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COMPLETE 



ATIN GKAMMAE 



BT 



ALBERT HARKNESS, Ph.D., LL.D. :•;•: 

PROFESSOR EMERITUS IN BROWN UNIVERSITY ;•••• 



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Copyright, 1898, by 
ALBERT HARKNESS. 



Ektkbed at Stationers' Hall. 



HABK. OOMP. ORAM. 
W. P. 6 



PREFACE 

The volume now offered to the public is the result of lifelong 
labors in the field of grammatical study. A profound conviction 
of the value of the classical languages in a course of liberal edu- 
cation and an earnest desire to aid the student in mastering the 
intricacies of the Latin tongue with as much ease and rapidity as 
is consistent with true scholarship have led to the preparation of 
the present work. The instruments of education must of course 
be readjusted from time to time to the ever-changing methods in 
school and college. Accordingly the prime object of this volume 
is to adapt the work of instruction to present methods and present 
needs. In view of the heavy demands now made on the time of 
classical teachers and students a special effort has been made to 
develop the practical side of grammar, to make it as helpful as 
possible to the teacher in the difficult task of explaining the force 
of involved constructions in Latin authors, and as helpful as pos- 
sible to the learner in his early efforts to understand and appre- 
ciate thought in the strange garb of a complicated Latin sentence. 
Simplicity and clearness, ever of paramount importance in the 
work of the class-room, have received special attention. 

Designed at once as a text-book for the class-room and a book 
of reference in study, this volume aims not only to present a sys- 
tematic arrangement of the leading facts and laws of the Latin 
language for the benefit of the beginner, but also to make ade- 
quate provision for the needs of the advanced student. By 
brevity and conciseness in the choice of phraseology, and com- 
pactness in the arrangement of forms and topics, I have endeav- 
ored to compress within the limits of a convenient manual an 
amount of carefully selected grammatical facts which would 
otherwise fill a much larger volume. 

Syntax has received special attention. An attemi^t Ickaa Vsfewa. 

iii 



iv PREFACE 

made to exhibit as clearly as possible that remarkable system of 
laws which the genius of the Latin language has created for itsel£ 
Accordingly the leading principles of construction have been put 
in the form of definite rules or laws, and fully illustrated by 
carefully selected examples from Latin authors, a mode of treat- 
ment perfectly consistent with scientific accuracy, and sanctioned 
by the general experience of teachers as in the highest degree 
helpful to the pupil. Moreover, to secure convenience of reference 
and to give completeness and vividness to the general outline, 
these laws of the language after having been separately discussed 
are presented in a body at the close of the syntax. 

A special effort has been made to simplify and explain the 
difficult and intricate subject of the subjunctive. The ordinary 
constructions of that mood in simple sentences and in independent 
clauses are first stated and illustrated with great fulness to give 
the pupil a clear idea of its distinctive nature and use, and thus 
to prepare him to understand the process by which the mood 
passes from these simple independent uses to the more difficult 
dependent constructions. Too often the pupil sees no connection 
between an independent and a dependent subjunctive; what he 
has learned in regard to the former is no help to an acquaintance 
with the latter, but with the method here adopted it is hoped 
that after having mastered the ordinary independent uses of the 
mood he will be able to recognize even in the most involved con- 
structions in subordinate clauses only new illustrations of prin- 
ciples with which he is already familiar. To him the subjunctive 
in a subordinate clause will be no longer a dreaded stranger, but 
an acquaintance and friend. 

The subject of Hidden Quantity has received due attention in 
this volume as in the author's earlier Latin Grammar. Indeed, 
that work is believed to be entitled to the honor of having been 
the first Latin Grammar that ever attempted to mark systemati- 
cally the hidden quantity of vowels, and to point out the means 
for determining it. 

Another consideration which has had weight in determining 
the character of this grammar is the importance of bringing the 
treatment which the practical needs of the school and college 



PREFACE T 

seem to demand into harmony with the learned results recently 
gathered by specialists in the field of historical grammar and 
linguistic study. On this point I deem myself fortunate in hav- 
ing secured the cordial cooperation of three of the eminent Lat- 
inists who are engaged in the preparation of the "Historische 
Grammatik der Lateinischen Sprache " now in process of publica- 
tion at Leipzig, Professor F. Stolz of the University of Innsbruck, 
Professor G. Landgraf of Munich, and Professor H. Blase of 
Giessen, authors whose works are known and read by classical 
scholars throughout the world, and whose names are identified 
with the best scholarship of the age. 

In accordance with a previous arrangement the manuscript on 
Phonology, Morphology, and Etymology, when nearly ready for 
the press, was submitted to Professor Stolz with the distinct im- 
derstanding that if any part of the work was not found to be in 
full accord with the latest and best views within the range of his 
own special studies he should point it out, and suggest the best 
method of bringing the practical and the scientific views into 
harmony. By a similar arrangement the manuscript on Agree- 
ment and on the Use of Cases was submitted to Professor Land- 
graf, and that on Moods and Tenses to Professor Blase. . After 
a careful examination of the several subjects submitted to their 
consideration they made written reports with such suggestions 
as their special studies warranted, and subsequently in a series of 
personal interviews I had the rare opportunity of obtaining their 
views and their advice on the various doubtful questions con- 
nected with our subject. I desire, therefore, to express my grate- 
ful appreciation of their kindness in thus freely offering me the 
priceless results of life-long labors in their several spheres. 

I am happy to acknowledge my indebtedness to my colleagues 
in the University, Professors A. G. Harkness and W. C. Poland, 
who have read the proof, and given me the benefit of their accu- 
rate scholarship and large professional experience ; to Professor 
E. P. Morris of Yale University for important statistics in regard 
to Interrogative Sentences, Quod Clauses, and the Use of the 
Subjunctive in Plautus and Terence; to Dr. H. W. Hayley for 
aid in the revision of the Prosody ; to Dr. G. A. Williams of the 



▼i PREFACES 

University Grammar School for the preparation of the indices^ 
and to Dr. H. F. Linscott of the University of North Carolina fa 
valuable suggestions on Phonology and Etymology. 

My thanks are also due to many other friends who have kindty 
favored me with their advice, especially to Dr. C. B. Goff of the 
University Grammar School, Dr. W. T. Peck of the Providence 
High School, Dr. Moses Merrill of the Boston Latin School, and 
Dr. John Tetlow of the Girls' High and Latin Schools, Boston. 

For the benefit of those who prefer to begin with a more ele* 
mentary manual in the study of Latin a school edition of thk ' 
Grammar is published simultaneously with it This is intendai 
to meet the wants of those who do not contemplate a collegiate 
course of study ^ for all others the complete work will be fonnl 
far more helpfuL 

In conclusion I desire once more to make my grateful acknowl- 
edgments to the classical teachers of the country who by their- : 
fidelity and skill in the use of my books have won for them sack < 
marked success. To their hands this work is now respectfully 
and gratefully committed. 

ALBERT HARKNESS. 
Browk UiriYKRsmr. June 8, 1898. 



CONTENTS 



PA6B 

IHTBOpUCTIOM 1 

PART I. PHONOLOGY 

Alphabet 2 

Pronunciation of Latin 4 

Quantity 6 

Accentuation 7 

Inherited Vowels and Diphthongs 8 

Vowel Gradation or Ablaut 9 

Phonetic Changes 9 

Changes in Vowels 9 

Changes in Consonants 14 

PART II. MORPHOLOGY 

Nouns and Adjectives 17 

Grender 18 

Person, Number, and Case 19 

Declension 19 

First Declension, ^-Nouns and ^-Adjectives 21 

Second Declension, 0-Nouns and 0-Adjectives 23 

Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions 28 

Third Declension, Nouns and Adjectives 31 

Nouns of the Third Declension 31 

Stems ending in a Labial : ^.or P 31 

Stems ending in a Dental : Z> or 7" 32 

Stems ending in a Guttural : C or G 33 

Stems ending in a Liquid : L ov R . . . . . . .33 

Stems ending in a Nasal : JIot N 34 

Stems ending in S 35 

Stems ending in / 36 

Consonant and /-Stems combined 37 

Special Paradigms 89 

Gender as determined by the Endings of Nouns . , .42 

• • 

vu 



• • • 



VUl CONTENTS 

PAOI 

Adjectives of the Third Declension 45 

Fourth Declension, ^-Nouns 48 

Fifth Declension, J^-Nouns 50 

General Table of Gender 51 

Indeclinable Nouns and Adjectives 52 

Defective Nouns and Adjectives 52 

Heteroclites 55 

Heterogeneous Nouns 56 

Comparison of Adjectives .56 

Numerals 61 

PRONOUNS 

Personal and Reflexive Pronouns 66 

Possessive Pronouns 68 

Demonstrative Pronouns 68 

Determinative Pronouns . .70 

Relative Pronouns 71 

Interrogative Pronouns 72 

Indefinite Pronouns 73 

Table of Correlatives 76 

VERBS 

Voices, Moods, and Tenses 76 

CONJUGATION 

Sum^ I am ; Stems, es^fu 80 

First Conjugation : ^- Verbs 82 

Second Conjugation : ^- Verbs 86 

Third Conjugation : Consonant Verbs 00 

Fourth Conjugation : /-Verbs 84 

Comparative View of Conjugations 98 

Deponent Verbs 102 

Semi-Deponent Verbs 103 

/-Verbs of the Third Conjugation • 103 

Verbal Inflections 106 

Periphrastic Conjugations 108 

Formation of Stems Ill 

Present Stem Ill 

Perfect Stem 112 

Participial System 114 

Verbal Endings 114 

Personal Endings 114 

Mood and Tense Signs ♦ t , » , , , . » U5 



CONTENTS ix 

PAGE 

Classification of Verbs 116 

First Conjugation , . . .116 

Second Conjugation • 117 

Third Conjugation 119 

Fourth Conjugation 128 

Irregular Verbs 130 

Defective Verbs 138 

Impersonal Verbs 140 

PARTICLES 

Adverbs 142 

Prepositions 144 

Conjunctions 146 

Interjections 147 



PART III. ETYMOLOGY 

Inflection and Derivation 148 

Root Words — formed from Roots by Inflection 149 

Primary Derivatives 150 

Secondary Derivatives — Nouns and Adjectives 165 

Derivation and History of Latin Verbs 165 

Root Verbs 165 

Thematic Verbs 166 

Verbs formed with the Suffix io 166 

The Formation of Verbs from the Stems of Nouns and Adjectives . 167 

Composition of Words . 169 



PART IV. SYNTAX 

Classiflcation of Sentences 174 

Elements of Simple Sentences 176 

Elements of Compound Sentences 177 

RULES OF AGREEMENT 

Subject Nominative 178 

Agreement of Verb with Subject 179 

Appositives and Predicate Nouns 182 

Agreement of Adjectives 183 

Agreement of Pronouns .,.,,.••,, 19^ 



CONTENTS 



IJ8E OF CASES faa 

Xominative and YocaUre 188 

AccnsatiTe '•••.. 180 

Accusative as Direct Object 180 

Two Accusatives of the Same Pereon IDS 

Two Accosatives — Person and Thing 198 

Accusative and Infinitive 194 

Accusative as Subject of Infinitive 191 

Accusative of Specification 191 

Accusative of Time and Space 196 

Accusative as Limit of Motion 196 

Accusative with Prepositions 196 

Accusative in Exclamations 199 

Dative 200 

Dative of Indirect Object 200 

Dative with Special Verbs 201 

Datives with Compounds 204 

Dative of the Possessor 206 

Dative of the Apparent Agent 206 

Ethical Dative 207 

Indirect Object and Predicate Dative 207 

Dative with Adjectives 206 

Dative with Nouns and Adverbs 209 

Genitive 200 

Genitive with Nouns 210 

Predicate Genitive 215 

Predicate Genitive of Price and Value 210 

Predicate Genitive with Befert and Interest 217 

Genitive with Adjectives 218 

Genitive with Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting . . . 220 

Accusative and Genitive 221 

Genitive with Verbs of Feeling 222 

Genitive with Special Verbs 223 

Ablative 224 

Ablative Proper 224 

Ablative of Separation 226 

Ablative of Source 227 

Ablative with Comparatives 229 

Instrumental Ablative 230 

Ablative of Association 230 

Ablative of Cause 232 

Ablative of Means 233 



CONTENTS xi 

PAGE 

Ablative of Means — Special Uses 234 

Ablative of Price and Value 236 

Ablative of Difference 236 

Ablative of Specification 237 

Locative and Locative Ablative 238 

Ablative of Place 238 

Ablative of Time 240 

Ablative Absolute 242 

Ablative with Prepositions 243 

Summary of Constructions of Place and Space 245 

USE OF ADJECTIVES 

Equivalent to a Clause 247 

Comparatives and Superlatives 248 

USE OF PRONOUNS 

Personal Pronouns 249 

Possessives 260 

Keflexive Use of Pronouns 260 

Demonstrative Pronouns . . 263 

Determinative Pronouns . . 264 

Relative Pronouns 266 

Interrogative Pronouns 268 

Indefinite Pronouns 269 

General Indefinite Pronouns 261 

Pronominal Adjectives 262 

SYNTAX OF VERBS 

Use of Voices, Numbers, and Persons 263 

Distinction between the Three Finite Moods 264 

Use of the Indicative 264 

Special Uses 266 

Tenses of the Indicative 266 

Table of Tenses 267 

Present Indicative 268 

Imperfect Indicative 269 

Future Indicative 269 

Perfect Indicative 270 

Pluperfect Indicative 271 

Future Perfect Indicative 272 

Tenses of the Subjunctive .273 



xu 



CONTENTS 



PA6I 

Distinction between Absolute and Relative Time . , , • . 274 

Sequence of Tenses 276 

Table of Subjunctive Tenses 275 

Peculiarities in the Sequence of Tenses 276 

SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDEPENDENT SENTENCES 

Potential Subjunctive 278 

Optative Subjunctive 279 

Subjunctive of Will, or Volitive Subjunctive 280 

Imperative Subjunctive and Imperative 282 



SUBJUNCTIVE IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES 



Volitive Subjunctive in Substantive Clauses 285 

Volitive Subjunctive in Clauses of Purpose — Final Clauses . . . 288 

Potential Subjunctive in Subordinate Clauses 290 

Potential Subjunctive in Clauses of Result — Consecutive Clauses . 291 

Potential Subjunctive in Substantive Clauses 292 

Moods in Conditional Sentences 298 

Indicative in Both Clauses 294 

Subjunctive, Present or Perfect in Both Clauses .... 296 

Subjunctive, Imperfect or Pluperfect in Both Clauses . . . 298 

Conditional Clauses of Comparison 301 

Conditional Adversative Clauses 302 

Moods in Adversative and Concessive Clauses 302 

Moods with Z>Mwi, Modo^ Dummodo 304 

Moods with Quod^ Quia^ Quoniam^ Quando 304 

Indicative and Subjunctive in Relative Clauses 306 

Moods with Quiri . . . 309 

Subjunctive with Cum in Causal and Concessive Clauses . . . 312 

Moods in Temporal Clauses with Cum . 313 

Temporal Clauses with Postquam, Ubiy Ut, etc 316 

Temporal Clauses with Dum, Donec^ and Quoad 316 

Temporal Clauses with Antequam and Priusquam . . . .317 



INFINITIVE. SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES 

Origin, Early Use, and Development of the Infinitive .... 319 

Infinitive Clause as Object 322 

Infinitive or Infinitive Clause as Subject 324 

Tenses of the Infinitive . v •••«*.* . 326 



CONTENTS Xlii 



GERUNDIVES, GERUNDS, SUPINES, AND PARTICLES 

PAOB 

Use of Cases in the Gerundive Construction and in Gerunds . . 329 

Supines 332 

Participles 333 

INDIRECT DISCOURSE — OR ATIO OBLIQUA 

Moods in Principal Clauses 336 

Moods In Subordinate Clauses 338 

Pronouns and Persons in Indirect Discourse 339 

Conditional Sentences in Indirect Discourse 340 

Indirect Clauses 342 

USE OF PARTICLES 

Use of Adverbs 347 

Use of Coordinate Conjunctions 348 

RULES OF SYNTAX 

Rules of Agreement 350 

Use of Cases 350 

Use of Moods and Tenses 353 

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS AND CLAUSES 

Arrangement of Words in a Simple Sentence 368 

Arrangement of Clauses 363 

Liatin Periods 365 



PART V. PROSODY 

QUANTITY 

Quantity of Final Syllables . .367 

Quantity in Increments 369 

Quantity of Derivative Endings 370 

Quantity of Stem Syllables 371 

VERSIFICATION 

General View of the Subject 372 

Feet 373 

Rhythmic Series, Verses 875 

'Figures of Prosody • • . • • '^'\^ 



riv 



COSTTLSnS 



Varietiea of Ver» . 

Dactylic Hexsinieter 

Other Dactylic Verses 

Trochaic Verae 

Iambic Verae . 

Ionic Verse 

Locii^edic Ver» 

Compoond Meters 
VersidoacioQ of the PrincqMd Latin Poets 

VerjLil. Hi^ruzel t^^rid, Jatenal 

E;irlT LAZia Rhythms 

Samnuaa Veiae 



Hi 

381 



APPENDIX 

HjAien QxuxihT 

Fir::rea o€ Sceeci 

R.^ciAC. Li:erkmre 

Roci.*^ CAl^rmiAr 

Kv. ' i 'i l i t» I 31 .cey .......... . 

A^irs^^^&«5:c£i i:^ Lauzs Aaikcn ....... 

IST-tX <ST Vti»? ...... 

Gx.T¥:&jii. Iirrcx 411 



\ 



ABBREVIATIONS USED IN CITING LATIN AUTHORS 



Caes. 


= 


Caesar, de bello Grallico 


C.R-P. 


Caes.C. 


=: 


(t 


de beUo Civile 


C. Rose. A. 


C.Ac 


= 


Cicero 


, Academiea 


C. Rose C. 


C. Agr. 


= 


(( 


de lege Agraria 


C.Sen. 


C.Am. 


^ 


<t 


de Amicitia 


C. 1 Ver. 


C. Att. 


= 


(( 


ad Atticum 


C. Ver. 


CO. 


= 


t( 


in Catilinam 


H. 


C.Div. 


= 


<( 


de Divinatione 


H.E. 


C. Div. C. 


t "^ 


i< 


Divinatio in Caeci- 
linm 


H.Ep. 
0. 


C. Fam. 


= 


<< 


ad Familiares 


O.H. 


C. Man. 


= 


(i 


pro lege Manilia 


PI. 


C. N. D. 


« 


(< 


de Deornm Natora 


S. 


C. Opt. G 


^E 


<( 


de Optimo genere 
Oratorum 


8.C. 
T. 


COr. 


= 


(t 


de Oratore 


Tac 


C. Q. Fr. 


^ 


(< 


ad Quintnm fratrem 


Verg. 


CRab. 


= 


n 


pro Rabirio 


Verg. E. 


C. Rab. P. 


= 


(< 


pro Rabirio Postnmo 


Verg. G. 



if 



«( 



Cicero, de Re Pnblica 
" pro Roscio Amerino 
pro Roscio Com oedo 
de Senectute 
** in Verrem Actio I. 
•* in Verrem Actio 11. 
Horatius, Carmina 
Epistulae 
Epodi 
6vidins, Metamorphoses 

" Heroides 
Plautos 

Sallustius, lugurtha 
Catilina 
Terentius 
Tacitus 

Vergilius, Aeneis 
** Eclogae 
" Georgica 



t( 



(4 



XV 



LATffl GRAMMAR 



INTRODUCTION 

1. The Latin language derives its name from the Latlnl, the 
Latins, the ancient inhabitants of Latium in Italy. It belongs to 
the Indo-European family, which embraces eight groups of tongues, 
known as the Aryan, the Armenian, the Greek, the Albanian, the 
Italian, the Keltic, the Germanic, and the Balto-Slavic. All these 
languages have one common system of inflection, and in various 
respects strikingly resemble each other. They are the descendants 
of one common speech spoken by a single race of men untold cen- 
turies before the dawn of history. 

2. The Latin, the Oscan, and the Umbrian are the three leading 
members of the Italian group of this family, and the resemblance 
between them is so great that they appear to be only different 
dialects of one common language. At the dawn of history the 
Latin was confined to the small district of Latium, while the Oscan 
was spoken in the southern part of Italy, and the Umbrian in the 
northeastern part ; but at the beginning of the Christian era, the 
Latin had not only supplanted the Oscan and the Umbrian in 
Italy, but it had already become the established language of a 
large part of Southern Europe. The Oscan and Umbrian dialects 
have been preserved to us only in very scanty remains, but the 
Latin is enshrined in a rich and valuable literature extending 
over a period of several centuries. 

3. From the Latin has been directly derived the entire group 
of the Romance languages, of which the Italian, 'Fi:ftTicii,^^m\^, 
and Portuguese are important members. Tlie ■Eiig\\^\i\iR^<QVi\g^ \i^ 

SASK. LAT, GRAM. 2 \ 



2 PHONOLOGY 

the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family, but it is in- 
debted to the Latin for one third of its vocabulary. Hence the 
importance of a thorough knowledge of the Latin, if we would 
understand and appreciate our own vernacular. 

LATIN GRAMMAR 

4. Latin grammar treats of the principles of the Latin language. 
It comprises five parts ; 

I. Phonology, which treats of the letters and sounds of the 
language. 
11. Morphology, which treats of the form and inflection of 
words. 
HI. Etymology, which treats of the derivation of words. 
IV. Syntax, which treats of the structure of sentences. 
V. Prosody, which treats of quantity and versification. 



>5*?o<)- 



PART I. — PHONOLOGY 

ALPHABET 

5. The Latin alphabet ^ is the same as the English with the 
omission of j and w, but k is seldom used, and y and z occur only 
in words of Greek origin. 

1. It originally consisted of only twenty-one letters, as c supplied the 
place of c and g ; i of i and j ; u of u and v and sometimes of y. 

2. Subsequently G, formed from C by simply changing tbe lower part of 
the letter, was added to the Latin alphabet, and at about the same time s 
disappeared from it. Thus the alphabet continued to consist of twenty-one 
letters until the time of Augustus, when y was introduced into it from the 
Greek and z was restored from the same source. 

3. Even in the classical period C was retained in abbreviations of proper 
names beginning with G. Thus C. stands for GSius, and Cn. for Gnaens. 
This is a survival from the original use of C for Q. 

1 The Romans derived their alphabet from the Greek colony at Cumae. 
Thronghont the classical period they used in general only capital letters. 



CLASSIFICATION OF LETTERS 3 

4. U and V, originally designated by the same character, are now used 
in many of the best editions, the former as a vowel, the latter as a consonant, 
as in English. 

6. Letters are divided according to the position of the vocal 
organs at the time of utterance into two general classes, vowels 
and consonants,^ and these classes are again divided into various 
subdivisions, as seen in the following : 



7. CLASSIFICATION OF LETTERS 

Vo"wels 

1. Open vowel 2 a 

2. Medial vowels ' e o 

3. Close vow.els i y u 

Consonants 

Gutturals Palatals Llng^ualt 

4. Semivowels, sonant * ^ = y 

5. Nasals, sonant n ^ 

6. Liquids, sonant 1, r 

7. Spirants, surd * h 

8. Mutes, sonant g 

9. Mutes, surd c, q, k 

Note. — x = os, or gs, is a double consonant. 

1 If the vocal organs are sufficiently open to allow an uninterrupted tiow of 
vocal sound, a vowel is produced, otherwise a consonant; but the leust (>])en 
vowels are scarcely distinguishable from the most open consonants. Thus i, 
soanded fully according to the ancient pronunciation as e, is a vowel ; hut com- 
bined with a vowel in the same syllable, it becomes a consonant with the sound 
of 7 ; see 12, 2. 

^The vocal organs are fully open in pronouncing the open ft, as in /ather, less 
so in pronouncing the close vowels and the semivowels, and very nearly closed in 
pronouncing the mutes. 

* B is a medial vowel between the open a and the close i, o a medial vowel 
between the open a and the close u ; 1 is a palatal vowel, u a labial. The vowel 
scale, here presented in the form of a triangle, may he represented as a line, with 
a in the middle, with 1 at the palatal extreme, and with u at the labial extreme : 

1 e a o u 

■* Sonant or voiced : snrd or not voiced, but simply breathed. 
5 With the sound of n in concord^ linger. It occurs before gutturals; con- 
eri'essus. meeting. 



Dentals 


Labials 




V = w 


n 


m 


8 


f 


d 


b 


t 


P 



4 PHONOLOGY 

8. Observe that the consonants are divided, 

1. According to the organs chiefly employed in their produo 

tioninto Guttural8,-throat letters. 

Palatals, — palate letters. 
Linguals, — tongue letters. 
Dentals, — teeth letters. 
Labials, — lip letters. 

2. According to the manner in which they are uttered, into 

Sonants, or voiced letters. 

Surds, voiceless or breathed letters. ^ 

9. Diphthongs are formed by the union of two vowels in one 
syllable. The most common diphthongs are ae, oe, au, and eo. 
Zii and ui are rare. 

ROMAN PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN « 

10. The vowels are pronounced substantially as follows': 



liOngr 






Short 




& like a in ah : 


a'-ra* 


a like initial 


a in aha^: 


at 


6 " e »' they: 


d66 


e " 


e 


" net: 


et 


I ** i *» pique: 


i'-vi 


i " 


1 


»* pick: 


id 


6 ** *» hole: 


da 


o " 





" forty: 


Ob 


CI ** u *' rule : 


U'-BU 


u ** 


u 


" full: 


ut 



1. A short vowel in a long syllable is pronounced short: sunt, a as in 
sum, Bu'-muB ; see 14 and 15. 

1 The distinction between a sonant and a surd will be appreciated by observing 
the difference between the sonant b and its corresponding surd p in such words 
as had, pad. B is vocalized, p is not. 

2 This method is now generally adopted in the schools and colleges of our 
country. By the English method, which formerly prevailed, the letters are pro- 
nounced in general as in English. 

8 But the vowel sounds must be kept as pure as possible, free from the glide or 
vanish heard in English. 

4 Latin vowels marked with the macron " are long in quantity, i.e. in the dura- 
tion of the sound ; those not marked are short in quantity; see 15, 4. Observe 
that the accent is also marked. For the laws of accentuation, see 16 and 17. 

* The short vowels occupy only half as much time in utterance as the long 
vowels, but they can be only imperfectly represented by English equivalents. 
They have, however, nearly the same sound as the corresponding long vowels, 
but, TFJth the exception of a, they are somewhat more open. 
^ Or elite a in made; i like e in me, and H like oo in moon. 



ROMAN PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN 6 

2. "T, found only in Greek words, is intermediate in sound between the 
I^tin i and u, similar to the French u and the German H: JXf-nat. 

3. XT in qu,^ and generally in gu and mi before a vowel, has the sound of 
qui (kwe); lin'-gua (lin-gwa); suS'-sit (swa-sit). 



11. Diphthongs. — In diphthongs, each vowel retains its own 
sound: 



ae nearly 


like ai 


in aisle : 


aes, mfin'-sae^ 


oe ** 


*' oi 


** coin: 


foe'-dos 


au ** 


*' ou 


** out: 


aut, aa'-rum 


eu ** 


" eu 


*» feud : 


neu, neu'-ter^ 


ei " 


" ei 


** veil: 


ei, hei 


Hi »t 


** we 




cui (kwe) 



12. Consonants. — Most of the consonants are pronounced nearly 
as in English, but the following require special notice : 



c 


like 


c 


in come : 


co'-ma, c6'-na 


ch 




ch 


** chemist: 


cho'-ruB 


S 




g 


** get: 


ge'-nuB, gl5'-ria 


i 




y 


** yet: 


iam (yam), ifLs (yoos) 


r 




r 


" rumor: 


rfl'-mor^ 


8 




s 


** son: 


Bo'-no, Ba'-cer 


t 




t 


** time: 


ti'-mor, t5'-tU8 


V 




w 


" we: 


vel, vir 


qu 




qu 


" quit: 


qui, qu5 



1. Before a word beginning with a vowel, or with h, a final vowel, or a 
final m with a preceding vowel, seems to have been partially suppressed in 
the ordinary speech of the Romans, as well as in poetry. It was rapidly and 
indistinctly uttered, and thus it readily blended with the following vowel. 

2. Observe that i is sometimes a vowel and sometimes a consonant, that 
as a vowel it has, when long, the sound of i in machine or of e in me, 
and that as a consonant it has the sound of y in yet, yes. It is gener- 
ally a vowel between consonants and a consonant between vowels, and 
at the beginning of words it is generally a vowel before consonants and 
a consonant before vowels : si'-muB (se-mus), mS'ior (mah-yor) ; i'-re 
(e-ra), iam (yam). 

3. In the aspirated forms of the mutes, ch, ph, and th, h is in general 

^ This is sometimes called the parasitic u, as having been developed in many 
Instances by the preceding consonant. 

^ In pronouncing ae, endeavor to unite the sounds of the Latin a and e, and 
in pronouncing eu, unite the sounds of e and u ; but some &e\io\9kX& ^XQi\iQ>^QSL<i^^ 
»0 Jike ea in pear. 
'B should be trilled^ 



8 PHONOLOGY 

3. A secondary or subordinate accent is placed on the second or third 
syllable before the primary accent — on the second, if that is the first syllable 
of the word, or is long in quantity, otherwise on the third : mo'-na-6'-raiit, 
mo'-nu-e-rS'-muB, In-stau'-rS-vS'-runt. 

4. A few long words admit two secondary accents : ho'-nd-ri'-fi-ceii-tis'- 
si-muB. 

5. Certain words which have lost a final e retain the accent of the full 
form : il-lic' for il-li'-ce, il-l&c' for il-la'-ce, is-tic' for is-tl'-ce, etc. ; bo-nftn' 
for bo-na'-ne, tan-t5n' for tan-tO'-ne, au-dXn' for au-dls'-ne, 6-d1ic' for 
6-du'-ce. 

6. Genitives in I for il and vocatives in I accent the penult : in-ge'-nl for 
in-ge'-ni-i ; Mer-cu'-rl. 

18. Compounds are accented like simple words, but fado, when 
compounded with other words than prepositions, retains its own 
accent: ca-le-fa'-dt. 

19. Original Accent. — Originally all Latin words were accented 
on the first syllable. This fact must be borne in mind in explain- 
ing phonetic changes. The syllable immediately following the 
original accent, i.e. the second syllable of the word, is called a 
Post-Tonic syllable. 

INHERITED VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS 

20. The Latin inherited from the parent speech the vowels, 
a, e, i, o, u ; a, e, i, o, u ; and the diphthongs, ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou ; 
ai, ei, 6i, au, eu, 6u. In some words these vowels have been 
preserved unchanged as in the following examples: 

a : ago, amo, albus ft : m^ter, fagus, cl&vis 

e : est, decern, fer5 6 : lex, mensis, planus 

i : fides, quis, minuo I : vis, vivus, simus 

o : octO, domus 5 : donum, nOtus 

u : super, ruber CI : ratis, sus 

1. The Latin also inherited an indistinct Indo-European vowel represented 
by an inverted e ; see 29. 

2. The diphthong au retains its original form in classical Latin, as in 
autem, augeo ; but all the other diphthongs were more or less changed 
before the classical period, though most of those which begin with a short 

vowel occur in rare instancea in early Latin. 



PHONETIC CHANGES 9 

VOWEL GRADATION, OR ABLAUT 

21. The Latin also inherited certain vowel variations, which 
appear in the different forms of certain roots, stems, and suffixes. 

1 . Thus the common root of fod-i5, I dig, and f5d-I, 1 have dug, is fod in 
fod-io and fod in fod-i ; that of fac-io, I make, and f6c-If / have made, is 
fac and f6c ; that of gen-us, offspring ^ and gpE-gn-S, I beget, is gen and gn ^ ; 
that of d5-num, gift, da-miis, xoe give, and de-d-i, 1 have given, is dS, da, 
and d.1 This variation in vowels is called Vowel Gradation or Ablaut. 

2. ITiese inherited vowel variations in some languages form a somewhat 
regular gradation, but in Latin they have mostly disappeared as kindred 
forms have been assimilated to each other. 



PHONETIC CHANGES 

22. Latin words in the course of their history have undergone 
important changes in accordance with phonetic laws. 

23. The phonetic changes in vowels may be either Qualitative, 
affecting the quality of the sound, or Quantitative, affecting its 
length or quantity. 

I. Qualitative Changes in Vo-wels 

24. An Indo-European a may become in Latin in post-tonic ^ syllables : 
(1) e, (2) 1, (3) 1 or u, and (4) u. Thus : 

1. A becomes e in post-tonic closed 2 syllables, except before labials and 
1 : factuB, but confectuB ; captus, but acceptus. 

2. A becomes i in post-tonic open 2 syllables, except before labials, and in 
all post-tonic syllables before ng : ago, but adigo ; statud, but cdnstitud ; 
tango, but at-tingo. 

3. A becomes i or u in post-tonic open syllables before labials and before 
1 : capio, but man-cipium and man-cupium ; Bali5, but in-Bilio and ih- 
Bulio. 

4. A becomes u in post-tonic syllables before 1 + another consonant : 
salio, but in-BtiltuB ; calco, but in-culco. 

1 Observe that the vowel sometimes disappears : firen, gn; da, d. 

2 Remember that the term post-tonic is applied to the syllable following the 

initial accent, i.e. to the second syllable of the word (19) , awd VontX ^ s^Uatola \a 

said to he open when it ends in a Yowel, and closed when \l end^ Vn ^ <^QVi^<^'Vi'dS^\ 
see IS, 4. 



10 PHONOLOGY 

25. An Indo-European e may become : (1) i and (2) o. Thus: 

1. E becomes i, (1) in post-tonic syllables, except before r: leg5, but 
col-ligd ; emd, but ad-iin5 ; (2) in final syllables before s and t : salHtes, 
salatis; Cereres, Cereris; *leget,^ legit; ^eget, regit; and (3) before 
n + a guttural : *tengu5, tinguo. 

2. B may become o after an initial v : *velt, volt^ ; *vemO, voin5. 

3. Initial sve becomes so : ^svenos, sonus ; *sved9>lis, sodSlis. 

26. An Indo-European i may become: (1) e and (2) i or u. Thus: 

1. I final may become e, but it sometimes disappears as in neuter stems 
in aii and Sri (103, 1) : *mari, mare ; *levi, leve. 

2. I before r for s becomes e : *sis5, serS ; *cinisis, cineris. 

3. I becomes i or u in post-tonic syllables before labials: pontifex or 
pontufez. 

4. Final er is sometimes developed from ri-stems, as follows : *acri-s, 
*acr-s, *acer-s, acer.^ 

27. An Indo-European o* may become: (1) u, (2) e, (3) e or i, and 
(4) i or u. Thus : 

i. O becomes u (1) in post-tonic closed syllables: *genos, genua; 
*donom, donum ; and (2) in accented syllables before 1 + a consonant and 
before n + a consonant : *molta, multa ; *honc, hunc ; *oncos, uncus. 

2. O becomes e when final : *isto, iste ; ♦sequiso, sequere. 

3. O becomes e or i in post-tonic open syllables, except before labials : 
*sociotas, 80cieta.8 ; *novotas, novit&s. 

4. O generally becomes i, rarely u, in post-tonic open syllables before 
labials : aurifez, rarely aurufez ; mSLzimus, m&zumus. 

5. Final er is sometimes developed from ro-stems in the same way as 
from ri-stems (26, 4) : *agro-s, *agr-s, *ager-s, ager. 

28. An Indo-European u becomes i or u in post-tonic syllables before 
labials : old form dissupS, later dissipd ; lacruma, later lacrima. 

29. An indistinct Indo-European vowel, represented by an inverted 
e = 9, generally becomes a in Latin : ^datos, datus ; ^sstos, satus. 

1 The assumed form from which the Latin word, as it appears in literature» is 
supposed to have been derived, is designated by an asterisk. 

2 Volt subsequently became vult. 

° lin acri-s disappears, leaving r sonant, then r sonant becomes er, and final a 
disappears. 

'"' After V, u. oi* qu, o is preserved longer than elsewhere : servos, afterward 
0ervu8; so mortuoB, equos, etc. 



PHONETIC CHANom 11 

30. The Indo-European liquids and nasals, 1, r, and m, n,. are vocal- 

o o o o 

ized in Latin ; 1 becomes ol, later ul, and r becomes or : *nilta, *raolta, 

o o o 

multa; ^mrtis, mortU; m becomes em, and n, en: *dekni, decern; 
^ntos, tentoB. 

o 

31. Assimilation of Vowels. — A vowel is sometimes assimilated to 
the vowel of the following syllable: *consulium, cSnsilium; *exsulium, 
exsilium; *mehi, mihl; *teb!, tib!; *nehil, nihil; *bone, bene; *me- 
mordit, mo-mordit , *pe-poscit, po-pSscit ; *ce-cuiTit, cu-currit. 

n. Qualitative Changes in Diphthongs 

32. The diphthong ai is retained in early inscriptions, but it after- 
ward becomes ae and I. Thus : 

1. Ai generally becomes ae : ^laivos, laevns, scaevus, aeviun. 

2. Ai becomes i both in post-tonic and in final syllables : quaere, but 
in quird; ^mensais, mSnsis. 

33. The diphthong ei becomes I in pronunciation, although sometimes 
written ei in early Latin : died ; divus, fidd, sometimes written deivus, 
feidd. 

34. The diphthong oi becomes oe, u, and I. Thus : 

1. Oi becomes oe in a few words : poena, foedus. 

2. Oi becomes fl in most words : *oinos, *oenos, unus ; *moenia, munia. 

3. Oi becomes i in final syllables : *equoi, equi ; *equois, equls. 

35. The diphthong au generally remains unchanged, but it sometimes 
becomes H in post-tonic syllables : claud5, but in-clfldo ; fraud5, but 
d6-fraudo, or d6-frAdo. 

36. The diphthongs, eu and ou, coalesce and become H: *deuc6, 
*douco, dfLc5 ; *ious, iiis. 

m. Quantitative Changes in Vowels 

37. Vowels are lengthened before ns, nf, and gn : cdnsul, XnfSliz, 
Ignis. 

38. Vowels are often lengthened in compensation for the loss of 
consonants. Thus : 

1. For the loss of s or z in accented syllables before d, 1, m^ or n : *nisdos, 
nidus, English nest; *isdein, Idem ; *ac8la, Sla*, ♦pnsmoa,ptYDD»a\ *^Q!SJoSi^ 
p6n6; *texm6, tSmo. 



12 PHONOLOOY 

2. For the loss of h : *mahior, mSior ; *ahio, fti5. 

3. A vowel lengthened before ns in final syllables remains long after the 
loss of n : *servOns, servos ; *r6gens, rSgSs. 

39. Long vowels are shortened 

1. Generally before other vowels : ^audiunt, audiunt ; ^audiam, audiam ; 
fidST, fidei ; rSi, rel ; but diSi, ilUus. 

2. In final syllables before 1, m, r, t, and nt: ^nimall, animal; *am€m, 
amem ; ^udiar, audiar ; amSt,^ amat ; %m9,nt, amant. 

3. Final SI is shortened in classical Latin in the plural of neuter nouns 
and adjectives and in the Nominative and Vocative singular of nouns in a of 
the First Declension: templS in Plautus, later templa; gravi§, g;ravia; 
musa, musa. 

4. Final S, i, and o are sometimes shortened : *mal6f male ; *uisl, nisi ; 
*ibi, ibi ; *ego, ego. 

6. The shortening of final syllables is supposed to have begun in dissylla- 
bles with iambic measurement, i.e. with short penults. In these the final 
syllable was shortened by being assimilated in quantity to the first, as amftt, 
amat ; bonSl, bona ; eg5, ego. 

6. Long vowels in syllables originally accented (19) are sometimes short- 
ened, and the following consonant is doubled in compensation: lupiter, 
luppiter; litera, littera; *mlt0, mitto. 

40. Vowels may disappear from a word by syncope or vowel absorp- 
tion : *re-pepuli, reppuli ; *re-cecidi, reccidi ; *clavido, claudo ; *pri- 
miceps, princeps ; *unudecim, undecim. 

1. Final vowels sometimes disappear: *animali, animal; dice, die; 
♦sine, Bin. 

41. Occasionally a short vowel, generally u, sometimes e or i, is 
apparently developed before a liquid or nasal: *stablom, stabulum; 
^stablis, stabilis ; but see 80. 

CONTRACTION OF VOWELS 

42. Two vowels of the same quality are contracted into the corre- 
sponding long vowel : *treies, *trees, trSs ; *lgnees, IgnSs ; nihil, *niil, 
nil ; *coopia, copia. 

43. Two vowels of different quality are contracted into a long vowel, 
generally of the quality of the first : *co-ag5, cdg5 ; *de-ago, dSg5 ; *pro- 
emo, promo. 

1 Final at, et, and it are preserved long in Plautus and other early poets: 
versat, habet, velit. 



CONSONANTS 13 

1. The changes illustrated in the following verbal forms may have been 
produced either by contraction, or by the dropping of the syllable va or vl 
before r or a : am&veram, am&ram; am&visse, am&sse; nSvissem, 
nsssein ; novisse, nosse. 

2. Many combinations of vowels remain uncontracted, as a6, ea, ed, ia, 
le, ua, and nS : aSneos, earn, mone5, animUia, diSs, ingenua, ingennS. 

CONSONANTS 

44. The Latin inherited the following consonants : 

1. The Mutes k, g, t, d, p, b, and the Aspirates gh, dh, bh. 

2. The Nasals m, n, and the Liquids 1, r. 

3. The Semivowels i and u, and the Spirant s. 

45. The Latin inherited three series of k- and g-mutes, distinguished 
as Palatals, Velars, and Labialized Velars. These are represented in 
Latin as follows: 

1. The Palatals k and g become c and g, and gh generally becomes h, but 
after n it becomes g : centum, decern, in which k becomes c ; agar, genus, 
in which g remains g ; hmnus, hortas, in which gh becomes h ; ango, 
fingd, in which gh becomes g. 

Note. — In a few words initial gh before u becomes f : fundo. 

2. The Velars are developed like palatals, velar k and g becoming c and 
g, and velar gh generally becoming h, but becoming g before r: capere, 
cavSre ; grus, tego ; hostis, hortor ; gradior. 

3. The Labialized Velar k becomes qu, which becomes c before conso- 
nants : quia, que, quod, in which the labialized velar k becomes qu, which 
becomes c in *coc-si, cosd. 

4. The Labialized Velar g becomes gu, which remains unchanged after 
nasals, but is reduced to g before other consonants, and to v when initial 
or between vowels: unguo, atinguo, in which the labialized velar g becomes 
gu; gl^a, Sgnua; venio, English come; vivua. 

5. The Labialized Velar gh becomes f, when initial, gu after n, and v 
between vowels : formua, frio ; an-gids, nin-gidt ; niv-ia. 

46. The Dentals t and d generally remain unchanged : pater, aep- 
tem; decern, deus. 

1. The aspirate dh becomes f when initial: facio, forSs, English door^ 
and generally d when medial, but b before r : medius ; ruber. 

47. The Labials p and b generally remain unchanged : potia, ptx, 
opua; lambd, liibrious; but p became b in a few words, as in ab for 
*ap, ob for ♦op, aub for *sup, bib<5 for *pibo. 



14 PHONOLOGY 

1. The aspirate bh becomes (1) f when initial : fr&ter, English brother; 
ferd, English hear^ and (2) b when medial : al-buB, amb-itus. 

48. The Nasals m ^ and n and the Liquids P and r remain unchanged: 
medius, homo ; genus, ddnum ; linqu5, ruber. 

49. V generally remains unchanged: ovis, aevum; but it is some- 
times lost between vowels : *nevolo, n515. 

50. S often remains unchanged : est, sumus, suus ; but it gener- 
ally becomes r between vowels:^ flos, £15ris; genus, generis. 

CHANGES IN CONSONANTS 

51. A Guttural — c, g, q (qu), or h (for gh) — before s unites with 
it and forms x: *duc-s, duz; *reg-s, rSx; *coqu-sI, cozl; *trah-8i, 
traxl. 

1. For the loss of the guttural between a liquid and s or t, see 68, 1. 

52. Note also the following changes in consonants : 

1. Dt and tt become st before r; in other situations they generally 
become ss, reduced to s after long syllables : *r5d-trum, rdstrum ; *fod-tus, 
fos-sus ; *plaud-tus, plau-sus ; *vert-tus, ver-sus. 

2. D sometimes represents an original t : aput, apud ; haut, haud. 

3. Dv initial sometimes becomes b : dvellum, bellum. 

4. Sr, when initial, becomes £r ; otherwise br : *srigus, trigus, cold, 
♦funes-ris, from funes in funer-is, funebris. 

5. A euphonic p is generally developed between m and s and between 
m and t : *c5m-si, com-p-sl ; *c5m-tum, com-p-tum. 

ASSIMILATION 

53. A consonant is often assimilated to a following consonant. Thus : 

1. D and t are often assimilated before s; ds and ts becoming ss, which 
is simplified to s when final, and after diphthongs and long vowals : *concut- 
sit, concus-sit ; *lapid-s, lapis ; *art-s, ars ; *amant-s, amSns ; *claud-sit, 
clau-sit ; *suad-sit, su3-sit. 

1 M, when final, was a very weak nasal, and before words beginning with a 
vowel it almost disappeared in pronunciation. 

2 L appears in place of an earlier d in about a dozen Latin words : lingrua, 
old form dingua; lacrima, olere. 

3 R somotimes takes the place of final s, following the analogy of r for s 
between vowels; thus honOs becomes honor from hon6r-is. S may be 
retained between vowels when it stands for ss: hau-sl for *haus-8i. 



