas were Columbus's 
earliest discovery, but Chere la some doubt 
as to which ot the Islands he called San 
Salvador. The Inlands were occupied by 
the Kngllsh In 1629 and flaally secured to 
them by the treaty of 1783. Area, about 
6.4B0 sq. miles: population 110091. ei.2T7. 

Gocemtnent. — The capital Is Nsssau. New 

clI, and a legislative council of nine mem- 
bers each and a representative assembly of 
twenty-nine members constitute the govem- 

In the Bahamas, especially In New Frovl- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

BaluuM IilandB — Contimiat. 
deoce. The Ulonda wme MpuUtlon 
ta K winter resort, the thermomecer, from 
NoTemtwr to Mbj. Tarlea from 60' to 75*, 
and darlor tlie cemalnder of tlie year from 
76° to 80', 

Bftltuna IfllandiipoatKl conveiition. with, 

BaUug Bniliuaa. — The baftlDg indnaur, 

BccordliiK to the lait federal census. Btanda 
thirteenth In the list ot American Indus- 
trleB !□ DOlnt of vslne of products. Bresd 
la regularlT shipped bj a Isrge number of 
bakeries throuKbuut Ibe country a distance 
of a hundred and fifty miles, and in a few 
iDBtances It Is shipped a thousaod miles. 
This last la eiceptlonal. hovever, and only 
peculiar conditions make It passible. Iieugth 
of shipments depends entirely on the local 
bread market and ao the e^ipress rates. 
The manin of profit on bread KCQcrally is 
small. ^Ipments of bread wllf not stand 
an exorbitant express rate, and when sent 
long distances always goes to a market 
where the demand for a superior article to 
tbat baked locally is equal to a sometTbat 
Increased price. The capital lis tlon of the 
baking Industry is kItcd 1q the last federal 
census (1909) at |212,ai0,00l>. The larg- 
est producers of bread m the United States 

ard Baking Compaoy and the 
_ ^. < j^„ jg,^ ,nj 

1 Comjiaay " 

clUea. The 
General Baking 

Bread Company of Kansas Cltr a 
the iaraest In the coualrj. 

The baking Industry Is growing by leaps 
and bounds aod very likely by this time 
stands twelfth or even higher in the list 
of American Industries. At the time of the 
of the produc" ' -■■--■-- 

.__ B with 

nual products valued at over a hundred 
nulIIoQ. The per cent of Increase for ten 
years covered m the report was 12 Q. 3 per 
cent In value of products, eicceded In the 
same period only by such products as wom- 
en's clothing, automobiles, electrical ma- 
chinery, fertilizers, wire, beet sugar, manu- 
factured ice. pbotoKraphle a p pars tun, etc. 
The history ot TjIbcuU baking In the 
United States is a record of tbe develop 
ment of a small and obscure business to 
an Industry of national ImDortBDcre. The 
word biscuit, derived through Fi 
the Latin, means twice baked. 
Its origin Id the fact that tbe military 
bread of tbe Romans was twice prepared 
Id Ibe oven. In Enrope all small cakes 
made of flour, with sweetening and flavor- 
ing added, are called biscuits. In tbe 
United States tbe word "cracker" was used 
to describe the early productions of crisp 
nnsweetened dough, and later extended 
to Include those with both sweetening and 
flavor. When these American crackers 
were sent to Europe thcT were Included 
under the geueral name of biscuits, and the 
term Is coming Into a wider use In America. 
The first cracker bakery recorded In tbe 
United Slates was that of Theodore Pear- 
«0D. of Newburyport, Mass.. who as early 
i 17»2 made a large round crisp wheat 



bread would kee 
this reason It WB. .. 
piles of sailing vessels. 

rblch. unlike 

t Menotoioy (now Arllog- 

nedv followed s. .. ._ 

ton], Mass., In 1HU5. In Boston the Aus- 
tin* carried on the business sacceaifully for 
many years. Other noted New England 
Arms were Thurston, Hall & Co.. of Cam- 
brldgeport : J. S. Carr, of Springfield ; C. D. 
Boss ot New London, Conn., and parks Ic 
Savage, of Hartfori The earliest Kew 
York cracker baker was Epbrnlm Tread- 
well, wbo began buslnesH in IB^S.and the 
Brlnckerbolfs started In ISBOv The Lar- 
raliee Company, ot Albany, established in 

of 8L irfmla." These'Bnd'many'otoers Joined 
in the race for recognition throuehout tbe 
country. Bending their representatives from 
Maine to Oregon, and trom the lakes t« tbe 

Slf, besides exporting to Sonth Antertca, 
rlca and Australia. 

Until about 1840 machinery In tbe bis- 
cuit business was almost unknown. A ma- 
chine was then Invented which rolled the 
dougb Into a thin sheet, which, passing 
alone on an endless belt or apron, was 
cut mto tbe required shape by a stamp 
_...__ ,„j .....__ — — latically. In this 

J bnrrei. 

In 184S the discovery of gold In Cali- 
fornia and tbe consequent demand for 
crackers BS a suitable article of pioneer 
food proved a marked stlmnlns to tbe bis- 
cuit trade. Plants were enlarged and 
stesm power was introduced to woric the 
mactilaes. The civil war gave a second 
great impetus to the Industry and the 
old-time d^Bt-CUe ovens being taxed beyond 
tbeir caPBCltv to meet tbe Increased de- 
mand for bard bread for army and navy 
uecbanlcal reel oven, consisting 
ivlng In 

a Ferris 

whole enclosed In a lari:e brick 
Invented, and this again 

— , r— thcsereelo, 

nd had lifts been increaaed until now all the large 
plants have a dally capacity of trom fotiy 
to fifty barrels per day per oven. 

The biscuit baking buBlness has not es- 
caped the national tendency toward con- 
centration. Four holding companies now 
control nearly all the larger plants la the 
country. Tbe first ot these, the New York 
Biscuit I — • "- ' 

with an Immense i ._ .. .. _. 

City, baking a thousand barrels of flour 
day. The American Biscuit Company rans 
one large factory In New York, and the 
United States Blscnlt Company controla the 

grlnclpal tftctortes In Ohio. ladlsna and 
enuRylvaala. The National owns bakeries 
In Denver, Colo. ; Cedar Rapids and Des 
Moines. Iowa ; Bock Island, ill-, and New 

ihea, pastry, nretiels, etc.. collected 

.J)14 snow 26,Bfl3 establishments Id . 

United States, employing 124.0S2 wage- 
earners, and prodDclng goods to the Talne 


Encychpedie Index 

«t $1»1,88S,000 for the jm. The c<wt 
ot nwterUle need in tbeu b«kerlea was 
Clven ae S2T4^T,000, end the >iaaant dii- 
trlbatod JD vagea ■■ ¥96,684,000. Besides 
these IBS tKCtoriea reported bUcolts and 
rrackera as snbsldlar; prodneta. All tlieu 
flKnrM tbow substantl&l Increases over the 
eensn* ol 1808. 

Balance of Tndth — ^^e difference In tbI- 
ae between the exports and Imimrts of m 
cooDtrj Ib called IIb balance of trade. The 
Dotloa loDK preTHlled that an excess ot 
eiports OTer I m ports wss desirable, and 
this led to such a balance being termed a 
balance In taror of the couutr;, while > 
balance of Imports OTCC eip — 

Powers : (S) there sbatl he tntematianal 

Kendarmes In Tnrker : iS) Uie tt 

donlan villayeta s^-'■ '- ' 

strlcted In power. 

Turkey and attract Che attention c_ _„ 
Europe. This condltloo of allalrs con tin- 
ned until lace !□ the year IS03. In Sep- 
' — * that year Bulgaria declared her- 

■Idered on^Torable, 
■ - — I based on . 

the n 

itaken idea that Nori-i'i 
settled b; Im- - ■ - 

ot wliicli was legudcd as desirable. This 
Tlew has, boweyer, twen entlrel; discarded 
by politicsl eeoDomlstn. It la now known 
thaf la healthir and profllable trade Im- 
Dorts mDBt of necessity exceed exports. A 

STen quantity of merchandise eiported 
am a country mnst, !□ order to yield a 
prollt, be sold In a foreign market at a 
price whlcb Inclodes cost, Insorance and 
trelgbt to the torel^n market and reason- 
able proflt *- "■ >.-—. •• ....- 1-- 

iw tiiere most of necessity be greater than 
that of ttie eiported articles. Not that 
tranaactioQS can be thus traced except in 
Isolated cases ; wb may. Indeed, asanme a 
case o( exports eidnslTcIy to P:ngland and 
ol Imports eiClnslTcly from France, the 
trade between these countries equalising 
the transaction : for bills of exchange and 
ths Other Itutruments at commerce render 
rery simple in practice even tbe eases most 
dlfflcilt to trace In theory; the desire tor 

EIn leads eyery article to Sod Che market 
wlilch It is most TDlnable ; In Ibis sense 
SM and silver are articles ol commerce, and 
ry win not be eiported unless their valoe 
la the otber country Is greater than at home. 
*^^im States.— A general term referring 
to those states or parts of states In the 
Balkan peninsula In the aoutheastern part 

I of Croatia and Kus 

self free from Ihs Turfs and .... . 

nd proceeded to take passeBBlon of the 
.__.» liway, wtilcti though In Bul- 
led by Turkey, The Turkish 

government complained to the signatory 

Eowers of the Treaty ol Berlin, which 
ad left the Bulgarians vassals to Turkey. 
Oct. C, IfiOe, Prince Ferdinand read hla 
manifesto of Independence and union for 
Bulgaria and eaatem Knmella. Next Aus- 
tria, on Oct, T. proclaimed to the world 
thst the provinces of Bosnia and Eerse- 
— .__ ..___ ^j j^gjjj ^ .. — 

latlon when Turkey was 

Es.° £lp"lo 


the prevention of a possible Slavic 
o( tlie future. The Turkish gov- 
appenled to the powers, Servia 

nte negro were ready to unite 

■In. Oct. T, Crete proclaimed Itself a de- 
pendency or Greece. Torkey again pro- 
teaced. and QresC Britain, France, Russia 

' consldenitlon 

and . 

a Oc- 

tober 190S. Qrpat urltsln, France and 
Russia advised Bulgaria Co negotlaCe with 
Turkey with a view to compensating the 
latter power for sccedltjg to Bulgarian In- 
dependence. The culmination of the Au»- 
tro-Turklah difflcoltica was effected In a 
protocol signed In February, 1000. whereby 
Tarklsh customs duties were locreaned 16 
per cent, Turkish monopoHes In mQtcbes. 
cignrette paper and some other articles 
were established, all Moalems of Bosnia 
and Henegovlna were to enjoy political 
and religious freedom, and Turkey re~ 
celved an indemnitv of tl2.r>00,000 from 
AnsCrla. In May. 1910, the Cretan assem- 
bly was opened In the manner ot the Greek 
parlloment snd an oalb of nlleglaDce was 
taken to Che EluR of the Hellenes. 

As early as February, IB12. the govern- 
ments of Bulgaria. Serbia. Montenegro and 
Greece had come to a complete underatand- 
Ing and tonned ao alliance for tlie purpose 
ot securing the freedom of their com- 
patriots and co-re llglonlBts from Tarklsh 
domination, and the Hgeraudliement of each 
state througb the division of Turkev In 
Europe. Alleged massacres in Macedonia 
and a revolt In Albania had almost brought 
matters to a crisis, when Connt Berchtold. 
Anatrlan Minister ot Foreign Affairs, pro- 
posed to the powers that they shonld co- 
operato to restrsin the Balkan States from 
upsetting the statu* guo In Eluropean Tar- 
key, and cnconrare the Porte in a lullcy of 
moderate deeentralliatlon on etbulc lines. 
Anatrla's purposa was to prevent war. By 

. , the Balkan allies the pronosal seemed fa- 

dvQ agents appttfaited by tha ToraH« to ttadr dainu. Tha Twki toohad 

Greece, and pari 

leal sense It nsuatiy applies to uuigsna, 
Berrla, Montenegro, Rumania, Turkey In 
Enrope and Greece. 

BaOmt 9iiull<M.— Situated as it is. 
gnirdlng the coveted .£genn Sea and the 
Strait ot Dardaoellea, and compoaed of na- 
Uona balding variant political and religions 
views, tbla gronp of states la looked opon 
as a eonstant menace to the peace of Ea- 
Npe, Politltal troubles In the peninsula 
are generally referred to aa the Balkan 

The Congress of Berlin, which attempted 
to alter the map of Europe after the Bus- 
-'a victory of ISTS, In falling to reeogntu 

rtanee, EIngrand. Italy i 

allied against Anstrlaraungary, Germany. 
Tnriiey and Bnlgarla. 
The great powers 

ordered these threa . 

jl) TIw Tnrklth Inspeetor-Ocneral must 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Balkan SUtM—OoHttmwii, 
npoD It as a thrrat of Earoifeaii Interren- 
tlon for the ulteFloT purpose of takiog the 
MacedoDlao provinces from the control ol 
the Bultau. 

Turto-Bulaarian War. — During the peace 

negotUtloDi between Italy and Turlcey In 

"--' . 1912, Turkey roobllted - ' ' 

e BulRBrlan trot" 

roud— That, leaalug o 

ora, each pNTlnce hRTlng an AasemblT, 

with repreaentstlTeB whose authorllf will 
be drawn pro^rtlonatel]' from the Tarlou> 

Bept, 1912, Turkey roobllted a 

"■■ "■■' ' .ud the Bccuaed 

mobilization of 

sparauteed. dHlarhig that Ibe powers of 
Garape bad temporized too lunc- Bulinrla 
called upon BervU, Greece. Hacedonla. 
Montenesro and UenegoTlua to rUe ajnlnat 
Turkey, and by Oct. 10. 1612, 600,000 bayo- 
nets aurrouDded European Turkey. 

The Fowera In the meauwhlle bad been 
endeBTorlng to concert measurei to prevent 
actual war, Repreaentatlvea ol AOBtrla- 
Hongary and Rusala at Sofla, Belgrade, 
CelllDBe and Athena annoUDced to the Bal- 
kan Blllea the attitude of the Powers aa 
follows : 

The goTeruments of Russia and Anitrla 
declare to the Balkan States : 

First — That (he Powers energetically re- 
i susceptible of caualng 


- , uted wl._ .-„.. -J 

--Ignrla, assisted by Servia. Montenegro 
and Greece. After Investing Adrlanople 

' - •^- Black 8e«, 

o. May 80. 

_.. Tbrsce to the Enos MldlK 
line fell to the share of Bulgaria, as well 
as DBita of Uacedonla to the west of Bul- 

In a campaign of eight weeks the Balkan 
" """"■ ' "'le Turks from Albania, 

Blllea had swept 
Kplrna, >■--.■—■ 

Inqulshed her Eoropcan 

possession of 
ns. By the 
il^ned In !»□- 

They both re- 

1 xxiii f£^'"'«. 

the realiiatlon of reforms In the admluL. 
tratlon of European Torliey, It being under- 
stood that these reforms shall not aSect 
the soTerelgnr; of the BulCan or tbe terri- 
torial integrity of the Ottoman Empire. 
The Powers reserve to themselves ll&erty 
of action for a collective ulterior study of 
these reforms. 

Third—That If nevertheless war breaks 
out between the Balkan Btates and the 
Ottoman Empire, tbey will permit at the 
end of the conflict no modtncatlon of tbe 
territorial itatu> quo In European Turkey. 
The Powers will make collectively to tbe 
Sublime Porte representations similar to 
tbe above declaration. 

Montenegro had prevloosly (Oct 6, 1912) 
declared war on Turkey and the other Bal- 
kan allies made demanda wbicb Turkey 
considered offensive. 

M. Posltch. Servian HlnlBter ot For- 
eign Affairs, snd President of the Council 
of HIolBlers, Iraued a statement aaylug : 
■'Since tbe orrlva] of the Turks In Europe. 
Chrlstlsn populatlouB under their rule have 
oever ceased to suffer. The relations be- 
tween them have never been other than 
those between conqueror snd conquered. 
Servla Is not recogulEed as a nation ; she 
bas neither churcb nor school. 

"Servla. like other Balkan nations, baa 

Seacenbly waited for the putting Into ef- 
>ct of reforms which would assure tbe 
Bsfety of the lives of the Christian popula- 
tions In the Ottoman Empire, but all has 
been in vain. We are convinced that war 
Is now the only means of attaining auton- 
omy for Old Servla, where a malorlty of 
tbe population are Serbs. I consider ttuit 
these people inerlt our effort all the more 
because I hey were altogether abandoned 
even In the attempts at reforms nndertaken 
by the great Powers. Old Servla must In- 
clude Ibe vilayet of Kossovo witb the 
Sanfljak of Novl-Baiar, tbe northern por- 
tion of tbe vilayet of Scutari, with the 
shores of the Adriatic, where there are sn- 
clent Servian forts ; also tbe northwestern 
portion of Ibe vilayet of MonasClr, Includ- 
Tug Lake Ochrlda. 

Besides Old Servla, antonomy must be 
given to Macedonia, Albania. Thessaly and 
Eplra. At tbe head of tbeae autonomous 
proYlBCM tbere muat be CkrlatUn aoren- 

the Balkan t 

o frontier delimitations. National 
— - - high that a scttlemcn ' 

military action. They grew „. ™„ 

problem of new frontier lines made neces- 
sary by the elimination of the Turk from 
Macedonia and the greater part of Thnice. 
Bulgaria, a party to both dlspates, was 

J „ Issue Buccessful be- 

yood tbcir most sauguliie hopes, the Balkan 
allies fell out over a division of tbe spoils. 
Their original plaus contemplated a Joint 
campaign for tbe liberation of Macedonia, 
and at the outapt their eipectatlons did 
not go beyond the expulsion of Turkey 
from this one province. The unexpected 
successes of the Bulgarians in Thrace, how- 
ever, eitpnded the prospect ot conoueet and 
altered the concert of the allies, n'hile 
the Bulgarians concentrated moat ot tbelr 
'roops before Adrianople and Tchataldja, 

the Serviai 



within their own frontiers. Here they were 

this emergency Russia was appealed to for 
mediation, whkb ended wltb tbe treaty of 
Bucharest, AugUBt 0. 1913, by wbicb Bul- 
garia was stripped of her newly acquired 
western possessions and ceded a part of 
her former territory to Rumania. Dnrlns 
this second war, In wbicb Bul^rla wa^ 
worsted by her former allies. Turkey reoccu- 
pied Adrlanople and tbe adjacent terrltor?. 
Bnlgarla was onable to endure a thl-d 
war, and on Sept. :i9, 1913. alined a trenly 
at Constantinople by which the Tiirko-Riil- 
gnrian line was traced op tbe Mnrltin 
River from its month tn a point near Han- 
dra. and thence, passing west of Demotlba, 
left both tbnt town and Adrlnnople to 


Encyclopedic Index 


Balkia SUtas — OoutiinMi. 

ilallj tlonbled la extent b; tb< Treatr ol 


aucb mat ten sa were left to Interna- 
tloul ■rtittratlon or lo Mttlement by tbe 
- r aatlBfactorlly adjiiated. 

ierTlB Ducaed a grleraoM agelnst 
UangSTj OB account o( being depi 
1 Haport on the Adriatic. "— 

at Albania, but __;___! 

'Hunjtar;. Tbe gcoirlDg batred 

between tbe I .. _ 

the asBaralnatlon _. 

ll'14, of Crown Prince Fr 
or Aiutrta and his wife. Austria cbarced 
that tbe murder waa part of a widespread 
political plot known and perhapa luatlsated 
bjr ibe Berrlan Qovernment, and demanded 
a Tolce tn tbe Inveatlntlon and panlahment 
at tbe crime. Auatrfa'a determfoatlon waa 
oppoaed br Hnnla. aod wben tbs latter be- 
■■^■noblflalng ber_torc«B Jn AujtatL 1914, 

after Aiutrlaa 

I had lam 

Sed in 


ne Immediate came at the Entopeai) 
war of I&14-ia mar be traced to tbe po- 
litlaJ altuattoD In tbe Balkana, and the 
fenecal war reall; grew ant of tbe Balkan 
wari of 1912 and 1913. Tbe reaalt of 
those warm waa to briag Russia and Aus- 
trla-Honsar; Into direct opposition. Both 
bad been BtrlvlnB for years for mastery of 

the peninsula. The growth of 
"Togary east and souCb to t"-- — 
Eini in Bosnia, Ueneaorl: 
la Uie aim of AuKtrla. llni 

lary east and souCb to tbe .^Eseau Sea, 
II In Bosnia, Ueneaorliia and Serrla, 
the aim of AuKtrla. Bnngarla had been 
pprmanently attached. BoBoIa and Ilerxe- 
fforina were recent amnlaltlons. Berrla was 
siltl necessary and Qreece desirable to tbe 
culmination of the Anstrlan ambitions. 

Riuala, meanwhile, was equally desirous 
of obtaining ■ soutbera port open to the 
Hediterraoeaa without passlnii throufa the 
Dardanelles by consent of Turkey. hi>«>|' 
Iberefore, encouraged the Pan-Slai 

Turkish empire In Europe, 
the Balkan league, aald to 1 
Bnsaian diplomacy, scored 

eztenslan. The collapee of the 
In Europe, as a result of 
'te a creation of 
. point In favor 
ui KUHio. iue secuno daJkan war. In 
which the alliea fougbt among themselves, 
was reputed to be a counter diplomatic 

Say of Austria. For k time It raptured 
ISTle solidarity. 

Daring tbe general F/Uropeaii war of 
ISI4-I6. the attflude of the Balkan States 
was closely watched by tbe twillgecenta. 
Alter early attacks on Belgrade by Aas- 
triina, in 1B14, no military operations were 
carried on in Eferria for nearly » year. Bu- 
nanla, Bnlgarla and Greece maintalrcd 
■tnrt nenlrality until In October, 191S, 
■hen a Teuton army began to aasemble In 
ssntherD Hungary, with the evident Inten- 
tion of proceeding Into BerTla. K'njr Fer- 
dloand of Bulgaria mobilised bis annlea on 
the frontier and declared his action to be 
for the preservation of neutralll?. SuasLa 
Iminrdlately demanded the demobllliatlon of 
the forcea and tbe dlaalasa! of the Oerman 
aOcera who It waa said were In command. 
Fmeh and English troopa, which had brea 

opFrmtlng In the Danlanelles, were landed 

at Balonlka In the northern jiftrt of " 

raveled by Bulgaria. The Oredau i 

Bat protested against this Tlolaaon of 
nentral territory. 
"- ■" I middle o( December. 1918. the 
I and Buli^riaa armies had 

Ballot.— Literally a little balL The term 
Is applied to all methods ol aecret voting. 
beoiiiM fotnerly all such votes were taken 
by black and white balls placed In the same 
box, or ball! of only one color were depos- 
ited In different boxes bo arrSLieed that 
noaa but the voter could see which box 
received his t>alt. The Ureeks used marked 
shells ioitratoH), whence the term ostra- 
cism. The Komans used tickets tor secret 
voting as early aa 139 B. C. The first uae 
of the ballot in the United States waa In 
the selection of a pastor by the Salem 
Cbnrch. July 20 lefa. Dttrlng the same 
year It waa used In ecclesiaatlcal and mu- 
nicipal elections In tbe Netherlands, but In 
England the cuatom waa not established un- 
til 1ST2. though Bccret voting was actually 
employed In the parliament of Scotlaad In 
cases of OBtradsm two centuries earlier. 

lions of Feiinayivanla, New Jeraey, and 
North Carolina, wtalcb were adopted In 
ITTe. made voting by ballot obligatury. 
Some of the southern slates were alow to 
adopt tbe ballot ayalem of voting, the viva 
voet method having prevailed in Kentucky 
local and state elections up to a late dale. 
In Alaliama. Florida. Indiana, Kansas, Ken- 
tacky. LOQlalana, Nevada. North CaroIIaa. 
Pennnlvanla, Tennessee, TeiBa, and poasl- 
bly otlier state*, the canBtltutlona require 
the h«lBlBtnrea to vote vina voce. In 1873 
Congreas paased a law reiiuirlog all Con- 
treesmen lo ha elected by ballot. 

i%»traUa» Ballot. — Bills embodying tbe 
Australian ballot system were introduced 
In the legislatures of Michigan and New 
York Id IS8T, but failed of pasaage uotll 
18S9. when the system waa adopted in a 
slightly modified form. In 1868, the sys- 
tem was adopted at LonlBTllle. Ky.. and In 
MaasaAuaelta. This method requires the 
namea of alt the candidates for all tbe 
offlees to be placed on one llcket The 
voter retlrea to a private booth and Indl- 
eatea bis choice by making a mark oppo- 
aite a party emblem or a candidate's naiiie. 
This system of voting was first proposed by 
Francis 8. Do I ton, a member of the legls- 
latnra of South Australia, In ISOl. Ita 
use in the United States was flrst advo- 
cated In 1882 by Henry George In « 
pamphlet entitled "RnK)lah Blecllona." The 
Australian ballot has been adopted In soma 
torm Id all the statea except North Caro- 
lina. South Carolina, Georgia and Nevada. 
Delaware adopted It, but later returned to 
the old system. A modlflctttlon of the l>al- 
lot, used In Bomc localltiPB. Is the so-called 
voting mschlne Id which the voter Indicates 
his choice by pressing knobs which record 
his vote upon slips of paper and record 
alao the number of votes cast tor each 

Bhort Ballots,— The short ballot la an 
attempt to simplify eleetlona by placing 
a few ofllcers In nomination at one time 

£" roviaing that only important oBli 
ctlve. Two abort ballot a mend mi 

iSSt i 


Bklls Blnir (Va.), Battle of.— In October, 
1861, Oen. UcClellan directed Bilg. Oen. 
Charles P. Stone to make a demonatratlon 
toward Leeabnrg, Va. Stone ordered Col. 
Davena, of the Fifteenth Unaaacbuaetts. to 
croaa the Potomac Dear Balla BIuK and at- 
tack and deatroy any Confederate camps 
found, or to report and wait for re-enforce- 
menta. Devena, nltb about SOO of bis own 
regiment and 100 of the Twentieth Uaaaa- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

. . . of New Xurk, aasumcd oommaad. 

D o'clocli p. u. Col. Baker vaa bllletl. and 
the li'edvrulH, afier a vulu atlempl lo out 
tbelr way tbrousti to EilwardH Ferrr. were 

e tbeniHelvt. _ 

Many o( the polreutlng army w«] 
while snimmiag the river. Tbe 

'Ht they could. 

Federals loit was 894. Tbe Confederates 
lost 302. Gen. Stone was arrested and kept 
in conflnement from Feb. 9 to Aug. 16, 

Baltic Sea. — A Enrope&D inland Be& 
crashing the shores of Sweden, Qer- 
man7, and Bussia. It terminBtea 
in the Qulfa of Bothnia, Finland, 
and Biga. 
Free transit into and from, discnased, 

2867, 2944. 
Sound dues on commerce to, impoai- 
tion of, 2774. 
Baltimore, The: 
Mentioned, 6297. 

Sailors of, aaaanlted at Valparaiso, 
and action of Oovemment dis- 
cnsaad, 5620, S650, 5662. 
ludemnit}- for, paid b; Chile, GT17, 
Baltimore, Md.: 

Britisli retreat from, referred to, £33. 
CoortB of United Statea in, provision 
' lodation of, referred to. 

Duties at port of, referred to, 80. 

Inanrrection in, on day of election, 
measures to prevent, 2975. 

Memorial from merchants in, trans- 
mitted, 384. 

Military' police to be established in, 

National conventifT at, for preven- 
tion of cmeltiee to animals, 4458. 

National Prison Gongresa at, referred 
to, 4162. 

Police commiesioDers of, arrested, re- 
ferred to, 3234. 

Post-office bnilding for, referred to, 
Bank BlllB less than $20 shonM be anp- 

pressed, 13S5. 
Bank, International American: 

Charter for, recommended by Ptesi- 
deut Benj. Harrison, 6560. 

Establishmeot of, recommended bj 
International American Confer- 
ence, 5505. 
Discussed, 5560. 
Bank. Manufactory.— a banking achemB 

whtcb originated In MaBBachuaettB in 1740. 
The Idea was to aecure the IsBneB by mort- 
gage on the real estate of each Bnbscriber 
(0 tbe amount of bis BnbBrrlpdoQ. Thoagh 
opposed by a Btrong party^^lt paBsrd the 
House of RepreBentatlves. The bank failed 
after iMDing notes to the extent ot £SO,OUO. 

Bank Hotea. (See Banks and Bnnking 

and Finances diecoased.) 
Bank of Missouri, measurea taken by 

Government to enforce payment of 

sums due from directora of, 941. 
Bank of Pennsylvania: 

Payment of bonds of, held by United 
States, referred to, 1726, 

Suspension of, referred to, 1768. 
Bank of the United States.— ?eb. 25, 
ITBl. Congress issued a charter aatborizlng 
tbe Bank of Che Unlled Slates to do busi- 
ness for twenty years. Its capital atock 
was (10,000.000. of which Coagreas sub- 
scribed (2,000,000, partly In coin and part- 
ly In goTcrameat securities. It was made 

depository lor tbe public mobeyB. It was 
also autborlicd to (sbuc Its notes, parable 
In specie, and was made in eiery way possi- 
ble the agent of tbe United States Treasary. 
and a strong power in tbe financial affairs 
of tbe country. Its capital was divided Into 
20.000 sharea of $400 each, 
fourth In specie and thre ' 

- - ■ -be U- 
was allowed to bold property ot alt kinds 
up to Mie value of tlG.OOO.OOO, iDClnalTe 
of Its capital stock, and further to eatablish 
braorh banks Id tbe various cities. In ac- 
cordance witb thia last provision a branch 
was at once opened in New York Cll; and 

Bank of United States: 
Act to extend charter of, vetoed, 
Beferred to, 1225. 
Act to incorporate, vetoed, 540. 
Agent should be appointed to take 

charge of books of, 1382. 
Attempts to impair credit of Oov- 

emment, 123S, 1250. 
Bills of exchange discounted at, for 
benefit of Senators inquiied into, 
No report on subject of, 1347. 
Bills of, should not be received for 

taxes, 1382. 
Charter obtained by ofGcers of, from 
Pennsylvania for new bank, 1471. 
Charter of, not to be renewed, 1226, 
Expiration of, diaensaed, 1025, 
Chartered rights of, should be ter- 
minated, 1250. 
Claims of, and course pursued by, 

Constitutionality of law creating, 

questioned, 1025, 1092, 1225. 
Dangers from, apprehended, 1091, 

1224, 1249. 
Deposits in, removal of, 1249. 

President Jackson's paper to Cab- 
inet on, 1224. 
Befuses to transmit, to Senate, 
Recommended, 1163, 1236. 


Encyclopedic Index 


Buk of TRilted SUtOB-OoHKiiM^. 

Beferred to, 1386. 

Views of President Tyler on, 189T. 
Diieetora of, nominsition of, ukd rea- 
sons therefor, 1260. 
DiMnssed by President — 

Jaeluon, 1121, 1382, 3470. 

Polk, 2504. 

Tyler, 1897. 
Distresses caused by, needlesdy pro- 
daeed, 1328. 

Reference to, 1383. 
Flagrant miscondiict of, commented 

on, 1220, 1249, 1330. 
QoTemment most bo Boparated from, 

Judicial power, attempte to nonrp 

functions of, 1259. 
Honey in, not accounted for, 1259. 
Kote* of, cannot be reissued after 

expiration of charter, 1471. 
OrguiizatioD of, referred to, 664. 
Panic, attempts to bring about, 1250. 
Pspen and funds in possession of, 

refnsal to deliver, 1258. 
Psniion money retained by, 1328. 
Politieal power of, fund employed by, 

to sustain, 1249. 
President of, fnnds at disposal of for 

electioneering puiposes, 1249. 
Bechsxter of, a leading question in 

election of President, 1225, 1249. 
Sound correney, failure of, to estab- 
lish, 1025. 
Stock in— 

Government slionld be notified re- 
garding, 1382. 

Should be sold, 1330. 
Snbtcriptions to, 96. 
Snbstitnte for, most be adopted by 

Congress, 1228. 
Successor of, cannot fame notes of, 

1471, 1600. 
With limited powem, recommended, 

Bank of United States tb. Haletead.— 
Ad Important Sapreme Court case on appeal 
fram the clrcntt court of Ecatuck? Id 1S2S. 
Prnprrtj. Including real Mtste, was offered 
For nU tor debt, Tbe blgbpst bid belDK 
IpH tbsD (bree-foartba of Its BpuralBca 

prene Court beld tbat It bad Jurisdiction In 
« (tie to whlcb the Bank of (he United 
Stitra was a party, and tbst a laar arblcb 
forbade the rale of land under execution for 
len than tbrpp-foartba of lis appraised 
Tilne did not apply to writs of execution 
Imied by Federal courts. 

Bank of United States ▼& PUnten* 
Bank of Qeorgta. — a suit brougbt by the 
Bink of tbe United States tor pajrmeut of a 
pnnnltiiory note wlilcb had been Indoreed 
to It by tbe Planters' Bank of Georgia. Tbe 
Elate of OeorKlH bad stork In this bask. 
Tbe action was brougbt aicalnst Che Planters' 
Bank and also eealnat tbe State. The Su- 
preme Court In 1824 decided tbat If a State 
brtame a party to a banking or a commer- 
□a) enterprise the BCate could be sued in 

the course of buslneu, on the principle that 

when a gavernment becomes a partner in 
any trading company It dlTeata Itself, so 
far as concerns tbe ttaniiactluiia uf that 
company, of Ite Boverelgn character and 
takea tbat of a private cftlien. Tbe State, 
said tbe court through Cblet Justice Mar- 
Bball. IB not a party — that la, an entire 

the circatt i: 


t had jarlsdlctloo la ■ 

•BanHwj^ extension of, to foreign coun- 
tries recommended, 7674. 
Banking System. (See Banks and Bank- 
BanlcrnptCT.— The Conitltntlon glvea Con- 
gress tbe power to eatabllab uniform bank- 
ruptcy laws tbranebout tbe United Btatea. 
Bankiaptcy Is a state of Inability to pay 
all debti. It Is also the process by which 
an Indlyldnal may secure a discharge of 
his iDdebtedneHB by surrendering his prop- 

and complying wlUi tbe law. April 

j.ovO, a bankruptcy act was passed by Cou- 

ereas and waa repealed In December, 1803. 

In May, 1837, a comi '-■ — '-■- •> 

In the United Btaiei 

_ -, ling (allures to 

the amount of llOO.OOO.OOa On account of 
tbe_ taeST); looes Incurred during the tlnan- 

avy losses I 

IDiC which 

Another l^nclal panic occurred In ISST, 
and most of the banks suspended specie 
payments. A third {the Lowell) r'* 

pasaed March 2, ISOT. and repealed In 
1878 (4204). The present law was passed 
jQly 1. teas, and amended June SS. IBIO. 
Dnring the years of our history when no 
national bankrupt law eilaied all r 
~'-*lng to loBolvencIes h' " ' ~ " 
rdTof State laws. 

Bankrupt!!)) Lato. — lExtrBcts from the 
United States Bankruptcy Act of Jaly 1, 
169a as amended by Act of June SS, 1910: 

Who may become baokrnpta.— (a) Any 
person except a muolclpal railroad. Insur- 
ance or banklog corporation shall bo en- 
titled to tbe beneflts of this act aa a TOl- 
~atary bankrupt. The bankruptcy of a 

, -. Btockboldera. ae such, from any 

liability under tbe laws of a atale or ter- 
ritory or of tbe United States, (b) Any 
natural person, except a wsge-eamcr or a 
penoD engaged chlpQy In farming or tbe 
tillage of the soil, any unincorporated com- 
pany and any moneyed bualnesa, or com- 
mercial corporation, except a municipal 
railroad. Inearance or banklog corporatloo, 
owing debts to the amount of one Iboosand 
dollars or over, mny be adjodged an Invol- 
untary bankrupt upon default or an Impar- 
tial trial and Hball be subject to the provi- 
sions and entitled to the benefits of this act. 
Duties of BnDkrup[a.-~ra) Tbe bankrupt 
shall (1) attend the first meeting o( his 
creditors. It directed by the court or a 
Judge tbereot to do so. and the hearing upon 
i^3 anplkaCIon for a discharge. If died: 12 1 
comply with alt lawful orders of the court: 
(3) eiamlne the correctnens of all proofs 
of claims tiled against his estate: (4) exe- 
cute and deliver such papers as shall be 
ordered by the court; (5) eiecute to his 
tmatee IrHDBferB of all bis property m for- 
eign countries : (6) Immediately Inform bis 
trustee of any attemnt by bis creditors 
or other persons to evade the proTlsIons of 
this act. comlnu to hlB knowledge; (7) tn 
case of any person having to bis knowledge 

S roved a false claim aoralust his estate, 
Isclose tbat fact Immediately to his truB- 
tee; (81 prepare, make oath to, and file 
In court wltbhi ten days, unless further 
time la granted, after the adjudication U an 


Banknqttc^ Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Bankniptcjr— O0"H««ed. 
. ij^ ^j^ — 

Mnkrnpt, • scliMlure of 

uis )j[uiwriy, BbowlDK ibe amoant and kind 
of proper LT, the locatlan tliereof. Its 
moDc)' value In deUlI, and a list ot hia 
creditors, sbowlDS their reildeneea. If 
known (If anknovn tbat fact to be 
stated), the amount due each of them, the 
hereof, the Becarlty held by 

e'maj be entitled t(_, 

cate, one copy of each tor the Cjirr». «up lui 
the referee, aud one for tlie trustee ; and 
(0) vben preeent at the Qret meeting ot 

Deaa, Ibe cause of hte baokmiiic;, hia deal- 
ings wltb bis creditors and otber penoni, 
tbe amouDt, kind, and wbereaboats of his 
propertr. abd, la add I Hod, all matters 
wlirch mar affect the admlDlatratioD and 
settlement of hfa estate; ' — -" ' 

froTldcd, hoverer. that he shall not be 
required lo atlebd a meellag of his credi- 
tors or at or tor bd eiamloatlon at » 
Slaoe more thao one habdred and Bftf miles 
tstanl from bis home or principal place 
of business or to examine claims except 
when presented to him. unless ordered DT 
tbe court, or a judge thereof, for cause 
shown, and the bankrupt shall be paid bis 
actaal expenses from the estate when ei- 
amloed or required to attend at any place 
other than tbe city, tawn^ or Tillage of his 

Buikznptcy, Lawi of: 

Uodiflcations regarding involnntaiy 

bank nipt cf recommended, 4204. 
Passage of, recommended, 1907, 2972, 

3052, 4730, 4840, 5478, 5561. 
Memorial favoring, presented, 1907. 
Power to make, vested in Congreaa, 

869, 2972. 
Uniform system of, met to wtkblisli, 
referred to, 683. 
B>tiVi uid Banklnsi 
Banking and cnrrenej reform urged, 

Banking eystem — 

Control of, must be public, 78S1. 
Shotild be instniineuts and not mas- 
ters of enterprise, 78S1. 
Discussed by President — 
Lincoln, 3331, 3360, 3149. 
Madison, G60. 
Polk, 2257. 

Van Bnren, 1541, 1707, 1757. 
Wilson, 7879, 790S. 
Beforms in, recoouuended, 1380. 
BiseuBsed by President^ 
Buchanan, 2968. 
Grant, 4241. 

Van Bnren, 1541, 1707, 1757. 
Wilson, 7879, 7908, 
Tiaws, muat not permit concentration 
of funda for speculative purposes, 

Specie payments diBcusaed. 

Specie Payments.) 
Special commission to make su 

tions concerning, recommended. 


Bank!.— A bank >■ an Institution tor re- 
celvlDg and lending money. Tbe banking 
Inslliuies o( the United States may be 
classed as National and Stale banks, private 
bnaki or bapkers, sSTlogs banks, and loan 
and trust campaalcfl. in 1T81 tbe Congress 
of the UOD federation ebariered the Bank of 
North America with a capital ot S4U0.000. 
wllb a view lo providing throDsh Its Dotes 
jlallng^^medlum foc^ tie coantrf. 

In 1TG2. By ] 
establlihed. on 

r York, tbe other h 

tbe Bank ot Ibe United Sta.__ 

ter authorised an existence of 20 years and 
L capital ot (10,00^000. one-flfth lo be sap- 

; largely In- 

plled by tbe United Stales. ._ ^ 

gress refused lo renew the charier. Dui 
tbe trrlng limes ot tbe War ot 1812 c 
State banks existed, and these larg ~ 

creased in number. In 1816 tbe 

United Slates Baok was chartered to run 
20 years wllb a capital of (SS.OOO.OOO, ot 
which tbe Federal aovemmenC subscribed 
one-Qfth, Tbe bank wss to have cnstody 
of the public tonds, and 5 of Its 2S di- 
rectors were to be sppointed by the UDltcd 
.„■ ._ ... — ,„,„g 


vetoed it { 

t President Jackson 

Doved from the 
and placed In 

136 the bank's 
'resident Tyler 

chatter expired. In 1841 

vetoed two bills to revive — . _. 

In 1846 Ibe Independent Treasury syi 
._._...._...> ,j.__ .^.i j|[ 

lid be -. 

Hon'otTh~e tank." ~Betwe~eii" 1836 and 180:i 
only Slate banks existed. Feb. 2S. 1863. 
the National bank act was passed. Tbia act 
proving defective. It was superseded by rfae 
act ot June 3. 1864, which forms tbe basis 
of the present system. 
Banks. — See Bncyelopedie Index articles 
and page references under beadings: 
Book, Manufaeloiy. Claariag Bouss. 
Back Not«. Currency Lav. 

Bonk of Miasooil. Depoau, Public, Re- 

Bank of Pennsylvania, ^."'"ralof. 
Bank ol United States, ruul Buk of United 

B^kT^Uoorf. Na^BankEsaioin. 

S"!?*" S^L., a. . NatiMal Banks. 

Banki, Postal BaT'gs. Portal Savinn t—w. 
Banks. Savin™. Rafaty Fund. 

i« Payments. 

-- Bd States Note«. 

of United Sutes Bank ol 

Banks, National. — DissBtiifaction and 

losses In connection with the State banking 
system in vogue in the first half of tbe 
nineteenth centnry led lo Ibe paarage of 
laws by tbe Federal Government tor the 
protection of holders of the circulating 
medium. The drst National bank act of 
the new and comprehensive series was Bug- 

fested lo Congress by Secretary Chaae In 
861 aad paRsed In 1B63. It was Bmeodi^ 
by a law passed June S, 1864, 'Hieae acta 
form the basis of the present law. It Is 

• of all btahs of tbat atata to be 


Encyclopedic Index . 

•ccnred bj * deposit of itorkB and bondB, 
ooe-balf Id Issues of Ibat ittte. The dr- 
cuiaiiug nolcB were redeemable at RKeaciea 
wltbln tbe atste. Tbls latter feature of tbe 
New York law wsa adapted from the Suf- 
folk iratem in Togue Id New Eaglaad. 

Coder tbe National baoklng law, aa 
kmendpd bj tbe art of March 14, 1900, 
•n* Ore peraons with a combined rapllal of 
S2S.OO0 may open a bank and receive dr- 
calatliiK notea to the amouat of the par 
value of tbeir capital lovesled In United 
Btitei bonds, but not to exceed the par 
valDe of tbe bonds. la rltlea of more than 
S.OOO aod len than tt.000 Inbabltaata tbe 
capital rnimml la fSO.OOO. while a capital 
of tlOO.OCK) Is required In cllles baFlna a 
■ ■ - - r 6.000. and doobl_e ihlB 


IT plaPCB. 
allonil B 

raoital remains 

taw also esiab — ■ 

Bnrran in Ibe Treasury Department and 
created the oOce of Comptroller of the Cur- 
renrr. Tbls set added some t3SO,000,000 
to the cnrrency of the ™uQtry. 

The aanual report of tbe Camptroller of 
the Cnrrenrj for the rear 1913 showed 7,- 
4S8 National banks, with a capital of fl,- 
05a.B10.792. a total anrplus of fTSS.St!,- 
182. rrportlns net eamlnEs of (100,980.084. 
paTing In dividends *11B,900.0S1. a ratio 
of dividends to capital of 11.40 per cent. 
Tl» clrcnlstion ouHlandinB Sept, 1. 1913. 
waa tT24.500.000 : Individual depoalts, tC- 
7B1.350.000: prlnclnal resourres, loans and 
dlaconnla. t6.lSO.800.000: United StsI - 
bond* on deposit lo secnre ' — '--'- 
$735.800.000 : United Btatea 

aronod of Stness as on that of party fldel- 
ily, a principle also mucb la vogue In the 
granting of bank cbarlera before ths bvs- 
lem of free bankEau ™me Into use. The 
banks selected by Jackson as public depoa- 
Itors were in derision called "'pet banlis." 

Banks, Postal SATlngs. (See alao Pos- 
ted Savings Ban he.) 
Beeomm ended by President — 
Arthnr, 4639. 
Grant, 41SZ, 4204. 
Hayes, 4574. 
Boosevelt, 7102, 7226. 
Taft, 7373. 
Banks, BaTlngS.— The flrat aaTtogs hank 
Id the United Btatea was the Bostoc Provi- 
dent Barings iDstltallan. Incorporated Dec. 
13. 1818. The Philadelphia Snvinga Fund 
Boclely began busloess the same yenr, but 
waa not Incorporated until ISIB. In 1818 
tjanka for savings were Inrorporsled In 

re, Ud., and Salem. Unss.. and In 

Kew York. Hartford, Conn., and 
' --1 Providence, H. 1. There werr 


181S r 

903 s 

1,2}{7 I 

CDlted Stales lo a-hlvh 7.096,220 persons 
had deposited 13.281,263,119. These Hg- 
nres are the highest reached In the history 
of this country both with regard to tbe 
number and the amount of depositors and 
- of deposits. BtallsIlcB of the 
— -' "■- — ^fiii ohtHlned by 
.. and Labor, 

__, Slates, with about 

91 per cent of the total population coneld- 
ered, has more than 29 per cent of the sav- 

that tbe L'olted 

and tbe aothorlied capital wsa tl.07a.ll24.- 
1 75 Tbe outstanding clrruiatlon was 

f8TT.640.281, of which «128,241.760 waa 
■reared tiy other than United States bonds. 
(See alto Currency.) 
Buks, SaUonal: 

CircDlation of. (See National Banks.) 
I>iBcns8ed bv President — 
Artliiir, 4720, 4786, 4832. 
Cleveland, 4926, 6876, 596S, 5986,. 

0070, 6156. 
Qrant, 4199. 
Johnson, 3563, 3770. 
Lincoln, 3331, 3350, 3384, 3449. 
McKinlev. 62S4, 6358. 
Boose vel't, 6654. 

Van Buren, 1541, 1707, 1757, 1828. 
WUboh, 7960. 
Orsnnizstion of, discussed, 47S0, 4926, 

&S76, 5965, 6156. 
Beports of exajniners of, 4655. 
Should engage attention of Congress, 

551, 1025. 
Tax on capital and depoaita of, repeal 

of, recommended, 4636, 4766. 
Treasury balance depoaited in, 7980. 
Banks, Pet. — When President Jackson or- 
dered the public funds withdrawn from the 
mited Statea Bank In 1833. It became 
oecrMBiT for tbe AdmtnistrattoD to Bnd 
mme other place of deposit tor the Federal 
naneya. Certain Btate hanks were chosen, 
ud tbe allegation was made ttisl tbe aelec- 
tloa waa detcmlned not so anch on the 

savings, tbe profits thereof being paid as 
Interest to tbe depotttors. 

In 1913 there were 1,9TS savlDgS banks 
In the United Btatea, bnvlnic 10.TB8.036 
depositors and deposits of 14,7^7.40:1.030.79, 
an average o( $139.07 to each depositor. 
New York haa tbe largest number of de- 

Sosllors and the largeft total of deposits. 
.114,240 persoER having 11,700.083,786.36 
to tbelr credit, an average of (545.90 to 
each peraon. The 1.710 depositors In the 
aavlnra banks of Montana have on aver- 
age of (781.30 lo their credit, nearly 
double the average for the entire country. 
Banks, Stats.— A Slate bank Is an Inntl- 
tntlon chartered by a State legislature for 
banking purposes. It performs elmllar 
fuartiona of KatlonsI bsnks. Alter the ex- 

Elratlon of the charter of tbe Bank of Ihe 
nited States In 1836. and the refosal of 
Congress to recbarler It, Btate banks sprang 
ap In large numbers througbout the unloD. 
Each state passed Its^own law for their 

Iheae law 

r el re 

Bufflclently protected sgalost toss 

, and failures. Between 1B36 and 

1883 there were no United States bnoka 
or National banks, and ooiy Slate banks 
existed. Being allowed to Issue notes to 
circulate aa currency, they availed them. 
selves of tbe privilege, and in many In- 
stances the privilege was much abnsed. 
By act of Congress passed Marcb S, 1865, 
all circalatlns notes of banks other tban 
Katlonal banks were taxed 10 per cent. 
The result of tbls law was to speedily 
caose tbe retirement of all such notes. 
There ara In all some 14,000 Btate banks 
at present in operation. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Bulks, State: 
Deposits in should be reguUted br 

law, 1331, 1386. 
Discussed hy President — 

Bnchau&n, 29SS. 

aeveland, S986. 

Jackson, 1469. 

Tyler, 1899. 

Van Buren, 1541, 1548, 1711, 1T57. 
Uessares should be adopted to cor- 

rsct unlimited cre&tion of, 1899. 
Nomber of, 6157. 
Paper to Cabinet concerning, 1224, 

President Jackson refuses to trona- 
mit to Senate, 1255. 
Practicability of, commented on, 

1236, 1250, 1330, 1384. 
Public deposits should be placed in, 

(See Indian Tribes.) 
Baptist ObnTclt in MiBsiseippi Territory, 

act for relief of, vetoed, 475. 
Bar Harbor, He., acts for erection of 

public buOdinKB at, vetoed, 5257, 

Barbados Island (West Indies}, postal 

eODvention with, 6277. 
Baibary States. — The region on the 
aoTtb coast of Africa borderliiK on the 
Hedlterrsnean Sea. It Is capable of high 
cnlllTatlon. In earljr times the soil wsa 
made to jrleld richly. Barbara wbh known 
In ancient times as Hauriunfa, Nnmldla, 
Africa Propria, and Cyrenalco. It now 
comprises the countries ol Bnrca, Tripoli, 

Fenaii, Tonls, " '- — ■" *' "- 

Bides HuTopean., — 

habit the BarbarT Stntes — Berbers. Uoora, 

"-— '— Jews. Turks, Kulngl'- — •■ "- 

S popolntlon la about 

■nn and a Haatlna rict, „....,.„.. „.. 

rated. The 

Fenaii, Tonls, Algeria and Morocco. 

Bedonlni, Jewa. Turks, „ — — _ _ 

oroes. The popolatlon la about 11,000,000 

Mohammedaaa and a Soatlne popula 

Jena and Cbristlaos □ 
language of commerca is 
Id TunlB and Tripoli, whe 

Uuriag the latter part of the 
Ceutorr most of the EnropcaQ 
lelW - — - -""— ■- 

the plra 
is the price 

I time was paid, but in the earlv pari 
the nlneteeath centuir, alter aubJuEal' 
Tripoli and Algiers, the Unltf' "'— — 

i Baling 

Friendly inteieooTBe with, 415, G03, 

Beferenee to, 321, 324. 325. 
Belations with which, through un- 
reasonable demands of Tripoli, led 
to a declaration of war against the 
United States, 314. 
BaiceKnut, ^aln. International exposi- 
tion of Labor at, discussed, 5177, 5399. 
Baring BrotHeis ft Co., funds of United 

States on deposit with, 382S. 
BambQULar KQd Hunker.— in 1845 the 

Democratic party In New York State, ow- 
ing to intenul squabbling, became divided 
lata two pronounced tactlona. Thene were 
the administration Democrats. calllDK Hiem- 
selvea Conaerratlves, and the aore-heada of 
those days, stigmatised as Radicals, because. 
among other tbloKs, ther were affected with 
antl-alaTery. or "rree Boll" (which lee) sen- 
timents ; whereas, the administration party 
was strongly pro-alar ery. In the Demo- 
cratic State Convention held at Byracnae 
early In 1S4T the latter faction, by political 
manlpulfttloD, aecored the organliatlon ot 
that body, and decided nearly all the con- 
tesled Beats In tbelr own lavar. and made 
the State ticket and tlie Stale committee 
to anlt themselves : In other words, "car- 
■ " *" " hunk," and fairly won the 

e Hunker oi 

to the Dutch farmer who 

ard the name of Bambnmera 

<n them, and the two nld- 

mer and Huoker, were ban- 

h until after the former 

berty party fichich tet). 

t Mr. Var " -•■" 

acted terms of pence from Ibe pirates. The 
action of America was followed by Ger- 
many, France, and other European pow- 
ers, and the pirates were completely sub- 
jugated. (See also Africa, AlireHan War, 
Trlpolltan War, and the Beverat States of 
northern Africa.) 
Barbary States (see also the several 

States; Algerine War; Tripolitan 

Consuls of United States in, referred 

to, 169. 
Disbursements in intercourse with, 

3 back and for 

_ ,s usFd to slKQlfy that 

the administration faction had reached their 

goal, or home. 

Barratarla, Island of, pardon granted 

lawless inhabitants of, who aided In 
. defense of New Orleans, 643. 
Bataan, Frorlncs of , Fh. L, mentioned, 

Baton Booge (La.), Battle of.— G«riy in 

May. 1862, after the fall of New Orleans, 
Admiral FarrBguC passed np the liver and 
raised the American Sag over the pobllc 
buildings in Batou Rouge, the capital of 
LoulBlana. Gen, Thomas WllllBms was 
placed In command of the place wltb a 
small garrison. Aug. G, 1B62, he was at- 
tacked by Gen. Breckenrldge, who wos to 
hare been asslated by tbe Ironclad gna- 
bont Arlcamas. Tbe Arkantaa exploded her 
boilers Bud failed to reach the scvne of ac. 
tlon. Tbe ConfcderateB were repulsed. The 
Union loss wns 200, Including Oen. Williams, 

sea.— Before the ceaslan of 
Louisiana to the United Butea. a man 
nampd "ravler bad purcbaaed a plantation 
on the MlaslsBlppI River near New Orleans. 
Part at It afterwards became the Tillage of 
St. Mary. An alluvial denoBlt or river beach 
formed in front of the village and was need 
as a lauding place tor the dtliena ot Be 


Encyclope^ Index. 


Battan Oua»— CwNMied. 
Uirj. Under the law It wu h part of the 
Gntrler eat&ta, which wu puriAaBed b; 
Ednid LlTlutistoo. of r>ew Xoric, who t>e- 
ftn ImproTlas It for his owd use. The 
Hopte proteBled an the groaod ol an. old 
French law slvlnK allavloDa to the (overa- 
DtDt Freiloeat Jefleraon dlipaeaeBsed LIT- 
liiitoD of the Batture. and the latter Im- 
ntdlitely began rait against Jeffenon and 
the United States marsbaL The Supreme 
Conrt refuied to entertain the aalt against 
itie Prestdent. but decided to leilora the 
Bitture to UvlngatOD. 

Barilla. — A kingdom of sonthern Ger- 
suuj. and one of tba Statea of the Qerman 
Emplic It conalstB of two nuegual and 
disconnected parts, tbe larger eaaiem and 
iDe smaller western. The country pro- 
dncn wbeat, rye, oats, and other cereals, 
lobicco. potatoea, hops, ax. wine. etc. 
Tbe moat Important msnutacturea are tex- 
tile^ beer, maohlnerj, Iron-ware and por- 

Oavernmvtl. — Ita gOTemment ll a COD- 
Mtntloiuil hereditary monarchy, wllh a 
kbi, an upper honae, and a chamber of 
isa deputlea. The relgDlDg king la Ixiula 
til. rt made a treaty with the North 
German Confederation In 1870 and entered 
thcGemiBD Empire In 18T1. Ares ^ 29,286 
iq. miles : popolatlon I 

The army '"*" 

t la numbered separately 

4 peace footlof has about -..--- — 
About 701 per cent of the pOTtalatlon ».^ 
Roman catholle* and some 28 per cent 

BkTftTla (we also Unnkh): 

Convention with, 2218, 2760. 

Fugitive eriminalB, convention with, 
for anirender of, 2760. 

iDunigration treaty with, 3834. 

Naturalization treaty with, 3883. 
Bavaria, Trea«» with.— These include 
(he treaty of 1645, treaty ot 1853, and the 
Irtsty ol 1868. They were not affected by 
(be formation ot the German Empire In 
I8T1. Tbe treaty of 1B45 abollahed tbe 
frplf SaubaUie aud taxes on emlirratlon. In 
Piauce the droit iraubaia« was the right of 
(he king to the goods of an unuaturallied 
foreigner (aubat*) dying within his hlng- 
dom. The king stood In place of the helra. 
In Prance thla right was abolished In 
I8I9. This treaty tleclared that the OroU 
€aiaalM, droir ie relralts. and droit de 
traeHmer tax or taxes on emigration be 
■boUahed. When any person holding real 
property dies, the person to whom it would 
ile»;end, were be not dlsqnallfled br alien- 
ue under tbe laws of tbe land, s^all be 
allowed two or more years, 
wblch to dispose of It, ant 
(he proceeds from the cottntry 

psytng detraction dutf " 

Tcr by wilt, donation, 
(♦rred ooou -•■— — ' 

_ Power of trans- 

-j , -r otherwise. Is cob- 

Tred opou alien realdenta equal to thoae 
-Jloyed hy cltlaena or anblects. When no 
beirs exist the property of tbe deceased la 
to receive the same eare as that of a na- 
tlre or dtlzen. EHsnutes rwardlag posee»- 
non are to be decided according to the 
lawi. snfl by the courts la which the 
preperty Is sltnated. For extradition terms 
af the treaty of 1854. see Extradition Trea- 
tlri. The treaty of 18R8 was a naturallia- 
Oon treaty. (See Germany.) 
BiTBTd VX. BlBgleton.— This Is one of the 
niilnC Inatances of a court passing upon 
the cDDttltnthniBllty of an act of the legts- 


lature. Suit wa* brongbt before the conrt 
of appeals of North Carolina In 1787 for tbe 
recovery ot certain property that had been 
confiscated and sold to the defendant nuder 
an act ot the legislature psssed during the 
Revolution which authorized the conilsca- 
tlOD of the property of aliens. Counsel tor 
defendant moved tbe dismissal of (he case 
In accordance with an act ot the leglala[ure 
paased In 1780. which "required the courts, 
In all eases where tbe defendant makes 
affidavit that he holde the dlspnted property 
under a ssle from a commlasloner ot for- 
feited eatatea, to dismiss the ease on mo- 

.,„„ ,„.__ ._,. ^^^ ,g dismiss tbe 

___ of the legislature 
void." Judgment waa. 

, ... (he defendant on the 

p. .jnnd that aliens cannot hold land, and 
If they purchaae It the land Is forfeited to 
(he Bovcrelgu. 
BkTonno Decre«.— April it. ISOB, Napo- 
leon decreed that all American vessels 
wbleh Bbould enter tbe porta of Prance, 
Italy, Bod the Hanae Towns shontd be 
aelaed, "becaase no veaaeU of tbe United 
BUtea can now navigate the seaa with- 
out violating the law of aald Statea." Id 
hia attempts to aobdue England, Napoleon 
Bonght to destroy her commerce witb ail 
□eutral powers, Including the United States. 
Beu, Tha, sent to relief of whaling 

fleet, 6350. 
Boar Flag War.— Aq Inanrrectlon against 
the Mexican Qovcrnmeot 1q June. 184S, 
Buppoaed to bavo besn Inatlgated by John 
C, Fremout, tbeu a caplalD or United Btnles 
troops In California. A body ot American 
settlers seised some Mexican boraes and 
then captured the town ot Sonoma. They 

raised a Gag. having — " ••■" " -' - 

bear. In July, the Ml 

Sn, the Stars and Stripes wer 
mterey. and the Bear Flag Viae uecame 
a factor In tbe American cooqueat of Cnl- 
ttornla. A battalion called the Bear Plag 
battalion waa active In expelling the Hexl- 

Beanfort, N. O,, blockade of, nmoved 

bj pfoclamatioD, 3290. 
Beaver Dam (Ouiad«), Battle of.— After 
tbe retreat of tbe American arm; from the 
Niagara River they reodeavoused near the 
western end of Lake Ontario. Gen. Dear- 
born aeot Lleut-Col. Charles Q. Boeratler 
with B40 men to capture Beaver Dam. A 
Brltlah lieutenant, on June 24. 1813, with 
forty or flfly men, but claiming to be the 
advance guard of 1.500 troops and 700 
Indians, demanded of bim to surrender. 
Boeratler surrendered 542 men. one 12- 
poQnder and one d-pouuder cannon, and a 

Bedloea IBland. (See Liberty Enlighten- 
ing the World.) 

Beef Frodncta. (See Animab and Ani- 
mal Prodncte: also Meat Packing and 

Beer. (Bee Liqnore — Halt, Tlnoua and 

Beet Sagar.— Although the manuftieture 
of sugar from cane antedates Its produc- 
tion from beets by several centuries, the 
latter were nut to practical use fourteen 
centnrlea before refined sugar waa pro- 
daced from the "sweet sticks'" of the ^Bt 
In the flrst century, Pltny the Elder 
wrote: "Next to grain snd beans there Is 
no more serviceable plant than the while 
beet, tbe root of which Is used for human 

r having tie- 


Beet Sugar Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

BMt Sugar — OomimtadL 

and animal food, the joxaig BpronU as a 
Tegetable. and Ibe leaTea as an accesMry 
toader. * * * Beets should not be grown 
contlnuoualy on the same ■oil, bat a rota- 
tion should be obBerred." 

Europe follows this advice t«11b1oiu1;, 
though it has not been accepted Beuerallr 
b; Amecican farmers, which accoonta for 
their Inferior yields of both beeta and 
cereal crops. 

The first to suspect the pmence of 
■□gar In the beet wns the fsmoDS Frencli 
aeroDomlat, OtlTler de Serres, in 1600, bnt 
this discovery led to no Immediate reaalta. 
A century and a half later, In 1T4T. the 
dlatlngulalied Oerman cbemlst, Andreas 
Uurnraf. ProfesBOr of Physics In the 
Academy of Science of Berlin, socceeded 
IQ produclne a few cryatals of sugar from 

Serrea" writings conveyed the idea to 

*' — hlle the Germans assert that 

1 original with their coantry- 

Uarggtafs popll and soccesaor, Frana 
Curl Acbnrd devoted his aclenUQc csreer 
to applying MargBraf s discovery to Indus- 
trial purpoaes. Throagh the liberal r ' ■ 

the Great, Acbnrd < 

..... r Beriln (or a num- 

ber of years, but on the death of his 
Sovereign he was compelled to abandon 
the wort until Friedcrleb Wllhelm III In- 
tereated himself In It and made bim a 

Jrant of 9,000 tbalera (t25,000). Id ITftS, 
chard was nlile to preapnt hla Soverelga 
with beet sugar loaves whlcb In every re- 
spect were com parable to the best cane 
Hugsr. The King then loaned him SO.OOO 
thalers, and In^ 1802, Achard^ erected -* 


, Lowi 



ry In the world. It was a prlmltTve 
affair, with a capacity of but a tew hun- 
dred pounds of beets per day, the beets 
being raaped and the Juice preased out, as 
with the cane. The beets contained bat 3 
to 4 per cent of augor and It coat sliteen 
cents per pound to produce. 

Achnrd's enterprise attrscted the atten- 
tion of NnpoleoQ Bonaparte, sod he aent 
French sclentl^tg to Silesia to InveatlgaCe 
the new Industry. Upon their return two 
factories were established near Paris. 
These were un successful, but the French 
made the discovery then which waa des- 
tined to revolutionise methods of tillage, 
estahllnh modern sclentlSc agriculture, and, 
by doubling the Bcrenze yield of cereals, 
add more to the wealth of (he world and 
lis ability to maintain population than has 
any other discovery before or since. At 
that time the cereal crop yields ot the 
continent were but twelve bushels per acre, 
and starvation threatened the rapidly In- 
creasing population. In altetnatlDg beets 
with cereal croos the French aclentlBts dlft- 
covcrcd that he yield of cereals was In- 
creased nenrly twofold, Wbeo Napoleon 
becnme convinced of this fact he ordered 
during 1811 «ad 1812 thousands of acres 
to be planted in beets, and technical 
schools rind factories to be built. As a 
result the [ndustry wns firmly established 
In France and the yield Of cereal crops In- 

German and French scientists then be- 

Kn developing the augar content o( the 
et plant, and moat wonderful resnlts 
hnvo ii»BTi nbtained. By careful selection 
. scientific tillage the sngsr 

of the original beet, and the tonnase se- 
cured (roDi a single acre Is more than 
originally conld be aecnred from a good 
sised farm. 

In answer to the criticisms that beet 
sngsr has less sweetening power than 
cane sugar the assertion Is made that even 
a chemist, surrounded with sll hla acien- 
tlUc laboratory equipment, can not dis- 
tlngnlsh one from the other. Although 
derived from different species of plants. 
the reflned product from the Juice of the 
cane snd beet la the Bsme In composition, 
In sweetening power. In dietetic effect. In 
chemical reaction. In all other respects. 
Furthermore. 1( maple sugar were rebolled 
and passed throngh the process ot refining. 
It would lose its aroma and flavor, whidi 
are wholly In the Impurities, and the 
white crystals would be Identical with 
those derived from sugar cane and sugar 

Pure Bogar, whether derived from beet 
or cane. Is as Identical as Is pure gold. 
Whether mined In the Bocky Hoantalns or 
In the Trans vest. 

The earliest attempt to produce sugar 
from beets In the Dnited States was made 
In Philadelphia In 1830 by Vaughan and 

Bonaldson, but their effortr 

eeaaful. Elzht - - ■- 


1. Eight years later David 
. erected a small factory a* •■'—■'-- 
Uass., and succeeded In | 

a small factory at Northamp- 

ampton plant operated but one 

In 1852 Bishop Tyler, of th_ 

Chnrch, purchased In France the maehln- 

I Tyler, of the Mormon 

ery for a factory, shipped It to I 
enworth, Kana, by water and by oi teams 
hauled tt from there to Bait City. 
This effort also was a failure. 

