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OB. A 







TT7' — ■ 

■i » Jb" 

By Dr. render. 

A — * ■■ ■ 

W f* < 

' ' s ' - ' - . 

- . . ... 

< • I • • • 

HonHon : 






■l-.. - 

* • • • 

« • « • 

• . * • • • » 

• • • r • ■ 

• • • ■ • • * ■ « 

• ••■ •;••"•- • 

• a •»■ • • €••«■•■ V 










HIS IMPERIAL majesty's 



»^J— — M ■■■■■ * » fc ■ II ■ I I ' ' * I * ■ a^— «— J^ 


The author of the present work has beeii 
induced to offer a few prefatory remarks, in 
order to elucidate his design, and thus enable 
the reader to form his own opinion of the 
utility of his. performance. — - 

It will. not, perhaps, be thought too harsh, 
if I assert, that the greater part of German 
grammars hitherto published, .have been not 
unfrequently the offspring of necessity \ a cir- 
cumstance which, while it accounts for their 
defects, certainly offers no extenuation for thera ; 
nor can the warmest philanthropy even wishf 
that mankind should be misled, merely to give 
subsistence to the propagators of error. No 
ingenuous mind, I trust, either can or. will 
impute this, remark to illiberality of sentiment, 
or to the influence of personal or private pique; 
it does, in fact, proceed from neither, but 
gipiply from a rooted love jof truth, and a 



ceaseless anxiety fpr the enlargement of human 

None, but such as have made the trial, 
can duly appreciate the labour, research, and 
exactitude which are indispensably requisite, 
in order thoroughly to analyse a language. 
It is not merely noticing a few obvious va- 
riations, or tracing a faint outline of an ex- 
tensive picture ; but it is surmounting innu- 
merable dijfficulties, by the aid of patient in- 
vestigation ; detecting, amid an abundance 
of irrelevant matter, jsome general topic of en- 
quiry; and penetrating with the scrutinizing 
eye of reason, the cuncaienation of inveterate 
prejudices, which obscure, and sometimes con-^ 
found the primeval sources, and radical stamina 
4)f a language. 

Little labour is required to describe the 
general rules of syntax, or to trace the in- 
flections of nouns, pronouns, verbs, &c. This 
is a task which may be performed by any 
novice ; but, at the same time, however well 
performed, it must necessarily be deficient, in 
what a student naturally expects from the 
thorough analysis of a language. 

To display with perspicuity the primary 
organization of a language, and to detail its 
characteristic idioms> its^ peculiar rules, kc. re« 



quire such a previous knowledge of them, as 
can result only from long and minute expe- 

In order to acquire any modern language, 
it is almost indispensably necessary to have a 
previous acquaintance with the Greek and La- 
tin ; but the German alone exacts no such 
previous acquisition : for I may venture to 
assert, that it is in every point of view ori- 
ginal ! The English is peculiarly derived from 
it ; for it is a fact, that the style of the an* 
cient writers is absolutely more intelligible to 
a German, moderately acquainted wilh the 
former, than to an Engliahman himself: and 
this arises from the prevalence of the German 
orthography, a circumstance which renders a 
glossary indispensably necessary in the read- 
ing of Chaucer, and other cotemporary au- 

It was this conviction th^t jfirst induced 
me to compose the present work, added like- 
wise ta the uncommon popularity of German 
literature in England, which has increased to 
such a degree, as to render even the tram'- 
lation of a tran$lation acceptable. 

^* A mere mere mimic's mimic.'* 



• » • 


I am not without hope, that the present 
work may tend to render German literature 
henceforth read in their native dress ; for surely 
none can be found who would not prefer to 
enjoy their excellencies, uncontaminated either 
by the wilful or the careless misrepresentation 
of translators, or by their unavoidable ignorance. 

The plan adhered to in the subsequent 
work, is strictly conformable to the operation 
of nature ; a progress which ought to be in- 
variably observed in a grammar of every Ian* 
guage whatsoever. It is in vain to perplex the 
mind of the student with a crude mass of ex-^ 
trancous matter, unless he: be first grounded 
in tlie radical principles of the language he^ is 
about to learn. It is, in fact, the same as 
with extensive reading ; where a quantity of 
information and of know^Iedge is accumulated 
and stored up in the mind, without the power 
of arranging the various parts, so as to be 
adapted for those occasions in which it is re- 
quisite to be called into action. - 
■- In the present work, the learner will be 
gradually led from the most obscure (or what 
may be termed animal articulations J to abso- 
lute, distinct, and clear ideas of rational signs 
or representations. In the first dawning of 
the mind, its ideas are necessarily obscure and 



Confused ; hence, to obviate this, a guide is 
indispensably requisite. It may undoubtedly 
be said, that a new-born infant possesses the 
power of expressing external sensations of joy, 
fear, or sorrow ; his next progression is to 
articulate words ; afterwards, in proportion 
as the powers of perception and combination 
expand, he next learns to unite those simple 
ejaculations into certain sentences or phrases, 
and thus regularly proceeds, till he becomes en- 
able to embrace a larger sphere of ideal exer- 
tion, and communicates his thoughts in ap- 
propriate language. Such is the progress of 
nature ; and shall we, her children, in teach- 
ing her own method, presume to deviate, and 
build, by the shalli^w aid of metaphysical rea- 
soning, a fanciful structure without any solid 

Thus far I have thought it necessary to 
premise, and now dismiss my work, to stand 
or fall by its own merit. But I am willing 
to hope, that after eight years of unremitted 
labour, research, and progressive improvement, 
it will not be found altogether unworthy of 
public patronage. I have endeavoured to give 
it every excellence of which it is capable, 
not, however, without a strong conviction of 

b the 

the ardnoitsncss of the (ask, and the fallibility of 
human exertion. 

I invite criticism. All improvement is 
gradual, and in every work of multifarious 
divisions, various emendations may be struck 
out by the collision of various minds. I 
neither possess the vanity to suppose my work 
faultless, nor the obstinacy or pride to reject 
manly and disinterested criticism. 

JamtavT/ \stf 1804*^ 


> 'a. ■ " 


A Dissertation on Language in general, aud principally 

on the Study of the modem German - - - xv 
Prefatory Observations on the German Alphabet - i 



On Etymoio^f or the Formatign of W^'ds. 

Chapter I. 

Of Letters and their Sound . . - - 4 
X. A. View of the German Alphabet and its pronun- 
ciation, together with the Anglo-Saxon, and Old 
English Characters ----- 5 

2. Classification of the German Alphabet - - 6 

3. Use of the Letters • •• - - . . 8 
Analysis of the Letters - - - - - ^ 9 
A Table, exhibiting, in one View, the whole Orga* 

nisation of the Alphabet - - • • * 36 

Chapter \h 

Of the Formation of Speech. 

1. Of Syllables - -40 

2. Words^ and their Derivation - - - ibid. 

3. Their Composition, or Junction - - • 4* 

b 2 Chap- 


Chapter III. ^ P^g^ 

Of the Accent or Tone of Words. - -r - 4^ 

1. General Standard for the German Accent - "43 

2. Marks of Lpngth and ^revjty - t - '44 
3» Special Rules - . . - ^ - ibid. 
Practice, elucidating the preceding third Chapter ^ 48 


0/ Wordsy as Parif of Speech and their flexions. 

Chapter L 
A general View of them r - -f - ^ S^ 

Chapter II. 

Of the Substantives. 
!• Their various Kinds - - - - "S3 

2* —— ? Formation - - - - - "54 

3. ■ ' Genders - if - - , - - 61 
^.. — — Piural Forn^ation ----- 68 

5. — — Declension - - - • - "7' 

6. Of proper and foreign Names - - r - 85 
PractiiTCi^ elucidating the preceding Chapter r r 8$ 

Chapter. Ill, 

Of the Adverbs? 

If Their various Kinds - - - ■ •, • * 93 

jt. .... • , , . Formation - - - - f. - 94 

.3. ' ' ■ Degrees ^ ----- 96 

4. ■ " ■ .1 . . ■ Inflection - - - - v . r 98 


Chapter IV, 

Of Words defining the Qualities of Substantives 99 
1, The Articles - - .- - - - - iqo 
j:, ^iK^puM Numen^ls - •* ^^ - « r 105 

3, The 



3. The Pronouns • - • - - •'^7 

4. Adjectives - - - - " " ^3S 
Practice, elucidating the preceding Sections -. - 143 

Chapter V. 

Of the Verb 154 

1. The Auxiliary - - . - ^ - iHd, 

2. — — Regular - - - - * • - - igy 

3. Irregular - - - ^ - - /. 174 

4. — — Neuter - - - - . <^ • - 189 

5. Compound - - • - - - 19X 

6. Reflective - - - - - -197 

7. — — Impersonal ------ 200 

Chapter VI. 
Of the Participle ------ 201 

Chapter VIL ' 

Of Prepositions - - - ^ . /J/^ 

Chapter VIIL 
Of Conjunctions - • '^ - - -219 

Chapter IX. 
Of Interjections --.---• 232 
Practice, elucitjating the preceding Farts of Speech - 234 

Of the Syntax. 

Of the Combination of Words - - - 245 

I. The Article with the Noun - - - - 246 

II. Of Nouns joined together • ^ - - 248 
JII. Of Nunierals - - -- - -251 

JV. Of. Pronouns - =- - - . - - 2^ 

Vf Of Adjectives - - - * - - 259 

VI. Of 


VI. Of the Verb -260 

Vir. The Participles 262 

VIII. Of Adverbs - - . - - -265 

IX. Of Prepositions - - - - - -266 

X. Of Conjunctions -. - - - - ibid. 

XL Of Interjections ------ 268 

XII. The Arrangement or Construction of Words - 269 
Practice on all the Parts of Speech, occurring in the 

Syntax -------- 270 

fX Gernun Idioms . - - - - - - 303 



General Principles ------ 309 

% Orthography of single Characters - - -311 

II. Division of Syllables - - - - - 323 

III. Orthography of coiE\pound Words - •* - 324 

IV. Of Perspicuity apd Ac^curicy in writing * - 325 

V. Of Signs, common in writing, or the Punctuation 327 



Some Specimens of modjcm and ancient German Poetry 331 
A complete catalogue of German Authors, including 
likewise learned Mtn, Artists, and scientific Writiers 349 

A DISSERTATION on Language in genera^ 
and principally on the study of the modern 

In tracing the origin and progress of human in^ 
ventions, we endeavour to display to the world 
an analysis of the human mind, and at the same 
time shew the obvious pre-eminence of the ratio- 
cinative powers of man. 

In the intervals of domestic retirement^ 
when all the cares attendant on senatorial and pub* 
lie concerns are freed from the mind, how de- 
lightful is it for man to reflect upon himself, to con- 
template the energies of his nature, to think se- 
liously and estimate the blessings he enjoys, and 
to examine the various causes which have given rise 
to those blessings. 

It has, I believe, ever been acknowledged, that, 
the most important and distinguished attribute df 
the mind, are reason and memory ; hence it may 
justly be imagined that they are those which at 
the same time constitute the difference between 
matxand the bnrte. Enquiry, aided by the ardour 
of curiosity, would be naturally excited to trace 
and ascertain the mysterious working of that won- 
derful process, by which languages have been 
formed, and propagated amongst mankind in all 
quarters of the globe. We behold the most exten- 
sive and ingenious performance, which the powers 
of reason could suggest and devise, apparently exe- 
cuted without thought,^ and completed, as It 



were, without contrivance. The exertions of 4 
<:ontrolling principle, conducting to the same end, 
are for ever visible ; though the artist is uncon- 
scious of his design. It is by these efforts of 
ujimeditating skill, that the system of language 
has been generated, and preserved uniform m all 
its relations. To discover the strong connexions 
and the nice dependencies of the various links 
which compose this great chain of causes and 
effects, has been hitherto a fruitless search. 

With respect to the English language, it h 
well known that it is a compound of the Anglo- 
Saxon and modern German. The Dutch ^ Danish^ 
and Swedish languages, are, together with the J?n- 
glishy nothing more than different dialects from 
those of the former. (Vide Diversions of Parley y 
last edition, page 100.) 

Every etymologist must admit, that a consi- 
derable number of English words are derived fion^ 
the Anglo-Saxon and modern German. At the 
same time, I own it is a difficult matter to have 
any very intimate acquaintance with those lan- 
.guages. ^ITie modem German has not been taught 
m English seminaries, and consequently seldom 
spoken in English companies : the English scholar 
is, therefore, in that point, deficient ; deficient in 
a principal (nay the most material point) namely;, 
the derivation of words. Still there exists an alter- 
native — the study of the modern German,, which 
will furnish him with the means of unravelling 
the difficulty ; it will familiarize him with that, 
of which otherwise he can have but a very im- 
perfect acquaintance, an introduction (which is^ 
indispensible) to the attainment of a knowledge of 
those ancient languages, which form the basis o£ 
his Qwn. 



The advantages which the English scholar 
win gain by the study of the modern German lan- 
guage, are indeed very considerable, and at the 
same time will remove many of the unfounded 
prejudices against the study of that language. 

Long phraseology, the sentences too much 
swelled out by particles, its harshness, &c. have 
been hitherto the leading objections to the study 
of German literature ; but it should be observed, 
that within the last half century, the German, like 
every other European language, has been greatly 
improved. Philosophy has ruled its phrases, in 
proportion as morals have been discussed in it, and 
the arts encouraged in the country. 

The length of a German period depends, in 
a great degree, perhaps wholly, on the purity of 
the author*s diction. It is true, some evidence 
does exist, that partly justifies the charge of long 
phfaseology. Sec. but the cause of this ought, long 
since, to have been explained to the English ; and 
the cause once explained, the effect will be instantly 

No sooner docs a good work make its appear- 
ance at Leipzick, Gottingen, Berlin, Halle, &;c. 
however correctly written and elegantly printed, 
than the provincial booksellers in the smaller towns, 
and in the dominions of inferior princes, cause 
cheaper editions to be printed, which instead of 
containing the classical language of the original, 
are by country schoolmasters metamorphosed into 
barbarism. From this cause proceeds the great body 
of particles, the long phrases, and that confusion 
of sentences, which either deters, or perhaps wholly 
disgusts the learned foreigner. 

c Not- 

Notwithstanding what has been observed, I 
could wish an Englishman not to discontinue his 
pursuits, because of the many superior advantages 
which he has, to natives of other countries; 
for one of liberal education will much sooner 
pronounce the German language, and with 
more neatness and perspicuity than any other fo-* 

The end that I have principally in view, by 
publishing this w^ork, is, that of facilitating the 
study of mQiieni German, which I am the more 
desirous of doing, because I know it to be the only 
effectual naethoa of acquiring an accurate know- 
ledge of the ancient^ that is of the Maso-Gothic and 
Anglo Saxon, the sources from whence the present 
EngUsh language is derived ; and because these an- 
cient languages are not now spoken, much less are 
they taught in English seminaries, 

Any man who wishes to become a complete 
master of my native language, and who has, per- 
haps, not had the opportunity of obtaining it by 
means of a learned teacher^ will, after an attentive 
study and careful perusal of the present work, ob* 
tain his purpose. 

*^ Too much time," observes Mr.Tooke, Diver^ 
sions. of Pur ley ^ page 99, " fs spent in the study of 
Latin and Greek : though far be it from me, to 
wish to incur the charge of a desire to proscribe 
the study of those ancient languages. But that the 
knowledge of them is carried too much into useless 
detail, and much time spent upon them, which 
inight be more usefully employed, cannot be at all 
denied, by any one vyho wishes to treat the question 
in a sober andrational way." 



But to return to the question of the modern 
German'; I think enough has been said to prove, 
that it would be more studied by the English scho* 
Jar, if the method of acquiring a knowledge of it 
were rendered more easy, and the best method 
pointed out, of enabling any one to read with fa- 
cility our excellent authors in their original, and 
converse with the natives of Germany upon equal 
terms. Not to overlook two principal advantages ; 
first, that which is derived from the extensive trade 
carried on by this country with Germany ; and 
secondly, the great utility this language would be 
of, to officers of the army and navy, other very ob- 
vious ones would result to persons studying the 
German, particularly in a literary point of view. 

Having conversed on various subjects with my 
learned scholars (especially with those who have, 
at times, commented on the great dramatic Bard), I 
found they all sincerely lamented the neglect of 
the modern German language at our public semi- 
naries; for they maintained, with the greatest con- 
fidence, that it was utterly impossible for an Eng- 
lish writer to be quite pure in his native language, 
without having previously some comparative know- 
ledge of the Anglo'Saxon, or modern German. How 
far those gentlemen are ri^ht, it is not for me pe- 
remptorily to decide ; I shall therefore leave this 
matter to the better judgment of more learned men. 

Even persons whose learning otherwise is 
highly respectable, by making oTVr small mistake, 
have sometimes perverted the sense of a whole trans- 
lation. This' ever will be the case with respect to 
English scholars (many of whom have published 
different translations^ from the German) in' conse- 
quence of their not thoroughly understanding ei- 
ther the idiom or phraseology ; and by that means 

c 2 have 


\ / 

have introda.ced into their performances so much 
additional matter from their fertile imaginations, 
as to give them an unnecessary prolixity, without 
increasing either the interest. or beauty of the pro- 

From these, and all former observations, it will 
be evident,, that from a mere general acquaintance 
with the German idiom, it is impossible for any one 
to become an accurate translator of the literature of 
that country. This remark is more particularly 
true in regard to dramatic compositions, especially 
those of Schiller y where not only a critical know- 
ledge of the language, but also of the customs 
and manners of the country, is indispensably neces- 
sary, to qualify a person to become a successful 
translator of this species of composition. 

I have now before me several translations of 
Schiller, Kotzebue, Biirgery Gothe^ and JVieland, 
which I have compared with the originals. I 
could produce numerous passages, nay whole scenes 
where the translators have misunderstood the 
meaning, and given them quite an opposite one. 
Many a simple honest character, without disguise, 
and plain in his expressions (see a striking instance 
in the first scene of Schiller's original Caia/ and Love, 
with that of the translation called the Minister ^ es- 
pecially the character of Miller and his Wife) \\2iS 
been represented as a man of polished manners, and 
his wife as a lady of elegant accomplishments ; and 
many vulgar expressions, adapted to the lower 
classes of society, been changed by translators into 
those of polite gentlemen. 

Among numerous passages, where I have 
compared the translations of the former, I w^ill only 
exhibit a few, which are not only diametrically 



opposite to the real intention and design of SchilJer, 
but positively have no existence in the orijjinal 
work. There will likewise be seen, in the scene 
which I am about to exhibit, that the subsequent 
ones are entirely useless^ because the translator 
made ojie gross mistake in the pronoun /Ar, signi- 
fying either your or her in Gennan. 

The passage alluded to is in \hc fourth Act oi 
Schiller's Cabale tuid Liebe^ translated under the Eng- 
lish title of the MiJiiSter, where Ferdinand so suc- 
cessfully works upon the cowardly feelings of the 
Marschal Kalb, as to compel him at once to divulge 
the whole collusion, which Ferdinand is conscious 
has been carried on for the purpose of disconcert- 
ing his plans, either by the intrigues of his father, 
the president, or by the proceedings of the crafty 
musician. To prevent any mistakes, I shall insert 
the full scene. 

TAe German is thus 


Lassen Sie mich lo&z. Ich 
will ja alles verrathcn. 

O ! es musz reitzender seyn 
niit andernnoch so himmlisch 
zu schwarmen. — Wollte sie 
ausschweifciii wollte sie, sie 
konnte den Werih der Seele 
herunter bringen, unddieTu- 
gcnd mit der WoUust verfal- 
jchen. (demMarschall die Pi^ 
stole aufsHerz druckend.) Wie 
weit kainst du mit ihr 1 Ich 
driicke ab, oder bekenne. 


The English translatlouy al^ 
luded tOy is thus : 

Let ine go ! 1 will coo&ss 
every thing. 

Oh ! it must seem more 
rapturous even to be her licen- 
tious paramour, than to burn 
with the purest, fondest, en- 
thusiasm, for any other niaid I 
She has charms that can re- 
duce the valueof the soul, an4 
equalize the transports of vir- 
tue and voluptuousness ! (put^^ 
ting his pistol to tJu marshal's 
breast.) How far is your con- 
nexion advanced ? answer m« 
or I fire this moment ! 



H. Es ist nichts — ist ja alles 
nichts. Haben Sie nur einc 
Minute Geduld. Sic i^ind ja 

F, Und daran mahnst du 
mich Bosewlcht } — Wie weit 
kamst du niit ihr ? Du bist 
dies Todes oder bekennc ! 

H. MonDieu! MelnGott! 
Ich sprcche ja — so horen Sic 
doch nur — Ihr Vater..,. Ihr 
cigcner leiblicher Vatcr.... 

F.- fgr'nnmiger,) Hat 

seine "I'ochter an dich ver- 
kuppelt f Und wie weit kamst 
du mil Ihr ? Ich ermorde dich 
oder bekennc ! 

H. Sic rascn. Sie horen 
nicht. Ich sah sie nie. Ich 
kcnne sic nicht. Ich weisz 
gar nichts von ihr. 

F. (zurucktrettend,) Du 
sahst sie nie ? fccnnest sie 
nicht ? — Weist gar nichts 
von ihr ? - — Die MilUrin ist 
verloren um deinetwillen, du 
ran<incst sie dreimal in einem 
Athemhinweg? Fortschlech- 
fer KcrL (er gibt ihm mtt der 
PhUtiee'tnen Stretch undstoszt 
ihnausdem Zimmer.J fiirdei- 
»es gkichen istkein Pulvcr cr- 
funden ! — 

M. There is nothing in the 
affair ' there is riot a word of 
truth in the whole business. 
Wc have deceived you from 
the very beginning and the mi- 
nister himself. 

C. You have deceived me, 
wretch ! 1 know it well, and 
must I be remembered of it ? 
Answer my question without 
delay. How far is your con- 
nexion with the girl advanced? 
You are dead unless you con- 
fess the truth. 

M. You mistake my words. 
To break off her connexioa, 
with you, /i^r father.,.* 

C Threw his daughter 

into your arms ? Why what 
care 1 ? Answer me directly to 
my question, or I'll murder 
you. How far is your con- 
nexion advanced ? Tell me ! 
tell me ! tell me ! f shaking him 

M. You rave ! you will 
not hear me ! I never spoke to 
her ! 1 never saw her ! I know 
her not. 

C. f drawing back, J Thou 
hast never spoken to her ? 
Thou hast never seen her? 
Thou knowest her not ? Julia 
is lost for ever for thy sake, 
and thrice in one breath hast 
thou denied her ? (opening the 
door with disdain,) Go, 
wretch, go, powder were 
thrown away on miscreants 
like thee. 



With regard to the great additional matter, 
which the translator has inserted, and which on a 
nice comparison with the original will be demon- 
strable, I shall say nothing. The reader, however, 
will hen-Q observe, that Ferdinand is working the 
cowardly marshal ; and with a pistol to his breast 
demands that confession from him, which he knew 
he had a right to obtain, being himself so strongly 
suspected. The Marshal, in his pusillanimous con- 
fusion, when he was developing to Ferdinand the 
plot tha't had been laid, uses the following expres- 
sion : So horensie dock nnr Ihr Faler.... Ihr eigcner 
kibllcher Vater,... Now the English translator, who 
did not understand the idiom of the phrase, has not 
only substituted something of his own fancy, but 
being unacquainted with the meaning of the pro- 
noun /Ar, translated heVy has given to the English 
reader orily the single^ when it is evidently intended 
by, Schiller to convey a double one ; namely, that 
Ferdinand in his rage should understand her father; 
although the marshal meant A/^ (Ferdinand's) father, 
the president. Now .the double entendre, could no 
way be so happily introduced, as through the me- 
diurti of this equivpcation. For which reason, with- 
out an annotation, the English reader can have no 
clear conception of the meaning of the German 

Indeed upon the pronoun 7Ar*, the whole me- 
rit of the scene dppends. ITie truth of this will be 
sufficiently evident from the following remark : if 



* The pronoun Ihr, may signify your, or her, in German. 
There is, however, for thig idiom no equivalent word in the£n|^- 
lish language by which it can be translated. This circumstance 
ought to have been explained in a note by the tranfilator^ which 
would have at oikc cleared up tho laatter. 


the Marshal had expressed himself by the word which 
the translator has done,he would then have entirely 
prevented the subsequent catastrophe of the drama, 
which he has now accomplished by inserting some 
additional matter of his own invention. A true 
knowledge of the German idiom, and as I have said 
before, a note, explaining its singularity to the Eng- 
lish reader, would have saved the translator much 
trouble and perplexity, and consequently the sub- 
seijuent plot would not have been spoiled; for under 
this very conception follows the poisoning of Ferdi- 
nand and Louisa. Whereas, according to the Eng- 
lish translation, the poisoning of both was unneces- 
sary, and out of all question. 

I shall only point out one other great mistake, 
in the same play, less pardonable than the former. 
(Page 1 J 2, English translation). This beautiful scene 
is thus translated : 

LuisA. Und der Fluch I Julia. Pursued by yourfa- 

Seines Vaters uns nach ! — Ehi 
Flueh Unbesennenery den auch 
M order nle ohne Erhoningaus- 
sprechen^ den die Rachc dcs 
Jlimmcls auch dem Dicb auf 
dem Rade hdlt^ l^c. 

ther's curse ! a curse^ unthink^ 
ing youth, never mentioned 
without horror — even by the as- 
sassins \ which the mercy of 
heaven with-holds from the 
very robber upon the racky ^c. 

The original is quite the reverse : 

A curse never mentioned by a murderer en the wheel, never 
Wtkeard by heaven ; and which heavenly revenge^ never with- 
held from the robber broken on the wheeL 

Compare this meaning with the above*. 


* I shall have numerous opportunities in tb6 sequel of this 
\rork, to make the student acquaioted with niany more such er« 


The student will iindj that the most beautifu) 
productions of my learned countrpien have too oftea 
been degraded by bad translations of the German 
language, and which might have been prevented if 
the natives of this country had shewn tneir transla* 
tions to any learned German, before they sent then) 
to the pressy in which case the public might have 
relied upon the preservation of the originality. 

It is now twelve years since I first had the hap* 
piness of treading the soil of Great- Britain, In which 
«>ace of time I have had many opportunities of stu^ 
dying the English languagCf and have obtained some 
knowledge of the manners and customs of the in^ 
habitants; and were I to continue twelve years longer 
here, I should never venture to issue a publicatioq 
until I had first submitted it (I mean toe English 
part) to one or more of the literati of this country. 

Before I proceed further in this treatise cm Ian* 
guage, I shall make some observations on our mo« 
dem German authors. It is an indisputable fact» 
that Schiller's writings are more difficult to be under* 
stood than any other, owing to the numerous obscu- 
rities with which they abound. His tragedies are the 
most unintelligible of 'his performances, inconse* 
quence of the peculiarities of the German idiomt 
and the energetic mode of expression for which he 
was not only remarkable, but inimitable. Ther^ 
are even many of the natives of Germany who mis- 
(QOCeive him. The chefd^osuvres of Schiller are his 


iprs^ Slid vith the peculiar phnueologjr and idiomt of my n4t]v« 
language \ and for that porpoie I shall alwajra take the most stril^- 
iDg passages from Wt best anthors, accompanied with wj owi| 


^(V^gedi«s of Cabal and Loye ; -r- Fiesco ;-^Doq 
^§rlQ$; — 9pd the Robbers; together with two other 
^KHl^a^i whicl) have lately appeared in Germany^ 
O^Ued^ the Death of Walienstein, and jpiccolon^inii 
which works undoubtedly entitle him (and justly) 
$0 thp appellation of the German Shakespeare. 

The chief scenes in all his dramatic writ^n^i 
Mpeai forcibly to the heart ; and his readers will 
always feel the alternate working of horrarj, anxiety^ 
t€rri^rj combassion^ and admiration. The Rev, W. 
Whiter, or Cambridge, (who I am proud to calj 
XDy pupil). in his learned and profound wo^k qx\ 
languages, Et^pnohgicum Magnum^ says : 

^* Mr Schiller has acquired Iiis £une by the sivAj of an-, 
ciept ^nd modern languages, and by comparing one with 
Ac other, he learned the affinity of the whole. By that 
means we ought to urge and repeat, that as w® advance 
forward in these studies of languages, in speculations of the 
beauties smd affinities^ the nature of the humanmind will be- 
iUMne iporQ fully unfolded, at>d ipore faittifully exhibited^. 
As we ascend by ^Ibw but persevering steps to tho^e higher 
seats aiid more coiDmanding stations in the regions of know- 
ledge, from which the mind delights to look abroad on the 
prc^d, the clouds vanishi the scene opens, and the pro- 
spect brightens to our view. Our conceptions ^Hl enlarge, as 
piox ideas are expanded ; and, while the understanding giows 
enlightened by the contemplation of its own faculties, wo 
fibalT be still more enabled to appreciate — to feel and to 
4^)joy the energies of io^dlect-r- the. powers oCkopv^led^Q 
and^he blessings pf U(4h*" 

This learned gentlemar^ pro^eda in his com- 
iaentary on Schiller's tragedy of the Robbers^ th\js : 

* %t The dream of Francis exhibits tlie most solemn nar- 
ratives tha.t can well be presented to the feelings of ^n audi- 
^ce. }t is the Day of Judgment in all its tejrrors, fr,om the 
mouth of guiU in the moment of delirium, tl^'be j^ure is 
tpo bo^utmil and natural to omit it here,^* 


* ^W dreanier, Franc?^, exchinis (Set ikt trageJy of 
iht Robbers^ Jet. F. Sc. I . Page t66J : Hark \ methought I 
held a princely banquet, and all beat bliss about mj hean !— 
'And I laid me down in my garden otpleasarc, deep drunken 
with ddighti ; and suddenly ! — suddenly !-^-a monstrous thun- 
der' struck on my astonished ear.-~l stdgf^red trembling up : 
and behold ! methought 1 saw the whole horizon out-flaminr 
in a fiery blaze : and mountains, and cities, and forests, all 
inelnne as wax before a furnace : and a howling wind-storm 
fwefi before it the seas, the heavens and the earth.' 

'* There is one passsge in Virgil^ which well dtfserv^i 
Co be remembered, where the word verro has been used to 
innply the most violent part «if its figurative meaning. Thift 
mibltme passage appears to have been present to the thoughts 
bf Sckilltr^ when he made choice ,of the same metaphor oA 
a still more awful and tremendous occasion. 

Firgiiy in his poem, ^n. I. 6o« Uys : 

• Ciisa sidtt Molui nrti^ 

Scepira tetansi miUit^g animos^ et iimperat iras. 

til fOciut^ maria^ ac terras^ cctlumque profundum^ 
(luippe FERAMT rdpiJi secum, vLKKAjfTqtuper auras J^ 

< XTnless th^ power of iBloJu^ had been appointed to 
^Ini the fury of the winds, they would have s we I^T before 
tbem tiie seas^ the 6inb, and the heavens/ 

That Air. Schiller has studied thd writings df 
jShake'spearej lean (from my own intimate acquaint- 
ance with him) prove beyond dispute, and many 
instances of the similarity df their writings rnight be 
produced— 4)ut one, I trust, Will be deenled sutncient 
here. The passage alluded to, is in tlie third part 
of Henry the Sixth, wheiie Gloster addresses the 
dying king (Act V. Sc. 6.) 

«• I that haire neither pitj^, Idvc; ilor fear, ftc. &c/* 

d 2 ■ Schiller 

.) • « 


Scbiller expresses himself in a timilar mannef 
ifthis Robbers^ ActL Sc. 1. Page 12. 

^^ I haves great right to quarrel with Nature, and by my 
honour I will nuke her my debtor. Why burden me with 
this masji of deformity ? why so rigidly bestow it upon me 
alone? (stamping upon the ground) Death and destruction ! 
Wliy on me alone ? No otiierwise than if she bad put a stop 
to the formation of men at my birth !— She conspired against 
me in the yerv hour of my conception. Well, then ! tluis do 
1 now conspire against her for ever. — I will destroy her most 
beautiful works, as I cannot claim any relationship to them. — 
J will tear asunder the union of souls, since I am excluded 
^bm it. She has denied to me the delightful plav of the hean» 
die all persuasive eloauence of love. — Thus toen will I ex- 
port my wihhes with despotic violence : thus will I extirpate 
all those who seta restraint upon me, since I am not Lord*** 

The competitors of Schiller, in dramatic com- 
MBition are,Bardn.Gdthe and Kotzebue. The trans*- 
lations of the latter are too well known in this coun- 
try to need any comment. His tragi-comedy of 
•Count Benjcwsky is, by far, superior to all others 
which have been translated. His Pizarro, is won- 
derfully adapted to the English stage, and from the 
Senius and judicious arrangement of Mr. Sheridant 
as received such additional beauty as precludes the 
possibility of considering it as a mere translation. 

Any student, moderately acquainted with the 
German language, will easily perceive, that the 
greatest part of Baron Kotzebue's writings have 
been imperfectly executed, and many of them ex- 
hibited in such a mutilated state as scarcely to leave 
u shadow of resemblancie between the translation and 
the original. This defect is easily accounted for, 
when the public is acquainted that some of the trans- 
lators liave studied, not from the genuine original 
copvy bjut from a spurious one s and above all, for 




want of a knowledge of the German idioms^ customs^ 
and manners of that nation. 

before I conclude my statement on language, 
I consider it as necessary to establish two points, of 
the utmost consequence for the student to be ac« 
quainted with, namely : who was thejirst promoter 
oftlie high German language ^ and who brought it to 
its purity ? — Secondly, w/iere is the best German 
spoken .^— 

The first man who introduced and brought to 
perfection the German language, was the illustrious 
author of the reformation, Martin Luther, to whom 
German literature is indebted for its polish. His 
translation of the Bible is indeed a master-piece. It 
was he too who adopted the true idiom of that lan- 
guage. This great and learned man eradicated all 
tormer prevailing bad customs, and corrected also 
the reigning harsh and bad dialect; which, although 
not supported by the authority of antecedent wrilters, 
was free from many disadvantages under which his 
predecessors evidently laboured. It was a man of 
his spirit and genius who alone was calculated to at'- 
tempt such a revolution ; and the situation in which 
he stood, rendered the success complete. The tran* 
sition from one to the other custom, was not abrupt 
and sudden. The ancient dialect remained the basb; 
and the changes introduced by him were regular and 
progressive. In his publications, prior to the Bible, 
(which was his last work) the deviations from the 
former bad idiom and customs, were comparatively 
few i however, they increased in proportion as he 
seenis to have been more convinced of the justice 
of that measure, and as the public becan^e more 
reconciled to the innovation. 



. ' llie uithorfty fltid example (AXjSkiti vtmt soea 

followed by his friends and adherents ; and his )bml* 
guage was received by all those whd embraced his 
doctrines. The protestant pteachers eame firom Wit^ 
imberg (the pdace where Luthe* was professor) td 
all parts of the German empire, and delirercd theiif 
tenets in the dialect of their master. Ilius it was iti^ 
tyoduced into all comers of Germany, to which the! 
reformation has penetrated. It even served as a 
mark of distinction between the reformed and pa* 
pists. The latter persevered in the old style, and 
id)honred the new one, as an abominable invention 
<if heresy. But it was the more cherished by theii* 
opponents, and, rh process of time, not only thcr 
discourses* from the pulpit, but the institutions of 
youth were carried on in the same language ; till at 
lafit it gained' such ascendency, that superseding all 
tfee provincial dialects^ it was alone regarded as th6 
proper language both for devotion. and instruction < 

It was the reformation that had been the fruif 
of progressive civilization and improvment in th^ 
German language : it was that too, which not only 
enlightened mankind, but proiftoted the advance^ 
ment of knowledge and learning. It was as a giiidingf 
star to all who were inimical to superstition, and 
favourable to truth. It gave to the human mind * 
more extensive scope, by counteracting igiloranccf 
and delusion. The provinces, in which the reforma-' 
tion was firrf received, by this advantage soon be*» 
came pre-eminent to the rest of the popish countries 
Iti Germany. They became the source of refinement, 
and the seat of arts : and served as an example (ot 
imitation to their neighbours. The language in the? 
protestatit countries in Germany is aUowed to be 
more pure and elegant, mofe correct and harmo^ 
iii#usj than other idioms in the Roman catholic pfo- 

vinces i 

vinces i fbr it rose in the former to that superiority, 
in which we behold it at this moment, and is ra*« 
pidly advancing to the zenith of its gloiy. 

This is the language which, in contradiction, to 
the other idioms, is termed Hochdcutsch i. e. High 
German. As it has ceased to be a provincial dialect, 
and is become the general language of the country, 
it may justly be called the German, by way of pre- 
eminence j for it has been cultivated in all quarters. 
In its present state, it can no longer be called the 
language of the electorate of Saxony, spoken by the 
Inhabitants at large ; but there, as elsewhere, it is 
confined to the higher orders. It is possessed of a 
superior degree oicorrectnessy having been weeded 
of aU local and provincial peculiarities. 

Iq confhmation of what I have advanced. It 
will perhaps be of some advantage to quote the 
testimony and audiority of Professor Adelung, con- 
cerpixigtucQerman language, who is beycmdall doubt 
the most excellent and the most perfect authority 
we can refer to. His evidence alone, in this particu- 
l^Tf OH^t to be deemed peremptorily decisive and 
impartial ; for he is known not to favour any dialect 
111 partipularii not even the Saxon (some few in* 
stances) excepted) but admires and approves tlvD 
purity of the true Q^nnan pronunciation alone. 
Thi^re is perhaps no dictbnaiy extant whidi is pro- 
|lmbIe|tobis, as the dictionary of a native language. 
This competent critic expresses himself, in the rot- 
Ipwin^ tennst in his adnurable work, Lchrgcbmdc 
der deutscha$Sprachey a system of the German laiv 
giiage, vol. 1. page 85. 

*^ The high Gerioaa». sltbguflb mare freiyijentljr spoken 
|b Ae electorate of Saxony than in other province^ whidi 
fiave not quite attained to that degree by which the principal 


• • 

lownt in Aat coimtry are dittinguidied, is by no meant the 
language of trade apd common people ; and therefore cannot 
any longer be considered at a provincial dialect. That Ian- 
cna^e, which, in oar time it adopted for writing, is no longer 
umited to one oarticular proyince, as Saxony, bm b iiegene^ 
r^Htmptagif^iasUsuJpiliti education tkroughouiOermany*** 


The intention of this work will be more easily nnder^ 
stood by the following simple sutement : 

This Analysis was ietendedtohave been published about 
•ix years ago» but I was then advised bv my friends and pupils 
at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, to with-hold it 
till a future period, being apprehensive tnat } qught not at 
that time be sufficiently conversant withthe$lnglish idiom. But 
being now fully confident, after a tedious comparison of Ian* 

Eiages, that such a treatise would be fit^Iy valuable to the 
gher classes of students, capable of making their own 
observations, I resolved to lay it before the Public. 

The n(iode which I have pursued, in selecting passages 
from our best modern classical writers, is, to give as cl^raQ 
idea of the peculiar manner of composition, phraseology, &c« 
as possible. Until all the rules in the Analysis arq care« 
fully perused, it would be impossible for the student to pro- 
fit oy the latter part of the work, u €. to translate widi pro- 
priety ; therefore these rules are strondy recommended to hia 
attention before be commences the study of the extracts, After 
having gone through the practice careniUv, he may then tal^e 
up any German work, and, by the help of a good pictior 
nary*, be enabled to foel the ^ense (^ the author with litd$ 

* Profassor £ber*s Dictionary in $ foLGerman and Englii^ 
is the best. 





To spedt (sprcchen) is to communicate our 
thoiights to others by distinct toncs.^^Language 
(Sprache) possesses not only that power, but like- 
Tdse the whole collection of perceptible distinct, 
sounds, by which men communicate their, ideas 
to each o^ther. The rules, by which this is exe- 
cuted, is called Grammar (Grammatik), or the. 
JPoctrine of Languages. 

There are various modes of communicating 
distinct sounds, not only amongst different nations, 
but, at the same time, among different provinces 
of one and the same nation, and even among 

different ranks of society. , 

B The 


The doctrine of language is occupied merely 
with that maimer of fipeakiag, which is pradoml* 
nant amongst the more civilized part of a nation, 
and which is in German called tlie high German 
Z)/a/^rf (dieHochdeutsche Mundart) which com- 
poses the union between that of the north end 
south, and which is equally intelligible tp both. 

In order to communicate our thoughts to 
others, we should speak in as distinct a vmanner 
as possible, that we may be understood by them ; 
this is the fundamental law of language. 

In the higher circles throughout Germany, 
flieir speech consists according to the rules esta- 
blished by the best authors, and sanctioned by 
the most correct taste. 

Next to this, the Analogy (die Anale^le), or 
the Similar Uy of Languages (die Sprachahnliehkeit), 
coght to decide ; and, in conjunction with it,produce 
a 'peculiar Harmony (Wholfeiut), which is ^ the 
gireafest consequence in a written language; be* 
cMse 'the analogy is not always without e3ic«p- 
. tions, and to obtain the highest possible distinction, 
we ought to attend, especially in composition, to' 
tlie Etymology (Abstammung). 

The rules of language must not, on the con- 
tfwy, be arbitratry, biit should be extracted from 
the language itself.. 


O 'O Oe v^ , Uu Ue u* 
O o CE oe y u Uc UQt- 


- They are produced, when the mouthy in ut- 

a ■ ■ 

terance, passes on ifnperceptibly, and without in- 
terruptioa, from one opening to another, which 
are the following: 

^^ (^) (W* ^^ ^ (^) .^^ oi' (oy) ui 
ai (ay) au aeu ei (ey) eu oi (oy) tii 

OF consona;^ts, 

Tbdy are divided into different classes, ac« 
Gording to the various pressures of the mouth by 
which they are generally produced. One^ viz. h^ 
is produced by me^s of the lungs ; four^ which arc 
gutturals, by means of the throat, cA, g^ y, k, (used 
frequently instead of ^ or c) ; ./Si^ labials, by means of 
the lips, Wy by /, (v) p, m ; five by means of the 
tongue, dy /, (th) /, w, r ; and /{?Mr dentals, by 
nieans of the teeth, Sy sZy Zy scL 

Amongst these consonants there are som^j 
which have a very similar sound, and can only 
be distinguished from each other by the softnes$ 


I ■■• 

f Whb respect to the three yewels^ marked with atite^ 
rims, it is usuaU in German fikmiCtM9»^ to fi«t inttoad of 
ahc^fioal e, t&e diaHresii over each of A^m, viz. H, o, u, 
Wbea either of proeeded hjr a oaptit ktter, tho # 
if at the aide, ithna t At, Qe, Vk. 


or harshness of their tone, and therefore are di- 
vided into the following classes > 




d . , 

h . . 

< . it ff , . , 

• • »» » • • • 
• »^ J> • • • 

t (th) 

■ f(v) 
, ch 

g ' 

' • » >» • • ' 

, k 

s . , 

. . SZ S . . 

. z 


When two of the before-mentioned conso- 
nants are produced by one and the same pressure 
of the mouth, and without any apparent openingf* 
of it, they form compound consonants, and are 
of one or of different kinds ; as 

chy chSy ck — dt — jff -^ gn — kn — 
j^ phj ps — schy ss, sty sz — thy tz — wrA, 


Before I proceed further, it will be highly 
necessary to acquaint the student, how the prece- 
ding (Characters are used. 

- Cap^ 

* The acute is an intermediate sound. 

f For the various articulation and pronunciation of all the 
preceding classified lettprs> I refer the student to the subse- 
quent analysis, or tl)e anejLed table of pronunciation* 


Capitak are made use of, 

1. At the beginning of each discourse; 

2. -^fter a full stop; 

3. .At the head of every substantive ; and 

4. At the beginning of each line in poetry. ' 
Small letters are indiscriminately made use of, 

as in all other languages. 



A a, Ae a, E e, I i, o, Oe o, , 

Uu, Ue u, (Y y). 

A a. 

The sound of this vowel is exactly the same^ 
when longy as that of the English a in bar s 
the French a in bas s the second a of the * Italian 
in amare. In Spanish,* it answers, when long, to 
amar / as Vater, father ; Abends evening j Adel^ 
nobility, &c. 

When it is short, it corresponds with the 
English a in glass ; the French a in bat; the a 
of the Italian in ardere^ to bum ; and the Spanish 
in mddir^ to add : as Mann, a man ; machen, to 
make, &c. The sound of the Dutch a, in both the 
above-mentioned cases, is exactly the same ; it is 
long in DagCy days, and short in Kat^ a cat. 

c Ae 


Ac a 

Is pronounced like a in the English word 
air s e in the Frgpch word honte ; the Italisin e in 
sedia i the Spanish e in escapar^ to runaway ; and 
the Dutch ae in Woerld. the world. But like the 
French ^, it becomes open before an r (see e) as 
trage^ idle ; urgerlichy scandalous. 

E ^. 

This voweU in German, is never mute ; ox- 
cept, when it is joined to /, it lengthens the latter, 
but loses its own sound ; and also when ^ contrac- 
tion takes place, as er leht^ he lives, for er lebet. 
It has four different sounds, viz. the close j the open, 
or broad ; the slender 5 and the guttural, or obscure. 

I. The close e possesses the primary sound by 
\rhich it is known in the G^erman and other modern 
alphabets. It answers to the English a in fate ; 
to the sound of i in the French word veritCy truth ; 
to the ^ in the Italian word diviiy I might siy ; to 
tjie Spa^nish in leery- read. . The sound of the Dutch 
Cy when single, is the same as in German. It 
answers to the English words spelU ^elly when, 
ice. ^nd when double, merely lengthens the same 
sound. It is founds 

1st. At the end of the concluding syllable of 
a word, and in monosyllables 5 as in die Waiscy the 
orphan ; der AJfb^ the monkey 9 he! ha ! or holla ! 
jCi ever, &c, 

I. 2d. 


2d. Before an A 5 as die Ehre, the honor ; die 
Ehcy matrimony ; stehef^^ to stand,. &c. 

Exceptions. Stehleriy to steal 5 det Sef^M, ^the 
command ; befehlen^ to eomtrtartd }■ ^mpfffhten, 
to recommend i enfbehren^ to want ; die Kekte, 
the throat ; das Mehl, tfce floWQi^. In all the 
above words the e is ^pen. • 

dd. £ is close before and after ih ; as in die 
Betlwy the name of a plant ; das Itaiheder^ the pro- 
fessor's chair. 

4th. When it i? doubled, as die See, the sea; 
die SeeUy the soul ^ die Arviee^ the army. It pre- 
serves the same sound v^hen one of the ee^s is sup- 
pressed, by the addition of a syllable containing 
another e, as in See-eriy Armee-en.* 

Lastly. In opposition tp the rule laid doWn for 
the open e, the close e is heard in die Ceder (pron. 
n.ii?r;the cedar \ j£den, Eden , dk Ege, the ha^- 
row 'y die DemiUby humility ; EpheUy ivy ; ewi^y 
eternal ; jedevy each ; jemahlsy eV^r ; jemandy some- 
bo^jr y.jeiwry nCy nesy he, she, it or that;. Irene, Ire- 
he ; die MefCy the seagull ; die Miiskeley the musket ; 
die PastetCy the pasty ; Peter^ Peter ; die Regely the 
(ule ; regiereriy to govern ; die Scency the scene ; 
Schwede?iy Sweden ; Schlcsien^ Silesia ; die Sirene, 

■ : . the 

..i-.. : . ■■ ■* 

I , idUl 

t\.\.,.. .m ; tii .i.>« Ifc^ i- ■■' T . 'r i. 

... , .» » . .. , , " » 

* When two eit casdally meet, as ib hunaheu, to finish ; 

. ,.. ^^ .. . 4. . .^.. .^ . 

freehri^ honourted^ Hg;, (lie first; is slender, and the second follows 
the general rule. ' ', 

c 2 


die Strtn ; die Taptte^ the hangibgs; die Tnmpetey 
the trumpet ; wenig, little. 

II. The sound of the open or broad e is simi- 
lar U> that of the first EngU^ e in there ; of the 
French first S in tSte, head ; of the Italian^e in mela, 
apples ; of the Spanish e in negar, to deny ; of the 
Dutch 6 in Uver^ liver. 

1st. It takes place at the end of a syllable^ 
which is not the last of a word^ as in leben, to live ; 
ergebeuj to surrender, &c. 

2d. It retains its sound when a contraction 
happens, as in ^ lebty for er lebet, he lives, &c. 

3d. In words, except after an h, and in double 
ee^s, in the article of the close e. 

4th. E is apt to run into the open sbund before 
an r, supported by another consonant) and also in 
monosyllables, as in die Erde, the earth ; das Pferd^ 
the horse j ersty first ; der Herd^ the hearth ; das 
Schxverty the sword ; werden, to become ; der Wertk, 
the worth ; tverthy value -, der, the ; quer, traverse ; 
wer, who ; &c.* 

III. The slender, e answers to the e of the Eng- 
' lish in ebb ; to the first of the French in cree s of 


* It may not be improper to direct the atteDtton of the 
•tadcDt to the differeiice of the close and the open e. The Ger« 
man and English^ in general, whoie ditcnminatioa is so fine 
in many other respects, too frequently confound these two 
sounds. Th|B difference of tone is imiqediately perceptible to an 
*far familiarized with the French and Itafian languages. 


the Italian first e in vekno ; to the Spanish in tenH^ 
to hold I to the first e in Dutch of ^^&g[^n, situate. 
This sound is found, 

'1st. At the end of a short syllable, either at 
the beginning or in the middle of words ; as in 
ebencHj to make even ; ich Uebete, I did love ; er 
lobet, he praises ; sie tobeten, they praised, &c.* 

2d. Before one or two consonants it is dis- 
tinctly articulated in the same syllable, as in das 
Betty the bed ; ^ das Feldy the field ; die Ebbe, the 
tide ; eheste, next ; Exempety example. 

IV. The guttural, or obscure e, is that which 
the English have in battery, and the French in re/iis. 
The Italians and Spaniards have no such sound. 
The second e of the Dutch in the word Edelman, 
nobleman, is adequate to the German e obscure or 
guttural. It is generally heard, 

1st. Before the liquids, /, m, n, r ; zs in die ' 
Diestel, the thistle ; der Athem, the breath ; qffen, 
open 5 das Messer, the knife. 

2d. It remains obsciire, though one or two 
other consonants should follow the liquid, as lie- 
bendy loving ; tugendkqft, virtuous ; die Wissenr 
schafty the science ; gelautert^ purified ; geldutertes 
Gold, purified Gold. 


* It IS fiiaqoenitly . tuppressed ; as io ReheU, hhet, U- 
Uun, Which are often written and pronounced^ iUhtey lobt, 

14 AVALYSK 0# TflE 

•'■•■••' ti. . ' 

This vowel is either long or short. When 
it is long, it has the sound of the English ie in 
' Jklds of the French t ingitey the den (of a hare) ; 
of the Italian in the last oi finire-i of the Spanish 
m deciry to say. The Dutch / has also two different 
sounds like the German, It is lohg in Isabely and 
short in misty dung ; and answers the ee in English, 
or the i in ship, ivhip- 

When it is short, it has the sound of the 
English i in Jig ; of the French in ami ; of the 
Italian in the first oiJirf.ire^ to finish } and in Spa- 
nish of oiry \o hear. 

1st It is long when th« full accent rests upon 
it ; as die Fibel, the horn-book ; wider^ against : 
and also when attended by. an e. in the sanae syl- 
lable> which is frequently tibe case ; as dicy the ^ 
Liebe^lqvQ ; Pi^pzV, poetry ; Melodic^ melody, .&c. . 

2d. It is long before' an A, as in ihm^ to him.; 
ilviy him ; ihry you, &c. 
, The i is ' short, . 

1st. Whep^the i and ۥ are pronounced sepa- 
rately, which happens in the declensions of the nouns 
ending in ie y as die Kniey the knees, &c. and in 
the conjugation of verbs, as sie schrieriy they did 
cry : and also in the following words , die Histo- 
rie, the history ; die Komedie, the play ;. die Lilie, 
the lily 5 der Spanievy the Spaniard ; die Aticy 
the air. 

2d. It becomes short, when it is followed 



by more than one consonant; as in Dienstag, 
Tuesday ; das Viertel, the quarter ; vierzc/m, 
fourteen ; ich giengy I went ; ich hiengy I hung.* 
In all other instances the i is short. 


This letter may be long or short. When it 
is long, it ans\yers to the English, French, Italian 
^d Spanish o in robCy zone, porno, hombre \ when 
short, it is like that of hot, pomme, oggi, odor. 

The Dutch o has the same sound with the 

German and Englisli, only with this difference, that 

the accent falls invariable on it. This may be seen 

in two words, viz. it agrees with open, which is 

the same as in English ; but it differs In oven, 

\fi)^Tt (as observed) the accent falls on the o alone, 

afi making a syllable by itself, whereas in English , 

it fall^ on the ao. When oo occurs in the Dutch 

language, the sound is lengthened as in German 

and always pronounced as oa, in the words loan, 

road, hoar. 

The o is long, 

1st. Chiefly when under the full accent ; as 
in sogar, even ; sosehr, so much -, gewogen, ad- 
dicted, &c. • 

2d. Before an h ; as in ohne, without ; Ohr, 
ear, &c, 



* la the latter instances, it would be better to omit the 
f entiraljr. 


Sd. When doubled ; as in das Moos, moss. 
* It is generally short on all other occasions. 

Oe 0. 

Has the same pronunciation as the French eu, 
in cceur^ or jeHnCy when it is long ; and like eiiy 
in jeune, young, when it is short. The i in the 
English words shirt and bird, have a striking simi- 
larity with o. Neither the Italians nor the Spaniards 
have any thing like this sound. The Dutch oe is 
the same as the German o in Boer, clown ^ as hiiren^ 
td hear ; Konig, king, &c. 


' U u ^ 

When u is long, it has the §ound of the 
tEnglish 00 in mood 3 of the French ou in route s 
of the Italian u in pure, of the Spanish in robusto. 

When it is short, it is like 00 in good ; ou in 
houle s u in palire ; and u in curbar. 

The u in Dutch is always pronounced like 
the German, and like the English in full ; and 
when doubled lengthens the syllable -, as Uur, 
hour ; Vuur, fire. 

It is always long when under the full accent, 
and before h, ; as der Bube, the boy ; der Buhler, 
the lover. 

It is short before two consonants, and on al- 
most all other occasions. 

Ue ii. 

Is pronounced exactly like the French u in 

vertu : 


loertu : as Uebely evil ; uberj over ; bemuhcjiy to 
trouble; gruszen^ to salute, &c. The Dutch m/ 
answers the German in duit^ a copper coin. The 
English, Italian and Spaniards, have no such sound. 
It will be useless to attempt to give any idea of 
the pronunciation of this" vowel by any English 
word, for it would merely perplex the student, 
and perhaps superinduce a vicious and false pro- 
nunciation. To attain it exactly, recourse must 
infallibly be had to a vivd voce teacher ; except 
the student knows the genuine and pure pronun- 
ciation of the French u in vertd, which alone, of 
all European languages (the Dutch excepted) pos- 
sesses any word adequate to the illustration of this 
obscure sound. 



Nata. The German Y considered as a vowel^ occurs only 
in foreign teroois and proi>er names. It is called Ipseelon, 
from the Greek u^iXof ; and the French assign to it the sound 
of their i, and call it igrec. The Dutch have it in their lan- 
guage^ and pronounce it as the long English t. It occurs in May, 
May; Kmderey, childish play j ft/«y / fie! &c. Most of the mo- 
dem German writers have expunged the antieiit spelling, 
and write, thus : Mai, Kinderii, pfiit, according as it is pro- 
noQDced. Most frequently the y is seen in coalition with the 
rowel e, and it thus forms a diphthong, equivalent to the 
Germaa d, or the long i of the English. 



All these diphthongs, except au, oi^ (oy) and 
uij have the sound of the English z in.yfr^ ; of the 
French ai or aym aid, or ayeul; the Italian aj in 
ajo s the Spanish at in Caiego, a name of a moun- 
tain ; the Dutch ai in hair, hair. There is such a 
strict analogy between the German diphthong 
with those of the before-mentioned languages, that 
any further observations upon them will be here 
Unnecessary. Thus it must be pronounced in Kai- 
^ ser. Emperor; Wayse, orphan ; Lause, lice 5 eilen, to 

haste ; Feiter, fire. 

Au ail. 

Is pronounced like the English ow, in the 
word coxc ; in the French aoute ; and au in the 
Italian aura ; in the Spanish avueh, grandfather. 

Oi 01. 

Thi^ diphthong has the sound of oi in the 

• English word boil, and occurs only in a few proper 

names. In French, no such sound is to be met 

with. In Italian it is to be -found in Zoilo s and 

in Spanish in hoi, or hoy, to-day. 

Ui ui. 

It will be impossible to convey an idea of 
the method of pronouncing these letters, except 



by a circumlocutory descriptibn. The reader will 
therefore remember, that they are pronounced thus : 
oo in the word good, and the y articulated like ee 
in the yrordfeed ; and oui in the French : in Spa- 
nish cuiyo ; and cui in Italian. 


h C, d, /, gy hyj, ky ly TTl, Uy /?, q^ Ty Sy ty Vy Wy Xy Z. 

This letter is articulated the same as in all 
modem languages^ and when singly pronounced, 
is called bay and not be, as in English ; as Bady 


bath y Brody bread ; haberiy to have, &c. 


C c 

The articulation of this letter is the same as t 
T)efore the letters say thus : tsay y before cc of the 
French pincer ,• and of the Italian zeno -y the Spa- 
nish of ^^/acfo/. The Ducth c is invariably the same, 
in all its branches, as in German and English. 

It has this articulation before Cy ?*, yy and ay c/, 
ajid^Q/i as Centnery ^ hundredweight; Cither , a 
musical instrument; Cypcrriy Cypria^ Casavy Caesar; 
Coliusy Coellus ; Ceyloriy Ceylon : articulate, Tsentner, 
TsitheTy Tsyp^rrty TsasaVy TsuUouSy Tsiloiu 

p 2 It 


* The letter h b neyer mute in Geroian, even when it 
lorminates n word. 


It is sonf)etimes articulated as a A, or the hard 
Cy which is found in the English word cat ^ in the 
French cadre ; in the Italian canto. It has this ar- 
ticulation before the vowels a, o, n, and the diph- 
thong au ; also before the consonsaits ly and r ; as 
CanonCy a cannon ; Comet y a comet; Cuvy the cure ; 
Causenmachery a pettifogger ; Climay the climate ; 
CreuZy a cross : pronounce, kanoney komatCy kooVy 
koLvsenmacher y kleemdy' kritZy with the sound of i in 
Christ. . 

Observation. — From the above it is evident, 
that c sometimes has the force of tSy or the sharp z 
of the Italian, and sometimes of k ; consequently it 
may be considered as superfluous in the German 
alphabet. On this account it has been expunged 
by most of the modern writers, who, in lieu of it, 
have adopted z and ky as occasion might require . 
which is certainly allowable, since they cannot be 
distinguished from each other in articulation. We 
must, however, retain it in some foreign veords and 
proper names, and occasionally it is necessary in the 
composition of some double consonants. 

D d. 

This letter is articulated as in the above-men- 
tioned languages ; except that in the alphabet the 
Germans articulate it with the a in date — da s as 
dery dicy dasj the ; DintCy ink -y Degeni sword ; die- 
neriy to serve ; duy thou. There is not any variation 
in the pronunciation or sound of the Dutch d from 
the German. 





This corresponds exactly with the letter of the 
above-mentioned languages; as Fragc^ question , 
Frosty frost; Feuer, fire ; fiinfy five ; /rey/ free ; 
frohy happy ; fuoco in Italian ; fuego in Spanish. 
The Dutch / is the same^ in pronunciation and 
sounds as the German. 


The articulation of this letter, especially when 
guttural, cannot be explained by the pen, as it can 
only be acquired by the instruction of an able 
teacher. However, the following remarks will 
serve, in some measure, to elucidate the proper ar- 
ticulation of it in i;nost instances- 

1st. The true articulation of this letter is the 
hard one5 which is found in the English word go ; 
in the French gare s in the Italian gusto s Spanish 
gola. . The Dutch g corresponds exactly with the 
German in all its sounds, and even in the guttural 
one. In every other instance, it has the same sound 
as the English g. In this manner it must be arti- 
culated in the beginning of words or syllables ; as 
Ctffte, gift; Geld^ money ; GitteVy grate; Goldy gold ; 
Gtmsty favour ; gdhcy steep ; Gbtze^ idol ; Gutey 
' bounty ; gieseuy to pour ; Geissel, hostage ; GlanZy 
splendor ; Gnadcy grace ; Grufty clift ; Guinecy gui- 
nea ; GypSy plaster, &c. 

2d. In the middle of compound words, g is 
also articulated hard, like the former ^ as hergebeny 



to hand ; gegeberiy given ; gegangen, gone, &c. The 
reason is obvious ; for in that case the g is, in fact, 
at the bcginnin^g^ of the second word, which forms 
the con^pound, viz. ker-gebeUy ge-gebetiy gc-gan- 
gen, &c. which are two distinct words united. 

Sd. The letter g in the middel of a word, not 
compoundy and at the end of a syllable or a word, 
(if not preceded by w, or the syllable ge, prefired 
to participles) has a guttural articulation, which is 
peculiar to the Gerpian language, and very much 
resembles ch, (see the articulation of that compoun4 
consonant) as BiUigkeity equity ; bUligeUy to ap- 
prove 'y Giitigkeity bounty ; Sieg^ victory ; Krieg^ 
war, &c, 

. 4th. When g is preceded by w, it is articulated 
as ngy in th^ English word^ king and ring ; gny in 
the French gagne ; the Italian agneUo : as Finger, 
finger; Dinge, things; Hoffnungeny hopes; longy 
long ; jungy youngs &c.* 

5tb. It has the same articulation, when ^^5: is 
followed by n in the middle of a word, which 
chiefly happens in foreign words, as in magnus, 
magna, magnuniy &c. pronounced thiis, mangnus, 
mangna,^ maiignum. 

6th. In the word Genie, it preserves the French 
articulation, viz. j in jour. 


* Some gnuiimarians have asserted, that it was to be ar« 
ticolated in tjlie latter case as a i^ ; but this is totally wrong. 



// //. 

When h is not mute, it has the same articula- 
tion as in the English wotds handy hally &;c. which 
consists in breathing forcibly before the following 

Observation. — This hard articulation is in- 
compatible with the natural softness of the Italian, 
Spanish, and French languages- It is true, there 
is in this last an aspirated h ; but it widely differs 
from the English and German aspiration ; for its 
effect (according to the celebrated Abbe DoHvet) 
is confined, to prevent the suppression of a vowel 
before another, or the connexion of a consonant 
with the following vowel. This difference has been 
very properly noticed by the author of the French 
Pronouncing Dictionary for the use of the English, 
a work which has been highly praised by men of 
the greatest eminence in French and English li- 

At the beginning of words and syllables it is 
invariably aspirated ; however, when it happens to 
be placed between two vowels in the middle of 
words, it is hardly perceptible, as in nahen^ to 
approach. See. 

It is mute at the end of a word ; as in fr'uhy 
early ; Schiihy a shoe ; Floh^ a flea -, which are pro- 
nounced, . free (with the French sound)^ shooy Jlo 
(with that of the English) :but as soon as the word 
increases^ it is restored, as Schuhey Fluhey &c. 

It is mute, likewise, when at the beginning 



of a syllable it is preceded by r or ^ ; as Rhein, the 
river Rhine, Thurm^ a steeple.. 

H in the Dutch corresponds with the German 
and English sounds in every instance. 

The consonant 7, called yot^ answers to the 
English y in you ; to the French in ayeul ; to the 
Italian in ajuto. In Spanish, the sound of j is quite 
guttural, and consequently not applicable here; 
but in Dutch, there is not any variation between 
the German and English. 

K k. 

This letter in the alphabet is pronounced kaht 
and when a double articulation is required, a c is 
put before k (see ck in the sequel). The same ob- 
servation applies td the Dutch k. 

L L 

H^s the same articulation in all languages; 
as das Lamniy a lamb ; das Land, the country ; da^ 
Leberty life ; Liebe, love ; die Luft, the air ; /a- 
chen^ to laugh ; liegen, to ' lay down ; loberiy to 
praise, &c. 

M m. 

This letter has the same articulation as in the 
above-named languages; except that it never 
makes a nasal sounds as in some French words. 



N n. 

Has also the same articulation as in the above- 
mentioned languages; but with a before g?iy it 
makes the French nasal sound of en in encore^ as 
ia gegangen^ gone ; and gn are articulated as in 
poignmit, gag?ie, and bagno. 


Has the same articulation as in the above-men- 
tioned languages ; except that in the German al- 
phabet it is articulated with the a oi fate, pa ; as 
Ptst^ pestilence ; Person, a person ; Post, post ; 
Priester, a priest. 