ASSIMILATION 16 

2. D is generally assimilated before c, qn, g, 1, n, p, and s : *hod-ce, 
*hoc-ce, hoc ; quid-qnam, quic-qnam ; *ad-ger, ag-ger ; ^sed-Ia, sel-la ; 
•merced-narius, mercen-n&rius ; *quid-pe, quip-pe ; *claud-sit, *claii8-sit, 
clau- sit. 

3. T is assimilated before c and a: *sitr-cus, bIc-ciib; *concut-sit, 
concuB-sit. 

4. N is assimilated before 1 and m : *iln-lus, fUlos ; *gen-ma, gem-ma. 

5. R is assimilated before 1 : *ager-lus, agel-lus. 

6. P is assimilated before f and m: ^op-ficlua, oi-HcIna; ^sup-mus, 
Bum-muB. 

7. S is assimilated before f : *dis-ficilis, dif-ficilis. 

8. For assimilation in Compounds of Prepositions, see 874. 

54. A consonant is sometimes assimilated to a preceding consonant. 

1. D and n are generally assimilated to a preceding 1 : *cal-dis, cal-lis ; 
*col-nis, col-lis ; *fal-n6, fal-lo. 

2. S is assimilated to a preceding 1 or r: *facil-simus, iacil-limuB ; 
*vel-se, vel-le ; *fer-se, fer>re ; *acer-simus, acer-rimos. 

55. Partial Assimilation. — A consonant is often partially assimilated 
to the following consonant. Thus: 

1. Before the surd a or t, a sonant b or g is generally changed to its cor- 
responding surd, p 1 or c : *scrib-sl, scrip-ai ; *8crib-tus, scrip-tus ; *reg-si, 
r63d (51) ; *reg-tus, rSc-toa. 

2. Qu* and h are also changed to c before a and t: *coqu-sit, *coc-sit, 
cozit ; *coqu-tus, coc-toa ; *trah-sit, *trac-sit, trSbdt ; *trah-tus, tr&c-tus. 

3. Before a labial, p or b, n is generally changed to the labial m: 
inper5, impero ; inperSltor, imper&tor ; ^inbellis, imbellis. 

4. Before n, a labial, p or b, is changed to the labial m in a few words : 
*sop-nos, aom-nus ; *Sab-niom, Sam-nium. 

6. M is changed to the dental n regularly before dental mutes, and often 
before guttural mutes : *eum-dem, eun-dem ; *e5rum-dem, eonin-dem ; 
*quem-dam, quen-dam ; *tam-tus, tan-tus ; *hum-ce, hunc ; *prlm-ceps, 
piin-ceps ; num-quam or nun-quam ; quam-quam or quan-quam. 

^But b is generally retained before s in abs and in nouns in bs: urbs; 
and before s and t in ob and sub in compounds and derivatives : ob-serv&ns, 
ob-ttksus, 8ub-Bcrrb5, sub-ter. In these cases, however, b takes the sound of 
p, so that assimilation takes place in pronunciation, though not in writing. It is 
probable also that in some other consonants assimilation was observed even when 
omitted in writing. 

^ Qu is not a syllable ; u in this combination is simply a parasitic sound de- 
veloped by Q» which is never found without it. 



16 PHONOLOGY 

56. Dissimilation. — The meeting of consonants too closely related 
and the recurrence of the same consonant in successive syllables are 
sometimes avoided by changing one of the consonants. Thus : 

1. *Caeluleus, from caelum, becomes caeruleus. 

2. Certain suffixes of derivation have two forms, one with 1 generally used 
after r, and one with r generally used after 1 ^ : fills, ftrls ; blum, bulnm, 
brum ; clum, culum, cram ; rSg-filis, popul-firis ; vocft-buliun, dfiltl- 
bnim ; ^Ora-clum, orft-culum ; *vehi-clum, vehl-culum ; Bepal-cnim. 

LOSS OF CONSONANTS 

57. Of two consonants standing at the beginning of a word, the first 
often disappears ; of three thus situated, the first two often disappear : 
^gnatus, natus; *gnotus, notus; ^scoruscus, coruscus; stlis, Us; 
♦stlocus, locus. 

58. Groups of consonants often lose one or more of their members. 

1. A guttural mute — c, g, or qu — standing between a liquid and a or t, 
generally disappears : *mulcsit, mulsit ; *f ulgsit, fulait ; *spargsit, sparsit ; 
♦torqusit, torsit ; *fulctus, fultus. 

2. A guttural mute occasionally disappears 4n other situations, especiallj;^ 
before m or v : *liicmen, lumen; *exagmen, ezSmen; *iugmentum, 
iilmentum; *bregvis, brevis. 

3. Cs and x sometimes disappear : ^lucsna, lima ; ^sexdecim, sSdedm ; 
*sexni, sSni ; *axla, fila, wing. 

4. D generally disappears before sc, «p, st : adscendere, ascendere ; 
adspicere, aspicere ; adstSLre, astSLre. 

5. N, r, and s often disappear : *in-gn5tus, f gnotus ; *equons, eqn58 ; 
♦porscere, poscere ; *isdem, idem ; *iusdex, iudex ; *prismus, primas ; 
audisne, audin. 

6. I consonant generally disappears between vowels, and sometimes in 
other situations : *bi-iugae, *bi-iigae, *bi-igae, bigae ; abiicere, abicere.^ 

Note. — Separate words are sometimes united after the loss of v : al vis, 
SIS, SI vultis, sultis. 



1 The suffix arts was formed from alls by dissimilation ; from clum was 
formed crum by dissimilation, and culum by developing the vocal liquid J; 
blum and brum are both inherited, but bulum was developed from blum. 
In reg-aiis, aiis is used because r precedes, but in pop\il-aris, arts is used be- 
cause 1 precedes. When neither 1 nor r precedes, the original suffix ails is used. 

2 This is the approved form in verbs compounded of iacere and monosyllabic 
prepositions ; but abicere is pronounced as if written abiicere. The syllable ab 
thus remains long by position. 



NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 17 

7. H often disappears between vowels, or before i consonant ; ptehendd, 
prSndo, nihil, nil ; *ahio, 915 ; *mahior, mSior. 

8. Eor the assimilation and loss of d and t before s, see 58, 1. 

59. Loss of Final Consonants. — Final consonants often dbappear. 

1. Final d disappeared at a very early date after long vowels and after r : 
sententifid, sententiS, ablative ; praedftd, praed& ; *datod, datd, impera- 
tive ; *hab6tod, habSto ; *cord, cor. 

2. Final t disappears after c and s : *lact (lact-iB), l&o, *ost, os. 

3. Final n disappears in the Nominative singular from stems in 5n, on : 
*le6n, leo ; *homon, homo ; *egon, ego. 

4. Final os disappears in the Nominative singular from stems in ro, and 
final 8 sometimes disappears in early inscriptions from other stems in o: 
*pueros, puer ; *viros, vir ; Roacios, R58cio, later Rdacius ; ComSlios, 
ComSlio. 



■«o}*Co«- 



PART II. — MORPHOLOGY 

60. Morphology treats of the Form and Inflection of words. 

^61. The Parts of Speech are — Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, 
Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections. 

NOX7NS AND ADJECTIVES 

62. Nouns, or Substantives, are Names, as of persons, places, 
or things : Cicero, Cicero; Roma, Borne; domus, house. 

1. A Proper Noun is a proper name, as of a person or place : Cicero, 
Roma. 

2. A Common Noun, or Appellative, is a name common to all the mem- 
bers of a class of objects ; vir, man ; equus, horse. Common nouns include 

Collective Nouns, designating a collection of objects: populus, people; 
exercitus, army. 

Abstract Nouns, designating properties or qualities : virtHs, virtue ; 
ififltitia, justice. 

Material Nouns, designating materials as such: aiirum, gold; lignmn, 
wood; aqua, water. 

63. Adjectives qualify nouns: bonus, good; maghus, great; 
bonus vir, a good man, 

64. Nouns and Adjectives have Gender, Number, and Case. 

HARK. LAT. OBAM, — 3 



18 MORPHOLOGY 

GENDER 

65. There are three genders — Masculine, Feminine^ and 

Neuter. 

66. Natural and Grammatical Gender. — In Latin gender is 
either Natural, as dependent upon sex, or Grammatical, as depen- 
dent upon an artificial distinction according to grammatical rules. 

Natural Gender 

67. The names of Persons have Natural Gender. They are 

accordingly 

1. Masculine, if they denote males: Caesar, Caesar; vlr, man; 
rex, kivg. 

2. Feminine, if they denote females : Tullia, Tullia; mulier, 
woman; regina, queen, 

3. Both Masculine and Feminine, if they are applicable to 
both sexes : civis, citizen, male or female ; homo, a human beingy 
man or woman ; but when used without distinct reference to sex, 
such nouns are generally masculine. 

NoTK. — A few names of the lower animals are sometimes used in the 
same way : bos, ox, or cow; canis, dog, male or female ; finser, gander, or 
goose. But some names of the lower animals, though applicable to both 
sexes, have only grammatical gender determined by their endings (71): oor- 
vus, racen, masculine ; aquila, eagle, feminine. 

Rules for Orammatical Gender 

68. Masculine. — The names of Rivers, Winds, and Months are 
niasoulino: Rhenus, the Rhine; Notus, the South Wind; Bffartias, 

March: but 

1 . The endings of some of these nouns give them a gender at variance 
with this rule. Thus names of rivers in a are feminine : Albula, the river 
AWuIa : AUia, the AUia, 

69. Feminine. — The names of Countries, Towns, Islands, and 
Trees are feminine: Oraeciau Greece; Roma, Borne; DeloB, the 
Island of Dvlos : pirns, imirtree; but 

1. The endings of some of these nouns give them a gender at variance 
n/fJi this rule. Thus plurals in I and a te\<f oxYiex \io\ma ^ro \xA&eaUsift 



CASES, DECLENSION 19 

and nouns in uin are neuter: Delphi, Pontus; oleaster^ wild olive tree; 
pinaster, Jir tree, masculine ; Latiuin, Saguntum, neuter. 

70. Neuter. — Indeclinable nouns, Infinitives and clauses used 
as nouns are neuter: alpha, the Greek letter alpha, a; fas, (he 
right; tunm amare, your loving. 

71. Gender by Endings. — In most nouns and adjectives the 
grammatical gender is determined by the ending of the Nomina- 
tive singular. Thus nouns and adjectives of the Second Declen- 
sion (82) in us are masculine: amicus, /r^e /id ; bonus, good; nouns 
and adjectives in a are feminine: mensa, tdbh; bona, good; and 
nouns and adjectives in mn are neuter: templum, temple; bonum, 
good. 

PERSON AND NUMBER 

72. The Latin, like the English, has three Persons, the First 
Person denoting the speaker ; the Second, the person spoken to ; 
the Third, the person spoken of ; and two Numbers, the Singular 
denoting one, and the Plural, more than one. 

CASES 

73. The Latin, unlike the English, has six cases : 

Names £ngrli8li Eqaivalents 

Nominative Nominative, Case of the Subject 

Vocative Nominative, as the Case of Address 

Genitive Possessive, or Objective with of 

Dative Objective with to ov for 

Accusative Objective after a Verb or a Preposition 

Ablative Objective with from, with, by, in 

1. Oblique Cases. — The Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative are 
called the Oblique Cases. 

2. Locative. — The Latin has also a few remnants of another case, called 
the Locative, denoting the Place in Which. 

DECLENSION 

74. Stem and Suffixes. — The process by which the several cases 
of a word are formed is called Declension. It eoxv^\sX.^ ycl \Xxft 

addition of certain su fixes to one conamoil base c^W^dc^Jsx^ ^\^\SX. 



20 MORPUOLOOT 

1. Meaning. — Acconlingly, each case form contains two distinct ele- 
ments — the Stem,^ which gives the general meaning of the word, and the 
('iisu Suffix, whicli shows the relation of that meaning to some other word. 
i'hiis, in iSg-is, of a king, the general idea, king, is denoted by the stem rSg; 
tiu' ri'lalion of, by the suffix is. 

2. Characteristic. — The last letter of the stem is called the Stem Charac- 
torislic, or Stem Ending. 

•I. Case Endings. — The case suffixes appear distinct and unchanged only 
in nouns and adjectives with consonant stems, while in all other words they 
are seen only in combination with the characteristic, i.e. with the final 
vowel of the stem. The ending produced by the union of the case suffix with 
the characteristic vowel is called a Case Ending. 

Cases Identical in Fonn 

78. 1. The Nominative and Vocative are alike in formy except 
in the singular of nouns and adjectives in us of the Second 
Declension and in a few Greek nouns. In all other words the 
V()('aLiv(i is simply the Nominative used in address, as the Nomi- 
nal ivc is used in English. 

2. The Nominative, Vocative, and Accusative in neuters are 
alike and in the plural end in a. 

«S. Tlie Dative and Ablative plural are alike. 

76. Five Declensions. — In Latin there are five declensions, dis- 
tinguished from each other by the endings of the Genitive singular, 
or by the stem characteristic, best seen in the Genitive plural, as 
follows: 



lifiv.lennlou 


Geii. 


Sing. K tiding^ 


Charaoteriatlo 




Cton. Plur. 


I. or A-I)<'C. 




ae 


a 


seen in 


mfins-ft-nin 


II. »* 0-I)<;c. 




I 


o 




Benr-^mm 


III. '' I-I)co. 




is 


i 




^vi-mn 


'• *' Cons. \)vc 




is 


cons. 




mXli-tHim* 


IV. " U-I)w;. 




as 


n 




irfLct-a-iim 


V. '' E-I)(T. 




» 


6 




di-fr-mm 



1. 'I'hf live declensions were inherited from the parent speech. 

77. The First, Second, and Third Declensions contain both 
noiiriH and adjectives; the Fourth and Fifth only nouns. 

' In many wonls the stem itself is derive»! from a more primitive form called 
a iCriot. Ff»r tiif; distinrtion between roots and stems, see 320. 1. 

'^ The in 8erv-6-rum was originally short ; heuee the ehaiacteristic is O. 
" In this word the characteristic is t. 



FIRST DECLEXSIOy 



21 



FIRST DECLENSION 
A>NouK8 AKD A-Adjbctites — Stems in A 

78. Latin nouns and adjectives of the First Declension end in 
a and are feminine. They are declined precisely alike, as follows : 



N. V.2 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Abl. 

N.V. 

Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



A-NOUNS 

M^nsa, tabky a table, or the table. 
Singular 





Meaninfc 


Case Endlnirt* 


mSnsa 


a table, table 


a 


mensae 


of a table 


ae 


mensae 


to or for a table 


ae 


mensam 


a table 


am 


mens& 


with, from, or by a table • 
Plural 


ft 


mSnsae 


tables, tables 


ae 


mens&rum 


of tables 


arum 


xnSnslB 


to or for tables 


Is 


mSns&8 


tables 


&8 


mensiB 


with, from, or by tables 


Is 



L-NOUNS AND A-AdJECTIVES 





Bona, good. 


Singular 


i-eglna, queen. 


Cases 


Adjective 


Noun 


Meanlnic 


N. V. 


bona 


rfiglna 


a good queen, (jood queen 


Gen. 


bonae 


rSglnae 


of a (jiiod queen 


Dat. 


bonae 


rCginae 


to or for a (/and queen 


Ace. 


bonam 


rSglnam 


a good queen 


Abl. . 


bona 


rfiglnS» 


with, from, or by a good queen 



1 These case endings will serve as a practical guide to the lotarnor in (li.stiti- 
guishing the different cases. The two elements which originally composed th(Mn 
have undergone various changes, and in certain cases, the one or the other has 
nearly or quite disappeared. 

2 N. V. = Nom. and Voc. As the Vocative is only a special use of the Nomi- 
native, it is combined with that case in the paradigm. 

• The Ablative, used sometimes with a preposition and sometimes without, is 
variously rendered, but the Ablative of personal appellatives takes a preposition, 
as ft or ab, from, by ; cum, with, etc. ; ft bona regriaft, from or by the good queen. 



22 




MORPHOLOGY 



Plural 



N. V. 


bonae 


r€g!nae 


Gen. 


bonSLnim 


reginSbiim 


Dat. 


bonis 


rgglnis 


Ace. 


bou^ 


rSglnts 


Abl. 


bonis 


regiais 



good queens^ good queens 

of good queens 

to or for good queens 

good queens 

with, frofn, or by good queens 



1. Stems. — In nouns and adjectives of the First Declension, the stem 
ends in a, shortened in the Nominative and Vocative singular. Thus the 
stem mSnsa becomes mSnsa in the Nominative, bonS becomes bona, and 
rSgIn§, rSgina. 

2. In the paradigms, observe that the several cases are distinguished from 
each other by their case endings. 

3. Examples for Practice. — Like mSnsa and bona decline : ftla, wing; 
causa, cause; puella, girl; beSta, happy; longa, long; polchra, beau- 
tiful. 

4. Locative. — Names of towns and a few other words have a Locative 
singular in ae, denoting the Place In Which any thing is or is done : Romae, 
at Borne ; militiae, in war. In the plural the Locative meaning is expressed 
by the ending is : AthSnIs, at Athens. 

6. Exceptions in Gender. — A few nouns in a are masculine by signi- 
fication: agricola, husbandman; see 67, 1. Hadria, Adriatic Sea^ is mas- 
culine ; sometimes also danuna, deer, and talpa, mole. 

6. Article. — The Latin has no article : corona, crown, a crown, the 
crown. 

7. Original Case Endings. — Tlie following are the original case endings 
with the forms which they assumed in the classical period : 





Singular 




Plural 






Original 
form 


Classical 
form 


Orisriiial 
form 




Classical 
form 


N.V. 


a 


a 


ai 




ae 


Gen. 


as, al 


ae 


asom 




arum 


Dat. 


ai 


ae 


ais 




is 


Ace. 


am 


am 


ans or 


as 


as 


Abl. 


ad 


a 


ais 




Is 



79. Of these original endings four are found in Latin writers : 

1. §. in the Nominative and Vocative singular in Plautus and Terence. 

2. as in the Genitive singular of familia, in composition with pater, 
mater, filius and fHia : paterfamilias, father of a family, 

8. ai in the Genitive singular in the poets : auiai, afterwards aulae, 
of a hall. 



SECOND DECLENSION 



23 



4. ad in the Ablative singular in early Latin : sententiad, later senten- 
tiSL, by the opinion. 

80. Two other case endings, common in some other declensions, 
but rare in this, are 

1. um^ in the Grenitive plural, chiefly in the poets : agxicolum = agrico- 
ISmm, of farmers; Dardanidum, of the descendants of Dardanus. 

2. SboB^ in the Dative and Ablative pluml, especially in dea, goddess^ 
and fflia, daughter, to distinguish tbem from the same cases of deua, gody 
and ffliuB, son : deSbus, for the goddesses. 

81. Greek Nouns. — Nouns of this declension in e, as, and 
68 are of Greek origin, but in the plural they have assumed 
the Latin declension, as seen in menBa. In the singular they 
are declined as follows: 





Epitome, 


Aeneas, 


Pyrites, 




epitome. 


Aeneas, 
Singular 


pyrites. 


Nom. 


epitomS 


A6n€&8 


pyrltSs 


Voc. 


epitomS 


Aen6& 


pyritg, pyrita 


Gen. 


epitomSs 


Aen6ao 


pyritae 


Dat. 


epitomae 


Aengae 


pyrltae 


Ace. 


epitomSn 


Aen^am, Aene&n 


pyritgn 


Abl. 


epitomg 


Aenea 


pyritg, pyrita 



1. In nouns in S and Ss, the stem ending & is changed to S in certain 
cases. The stem of epitomS is epitomS, of AenS&s, AenSa, and of pyri- 
tSs, pyriUl. 

2. Many Greek nouns assume the Latin ending a and are declined like 
mSnaa. Many in S have also a form in a : epitomS, epitoma. 



SECOND DECLENSION 
O-NouNS AND 0-Adjective8 — Stems in o 

82. Latin nouns and adjectives of the Second Declension end 
in us, in r, from which us has been dropped, or in um. Those in 
us and r are masculine, those in um neuter. 

1 This is the regular suffix in nouns of the Third and Fourth Declensions. 
2 bvifl in abus is the regular suffix for these cases in the Third, Fourth, and 
Fifth Declensions. 



24 




MORPHOLOGY 




83. 


Nouns and adjectives in ub and 


um are declined 


as follows : 




Amicus, 


Bonus, 


Templum, 


Bonum, 




friend. 


good. 

Singular 


temple. 


good, ' 


Nom. 
Voc. 


amicus 
amice 


bonus 1 
bona f 


templiun 


boniun 


Gen. 


amici 


boni 


templl 


boni 


Dat. 


amlc5 


bon5 


templ5 


boD5 


Ace. 


amiciim 


bonum 


templum 


bonum 


Abl. 


amicd 


bon5 

Plural 


templ5 


bon5 


N. V. 


amIcI 


bonI 


templa 


bona 


Gen. 


amlc5nim 


bondmm 


templ5rum 


bondrum 


Dat. 


aniicis 


bonis 


templls 


bonis 


Ace. 


amlcos 


bonds 


templa 


bona 


Abl. 


amicis 


bonis 


templls 


bonis 



1. stem. — In nouns and adjectives of the Second Declension, the stem 
ends in o with an ablaut form e, seen in the Vocative singular masculine. 
O becoiiif s u in us and um. The stem of amicus is amico, of bonus and 
bonum, bono, and of templum, templo. The Nominative masculine adds 
s and the neuter m : amicu-s, templu-m. 

2. In the paradigms, observe that bonus is declined precisely like ami- 
cus, and bonum like templum. 

3. Like amicus decline dominus, master; like templum, bellum, toar; 
like bonus, beSltus, happy ; like bonum, be&tum, happy. 

4. Locative. — Names of towns and a few other words have a Locative 
singular in I: EphesI, at Ephesus; Corinthi, at Corinth; domi, at home; 
belli, in war. In the plural the Locative meaning is expressed by the end- 
ing is : Argis, at Argos. 

6. Genuine Latin Proper Names in ius and the word filius form the 
Vocative singular in i and accent the penult: Mercu'-rl, Mercury ; fill, son. 
Proper names in Sius have SI or ei : PompSI or Pompei. 

6. Nouns in ius and ium have in the Genitive singular H or I, without 
a change of accent: fi-lil, fi'-li, of a son; Clau-dil, Clau'dl, of Claudius; 
inge-nii, inge'-nl, of genius. The latter form was in general use under the 
Republic, but the former became common in the age of Augustus ; both are 
used in editions of classical authors. In proper names many editors retain 
the Genitive in i : Publi Vergi'-H, of Puhlivs Vergilius. 

7. DeuB, god, lacks the Vocative singular in classical Latin, but is other- 
wjse regular in that number. It is declined in the igiVutaX ^ ioWo^^x 



SECOND DECLENSION 



25 



N.V. (del) dii dl 

Gen. deonixn, sometimes deum 

Ace. deoB 

Dat. Abl. (dels) diiB dis 

Note. — The inclosed forms, though regular, are rarely used. DH is 
pronounced like di, and diis like dis. 

8. The three neuter nouns in os,^ pelagus, sea^ viniB, poison^ and 
vulgUB, the common people, are declined in the singular as follows : 

N. V. Ace. pelagUB virus vulgus 



Gen. 
Dat. Abl. 



pelagi 
pelag5 



virus 

viri 

vir6 



vulgi 
vulg6 



9. Original Case Endings. — The following are the original case endings 
with the forms which they assumed in the classical period ; 

Singular 
Masculiiie Neuter 





Origrinal 
form 


Classical 
form 


Original 
form 


Classical 
form 


Nom. 
Voc. 


OS 

e 


TV 


om 


um 


Gen. 


ei 


I 


ei 


I 


Dat. 


Oi 


5 


6i 


5 


Ace. 


om 


um 


om 


um 


Abl. 


6d 


5 

Plural 


Od 


5 


N.V. 


oi* 


I 


a 


a 


Gen. 


om 


omm* 


om 


orum* 


Dat. 


Ois 


Is 


Ois 


Is 


Ace. 


5ns 


OS 


a 


a 


Abl. 


ois 


Is 


ois 


Is 



10. The original endings os and om were retained after u and v until the 
Augustan age: ingenuos, ingenuom, free-horn; servos, servom, slave; 

i These may have been originally s-stems which by the loss of s became 
o-sttos. Belagus is a Greek noun, and in general is used only in the singu- 
lar, taough pelage occurs as an Ace. plur. Virus and vulgus are used only 
in the singular. Vulgus has a masculine Accusative, vulgum, in addition to 
the neuter form vulgus. 

2 The'^ndings us and e are seen only in nouns and adjectives in us. In the 
masculinSrof nouns and adjectives in r, the Nominative has lost the ending us, 
and the VBeative is like the Nominative. 

8 The ^vk^ i is probably borrowed from the Pronominal Declension. 

* A latersirmation after the analogy of the Grenitive ending ftrum. 






26 



MORPHOLOGY 



equoB, equom, horse ; but during the reign of Augustus us and tun became 
the common endings for all words of this class, though in some editions, 
especially of the earlier writers, os and om are still retained. 

84. Old and Rare Case Endings : — The following occur ^ : 

1. od in the Ablative singular: Gnaiv5d, later Qnae5 ; merit5d, later 
merito, from merit, 

2. 21 in the plural of neuters: templ&, later templa. 

3. um.in the Genitive plural of certain nouns denoting money, weight, 
and measure : talentum = talentdmm, of talents ; sSstertiuin = BSstertid- 
rum, of sesterces ; also in a few other words : Ubenixn, of children ; Argivnm, 
of the A rgives. 

85. Nouns and adjectives in r of the Second Declension have 
lost the case ending us in the Nominative singular, and are 
declined as follows : 





Puer, 


Liber, 


Ager, 


Ruber, 




boy. 


free. 
Singular 


field. 


red. 


N.V. 


puer 


liber 


ager 


ruber 


Gen. 


puerl 


liberi 


agri 


rubrl 


Dat. 


puero 


libero 


agr5 


rubr6 


Ace. 


puerum 


llbenun 


agrum 


rubrum 


Abl. 


puero 


libero 
Plural 


agi*5 


rubr5 


N.V. 


pueri 


liberi 


agri 


rubri 


Gen. 


pueromm 


liberonim 


agr5nim 


rubr5ram 


Dat. 


puerls 


liberis 


agris 


rubris 


Ace. 


puerSB 


llberos 


agrds 


rubrds 


Abl. 


pueris 


liberis 


agrls 


rubiis 



1. In the paradigms, observe that puer and ager differ in declension from 
amicus, in dropping the ending us in the Nominative, and in forming no 
separate Vocative : Norn, puer from puer-us. 

2. LTber is declined like puer, and ruber like ager. 

3. The stem of puer is puero, of liber, libero, of ager, agro, and of 
ruber, rubro. 

4. Ager was formed from agros thus : *agr-o-s, *agr-s, *ager-s, ager.^ 

1 A few other endinj^s occur in inscriptions. 

2 First o disappears, leaving r sonant, then r hecomes er, *ager-0, and finally s 
disappears, leaving ager. 



SECOND DECLENSION 27 

5. Like pner decline gener, son-in-law; like ag«r, magister, master; 
like liber, miser, unhappy ; like ruber, niger, black. 

86. Most nouns and adjectives in r of this declension are declined 
like ager and ruber, but the following nouns are declined like puer : 

1. Vir, man, and its compounds : vir, viri, etc. ; triumvir, triumviri, 
etc. , member of a triumvirate. 

2. Compounds in fer and ger : armiger, armigeri, armor bearer; signl- 
fer, signiferi, standard bearer. 

3. Adulter, adulterer; CeltibSr,^ Celtiberian; gener, son-in-Iatr ; 
HibSr,! Spaniard; Liber, Bacchus; llberi, children; Mulciber,^ Vul- 
can; presbyter, elder; aocer, father-in-law ; vesper, evening. 

4. For Adjectives, thus declined, see 92. 

EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER 

87. A few nouns in us are Feminine : 

1. Most names of Countries, Towns, Islands, and Trees: Aeg3rptus, 
Egypt ; Corinthus, Corinth ; Cyprus, Cyprus ; pirus, pear tree. 

2. A few words in us of Greek origin: methodus, method; sjTQOdus, 
synod; diphthongus, diphthong. 

3. Five other words in us : alvus, belly ; carbasus, linen ; colus, dis- 
taff; hmnus, ground; vannus, /an. 

88. Three nouns in us are Neuter : pelagus, sea ; virus, poison ; 
vulgus, the common people. 

89. Greek Nouns. — Nouns of the second declension in os, 6s, 
generally masculine, and in on, neuter, are of Greek origin. They 
are declined in the singular as follows : 

Delos, f.,^ Androgeos, Ilion, 

Delos, Androgeos. ' Ilium. 

Singular 



Nom. 
Voc. 


Delos -» 
Dele j 


Androgeos 


Ilion 


Gen. 


D6li 


Androgeo, Androgel 


Ilii 


Dat. 


Dei6 


Androgeo 


Tlio 


Ace. 


Delon 


Androgeon, Androgeo 


Ilion 


Abl. 


Delo 


AndrogeS 


Bio 



1 Celtiber and Hib@r have e long in the Genitive as in the Nominative, and 
Mulciber sometimes drops e. 

2 Observe that Delos, the Island DeloSf is feminine by signification. 



28 



MORPHOLOGY 



1. The plural of nouns in os and on is generally regular, but certain 
Greek endings occur, as oe in the Nominative plural, and 6n in the Geni- 
tive plural: Arctoe, the constellation of the Bears; Therae5n, of the 
Theraeans. 

2. In the paradigms, the stems are DSlo, Androged, and Ilio. 

3. Most Greek nouns generally assume the Latin forms in us and mn and 
are declined like amicus and templum. Many in os and on have also a 
form in us and um, or at least assume the regular Latin forms in some of 
their cases. 

4. For Greek nouns in eus, see Orpheus, 110. 

5. Panthus has Voc. Panthu. For pelagus, see 83, 8. 



ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS 

90. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, as we have 
already seen, are declined like nouns of the same endings, but 
unlike nouns, each of these adjectives has three different forms, 
one for each of the three genders. Thus bonus is the form of the 
adjective when used with masculine nouns, bona with feminine, 
and bonum with neuter : bonus amicus, a good friend; bona regina, 
a good queen; bonum templum, a good temple. 

91. Comparative View of the three Forms representing the 
three Genders in Adjectives of this class. 





Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 




Bonus, 


bona, 


bonum, 




good. 


good. 


good. 


Nom. 
Voc. 


bonus \ 
bone J 


Singular 

bona 


bonum 


Gen. 


boni 


bonae 


boni 


Dat. 


bono 


bonae 


bono 


Ace. 


bonum 


bonam 


bonum 


Abl. 


bono 


bon& 
Plural 


bond 


N.V. 


boni 


bonae 


bona 


Gen. 


bonomm 


bonanim 


bonorum 


Dat. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


Ace. 


bonds 


bon&s 


bona 


Abl. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 



riBST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS 



29 





Masculine 


Feminine 


Neater 




Liber, 


libera, 


liberum, 




free. 


free. 
Singular 


free. 


N. V. 


llber 


libera 


liberum 


Gen. 


liberT 


llberae 


liberi 


Dat. 


libero 


llberae 


liberS 


Ace. 


liberum 


llberam 


liberom 


Abl. 


libero 


libera 
Plural 


liber5 


N. V. 


liberi 


llberae 


libera 


Gen. 


liberomm 


Uber&rum 


liberdmm 


Dat. 


liberia 


liberiB 


liberis 


Ace. 


liberoB 


libeHU 


libera 


Abl. 


liberis 


UberlB 


liberis 




Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 




Euber, 


rubra. 


rubrum, 




red. 


red. 
Singular 


red. 


N.V. 


ruber 


rubra 


rubnim 


Gen. 


rubri 


rubrae 


rubri 


Dat. 


rubro 


rubrae 


rubro 


Ace. 


rubnim 


rubram 


rubrum 


Abl. 


rubro 


rubra 
Plural 


rubro 


N.V. 


rubri 


rubrae 


rubra 


Gen. 


rubrdmm 


rubr^rum 


rubrorum 


Dat. 


rubris 


rubris 


rubris 


Ace. 


rubros 


rubr&B 


rubra 


Abl. 


rubris 


rubris 


rubiis 



1. In the paradigms observe that in the masculine bonus is declined like 
amicus, liber like puer, and ruber like ager, and that in the feminine and 
neuter all the examples are declined alike : bona, libera, rubra like mSnsa ; 
bonum, liberum and rubrum like templum, and that all these forms con- 
tain the full stem, while in the masculine liber and ruber lose the stem 
vowel o in the Nominative and Vocative singular. 

2. Adjectives in ius, unlike nouns with this ending, always have ie and 
ii in the Vocative and Genitive singular: Sgregius, excellent; Sgregie, 
CgregiL 



30 



MORPHOLOGY 



92. Most adjectives in r of the Second Declension are declined 
like ruber, but the following are declined like liber ; 

1. Satur, sated; satur, satura, saturum. 

2. Compounds in fer and ger: mortd-fer, deadly; ftli-ger, winged. 

3. Asper, mm/h; dexter, right; lacer, torn; miser, wretched; pr5s- 
per, prosperous ; tener, tender; but asper and dezter are sometimes de- 
clined like ruber : asper, aspra, asprum ; dexter, dextra, dextrum. 

93. Irregularities. — The following nine adjectives have in the 
singular ius in the Genitive and i in the Dative : 



unus una unum one, alone 

solus s5la solum alone 

totus tota tOtuni whole 

uUus uUa ullum any 

nullus nulla nullum not any 



alius alia aliud another 

alter altera alteram the other 

uter utra utrum which 

neuter neutra neutrum neither 



1. The endings lus, T, and ud, as in ali-ud, are regular endings in the 
Pronominal Declension, from which they are borrowed; see ist>iuB, ist-I, 
ist-ud (179). 

2. Alius, regular in the plural, has one or two special irregularities in 

the singular, as follows : 



Nom. 


alius 


alia 


aliud 1 


Gen. 


alius 


alius 


alius 


Dat. 


alii 


alii 


alii 


Ace. 


alium 


aliam 


aliud 


Abl. 


alio 


ali& 


ali5 



3. Alius, for aliius by contraction, is rare ; its place is sometimes sup- 
plied by alterius, the Genitive of alter, and sometimes by aliCnus, belong- 
ing to another. 

4. In the rest of these adjectives, the irregularity is confined to the Geni- 
tive and Dative endings, lus and i, but i in ius is often shortened by the 
poets ; regularly in alteVius in dactylic verse. 

5. The regular forms occasionally occur in the Genitive and Dative singu- 
lar of some of these adjectives. 

6. Like uter are declined its couipounds : uterque, utervis, uterlibet, 
utercunque, but i is short in utriusque. 

7. In alter uter, both parts are declined : alter!us utrius, but in alter- 
uter, only the latter part is declined : alterutnus. 



1 Alls for alius and alid for aliud, from the stem ali seen in aliquis, some 
one, are rare. 



THIRD DECLENSION 31 

THIRD DECLENSION 
Nouns and Ai>jectite8 — Stems in a Coksokant and Stems in I 

94. The Third Declension, like the First and Second, contains 
both nouns and adjectives. 

Nouns of the Third Declension 

95. Nouns of the Third Declension may be conveniently di- 
vided into four classes : 

I. Nouns with Consonant Stems. 

II. Nouns with I-Stems. 

III. Nouns with Consonant and I-Stems combined. 

IV. Special Paradigms.^ 

I. — Consonant Stems 

96. Stems ending in a Labial : B or P. 

Princeps, m., leader^ chief. 
Singular 









Case Suffixes 


N.V. 


princeps 


a leader^ leader 


s 


Gen. 


principis 


of a leader 


is 


Dat. 


principi 


to, for a leader 


I 


Ace. 


principem 


a leader 


em 


Abl. 


principe 


withy from, by a leader 
Plural 


e 


N.V. 


principCs 


leaders, leaders 


es 


Gen. 


principum 


of leaders 


urn 


Dat. 


principibiis 


to, for leaders 


ibus 


Ace. 


princip6s 


leaders 


es 


Abl. 


principibiis 


with, from, by leaders 


ibus 



1. stem and Case Suffixes. — In this paradigm observe that the stem is 
princip, which becomes prmcep in the Nominative singular, and that the 
case suffixes appear distinct and separate from tlie stem. 

2. Variable Vowel. — In the final syllable of dissyllabic consonant stems, 
short e or i generally takes the form of e in the Nominative and Vocative 
singular and that of i in all the other cases. Thus princeps, principis, 



1 For Gender, see 111-124. 



32 



MORPHOLOGY 



mlleB, mllitis (97), and cannen, carminis (100) all have e in the Nomi- 
native and Vocative singular and i in all the other cases. See also opus, 
operis (101). 

3. In monosyllables in bs the stem ends in b, bi ; see urbs, 105. 

4. For the Locative in this declension, see 108. 

97. Stems ending in a Dental : D or T. 





Lapis, m.j 


» 


Aetas, f ., 


Miles, m., 




stone. 




age. 


soldier. 






Singular 




N. V. 


lapis 




aetSs 


miles 


Gen. 


lapidis 




aet&tis 


mllitis 


Dat. 


lapidi 




aetftti 


mlliti 


Ace. 


lapidem 




aetatem 


militem 


Abl. 


lapide 


Pldrai 


aetftte 


mllite 


N. V. 


lapidSs 




aetfttSs 


mllites 


Gen. 


lapidnm 




aetfttum 


militum 


Dat. 


lapidibuB 




aetatibuB 


mllitibus 


Ace. 


lapidCs 




aetatSs 


milites 


Abl. 


lapidibuB 




aetatibuB 


mUitibas 




Nepos, m 


') 


Virtus, f., 


Caput, n., 




grandson. 




virtue. 


fiead. 






Singular 




N. V. 


nepOs 




virtiis 


caput 


Gen. 


nepOtis 




virtutis 


capitis 


Dat. 


nepOti 




virtuti 


capiti 


Ace. 


nepotem 




viilutem 


caput 


Abl. 


nepOte 


Plura] 


virtute 


capite 


N. V. 


nepOtCs 




virtutgs 


capita 


Gen. 


nep5tum 




virtutum 


capitum 


Dat. 


nopoUbus 




virtutibus 


capitibns 


Ace. 


nepOtSs 




virtutSs 


capita 


Abl. 


nep5tibu8 




virtutibus 


capitiboa 



1. stems and Case Suffixes.— In these paradigms observe that the stems 
are lapid, aetat, mDit, nepdt, virttlt, and capit, and that the case suffixes 
are the same as those given for labial nouns, except in the neuter caput, 
which has in the Nominative, Vocative, and Accusative no case suffix Id the 
singular and a in the plural. 



THIRD DECLENSION 



33 



2. Miles has the variable vowel e, i, and caput, u, i. 

3. Like nepos are declined, cos, whetstone; d5B, dovsry ; sacerdds, 
priest. For flos, floris, see 101. 

4. Like virtus are declined iuventus, youth; salus, safety ; senectus, 
old age; servitus, servitude. For ius, iuris, see 101. 

5. The Nominative of masculine and feminine nouns is formed by adding 
s to the stem. The dental, d or t, disappears before s ; see 63, 1. 

6. Neuters in a, stem in at, are of Greek origin ; seer 110, 6. 

98. Stems ending in a Guttural: C or G. 

Dux, m. apd f ., Eadix, f ., 
leader. root. 



N.V. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Abl. 



N.V. 

G«n. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Abl. 



duz 

ducis 

duel 

ducem 

duce 



ducSs 

ducum 

ducibus 

ducSs 

ducibus 



Singular 

radix 

radlcis 

radici 

radicem 

radlce 

Plural 

radlcSs 

radicum 

radicibus 

radicSs 

radicibus 



±cex, m., 




king. 






Case Suffixes 


r6z 


s 


regis 


is 


regi 


i 


rggem 


em 


rege 


e 


rSgSs 


es 


reguin 


urn 


regibus 


ibus 


rggSs 


6s 


rggibus 


ibus 



1. stems and Case Suffixes. — In these paradigms observe that the stems 
are due, r&dic, and r6g, that the case suffixes are the same as those given in 
96, and that s in the Nominative singular unites with c or g of the stem 
and forms z, as duc-s, dux ; rSg-s, r6z. 



99. Stems ending in a Liquid: L or R. 





Consul, m., 




Passer, m., 


Pater, m.. 




consul. 


SlNGl 


sparrow. 

QLAR 


father. 


N.V. 


consul 




passer 


pater 


Gen. 


consulis 




passerls 


patris 


Dat. 


cOnsuli 




passerl 


patri 


Ace. 


c5nsulem 




passerem 


patrem 


Abl. 


consule 




passere 


patre 



HARK. LAT. GRAM. — 4 



34 



MORPHOLOGY 



N.V. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Abl. 



cOnsulCs 

c5nsuliim 

cdnsulibua 

consulSs 

consulibuB 



Plural 

passerSs 

passenim 

passeribuB 

passerSs 

passeribuB 



patrSs 

patrum 

patrlbuB 

patrSs 

patribuB 



1. Stems and Case Sufi&zes. — In these paradigms observe that the stems 
are consul, passer, and pater, patr,^ and that they do not take a in the 
Nominative singular. 

2. Passer, Pater. — Most nouns in er are declined like passer, but those 
in ter, with a very few exceptions, are declined like pater. 

3. Four stems in or have the variable vowel, o, u: ebur, ebor-is, ivory; 
femur, thigh ; iecur, liver ; r5bur, strength, 

100. Stems ending in a Nasal: M or N. 





Hiems, f., 


Le5, lu., 


Virgo, f ., 


Carmen, n.. 




winter. 


lion. 
Singular 


maiden. 


song. 


N.V. 


hiems 


leO 


virgO 


carmen 


Gen. 


hiemis 


leOnis 


virginis 


carminis 


Dat. 


hiemi 


leOnl 


virgini 


carmini 


Ace. 


hiemem 


leOnem 


virginem 


carmen 


Abl. 


hieme 


le5ne 
Plural 


virgine 


carmine 


N.V. 


hiemSs 


leOnSs 


virginSs 


carmina 


Gen. 


hiemum 


lednum 


virginum 


carminum 


Dat. 


hiemibus 


le5nlbus 


virginibus 


carminibus 


Ace. 


hiemSs 


leOnSs 


virgings 


carmina 


Abl. 


hiemibus 


lednibus 


virginibus 


carminibus 



1. stems and Case Suffixes. — In these paradigms observe that the 
steins are hiem, leon, virgon, virgin,^ and carmen,^ that hiem, the 
only stem in m, takes s in the Nominative and Vocative singular, while stems 
in n take no suffix in those cases, that leon and virgon drop n, and that 
Virgo has the variable vowel o, i, and carmen, e, i. 

2. Leo and Virgo. — Most nouns in 6 are declined like le5, but those in 
do and go, with a few others, are declined like virg5. 

3. For the Locative in this declension, see 108. 

1 The suffix ter in pa-ter has a weak form tr: hence the stem pa-ter has a 
weak form pa-tr; see ablaut forms, 21, 325, and 326. 

2 The stem virgin was originally vlrg'en ; carmen becomes carmin. 



THIRD DECLENSION 



35 



101. Stems ending in S. 





Flos, in., 


lus, n.. 


Opus, n., 


Corpus/ n., 




flower. 


right. 
Singular 


work. 


body. 


N.V. 


flOs 


ids 


opus 


corpus 


Gen. 


flOiis 


iuris 


operis 


corporis 


Dat. 


flOri 


itiri 


opeii 


eorpori 


Ace. 


flOrem 


iOs 


opus 


corpus 


Abl. 


flOre 


itire 

Plural 


opere 


corpore 


N.V. 


flOrCs 


ifira 


opera 


corpora 


Gen. 


flOmm 


iunim 


opemm 


corporam 


Dat. 


flOribnR 


iuiibuB 


operibuB 


corporibuB 


Ace. 


flOrCs 


iura 


opera 


corpora 


Abl. 


fi5ribu8 


iuribus 


operibua 


corporlbus 



1. stems and Case Suffixes. — In these paradigms observe that the 
stems are 1158, ius, opos, opes, corpos, that the Nominative and 
Vocative singular take no suffix, that s of the stem becomes r between 
two vowels : flos, lloris, and that opus has the variable vowel e, u, and 
corpus, o, n. 

2. Like 115s are declined glos, sister-in-law; mos, custom; r5s, dew. 
For nepos, see 97. 

3. Like ids is declined crus, leg. Note also mils, mfiris, mouse ; tellus, 
telltLris, earth. 

4. Like opus are declined loedus, funus, genus, glomus, latus, miinus, 
onus, pondus, rudus, scelus, sidus, ulcus, vellus, viscus, vulnus. Note 
also Venus, Veneris, feminine. 

5. Like corpus are declined decus, dSdecus, lacinus, laenus, frigus, 
lltus, nemus, pectus, pecus, tempus, tergus. 

C). A few stems in os finally became r-stems, as the r of the oblique cases 
gradually usurped the place of the original s in the Nominative singular : 
honos, honSris ; honor, honoris. 

7. A few nouns in 6s, as elides, fidSs, nubSs, sSdSs, etc., lose the 
original s of the stem in the oblique cases and assume some of the character- 
istics of i-stems ; see 105. 



1 Opus and corpus are both inflected from stems formed by means of an 
Indo-European suffix with the ablaut forms os, es; the form os. weakened to 
us, when final, is the basis of the inflection of corpus: the form os, weakened 
to us, is also seen in the Noni., Voc., and Ace. sing, of opus, but the form os 
appears in all the other cases. 