During the next few years, attempts 
were made to produce beet sngsr In the 
United States ss follows: Illinois, 1863-71; 
Wisconsin, 1868-71 : New Jersey, 1870-76- 
Uslne. 18T6: but all these efforts 
In failure, absorbed some 


The first American to wrest success from 
failure was E. H. Dyer, who erected a 
small plant at Alrsrado, Cal., In ISTB. 
Although a failure for many years, much 
of which time the plant was Idle, It flnilly 
became a saccoas. Several times It hss 
been rebuilt and re-equipped with machln- 

psj 1; 

( the a 

more than a mere Irsctlc 
actually Invested In IL 
federal treasury needed 

In 1883 !._- 

money and as our national legisiatora had 
become enthuslnstic about the ponel bill lies 
of producing our sugnr supply st home. 
Congress enacted a tariff bill which car- 
ried a duty of 3| cents a pound on reflned 
sugar and 21 cents on raw. But no one 
knew what soil or climate were required 
for producing high grade beets nor how 
to grow them nor how to operate a fac- 
tory, and the string of dismal failures 
which bad reached irom orenn to ocean 
made capitalists cautious. While the duty 
levied was more than generous, the ac- 

Sulrement and dissemination of field and 
actory technical knowledge wns lost aleht 
ot and capital held aloof. When In ISStk 
onr federal treasury was overflovrlog ana 
sugar was placed on the free IHr, the 
bounty of two cents per jionnd which was 
placed on domestic prodnction. fallnl to 
attract capital, a* did the WUaon 40 par 
cent ad valorem blU of 1804. 


Encyclopedic Index 

BMt Bagax — Contimiti. 

When tbn Dlii«ley bill of 1S9T tru 

S>»ed and Presldeot McKloler made 
nines Wilson Secretnr; of Agriculture, ■ 

— ... .* .-. ._ establlBhea. 

' Imports 

tfw order of affairs 

WliUe the dutr flzed on bueb 

was but 62 per cent of what It 

under the bill ot 1SS3 and but six factories 

were In eilBten " '" "■ ' ' ' 

AKrlcQlCure Bet 

methods ._ , , 

alJj. It was deemed wise tliBt a great IQ- 
duistrr, dentlDcd to supplj a large portion 
of tbe (400.000.000 worth of sugar which 
we anouallT cousume, should not ba coo- 
fined to a lew Stales, wbere localised nn- 
propltloas weather conditions might serl- 
oushr Interfere with our guppt; of a staple 
food product Od tbe contrarj. It tras con- 
■Idered desirable that the factories should 
be scattered ss mucb as possibly even 
Ibougb one State or one group of States 
nnld produce tor a traction less than conld 
other States. To tbis end, the depart- 
ment issued a wall map, on wblch was 
traced tbe theoretical beet bucsf area of 
the United States and from time to time 
IS it was demonstrated that faTorable coQ- 
dlllons existed In other territory, that fact 
vos made known. The Isst statement of 
the department concerning tbls subject 
shows that we bare In the United States 
ST4.00O.OO0 seres, the soil and climate of 
-'-'-'- idapted to sngar beet culture. 

tbe Department of 

■Dd if bat a^ra'etli 

tbls area were planti 

inld fnmlsh all tbe 


Virginia, West VIrili 

llllDols. Mlf ' "■■^- 

tbe Meilca 

Roughly speaking, tbls territory extends 
from ocean to ocean and from the Cana- 
dian boundarr to and IndodlaK portions of 

"■ - Vliilnla. Oblo, Indiana, 

-I, Oklaboma, Texas and to 
oandary, Sogar beets can 

__ vnrtelj of sons, clay loams 

and sand; loams being preferred. Dr. 
Wllrj and the Bureau of Cbemlstry and 
Dr. Qallowar and tbe Bureau of Plaut la- 
dastrr were set to work ; a Beld agent was 
placed on the road to Inrestlgate condi- 
tions tbroDgbout (he countrr and eiperl- 
ments were conducted In Tarlons Staten- 
As a resQlt of tbe * 
InTltlne condition! 
ons bull ■■ 


lie tins and reports of the depart- 
rs. (S«. 000,000 had hecn 
Industry, the number of 

tbe bblted States, enough t 

. „li to anpply _ 

ptvpte living west of the Mississippi 1 

ahly than can a 
tbe expansion of 
penda the succee 
works which tt 
strurted at an ex 
When on Jiioe 
Telt laid down 1 
Recta mat Ion Act, 
tare remarked to 

tbe Dnlled Statei" Not' onir ''wiu'"that 
legislation reclaim aa empire, bnt the most 
nalnral enterprise to be established at the 
foot of those nnge dams will tw beet sugar 

Serretarr Wilson km .. 
nrjr long haul freight charge 
praHts of the far weiteru ni 

that i 


which to fatten stock, they obtain two 
crops — sugar and live atock — on which the 
freight eharges are small In proportion to 
the value of the product. Sugar beets 
reach their greatest perfection when grown 
□nder Irrigation, and our farmers, espe- 
cially In the Irrigated weot, have found the 
crop to be one ot ibo most proUtallo if 
also the most difficult wblch they can 
grow. Due to rotating them with sugar 
beets one year In (our, thousands of (acroB 
are producing greater yields of all other 
crops than ever before. 

This Industry now distributes 183,000.- 
000 annually to American farmers, to 
laborera In tbe sugar factories and to labor 
Id coal mines and other Amerlcon indus- 
tries which tumish It with supplies, all of 
which money would be sent to foreign 
countries la payment tor imported sugar, 
but for tbls domestic industry. 

Since this industry was established, it 
has distributed (400,000,000 to American 
toilers, and when fully developed It will 
distribute (200,000,000 annually to Amerl- 

During the IG years in which the do- 

...1. 1 — . Industry has grown from 

.c . -p,gjagj nbole- 


-- - tS.n per 

wholesale price, or 17 p~. , 

fsct that dnrlnig the same period tbe price 
of practically all other food commodities 
has increased from S31 to 100 per cent. 
When fully developed, this industry will 
still (nrther reduce not only the price of 
sugar, but of all other food products, 
through lucreasing the yield per acre. 

The German Increase in yield per acre 
of wheat, rye. barley and oats tias been 
80 per cent during tne past thirty years, 
as compared with an IncronBe of but 0.« 
per cent in the United Btntea. Gem 

many'a Increase In yield ti. 

of sugar beet culture wblch taught their 

fonr In rotation with c ' ■" "■ 

cured wherever sugar 

Introduced In tbls country, and should tbe 
further eipanslon of tbe Industry result 
In duplicating Oerraany's experience 
throDgbout the Dnlted States, our yield of 
these four crops, at prcBcnt farm prices, 
would be worth (2.000.000,000 Instead of 
(1,124.000,000. as at present. 

In ima there were 655.300 acres of 
beets barrested, yielding a little less than 
91 tons per acre, and 5,224,377 tons of 
beets were worked into 682,558 tons of 
sugar. Tbe buildings and macblnery were 
vaTued at (84,000,000, aod 120,000 per- 

12 In Califonila,"7""in"utHh, ■ 
In Wisconsin, 2 In Nebraska, 3 in Uhlo, and 
1 eacb In Kansas. Montana, JliiDois, Indi- 
ana, lows, and Minnesota. 
BelmntM-Etra Indians. (See Minne- 

taree Indians.) 
Boldon, S. A., ft Co., claim of, againat 
Mexico, 2687. 

Distribution of award in ease of, re- 
ferred to, 4B88. 


Messages and Papers of Ike Presidents 

Balgtnm. — Belgium hsa ■ frantKr of 831 
aillBe, and li bounded on the north Bad 
noitheut by the Netbeilands (2U8 mlleB), 
on the Bouth by France (:181 mllci), on 
the east lij RhenlHh i>ruii3lu (iJO mlleii) 
■nd th« Qrund DuL-hy of Luiemtjurs 1811 
miles), with a low unbroken sealHiard 
(North Sea) o( 42 mllea. The "polden" 
near the coast, which ar- — ' — '-^ '■" 
dikes against Soods, cover 
■quare miles. 

PhuHcal f.— .„. .-V , 

and lis tributary the Sambre divide the 
country luto two dtstlnct regions, that o( 
the north and west being geuenlly a low 
fertile plain, while the fori —■' " 

—The Heuse (Maaa) 

die-land of t 

_i Ardeune 
r the moiic 

river of the wesi 

MSscauI I Tbeu 
■rr n> 

ivlgiible. The the T 

south and 

MkheOrlses to 

ration of the country does not eiceed D3S 
feet The principal rivers are the Meuso 
IMaas) BDd Its trlbulsry the Sambre, 
which flow from France to the Netherlands 
and aie navlgnble streams throughout 
their course la Belgium. The Ourthe Is 
..„ . ..!....._-„ (roto iiie frontier of Lux- 

- -ivlgiible, Thi_ 

Is the ecbelde 

of canals far the purpuses 
Di irsuEport. The p rind pa] harbor and 
commercial entrepot Is ADlirerp, a alrougly 
fortlHed clly on tlie Schelde. Other harbors 
on the western coasl are Oatenil. NIeuport, 
BMokeDberg and Zeebrugge. 

Area in PopulaUoo 
English Cuuua of 

BuTMUes leia 

Antwerp 1,003 988,877 

Bnbut 1,267 l,*flB.07T 

Fknden, East 1,158 l|l30.33a 

FUnd«rs,Wsst 1,3*8 8T4.135 

Bsinaut 1,437 l,23I.Ba7 

Utgs 1,117 88§.341 

IjSburt B31 27B,8B1 

Lunmburg 1,709 Z31,21S 

Nmdut 1.414 392,8*8 

Tots! 11,370 7,4Z3,784 

BUtori/ and Oorflrnratnt.— Belgium, the 
coDulry of the ancient Belgae, nud known 
aa Flanders and Brabant In the "Low 
Countries," was Joined to the Kingdom of 
the Netherlands In 1815. su arranarment 
which was upact by the Rerolutlon of 
1830. On Oct. 14. 1830, a Naflonsl Con- 

Iress proclaimed Us Independenro, and on 
une 4, 1831. Frince Leopold of Saie-Co- 
bnrg was chosen Hereditary King. Iteign. 
log SoTercIgn Albert Leopold Clement Ma- 
rie Melnra£ King of the Belglnns, Duke 
of Saiouy, Prince of Bnie-Coburg and 
Qotha, born at Brussels, April 8. 18TS. son 
of Prince Philippe, Count of Flnnders, suc- 
ceeded his UDCle, King Leopold II., Dec. 
S3, 1909. 

After Oermany had declared war agalost 
Rnssls In August, 1814, German armies 
started for the French border through Bel- 
gian territory, Belgian permission being 
refused German r declared war and the 
King of England was appealed to to sup- 
port the neutrality of Belgium. (See Eu- 
ropean War of 1814-16.) 

The Senate, elected for eight Tears, con- 
sists of 120 members, of whom twenty- 
seven are elected by the ProTloclal Coun- 
cils and ninety-three by the people. The 
Chamber of Represents tires consists of 
186 members (one for esch 40.000 of the 
Inhabitants), elected by the people. The 
electoral law of 1804 Introdnced ODlTersal 
male antrrage at tbe age of twenty-flTe, 
with ploral Toting Dp to three TOtea by 

edncatlonal qnsliacattqn- 
s punishable by law. Tfie 
eglalature meets nnnually In November. 

There Is a Justice of the peuce in each 
of the Cantons 1^K7), twenty-sli District 
Courts, a Criminal Assise Court In each 
Province and three Courts of Appeal at 
BniBsels, Uhent, and Utge. There Is a 
Court of Cusiwtlon at Brussela. 

In each of the nine ProTlnces, and In 
each of tbe U.eSli Communes there la en 
elected (Jouncil. These ProTlnclal and 
Communal Councils are elected for eight 
yeara [one-half retiring every four years), 
and meet annually. 

The Army Is recruited by yearly calls 
and Toluuiury enllmments. The yearly 

calls Include, acconllr " " ""' ' — 

flxed b -■ 

mliiCurr I 

_., The Peace Estab- 

,-, ..1 11)13, 3,41IH officers and 
, Including a Gendarmerie Of 
nd 3,6211 men. There are Ull- 

40,073 It 
74 officer 

lUry Gov ._ 

werp, Lltge. and NamuT. The n<u,<,.,'>j 
of Belgium Is guaranteed by Austria, Bus- 
nlo, Prussia, anil tbe United Klnnlom by 
he Treaty of London (Not, 16, 1B311. 

£ifucat<on. — I'rlmary education Is nnl- 
veraal altbougn not legally compulsory, and 
U Is free to the neceiisilous, scbuola being 
malntaiued by communal taxation with 
provincial and slate grants ; In addition, 
mauy scboola are under ecclesiastical con. 
trol— Roman Catholic predominating. Spe- 


abound, — — _ 

special feature, tbe Conservatoires ot Brus- 
sels and Ll^ge and tue Academies of Brna- 
sels and Antwerp being Justly famoua ; 
there are thirty- Ave Royal Atbencums. 
Tbere are State Universities at Ghent and 
Llfgc, and free UniverBltlea at Brussels 

Froduatiati and Indiutry.—Ot the 7.27T.- 

000 acres, 4.600,000 are under cultivation. 
],-.;80.0OU ere under forest. 400,000 are fol- 
low or uncultivated, and 833,000 are 
marshes, rivers and canals, cosds. etc. 
The principal crops 
ley, rye, potntoes, »■ 
hops, and slthouj'- 


fini. tobacco and 
qunnCltlea of cere- 
malse and barley 

JUS are employed In agriculture. 
Ive Block In 1912 Included 232,709 tc 

20,000.000 fraop .,. 

Tbere are two great coal Belds (12S 
mines working) along the valleys of the 
Meuae end Sambre, the annual output 
being about 24,000.000 I'^nglish tons. Iron 
la obtulued in large quantitlea, and tbe 
steel Industry (Ineots and rails] is of 
great Itnportnnoe. Tbe priuclpRl Iron towns 
are LlCge. Berelng and Cbsrlerol. There 
are also 1,780 stone quarries. The mln- 
Bml anHnn nf Hiui Bpe stlli famoDS. 

! engaged In the 

couairy. aouie ouu.wuvr i>ersoiis are em- 
ployed In the Tflrlous factories; the chief 

the quarries of tbe souUiern counties^ 

ney, Courtrai. Rousselnlre, and Bruges. 

lace at Brussels, Mechlin and Bruges, and 
teitiles at Vepvlers, 

Transport!] (Ion and OommuiUcatloH. — In 
1S12 there were 4.369 kllometrca of rail- 
way worked by the State, of which 4,110 
were Slnte owned. Tbere were also ISO 
kilometres of ptWately owned and worked 


Encyclopedic Index 

... The STOBS receipts fram rall- 

iTBfa irorkcd br tbe Stale In 1012 were 
331,339,006 rraoM, the vorklDg eipeniea 
IwiDB 228.672,818 fraars ; tbe pknengera 
nrTTcd nambered 191.811,188. The private 
lines amouat to lesi Uan one-foarteeiith of 
tbe total mileage. 

Tbe naTlgable rlTera and cbdbIs bnye a 
total length of 2,179 kllomei 
very greatlj uied. "'— ■■-— 


CoDfO Hire 

occur rapid! and fall! wblcli bava been 
avoided br a rallniad 240 mltei Id lengtb. 
Tbere ia atao a aecond line, eOM^eotlmetM 
, from Boma to tbe Mayunibe c 

t and Sam- 

coal fields, i ' " 

Sfbelde Is the waterwa; of tbe 
Bgrl cultural district. 

In IBll there were 1,594 post offices. 
Tbere Is rIho a Marconi lastsltatlon. 

TOKnt. — Capital, Bratsela (Brniellei). 
Population, Dec. 81. 1910, 195,030 (wllb 
snfiurbs 720.S4T). Other large cltlea are 
Aotnerp, 320,650; Ll*ge, 17^000; Ghent, 
lOo.OUO: St. .\lrdaa. S4,000 : N'amnr, 82,- 
000: Bercbem, 81.0 ~ 

,_ .'tbandlae Imported Into Beljlnm from 

tbe mited Slates for tte rrar 1S13 was 
*ilA,S4S.4e2 and goods to the vain? of |41,- 
»41.0I4 were sent thllhci^a balance of 
(:24.904.448 la favor of the Unlttd Slatea. 
COXaO COLONY— Tbe territory of tbe 
Congo Inclndes tbe right ttanli *' "" 

_ _r the 

_.. ..■ from Manj-nnga to the ■ 

and aliteen miles of aescoRSt - --'- - 
eainarr ; [he left bank from 
miles from tbe aen) : am 
balh banks. Tbe t 

000. Tbe total European population (Jan- 
narr, 1912) was 5.405. of whom 879 were 
Brlllsb. 48 AmerkBDB, 278 Italians, 803 
PoriDgnese, 177 Swedes, 150 Germans, and 
S.307 BelgieuB. A terrible dlseaae. called 
"Sleeplog Sickness," for which no remedr 
bas yet been discovered, has of Iste years 
aasde Increaalng ravaKea apon tbe native 
popDiatlon. snd tbreatens to depopulate 
lat^ districts (cspeclallv along the banks of 
tbe Congo River and Its prlndpat trlbn- 
tarlea) of a country In other respects cap- 
able of aapportlng with eaw a large papa- 

in several dlBfrleli, „ „. 

-orerflnieiit— By law of Oct. 18, 1008. 

II.) was annexed bv Belgium, and Is ad- 
ministered by a Colonial Council of four- 
(een members, over wbtch the Mtntater 
for tbe Colonies presides. 

try. Tbe Great Lakes Railway has s line 
from Stanleyville (a Ponthlervllle, 12S 
kilometres, and aoother line from Klndu 
to KoQgolo, SS5 kilometres (total length 
of railways open In 1911, 1,289 kllome- 
trea). There la letegrapblc commnnlcBtlon 
triih Europe (total length of telegraph 
lines In lOll, £.881 kilometres). 

TOKiif.- — Tbe capital la Boma (pop. 
B.600), other towns being MatadI (4.Cl«fl, 
BoDBua, ElliabethTllle. Stanleyville, and 

_. A With Bli Vlce-Gov- 

,-Generat. aad a General Directorate 
e departments. For local admlols- 
; pnrpoacB the colony Is divided Into 
latrlcts (See also Congo; Africa.) 

CUkrge d'AffAires to, 1130. 

ClainiB of United States againat, 145S. 

Commercial relationa with, 2193. 

ConsDiar convention with, 38SS, 3893, 
3gS7, 4S3g, 4561. 

Consuls of, in United States, exe- 
quaturs to, revoked, 3420. 

Convention with, for relating right 
of inheriting and acqniring prop- 
erty, 2697, 4S22, 4641, 4864, 

Convention with, on slave trade, 6363. 

Convention vith, regarding Scheldt 
dues, 3395. 

Referred 'to, 6625. 
Difference of France and, with Ye' 

neznela, 6070. 
Fugitive criminals, convention witb, 

for surrender of, 2724, 4124, 4210, 

4247, 4695, 4715. 
Importations of American prodncte 
to, restrictions upon, diBcnased, 
C956, 6325, 6363. 

Decrees regarding, referred to, 6100. 
King of, arbiter in cases of tbe 

Georglana and Lizzie Thompaon, 

n-land ahuta out tba 

coaat from tbe more productive Interior. 
The exports conslat mainly of rubber (three- 
fifths of whole), palm-kernels, palm-oil, 
Ivory and a few minor artlclea. The coffee „.,— ., 

plant and cotton grow wild, and coffee, ronai 

cocoa, and tobacco have been planted with 4303. 

anccesa. Iron, copper, and other minerala Tniile.i 

have been found. Ri - iTaae 1 

807.040 francs : expend 

iltnre (1912), 08.9(57',- 

_._ . mporfa (1012), S3.807.84T 

ttanca: exports (1912). (S9,]2B.804 franca. 
The river la navigable (for IS,(X>0 ktlo- 
uetree) for large veitsels from Ita mouth 
at Bsnana to Hatadl (05 miles), where 
the European ■teamera discharge and re- 

Uonetary convention of Latin Union, 

adhesion to, declared hj, 4967. 
Naturalization treaty with, 3892. 
Neutrality of United States in war 


Trade-marks, treaty with, regarding, 

4799, 4822, 6425. 
Treaties with, transmitted and dia- 
eussed by President — 
Arthur, 4695, 4715. 
Buchanan, 3063. 
Fillmore, 2697, 2704. 
Qrant, 4124, 4216, 4247, 427S, 429«. 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

JuksoD, 11B0, 
Johnson, 3S93. 
Lineoln, 3305, 3496. 
Polk, 2272, 2479. 
Van Bureu, 1821, 1S39. 
Approbation of Belgian Chambers 

aot received, 1832. 
Delaj in exchange of ratificationa, 

1244, 2004. 
Disavowal of, b^ Belgium, dia- 

cuBBed, 1317. 
Termination of, referred to, 4242. 
Bfllglnm, Traatlea witb. — Tbe blstory of 
the diplomatic relatloDB of tbe United States 
wltb tbe klnBdom of Belgium diaplaje Ter; 
amicable seailmeDi on both sldM. The 
treat; of 184S. OD commerce and navlga- 
tlOQ, wag termtnated b; tbe Belgian E<»'erD- 

same lear i 
power In 1( 
duties or lGt_ 
tbe treaty of 1 

> termlnsled b; tbat 
••e treaty on Import 
1 part lupenedecf br 

(bat In cone 

applied to all flags and tbe duty should 
that the plIotSKe daes snd local taxes, re- 

vessels, should never be In- 

Tbe trenty of 1668 on Qsturalliallan nss 
proelnlmed July 30. ISUS. It agreed to Tbe 
recogaltion by eacb country of aucb eml- 
prania from tbe resppcMTe counlrlea as 
■boultl by legal nsturalliallon become cltl- 
trna of tbe other. Provision trns made 
(or Ibp pKnlshmeni, Buujeet to tbe statute 
of llmltallon*. of tboxe guilty of mlade- 
"""""" ^milled prior to emigration, 

rarded I 

In 1S82, was saeceeded br one of xnore 
breadtb In ItlOl. A trade-mark coUTeDilon 
concluded In 1B84 was extended to corer 
copyrlshta In J891, and Bperlbcally «■ 
tended^to tbe protection of trade-marka of 
both countries in China In 19U5. 
B«lllgsrent Righta.—Klghts granted by 
neutral Bovecnmenta to natlona at Trar 
with each other, as disllngulahed from the 
Dnrccognliable rebellious subjects of a 
friendly poirer. Belligerent rights vrere 
accorded the Confederate States bf Great 
Britain Id a proclamailon by the Quern 
recognlilDg tbe eiiatence of war between 
the L'nlled States and the Conredernte 
Slates snd the right of eaeb to eierolse 
belligerent powers OQ the ocean, but not 
recofoliing the nstlonnl independence of 
the latter, tt also enjoined neutrality upon 
British Bubjects. Such recognition of rights 
wss also msde by France and other lead- 
ing commercial powers of Europe and by 

B«lllgneiit Blgbts: 
Accordance of, to Cuban inBurgeuta 
deemed anwise bv President- 
Cleveland, 606S, 6151. 
Grant, 3985, 4018, 4202. 
UcEinlev, 6258. 
Accorded Confederate States hy for- 
eign powers, disenssed, 3259, 3327, 
Becognition and aid of foreign pow- 
ers invoked by Confederate States, 
3221, 3246. 
Bdmont (Ho.), Battle of.~Kov. i, leei. 
Gen. Orant, who had been in command of 
posts in eastern Missouri and soul hern 
Illinois onder Fremont, bnd a force of 20.- 
000 men at Cairo. A Coofederale force 
under Gen. Folic beld Columbua. Hy.. on the 
""-■■ wlppi River. This 

9 navigation of the 

beiuR defended bj 
gons. Od tbe MIbso 
tua the Con fed er 

should tbey return. ' Kreedoi 

tnry service in Belaluro is — 

legally naturalized cCiIiens of tbe t'nilcd 

[. __j . .|| made for n " "" 

:o former cuiienali' -- • ■ ■ 


The couBUlnr couvenllan tresly of 18A8 
was lermlnnled on notice by Belglom on 
Jan. 1. ISSO. Tbe trsde-mark convention 
of 1868 expired, with the treaty of 18S8, 
of vrblcb It nns a pnrt, od July 1, 1870. 
Tbe eitTHdiilan convention of 18T4 wsa ler- 
mloated by Hubacitalion of cisnaea in tbe 
irenly of 1882. 

Tbe trcnty of commerce and nsvlgatlon 
of June ZS. 1875, provides tor full and 
entire freedom of comtuerce and naviga- 
tion. No higher or olher taxes aball Tte 
ImpOBed npon Inbnliltsnts of the one slste 
residing in the other; nor other or higher 
duties, fees, or Impoafs of any kind upon 
■hips of tbe one country In the ports of the 
orher. CoBStlng tnide privileges absll be In 
botb cnsea thoBc of Ibe mos^t favored na- 

imporlHtlon and eiportat 

Belmont. The battle' lioB foughtNoVr 7, 
IBSl. E^w of the men had been under Brt 
before. Oraul's men took tbe camp, but 
were compelled to abandon It and retarn 
to their transports. Tbe Federal loss wss 
485 killed, wounded Lnd missing. The Con- 
federate loss was 842, including prlsooera. 

Bsmla Hslgbta (K. T,), Battlos of,— 
Also called battles of Saratoga and Still- 
water. In the autumn of 177T the condition 
of Burmyne'B army In the upper H'Tl«on 
Valley liegsn to grow BerlouB. Provisions 
were running Bhori and the lllcelihoad of ef- 
fecting a Junction with Howe at New York 
was remote. Gen. Gales bnd been lent by 
Congress (o succeed Schuyler In command. 
The American army tvns dally increaslDi. 
Sept. IS, the two armies met at Bemla 
Relghta. between Snrntoga Lake and tlie 
Hudson River. An engagement took place 
between about 8,0f)0 British and 5.300 
Americans. Of the BrKlsb nbont 500 were 
killed, wounded or captured : the Ameri- 
cans lost 310. This Agfa t, Bomellmes called 
tbe battle of Freeman's Farm, was not 
dtclalve, as the Brltlab held their sround. 


Encyclopedic Index 


Bomls Hol«tati (N. T.), BattlM of- 

The AmertcaDB BhowwJ, howBrer, tL.. 
Bu[B"riie_^«iald not break UTOU^h tbeir 

llDea. The I 

_.. -irouBh tl 

I armlea remalDra aim 
WKDin nunoa aaot of each other for Eome 
Ibrce weeks. Occ T, BurEorne, deapRlring 
at re-enCorccmcals, made a Be«>nd attack, 
bat was forced to retire to the heJKhts near 
Saratoga. The numerlca] atreagtli ol tile 

. . —J ,|,jn that of 

vat completely 

, which refused 

bliD, but held him nnttl famine 

capllnlalion Oct. IT, 177T. The 

of troops Burreodered wbh 5,781. of 



■ of Baratoaft Is oficn Irenteil by 

to nan 

olntlOD' Arnoia, wdo anDaequeDiiy [umeu 
Iralior, was the hero of these engagemeiilB. 
B«ii rmn>""i Tbe. (Se« ButterOeld, 
Carlos, & Co.) 

" — "" i OongnBB at Uilon, 4B28. 

(Vt), Battle of.-An im- 
porlant cohfllct of the Kevolntloaarr War. 
Aag. 11. 1777, Bareoyne sent Lleut-CoL 
Banm with abont SOD British and lome 
Indiana from Fart Edward to forage for 
cattle and supplies Id Vermont. On the 
road to Bennington they were opposed by 
CoL John Stark, Ang. 16, with a force ol 
•ome 2000 men, mostly mllltia from New 
Bampabire and Ycrniont. The engagement 
began aboat 3 o'clock Ir •■-- -" •' 

OTercome. Col. Brefman n 

■bout 40 killed a 

I (W. 0.), Battle of.— After 
tbe engagement at ATerysbam Sherman's 
■rmr continued Its march toward Golds. 
boTO. When near BentonTllla, Uarch 18, 
I84B, Sloeam's ndTsnce encountered the 
Confederates In force. Johnston hnd hastily 
collected Btewsrt's and Cheatham's corps, 
Birdee's force, and Bnmpton's cnTBlry, 
■ggregatlng aomethlng like 24,000 men. 
'The attack of tbe Confederates waa 
dlret^ed mainly agalnat the corps of Jeff. 
C. DstIb. a strong line of battle con- 
ft«nted Johnston, wllh Mill Creek and a 
aingle bridge in bis rcnr. March 20 a 
ganeral attack was made by Sherman's 
aklrmlah line, tnjrlng the nUht Johnston 
retreated, ss It was not LU purpose to bring 
OD with his smRll force a general battle witn 
the lane army of Bbertnau. The battle was 
not a distinct victory for either side. 
Bereean, the allowance made for, 32S. 
Bergen, Norway, international exhibi- 
tion to be held iu, 3470. 
Berliis Sea (between Alaska and Asi- 
atic Snssia; 850,000 sq. miles); Amer- 
ican Tessels seiEed hj BasaJan cmla- 
ers in, disctissed, 633S. 
Bntng Sea FlaheTleg.— in 1886 tbe Amer- 
ica d GoTemment set np the claim that 
Bering Sea waa mars clauaum, and claimed 
JorUdlctloD orer the eastern half of It, 

In July, IBSS, tbe British Colnmhian BealM 
utacK liiaiHoiid waa avizea tor trespaasing. 
Russia pretended to grant snch rlghis when 
ceding Alaska In 1807, though In 1822 tbe 
United States had diaputed RdssIu's claim 
to soTerelgnty over the sea beyond the 
neaal three-mile limit of territorial ]url»> 
diction. In consequence of this new doc- 
trine many Conadlan and American vessels 
were seized by ■ United States naval ves- 
sel for taklUE seal about tbe Frlbyloff lal- 
ends and In the open sea In violation of the 
laws oC the United States, which had leased 
a monopoly of seal killing to the Alaska 
Commercial Company (afterwards to the 
North American Company, la 1800). The 
British government claimed damages for 
the Canadian vessels seised. 

Blaine and Sir JnDan Paunce- 



a fflodu 

hj Salvadorean insurgeiitB, discussed. Another 

6661, fannrtl., 

. . tary Bl 

fote, the British ambassador, L.._ , 

ions consnllatlons over tbe affair, hut could 
arrive at no conclnslon. Alter a fflodu 
I tbe 
uiuLtcr wu» uxjHiij' leiL to a ooaru oi a ■"" 
tratlon to consist ol two members appo 

ed by the United Slates, two by Gi 

Britain, and one each by the President of 
France, the King of Italy, and the King of 

M g„ij Sweden. The m — ■- — — 

were, respectively, JdsII 
of the Supreme Court, 
kui iiuuii T. Morgan; Lord Hauuvu buu 
Sir John 8. D. Thompson ; Baron de Coor- 
cel; the Maruuls Emlllo Tlscontl-Venosta, 
and Gregers W. Gram. Tbo Tribunal be- 
gan its sessions at Paris, March 23, 1893, 
and Auguat 1& following rendered its de- 
cision denying tbe right of American loris- 
dlctlon OQtslde the usual three-mile limit. 
In order, however, to prevent eilermlnatlon 
of tbe sests, the commission stipulated that 
seal ashing could be engaged In by licensed 

for seals In those waters from May 1 to 
August 1 and forbade pelagic sealing within 
slity miles of the frlbyloff Islands, seal- 
ing with Brenrms or In steam vessel s. 
These restrlctloiiJ were made binding for 
Ore years but proved wholly Ineffective. 
•- '^g of EngllBh, Amerlcsn and 

18, 1807, which uiianlmously iipheld tbe 
attitude of the United States. In sddltlon 
the United Slates agreed to prolUblt all 
Prlbyloff Islands (or 

-. Queiiec August, 1808, transferred Its 
session to Washington, D. C. In November 

Bering Sea Fiaherlw (see also Fisher- 
Claims against Bussia, 6375. 
Ueasures to prevent the extermina- 
tion of seats discnssed, 5366,6153. 
Proclamations regardinR, S449, 
G476, SS33, 5578, 5681, 5697, 
GSZS, 5926, 6015, 6123. 
Modus Vivendi— 
To embrace Qreat Britain and Ja- 
pan referred to, 6067. 
"With Bnssia restricting sealing in, 
5961, 6067. 
Questions with Oreat Britain regard- 
ing, S545, 6616, 6062, 6266. 
Adjustment of, referred to, 5747. 
Agreement for modut vivetuU pro* 
claimed, 5581. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 


DiBcnssed, 5616. 
Arbitration of — 
Agreed upon, 5616. 
Proposed bj Great Britain, de- 
clined by United State b, 5545. 
Treaty Tegardiug, 5671, 5746, 
Coiregpondence regarding, trans- 

mitted, 5515, 5567. 
Discussed by President Cleveland, 
Tribunal of Arbitration — 

Acts to give effect to award of, 

proclaimed, £926, 61^3. 
Award of, discuased and recommeu- 

dations regarding, 595S, 6062. 
Case of United States at, prepared 

by John W. Poster, B748. 
Convention for aettlement of claims 

nnder, 6097. 
Discussed by President Cleveland, 

Enforcement of regulations in ac- 
cordance with decision of, re- 
ferred to, 6000. 
Failure of negotiations of, to pro- 
tect fnr seidE of Alaska, 6182. 
EeportB of Agents of United States 

to, transmitted, 690Q. 
Pelagic sealing complained of, 7443. 
Becommendation that President be 
given power to prohibit taking of 
seals, 5748. 
Beport on, transmitted, 5396. 
Berlin Decree.— An edict iHsued from Ber- 
lin Not. 21, ISOe, by Napoleon I. It de- 
clared a. blockade of the British IsUnda 
and ordered all EngUsbmcn In countries 
occupied by French troops to be trcnced 
as prisoners of wur. All trade In Engllsli 
merchanillEe was forbidden, and no letters 
in the English Inngiinge were to be al- 
lowed to pass throusb French post-ofBces. 
No Teaael directly from Englnnd or [he 
Englisb colonies was to be admitted Into 

tatloD ail mcrcb'andlse derived from Bng. 
land or ber colaiilcs, by whomsoeEer 
owned, was liable to aeuure even on 
hoard nentral veaeels. The decree re- 
rved for future consideration the quel 



to sclEure and conQscatlon. The objeci oe 
this decree was to destroy the forelen trade 
of England, aa well as to retaliate agnlnat 
the Brltiab for an order Id conncli Isaued 
May 18, 1800, declaring a blockade of the 
coasts of German]', Holland. Belgium, and 
France, from Brest to the i:ibe, a distance 
of abont 600 miles. No commendations 
took place under the Berlin Decree. (See' 
Embargo; Milan Decree; Orders In Coun- 

Berlin and Milan Decrees discussed 

and referred to by President — 

Jefferson, ^09, 415, 430, 432, 434, 441, 

Uadison, 467, 476, 503, 513, 522. 
Proclamations regarding, by Presi- 
dent Madison, 457, 466. 

Fisheries at, discussed, 4560. 
Kongo conference at, 4S5S, 4S6G. 
Bennndn (Oroup of 360 islands; Brit- 
ish; 580 miles east of North Carolina; 
area, 20 sq. miles) : slaves seized on 
board brigs by authoritiaa of, 4867. 
Bema, Swltxeiland: 
International Copyright Coavention 

at, discussed, 4919, 5090. 
International Postal GongresB at, 
discussed, 4250. 
Bbntan. — A native state la the south- 
eastern HImalayBH, between 26° 42' -2S* >'. 
latitude and 89° -92° E. iongltnde, and la 
boanded on the north and east by Tibet, 
and on the south and west by BrllUh Indls. 
Tbe total area Is estimated at 20,000 Eag- 
lish square miles, with a population vsrl- 
oaslr Btated at 200,000 to 400,000 persons, 
malDly Buddhists, and consisting of an idle 
priestly class and atiuggling caltlTStors. 

Government. — From the middle ages iiDttl 
IBOT the country was under tbe dual gov- 
ernment of a spiritual rtilef and a temporal 

cblet councillor and virtual 


em Pel 
T ruiei 


tarv Haja. In 1863, owing t 

British subjects, portions o 

British India, a 

...^ _;lQg paid annually by t-.> 

agreed to be guided In its eiteroal relatlnna 
by the edvlce of the British, who andertook 
not to Interfere in its internal alfalrs. 
Biennial Baglster, distribution of: 

Act providing for, reasons for apply- 
ing pocket veto to, 6072. 

Beferred to, 1783. 
Big Bethel (Va.), Battle of.— One of the 
preliminary sklrmlabes of the CItII War. 
In June, ISOl. MaJ.-Gen. B. F. BnUer, of 
UaasachDSetts, was pinced In command of 
the Federal forces In eastern Virginia. He 
est Hbil shed headquarters at Fortress Hon- 
roa and was soon In command of 10,000 
men. June 9, Butler sent Brig.-aen. B. W. 
"' — '"■ 1 detachment of 3,500 (com- 

Infantry and'a battery of Brti'ltery) 

,o dislodge the Confederatea at Big and 
Little Betbel under Gen. J. B. MnKnidet's 
command. Uograder'a force (1,400) bad 
made frequent raids upon tlie Federal lines. 
The attack, which was Intended as a sur- 
prise, was made by the Union forces on 
the mornliig of June 10 and was repulsed. 
The Union loss was seventy-sli. Among the 
killed wa« MoJ. Theodore Wlnthrop. The 
Confederate loss was one killed and four 
wounded. Big Bethel was the first real 
battle of the w«r. 

Big Black (Miss.), BatUe of.— Hay IT, 
1833, the day after the battle of Champion 
Hills, Grant's army pushed on toward 
yicksburg. McCIemeDd's corps. In advance, 
loon coma upon Pemtierton's army, strongly 
intrencbed on both sides of the Big Blnck 
River. The Confederate batteries posted on 
the high bluffs were carried after n sbarp 
engagement, the Federal sssault being led 
by Lawler'a brigade. The Confederates re- 
treated. Seventeen pieces of artillery and 
about 1,200 prisoners were here taken. A 


Encyclopedic Index 

Big BlKk (IBsa), Battlo ot—Cmllntud. 

portloD of Pembertoa'B outpoBts crowed ttie 
river OD temporary bridges, which they de- 
itroyed behind them, and joined the main 
body ot the armT In the ratreat Into the 
forUecHtlous at vtckaburg. I'be Federal 
loaa vaa 279. 

Bigamy. <8«e Hormon Church; Poljg- 

BUI of Eiglltt.— The eaiUest colonial or 
State declaration of American rlgbtg after 
Ibe "Body ot Iawb" of Maaaacbu setts. In 
1640. was that irhich accompanied the Tlr- 
Elnla const Itnt loo of 1776, It was based 
upon the EnsllBh BUI of Blxhu of 1689. 
Tbe latter was an tmrtrumeot alened by 
WUIlam and Hary nban aceepUns the 
crown of England from the CoDTentlon of 
Parliament. It asserted the right of snb- 
lectB to petlUon, the right of Parliament 
10 freedom ot debate, the right ot elscton 
tu choose represeDtatWeB freely, and other 
prlrilegefc This Bill ot Bights which con- 
tained tbe fuDdamental principles of po- 
llilcal liberty, was not extenaed to the 
colonies. Other State constltDtlonB In de- 
llDhig the rights of the citizen aa >.Ealtiat 
IhB scope of the Stnie largelT tollowed 
\bt phraBeology of tblB famous Instrument. 
The NatlODaT Constitution was harshly 

ten ameadmeots stand as tbe partial tul- 
Blhnent of their promlaeB. (See also 
Amendments. ) 

BUla ftnd Acts: 
Acts to be pnblisbed in certain news- 
papers, 4116. 
Approved bnt not signed, whether in 

force, disCQEsed, 856. 
ConsiderSition by Preaident, time al- 
lowed for, discusBed, 2993, 3060. 
Constitutional ameudment regarding 
approval of separate items of bill 
and veto of others raconunended, 
4196, 4725, 4774, 4840. 
Daly certified and approved which 

had not passed, diBCnssed, 1353. 
ESect on, of adjourament ot Congrees 
before expiration of ten daye af- 
ter presentatioi^ to President dis- 
cnssed, 3797. 
List of acts transmitted, 3963. 
Bimetallic Conference. (See Interna- 
tional Monetary Conference.) 
Bimetallism. —The use of two metnls as 
money at relative values set by legislative 
enactment ; the doctrine that two metalB 
can and ought, at the same time and In 
tbe same country, to be adopted aa stand- 
atds of value and bear to each other a tlied 
ratio estsbllsbed by the Govecoment. As 
used In this country, the term usually ce- 
tera to the nae ot gold and silver at a 
llied relative value eatabllshed by law, 
UonometaUism Is tbe doctrine that only 
one metal onxht to be so nsed. 

BlograpUcal Sketches of President— 

Adams, John, 217. 

Adams, J. q., 857. 

Arthur, 4618. 

Buchanan, 2960. 

Cleveland, 4888. 

Filbnore, 2599. 

Garfield, 4593. 

Grant, 3957. 

Harrieon, Ben]\, 6488. 

Harrison, W. H., 1SS& 

Hayes, 4391. 

Jackson, 998. 

Jefferson, 307. 

Johnson, 3499. 

Iiineoln, 3204. 

UeEinley, 5234. 

Hadison, 450, 

Monroe, 572. 

Pierce, 2728. 

Polk, 2221. 

BooBevelt, 6637. 

Taft, 7367. 

Taylor, 264L 

Tyler, 1888. 

Van Buren, 152& 

Washington, 33. 

Wilson, 7867, 
Biological Survey, work of, reviewed 

and commended, 74 Se. (See also 

Agriculture, Department of.) 

(Migratory), regulations for protec- 
tion, 789S, 7986, 

(Native), reservation established for, 
BUck Oockadea.— A badge first worn by 
the American soldiers daring tbe BevolQ- 
tlon and later, during the hostility toward 
France (about 1797) occasloaed by r 

X. Y. 

ra lists t 

. dispatches, adopted by the Fed- 


rejoinder to the trl-colored cocfcade worn 
by tbe Bepubllcaas as a marb of elTectlon 
toward France. Kb significance In some 
degree lay In the tact that It had been a 
part of the Continental unltorm. 
Black Friday. — There have been several 
Block Fridays. The term Is often Dsed to 
designate a dark flnaQclal day. In Eng- 
land It has Bpeclal reference to Friday, 
Dec. S. 174G, tiie day on wl)Icb news came 
to London that the young Pretender, 
Charles Edward, had reached Derby ; and 
also to Friday. May 11, 1866, which was 
the height of tbe commercial pnnlc In Lon- 
don through the failure ot Overend, 
Guerney & Co, Sept 24, 186B. Is some- 
times referred to as Black Friday In the 
United StflteB. On this day a BvndlCBte 
of New York bankers advanced the price 
of gold to 1S21, causing a panic. It sold 
at 113} the previous evening. Another 
such day was Friday, Sept. 10, 18T3, when 
Joy Cooke ft Co., leading American bank- 
ers, tailed. A great crash ensued to Wail 
Street, the center ot financial operations 
In America, and the historic panic of 1873 
began. Credit generally was Impaired and 

many Soanclal Instltntlona ' ■" 

Into bankruptcy. 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Black Hawk War.— Br a treaty Blpied at 
Prairie du Chien, Wis., Jalj IS, 1880, tha 
8ac and Fox Indians ceded all their laoda 
la Illinois and Wlscotmin to the United 
BlBte«. Block Hawk, a noted cblef of the 
tribe, refused to abide \>f the treat}- and 
made war upon the whites. He reslaled the 
Burrer of the land at Kock Island, 111., al- 
thongh moat of the Sacs and Foies were 
west of the Mississippi. In 1831 be at- 
tacked lomc IlllDOls TlllaKeB, but waa drIreD 
off by the mllllla under (ien. Gaines Id June 



e of United States troops. 
Diui:^ nnwB tva9 defeated at the Wlscoaaln 
River Julf 21, 1S3^. b; a deuchment of 
troolis under Oen. Dodge, and again at Bad 
Axe River, Aug. 2 of the same r«ar, by 

Gen. At"-' '" — "■ — ' — ■■- 

feats B 

Black Hawk War, discassad, 1166, 125L 
Black HOIb: 

Emigr&ticiii to, 4276, 4306, 43SS. 

Oold discovered in, referred to, 4306, 
Black Horse Oavalr?.— A political term 
applied to thoae legislators (more or less 
numerous In every legislative bodj) that 
act togelber for the purpose of exacting 
money from friends of any meaBure nnder 
CODslderstion and threaten Its defeat In 
case □( non-compliance. Their number Is 
frequently great enougb to be of consider- 
able Influence. 

Black Laws. — Laws pasaed In many of the 
DortbeFQ atatea before the abolition of 
Blavery requiring certain acts to be per- 
formed by tree nepoes, as a condition to 
tbeir residing la those states, or preacrlb- 
Ing dlsabltlttes under which they labored. 
8ncb were laws regulrlug them to die 
certificates of their (reei&m ; forbidding 
them to testify in cases In which a white 
man waa Interested : eicludloe them from 
tbe mllltla and from the public schools, 
and requiring them to give bonda for tbetr 
good behavior. 
Black Mesa Forest Beserv« pioclBimed, 

Black Bock (H. T.), Bauaes of.-Lieut.- 

Col, Blsbop, with about 400 oien from tbe 
British camp at Lundya Lane, crossed the 
Niagara River July 11, 1S13, and attacked 
the blockhouse at Black Rock, where tbe 
Americans had a considerable quantity of 

■ad Porter ., ,. 

bis way to Buffalo, meeting 

of 100 re_gulars. he returnc 

the Invaders. After a short strui 

British were driven with loss to tl 

Lieut. -Col. Bishop wns mart ally 

iggle the 

— jdys Lane the -- 

tired to Fort Erie end vicinity. Gen. Drum. 

went 'in pursiilt. As a prellmloHry step to- 
ward attacking Fart Erie, the British gen- 
eral reaolved to take passeaalon of Stack 
Bock. About 1,200 men under Ueut.-Col. 

Tucker crossed the river o 

Aag. 8, 1614^ 

_.. _.c^ iSy'lKXi 

Americans under Lleatenaats Ryan, Smith, 
and Armstrong. The British lost a consid- 
erable number ; tbe American loaa waa 
Black Boc^ H. T^ workB at, referred 

to, 1563. 
Black Sea: 

Navigation of, unlocked, 1008. 

Vesaels of United States excluded 
from, discussed, 1065. 

Free passage for, secured b; treaty 
with Turkey, 1067, 1157. 

Black Warrior, The.— The American mer- 
chant vessel which was selaed at Havana 
by Cuban customs ofBclals Feb. 28, 1S54, 
and with its cargo was declared conflscsted 
<276T, 2778). The proceedings aronsed a 
bitter feeling against Spain, and a special 
meHBenger was dispatched Inatroctlng the 
American ralclster at Madrid to demand, 
BB Immediate redress. In demD Ideation to 
the owners In the sum of {300,000. The 
relnctance of Spain to accede led to the 
Ostend manifesto. Spain afterwards made 
compensation for the seizure (2869), bat 
the Incident was used as a pretext for later 
aiihuatetlng expeditions into Cuba. 
Black Warrior, Tlio, seizure of,bT 8pan- 
isli authorities discvsBed, 2767, 2T7S. 

Disavowal of, bj Bpain, and payment 
of indemnitj, 2S69. 

Beparation for, refused, 2779. 
Blackfoet Indiana. (See Indian Tribes.) 
Blackstock'i (a C), BatUe of.— m No- 
vember, 1T80, Geo. Sumter started for Fort 
Mlnety-Slx to attempt ita capture. Ue was 
pursued by Col. Tarlelon. A skirmish took 
place Nov. 20 at Blackstock's plantation, 
on the Tjger River. Union Dlstrtct, 8. C. 
Tarleton lied, leaving nearly 200 dead and 
wounded upon the fleld. The American loss 
was only Uiree killed and Qve wounded. 
Bladensbnrg (Ud.), Battle of.— As earij 

as January. 1814, intelligence was received 
at Washington that 4,000 British troops 
had landed at Bermuda, destined for tlw 
United States. The British Admiral Cock- 
burn arrived at Lynnhareo Bay, Va., Id 
March with 1 ship, 2 frigates, and I brig. 
Early In August he was Joined by Tlce- 
Admlral Cochrane, who took command, and 
was later Joined In the Chesapeake by 
4,000 veterans of Welllngton-a Brmy, under 
Gen. Ross. Tbe civil government at Wasb- 
Ingtoa waa apathetic In the f"" "* '~ 
— -"-- -" — ger. Washington, w 

.J and records, was ■ , 

At the suggestion of Gen. 
■•luuer uie President called a Cabinet 
council In July and proposed raising ao 
army for tbe defense of the Federal capital. 
This comprebeoded a reqnislllon on tbe 
States for mllltla aggregating 93,000 men. 
The naval defenses were Intrusted to Com- 
modore Barney, with a smalt Ootllla of 
Sm-boats carrying 400 men. By Aug. 1 
eti. Winder, who whs BHslgned to the de- 
fense of the capital, bad l.OOO reenlDrs and 
almost 4,000 mllltla under his commaad for 
(be defense of Washington and Baltimore. 
The remainder of^ the arm^ was on paper. 

t by It 

fonnins > Junction wltb Winder's advance. 



Bladensbnrg (Ud.), B&tUe ot—conHniK<l. 

vbtcb bnil proceeded to Blndensbarg. about: 
Are milea from Wsablngton. on toe post 
road to Bfllllmore. Here at noon. Auk. 24. 
1S14. the two armtes laeed eacb otber. tbe 
Brllish, uDder Gen. Rosa, nearly G.OOO 
■Irong, 4.000 o( tbem wasooed br serTlce 
Id CDDtlnental En rope, while the defeuderH 
of the capital con«lBt(>d cnnlnlT at undled- 

6[llied, untried mllltln. many of tbem only 
im days [rom Iheir hontes. Tbe battle 
lasted from aboul half-past twelve till four 
o'clock abd resulted In the utter rout of 
tbe Americana. Tbe Brltlnb loat upward 
of SOO men la the enntcement. Tbe Amer- 
leana had only 20 killed and CI wounded. 
After this battle the InvBdera marched to 
the capital, Belied it, and burned the public 

Blaud-AlliBon Act: 
Discussed by President — 

Arthur, 4633, 4720, 4830. 

aeveland, 4927, 5097, E373. 

H&rrison, Beuj., 5475. 

Hayes, 4511, 4568. 
Vetoed by President Hayes, 4438. 
Bland DoUar,— A name gomeClniea ap- 
plied to the silver dollar of tba United 
StatpH, the coinage of wblch began In 18T8. 
Daring that year CongresB paised the act 
providing for ancb coinage. A bill was 
Introduced la tbe Hoase of Represeota- 
tlvea by Rlcbard P. Bland, of MlBSOurl, 

paaaed tbe Houae providing for free coin- 
age, but was modi fled In tbe Senate by 
the AlllBon amendment. As tbe bill became 
a law It provldeiJ that Instead of free 
ColnaKe the Secretary of the Treasury 
Bhouid purchase each moolh not le«9 tban 
la.000,000 nor more than 14,000,000 worth 
of silver bullion to be coined into silver 
dollars of 4i:!i grains each. President 
Hayes returned the bill with his veto Feb. 
28. I87S (4438), bat on the aanie day both 
House and Senate passed the bill over bis 
veto. The effects of the law wera dis- 
cussed by the Chief Executives from time 
to time. (See Dland-Alltson Act.) Tbis 
act was repealed In ISflO by tbe act ot 
CongresB known as the Sherman act (q. v.). 
Blockade.^A well-deBned principle of In- 
tematlonai law which aecurea to any na- 
tion the right In time of war to render 
intercourse with the enemr's ports unlaw- 
fnl, hacardoQB. or Impoaslble on the part 

-* _—.— .. ,. ■_.__.,..__.. ^y ttg 

iic Index Bhie 

and otber North CaroUnn ports were much 
used by tbeae vesaels. as also the port of 
Charleston, S, C. United Stales cruisers 
blockaded these ports, and under the es- 
tablished rules of International law selied. 
aearcbed vnd conn seated foreign vessels 
attempting to r " "' " ■-■--■--'- " -- 


It was 

nised bv European 


..1 Is that a . 
t be effective. 

which patrol tbe sea outside the 

harbor and arrest any vessels ot any power 
attempting to enter. Bbould any arrested 
Tcaiel contain goods or persons contraband 

ships I 


.t tbe 

meat of tbe Spanish-American War It- 

the United States maintained ■ atrict block- 
ade of CubBu ports for several weeks under 
the direction ot Acting Rear-Admlral Samp- 
son, wbich Anally resulted iu tbe battle of 
July 3. when tbe Atnerlcaa squadron under 
tbe Immediate command o( Commodore 
Schley entirely destroyed the Spanish deet 
udder Admiral Cervera. In the KuBSO-Jap- 
anese War (see Japan), tbe Japanese main- 
tained B strict blockade of Fort Arthur 
from Feb. 10, 1904. when tbe first attack 
waa made, nntll the fall ot the city, Jan. 
2, 1906. 
CoTrespoodence Tegardin^r, referred 

to, 3259. 
During War of 1812 diacuBsed, 486. 
Establislied by— 
Portugal, clsims of United States 
growing out of, 1098, 1113, 1243. 
Spain, [ilaims of United States 
growing out of, 1112. 
In order to be binding, must be effec- 
tive, 2945. 
Maximilian's decrees declaring, pro- 
claimed void, 3e31. 
Of Cuban ports, proclaimed, 6472, 
Discussed, 6298, 6312. 
Bemoval of, referred to, 6321. 
Of Mexican ports, and effect of, on 

United States, 1705, 1733. 
Of Soutbern ports proclaimed, 3215, 
3216, 3481. 
Claims of foreign powers arising 

out of, discussed, 332S. 
Nonresident foreigners engaged in 

violating, order regarding 3483. 
Beferred to, 3225, 3385. 
Be moved, 3523. 
From certain ports, or relaxed in 
tbe South iu the interests of 
trade and commence, both borne 
and foreign, 3290, 3372, 3417, 
3431, 3482, 3507. 
Of Spanish Main, referred to, 776. 
Of Tripoli, questions between United 
States and Tunis growing out of, 
386, 389. 
Bloody Shlit.— A terra used to describe 
the utterances of Impassioned speakers and 
writers who after tbe close ot the Civil 
War endeavored to revive Its memories and 
to agitate the minds of their besrers for 
political effect- Reviving war animosities 
was said to be waving the bloody shirt. 

Blue Book. (See Biennial Register.) 
Bine Laws.— A name applied to tbe early 
laws of some of the American Colonle*. 
Tbe Reneral court ot New Haven. Conn.. 
In April. 1644, ordered that the "Jadiclal 
laws ot God aa they were delivered to 
Moaes." should be blading on all offendera 
and a rale to ell tbe court* Ot tbe Jnrle- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 


diction "till they b« branched out Into dht- 
tlcolsTB hereafter," New HsTeD'a crlmlnBl 
code 1TBB developed eloog these lines. It Is 
doubtfut howerer, if Bome of the rigid 
rules OF conduct often quoted as Blue 
Lawa wero ever enforced. Some of them 
are as follows : "No one shall run on the 
Sabbath day, oc walk Id his garden or else- 
where, except reverently to and from meet- 
ing." "No woman shall kiss her child on 

"•- D„t....>, „. taatlae day." ""- 

— 1 ^ uanatn 

^ _B"i8'49 a law or~HaBBB- 

chaaetts proTldcd for tbe prohibition of 
labor, play or traiel on the Lord's Day, 

the Sab 

loiidg or other securities whfch they pro- 
pose to make or sell; (3) sample eoples of 

used in tbe sale of securiuea; (4) a copy 
of any charter or PonstltntloD and by-laws 

under which they do business. Any mis- 
representation of the condition of tbe cor- 
poratlona whose securities are offered for 
Bsle Is made a felony, punishable by (10.- 
000 line and ten years la prison. In some 
states brokers are required to furnish evi- 
dence of their good character and flnanclal 

standing, i--" .—.-.. — ... ^.— > 

■"- '■- oaeu II [ 

._ „ .Jerert'f,. 

Besides Kansas tbe following states hare 
enacted Blue Bky Lews : Arizona. Arkan- 
Bss, California, FloHda, Idaho, Iowa, 
Halne, Michigan. Mlagourl. 7' 

of ihes« laws still sur- 
vive In state legislation. 
Bine Uckfl (K7-), Battle of.-^&ng. 19, 

1782, a body of 182 Kentucky pioneers 
were drawn Into an ambuscade at B!ae 
Licks, Nicholas Connty, Ky., by Indtaas un- 
der Slmoa Glrtv. The settlers were de. 
feated with the loss of slity-two, Indudlnc 
a son of Daniel Boone, 

Bine LlghtB.— During the summer and an- 
tnmn of 1S13, while the British commander, 
Sir Thomss Hardy, with his fleet, had the 
port of New London, Conn., hlocksded, 
Commodore Decatur made several futile 
attempts to escape therefrom with his Qeet, 
conilating of the frigates Unitrnl States and 
Uaccdonian and the sloop -of -war Hornet. 
Decalur claimed that bis failure was due 
to the fact that blue signal lights were 
flashed from tbe shore toward tbe British. 
Tbe friends of tbe British and the oppo- 
nents of tbe war became known as Blue- 
Light Federal lata. 

Blue Sky Laws.— a popalsr designation 
applied to tbe several atste Isers regulating 
the sals of securities of industrial or rail- 
road companies to the public. Tbe flrst act 
of the kind was passeJ by Kansas In 1911 
and amended In many particulars lu 1013. 
Those of the other states are based upon 
tbe Kansas law and follow Its general out- 
line. The deflnlte objects are (1) ti ~ 
"-- and provide (or the registration. 

sgents and 

fa^Ton anS supervision of Foreign i 

... . . . ... .,nj tjjpi, 

<r other securities Issned 
oy sQcn invesimeut companlcB ; (3) to pro- 
tect tbe purchasers of securllles issued by 
such concerns 1 (4) to prevent frand In 
the selling of snch aecnrltlBS; and fS) to 
create some governmental authority to 
supervise such companies and otherwise ad- 
minister tbe provisions of tbe law. The 
Kansas law applies to every person, cor- 
poration, copartnership, or association 
(with the eicepllon o) banks snd trust 

sell, any stocks, bonds, or otlicr _ _ 

(eicept government, state and municipal 
bonds, national bank stock, building and 
loan stock, or shares In corporstlons not 
oceanlied for profltl to any person In the 
State. Brokers a-^ ■ • * ' — 

Minnesota hss l _,, _.- — 

to tbe secnritlea of tnsarance companies. 
Blneflaldifl, (See Hosqnito Indian Strip.) 
Bo«rd at He&lth. (See Nutioiial Board 

of Health.) 
Boud of Tnde and Flantattois.— In 
1660 Charles II. established two separate 
councils, one for trade and the other for 
foreign plantations. For a ttmo these were 
united (from 1872 to 167H). The charter 
of Rhode Island and Providence Plantatloir- 

charge of the English Colonies In America. 
In 1768 a Secretary of State tor AmerlcK 
was established, and the duties of the board 
were transferred to him. 
Boca del Tare, United States of Oolom- 

bla, vessels from, tonnage intj on, 

suBp ended, 489S. 
Body of Liberties.— A bin of rights con- 
slating of a code of 100 fundamental laws 
setting forth the sacredneaa of Ute. liberty, 

Eroperty and reputation. Tbe Hody of 
Ibertles waa compiled by Nsthanlel Ward. 
Sastor of tbe church at Ipswich, Mass.. 
rom drafts submitted. A copy of these 
laws was sent to every town wifhin th» 
jurisdiction of Maasachuse 

.. _ny msn saw anything to be 

altered he caight communicate his thoughts 
to some of the deputies." In December. 
1641, tbe General Court of Massachusetts 
adopted this fundamental code as the basis 
of common law, there having been up to 
that time no written law in the Colony. 
Boer War. — The conflict between Great 
Britain and the South African republics 
of Transvaal and tbe Orange Free State. 
Following the organisation of tbe Trans- 
vaal Republic the British claimed auier- 
alnty over the country, and sent a gover- 
nor and a military force to support their 
claims In 1879. The Boers, who were de- 
scendants of Dutch colonists, offered mili- 
tary resistance and defeated the British 

Lalng'B Neck, Jan. SB, 1861, and at Ma]aba 
Bill, Feb. 2T,' isai. tn March, the Inde- 
pendence o( the Bepoblle was acknowl- 


Encyclopedic Index 

Bo«r Wu^-OMKMMd: 

edied br a Britlab trtaty, snd the Boers 
KcEnowledged tbs nuenUntr of tlw Qneen 
of Enslana. 

~>aTiag tlie follanlDK 7eari BrttlBh 

: DitlajiderB, proteited to tbeir 

De goTemmeal: tlut tbe; were harahlr 

treated by the local authorltlM. Btltiah 

mlUtarj' Airco were Increased aod tbe In- 
eenaed Boen demanded tba Instant with- 
drawal of all troops. The Orange Free 
Bute aopported the Tmnavaal la oppoilng 
Brltlah authorltr- 

In October, 1809, 10,000 British foreea 
were concentrated at Lad^Bmitli, in Natal, 
at the ImiFtloii ot two rallroada, one rnn- 
DlnK Into the Transraal, the other into tbe 
OranKe Free State. Here they were be- 
sieged bx tbe Boera ddUI they were re- 
llered br the British General Buller. Feb. 
S8, 1000. Other British forces were be- 
sieged la Klmberley, in Cape Colony, from 
Oct. 20, 1S08 to Feb. llC 1900, and In 
UateUnK. Becbnanaland, from October, 
1SB9, to Ub7 is, 1»00. Attempts to re- 
IkTe these positions occasioned the prln- 
djul battles ol the war. In 189B General 
Bfr Redveni Bnller bad fi4.000 troops Id 
the conntTT. He made three (ntlte at- 
tempts to relteve L^dysmlth, and was 
stTcrelr defeated while attempting to fom 

chief of staB. 

_ Gen. Freoch, with 8.000 

lleved Klmberley, Ths Boer 

■eneraf Cronje, with D, 

dered at Paardeeberg, 1l .. _. 

Uodder River. Feb. 27, IMKX ^ Blwrnfonteln 


Lord Roberts March IB, 

the north. General 

baraaa tbe Brltllb, and cat off the 
anpplr of Bloemfonteln. The Boer geu- 
eraC Jonbert. died Harch STth and was 

In forelng the Boers I 

render. Peace wa< algi>ed Uar 81, 1902. 

American Interest In the Boer War la 
■howD br the fact that the Senate *ote on 
Ur. Pettlgrew's resolntloo of ■rmpatbT 
with the Boers was 20 In favor of to 29 
anlnst. The South African repabllcs 
ohctallr appesled to the Doited States to 
Intervene, with a Ttew to the ceuBtLon of 
hostilities earlr In 1000. President Mc- 
Klnler, however, refnsed to interfere. 

The Boer force daring the war was 
•boat TH.OOO, The toWl British force sent 
to Sonth Africa from Ans. 1, 1899, to Har 
31, 1902. was 896.000. The cost of the 
war to EnElnnd was more than a billion 
dDlUr% and 20.000 men. 

Boot War, Bttitude of tba United 

SUtes in, SSn, 6410, 6429. 
BoM City, IdAlio, mentioned, 6B1S. 
Boklurft. — A Russian dependeacr In cen- 
tral Asia. It lies between lalltode 41* 80* 
and S6* iV north and between longitode 
61° 40* and T3* east, and U boonded on the 
north br tbe Russlsu provinces ot Srr- 
Dsrla snd Bamarkand, on the east by tbe 
province of Ferghana, on tbe Booth b; 
Afghanistan and on the soatbweaC by the 
RiiBslan transcMplan nrovinee and the lOia- 
nat of Khiva. It baa an area of 93.000 
square mllea and a popalatlon of 2.000,000. 

Hfslorv. — The modem Slate of Bokhara 
was fonnded by the Usbega In tha flftecnth 

centary. The djnasty of Uangnts; 

—^i... ...I .. -y[jf belongs, dates fro 

— ,.„ — tory. Mir MuaaSar . . 

din In ISes proclaimed a holy war against 

succeeded by Lonis Botha. June Stb, Rob- 
erta occapled Pretoria. By establlsbiti" 

^entration nrmpa'the BriUsb fliialiy 

. -.,„ deblock signal hoa'su tbrongboul 

the coantry and driving the Inhabrtants 

the eighteenth centar 

tbs Russhins, who tbereapoa Invaded L.. 
dominions and forced him to sign a treaty 
ceding tbe territory now forming the Bua- 
slnn district of Sjr-Darla, to consent to a 
war Indemnltv, and to permit Rnssian 
trade. In 18 T 3 a further treaty was 
glgned by virtue of which no foreigner Is 
admitted to Bokhara without a Russian 

Bissport, making tbe State practically a 
uBB^an depeodeucy. By this treaty also 
merchandise belonging to Russian traders, 
whether Imported or exported, pays a duty 
of 2y per cent ad valorem, and no other 
dnty can be levied on Russian goods, 
which are also exempt from transit duty. 
Bolivia. — A republic of South America. 
It extends between 10* and 22' B. lat. and 
D8* and 69° W. longitude In the west centra 
of Bonth America. It has no seaboard and 
Is bounded on tbe north nod east by Braill, 
on the west by Peru and Chile, and on the 
Boutb hy Arventlna and Paraguay. Tbe 
boandarles have been settled bv treaties 
with ItB territorial neighbors. Of the toUl 

500,000 «f mixed Span iBh-lnd Ian, Bpanlsh- 
Negro or Negro-Indian descent. 

PAvatcol Feature*. — Bolivia slopes eart- 
wards from the Andes, which form tbe west- 
ern boundary with Fern, and occupy the 
{reater portion of the sooth and west of 
be repnollc. In the north snd east are 
Slalns, that ot the sontb-east being a por- 
on of the Gran Cbaco of Argentina. 
Tbe waters rising !□ the eastern slopea 
of the Andes are divided Into a northern 
and soutbem system by a lotly plateau la 
Chnqulsaca. Those of the north form the 
rivers Grande-MamorS and Benl, Those of 
the south form tbe upper waters of the 

:b"ls ?ol' = — 

'hain of salt lakes la the Pampa 

Anllagaa farther south. 