' • Called in German koo, is always followed by Uy 
with which it is articulated ; as gu, in the English 
quadrant ; in the French equaieur ; in the Italian 
qiid; in Spanish quadrar. The Dutch q is exactly 
similar to the German, when it meets an a or an o, 
as die 2naal^ the torment ; der Quotknty the quo- 
tient, &c. But when it meets with a^ e, or 2, it 
has the articulation and sound of the French qu in 
questeur, and cu in eaielle, a porringer ; as die Qua- 
ker, the Quakers ; die Quelle, the source ; die Quitiey 
a quince. 

R r. 

This letter, which the Germans call er, has 
die samie articulation as in the English word i^obe, 
or (in which its articulation is not curtailed) as in 

E garden 



garden. The other languages adhere strictly to 
the German articulation. 

Sf, s*. . 

The r is articuUted the same «8 in all the be- 

fore^mentioned famguages^ as sound, English ; safny 

French ; sonoy Italian -, ser^ Spanish ; sabel, Dutch : 

except when it is followed by a consonant, in which 

case it is articulated as sk/inskare s chin ckevals 

SCf in scemare : ^s in der Spdss, the jest ; stehen, to 

^tand ; der Stein, the stone ; rfer Slave, the Scla- 

vonian j der Smaragd, the emerald ; der Sciave, the 

slave ', derScudo, an Italian coin; der Durst, the 

thirst ; die Biirste, the brush -, die Gerst^, the barley ; 

garstig, nasty, &c. However, in the second person 

of some verbs, and at the (Bn4 of superlatives io ste^ 

the st preserves the articulation it has in stfle, stilo. 

Thusi it must be articulated in du wirsf^ thou bo- 

icomest ; du warest, thou wast \ du lehrest, thou 

teachest -, der erste, the first \ der Schxverste, the 



Is pronounced ta, with the sbund of a in fate. 
It has the same articulation as in the above-men- 
tioned languages; except before i the Germans add 
to the articulation of the t that of s, in the words 


m ' — —————— ■■■ fi 

* The small s has the tame power ds airy other s, and is 
never found l>ut in the middle of compoimd words^ and a^ 
ways at flie end. 


^(Mnd, English ; sain, French ; sano, Italian : as 
Nation^ naitioxi ; Portion, portion. In this manner 
the Italians articulate it in natione, gratia, &c. but 
if an s precedes the t, it preserves its single arti^ 
eolation^ as in qucestio. 

Called ybtt>> has the same force as the English^ 
Freii€b> Italian, and Spanish/, llie same sound 
aad pronunciation of the Dutch v, as the German t;.^ 

W w. 

This letter has the same articulation with all 
the above*mentioned languages i but is never mute 
in either,' as in the English, as write, wrested, wrists 
&c« It resembles the v of the French, in valeur ^ 
the Italian in valore. The Dutch w corresponds 
in articulation and sound exactly with the German^ 
and is never mute. 

The souAd of the German v) seems to be be- 
tween the i) and w of the English ; as das Wasser^ 
the water 5 det Weg, the way, &c. 

This letter is called ix, and is articulated ks% 
in like manner with the English and French in expe- 

E 2 dition. 

w. , — . • » ■ .■ — ■ ■ ' ■ ■' 

^ * Between two vowels or diphthoags^ by some it is articu- 
lated BBV } as ia it^ Frevel, the cricne ; >jier Stuver, a German 
coin ; der Selfive, the shve : but tbii mcUiod is ot>jectiQn»ble« 


dition, I have never met witli this articulation eithef 
in Italian or in Spanish. The Italians, who wish 
to obtain it, must articulate at the same time their 
c in corCf and their s in sano - cs, I represent this 
articulation by cs^ because they use neither k nor x. 
The Dutch x is now very little used, except in such 
words as arc taken from the Greek and other lan- 
guages. The same sound can be produced in Dutch 
by ks and kz, viz. bliksem^ or blikzem, which used to 
be written blixerriy lightning. Examples, with the ks 
above, as in Axt^ the axe ^ die Hexc^ the witch ^ 
das Exempely the example. Pronounced, Aksty 
Jlckse, Eksempd. 

Y y (considered as a consonant). 

Is called ipsiloiiy and is merely a substitute for 
the short Germari /. Modern writers very seldom 
use it, except in the word seyny to be, in order to 
distinguish it from the pronoun seiuy his.r In this, 
or any other words wherein it may be found, it has 
the sound of/, in the English ^;?e; of a?/, or diy in 
the French ayeuU or dieid. The Dutch y is also a 
substitute for i. 

% z. 

Called. /A'rf, and is invariably articulated ts. 
This is precisely the articulation of the Italian Zj 
or zzy in diligentay nozze. Ex. gr. Zeity time ; 
Zoruy anger ; Zinriy tin ; zitterriy to tremble ; zu- 
fiehmetiy to increase, &c. Uttered thus : tseit^ tsom, • 
tsinn, tsitiern, tsunehmen. 




cky chsy ck, dt, ff^ giiy ku^ pfy plh ps, sch, ss^ sf, 

sz, thy tZy wr. 


1. In the beginning of a word, whether fol- 
lowed by a consonant or a vowel, is articulated 
as in the English word character; the French chaos; 
the Italian chiodo. The Dutch is the same as the 
German ; as Christy Christ ; Chor, chorus ; Chri- 
stinaj Christina ; Character, character, &c. ; pro- 
Boiinced Krist, Kor, Kristiiia, Karacter. 

2. If ch be followed by the consonant 5*, it 
takes the articulation of the t, in the English word 
expulsiaUy and the French extase. The Italians, who 
have no z, obtain this articulation, in uttering, at 
the same time, their c in €o?r, and their s in sono. 
Ex. gr. 

Achsdy shoulder : articulate axel. 

Ochsy an ox , - - - - - ox. 

sechsy six; - - - - - - sex. 

. FlachSy,QBX^ - - . . . ^ax. 

But when they accidentally meet, as is some- 
times the case, in compound words, or by the 
elision of a vowel, as in zvachsaniy vigilant ; nach^ 
seheuy to connive at y des BuchSy of the book^ for 
cUs Buches ; dps JLochSy of the bole, for des Loclies 5 
jffr sprachsy he said it, for er sprach es ; the cJi ^od s 


must be articulated sepacai€ly> accoi^ding tb ttleif 
peculiar rules. 

3. In the middle, and at the end of words, 
sifter the vowels a^ o, u^ ^nd aU, ch h guttursd, a^ 
in ach ! alas ! Dachy roof ; nochy yet ; das Buchi 
the book ; der Straucky the shrub, &c. This arti- 
culation is the same as the Scotch have in loch j 
the Irish in the gk of bugh. Xh^ c, or th in the 
IVelch language^ has also a similar sound. There 
are two letters in the Spanish language which are 
adequate to the sound, namely, the j, in the words 
jugar, to play ; jurat y to swear ; lejos, far 5 and the 
X in exercicioy exercise ; dexavy lievc. 

4. After any other vowel or diphthong, cA has 
the palatic articulation, which is explained (see the 
consonant g). Thus it is articulated in Hechty a 
pike y Lichty light \ die Ddcher, the roofs ; die 
LocheVy the holes ; die Bikheri the books 3 die 
Strduche, the shrubs.*^ 

a / 


The Jetterc before k, forms the compound cfc^ 
which is . articulated like two MV, each of which 
must be heard distinctly s as backen^ to back ^ ha* 
ckejiy to hack« &c. } articulated bakkeus hakken. 


^^^^-*— *— -*^ .>■- 1^ lifc. *•■«->., -:* • ...,-,, ^ e - ^ ^ . • ■ 

* t'e^tr (if any) weirds begifaning with cb, are pure Ger- 
tndtt. tliej genttaUy retaib the articuladon ot their origimif 


/ * 



Is articulated a$ a single t^ but written 4ti \n 
order to distinguish some particular words i as tod, 
^ead^ from der Todt, the death ; statt^ place, for 
die Stadt, a city, &c. 

When the letters gn follow each other, at the 
beganmngofa word, they have not, as some pre* 
tend, a&asQl articulation, bvtmust'be articulated 
9$ ^, iathe French gnmie^ gnomidtj gnostiques^Sicl 
as JGnadij mercy • gndcb'g, gracious, ^c. 

'Rie same observation -applies to kny which is 
pot nasal; though it appears to be so, if not properly 
explained by a teacher well skilled in the German 
prominciation. It must be articulated as qucriy in 
the French word quenouilley in dropping the mute 
(T, which leaves only the articulation of a A: before n; 
las Knabf, ii^boy ; Knic, knee ; &c. 


TOie letters J5f have been unjustly complainedt 
jrf for their harshness of ^sound ; but they may be 
isasily attained by articulating the p before / ; as 
Pfundf a pound ; PJird, a horse; ffropfen^ to graft. 


I3 lironoimced the ^me as in -English, French, 
and other langu^es^ for it is a mere /i s^sPfiiloso- 

phiCf philosophy, &c. 




Is articulated as in the Fpench words, psawne, 
psahnodie ; wherein the p is articulated before $y as 
PsahUy the psalm. The English suppress the /), and 
the Italians do not use it. 


Is articulated the same as sh, in shore ; ch, in 
(heval; and se, in scemare. In some provinqes oi 
Qermany they write and pronounce the following 
words, ^sSchlavj slave*; Sclaverei/y slavery, &c. 
thus : SklQVy Sklaverey ; articulating the k before /. 
The former practice is ho^^ever preferable, the 
Jatter being very rarely allowed, except in the 
word SklaVy and its derivatives, pronounced Sklaf^ 

Is preserved in writing and printing, in order 
to prolong the pronunciation, but the h is never 
aspirated as in English : the t only is articulated, 
and the h is silent ; as Muth^ courage ; Thaty a 
clee^ i rothy red ; thwiy to act ; Reichthum, riches, 
i&c. .Most of the modern writers have adopted 
the custom of omitting the h in those German 
words where it seemed to be superfluous. 

* It may. be observed, that the word Slave applies to 
the people called Sclavonians. 

GfiRMAir LANCt;A<SB« S^ 


The letter t is often prefixed to a single ^, In 
order to double its sqund, as in setzeuy to scat,- &c. 
but this should never happen, except after a votvet 
or a diphthongs being entirely useless after a con- 
sonant, as in Herz^ heart, which would be wrong 
spelt thus. Hertz. 


Occurs but in one or two proper names, as 
Wriseriy Wrisberg. The pronunciation is per- 
formed by the insertion of a very short e between 
w and r ; as Werisberg, a mountain ; fVcrisen, ai> 
environ or circuit. 


The letter b being seldom doubled, it occurs 
but in a few words i as die Ebbe, the tide ; die 
JRibbe^ a rib ; and few more derived from other 
languages. They must be sounded distinctly. 

- The same may be said of the letter d, when 
followed by a vowel ; but this is found only in the 
word WiddcTy a ram, and its derivatives. 

The letter/ is frequently doubled, and is ar* 
ticulated as in the English word difficidt ; the French 
difficile; the Italian difficile. The Dutch- is like 
tfai^ German. 

In ancient writings, the letter t is frequently 
affixed to %4ouble^, thus.^. The best modern 

F autho« 







^ ^' \short, . - ^ 

Vater - - 
Mann - - 

bar - - • 
glass - - - 

Ae a, ----- - 

^rgerlich - 

f«tc - - - 

C close, ... 

E e, -J open or broad, ' 
(^ slender,' - - 

Wayse - - 
Itfben- - - 
lobet- . - 

fate - •• 1 
ebb . - - 

I ; ilong,' - - - 
^ \ sliort, - - - 

Febel- - - 
Knee- - - 

field- - - 
f/g . ,- . 

O 0, long,^ - - - 

S{?gar- - - 

robe - • ' 

//i fl/Z other position 

s it is short. 


Oe 6, - - - . - . 

Konig - - 

sh/rt - - - 

* \ short, - - - 



Bwbe- - . 
brwmmen - 

mood - - 
good - - - 

Ue ii, - 

gmszen - - 


Y y. See the consonant y. 



ai, ay, ei, ey, eu, aeu or au. 

Kaiser - . 

ft re - ^ - 

au, - - - - - - - 

Juge^ •» - 

cow - - - 

oi, ...... . 

B(?2tzenburg ^ 

hoil - - . 

ui, ------ - 

see w- - • 

ooy - - - 


b, has the sdme articulation in all the otjier languages. 

( like tsa, - - 
^' I like kr ' - 

Centner- - 
Canone • - 

tsai/ - 
car - 





Ftfbel • - 

K^t - . - 

Wflereld- - 

edik - - - 

lever . . - 

gelegen - - 

/sabel • • 

mist - - . 

^en - - • 

# • 

Uur - - - 

^ffer - - - 

Hazr- - 

hoo/ - - 
Auit - - 


bas - - - 

bal - - - 

bont^ - - 

vente - - 

tttt - -• . 

cr^e - - - 

g/te. . . 

am/ - - • 

z(?ne - - - 

Cedcrboom -^ 
Choor '^ • 

0W2 - • 


c^ur- - - 

rowle- - • 
bowle - - 


Italian. ' 

am^zre - • 

ardere - - 

sedia- • - 

dim - - - 

mda - - - 

vejeno - * 

finzre- - - 

finire- - - 

pomo - - 













hoi, hoi/ 




• \ German, j English. 

4d, and f, anp iAtf ^atti^ in ail the other languages. 

Gold- . - 1 gold - - • 
Biili^kfiit - I see eft • - 

'f hard, • - • - 
^^ t guttural. - * - 

h, the same 

/och - - • 

JA5U - - - 

k, I3 iHj n, p^ q, r, s, t^ aZ^ these sounds nure synonymous 
in all languages. 

V, lik^i, - - 

w, - - . - 

X, like ks, . - 

y> - - - - 

Fater - - 

Heire- - • 

se^ - - - 

Z^it - - - 

/ather - - 
zomt - - • 
eicamplc- - 
6ne - - , - 
^^eit - - - 


• - ■• ■* 

{ likek^ - 
cb, < like X, - 

( guttural^ - - 

ck^ like double kk, -» • 
dt, like a single t, - • 

gn, tfnrf kn, - . . ^ 
pf, artieylate p ^^rtf f 
ph, like f, ^. - . - 
ps, articulate^ before^ 
sch, //^e sh, - - - - 

arist . . 
\Ochs - - - 

acA ! - - - 

bacfen ^ - I 
Torf^ .- - • 

Gnzdit 5 Xnabe 

P/und - - 
f^^lm - - 
SchlaS . • - 

cAaracter - 
expulsion • 

Philosophy • 

^^Aore- - • 

th, /if^r a single t, • - | MuM - 

The onfy use vf Hie to lengthen tfke syllabte;- * 




Cod. . . 

rear. • - 




ga^o - ,- 



zT/exd - 

Wrok - - 

raleur - - 

bli^^em - - 


Fawn . - 

ayeul - - 

^bra • - 

/^ • ' • 


CAristus - - 

c/iao9 - - 


eiTtase - - 

a/uto*- - 

I'alore - 


gnome - 

diligen^a - 




tcAeval - - 

^cemare - 

40 AKALYStfT Otr tag 

t ■ ' « ■ 

ty the Formation of Speech. 

Having sufficiently analysed each character^ 
separately in the German alphabet, I shall now 
proceed to treat of the force of each of theix^ 
when conjoined. ' 

1. Syllables. 

A syllable is formed by uniting together 
a certain ' number of individual signs, among 
which there must indispensably be, one single 
vozvely or diphthong. These characters, when 
pronounced, produce an' intelligible sound, which 
is enunciated by means of a single opening of the 

2. Words y and their Derivation. 

Words are articulate sounds, used by common 
consent, as signs of our ideas, and contain as many 
Syllables as there are vowels or diphthongs com- 
prized in them. Words of one syllable are called 
monosyllables ; those of two syllables, dissyllables / 
words of three syllables, trisyllables > ^nd words 
of four or more, polysyllables. The monosyl- 
lables are to be considered, in the German lan- 
guage, as original or radical words ; but the p^ 
lysyllables are formed in three different ways : 1. By 
means^ of (Biegung) inflexion, as des Manw^s, of 



tiie man ; der Weic/irC^ {the) soft ; fest^er^ fester \ 
Ue-ben, to love ; ich lie-be, I love, &c. 2. By means 
oi (AbleiiungJ derivation; and 3, By means of 
fZusammensetzungJ composition. 

It will, however, be superfluous to dwell any 
longer on a subject, which would only bewilder 
the student in perusing this work. Suffice it, fof 
tbe present, to observe, that language, among rude 
and illiterate people, possesses a certain degree of 
roughness and want of consistency ; but a3 they 
become more reined, by the influx of n^w maA- 
nfrs, ideas, and modes of thinking, then also their 
language becomes regular and improved. From 
hence it happens, that the deep vpw^ls gradually 
pass on to the next higher ones, and the broad an4 
rifugh diphthongs into the softer ones. 

3. Bj/ Composition or Junction, 

With respect to the formation of compound 
words I ^hall \)e very brief. I introduced the forin^i^ 
^d this subject merely as preliuiin^ry to the sequel 
(see the formation of substantives), and as being 
nefifissary to exhibit the progression of speech, 

If two words be united into one, there ensues 
acomposition, or a compound word. This junction 
is done for the sake of assisting the ideas, which 
OQ simple word cap express, The word to which 



tttODtioo dioiild be dcmB, mAc rmdkai 
alwifs stands bduod. * 

Of the AccaU or Torn qfW^rds. 

Ha* ing suffidesdv dwell upon die artkmla&Mi 
of single cliaractersy their formation into sjlhblesy 
and single and compound words^ the next dmig 
to be considered is^ the relation diey bear to each 
odier^ and the power with which diey are pfo* 

Every thing, in the German pronunciation, 
as well as in other modern languages, depends on 
the accent, /. e. the peculiar empliasis which sjl« 
tables require, in order to pronounce the words 
with correctness. 

It seems, that every modem language has a 
kind of predilection for its accent. The rules which 
I am about to lay down on that head, as fiu^ as 
they relate to the subject, may be cmisidered hf 
the student as decisive, and the true criterion. 
It must, however, be observed, that it is fl^t ray 
intention here to give % foU description and ex* 


* This i$ mexdy applicaUe to wor^^ hu,% na^ tp ^l|9^q| 
Of sounds, I because the two latter dgijtot^i^ a ckear^ Igpijt 
merely an obscnre idea^ whereas words' are expros^oof of i 
eattin deterounate rcpresentationt 

6EltitfA# LAK6irAdft» 4i 

fflftustiofl Sf the Germah mf?/^ or the mteha^ 
lik^ pail of Gerrtttri versification: I shall in- 
tf^ttee fh^ object, only^ As far as it is nece9* 
laHly cohnected with the former instructions* 
The stfb*4quent rules, therefWe, will be quit4& 
wflSdefjt for the sttid*ht, wh(^ Irishes to aequir* 
flie gertditt* prirKriples of c<Jtrect f>rot[u<!eiitiori» 
Itiih regard to iht other part, which reffers t6 thtf 
Ungfky shortness, or quantity of syllatJes (of whic!i 
I shall treat distinctly under the head of Gerttaifi^ 
prosody), it ought not to be confouaded with the 
present subject. 





According to the most celebrated modern 
German grammarians (especially professor Gott*^ 
iched and Adelung), they have adopted as a stand* 
. ffi aAd g<fnferal ftJiS, that the accent in German 
is mostly placed on the tadieal syllable ^ constf* 
(JMBMly ** auxiliary ^llabl^, which Hre to be 
fottfld at flie beginning or the end of a word, aro 
Aevef accented. 

However ingenious and satisfactory this as- 
sertion may appear to the philological mihd, and 
however this noUon may be fully confirmed by 

G 2 a strict 


t^ attention shoiikl be drawn, is the radical one^ 
and always stand* behind. • 



0/ tfic Accent or Tqw qf Wordfi. 

Having sufficiently dwelt upon the articulation 
of single characters, their formation into syllables, 
and single and compound words, the next thi^ig 
to be considered is, the relation they bear to each 
other, and the power with which they are J)ro* 

Every thing, in the German pronunciation, 
as well as in other modern languages, depends on 
the accent, t e. the peculiar emphasis which syl- 
lables require, in order to pronounce the wordsr 
with correctness. 

. It seems, that every modern language has a 
kind of predilection for its accent. The rules which 
I am about to lay down on that head, as far a$ 
they relate to the subject, may be eoDsidered by 
the student as decisive, and the true criterion. 
It must, however, be observed, that it is n'et mv: 
intention here to give a foil description and ex- 

^ ^ plana- 


I > ii / n^>»^i»<»w»— w*«iyy^^;»*yyy I* . i» f * . i > 1 1 j ' l ^p * \, ' ^ ^i,X ' 

* This U mereljr appllcahlfs to ivot:^^ hu% |ao( J4) «;^|)^ef^ 
0J8 souDds^s because the two latter d9ixot£;iye a clear| l^jt 
noerely an obscure idea^ whereas words' 9re expressions of a' 
<!trt^in determinate represeotatioa. 


Sd. When, they are doubled i as : das MaSlf 
the marque ; die See, the lake;- das Me?r, the sea; 
der Kleiy clover, &c. 

4th« In the diphthongs; as, rauscheUy to 

make a noise ; sch7esze?i, to shoot ; biiszen, to 
si^r. Sec. 

5th. In words which may be lengthened, and 
jvhere the vowels are followed by one single con- 
sonant; as, der Schzvan, the swain; dieGlSfy live 
Coal ; der Ton, the tune ; das Bluty the blood, &c, 

6th, Before sz, as, der Fusz, the foot; grdsz^ 
great; susz^ sweet, &c. 

The vowels are short, ' 

1st. At the end of words (when single) of 
more than one syllable ; as, die Liebe, love ; er 
lebcy may he live; die Kiiltey the cold; Galle, 
"bile ; der Uhuy a screech owl. 

^d. In those monosyllables, which are not 
capable of being lengthened in their termination ; 
as, aUy^ waSy deSy and some other particles. 

The following are exceptions to the former ; 
as, nUUy now ; thurty to perform ; er thiit, he per* 
forms ; die BrUty the breed. 

3d. At the end of words of two or more syl- 
labi^, of which the first is long, although finishing 
by a consonant ; as : abery but ; JapaUy Japan ; 
gelobty praised; der Haber^ oats ; bebeuy to trem* 
ble ; die Ader, a vein ; ein Liebhahery a lover ; he-^ 
ieny to lift up ; bezahlen, to pay. 


M AKALTits or rm 

4th. Before 1 double eonsontat; ai^ ^H^Jen^ 
to labour $ nhmen^ to luime; tkr BRk, the look | 
hSsseny to hate ; . verbannen, to bani^ ; die Stitdi^ 
^ city. 



1st. In compound word^ of two syllables^^ thi 
fifst is generally long. 

2d. The particles ab^ an, aufj aus, b^y dar, 
durch, etfiy Jiir, her^ hin, mity nack, ufrty vtm, vor, 
xvegy zceily zifilly zu, which enter in the composition 
of substantives or verbs, ,<pre always hng^ either 
When prefixed or affixed. 

3d, The terminations ^, tly thi^ em, en^ tr^ 
tfrty est 9 and ety in words of more than one syl* 
fetble, are always short i as : die lAebt^ krtre ; det 
Eselj an ass ; mangeltiy tO be in want ; meir^hft^ 
mine ; redeUy to speak ; Vatery fether ; iirgemy 
to be angry ; du ikatest^ thoa pcrformest j iht sagft, 
you said. 

4th. The insepafrable prefixes are always short; 
as, be, empfy enty rr, gey nrtiy very zer. 

5th. The terminations, bar y haft, tfeiti /«, keit, 
teirty h'chy misXy saly saniy schaffy thurity and ter^y are 
shorty when preceded by a long syllable, in a word 
©f ftt;67 syllables ; on the other hand, the same ai^ 
longy when found after a short syllable, in a word 
of three syllables. 

6th. It sometimes happens, that in compound 



silbrtanttres tiic last part of the cmnpound xfFord 
18^ longf wlien pronounced separately ; but when* 
evac united with another word, it is always short, 
whether in its previous state of disjunction it was 
brief or long ; as. Hand and Schlag, which are 
long by themselves, but become short in Hand* 
schlag, a clap with the band, or Handsckuh, a 
glove, &c. For the true de6nitian of compound 
■words, together with their manner of being formed, 
relative circumstances, &c. the reader is referred to 
the formation of compound words, 

7th. In the last syllable of foreign words the 
accent is at the end, as NafMr, nature ; org3n, or« 
gan, HomBr^ Homer, lloriz,, Horacei 9^(^, 

8th. The articles before the substaiUivea, and 
the pronouns before the verbs, are short, when fol- 
lowed by a long syllable ; but they become &;^;^ 
when followed by a short syllable ; as, d^r Mann, 
the Husband ; dte Frau^ the wife ; das KIthI, the 
child ; dn Girichti, the just ; die GHlelHe, the be- 
loved J dSs G^baude, .the building \ die Verjiuehten, 
the cursed -, tch Itebe, I love ; dii hassest, thou 
hatest ; ^r betsset, he bites ; dU beldhnest, thou re-» 
compensest' ; er g?nleszt, he enjoys ; wJr verder^ 
ben, we perish ; Vir gewtnnet, you gain ; sie be^ 
gihren, thpy^dcmandL 

It is unnecessary to make wy furtljey repfiarks 
on this subject at present ; the following practice 
will enable the student to become, intimately ac-» 
Quainted with thq subject. The fir§t practice % 



have marked with the accents i as for the r^Ap 
I have left it to the student to supply them^ ac- 
cording to the rules prescribed in the preceding* 

Freiind ! versaumc nicht zn leben, 
Denn die Jahre fliehn, ^ 
Und es wird der Saft dcr Rcben • 
Uns night lange bliihn, 

Lach der Aerzt' iind ihrer Rankc : 
T5dt iind Kjrankheit laurt, 
Wenn man bey dcm FroschgctrankS^ 
Seine Zeit vertratirt. 

Mosler^ Wein, der Sorgenbrccherj 
Schaft gesundes Bliit. 
Trinkt aiis dem bekranztSn Becher . 
Gliick iind frohen Mfith ! 


So ! noeh eins — siebst du Lyaen 
Und die FreudS nun ? 
Bald wirst du aiich Am6m schfti, 
Und aiif Rosen rtihn. 







Du allerliebstes kleines Thier ! 
Komm doch eln wenig her zu mif. 
Jcb bia dir gar zu gut. Komm, dasz ich 4i^ 

nur kiisse. 



i[ch nUhe ^ix$^ Kind^. gehe nicht ! 


&> komm doch ! Siehe^ diese Niisse 

4Sin4 i^e dain^ wenn ic^ dich einmal kGsse^ 


O Mvtter. faore doch. y^ic sie so freundJ&ch 

spriest 5 
Jch geh. . , , . . 



Kind^ gehe nicht. 


Auch dieses Zackerbrod, i^nd aAdre sphione Sa- 

Geb ich dir^ wenn du kommst. 



ANALYSIS or msf 

f • 


Was soli ich ro^chen ? 
O Mutter, lasz mich gehn. 

ALTE MAirs. 

Kind, sag' ich, gehe nicht ! 


Was wird sie mir denn thun ? — Welch chrii- 

ches Gcsicht ? 


Komm, kleines Narrchen, komm! 


Ach M^tt^, hilf ! ach weh ! 
Sie wiirgt mich : ^ch ! die Garstige ! 


Kun ists zu spSt, nun dich das Ungliick schoix 

betrofFen, ' 

'\V^er sich nicht rathen laszt, hat HUlfe nicht zu 


germanI'languaoe; 5 1 






A getieral Vietv of them^ 

Words may be considered as perspicuous and 
distinct archetypes of our ideas^ and these are either 
obscure or clear ; such also are our expressions or 
words, which aire divided into two very unequal 
classes, namely, into interjections, which repre- 
sent our most obscure representations ; and, in a 
narrower sense, into words. The first are the foun- 
dations of the latter ; but, by themselves j can only 
constitute a very imperfect language. 

Our clear representations relate to existing 
objects by themselves, or to such as may be counted, 
x>x are perceptible. The first arc called substances^ 
the latter accidents or modes of being. 

We cannot conceive an object at once, with 
all its attributesi but must separate its qualities one 
fromanothen Thus, the idea of " a young, handsome, 
and virtuous girl," cannot be conceived at once. 

H 2 We 

6t' AJfAtYSIS OFv.ttti. 

We mast apprehend young, handsome, and virtuoiuf^ 
and ^object itself, separate and distinctly i sitet 
which we consider them as appertaim*ng to the* 
existing substance. Consequently^ as young, hand^ 
some, and virtuous, canhot exist by themselves^ 
b^t refer to other objects, they niay be very 
justly considered as accidents^ or modes of being. 
Our thoughts, and speech consist, therefore, in 
joinings to a substance certain peculiar attributeg 
or accidents. 

The substance to which something else 16 
united, is called the subject; and that which is af- 
firmed or denied of it, the predicate. The word, 
by which the two parts are connected, is called 
the copula ; and the whole together is denominated 
a period, or sentence. ' ' 

The affirmations or negations of an object are;- 
generally speaking, of two kinds ; that is, either 
existing in the object itself, as a quality, or ex- 
ternally, as an accident, or aitrihute. Each of 
these we can represent to ourselves, in dififerenl 
manners, either by itself, without the substance, 
as roth, red ; schbn, handsome j or connected with 
it, as eine sckone rothe Rose, a handsome red rose ^ 
or, lastly, with Sn intention of application, die 
Rose rbthet^ the ro^ reddens -, i. e. die Rose wirdl 
roth, the rose gets red, &c. 

In proportion as words express the different 
kinds of representations in the chain of our ideas^ 
or express them in a period or sentence, they ai*c 

^ called 

germanI'languaoe; 51 






A gaieral Vieto of therm 

Words may be considered as perspicuous and 
iJistinct archetypes of our ideas, and these are either 
(Ascurp or clear ; such also are our expressions or 
words, which aire divided into two very unequal 
classes, namely> into interjections, which repre- 
sent our most obscure representations ; and, in a 
narrower sense, into words. The first are the foun- 
dations of the latter ; but, by themselves j can only 
constitute a very imperfect language. 

Our clear representations relate to existing 
objects by themselves, or to such as may be counted, 
t)r are perceptible. The first arc called substanceSi 
the latter accidents or modes of being. 

We cannot conceive an object at once, with 
all its attributesi but must separate its qualities one 
iromanothen Thus, the idea of " a young, handsome, 
and yirtuous ^irl," cannot be conceived at once. 

H 2 We 

6t^ AJfAtYsis oy.Ttti. 

We mast apprehend young, handsome, and virtuoufg 
and iitiQ object itself, separate and distinctly j aftet 
which we consider them as appertaining to the- 
existing substance. Consequently^ as young, hand^ 
some, and virtuous, canhot exist by themselves^ 
but refer to other objects, they niay be .very 
justly considered as accidents^ or modes of being. 
Our thoughts . and speech consist, therefore, in 
joinings to a substance certain peculiar attribute* 
or accidents. 

The substance to which something else is 
united, is called the subject; and that which is af- 
firmed or denied of it, the predicate • The word, 
by which the two parts are connected, is called 
the copula / and the whole together is denominated 
a period, or sentence. ' ' 

The affirmations or negations of an object are; 
generally speaking, of two kinds ; that is, eithef 
existing in the object itself, as a quality, or ex- 
ternally, as an accident, or atti^ibute. Each of 
these we can represent to ourselves, in dififerenl 
manners, either by itself, without the substance, 
as roth, red ; schSn, handsome ; or connected with 
it, as eine sckone rothd Rose, a handsome red rose ^ 
or, lastly, with Sn intention of application, die 
Rose rotket) the ro^ reddens 5 i. e. die Rose mrdl 
roth, the rose gets red, &c. 

In proportion as words express the different 
kinds of representations in the chain of our idea»^ 
or express them in a period or sentence, they afe 

^ called 


CftUed parts qf speech y of which the Gerraatn Ian- 
ipiage contains the following* 




1. Tlieir various Kinds: 

Substantives are names of objects, existing 
bjr themselves, or such things as can be enumerated. 
These objects either necessarily exist by themselves ; 
as, Menschj man / Baum, tree ; Haus, house ; or 
fliey do nbt exist at all, but are merely ideal, as 
Scfion/ieitj beauty 3 Grosser greatness ; Bitterkeif, 
bitterness ; which have always a reference to othet 
objects. The first are called concretes, and the 
latter abstracts. The concrete substantives arc again 
subdivided into 

1st. Proper names^ which represent an indi- 
vidual object, as London, Frankreich, Plato, &c. 

2d* Appellatives, which denote a number c^ 
single objects by one common sign 5 as, Bawn, tree; 
Haus, house 5 Thier, animal ; Stern, star, &c. 

3d. Collectives, which denote many objects; as^ 
VoUcy people ; Mehl, flower 5 Sand, sand ; Korn^ 
com ; Ohsti fhiit^ &c. and, 

4th^ Materials, which denote merely the. mat* 
ter, as Eiseni iron ; Metall, metel 3 Wasser, wa? 
X^r\Wdn^yfvx^y Bier, beer^ Stein^ ^ion^ -, Ilt^lz, 
wood, &c. 


S4 ANALYSIS 6f tm 

Generic terms comi^nzc, in all language^, this 
inost abundant part of substantives. However^ as 
they are derived from a single sign, as bird, an 
animal that flies ; tree, an elevated vegetable ; they 
consequently may be applied to many more similar 
objects. As we should find great difficulty in dis- 
covering which single object of the whole genus 
in particular is meant, the articles are here made 
use of to distinguish the object alluded to, from 
all others possessing any verisimilitude. 

Abstracts represent something connected with 
another object, yet appearing to exist by itself, /. e. 
they denote the accidents, or modes of beings as 
substantial, viz. 

1st. Aqualihf ; as, Grosse, greatness ; Schon* 
heit,' beauty -, Schdrfe^ sharpness, &c. 

2d- Situation j as^ Armuth, poverty ; Jugendf 
youth ; Beichthunty riches, &c. 

3d* An action; as, die Betrachtimg, contem- 
plation J Begegnungi meeting ; der Sprung, the 
leap 5 J5f/r2^^, deceit, &c.-— So are a certain kind 
of abstract-collectives, called iterati'oes, or words of 
repetition 5 as, dasGeheul, howling; das GebriiUg 
roaring 3 Gemurmel, murmuring* 


2. Tlieir Formation^ 

I. ... 

Substantives are either genuine rddicat Words^ 
derivatives, or compounds. 

Those which are formed by derivation, slfe 
divided into primitives, an4 derivatives* . — 



Primitives cannot be derived from any other 
word, and are, for the most part, monosyllables ; as, 
die Handy the hand; der Fusz, the foot; das Band, 
the union ; der Arm, the arm j die Brust, the breast ; 
der Tod, the dead. 

Derivatives are those which have their origin 
from another part of speech, viz. 

1st From another substantive or noun-adjective ; ' 
as, der Gartner, the gardner, from Garten, garden 5 
die Finsternisz, obscurity, from finster, obscure. 

. 2d. From a verb ; as, der Bauer, the boor, 
from bauen, to cultivate, &c. 

3d. From an adverbs as, die Wohlthat, the be- 
nefaction, from wohl, well, and that, performed. 

4th. Froip a preposition ; as, der Gjsgner, the 
adversary, from gegen, adverse. 

Remarks on t1ie preceding Formations. 

The German language forms substantives, by 
adding' to other words certain terminations here- 
with subjoined. 

1st. Schaft, heity keit, ung^ ey, nisz, thum, 
sals as, die Freuncbchaft, friendship -, die Bekdnt* 
xhaft, the acquaintance ; die Liistemheit, lust ; 
4ii Rsdlichkeit, probity; die Besserung, the a- 
mendment ; die Hoffnung, hope ; die Kinderey, 
puerility ; die Tdndeley, loitering ; die Finsternisz^ 
obscurity ; die JHindemisz^ hinderance ; das Fur- 
sfenthum, the principality s das Bisthumy the bisbop- 

rick ; 


f ick ',■ der Irrsedp the iafoyrinlh j Ae 7>|{6#A/, ad* 
yersity. ■ 

2d. Those terminc^tionji of ^r, for the mattiuliile 
gender, and those of ir^ or i»» for tfae feoiinine ; At* 
Wagner, the wheel-right ; flfer Schneider^ the UyM"^ 
fl!<fr Schuster y the shoemakef ; ifer Getber, the tan- 
ner ; rf/e Gebieterinn^ the mistress ; dieFiirstinn, tKe 
.(reigning) princess; rf/(? FreundinUy the (fitmale) 
friend ; d/e Nachharinn^ the (female) neighbour. 

3d, The diminutives are formed by the tcraii^ 
nations lein, or chen, changing their vowels ^y Oy v> 
of primitives, into a^ q, ujbs, 

ein Mann, Mdnnlein, or Manncken. 

a man, - a little man. 

• e/» Kifid, Kindlein, or Kindchen; 

an in£uit,, a little in&nt. 

e/;i Knab^ JCndblein, or Kmbcffjen. 

a boy, a little boy, 


eiri Lamm, La^mlein, or Lans/mchen. 

r a lamb, a lambkjin. 

\ tin Buch, BUdil^iny or Biichelfhgn, 

a book, a little book. 

efwe Frau, Frdukin, 

a woman, an unmarried noble lady, aHttlewool^ 

4th. Iteratrves are formed by the prefixed vfh 
4able ^e / as, das Geschwdtz, chattering j &ekln^ei, 
tk^ tingling of a small bell. ^ 

Substantives derived from the Latin or Grttk 
.Japguage, if introduced in the Geripan language, 
3ie formed, . 

... 1st. 

GE&MAM LAK<^UAa£« 57 

1st. By changing the termination a, is, into i ♦' 
ia, into ejf and ic ; is, us (in the names of people and 
lects)^ into er ; icus, into iker ; as, Matrone, z ma- 
tron J Thescy thesis ; Abbey ^ abbey ; Pkantasie, fan- 
tasy ; Atheviensery Athenian ; Historiker, historian ; 
Mathematikcry mathematician, 

2d. In adding to the nominative of the nouns 
which terminate in o, asy oriy ensy ans, the letter 
nor t to their genitive ; as. Generation^ generation ; 
DUananty diamond ; Horizonty horizon ; Klienf, 
client i Repre^entanty representative. 

3d. In retrenching the final syllables.; as, Forrriy 
model ; Kapitaly capital ; Altar ^ altar ; Dekrety de- 
cree ; Diplam, diploma ; Atheist, atheist ; Element, 
element ; Doctrin, doctrine. 

4th. In changing the final syllables drjis, dra, 
drtmij into der ; tms, tra, trtim, into ter s bra, bris, 
into her / ulus, ula, ulum, into eh as, Cylinder, 
cylinder ; Scepter^ sceptre ; November, November; 
Fabel, fable^ &c. 

There are some Greek and Latin words, 
which reject the former adopted formations, and 
form their plural thus : Abimnen, alumni ; Epho- 
iW, ephori 5 Prdparatorien, preparations ; Stu- 
dien, studies. 

The Infinitives of verbs may be employed in 
like manner ; as, das Spotten, mocking ; das Pfei- 
fen, whistling, &c. 

Observations. The German language is un- 
commonly rich in compounds % it often cona- 

I bines 


tiries tzoo, three, and more words together. When 
this occurs, we should unite them, for the sak^ 
of perspicuity, with a hyphen. We ought, how- 
ever, to avoid those compounds which impart 
tio distinct meaning, as they necessarily produce 
confusion. Almost every p^rt of speech may be 
C6mpounded with each other, the radical word 
Still remaining unaltered. This> in my opinion, 
is a great advantage in the German Ian:- 
guagfe^ if, in compounding them, we adhere 
strictly, 1st. to analogy; 2d. perspicuity; and 
Sd. to euphony: for it. ought to be observed, that 
every word in the composition,- which, when taken 
^parately, may hare a certain signification ; as, der 
Theetisch, the tea-table ; die Hobelbank, the joiners'- 
bench -, der Stockknopf, the button of a stick ; das 
JEsebokry the ass's ear, used as a nickname; das 
Schalksaugei the eye of a rogue ; die SdweihfedeTy 
the peti. 

From the following examples we may see 
how far the composititon may be prolonged ; as,, 

die Stelky 
the place, situation ; 

die LitutenantS'StellCy 
the commission of a lieutenancy ; 

die Feldmarschall'LieutenantS'SuUe, 
the commission of a fieldmarshal-lieutenant ; 

the commission of an imperial general fiieldmarshal- 

lieutenant, &c. 



If two or more words be unite(l, so that one 
be determmed by the other, that by which the 
idea is determined is the rqdicul ooe, tnd air- 
ways constitutes the last part of the compounil 
word; ?s^ BanholZy\\mhtv\ Rathhaus^ town-house s 
Straszenraubery highwaymen j gfiingelb, yellow co- 
lour, th^t tends to green. 

All these have a different signification, as soon 
as the words which constitute the composition are 
pl^ed otherwise^; as, I/olzbau, plantation of wood ; 
Hqusratb, furniture; die Rduberstrasxe^ the road 
for highwaymen j gelbgrun^ green colour, that 
)tends to yellow. 

Substantives may be compounded, 

}^t. . With a substantive ; as, der Tauten^ 
iials^ the neck of a pigeon ; der Reisehut, the tnu 
velling-bat ; dasKoj^fiveh^ thehead-aclie; die Zahur 
xhm^rzi^9 the tooth-ache ; die Halsbmde^ the cra- 
vat ; das Hutbandi the hat-band ; das Hausbrod, 

2^. With an adjective; as, der Groszvater, 
the graniJfather ; der Freyherr, the baron ; die Lanr 
geweiky t^diousness ; der Triibsinn, melancholy ; 
der Rot/fgieszer, the brazier. 

3d. With a verb : as, Brennol, lamp-oil ; 
Grabstichel, a graver ; ein Reitpferd, a saddle-horse;" 
das Brechmittel^ a vomit ; ein Trinklied, a jovial 

4th. With a preposition, or an adverb ; as, 
der VartheiU the advantage ; der Vorderarm, the 

I 2 fore 


fore part of the arm ; die Niederlandey the Nether- 
lands ; das EbenmaaSy the proportion -, der Ifach 
theily the disadvantage ; die Hinterlisty artifice ; 
das Gegentheily the contrary ; das Gegengewicht, tlie 

5th. With different parts of speech ; as, etn 
TaugenichtSy a good for nothing fellow ; ein Nim- 
mersatt^ a glutton ; das DaseyUy existence 5 das 
Zutrauen, confidence. 

6th^ With a substantive and one of the follow- 
ing prefixed particles, erzj ur^ un, miss as, der 
Erzvater^ the patriarch ; der Erzherzog, the arch- 
duke ; ein ErzUigner, an arch liar ; ein Erziiarr, an 
arch rogue ; eine Urkundey a document ; eine Ursa- 
chcy a cause or reason ; der Ursprung^ the origin ; 
der UrhebeTy the author ; Oer Urgroszvatery thfe 
great grandfather; der Urenkely the great grandson ; 
uralty very ancient ; die Uraltem, the ancestors. 

The syllables un and mis have a peculiar signi- 
fication in German as well as in English ; as, 

der Menschy the' man > der Unmenschy an inhuman 

das Glikky fortune ; das Unglucky misfortune, 
moglichy possible ; unmogUchy impossible. 
der Sierriy the star ; der Unsteriiy disaster. 
das Thiery animal ; das Unthiery monster. 
holdy kindly; unholdy unkindly. 

hoflichy civil; unhoflichy uncivil. 

xverthy worthy; umverth, unworthy. 



The same with mis ; as, 

ifcriatt/, the sound ^ der Mislaut^ dissonance, 

die GuTisty the favour ; die Misgunsf, envy. 

das Geschicky destiny ; das Misgeschick, inaptitude. 

4ie Gtburt, the birth ; die Misgeburty an abortion. 

ie Handlung, demeanor ; die Mishandlung, mis- 

derVersiand^ understanding; derMisverstandyTnis" 


dai VerstdndnisZy intelligence ; das Misverstdndnisz, 


Observation. When the last part of the com- 
fosition is common to two or more words following, 
ve retrench in the first, and replace the retrenched 
part with an hyphen (-), which signifies that the 
wird has the same termination as that which fol- 
lov^ ; as, der Ein- und Ausgangy the entrance 
and going out, instead of Eingang und Ausgang ; 
Er ist ein giiter Sprach-- Screib^ Fecht-- mid Tanzn 
Xeister, he is a good linguist, writer, fencer, 
aid dancing master. 

3. TTieir Genders. 

It is an unfortunate circumstance, that this 
pirt of grammar, which is of the highest impor- 
tance, should have been hitherto so indifferently 
treited by former authors ; many of whom, instead 
of tendering it clear and simple to the student, have 



perplexed it' more, and led him into a labyrinth of 
numerous irregularities and difficulties, from which 
I hope to extricate him, by a plain and easy pro- 

The Garman substantives are divided into twf 
principal genders, viz. the personal ^nd neuter^ The 
first is likewise masculine or feminine. 

General Remarks. 

Masculine are those which express strength, 
vigour J energy, or activity. 

Feminine are those nouns which express what 
is soft, agreeable, pleasant, or affectionate. 

Neuter are such as cannot ejcpress any of 
the above objects. 

Although this comprehends, in an ezistjig 
mantier, all the genders oF noups; I shall, lot- 
withstanding, exhibit each class individually, 
and at the same time point out the three jen-? 
ders of the German language separately, togc*- 
tbcr with the small number of exceptions which 
each of them possess ; at the conclusion I shall add 
some peculiarities, under the title of '^ General 
Observations on the Genders." 

Rules for the Genders* 
The masculine genders are : 

1st. A^ proper names of male persons, gOds, 
angels, and demons, as well as all names expressing 




an office, dignity, quality, station, or instrument, 
peculiar to the male. Except, diminutives which 
are neuters ; and a few compound words, in which 
the last component is of a different gender ; as, die 
Mannsperson, and das Maniisbildy both denoting^ 
iL itiale y die Persouy the person, being v^ feminine i 
das Bild, the figure, neuter. 

2d. The names of stones, winds, birds, fishesy 
trees, seasons, months, days, and the elementary 

3d. All derivatives ending in er, expressing a 
station, and those denoting an instrumtent pecu- 
liar to the male. Except, das Messer, the knife i 
das Ruder, the oar ; die Kldmmer, a cramp-iron i 
die Klapper, a rattle ; die Ha\fter, a halter j die 
Letter, a ladder, die Leyer, a hurdy-gurdy. 

4th. Most derivatives ending in en. . Except 
the infinitives, and some other single nouns, which 
are neuter; as, das Almoserij alms; das Becken, 
the basin 3 das Kiissen, the cushion ; das Lehen^ 
the fife ; das JVapen, the coat of arms ; das Zeichen, 
thesfgn; das Eisen, the iron. 

5th. All derivatives endifig ming and ling. 
Except, das Messing, brass. 


' ♦ This rule contains^ comparatively speaking, very few 
€Xf:epUoos> the priocipal of y/hich are : das Jalir, the year, whicfii 
is fteater j and die MiikoocBe^ W^dnescfay, fetfiipine -, and a 
few othcftj; ...../ 


Feminine arc, ' 

1st. All the names of female persons, expre^ 
iiDg the dignities, relations, qualities, functions, 
md instruments, peculiar to the female sex ; 
and consequently all derivatives ending in inn. 
ExcEPTf das Weiby the wife, or woman ; cUis 
JHensch, the wench, a low woman ; das Weibsbild, 
a female ; das Frauenzimmer, a lady ; das Weibs^ 
stiich, a contemptible expression for a woman. 

2d. All derivatives ending iney or eiy heit, 
teity schafty and xing. Except, dtr Brey, pap; 
das El/, an egg; das Geschrey^ the clamour; der 
Schqft, the stock of a gun 3 der Sprung^ the leap ; 
ier Hornungy February. 

3d. All substantives ending in e, which are 
derived from adverbs ; as, die Grdsze^ size ; die Giite^ 
goodness ; die Liebe, love, 8cc. 

Neuter are, 

1st The names of metals, countries, and places- 
ExCEPT, der Stahl^ the steel ; der Tomback, pinch* 
back ; der Zink, zink ; die Pfalz, Palatinate ; 
and those which end in ey ; as, die Turkey^ 
Turkey, &c. 

2d. AH diminutives in chen and fe/zz. 

Sd. All derivatives ending in thum. Except, 
der Reichtkum, riches ;. der Irrthum^ error ; der 
Beweissthum, argument. 

4tb. All collectives and iteratives, which begin 
W^^ the syllable ge. But when not collective 



or an iterative signification^ they do not belong to 
this rule. 

5th. All which msty be used as substantive^ 
without being formed as such 5 as, 
das Aber^ the word but i 

— LebewoJily — — farexvetl; 

~ ^' > and all thf letters in the alphabet 


1st. The termination in Qr inny which answers 
to the English essy in some respects, denotes the 
sexes^ and when the masculine constitutes th^ 
name of the species, they are only applicable to 
quadrupeds i as, 

der Lbivcy the lion ; die Loxvinn, the lioness. 

der Hund, the dog ^ die Hundinn, the bitch. 

der Wolf, the wolf ; die IVolfinn, the she wolf. 

der Escl, the ass ; die Eselinny the she ass. 

JJd, From the above, the termination inn has 
been transfi^red to certain attributes and titles, and 
for the greater part to proper nam^s, to d^pote 
the feminine gender; as, 

der Kiinigy the king 5 die Koniginn^ the queen, 
der PriJiZy the prince ; die Prince^sijin^tht princesg 

fl(er-y<:A^{/'^r, the shepherd; die Schqferim^ the $bep» 


derSlchieider, the taylor j die Schneiderinn, the tayw 

lor's wife, §cc, 

K 0«# 


vmt ; Jifagd, female servant 3 Sohtii son ; Techier f 

9th. Many words are used, according to their 
. various significations, in a different sex ; as, der and 
das Band, the union^ riband; der and das Bund, 
the bond, bundle ; der and das Mensch, a human 
being, a wench ; der and das Verdiensty merit, or 
deserts * 

4. liieir plural Formation. 

By an original or primitive word, we can de- 
note either one or more objects. This difference 
constitutes the numbers^ of which there are two in 
German, namely, the singular and plural. 

The plural, in many words, is not denoted at 
all, in which case both the singular and plural are 
equally the same ; as, der Kaiser, the emperor, die 
Kaiser, the emperors ; das Geleise, the track of a 
wheel, die Geleise, the tracks of a wheel, &c. but 
if the plural is to be denoted, then it happens by 
the change of the vowels ; as, 

Vater, father; - Plur. Vdter. 

Mutter, mother; — — Mutter, &c. 
or it is done by affixing the flexible sounds e, er, 
€71, or w,- as, 

Brod, bread; - Plur. Brode. 

Geist, ghost ; - Geister. 

Achselj shoulder ; — Acliseln^ &c. 


1JI H — ~~-- -■ . -. . ■ . ■ — — - „ 

* A few provinces differ, in the gender of some words; 
^t it is not necessarjr to notice all those derlations. 


- or, lastly, by both the former methods at the 
same time ; as, 
,Gruft^ clift; - -. Plur. Grilfte. 

GotU Godi - • G'iitier. 

Primitive words only are suscejitible of a 
plu]:al \ but as proper names may also stand for the 
former, they may likewise have a plural; as^ 
Frankrdchs Ludwige, the Louis's of France ; di€ 
Cicerone unserer Zeity the Cicerq's of our age. 

At the same time, many primitive words have 
no plural at all. This relates to such as are abstracts; 
as, 2)^Z72^, thank ; WillCy will ; Bundy union ; Rath^ 
counsel. Other appellatives, on the countrary, are 
usual in the plural alone ; as, Gefdlle^ taxes ; EiJtr 
kilnfte, revenues ; Kosten, \}ie costs ; Unkosten^ ex- 
penses ; Aelteni, parents ; Ahneriy ancestors ; AlpCTi^ 
the Alps, &c. In many others the plural may be 
used, but they occur very seldom ; as, Blattem^ 
small-pox ; Triimmemy ruins; Vorfahren^ ancestors; 
Nachkommeny descendants ; Kaperriy capers, a ve- 

The collectives are used in the. singular alone; 
• as, das GeblUty the mass of blood ; die JVdsche, 
washing; das Gesinde, the male and female servants. 
However, many others suffer a plural ; as, Volker^ 
people or folks ;. GeldeVy payments of cash ; or are 
used in the singular or plural at the same time ; as, 
.das Haavy hair; - Plur, die Haare. 
das Gerdthy furniture i "^ die Geratfte, 
or in the plural alone j as, Leute, people ; MoLken, 




vmt; Jif^(2» female servant; Sohfh ^on; Tockteff 

9th. Many words are used, according to their 
. various significations, in a different sex ; as, der and 
das Bandy the union^ riband; der and das Bund, 
the bond, bundle ; der and das Mensch, a human 
being, a wench ; der and das Verdiensty merit, or 
deserts * 

4. liieir plural Formation. 

By an original or primitive word, we can de- 
note either one or more objects. This difference 
constitutes the numbers^ of which there are two in 
German, namely, the singular and plural. 

The plural, in many words, is not denoted at 
all, in which case both the singular and plural are 
equally the same ; as, der Kaiser y the emperor, die 
Kaiser y the emperors ; das Geleise, the track of a 
wheel, die Geleise, the tracks of a wheel, &c. but 
if the plural is to be denoted, then it happens by 
the change of the vowels ; as, 

Vatery father ; - Plur. Vdter. 
' Mutter y mother; — — Mutter y &c. 
or it is done by affixing the flexible sounds r, er, 
tiiy or Wi as, 

Brody bread; - Plur, Brode. 

Geisty ghost ; - Geister. 

Achselj shoulder ; — — Acliseln^ &c. 


* A few promces differ, in the gender of some words; 
kit it li not necessarjr to notiqe all those detiations. 


or, lastly, by both the former methods at the 
same time ; as, 
,Gruft^ clift^ - -. Plur. Gritftc. 
Gotty Godi - • Gutter. 

Primitive words only are suscejitible of a 
pluial ^ but as proper names may also stand for the 
former, they may likewise have a plural ; as^ 
Frankreichs Ludwige, the Louis's of France ; di9 
Cicerone unserer Zeit, the Cicerq's of our age. 

At the same time, many primitive words have 
no plural at all. This relates to such as are abstracts; 
as, DankyihRnk ; Wille, will; Bund, union ; Rath^ 
counsel. Other appellatives, on the countrary, are 
usual in the plural alone ; as, Gefdlle, taxes ; £/;!- 
kiinfte, revenues ; Kosten, \he costs ; Unkosten^ ex- 
penses ; Aelteni, parents ; Ahneny ancestors ; Alpen^ 
the Alps, &c. In many others the plural may be 
used, but they occur very seldom ; as, Blattem, 
small-pox ; Trummemy ruins; Vorfahrai^ ancestors; 
Nachkommeny descendants; KaperUy capers, ave- 

The collectives are used in the-singular alone; 
as, das Gebliit, the mass of blood ; die JVasche, 
washing; das GesindCy the male and female servants. 
However, many others suffer a plural ; as, Volker^ 
people or folks ;. Gelder^ payments of cash ; or are 
used in the singular or plural at the same time ; as, 
. das Haary hai r ; - Pl ur . die Haare. 
das Gerdthy furniture ; — die Ger'athCy 
or in the plural alone ; as, Leute, people ; Molkeny 



The iterative^ and material substantives admit 
only of the singular ; as, das Gewiil, rooting, Ge^ 
bruUj roaring ; Gezvimmer, whimpering ; Thon, 
clay 5 Goldy gold ; Silber^ silver ; Stroke straw ^ 
jE>dif, earth. Many material substantives, in the 
ingnification of more kinds, suffer the plural ; ai 
all sorts of poison^ earths (containing minerals), 
and solid xjooods. 

Words implying measure, weight, quan* 
tity, or extent, remain unaltered, and are never 
put in the plural ; especially when they are , pre- 
ceded by a definite numeral, exceeding one ; as, 
sechs Fasz Bier, six barrels of beer ; fiinf Paar, 
five pair ; sieben Fusz lang, seven feet long ; drey 
JPfund schzcer, three pounds weight ; hundert Mann^ 
a hundred men. Except the feminine ending in 
e ; as, EUey an ell ; Meilcj a mile, JVoc/ie, week ; 
^tunde, hour ; Tonne, a ton ; Rutlwy a rod : and 
•partly those of Tagy day ; Jahrhundert, century ; 
Glas, glass ; Sack, a sack. 

If a preposition be antecedent, which requires 
a dative case, then the length or measures of time 
-are put iri the plural 3 zs, vor zwey Jahreny two 
years ago. The others suffer both numbers; as, 
wn zehn Schritt, or Schritten, of ten steps ; with- 
out changing in the plural their vowels ; as, 
tine Lange von zehn Fusz, a length of ten feet ; 
ein Garten von vier Acker, a garden of four acres. 

' Mann, alone, does no suffer a plural with any 

preposition^ as, em Regiment von tausend Marm, 

a regiment of a ' thousand men. 



\ Observation. Many words suffer a plural ja 
different significations, whereas in many they do 
not. Those which have no plural, are partly such 
as &il both in German and English, and part^ 
such as are wanting in German alone : I have 
therefore, carefully exhibited all the latter in- 
stances, which the student, by comparing with the 
idiom of his own language, will find at once strik* 
hig^ cx)frrect, and useful. What is not comprizej^ 
under this head, he will be made acquainted with 
m the sequel, under that of " Formations of cer< 
^ tain Plurals". 


5. Tieir Declension. 

Substantives, in a period, may be found m 
different situations, and may either be declined 
by their own significations, which is done by cer- 
tain simple radicals affixed to them, or by prepo^ 
sitions. The denoted situation, which is given to 
the word itself, is called a case, and to conduct ji 
word through all its cases, is the declension of it. 

The number of cases is not equal iti :b31 
hngudges. The Germans have but /our, because 
they only denote four variations in a substasH 
tive^ as, 

1st. The case of the subject, whether it be 
the first or third person ( Nominative) , or the se- 
cond (Vocative). For that reason, both these cases 
Unequally the same in German. 

:^d. The case of the personal objects^ ;or of 



the thing of which good or bad is affirmed (Da^' 


3d. The case of the suffering object, upon 
iRrhich an action immediately refers {Accusative J i 

4th. The case which serves the explanation of 
the difFere!:t ideas {Genitive). 

The declension of German substantives is very 
incomplete, because all the cases are not denoted,, 
«rid many of them but very seldom. The Nomi- 
native has no proper declining syllables. The Ge- 
nitive is denoted by es, s^ ens^ or w, and often not 
at all. The Dative very seldom, by f, rw, or n. 
The Accusative, more seldom, by en or n. In the 
plural terminations, the Dative only is expressed, 
sometimes by enor ny the others are used to supply 
fee definite words of the substantive. 

But few general rules can be given for the 
Germlan declension. The principal are, 

1st. In all neuter nouns, the Accusative is the 
iame as the Nominative. 

2d. All feminine nouns remain i^naltered m 
Ihe singular. 

3d. All words, which have es in the Genitive, 
must hdve an e in the Dative. Those which have ^ 
alone, leave the Dative without it. 

4. Substantives ending their nominative plurals 
in »,' remain unaltered in the whole plural. ThosQ 
that terminate in e, h or r, adopt an n in the Da» 
tive s but all the other cases remain the same as thd 


6eiIman langitAoe; tS 

I have adopted but on^ scheme of declen- 
iidft tor all the substantives in the German lan- 
guage : whereas those ailthors who have written 
before me affirm^ that there are four^ six^ and even 
eight ; although they have not, with their utmost 
labour^ been able to describe more than two or 
three variations. 

Such a practice has tended mei*ely to check 
thel progress of the student, and excite in him ap- 
prehensions of difficulties, that have in fact no 

Were I not apprehensive of experiencing an. 
invidious critique from some cotemporaty gram*, 
mariaris, who condemn every system but their own^ 
I would assert that the substantives^ so far from 
hiving the number of declensions which they af- 
firmj tnight with propriety be said to havfe none i 
or, at leasts that the title of declension might very 
well be discarded, as the variations amount ta 
nothing more than a few uniform, inflections. 


The csise called Ablative^ in other lan^ages^ 
can only be expressed in German by prefixing 
to tbd noun a preposition governing a Datiti^ case ; 
therefore thfe German Ablative is no other thati 
the Dative, with any preposition that governs that 
case ; which rule holds good in both numbers ; as, 
ich gebe es dem Bruder, 1 give it to the brother ; 
ich gebe es der SohwestiTy I give it to the sister ; 

h ich 



ich gebc es dan Kind, I give it to the child, 
these are examples in the Dative cases ; bixt ich 
habe es von dem Bruder, I have it from the brother ; 
ich habees von der Scktvester, I havfe, it from the sister; 
ich habe es von dem Kind, I have it from the child ; 
are Ablatives, formed by the preposition von, which 
sigtiifies of or from. 

The Vocative, in both numbers, is always the 
same as the Nominative. 

The Genitive case, in the singular number 
of the masculine and neuter, is the same as in 
English, by the addition of an s, and sometimes 
es ; as, des Bruders Garten, the brother's garden ; 
Gottes Gnade, God's grace, &c. but feviinines re- 
;6iain without variation. 


' The plural is made, by addin^^ to the Nomi- 
native singular, in the masculine gender, the letter 
e ; in the feminine, the syllable en s in the neuter 
the syllable er ; as, 

\der ffund, the dog, Plur. die Hunde. 
die Zeit, the time, — — — die Zeiten. 

das Bild, the picture, - ■ die Bilder. 

The t)ative case plural is the letter 71, for all 
nouns in general 3 as, den Hunden, den Zeiten^ 
den Bildern. 


» ' 



1. The Masculine Gender with the Dejinite 


Singular. Plural. 

K der Weg, the way. N. die Wege. 

G. des Wegs, or ges. G. der Wege. 

D. dem Weg, or ge. D. den JVegen. 

A. den Weg. A. die Wege. 


2, The Feminine Gender, 

Singular. Plural. 

N. die Zeity the time. N. die Zeiten. 

G> der Zeit. G. der Zeiten. 

D. der Zeit. D. den Zeiten. 

A. die Zeit. A. die Zeifen. 

3. The Neuter Gender. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. das Feld, the field. N. die Felder. 

G. des Feldsy or des. G. db: Felder. 

b. dem Feld, or rf(?. D. den Feldern. 

A. rfa^ Feld. A. c?/e Felder. 

h 2 l.The 


4na;;XSis of iTHS 

I. Tlie Masculine Chnder with the Inde^niff 




Nonj. ein TempeU a temple. 
Gen. cines Tempels. 
Dat^ einem Tempel. 
Ape. einen TempeL 

2. The Feminine Gender x 

Nom. eine Feder^ a pen. 
Gen. einer Feder. 
Dat. einer Feder. 
Ace. eine Feder. 

?• The Neuter Gender, 


Nom. ein Kindy a child. 
Gen. eines Kinds, or rf^^, 
Dat. einem Kind, pr rfe, 
Ace. gin Ktfid. 

^is article hyas np plural, 



Eemarks on the declension of substantives, 

1. It is indispensably necessary in speaking, to 
pay great attention to the termination of the ar- 
ticle, as its variations are more numerous than those 
pf the noun, particiilarly in the Dejtnite : and 1% 
maybp useful! tor recollect, that the Genitive c^ise 
lingular, in the feminine gender, is der in the one 
article, and einer in the other, 

2. The Genitive singular, as was before said, is 
sometimes terminated in s, and sometimes in eSj, 
either of these forms aye equally good ; but the first 
is more frequently used in conversation, and the 
latter in composition, 

5. In serious discourse, an e Is added to the 
Dative singular, in the masculine and neuter, of de- 
^ite nouns ; for we may say , dem Weg, or Wege^ 
dem Feldy or Felde. 

• • • 

4. Substantives of the masculine gender, ter- 
minating in ely euy er j neuters in e, ely en, er, and 
all diminutives, take s only in the Genitive, indis- 
criminately with the defijiite or indefinite article. 
They also remain unaltered in their plural, as in 
0ie Nominative singular ; and when sonle occur 
with the vowels a, o, «, in the singular number, 
they must be changed into the diphthongs a, 6, ii, 
is the plural ; and as I have before observed in 
the special rules, the Datioe plural is determinated 

ift »; aR» 





Nom.. <jen. 
Engel, angel J Engels. 
Bissen, a bit ; Bissens. 
Vater, father -, Vg.t€rs, 
Vogely a bird -, Vogels. 
Brndcr, brother; Bructers 

Nom. Dat. 
Engel, ' Engeln; 
Bissen, Bisse?i. 
Vdter^ Vdtern. 
Fogel, Vogeln. 
Briider^ Briidem. 


Nom. Gen. 
Gewerbe, trade ; Gewerbes. 
Siegel„ a seal; Siegels, 
KusseUy^LCM^ion ; Kiissens, 
Mess/erp a knife ; Messers, 

Nom. Dat. 
Gexverbe^ Gewerben, 
Siegel, Siegeln. 
Kiissen, KUssen. 
Messer^ Mc$s^rn. 




Nom. Ldmmlein, a lambkin ; Gen. Uimmkins^ 

Nom. LHmmlein, Dat. Lammlein. 

5. Substantives ending in Sy sz, z, tz, have 
their Genitive case ending in esj invariable with 
either article ; as, der Hals, the nec^, des Halses i 
der KusZy a kiss, des Kusses ; das SalZy salt, des 
Salzes ; der Schutz, protection, des 'Schtitzes. 