36 



MORPHOLOGY 



II. — I-Stems 

102. Stems ending in I. — Nouns in is and es, not increasing in 
the Genitive. 





Tussis, f., 


Navis, f., 


Ignis, m., 


Auris, f., 






cough. 


ship. 


fire. 


ear. 








Singular 




Case 
Endings 


N. V. 


tussis 


navis 


ignis 


auris 


is 


Gen. 


tussis 


navis 


Ignis 


auris 


is 


Dat. 


tussi 


n3,vi 


Ignl 


auri 


i 


Ace. 


tussim 


navim, navem 


Ignem 


aurem 


im, em 


Abl. 


tussi 


navi, nave 


Igul, igne 


aure 


i, 8 






Plural 






N.V. 


tussSs 


navSs 


ignSs 


aurCs 


6s 


Gen. 


tussium 


naviiim 


ignium 


aurium 


ium 


Dat. 


tussibus 


navibus 


Ignibus 


auribus 


ibus 


Ace. 


J tussSs 
I tussis 


navSs 


ignCs 


aur^s 


es 


navis 


ignis 


auris 


is 


Abl. 


tnssibus 


navibus 


ignibiis 


auribus 


ibus. 



1. stems and Case Endings. — In these paradigms observe that the stems 
are tussi, ntvi, igni, and auri, that the case endings contain the characteris- 
tic i, and that tussis, navis, ignis, and auris, differ in declension only in 
the Accusative and Ablative singular, tussis showing the final i of the stem 
in both of these cases, ntvis sometimes in both, ignis sometimes in the 
Ablative but not in the Accusative, auris m neither. 

2. Like tussis — Ace. im, Abl. i — are declined biiris, plow-tail; sitis, 
thirst., and in the singular, names of rivers and towns in is, with the Geni- 
tive in is: Albis, the Elbe; Tiberis, the Tiber; Hispalis, Seville; Ne&- 
polis, Naples. 

3. Like navis — Ace. im, em, Abl. i, e — are declined the feminines 
cltvis, h'f'tf ; febris, fetter ; messis, harvest ; pelvis, basin ; puppis, stent ; 
restis, rope; securis, axe; sementis, sowing; turris, tower; strigilis, 
strtijU. 

NoTK. — Araris, or Arar, for Araris, the Saone^ and Liger, for Ligeris, 

the Lai re, have Ace. im, em, Abl. T, e. 

4. Liko ignis — Ace. em, Abl. i, e — are declined: amnis, river; avis, 
bird; bilis, hile ; civis, citizen; classis, fleet; collis, fiill; finis, end; 
orbis, circle ; postis, post ; unguis, nail ; and a few others. 

T). Like auris — Aec. em, Abl. e — are declined all nouns in is, Gen. is, 
not provided for under 2, 8, and 4, except canis, dog, and iuveois, a youth, 



THIRD DECLENSION 



37 



consonant stems which have assumed i in the Nominative singular. Apia, 
lee; mCnais, month; and volucris, bird, often have um for ium in the 
Genitive. 

6. Adjectives which have i in the Ablative generally retain i when used 
substantively, as in the names of months, etc. : Septembri, in September ; 
Octobri, in October; & famili&ri, from a friend. But adjectives used as 
proper names take e : luvenSUis, luvenSUe, Juvenal. 

103. Stems ending in I. — ^^Neuters in e, al, and ar. 





Cublle, 


Animal, 


Calcar, 






coitch. 


animal. 
Singular 


spur. 


Case 
Ending:» 


N.V. 


cublle 


animal 


calcar 


e — 


Gen. 


cubilis 


animalis 


calc§;riB 


is 


Dat. 


cubili 


anim§;lf 


calcari 


i 


Ace. 


cublle 


animal 


calcar 


e — 


Abl. 


cubUi 


animali 
Plural 


calcari 


i 


N.V. 


cubilia 


animalia 


calcarla 


ia 


Gen. 


cubilium 


animalium 


calcarium 


ium 


Dat. 


cubilibuB 


animalibuB 


calcaiibus 


ibus 


Ace. 


cubilia 


anim§,lia 


calcaiia 


ia 


Abl. 


cubilibna 


animalibuB 


calcaribus 


ibus 



1. Paradigms. — Observe that the stem ending i is changed to e in the 
Nominative, Vocative, and Accusative singular of cublle, and dropped in 
the same cases of animal, for *animale, and calcar, for *calcare ; see 26, 1, 
and 40, 1 ; and that the case endings include the stem ending i. 

2. A few nouns have e in the Ablative singular, as names of towns in e : 
Praeneste ; generally rSte, net, and in poetry sometimes mare. 

3. Neuters in ar, aria, with a short in the Genitive, are consonant stems : 
nectar, nectarlB, nectar. 



III. — Consonant and I-Stems Combined 

104. This class of Latin nouns was produced by a fusion of 
consonant and i-stems. It consists of i-stems which have lost 
the final i in the singular and of consonant stems which have 
assumed i in the plural. 



40 



MORPHOLOGY 





For Consonant Stems 


For I-Stems 






Singular 






Original 


ClMftioal 


Original Clastioal 




form 


form 


form form 


N. V. 


8 


B 


i-6 is 


Gen. 


es 


is 


— 18« 


Dat. 


ai 


I 


ei I 


Ace. 


em 


em 


i-m im* 


Abl. 


• 

1 


- e 

Plural 


I-d I 


N. V. 


— 


6b 1 


ei-es 6b 


Gen. 


om 


um 


M>in imn 


Dat. 


— 


ibuBi 


i-bhos ibna 


Ace. 


ens 


6b 


i-ns la' 


Abl. 


^^ 


ibuB^ 


i-bhos ibuB 



Note. — In this table observe that consonant steins borrow the endings 6b 
and ibus of the Nominative, Dative, and Ablative plural from 1-stems, and that 
l-stenis borrow the ending is of the Genitive singular from consonant stems. 

5. Neuter nouns have the same case suffixes and endings as masculines 
and feniinines, except in the Nominative and Accusative, where, if conso- 
nant stems, they take no suffix in the singular, and the suffix a, from an 
original S, in the plural, and if i-stems, they have the ending e, from an 
original i, in the singular, and ia, from an original IS, in the plural. 

6. Early and Rare Endings. — The foUowmg occur : 

68 and us in the Gen. sing.: saltiteB = saliitis ; hominua = homlnia. 

e in the Dat. sing.: aere = aerl ; M&rte = M&rtl. 

Id in the Abl. sing.: marid = mari. 

eis and Is in the Nom. plur. : civeis and cfvfB = clv68. 

^8 in the Ace. plur.: civeia = civ6B or civla. 

LOCATIVE CASE 

108. ^lany names of towns have a Locative singular in i or e, 
denoting the Place in Which any thing is or is done : Carthagini, 
or Carthagine, at Carthage; Tiburi, or Tibure, at Tibtir, In the 
plural the Locative meaning is expressed by the ending ibua: 
GadlbuB, at Gades. 



1 Borrowed from i-stems. 

2 Borrowed from consonant stems. 

s But i-stems often borrow from consonant stems the endings em and 68 for 
im and la. 



THIRD DECLENSION 



41 



GREEK NOUNS 

109. Many Greek nouns of the Third Declension are entirely 
regular, but some retain certain peculiarities of the Greek, espe- 
cially the following Greek forms : 

1. A Vocative singular like the stem : Pari-s, Pari ; Orpheus, Orpheu. 

2. A Genitive singular in os : Pallas, Palladis, Pallados. 

3. An Accusative singular in a : Pallada. 

4. A Nominative plural in es : Arcades. 

5. An Accusative plural in as : Arcadas. 



110. 


The following examples illustrate these 


peculiarities : 




Lampas, f., 


Phryx, m. and f.. 


H^ros, m., 




torch. 


Phrygian, 
Singular 


hero. 


N. V. 


lampas 


Phryx 


h6r6s 


Gen. 


lampadis, lampados 


Phrygis 


her5i8 


Dat. 


lampadi 


Phrygi 


hgrOT 


Ace. 


lampad em, lampada 


Phrygem, Phryga, 


heroem, h6r5a 


Abl. 


lampade 


Phryge 
Plural 


herOe 


N. V. 


lampadSs, lampades 


PhrygSs, Thryges 


h€r56s, h€rOes 


Gen. 


lampadum 


Phrygum 


hgrOum 


Dat. 


lampadibus 


Phry gibus 


h6r5ibus 


Ace. 


lampadSs, lampadas 


Phryggs, Phrygas 


hgrOSs, hgrOas 


Abl. 


lampadibus 


Phrygibus 


hgrOibus 




Cotys, m. 


Paris, m. 
Singular ^ 


Orpheus, m. 


Nom. 


Cotys 


Paris 


Orpheus 


Voc. 


Coty 


Pari 


Orpheu 


Gen. 


Cotyis 


Paridis 


Orphei, Orpheos 


Dat. 


Cotyi 


Paridi 


OrpheS, Orphei 


Ace. 


Cotym 


Paridem, Parim, Parin 


Orpheum, Orph( a 


Abl. 


Cotye 


Paride, Pari 


OrpheS 


1. In these paradigms the stems are lampad, Phryg, 


h6r5, Coty, Parid, 


Pari, and Orpheu. 







1 As proper names, these words have oniy the singular in general use. 



42 MORPHOLOGY 

2. Observe that these paradigms fluctuate in certain cases between the 
Latin and the Greek forms : Lampadis, lampados ; hfirdSs, h6r5aB ; and 
between different declensions : between Decl. II., Orphel, Orphed, 
Orpheum, and Deci. III., Orpheu, Orpheos, Orphei, Orphea. 

3. Greek feniinines in 5 may be declined either with CLb in the Genitive 
and with 5 in the other cases, as Didd, DidtLs, DIdd, etc., or regularly from 
the stem in dn, as DId5, DIddnis, DidSn^, Diddnem, DId5ne. 

4. Nouns in clSs are declined as follows: Pericl6s: Voc. Pexlcl6B, 
PericlS ; Gen. Periclis, Periclf ; Dat. Pexicll, or Pexlcll ; Ace. Pexiclem, 
PericlSn, or Periclea ; Abl. Pericle. 

5. Greek neuters in a, Gen. in atis or atos, often have Is for ibus in the 
Dative and Ablative plural, and sometimes drum for um in the Genitive 
plural : poSma, poem ; poSmatls or poSmatibas ; po6mat5rum or po6- 
matum. 

6. Vocative Singular. — Greek nouns in is, ys, and eus generally have 
the Vocative singular like the stem, as in the paradigms ; but those in fts, 
Gen. in antis, have the Vocative in & : AtlSs, Atlft. 

7. In the Genitive plural, the ending 5n occurs in a few titles of books : 
MetamorphSsSs (title of a poem), Metamorph5se5n. 

8. In the Dative and Ablative plural the ending si, sin, occurs in poetry : 
TroadSs, Troasin. 

9. A few neuters used only in the Nominative, Vocative, and Accusative 
have OS in the singular and 6 in the plural : melos, mel6, song. 



GENDER AS DETERMINED BY THE ENDINGS OF NOUNS 

I. Masculines 

111. Nouns of the Third Declension ending in 6, or, os, er, and 

, are masculine : 

Sermd, discourse; dolor, pain; m5s, custom; agger, mound; gorges, 
whirlpool, 

112. Nouns in 6 are masculine, except those in do and go, and 
abstract and collective nouns in 15, most of which are feminine ; 
see 116. 

1. Card, Jlesh^ and the Greek Argd and 6chd are feminine. 

113. Nouns in or and os are masculine, except 

1. The Feminines: arbor, arb5s, tree; c6s, whetstoup ; dSs, dowry. 

2. The Ncutors: ador, spelt; aequor, sea; cor, heart; marmor, 
marble; 6s, mouth. 



THIRD DECLENSION 43 

114. Nouns in er and es are masculine, except 

1. The Feminincs: linter, boat; merges, ssheaf; sages, crop; teges, mat. 

2. The Neuters: cadtver, coiyse; iter, way; tuber, tumor; fiber, 
udder; a few names of trees and plants in er: acer, maple tree; papft- 
ver, poppy. 

Note. — Aes, copper, and vSr, spring, are neuter. 

n. Feminines 

115. Nouns of the Third Declension ending in do, go, 16 ; as, es, 
is, us, ys, X, and in s preceded by a consonant are feminine : 

Grando, hail; origo, origin; ratio, reason; contio, an assembly; 
aetas, age; nubSs, cloud; nSvis, ship; virtus, virtue; chlamys, cloak; 
pSx, peace ; urbs, city. 

116. Nouns in do and go, and abstract and collective nouns in 
io, are feminine, except cardo, hinge; ordo, rank; harpago, grap- 
pling JiooJc; ligo, mattock ; margo, border, which are masculine. 

Notes. — 1. Twenty-five or thirty nouns in io, chiefly denoting material 
objects, are masculine, as pugio, poniarc? ; xltAo, pearl ; pSpilio, butterfly, 

2. Nouns in do, go, and io are exceedingly numerous, nearly three 
hundred in all. 

117. Nouns in as and es are feminine, except 

1. The Masculines: as, the as, a coin; acmaces, scimiter; celSs, a 
racer; lebes, chaldron; magn§s, magnet; pariSs, wall; pes, foot; qua- 
drupSs, quadruped; veprSs, thorn bush; and Greek nouns in fts. Gen. in 
antis : adamas, adamant. 

2. The Neuter : vas, vessel. 

Note. — Most nouns in as, Gen. in adis, are feminine, but dromas, 
dromedary, and vas, surety, are masculine. 

118. Nouns in is are feminine, except the following masculines : 

1. Nouns in nis and guis : ignis, fire ; sanguis, blood. 

2. Nouns in is. Gen. in eris : cucumis, cucumber ; pulvis, dust; vomis, 
plowshare. 

3. The following : 

axis, axle fascis, bundle piscis, fish 

buris, plow tail fiistis, cudgel postis, post 

caulis, stalk lapis, stone sentis, brier 

coUis, hill mensis, month torris, brand 

ensis, sword orbis, circle vectis, leoer 



44 MORPHOLOQT 

4. Sometimes a few other nouns in is. 
. Note. — Nouns in is are very numerous, nearly one hundred and fifty in all. 

119. Nouns in us and ys are feminine, except 

1. The Masculines: mus, mouse, Greek nouns in ptts : triptLs, tripod, 
and names of mountains in ys : Othrys. 

2. The Neuters: crtls, leg; ItLs, right; p^, pus; r^, the country; tus, 

incense. 

Note. — Fraus, fraud, and laua, praise, are feminine. 

120. Nouns in x are feminine, except the following masculines : 

1. Greek Masculines : coraz, raven; thdrSz, cuirass. 

2. Nouns in ex, except the feminines : forfez, shears ; imbres, hollow 
tile; nex, death; snpeUex. furniture, 

8. Caliz, nip; fomiz, arch; phoeaSx, phoenix ; tr&duz, vinelayer, and 
a few nouns in yx. 

121. Nouns in a preceded by a consonant are feminine, except 
the following masculines : 

1. DSns, tooth; tons, fountain; indns, mountain; p5ns, bridge; gen- 
erally, adeps, fat ; and rudSns, cable. 

2. Some nouns in ns, originally adjectives or participles with a masculine 
noun undei-stood: oriSns (s5l), east; cdnfluSns (amnis), confluence; tri- 
dSns (raster), trident; quadrlns (^), quarter. 

3. Sometimes forceps, forceps ; serpens, serpent ; stirps, stock. 

m. Neuters 

122. Nouns of the Third Declension ending in a, e, i, y, c, 1, n, 
t, ar, ur, and us are neuter : 

Poema, poem ; mare, sea ; sinapl, mustard ; misy, kind of mushroom ; 
ISc, milk; animal, animal; carmen, song; caput, head; nectar, nectar; 
ebur, ivory; corpus, body. 

123. Nouns in 1, n, and ar are neuter, except miigil, muUet; bH, 
salt: sol, sun; pecten, comb; salar, trout, which are masculine. 

124. Nouns in ur and us are neuter, except 

1. The Masculines: furfur, Iran; turtur, ttirtle dove; vultur, vulture; 
lepus, hare. 

2. The Feminine: pecus (pecudis), herd of cattle. 



THIRD DECLENSION 



45 



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION 

125. Adjectives of the Third Declension may be divided into 
three classes : 

I. Those which have in the Nominative singular three different 
forms — one for each gender: I-Steras. 

II. Those which have two forms — the masculine and feminine 
being the same : Consonant and I-Stems. 

III. Those, which have but one form — the same for all gen- 
ders : Consonant and I-Steras. 

126. Adjectives of Three Endings in this declension have the 
stem in i, and are declined as follows : 

Acer, acris, acre, sharp. 







Singular 






Magcnilne 


Feminine 


Neuter 


N.V. 


aeer 


acris 


acre 


Gen. 


acria 


acris 


acris 


Dat. 


acri 


acri 


acri 


Ace. 


9<2rem 


9<2rem 


acre 


Abl. 


Sx;ri 


acri 
Plural 


acri 


N.V. 


S,crga 


acrSs 


acria 


Gen. 


aciiiim 


acriiim 


acrium 


Dat. 


acribus 


acribus 


acribus 


Ace. 


acrSs, acris 


acrSs, acris 


acria 


Abl. 


acribus 


9<2ribus 


acribus 



1. Here observe that the stem of tcer, acris, Sere is acri, and that the 
Ablative singular ends in i. 

2. Adjectives in er of this class are regularly declined like §cer, but 
celer, celeris, celere, swifts retains the e before r, and when used as a 
substantive has um in the Genitive plural. Volucer, winged, sometimes 
has um. 

3. In the poets and in early Latin, the form in er, as §cer, is sometimes 
feminine, and the form in is, as tcris, is sometimes masculine. 

127. Adjectives of Two Endings are either from i-stems or 
from s-stems, and are declined <>" ^'^^lows: 



46 




MORPHOLOGY 






Tristis, triste/ sad. 


Trlstior,^ tristius, sadder. 






Singular 








M. and F. 


Neat. 


M. and F. 


Neat. 


N. V. 


tristia 


triste 


trlstior 


tristius 


Gen. 


tristia 


tristia 


trIstiOria 


trlstiOiia 


Dat. 


tristi 


tristi 


trIstiOri 


trIstiOri 


Ace. 


tristem 


triste 


trlstiOrem 


tristius 


Abl. 


tristi 


tristi 

Plural 


trlstiOre (I) 2 


trIstiOre (i) * 


N. V. 


tristfia 


tristia 


tristiOrfia 


trIstiOra 


Gen. 


tristium 


tristium 


trIstiOrum 


trlstiOnim 


Dat. 


tristibua 


tristibua 


trlstiGiibua 


tristiOribuB 


Ace. 


trIstSa, trisHa 


tristia 


trIstiOrSa (la) a 


tristidra 


Abl. 


tristibua 


tristibua 


trIstiGiibua 


tristlGribua 



1. Observe that triatia and triate have 1 in the Ablative singular ; that 
otherwise tristia is declined like ignia, and triate like cubile (102, 103). 

2. Triatior is the comparative (149) of triatia. 

8. Like triatior, comparatives, as consonant stems, generally have the 
Abl. sing, in e, sometimes in i, the Nom. plur. neuter in a, and the Gen. 
plur. in um. But the comparative plda, more^ is declined as follows : 

Singular Plural 





M. and F. 


Neat. 


M. and F. 


Neat. 


Nom, 




plus 


plUrSa 


plOra 


Gen. 


— 


plUria 


pltirium 


piarium 


D. Abl. 


— 


— 


pltLribua 


pltLribua 


Ace. 




plus 


plUrSa 


plura 



4. ComplurSa is declined like the plural of pltlrSa, though it admits 
compluria for compliira in the neuter. 

128. Adjectives of One Ending are declined partly from con- 
sonant stems and partly from i-stems. Most of them end in a 
or x; a few in 1 or r 





Audax, 


audacious. 

Singular 


Felix, happy. 




M. and F. 


Neut. 


M. and F. Neat. 


N.V. 


audax 


audax 


fglix felix 


Gen. 


audacia 


audacia 


fglicia fMicia 



1 Final i becomes e in triste, and the stem ending s becomes r between vowels, 
and linally this r usurps the place of s in the Nominative masculine. In the 
neuter Xominativc and Accusative, tristios is weakened to tristius. 

* The forms with the inclosed endings, tristiSri and tristiSris, are very rare. 



Trnno DSCLSNsioy, adjectivss 



47 



Dat. 


audftcT 


audftcl 


felici 


fellcl 


Ace. 


audacem 


aud&x 


fellcem 


feilx 


Abl. 


aud&cl (e) 


aud9<;I (e) 

Plural 


felici (e) 


felici (e) 


N.V. 


audacSs 


audacia 


felicSa 


felicia 


Gen. 


audaeium 


audacium 


feiicium 


felirlum 


Dat. 


aud^ibuB 


audacibua 


feiicibua 


fellcibua 


Aec. 


aud&c6a (is) 


aud&cia 


f ellcSa (la) 


fellcia 


Abl. 


aud&cibuB 


audacibua 


feUcibua 


felicibua 




Amans, \ 


^xmng. 


Pradfins, prudent. 






Singular 








M. and F. 


Neat. 


M. and F. 


Neat. 


N.V. 


amftns 


amftns 


prudens 


prQdSns 


Gen. 


amantis 


amantia 


prudentia 


prudentia 


Dat. 


amantl 


amantl 


prGdenti 


pradenti 


Ace. 


amantem 


am&ns 


prudentem 


prddens 


Abl. 


amante (I) 


amante (I) 

Plural 


prudenti (e) 


prGdenti (e) 


N.V 


amantSa 


amantia 


prudentSa 


prudentia 


Gen. 


aniantium 


amantium 


pradentium 


prGdentium 


Dat. 


ainantibua 


amantibua 


prtldentibua 


pradentibua 


Ace. 


amantfia (Xa) 


amantia 


prudentea (la) 


prQdentia 


Abl. 


amantibuB 


amantibua 


prudentibua 


prudentibua 




Vetus, 


old. 


Memor, mindful. 






Singular 








M. and F. 


Neat. 


M. and F. 


Neat. 


N.V. 


vetus 1 


yetus 


memor 


memor 


Gen. 


yeteria 


yeteria 


memoria 


memoria 


Dat. 


yeterl 


veteri 


memori 


memori 


Aec. 


veterem 


yetus 


memorem 


memor 


Abl. 


yetere (I) 


yetere (i) 

Plural 


memoii 


memoii 


N.V. 


veterSa 


yetera 


memorSa 


— 


Gen. 


yetenim 


yeterum 


memorum 




Dat. 


veteribua 


yeteribua 


memoribua 




Aec. 


yetergs (la) 


yetera 


memorfia (la) 




Abl. 


yeteribua 


veteribua 


memoribua 





1 The stem of vetus, veteris, is vetos, vetes, but the endings oa and ea are 
only ablaut forms of the same suffix. 



48 



MORPHOLOGY 



1. The participle amftns differs in declension from the adjective prtld6nB 
only in the Ablative singular, where the participle usually has the ending e 
and the adjective I. Participles used as adjectives generally have L 

2. A few adjectives have only e in general use in the Ablative singular, 
especially those in es, Gen. in itis or idis: files, dSsea, dives, sospes, 
superstes, and caelebs, compos, impos, pauper, prmceps, pQbes. 

129. Neuter Plural. — Many adjectives from the nature of their sig- 
nification are rare in the neuter. Some of these, like memor, lack the 
neuter plural; all others have the ending ia, in the Nominative and 
Accusative, except fiber, libera, fertile, and vetus, Vetera. 

130. Genitive Plural. — Most adjectives of the Third Declension have 
ium in the Genitive plural, but the following have am : 

1. Adjectives compounded with substantives which have am : inops 
(opum), inopum, helpless; quadrapSs, qaadrapedam, /otir-/ooted. 

2. Those which have only e in the Ablative singular (128, 2): paaper, 
paupere, pauperum, poor; sospes, sdspite, s5spitam, 8<tfe; compos, 
compote, compotum, master of, 

3. Those which have the Genitive in eris, oris, aris : vetaa, veteram, 
old ; memor, memorum, mindful ; cicur, cicarum, tame, and a few others. 

4. The poets and late writers often use am in words which have lam in 
classical prose. 



FOURTH DECLENSION 

U-NOUNS 

131. Nouns of the Fourth Declension end in as and a. Those 
in us are masculine, those in u are neuter. They are declined as 

Fructus, fruit, Cornti, horn. 







Singular 


Cage Ending! 


N.V. 


fructus 


comli 


US 




a 


Gen. 


fructas 


cornlis 


OS 




Os 


Dat. 


fructui 


comli 


ul 




a 


Ace. 


fructum 


comli 


um 




a 


Abl. 


frticta 


cornti 

Plural 


a 




fi 


N.V. 


fructlis 


comua 


OS 




ua 


Gen. 


fructnum 


cornuam 


uum 




uum 


Dat. 


fructibus 


cornibus 


ibus 


(ubus) 


ibus (ubus) 


Ace. 


fructus 


comua 


Os 




ua 


Abl. 


fructibus 


comibas 


ibus 


(ubus) 


ibus (abas) 



FOURTH DECLENSION 



49 



1. Here the stems are frUcta and coma, and the case endings contain 
the characteristic u, weakened to 1 in ibuB, but retained in ubuB. 

2. A few nouns retain ubus in the Dative and Ablative plural : regularly 
tribuB, tribe ; genei*ally acus, needle ; areas, how ; artas, joint ; lacas, lake ; 
partas, birth; and sometimes portas, harbor; specas, cave; verfl, spit; 
and a few other words. 

3. In early Latin the endings ais, aos, and I occur in the Genitive singu- 
lar : fractois, of fruit ; senfttaos and sen&tl, of the senate. SenfttI is 
found eyeu in Cicero. The Genitive in I is common in Plautus and Terence, 
as adventi, frtlcti, gemiH, qaaesta, etc. 

4. A Dative in H, the regular form in nouns in % also occurs in nouns in 
UB, but chiefly in poetry : frUctfL = frUctuI. 

5. The following are the original case endings, with the forms which they 
assume in the classical period : 





Singular 
Masculine 


Neuter 






Original 
form 


ClaMical 
form 


Original 
form 


Clasgical 
form 


N.V. 


u-s 


as 


u 




ai 


Gen. 


eu-s 


flB 


eu-s 




flB 


Dat. 


u-ai 


Ul2 


eu 




fl2 


Ace. 


u-m 


am 


u 




fll 


Abl. 


ii-d» 


fl 


a-d» 




fl 

• 


N.V. 


eu-es "» 
ou-es J 


Plural 

flB 


u-a 




oa 


Gen. 


u-om 


aam 


u-om 




aam 


Dat. 


u-bhos 


ubaB, ibaa 


u-bhos 




abaa, ibaa 


Ace. 


u-ns 


Us 


u-a 




aa 


Abl. 


u-bhos 


abas, ibaB 


u-bhos 




abas, ibas 



EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER 

132. The following nouns in ub are feminine: acaa, needle; colas, 
distaff; domua, house ; Idas, Ides; manua, hand; porticvLSy portico; 
quInqa&truB, /ea^^ of Minerva; tribaa, tribe. 



1 The tl in the Nom. and Ace. of neuters is of uncertain origin, perhaps a plural 
or dual formation. 

2 The Dative in tl, used both as masculine and as neuter, is in origin a Loca- 
tive formation. 

8 The ending tl-d, from which tl was derived, was not inherited, but was formed 
after .the analogy of the Ablative ending 6-d from o stems, as in Qnalv-6-d. 

HARK. LAT. GRAM. — 6 



60 MORPHOLOGY 

1. The only neater nouns in common use are oomU, genii, and verfL, 
but neuter forms are sometimes found in certain cases of other words, as 
artua from artus. 

133. Second and Fourth Declensions. — Some nouns are partly of the 
Fourth Declension and partly of the Second. 

1. Domua, f., housey has a Locative, doml, at homey and is otherwise 

declined as follows : 

Singular Plubal 

N. V. domuB domfUi 

Gen. domtlB domanm, domOmm 

Dat. domul, domO domlbns 

Ace. domtUn domfUi, dom5a 

Abl. domH, dom5 domibus 

2. Certain names of trees in us, as oupresaas, flous, laurus, plnus, 
though generally of the Second Declension, sometimes take those cases 
of the Fourth which end in fia, ua, and d : N. V. laurua ; Gen. lauri, 
laurCLs ; Dat. Iaur5 ; Ace. laarum ; Abl. Iaur5, laurfl, etc. So also ooloa, 
distaff. Queroua, oaky regularly of the Fourth Declension, has queroOrum 
in the Gen. plur. 

FIFTH DECLENSION 

B-NouNS 

134. Nouns of the Fifth Declension end in ea and are feminine. 

They are declined as follows : 

Dies, day, E6s, thing. 







SlNQULAB 


* 


Cage Endings 


N.V. 


dl6a 




r6a 


68 


Gen. 


diei 




rSl 


81 


Dat. 


dl6I 




rSl 


81 


Ace. 


diem 




rem 


em 


Abl. 


die 


Plubal 


r6 


6 


N.V. 


di6a 




r6a 


68 


Gen. 


diSnim 




r6nim 


6rum 


Dat. 


diSbus 




rebus 


6bus 


Ace. 


dies 




r6a 


6s 


Abl. 


diebua 




r6bu8 


6bu8 



TABLE OF GENDER' 



61 



1. The case endings here given contain the characteristic 6, which appears 
in all the cases. It is shortened generally in the ending ISH, when preceded 
by a consonant, and regularly in the ending em. 

2. The Genitive and Dative singular sometimes end in 6, and sometimes, 
though rarely, in i for SI, chiefly in poetry: aciS,^ diS, fidS, dll, facil^ 

Note. — These forms in 6 are Locatives in origin, and they have retained 
their original Locative meaning in a few phrases found in early Latin, as 
diS septimi, on the seventh day ; diS crSBtim, on the morrow, Cot^difi, 
hodiS, pndiS, and the like are doubtless Locatives in origin. 

3. In early Latin the Genitive sometimes ends in 8a : di6a, of a day, 

4. Difis and r6a are the only nouns in this declension complete in all 
their parts. In other nouns the plural forms, especially the Genitive, Dative, 
and Ablative, are rare in the best writers. 

6. The following are the original case endings with the forms which they 
assume in the classical period : 





Singular 


Plural 






Orlgrinal Classical 
form form 


Original 
form 


Classical 
form 


N. V. 


e-s 6b 


e-es 


Sa 


Gen. 


6-s, M Sa, Si 


6-som 


6rmn 


Dat. 


e-ai U 


6-bhos 


6buB 


Ace. 


6-m em 


6-ns 


Sa 


Abl. 


Ml^ 6 


6-bhos 


6buB 



EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER 

135. Difia, day, and merldifia, mid-day, are masculine, though di6a 
is sometimes feminine in the singular, especially when it means a definite 
or fixed time. 



136. 



GENERAL TABLE OF GENDER 



1. Gender independent of endings ; common to all declensions.^ 



Masculine 

Names of Males, of 
Rivers, Winds, and 
Months 



Feminine 

Names of Females, of 
Countries, Towns, 
Islands,- and Trees 



Neuter 

Indeclinable Nouns, In- 
finitives, and Clauses 

' I 

used as Nouns 



1 Acie, Gen. and Dat. of acies, « sharp edf/e ; facii, of faci@s, appearance, 

2 The primitive ending: was probably ed, though only § is found. 
* For exceptions, see 68. 1 ; 69, 1. 



52 * MORPHOLOGY 

2. Gender detennined by Nominative ending.^ 

FiBST Declbnsioh 
Masculine I Feminine I Neater 

Ss, 6b I a, S I — 

Second Declehsioh 
er, ir, us, os, 5b | — | mn, on 



5, or, 5s, er, es, ex- 
cept d5, g5, and 10 



a» o. I» y» o, 1, n, t, 
ar, ur, us 



Third Declension 

d5, g5, 15 ; as, te, Is, 

fLs, ys, z, s pre- 
ceded by a consonant 

Fourth Declension 

I - I 

Fifth Declension 
I «• I 



INDECLINABLE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 

137. A very few nouns and adjectives are indeclinable, hav- 
ing but one form for all cases. The following are the most 
important : 

1. The letters of the alphabet, a, b, c, alpha, b6ta, etc. 

2. Fas, right; nefas, vn'ong; nihil, nothing; inBtar, likeness; mane, 
morning.^ 

3. A very few adjectives: frUgl, frugal^ good; nfiquam, woriMess; 
mHle, thousand; potls, able, 

DEFECTIVE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 

138. Many nouns, from the nature of their meaning, are used 
chiefly in the singular. To these belong 



1. The names of Persons and many names of Places: Clcer5, wi>«i»»«, 
Rdma, Rome ; Graecla, Greece ; but Proper names admit the plural to des- 
ignate Families or Classes : ScIpldnSa, the Scipios ; Caesaraa, t?ie Caesars, 

1 For exceptions, see under the several declensions. 

3 But these nouns are not only indeclinable, but also defective, as they are 
regularly used only in the Nominative and Accusative singular, though mftne 
also occurs as a Locative Ablative. 



DEFECTIVE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 53 

2. Most Abstract nouns : fid6a, faith ; ifiatitia, justice ; but many ab- 
stract nouns admit the plural to designate instances, or kinds of the quality : 
avSritdae, instances of avarice ; odia, hatreds. In the poets the plural is 
often used in the sense of the singular. 

3. The names of Materials: aurum, gold; femim, iron; but the plural 
may be used to designate pieces of the material, or articles made of it; 
aera, vessels of copper, 

4. A few special nouns: meridiSa, mid-day; specimen, example; au- 
peUex, furniture ; vSr, spring; veapera, evening, etc. 

139. Many nouns, from the nature of their meaning, are used 
only in the plural. To these belong 

1. Certain Personal Appellatives applicable to Classes: maiorfia, fore- 
fathers; poatexi, descendants; gemlni, twins; liberi, children. An indi- 
vidual member of such a class may be denoted by finua ex with the plural : 
unus ez libens, one of the children, or a child. 

2. Many names of Cities: Athfinae, Athens; ThSbae, Thebes; Delphi, 
Delphi, 

3. Many names of Festivals: Bacchanalia, the Bacchanalian Festival; 
Olympia, the Olympian frames. Here the plural may refer to the various 
games and exercises which together constituted the festival. 

4. Certain special nouns: arma, arms; divitlae, riches; ezaequiae. 
rites; exuviae, spoils; Idua, Ides; indutiae, truce; Znaidiae, ambuscade; 
mSnSa, shades of the dead; minae, threats; moenia, walls; mflnia, duties; 
nuptiae, nuptials; reliquiae, remains. 

140. Plural with Change of Meaning. — Some nouns have one 
signification in the singular and another in the plural. Thus : 

aedes, temple aedfis, (1) temples, (2) a house^ 

auxilium, help auxilia, auxiliaries 

career, prison, barrier carcer6s, barriers of a race course 

castrum, castle, hut castra, camp 

comitium, place of assembly comitia, the assembly held in the comititem 

cOpia, plenty, force c5piae, (1) stores, (2) troops 

facultds, ability facultates, wealth, means 

finis, end fines, borders, territory 

f ortdna, fortune f ortunae, possessions, wealth 

gratia, gratitude, favor gratiae, thanks 

hortus, garden horti, (1) gardens, (2) park 

1 AedSs and some other words in this list, it will be observed, have in the 
plural two signiticatioDs, one corresponding to that of the singalar, and the other 
distinct from it. 



54 MORPHOLOGY 

impedlmentum, hindrance impedimenta, (1) hindrances^ (2) baggage 

littera, letter of alphabet litterae, (1) letters of the alphabet, (2) epistle^ 

writing, letters, literature 

ladus, play J sport Itidl, (1) plays, (2) public spectacle 

m5s, custom mOres, manners^ character 

natalis (dies), birthday uSXSX^, pedigree, parentage 

opera, work, service operae, workmen 

pars, part partes, (1) parts, (2) a party 

rOstrum, beak of ship rOstra, (1) beaks, (2) t?ie rostra or tnbune 

8^1, salt sales, witty sayings 

141. Many nounS; entire in the singular, lack certain forms of 
the plural. Thus : 

1. Most nouns of the Fifth Declension, a few of the Fourth, and several 
monosyllabic neuters of the Third, are seldom, if ever, used in the Genitive, 
Dative, or Ablative plural: acifia, sharpness; eiflgifis, likeness; speciSB, 
appearance, etc. ; metua, fear; aitua, situation, etc. ; iftr, com; lei, gall; 
mel, honey, etc. 

2. Many nouns, especially monosyllables, otherwise entire, lack the Geni- 
tive plural: nez, death; pSLz, peace; piz, pitch; oor, heart; o5b, wliet- 
stone; a&l, saH; aol, sun; Ifbc, light. 

142. Some nouns, entire in the plural, lack certain forms of 
the singular. The following are the most important : 



N.V. 


Gen. 


Dat. 


Ace. 


Abl. 


Meaalnif 


— 


opis 


— 


opem 


ope 


help 


— 


vicis ^ 


— 


vicem 


vice 


change 


— 


— 


preci 


precem 


prece 


prayer 




dapis' 


dapl 


dapem 


dape 


food 


— 


frugis 


fru^ 


frugem 


frOge 


fruU 


143. 


A. few nouns are used 


only in certain 


cases of the 


singular: 


N. V. 


Gen. 


Dat. 


Ace. 


Abl. 


Meaalnif 


fors 




— 


— 


forte 


chance 


lues 




— 


luem 


lue 


pestilence 



I. A few verbal nouns in H, and a few others, have only the Ablative 
singular in general use : iuaau, by order; mand&til, by command; rog&tfl, 
by request ; aponte, by choice, etc. 

144. Defective Adjectives. — A few adjectives, from the nature of 
their meaning, are used chiefly in the plural, while others lack the Nomi- 

1 Defective also in the Genitive plural. 



HETER0CLITE8 65 

native singular, or at least the masculine form of the Nominatiye singu- 
lar: complurfis, several; ^bmoi, few; -pl^xlquB, most ; (ceterus), c6tera, 
cSterum, the other, the rest; (ludicer), lUdicra, IfLdicrum, sportive; (sons), 
sontlB, guilty; (seminex), afiminecis, half dead. The inclosed forms are 
not in good use. 

HETEROCLITES 

145. A few nouns, called Heteroclites (heteroclita) ^ are partly 
of one declension and partly of another. 

1. Of the Second and Fourth Declensions are a few nouns in us : domus, 
house ; lauruB, laurel tree, etc. ; see 133, 1 and 2. 

2. Of the Second and Third Declensions are iilgenim, an acre, generally 
of the Second Declension in the singular, and of the Third in the plural: 
iugerum, t&gerl ; plural, iugera, iugerum : v&s, a vessel, of the Third 
Declension in the singular, and of the Second in the plural : v&s, v&sis ; 
plural, v&sa, v&adnim. 

Note. — Plural names of Festivals in alia, as Bacchanalia, S&tur- 
naiia, regularly of the Third Declension, sometimes have the Genitive 
plural in drum. Ancile, a shield, and a few other words, have the 
same peculiarity. 

3. Of the Third and Fifth Declensions are requiSa, rest, not used in the 
plural or in the Dative singular, hut having in the other ohlique cases the 
forms hoth of the Third and of the Fifth Declension ; and famfia, hunger, 
regularly of the Third Declension, hut with famS in the Ahlative. 

4. Many nouns of four syllables have one form in ia of the First Declen- 
sion, and one in iSa of the Fifth Declension: lilzuxia, luzuriSa, luxury; 
m&teria, m&terl6a, material. 

6. Many Verbal nouns have one form in ua of the Fourth Declension, 
and one in um of the Second Declension : conSLtua, c5n&tum, attempt ; 
Sventua, Sventum, event. 

■ 6. Many nouns have only one approved form in the best prose, but admit 
another in poetry and in post-Augustan writers; iuventfLa (utis), youth; 
poetic, iuventa (ae): aenectua (utis), old age; poetic, aenecta (ae): 
paupertaa {^^i\&), poverty ; poetic, pauperiSa (6i). 

146. Many adjectives have two distinct forms, one in us, a, um, 
of the First and Second Declensions, and one in ia and e, of the 
Third : hilarua and hilsuia, joyful; ezanimua and ezanimia, lifeless» 

1 From irepos, another, and K\l<ns, injlection, i.e. of different declensions. 



56 MORPHOLOGY 

HETEROGENEOUS NOUNS 

147. Heterogeneous (heterogenea *) Nouns are partly of one 
gender and partly of another. Thus : 

1. Some Masculines take in the plural an additional form of the neuter 
gender : locus, m., jest; plural, ioci, m., ioca, n. : locus, m., place; plural, 
loci, m., topics^ loca, n.^ places, 

2. Some Feminines take in the plural an additional form of the neuter 
gender : carbasus, f ., linen ; plural, carbasi, f ., carbasa, n. : margarita, 
t, pearl; plural, margantae, f., margarita, n. : oatarea, f., oyster; plural, 
ostareae, f., ostrea, n. 

3. Some Neuters become masculine in the plural: caelum, n., heaven; 
plural, caeli, ui. 

4. Some Neuters generally become masculine, but sometimes remain 
neuter: frSnum, n., bridle; plural, frSni, m. ; frfina, n. : r&stmm, n., rake; 
plural, rSstri, m. ; rSLstara, n. 

5. Some Neuters become feminine in the plural: epnlum, n., feast; 
plural, epulae, f. 

Note. — Some heterogeneous nouns are also heteroclites, as epulum, 
epulae, just given. 

148. Some nouns of the Second Declension have one form in 
us, masculine, and one in um, neuter: clipeua, clipeum; shield; 
commentariuB, commentariimi, commentary. 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 

149. Adjectives have three forms, called the Positive, the Com- 
parative, and the Superlative : altus, altior, altissimus, high, higher, 
highest. These forms denote different degrees of the quality ex^ 
pressed by the adjective. 

150. The Latin, like the English, has two modes of comparison. 

I. Terminational Comparison — by endings. 
II. Adverbial Comparison — by the adverbs magis, more, and 
maadrne, most, 

1 From irepoi, anotheVt and y4vo$^ gender, i.e. of different genders. 



COMPARISON 
I. Terminational CompaxlBon 



67 



151. Adjectives and participles used as adjectives are regu- 
larly compared by adding to tlie stem of the positive, stripped 
of its final vowel, the following 

Endings op Comparison 





Comparative 




Superlative 






M. and F. Neut. 


Masc. 


Fein. 


Neat. 




ior iua 


issimua 


issima 


iaaimum^ 


alius, 


altior, altiuB, 


altiasimiiB, 


altissima, 


altiasimum 


high, 


higher, or too high 


highest, or very high 




dtLrus, 


dtirior, durius, 


durisaimiiB, 


duiissima, 


dariaaiinum 


hard, 


harder 


hardest 






levis, 


levior, levius, 


levissimus, 


leviasima, 


leviaaimum 


light. 


lighter 


lightest 







amans, amantior, amantiua, amantiasimua, amantiaaima, amantiaaimum 
loving, more loving most loving 

152. Irregular Superlatives. — Many adjectives with regular 
comparatives have irregular superlatives. Thus: 

1. Adjectives in er add rimus to tliis ending : ^ 

acer, 9,CTior, acerximua, sharp, sharper, sharpest 

asper, asperior, asperrimua, rough, rougher, roughest 

celer, celerior, celerrimua, swift, swifter^ swiftest 

2. But note the following : 

dexter, right, on the right, dexterlor, dextdmua 

matarua, mature, maturior, maturiaaimua, maturriinua 

3. Six adjectives in ilia add limua to the stem, stripped of its final 
vowel : ' 

1 The Latin has three different superlative suffixes : (1) mus, seen in sum- 
mus, highest; (2) timus, seen in ci-timus, nearet^t; op-timus, best; and 
(3) is-simus, the usual suffix, compounded of is, the weak form of the com- 
parative suffix, Ids, ior, and simus, of uncertain origin, but probably a new 
formation after the analogy of certain words in Bimus, as pes-simus, worst ; 
plCL-riinus for ♦plu-simus, most; in3.xiinus for ♦mag-simus, greatest; vicS- 
simus, twentieth; trice-simus, thirtieth. 

2 The suffix rimus is from is, the comparative suffibc, and mus, inius, the 
superlative suffix: *acr-is-iraus, which becomes *acer-s-imus, ftcer-rimus; y is 
vocalized, er; i is dropped and s is assimilated to the preceding r; see 64, 2. 

8 The suffix limus, like rimus, is from is-imus : *facil-i8-imus, *f acil-s-imuSi 
facil-limus, s assimilated to a preceding 1; see 64, 2. 



58 



MORPHOLOOT 



facilis, facillor, ^UlimnB, 

difficillB, difficUlor, difficillimtiB, 

similis, simillor, similllmtiB, 

disslmillB, dlssimilior, dissimillimiis, 

gracilis, gracilior, gracillimiis, 

hum ilia, humilior, humillimas, 



easff, easier^ easiesi 

difflcuU, more difflcuU, most, etc. 

like, more likej most like 

unlike, more unlike, most, etc. 

slender, more slender, most, etc. 

low, lower, lowest 



153. Compounds of dioua and volus form their comparatiyes and 
superlatives from the corresponding participial stems, dicent and volent, 
and compounds of ficus sometimes follow their analogy : 

maledicus, maledic^na, slanderous, maledlcentlor, maledlcentisBiinaB 
benevolus, benevoiens, benevolent, beuevolentior, beneyolentisBimaB 
honOrificus, honorable, honOrificentior, honGrificentissimaB 

Note. — MaledicSns and benevolQiis are found in early Latin. 