Dsportmnls and Capitals Enaliih Pnmlatk 
BqlMUsB 1911 

Chuquioes (Suers) 26,410 200,000 

Cochabamba (Coohabuuba) 23,321 420,000 

El Bam CTtirudad) 102,080 40,000 

IaPuO^Pu) 63,762 650.000 

OruroCOnuo} 13,973 120,000 

Fatod (Poton) 43,903 380,000 

8Bii(B(>ui(BuiUCnu)... 141.600 260,000 

Tarija (liila) 33.027 130,000 

Territarles (BawalM) . . . ■ ._ 11B.363 M.OOO 

Total 567.498 2JtOa.00O 

Hiitory. — Botltla was formerly a Bpanleh 
poBsesslon. It became Independent In 1S29 
and united with Pern from 1836 to 183B. , 
The counCr; consists Of 10 departments and 
territories, governed by a President and two 
Houses of Congress, with a constitution 
modeled after Uiat of the United States. 
Revolutions have frequently occurred. From 
18T9 to 1883 Bolivia and Peru were united 
In a war agalDst Cblle. The result was 
disastrous to t^e allies, and Chile became 
posResBed of all thp western aeacoast, In- 
clodlng the niter dlstrlcta of Bolivia. 

Oot-erament. — The governmfnt is that of 
a democratic Republic under a modification 
tdafed Oct. 28. 1880) of the fundamental 
law of Aug. 6. 1S25. at which date Bolivia 
declared Its ludepeodence of Spalo. The Re- 

Subllc was previously comprised In tbe 
anlsb Vlce-BoyallT of Alto-Pera, and de- 
'es lis present name from Its liberator. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 


The Biecutlre Is entrasted to a Trealdent 

(elected foe four years b; direct popular 
vote and Ineligible lor re-electlool. aided br 
tno Vlce-PreBidectB, and a Cabinet ol alx 

Fresldent o( the Republic (1B13-1B1T) Dr. 
Ismacl MonCes, asaumed office Aug. 14. )B13. 

Consrcaa coDglEta ol the Senate and 
Cham&r of Deyutles. The Senate of Six- 
teen members, (wo from each province, le 
elected by direct Tote for eli rearB. one- 
tblrd retiring everr two rears. The Cham- 
ber of Deputies, of seTenty-tlTe members. U 
elected by direct vote for four yea™, one- 
half retlrlne every two years. CongreM 
meeta aunually on August 6th, for eO to 00 

There Is a Supreme Court at the capital, 
with seven lodges appointed by Caugress for 
leu years aniT eight district couits at the 
proTlnclal capitals. 

Each of the eight Departmente Is admin- 
istered by a Prefect, nnder whom are Hub- 
prefects, corregldorea and alcaldes. The 
larger munlclpalitlea are gOTerned by coun- 
cils, the smaller by boards or appointed 
agents. The Territories are admlnlfltered by 
a national delegation of two. 

AriBK.— By a law of Jan., 1B07. service in 
the Army (mllltlal la ualversaJ aud com- 
pulsory between the ages ot 20 and 50. 
Service In the Active ^llllla Is for Bve 
years wlHi five years In [be Reserve, and 
ten years In the Territorial Guard. The 
Peace Rstabllahment la (Aug. 8, 1813) about 
850 officers and 4.BE0 others. The War Eb- 
Ubllshment la slated to be about 90,000. 

£Juca[fon.— Primary education Is free 
and nominally compulsory, but is conOned 
to tbe monlcfpalltleB, who are the controll- 
ing authorities ; 81.338 popUs were enroled 
in 1012. Secondary education reaches only 
about 1,500 pupils; tor higher edacal Ion 
there are university colleges, special BchoolD 
and techolcBl Institutes. 

Drbt.— The Public Debt on June 80. 1813, 

Bt«liiigLo«iotll>C«,6%„ ^■2S'SS2 

Rulway Loan of 1813, 6^ *'SSS-SS2 

Internal Debt 900.000 

nSEuiDibt 3,000.000 

ProaucUim and /BdHatrj/.— About 000.000 
(one-fourth of the population) Uve by agrl- 
cnKure and pastoral pursuits, the total 
area, under eultlvatloo being about 6,000.- 
000 acres The puRat provide excellent 
arailng for large herds of llama vlcnlla, and 
aloaca? and ctacbooa bark Is produced from 
the trees In that region. The forest-clad 
plains and the lowest slopes of the Andes 
prodQCe rubber, cotton. Indigo, tropical 
fruits, and medicinal herbs. 

Rubber iB now the most Important brtI- 
cultural Industry, the eiporta ^hi l6l2 
amounting to •4,080 tons, valued at (B.200.- 

The mineral produftlonB are very valu- 
able, tin being the principal product ot the 
mines, the exports (n 1912 being valued at 
124 000,000 ; and the silver minea ot Potosl 
are regarded as Inertaustlble ; gold, partly 
dug and parllv washed. Is obtained on the 
Eastern Cordillera ot the Andes, aod copper 
lead, antimony, wolfram, blamuth, salt, and 
sulphur are bIbo found. 

Ta^BHt, — Capital, fiacre. In Chnquisaca, 
Bituated about 10,000 feet above sea level, 
named after a victorious general In the War 
of Indeneodence of 1824. Population, 24,- 
000. The great trading centre and seat of 

Sjvemment Is I.a Fsi, popnlsHon 80,000- 
ther towns are CochabamtM, Potosl, Oruto, 
Santa Craa, aod TarUa. 

VeloAls, ireo»u«» ani Cf^rtmeil.—Tht 
Metric System of Weights and Heaaures la 

Srescrlbed by law, hut some of tbe old 
paolsh standards are atlli employed In 

The Unit of Currency la the ftollKfaao of 
100 ee«tat-os, worth (legal value) **>-38^. 

and 1.812 miles coQceeslona grant- 
ed and under survey. In 1912 there were 
214 post offices and 182 telegraph omce* 
with U.SSO miles of line. In 1012 the Bo- 
livian Government signed a contract for tbe 
erection of Marconi wireless aiatlons at La 
Pai. Villa Bella, Coblja, Trinidad. Santft 
Ciui. Puerto Buaret and Yaculba. 

rrode icllh the UnUei jBfotei.— The valne 
of merchandise Imported Into Bolivia from 
the United States for the year 1B13 waa 
|S40,T44, and goods to the value of I3S0 
were sent tbllher— a bBlapcc of {040,394 In 
favor ot the United Stales. 
Bo11t1» (aee also Fern-BoliTia Confed- 
eration) : 
Controversy with Chile, referred to, 

Diplomatie relations with, G468, 6364, 

Beaumed, 444S, 456£. 
Insurrection in, discoBsed, 6361. 
Treaty with (3111). 
BatiQcation of amendments to, reo- 
ommendation regarding, 3260. 
War between Chile, Peru, and, 4522, 
4503, 4S2S, 4717. 
Claims of TInited States arising 

out of, 4913, G0S3, 5369, 5544. 

Conditions of peace presented by 

ChUe discussed, 4662, 4717, 4760. 

Efforts of United States to bring 

about peace, discussed, 4522, 

4563, 45S2, 4662, 4717. 

Negotiations for restotatiOB of 

peace, 4076. 
Terminated, 4822, 6364. 
Treaty of peace diacusaed, 4760. 
BollTla, Treaties with.— May 13, 1858, a 
treaty of peace, friendship, commerce and 
navigation was cocclud^ with Bolivia. 
This contained the favored-natloa clause 
deflned neutral rights, contraband of war, 
rights of citizens In case of war, forbade 
conflBcatlon — •'■" — 

• the B 

ipened lhe~AmaioD Hl'ver'and 

. to navigation by sblps o( 

United States. ^ A previous^ convention 

convention was concluded In 

1900. (See Extradition.) 
Bollnuui OaH- — An important Supreme 
Court case Id which treason 1b defined and 
tbe autborlty of tbe Bupreme Court to Issue 
writs of habeas corptia ai lublMendum la 
maintained. BollicaD was charged with be- 
ing implicated In a treasonable attempt to' 
levy war upon the United States. In that ha 

llsh an Independent Slate In the southwest: 
Id 1805. It was decided that a mere con- 
spiracy to subvert the Government by force 
Is not treason, an actual levying of war 
being Qecesaary. Tbe court held that the 
crime with which the prisoners Bollman 
and Bwartwout stood charged had Dot been 
..^_i — . ... J discharged. 

committed, and they n 


Encyclopedic Index 

Brada.— In B Ies«1 BcnM so oblleitloa In 
wriling and under «e«l wberebj one part; 
blDda blmaelf to pny a lam ot monef to 
another at a certain time, and uanallr 
twirlng ■ BpeciSed rate of Intereit. ThB 
s«cnrlt]r for the payment ol the bonded in- 
dpblednesa Is generally a mortgage on pro- 
ductive properly. The mortgage la placed 
In ttie hands of a third part; as trustee 
to vhom Ibe bondholders may apply (or 
foreclosure la tbe event of fallore to pay 
Interest or prluclpal. The enllre mort- 
gage la then divided Into aepatate bonds 
of (usually) (1,000 each and sold to aepa- 
rate Investors. When Issued to creditors 
named they are registered on the books of 
the company Issulug tbem and tbeir own- 
ershlp Is ■ matter ot record. When made 

Pf-Vrm"o( notes 'fal!^-'' 

able at the company's 

Bonda Isaned by governmeDta are not 
based upon any mortgage, but upon ths 
Integrlty_o( Uie government_flnd_lt« ability 

D collect anfficlenl funds from 

o( th< 

of Its ttonds recoursi 

tbe payment 

t payo 

J Id tbe case of some of 

the smaller reppbllcs of Bonth and Central 
America. (See Debt. Public.) 
Bonds of United SUtra (eee *Ibo Debt, 
• Public; Loans): 

Authoritjr vested in Secietary of 
Treaaiuy to issue, recommonda- 
tioua regarding, E877. 
Siaensaed. (See Debt, Public, dia- 

iMnanee of, discnsaed and recom- 
mendations regarding, 5877, 69 SS, 
5993, 59SS, 6074, fl07fl, 6077, 617S. 
Purchase of, with Treasury surplna 
recommended, 3965. 
Btnilioiaine Blcliud, Tlie.— An old East 
India merchantman Hlted np as a man-of- 
war by the Preucb at L'Orlent In 1779. 
It was one of Sve fitted out by the French 
at the suggestloD of Benjamin Franklin, 
and christened In bis honor Btmhomme 
JZIcJtord, or Good-Uan Richard. Bhe was 
mmmauded by John Paul Joq-- — " 

liorongb dead. Sept. ZB, 1T7S, tbe 
neei pumUDtered a British merchant fleet 
conToyed by tbe Berapia and CoaateM af 
Bcarborimon- The larger war ship, the 
Berapit, tbongh much snperior in ereri re- 
spect to the BOHkoinme RIcltard. was flerce- 
ly attacked by the latter. The conflict took 
place by moonllsbt. In the presence of, thou- 


mast and raked her deck with musketry. 

rbe engagement 
a bucketful of 
n the hatchway 

, the Bonhomme 

IMcfeard Bank In a few honra. 
BOOBVlU* (XXO.), BnttlO of.— When Preat- 
dent Lincoln's call for troops, April 15, 
ISU, reaebed Oorernor Jackson, of Hla- 

Boart, be refused to fDrolsb tbe four regi- 
ments forming the quota of tbe state. 
Francla P. Blalc, Jr. had, h 

military command of r 

tied, un£.. 

tbanlel Lyon, .,„ . 

mustered In Immediately, Lyon being m 

brigadier-general. Wben another Mlssourt 
brigade bad been formed, Uay 8. Lyon was 

fut Id command of tbe department. Mean- 
Imo Governor Jackaou ordered tbe state 
mlllllB to camp at St. Lonla. May 10 Oen. 
Lyon surrounded the camp, and on Its sur- 
render by Geo. frost paroled the men, 700 
In number. June 15 be occupied JeDerson 
City, the governor fleeing to Boonvllle. 
LyoD tollaned. On luoe 17 he dlapersed 
the state troops collected there. 
BootlosireiB, miadeeds of, 7014. 
Bordor Statea.— a designation for the aer- 

eral slave statea of Delanare, Maryland, 
Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri, lying next 
'- tbe free states, and sometimes iDclndlug 

ilcable adjustment .. , 

Jueatlon. They origlbated the Peace Con- 
iieace of 1B61. 
Bomao. — A large Island in Ualaysla. It 
Is situated In the Indian Archipelago, 
bottnded on tbe cast by the Sea of Celebes 
and the Macaasar Btralt. on tbe aonth by 
the Sea ot Java, and on the west and 
north by the China Sea. 

His torn.— It waa firat visited by tbe 
Portugneae tn 1518. Borneo has an area 
ot about 213,000 square miles and a popn- 
latlon of 1.2S0.0O0. 

Phvileal Feature:— Two chains of moun- 
tains traverse the Island In a neatly parallel 
direction from oortbeaat to southnest. 

ffolsrol Product*.— Vegetation grows lul- 
nrlantly and choke woods Hbd Bnlces are 
exported. The mineral wealth Is great, 
gold. Botlmaay. salt, petroleum, tin, copper. 
Iron, and coal exist, but are not, as yet, 
largely worked. 
Bothoo, treaty with, £088. 
BoapboniB, Tbe, reBtrictions on passage 
of Straits of the Dardanellea and, by 
ships of other nations, 4078. 

Ezecntion of laws for Tetnm of ftif^- 
tive slaves forcibly resisted in, 
Proclamation regarding, 2516. 
Reference to, 2B73. 
Fire in, referred to by President 

Grant, 4138. 
Industrial exposition at, discussed, 

Navy-yard at, referred to, 4675. 
Title of TTnited States to land oe- 
cnpied as, referred to, 4698. 
TTnlawfnl asBemblages in, and proc- 
lamation against and autborization. 
to employ force in suppressing, 
2837, 2645. 
Boston Oue. — The esse of a fugitive slave 
who escaped from hla ovner In Georgia and 
took passage on tbe Boslon, a vessel bound 
for the coast of Ualne- The Rovemor of 
Georgia charged the captain of tbe ship 
with steallDg the slave and demanded that 
the governor of Maine restore the fugitive. 
This waa refnaed. The legislature of 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Boston Oim — Contlinud, 

Georel» then called upon i „ ._ ,_ 

■ law cTOmpelllOK the Baremor of Ualne li> 
caniplr wliti such demaod. Vo acUon was 
takeo bf Coagresa. 

Boston, Evociutton of. — Dnrlog the win- 
icr of 1T76 WasliliiglDii, haTlug recelred 
aome ordnaDCe captured at TlcoDderoga aad 

■ Bupplr ot ammnnltloD taken b; prlTateeci 
at Ben, determined to attack Boston, then 
occupied b; tbe Brltlsti. In pursuance of 
Ibla plDQ he occupied NookB BUI (an emi- 
nence St the eitremlij- of Dorchester Neck) 
and Dorchester UelgblB, which commanded 
Nooks Ulll, and the town Itself. On the 
nlghi of March *. 1TT6, the I ' • ■ 

overcd with b 
e fore ■ 

lodge them or abandoi 
cbose the latter altema 
IT the town and harbor 
tbe Btltlsh army and ni 

the ti 


were evacualed by 
ij without Srins a 

Bostoa FIto referred to, 4138. 
Boston Hassacn.— The British navigation 
acta were a, aource of great annoyance and 
loss to the American coloolatx, and theli 
execution ivas rcBlsted at all points. Great 
Britain attempted to coerce the people loto 
- -mpllaDce with the laws by sending Ce~ 

Gage with three 
--*■ Tbe p 

e of t 

a Hsi 

Co mi 

fecred to Salem aad Marblehead, and Qen. 
Oage arrived In Boaton, June 1, 17T4. to 
enforce the law. The Boston people were 
Indlrnant, Much sympathy was eipreased 
tar them througboat the Colonies. In many 
places people refused to buy British goods. 
Oct. 20. 1TT4. the Amerlcao AssDcTstlaD 
was formed, pledging the members to non- 
eoDSumptloD and Qoolnterrourse with Great 
Britain, Ireland and the British West 
Indies. The Association Included 62 mem- 
bers of tbe Continental Congress. 
POBton Tea Party-—'" I'^^T Oreat Brit- 
ain Imposed a duty on tea sold In the Amer- 
ican Colonies. The East India Com pan; 
preTalled upon the ministry In 1773 to 
amend tbe act so aa to relieve the company 
from paying the duty, thereby forcing the 
coDanmera to psy It. The colonists were 
Indignant at tula transfer of tbe ta 

28. 1TT3, a ship 

log of Decembsr 16th an mthoalaitle moat- 
ing was held at Faaeull Hall, and at Ita 

.1 — ,._. .n ... =„ ^gg dlsinilscd aa 

the tlirec chips 


60 and 6 

Indians took posaeaalon 

and threw overboard t-^ .....^^-.v v. »i^ 
amounting In all to 342 cheats. Seveateen 
cheats were also destroyed In Xew <ork 
hsrhor about tbe same time. These eventa 
resulted la the passage of the Boston Port 

Act (a. 0.) and were an Important 

of the train of cauaea of "- 


Boiton, Tlu, mentioned, 62S7, 6367. 

Bodton, U. B. 8., mentioned, 6766, 6767, 

6768, 6771, 6835, 6836. 
BoimdarleB. — The colonial boandailea of 
the United States were IndeSnIle and often 
the EQbJect of mucb dispute. The graota of 
territory In America were made by Euro- 
pean rulers, who were careless gr Ignorant 
of tbe geography of tbe country. Tba 
Wyoming dispute between Connecticut and 
Pennsylvania, aod the Westero Beserve of 
tbe former Id Oblo, are Id evidence of the 
Interminable wrangles created by these royal 

S rants. Tbe boundarlea of the Cnlled 
tates were agreed apon In 1T83 at tba 
treaty of VcTsallles. Congreai then took 
up the question of the bor^r lines between 

. __ 1 In 

: troops further 

t Brltal 

! 1TS9 B 

nvllle i 

Boston and British soldiers charged with 
tbe enforcement of the laws. Id February, 
1770, a press gang from the British frigate 
Roi» boarded a ship belonging to a Mr. 
Hooper, of Mnrblchead, nhereupoD a riot 
ensued. On the night of March G following 
■ large crowd responded to tba ringing of 
tbe are hells and came Into collision with 
the soldlera. The latter flred, killing three 
persona and wounding several othere. The 

Dcns of the Boston massncre spread rapidly 
and did mucb to strengthen the spirit of 
revolution among tbe people. 
Boston Port Act. — An act of Parliament 
Introduced by Lord N'orth and paased March 
7, 1774, In retatlatlOD for the deBtrnctlon 
of cargoes of tea In Boston Harbor. It 
provided tor tbe discontinuance of lauding 
and dis>-harglng. loading or shipping of 
merchandise to or from the city of Boaton 

■ Court. 

the northeast 

boundary of tbs United States ' * ' 

as extending from tba source 

Croli River dde north to tb. ^ 

between tbe Bt. Lawrence and the Atlantic, 
thence along tbe waterahcd to the nort' 
' iromoat head ot the Connecticut Itlve 
: long and Irritating dlsputea over tl 

tweeo the United States and British poo- 
sesslODS on the present lines. Tbe territory 
bounded on the north by latitude ^4" 40*. 
on the east l>y the Rocky Mountains, on the 
south by latitude 43°, and on tbe west by 
the Paclflc Ocean, has been variously 
claimed by Russia, epaln. Great Britain 
and tbe t'olted States. By treaty v 

iBia Jan. II, 

, tbe Unl 

1 States 

40' „ _. 

By the treaty which ceded Florida In 1819 
Spain rellnquiahed all claims to anytblng 
north of latitude 4S°. Though Great Brit- 
ain had little claim to the territory. Joint 
occupation whs agreed apon by the treaty 
ot Oct. 20. ISia. and this becoming unaatla- 
factory Great Britain waa Induced in 1846 
to accept latitude 49° as the boundary 
between her posseaslona and the United 
Slates from the Rocky Mountains to the 
channel between Vancouver Island and the 
mainland. (For boundary disputes after 
1846. see articles on Alaska, Gadsden Par- 
chase and Meilcan War.) 

Botanic QardeiiB. — West ot the Capital 

In Washington is a broad stretch of lend 
known as tbe Mall, extending to the Poto- 
mac River. The part of the Mat! nearest 
the Capitol Is called the Botanic Oardeoa. 
These contain great conserva lories stored 
'■' ■ ■ There I" "' " " '" 

_ _ Boston harbor 
114 cheats of tea, and early la 
others arrived. On the eren- 

ulture, under whose charge are the great 
ropagatlng gardens. The Mall tnrther ex- 
?nda to the waablngton Monument. 


Encyclopedic Index 


Botmtr- (See Sngar Bonnt;.) 
Bounty Zianila. (See Lands, Boimtjr.) 

BonrbODB. — The honse of Bourbon la tha 
UiaUj ot klDffi tbat ni]»d France tor over 
two handred reari. trom 108S to tbe time 
ot th« Preoch reTolaCloQ, 1T91. One ot 
tbeir characCcrlBtlcs wu bd obHtlnate re- 
Inial to keep pace with eventa. Experience 

plied {In American political parli 

■n7 Btateaman or polltlelan that ellng^ lu 
dead lauea and refuael to aecommodate 
binuelf to chanse*' 

Bozon.— The name popularly given to the 
Chlneee ant t -foreign secret eocletr. Ih-hwo- 
Ch'uan. "Volnnteer United Flsta," who were 
larxelj reaponalble for the dlaturbanceB In 
that country In 1800. Excited bj the proE- 
reaa of European clTllliatlon and Christian- 
it/ In China they canaed antl-forelKn riota 
In Tarlona pftrta of the empire and ma>- 
■tcred ma&r mlaalonarlea, native cooTerta 
and Etiropeaii mercbanta. On Jane 20th, 
they murdered the German minister. Baron 
Ketteler, tnd being Joined by the Imperial 
troopa bealeged the forelgnere and foreign 
mlnlaters In the British legation In Peking 
ontll Aos. IS, when the siege waa raised by 
a relief expedition from the Hilled fleets — 
■ e, SusHlan, British. American and 

gary, Belgium. France. Germany. Qreat 
BrltalD, Italy, Japan. Tbe NetberlandB, Bne- 
•Ib and the United States, sn Indemnity 
amounting to 460,000.000 taels (fSSS.OOO.- 

000) for Inturlea Inflicted "-- "-- " 

---■mnlty I" • "- 

-■ In tl 

ments. dne on Jan. 1 of each fear up .. 
IMl, Interest Bt 4 per cent, to be payable 
batf-jearly. The securities for the debt are 
the Imperial Maritime Cu ' 
nnapproprlatei^ Ineresied^ 

Bay Sconta of America.— The Boy Scont 
moremcnt can be traced back to widely 
■eparaCed aourcea where constmctlve tdeaa 
came to boy workers and were tested with 
varying degrees of Baccese. ' 

there were a number ot orlgloe 

and Ideals of the movement belong here also 
to the highest plans— that of efficient dti- 
Eenihlp, service ana character-building. 

"The Boy Scouts of America," the name 
ander which the movement In the United 
Ststes wss Incorporated, February 8, 1910, 
has as Its Honorary President, the Hon. 
Woodrow Wilson, Preeldent of the United 
Statea. and Hon. William H. Tsft and Col. 
TTieodore Eooeovelt as its Honorary Vlce- 
Presldenta. Associated with these In ap- 
proTsI and promotion of tbe movement are 
eminent cltliens from all walks ot public 
life, who are members ot the National Coun- 
cil and of the local councils In the citle* 
end towns of the whole country, and a boat 
of others who earnestly co-operate In the 

A group of men, representing the various 
rellgloDa and civic organlaetlans of the com- 
munity that are engaged Id ttoys' work. 
are brought together aa a local counrll for 
the promotion of Bcont work. This local 
.. _ J charter from the national 

■ill eaj 

methods, plans and principles that haTfl 
proved elTeetlve. In Great Britain, Lleut.- 
Omi. Sir Bobert 8. 8. Baden-Powell became 
~ " I In organization work based lanely 

^„ ...... .., ^^..^ff"!' ■■ 

t of British Boy I 

grew Into tbe hundred thousands, with the 
emphasis, not on the military note, but on 
p^ce vlrtnes snd learning practical trade*. 
Then the movement spread to Qermany, 
France. Italy. Australia and New lEeeland. 
to Canada and the United SUtes: to Elonth 
American republics : In short, almost the 
world over, aince It la already established 
Id twenty-seven conntrlee. Everywhere It 
has shown adaptation to new fields and 

In Germany the boys have engaged In 
the work with such eDthualaam and In such 
nonbers that the Prussian and Bavarian 
anthorltles are giving tbe movement finan- 
cial aid. Bnt It has been left to the United 
States to show what the system of scouting 

can accomplish, whe- "■ — *■ •- *'-- '--•- 

In whieb the larger 
Ideas and princlplet 

number of the Boy t 

out the world Is estimated as noc less man 
two mtlllon, oiM-atttb ot tbe whole nprnber 
are tn th« United Statea. Tbe emphaal* 

deal with all qoeBtlona relatlog to scouting 
In that district and to pass upon all Scout 
Uaatera' appllcatloDB. In many cases this 
council engages a boys' work director, to 
be known as the Scoot Commissioner, to 
take charge of the work in that community. 
He Is reepoDSlble tn the local council for 
the direction and i 

He Is the leader of^ 

aa such, gives such Instructions and help 
as may be neceseary. arranges Inter-troop 
meets, gomes, camps, and In general, makes 
uniform the plan of work conducted In 
that community. The Scouts are organised 
in patrote and troopE. Eight boys consti- 
tute B patrol, one of whomla chosen as the 
Patrol Leader, Three patrols make np a 
troop. The Scout Moster Is the adult lender 
of the troop. Already there are about TOO 
local coupclle Id ae many cities throughout 
the United States and under the direction 
of each tbcre are from Bve to one hundred 
and fifty Scout Masters in charge of troops. 

Tbe Scout programme Is proving practi- 
cable aa a clvfc enterprise. There sre many 
cities so thoroughly organised that every 
phase of boT life In the community Is being 
reached by Scout activities. The movement 
Is adapting Itself not only to the wealthy 
classes, but to tbe boys of the slums, to 
the newsboys and to foreign boys a 

a — .1 — outdoor lite 

_. ._ wholesome, at- 
tractive, outdoor activities with the In- 
floence ot the Scoot oath and law, the move- 
ment derelopa character and worth-while 

Scout craft Includes Instruction In first 
aid. life saving, tracking, algnalllng. cycling, 
DBtnre study, seamanship, campcraft, wood- 
craft, chivalry and all the handicrafts. 

The national organliatlOD la largely raatn- 
talned by public subscript lona. Sustaining 
and Contributing Mcmbcrshlpa a— ' ■■ '- 

t and pro mo til 

imen throughout the country 
iclally aaalatlng in the develop- 
omotlon of this organliatloa 

PreBldent^"wiTllam'HrVBft "Col'.'T'heodore 
Boosevelt ; President, C. H. Llvlnxston, 
Washington. D. C. ; VIce-PreBldentH, B. L. 

"-'- "-'-'ol, Tenn. : UllCon A. McRae, 

; David Starr Jordan. 8 Can- 

Daniel Carter Beard. Flushing. N. Y. ; Trei 
ater, Qeorge D, Pratt, Brooklyn, N. T. 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Boreott. — la Korember, 1880, during the 
Laod League agit&tlaii In IreiBod. Cipt. 
James Boycott, agent of Longb Haak larm, 
■D eitate of Lord Erne, baring erlcted many 
of tbe tenanu of tbe eatate for retaalng 
to paj rent, waa besieged on bli premises. 
Tbe nelgbborlDE tradeamen refused to aup- 
pl; bim with tSeli goods at anj price. His 
aervaalB left and no oEbera conid be In- 
duced (0 take their places. To gatber bl* 
crops It benme ntresstr; to bring In Im- 
migrant iBtKirers and to protect them while 
at work by the preiience of armed con- 
■labulary. This method of coercion became 
popular among the land leaguers and was 
SUDD put Into operatlDD against ahopkeepen 

This poJIor of noD-lutercoarae and glTorts 
to cammerclally Isolate business opponents 
was lutniduced Into tbe United Slates by 
tbe Knlsbts of Labor and Trade Uclons 
about 1S65. In 1886 two women bakera 

[ were boycotted by tbe lalwr 

..._ ._._^i_ « without 


ind their frit. 
3 against tht 

Ibelr patronage. Tbe buslne 

they « 

tbe same year o 

ere rcUcTed by 
ead for rharl 

seriouslT in lured, nntll 
' ring large orders 
ispltsl*. During 

_. .7aa convicted ol 

r— „ ort money under a threat 

if boycotllog. One man was boyrotted for 
;lytng testimony sgalnst conspirators. 

Boycotting has been deflned by an Amerl- 
an judge as a "oimblnatlon of inany to 
ause a loss to one person by coerdng 
tbers against their will to withdraw from 
_ilm their beneflrlal business Interconrae, 
through threats Chat unless those 

. tbe 

win t 


A boycott, 

panled by ylolence or Intimidation, baa been 
pronounced unlawful by many courts. 
Wben accompanied by violence It Is a 
criminal offence at common law. 
President Taft, when Judge * 


;o prev 
the B 

^vv .....,-= — .-.. United States Courts In 
boycotting cases ba»a been contradictory. 
Id tbe case o. the Danbury (Conn.) hatters, 
the employers were adjudged Injured to tbe 
extent of 180,000. and authorised to bring 
salt against the boycotting organisation 
for thrice the amount. In HoDtana. tbe 
Supreme Court held tbat the boycotted com- 
pany did not have a property right Id tbe 
trade o( any parilcoiar person : hence, any 
- rightfully withdraw !■'- 

I with the 

_.B crlmlr 
acting m 

o law In withdrawing their patronage they 
could not be enjoined from continuing tbe 
boycott Id force, so long as tbe means 
employed to make It effective were not 
Illegal. (See Llndaay A Co. c». Montana 
Federation of Labor et al.; Loewe vi. Law- 
tor el oI.) Other Indictments against mem- 
bers of labor anions charged with twycoltlng 
have been prosecuted In tbe Cnlted Rtstes 
Supreme Court and the results will be 
found under Anti-Trust Laws : Bucka StoTS 

Tbe states hsTlng laws prohibiting boy- 
cotting Id terms are Alabama. Colorado, 
IMIuols. Indlara and Texas. The states 
baring lawe prohibiting blacklisting In tenm 

« ATsbama, Araaosas. Colorado, Conneetl- 

graph operatora only), Miasourl, Montana, 
Keyada. Kortb Carolina. North Dakota, 
Oklahoma, Oregon. Texas. Utah, Tlrgtnla, 
Washington and Wlaconaln. A number ot 
states baye enacted laws concerning In- 
timidation, conspiracy against worklngmeD 
and iDterference with employment, via.: 
Alabama. Connecticut. Delaware, Florida, 
Georgia, Idaho (applies to mine employees 
only), Illinois. ^Kausas. Kentucky, Louisiana, 

tts, Mich 

nin. Mlnneaota. 

„-. New Hamt _ . 

Jersey, Sew York, North Dakota. Oklahoma. 
Oregon, Pennaylyanla, Porto Rico. Rhode 
iBland, South Dakota, l^xas. Utah, Ver- 
mont. Washington. West Virginia and Wis- 
consin. In tbe following states It la na- 
lawfal for an employer to exact any 
agreement, either written or verbal, from 
an employee not to Join or become a mem- 
ber of a labor otvanlsatlon, as a condition 
of employment: California, CoIoradOj 

, Idaha 

Indiana. 'Kansas, ilaa 


Jersey, Ohio. Oklahoma. Oregon. Pennsyl- 
Taala. Porto Rico, South CBrollna and Wis- 
codbId. (See Locwe vs. Lawlor et al.J 
BoTCOtt (secondary) denounced aa at 

vftriance with American instinct 


Bnka and OonplaiB, legislation for in- 
creased safety in use of, recommend- 
ed, 5486, 6561, 5642, 5766. 
Bnuidy BUUon, or FIa«twood <Ta.), 
BattlO of,— After the battle of Chancellors, 
vllk Hooker's army remained Inactive on 
the north side of the Rappahannock for 
about a month. June 9, 1803, two divisions 
of cavalry, supported by two brigades of 

d tbat while the employees of 

or company had a right to 

-" at any time, they Bad — 

t the work belnr ' — - 


ind the cavalry was commanded by Gen- 
— ■- ••■■'—• --a Oregg. They were driven 
lOBB of BOO men la one of 
rairy flghta of tbe 
practical result of 

,. Jlscorery that Lee's 

Infantry wna moving north by way of Cul- 
peper. Here, also, on Aug. 1, Gen. Buford 
with hia division ot cavalry met the Con- 
federate General Stunrt and compelled him 
to retreat nntll re-enforced, when Buford li 

. 10 I 

I 16 

deaullory flghtlng with both t ., 

Infantry oecaired In the vicinity of Brandy 

Bniidywliio (Pa-), Battle of.— m the lat- 
ter part of May, 177T, Waahlngtoo left 
UorrlstowD. N. J., where he had been In 
winter quarters, and took ap a strong pOBl- 
tion behind tbe Rnrltan, Howe i - - - 

t N'ev 

wick E 

troops for PhlladelphiB, landing abont 
iD.OOO men at Elk Ferry, n'ty miles from 
the city, Aug. 26. Washington, hnving 
been tolDed by Lafayette, DelCalb, and Pu- 
laski, drew near to defend the city. Tbe 
oaailnal alrength of tbe American army 
WBB 14.000 men, though only ir.OOO were 
considered effective 

d it « 

11 Sept. 11 thnt 

encountered tbe Americans at Chndds Ford, 
on Brandywlne Creek, atiout thirty miles 
southwest of PbllDdelphla. In tbe battle 
which occurred that day tbe British gained 
a clear victory through a_BUCCesttfal flj^nk 

cut, Florida, llllnoli, Indiana, Iowa, Kan- British n 


Encyclopedic Index 

BraKQ.— Tbe moit eitenBlra BUte of 
Bouih America. It wu dlscoTered In ISOO 
b; Fedro AlTarei Cabral. PoctDgnese dbtI- 
galor. It is bounded od tbe Darth br the 
AtlsDtlc Ocean, aaUna, and Vmemela ; od 
the we«t by Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Para- 
STUf. and Argeotlna: od Ibe Boultt bj Urn- 
gaay ; and on Ae eaat bj the Atlantic 
Ocean ; and extends betneeu lat. i' 22' N. 
and 33* 4S' 8. and lODS- 34° 40' and 
73* 15' W.. bflQK 2.600 miles from north 
to aonth, and 3,S<XI from writ lo east ; wltli 
a coaat-llne on the Atlantic of 3,700 mites. 
Jfiilorii. — It was claimed and colonlied 
b^ Ibe Portuguese trath b; rigbt of dli- 
coTciT and tbe dlctuia of the Pope. It 
berame tlie residence of the eiMed Portu- 
sueae rojal famllj during the Napoleonic 

— ... .._ ._j J procialmed 

- d and Dom 

__ . . Portugneae King, be- 

nme tbe Drat emperor. He resigned in 
J»31 m favor of bla son Pedro II. Id No- 

and a republic organi 
■■ He ~" ■ 

'or 'anPirf u 

: Prealdent 

later' br Pelioto. and ho'bjDe Uoraea. 
Wenccalau Brai Is now president. 

The btoodlesB revolution of 1889 trans- 
formed tbe provinces of the Empire iDto 
States of a Fpderat Union. Tbe States 
hare their own laws aDd coosldersble fiscal 
anionomj, belDg administered at their own 
expense, and controlllnK Ibe outward (but 
not Inward) cusloma. ^atloneI defence, po- 
lice, finance, currency, and natloDBl or Inter- 
state Jnsllee are reserved to tbe central 

Each Stale has an elected 

PrraideDt or Oovcrnor'aiid a bli 
Islalure. ralsea Its necessa. 

. ,__lrolB Ita Indebtedncsa. The 

External Debts of tbe various States of tha 
mioD amounted In the anregate to *220.- 
000.000 at the end of lafo; their Internal 
Debta to over 165,000,000: and their Float- 
ing Debts to over (40,000.000. The terrl- 
torr of Acre (Aqulrv) was parcbaKd for 
110.000.000 from Bolivia by treaty of Koy. 
17. 1903, thus terminating ■ diapule vrltb 
that republic through the Incursion In 
DDrth-vestem Bolivia of large DDmbers of 
Brailllan settlers. AcT« has petitioned to 
be received Inio the Siates of tbe TJdIoq. 

PHuiicol FcBfBrcf.— Tbe northern Slates 
ot Amaiones and Pari sod the central State 
of Maito (iroseo larhlcb toRetber coaatlluto 
more than one-halt of Brazil) are mainly 
wide, low- lying, forest-clad plalDs. Tbe 
esitem and aonthem Btates are traversed by 
interspersed wllh 

r pal ranaea are tbe 

_, the Serra do Uantequelra 

(tiailalaata. 9.000 feet), and tbe Serra do 
Esplnbaco lllaeolaml. 6,000 feet). In the 
southeast ot Mlnas Geraea : the Serra do 
PatanaD, the Serra dos Aymorcs and the 
Serra da Gnrguela. Branca, and Ararlpe. 
Brsill la DDniualled for the number and cl- 
ient of Its rivers. The Amaion. tbe largest 
river Id the world, has tributarlea which are 
Ibemselvea great rlvera. and Sows from 
Ibe Peruvian Andes lo the Atlantic, with 
a total lengtb of some 4.000 miles. Its 
Dorthem tributaries are the Rio Braneo, Rio 
Negro and Japura ; Its soutbem tributaries 
are the Jurus. Purus. Msdelra and Tapalos, 
while tbe SIngu meets It within 100 mllea 
of Its outflow Into the Atlantic. 

January 6, 1914. a Brailllan commlanlon. 
beaded by Col, Theodore Roosevelt. ei-Pre»- 
tdent of Ibe United Btates, and Cot, Ron- 
don, started to explore tbs Dnvlda River, 
which turned out to be a trlbularr of the 
.._ _-_. .. ^^fp, 

Madeira, the tower 

which was 

27, after travellDg B42 mites from San Luis 
de Caceres, tlie party deacended Mie Dovlda, 
or River of Donbl, as lu headwaters had 
hecD called by ao eipedltlOD surveying for a 
telegrapb line In 1909. Descending the river 
.™ _.,_. ^. . .,. ■I'^i' s. lat. 

— _. the Ar( 

reached April 20, 1914 

tbe ludeflnlle Cas- 

charged li 
and 90* 3 

halt, waa naoied tbe Rio Theodore. 

thereby pnt upon tbe map ; It had never 
appeared previously on any map. 

The Tocanttus and Araguaya flow north- 
wards from the plateau ot Matto Grosio 

FraDClBCO rises Id tl 

e with the Para 

la Ibe mountains ot that name and divides 
the Braflllan Slate from the Paraguay. The 
Paraguay and Parsnft. from (bi'lr cODfluence, 
become the principal river of Argentina and 
flow Into tba Atlanilc at the estuary of La 

MB, as the CHtanha. EmbarUnc t 

Ana in BctinvBtcd 
States and Capltata Engliib Population 

Sq.MiiB leio 

470 900.000 

73.720 70.000 

10.230 800.000 

714.000 3S0.000 

2ie.00D 3,300,000 

SI ,750 800,000 

17.000 300,000 

260,000 200.000 

131.000 SSO.OOO 

580,000 140,000 

231,000 4,000.000 
482,500 600,000 

2;, COO 500.000 

3S',C00 1,500!000 
92,600 400,000 

ie,800 1.000,000 

) 20,000 280,000 

"AI^TT.". .V. .'.7. .'T .'"" 109,000 1,500,000 
Bants Cathaitna (Floriao- 

opolb) 43,000 350,000 

Bao Paulo (Bao Paulo) .... 95,500 4,000,000 

SsfCpe (Aiacaju) 9.600 500,000 

Total 3,298470 21,580,000 

Of tbe total number about 1.000.000 ar« 
"wild" IndlaDB. 

fithMOffrapfiv.— There are five distinct ele- 
ments In tbe population : the Portuguese set- 
tler*, the aboriginal Indians, Imported Afri- 
can negro slaves, mixed descendsDts of tbeae 
three races, and European immigrants of all 
nstlonalKleB, principally Italians Portu- 

Kese and Bpaniah. Tbe descendants of the 
rtuguese settlers are Ibe true BrazlllaDS, 
the aborlgtual Indians are now mainly (rll>es 
In the forests and plains of the interior. 
The staves were freed between ISTl nnd 
1888. their Importallon haTluR ceased In 
18SS. The modem trend of Teutonic imml- 
grstton Is towards the soutbem states, par- 
ll'-nlariy Rio Grande do SnI. Tbe official 
language of Braiil Is Portuguese. 

Oorsnuneaf. — Brazil was colonized by 
Porlagal In tbe early part ot tbe elileeDth 
centory, aDd In 1S22 became an lndepend<'nt 
empire under Dom Pedro, son of tbe exiled 
King Joto VI. of Portugal, Oo Nov. IB, 
18S9, Dom Pedro II.. second of the tiDe, wta 
detbioiMd and a r^ubUc waa proclalBed. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

BiaXll— CDNtllHMlL 

The roaatltDllon rrati on the rnndalnnilal 
iBV of Feb. 24. 1891, which eaubllrtied a 
federal rppublJc under the name of Eiudoa 
llDldos do BraiU. 

The President and Tlce-Prealdent are 
elected for four rears by th« direct Totes oC 
all male BraiJIlana over twenir-one jean 
who rao read and write, and are Ineligible 
for the succeeding lerma. Tbef are afded, 
HB eiecutlrea, b; a Council of Ministers, 
who do not allend Congress, 

The National Consrees conslats of a Ben- 
Bte and Cbambcr of Deputies, wblch meet 
annually, on Maj 3, for four months Tbe 
Seoate Is composed of slit;-tbree members 
elected (or nine, sli and three jeara In ac- 
cordance with their place In the ballot, 
those for lesser periods twins renewed In 
due conrse. Tbe Chamber of Deputies con- 
sists of 212 members elected for three 
jearH. Tbe eleclora for both booses are 
all male BcBiIllans over twentj-one years 
vho can read and write. 

Tbere la a Supreme Federal Tribunal and 
• Federal Court of Anpeal at the capital, 
and Judges sit In each Slate for Federal 
cansea. Except In the federal district Jus- 
tice Is administered by State Conrti for 
Slate causes, Irom the lowest to tbe blgh- 
eat courts. 

Armii.— By a law of Jan. 1, 1B08. mili- 
tary service la obligatory on all male Bra- 
illlans from twenly-one to forty-four years. 
The Peace ElTectlTe Is Z.SOO ofacers and 
28,000 others. (See Armies of the World.) 

Natrv. — The Nary Is manned by aliont 
7S0 officers and 9,000 aesmea, etc. (Bee 
Navies of the World.) 

Primary education Is secular and free, 
but Is not as yet compulaory ; It Is main- 
tained and coulrollcd by the governments 
o( tbe varloua Stales. Public iBStructlan 
" islng and reading and writing a~" 



the franchise for 


iltlvated. ' Thrcf 


belait grown cWefly In Rio de Janeiro. Mlnas 
Geraes. Sao Paulo, and Esplrlto Banto. and 
In B. smaller degree In the north. Cotton 
Is largely cultivated for export, and Is 
being ased for home maputaclureB. Sugar- 
cane Is grown In large and Increasing 
quanllcles In the Dortbem provlocea, Per- 
nambuco being the centre of the su_gar- 
produdug zone. India-rubber comea from 
the more northero provinces, especially the 
valley o( the Amazon, and la snipped from 
FarA and Mandos. Tobacco ahd cocoa are 

ErowD largely, eapedally In Babla. The 
Ive BtocE Included Jl^OOO.OOO cattle In 
IDIO, (tattle and stock taJaIng being an Im- 
portant Industry. 

Brazilian foresta are Immense, and abound 
In the greatest variety of nsefal and beau- 
tlfal woods adanted for dyeing, cabinet 
work, or sblpbulldlog ; among Ihem are 
mahogany, logwood, Tosewood. braillwood. 
cinchona, etc. 

Ths mineral products are considerable, 
—• > —mprlso gold, silver, Iron, qnlck- 

Uanu/ncfurH.— In IBOg there were 1.541 
Industrial establishments employing 46.000 
hands, and reptewnilng an Invested capital 
of over £14.000,000. Tbe establishments 
are protected by enormous Import duties on 
manufactured arllcles. Cottons, woollens, 
and silks are produced, but tbe ontpnt Is 
considerably below IDe demand. Flour mills, 
for imported Argentine wheat, and brewing 
are Important Industries. 

Tbe Import! consist of every description 
of manursctnred article, In suite of a high 
tariff. There la a hcav" -■■■■ 

i of 0,000.000 bags, 
upspmi'heii tar exceed that 
early 17,000,000 bags In ISOO. 
<tt and Contniun(callaa.— 
:s Us railway system hut 

miles under construction, tbe Federal Gov- 
f-mmenC nwnlnir e..10O mlles of Hie whole. 
3,200 post oDIces in 1010. 

There Were 2,125 1 

e marine of Brazil 

entered st 

1 Is tbe principal Industry, tbe prodnce 
iwarde the Interior European 

y gen- 
t tbe 

lelro, Sao Patilo, Bahla. I 
rara, MsranhAo. Rio Grande ana Banios. 
Towni. — Rio de Janeiro, tbe capital. Is 
the second largest dly In South America 
and poBseases one of the dpest harbors In 
the world. Popalntlon, 1012, estimated at 
1.000,000. tither towns and their popula- 
tion are; 

Baa Psdo. 380.0OD Butoe 40.000 

Bshia 2M1,000 Macelo 40.000 

Par* (Belem).,. 200.000 Cuyjibfi 38.000 

Pernunbuco , . . , 160.000 Nictheroy 3fi,00a 

Porto A1b«« 80.000 Floriuiapolis. . . . 33,000 

r«ar* eO.OOO S»o Liiii 30 000 

rhemiDS Hl.OOO Atscbju 22,000 

^urityba H),000 K«l*l 17,000 

Honq/. — Tbe Currency Is nominally me- 
tallic, but almost entirely paper, In de- 
■ ■■ - mllrpls. The gold mllrela 



Traile tUh tile United Btatea.—The vsh 
Imported Into Braill_ froi 

i5ri'.855 were~Bent thitber, n balance 

of $TT,S1T,388 In favor of BcasU. 

Blockade by naval laioee of, w- 

forred to, 9T0. 
Boundary question witli Argentine 
Bepublie BDbmitted to President 
of United States, 6867, 6058. 
With BoUvia, 042(L 


Encyclopedic Index 

Charge d 'affaires received from, 820. 

CorrespoDdeiice with, referred to, 


ClaimH of United States agaiDet, 929, 

951, 962, 1009, HIS, 1245, 1594, 

1933, 2051, 30SO, 3SS0, 4220. 

CoDTeDtioD for satiafaction of, 

negotiated, 2553, 2582, 25SB,261S. 

Pajment of, 1009, 1245, 2116, 2618. 

Commercial relations with, 3049, 4078, 

4629, S570, 56S3. 
CommiaaioD of United Statea aent to, 

Convention with, referred to, 2081. 
Cotton cnltnre in, 4078. 
Diaturbanees in, 1158, 2051. 
Duties on American goods Tedneed, 

Imprisonment of American citizens 

in, 970, 2770. 
Uai) steamship service between 

United States and, 3SS5, 3586. 
Uiniater of, to United States re- 
ceived, 2553, 4718. 
Minister of United States in, official 

fonetiotts of, terminated, 951. 
Phwphates disco ve red in coast of, 

Political distnibances in, discnssed, 

Belations with, 2399, 6364. 
B evolution in — 
Action of American commander in 
aalnting revolted Brazilian ad- 
miral disavowed, 5867. 
PolicT of United States regarding, 

6472, 5867, SS56. 
Questions with Portugal respecting 
escape of insurgent Admiral Da 
Qama, 5956. 
Bepnblican form of government es. 
tablished and recognition of, b7 
United States, 5543. 
Slavery in, 4100. 

Abolished, 5360. 
T»riff laws of, evidence of modiflca- 
tiona of,' proclaimed, 5576. 
Notice of intention of Brazil to 

terminate, discussed, 5956. 
Heferred to, 5615, 6747. 
Trade-marks, treaty with, regarding, 

Treaty with, 9S6. 
Obligations of, to cease, 1828. 
Beferenee to, 1009. 
TesM-ls of— 
Discriminating do ties on, suspend- 
ed by proclamation, 2372. 
United States seized or interfered 
with by, 962, 2779. (See also 
Camline, The.) 
War with— 
BnetioB Ayrea — 
Peace condoded, 977. 


Paraguay, 4078. 

Good offices of United States ten- 
dered, 3776, 3S83. 
Btaall Steamship Co. referred to, 5634. 
Braxll, Traatlea with. — Dtplomallc nego- 
Uallom with Braill are embixlleil tn nva 
treaties : Treat; of 1828 on amity, com- 
merce, and DavlGatlon: Treaties ot 1840 
on clatniB Id geDeigl and a protocol sub- 
raltllEg to urbRratlon tbe cUfm o( George 
C. Betiner e( ot., algned In 1902. Treat? 
of 1S78 on trade-marks (see Trade-marks, 
Trealiea ouj ; and eilrailltlOQ conrentlOD 
and protocol of IBM (aee Bitraditlon, 
Treatlea of). 

Tbe treaty ot 1828 accords reciprocal 
freedom of commerce and navigation upon 
equal tvrma and rondltiona to ihoae by 
walcb they are enjoined by any and every 
olber nation ; the cltlaeoa of the respecilie 
countrlea are prlvll^K^d to coadud com- 
mercial and profesalonal tmnauctionB In 
Ibe country ot the other nalloB upon the 
same terms and under lllic coQdiilonB aa 
clilieDB Bod aublecta. CoubIwUc trade la. 
howerer. excluded from lb la aEreement. 
Freedom of, and equallly In. carrying trade 
of export or reexport or Import of goods 
la permitted without payment of blgber or 
other duties, Impaats, laiea, or fpca. than 
Ibose 10 wbleb citlsens and aobJeclK are 
liable^ If Biibjected to embargo " ■--- 



and protection 


of the other country. All reasonable 
lance la to be rendered to vessels 
ablp wreck or damage In tbe 
uiiiriB Ml loe other country ; aod protection 
from pirates, with reBtUutloo of property. 
If poKSlble. Freedom of aate, diBpogltloa, 
SDd auccesBlon, Id the eeae of personal 
goods IB granted lo iDdlvlduat clllienn and 
subjects wltbln tbe other country. Protec 
tlon of tbe peri-on and of the properly of 
cItlieDS and subjects of each olber la lo be 
the Bpeclal care of each contracting party. 
Entire freedom of conaclence la arrorded 
to tndlvlduala, together with protection of 

In event of war ot one of the pnrtleB 
-'■*■ - ihlril It If agreed that full r 

• principle that the flag c 

lb la 

Inclple, but I 


: «"?/ 


property of an enemy of one of tbe par- 
lies, sueb property rball be eonflsenled 
unleaa pat on board before tbe decloralloD 
ot war; en eicupc of Ignomnre of decla- 
ration of war Bball not he vnlld after a 
Eerlod of four months ahnll have elapBed. 
Iberty of commerce and nevlgntlon shall 

pnd to 1 

trabnnd. At i 

BacntloD of i 

times tbe examination of vcstels Bbsti be 
conducted by all means cnlciTlatcd to mini- 
mize TCxatloD or abuce. When one of the 
partlea ahall he at war with a third Stnte, 
no dtlien or nubjecl of the other contract- 
ing parly shBll accept letters of marque 
or reprisal to act aKalnBt tbe (""■-- — 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

ten sbaJl b« those of (be most faiorcd 
nation. Thpse oIDrlati sbalt be ei«inpt 
from all public eerrli*. laips, ImposlB, and 
dutlta. ei»pt nicb as tbey nball ptj od 

Bball be tbe aame as ibOB« pulil hj rltluDi 
of tbe eountry. Tbe eonanlHr popera. ree- 
orda, and arcblrea, aball at all tlmea eod 

„, , , _, Belied or iDlerfered 

wllh by aa; maelBlrala. Coniula ahall 
bave full authority to arrest and delalD 
for n period not to eicead two montha all 
deserletv from public and private TCSselB 

, , , een forwarded to 

tbe olTendlng Btate and a r^asouablc time 

Braill alao beeame a party to the a>D- 
TBDIIon b«tw(^n Ibe United Statea and Ibe 
aereral rcpuWica of South and Centra! 
America lor tbe arbitration of peoanlary 
clolma and the protecIloD of InTeulloaa, etc.. 
wblcb was algned In Baenos Alrea In 1910 
and proclaimed Id WeablDKton, July S9, 
1914. (See Soatb and Central America, 
Treaties wlcb.) 

Brulto (Mexico), Bftttle of.— in June, 
1846, Ibe Army at Ibe Weal wBi organised 
at Port LeaTCDworth, on Iba HIaaourl. It 
constated of 1,638 men aod Bliteeu pleraa of 
ordnance, under commnnd of Col. PblL 
Kearny, of tbe First United Statea Dta.- 

EiODB. He WDH ordered lo proceed lo New 
cilco and take possesBlou of Santa F< 
and prorlnlm tbe entire Territory to be 
nnder tlie J u rind lot Ion of tbe L'nlted States. 
Hla ordera were later amended to Include 
Cnlltornla. In Otty days [be arm; marched 
RSR mllpn. nnd nn Aiir. ^f^. 1840. the Amer< 
r tbe cIlBdel at 

llHbIng a clrll sovemmcDt c 

BtuOB Sutlmgo, Tbz., eommerca of dia- 

trict of, referred to, 2610. 
Bnad. (See Baking BnsiDesa.) 

Brud Elott.— During a period of general 
Snanclal depreaalon In 183T tbe poor of 
New York held freqnent rlotoua meetlaga, 
which culminated In violent aaaaulta upon 
flonr warebouBea. KmployineDt waa meager. 
reniB were exorbitant, and flour was 912 

broken open and i 
The rlotera v 
Breadstnffs, importation of, into foreigii 
countries, and rates of duty on, 5503. 
BreakwRteiB, expenditures od, 1126. 

fn "la "A 


and I 

Tbe I 

ilxled of B 

I elTe(^lve 

drngo — „ 

Donlpbnn, wllb bla own regiment and 
Welgh[man'a batlery of artillery, waa or- 
dered lo proceed southward and Join Wool 
In Chlbuo'^— '"'" -•--■- * ■■ ■ 

Ss^lSIB? .-, 

the Brailto, an arm of Ibe Rio Grande. 
Here they were aurprlsed by Gen, Ponce de 
Leon ivlth 1.220 Ueilcana. of whom 037 
were well mounted and eqalpped. Tbe aa- 
aa Hants were ntierly routed, wllh heavr 
loaa. Including Gen. Ponce de Leon, while 
the American loss waa only seven men 

Bruos Blvn, explorationB of, referred 

Miniaters of, received, 949. 
Postal arrangements with, 2412. 
Treaty with, 988, 991, 2B86. 
VesselB of— 
Application for rights, 621. 
Discriminatiug duties on, enapend- 
ed, e06. 
Bravet Oommlaaiona. (See Army.) 
Breweries. (See Liquors — Malt, Vinous 

and Distilled.) 

b7 corporatio 
Proposed extraditional offense, 6791. 
Severer laws advocated, 6917. 

Construction of, over navigable wa- 
ters, 4303. 
Referred to, 1171, 1257. 
Brtdgewater, Tbe, correspondence re- 
garding case of, transmitted, 5396. 
Briar OrMk (Oa.), Battlo of.— Harch 3, 
1TT9, Geo. Lincoln sent a detachment at 
bla army, consisting of 1,G00 North Caro- 
lina mllltla and some Georgia Contlneniala 
Qoder Gen. Aahe, to the Junction of Brier 
Creek wllh the Sarannnh Itlver. In this 

foBlilon thev were attacked by Llent.-Col. 
'revoat with aome 2.000 men and com- 
pletely routed. Gen. Elbert Cot. Mclntoah, 
aeveral other offlccra, and nearly 200 men 
were capiured. Nearly an equal number 
are aupposed to have been killed In action 
— — . dealh In their Qlgbt Ihrougb Ibe 


with I 

(Ion of 400 or BOO, rellred to their bomeB. 
Tbe Brillab loss waa only sixteen killed 

and wounded. 

Brlflcoe ▼>. Bank of Oonunonwesltlt of 
Kentncky. — a suit brought by tbe Bank 
of tbe Commonwealth of Kentnck; agalnat 
Brlacoe et al. as holders of a pramlsBory 
note for wblch the notes of the Itank bad 
l»een given aa a loan to (be drawera of the 
note. The detendBnlB claimed that tbeir 

_llon which forbids Suies Ib- 
aulog such blllB. Tbe circuit court and Ibe 
court of appeals of Kentucky gave Judgment 
for the bank on the ground ihal thf --■' 
locorporatlnic the Bank of tbe ~ 
wealth of Kentucky waa conBlItu;.^^.. ~^m 
that the notes iHHued were not bills of credit 
within the meaning of tbe Katlonal Consti- 
tution. Tlie Snpreme Court In 1B37 decided 
the case In favor of tbe bank, the notea not 

d blllB ot credit. 


Encyclopedic Index 

Bilitow SUtloa (Ta.), BktUs of.— 
BM>k«'B and HelDtielmiD'i dlvlaloiu of 
HcCtellan'B armj had been aeut to cela- 
forc* Pope, Vbo lud ukeo a. pasltlan west 
of the Rapitabsnoack. Stauewntl jBCfaaon 
made ■ forced marcli from the Sliennndoati 
Taller t>r WI7 ot Tharoughfare Gap and 

KislDjE by the battleflpid of Bull Bun, Ang. 
1882 destrOTed Popeii Blorea at Brla- 
tow Station, and tbea advanced to Msdos- 
aaa. Booker'fl dlflalan fb» n«il da; cnme 
npon tbe Confederates nnder Ewell at Brls- 
(oar Station and drove them from tbe Held. 
Eacti aide aalTered a loaa of about 300 men. 
British America: 
Commereial relationa with, 1130,1131. 
ConBul-general of United States to, 

MTOBt of, referred to, 3399. 
InaniTection in Bed Kivei Bettlement 

referred to, 4001. 
Uilitaxj expedition against, procla- 
matioa regarding, 3631. 
DiaevBsed, 3655. 
BeeiprocitT relationa with, referred 
to, 3665. 
Troatjr regarding, not favorably 
considered br United States, 
Srlttah Oolonlat: 

Commereial relation! with, 652, S689, 

G748, 6332. 
Tariff laws of, evidence of modifica- 
tions of, proclaimed, 5688, 6381, 
Discoued, 5747. 
Stitlab Oolnmbla: 
Agent Bent to, referred to, 3068, 3072. 
Bonndarr line with Alaska. (See 
Brtttah I>eMs. (See Debts, British.) 
British Empire. — Tbe British Empire oc- 
enplea atwnt ODe-qaarter ot tbe known Biir- 
faee ot the globe, and Ita population ex- 
ceeds oDcquarter of the estimated number 
of the hOTiiBn raec. The total area Is dls- 
trlbnled almast equally over tbe Norlbcrn 
Blid Soothem Hemlspberes, but more than 
two-thirds lie In the EuUent and lesa than 
— ... — ._ ..._ n Hemlaphera. 

Btknooraplv- — By far tbe Kreater por- 
tion of in« Empire Ilea wKbln tbe temper- 
ate sones, the tropical areas being Boutb- 
cm iDdli, West and Centrsl Atrlcs, parts 
of the West Indies, Brltlib Oulana and 
Hondnraa. Northern Australia, Borneo, and 
thJe TBxIona aettlcmeota In the Malay Pen- 
_-._ -^'nuigj white population of 

wns slitj miniona, 

but pnrtly French, 

-, Tbe remaining — 

DdlUoni Inclnde 816 mllllana of the r 
races of India and Ceylon, forty million 
black races, six million Arabs, six million 
Uslays, a million Chinese, and a million 
Polrnealsns. with varlaua other elements, 
Inclndlns lOO.nOO Bed Indiana In Canada. 

Of the total nopniatlon over 210 mllKona 
are Hindus, 100 millions UnhammRdnaa, 
70 mllllona Chrlsttans (OS millions Protes- 
tanta, seven millions Catholics), twelve 
millions Bnddhlats. twelve millions Anl- 
mtstit fonr mllllona Slkhl, Jalna and 
Paraeea, 750,000 Jews, and the remainder 
FoIytbdvtB and Idol worahlppers. 

ContiiMnMl DlvlalDiu and 

121,090 <S,H«. 

121,012 46,878,500 

Stnili SettlenwDta ('^n^ 
Fctlented ' ' Mil'ay ' Bta'tM 

28,000 1,000000 
13,000 620.000 

3,187,860 S23,168A0O 

Union o[ South Africa (Pro- 
toiia ukd Cap* Town) . . 

Baoitolsnd (Mueru). 

BecfauanAland (Mafekuu) . 
Bwuilaud (MbabsDB). . . . , 

Bhodeaia (Saliabuiy} 

Giiml>iB {Bwhurat) 

Gold Cout (Accra) 

~ L Leona (Freetown) . . , 

70.000 8,100.000 

7s!ooo i2ej]00 

4aa|ooo i.7so!ooo 

4,000 148J100 

I20/W0 1,400,000 

Boutbern Nijnria (Lacoi 

Branaliland (llcrbets) 

Eut Africa Protectorate 


UmndB (Kampala) 

Zsnri'ar (Zanii b>) 

N'yaialBDd (DUnlyipl 

Euvpt (aw pp. 223-230). . . . 
SiidBn Provin™« {bm pp. 

231-Z34) 1 

Mauritius [Pott Loiiia) 

Soichelles (Vic ' ■ 
AacenaiDn {Geo 



Total, Africa, ate 3,618,245 46,468,160 

CiuiiKla(OttawB)..,.^..... 3,730,000 7,300,000 
183,000 240.000 

ir(8t. Johna) 

nenniids (HainiltpD) 

Britiab Honduiaa (Bclise). 

Qiud Total 13,133.713 434,680.860 

Qoremmtnt, — There b no fundamental 
law upon which the Coastitutlos of the 
Empire rests, but there are three main 
prlnclplea underlying Its sdmlslatratlon. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Biltlflli Empln— foxK""^' 
Tim., ■elf-gavernmeat. self-Hnpport, and 
■eif-aefpBce. Tbe flrst of tb»Be prlnclplea 
hull lieen nppllpd lor many yeerB, ODd 1h 
fullj developed in tbe CBse □[ CunadB, New- 
toundlund, AuBlrulIa, New Zeul^ad, and 
the UnlOQ o( Sonih Afrlcn. The Hepond 
principle 1b equally deye loped. Rlmost 
ever; unit belci flonnolally Belf-iupporiinE. 
The Ihlrd prloclple it of mudem grow'- 
and m&v be said to be the outcome of i 
Imperial (.■onferpnce, which has gradua , 
liecome recogDlced as the Cablaet of tha 

e of the 

domlntoii enact! a Uw wbleh la Kpatnant 
to an Imperial law alfectliu the domln- 
loh. It la lo the eilent to wbl^ It la repuK- 
caut abtolutelV void. (Be« A natra I Ib, Can- 
ada, etc.) The Imperial Domlnloaa may 
be divided Into vevenil claaaea. acoordlpcto 
the WIT In which tbey are goTemed : 
(a) Tboae havlag tesponilble Bovcrn- 

menlT or malDlT 

t Id Lonclfon (in' 1B87J of the Pre- 
" the various aelf-govenilng Do- 
■cnreBentlnK their eoontrlea at 
the celebrations of the Jubilee oC Queen 

mlera of < 

by the Prime Minister of the United Klng- 

jtHlcr.— HIb MoBt Excellent Uajeaty 
George the Firtb. by the Grace ot Ood 
King o( rtie United KllDgdoin of Great Brit- 
ain and Irolaad, and of the British Domln- 
loua beyond the Seas, Defeader of the 
Fallh, Emperor ot India. 

I/ciflilaturF.— The I'arl lament of the 
United Kingdom la Ibe supreme legislative 
aatborlly ol the Empire. TblB parliament 
baa, irlth the consent of the King-Emperor. 
delegated Ita legislative aulhority to other 

SrlUmests eoosdtuted by Itself, while re- 
ining a general supervlsloa of Imperlsl 
affairs throngb the medium of the Colonial 

. .e of the Privy Council, before whlcb 
appealB may be brought (In the form of • 
petition to the Crown) from Consular Courts 
and CoDrtB of Vli:e- Admiralty, and from tbe 
Courts of India and every British Domln- 

Deffnet. — The general defence of the Em- 
pire la undertaken by the Imperial Oovern- 
ment, aided In an Increasing degree by the 

EiTemments of India and the aelf-goTem- 
g DomlDloos (see Canada, Australia, 
New Zealand, and Bonth Africa). ""■- 

Out to tbe elected 

lb) ,_ 

latlve aasembly wholly or partly elected, 
and an eiecutfve council nominated by tbe 
Crown or the govemor representing the 
Crown ; — In this class may be placed the 

BabamSB. Barbadoes, Bermuda. British Gui- 
ana. Jamaica, Leemard iBlanda. HaurlUns, 
and UaltL 

Where there la government by a 


--.--^ . -J]l. Oam- 

hla. 8t, Vtnceat. Blerra Leone, Straits Set- 
tlements. Trinidad. 

(d) Wherein both legislative and eiecn- 
live powers are vested In tbe garenior 
alone:— In this cIbbb are Olbraliar. I^bnan. 
and 8t. Helena, where power Is alao re- 
•enred to the Crown to legislate br Order In 
Council. In Boutti Africa, Becbaanaland. 
Baautoland, and Znluland are governed In 
sabstentlally Ibe sams way, hot no power lj 
reserved to the Crown. 