6. Substantives of the masculine gender, end- 
ing in e, terminate their Genitive in ens, and the 

n re- 


n remains in all the following cases, both in the 
singular 2uid plural, with either article ; as. 

Singular. Nom. Gen. Plural. 

der Haufe, the heap ; des Haufe?is, die Ilaufen. 
derKnabey the boy; des KiiabenSy die Knaben.* 

7. The following nouns of the masculine gen- 
der terminate their Genitive in 71 or en, according 
to their nature, and continue it through all the 
other cases, both in the singular and plural number, 
with either article; as. 

Singular. Nom. Gen. Plur. 

der Bar, the bear; desBHren, dieBdren. 

— Brvnn^ the well ; — Brunnen, — Brunnen. 

— Cftm/, the christian ;— CAm/^7z, — Christen. 

— Fels, the rock ; — Felsen, — Felsen. 

— Fremde, the stranger; — Fremden, — Freniden. 

— Graf, the count ; — Graf en, — Graf en. 

— Hdde, the heathen ; — Heiden, — Heiden: 
-*- Held, the hero ; — Heiden, — Heiden. 

. — Herr, the master; — Herm, — Herrn. 

— Hirt, the shepherd ; — Hirten, •— Hirten. 

— Jude, the jew ; — Juden, — Jtiden. 

— Klumpen, the lump ; — K lumpen, — K lumpen, 

— Mensch, the man ; — Menschen, — Menschen. 
-r- Mohr^ the moor ; — Mobren, — Mohren. 

— Narr, the fool ; — Narren, ^ Narren. 


♦ Da$ Herx, or Herze, the heart, haA Herzens in tl^c 

die Ochseh: 
^ Pfaffek. 
•^-* Pfaucn. 
-— Prinzen. 

8t) ^LhAlysis op 

Singular. Nom. Gen. 

der OchSy the ox i des Ochseri, 

— Pfafe, the priest ; -— Pfqffen, 

— Pfau^ the peacock ; — /yiiM^n, 

— Prinz^ the prince ; — Prinzen^ 
-^ Soldatj the soldier; — Soldaterty — Solddten. 
— - Stratisz, the ostrich; — Straiiszen, -^^ Strauszerii 
•^— Tlior^ the simpleton;'-^ Thoreuy . — Thoreti. 

— T'wVit, the Turk ; — Turkerii -i— TurkaU 

Masculines, which form their plurals in er. 
Singular. Plural. 

der Geisty the spirit ; die Geister. 

— Gott, the god ; — Gotter. 

— Leib^ the body^ — Leiber. 

— Mamiy the man ; • — Manner. 

'•• , . i 

Feminines, which form their plurals in ft 
Singular. Plural. 

die Angst i anxiety ; die Aejigste. 

— - Brautf the bride; 

— Brust, the breast ; 

— Faiisty the fist ; 

— Fruchti the fruit ; 

— Grttft^ the vault; 
-^ fia??rf, the hand ; 

— Hauty the. skin ; 

— Khtft, -the cleft ; 

— Krafty strength; 

— Kiinst,y the art ; 

— LaiL^i the louse ; 

— Lufty the air ^ 

— Brduie. 

— Briiste. 

— Fduste. 

- — Fr'uehte. 

— Griifte. 

— Hdnde. . 

— Haute. 

— Klu/te. 

— Krdfte. 
— • KUnste. 

— Iduse. 
•— .Liifte. 


die Lust, ple^Aire j 

— Maus, the mouse ; 

— Nachty the night ; 
•— . Nusz, the nut 5 

— Sail, the sow ; 

— Schnur, the' string; 


die Liiste. 

— Mduse. 


— Nachte. 

— Niisse. 

— Saue. 

— Schmire. 

— ^/a(//> the town ; - 

— JPa;2£f,thewainscoat; — ' Wdnde. 

— Wurst, the sausage ; — Wiirste. 

All substantives in iVz form their plural in e; as^ 



die Erkenntnisz^ recognisance 5 die Erkenntnisse. 

~ Belrubniszy affliction ; - 

— Sdumnisx, delay; — 
dasZeugnisZy testimony; - 

— Geheimnisz, secrecy ; - 

The following nouns of the neuter gender, have 
their plurals ending in e, instead of er^ beiQg more 
harmonious to the ear ; as^ 




das Ding, the thing ; 

die Dinge. 

— Fellj the skin 5 

— Felk. 

— Gamy the yarn i 

— Game. 

— Gerichty the didi ; 

— Gerickte. 

— Haavy the hair ; 

— Haare, 

— , JahVy the year 5 

' — JahrCp 

— Jochy the yoke ; 

— Joche. 

— tjoos, the lot; 

•— Loose. 

-^ Nel%y the net; 

— Netze. 

-^ fferd^ the horse 5 

— Pfcrde. 



%^ ' /JIALYSIS , OF THE . 

Singular. Plural. 

das Recht^ the right ; die Ttechte. 

— Reichy the empire ; — Rciclie. 

— Schiffy the 6l>ip y . \ — Schiffe. 

— Schtvehii the hog -, — SchweinCn 
~ Seily the rope ; ^ — - Seik. 

— ^piel^ the play ; — ^ Spiele. 

— Thiery the animal ; — Tldere. 

— Thor^ the gate ; — - Tkore. 

— Werky the work; — Werke. 

Tlie following have en in their plural ; as> 

Singular. Plural. 

das Aiigy ox AvgCi the eye; die Augen. 

< — Betty or Bettey the ;bed ; — Betten. 

— HerZy the heart; -^ Uerzen. 

— OhTy the ear ; — Ohren. 

Substantives, whose singular ends in e, form 
their plural by the addition of n ; as, 

die GabCy the gift ; Plur. die Gaheuy &c. 


The same rule m^y be applied to \h.^ feminine 
nouns ending in el^ or er ; for, between / and n s r, 
and n ; the letter e is dropped ; as, 

die Regely the rule ; Plur<. die Regeln. - 

— Fedevy the ^en ; . :■ ' -^ Fedem, j&c. 

Except the termination 2/r; as, 

rf/e Nature the nature ; Plur. die Naturen. 

. . ■ -^ . , .' ■ « 

Frequently, and more particular^ in inpnpjsyl- 

lable the; ^tbree vowels, a, o,.m, are;changeci.ipto 

the diphtl^pi^gSpj^ a, q\ ii, iix t^^jpiuraj number^ ji$, 

•. . * Sin* 


Singular. Plural. 

das Buck, the book ; die Bucher. 

•— G/eis, the glass ; — - Gldser. 

, — Hotz, the wood ; — Holzcr. 

die Ktinsty the art ; — Kiimte. 

— Magdy the maid ; •— Magde. 
der Siandy the station ; ~ Stande. 
— ^ ASfocA:, the stick ; — Stocke. 

— Thurniy the steeple ; — ^ Tliurme. 
Neuter nouns, which form their plural in e, 

and those of all genders, whose plural ends in ert, 
do not alter their vowels; as, 

das Jahvy the year ; Plur. die Jahre. 

die Schtdd, the debt ; ■ — Schulden. 

der Knabe, the boy ; Knabeiiy &c. 


1. Compound words, terminating in mann, 

form their plural by changing 77ia?m into leute ; as. 

Singular. Plural. 

der Kaufmamiy the merchant ; die Kaufleute. 

— ' HauptmanUy the captain ; — • Hauptkute. 

— Edelmamiy the nobleman ^ — Edelleute. 

— Fidirmanriy the carrier ; — Fuhrleute. 

— Schiffmann^ the master of a vessel \ — Schiffleate. 

— Amtmanny the bailiff; — Amtleute, 

2. The monosyllables Mann*', a man ; Fusz, 

M 2 or 

^ _ . _, - - ^ ._- - ■ I - I -- _ - - - 

* Marty witii a single n, signifies one, or tbey : as, man 
sap^ one says, or thejr say j man glauH , one beiieTcs> or ihsf 
believe^ &c. 


or Schuliy a foot ; ein Buck, a quire ; ein Ffund, a 

pound, &c. are never put in the plural (see the 

preceding remarks under the head of plurality V; as, 

der Ackeri the acres ztvej/u7td zwanzig Acker iMnd, 

twenty-two acres of land. 

der Gradj a degree y hundert Grad> hundred degrees 

die Mark, the mark ; zwolf Mark Gold or Silber^ 

twelve marks of gold {?r silver. 

das Buck, a quire ; seeks Buck Papier, six quires 

of paper. 

dasDutzendy thedozen yfiinf Dufzend FlaschenWein. 

five dozen of wine. 

das Paar*, a pair -, ein Paar Schuhe, one pair of 

shoes, &c. 

das Schock, a number of sixty ; drei Schock Aepfel, 

nine score apples. 

das Siiick, a piece ; zwei Sliick Tuck, two pieces 

of cloth. 

der.Zoll, an inch ; drei Zollbreit, three inches broad, 

we say also, mat, once -, einmal, once ; zwei7nal, 

twice ; dreimal, three times, &c. 

There are some few exceptions to the former ; 

such as die Elle, an ell > die Meile, the mile ; die 

UnzCy the ounce, &c. 

3. Some 

^ Ein Paar signifies also a few ', as, tin Paar Gulden^ a 
few florins j ein Paar Tdge, a few days, kc. This, hofwevcr, 
applies only to such things as can be. separated from each other; 
but in Schuhe, and in the following, as Striimpfe, stockings ; 
Hoszen, breeches, &c. the word pair ought to be preserved. 
'The French make the same distinction by their wotds faire 
and couple i and, I believe, this is the same case with respect 
to the English. 


3. Some words are never used in the singuliaf i 
as, die Aeliern, the parents ; die Briefschaffen, pa« 
pers or letters J die Geschwister, brothers and sif- 
ters ; die Gliedmaaszefiy the limbs. Sec. (see my ob- 
servations on that .head, under the chapter of plu- 
rality.) , 

I have only to observe, before I conclude this 
part of speech, that by a strict comparison of the 
Gferman with that of the English language, the 
latter abounds in similarities with respect to the 
idioms of the former. 


6. Of Proper and Foreign Names. 

The German, like every other nation, intro- 
duces names borrow.ed from the Greek and Lathi, 
mto its language. This is frequently the case with 
respect to the French, English, and other modern 
languages, where it is hecessary to make use of 
such names or words, which tannot be avoided in 
composition ; and therefore the Germans, when 
they introduce them, either print those names in 
italic characters^ or merely with a more distinct 
type from the general one of the work. 

It would be wholly unnecessary to mention 
this circumstance, were it not that several modem 
Grammarians have given me an opportuility of 
doing so. . 

Some of them have gone so far, as to arrange, 
voluminously, the Latin and Gree^A: names, under 
the head of four or six declensions ; and have also 



added many remarks, observations, and exceptions 

Suppose, for instance, that a foreign name oc- 
curs in a composition, and I would tell the English 
or French scholar to pronounce AlcibiadeSy or Fir- 
giVs jEndSy &c. according to the German habit of 
pronouncing or declining foreign languages ; cer- 
tainly the same scholar would have an equal right 
to tell me to. pronounce or decline the same ac- 
cording to his dialect or declension. 

For a student who understands both languages 
before -mentioned, it will be an easy task to dis- 
cover by the context, in what case such a name is 
put by the autTior ; and by him who does not un- 
derstand either the Greek or Latin languages, it 
will be considered as a mere barbarism, by which 
he would become in no degree more wise or intel- 

Proper names are declined thus : 

Nom. Horn. 

Gen. Roms. 

Dat. %u^ iuy nach Rom. 

Ace. Ro7n. 

•• • 

All other names of cities, boroughs, and vil- 
lages, follow the foregoing example ; and according; 
to the subsequent are declined all proper names 
of deities, angels, men, and demons. 

• V Mas- 



Nom. Jupiter. 
Gen. Jtipiters. 
Dat, Jupitern. 
Ace. Jupiter.^ 

^ Feminine. 

Nom. Minerva. 
Geri. Minervens. 
Dat. Minerven. 

Ace. Minerven. 


Eveiy proper name is, like a common sub- 
stantive, formed into a diminutive, by the addi-^ 
tion of chen or fc /?« ; as Karly Charles ; Karlchen, 
little Charles ; Diana, Diana y Dianchen, little 
Diana, &e. 

* Names of the masculine gender, which do not termi< 
nate in r, take in the Dative and AccntatiTe the tjilatde ^n. 

f' - 



HcHodora ward nicht weit 

von' Anacndolia voa einem 

Fischer gefunden ; aUein sie 

suchte umsonst ihren Vater. 

Sie beweinte den Untergang 

des Edlen, und ihr Herz scbaa- 

dertebey dem Gedanken, jetzt 

ganz veilassen in einer frem- 

den Welt^Mi seyn. Nachdcm 

sic sich bey Ihrem Retter cr- 

hohlt hatte, sah sie kein an- 

deres Mittel sich zu erhalten, 

wis von Stadt zu Stadt zu rei- 

$en ; upd glucklicher Weise 

hatte sie ihre Latite, ein theu^^ 

res Andenken^von ilirer Mut- 

ter» gerette^) weil sie dieselbe 

inuner an einem feuerfarbe- 

nen Bande fest iiber der Schul- 

der trag. 

No€h nicht lange hatte sie 
anrdem Ufer des Meeres, wo 


Hellodora was rescued from 
the waves by a fisherman^ 
and when life and recollec- 
tion returned, she eagerly in- 
quired for her beloved father. 
Alas I her father was not to 
be found. Unprotected, des* 
titute, and in a strange coun- 
try, her lute became her only 
resource and dependance. 
It was the dear remembered 
gift of her mother, and she 
constantly wore it, suspended 
from her shoulder, by a crim< 
son ribbon. 

Not long had she slum<- 
beredy where we first bor 


* The above extract is taken from a beautiful work of 
Baron Gothe^ entitled, Heliodora^ or the Grecian Minstrel, It 
is necessary, also, to inform the student, that the translation 
of the extract is executed freely in some instances | as, to have 
adhered closely to the author, would have rendered many parti 
ridiculous**- A complete translalioa of this work is in the pieis^ 
and will be speedily publisbed. 



wir SIC zuerst erblickteti, ge* 
schlummert, ais sich langsam 
cin Jiingling nahete, der auf 
dcm Wcge von Pasto nach 
Neapel war. Den Nachmit- 
tag hatte er in dem Museum 
zu Partici zugebracht, und 
der Anblick der Kunstwerke 
des heiteren Alterthums hatte 
ihm auf einige Augenblicke 
den Kumoier gelindert, der 
Icb^idigcr in seiner Brust er- 
wachte, je nahcr er der Stadt 
kam. EingeliebtesMadchen, 
von dem ihm die Scheide 
wand des Uebereinkommnis- 
ses trennte> soUte er vielleicht 
schon ais die Gattin eines 
gtuckilchern Mannes wieder- 

Er verliesz dieHeerstrasze, 
und wandelte dichte am 
Me^re bin, um die Abend- 
landschaft herrlicher zu ge- 
aieszen. Oft stand er stillc, 
und ubersah die Reize, wel- 
die die Natur so verschwen- 
derisch in diesem Raume aus- 


held her, ere a youth slow 
ly made his approach. H^ 
was on his way from P^j- 
tum * to Naples, and had 
passed the afternoon in the 
museum of Portici, \vhcre 
those master-pieces of art, 
the pride of antiquity, had 
for a time alleviated his sor- 
rows, which as he drew 
nearer the town broke forth 
anew. lie loved, and was 
beloved ; but a fatal des- 
tiny intervened, and the maid 
of his heart was about to be- 
come the wife of another* 

He quitted the high road, 
and passed alongthesea shore, 
to enjoy the luxurious charms 
oif the evening landscape. 
Often did he pause to review 
the beauties which nature here 
had so profusely displayed. 


* A city of aocient Lucania^ of which the modern Ben- 
licati^ a province of Naples^ forms a part. It is remarkable, 
acoordisg to Virgil, for producing roses twice a year, in May 
3Bd September. 

Bisen TTuma Pasti. Gsoxc. 




brcitete. In dieser Gegend 
waien seine Ideen von Land- 
schaftmalcrci gereift, hierhat- 
te cr cinige Jahre mit so be- 
dcutendem Gewinn fiir seln 
besseres Leben zugebracht — 
iind hier ward seinem Herzen 
ein so schones Fest zuberei- 
tet. Er sah die Stadt vof 
sich, wo seine Seele war, 
und iiberdachte scin Schick- 
sal. — Wie leer ! rief er aus, 
indem er sich niedersetzend 
seine Mappc ofFnete, — wie 
wenig ausgefiihrt ! Hatte ich 
sonst unter Pastums Ruinen 
gewandelt, und in Portici 
niich in ein schoneres Ztit- 
alter versetzt, wiereichkehrte 
ich zuriick ! — Ichglaubte un- 
ter jenen ehrwiirdigen Zeug- 
nissen einer schonen Wirk- 
samkeit den verlohrnen Frie- 
den wieder zu, finden, — ^aber 
nur Ergcbung bringe ich zu- 
riick ; ich habe mich mit dem 
furchtbarenOedanken derUn- 
moglichkeit versohnt. -Nur 
diese Saulenreihe des Pseudo 
dipteros in Pastum ist ausge- 

Early enraptured with the 
art of painting, he had cho- 
sen it for his profession *, 
and in this place had his 
conceptions of landscape been 
refined to an exquisite degree. 
Here had he passed several 
years of such distinguished 
horiour, that he deemed them 
the happiest of his life. His 
interest in the scene was great- 
ly augmented. Before him 
stood the city which contained 
the fair object of his fondest 
affections. He sat down and 
contemplated his fate. How 
ill is this executed, said he, 
opening his portfolio. Had 1 
earlier strolled under the ruins 
of Paestum, and wandered 
round Portici, how rich, how 
happy might I have returned* 
How should I have produced 
many honorable testimonies, 
and reaped the reward of ho- 
nest industry., Perhaps I might 
have been a stranger to the 
sorrow which now oppresses 
me. Nothing, continued he, 
looking attentively over his 
portfolio, nothing is compleat- . 
ly executed in Paestum, except 
thisPseudo diptorie co\on?Lde. * 


* The term is Greek. In architecture it signifies a temple 
surrounded by a single rowof piUars> so placed as to counter* 
/eit a double row. 


fiihrt, — unci ich hattc mir 
doicH; so Test vorgenommeii, 
cine Zeichimng des ganzen 
herrlichen Denkmals mitzu- 
nchmen. — Und von dem trun- 
kenen .Faun in PorticI nur 
diese wenigen Striche I — Ach ! 
nie habe ich ,die Wahrhcit 
ficbmerzlicher in melneni In • 
nern gefiihlt, dasz Friede in 
dem stillen Geiste wohnen 
musz, der dur^h Kunstdar- 
stellungen zu dem stillen 
Geiste redcn will. 

£r erhob sich, und indem 
er fortwandelnd seit warts 
blickte, sah er das schlafende 
Madchen. Er trat naher, 
und die ganze liebliche Ge- 
stajt iibe^aschte sein Auge. 
Das schwankende Abendlicht 
gosz einen Schimmer iiber 
sie, dasz die gereitzte Fant^- 
sie des Jiinglings sich auf ei- 
nige selige Augenblicke dem 
Wahn iiberKes^y er sey in die 
goldoea Zeiten entriickt, wo 
die Himmlischen herab zu 
dem Gescblechte der sterbli- 
chen Menschen stiegen, und 
iinter ihnen wandelnd das 
miihsame Tagewerk des Le- 
bens ihnen erleichterten. £r 
kniete nialer, beugte sich ehr- 
furchtsvoU iiber die Sclilum- 



Although I had promised 
myself a finished drawing of 
the whole of this excellent 
monument, and of the drun- 
ken satyr in Portici, I have 
only there few sketches.* 
Ah ! never till now did I 
so forcibly experience the 
lamentable truth, that the 
muses will converse with 
none but a mind at ease. 

He arose, and walked on« 
wards. Casting his eyes 
around he perceived the 
sleeping maid. Hedrewnear, 
and was astonished at the 
beauty of her form. The 
trembling rays of the de- 
parting sun glanced faintly 
over her countenance, which, 
in the glowing imagination 
of the youth, appeared to 
be divine. Surely, said he, 
it is son^e goddess, come for 
a time to mingle with man- 
kind, and restore the golden 
age. She has descended from 
heaven, to relax from the toils 
of immortality. He kneeled 
down, and respectfully bend- 
ing over her, gazed on her 
features. They wore the 

D a respect 


/ , 


memde, und seine triibcMienc 
crheiterte sich bey dem An- 
blicke des Friedens, der aus 
diesem schonen Gesichte 
stralte. — Manchmal strccktc 
er seine Hand aus, um sie zu 
crwecken, aber der frohe Ge- 
nusz der Ruhe, welchen er 
in dem stilleu Lachein um ih- 
renMund erkannte, hielt ihn' 
ab| und da ihre Lage nicht 
unsicher war, so begniigte er 
sich, «eili Auge auf ihrer Ge- 
stalt ruhen zu lassen. Er 
hatte in Paj>to eine der lieb- 
lich dufcenden Rosen unter 
den Ruinen gepfliicki ; sie 
war. halb verwelkt, aber er 
legte sie leise auf den Busen 
des Madchens, und entfernte 
sich dann n^t dem tiefcn Ein- 
druck des Anbliks im Herzen. 
HeJiodora erwachte bald 
darauf,und erhob sichschneli 
wm N eapcl noch vor der Dun- 
kelheit zu crreichen. Die 
Rose fiel vor ihr nieder, und 
sie en othcte bey dem Gedan- 
Jcen, da'sz eir> Voriibergehcn- 
der sie hipgelept habc. Sie 
fuhhe sich heilerer und gc- 
starkter durch den kyrzeu 
Schlummer, und gieng mu- 
thig neucn Erfahiungen ent- 

OP th'e 

respect of resignation, and 
were heighrened by ^ the 
charms of innocence* As 
he stretched forth his hand 
with the intent to awake 
her," he perceived she smiled. 
-^I will not, said he, check- 
ing himself, her sleep is 
peace. — I will not awake 
her to this world of care. 
She is safe ; for she t)ears the 
semblance of heaven, and 
heaven will protect its off- 
spring. Under the ruins of 
Paestum he had plucked a 
rose. It was now half faded ; 
but he placed it gently on 
her bosom and withdrew, 
bearing in his mind a deep 
impression of her beauty* 

Heliodora awoke ere night 
assumed her reign. The rose 
felling .to the ground told 
her she had not sleept un- 
observed, and she blushed at 
the recollection of having 
been exposed to the eyes of 
a stranger. She felt herself 
refreshed from her slumber,, 
and hastened towards Na« 
pies, with the hope of reach- 
ing it ere dark. 




I. Its Kinds ^ 

The substantive is the name of an object ^xia* 
iiig by itself, and every thing that is either af- 
firmed or denied of it, is originally an adverb^ 
for which reason it must here be treated of, because 
it constitutes the foundation of all the other part$ of 

An adverb denotes all that relates to an ob- 
ject as accidental, and ought to be attributed, 
principally, to the substantive ; for which reason 
it is called adverb^ and may be diyided into tzvQ 
kinds, namely, of quality and circumstance. 

The adverb of circumstance denotes that which 
is not essential to an object, in as far as it relates 
to itself alone ; as, 

1 . The circumstance of time : heiitey to-day ; 
gestem, yesterday ; friih^ early ; spat, late ; nun, 
now ; Jetzty at present ; sckon, already. 

2. Of duration : stSts, continually ; nochy still ; 
immer, always ; .seit, sitice ; bis. until. 

3. Of place : hier, here ; da, there ; dort, 
yonder; ijueit, far; feruy a distance; oben, above. 

4. A circumstance : allein, alone ; eins, one ; 
^Wey, two, &c. ; viel, much ; zvenigy little. 

5. The manner in which any thing is ex- 

pressed: . 


pressed : ah\ as ; eben, just > zoky how ; desto, so 

6. Of the accidental tendency of the mind of 
the speaker, as consisting either of affirmation, ne- 
gation, question, oi; doubt : ja^ yes ; iieiny no ; 
nichf, not ; zvo^ where ^ xvenn^ when 3 zcaniniy why ; 
vielleiclify perhaps. 

7. Of the degree of strength : sehr, much ; 
gar^ very ; fasty almost ; k-aitni, scarcely, &c. &;c. 

The adverb of quality, denotes that which 
depends on an object referring to itself; as, grosz^ 
great y klehii little ; scIncarZy black s giit^ good ; 
bosej bad, &c. 

Manv circumstantial words do, however, in 
the mean-time, assume the power of qualities ; as 
sclteUi seldom ; feriiy far ; kunftigy in future ; fruhe^ 
early ; spaty late : others are bothy but in different 
significations, eberiy just ; weity far ; gleich, imme- 

2. The Formation of Adverbs. 

Adverbs are* either rarf/c^/, derivative y or com- 
pound. By means of the two last, other parts of 
speech may also be formed into adverbs. To 
the radical also belongs those, which receive (for 
the sake of their filial sound) the soft e ; as, triibey 
dark; miidey tired; behendcy quick; blode^ shy;- 
geschwindcy hasty ; gelindcy soft ; langCy long ; bail- 
gey anxious ; feigCy cowardly ; schrdgCy unstraight ; 
kiscy softly ; bose, badly ; losCy kna,vish ; zveisey wise- 



1/ : to which belong also those with an h s ehf'y 
soon y friihey early y nahe^ near : and sometimes 
geriiey willingly; and heuiey to day. 

The adverbs of circumstance are generally ra- 
dical or compound words, and sometimes deriva- 
tives. Their derivative syllables are ; 

en or n ; as, ausxen^ without ; innen^ within ^ 
unteiiy below ; oben^ above ; hinteny behind ; 
vonittiy before y zinccilc?iy sometimes ; morgcriy 
to-morrow y sildeny south ; icestoiy west ; qsUuy 
east ; nordeUy north ; mitten^ in the middle ; 
sdteiiy seldom ; gcge/i, tovyards ; gesteniy yes- 
terday ; feni'i far ; ebizclny single. 

erj as, heucry this year; /r-nze, further; i miner y 
always : and in the prepositions hinteHy behind ; 
iibery over ; untej'y under ; auszeVy without. 

s to form adverbs of quality from nominals ; as, 
abendsy in the evening ; a?iderSy otherwise ; 
rechtSy rightly ; jidclistenSy soonest. 

sty only in a few ; as, einsty once, or one day ; 
langsty long ago; viittdsty by dint; selbsty self; 
ndchsty soonest ; sonsty else. 

The adverbs of quality are likewise radicals, 
compoundsy or derivatives. 

The derivation may be known by the prefixed 
syllables, be and ge ; but more frequently by sylla^. 
bles affixed, some of the principal of which are : 
bar^ ely en, w, endy er, eruy ety /, hafty icht, ig, isrh, 
Uchy licht, sam. An example of each : nutzbar, use- 
ful ; edd, noble -, Itaren, to cast the hair ; kupfem^ 



of cooper ; suchendy seeking ; bktery bitter ; nuchterrty 
sober ; geliebet, beloved ; gelobt, praised; mangel- 
Jiafty defective; thorichl, foolish ; ^67?^, benevolent; 
neidisk, envious ; manrdichy manly ; laulichty luke* 
. warm ; arbeitsaniy laborious. 

Many adverbs of quality are compounded; as, 
bmimstarky strong like a tree : to which also belong 
those with the particles erz and ting. 

Words frequently become adverbs by being 
compounded with others ; as, anstatty instead ; alle- 
zeity always ; allemalily every time. 

Often whole sentences are used adverbially ; 
as, xu FolgCy according to'; zu Liebcy for love's 
sake, &c. 

3. Degrees of Adverbs. 

In German the adverbs of quality are pecu- 
liarly subject to degrees of comparison, as are also 
other adverbs. Their comparison is as follows : 

The syllable er is affixed to the positive, in 
ord^r to form the comparative ; as, schon^ hand- 
some ; schoneVy more handsome : but if the positive 
ends already in e, the letter r. is only added ; as, 
hlSdCy shy; bUider y more shy, &c. 

The superlative affixes sty or est, to the the po- 
sitive ; as, theiiersty dearest ; oberst, highest, &c. 

Some adverbs are irregular in their comparison; 
9$^ kochy high ; hohery higher; hochsty highest; nahcy 
near; nailery nearer; ndchsty nearest; ^aW^soon; 
€hery sooner ; ehesty soonest ; guty good ; besser, bet- 
ter; best, best; viel, much ; mehr, mortimeist, most^ 




1. The following substantives, denoting the 
time of the day, are often used in the Genitive, 
case adverbially ; as, abends^ or des Abends^ for an 
iem Abend, in the evening ; morgends, or des Mor- 
gens, in the morning ; mittags, or des Mittags, at 
noon 5 Montags, on Monday -, Dienstags, on Tues* 
day, &c. 

2. Also with adjectives ; as, grades Weges, 
straightways ; keines Weges, by no means -, widri^ 
gen Falles, . in case of any thing happening to the 
contrary; aUen Fdlles, at all events; folgenden 
^JTages, on the following day. 

* 8. It is precisely the same with regard to nouns 
of the feminine gender ; as, nachts, in the night ; 
Mitttoocfis, on "Wednesday. 

4. With the article prefixed ; as, des Nachts, 
des Mittxoochs. 

5. They occur with adjectives and pronouns; 
aSf meiner Setts, on my part ; alter Seits, on all 

6. When a contraction takes place ; as, dis- 
seits, on this side ; jenseits, on the other side. 

7. We meet also with a peculiar instance pf 
a noun plural being marked with the characteris- 
tic s of Jthe Genitive singular ; as^ aUerdings, Xfj 
all means* 

4. Tlifi 


f Although ^ is aa advtrbial temiinfitioQ, we should not, 
* O - kow- 


4. The Ij^etkn qf Jtdverhs. 

Advftrbar denote erery thing tl»t majr b* said 
of an object, dnd consequently are the most nume* 
I'ous and useful parts of ^pe^eb. But yet they t»* 
qtrire verbs when applied to an object i ai» rfef 
Vogel fliegt schnelU the bird flics quick ; die Frvda 
fsf teif, the fruit is ripe ; die Uhr $chl4gi xwey, tha 
clock strikes two, &c. 

But in German we have an idea of an adverb 
Virithout any assistance from th6 rtdun. This is doiic 
\)j St peculiar kind oi flection (called die KonkrStiQn\ 
Which consPtitutes the proper idea, by itself, of t\m 
adverb, and is done by the vowel e, which acconil- 
Ing to circumstances, may adopt the inflection of 
genders and declension : for instance,/ friWn th6 adb^ 
verbs ein, vieU and gut, issue the Other pedttltir 
parts ; as, der eine MaiiUy one man 3 dep viele Wietn, 
much wine ; das gute Kind, the good dhiM : aad 
y^ith the gender and declension ; as, des ein-^m 
Mdnhesy of (a) one man ; viel-er Wdn, more w|Mf j 
die guten Kinder, the good children. 

Thus then> all adjectives consequently arise 
from inflection of adt^s ^f quality, and witlleut 
them therfe can be no adjectives in Germtii^ 


Jiowever, exceed proper liknits, by modelliDg neiif iKh>lifi8^ Mr 
idi0Qld confine oorsclves to those which exxsr^ mi are fane? 
tlooed by custom* 

G%1S^A» LA.1IPU age; 99 




Together with the befqie-iDentipned adveths 
ith(5re C3)ist the definite words of wfestftntivcf, which 
are tbe article, the numeral, and the projiaun, dt^ 
noting the circumstances of substantives, and with 
the a4jective, the quality of theiyi. 

As the Geripan substantive expresses but the^ 
•genders .and the cases very .imperfectly, the want 
is therefore mppUed by these definite worjis, which 
with (them make up a perfi^ct declensipn* 

This per&ct depknsbm'denptes^ not pply the 
.tBSMs i)ut ako :the ipeoder, 4e.finitely, ^ught to be 
itKpvesscd wiA every -sttbstHfttiv^. As it very often 
jbi^pens Aat mor^ d^uite wprds ^tand before jsl 
^HR^ttkPJ^v^j thei^efore they have a doubje declen- 
iUfiO, ffne pif which is caUed the d^nitcj the other 
^th^ ind^nite. 

3Tie j^cftiite one denotes the gcpder : all end 

similar in the singular. The indefinite denotes 

^W> f&l\^5 v'Wd therefoi:e the Accusative and A^- 

TmiwtifKfXOi t]^ feinixunp.and neuter genders, are 

iOUB wse. J» the plural ihey are alike in both 

In /the magculiae and ixeuter gepders of the 
^Wlguiar .ctf the de£ioilte declension, the diCerence 
:ll»4h2|t ,j(he asliclfi^ .the qumeraU Wii the pronoun 

o 2 receive 


receive es ; the adjecrives, howevef, better and 
more frequently, en. 

Those definite words which precede all others, 
like the article and many pronouns, have therefore 
the definite declensioBh-alooe ; but those which 
follow after, nothwithstanding they often precede 
^ substantive alone, as many numerals; some pro- 
tiouns, and all adjectives, may be declined in both 
manners, either with the definite or indefinite'. 

I. Of the Article. 

The greater part . of substantives are either 
appellatives, or general names, which are applied 
to many individuals of the same species. In order 
that the student may know which, or how many the 
orator means, of the whole species he is speakix^ 
of, the articles are introduced to supply the still 
deficient declension of the substantives. 

There ^^re two articles in the G^erman lan- 
guage, namely, der^ the, called the definite j 
which is derived from the pronoun ; and e/n> a 
or an, the indefinite^ "which is derived from the 
numeral word* * , 

The 'definite article der possesses a. double use, 
1st. it serves for the declension of proper ijames, 
and consequently is a mere sign of case 5 and 3d. it 
defines th« appellatives, whilst selecting an ob^e^t^ 
either from the whole species, which may be al* 
ready understood ; as, giebmir-da^Buch, i. ©. «f/- 
ches vhr dif'tiegt, give me thebooki -mr^hkh 



iays before you : die Gaste sind nun da^ i. e. welche 
zcir erwarUten, the guests are now present, vvi. 
which we expected 5 or denotes the whole species, 
which may be done in the singular as well as in 
the plural ; as, der Mensck ist wie eine Blume, or die 
Menscken sind wie Blumeti, man is like a flower, or 
men are like flowers 3 both signifying as much as 
. idl men. If a more precise definition be necessary, 
then- the pronouns are used. 

Each article has three genders, viz. the mas- 
adine, the femini?ie, and the neuter. The definite 
article is declined thus : 


^ Masc. Fem. Neut. 

Nom. der, die, das. 

Gen. des, der, des. 

Dat, dem, der, dem. 

Ace. deny die, das. 


Nom. die. 

Gen. der, (not dererj. 
Dat. den, (not denenj* 
Ace. die. 

The indefinite article denotes, 1st, an inde- 
finite object fix)m the whole species, be it which 
it may ; as, gieb mir ein Messer, give me a knife ; 
' es war einmal ein Mann, there was once a man. 
2d. It denotes the whole species, by naming an 
indefinite individual out of -it; as, ein Mensch ist 
wie eine Blumej man is like a flower -, i. e. one 
man, or all men. 3d. It denotes the kind or spe- 
cies to which a thing belongs; as, das ist ein 


• The plural if the same for the three genders. 


)SC^»es Haus ; tjiat is a fine hbuse i €r Hed eincn 
iShen Vater^ he has a bad father* 

Xhe indefinite a^cle being derived ^oxn tiie 
sumericsl ^n, a or »i, conseqneotty d6es not M^ 
mit of any plural, and has, even in the singukr» 
but an imperfect definition, i. e. it denotes in the 
Nominative of the masculine^ and that of liie No- 
minative and Accusative of the neuter^ witber 
sex of casev It is declined as follows : 





















Observation. The definite article can n^cr 
stand without its substantive, whereas the indefinite 
may ; in which case, however, it adopts the cooeh 
^>leat dedte'nsictti signs, which are wanting in the 
J^tominatlve and Accusative ^ as, ich habe tin Ham 
^gekUttft : question, was fur tins f \. e. wasJmriBm 
JStaufJ 1 iiave purchaaied a house: qtiestiony vflsidlDLi 
i.T. which iiouse f—</y/ kein Stock da? anslMtr, 
hkr4st^ner. Is no stick at hand ? answer, lidasetis 

I74e xf^the &eTmrf^ Ariicks. 

Articles are used in the German as in. other 
languages, to limit tlie signification of substantives. 

' l.If 

. 1« If a substantive be used in it& general nn* 
limited signifioatipti, no article is necessary ; if i^ ji 
4^buie signification, the article der, tbe, is used ; 
if kv an indqfinile, the article ein^ a or an ^ as^ 
Wein is besser als Bier, wine is better than beer ; 
aUck ist nahrhqfter als Wasser, rallk is more nou« 
rishing than water ; Engel sind hoher als Menschen^ 
angcds are superior to men ; die Engely iaelcke sim^ 
agUn, nmrdeu in die Halle verstosztn, the angeliw 
which sinned, were cast into hell ; ei?i Engel hats 
ikm prophezeikety an angel has prognosticated it l» 

2. Before proper names of men, countries, and 
cities, no article is used ; as, nennc mir dock Pi- 
zarros Thaten, tell me (then) the deeds of Pizarro'; 
Spanien ist ein reiches und fruchbares Land, Spain 
is a rich and fertile country ; London ist die groste^ 
Uandelsstadt in Ei^ropa, London is the greatest; 
^jercantile^city in Europe. 

3. When foreign natnes are introduced, that 
h»v^ B0 variation in their termmations, an articif 
is usedy particularly in the oblique case, to prevent 
ambiguity -, as, Brutus todtete den Cdsar, Brutus 
lulled Caesar j ^ kkt in dcr ScbumtM,^ he ]iff» ia 

4. Or when a proper name is preceded by a 
characteristic epithet;- as, der grosze Friederieh, 
the great Trederick ; der tapf ere Karl, the valiant 


5. )f a pronoun possessive precede a suUtMr 
tive, the article is omitted ^ ai^ <km tr ui w§t 



jchimes Haus\ &at is a fine h6use; €r hed dmt 
iShen Voter, he has a bad father* 

Xhe mdefinite ai^cle being derived ^oxn liie 
sumerical ein, a or »i, consequently dides not ail^ 
mit of any plural, and has, even in the singulaTi 
but an imperfect definition, i. e. it denotes in the 
Nosninative of the masculine , and that of liie Vs^ 
minative and Accusative of the neuteVy wither 
sex of casev It is declined as follows ; 





















Observation. The definite article can nivcr 
Stand without its substantive, whereas the indefinite 
may ; in which case, however, it adopts the coook 
^eat decJtensictti signs, which are wanting in the 
J([4>minatlve and Accusative ; as, ich hahe €in Him 
^ggkUu^t : question, wasfiir tins ? i. e. matjwrim 
jMsaus? Ihiftve purchased a house: qtiestim, vfkid^l 
i.T. which iiouse f—</y/ kern Stock da? jansMer, 
hier4st<einer^ Is no stiok at hand ? answer, lisdnetis 

JJ^e x>f the &ei^mm, Articles. 

Articles are used in the German as in. other 
languages, to limit fhe signification of siibstaxifives. 


1. If a substantire be used in it& general an* 
limited signi6catioD, no artide is necessary ; if ta « 
4^bute signi^catioD, the article der^ tbe, is used ; 
if in an itid^finiie, the article ein^ a or an ; as^ 
Wein is besser als Bier, wine is better than beer j 
Miick ist nahrhqfter als Wasscr, milk is more nou- 
nshing than water; Engel sind Iwher als Menschertt 
angds are superior to men ; die Engel, vxlche sOn^ 
digUny nmrdeu in die HiiUe verstosztn, the angelfc 
which sinned, were cast into hell ; ein Engel hats 
ihm proplxzeiket, an angel has prognosticated it t» 

2. Before proper names of men, countries, and 
cities, no article is used ; as, nenne tmr dock Pi- 
zarros Tkaten, tell me (then) the deeds of Pizarro'; 
Spanien ist ein reiches tmd fruchbares Land, Spain 
is a rich and fertile country ; London ist die gro'ste 
Handelsstadt in Europa, London is the greatest 
Piercantile. city in Europe. 

3. liVlien foreign names are introduced, that 
have no variation in their terminations, an articlt 
is used, particularly in the obliciue case, to prevent 
ambiguity ; as, Brutus todtele den Casar, Brutus 
lulled Caesar } er kbt in dtr Sckweitm^ he lvn» tn. 

4. Or when a proper name is preceded by a 
characteristic epithet;- as, der grosze Friederiek, 
the greait Frederick ; der tapfere Karly the valiant 

5. {fa.pronounpossesuve precede a ii]^fl|Hir_^ 
tlve, the article is omitted ; •< dea» *r igt4 


Sohrij then he is your son ; ein Preisz ist auf seintn 
Koj^ gesetzty a price is set on his head*. 

Observation. In the familiar or colloquial 
style, the definite article and preposition going be- 
fore it, are usually contracted into one word ; as, 

am, for an dem j Frankfurth dm Mayn, Frankfort 

on the Mayn. 

anSy for an das 3 bis ans Ende, to the very end. . 

auff^ for auf das ; aufs Buck legen, to place upon 

the booly. ^ . 

• ■ 

(fifrchs, for durch das ; durchs Wasser scfuvimmen, to 

swim through the water. - 

/(ir^y {or fiir das ^ fiirs Geld, for the money. 

m, for in dem ; im Anfange^ in the beginning. . 

ins, for in das s in^ Wasser hinein rennen, to run 

into the water. 

vom, for vor dem s vom Himmel, from heaven. 

vors, for vpr das ; vors Haus, before the house. 

vorm, for vor dem ; vorm Richter, before the judge. 

iiberm, for Uber dem; iiberm Wasser, beyond the 


iibers, for iiber das ; iibers Meer, beyond the s^a, 

unterm, for unter dem s unterm Folk, among the 


widers, for wider das /widersGeseiZy against the law.. 
zum, for zu dem j zum Muster, for a pattern, 


* The 'German articles serve occasionally to distinguish 
words which have the same sound, but are of a different gen- 
der } as, der Aal, the eel 5 die Abl, the awl ; dcr Tbor, the fool ; 
das Tb^Tt the gate, Arc. (See a catalogue of similar words in the 
fcecnd part of this wprk.) 

GERMAil LANGUA/)tt. )05 

Mt, for tu der ; sick ^ur Rase rUstrn, to prepaft 

for a journey * 

n. Of Numerals. 

Numerals in German are similar to those of 
olher modem languages, viz. the cai^dinal and or- 
dinal numbers. I shall speak of them at full length, 
and shall treat of the others under their va« 
rious denominations. 

1. Cardinal l^umbers. 


The cardinals, from which all other num* 
bers are derived, answering to the question wie 
viel ? how much ? are the following : 

1. ein, eine, ein, or einer, 11. eilf^otdf^ eleven. 

eine, eifis, one. 12. zwolf» twelve. 

2. ztvei, two. 13. dreizehn AhirtctTi. 

3. drei^ three. 14. t^VrzeAn, fourteen. 

4. vier^ four. lb. fUnfxehnj fifteen. 
^> fiit^i five. 16. sechzehn, sixteen. 

6. seeks y si%. 17. siebenzehn^ or sieb' 

7. siebeTiy seven. zekn, seventeen. 

8. acht, eight. 18. acktzehn, ci^htc^n. 

9. neun, nine, 19. neiinzehn, nineteen. 

10. ze/ien, OT ze/in, ten. 20. zwanzig, twefttjr. 

21. ein 

-- 1 '■ - ■■ ■ ■'■■.•> I— a M 

* Maojr of the fi^regoing coDtractioni flr4 rtjectdd ia 
accQTtte caiiipositioos> but are still very frequent in oottvcnatioa 
tti4 dramatic writiog. 

% « 



21; einundzwanzig, ont 71. einundsiebetizig, one 

and twenty. 

and seventy, &c. 

22. zwey. und zzvanzig, 80. acktztg, eighty. 

two and twenty. 81. ein tme achlzig, one 

23. drei und zwaiizig, 
' three and twenty. 

and eighty,, &c. 
90. neunzig, ninety. 

24. vier und zwanzigy 91. ein und neunzfg, one 

four and twenty. 

and ninety, &c. 

25. fiinf und zwanzig, 100. hundert, hundred, 
five and twenty. 101. hundert tend eins^ 


26* seeks und zwanzigy 
six and twenty. 

27. sieben und zwanzig^ 

seven and twenty. 
^8. acht und zwanzigy 
eight and twenty. 

29. neun und zwanzigy 

nine and twenty. 

30. dreiszig, thirty. 

hundred and one. 
102. hundert und zwey, 

hundred ^nd two. 
200. zwey hundert, two 

300. drei hundert, three 

400. vier hundert, four 


3 1 . ein und dreiszig, one 1 000. tausend, thousand, 
and thirty^ &c. 10,000. zehn tausend, ten 

4a vierzig, forty. thousand. 

41. ein und vier zig, one 100,000. hundert tausend, 

hundred thousand. . 
1,000,000. eiyie Million, 

a million. 
1804. ein tausend acht 
hundert und vier,, . 
one thousand eight 
hundred and four. 

. and forty, &c. 

50. funf^ig, fifty. 

51. ein undfmifzig, one 
.. . and fifty, &c. 

60^ sechzig, sixty. 

61. ein und seckzig, one 

and Mxty, &c, 
70. siebenzig, seventy. 


Observations on the Cardinals. 

1. AVhen the numeral is not placed adjective- 
ly, but concludes the sentence, without any help 
from a noun, it is customary to say eiiis instead 
of cin s as, habt ihr ein Federmesser ? have you a 
penknife ? answer : hier ist eins, here is one. 

2. EiUf eine^ ei?2, one, is the same word like 
the definite article, only used with a different power, 
and is declined in the same manner, only pro- 
nounced, as a numeral, with a stronger accent ; as 
ein Mann, one man ; eine FraUy one woman 5 ein 
Kindy one child. When it stands by itself, but with 
a reference to an antecedent substantive, the ter- 
mination er is added in the Nominative singular for 
the masculine, and es far the neuter gender, in 
the J^ominative and Accusative cases, ex. gr. habt 
ikr einen Slock ? have you a stick ? hier isl einer, 
here is one ; haben sie ein Schmipfttich ? have 
you a pocket handkerchief? hier ist eins, here is 

one, &c, 

3. Ein, eine, ein, one, may have the definite 
article preceded, then it is declined like the se* 
cond form of adjectives 5 as, 


Nom. der eine^ die eine, das eine, the one. 

Gen* des einen, der einen, des ei?ien, of '— 

D?tt dem einen, der einen, demevyen^ to — 

Ace, den eineiht die eine, das eine, the one- 

The plural is sometimes used for the purpose 

p 2 of 



of distinguishing certain classes of individual oB* 
jects^ as the one s^t, and the mother : 

Nom. die einen^ 
Gen. der einen. 
Dat, den einen. 
Ace. die einen. 

We sometimes find the pronouns prefixed ; as, 
dieser eine Majin, this single manj dieses einen 
Mannes, of this single man, &c. 

4. The numbers zzveiy two, and dreiy three, 
are susceptible of the inflection of theGVw/ViVand 
Dative cases ; as, zzveier Britder Erbtheil, the iii- 
heritance of two brothers ; dreier Manner Todt, 
the death of three men ; mit zweie?i, dreien kam* 
Jif^^i to fight against two, three*. 

5. All other cardinal numbers are suscep- 
tible of the Dative termination in en; as, sich viere%, 
sechsen^y achten zwanzigeny &'c. tvidersetzen, to resist 
four, six, eight, twenty, &:c, 

6. Com- 

* Many of the ancient writers have assigned three gen* 
ders to the second numeral zu/ei, namely, Masc. zween j Pern. 
zwo ; Neut. zwei ; to -vrhieb mode Luther strictly adhered 
'v^ .]^s ^rt nslatipn 9f (l^c bibU^ whicl^ is reckoned the |xaiTi>t 
among all ot^^r Gerp^n perforipancyes. The modern authorf^ 
however, do not .admit ^ny other distinction of genders in the 
cardinal numbers than one. ItDust here also observe^ that tb^ 
iDltmehili der andere, the other. It often *4i8ed as a synonynx^ 



6. Compound numbers change merely the 
last part of the word ; mit sechzehien, with sixteen ; 
mitjunf U7i4 zwanzigen^ with twenty-five 5 tHit vier 
kunderten, with four hundred j mit tausenden, with 
one thousand. 

7. In speaking substantively of the cardinal 
Qumbeis, for instance of the figures in the catds, 
they are considered as the feminine gender ; as, 
€me eiUi or eins^ a one ; eine zzvei\ a two, &c. 
Their plural has the syllable en affixed j as, zwei 
einen^ two ones ^ ziod vieren, two fours, &c. 

8. Hundert and tausend are used as substan- 
tives, with the neuter article ; as, das Hundert, the 
hundred ; das Taiisend, the thousand ; which cor- 
responds with the English mode of expression. 

2. Ordinal Numbers. ' 

The ordinal numbers denote the order or the 
rank of things, and answer to the question, der 
wievielstCy the quantity or amount of a thing. 

The formation of the ordinals is made, by- 
adding the termination te to the cardinals, fixmi 
one to nineteen inclusive (except der erste, the 
first I der dritte^ the third ; which are irrc^lar, and 
ought not to be styled eimte^ dreile^.J and steftom 
t¥rcnty to the lost ^ as^, 

der erste, the first. derJUnfte^ the fifth. 

— asweite, the second. -^ seeks te, the six A. 

— T dritte, the third. — siebcnte, the seventh. 

— vierte, the fourth. — : achte^ the eighth. 



derneunte, the ninth. der dreiszigste^ the 30th, 

' — zeknte, the tenth. — vierzigste, — 40th. 

— elfte, the eleventh. — /iinfzigste, — ' 60th. 
•— zwol/te, the twelfth. — sechzigste, — 60th. 

— drazehnte, the 13th. — sieboizigste,-^ lOtU. 


'— vierzeh?ite, — l4th. — achtzigste, — 80th. 

— funfzehnte, — 15th. *— » neunzzgste, — 9qth* 
•— sechzehnte, — 16th. — himderslCy the 100th. 

— siebenzeknte, — 17th. — hiindert under stCyOtit 

— achtzekntCy — 18th. hundred and first. 

— neunzehnte, — 19th. — tausendste^the lOOOih. 
-— zwanzigste^ — 20th. — tausend acht hundert 
*— ein und zwajtzigstCy und erste, the thoii- 

the twenty-first. sand eight hundred 

— xwei und zwanzigste, and first. 

the twenty-second. 

Observation on the Ordinal Numbers. 

1. The ordinals may be brought under ajl 
-fornas of adjectives, except the first or adverbial^ 
.which is not usual. 

.2. When ordinal numbers join a proper naine, 
;they are put behmd, with the definite article j as> 

- Norn. Georg der dritte, George the third. 

Gen. Georg des dritten, of George the third, 

Dat. Georg dem dritten^ to George the third. 

Ace. 'Georg den dritten, George the third. 

3. When the ordinals are compound, the lat- 
ter part only is declined 5 3ls, der zwei und'zwanr 



Tigste^ the twenty-second ; des zwei iind zwanzig- 
sten, of the twenty-second. 

4. To distinguish one from another, we sayt^ 
der andere ; as, ich habe zwei Briider, der eine ist 
ein Kat{fmann^ der atidere ist eiil Mahler^ I have 
two brothers, one is a' merchant, the other is a 

5. The adjective, halb, half, joined with ah 
ordinal number, is expressed thus : anderthalb^ one 
and a half 5 dritthalb, two and a half, &c.* 

6. The numbers of fraction are-formed from 
the ordinals, by adding the letter / i as das Driltel^ 
das Viertel, das FiinfteU i. e, the third, fourth, 
fifth (part.) The syllable tel is an abbreviation of 
the word Theil, part ; the same as to express das 
driite TTieil, the third part ; das vierte Tlieii, the 
fourth part, &c. 

7. Although the ordinal numbers exclude all 
degrees, there are, n,otwithstanding, some instances, 
where the degrees of^comparison are usual. They 
are formed thus^ erster, first; and letzter, last; 
comparative, ersterer and letzterer, which is used 
for denoting the order, if we speak only of two 
things ; as, ich habe zwey Biicfier, ein Englisches U7id 
ein Deutsches, das erstere habe ick schon gelesen, tmd 


* Th^ same adjective^ when pot before a cardinal number^ 
in speaking of the hour of the day, is rendered ihus: halb 
^ half after twelve j halt zwei, ^^If past one ; haii dm, 
half past two, &c. 



dm Utztere werde ick morgtn kseriy I hare tt^ 
books, an English and a German one ; the* first I 
tere already read^ and the latter I diall begin to* 

3* MiiceUaneous Numerals. 

I. Distributives. 

The following numbers serve to distribut# 
things into classes ; they are of various kinds ; as, 
erstens, erstUch, xtim ersten, Jur das erste, first, in 
the first place ; zzveitens, zum zzoeiten, fur das 
zweite, secondly s dritiens, zum drittenjiir das dritte, 
thirdly, &c- 

2. Einerlei, of one and the same sort , zzoeier- 
lei, of two different sorts ; dreierla/y of three sorts; 
viererlei, of four sorts ; hundert und fiinferleiy of one 
hundred and five sorts ; hwiderterlei, of one hundred 
sorts ; keinerlei, of no sort ; mancherlei^ of diflfe* 
rent sorts ; vielerleyy of various sorts ; allerlei •, of 
all sorts. 

3, Eins und eins, or je eins und eins^ one by 
one ; zzvei und zwei, orje zzvci, two by two s drei 
und drei J or je drei, three by three, &c. einen Tag 
iiber den andern, every other day ; or, zu ztveien, 
zu dreien, zu viere?i, zu funfeuy ^ii sechsen, zu 
hunderten, by hundreds ; zu thausenden, by thou- 

4. Paar- 


* Lei la an aDcieot German word^ which signifies speciet 
or sort. 

• * 4. Paarzveisey or Paar und PaaVy paif, [ot 
tbuple) by pair ; didzendxmse, by dozens ; hiii^ 
dertweise^ by hundreds ^ millioTttvehe^ by millions. 

5. %wd Mann hoch^ two men in front ; drei 
Mann hochy three men in front j vier Mann hoch^ 
four raeii in front ; Jiinf^ sechsy sieben^ acht^ newiy 
zekn, Mann hoch^ five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, 
men in front, &c. 

2. Repetitions. 

^Thty are of two sorts, the first are formed 
fi'om the cardinals^ bv addin^: the word ??/«/ to 
each. They answer to the question, xi^ie viebnal?^ 
how often ? as, einmal^ once, one time ; cin ein- 
ziges rnal, one single tiiiie ; zzveimal^ twice, rfm- 
injaly thrice ; viermal, four times ; funfmaly five 
times; secksmai, six times 5 siebenmaly ^evcti timcs^, 
r^khftmaly ten times, &c. 

.The numbers of repetition of the second spe- 
cies, are formed by adding the same word 7nal^ 


* The word mal may also be added to indeterminate nxxm" 
bcrs, and other words in the same manner j as, diesmal, for, 
this tipie ; jenesmal, for that time ; vielmaly mehrmalj oftmal, 
many times, often ; fnanchmal, several times, every now and 
tlien 5 keinmaly niernal, never. We may convert the same into 
adjectives, by changing mal into trialig ; as, etjimalig, that 
which happens once; zweimalig, which happens twice, &c. 
ExAMPLi^s. Ein dtdmaliger ^ngriff, an attack roade^at three , 
different times ; der viermaiige Einhrucb dcs Feindes^ the ir- 
ruption of the enemy, made at four different times. 


to the ordinals, which marks the tiiie of hifi 
vften ; as, das erstemaly the fiVst time ; dai zxMiU^ 
ihaly the second time,* . 

3. Multiplications. 

The numbers of multiplication are fornaed; hy 
adding to the cardinals the syllable /acA, ox fdUigi 
as, einfach^ simple, or single ; zzveifach\ zweifdlt^i 
Or doppelty double ; dreifach, dreifdltig^ triple, &c. 

They ma^ be declined i^ adjectives ; thus, ein 
einfacher FadeUy a single string; eines eirifachen 
t^ddenSy 6f a single string ; eine ziveifdclie Schnuri 
a double string; die dreif ache Krone^ the tripl6 

4. Collectives. 

They are substantives, expressing a nunafeer f 
asj das Paar, the pair^L (couple) ; das Zehend, th« 



■.•■.'*• , '• ' ' » ' ■ 

* MHl \% a genuine substantive^ and is dctlined with thh 
ot^iHit], to >friiich it IS joined, thus : 

Nom. das Er sterna I, the first time. 
Gen. des Erstenmah, of the first tithe* 
, . Dat. dem Efsienmale. to the first time, &c. 

' 1 1 « . • ... 

We also say %unt erstenmakf Jur das erstemali iot the Ait 
timef zum zweitenmal, &:c. 

If we add, to the ordinal numbers the termloation inali^. 
We have adjectives 5 as, erstmalig, that which arrives, or exlstil 
for the first time ; xiveitmalig, that which arrives, or happeai 
for i second time, &c. Examples. Ibr erstmaliger ISesucb, your 
first visits m^ine zweitmalige Reise nacb Berlin^ 1117 second jour^ 
pe}r to Berlin -, si^r drittmalige Einbrucbdes Fmdis, the invasion 
of tlie enemy, in^de sji £;>i»rtfa timc« 

tenth 5 das Hutzendy the dozenth ; das Mandek 'the 
fifteenth ; das Schock, the sixtieth ; das Hundred^ 
the hundredth 3 das Tausend, the thousandth. 

. > . • i 

5. Cyphers,. 

die Nulle, 



— Eins,* 

der Einsepy 



~ -J^we-z, 

-— ZtoeieTf 



-— Drei, 

— DreicTy 


1 . i 


~ FiVr^ 



— -F'ttVi 

•^ FunftTy 



!T- Sechsy 

-^ SechseVy 



— • SiebeUy 

-^, SiebeneTy 



r- -^^cA;, 

-r- 4chtery 



•r- iVl?W», 

— Neunery 




— ^e-Aw, 

—- Zehmry 

• ten. 


j$. Tii^ Fo/we ^ the Cypken, in the decimal 

f • X ■ . ' . , ? 


Die Etnheity or rfer Einery tt^ t^nit; 
ZehncTy the tenth ; rfer Hundert^Vy the hundredth 
tfer Tausendery the millionth. 

7. Indefinite Numbers. 

\ » ■ - 

These are adjectives, which designate an indelen* 
minate (^[uantityj as, xvenig, little ; pzW, much; TweAr, 

Q 2 


r «4 ! i ; h 

, J ■■•■'' ', 

<mr ¥ ■ ■ [ ' 

"* Bgr laying ^/e Bins, die Zwdy &c. the word ^ft^n 9f 
mrnb^, ii uxUexitoQd I ai^ the mmtiriwo^ &c« 


more* ; mancfier, many a one ; einige^ ctHcbe, se^^ 
veral ; alle, all ; keinery no one, &c. 

When they are accompanied by an article 
and a subsianiive, they are declined like other ac}-? 
jectives; as, 

Norn, der wenige Flcisz^ little application. 

die wenige Miihey little trouble. 

das wenige 6V/rf, little money. 
Gen. des zvenigen Fleisses, SiC. &;c. 

If, however, the former words stand without 
an article, and th^::: substantive to. which they relate 
is npt expressed, but merely understood, then they 
are declined like the adjectives, but without an ar- 
ticle; as, viele sagen dasZy &LC. many saiy that, &c. j - 
xvenige wissen dasZy &cc. few know that, &c.f 

When the former words stand without an ar^ 
tide, but with a substantive expressed immediately 
after, we use them adverbially, in this manner : 

Nom. vielGeldy much money; instead ofvieles Geld. 
Gen. viel Geldcs werth^ the value of much nioney ; 

for vielen Geldes li^erth, 


.- . - ■ I . . . I. I. . ■ , , ,, , II I 

* To decline mehr, more, which is the comparative ofvielt 
we make a new comparison, by adding the syllable er, which ' 
makes mehrer, then we affix the terminations convenient t)iU8 : ' 

Nom. der mehr ere Th'eil, the greater part. 

Qen. Uesmehr^refiTbeifs, of the greater pact, &c. 

•J- These words never stand alone in the singular nomber, 
except in the neuter gender ; bs, wertiges, or ein weniges, a little, 
er a small portion i vieles or ein ^vieles ; a large portion ; m^ht 


reres, or ein mehreres, a greater, or a larger portion. 



»| •Nomrrii?/ gute Menschen^ many good men ; for 

viele gute Menschen. 
Gen., vid filter Memelien, of many good men ; fo^ 

vicler gutc' Alcnsch^iiy &c, 

IIL Of Pronouns. 

A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, 
•to avoid the too frequent repetition of the same 
word. Tliese consist of five kinds ; as, 

1. Personal and reciprocal Pronouns. 

2. Possesswes, 

3. Demonstratives. 

4. Relatives and Interrogativcs. 

5. Miscellaneous Pronouns. 

ITie pronouns, when used as substantives^ stand 
by themselves ; when as adjectives^ they require 
$1 substantive. When a pronoun accompanies its 
substantive, it is conjunctive^ when standing alone, 

As the pronouns frequently precede all other 
definite nouns, most of tliem assume the definite 
declension ; some few partake of both, and seve- 
ral of them only the indefinite declension. 

The personal pronouns answer to the three 
persons of the singular and plural. They are sub- 
stantives, and admit another one to be placed with 
them ; as, dUy Konig in Israel, thou, king of Is- 
rael ; du^ Mutter der LiebCy thou mother of love ; 
4Ui Erhalter der Meiischeny thou, nourisher of all 
inen ; du^ Gottin der^ Weisheity thou, goddess of wis- 


lit ANALYSIS pF rnU 

4om, &c. Tbey designate the persaa, either 4iiH 
tinctlyy as, ichj rfi<, er^ sie, es s or indistinctly, as, 
Jemand, somebody ; nisrnand^ nobody \ m^n, ono, 

or they ; and es, it, . r*.,^..- 

The pronouns o( the ^rst and second person furc 


used with all genders ', but the ^A/rrf is different 
in the singular in this respect. In the plural, how-» 
pver, they ar? all the same. They have only thf 
definite declension, which, yet, is defective in si^ 
yeral cases ; because zcA, mich, dti^ dich, uns^ euc1\, 
and er, have no declinable syllables. 

1. Personal^. 

First Person. 
Singular. i Plural. 

N. ich, I. N. zvir, we. 

G. meiner,ormein,ofme. G. unser, of us, 

D. mir, to me. 
A. michi me. 

D. uns, to us. 
A. uns, us. 

Second Person. 

N. du, thou. 

G. deiiieVy or dein^ of thee. 

p. rf/r, to thee. 

A. dich, thee. 

N. ihvy yoi*. 

G. ett(?r, of yoq. 

D. ewcA, to you. 

A. etich, you. 



Third Person, 


Mate. Fern. Ncut 

N. er, he. sic^ she. esy it. 

6r seineTy or sein^ ikrery or ihvy seiner^ or idn^ 
of him. of her. of il. 

D. ihrriy to him. zAr, to her. ihrky to it. 

A; ihriy ^ Wm. ^/e, her. eSy it. 

N. i-^f, they (for all genders). 
tJ. ihr€7*y of them. 
D. iftneB, to them^. 
A. sky them. 

Reciprocal for the third iPersoov 

N. j[n6ns.) 

G. seiner y or ^e/«, zVir^r, or lAr, seiner^ or f^iw^ 

of himself. of herself. of itself. 

D* ^/cA, to himself, to herself, to itself. 
A. sichy himself, herself, itself. 

N. (none.) 
G. ihrety of themselves. 

D. sichy to themselves. 
A. sichy themselves. 

Remarks on tlte above thymoun^. 

1 . The Genitive case of these proriouns, in both 
numbers, is limited as to its use. It occurs after 



certain verbs, ex. gr. Er lachet meinir, he laugb . 
at me ; er spottet ihrer^ he mocks them, &c. It is 
likewise joined with some prepositions, by means of 
connecting letters ; as, meinetwcgen^ for my sake } 
deifielioegen for thy sake \ ihretitwegai or ikreiwegeni 
on their account. Thus, meinethalben, deinetliatberii 
meinetwillen^ 6r um meinetivilieny &c. &c. 

2. There is not a more absurd custom^ than 
the German manner of addressing each other in con- 
versation and in letters. They do not confine 
themselves to a single personal • but, like the. Ita* 
lians, Spaniards, and Portuguese, make use of the 
Jlrst, secondy and third persons indiscriminately, and 
in many instances use the plural, when speaking , 
to a singte person, as if he w^ere more than one, 
which is done in English and French, by saying 
you and vans, instead oithou. Yet this is not quite 
so irregular as the other, where the person is address-* 
^d as if he were not the same to whom we 
spoke, which is the case, in rriaking use of the 
third personal ; a§, xvas macht er ? zvas macht sie f 
literally, what is he doing ? what is she doing ? 
How is it possible tliat an Englishman could sup-* 
pose, that in these questions the persons are 
meant, to whom they relate, if he does not 
know that it stands for, what art thou doing ? in 
both cases. And how absurd to address one single 
person in the third pronoun plural ; as, was machen 
sie ? literally, what are they doing ? which may 
stand either for a male oxfemaky which the Ger- 



mans make use of for persons to whom they owe 

However, as this absurd mode of address pre- 
vails amcmg all ranks of people, it is here the 
proper place, and my duty, to elucidate the whole 
in striking examples, 

Z)ii, thou, is used in addressing the Supreme 
Being ; as, Gott ! auf dich hqffe ich, du wirst mich 
erreiten, God ! it is in thee alone I trust ; thou wilt 
deliveir me. 