154. Special irregularities of comparison sometimes arise from 
the use of different stems : 



bonus. 


melior, 


optimiui, 


good. 


better. 


best 


malus, 


peior, 


pessimus, 


bad. 


worse, 


worst 


ma<niUB, 


mSior, 


mazimiis, 


great. 


greater. 


greatest 


parvus, 


minor, 


minimus, 


small. 


smaller, 


smallest 


1. Here belongs muJtus, which lacks the comparatiye in 


the masculine 


and feminine singular : 










multus, 


» 


pinrimua, ^ 








multa. 


» 


plurima. 


' much, 


more, 


most 


multum, 


plus. 


pluiimum, . 









2. Note also : 

frugl, frugalior, frugalissimua, frugal, more frugal, most frugal 
nSquam, nequior, nequissimiia, worthless, moreworthless, most worthless 

Defective Comparison 

155. In a few adjectives the Positive is either entirely want- 
ing, or used only in special constructions : 

1. Positive wanting: 



citerior. 


citimus. 


on this side, near. 


nearest 


deterior, 


deterximiia. 


worse, 


worst 


interior, 


intimus, 


inner. 


inmost 


Ocior, 


5cissimu8, 


swifter, 


swiftest 


prior, 


prTmus, 


former. 


first 


propior, 


prozimus. 


nearer, 


nearest 


ulterior, 


ultimuB, 


farther^ ' 


farthest 



DEFECTIVE COUPAtUSOif 



59 



outermost 

lowest 

last, last- born 



2. Positive used only in special constructions : 

(ezterus),^ exterior, extrSmua, and extimua, outer, 

(inferus),^ Inferior, Infimns, and imus, lower, 

(posterns),* posterior, postremus, and postumus,^ later, 

(superus),2 superior, supr6mus, and summus, higher, highest 

156. A few adjectives lack the Comparative : 

diversuB, 

falsuB, 

inclutUB, 

invitus, 

merituB, 

noviia, 

sacer, 

yetus, 

157. Many adjectives lack the Superlative : 

1. Many verbals in ilia and bills : 

agilis, agilior, — , 

docilis, docilior, — , 

laudabilis, laudabilior, — , 

optS,bilia, opt3.bilior, — , 

2. A few special adjectives : 



'» 


dlversiaaimuB, 


diverse. 


most diverse 


» 


falsiaaimua. 


false, 


most false 


» 


inclutisaimua. 


renowned. 


most renowned 


■» 


invitissimus, 


unwilling, 


most unwilling 


■» 


meritisaiznuB, 


deserving. 


most desei^ing 


5 


noviasimus, 


new. 


last 


.6 


sacerrixnus, 


sacred. 


most sacred 


6 

7 


veterrimus, 


old. 


oldest 



alacer, 


alaciior, 


• "^i«_ 


diuturuua. 


diuturnior, 


— . 


longinquus, 


longinquior, 


' — » 


pr5clivi8. 


prOclivior, 




prOnuB, 


pr5nior, 


— 1 


propinquua, 


propinquior. 


— , 


salutaria. 


salutarior, 





agile. 


more agile 


docile. 


more docile 


laudable, 


more laudable 


desirable, 


more desirable 


active. 


more active 


lasting. 


more lasting 


distant. 


more distant 


prone J 


more prone 


inclined. 


more inclined 


near. 


nearer 


salutary, 


more salutat^y 



1 Nfttidnes exterae, foreign peoples, occurs in classical prose. 

2 Omnia supera. infera, all things above and below ; and ad. super5s, to 
those above, and ad inferos, to those below, occur in classical prose. 

^ Posterns occurs in a few expressions of time, posters di§, on the following 
day ; in posterum diem, for the next day ; in posterum, for the future. 
Note also poster!, descendants. 

^ Postumus means late bom, or last born. 

5 The comparative of novus is supplied by recentior, from recSns, and the 
superlative, in the sense of newest, by recentisslmus. 

6 The comparative of sacer is supplied by s3.nctior, from sftnctus, and that 
of vetus by vetustior, from vetustus. 



60 MORPHOLOGY 

168. Three adjectives supply the Superlative as follows : 

adulesc^ns, adul^scentior, minimua natH, youtig, younger, youngest 
iuveuis, iunior, minimua nftttl, young, younger, youngest 

seneXf senior, mftzimua natH, old, older, oldest 



n. Adverbial Compariaon — by the Adverbs magis and mftzimS 

159. Most adjectives in ens, ins, and uus, except those in quus, 
are compared by prefixing to the positive the adverbs magis, 
morey and masime, most : 

idOneus, magis idOneus, mftzim6 iddneus,^ 

suitable more suitable most suitable 

uecessS,rius, magis necess^ius, mbim6 necessarius, 

necessary more necessary most necessary 

arduus, magis arduus, mSbdmS arduus, 

ardtious more arduous most arduous 

1. Other adverbs are sometimes used with the positive to denote differ- 
ent degrees of the quality: admodum, valdS, oppido, vei*y; imprimis, 
or in primis, apprimS, in the highest degree. Per and prae in composition 
with adjectives have the force of very ; perdifficilis, very difficult; prae- 
cl&ruB, very illustrious. 

2. Strengthening particles are also sometimes used: with the com- 
parative etiam, even, multo, long6, much, far; etiam diligentior, even 
more diligent; mult5 diligentior, mtich more diligent: with the su- 
perlative multo, longS, much, by far, quam, as possible : multd or longS 
diligentissimuB, by far the most diligent; quam dOigentissimiis, as 
diligent as possible. 



ADJECTIVES WITHOUT COMPARISON 

160. Many adjectives, from the nature of their signification, 
are rarely, if ever, compared, especially such as denote Material, 
Color, Possession, or the relations of Time and Place : 

aureus, golden ferreus, of iron albus, white 

flavus, yellow mfttemus, of a mother paternus, of a father 

'RQmsinus, Roman aestivus, o/swmwer sempitemus, efernaZ 

1 Observe that this adverbial comparisou by means of magrls and m&ximS 
corresponds exactly to the English adverbial comparisou by means of more 
and 7no8i. 



NUMERAL ADJECTIVES 



61 



NUMERALS 

161. Kumerals comprise Numeral Adjectives and Numeral 
Adverbs. 

162. Numeral Adjectives comprise three principal classes : 

1. Cardinal Numbers : uniia, owe; duo, ^wo; XxeBy three, 

2. Ordinal Numbers: primus, j^rs^; secundas, second; tertius, 
third. 

3. Distributives : singuli, one by one; bini, two by two, two each, 
two apiece. 

Note. — To these may be added 

1. Multiplicatives, adjectives in plex, Gen. plicis, denoting so many 
fold: simpleXf single; duplex, double; triplex, threefold; quadniplex, 
fourfold. 

2. Proportionals, declined like bonus, and denoting so many times as 
great : duplus, twice as great ; triplus, three times as great. 



163. 



Table of Numeral Adjectives 





Cardinals 


Ordinals 


Distributives 


1. 


unus, una, iinum 


primus, first 


singuli,^ one by one 


2. 


duo, duae, duo 


secundus,2 second 


bini, two by two 


3. 


tres, tria 


tertius, third 


terni or trini 


4. 


quattuor 


quartns, fourth 


quaterni 


5. 


quinque 


quintus, J{fth 


quini 


6. 


sex 


sextns 


seni 


7. 


septem 


Septimus 


septeni 


8. 


octo 


octavus 


octOni 


9. 


novem 


nOnus 


noveni 


10. 


decem 


decimus 


deni 


11. 


iindeciiu 


undecimi;is 


undeni 


12. 


duodecim 


duodecimuR 


duodeni 


13. 


tredecim 8 


tertius decimus * 


terni deni 


14. 


quattuordecim 


quartus decimus 


quaterni deni 


16. 


quindecim 


quintus decimus 


quini deni 


16. 


sedecimS 


sextus decimus 


seni deni 


17. 


septendecim 


Septimus decimus 


septeni deni 



1 Distributives, singruli, bini, etc., are adjectives, used only in the plural. 
They are declined like the plural of bonus: singruli, singrulae, singrula. 

2 Alter is often used for secundus. 

8 Sometimes with the parts separated : decern et tr6s, etc. 
4 Decimus, with or without et, may precede : decimus et tertius or deci- 
mus tertius. 



62 



MORPSOLOOT 



18. 


duodeviginti ^ 


duodevicesimus ^ 


duodevicgni' 


19. 


undevigintii 


iindevicesimiis^ 


ilndeviceni « 


20. 


viginti 


vicesimus 


viceni 


21 


viginti unuB 


vicesimus primus 


viceni singuli 


^J.« 


unus et viginti* 


unus et vicesimus* 


singuli et viceni ^ 


99! 


viginti duo 
duo et viginti 


vicesimus secundus 


viceni bini 




alter et vicesimus 


bini et viceni 


28. 


duodetriginta 


duodetricesimus 


duodetriceni 


29. 


undetriginta 


undetricesimus 


iindetriceni 


30. 


trigiuta 


tricesimus 


triceni 


40. 


quadraginta 


quadragesimus 


quadrageni 


60. 


quinquaginta 


quinquagesimos 


quinquageni 


60. 


sexaginta 


sexagesimus 


sexageni 


70. 


septuaginta 


septuagesimus 


septuageni 


80. 


octOginta 


octOgesimus 


octogeni 


90. 


nOnaginta 


nOnagesimus 


nOnageni 


100. 


centum 


centesimus 


centeni 


101 


centum iinus 


centesimus primus 


centeni singuli 


XV/X. 


centum et iinus <} 


centesimus et primus 


centeni et singuli 


200. 


ducenti, ae, a 


ducentesimus 


duceni 


300. 


trecenti 


trecentesimus 


treceni 


400. 


quadringenti 


quadringentesimus 


qnadringeni 


600. 


quingenti 


quingentesimus 


quingeni 


600. 


sescenti 


sescentesimus 


sesceni 


700. 


septingenti 


septingentesimus 


septingeni 


800. 


octingenti 


octingen tesim us 


octingeni 


900. 


nongenti 


ndngentesimus 


ndngeni 


1,000. 


mille 


millesimus 


singula milia' 


2,000. 


duo milia ' 


bis millesimus 


bina milia 


100,000. 


centum milia 


centies millesimus 


centena milia 


1,000,000. 


decics centena milia ^ 


decies centies millesimus 


decies centena milia 



1 Literally two from twenty , one from twenty, by subtraction ; but these 
numbers may be expressed by addition : decern et oct5 ; decern et novem 
or decern novem : so 28, 29 ; 38, 39, etc., either by subtraction from trigrinta, 
etc., or by .addition to vigrinti, etc. 

^^ Sometimes expressed by addition : octftvus decimus ; n5nus decimus. 

^ Sometimes octSni deni ; noveni dSnI. 

* If tens precede the units, et is omitted, otherwise it is generally used. So in 
English cardinals, twenty-one, one and twenty. 

^ Sometimes viceni et singruli or singruli vicSni. 

6 In compounding numbers above 100, units generally follow tens, tens hundreds 
etc., as in Englisli ; but the connective et is eithor omitted, or used only between 
the two highest denominations: mille centum vij-inti or mille et centum 
viginti, 1120. 

^ Often written millia. For duo milia, bina milia or bis mille is sometimes 
used. 

8 Literally, ten times a hundred thousand; the table might be carried up to 
any dosired nnni])er l)y using the proper numeral adverb with cent§na xnllia: 
centies centena milia, 10,000,000 ; sometimes in such combinations centena 
milia is understood, and the adverb only is expressed, and sometimes centum 
milia is used. 



NUMERAL ADJECTIVES 



63 



1. Poets use numeral adverbs (171) very freely in compounding numbers : 
bis aex, for duodecim ; bis septem, for quattuordecim. 

2. SSflcenti and mOle, and in poetry centum, are sometimes used indefi- 
nitely for any large number, as thousand is used in English. 

164. Distributives are used 

1. To show the Number of objects taken at a time, often best rendered 
by adding to the cardinal each or apiece: temos dSn&rios accSpSrant, 
they received each three denarii^ or three apiece. Hence 

2. To express Multiplication: deciSs centSna mllia, ten times a hun- 
dred thousand^ a million, 

3. Instead of Cardinals, with nouns plural in form, but singular in sense : 
bma castra, two camps. Here for singuli and term, urn and tiiiil are 
used: unae litterae, one letter; trlnae litterae, three letters, 

4. Sometimes of objects spoken of in pairs : bin! 8C3rpliX, a pair of gob- 
lets; and in the poets with the force of cardinals : bma hastilia, two spears. 

165. In fractions the numerator is expressed by cardinals and the 
denominator by ordinals, with or without psurs, as in English : duae 
tertiae, two thirds = f ; trSs quintae, three ffihs = | ; trSs septimae, 
three sevenths = f . 

1. When the numerator is omitted, it is always one. Then pars is gener- 
ally expressed : tertia pars, one third part = } ; quarta pars, one fourth 
part = J. 

2. When the denominator is omitted, it is always larger than the numera- 
tor by one. Here partes is expressed : duae partes, two thirds = f ; trSs 
partes, three fourths = J. 



Declension of Numeral Adjectives 
166. "UuMBy duo, and tres are declined as follows : ^ 

XJnus, one. 







Singular 






Plural 






Maso. 


Fein. 


Neat. 


Masc. 


Fein. 


Neat. 


Nom. 


tinus 


una 


umim 


tlni 


unae 


Una 


Gen. 


finius 


unius 


unius 


tinorum 


unSrum 


tln5rum 


Dat. 


ani 


dni 


tini 


finis 


tinis 


Unls 


Ace. 


Uniun 


tlnam 


tinum 


tlnos 


unfts 


tlna 


Abl. 


uno 


una 


fino 


finfs 


unis 


Unis 



1 The Vocatiye of these numerals seems not to be in use, though the Roman 
grammarians make mention of Une, Uni, and trSs as vocatiyes. 



64 



MORPHOLOGY 



Duo, two. 



Trts, three. 





Masc 


Fem. 


Neat. 


M. and F. 


Ncal. 


Nom. 


dao 


duae 


doo^ 


trte 


tiia 


Gen. 


duomm 


duamm 


dadmin' 


tiiimi 




Dat. 


duobus 


duftbus 


dadbns 


tiibas 


tribus 


Ace. 


duos, duo 


dafts 


duo 


trte, tris 


tria 


Abl. 


dudbus 


daabas 


dudbus 


tiibns 


tiibos 



1. The plural of Qntis in the sense of alone may be used with any noun : 
iim IJbii, the Uhii alone ; but m the sense of one, it is used only with nouns 
plural in form, but singular in sense : fina castra, one camp; ilnae litterae, 
one letter. 

2. Like duo is declined amb5, both. 

3. Multf , many, and plQximl, rery many, are indefinite niunerals, and as 
such generally want the singular. But in the poets the singolar occurs in the 
sense of many a : multa hostia, many a victim. 

167. The Cardinals from quattuor to centum are indeclinable, bat 
hundreds are declined like the plural of bonus : dncen^ ae, a. 

168. MUle as an adjective is indeclinable ; as a substantive it is used 
in the singular in the Nominative and Accusative, but in the plural it is 
declined like the plural of cubile (103) : mOia, mTliuin, mHibus. 

1. With the substantive mOlef milia, the name of the objects enumerated 
Is generally in the Genitive : mOle hominum, a thousand men {ofnen) ; but 
if a declined numeral intervenes it takes the case of that namend : tria miUa 
trecentf mHitSSf three thousand three hundred soldiers. 

169. Ordinals are declined like bonus, and distributives like the 
plrjral <tf bonus, but the latter often have um instead of drum in the 
Genitive : binum for bindrum. 



170. 



Numeral Symbols 



AruMr 


Kom«n 


Arabic 


Roman 


Arable 


Boauui 


I 


I 


6 


VI 


11 


ZI 


2 


II 


7 


Vll 


12 


XII 


'1 


III 


8 


VI 11 


13 


XUI 


4 


IV 


9 


IX 


14 


XIV 


r, 


V 


10 


X 


15 


XV 



> In rjM', f.tnliiiif ft ifi rlijo find ambo, we have a remnant of the dual number 
•^hi^h h;i4 /iili/rwU*- 'Ikfipp^arcd from I^tin, though preserved in Greek and 
HnuAknt. r/,mji>if« Du- .H;wi«ikrif, dna, the Greek Svo, the Latin duo, and the 

' \uaU/m\ ht nii/>rii rn ttwl /tiiArum, duum is sometimes used. 



IfUMESAL ADVERBS 



65 



16 


XVI 


eo 


T.X 


600 


DC 


17 


XVll 


70 


TiXX 


700 


DCC 


18 


xvm 


80 


T.X X X 


800 


DCCC 


19 


XIX 


90 


XC 


900 


DCCCC 


20 


XX 


100 


C 


1,000 


CIO or M 


21 


XXI 


200 


CC 


2,000 


MM or ti 


30 


XXX 


300 


CCC 


10,000 


CCIOOor X 


40 


XL 


400 


CCCC 


100,000 


CCCIOOOor C 


50 


L 


600 


lOorD 


1,000,000 


CCCCIOOOOor X 



1. Latin Numeral Symbols are combinations of: 1 = 1; y = 6; X = 10; 
L = 60 ; C = 100 . 10 or D = 600 ; CIO or M = 1,000. 

2. C placed before CIO and placed after it increase the value tenfold : 
010 = 1,000 ; CCIOO = 1,000 X 10 = 10,000 ;^CCIOOO=10,000x 10=100,000. 

3. 10, probably half of CIO, = 600 ; 100, half of CCIOO, = 5,000, and 
1000, half of CCCIOOO, = 50,000. 

4. A line over a symbol increases the value a thousand fold, and a line 
over and on each side of it increases the value a hundred thousand fold : 
X = 10,000 ; [X] = 100,000 x 10 = 1,000,000. 



Numeral Adverbs 



171. To numerals belong also Numeral Adverbs. 



1. 


semel, once 


17. 


septies decies 


101. 


centies semel 


2. 


bis, twice 


18. 


duodevicies 
octies decies 


102. 


centies bis 


3. 


ter, three times 


200. 


ducenties 


4. 


quater 


19. 


undevicies 
nonies decies 


300. 


trecenties 


6. 


qmnqoiesl 


400. 


quadringenties 


6. 


sexies 


20. 


vicies 


500. 


qumgenties 


7. 


septies 


21. 


semel et vicies 


600. 


sescenties 


8. 


octies 


22. 


bis et vicies 


700. 


septingenties 


9. 


novies 


30. 


tricies 


800. 


octingenties 


10. 


decies 


40. 


quadragies 


900. 


nOningenties 
nOngenties 


11. 


undecies 


60. 


quinquagies 


^^^/« 


12. 


duodecies 


60. 


sexagies 


1,000. 


milies 


13. 


ter decies 


70. 


septuagies 


2,000. 


bis milies 


14. 


quater decies 


80. 


octOgies 


10,000. 


decies milies 


15. 


qumquies decies^ 


90. 


nonagies 


100,000. 


centies milies 


16. 


sexies decies^ 


100. 


centies 


1,000,000. 


decies centies milies 



1. In compounds of units and tens above twenty, the unit, with et, ac, or 
atque, regularly precedes : bis et viciSs ; the tens, however, with or without 
the connective, may precede, as viciSs et bis, or vicies bis. 

1 In adverbs formed from cardinal nambei;s, ies is the approved ending, though 
iSns often occurs. In adverbs from indefinite numeral adjectives, iSns is the 
approved ending : totiSna, from tot, so qften; quotidns, from quot, how often, 

2 Or quindeci@s and sedecies, 

HA&K. LAT. ORAM. — 6 



66 MORPHOLOGY 

2. Numeral adverbs are often combined with Distributives: bis bma, 
twice two ; virginSs ter novSnae, three choirs of nine maidens each. 

3. For tlie pot-tic use of tliese adverbs witli Cardinals, as bis sez for 
duodecixn, see 163, 1. 

4. Another class of adverbs, with the ending iim or 6, is formed chiefly 
from Ordinals : primum, primo, for the first time^ in the first place ; ter- 
tium, in the third place ; postrSmum, poatrSmo, in the last place; but 
primo often means at firsts in the beginning^ in distinction from primmn, 
in the first place, and postrSmd often means at last, in the end, in distinc- 
tion from poBtr6muin, in the last place, lastly. 



Pronouns 

172. In construction, Pronouns^ are used either as Substan- 
tives: ego, /; tuy thou; is, he; or as Adjectives: meus, my; 
tuus, your; suus, his, her, their, 

173. Pronouns are divided into seven classes : 

1. Personal and Reflexive Pronouns: tu, thou; sui, of himself, 

2. Possessive Pronouns : meus, my. 

3. Demonstrative Pronouns: hie, this; ille, that. 

4. Determinative Pronouns : is, he, that. 

5. Relative Pronouns : qui, who. 

6. Interrogative Pronouns : quis, who 9 

7. Indefinite Pronouns : aliquis, some one. 

I. PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 

174. Personal Pronouns,^ so called because they designate the 
person of the noun which they represent, sometimes refer back 
to the subject of the sentence, and thus have a reflexive use: 
puer se amat, the boy loves himself; se amant, they love themselves; 
te amis, you love yourself. 

1 But in their sij::nification and use, pronouns differ widely from ordinary sub- 
stantives and adjectives, as they never name any object, action, or quality, but 
simply point out the relation of some object or action to the speaker, or to some 
other person or thing. 

^ Also called Substantive Pronouns, because they are always used substan- 
tively. 



PRONOUNS 67 

175. Personal and Reflexive Pronouns are thus declined: 

Ego, / Ta, thou Sul, of himself, of herself 

Singular 

Nom. ego, /i td, thou ^ — 

Gren. mel, o/r»e tui, o/yow sul, o/^imsc?/, etc. 

Dat. mih!, for me tibi, for you sibi, fur himself 

Ace. m6, me t6, thee^ you s6, himself 

Abl. mS, MJiYA, by me, etc. t6, t<?i^A, by you, etc. s6, iriYA, by himself, etc.* 

Plural 

Nom. nOs, toe vOs, yow — 

^ f nostrum, o/ M« r vestnim,* o/ woti , ^.^ 

Gen. < , '- i * - .r sui, of themselves 

Inostrl, of us Ivestn, of you '' 

Dat. nobis, for us vObis, for you sibI, /or them selves 

Ace. nOs, ws vOs, you s6, themselves 

Abl. nobis, loii^, 6y ws vObis, with, by you s6, t/?z^/i, by themselves 



1. Mi is often used for mihi in poetry, and sometimes in prose. 

2. Nostrum and vestruxn are generally used in a Partitive sense, as 
quia nostrum, who of us f but nostri and vestri are generally used in an 
Objective sense, as memor vestri, mindful of you. 

3. Observe that the case endings of pronouns differ considerably from 
those of nouns. 

4. Emphatic Forms. — Tute and tutemet for the Nom. tfi. All the 
other cases of personal pronouns, except the Genitive plural, have emphatic 
forms in met : egomet, / myself; tSmet, you yourself 

6. The Reduplicated Forms mSmS, tStS, and ses§ occur both in the 
Accusative and in the Ablative. 

6. Ancient and Rare Forms are mis for mei; tis for tui; m§d, t5d, 
sSd for mS, t6, s§, both Accusative and Ablative. Forms in pte as mSpte 
and sSpte are especially rare. In early Latin poetry, nostrorum and 

1 Ego has no connection in form with mei, mihl, etc., but it is identical, both 
in form and meaning, with the corresponding Greek pronoun. 

'^ Tti and vos, as Vocatives, though recognized by certain Roman grammarians, 
are of doubtful authority. All other pronouns, except the possessives, meus and 
noster, lack the Vocative. 

3 The Ablative generally takes a preposition, as cum, with, S., ab, by. 

* Vestrum and vestri arc also written vostrum and vostri, though less 
correctly. Mei, tui, sui, nostri, and vestri are in form strictly Possessives in 
the Genitive singular, but by use they have become Personal. Nostri and vestri 
have also become plural. Thus, memor vestri, mindful of you, means literally 
mindful of yours, i.e. of your welfare, interest. Nostrum and vestrum, for 
nostrGrum and vestrorum, are also Possessives; see 170- 



68 MORPHOLOOT 

nostr&rum sometimes occur for noatnim ; and vostnim, vostromm, and 
vostr&rum, for vestrum. 

7. Cum, when used with the ablative of a personal pronoun, is appended 
to it : mScum, with me ; tScum, with you, 

II. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 

176. From Personal Pronouns are formed the Possessives: 

meus, mea, meum, my; noster, nostra, nostrum, our; 

tuus, tua, tumn, thyy your; vester, vestra, vestrum, your; 
suus, sua, suum, his, her, its; suus, sua, suum, their. 

1. Possessives are adjectives of the First and Second Declensions ; but 
meus lias in the Vocative singular masculine generally mi, sometimes 
meus, and in the Genitive plural sometimes meum instead of meorum. 

2. Emphatic forms in pte occur in the AblativB singular: suopte, 
BuSpte ; forms in met are rare : suamet. 

3. The possessive cuius, cuia, cfiium,^ early form qudius, qu5ia, 
quoium, whose f whose ; generally interrogative, is rare, but it occurs in the 
Nominative singular and in a few other isolated forms. 

4. A few forms of the possessives, cui&s, of whose country? and 
nostras, of our country^ declined like aet&s, aet&tis, occasionally occur. 

III. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 

177. Demonstrative Pronouns, so called because they point out 
the objects to which they refer, are the following: 

Hic, this J near me, 

Iste, thcit, near you, 

Ille, thatj near Mm, that yonder. 

178. The Demonstrative Pronouns hic and iste are declined 

as follows, and ille is declined precisely like iste : 

Hic, this, Iste, that. 









Singular 










Masc. 


Fein. 


Neut. 


Maso. 


Fein. 


Nent. 


Nom. 


hic 


liaec 


hoc 


iste 


ista 


istud 


Gen. 


huius 


huius 


huius 


istliis 


istlus 


istius 



1 Cuius, whose? is formed from the Gren. cQlus of quis, who? but ctLluB, 
whose, not interrogative, is formed from Cdius of qui, who. 









PRONOUNS 






69 


Dat 


hnio 


hoic 


halo 


istI 


istI 


istI 


Ace. 


huno 


hane 


hoc 


istum 


istam 


istad 


Abl. 


hoc 


hSuo 


hoc 

Plural 


istO 


ist& 


istOi 


Nom. 


hi 


has 


haec 


istI 


istae 


ista 


Gen. 


hOmm 


harum 


hOrum 


istOrum 


istdxum 


istOrum 


Dat. 


hlH 


his 


his 


istis 


istis 


istis 


Ace. 


hOs 


hSs 


haec 


istOs 


istA.s 


ista 


Abl. 


his 


his 


his 


istis 


istis 


istis 



1. Haec, for hae, feminine plural, is freely used in Plautus and Terence, 
and sometimes in classical prose. 

2. The stems of hic, haec, h5c are ho, h&, strengthened in certain forms 
by the addition of another pronominal stem, i, and of the demonstrative 
particle ce, generally reduced to c. 

3. The demonstrative enclitic ce may be appended to any form in s: 
huiu8-ce, ho8-ce, h&a-ce, hls-ce. 

4. If the interrogative ne is appended to a form originally ending in ce, 
the result is generally cine, sometimes cne : hici-ne, hlc-ne. 

5. The stems of late, lata, istud are isto, istft, and those of ille, ilia, 
iUud are iUo, iUa. 

6. In early Latin ce, generally shortened to c, is sometimes appended to 
certain cases of ille and late. The following forms are the most important, 
though others occur. 



o 






Singular 










Maso. 


Fern. 


Neat. 


Maso. 


Fein. 


Neat. 


Nom. 


istic 


istaec 


istuc 


illlc 


illaec 


illuc 


Dat. 


istic 


istic 


istic 


illic 


illic 


illic 


Ace. 


istunc 


istanc 


istuc 


illunc 


illanc 


illuc 


Abl. 


istOc 


istac 


istOc 

Plural 


illOc 


iliac 


illoc 


Nom. 


— 


istaec 


istaec 


illisce 


illaec 


illaec 


Ace. 


— 


— 


istaec 


— 


— 


illaec 


Abl. 


istlsce 


istisce 


istlsce 


illisce 


illisce 


illisce 



7. Syncopated Forms, compounded of ecce or em, 7o, see, and certain 
cases of demonstratives, especially the Accusative of ille and is, he, occa- 

1 Several ancient and rare forms of these pronouns occur. Thus : 

Of hic : hec for hie ; hOius for huius ; hui, hoic, for huic ; hei, heis, for hi ; 
bdrunc, h&runc, for hOrum, harum. 

Of iste : forms in i, ae, for ius in the Gtenitive and forms in 6, ae, for i in the 
Dative. 

Of ille : forms in i, ae, for ius in the Gtenitive and in 6, ae, for i in the Dative. 
For ille, ilia, a few forms of oUus, oUa, are found. 



70 



MORPHOLOGY 



sionally occur in comic poetry : eccilliim for ecce ilium, lOt see him ; ellmn 
for em ilium, behold him; ellam for em illam, behold her; ecciiin for ecce 
eum, behold him ; eccds for ecce e5s, behold them, 

8. Kindred to demonstrative pronouns are the following adjectives : 
tSlis, e, such; tantus, a, iim, so great; tot, so many. Tot is indeclinable, 
the rest regular. 

9. For tSlis, the Genitive of a demonstrative with modi, the Genitive of 
modus, measure, kindj is often used : hiiiua modi or huius-modi, of this 
kind, such. In origin, hiiiuBmodi is simply a limiting Genitive, but it has 
become practically an indeclinable adjective. 

179. Special Pronominal Endings. — The declension of pronouns, in 
distinction from nouns, shows the following 

Special Pronominal Endings 

!u8, in the Genitive singular : h^us, istius, ilUus.^ 
i, in the Dative singular : isti, illl. 

d, in the neuter singular of the Nominative and Accusative : id, istud, 
Ulud. 



IV. DETERMINATIVE PRONOUNS 

180. Determinative Pronouns specify the objects to which they 
refer. They are : 

Is, ea, id ; he, she, it, that one, that. 

Ipse, ipsa, ipsuin ; he himself, she herself, itself self 

Idem, eadem, idem ; the same, same. 

181. The Determinative Pronouns are declined as follows: 



Is, he.^ 



Ipse, self^ 







/ 


Singular 




XT - 7 V 






Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Neat. 


Nom. 


is 


ea 


id 


ipse 


ipsa 


ipsum 


Gen. 


eiiis 


eius 


Sius 


ipsius 


ipsius 


ipsius 


Dat. 


ei 


ei 


el 


ipsi 


ipsi 


ipsi 


Ace. 


eum 


eam 


id 


ipsum 


ipsam 


ipsum 


Abl. 


eO 


ea 


eO 


ips5 


ipsS. 


ipso 



1 In the ending: ius, observe that i is a consonant when it follows a vowel, as 
ill htlius, but a vowel when it follows a consonant, as in is-ti-us. 

'^ The stem of is, ea, id appears in three different forms, i, eo, eft. 

8 The stem of ipse for ipsus is ipso, ipsa, but forms of ipse occur in which 
the first element, the demonstrative stem i, is declined, while pse is treated aa 









PRONOUNS 




■3 








Plural 






Nom. 


il 


eae 


ea ipsI 


ipsae 


ipsa 


Gen. 


eOnim 


e9.rum 


eOrum ipsOrum 


ipsarum 


ips^rum 


Dat. 


iis 


ITS 


ils ipsIs 


ipsIs 


ipsIs 


Ace. 


e5s 


eas 


ea ipsOs 


ips&s 


ipsa 


Abl. 


i!s 


ilR 


ils ipsIs 


ipsIs 


il)si8 



71 



Idem, formed by appending dem to the pronoun is, the name, 
same. Only the first part is declined. Isdem is shortened to idem 
and iddem to idem, and m is changed to n before d ; see 55, 5. 



Singular 
Masc. Fein. Neat. 

Nom. idem eadem idem 

Gen. eiusdem eiusdem Siusdem 

Dat. eidem eldem eldem 

Ace. eundem eandem idem 

Abl. eodem e§dem e5dem 



Plural 

Maso. Fein. Neut. 

Idem eaedem eadem 

eOrundem earundem eorundem 

Isdem Isdem isdem 

eOsdem easdem eadem 

Isdem Isdem Isdem 



1. Case Forms. — Certain less common case forms of is and idem are the 
following : 

Of is : Si, ei, and eae for the Dative el ; ei and I for the Nominative il ; 
eis, iBf and ibus for the Dative and Ablative ils.^ 

Of idem : eldem and iidem for the Nominative plural idem, and eisdem 
and iisdem for the Dative and Ablative isdem. ^ 



V. RELATIVE PRONOUNS 

182. The Relative qui, who, so called because it relates to some 
noun or pronoun, expressed or understood, called its antecedent, 
is declined as follows : ® 



an indeclinable particle : eum-pse = ipsura ; eam-pse = ipsam, etc. ; sometimes 
combined with re : reftpse = re eapse = re ipsa, in reality, Ipsus for ipse is not 
uncommon. 

1 Other ancient and rare forms occur. 

^ In early Latin, eisdem and isdem occur for idem in both numbers, and 
eldem and Idem for idem. 

« The relative qui, the interrogative quis, qui, and the indefinite quis. qui, 
are all formed from the same three stems, qui, quo, qua, seen in qui-s, quo-d, 
qua. Qui is for quo-i. 

Ancient and rare forms of qui are quel for Nom. sing, qui: quia, quid, for 
qui, quae, quod; quSius for caius ; quoi for cui; ques, quel, for Nom. pi. 
qui; quels, quis, for quibus; and qui for qu6, qua, quibus. 



72 






MORPHOLOGY 










Singular 






Plural 






Mate. 


Fern. 


Neat. 


Maso. 


Fein. 


Neat. 


Nom. 


qui 


quae 


quod 


qui 


quae 


quae 


Gen. 


cuius 


ctLius 


ctiius 


quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


Dat. 


cui 


cui 


cui 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Ace. 


quern ^ 


L quam 


quod 


quos 


qu^s 


quae 


Abl. 


qu5 


qua 


qu5 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 



1. Qul^ = qud, qu&f and quibus, mth whom, with which, whereioith, 
is a Locative of the relative qui. 

2. Cum, when used with the Ablative of the relative is generally appended 
to it : quibus-cum. 

8. Quicumque and quisquis, whoever, are called from their signification 
General Relatives.^ Quicumque is declined like qui, but its parts are some- 
times separated by one or more words : qu& rS cmnque for quftciunque rS. 
Quisquis is rare except in the forms quisquia, quicquid,^ quoqud. 

4. Relative Adjectives are: quSlis, qufile, such as; quantus, a, um, 
so great; quot, as many as; quotus, a, um, of which number; and the 
double and compound forms, qu&lisqu&liB, quSliscumque, etc. Quot 
is indeclinable. 



VI. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 



183. The Interrogative Pronouns are used in asking questions. 
They are the following, with their compounds: 



Masc. Fern. Neut. 

1. Quis, — quid 

2. Qui, quae, quod 

3. Uter, utra, utrum 



who? what? used as a substantive. 
which? what? what kind of? used as an 

adjective. 
which (of two persons) ? what or which (of 

two things) ? used both as a substantive 

and as an adjective. 



1 An Accusative quom, also written cum, formed directly from the stem Quo, 
became the conjunction quom, cum, when, lit. during which, i.e. daring which 
time. Indeed, several other conjunctions, as quam, quamquam, are in their 
origin Accusatives of pronouns. 

2 Compare this with the interrogative qui. how? why? (184, 4). 

8 Relative pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs may be made general in significa- 
tion by taking cumque, like qui-cumque, or by being doubled, like quis-quis; 
qualis-cumque, qualis-quaiis, of whatever kind; ubi-cumque, ubi-ub!, 
ivheresoever. 

* The form quidquid seems to be without good authority. 









PRONOUNS 




73 


184. 


Quis,^ quid ? 


used 


in the 

Sing 
Neat. 


singuli 

ULAR 


ax, is declined 


as follows: 


Nom. 


qnis 




quid 




who 


what 


Gen. 


cuius 




cuius 




of whom 


of what 


l>at. 


cui 




cui 




for whom 


for what 


Ace. 


quern 




quid 




whom 


what 


Abl. 


9. quo 




qu5 




by whom 


with what 



1. Qui,^ quae, quod? which f what kind off used as an adjective, is 
declined like the relative qui, quae, quod. 

2. Uter, utra, utrum? which or what of two persons or things? has 
already been given ; see 93. 

3. Quia is sometimes used as an adjective, and qui sometimes as a sub- 
stantive, especially in dependent clauses. 

4. Qui, a Locative, used chiefly as an adverb, meaning how f by what 
means f occurs in special expressions, as qui Bcis ? how do you know f qui 
fit ? how does it happen f and in the interrogative quin = qui-ne, xchy not f 

5. Strengthened forms of quia and qui are declined like the simple pro- 
nouns quia and qui : 

Quis-nam, — quid-nam who indeed? what indeed? 2^ 2iS,\\}aBidiJit\YQ. 
Qui-nam, quae-nam, quod-nam of lohat kind indeed ? as an adjective. 

6. Note the Interrogative Adjectives : quSlia, e, of what kind ? quantua, 
a, um, how great ? quot, how many ? quotua, a, um, of what number ? 

VII. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 

186. Indefinite Pronouns do not refer to any definite persons 
or things. The most important are quia and qui, with their com- 
pounds or derivatives. 

186. Quia, any one, and qui, any one, any, are nearly the same 
in form and declension as the interrogatives quia and qui; but 
they are used chiefly after ai, niai, ne, and num, and in relative 
clauses, and they have quae or qua in the feminine singular and 
neuter plural : ai quae, ai qua. 

187. From quia and qui are formed various other indefinite 
pronouns and pronominal adjectives, to which ullua may be 

1 The ancient and rare forms of the interrogative quia and qui are nearly the 
same as those of the relative qui. 



74 MORPHOLOGY 

added. These may be divided according to their meaning as 
follows : 

1. Some one J any one, some, any; something, anything: 

Substantive Adjective 

ali-quis^ ali-quid ali-qul ali-qua ali-quod 

quis-piam quid-piam^ quis-piam quae-piam quod-piam^ 

quis-quam quic-quam^ tlllus alia uUum 

Note 1. — Aliquis and quisplain are occasionally used as adjectives, 
and aliqui occasionally as a substantive. Aliquis and aliqui have aliqua 
in the neuter plural. 

Note 2. — Ullus is the adjective corresponding to quisquam, of which it 
supplies the plural aud sometimes the oblique cases of the singular. 

2. Any one you please, anything you please; any whatever: 

Substantive Adjective 

qui-vis quae-vis quid-^s qui-vis quae-vis quod-vIs 

qui-libet quae-libet quid-libet qui-libet quae-libet quod-libet 

3. A certain one, a certain thing, certain : 

Substantive Adjective 

qui-dam quae-dam quid-dam qui-dam quae-dam quod-dam 

Note. — In quidam, as in Idem, m is changed to n before d: quen- 
dam, quan-dam ; quorun-dam, quS>run-dam. 

4. Every one, every thing, every, each : 

Substantive Adjective 

(|ui8-quo (juld-que quis-que quae-que quod-que 

188. Tho following words, with which we are already familiar, are 
oallod IVonoininal Adjectives; see 93: 

nllus» nltor; uter, neuter; GUus, nuUus. 

aHo(hf'i\ the other; which f neither; any, not any. 

I. N(lUut« wo oMf»» fu)t any, no, supplies certain cases of nSmd, no one, 
«ml with r««. also of nihil, nothing: 



* AUquU is fonuod from quia by profixinfj all, seen in ali-U8; quis-piaxn 
MU\1 \i\Uj« gutvtn fn>n\ quia by wnnoxinjr plam and qucun. 

* Mj»,\ \\rU(ou Qvili>piam und quoppiam. 

* I ho f^M u\ qutdquam s<H>ma to bo without good authority. 







PRONOUNS 




76 


Norn* 


Gen. 


I>at. 


Aco. 


Abl. 


nemd 


ntlllius 


n6minl 


neoiinem 


nuim 


nihil 


nfillius rel 


nam rel 


nihil 


nOll&re 



189. The correspondence which exists between Demonstratives, Rela- 
tives, Interrogatives, and Indefinites is seen in the following 

Table of Correlatives 



Interrogative 


Tndefinite 


Demonstrative 


Relative 


quia, qui, who? 
what?^ 


quia, qui,2 any one^ 
any ; aliquis,^ some 
onCy some ; quidam, 
certain one, certain ; 


hie, this one, this;^ 
iste, that one, that ; 
lUe, that one, that; 
is, he, that ; 


qui, 2 who. 


uter, which of 
two? 


uter or alteruter, 
either of two; 


uterque, each, 
both;^ 


qui, who. 


quails, of what 
kind? 


qu&lislibet,^ of any 
kind ; 


tails, such ; 


quaiis,^ as. 


quantuB, how 

great? 


allquantuB, some- 
what great; quan- 
tusvis, as great as 
you please ; 


tantus, so great; 


quantus,'^ as, 
as great. 


quot,^ how 
many? 


aliquot, some; 


tot, so many ; 


quot,^ as, as 
many 



1. Nescid quis, / know not who, has become in effect an indefinite pro- 
noun = quidam, some one. So also nescid qui, / know not ichich or what 
= some ; nescid quot = aliquot, some, a certain number. 



1 Observe that the question quis or qui, who or what? may be answered 
indefinitely by quis, qui, aliquls, etc., or definitely hy a demonstrative, either 
alone or with a relative, as by hie, this one, or hie qui, this one who ; is, he, or 
is qui, he who, etc. 

2 In form observe that the indefinite is either the same as the interrogative or 
is a compound of it: qviis, ali-quis, qui, qui-dam, and that the relative is 
usually the same as the interrogative. 

« On hie, iste, illo, and is, see 178, 181. 

* Or one of the demonstratives, hie, iste^ etc. 

* Aliquot, quot, and tot are indeclinable. 



74 

added, 
follow 

1. .^ 

ali-qn: 

quis-i 

quis-. 

N.. 

and ; 
in tl 
N 

SUl'! 



- ■/ .. 



-T ■ rrriT 



qi. 



■^w, 






..- — — 1." 



z'^racan. z 



-.f ►•». 



a ir«=" i*r-£j*r. 11 j»^!i»-ril. v.rii :i:e 



_ ^_^ : zit ^'iz'zsi:'''^'''^ 3i.ust je learned from 



TEitBS 77 

195. The ImperadTe Mood is used in Commands and En- 
. treaties: 

ValStodfnem tuam cnra, tike care of yovr kealUL 



UL TENSES 

196. There are six tenses, three for Incomplete Action and 

three for Completed Action : 

1. Tenses for Incomplete Action : 

Present: amo. I lore. lam loung. I do lore* 

Imperfect : aw»3Ka»w / ^^j^ hjrimg, I lored, 

Fntore : aiii2bd. / shall lore. 

2. Tenses for Completed Action : 

Perfect: amSYi. / hace lored. I lored. 

Plaperfect : amSveram. / h*id lured. 

Facore Perfect : an^iwBio. I shall hare lored. 

Note 1. —The Indicative M«>)d has the six tenses: the Sabjuncthre has 
the Present. Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect ; the Imperative, the Preaent 

and Future only. 

197. The Latin Perfect, unlike the English, has a twofold nse : 

1. It sometimes corresponds to onr ^rfect with hare — they hare lowed. 
It is then called the Present Perfect, or Perfect Definite. 

2. It sometimes corresponds to our Imperfect, or Past tense — tkejf lowed. 
It is then called the Historical Perfect, or Perfect Indefinite. 

198. Principal and HistoricaL — Tenses are also distinguished as 

1. Principal or Primary Tenses : 

Present : amd, / loffe. 

Present Perfect : sanStTt, I have loved.^ 

Future : amdbd, / shall Jove. 

Future Perfect : amStwtii6, I ahall have loved, 

2. Historical or Secondary Tenses : 

Imperfect : amabanii T ^uan loving» 

Historical Perfect : BsnSM, T loved. ^ 
Pluperfect : amfttrataa, / had lof^fd. 



Thns the I^tin Perfwt combinei» with*" ""^ ^ 

tenses — the Perfect proper, w»eii U^ ' 



•1»- 



76 MORPHOLOGY 



190. Verbs in Latin, as in English, express existence, condition, 
or action : est, he is; donnit. he is sleeping; legit, he reculs, 

1. Transitive Verbs admit a direct object of the action : ■ervam verbe- 
rat, he beats the slave. 

2. Intransitive Verbs do not admit such an object: paer curxlt, the boy 
runs. 

3. Some verbs may be used either with or without an object, Le. either 
transitively or intransitively. 

4. Verbs have Voice, Mood, Tense, Number, and Person. 

I. VOICES 

191. The Active Voice represents the subject as acting or 

existing : 

Pater flllnm amat, the father laves his son ; est, he is. 

192. The Passive Voie^ represents the subject as act«d upon 
by some other person or thing : 

mios a patre amfttur, the son is loved by his father. 

1. Intransitive Verbs generally have only the active voice, but are some- 
times used impersonally in the passive ; see 802, 0. 

2. Deponent Verbs ^ are passive in form, but not in sense: loquor, / 
speak. But see 282. 

II. MOODS 

193. The Indicative Mood represents the action of the verb as 
a Fact. It may assert or assume a fact, or it may inquire after 
the fact : 

Legit, he is reading. 81 legit, if he is reading. Legitne, is he reading f 

194. The Subjunctive Mood in general represents the action of 
the verb simply as Possible, as Desired, or as Conceived : 

AmemoB patriam, let us lore our country. Forsitan quaerfttls, perhaps 

you may inquire.' 