(e) ProtectorateB.^The protectorates are 
countries whlcb. as regards their foreign 


"flrst line uf defence" is the Royal Navy 
<aee United Kingdom), the "second line'' 
being tbe Regular and Auxiliary troops of 
the British Army (see UnltMl Krngdam). 

being the Regular 

the British Army ( 

Tht VniUd KlRffiom.—Ttit 

recognlies certain great prlnplples. Includ- 
ing the fair admlnVst radon of lastlce. tbe 
prohibition of taxation without the consent 
of the people, and a limited monarchy, the 
power of tbe manarch belnx. In effect, 
wielded by a ministry supported by a ma- 
]ority of the Honse of Commona. The com- 
poncDt pnrts ot tbe British Government 
are the KIde : the Legislature (House of 
ind House of Commons) ; the ~ 
. Ministry appol ■ ■ 
eign and reaponslble t 
the Judicature. 

The /nrflon Eoinire.— India Is governed 
by tbe King as Emperor, acting on tbe 
advice of the Secretary of State for India, 
who Is assisted by a coancll whose mem- 
bers are appointed by the Secretary of 
Stnte. (See Indian Empire) 

Imptrial Dom^ntors.^All British domin- 
ions are subject (except as reaar'- ' — 
tlon) to the IPElBliitlon at tbe BrI' 
lltment, but no Act of Parllameni i 
a dominion DDleas that dominion li 
Cially mentioned. If the leglslatare 

of the BrillBh Par- 

the Bril..,„ .._...., 

Africa. Somali land. Nyasaland, Uganda, 
Swailland, and Nigeria, 

(t) Bpberes of InBuence. — A sphere of 
Influence tnay be described as an area where- 
in other Powers undertake not (o attempt 
to acquire Influence, or territory by treaty 

Bdueatlon. — Rdncatlonal aysteiDS on a 
more or less uniform plan, are deyeloped 
throughout the Empire under the control 
-' •'■- -'spectlve govemmenta University 

._jlly. These Rhodes acholarshlns are ten- 
able for three years, are of the annual 
value of SI, GOO. and are open to scholars 
of each Province of Canada, of each State 
of Australia, of New Zealand. Newfonnd- 
land, N'atal, Cape of Good Hope (4), Ja- 
mslra and Bermuda. (Facb State of the 
T'niled Stales has a stml'Br nomination, 
snd flfteen scbotarsblns of fl.SSO are In 
the nomination of tbe German Emperor.) 

Hittory. — The moat recent historical 
event ot Interest was the declaration of 
war against Germany, Aui 4. 181*, In sup- 
port of the neutrality of Belgium, throu^ 
which country Germany was aeiidlnK troops 
for an Invasion of France. 

BMpplno.—^a IBIS there were 11,444 ves- 
sela (over 100 tons) flying the British flag. 
ot which total 8,270 were registered In the 
TTnlled Kingdom and 2,1 6S ia other paru 
ot the Empire. , 

Toinu.-^Capltal, London (Kngland). 
Population (ISll), 4,S2S,BS1 (wtlh auburbs, 


At the Census of IBll there were M 
towns In tbe Brltlab Empire exceeding 100,- 
000 Inbabltanta. (See Great Britain.) 


Encychpfdic Index 

VKITSD S/VO£>Oir.— EDgland, Scotland, 
Intand uid Wales.— Tbe InbablUDts of ihe 
Ualted KinsdoiD ftre almoat en tt rely CIitIb- 
Uus, and malDl)' ProieatBuu, tbe tirep- 
tkxu belDK <l*e mlllloD Roman Cattiolics, 
ISO.OOO Jew*, and a unall number o( nan- 
Cknttlan ImmliranU. Tb« laognage of 
Um people la Bnglltb, with e larEs propor- 
tloa of Welsh-auaklng people [n Wales. 

Tbe climate of the British latea Is InBu' 

oF the auff Stream, 
iiie preTBiiiQS winaa cause a plentllnl rain- 
fall In tbe weBtem region, tbe aTerage fall 
belni blgbeat In Ireland. The Quit Sirtam, 
troD tlie Onlf of Mexico, in a belt of tem- 
perate water, which divides at the aoath- 
weiiern extremitj of Ireland and at the 
Land's End (Coruwall), the former current 
sklrtiDS (be Dortb of Scotland, and reunlt- 
tu with tbe BOnlbem arm In tbe Nortb Bea. 
tG> climate ot the British Isles Is thus 
warmer and far more equable ihan that of 
otber laiida between the saine parallels, and 
lu barbota are free from tee all tbe year 

AnaSq. Fcfialatlon 

IXdiioM and Cuutals Miles 1011 

bduidaiKlWiiksaAuloa) £8,321 Se^OTO.IM 

Scadand_^«Bbargb) 20,7ge 4.7eaMM 

lldud (DiiOUO) B2,S31 4J90,319 

Idawk. 303 148.eiE 

TttMl 130.963 4S.370.530 

(tocamment. — Tha Britlab Constitution ll 
mainly nnwrltten and customary, bat Ita 
dnehtpment la marked by certain ontstand- 
hw and tnndanienlBl laws, of wblcb the 
praidpal are Uagna Cbarta (I21S), tbe Ba- 
beaa torpua Act 11678), tbe Act ot Set- 
tlement (ITOl), (be Act ot Union with 
Bcctland {1707), tbe Act of Union with Ire- 
land (1800). and the Parliament Act 
(leil). The first secured annual partla- 
menti and the equal admlul titration of 
Jnillce; Ihe aecond established the liberty 
of tbe person : the third provided for the 
FroteaCant ancceulon to the tbrone ; the 
fonrtb and flfth created (be United King- 
dom ; and the last enabled tbe Commons to 
pan certain Acts without Che adherence 
of the other Chamber. The constituent 

Krts of (be British Constitution may be 
IS briefly described. 

The throne is hereditary In tbe English 
boDSS of aixe-Coburg-Qolba with mlicd "- 

the I 

■relgu I 

— — pedtlon presented by 

bolh Uousea of Parliament Tha High 
Court comprlBes the King's Bencb, Chan- 
cery, and Probate. Dlvotte and Admiralty 
DWlslona. Two Courts of Appeal hear ap- 
peals from these divisions, the ultlmale 
Court ot Appeal from all tbe courts In 
the United kingdom being the House of 

Iscots clill law, which la entirely dif- 
ferent from that of England, Is administered 
by the Court of SeaHlon, which Is a court 
of law and canity. The High Court of 
Juallclary la the supreme criminal court 
In Bcolland. It consists of all tbe judges, 
and aa a rule It la confined to the trial 
of serious cases. The Sberllf of each conniy 
Is Ihe proper criminal jodRC In all crimes 
occurring witbin the county which merit 
only an arbitrary punishment. (For the 
British Army, see Armlra ot the World : and 
for tbe Navy, Bee Navlps of tbe World). 

BducotlOB.— Elementary Education la 
compulsory tor all ctUdren between five 
and fourteen years of age, and Is provided 
free at Public Elementary Bcboola main- 
tained by Local Authorities and aided by 
Btste Grants. 

There are 18 Dnlveraltles In tbe United 
KluRdum, of wblcb 10 are In England, 4 
Id Scotland. 1 In Walea, and 3 In Ireland. 
Theae, with datea ot foundation, are Oi- 
Cambridge (1257), Durham 

(1831), London (1838), 
T,, — .^.v-n, (1000). 

HI, Bbptneld iiiru„., =uu ^, ,=,,„, 

, .J England; University ot Wales 

(18»3I, Id Wales; Bt. Andrews (14111, 
Glasgow (1450), Aberdeen (14941, 
Fdlnburgh (15821. It ~ ■ " 
lln I1G91I. National 

tal number of 

Sloyed In agriculture, 11,30 In commerce, 
.2 In conTeyance, 0.0 In mines and Quar- 
rlea. 7.89 In metals and machinery. 8.77 In 
building and construction, 6.92 In textile 
fabrics, and 7.23 In dress. 

Mann /adiires.— Tbe United Kingdom Im- 
ports annualiy (tor home consumption) 
about 2,000.000.000 lbs. ot cotton an<f 400.- 
000.000 to 450,000,000 Ibi. of wool (In addl- 
"-- '- 150,000,000 lbs. produced at bomt ' 

England and Waist. — The sontbem and 
larger portion of the Island ot Great Brit- 
ain, Is situated In western Europe, betwern 

"-- sides 

loiiiby the Eu»- 
- — ' -- A 

by the 

or Qennen Ocean, 

llsh Channel, ar. -_ „ 

George's Channel and the Irish Bea. 
leDKth measured on a meridian from uer- 
wick to St. Albln's Head. Is 385 mllet. 
Ita breadth, between Bt David's Head la 
South Wales and the Naie In Essex, Is 280 
miles. Weld was called by tbe early Ro- 
mens Britannlca Rerunda. It was brought 
under tbe domlninn of the Fngllsh by Kings 
Henry II. and Edward I. Tba Independence 
of Wales died with Prince Lleweltvn. who 
wa* murdered In 1283. In 13S4 Queen 
Eleanor gave birth to a son In raemarvan 
Castle, whom Kdward I., bla father, called 
Prince of Wales. This title bas ever since 
been gtven to the beir snparent to tbe 
throne ot Great Britain. Walea waa Incoty 
porated with England bj an act of ^jUa- 
ment In 1536. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

aln. b 

_.ii and Ireland. It Is bounded 

b; tlie AtlaDtte Oceui on tbe north, west 
•Dd wratti and on tbe east by Great BriUln, 

61* 26' to OS" 21' north, and fron. ___ 
S* 23* to Kr 28' west. Tbe leadlos < 
cnpatloD 1> agTlrnlture, and tbe chietw-- 

splrlts. etc. 

■nd ft Chief Secrefarj In Parllameiit 

■iBtlng of 172 meiDbera, appolnta twenty. 
eight representatlTe peers to alt In the 
Hddw ot Lords. The conntrr la dlTld«l 
Into (oar nroTlnce* Olater, Mnnater, Lehi- 
T and ConDanBht. By the Local QoTem- 
-' • -' * ■"" '" — oTlslon waa made for 

old jrand Juries and prescnimcnt aeaslona. 
Tbe principal oltles are Dnblln. Belfast, 
Cork. Limerick, Londondprry and Walprford. 
TbeM haTB Boroagh Counclla. Women are 
eligible tor election in boroagh and county 

Tnie iBtth the UnlUd Slolw.— The »alne 
of mercbandlBe Imported Into trie Dulled 
Kingdom from tbe T^nlted Statea for the 
Tear ol 1913 was SBOT.lie.OSS, and gooda 
to tbe vilne of t2»B.Dn4,II40, were sent 
tblther — a balance of 1301,084.119 in faror 
or the United States. 
BiitUh EmplM. (See Great Britain.) 
Biltlsb Onlana: 
Botind&rr diBPote tietween Great Brit- 
ain and Venamela regarding, di»- 
euBBed, G204, S471, 5616, ES73, 
695S, S064, 6087, 6154. 
Arbitration of, diaenssed, 6337,6380. 
Becommended b; President Cleve- 
land, 6064. 
Treaty for, 6154. 
Monroe doctrine reasserted and at- 
titude of United Btatea respect- 
ing, disctiBsed by President Cleve- 
land, 6064, 6087. 
Tariff lawa of, evidence of modiflea- 
tiona of, proclaimed, 56S8, 6381. 
DiaeuBsed, 5747. 
Brltlsli Hndsons Bay Oo. (See End- 
sons Bay Co.) 
Bzitlsb KortlL Amarlcft. (See Britlali 

BritlBh North American FislurlM. (See 

Britlali Wait Indies: 

Employment of coiared laborers from 

United Statea In, 2678, 2Q83. 
Tariff laws of, evidence of modifica- 
tions of, proclaimed, 668S. 
DiacQued, 5747. 
Teseels from Trinidad, tonnage dn^ 
on, suspended, 4889. 
Br04d Seal War.— Tbe clerk of Middlasez 
County, N. J., tbrew ont the vote of Sooth 
Anboy tn tbe ConsresBloDal election of 1838 
on account of defects In tbe retTims. The 
Pimociata protested, bot the Whig repre- 

■entatlves were declared eleeted and Kfroi 
certlflcatea under the broad seal oi tbe 
aute. When Consresa met, Dec. 2, 1889, 
the Hooge contained 119 Democrats and 
118 Whig* outside of the New Jersey con- 
testants. Tbe Clerk of the Bouee refused 
to recognlie the New Jersey WhLgs. Qreat 
confusion followed. Dec. Jofin Qulncy 
Adams was elected Bpesker pro tempore. 
Dec. IT, after mucb wrBuKlIng, R. 11. T. 
Hooter, of Virginia, was elected Speaker. 
The Democratic conteatsnts were flnaily 

Brookljrn (IT. T.), Battle of.-^niy 2, 
1TT6, Oen. Howe arrlTed from Halifax and 
took posseaaloD ol Btaten Island, N. T. 
He was soon Joined by Sir Henry Clinton 
from the aoalh and Admiral Lord Howe, 
bis brother, from England, with • fleet and 
a large land force. By Aug. 1, arrivals 
of Hessian troops bad fnereaaed tbe force 
under Howe to nearly 80,0(M). Gen. Charles 
Lee entered New York tbe same day that 
Clinton arrived at Sandy Hook. Vaah- 
Ington placed Boston In a stale ot secnrlly 
snd proceeded to tbe Hlghlanda of the 
Hudson. SO mltee above New York. Tba 
combiaed American forces numbered about 
IT. 000. uDder the immediate eomiusnd ot 
Sullivan, Stirling fSIr WlllUm Aleiander) 

inho had succeeded Lee), and Putnam, 
ug. 22, 1TT6, 10,000 men and 40 cannon 
were landed by tbe Britlah on Long Island 
between tbe present Fart HamllTon and 
Gravesend TlliBges. American troops to 
the number of STOOO nader Sullivan guard- 
ed a range of bills eitendlnc from The 
NarcowB to Jamaica village. On tbe mom- 
Ing of Aug. 27 a desperate battle was 
fought. StlrlloK was taken prisoner and 
SumTsa waa forced to surrender. The 

was 867 killed, wounded, and taken prls- 
onera. Putnam'a dlTlslon of tbe army was 
Bllently withdrawn by Waablnrton under 
cover of a fog on the night of tbe 29th. 
Brooklyn, Tlie, mentioned, 6317. 
Brooklyn, N. T,, site for dry dock ai, 

Brotbar Jonathan. — A genertl name ap- 
plied to the people ot the Vnlted Statesi 
Its origin 1* said to be ■* fonows: Oenerat 
Waablngton found aoon after having taken 
command of tbe Continental army tliat It 
was sadly In need of many artlelea. Jona- 
than Trumbull, the elder, st that time 
Governor o( Connecticut, was a friend of 
Waablngton and one In whose Jutement 
Washington bad great conBdence. Daring 
a consultation on tbe atate of tbe army, 
WaabJugton suintested that tbey consult 
"Brother Jonathan." meaning Trumbull. 
This advice was followed, and Trumbull 
devised tbe means of procuring what was 
desired. The story wsB told In tbe army, 
and tbe reply to a demand for any artlde 
wBs Invarfabl* advice to aak^^Brotber 
Jonathan." Tbe phrase became prorarblat 
and has lived to tbe present time. 
Brown's InsurtectloiL— During tbe year 
1859 John Brown, with a tew companloniL 
rented a farm In Maryland, near HaTpeis 
Ferry, Va. (now W. Va.). to which he 
■muggled arma. Be had designed a plas 
for tbe seizure of tbe United States armnry 
at Harpers Ferry In which over 100.000 
stand of small arms were stored. Ble ob- 

S^ct wna to free tbe neero slaves. Sun- 
ay evening, Oct. 16, 18S9. Brown, with 
a force ot 22 men, seised the armory. 
The telegrsph wires were cnt, trains were 
stopped, and about 60 prisoners taken. It 
was said ha Intended after taking the aztt- 



Encyclopedic Index 

Brawn's In wiwct loa — Contttivrd. 
orj lo flee lo the mouDtAins, wbere he ex- 
pected to be Joined b; (be negroeB. nbo 
were to rlw bdiI flghl under nia leader- 
Bblp. BrowD abaodoDed tbls plan, boir- 
CTrr, aad remained at tbe Ferrr. Tbe 
mllltla VBB BummoEied and aurroanded him, 
>Dd, together vlth aome marloei anil artil- 
lery, capturvd bJm and hla party after a 
desperate flgbt. la wblcb be «aa nouDd«d. 
John Brown was tried, iras eoDdemoed to 
death, BDd od Dec 2 wai executed bj hnng- 
Ing. ThU laeldeut created tremendouB ei- 
dtemeot and iDleoalBed tbe growing bitter- 
nen between the Nortb and tbe South. 
Prealdent BucbaoBD. In bin annmil ihph- 
aage, December, 185B, reterr?d 
Anrrer^an *■ ''the recent sa^ 

t Harpera Ferry, 

<MiclL), Battle of —Id July, 
1812, Governor Hetga, of Ohio, bcdI Capt. 
Binah with men, cattle, and proTlsiona to 
Ibe relief of Oeneral HutL who had croaied 
tbe Detroit BlTer Into Canada, Leamlog 
tbal a body □( British and Indians were 
IrlDK In wait at Brownstowo, at tbe month 
of the BnroD EWer, to Intprcept bU snp- 

Bllcfl, Ball sent Ua}or Thomas B. Van 
ame with 200 men from b'lndlays Oblo 
regiment to act as an eacort from the 

aod blood; 

Eoorces Blier .._ . . 

BrownstowD Aug- 5 when It found Itself 
Id bd ambdBb and almost surrounded by 
Indians under Tecnmseh. The party re- 
treated In disorder with Iobb. having been 
panned part of the way by the Indians. 
BnnmsvUle.— On the nlgbt of Aug. lS-14. 
190e, a riot occurred In Brownsville, Teiaa, 
In which one citlien was killed and another 
wounded and the chief of police Berlously 
Injnred. (Page T338.J Bitter feellngi had 


lie and tbe soldiera of the Twen^-fittb 

Jcoloredl, who were stationed l. 

Fort Brows. According to the theory of 

r of War, from 
nen from a battalion of ITO loi 
ef revenge npon ~ ' " 

( of the 

.. fancied slight. About 

mldnlKht they secretly left the barrack! 
and nred throngh certain houses of the 
town, with the result noted above. An Id- 
veatlgatloD was at once begun by the In- 
spector-general, who reported that he waa 
nnahla to obtain any evidence from the 
that they bad any knowledge of tbo 


e ground 

honor" the entire battalion, 
that there bad been formed 
of alienee" to protect tbe offenders. '(Fbrs 
7S2S.) He aaaumed that It was ImposslMe 
that aneh an affray should have happened 
without the knowledgs of a part or all of 
the batUIlon. This action of the Freal- 
dent was severely criticised by blB oppo- 
ncnta, and the Beuate passed resolutions 
calling for all the facts la the cb» n>Ti. 
atar (jodse defended the Prealdeni 
Feb. 25. 1D08. a committee of tb 
aftar Inveetlgatlon, reported i 

"abootlng np of Brownsville waa _„ 

"some (7 the soldiers of the Twenty-flfth 
Intantry." (Page 784T.) The action of 
the Prealdent waa Dot paased anon. Two 
reaolntlona wcr« introduced In tbe Senate 
— one to reatoTG the discharged soldiers with 
luck pay, and the other, anthorlied by tbe 
Prealdent. permitting tbe re-enllBtment of 
mch as coifld satlafaetorlly show the Pres- 
ident that they had Dot participated In, 
and had no gDlltv knowledge of, the sboot- 
lac tn Brownarltla. 


aothorlty II 

denounced a bill to compel the President 
to reinstate the discharged soldiers aa an 
anconstltntlonal usurpation of eiecotive au- 

Ju^ Hough, of tbe United States Clr- 
cnlt Surt for New York, on May IS. 1908, 
decided In tbe case of Oacar M. Reld. one 
of tbe discharged soldiers, that the Preal- 
•"""•■- --•'-- -aa legal, and that the 
r was found In the articles 

,- Ion waa broogbt under an 

act which allows the Government to be 
sued Id certain casen. and was to recover 
the pay and emotumentE accTuIng from tbe 
date of his discharge to tbe end of hia 
enlistment. Tbe esse was appealed to the 
Bo pre me Court. 

BrtmnsvlUe, Tax., bloctcKde of port of, 

removed hy proclamation, 3417. 
Brunswick Harbor, Qa., improTement 

of, referred to, 14B6. 
Bnuaelo, Belgium: 

International congress Kt, for aboli- 
tion of African slave trade, 6471, 
International Exhibition of Setances 
and Industry at, 5187, 5399. 
Seport of CommiisionerB to, re- 
ferred to, 6400. 
International Monetary Conference 
St, in 1S92, G752. 
Postponement of, discussed, 68T0. 
Be ports of, transmitted, 5784. 
TTniveraal Exposition at, American 
exbtbits at, diseoBaed, 6324. 
Buchanan, James.— 1857-1861. 
Eighteenth Admtnlstratlon^Democratle. 
nce-Preatd fnl—Joha C. BrccUnrldga. 
iSecreloru of State — 
Lewis Cass. 
Jeremiah B. Black, 
Becrelarv of the rreasari"— 

John A 


" " "Johi B. Floyd, 

Joseph Halt. 
Beoretarv of 1/ie Xavy— 

Isaac Toucey. 
Becretarii of (ha fnteriOr — 

Jacob Thompson. 
Po»(fBa»(er Gene™ I— 

Joseph Holt. 

Senate. in ridge 

-. ClDcInoatl, June 2-0. 1S5S. nomin- 
ated him for President and John C. Breck- 
■--■'- ■-■ — President Pierce, Douglas, 

taken, Bncbanan always led. 

Platform. — The platform reiterated many 
of tbe elementa of the platforms of IB40 and 
1844. Including soch topics as the public 
lands : opiKiaIng the national banlt : advocat- 
ing the auh-tresBury system : supporting the 
veto power: and objecting to further re- 
strictions upon nainrallzBtlon, To these 
were added. In 185S, sections denonnelng 
opposition to Catholic* ; contending for State 
authority only on the alavery qneatloii aU! 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Bnchanan, Jubm— CanHiHwtf. 
gon-lnlerlercDce b; Congreu Id tbli matter; 
■upporiLng Ibe comprumlsea of 1850: glTlns 
cmpIiBIIc HDnouQcement to S'stet RrgbtB : 
■upporilng (he Monroe Doctrine: adyocating 
tbe eBtabliabmeDt. by guvcmment aid, ot 
good ron-munlcBtlon between tbe Atlantic 
and PadQi^ coaalBi aod endorsliiK the Sd- 
m Id I St re lion o( President I'lerce. 

OppotltlOTi. — Tbe AmerleaD (Know Kolh' 


Held a 


I b» 

a of tbe r 

Amerkao-boni cItlienB ; refusi.. „ 

offlre-lialdlnE rlgbts to any wlio recognized 
allegiance to foreign poCentatcB: raislos tbe 
period ot realdeuce quaiia^atlon for Dalurall- 
■atJoD to tweniT-one Tears : opposlDi any 
Dnlon between Churcb and Statics ; enforce- 
ment of all laws. Tbe Itepabllcsn National 
Conientlon. held at I'blladelphla. June IT, 
1858. nominated John f. Fremont and Will- 
lam L. Dayton on a platform npholdlng tbe 

'— -•- - — - "--' -1 the Conatltn- 

iroblbilloD by 
8 of polygamy 

,. .._. ihel "migl 

..„_ , [lively demanding _ 

tranBcaDtlnrntBl railrond : ecknowlt^slng (he 
conatltutlonallty of tbe lotirnitl Improvo- 
menta policy. The Whig National Conven- 
tion, held at Baltimore. Sept. 17-18, ISSe. 
endoTECd the nomlnatloCB of FlMmore and 
Donelson, made by the American partv on a 
-'-■■■ -nnooncing adlic: '" 

time n'hlg doclrlocs; denounclbt: Bectlonal 
aatagoDlsm and the forniallon of geograpli- 
leal parties: and endorsing tbe admlnlstra- 

cieciorHi Yuie (-uuuieu rcn. Li. ± , _.. r_ 

Bachanan, 1T4 ; FremoDt, 114; and FUl- 

Partv Afilllatlon. — In bis early career, Bn- 
chanan sided with (he FederallaK In disap- 
proving of the War of 1812. Yet be felt 
It a patriot's duty always to defend bis 
country, aod apoke of the war as "glorious 
bi the highest degree to (he American char- 
— •— '■ni diBgrr— '■■' '- ■'■- — •- ••■- 

I DDderwent a 

inaa a political 
In (Sngress, 

_f the Demo _ . . 

friends of tbe administration who railed 
tbemselves National Rep uhl leans i and be 
was always a lealoaa aupportec of GfDetal 

PoUliral Complrxion of Ootiare»».—lji the 
Thirty flf (li rongresH tl8B7-18r>B) the Senate 
ot afity-four members was compoft-d of 
thirty-nine Democrats, twenty Republicans. 
and Ave Americana; aod tie House of 237 
membem was made np of 131 Democrats, 
Olncly-two HcpnbllcaD», and fonrtccB Amer!- 
rans. Id tbe Tblrty-alith Congreis (1869- 
1811) (he Kena(e ol slity-ali members waa 
rompo<ied of tblrty-elgbt Democrats. tweDty- 
sli Republicans, acd two Americans; And 
the ITouM of 237 members was made Dp of 
101 tlenincrats. Ii:t RepnbUcans, and twea- 
tT-tbree Independents. 

■_ ^, < .... ,_ p,^|. 

a beyond all qnes- 

ongh( to be collected from tbe people rhan 
the amount ne<iiKiuir» to defray the eineDses 
rat. and efficient admlnls- 

dent Bur 

for the parpo*e of beaefltlng faTored mt- 
pomtlODS. Individuals or Interests woDid 
bare been uDlusC to the rea( ot the com- 
munltv and Inconalstent with (ba( spirit 
of falrneaa and equality whkb ought to 
govern Id tbe adjustment of a reTenae 
tariff." In his Kecoad Annnal Ueasage 
(page 3052) In dlBcussIng tbe aort of duties, 
lie said : "Id regard (o the mode of assess- 
Ing and coUectlng duties under a airlctly 
revenue tarllT, I Dave Ions entertained aod 
eipreaaed the opinion Ibat aoDBd policy re- 

Snlres tbat tbia ahould be done by spedlle 
ullea In cases to wblcb these can be prop- 
erly applied. . . . The present ajrsteia 
is a sliding scale to bis (the nuDufactDrer'a) 
disadvantage. Under It. wheu prleea are 
hlgb and business proaperous. (he dntles rlaa 
Id anioun( when be least reqalres tbelc aid- 
On the contrary, when prices fall and he !■ 
straggling a^alDat adverrity. tbe dotles are 
diminished In tbe aame nroporllon, greatly 
to blB Injury." In bla Fourth AddqbI Mea- 
aage (page 3183) on the same subject, be 
aaid : "An ImpressloD strangely enoDaU 
prevails to lome extent that speclfle dudes 
are necessarily protective dutlea Nothing 
can he more faiiacloaa. Great Britain glorlea 
Id tree trnde, and yet her whole rerenue 
from Imports Is at the present moment col- 
lected under a system ot apeclQc dutlea." 
Foreign PoUcy. — Domestic atTalra were 
so disturbed during President BuchankD'a 

Inangural i 
dent --'— 

of t. V - 

conducted by purchase or by tbe ToluDtary 
Impulae of the people, never by eonqueat. — 
even In the caae ot Mexico, after the war. 

state, but a fair price was paid to her for 
tbe ceded tecrltoi?. In lils Second Annaai 
Address (page 30:17) he announces the con- 
clusion or tbe Perry treaty with Japan. In 
tbe same message be dlseuBBea the dllter- 
encea with Great Britain, conditions which 
led to the settlement by President Bncbaoan 
of tbe long standing "right of aearcb." 

InUmat /mprofcmenl*.— Id *e(olng "An 
act making an appropriation for deepening 
the channel over the St. Clair flats. In the 
State of MIchlKan," the President In hia 
Veto Message (page 8130) clearly expresses 
his yiews upon the qnestlon r "What n v«« 
flcid woold tbe exercise of this power open 
for Jobbing and corruption I Uember* at 
Congress from sd honest desire to promote 
the Inlerest ot tbelr constltDents wonid 
struggle for Improvements within their OWD 
districts, and tbe body Itself mnat neee*- 
aarlly be converted Into an areDB wtierr each 
would endeavor to obtain from the Treasory 
as much money aa possible for hIa own 
locality. The temptation wonld prove Irte- 
siBtlble. A Byslem of 'log-rolllnr )I know 
no word ao expressive) would be lDai)gDr- 
aled ander whieb the Treasury wonld^ be 
exhausted and tbe Federal Oovemment 
would be deprived ot the means necessary 
to execute these great powers clearly con- 
flded to I( by the Constrtutlon for tbe pur- 
pose of promoting the Interests asd tukU- 
callng the honor of tbe conn try." 

Blavtrv- — In his Inaugural Addreaa (pan 
2902) President Buchanan treats the whole 
question of slavery as being settled by the 
regulations of Congress. "The whole Ter- 
ritorial guesdon," he aaya. "being thns set- 
tled upon the principle of popular Boverelgn- 
ty — a principle as ancient as free goven- 
ment Itself — everything of a practical nalnre 
baa been decided." This la the keynote (o 
all of the Presldi'nt's acts In connection with 
this aahject. The onus rested noon Con- 

teas, and It was for bim to carry out tbe 
wa wbldi CoBKKM Iwd mad* ob tb* Mb- 


Encyclopedie Index 


EandB of the pro»l«vecj p«riy, 

■Dd the PrrcldFor'a conduct 1q raianlat 
tbe Uws (orinulated br tbem nutde It appear 
■I tboash tie CDdorsed ihelr pollcf. Presl- 
drnt BucbanaD was oppowd to slaTarr ; bla 
mena|«a teem with aaggcRtlnna tor coDoll- 
latorr meamrm; hat h» did object to the 

._.„» -J -naympathpIEc abolltlaDlalf 

' other Statea. He aajs 

Bat thla queatlon of ia- 

r la of far Kraver Importance 


t bla 


In bla Third Aaoual Qea- 

aace fpase S084) the President Tnakea an 
latpaaalosed appeal to bla countrrmeD to 
"nliliate tbe aocleot feellnKs of muiital 
tartwaTWiice and sood will toward each oibrr 
wid ilrlva to allaj the demoa aplrlt of aec- 
tloDal hatred and atrllg now allre In the 
land." While ha wnnia the people of (te 
danier of dlaraptloD of the union, whkb 
he profHsea to bellcTe Impoaalble. ret the 
happenlnca at Barper'a Ferry aerre a« (he 
teit tor ft IcaaoD of what mar happen. In 
Ua Fonrth Annnal Ueaaaae (paae 815T] 
the Prealdent annoaaeea that "The long- 
foatlnned and Intemperate laterfereoce of 
the Northern oeople with the queatlon of 
alamr Id the Soathern Btatea has at lenKth 
prodaeed tta nataral effect. The dllTerent 
•epthma of the Union are now arrared 
acalnat each olber. and the lime haa ar- 
riTed. ao maeh dreaded bj the Father of bla 
Conntrr. when hoatUe KeoKraphl<vl partlpa 
tare been formed. - . . How eaar woold 
It be for the American people to aetlle Ibe 
ilarerr queatlon forever and to restore peace 
and harmonr to tbla diatraeted ronntrr t 
Tber. and tber alone, can do It. All that la 
neceaaary to areompllab the obj^t. and all 
for whtcb the atave State* bave eTrr con- 
tended, la to be let alone and permitted to 
manaie their domeatle batltntlona In their 
own way. Aa aoTprelirn Statea. they, and 
Ibey alone, are rraponilble before God and 
the world (or the alaverr eilstlnn among 
Ibem. For thla the people of the North 
are not more reaiionatble and ha*e no more 
Tifht to lulerfere (ban with almtlar Insdta- 

.. — — D 1. .. n- Bpeaklnn of 

. and duty tn 

_, "After all. be la no 

DMre than the Thief RireDtlve of tbe Got- 
ernmeot. Bla proTlnce la not to make but 
to execute lawa." Foltowtns Bondi Cam- 
llna'a ordinance ol aeceaalon of Dec. 20. 
IBAO. the Prealdent In a apeclal meeaage ti 
e 818«) dlamaaed **•- -'-*• 

Admiaaion of statea dlacnsted and 

iMOHnnrndations of, regarding, 

S033, 30S4. 
AhutisI mcMagei of, 8067, 3028, 3083, 

Biographical aketch of, 2960. 
Canatitntional amendment tegKt&ing 

■laTerj, recommended bjr, 3169. 
Correapondenee of, while minister at 

8t Peterabnrg, referred to, 3967. 
CnmpoDdenea of, witli I^wia Caaa, 

nfarrcd t«, 3964. 

Cnba, aeqaiattlon of, diseiuied bjr, 
3040, 3066. 

Recommended bj, 3041, 3092, 3173. 
Death of, announced and bonora to be 

paid memory of, 3S62, 3863. 
Dutiea on veaaela of Ital^ suapended 

by proclamation, 2824, 
Financea diacuaaed by, 2967, 2968, 

3019, 9052, 3073, 3104, 3179. 
Foreign policy diacuaaed by, 2986, 

2998, 3037, 3041, 3066, 3039, 3092, 

3173, 3177. 
Inatructiona to, while mini iter to 

England, regarding free ships, etc., 

referred to, 2910. 
Internal improvements diacnssed by, 

Monroe doctrine leaaserted by, 3043, 

OfBeial condoct of, investigated, 3145, 

31 SO. 
"Pocket vetoes of," 3073, 3180, 3138. 
Portrait of, 2960, 
Powers of Federal and atate govem- 

menta diacasaed by, 2962, 2981, 

3028, 3074, 3084, 3130, 313B, 3145, 

3150, 3157, 3168, 3186. 
Proclanationa of — 

Dtities on veaaela of Italy aiiB- 

pended, 3022. 
Extraordinary Besaioii of Senate, to 
act npon Executive commoniea- 
tions, 3026, 3081, 3156, 3203. 
Military expedition to Nicaragua, 

Bebellion in Utah, 8024. 
Protests of, against proeedlngi of 
fionee of Bepreaentatives, 3145, 
Seceasinn diacnssed by, 3159, 3186. 
Secretary of State, 2319. 
Slavery disensBed by, 2962, 2981, 3028, 

3084, 3157, 3186. 
Btate of the Union diaeuBaed by, 
2967, 3028, 30S1, 3063, 3157, 3192, 
Tariff diaenaaed by, 2964, 3052, 3181. 
Time allowed Pieeident for consid- 
eration of bills discnsmd by, 2093, 
Veto messages of — 

Deepening channel over Bt. Clair 
Flats, reasons for applying 
pocket veto, 3130. 
Donating lands for benefit of agri- 
cultural colleges, 3074. 
Belief of— 

Edwards & Co., 313S. 
Ho chad ay & L«ggit, 3201. 
Bemoval of obstructions in Uissis- 
aippi Biver, reasons for applying 
pocket veto, 313S. 
Seeoring bomesteada to aettlen, 


Messages attd Papers of the Presidents 


BocbUUUI, JUUM — ConHnned. 

TruiBpoTtation of mail from St, 

Joseph, Mo., to Plaeerviile, Cal., 

leftBona for applying pocket veto, 


Bnck, The, Beizare of, and claims aris- 

iDK out of, 4114, 519S, &54T, SG73, 

5873, 5962. 

Award in case of, 5673. 

Bncki Stove Oase. — Id AuKoat, 1907, tbe 

Bucks Btove and Range Companj- of Bt 

Lonli brougbt proceedlogB In tbe Sapreme 

Coort of tbe District of ColTiinbIa anlnat 

the olOcerB of Ibe American Kederalion of 

Labor to enjoin Ibem from eooducilng > 

boycott agalnvt tbe codipbdt by advprtlslng 

tbat tbe concern wbi on tbe ''unfair" aDd 

"We-don't-pa(roDln" Uata pnbllabed In tbe 

federation* offltlal ornn, 

Bdced for waa taaoedliT Judge G 

23, leOT. On tbe plea IbsC [be (ei 

Judge Gould Dec. 

, It tbe terms of the 

Injunction were being Tlolsled proceedinga 
for contempt of caarl: .were broogbl against 
Bamnel Gompe™, preeldeQt of ihe American 
Federation of Laoor ; Jolin Mltubell. Tlce- 

Srealdent ; and Frank Morrlsoa. sccretar;. 
astlce WrlgbC, of the Snprcme Coort of 
tbe DIatrlct of Columbia, before vhnm the 
caae waa tried, decided Dec. 23. 190S. tbat 
Ibe defendanla were guilt;. Mr. <;ompcrs 
wai a^teuced to^ one year's [mprlsoameot. 


ipt. wblcb could be 
Tbe sentence o( t 

ImprlBonment was tbe penalty for criminal 
contemcit. and therefore It was not a legal 

tuulahmeni IQ tbl9 case. Tbe Sunreme Court 
cid Ibat the^publlahed^or apoHen 

I eked 1< 

?D joined 

1 theae 

eepied by tbe Wbli 

.._ big secrelRry of Btad 

.. ',, the dnte for the meellni 

the legislature, nr " ' 

mU «t contestants 


Senate, which was Whig, m«t and ad- 
journed because of tbe mob. Two warrlnf 
bodies met Id tbe boaae (1TZ4, ITZG). The 
Wbig EOTernor called upon tbe mllltln 
■Dd tried wttbouc effect to obtain Ped- 
ural aid. The Democratic bouse waa wvn. 
aired Dee. 2S. A remark mad< 

oenlsed Dee. 25. A remark made during 
the height of the eicllement, tbat the moS 
would feel tbe effect of "bsll and bnckabot 
before nlgbt." gave the episode the name 
o( the Bucksbot Wsr. 
Bnckahot War, dooumentB regarding, 

transmitted, 1724, 1725. 
Bucktallfl.— A name applied to the Tam- 
many Society of New Tork City (mm the 
fact tbat the membera of tbe orsaalutlon 
wore buck's tails In their hs.ta as a badge 
Instead of a tcalber. Between 1S12 r ' 

J of Clinton's canal pol- 

icy from Its Inception In 18IT. and Ibe name 
waa later applied to all who opposed this 
policy tbronghoat the Slate. 
Bnena Vista (Uextco), Battle of.— After 
part of his army bad been sent to Gen. 
Scott, Gen. Taylor, with leas than 5,000 
men. moslly raw mllltla, was attacked at 
Buena Vista by BsDta Anna's army of 21,- 
(WO, Feb. 22, 1847. Taylor Intrenched 
blmeelf In Ibe pass of Angostnra. Id Ihe 
Sierra Madre Mouutalna, od the road lead- 
ing to Sao Luia Potosl. Tbe engagement 
began at 3 o'clock In the iftemoOD and 

pealed to tbo Coort of Appeals of tbe Dla. 
trlct of Cdumbla. Tbia tribunal In a deci- 
sion rendered Xot. 2, l&OO, affirmed the 
decree of tbe Snpreme Court of tbe Dislrlcl 
ot Colnmbla. An appeal was then taken 
to the Supreme Court of the fulled Sraiea. 
which on May ID, 1811. handed down a 
decision TCTeraing tbe Judgments ot tbe 
Court o( Appeals and tbe Supreme Court of 
tbe District oC Columbia, and remanding tbe 
case, with the direction tbat tbe cociempt 
proceedings tDStliuted by Ibe Bucks Slove 
and Range Company be dismissed, but with- 
out prejudice to tbe power and right ot the 
Bnpceme, Cpurl of the Dlst-'-' -• "-•■■-'■i- 

tbe opinion I'SsThatiiie proceedings brought 
against Ihe labor union officers waa for cWll 
_,.,_,. — ... V. 'abed only by 

combioatlon. and. as such, relinquishes Ibe 
rights of IndlTlduala. It also establlsbea 
tbe tart tbat legal prosecution could be 
levelled not only at the union itself, but at 
Ibe officers as well. (See also Boycott.] 
BnckallOt Wai,— The election In Philadel- 
phia Oct. 9, 1838, WBH of consiflerable im- 
portance becsuse noon It hinged the con- 
trol of tbe legislature wblrh wna to elect 

CTnClldaie'"W'oa defeated."' The Democralic 
return lodges thereupon cast out 5.000 
Whig votes, claiming fraud. The Whig 

Judges then issued cerllDcateB of electloa 
o toth their CoDgrr~- — ' -~- '--'-'- 

wouDded. PlehllDg was renewed at dawn 
of tbe 23d and conllnned ddiII sunset. Tbe 
Mexicans retired during the night to Ana 
Kueva. The American ioas In killed, 
wounded and missing amounted to 745 : that 
of Ibe Mexicans upward ot 2,000. Jeffer- 
son Dnvls Id this battle commanded a 
MiEBlaslppi regiment as Its coioaeL and 
saved the Brmy by reeeiving the charge 
of Ihe Mexican tancera. His troops were 
formed In ihe shape of a T. 
Buena VlBta, Mexico: 

Battle of, referred to, 238S. 

Mutiaj in camp of, referred to, 2443. 
Buenos ATres (see also Argentine Be- 

Convention with, ratified, 7672. 

Diplomatic relations with, diacnssed, 

Imprisonment of American cititena 
in, 632. 

Independence of, asserted, 612, 627. 

Kinister of United States in, retunu, 

Revolution in, 2702. 

War with Braiil— 

Peace concluded, 977. 

Questions between United States and 

Brazil growing out of, 929, 951, 

Buffalo (N. T.), Destmctlon of.— During 

the winter ot 1813 the British regained 

Forts George and Klagara. The British 

aad Indians, under tbe command of Ltent.- 

Oen. Drummond. MaJ.-Geo. Rlsll, and Col. 

Murray, overran and laid waste the Taller 

of the Niagara and preaaed bard upon Bnf- 

ffllo. Gen. Amos Hall aucceeded Oen. Uc- 

Clurc nt Buffalo Dec. 26. In the eommand 

of 2.000 badly organised American troops. 

On Ihe ni^bt Of Dec. 29 [Uall crofsed tM 


Encyclopedic Index 


Buffalo (K. T.>, Dttrtnctlon ot—Cont'd, 
itni at BImck Rock irlth 1,450 men. tarsely 
Ktnlan, and a bodr of lodlao*. At sTgtit 
of tb* enemr 800 of Hall'a troops deserted. 
Be, however, made a gallant defeoBe witb 
Ik* CbaDtaaqns troopi and CanBdiBD reCu- 
nea tintll he waa lorced to retreat, keep- 
bc the eDemr la check and cOYerlnt tie 
■lAt of the tDhabltanlB. The BrltlaC bdiI 
iDdlaiia took poaaeaalon of Buffalo and pro- 
ceeded to burn, pin ode r, and nuBsacre. 
Oalr 4 buildings were left Btandlns In the 
town and only 1 at Black Rock. 
Bnffklo, Pan-Americaik Expoiitioo &t, 

0382, 643fl. 
Buffalo Bxpoaltlon. (See Pau-Americaji 

H irtiiiiwj 4)id £oaa Asaodatlou. — Cor- 
poratloDB organUed ptlmarllr to enable 
peraona of limited tneau to aecnre homes, 
•nd. ■erondarlly, to enable mcb peraont to 
pat aalda a certain flied anm at stated 
laten^K wo that the Investment mt,f b« 
■ 1 the beglnnlnz 


the homfr-bnlldlng 

home-bujlng I 


jid, full-paid and permsnent shares are 
bj th« aaaoflatlon. pajable In full ot 
ly laTga part on subsrTlptlon. Special de- 
paalt* ID anr amount are rerelTeo. Share* 

BrtlT paid are broDgbt to their par Talua 
aMItiK to parmeots made dividends ap- 
portioned^ thereto. Special depoBlts are gen- 
erallr wlthdratrahla by tbe depositor at 
pleaanre. Installment share* and prepaid 
iharta rcinalB tn until they reach tbeir par 
nlne^ Full-paid abarea remain In a cer- 
tain flted tine. Permanent shares remain 
In until the dlssolutton of the corporation. 
Tbcae asaodatlons rame Into existence In 
Kngland nearlv 100 vears ago, but were not 
mad* the snbject of legislative enactment 
imtll 18SS. The first association estab- 
UAed tn the United BUtea waa the Oxford 
Provident Building Asaoctatlon, of Fraok- 
ford, Pa., ornnlsed In 1831. There are 
aerordtng to the offlclal report made to the 
National i.eagne of Building Aaaoclatlona. la 
1911, In the United States 6,860 assoda- 
tiona with aaaets of tail. 867.1 7B. The ea- 
tlmated membership Is 3.169,893. 
BaUdlns and lAan AnacUttong, raport 
i^tranamltted, 6909. 

of, vetoed, dis- 

BniUiiigBi Public: 
Acta for erection 

Arehiteeta for, antboritj for employ- 
ing referred to, 2954. 

At Waahington destroyed by Qreat 
Britain, E30. 

Commiaaion appointed to determine 
extant of aecurity of, against fire 
referred to, 4432, 

Conatmetion of — 
B«e<nnmended, 4577. 
Beferrvd to, 3S9, 438, 1463, 1911, 

Expenditnre* for, 085. 
Diaetuaed, 4197. 

Heating and ventilatisg referred to, 
3110, 3112L 

niastrationa of tbe principal govern- 
mental, and most important in 
Washington, D. C (See the frontis- 
pieeea of variooi Tolomes.) 

btproTament of, reeonunended, 831. 

Bnlgulft. — Bnlgatta I* an Independent 
kingdom In tbe northeast of tbe Balkan 
Fenlnsuta, bounded on the north by Ba- 
the Bouth by Torke; and the 

,.-rai]el with the Daoabe. about a. , 

miles (0 the north. The Hhodope mountains 
extend along the southern boundarr of East- 
ern BumeliB. The western portion of Bul- 
garia Isoccnpled bjeitenslve plateaus which 
conoeet the Balkan and Rhodqpe ranges. 

All the rivers of Nortbern Bulgaria rise 
In the Balkans and flow northwarfi Into the 
Danube, the fall being often preclpltona. 

Area Pcrnila- 

inSqvan tknia 

Mllea 1010 

4,670 951,900 

Kiustendil 1,826 Z31,5S3 

PIbvu 2.S67 Set368 

FhlUnxifK^ 8.007 447,300 

HnncEuL 3.04S 40«,30« 

ShumlL 231* 383,601 

Sofia. 8,73* 401,008 

Stara-Zicin. 4,00S 443,060 

Tiinovo 3,080 448.107 

Varna. 3,486 820,613 

Wdia 1,701 337,671 

Vratsa 3.660 312.460 

Total 87,303 4.337,6ie 

Bnlgarlan, a langoage of the Slavonic 
group. Is tbe national langnage, 

H&(orjF.— The Bolgarlan kingdom wa» 
orlglnallj foonded In the seventh century 
br an Incursion of Balaars acrois tbe Dan- 
ube, and their seltlemcnt In a district of 
the Boman (DTiantlne) Empire. At the 
close of the fonrleenth centnr; the kingdom 
fell under tbe swsy of tbe Turks, from 
whose dominion Bnlgarla was sepsrsted by 
the Treaties of San Stetano and Berlin 
(1878) after an armed revolt against 
Turkish misrule, many heroic engsgements 
marking the course ot tba stmgg^. Tbe 
Treat; of Berlin (Jnl? 13, 1878) created the 
PrlndpalltT of Bulgaria as a tributary 
Stat* ot the Turkish Empire. In 1880 
war broke ont between Bolgaria and her 
weatem Delghbor. the outcome of the Berro- 
Bulgarlan War being the political union 
of Bastera Rumelia and Bufgarla. 

Oct. 6. 1808. the prlnclpalltr of United 
Bulgaria was declared an Independent king- 
dom, and the present ruler declared blm- 
aelf Tsar (King) ot the Bulgarians. The 
Indepeadeoce was recognised bv all the Pow- 
ers, April 20-2D. 1800, tbe tribute to Turkey 
being cspltallsed and the annaal parments 
cancellHl. In 1012 Bulgsrla (In conjunc- 
tion with Servla. Uontenegro, and Qreece) 
declared war BKalnst the Ottoman Empire. 
The war was proaecnted with tbe utmost 
Tltcor and the town of Adrlanople and all 
Thrace to the Rnoa-Mldla line fell to the 
sharp ot Bulgaria at the Treaty of London 
of May 30, 1913, together with purls ot 
Macedoula to the west of Bulgaria- Bot 
the second war of Bulgaria against her 
former allies, who were sided by Rumauls, 
resulted In the treaty of Bucharest (Aug. 
0. lOlS). by wbleh Bnlgarla was abom of 
mnch of the westward eileasloo, and ceded 
a part ot her former territory to Rumania. 
Tnrkev alio took advantage of Bulgaria's 
dincoitles and reoceupled Adrlanople and 
tbe adjacent territory. (See also Balkan 
States and Bnropean War of 1014-16.) 

OODsntmenl. — A Constllntlonsi monarchy. 
hereditary In the male line ot a prince, 
"freely elected by tbe ponulatlon and con- 
firmed by the Sublime Porte with the as- 
sent of tbe Powers." The Conatliatlon 
was adopted April SO, 18T9. 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Htiler — Ferdloand I. fFetdlnend Uail- 
mlllaa Cliarin Leopold Marie. Duke of 8u- 
OD7) born at Tlenoa, Feb. ES. 1861. 

Tbe National AMembtT (ttobcaaje) P^n. 
•liti ol 213 reprowniatlTM (1 tor 20,i 

cbuk., and 

B (be Court of CassallOQ 
rm-ka. MiibBinnipai 

. epintuat courti ( 

II; lav and tbe law o( InherltancF. 

ScFTlce Id tbe Army Is anlvemal and 

compuliory o- -" — '-- ■— • ■*■- 

Ot 20 aod 4S. 

offlcers, B4.03, 

Army. 270.000; Territorial Army, B5.000. 

Produotion and Indiutry. — Over 70 p«f 
cent, of tbe popitlatloo lire by agrlcnltare. 
•Dd more tban one Ibird of tbe land li ua- 
der caltlTatloD. one-lblrd b«lDg woods and 

Id larm qnanlltlea from tbe rotr BeldB o( 
the abelterPd vatleya. Biilmrtan bomappuna 
knd embroidery are anrlvalled la tbeir ex- 
eeltenre but aalTer from tbe competltloD ot 
cheap and Inferior Imnorts from Rnrope. 

RdHuiaM.— In 1612 Itiere were 2.000 \ilo- 
niHrpB of railway oneo. all bclooElni to 
the Rtate, nltb 200 kllomeirei Dn£r con- 

Trade iHIA th« United gJnte*.— Tbe value 
of merpbandlse Importpd Into Bulla ria from 
the Tnlted Btates lor tbe year ini3 wia 
*103,T4e. and goods to the nine of S410.- 
037 were sent thltber— a balance ot 1336,- 
eoa In tayoi ot Bulgaria. 

Biplomatii; Tel&tioni witli, establiBh- 
ment of, TeeoRimaDded, 4759. 

Massacre by Turks in, referred to, 
Bon Bim <Va.), B&ttle of, or Tint Bat- 

tls of MlWIinilH — Per tbe doable purpoae 
Of menacing Washington and preTentIng 
■n fldTane* of the Federal troops Into Vlr- 
glnln. tbe Confederates diirlufc tbe ■nmmer 
of 1801 roltected a larjio body of troops In 
tb? TiclnHy of MnnaMis Junptlon. Va. 
The poHKlon wai 33 mllea sonthweiit of 
Wa»hln|rton. The troops here aiwembled 
Diimlierpd. lnctudln); nit repntorcements re- 
celvrd durlQK the bnttle, nbont 32,000. iiD- 
der roDiinniid of Qpn. Beauregnrd. Tbe 
senior nlBoer. Oen. J. E. Jobnnton. after 
biR nrrlvat on the Held, did not take tbe 
■ PtnnI rommand. Tbg aitgrentp force ot 
IJdIod anldlen In and around WsBblnRton 
wns 34.100 men. Both nrmles were com- 
noied montlT of nndlsplpllned Tolnnteers. 
Inly ia. ISfll, UaJ.-Gen. McDowell beRSn 
a geopral forward movement. Lieut. -Gen. 
Rpott adrlaed poHlpoDement uottt tbe forces 
should be tiettpr prepared for secvlM, 
but bis warning was dlerpgardnd The 
Federal army wna dlTided Into 5 dlTlslona. 
LeHTlng 6.700 men under Brig. -Gen. Run- 
yon to guard the approaches to Wasblng- 
toD, tbe other 4 dlTlnlons. aeKreeatlng 2H,- 
BOO men, under Brlgadlet-npnereln Tyler. 
Hunter. Hplnlielmno and MIlM, BdTaneed 
to Bull Bud, a tribiitnty of the Potomac 
Blver, about 80 miles from Wasblngton, 
OD the way to MnnasuB JuoetioD. Hunt- 
er's and Helntietman'B dlTlalons croBSed th« 
mj) July 21 and attacked the CoDfeder- 

Rt« left, slowly forcing It back. Beanre- 

vj o,vw uHTu uuuer juuuBiDD. WHO Dsa 
been pDcamped Id tbe Shenandoah Valley 
and whose junction with the main army It 
WBS thought would be prevenied by Oen. 
raHerHon. Tbe latter had been stsUoDed 
at UartlDBburg with 18.000 men. Be- 
tween 3 Bu<] 4 o'clock in tbe aflernooo, 
when everjlhing seemed faTorable to the 
Federals, the luiit 3.000 of Johnston's men, 
under Gen. Klrby Smith, arrlyed and fell 
upon tbe Federals, torclQK a retreat. This 
attack was followed by another by Early's 
brisade, and tbe Federnl retreat became a 
rout. Men threw away their arms and 
; artillery horses were cut from 
■ and KUDS abandoned OD the 
— ers. clvlllnns. and camp folIo<r> 
pimlc-Btrlcken toward Wasblngton 

It ride. 


nd la carriages. Ths re- 
■d folloi *— • ""'- 

8 reached Wash- 

were : Federal losses — killed, 481; 
wouoded, l.Oli: mlBsIns. 1.216: total. 
£.708. Confederate losses— killed, S87 ; 
wounded. 1.082; mlsBlnn. 13; total, 1,082. 
Tbls bnttle was the tint very Important 
engagemeDt of the war. (Bee also Grove- 
toD (Va,). Battle of: Manaaaas (Va.), ot 
Bull Bun, Seoond Battle of.) 
Btmcombo.— To talk buncombe Is to apeak 
for effect on persona at a distance, with- 
out regard to tha audience present The 
EhrVse orlslaated Dear tbe close of the da- 
ate on the famous "Missouri Question." 
In the Sixteenth CoDgresa. It was then 
used by Felix Walker, a naive old moDDtalo- 
who realded at Waynesrille. In Hay- 

wood, a western connly of North Carol loa, 
near the border of the adjacent eoantj 
of Buncombe, which was In his dlatrlct- 

The old gentlemau rose to speak Wblle the 
House was Impstlently calling "Question." 
and several members gatherea around him. 

begging him to desist. He persevered, haw- 
ever, for a wblle, declaring that ths people 
of his district expected It, and that lie 

Bimkei Hin, or BrMda Hin (Hub.), 

Battle of.— After the battles of Lexington 

and Concord tbe British force under Geo. 
9 increased to 10,000 men by the 
OenernlB Howe. Clinton, and Dnr- 
goyne irom England. These olBccra occu- 
pied tbe town of Bonlon, on a peolnsnla 
extending Into the harbor. On the sar- 
roundlng hills were encamped some 20.000 
undisciplined Americans. On the night of 
June 18. 1775, 1,000 of tbem under Col. 
Preacott were sent to fortify Bunker HItl. 
on another penlnniila lylnR nona of Bo>- 
tOn. ThrmiKh some mfeapprehenalon they 
seised Breeds Hill. Dear Boston, and threw 
□p a line of fori I Heat Ions. In the mnmlog 
of thp ITtb. abont 8.000 (possibly S.S0OT 
Brltlah eronapd tbe bnrbor In boats and 
chnmed tbe hilt, which wns defended by 


inlf t 

: of r 


After three bloody chnrgea tbe Americans 
were driven from their position, having 
defended themHclve* with gunstocks and 
stones when tbpir ammunition was exhauat- 
ed. The Brltlnh Ions was about l.OSO; 
that of rbe Amprlcans abont 450, Including 
Gpd. WarrpB. Tbe aiml-ilCB of tbls baf- 
tle show the number of killed and wounded 
to bnve been more than 30 per cent of the 
Dumber enmKPd, thus placing It among the 
hlondlpst battles known to history. At Oet- 
tyabnrg after three days' lighting, tbe Union 
army lost 2S per cent while SO per cent ot 
those who fongbt at Bunker Hill tall In an 


Encyclopedic Index 

By Chance 

Bnml Com Otsek (Ala.), Battla of.— 
Aa a lemlt of Tecunueli'a elTDrta to In- 
dace all tbe Eionthem Indlnni to Join In a 
■ 1 against tho whltea. 

• et eztermlnatlo- _„ , 

tbe Creeks were dlTlded Into two tacUona 
- " ■' 'irpeace. In 1813 

>r war, tbe other U 
riier jIcQneen, a tiall-b 

■M, oae Di the leaden a. jr~--<. 

waa fQmlahMl by British e^ata at Penea' 
cola with larse quantities of lopplleB, on- 
der aanctlon of tne Bpanlsb KOvetnor. On 
leamlDS of this CoL James Caller, of Wash- 
Incton, ut ont July ZC, 1S13, to disperse 
the Indians McQueen had collected and Id- 
terecpted the supplies. On the morning of 
July 27 Caller's command, Increased by re- 
eDfOTcemeDls to 180 men, came npon Ue- 

8nMD'>- party at ttielr camp on Bnmt 
am Creek. The Indians were aarprlsed 
and Bed Into tbe woodi. leavlni their pack 
boraea to the whites. They soon retanedt 
however, utd fiercely attacked lOO of CalU 

Bntt«r, ObeaM, and Oondoiued UOk. — 
Of the 8,479 establiflhmeats in the dairy la- 
dnstry In the United State* in 1609 60.4 
per cent, reported butter aa their prodnct of 
chief Talna, 42 per cent, cheeee. and l.S 
per cent, condensed milk. Of tbe yalne of 

8rodilct> shown (or ths combined Industry 
le butter tactorle* cnotrlbDted 1194,988,- 
198, or 71 per cent. ; tbe cheeae factorlea 
144.268,177, or 16.1 per cent.: and the 
condenaed milk factories SS0,296,B43, or 
12.9 per cent. Tbe combined production of 
hatter In the factories and on farms In 
United States amounted to l.eie,41G.2S3 
poonda, an increase of 127,642,661 pounds. 

retreat after a braTC 

Bmr Oonsplrmcy.— In MDMqaence vt 
BnTT'a 4nel With Hamilton, in which the 
latter met his death, Burr was indicted In 
New Tork and New Jersey for murder. 
Be went west and made an exteoalTa tonr. 
In tbe oonrse of which be made prepara- 
tions for a aUnntlc but mysterious scheme. 
Tbe real Object of this 1« ooknowD. It was 
either to separate the Mississippi Valley 

from tho rest of tbe Union "~ ' 

Into a new nation, or In cnn 
In 1S06 he gathered a 


a tbe fall- 

JeBerson's order, brousht bai.-K lu >iniiiiia, 
and Indicted there by a United Statea Orand 
Jory for treason and lor a misdemeanor, 
based on bla course In levying war wltbin 
this eonntry on a friendly nation; but it 
waa h<^>ed that Bnrr could also be abown 
to b«T« had treasonable designs against tb« 
nnlty of hla country. He was acquitted ot 

milk shows an Increase In 

Sradnctlon for the decade 1899-1909 amoant- 
Dg to S0T.8T4,TeT pouods, or 164.7 per 
cent The bulk of this product was re- 
ported by a small number of statea New 
York produced 24.4 per cent, of tbe total 
quantity in 1909, Illinois 2S.I per cent., 
and Washington 10.8 per cent., the com* 

i acqoltted for misdemeanor., 

was honnd over to present bimsell for trial 
In Ohio, but the matter was pressed no 
further. One of Burr's dupea In tbls scheme 
was Barman Blennerbasset, who was also 
arrested, but who was discharged after 
Burr's acquittal. Among the witnesses 
against Burr were Oen. Wilkinson, com- 
mander of tbe United States army, and 
Commodore Truxtun, ot the navy. Wash- 
ington irrlng was one of bis attorneya. 
Btnr Oonaplncr: 

Heatioued hj President, 304. 

Procluution aninat, 892. 

Progrea* of, 400. 
B nifa aai (s«e ftlao Uannf kctnroi) : 

AntaKoniam of govenunent eud»d, 

Oradit extension neeaMarj, 7880. 

Uen ahould be relieved of uncer- 
tainties, 7910. 

Progrsmme of regnlatioa of, b^ 03d 
Congreaa commended, BO 16. 
Bttttar, Rct defining and imposing tax 

on, uid legolating mumfaetnro of 

otoamargMJac, diBooased, 4992. 

Bitttorflold, OarfoB ft Co., claim of 
agninst Denmark for seimre of tita 
Be* Franklin and Catherine Au- 
ptuta, 4462, 5369. 
Agreement to sobmit to arbitration, 
Award of ubitrator, 5545. 
By Ohuico, claim for, adjasted, 3404. 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

OftUtWt — SpedSnlly, a bodr of coddmI- 
ori. uiubIIt compoMd o( heidB ot deptrt- 
menti. nwetlng [o a privata room or cablnst. 
Id tbe ValttA atatM tUs term la applied 
to tbe cooDcll composed of tbe beafit of 
■ome of the EiecuCjTe DcpBrtinenta of tbe 
GoTeromeDt, with wbom tne Preeldent can- 
ters on mnttere ol admin Lit ret Ive policy. 
Their meeting " -'~' "' """ "-—■-■—- 

IB unknowD 



of the Preeldent 
binding force. 

_ I does not proTlde for a 

Cabinet, but It authorlws the Prealdent to 
"require the opinion In writing ot the 

~"'~"lpal offlcer In each of the " — 

—rtroenta npoi _ , . " " 

duties of^ their rei 

WaablngtoD required 

T^partmentB upon an; sublecc relating t 
_ ^...■._ -.- •t-i- -eapectlTe olBcea. 
icb opinion I fn 

e In tbe method 

_■ an advlBorr board vlth whk . 

Ident holds regular conaultBtlona. From 

being merelj the t ■ - -■ - 

„ _ _J beads of the Eiecntli, 

Departinents certain of Its members have 
come to lie recognised as an eeseiitlal part 
of the Gorernmenj. (See also Prealdeotlal 

a essential part 
Bncceislon and 
Offlciol conduct of, complimented, 

OrtlM.— Paeiflo cable, 6663, fiTlS. (Bee 

also Ocean Cables.) 
Oaddo Indians. (See Indian Tribes.) 
Cadet. — One who Is under tinlalug for a 
commission In the Armr of the United 
States, by a course of InBtmcCloa and dla- 
dpUne In tbe Ullltarj Academy at Weat 
PolDL (Bee Military Academy.) 
Cadets, UlUtUT. (See Militar; Acad- 

Enlistment of, time of, alionld be ex- 
tended, 1607. 

Increase in corps of, reeommended, 

Promotion of, referred to, 2422. 

Heferred to, 621. 
OaboUa Indians. (See Indian Tribes.) 
Cairo and Tennessee RaUroad Co., act 

to anthorize coDBtruetion of bridges 

bj, returned, 5505. 
Oalapona Indians. (See Indian Tribes.) 
CalsTsras Big Tree Grore, pr^ervation 

of, 68S9. 
Oalebee Creek (Ala.), Battle of.— Tn bts 
expedition agalnaC the Creek Indiana Geo. 
Floyd, with more than 1,200 Oeorgla toI- 
uoteers. one company of cavalry, and 400 
friendly Indians, arrlred at Caleuee Creek 
on the Digbt ot Jan. 29. 1814. and estab- 
lished a camp on tbe highland bordering 
on Che awamp of that name In Uacon 
County, Ala,. GO miles weat of Fort 
Mitchell. Before dawn of tbe following 
morning the camp was Bnddeoly attacked 
by IndiaDB. The aimillnnts were received 
with grapeshot, followed by a bayonet 

ss?" .:;:;:_■: .:r.7 ~ 

wonaded. Ot the friendly 

killed and IS wonnded. Floyd retired to 
Fan Mitchell, where most ot bis men were 
discharged No otTier expedition against tbe 
Creeks was organised In Georgia. 
OaUfoinla. — One of tbe Paclfle Coast 
States i nickname, "Tbe Oolden Btste"; 

>y Nevada and Arizona, and on tbe 
By lower California, and on the west 

_,. Call- 

, , J flctitioui 

island In the BpanlBh romance "Laa Serna 
de Esplandlan.'' Other authorities derive 
tbe name from the SpaolBh worda "call- 
enle" (hot) and "fomaila" (famace). The 
State extends from lat. Sa" 80" to 42" 
north and from long. 114° to 124° 25' 
west, an area ot 158,297 sqasre miles. It U 
bounded on the north by Oreg ' "' 

east by Nevada and Arizona, i 

dty. The State Is famoQS for Ita beantlfnl 
scenery. Its salnbrloua climate, and Its 
wealth of precious metals and choice (mlta. 
From tbe time of Its discovery to 1S4S 
It was practically a part ot Mexico. July 
C, 1S4S, col. Jobn C. Fr^moDt assamed 
command of the Insurgents at Sonoma and 
on July 7 tbe Star and Stripes were hoisted 
over Monterey by order of John D. Sioat, 
commanding the U. 8. PaclBc sqnadron. 
Gold was discovered Jan. Ifl. 184S. Feb. 
2, ot the same year, California and New 
Mexico were ceded to the United SUtea 
by the treaty of Oviadalonpe Hidalgo. It 
was admitted to the Unloa Sept 9, 1850, 
as a result of the famous Clay compromlae 
resolutlouB passed bjf (Tonfresa.^ (See Com- 

dlrected to tbe troubles and In Itla neasace 
ot Dec 18, 1906 (page 7744). deciana Kla 

Sirpose to maintain tbe Integrity of out 
eaty obligations to Japan. 