It implies sometimes familiarity, founded upon 
affection and fondness* : it is the pleasing appel- 
kticH), when parents speak to their children, or 
brothers and sisters to one another. It is the language 
of love and conjugal felicity ; and with friends, it 
is considered as a token of intimacy and confix 
dence. It is also, in another manner, applied as 
the reverse of ceremonious politeness. It is made 
use of to people in very subordinate situ^ions ; 
for instance, by the officer to his soldiers, or a 
judge to a criminal, and in speaking to a Jew. It 
is often heard in quarrels and opprobrious language, 
when decorum and propriety are disregarded. All 
these applications may be reduced to the notion 


* There is a pccaliar verb in German, which expresses 
the second personal, vi%. duizen, answering to the French iw 
ioyir, . Und jetxt nocb erne Biite, Lieber, nenne mich du, and 
yet still one more request, roy dearest friend, always call me 


of fatnilkrity, differently modified ; as, mein lieher 
Sohn, da hast noch eine andere Pflicht zu volhichen^ 
my dear son, thou hast still another duty to per- 
form ; hdre Judy zoos giehst du mir vor diesen R^ I 
here, Jew, how much wilt thou give me for this 
coat ? 

//tr, you, is applied to one person* and gene- 
rally conveys the idea of that condescending ft- 
miliarity, which is used towards inferiors, as a 
master towards his servants ; it is also bestoWed 
upon people of low condition ; as, Johann ! ihr 
muszt in die Stadt geheuy John, you must go to the 
city. ; Sophie^ ihr miisztmch eilen^ Sophiai, you mjast 
make haste* 

£r, he. Persons of rank will speak to tradeis^ 
people in the t&iird person of the cihgnkr, thus : 
Meister Jung ^ag er miry &!<:. Mister Jung^ teH 
me, &c. ; setze ersich, seat yourself .^ Frofir^Fueh* 
sinriy sag sie mir dock, Mrs. Fuchs^ tell me then^ &c. i 
setze sie sick, sit down. 

Sie, they, is used for persons to whom ^6 ioWe 
respect, -and is employed both in the masculine atid 
feminize ; as, fneiii Herr, He iverdeti mir eine groszt 
Ehreerzeigen, Sir, you willdb me agreait honour; 
. Madafjie^ zcoUen sie so giltig seyn. Madam, will you 
be so kind, &c. &c. 

3. The. power of the reciprocal prontouns is 
this : the first and second personals themselves are 
u^ed reciprocally, without any addition. Myself, 
thyself, ourselves, yourself, and yourselves, are ex- 


pressed by micht dich, uns, eiich. For the third 
peraQA there is a peculiar reciprocal, which may 
be jseen aboye. In this respect, the German lari- 
guage differs from the English, where the i^ci- 
thi procals are composed of the possessive pronouns 
and the termination self. We have a word which 
{m3w:ers to self, which is the invariable pronoup 
selbst, or s^ll>er y but that may be annexed not 
o»ly to pronouns, but to any substantives, to which 
it imports an emphasis of distinction. (See the 
invariable pronoun self^ explained at the end of 
the pronouns.) It will be understood, that as thfe 
thurd personal serves as a pronoun of address, the 
third reciprocal must correspond with it ; as, seize 
tp siclif Jiterajjy, Jet him seat himself, i. e. sit dowpi 
S€lz0 sie sichf literally, let her seat herself, 2. e. 
sit dpwiir The first applies to a man of inferior 
coodition^ and the latter to a woman of the sam6 
condition ; but setzen sie sich, the plural, as a po- 
lite mode of speaking, literally, let them seat them- 
selves, for sit down. 

4* The neuter of the third person singular, is 
used as the subject Nominative before and after 
yert)s, and is joined with all genders and numbers j 

ex. gr. 

Es ist der Vater, it is the father. 

— — die Mutter J i mother, 

— — das Kindy ■ ■ . ■ child. 

Es sind Manner y they -are men. 

— — Weiber, ■ women. 

■ ' Kinder, i children. 

R 2 Es 



Ei i$t ein Mann hievy there is a man here. 

■ i ■ eine Frau hier. ■ woman here* 

Es sind Leutc hier^ there are people here. 

Ein Marm ist es, it is a man. 

Manner sind es, they are men. 

5. Es is often contracted with other pronouns^ ? 
as, ichsy mirsy michs, dirs, dichs^ ihrs, instead c^ 
iches, mir es, mich es, dir es, dich es, ihr es.. I 
good composition these contractions ought to l> 
avoided, though they are more frequent in coll 
quial language. 

2. Possessives. 

These pronouns have three genders in 
singular, and are declined in the same manner 
the indefinite article, and the first numeral ; as. 

Masc. Fern. 


mein, my. 



N. mein, 
G. meines, 
D. meinem, 
A. meinen. 

Like this are declined the following 5 as, 
dein, deine, dein, thy, 
sein, seine, sein, his, or its. 
ihvy ihre, ihr, her. 
unser, unsere, unser, our. 
eiier, eure^ euer, your. 
meiner, meine, meines, mine, 
deiner^ deine, deines, thi^e. 


. seiner y seine y seines, his. 

- ihrery ikre, ibres, hers. 

: unserer, ttnserey unseres, ours, ^ 

eurevy eure, cures y yours; or, 
der meiney die meiney das meine^ mine. 

- der meinige, die meifiige, das meinige^ mixie. 8ic. 

Remarks on the Possessives. 

1 . These pronouns are either joined to a noun ; 
TiSimein Vatery my father; deine Schwestery thy 
sister ; sein Kindj his child, &c. Or they stand by 
theipselves, and the masculine gender, in the No^ 
minative singular, sometimes receives the termi- 
nation er ; and the neuter, in the Nominative and 
Accusative, that of es. 

, When these terminations are added, it is a 
sign that a noun is understood, ex. gr, das ist meiji* 
Stocky that is my stick ; neiny es ist meinefy or der 
meinigCy no, it is mine : Wessen Ilund ist das? whose 
dog is that ? es ist unserery it is ours : Jst diesz met" 
neSy oder Hires ? is this mine, or theirs ? nein es ist 
deinesy oder euerSy no, it is thine, or yours, &c. 

2. In 

. * Mein and metner are . generally said to aoswer to wy 
and mine in English, They do in the instances before-men* 
tioned. There is one construction^ however^ where in English 
the possessive mine is to be rendered not by metner, but by mm, 
namely^ when it is separated fronx its noun by a verb ; as, diesd 
Bucb ist mein, this book is mine 3 dieses Pferd ist mein, thia 
horse is mine. The above^ meiner, meine, meines, deiner, sei^ 
ner, kc, are declined like gutery gute^ gutes. 

. ^ 



2. In unser, euer, the e iKjfore r is frequently 
dropt, when a syllable follows it s as, unsrer, un* 
srersj eurer, euresy for unsereri unserers^ euerer^ fuC" 
resy This omission is arbitrary. 

3 . Dero and ihro (instead of ihr) your, or yours^ 
are indeclinable, and are merely used in ancient and 
ceremonious language. They serve to address per- 
sons of high rank. 

4. We sometimes find the possessives put after 
Genitive cases ; 2i% des Mann seiii Pferd, the man *s 
horse ; der Frau ihr Kind^ the woman's child j for 
des Marines Pferd, das Kind d^r Frau, &c. . but 
this is not classical. 

S. Demonstratives. 

Under this head are comprized all those which 
point out or determine the subject to which they 
irefer. The declension of those which are properly 
3etnanstrative, is thus : 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. diesery diese, dieses, or dieszy this. 

G« dieses^ dieser, dieses^ 

X>. diesem, diesery diesem. 

A. dieseriy diese, ditses^ ox diesz. 

JJ. ienir^ jency jenes^ that, 

Cr. jeftesy jenery jenes. 

Xi. jeneniy jener^ jenem. 

A. jeneny jene^ jmes^ 




' diesen. 






1. It sometimes happens, that wc find two 
demonstrarives put together in the Genitive and 
Dative singular and the Genitive plural. , Tlie last 
ofthem may assume the termination en, instead of 
^r> tniy es : this is done to preserve the harmony 
of the language ; as, der Rath dieses undjenen Mail- 
nes, the advice of this and that man ; die AleiimU' 
gen dieser und jtneu GelehrteUy the opinions of 
these and those scholars; von dieser undjenen Bege^ 
beubeit, of this and th^t event ; aus diesem undjenen 
Britfcy out of such or such a letter. 

2. The neuter singular of these pronouns is put, 
indiscriminately, before and after verbs ; as, dieses 
or dies% ist ein Besen, this is a hroojfn jjenes ist eine 
Burste^ that is a brush 5 diesz sind FremdCy these, 
are strangers ; was fur ein Bawn ist dies% ? what 
sort of a tree is this ? zva^ fiir eine Frucht ist 
diesz ? what sort of a fruit is this ? was fur Leutc 
sind diesz ? what people are these ? 

The determinative pronouns^ which determine 
a subject, are generally followed by a relative. 
They are declined thus : 

Singular. Ehirafl. 





N. dery 


dasy that. 


G. desseuy 




D. devfiy 




A. den^ 






Singular. Flural* 

Masc. Fern. Neuf. 

N. derjenigCy diejenige, dasjenige, diejenigen. 


G. desjemgen, derjenigen, desjemgen. derjenigen. 

D. demjenigeriy derjenigai, demjenigen. denjenigen. 

A. daij^nigen, diejem'ge, day'enige. diejenigen. 

N. derselbe, dieseWcj dasselbe, dieselbeh. 

the same. 

G. desselbeUy dei^selben, desselben, dcrselben. 

jy. demselben^ derselben, demsdbat. denselben. 

A. denselben, dieselbr, dasselbe. dieselben. 


1. These pronouns may stand by themselves, 
or be joined ttf substantives ; as, deir, zoelcher 
mddglebty ist toeisCy he, who lives moderate, acts 
wisely; der Mensch, zvelcher in der Jugend spart^^^ 
ist walirhaft klitg^ that mart, who is saving in his 
youth, acts truly prudent, &c.* 

2. The relative generally follows after derje* 
nige, but very seldom after cfer, and derseWe; as, 
es ist der Herr^ it is the genleman ; es ist der^ 
selbe Herr, it is the sanle gentleman. 

3. When der stands by itself, some local ad- 
verb is generally joined with it 5 as, der da, that 


^Wi^'^—^^iMiii— ^— i— ^P ■ p«^i— IM^^^i^ illli I. .■■■ ■ ^ 

* We must not confound the demonstrative pronoun deft 
with the definite article, der, die, dqs. The former has a ' 
strongejr accent in proounciatioa than the definite article. 


man there ; der hier^ that man here' ; der dort, that 
man yonder ; tvessen Pferd ist das f whose horse is 
that ? dessen da, or desz da, that man's ; wem ge- 
hSrt es ? to whom does it belong ? dem da, to 
that man. 

4. Das, like diesz and es^ is used absolutely, in 
connexion with different numbers and genders ; as, 
das ut der Knabe, that is the boy ; das ist die Toch- 
ter, , that is the daughter ; das sind die BUcher, 
those are the books, 

5. The adverb eben is sometimes put before 
the. demonstrative pronouns, and so also the first 
nunieral ein ; the first gives an additional force, 
and the latter increases the meaning ; as, eben der, 
diei das, the very same ; eiu wid eben derselbe, one 
and. the same. 

, 6. Derselbige^ dieselbige, dasselbige, Ao not vzxy 
in signification, from derselbe. Der ndmliche und 
d^rgleiche, are mere substitutes for derselbe. 

1. The following belong also to the list of de- 
monstratives ; as, selbiger, ge, ges, that, or the said 
(man) -, solcher, eke, ches^ or ein solcher, che, ches, or 
sa ein 9 e, ein, such a ohe. 

8. Instead of the demonstrative pronouns with 

certain prepositions, the local adverbs, hier, here, 

and i2a5 there, are frequently made use of : hier is 

then changed into hie, before a consonant, and da 

is transformed into dar, before a vowel -, as, hier-- 

wit, or hiemit, herewith -, dawn, thereof; daran, 


5 4. Re" 



4. Relatives and Inter rogatives. 


The English distinguish in their relatives^ the 
pronouns who and which, applying the former to 
persons, and the latter to animals and things. The 
Germans only use welcher, in relation to the one 
and the other. In English, that supplies oftctt thfe 
place of who or which, for the purpose of avoid-* 
ing repetition. In this manner the Germans make 
use of der, die, das, instead of toelcher, wclche^ 
Xpekhes. Declension of welcher : 

,N. welcher. 




G. welches, welcher, 
D. zvelchem, welcher, 
A. welclien, xtelche. 


welches, who 
or which. 




N. wer^ who ? was what ? 

G. wessen, whose? 

D. wem, to whom ? 

A. wen, whom ? was what ? 




^ \ 

iiemarks. , 

T. i)er, may be also used as a demonstrative 
pronoun -, but as der conveys often two meanings, 
and may produce misconceptions, especially 'fh>m 
the proximity of a similar word, we rather pfefer 
xvelcher, instead of ckr ; as, ick, welcher {inst^Bd of 

der J 


^er) viele gute Bucher gelesen habe, I who have 
tead many good books, &c. 

a. Mer, asarelative> cannot be joined with 
a substantive ; for instance, der Knabe^ can never 
express which bay. 

S. The Genitive plural q( der, die, das, is pro- 
^eriy derer, but when ia a relative signification^ it 
IS often changed into der^n -, as> Fremde, deren An- 
kuTife nnbekannt war, strangers, whose arrival being 

4. The adverb so, so, occasionally serves as a 
substitute for the relative ; as, das Mittel, so ich 
ieuch vorg^schlagen habe, the remedy, which I have 
proposed to you ; diejenigeny so mit mir redeten, 
those. Who spoke to me. 

5. Wer, who, as a relative, always begins a 
sejitence, but never c;in be joined with a substan- 
tive ; as, wer Knabe, which boy, ought to be, wel- 
ther Knabe. 

6. The neuter was, what, may either commence 
ia sehtence, or be placed after an antecedent ^ aS) 
was ich gesagt habe ist zmhr, what I have said is 

'7. The relative pronouns are sometimes omit* 
ted inEngli^, and are only understood; as, the 
per^H Ilo^e, i. e. whom I Jme : in German they 
must always be expressed, ♦ 

9* The pronouns «fc^r ; neuter was; andzvei*- 
cher, Welches welches, also answer to questions, or in 
Other words have the signification of interrogatives. 

s 2 Wer, 



IFer^ is applied to persons, either male or femafe, 
and was to things. They ask the question in a ge- 
neral way, as the English who and what, therefore 
they are tiever joined with a substantive. IVelcJiery 
tvelchey welches, refers to particular objects, and 
may be united with substantives. It answers to 
the English interrogative which ; as, welcher Knabe, 
which boy ? welclie Frau, which woman ? zvelckes 
Kind, which child? 

9. Was is generally combined with the indefinite 
article, and the preposition Jilr is inserted between 
was and the article ; as, zoasjur einMarm^ what man, 
or what kind of a man? was fur eine Frau, what 
woman, or what kind of a woman ? ijoasfur ein 
Pferd, what horse, or what kind of a horse ? In- 
stead oi was fur ein, we sometimes find, welch ein y 
as, welch ein Mann, welch eine Frau, welch ein 

10. The local adverb wo^ where, joined with 
a preposition, frequently supplies the place of a 
relative pronoun ; as tcomit, wherewith j instead of 
mit welchem, fem. welcher, or plur. mit wekhen, with 
which : — wovon, whereof, instead of von welchem, 
welcher^, welchen, of which : — wodurch, instead of 
durch welchen, zoelche, through which. When the 
preposition begins with a vowel, an r is inserted 
after wo ^ as, woraus, whereout, for out of which ; 
woriiber, whereupon, or whereover, for upon which, 
or over which. 

5. Mis^ 


5. Miscellaneous Pronouns. 

Under this denomination I comprehend the 
following, which I did not think it necessary to 
class under the foregoing divisions. They are in- 
definite pronouns, because they design a person or 
a thing indeterminate. Some of them are inde- 
clinable; as, 

mauy one, or they ; as, man sagt, they say. 

eSf it ; as, es ist nicht wahr, it is not true. 

etwas, semething ; as, ich gab ihr etwas, I gave her 


nichts, nothing j as, er gab mir nichts davon, he 

gave me none of it. 

The following are declinable ; as, einer, eine, 
one, or some one ; ein einzzger, or ein einiger, a 
single one ; keiner, keine^ none, or no one ; man-^ 
cher^ manche, many a— ; solcker, solche^ such a— ; 
verschiedene, sundry ones ; etUche, some ones ; ein 
und andere, one and others ; all, alle, alles, all ; jV- 
mahdj some one 5 niemand, no one -, jederman, every 
one I ein jeder, eine jede, each one ; ein jeglichery 
eine jegliche, everyone; der eine, die eine, the one; 
der andere, die andere, the other; 6e/rf^, both; der 
ein und der andere, die eine und die andere, the one 
and the other. 

Keimr, mancher, solcher, einer^ are doclined 
thus : ' 



Analysis of tHB 




























Ein jedety tin jeglicher, ein ehtziger^ trc di^ 
clined thus, without plural : 

' Masc. ' 
N. ein jedeVy 

ein jedes. 

eine jedCy 
G. eines jedeny einer Jeden, eines jedefi. 
D. einem jedeny einer jeden, eineni jed^n^ 
Av einen jeden, eine jede, ein jedes. 

The subsequent three are declined in the fol* 
'lowing manner without plural : v 

N. jemand. niemttnd. 

G. jemands. niemands. 

D. jemanden. niemanden. 

A: jemanden. niemanden^ 

The followinghave no singular number y t«> 

N. beidcy "both. alky alL 

G. b eider. alle7\ 

D. beiden. aUen^ 

A. beide. aUe^ 


1 . EineTy eine, eins, is often employed in art 
absolute sense ; as, einei die gem heirathen xvollte^ 
sagle, Xc some one, who wished to marry, said, &c* , 
. i * 2. The 



2. The neuter, eiits, conveys also a thing ; as * 
noch einSy still one. It serves also to mark one 
thing out of two or more persons, which are not 
of the same sex ; as, cins von euch beiden Jiat unr 
rechty one of you are wrong. 

3; Keiner is always put in a negative sense; 
as9 keiner weisz wenn er sterben wirdy no one knows 
when he must die 5 keines von uns^ none of us; 
The same is applicable . to niclUs, nothing. 

4, The invariable pronoun, selbsty or selber, 
has been noticed before. It answers to self, in 
English, but may be added to any pronoun or 
substantive in its original state ; as, ich selbst, I 
myself; die Leiite selbst, the people themselves, &c, ^ 

IV. Of Adjectives, 

When the adjective is placed before the sub* 
stahtive, it must agree with it in gender, number, 
md case, 

Wherp the adjective is placed after fhe sub-> 
stantive, the termination is omitted, both in the 
singular and plural : as, der Vater is gut, the father 
is good i die Vater sind guty the fathers are good i 
iie Mutter is gtity the mother is good ; die Mailer 
find gttty tht mothers are good; das Kind ist schon,. 
the child is handsome ; die Kinder sind schon, the 
children are handsome. 

The declensions pf the adjectives are two. 




Declension \sU 

Singular. Plural. 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. guter^ gut€y gutes: gate. 

G. guteSy guter^ gutes. gtiter,' 

D. gitt^my gutevy gutem. suteit. 

A. guten, • gutey gutes. gute. 

Declension 2d. 

N. gute, gute, gute. guten, 

G. guten, guten^ guten. guten. 

D. guten^ guten^ guten. guten. 

A. guten, gute, gute. guten. 

Remarks on Adjectives. 

Adjectives, or the accidents ef nouns, are by 
the Germans divided into two classes, quality and 

The ^first class comprehends those accidents 
which are inherent in the noun itself; as, roth, red ; 
viereckig, square ; gut, good, &c. 

The second, those which are independent of it. 
To this latter are refered the articles, numerals and 

As many substantives admit not of different 
. variations in all their cases, and consequently am- 
biguity might arise, this inconvenience is, in some 
degree, obviated, either by the termination of the 
, article, or of the adjective. \ 

Rule I. An adjective, if it be preceded by 
the article der, by a numeral, or by any pronoun, 



rfhost nominatives singular have the terthinations 
r, e, s, is declined according to the second de- 
clension. Of this description ate^ der, aller, man*^ 
ch€j\ jeder, diescryjener-, derselbcy derjenige^ solcher^ 
welchety beide*, der gute Mann^ the good 
man j dkscr fromme Vater^ this pious father i man-^ 
dter kbige Mann, many a prudent man ; manchem 
bosen Memchaiy to many a wicked man^ &c. Ex- 
CEPT unseTy eiicrj and ihr ; for the er and r are not, 
properly speakings the inflection of the NominativCi 
The same rule must be observed if more than 
one adjective follows the article^ &e. as, dieser olid 

brave Mann, this brave old man ; je7ie schone rothc 
Bhtmeiiy those beautiful red flowers, &c. 

Sukll. An adjective, if it be preceded by the 
article ein, or by a pronoun j whose Nominative and 
Accusative singular, have not the termination of the 
first declension fer, e, es^ and en, e, esyj assumes 
these terminations in the Nominative and Accusa- 
tive singular, but in all other cases and genders 
both numbers terminate in em 

Of this description are ein (the article as well 
as numeral)^ kein^ viel, wenig, niehr ; the posses- 
sives, mein, dein, sein, unser, euer, ihr, deros^nd 
the personals ich, du, er, 8(c. ex. gr. ich armer Mann^ 
me a poor man; mir armeri {not armem J Manne, 
to me a poor man ; du gate Seele, tf^ou good soul i ein 



* Beide, both, b from its natare only plural/bot adtntts 
it ail the yariatioDS of casr. 



schones Kindy a fine child ; mein eigews Hdui^ ray 
own hduse; nuinem eigenen Hause, to my own 
hcmse ; mit dero gutigen Erlaubnisz, with your kind 

The same rule must be observed, if more than 
one adjective follow the article or pronoun ; as, deift 
gutevy alter y ehrlicher Vater; thy good, old, hdnest 
fether ; ein einigcr lieber Sohn, one only dear son. 

As an exception to the two preceding rules, it 
may be observed, that the Nominalii^, Vocative^ 
(which is like the former) and Accusative plural, 
sometimes terminate in e ; as, meine arme Lipperh 
my poor lips, &c. ^ 

Rule III. If an adjective, not preceded by any 
other word, goes before a substantive, it is de- 
clined according to the first declension ; ex. gr. ro- 
fher Wein, red wine ; geharsame Kinder , obedient 

If two or more adjectives, not preceded by 
any other word, go before a substantive, the first 
is declined according to the ,/?r^f declension, .and 
the others adopt the second rule ; that is^ the No- 
minative arid Accusative cases singular terminate in 
er, Cy esy andew,V, eSy respectively, and all other 
cases arid genders of both numbers terminate in^; 
ex. gr. gidery weiserVatery good, wise, father; oi£/«72, 
weisen Vater^ to a good, wise, father ; reife^ siisze 
Fruchty ripe, sweet, fruit ; reifer^ siiszen Friichiy of 
ripe, sweet, fruit. 
[ If a numeral precedes an adjective, in those 



< • 

onses^ where the numeral has not the terminations 
of the. first declension, the adjective assumes them : 
in aU other cases^ the adjective follows the second 
declension ; ^x. gr. zwei lange Tage, two long 
d^ys ; ztveier laiigen Tage, of two long days ; drei 
baare ThcdtTy three ready dollars , i. c. ready mo- 
ney I dreier baaren Thaler ^ of three ready dollars. 

The Genitive singular of the masculine and 
neater genders^ to avoid the repetition of this letter 
Sy are sometimes made to terminate in en i as> ge- 
rades Weges, straight course ; hiesigesOrtes^ this pre- 
sent place ; are better expressed by geraden Weges^. 
hiesigen Ortes ; the termination of the substantive 
preventing any doubt respecting the case. 

For a similar reason, the Dative case of adjec- 
tives ending in m ; as, arin^ poor ; angenehm, agree- 
able ; mmehm, noble, &c. sometimes ends in en 
rather than em. 

Some German adjectives admit of no declen- 
sion : for instance, the word allerhahd, several, sun- 


dry ; and those which are compounded with halb, 
or the syllable lei ; as, allerhand Sachen^ various 
sorts of things s zweierleiDinge, two different things*. 
Adjectives are capable of being converted into 
substantives, which may be done in two ways. 

1 . Elliptkally, when a substantive is understood; 

T 2 as. 

* Ganx and halb, used without an article, are iodeclin^- 
ble, as in English ; as^ ganz DeutscMand, all Germany -, halb 
England, half England. 


fin, der Gelehrte (Marm)^ the learned mdn, of 
scholar; die Schdne (Frmi)^ the fair lady ; die 
Behannte (Frau)y the female acquaintance, &c. 

2. Abstractedly i which follow a different manner| 
ts, das Blaxiy the colour of blue ; das JVeis, the co* 
lour of white ; das Bund, a round substance, &c. 
We find, sometimes, two adjectives of the same 
termination going before a substantive ; the termi- 
nation of the first is generally suppressed, for the 
sake of brevity ; aSf em schxvaz^ und tveiszer Hut, 
a black and white hat ; ein genug- und arbeitsdmer 
Mann^ a contented and industrious man ; for ein 
schtcarzer und weiszer Htif, ein genUgsamer und 

Observation. All participles are of the nature 
of adjectives, and are capable of the Si^me modjr 

• • 


^ords, denoting qualities, are capable of de? 
grees of comparison: these are the adjectives, and 
in some measure the adverbs. 

Their comparison i§ generally effected by two 
degrees ; one of them, conveyipg the idea nwre, 
'which is called comparative ; and the Qthef pxpres- 
sing the notion inost, and is called superlativc.^ 

As these degrees of comparison correspond 
with those in the English language, the stujlent 
will learn to form them with the greatest facility. * 

Jf. for instance, in the English, the adject|ye 



wisa is to*be formed into a comparative degree, it 
is- to be done by the addition of the letter r> and 
4ie 5uperiativi2 by adding $t ; as, wise, wiser, wisest, 
which is the same case in German. L^t us now 
consider the formation of both $legrees in the Ger? 
mjiQ language. 


Take any adjective in its radical state ; as, zoeise^ 
prudent; ^chon, handsome ; or en^^,'narrow, which 
is called the positive, add to any of them the letter 
r, when it ends in c, or if not, the syllable er, and 
you ha^e the comparative -, as, weise^ weiser ; schUn^ 
schqner ,• etige, enger. 

fhe declension of the comparatives follow that 
pf t^e positive. 

Memarfc^ on tf{e comparative Degree. 

1. Mono^Uabic adjectives change the voweb 
a, Oy u, into their diphthongs, a, o, U ; as arm^ poor ; 
armer; lang, long^ Idnger; kur», short; kiirzer, &c. 

2. The comparative is always followed by als 
or denn, as or than ; ex. gr. Georg vst rcicher als, 
or denn Martin, George is richer than Martin ; He- 

' Uodora ist schiiner als Helena, Heliodora is hand- 
^omer than Helena, &c. 


Iq adding to the positive, or the first form of 
jidjcctives, the syllable ste, or este, which gives them 



the superlative degree ; as, schon, handsome ; schon- 
ste ; groszy great ; groszeste, &c. 

The declension of the superlative is the same 
as that of the positive ; ex. gr. 

der schcnstCy die schonste, das schonste: 

— groszestCy — groszeste, — groszestCy or 

— groszte, — grqszte, — groszte. 

In the following words, the vowels remain 
unaltered through all the de^ees. 
bunty of various colours, morschy squashed. 

fahly fallow. muntery lively. 

Jakchy false, plump, clownish. 

frohy happy. roh, raw. 

kohly hollow. j^undy round. 

hold, kind. sacht, soft. 

kahl, bold. satt, satiated. 

karg^ tenacious. starr, benumbed. 

knappy close. j/ofa, proud. 

iflAw, lame. straff, straight. 

los, loose. itiimm, dumb. ' 
znatt, faint. 

suid those ending in kaft and sam ; as, 
lasterhqfty vicious 5 tiigendhaftj virtuous ; 

fuTchtsamy fearful. 

The superlative is always followed by ww, of 
unteTy or by the Genitive case alone ; as, cr ist der 
beste von scinen Knechteiiy he is the best of his ser- 
vants ; or, er ist der beste unter seinen Knechteriy he 
IS the best among his servants ; or, er ist der beste 
seiner Knechte. 



Thfj following adjectives are irregular in their 

comparison : 

bald, soon ; eher, sooner ; am ekesten, the soonest; 

bos, bad ; schlimmer, worse ; am sMimmsteny the 


gem, willmg ; lieber, more willing ; am liebsteriy 

most willing. 

gut, good ; besser^ better ; am besten, best. 

A(?cA, high ; hoher, higher ; am hochsten^ highest. 

nahe, near -, ndher^ nearer ; am ndchsten, nearest. 

viel, much -, mehr, more ; am meisten, most. 




Graf Fiesko. (einMohr 
iritt schiichtern ins Zimmer^ 
und sieht sich iiberaU sorgfdU 
tig urn ; Fiesko faszt ikn 
scharf und lang ins Auge,) 
Was willst du ? — Wcr bist 



Count FiEsco. (aMon 
entering with an appearance 
of timidity^ and looking rntftd 
cautiously^ while FiE see looks 
steadfastly and sternly at him. J 

What wouldst thou have ? 


— Who art thou ? 


* This interesting scene which I have selected, is well cal- 
culated to impress the student with a better knowledge of tlie 
rules he has already perused in (he preceding part of the work. 
It is taken from the chef d'ceuvre of Schiller, intitled : die Ver- 
scbworung in Genua ; to which I have added my own trans- 
lation, to render it more intelligible. The scene itself is strik- 
ing and full of humour. It exhibits a Moor endeavouring fo 
asajs inate count Fiesco. 



MoHf. (ivie oben.) £in 
Sklave der Republick. 

FxcsKO. Sklaverei isteia 
clcndes Handwcrk. (immer 
^ein scharfei Aug avf ihn) 
Was suchst da ? 

MoHR. Herr icti bin cin 
ciirricher Mann. 

F J E s Ko . Hang imroer die- 
sen Schitd vor dein Gesicht 
hinaus, das \rird nicht liber- 
fliiszig seyn ; — r aber was 
suchst du ? 

MoHR. {sucht ihm immer 
ndher %u kon^mcn^ FiESKO 
weic/it aiis.) Herri ich bin 
kein Spitzbube. 

FiESKo. £s ist gutdaszdu 
dasbeifiigst) nnd — doch wie- 
der nicht gut. (ung^duldig) 
Aber was suchst du ? 

MoH R . {fuckt wieder na- 
her.) Seid ihr der Graf Fies- 

FiESKO. (stolTii) ■ Die 
Blinden in Genua kennen 
meinen Tritt. — Wa» soU dir 
der Graf? 

MoHR. (hart an ihn,) 
Seid auf curer Hut Fiesko ? 

FlESKo. {spttngt auf die 
andere Seite*) Das bin ich 


0» tfit 

Moor, fas ahve-J A 
slave of die republic. 

Fi£sco« Slavery w «. 
wretched profession, {his eyes 
stili fixed on the Moor.) What 
dost thou seek for ? 

Moor. Sir, 1 am an ho-" 
nest man. 

FiEspo. Thou well may V 
assume this veil, it may not 
be superfluous ; — But what 
seekest thou i 

Moor, {attempting to op-* 
protich him^ FiEsco drawi 
back.) Sir, 1 am no ^Slain. 

FiEsco. 'Tis well that 
thou say'st so ; and yet, 'tis 
not well, {impatienily) How- 
evefj what dost thou seek ? 

Moor, (still endeavouring 
to approach,) Are you count 
Fiescd ? 

FiEsco. (haughtily.) Rwcn 
the blind in. Genoa know my 
steps. What would'st thou 
with the count ? 

Moor. ( approaching near-i 
er to him.) Be oh your guard» 
Fiesco ! 

FiEsco. {springs hastily to 
the other side,) That, indeedy 
I am. 




MoHR. {wie oben.) Man 
Kat niches guts gegen euch 
vor Graf. 

FiESKO. (retirirt sichwie- 
der.) Das seh ich. 

MoHR. Hiitet euch vor 
dem Doria I 

FiESKO, (tritt ihm ver- 
troHt wher.) Fr^und ! . solt 
kh dir doch wohl unrecht ge- 
than haben ? diesen Namen 
iurcihte ich wirklich* 

MoHR« So flieht vor dem 
l4ano« Konnt ihr lesen ? 

FiEsKo. Eine kur^weilige 
Frage. Du bist bei panchem 
Kavalier herumgekommen. 
Hast du etwas schriftliches ? 

MoHR. Euren Namen bei 
armenSUndem. {erreichtihm 
9tn$n Zeitel^ und nistet sich 
hart an ihtu FjESKo tritt 
vor einen Spiegel und schielt 
uher das Papier. Der Mohr 
feht laurend um ihn ierum, 
tndlich zieht er denDolck und 
will stoszenj 

FiEstCo. {dreht sich ge- 
sehitki und fdhrt naeh dem 
Arm dis Mohren. ) Sachte Ka- 

naille ! 

Moor, (continuing to ap^ , 
proachj Evil designs arc 
formed against you. Count. 

Fie SCO. (still drawing 
hack.) That 1 perceive. 

Moor. Beware of Doria ! 

Fie SCO. (approaching him 
with an air of confidence.) 
Perhaps, friend, my suspi- 
cions have virronged tb^*rr- 
Ppria is indeed the name I 
dread. * 

Moor. Then avoid him. 
Can you read ? . 

FiEsco. A strange queS"> 
tion I However,, thou hast 
been acquainted, it seems^ 
with many of our nobles. 
Art thou possessed of any 
writings ? 

Moor. Your name is in- 
scribed in the &tal h'st of those 
who are doomed to die.. {pVe^ 
sents a paper f and nestles up 
close to Fiesco^ who is stand-' 
ing before a looking-glass ^ and 
glancing over the paper. The 
Moory leeringy steals round 
him^ draws a dagger^ and is 
going to stab him,) 

Fie %co*(turningrounddex^ 
terousfyi and seizing the Moor^t 
arm,) Softly, scoundrel! 

U. {wrens 



naillc ! (entreiszt ifim den 

MoHR. (stampft wild auf 
den Boden.) Teufel. — Bitt' 
um Vergebung. [wili sich ab- 

FlESKO. (packtihn^ mit 
starker Stimme,) Stephano ! 
Drullo! Antonio! {denMoh- 
ren an der GurgeL) HolHsche 
Biiberei. (Bedienten,) Bleib 
und antworte ! Du hast 
schlcchte Arbeit gemacht ; an 
wen hast du deinen Taglohn 
zu fordern ? 

MoMR. {nach vielen ver^ 
get lie hen Venue hen sich weg- 
%U5tehleny entschlossen,) Man 
kann mich nicht hoher han- 
gen als der Galgen ist* 

FiESKo. Nein ! troste 
dich ! nicht an die Horner 
des Mondsy aber doch hoch 
genug, dasz du den Galgen 
fiir einenZahnstocheransehen 
sollsc. Doch deine Siaats-< 
klugheit war zu schlau, als 
dasz ich sic deinem Mutter- 
witz zutrauen sollte; Sprich 
also, wcr hat dich gedungen ? 

MoHR. Herr, einenSchur- 
ken konnt ihr mich schim* 


{wrests the dagger jr^rfl 

Moor, (stamps in afran^ 
tic manner,) The devil !— 
I beg your pardon ! \Jie al<- 
tempts to retire,) . 

Fi E s c o . (seizing him^ calls 
with a loud yoicej Stephano! 
Drullo ! Antonio ! (holding 
the Moor l/y the throat, J Stay, 
my good friend! hellish vil- 
lainy ! (servants enter,) Stay, 
and answer!* Thou hast per- 
formed thy task in a bungling 
manner ; who pays thee 
wages ? 

Moor, (after several fruit* 
less attempts to e scape ^ reso- 
lutely answers.) I cannot be 
hanged higher than the gal- 

Fie SCO. No ! be cdm- 
forted; not on the horns of 
the moon ; but yet so high, 
that on beholding the gal- 
lows it shall appear to thee 
as >small as a toothpick. Yet 
thy design was too politic to 
originate in thy own contri- 
vance. Say then, ^ho has 
hired thee ? ^ 

Moor. Sir, you may call 
me a rascal, but I must en- 



pfen, aber den Dummkopf 
vcrbitt ich. 

FiESKo. 1st die Bcstie 
stolft ? Bestie sprich, wer hat 
dkh gedungcn ? 

MoH R . (naehdenkend. ) 
Hum! Sowarichdochnicht 
allein dcrNarr ? — Wermich 
geduDgenhat ? — Und warcn's 
doch nur lOO magere Zechi- 
nen ! — Wer mich gedungen 
hat ? — Prinz Gianettino, 

FiESKo. {erbitiert aufund 
mederJ) Hundert Zechinen 
und nicht mehrfiir desFiesko 
Kopf! {hdmhch.) Schame 
dich Kronprlnz von Genua. 
(nach einer Schatoulle eilend.) 
Hier Bursche sind looo und 
sag deineoi Herrn er sey ein 
knickigcr Mordcr ! -^ {der 
Mohr betrachtet zhn von Fusz 
bis %um Wirbel.)—D\x be- 
sinnst dich Bursche ? — {.der 
Afohr nimmt das Geldy setzt 
es nleder^ nimmt es wiedefy und 
besiiht ihn nut immer steigen- 
demErstaunm.) Wasmachst 
da Bursche? (derMobrvjirft 

treat^you to leave out blocks 

FiEscot Is the rascal 
proud ? Speak, scoundrel who 
hired you ? 
Moor, (meditating.) Hum! 
So then I was not the only 
fool ? — Who hired aie ?— 
It was but a hundred thin 
sequins ! — Who hired me ? 
— Prince Qlahettino. 

Fie SCO. [angrily crossing 
j the room,) A hundred sequins^ 
and no more for Fiesco's life ! 
{contemptuously,) Shame on 
thee, heir to the chief magis- 
trate of Genoa, (hastening 
to an escritoir.) Here, fellow, 
are a thousand for thee ; and 
tell thy master he is a mean 
assassin. — (the Moor surveys 
him from head to footj^^ 
How ! dost thou hesitate, feU 
low ? — (the Moor takes up 
the moneys lays it downy takes 
it up againy and looks at Fies* 
CO with increased astonish'^ 
ment.) What art thou doing. 

das Geld entscMossen auf den fellow ? — {the M oor resolutely 

Ttsch und sagt :) Hcrr ! das 
Geld babe ich nicht verdient. 

FiESKO. SAafikopf von 


throwing the money on the ta* 
bkj and says:) Sir I that mo- 
ney I have not worked for. 
FiEseo. Thou foolish 




einem Gauner ! den Galgen 
hast du vcrdicnt Dcrent- 
riistete Elephant zertri tt Mcn- 
ichen, aber nicht Wiirmer. 
Dich wiird' ich hangcn las- 
sen wenn es mich nur so viel 
mchr als zwcy Worte kos- 

MoHR. (mit einer frohen 
Verbeugung.) Der Hcrr sind 
gar zu giitig. 

FiEsco. Behiite Gott, 
nicht gegen dich^ Es gef allt 
snir nun eben, dasz meine 
Laune einen Schurken wie du 
bisty zu etwas und nichts ma- 
chen kann, und darum gehst 
du frei aus. Begreife mich 
jecht. Dein Ungeschick ist 
mir ein Unterpfand des Him- 
inelsy dasz ich zu etwas gro- 
szem aufgehoben bin^ und 
dai-um bin ich gnadig, linddu 
gehst frei aus. 

MoHii. (treuherzig.) 
Schlagt ^in Fiesko ! Eine 
£hre ist der andern werth. 
Wenn jemand auf dieser 
Halbinsel eineGurgelfiir euch 
iiberzahlig bat^ befehlt ! und 
ich sdineide sie ab unentgeit* 

Fiesko* Eine h&fliche Bes- 
tie ! sie will sicb mit fremder 


scoundrel I diou hast deserved 
the gallows, but the ofien-^ 
ded elephant tiamples on 
men and Hot worms. Thy 
life is at my command, iad 
wast thou of more importincey 
thou should'st die. 

Moor, {bowing etntentei^ 
ly.) Sir, you are; too good* 

FiESCO. What, towards 
thee ! God forbid ! No ; I am 
pleased to think my, nod can 
save or annihilate such a vil- 
lain. 'Tis that wWch saves 
thee. Mark my words, 1 
regard thy miscarriage as an 

omen of my future success. 

'Tis this that renders mc 
' indulgent, and preserves thy 


Moor, {confidentidllj;,) 
Flesco, your hand! One good 
turn deserves another. If any 
man in this half staved islan4 
has a superflous throat, com<r 
mand me, and I'll cut it 

FiEscOt An obliging 
scoundrel ! He will return m^ 




X^eote Gorgtln bedaakea. 

MoHR. Wir lassen uns 
nichts schenken, Herr ! un- 
aer eins hat auch £hre im 

FiEsKo. Die Ehrc dcr 
Gurgelsjchoeider ! -^ 

MoHR. — 1st wohl fener- 
ftster alseurerehrlichenLeu- 
te ; sic brechcn ihfe Schwii- 
re dem lieben Herrgott ; 
wir hahen sie piinktlich dcm 

• FiESKo. Du bist eindrol- 
Kgtcr Gauner. 

AloHR. Freut mich dasz 
ihrGeschmack an mir findet. 
Setzt mich erst auf die Probe 
ihr werdet einen Mann ken- 
nen lernen der sein Exerzi- 
tiucn aus dem Stegreif macht. 
Fordert niich auf. Ich kann 
^uch von jeder Spitzbuben- 
zunft ein Testimonium auf - 
wcisen, von deruntersten bis 

FiESKo. Was ich nicht 
hore ! {indem er sich nieder- 
Htxti) Also auch Schelmen 
«rkeimeQ Cesetze und Rang- 


tbaAks by cutting die diroalp 
of others^ 

Moor. Men, likeme^ Sir, 
receive no £ivoQr without ac^ 
knowiedgement. We know 
what honor is* 

Fi£sco. The honor of 

Moor* — Is, perhaps, 
more to be relied on, than 
that to which men of cha-» 
racter pretend. They break 
their oaths made in the pre- 
sence of God; we punctually 
keep ours, which are made 
to the devih 


strange rascaU 
Moos* I 

Thou art e 

am happy to 
meet your approbation. Put 
me to the proof, and you will 
find me a man, who is tho- 
rougly master of his profes** 
sion* Challenge me. I can 
produce you a testimonial 
from every fraternity of vil- 
lains, from the lowest to the 

FiEsco. Whatdolhear! 
(sitting down.) That there 
are laws and degrees of rank 
eveu aiBong villains ? Then 




'ordnung i Lasz mich doch 
von der untei^tenhoren. 

MoHR. Pfiii, gnadiger 
Herr ! dasz ist das veracht- 
lichc Heer der langen Finger. 
Ein elend Gcwerb, das kei- 
nen groszen Mann ausbrutet, 
arbeltet nur auf Karbatsche 
Yind Raspelhausy und fUhrt 
— -hochstens zum Galgen. , 

FiESKo, Ein reitzendes 
Ziel, ich bin auf die bessere 

MoHR. Das sinddic Splo- 
nen wnd M^^chinen. Bedeu- 
tende Herren, denen die Gro- 
szen ein Ohr leihen, wo sie 
ibre Allwissenheit hohten, 
diesich wie Blutigel in Seelen 
einbeissen, das Gift aus dem 
Herzen scblurfen, und ah die 
Beliordc speien. 

FtESKo. Ich kcnnc das-^ 

MoHR. Der Rang trift 
nunmehr die Meuter, Gift- 
mischer, und alle die ihren 
Mann langhinhalten und-aus 
dem Hinterhalt &ssen. Feige 


let me hear you describe the 
lowest class. 

Moor. Fie, gracious Sir! 
They are the detestable host 
of long fingered gentry^ com- 
monly called pick-pockets. It 
is a contemptible class that 
never produces a man of gfr 
nius — 'tis confined to the 
whip and housci of correc- 
tion, and at best can only 
lead — to the gallows. 

FiESco. A charming goal! 
I am desirous to hear the daz.^ 
racter of the superior. 

Moor. These are spies 
and informers. -^ Tools of 
importance to the great, who 
from their secret information 
pretend to omniscience. Vil- 
lains thar insinuate them- 
selves into the souls of men 
like leeches, to draw their sc- 
crets-r^they syck poison from 
the heart, and spit it forth 
against the very source from 
whence it came. 

Fie SCO. I know them—* 

Moor. Then come the 
conspirators, villains that deal 
in poison, and brav$es that 
rush upon their victims from 
dark hiding places, Cowards 




Memtnen sinds oft, aber doch 
Kerk, die dem Teufel das 
Sdiulgeld mit ihrer armen 
•Seele bezahlen. Hier thut 
die Gerechtigkeit schon et* 
was ubriges, screckt ihre 
Knochel aufs Rad, und 
pflaozt ihre Schlaukopfe auf 
Spiesze. Das isc die driite 

FiESKo. Aber, sprich 
doch wean wird die deinige 

MoHR. Bliz ! gnadiger 
Herr. Das ist eben der Pfiffl 
Ich bin durch diese alle ge- 
wandcrt. Mein Genie geilte 
friihzeidg liber jedes Gehege. 
Gcstern Abend machce ich 
mein Meisterstiick in der 
Dritten^ vox einer Stunde war 
ich ein Stiimper in der Vter^ 

FiESKo* Diese ware also? 

MoHR. {lebhaft.) Das sind 
Manner, {in Hit%e.) die ih- 
ren Mann zwischen vier 
Manern aufsochen, durch die 
Gefahr eioe Bahnsichhauen. 
ihmgerade za Leibe gehen, 
mat dem ersten Grusz ihm 
dea Grossccodaak fur den 


they often are, but yet fellows 
who- sell their souls to the 
devil ; and even there get but 
a scurvy bargain. The hand 
of justice binds their limbs to 
the wheel, or fixes their cun- 
ning heads on spikes. -<— This 
is the third class. 

Fie SCO. But speak J when 
comes thy own class ? 

Moor. Patience, my Lord. 
That is the very point I have 
reached. Already I have tra- 
veiled through the deiscription 
of them all ; my genius soon 
soared beyond their capacity. 
'Twas but last night, I per- 
formed my master-piece in 
the third — an hour ago 1 at- 
tempt \h& fourth — and proved 
a bungler. 

Fie SCO. And how do you 
describe that class ? 

Moor, {animated.) They 
are men {with warmth) who 
press right onward to their 
objecty cutting their way 
through danger. They strike 
at oncey and by dieir first sa- 
luta^ save him, whom they 
approacbi the trouble of x^ 




zwetttei ersparcQ. Unter uns^ 
Man neont sie nur die £xtra- 
pofit der Uotle : wean Me* 
phistofeles etncD Gelust be- 
Jcommt^ brauchts nur einen 
Wink, nod er hat den £ra- 
ttsx Boch warm* 

FiESKo. Du :bift ein hart- 
gesottener Sunder. Einen 
sokhen vermiszt ich langst, 
Gbb mir deine Hand. Ich 
will dich bei mir behalcen. 

MoHR. Ernst oderSpasz? 

FiESKo. Mein voHiger 
Ernst, und gebe dir locx^ 
Zecbinen de$ Jahrs. 

MoHR. Topp Fie^ko ! Idi 
bin euer, und zum Henker 
£ihre dasPrivatleben. Braucht 
mich vfozu ihr woUt. Zu eu- 
rcm Spiirhund, zu eurem Par- 
forceh^nde9 zu eurem Fuchs, 
zu eurer Schlange^ ^u eurem 
JCuppler undHenkersknecht. 
Herr zu alien Kommissionen, 
mirbei I»eibe ! z;u keinerehr- 
lichen -^ dabei beoehme ich 
mich plump 3¥ie Holz. 

FiEsco. Sci unbesorgt. 
Wem ich - ein ZfOmtn j^cben- 
kjCn will} lasz.ichs durchkei- 
nen Wei/ uberliefern. Seh 
«liO gkjch naergcn durch 


turning thanks for a second. 
Among ourselves :they are 
called the swiftest mess$iogctii 
of hell : and wb^n ifieel^etmb 


is .hungry, ^t the first hinty 
they send his victims to him 
smoaking m their blood. 

FiEscQ. Thou art 4 
faardjeucd wretch. — .Siicrh a 
tool I have .long w^iH^d- 
Give me thy hand. I will 
take thee into ra^y service. 

Moor. Do you spoak io 
earnest or in jest ? 

FlEsco. Most positively 
in earnest, aod I'll pay thee 
yearly a thousand sequins* 

Moor. Done, Fiescof— - 
I am your's — and may the de- 
vil take my private life — ^Em- 
ploy me in what ever you will. 
— rU be your setter, or your 
bloodhound — ^your fox, your 
viper — ^ your pimp, your 
hangman. Employ me, Sir, 
in all commissions ; but, for 
God's sake ! let them not be 
honest ones--^in those! am.^ 
stupid as a block. 

FiEsco. Fear not : when 
I make a present of a, laktf 
I never make a wolf the mes- 
senger. Go thou through 
Genoa to-morrowy and sound 
^ the 



Genoa, und untersuche die 
Witterung des Staats. Lege 
dich auf Kundschaft wie man 
von der Regierung denkt und 
vom Haus Doria . fliistert, 
sondire daneben, was meine 
Mitbiirger vonmeinem Schla- 
TaflFenleben und meinen Lie* 
lesromanen halten. Ueber- 
schwemme ihr Gehirne mit 
Wein, bis ihre Herzensmei- 
nungen uberlaufen, Hier 
hast du Geld, spende davon 
unter den Seidenhandlem aus. 

MoHR. (sieAt ihn bedenk- 
Itch an, ) Herr ! 

FiEsKo. Angst darf dir 
nicht werden. £s ist nichts 
ehrliches. — Geh, nife deine 
ganze Bande zu Hiilfe. Mor- 
gen will ich deine Zeitungen 
horen. (er geht ab.) 

MoHR. (/Am«flr^,) Ver- 
laszt euch auf mich. Jetzt 
ist cs fruh um vier Uhr, — 
Morgen um acht habt ihr 
so viel neues erfahren^ als in 
^ zweimal siebenzig Ohren 

the temper of the people. 
Narrowly inquire what they 
think of the government, and 
of the house of Doria — ^whac 
of me, my debaucheries, and 
romantic passions. Charge 
their heads with wine, *until 
their secret sentiments flow 
out. — Here's money — lavish 
it among the silk-manufactu* 

Moor, {hdks at . him 
thoughtfully.) Sir I 

FiEsco. Be not- afraid — 
(here is no honesty in the case. 
-T-Go ; summon your whcde 
band to thy assistance. To- 
nwrrow I will hear thyre- 
pon. (exit.) 

Moor, {calling after him.) 
Rely on me. It is now four 
o'clock. — In the morning, by 
eight to-morrow, you shall 
hear as much news as twice 
seventy spies can^ furnish. 




CHAPtfeR V. 


The verb is not only one of the most cssein- 
tial, but also the easiest and simplest partof speec:li 
in the German language, if properly explainec3 ; 
and the method I am about to adopt will, I trust, 
sufficiently prove my assertion, and convince tl:^^ 
student of its peculiar similarity to the English. 

I shall arrange the whole under the following 
heads, viz. Auxiliary — Regular — Irregular-^Neu- 
ier-^oTTipound^-^ReJiective — Impersonal Verbs. 

I. Of Auxiliary Vekbs. 

Verf>s called auxiliary, which are indispensa- 
bly required for a complete conjugation, are three^ 

The first is habe7i, to have, which serves for the 
Formation of the Preterperfecty Preterpluperfedi 
and second Future Tenses^ in the active voice. 

Seyn, to be, forms the Preterperfecty Preter- 
pluperfect^ and second Future of some neuter verbs, 
and likewise helps to compose those tenses in the 
passive voke. 

IVerden^Xo become, signifies, 1 . a future event, x 
whether in actings beings and suffering. Thus it ex- 
presses the English auxiliaries of the Future Tense, 
shall and will : With this qualification it produces all 
the Future Tenses. — 2. It denotes the commence- 
inent of a certain state or condition, therefore, 

^ when 



vrl^cn joined with a noun, it 'answers the English 
to become. , By the above qualification it may be 
employed in forming the passive voice. 

The foundation of the German verb depends 
upon the Present and Preterimperfect of the /n^« 
caiive, the Infinitive Moody and the Preterite Par-^ 
ticiple.—l shall place them at the head of every 

Conjugation of the First Auxiliary. 


Haben, to have. 


Ich habey I have. 


Ich hattCy I had. 


Gehabty had, 



Present Tense. 

ich habcy I have. 
du hasty thou hast. 

er, (siCy es^) haty he, 
- (she, it,) has. 


xvir habeny we have. 

ihr habety or habty ye, or 
you have. 

siehdben, they have. 



ich habCy I may have. 

du habesty thou mayest 

ery (sicy eSyJ habCy he, 
(she, it,) may have. 


wir habeny we may have. 

ihr habety (ye,) you may 

sie habeny they may have. 

* Sie and es, she and it, ran through all the tcnsca and 
the third ponon -of the tiDgalar, of all the verbs. 

X 2 





ich hatte, I had. 
du hattestj thou hadst. 

erhatte, he had. 

tvir hattcTiy we had. 

ihrhattety (ye) you had. 

sie hat ten, they had. 

ich hdtte, I might have. 

du hdttesty thou mightest 

er h'dtte^ he might have. 


wir hdtten, w^e might 

ihr hdttety (ye) you mighi 

sie hdtterty they mighi 


hahe du, have thou. 
habe er, have he. 

kabet ihr, have (ye) you. 
haben sie, have they. 


, Present. haberij to have. 
Preterperf. gehabt haben, to have had. 
. Future. haben werden, to be about to have. 


Present, habend, havmg. 
Preterite, gehabt, had. 


Are formed, as in English, by adding the aux- 
iliaries, before-mentioned, to the Infinitive or Par- 
ticiple. Se^n^ to be^ and haben, to have, are al- 

"^ ways 


ways joined to a Participle ; werden, to become, 
to an Infinitive. By way of illustration, I shall give 
the compound tenses of the foregoing auxiliary 


Is compounded with the Present and Parti- 
ciple Preterite of haben ; as, 

ich habe gehabty I have had. 

du hast gehabty thou hast had, &c. &c, 


Is compounded with the Preterimperfect and 
the former Participle ; as, 

ich hatte gehabty I had had. 

du hailest gehabty ,thou hadst had, &c. &c* 


Is compounded with the Present ofwerden, and 
the Infinitive of habe?i ; as, 

ich werde habeUy I shall have. 

duwiJ'st haben y thou wilt have,, &c. &c. 


Is compounded with the Preterimperfect Sub- 
junctive of zverden, and the Infinitive of habeii ; as 
ich wiirde haben, I should have. 
du wiirdest haben y thou should'st have, &e. 

According to this simple mode are formed the 
compounds of the subsequent auxiliaries, and all 
the other verbs, regular or irregular. There is but 
one thing to be observed, viz. that the compound 
Preterperfect and Pluperfect, of the following aux 



iliaries^ are compounded with the tenses of seyjty 
instead oi haben; • 

ich bin gezvesen, I have been, &c. 

ich bin ^ezwrden, I am become, &c. 

Before I proceed with the conjugation of the 
second auxiliary, I shall make a few remarks, 
which are of the utmost consequence, and appli- 
cable to the subsequent auxiliaries, as well as to 
all verbs, regular or irregular. 

All verbs in general, may be employed in four 
different manners, viz. 

1. Affirmative; as, ich habe^ I have. 

2. Negative ; — ich habe nicht, T have not. 

3. Interrogative; — habe ich ? have I ? 

4. Negative and-l_ j ^ . ^ .j^^ ^ ^^^^^ „^jp 
Interrogative ; J 

The following are the principal negations in 
German, which are put after the verb ; as, nichU 
not ; kein^ no ; nichtSy nothing ; niemals, never ; 
niemand, no one, nobody, no person. 

Examples. 4ch habe nicht, 1 have not. 
ich bin nicht, I am not. 
ich habe kein Geld, I have no money. 
ich habe nichts, I have nothing. 
ich habe niemals^ I have never. 
ich sehe niemandy I see noboby. 

If it is a question, the personal pronouns arc 
put after the verb ; as, 

bin ich ? am I ; bist du I art thou ? . ^ 

A mix* 



A inixture of the former ; as, 
lichnicht? aminot? histdunicht? 2xi\^o\\ViOi'i%LC. 

The relative particles are, esy davoriy daftn\ da-, 
^ darumy daruber^ darauSy damity day dabei, 
rauy hindurchy Sic. all these .particles are put after 
J verb ; as, 

ich habe eSy I' have it. 

zck habe es nickt, I have it not, &c. 

When it is a question the particles are put 
er the personal pronouns ; as, * 

habe ich es ? have I it ? 
habe ich es nicht ? have I not it ? 
ich habe davoUy I have some of it. 
habe ich davon ? have I some of it ? 

Davon is put after a negation ; as, 
ich habe nicht davon, I have none of it, 
habe ich nicht davon ^ have I none of it ? 

This is the same with the particles da, darin, 

9 as, 
ist day he is here. 

ist nicht day he is not here. 

er da ? is he here ? 

^er nicht da f is he not here ? 
^laszt each daraufy rely upon it, 
^dihrGeldesbenothiget? are you in want of money ? 
f er einen Sohn ? has he a son ? 

er hat einen y yes, he has one. 

? vieU sind ihrer ? how many are there of them ? 

sind ihrer sechSy there are six. 

sind andere, there are others, &c. &c. 

- Con- 



Coiijugalion of the Second Auxiliary. 


Seyiiy to be. 


Ich biuy I am. 


Ich war^ I was. 


Geweseriy been. 


Present Tense. 

ich bin J I am. 
du bist, thou art. 

er ist, he is. 

wirsindy jve are. 

ihr seidy (ye) you are. 

sie sindy they are. 


ich seyy I may be. 

du scyesty or seysty tho"" 
mayest be. 

er seyy he may be. 


zvir seyeuy or seyn^ w 
may be. 

ihr seyedy or seydy (ye/ 
you may be. 

sie seyeiiy or seyuy they 
may be. 

Preterlmperfect. ^ 


ich wary I was. 

du war est y or tuarsty thou 
^ wast. 

er wary he was. 


wir waren, we were. 

ihr warety ox warty (ye) 
you were* 

siexoareuy they were. 

ich w'drcy I might be. 

du wdresty thou mightest 

er wdrey he might be. 


wirwdreuy wemigjbtbe. 

ihr warety (ye) you might 

sie wdreUy they might be. 

OJiUlMAir XAS9^0A€te. 



Uy be thou, 
r^ behe. 

seydihr, be (ye) you. 
setfu lie, be tjiey. 


esent. seyn, to be. 

eterperfect. gezvesen sejfn, to have been. 

iture; seyn werden, about to be. 


Present, seyend, being. 
Preterite, gewesen, been 

Conjugation of the Third AuxiUarjf* 

\ • 


Werderi^ to become. 


verdcy I become. 


Ich wardy or wurde, I 
became. . 


Geworden^ or zoorden, become. 


Present Tense. 

erde^ I become. 
irstj thou becomest. 

rd, he becomes. 


ich werde^ I may become. 

du werdest^ thou mayest 

ervotrde^ht may become. 





Present Tense. . 

I ♦ 

wirwerdejtj we become. 


ihr^werdet, (ye)' you be- 

sie zverden, they become. 

wir werderif we may be* 


ihr werdet, (ye) you maf 

^ie werden, they may be- 


Singular. . Singular. 

icli wurde, I might be 

idi ward, or wurde, I be- 

du wardst, or wurdest, 
thou becamest. 

er ward, or wurde, he 


wirwurden, we became. 

thr wurdet, (ye) you be- 

sie ivurden, they became. 


du wiirdest, thou mightest 

er wiirde, he might be- 


wir zviirden, we might 

ihr •wUrdet,[yt) you might 

sie wUrden, they might 


Singular. I Plural. 

zoerde du, become thou, j werdet ihr, become (ye) 


• werden sie, become they. 

zverde er, become he. 


( . 



Present. werden, to become. 

Preteiperf. gezvorden, or warden seyn^ tq have become^ 

Future. tvcrden zverden, to be about to become. 


Present, zverdend, becoming. 
Preterite, geworden, or zvorden, befome. 

- Observations on the Auxiliary Verbs. 

Many verbs in the English are used as auxili- 
aries, which in German are not required. It Js 
true, they have formerly been introduced under 
that denomination, but modem grammarians ne. 
longer consider them as useful, being merely com- 
bined with other verbs, which they govern in the 
Infinitive Moods but if they were admitted as help* 
ing verbs, their number might be still increased. For 
that reason, I have adopted, only those that are real 
auxiliaries, by the means of which a complete con- 
jugation can be performed ; consequently the three 
foregoing ones, which have been given at full 
length, alone come under this description. 

Those which have been formerly considered 
as auxiliaries, are 

Jch magi I niay. 
The application is nearly the same as in En- 
glish, It has been exhibited under the head of the 
Irregular Verbs, , together with the subsequent ones. 
I here^treat of its varipus; significations, in particular^ 

Y 2 trhich 


which is briefly AU : sie mag lachen, er magwei- 
neriy she may laugh, he may cry ; ich mag dieses 
Brod nichty I do not like this bread ; es nwchte sidt 
ereigneuy it might happen 'y mogen sie Austem / da 
you like oysters ? — -nein^ ich mag keine, no, I do 
not like them ; idi mag nicbis mehr^ I do not like 
any mQre, ike. 

Ich ivilly I will. 

This verb is not, as in English, merely confined 
to denote futurity, as the latter is always and solely 
expressed by the auxiliary werden. WoUen sie aus- 
reiien ? will you take a ride (on horseback) ? was 
ztioUen sie trinken ? what will you drink ? ich mil 
mi Fusze gehen^ I will walk ; tvie viel woUen sie 
geben? how much will you give? woUen sie di^ 
Giitigkdt haben^ aitfmich zu war ten? will you have 
the kindness to wait for me ? tme zmllen sie diesen 


Tag xubringen ? how will you spend this day ? 

Ich soil, I shall. 

This verb is only used in German to form a 
^ind of indefinite Future ^ ex. gr. sollte sich der 
Wind andern, so wollen wir absegeln, should the 
'^ya^iphange, then we will set saif^ weiin dass^Seyn 
solltCy if that should be so ; soli ich ihnen vorlegen ? 
shall I help you ? sie sollen es iibermorgen haben, you 
shall have it the day after to-morrow it(;^^ solldas^? 
lyhat does that mean ? was soU ich, du, er, or sie ? 
what shall t, thou, he, or she.* Ich 

^« ■ ■ ». . f . I ■ III II ■ II ^ I I ■» I .. ■ I I I f 11 4 ^ 

« 1lf& neet with floahy flttdbi pfarace*, of Ihe Uttar.nrtjL 
- »• ' •s . in 


Ich kann, I can. ^ 

• * d" 

It answers also to the English, I may, I know, 

I understand ; as, sie kohnen das haben, wetin sii 

ttroUeTty you may have that, if you like ; kofmen sit 

dculsch sjrrechen ? do you speak German ? kami ich 

micK dandufverlassen ? may I depend upon it ? das 

koimen sie sehr leicht bekommen^ that you may easily 

get; wir khnntn nichteher speisz^n, we eannot dind 

Sooner, &c. 

Ich darf, I dare. 

With the negative, it answers the English must 
noty implying a prohibition ; but it never denotes 
courage^ nor cfiallenge^ nor defiance^ as tcy dare in 
English. In German it is generally joined with the 
infinitive, and frequently understood ; as, sie dUr- 
Jen 7iur befehlen, you^^ need but command ; darfich 
das thun ? dare I do that ? sie durfen es nicht thun, 
you dare not do it, &c. 

Ich musz, I mustv 

This is much the same as the English in its 
meaning ; as, ich musz es thiin^ I must do it ; ich 
mmizte es sagen, I was obliged to tell it ; icK man 
mmn Brief schreibeuy I must write a letter j m 


fmissen erscheinen, they must appear, &Cr 

ich lasse, I let. 