1 So called from dSpdnO, / lay aside, as they dispense, in general, with the 
active fomi and the passive meaning. 

2 But the use and proper translation of the Sobjonctive must be learned from 
the Syntax. 



• i 



HL TE3ESES 
19iL TlKte are sx t^ckses, tibtree for Isiffiupuev- Jlicsa^i azii 



2l Teaae* for 0>«pfefgd AggaA: 






rdu / «1^7 Iwvf^ ^./-/voL 
197, The Latin Perfeet. imlike iLe EnzLl^h, naa a tirofrjM Ofe: 



196. Piiac^al aad HistoricaL — Tenses are also distingnisbed as 

Faton^ : aaiSbd, / lA^II /<q«^. 

FotOTit Vitrifsti : iibTwi6t / «A^H lutwa foveC 

2, Hluorkal ^/r 5?«*ir»wiaiy Ten»» : 



1 JhoA tbe l^"n PcrfcetcowbiBtswithni ItKlf the foReand sw of two d»- 
iinct tcM** -- 1** P«*<«* F^-PW. •«■ i» tfce GicA Flerftt*, «id tfce A^^ 



80 



MORPHOLOGY 



205. Sum, / am; Stems, es, fu.^ 



Preg. Ind. 

sum^ 



PBINCIPAL PABT8 
Preg. Inf. Perf. Ind. 

esse^ ful 

Indicative Mood 
Pbesent Tense 



Fat. Part. 

futflruB 





SINGULAR 






] 


PLURAL 


sum 


lam 






sumuB^ 


toe are 


es 


thou art, you are 






estis 


you are 


est 


he is 






sunt 


they are 






Imperfect 




eraxn 


I was 






erSmus 


we were 


er&8 


thou wast, you were 




er&tiB 


you were 


erat 


he was 






erant 


they were 






Future 






er5 


I shall be 






erimus 


we shall be 


erlB 


thou wilt be* 






eritiB 


you will be 


erlt 


he will be 






erunt 


they will be 






Perfect 






fnl 


I have been * 






fuimuB 


we have been 


foists 


thou hast been* 






fuistiB 


you have been 


fult 


he has been 






fu6runt 

fu6re 


\ they have been 






Pluperfect 




fueram 


I had been 






fuerftmuB 


we had been 


fuer&8 


thou hadst been* 






fuerfttiB 


you had been 


fuerat 


he had been 






fuerant 


they had been 




Future Perfect 




fuerS 


I shall have been 


1 




fuerimuB 


we shall have been 


fueris 


thou wilt have been* 




fueritiB 


you will have been 


fuerit 


he will have been 






fuerint 


they will have been 



1 The forms of irregular verbs are often derived from different roots. Thus in 
Enjjlish, am, was, been; go, wentf gone. 

2 Observe that the stem es has two forms, es, seen in es-se, es-t, es-tis, and 
in er-am, for es-am (50) , and a weak form, s, seen in s-uin, s-umus, s-unt. 

s Observe that the endings which are added to the stems es and fu are dis- 
tinguished by the type. 

* Or, you will be, you have been, you had been, you will have been. The use of 
thou is confined chiefly to solemn discourse. 

^OVflwa»; see 198,2. 



VERBS 



81 







Subjunctive 








PRBSBin' 






SINGULA R 




PLURAL 


Sim 


may I be, let me 


be 


simos 


let us be 


SIB 


mayst thou be ^ 




SitiB 


be ye, may you be 


sit 


let him &6, may he be 


sint 


let them be 






Imperfect 




esaem 


I should be 




esB6maB 


toe should be 


esses 


thou wouldst be 




ess6tis 


you would be 


esset 


he would be 




essent 


they would be 






Perfect 




fuerim 


I may have been 




fuexlmoB 


we may have been 


fuens 


thou mayst have been 


fueritlB 


you may have been 


faexit 


he may have been 


fuerint 


they may have been 






Pluperfect 





fuissem / should have been 
fuissfiB thou wouldst have been 
fuisset he would have been 



fuissSmus we should have been 
fuissStis you would have been 
fuissent they would have been 





Imperative 




Pres. es be thou 




este 


be ye 


Fut. est5 thou shalt be ^ 




estote 


ye shall he 


est5 he shall be 




suntd 


they shall be 



Infinitive 

Pres. esse to be 

Perf . fuisse to have been 

Fut. futiinim^ esse to be about to be. 



Participle 



Fut. futuniB^ about to be 



1. In the paradigm all the forms beginning with e or s are from the stem 
es ; all others from the stem fu.^ 

2. Rare Forms. — Forem, for6s, foret, forent, fore, for essem, essSs, 
esset, essent, futurum esse ; siem, si6s, siet, sient, or fuam, fu&s, fuat, 
foant, for sim, sis, sit, sint. 

1 Or be thou, or may you he, but remember that the proper translation of the 
Subjunctive can be best learned from the Syntax. 

2 Or like the Present, or with let : he thou ; let him be, 

3 Futarus is declined like bonus, and the Accusative futaruna in futarum 
esse like the Accusative of bonus : futtLrum, am, um ; futtlrOs, &s, a. 

^ Es and fu are roots as well as stems. As the basis of this paradigm they are 
properly stems, but as they are not derived from more primitive forms they are 
in themselves roots. 

HARK. LAT. ORAM. 7 



82 



MORPHOLOGY 



FIRST CONJUGATION I A-VERB8 



206. Stems and Principal Parts of 

Ybrb Stem and Prksbnt Stbx, amfl^ 



Pre*. Ind. 

amo 



PRINCIPAL PARTS 

Pres. Inf. Perf • Ind. 

amSre amftvl 



Heat.P»rt. 

amfttum^ 



207. Active Voice. — Am5, 1 love. 





INDICATIVE JVLOOD 
Present Tense 






SINOULAR 




PLUSAL 


am5^ 


IlOve^ 


amamuB 


we love 


amfia 


thou latest, you love 


amatia 


you love 


amat 


he loves 


amant: 


they love 


*••"••• ^p 


Imperfect 


amftbam 


Iw<i8 loving 


amabamuB 


we were loving 


amSbfia 


you were loving * 


amabatta 


you were loving 


amftbat 


he was loving 

Put 


amabant 

URE 


they were loving 


amab5 


I shall love 


amabimoa 


we shall love 


amftbia 


you will love 


amabitia 


you win love 


amftbit 


he will love 

Per 


amabnnt 

FECT 


they wiU love 


amftvX 


I have loved ^ 


amayimiiB 


we have loved 


amftvisU 


you have loved 


amaviBtia 


you have loved 


amaTlt 


he has loved 


amavenmt, amaT6re ihey have loved 




Plupe 


RFECT 




amUveram 


I had loved 


amaveramua 


we had loved 


amaver&B 


you had loved 


amaveratia 


you had loved 


am^verat 


he had loved 

Future 


am&verant 
Perfect 


they had loved 


amSverd 


I shall have loved 


amaverimoa 


we shaXl have loved 


amSLverls 


you xoill have loved 


amaveritia 


you will have loved 


amaverit 


he will have loved 


amavexint 


they will have loved 



1 The final & of the stem disappears in amO, aznem, etc., and in amor, 
amer, etc. 

s Am&tum, Supine or neater Perfect Participle. 

'Or J am loving ^ I do love. So in the Imperfect, I loved, I was loving, I did 
love. 

* Or thou wast loving ; but see 205, footnote 4. 

^Or Iloved; see 196, 2. 



FiaST CONJVOATION 



83 



amem 

amSs 
amet 



am&reixi 

amar§8 

amftret 



amaverim 

am&vexlB 
amaverit 



Ain&vissem 

amavisBgB 

a^mavisBet 



SIKOULAR 

may I love 
may you love 
let him love 



I should love 
you would love 
he would love 



Subjunctive 
Pbbsbnt 

am6mas 

ametis 

ament 

Impebfect 

amSrSmiui 

amSrCtis 

amSrent 



Perfect 



I may have loved 
you may have loved 
he may have loved 



am3,verimuB 

amaveritis 

amSverint 



Pluperfect 



PLUBAL 

let us love 
may you love 
let them love 



we should love 
you would love 
they would love 



we may have loved 
you may have loved 
they may have loved 



I should have loved 
you would have loved 
he would have loved 



amavlssSmiui we should have loved 
amd,vi88Sti8 you would have loved 
amSvissent they would have loved 



^8. ama 

^Qt amat5 
am&t5 



love thou 

thou Shalt love 
he shall love 



Imperative 

am&te 

amStdte 
amantd 



love ye 

ye shall love 
they shall love 



Inpinitivb 

Pres. am&re to love 

Perf . am&YiBBe to have loved 

Put. amfttfbmm^ esse to be about to 

love 

Gerund 

Gen. amandl of loving 

Dat. amand5 for loving 

Ace. amandum loving 

Abl. amando by loving 



Participle 
Pres. amans^ loving 

Fat. amaturuB^ about to love 
Supine 



Ace. amatum to love 

Abl. amatii to love, be loved 



1 For declension, see 128. 

2 Am&tarus is declined like boniis, and am&t€lrum like the Accnsative of 
borus. 



84 



MORPHOLOGY 



FIRST CONJUGATION: A-VERB8 

206. PaBsiye Voice. — Amor, I am loved. 

Verb Stem akd Present Stem, amfl 

Indicative Mood 

Present Tense 

lam loved 



singular 






PLURAL 


amor 








amflxis 






amaminf 


amatnr 






amantnr 




Imferfect 






/ wa8 loved 




am&bar 






amftbamur 


amabaiis, amSbSre 






amabfimini 


amab&tar 






am&bantar 




Future 






/ shall he loved 




amflbor 






amabimur 


amftberlBf amftbere 






amabimiDi 


am&bitnr 






amabnntor 




Perfect 




I have been loved or I was 


loved 


amfttuB sum ^ 






am&tl samuB 


amfttuB es 






am&tlestis 


am3.tii8 est 






amftti sunt 




Pluperfect 






/ had been loved 




amfttos eram ^ 






amfttl eramuB 


amd,tu8 er&8 






amati eratis 


amatuB erat 






amati erant 



Future Perfect 
/ shall have been loved 



amd,tu8 er5 ^ 
amd,tu8 eris 
amatus erit 



amd.ti erimos 
amati eritis 
amati erunt 



1 Ful, fiiisti, etc., are sometimes used for sum, es, etc. : am&tus fui for ama- 
tus sum. So fueram, fuer&s, etc., for eram, etc. : also fuerG, etc., for ero, etc. 



FIRST CONJUGATION 



85 



Subjunctive 

Pbesent 

May I he loved, let him be loved 

SINOULAB 

amer 

amSrlB, amSre 
amStnr 



PLURAL 

amemur 

amemiiil 

amentor 



Imperfect 
/ should be lovedf he would be loved 



amSrer 

amareris, amSrSre 
amaretur 



amSrCmur 

amar6iiiiiil 

amSrentor 



Perfect 
/ may have been loved, he may have been loved 



amatuB sim ^ 
amatus bIb 
am&tuB Bit 



amfttl idmuB 
amfttl BltdB 
amfttl Bint 



Pluperfect 
I should have been loved, he would have been loved 



amfttuB OBBem ^ 
amatus obbCb 
amatuB OBBet 



amftti eBBSmuB 
amati eBBStds 
amftti eBBent 



Pres. am&re be thou loved 

Fut. amator thou shalt be loved 
amfttor he shall be loved 



Imperative 

amftminX 



amantor 



be ye loved 



they shall be loved 



Infinitive 

Fres. amftxi to be loved 

Perf . amfttum obbo ^ 



Pat. amfttum M 



to have been 

loved 
to be about to 

be loved 



Pabtioiple 

Perf. amfttuB having been loved 

Ger.3 amanduB to be loved, deserving 

to be loved 



1 Fuerim, fueris, etc., are sometimes used for sim, sis, etc. So also faissem, 
fulssSs, etc., for essem, esses, etc. : rarely fuisse for esse. 
^ Ger. B Gerundive ; see 200, 4. 



86 



MORPHOLOGY 



SECOND CONJUGATION I E-VERB8 

209. Stems and Principal Parts of Moneo. 

Vbbb Stbm, mon ; Present Stem, mon6 

PBINOIPAL PABTS 

mone5 monSre monul 

210. Active Voice. — MoneO^ I advise. 

Indicative Mood 



monitam 



• 


Pbesent Tbnsb 




SINOULAB 


I advise 


PLURAL 


mone5 






mon&nuB 


mon68 






monetlB 


monet 






monent 




Impbrfeot 






Ivsas advising^ or I advised 


mon6bam 






monSbSmuB 


mon6b&i 






monSbatlB 


monSbat 






monSbant 




FUTUBB 






I shall advise 




mon6b5 






monebimtui 


monebis 






mon6biti8 


monebit 






mon6bunt 




Perfect 






/ have advised, or I advised 


monul 






monuimuB 


monuistS 






monuistlB 


monuit 






monuSrunt, monuSre 




Plupebfect 






/ had advised 




monaeram 






monueramuB 


monaer&B 






monuer&tlB 


monaerat 






monuerant 




Futubb Pebpect 






I shall have advised 




monuerd 






monuerimuB 


monuerls 






monuerltiB 


monaerit 






monuerint 



aECOND CONJUGATION 



87 



SUBJUNCTIVB 


Pbesent 


May I advise^ let him advise 


SIKOULAR PLURAL 


moneam 


moneSmtis 


monefia 


monefttiB 


moneat 


moneant 


Imperfect 


I should advise J he would advise 


mon6rem 


monSrSmtui 


mon6r6B 


mon6r6ti8 


moii6ret 


mpnereiit 


Perfect 


/ may have advised, he may have advised 


monuerim 


monuerimtui 


monueiis 


monueritiB 


monuexit 


monuerint 


Pluperfect 


I should have advised, he would have advised 


monuissem 


monuissemtui 


monniBBSB 


monuissStiB 


monulBBet 


monulBBent 


Imperative 


Pres. moii6 advise thou 


monSte advise ye 


Fut. nion6t5 thou shalt advise 


monState ye shall advise 


monStd he shall advise 


monento they shall advise 



Infinitive 

Pres. monSre to advise 

Perf. monulBse to have advised 

Fut. monittlnun esse to be about to 

advise 

Gerund 

6en. monendi of advising 

Dat. monendo for advising 

Ace. monendum advising 

Abl. monendd by advising 



Participle 
Pres. monSns advising 

Fat monitilruB about to advise 
SUPINB 



Acc. monitum to advise 

Abl. monitfL to advise, be advised 



88 



MORPHOLOGY 



SECOND CONJUGATION! E-VERBS 

211. Passive Voice. — Moneor, / am advised, 

Yebb Stem, mon ; Present Stem, mon6 

Indicative Mood 

Pbesent Tense 

I am advised 



SINGULAR 

moneor 

monSris 

inonStur 



Imperfect 
I was advised 
monSbar 

inoii6bftria, monebSre 
monSbfttur 

Future 
I shall he advised 
inonSbor 

monSberlB, monSbere 
monebitur 



PLURAL 

monSmur 

monSmlnl 

monentor 



monSbSmur 
monebSLminl 
inonSbantur 



monebixnur 
monSbimiiii 
monebuntnr 



Perfect 
/ have been advised^ I was advised 



monituB snm ^ 
monituB ob 
monituB eat 



moniti BumuB 
moniti oBtlB 
moniti Bnnt 



Pluperfect 
I had been advised 



monituB eram ^ 
monituB erfta 
monituB erat 



moniti erSmuB 
moniti erfttlB 
moniti erant 



Future Perfect 
/ shall have been advised 



monituB er5 ^ 
monitus eris 
monitus erit 



moniti erimoB 
moniti eritis 
moniti erunt 



See 208, footnotes. 



SECOND CONJUGATION 



89 



Subjunctive 

Pbesent 

May I he advised^ let him be advised 



SINGULAR 

monear 

monearlB, moneflre 
moneator 



PLURAL 

moneSmur 

mone&minl 

moneantor 



Impbbfbot 

/ should be advised, he would be advised 



monSrer 

monSrSrlB, monSrSre 
monSretnr 



monSrSmur 
monSrSminX 
mon6rentar 



Perfect 
I may have been advised, he may have been advised 



monitiuiBim^ 
monitiiB bIb 
monituB Bit 



moniti almuB 
monita sltiB 
monita Bint 



Pluperfect 
I should have been advised, he would have been advised 



inonituB OBBem ^ 
monitus obbSb 
monituB OBBet 



moniti OBsSmuB 
moniti essStiB 
moniti essent 



Imperative 

Pres. monSre be thou advised 

Fut. monStor thou shalt be advised 
monitor he shall be advised 



monSminl be ye advised 
monentor they shall be advised 



Infinitive 

Pres. monfiri to be advised 

Perf. monitum esse^ to have been 

advised 
Ger. monitum url to be about to 

be advised 



Participle 

Perf. monituB having been advised 

Ger. monenduB to be advised, deserv- 
ing to be advised 



1 See 208, footnotes. 



90 



MORPHOLOGY 



THIRD CONJUGATION : CONSONANT VERBS 

212. Stems and Principal Parts of Reg5. 

Verb Stem, reg; Present Stem, rege, rego^ 

PRINCIPAL PARTS 

reg5 regere r63d2 rectum 2 

213. Active Voice. — Rego, / rule. 

Indicative Mood 

Present Tense 
I rule 



SINGULAR 






PLURAL 


reg5 






regimuB 


regis 






regitis 


regit 






regunt 




Imperfect 






I was ruling, or I ruled 




regSbam 






regSbSLmuB 


regSbSs 






regSbStiB 


regSbat 




- 


regSbant 




Future 


, 




I shall rule 




regam 






regemuB 


regSs 


« 




regStilB 


reget 






regent 




Perfect 






I have ruled, or I ruled 




rgrf 






reximoB 


T&ldBtS. 






rSxiBtiB 


rfixlt 






rexSrant, rexSre 




Pluperfect 






I had ruled 




r6xeram 






rSxerSLmuB 


rexer&B 






rexerStia 


rSxerat 






rSxerant 




Future Perfect 






/ shall have ruled 




rSxerd 






rexerimuB 


rexeris 






rexeritis 


rgxerit 






r^xerint 



1 The characteristic of this conjugation is the thematic vowel which connects 
the stem and the ending. It originally had the form of e or o, but in classical 
Latin it generally appears as i or u, as in *reget, regrit ; *regont, regrunt. 

a B€xl, from *rec-si, from *reg-si ; see 51 . RSc-tum, from *reg-tum ; see 66, 1. 



THIRD CONJUOATtOK 



di 





Subjunctive 






Present 






May I rule, let him rule 




SINGULAR 




PLURAL 


regam 






reg&muB 


regSlB 






regStis 


regat 






regant 




Imperfect 






/ should rule, he would rule 




regerem 






regerSmuB 


regerSs 






regerStis 


regeret 






regerent 




Perfect 




/ may have ruled, he may have ruled 


rexerim 






rexerimuB 


rexerls 






rSxeritis 


rSxexit 






rexerlnt 


• 


Pluperfect 




I should have ruled, he loould have ruled 


rexiBsem 






rexissSmuB 


tSxIbbSs 






rSxissStis 


TSxiBset 






rSxissent 



Pres. rege rule thou 

Fat. regitd thou shalt rule 
regit5 he shall rule 



Imperative 

regite rtile ye 

regitote ye shall rule 

reguntd they shall rule 



Infinitive 



Pres. regere 

Perf. rexiBse 

Fut. recttirum esse 



to rule 
to have ruled 
to be about to 
rule 



Gerund 

Gren. regendl of ruling 

Dat. regendd for ruling 

Ace. regendum ruling 

AbL regend5 by ruling 



Participle 
Pres. regSnB ruling 

Put. rSctliruB about to rule 
Supine 



Acc. r€ctum to rule 
Abl. recti! to rule, be ruled 



92 



MORPHOLOGY 



THIRD CONJUGATION! CONSONANT VERBS 

214. Passive Voice. — Eegor, / am ruled, 

Yebb Stem, reg ; Present Stem, rege, rego 

Indicative Mood 

Fbesent Tense 

/ am ruled 



SINGULAR 






PLURAL 


regor 






regimm: 


regeris 






reglmiul 


regitur 






reguntur 




Imperfect 






/ voaa ruled 




reg6bar 






reg6b&miu: 


reg6bflrl8, regebSre 




regebftminl 


regfibfttur 






regSbantur 




Future 






I shall be ruled 




regar 






regGmiu: 


regMs, regSre 






regeminl 


regetur 






regentur 




Perfect 




I have been ruled, or I was 


ruled 


r€ctaB sum ^ 






recti sumuB 


rectus es 






recti estia 


rCctuB eat 






recti aunt 




Pluperfect 






/ had been ruled 




rectus eram ^ 






recta erSLmua 


rectus erSLs 






recti er&tia 


rectus erat 






recti erant 




Future Perfect 




/ shall have been ruled 


rectus er5 ^ 






recti erimua 


rectus eris 






recti eritis 


rectus erit 






recti erunt 



1 See 208, footnotes. 



THIRD CONJUGATION 



93 



Subjunctive 

Fbbbbnt 

May I he ruled, let him be ruled 



SINGULAR 

regar 

regflris, regSre 
regatur 



PLURAL 

reg&mur 

regamini 

regantur 



Imperfect 

/ should be ruledf he would be ruled 

regerSmur 

regerSminl 

regerentur 



regerer 

Teger6xiB, reger6re 
regerfitur 



Perfect 
I may have been ruled, he may have been ruled 



rectuB 8im^ 
rectus tf B 
rectuB Bit 



rSctl BimuB 
r€ctl sitis 
recta Bint 



Pluperfect 
I should have been ruled, he would have been ruled 



rSctuB eBBem ^ 
rSctiiB eBB68 
rSctuB OBBet 



recti easSmuB 
recti easStis 
recta esBent 



Imperative 



Pres. regere be thou ruled 

Fut. regitor thou shall be ruled 
regitor he shall be ruled 



regimini be ye ruled 
reguntor they shall be ruled 



Infinitive 

Pres. regl to be ruled 

Perf . rectum esse ^ to have been ruled 
Fut. rectum in to be about to be 

ruled 



Participle 

Perf. rectus having been ruled ^ 
Ger. regendus to be ruled, deserving 

to be ruled 



jj J ui. i»*«-i«i 



1 B€c-tus from ♦reg-tus; see 55, 1. 



94 



MORPHOLOGY 



FOURTH CONJUGATION! I-VERBS 

215. Stems and Principal Parts of Audio. 

Vbrb Stem and Present Stem, audi 



audi5 



PRINCIPAL PARTS 

audire audlvl 



auditum 



216. 



Active Voice. - 


— Audio, I hear. 
Indicative Mood 

Present Tense 




SINOULAB 

audi5 
audia 
audit 


I hear 


PLURAL 

audimuB 

audltis 

audiunt 


audiebam 

audiebfts 

audiebat 


Impe] 
Iwashearin 


aPECT 

gr, or / heard 


audi6b&mua 

audiebfttis 

audiSbant 


audiam 

audies 
audiet 


Fui 
Ishal 


■URB 

7 hear 


• 

audiSmoa 

audietia 

audient 


audlvl 

audlvisti 

audlvlt 


Per 

I have heart 


FECT 

f, OT I heard 


audlvimoB 
audlviatia 
audlv6runt, audlv6re 


audlveram 

audlverfta 

audlverat 


Plupb 
Ihad 


iRFECT 

heard 


audlver&muB 

audlverfttia 
audlverant 


audlver5 
audivexfa 
audiverlt 


Future 
I shall hi 


Perfect 
ive heard 


audiverimoB 

audlveritis 

audivexint 



FOURTH CONJUGATION 





Subjunctive 




Pbesent 




May I hear, let him hear 


SINGULAR 


PLURAL 


audiam 




au(ii&mu8 


audi&a 




audiStis 


audiat 




audiant 




Imperfect 




I should hear, he would hear 


audirem 




audlr6mu8 


audir68 




audirfitiB 


audiret 




audirent 



Perfect 
/ may have heard, he may have heard 



audlverim 

audiveris 

audlveiit 



audiverimuB 

audlveritilB 

audiverint 



Pluperfect 
I should have heard, he would have heard 



audiviBsem 

audiviBs6s 

audivlsset 



audiyissSmuB 

audivissStiB 

audlviasent 



96 



Pres. audi hear thou 

Fut. auditd thou shalt hear 
aad!t5 he shall hear 



Imperative 

audite hear ye 

audit5te ye shall hear 

audiunt5 they shall hear 



Infinitive 

Pres. audire to hear 

Perf . audiviBBe to have heard 

Fut. audlttlram ease to be about to 

hear 

Gerund 

(Jen. audlendl of hearing 

Dat. audiendd for hearing 

Ace. audlendum hearing 

Abl. audlend5 by hearing 



Participle 
Pres. audi6ns hearing 

Fut. audltilmB about to hear 
Supine 



Ace. auditum to hear 

AbL audita to hear, be heard 



96 



MORPHOLOGY 



FOURTH CONJUGATION! I-VERBS 

217. Passive Voice. — Audior, / am heard. 

Verb Stem and Present Stem, audi 
Indicative Mood 



SINGULAR 

audior 

audlrla 

audltur 



Present Tense 
I am heard 



PLURAL 

audimur 

audunizil 

audluntur 



Imperfect 
/ was heard 



audiebar ' 

audi6b&is, audifibSre 
audifibatur 



audiebamur 
audiebamlnl 
audiebantur 



Future 
I shall he heard 



audiar 

audiSris, audi6re 
audietur 



audl6mur 
audi6miiil 
aiidlentur 



Perfect 
I have been heard or Ivsas heard 



audltuB sum ^ 
audltus 68 
audltoB est 



audltl Bumoa 
audltl eatilB 
auditl sunt 



Pluperfect 
/ had been heard 



audltuB eram ^ 
audltus erfts 
audltuB erat 



auditl eramuB 
audltl eratlB 
audltl erant 



Future Perfect 
/ shall have been heard 



audituB er5 ^ 
audltuB eria 
audituB erit 



audltl erimaa 
audltl eritilB 
audltl erunt 



^ See 208, footnotes. 



FOUETH CONJUGATION 



97 



Subjunctive 

Prbsbnt 
May I be heard, let him be heard 



SINGULAR 

audiar 

audiflrla, audiflra 
audlfttur 



PLURAL 

audl&mur 

audiftminl 

audlantur 



audirer 

audir6xi8, audlrfire 
audir6tur 



Impbrfeot 

I should be heard, he would be heard 

audlr6miir 
audlr6mi]]l 
audirentur 



Pbrfbot 
I may have been heard, he may have been heard 



audltuB aim 
auditUB bIb 
audltoB Bit 



audltl BimuB 
audit! BitiB 
auditl Bint 



Pluperfect 
I should have been heard, he would have been heard 



audituB OBBem 
audltoB eBB6B 
auditoB OBBet 



auditl eBBSmuB 
audltl eBBStis 
auditl eBBont 



Imperative 



Pres. audire be thou heard 

Put. auditor thou shalt be heard 
auditor he shall be heard 



audimini be ye heard 



audiuntor they shall be heard 



Infinitive 

Pres. audirl to be heard 

Perf . auditum esse to have been 

heard 
Put. auditum iri to be about to 

be heard 

HARK. LAT. ORAM. — 8 



Participle 

Perf. audituB having been heard 

Ger. audiendoB to be heard, deserv- 
ing to be heard 



98 



MORPHOLOGY 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF CONJUGATIONS 
218. Active Voice : Present System.^ 



Indicative Mood 
Present Tense 



am 


-0 


mon -60 


reg 
aud 


-0 
-10 


am 


-al 


mon -e 


reg -e 
aud-i-e . 


am -a 
mon -e 


reg 
aud 


-i 



-bam 



-bO 



-am 



am 


-em; 




mon -e 




reg 
aud -i 


-am 


am -a ' 




mon -e 
reg -e 
aud -i 


- -rem 


Present 


SINGULAR PLURAL 


am -a am -a ' 




mon -e mon-e 




reg -e 
aud -1 


reg -i 
aud -i 





4Ls 
-es 
-is 
-is 


-at 
-et 
-it 
-it 

Imperfect 


-amus 
-emus 
-imus 
-Imus 


-atis 
-etis 
-itis 
-Itis 


-ant 
-ent 
-unt 
-iunt 


-bfts 


-bat 

Future 


-bamus 


-batis 


-bant 


-bis 


-bit 


-bimus 


-bitis 


-bunt 


-€8 


-et 


-emns 


-^tis 


-ent 




Subjunctive 








Present 








-& 


-et 


-emus 


-^tis 


-«nt 


-as 


-at 


-amus 


-&tis 


-ant 



-res 



-te 



Imperfect 



-ret 



Imperative 



-remns 



Future 



-retis 



-rent 



SINGULAR 



plural 



am -a 
mon-e 
reg -i 
aud-i 



-to -to 



am -a ' 
mon-e 
reg -i 
aud -1 



-tote 



am -an 
mon-en 
reg -un 
aud -inn 



-to 



Present Infinitive Present Participle 



a^ 



am 
mon -e 
reg -e 
aud -1 



' -re 



am -ans 
mon-ens 
reg -ens 
aud -lens 



Gerund. 



am -an 
mon-en 
reg -en 
aud -ien , 



^i 



1 For the Present System, see 288. 



VERBS 



99 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF CONJUGATIONS 

219. Passive Voice : Present System. 

Indicative Mood 



Fbbbbnt Tense 



am 

mon -e 
reg , 
aud -1 , 



am -a "^ 
mon -e 
reg -€ 
aud-i-e 



-or 



am -a ^ 
mon-e 



reg -e 
aud -I , 



• -ns 



-bar 



am 
moD-e 



in 



•bor 



"«- -i j 



aud 



-ar 



-b&risi 



-beris 
•«ris 



am -a ' 


am -an 


mon-e 
reg -i 
aud -i 


-tur -mur -mini »°":«^ 

aud -inn 


Imperfect 


-batur -bamur -bamini 


Future 




-bitur -bimur -bimini 



' -tur 



-etur -emur -emini 



-bantur 

-buntur 
-entur 



am 




mon-e ] 


reg 
aud 


-ij 


am 


-ai 


mon -e | 


reg 
aud 


-e 



-er 
> -ar 



-rer 



-€ris 
-aris 



-rerisi 



Present 
singular plural 



am -a 
mon -e 
reg -e 
aud -1 



. -re 



am -a ^ 
mon-e 



reg -1 
aud -1 



' -mmi 



Subjunctive 

Present 

-etur -emur -emini 
-atur -amur -amini 

Imperfect 

-retur -remur -remini 



Imperative 



Future 



-entur 
-antur 



-rentur 



singular 



plural 



am -a 
mon-e 
reg -i 
aud-i , 



' -tor -tor 



am -an 
mon-en 
reg -un 
aud -iun 



' -tor 



Present Infinitive 



am -a 
mon-e 
aud -1 
reg -i 



-ri 



Gerundive 



am -an 
mon-en 
aud -ien 
reg -en 



-dus 



1 In the second person singular of the passive, except in the Present Indicativei 
the ending re is often used instead of rls : am&l^^rie or amftb^-re. 



100 



MORPHOLOGY 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF CONJUGATIONS 

220. Active Voice: i. Perfect System.^ 

Indicative Mood 



amav 
monu 
rex 
audiy , 



amav 
monu 
rex 
audiy 



amav 
monu 
rex 
audiv 



' -eram 



' -erO 



-isti 



-eris 



Perfect Tense 



-it 



-imns 



Pluperfect 



-eras -erat 



-er&mus 



Future Perfect 



-erit 



-enmos 



-istis 



-erunt, -ere 



-eratis -erant 



-eritis -erint 



amav "^ 



monu 

rex 

audiv 



• -enm 



amav 
monu 
rex 
audiv ^ 



> -issem 



-erIs 



Subjunctive 



Perfect 



-erit 



-enmus 



-eritis -erint 



Pluperfect 
-isses -isset -issemus -issetis -issent 



amav 
monu 
rex 
audiv 



-isse 



Perfect Infinitive 



Future Infinitive 



2. Participial System 
Future Participle 



ama 
moni 
rec 
audi 



-turum esse 



-turns 



Supine 



-turn -tu 



For the Perfect System, see 284, and for the Participial System, 286. 



VERBS 



101 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OF CONJUGATIONS 
221. Passive Voice : Participial System. 

Indicative Mood 



ama 
mon-i 
rec 
audi 



-tas sam -tos es 




Perfect Tensb 



-tas est 



-tP samus -ti estis -ti sunt 



Pluperfect 



-tas eram -tas er&s -tus erat 



-ti eram as -ti eratis -ti erant 



ama 
mon-i 
rec 
audi , 



Future Perfect 



' -tas erO -tus eris -tus erlt 



-tl erimus -ti eritis -ti erant 



Subjunctive 



ama 
mon-i 
rec 
aadi ^ 



ama ^ 
mon-i 
rec 
audi ^ 



Perfect 



> -tos sim -tos SIS -tus sit 



-tl simus -tl sitis -ti sint 



Pluperfect 



-tos essem -tos esses -tus esset 



-ti essemus -ti essetis -ti essent 



Perfect 



ima 1 
non-i I , 



ama 
mon- 
rec I 
aadi J 



tum esse 



Infinitive 



Perfect Participle 



Future 
-tum iri 



ama ^ 
mon-i 
rec 
audi 



-tus 2 



1 In the plural, tus becomes ti : amft-ti suznus, etc. 

2 From the comparative view presented in 218-221, it will be seen that the 
four conjugations differ from each other only in the formation of the Principal 
Parts and in the endings of the Present System. See also 201, footnote. 



102 



MORPHOLOGY 



DEPONENT VERBS 

222. Deponent Verbs have in general the forms of the passive 
voice, with the signification of the active. But 

1. They have also in the active the Future Infinitive, the Participles, 
Gerund, and Supine. 

2. The Gerundive has the passive signification ; sometimes, also, the 
Perfect Participle : hortandos, to he exhorted ; ezpertus, tried, 

3. The Future Infinitive has the active form. 



223. Deponent verbs are found in each of the four conjuga- 
tions. Their principal parts are the Present Indicative, Present 
Infinitive, and Perfect Indicative : 



I. 


Hortor 


hortAri 


hortatus sum 


to exhort 


II. 


Vereor 


verfiri 


veritus sum 


to fear 


III. 


Loquor 


loqul 


lociitus sum 


to speak 


IV. 


Blandior 


blandlrl 


blandltus sum 


to flatter 




I 


IT 


111 


IV 


Pres. 


hortor, I exhort 


vereor, I fear 


loquor, I speak 


blandior, I flatter 




hortaris, etc. 


vereris, etc. 


loqueris, etc. 


blandiris, etc. 


Imp. 


hortAbar 


verfibar 


loqufibar 


blandiSbar 


Fut. 


hortabor 


verebor 


loquar 


blandiar 


Perf. 


hortS,tus sum 


veritus sum 


locutus sum 


blandltus sum 


Plup. 


hortatus eram 


veritus eram 


locutus eram 


blandltus eram 


F. P. 


hortatus er5 


veritus er5 


lociitus er5 * 


blandltus erO 






Subjunctive Mood 




Pres. 


horter 


verear 


loquar 


blandiar 


Imp. 


hortarer 


vergrer 


loquerer 


blandlrer 


Perf. 


hortatus sim 


veritus sim 


locutus sim 


blandltus sim 


Plup. 


hortatus essem 


veritus essem 


locutus essem 


blandltus essem 






Imperative 




Pres. 


hortare 


vergre 


loquere 


blandire 


Fut. 


hortator 


veretor 


loquitor 


blandltor 






Infinitive 




Pres. 


hortari 


vergri 


loqui 


blandlrl 


Perf. 


hortatum esse 


veritum esse 


locdtum esse 


blandltum ^ 


Fut. 


hortattirum esse 


veritHrum esse 


locaturum esse 


blandltflr 



I-VERBS, THIRD CONJUGATION 



103 



Pres. 


hortftns 


Fut. 


hortattlras 


Perf. 


hort&tus 


Ger. 


hortandos 




hortandl, etc. 




hortatiim 




hortata 



Pabticiple 

verens loquCns 

yeritfLrus locfLtfLrus 

veritus locdtus 

yerendus loquendus 

Gerund 

verendl, etc. loquendl, etc. 

Supine 

veritum locdtum 

Yerittl locutu 



blandiCns 
blandlttlras 
blandltus 
blandiendus 



blandiendl, etc. 



blandltum 
blandltiL 



SEMI-DEPONENT VERBS 



2S24. Semi-Deponent Verbs have active forms in the Present 



system and passive forms in the Perfect system : 

aude5 audere ausus sum 

gaude5 gaudSre gavlsus sum 

sole5 solSre solitus sum 

fidO fidere fisus sum 



to dare 
to rejoice 
to he wont 
to trust 



1. The Perfect Participles of a few Intransitive verbs have the active 
meaning, but they are generally used as adjectives : 

adultus, having grown up, adult, from adol6scere, to grow up 
cautus, taking care, cautious^ ** cavfire, to take care 
cenatus, having dined, " c6nare, to dine 

]^\2ucitua, pleasing, ** plac6re, to please 

pransus, having breakfasted, ** prandgre, to breakfast 

2. DSvertor, to turn aside, and revertor, to return, have active forms 
in the Perfect system, borrowed from d6vert5 and revert5. 



I-VERBS OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION 

225. A few verbs of the Third Conjugation form the Present 
Indicative in io, like verbs of the Fourth Conjugation. I'hey are 
inflected with the endings of the Fourth whenever those endings 
have two successive vowels. These verbs are : 

1. Capi5, to take; cupi5, to desire; faci5, to make; fodi5, to dig; 
'- Uee; iaci5, to throw; parid, to bear; quatlo, to shake; rapid, 
pi5, to be wise ; with their compounds. 



104 



MORPHOLOGY 



2. The compounds of the obsolete verbs laci5, to entice^ and Bpeci5,^ to 
look; allici5, 61ici5, illici5, pellici5, etc.; aspicid, cdnspiciS, etc. 

3. The Deponent Verbs gradior, to go ; moxior, to die ; patdor, to suffer ; 
see 222. 

226. Stems and Principal Parts of Capio. 

Ybrb Stem, cap ; Pbesent Stem, capl ^ 

PRINCIPAL PARTS 



capi5 



capere 



c6pl 



227. Active Voice. — Capi6, / take. 



Indicative Mood 
Present Tense 



SINGULAR 

capi5 capis 



capit 



capi6-bam -bfts -bat 



capi-am 



c6p-I 



c6pe-ram 



c6pe-r5 



-6s 



-isti 



-rfts 



-rb 



-et 



-it 



-rat 



capi-am 



cape-rem 



c6pe-rim 



-fts 



-r6s 



-rls 



c6pis-sem -s6s 



capimus 

Imperfect 

capie-b&mus 

Future 
capi-6mus 

Perfect 
c€p-inms 

Pluperfect 

c6pe-r9,mus 

Future Perfect 
-rit cepe-rimus 

Subjunctive 
Present 
capi-^mus 

Imperfect 

cape-r6mus 

Perfect 

c6pe-rimus 

Pluperfect 

cepis-sSmus 



-at 



-ret 



-rit 



-set 



captum 



PLURAL 

capitis capiunt 
-b&tis -bant 



-etis 



-istis 



-ratis 



-ritis 



-9,tis 



-retis 



-ritis 



-s€tis 



-ent 



-firunt, or -6re 



-rant 



-rint 



-ant 



-rent 



-rint 



-sent 



1 SpeciS occurs, but it is exceedingly rare. 

3 Remember that i becomes e when final, and also before r from B : *capi, 
cape ; ^capise, capere ; see 26, 1 and 2. 



I-VERBS, THIRD CONJUGATION 



106 



Imperative 




BINOUT.AR 


PLURAL 


Pres. cape 


capite 


Fut. capitO 


capitO te 


capitO 


capiuntO 


Infinitive 


Participle 


Pres. capere 


Pres. capigns 


Perf. cepisse 




Put. capturum esse 


Fut. capturus 


Gerund 


Supine 


Gen. capiendi 




Dat. capiendo 




Ace. capieudum 


Ace. captum 


Abl. capiendo 


Abl. capttl 



228. Passive Voice. — Capior, / am taken. 

Indicative Mood 

Present Tense 
singular 

caperis capitur capimur 

Imperfect 
-baris -batur capi6-baraur 

Future 
-eris -6tur capi-6inur 

Perfect 
est capti sumus 

Pluperfect 
erat capt! eramus 

Future Perfect 
erit capti erimus 



capior 



capie-bar 



capi-ar 



captus sum es 



captus eram eras 



captus er5 eris 



PLURAL 



capimini capiuntur 



-bamini -bantur 



-Sminl -entur 



estis 



eratis 



eritis 



sunt 



erant 



erunt 



capi-ar 



cape-rer 



Subjunctive 
Present 

-aris -atur capi-amur 

Imperfect 
-reris -retur cape-rSmur 



-amini -antur 



-remini -rentur 



106 



MORPHOLOGY 



captus sim 



sint 



Perfect 
sis sit oaptlslmus sitis 

Pluperfect 
captus essem esses esset capti essSmus essStis essent 



ImpebativI! 



Pres. capere 

Put. capitor 

capitor 

Infinitive 

Pres. capl 

Perf . captum esse 

Put. captum \ti 



capimini 
capiuntor 
Pabticiple 



Perf. captus 
Fat. capiendus 



229. Deponent verbs in ior of the Third Conjugation, like other de- 
ponent verbs, have in the active voice the Future Infinitive, the Parti- 
ciples, Gerund, and Supine, but lack the Future Infinitive of the passive 
form. They are otherwise inflected precisely like the passive of capior : 



patior 



pati 



passus sum 



to suffer 



VERBAL INFLECTIONS 

230. The principal parts are regularly formed in the four con- 
jugations with the following endings : 



CONJ. I. 



II. 



III. 



IV. 



In a few verbs : 
In most verbs : 

In consonant stems : 
In u-stems : 



e5 6re 

deleO d6l6re 
e5 6re 

moneO monfire 



5 &re ftvi &tum 

amO am9.re am9.vl amatum 

6vi 6tum 

delevi deletum 

111 itum 

monul monitum 

5 ere ai turn 

carpO carpere carpsi carptum 

a5 uere ul titum 

acu(^ acuere acul actltum 

15 ire ivi itum 

audi(^ audire audlvl audltum 



to love 

to destroy 
to advise 

to pluck 
to sharpen 

to hear 



Note. — For a full treatment of the formation of the principal parts of 
verbs, see Classification of Verbs, 957^299. 



VERBAL INFLECTIONS 107 

231. Compounds of verbs with dissyllabic Supines or Perfect Parti- 
ciples^ generally change the stem vowel in forming the principal parts.^ 

1. When the simple verb has the stem vowel e, which becomes 6, both 
in the Perfect and in the Participle, the compound generally changes 
e to i, bat retains 6 : 

regO regere rfixl rSctum to rule 

di-iigO dl-rigere dl-r6xl dl-r6ctum to direct 

2. When the simple verb has the stem vowel e, which remains un« 
changed both in the Perfect and in the Participle, the compound gener- 
ally retains e in the Participle, but changes it to i in the other parts : 

teneO tenSre tenul tentum to hold 

de-tined d&-tin6re d6-tinal de-tentum to detain * 

3. When the simple verb has the stem vowel a, which becomes 6 in 
the Perfect, the compound generally retains 6 in the Perfect, but changes 
a to e in the Participle and to i in the other parts : 

capiO capere c6pi captum to take 

ac-dpiO ac-dpere ac-c6pl ac-ceptum to accept 

4. When the simple verb has the stem vowel a throughout, the com- 
pounds generally change a to e in the Participle and to i in the other 

parts: 

rapid rapere rapui raptum to seize 

dl-iipiO dl-rlpere dl-ripul di-reptum to tear asunder 

NoTB. — For Reduplication in compounds, see 251, 4 ; other peculiarities 
of compounds will be noticed under the separate conjugations. 

232. All the forms of the regular verb arrange themselves in three 
distinct groups or systems. 

233. The Present System, with the Present Infinitive as its basis, 
comprises : 

1. The Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative — Active and Passive. 

2. The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive — Active and Passive. 

3. The Imperative — Active and Passive. 

4. Th6 Present Infinitive — Active and Passive. 
6. The Present Participle. 

6. The Gerund and the Grerundive. 

1 The term Participle here used of one of the principal parts of the verb des- 
ignates the form in turn or sum, which is the basis of the Participial or Supine 
System; see 235. 

^ This change took place at a very early date, in accordance with phonetic laws, 
under the influence of the initial accent of that period. 



108 MORPHOLOGY 

Note. — These parts are all formed from the Present stem, found in the 
Present Infinitive Active by dropping the ending re : amare, present stem 
am& ; mon€re, mon6 ; regere, rege, with ablaut form rego ; audire, audi. 

234. The Perfect System, with the Perfect Indicative Active as its 
basis, comprises in the active voice : 

1. The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative. 

2. The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive. 

3. The Perfect Infinitive. 

Note. — These parts are all formed from the Perfect stem, found in the 
Perfect Indicative Active, by dropping i: amSvI, perfect stem am&v ; monui, 
moBu. 

235. The Participial System, with the neuter of the Perfect Parti- 
ciple or the Supine as its basis, comprises: 

1. The Future Active and the Perfect Passive Participle, the former of 
which with obbo forms the Future Active Infinitive, while the latter with 
the proper parts of the auxiliary sum forms in the passive those tenses 
which in the active belong to the Perfect system. These Participles are 
both formed from the verb stem, the Future by adding ttirus, which some- 
times becomes sums, and the Perfect by adding tus, which sometimes 
becomes bub. 