Tbe state also pasned a civil sarrlce law, 
a "blue sky" law. Intended to aafeguard tha 
people In the purchase of secnrttlea o( 
corporations, a mothers' pension taw, a com- 
mission to flx mlnlmnm wages ana bmira 
ot lahor, and a commlaalon to assist tha 
legislature In framing lawa. 

The nnmbiT of manafactoring eBtabllab- 
menta in California having an annnal not- 
pnt valued at SEOO or more at tbe begtnnlnk 
ot IBIS wai ID.ORT. The amonnt of eapitnl 

and wages paid amounted to' f 140,S4S,00(L 


Encyclopedic Index 


Admiwioii of, into TTnion diievaied, 

Alhira of, nport of, truumitted, 

S67B, 25S4. 
Alien Und law dlscnised, 8253, 8255. 

TTDitod StatM of Uexico — 
Ares and v&lne of, 2449, 2484. 
IMMnwiona and TseonunendationB 
regarding, 2306, 2309, 2344, 23S6, 
E380, 2426, 2437, 2444, 2484. 
Treaty for, tranimitted, 2437. 
Ceuion of, to Oreat Britain by 
Mexico, negotiations regarding, re- 
ferred to, 2078. 
Circuit eonrt of ITnited Btatee in, 

referred to, 3282. 
Qaima of eitizena of, against TTnited 

SUtee, 2879. 
Conetitntion adopted by, 2S70. 
Constitutional eouTention in, refemd 

to, 25S6, 2584. 
Cuartel lot in Uonterej, nurey and 

diepoaal of, diacoMed, 6504. 
CnstoDU collected in, 2586. 
Difficulty between conanl of France 
and anthoritiea of, 2835. 
Batitfaetorily eettled, 2868. 
XSeetione in, national military force! 

to be need at, referred to, 4076. 
Eiqteditions orsaQized in, for in- 
vasion of Mexico, 2770. 
ProelamatioQ against, 2804 
forces to be employed in, 2454. 
Fnndulent clsime to lands in, de- 
feated by Attomey-QeneTal, 8184. 
Gwlogieal and miueralogieal explora- 
tion in, recommended, 2558. 
Qidd in, production of, 2660, 
OoU mines discovered in, 2486, 2493. 
Qovenunent of, diseoMed, 2556, 2564. 
Indians in — 
dainu of persons for supplies fur- 

niidted, 2777. 
Colonisation of, referred to, 2834. 
HoetimisB of, referred to, 2668, 

Number of, 2458. 
Bemoval of, referred to, 2833. 
Irrintion of valleys in, 4217, 
Iaiu grants in, appointment of com- 
missionen to Kettle claims nnder, 
reeommended, 2S22. 
Condensation of CommissiatieTB, in- 
adequate, 2662. 
Land laws, extension of, over, recom- 
mended, 2623. 
lAod office in, recommended, 2643, 

Lands En, set apart as public reserva- 
tion by proelamstton, 6792, 5804, 
6814 S816, 6207, 6211, 6701, 6706. 
Liriit-nottBes on coast of, sites for, 
Mferred to, 2667. 

Line of eommnnleation witb eastern 
section of United Btntes recom- 
mended, 2658, 2622. 

Mail facilities eboold be afforded 
citizens of, 248B, 2S60. 

Hsil route from Miwissippi River to, 
recommended, 2B92. 

Hineral lands in, ditposition of, dis- 
eni»ed, 2493, 25SB, 2623, 2663. 

HioerH' itrike, proclamation against 
violence in, 8317. 

Uines in, Tcferred to, 2486, 2493. 

Mine, branch of, in recommended, 
2486, 2557, 2621. 
Constniction of, discussed, 2747. 

National military forces to be used 
at election in, referred to, 4076, 

Payment of settlers for improve- 
ments on Bound Valley Beaerva- 
tion is recommended, 4692, 4781. 

Private land claims in, referred to, 

Public lauds in — 
Modifications in laws regsrdingy 

recommended, 2623. 
Beferred to, 2558, 2662. 

Bevenue laws, extension of, over, 
recommended, 2493. 
Befened to, 2557. 

Slavery in, right to introduce, dis- 
enseed, 2490. 

SurveyoT-Oeneral 's offices in, reeom- 

Territorial government, for, recom- 
mended, 2392, 2439, 2488. 
Unlawful combinations in, proclama- 
tion against, 5932. 
Vigilance committee in, application 
of governor to nudntain law 
agaiuat naurped authority of, 2916L 
Oallfomla and Oregon Ballrosd, com- 
missioners appointed to report open, 
referred to, 4865. 
Cambrian, TIlsv ordered from and for- 
bidden to re-enter waters of United 
States, 891. 
Oamden <B. 0.), Battle of. (See San- 
ders Creek (& C), BatUe of,) 
Campaign Oontrlbntlooi.— At the extra 
session of the Blxtr-aecond CoDfress an set 
waa passed to provide for tbe pnbllcttr of 
contributions for tbe porpoac of Influenc- 
ing elections at wblcb represaotatlTeB In 
ConnesB are elected. Tbla act forblda anr 
candidate for repreaentatlTe from glTlnc, 
coatrlbuting. eipendins, ualng or promis- 
ing anr anma In the aggregate exceeding 
tS.OOO In anj campaign for nia nomination 
and election. A candidate for Beuatar la 
limited to tlO.OOC Sworn atatements of 
all expendltarea most be Olcd In Washlnc- 
ton not leas than ten nor more than fltteen 
days before the time for holding anr prl> 
marr election or nominating conTentlon, 
and not lesa than ten nor more than fifteen 
daja before the da; of the election at which 
the person la to be balloted for. 
damp Alga, Ta, mentioned, 6774, 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

OuuUU.— Tbe DomlDiDD of CanadR oc- 
cupies ttiG whole of the noithem part of 
the North AmerlesD CouUuent (with tha 
«xceptloD of Alaska and part of Che eoaat 
of Labrador), from 40° Dorch laCitadeto the 
Arctic aeai, and from the Pacific to the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

BUtoru. — Canada waa orlgtnallr dlacof- 
cred by Cabot la 1497, bat Ita hlstorr datea 
onl; front 1534. when the French took poi- 
aeuloQ of the country. The flret aettlement 
(Quebec) was louaded by tbem Id_1G08. 

New Branawlck were united under the tl 

e adtnful 

) terrltorlei of Britlib North i 

Pravinoei (Enlliih Popnlatloit 

&). Mila) 1»11* 

Alberta. 2i5,28G V7Vfie» 

Biltuh Columbia 36i,KU S92,4B0 

Mwiitobik 261.S33 465,eU 

NawBnuuwiiik ZT.DSS SSLSSD 

NovaSmtia 21.428 402,338 

Onlailo. 407.262 2,023,274 

Piinn Edwaid Uud 2.184 S3,7Z8 

QlubMI 70e,S34 8.003,233 

b^Ubewan 2al,700 4S2,433 

Tnkoo 207,078 8.812 

Noith-WcM TenitoiiN. 1,242.234 18,481 

Total 3.729.065 7,206,043 

*Tbe rural population. In 1911, waa 8,- 
S2H.6T9. and the urban popalatlon. S.2S0,- 
W4. Of the Immlgranca In 1911-12. 108,082 
were from Rngland, 2.019 from Wales, 30.- 
T8B from Scotland, and 9,706 from Ireland. 
total lS0,e42: and 139.000 came from the 
United Slates and 112.8SI from other eoan- 
trlei. lu 1S12-18 the iDUUlgiaDta nnmbered 

Phyleal Featuret.—From a phyBlcal point 
of view Canada ma; be divided Into an 
eaatern and a weBtem dlilBlon, the Red 
River Talley, In long. 97°, lormlog the eep- 
■ratlng line. The eastern division comprlsea 
three a reus : (11 The coulbeaBtem area, 
wblch li generally billy, and somellmea 
mountalnouB, with many fine itrelchea of 
BKrlcullural and pastoral lands. (21 The 
Bouthern and western area, prenentlne lo 
the main, a broad, level, and slightly nn- 
dnlatlDE eipanse of generally terllle eoun- 
try. wlrb occaslonar Btep-like ridges or 
rocky eacarpments. The main bydrogranh- 
Ical feature la the chain of lakea. with 
■n area of 150.000 aqnare miles, contrib- 
uting to the great river syatem of the St. 
Lawrence. (S) The northern area, embrac- 
Idk nearly two-tfalrda of (be Dominion, witb 
■n average elevallon of 1,000 feet above 
the level of tn* aea. pre-eminently a realon 
of waterwaya, and Inclndtng the great 
Laurentlan mountain range, in tbla area 
are touad the other great river _8yBtemB, the 
Nelson and tbe Hackenile The western 
dlvlBlon rererred to may alao be aatd to 
poweaa two ar«aa equally distinct In char- 

acter. The first atntcbea trotn tbt Bed 
River Talley to the Bocky Uouutalna. Hera 
between 1st 49* and B4'. la the great 
Prairie Region, rising to the weat In three 
terrace-like elevations. North of the Mth 
parallel ttae country puaea again Into for- 

pouesslon of Great Britain by the Treaty 
of Paris of that year. Nova Seotla vaa 
ceded la 1713 by tbe Treaty of Utrecht, 
the Province! of New Brunswick and Prince 
Edward Island being subscquenlly formed 
out of It. British Columbia was formed In- 
to a Crown colony In 1858, having prevl- 
ouily been a part of tbe Hudson Bay Terrl- 

The accond area, from 1.,,^ „,:..„..,. 

edge of the I'ralrle to the PaelBc coast, la 
a distance of 400 miles, and cootalna the 
Rocky Moamalna (Uount Kooker, 16,700 
feet) and the Uold and Cascade Ranges, 
whose summlta are from 4.000 to 18.000 leet 
blj^ the country being on tbe whole deoaely 

(roremnenf. — Canada Is a Belt-governing 
Dominion wltbln the British Empire, Ita 
coDHtltatlon realtng on the British North 
America Act of 1887. under which tbe 
Dominion of Canada came Into being on 
July 1, 18HT (Dominion Day.) Tbe Bx- 

— •■— '- Tested In a Oovemor- 

by tbe Sovereign and 

ecntive power . 

General appoints _ _, „_ ___ 

aided br_ a_^l'rlvy Council. Govemor-Oen* 

eral and Commander-in-Chief — Fleld.Uar- 
sbal Hli Royal HIgbnesa Hie Duke of Con- 
nanght and Httatheam. 

Parliament consists of a Senate and a 
House of Commons. Tbe Senate conslsta of 
87 members, nominated tor life by tbe Qov- 
emoc-tieneral. distributed between the vari- 
ous provinces. The House of Commons is 
chosen every Ave years at longest, and the 
l&ll-ie Parliament con^sisof 221 membera. 

Justice la ad m la I St e red, aa in England, 
n Judges, police magistrates, and Justice* 
of tbe peace, of whom the Urat-named are 
appointed by the Governor- General, for life, 
from among the foremost men at tbe Bar 
In the several provlncea. Tbe highest court 
Ls tbe Supreme Court of Canada, composed 
of a Chief Jiutlce and five pulane Judgea, 
and holding tbree sesslous In tbe year at 
Ottawa. The only other Dominion Court, 
vli., the Exchequer Court of Canada. Is pre- 
Blded over by a separate judge, and Ita 
sittings may tw held anywhere la Canada. 

Armv. — Service In the MlUtla 1b Universal 
and compulsory oa all male citlsena from 
18 to eo. The Peace Rlfectlve conslsta of 
a Permanent Blatr of S.620 offlcers and men, 
and 74,000 undergoliu service. The War 
Effective conalsts of four classes: tbe nn- 
marrled men 18 to SO; the unmarried mea 
SO to 40 1 the married men 18 to 45 : and, 
Dnalljr, the remalulns male eitlsens of IS 
to eo. a total of 2.lSs,000. 

Bducation is imder the control of tbe 

Erovlnclal governments, the cost being met 
r local taxation, aided by grants from the 
aeverol Provincial Governments. There are 
some 26,000 elementary and secondary 
schools (attendanea at the former being 
compnlsory). with over 1.1S7,.000 pupils; 
and slity unlvenltles ana nnlveralty col- 
leges with 40.000 students,^ Tbe twenty 
unlveisltles had about 10,000 students la 

Produotlan and Induttry. — In 1911 there 
were 22,704.028 acres under com crop* 
(wbeat 10,373.958, barley 1.404,3S2, oata 
9.219.920) and 10.129.040 acres under other 
crops (hay and clover 7.003,242). a total 
of 82,863,074 acres under coltlvabon. Ttie 
Live Stock <iei2) Included 2.330,800 
horses. T. 903. 2 42 cattle. 2.300.000 shi^ep, 
and 2.666.400 pigs. According to the cennu 
of 1911 there were 8.628 butter and ehceae 
factories and 5 factories (or preserved mtik 
and cream, tbe total value of all dairy prod- 
nets being 139,143.089 In 1911. The flsh- 
erlcs are an Important source of wealth and 
inclade saluioii, cod, herrings, mackerel, 
and lobsters, tbe total value of the catch 
In 1912-13 being 132,973,189. The Inmber, 
lath and shingles produced In Canada In 
1911 bad a total value of 181.666.268. Tbe 
forests have a total estimated area of 
nearly 668,600,000 acres. Tbe Industrial 


Encyclopedic Index 


ta IVll, Witb & toUl cftplUl or tl,Z4T,S83, 
•00. Ui« TKlue □( tbe products twins (1.- 
lte.VI9.Q39; B10.BO3 perBona wfre »ni- 
stoTtd. Tbe metals produced In 1912 wer« 
Valued M toUows'— Gold, 112.659,443: sll- 
T»r tl9,425,eee J copper, »]2,T09,311 ; 
alckel. «ia.462.4SB. 

TramportatioH.—Tiie total Icngtb of rall- 
wara In operation on Jaoe SO. 1912, vaa 
2«iT2T ID Ilea, tlia total capital iDvolred be Ids 
«.K68,9ST.D20, tbe earolDis bclDg: {219.- 
4t^^BA, and tbe working eipeoaes 1150- 
736.M0. In 1911-12: there were also l,30a 
Billr* of electric railways, Tbe Bca^olog 
■sd lake mercantile marine of Canada on 
Dec 81. 1912, consisted of 4.713 galling »es- 
kI« and 3,607 steamers (total net tonnage 

tbe aame ta naed In England, not tne nnu 
oSMlne la the dollar of the United State*. 
Canada las flfty clllei with a popula- 
tion In eiceaa of 10.000. Montreal approach- 
log Boo.ooa 

Ouuda, Dominion of: 
Abduction of Allan UacdoDald from, 

referred to, 3826. 
Armed men from, aeiza American citl- 

sen, 1928. 
Attempted o«enpation of portions of 
Alaska by Orest Britain aod, re- 
ferred to, 6097, 
Attempts of Oreat Britain and, to ea- 
tabluh post routes in Alaska, 6097. 
BonndtfT line with, discnssed, S470, 

5616, 6064. 
Canal tolls charged by, negotiations 

regarding. (See Welland Canal.) 

Chief jpstice of, arbitrator in claim 

of United Btates against Pern, 

6335. (See also 6988, 6092.} 

Chinese entering United States 

throngh, 5476, 5632. 
(3yil war in, nentratity of United 
States in, discussed, 1702, 1748. 
Proclaimed, 1688, 16B9. 
Commercial relations with, 25S2, 26S4, 
3989, 3999, G743, 6332. (See also 
Weuand Canal.) 
Conference on subject of, discnssed, 

567S, B678, G748. 
Commission, Joint High, 6370. 
Tenians in. (Bee Fenians.) 
nsheries, questions regarding. (See 

Hostile disposition of people of, to- 
ward United BtAtes, 1749. 

niegal expeditions against, proclama- 
tion against, 4039. 

Incursions from, discuased, 3447. 

Jurisdictions of United States and, 
in Qreat Laken discuased, 6064. 

Mere ban disc transported from one 
port in United States, over Cana- 
dian territory, to another port 
therein, discussed, 5770. 

Natural products, reciprocal arrange- 
ments regarding importation of, 

Outrages committed on American 
frontier by inhabitants of, dis- 
cussed, 1260, 1676, 1695, 1840. 

Parliament of. (See Canadian Parlia- 

Postal arrangements with, referred 
to, 2176. 

Postal conTentiou witb, 4203, S377. 

St. Lawrence, navigation of. (See St. 
Lawrence Biver.) 

Trials in, of citizens of United States 
for complicity in Fenian invasion 
of, 3718. 

Vessels of United States seized hj 
revenue cutter of, 4070. 

Vessels from Ontario, duties on, sus- 
pended by proclamation, 4S71. 

Vessels of, permission to aid disabled 
vessels in waters of United States 
proclaimed, SS28. 

Vessels of United States in Great 
Lakes granted facilities for return- 
ing, 6331. 

Welland Canal tolls discussed. (Bee 
Welland Canal.) 
OMiada, BadprocltT with: 

Treaty providing for, transmitted, 

Effect on trade conditions forecasted, 

Effect on cost of living, 7CB3. 

National scope of, 7584. 

Proclamation convening oxtra ses- 
sion of Congress for consideration 
of, 7586. 

Special message of, 7587, 

Speech of Taf t on, 7588. 

Farmers not injured by, 7689. 

Uanufacturers least benefited by, 

Good effect of, on future relations, 

Annexation not foreshadowed by, 
Canada, The, claims arising from wreck 

of, on coast of Brasil and award dis- 
cussed, 4052, 4069. 
Canadian ParlUment, expression of 

thanks from legislative council of 

Canada for donations for library of, 

Canadian Volnntoen, bounty lands to, 

proclamation regarding, 568, 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Ouala.— Beton tht daja of rallroidi over* 
land tnnilHirtatloD wu a wrloiia problem. 
Water aeemed to preunt tbe cheapest and 
matt aTdllable medium. The natural wa- 
ter connei were citenalTely Eiavlgated, but 
aa the neceasltle* o( transportatioD betweea 
commercial ccnttn Increawd canals were 
DTolected In manr parti ol the coDDlr;r. 
. The aldeat woika of the kind Id the United 
Slatea are the South Hadley and Monta- 
gue canalB, In Masaacbusetti, bulJt bv com- 
panlei chartered Id 1782. The Ulddleaei 
Canal, conneirtlng BoitoD harbor with the 
Merrlmac BiTer, wia completed In 1808. 
The Erie CanBl, the largcBt snd moBt Im- 

Krtant In thla couulrj, wan projected by 
Witt Clinton, begun Id 1817, and com- 
pleted In 18^S. It extendi from the Bud- 
ion BlTcr at AlbBDT to Lake Erie at Buf- 
fslo. II la 387 miles Ions and coit 152.- 
540.800. In 1003 the leglilatnre of the 
State of New York Toted 1101,000,000 to 
ImproTe the canal lystem of the stale, the 
chief Improvement belnK tbe deepenlnc and 
widening of the Erie Canal to permit Ita 
uie by boat! of 1,000 to 1,200 tone. 

The Ohio and Lake Erie Canal, froti) 
Cleveland, on Lake Erie, tooth throng tbe 
Btala of Ohio, to tbe Oblo Rlrer at Torta- 
moutb, a dlitance of 317 mllei, wa* for- 
mally ^CEun Jaly 4. 182e, by Got. CIlntOD, 
d( Kew York, nmoTlug the flrst ahovelful 
of earth. The work wai completed Id 1832 
at a coit of (4.006,204. Another canal 
acrooa the State of Ohio was completed In 
1S34, eitendlnE from Cluclnnatt to Defi- 
ance. 178 mlle>. where It Joined the Wabash 
aod Erie, forming another water rood be- 
tween tbe river and lake, of 286 mllei. 
Tbe cost of thlH canal waa (3.700,000. 
The Uorrli Canal, from Jersey City to 
PblllpsburK. N. J., 102 mllei In length, con- 
Deedng Newark Bay with the Delaware 
Blrer, waa begun In 182S and Snlahed Id 
1836. With tbe development of railroads 
these ceosls fell Into neglect and were 
flnalty wbotty or partly abandoned or taken 
over by the railroads. 

The IlIlDola and Mlcblgao Canal extends 
from ChlcRgo to LaSalle, on the IIIIdoIs 
Hirer a distance of 102 mlleo. It coat 

nepln. III., lift; mllei througfi the Bock 
Blver and twenty-seven miles tbrougb land 
to tha UliBlBSlppl River at Bock Island. 
The Cbesapeake and Ohio Cannl. the oat- 
come of a project of Washington to Im- 
Eove DBVlgsllDa of the Potomac River, was 
gua In 1S2S by tbe board of public works 
Of Virginia and completed in 1850. It cost 
(11,000,000. It elleods from OeorgetowD, 
D. C. lo Cumberland. Md.. a distance of 
184 mllei. By means of seventy-four locks 
an elevBtloD of. SOB feet Is attained. The 
Delaware and Hudson Canal, ei tending 
from Bondont, N. Y.. to Honeadale. Pa.. 
108 miles, wai completed In 1829._ The 


In 181S and com< 

18BH at t 

preted'i'n 'l 8457 °The ^!rfilgh Coal a'nd NaS- 
gatlon Company have a caDBl from EastoD 
to Coalporl, Pa. An Important Ship canal 
Is tbe Banlt Balnte Marie. coDnectlng Lakea 
Superior and Enron, wblcb waa bnllt In 
■"'- * - of (S.033.683. 

._ ...aerted for comparison.) 

Following Is a complete list of canals In 
tbe Cnltpd Stales, together wltb ttieir 
length and cost of construction : 
Albemarle and Cbesapeake — From Norfolk, 

Vs., to Currituck Sound. N. C. 44 miles; 

cost, with Improvements, (1.641,363. 

Aofttfta — E^m BaTannati BItci, Om., t» 
Aunata. Ga.. 9 miles. (l.BOO.OOO. 

Beaafort— From Bcantort, tt. C, to Nenia 
River, In course of constmcUoD. 

Black River — From Rome, N. Y,, to Lyona 
Falls, ti. Y.. S6 miles; (3,581,eS4. 

( Ship Canal, coDDectlns the 

Harlem River snip v.'Baaj, couDecring 
Hudson Blver and Long Island Bound, 
way of Bpnyten DuyvTl Creek 

lem River, was opened for trafBc on June 
IT. 1806, and cost about (^700,000. 

Hocklng-^From Carroll, Ohio, to NelioD- 
vllte, Ohio, 42 miles. (076,481. 

Illinois and Ulrhlgsn— From Chicago. III., 
to La Balle III., 102 mlleo. (7.867,787. 

IllIuolB and Mississippi — Aronnd lower rap- 
ids of Rock Blver, 111., connected nit^ 
Mlsilsslppl River, 76 miles. (T.260.000. 

Lake D rum mo nd— Connects Chesapeake Bay 
with Albemarle Soand, 22 miles, (2,- 

Lake WasblDgton— -Through Lake Dnlon, 
Seattle. Wash., to I'uget Sound. 

Lehigh Coal and NivlgaHon Co.— From 
Coalporl, Pa., to Easton, Pa., 108 miles, 

Louisville and Portland — Falls of Ohio Riv- 
er. LoulBVllle, Ky,. H miles, (6,978,631. 

Miami and Erie— From anclnnatl, Ohio, 
to Toledo, Oblo. 274 miles, (8, 061680. 

MoiTis— From Jersey Cltj to PhllllbsbDrg, 

id Beaufort— From Clubfoot 

Creek to Harlow Creek. N. C, 3 miles, 
Ogeechee— From SavaDDsh RWer, Os., to 

Otteechee River, Oa., 18 miles. (407.810. 
Ohio— From Cleveland, Ohio, to Port^ 

moutb. Oblo. 817 miles. (4,606,204. 
Oswego— From Oawi — " ^ .„ o.-.-. 

N. T., 38 miles. * 
Penneylvr"'- "" 

1B3 "mlfesr ('7.7Si'.7b'o.' 
Portage Lake and Lake Bnperiot^Froin 

Keweenaw Bay to Lake Superior, 8S 

miles. (628,802. _ 

Port Arthur— From Port Artbnr, Tex, to 

Gulf of Mexico, 7 miles. 

F( — From Waldo, Fla., to Melroae, 

„ N. T., to Syracnae, 


_ _ Prom Colombia. Northnm- 
ind, WI1kes;Bsrrfl, BoDtlngdoD, Fa., 

Lakes Buperlor aod Huron at St lUry't 
Elver, 8 mllei, (6,0S8.U3. 


Encyclopedic Inde*_ 

SchoTlklll NavlgatlOD Camp«nr— rrom Utll 
Cnek. P>., to PUIadelpUa, Pk.. 108 
miles. S12.461.eOO. 

fltnTicoii Bar >n(l Lak« Ulcblsan — Between 
Oreen Bar and Lake Mlchlna, 11 olle*, 

Bt lla^'a Falla — ConDecta Lake Baperlor 
mnd Baion at Sault. 8t«. Marie, Htcb., 
It mllM (7.909^667. 

and Tidewater — From Colnin- 
I HtTte de Qiace, Md., 4S 


bla, P«., lo niTi 

UIIM, $4,981,840. 
WaUondlDff — From Rocbeeter. Ohio, t 

coe. Oblo, 2S alle«, ««07.Se9. 
Welland (Bhtp Canal)— ^^onoecta Lake Oif 

-— 1 iak» Brte, : — " 

tarlo and I 


•aid U 

pnblic *f Panama, to acqnl: 

had or land under , 

Bianttd, or wbicb wai excepted fTom tbe 

Jl sbaU 

be anlBdeDtlr advanced (owaia eompletioa 
to rcBdvr Uh twtiwr witIcm ot tbe Utb- 

I Canal CuntslMloa 

Utll PraaldeDt la antborlied br eneeatlTe order 

to diacontlnaa the latboiUn Canal Comnla- 
aloiL whlcb, tonther witb tbe preaent or- 

fanlutlon, sball tben MBie to eilvt; and 
bg Prealdent la antborlaed thertaftei to 
complete, piTeni, and operate tbe Panama 
<^«nal and lOTani tbe Cunal lOQe, tbrDur>> 
QOTcnior and ancb otber persona i 

poInFad by tbe "Prealdent, bV'and'wItli 

I mile*, t2.0BO,- 

CUMls (Me also tbe seTer&l canals): 

AcToa eoDtinent, pTactieabilitj of 
eonetmction of, referred to, 4473. 

AltamAhft Biver to Teuneasee Biver, 
referred to, 10S7. 

AppropriatioiiB for, 929. 

Atutntic Ocean to OnU of Mudeo, 
dtsetused, 905. 

Constitutional amendment for im- 
pTOTement of, ansgested, 552. 

are»t Lakes to Endson Biver, difr 
enaaed, 482. 

lAuds granted to Statei in kid of, 
1029, 1725. 

Becommendations regarding aid \a, 
4149, 4201, 4209. 

BoTvsyB for, referred to, 824, 987. 

Utility of canal navigaition i' 
482, 652, 58S, 785, 877. 
Oaaal 2one.~Tfae Panama Canal act ot 
1912 provided for the Koiemmeut bj the 
United State* ot a aane of land and land 
imder water of tbe wldtb often miles extend- 
iDf to tbe dlatance ol flve mile* on eacb 
•Id* «t tbe center line of tbe root* ot the 
canal, wblcb sone beslna In tbe Carlobean 
Bern tbiec marine mllM from mean low- 
water nark and extends to and across tbe 
lathmna ot Panama Into the Pacific Ocean 
to the distance of three marine mile* from 
mean low-water mark, eicludlni therefrom 
tbe dtlea of Panama and Colon and tbelr 
adjacent harbota located within said sone, 
a> sxcepted in the treat; with the Bepnb* 
Uc ot Panama dated NoTember IB. 1908, 
bat Inclnding all lalanda within said de- 
■eilbed sone, and In addition thereto the 
graiip of lalandi In the Baj of Panama 
■wmed Pertco, Nios, Culebra and Flamen- 

, and anr lands and water* ontalde of 

I. .._.., ,boTC described which are nec- 

Miurtiiiction, malntenanc*. operation, i 

tatlon. or protection of tbe said canal or 
«( >n7 BuxlUsry canala, lake*, or other 
works naceMBiT or conrenlent. The Preal- 
dent la antbortsed, bj treaty with the Be- 
— ■..■. .< u. ^ '— inr afldltlonal 

— — poUC7 of the United atates. 

President Wilson by execntlve order (page 

Ouul Zona: 
BxeentiTe Orders 
EatabUsfaing potmsent govsnunent 

for, 7920. 
Extent and popalatlon of, 7087. 
Fixing interest rates In, 790fi. 
Forbidding eormpting of emploreea 
to. 79187 
GambUng law in, amended, 7988. 
dovemment for dieeoBwd, 7887, 
Military gorenunent for, 7687. 
PiOTiding conditions of emplof 
ment in, 7923, 
Hentralit^ of, proelalmed, 8008. 
Order relating to onstoms serriee and 
providing for flnea for disbonest 
manifests in, 7963. 
Order relating to Postal Crimea In, 

Quarantine regolationa for, 7088. 
Segnlating bearing of arms in, 7903, 
Begnlating bnnting in, 7909. 
Beqniring MCoritT for costs !n civil 

eases £, 7964. 
Wireless telegranli station established 
in for nse of Nav7, 7980. 
Cancer, — A malignant irowtb of epidermic, 
epithelial or glandnlsr tissue, bsTlnc aec- 
ondar; frowtba or extenxlona. The dlstasa 
Is increasbiK rapldlf in all dvtllsed eoon- 
trlea It Is easentlallr a disease ot middle 
life, occnrrlnK moatlj In persona of more 
than fortr rears ot see. Benllltj and tbe 
decadence of tisanes wUcb bsTs passed the 
period ot tbelr nsetnlnes* and are abont to 
undergo phrslologlcal rest are pradlaposloc 
factors. The srmptoms often elnde trained 
obaerrers and the canses of the disease have 
ncTer been acenratel; determined. Domestic 
animals as well aa man are subject lo the 
disease. The nrevalenca ot cancer In flahes 
and the coincidence ot the nofraphlcsl dis- 
tribution of tbe disease In^sh and tbe hu- 
man famllj (0 Impressed Preeldent Tsft 
that he recommended to Confress an ap- 
propriation ot tno.OOO for ths stud; of to* 
question. (Face 7861.) 
Canoor ta Fidwi, appropriation recom- 
mended for reaearMt work nbjeet of, 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

OaodlK. (See Crete.) 
Oumoa (see tiao Anns ftud Ammnni- 
tion; Arsenals; Artilleiy, and En- 
ejelopedio Index nrtiole on Amu 
and Amniiuiitlon). 

Foandry for m&king, recommended, 
1607, 1714, 4797. 
Cuton, Cbiiut, hoetUitiee in, referred 

to, 2877. 
Cantonment OUnon, Aik^, road from 

LitUe Bock to, referred to, 932. 
Cape Cod Canal (see Canals). 
Cape Fear River, H. C act for impror- 

ing, approved and reaaons therefor, 

dape Horn: 

Ezpenditnrea for freight and pauaga 
by way of, referred to, 4072. 

Shortening of sea voyage aroond, die- 
enssed, 4601. 
Oape Bpartel, light-houm on, treaty 

with Morocco regarding, 35S2. 
Oape Vincent, N. T., proclamation 

granting privileges of other ports to, 

Capital, relation of labor to. (See 

Labor, diBcnssed.) 
Capital of United Statea.— Up to the time 
of the adaptloQ at the Constitution the 
CongreiB tud no Dzed place for boldtog 
Iti seailons, but met at York, Lancanter, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Princeton. Anaap- 
oIlB, Trenton, and New York. The First 
Cooerera under the Constitution met Id 
New York City In 1789. Later It held aes- 
alons Ln Pblladelphla from 1T90 to 1800. 
Dnclng the aecand aeeslon o( the First 
Cooeress under tSe Constitution, after a 
long and bitter debate In which sectional 
leflronHr tan high an act was paBsed. June 
!!8. 1790, selectlnR the present site of 
Washlnston aa the permancDt sent ot Qor. 
ernment. The Government removed to Its 
new headquartorB In 1800. (See WaahlnB- 
ton CIt7 and District ol Columbia.) 
Capital of United States, seat of Gov- 
ernment removed from Philadelphia 

to Washington discnsied, 281, 295, 

298, 2S9, 300. 
Capital Pnnlslmient.— In nesrir an states 
the death penalty la apeclfled as punish- 
ment (or Erst dcBree murder : PoUov 

are the methods ot eir — "' 

tlona to the rule: 


Alabami " "'-" 

Q sod the excep- 


CfllKornIa— HanpLni 
Co lorado — Ha ngluB 
ConnectlcD t — Haqg 

re— Hsnalng, 
. of Colum. 

Kentucky — Electro- 


Nstrlct _ 

bin— HsnglnK. 
Florida— HnogTng. 
Georgl a— Ha n slug. 
Eawal I— Hanging, 
Idaho — HanKlDg. 
Illinois— Bang! D«. 
Indiana— Hanglns- 

- Life 



UI'Hlsalppl — Hang- 

MlsBonrl— Hanging. 

New Jersey — Blec- 

New Mexico — Hang- 
New York— Electro- 
North Carolina — 

North Dakota— 

Oh [o — Electrocution. 
Oklnhoma — Haog- 

Teias — Haaglog. 
Utah — HangTuc or 
Bhootlng at dlsere- 

Vlrglnla — Blectro- 

WnshlngtOD — tjf* 

West Virginia — 

WIswasln^^Life Im- 

Wyoming — Hanf- 

Oregon — Ha nglng. 
Pennsylvania— Ble 

OapltoL — From CapltotlHm, the name ot 
the magnlflcent temple of Japlter Capltoll- 
nus on tbe CapKollne Hill In ancient Borne. 
The Uont CapttoHnut was so called from 
the flodlng of a sknli during the excavation 
for the Brat building. The name Is ap. 
piled to tbe mognltlcent edifice Id which 
tbe Congress at tbe United Btatea hold Ita 
sessions and to the atatehoaaea which an 
erected at the capitals ot the Tarlona 

The Capitol la situated on a low hill 
commanding one of the beflt view* of 
Waahlnglon, and dominates the city with 
Its magniOceDt dome. Its eltieme length 
is 7G1 (eet, and It varies from 1£1 to 824 
(eet in width ; It consists of a main edlflee 
of sandstone, painted white and crowned 
wllb an Iron dome, and two wings of 
white marble. Tbe general style is clasalc 
snd Its columns and detail are Corinthian. 
As a nhole It Is one of the moat Impos- 
ing and beautlfol governmental build- 
ings In tbe world. Tbe original dome 
was a low structure of wood covered wllh 
copper, but this was ceplnced Id 18fi6 by 
tbe present Iron donie, ^87 feet hl^ de- 
signed by Thomas IL Walter, atia anr- 
mounted by a fine statue of Freedom by tbe 
American sculptor Thomas Crawford. The 
coroer stooe of tbe buUdlnir was laid br 
P resident Wash log 


r of b 

by tbe British under Oeneral Ross Aug. 34, 
1814, The fouDdatlon of the main build 
Ing was laid March £4. 1818. and tbe wbolt 
was completed In 1827, at a coat up tc 
that time of nearly f2.SO0.O00. 

An act of Sept. SO. ISSO. provided foi 
eitensloQB to the north snd south. --' 
President FUlmom laid the corner 
July 4, 18B1, Daniel Webster dellverji 



--, bly to the 

beauty of the bulldlag. with their porticoes 
and columns of white marble, which con- 
lain tbe Senate Chamber and Hsll of Kep- 
The former Senate Chamber Is now occn- 

B"ed by the Supreme Court, the former 
all of Reprenentatlves Is now a Statuary 
Court to which ench state contributes stat- 
oes of ber most famons sons. Among the 


Encyclopedic Index 


■ome ot thrai coIobuI Id ilEe, In tarloun 
paria of tbe bulldlos : the Marble BooDi 
of tbe fionate, with Ita minora ; the collec- 
tion of Bpeafcera' portralls In (be Repre- 
•FotatlTea Lobby ol the Hoaae, and the 
manlTC Rotonda. witb Ita blatorlcal palct- 
Inn and tieacDca. Outaldfl, on tbe esat la 
tbe plaiB, near the cenler o( vrblch alts tbe 
daaalc flcure of OeorKC Waablagton. On 
tbt ««at aide Storr'a bronie Btalne of Joha 
Uaraball. like tbe WnsblagloD. a sitting 
Dfnre. la encountered b; toe vlallor Juat 
before he HMrnda tha atalrs o»er Ibe ter- 
race. II la cuHona to cote that tbe mnln 
facade faces eaat, aa It was no Helps ted 
tbat tbe city wonid ipread In that alreC' 
tlon; th« tPTcraa baa profed to be the case 
and tbe Capitol tnma Ita back toward tbe 
main portion ol the dty. 

Cub of, abould be conunitted to pub- 
lic Bgent, S90. 

Congreas rMommencet iU dntlM in, 

DiaeiuMd, 2672. 

Jurladiction over, truiaferred from 

loUrior to War Depkrtmetit, 


Plusnibmitted iiDiatisfaotor7, and 

eombinatioiL of uune adopted, 


Soferenco to, S684, £015, S917, 2918. 

HeatiDg And veatilating referred to, 

3110, 3112. 
Imprevement of, Intereat glianld be 

taken in, SSS. 
Incomplete and not in a itate to re- 
ceive Membera of Congreaa, SSS. 
LoDKitada of, 680, 688, 789. 
Uarble eolamiia for, referred to, 3114. 
Secretarv of President J. Q. Adama 

aaaanlted in, 966. 
WaahiBgton, atatoe of, to be placed 
Apprwriation for, recommended. 

Erection of, referred to, 1910. 
Winga added to, nearlj complete, 

Work of art for, referred to, 2910. 
Captured Propeit^^s 
Gotten eaptnred and forfeited, re- 

feired to, 3666. 
Bhonld not be adjudged, without 
regular iaveati gallon, 485. 
Oar OOBpleta. (See Brake* and Conp- 

OaracM CemmiailOQ discnieed, 4761, 

4826, 4920, 9090. 
Caracai; ToianieU: 
Centennial celebration of birtb of 
BoUvar t« be bold at, 4716, 4760. 

Statue of Wuhington to be com- 
menced at, and indnatrial exhlbi' 
tion to be opened, 4716, 4760. 
Oardenae Ba^, Onba, conflict in, die* 
cussed, 6302, 6316. 
The Wlntloio rescued hy the Bvdaim 
in, thanka of Congress, etc., to 
officeTB and men of latter recom- 
mended, S30S. 
OardlnaL — A prince of the Church ot 
Rome, ranking In Catholic eonntrlea with 
princes of the blood royal, a member of 
the conclave or sacred college, which le 
tbe conncll of tbe Pope. Blnce 11T9 the 
cardlDBla have clulmed and exercised tbe 
privilege of electing the Pope. The full 

Closkey. oi New ^ork. was made tbe drat 
American cardinal. Ua died Oct 10, 1886, 
and on June T, ISBS. Archbishop Jamea 
OtbboDS, of Baltimore, was created cardl- 
naL Not. 27, 1911, Pope Plus X bestowed 
tbe red hat of Cardinal upon Jobu U. Par- 
ley, of New ?ork; WlllUm H. O'Connell, 
of Boston, and DIomede Falconto, former- 
ly of Wssblcgton, for the United State*. 
Oaillole Indian Bchi>ol, establishment 

of, diKnssetl, 4529. 
Oumlck ft BamM7, elainu of, referred 

to, 306G. 
OaniegiB Fonndatlos for tho AAnncft> 
meat of Teaching.— An institution tonnd- 
ed by Andrew CarneglB In 190S, and In- 
corporated by the Congress of the TInlted 
States In 1906. Tbe Institution Is ei^ 
dowed wllh^ f IS^OOOjOOO^ and Its^prlmi^ 

Terall'les, s^d ^echnlca'l sl 

ed Stalea, Canada and Newfoundland. By 
tbe ssTcnlh annnal meeting of the trns- 
tees In 1912, SIC allowaDces were being 
paid tr — -•- — --" '"' ■ — • ■- 


ancel- , ._ _„ 

ment being about seventy years. 

In the payment of retiring allowances to 

Srofeaaors and pensions to widows of pro- 
•asors, the foundation alms to deal with 
iDStltntlons rather than with indivldnala. 
It baa, therefore, formed an accepted llat 
of Inatltutlons, the teacbers and omcera ot 
which may retire nnder flied rules. There 
were In KoTember. 191S, ae*anly.|hree In- 
atltutlons on the accepted list. In addl- 

report of the president, and In olber 

bulletins published by the foundation. The 
p resident ot the fonndatlon Is Dr. Hennr 
B. PrItehett; aecrelary, Clyde Fnrat ; sd- 
dress, 676 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
Oamegle Hero Pnnd,— m April, 1904, An- 
drew Carnegie created a fond ot (S,000,- 
000 tor the beneUt of. the dependents of 
those losing their lives In heroic elTort to 
•are tbelr fellow men, or for the beroaa 
tbemselTes If Injured only. ProTlsion was 
also made tor medsls to be given la com- 
memoration of heroic acts. 

The endowment known as "Tbe Hera 
Fned" WB* placed In the banda ot a com- 
mlealon composed ot twenty-one persons. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Ounuglt HttO Fond — DonMmwd. 
raldenU ol Plttibaiy, Pa., of which 
ChirlM It. Taylor la proldeDt. and F. M. 

In hla letter 

I the Heio Fand Com- 

' poiltlona pecuniarily 

. _. , ___ __ ,hfldren .. 

otbw dependent! are to be provided tor 
natu lb* reottrlea, and the children nntll 
ther reach a Klf-tappoTtlng rec. Fot ei- 
cepllonal children, exceptional Eranta mar 
be made tor exceptional education. Oranta 
nt inma of moae; mar alio ha made to 
heroea or herolnea aa the commlaaloD thinka 
adTlaable— each cue to be Indged on Ita 

The fnod oppllea only to acta performed 
wtlhiD the United Btalea ot America, tbe 
Dominion ot Canada, the colony of New- 
foQDdUnd, and the waters thereof, and 
■nch acts muat have been performed on or 
after April IG, 190*. 

Tbe commlulon baa awarded B41 med- 
al*— SOe bmnie. SIS BllVEr aod 16 r>ld. 
In addition to the medala, 1835,986 haa 
bean awarded for disablement beneQta. and 
for educational and other apeclal purpoaea, 
and for the dependenta ot beroea who lost 
tbdr lives, Inclndlns paymeota made to 

OftnOfez Fenr (W. Va.), Battle of.— 
After UcCIellan'a promotion, Jalr 22. 1861, 
to tbe cammand of the Arm; of the Po- 
tomac, Boaecrana ancceeded bim In com- 
mand in West Virginia. Oen. Floyd took 
a poaltlon on the Oaoley River, elgbt miles 
•outh of Nlcholaa, W. Va^ at Camlfei 
Ferry, with 2,000 Confederatea. Intending 
to cnt off Coi's brigade from Sosecrana'a 
army. Sept. 10 he waa attacked In tbla 
poalllon bT Roaecrans with 10.000 men. 
Darkness terminated a aharp engaBement. 
and tbe next momlns Floyd waa m the 
moantaina, thirty mllea away. Tba Federal 
Ion waa 120 killed and wonnded. Amone 
tbe former waa CoL Lowe, of the Twelfth 
Ohio, who fell at the bead of hla regl- 

CaroUlte, Tlie. — A steamer In tbe service 
of Canadian rebels which was aelied on 
American aoll by the Brltlah and burned. 
Id 183S-3T a revolntlonary Bplrlt de- 
veloped [n Lower Canada. Dec 12. 18ST, 
the leaders of the Inanrrectlon, under one 
Hackenate, aelaed the Canadian Navy Isl- 
and, In the Niagara Blver, and aet np a 
provisional govemment. Dec 26 the Ca- 
nadlana, croastng the Niagara, after a flght 
In which aeverar rebels were killed, burned 
the vessel (1618. 1929). The affair caused 
great IndlgDation. Preatdent Van Bnren la- 
aued proclamatlona demandlog observance 
of the neutrality Uwa (1696, 16991. '"■- 
New York militia waa called ont and 
under command at Oca. Scott. 

OaroUnd, Tha, attacked and dutrojed 

bj British forces, 1618. 
Claim on Brazil coneemin^, 42S0. 
Correspondence regarding, 161 S, 1676, 

1839, 1840, 2010, 2073. 
BisCDBsed, IB 29. 

Satisfaction demanded of Great Brit- 
ain for destrojing, 1732. 
Oandlne Trtan^ff — a PadOe areblpelaxD 
extending from lat. 8* to 11* north and 
from long. I3T* to 163° eaat. The prin- 
cipal Islands are Tap, Ponape. Btrong, B>b- 
elthonap, and Book. The name uaualiy In- 
clDdea the Pelew Islanda. Tbe InhabltantB 
are Polynesians. Oermany and Bpaln both 
claimed Tap Island unMl 1886, When tbe 
dispute waa aettled In favor ot Spain. Bjr 
treaty of Peb. 12. 18B9, these lalanda, wltb 
tbe exception of Guam, the largest of tba 
Uarianne Which bad Wn ceiled to tba 
United States In 1808, passed on Oct. 1, 
ises, (rom Spain Into flie bands of Oct- 
many. The purchase price paid by Oermany 
was about (4.000,000. They eoniUt «t 
about flve hundred coral islets which ara 
small and sparsely peopled. The moat Im- 
portant product and export la copra. 
Caroline lalanda: 

Dispute between Qermany and Spain 

relating to domination of, dia- 

cuBsed, 4916, 6370. 
Questions with Spain toQcbing rights 

of American citizens in, 6622, G751, 

Olfpenteis' HalL — Building owned by the 
guild or nnlou of carpenters of Phllsdel- 
phla. It was similar to the guild balls ot 
LoDdon. The First and Second Continen- 
tal Coogreases beld their seaalona in tbla 

Carpetbaggers. — A term of reproacb aii- 
plled to certain aorthera politicians who Ui 
tbe days of the reconatmctlon of the sonth- 
ern atates shortly after the close of tbe 
Civil War took up temporary raaldence In 
the south Bad sooght e -- " 

Intendsd .. . . 
fore carried. It 

Diiy, aoa loere* 

— their effects in 

, Some of them proved to bn 

good and nseful cltliens, while many were 
uuBcmpuloua adventurers who sought 0lll> 
clil poaltlona tor the porpoae of enrlcblnc 

Ourlages and Wagons.— Ages at prog- 
ress have Intervened between the laxnrlooa 
automobile touring car of to-day and the 
sandy chariots ot ancient kings. American 
inventive genius haa added materially to 
this proEcesa. Until the advent of the 
automobile the American buggy represented 
tbe highest type of private conveyance, 
being B modEQcalEon of the Bngllah brong- 

d out and placed 

Revolution very little manufacturing wea 
done In thia coontry. Wealthy Americana 
Imported their coacbea. carriages and phae- 
tona from England and France. Tbe num- 
ber of repair abopa, however, locreaaed 
with the number of vehicles. 

Tbe Brat American vehicle to be manu- 
tactnred to any extent was the two-wheeled 
chaise, which became popular In New 
But land. New York and Boston wers 
connected by a stage-coach route In 17T0. 
In 1776, when John Hancock married 
Dorothy Qnlncv, he took ller by atage- 
coacb le PhUadelplila tor a boneTuo^ 


Encyclopedic Index 


OurUtcM and W^cotu— <7mff(i««d 

After tbe Conttnental CousreM had or- 
(uilMd the OovemmeDt, "the itnportBtlon 
of coadiea, chain, and carrlasH ot sii 
MR* Irom BoglaDd was lorbld 

federal atid ttale aid, the Tehlcle bualaea* 
gnw. Tha Coueeiosa wason, with broad 
wheeto and canTaa-covered bodr, often 
drawn bj aeveral teama of horses, came 
Into MDeral uae In New York, New Jersey 
and PennarlYanla. Troj, N. Y., became 
famona for Its coaches : finlem iDd Woccea- 
ter. Hbbb., were also earl; noted aa maoo- 
faettirlas ceatera. With tbe migration 
weatwart after the war of 1812, the vehl- 
de baalDeai followed the main rontea of 
trarcL John Btndebaker eatabllahed a shop 
at Aablaad, Ohio, In 188S, and two of his 
MDl, iMTlni learned their father's trade, 
went to Soath Bend, Ind., ia 1862, and 
(stabtlabed the bualDeaa which has alnee 

I aoDTiBllr 60,- 

more than a bund red 

phwa 8,000 workmen, , ,_, 

COO,000 feet of lamber and tbonsanda at 
tana of Iron and steel. The rearlr output 
ot the factorr exceed* 100.000 Teblcles. 

In 1B73 the CairisEe Bnlldera* National 
AMDdaUon was founded b; the lea dins 
manDtacturers of tbe coontrr foe training 
stilled workmen and to itandardlie tbe 
buslneas. Rubber tlrea came Into use In 1890. 

In famll7 and pleaaure earrlaeea Ohio 
taoka flrst New York leads In Uie num- 
tier of public convey an ces manufactured, 
while Indiana beads tlie Hat of States turn- 
ing out fami, goremmeot and municipal 
WBfona. HIcblEan. Hlnoesota. Wisconsin 
and New York torn out about three^quar* 
ten ot tbe alelgba and sleds. 

In the census report tor 1900 the state- 
mcDt was made that In the earlleat stages 
of the carriage and wagon Industrr almost 
the entire work of manntacliirfng was 
done at the establishment, but speciali- 
sation has wranght a change In this as In 
manj other lines of msnufanure, and now 
few, If an;, manofacturers produce i " 
parts. The making o' ' — -"■• 

t of the 

work 00 

^ing IQ .„ 

on* branehea, according to tbe cenaoa of 
IVIO. was carried on lo S.402 eatabUsh. 
ments In tha United States, and gave em- 
plorment In 1900 to 82,944 peraona. of 
whom 09,928 were wage-eamera, and paid 

t<S,BSS,130 in aalarlea and wages. The 
Hal coat of materials was m.9Sl,288. 
which warn equal to abont half (Cl.S per 
eent.t of tb« toUl Talue ot ths prodncU 
{tl50.892,b«T), while the *a]ua added to 
tbe natanals by manntactnre waa <|7T,- 

Oanon ud Oolondo Bsflioaa, right of 

■mj ot, tbrongh Walker Biver B«Mr- 

vation, Nev,, ntmtA to, 4736, 477«, 

«53, 6178. 

Ousong Vallar, Utah, Territorial goT- 

amment over, referred to, 3014. 
Cartel. — An agreement between twillgerent 
states relating to the methods ot carrj- 
■ug on the war, as tor the eicbanga of 
nsoners. declaring certain groand ncu- 
-^rrrlng on 

ErTsoners. declaring c , 
ral, repressing marauders, i ,. 

postal eoDimunrcatlon, or the like. 

— — . nsed In eicbangi... v._^..._ „. 
carrjlDg communications to tbe enemy. 
Cartels fat the exchange ofprlsonat* ars 
perhaps the most comman. These are nsu- 
Bllr concluded bt the two goTcmmentK 
bu£ genera]* may treat with each other 
directly. An exchange of prlaoaera la 
beneflclal to each side, which thereby re- 
covera its own men and Is saved tbe tron- 
ble and expense of guarding and feeding 
its captives. In an exchange, the rank ol 
the priaoners Is taken Into account, and. 
BO far as possible, man I* exchanged tor 
man ot equal rank. 

Outhrngt (Ho.), Battls of.— After Gov 
emor Jsckson and hi* follower* had l>een 
driven from Boonvllle by Oen. Lyon they 
pasbed weatward Into Jasper Connty, being 
joined on tbe way by Gen. Sterling Price. 
This Increased the Confederate forces to 
8.600. July S, 18S1. they were confronted 
near Carthage by Oen. E^na 8tgel with a 
force of l.eOO men, who had been aent to 
the southwestern part of the Btate to pre- 
vent reenforcementa arriving from Arkanaa* 
and Texas. Blgel. after a short engage- 
ment, retreated throngh Carthage to iar- 
coxle, flfleen miles to the eastward. His 
loss waa 18 killed and SI wounded. The 
Confederatea reported tlietr loss at 40 to 60 
killed and 126 to ISO wounded. 
Oarj'g BabaUioiL— Thomas Cary, depnty 
governor of North Carolina, was deposed 
In ITOB at tbe solicitation ot the Qnaken 
for distranchlaing then under the reqotre- 
menta of the test acL For several years 
Carv endeavored to usurp the govemmeat. 
In ITll be attempted to capture Qovemor 
Hyde by force. Qovemor Bpotswood, ot 
Virginia, scut soldiers to Hyde's assistance 
aoiTCady waa forced to submlL 
Cau Oraade Bolii, AitMna. (Sm Parka, 

OavQe lalaikl, BoMoa Harbor, joint 
resolntioB antboririne use and im- 
provemeut of, vetoed, 6244. 
OatawlMt, Tha, pucliased for Fern, de- 
tention of, 3831, SS36. 
Oatlierlne, Tlia^ aeiser of, bv Britiih 

erniser Dolphin dlseaiied, 2070. 
Oatberlms Ancoata, The, aeiied hj Den- 
mark witk tbe Bm Frankltn, 4469, 
6309. (8eeBatterfletd,OarloaAOo.) 
Arbitration in caae oi^ 0U9. 
Contaglona dleeaaei among, dla- 
eoseed, 4S7S, 4SS0, 4771, S112, 8883, 
6764, 6887. 
Oonventton at Cblsago on gnbjeel of 
diseases of, 4771. 

portatton and importation of (Sea 
'-' and Animal P'^^ttBtfc) 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 


OfttUe — ermttowfld. 

Ingpection of. (See Aaimal lodiu- 
tfy, Bniefta of.) 

BeatrictioDfl on importation of. (See 
AninuUa mni Animal Product*.) 

SlaughteT of, from United States re- 
quired bj Great Britain, 5704, 6178. 
Cattle. ExUliltlon, IntomaUonal, at 

Hambnig, Qennanr, discossed, 4714. 
OatUe PUfQe. (See Plenro-pDeumonia.) 
Oancns. — A meeting of tbe BdhereDte of 
a political partr to name eaadldates lor 
offlce or lErea uimn llees of part; poIli^T. 
Tbougb tbe caucui Is Btrlctlj an AmerieBii 
Initltatio^ almllar mettlDn are wnietlmea 
held In Bnglend. Ur. Gladstone beld a 
coacns respeetlns the ballot bill Jul? 6. 
1871. Tbe cancna orltlnated In Boalon In 
tbe earl; part of tbe elgbteenth century. 
It Is Ruppoeed to have dertved Its name 
from tbe meetings of tbe culliera connected 
with tbe sblpplnB bualneu In the Nocth 
End. From t&e» local meeClaEs the cns- 
— 1 grew and carried the asme wltb It 

until a 

: the I: 
; It ' 

e bj a 

18ZB E 

in 1831 the present ajslem of nomlasllaD 
by conrcDllons came Into use. State on- 
cers were slmllarlj nominated by legls- 
la live csnciises until, somewhat previous 
to tbe general pnrtv svatem, nominating 
conreDtlona took their place. Cancases of 
tnembera of Congress are now held repular- 
I; bT tbe adherents of the aerernl political 
parties to discuss and determine upon party 
policies and to eboose the officers of the 
BcDBte and House. 
OBTalrr. (See Army.) 
Oavalrr, increase in, recommended, 228, 

230, 2714, 4B61. 
Oavlte, Plilllpplne Islands, batteries at, 

ailcnced bj American squadron, 62 B7, 

63 IS. 
Oajniga Indlaiu. (See Indian Tribes.) 
OayuM Indiana. (See Indian Tribes.) 
Cedar Creak (Ta.), Battle of.-One of 
tbe most notable actions In the CItII War. 
After the ensasement at Fishers Hill Bberl- 
dan posted hla army on the north aide of 
Cednr Creek, near StrnsbarE. and went to 

Cedar Kers, FU., interfsrenee with col- 
lector of cnstoma in, and action of 
Goveinmeut disenued, 6607. 
Cedar Homitalo (Ta.), BatUe of.— June 
26, ISe^, Gen. Pope was asslKOed to tbe 
command of tbe combined forces of Banks, 
FremonL snd McDowell, known as the 
armr of Virginia. Each of the separate 
armies had Been defeated or forced Into 
retreat by Jackson, Tbe combioed forces 
numberwl 4S.000. Including 0.000 cavalry. 
Pope eatabllsbed headqnartcrs at Culpeper, 
ahont 60 miles soutbwest of WaablnKlon. 
Gen. Lee aeot Jackson and A. P. Hill to 
occupy GordonsTllle, a few miles Sonth of 
Culpeper. Tbeir united armies, number- 
ing, according to Federal accounts, 25.000 
men, advanced toward Culpeper, and on 
AuB, 9 attacked Gen. Baoka, with a force 
of XOOO men. at Cedar Uonalain. a hill 
two miles west of Mitch el la Station. Cul- 
peper County, Va. Banks was defeated. 
The Federal lotisea were S14 killed, 1,443 
woundpd, and 620 missing. Tbe Confed- 
erates lost 22B killed, and 1,"— '-' 

Oedar Baptds, Iowa, act for erection of 

public buildings in, returned, S503. 
Cemeteries, NatlonaL— The army appro- 
priatlon bill for 1860 contained a claoae 
setting aside $10,000 to pnrcbase a lot 
near the Cl» of Mexico (or the Interment 
of Cnited States BOldien who fell near 
that place during the Mexican War. 

Since tbe Civil War Congress liaa estab- 
Itahed elghty.fonr cemeterleB within lh« 

jonth, I 

They are mostly In 1 
* "~e soldiers fell In thai 
: 3T0.41S graven 

e and rank of each o 

1 June 80; ISID; 


prised t 

1.900 prIsone'rB. The 'Federal army onder 
command of Gen. Wright retired toward 
Winchester, when Sheridan, who had ai^ 
rived at the latter place during tbe (ore- 

■ armv anii ordered tbe 

rere in pos- 
_. . .. Creek w\ea 

tbey 5 - - - 

afternoon a 

1 both Bides. The 

I defeated, wllb 

the I 

lost nil 

ate loss was' 2:400. This was tbe laat effort 
of the Confederate forces to occupy the 
EUienandoab Valley. 


Encyclopedic Index 

OiiB0t«Tla«, KatlOMl— {rontftiMd. 

Ot (bin iitafBnta lint S^lT m tbiM olCoBfidfnt^ 
Mac Mialf b the NMJontl CaDctarw i( Cuap Buthr, 
CnnM Bm, nngi Pol^ FonSmkh, HuipMa. JdlecBB 
Banak^ tknacbld ud WoodJswn. 

Tba natloiial cnnetarr at Octtjabarc, Pi., 
la pecallarl7 InteresllDi from Its havlns 
bcea dedicated bj Freildent Lincoln Id 1863. 
tl •IxniDdi In numeroni memorlila of the 
departed aoldlen, Incladlns a natlocBl moa> 
DmenL It baa been the icinie of a re- 
nnlrn of tbe aarrlTOTa of tbe sreat battle 
toQsht there July 1-3. 1863. The OoTern- 
ment aMiunod clurfe of It la 1S12. 
CteBUtMlM, Nfttloiul. (8m ftlso Na- 
tional Cemeteries.) 

EitablisluiieDt of, and namber of 
'Doion foldien buried in, diseassed, 

428E, 4352, 4402, 4443, 4508, 4S52, 
4603, 4712, 4753, 4S18, 4899, 5078, 
S350, 5483, 5540, 5609, 5832, 5949, 
Oeiuors.— Bomsa maslatratei to mrrtj 
and rate the property and correct the man- 
ners of the people were appointed aboot 443 
B. C. The old conatltutlon of rennsrl- 
vanla, framed In ITTO. provided tor « coun- 
cil of ceuors, to be chosen two from each 
city or county every i 
duty It should t 

whether t 

'SClsete tbe de- 

_ ;nl and Inquire 

tutlon had been rlolated. 
A new conBuiiaiiDU was framed In ITBO with 
this provision omitted. The Vermont con- 
■tltullon. modeled after that of Pennsyi- 
Tania, provided for censors, and this re- 
quirement was not abolished till 1870. 
Oensnie, Xesolntlons of. — Two resolutloni 
of censure on the president have been 
pasaed, once by the Senate and once by 
the House, on occasions where the ma- 
jority passing these resolution s waa not 
saffldently large either to pass njCHsares 
over Ibe president's veto or to Impeach 
him. Marcli 28. 1S34. after three months' 
debate over an attempt to impeach Andrevf 
Jackson, Congress rcaolved that the "presi- 
dent. In the late executive proceedings la 
relation to the public revenue, ha* assumed 
upon himself authority and power not con- 
ferred by the Constitution and Uwa. bat m 
derogation of both." Jaclcson protested, 
but without avail. In 1837 the resolutions 
were expunged from the records. Jan. 10, 
1843, John M. Botts. of Virginia, offered 
a resolution for the Impeachment of Presi- 
dent Tyler for "gross usurpation of poner, 
wicked and corrupt abuse of tbe power of 
appointment, high crimes and mlads- 
meanors," etc, Tyler protested Bgntnat this 
as Jackson had done before him, but he had 
aa a member of the Senate voted against 
the reception of Jackson's protest, and In 
answer to bis protest Uie House sent him 
a copy of the Senate reaolutlon on the 
former occasion. The resolution waa re- 
jected by a. vote of 83 to 127. (Sea alao 

Oensns. — The Conalltntlon requires that ■ 
census of the Cnlted States shall be taken 
decennially. The flrat census was taken In 
17B0 under the sopervlsion of the presi- 
dent : subsequent censuses, to and includ- 
ing that of 1840, were taken under the 
snperrlBlon of the Secretary of Stats. In 
1849 the supervision of the census wae 
transferred to tbe newly organized Depart- 
ment of the Interior, and cootinued under 
the control of Chat department until the 
passage of the act of 1903. creating tbe De- 
partment of Commerce and Labor : by this 
act the Census Bureau was transferred to 
*■*"" ~"7 department, Congresa, by a""" "~ 

The work of tbe Census Bureau Is di- 
vided Into two main branchea. namely, the 
decennial census and special statistical In- 
quiries, the latter moally made In the In- 
tervals between the decennial censoaes. The 
Thirteenth Decennial Censas was taken aa 
of date April IS, 1910. It covered tba 

ftt, SH8, 4180, 4187, 4184, 4237, 

pproved Uarch 6, 1902. i 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

dOlriM refardlng tba lDian«, leeble-tnladrd, 
OMf and dninb, lod blind ; ertme. panper* 
lim, tnd IniitTOlence : deaibi and ^ilribs In 
tin areas malutalalDx reglitratlon tjatan ; 
social and financial ataltalica of cities ; 
wealth, debt and taxation ; rellglona bodies: 
electric llslit and power, telephonea and 
tclecrapba, and atreet rallwaji : transports- 
Uoa b; wat«r; cotton prodnctian and dls- 
trlbatloD : and production of forest prod- 
acta. Tbe autiatlea of deaths (whlcb now 
COTSi a Ilttl* over lialf of the conntrj), 
of dtlea, and ot production of cotton and 
foreal products, are secared ananallT : the 
olber atatlatlcs mentioned are taken aanallr 
at InterTals of fiTe or ten jeara, not. how- 
ever, at the same time as the regular de- 
cennial cenHQsM. Tbe act of 1902 also pro- 
Tldea for a eeniiia ot manuCactures In the 
Uth rear Interrenlns between the deceanlal 
censusas, and tbe new Thirteenth Cenana 
act further provides for a censns of agri- 
enltare in leie, as well aa In ISia 

The Director of the Censns Is appointed 
br tbe President ot the Dnlled Blatea and 
r«celvea a salary of le.OOO per annum. The 

PosUge on pftp«n eonceming, dis- 

eosoed, 664. 
lUfeired to, 6345, 6389, 6454, 6676. 
Supervisors of, removed, referred to, 

OmamM, Asrlcnltnnl, recominended, 

Onmi Boud referred to, S560. 
Cenini BnrMtn diBCQaaed, 4066, 5640. 
OenL — Copper coins stamped with varlons 
designs were Isaoed first b; tbe atate* aad 
later bjr the Federttl OovemmenL Tennont 
was the first state to Isaoe eopiwr c«nta, 
having granted permtaslon In Jnne. 1TS5. to 
Benben llannon, Jr.. to make montj for tbe 
sUte lor two jrears. In October 1785, 
Connectlcnt granled the right to coin £10,- 
000 In copper cents, known u the CoDMCU- 
cnt cent ol ITBS. In 17S0 Haaaachnsetta 
established a mint and coined 160.000 In 

eenta and halt i 

New Jerse; granted the t 

""" " ■■" noppers 1- -^- 

iht t 


BOr^a. The permanent ofllee 

..-_._ , orgaDlxatlon 

Includea a chler clerk, four chief statlsti- 
dans — for Bapnlatlon, (or manaf acta res. for 
flnance and municipal ststlstics, tor vital 
statlsiles — a geographer, and eight chiefs of 
division. The enllre nnmbcr of emploreea 
In the Bureau at Waahlngton Is now aboat 
640 : In addition .there are abont TOO special 

Ight . 

... .. . _ ..__ jEming. _. 

J. Harrla of the Continental Congress directed Bobert 
Morrla to look Into the matter of govern- 
mental coinage. He pronosed s standard 
based on the Spanish dollar, one hundred 
units to be called a cent Ula plan w 

agents employed Intermittently in the south- 
em states for the collection of cotton sta- 
tlstlca. The number ot emplovees In Wash- 
ington was greatly Increased durlr*- "-- 
deeennlal ccqsqb : on November 1, ~ 
was S.56B. la addlt' ~ " 

(Sea Fopnlatlon.) 

Appropriation for ezpenaei of, ree- 
ommended, 4654, 4664, 469D, 46D5, 

Digenued uid reeommendBtioiu re- 

Arthur, 4635. 

Cleveland, S978. 

Fillmore, 2622, 2eeS, 2708. 

Grant, 3996, 4066, 4166, 4208. 

Harrison, Benj., S5G3, 6640. 

Jackson, 1093, 1367. 

Jefferson, 81 S. 

Johnson, 3872. 

Lincoln, 3259, 3338. 

Pierce, 2756, 

Boosevelt, 6676, 7104, 7176, 7228. 