"Which serves in English as an auxiliary verb, 



im common conversatioai after soil j as^ wa$^ soil ich(mdclim. 


for forming the Imperative Mood ; in German it 
has seldom the same construction. It has, how- 
ever, nearly the same signification in most of the 
Engli^ phrases^ a few excepted, ex. gr. das laszt 
§iek nicht ertragen^ thac is not to be borne, or it is 
intolerable ; woUet ihr mir die Wature nicht lassen f ' 
will you not let me have the merchandise ? lassen 
sie mich gehen^ let me alone ; lassen sie das siehen, 
let that alone j iasset ihn herein kommejiy let him 
come in. 

Sojne farther Remarks on the Auxiliary Verbs. 

1. The English frequently join the auxiliary 
to be^ VI ith the Participle Present ; as, lam writing, 
I was xvriting^ &C. This combination of the aux- 
iliary is unknown to the German language, in 
which the definite time is not distinguished from 
the others. Ich schreibe, I write, or I am writing ; 
ich schrieb^ I wrote, or I was writing, stands for 

2. The English verb do, marking the action or 
time with greater energy and distinction ; 3S, Ida 
love J and which is also necessary in English, in 
interrogative and negative sentences, is become ohr 
solete in German. We, now ^nd then, hear it 
among the lower classes of people ; as, ich thie 
ihn schreibejiy I do write to him ; ich that liebejiy 
I did love ; thun sie mir erlauben^ do permit me, &c. 
This mode of speaking is totally wrong and vulgar, 

3. The Preterirpperfect in the third auxiliaiy, 




werdeuj of the Indipative, the ^rst Bixd third person 
are wurdcy which is only used in common Iife« but 
watd in sublime writings. The second persoa 
wardsty is rather too hard and unusual. 
</. 4, The Participle Preterperfect is always /e- 
mrderij whenever the verb expresses . a complete 
predicate 3 as, ich bin krank gcwordcn, I have (be » 
cpme) been ill. However^ it loses its additional 
particle, when it becomes an auxiliary ^ as, ich %im 
gescklagen tvorden, I have been beaten, 

II. Of Regular Verbs. 

Regular verbs are those, which are coriju* 
gated according to certain established and inva- 
riable rules. They retain their radical vowel 
through all their moods, tenses, and persons^ forming 
their Preterimpcrfect in ie, and their Preterparti- 
ciple in et, or simply t. The Imperative singular 

takes sometimes an e, for the sake of the sound, 


Most of the German^ verbs are regular, and 
consequently one specimen of conjugation will be 
sufficient. According to the perspicuous exhibition, 
which I am about to lay before the student, he will 
readily and with pleasure perceive, how. similar the 
construction of the German verb is to the English. 

General Rules y respecting the Regtdar Verbs. 

1. The Prcterperfect and Pluperfect is always 
comppunded with haben, but if it be ^ neuter \txb 
of a particular description, \vith sei/n, and the Pre- 


terite Participle ; the Future and Infinitive, witfcf 

2. The Jirst and third person plural of the Pre- 
sent Tense are always like the Infinitive, and vke 
versa. The Jirst and third person singular ctf the 
Preterimperfcct are alike. This rule holds good 
in all the verbs both regular ^nd irregiriair. 
; 9. The Preterite Participle has every where the 
syllable ge prefixed to it, except in compound 
verbs, which are inseparable, and a few others, 
forming their Infinitive in iereuy or iren ,• as hand" 
thiereuy to handle ; triumphiren, to triumph ; re- 
gieren, to govern, &c. 

4. The radical vowels, as I have observed be-^ 
fore, are never changed ; and a verb that is con- 
sidered as regular, would be incorrectly used, by 
transforming a into a, as many have erroneously 
done in ich frage^ I ask ; fragst, frigtr, instead of 
fragst, fragt, &c. 

5. The e before st^ in the second person Pre- 
sent Indicative in the singular ; before t in the 
third person singular, and second person plural; 
likewise before t throughout the Preterimperfcct, 
and before the same letter in the Preterite Participle, 
is generally dropped in colloquial composition. In 
solemn speech, however, it is sometimes retained, 
particularly if it produces no harshness of sound. 

6. In verbs that have the letter / or r in the 
last syllable, the e of inflexion, after those letters, 
is always omitted, even in the Infinitive; as, 




trauern, to mourn, for traueren; dauern^ to last, for 
daueren j sarnmeln, to collect, for sammeleriy fifc\ 

As there is but one conjugation of the regular 
verbs, I shall exhibit a general scheme for the, 
others in the following representation : 


Present Tense. 


1st. person, e^ zsyich lo- 
be, I praise. 

2d. esty or sf. 

3d. ■ ety — t. 


1st. person, en. 

2d. ■ ety or t. 

3d. " ■ en. 

1st. person, e. 




ist. person, ew. 
2d. I et. 


- en. 


1st. person, etc, or fe. 

2d. etesty — test. 

3d. " ete, — te. 

1st. person, ete. 

2d. etest. 



— — ete. 

1st. person, eten^ or ten. j 1st. person, eten. 

2d. etet, —tet. 2d. etet. 

3d. — — eten,' — ten. \ 3d. ■ ^n. 

2d. person, e. 
3d. ■ ■ ■ _ . ■ e* 


2d. person, et^ or /. 
3d. I en. 





Present, en. 


Present, end. 
Preterite, et^ or t. 

iff the Regular Active Verb loben, to praise. 


Loben, to praise. 


Ich lobe, I praise. 


Ich lobete, or bbte, 


Gelobety or gelobt, praised. 


Present Tense. 


ich lobe, I praise. ^ 

du lobest, or lobst, thou 

f r, fsie, esj lobet, or lobt, 

he, (she, it,) praises. 
tvir tobetii we praise* 
ihr lobetj or lobt, ye, or 

you praise. 
siehben, theypraisfe« 


ich lobcj I may praise. 
du lobestf thou mayest 

er, fsie, esJ lobe, he, 

(she, it,) may praise. 

Plural. . 

ivir loben, we may praise. 

ihr lobet, (ye,) you may 

praise. . 
sie lobeUi they may praise. 






iclh lobete^ or lobte, I 

du lobtest, thou praisedst. 

er lobtCi he praised. 

^ Plural. 
ivir lobteiiy we praised. 

ihrlobfety (ye) you praised. 

sie lobtcHy they praised. 

ich lobetCy I might praise. 

du lobeiest, thou mightest 

erlobetCy he might praise. 

wir lobeten, y^e "light 

ihr lobetet, (ye) you might 

praise. , 

sie lobeten, they might 



Singular. Plural. 

lobe du, praise thou. 
lobe er, praise he. 

lobet ihr, praise (ye,) you. 
loben sie, praise they. 

The compound tenses are formed, ^s before- 
mentioned, either with one of the preceding 
auxiliaries, haben, seyn, Werden; as, ich habe gc* 
lobet, or gelobt, I have praised, &c. &c. 

The only difference between the Indicative 
and Subjunctive Mood is, the third person in the 
latter of the Present Tense -, as, er lobe, he may 
praise, instead of er lobet. 






Present. loben^ to praise. 

Preterperf. gelobt haben, to have praised. 

Future. lob€?i werdeny to be about to praise. . 


Present, lobend, praising. 
Preterite, gelobety or gelobt ^ praised. 


The passive voice ^ as before-mentioned, is 
conjugated by means of the third auxiliairy, xcer- 
den^ and the Preterite Participle. 



Gelobt iverden, to be praised. 


. Singular. 
ich xverde . gelobt J I am 
. praised, &c. 
du wirst gelobt. 
er wird gelobt. 

wir werden gelobt^ w^e 

are praised, &c. 
ihr werdet gelobt. 
sie zverdeii gelobt. 




ich xverde gelobt, I may 

be praised, &c. 
du werdest gelobt. 
er xverde gelobt. 


xjoir xvcrden gelobt, we 

may be praised, &c. 

ihr werdet gelobt, 

sie iverden gelobt. 






ich ward, or wurde ge- 
lobt^ I was praised, &c. 
du wardst, or wiirdesl 

'■ er zvardy or wurde gelobt. 

wir tmirden gelobt , we 

were praised, &c. 
ihr wurdet gelobt. 
sie zvurden gelobt. 

ich iviirde gelobt, I might 

be praised, &c. 
du wurdcst gelobt. 

er wurde gelobt. 

[ Plural. 

wir wiirden gelobt y we 
might be praised, &c. 
ihr wUrdet gelobt. 
sie wUrdeji gelobt. 


werde du gelobt^ be thou 

xverde er gelobt, be he 


xverdet ihr gelobt, be (ye) 

•you praised. 
wer den sie gelobt, beith^y 



Present, gelobt werdeyi, to be praised. 
Preterperf. gelobt worden seyn, to have been praised. 
Future. iverden gelobt werden, to be about to 

be praised. 

In the passive voice, worden is used in pre- 
ference to geworden, for the sake of avoiding 
the addition of ge, which would be a very disr 

' agree^ 


agreeable repetition; as, gelobet worden seyrij to 
have . been praised, instead of gelobet gewordm 


III. Of Irregular Verbs. 

It is a fact, that in the earliest formations 
of speech, most of the verbs were irregular, but 
have assumed a regular construction from the pro- 
gressive improvement of language, as may be seen 
by comparing the original number with the Pre- 
sent. They do not now exceed 156; and even 
many of them, although the irregular inflexion 
be retain.ed, may, without any offence, be con- 
jugated in a regular manner. Many others, also 
have for many years past, been rejected as irre* 
gular, and are now used as regular. , 

Happily, our modern writers hsive a propen- 
sity for reducing anomalies, whenever they can in* 
troduce rule and system ; which will ultimately 
tend to the improvement of the German lan- 

For the present I shall content myself with 
giving an alphabetical index, consisting of three 
different classes, viz. 

1. Of those verbs, which have still the ge- 
nuine irregular inflexion. 

2. Others, which are sometimes used as ir-- 
regular, but may be formed ad libitum. 

3. Those which are quite expunged from the 
irregular list, and have been inserted among the 
regular verbs. 



It may be observed, that many of the com- 
pound verbs are irregular, whereas their derivatives 
are quite regular, and vice versa j and that several 
Tenses, in the subsequent alphabetical list of ir- 
regular verbs deviate, in some measure, from the 
established custom, and may be inflected in two 
different ways ; although either of them are the 
same, yet it will be proper to notice them here. 

The subsequent verbs make their Freterim-^ 
perfect either way, viz, 

befefden, to command, Preterimp. befahly or 


empfehleriy - recommend ; ■ empfahl^ — 


schivoren^ - swear s schzvor^ — 


stehlen, - steal ; ■ stahlj — 


The Imperative of the subsequent verbs is 
used in both ways, viz. 

fechtejiy to fence ; Iviperal. Jichty or fechte, 
schereuy — shear ; ■ schier, — scliere. 

There are perhaps a few other anomalies in 
some of the annexed list of irregular verbs, but they 
need not be noticed, because they better follow 
the regular course. 

Nota. Those Tenses, which are left blank 
in the following table, are a sign, that they follow 
the regular course. . . 




Infinitive Mood. 

T. bedingen, to make conditions^ 

2. befehlen, fo command - - - 

3. befleissen, fo apply oneself- - 

4. beginnen, to begin - - - - 

5. beissen, to bite - - - - - 

6. bergen, to conceal - - - - 

7. berSten^ to burst - - - - 

8. besinnen, to recollect - - - 

9. betriigen, to deceive ^ or cheat- 

10. biegcn, to bend - - - - - 

1 1 . bieten, to bid - - - - - 

12. binden, to bind- - - . . 
J 3. bitten, to fiegr - . . . . 

14. blasen, to bloiv - - - - - 

15. bleiben, to remain - - - - 

16. brechen, to break - - - - 

17. bringen, to 6n;/^ . - . . 
lis. durfen, to ^^r^- - ™ - - 
19^ denkeiii* to ^/i/;rA - - - - 

20. dringen, to urge - - • - 

21. empfangen, to receive - - - 
22*. empfehleh, to recomfnend - - 
iJSS empfinden, to perceive - - 

24. erbleichen, to groto pale - - 

25. erkiiren, to choose - - - - 

I Pr^J. Indicat. 

I ich bedinge 
I — befehle - 

— befleisse 

— beginne 

— beisse - 

— berge - 

— berste - 

— besinne- 

— betriigc- 

— biege .- 

— biete - 

— binde - 

— bitte - 

— blase - 

— bleibe - 

— brechc « 

— bringe - 

— darf- - 

— denke- - 

— dringe - 
-^— emp^ge* 

— empfehle 
— • empfiode 

— erbleiche 

— erkiire - 




ond Person. 


befiehlst • 


• blasest - 



- empfangst 

- ^mpfiehlst 

ich bedung 

— befahl- 

— beflisz 

— begann 

— bisz - 

— barg • 
T— borst - 

— besann 

- betrog 

— bog - 

— bot - 

— band - 

— bat - 

— blies - 

- blieb - 

- brach - 

— brachte 

- durfte- 

- dachte 

- drang- 

— empfing 

- empfahl 

— empfand 

— erblich 

- erkor - 

befiehl - 

birg - 
birst - 

brich - 


Pret, Partic. 



























A a 



Infihilive Mood. 

Pres. IndicaL 

26. erloschen, to become extinct - 

ich erloscb^ 

27. erschrecken, to he frightened- 

— erschrecke 

28. erwsigen, , to consider - - - 

— erwage- 

29. essen, to eat - - - - - 

— esse - .- 


30. fahren, to drive a carriage - 

— fahre - 

31. fallen, to fall - - - - - 

— falle- - 

32. fangen, to catch 

— fange - 

33. fechten, to fence ^ or fight- - 

— fechte - 

34. finden, to find . - - - - 

— finde - 

35. fliegen, 7o^j/ - . - - - 

— fliege - 

36. fliehen, to rim atvay^ . . - 

— fliehe • 

37. fliessen, to flow -->•-- 

— fliesse - 

38. fressen, to devour . - - - 

— fresse - 

39. frieren, to freeze - - - - 


— ffiere - 

40. gahren, tofemient- - - - 

— gahre - 

4 1 . gebahren, to bring forth - - 

— •' gebahre 

42. geben, to give - - - - - 

— gebe - 

43* gebieten, to command - - - 

— gebiete - 

44. gefallen, to please - - - - 

— gefalle - 

45. 5'ehen, to gOy or walk - - - 

— gehe - 

46. gelten, to estimate^ or cost - 

^— gelte - 

47. geniessen, to enjoy - - - . 

— geniesse 

48. gewinnen, to gain, orzvin - 

— - gewinne 

49. giessen, to pour - - - - - 

— giesse - 

50. gleichen, to resemble - - - 

— gleiche - 

51. graben, to dig -^ - - - - 

— grabe - 

52. greiffen, to seize, or lay hold of 

— greiffe - 

53. halten, to hold - - - - " - 

— h^lte - 


ieconii Person 




ich ritt - 


— roch - 


— rang - 


— rann - 


— rief - 


iu saufst - 

— sofF - 


— sog - 


— schuf - 


— schied 


— schien 


^ schiltst - 

— schalt 

schiit - 


— schierst - 

— schor - 

schier - 


— schob - 


— schosz 


— schund 


-- schlafst - 

— schlicf 


— schtagst- 

— schlug 


— schlich 


— schliff- 


— schlosz 


— schlang 


— schmisz 


— Echnitt 


— schrieb 


— schrie - 



— schritt 


~- schwor 


— schwieg 





Infinitive Mood. 

hangen, ta hang - - . 
heben, tc heaix, or lift up 

heissen, to bid, or name - 

helfen, to help - - - - 

konnen, to be able - - - 

kennen, to knoxv - - - 
kiingeo, to sound, or rij;g 

koinmen, to come - - - 

kricchen, la creep - - - 

lasseo, to let, or permit - 

laufen, to run - - - - 

leiden, to silver - - - - 

leihen, to lend - - - - 

lesen, to read - - - - 

liegen, to lie-, or rest - - 
lugen, to utter a falsehood- 
mogen, to be permitted 

meiden, to avoid - . - 

melken, to milk- - - - 

messen, to measure- - - 

raiissen, to he ohUged - - 

nehmen, to take - - - 

pfeiffen, to whistle- - - 

preisen, to praise - ~ . 

quellen, to spring forth - 

rathen, to advise - - - 

reiben, to rub - . . - 

reissen, to tear - - - - 

Pres. Indict. 

ich hange - 

— hebe - 

— heisse - 

— helfe - 

— kann - 

— kenne - 

— klinge - 

— komme- 

— krieche- 

— lasse- - 

— laufe - 

— Jeide - 
■ — leihe 

— lese - - 

— liege 

— lijge - 

— mag 

— meide - 

— melke - 

— messe - 

— musz - 

— nehme - 

— pfeiffe - 

— preise - 

— quelle - 

— rathe - 

— reibe - 



•ond Person. 




hangst - 

ich hieng 


— hob - 



— hiesz - 


hilfet- - 

— half - 

hllf - 


kannst - 

— konnte 


— kannte 


— klang- 



— kam - 


— kroch - 


]assest - 

— liesz - 



laufet - 

-lief - 


-Htt - 


— lieh - 


liesest - 

— las - 

les- - 


-lag . 


— log - 


magst - 

— mochte 


— mied - 


— molk - 


missest - 

— masz - 

misz - 


muszt - 

— muszte 


nimmst - 

— nahm - 

nimm - 


— pfiff - 


— pries - 


quillst ' 

— quoll - 

quill - 


rathst - 

— rieth - 


— rich - 


— risz r 



■ Infinitive Mood. 

Pres. Indicat 

»2. reiten, to ride on horseback - 

— reite - 

83. riechen, to smell- - - - - 

— riechc - 

S4. ringen, to wrestle - - - - 

— ringe - 

«5. rinnen, to run, or leak - - 

— rinne - 

86. nifen, lo call - - - - - 

— rafe 

87. saufen, to drink like a brute 

— saufe - 

8S. saugen, to suck- - - - - 

— sauge - 

89. schaflen, to create - - - - 

_ schaffe - 

90. sehelden, to separate - - - 

— scheide- 

91. schcinen, to shine, appear or seem 

— scheine - 

92. schelten, to chide - - - - 

— schelte - 

93. schercn, to shear - - - - 

— schere - 

94. schieben, to shove - - - - 

— schiebe - 

95. schiessen, to shoot • - - - 

— schiesse- 

96. schinden, to fiai) - - - - 

— schindc" 

97. schlafen, to sleep - - - - 

— schlafe - 

98. schlagen, lo beat - - - - 

— schlage - 

99. sehleichen, to sneak • - - 

— scbleiche 

lOa schleifTen, lo ^rind, or sharpen 

— schleifFe 

101. schliesserij to lock, or conclude 

— schliesse 

102. schlingen, to devour - - - 

— schlinge 

103. schmeissen, tofiing - - • 

— schmeisse 

104. schpeiden, to cut - - - - 

— schneide 

105. schreiben, to write - - - 

— schreibe 

106. schreien, to ay - - - - 

— schreie t 

107. schreiten, to stride - - - 

1— schreite- 

108. schwaren, to/ester - - - 

— achware 

W9. schwe'igen, to be silent - - 

— schweige 




Second Person 




ich ritt - 


— roch - 


— rang - 


— rann - 


— rief - 


du saxxhX. ~ 

— soff - 


— sog - 


— schuf - 



— schied 


— schien 


— schiltst - 

— schalt 

schilt - 


— schierst - 

— schor - 

schjer - 


— schob - 


— schosz 


— schund 


— schlafst - 

— schUef 



— schlagst- 

— schlug 


^- schlich 

gesch lichen. 

— schiiff- 


— schlosz 


— schlang 


— schmisz 

— .1 


— Echnitt 


-— schrieb 


— schrie - 


— schritt 


^- schwor 


— schwieg 



Infinitive Mood. 

Prcs. Indicat. 


schwellcn, to twdl, - - - 

ich schwelle 


schwimmen, lo swim - - - 

— schwimme 


ichwlndeni to shrink - - - 

— schwinde 


schwingen, (o swing - - - 

— schwjnge 


schworcn, to swear - - - 

— schwore 


schen, (o see - ' - - - 

— sehe- - 


sieden, ta boil, - - - - - 

— siede - 


singeiij lo sing' - - - - 

— singe - 


sinken, to sink- - - ~ - 

— sinke - 


sinnen, to meditate - - - 

— sinne - 


sifzen, to sit - - - - - 

— sitze - 


sollen, to be compelled - - 

— soil- - 


speien, to spit - _ - . 

— speie - 


spinnen, to spin - - - - 

— spinne - 


sprechen, to speak - - - 

— spreche- 


springen. to leap - - - - 

— springe - 


stechen, lasting, or prick - 

— steche - 


stehen, to sCaiid - - . - 

— stehe - 


stehlen, to steal - - _ - 

— stehle - 


steigen, lo mount, or ascend 

— steige - 


sterben, lo die- . - . . 

— sterbe - 


stieben, loji/ of with a jerk. 

— stiebe - 


stinken, lo stink - - - - 

— stinke - 


stoszen, ta push - - . . 

— stQsze - 


streichen, to sivcep, or rub alojig 

— streiche- 


streiten, to contend, or combat 

— streite - 


thun, to perform - - - . 

— thue- - 


tragen, ta bear, carry, or ivear 

— trage - 


- Y 



Sectmd Person. 

du schwillst 

— siehst 


sollst- - 

Sprichst - 

stichst - 

stiehlst - 

stil'bst - 


— stoszest- 

•*• tragst 

ichschwoU sehwill 
— schwamm 

— schwand 

— schwang 

— schwdr 
sah - Isieh 

sott - 

— sang - 
-^sank - 

— sann - 

- sasz - 

— sollte - 

- spie - 

— spann- 

— sprach 

— sprang 

— stach - 

- stand - 

— stahl - 

— stieg - 

- starb - 

— stob - 

— stank - 

— stiesz - 

— strich - 

— stritt - 

— that - 

— trug . I 

sprich - 

stichl - 

stirb - 

PreL Part. 























gestunken. ^ 








Ifffinitive MoodL 

1S8. trefien, to hit j touchy or mark 
1 39, treibeoy /(i ^'i;^, or carry on 
140* treteoy to tread * - - - 

141. triegeoy or trugen^ to deceive 

1 42. trinken^ to i/niiA: - - - - 

143. vcrbergen, to conceal- • - 

1 44. wacHsen, to grow, or vegetate 

145. waschen, to wash f - * - 

1 46. weicben^ to yieldy or give way 

147. weisen^ to show ^ or point out 

1 48. wissen, to i:mw£) ♦ - -. - 

149. werben, to sue, apply ^ obtain 

150. werfen^ to throw ^ - - - 

151. wiegen, to weighs - • - 

152. wollen, to te willing - - - 

153. wioden^ to wind, turn - - 

154. ^ihen, to accuse of- - - 

155. zkhen, to draw, or pnU^ - 

156. zwingen^ to force ^ compel - 

^r^/. Indicate 

ich trefie - 

— treibe • 
-r- trete - 

— triege - 

— trinke - 

— verberge 

— wachse * 

— wasche - 

— weiche • 

— wekc - 

— weisz - 

— werbe - 

— werfe - 

— wiege - 

— will -r , 

— windc - 

— zeihe -? 

— ziehe - 



Second Person. 


du trifist 

— tritst- 






traf • 
trieb - 
trat - 
trog . 
trank - 
wich - 

wies - 
waste - 
wafb - 
warf - 
wog - 


zieh - 
2og • 




wirb - 
wirf - 


Pret, Part. 

















Bb 2 



Verbs, formerly Irregular y but frequently Used ds 


backen, to back. 
bewegeriy to put in motion . 
bleichetiy tol)leach, whi- 

braien, to roast. 
brennen^ to burn, 
dingetiy to hire. 
dreschen^ to thresh. 
erschaUeUy to resound. 
fallen^ to fold. 
fechten, to plait. 
fragerij to ask. - 
gedeiheuj to prosper. 
gelingefiy to succeed ; 

which is only used in 

the third person. 
genesen, to recover from 

gescheheriy to happen, 

occurs only in the 

third person. 
gleiten, to glide. 
hangen: to hang, is the 

both are often mis- 
taken for one another. 

haueriy to hew or cut. 

hieifferiy or kneipen, to 

kreisckeriy to scream. 

laden, to load. 

mahlen^ to grind or paint. 

nenneriy to name. 

pf^egeuy to foster, or che- 

rennetij to run, or rush. 

fchmelzeUy to melt. 

schnauben, to snort. 

schrauben, to screw. 

seiideriy to send. 

spalten, to split. 

spriessen^ to sprout. 

zvdgen, to weigh. 

wendeUy to turn. 

zerstieberiy to be sud- 
denly scattered. (See 

transitive for hangen ; 

All the verbs beginning with ver, and all 
other compounds in general, if irregular, are ih-^ 
fleeted according to the simple verb, which I have 
shewn in the foregoing list. Others, which I have 



ilol noticed at all, are, of course, together with 
their compounds, considered as regular. 

y^jRBS that have been formerly used as Irregular ^ 
but are twzv always formed as Regular. 

frageuy to ask. 

glimmen, to glimmer. 
jagen, tochase^ drive fast. 
kreisseUy to be in liquor. 
loschen^ to extinguish. 

rdchen, to avenge. 
salxeuy to salt. 
schallertj to sound. 
trieffhuy to drop, distill. 
webeuy to weave. 

IV. Of Neuter Verbs. 

Verbs, expressing an independent action, 
that is to say, an action without reference to an 
object ; or denoting merely a state of being, or 
resting, come under the denomination of Neuters s 
as, setzeUy to sit down 5 liegeUy to lay down, gehen^ 
to go ; stehen, to standi reisen^ to travel. 

It is very difficult to draw a precise line of 
demarcation between Active and Neuter verbs ; 
for those, which are commonly used as actives, 
may also be made use of as neuters ; as, schlagen, 
to beat y saeriy to sow sfeed ; schreibeUy to write ; 
lesen, to read, &c. &c. may mean, / am in a state 
of solving y writing y &c. without a relation to a 
particular object. On the other h^nd, such as in 
general have the character of Neutersj may occa- 
sionally assume the quality of Actives ; aS, ich 
spaziere — eine Meile, I walk — a mile ; ich reite 
— ein Pferd, 1 ride — a horse, &c. 

I should 


I should have little to say of Neuter Vcrta, 
were it not necessary to remark, that some of them 
take in the Preterite Tenses, the auxiliary seyn, to 
be ; whereas in English to have is used. HencCi 
many of my scholars have, by an adherence to the 
idiom of their own language, been led into gram- 
matical errors ; to obviate which, I shall particu^ 
larly describe those verbs, and add some examples. 

The following are joined with the auxiliary 

}. All neuter verbs, by which the subject 
may be thought more active than passive, and 
consequently all proper actives, if they stand as 
transitive ; as, die Uhr hat geschlageriy the clock has 
struqk ; der Gartner hat gesaetj the gardner has 
sowed, &c. 

2. All neuters, denoting the production of a 
sound, and the finishing of an action ; as, der Wind 
hat gebraiiset, the wind has been boisterous; der 
Baum hat ausgebliihet, the tree has ceased to 
bloom, &c. 

3. Those which suffer a Present Participle, 
(but not those of a Preterite one) as, dursten, to be. 
thirsty 3 blilzen^ to lighten ; dampfen^ to steam, &c, 

4. Those denoting a change of place, (and 
not those which have no relation of place, which. 
require seyn) as, wir haben den .ganzen Tag ge* 
spnuigeny geritten, gereist, &c. we have all day 

,loag jumped, rode on horseback, travelled, 8cc. 

5. All which are used impersonally and red- 



procajly ; as, es hat gefroren^ it has frozen ; es fiat 
mir geahndety I have foreseen ; ich habe mich niiide 
gegangeuy I have tired myself by walking. 

Xhe following Neuters are joined with the 
auxiliary seyn. 

1 . Those which denote a change or transition 
from- one condition or state into another ; as, aus- 
arteriy to degenerate ; Pret. Part, ich bin ausgeartet; 
erbtasseuj, to grow pale ; begegnen, to meet a person ; 
geneseUy to recover, &c. 

2< Such as express motion with locality, i. e* 
motion with relation to place or distance ; the 
place or distance may either be named or un» 
derstood, in which case seyn is to be joined t6 
the verb ; as, ich bin nach Paris gereisty I have 
travelled to Paris ; meine Mutter ist nach Bath ge- 
fahretty my mother is gone to Bath. 

In the former the locality is expressed ; in the 

following it is merely understood, as in verbs com- 

, pounded with Jocal particles, ex. gr. abreiseny to 

depart ; anlangeriy to arrive ; durchsegelny to sail 

through^ &c. 

Motion^ however, may al$Q be conceived as 
tnere action, without the association of place or 
distance; then the verb is joined with haben^'^x^ 
x^ with the former s as, ich hake grfidireny I faavie 
been driving (a carriage); er hat getanziy he hsis 
lieen dancing ; ich habe gffsckmpmmeny I b^ve been 
$wi]»niiDg.*^But, a^ soon ^s the manner of moti^i 
\% expxe^(9^ »^ fyst^ slow, fee seyn again serves 



as the auxiliary ; as this could not well be imagiiif d 
without the idea of space, ex. gr. wir sind langsam 
gegangen^ we have been walking slowly; wir sind 
geschwinde ge/ahreni we have been driving quickly; 
sie sind spatzieren gerilten^ they have taken an air- 
ing on horseback, &c. 

3. Sejpi is always joined with the following \ 
verbs, for they can never admit haben $ as, faikn^ 
to fall ; folgerty to follow ; gelicn^ to go ; kommcih 
to come ; zveichen, to yield ; — likewise, beg€gne»$ 
to occur; bleiberiy to remain; geliiigen^ to succeed; 
gesch^hen, to happen. 

4. It sometimes occurs that a neuter vcrl> 
adopts either sej/n, or haben, according as the sig-^ 
niiication is more active or passive ; as, ich din, o 

kabe gdandety I have landed ; ich bin, or habe ein^ 
gekehret, I have stopped (at an inn), &c: In suchp^ 
doubtful cases, seyn, is more preferable, for habere 
^ems to me to be provincial. 

V. Of Compound Verbs. 

This chapter comprizes verbs that are com- 
pounded with prepositions, and such invariable 
words as are styled particles in German. Scrnie 
of them remain combined in all cases, and never 
quit their position, consequently may be looked 
upon ^s genuine or inseparable compounds j whereas, 
others are frequently separated, and are not deemed 
genuine, i. e. the particle or preposition, at the 
beginning, may either be separated firom th? verb 
or not. l./n- 



IfiSeparable compound verbs are those begin- 
ning with 


ent; • 

hinter ; 
misz ; 

T)€r ; 

verab ; 
vernach ; 
voll >• ' 
wider ; 

zer J — 

as, bcleberiy 

to animate ; 

— empfangen, . 
tp receive ; 

— entwqffhen, 
to disarm ; 

— erjinden^ 
to hnrent} 

— grfaUen, 
to please j 

— hhUergehen^ 
to deceive > 

— miszrathen^ 
to dissuade ; 

— urtheilen^ 
to judge; 

— " ver^ehreuy 

to consume ; 

-^ verabreden, 
to concert ; 

— vemachldsiigeny 
to neglect; 

— • verunreimgen^ 
to soil; 

— volkdehen^ 
tp execute ; 

— zoidersprechen, 
to contradict ; 

to destroy; 

from leberty 
to live. 

fangen, ^ 

to catch. 

■ wqffnen, 
to arm. 

, to find. 

—r— faUen, 

— — geken, 
to go. 


to advise. 

— — tkeilefi, 

to divide. 

■ ' ■ ■ ■ zehren, 
to waste. 

— ^ redeuy 

to speak. 

^— — lassefi^ 
to leave. 

to clean. 

to draw. 

to speak. 

stdren^ , 
tostir> ' 






None of thc| foregoing verbs evpr admit a 
separatioh of the prefixed syllable^ nor receive the 
augmentative -one ge, in the Pteterite Participle ; 
vsrhich is also the case> with a very few excep- 
tions, with other compound yqrbs, "which have 
short syllables. 

2. The separable compounds are very nume- 
rous. Their prefixes are for the most part prepo- 
sitions, consequently are not so closely connected 
with the verb, as the former j for that reason thejr 
are oft^ri separated frorfi it, by a long series oF 
word*^ , Tbey are composed with 

» » t 

I • » 

ab i . 



aus s 

bet ^ 

herbei s 

vorbei s 


dabei > 

as, abschreiberiy 
to copy ; 

— ^ amnelden, 
to announce -, 

— au/stehen, 
to rise ; 

— atisdrikketty. 
to express ; 

r— beimessen, 
to impute ; 

*— herbeirufen^ 
to call near; 

— — .: vorbeigehen, 
to pass by } 

— darsfellen, 

to represent ; 

m^ dabeisteheny 
to stand by s 


to write. 

to mention. 

to stand. 

to press. 

to measure. 

to call. 

to go. 

to put. 

to stand. 


davon s as, 
(lurch s — 


iiberein s 
fehl s 

heim s 

^inheim j 


heron s 
heraus s 
herein s 
hinab ; 


davonlatifen, fit)m 

to run off 1 


to read tlp'ough ; 

, eifffuhren^ 
to introduce : 

iibereiTikommen, . 
to agree j 

to miss ; 

to make haste ; 

to intercede ; 

to be alike ; 

to visit ; 

to refer to j 

to recite ; 

to lower ; 

to bring on ; 

to fetcji out ; 

to call in s 

to sink down ; 

to let down y 

c c 2 ' 


to run. 

tp read. 

fihren^ , 
to guide. 

to come. 

to beat. 

. machen, 
to make. 

to beg. 

Jcommen, . 
to come. 

to seek. 

steU^n^ • 
to place. 

to say. 

setzetir •' 
to set. ^ 

to lead. 

to fetch. 

to call. 

to sink. 

to let. 




hinaus ; ^s, 


los ; 
rait ; 
nach ; 
nieder ; 
ob ; 
iiber ; 


unter s 

voll ; 

vor s 



zurilck s 


hinauswefferif from 
to fling out ; 

to leap down ; 

tossprecheuy - 

to absolve ; 

to bring with ; 

to run after 

to f^ll down s 


to be incumbent on 

to overrun ; 

to return ; 

sink to the ground; 

to intoxicate; 

- to represent ; 

wegkommeny , 
to disappear ; 

to bring back ; 

to attribute ; 

to send back ; 

to fling. 

to leap. 

to speak. 

to bring- 

to run. 

to fall. 

to lie. 

flies icih 
to run. 

to sweep. 

to sink. 

— r- saUfen, 
to drink like a brute < 


to put. 

■ kommen. 

to come. 

•— — briT^erty 
to bring. 


to write. 

to send* 


german language. 197 


1 . These compounds preserve their ge in the 
Preterite Participle, where it; is placed between 
the preposition and the verb ; thus : abgescfwieben^ 
copied ; hsgelasseriy released, &c. 

2. It is the same with the particle xw, in 
the Infinitive ; as, abzuschreiberiy for to copy ; los- 
zulassen, for tarelease ; wiederzukommeny for to come 
back again, &c. 

3. The separable prepositions are always 
placed after the verb In the Present and Preter- 
imperfect Tenses ; as, ich sckreibe ab, I copy ; ich • 
schrieb aby I copied, &c. 

4. The following particles are sometimes used 
separably, and sometimes inseparably ; as, durck^ 
uruy Uber, unter, voU^ wieder. Their separation or 
non-separation gives the verb quite a different sig- 

ich durchgehcy I peruse ; ich gehe durch^ I desert, 
ich untcrstehe mich, 1 venture ; ich stehe unteVy I 

stand under cover, &c. &c.* 


VI. Of Reflective Verbs. 

When the action, expressed by a verb, w?- 
turhd to the subject from which it proceeds, the' 
verb is called Reflective y or Reciprocal. Almo^ 


■. \ 

n ii r II 

* Practice will easily shew how these particles tnay be 


every verb in German, implying action/ is capable 
of this reflecfion ; nevertheless, there are several 
that are never used without the reciprocal prc^ 
nouns, and w^hich may be called, in the strictest 
sense of the word, true reflectiyes. Before I pro- 
ceed to display them, I must first mention, that 
most reflective verbs govern the reciprocal pro- 
nouns, michy dich, sichy — .unsy euchy sichy in the 
Accusative case, few in the Dative, and one only 
admits of bo^q ; thus : 

With the Accusative, 
ich erbarme michy I have compassion. 
ich besmie michy I recollect. 
ieh unter^tehe michy T dare, &c. 

With the Dative, 
ich bilde ndr eiriy I fancy. 
ich gelraue mivy \ venture. 
ich masze mir any I arrogate to myself, &c» 

Both cases, 
mir deuchty or mich deiichty methinks. 


1, All reflective verbs are joined with the 
auxiliary hahen. 

2. The reciprocal pronoun is not to be se- 
parated from its verb in the Present and Preter- 
imperfect. In the Indicative, Conjunctive, and 
Imperative Tenses, where the auxiliary is used^ 
the pronoun is annexed to it, while the verb, itself 
is placed at the end of the sentence ; as, 



er h^bUet sick mit teercr Hcffitung^ iie comforts him- 
self with vain hope. 

€rhat sick mit leerer Hqffmng getrostet^ be has com- 
forted himself with Vain hope. 

3. There are some active and neuter verbs^ 
which, when used as reflectives have a particular 
and energetic signification, ex. gr. 

sick aus dem Athem laiifen^ to loose the breath 

by running. 
sick miide tanzcjiy to dance oneself tired. 
sick aus einern Handel her auslugen, to extricate one- 
self out of an affair by means of lies. 
sich arm sau/e7i9 to get poor by means of drinking. 
Sick xu Todte saufen^ to perish by means of drinking 

too much. 

4. The German language contains some re- 
flectives, which * are composed of several other 
particles ; as, 

sick auf eine Sache etzvas einHlden, to be proud of 

having performed something. 

^ich Preisz gehen^ to give oneself over as a prey, 

or to surrender oneself, &c. 

The first of these is regular, the last irregular ; 
but as such modes of speech occur very seldom, the 
student will easily become acquainted with these 
few anomalies, especially when he has acquired 
fte principal parts of German speech. 

5. Some verbs are only used as reflectives 
b' k particular signification 5 as, 

sick hrufen, to appeal to. - • 



Sich hdehken, to hesitate. 
sick hiitenj to beware, &c. 

6* Others are, in the same signiiicatioR^ Qsed^ 
as simple verbs, ana as reftectives ; as, 
irren and $ich itren, to be mistaken. 
schenen — * sich scheuen^ to be shy of a thing. 
%anken — sich %anken to qoarreL 

VII. Of Impersonal A^erbs. 

When the subject of a verb is expressed so in- 
deffnitely, that it even remains undecided,^ whether 
it be a person or any other object, it is then called 
an impersonal verb, which is to be expressed .by 
the third person singular of all tenses, with the in- 
definite pronoun es ; as, es donnerty it thunders \ 
es regnetj it rains ; es hat geschnczei, it has snowed, 
&c* The subject which is son^eiimes ea:pressed hf 
man, one, or they> instead of es, does not consti* 
tute an impersonal The impersonal merely de- 
pends on the manner, by which the subject is 
expressed; for that reason many active and neuter 
verbs may be used as impersonal In a limited sig- 
nification, those only can be called true iniperjwnals, 
which^have generally no relation with a definite sub- 
ject > as, es thauety it thaws ; es rajet, it i&rimy ; es 
frierty it freezes > eshggelt, it hails: more particulau^ly 
so, if they are reciprocal ; as, es schzoindelt pUtj, I 
son giddy ; es scMdfert michy I am sleepy. Some- 
times es is left out ; as, mich schld/ert, mich hun^ 
gerty &c. They have neither a Passive, nor Impe- 
• rative 


rative Mood ; and very seldom a Participle. How- 
ever the Passive of other verbs miy be used im- 
personally ; as, es wird gesagt^ it is said, or they 
say ; es wird geschossen, they are firing guns, &c. 
but in that case, even neuter verbs may obtain a 
passive signification ; as, es wird gegangeus they 
are vralking ^ es wird geritten^ they are riding (on 
horseback) ^ es tvird gereisety they are travelling, &c. 

Of the Participle. 

Participles, as far as relates to their declen" 
sions, do not differ from adjectives ; but as there is 
something peculiar in the use of German Partid- 
pies, I am therefore necessitated to treat of thj^m 
separately in the Syntax. 


Of Prepositions. 

The prepositions compose in the German lan- 
guage , a very important part of speech, and con- 
sequently require a nic^ discrimination ; so that if 
tiie student wishes to attain correctness in the 
idiom of that part of speech, he must, not ima- 
fide that it will be sufficient literally to .translate 

D d pnglish 


feiiglish phrases into Oennan,but he must take feto 
fconsiderjilion the pecuiiar nature of every exprw- 
^lon and its peculiar signification. 

To facilitate this part of Speech, I have deemed 
it essentially iiecessary only to mention, in this 
place, the primary English signification of those 
' jprepositiohs which govern difi'erent cases, «id 
placed the various other meanings in English wiA 
their respective exemplifications, by which means 
the attention being directed, to those words, with 
which they are joined, the student will clearly see 
the manner of their application. The above di- 
rections should be carefolly fioted ; for the same 
. prepositioji which governs, in one instance^ a Ge- 
. nitive case, may bear quite a contrary meanings in 
different phrases, in other c^es. 

The prepositions in German are either radical, 
as, ab, an, in j or derivatives, as, zimchen, gegetiy 
auszer, &c. or compounds, as auszerhalb, inndrhalb, 
&c. and often they are borrowed from other parts 
of speech, as laut, krajt, &c. 

They very often supply the place of those 
deficient cases, which could not be expressed in 
the declension. The student should understand, 
lAiat ti)e greatest part pf die syntax is finined on 
the pxiop^ies of die picpositions, wl^ch ajpe inflexi- 
ble and indeclindbile^ aad mostly placed before 
iiOiuis 3 though in miajiy instances they iti« jofixird - 
to verbs. 

However, their priiicq>al power is, to igmern 



diSere&t cases, as for instance : the Genitive^ or 
the Dative alone s or both together ^ and sometimes 
the Dative and Accusative together^ 

The student will find each preposition cara* 
fyS^Y arranged, together with their peculiar sigr 
nifications and applications \ and under th^ head <;^ 
their governing case I shall notice all (sxception^ 
to the established rules, and afterwards conclude 
the yvhole, with some general remarks^. > 


Anstatt or, statt. — ^ Both are indiscriminatelv 
used for each other. The first means, literall^^ 
in the place of, like the English insteai s the Utter 
is an abridgment of the former, and as a prcposi- 
tion» is the same as the English stead. It often has 
iilso a substantive signification, and denotes a place. 
We find dnslatt of):en separated ; as, anstatt^ or 
'ttdll des Komgs tear sein Minister (fa, itist^d '<lf 
the king, his minister was present ; an des Vateft 
statt y instead of the father ; statt meiiier, deiner, 
seiner, &c. instead of mine, thine^ his, &€. ; 4im 
Kindts statt annehmeny to adopt, &c. 

DiesseitSy on this side; — ^as, diesseits deis^WtHh 

to d 2 seffy 

<■■■,. ■ ■ f ii~ '-1-ri-iwi, itf . ■ 

^ The 2^glar mast excuse those instances where in the 
JeogKsh IviiSKfibti I lunre sometiines literally ifbllowbd iSk 
phrase of the German, as it is done wifli a View that teldl^ 


sitrs, ' or des Fhsses. on this side of the water or 

Halben, or kalbery on account of. — It de- 
notes a motive, and is always placed behind the 
case it governs. The first is preferred, when an 
article precedes the noun ; the latter, when with- 
out it 5 as, ich that es dcr Fraindschqft halben^- 1 
did it on account of our friendship ; Alters hcLlber, 
on account of age. 

It occurs abbreviated in deszkalb, on that 
account ; weszhalby on which account ; and in the 
fpUowing compound prepositions : auszerhaW, with- 
out, on the outside of ; inncrhalb\ within, in the 
Inner part of s pberhalby above, on the upperside of; 
nnterhalb^ below, on the lower side of. 

JenseitSy on the other side ; — as, jenseits des 
Flussei, ovf. the other side of the river. 

Kraft, by the power, or virtue of; — as, krqft 
meines Amtes, by the power of my office s krqft 
4es Vertrags^ by virtue of the contract. 

LmU, according to ; — as, laut des koniglicheu 
£iefehls, according to. the king'§ order. 

Mittelsty or vermittelst. — Sigi^ifies : by tl^f 
means of. The latter is more in U3e than the first ; 
as, vermittelst deines Be^jStandes, by the means pf 
your assistance. 

Urn - willen, for the sake of ;— :as, um Gpttes- 
PfiUeuy for God's §ake ; %{m ihrer Ehre-willen^ for 
|iie sake of your honour. 

' U^achtet^QX fhngeu^t. •— < Signifies ; Dotr 



withstatiding ; the* first is more proper than the 
latter ; as, ungeachtel alter Hindemis^e, notwith-i 
standing all impediments. 

Unweity not far from ;— as, mizveit der Kirche, 
not fiir from the church. 

Vermoge. — Signifies : by dint of, by the power 
of, by means of ; as, vermoge der Uebung^ by dint 
of practice ; vermoge des Fleisses, by means of in- 
dustry, &c. 

Wdhrend, during;— as, wahrend meiner Ge^ 
fangenschafty during my imprisonment. 

Wegeny because of, &c. — Ich that es meiner 
Mutter wegen, I did it, because of my mother ; er 
fprach mit mir wegen des Pferdes^ he spoke to ni$ 
concerning the horse, &c. 

Remarks on the foregoing Prepositions. 

1 . The two following compound prepositions, 
in Betseyn, and in Gegenwart^ signifying both, ia 
presence, must be noticed here, because they oc- 
cur frequently ; as, in Beiseyn def Todhter^ in pre- 
sence of the daughter ; in Gegenwart der Mutter^ 
|n presence of the mother, &c, 

2. When the preposition halben is precede4 
by the pronouns ichy du, er, we substitute a / in- 
stead of the letter r in the Genitive of meiner^ 
(kiner, seiner s ' as, 7nein€thaU)en^ deinethalben^ set- 
^ethaWen, for my, thy, ' his sake. 

8. In the Genitive phiral of the former two 
poQOuns we do not reject the letter r, but 



we add a^ / to it s as^ unserthalberif eurcthalben, 
forour, yoqrsal^e; ihrethalbenf signifies either for 
her, or their sake. 

4. fFegen is put indiscriminately, either before 
or after the regime ; as, zpegen def Unkosten^ ox 
der Unkosten tvegen^ on account of the expense. 
It h employed, the same as halhen, with the pefr 
sonal pronouns ; a3, meinetwegen, seinetzvcgcn^ ihr 

i. In um - wiUen^ the um is always pi^f first 
and wiUen-nfttr the regime. It is employed wift 
the personal pronouns like halben ^d zvegen, 

6. Ungeachtetj, is placed either before xyt ^Sutt 
its regime : as, dessen uvgeachlet, notwithstJinding 


Ati&j out pf ;-rras, aus dcm Beit^ out of bed 5 
aus Furchty out of fear ; er that es aus eigenem Anr 
trieb, he did it from his own impulse. 

Juszer, without of, &c. &c. ;-r-as, auszer den^ 
HaiiS€3 out of the house \ misi^r allem Zzvejfetf^ 
without doubt ; er ist answer sich, he is deprived of 
(its senses ; auszer Ordnung^ auszer Stafide^ out of 
-order,, out of condition ; auszer den Offkieren k(f: 
wen auck verscfiied^ne angesehene £^aujleute, beside^ 
the officers, there came ^Iso several eminent jxkc^r 

Bei, upon, by, 8cc. &c. ;~as, dr ist beim "^anzcy 
jbe is at a dancing party j bei meinem Mq/i^^'mfaf 


CEItMAK LAir60AGE.. 207 

ttly liMse ; fcr tneiner Ehre, upon my llonour, er 
MiAm mich bei der Handy he took me by the hand ^ 
hei etrnfti Freuridc fruhstiickeny to breakfast with 
Xk friend ; bei miry with me ; bei dem Himmel^ by' 
heaven ; beiJupitery by Jupiter, &c. &c. 

Entgegen; towards, against, &c. ; — ^as, dem 
Winde entgegeuy against the wind ; ich gieng ihm 
^ntgegeriy I went to meet him ; das ist meiner Mei- 
nung entgegeiiy that is against my opinion. 

GegenubeVy over against, opposite to,&c. ; — as, 
er sasz mir gegenUbeVy he was sitting opposite to 
me; dem Garten gegenUbery opposite the garden. 
It is sometimes separated thus : gegen wir ubery ge^ 
gen ikm Garten uber. 

Ldngsty along ; — as, Idngst dem Ufer hinsegeluy 
to sail along the shore ; langft dem Wegey along the 

Mity with ; — as, er kam mit seinem Freundy 
lie came with his friend ; viit ihm gekeny to go with 


Nachy after, &c. ; — as, er kam nach miry be 
Caime after me i nach den Umstdndeny according to 
WCumstances ; nach dem Gesettse, according to 
law ; einer nach dem anderuy one after another ; 
\mieiner Meinung nacky in my opnion ; wann reisen 
K$ie nach der Sckweitz ? when do you set out &r 
• Swisserland ? dem Strome nach, following the stream ; 
nach meinem Todte, after my death ; nach mekr 
' Mukey after much trouble. * 

Nachsty or zundchst^ next ^'-^os, mihst melnAn 




Bruder bist du mir der LiebstCy next tQ my brother, 
I like you best ; nlichst dent Bette^ next to the bed. 

Nebsty or benebst, together with, &Cv — The 
latter is provincial ; as, meineFreunde nebst tmrymj 
friends together with me ; die Mutter nebst ihreHi 
Kinde, the niother besides her child. 

Sammty together with. — It is becoming ob- 
solete ; as, samjnt seinem Gefolge, together witji his 

Seit, since ; — ^as, seit dem ich ihn keniie, since I 
know him ; seit langer Zeit^ a long while since j 
seit dem Kriege, since the war. 

Voiiy from, &c. ; — as, ich komme vonmeinem 
Bruder, I come from my brother j^^miT/W von 
zzvei Jahren, a child two years of age ; von der 
Seite angreifeuy to attack by the flank ; der Brief 
ist von ihm geschrieben^ the letter is written by 
him, &c. 

Zuy to, &c. &c. 'y — as, komyn zu miry come ta 
me ; zu Londouy at London ; zu Wasser, by water; 
zu viely too much y zu Fusze, on foot ; mack die 
Thiir zUy shut the door s fahre zUy drive on, &c. 

Zu/olgey according to, in consequence of;: — as» 
ihrem Befehl zufolgey according to your order, &x. 

Zmvidery against, in opposition to. — Is always 
put after the case ; as, der Verordnung zjtwider, 
against the order ; dem Wohlsiande zuwidery against 

Zwischeriy between. -^ Zwischen mir tmd iknif 
between me and him, &c. 




Remarks on the pteceeding Prepositions^ 

1 . Instead of the preposition aus, we meet so- 
ftietimes with vor ; as, er starb vor Kummer, he 
died for grief. 

2. Auszer governs also the Genitive, in one 
instance^ as, auszer Landes^ abroad. 

S. In the phrase, von Alters her ^ of old; the 
preposition i^on admits the Genitive. 

- 4. Zufolge, is always placed after the case. It 
is sometimes, but not often, joined to a Genitive 
case, which it preceads , .as, zufolge Hires Befehles, 
in consequence of your order. 

The foll6wing peculiar phrases, belong also 
under this head : 

er ist bei viir, he is with me. 

bleiben sie diesen Abend bei uns^ stay this eVening 

with us. 

6^1 Hqfey at court. 

nach Deutschland schreibeuy to write to Germany. 

nach Hause gehen, to^ go home. 

sich nach Morgen zoenden^ to turn towards the east. 

dieser Weg geht nach dem Waldcy this way leads 

to the forest. 

nach der Wache schicken, to send for the watch, 

or guard. 

den Mantel nach dem Winde hdngen (a proverb), 

to accomodate oneself according to circumstaiices. 

er wofmt zu Paris, he lives at Paris. 

xu Bettegehen, to go to bed. 

£ e aus 


ans Eilelkeity out of ^ vanity. 
aus Fiircht, out of fear. 


Durchy through, &c. ;— as, ich habe diesen Brief 
durch einen Reisenden erhalteriy I have received this 
letter by a traveller ; durch alle Jahrhnndertey 
through all centuries ; durch einen Schusz getodteU 
killed by a shot ; ynkten durch d^n Wald, through 
the middle of the forest ; durch den Gebrauch abge- 
nuizt, v^orn out by use ; durch Sturm erobert, 
taken by storm. 

Fiir, for ; — as, ich kaufie dieses Buchfur meine 
Tochter, I bought this book for my daughter ; ich 
danke ihnenfUr das Geschenky I thar^ you for your 
present; ein fur allemaly once for all ; Wortjur 
Worty w^ord by v^ord ; Tag fur Tag, day by day. 

- Gegen, to, towards, against, &c. ; — as, gegen 
den Wind segeln, to sail against the wind ; gegen 
Morgeny towards the east; er wandte sick gegen 
viichy he turned himself towards me. 

Ohncy without ; literally : not with ; — as, ohne 
meine Einzvilligung, without my consent-^ ohne alien 
Zweifely without doubt ; ohne mich, without me, &c. 

Um^ round, aboutj Sic. ; — as, ttm die Siadt 
spatziereuy to walk round the town ; es ist urn ihn 
g^scheheuy it is over with him ; er hat micknm mein 
Geld betrogen^ he has cheated me out of my money ; 
eine Woche uni die andere, every other week ; um 
sechs Uhr^ at six o'clock ; trni Geld spiehn, 4o play 



for money ; umfiinfJahre alter^ older by five years ; 
ehier tan den andeniy one after another ; dJe Woche 
ist urn, the week is over ^ er zeigt es wns Geld, he 
shows it for money ; um und u?n, round about, on 
all sides. 

Wider, against, in opposition to ;— as, wider 
seinen Willen, against his will. 

Remarks on the foregoing Prepositions. 

1. The preposition fury for, must not be mis- 
taken for that of vor, which signifies before. 

2. Gen, instead of gegen^ is, an abbreviation of 
the latter, and occurs but in few phrases ; as, gen 
Himmel,. towards heaven s Nord gen Ost, north by 

3. Sonder. instead of ohne, is onlv used in 
poetry; as, sonder' Geist, without spirit; sonder 
Zxveifel, without doubt. 

4. The preposition zvider, against, must not be 
confounded with the adverb wieder, again. 



Those which govern the Genitive case, I have 

fiiBy explained under their proper head. I shall 

Aetrfore exhibit tho^e, which require a Genitive, 

when preceding their case, and the Dative, when 

placed after it : 


Auszer Landes, or auszer dem Lande, or aiiszer^ 

halb Landes, or auszerhalb dem Lande, out of tb^ 

E e 2 ^ Goun- 



country, abroad ;. in wrA«/6 des Hauses^ or 'irmerw 
halb dent Hause, in the ihner part of the house j 
pherhalb des Berges, or oberhalb dem Berge, upoa 
the mountain ; unterhalb des HiigelSy or unterkalb 
dem HiigeU *below the hill ; zufolge ihres Befehls, 
or ihrem Befehl zufolge y acco?ding to your com? 


The following govern the Accusative^ w^hen 
a motion to a place is intimated 3 and the Dative^ 
when they denote a rest. 

Any has various significations in English, 
Examples with the Dative case. An dem 
XJfer des RheinSy on the banks of the Rhine i an 
einem Orte zvohneny to live at a place \ an der 
Thiir ste/ieny to stand at the door ; an mfinem 
Platzey in my place ; es liegt am Fenster^ it lies 
on the window ; mein Vater arbeitet an einem Bu • 
chey my father is engaged in writing a book ; metne 
Schwester starb an einer Auszekrung^ my sister died 
of a consumption j arm an Freunderiy poor ' in 
friends ; grosz an Ruhmy great in fame 3 schwach 
an GedachtnisZy weak in memory ; man kennt da^ 
Silver an dem Klange, the silver is known by. its 
sound, &c. 


* The' preposition Vdngst, if very seldom put with the 
frienitive cose ; it most frequently requires the Datiire. 


Examples with the Accusative case. " An Tnei* 
nen Brtider schreiben, to write to my brother ; ick 
werde das G^^d an meinen Oheim absckicken, I shall 
send the money to my uncle 5 an em Ding glauben^ 
to believe in a thing ; sick tfw etwas erinnerny to re- 
member a thing ; bis an den Morgen, until the mor* 
ning ; bis an das Meer^ as far as the sea ; bis an 
das Ende, until the end, &c. &c. 

Atif, upon, &c. &c. 

Examples with the Dative case, Ich sitze atif 
dent Stuhlcy I sit upon the chair ; sie 'ist aiifdem 
Landry she is in the country > auf dent Thurme ste^^ 
ken^ to sjand upon the steeple ; avfder Jagd seyn, 
to be at the chace ; aiifder Gasse heruni gehen, to 
walk about the street ; sie ist aufdem Balle^ she is 
at the ball ; mein Bruder befindet sick auf der Uni^ 
versiiaty my brother is at the university, &c. 

Examples with' the Accusative. Auf den Berg * 
fteigen, to mount upon the hill ; setze dich auf 
4en Stnhly sit down upon the chair ; aif den Mast 
Aeigen, to climb the mast ; aufeinen Baum kletterfi, 
to climb up a tree; auf den Boden zverfen^ to 
throvtr upon the ground ; auf den Ball gehen, to go 
to the ball ; auf etwas sein Auge richten, to fix his 
view upon something ; auf jemanden warten^ to 
wait for some-body ; qu^e Mahizdt auf zxjuiilf Per- 
sonen einrichten, to prepare a dinner for twelve 
persons; soviel Wein auf deuManuy so much wine 
upon the man \ bis auf Tausend ziihlen, to count 
^ thousand; er zixisz es auf em Haar, he knows 



it to a hair^ bis auf sechs TlialeVy up to six dol- 
lars ; auffranzosische Arty in the French way \ ax^ 
diest Weise, in this manner ; auf jene Arty in that 
vray ; zvie heisztdas auf English ? How is this cal- 
fed in English ; auf den Dienstag^ on next Tuesday; 
wir haben ' Vorrath auf viele Monathey we have a 
stock for many months ; nehmeii sie es auf einmal, 
take it at once, &c. 

Hinter, behind, &c. &c. 

Examples with' the Dative. Er steht hinter 
miry he stands behind me ; hinter dem Vorhange 
steheny to stand behind the curtain. 

With the Accusative. Sich hinter die TTiiir 
stellaty to place oneself behind the door ; hinter die 

Wcthrheit kommeny to fall short of truth. 


Iny in. 

With the Dative. Sie liegt in dem BettCy she 
is in bed ; er ist in seinem Bette gestorbeny he died 
in his bed ; in dem Zimmery in the room ; i^ dem 
KeUery in the cellar, &:c. 

"Vfi^htht Accusative. In Gesellsthaff gekeny to 
go into company ; bis in did Nacht spieleuy to play 
till night ; bis in das llausy as far as the House; 

NebeUy near, &c. &c. 

With the Dative. Siesasz neben twir,she was 
ttttingnear me. 

With the Accusative. Er setzte sich neben 
mick, he took hk place near me ; ^ stelkte. sick 



neben die Mauer^ he placed himself near the wall ; 
seize dich neben mich, place thy$erf near me, &c. . 

UehePy over, Sec. 

With the Dative. Es hdngt uber der Thur^ it 
ha^gs over the do6r ; es schwebt iiber viir, it hovers 
over me ; iiber dem Lesen einscldaferty to fall asleep 
while reading ; iiber der Arbeit das Essen vergessen^ 
to forget eating while at work ; iiber Tische, wliile 
at table ; dieStadt liegt iiber dem Flusse^ the. town 
is seated at the other side of the river ; gegen dem 
Hause iiber, opposite the house. 

With the Accusative. Den Tag icber, during 
the day; Uber die Thiir legen^ to place over the 
door ; Uber Hals und Kopf^ over neck and heels ; > 
uber mein Vermbgeuy beyond my powers; iiber 
Junfzig Jahre, above fifty years ; bis iiber die Ohren 
in Schidden steclieny to be over head and ears in debt ; 
uch Uber etvoas freuen, to rejoice about something; 
Uber den Vor%ug streiten^ to dispute on account of 
rank ; heute iiber vierzehn Tage, from this day a 
^rtnight j iibers Jahr, during the year, &c- 

Untery under, among. 

; With the Dative. Ich schliefunter dem Baumc^ 
I slept under the tree ; es herrscht eine Sew^ 
; v/ifer dem Hornviehy there is an epidemic among 
the cattle ; unter dem Arme Iragen^ to carry under 
the arm; unter der bank hervorziekeny to throw oat 
from under the bench ; unter dem Joche leben, to' 
live under the yoke ; er steJit unter mir, he is in- 


ferior to me ; du bist weit unter ihm, thou art far 
inferior to him; unter zehn Tage werd^ ich nicht 
fertigy I shall not have done before ten days y unter 
der Larve der Freund^chaft^ under the ma$k of 
friendship ; einer tinier ihueuy one among them \ 
unter dcm Lesen ehischlafeuy to fall asleep while 

With the Accusative. Legen tvir uvs unter 
den Baum ? shall we lay ourselves under the tree ? 
sich unter das Wasser taucheny to dive under watery 


ein Land xvnter Wasser setzen^ to put a country un- 
der water ; unter Segel gehen^ to set sail ; sich un- 
ter die Zuschauer mengen, to mix among the spec- 
tatOFS; jemand unter seine Freunde rechnen^ to 
eount some one among his friends. 

For, before^ &c. 

With the Dative. Der Feind ist vor dent Thor^ 
the enemy is before the gate ; vor der %eit kommtn; 
to come before the time appointed ; vor einigen 
Jahreny several years ago ; vor diesem^ formerly ; 
vor der Handy before hand y sich vor etxvas fiirchteny 
to terrify for something i vor Hunger sterben, to 
die for hunger. . 

With the Accusative. * Etwas vor die Thiir 
tverfe?2, to throw something before the door ; vor 
den Spiegel treteny to go before the looking glass ; 
die Pferde vor den Wqgen spanneny to put the horses 
before the carriage. 



%tdschtny between, &c. 

With the Dative. Er sdsi zmschdn rrtit Ufid 
ihtn^ ht was sitting between hitti and rtle ; siwi^chta 
d^n beideti Garten tiegen, situated bfetWeen the tw(? 
gafdehs; zwischen Ostern und P^fin^steny between 
Easter and Whitsunday ; zzviscken d£n Parteyeil 
Schiedsrkkter sei/n, to be arbiter between th6 

With the Accusative, tltivas zwischen die Blat- 
ter tegefU to lay something between the ledveS ; 
iieUe dich twischen sie und mich, place thyself bfc- 
tw^eti her and me. 


i . Some prepositions coalesce with thS dejiniti 
atticfe, A^hich is generally done for the sake of con- 
venience arid brevity. (See ah alphabetical liit 6f 
fhem exemplified under the head of Articles.) 

2. The frepositiohs may also be put before 
adverbs, as in English, viz. vonhier^ from hence ; 
v6n dopt, from yonder 3 Vdn oberi, frdrii above ; von 
icfit^, fforii b^Iow, &c. &c. 

3. Ih^t^d of pYon6^t\s ddmimstraitve, ralatvcti 
ftid interrogative y the local adverb hitr^ here s da, 
theW ; tbOy where ; are j6iried with prepoSif kms ; t9, 
kiermiiy hiervoTiy daftiiU daneb&Uy dctfausy dttt-wbif^ 
v&tbeyy tvdrany &c. 

4. The preposition ifiy is sometimes forn/ied 
t^ith an advetb which pfecedes it 5 as, es ist darin^ 
it is in it ; hereiny here in it, &c. Wh6n it iigmfie« 

F f iniOy 


iiito^ it is made ein ; as, dareiu, into it j hinein, into 
it, &c. We find these adverbs occasionally sepa- 
rated frotn the preposition ; as, da liabe ich mcht an 
gedachty for,, daran habe ich nicht gedachty I have 
not thought of that ; da huten sie sich vovy for, da^ 
vor hiiten sie sich, beware of that ; da hat er keine 
Neigung zu, for, daxu hat er keine Neigungy he has 
no inclination for that, &c. 

In all such instances, I should advise to keep 
the prepositions united ; except in the following 
instances, where the separation is more proper ; as, 
da sey Gott vor^ God forbid, instead, da Gott vor 
sey, which God forbid. 

5. The preposition aufy considered as an ad- 
verb, answers to the English up. Sometimes it pre- 
ced^s the conjunction daszy that, and signifies a 
design or purpose ; as, auf daszy in order, or for 
the purpose that. It is used as an inteijection, to 
animate and courage ; as, aufy folget niivy come 
follow me. 

6. The preposition untery in two instances, 
governs also the Genitive case ; as, unter dessen, in 
the mean time ; unter Wegesy on the road. 

It would be indeed superfluous to make any 
more remarks on the prepositions, after having se 
sufficiently dwelt upon the subject. There are 
many other contractions of the former kind, but 
tiiey are vulgar, inelegant, or.provincial. There- 
fore what remains to be said on that subject, I 
shall elucidate in the Synta^^* 



Of Conjunctions. 

Conjunctions are particles by which words 
and sentences are connected, which have a rela- 
tion to each other. They are either radicals^ ot 
(yet not so frequently) derivatives^ or rof pow^ds. 