2. The Supine in turn and tu, the former of which with m forms the 
Future Infinitive Passive. The Supine is formed from the verb stem by 
adding the endings turn, tti, which sometimes become sum, bH. 



PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS 

236. The Active Periphrastic Conjugation, formed by combining the 
Future Active Participle with the verb Bum, is used of actions which are 
imminent, or about to take place : 

Amattirus sum, / am about to love. 

Indicative Mood 

/ am about to love 

I was about to love 

I shall be about to love 

I have been J or was, about to love 

I had been about to love 

I shall have been about to love 



Pres. 


amaturus sura 


Imp. 


amaturus eram 


Fut. 


amaturus ero 


Perf. 


amaturus ful 


Plup. 


amaturus fueram 


F. P. 


amaturus fuerO 



PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATION 109 

Subjunctive 

amftttlras sim May I be about to lore 

Imp; amd.t{lrus essem / should be about to lore 

Perf. amftt&ras fuerim I may have been about to love 

Plup. am&t&rus fuissem / should have been about to love 

Infinitive 

Pres. amftttlram esse to be about to love 

Perf. amd.turuin fuisse to have been about to love 

237. The Passive Periphrastic Conjugation, formed by combining 
the Gerundive with sum, is used of actions which are necessary, or 
which ought to take place: 

Amandus sum, I am to be loved, deserve to be, or ought to be loved. 

Indicative Mood 

Pres. amandus sum / am to be loved, I must be loved 

Imp. amandus eram I was to be loved, deserved to be, etc. 

Fut. amandus erO / shall deserve to be loved 

Perf. amandus fui / have deserved to be loved 

Plup. amandus fueram / had deserved to be loved 

F. P. amandus f uerO / shall have deserved to be loved 

Subjunctive 

Pres. amandus sim May I deserve to be loved 

Imp. amandus essem / should deserve to be loved 

Perf. amandus fuerim / may have desei^ed to be loved 

Plup. amandus fuissem / should have deserved to be loved 

Infinitive 

Pres. amandum esse to deserve to be loved 

Perf. amandum fuisse to have deserved to be loved 

PECULIARITIES IN CONJUGATION 

238. Perfects in avi and evi and the tenses derived from them 
sometimes drop ve or vi before r or b ^ : 

am9.vistl amast! delevisti delist! 

amd.visse amasse dslevisse del€sse 

am9.yerim amarim d6l6verim d6l6rim 

am^verO amar5 delfiverO del6r5 



1 According to another theory they drop v, and then the following vowel, e or 1, 
disappears by contraction with the preceding vowel, ft or 6. 



110 ItOSPHOLOOY 

1. Perfects in 5vl from hSboS, and from tie compoundB of movefi, 

together with the tenses derived froni them, may also drop ve, or vj, 
before r or s ' : 

nCTistl nOstI nOverta nSrta 

cammoTisseui commOssem 

2. Perfects in ivi and the tenses derived from them sometimes drop 
vl before s, and they may drop t iu any situation except before the 
ending 6re ; 

audi vis tl audlsti audivi audil 

audlvisse audlsse audiTSnint audlEruut 

3. Certain short forma from Perfects in »1 and xl, common in poetry, 
are probably an independent formation of an early date ; 

scrlpsti — scrlpsisU dixti = dixisti 

seripstia = scrlpsistis dixem = dlsieaem 

239. The ending Bre for Stunt in the Perfect is common in Livy and 
the poets, but rare in Caesar and Cicero. In poetiy erunt occurs. 

240. Ra for tls in the ending of the second person of the passive is 
rare in the Present Indicative, but common in the other tenses. 

241. Die, dac, fac, and fer, for dice, diice, face, and fere, are the Im- 
peratives c)F dico, dtioo, faolB, and fero, to ioy, lead, make, and bear. 

1. Dloa, diloe, and face occur In poetry. 

2. Compounds genei-ally follow the usage of the simple verba, but the com- 
ponnda of facto with prepositions retain the final e: con-ficiS, coaScs. 

3. SoiB, / knoiB, lacks the present imperative, and iises the future in Ita 

242. Future and Perfect Infinitives often omit the auxiliary, eaae : 
amS.t<Irum, for lunatumm ease ; amatum, for amatum esse. 

843. UndUB and undi, for endus and endi, occur as the endings of 
the Gerundive and Gerund of the Third and Fourth Conjugations, espe- 
cially after i; faciunduB, from facid, to make; dlounduB, from dico, 

244. Ancient and Bare Foniu. — Tarious other forms, belonging io 
the main to the earlier Latin, ocenr in the poets, even of the clasaical 
period, and occasionally also in prose, to impart to the style an air of 
antiquity or solemnity. Thus, forms in — 



FORMATION OF STEMS 111 

1. Ibam for iebam, in the Imperfect Indicative of the Fourth Conjugation : 
Bcibam for 8ci6bam. See Imperfect of e5, to go, 297. 

2. ib5, ibor, for iam, iar, in the Future of the Fourth Conjugation : ser- 
lobo for serviam ; oppeiibor for opperiar. See Future of e6, 297. 

5. im for am or em, in the Present Subjunctive : edim, edis, etc., for 
edam, ed&s, etc.; duim (from duO, for d5) for dem. In aim, velim, nolim, 
mSlim (295), im is the common ending. 

4. Ssso, 6885, and 80, in the Future Perfect, and ftssim, 6B8im, and 
«ixn, in the Perfect Subjunctive of the First, Second, and Third Conjugations : 
fctto (facso) = fecerO; fazim = fficerim ; ausim = ausus sim (from audeo). 
Ito examples are : levft885 = Iev9.ver5 ; prohib6B80 = prohibuerO ; capsd 
= C6per5. 

6. min5 for tor, in the Future Imperative, Passive, and Deponent : arbi- 
trSminS for arbitr&tor. 

0' ier for i, in the Present Passive Infinitive : am&rier for am&ri : vi- 
dfirier for vidfiri. 

FORMATION OF STEMS 

245. The Verb Stem, which is the basis of the entire conjuga- 
tion, consists of that part of the verb which is common to all the 
forms of both voices. The Special Stems are either identical 
with this stem or formed from it. 

I. Present Stem 

246. The Present Stem, found in the Present Infinitive Active 
by dropping re, is generally the same as the verb stem in the First 
and in the Fourth Conjugation, and sometimes in the Second. 
Thus, ama, dele, and audi are both Present stems and verb stems. 

247. The Present stem, when not the same as the verb stem, is 
formed from it by one of the following methods : 

1. By adding the Thematic Vowel, originally e, o, usually written */©• 
In Latin this vowel generally takes the form i, u ^ : 

regd, Stem, reg ; Present Stem, reg Vo > i^^S® becomes regi in regl-s, and 
Yego becomes regu in regu-nt. 

2. By adding n with the thematic vowel : 

cemO, Stem, cer; Present Stem, cer-n*/©» to perceive 
temn5, ** tern; ** ** tem-nVoJ to despise 

1 For this phonetic change, see 25, 1, 27, 1. 



112 



MORPHOLOQT 



3. By inserting a and adding tlie tliematic vowel : 
rango, Stem, frag; Present Stem, trang°/o ; 

4. By adding t witli tiie tliematic vowel ; 

plectO, Stem, pleo ; Present Stem, pleo-t % ; 

5. By adding so with the thematic vowel : 

quiescO, Stem, qnlB ; Present Stem, quifi-ac '/„ ; 



-era ; Stem, gen ; Present Stem, gi-gn-'/o ' ; fo beget 

. By adding ft, 6, 1, or 1 to the stem ^ ; 

dom-ftre Stem, dom Present Stem, dom-3. to lame 

rid-Sre " vld " •' vid-6 to see 

aper-Ire " apei " '■ aper-i to uncover 

" cap " " cap-1 (0 take 

n. Perfect Stem 

Vowel Bteias, except tliose iu u, generally form the Per- 
fect stem by adding v': 

amil-re ama-vi Stem, aiii3 Perfect Stem, amftv to love 

dels " " daiBT to destroy 

audi-re audl-vi " audi " " audiv to hear 

1. In verbs in uS. the Perfect st«[n is the same as the verh stem ; 

cu-ere acu-l St^m, acu Perfect Stem, acu to sharpen 

249. Many stems in 1, m, n, r, and a few others, together with 

moat of the verba of the second conjugation, form the Perfect 
by adding n*: 

Stem, al Perfect Stem, alu to nourish 

'■ fiem " " tremu to rage 

" ten " " tenu to hold 

" eer " " aoni to connect 

" doc " " docu to teach 



) al-ul 

frem-ere frem-ui 

ten-6rH ten-u! 

sar-ere ser-ui 

doo-ere doc-ul 



3, the re 



L 



s Perfects in vl and ul w 
are of u 
Perfects a 



rmatlODS. Perfects 1 
V belongs to the verb 



the ?eib I 



PERFECT STEM 113 

250. Most mute stems form the Perfect stem by adding s ^ : 

carp-ere carp-si Stem, carp Perfect Stem, carps ^> pluck 

reg-ere rexi = *r6gw5l ** reg ** ** r6x=*reg8 to rule 

251. Reduplication. — A few consonant stems form the Perfect 
stem by reduplication, which consists in prefixing the initial con- 
sonant of the stem with the following vowel or with e : 

tend-ere te-tend-I Stem, tend Perfect Stem, te-tend to stretch 

posc-ere po-p58C-I ** pSsc '' ** po-posc to demand 

curr-ere cu-curr-i '* curr '* ** cu-curr to run 

can-ere ce-cin-i '* can " ** ce-cin to sing 

1. The vowel of the reduplication was originally e. In Latin it is assimi- 
lated to the vowel of the stem when that vowel is I, o, or u, as in didic-I, 
po-p5BC-i, cu-ctirr-i, but it is retained as e in all other situations. 

2. After the reduplication, a of the stem is weakened to i in open syllables, 
^ in can-ere, ce-ci-nl, but in closed syllables it is weakened to e, as in 
fall-ere, fe-fel-li ; see 24, 1 and 2. Ae is weakened to i, as in caed-ere, 
ce-ci-di ; see 82, 2. 

3. In verbs beginning with sp or st, the reduplication retains both con- 
sonants, but the stem drops a : spond-Sre, spo-pond-i, to promise ; 8t&-re, 
8te-t-i, to stand. 

4. Compounds generally drop the reduplication, but the compounds of 
dare/^ to give; discere, to learn; poscere, to demand^ and st&re, to standi 
retain it : te-tendi, contend! ; but ,de-di, circum-de-di ; ste-ti, circum- 
8te-ti. 

252. A few consonant stems form the Perfect stem by length- 
ening the stem vowel : 

em-ere fim-i Stem, em Perfect Stem, 6m to buy 

ag-ere 6g-i' ** ag ** ** 6g to drive 

leg-ere l6g-i ** leg ** ** ISg to read 

vid-ere vid-I ** vld *' ** vid to see 

1. A few verbs retain the stem unchanged : 

vert-ere vert-I Stem, vert Perfect Stem, vert to turn, 

vis-ere vis-i " vis ** ** vis to visit 

1 The Perfect in si is in its origin an inherited s-Aorist which has become one of 
the regular forms of the Latin Perfect. It corresponds to the s-Aorist of the 
Greek, Sanskrit, and other kindred tongues. 

2 The compounds of dare which are of the Third Conjugation change e into i 
in the reduplication : ad-<le-re, ad-di-di, for *ad-de-di, to add. 

8 Observe that a in agr-ere and 1 in its compounds, as in ab-lgr-ere, ab-Sff-if 
are not only lengthened, but also changed to §. 

HARK. LAT. <}&AM. 9 



MORPHOLOOT 



PARTICIPIAL SYSTEM 



253, The Participial System has no commoa stem, but it is 
represented in the I'rineipal Parts of the verb by the neuter of 
the Perfect Participle, or by the Supine, each of which is formed 
by adding turn to the verb stem : 

ama-ra amS-tum to love 

doc-Sre doc-tum to leach 

CBD-ere can-torn (o sing 

audi-re audi-tum to hear 

1. In Btema in d and t, the union of d-t imd of t-t in the Supine and 
Participle produces, according to phonetic law, as, regularly reduced to b 
aftiCr long syllables : 

ked-ere "laed-tum lae-aum Co hurt 

vert-ere •yert-tum ver-Bum to iitm 

2. A few stems, chiefly those in 1 and r, following the analogy of steme in 
d and t, add -sum in forming the Supine or Participle : 

fal-lere' tal-aum to deceive 



VERBAL ENDINGS 
S54. The Endings which are appended to the verb stem in the 
formation of the various parts of the finite verb distinguish the 
different Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persona. 

I. FeiBonal Endinga 

256. The personal endinga, some of which appear to have bean 
formed from ancient pronominal stems, distinguish Voice, Num- 
ber, and Person. They are in general as follows r 



Pehsok Active Passitb 

Sing. First m, fi r, or 

Second ■ iIb thou, jiot 

Third t tai he, the, 

Plur. First miu mar we 

Second tls mlid' you 

Third nt ntor they 

1 Tlie second 1 for n belongs to the present stem, not to the verb Blem. 

' The second r for b disappeara before B. 

» Mini was not originally a personal ending, but the plural of a FaEsIv 






MOOD AND TENSE SIGNS 116 

1. These are the regular personal endings in the Indicative and Subjono- 
tive Moods, except the Perfect Indicative active, which has special endings, 
as seen in ful : 

SINGULAR PLURAL 

First Person fu-I fu-i-mus ^ 

Second ^^ fu-is-tl fu-lB-tis 

Third " fu-i-t f u-6ru-nt or fu-«r-e 

2. The Imperative Mood has the following personal endings : 

Active Passitb 



s 


INGULA] 


El PLURAL 


SINGULAR 


PLURAL 


Fres. Second Person 


— 


te 


re 


mini a 


Fut. '* " 


to 


tate 


tor 


— 


Thttd " 


t5 


nt5 


tor 


ntor 



n. Mood and Tense Signs 

256. The Mood and Tense Signs include that part of the 
several verbal forms which stands between the verb stem and 
the personal endings : B-i-mus, s-i-tis ; ama-ba-muB^ ama-bi-tis, andi- 
ArtknuSf audi-nrera-biuB. 

1. The Subjunctive has a long vowel before the personal endings, as in 
s-I-moB, B-I-tis, mone-&-muB, but this vowel is shortened before final m, r, 
and t, and in the Perfect generally before mua and tis : audi-am, audi-at, 
amftver-imoB, am&ver-itis. 

2. The Indicative has no special mood sign, and the Imperative is dis- 
tinguished by the personal endings. 

3. The Future in the Third and Fourth Conjugations is in origin a Sub- 
junctive, but it has assumed the force of the Future Indicative. 

ciple, not otherwise used in Latin, but seen in the Greek (/j-evoi). Axn&minI, 
originally azn&niini estis, means you are lovedf as am3>ti estis means you have 
been loved, 

^ These peculiar endings have been produced by the union of two tenses 
originally distinct, the Perfect and the s-Aorist, both of which are preserved in 
the Greek and the Sanskrit. Fui-t and fui-mus are regular Perfect formations 
with the ordinary personal endings of the Latin verb, but fu-I has the ending I of 
uncertain origin, though it may have been derived from the Personal ending of 
the Middle Voice. Fu-is-ti, fu-is-tis, and fu-€r-unt are s-Aorist formations, but 
fU-is-tl preserves in ti a modified form of the original personal ending of the 
Perfect. 

2 The ending mini is probably in origin an old Infinitive which has assumed 
the force of an Imperative, like the corresponding form in Homeric Greek. If so, 
it is to be distinguished from the same form used in other moods. 






is MORt'HOLOQT 

CLASSIFICATION OF VKRBS 
First CoajugatloD 

267. Principal Parts in 6, are, iivi, atum: 
amO aoiSra amavl atii^tuni 

So all regular verbs of this coiijugatioii. 

1. Deponent verbs of this conjugation form their principal parts as 
follows : ' 
liortor hortan bortatua sum to exhort 

'2. The follomiifr verbs have both lei^ulai ,1.1113 irregulai forms' 
ap-pllc-o' -are applicSvI applicul applicStum appliciium to join 
6-nec-O' -3,re EuecSvI Sneciil fDecatum fnectuin to kill 
fric-0 -&re — fn ul cfi um f u u to rab 

pOt-0 -are pOiavi pOSara pO um (o rfrin* "^ 

258. Principal Parts in o a e in itum t 
do mo domftre d d 

ki cubfi, to recUiie pO 

sect) sccflre u 

1, MlaS," to ijlilter, an<i toaS h d ack h Participial SysWm. ' 

2. Sono,' Bonaie, sonul, to sound, has ihe Future Participle son&tilrus. 

259. Principal Farts in 6, are, i, turn: 

Perfect with Rkduplicatios or Lbkgthkned Steu Vowel 
do dare dedl datum to give ^^M 

ste stare stetl statum to stand^H 

iuvO luvAre luvl iQtum * to aiisist ^| 

lavo lavSre ISvI lavatum, lautum to wash 

I. In the inflection of dfi, dare, the characteiisCio a is sliort' except in 
&e forms dSa, da, dftna. 

ez-pllc5 ami lm.pllc5, but denomitiatiTes In pticO are regular, as du- 
plioO. to doiiblf. 

^ Tbe simple DScQ is regular, 

» But dl-mic6 ia regular, aiirt re-aonfi has Perleel re-aonao!, 

• luvO bas Fnt. Pari, luvfttarua ; in compouuds latHrua. 

» Tbls alicirt vowel Is eiplained by the tact that dO, dare, ia formed diraetly 
from tbe root dO, weak form da, without the suflii whifh gave rise tii & in other 
verba ot tbis canjugation ; dSa, dft, d&nB follow tbe au^ogy at other veiba iq 
e.fira. 



Dr veiba in J 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS 



117 



2. Dissyllabic compounds of d5 are of the Third Conjugation : ad-dd, 
addere, addidi, additum, to add. 

3. Compounds of Bt5, stftre, generally lack the participial system, and 
dissyllabic compounds have stiU in the Perfect. Dlstd and ex8t5 have only 
the Present System. 

Second Conjugation 



260. Principal Parts in eo, ere, evi, etum : 

deleO delere d6l6vi deletum 

So com-ple5, to fill ^ fleO, to weep 

Note abole5 abol^re abolevi abolitum 

and cieO cifire civ! citum^ 



261. Principal Parts 

moneO monSre 

noceO nocfire 

babe5 habSre 

So ad-hibeO, to apply 
co-erceO,* to check 
placed, to please 

Note cale5 cal6re 

So careO, to he without 
pared, to obey 

1. Many verbs lack the 

arced arcere 

&red 9,rere 

So eged, to need 

horred, to shudder 
oled, to smell 
siled, to he silent 
stuped, to he amazed 
viged, to thrive 

2. Some verbs, derived 
System in general use : 

aved, to desire 
immined, to threaten 



in eo, ere, ui, itum : 

monul monitum 

nocui nocitum 

habul habitum 

d6-bed,8 to owe 
ex-erced,* to train 
taced, to he silent 

calul caliturus 

doled, to grieve 
valed, to he strong 

Participial System : 

arcui — 

ami — 

emined, to stand forth 
lated, to he hid 
palled, to he pale 
splended, to shine 
timed, to fear 



to destroy 

ned, to spin 

to destroy 
to arouse 



to advise 
to hurt 
to have 

prae-bed,8 to offer 
mered, to earn 
terred, to teiTify 

to be warm 

iaced, to lie 



to keep off 
to he dry 

fldred, to bloom 
nited, to shine 
pated, to be open 
studed, to desire 
torped, to he dull 



vired, to be green 
chiefly from adjectives, have only the Present 



friged, to he cold 
maered, to mourn 



hebed, to he dull 
polled, to be strong 



1 So other compounds of the obsolete ple6 : ex-pled, im-pled, etc. 

2 Compounds are of the Fourth Conjugation. 

8 De-be5 is from de-habed, prae-be6 from praehabed. 
* Compounds of arce5 ; see 1 below. 



118 



MORPHOLOOT 



262. Principal Parts in eo, ere^ ui^ tum^ sum : 



doceO 


docere 


docui 


doctum 


to teach 


mIsceO 


mlscfire 


mlscul 


Tnlxtam 


to mix 


torreO 


torrfire 


torrul 


tostum 


to roast 


censeO 


c6ns6re 


consul 


c6n8um 


to assess 


Note teneO 


tenere 


tenui 


— 


to hold 



So aba-tineo, con-tined, per-tine5, and sus-tined, but note 

dStineO d€tin6re d^tinul detentuni to detain 

So dis-tineO, to keep apart ob-tineO, to occupy re-tineO, to retain 

263. Principal Parts in eo, ere, si^ tum^ or sum : 



augeO 


augSre 


auxli 


auctum 


to increase 


indulged 


indulgSre 


indulsl 


indultum 


to indulge 


torqueO 


torqu6re 


torsi 


tortum 


to twist 


9,rde5 


ardere 


ftrsi 


ftrsum 


to burn 


haereO 


haergre 


haesi^ 


haesum 


to stick 


iubeO 


iubere 


iURRi 


iussum 


to order 


mane(^ 


manure 


mftnsl 


m9.nsum 


to remain 


mulceO 


mulcere 


mulsi 


mulsum 


to soothe 


mulge5 


mulgSre 


mulsl 


mulsum 


to milk 


nded 


ridere 


risi 


rlsum 


to laugh 


suEdeO 


suadere 


suasi 


su9sum 


to advise 


tergeO 


terggre 


tersi 


tersum 


to wipe off 


algeO 


alggre 


alRl 


— 


to be cold 


fulgeO 


fulggre 


fnlRl 


— 


to shine 


urgeO 


urggre 


ursl 


— 


to press 


luceo 


lacSre 


Itlxt 


— 


to shine 


liigeo 


lugfire 


IfixT 


— 


to mourn 



264. Principal Parts in eo, ere^ i^ turn : 

Perfect with Lengthened Stem Vowel 



So 



caveO cavfire 

faveO fav6re 

foveO fov6re 

moveO, to move 



Note paveO 



pav6re 



c9rVi cautum 

favl fautum 

fOvI fotum 

voveO, to vow 

pavl — 



to take heed 
to favor 
to cherish 

to be terrified 



1 Observe that auxi is from *aug-8i. 

^ The stem of ha^re5 is liaes. The Present adds § and changes 8 to r be- 
tween vowels. In lia*e8l, a standing for as is not changed. 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS 



119 



265. Principal Parts in eo, ere, i, sum : 

1. Perfect with Reduplication 

mordeO mordSre mo-mordi morsum 

spondeO spondSre spo-pondH spOnsuin 

tondeo tondSre to-tondi tOnsum 

pendeO pendere pe-pendi — 



to bite 
to promise 
to shear 
to hang 



aedeO 
video 



prande5 
strides 



2. Perfect with Lbnothened Stem Vowel 

sedere sSdi sessum ^ to sit 

videre vidi visum to see 

3. Perfect with Unchanged Stem 

prandi pransum ' to breakfast 



prandere 
stnd^re 



strldi 



So 



266. 

liceor liceri 

pol-liceor poUicSri 

mereor, to deserve ; 

reor r6ri 

fateor fat€i^ 

medeor med€ri 

tueor tu6ri 



Deponent Verbs 

licitus sum 
pollicitus sum 

misereor, to pity ; 

ratus sum 
f assus sum ^ 



to creak 



to bid 

to promise 

vereor, to fear 

to think 
to confess 
to heal 
to protect 



267. Semi-Deponent Verbs, — Deponent in the Perfect 
audeO audSre ausus sum to dare 



gaudeO 
soleO 



gaudere 
sol^re 



g§.vTsus sum 
solitus sum 



to rejoice 

to be accustomed 



Third Conjugation 

Stem in a Consonant 

268. Principal Parts in 6, ere, si, turn : * 
carpo carpere carpsi carptum 

So de-cerpO, to pluck off ex-cerpo, to choose out 



to pluck 
sculps, to carve 



iPor reduplication in compounds, see 251, 4 ; re-8ponde6, re-spondSre, 
re-spondl, re-sp5nsuin, to reply. 

^ So circum-sede5 and super-seded. Other compounds thus : ob-sided, ob- 
sldere, ob-sedi, ob sessum, but some compounds lack the Participial System. 

8 See 224, 1. 

4 But c5n-fiteor, cdn-fiteri, c5n-fes8VLS sum ; so pro-flteor. 

* For phonetic changes, see 51-56. 



120 


4 


MORPHOLOGY 




nab5 


ntlbere 


nupsi 


nQptum ' 


to marry 


scilbO 


scribere 


scnpsi 


scriptum 


to write 


gerO 


gerere 


gessi 


gestum 1 


to cariT/ 


ar6 


tirere 


ussi 


ustumi 


to burn 


dic6 


dicere 


dTxia 


dictum 


to say 


dtico 


ducere 


dnx! 


ductum 


to lead 


af-fllg5 


aflSigere 


affllxi 


afflictum 


to strike down 


cing5 


cingere 


cinxi 2 


cinctum 


to gird 


fing6 


fingere 


flux! 


fictum 


to mould 


ping5 


pingere 


pinxi 


pictum 


to paint 


iung6 


iungere 


itlnxi 


iunctum 


to join 


di-lig6 


dlligere 


dilexl 


dilgctiim 8 


to love 


neg-leg5 


neglegere 


negl^xl 


neglectum 


to neglect 


regO 


regere 


r6xi 


rectum 


to rule 


teg5 


tegere 


texi 


tectum 


to cover 


coqu5 


coquere 


coxi 


coctum 


to cook 


exsiingaQ 


exstinguere 


exstinxi 


exstlnctum * 


to extinguish 


trahO 


trahere 


traxi 


trSiCtum 


to draw 


vehO 


vehere 


ve^ 


vectum 


to cairy 


vIvO 


vivere 


YlXl 


victum 


to live 


c6mb 


cQmere 


cOmpsi 6 


cOmptum 6 


to arrange 


So demO, to take away 


prOmO, to 


• bring forth 


sum 5, to take 


Note con-tern no 


contemnere 


oontempsi contemptum 


to despise 


269. Principal Parts in 


o, ere, si, 


sum: 




cedo 


c6dere 


cessi 


cessum 


to give place 


claad5 


claudere 


clausi 


clausum 


to close 


So con-clud6, i 


)o enclose 


ex-cliido, 


to exclude 


e-vad5,« to go out 


plaud5, to applaud 


ex-plOdO, 


to hoot off 


dividO, to divide 


laedO,'' to hurt 


lud6, to play 


rad6, to shave 


rQdO, to gnaw 


trudQ, to thrust 




fleets 


flectere 


flex! 


flexum 


to bend 


So pectO, to comb 


plectO, to braid 




mittO 


mittere 


misl 


missum 


to send 


premo 


premere 


press! 


pressum 


to press 



1 The stem of ger6 is ges, and that of ar6 is as. 

2 Observe that in these and the following Perfects in xi, the tense ending is si, 
and that s of this ending unites with the final mute of the stem and forms z : 
*dicsi, dixi; *cing-si, cinxi; see 61. 

8 So de-lig6 and §-lig5 ; intellegS like neff-legS. For leg6, see 270, 2. 
* So other compounds of stinguO, which is rare and defective. 

6 A euphonic p is here developed between m and s, and between m and t (5fi, 6). 
8 So other compounds of vad6, which is rare and defective. 

7 Compounds of laed5 have 1 lor ae^ as in U-Ud^. 



CLASairiCATION OF VERBS 



121 



Ago 


figere 


fixl 


flxum 


to fasten 


mergO 


mergere 


mersi 


mersum 


to gink 


sparg^J 


spargere 


sparsi 


sparsum 


to scatter 



270. Principal Parts in 6, ere, i, turn : 

1. Perfect with Reduplication 



ab-dO 


abdere 


ab-di-di 


abditum ^ 


to put airay 


So ad-d5, to add to 


cr6-d0, to 


believe 


vCn-dO, to sell 


pang5 


pangere 


( pe-pigl 
lp6g! 


panctum 
pactum 


\ to make fast 


im>ping5 


impingere 


impegl 


impOctum 


to hurl against 


pungo 


pungere 


pu-pugT 


punctum 


to prick 


tangd 


tangere 


te-tigi 2 


tactum 


to touch 


tend5 


tendere 


te-tendr^ 


tontum 


to stretch 


sistO 


sistere 


sti-ti 


statum 


to place 


c5n-8ist5 


cOnsistere 


cOnstiti 




to take a stand 


bibO 


bibere 


bi-bi 8 




to drink 


cand 


canere 


ce-cini * 




to sing 


dT8c5 


discere 


di-dici ^ 


— 


to learn 


Note toll6 


toUere 


sus-tuli 6 


sub-latum 


to raise 


2. 


Perfect with Lengthened Stem Vowel 


ago 


agere 


6gT 


actum 


to drive 


per-agO 


peragere 


perggi 


peractura ^ 


to finish 


ab-igO 


abigere 


abegi 


abactum 


to drive away 


c6g6 


cOgere 


coegi 


coactum 


to collect 


eiD5 


emere 


Smi 


em-p-tum ^ 


to buy 


ad-imO 


adimere 


adgmi 


adgmptum 


to take away 


frangO 


frangere 


fregi 


fractum 


to break 


per-fring6 


perfringere 


perfrggi 


perfractum 


to shatter 


IcO 


icere 


Ici 


ictum 


to strike 


lego 


legere 


legi 


lectum 


to read 


per-legO 


perlegere 


perlggi 


perlgctum 


to read through 


coHigO 


coUigere 


collggi 


coll6ctum 


to collect 



1 So all dissyllabic compounds of d6 ; see 259, 2. 

2 Compounds lose the reduplication ; see 261, 4. 

8 BibO is in form reduplicated, both in the Present and in the Perfect. 

* Most compounds of cano have ui in the Perfect; see 272, 1. 

6 Reduplication di; stem, originally ditc, became die, as seen in di-dic-i. 

6 The Perfect of tollO was originally te-tuli (261, 4). 

7 So circum-ago : most compounds like ab-igO. COgd is for co-agrO. 

8 So co-em5. For c6m6, d@md, prOmO, and samO, see 268 ; other com- 
poonds like ad-imO. 



F 








"^^^^H 


122 


MORPHOLOGY 


^^^^ 


For dl-Uga and neg-lego, s 


6 288. 






re-linquO 


reliiiqnere 


reUqui 


rellctum ' 


to leave 


rumpS 


nimpere 


riipi 


ruptuin 


to burst 


vincO 


vincere 


viol 


Vic turn 


to conquer 




3. Perfeci 


WITH Unchanged Stem 


' 


8Dlv5 


aolTere 


solvl 


BOitltum ^ 


to loose 


volvo 


vol vera 


volvl 


volQlum* 


to roll 


271. Principal Parts in 


a, ere, i, bud 








1. PEKrHCl WITH liKDUPLlCillOH 


1 


cado 


cadere 


C(W!idl 


cfLsum 


toJiOl 


iii-cidO 


incidere 


Incidl" 


incSsutn' 


to fall into 1 


caedO 


caedera 


oe-cldl 


caeaum 


<ac^ ^ 


In-oIdO 


incidere 


incidi» 


inciBiim 


to cut into ^^1 


peiido 


pendere 


pe-pendl 


peuHum 


to weigh ^H 


tuodO 


tmidere 


tu-tudi 


tQnaiim, tuBum to beat ^^| 


onn-tundo 


eontundere 


contudi ' 




to cmah ^^M 


fallO 


fallere 


fe-felll 


falsum 


lodeceiv ^H 


pello 


pellere 


pe-puU 


pulauiu 


to drive ^^ 


re-pell6 


repellere 


reppuli 


repulaum 


to drive bad 


currO 


currere 


cu-curriii 


cui^um 


to run 


parco 


paroere 


pe-percl 


paraum 


to spare 


pijflcO 


p59cere 


po-pSsol 


— 


to demand _ 


dS-p6ac5 


dSpftecere 


de-po-pSscl 


— 


to demand ^^J 


2 


PsBraoT Wl 


H LBNGTHeK 


ED Stem Vowbl ^^ 


edO 


edere 


edi 


esum 


to eat ^^M 


fimdo 


fundera 


ftdl 


fQEum 


to pour ^^^M 




3. Pbrfkot with Unchanobd Stem 


^K 


ac-oendS 


accendere 


accendl 


accensum ' 


toktndU ^^1 


de-fendo 


dGfendere 


defend! 


defenHum^ 


to defend ^^H 


dfi-acendo 


deacendere 


desGendl 


dBacSnBum 


to deseenS^^^^ 


ex-ciidO 


excfidere 


excfldl 


excQsum 


to forge ^^^^ 


flndo 


flndere 


fldT 


flMum 


to split 


1 The simple verh is llnquo, linquore 


Uqul. — , to have. , 


> Formed from soluO nnd voluS. like Btattttum frr 


m status. ^^^J 


■ Observe that tbesa com 


poimds lose 111 


reduplicatio 




* Some u. 






s Bx-curra anil prae-currO cenerally 


retain the reduplication. ^^^H 


'Observ 


that d5-paaca 




diipllratioiK 


...... . 


' So othe 


r compoubiia of 


he obsolete canda, fendS 





CLASaiFICATION OF VERBS 



123 



8cmd5 


scindere 


scidi 


Bcissum 


to rend 


maiidO 


mandere 


mandl 


m&nsum 


to chew 


pand5 


pandere 


pandi 


passum 


to unfold 


pos-sId5 


possldere 


possSdl 


possessum 


to seize 


pre-hendO * 


prehendere 


prehendl 


prehfinsum 


to grasp 


vertO 


vertere 


verti 


versuin 


to turn 


e-verro 


everrere 


fiverrl 


fiversuin 


to sweep out 


per-cell6 


percellere 


perculi^ 


perculsum 


to heat down 


vello 


vellere 


veUl 


vulsum 


to pluck 


visO 


Ylsere 


visi 


visum 


to visit 



Here belongs the semi-deponent verb 
fidO fidere fisus sum 



to trust 



272. Principal Paarts in 6, ere, ui, 


itum : 




gigaQ 


^Ignere 


genui 8 


genitum 


to beget 


in-cumbd 


mcumbere 


incubul 


incubitum * 


to lean upon 


mold 


molere 


molul 


molitum 


to grind 


vom6 


vomere 


vomui 


vomituiti 


to vomit 


Note p0n5 


pOnere 


posui 


positum 


to plac6 


1. The following verbs lack the Participial System: 




concinO 


concinere 


concinm 




to sing together^ 


frem6 


fremere 


fremui 


— 


to roar 


gem5 


gemere 


gemui 


— 


to groan 


tremd 


tremere 


tremui 


— 


to tremble 


strepG 


strepere 


strepul 


— 


to rattle 


273. Principal Parts in 


6, ere, ui, 


turn: 




al5 


alere 


alui 


altum® 


to nourish 


colO 


colere 


colui 


cultum 


to cultivate 


in-col5 


incolere 


incolui 


— 


to inhabit 


cOn-serQ 


cOnserere 


cOnserui 


consertum 


to connect 


cQnsuK) 


cOnsulere 


c5nsului 


cOnsultum 


to consult 


occulO 


occulere 


occulul 


occultum 


to hide 


texO 


texere 


texui 


textum 


to weave 



1 Often written prendo, prSndere, etc. 

2 Ori^nally the simple verb was doubtless reduplicated. 

« The stem is gen in gen-ui, but «n in gi-^n-O ; the Present is reduplicated. 

* So other compounds of cumb6. 

* So most compounds of can6 ; see 270, 1. 

* Or alltum. 



f 




"^^^^H 


132 


MORPHOLOar 


^B^^^ 


For iU-UeS and neg-legS, see 868. 


J 


re-linquS 


relinquere relliiui rellctum ' 


to leave 


runipS 


nimpere riipi ruptum 


to burst 


vinoO 


vincere vicl vicium 
3. Pbhfect with Unchanoed Stem 


to conquer 


Bolvo 


Bolvere solvl solfltum^ 


to loose 


volvo 


volvera volvi volOtum ^ 


to roll 


271. Principal Parts in o, ere, i,8tim: 






1. PKttFEOI WITH llEDUPLlCATlOH 




cad6 


cadere ce-cidl cSaum 


lofaa 


a-cdO 


iacdere incidi' incfisum* 


to fall into 


caedS 


caedere ce-cIdl caeauin 


to cut ,^B 


in-clclO 


cdere molds» inciaiim 


to cut into M 


pendo 


pend re pe-pendi pensum 


to^eisK H 


undft 


tund ra tu-tudi tuiiaum, tai 


nm to beat ^M 


c n m do 




to crash ^^M 


falo 


fallere fe-felli falsurn 


lodeeeiM ^H 


pello 


pellere pe-puli pulsum 


to drine ^^^ 


repp n 


r p Here reppuil repulsnra 


to drive bad 




currere cu-curri = curaum 


to run 


pir o 


parcere pe-percl parsum 


to spare 


pOacO 


pSsoere po-pOsoI — 


to demand 


de poscS 


dflpOBBere de-po-p030i« — 


to demand ^J 


2 


Perfhct with Lbnotbeneo Stem Vowbl ^^^ 


edO 


edere edi Csum 


to eat ^^M 


funds 


fundere fCdl fflsum 
3 Perfect with Unchanged Stem 


pour ^^^M 


ac cendS 


a cpndere accendl accensiim' 


to kindle ^^1 


de fetido 


defendere defpndl defenaum ' 


lo defend ^H 


de acendO 


descendere descend! desc^nsum 


todescen/^M 


ex-c d-i 


excfllere excadi oKcasttm 


to forge ^^" 


fi dl 


find ere fidi flssum 


(o split 


The B mple vo 1 i llnguB. llnquare, IIquI, — , to leave. , 


' Formed from aoluO and volufl, like atatOtum frn 


m statnO. ^^1 


' Observe that llieae cnmiHinnds lose the rednplit-Atio 




* Some c 


mpounds of oadO lack the Participial Syste 


^^^H 




■ Observe that dg-pOBcO retains the rpdiir'Hcatioii : 


^^H 


'So other compnunila of fhe ohsoletp cand5. tendfl. 


and of ecandO^^H 



OLASSIPIOATIOir or YBBBS 



123 



flcind5 


scindere 


BcidI 


sciflBum 


to tend 


inaiid5 


mandere 


mandl 


DoAnsum 


to chew 


pandd 


pandere 


pandl 


passum 


to unfold 


pos-sid5 


possldere 


possMi 


possessum 


to seize 


pre-hendO ^ 


prehendere 


prehendl 


prehensum 


to grasp 


vertO 


vertere 


veitl 


Yersuui 


to turn 


©-verro 


fiverrere 


everri 


eyereuiu 


to sweep out 


per-cell6 


percellere 


percuU» 


perculsuiu 


to heat down 


vello 


vellere 


veUl 


Yulsum 


to pluck 


vis5 


Ylsere 


vlsl 


visum 


to visit 



Here belongs the semi-deponent verb 
fido fidere fisus sum 



to trust 



272. Principal Parts in 5^ ere, ui, itum : 

genitum 
incubitum * 
molitum 
Yomitum 

positum 



gIgnO 
in-cumb5 
mol5 
vom5 

Note p0n5 



^Ignere 
incumbere 
molere 
vomere 

pOnere 



genul ' 
incubul 
molul 
Yomul 



posui 



1. The following verbs lack the Participial System: 

concinO ooncinere concinul — 

frem5 fremere fremul — 

gemO gemere gemul — 

tremO tremere tremul — 

strep6 strepere strepul — 



to beget 
to lean upon 
to grind 
to vomit 

to plact 



to sing together^ 
to roar 
to groan 
to tremble 
to rattle 



273. Principal Parts in o, ere, ui, turn : 



al5 

col6 

in-colO 

c0n-ser5 

cOnsul6 

occulO 



alere 

colere 

incolere 

cOnserere 

cOnsulere 

occulere 

texere 



alui 

oolui 

incolul 

cOnseruI 

consului 

occulul 

texid 



altum^ 
cultum 

consertum 
c()nsultum 
occultum 
textum 



to nourish 
to cultivate 
to inhabit 
to connect 
to consult 
to hide 
to weave 



1 Often written prSnd5, prSndere, etc. 

2 Originally the simple verb was doubtless reduplicated. 

8 The stem is gren in gen-ui, but grn in gi-^n-O ; the Present is reduplicated. 

* So other compounds of ctunbO. 

6 So most compounds of canO ; see 870, 1. 

« Or alltum. 



i 


^^^^H 


124 ^^l^^^^l 


1. Note the tollowing : 


■ 


neeto nectere nexul 


messum to reap ^^H 
nexum to bind 1 


2. Some verba from conaonant stems have only tlie Present System in 
general use. 


ango angere to trouble 
Clauds claudere to be lame 


hisco hiacere to gape 

lambo lambere to lave ^^J 


fatlaoO fatiacere to gape 
(urO furere to raae 


temnO temnere to deBpiK ^^H 
vado vadere toga ^^^ 


gUscO gtlscere to swell 


vergO vergere to incline ' 


274. A few conaonant sterna form tlie Present in io and the 


other Principal Paila like other consonant stems ; 


capie capere cSpI 


captum to lake ^^J 


ac-cipiO aocipere acoepi 
oupii'i cupere oapMi' 
facio facere tScl 


acceptum to accept ^^H 
cupltum* to desire ^^ 
factum to make 


Paaaive irregular: Hfi, fleil, factua 


mm ; see 296. So cale facio, cale- 


fi5, Batda-laclo, satls-fio. 




oOn-flciO cOnficere cOnKci 


cOnfectum to accomplish 


Passive regular: cSu-ficlor, oontici, confeotua aum. So all Gompoimds 
of laciS with prepositions ; other compounds like oale-faolo ; but see 896, i. 


fodiO fodere fodi 


fossum to dig 


fugin fugere fa^ 
ef-fugio effugere eHQgl 
iacio iacere i6cl 


fugitiinis to flee ^^J 

— toflteawaf ^^H 

iactnm to thiwo ^^^ 


ab-iciO> abicere» ahifiel 


abiectum to throw aviajf * 


patie parere peperl 
quatiO quatere — 
con-outiO concutere concuasi 


partum to bring forth 
quassuin to shake 
concussuzn to shake 


rapio rape re rapul 
sapiO sapere sapivi' 


raptum to seize 


1. Here belong the compounds of the obsolete verbs laclfi, to entiet, 
and speoiC, to look: _^^g 


al-Ucl5 allicere alleil 


allectnm to enttee ^^^M 


So 11-llolS and pel-UclS, to decoy, but E-lioiS thus : ^^| 


e-IioiO eiicere elicui 


flicitu ID to draw ovt- ^^H 


con-spicio connpicera cSnapexi 


conapectUDi to behold ^^| 


1 The Perfect in sui seeniB to ba a d 
a Oliaurve that Ibeae three forms ar 


ouble formation: SuI^si + dT. ^^H 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS 



125 



Stem in a Vowel 
275 Principal Parts in u6, uere, ui, utum : 



exuO 
induO 
statu5 
tribu5 



exuere 
induere 
^ statuere 
tribuere 



exui 
indui 
statu! 
tribui 



exutum 
indutum 
statutum 
tributum 



1 . So nearly all verbs in u5, but note the following : 

ru6 ruere rul rutumi 

di-ru5 diruere dirui dirutum 

fluO fluere flux! 2 fluxum 

stru5 straere struxi* structum 

2. The following verbs lack the Participial System : 



So 



acuo 


acuere 


acui 


arguo 


arguere 


argul 


ab-nu6 


abnuere 


abnui 


con-gruo 


congruere 


congrui 


lu5, to wash 


\ metu5, to / 



to put off 
to put on 
to place 
to impart 



to fall 
to destroy 
to flow 
to build 



to sharpen 
to accuse 
to refuse 
to agree 

re-spuO, to spurn 



276. A few verbs of the Third Conjugation form their Present 
system from consonant stems, but their Perfect and Participial 
systems from vowel stems after the analogy of other conju- 
gations : 



stemO 


sternere 


stravi 


stratum 


to spread out 


pro-stemO 


prosternere 


prostravl 


prostratum 


to overthrow 


d6-cem6 


decernere 


d6cr6vl 


decrgtum 


to decide 


s6-cern5 


sgcernere 


sgcrevi 


secrgtum 


to separate 


sperno 


spernere 


sprgvi 


sprgtum 


to spurn 


arcesso 


arcessere 


arcessivi 


arcessltum 


to summon 


capesR^J 


capessere 


capesslvl 


capessitum 


to seize 


lacess5 


lacessere 


lacessivl 


lacessitum 


to provoke 


peto 


petere 


petlvl 8 


petitum 


to seek 


quaer5 


quaerere 


quaesivi 


quaesitum 


to seek 


con-qniro 


conquirere 


conquislvl 


conquisitum 


to collect 


rudO 


rudere 


rudivi 


— 


to bray 


ter6 


terere 


trivl 


tritum 


to rub 



1 Future Participle ruitarus. 

2 Fluxi from ♦flug-si ; strQxi follows tb^ analogy of fluxi, 
^ Sometimes petii. 



V^Q 




MORPHOLOGY 




1. Note the peculiarities 


in the following verbs : 




facess() 


facessere 


facessi 


facessitum 


to perform 


lino 


linere 


levl 


litum 


to smear 


serO 


serere 


s6vl 


satum 


to sow 


c0n-ser5 


cOnserere 


cOnsfivI 


oOnsitum 


to plant 


sinO 


sinere 


sivi 


situm 


to permit 


de-8in5 


desinere 


desili 


desitum 


to desist 


incessO 


incessere 


incesslvl 


— 


to attack 



Inceptive or Inchoative Verbs 

277. Verbs in bco are called Inceptive or Inchoative verbs 
because most of them denote the Beginning of an Action. They 
are of three varieties : 

1. Primitive Inceptives, formed directly from roots or from 
lost verbs, generally without inceptive meaning. 

2. Verbal Inceptives, formed from other verbs, generally with 
inceptive meaning. 

3. Denominative Inceptives, formed from nouns and adjectives, 
chiefly from adjectives. 

278. Primitive Inceptives ; Perfect in vi, or in i with Redupli- 
cation. 



pftscO 


pftscere 


p&vl 


pftstum 


to feed 


cr6scO 


crSscere 


cr6vl 


cretum 


to grow 


quiesc5 


qulescere 


quievi 


quietum 


to rest 


n(toc5 


nOscere 


n5vl 


nOtum 


to come to know 


IgnQscO* 


Ign5scere 


IgnOvI 


IgnOtum 


to pardon 


cOgnOscO * 


cOgnOscere 


c5gu0vi 


cOgnitum 


to ascertain 


disc6 


discere 


didici 


— 


to learn 


p6sc6 


pOscere 


popOscI 


— 


to demand 



279. Many Verbal Inceptives have only the Present System in 
general use, but some take the Perfect of their Primitives when- 
ever the occasion requires it. 