Taj-loT, 2560. 

Wer, 1894, 1934, 1943. 

Van Bnren, 1714, 1775. 

Washington, 98, 175. 
Everj five years rseommeuded, 4208, 
In 1875, recommendation for, 4157, 

lann regarding timo of taking, dis- 
enssed, 98S. 

Beferred to, 1775. 

Congress tiiat tbe smallest coin s 

-• -• which 200 sboDid pi) 

dred ' 

sta- lied the coinage of copper cents contaln- 

1 Wash- Ing 264 grains and half cents In proportion. 
Injr the By the acts ot Jan. 14, 1793. and Jan. 36, 
1910, it 1766. their weight was reduced (183). 

Their coinage commenced In IT 93. In 
185T the nickel cent was subs turned and 
the half cent discontinued and In 1864 tbe 
bronze cent was Inlrodneed. weighing forty- 
eight eialns and consisting of nInety-Sve 
per cent of copper and the remainder ot tin 
and sine. In the calendar year 1910 there 
were coined IE>2,846.218 cent pieces wortti 
«l.I>28,4e2.18. This was about f 20.000 
more than the value of five cent pieces 
coined, and abont *100,000 less than the 
value ol dimes coined. A proposition to coin 
a half-cent piece was Inlrodneed to the 
Slity-Bpcond Congress In 191S, but tailed 
ol passage. 

Oeat. (See Copper Coins.) 
OontoniUal AnnlTenaiY ot ronndlng of 

Wasblngton aa Capital to be held in 

1900, 6347, M04, 6456. 
Centennial Annlvonarr of Fxaming Of 

Constltntlon, proposition to celebrato, 

in Philadelphia, S118. 
Oentennial AnnlTersarr of Indopon- 

dance, proclamation reeommendiuK 

delivery and filing of hiBtorical 

sketches of counties and towns, 4345. 
Osntennlal Oeiebratlon of Inangnratlaa 
of Praaident Washington to be held 
in New York, 5371. 

Proclamation regarding, 5453. 
Oentennial Expoaltlon at FhlladelpliU. 
— An International exhibition ot acts, man- 
ufactures, and products ot tbe soli and 
mines, held at Fslrmount Parli, Philadel- 
phia, from May 19 toNov^^lO, ;"~- 

nno oeia in tnis couniry, ai 
to celebrate the eompletioi 
Ot the tHateace ot (tw Unit 

United HtatsB aa an 


Encyclopedic Index 


liidepaideDt nmtlon. Tbe eoterprlae re- 
cdT«4 PresUaDt Onwt'B warmest sapptirt 
(4168, 4Sie. 42M, «306j. ClIlieDB of 
FhiladelpbU antNicrlbed (10,000.000 of csp- 
Ital atock. Consresa Bpproprlaied (2.000.- 
000 u ■ loan, PeDnsytvanlB (1.000.000. and 
the fit; of rhlladelphls (1,000.000. Elgbt 
million peraona paid admlaslon. and many 
forclsD conntriea were repreaented bj oi- 

Cantennlal Exposttion at Philadelphia 

diacuBMd, 4I5S, 4216, 42S4, 430S. 

Appropriation for, recommended, 

4270, 4314. 
Commiaaion referred to, 4272, 4315. 
Correipondenee regarding, referred 

to, 4311. 
Executive orders regarding, 4235, 

GcTemmeiit aid to, reeommended, 

Prodajnation regarding, 4181. 
Bemoval of government exhibit to 
capital for permanent exhibit 
reconiineiided, 43S4. 
Exhibits of foreign nationa eon- 
tribnted, 4365. 
Beport of board on behalf of Exeeu- 
tiTe Departments, printing and dis- 
tribution of, recommended, 4381, 
Beport of eonunisBion referred to, 

4364, 4465. 

BesiUts of, diseosaed, 4355, 436S, 4465. 

OratrsI Amorica. — The aix IstbnUan atatea 

hBTS an ana whldi a little exceeda 200.- 

000 aqnare mllea. Tbe createat breadlba, 

I, Nlcaragaa, Panama, Salvador, 
i>aiM>na Cuniil Zona belouslne to tbe 
United Btatea haa an area ot 474 aqnare 

Tbe nplanda of the pUteaa of Mexico ara 
iDlermpted tij the lowland of the lathmal 
of Tehnantepee, bnt rlae again on Ibe aoolh- 
caat. The xeneral formallon aa far aonlb 
aa Coata Blca, wbere the lathoiDa narrowa 
and tbe noantaloa trnd to form a alDfcIe 
chain, la that of a placean aloplng gentlr 
towarda the Atlantic and aleeply towarda 
the Paclfle. On thla are many more or leaa 
parallel nrnsea. 

Kioaragaa utw a wide coaat plain on the 
•aat, the Uoaqnito Coast, nplanda In tbi> 
Interior from 1,000 to 7.000 feet, alop! 
S«ntlj towarda the .'" — "" — ' "'"■ 

, aloplng 

-jmtlnae tbe weatem volranle aone. 8 

of theae are actlre, CaaeKnlna and Uaaaya 
hare been tbe aeenea of Taat emptiona. To 
the east of tbla Tange la a great denremion 
oeenpled hj tdkea Manama and Nle- 
arainia. Theae are drained by the San Jaan 
BlTer which flowa Into the Paclflc 

To the •DDth the main Cordlllprs followi 
the cmter of tbe iBthmaa to Panama, where 
a relaf-lre denreaaloD from I.lmon Bay on 
the AUantle to Paoania on tbe Psolflc hag 
faTored the eonstractlon of the canal at 
the narroweat portion. 
Omtaal Amoilc» (see «Ib9 the sev«ral 

Affair* of, disenued, 6825. 

Civil war in, 977. 

Commercial relations with, 1115, 4327, 


Commission to South America and, 

for improving commercial relations, 

4826, 4863, 4864, 4915, 4955, 5116. 

Consuls of United States to, increase 

in number of, recommended, 4760. 
Conventions and treaties between 
Great Britain and United States 
rogarding dominion over, dis- 
CDBsed, 2861, 2884, 2901, 2951, 
Complications arising vnder, 2973, 

Construction of, discussed, 2973. 
Correspondence regarding, trans- 
mitted, 2722, 2894. 
IHplomatic relations with, referred 

to, 2724. 
Diplomatic representation of United 

States in, discussed, 6325. 
Fugitive criminals, convention tritb, 

for surrender of, 4055. 
Greater Bepoblie of Central America, 
establishment of, discussed, S325, 
Greftown, bombardment of. (Bet 

Greytown, Nicaragua.) 
Minister of United States — 
Attacked and vronnded bj ontlawt 

in, 2814. 
Grade of, elevated to plenipotei 

tiary rank, 4717. 
Sent to, 2744. 
Uonarchical government, establish' 

ment of, in, referred to, 3402. 
New British colony establiahed 

Outlaws in — 
American minister attacked and 

trounded by, 2814. 
Uarauding bands of, destroying 
property of American citizens, 
discussed, 2S15. 
Town occupied by, bombarded, 

Complaint of foreign powers re. 
garding, 2817. 
Policy of United States toward, dis- 
cussed, 5750. 
Questions between Great Britain and 
United States regarding, 2741, 2813, 
2901, 2943, 2973, 3039. 
Beferred to, 2722. 
Ship Canal througb, discussed, 1115. 
(Bee also Nicaragua Canal; Pan- 
ama Canal,) 
Treaty nith Great Britain regarding. 

(See Clayton -Bui wer Treaty.) 
Treaty with States formerly com- 
posing, referred to, 2553, 2569, 


Messages mut Papers of the Presidents 

TnuumiHion of, to Hodh d«elin«d, 

Treaty with, tTBiumitted and difl- 
ciUMd, 883, 910, 1750, 4055. 

War in, discTieMd, 491L 
Oantral Ameilca, Oreatw B«pn1fllc of, 

MtabliBbment of, diaeoBoed, 6325, 

Ottntial Amflrtca. — Honduras and Niea- 

ragoa Treaties propoaed bj- Preudent 

Taft, 7663. 
Oentxal American Peaca Oonfarmce.— 
On acconnt of tbe frequent rtTOlntlona In 
tba Centnl American republlca. m well aa 
the won between tbem, Preildcat Diu. of 
Mexico, and PreildenC SooKVelt appealed to 
the repnblln to coofer with each other on 
the qaeitlon of a general treatr of arbitra- 
tion and amltr- In reaponie to tbis Invita- 
tion all the Central American Btatea— Coata 
"'ca, Onatemala, Hondoras, Nicaragua, and 


lesatlona In each from all the others ; forbid 

reTolntlooar; govern men la wilch mar o 

by the frecl; elected repteuntatWea .. 

peoplB : non-lnterfeKnce In Inlernal war- 
fare. The Central American Court of Jus- 
tice was formed, to conalet of dve Jnstlcea, 
one from each republic, to alt at the city 
of CarUgo, In CoBta Rica. Tbls court has 
JortwIlCtloD over laCeToallonal questions be- 

raniportatlon. edu- 

merce,' Industries, peace and prosperttj of 
tbe countries of Central America. 

Hay 26. IBOa, the CfUtral American Court 
of Justice was opened a I Cartago. Costa 
Blca, In tbe preaecce of reprcsentatlTea of 
ITDlted Stales, Heilco^ Bed all tbe Central 
Amerlcao republics. The day cas celebrat- 
ed throughout Ceutral America as a na- 
tloDal hoHday. The United States commis- 
sioner annoDQCed the girt of (100.000 from 
Andrew Carnegie to build a temnle for the 
sittings of tbe court. Id July, Honduras and 
Nicaragua broaght cbargea agalast Salvador 
and Guatemala. President Davllla. of Hod- 
duras, cbarged that a recent revolt In Hon- 
duras was organlied and sunporlcd In the 
neighboring Stotes of Oustemala and Salva- 
dor. PresFdent Zels/a, of Nlcaragun, made 
almllar charge*. The letter's claims were 
dismissed aa lacking fouodallon. The Hon- 
dnras claims were eia mined and decided 
adverselr In tbe following December. 'Hils 
was taken as an Indication of the altlmata 
Utility of the cogrt for tlie piupoieB for 

which it had been created. Tbe AUTeTeBCM 
here peacefall; adjnated were of tbe elaas 
that formerlx led to hMtUltles. 
Ottntial Americas P«aca Oonference, re- 
sult of efforts of Presidents of Unitad 
States and Uezico, 7135. 
Oenbe of Fopnlatlon.— Bishop Berkeier, 
writing early In the eirtiteenth eentnry, 
said In bis poem "On tiie Prospect of Plant- 
ing Arts and Learning In America" : 
"Westward the course of empire takes Ita 

Tlme'a noblest offspring Is the last." 
The epigraph to Banciort's "History of 
the Halted States" made the llrat line of 
the aboTe read aa fotlowa: 
"Westwsrd the star of empire takes Its way." 
Tile centre of jrapulatlon, the "star of 
empire," of tbe Gnited Ststea has mored 
steadily westward from ■ point east of 
Baltimore In 1T90 to the city of Blooming- 

Deied table shows its progress : 

Census . . . «- . UUn dortH 

Y,„ Approiimato Locataon pS jji™ 

1790— TwaDty-thne milM B«t of 

Ballloiaie, Md 

tSOO— Eighteen milsa West of BalU- 

Dioni.Md 40.9 

IStD— Forty miles Northwat by 

WcrtoIWHhiii^n.D.C.. 9S.0 

1830— SiitMD miln North of Wood- 
stock, Va n.t 

1830— NlnatHtn niila WotrfloDtk- 

west of Moorefisld, W. Vs.* 40.4 
IMO-^Siileaa mile* South ol Clarka- 

burg. W.Va.* U.O 

ISW— TirBDlv>^rea miln BonllHast 

of ParLersbura, W.Va.*... U.S 
I8eO~-Twenty miles South of ChU- 

liootha, Ohio 80.6 

ISTO-^otty-eight miles Beat by 

North (iiC%iciDnitl,Ohio... 4t.l 
IBBO-^^iEht milca WeM by South id 

undoiMd, Oblo S8.1 

1800— Twsnbr mOes Esat id Co- 

lumbna, lad 48.0 

1900— Six mila Southeast id Co- 

lumbua, Ind 14.0 

ISIO— In the oity of Bloomlagtoo, Tad. 3B.0 
* West Viiguiia fcsmed part of Virginia until igeo. 

Oerro Qordo (Mexico), Battle of.— This 
battle was fought on April IT and 18. 
184T. Ten days after the surrender of 
Vera Crus the Tanguarda of Scott's army, 
under Brig.-Oeo. Twiggs, took up tbe march 
toward tbe Ueilcao capital. The dlslSDcs 
to be covered was pearly 200 miles. Tbree 
dnj-B later they arrived at the foot of the 
Orliaba Uounfalns, SO miles to the west- 
wnrd. Here Santa Anna, the Uexlcan 
Prealdent. had assembled a force c( IH.OUU 
men. Intrenched on tbe heighta of Cerro 
Qordo. The American force did not ex- 
ceed 8.000 men. By cutting a new road 
around the monutalo to the Bank of the 
enemy and slmulcsneonsly assaulting front 
and rear the Meiicans were forced lo sur- 
render. SBUta Anna encaped wltb some 
6.000 or 7,000 of his army down the rosd 
toward Jalapa. The Iobb lo the Americans 
was es killed and 398 wounded. That of 
tbe enemy was CRllmated to be nearly 1,200 
killed and wounded. Tbe Tlctors captured 
8,000 prisoners (who were paroled), be- 
tween ^.000 snd 4,000 stand of arma, 48 
pieces of heavy bronae cannon, and a larp 
quantity of Ozed a '•'— 


Encyclopedic Index 


■lutll be entltlgd to more thin ten ddafatM 

Onnitl, claim of, ag&inst Colombia dia- 

eiUMd, 0328. 
Otmn, Admlial, Spanish fleet onder 
command of, in Santiago £aibor, 
Cnba, 6316. 

Daatrojred bj American squadron 
while attempting to escape, 6317. 

(See alao BpaniBh-Americaa War.) 
OMmoa of lAndB. (See Landa, Indian.) 
OhalaMtto'i FlADtatlOB (Iia.), Battle of. 
— Ooe of the battle* near Vew Otleana. 
After tbe IndedilTC engagement at Tilliere'a 
pUntatlon, Dec SS. 1814. Sir Edward 
Fakeubam Joined the Britltb armv witb 
. .. -t.... --jelied the InTad- 

> tbe enfcasement 

with 4.000 L 

Ibe BrItUh .v- ^_ 

In 2 colamoi nndei Generals Sean and 
Qibb& After faclUK the beBTj fire of tbe 
i_uri_- .■.._.>.... — *— . Biiort time, 

Amerlean abarpehootera f 

Sir Edward Pakenbam ordered _ 

Tbt Brttlata loai in tbe enea^ment vaa 
atioDt ISO. Tbe loai of tbe Americans 
was 9 killed aed 8 wonnded. One man on 
board the LouMana was killed. More 
than 800 ebota were barled from ber gnna 
wItb deadly effect. One of Oiem fa known 
to bare kflled and wounded IS men. 
Ohambor of Oommorca of tba United 
H ta toa. — A national organisation fonred at 
a eemmerdal conference called by tbe 
Prteiaent at tbe Cnlted Statee to meet In 
Waihlngton, Aprtl 23 and S3. 1913. It* 
pnbUsbed porposea are to enconran end 
"iromote tbe orEanliatlon of Baaoclatlona of 
men In all parts of tbe countr;. 
debatable pollclea affect log oor 
commerce are adrocated bf tbe 
rnieru iintborltlea, tbere sbould be a rec- 
onlied orKanliatlon capable of eipreaaing 
tbe bnalneae opinion of tbe entire countrr 
arallabto for cooterence, Blike to tbe ei- 
ecntlTe and leglalatlTe brancbe* of tbe 


it America t 

t In tbi* capacltp — : 

orlgliiata legielatloo, oor to be 

saHl; critical «t leglalatlon proposed by 
othcra, bat ratber to aaanme that tbe Na- 

conntiT and will accept our co-operatloa 
In an eodeaTor to make all business legls- 
latlon conetroctlTe. 

aaaodatlonB shall be of two claaae*. Vlrat 
— Local or State, commercial or business 
orcanfutlons whose chief pnniase Is the 
dereb>pmeat of tbe commercial and In- 
dnstrlal Interests of a alngle slate, dty or 
locality. Second — Local, — '- ■-■■—■ — 

Kepr»»entatUM, — Eaca member of the 
Cbamber of Commerce of tbe United States 
of America shall be entitled to one dele- 
gate end one rote (or the flmt twenty-Sve 
member^ and one delegate and one toIo 
for eacb additional two boodred member* 
tn exeeaa «f tweDtr-Sre, bat do tBember 

e National headquarter* 

tbe facllltie* o 

■bip Is limited to G,000. 

Oliainbois of Fonlgii Ctaamttc*. ans* 

gested, 7674. 
Oliamben, Talbot, court-martial of, re- 
ferred to, S12. 
OhanUaal, arbitration with Uexieo of 
bonndary quoBtion not utiafaotoiTi 
OhuvlMi HQIfl (HlM.), Battlo of.— 
Sberman was directed to remain at Jack- 
ion to deetroy everything that conld be ot 
value to tbe Confederatea. Grant himself 
turned toward the west. Femberton, the 
Confederate general, with 35,000 men^ bad 
left Vlckiburg hoping to cut oK Qraut 
from his supplies and form a Innctlon 
with Johnston's forces. Iieamuig the 
strength and position of the enemy. Orant 
ordered Sherman and McPheraou to leave 
Jackson and hasten forward. Uay 10, 
18es, Femberton'a army was encountered 
at Champion Hills, a precipitous, narrow, 
wooded ridge twenty-flve milea west of Jack- 
son and twenty miles east of Tlcksbarc. 
Tbe Confederates were stronglj' posted, and 
.. cesMry for the Federal tro*"" *- 

approach the position a 



- of 10 batteries of artll- 

Hover's division and UcPhenon'a 
)■, with tbe exception o" •" *" 

The battle vi , 

and the Confederates were driven back 
after they bad sustained heavy las*. 
Orant'a losses were 410 killed. 1,844 
woonded. and 18 T missing — total, 3.441. 
The Confederate losaea were probably near- 
ly tbe same, and In addition 2,000 pclson- 

Oliamplaln, Lake, (Soo Lake Cluun- 

OtaancelloisTllIo (Va,), Battlo of.— Jan. 
26, 1803, Haj.-Qen. Joseph Hooker suc- 
ceeded UaJ.-Oen. Bora side In command of 
the Army ot the Potomac. By April 1 
that army was In ezcelleut condition, num- 
bering at tbe beginning of the new opera- 
dons over 100,000 Infantry, 10,000 artil- 
lery. 12,000 or 13,000 cavalry, and more 
than 400 gnna. Gen. Lee waa at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., wItb 67.000 Confederates. 
April 28 (same authorities say tbe 20th> 
Hooker began a movement with Le«'s left 
as hla objective point. To cover his real 
design, however, be dispatched Qen, Stone- 

p of man with moat o 

valry o 

tloned Gen. Sedgwick with SO.OC 

opposite Prederlckahurg. and moved with 
about 70,000 men toward the Onlted State* 
Ford, on the Bappahanoock. By April 
BO Hooker bad crossed the Sappahanoock 
with the main body of the army and ea- 
tabUabed bit beadquartera at ChancsUora- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Tti« Confeile_. , _, 

Witb bim Sl.OOO men. Lee bad 

FlgbtJDB began Uaj 2 tbe Flfib Corps 


12 to 14 Inrldent to tbe talLlDg ot Cbapalte- 
pee and tbo occupations^ of ^ the city Ui» 

1 \c Frederick iburx 

Con federals 
g recall of Hoo 

:ale». May a I*e detacbed "Si. .. 
' Jackson, with abont 26.000 men, to 
* " 1 Elevenlb Corps, under Oen. O. 

10,7«, ., . 

commander In cblpf of ... 

faglllTe. Tbe trophies Included 

ant some 30.000. lost 

- then PreBideni Bad 

" """ armj, was • 

color* and ^andarda, 75 plecei of ord- 

___ __. — __„ nip,^ 20.000 amall 

UM <)nantl(7 of ammnnl' 

Tbe next dai. Mar 3, the ct_ _. .. 

newed, nearlj' 14,000 troops under I-ec 
bating made a Junction wltb tbe forcei 
under Stoart, Jaekaau'a immediate auccea- 
Bor. It reaolted In general Con federate 
aucc««s. Sedgivtck In the mcanilme bad 
croaaed Ibe Bappabannoek, forced Early 
out ot the Frederlckaburg Eclgbla. and 
threatened the Confederal* r — -' ™ — 

Ohuleston, 8. C, Ztxpofiitton, reUtiona 

of U. 8. GoTernment to, 0675. 
Oharlogton (S. O.), Surrandsr of.— After 
Blr Henry CUntou bad learneil of the (all- 
ure of the attack on Savannah be aent an 
additional force of 8.500 men to tbe Sovtll 
under MaJ.-Gen. Leallb Tbe main t>ody 
of the American army » — ■- — '-■ 

CellortTtlle. Lee, having defeated the 
^]jig of tbe Federal army and 

-t away, rcenforced on the 8d and 

4lh of May the troopa in front of Sedg- 

4lh , „ 

wick, Tbe latter ... . . 
reeroBBed tbe river at night wtiu a ioh 
«f 5,000 men. Booker alu recrowed Ihe 
tlver dnrlng the nigbl ot tbe 41b. Accord- 
ing to Federal accouota their lass was 
ITTiBT. ot whom 6,000 were prlBonera; 
18 Euna and 30,000 muskelB also fell Into 
tbe Dands of the ConfederateB. Lee'a loM 
waa about 13.000. iocludtng prtaonenL Tbe 
battle ot ChencellorsTllle was probably the 
mtnit liDportant victory won and tbe great- 
est dlaaster auatBlued by the Contederatca 
tip to tbat period. Tbey here detealed tbe 
■plendld Union Anny which aitscked them ; 
but tbe death ot Lleut.-Oen. Jnckson was 
a loaa from wblcb It was welt-nlgb Im- 
poaalble to recover. 

Ohkntmr (Va.), B«ttl« Of.— Aug. 81, 
18S2, the day after the aecond battle of 
Bull Bun. ot Manassas, Lee sent Jackaon 
northward for the pnrpoBe ot taming 
Pope'a right wing toward 'Washington. 
Pope'B beadquariers were at CentervIUe 
and he bad been reentorced by Sumner's 
and Franklin's corps. AntlclpatlDK tbe 
movement ot the CoDtcderates, be disposed 
bis forces In position to meet and truatnite 
It at Chaolltly, Just north of Centerrllle, 
on the evening ot Bept.l, by the troops 
under McDowell, Hookpr. and Kearny. 
Id tbe engagemept Oenerals Keamr and 
Stevens were killed. Pope was forced to 
fall back upon tbe works at Washington. 
Federal loss. 1.300: Confederate, 8O0. 
OIiftptilt«iMo (Mazleo), Bftttla of.— The 
redaction of El Mollno del Rey aod Casa 
de Mata by Qeu. Scott's srmy left tbe 

filled with troops a 
flj^lnary /re"" 

spproncbes v 

l5, 1847. .. , _ 

_ ., on tbe outworkB, 

,_j 18th a Btralegic assault was 

made and tbe walls scaled In the face ot 
a terrible Hre. Tbe American force con- 
sisted of 7,180 men. Some 26.000 ot 
Santa Anna's men were distributed be- 
tween ChunibuBco and Ihe Clly ot Mexico 
and the caoaeways conneclInR them. Be- 
tween ChapuUepeo and the City of Mexico 
proper were two camewara or elevated 
roads leading to tbe gates of Belen and San 
Coame. These were crossed under Ibe en- 
emy's Are and tbe divisions ot Worth and 

iBO, the British squadron, having toacbed 
st Tybee Island, near Savannah, croaaed 
the bar, and on April 6 pnssed Fort Moul- 
trie, with a loaa of 27 men. and aocbored 
off Fort JohuBOD. which bad been aban- 
doned by tbe Americans. April 2» Admiral 
Arbuthoot, with 600 marlnea. forced tha 
Americans to abandon L'Empriee Point, 
with a loss of nearly 100 men, who were 
raptared by f ... 

'- '-fston. 

illrle, — - 

__, Gen. Lincoln i , __ 

surrender. The Brltlah caanaltles were 76 
killed and ISO wounded. The Amerlcsa 
caaualtiea ware nearly tbe same ; 5.018 men, 
which Inclnded all the male eltlaeos ^ 
Charleston, were made prisonera, and 405 

Qoltmui entered I 

> knciinit aeat ot tha 

Site for, 934. 
Olurtor. — A name commonly applied to 
grants of land or special privilege* made 
by governments or Individual nilera to eom- 

fanlee or bodies ot men for a term of years. 
a American law a charter Is a written 
grant trom the sovereign power conterrlUK 
rights or prlvlleees upon a municipality or 
other corporation. The term Is generally 
applied to tbe slatnte. lettera patent, or 
articles o( aaBoclation canctloned Itj staluta 
creating a corporation, as a dty, college, 
stock company, benevolent society, or social 
club. During the early settlement of Amer- 
ica European potentateB, c!alm[n( sover- 
eignty by right ot discovery. Issued chai^ 
terB granting land for pnrpoaes of colonisa- 
tion. The principal charters granted tor 
this purpose were those ot the Virginia 
Company. 1B06, 1009. and 1012; Plymootb, 
1020 : IilassacbusellB Boy, 1629 : Providence 
Plantations. 1644; ConnecUcnt 1663: 
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. 
1803: Massacbusetts, 1691, and Oeoiula, 
1732. The same aorC of charters were given 
to the Dutch West India Company by tha 
States- General ot the United Netherlands 
In 1621 and to the Swedish Company by 
GuBtavQB Adolpbns In 1624. 
Olurtor Oak. — A tree celebrated In Amer- 
ican legend. According to tradition, la 
1087 Edmnnd Androa, the colonial governor 

of Connectlcnt demanded the retom of the 


Encyclopedic Index 


Olwitar Oak— OiHiHiHt«<. 
duiTiM Of tb« Colon;. Daring a n>c«tln( 
held to dclllMmte npoo the actioo to he 
Uken the Utfita were eoddenly eicliwiilBhea. 
Wbea titer were lelUitad the ehartei wu 
BtHlng. It w«a Mid that Capt. Wada- 
worth oTCTented the conflacatloQ ol the 
dkarter b; eecretinf It In the boUow oC an 
oak tree near Hartford. The tree vas lona 
held In sreat Teaeratlon. An«. 20, 18S6, 
it wa* proatrated tyj a sale. 
Chaata Indlanfl. (See Zndiiui Tribes.) 
CbatUiioogft (TeaiL), Battle of. (S«o 

Miaaionarr Bidge.) 
Charnuta luUaiia. (See ladlan TrilMa.) 
CbalUUa Boaarratlon, WadL, allotment 

of lajida in eeveraltT to Indians on, 

referred to, 4779. 
Chamlcala. — The ehemtcal Indnitrr of the 
Doited BUta li but little more than 100 
jeaia old, and ranki foDTth amaoK the 
manolKctnrins bnilnesan. No cbemlcBls 
were made here before the BeroloUon. 
Jn 1810 copnena waa made In Vermont 
and MaiTland, and the Utter atate pro- 
duced ainm In 1813. The mannlactnre of 
chemleala, palnta and medldnea began In 
Baltimore In 161 a 

Cbemlcal manufactnre, aa ancli, can 
hardly be said to bare existed antll the 
CQDtlnDoaalr working chamber proceii for 
aalphnric acid waa latradaced, aboot 1810, 
wbllc tbe Leblmc soda proceea althonah 

dlacorered br him In 1789, failed t ■ - 

foothiz nntll 1814, when It waa in 

into Bnaland br Loah. Now .. 

Ihia great dlaeoverr approaching extinction 
Ukrougb tbe contact proceaa. 

Br 1830 the Indnatrr waa tlrmlr eatab- 
llahed Id the United SUtea, Phlladelpbla 
being tbe center. There were thlrtr llrms 
doing bnaincaa tbroDshout tbe entire conn- 
trr, with a capital of tl,lS8,000, prodnc- 
Im articles valued at 11,000,000. Tbe list 
oTactlclea Included acetate and nitrate of 
lead, acetic and oxalic addi, alum, am- 
aionla, aqna fortla, bichromate of potash, 
borsx, camphor, coppersa, chrome rellow, 
chrome green, Olauber's and Rochnlle aalts. 
mnrlade and nitric adds, oil of Titrlol, 
PmsBlan bine, pmsalale of potaab, aalt- 

Etre, enlphate of quinine, tartar emetic, 
rtarlc acid and compounda of theae. 
The chemical Induatrr la divided for 

Eirpoaea of analrsla by the Cenaua Bureau 
to twelve gronps aa follows : I — Adds, 
except anlpharle, nitric, and mixed acids, 
and soCIt aa are made br establishments 
In tha wood distillation Indostrr. II— 
Sodas. Ill — Potashca. IT— Alnma, V— 
Coal-tar products. TI — Cranides. *"' 
BleachlDg materials. ~' 
leala (snbstaacea proaucea or me aia oi 
electricltr, InclDdlng metale and allors pro- 
duced br alectrolTtlc or electrometallurgle 
•"■— Plaat'" " 

Jierwiae •seemed 

a tbe exceptions DOted In tbe 

gioop, tbls <dsssldcBtlaa exclndea alcohol, 
dre stntto, tertlUser*, explosives, oils, 
paints and otben which are considered 
under approprlata haadtngs. The number 
of eatabiisb meets In these twelve groups 
la 1»10 waa alTen a* 849. Tbe eaplU] In- 
vettad was tlSS.14S,TS0 and &T,T91 per- 
sona were engaged In the Induatrr, extract- 
a therefrom in aaUrr and wages, 
321,089. The total Tslne of tbe prod- 
neta waa placed at $117,688,887. The 
▼alne of the several rroops was ; Adde^ 
■11.936.889; sodas, X2M17^982 : potaabee, 
$BS>40: alnma, 83,STM43; coal-tiu prod- 

BGia, sfi,oio,o»i , cTBUiaeB, f j,,u*x,gtio , 
bleaching materlalo, si,68S.046 ; chemical 
anbatances produced br tbe aid of elec- 
trldtf, 117,902,277; plastka, fT,180,lT2; 

— ' -r ilonefled « ».n»no-i. . 

..-[: aalta. tin compounda, br-prod- 

., 134.349,818. 

Besides these groups, the pcodoctlon of 

|18,7$BTB{^'Jand'~tha outpnt" 

ISO establlabments engaged 
m wiKHi uiaiiilatlon, not Including turpen- 
tine and toslD. The chief prodncn of tbls 
Industrr are wood alcohol, acetate of lead, 
tncpentlne and cbarcoal and creosote. The 
coDltal Invested was reported In 1910 as 
118,017,192. Less than 4.000 persona were 
engaged In the buslneaa and their wages 
and salaries amounted to 11,818,0S9. The 
materia la used cost $C.B7E>,8S1, and the 
Talue of tbe products waa ■9,786.998. 

The production of aulpburlc acid Is a 
matter of tbe areateit Importance, as It la 
not onlr the lonndatlon of the Inornnle 
heavT-chemlcal Induatrr and la used for 
manr other puITloae^ but also baa latelr 
become a moat Important material lu the 
organic dre-atuff Indnatry, eapeclallr 1° 
the prodnctloQ Of allxarlne colore and of 
■ruthetli: lodlgo. 

Tbe flrn mannfacturer Of sulphuric acid 
In the United States appears to have been 
John HarrlBou, of Philadelphia, who. In 
1798, hod ■ lead chamber capable of pro- 
ducing 800 carboys of add per annnm. 
The bualaeas proved very profitable, add 
selling as high aa ISc per pound. Towers 

, and the Lennlg 

in Fhtladelpbla 1_ 

plant, erected In 1829, Is said to have been 
so BDCceiaful that tbe then existing New 
York Cb em leal Company went Into liqui- 
dation and put the fimds realised therefrom 
Into a banking companr, now widely 
known as the Chemical National Bank. 

Nitric add waa mRoafaclured in Phila- 
delphia Id 1834 br Carter t Bcattergood. 
The moat nolahle recent advance made In 
Its manufacture Is In tha form of appa- 
ratna employed, which Is due to Edward 
Hart and Oscar Onttman. It la need In 
tbe manufacture of nitrates, like alive 

. like s 


- . tton, nltroglrcerlne, 
agent and_ tor etching 

; In 


Sulphuric add ran&s first In importance 
among maoufactnred chemleala, followed 
doselr br artlfidal lertllliera. Paints and 
dres come next The conduct ol the l&dna. 
trr depends more upon skill and knowledge 
tun anr other Industrr, and ttie growui 
1* so rapid that the skilled worker of 
twentr rears ago won Id be oaeleaa to-day. 

Among tbe mannfacturea depending upon 
the chemical Industry are the following; 
cotton, woolen and silk fabrics, oil doth, 
palDt, Rlneoae, fertllliera, aonp, glaaa, pa- 
per, InX explosives, pyroxylin, electrical, 
pyrotechDlc. pharmaceutic tauDlng, oil and 
sugar refining, artificial lea, oleacUllg 
worka and the reduction of metals. 

UerchandlHlng of many chemicals la 
handicapped by our Inability to compete 
with tbe low wages of Bome foreign coaa- 
triea ; but. on the other hand, through 
natural advantages not enjoyed by foreign 
manufacturera, considerable exportation of 

For the manafaeu 


it all tl 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

milled iDduitrlea, tbe 

--■0 eaUblUhmenW — ,.-.—_ ,- 

, laelatllDS propil«ton, tim memt»en. 

2.140 eslablUbmenU employing 88,09T per- 

w*Ke-earnera «iid ealaiied atiendaDU. The 
oplui Inreited Id tbe teveral brancbei at 
the BoBlneM Rioounted to 1*88,729,410 waA 
the TBlue of [be prodactn was tl2S.084,D40. 
The nnmber ot cBtabllehmente maaufac- 
tarlns dre-Btuffi and eitracte was reported 
M lOT, baring a capIUI of tlT.B34.e'lS, and 
tanilDs out flDlahed prod nets valued at 
S16,96\g74. at whlcli se,2T0.923 wai 
lidded In the procesa of maDutactares. 
Uore tbin tBO.DOO.OOO wal Imeated In 
making ezploslvet, wblch was carried oo In 
cIshtT-Blx faclorlea. The tertUlwc Indoa- 
ti7 was capltallied at f 12I,53T,4B1, and 
the oDtput of tbe SSO tactoriea naa woTtb 

IBl*, __ 

New Jtnts, IT 1 

Virginia, 9 in Pt 

i In New Sorfc, 18 In 
MaBBachusetti, IS in 
aylvanla, 6 in — " 

.Muu, » In TenneBSee, 4 In [iorth Carolina, 
4 in West Virginia. 2 in GeorBla, " "- 
DOlB. 2 In Wir ' ' - -— '- 

and 1 each In Alsbuna, 

Caliiomis, ConnecacDt, Indiana and Hlcbl- 

Olumlitry, BTueaa of. (See Agiieoltiure, 

Dspartment of.) 
(numulpo, Koreft, agreement respecting 

foreign settlement at, 5391. 
OberokM Oam. — The Indian tclbes known 
aa the "Creehi" and the "Cherokeea" po«- 
Mssed large tracti at land In what are now 
the BtateB of Georgia and North CaroiinA, 
and tbe terrttoiT to tbe weit of them. 
From time to time treaties had been mads 
with tbeae Indians br wbldi much of thlB 
Und bad been ceded to tbe United Btatel. 
Among these were tbe Hopewell treaty of 
1T8S and tbe Kotston treat; of 1781 : the 
llrBt of these InstrnmentB had. among other 
tblnga. recofnlaed the Cheroliees aa a na- 
tion poswaauig It own laws and all the 
otber attrlbntes of nationality-, Uie eeeond 
bad gnaranteed to them all lands not tbere- 
br ceded. When Oeorgia Id 1802 ceded her 
western territory to the Hulled Btates, tbe 
latter agreed to eitloguish Indian titles to 
landa In the slate proper aa soon as It 
coDid peaceably and reasonably be done : 
bat tbe Cherokees could not be Induced to 
anrrender tbelr lands. Tbe state therefore 
claimed the right to extend Its own laws 
n*er all Its territory, and passed acta de- 
prlTlng the Cherokeee ot their conrts and 
ether machinery of Kovemment ; these were 
followed by acts dividing the Cherokee land 
Into conntlea, and after allottliiK 169 acres 
to each bead of a Cherokee family, provid- 
ing for the distribution of the remainder 
by lot among the people of tbe state. Not- 
withstanding the treaties. President Jack, 
•on took tbe ground that as the state was 
■overeign the united flutes conld not Inter- 
fere. The qocBtion now came np before 
the Dotted States Bnpreme Court In the 
following way. A Cherokee named Tassels 

■ring way. A Cherokee nan... 

senfeneed to bi- hanged, undpr the l! 

of Oeorgla, for killing anolhcp Indian on the 
Cherokee lands. The Oolted Blatpii fia- 
preme Conrt granted a writ of error re- 
quiring the state to show cause why the 
ease shonld not go to the Cherokee courts. 
This writ was dlsrHBrded, and the Indian 
was liirog. There the nutter was dropned. 
Again, two mlsslonariea were convicted of 
entpHog the Cherokee territory without 
haying compiled with certain requirements 
demanded by Georgia enactments regarding 
these lands. Their caae waa carried to 
Oa Dnlt^ States Bnpreme Court on a 

writ of error, and tbe Jndgaent of the 
conrt held the pcovislona oT oar Indian 

Is Important as the flr»t 

Instance of successful Dulliacstlon of Unit- 
ed States laws by a state. Tbe Indiana 
were Anally penoadcd to move to the In- 
dian Territory, and by 1838 the i^st had 
left the sUte. 
Clieiokee Commission: 
Agreement with — 
Cherokee IndiAni, 6671. 
Cherenne and Antpalioe Indians, 

Comsneke, Kiowa, snd Apache In- 
diana, 5768. 
Indians of Pjramid L«ke Boserra- 

tion, Not., 6649. 
Iowa Indians, 5508, 5612. 

Proclaimed, 5591. 
Kickapoo Indians, 5638, 6949. 
Pawnee Indians, S768. 
Pottawatomie and Absentee Bhaw- 
nee Indians, 5514. 
Pioclaimed, 55S1. 
8ae and Fox Indians, 6608, 6510. 

Proclaimed, 5691. 
Shoslione and Arapaho« Indians, 

Tonkawa Indiana, 6638, 6649. 
Wichita, Caddo, etc., Indians, me- 
morial regarding, S671. 
Wichita Indians, 563S, 6648. 
Appointed and diBCosaed, 5481, 6506, 

6508, 6638. 
Lands acquired bj, opened to settle- 
ment. (3ee Lands, Public, opened.) 
Cherokee Tndiana (See Indian Tribes.) 
Oheiokee Ontlet: 
Cession of, to United States, agree- 
ments and propositions regarding^ 
discussed, 6481, 5638, 5760. 
Claims of Indians regarding, dis- 
cussed, 5667. 
Contracts and leases for gracing on, 
proclaimed null and void, SS39. 
Time for removal of stock ex- 
tended hj proclamation, 6534. 
Fraudulent occupation of, discussed, 

Opened to settlement bjr ^oelama- 
tion, 5838. 
Form of declaration required, 685C. 
Cherokee Btrlp. (9ee Cherokee Outlet.) 
Chenr Valley (N. T.), T" 

jll the buildings, and drove away the 11 

Olieupeike, Tbe.--Jnn« 33, isor. aa Vb» 
n. B. B. CJtesapeote was leaving Hampton 
Roads, Ta., a lieutenant of the British eUp 
fisopard b<Hirded her and demanded tbe le- 


Encyclopedic Index 

a who bad eo- 

of the dewrtera Comoiadiire Birron mc- 
canUngl; refined to deliver the men. Tbe 
oOcer 4d til* Ltopard then returned to hlB 
■blp, wblch Immedbktelr opetied fire od tbe 
CJiaapeake. The latter veuel, being en- 
tltelT Dnprnrared tor battlBi was forced to 
(OTTcnder intboot Hrins ■ gnn (414). Pres- 

I ftct. 

e Ub 

t Admiral Berkeley 

men, and tbe r 

Onlr tardr rep _ 

(Ifalr (9S1), and It served 
American opinion aialnat f"" 
bastened tbe War of^lSl;^ 
OheupeKke, The, attacked bj British 
■hip Ltopavd, 410, 414, 4S0, 454, 460. 
Cl&img of Peter Shaekerly groning 

8Qt of, 1687. 
emnit^ for, demanded, 433, 44L 
Paid, 48L 
Sef erred to, 403. 
OlWiapeake and Delaware Oanal Oo.,' 
■harOB in, taken bjr United Btates, 
Ohes^mtke and Ohio Oanal: 

Ceasion of GoTemment intereets In, 

to Uarjland cooaideTed, 1770. 
Incorporation of, referred to, 8S2. 
Legislative acta of Virginia reapeet- 

ing, transmitted, 1037. 
Proprietr of eonatmetinff, diseassed, 

Babaeriptione for, eommieeionen ap- 
pointed to Tsceive, 873. 
Oheaapeako Bay, canal from Delaware 
Biver to. (See Chesapeake and Dela- 
ware Csnal Co.) 
Ohoflnlmau roratt Beoerre, proclaimed, 

Otujeana and Axapatioo Bwerratlon, 
Ind. T.: 
Deed for release of lands in, b^ Choe- 
taws and Chickasawo, discussed, 
5637, S664, 6761. 
Opened to settlement hj proclama- 
tion, C710. 
Appropriations for, recommended, 
Unauthorized oecnpancy of, proclama- 
tion against, 48S2. 
Ohtrnuw Tndlam. (See Indian Tribes.) 
Convention at, on subject of diseases 

of cattle, 4771. 
IHre in, referred to, 4108, 4138. 
Oovemment buildings in, destroyed 
by Are, discnaaed and leeommenda- 
tiona regarding, 4108. 
International militarj encampment 
to be held at, foreign gnests not to 
pa7 duties on baggage, S164. 
Itemorial of convention at, in re- 
^et to onlarging water eommnni- 

eation between Uississippi Biver 

and Atlantic Ocean, 3388. 
Proclamation granting privileges of 

other ports to, ESS8. 
Unlawful combinations in, proclama- 
tion against, GS31. 
World 's Colnmbian Exposition at— 

Board of management of Govern- 
ment exhibits designated, 6833. 

Chinese artisans, admission of, 
temporarily to, recommended, 

Military encampment to be held 
during, discussed, 5468. 

Proclamation regarding opening of, 

Proposition to observe fonr-hon- 
dredth anniversary of diaoovery 

Beporte of — 
Deposited in State Department, 

Dlscnsied and recommendatioue 
regarding, 6567, 6669, 6765, 
C769, 6184. 
Beaolution of International Ameri- 
can Conference regarding, 77. 
Chicago FUe referred to, 4I0S) 4138. 
Chicago rire.-:-Oct, 8, 8, and 10, 1871. tbe 
CItr of Chicago. III., waa vUlted br the 
most disaatioua Are of modem times. Two 
thousand one hundred aerea of tbe elt/. tha 
greater portion of which iraa covered br 
coBtlr atores and other bnalueaa honaea, 
were burupd over. The loss wa* nearlv 

Ohicago Indian Uassaero.— At the ont 

brenk of the Wiir of 1812 Cspt. Nathan 
Heald commanded Bftj men at Fort Dear- 
born, where now Htiinds tbe citj of Chi- 
cago. Ordered br Gen. Hall to abandon 

tbe fori and loin him at Detroit, Capt. 
Heald'H partr were warlald br Indians on 
Aug. 15, 1812, among the sand hills along 

and tbefi scalps sold to <!;ol. Proctor, who 

had offered « premium for American scalps. 

Ohleago, Ullwankee and St. Patd SaQ- 

way, agreement witb Indians for 

right (S way for, 4780, 4788, 4994, 


Lands granted to, for right of way 

declared forfeited, 6944. 
Proclaimed, 6529. 
Ohicago Blots, proclamation remrding, 

Chicago Strike, report of commission 

on, transmitted, G98S. 
Chicago, Texaa and Uexlcan Oontral 
Ballway, application of, for right of 
way across Indian Territory, 46S3. 
Ohlchagof Island, referred to, 6697. 
CUckahomlny <Va.), Battle of. (Bee 
Cold Harbor, Battle of; Gaines Uill, 
Battle of.) 
OUekamanga (Oa.), Battle of.— Attai tha 
battle of Btone River, or Hartrceaboro, 
Jan. 2, ises, Bragg retreated to Shelbr- 


Chlckunanga Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

24 Aoiecrani advanced from Uarfreeaboro 
and gradually torced braei Co evacuate 
middle Tenaeuee and eroia Teanessee Blver 
to CDattanooga. Aug. tS Kawcrnne'a arm; 
In 3 corpi, under Generals deorge H. Tbom- 
aL Alexander McD. McCook, and Tbomaa 
L. Crliteuden, niBde an odvsnce througn 
the Cumberinnd Monutalna. Sept. 7 aod 
8 the Coofederatee retired from Chntta. 
nooKB, Tenn., to Lara;'ette, 0». Loqb- 
atTMt having arrived from Virginia with 
reenforcementa tor Bragg, BoBectaaa con- 
centrated his armr near Lee & Gordoa'a 
Ulll on Cblckamauga Creek, a tributorv 
of tbe TenneaBee. On the evening of Bept. 

JB the two armlea wen "- -'-'" 

of Cblckatnaaga Creek. 

ISTS. It prohibit* tbe emplormentof children 

nuder ten, ana those under fourteen inar 
oulT be employed huif Ume. Night work is 
forbidden and children under atiteea mntC 
fumlBh medical certltlcatea of fltneaa for 
emplayment. end weekly certlUcate ahowlns 

II oppoalte sldei 

■~\rn^ nnmbered betireen BEi,- 

ruui D .. ,rmi about 

( with «. por* 

roved the 


reek With 

certain amount of school a 

In European conntriea the regnlfttlon or 
lid labor la the duty o' "•' — •—' — ■— 

.. ■ have the same e 

ir collect similar 

" - * — a eiiBience n 

- evil la aoi . 

Freildent Roosevelt. — 

.jeBsage to Congresk Dec- 

^......vnded tbe enactment of a 

_ _ _ labor law for the District of 
ColambiiL which should be a guide to thOM 
Btates wUch wished to IcilBlale anlnat the 
_^. ,gjg_ ,Q9p_ 5i8Q^ 78«^ »- 

nite resalta. On tbe morning of the SUth 
the Confederates renewed tbe attack. 
Longslreet penetrated tbe center of tbe 
Federal line and aeparated Rasecrans, Uc- 
Cook. and Crittenden from the rest of the 
army, and the brunt of tbe battle fell 
Dpon Thomas. The Federals retreated at 
night to RoBsvlUe, and on the night of the 
2lst lo Chattanooga. The Federal losses 
in tbe battle were l.OST killed. 9.3»1 
wounded, and 5,269 missing- total, 16,830. 
The Confederate loss waa. 18,000. 
OUckunancft uid Oluttaiiooga NaUonal 

Military Puk discoased, SS79. 
OUckunangR buUins. (See Tad i an 

OUckauw Ouo. — Through the efforts of 
Northern people In organizing vigilance 
committees to prevent kidnapping of tree 
colored persons on the charge ot being fugi- 
tive slaves, a writ of habeas oorpui waa 
served npon tbe captain ot the brig OMaka- 
laa demandlog the delivery of two colored 
women whom. It was cbarRed, he intended to 
carry South. On exhibiting their free papers 
the women were liberated. 
Oblckaaaw Indians. (See Indian 

Oblef Blaglflttftte. (See President of 

United Btatea.) 
OUef Bigniil Officer of Amiy, printing 

of report of, recommended, 46S8, 4737, 


(mUd Labor.— with the Introduction of 
machinery which reqairea but slight at- 
tention and no highly afctlled operativea 
came the employment of children in fac- 
tories. The invention of spinning machinery 
in England and the cotton gin In America, 
transferred the Oeld of youthful Industry 
from the cottage home and farmhouse to 
crowded mills and shops and factories. 
Competldoa between manufacturers gradu- 
ally resulted in iucreaslng tbe tasks and 
lengthening the hours ot employment of 
children, until the Government came to the 

As ioDg ago as 1784 tbe magtstrates of 

Tjinnishire, Rngtaud. found It necessary to 

t reBolutfon that annrenttces should 

der tbe new law bed been received, 3.600 
of which were denied on accoont of age or 

BWtlstlcB collected by the ceneral secre- 
tary ot tbe National Child L^bor Committee 
show that something like fi.000.000 children 
of school age have left school to engage in 
wage work. According to the censna ot 
J910, 180,388 children under fourteen years 
ot age were engaged In IndnaCrles .other 
than arrlculturaC Tbe committee belleTesi. 
however, that more dilldren, to proporUoa 
to the popnlatlon, are attending school ti>- 
dar than ever before. 

OMld Iiabor Ii«W.— The 64th Congreai 
passed, and President Wilson signed, Sept. 
1. leie, a law forbidding the ahlpment from 
one state to another of artlclea made by the 
labor of children. This as far as the au- 
thority of the federal government extends 
under the Constltutloo, This law provides 
that no producer, manufacturer, or dealer 
Bhnll ship or deliver for shipment In Inter- 
elate or Kireign commerce any article or com- 
modity the product of any mine or qnarry, 
situated in the United Btates, In which with- 
in thirty days prior to the time of tbe re- 
moval of Each product therefrom children 
under tbe age ot 1< years have been ho- 
ployed or permitted to wort, or any ar- 
ticle or commodity the product ot any mill. 

lud. found It 

, J that annret 

no longer "work In tbe night o 

.„„ 1 of such product therefrom chil- 
dren under the age of 14 year* have been 
employed or permitted to work, or children 
between the ages of 14 years and 10 yeara 
have been employed or permitted to work 
more than eight hours In any day, or mors 
than six dsya in any week, or after tbe hour 
ot 7 o'clock postmeridian, or before the 
hour ot e o'clock antemeridian. 

The Attorney General, the Secretary o( 
Commerce, and tbe Secretary of Labor are 
constltated a board to make and publish 
uniform rules and regulations for carrying 
out tbe provlEloDs of the act. For the 
purpose of Becarlng proper enforcement of 
tbe act the Secretary of Labor, or any pei^ 
son duly authorised by him, has authority 
to enter and inspect at any time mlnea, 
qnarriea, mills, canneries, workshops, fac- 
tories, manufacturing establlshmenta. and 
other places in which goods are produced or 
held tor interstate commerce. 

tt is made tbe duty of each district attor- 


Encyclopedic Index 

OkDA lAbOT iMW—OMUnued. 
U17 State lactorr ot minlDs or qaarry In- 
■pectOT, commlHloDcr at labor. State medi- 
cal liwMctor, or ■cbool-attendnncc officer, or 
ua otber ftmm shall present uUstactor? 
CTloeDce of BUT bqcIi violation to cause ap- 
propriate proceedings to be commenced and 
proaecated in the proper courts of tbe 
united States wltbout delay tor tbe enlorce- 
tnent of tbe penalties In sucb cases herein 
proTlded : FroTlded. Tbat nothing in this 
act shall be eonstmea to appl; to Dona fide 
boys' and clcla' canalng clubs recoKOlied b; 
the Axrlenltnral DeoartiDeDt of tbe severA 
States and ot the United States, 

Anr penoD who Tlolates any of tbe pro- 
TUona of thla act, or wbo refuses or ab- 
Btnicta entn or anthorlzed Inspection, sball 
tor each offense prior to tbe first convlc- 
tton be punished t^ a fine or not more than 
$200, and for each oEcDse aubsequent to 
aaeh conviction by a floe of not more than 

" n^^SlOO.^or bj_lmpjlsoD- 


discretion ot the 

Provided, That no dealer shall be prose- 
cuted nnder the provisions of this act for a 
ahlpmeut, delivery for shipment, or trims- 

ertatlon who establishes a guaranty Isened 
the person by whom the soods shipped or 
delivered for shipment or transportation 
were manufactnred or produced, to the ef- 
fect tbat BDch Koods were produced or manu- 
factured In a mine or quarry in which with- 
in thlr^ dan prior to tbelr removal there- 
troa no children under tbe ase ot sixteen 
years were employed or permitted to work. 
or in a mill, canDcry workshop, factory, or 
mannfaclnrlns estabUBbmeat, In wblcb with- 
in tblr^ days prior to tbe removal of such 
SDods tnerefrom no children under tbe age 
ot fourteen years were employed or per- 
mitted to work. Dor children between tbe 
Safes of fonrteen years and sixteen years em- 
lyed or permitted to work more than eight 
nrs In any day or mare than six days In 
any week or after the hour of seven o'clock 
poatmeiidlan or before tbe hour ot six 
o'cloiA antemeridian ; and In stich event, it 
the guaranty contains any false 

sball be 

ot a material tact, the guai 

■■'" *" prosecntlon aud _, 

t provided. Bald guaranty. 

rlded. stall 

afford the protection abo'. 

eoutalii tbe name and addreea oC tbi 

SriDK the Mme: and do proilncec, ~ 
rer, or -■-— - — ~" 

thla act I.. ., , _ , 

ment, or transportation of a product of any 
mine, qoarry, mill, cannery, workshop, fac- 
tory, or nunnfactuilng establish ment, If 
tbe only employment therein, wltbln thirty 
daya pnor to the removal of inch product 
therefrom, ot a child under the age of bIi- 
te«D yeara has been tbat ot a child as to 
whom tbe producer or manufacturer has in 
good faith procured, at tbe time «f employ- 
bg Bach child, and has since In good faith 
reued upon and kept on file a certificate. 

J Ue DOBTO. I . __ __ 

-uch an age that the shipment, delivery for 
shipment, or transportation was not prohib- 
ited by this act. 

Any person who knawlngly makes a false 
statement or presents false evidence In or 
In relatton to any such certificate or appll- 
CBtloD therefor snail be amenable to prosfr- 
catlon and to the fine or Imprisonment pro- 
vided. In any State deslgnaled by tbe board, 
an employment certificate or other similar 
paper as to the sge ot the child. Issued nn- 
aer tbe laws of that State and not Incou- 
■M^t wltb the provisions ot this act, shall 


The word "person" ua used In tbli act 
ahaU be construed to tuclude any Individual 
or corporation or tbe members of any part- 
nership or other UDlncorpu rated associa- 
tion. The term "ship or deliver for ship- 
ment in Interstate or foreign commerce'* 
as used In this act means lo transport or to 
ship or deliver far shipment from any Stats 
or Territory or tbe District ot Columbia to 
or through any other State or Territory or 
the District of Columbia or to any foreign 
country 1 and In tbe case of a dealer means 
only to transport or to ship or deliver for 
shipment from tbe State, Territory, or dis- 
trict ot manutactaro or production. 

Owen B. Lovejoy, chairman of the Na- 
tional Child Labor Committee, said ot the 
law : "Tbe law will reach 150,000, bat 
thero are 1,690,000 children tn the United 
States who cannot posalbly be touched by 
any federal leBlslallon. These are wards 

: tbe 

the t 

ir city streets ; 

alppL Oklahoma, and Tex 

mestic servants under IB years 

the menial drudgery Id our American homes ; 

i years old wbo do 

and the pallid cashgirla in our deportment 

OliUd Latei and Lalwi of Women: 

Congress asked to investigate condi- 
tion of, 7035. 
ObUdTBn'fl Bnrean.— Tbe Children's Bu- 
reau ot tbe Department of Labor was creat- 
ed by Cangress In 1912 to Investigate and 
report upon all matters pertaining to the 
welfare ot children and cblld-tlfe among all 
classes of our people, and, especially to In- 
vestigate tbe Questions ot Infant mortality, 
the birth rsie, orpbanege. Juvenile courts. 
deaerllon, dangerous occupations, accidents 
and diseased children, employment and 
legUIatlon alTecllDe children In the several 
states and terrllorlea. The functions Ot 
tbe bureau are thus largely Investigative. 
It has DO power to administer anyiblng or 
to regulate anything, and the act creating 
the bureau stipulates that "no official, or 

sbsil.'oYor the objection of the head of the 
family, enter any house used exclusively as 
a family residence." It la to serve as a 
centre to which people can turn for definite 
Information regarding child welfare move- 

tlon working for chlldien can learn of and 
profit from tbe experience of others. 

Tbe bureau has Deen In active operation 
since Augnst. 23. 1U12. It has already 
published, In addition to a brief circular 
containing the law eetabllsbing the bureau 
and a statement ot Its scope and plans, a 
monograph entitled "Blrtb Beglstratlon an 
Aid In Protecting the Lives and Bights ot 
Children. Necessity for Extending t£e Reg- 
istration Area." a pamphlet "Baby- Saving 
Campaigns. What Some American Cities 
are Doing to Prevent Infant Mortality." and 
a monograph called "Prenalal Care." de- 
signed tor the nse of tbe expectant mother. 

Tbe publications thus tar Issued have all 
been In the field of tbe work to promote 
child health. Other pamphlets on the care 
of children are In tbe course of preparation, 
and tbe results of an Investlgatlqn Into tbe 
social causes of Infant mortality In Johns- 
town. Pa., will soon be puhllMbed. Tbe 
bureau expects to follow It with reports ot 
the resnlts of other similar Investigations 
In typical cities and rural districts to be 
conducted In tba tntnio. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

OUIdzaii'l Bnrua — Oonllnued. 

Tha buri'BU bail not ■■ r<^t. publlibcd anr- 
thlDS on (lie employmcDt ot cbililcen. buc U 
bu bi tbe courK □! preparfttlou a ibaruugti 
dlgeit ot alt the itale ' — -"■'" '-' — 

children In tbe 

, .1 ot tbe falrtb 

rate and Inlaot mortalltT : tbe third with 
lIUteraPT sod Khool altendance : (be lourtb 
Willi the euiplOTiaDDt ot cblldren. and ttie 
flflh with atatlRtlc* of the delectlTe, de- 
pendent and delinquent dauei. 
OhUe. — Chile eztenda down the weatem 
coaat of Booth America from tbe Illo Sams 
to Caps Born, and li bonaJEd on the north 
by rem and oa the eaet br Bolivia and 
Arsenllni. It Ilea between 18°__;ie'-pi|- 35' 

2.800 iDlleH 

vith a Keneral elevotTr 

numemna tnnimlta atti 
000 feet— tbe hlsheat, 
tlon Toleano, be ins 

of tbe sea ; but 

.K2 feet. T 
itremltr. Then are 

Prorliwia Enxliih Ution 

Bq. Miles leia 

AaOBoana E.Wt 13fi.UB 

Antotacuta. 4e.Sfll 132.3M 

AnooD. 3,188 112.733 

Atwanu 30,BST U.aTfl 

Bio-BJa S,34g 103.170 

Ciutin 6,377 ISe.SOfi 

ChiM 8,683 e3.8U 

ColduBoa 3.849 ISB.STS 

ConnpcidB 8,311 Z3a,U3 

Coqulmbo 14,083 181,243 

CunoA 3,04 1 108.791 

Linlna 3,907 lia.SeS 

Uaoquihut 33,387 118.973 

MualUiMa ee,17a 34.3T* 

Millsoo 3,301 11G.IT7 

Maula 3,S0g 119,107 

NuHle 3.497 173.24* 

O'Hlnbu. 3,1B8 95.534 

Butiaco S,S90 300.787 

Tacna. 9.248 44.391 

Talea 3,882 133,33S 

Tannui. 18,128 110,714 

Taldivia 8,991 141,398 

Vajpar^K 1,774 311,809 

&wtar Itlaad, Mo 73 348 

Total 204,740 3.503,fiU 

Klhnoloou. — There ar^ fonr dlntlnct ele- 
neuta to the mclal divliilnnii; the Rpsn- 
lah aetllera end their dexfvndanti : the 
Indlitpnoua Aim ran inn Indlnna, PueKlana, 
and ChnnitOK: nitied flnnnlnh InitiiinK: 7.a- 
rapean InimlirantiL The Intter were repre- 
wnted In 1010 by 20,000 Rpanlanls. 16,- 
000 Italtann. 11,000 nrrmauii. 10.000 Brlt- 
Inb. and 10,000 French. Hpiinliib In the 
laumtaoe of the mnnlir. and the State Te> 
llglnn It Roman Catholic. 
autartf.— It waa InTkded br tlw Spaif 

lah nnder Almaicro In 1535, and wai fltat 
settled br ValdlTia at Kaallaso, In IMl. . 
Indepvndunre was pruclalmed In 1H18. 
ihouKb tbe last elrouKbold of the Spaa- 
lardB wHi not tuki'u uuill 1S2S. After 
salnlog lia lndepeodcoi-e l.hlle made exten- 
sive cuuiiueata In i'utagania and that 
eouQlry wua flnallj divided between Chile 
and Argentina wltb tbe Andea as the 
boundurr. Ware wllh fera and Bolivia 
from 1 870-1 Hxa extended the northern 
boundBriee. Cbl)e_ baa enjojed trealer' 

lullllj, both Inl 
-- -ulorltr -- 

___.Dal i 

f Boulh American Re- 

than t , 

publics, but ia 11(02 the qulel waa Inter- 
rupted by a vIoieDt dispute wllb Ar»n- 
■ ' ' mnnient of their 


Oocernnral,— The Contitltudon rests on 
the fundamental law of Uur 25, 1S33, and 
Is that of a democrallc Itepublic. The 

direct V _,. , , — 

Ing held on June 2S and the Inauguration 
on September IS, tbe annlventarT at tbe 
Declnrntion of Independence (1810). ''^- 

■ 41 ■) of 100 
pityHfat I'eatKreii. — The great chain of 

■aiarr ot 

t (11)10-15), Bami 

assumed offlce December 23, 1910. 

There la a Council of SUte ot elPTen 
mrmbera (Ave appointed by the Prealdent 
and six chonen by Congress. 

rr .10.000 Inhabitants of 
with a mini 
of 15,0001 Is eircted bf direct 


I in i mum traction 

male euf- 
twenty-oDc toe Ibnae who can read 

Court of Inst Ice at 

, _ _ rreeldpDt elected an- 

lusllrj and Courts of Appeal at Concep- 
lan. gentlnin. Berena, Tnma, Talca, Tal- 
Itvla. and Valparaiso. There are Conrla 

" ■ Instance turooirbont the countrr 

and District Courti 
Court St Ihp capital 

The Provlncps are goTPrupd br Inten- 
dentea uudcr whom are Qobemailorea fir 
Dppnrtnipnls of pscb Provloce and for Ibe 

Tbpre la a 8tnte Unlveraily and a Roman 
Cethnlic nnlverslty at Rnnfiniro. The Na- 
tional I.llirnry at the capital contains IBfi,- 

8S0 TOlllDlpS. 

inrt Jinl%gtrii. — ARrlmltnre 

barco, ax, beinp. Chile pepper, and pota- 
toea are grown extensively : the vine and 
■11 European fnilt-treee flnurlah. In the 
•ontb the ral&tail la ezceaalTe and Oe 


Encyclopedic Index 

_.-, i rli-ti iculd . 

dlwoTCird. Ibe nilnJeM Durth yields 

moiv, rapedailr Ditnite of nodii. Iodine, 
bonte of aoda, RoJd and silver, n larn 
onmber of tnlueB 7l?tdlDj[ bolh brlns In 
ictoal work In Tarapai't, UaanaL-u. and 
Carhlnal In AUcama, and Carai-oK's Id An- 
tofacaata; the crntre, copp» and allver; 
■Dd tba ■oDtb. iTon and coal. 

Tkera are amelllns worka far eoppei 
and allTer, tanoeiic*; corn and aaw nillla. 
atarrh, aoap, blacQlt. rope, cloth, cbeeie, 
tniDlton, candle, -— ■ — "- '— — ■— 

paper faelurlei, 


rraiutKnrtatlMt biuI Oammiifltnittoii.— In 
lOtl there were S,8U4 EnsUau mtlea of 
rallwar open and worklnx, aod 1.ST8 undrr 
cnnatrartloii. In April, 1910, Ihe trana- 
Andran Hue wai eompletc, tbua cannectlDS 
YalparalBD with Biirnoa Alrea. A lonKl- 
tadlnal rallwair of SBO mllea from Iiiulqi 

a tbe north, to connert with Ihe imulhcm 
proTlDcea. la now under conat ruction by 
two Britlah BTDdlcates. A line from Arica 
to t^ Pai (Bolivia) waa opeord In 1S13. 

Id 1910 then were 1.090 post offlen 
Tkcre were also 1,400 telcgraidi oDlfea 
(and four wlrrleaa alatlonal, wllh 21,9Ba 
miles of wire. Telephones are highly en- 
dent and KtueraL 

The mercantile marine In 1611 coDslated 
ofW BtMmers (114.887 tons) and 41 sail- 
ing Teasel*, (Se.sai toDB). a total of 139 
vessels ezceedlos 100 tons each (IBl.- 
S18 tons). There are ten llnea of steam- 
ers on the L'Uillan route to F^iirope, lbs 
total nnmber of Te»«elB entered at Cblllnn 
porU In 1910 belni 11,482 a6,Te»,lS9 

TomM.— The prinelpal port Is Valparaiso. 
Other potts are Arlca. Iqulnue, Oohljn and 
Antafattaata In tue north ; Onldern and Co- 
anloibo In lb* renlre; and Tnlcnhuano, 
Caatvpaan and VsldlvlB In Ibe soDth. The 
cS4>llat Is SanllSKo, In the rentre or the 
country on a platean amidst msKnldcent 

. "ipnUtlOn, iniO. 365,- 

Valparalao, C'onrep- 

Trudt tciih the Ciide'J Slotre.— TheTalne 
of Dierrbandise Imported Into Chile Irom 
tbe United Bfites for the year ini.1 was 
SIS,0T«,Te3. SDd sDoda to tbe vatue of (3T,- 
«BS,420 were seDt tbitbpr—a bahince ot 
tl1.STS.6ST in tsror oC Chile. 