They are as manifold as the circumstances / 
which they denote, most of them implying more ^ 
than one circumstance. On that account they 
have been divided, by several authors, into various 
classes, which, from their voluminous explanation 
have checked the scholar's progress so, that he has 
been disgusted with that part of speech ; but if 
exhibited in a more familiar manner, it will be 
as easily comprehended as any other part of 

pf 2 To 

* Merely for the sake of curiosity, I will previously make 
the student acquainted with most of the different classes, 39 
represented by several authors. If it were not rather an ob- 
ject of speculation^ than of real practical advantage ; I myself 
could make the affixed classification still more ample and muU 
tifarious. Several authors have adopted for instance the follow- 
ing sixteen classes, viz, 1. Copulatives. 2. Continuatives, 
3. Circumscriptives. 4. Conditionals. 5. Disjunctives 6. Ad-* 
v^rsatives. 7* Concessives. 8. Causal'es. 9. Explanatives. 
10. Comparatives. 11. Proportionals. 12. Consecutives. 13. Il« 
bUves. 14. Exceptives. 15. Restricti?es» iQ. Exclusives. 


2S^ ^N^:j.y5is om the 

To facilitate this part of speech, 1 must pre- 
viously observe, that the signification of each con- 
junction in particular, doQ& pot always answer the 
literal meaning of the English, as many of them are 
used in a difFer^nt spnse in German to what they 
^re in English, and even many are entirely omit- 
ted (though understood) in German phrases^ which 
appear in the other languages. 

This was the same case with respect to the 
prepositions. However, the representation of their 
multifarious applications which I shall add to every 
one of them in particular, will intuitively shew the 
student in what manner thev differ from ooe an-r 
other, in omitting or expressing them. 

I could not display any elegance in the En- 
glish exemplification, many being literally, trans- 
lated (the same as I have done by the prepositions) 
which serves merely to elucidate the phrase. 

To clear this part of speech from all further 
difficulties, I shall give a list of the most ob- 
vious German conjunctions in alphabetical order, 
accompanied with the clearest phrases, together 


Such a classification cannot be of the least service, to 
8ny one^ who does not understand the Latin, and only pazzl^ 
his brain with expressions, which most appear to hioi fcighly. 
ridiculous. As for the scholar^ who is already acquainted ^th 
the Latin language, he can do without this classification ; be- 
cause the analogy of the phrase will immediately point o^t to 
him to what class the conjjinctioa belongs* 

with a literal trai^slatiion. By that means the stu« 
dent will ^e a^le to ynderst^nd witl^ faciUty the 
real 4epartsp^nt tp whi/ch tliey .belong. 




Aber, but. 

Abel* ich bin ganz anderev Mdntmg^ but I am 
quite of a different opinion ; aber ich wiU dieses 
nicht haberiy but I won*t have this ; aber werm es 
ihm miszf alien sollfe, but if he should dislike it; 


aber Himmeh was entdeckt mein Auge cm Ufer im 
Sande / but heaven, what discovers my eye on Ac 
shore in the sand 3 aber er zvar nicht da, but he, 
, was not there. 

Allein, but. 

Er ist ein guter Menschy allein was hi^t ihm 
da^ he \^ a good nian, but what use is. that to 
him > ich wollte gern^ allein er konnt^ nicfU^ I was 
willing, biit he cquI^ pot. 

Alsy aff, &c. &c. 

So roth ab eine Hose, as red as a rose ; siiszer 
<i^« ffonig, sweeter than bony ; ich, ak Nerr von 
vmnem Ii(iy^e^ I, as faaster of my hou^ ; als uA 
in Berlin ank am, when I arrived in Berlin; siebe- 
sitzet sowohl Tugend als Verstand, she possesses 
virtue as well as uadeprstaadkig. 



Also, also, &c. &c. 

Ich will es also kabe?i, I will have it so ; sprach 
dein Herz also ? did thy heart speak thus ? er erbt 
alles, also audi das Gut^ he inherits every thing, 
consequently, also the estate ; also bkibt es dabei, 
it remains therefore so ; die viekn GeschSfte notliigen 
mich alsoy much business therefore obliges mc. 

Auch , also, &;c. 

Der Reichthumi die Ehre^ auch das Vergniigen 
Sind eitely riches, honour, also pleasure are vain; 
wenn wirja sagen, so sag lev auchja, when we say 
yes, he also says yes ; er ist auch ein solcher, he is 
als6 such a one j eiji solcher ist er auch, such a one 
he is also ; ein redlicher^ wie auch gelehrter Mann, ^ 
sincere, and also a learned man ; ein gelehrter, aber 
auch gejdhrlicher Mann, a learned, but also a dan- 
gerous man ; er hat nicht allein sein Geld, sondern 
auch seine Ehre verlohren, he has lost not only his 
money, but likewise his honour ; sowohl dieses, als 
ituch jenes, as well this, as also that ; es geschehe 
auch wenn es wolle, may it also happen when it 
will ; zver er auch ist, let him be then whom he ' 

Aufdasz, in order that, &c. 

Auf dasz es uns kiinftig nicht an Mittelnfehle; 
in order that we are not in want of means in fliturej 

Be/or, before. 

Has the same meaning as the English. 



Day whenj &c. 


t)a ich ihn sake, bccvegte sick mein Herz Tor 
Freude, when I saw him, my heart was moved 
with joy ; da die Sonne aufgiengy da giengen wit 
aufs Feld, at sun rise, we went into the field ; da 
weder Stolz noch Ehrgeitz dick dazu bewegen, so 
ist deifie Absicht tugendhafty since neither pride nor 
ambition can move you to it, then your intention is 

virtuous ; du lachst, da du dock tveinen solUest, 

. , /• 

you laugh, when you ought to weep. 

DaheVy therefore, &c. 

Er tear abwesend daher entstand denji der Ver* 
dachty he was absent, thence arose the suspicion ; 
€5 ist ?iichts an der Sache, dngstige dick daher 7iicht, 
tTiere is nothing of the matter, therefore be nbt 

Damity that, &c. 

Ick mclde dir solckes, damit du dick darnack zH 
richten wissesty I mention this to you, that you 
might know how to regulate yourself after it ; 
ich warne dicky damit du dick in Ackt nekmen moch^ 
testy I warn you, that you might take care of your- 
self ; thue es nur^ damit er nicht zu sehr hestrajt 
wirdy do it only, that he nlay not be punished too 
severely for it. ' 

Danny alsdann, then, &c. 

Wir miissen erst lemen und dann reden, we 
must learn first, and then speak j wenn ick dich 
sehe dann will ick es dir geben, when I see you, 



tS4 AKALY&tS Of mt 

dien I will give it to you {danfiy xeann ich dich sehe, 
wHl kk a dir geben^ (ot, when I see yoa, llien I 
win gtve, it to you ; dann^ mnd xcamk^ now woA 

Alsdatmy has the same meaning » then. 

Darum^ for that reason, &c.* 

Darum konnte ich nichts sagen, loeil ich nichts 
tBMSxte, for that reason I could say nothing, because 
1 knew nothing ; die Brucke zvar abgerisseriy darum 
kanmtcn wir nicht hzniiberf the bridge being broken 
dowD^ for that reason Wd tould not go over. 

JDasz, that. 

Ich sehe dasz er kormnt^ I see that he comes ; 
jc& weisz dasz es nicht recht ist^'^ I know that it is 
not right. 

Demnachy is obsolete. 

Denn^ for, &c. 

Er ist irnmer vergnugt^ deh7i er iH fhit dlleith 
zttjrieden, he h altvays satisfied, far he is with eV*f<y 
Aing content ; efinnere dich deiner Ahnehi ddnii 
suf find Beisplelefiir dich, rdmember thyaftcestWs 
then they are models fof thee ; iSt tr noch f Atmi 
in m&inef Eimamkeit. h&re ich fiichts von ihfh. i# 
he still alive ? for in my solitude I hear tiothtn^'df 
him ; hat denn ein Narr Verstand f has then a 


^ ■ ■ I - ■ l_ J _L«_ ^_L U. _ I r ■ _ I II , II 

* When darum is used as aa adverb in GeroEiaDi it sig« 
iiifie* in fingii^, oft K^ount of. 


fbpl understanding ? so mag es derm gut seyn, then 
it may be so ; so bleibt es denn dabeiy then it re- 
mains so ; ich sake denn nicht recht^ unless I see 
not right ; £s sey denn dasz er es Idugne^ then it 
may be that he denies it ; ehe derni ich sterbe^ before 
then I die ; wer ist reicher denii evy who is richer 
then he ; nichts denn Geld, nothing but gold ; diesz 
hat kein anderer gethan denn du^ nobody else has 
done it, but you ; erst wollen wir essen, dann^^ or 
4enn spazieren ^getieuy first let us dine, then take 
a walk. 

Dennoch, nothwithstanding. 

Es ist ein Mdrchen^ dennoch glaubst du es, it 
is a story, notwithstanding you believe it ; ob 
man ihm solches gleich ver bothy so that er es den- 
nochy although we have prohibited him, yet he did 
it notwithstanding. 

Derhalbeny derohalbeny desfdialby or deshalby 
Signifies therefore, and on that account. 

DestOy so much more, &c. 
Ich erwartete ihre Ankunft iiichty imd desto 
groszer ist meine Freudcy I did not expect your 
arrival, and the greater is my joy 5 je mehr Giitc 
er rnir erwiesen haty desto mehr Erkenntlichkcit 
hege ichg£gen ihn, the more kindness he has 
shewn to me, the more acknowledgment I owe 
him. Mie^ 

'• " I *•*>• 

* in this case dann Is preferable. 


DieweHf because. 
Is obsekte in German. 

' Dock, yet, &c. 

Er hatle versprochen zu kommen, dock er kann 
mcht, be had promised to come^ yet be cannot ; 
ob er mick gleich sahe, so redete er mich dock nicht 
an, althougb he saw me, he, notwithstanding, did 
not speak to me ; ich xoill es dir sageuy dock muszt 
du mir versprecheriy I will tell it you, nevertheless 
you must promise me ; ich will dock zu ihm ge^ 
hen, I will yet go to him ; zcirfmir dock das nicht 
%'ory do not yet reproach me for that ; es ist dock 
hqffcnllich nicht s bases ? it is yet, I hope, nothing 

Ehe, or eher^, rather, &c. 

Sie zeolite eher sterben als sundigen, she rather 

chose to die, than to commit sins ; ehe sie sich in 

ihrer Andacht slvren Idszt, eher laszt sie ihn wieder 

fortreisen, before she will be disturbed in her piety 

sopner she suffers that he may depart again. 

Entzveder^ either. 

Is always followed by oder^ or ; as, entweder 
mit Gezvalt oder List, either by force, or trick. 

Falls, in case. 

Falls es geschehen sollte, in case it shouU 

happen. Fcr* 

* Eber is preferable to the. 

GERMAK lAlictfAOE. 21^7 

FemeTj further. 

Ferner ist zu tvissen, furfher ^e ought to 

Folglickj consequently. 

Du , bist em Mensck, folglich bist du auch 
sterblkh, thou art a man^ consequently thou art 
also mortal. 

Gleichy Immediately. 

See obgleichy although. 

JIi/ig€gen, on the contrary. 

Die Demuih ist iiberaU angenekmy alUs hin* 
gegen ist wider den Stolz, humility is every where 
agreeable, but every thing on the contrary Is 
against^ pride. 

For Je, see desto. 

Je nachdem, according as. 

Jedochi is the same as doch» 

If^m, while, because, 3itice. 

Indessen, in the mean whili. 

Ingleicheriy or imgteichen, likewise. 
thA fiht ife pi'tferaWe. 

KdtiMt^ ^rce. 

j^ottM haile ich eiytige Schritte gethan, so tvich 
dfirJBcfikfh I had scarce made a tew steps^ when 
V^e giQund yielded under me. 

MithH ^f^^%^f^'f (ibnsequtetly. 
TliriatKr is^ mo?6 ifetiali 

G g 2 [Nachm 

•4 ' 


Nachdem, after^ 

Nachdtm er das gesagt hatte, verschied er, after 
he had spoken that, he expired. 

Nehmlich, 6r nafimlich, videlicety namely. 

The latter is more usual ; as, es kamenihret 
dreiy mhmlichi S(c. , there came ' three of them, 
namely, &c. 

Nicht allein, nicht nur, not only ^ * 

Is followed by sondern auch^ but also, as, ^ 
ich habe es nicht allein geseheuy sondern iauch ge- 
hart, I not only have seen, but also heard it. 

Noch, nor. 

Weder Freude noch Gliick, neither happiness 
nor look ; weder Ruhm noch Ehre, neither glory 
nor honor. 

Nun, now, therefore. 

Du hast nicht horen woUen, nun magst du 
Jtihlen, you did not choose to listen, therefore you 
ought to suffer. 

Nur, but, only. 

Gih tnir nur ein wenig, give me but a little. 

Ob, whether, if. 

Obgleich, obschon, obwohl, though, although* 

They suffer a separation ; 2s,ober g fetch sake, 
although he saw ; ob er schon zti Hause war, though 
he was at home ; ob er wohl arm wOir^ so war er 
doch ehrlich, though he was poor, l^e w^ yet bfticst. 



Oder, or. 

Diesz oder jeneSy this or that. - 

Sintemaly or sintemalen, both arc obsolete^ 

Has various significations in English ; as^ zvenn 
^nein Vater kommt, so saget ihrn, when my father 
comes tell him ; da er in Kolln eintrafy soifandef 
die.Stadt in den Ildnden der FeindCy when he ar- 
rived at Cologne, he found the toyrn in the hands 
of the enemy ; xt'drest du %u Hause gebliebeny so 
xmrde es nicht geschehen seyn, hadst thou staid at 
home, it wouJd not have happened ; so wokly ah . 
auchy as well, as alsp ; so grosz die Gefahren de$ 
Meeres audi seyn mogeny so konnen sie dock seinen 
Entscklusz nicht vertilgeny however great the dan- 
gers of the sea may be, yet they could not ex- 
tinguish his resolution. 

So zoiey as. 

SonderUy but. 
Is used only when a negative precedes; aSf 
nicht duy sondem sein Bruder^ not thou but his 

Sonst^ otherwise, &c. 

Bezahle mich, sonst verklag ich dicky pay me, 
otherwise I will sue you. 

Theils - theilsy partly • partly. 

Sein Vemwgen besCeht theils in Geld, theils ia^ 
GrundstUcken, his patrimony consists partly in 
^»eyj paft^, in . estates. 



Um, for. • 

Um zu haben, for to have ; um zu kaufen^ 
for topurchaise. 

Und^ and. 

l/ngeacktet, notwithstanding. 

VielmehTy so much the more. 

Viehvenigcr, so much the less. 

Wann, then. 
Dann und zoann, now and then* 

. " Weder, neither. 

Ib sflways followed by noch, nor ; as, weder 
or noch sie, neither he nor she. 

Weil, while, because. 

Teh that es well es mir so gejiel, I did it, t)e- 
cause it pleased me thus ; kommen sie, xoeil ich noch 
hier bin, come, while I am here. 

Wenn, when. 

Is synonymous with da s both are differently 
jjpplied ; as, wenn ikH ihn sehe, so will ich es ihm 
sageny when I see him, I will tell it to Him ; da 
er nach House kam, so fund er seinen Bruder^ 
when he came home, he found his brother. 

iVenAgleichy althoiigh. 


Has the same meaning : they may be sepa- 


Wiliy h6W; &c* 

Wie so? how so? wiff' da f Lebett^dei^ Tf^fy 

f • ■ 



as the life, so the death ; wie er es sahy rief er aus. 
as he saw it, he exclaimed ; so reich xvie du, as 
rich as you. 

Wiewohl^ though. 
Woy if; it signifies also where. 

Wofem, and daferriy if. 

Ich will es dir geben, wofeni, or da/em du zu 
mir kommen zoirst, I will give it to you, if you 
will come to me. 

JVohl, well, indeed, &c. 

Das ist wohl recht, that indeed may be right; 
wissen sic wohl ? do you perhaps know ? 

Zumahl, especially. 

Ich kann es dir nicht geberiy zuinahl da du es 
mcht verdienesty I cannot give it to you, especially 
as you do not deserve it. 

ZzvaVy indeed, &c. 

Is generally followed by abe?^ alleiuf dock, 
dennochy and similar disjunctives*. 

With respect to the government of the. coa- 
junctions, see the Syntax. 


* Obzfvar sometinaei occurs with the power of olgleict 



Of Interjections. 

Interjections express the sudden and violent 
sensations of the mind, and may be considered 
as words of a very extensive meaning. They are 
inserted in most sentences, but should only be 
placed as the result of exquisite feelings. There 
is no established rule for them, because they never 
can be governed by any other word, and they 
are in their construction the most simple, and 
with respect to their application the least subject 
to art of all other parts of speech. 

They must be considered as the first ele- 
ments of language ; being indeed the sounds of 
nature herself, extorted by our internal or exter- 
nal feelings, and may be looked upon as animal 
sounds instinctively uttered to make our sensation 
known, 'fhey are of the earliest origin ; uncon- 
nected with the association of ideas, and only 
produced by immediate impulse. 

They are the basis of all speech, and as diver- 
sified as the organs' of sound can be. They have 
been in the course of time gradually combined, 
and formed into, what we call, words s the im- 
'provement of which has made many of the pri- 
«itive interjections obsolete, they being better 
^calculated to convey our perceptions. Many, how- 
ever, are still used in their primitive staite, especi-^ 



ally by the lower classes of people, among which 
are the following: 

ah ! ha! expressing joy. 

sa ! hey ! heysa ! > noisy joy. 

juch ! juchhey ! immoral joy. ^ 

ol oh! — _-— — admiration. 

ah !' ach ! oh weh ! — — — complaint, sorrow, 

and grief. 

Pf^y i fil ■ disgust and abhor- 


ha ! holla ! > a call. 

ho ! hum I ^ a surprise. 

ah ! , ha ! — ^— — — either surprise, or 

satisfaction, when 
something unex- 
pected is discovered. 

platz ! —_ — — to make room. 

husch ! ■ ■ a quick disappearing. 

knaks ! ■ on any thing falling 

to the ground and 

plump ! '■ a falling into the wa- 

ter, an imitation of 
the sound it made. 

All the foregoing interjections can scarcely 
be denominated words, and ought not to be Con- 
founded with those simple sounds, introduced by 
the modem writers, and more or less used in com- 
position even by the 'higher class of people. (See 
the Syntax of real interjections used as words.) 

H h PRAC- 






DIE R-ffiUBE^, 1 




ACT. V. 

Er3l$r Auftritt. 

Sane I, 

(Aussicht von vielen Zim- 

(A view of several apart* 



Franz, (im Schlafrock 
kereingesiurzt. SogUich Da- 

Francis, fin a ntgk^ 
gown^ rushes in^ followed hj 

^ Franz. Vcrratbcn, tct- 

Francis. Betrayed! be* 

rathen ! Geister ausgespieen 
aus Grabern. — Losgeriittelt 
dasTodtenreich aus dcm ewi- 

trayed ! Spirits rush from 
their graves ! The kingdom 
of death, let loose from its 

gen Schlaf, bi iiHt wider mich 

eternal sleep, thunders in my 

Morder ! Mordcr ! Wer regt 

cars ! murderer ! murderer \ 

sich da ? 

Who is ihere ? 

DASlEL.CangstlichJ Hilf 
Himmei ! — Seyd ihrs, gc- 

Daniel, (anxiously,) 
Heaven help us ! — Was it 

$trenger Hcrr, dcr so grasz- 
lich durch die Gcwolbe 

you, my noble master, whoso 
shrieks re-echoed so horribly 

schreiety dasz alle Scblafer 

through the passages, that all 

auffahren ? 

started from their beds in the 


utmost terror ? 


* This extract is taken from the chef d^ceuvre of Schillec 
called the Rohhcru 

The scene represents^ in a frantic manner, all the horrors 
of the last day of judgment, uttered from the mouth oif i^ 
guilty crlg^inai ^d p.arricide» 



. Ft AUK. Schlafer! wcr 
lleiaKt eucji Khiafen ? Essol] 
niemand schlafen in dieser 
Stundc. Horst du? Alks 
«oIl auf scyn — in Waffcn — 
allc Gewehre geladcn. — 
&ihst du sic dort im Bogen- 
gang hinscbwebea ^ 

Daniel. Wen gnadiger 
Hcrr ? 

F&Airz. Wen ? Dunj- 
kopf! Wen? So kalt, so 
Iter fragst du, wen f Hat 
michs doch angepackt wie der 
Sdiwindel ! Wen ? Esels* 
kopf J Wen ? Gcister und 
Teufel ! Wie wcit ists in 
der Nacht ? 

Daniel. Eben jetzt ruft 
der Nachtwachter zwei an. 

Frakz. Was! willdie- 
se Nacbt w'ahren bis an den 
jungsten Tag? Horst du 
keinen Tumult in der Nahe ? 
kein Siegesgescbrei, keln Ge- 
xauscb galloppirender Fferde? 
Wo ist Xa, . * der Graf will 
icb sagen ? 

Daniel. Icbwdsznichty 
aein Gebieter. 

' Franz. Du weiszt nicbt ? 
Ou bist auch unter der Rotte? 


Francis. From their 
beds ! wbo bids you sleep ? 
No one shall «leep at thi* 
hour. Dost thou hear ? All 
shall fee awake — in arms — • 
every gun shall be charged.— 
Didst thou not see them lurk-* 
ing among the trees in yon- 
der avenue? 

Daniel. Whom, gra- 
cious Sit ? 

Francis. Whom, block- 
head ! wbom^? So coldly, so 
indifferently dost thou ask 
whom ? It has seized me like- 
a giddiness ! Whom ? stu • 
pid dolt I whom ? Ghosts 
and devils ! *— What is the 
hour of the night i 

. Daniel. The watchman 
has just called two. 

Francis. What ! will 
this night last till doomsday ? 
Hearest thou no tumult hear ? 
no cries of victory ? no tram- 
pling of horses ? Where i$ 
Char. . . the count, I would 

Daniel. I know not, 

Francis, Thou knowsC 

not ? — ^Thou too art one of 

Hh2 this 






Erstir Auftrltt. 

(Aussicht von vielen Zim- 

Franz, (im Schlafrock 
keretngesturzt. Sogleich Da- 

. Franz. Vcrratbcn, tct- 
rathen ! Geister ausgespieen 
aus Grabern. — Losgeriittelt 
dasTodtenreich aus dcm ewi- 
genSchlaf, biiillt wider mich 
Morder 1 Mordcr ! Wer regt 
sich da ? 

DAsiEL.CdngstlichJ Hilf 
Himmei ! — Seyd ihrs, gc- 
$trenger Hcrr, dcr so griisz- 
lich durch die Gcwolbe 
schreiety dasz alle Scblafer 
auffahren ? 



ACT. V. 

Sane I, 

(A view of several apart^ 

Francis, fin a nigit" 
gown^ rushes in^ followed hy 

Francis. Betrayed ! be* 

trayed ! Spirits rush from 

their graves ! The kingdom 

of death, let loose from its 

eternal sleep, thunders in my 

cars ! murderer ! murderer \ 

Who is ihere ? 

Daniel, (anxiously,) 

Heaven help us ! — Was it 

you, my noble master, whoso 

shrieks re-echoed so horribly 

through the passages, that all 

started from their beds in the 

utmost terror ? 


* This extract is taken from the chef d*oeuvre of Schillei 
called the Rohhcri. 

The scene represents^ in ' a frantic manner, all the horrors 
of the last day of judgment, uttered from the mouth ol i^ 
guilty crlo^inai ^d parricide* 



. T±Aisiz. Schlafer! wcr 
lletsKt eudi Khiafen ? EssoII 
niemand schlafen in dieser 
Stundc. Horst du? Alks 
«oIl auf scyn — ^in Waffea — 
alle Gewchre geladcn. — 
Sahst du sic dort im Bogen- 
gang hinschwebea ^ 

Daniel. Wen gnadiger 
Hcrr ? 

F&Airz. Wen ? Dunj- 
kopf! Wen? So kalt, so 
leer fragst du, wen f Hat 
michsdoch angepackt wie der 
iSdiwindel I Wen i Esels* 
kopf J Wen ? Gcister und 
Teufel ! Wie weit ists in 
der Nacht ^ 

Daniel. Eben jetzt ruft 
der Nachtwachter awei an. 

Franz. Was I will die- 
«e Nacbt wahren bis an den 
Jungsten Tag? Horst du 
keinen Tumult in der Nahe ? 
kein Siegesgeschrei, kein Ge- 
rausch galloppirender Fferde? 
Wo iBt Xa. . * der Graf will 
ich sagen ? 

Daniei.. Icfawdsznicht, 
mein Gebieter. 

' Franz. Du weiszt nicht ? 
Ou bist auch unter der Rotte? 

Francis. From thcit 
beds 1 who bids you sleep ? 
No one shall «leep at thi* 
hour. Dost thou hear ? AH 
shall fee awake — in arms — • 
every gun shall be charged.— 
Didst thou not see them lurk-* 
itig among the trees in yon- 
der avenue? 

Daniel. Whom, gra- 
cious Sir ? 

Francis. Whom, block- 
head ! whom^? So coldly, so 
indificTeotly dost thou ask 
whom ? It has seized me like- 
a giddiness 1 Whom ? stu- 
pid dolt I whom ? Ghosts 
and devils ! *— What is the 
hour of the night i 

. Daniel. The watchman 
has just called two. 

Francis* What ! will 
this night last till doomsday ? 
Hearest thou no tumult hear ? 
no cries of victory ? no tram- 
pling of horses ? Where it 
Char. . . the count, I would 
say ? 

Daniej,. I know not, 

Francis, Thou knowst 

not ? — Thou too art one of 

Hh2 this 




Ich Will dir das Herz aus den 
Rippen stampfen ! mit dei« 
iiem verfluchtcn : ich weisz 
nicht ! Was ? auch Betder 
wider mich verschworen? 
Himmel, Holle ! alles wider 
mich verschworen? 

Daniel. Mein Gebieter! 

Franz. Nein ! ich zittre 
nicht ! Es w^r ledig ein 
Traum. Die Todtcn stehen 
jioch nicht auf. — Wer sagt, 
dasz ich zittre und bletch 
bin I Es ist mir ja so leicht, 
so wohl. 

Dani£L, Ihr seyd tod- 
tenbleich, eure Stimme ist 
bang und lallet. 

Franz. Ich habe das 
Fieber, ich will morgen zur 
Ader lassen. 

Daniel. O ihr seyd 
crnstlich krank. 

Franz. Ja freilich, frei- 
lich ! das ist alles — und 
Krankheit verstort das Ge- 
him, und briiiet telle und 
wunderliche Trauqie aus. — 
Traume bedcuten nichts, — 
nicht wahr Daniel ? Trau- 
me kommen ja aus dem 
Bauche, und Traume bedeu- 
teu nichts, — * Ich batte so 


tbis^ gang ? 1 will stapp thy 
heart through thy ribs ! with 
your damned : / kn9w not. 
What? beggars too have 
conspired against me ? Hea- 
ven ! hell ! all conspire a-, 
gainst me ? 

Daniel. My master ! 

Francis. No ! I do not 
tremble ! It was mci-ely a 
dream. The dead do not 
rise yet. — Who says that I 
tremble and look pale ? No, 
no I I am calm, quite at my 

Daniel. You arc pale 
as death, your voice is hol- 
low and faultering. 

Francis. I have some- 
thing of a fever. I will be 
let blood to-morrow. 

Daniel.. You arc cx-i 

tremely ill, 

Francis. Yes, indeed I 
that is all — and illness destroys 
the brain, produces strange 
and maddening dreams. «-^ 
But what are dreams. — 
Is it not true, Daniel, that 
dreams arise merely from in- 
digestion ? they signify no- 
thing ; I had a horrid dream. 

\ , 



«ben eincn lostigcn Traum. 

(tr sinkt $ tnmdchtig nieder,) 

Daniel. Gott ! was ist 
das I Georg ! Konrad ! Bas- 
tian ! Martin ! So gebt doch 
nur eine Urkunde von euch. 
frutt€lt ihn), bonehmt doch 
Veraunft an ! So wirds hei- 
Oeh, idi bab ihn todtge- 
mackt. Gott erbarme sich 
melnet- 1 

YKXVi7s,(verwirrtJ Wcg ! 
weg I was riittelst du micb 
8O9 scbcuszlichcs Todtenge- 
rippe ? — Die Todtcn stehen 
noch nicht auf. — 

Daniel. O du ewige 
Giite ! er hat den Verscand 

' Franz, (richtet sich matt 
auf.) Wo bin ich ? — Du 
Daniel ? was bab ich gesagt ? 
merke nicht darauf ! ich babe 
eine Liige gesagt, es sey was 
es wolle. — Komra ! hilf mir 
auf ! Es ist nur ein An- 
stosz von Schwindel — weil 
ich — weil ich — nicht ausge- 
l^hlafen habe. 

Daniel. Ich willHiiife 
rufcn, ich will nach Aerzten 

FHANZ. Bleib ! setze dich 


(be sinks down in a swopnj^ 

Daniel. Heavens fwlul 
is this ! Georjge I Conrad ! 
Bastian ! Martin I Shew 
but one sign of life ! (shaket 
him.) Preserve but your rea- 
son ^ It will be said I have 
murdered him. Lord have 
mercy upon me ! 

Francis, (disturbed.) 
Away ! be gone ! why dost 
thou shake me thus, horrible 
skeleton; — The dead rise 
not yet. 

Daniel. Oh, eternal 
goodness! lie has lost ^$ 

Francis, {raises himself 
faintly.) Where am IP-^- 
Is it thee, Daniel ? what 
have I said ? regard it not ! 
I have spoken a lie, be it 
what it will. — Come, help 
me up ! It was but a fit of 
giddiness — - because 1 — be^ 
cause I have not had my 
sleep out. 

Daniel. I must call for 
assistance : I will call physic 

Francis. Stay. Sit down 




neben mich auf diesen Sopha. 
— So, — du bist ein geschei- 
t^r, eih guter Mann. Lasz 
dim ersahlen, 

Daniel. Jetzt nicht, em 
andermal ! ich will euch zu 
Bette brin^en* Ruhe ist euch 



Franz. Nein, ich bittc 
dich, lasz dir erzahlen, und 
lache mich derb aus I Siehe 
mich deuchte^ ich hacte ein 
konigliches Mahl gehalten, 
und mein Herz ware guter 
Dirige, und ich lage berauscht 
im Rasen des Scloszgartens, 
und plotzHch, — plotzlich, 
abcr ich sage dir, lache mich 
derb aus ! 

Daniel. Plotzlich. 

Franz. Plotzlich traf cin 
ungeheurer Donne^ mein 
schlummerndes Ohr ; ich 
laumelte bebend auf, und sie- 
he, dawarmirs, alssaheich 
den ganzen Horizont in feu- 
riger Lohe, und Berge, und 
W alder, wie Wachs im Ofen 
zerschmelzen, und eine heu. 
lende Windsbraut fegte von 
hinnen Meer, Himmel und 

Daniel. Das ist das leb- 


here upon tiut 8ophft.««>*So-^ 
thou art a discreet^ a goo4 
man. Let me relate it to tbfc.^ 

Daniel. Not yet, an- 
other time. I will take you 
to bed. Rest is beat for you* 

Francis. No, I pray 
thee, let me talk' to thee, and; 
do thou laugh heartily at met 
Hark ! methbught I held a 
princely banquet, all, all beat 
bliss about my heart ! and I 
laid me down in my gar* 
dens of pleasure, intoxicated 
with delight ; but I entreat 
thee laugh thou heartily at 

Daniel. Suddenly. 

Francis. Suddenly ! a 
monstrous thunder struck on 
my astonished ear ! I stag« 
gered trembling up : and be- 
hold ! methought, 1 saw the 
whole horizon outflaming in 
a fiery blaze ; and mountains^ 
and cities, and forests, all melt- 
ing as wax before a furnace: / 
and a howling wind*storm 
swept before it the seas, the 
. heavens, and the earth. 

Daniel.' That's indeed 



lafte Koiititfei vom juogsten 

Frakz. Nicht wahr ? das 
ist tolles Zeug ? Da trat 
flmr hervor, der hatte in sei- 
ner Hand cine chcme Wage, 
St hielt er zwischen Auf- 
gang und Niedergang, und 
sprach : tretet herzu, ihr Kin- 
der des Staubes ; ich wage 
die Gedanken! 

Daniel. Gott crbarme 
sich meiner ! 

Franz. Schneebleichstun- 
den alle ; angstlich klopfte 
die Erwartung in jegHcher 
Brnst. Da war mirs, als hort 
ich meinen Namen zucrst ge- 
nannt aus den Wettern des 
Bergcsy und mein innerstes 
Mark gefror in mir, und 
meine Zahne klapperten laut. 

Daniel. O Gott ver- 
geb euch ! 

Franz. Das that er 
nicht ! Siehe, ploizlich er« 
schienein alter Mann, schwer 
gebeugt von G^ni» angebis- 
sen den Arm von wiithendem 
Hunger ; aller Augen wand- 
ten sich scheu vor dein Man- 
se ; ich kannte den Mann \ 
er schnitt eioe Locke von 


a living picture of the day of 

Francis. Pshaw ! Is 
it hot absurd nonsense? 
There came forward oney 
who had in his hand a bra-' 
zen balance, which he heii 
between east and west, and 
said : approach, ye childreii 
of the dust ; I weigh your 

Daniel. Godhavemercy 
upon me ! 

Francis, All stood aghast 
and pale as snow, expecta- 
tion beat anxiously in every 
breast. When methought I 
heard a voice amidst the storm 
pronounce my name ; the 
marrow congealed within my 
bones, and my teeth chat- 
tered with horror. 

Daniel. Oh, God for- 
give you ! 

Francis. That he neve? 
can ! — Behold, quickly there 
appeared a venerable old man^ 
bent down with sorrow, hi» 
arm gnawn through hunger i 
all eyes turned away in dis^ 
gust from the view of bim*^ 
[ knew him. He cut off one 
of his venerable silver loipkf»i 




•einem silbemen Hauptbaar, 
warf sic bin — hin— uod— da 
hort ich eine Stimme schal- 
Icn aus dem Rauche des Fel- 
sen : Gnade ! Gnade jedem 
Sunder der Erde und des Ab- 
ounds ! du alleia bist ver 
vrorfen ! {tieft Pause.) Nun 
warum lachst du nicht ? 

. Daniel. Kann icb la- 
dien, wenn mir die Haut 
sch^udert \, ^raume kom- 
men von Gott. 

Franz. Pfui docb, pfui 
doch ! sage das nicht ! Heisz 
micb einen Narren I einen 
aberwitzigen, abgeschmack- 
tcn Narren ! Thue das, lie- 
ber Daniel, ich bitte dich 
drumi spotte mich tiichtig 
aus ! 

Da n I £ l. Traume kom- 
men von Gott. Ich will fiir 
euch beten. {ab.) 

Franz, (allein.) PJJbeU 
weisheit ! Pobelfurcht ! — Es 
jst ja noch nicht ausgemacht, 
ob das Vergangene niche ver- 
gangen ist, odcr ein Auge 
•ich fiodet liber den Sternen, 
*-Hm ! hum ! wer raunte 
mir das ein ? Rachet denn 
droben iiber den Scernen ei 
ocr ? — Nein, ncin ! •— Ja, 
. . ja ! 

threw it away fromhim^ 
«-At this moment I hcM 
a voice sound from die 
darkest part of the rock: 
Pardon I pardon to every mir 
ner on the earth and sndet 
the earth 1 thou alone art 
rejected! (a dap pauu.) 
Well, why do you not laugh \ 

Daniel. Can I laugbf 
when all my powers of semB 
shudder thus ? Dreams come 
from God. 

Francis. Pshaw 1 pshaw! 
don't say that ! call i!ne a fool, 
a child, an idiot ! Do so, 
dear Daniel, I entreat yoU| 
but laugh at me. 

Daniel. Dreams come 
from God. I will pn^y for 
you. {exit,) 

Francis, {ahne.) Vul- 
gar superstition ! vulgar stu- 
pidity ! It is not yet deter* 
mined whether there be a fu- 
turestate,whetheror not there 
be a searching eye above the 
stars. — Ah ! what ! who in- 
spired me with that thought? 
Is there an avenger on high ? 
— No, no ! -^ Yes, yes f 




ja I furchterllck zischelts um 
nuch : richtet droben einer 
fibor den Steraen ! Entge- 
gen geben dem Racher iiber 
deo Stemen diese Nacht 
aoch { Nein ! sag ich — elen- 
der SchlupiWinkely hinter den 
akh deine Feigheit versteken 
will — Ocdyeinsam^ tauVists 
droben iiber den Sternen — 
Wenns aberdoch etwas mehr 
iK^re ? Nein, nein, es ist 
nicht ! Ich wills, es istnicht ! 
WeiHis aber doch ware? 
.Weh mir, wenns Aachge- 
fltahlc worden ware ? wenns 
dir vorgezablc wiirde diese 
Nacht noch I — Warum 
tchaudert mirs ao durch die 
Knochen 7— sterben I warum 
packt mieh das Wort so? Re* 
chenschafc geben dem Ra- 
cher iiber dea Sternen — und 
Venn cr gerechtist— wenn 
er gerecbt ist. 

Daniel, (hmmt augst- 
lichj Gnadiger Herr, es 
jagt ein Trupp feuriger Reu* 
ler die Steg herab, schreien 
Mprdjo, Mordjo — das ganze 
X)orf ist in allarcn. 

FraN2. Geh, lasz alle 
Glockeii ^usammcn lanten^ 
l^bs soil in die Kircbc -^ 


frightfully they hiss around 
me like serpents : There is 
one above the stars who 
judgeth ? — What ? to meet 
this great avenger this, very 
night ! No ! do I say — 
Miserable subterfuge ! be* 
hind which thy cowardice 
would hide itself — Desert^ 
and solitary, and inanimate 
is all above us — But shoukl 
there after all yet be some- 
thing? No, no, there is not! 
I will have it so, there is not! 
— But if indeed there be ? — 
Woe to me if my action$. 
should be called over before 
the judge this very night !— 
Why do I shudder thusi — 
To die! .Why does thir 
word torment me ? To give 
^ari account to the judge wl^p 
sits on. high — and if he be 
just-^ah ! if he be just { 

Daniel, {enters in great 
agitation. ) My giacious 
lord, a troop of horsemen are 
galloping up the pathway, 
crying murder! murder J 
The whole village is in alarnp. 

Francis. Go, let all the 
bells be chimed ; let all to 
church ; let ^11 fidl Upon their 

%i ieneet 


A^ALtSlS OP rvtR 

atsf die Knie&llen. alles •— 
bctcn ffir mich — alle Gcfan- 
gene sollen los seyn und le- 
dig'; ich will den Armen al- 
Ifes 'doppelt und dreifach wie- 
der gebcn ; ich will — so geh 
doch — » so ruf doch den 
Beichtvater^ dasz er mir mei- 
ne Stinden hinwegsegne. — 
Bist du noch nicht fori .^ 

{Das Getiimmtl der Rdu^ 
ber %ifird h or barer.) 

Daniel. » Gott verzeih 
snir meine schwere* Siinde ! 
• wie soil ich das wieder rei- 
men ? Ihr- habt ja immer 
•das licbe Gebct Uber alle 
Hau&er hinausgeworfen^ habt 
mir so oianch. • . . 

Franz. Nichts mehr da- 

yon. — Sterben ! siebst du ? 

■ sterben ? Es wird zu spat. 

(man hort die Rduber tobenj 

Bete doch ! bete J 

Danibl. Ich sagts cuch 
immer— ^. ihr vorachtet das 
Vicbe Gebct so — aber gebt 
Acht, gebt Acht ! wcnn die 
Nbth an Mann geh ty wenn 
tuch das Wasser an die Seek 
geht. » . . 

RjEUBER. (auf der Stra- 
' ^ze.J Sturmt ! -schlagt todt I 


knees to pray for itinef/ AD 
prisoners shall be libeitatetfw 
I will restore to the poor: 
double and threefold ; I wiO 
— go then — call the cotiki- 
soTy that he may absolve nit 
of my sins. •— Art thou not 
yet gone ? 

(The tumult of the robbers 
increases »J 

Daniei.* God forigifcf 
me my sins i what am I to 
make of all this ? Yoti hsiife 
heretofore constantly scorned 
the very thought of prayer, 
you have often said to me...^ 

Francis. No more of 
that. — To die ! seest thou ? 
to die ! It is too late. fT^ 
robbers are heard sisuiing.J 
Pray then, pray ? 

Daniel, I ahvays told 
you, you despised prayer t6o 
much ; but take heed ! take 
heed ! When trouble comes 
upon us — when the s6ul*is 
overwhelmed within u^. '."t . 

RoBBERSr (hi the street./ 
Stoim! kiD! bre^ iAt*I 


bracht eitt f Ich sehe Licbt, 
ion mmz er scyn. 

Franz, {auf den Knieen.) 
Hore mich beten, Gott im 
Himmel ! — £s ist das erste- 
roal.— Erhore mich Gott im 
Hlmmel ! 

K^UBER. {laufen Sturm 
und werftn Feuerbrdnde in 
seine Sale,) 

FvLK-tlJs. {biteU) Ich bin 
kein gemeiner Morder gc* 
we8en> mcin Herr Gott I — 
habe mich nie mit Kleinig- 
keiten abgegeben, mein Herr- 
gott ! 

Daniel. Gott sey uns 
gnadig! auch seine Gebete 
werden zu Sttnden. 

{Esjlieggn Steine und Feu- 
erhrdndc. Die ScheibenfaU 

. Franz* Ich kann nicht 
beten, — Hier, hier ! ('auf 
Brusi und Stirm schlagend J 
Alles so 6d •— so verdorret. 
{steht auf.y Nda ich will 
auch nicht beten. 

Daniel. Jesus Maria! 
hclft — • rettct — das ganze 
Schlosz steht in Flammen ! 

Franz. Hier nimm die- 
lOEJ Degen. Hurtig, jag mir 

\ ihn 



1 see ligjis i be must be there. 

Francis, {upon his knees*) 
Hear my prayers, God ill 
heaven I Ic is the first time. 
God in heaven, hear me ! 

Robbers. I they scale the 
rampart yOnd throw firebramU 
into his saloons A 

Francis, (^rfl/5.). Jhavc 
been no common murderer, 
my God ? I have not com- 
mitted petty crimes, gracious 

Daniel. God have mer- 
cy upon us ! his very prayers 
become sins. 

{They throw stones and 
firebrands* Tlic windows art^ 

Francis. I cannot pray^ 
— Here, here 1 {beating his 
breast and forehead.) AIJ^ 
> my hopes are blasted : all is * 
lost, {rises.) I will pray 
no more. 

Daniel. Jesus Maria I 
Help-^save — the whole castle 
is in flames ! 

Francis. Here, take this 
sword ; plunge it into my body,. 
I i 2 that 



jbn hinterriiks in den fianch, 
datz niche diese Buben kom- 
\ men und treiben iliren Spott 
mit mir. 

{Das Feuer nlmmi uber- 

, Danie^. Bewahre ! be- 
wahre ! Ich n^ag niemand zu 
friih in den Himmel fordeniy 

▼ielweniger zu friih 

(if antrifiMt.) 

F9.AV7. (ifun grasz tutc^- 
stierenJf nach einer Pause.) 
-*-ln die Holle willst du s^* 
gen I Wirklich ! ich wittere 
so etwas. — Sind das ihre hel- 
l^n Triller ? Hor* ich euch 
zischen ihr Nattern des Ab- 
^uhds ? — Sic dringen hcrauf 
. — belagern die Thure — wa- 
rum zag ich so vor dieser 
bohrenden Spitze? Die Thii- 
M kracht — stiirzt — unent • 
rinnbar. {er sfringt in dig 

duit dieae yiUains may not 
treat me with scorn aad^ 

{The fire increases.) 

Daniel. God forbid ! 
hold ! I will 6cnd no one 
before his 'time to heaveo« 
for less to. . • . {be runs off.) 

Francis, {follows Un^ 
with a ghastly grin, after a 
pause.) — To I^qll tboq 
wouldst have said ! -^ Alas ! 
I perceive something like it. 
-7 Are iliese the cries of hdl| 
Do I hear youy ye hissing 
serpents of the infernal re* 
gions ? — T Hark ! they aic 
pressing up the stairs— ^y 
are surrounding the d6or««-' 
Why do I tremble thus be- 
fore this pointed sword ?^ 
HaJ tlie door falls in •-r, 
bursts open — inevitable, (hf 
leaps into thejlamis.) 






The mutual influence and relation, which the 
dlflerent parts of speech bear to one another, is 
called syntax. It consists principally of two parts^ 
concQrd and government. 

Concord. is the agreement which one word ^ 
has with aj^other, in gender, number, case, or 

Government is that power which one part 
of speech has over another, in directing its moodj 
tense, or case. 

To produce the agreement and right dispo- 
sition of words in a sentence, rules are necessary. 
IJut it has already been observed, that the Ger- - 
man and English idioms have a great affinity with 
each other, excepting some inflexions, peculiar to 
the former J therefore I shall particularly dwell 
Upon those instances in which there is some va- 
riation, and al$o take notice of the conformity 
of both languages. In order to elucidate such . 
wles, appropriate exercises are necessary to fami- 
]^aiize the student with the organization of the lan- 



guage. To each rule I have added adequate 
examples* with a litteral translation. ^ t)ie«nd 

of the syntax. I have joined one complete En* 
glish exercise, recapitulating practically every 
part of Speech, and explaining by way of notes 
all the difficulties which may occur in translating 
English into German. 

Thus exercised, it will be no difficult task, 
by the help of a good dictionary, to assist himself 
without. any further aid. 




Two or more nouns, &c. in the singular tium* 
ber, joined together by one or more copulative cori^r 
junctions, must have verbs, nouns, pronouns, &c; 
agreeing with them in the plural number. The 
following rules apd observations will at once con- 
vince us of this, and at the same time display 
aberrations from it. 

/• Of the Article with the Noun. 

The definite article, exists merely for the s^to^ 
of appellatives J proper names do not reqyir^. if.) ' 

Excepts 1. The names of mtionSf mountflinhi 

forests, seas^ und^rivers. , .. \ . 

a. Per- 

: 5$EitAiAN LANGtfXGE. "247 

2. Personal names, when they are appellative, 
or when we speak of them with disdain. 

- 3. When proper names are declined with 
•fhe irtide. 

1 . To proper names belonff also those of the 
different parts of the world, and the name of Goi>y 

• tignifying the Supreme Being. If it stand as ah 
appellative, it requires the article ; as, der t^6tt 
der Uebe, the god of love. 

With appellatives the article - det demotes tfte 
whole species, as a thing existing by itself; las 
tkr Mensch ist sterMich, man is mortal. It likewise 
denotes an object already known, from the whole 
specieiB ; as, der Fremde ist wieder da, the stranger 
is again here. 

In the following instances it wdilld be wrong 
to prefix the article: viz. 1. If the sUbstarifiye 
sufficiently defines itself, by ahy -pre viotis tiurnc-* 
rals or pronouns; 2. or if it be in the Vocative ; 
3. after an apposition ; 4. before .tKe titles of 
renowned men ; 5. in many titles of books; and 
t8. when several substantives follow eacH other, 
Itidroore especially in affecting discourses. Jn 

• ilrfibst all the above mentioned cases", the omissioh, 
or the addition of the article, has such a striking 
affinity with the English, that it would be' 5U- 

'p^-ftuous to dwell longer on a rule which the 
student will so easily discover irt the annexed 

The indefinite article denotes: 1, an indefinite 

tj^ing, from a whole species ; as, ddsas'x'einVogd^ 

' there 

1248 AMAiTSI$ OF TH£ 

there was a bird sitting. 2. The same indefinite 
thing like the representative of the whole species ; 
as^ ein Mensch istein schwaches GeschSpf^ man is a 
feeble creature. 3. The species; as, wdch tin 
Mensch! what a being ! es ist ein Fremder, he is 
a stranger. 4.. Before proper names, .when thcjr 
stand as appellatives ; as, cin Plato unserer Zeit, 
a Hato of our age. 

Exceptions. When a plurality is expressed by 
<mcf word, no article is required ; as, ichsekeMen- 
schfn, 1 set mtn. 

In some instances the indefinite article may 
be put alone, the substantive being understood; 
. es, was JUr einer, what kind of a. . . . ; hier ist 
einesy here is one. 

The articles, as in English, are sometimes pro- 
perly omitted, and when used, they ought to be 
justly applii^d, according ,to their distinct nature. 


II. Of Nouns joined together. 

RjTLE I. When two or more substantives oc- 
cur in one phrase, and have the same object re- 
ferring either to a verb, or any other part of 
spNBCch, they are put in the same case i as, diesffr 
Mensch ist entweder ein Dumkopfoder ein Schurktf 
this man is either a blockhead, or a rascal ; Gliici, 
' Verstand iind Tvgend sind sdten beisammeny fortune, 
understanding and virtue are seldo.n united. 

Rr&XE. II. One substantive governs another 

in the Cienitive c».se, si^ possession^ qua- 

^ Jity, 


lity, &c. ; as, dcr Vater dieses hubschen Kindes ist 
eifi armerTagldhneTy the father of this handsome child 
is a poor day-labourer ; die Reitze dieses schonen 
Madchens haben ihn verfiihrty the charms of this 
h^ndsope maiden have seduced him ; zwei Drittel 
der Einnahme sind fur die Artrien ; two-thirds 
of the receipts are for the poor. 

Except words of measure and quantity ; as, 
ein Glas Bier^ a glass of beer 3 cine Heerde Sckafe, 
a flock of sheep, &c. 

However, when the substantive that follows 
words of measure or quantity, are joined with a 
pronoun, then the Genitive is expressed ; as, seeks 
Ellen dieses Tucfies, six yards of this cloth ; aiid so 
does also the adjective, which renders the Geni- 
tive sometimes necessary ; as, eine Kompagnie guter 
Soldaten, a company of good soldiers. 

Rule IIL The Genitive and Dative cases 
are generally supplied by the preposition von. 
This happens, 

1. When no article is used ; as, der siid- 
Kche Theil von Frankreich, the southern part of 
France 3 also, . 

' 2. When quality, condition, proportion, &c. , 
are expressed ; as, ei?ie Frau von Verstundei a Vfo- 
man of understanding y ein Herr von hoher Ge- 
burty a gentleman of high birth ; von altem Adel, 
of ancient nobility -, eine Reise von zwei hundert 
Meileny a journey of two hundred miles ; ^in Schiff 
von drei hundert Tonne n, a ship of three hundred 

xk ' tons; 


tons ; eine Surnme von zwei hundert Tkalern, a sunt 
of two hundred dollars ; eifie Frau von siebenzig 
Jahren, a woman of seventy years ; and, 

3. Von is used before the indefinite article, 
to denote character ; as, sie ist ein Muster von einer 
guten Toch'ery she is a pattern for a good daughter; 

4. It denotes the property that things are made 
of ; as, ein Ring von Gold, a ring^ made of g9ld. 

The preposition aiis, is sometimes employed 
instead of von y as, ei?te Blume aus unserm Garten^ 
a flower out of our garden. 

It is sometimes indifferent, whether vomy i. e. 
von dem, be used ; as, er ist ein Freund vom House, 
or des Ilauses, he is a friend of the house. 

Sometimes von is not at all expressed ; as, 
eine Reihe Obstbdumey a row of fruit trees ; die 
Stadt Paris, the city of Paris. 

The moun substantive is sometimes changed 
into an adjective ; as, eifie steinerne Briicke, instead 
of eine Briicke von Stein, a stone bridge. - 

Sometimes we unite the two substantives, 
which determine one another ; as, die Gartenthiir, 
the garden door, for die Thiir des Gartens, the door 
of the garden. 

One substantive may also terminate another ; 
as, die Gebrdiiche der Bamhner des NordpolSy the 
customs of the inhabitants of the north pole. 

The following phrases belong to a flowelry 
stile 5 as, des Volkes Rache, the people's revenge; 



unsers Zeitalters verdorbene Sittm, the corrupted 
manners of our age, &c. 

///• Of Numerals. 

The following substantives, although accom- 
panied by a number, are never put in the plural ; 
as. Buck, a quire ; Fusz, or Schuh, a foot ; Loth, 
an ounce ; Maasy a measure ; ManJi, a man (when 
collective) ; Pfund, a pound -, RisZy a ream of pa- 
per ; Ufir, an hour ; Zolly an inch. 

To denote the date of the month, we always 
make use of the ordinal numbers ; as, den zweiten 
vergangenen Monaths, the second of last month j 
das Kind zvard den sechsten August gebohren, und 
ist den zwolften December gestorben, the child was 
bom the sixth of August, and died the twelfth of 

After the ordinal and cardinal numbers, the 
substantive may be put in the Genitive ; or with 
the preposition vo7i, aus, unter, an, in the £)ative, 
ex. gr. drei der schonsten Statuen aus Rom, three 
of the handsomest statues from Rome ; xwanzig 
%)on ihnen wurden gefangen, twenty of them were 
made prisoners ; zwei aus ihrer Mitte wurden ab- 
geschicicty two out of their centre were deputed; 
nur xwolf unter vier zindzwanzig waren gut, only 
twelve out of twenty-four were ^ood. 

Observation. When a personal pronoun is 
placed instead of a noun, the Genitive is put 
before the number ; as, e^ spielten unser fieben, 

Kk2 , nnd 


tinddreinur gewanneny seven of us were playingi 

and only three gained. 

Fractional numbers are put before nouns of 
quantity ; as, zxoei und ein halb P/undy or dritthalb 
Pfundy two pounds and a half 5 drei undeine viertd 
Elky three yards and a quarter ; seeks und drei vier- 
tel Zentner, six hundred pounds and three quarters; 
'we also say, ein achleb Zentner, the eighth part of 
a hundred pounds. 

Years and hours are reckoned by the cafdinak; 
as, im Jahr ein tausend acht himdert und einSy zwei^ 
dreiy &c. in the year one thousand eight hundred 
and one, two, three, &c. ; es ist einy zzvei, drei, &c. 
Z7/fr, it is one, two, three, &c. o'clock. 

Remarks. In reckoning the hours, we may 
put the neuter of the cardinals without expressing 
the word Uhr, clock ; as, es ist einsy it is one 
o'clock ; wenn es acht schlagt, when it strikes eight ; , 
hat es zwei geschlagen ? has it struck two ? 

The following are peculiarities : ein Viertel . 
auf dreiy a quarter past two ; drei Viertel auj 
%xvolf, a quarter to twelve; haW acht, half-pas* 

IV. Of Pronouns. 

Rule !• Pronoujai|.v^jmust agree with their 
substantives, (especially^ the possessives and demon* 
slratives) in their gender, number and case ; but 
the relatives only in gender and number. The 
two first are placed before the substantive to which 
they belong ; the relative after it. 



Rule II. When the personal pronoun is 
followed by a substantive, or the word selbst^ or 
selbsteUy or by several verbs belonging to the same 
person, we do not repeat the same personal pro- 
noun 5 as, ichi dein Freitndy gebe dir den Rath^ I 
give you the advice as a friend 3 er will es ihr 
selbst einhandigen ; he will give it her himself ; 
well du nichts arbeitesly und bestandig miiszig gehst 
so kannsl du zu nichts gelangen^ as long as you do 
no work, atid are always idle, you (jan gain nothing. 

We sometimes repeat the personal pronoun 
after the relative, in such cases as the following ; 
?Ar, die ihr Faullenzer seyd^ ye who are idle fel- 
lows, &c. 

Rule III. When the subject of the third 
person and the case of the verb denote the same 
person, we make use of the reflective pronoun sichy 
instead of hirrij or ihn ; as, sie hat sich daran erin- 
nert^ she has recollected herself ; er spricht nur im- 
mer von sich, he is always speaking of himself j er 
hat mich Z7i sich kommen lassen, he has ordered me 
to call on him. 

If the reflected pronoun sichy is at the same 
time reciprocal, we may substitute einander ; as, 
sie lieben sich, or sie lieben einander, they love one 

Rule IV"". When the action of the verb does 
not relate to the subject of the phrase, 1. e. when ^ 
the verb is not reflected, we employ the pronoun 
in the third person 5 as, er erzUhlt viel Gutes i)on 



ihrrty von ifir, von ifinen, he relates much good of 
him, of her, of them; er hat mich zu ihm (dem 
Fremden) gefiihrty he has conducted me to him 
{viz. the stranger). 

Some Peculiarities. 

When the English speak of an inanimate ob- 
ject, they always make use of the neuter ^iV, which 
is not the case in German, for they have distinct 
genders by which tliey apply the pronouns accor- 
dingly ; a few examples will make it clear to tlje 
student, ex. gr. das ist ein schoner Stock, this Is a 
handsome stick ; ja, er ist sehr schon, yes (he) it is 
very handsome ; zvo haben sie ihn gekauft} where did 
you buy (him) it ? zvie gefdllt ihnen diese Uhr, how 
do you like this watch ? sie ist sehr schouy (she) 
it is very handsome ; das Leben ist sehr kurz, abet 
es vergeht tvie ein Trauniy life is Very short, but it 
vanishes like a dream ; das Pferd ist sehr schon aber 
es friszt nicht genvgy the horse is very handsome, 
but it does not eat enough. 

The pronoun ich, is sometimes employed thus : 

mein halbes ich, literally, my half self. 

mein ander ich, — ^ my other self; 

The Dative mir and dir, in a familiar or iro- 
nical style are used thus : du wirst mir schon singen, 
thou wilt soon sing, depend upon it; du bist mir 
einfeiner Kerl, thou art a fine fellow ; ich lobe mir 
den Hochkeimer, I prefer old hock ; das mag dir ein 
Spasz getvesen seyn ! that must have been good 
sport for thee ! So 


So we find the plural of the personal thus in- 
terposed : das war euch eine Freude / that was a 
pleasure ! das war euch ein Fest ! that was a feast 
for you ! 

Rule V. The pronoun possessive in Gennati 
ought to be repeated before substantives of dif- 
ferent genders ; as, seine Gesiindheit iind sein Leben, 
his health and his life ; sein Weib imd Gesinde, his 
wife and servants ; er ist viein Freimd, Rathgeber 
und Beschutzer^ he is my friend, adviser, and pro- 

Rui,E VI. Demonstrative pronouns are em- 
ployed thus : diesej\ or der^ denote an object pre- 
sent or near, of which we speak ; jener^ of an ab- 
sent y ox distant on^'^ and when we have to indicate 
a third object, we use der; as, dieser Wein ist besser 
ahjener, this wine is better than that ; dieser hat 
es rund flbgeschlageHy der will auch nicht, iindjener 
hat zu vieleGesch of te, this has entirely refused it; that 
wiltnpt also, and the other has too much business. 
- We frequently add to the demonstrative pro- 
nouns the words hier, or das ^s, ichxvillvondiesem 
hier, I will have of this; kennen sie den da, or dort^ 
do you know this, or that (man) ? 

Rule VII. Demonstrative pronouns may pre- 
cede a possessive, and may also be separated from 
their substantives, or by an intermediate preposition ;. 
as, dieses mein eigehes Kind vertraue ich dir an, 
I entrust this only child of mine to you ; dieses und 
voriges Jahr ist es heisz gewesen, this year and the. 
- ^ last 


last ' have been very hot ; diesen und dcnfol§enAs% 
Tag rasteten wir, we stopped this day and the fofc 
lowing ; diesey meines Freundes liebste Tochter, this 
beloved daughter of my friend; diese, einer Be* 
loknung zvurdige Tugend, this virtue worthy of re- 

Rule. VIII. The neuters dies, das, jencSy 
are sometimes put absolutely, for all cases ; as, das 
ist mein Groszvater, this is my grand-father ; das 
sind geschickte Leute^ these are skilful men ; das 
ist erschrecklichy this is terrible ; er sagte viir dieses 
undjenes, he told me this and that ; Ueberbringer 
dieseSy the bearer of this ; am sechsten dieses, the 
sixth of this. 

Rule IX. Derjenige, is always followed by 
a relative, thus : derjenigey zvelcher in seiner Ju' 
gendy &c. he, who in his youth, &c. 

Observations. 1. Soldiery loses the inflective 
syllable, before the definite article ; as, sotch ein 
Mann und soldi ein JVeib ; such a man, and such a 

^- 2. The Genitive of derselbcf is often put in- 
stead of the possessive ; as, das ist ein ges Bitchy 
ich kenne den Verfasser dcsselbeny this is a good book, 
I know the author of it. 

3. Derjenigey weldiery may be put instead of 
wer ; as, zver Geld hat, hat audi Freundey he who 
has money, has also friends s wer ein ehrlidier Matin 
ist, der betrugt niemandeny he who is an honest 
man deceives no one. - 



- < 

So we find the plural of the personal thus in- 
terposed : das war euch eine Freude i that was a 
pleasure ! das xjoar euch ein Fest ! that was a feast 
for you ! 

Rule V. The pronoun possessive in Germati 
ought to be repeated before substantives of dif-- 
ferent genders ; as, seine Gesundheit laid sein LebeUy 
his health and his life ; sein Weib laid Gesinde, his 
wife and servants ; er ist viein Frauidy Rathgeber 
und Beschiitzer^ he is my friend, adviser, and pro- 
tector. . 

Rule VI. Demonstrative pronouns are em- 
ployed thus : diesej\ or der^ denote an object pre^ 
sent or near^ of which we speak ; jener, of an ab- 
sent y ox distant on^'y and when we have to indicate 
a third object, we use der; as; dieser Wein ist besser 
alsjeneVy this wine is better than that ; dieser hat 
es rund cibgeschlageny der will auch nichty nndjener 
hat zu vieleGeschaf ley this has entirely refused it; that 


wilt not also, and the other has too much business. 
- We frequently add to the demonstrative pro- 
nouns the words A/er, or rfa ,• ^s, ichzvillvondiesem 
hier, I will have of this; kennen sie den da, or dort^ 
do you know this, or that (man) ? 

Rule VII. Demonstrative pronouns may pre- 
cede a possessive, and may also be separated from 
their substantives, or by an intermediate preposition ; 
siS, dieses mein eigehes Kindvertraue ich dir an^ 
\ entrust this only child of mine to you \ dieses und 
vpriges Jahr ist es heisz gewesen, this year and the. 
- \ last 


Sohn krank war^ the man, wboie sob- wts ilT; 
Frau von dtren Sohn wir redem, tbfe WoAian/'dl 
whose son wc speak. 

Rule XIV. When the relative refers to Se^' 
vcral substantives of different genders, it is some* 
times put in the plural ; otherwise it follows (he 
gender of the last ; but, whenever we find Our- 
^Ives embarrassed in a similar case, we use the iii- 
declinable relative so; as, der Garten uhd das Ham 
so kh gekauft habe, the garden and the house whidi 
[ have bought. 

The relative wo refers commonly to a places 
and sometimes to a certain time ; zs, ItatienisteSf 
wo man Meisltrsliicke der Baukunst Jmdet, Italty i& 
the country where we meet with mastetpleces rf 
arcliitccture j Londen war es, wo wir uns zum '^- 
stenmal \uihen, we saw one anotherfor the first time 
In London. 

Rule. XV. In answering the inteitogativc 
pronouns, the same case must l>e used; as, wer 
kommtf—der Fremde^ who comes ?— the sti^gt^r; 
wtr ist iUeser Mann ? — ein 1Vei?ikandler, w)ib *i8 
this man ? — a wine- merchant ; was sehet ihrf^^ 
einen Baum, what do you see ? — a tree, &c. 

lu otlier cases, we may say : wer hat ihnen 
dieses gesagt ? — ick habe es von meinem Bruder er* 
fahreny who told you this ?— I h^ard it from mjr 

Rule XVI. When the question is tildsed 
by seyn^ with die Gcnidve and Dttifc ; tbdi anMner 


U mp4^ 9isO by siyn^ witl). the Nominative of th^ 
pronoun possessive; as^ wem, or wessen ist das Kindf 
•— ^ is( mein^ to whom belongs this child ? — it is 

min^. ) 

Observation. We sometimes, in interrogation^ 
0^ik^ uife of the neuter, in an absolute maimer ; as^ 
tiQelches ist die beste Auspraihe ? which is the best 
pronunciation ? > 

The following are peculiarities.: the English^ 
when they intend to e3cpres8 one individual object; 
place the possessive pronoun after the substantive 
in the Genitive case ; as, a relation of nubit^ u 
Sripndf^ <^ mine, qf yours, of liis, 8(c. The G^ermans 
lorUow a different mode, ex. gr. ein Freund. von mir^ 
a friend of mine ; em Bedienter von uns, . a servant 
^f aura. 

AUe, iu comippn life;, signifies sometimes that 
^ thi^g is completely finished ; as,, der Wein^ isf 
aUe, the wine is done ; die Kirschen sind aUe, the 
cherries are eaten. 

Meinesgleichen, deinesgleichen, seinesgleichen^ 
'ikresgleichen, enresgleichen, indicate people of an 
eqtial situation. 