&r&scO ftr^scere &rul — to become dry from &reO 

cal^scO cal^scere calul — to become warm ** caled 



1 Here v is dropped, dSsil from dSsivI. 

< Ig'n58c5 is compounded of in, meaning not, and firn5sc5, the f uU form of 
D6ao6 which has lost its initial g*. COgnOscd is compounded of co and gnQaoS. 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS 



127 



flOrescO flOrescere floral — 
SidescO ardSscere ftrsl — 

ab-olSscO abolSscere abol6vI — 



to begin to bloom from flOreO 
to take fire ** arde6 

to disappear *' ab-oleO 

Verbal luceptives have also certain forms of the Parti- 



1. A very few 
cipial System : 

ad-oleso-0 -ere 
ex-ol6sc-6 -ere 
ob-sol6sc-0 -ere 
in-veterasc-6 -ere 
con-cupisc-0 -ere 
scIsc-0 -ere 

280. Many Denominative Inceptives have only the Present 
System, but some have the Perfect in ui; 



adolevi 


adultum 


to groxjo up 


from ad, oleO 


exolfivl 


exoletum 


to go out of use 


'* ex, oleO^ 


obsol6vI 


obsoletum 


to go out of use 


*' ob, soleO 


inveterftvi 


inveteratum 


to grow old 


** inveterO 


concuplvl 


concupitum 


to desire 


*' con,cupiO 


sclvl 


scltum 


to enact 


** sci6 



cr6bresc-5 


-ere 


crgbrul 


— 


to grow frequent 


from crgber 


dar6sc-0 


-ere 


durui 


— 


to groio hard 


*' durus 


e-vanesc-o 


-ere 


evdnul 


— 


to disappear 


** g, vamis 


m&turesc-5 


-ere 


matHrui 


— 


to ripen 


** maturus 


ob-mutesc-O 


-ere 


obmtltui 


— 


to grow dumb 


** ob, mutus 


ob-surd68c-0 


-ere 


Obsurdui 


— 


to grow deaf 


** ob,surdiis 



Deponent Verbs 
281. Deponent Verbs w^ith the Perfect in tus sum : 



fraor 


frul 


fructus sum 2 


to enjoy 


per-fruor 


perfrul 


perfructus sum 


to enjoy fully 


fungor 


fungi 


fdnctus sum 


to perform 


queror 


queri 


questus sum 


to complain 


loquor 


loqul 


locutus sum 


to speak 


sequor 


seqiu 


secutus sum 


to follow 


per-sequor 


persequi 


persecutus sum' 


to pursue 


Note morior 


mori 


mortuus sum^ 


to die 


also liquor 


llqui 


— 


to melt 


ringor 


ringi 


— 


to growl 


282. Deponent 


Verbs with the Perfect in sua sum : 




gradior 


gradi 


gressus sum 


to walk 


in-gredior 


ingredi 


ingressus sum 


to go into 



1 Or from ex, soled, like ob-80le5 from ob,"80le(J. 

2 Fut. Part, fruitarus. 

« So other compounds of sequor. 

* The Future Participle of morior is moritarus. 



128 





MORPHOLOGY 




labor 


labi 


lapsus sum 


to slip 


patior 


pati 


passus sum 


to suffer 


per-petior 


perpetl 


perpessus sum 


to endure 


Gtor 


uti 


tlsus sum 


to use 


nitor 


niti 


nisus sum, nixus sum 


to strive 


am-plector 


amplecti 


amplexus sum 


to embrace 


►te re-vertor, 


revert! ; Perfect, reverti, rarely reversus sum, to ret 


13. Deponent Verbs with Inceptive Eorms : 




apiscor 


aplsci 


— 


to reach 


ad-ipiscor 


adipisci 


adeptus sum 


to acquire 


com-miniscor 


coinminlsci 


commentus sum 


to devise 


re-miniscor 


reminlsci 


— 


to remember 


ex-pergiscor 


experglsci 


experrSctus sum 


to awake 


nanciscor 


nanclscl 


nanctus (nactus) sum 


to obtain 


nascor 


nftscl 


natus sum 


to be born 


ob-llvlscor 


oblivisci 


oblltus sum 


to forget 


paclscor 


paclsci 


pactus sum 


to covenant 


pro-ficiscor 


proficlsci 


profectus sum 


to set out 


ulciscor 


ulclsci 


ultus sum 


to avenge 


irascor 


irasci 


— 


to be angry 


vescor 


vesci 


_ 


to eat 



1. Note the following Semi-Deponent verb : 
f Idd fidere fisus sum 



to trust 



Fourth Conjugation 

284. Principal Parts in io, ire, ivi, itum : 

audio audire audivl auditum to hear 

1. All regular verbs of this conjugation form their Principal Parts 
like audio, but note the following : 

sepeliO sepelire sepelivl sepultum i to bury 

sitio sitire sitlvl — to thirst 

vagi5 vagire vagivl — to cry 

2. V is often lost in the Perfect : audii for audivi ; see 238, 2. 



285. Principal Parts in io, ire, ui, turn : 

amici5 amicire amicui^ amictum 

aperiO aperire aperui apertum 



to wrap about 
to open 



1 With irregular formation. 



9 The Perfect is rare and late. 



CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS 



129 



operiO 


operire 


opera! opertum 


to cover 


8a1iO 


salire 


salui, salil — 


to leap 


d6-silio 


desilire 


desilul^desilil — 


to leap down 



286. Principal Parts in io, ire, si, turn or sum : 



larciO 


farcire 


farsi 


fartum * 


to fill 


re-ferciO 


referclre 


refersl 


refertum • 


to stuff 


fulciO 


fulclre 


fulsl 


fultum 


to prop up 


hauriO 


haurire 


hausis 


haustuiu 8 


to draw 


saepiO 


saepire 


saepsi 


saeptum 


to hedge in 


sanciO 


sanoire 


sfinxl 


sanctum 


to ratify 


saroi() 


sarcire 


sarsi 


sartum 


to patch 


vinciO 


vincire 


vinxi 


vinctum 


to bind 


rauciO 


raucire 


(rausI *) 


rausum 


to be hoarse 


sentiO 


sentire 


sSnsi 


sSnsum 


to feel 



287. Principal Parts in io, ire, i, turn : 

1. Perfect Originally Reduplicated 



com-peri6 
re-periO 


comperire comperi ^ compertuin to learn 
reperire re-p-peri repertum to find out 


2. 


Perfect with Lengthened Stem Vowel 


veniO 

ad-venlQ 

in-veniO 


venire v6ni ventum to come 
advenire advSni adventum to arrive 
invenire invgni inventum to find out 



288. A few verbs of this conjugation have only the present 
system in general use. The following are the most important : 

1. Desideratives, but Ssurid, to desire to eat, has the Future Participle 
§Burituru8. 

2. Also 

balbutiO, to stammer ferio, to strike gannio, to bark 

ineptiO, to trifle sagi5, to discern superbiO, to be haughty 



1 O disappears between r and s, 1 and 8, r and t, 1 and t ; see 58, 1. 

2 Hausi is simplified from haus-si ; the stem is haus ; hauri5 from hansiO. 
8 Fut. Part, hausarus. 

* This verb is exceedingly rare and the Perfect without good authority. 

* The reduplicated form of the simple verb was pe-peri. We find a trace of 
the reduplication in the first p in re-p-peri, from re-pe-peri. 

HARK. LAT. GRAM. — 10 



rl30 



MORPHOLOGY 



Deponent Verbs 
3. All regular Deponent Veibs of this conjugation form their 
Principal Parts as follows : 

Uandior lilandlrl , blanditus sum tofiatt&r 

The following are somewhat irregular : 
ez-perior . ezperiri expertus sum to try 





opperirl 


oppertua smn t 


Oriori 


orW 


orlus sum tc 


ad-orioT 


adoriri 


adortua sum to 


M-aentior 


aasentiri 


assenaus sum it 


metioT 


metirl 


mf-nsus sum to 


Ordlor 


Ordiri 


0rsu8 sum tc 



{ 



Iiregnlar Verbs 

290. A few verbs which have special irregularities ai'O called 
by way of preiSuiineuce Irregular or Anomalous Verbs. They are 
m, eda, fero, volo, fio, eo, queo, and their compounds. 
1. The inflection of eum haa already been given (205). Moat of Its com- 
puunda — ab-Bum, ad-aum, dS-aum, ob-sum, prae-aum, ete. — are inflected 
in the same way, but ab-aum lias a-fuT. a-iutQnia, and a Present Participle 
ab'afina, absent. Praa-aum has a ["resent Partieiple prae-B§nB, present. 
a and prS-suni require special ti 



391. Possum 



posse 






to be able 



Pres. poaaum, pot«s, potest 

Imp. poteram ' 

Fut. poterO 

PerE. potul 

Flap, potuerain 

F. P. poluerO 



poasumus, poteatis, pc 
I)oierainus 
potertmua ' 

potner^mus 
potuerimus 



lOssi^^^H 



1 lu the Present liull 


ative aud 


IniperativG orior 


B inflected 


as a verb 


of the 


Third Conjugation: oiio 


r, oreria 


oritur, etc.; or 


re ; In Ihe 




Sub. 




■erta. etc., and otlrer, orlrgrlB, etc. 


io all 




cept ad- 


jFioP, which has 


only forms 


of the Fourth 


Conjugation. 












" Inflected regularly t 


rough ih 


different persona 




poter&E 


pot^ 


«rat, etc. Soinihernh 




potui, potulst), 








• Potanrnt. third per 


«n plura 


but poterint also 




, 


1 



IRREGULAR VERBS 



131 



Subjunctive 



Fres. possim, possis, possit 

Imp. possem 

Perf. potuerim 

Flup. potaissem 

Infinitive 

Pres. posse 

Perf. potuisse 



possimus, possltis, possint 

possgmus 

potuerimus 

potuissemus 

Participle 
Pres. potens {as an adjective) 



1. Possum forms its present system from a compound of pot (for potis, 
pote), ahle^ and sum. Pot- sum becomes possum by assimilation, and pot- 
esse and pot-essem are shortened to posse and possem.^ 

2. The parts of possum are sometimes used separately, and then potis, 
pote is indeclinable : potis sum, / am able ; potis sumus, we are able, etc. 

3. Possum derives its Perfect, potui, and its Present Participle, potSns, 
from the verb potSre, which has otherwise disappeared from the language. 

4. In rare instances passive forms occur in early Latin, as potestur = 
potest, poteratur = poterat, used with Passive Infinitives. 

292. Pro-sum prod-esse pro-ful to profit 

Pro-sum is compounded of pro, prod, for, and sum. It retains d from 
prod, when the simple verb begins with e, but otherwise it is inflected 
like sum : 

pr5-8um, prOd-es, prOd-est, pr5-sumus, prOd-estis, pr5-sunt, etc. 



293. Edo edere 6dl gsum to eat 

In certain parts of the present system this verb has both regular and 
irregular forms, as follows : 

Active Voice 
Indicative 

fedo edis edit edimus editis edont 

I 6s Sst €stis 



Pres. 



Subjunctive 



Imp.{^^^^^™ 



@ssem 



edergs ederet 
6ss6s 6sset 



ederSmus 
€ss6mus 



ederetis 
6ss6tis 



ederent 
Assent 



iBut the full forms also occur: pot-esse, pot-essem, etc.; also pot-isse 
and pot-issent. 



132 



Pres.{^d« 



Fut. 



6s 
feditO 

tests 



Pres. 



edere 



Pres. 



fedor 



ederis 



Imp. -j 



MORPHOLOGY 






Imperative 






edite 






este 






editote 




ednntd 


estote 






Infinitive 


^Rse 




Passive Voice 






Indicative 






editur edimur 


edimini 


eduntur 


estur 






Subjunctive 




• 


edei'Stur ederSmur 


edergmini 


ederentur 



essStur 



1. In all the other tenses this verb has the regular inflection, but forms in 
im for am occur in the Present Subjunctive: edim, edls, edit, etc., for 
edam, edas, edat, etc. 

2. Observe that the shorter forms have 6 in the root syllable, but that 
otherwise they are like the corresponding forms of the verb, sum. They are 
the favorite forms in classical Latin. 

3. Compounds are conjugated like the simple verb, but note 

com-ed5 com-edere com-6di com-6sum or com-estum to eat up 



294. Eero 



ferre 



tuli 



latum 



to hear 









Active Voice 








Indicative 




SINGULAR 


PLURAL 


Pres. 


ferO, fers, 


fert 


ferimus, fertis,^ ferunt 


Imp. 


f ergbam 2 




ferebamus 


Fut. 


feram 




fergmus 


Perf. 


tuli 




tulimus 


Plup. 


tuleram 




tuleramus 


F. P. 


tulerQ 




tulerimus 



1 Fer-8, fer-t, fer-tis, like es-t, es-tis, are formed without the thematic 
vowel. 

2 Inflect the several tenses in full : fer§bam, ferebSd, etc. 



IRREGULAR VERBS 



133 







Subjunctive 




Pres. 


feram 




fer&mus 


Imp. 


ferrem 




ferrSmus ^ 


Perf. 


tulerim 




tulerimus 


Plup. 


tulissem 


Imperative 


tuliss^mus 


Pres. 


fer 




ferte 


Perf. 


fertO 




fertOte 




fertO 




feruntO 


Infinitive 


Participle 


Pres. 


f erre ^ 


Pres. 


ferfins 


Perf. 


tulisse 






Put. 


laturum esse Put. 


laturus 


Gerund 


Supine 


Gen. 


ferendi 






Dat. 


ferendO 






Ace. 


ferendum 


Ace. 


Utum 


Abl. 


ferendO 


Abl. 
Passive Voice 


latu 


f eror 


ferri 


latus sum to he home 


- 




Indicative 






SINGULAR 




PLURAL 


Pres. 


feror, ferris, 


, fertur 


ferimur, ferimini, ferantur 


Imp. 


ferebar 




ferebamur 


Put. 


ferar 




feremui' 


Perf. 


latus sum 




l9,ti sumus 


Plup. 


latns eram 




latl eramus 


P.P. 


latus ero 


Subjunctive 


lS,ti erimus 


Pres. 


ferar 




feramur 


Imp. 


ferrer 




ferremur 


Perf. 


latus sim 




latl simus 


Plup. 


latus essem 




I9,t! essSmus 



1 Per-rem, fer-res, etc., from fer-sem, fer-sSs, etc., like es-sem, es-ses, etc. ; 
and fer-re from fer-se like es-se, are formed without the thematic vowel. 
Several other forms have the'same peculiarity. 



134 



morphology 
Impebatiyb 



Pres. ferre 
Fut. fertor 
fertor 

Inpinitivb 

Pres. ferri 
Perf. latum esse 
Fut. latum iri 



ferimini 
feruntor 

Participle 

Perf. latus 
Ger. ferendus 



1. Fer5 is inflected from two independent stems, fer seen in fer-6 and 
tel, tol in tul-I, with the ablaut form tl seen in tl-ft-tum, the original form 
of Ifttum. 

2. Compounds of fer5 are conjugated like the simple verb, but in a few 
of them the preposition suffers a euphonic change : 



ad 


ad-ferO 


ad-ferre 


at-tuli 


al-latum 


to carry to 


aa, ab^ 


au-fer6 


au-ferre 


abs-tuli 


ab-latum 


to carry away 


con 


c5n-fer6 


con-ferre 


con-tuli 


col-latum 


to bring together 


dis, dP 


dif-fer6 


dif-ferre 


dis-tull 


di-latum 


to carry apart 


ez, 61 


ef-fero 


ef-ferre 


ex-tuli 


6-latum 


to carry out 


in 


in-fer5 


in-ferre 


in-tull 


il-latum 


to cairy into 


Ob 


of-fer6 


of-ferre 


ob-tuli 


ob-latum 


to bring before 


re 


re-fer6 


re-ferre 


re-t-tuli 


re-latum 


to carry back 


sub 


suf-ferO 


suf-ferre 


sus-tull 


sub -latum 


to suffer 



Note. — In form sus-tuli and sub-latum belong to the verb 8uf-fer5, to 
undertake, to bear, suffer, and they sometimes have this meaning ; but they 
also supply the Perfect and the Perfect Participle of tollo, to take upy raise. 



295. Volo 


velle 




volul 


to be tvilUng 


Nolo 


n5lle 




n5lul 


to be unwilling 


Malo 


malle 




malul 


to prefer 




Indicative 




Pres. vol6 




nolo 




maid 


vis 




nOn vis 


mavis 


vult 




nOn vult 


mavult 



1 Au and ab are two separate prepositions, but with the same general mean- 
ing; die and di are two forms of one and the same preposition; so also are 
ex and 6. 



IRREGULAR VERBS 



135 





Yolumus 


nOlumus 


m&lumus 




vultis 


nOn vultis 


mftvultis 




volunt 


nOlunt 


malunt 


Imp. 


volCbam 


nOlebam 


malebam 


Fut. 


volam 


nOlam 


malam 


Perf. 


voltd 


nOlui 


malul 


Plup. 


volueram 


nOlueram 


malueram 


F.P. 


voluerO 


n6luer6 
Subjunctive 


mdJuerO 


Pres. 


velimi 


nOlim 


malim 


Imp. 


vellem^ 


nOllem 


mS,l1em 


Perf. 


voluerim 


nOluerim 


maluerim 


Plup. 


Yoluissem 


nOluissem 
Imperative 


maluissem 




Pres. 


nOli nOlite 






Fut. 


nSlitS nOlitOte 
nOlitS noluntO 

Infinitive 




Pres. 


velle 


nolle 


mSlle 


Perf. 


voluisse 


nOlutsse 
Participle 


maluisse 


Pres. 


volCns 


nolens 





1. The stem of vol5 is vel, vol, in which o is weakened to u in vult. 
Vis is from a separate stem, vi. 

2. N51o is from ne-vol5 ; m^d supplanted an earlier formation, m&- 
vol5, from magis-vold. 

3. Other forms occur, especially in early Latin, 

of vol5 : volt, voltis ; sTs, sultis, for si vis, si vultis ; 
of n515 : ne-vis, ne-volt ; non velim, n5n vellem ; 
of in^5 : ma-volo, mt-volam, mt- velim, mt-vellem. 



1 Velim is inflected like sim, and vellem like essem. 

2 Vellem is from vel-sem, like es-sem ; velle from vel-se, like es-se. Here 
8 is assimilated to the preceding 1. 



136 



MORPHOLOGY 



296. The regular verb fado, facere, feci, factum, to make, has 
the following irregular Passive : 



Fio, 



i 


ieri, factus sum, 


to become, he t 




Indicative 






8INOULAR 


PLURAL 


Pres. 


fI6, fis, fit 


fiunt 


Imp. 


fiebam 


fiebamus 


Fut. 


fiarri 


fiemus 


Perf. 


factus sum 


facti sumus 


Plup. 


factus eram 


fact! erd.mus 


F. P. 


factus er6 

Subjunctive 


fact! erimus 


Pres. 


flam 


fiamus 


Imp. 


fierem 


fier€mus 


Perf. 


factus sim 


fact! simus 


Plup. 


factus essem 

Imperative 


fact! ess^mus 


Pres. 


fi 


fite 


Infinitive Participle 


Pres. 


fieri 




Perf. 


factum esse Perf. 


factus 


Fut. 


factum iri Ger. 


faciendus 



1. The first and second persons plural of the Present Indicative are not 
found. 

2. The Imperative forms fi and fite belong to early and late Latin. A 
rare Infinitive, Here, occurs in early Latin. 

3. For the compounds of facio and fi6, see 274. 

4. Moreover, a few isolated forms of compounds of fio, with prepositions, 
occur as follows : 



Indicative 

c6nfit, c6nfiunt 
defit, defiunt, dgfiet 
Infit, Infiunt 



Subjunctive 

cOnflat, cOnfleret 
deflat 

interflat 



Infinitive 

cOnfierl to he done 
defieri to he wanting 

he heginSy they hegin 
interfieri to he destroyed 



IRREGULAR VERBS 



137 



297. E6 



ire 



11 



itum 



to go 









Indicative 










SINGULAR 






PLT3RAL 




Pres. 


eO 


is 


it 


!mii<H 


itis 


eunt 


Imp. 


ibam 


Ibas 


ibat 


ibamus 


ibS.tis 


ibant 


Flit. 


ibO 


Ibis 


ibit 


Ibimus 


ibitis 


ibunt 


Perf. 


ii 


IstI 


iit 


iimus 


Istis 


igrunt 


Pliip. 


ieram 


ierSfl 


ierat 


ieramus 


ierd.tis 


ierant 


F. P. 


ier6 


ierls 


ierit 
Subjunctive 


ierimus 

1 


ieritis 


ierint 


Pres. 


eam 


eSs 


eat 


eS,mus 


eatis 


eant 


Imp. 


Irem 


Irfis 


Iret 


Irem us 


iretis 


irent 


Perf. 


ierim 


ierls 


ierit 


ierimus 


ieritis 


ierint 


Plup. 


Issem 
In 


TrsSs 
FINITIVE 


Isset 

\ 
1 


IssSmus 


issetis 
Participle 


issent 




Pres. 


ire 




Pres. iens Gen. 


euntis 




Perf. 


isse 












Fut. 


iturum esse 


Fut. iturus 





Gerund 



Supine 



Gen. 


eundi 






Dat. 


euudO 






Ace. 


eundum 


Ace. 


itum 


Abl. 


eund6 


Abl. 
Imperative 


itu 


Pres. 


i 




ite 


Fut. 


ito 




itote 




itO 




eunt6 



1. E5 is a verb of the Fourth Conjugation, but it forms the Supine from 
the weak stem 1, and is irregular in several parts of the present system. In 
the perfect system the regular classical forms are ii, ieram, iero, etc., as 
given in the paradigm, but the forms with v, as ivi, iveram, ivero, etc., 
occur in early and late Latin. 

2. Observe that ii is regularly contracted into I before s, as issem, but 
the uncontracted ii is found in rare instances. 

3. The stem of eo is the root ei, weak form i. Ei becomes e before i, 6, 
and u, as in earn, eamus, eo, eunt, but in other situations it becomes i, 



138 



MORPHOLOGY 



shortened to i before a vowel or final t, as in is, fmus, Itis ; llmus, ier5, it. 
The weak stem is seen in i-tum and i-turus. 

4. As an intransitive verb eo has no regular passive voice, but certain 
passive forms are used impersonally: itur, there is going; itum est, they 
have gone ; but Iri, the Passive Infinitive, is used as an auxiliary in the Future 
Infinitive Passive of the regular conjugation : am&tum iri, etc. 

6. Compounds of e5 have the short form in the Perfect System and are 
conjugated as follows : 

ab-e5 abire abil abitum to go away 

ex-e5 exire exil exitum to go out 

Note. — A few compounds occasionally have a future in iet, for Ibit. 

6. Transitive Compounds of e5 may be used in the passive voice, as 
ad-e5, adire, to approach \ Passive ad-eor, adiris, aditur, etc. Passive 
forms are somewhat rare. 

7. Ambio (from ambi-eO), ambire, ambivl, ambltum, to solicit, is in- 
flected as a regular verb of the Fourth Conjugation, like audi5, though 
ambibam for ambiebam occurs. 

298. Queo, quire, quivi, qui!, to he ablCf and ne-queo, nequire, 
nequivl, ne-quii, not to be able, are inflected like eo, but they are 
used chiefly in early writers. 

1. The forms most frequently used by the best writers are nCn queO, nOn 
queam, non queat, n6n queant, nOn quire ; nequeunt, nequeSmus, nequeant, 
nequibas, nequibat, nequibant, nequisti, nequiit, nequi€re, nequierat, nequi- 
erant, nequlrem, nequlret, nequire. 

Defective Verba 



299. The following verbs lack the Present System: 





Coepi, 


MeminI, 




I have begun 


/ remember 
Indicative 


Perf. 


coepi 


memini 


Plup. 


coeperam 


memineram 


F. P. 


coeperO 


meminerO 
Subjunctive 


Perf. 


coeperim 


meminerim 


Plup. 


coepissem 


meminissem 



OdI, 
I hate 



Odl 

Oderam 

OderO 



Merim 
Odissem 



DEFECTIVE VERBS 



139 







Imperative 








Sing, memento 








Plur. mementOte 








Infinitive 




Perf. 


coepisse 


meminisse 


Odisse 


Fut. 


coepturum 


esse 

Participle 


Osurum esse 


Perf. 


coeptus 




Osusi 


Fut. 


coepturus 




5surus 



1. With Passive Infinitives, coepi generally takes the passive form: 
coeptus sum, eram, etc. Coeptus is passive in sense. 

2. Memini and odi are Present in sense ; hence in the Pluperfect and 
Future Perfect they have the sense of the Imperfect and Future. Novi, 1 
know. Perfect of ndsco, to learn, and c5nsuSvi, lam wont, Perfect of con- 
8uSbc5, to accustom one's self, are also present in sense. 



300. The three following verbs are used chiefly in certain parts 
of the Present System. ^ 

Aio, / say, I say yes : ^ 

Indicative 



Pres. aiO ais^ ait 

Imp. aiebam* aiebas aiebat 
Perf. — — ait 



aiebamus 



— aiunt 

ai^batis aiebant 



Pres. — 



aias 



Subjunctive 
aiat 



— aiaut 



Imperative 
Pres. ai (rare) 



Participle 
Pres. aiens 



1 Osus is active in sense, hating, but is rare, except in compounds. 

2 lu this verb a and i do not form a diphthong ; before a vowel i is a consonant ; 
see 12, 2. 

* The interrogative form ais-ne is often shortened to ain. 

* Aibam, aibas, etc., occur. 



140 



MORPHOLOGY 



Inquam, / say, is used in connection with direct quotations 
and is inserted after one or more of the words quoted. 

inquimus inquitis^ inquiunt 



Indie. Pres. inquam inquis inquit 

Imp. — — inqui€bati 

Fut. — inquifis inquiet 

Perf. inquii inquisti inquit 

Imper. Pres. inque Fut. inquitO 












FarT, to speak 


Indie. 


Pres. 


— 


— fatur 


t( 


Fut. 


fabor 


— fabitur 


tt 


Perf. 


— 


— fatus est 


(( 


PIup. 


f S.tiis eram 


— fatus erat 


Imper. 


Pres. 


fare 




Infin. 


Pres. 


fan 




Part. 


Pres. 


fans 


— fanti 


(t 


Past 


fatus 




(t 


Ger. 


fandus 





Gerund, Gen. fandi 



Abl. fandO 



— fantur 

— fati sunt 



fantem 



fante 



Supine, Abl. fatu 



1. FSrl is used chiefly in poetry. Tlie compounds have a few forms not 
found in the simple verb, as af-f&mur, af-fSLmini, af-fSbar, etc. 

301. Certain verbs have only a few special forms. 
1. Imperative and Infinitive. 



hav6 


havSte 


havetO hav6re ^ 


hailj to he well 


salve 


salvete * 


salv6tO salvgre 


hail, to he well 


ced5 


ceite 




give me, tell me 


apage 






away with you 


2. Other 


forms : 






ovat 




ovans 


he rejoices, rejoicing 


quaesO 




quaesumus 


I entreat, we entreat 



Impersonal Verbs 

302. Impersonal Verbs correspond to the English impersonal verbs 
with li: licet, it is lawful ; oportet, it is proper. They are conjugated like 



1 Inquitis is rare. Inquibat for inquiebat occurs. 

2 Also written avS, avete ; avStS, avere. 

^The Future salvSbis is also used for the Imperative. 



IMPERSONAL VERBS 



141 



other verbs, but are used only in the third person singular of the Indica- 
tive and Subjunctive, and in the Present and Perfect Infinitive. 

1. The subject, when expressed, is generally an Infinitive or a clause : 
hdc lieil oportet, that this should be done is proper. 

2. The following verbs are generally impersonal : 



nlngit 


ningere 


ninxit 


it snows 


pluit 


pluere 


pluit 


it rains 


tonat 


ton&re 


tonavit 


it thunders 


decet 


decSre 


decuit 


it is becoming 


licet 


licCre 


licuit, licitum est 


it is lawful 


miseret^ 


miserere 


miseritum est 


it excites pity 


oportet 


oportere 


oportuit 


it is proper 


paenitet ^ 


paenitCre 


paenituit 


it causes regret 


piget 


pigCre 


piguit 


it grieves 


pudet 


pud6re 


puduit, puditum est 


it puts to shame 


refert 


rfiferre 


rettulit 


it concerns 


taedet 


taedere 


taeduit, taesuin est 


it disgusts 



3. Participles are generally wanting, but a few occur, though with a some- 
what modified sense : 

From licet : licSna, free ; licitus, allowed. 

From paenitet : paenitSns, penitent ; paenitendus, to be repented of. 

From pudet : pudSns, modest ; pudendus, shameful» 

4. Gerunds are generally wanting, but occur in rare instances: paeni- 
tendum, pudend5. 

6. A few verbs, generally personal, admit the impersonal construction in 
certain senses : 



accedit, it is added 
constat, it is agreed 
contingit, it happens 
evenit, it happens 
patet, it is plain 



accidit, it happens 
praestat, it is better 
delectat, it delights 
interest, it interests 
placet, it pleases 



apparet, it is clear 
restat, it remains 
dolet, it grieves 
iuvat, it delights 



6. In the Passive Voice intransitive verbs can be used only impersonally. 
The participle is then neuter : mih! crSditur, it is credited to me, I am be- 
lieved; crSditum est, it was believed ; curritur, there is running ^ people run ; 
pflgnttur, it is fought, they, we, etc., fight; vivitur, we, you, they live. 

7. The Passive Periphrastic Conjugation (237) is often used impersonally. 
The participle is then neuter : mihl scribenduin est, / must write. 



1 Me miseret, I pity ; me paenitet, / repent. 



142 MORPHOLOGY 



PARTICLES 

303. The Latin has four parts of speech, sometimes called 
Particles : the Adverb, the Preposition, the Conjunction, and the 
Interjection. 

ADVERBS 

304. The Adverb is the part of speech which is used to qualify 
verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs: celeriter currere, to run 
swiftly ; tarn celer, so swift; tarn celeriter, so swiftly. 

305. Adverbs may be divided into three general classes : 

1. Adverbs which were originally the case forms of nouns, adjectives, 
participles, and pronouns. 

2. Adverbs formed by means of suffixes no longer used in the regular 
declensions. * 

3. Adverbs formed by the union of prepositions with case forms. 

306. Many adverbs were originally Accusatives, both in form and in 
meaning. 

1. Accusatives of Nouns : vicem, in turn ; partim, partly. 

2. Here perhaps may be mentioned adverbs in tim and aim, probably 
formed originally from verbal nouns no longer in use: statim, steadily;^ 
raptdm, hastily; contemptdm, contemptuously ; furtim, stealthily. These 
adverbs are sometimes explained as Accusatives, and sometimes as Instru- 
mental cases. 

3. Accusatives of Adjectives and Pronouns: multum, multa, much; 
cStenim, cetera, as to the rest; vSnim, truly; facile, easily; saepius, 
oftener; bifSriam = bifariam partem, in two parts; alits = alias vic6s, 
otherwise ; tarn, so much ; quam, as much. 

307. Many adverbs were originally Ablatives.^ 

1. Ablatives of Nouns : forte, by chance ; iure, rightly ; nuiner5, exactly ; 
sponte, willingly. 

1 Thus statim may be formed from statis, which is no longer in use, because 
supplanted by statiS. Subsequently it seems to have been associated with the 
verb sta-re, and perhaps some adverbs in tim were formed from verbs by 
analogy. But some adverbs in tim and sim are formed from adjectives : singru- 
l&tiiQ, one by one. In time, doubtless, these endings came to be regarded simply 
as adverbial suffixes, and were used in forming new adverbs. 

2 The term Ablative, as applied in Latin, includes not only the Ablative proper, 
but all forms originally Instrumental^ and such Locatives as are not easily recog- 
nized. 



ADVERBS 143 

2. Ablatives of Adjectives and Participles : dextr&, on the right ; eztrS, 
on the outside; rSr5, rarely; doctS, learnedly; doctdsaime, most learn- 
edly; mftziinS, especially ; auBpic&t5, after taking the auspices; conaultd, 
after deliberating. 

3. Ablatives of Frououns: e&, there, in that way; hSc, here^ in this 
way ; eSdem, in the same voay. 

4. A few Pronominal Adverbs denote direction toward a place: e6, to 
that place; h5c, hdc, to this place; 1115, illo-c, to that place; istd, isto-c, 
to your place. These adverbs are explained as instrumental Ablatives. 

5. Here may be mentioned a few adverbs in im, in-c : illim, illin-c, from 
that place; interim, meanwhile; often with de: in-de, thence; proin-de, 
hence. These adverbs may be Instrumental Ablatives. 

308. Some Adverbs were originally Locatives, denoting the Place or 
Time in which anything is done. 

1. Locatives of Nouns and Adjectives in I or S : heri, yesterday ; temper!, 
in time; vesperf, in the evening ; peregri, or peregre, in a foreign land. 

2. Locatives of Pronouns : hic,^ here ; illic, istic, there ; ibi, there ; ub!, 
where ; sic, in this way, thus. 

309. Adverbs in tus and ter.^ — Adverbs are also formed by means of 
the endings tus and ter, which are no longer used as case endings in the 
regular declensions: fundi-tus, /rom the foundation; radici-tus, /rom the 
roots, utterly; divTni-tus, by divine appointment, divinely ; forti-ter, bravely; 
pruden-ter, prudently. 

1. The stem vowel before tus and ter becomes i, and consonant stems 
assume i, but ti is lost by dissimilation (66) before ter: pruden-ti-ter, 
{Mruden-ter. 

310. Some adverbs are formed by the union of case forms with 
prepositions, even with prepositions with which they are not otherwise 
used: ad-modum, to the full measure, fully; ex-templo, immediately; 
ant-e^, before, before that; inter-ea, in the meantime; post-ea, afterward; 
tantis-per, for so long a time. 

1. A very few adverbs are simply adverbial phrases or clauses whose 
words have become united in writing, as scHicet, from scire licet, certainly ; 
lit. it is permitted- to know ; vidSlicet, from vidgre licet, clearly ; forsitan, 
from fors sit an, perhaps. 

311. Comparison. — Most adverbs are derived from adjectives, and 
are dependent upon them for their comparison. The comparative is the 

1 Here the Locative ending is I: hi-c, illi-c. 

2 Seen also in in-tus, within; ixip-ter, in the midst; sub-tus, sub-ter, below. 



MORPHOLOGY 



Accusative neuter singular of the adjective, and the superlative changes 
&Q ending us of the adjective into B : ' 

aJtua altior altissimua lofly 

a1t£ altius altUeime loftily 

. When the a:djective is compared vritli maglB and mBzimS, the iidverb 
1h compared in the same wa; : 

egregloa magia figregiua 

egiegie magia figregiS 

2. When the adjective is irregular, the adverb has the same Irregularis 
bonus melior optimuB 
bene melius eptvnie 

3. Wlien the adjective is defective, the adverb is generally defective j 

— dsterior deterrimua 

— dfiteriue deterrimfi 



m^xime Sgregiua exaelUnt 
mSxime SgregiE exeelUTitly 



DOTS — novissime 

. A few adverbs not derived from adjectives ai 

did diQtius diutissimS 

saepe saepius saepissime 






suffitlently 
recently 



nUper — niiperrime 

. Most adverbs not derived from adjectives, as alno those from adjectlvea 



inc&pahle of comparlso 
vulgSriter, comiaonlg. 

. Superlatives in 5 <: 
potiBBlmum. 



it compared ; LIo, here; d 

a few adverbs : pilmQ, piTmui 



PREPOSITIONS 



313. Tiie Preposition is the part o£ speech wliich shows the relatious 
of objects to each other : in Italia eaae, to lie in Italy ; ante mS, be/ore me. 

1. Prepositions were originally adverbs.' 

2. For Prepositions and ibelr uses, see 4S0, 490. 

3. For the form and meaning of Pfepositiona in Composition, see 374. 

313. Inseparable Prepositions, so called because they are used only 
a compoaition, are the following; 



any itdverljs, It will bi 



M 



CONJUNCTIONS 146 

ambi, amb, around^ about in, not^ un- sCd, s€, aside^ apart 

au, away, from por, toicardf forth v6, not, xcithout 

dis, di, adU7u^ red, re, hack 

1. For the form and meaning of the Inseparable Prepositions in Compo- 
sition, see 875. 

CONJUNCTIONS 

314. Conjunctions are mere connectives. They are either Coordinate 
or Subordinate. 

1. Coordinate Conjunctions connect similar constructions : 

Labor voluptas-que,^ labor and pleasure. 

CarthSginem c6pit ac^ diruit, he took and destroyed Carthage. 

2. Subordinate Conjunctions connect subordinate with principal con- 
structions : 

Haec dum ^ coUigunt, eff ugit, while they collected these things, he escaped. 
Note. — For the use of subordinate conjuuctions, see 568, 574. 

315. Coordinate Conjunctions comprise : 

1. Copulative Conjunctions, denoting Union : 

Et, que, atque,2 ac, and; etiam, quoque, also; neque, nee, and not; 
neque . . . neque, nee . . . nee, neque . . . nee, neither . . . nor. 

2. Disjunctive Conjunctions, denoting Separation : 

Aut,8 vel, ve, sive (seu), or; aut . . . aut, vel . . . vel, either . . . or; 
sive . . . sive, either . . . or. 

Note. — Here belong interrogative particles in double or disjunctive ques- 
tions: utnim . . . an, whether . . . or; an, or; ann5n, necne, or not; 
see 880. 

3. Adversative Conjunctions, denoting Opposition : 

Sed,* autem, v6rum, v6ro, in truth, but; at, but, on the contrary; atqui, 
rather; ceterum, but still, moreover;^ tainen, yet. 

1 Here que connects two Nominatives, ac two Indicatives, which are entirely 
coordinate, but dum connects the subordinate clause, haec . . . colligrunt, with 
the principal clause, effQgit, he escaped while they collected these things. 

2 Copulative conjunctions are et and que with their compounds: et-iam, at- 
que, quo-que, ne-que. Ac is a shortened form of at-que ; nee of ne-que. 

8 Disjunctives are aut, vel, and ve with their compounds. Vel is the Impera- 
tive of volo, lit. choose. 

* Conjunctions, like adverbs, consist largely of case forms, chiefly from pro» 
nominal stems, especially from the stems of qui, quae, quod. 

fi Lit. as to the rest. 

HARK. LAT. GRAM. — 11 



146 MORPHOLOGY 

4. Illative Conjunctions, denoting Inference : 
Erg5, igitur, inde, proinde, itaque, hence, therefore, 

5. Causal Conjunctions, denoting Cause: 
Nam, namque, enim, eteniin, /or.* 

316. Subordinate Conjunctions comprise: 

1. Temporal Conjunctions, denoting Time : 

QuandO, quom,^ cum, when; ut, ubi, as, when; cum primum, ut primum, 
ubi primum, simul, simulac, simul ac, simul atque, simul-atque, as soon as; 
dum, dOnec, quoad, quamdiu, while, until, as long as; antequam, priusquam, 
before; posteaquam, after. 

2. Comparative Conjunctions, denoting Comparison : 

Ut, uti, sicut, aSf so as; velut, just as; praeut, prout, according as, in 
comparison with; quam, as; tanquam, quasi, ut si, velut si, as if 

3. Conditional Conjunctions, denoting Condition : 

Si,8 if; si n5n, nisi, ni, if not; sin, but if; si quidem or si-quidem, ^f 
indeed; si modo, dum, modo, dummodo, if only, provided. 

4. Adversative and Concessive Conjunctions, denoting Opposition and 
Concession : 

Quamquam, licet,* cum, although ; etsl, tametsi, etiamsi, even if; quam- 
vis,* quantuihvis, quantumlibet,* however much, although; ut, grant that; 
n6, grant that not. 

5. Final Conjunctions, denoting Purpose or End : 

Ut, uti, thaty in order that; n6, n6ve (neu), that not; qu5, that; quOmi- 
nus,^ quin, that not. 

6. Consecutive Conjunctions, denoting Consequence or Result : 
Ut, so that; ut n5n, so that not, 

1 But most causal conjunctions are subordinate ; see 316, 7. 

2 QuoiQ, the original form from which cum was developed, occurs in early 
Latin, as in Plautus. Cum is the approved form in classical Latin. 

8 Probably a Locative. 

* Licet is strictly a verb, meaning it is permitted; vis, you wishf in quam-vis 
and quantum-vTs, as much as you wish, and libet, it pleases, in quant um-libet, 
as much as it pleases, are also verbs. 

6 Qu5minus = qu6-minu8, by which less ; quin = qui-ne, by which not, origi- 
nally interrogative, how not f 



INTERJECTIONS 147 

7. Causal Conjunctions, denoting Cause : 

Quia, quod, quoniam,^ quandO, because, inasmuch as; cum (quom), 
since ; quandOquidem, si quidem or siquidein,^ utpote, since indeed, 

8. Interi'ogative Conjunctions, in dependent or indirect questions:* 
Ne, nonne, nurn, utrum, an, whether ; an non, necne, or not, 

INTERJECTIONS 

317. Interjections are certain particles used as expressions of feeling 
or as mere marks of address.* They may express 

1. Astonishment: 6, hem, ehera, attat, babae. 

2. Joy : 15, euhoe, euge, eia, 6, papae. 

3. Sorrow : vae, ei, heu, eheu, oh6, ah, au, prO. 

4. Disgust : aha, phy, apage. 

5. Calling: heus, o, eho, ehodum. 

6. Praise : eu, euge, eia, heia. 



PART III. — ETYMOLOGY 

318. Words in our family of languages were originally formed 
by the union of primitive elements called Roots. 

319. In the formation of words in an inflected language, we 
distinguish Inflection, Derivation, and Composition ; but inflection 
and derivation are both the result of original composition. The 
suffixes of inflection and derivation are the worn and mutilated 
remains of original members of compound words. 

1 From quom-iam, when now. 

2 Lit. if indeed. 

3 These are sometimes classed as adverbs. In some of their uses they are 
plainly conjunctions, while in other cases they approach closely to the nature of 
adverbs. As a matter of convenience they may be called Interrogative Particles; 
see 378. 

. * Some interjections seem to be the simple and natural utterance of feeling, 
and accordingly do not appear to have been built up, like other words, from roots 
and stems, but to be themselves specimens of the unorganized elements of human 
speech. Others, however, are either inflected forms, as age, come, apage, be- 
gone, or mutilated sentences or clauses: mehercules, mehercule, etc., = me 
Hercules iuvet, may Hercules protect me; me(liU8 Qdius, may the true God, 
help me. 



148. ETYMOLOGY 



INFLECTION AND DERIVATION 

320. Inflection forms Cases, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and 
Persons by adding appropriate suffixes to stems : rgg-is, reg-em, 
r^g-es, reg-ibus; sta-t, sta-nt, sta-miis, sta-tiB. 

1. In Latin, a stem which cannot be resolved into more prim- 
itive elements is also a root. Thus sta, the stem of sta-mns, is a 
root. Moreover, most roots have a strong form and a weak form. 
Thus sta in sta-s, sta-mns, sta-tis is the strong form, and sta in 
sta-tim, sta-tus is the weak form of the same root. 

321. Derivation forms new stems by adding formative suffixes 
to other stems or to roots. Thus from the root sta, it forms the 
stem sta-bili by adding the suffix bill, and from this again it forms 
the new stem sta-bili-tat by adding the suffix tat. 

322. Etymologically words may be divided into groups, each 
group being derived from one common root. Some of these 
groups are very large. Thus from the two forms of the single 
root sta, sta, to stand, are derived 

1. All the forms which make up the conjugation of the verb sto, stare, 
steti, statum, to stand. 

2. All the forms of the verb sisto, sistere, stiti, statum, lo place, 

3. Many other forms, including nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. 

323. Stems, the basis of all inflection, may be divided into 
three classes, as follows: 

1. Root Stems, identical with roots. 

2. Primary Stems, formed either from roots or from the stems of verbs by 
means of suffixes. 

3. Secondary Stems, formed from primary stems by means of suffixes. 

324. Words formed by inflection are called 

1. Root Words or Primitive Words, if formed from root stems: due-is, 
of a leader, root stem due ; es-tis, you are, root stem es. 

2. Primary Derivatives, if formed from primary stems: fac-tO-rum, of 
deeds, from primary stem fac-to, from the root fac, seen in the verb fac-io. 

3. Secondary Derivatives, if formed from secondary stems : sta-bili -tat-is, 
of stead-fast- ness, from the secondary stem sta-bili-tat, from the primary 
stem sta-bili, from the weak root sta. 