AmeriuMi sailon on the Baltimore m- 
Bftolted at Valparaiso, (Se« Balti- 
more, Tbe.) 
American Mamen {npreued bj', £772, 
BonndaTT qnettioo with Argentine 

Bepnblic, 4629, 6323, 6363. 
Chureli of tbe Compania at Santiago, 

destrojed by Are, 339S. 
Oaiint of, KKaiost United Statea eom- 
misaioB to settle, discniaed, S862, 
6B56, 6058, 6327. 
CUma of United BUtea attntnst, 1694, 
20S1, SieS, 4913, 6083, 6369, 5544, 
(Bee also Bainmmr, The.) 
Amemeut ngaiding, refeired to, 


Award of arbiter, King of Beli^mn, 

referred to, 33S1. 
Commiaaion to settle, disenised, 

6867, 5S56, 60S8, 6327, 6366. 
ConveDtion providing for adjust- 
ment of, by arbiter, 3064. 
Parment of, S116, 3485, 4289. 
Protocol relative to, traoBmitted, 

Provision made for, 20S1. 
Coiunl of, to United States, exeqn»- 

tnr to, revoked, 36S5. 
OoDsular convention with, 2057. 
ControversT witli Bolivia referred 

to, 3410, 
Cop/right privilege extended by 

proclamation, 6126. 
" 'tive criminals, co 

t surrender of, 2912, 
Independence of, asserted, 613. 
Minister of, to United States, recep- 
tion of, referred to, 4G22, 6416, 
Minister of United States in, 821. 
Action of, in harboring criminals 
discussed, 5867. 
Naval force of United States on 

shores of, 875. 
Proceeds of cargo by the Maerdonia 
seized in Peru by authorities of) 
Award of arbiter referred to, 3381. 
Convention regarding, 3004, 
Belations of, witb Peru referred to, 

4662, 4673. 
Specie payments, remimption of, by, 

discDSsed, 6059. 
Treaty with, transmitted and dia- 
CQSsed, 1158, 1169, 1246, 126U, 1270, 
2912, 2967, 
Vessels of, discriminating duties on, 
suspended by proclamation, 2612. 
Beferred to, 2618. 
Vessels of United States eeiied or 
interfered with by, 18S2, 2051, 
2116, 2193, 3445, 4289. (See also 
Ouod Return, The.) 
War in, and policy of United Statea 
respecting, discussed, 5618. 
Seizure of tbe llala by the United 
States for violation of neutrality 
laws discussed, 6618. (See also 
BatUmon, The.) 
War with Bolivia and Peru, 6422, 
4563, 4628, 4717. 
Claims of united States arising 
ont of, discussed, 4913, 6083, 
6369, 6544. 
Conditions of peace presented by 

Chile, 4662, 4717, 4^60. 
Efforts of United States to bring 
about peace, 4522, 4603, 4582, 
4662, 4717. 
Negottatlona for restoration of 

peace, 4674. 
Terminated, 4822. 
Treaty of peace discnased, 4790. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

, TWfttteS TitlL— M«T 16, 1832. 

naTisBtloQ waa coDcluded witb Chile, and 

Sroclalmed b; Preiilileat JacluoD April £9. 
831. It included tbe mosc taroied-iu- 
"-- --■■ — DTlded for freedom of 

md uaTlgutluD, reclpracal crlT 
— „— — JUBlnesB Hnal™, IndemDll; (i_ 
vesaeU of either country delaloed la tbe 

leges Id buHlneas i 



cllliena . _ . . _ ... _ „ 

prescribed rules for trading prlrlleges of 
neutrsla. vUltaUou and eeiircli ot veaaels, 
blockadea, etc. Eichange ot conanls waa 
BlBD provided for. An additional conven- 
tion was concluili'd Sept. 1, JH33, eitend- 
Ing the prlTllegea ot the most (bto red- 
nation clauae to Republics oC BollTla. Co- 
lombia, Peru, the United States of UeilCD, 
the Federation of Central America, and the 
proTlncea ot the lllo de la Plata, and In- 
cbidlug Uruguay, Pamgiiay, Buenos Ayree, 
New OrannBa, Vene«i.ela. Ecuador, bi3 
any new atalea which may be dismembered 
from tboae now eiUHng. (See pngea 11G8, 
116S, 1246, 1260 and 12T0). Tbls treaty 
WBB terminated Jan. 20, 1850. on notice 
given by the Chilean Ooyemment. In 18J 
B convention w " ■ ' ■ ■ -' 
tratloD ot the ci 

for goods and silver co.n and b 
cated by order of tne Vice Adml 
Chilean nary. The King of Be 
appolnled arbiter and cendered 

- the arbi- 

a made on bebalf of ii 

The. also pages £912 and 20oT.| 

A general claims convenllon was agreed 
to Id 1892 by which all United States cltl- 
Eena having ctalma against Cblle might 

alon. Tbe commission nrovlded for Id thla 

k Shk 

ing the 

r 2S. isae. and a special 
of 1897 awarded the bclcs 
ds tS.IiOO for damages. 



„ the gen,.... 

This cnmrnlfis^D adjourned June 18. 11)01. 
after awarding |28,nS£.ze gold, without [D- 
terest, tn favor of the trnlted Btatea, and 
13.000 sold, wltboat Interest, tn favor of 
Cbtle. An extradition treaty was condaded 
In 1900. 
Chile also became a party to the 

tlon betwten tbe United States and » 
republlca of Sontb and Central Amerl< 
■■ arbitration of pecuniary c^ ' 

'era I 
. for 
- — —iveniiona, etc., wblch was 
signed In Buenns Aires In 11)10 aid pro- 
claimed In Washington July 29. I9I4. (See 
South and Central America. Treatlea with.) 
OUnL — China Proper (or the nigbteen 
Provinces) occnples the son tbea stern cor- 
ner of tbe coDtlDeot of Aala. and covers 
about one-third of the total area of China. 
Ita northern boundary Is marked by the 
Great Wall of China, a rampart of earth, 
orlgtually reinforced with bricks and mas- 
onry, some 12 to 28 feet bigh, and l.EOO 
ml tea In extent, with nnmerona satea, 
many of which are now neglected or abaa- 
doned. This barrier was erected In the 
third centiiry H. C. aa a defence against 
the Mongols of the north, and reached 
from Bhang-hal-kwan on the east coast 
(Gnlf of Chlh-U) In long. ^•>0' E, to Tni^ 
kestan In the west (98* K.). It In now 
broken . In many places and the ChlDese 
have tbemselvea advanced beyond Its 
Dortbeostero edce. In tbe ptovince ot Cblh- 

U. The eaatem bonnAary b th« CUna 
Sea, and on the south the land frontier la 
cotermlnona with French Indo-CblnA and 
the Sban Statea of BrlUsh India. In tha 
weat the Eighteen Provlncea adjoin Brlt- 


Tfuet and Chinese Turkeatan. 

J(»lom.— Chinese clvlliiatlon la the old- 
est In the world, and Ita gDvemmeni, baaed 
npon that ot the family, remained di>- 
changed in Its root Idea until the revolu- 
tion of ieil-lU12, by which the antocracy 
of the Emperor and tbe power ot tbe bu- 
reaucracy were merged Into «. Bepubllcan 
form ot government. For more than 2.000 

of tbe State, legislating by edict In mat< 
tera great and small. Jn the seventeenth 
century the Mlug Dynasty waa overcoma 
by tbe Mnncbus froni the north, who have 
now become almost entirely absorbed by 
tbe conquered race. The conuitlona and 

'--- of the autocracy were preserved 

. _ ..... ... , years the 


■t adml 


Many tetorms were In III- 
BLi-u ur iiruiuiBtrd In tbe last few yean of 
the Imperial rul^ and an execnilve liody 
was actually created, while a leglslaiure 
waa promised. At the close oi tne year 
1911 the party ot reform forced the Im- 

Berlal dynaaty to a '■voluntary" Bbdlca- 
Ion. and a Itcpubllc waa proclaimed, which 
waa formally recognized by all the Pow- 
ete on Oct. 6, 1913. President. Tnan 
Shlh-kal. bom 18S9. elected provisionally 
Feb. 12, 1912 ; re-elected Oct. 6, 1913 (for 

province waa reprcceoted In the Hoosc, 

In December, 1915, the Council of Stnttt 
voted to return to the imperial form of 

fovernment, and Yuan relnctautly accepted 
be crown. March 22, 1910. China again 
became a republic, wltb Xuan Bblh-kaT a* 
president. lie died June 6, and waa suc- 
ceed ed by LI Tuan-hung. 

Forrign Aelalfoni. — Foreign relations 
with the Chinese Dominions have ciistnl 
for many centnrlea. In the thirteenth een- 
tnry the Vent Ian mercbant^adrenttirer, 
Mopco Polo, resided Id Cambaluc (the pres- 
ent Peking), and was employed by tba 
Mongol Emperor Kublal Khan as advisor. 
In the aeventeenth century Jesuit misslon- 
arlca had attained conslderab'e lnflD<>nce. 
Tbe Dutch and PortDsueae traden had for 
centuries maintained commercial dealinn 
with the port of Canton, bat_toivatd tfi* 

T India 

„ J. _ treaty waa algned at Nan- 
king m 1840 ceding Hong Kong to Great 
nj».._ __.. — ^nlng flVB porta to foreign 

and China 

^eBDltrf'iVa .,., — 

proceeds of which are to be employed In 
carrying out a scheme for the nniflt^tlMt 
of the cnrrency on a allver basis. 

The contlnned eicluslveness of the Chi- 
nese Government led bv a long cbafn of 
events to the war of ISflO, when Brtdah 
and French troops captnt«d Peking. In 
16n4 China tonght H dlaastrons war with 
Japan, resulting In the loss of Fomtoaa 
and the eBtabllsbment of Korea aa an In- 
dependent Ktnte. An abortive attempt waa 
made, In 1898, by the Emperor to Intro- 


Encyclopedic Index 


fflrtni rnnHwfrT 

dace admlnlBtratlv* reform*, 

ttonarr mlDlBters pereuaaed tbe Doirsze 

Tbs police of Important places In China 
to emploj Japanese sdvlBeta (or the pur- 
poBe 01 OTESDlElDe and tmnraTlne tne serv- 
ice. China shair Head to Japan a com- 
mlasloD lo BFTsnge for the purcboee ol ma- 

) the Leaatlon* 

io Peking and the forelcn Beltlemcnta in 
TIentaIn were flercelj' attacked and t>om- 
baided tor manT irecK*. The aituBtlon 
iraa relieved at Its most critical moment 
bT tne BTTlTel of an allied armr despatched 
b> nearly all the Treaty Powera, aod 
TlentBln and PeblnE wire cgp.ured. The 
Imperial Court Bed, and remained In vol- 
nnlarj exile until eaily In. 1902. Mean- 
irlille; B Peace Protocol was signed be- 
tween the Envo;i of the Treaty Powera 
«Bd the Chinese Piealpotentlaries. Prince 
Ch'nx, and the late LI Hong Chang. Thla 

CDiUlea for an Indemnity ol f320,u00.0(H>, 
be paid within thirty-nine Tears. Snb- 
•eqacDt negotfatlona reaalted In three new 
commercial treaties— between the United 
Kingdom and Cnlna (Sept 6, ie02) : Unit- 
ed Blates and China (Oct. 8. 1903) ; and 
Japan and China (Oct. 9. 190S). Under the 
two last Mnkden, TatnuKkoiv, Chang-aha, 
and Antnng In Uanchnrla, were made 
Treatj- ports. 

Itarlng the European war of 1914-15 
Japan drove the Qermens out of Klau Chnu, 
■nd later made a aerlea of demands on 
China, which practically amoanled to a 

The Btate Coancll held a special session 
«t PAtn, March 2S, and, acting os Parlia- 
ment, rescinded all monircbbil leglalntloOi 
restored all the lavs of the Bepubllc af- 
fected hy the monnrcblal movement, and 
then adjourned permanently. 

Thaa waa given public evidence of an 
admission of the errors made by Parliament 
la DTglng a monarchy npon the President. 

The following comprises the list of Jap- 
anese demands npon China, m far as they 
hBTB been made pabllc At leaat one other 
clansa haa been sappressed. This repre- 
sents the demands after tevlaloD. the 
original list Including inany more drastic 
fcatorea, among others the right to propa- 
gate Buddhism In China. 

Group 1. — Transfer complete to Japan of 
the German lease upon Klucbow : a pledge 
not to alienate any of (he territory of 
Sbantnug Province ; consent to a Japanese 
railway joining Klaochow with Chetoo or 
Lungkow : the opening of certain treaty 
port* In BhantuuK, to be selected latpr. 

Gronp !!.— Extension of the Port Arthnr 
lease to ninety-utne years ; freedom of leA- 
denee and travel and the right to lease 
or own land or work mlnlna concpsslons 
In South Manchnrla ad East Mongolia : the 
conoent of tlie Japanese Oaverameut to be 
obtained before grrantlnii aoy railroad con- 
cessions, borrowlnic any money on tbe 
taxes, or appointing any advlsera In South 
Mancoarla and East MonEOila ; a ninety- 
nine-year lease of the Eirln-Chaugchun 

Group III. — The Hanyehpln^ Company 
(the largest mining and steel -making pom- 

pany fn China) to be made a Joint f 

of the two nationa. and none of It 
erty or righta to be alienated witbr 
consent of Japan ; tbe company lo i 
given a monopolr oyer all mines In li 
■elKhboTbood. (This company owns tt 
steel works around Hangchow^ 

Gronp IV.-No Island, port or harhor c 
the Chinese cosat to be ceded or teased I 
■ST foreign power. 

Gronp Tf. '-- -- 

iind for the admlnlati 

agree to permit Jai 

build a railway eonnecllng Wuchang with 
Klukiang and Nanchang, also a line be- 
tween Ivancbang and Cnlaochna. No for- 
eign capital to be employed lu the Province 
or F^tleo without Japanese consent. 

Japan later withdrew Group V and China 
submitted to the others by a treaty signed 
Hay 2B, IBIS. 

ABU. AND FOPnjTieii or teb aupiha 

Territories and Capitals Engluh Popo- 

Bq. Miles laSoD 

China Proper (Peldnc) 1,501.000 402,000,000 

Manchuii* (Mukden) 360.000 11,000,000 

Moncolia (Itrga) 1,07S.OOO 3,000.000 

Tibet (Umm) 760,000 3,000,000 

EaBtamTurk(atan(Urumchi) 600,000 2.000.000 

Total. China. 4.237,000 121,000,000 

Race* end RMgient. — The prevail lug 

race In China is of Mougollnn origin, but 
there are many races In aoniilon to Chi- 
nese- In the aborlBlnal Lolos, Mlaotie. 
Iklas, Hakka and Uoklos. The Mauchns. 
who ruled China irom about the middle of 
tbe sereuteenth century, although numtwr- 
Ing only from 4.000.0UU to 6,0«0,0OO, are 
Uongols from Eastern Tartary, whose su- 
perior military orgDulxatlon enabled the 
race to dominate the less warlike Chinese. 
In addition to the Chinese In the above- 
mentioned lerrltarles, whone Diimbers are 
variously estimated at 3r>0.000.000 to 460,- 
000,000, there are some 10.000,000 Chinese 
In various quarters of the globe, partlcu- 
iarly In tbe Malay Peninsula, North and 
South America, and Oceania. 

The principal rellglona are Taoism and 
Buddhism, which have grown up aide by 
side since the Ilrst century of the Chris- 
tian era, until the older faith, to which no 
date can t>e aSBlgned. Is difflcnlt to dlstln- 
galsh from tbe younger. Confuclaniam la 
too genera! a philosophy to be termed a 
religion ond It has no temples or priests. 
Muhnmmodanliim wfls Introduced la the 
seventh century of the Chrlecian era and Is 
believed lo have eome 30.000,000 adher- 
ents. Christianity has made little head- 
way, although its mlaBlnnarles have been 
protected since ISeO. The total number 
of converts does not exceed I,uO0.OOO, of 
wliom over l.OOO.OOO are Roman Catholics. 

■V. -jsi 
appoint ' 


amended). — In times of 
lany Japanese ad vis- 

Ana in Estimated 

Provlnaas Engliah Popu- 

8<i.IdilM ladon 

■■— 35,200 20,000,000 

Chihii 120,500 23.000,000 

Fuklan 43.G00 22,000,000 

HoDU ST,000 34,000,000 

Hunui 77,600 28.000.000 

Hupgh 73,E00 35.000,000 

Kiosu. 136.500 10.000.000 

KioniEBl 69,500 20,000.000 

KloEgra 38.000 27,000.000 

KwuiKn 84.000 6.000.000 

EKUigtuDa 93,500 30,000,000 

Rweichov 61,000 9.000.000 

NiubuL 6S.200 ai.000,000 


awntung 6S.00O 27.000,000 

Shenn 77,000 9.000,000 

BHKhuan 170.000 65,000,000 

Yoonan 153.000 10,000,000 

Total I,e01,000 4Q2,000MO 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 


OUiik— OoaHiHted. 

Armf, — Tbe land tereea can Dot 7ct be 
regarded aa capable ot oCTeniilve warfare 
or of wittuCandlDa trained European or 
Japaneae troopH. Energetic nieasBres ot 
reiorm aim prlndpallj at. (See Armlea 
of tbe WorHf ) 

Navv. — The Narj has not recovered from 
the effecu of the CblDO-JapBueae War, when 
more than lea Important war feaaeta were 
innk or captaced. 

FroduatiOH and lndiutr)f.—The Elgbteen 
ProTlDcea are easentlatlT agricultural, the 
laod being Held on Ireefaold tenure with a 
amall annual goverutueut tax. The rich- 
eat Bone Ilea between 35- and 2T N., 
and baa two ralnj and two dry aeaaons, 
the principal crone being rice In tlie Idw- 
IflDg river mllefB, and tea, illk, wheat, 
cotton, mulberr; and atlgnr, Tbe northern 
■one (about 3S° N.), producea whi^at. bar- 
le7, maiie. peas and beuns : the aoutbern 


Klntdom, Hong SoDg. the tinlted States, 
and elsewhere. Cotton fans been grown 
for eentnrlea, and about half the priMlnce 
ta locally abaorbed. the eiporta amounting 
to aboDt 200,000.000 ponnda. Silk la lurae- 
ly grown and about ODe-thIrd of the 
world'a supply la derlred from China, 
while great quantities are naed Id home 
manufsctures. Timber, particularly liam- 
boo, la anppUed from the foreala of the 
western mountains. 

a wide area. Wlilte ..,,.. ._ 

Id Xunnan. Iron ore Is abundant and la 
being locally absorbed, and tin Is produced 
tor export. The coal tlelds probably exceed 
those of any otber country la extent and 
value; Inde. lapis laiuU, porcelain clay 
and petroleum are plentiful, and the latter 
Is now snccessfully exploited, 

Baiiioo^a.^ About 6,800 miles wera open 


.__ : of the Chlness debt ont- 

stantllng at the end of 1912 excluding In- 
terest and proTlDclal loans la roughly esti- 
mated at M'tO.OOO.OOO. 

Tb* Dolt of Taliie la the ynan, equal to 
•boat SO cenu United BUtes money. 

J(l»Cffr7AM.— UaucbDrla lies to tbs 
north ot Cblna Proper, between 80*-S3* N. 
and 11S*-1S4* E., Us northera boundary 
belDg the Amur Blrer, wllh the coast 
province ot Buaaia and the Jepaaess de- 

KDdency of Korea on the east, and the 
ansbalkal Province of Russia and (Cbl- 
neae) Mongolia on the west. It la watered 

rice, while the poppy is extensively growo. 
Tea Is unlvenialli consumed, and very 
largely exported by land to Russia and 
Siberia (wblcb absorb nearly Bt-e-slxths ot 

Nlu-ehwang eastward to th« Koredit glM 
and Antung. Ttieae blgbways are ot great 
Importance to the culilvatora of the Indigo 
and opium districts ot the aoatb, and to 
the mining districts of the northwest. 

The Trnna-Slberlan Hallway enters Man- 
churia at the western boundary of Eel- 
lunB-klaog and thence Hntheast to its ter- 
mination at Vladivostok. 

irOVOOUA.— The total area of Mongol- 
ia, which exteuda from the Ureal Wall ID 
Ihe south to bltwrls Id the north, and 
from the Khlngang Mountains Id tbe esat 
to EnsslaD CeDtral Asia In tbe west. Is es- 
timated at 1,076,000 EDgllah square miles, 
with a nomadic Mongol and Kalmnck pop- 
ulation variously computed at 1,TS0,00U to 

Bittorv.—ln the thirteenth century of 
the Chiisllan ers, the Mongolian ruler, 
JCDghli KUan, held sway over an empfrv 
'-from tbe Ctaina Sea to the banks of the 
Dnelper. " and the vaat area ot tbe Cblneae 
domlntons Is but a portion of the former 
Mongolian Empire. 

almoal to tbe center of Mon- 
golia, in the eitreme east tbe Kblncang 
range crosses the southern and northern 
boundaries. The greater part of Mongolia 
Is occupied by a high tableland, known 
as the Ueaert ot Gobi or Sbamo, about 
3,000 teet auove sea level. 2.0o6 miles 
from east to weat and BOO miles from 
nortb to south, an arid, rocky waste wltb 

D lines, 

1 Busso-Chl' 

^ ^^....- . jIffDed MOT. fi. -"-" " - 

_._ recognises , 

Outer Mongolia and China 
autonomy ot that region. 

T/BEr.— Tibet (or Bod) occupies more 
than hnlf the western area ot the ChlneM 
dominions, with the Eighteen Provinces 
— •'•- — -' Nepal, Bhutan i"-" "-■■'-■■ 


as a western and southern boundary. The 

I;reat hydrograpblc feature la the cbsin ot 
akes, all 15,000 feet or more above tbe 
mean level ot the sea. 

CniyEBB TURKE8TA}l.—V.meni Tnr- 
kestan occuplea the northwestern comer of 
the Chinese dotnlolons, between Mongolia, 
Basalan Central Asia and Tibet. 

Recent discoveries show that numerous 
" ^*T* ?"" covered by the moving 

sands of tl , 

tlons belDg early Id tbe Christian era. 
towns now exist mainly as stations on tbe 
various caravan routes between China, 
Buasla and India. 

Trade toffh the f7nlfritfftatM.— The value 
■"""Use Imported I ' " ' 

— ._j BDd opium, which provide highly 
prodlable eropa. 

Capital. Mukden (on the Hun-ho). Pop> 
nlatlon, SSO.OOO. 

Four of the great Asiatic blgbwars trav- 

u V..... . < , iipfcinn (0 Mukden 

to Sanslng and Pos- 

. wang (0 MukdeD and 

Petuna, and (hence to 'nllalhar, Uergen 
and across the northern boundary ; from 
Nln-chwang sonthward acroaa the Llao- 
» — . — .. .- Kin-cbow; and troia 

Oblna (see also Ctknton): 
American citizens in — 
Propertv of, destrojed, 4823. 
Protection for, diacuased, 4006, 
4055, 5544, 5621, 6059, 6328, 0366. 
AmeTicDD tnanufacturea in, 4702. . 
Art i SAD R from, DdmisaioD of, to 
World's Fair temporDriljr, reeom- 
mended, M22. 


Etuyekfedie Itules 


Boxer nprisiitg in, 0417, 6678. (Sea 

ftlso Boxers.) 
Cable eonneetion with, 6719. 
Ckiins of United States against, 1436, 
4761, 4801. 
Convention for adjuBtment of, 3071, 
8090, 3173. 
Befeired to, 3S18. 
Indemnities received, diecnssed and 
TecommeudBtionB regarding, 3173, 
8247, 4S20, 4561, 4630, 4T15, 4762, 

2066, 2743, 2977, 3446, 4060, 6328, 
6366, 6914, 7010. 
Interroption of, bj Great Britain 
referred to, 1839. 

Commercial treaty with, 6797. 

CbmmiBsion to stndj conditions In, 
recommended, 6328, 6366. 

CMnmigaioner of United States to — 
Appointment of, recommended and 
compensation to, discoaied, 2067, 
Correspondenee of, transmitted, 

2894, 2911, 2994, 3062. 
Instmetion to, referred to, 8015, 

Beport of, referred to, 2610. 

Couditiona in, diecnssed, 8066, 6327, 

CoDsnlar conrta of United States in^ 
Jurisdiction of, 2951. 
Begnlationa for, referred to, 4675, 
5388, 5432. 
Bevision of, referred to, 3111. 
Treat; regardinft, 4S81. 

Consular premises in, rent of, referred 
to, 4806. 

Controversv between Japan and, re- 
garding Lew Chew Islands, 4521. 

Cooler trade, referred to, 2907, 3127, 
32«1, 3837, 3991, 4034, 4190. 

Distnrbanees in, ducnaaed, 6418, 6678. 

Emperor of, accession of, referred to, 

Expenditures from appropriation for 
providing for intercourse with, re- 
ferred to, 226a 

Immigration of Chinese. (See Chi- 
nese Immigration.) 

Import duties of, 6700. 

Japanese citizens in, treatment of, 
and action of offlcert of United 
Statea regarding, inquired into, 
5992, 7053. 

Judicial tribunal in, for trial of 
American citizens recommended, 

l^ritime provinces of, passing under 
control of European powers dis- 
cussed, 6327. 

Uataaera of Preach and Bnssian leai- 
denta in, discussed, 4055. 

Uilitary operaUons of Qreit Britain 
against, terminated b; treaty, 2066. 
Uiniater of, to United States — 
Eatabliahment of legation discussed, 

Beceived, 4718. 
UiniBter of United States to — 

Appointment of, to misBion b^ Em- 
peror referred to, 3796, 3825. 
Appropriation for support of Amer- 
ican voutbi to serve as part of 
offlciu familv of, teeonunended, 
4101, 4145. 
Inatmction to, referred to, 3113. 
Letter of, transmitted, 3064. 
Beception of, discussed, 3090, 4190. 
Mr. Ward deciinea to anbmit to 
humiliating ceremonies attend- 
ing, 3090. 
Beferred to, 2218, 3122. 
Befuaal to receive, 6621, 6673, 5679. 
Betorn of, on account of illness, 

Bent to, 2116, 2977, 3090. 
Miaaion to, recommendation that it 

be raised to first class, 3991. 
Uiasionaries in. (See American elti- 

Uonetarv system of. Improved, 6941. 
Open Door in, 6679, 6797; 
Opium traffic, treaty for repression of, 
referred to, 4629, 49S6. 
Legislation regarding, recom- 
mended, G083. 
Outbreaks against foreigners in, 5621. 
Political relations with, referred to, 

Population of, 2066. 
Postal convention with, 3776. 
Bebelliou in, 3446. 
BelatiouB with, 2977, 3991. 
Bevenne lawa of, rulea regarding fines 
for breaches of, etc., referred to, 
Bales for seamen of American vessels 

in porta of, referred to, 2682. 
Slavery in, referred to, 4539. 
Straw Shoe diannel, veaaola sailing 
under American flag prohibited 
from paaaing through, 3896, 3902. 
Snbjeeta of, in United BUtea — 
Outrages committed on, discussed, 
4914, 4968, 6083, 6419, 6678. 
Indemnity to, recommended, 6219v 
Appropriations for, 5367. 
Begistration of. (See Chinese Im- 
Troops sent to protect, 4933, 6419. 
Swedish missionaries murdered in, 

Tariff of, 6679. 

Treaty with, transmitted and dis- 
cussed, 2206, 2211, 2251, 8037, 
3061, 3071, 8089, 3108, 3830, 4629. 
}l9difi««ti9n <>i article of, 3398. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 


Oldnk— OMHiMMrf. 

Pioposed modiflcation of, 3TS1. 
Eeferred to, 2610, £977, 3090, 3113. 
VeBaels of, d incriminating duties on, 

repealed hj proclaination, 4S52. 
War with— 
FrsDce, 4823. 

Qiemt Britain and France, neutral- 
ity preserved hy United States, 
in, 3037, 3089, 3174. 

Action taken hj United States 

regarding, 5957, 6059, 6417. 
Agents of United States re- 
quested to protect subjects of 
contestants, S957, 6059. 
'Women imported into United Btates 
from, for dishonorable purposes, 
OUdk, TraatlM with. — The tresty of 
pence, amit;, and commerce coDcloded wUb 
China In 1S44 was Id part superseded hj 
tbe treaty of 1858. Several »rllcle», how- 
t Chan/ted. PBHaetiBei ' 


Ilh mall aa<f baseage 

- 'rom duty If the 

the United States and not hired from Cbl- 
Bttae Bubjects, pay (he regular duty of one 
maee (58 ounces o( pure sIlTer) pet ton. 
Each of the eonanla nt the flTe ports to be 
supplied vltb Btnndard, stamped, and 
sealed neiehts and measures, according 
to the standard at the custom house at 
CantoD. CItliens of Ihe L'nited States are 
admitted to trade with Chinese aubjecta 
wllhout dlatlDctlon. Detailed reports of all 
TesBcla and cargoea belonging to the United 
Btates are to be made annually to tbe 

Eavemor-generat of each of Che tlTe ports 
y the consults at these ports, soch reports 
for Bse aod eiamlnutlon for revenue pi:r- 
posea. The vessels, property, and persons 
□f citizens of Ihe United Stales are not 
HDbJect to embargo and cannot be pre- 
vented from pursuing their Iransaetfons 
wlthont molestalioa or embarrassment 

{"ents In such i __ .__ 
>nB aa altall lie agreed upon aa _. 
iDg open to them. Cltlsena dl the United 

-, build houses, chur 

hospitals, and cemeteries: Ibey shall Dot 
be subjected to eiorbltOQt demands or on- 
rensonable condllloDB. The customary pro- 
vlsloDS are made In cases of shipwreck, 
and the onus of arrest, trial, and punlsli- 
ment of robbera and pirates who plunder 
vessels belooging to the United States rests 
upon Chinese nnthorlties. But If for any 
reason these eanoot be apprebended, thB 
Chioese sutborltles shall not be called apon 
to Indemnify for last goods or damage. If, 
however. It be shown that local antnoHtlea 
were In eoUusloo witb the roblters or pi- 
rates, their goods shnll be confiscated to 
Indemnlfv for ' 

Slatei for commerce, residence, or tmds 
are; Tbe cities sod ports of Canton and 
ChsD-Chan or Swalan, In Ihe provinces of 
Kwang-tnng: Amoy. Puh-Chau, and Tai- 
wDii In FormoBB. In Ihe province of Fab- 
Klen ; Nlnn-po, In the province of Cheh-Kl- 
ang: and Shnngbnl, la the province of Ki- 
ang-su. and any other port hereafter opened 

InUrd States. Trade may l>e freely car^ 
rled on In these ports, and vessels may pro- 
ceed from one to the other of them; bat 
no fraudulent or claodeailne trade may t>e 
carried on with any other port under pen- 
alty of couBscallon of vessri and cargo. 
Any cllIicQ of tbe United Stales carrjHis 
on trade in eontrnband goods shall be pnn- 
Isbed by the Chinese authorlllps wtlbant 
protection or countenance of tbe United 
States. The tariff of duties to be paid ahnll 
In ell cases be the same as that under 
n-hlch tbe most favored nation shall con- 
duct Importation and exportation. 

Tonnage Duet. — Vesiels of over 150 tons 
harden shall pay tonnage duties of four 
mace per ton of 40 cubic feet; those of 
luO tons or under, one mace per ton of 40 
cubic feet. Tbe tonnage la all cases to 
he Ihat of the ship's register, which with 
her olber papers must, on her arrival, ba 
lodged with the consul for eiamlnatlon by 

of friendship between tbe t 

conled c 

r Chine 

Is of tt 

d Stnt 

and hospitality In toh^n of 

rlKht t- _„_ r - 

plllare United Btates vessels, bnt the of- 
fenders must be handed over to the Chl- 
Vcae antborltlea for punishment. 

minister la also privileged m muoe uuc ■>-.<■ 
a year to the capltnr of Ihe Kmperor of 
China and there to confer with a high 
Offlclsl. deputed for ftie purpose, upon mnl- 

the privilege of residence be granted by 
the Emperor of China to the representative 
of any other foreign country, tbnl privi- 
lege, without further notice or formal per- 
mission, shall become a rlgbt of tbe minis- 
ter of the United Stales. The form In 
nhlcb commnnlentlons may pass between 

prescribed In terms of Ihe Chine 

the _ „ 

of 1880.1 If a vessel pay „ 

at one iiort and proceed for a part or the 
whole of her cargo Id another port, slie 
shnll not pay duties a second time on ber 
tonnage, bat only upon ber cargo or part of 
It. Pilots and oil other assistants may be 
hired as reoulred upon terms agreed upon 
by the patties, or determined by the con- 

may eierclae con- 

__ vessels of the DnUed States while 

In Chinese ports to Ihe extent of puttlDS 

subordinate officers on board o* "- 

" during tbe si 

T tonnage dnties 


__■ deaerters are. upon Info ..._ ._ 

from the consul, to be arrested by tbe 
Chinese snlhoritles and handed over to Ibe 
consuls for pnnlshment. Crimlnsls taklos 
refuse In Ihe hounes or on sblpa of dtlsena 
of Ihe United Sintea are to be handed 
over to Chinese oSIcIbIs on demand snd 
shall not be harbored or concealed. Pnh- 
11c pence Is to be preserved by the offloera 
of both nations, who meat exert tbem- 
Eelven to maintain order by dispensing Im 

--— -' ■-- '- Wllhln forty-eight *= 

t vessel of the T 

, anchor In either e. — 

ports, the ship's papers must be depoalted 
with tbe consul, Bod Iron tliem a tn* (*■ 


Encyclopedic Index 

pan of Deccssaiy detalli b 

1 be comma- 


a Mcmlt for ber dlschirge. 
■cbarnd wltbont ancb permit. 
Hiir b« cc— — '-' — ^ - — 

> be imp«e4 open t 

flDe of 

■llDce. If (be master delermlne within 
forlj-eljht bonra to proceed to onotber port 
wltbont bKaklbg bulk, be maf do to wltb- 
ont the parment of tonnage, dnileB. or 
otb«r cbargea anlll be ahal] reach Ibe other 
port. Id tbe abaence of the consnl or 
propel repreaentBtlve, the maaler maj' call 
Dpon tbe consul of a friendly power to 
act for htm Id the premlsea. DrsptK"* <n 
th« I 

-E b7 CitlWD* of .. 

reexported after due 
IDS cnitoma antbarltles to gai 
fraod : Id tbe CTeat of detection 

It praeeedlDH. the sooda an 
idacctlon. PoreigQ erela or 
a ChlDCae port In United BU 

codsqI tbtD r 

United Btatea mar empio; scbotara in a 

Ert of tbe emptre f- ■-■- — * ' 
)fitag«a and mar bi 

of tbe ciclusloD of t 

T acceaa to Cblneae porta lo Ions 
imI* do Dot CDfraKe In work of 
to tbe nnfHendlT power. IMa- 

■ bPT reaMl* do Dot 

EDtea bti' 
hloa ai 

own conntrr. 

of tbe United States and 

otbcr poner realdent In Cblna 

._ United Btatea clt liens In 

bo settled In the conrta of thelt 

ranntrjr. _A1I dlspotca between cltliens 

■ettlcd accordlnE t 

J tbe treattea Id force 

betweea tboae conntrlea. Cllliens of tbe 
iJQlted States deslHDt: to addreia a Cbl- 
iwse oBclRl mnst transmit tbelr commnnl- 
cations tbroDgh the conanl. who shall iee 
to It tbat tbe commnnlcatlon coDtarms to 
tb« prescribed Mart rltnat and la respect- 
fallr addressed. A Chinese dtlsea mar 
addi«M the coninl dlrectlr, at tbe asms 
tine iDformlDs bla own proper offlclals fnllv 
In tbe premises. Dlapotes between dtl- 
araa of tbe United Btates and Chinese clii- 
aena are to be adjnated when otherwise Im- 
posatble br pnbllc ofllcera of the two conn- 
trie* Bctlna taeHber. Tbone who qnletlr 
pTofeaa aaa teach tbe doctrines and prlncl- 

E'-a of lb* Cbrlatlan rtllKlon shall not be 
rasaad or persecnted on scconnt of tbelr 
bitfa. Ad7 favors, rigbts. t ' 
not conferred br this treatr, a 
a fotnre time shall be cranred 
eonntrr, shall at once treeir ■ 
cttlacns of th* Unlttd Btatea. 

r 1 eiporta In d. _. 

duty-tree goods, and contraband goods, and 
established weights and measnres In United 
Btatea eqnlialenta. Br tbis treaty cllliens 

of the United P— '-•■-■ 

entering the cap! 
posea of Irade. 

Claim*.— A claims convention was coo- 
■ ■ ■ date. Not. 8. I65S, 

Daty paid good* Imported Into a Cblnese 

Krt br cltliens of the United Btates may 
reexported after dne examination by 
Lntboritin to fnard against 

out br a 

the Chloese j 

cept (he aurplui _ _ __ _ 

tbe United Btntea and luieated in g 


Dnds. Out of tl 

Immlaraltoa and Emierallojt. — The 

f "a/e^ 

on entrr ; Import duties, i _.. 

tbe goods: a port clearaaca Is given 
_.. .. ... .. — w ^,[3 ,nj 

Mui jV'^ldT wipoMlbirior" 

.^ the conanl, who atiall certify to the 
SDperinteDdent of customs the cause of 
•neb transshipment, and at bis discrellon 
permit the tranasblpment. Oooda trnns- 
shlpped without such permission are sub- 
ject to coDllBcatlon. 

Penomal KelatioHt, — ClUscos of tbe Unit- 
ed States may aoe Chinese debtors In local 
CODTta, snd Chinese creditors may sue 
United Btstes debtors before tbe consul or 
■ ■' ■- ■ "■ ■ I of the 

was proclaimed Feb. S, 18T0, and supple- 
ments and eiplatna that of 1SB8. The 
t:mperor of China aaserts fats right of eml- 
ueot domain to all of the land opened to 
trade by clliiens of the united States, and 
stipulates tbat any and all concessions to 
them do not give bq enemy the right to 
make war npon tbe United Stales within 
his waters nor lo permit the United Slates 
to mnke attacliB upon enemies tberelo : and 
furtber that the Jurisdiction of tbe Emperor 
of China over his londg aod subjects Is In 
no wise Impaired by any concession made. 
Any further rights of trade which are not 
provided for by treaty are to l>e adlusied 

s' those to which Rns- 
e subject. United 

disability or persecution by reason of their 
rellglona belief, and due respect is to b« 
paid to burial places of all religions denoml- 
natioUB and beliefs. Emigration from and 
Immigration Into both coantrles mnst be 
wholly voluntary and with entire free will 

dally Is tbl9 fltBrmed reKardlng educi^oD 
and the eBtabllshment of Bcbools. No In- 
terference by the United Btates Id matters 
of Inlemal ad ministration la to be attempt- 
ed, partlcolarly In matters of rallrood. tele- 
graph, and other internal c " " 

hibit, the coming or the r _ 

laborers; Ibis provision applies only to la- 
borers. Teachers, stndents. merchBDls. or 
travelers from curloBltv, as well as laborers 
residing within tbe tinlted States at Ibe 
of the r- ■- • 

rights, privileges, and Immnaldes formerly 
prescribed by treaty. Buch legislation on 
the subject as may be medllnted at any 
time Is to be snbtnltted to the Chinese legs- 
tlon at Washington for consideration, dls- 
cnsslon, and regulation, tbat no hardship 
mar be InHleted npon Chloue inbjecta. 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 


OUlU, TimUm vlUl— CmMRNfA 

Traffic fn Opivjn: Judicial Proetdure. — 
KoT. It. 1880. another treaty at eommer- 
dnl lnteronir»e and Jndlclal procedure wa» 
coDCIiided wblcb proliltilti tbe ImpoHatloD 
of oplam Inio Unfled SliilM porI» by Chl- 
n»e, or Into Cbluese ports b; cltlieuB of 
tbe United Btatei. In Tpsscia owned by 
_i-i __ — L*__-^ ^j either power. Id 

temlon of the eommetelal Intereoorve be- 
tween tbe two countrlei. It coatera apoD 
tbe Cnlled Btate* mtnlster to China tbe 
light to reside at the city of PelflDK. to 
have andlence with the Emperor wbenever 
neoegsary to preseat bis credeDllili or a 
meBBnge from the President, and to enjoy 
all the honors, prerogatives, and prlvllez?* 
of the represent a tlTPB of tbe most farored 
nation. The anthorllatWe texts of all doc- 
-s Bhntl be EDgilBh for all d 

In) npoD ihlpa or trade of othc 
coDDtrlei or opoD the citizens of Bti<^b coan- 
trlei. In cases of controversy between 
ntlaeoB of the United States and sabjects 
of Cblna. wblcb call for iudiciul Interven- 
tion, It Is agreed that the preeldlng olBcer 
shall be of tbe Dadanallty of the deFendant. 
All priTlleges. conrteales. and fnclUiles are 
'- "—accorded (o the representative of" — 




against any declaloa resctaed In tbe procccd- 
iDgB conducted accordiog to tbe Judicial 
procedure of tha country of the presiding 

/mnitoralfon.— Tbe convention of I8U4, 
regDlatlng Chinese Immigration, prohibited 
the Immigration of Chinese laborers for ten 
years, eicept In tbe case of the return of a 
rpglstered Cblncae laborer who had a iaw- 
fnl wife, child, or parent In the United 
Btates, or properly therein worth one thoa- 
sand dollars, or debts of that amoont dae to 
blm or pendbig settlement Such returnlnK 
Cblneae laborer must before bis departure 
from tbe United States, deposit with the 
collector of cualoms of his district a full 
description In writing of his family, bis 
property, and his debts, as a condition 
pr<i»dest to bis return. A fniae relura In 
•acta cases aball prevent bis return. In all 
aucb cases tbe returti mast tie made wltbln 
■ period of one year, unless the time shall 
be eitended by reason of siekneBS or valid 
diublllly, snch extenuating facts being re- 
ported to tbe Chinese consul at the point 
of departure, sad by blm transmitted to 
the collector of tbs port at which he shall 
land In the United States. These probib- 
llory reatrietlona shall In nowise extend to 
teachers, students, mercbaats. or travcleri 
for pleasure and curloalty, other than Inbor- 
ers, who most he provided with a certificate 
from their government or from the govern- 
ment of the last place of residence, and 
Froperly vis*d by the conaular representa- 
Ive of tbe United States at tbe point of 
departure- Resident Intwrers in tbe United 
States shall have all rlgbts. privileges, and 
Immunities enjoyed by others, except the 
Fisbt of nalnra Illation, and their persona 
and property shall be protected by the gov- 
ernment of the United States. Tbe Chinese 
nvemDieat agrees to tbe enforcement of 
fbe acts of 18Q3 and 18Q3. which require 
all resident Chinese laborers to be regis- 
tered for tbe BBSuraoce of their better pco- 
tfctlon, and tbe United States recognttea 
tbe TlBitt of tbe Chinese governmeat to en- 
act similar legislation to apply to labor- 
ers of the United Slates wlthfa tbe Em- 
peror's damlDloDB. The cover 
United States engages 5y It 

•DPPlr annnaliy to the govemi 

a list of nil citizens ol tbe United B 
(other than the diplomatic corpn) Inclnaing 
mtsslonarles, resident or travellDg In China, 
tonlher with the names, addresses, and 

Bu^al r^tlona, wa* made In tnither e 

ed to the olOcIals within their own JIlrMI<^- 
tlon. The extension of trammerclsl freedom 
to cllisenB of the United SUtes Is again 
condrmed. The tax known as llkln was 
abolished. This was a tax of one cash per 
lael imposed apon all sales tbroughoiit 
China as a wsr tax to meet the deflclencr 
caused by the Tni-plng rebellion (ISStf- 
1864). In Its place, tbe United Stattt« 
agreed to the imposlllon of a aurlai, In 
addition to tbe current tarllT rates on all 
foreign roods Imported by cltlsens of tbe 
United Btatea. and on Chinese produce In- 
tended forforeign export: this snrtai never 
to exceed one and a half times tbe tariff 
established by the final protocol of CblDtt 
with the Powers, Sept 7. 1901. and the 
total taxes of alt klods apon sncb aooda 
mast never exceed seven and a hall per 
cent od valorem. The Ukln collecting Aa- 
tlnna are abolished In all parts of tbe 
— n provinces of China and In three 
I provinces, bnt the customs slatlona 

within these districts i 

retained. The 

abolition of llkln Is further compensated for 
by a special surtax on foreign goods not 
to exceed one and a half times tbe five per 
cent import duty estahllsbed by tha proto- 
col of leoi. It Is permitted to tbe Cbt- 
neae government to recast tbe foreign ex- 
port tnritr OD a scale not exceeding Ave 
per cent ad mforrm. and all existing tsiitt 
rates which exceed tbe last named limit 
be reduced. In place of all Internal 
on of every kind. China may add an 

4rliflniflon.— In 1008 an ] 

■ ■ ■ ?hl 

tbe interpretation of treaties and 
wblcD mar be Imiwsstble to settle by, di- 
plomacy shall be referred to the Permanent 
Conrt of Arbitration at The Bagne, pro- 
vided tbey do not affect tbe vital Interests, 
tbe Independence or tbe bonor of tbe con- 
tracting part lea. 

The estibllBbment of bonded warebonaea 
■ the several open porta Is provided for 
' -~- mttted. China agrees to revise tbe 
• -^ rithio 

lent Office 

patenting of I -j 

of tbe United States. Copyright pro- 
.-..on wltbln certain limits Is rranled to 
itlsens of the United Btatea. Tbe navie- 

Bble Inland 

of tbe Empire 

opened to steam naTlgatlou by firms, com- 
panies, and Individuals. Mukden and An- 
tnng. In the province of Sheng-ktng, ate 
added to the list of open porta, Cblna 
agrees to prorlde a nnlform coinage 
tbronghout the Empire to be recofpiised aa 
. 1 .._ 1^ jjjp payment of c — 


Encyclopedic Index 

OtallU, TtMtiM Vlth— CoMdHHCtf. 

lens 4Bd certain rMtiictlons upon nlnlOB- 
Ark*. Tbe United State* a(rce> to belp 
Cblaa remodel ber Jadldarr upon western 
line*. Cbtiu pTohlGlta the Importation of 
morphia and iDBtrnmeDta for lis iDjectloB, 
exc^t for medldDBl or lorKlFBl oiea. Con- 
dition* of tbe treat; of lOOO not at varl- 
ance wltb tbe termi of thla treaty ffe re- 
•fDniied. A scbedQle of larirr dulles apoa 
Impocted (ooda la appeoded to the treaty. 
rfhlltnm Dnmlcnttlan. — in 1844. under a 
treaty negotiated by Caleb Cnsblcg, Bre 
CbliMM porta were opened to American 
Inda and protectloD of lire and property 
waa cuarantwd American clUieD*. By tbe 
BBrllDcame treaty of ISee the rlsht of 
Cblneae Immlrratfon waa admitted, and tbe 
._ _— — a. jn,t the eubjertm of 

emptloiia, and Immnnltlea reapectlng i 
■nd realdence Id tbe United Btatea a 
anblecta of tb« moat (&Tored nation. 
Cbineae came to tbli coantry In eon 
able DDmbera ontil tbeir presence began to 
caase oppoaltlon on the Paelfle Coaat end 
afitatlon waa benn for tUelr eiclnaloo. 
They were obnailonB to many Americana 
on aeconnt of tlMlr Inereaalns namber* and 
their bablta of lUe which rendered their as- 
•ImllathHi with Amerlnna Impoaatblc. In 
la-u ...^ . -ToncreBalonal InTestlcatlon ■ 
' thelT Immlnatlon passed 
- -d by I'reslf* — ^*^-- 

1«7» _ __ 

bill reatrletlDC 

ConKTesa bat was re toed by . 
(MM). The conttnacd odpobiudu v> ino 
Chlncee, however, led to the framInK of a 
Dew tresty with China In 1880. This 
treaty conceded to tbe OoverameDt of tbe 

It Hayes 

eomins of Cblneae laborers, whenever tbelr 
wesenee ahonld t>e deemed Injurious. 
Chinese Btudents. teachera, merchanta, and 
travelers were to be admitted freely as 
before. In 1SB2 an act was pasaed by 
Coniren anspendlns the linmlsrstlon of 
Chlneae laborera for ten yean. ThU act 
was amended aeveral timea In the direction 
t rreater strlnsenry. In 1S82 the Geary 

.J China and *U Chinese laborer* 

■bonid be obliged to procare certlfleates of 
— ■ — ce from the collector of Internal 
I, fallnre to do ao within a year to 
d by deportation. Thla art was 

.DDstdcrably by a law passed Id 

IBM- A new treaty waa agreed UDon by 
tbe United Btatea and China In 18S4 ab- 
aolntely prOhlbitlnK the coming of Chinese 
labotera cor ten yeara. This treaty. In ac- 
.eordance with tbe terms of one of Iti ar- 
ticle^ was terminated by China at Ibe ei- 
Elratlon of tbe ten years period, la Decem- 
tr. 1904. Bt an act approved Aorll 20. 
1903, all law* in force problbltlng and 
regoIatlDK Chlneee Immlirratlan were rc- 
enarted aa far aa not meonBlatent with 
trsatT obligations ontll olberwiu provided 
br law, and their operation eiteuded to 
tM laland territOTy of the UnlCrd States. 
Tbe Domber of Chloese In tbe United StatcK. 
prafwr. as reported by tbe cersus of ISIO 
waa 71.631, aa compared with 8n,863 In 
1000, ahowlna a decrease of 18,832 In the 
decade. Of the total nnmber Id ISIO. 86.- 
8S8 were males and 4,STS were females ; GS 
per cent of tbe malea were single and 2S 

Eer cent of the women. Uore than one- 
iir reaided In California. There were 760 
farma operated by Chinese, of which 1113 
wer* In California, and only BT were owned 
by Chinese, tbe other* lielng worked by Chl- 

OhlnMS ImnilgnUan; 
Segardiitg^ vetoed, 4466, 4699, 
To execnte certain treaty atipnla- 
tions approved and dlaetusad, 
Conventional regnlation of pasaags 
of laborers acroas bordera proposed 
to iUexico and Great Britain, &S44. 
Conventions regarding. (Bee Treaty 

regarding, po»t.) 
Discussed by President — 
Arthur, 4718. 
aeveland, 4914, 4968, 4975, C083, 

^194, 5S15, 6868. 
Qraot, 4242, 4309. 
Harrison, Beuj., 6469, £470, 6632. 
Hayes, 4521, 4540. 
Boosevelt, 7008, 7010. 
Execution of acts regarding, refened 

to, 549S. 
Head tax collected from Chinamen 

entering Canada, 5476, 5632, 
Hegistration of Chinese laborera — 
Extension of time for, 5S38, 5868. 
Law regarding, sostained by Su- 
preme Court, 5888. 
BeportB on, referred to, 4073, 4975. 
Through Canada and Uexico, dia- 

enased, 6476, 6632. 
Treaty regarding, 4561, 4581, 5196, 
G908, 6956. 
Diseusaed, 4689, 4823, 6194, 6386. 
Beferred to, 4691, 5212, 6215. 
Bejeeted by China diacuaaed, S367, 
5386, 5387, 6469, 
Violation of lawB, reatricting, dls- 
cnssed and recommendationa ro- 
gaiding, 4762, 6632. 
OUnMS Indemnity.— In Hay, 1900, a se- 
cret society, known as tbe Boxers, arose In 
tbe provtocea of Shan Tung and Pe-chl-LI, 
China, and massacred native Christiana and 
Rnropeau missionaries. In June the Boxers 
deitroyed the Tien Tsln railway. Isolating 
the foreigners In Peking, and abortly after 

mnrderea tbe aerman'"mlnTsii 

Japanese cbancellor of legatloc 

md Ibe 

until the middle of AnKat "that a relief 
force composed of 12.000 American, Brit- 
Isb. French, Qermau, Russian and lapaoess 
troopi was enabled to rescu; tbe besieged 
tegnjions In Peking. Tbe BmpreM Dowager 
and the coort baa fled, and It waa Impmal- 
ble to apprehend the leadera In tlie antt- 
forelgn uprising. 

Peace ncKatlatloBa were opened, and on 
Dec. 4, the Powera sent a Joint note to the 
Chinese peace cammissloners. demanding, 
among other things, the eiecntlon of the 
leaders In tbe massacre of foreigners and 
tbe payment of an Indemnity ; tortwde the 
Importation of arms and ammunition or 

_>terlaU _.. 

converBlon of ad 
- tbe Impi 

irem Into speclllc du- 
.„ , of certalo rlvera. pro- 
hibited Chinese memtMnthlp In antl-forelgn 
aecret societies under psln of death, ordered 
tbe dlsmlnal of governors who shonld here- 
after permit antTforelni agitation. A lega- 
tion d'str'ct In Peking which might b* 
tortifled and guarded was deSned. and cer- 
tain polnta were Indicated that migbt b« 


Messages and Papers of the PresidetOs 

OhliiMe IsdansltT — Comtbmtd. 
occuplMl bj the forelsn powers M 
muDiCBilDQ open betweea tbe i 

The ■ 

demnllj «b fixed at |Z4.440,T78.L_ __ 
1000 It WIS decitlvd bj tbe powen Cbat tbls 
debt was paTable In gold. Tbe prlDclpal Is 
parible In tulrty-ulne ananal InstsDmeDts. 
ebdlDg [D 1941. Tbe Interest. pa7able seml- 
,1b aboDt $ia,- 

lall iDto tbelr Imperlallitie laps. 

ma mi ot tbe indemnities eiaeted and 
loans made to par tbe lame fallows: 

Atler tbe Brlllsh bad captured teretal 
ports tn tbe opinm w>r, In ia40, taken 
Cblac-Klans In a bloodT assaalt, aod 
tbreatened Naofclng, a treat; was nude 
wltb CblDa, wblcb, besides openlnx five 
ports to foreign trade and ceding tbe lalaod 

aanuuiiT. ni juur per ci^ue, ib aug 
800,000 ; the BecnrUlea (or the Inden 
the maritime miloms and tbe i 
opol7 and tbe native cuetoms <: 


recommendalloD CongreBB passed .. .. 
resolDtloD which was approved Uar 23. 
IVOS, reducing tbe total amounC to tl3,- 
65B.492.6a, reserTing 12,000.000 tor the 
pajmenC of fature clalmB under Hie treat; 
and proTtdlog for Ibelr adjudication by the 
Court of Claims. This was done purely 
as aa act of friendship toward Cblna. 
OhlnsM Imlenmltr of 1900; 

Authoritj asked for cancelling part 
of, 7123. 
OhlnOM IiOan. — The constractlon of eiten- 
Blve railway lines by tbe Bowunent, with 
the use of foreign capital and the granting 
of eoiiceaslona to foreign companies to build 
ralli'osdB !■ opening ap China Id influences 
wblcb the great Towers are not slow to 
avail themselveB of. In June. 1908, work 
iras begun on (be Tien THln-Pakow rail- 
road, about TOO miles long. connectliiE the 
Imperial rallwayi In N'ortb China with the 
German transverse line and extending to 
tbe VanglBe, opposite Nsoklng. and eounect- 
Ing three open porlB. About t^S.OOO.OOO 
was borrowed to build this road. The rosd 
from Nanking to Shanghai. ISO miles, was 
opened in April. •'■"•• 

Tbe e 

of tl 

r Fist fl 

in August, „., „. ,- 

form of an allotment lo New lorb bankers 
of one-fourth partldpBIIon !□ a loan be- 
gotlated by the Chinese government tor tbe 
construction of tbe IlaDEowSiechaen RaU- 
vay. Tbia total amonnt ol tbe loan Ib 
I30.O0O.O0O. of which t7.500.000 is lo b« 
taken by an American syndicate. Tbe sum, 
so small for Wall Street. Is trot; a mere 
wedge, bnt the principle involved Is con- 
aide red of world-wide Importance, and 
opeos tbe door for tblngs far greater. 
The Chinese Government gave SBSuranc« 

— ^ ._ .. — -J j,ay( eqaal oppor- 

'-■ for both tbe Can 

with branches ai 

appoint subordinate engineers. They a 
lO have one-hslt of sll future loans on t^c 
Sierbuen Railroad with corresponding ad- 

For years Great Britain. France and 
Gcrmanv have been dlolomatl rally strug- 
gling for the con I rolling Influence over 
China when tbat vast country should have 
Its awakening to western civllliatlon and 
eiploltstlon. They have manoeuvred In 
every way to bring about conditions that 
migbt tesnit in tbe partition of the empire 

ing Koog to Kngland, exacted * « 
luueiunlty ot S21,000,000. In ISSS-l&aB 
another expensive war was forced upon 
Cblna by England and France, to end which 
China was compelled Co pay tbe expenses 
of her conquerors. By the treaty of 8hl- 
monoseki, ending the war between Cbtna 
and Japan, In 1SB5. China agreed to pay 
an Indemnity of 200,888.200 laela (about 
1 1 SO, 000, 000 J . This disclosure of Chlns'a 
weakness aroused tbe Interest ot European 
nations, and Rnssls, France and (lennany. 
Jealous of the growing Influences ot Japan, 

protested e 

I the cession 

: Lisa 

t English, Ger- 

> the latter counCn. and 
HUBBie. tarousn tbe agency of France, 
placed a loan In 1805 amounting to f TT,- 
20O.(X)0 to enable China to meet tbe pay- 
ments ot (he indemnity. In 1806 180.000,- 
000 was loaned by German and American 
CBpltalista, and in 1898 another tSO.OOO.- 
GOO was advanced by the Hong Kaag and 
Shanghai Banking Corporation,- and I"- 
Deutscbe-AslatlBche Bank of F " ' ~ 
man and American capital. 

In return for these loans valnable rail- 
way and trading concessions were exacted. 
with a view to eBtabtlBhlng In the disin- 
tegrating empire spheres of InDuence which 
would serve as a pretext for military oc- 
cupallon Bbould tbat become desirable. In 
'"OT, Germany by way of reparation for 

tung peninsula, and obtained valnable mln- 
Ide, trading and railway privileges In tlie 
tlcta Bhantang province. 

Farly In 1898, while tbe British govern- 
ment was endeavoring to seen re guarantees 
that the Yangtseklang region sboold not be 
alienated. Russia obtained a lease of tbe 
harbors of Port Artbur and Tallen Wan. ■» 
the Llao-Iung peninsula, with railway c 

Tbe United States Government bas stood 
by Cblna as ber friend. John Hay. as Sec- 
retary of State, laid down the policy of tbls 
govern men t as insisting on what was called 
[he "open door," meaning thereby that all 
nations should stand on equal terms wttb 
China and tbat empire should not be ex- 
ploited eicluBlvely by any other nation to 
Its own material advantage. 

This relatively Inslgnlflcant railway loan 
proved to be tbe critical Inrldent to bring 
to a focus tbe International diplomatic gams 
tbat powerful nations have ^een jilaytng. 
with the vast, unknown Flowery Kingdom 
as the most maDgnlBcent spoils at stake 
since the days that Rome was annexing 
practlcallv all th^ world to paj It trlbnts. 

Great Britain has been In the Cblnese 
game with her gold. Germany bas been 
working tbe military end. training and 
arming tbe Chlness soldiers. France bad 
been let In as their helpful ally. Tbe Unit- 
ed States, standing for fair play, for tbs 
open door, tor the best Interests ot Cblna, 
— .. ... ... ._..^ jjjg game. All tbe 

f China's entrancs 

and all tba eon- 

tallow along tbe Uass, 


Encyclopedic Itidex 


WM ta be beU eloNly between tbe three 
BuoMui MODtrlei. 

TUa waa tbe iltiutloD wben President 
Taft lUBtmcted the American Ambaasadort 
la Enrope and tbe Charge d'Affalrea In 
Feklnc to lod^e a proCeat and to demand 
tUa conntt?'! parliclpe.tloD In whatcTer al- 
(ected tbe welfare of our peaceful allj 
•eron the Paclllc Tbe affair at once waa 
lifted BbDTe a mere flnanclBl tranaacllan 
Ibio the realma of Interoatlonal dlplomscr- 

It waa aa anprecedented act tor tbe Oqt- 

bufcet*, but Preeldenc Taft held tbal the 
condltlona warranted tbe move. Tbe ac- 
tion of the Foreign Board Indicates that the 

dlatntereated poller of tbla countn. 

Peking-a announcement that tbe Amer- 
ican wbire of the loan for eonaCructlng tbe 
BAnbow-Saecbnen R«llw*y wu allowed by 
the Foreign Board la most gratifying to tbe 
State Department, not that the amonaC In- 
TolTcd 1* anDelent to Jnitlty a spirit of 

l>nrlur the anmrner of 1912 prlTnte flacal 

■txnta or tbe Cblneae QoTemment i ' 

pledgea ot_ • loan of ■nfflclant ilie 

f tbe Cblneae QoTemment secured 
pledgea of • loan of snfflcli 
tbe new Cblneae Republic 

af reornnlsatlon, without 

■o-callM "six power" loan, and without 
•nbmlttlDS to the conditions of the powers. 
OUmm IiOUig, nentral advisei propmed 

1^ tlie United Btateo, 7661. 
(jh^pora Oommlailoti, report of, dis- 

euswd, S500. 
OUppoira ZndluiB. (See Indian Tribes.) 
Ohippswa Plains (Ouutda), Battle of.— 
On tbe morning of July 4, 1S14, the entire 
American Army of the North adTaneed 
northward alons tbe western bank of tbe 
Klagara Blrer to a point near the moaCh 
ot tbe Chippewa. Here they were con- 
fronted by ihe British under Gen. Rlsll, 
who was reeuforced during tbe night by 
tbe King's regiment from Toronto. On 
the afternoon snd eveDlng of the C(b a 
stubborn battle waa foaght The British 

OUppawa Beasrvatlona in Wisconsin, 

dispoaition of timber on, SS66. 
OUpperar Indiana. (See Indian 

OUilqnl, Isttunni of, penona sent to, to 

make required ezaminatioiu, referred 

to, 31DS. 
OUdiolin TB. Oeorglv— In 1792 Alexan- 
der Chlsholm, of Bonth Carolina, brought 
salt In the Supreme Cotirt ot tbe Cnlted 
Btetee agnbist tbe Btate of Qeorgia tor tbe 
payment of a private claim, cblsholm's 
counsel claiming tbat sectlou 2 of Article 
III. ot tbe Constitution vested the court 
with Jnriadlctlon In each cases. The court 
gave Jndgment to Hie plaluCllt and luned a 
writ of Inqnlry, but the writ was never 
eleented. tbe legislature of Qeorgia haTlng 
passed an act making the eiecutlan ot snch 
a writ ponlsbable by death. This ease led 
to the adoption In 1798 of tha elerentta 
aatenduent to the Constltntlon. 

Oho-balt-Ui-blBb Itadlana. (See Indian 

OhocUw Ooal and EaUwa; Co., act ati- 
thorizing Oklahoma City, Okla,, to 
isana bonds to provide right of way 
for, vetoed, 5571. 
Cboctaw OommlBBlon, proceedings of, 

referred to, £129. 
Clioctaw Indians. (See Indian Tribes.) 
Olioctaw Nation. Ind. T., right of way 
for railroads across lauds of. 4653. 
Obolera (see also Contagions Diseases; 
International Sanitary Conferencej 
Quarantine ScgtilatioDi). 
Canses of, report on, referred to, 

International conference on sabject 

of, at Borne, 4S1S. 
International conference to be held 
at Conetantinople upon subject of, 
referred to, 3576. 
Bepresentatives to foreign countries 
to report on progresa, etc., of, 
appointed, 4SB8, 4902. 
Beport of, referred to, 5565. 
Christian Indians. (See Indian Tribes.) 
ObilBtlana Oaso.— lo ISOl Edward Gor- 
such and a party from Maryland attempted 
to selie a fugitive slave In Christiana. Pa. 
A riot ensued In wblch Qorsncb wes killed. 
Castner Hanway, an hivalld Quaker, was 
arrested and charaed With treason, riot, and 
bloodshed for refusing to assist a marehsl 
In qnelUng tbe disturbance. No Indictments 
were found, but the case created much ex- 

Otaristlang, massacre of. (See Arme- 
OIirrBtlei'i FUidg (Oanada), Battlo of. 