V. Of Adjectives. 

Rule It. The adjective is put before the 

lubstantive, and must agree ' with it, in gender, 

number, and case -, as, die gute Fran und die base, 

. the< good ^nd bad wx>n)ari; ;. den secfi^tim dieses Mo*- 

. 1 1 2 nalhsy 


italh9, the sixth of this month . In the latter phtase 
Tag, day, is understood. 

Obsetvations. Adjectives expressing the titles 
of great men, follow the noun ; as, Karl der Weisc, 
Charles the wise. 

Adjectives, expressing the qualities of nouns ia 
different genders, must be put in the neuter ; as, dtu 
Geschickteste ven eiich soil belohnt werden, the most 
skilful of you shall be recompensed ; das F<?r- 
niinftigstc von euch beiden ist die Frau, the most 
reasonable of you two, is the woman ; Keines xion 
ihnen wolUe nachgebeuy none of them would yield. 

Rule II. When the adjective is plaeed sub- 
stantively, it is put in the neuter' ; as, das Erha* 
bene, the sublime ; das Netieste, the newest. 

In comparisons the English use as, the Ger- 
mans render this by so, als, or tvie ; viz. so tapfer 
als, or wie Marlborough, as brave as Marlborough, 

VI. Of the Verb, 

From the subsequent rules it will be seen, 
that the government, the construction, and appli- 
cation of the German verb (few instances excepted) 
is nearly the same as the English ; for the tenses, 
moods, &c. have such an analogy with each other, 
that they scarcely require any further elucidation* 

RtJLE I. The verb must agree with the noun, 
in number and person. 

Rule II, When a verb belongs to two or 





more substantives of the singular number, it must 
be put in the plural^ as, diewahremidfalscheBe* 
scheidenheit sind sehr verschieden, true and false 
modesty are very different ; Zorn, Eifersucht^ 
Hasz und Liebe, sind sehr hefiige Leidenschqfieji, 
anger, jealousy, hatred, and love, are very violent 

, Sometimes the verb, belonging to two sub* 
stantives, is put in the singular 9 as Pest und Hun-' 
ger herrscht irn Lande, plague and faming ravage 
the country. 

Rule III. The verb is put in the plural 
number, with a name of the singular, from mo- 
tives of politeness; as, der Herr Grqfhabenb^ohlen, 
literally (the Mr.) the CounJ (have) has commanded; 
Jhre Excellenz beweiseti mir viele Gute, Your Ex- 
cellency shews me much kindness. 

Observe, that the Infinitive of the active voice, 
after certain verbs, occasionally has a passive signir 
fication ; as, lasz ihn nifen, let ^im call ; which 
signifies, in English, let him be called ; da* Richter 
biesz ihn binden, the judge ordered him to (bind) 
be bound ; wir sahen ihn schlagen, we saw him 
(beating) beaten. . <^ 

With respect to the tenses, moods, &c. no 
particular rule is necessary, for the great affinity of 
J)oth languages is self-evident. 




Of Auxiliaries. 


The Infinitive of the auxiliaries dUrfen, soUen^ 


konnen mogen^ lasseitj miisssen, wollen, &c. is sub-* 
stitutcd for the Preterite Participle, when the Infini- 
tive of another Verb precedes them ; as, ich habe 
es, nicht thun durfen (for gedurft), 1 was not allowed 
to do it; du hdlteit kommen soUen {(or gesoUt J, thou 
shouldst have come ; wir hdtten es sehen konnen 
(for gekonnt)^ we might have seen it ; ich habe ihn 
anhoren rniissen (for ge?misztji I Have been obliged 
to listen to bim . 

FIT. Tlie Participles. 


The Germans have two Participles, the Pr^ 
sent and the Preterite, 

The Present Participle is formed of the Infini- 
tive Mood, by adding the letter rf; as, from lobetii 
to praise, Part, lobend, praising ; from Idchertj to 
laugh, Part, lachendy laughing. 

lliis Participle- governs the same case as the 
verb, and has also the nature of an adjecttve; as, 
<^'^ lachendc Fruhling^ the smiling spring ; dertaii- 
zende Bdi^^ the dancing bear i das laiifende JahVy 
the current yealp* 

It takes the form of an adjective ; as, ergui^ 
ckender Webiy refreshing wine ; stdrkende Speise, 
strengthening food ; huidendcs Getrdnke^ cooling 
beverage ; ein liebender VatcVy a loving father i 



mne trUurende Mutter y a mourning motbfer ; eiri xoei^ 
nendes Kindy a weeping child. 

^ * ■ The adverbial form is never put after any* verb ; 
more particularly not after the auxiliary sej/n^ to be; 

The German Present. Participle cannot be em- 
ployed by the auxiliary seyn, tp be, as in English j 
ks, / am writings he is readings we zvere walkings 
they will be going, &c. Thexe aire ht)wever. a few 
instances where, from its significaiiori,* it becomes 
similar to an adjective 5 as, sie ist reitzend, she is 
charming ; die Noth ist dringend^ the occasion is 

Participles considered as adjectives admit de- 
grees of comparison, by means of additional end- 
ings. However, these degrees do not extend to 
kU Participles. 

Poets occasionally exceed the limits pre- 
'scribed by custom, and in imitation of foreign lan- 
guages, give a greater latitude to the verbal ca- 
pacity of Participles. Allowance may be made for 
'poetical licence, but we must not deviate from the 
rules of prosaic accuracy. 

The most essential quality which Present Par- 
ticiples retain, is that of governing cases, and th?9 
•is perfectly agreeable to the idioni of the language-; 
«as, die alles belebende Sonne, the sun which anittiates 
^every thing ^ die tins bevorstehende Gefahr, tlfe 
■-danger hanging over us ; das uns veffolgende Ge^ 
ithieky the fate which persecutes us. The govern- 
ing cases must be placed before the Participle ; yit 

• ■ *• WO" 


we find in some instances the case aad Tzi^&i^ 
pie joined together, and written as one word ; aS| 
ein ehrliebender Manny a man that loves hooori 
instead, ein Ehre liebeiider Maim. 

The Germans use sometimes their Present Par-. 
ticiple in a peculiar manner, by prefixing the pre- 
position zti ; as, das hoch zu schdtzende Ferdienst, 
merit to be highly esteemed. 

The Present Participle may in English be con- 
verted into a substantive, by prefixing the article ; 
as, the xinnting^i the readings &c. whereas in Ger- 
man the Infinitive serves for that purpose j as, das 
Schreibeny das Lesen. . . 

The Preterite Participle. 

Preterite Participles either end in t (etj, or 
n(en)y and have, -for the most part, the augmen- 
.tative ge before them ; as gelobt, praised -, gespro- 
cheuy talked. The augmentative ge however is re- 
jected by inseparable compound verbs, and those 
of ieien, or iren ; a$, regierty governed ; spatzlerety 
walked, &c. 

The use of the Preterite Participle is twofold, 

1. when combined with an auxiliary verb, it con- 
stitutes the compound tenses of conjugation ; and 

2. as an adjective, it is joined to substantives, 
which is very frequently done in German ; as, 
geliebte Tochter, beloved daughter y die gepsiesene 
Tapferkeity the praised valour 5 ein verachtetes Ge- 
sdiopf, a despised creature. 



This Participle as an adjective, is also suscep- 
tible of the degrees of comparison, and particu- 
larly of the superlative which it takes in its full ex- 
tent ; but as for the comparative, it takes it only 
on the adverbial form. 

VIII. Of Adverbs. 

Rule I. Adverbs are generally placed im- 
mediately after the verb ; as, wir haben liter keine 
Freunde^ w^e have no friends here. 

Rule II. Adverbs of time are placed before 
all other adverbs ; as, sie zoird morgen hier seyn^ 
she will be here to-morrow. 

Rule HI. ITiose adverbs which denote mea- 
sure, weight, age, worth, &c. require the Accu- 
sative ; as, zwolf Ellen langy twelve yards long; 
acht Pfund schwery eight pounds weight ; sechs Jahr 
altj six years old ; vier Thaler werth^ four dollars 

Adverbs, which convey the idea of about, or 
merely, with numbers, are rendered thus : u?igefdhr 
fiinf-Iahre, about five years ; zxvei bis drei Wochtn, 
two or three weeks ; ein Stiicker zehn, about ten 
pieces ; ein Ehler drei, about three yards ; an die 
xrOanzig, nearly twenty ; bey die fiinfzig, nearly 

fifty. . 

This manner of speaking, though not classical, 
is for the most part used by the lower orders of 

Mm IX. 

26tf / Al^AtYSrS op THS . 

IX. : t)f Prepositions. / 

\Vhen oi«e pfepositk^n belongs to mor^ than 
6iAt noun^ it must only b6 once expressed, tli^ 

same as in English ; as, durck Liisti Betrug und 
Verratherejfi by intrigue, deceit and treachery. 
However, when substantives are combined by 
conjunctions, we must repeat the preposition ; as, 
cntxoeder duroh List, oder durch GewaU, either by 
intrigue or by forc^ ; theils mit Geld, theils ml 
IVctaren, partly with money, partly with mer- 

Two or more substantives of different genders, 
when put after a single Preposition, lose their ar- 
ticle or case ; as, in Nolh und Tod, in distress and 
death ; a^f Todt und Leben, upon life and death ^ 
Ifei JBrod und Wasser, by bread and wat^. 

Sometimes we meet with prepositions immC' 
diately following each other, but very rarely ;, aSf 
durch mit Geld bestochene Stimmen, votes purchased 
with money. This mode of expression should pot, 
however, be imitated. 

JC. Of Conjunctions. 

The conjunction dasz requires the Indie^tk^ 
when it bespeaks certainty ; and the Conjuneiwe 
when dubeity ; as, ich versichere dich dasz ich dein 
Freund bin, I assure you, that I am yoilr friend $ 
er will nicht glaiiben dasz ich sein Freund, sejf, -he 
will not believe that t am his friend. 


If we express a vowy qr a msh, the conjunc- 
tion dasz always requires the Subjunctive Mood ; 
a^ ach ! dasz dies g^scJicibCf ah ! tbs^t (bw woul4 

The conjunction so is employed to epanect $ 
sentence^ when the prior xnember of it begins 
with a consecutive^ causal, or conditional conjunc- 
tion ; aSf wenn es Zeit ist so xv^rde ick k^fmv^Hf 
when it is time, I shall come ; da er $ick dfV V^J^ 
tung naherte^ so f and er die Wdlle mit Feinden be* 
setzt, when he approached the fortress, he found 
the rampjarts occupied by the enemy. 

So i§ not always required after the consecu- 
tive and causal, wch as da, als, me, but it is 
rswely left out after the conditional cpnjunctions, 
Miob^wewi, obschon, ZK^emischon, menriglcich. 

When th^ CQnditi<>ngI is npt expressed in (hp 
pnm jn^iibf r# but understood, it i^ neccsmry to 
ffisSn^ U^e pf S0 m the ^bsd^quent ^ as, hdtfe kh 
d^gewumt $Q zcarie ich nickt d^hin gegangen, h^ 
J \in&9fn thtt, J shpuld npt feavft gone there, 
whj^ sfamdi^ for, fmenn ich d^s gemuszt hatfe, }i 
I Jwd i»owi) that, CQtmqm^tlf so o^ust JSqI^ow* 

If, obgleichj obschon, or a siiinilar word, sig- 
«lffying though, although, pmoedes so $ the con- 
^n^iondochy yet, or a synonymous one, gen^rallf 
liMows 5 as, ^ IT gieich jung ift so hat sr doeh 
viel Verstand, although he is young, he has neyey- 
4i^f0i mcti^n^rrtaiMling. 

M n^2 Tb^ 

26tf / Al^TAtYSrS op THS . 

IX. Of Prepositions. / 

\Vhen oi«e pf e^ositk^n bekmgd to mor^ than 
em noun^ it must only b6 once expressed, tli^ 

same as in English ; as, durck Lhti Betrtig und 
Verratherejfy by intrigue, deceit and treachery. 
However, when substantives are combined by 
conjunctions, we must repeat the preposition ; as, 
cnizceder duroh List, oder durch GcwaU, either by 
intrigue or by force ; theils mit Geld, theils ml 
IVctaren, partly with money, partly with mer- 

Two or more substantives of different genders, 
when put after a single Preposition, lose their ar- 
ticle or case ; as, in Nolh ttnd Tod, in distress and 
death -, avf Todt und Leben, upon life and death j^ 
ffei JBrod und Wasser, by bread and wat^. 

Sometimes we meet with prepositions imnie* 
diately following each other, but very rarely y as, 
durch mil Geld bestochene Stimmen, votes purchased 
with money. This mode of expression should pot, 
however, be imitated. 

X. Of Conjunctions. 

The conjunction dasz requires the Indie^ttke 
when it bespeaks certainty ; and the Conjunethe 
when dubeity ; as, ich versichere dich dasz ich dein 
Freund bin, I assure you, that I am your friend s 
er zvill nicht glaiiben dasz ich sein Freund setf, -he 
will not believe that t am his friend. 


If we express a vow, or a wish, the conjunc- 
tion dasz always requires the Subjunctive Mood ; 
a^ ach ! dasz dies gesofiabCf ah ! tbs^ %hh woul4 

The conjunction so is employed to epanect $ 
sentence, when the prior member of it begins 
with a coDseeutive, causal, or conditional conjunc?- 
iion; aSf wenn es Zeit ist so vo^rdc ich k^mw^Ht 
when it is time, I shall come ; da er $ick dfV V^jsr 
tung ndhertCf so fund er die Wdlle mit Feinden be- 
setzty when he approached the fortress, he found 
the ramparts occupied by the enemy. 

So is not always required after the consecu- 
tive and causal^ ^uch as da^ als, me, but it is 
l^ely left put after the conditional cpnjunctionsj 
Mioh* wem, obschon, wenmchon, mermgleich. 

When the cpnditipngi is npt cxpiiessed in thp 
pnm m^iiber* biit underst0o4, it i^ necessary to 
imke n^ ^ S0 m tiie ^bsequent j as, Imtte ich 
44Sgewumt $Q %c<iris igh nicht ddAin gegangen, h^l 
J kiM»w4 thtt, J shpuld npt have gone there, 
wW^ sfamdt^ for, fmemi ich d^s g^u^mzf hatfe^ }i 
I Jwd i»owi) that, cpns^qMi^ntly so n^yst J^l|ow* 

If, obgleich, obschon, or a similar word, sig- 
filffytng though, although, preoedes so s the con- 
jfuietlon dock, yet, or a synonymous one, generally 
liMows 5 as, ^ IT gUich )ung ift so hai tr doch 
viel Verstandy although he is young, he has neyey- 
4i^f0i mcti^tt^rrtaiMling. 

M m 2 Th^ 


The negative, nichty not ; in an interrogative 
exclamation, gives emphasis ; zvie viele brave Sol- 
daten und OJiciere sind nicht in dieser Schlacht 
geblieben ! how many brave soldiers and officers 
have perished in this battle! 

The conjunction dock serves for a similar pur- 
pose, in^ questions and exclamations i , as, was sagt 
er dock ? pray, what did he say ? war das dock 
ein Ldrm, what a noise that was ] 

XL Of Intellections. 

The interjection generally stands by itself, 
without reference to the case of substantives ^ as, 
es ist leider / mit uns dahin gekovimen^ alas ! are 
we come to that ! es ist uns, Gott Lob ! diesmal 
gelungen^ thank God ! we have at length succeeded; 
! welch ein Gliick ! o what fortune ! 

We find the Genitive of the object in several 
instances, but this does not happen from the effect 
of the conjunction, but from an ellipsis, or a pe- 
culiarity of the language ; as, o, der Schande ! o, 
what a shame ! pfuiy des garstigen Menscfien ! fie 
upon that despicable fellow ! ach ! des armen Kin^ 
des ! ah ! the poor child. 

In some instances we with the Dative; 
as, wohlmir ! well is me ! Heil euch ! success. to 
you ! Gliick zumjungen Sohne! success to the young 
son ! 

The Accusative is like wise, found after the in- 
terjection; as. Of mich UnglUcklichen ! o, unhappy 

' mei 


tne ! We should not, however, imitate the latter 
mode of expression. 

XIL Of the Arrangement' or Construction of 
Wordsy Phrases, Sentences, SHc. 

Many grammarians have rather endeavoured 
to display an artificial knowledge, in this part of 
grammar, than clearly to point out to the student 
the real and essential parts of it. During the time 
I have professed the German language in this king- 
<iQm, I do not remember one among my nume- 
rous 'pupils, who ever found the least difficulty in 
attaining a knowledge of the just arrangement of 
words, &c. but on the contrary confessed, that this 
part of grammar was not only the most simple, 
but had the most cleaf analogy to the English. 
As for perspicuity, and accuracy in writing, which 
is much more material, and when studied pro- 
perly, of much more, use and profit to acquire ; 
the student will find every necessary information 
in the subsequent Practice, and particularly in the 
Second Part of this work, in which the arrangement 
and proper useof word$, &c. are of course properly 



\ r 

S74 AHALTSis Of nn 

^M ]do -Bot despair^ hmferer^" nyoSned tlie 
countess* ^ I am the wife of the weaMuest noblt* 
^^ man in tfai& oomitiy, yet the wife of the poorat 
^ beggar (40) cannot be more wretabed than I 
^ am. 'My budnrnd 45 the mort aTuricioiii -and 
^ jealoos (41) of his sex (42) ; he is a bui^daa 
^^ to me» and ito be defivemd from him boa haaf 
^ been ^e object j(45) of my most earnest and fisn* 
^ vent wishes ; I have formed many plans foamy 
escape (44), but couid never put an^ into ta» 
cution ; I have many times (45.) wkIm^ to pro- 
cure some poison (40), .in order to get mi df 
** him(47); but I xxAild not trust arf . .sBPaaals. 
** Th^ are all spies (4&)f and sim^ whom you hatfc 
^' just dispatch^ (49), is the most: deteataUe df 
her sex(50). i am now nearly twenty yeaiB^ 
age (51) and not totally {S2) destitute of beauty : 

^ mote- 

(40) of the poorest beggar, des armsten Bettkrs. 

(41) the most avarioious and jealous^ dif^geizigsie und . 

(42) of his sex, seines Gischlechtis. 

(43) object, Giginstand. 

(44) for my escape, s;W mtiner ffmekt. 

(45) many times, vieimal^ or '4ft€r$. 

(46) to ppocure sosie poison, Gift zu vefic&qffin. 
(47} in order to get rid of him, urn ikn k5% twwerden* 

(48) spies, Spi^mfT. ^ .' 

(49) to dispatch, mbfertfgen. 

(50) «f he^sex, ibr^s GescfiheitH. 

(51) twenty years of age, zwanzigy^ alt. 
(5a) totally, ganzliA. 


^ moreover^ mjr husband lived wkh that WT6t€b^ 
^^ (pointing to the murdered chaiiihecHaatd (&S)y 
^ and qoasequeady she has done me. every kind 
^^ qf mischief {54)9 ^where she could find 1^ leaal 
opportunity for setting my husband against me, 
J£ oQj one of you {^5) will protect (5&) me, I 
^.wiU most wiUinglj s^^ompany him in all hit 
<( wanderings (57)^ and contentedly spend the 
^^ night under a hed^, and the day in a village 
^\ atehouse(5&) ; being tired of my present wretched 
^^ situation* I should be glad to revenge myself, 
ia following you^ for the perfidy and ill treatment 
of m^ tyrannical husband (59). Spare (60) but 
^^ my life, and you shall have no reason (61) to 
^ r^Bet your humanity ; this castle contains a m^ie 
^* of wealth (62), and the greater part of its titea- 
a ^f0g ^^ easily discovered, yet there are hoards 

Kn2 *^ which 


(53) chambermaid, Kammetfrau. 

(54) mischief, UnfuiL 

(55) if any one of you, in sef<rn einer uffier euch. 

(56) to protect, ieschutzgn. 

(57) wanderings, JVanderungen, 

(58) a village alebou«e, eim Dorfschenke. 

(i9) ^f °^y tyrannical husband, m^inti tyrcamschen 

(60) to Spare, sch^nenm 
(.^i) and you shall have no reason, undihr soUtkeine 

Vrsachi haben. 
(62) yifsiiishf Rfuhtkum. 


*« which you can never obtain (63) without my 
•' assistance (64)/* 

Whatever excess fellows of diis de8trription(65) 
may sometimes commit, still they are men. The 
countess'a unexpected address, her undaunted tone 
of voice* and her uncommon beauty$ altogether 
produced in these monsters (whose hands (66) yet 
reeked^with the blood of her domestics) a wonder- 
ful effect. They assembled in a ring, and consulted 
for some minutes upon the steps to be pursued (67). 
The countess, though unguarded, discovered not the 
smallest inclination to escape, and scarcely change 
ed colour (68), though their horrid threats and im-» 
precations continually reached her ears (69), The 
leader of the band soon addressed her : he repeat* 
edly asked her, whether they might trust her 
word? Whether she was resolved to desert her hus- 
band and yield (70) to their desires? To these ques- 

- ■ » ■ ' ■ ■ ■ ■ ■' ...III " 11 ■ ■ ! W 

(63) to obtain, erhalten. 

(64) assistance, der Bei stand* 

(65) whatever excess fellows of this descriptiont va^t 
auch immer fur Ausichwelfungen^ Kerls von sQlchiT 

(66) whose hands, deren Hande. 

(67) upon the steps to be pursued, fiber dUMaaxf^'^ 
gcln die sie %u mhmen hdtten, 

(68) changed colour, veranderte ihre Farbe. 

(69) continually reached her wrs, reighten fiesta r^i^ it^ 

(70) to yield, Gnuge leistert) slch<r^ebeni 


tions she invariably , answered in the affirmative 
Necessity (71) may surely be urged as an excuw 
for her conduct (72). 

'« Come then," cried the leader, whilst he enoh 
braced her, ^^ and make the promised discoveries 4 
though we place but little confidence in nor 
bles (73), trained up (74) as they are in the paths 
•* of debauchery and viqe, we will this time ven- 
ture (75) : be assured, however, that were you 
stili more beautiful (76) your head shall be the 
^ forfeit of your indiscretion, if we discover diat 
^* you intend to escape or deceive us." 

She immediately seized the light (77) with the 
greatest alacrity, and led them through every apart-* 
ment; she opened, unasked, every door, and every 
'place of security, $he assisted them in packing 
up the treasures; she talked and joked with per- 
fect good humour, leaped over the murdered bo-» 





(71) necessity, Notk, 

{72) as an excuse for her conduct, als eine Entschul- 
digung ihres Betragens* 

(73) nobles, Edelleute. 

(74) trained up, aufgehracht, 
(75; to venture, wagen, 

(76) that were you still more beautiful, dasz wenn ihr 
noch einmal so schon wdret, * 

{77) she immediately seized thclight, sie tr griff io^ 
gleich das Licfit. 


dies (78), that laj in her mj, with spppMnfc nft 
diflfeience, and willmgly exposed her* delicate pe^ 
son to the most fatiguing labour (79)« i 

Plate, money, jewels, cloths, and manjr pieces 
c(f valuable 6imiture(80), weie aheady prqmiedi 
£Mr being carried off ; the signal for Aeir decamp 
inent(81) was gtv^o, whea the leader's m^hf 
destined bride seising him hastily by tiie anB> 
^ did not I befom assure you," exclaimed Ae, 
^^ that you should have no reason (8d) to repent 
^^ of 3rour good opinion of my honour ? Open tie*- 
^' sures (83) you can easily seize ; it sowbecoineB 
*' me to discover those which are secreted (84)."— 
*' Secreted !" — ^^ Can you suppose," interrupted 
she, '^ that in a mansion (85) like this there are 
no places of security destined for the conceal-* 
^^ ment of property ? Have patience, and you shaO 
** have good reason for changing your opi- 

" nion. 


• m>m m 

(78) leaped over the murdered bodies, sprang uker die 
ermordeten LeichHammem 

(79) to the most fatiguing labour, %u dcr trmuitmten 

(80) furniture, Hausrath. 

(81) decampment, ^r ^«/^rtfc^« 

(82) that you should have no reason, dasz ihr keine 
Ursache naben soltt. 

(83) open treasures, offentliche Schatze, 

(84) which are secreted, welcht verb^rgeH sind. 
(85} mansion, die Wohnungm 


^'■' fticm («6)/' Sic then directed them to a hidden 
^iirin^ (87) in her husband's writing desk, which^ 
Qpdti the sKghtest pressure immediately flew open^ 
mad displayed sik immense pieces of bullioia (68). 

^ Comet come 1" exclaimed the leader, •* I 
•« • HiBW begin to find that you are really worthy 
^ of being my mistress(89)/' — "Aye, and your wife 
'^ too,''" replied the countess whilst she cmbraoed 
kim^ ^y when I have made still (90) greater disco- 
*• V€ri^« Yo« were informed^ lam aware (91)i 
of my tyrant -^ :absence ; but did you not bear of 
si^f: thousand ducats which be^ the day before 
y^^day, received from his banker ?''— " No ! 
** whcift are they ?* *— -" Oh ! perfectly safe(92) and 
^^ frt your di^iKwd; and you could never have found 
^ limn or the iroo chest (93) which contains them, 
^^ if I faad not aasisted you. Follow me ! we have 
jCQBbpkted our labours hef'e, let us now com^ 
mence them under ground. Follow me, I say, 
to Ae subterraneous caverns (94)** 


I ... 

(86) for changing your opinion^ eure Mtinung zu 

andern, / " • 
^('iy) a hedden sp?il%, tine vtrhrgene Federm 

(88) immense pieces of1mlIi6hy grosfse R'6lUnG$ld. 

(89) of being my niistress,' fhnne Lielste tSu beyn. 

(90) still, naek. "• 

(91) I am aware, ick bin vtrsichert^ or gavisz,. 
(9i) perifecrty safe, gant pickery 

(93) the iron chest, der eistfne Xasten. 
"(94) to die sutnerraoeons caveras*' sswm mterirdRsckgn 


The murderers obeyed, but <K>t vHtb^ut pi^ 
caution (95)4 At the extremity of the descent (96) 
^ey stationed a sentinel, whom the coufitcss totaiHy 
disregarded (97). She continued to march on be« 
fore them till they arrived at a closett in a secret 
recess in the cavern. '« Here," said she, '* offering 
the leader the keys, ^^ unlock the chest, and behold 
*^ the reward of your good opinion of me t" 

The leader tried the keys, but in vain i be 
began to display visible marks of impatience and 
mistrust (99). " Let me try," said the countess 
with increased impatience, '' if I cannot manage 
the business rather more expeditiously: the inorif- 
ing will perhaps. . . . (100). Oh ! I now see 
why our endeavours failed, pardon the mis- 
take ; your visit, though it afforded me infinite 
pleasure (101), yet I must confess rather pier- 
plexed me (102). I have taken the wrong bunch 

« of 

(95) without precaution^ o/tne Vorsichu , 

(96) at the extremity of the descent, ^m Hinunier^ 
gange dis Gewolbes. 

(97) to disregard, nicht acbten. 

(98) tried the kcys^ preiierte, CfVirsuc/ite die SchlusseU 
(99} mistrust, Afisztratten. 
(100) the ipoming will perhaps^ der Mprgen konntt 

urn gar v'ulleicht (six. uberraschen.) 
( loi ) your visit, though it afforded me infinite pleasure, 

obngeachtet euer BiSHch mir unendliches Fergnu- 

gen vtrunachtim 
(102} radicr perplexed me, vielmehr bssiurzu mkh. 



^ of kefs ; be patient, and the mistake shall 'soon 
« be rectified." 

She fled up the staircase like lightnings and 
before many moments had escaped^ they heard 
her* returning fisitigued and breathless (103). 
** Fouisd {104) ! found!" she cried with exultation, 
and springing suddenly upon the sentinel ( 1 05), 
she threw the poor imguarded wretch headlong 
into the cavern. The trap-dopr (106) being once 
secured, the escape of the deluded murderers was 
efiectually prc^vented : with equal presence of 
mind (107), she fled across the court-yard (108) of 
the castle, and setting fire to the thatch of some ad* 
joining pent-houses (109), she alarmed the neigh* 
bourlng villagers : they hurried in crowds to the 
castle, and were accosted at the entrance by the 
countess. A very few of them was sufficient to 
extinguish the flames (110) and prevent their far-^ 


( 103) fetigucd and brpatbless, trmuiUt- und athtmUs* . 

(104) found, gefundem. 

(105) scotinel, die Sihildwache. 

(106) the imp-doort di€ Failtb'ure^ 

(107) with equal presence of mind, mit gkicher Ge^ 
g^mvart des G^iiNSm - 

(108) across the court-yard, uberdenHof. 

(J09) and «etting fifp to the thatch of some adjoining 
pent«bouses, iuu/ sitzie die Struhd&cber finigir 
anp'dnzendfn yiihstiUh in. Ftuer. 

(no) W(S sufficiefir to exiinguish ihe flames, vf^ren 
hi^^Uhini (ife FUmme 2t« Kschin* 


^12 ANAIrYS^S or 791 

^r pofOgresSf The rest repsdred immediately to 
the guard-chamber, where they fdund aiam in 
abundance (III). They soon furnished f hemarives 
ijirith implements of attackj affid besetting «very 
avenue (112) to the castle, they seized and coii- 
ducted to punishment these unfortunate mi)i?diesiBrs 
to * ♦ * for humanity^ mercy and justice^i ' 


(ill) where they found arms in abundance, wt sU 

Waffen im Ueherfiut% fandin. 
(ria) tstiy ZMtVixxtf jeden SchlupfwlnkeK 

* I have yet to observe, that from the whole of the preceding 
atorfy I haveieen leveral mostbeantifal and valuable engf^viDgs, 
executed- bjrohe of the most celebrated engravers, rqnreRnt-^ 
lag the couDten ui most of the related scenes. Thie two-Iatteri 
where she returned, breathless^ from the upper apartment with 
the bunch of keys in her left hand, and precipitated herself 
dexterously upon the sentinel, who tumbles down the staircase 
into the cavern ; and the other, where she runs over the castlc- 
y&rd, and setting fire to the thatch of the pent- houses 5 all this, 
together with the murderers, who are lastly brought out from 
the cavern, and the deceived dead flientinel, who had his scoU 
fractured and several of his Hmbs broken, excite a apeetacle^ 
which will for ever immortalize the artist. 

The following interestii^ descrfptioh of a 
contested' subject of natural ^history (which con- 
cludes the Practice of tlie Sj^tax) is taken from 
Gbtberry's Travels in Africa i a work highly in- 


GSftMAM LAN€iJA%E« t^ 

teristing', and which has kt^lj been tfaifiiAittiA 
by Mf. Mttd&rd. '* -^ 

TitE Cameleon. ■ ' 

T(ie^cameleon(>l), an animal so lopg cdar 
brated (2),. and to which eloquence (3) and poetrjf 
hiive attributed (4) the faculty of assummg:(5} th^ 
palpur pf every object which it approaches (6) ; 
which they have so frequently employed to emf 
bellish (7) th^ir metaphors^ and which they have 
made the emblem of falsehood and imposture (8}> 
yet remaii;^ unknowns and it is more than^pro^ 
t)able(9), thai: the natural history of this sipgur 
Iar( 10) reptile^ hfts hitherto been e;^ploared only in » 
feint, manner, v 

The cameleon of nature 1$ tranquil^ mUd» 
^nd peaceable ^ 1 1 }, the varieties (12) of colour, 

Q Q ^ . which 

(i) At cameleoD, das Kamaleon^ 
(a) celebrated, beriihrnt. 

(3) eloquence, die Beredsamhiu 

(4) to attribute, zuschniben^ or heilegen, 

(5) ^^ assume, armekmen^ 

(6) to approach, nakern^ or nah kommerii 

(7) to embellish, bereichern^ or versckonern^ 

(8) jmpq^ture, ckrBetru^. 
(^i.) probable, v\;ahfscheif^ticA. 
(10) singular, be^onderf^ 

fif) peaceable, /riVrfjtfwi, or /riedHebcnd^ 
(la) varieties, Mamntfakirktiiin^ 


which diif animal undergoes (13), aie the oooier 
quences of internal motions, with which he is a^ 
fectedy and the alternate (14) influence of heat and 
coldy of lightandohscurity (15). 

The cameleon-man disguises himself (16) be« 
Aeath hiht colours (17), only to tyramnse orer, or to 
t1n]8e:(l8) his fellow creatures ; while, on the con* 
trary^ the lizard-cameleon, ishimself the 8ullerer(19), 
fand his varieties of colour extend (20) no farther, 
but begin and end with its own feelings. 

Classed in the third genus (21) of lizards, die 
cameleon is particularly a native of the torrid 2one, 
and it is most common in the burning countries (22) 
of Aftica ; though it may be seen in great quan* 
titles ^23) in the western part of this continent 
comprized (24) between Cape Blanco and Gape 
Balnias ; it is astonishingly numerous (25) on the 


(l j) to ondergOy annehmen^ or untprworfm itjn. 
(|4) alternate, wechseUwiise, ox wechseUeitige, 

(15) obscurity 9 Finsternisz. 

(16) \o i^s^isCy verkUidfn* 

(17) beneath &lse cqloursy hinterfalschcFfirbfn* 

(18) to abuse, miszbrauchen* 

(19) thcsuBFcrer, der Uidende TheiL 

(20) to extend, $ich erstfecken, 

(21) the third genus of, die dritte Art vph, 

(22) burning countries, hgiszeny or brenMndenGigenden, 

(23) in great quantities, in groszer JnzahL 

(24) to comprize, hegreifen^ einscAlieszenf or enthaltsn, 

(25) astonishingly numerous, erstaukind haufi^. 


banks of the Senegal (i26)» and it was at the Isle 
St. Louis, during the winter of 1786 and 1781| 
that (27) I collected a great quantity at once, on 
which I made those observations (28) which will 
fopn the subject of the following narrations. 

One of the most extraordinary characterise 
tics (29) of this animal is, that it appears to be com- 
posed of a light ossified carcase covered with a 
very subtile (30) and tenuous skin, which is as it 
were entirely destitute of fl^sh (31) ; and when most 
handsome in appearance, and apparently (32) most 
^t and beautiful, it is in reality filled only with 
lin aeriform substance (33), which it is capable of 
imbibing and expelling at pleasure (34) ; hence it 
may be cpnceived, that such animals cannot exist 
but in the hottest climates, and that exteiuiva 


{9 6) on the tKinks of the Senegal, an den Ufirn des 

(27) of 1786, andi7S;L, that I, imjahr eln tausend sieben 

hundert sechs^ und sieben und achtzigy dasz icA» 
{28) observations, Benurkungcn. 

(29) most extraordinary characteristicsy miszerordenu 
Hchsten Ei gens c haft en* 

(30) subtile, sanft. 

(31) destitute of flesh, des Fleischer beraubt. 

(32) apparently, s'lchtbarlich , 

(33) aenform substance, lufiartlgen BestandtheiL 

(34) which it js capable of imbibing and expelling at 
pleasure, den es nach Gef alien fahig ist^ eniweder 
einzusaucheuy oder von sich zu sUszen, 


wanotfi(SS} alone can agree with its singukr 

The size, exterior form (36), &c. of this spe* 
CMS of lizard, are sufficiently' known to render t 
description of them here unnecessary (37) ; Ad 
attention and researches of naturalists, dvould be 
now confined to its other more obvious pecidiat 
lities, and its more rare and dxigu^ pfopcr^ 
ties (as). 

There are many phenomena to be foimd h| 
ibe cs^meleon, which have not yet been sufficienb 
]y(S9) explained or demonstrated (40) ; such as iti 
variation of colour; its absorption and ex|>ulsioa 
cf air at pleasure ; its power of living a consider* 
able time without taking any kind of nonrisll^ 
ment|41') 3 and lastly, its possessing certain vidiiid 
perfections (42) and advantages (43) which f believe 
me found in no other work of creation. 

Towards the end of the (44) year 1786, I 
collected, at one time, many cameleons of all sizes 



(35) extensive warmth, ausxtrordentlickt Hi$%f. 

(36) exterior form, auszerliche Gestalt. 

(37) unnecessary, unnothtg. 

(38) properties, Eigenschaften. 

(39) sufficiently, hinrelcheneU 

(40) to demonstrate, erkldren. » 

(41) nourishment, dteNahrung, 

(42) perfection, die FoHkommenheiu 

(43) advantage, derVorthetL 

(44) towards &e end of the, gegtn das Ende dfs. 

arml ageS) and I amused myself with observing 
Ihem with consideratble attention (45) ; my fifsC 
object wa» directed towards the variations of co^ 
lour which are obsei^able in this lizard^ and oir 
the nature and allemalion of these varieties (46). 

I was very soon convinced that the camelcoft 
does not assume (47) its colour from the iiircum* 
ambient {M) objects/ or from those with which it 
may be covered, but that the alterations which 
Ub natural colour undergoes (49) originates entirely 
iji' the painful sensations which this animal in**' 
temally experiences, and of which it is singif-? 
lariy susceptible (50). 

Its natural colour is a fine emerald green. 
Such have I always seen it (51), when In a state 
of liberty, perched, like a parrot, on the branciV 
of some young tree, ornamented (52) with gay foli- 
age^ in the midst of which it is- with much dif- 
ficulty perceived (53); or when it lazily basks in, 
or creeps along the fresh grass. 


(45) attention, die Aufmerksamk^lt. 

(46) varieties, Verschledenheiten* 

(47) to assume, annehmen. 

(48) circumambient, umgebenden. 

(49) to yndergo, unterworfen styn\ 
(50} ta bo su!lce[}|!ible, empfindlick stjn. 

(51) such have I always seen' it, s^hqbe Ichesimmer 

(52) ornamented, geziert. 
(53> to-perceive, ^^oArnehmen. 


. At this tiine> it is not only always of that 
ine emerald green colour, but it is also ia its 
most healthful (54) and corpulent state. Hence> It 
appears to me> that to preserve these tw6 c{ua* 
lities (55), a state of liberty > and the power of living 
in the grass^ or in the midst of fresh foliage, arc 
indispensable (56). 

From the moment that the liberty and sev 
curityofthis reptile was either constrained or ih-^ 
temiptedy I could perceive very palpable altera* 
tions in the brightness and vivacity of its colour, 
and the rotundity (57) of its form. 

It may be confidently asserted^ that the ca- 
meleon is an animal very timid and fearful, and 
at the same time, equally slow and indolent (5&). 
Its very subsistence and health, is doubtless Owing 
to its colour ; for from this circumstance, it is con- 
founded with the grass or leaves in the midst of 
which it delights to exist (59). It remains im^ 
moveable when on the branch of a tree or in the 
herbage, and rolls out its glutinous tongue (60), 
which resembles an earth-worm, and possesses most 


(54) healtliful, gesundheltsvoll. 

(55) ^wo qualiries, %w€i Eigenschafien. 

(56) are indispen&ablc, sind unumgdnglich nothwindig. 

(57) rotundity, die Dickt. 

(58) indolent, trdge* 

(59) to exist %u leben. 

(60) glutinous (ongue, gefrdsmgi^ or Inhrhtfti Zunge- 


probably some peculiar smell, which attracts the 
little insects who form its nourishment ; when the 
tongue is thus covered with a sufficient quantity, 
it immediately draws it in with an amazing ra- 
pidity (61). 

This economy is incessantly repeated (62), 
and always with success ; for the insects, deceived 
by the colour and immobility of the cameleon, 
approach without suspicion (63), and are taken in 
the snare. 

The fine green of the skin of this lizard, in 
its healthful state, so completely confounds it with 
the tree or the grass in which it is hidden (64), 
that it is impossible to discover it, except by 
chance (65) 5 this brillant colour also proves its se- 
curity against those animals who .would injure it, 
but are unable to see or distinguish it ; in fact, it 
requires a well organized sight to make this dis- 

This reptile, therefore, well knows that it is 
only when thus confounded that it is able to pro- 
cure its food (66)j and escape its enemies ; and 


(61) with an amazing rapidity, mit einer erstaunendeit 

(62) to repeat, wiederholen, 

(63) without suspicion, ohne Verdachi. 

(64) it is hidden, es verhorgen ht, 

(65) by chance, von ohngefdhr. 

(66) to procure its food, sick seine Nahrung zuver^ 

. schaffen. 

V n 


when, therefore^ it is deprived of its Ubierty, md 
destitute (67) of these advantages, it becomes fiitt 
of apprehension, of fear, and of terr(» i its life is 
one continued torment .;[6S), and it sMtains all.tho 
anguish of dread : its health visibly declines ^,69), 
and the freshness of its natural colour rapidly de- 
cays. Thus, w^henever I took a cameleon out of 
the grass, or from a branch whereon f 70) itr 
was perched, I perceived, in a very short time, not 
only an obvious alteration in its colour^ wbicll 
began to fade (71), but also a diminution in the 
rotundity (7*1) of its body. 

If I placed the animal on the arid sand^ or otd 
the floorj or in a cage, it immediately became <rf 
a yellow tinge, and. insensibly expelled (73) tht 
air with which it was ipflated ^74) : it heace 4^- 
creased in size, and the smallness of its body be- 
came obvious even to the naked eye (75), 

If I afterwards replaced it in the grass, or 
on the branch of a tree, the fint green colour in 

a shoft 


tall I «l ' ■ < « < i I ^>A^*N 

(67) destitute, beraubt. 

(68) torment, die Plage. 

(69) visibly declines, ^'^rr^//^/, ox verschwindet sichtbsu 

(70) whereon, auf iK'elchem, 

(71) to fade, schwindcrjy abnehmen^ 

(72) '-otundity, die Dicke. 

(73 ) ^^ expel, ausstoszen, or answer fen. 

(74) inflated, angefiilli^ aufgeblaszen. 

(75) to the naked eye, dem bloicn Ang^n^ 

GERMAN language: 291 

a shord time returned/ and its body expanded (76) 
and assumed its wonted rotundity. 

Whenever I kept my cameieons confined in 
a cage, and there plagued and tormented them, 
I always easily succeeded (77), in exciting a de- 
gree of irritation and anger, which they mani- 
fested by expiring the air so strong, as to be heard ; 
they likewise became thin, and their colour gra- 
dually (78) became dull. If I continued to dis- 
quiet [19) them, the dull green changed to a yel-; 
low tinge -, then to yellow, spotted (80) with red ; 
next a yellow brown, spotted with red-brown ; 
then a grey-brown, ' spotted with black ; and lastly 
from shade to shade, they at length became almost 
black, and more and more thin. These are the 
Only colours in which I could succeed (8i) in mak- 
ing them assume (82). 

After having thustormented(83) andkept them 
prisoners during a number of days, I set them free. 
I carried them to a tree, or into the grass, and 
however black and me^igre they were, they quickly 

p p 2 as- 

(76) expanded, dehnte sick aus* 

(77) to succeed, gelingen. 

(78) gradually, siufenweist. 

(79) to disquiet, beunruhigerim 

(80) spotted, flecktu 

(81) to succeed, gelingen, 

(82) to assume, annehmen* 

(83) to torment, plagen. 


assumed their green colour^ and their usual state 
c( solidity (84). 

Reiterated experiments (85) have therefore 
convinced me, that the cameleons in a perfect state 
of liberty are always fat, and of a green hue ; and 
that in a state of captivity, not only their, colour be- 
comes changed, but their health also experiences an 
alteration v<^6). I have often wrapped them up (87) 
in various coloured stuffs, and left them for whole 
days together ; after I visited them, I found them 
always of that yellow-green, that tarnished yellow; 
or that green-black, which they forever assume (88), 
when in distress and suffering. 

The skin of the cameleon is extremely fine 
and delicate, and very soft and cold to the touch. 
When examined with a strong lens, on the living 
animal, it appeared like that kind of prepared (89) 
skin, which is called shagreen. 

This epidemais is not shiny (90), but is sin- 
gularly fine and elastic. ITie small points or pro- 
tuberances of this shagreen skin are, as it were^ im-^ 
perceptible, and hardly distinguishable by the 


(84) solidity, die Einsamkeit, 

(85) reiterated experiments, wiederhohltc Versuche, 

(86) an alteration, elne Aenderung. 

(87) ofien wrapped them up, ofters sle elng(vjick(lu 

(88) to assume, annehmen. 

(89) /prepared, birciten^ or zuhereiten, 

(9u) sniny, gidnzendm 


probably some peculiar smell, which attracts the 
little insects who form its nourishment: when the 
tongue is thus covered with a sufficient quantity, 
it immediately draws it in with an amazing ra- 
pidity (61). 

This economy is incessantly repeated (62), 
and always with success ; for the insects, deceived 
by the colour and immobility of the cameleon, 
approach without suspicion (63), and are taken in 
the snare. 

Th^ fine green of the skin of this lizard, in 
its healthful state, so completely confounds it with 
the tree or the grass in which it is hidden (64), 
that it is impossible to discover it, except by 
chance {65) 5 this brillant colour also proves its se- 
curity against those animals who .would injure it, 
but are unable to see or distinguish it ; in fact, it 
requires a well organized sight to make this dis- 

This reptile, therefore, well knows that it is 
only when thus confounded that it is able to pro- 
cure its food (66)^ and escape its enemies ; and 


(61) with an amazing rapidity, mit einer erstaunenden 

(62) to repeat, wiederhoUn. 

(63) without suspicion, ohrie Vtrdachi^ 

(64) it is hidden, es verhorgen ht, 

(65) by chance, von ohngefdhr, 

(66) to procure its food, sich seine Nahrung zuver* 
. schaffen* 



assumed their green colour, and their usual state 
df solidity (84). 

Reiterated experiments (85) have therefore 
convinced me, that the cameleons in a perfect state 
of liberty are always fat, and of a green hue ; and 
that in a state of captivity, not only their, colour be- 
comes changed, but their health also experiences an 
alteration (86). I have often wrapped them up (87) 
in various coloured stuffs, and left them for whole 
days together ; after I visited them, I found them 
always of that yellow-green, that tarnished yellow; 
or that green-black, which they forever assume (88), 
when in distress and suffering. 

The skin of the cameleon is extremely fine 
and delicate, and very soft and cold to the touch. 
When examined wi4:h a strong lens, on the living 
animal, it appeared like that kind of prepared (89) 
skin, which is called shagreen. 

This epidemais is not shiny (90), but is sin- 
gularly fine and elastic The small points or pro- 
tuberances of this shagreen skin are, as it were^ im-^ 
perceptible, and hardly distinguishable by the 


(84) solidity, die Einsamkeit, 

(85) reiterated experiments, wiederhohltc Versuche. 

(86) an alteration, eine Aenderung, 

(87) often wrapped them up, ofters sie eingcwickdu 

(88) to assume, annehmen, 

(89) /prepared, bireiten^ or zubereiun* 
(90) sniny, gldnzend. 


naked eye (91). Though ^t is excessively deli- 
cate^ £1163 andpliable^ it has notwithstanding (92) 
a considerable degree of tenacity, and is likewise 
gifted with a strong clastic property, as well as' 
with the power ofexpanding and contracting itself 
at pleasure. 

It is doubtless (9S) to this contexture, to this 
kind of tissue, which theskin of the cameleon has, 
that we must attribute (94) its facility in varying 
its colour, according to the degree of dilatation, or 
contraction which it may experience : in fact, we 
may safely ascribe (95) to this, those sudden alter- 
nations of colour which so much astonish us. 

The cameleon possesses a still more astonishing 
faculty (96) than this, of varying its colour, viz. 
that of expanding and contracting itself at plea* 
sure (97). 

What therefore is its peculiar organization, 
whence it derives the power, not only of inhal- 
ing (98) a considerable quantity of the atmosphe- 
ric air, but likewise of keeping, absorbing, and di- 

(91) by the naked eye, mit Hoszim Auge. 

(92) notwithstanding, nichtsdestowenigor, 

(93) it is doubtless, es ist nicht zu hczweifeln. 

(94) attribute, zueignen. 

(95) ascribe, xuschreiben. . . 

(96) astonishing faculty, erstaunende Eigenschaft. 

(97) ofexpanding and contracting itself at pleasure, slch 
nach Gef alien auszudehnen und zusammmzus^uien^ 

(98) of iphaling, einzuathmerip 


assumed their green colour, and their usual state 
cff solidity (84). 

Reiterated experiments (85) have therefore 
convinced me, that the cameleons in a perfect state 
of liberty are always fat, and of a green hue ; and 
that in a state of captivity, not only their, colour be- 
comes changed, but their health also experiences an 
alteration \^'66). I have often wrapped them up (87) 
in various coloured stuffs, and left them for whole 
days together ; after I visited them, I found them 
always of that yellow-green, that tarnished yellow; 
or that green-black, which they forever assume (88), 
when in distress and suffering. 

The skin of the cameleon is extremely fine 
and delicate, and very soft and cold to the touch. 
When examined wi4:h a strong lens, on the living 
animal, it appeared like that kind of prepared (89) 
skin, which is called shagreen. 

This epidemais is not shiny (90), but is sin- 
gularly fine and elastic The small points or pro- 
tuberances of this shagreen skin are, as it were^ im-^ 
perceptible, and hardly distinguishable by the 


(84) solidity, die Einsamkeit, 

(85) reiterated experiments, wiederhohhe Versuche. 

(86) an alteration, eine Aenderung. 

(87) often wrapped them up, after s sie elngcvjichlu 

(88) to assume, annehmen. 

(89) /prepared, kreiten^ or zuhereiten^ 
(9u) sniny, gldnzend. 


naked eye (91). Though ^t is excessively deli- 
cate, fine, and pliable, it has notwithstanding (92) 
a considerable degree of tenacity, and is likewise 
gifted with a strong clastic property, as well as' 
with the power of expanding and contracting itself 
at pleasure. 

It is doubtless (9S) to this contexture, to this 
kind of tissue, which the skin of the cameleon has, 
that we must attribute (94) its facility in varying 
its colour, according to the degree of dilatation or 
contraction which it may experience : in fact, we 
may safely ascribe (95) to this, those sudden alter- 
nations of colour which so much astonish us. 

The cameleon possesses a still more astonishing 
faculty (96) than this, of varying its colour, viz. 
that of expanding and contracting itself at plea- 
sure (97). 

What therefore is its peculiar organization, 
whence it derives the power, not only of inhal- 
ing (98) a considerable quantity of the atmosphe- 
ric air, but likewise of keeping, absorbing, and di- 

F I I » ■ I I . ■ ■ . . I ..i-i I ■■ II I I I I -n^j^i— 

(91) by the naked eye, mit Hoszim Auge. 

(92) notwithstanding, nichtsdestowenigor. 

(93) it is doubtless, es ist nlcht zu bczweifeln. 

(94) attribute, zueignen, 

{95) ascribe, xuschre'iber^. . . 

(96) astonishing faculty, erstaunende Eigenschaft. 

(97) of expanding and contracting itself at pleasure, sich 
nach Gef alien auszudehnen und ZU5ammnizu:^iehen^ 

(98) of iphaling, einzuathmenp 

294 AWALTSIS 09 T«« 

recting it ; for the air, inspired by the cameiMM} 
does not remain in its breast, in its stomach, or in its 
intestines (99y ; it spreads and perforates througk 
crery part of its body, ^nd this so completely and 
so generally, that it is every where fat aiid plump: 
at the very extremities of its feet and tail (IQO); 
and even its eyes are affected, for they become more 
round and projected. (.101). 

It must therefore be admitte^(l02), that tJie air 
thus inhaled by the camelcon, penetrates, enters, 
and insinuates itself into every, even the minutest^ 
part (lOS) of the body. 

It must not be supposed that the camelcon, 
when thus^ in a state of embonpoint (^104?)^ looks 
merely like a bladder blown up with air. It has 
all the appearances of a well distributed and natural 
plumpness, and in every part of its body it is equal 
and regular. 

In its utmost state of contraction (105), and 
when it has almost entirely voided the atmospheric 


(99) intestines, die Eingtweid^. 

(100) of its feet an<i tail, seiner Fiisze und Schwanzes, 

(lOi) more round and projected, runder und Aerverstth 

(102) to admit, zulassen,- 

(103) even the minutest part, segaY in dem kleinsUn 
Theit. ' 

(104) cmtionpoint, duFette* 

(105) contraction, die Zusammenxiehung, 


air, retaining only a quantity sufficient (106) for 
the preservation of its vital faculties, the extreme 
tsnuity of its body is truly astonishing. The ex- 
traordinary appearance which it j.resents is greatly 
augmented ( 107) when the animal moves, and par- 
ticularly when it convolves ; for it then looks like 
an empty saek twisted up 108). 

This faculty of expanding itself, so ns to ap- 
pear absolutely full and adipose ; of remaining in 
tbia state fot whole months, or only for a few hours, 
as it pleases (1Q9), and then contracting itself, so 
as to present a mere fleshless body ( 1 10) ; with 
the ^i»e of its back pointed, and the flesh of 
its sides actually united, and apparently but of 
one piece, is doubtless (111) one of the tnost 
extraordinary circumstances which is to be found 
in the natural history of the cameleon ; and the 
cause of which, though but Ihtle known (112), 
seeni^ worthy of the utmost, attention and research 
which naturalists can bestow. • 


^fcji*^ K >« 

(io6) sufficient, hinrelchend, 

(107) -is greatly augmented, ist groszeniheih vermehrt. 

(108) an empty sack twisted iJp, ein leerer %usammen- 
gehundencr Sack. 

(109) as it pleases, nach Gefallen^ ortvii es ihmgefallt. 
(no) a mere fleshless body, eimn bloszen Jleischlosen 

(in) doubtless, zwelfehohne^ ox ehne Zweifel. 
[Ill) little known, wenig bekannt. 



In the year 1786, being then at Isle (113) St, 
Louis, I made the following experiments : I was 
at that time in possession of seven, which were aD 
in full strength. I confined five of therh sepa- 
rately (114) in a cage of iron wire, covered all over 
with fine gauze, the texture of which was too 
compact (115) to admit any insect to enter. 

On the first(l 16) of November, 1786, 1 began 
ray experiment j and visited four times (1 17), in the 
space of four and twenty hours, my unhappy cap- 
tives (118) doomed to perish by famine (1 19). In 
a few days they became thin, and assumed that 
grey-black colour which is the certain indication 
of their distress. But when they had attained a 
greater degree of exility, they remained iti a fixed 
state during a month ; so that I was unable to 
perceive any sensible diminution ( 1 20) in their 
strength during that time ; except, when I ob- 
served them, they opened their mouths, and expired 
the air very strongly against me. These expirations 
were easily felt, and became even audible (121). 



1 6) 





at the isle, aufder Insel. 

separately, besonders, 

compact, dicht. 

on the first, den ersten. 

four times, vicrmaL 

unhappy captives, ungliukUche Gefangenen, 

to perish by famine, Hungers %u sterben, 

any sensible diminution, elnige slchtbare f^^rrin- 

even audible, sogar korbar* 


During the first six weeks, they used to run 
all over the cage, but after two months they 
never quitted the bottom of their cage. , Their te- 
nuity had now become excessive ; their weak- 
ness (122) and languor was very obvious ; their skin 
was almost black (123); and I also observed a great 
slowness in the motion of their eyes. They still 
preserved the faculty of expanding (124) themselves, 
though at the most not more than half as much as 
usual They all died by degrees, by the 23d of Fe- 
bruary, 1787, except one, which was still alive the 
24th, but so weakand emaciated(125), thati thought 
the period of its existence was also at hand (126). 
I liberated it the same day, and carried it to the go- 
vernment garden, where I placed it among the 
foliage 'y in fifteen days it regained its colour and 
strength, and, during the month of April, it ap- 
peared to me to be in total possession (127) of its 
health and strength. At the ^ end of this month 
it eiscaped, and all my endeavous to recover it (128) 
were totally ineffectual. 


(122) their weakness, ihre Schwdche. 

(123) their skin was almost black, i/ire Haut war bei- 
nahe schwarz* 

(124) the faculty of expanding, das Fermogen sick aus* 

(125) weak and emaciated, schwach und ausgemergelt. 

(126) was also at hand, war auch nahe, 

(127) in total possession, imvolligem Besitz, 
(ia8) to recover it, um es wteder zuerhahen. 

Q q 


The two remaining ones (129), I confined m 
the same cage, without any nourishment what- 
ever (130). 

As soon as they were inclosed together, Aey 
placed themselves opposite to each other wiA 
mutual looks (131) of steadiness ; their moiflihs 
Open^ and expelling their breath with gr^at energy. 
They remained in this situation for a considerable 
time ; though it was easy to discover, from their 
looks, that they were very much enraged, and that 
they occasioned mutual fear and apprehension. 

One entire day passed i-n this attitude (1312} 
of reciprocal menace, and it was only towards the 
evening that one of them slowlyclimbed(13S) to' the 
top of the cage ; the other remained at the bottom; 
but though thus separated, they constantly kept 
their eyes fixed (134) on each other ; their moirths 
remained open, and they expelled their breath T;Hth 
great rapidity. 

On the following morning, I found them in 
the same attitude and place as on the preceding 
evening (135); but there had been a battle be- 

^m^i'mmmmmm^mmm ■ ■ p i ■■ u m i i i i ■ n ^ ■ ■ i i 

(129) the two remaining ones, die zwsiubrig gebliebenen* 

(130) without any nourishment whatever, ohne einige 

(131) with mutual looks, mit wechseheitigen B lichen. 

(132) passed in this attitude, verflesz iji d'leser itellung. 

(133) climbed, kletterte. 

(134) fixed, geheftet. 

{13s) *s on the preceding evening, ah am vorigen 


tween them during the night, the effects of which 
were easy to be perceived ; for, I saw on their 
skins various wounds, and the vestiges of bi- 
ting (136). 

The whole day passed in a sort of immobi- 
lity (137) between them; however they constant- 
ly looked at each other, and reciprocally expel- 
led their breath with great force, 

Puring the subsequent night, I watched them, 
and by applying my taper (138), I saw my two ca- 
meleons grappled together, with their talons, and 
biting each other's sides with great vengeance, 

I did not separate the combatants, but the 
appearence of the light, no doubt, excited greater 
fear (139) in them than they had before experi- 
enced anger : they mutually ceased the attack ; and 
the strongest, who had commenced the combat with 
the other at the top of the cage, now descended to 
the bottom. His antagonist had been sadly treated ; 
his body was covered with wounds ; his flesh was 
almost torn off, and he appeared in a state of 
extreme lassitude (140), 

Q q 2 This 

(136) and the vestiges of biting, und die MerkmaU von 

(137) in a sort of immobility, in einer Art von Unie* 

(138) my taper, mein Nachtlicht. 

(139) excited greater fear, erregte groszerc Furcht. 

(140) lassitude, dicErmudungx 



This warfare (141) was continued for nine 
successive days, at the end of which time, the one 
which had regularly been vanquished, at length 
fell, and I found him dead in the bottom of the 
cage. The conqueror had now taken refuge in the 
top of the cage. He lived seventeen days longer, 
without eating, and perished from inanition and 
extreme leanness, though perhaps the wounds 
which he received considerably hastened his 
end (142). 

The eye-ball of the cameleon not only projects 
much farther, from the head than that of any other 
animal, but its extensive surface appears to be 
conically formed, and terminates in a point. Its 
eyes are covered with a membrane, which serves 
it instead of an eye-lid (143). 
, This men^brane is like a case perforated by 
a longitudinal hole of about half a line (144) in 
breadth in its widest part j it is by means of this 
orifice that the animal is enabled to see (145), and 
exposes to view a brown coloured pupil, bor- 
dered by *a small circle of gold, extremely bright 
and shining. This case is gifted with the faculty 
of following all the motions of the eye, in which 


*i lAii 

(141) this warfare, dieser Krieg. 

(142) hastened its end, beschleunigte sein Ende. 

(143) which serves it instead of an eye-lid, das ibman* 
statt eines Augenliedes dienet. 

(144) of about half a line, obngefdhx eimhalbe l*inie» 

(145) is enabled to see, ist fdhig zu sehen. 


respect it differs totally from the eye-lids of any other 
animal (146). But what is still more singular, and 
which I believe is to be found in no other animal 
of the creation (147), is the faculty which the ca- ^ 
meleon possesses of moving its eyes in every pos- 
sible direction ; and this motion is conducted to- 
tally independent of each other (148). 

The cameleon moves one of its eves, while the 
other remains motionless ; with one eye he looks 
before him, while with the other he will look 
behind : the one ii sometimes directed tpwards' 
the heavens, and the other is bent towards- tHe 
earth. / 

These opposfte motions (149) are performed 
cither, at once, 6r alternately, with astonishing 
rapidity. They are carried to such a degree, that 
at one time the pupil passes even under the pro- 
jection which serves for the eye-brow, and then 
suddenly buries itself in the corner of the orbit, 
by which means the animal readily and at once 
discovers the objects which are placed behind him, 
and those immediately in his front, without moving 


(146) totally from the eyelids of any other animal, gan%* 
Itch von den Augenliedern aller anderer Thiere, 

(147) of the creation, in der Schopfung. 

(148; independent of each other, unabh'dngig^ eins vom 


( 149) these opposite motioas> diese gegenseitige Bewe^ 


his head ( 1 50) in the least degree, which is strongly 
con^ned to his shoulders. 

These rapid evolutions enable him to see at 
once in every direction, and incessantly to observe 
whatever passes around him. 

The object of this perfect conformation is 
doubtless the personal security (151) of the came- 
kon, and the success of his pursuit of small in- 
sects and flies, with which he is nourished .; he pro- 
jects his glutinous tongue, and leaves it pendant- 
on the side, where he perceives the prey which he 
wishes to entrap. 

I have now said sufficient to prove (152), that 
the cameleon is in many respects a very extra- 
ordinary and curious animal, and that it possesses 
many peculiarities which are well deserving the 
attention of naturalists* 

(150) without jnoviDg his head, oAne seinen Kopf xu 

hewegen. % 

(151} the personal security, die persohnliche SichirhiU^ 
(152) sufficient to prove, genug zubiwasm. 




All languages have peculiarities, which can* 
not be comprized under any distinct part of speech 
whatsoever, because they deviate from every com- 
mon rule ; these are called idioms. 

It is not, however, my intention on the pre- 
sent occasion to give a voluminous account of them; 
but shall content myself with pointing out the 
principal ones, generally used in common life, by 
way of illustration : ' but for the reader*s further 
perusal of the same subject, I would recommend 
to him a work of great utility, viz. Deutsche Re- 
densarterti Kc. German idioms, &c. Leipzig, 1800- 

Von Sinnen kommen. 
£& hat keine Noth. 

To lose one^s senses. 
There is nothing to-fear. 

£s ist keln gutes Haar an I He is a good-for*»otbing 

ihm« 1 fellow. 


* It will be absolutely impossible to give ^hat may be 
termed an apt translation of each of the preceding idtomatic 
modes of speech; hence the reader must excuse the necessitj 
which exists ot adhermg to a parapbrastical method, and 
more particulai:1y as many of them would be altogether un« 
mtelligible and even offensive to an English ear. Yet, as 
they occur very frequently in common life, and espectalljr ia 
dramatic pieces, it will be highly beneficial to be possessed of 
the above selecftion. 



Man kann ihm nichts an- 


Das ist abgedroschen 

Einem das Leben abspre- 

Aufbeiden Achselntragen. 

Einen iiber die Achseln 

Dakommt er angestochen. 

Einem einen Schandfleck 

Uebel bei einem ange- 
schrieben seyn. 

In einen sauren Apfel bei- 

Einen mit ungebrannter 
Ascbe abreiben. 

Einem eins autbinden. 
Den Kopf aufsetzen. 

Grosze Augen machen, 
Einen zu Paaren treiben. 

Zum Kreutze kriechen. 
Hart darnieder liegen. 

Es geht allies drimter und 
druber. . 

Einem den Daumen auf 
das Augehalten. 

Einen aus dem Wege rau- 


Th t \s a keen man ; one 
cannot over-reach him. 

These are trite stories. 
To condemn one. 

To flatter two parties. 

To take no notice of a 

There he comes strolling. 

To slander or calumniate 
one's reputation. 

To be badly recommended 
by a person. 

To perform something 
against one's inclination. 

To rub him down with aD 
oaken towel. 

To deal in poetical prose. 

To be headstrong, or ob* 

How he will stare ! (when 
he sees him.) 

To compel him to perform 
his duty. 

To cringe. 

To be dangerously ill. 
'Tis all at sixes and sev^. 

To keep a strict eye upon 
To get rid of a person by 

breaking a vein. 




Mit Jemanden unter der 
Decke stecken. 

£r ist mir ein Dorn im 

£r hat Einfalle t^ic cm 
alt Haus. 

Ein Madchen zu Falle 

Eineni den Brodkorbho-' 
her hangen. 

Sich bucklich lachen« 

Einem den Beutel fegen. 

Sieistem altesFell. 

Einem das Fell uber die 
Ohren ziehen. 

Das sind faule Fiscbc. 
Sie ist schon flicke. 

Da steht Galgen und Rad 

Geli an Galgen. 

Er laszt fiinfegerade seyn. 

Jedes Wort auf die Gold- 
wage legen. 
Ins Grab beiszen. 

Ooldene Berge verspre- 

Jemanden auf dem Halse 


UcberHals und Kopf. 
. « Er 

To have an understandbg 
with another. 

He is an eye-sore. 

He has crazy ideis. 

To seduce a maid — to get 
her with child. 