—Nov. 11, 1813, Qen Wilkinson, with the 
main body of the American army, here 
fought a slightly superior force of British. 
Tbe battle lasted 6 boars, victory alter- 
nately favoring one snd then the other. 
Night ended the eonSlct, with Ibe British 

In posseBiiDD of the field. ""■- " ' 

lost heavily. 

many offlcers being either v.. -ujnded, Amerlcsn loss. 839; 
British loss, IT killed, wounded, and missing. 
Ohngacta National Forast (Alaska): 
Opening to occupation by railroads 
of 12,800 aeies of, dlscnssed, 75B9. 
Olmrcll and StatA. — The relstlon of the 
state to rellgtoas bodies In America differs 
from sli previoos relationships In Europe 
and the Colonies, Bbode Island, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Maryland provided for religions 
freedom early In their respective histories. 
Moat of the Colonies esUbllshed the Charch 
of England, tbongfa Massachnsetta and Con- 
nect Ictit maintained tbe CDUgregBtlonat. 
The Constitution gnarantees rellgloui free- 
dom In all parts of the United States. Ar- 
ticle VI. declares that "no religious test 
shall ever be required as a quallflcatlan to 
any offlce or public trust under the United 
States." The flrst smendment provides that 

"Congress shall make no law resnertlng a 

establishment ot religion ........ — ... 

free eierclse thereof." 

t problblling tha 



Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

Ohnrdi of Zi«tt«-I)»T Salnti. (S«e 
KoTmon Chnrcli: PolvguDy; uid 


ObaidiM and Ohoicb Fropeity. (8«» 

Beligious EatablishmentB.) 
Olmmtiiuco (Mexico), BaU1« of. — Cbn- 
nibluca wm ■ Btronglj fortlfled plAoe neftr 
tbe Cltr of Mexico. Tbe American arm;, 
Id Ito dlvtsioni, ander UenenUi Worth uia 
Twtgcs, altscked tbe Uexlcaos nader Oeo. 
BiDta AuiB, Aog. 20. I84T. a few houn 
■Cler tba action at Contreraa. Tbe Amer- 
Icans QDmbered 8.000 and tbe Heiicaoa 
S5.000. Earlj Id tJie engasement tbe mc- 
rlson at Ban AnConlo waa roated. Tbe 
hottest flgbtlDK took place aloDS the Bio 
Chnmbnsco, where for aome time tbe 
America □■ were threatened with defeat, 
bnt rallflng tber drore tbe MexicaDi be- 
fore them. BlmultaoeoDBlr were taken the 
teie-du-pODt, or btldcehead (tbe key to 
BaDta Anoa'a position), and the Pablo de 
Chnrabosco. The conflict laated three 
hours. iDclndlng the casualties, tbe Mexi- 
can loss was 6,STT. The Americana lost 

Cbnrubnflco (Mexico), Battlo oft re- 
ferred to, 2386. 
OlnuUTOIL — The name oHstnallr propoaed 
tor tbe Dortbweatem part of Indian Terri- 
lorr. now Beaver Count;. Oklahoma. Tbe 
atrip of land lying between S6° SC and ST° 
north latitude and 100° and 103° west 
loDgllodc was ceded by Texas to tbe United 
States In 18Q0. The name Cimarron la 
Spanlab lor "wild," and was applied to a 
tributary of tbe Arkansas Klver wblch bad 
Its soarce In the country, Tbe atrip waa 
■ometiines called "No Man's I.and." Since 
between tbe years 1850. when It was added 
to the United States, and IBBO, when It 
waa made a part of Oklahoma. It was under 
no form of goyemmcnt and (he resort chief- 
ly ot outlawa. Recently settlera from Kan- 
■aa and Colorado have remoyed tbither and 
taken up their abode. 
Olnclimatl Industrial Exposition, board 
on behtjf of EzecntiTe Depart- 
ments designated, 4819. 
Instructions to, 4820. 
nndimatl, Sodet; of the.— A society 

originated In 1TS3 by BeTolatlooary oScera. 
At the second general meeting In 1T8T 
Washington waa chosen preetdent-general 
and was reelected eyery three years while 
lie lived. The memberanlp rolla were open 
only to tbe offlcers and their eldeat sons, 
thougb a nnmber of French ofllcers were 
tnclnded. Tbe hereditary principle aroused 
popular jealousy. It was denounced by 
tbe Oovernor of South Carolhia and the 
legislatures ol Ussiiachnsetts, PennajlTa- 
ula, and Rhode Island. In 1T84, at the BO- 
llcJfatlon of WaablngtoQ, tbe society dropped 

.-Jl memberablp la ceatrtcted to those hav- 
luK the hereditary right. A few dlstln- 
gnlgbed men are admitted to honorary mem- 
bersblp, bnt the nnmber la atrictlr Umlted. 
President Monroe waa an original mern>u>r 
and President Pierce was a hereditary □ 

Cleveland. HcKlnler. Roaaevelt and Taft 
were made honorary membera, aa were ex- 
President Lonbet of France, and Admiral 
Dewey, Llentenant-Oenerali HUea and 
Tbe chief Immediate objects of the •od- 

Bt the TilcDDlal meeting In Newport, B. L, 
m June, IBll, waa S81. 
Olplier Dlspatchw. — The reanlt of the 
presidential election of 18T8 waa for aer- 
eral months in donbt Dnrlog this period 
of nncertalntr numeroo* telegraphic dla- 
natebea naued between the friends of Sam- 
1, Democratic candidate tor the 

Florida. Charges of fraud . 

mads these dispatches were ordered turned 

to the Senate Committee on Privllece* 

" — A lance number of them 

slon of the New Torti 

..lused a aensatlon by 

tnbllBblng transcripts of them. Mr. TlIdeQ 
a a letter emphatically denied all knowl- 

Oitlnns of United Ststei: 

Aid furnished Cabans br, 62S4. 
Appropriation for relief of, abroad 

in certain cases recommended, 4145. 
Attacked by Britiah forces, 1818. 

Militia called forth to protect, 1620. 
Captured by army of Mexico, 1944, 

Liberated, 2050. 
Claims of, against — 

Foreign Powers. (See the aeveral 

United States, (See Private 
Claims; War Claima.) 
Condemned to death in Cuba, 4690. 
Death of, in Cuba, 617S, 61S4. 
Destitute in — 

Colombia, order for transportation 
of, to United States, S437. 

Cuba, appropriation for, 626(L 
Beconimended, 0248. 
Beferred to, 6S5& 
Emigration of, to Turkey for purpoaq 

of acquiring lands referred to, 3061. 
Estates of deceased, in Cuba referred 

to, 2S93, 2894. 
Expelled from — 

Jurisdiction of Mexico, S180, 2198, 
3044, 3120. 

Prussia, 3123. 
Forbidden to sell goods in Mexico, 

Illegally taken from United States by 

the Enelish, 4SS. 
Impressed into military serTiea of 

foreign countries. (See Natarxiised 

Imprisotunent of, abroad. (See Im- 
'mprisonment of 

ferred to, 4009. 
Injuries ii^icted upon, in Torkej 

discossed, 6090, 8147. 
Injuriea auatained by, in Mexico, 

2869, 3043, S094, 4143. 


Encyclopedic Index 

Civil Swvlce 

<minu of TMItMl 8t«te»-0d<itIiuHA 
Interference with righta of naturml- 

iied mbjeets by Austria, 64ZS. 
IiegiBlation for protection of, 4006. 
HvriBgoH of, when abroad, reeom' 

mencUitioiia regarding, 1246, 4301, 

ICnrdered in— 

Cuba, 4003, 4004, 4022, 4023, 4106, 

Great Britain, retaliatorj meaanrei 
ditcnaMd, 522. 

Uexieo, 3096. 

Qnallah Battoo, Sumatra, 1138. 
Natnraliiatian discnsted. (See Aliens: 

Of Hebrew peranasion diaeriminated 

against in Switzerland, 3123. 
Ontragea on, in — 

Costa Bica, 3048. 

Uezieo, 2323, 2383, 3175. 

New Oranada, 2048, 3040. 

Nicaragua, 3046. 

Pontifical States, 3110. 
Pardons granted. (See Pardons.) 
Passports tised br, in !France referred 

to, 3S02. 
Presented at Coort of France, 3205. 
PriTilegee accorded, in Turkey dis- 

eossed, 4920, 
Property of — 

Confiscated in Cuba, 4019, 4022, 

Destroyed in Spain, 37S, 376, 6S2. 

Destroyed in China, 4823. 

Protected In South Africa, 6371. 

Seised or destroyed in Uexieo, 2323, 
8044, 3096, 3120. 
Protection of, in China discnssed, 

4006, 40SS, 5544, 6621, 6050, 6069. 
Beligions and educational establish- 

toents of, in Turkey, treatment of, 

diaeossed, 6762. 
Besened by Spanish bri^, 1123. 

Compensation for services rendered 
recommended, 1123. 
Bights of — 

Abroad discussed, 3381, 6017. 

In Egypt discnssed and proclaimed, 
43I4, 4357. 

Violated by Spanish authorities, 
Selected to serve in offices in Jap- 
anese Oovemment, 4090. 
Bhoold not wage private war, 358, 

Slaughter of, in Hamburg, S. C, re- 
ferred to, 4329. 
Steps taken for protection of, in Tor- 
key referred to, 4321. 
Trading under false colors, 480, 
Treatment of — 

By Qreat Britain referred to, 3718. 

In Cuba discussed, 6256. 
Trial and conviction of, abroad. (See 


OltlMiMUp. (See NatnralizatioB.) 
OItIo Federation. — A nattonal oifsnlsa. 
tlOQ of promlneol repretenti.tlTes at capital, 
labor, and the genera] pnblic formed as tbe 
direct ontgrowlb of conventlani held In 
CbtcRKO and New York in 1&00'1901. It* 
purpose li to organUe tbe best brains of tbe 
natloa In sn edacatlonal moTemeut seek- 
Idk tbB solatlon of some of tbe great prob- 
lems related to social and industrial prog- 
ress; to provide for itudy and dlscuiilon of 
Saatlons of nstlanal Import ; to aid thus In 
e crrstallliatlOD of the most eollghteDed 
public opinion ; and when desirable, to pro- 
mote leglslatloii In accordance therewith. 
OItU Eights Act.— A law passed by Con- 
gress April 9, 1866, over President John- 
son's veto, placing the negro on the same 
■ the white man (page S603>. 

Unlied SUtee. „ _.. 

was made a mlsdem««nai to be considered 
by tbe Federal eoorle alone. 

A long controrenr ensned over tba con- 
BtltnttoDSlltr of this law. The fourteenth 
amendment was framed In accordance with 
It (page 26), and In 18TS more stringent 
measures were passed to secure the cItII 
rights of tbe negro. In June, 1SS3. a 
number of cases were brought before the 
Unlied States Supreme Court on eertlflcatei 
of diTisioD tram the circuit conria of K«D- 
■as, Calltorula. Utssourl. New York, and 
Tennessee. Thej were, respectlvelj, United 
Btales e*. Btanley, United states v*. Ryan, 
United SUtes vi. Nichols. United States vt. 
Singleton, and Boblnson and Wife vt, Mem- 
phis and Charleston Ballroad Co. Tbe 
cases against Nichols and Stanlej were on 
Indictments for retoBlng tbe prlTllegee of 
a hotel ; against Singleton and Rrau for 
refusing admission to a theater. itoblDson 
broagbt suit against tlie railroad company 
for refnslng his wife, a colored woman, the 
prMlegea of the ladles' car on the Hem. 
phis and Charleatoa Railroad, In the latter 
case, as well as that of Ryan, Judgment was 

6 Ten tor tbe plaintiff on the ground of vlo- 
llou of the first and t ■* — ■' — -• 

— tbe court declared 

certain provtalona of the drll rigbta act 
of 18TS null and Told and Judgment waa 
rendered for the defendants. 
Oivn Blgtata: 

Acts regarding, vetoed, 3603. 

Enactment of law to better secure, 
recommended, 4209. 

Supreme Court deeision regarding, 
referred to, 4775. 

Violations of, referred to, 3S66. 
Civil SSTvlea. — Jan. 16, 1888, Congreas 
paaaed what la known as the cItII service 
law. TbI* act establlahed the United 
States Civil Service Commtsalon, to be com- 
posed of three membera, not more than two 
of whom ahoDld be adherents of the same 
political parly. 

Perposs of lAe Jot,— The act Itself la a 
mere outline of Its purposes, but for Its 
ampllllcailon It provides tor rates to be 

tromnlgated by the President, such rules 
} be eqnslly binding wlib tbe atatote upon 
the beads of Departments and oDcea, aa 
well as noon tbe Commlaslon. The fonda- 
mental purpose of the law and roles Is to 
establish tn the parts of the service within 
their proTlsloos a merit ayaiem whereby 
•electtoa for appol^tinent* abiiU he a»4« 


CM Service Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

OMl Sorvtce-Confffnirf. 

DpoD tb« baila ot dprnoDstrated lelctlTe tlt- 

iipBi wlthoiit ressrd to politlc&l cttntldera- 


Claitlflntton.—To rarry oat this pnr- 
pOM ■ pl»u of competiil'— '--•■■ — "- 


^loatloDS .. 

'olBSBlflfd Berrlr*-" 

imm lue prorlaloDB of tbe" dTll wrrlce 
iw and rales requiring appolnlmentB tbere- 

clasifflpd ,. .„„ „... „. 

Ibe lerilra which >ro not wlthtn tboM pro- 
Tliiona, ■Dd thprefow In wblcb •ppolot- 
mpnta may be made wIthoQt mQiliMtlon 
and cerllSratlQD by tb« Com ml ml on. 

The nnmlHT and location of federal dTll 
■errlce poiltlop* OD June. 30, 1918, wai aa 

dtaporud by T 









Encyclopedic Index 

Pmldcnc trni MDOnsed bj the Scuhie. buu 
PmIiIodi of mere DDikllled miDual labor 
are not rcqatred to be clawlDHl. Wlib tbeae 
IlmltalloDa, tbe Preeldent la Butboriied to 
direct from time to time, in bis dlBcreilon, 
tbe bead! of Ucpartrnpnti - " *"- - 
tcut (be claiilflnl serrlce 
Uw and nilet do not gb 
iSon an; pover of ape 

'; that power Is 1—. .. 

, . . .0 ancb law. namcl;. In the Frealdent 
and beada ol Deparlmenti. 

, Tbe clTll «er»lco 
re lo (be Commli- 
ofniment and re- 
where It i 

noTal : that i 
prior to anch I . 
mnd beada ol Deparlmea... 
Dtpartwie»t AppoinUie*.^ 

Uoo of ar '-•" ■ 

pniTldea . 

compelltlve eiamlnat , . 

blea tboB provldnl the ippoliitlDir officer 
makes aelectlon and appolDtment. when the 
CommlaaloD certlSei three ellglblei tor aa; 

ErticnUr iniltloa. cte appolntliiK officer 
■ abaolute discretion In maklDX selection 
nod annolDtment fror — "- -■■-■■-•-- — 

ataall be made wltboul r 

charged with iDveatlgatlns and re- 
~ UIT Irrexolartt; of ■ppolatmeat or 
. A Tacaney In the classlOed BiTTlre 

trom the date of his separallon If separat- 
ed wlt&OQt dellnqueDc; or mlacoDdact. For 
a larfer part of tbe poalllons In (he classl- 
fl«d aerrlce tbe CommlsslOD holds eiamlaa- 
tlons on regnlar srhedale dates tbrouKhont 

•rer, alwaya annonnced In the public 

elani&cd aerrlce; tor the Oiling ol all t 

„ _^ , — ,je apportl 

appolntmenU at Waihlnston l . „_ 

states apon the basis of population ; for a 
period of probation before absolute appolDt- 
ment ; that no oerBon In the public serrlce 
aball be obllied to contribute serrlce or 
mone; for political purposes ; that persons 
In tbe competltlre service, while reulnlng 

a thej 


an; right I 

oil [lea] OplDtODB, 

= Kxii. In political cam- 
} person In said servlc« 
se bla official author ItT 
e the political action o( 

> political 

kor persoD or bod;. 

Provitioiu 0/ tha Riilei. — The act re- 
quires tbe rulea to provide, as nearlT aa tbe 
conditions of good ■dmlnlatTatloD will war- 
ran^ for open competitive practical exam- 
inations for testing the fltness of applicants 
(or the classified service ; tor the fflline of 
all vacancies by select Ions from among thoae 
graded bigfaeat : for the apportionment of 
appolntmetita at Washington among tbe 
Matea upon the baala of population ; for a 
period of probation before abaolnte appoint- 
ment ; that no person In the public aervlca 
shall be obllired to contribute service or 

one; for political purposes : that persons 
•v. .■.! rvlce. vblle retaining 

the competitive servT 

- right to vote aa thi, 

M privateir tbeir political oplnli 

. ._. political opinio 

^active part In political campaigns; 

na. shall 


and that no person In said service has any 

right to nse his official authority or In- 
fluence to coerce the political action of any 
persoD or body. 

£ftent of the Servlea. — There were an 
June 30. 101^, over SUS.OOO positions Id 
- •• ~ ._. --irlj 60 per 

t. of K 

> competitive 

■ndlture t( 


_._Jtlon. __, „ 
^the^Eiecntlve Civil 

ippolnted by th 

jy the Bennle, o 

iployed merely as laborers o 

blank for the Departmental Service at 
WasblnKton. Rallvay Mall Service, tba In- 
dian School Service, and the Government 


civil Service Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

PrlDtlng SertlM Aoald tw rcqnnted dlreet- 
17 o( th« ClTll e«mc« Oomr"--'— -' "'— *■ 
"ng. Th6 blank (or *'- "~ 
-iitemal SeTenae __ __ 

Jucaled ot the Civil Bervln Boatd of Eiam- 
lert at Uie offlce. wben wrrlcg li aought. 
Applicant! tor eiamlnatloD muit be clll- 
— ^1 ot tbe United Btatai, and of tbe proper 
" ■ - Tlcattn^ fill 

iutlon'Ta male 

r be appointed. 

1 of tbe mlea, a i 
■ — of f 

! of elCnar wari may be n 
— ' - •^- lenith of til 

wftboat regard to tbe leng. . __ _. 

Ae hai been eepatatad from the aerrlce. 
latutar PotaeaalOM. — E^iamlnatloni 


and Havati, and aim t 
- Janal aemra. 
Unela*Hflet Servlo*.— Under 

Hannal of Smu (nations, 
and dates ot ezamlnatloni, r 

.i™.n "nn'.«lnn' 


■triv P 

and ceneral In- 

"'nte'ciTll Service act and mlea. 
Tbe Annaal Report! ot tbe Cammlmlon, 
•bowing It> work, nieaa anonal report! 
maj b« conanlted at public libraries. 
(MtII Barrtca (aee kIm OoTflmineiit 

polillcal or rellKlone opialona. ne limita- 
tion i ol ase varr it lib tbe different aerTlcea, 
bat do not applr to an; person bonorably 
dlacharsvd ti'om tbe mllltarr or naval 
■errlea of tbe United Btates br reaaon of 
dtaabllltj reanltloK from woanda or aick- 
neaa incurred In tne line ot duty. 

BaamtiMiont, — Tha examlnadoiii are 
open to all periona aoallOed Id reaped to 
B(e, citlienablp, legal residence, character 
aod bealth. DnrlDg the flacal fear ended 
Jane 80, lOlZ, 88,240 penona were ap- 
pointed. Ot those appofnted, 2,S<M were 
mial letter-carrlera, Is.SOT were mechanic* 
and workmen at navj yarda appointed on 
reglrtratlon testa of fltneaa given bj • board 
ot labor emplojment at each jard. Several 
bondred different klDd* of eianinatlona 
were held, each one of which Involved differ- 
ent testa, nree hundred and twentr ot 
tbeae eiamlnatlona eoDtained edQcatlonal 
tests, the others being for mechanical trades 
or skilled occupaclona and conalatlng of 
cert I Scales of emplojers or fellow- workmen. 
Eiamloatlona are held twice a rear la each 
state and terrltorr, the places and dates be. 
log publicly aanounced. 


t examination, 

plrlng for ordloarr clerical places la greaV 
It In eiccM of the calla of appomtlng 
offlcen. The cbancca of appointment are 
good for teachers, matron^ aeamatreaaea 
and phralclans In the Indian Bervlce, tor 
male atenogra^hers and tn>ewcltera, 
dranchtsmen, patent examiners, civil, me- 
cbanTcal and electrical euglneeci, and for 
technical and sclent Ifle experts. 

Pr»ter»nc« Olofmante. — FeraODS who 
served In the mllltarr or naval service of 
the United States, and were discharged bv 
' -'--^llltlei reaultlng from w -— ^ 

tor appointment at a grade of 65, white 

-" -''■ obliged to obtain a grade ot 

irtlfled to appointing odlcerB 
~ ! Other con- 


also held for positions In the Phlllpplnea, 
Porto Rico and Hawaii, and alio tor "" 
Isthmian Canal service 

execntlve order unclasalfled ... 
appointed after open, competltlvi 
tlon upon their phjalcal condlt. 
action 1b outside &a Civil Servlct 

PubUcvtUnt of (k« (7om)itl(*<an.— Tha Com- 
ulaalon pnbllsbea tb* following : 

on their phjalcal condition, nils 

Appointments — 
Having relation to, 49M. 
Belationa of members of Cougresa 

to, diicniaed, 45S7. 
' Breaches of tniat in, 7008. 
Appointment of aliens when no eiti- 

»DS are available, 7969. 
Board to devise rules and regnlationa 
to effect Teform in, convened, 
4109, 4110. 
Appropriation to continue aerviees 

of, recommended, 4111, 42S4. 
Bnles and regulations adopted bjr, 
4111, 413G, 4184. 
Abolished, 428L 
Ameudmenta to, 4134, 4183. 
Civil War veterans given preference 

in, 6703. 
Compstitive tests for laborers in, 

S780, 6804. 
Consnlar glheos, order regarding, 
DlscusMd, 6071, 6154. 
Defense of, 77KB. 

Oorporation and joint stock com- 
paniea, order governing inspee- 
tion of retnrne of, 7900. 
iDiaenssad hy President — 
Arthur, 4S47, 4732, 4773, 479S, 4839, 

CleveUnd, 4948, 4974, 5112, SSOl, 
B34S, S399, 5429, 5882, 6889, S972, 
5974, 5BS2, 6171. 
Qarfleld, 4601, 
Grant, 4063, 4108, 1169, 4177, 4208, 

4217, 4254. 
Harrison, Benj., S487, SSSS, 5642, 

Bajres, 4396, 4417, 4613, 4S27, 4565, 

HcKinlev, 6241, 6274, 6405, 6455. 
Boosevelt, 6673, 6803, 7010, 7102. 
Dismissal of employees in, 6970, 6971. 
Employees forbidden to instmet can- 
didates, 6970. 
Examinations for, 7010, 
Bzecutive orders, concerning, 6893. 
Extension of, disenssed, 5642, 6766. 
Fonrth-class postmasters, 6172. 
Oovemment Printing Office, eztendod 

over, 6040, 605S. 
Interstate Commerce Comnission, ex- 
tended to inelnde, 6143, 
Limitation of term of employment in, 

opposed, 7753. 
Merit system in, 6672, 6673, 7010. 


Encyclopedic Index 

PmrtiMD interference In eleetiona bj 
pnblie officers, order respecting, 
Partiun spoils iTstem in Qre&t Brit- 
ain, report on, referred to, 4S13. 
Pensions for age and disability fa- 
vored, S134. 
Prasideiit, extended to include em- 

plOfMB in office of, 0232. 
Bailir>7 Mnil Service, elassiflcBtlon 
of employees in, S429. 
Amendments to rules regarding, 
6469, 5486, G542, 5610, 6948, 6954, 
6955, 6040. 
Discussed, 6882. 
Beeommended, 4627. 
Time for, extended, 6462. 
Disenssed, 5488. 
Beeord of efflclenev of persons in, 
Beeommended, 6616. 
Bognlations governing appointmenta 
and promotions in customs ser- 
Tice and aubtreasnry in New 
Tork Citr, 4501, 4502, 6157. 
Beport on, discussed, 4SS8. 
Bnlas and regulations abolished, 4281. 
BnlM and regulations revised, 6803, 

Bolea for regnlatton and improvement 
of, and amendmenta thereto hj 
President — 
Arthur, 4748, 4764, 4813, 4814, 4816, 

4818, 4820, 4821, 4873. 
Caeveland, 4897, 4899, 4901, 4B03, 
4906, 5078, 6080, 6f57, S160, 5329, 
63C0, 6353, 6429, 6831, 6S32, 6868, 
GB46, C950, 6030, 6040, 6046, 6057, 
6131, 6230, 6233. 
Grant, 4111, 4134, 4183, 4184. 
Harrison, Benj., 5462, 6463, 5464, 
5538, 6540, 6541, 6699, 6601, 5607, 
6609, 6737, 5740, 6818. 
Hayes, 4402, 4501, 4502, 4507. 
Bnles governing appointment and 
promotion in New York post-office, 
Salaries in, 8135. 
Tenure of office in, 7391, 8136. 
Otvll Sarriea Oomsilssloii: 

Appointment of, referred to, 4773. 
Appropriations for, recommended, 
4418, 4S17, 4556, 4647, 4669, 4883, 
Chief examiner of, nomination of, 

and resaons therefor, 4745. 
derieal force of. Increase in, recom- 
mended, 6488, 5766. 
IMseussed, 6487, 

Beport of, transmitted and discussed, 
4217, 4588, 4792, 4863, 4948, 4974, 
6201, 5399, 6182. 
Bales adopted hj (see also Oivil 


Effect of enforcement of, disenssed, 

Extension of, order regarding, 4338. 

For government of Light-Honsa 
Bervice, referred to, 4238. 
Salaries of Commissioners, Increase 

in, recommended, 4949, 6113, 7390. 
OItU War. — A foar rears' mllltsrr cou- 
lllrt between the Doited States QoTern- 
ment and the states adhering to It, on 
the one side, and the Conlederste Btstea 
Oovernmeot (composed of the States of 
Bouth Carolina, Mlsslsaliipl, Florida. Ala- 
bans. Oeonrls. Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, 
Arlfsnsss. North Carolina and Tenneaaee) 
on tbe other. There iras behind tbe wsr 
a ranstltutlonal atrufgle between the North 
and tUiuth, beglnnlDg nearly at the time of 
the formation of the Ualun and InvolTlnK 

" s of orlUn 

Dl peoples 

, apart fmm 

the period when br the sword and aeU- 
■airltlM the; had achieved a common llb- 
ertf. I^e contest waa uoiqae amoog; mod- 
ern civil wars, and no ancient con diet 
between the member! of a coofederacv of 
republics was comparable with It, either 
In the magnitude of the qDeatloas Involved 
or In the extent of tba operations In tb« 
Held sad tbe reaults onall; attained. 
While alaverr waa the apparent c " 

herent la the papulation, the i __ 

their snrrDuudlDgs. tbe atructura of Ibelr 
Government, as well as tbe coodltlona of 
life and tbe object* and alms ol a •odety 
not homofceneoua but variant In man; Im- 
portant respects. 

I beglnnlnE of eolonliatlon In 

I rears Immedlatelr auccecdlnx the 

Esre of 1783. Jealousies between the New 
ijrland , - - - ..>-.. — . 

the Fedora f Con voBtTon'oTlTST iViequlred 

t tbe Southern States 

penielual peace and : 

oltr between the 

Dlirnsalona — _., , 

CoDKresses after the adoption of the Con- 
Ktltullon are full of expressions of doubt 
ss to the perpetaltr of tba federation, ut- 
tered bj eminent men from New Rnsland 
as welf as from other sections, many of 
whom bad been prominent In the won of 
establishing tbe new frame of government. 
The assertion of atate eoverelgntr waa 
- - . ^.— or^pa^rtg^ 

tbe old Republican (now tbe Democratic) 

Krtj the orlrlnetlon of this doctrine. The 
o seta of resolutions of Kenturkv and 

nd Uadlaon, resperti 

..™.„ *"- •• - 

thrv ware ever proclaimed 

If. declared the foodamental prii 


BtBtes"rlRhta'a~s~ciear1r~Knd as boMIr a* 
thcv ware ever proclaimed st any aubseonent 
period. Ilie report written by Uadlion 
and presented to the Vlnctnls leslslaturs 
haa often been referred to as the ableat 
oflldal exposition of the doctrine that 
the state Is the creator and sovereign coa- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

rict, the latter 
Irsctcd ind made 

vlihdcaw from tha 

iBTlni Blrcadj been In- 

-• —• blndlns effect. It 

1 tbe 

LouTbIbdk terrltoTT. to 1811, wbeu tbe StBte 
of LoolBluia WBB Bdmltted Into tbe Union, 
nuuy New BnKUnd pnblle men *nd writers, 
oppoied to tbe eiteoBlOQ of tbe Union. eB- 
peFltllf on tbe ground that It aeemed to 
IdtoItg tbe eitenalon of BlBTerr, tometlmea 
•Towed BeceBilon aeotlmentB. Joslah 
QnlncT, In a apMcb In CangrcBB In ISll, 
Bied the threat that tbe ^ew Ensland 
States wonld wltbdraw in « certain niD- 
tlniencr, "peaceablT If they ean. forclblr 
If they moBt." Asaln tbla doctrine of a 
•eparable union waa adranced by the Hart- 
tara Convention (q. t.) In ISli. called by 
■ome of tbe New Eogland Btates to protest 
anlDBt the contiDUance of tbe War of 
1812 witb Qreat Britain. When tbe jnea- 
tlOD of adnlttlnff UlBwaH into the UnloD 
HB a BlBTe atate (ISIT-ISSI) wbb being dls^ 
'. thrMt* of dUoolon If ihe were 

proceeding (romthc Soiith." 
greaa paaaed a Btrlngeat tarln measure loi- 
lowing the protective act of 182«, Tbla 
wa* deemed by Booth Cerollni lolmlcal to 
her baalneia Intereeta. The itate lezlila- 
tnre called a convent loo aod paaaed an 
ordinance of nnlllflcatioD (q, t.). wblch, 
however, ahe lobBeqnentiy rescinded. As 
the Qoeition of ilavery began to overahadow 
that of the tarlir, Nortnern extremlsta, 
called by aome "Abolition lata," contended 
for the overtbrovr of human bondage, al- 
though tbe Conatitotlon conferred — " — 
~a power over the don: 

neaa no power over the domeellc inatlln- 
tlona of the atatea for the admlsBlon of 

on the right of petition. A[ipllcallona for 
the admission of new states orEaolxed from 
tbe public domain added fuel to the Are 
on both sides of tbe controversy. The 
occnpallon of the territories by slavery 
and anti-slavery partisans kept Ihe pec^le 
tbere In a conilaat stale of larmoll border- 
ing on civil war. In tbe midst of tbls tbe 
John Brown nid ^•^. T.) occurred. 

In 1800, after Lincoln was elected Presi- 
dent on a platform of resistance to tho 
eitendon of Blaverj, Booth Carolina, 
through ber leglalature, called a state con- 
TCntlon which, on Dec. 20, 1890. dectired 
that the state was no longer in the Union. 
Similar action waa taken dnrlng that win- 
ter and tbe following months by Mlaala- 
■Ippl. Florida, Alabama, Oeorgla. Louisiana. 
Texak Virginia, Arkanaaa, North Carolina 

t Montgomery, . 

isei, delegates 
-1 by that date 
vui*.jy, Ala., and or- 
nnlMd tbe aoremment of the Confederate 
Btates of America. Tbe torts, military 
■uppllea and provisions witbin the acceded 
statea were seised, generally with little 
opposition until the attack on Fort Snmter, 
In Charleston Harbor. 8. C. The war b»- 
gan, bo far as military operations were 
concerned, with tbe effort of the Govern- 
ment at Washington to relieve tbe garrlBon 
at Fort Sumter and tbe Qrlng npon that 
fort by order of tbe Confederate govern- 
ment. This event practically ended with 
the sorrcDder of Gen, Rat»ert E. Lee, com- 
mander of the Confederate forces, at Appo- 
mattox. Vb., April S, 1S6S. and the sub- 
■eqnent surrender of the armies of Qen. 
Joseph B. Johnston In North Carolina and 
o( Oen. e. KIrby Smith beyond the Iflasla- 
-'ppl Blver. 

■ dear a view of tbe position and atti- 

tude of the United Statea In die war h 
Mold be obtained In a few words titaa an 
official document la to be derived from tha 
'Memorandum" of Becretary ol Stale Will- 
iam H. Seward In regard to Ihe letter 
addressed to blm by the Confederate Com- 
mlBBloners Forsyth and Crawford. Al- 
thooab flied earlier. It was delivered April 
8. iSfll. In It tbe fact waa stated &U 
President Lincoln coincided generally wltb 
tbs views expressed by the Secretary «f 
State. Frankly confeaalng, he aald, that 
his understanding of recent evMitsTmeaa- 
Ing tbe attempted secession of tbe Sonthem 
States) was very different from tbe aspect 
In which they were presented t" »«—«- 
Forayth and Crawford, be nror 
third person^ to say that "I 

I say tbaf "he saw In 

1 1828 Con- 

iDQ, auu ao looepenaeoL nation, wiui an 
ibltsbed government, but nther a per- 
.^•slon of a temporary and partlaan excite- 
ment to the Inconsiderate purposes of an 
nnjnatl liable and nneonat national aggreaslon 
upon tbe rights and the authority vested 
In the Federal Oorernmcnt, and hitherto 
benignly exercised, as from their very na- 
ture they always most so be exerclaed. tor 
the maintenance of the Union, the preaet- 
vatlon of liberty, and tbe security, peara, 
welfare, happiness and aggrandisement of 
the American people." Dlaavowlng anv iin- 
thority to recognise the commiaslon 
diplomatic amenta, or hold e 


In tbe atatea Hg believed In the rl^l of 

of the Confederate people Is perhaps to ba 
collected from the constltntlon of tba 
Confederate Btstea and from the inaurnral 

lages of their Prealdent. 

1 waa professedly baaed 
„_ „_ ,. ,.„ of the Federal Constitu- 
tion of ITST. with the amendments to tbe 
same. Its preamble, however. In order to 

{nt at rest ail argument or dispute, con- 
alned the pregnant worda, "esch atota aet- 
Ing in Ita sovereign and Independent chai^ 
acter." It was expressly declared that no 
dnties or taxes on Importations from (orelgn 
nations should be laid to promote or foster 
any branch of Induatry. Export duttea 
were allowed to be levied with tha eoncnr- 
rence of two-thirds of both honaea of Con- 
greaa. Any Judicial or other federal offlcer 
resident and acting solely within tbe limits 
of a particniar state was Impeachable bjr 
two-thirds of both branAes of the legls> 
latore thereof, aa well as by two-thirds of 
the house of represeotatlves In Congreaa. 
Internal Improvement* by the (enerargo*- 
emment were prohibited, except the Im- 
provement of harbora and locaf datlaa tor 
Ilghta, beacons and baoya the expenaea to 
be home by tbe navtgatloB facilitated. 
Citlsena of the aeveral states were not 
permitted to sue each other In the federal 
conrla. It required a two-thirds vote ot 
each bonse of Congreat, tbe Senate votlns 
by statea, to admit new states. A consti- 
tutional convention could meet to consid^ 
SropDsed amendments on the call of any 
hres states legally saaembled In their 
several conventions. The vote In conven- 
tion waa to be taken by atates and after- 
warda ratlfled by the legislatures of two- 
-tblrds ot the statea, or by conventions tn 
them. Tha power of Congress over terrl* 

tories wss settled cnildtly, an' " 

Sir ar-" 

provided thi^ "In i 

anch tarrltory tba 


Encyclopedic Index 


InMltatlou of Degro ilaverx • • • ahKll be 
rMonlied and protected b; Congnu and 
ta Ine lenitorfal goTemment." etc The 
eoDitltntloD was adopted March 11. ISSl, 
In hi* iDaninml addresa aa proTlaloaal 

riident, Feb. 16, ISSl, Mr. DitLi aald 
part : "Boateliied hj tbe coDBCIoasceaa 
that the traniltlon from tbe former Union 
to tbe pireent Confederacy has not proceed- 
•d (ram a d[arcKard on our part of Just 
DbliBatlona or an 7 failure to perform &D7 
MtutKntiDoal dutTj moved br do iDterest 


.> IcTade tbe rlgbti ot otber 

I to mitlvate peace aod commerc 

II Datlona If we may not bope t 
war we may at leaat eipec-t tha 


Tbe resDlta ot the war were the reator- 
atlon of the Union, tbe emancipation ot 
tbe ilaTea. and the •er^ral BmendmentB to 
the Conatltntlon rcfardlOE tbe rights of tbe 
new citlcena under the new condition! an- 

Tor a more detailed accoont ot the canaes 
d blatory of the war, ace tbe m^aaages o( 

Prealdeata Bacbanan 1 

at Lincoln. ( See 

OMl War: 

(Sea mlso Confederate States; Seeon- 
■tmetion; ReBtoration ; Seceuion; 
Slaverj; Sonthem States.) 


Frescribing oath of office to be 
taken b^ peraons who partici- 
pated in rebelHon dtscuBsed, 4076. 
To eoofiscate property nsed for in- 
BUirectionarj purposes, 3361. 
Attorn e^-Generu charged with 
enpenntendence of pioceedings 
nsdeT, 3381. 

To eqnalixe bounties of soldiers of, 
reaaona for appljing pocket veto, 
to, 4274. 
To flz ststoB of certain Sonthem 

Union troops vetoed, 4035. 
To suppress insnTrection, pnnish 
treason, etc, 3294. 
Approved and reasons therefor, 

Attorney-General charged with 
superintendence of proceedings 
nnder 3325. 
Joint resolation explanatory of, 
Action taken hy the Mveral States in, 

diseusaed, 3256. 
Aiders and abetters of, proclamation 

against, 3294, 3299. 
Alabama-Keartarge naval engagement 

referred to, 3457. 
Albemarle, The — 

Destruction of, referred to, 3457. 
Engagement of, with the Sauacv*, 
Aliens, liability of to petform mili- 
tary dnties, 3381. 
Proclaimed, 3369. 
Anderson, Robert — 
Commander of feits in Charleston 

Harbor, 3189. 
Dispatches of, while in command of 
Fort Somter referred to, 3213, 
Empowered to receive volunteers, 

Flag over Fort Sumter at evacua- 
tion of, to be raised on mine of, 
by, 3484. 
Appropriation for prosecuting, reeom- 

mended, 3226. 
Armed nentrality in Middle States 

discussed, 3225. 
Aims and munitions of war, order 
prohibiting export of, 3326. (See 
also 373.) 
Extended, 3436. 
ModiSed, 3379. 
Beacinded, 3533. 
Army of Potomac — 
Honors achieved by, discnased, 

Organi^tion of, 3311. 
Thanks of President tendered, 
Army of United States — 
Headqnartera of, 3435. 
Information regarding operations 

of, forbidden, 3240. 
Joint resolution providing for pay- 
ment of, approved, 33S0. 
Army officers and privates, orders 

regarding absence of, 3320. 
Act for enrolling and calling out 

national forces, etc., 3365. 
Proclamation regarding, 3364, 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

UtII Wn—Oonlbiiit4. 

Aimj officers directed to mibBeribe 
a new oath of allegiaiiM, 8219. 
meats of commaads ia, and 

orden r 

337S, 343S. 
Atlanta, 6a., capture of, and orden 

regarding celebration of, 8439. 
BeUigerent righti accorded Confed- 
erate StatsB b^ foreign powera 
diacnsaed, 3259, 3327, 3565. 
Becognition and aid from foreign 
power* invoked by Confederate 
Btatei, 3£21, 3246. 
Blockade of Bouthem porta pro- 
claimed, 321S, 3216, 3481. 
Claims arising therefrom disetmed, 

Nonresident foreignen engaged in 
Tiolating, order regarding, 3483. 
Baferred to, 3225, 33S5. 
BemoTcd, 3523. 

From certain ports, 3290, 8373, 
3417, 3431, 34S2, 3507. 
British vessels carrying contraband 
of war for insurgents referred to, 
Bnrdens imposed opoa people. Presi- 
dent ezpretsea desire to lelicTe, 
Bnmside, Ambrose E. — 
Brigadier-general, thanks of Presi- 
dent tendered, 3306. 
Us joT- general, command of Army 
of Potomac assoraed by, 3Z26. 
Chaplains for hospitals, 3249. 
Citizens liable to be drafted not per- 
mitted to go abroad, order regard- 
ing, 3322. 

Ageinet citizens of insargeiit States 
and means for collecting, dis- 
enased, 3251. 

Growing ont of, disenssed by Preai* 

Orant, 4209, 4303. 
Harrison, Benj., S756. 
Claims of — 
Aliens ariring ont of, disenssed, 
Conrt to try, recommended, 4243. 
Foreign powers growing ont of, 

discussed, 3328, 40S6. 
France growing ont of, paid, 4916. 
Qreat Britain growing oot of, 4191. 
Payment of, 4243. 
Clerks in Departments to be organ- 
ized into companies for defense of 
capital, 3323, 3S42. 
Combinations in Southern States op- 
posing revenae laws, proclamations 
against, 3215, 8216. 
Commerce disturbed by, S327. 
Commercial intercourse of Southern 
@Ut«s. (Sea Confederate SUtes.) 

Communication with tnenrgents un- 
der ExecQtive sanction referred to, 

Confederate envoys sent to Great 
Britain and France. (See llaeOB 
and Slidell.) 

Confederate flags — 
Captored, presented to Congress, 

Betam of, to States recommended, 

Proposition withdrawn, 6164. 

Confederate States, seat of govern- 
ment of, was first located in Uont- 
gomery, Alabama, 3225. 

Contraband on British vessels for nsa 
of insurgents referred to, 3352. 

Contraband trade and protection for 
neutral vessels, order regarding 

Corinth, l£iss., capture of, 3315. 

Correspondence with foreign powers 
regarding, referred to, 3234. 

Courts of justice for insurgent States 
recommended, 3251. 

Craney Island, evacuation of bat- 

Cumbertaiul-UeTTimiio naval engage- 
ment discussed, 8349. 
Deserters — 

Condemned to death, sentence of, 

commuted, 3431. 
Beturning to duty pardoned, S3M, 
Act authoridng, 3368. 
Discussed, 3221, 3246, 3255, 327S, 
3301, 3303, 3305, 331S, 3370, 3889, 
3452, 3547, 3477. 
Dix, John A, — 

Applications to go south of mili- 
tary lines to be made to, 3302. 
Authority given to, while at Balti- 
more, 3313. 
Commissioners to examine eases of 

State prisoners, 3310. 
Prisoners of war released to report 
to, 3303. 
Drafts to be made, orders regarding, 
3321, 3433. 
Citizens liable to draft not per- 
mitted to go abroad, 3322. 
Deflcieney in quota of States re- 
ferred to, 3412. 
Emancipation of slaves discussed. 
[See Emancipation; Emancipation 
Executive orders regarding, 321S, 
3239, 3300, 3360, 3375, 3431, 8474, 
Expenditures incident to, diecossad, 

3248, 3330. 
Pasting and prayer — 

Day of, set apart, 3237, S369, 84X8: 
Becommended, 3437. 
PIngal-Weehaieken naval cngagemaot 
referred to, 8392. 


Encyclopedic Index 

OtrD Wax — OioiiHiiiMtt. 

ForcM of llDited St&tei in, move- 
ments of, and orders regaidiug, 
3301, 3302, 3311, 331S, 3315. 
Foreign interference in, disciUBed, 
Aid fumblked TobeDion b^ BritiBh 
Bnbjeets referred to, 3468. 
Foreign teernitB, enlistment of, in 
MTviees of United States referred 
to, 3413. 
Fort Qaines, rednetioD of, and orders 

regarding celebration of, 3439. 
Fort Henrj, capture of, referred to, 

Fort Uergan, redaction of, and 
orden regarding celebmUon of, 
Fort Powell, reduction of, and orders 

regarding celebration of, 3439. 
Fort Sumter, aHsault upon and redac- 
tion of, diaenased, 3222. 
nederiekeburg, Va., battle of, re- 
ferred to, 3360. 
Oen, Wadaworth to command the 
force eompoaed of the clerks in 
the departments organiEed for the 
defense of tlie Capital, 3323, 8642. 
Georgift, campaign in, discnssed and 
orders regarding celebration of, 
3439, 3452. 
OoTomment of Confederate States 
first located at U ontgomerr, Ala., 
nsnsferred to Bichmond, Va., 
QoTemments to be reestablished in 
Confederate States. (See Confed- 
erate States.) 
Sabeat eorput, writ of — 
Antlioritj ^ven to suspend, 3217, 
3218, 3219, 3220, 3240, 3300, 
8313, 3322. 
Beferred to, 8225. 
Suspension of, 3299, 8371. 3420. 
Bevoked as to certain States, 
3529, SSSl. 
HaOeek, Henry W., assigned to com- 
mand of — 
Department of Hiasissippi, 3312. 
Iduid forces of United States, 3317. 
Believed from command and or- 
ders regarding, 3435. 
Hampton Boads, Va., conference and 
correspondence at, regaining reato- 
lation of peace discussed, 3641. 
Hooker, Joseph, commander of corps 
'n Army, T""' 

ikea by, 3379. 
Hunter, DaTid— 

Command of corps formerly nnder 

Oen. Bnmside assumed by, 3325. 

Proclamation of, for freedom of 

slaves in certain States declared 

void, 3202. 

Illinois volunteers, thanks of Pred- 
dent tendered, 3442. 

Imprisonment of loyal citizena by 
forces In rebellion referred to, 

Indiana volnnteera, thanks of Presi- 
dent tendered, 3442. 

Indians, attitude of, in, diacussed, 
3293, 3333. 

Injuries to citizens of foreign coun- 
tries growing out of, discussed, 

Insurgent cmisers infesting high 
seas, proclamation regarding, 8^6. 

Insurgent leader and attempts to 
negotiate with, discussed. (Se» 
Davis, Jefferson.) 

Insurgent privateers In foreign porta 
referred to, 3276. 

Iowa volunteers, thanks of President 
tendered, 3442. 

Kansas troops, treatment of, when 
captured, referred to, 3398. 

Eearsarffe-Alabama naval engagement 
referred to, 3457. 

Iieader of the inaurgents and at- 
tempts to negotiate with, dlacuased 
and recommendations made. (Sea 
Davis, Jefferson.) 

Leaves of absence and farloughs re- 
voked, 3320. 

Legislature of Maryland, arrest and 
disperaion of members of, by Qen. 
Scott would not be justifiable, 

Live stock order prohibiting export 
of, 3326. 
Uodiflcations in, order rcEardlnir. 
3379. ^ 

Order ertending, 3436. 
Order rescinding, 3633. 

MeCallnm, D. C, appointed military 
director and superintendent of 
railroads, 3302. 

McClellan, Qeorge B. (See HeClel- 
lan, George B.) 

UcPheraon, James B., command of 
Department and Army of the Ten- 
nessee aaaigned to, 3436. 

Merrimac-Cumberland naval engage- 
ment discussed, 3345. 

Uerrimae-MoHltor naval engagement 
discussed, 3313. 

Military authorities not vested with 
authority to interfere with con- 
tracts between individuals, order 
regarding, 3546. 

Military force — 
Necessary to prosecute, discussed, 

To be raised by governor of Mla- 


Civil War 

Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

OItII War— Coii«iiii(nr. 

Uilitaiy poBsesaion of — 

BBilromda taken, 3314, 3379. 
Telegraph linei, orders regarding 
and reeommeadatioiis, 3309. 

llilitarr Boppliea pure based and 
frauds in, discussed, 3S7S. 

Uill Springs, Kj., battle of, tefened 
to, 3301. 
Thanks of President tendered offi- 
cers and soldiers In, 3301. 

Missoari troops, order regarding in- 
spection of records of, 3433. 

Mobile Barbor, Ala., achievements of 
Federal forces in, and orders to- 
gardins celebration of, 343S. 

Monltor-Seriimao naval engagement 
discnssed, 3313. 

Navy of United States- 
Discussed, 3385, 3449. 
JoiDt resolution providing for pay- 
ment of, approved, 3350. 
Naval engagement of Eeartarge 

and Alabama, referred to, 3398. 
Bank in, order regarding, 3240. 
Discussed, 3450. 

Negotiations attempted with Jeffer- 
son Davis, for the restoration of 
peace discussed and correspon- 
dence concerning, and F. P. Blair's 
eorrespon deuce concerning, 3461. 

Nesro soldiers — 
Discussed, 3389. 
Enslaved and measues of rotalla- 

tion discussed, 3378. 
Opinion of Attorney- General on 
rights of, referred to, 3410. 

Negroes to be employed for military 
purposes, order regarding, 3318. 

Neutral Tights of foreiKO powers vio- 
lated. {See Neutral Eights.) 

Neutrality of foreign powers, 3380, 

New Orleans, La., capture of, S31S. 

Norfolk, Va., suireudei of, referred 
to, 3313, 3316. 

Number of United States soldiers 
enlisted in, 4156. 

Oath of allegiance to United States, 
army officer* directed to subscribe 
anew, 3219. 

Object of, declared by President Lin- 
coln, 3297. 

Official Itecords of. (See War of Re- 
bellion, Official Records of.) 

Ohio National Quard, expiration of 
enlistment of, referred to and 
thanks of President tendered, 3440. 

Pardons granted— 
Deserters, (See Deserters, ante.) 
Pennna participating in. (See 

Peace — 
NegotiatioDs attempted with Jef- 
lersoD Davis for the restoration 

of, and correspondei 
ing, 3461. 

Negotiations for, and correspon- 
dence regarding restoration of, 
discussed, 3461. 

Proposition embracing restoration 
of, etc., would be considered by 
Government, 3438. 
Pensioners of. (See Pensions.) 

Diseonraging enlistments or resist- 
iuK drafts subject to court-mar- 
tial, 3299. 
In rebellion — 

Commanded to disperse, 3214, 

Must return to allegiance under 
penalty of conlscation of 
property, 3294, 
Trading with insurgents, order pro- 
hibiting, 3483. 
Pierrepont Edwards, commissioner to 
eiamine cases of State prisoners, 
Plymouth, N. C, capture of, referred 

to, 3498. 
Porter, Fitz-John, relieved from eom- 

mand of corps, 3325. 
Presidential election of 1864, effeeta 

of, diicuBsed, 3453. 
Prisoners — 
Of war- 
Exchange of, referred to, 3399. 
Interview between Col. Key 
and Gen. Cobb on subject «f, 
Order for discharge of, 3538. 
Paroled, order regarding pass- 
ports to be furnished. 3S47. 
Released, to report to Maj.-Gen. 
Diz, 3303. 
Political — 
Orders regarding provision for, 

Released on subscribing to pa- 
role, etc., 3303. 
State, commissioners appointed 
eiamine eases of, 3310. 
Proelamation of President Lincoln 
regarding, 3214, 3237, 3289, 
3358, 3362, 3364, 3414, 3472, 3479. 
Spurioos proclamations poblished 
in New York World and New 
York Journal of Commtret, or- 
ders regarding, 3438. 
Property to be seized for military j 

uses, orders regarding, 3318. 
Protection for capital, recommenda- 
tions regarding, 3323, 3642. 
Porchasing places in insurgent States 
designated and orden regarding, 
Quasi armistice of President Bneh- 
anan's administration refened tO) 


Encyclopedic Index 


OMl Wai-C^««Md: 
Bailroada — 
Constinctioii of, as militaiy meu- 

nre recommeaded, 3247. 
In UiBBOnri to be made krailable 

for miliUrj uses, 3317. 
Military poBSenion of, taken, 3314, 


PoiutB of commencement of Union 

Pacific discussed and oider le- 

gsrding, 3401. 3435. 

Bfconstrnction of Southern Btates. 

(See BecODHtrnction; It est oration.) 

Beeords of. (See War of Bebellion, 

Official Records of.) 
Becoids of association founded for 
purpose of aiding soldiers of, of- 
fered to United States, 4798. 
Befngeea from Virginia, communica- 
tion regarding removal of, 3360. 
Bestoration of Boutbem States. (See 

SeconBtmction ; Restoration.) 
Boauoke Island, N. C., eaptore of, 

referred to, 330S. 
Sanford, Edward S., appointed mili- 
tary superintendent of telegraph 

SanacuiAtbemarle naval engagement 
referred to, 3411. 

Scott, Wiufleld, retirement from ac- 
tive service in, orders regarding, 
Beferred to, 3257. 
Bnceeesor of, referred to, 3241, 

Secession discussed. (See Secession.) 

Sentences of imprisonment by mili- 
tary tribonals remitted and pris- 
oners discharge^, 3537. 

Sewelli Point, Va., evacnation of bat- 
teries on, 3313. 

Bhmandoah, reported smrender of 
tbe, 3575. 

Sheridan, Philip E. (See Sheridan, 
Philip E.) 

Sherman, William T. (See Sherman, 
William T.) 

Slavery discussed. (See Slavery.) 

Stager, Anson, appointed military sa- 
perintendent of telegraph lines, 

Btates in which inanrreetion exists 
proclaimed, 3E38, 3293, 3366. 

Sunday, observance of, enjoined. 

Telegraph lines, military posseesion 

of, order regarding, 3309. 
Termination of — 
Mediation of other meapnres look- 
ing to, referred to, 3355. 
Proclaimed, 36S7. 
Jn Tenneesee, 3515, 

In Texas, 3632. 
Correction of date in, by proc- 
lamation, 3747. 
Thanks tendered commanders and sol- 
diers in. (See Thanks of Congress; 
Thanks of Piesident.) 
Thanksgiving order of President Lin- 
coln, 3439. 
Thanksgiving proclamation of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, 3290, 3371, 3373, 
Order regarding day appointed, 
(See also fasting and prayer.) 
Threatening aspect of. (See Seces- 
sion discussed; Slavery diBcusaed.) 
Tranaportation to be furnished refu- 
gees and freedmen, order regard- 
ing. 3547. 
Treason against United States, act to 

punish, 3286, 3294. 
Troops sent through Mexican terri- 
tory in 1861 referred to, 3574 
Union and Confederate flags, return 
of to respective States recom- 
mended, S163. 
Proposition withdrawn, 5164. 
Vessels of United States destroyed by 

rebel vessels referred to, 3901. 
Victories of Pederal troops diacossed, 
3301, 3305, 3313, 3376, 3439, 3442, 
3432, 3467, 3477. 
Virginia— % 

Attitude of, in, discussed, 3224. 
Persons in, attempting to exercise 
official powers of eivil nature, 
order regarding, 3245. 
Volunteer service — ■ 
Act to provide for additional medi- 
cal officers of, vetoed, 3289. 
Officers and men in, 3578. 
Officen in, 3357. 
Volunteers called for, and orders re- 
earding, 3215, 3216, 3315, 3316, 
3321, 3322, 3370, 3374, 3427, 3433, 
3436, 34TE. 
Authority to call for additional 

volunteers recommended, 3227. 
Board constituted to examine 

quotas of States, 3476. 
Bounty and pay to, 3322, 3375, 

3436, 3649. 
Be commendations regarding, 

Gause, three-hundred-dollar, repeal 

of, recommended, 3412. 
Increase of, letter of President to 

governors regarding, 3315. 
Propoaition of governor of Mis- 
souri regarding, 3241. 
Order of President regarding, 

Proposition of governors of Btates 
regarding, and reply of Presti 
dent, 3^41, 3316, 3437, 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

CiTll War 

CHtU War — Oonllnucd. 

BeenliBtment of vetenna referred 
to, 3400. 
Seferred to, 3225. 
Three-hundred-dollar danse, repeal 
of, Tecommsiided, 3412. 
WeehaKten-Flngal naval engagement 

refened to, 3392. 
Wise on 8 in Tolunteers, thanka of Piee- 

ident tendered, 3442. 
Wool, John E. (See Wool, Jolm £.) 
Ctvll War Veteiana: 

Boosevelt nraiaeH, 6672, 7006. 

Their priyUegeB in civil service, 0TO3. 

Against eitizeni of insurgent States 
and means for collecting, dla- 
enssed, 32S1. 
Arbitration of pecuniary, with repnb- 
lies of South and Central America, 
Growing out of War between the 
States. (See CivU War; War 
Of aliens. (See Aliens.) 
Of foreign powers against United 
States. (Bee the several powers.) 
Of United States against foreign 
powers. (See the several powers.) 
Seferred to, 2S3. 

Surplus remaiuiug ^ter paj'nient of 
awards, dUcussed, 3173, 3247. 
Private claim SKamst United Btates- 
(Bee Private Claims.) 
Olalma, Court of. (See Courts.) 
darksbarg, W. Va., act making appro- 
priation to continue construction of 
public build i ng at, approved and 
recommendations regartnng, 4fl91. 
Olayton Antl-TniBt Law.-'To enpplement 
exlxlLus laws agalmt monapalleB and un- 
Iswrul rPRtrnlDt of trade, tbe C1a;tOD bill 
■pproTcd Ort. IS, 1014, deSncs "Com- 

rllorles or wltb ro reign countries, and 

uimiiuiunte In price bilwcpn dlfferpnt pur- 
cbnners at commodllleB wbere tbe enact of 
Rucb dlacrlminntlon mar be to aubBtaDtlallj' 
lexnen competition or tend to create s moa- 
opal7 Id nnj line of commerce. mnhlnR al- 
lowance for dlffereDce In coxt of selling or 

Rclllag goods mnr also aelcct their own 
cuntomern; agreempnla or unflerglaQdlnga, 
SB ■ condllloQ of trade, tbnt goods of a cam- 
pptltor are not to be bandied are declared 
nnlnn-fal. Any perBon lojiiri'd Id bla biixl- 
nena b; reason of Ibe Tlnfntlnn of the nnil- 
tnist laws mar bus In B Unflert Stntcs Court, 
■nd recover tbree fold tbe damnge Biixtalnrd 
br him. together with costs and attorney's 
tees. Tbe fianl decree In any criminal 
pnMCcntloD under tbe aotl-tnist lawp Is 
made prima fafin evidence agnlnst the same 
detepdaut In sabsequent actions, except In 

It lodsments, 
■ Is saq»ende 

and the atatnt* of tlml- 


.. be a commodity o. — 

merce, and labor unions and sgrlcultnral 
BBBOClatlons Instituted for mutual beaellt 
hnrlDg no capital stack and Dot conducted 
tor pnifit^ are exempt from tbe operatloaa 
of all BDtl-truat laws, and auch orgaDlia- 
tlona and their members are not to be con- 
strued as lUegsl combinations or cansplta- 
cles In reatralnt of trade. No corporation 
mny acquire stock Id snother conmiatlon 
wbore tbe effect of such ucqnlsltlon may 
be to IcBBCD competition between tbe two or 
create s monopoly. Holding companies are 
forbidden except for Investment purposes, 
and stock owned by boldiUE compaiues is 
allowed neltber vote nor proxy ; aubaidiarT 
corporations may however be organised for 
carrylDg on legitimate brancbea or exten- 
sions or bualness when tbey will not sulh 
stant laity lessen competition. Ballroad 
companies ms' build, own, and buy stock 
Id brancb lloea or scgolre conliol of other 
lines Id extension of tbelr own where tne 
effect will not tend to lessen eompetlllon. 

Two years after tbe psssace of the set 
no person shall at the s — -^' — '•- - -•■ 
tor or employee of i 

ving an aggregate a , 

,..000,000; no bank lna_. _ 

Inbabitanla aball have as a director or em- 
ployee any private banker or director or 
employee of any other bank attiuted In tba 
aame town' no peraoa ahall at tbe same 
time be s director in two or more corpora- 
tions either one bavins a capital la excess 
of tt.OOO.OOO engaged In commerce other 
than banting and transportation. It such 

. — have theretofore l>een com- 

ibexslement of the tnnds of a 
lar by an officer thereof Is made 

felony pnotshsble by a flue of tBOO and 

. time be a dl' 

-. ,.-, than one bank 

having an aggregate capital In < 

1 of 20U.O0O 


years In prison. No com- 
n carrier ahall deal In aecurlUes or sup- 
« or make contracts In excess of tS0,0Oa 
'car witli anotber corporation when the 

bidder for auch auppiles, etc., nuder pen- 
alty of a Que of 125.000 for the company 
nna 15,000 tor the person, with a year In 
Jail added for tbe latter. 

Authority Co enforce compllsnce with Ihla 
law Is rested Id the InteraUle Commerce 
Commission, tbe Federal Eteserre Board and 
tbe Federal 'irade Commlaaion, and action 
be btongbt In any district where the 


d Pendant Ib known 

maact bualoeaa. 

Individual directors, officers or sgeeli 

held personally rcaponaible for lioisCloiu 
the set and subjkcf to a One of (5,000 o 

United Slates Court* may Issue Injune> 

tloua to restrain Tlolstlons of this act upon 
evidence of danger of IrreparaCle loss pend- 
ing hearing ; no Injunction may be granted 

„ _„ it disputes over 

of employment UDless necesssry to 

prevent Injury to property or property 
rlghta : (and no such injimctlon sbsll pro- 
hibit perfKmn, whether singly or In concert. 
from CPOBlng to perform work or from 

Seacefully persuadlog others to do so, or 
rom ceasing to patronlae or employ any 
party to aucb dispute, or from advising 
others to do so, or from paying or wlth- 
boldlne strike beoeflta or from peacefully 
ssfembling or doing sny set which migbt 
lawfully be done In th« abKDCe Ot ancb 


Encycloptdic Indtx 

Olajtaa Anti-Tnut iM9—0iMtt»utt. 
dlKiDt4L and Done of tbese act* iluill b« 
coBsldeTCd vlolstlonn ol tbe Unlled BCates 
laira. IMMuedlence to laJuDCtloiu la made 
contemiit ot caart, piiDlsbatile bf a floe ol 
«1,000, parable to the persoQ Injured bj 
tba coQtcmpt. 

CUTtan-Bvlvor Twaty.— Jobn H. Clay- 
ton, Secrttarj ot Btate, In 1860 cooduded 
a treatr wltb Blr Henr; Ljrttan Bulwer, 
RpKKDtlDK Qreat Britain, for «»tab]leh- 

i ahlp canal 

'□■H Klcaiagua 
MDtrol of canal 
partT. "■ 

■Dd foHiade eiclualT' 

Mmmnnlcatlon b; eltbe. , __ 

neded br the Har-Pauncelote Treatj, [■i>- 
flcd by the ScDate of tbe United States, 
Dee. IT, 1901, which made the way clear 
for tbe United States to coaatmrt, oWD and 
operate an lethmlan canal ■ (See Qreat 
IMtatn, TrMtlea wltb.) 

OUTton-BnliraT Treatjr: 

CoireBpoudenee respecting, referred 

to, 2583, 2897, 2908, 4758. 
Differences regardio); — 
DiaeaBsed, 3039, 309S. 
Tmal Mttlement of, 3170. 
Propotitiou to refer, to ubitiv 

ment, 2896. 
Treaty for Mttlement of, diacuBHed, 
DiBCDMcd, 2580, 2617, 2903, 2943, 

S117, 46S8. 
Propooed modificationa of, referred 

to, 4653, 4662, 4694. 
Seferred to, 4687, 4698, 47S2, 6662, 
Wittrfm HooM, — Ad Initltntlon let up bj 
b»nhint houaea. rallroail eompaniea, or per- 
•on* •Dcaged m any department of trade 
or flnance who bave credit traoaactlans 
wltb cacti other. In tbe ronrae of a day'i 
boslneai each bank recelTea rarloua amaunta 
of eomnerclal paper which moat be debited 
to the aconnt ol other banka. and la Itaelt 
not dldlkelr tbe debtor to one or more other 
banka. Before tbe eatabllabmcnt of tha 
elaarleg taonee It waa cnitomary to have 

bad deallDffa and par 

_r receive tbe differ- 
ence between tbe debit and credit aldea of 
tbe account. The mllecllan and payment 
of tbeae balancea became a laborloua and 
dasnrona part ot the banking bualnc 
To do away w'"- "■'- ■- — -"■ 

wltb thiB cumberai 

• reqalred t 
• eltarlBf honae In legal-tender notei o 

may be averted by all the banka 

which are membera o( tbe clearlns houae 
poollBS their reserve fDOda and taklof cer- 
tiScatea therefor. Tbe asaoclated banka of 
New York in this nay made It poaelble tor 
tbe government to aecure tbe neceaaary 
fund* for carrying on the Civil War. The 
panic of 1ST3 waa checked In a almllar 
manner, aa were alio tboae of 1SS4, 18»0, 
and 1693. In 1893 the Clearing Houae 
Aaaoclatlon resolved Chat any member 
might present to the loan committee Ita 
bllla receivable or other aecurltlea. together 
wltb Ite own obligation and receive Ihere- 
(or certlflcatea lor 7B yer cent, of their par 
value, which certlfloatcH would be accepted 
In Ilea of cash Id tbe payment of balancea 
at the clearing house. Railway comnaDlea 
and tbe varloua produce and atocli ex- 
■hangea have Introduced the clearlng-boase 
— . — Into their boalneea. Similar Tnatltn- 
been eatabllebcd In moat of tbe 


laree cltlea of the country. 

The clearing house principle 
ly been adopied In stock a ' 

t sQnarlng 

.labed Ib Lo , 

nlDeteenth century. The banka of New 
Tork aaaoclated and began doing a clearlng- 
bimae bnilneoa Oct. 11. 1803. The New 
Tork Clearing House la tbe largest In the 
world. The member banks have a capital 
of 1176,800,000, and the average dally 
clearances tor 1914 were $200,236.7^2, 
and tbe dearioga for the year were fSO.- 
700,844,971.29. The number of banka 
In the Clearing Eonsa Aasoclatloa 

alMtlT, tbe present : ' — •-■- 

All toe aceonnts of •. ,. . 

banks wltb each other are adjusted In Jul 
one boor each day— between 10 •■"' ' 
A. H. Tbe debtor banks a-~ — 

lumber being 62. bom 


._ ._ paying £1b Iosb. Thus If 
Broker A sell cectnlo aecurltlea to Broker 

B. and Broker B then Bell them to Broker 

C. Who later sella tbem to Broker A, the 
traDaactlona cancel, except for the dllfeience 
In price agreed npon at each aale. 
Olraring Hvoses recommended, 4199. 
OIovBlaiid, OroTer.— 18S6-as, 1893-97. 

(TiaBT TEau, lS8fi-18S9.) 
Twenty-Hfth Administration — Democratic. 
Vice-PretUent — Thomaa A. llendricka. 
Beerttary ot Siotr- 

Thomaa F. Bayard. 
Bteretarv of the litutuni — 
Daniel Manning. 
Charles S. Falrcbild. 
Beorelarv ot War — 

WUliam C. Hndlcott. 
A ttomtv-a tneral — 

Augaaiua II. Garland. 
Foslmaiter-aencnil — 

— Q F. V" - 

. Dick' 
larv of (lie 

yilllam C. 1 

Bearetary of tht Interior — 
LaclUB Q. C. Lamar, 
William F. Vilas. 
Bmnlary of A.aricu'tiiro~~- 
Kormao J. Coleman. 
Cleveland was elected by tbe Democratic 
part; In 1S84 and In 1SS2. Tbe conyenllon 
which met at Cblcogo. loly 8-11. 1S84, 
nominated him on the second ballot, desplta 
the bitter opposition of Tammany. 

Platform.— The platform of 1884 recited 
tbe fundamental principles of Democracy ; 
charged Ibe Bepubllcan party with fraud. 
Jobbery, and reckleasneas, from long pos- 
session of power ; pledged Democracy to a 
complrte reform, riEld economy. redncLlon 
nf laiatlon, and a lower tarlft for revenaa 
: devoted Internal revenues to penalons 
war eipeudllurea only; favored ao 
rlcan continental policy ; hvlli^Tnl In 
'St. money of gold, silver, an 

.,. iu..t.,ij , o.rfrted equal Justice (or 
Tgtd the choosing ot Federal ofllcera 

favored civil aervlce re- 


Messages and Papers of the Presidents 

lamia Coi MCtlcra, pledged ■oTemmcnt pro- 
tection to all cltliena at home and abroad; 
opposed ChlDcae ImmlcratlMi : adTocsted a 

meiBare ol iDternal ImproTementa ; upheld 
Uemocracr'a cfforta for commerce and tner- 
cbant Duiiae; and paid a tribute to Sam- 
uel J. TUden.