To retrench the subsistence 
of any person. 

To laugh imilhoderately. 

To cheat a person out of 
his money^ 

She is an old virago. 

To flay one alive, by pay- 
ing more than we ought to 

That's a frivolous excuse. 

She is aheady marriage^ 

That is the wav to the 

Go and be hanged. 

He accommodates himself 
to every thing. 
To mind ones p*s and q't« 

To be a grave man. 

To promise golden moun- 

To be incumbent upon 

Over head and heelau 

R r He 

Das kann man mit£[atid^n 

Das hac H'ande uadFil^. 

Hans in alien Gasscn. 

Da liegt der Haase im 

Ueber die Schnur hauen. 

Man wesiz nicht ob es ge- 
hauen oder gestochen isf. 
Er ist. eine ehrliche Haut. 

Einen durch die Hechel 

Kl^ren Wein cinschenkep. 

Einen aufziehen. 

Wo will das endljch hin- 
aus ? 

Das ist mir zu hoch. 

Die Prau hat die Hosen ai^. 

Die Katze im Sacke kau- 


Kind und Kegel. 

Mintereine Sacbekommen. 

Ins Gj^sc^hret] I(9mipen. 

VpiT^ I^9pf bis auf die 

Ein lustigje^r I^.opf. 

Jemand vor den K9pf 

He U tbc og^ q( the Ul- 

That is q^i iJipiLr ^s dpy 

That IS ^ chef d'oeuvrp. 

Jack every where. 
That is the main point. 

To exceed the boundaries* 

One knows not what to 
make (or think of it). 
He is a good fellow. 

To slander a person. 

To tell the truth. 
To mock a person. 

Wha,t wHl at length be- 
come of it ? 

That's beyond my under- 

The grey mare is the bet- 
ter horse. 

To buy a pig in a poke« 

All the family. 

To discover a thing. 

To get ^ bad na;p^. : 

Fro^n^he^d to foot^ 9rfi^ 
top to die bottom. 
A g^y feljo^y. 

To give offence to 9P^ 

Ef ist Ati kb^fhan^cr. 
Eifikdk dM It6rb geben. 

* Et SfAt fl6H im Lichtc. 
Sich aus dem Staube ma- 

Einen miirbe machen. 

He a i U^bU 

AfefaSal of radnagc, (from* 
a lady) 

He stancis in his o^^light. 

To take to flight. 

Ei(ttm iidh Nas6 drSien. 

Pkck^t tuA fort. 

Er hat das Pulver nicht 

Einetn das , Wasser nicht 

Etwas aus dem Sinne 

Nichts gutes im Schilde 

Sich um nichts scheren. 

Einem zu schaflFen ma- 

Sich nichts sagen oder ein- 
reden lassen. 

Etwas mlt dem Riicken 
anseben miissent 

Die' Sache gehet nicht 
fichtig zu. 

Nicht auf seiner Redebe- 
stehen. > 

Etwas rechts lernen. 

Wenn mir recht ist 


To mortify, or humiliate 

To play a trick to some 


He will never set the 
Thames on fire. 

There's* flo compatison 
between them. 

,To think no more of a 

To haVe bad designs. 

To care for nothing. 

To give a person much 
trouble. , 

Not to lisCen to good ad- 

To be compelled to aban- 
don a thing. 

There is some deception 
in this business. 

To vary in one's speech. 

To apply rigorously to any 
If I am not mistaken. 
Kxz To 



In alle Sattel gerecht seyn. 
Sich durchs Land fechten. 

In jemandes Brode stehen* 

Ehestandy Webestand. 

Sich friihe aufmachen. 

Sicb mit etvr^fi breit ma- 

Sich auf etwas viel ein-p 

Einem in den Ohren lie- 

£inem]den Rang ablaufen. 

Dienstlos seyn. 

Icb mocbte nicht in seiner 
Haut sleeken. 

£r wird nicht anders, 

Sich in ein Amt dringen. 

£r ist ein Geitzhals.. 

Diese Frau hat Haare auf 
der Zunge. 

Das ist die rechte Hohe. 

Kinder und Narren sagen 
oft die Wahrheit. 

Nach dem Takte der 
Trommel tanzen. 

{)ndc gut, alUs gut. 

To be fit for.cvcry thing. 

To go a begging thruugh 
the country. 

To be in some one's ser- 

Marriage has its pleasures 
and its pain. 

To rise early« 

To boast of somediing* 

To be very proud of any 

To be always plaguing a 

To be beforehand with 

To be without employ- 
ment, or out of service. 

I wish' not to be in his place 
or situation. 

He will never improve. 

To intrude oneself into an 
He is a micer. 

This woman does qot want 
for tongue. 

That's the main point. 

Children and fools ofcea 
speak the truth. 

To run the gauntlet. 

All's well diat ends well. 









The foundation of German orthography is this ; 
Write as you speak, according to the best pro- 
nunciation y — pay due regard to the deriva- 
tion ; — the general custom ; and to analogy, 
** when the former are insufficient. 

It is incredible how many laughable misconr 
••ructions and ambiguities are introduced in Ger- 
man orthography. No language existing is sub- 
ject to so many variations as this. Every author 
follows his own caprice, and thinks he is at liberty 
to form a system for himself. But though this 
freedom is of little consequence to the native lite- 
rati ; yet, at the same time, such a variation in 
the true spelling proves a great discouragement to 
foreign students. 

The greater part of these errors might be ef- 
fectually prevented by the institution of a national 



academy, which should pronounce all composU 
lions incorrect and uncbusieali thst AM fRit §trit^ 
adhere to the orthography established by the pro- 
fessors, appointed to inspect the various publica- 
tions. During the twelve years I have been employed 
an teaching my native larigiiage Iri this coilntry, I 
have found it impossible to carry into effect any 
system equal to that which I have recommended ; 
well kowing what numerous difficulties would te 
the consequence, should I attempt to establish a 
standard. For that reason, the best method I 
could adopt was to make a point of gradually ac- 
quainting my schahrs with the vatiaftons of the 
German orthography. The length of my expe- 
rferice, as tutor, hds eti^hted me to lay teffore the 
sittfdefnf such rales', as wifl mtike him caf)a:!)1e, not 
dtfly of feadfttg and v;rr(ing, but afeo of dtstWer- 
ithg eia'sily the deviations in spelling, of any G^ffrian 
publication that may fall info his hands, for that 
purpose it will be highly advantageous tahirti, be- 
fore- he proi^eeds ftfrthct; to ma:ke himself thorough* 
jtcquaifited with the subsequent principles, which 
I fi^e laid down as a general standard for" G$N 
man- orthogftiphy*. 

I. Ok- 

. V . .. 1 «T -t.^. 

* I haJW G!^\y X6 obsor^t, thiat iri rAy \s\iw of thb prdMft 
work, I have .purposely avoided pureaing anj^ papticalflt sys^ 
tem of ortllography j and even when I have deviated froA 
those rules^ which I have laid down as a general standard, 
I liave acted for tlie benefit of the Vtadent, in order that 
tath, variatibnS' rtlghf bctonAe moro perceptible; ^hicTi ifK)uM 
Ql^^ieJ^ise considerably embarrass him. 


Rule I. Every foreign name and worcj, if 
once adopted or naturalised in German, and uni- 
versally intelligible, ought to be written with Ger- . 
man characters, ex. gr. Antiquitateny antiquities j 
marschieren, to march, &q. 

Rule. IL Foreign names ^nd word§ of mo- 
dern languages, if not naturalized, ought to^ bQ 
written according to their own language ; as. 
Journal^ journal ; CavallieVy chevalier ; Cato, Cato ; 
Cicero, Cicero, &c. Those of dead languages are 
written according to their own nature. 

Ji^ule III. Words borrowed from a foreign 
language, if pronounced and declined after the 
German manner, must be written according to 
the German pronunciation established by custom ; 
as, PailastypdiisLis; JE'ngelyZngel; Zepter^ sceptre; 
Pifbely people ; Zettcly a note ; Oehl, oil, &c, and 
not Palasty Aengely Scepter y Popely ShedUty Ocly &c. 
Those words which the Germans have borrowed 
from the Greek, and where the latter have a ky the 
saaae letter is adopted by the former; as, Kate- 
chisniuSy catechism ; KadmuSy Cadmus ; Sopho^ 
kles^ Sophocles : but those from the Latin, which 
have a c in their original language, ought to be 
written the same ; as, CerberuSy Cerberus ; Cen^r 
tauevy Centaur ; CypevUy Cypria ; ThucidideSy Thu- 

livi^ IV. Xlie ^xjended' / is denoted m a^l 



cases by le ; as, dieses^ this ; dieneh, to serve ; tte» 
ber, fever ; Ltebe, love, &c. ; except in diphthongs 
at the end of words, where y is substituted in- 
stead of it. 

The exceptions to this rule are as follow : viz. 
diVy to thee ; miVy to me ; wiVy we y wider y againsf ; 
and some foreign words ; as, Bisam^ cibet ; Biber, 
a bieber ; Bibely bible ; Fiber ^ a faser or nerve ; Ka- 
miUy chimney ; Tiger y a tiger ; Rubin, a ruby ; Ti- 
fely title, &c. 

Rule V. Foreign words, which are not natu- 
ralized in the German language, and begin withc^, 
or gy ought not to be written with schy as many 
writers have done ; but thus : Chagririy chagrin.; 
Chaise y coach"; Charlalariy mountebank; Genie^ 
genius ; Chimdrey chimera. The following, however, 
have become na'turalized, and are written with sch; 
instead of cA; sls, Maschine, machine; Schalottey a 
kind of onion ; SchaluppCy a shalop ; Marschallf 
a marshal ; kutscheuy to ride in a coach ; Marsch, 
a march ; marschiereriy to march ; TuschCy a kind 
of black colour. 

Bide VI, The letters th and /, in writing de- 
pend merely upon custom, as both do not in the 
least differ in their pronunciation from each other. 
In doubtful . cases we rather ought to prefer t 
.than th. 

Rule VII, The fe, after a vowel or a diph- 
thong, ought never to be exchanged for the double 
%z, nor for the single one ; as, BlitZy lightening ; 



) * 

JSchaiz, treasurjs, &c. whereas,after a consorait we 
Vrrite thus : ganz^ entire ; schmelzeuy to melt j 
Warzffy a warts ; £r», brass, &c. ' • • , • 


(>f such WordSi as are difficult to distinguish in 
their Pronunciation from each other ; their 
pecidiar Orthography and Meanir^ xihli/ being 

A a. 

{ein Aaly — an eel. 
eine A hi, — an awl. 
alli^ — all, from which are derived fj/^cTj 
nlle^ alles. 

rdas Aas^ — - cirrion, 

/ ein ASy — an ace (iri cards); 

\ferj aszy — • (he) aite. 



die Aehrey — an ear of Corn: 

— Ehrcy — honour: 

di^ AesickCy — ashes.. 

— EschCy — an ash tree. 

die Ahneny -^ ancestors. 
ahneny —^ to conjecture^ 
- ahndeny — to'revcn|;6. 

aicheny — to stamp a measUre* 
die Eichen, — oak-trees. 
eigeny — proper. 

der Anger y — pasture ground. 
— • A?iker, — an anchor. 

•^ ^ 

^ >I4 ANALYS» oy Tire 


f rfflr^ iflfflrf (Geld) — ready money, cash. 
\die Bahrty — a bier. 



das Bady — a bath. 
ferj baty — (he) begged. 

die Bahny — the path. 

der Banriy — a ban, or an excommimicatioff. 


der Bandy — the binding of a bool^, a volume, 
das Bafidy — a ligament, bond, union. ^ 

fder Bauer y — a boor. 
\das Baue7'y — a bird-cage. 

f belleuy — to bark, 
\di€ Bdlleny -^ the balls. 

beschwereriy — to molest. 
beschicoreny — to conjure. 

f bezvehrty — armed. 
\ beivUhrty — approved. 

bezeigeuy •— to render. 
b'ezetigeny — to confirm. 

f biSy — until. 

\der BisZy — a bit, morsel. 

das Buchy — a book. 

der Bugy — the bow, bending 

{der Buckely — a stump, back. 
\die Buckely — a stud, knob. 

{der Bulky — a bull. 

\die Bulky — a decree, published by the ?ope; 

{der Biindy — a lea^gue. 
das Bundy — a sheaf. 
• kunty — of various colours. 








Xder Tag, — 

- the roof of a 
the day. 



f dauen, 
\ thauen. 

— • to digest. 
— to thaw. 


(das — the 
\dasz — that 




dingen, •-- to hire. 
dungen, — to dung. 

der Diinkely — the conccitedness* 

— Dinkel, — spelt, 

E e, 

die Egge, — a harrow, 

— Ekke, — a comer. 

die Elster, — a river in Germany, 

— Agister, -^ a bird. 

{die Ente, — - a duck. 
das Ende, — the end. 

Xder Erbe, — the heir. 
Xdas Erbe, -^ the inheriUncft 




die Ferse, -^ the heel. 
— • Verse, — verses. 

(das Festj, — a feast. 
\ vest, — fast. 

feiern, — to fire, 
feuern^ -*— to celebrate 


SferJM. —'(he) fell. 

viel, — much. 

s s 2 flach^n. 



fldchscn, — flaxen^ made of flax. 
die Flechscjty -r- the perves, 

^der Fluch, — the course. 
1 — ^^I'^gy — to'soar. 

^der Forst, — a forest. 
Xftrjforst, — *(he) inquires. 

Sdie Frist, — a respite, 
\(er)friszty ~ (he) devours, 

J fihry (du) — conduct (thoil 
1 i;/(?r, ^ four. 

Sdie Gans, — a goose. 
t ganzy — entire. 

' JT g^K ^ begone. 
t jdh, — steep. 

der Geisely — ^ an hostage, 
die Geisely — a scouro:e. 

{da$ Geldy — money. 

\ gelty — is it not so ? 

f gelehrty —: learned. 
\ geleerty — emptied. 

^das- Geleite, — the conduct. 
1— Geleihte, — ^ borrowed. 

^der GescliQszy — the tax, impost. 
\das Geschpsz, — a niissile weapon. 

<die Gift, — the gift. 
\da$ Gift, — poisop. 



gtauben, — to believe.' 
klauben, — to plcki 

gleideriy — to slip, 
kleiden^ — to <Jres^. 



idefGra?n, — sorrow^ 
\ — • Kraiiiy — the shop. 

. Hh. 

^der Harzy — the Hcrciniin forests 
\da$ Harz^ — rosin. 

^det Heydcy -^ the pagkn. 
\die HtidCy — * a heath* 

her^ — here. 
das Iletr^ — an army, 

Sder Huthy — a heat. 
\die IliUy — a guard. 




^die Jachty — • a yacht. 

Jagd, — the hunt> chace, 

Wer) ist^ ' — (he) is. 
\(er) isztf^^ (he) eats. 


Sder Kaper^ — a privateer. 

\die Kapery — the caper, a vegetable, 

kdlteVy — much colder. 
die Kelter.y — a wlnf press, 

rder Kiefety — the jaw- 

J die Kiefety — a sort of needle wood. 

\der Kiifery — a tub -maker. 

^der Kreis^ — a circle. 
|— ^ GreiSy — a grej 

{kriegeui to make war. 
kriechen, to creep. 
die Griecherty the Gtoeks* 



mm * 



(die Last, 

\ laszty (cs) 

f hncheriy — 
\die LeichCy — 

leideuy — 
leiten, — 


fder Leiby — 
.t— Laiby'- 

(der Letter, 
\die Leiter, 



das LooSy 

(die Magdy 


(dasMaaly — 
|_ Mahly - 

f vialeriy 
\ mahletiy 


ein Manny 

^^dte Mandely 


das Mandely 

fder M angel y 
\die M angel y 


der Mardery 
die Marter, 


— a burden. 

— leave (it). 

to spawn. 
a fimeral. 

to suffer. 

to conduct^ guide, 

the belly, 
a loaf. 

— the guide. 
-« a ladder. 

the lot. 

M m, 

— a maid. 

— power. 

a marque, 
a banquet. 

— to grind. 

— to paint. 

• one, they. 

— a man. 

— the almond. 

— a number of fifteen. 

— the want. 

— a mangle. 

— a badger. 

— the texture* 




die Markf the boundaiy. 
das Mark, — marrow. 
der Markty — market. 

der Marschy -^ the march* 
die Mctrschy — a marshy fen. 

{der Mast, — the mast of a vessel. 
die Mast, fhiit of the oak and beacb^ for 
feeding hogs thereon. 

f mehr, — more. 
\das Meer, — the sea. 

(der Mensch, — a human being, 
\das Mensckj — a wench. 


Cder Mohr, — a black man, also a sort of silk. 
\das Mohr, — the fen, bog. 

der Messer, — a measurer. 
das Messer, — a knife. 

die Metze, — a measure. 
— Mdtxe, — a nickname. 

der Mist, — dung. 

ferj misztj — (he) measures. 





die Nisse, — eggs of vermin. 
— Nusse, — nuts. 


der Ort, — a place. 

das Ort, — a certain coin> or measure. 

der Ohm, — the uncle. 

das Ohm, ^ a certain measure ^ Wine> beer,&c. 




f rf<fr Rath, ~ 
\das Bad, — 

der Rcchen, — 
— liegen, — 

flfer Rhciny — 
- — Rain, -^ 

( — Rhede, — 
, f rfer Reisz, •— 

rder Roggcri, - 
( — Rocken, - 

the councih 
a wheel, 

- a rake. ^ . 

• therairi. 

pure. # 
the river Rhine. • 
an upcultivated path between twd 

• a speech. 

• a road for ships, 

' rice. 
a sprig. 

- rye. 

- the roe of a fish; 

- a distaC 

S s. 




to sow. 
to see. 

\ — Scfioos^ 

~ the impogti 
~ the lap. 

tde?' Schachty — a shaft in mines. 
\das Scfmc/iynel, '— the game of chess* 

rder Schild, — the shield, 
J (er) schilt, — (he) scolds, 
\fsiej schieU, -^ (she) squints, 

(dcr SchJachfer, — abutchei*. 
\ schkchter, — still worse. 

{der Scgeriy — the blessing. 
\ sagiri, — to saw. 



— Ktam, 

\da^ Harzy 

(def Heydcy 
'\di€ IleidCy 

her, • 
das Ileery- 

Sder Huthy - 
\die Hut^ • 



die Jachty 
— • Jagdy 

(er) isi^ 
(er) iszt^ 


- sorrow^ 

— the shop. 

, H h. 

the Hercmiati forest. 
• rosin. 

^ the pagkii, 
^ a heath* 

an army. 

a heat, 
a guard. 

a yacht. 

the hunt> chace, 


(he) is. 
(he) eats. 


\der Kapefi — a privateer. 

\die Kaper, — the caperi a vegetable* 

kalteTy — much colder. 
die KelteTy — a wing press. 

Kiefer^ — the jaw* 

— a 8ort of needle wood. 

— a tub maker. 


J die 



— a circle. 

— a greybeard • 

kriegeui to make war. 
kriechen, to cr^ep. 
Gricchen, the Greeks* 


{4ie Weise, <^ the manner. 
-> IFour, — a female orphan. 
Weisse, *- t^c whiteness. 

die Waide, — pasture 
WtUe, -- • willow. 

ai^fer, — against. 
wkdtTt — again. 


Widder, •— a rani^ male Aeep. 




jBfl/i^, — * supple. 
ll^ ZShe, — the toe. 

tfHi ZihreTh *- the tears, 
i Mehren, «— to dispense. 

zeigen, — to show. '^ 
ibr Zeichen^ — a sigOt naik^ hint. 

4tik Xkge, — a goat. 

^—i Zieckf^ -^ a cover upon a lied, 

€der Zott^ — the toll. 
\dtts ZoU, — an inch. 


{die Zunahme, — - the crescent. 
tkr Zunahmcy — the birth name. 

dcr Zzverg, — ja dwarf. 
xwerg^ — contrary*. 


n. Of 

* For s more ample instroction of the foiegotfi^ I i€« 
commend the following osefbl wdrk : 

G6tz£« NiiizUches W'&rUrbuob soldm W^t/rter^ die in dtr^ 
Jbusfrachefatt gleichen Tom, abet titu vgruUe^tm Bidtuimng 



II. Of the Division of Syh^abi^bI* 

1 • Compound words are thus divided, as they 
are compounded with ; as, da*malSf thence ; nun* 
mehvy at present ; Erb-recht^ the right of inherit 
tage; ffaus^rath, household-furniture. The pre- 
fixed syllables of derivatives remain in the division 
also together s as, ver-achten, to despise ; bcnsehen^ 
to view J ge-rinnen, to ciirl -, zerjlieszen, to melt j 
ejit-erben, to disinherit ; em'^pfindiny to experience a 
sensation i em-pfehlen, to recommend ; in the twa 
latter instances, the p 5er\"es to strengthen the/. 

2. The affixed syllables of derivatives ai^. 
divided more according to the pronunciation thaa'^ 
to the division* When therefore a consonant standa 
between two vowels, U must be contracted with 
the fbllfiiwing syllable ; as, Ue-be, love ; lie-ben^. 
to love ; mei-nem Brurikr, to taj brother; mci^ncm 
Va-^ter, to my £ithen 

3. If there are two consoi^nts, in that case 
otm is joined with the preening and the other 
with the following syllable ; as, Getiib^y,avo\r; 
falrlen^ to fall ; kin-nen, to know ; SiHdrte, cities j 
Sfg-nen, to bless s Tad-^ler, ,a censuret s tt^fer, valii 

Tt a anti 


kahin und qflverwechs^H werden. Leifixig 1794.-^— Useftil Oic^ 
tioqary of such wprds^ which> in the pronunciation^ have aU 
most an e^u^I toM, but havie a different significatioo, 9^4 pH^f a 
are exchanged te see ttiet&erj» jL^^iciE, i;^Sf<< 


^Attfttt ^ T^ 

{die Weise, 
— Waiset 
— Weisse, 

die Weudct 
— Weuk, 


der Widder, 






ziihe, — 
Z£ke, - 






ZoU, - 


Zwerg, — 
^f^ergy — 


-* the manner. 
• a female orphan. 

— the whiteness. 

— pasture 
a yi9\Siom* 

— against. 

— again. 

— aram^ maledbfep.. 

Z z. 

the toe. 

— the tears. 

— to dispense. 

— to show. '* 

— a sigOt naik^ hint. 

— a goat. 

— a cov^r upon a Ited* 

the toll, 
an inch. 

r- the crescent. 
— die birth name. 

ji dwarf, 


* For s more ample instroctioD of the foregoiii|r, I i€« 
eommeod the following osefbl W6rk : 

GoTZ£« Nutxliches WdrUrbucb soUier W'Mer^ die in dtr- 
Attssfrachefast gleichen Ton, aber rim viruhieflim Miutmng,- 

• > » 

U. Of the Division of Syuabi^bI. 

1 • Compound words are thus divided, as they 
are compounded with ; as, da*malsy thence ; nun^ 
mehr, at present ; Erthrecht^ the right of inherit 
tage; ffaus^ratk, household-furniture. The pre- 
fixed syllables of derivatives remain in the division 
also together ; as, ver-achten, to despise ; bcnsehen^ 
to view ; ge-rinnen, to curl ; zerjlieszen, to melt s 
ent-erben, to disinherit ; em^^nden, to experience a 
sensation ; em-pfehlen, to recommend ; in the twa 
latter instances, the p 5er\-es to strengthen the/. 

2. The affixed syllables of derivatives ai^. 
divided more according to the pronunciation thaa' 

, to the division* When therefore a consonant stands 
between two vowels, it nuist be contracted with 
the foUpmng syllable ; as, Uthbe, love ; lifi-betht. 
to love ; mei-nem Brurder, (o taj brother; mei^ncm 
Vaster, to my fethen • 

3. If there are two consongnts, ip that case 
otm is joined with the preening and the other 
with the following syllable ; as, Gelub^,,avoYr; 
falrlen^ to fall; kin-nen, to know; StUd-iCy cities ^ 
Sfg-nen, to bless ; Tad-ler, ,a censuret ; tt^-fer, vali^ 

Tta ^nti 


kahin und qfl verwechs^H werden. Lei/txig 1794.--— Useftil Oio 
tioqary of such wprds^ which> in the pronunciation^ have aU 
Most an equal tone, but have a different significatioo, 9Q4 qIIsa 
are exchanged te sue aaethcr^ tMj^k, I79ik 


4>AttMI tff TItf 


'ik Weise, - 
■— WaisCf - 
— JVeissc, • 

rfitf Waide, • 

jder Widdcr, 





zahcy — 
ZSke, - 



Xiege, - 



ZoU, - 


Zwerg, — 
zwergy — 

» the manner. 

— a female orphan. 

— the whiteness. 

— pasture 
a ViiOow* 

-— against. 

— again. 

— a ram^ male Aeep.. 


the toe. 

— the tears. 

— to dispense. 

— to show. '^ 

— a sigOt naik^ hint. 

— a goat. 

— a cover upon a lied, 

the toll, 
an inch. 

r- flie crescent. 
— the birth name. 

ji dwarf, 


n. Of 

* For s more ample instroctioD of the fofegoifi|r, I xc 
eommeod the following osefbl w6rk : 

GoTZ£» Niitzliches W'arUrbucb soUnr W^rttTf die in Ar* 
Aussfraclufast gleichcn Ton, ahcr Anc vnuhidtm Shdiuimng 


II. Of the Division of Syh^abi^bI, 

1 • Compound words are thus divided, as they 
are compounded with ; as, da'-malsy thence ; nun^ 
mehry at present ; Erb-rccht^ the right of inheri^i 
tage; ffausmrath, household-furniture. The pre- 
fijced syllables of derivatives remain in the division 
also together ; as, ver-achten, to despise ; bcnsehen^ 
to view s ge-rinnen, to ciirl ; zerjiieszen, to melt j 
ent-erben, to disinherit ; em^^nden, to experience a 
sensation ; em-pfehleriy to recommend ; in the two 
latter instances, the p 5er\-es to strengthen the/. 

2. The affixed syllables of derivatives am 
divided more according to the pronunciation thaa 
to the division* When therefore a consonant stands 
between two vowels, it must be contracted with 
the fbllpwing syllable ; as, lieAm^ love ; lie-ben^, 
to love ; mei-nem Brurder, to wj brother; vw-mpm 
Va-ter, to my fethen • 

3. If there are two consoi^nts, 19 that case 
otm is joined with the preening and the other 
with the following syllable ; as, Gelub^, . a vow ; 

fal-len, to fall ; kin-nen, to know ; Siad-te, cities ; 
Sfg-nen, to bless s Tad-ler, ,a censuret s tap-fety vali^- 

Tt2 anti 


haben und qft verwechs^h werden. Lei^xtg 1 794.— -Useful Dio 
tioi^uy of such wdrds^ which> in the pronunciation^ have aU 
tnost an eijual tone, but hav^ a different sigiiificatioo, 9Q4 pIU A 
are exchanged te sue ttiet&er^ jL(»^2»ck, IJ^^ 


ant } trop^feh, to drip ; Schdt-ze, treasures ; Wes-pe^ 
a wasp, &c. 

4. The ck and st are better left with the first 
syllable ; as, wack-er^ lively j kost-en^ to cost. The 
st may be divided 5 as, kos-ten. 

5. Compound signs of a simple sou^d remain 
fdv^rays together, like cA, pA, sch, sz, and th ; as, 
Spra-che, language ; Pro^phet, a prophet ; sie dra- 
schen, they 

6. Words borrowed from a foreign language, 
are divided in German according as they are pro- 
nounced s as, E'Van-gC'li-um, gospel j Pra^so-iky 
prosody, &c. 

IIL Orthography of compound Words, 

All that can and ought to be written on 
compound words, we have treated upon in the 
etymology. In doubtful cases, we rather sepa^ 
rate the word with a hyphen. Therefore every 
compound, word must be written as one word ; as 
AbendstundeUy evening, or leisure hours ; sehnsuchts^ 
vally full of desire ; but in many cases they are 
written with the sign of junction (-) for the sake 
of clearness; as, ^ . . 

1 • When a German word is compounded with 
^ foreign one ; as Konsistorial-Rathy coimsellor of 
spiritual law ; Privat-Stunde, private hour, &c. 

2. When an appellative liame is compounded 
y ith a proper one ; as, Neu-Stettin s N?\y-Stattin j 
^/^£^a7^(2^/^^Mr^, 01d-Brandei]^bufg, Sec. 



Except, Hochdeutsch^ High German ; Nieder^ 
deutschy Low Dutch ; Plattdeutchy Fkmish. 

3. When two foreign words are compounded 
together, which in their own language cannot suffer - 
any composition ; as, Justitz-Kollegiumy court of 
justice; Proviant^KommissariuSy commissary of pro- 
visions, &c. and this rule is the same with words, 
compounded with three or . more. 

IV. Of Perspicuity and Accuracy in 


The following rules and observations for as- 
sisting students to write with perspicuity and accu- 
racy, ought to be carefully studied. 

Perspicuity is the fundamental quality of 
style ; a quality so essential in every kind of writ- 
ing, that for the want of it nothing can atone* 
It is not to be considered as merely a negative 
excellence, or simply a freedom from defect. It has 
higher merit : it is a degree of positive beauty* 
We are delighted with an author, and consider him 
as deserving praise, who frees us from all fatigue 
of searching for his meaning: who carries us through 
his subject without any embarrassment or confusion; 
and whose style flows always like a limpid stream^ 
" through which we see to the very bottom^ 

These qualities of stile require the following; 
properties : 

1 . Purity. Which consists in the use of such 
words, and such constructions, as belong to the 


S26 AKALT818 OP ^fRB 

idiom of the lanj^uage which wc $pt$!k 5 -in op- 
position to words, and phrases that are taken from 
other languages, or that are ungranunatical, ob- 
soletC) new-coined, or used without proper M- 
' thority . 

The introduction of foreign and learned words, 
unless where necessity requires them, should never 
be admitted; the German language is, of all 
others, the only one which does not stand in need 
of uny foreign assistance. 

2. Propriety. Which is the selection of sueh 
words as the best usage has appropriated to those 
ideas, which we intend to es^press by them*; in 
opposition to low expressions, tnd to words and 
phrases which would be less insignificant of tb^ 
ideas that we mean to convey. Style may be poit, 
i. e. strictly German according to the rules,- never- 
theless, it may be deficient in propriety ; for the 
wcM-ds may be il| phosen, not adapted to the sub* 
ject, nor fully expressive of the author*s sense, 
We should avpid therefore all equivocal or ambigwuf 
words and expressions^ which are unintelligible and 
not consistent with the former, 

3^ Precisian. Which signifies retrenchihg sfl- 
perfiuities, and pruning the expression, so as to ex* 
hibit neither more nor less than an exact cq0f 
of the person*s idea who uses it. 

As for the other requisites of a perfect sen^ 
tence, which are clearness^ unity ^ strength^ an4 
fgtires of speech y. I do not intend to lay dawA 


xples to any authc^ ; as the latter subjects have 
been already fully investigated, and explained by 
the &ther of the German language Klop9tq(:k^ m 
hk fiwnous work Deutsche geUkrte BepubUck. — 
And, of late, by the celebrated professor 4de- 
lung, in his various learned works and treatises. 
ojj the German language. 

. V. Op Signs common in writing, or 


The fiigios used in iht German language to 
divide <Mr indicate the meaning of passages, are 
nearly tbe same as the English and other modem. 
languages 3 I ^aU therefore only mention their 
technical terms, and leave the application to the 

The signs are : 

1. Das Fragezeichen, the sign of interrogation (f)- 

2. Das AtiSnffungszeichen, the $ign of exclama- 

tion (I) 

3. Der ScUusxpunkty the point, or period (.) 

4. Das Kobmj ov dsr Doppelpunkty the two points, 

or colon (:) 

5. Das Semicolon,, or der Strichpunkt, the spro-, 

colon (;) 

6f, Das Komma, the comma (,) 


The other signs which pcciy: in German com- 
position are the following : 

1, Das Anfmhrta^sxeichen, the mafk of qnota- 
tion ("), which is app'fied to denote the words 
of an author. 2. Das^ 

828 AWALYSIS Of^ THfc 

2. Das^ Thfihingszeicheny the hyphen (=), which 

serves to divide a word. 
3* Das Bindezatheny the junction (= or -), which 

serves to denote compound words^ as in the 

before-mentioned cases. 

4. Die ParenthesCy the parenthesis^ ( ) ^^ [ !• 

5. Das Zeichen einer abgebrochenenBede, the sign 

of an abrupted speech (" ") 

6. J)e7' Gedankenstrichy a sign, when the interlo- 

cution is changed ( '—). 

7. Die Punkte, the points ( ),.when the author 

suppresses a name^ or any other subject.'- 
$. Der Hinterstrichy or Jpostri^iy the apostrp^ 
('), which is to indicate an expunged es as> 
kaum hatC er diesx gesagt, scarce had he told 
this, &c. ; 

Observation. [I have still to observe, in a few words, iwo 
circamstances, vi%, that of German Tj^ography and Calxgraphy. 

The Gernjans use three sorts of characters, two of .which 
may be properly called German, and the third Roman or Latin. 
The latter is that which is common to the English and most 
other nations. One of the two German characters is em- 
ployed exclusively in printing, the other in writing. - Tlaiose for 
printing resemble the Black Letter of this country (vidrthe^ 
alphabet, page 5.}* Those appropriated to hand-writing are 
merely used by the natives. 

Of late, the Germans have began to introduce the Roman 
characters instead of those of the Black Letter ; yet ^bls me- 
thod is not universal^ though it will become so in time. As 
for the German original hand«writing, the inhabitants^ when, 
they correspond with foreign nations, make use of the Boman 
or Latin characters* 



G&RMAN LA^G^AGt* 22^ 



As ther.e are many students who are fond of 
reading ancient or modem poetical compositfon ; 
and as the perusal of this lively and forcible mode 
ot exhibiting nature and sentiment^ m^y be an 
instructive employment of • a moderate portion of 
our time, by comparing tjie analogy of both lan- 
guages ', I thought it therefore necessary to give the 
reader some idea of that part of Grammar which 
explains the principles df versification ; that, in 
reading German poetry, he may be the better able 
to judge of its correctness and analogy, and relish 
the beauties of both languages *. 

The Oef man language is adapted to every kind 
of versification, cither ancient or modern, and is 
composed of lambicks and Trochees of different 


* It ought to be observed, that I do not mean to ar- 
rogate to myself so much consequence as to suppose, on a strict 
periisal and attention to this publication, that I shall make 
the student a poet ^ I only intend to exhibit to htm a key or 
eloe, by whidi he may easily and correctly refid and compare 
Gernian .poetry. Jt hay been invariably my plan to introduce 
the works of Burger, Gissner^ or Gillerty first, which are not 
only easy, but entertaining. For the studieint*s further progrsiss,' 
he wi4l find numerous authOi's in the annexed catalogue, under 
the head of German poets, 

U U 

350 ANALYSIS Qii' Tfl* 

length ; as well as Dactylcs^ which are lesfs made 
use of, being mixed with the two former. 

The rhyme, which constitutes and determines 
two or more lines, is not essential to the German 
versifltation. But there are two kinds of rhyme^ 
viz. the masculine and ih^ feminine. 

The rhymes are masculine, when the syllables 
which determine the verses arc long-, ^nd Jemi\ 
ninesy when short. 

From the variety of the bng or short sylla- 
bles is produced in every language a certain degree 
of harmony ; which may properly be called the 
cadence of verse : and as we unite the long or short 
syllables in different situations, we form the feet, 
or different Metres which compose the verse, 


1. The smallest kind of consists of two 
syllables, which when long is called a Spondee-, as, 
Vortrag, Delivery. 

2. The feet, composed of two short syllables, 
is called phyrrhicy or ardeiit ; it is very rapid and 

3. The medium between these feet contains 
the Trochee and Iambic, which are composed of 
two syllables ; one of which is long the other short. 
The Trochee begins with the long and finishes with 
the short ; as, Vat^r, father ; hoffin, to hope ; /&• 
Vin, to praise, &c. which may be more clearly seen 
in the following verses of our famous poet Burgert 
the author of Eleonora. 




Mdrgen*Uebey tver die Ltebil 

Schon empfdnds 
Morgin^LAehe^ wir die Llebc 

Nle gekannt. 

Of all the feet of three syllables, which the 
Greeks and Romans made use of in their lan- 
guages, there are but three extant among the 
Germans, viz. ' 

1. The Daciyky of which the first syllable is 
longy and the two following short ; ^Sy goitliiche, 
godly; hlmm^sche, heavenly; mrnschliche, rmn]y; 
thJerische^ beastly, &c. - 

2. Amphibrach^ of which the first is shorty the 
second long^ and the third shoy^t. Many of th(? 
German words form this metre ; as, Geddnken^ 
thought ; G(lt}ebtii beloved j geneigtey bended, &c* 

3. AnapestCi- which is composed of two short 
syllables, followed by a tong one ; as, Maj^stat, 
majesty ; Ungimiin, uncommon ; unirhort, unheard 
of, &c. 



Es liegt nicht weit von hier ein land, 
Da reist' ich einst hindurch ; \ 
Am Weg' auf hohem Felsen stand, 
Vor alters, eine Burg. 
Die alten Rudera da von 
Wies mir der Schwager Postilion. 

x; u 2 Mein 


Mein Herr^ begann der Schwager Mate, 
Mit heimlichem Gesicht, 
War' mir bechert dort jener SchatZf 
FUhr' ich den Herm wohl nicht. 
Mein Seel ! den Kqnig fragt' ich gleich ; 
Wie theuej". Heir gein Konigreich ? 

Wohl nianchem wasseite der Mund, 
Doch mancher ward geprellt. 
Denn, Hcrr, Gott sey bei uns ! ein Hund 
Bewacht das schone Geld.... 
Ein schwarzef Hundy die Zahne blosz, 
Mit Feueraugen tellergrosz ! 

Nur immer alle sieben Jahr* 
Laszt sich ein Flammchen sehn, 
,Dann mag ein Bopk, kohlschwar? voq Haar^ 
Die Hebung wohl bestehn, 
Um zwolf Uhr in Walpiirgis Nacht, 
Wird der dem Unhold dargcbracht, 

Doch merl^' ein^ nur des Bpsen IJ^ \ 
Wo noch zum Ungliick 
Am Bock ein weiszes Harchcn ist, 
Alsdanp : Ade, (jenick ! 
Den Kniff hat mancher nicht bedacht; 
Und sich um Leib und Seel* gebracht. 

Fiir meinen Part, mit groszen Herm^ 
Und Meister Urian, 
Aesz' ich woh| kpine K-itschen gem. 
Man lauft verdammt oft an. 
Sie werfen einem, wie man spricht, 
Gern Stiel ijnd Stein > ins Angesitht. 



Drum rath ich immer «v lieber Krist^ 
X^asz dich init keinem ein ! 
Wann der Kontract geschlossen Ist, 
Bricht man dir Hals und Bein. 
Trotz alien Klauseln^ glaube du> 
Macht jcder dir ein X iwc U. 

Goldmacherei und Lotterie, 
Nach reichen Weibern frein, 
Und Schatze graben^ segnet nie^ 
Wird manchen noch gereun. 
Mein Spriichlein heiszt : auf Gott vertraujs, 
Arbeite brav, und leb* genau 1 

Ein alter Graf, fubr Schwager MaU 
Nach seiner Weise fort,, 
Vergrub zu Olims Zeit den Schatz 
In seinem Keller dort. 
Der Graf, mein Herr, hiesz Graf von Rips, 
Ein Kraut, wie Kasebier und Lips« 

Der streifte durch das ganze Land^ 
Mit Wagen, Rosz und Mann, 
Und wo er wa$ zu Kapern fand. 
Pa macht' er frisch sich dran. 
Wips ! hatt' ers weg, wips ! er durch, 
Und schleppt' es heim auf seine Burg. 

XJiid wenn ererst zu Loche sasz. 
So schlug mein Graf von Rips, — 
'iDenn hier that ihm kein Teufel was,— «^ 
Gar honisch seinen Schnips* 
Sein allyerfluchtes Felsennest 
War wie der Konigstein so fest. 



So iibt' cr nun gar lang* und oft 
Viel Bubenstuckv:hen aus, 
Und fid den Nacbbarn unverhofft 
In Hof und Stall und Haus. 
Allein, der Krug geht, wie man spricht. 
So lang zu Wasser, bb er bricht. ' 

Das Ding verdrosz den Magistral 
Im nachsten Stadtchen sehr. 
Drum rieth er langst auf klugen Rath 
Bedachtlich bin und her, 

Und rieth, und rieth— *doch weisz man wdil!-f 
Die Ilerren riethen sich halb toll. 

Da nun begab sichs, dasz einsmahlS) 
Ob vielcm Teufelsspasz, 
Ein Lumpcnhexchen auf den Hals 
In Kett' und Banden sasz. 
Schon wetzte Meister Urian 
Auf diesen Bra ten seinen Zahn. 

Diesz Hexchen sprach : Hort I'laszt mich frei, 
So scbaff' ich ihn herein. 
Wohl ! sprach ein edler Rath, es sey ! 
Und gab ihr oben drein 
Ein eisen Privilegiumt 
Zu hexen frank und frei herum. 

Ein narrscber Handel ! unsereins 
That' nichts auf solchen Kauf. 
Doch Satans Reich ist selten eins, 
Und reibt sich selber auf. 
Eiir dieszmal spielt die Liigenbrut 
Ihr Scuckchen ehrlich und auch gut. 



Sle kroch als Krqt' aufs Rauberschlosz, 
Mit losem leisen Tritt, 
Verwandelte sich in das Rosz, 
Das Rips gewohnlich rift ; 
Und als dejr Schloszhahn krahte friih, 
Bestieg der Graf gesatfelt sie. 

Sie aber trug, trotz Gert' und Sporn, 
So sehr er hieb und trat, 
Ihn iiber Stock und Stein und Dorn, 
Gerades Wegs zur Stadt. 
Friih, als das Thor ward aufgethan, 
Sic;b da! kam unser Hexlein an, 

Mit Kratzfusz und mit Reverenz 
Lacht honisch alle Welt : 
Willkommen hier, Ihr' Excellenz ! 
Quartier ist schon bestellt ! 
Du hast uns lange satt geknuft ; 
Man wird dich wieder knuflPen, Schuft ! 

Dem Schnapphahn ward, wie sichs g^ebiihrt. 
Bald dey Procesz gemacht, 
Und drauf. als man ibn condemnirt 
Ein Kafich ausgedacht. 
Da ward mein Rips hineingesperrt 
Und wie ein Murmelthier genarrt. 

Und, als ihn hungern that, da schnitt 
'Der Knips mit Hollenquaal, , ^ 

Ypftoi eignen Leib' ihm Glied fiir Glied, 
Und briet es ihm zum Mahl. 
Als jeglich Glied verzehret war, 
. Briet er ihm seinen Magen gar. / 



So schmauszt^ er uch denn selber au^ 
Bis auf den letzten Stumpf, 
Und endigte den Lebenslauf, 
Den Nachbam zum Triumph* 
Der Eisenbauer ^orinn er lag, 
Wird aufbe%Yahrt bis dicscn Tag. 


Graf Walter rief am Marstallsthor ; 
«« Knapp, schwamm und kamm mein Ross T' 
Da trat ihn an die schonste Maid, 
Die je ein Graf genosz. 

*^ Gott griisze dich, Graf Walter schon f, 
Sieh her sieh meinen Schurz ! 
Mein goldner Gurt war sonst so lang 
Nun ist er mir zu kurz. 

Mein Leib tragt deiner Liebe Frucht. 
Sie pocht, sie will nicht ruhn. 
Mein seidnes Rockchen, sonst so weit, 
Zu eng' ist mir es nun."— 

" O Maid, gehort mir, wie du sagst, 
Gehort das Kindlein mein. 
So soil ajl all mein rothes Gold 
Dafiir dein eigen seyn. 


* Graf Walter^ Counr Water A tale, according to tbff 
0I4 Englishi which may be compared with the German. 


\ * 

O Maid, gehortinir, wie du schworst, 
Gehort das Kindlein mein. 
So soil mein Land und Leut' und Burg 
Dein und des Kindleins seyn." — 

" O Graf, was ist fur Lieb' und Trcu' 
All all dein rolhes Gol(^ ? 
All all dein Land und Leut*, und Burg 
Ist mir ein schnoder Sold. 

Ein Liebesblick aus deinem Aug', 
So himmelblau und hold. 
Gilt mir, und war' es noch so viel, 
Piir all dein rothes Cjold. 

Ein Liebeskusz von deinemi Mund, 
So purpurroth und siisz. 
Gilt mir fttr Land und Leut' und Burg, 
Und wars ein Paradies. "— 

" O Maid, friih morgen trab' ich weit 
Zm Gast nach Weiszenstein, 
Und mit mir musz die schonste Maid, 
Wohl auf, wohl ab am Rhein," — 

, ** Trabst du zu Gast hach Weiszenstein, 
So weit schon morgen friih y 
So lasz, o Graf, mich mit dir gehn, 
Es ist mir kleine Miih' ! 

Bin ich schon nicht die schonste M^id, 
Wohl auf, wohl ab am Rhein j • 
So kleid' ich mich in Bubentracht, 
Dein Leibbursch dortzu seyn." — ' 

'' O Maid, willst du mein Leibbursch $eyn, 
Und heiszen Er statt Sie ; 


So kiirz* dein seidnes Rocklein dk 
Halb zollbreit ubertn Knie. 

So kiirz' dein goldnes Harlein dif 
Halb zollbreit uberm Aug' ! 
Dann magst dU wohl mein Letbbursch seyn, 
Denn also Brauch." — 

Beiher lief sie den ganzen Tag, 
Beiher im Sonnenstrahl ; 
t)och sprach er nie so hold ein Wort : 
Nun, Liebchen, reit' einmahl ! 

Sie lief durch Heid- und Pfriemenkraut, 
Lief barfusz neben an ; 
Doch sprach er nie so hold ein Wort : 
O Liebchen, schuh' dich an ! — 

" Gemach, gemach, du trauter Graf ! 
Was jagst du so geschwind ? 
Ach, meinen armen armen Leib 
Zersprengt mir sonst dein Kind,'*— 

" Ho, Maid, siehst du das Wasser dort. 
Dam Briick' und Steg gebricht ?"- — 
" O Gott, Graf Walter, schone mein ! 
Denn schwimmen kann ich nicht ?" — 

Er kam zum Strand, er setzt^ hinein, 
Hinein bis an das Kinn.— 
*' Nun steh mir Gott im Himmel bei ! 
Sonst ist dein Kind dahin." — 

Sie rudert wohl mit Arm und Bein^ 
Halt hoch empor Ihr Kinn. 
Graf Walter pochte hoch das Herz ; 
Doch folgt' er seiqem Sinn. 


€ERMAN LANGtTAGE^. '' $39 

Und als er uberm Wasser war* 

Rief er sie an sein Knie: 

^* Komxn her, o Maid, und sieh, was dort. 

Was fern dort funkelt, sieh ! " , 


Siehst du wobl funkein dort «in Schlos^ 
Im Abend strahl wie Gold ? 
Zwolfschone Jungfern spielen dort 
Die schonste ist mir bold- 

Siehst du wobl funkein dort das Scblosz, 
Aus weiszem Stein erbaut ? 
.Zwolf schone Jungfraun tanzen dort. 
Die Schonst' ist meine Braut/* — 

*• Wobl funkein seh icb dort ein Scblosz, 
Im Abendstrahl wie Gold- 
Gott seghe, Gott behute di<?h, 
Sammt deinem Liebcben bold ! 

Wobl funkein seb' icb dort d*sis Scblosz, 
Aus weiszem Stein erbaut. 
<jott segne, Gott behute diqb, 
Sammt deiner scbonen Braut" ! — 

Sie kamen wobl zum blanken Scblosz, 
Wie Gold im Abendstrabl, 
^um Scblosz erbaut aus weiszem Stein, 
Mit stattlicbem Portal. 

Sie sab*n wobl die zwolf Jungfraun scbon ; 
Sie spielten lustig Ball. 
Die zwolfmabl schoner war, als sie, 
JZog still ibr Hosz zu StalL 

Sie sab'n wobl die zwplf Jun^raun scbpn i 

Sic tanzten froh urns Scblosz, 

."- ■ • 

?x§ Die 



240 jkSAi.m3 

Zo% fCzQ xsr Wesd^ ihr Rosz. 

^ H^wtkh tin I^fibbopdi t Ncxny m schos 
War nxe em Ldbbonch ! Nic ! 

Ha, sduocr ak ein LnbbondL je 
Dts hdcfasten Hcrrn gtfBttff. I 
VuT dasz son Leib, za Tcril and rand^ 
So bocb den Gurtcl tragt ! 

Mir daodit, wie meincr Mutter Kind 
JJcV icfa ifan zaft und reio. 
Dorft' jch, so fiumt' ich wohl zu Nacfat 
Gcmsu:h ond Bett ihm ein." — 

** Dem Borschchen, rief Heir Waller stol^ 
Das lief durch Koth und Moor^ 
Ziemt nicht der Heninn Sclafgemacb, 
Ihr Bett nicht von Drapd'or. 

Ein Biirschchen, das den ganzen Tag 
Durch Koth lief und durch Moor^ 
Speist wohl sein Nachtbrod von der Faust, 
Und sinkt am Herd aufs Ohr/'r-^ 

Nach Ves^rmahl und Gratias 
Ging jedermann zu( Ruh\ 
Da rief Graf Walter : « Hier, mein Bursch ( 
Was Ich dir sag', das thu' ! 

Hinab, geh' f[\xgs hinab zur Stadt> 
Geh* alle Gassen durch ! 
Die schonste Maid, die du ersiehst 
Bcscheide fiugs zur Burg ! 



Die schonste Maid, die du ersiehst. 
All sauberlich und nett. 
Von Fusz zu Haupt, von Haupt zu Fusz, 
Die wirb mir fiir mein Bett !" — 

Und flugs ging sie hinab zur Stadt, 
Ging alle Gassen durch. 
Die schonste Maid, die sie ersah, 
Beschied sie flags zur Burg. 

Die schonste Maid, die sie ersah, . ^ 

AU sauberlich und nett. 
Von Fusz zu Haupt, von Haupt zu Fusz, 
Die warb sie ihm furs Bett,— 

" Nun lasz, o Graf, am Bettfusz nur 
Mich ruhn bis an den Tag J • ^ 

Im ganzen Schlosz ist sonst kein'Platz,* 
Wbselbst ich rasten mag."— 

Auf seinen Wink am Bettfusz sank 
Die schonste Maid dahin, . * 

Und ruhte bis zum Morgengrau 
Mit stillem frommen Sinn. — 

^« Halloh ! Halloh ! Es tonet bald. 
Des Hirten Dorfschalmei. 
Auf, fauler Leibbursch ! Gib dem Rosz 
Gib Haber ihm und, Heu ! 

Bursch, goldnen Haber gib dem Rosz, 
Und frisches griines Heu ! 
Damit es rasch und Wohlgemuth 
Mich heimzutragen sey/^— 

Sie sank wohl an die Kripp' im Stall ; 
Jhr Leib war ihr so schwer. 



Sie kriimmte sich auf rauhem Stroh 
Und wimmcrt', o wie sehr ! 

Da fiihr die alte Grafinn auf, 
Erweckt vom Klageschall, 
** Auf, auf, Sohn Walter, auf und sieh t 
Was achzt in deinem Stall ? 

In deinem Stalle haust ein Geist, 
Und stohnt in Nacht und Wind, 
Esstohnet, als gebare dort 
Ein Weiblein jetzt ihr Kind/*— 

Hui sprang Graf Walter auf und grifF 
ZumHacken an derWand, 
Und warf um seihen weiszen Leib 
Das seidne Nachtgewand. 

Und als er vor die Stallthiir tratt, 
Lauscht' et gar still davor. 
Das Ach und Weh der schtinsten Maid 
Schlug klaglich an sein Ohr. 

Sie sang ; '* Susu, luUull mein Kind ! 
Mich jammert deine Noth. 
Susu, luUuU, susu, lieb lieb I 
O weine dich nicht tod ! 

Sammt deinem Vater schreibe Gott 
Dich in sein Segensbuch ! 
Werd' ihm und dir ein Purpurkleid, 
Und mir ein Leichentuch !"— 

" O nun, o nun, siisz siisze Maid, 
Siisz siisze Maid halt ein ! 
Mein Busen ist ja nicht von Eis 
Und nicht von Marmelstein. 


O nun^ o pun^ susz 3usze Maid 
Siisz siisze Maid, halt ein 1 
Es soil ja Tauf* und Hochzeit nun 
In einer Stunde seyn," 


Ich will euch erz'ahlen cin Mahrchen, gar schnurfig : 
Es war 'mahl ein Kaiser ; der Kaiser war kurrig ; 
Auch war 'raahl ein Abt, cin gar stattlicher Herr ; 
Nur Schade ! sein Sch'afer war kliigcr als cr. 

Dem Kaiser wards saucr in Hitz' und in Kalte : 
Oft schlief or bepanzert im Kriegesgezelte ; 
Oft hat er kaum Wasscr zu Schwarzbrod und Wurstj 
Und ofter noch lltt* cr gar Hunger und Durst. 

Das Pf afflein das wuszte sich besser zu hegen, 
Und weldlich am Tisch und im Bette zu pflegen. 
Wie Vollmond glanzte sein feistcs Gesicht. 
Drei Manner umspannten den Schmerbauch ihm nicht* 

Drob suchte der Kaiser am Pfafflein oft Hader* 
Einst ritt' er, mit reisigem Kriegesgcschwader, 
In brennender Hitze des Sommers vorbei. 
Das Pfafflein spazierte vor seiner Abtei. 

" Ha, dachte der Kaiser, zur gliicklichen Stunde !" 
Und giiiszte das Pfafflein mil honischcm Munde : 
** Knecht Gottes, wie gehts dir ? Mir daucht wohl ganz reclit, 
Das Beten und Fasten bckomme nicht schlecht. 


- * ■ ■■ ' , ■--■■-. 

* Dtr Kaiser , und der Alt, the Emperor and the Abbot. 
According to the ancient English, which mdy be compared 
with the German« 

34+ ANAtYSlS OF Tit 

* % 

Do'h ilauchi mir daoebetiy euch plage viel Weile, 
Ihr dankt mirs wohl, wenn'idi euch Arbeit crtfaeile, 
Man riihiiiety ihr waret der pfiffigste Mann, 
Ihr hortet das Graschen fast wachsen» sagt maa. 

So geb* ich denn euem zwei tiichtigen BackcA 
Zur Kurzweil drei artige Nusse zu knacken. 
Drei Monden von nan an bestiram* !ch zur Zeit, 
Dann will ich auf diese drei Fragen Bescheid. 

Zum Ersten : Wann hoch ich im fiirstlichen Rathe. 
Zu Throne mich zeige im Kaiser-Ornate, 
Dann sollt ihr mir sagen, ein treuer Wardein, 
Wie viel ich wobl werth bis zum Heller mag sejrn ? 

Zum Zweiten soUt ihr mir berechnen und sagen : 
Wie bald ich zu Rosse die Welt -mag umjagen i 
Und keine Minute zu wenig und viel"? ^ 

ich v/cisri.y der Bescheid darauf ist euch nur Spiel. 

Zum Dritten noch solUt du, o Prcis der PraUten, 
Aufs H'archen mir meine Gedanken errathen. 
Die will ich dann treulich bekennen : allein 
£s soil auch kein Titelchen wahres dran seyn. 

Und konnt ihr mir diese drei Fragen nidit IoscDi 
So seyd ihr die langste Zeit Abt hicr gcwesen. 
So lasz* ich euch fiihren zu Esel durchs Land, 
Verkehrt, state des Zaumes den Schwanz in der Hand."— 

. Drauf'trabte der Kaiser mit Lachen von hinnen. 
Das Pfafflein zerrisz und zersplisz sich mit Sinnen* 
Kein armer Verbrecher fiihlt mchr Schwulitat, 
Der vol hochnotpcinlichem Halsgericht st«ht. 

Er schickte nach ein, zwei, drei, vier, UnverstSten, 
Ec fragte bei ein, zwei, drei, vier, Facuhaten^ 
Er zahke Gebiihren und Sportcln vollauf : 
Doch loste kein Doctor die Fragen ihn) auf. 




Schnell wuchsen, bei hcrzlichena Zagen und Pochen, 
Die Stunden zu Tagen, die Tage zu Wochen, 
Die Wochcn * zu Mondcn ; schon kam der TenninJ 
Ihm wards vor den Augen bald gelb und bald griin. 

Nun sucht' er, ein bleicher hohlwangiger Werthcr> 
In WaJern und Fcldern die einsamsten Ocrter. 
Da traf ihn auf sclten betrctener Bahn, 
Hans Bendix, sein Sch'afer, am Fclsenweg an. 

** Herr Abt, sprach Hans BendiX) was mogt* ihr cuch 

gramen ? 

Ihr schwindet ja wahrlich dabin, wie ein Schcmenk 

Maria und Joseph ! wie hotzelt ihr ein 1 

Mein Sixchcn ! Esmuszeuch was angethan seyn/' — 

'^ Ach, guter Hans Bendix^ so musz sichs wohl schicken. 
Der Xaiser will gern mir am Zeuge was flicken^ 
Und hat mir drei Niiss* auf die Zahne gepackt. 
Die schwerlich Beelzebub sclber wohl knackt." 

Zum Ersten : Wann hoch er, im furstlichen Rathe 
Zm Throne sich zeiget, im Kaiser^Ornatc, 
Dann soil ich ihm sagen, ein treucr Wardeiri, 
Wie viel cr wohl wcrth bis zum Heller mag seyn ? 

Zum Zweiten soil ich ihm berechncn und sagen : 
Wie bald er zu Rosze die Welt mag umjagen ? 
Um keine Minute zu wenig und viel ! 
£r meint der Bescheid darauf ware nur Spiel. 

Zum Dritten, ich armster von allsn Pralalen, 
Soil Ich ihm gar seine Gedanken etrathen ; 
Die "will er mir treulich bekennen : allein 
£s soil auch kein Titelchea Wahrcs dran s^yfl. 

Und kann ich ihm diese drei Dinge nicht losen, 
So bin ich die langste Zeit Abt bier gewesen ; 
So laszt er mich fiihren zu Esel durchs Land, 
"Verkehrr, statt des Zaumes den Schwanz in der Hand.'* — 

Y y ^ Niclu«. 


'^ Nichts weitcr ? erwiedert Hans Bemlix mit Lacbeii, 
Hcrr, gebt cixcti zufr eden ! das will ich schon machen. 
Nur borgt mir eur Kappcben^ cur Kreutzchen und Kleid; 
So wjll ich schon geben den recbten Bescheid. 

Vcrsteh' ith glcich nichts von Latcinischcn Brocken, 
So vreisz ich den Hund doch vom Ofeu zu locken. 
Was ihr cucb, Gelehrte, fiir Greld nicht erwerbt. 
Das hab' ich von meiner Frau Mutter geerbt." 

Da sprang, wje eiii Bocklein, der Abt vor Behagen. 
Mit Kiippchen und Kreutzchen^ mit Mantel und KrageD> 
Ward stattikh Hans Bendix zum Abte geschmiickt^ 
Und hurtig zum Kaiser nach Hofe geschickt. 

Hier thronteder Kaiser im fiirstlichen Batbe^ 
Hoch prangt' er, mit Zepter und Kron' im Ornate : | 

** Nun sagt mir, Hcrr Abt, alsein treuer Wardein, 

Wie viel ich jetzt wcrth bis zum Heller mag seyn ?" \ 


*^ Fiir drerszig Reichsgulden wardChristusverschachcrt^ 
Drum gab' ich, so sehr ihr auch pocket imd prachert, 
Fiir euch keineti Deut mehr als zwanzig und neun. 
Den einen miiszt ihr doch wohl minder werth seyn/' — 

" Hum, sagte der Kaiser, der Grund laszt sich horcor 
Und mag den durchlauchtigen Stolz wohl bekehren. 
Nie hatt' ich bci meiner hochfwrstlichen Ehr' 1 
Geglaubet, dasz sospottwohlfeilickw'ar.'* 

*^ ^un abersollst du mir bcrechaea und sagen : 
Wie bald ich zu Rosse die Welt mag umjagen ? 
Um keine Minute zu wenig und viel ! 
1st dir der Bescheid darauf auch nur ein Spiel ?"— * 

*• Herr, wenn mit der Sonn' ihr friih sattelr und rei^^ 
Und stets sie ki einerlei Tempo beglcitet. 
So setz' ich mein Kreutz und mein Kappchen daran^^ 
la zweymal zyvolf Siuodcn iit alles gethan/'— ^ 



14. Poetry. 

Blumauer, Burger, Gellert, Gessncr, Geistenbcrg, 
Glcim, Gothe, Hagedorn, Hallcr, Herder, Holty, Jacpbi, 
Kastner, KIcist, Klnpstock, Lessing, Pfetfcl, Ramler, 
Schubart, Stollberg, Uz, Wieland. 

15. Drama. 

Brandes, Eschenburg, Gothe, Ifland, Junger, Klop- 
stock, Kotzebue, Langbein, Lessing, Meisner, Scliiller, 
Schroder, Weise, Wieland. 

16, Mncillixneous Work%. 
Abbt, Archenholz, Bodmcr, Canzlcr, Claudius, Cran5&> 
Dalberg, Ebejt, Eberhai^d, Engel, Eschenburg, Gcrsten- 
berg, Gedike, Gothe, Harles, Heyne, Herder, Hiibncr, 
Hcynatz, Klopstock, Kliigel, Kniggc, Lavater, Lessing„ 
Meisner, Nicolai, Rabener, Ramler, Wieland, Weis- 
haupt, Winkehiiann, The Hanovrian Magazine. 

17. Writers on the German Language. 
Adelung, Campe, Gottsched, Klopstock, Ludwlg, 
Meiner, Moriz, Schwan, 

18. Novels. 
Gothe, Hermes, Knigge, Langbein, Lessing, Meisner, 
Nicolai, Salzmann, Schiller, Wieland. 

19, Jntiquities^ Mythology. 
Biisching, Cramer, Eschenburg, Meusel, Sulzer. 

20. Politics. 

Archenholz, Herzberg, Schlozcr, Voss, Winkopp, 

21. Travels^ 

Bruckmann, Gmelin,. Hirschfeld, Meiner, Morit», 
Nicolai, Stollberg, Sulzer, Zollner. 

22. Military Publications. 
Bohm, Friedrich IL king of Prussia, Egger, K'jcvcn- 
hiillcr, Schwerin, (count), Tempelhof, Zanthier. 

23. Frtemasonry. ^ 
Lessing^ Nigolai, Scmler, l^tarke, Wcishaupt. 


*^ Ha bravo ! du tragst, wie ich merke GeseQe, 
Das Hen&i wie den Kopf, auf der ricbtigen Stelle. 
Drum sey der Pardon ibin in Gnaden gew*abrt» 
Und obenein dir ein Panis-Brief bescbert :*' 

** Wir ^assendem Abt von St. Gallen entbieten ; 
Hans Bendix soil ihm niche die Schafe mebr huthen« 
Der Abt soil sein pflegen, nach iinserm Gebot» 
Umsonsti bis an seinen sanfbeligen To4.*'-^ 


ftiotid by Cox, Son, and Baylis, No, 75, Gam tocm Stiee^ 





I. Divinity^ Polemics, Criticism, 
Bahrdt, Bawngarten, Bengel, Buddeus, JBuxdorf, Cra- 
mer, Coccejus, Crusius, Dieterich, Doderlein, Eichhorn, 
Ernesti, Froriep, Grlesbach, Hermes, Hess, Heilmann^ 
Hezel, Hirt, Hufnagel, Jerusalem, Knapp, Koppe, Kypke, 
Lavater, Less, Lessing, Liideke, Michalis, Mosheim, 
Niemeyer, ^feiffer, Rambach, Reincccius, Reiske, Rese- 
witz, K osenmiiller, Sack, Salzmann, Sander, Schlegel, 
Schrokh, Schiitz, Semler, Siiberschlag, Spalding, Stein- 
bart, Starke, Teller, Velthusen, Walch, Wettstcin, Zer- 
rcncr, Zolllkofer, ZoUncr. 

2. Reformation. 

Hu88(Joh.), Luther (Mart), Melanchton, Zwinglins. 
3. Ecclesiastical History, 

Baumgartei), Fiisly, Hammerddrfer, Lindemacin, Mos- 
hcim, Semler, Spittler, Walch. 

4. Moral Philosophy, 
Abbt (Thomas), Basedow, Baumgarten, Campe, 
Claudius, Eberhard, Engel, Feder, Gellert, Herder, Jacob), . 
Iselin, Kant, Moses A/lendelson, Plattner, Puffendof^ 
Reimarus, Sulzer, Zimmermann. 

5. Law of Nature, Jurisprudence. 
Achenwall, Balduin, Bohmer, Canzler, Claproth, Cocr 
cejus, GroQmann, Hagemeister, Kfetneccius, Herzberg;, Lau- 
terbacbyXeyser, Loskant, IVJeister, Moser, Musaus, MUnch*