INFLECTION AND DERIVATION 149 

325. In the language inherited by the Romans, roots, stems, 
and suffixes sometimes appear with varying quantity, and even 
with different vowels in different words : 

1. With varying quantity : root reg in reg-ere, but r6g in r6x ; leg in 
leg-ere, but 16g in l6x. 

2. With different vowels, with or without varying quantity : root teg in 
teg-ere, but tog in tog-a ; da in da-mus, da-tus, but d6 in dO-num. 

326. These inherited vowel variations in some languages form 
a somewhat regular gradation, while in the Latin they have mostly 
disappeared, as kindred forms have been assimilated to each other. 

1. In classical Latin the suffix ter, tor, in its several forms, 

tr ter tSr tor t5r 

in pa-tr-is pa-ter cra-tgr vic-tor vic-tor-is 

is the best illustration of this vowel gradation, called also Ablaut. 

2. This suffix is an illustration of what is called the E-Series of vowel 
gradation or ablaut, though the forms ter and tor were not inherited, but 
were shortened by the Latin from tSr and tor. The form tr, in which the 
vowel has disappeared, is said to have weak grade and is called a weak form, 
while ter, ter, tor, tor are said to have strong grade and are called strong 
forms. Moreover, ter and tor are sometimes distinguished from ter and tor 
as the stronger or extended forms. 

3. In the examples given above (825) the roots reg, rSg ; leg, ISg ; teg, 
tog, all belong to the E-Series, but the root which appears as da in da-mus, 
da-tus, and as do in dO-num, belongs to the O-Series. 



I. ROOT WORDS — FORMED FROM ROOTS BY INFLECTION 

327. The following are examples of Root Words : 

1. From Roots of the Weak Grade or Weak Form 



Root due : 


due-is, 


of a leader 


duc-e 


duc-ibus 


da: 


da- re, 


to give 


da-mus 


da-tis 


8: 


s-um. 


I am 


s-urnus 


s-Itis 


2. From 


Roots of 


THE Strong 


Grade or Strong Form 


Root es: 


es-se. 


to he 


es-t 


es-tis 


Bta: 


sta-s. 


you stand 


st3,-mus 


st3,-tis 


rSg: 


r6g-is. 


of the king 


r6g-e 


r^g-ibus 



ETTMOLOar 



n. FRIMART DERIVATIVES 



!8. From the stems of verbs are formed Participles and 
Verbal Adjectives and Noims witb the following suffixes ; 
Norn. na toB, a, um tus tQnis, a, am ndus. a, nni 

;iu nt, ntl to, ta. tu taro, tQrS ado, udS 

1. Witli the suffix ns are formed Present Participles, Verbal Adj'eo- 
UveH, and Verbal Nouns: amA-ns, ama-nt-ia, loving; Innoce-ne, inno- 
; adulCBce-ns, a yoiilh. 

. Willi Ibe BuMx tUB, a, um, sometimes bus, a, tim, are formed Perfect 
Participles, Verbal Adjectires, and Verbal Nouus: amS-tua, loved; al-tns, 
tall, from al-ere, lo nourish; legfi-tUE, envoy, from legS-re, to commission; 
loB-aa (froiu tod-ta), trench, Iiom fod-ere, to dig. 

Halt. 1. — The suffix tua, a, um is also used in forming Secondary Deriva- 
es ; see 343. 

Note 2. — The suffix nns, a, um is sometimes used in the sense of tna, a, 
a 1 plS-nuB, full, from plfi-re, to fill ; dS-nnm, f/ift, from do, da-ie, to give. 

3. Willi tbe suffix tua, stem tn, are formed Supines and other Verbal 
N'ouiis : ama-tum, amS-tQ ; aucU-tns, act of hearing, from audi-re ; ezer- 
cltua, training, arini;, trained men, from exerce-re, to train. 

NoTK. — For the use of S-tus in forming Secondary Derivatives, see 341 

4. With the sufhx tilrua. a, um are formed Future Active Farllciples, and 
Verbal Nouns in tflra: amS-tQniB; cnl-tQra, a cultivating, from col-ere, to 
euUiKOtf; Borip-tura, writlnij, lerltlen doeument, from sarlb-ere, to virite. 

6. With the suffix udua, a, um, are formed Gerandlves, Gerunds, and 
Gerundive Adjectives in undus, bundua, and cundua with the genertll 
meaning of participles, tliough they often denote a permanent characteristic : 
-uduB, ama-ndl, ama-ndo ; aec-unduB, /o/dJinin;;, from seqii-1, M fol- 
vTtS-bimdua, nvoiding, from vitH-re, to avoiil; M-oiindna, eloquent, 
from fS-ri, to speak. 

NoTK. — Tbe suffix dua has nearly the same lueaning aa nndna, bun-duB, 
d cun-dUB ; tlmt-duB, timid, from limfi-rc, to fear. 

329. Important Verbal Adjectives denoting Capability, Adap-. 
tation, generally passive but soraetimes active, are formed with 
the suffixes 



ilia and bHia, stems, ill and bill : 

fac-ilie, facile, eauy, from fac-ero, 

at-illB, trs^/?i;, " Tit-!, 

amft-bilis, Invahle, " am5-re, 

lauda-biiis, praiseicorthy, " lauda^re, 



M 



PRIMARY DERIVATIVES 



151 



1. With these suffixes adjectives are often derived from Perfect Par- 
ticiples : 

duct-ilis, ductile, from duct-us, led, drawn out 

miss-ilis, capable of being sent, *' miss-us, sent 

umbrat-ilis, living in the shade, " umbrat-us, shaded 

vis-i-bilis, visible, " vis-us, seen 

2. Some of these adjectives occasionally become nouns : missile, a mis- 
sile, from mitt-ere, to send. 

3. From such examples as duc-t-ilis, mis-s-iliSf and umbr-&t-ilis seem 
to have been derived the suffixes tilis, silis, and Sltilis, used in forming 
adjectives from nouns ; see 352. 

4. The stems ili and bili of ilis and bilis are derived from the stems ulo 
and bulo of ulus and bulum ; see 331, 1, 335. 

• 

330. Verbal Adjectives with the general meaning of participles 
are formed with the suffixes 



Nom. 


&x icus 


Icus 


ucus ius 


Stem 


S.C, Sci ico 


ico 


uco io : 


aud-ax, 


daring, 


from aud-6re, 


to dare 


loqu-ax, 


loquacious, 


*' loqu-i, 


to talk 


med-icus, 


healing, medical. 


*' med-6rl, 


to heal 


am-icus, 


loving, friendly. 


*' am-are, 


to love 


cad-ticus, 


falling, frail, 


'' cad-ere, 


to fall 


exim-ius, 


select, choice. 


" exim-ere, 


to select out 



1. These suffixes are comparatively rare, except &x, which is a reduced 
form of &CUS. It often denotes a faulty inclination. The suffixes S-cus, 
i-cus, i-cus, and u-cus are only different forms of a single suffix, produced 
by adding cus, to the stem-vowels 5, i, i, and vl. 

2. A few of these adjectives sometimes become nouns : med-icus, a physi- 
cian ; am-fcus, a friend. 



331. Verbal Adjectives having in general a meaning kindred 
to that of participles are formed with the suffixes 



Nom. 


ulus 


uus 


VU8 


Ivus 


Stem 


ulo 


uo 


vo 


ivo; 


cr6d-ulns. 


credulous^ 




from cr6d-ere, 


to believe 


noc-uus. 


hurtful. 




** noc-6re, 


to hurt 


ar-vus, 


plowed 




** ar-are, 


to plow 


cad-ivus. 


falling. 




** cad-ere. 


to fall 



152 



ETYMOLOGY 



1. The sufiQx ulas generally denotes a faulty tendency. In verbal adjec- 
tives it often becomes ills : ag-ilis, agile ; see 829 ; una, vub, and i-vuB are 
only di£ferent forms of a single suffix. 

2. The suffix ivus is often added to the stem of Perfect Participles, appar- 
ently making a new suffix, t-ivus : cap-t-ivus, captive^ from cap-ere, cap-to, 
cap-t, to take ; Sc-t-ivus, active^ from ag-ere, ac-to, ac-t, to act, 

3. A few of these adjectives sometimes become nouns : ar-vmn, plowed 
land, from ar-are, to plow ; cap-t-ivuB, a captive. 

4. The suffix ivub, t-ivus is also used in forming secondary derivatives ; 
see 850. 

Verbal Noons 

332. Verbal nouns partake largely of the meaning of the verbs 
from which they are derived. They may be classified as follows : 

1. Verbal nouns denoting Action or its Result; see 888. 

2. Verbal nouns denoting the Agent or Doer of an action ; see 834. 

3. Verbal nouns denoting the Means or Instrument of an action; 
see 885. 

Action or Its Result 

333. Verbal nouns denoting Action in the abstract, but often 
becoming concrete, are formed with the suffixes 



Nom. 


161 


tio 


or 


US 




Ss 


i6s 


lum 


Stem 


Idn 


tion 


or 


OB, 


es 


es, i 


16 


io: 


leg-ifl, 


a levying, legion. 


men 


levied, 


frora 


I leg-ere, 




to levy 


audl-tio. 


a heari 


Ing, a report. 






audi-re, 




to hear 


vl-si0,2 


a seeing, a sight, 








vid-6re. 




to see 


tim-or, 


fear, 










tim-6re, 




to fear 


gen-us. 


birth. 










gen in gign 


-ere, 


to hear 


frl^iis. 


cold. 










frig-ere, 




to be cold 


sCdCH, 


seat. 










sed-6re, 




to sit 


fac-ir^H, 


face, 










fac-ere. 




to make 


gaud-ium 


. joy, 










gaud-6re. 




to rejoice 



1. MoHt of these suffixes generally designate the action or state denoted 
by IIk; verl), but 6b, ISb, and lum sometimes designate the result of the 
action or tlie means employed: aedific-ium, edifice, from aedific-^re, to 
build; nClb-68, cUmd, from ntib-ere, to veil. 



1 TIh' suffix 16 is oompDunded of i aud 6n; ti6 of ti and 5n. 
a VI-8i6 is from vid-ti6 ; see 52, 1. 



PRIMARY DERIVATIVES 



153 



2. Here belongs the Latin InfiiiiLive in ere, which is the Locative of a 
verbal noun, like genus, gen eris, gen-ere. Observe that the Ablative end- 
ing ere, which includes the Locative meaning, is the same as that of the 
Infinitive. 

For the suffixes tus and tura, see 328, 3 and 4. 



•> 



Agent or Doer 

334. Verbal nouns denoting the Agent or Doer of an action are 
formed from the stems of verbs or from roots with the suffixes 



Nom. 


tor 


ter. 


ma.scu 


Lline 


tr-iz, feminine 


Stem 


tor 


ter, 


tr 




tr-ic: 


v6na-tor, 
v6na-tr-Tx, 


hun-tr-ess,^ 


} 


from v6ua-ri, 


to hunt 


gubem§r-tor, 
guberna-tr-ix, 


direc-tor, 
direc-tr-essj 


} 


(( 


guberna-re 


, to steer, direi 


audi-tor, 


hearer, 




it 


audl-re, 


to hear 


t0n-sor,2 
tOns-trix, 


barber, 'i 
female barber, i 


i( 


tond-ere, 


to clip, shave 



1. The few nouns in Latin formed with the suffixes ter, tr, which, like 
tor, originally denoted the Agent, have become Names of Kindred : pa-ter, 
pa-tr-is, father; ma-ter, ma-tr-is, mother; frS-ter, fra-tr-is, brother. 

2. The suffix tr in pa-tr-is, ter in pa-ter, tor in vic-tor, and tor in vic-tor-is, 
are only different forms of the same suffix. For vowel gradation or ablaut, 
as illustrated in these forms, see 21, 326, 1. 

3. The feminine suffix trix for tr-ics is an extension of tr, the weak form 
of tor, by the addition of ic-s, of which i is the inherited feminine suffix 
and 8 th6 Nominative suffix. 

4. The suffix tor, though originally a primary suffix, is sometimes used to 
form denominatives: via-tor, a traveler, from via, a way; sen-S-tor, a 
senator, from sen-ex, an old man. 

5. The suffix tor, sor, is often extended to tor-ius, sor-ius by the addi- 
tion of iuB ; see 350, 2. 

6. A few nouns in a, 6 (Gen. 5n-is), ub, and ulus have a meaning kindred 
to that of Agent or Doer: scrib-a, a writer, from scrlb-ere, to wnte; err-6, 
err-on-is, a wanderer, from err-are, to wander; coqu-us, a cook, from 
coqu-ere, to cook ; leg-ulus, a collector, from leg-ere, to collect. 



1 Oljserve that ter and tor in him-t^r and direc-tor are used, as in Latin, to 
denote the agent or doer, and that in the feminine forms hun-tr-ess and direc-tr-ess 
they both take the weak form tr, as in the Latin vena-tr-ix. 

2 T6n-8or is for tond-tor. dt changed to s, but t6ns-trix is for tond-trix, dt 
changed to Bt before r; see 52^ X. 



164 



ETYMOLOGY 



MesuiB and Instrument 



335. Nouns denoting the Means or Instrument of an action, 
sometimes its Place or Result, are formed with the suffixes 



trum 8-trum ^ clum 


cnlum cula 


crum 


nlum nla 


L brum 


bra bnlum 


I biila:^ 


ara-trum, 


plow, from ara-re. 


to plow 


rOs-truin, 


beak, 




rOd-ere, 


to gnaw 


m5n-s-trum,i 


prodigy. 




Trion-6re, 


to admonish 


peri-clum,8 -» 
peri-culum, / 


trial, test, peril, 




obsolete peri-re. 


to try, test 


indu-aula, 


tunic. 




indu-ere, 


to clothe with 


simulg^crum, 


image. 




simula-re, 


to represent 


teg-ulum, 'I 
teg-ula, / 


covering, tile, roof. 




teg-ere, 


to cover 


delu-brum, 


shrine. 




delu-ere. 


to cleanse 


dola-bra. 


ax, mattock. 




dolft-re, 


to heio, cut 


sta-bulum, 


stall. 




sta-re, 


to stand 


fa-bula, 


story, tale, 




fa-rl, 


to speak, tell 



336. Many verbal nouns denoting the Means of an action, or 
its involuntary Subject or Object, and sometimes the Act itself 
or its Eesult, are formed with the suffixes 



men mentum 


mo (stem m5n) 


m5nium 


m5nia: 


flu-men, 


stream,* 


from flu-ere. 


to flow 


ag-men. 


army on the march,* 


** ag-ere, 


to lead 


Onia-mentum, 


ornament, 


** 5rna-re, 


to adorn 


docu-mentum,^ 


documentary proof, 


*' doc-6re. 


to teach 


ser-mo, ser-mon-is, 


connected discourse, 


** ser-ere. 


to connect 


ali-m5nia,^ )^ 
ali-monium, i 


nourishment. 


" ale-re,5 


to nourish 



1 The suffix s-trum may have derived its 8 from such words as ca-s-trum, 
ra-s-trum, and ro-s-trum, in which s belongs to the root or stem. 

2 Cula, ula, bra, and bula differ from the corresponding forms in um only 
in gender ; clum, culum, and crum are only different forms of a single suffix, 
as are also brum and bulum. 

8 In Latin the form culum has almost entirely displaced the older form clum. 

4 Fia-men, stream, that which flows ; agr-men, army on the march, that 
which is led. 

fi The u in docu-mentum, the 1 in ali-mdnia, and the e in ale-re are only differ- 
ent forms of the thematic vowel. 



SECONDARY DERIVATIVES 156 

1. But the suffixes mdnium and monia, though originally used only in 
forming verbal nouns, were subsequently employed with great freedom in 
forming nouns from adjectives, or other nouns ; see 344, 845. 

2. In early Latin men was a favorite suffix for the formation of verbal 
nouns, but it was subsequently extended to men-turn by the addition of 
tmn ; mon, the strong-grade form of men, was also extended to mon-ia 
and mon-ium, by adding ia and ium. 

337. A few verbal nouns are formed with the suffixes 



d-61 


g-5 


stems d-on d-in 


s- 


on g-in : 


torp6-d5, 


numbnessy 


from torp6-re, 




to be numb 


cupl-d5. 


desire. 


** cupi in cupl-vl, 




I desired 


vora-g5, 


whirlpool. 


*' vora-re, 




to swallow up 


ori-gO, 


a beginning, 


" ori-ri, 




to rise, begin 



338. Nouns having a great variety of meaning, as Action, its 
Result or Place, Means or Instrument, etc., are formed from the 
stems of verbs or from roots with the simple suffixes 

a us, um UB stems & o u: 

fug-a, a fleeing, flight, from fug in fug-ere, to flee 

tog-a, gown, toga, " tog, teg, in teg-ere, to cover 

lud-us, game, play, ** lud in lud-ere, to play 

iug-um, yoke, ** iug in iung-ere, to join together 

ac-us, needle, *' ac in ac-uere, to sharpen 

1. For nouns in a and us denoting the Agent or Doer, see 834, 6. 

III. SECONDARY DERIVATIVES — NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 

339. Secondary derivatives, nouns and adjectives, may be classi- 
fied as follows : 

1. Diminutives; see 840. 

2. Patronymics, or Names of Descent ; see 842. 

3. Designations of Place ; see 843. 

4. Nouns denoting Office, Condition, or Characteristic; see 844. 

5. Adjectives denoting Fullness or Supply; see 846. 

6. Adjectives denoting Material; see 847. 

7. Adjectives denoting Characteristic or Possession ; see 848. 

1 The suffix d5 may have derived its d from words like card-6 in which d 
belongs to the root. 



156 



ETYMOLOGY 



Diminutives-^ Nouns and Adjectdves 

340. Diminutives of Nouns and Adjectives are generally formed 
with the following sufl&xes : 



lus, la, lum 


uluB, ula, ulum 


cuius, cula, culum 


filio-lus, 


little son, from filius, 


son 


filio-la, 


little daughter, * 


* filia, 


daughter 


atrio-lura, 


small hallj * 


* atrium, 


hall 


hortu-lus, 


small garden, * 


* hortus. 


garden 


oppidu-lum, 


small town, * 


* oppidum. 


town 


r6g-ulus, 


petty king, ' 


» r6x, 


king 


capit-ulum, 


small head, ' 


' caput, 


head 


flos-culus, 


small flower, * 


' flos. 


flower 


die-cula, 


little day, little while, ' 


' dies. 


day 


munus-culum, 


small present, * 


' munus, 


present 


agel-lus,i 


small field, * 


* ager, 


field 


libel-liiR, 


small hook, * 


* liber. 


hook 


vil-lum,2 


a little wine, * 


* vinum, 


wine 


aureo-lus, a, um, 


somewhat golden, * 


' aureus, 


golden 


longu-lus, a, uni, 


rather long, * 


* longus. 


long 


pauper-culus, a, um, 


rather poor, * 


' pauper, 


poor 


longius-cuhis, a, um,^ 


^ rather too long, ' 


' longius. 


too long 


misel-lus, a, um, 


somewhat unfortunate, * 


* miser, 


unfortunate 



1. Lus, la, lum are appended to &- and o-stems ; ulus, ula, ulum to 
dental and guttural stems ; cuius, cula, culum to e-, i-, and u-stems and 
to liquid and s-stems ; see examples. 

2. Before lus, la, lum, the stem vowels S and o take the form of o 
after e or i, and the form of u in other situations : filio-lus, filio-la, 
hortu-lus. 

3. Before cuius, cula, culum, stems in u change u into i, and stems in 
on change o into u: versi-culus, a little verse; homun-culus, a small 
man. Like nouns in on, a few other words form diminutives in im-culus, 
un-cula, though probably from an old stem in on: avunculus, maternal 
uncle, from avus, grandfather. 

4. In Latin the diminutive suffix was originally lus, la, lum, from which 
was developed tlie form u-lus, u-la, u-lum by including as a part of the suflSx 
the u in such words as hortu-lus, oppid-u-lum, where it represents the 



A Agel-lus is from agrr(o)-lo-s, which became agrr-lo-s, agrer-lo-s, and finally 
agrel-lus. 

2 Vil-lum is from vin(o)-lo-m, which became vin-lom and then vil-lum. 
8 The suffix cu lus is often thus attached to the neuter of comparatives. 



SECONDARY DERIVATIVES 157 

stem vowel of the primitive ; cu-lus Wcos produced by adding the diminutive 
las to the suffix co : co-lus, cu-lus. 

6. A few diminutives are formed with the suffixes i(5, c-io : ^ pus-id, pus- 
ion-is, a little boy, from pusus, hoy; homun-cio, lioniun-ciOn-is, a little 
man, from hom5, man, 

341. Diminutive nouns in their true and proper signification 
represent objects simply as small, but they are often so used as to 
take on secondary meanings. Thus they sometimes become 

1. Terms of Endearment. Thus filiola may mean eitlier little daughter 
or my dear little daughter. 

2. Expressions of Sympathy or Kogard. Thus homunculus may mean 
"either a small man or a poor unhappy man. 

3. Expressions of Contempt. Thus cauicula may mean either a small 
dog or a contemptible tittle cur. 

Patronymic B 

342. The Latin Patronymics, or Names of Descent, were bor- 
rowed from the Greek. The common patronymic ending was 
developed for metrical reasons in two forms, as follows : 

Nom. id§B iadSs, masculine is ias, feminine 

Stem Ida iadt id iad 

Tantal-id6s, son or descendant of Tantal-us 

Thest-iadgs, son or descendant of Thest-ius 

Laert-iades, son of Laert-cs^ y\z, Ulysses 

Tantal-is, daughter or descendant of Tantal-us 

Thest-ias, daughter or descendant of Tliest-ius 

1. In these examples observe that ides and is are used after a short sylla- 
ble and iades and ias after a long syllable. 

2. By the union of idSs with a preceding vowel was developed the ending 
ides : ThSs-ides, son or descendant of Thes-eus. 

3. By the loss of i in iades was formed the ending ades : Aene-ades, 
son or descendant of Aene-as. 

4. Nouns in eus generally form feminine patronymics in Sis or in§ ; nouns 
in us sometimes form them in in§, and nouns in ius in ionS : N5r-eis or 
Ner-ing, daughter of Ner-eus ; Neptun-in5, daughter or descendant of 
Neptune; Acris-idn§, daughter of Acris-ius. 



1 The suffix ci 6 is compounded of the two diminutive suffiixes co and 16, a 
formation quite analogous to that of cu-lus. 



158 



ETYMOLOGY 



343. Designations of Place, where trees and plants flourish, are 
often formed with the suffixes turn and e-tum : 



virgul-tum, 
salic-tum, 
pin-e-tum, 
ros-e-tura, 



thicket, 

thicket of willows, 

pine forest, 



from virgul-a, hush 

** salic-s (cs = x), willow 

** pIn-us, pine tree 

" ros-a, rose bush 



garden of roses, 

1. The suffix turn is the neuter of the participial suffix tuB applied to 
nouns ; see 328, 2 ; thus virgul-tum is the neuter of the adjective virgul-tus, 
used as a substantive ; S-tum is another form of the same suffix. The 6 was 
probably developed in such words as ol-S-tum, an olive garden, from ol-S-re, 
from which it derives its 6. Thus roB-§-tum means literally a place furnished 
with roses, 

344. Derivatives denoting Office, Condition, or Characteristic 
are formed from nouns with the suffixes 



Nom. ium 


monium 


tas 




tiis 


tudo 


&tU8 


Stem io 


monio 


t&t 




tut 


tfiiiln 


I &tu: 


magister-ium, 


office of master, 


from 


magister, 




master 


testi-mOnium, 


testimony. 






testi-s, 




witness 


patr-i-mOnium,i 


paternal estate, 






patr-is, 




of a father 


civi-tas, 


citizenship, 






civi-s, 




citizen 


auctor-i-tas,i 


authority, 






auctor, 




author 


servi-tus,2 


servitude, 






servu-s, 




servant 


servi-tudo,2 


servitude, 






servu-s, 




servant 


consul -atus 


consulship. 






consul, 




consxil 



1 . Derivatives in ium, tus, and atus sometimes become collective nouns : 
collegium, a body of colleagues, from coUega, a colleague; iuventus, 
youth, young persons ; sen-atus, senate, an assembly of old men. Many 
derivatives in tas are abstract nouns ; see 845. 

2. The final vowel of the stem disappears before ium but assumes the 
form of i before the other suffixes. Consonant stems sometimes assume 
i in imitation of vowel steins. 

o. The suffixes ium, tas, and tua were all inherited ; tudo is closely 
related to ttis ; a-tus is the ending of nouns in tus derived from a- verbs, as 
seen in om-a-tus. For mdnium, see 336, 2. 

4. The endings ago and igo occur in a few words : vir-ago, a masculine 
maiden^ from vir ; rob-igo, rust, from rob-us, red. 



1 Observe that patri monium and auctor-i-tas assume 1 in imitation of 
test-i-monium and civ-i-tas in whicli th(3 i helonu^s to the stem. 

2 Observe; that the stem vowel o of serv-us becomes i in serv-i-tCl8 and 
serv-i-ttido. 



SECONDARY DERIVATIVES 



159 



3f #5. Many Abstract Nouns are formed from adjectives, and a 
fe'w Tf rom nouns, with the suffixes 



I 



a iSs 


tda tiSs 


tSlB tudo monia : 


audac-ia, 


boldness. 


from audax. 


bold 


sapient-ia, 


wisdom, 




sapiens, 


wise 


victor-ia, 


victoi^, 




victor. 


conqueror 


barbar-ia, 'i 
barbar-ies, j 


barbarism, 




barbar-us, 


foreign, barbarous 


amici-tia, 


friendship, 




amicu-s, 


friendly, friend 


molll-tia, 'I 
molli-ti6s, j 


softness, 




molli-s, 


soft 


boni-tas, 


goodness. 




bonu-s. 


good 


liber- tas, 


freedom, 




liber. 


free 


pie-tas, 


filial piety, 




pie in piu-s, 


dutiful, pious 


firmi-tas, ) 
firmi-tudo, i 










firmness, 




firmu-s, 


steadfast, firm 


acri-ra5nia, 


sharpness. 




acri-s. 


sharp 



1. The suffixes ia, iS-s, were inherited ; t-ia, t-iSs were formed by adding 
ia, ies to t-stems, as sapient-ia, sapien-tia. 

2. The stem vowel o disappears before ia, iSs; is changed to i before 
tia, ties, and generally before the other suffixes, but it sometimes disappears, 
as in liber-tSs ; after i it retains its ablaut form e, as in pie-t&s. 



Adjectives from the Stems of Nouns 

346. Fullness. — 'Adjectives denoting Fullness, Abundance, or 
Supply are formed from nouns by means of the suffixes 



osus 



ISns 



lentus 



tUB 



&-tll8 



I-tus 



fl-tii8: 



anim-Osus, 


full of courage. 


fron 


I anim-us. 


courage 


ann-Osus, 


full of years, 




ann-us. 


year 


fructu-Osus, 


fruitful. 




friictu-s, 


fruit 


pesti-l6ns, "i 
pesti-lentus, i 


pestilential, 




pesti-s, 


pest 


vino-lentus. 


full of wine. 




vinu-m, 


wine 


vi-o-l6ns, "I 
vi-o-lentus, i 










impetuous. 




vl-s, 


force 


luc-u-lentus, 


full of light. 




luc in Itix, 


light 


itis-tus, 


just, 




ius, 


right 


al-a^tus. 


winged. 




91-a, 


wing 


turr-i-tus. 


turreted, 




turr-is. 


turret 


corn-ti-tus. 


horned, 




com-u, 


horn 



160 



BTTMOLOar 



\ 



1. The suffix dsuB is one of the most important in the Latin lan;_taage; 
the number of adjectives formed with it has been estimated to amor int to 
eight hundred. i 

2. The suffix osus becomes I-obob by assuming i from some won Irlike 
stud-i-dsuB, studious, and it becomes u-Sbob by assuming u from .ome 
word like iruct-u-OBUB, fruitful. 

3. The suffixes tus, &-tu8, i-tiiB, and fl-ta8 are the regular partici^ual 
endings here applied to the formation of adjectives from nouns. 

347. Material. — Adjectives designating the material of which 
anything is made are generally v formed with the suffixes 






nuB n-euB ^ 

of gold, golden, 
of silver, 



evLB 

aur-eus, 

argent-eus, 

f5gi-nus, 

fagi-neus 

ros-eus, 

ros-ac-eus 

strament-ic-ius, made of straw. 



of beech, heechen, 
made of roses, 



&c-euB 

from aur-um,2 
argent-um, 

fag-us,« 



(I 



(i 



i( 



li 



ros-a, 
strftment-ura, 



ic-ioB : 

gold 
silver 

a beech tree 



a rose 
a straw 



1 . Most of these suffixes sometimes take on a more general meaning and 
denote characteristic or possession ; pater-nuB, paternal ; -v^x-naa, of spring, 
vernal; virgin-euB, maidenly. 

348. Characteristic. — Adjectives meaning in general belonging 
tOf relating to, derived from, and the like, are formed from nouns 
with a great variety of suffixes. The following examples illus- 
trate the meaning and use of one class of these suffixes, viz. : 



SIlB 


sub niB 




uliB 


arlB 


arluB: 


vlt-alis, 


of life, vital, 




from -vlt-a, 


life 


mort-alls, 


mortal, 






mors, mort-is, 


death 


fid-6lis, 


faithful, 






fid-6s, 


faith, trust 


patru-6lis, 


of an uncle. 






patru-us, 


uncle 


civ-Ilis, 


civil, 






c!v-is, 


citizen 


vir-Ilis, 


manly. 






vir, 


man 


curr-ulis, 


of a chariot. 


curule. 




curr-us, 


a chariot 


salut-aris, 


healthftil. 






salut-is, 


good health 


statu-arius, 


pertaining to statues 


» 


statu-a, 


statue 



1 The compound suffix n-eus is formed by adding eus to no, the stem of 
nus; ac-eus by adding eus to ac, the stem of ax, and ic-ius by adding luB 
= eus to ico, the stem of icus; see 850. 

2 Observe that the stem vowel is dropped before a vowel, but changed to 
i before a consonant. 



SECONDARY DERIVATIVES 



161 



1. These several suflBxes are only different varieties of lis ; the long 
vowels have been assumed from the stems to which the suffix has been 
added. Thus the a in vita-lis may be the stem vowel & of vita, but in 
mort-Slis it belongs to the suffix ; the g in fidS-liB is the stem vowel 
of fid-§8, but in patni-Slis it belongs to the suffix. 

2. By dissimilation alls becomes aria after 1, as in salut-aris ; Slrius 
is an extension of aria. 

3. Adjectives formed with these suffixes often become nouns, especially 
those in Sriua, arium, ^a, and He: statu-ariua, a statuary ; libr-SLrium. 
a bookcase^ from liber, a hook; mort-alia, a mortal^ a humOin being ; ov-Oe, 
a sheepfold, from ov-is, a sheep. 

349. The following examples illustrate the meaning and use 
of the suffixes 



nua 


§-nua S- 


nua 


i-nua 


ci-nii8 


er-nua 


t-er-nua ur-nua 


t-ur-nua 




the formation of adjectives : 








ver-nus, 


of spring^ vernal^ 


from 


I ver, 


spring 


urb-anus, 


of a city, 




urb-s, 


city 


terr-enus, 


of the earth, earthy. 




terr-a, 


the earth 


mar-inus, 


of the sea, marine, 




mar-e, 


the sea 


vati-cinus, 


prophetical, 




vate-s, vati-s, 


prophet 


acer-nus, 


of maple. 




acer, 


maple 


hodi-ernus, 


of this day, 




hodi-6, 


this day, to-day 


pater-nus, 


of a father, paternal, 




pater, 


father 


hes-ternus, 


of yesterday, 




her-i for hes-i, 


yesterday 


ebur-nus, 


of ivory, 




ebur. 


ivory 


noct-ur-nus, 


by night, nightly. 




nox, noct-is, 


night 


diu-turnus, 


lasting, 




diu. 


a long time 



1. The basis of all these suffixes is nua ; ci-nua is from co-nua ; it adds 
nua to CO, the stem of cue ; see 350 ; er-nua and ter-nua follow the analogy 
of such words as ac-er-nua and pa-ter-nua, while ur-nua and t-ur-nua 
follow eb-ur-nua and noc-t-ur-nua. 

2. The suffix cinua is sometimes extended to ciniua : vati-cinius, 
prophetic. 

3. Many adjectives formed with these suffixes sometimes become nouns, 
and some words thus formed are always nouns in classical Latin : inaul- 
anus, an islander, from insul-a ; urb-anua, a citizen, from urb-s ; r5g-ina, 
a queen, from rex, reg-is ; medic-ina, medicine, from medi-cus, a physician. 

4. Here may be mentioned the kindred suffixes onua, ona, unua, una : 
patr-onua, patron, from pater ; mStr-ona, matron, from mater ; trib-unua, 
head of a tribe, tribune, from tribus, a tribe; fort-iina, from fore, chance. 

IIABK. LAT. GBAM. — 12 



162 



ETYMOLOGY 



350. The following examples 
of the suffixes 



CHS 



i-CU8 t-iCU8 IVUB t-lVU8 

in the formation of adjectives : 



illustrate the meaning and use 



iu8 ciuB i-cins I-ciua ta-cius 



civi-cus, 


of a citizen^ 


from 


I civi-s, 


citizen 


bell-icus, 


of war, military, 




bell-um, 


war 


c6na-ticus, 


relating to dinner, 




c6na, 


dinner 


fest-ivus, 


pleasing. 




f6st-us, 


festive 


tempes-tivus, 


timely, 




tempua, tempes, 


time 


r6g-ius, 


kingly, royal, 




r6x, r6g-is, 


king 


5ra-t5r-iii.s, 


of an orator, 




Ora-tor, 


orator 


c6n-s5r-ms, 


of a censor. 




cgn-sor, 


censor 


sodali-cius, 


of a companion. 




sodali-Sf 


companion 


patr-i-cius, 


patncian. 




pater, 


father 


nov-i-cius, 


neio, inexperienced. 




nov-us, 


new 


d6di-ti-cius, 


surrendered, 




d6di-tns, 


given up 



1. For ivus and t-ivus, see 831 and 331, 2. 

2. The other suffixes are only different forms and combinations of cub 
and iuB, both of which are in commim use in kindred languages ; t-icus and 
t-i-ciu8 obtain the t from participial stems ; ciua is an extension of cub ; 
ius added to verbal nouns in tor and Bor gives rise to the compound suffix, 
tor-iuB, Bor-ius, which may be applied directly to verb stems. Thus orS- 
tor-ius is derived from the verb ora-re through the verbal noun, dr&-tor ; 
see 334, 5. 

3. A few adjectives formed with these suffixes sometimes become nouns, 
and a few words thus formed are always used as nouns in classical Latin : 
ruB-ticuB, countryman, peasant, from riis, the country; patr-1-ciuB, ^rtiri- 
cian, from pater, father ; r5g-ia, royal palace, from r6x, king ; audi-tor-ium, 
audience-i'oom, from audi-tor, hearer. 

351. The following examples illustrate the meaning and use 
of the suffixes 



ter triB es-ter 

in the formation of adjectives: 



eB-tris 



Snais 



palus-ter. 


marsJiy, 


from palus, 


marsh 


eques-ter, 'i 
eques-tris, j 


of a horseman, 


*' eques, 


horseman 


camp-ester, 


of a level field, level. 


'* camp-US, 


level field 


silv-estris, 


of a forest, wooded. 


** silv-a. 


forest 


castr-ensis, 


of ox in the camp, 


** castr-a, 


camp 



SECONDARY DERIVATIVES 



163 



1. A few words formed from these sufi&xes are uniformly used as nouns, 
while a few others are occasionally so used : palus-tria, marshy places^ from 
paliis, marsh; eques-ter, knight^ from eques, horseman. 

2. The endings ter, tris, es-ter, and es-tris are different forms of the 
same suffix ; the development of es-ter and es-tris from ter and tris is seen 
by comparing eques-ter and eques-tris, in which es belongs to the stem, 
with camp-ester and silv-estris, in which it is a part of the suffix ; Snsis 
is from *ent-ti-s, in which t-t becomes s. 

352. The following examples illustrate the meaning and use 
of the suffixes 

ills s-ilis^ t-ilis^ tt-ilis^ ti-mus i-ti-mus 

in the formation of adjectives : 



hum-ilis, 


low^ lowly^ from hum-us, 


the earth, ground 


dap-s-ilis, 


sumptuous, ' 


' dap-s, 


feast 


aqua-tilis, 


living in water^ ' 


' aqua, 


water 


sax-at-ilis, 


living among rocks, ' 


' sax-um, 


rock 


op-timiis, 


richest, best, ' 


' op-is, 


of wealth, help 


mari-timus, 


maritime, * 


* mare for marl, 


sea 


leg-i-timus, 


lawful, ' 


* lex, I6g-is, 


law 



353. Adjectives from proper names generally end in 
anus, ianus, inus ts, aeus, Sus ius, iacus, icus Snsis, iSnsis : 



Sull-anus, 


of Sulla, from Sulla, 


Sulla 


Mari-anus, 


of Marius, ' 


* Marius, 


Marius 


Ciceron- ianus, 


Ciceronian, * 


' CicerO, 


Cicero 


Lat-inus, 


Latin, ' 


' Latium, 


Latium 


Fiden-as, 


of Fidenae, * 


' Fidenae, 


Fidenae 


Smyrn-aeus, 


Smyrnean, * 


* Smyrna, 


Smyrna 


Pythagor-eus, 


Pythagorean, * 


' Pythagoras, 


Pythagoras 


Corinth-ius, 


Corinthian, * 


* • Corinthus, 


Corinth 


Corlnth-iacus, 


Corinthian, ' 


* Corinthus, 


Corinth 


Britann-icus, 


British, ' 


* Britannus, 


a Briton 


Cann-ensis, 


of Cannae, * 


' Cannae, 


Cannae 


Athen-iensis, 


Athenian, ' 


' Athenae, 


Athens 



1. Anus and ianus are the endings generally used in derivatives from 
Names of Persons ; but others also occur. 

2. Many adjectives from names of places become Patrial Nouns in the 
plural and designate the citizens of those places : Rom-Sni, the Romans, 
from Kom-a ; Lat-ini, the Latins, from Lat-ium. 



^ On these suffixes, see 329, 3. 



164 ETYMOLOGY 

354. The names of the Roman Gentes or Clans always ended in 

ius, masculine, and ia, feminine : 

Aemil-ius, Aemil-ia App-ius, App-ia Cass-ius, Cass- i a 

Corn6l-iiis, Corn6l-ia Fab-ius, Fab-ia Itil-ius, Itil-ia 

1. These forms in ius and ia are often used as adjectives : circus FlSLmi- 
niuB, the Flaminian circus ; via Appia, the Appian loay. 

2. Many of the names of the Roman gentes were derived from common 
nouns or from adjectives: Virgin-ius, Virgin-ia, from virgO, maiden; 
Claud-ius, Claud-ia, from claud-us, lame, 

3. The name of the gens to which a Roman citizen belonged formed one 
of the three names which he regularly bore : the first, or praenomen, desig- 
nating the individual ; the second, or nomen, the gSns ; and the third, or 
c5gii5men, the family. Thus Publius CornSlius Scipio was Publius 
of the Scipio family of the Cornelian gens. 

4. Many Roman family names, cognomina, like the English surnames 
Smith, Carpenter, and Green, are derived from common nouns or adjec- 
tives: Cornicen, Horn-blower; Figulus, Potter; Capit-o, Big-head; 
Lupus, Wolf; Taurus, Bull; Niger, Black. 

6. Some personal names, praenomina, are also derived from common 
nouns or adjectives: Aulus, Fhite; M&rcus, Hammer; Qumtus, Fifth. 

G. lu writing, personal names are generally represented by abbreviations : 

S. (Sex.) = Sextus 
Ser. = Servius 

Sp. = Spurius 

T. = Titus 

Ti. (Tib.) = Tiberius 

7. Sometimes an Agnomen or surname was added to the three regular 
names. Tims Scipi5 received the surname Africans from his victories in 
Africa: Publius ComSlius Scipio Africans. 

8. An adopted son took the full name of his adoptive father, and an 
^gndmen in ^us formed from the name of his own gSns. Thus OctSlvius, 
when adopted by Caesar, became G^us lulius Caesar Octtvi^us. After- 
ward the title of Augustus was conferred upon him, making his full name 
GUus liilius Caesar Oct^vi^us Augustus. 

9. Women were generally known by the name of their gSns. Thus the 
daughter of Julius Caesar was simply lulia ; of Cornelius ScIpiO, Com61ia. 
Two daughters in any family of the Cornelian gSns would be known as 
Com61ia and CornSlia Secunda or Minor. 



A. = Aulus 


M. 


= Marcus 


Ap. = Appiua 


M\ 


= Manius 


C. = Gains ^ 




= MamercuR 


Cn. = Gnaeusi 


N. 


= Numerius 


D. = Decimus 


P. 


= Publius 


L. = Lucius 


Q. (Qu. 


) = Quintus 



1 On the use of C for G, see 5, 1 and 3. 



DERIVATION OF VERBS 



165 



Adjectives from Adverbs and Prepositions 

355. A few adjectives are formed from adverbs and preposi- 
tions with the following suffixes : 

t-neus trius er-nus ter-nus 



nus 



ter-nu=5, three-fold^ from ter, 

extr-aneus, ^ ^ . , , , , ' - 

X - • r from without, external, " extr-a, 
extr-anus, j "^ 

hodi-ernus, of this day^ " hodi-6, 

hes-ternus, 

diu-turnus, 

diu-tinus 



D 



of this day^ 
of yesterday^ 

lasting^ 



tur-nus ti-nus 

three times 

on the outside 

this day, to-day 
** heri for hes-i, yesterday 

*' diu, a long time 



DERIVATION AND HISTORY OF LATIN VERBS 

356. The oldest Latin verbs were all inherited from the parent 
speech. They comprise three classes : 

I. Root Verbs, in which the bare root is the present stem. 

IL Thematic Verbs, in which the present stem ends in the thematic 
vowel. 

III. Verbs whose present stem is formed with the suffix io. 

L — Root Verbs 

357. In Root Verbs personal endings are added directly to the bare 
root, which forms the present stem. This is the most primitive form of 
verbal inflection known in our family of languages, and has almost dis- 
appeared from the Latin. Only a few isolated forms of irregular verbs 
remain, of which the following are the most important : 

1. From the root es, to be: es = es-s, es-t, es-tis, es-te, es-to, es-t5te. 

2. From the root 6d, 6s, to eat : 6-s = 6d-s, Ss-t, Ss-tis, Ss-te, 6s-t6, 
es-t5te. 

3. From the root i, to go : i-s, i-t, i-mus, i-tis, i-te, i, i-to, i-tote. 

4. From the root fer, to bear: fer-s, fer-t, fer-tis, fer-te, fer, fer-to, 
fer-tote, with a few passive forms. 

5. From the root vel, vol, to wish : vol-t, vul-t, vol-tis, vul tis. 

0. From the root do, da, to give : do, d5-s = dO-s, da-t, da-mus, da-tis, 
da-nt, dt, da-te, da- to, da-tote. 



Note. — Many forms from these roots are thematic, as s-u-m, s-u-mus, 
s-u-nt, etc. 



166 ETYMOLOGY 

n. — Thematic Verbs 

358. The Present Stem ends in the thematic vowel, which was orig- 
inally e or o, but in Latin it generally takes the form of i or u. The 
personal endings are added to this vowel. This class includes most verbs 
of the Third Conjugation: 

r6g-e-re, to rule; r6g-i-t, r6g-i-mus, r6g-i-tis, r6g-u-nt. 

III. ~ Verbs formed with the suffix io 

359. 'i'his class includes four sub-divisions : 

1. A group of A- Verbs, in which the present stem ends in o, from Srio, 
in the first person singular of the Present tense and in ft in the other 
persons : 

hiare, to gape; present stem, hi-o, hi-a: hi-o,^ hi-a-mus, hi-a-tis 
lavare, to iO(Zs/4 ; *' " lav-o, lav-a: lav-0, lav-a-mus, lav-a-tis 

2. A group of B- Verbs, in which the present stem ends in eo, from e-io 
or e-io, in the first person singular of the Present tense and in 6 in the 
other persons : 

fav6re, to /auor; present stem, fav-eo, fa v-6: fav-e5,i fav-6-mus, fav-6-tis 
vidgre, to see ; *' " vid-eo, vid-g : vid-eO, vid-e-mus, vid-6-tis 

Note 1. — A few verbs formed with the suffix e-i5 are causative in mean- 
ing : mon-eo, mon-6-re, to cause to remember^ from the root men, remem- 
ber; noc-e5, noc-6-re, to cause to suffer., from nee, death., ruin. 

Note 2. — In Causative verbs, the root vowel e takes its ablaut form o ; 
see 326, 3. Hence the root men becomes mon in mon-eo ; nee becomes 
noc in noc-eo. 

3. A group of I- Verbs, in which the present stem ends in io, from 
i-io, in the first person singular of the Present tense, in iu in the third 
person plural, and in i in the other persons : 

venire, to come ; pres. stem ven-io, ven-iu, ven-i : ven-iO, ven-I-mus, ven-iu-nt 

Note. — In a few verbs in io, the thematic vowel takes the place of i: 
capere, to take : cap-i5, cap-i-mus, cap-i-tis, cap-iu-nt. 

4. Probably a very few U- Verbs, in which the present stem ends in 
o, from io, in the first person singular of the Present tense and in the 
thematic vowel in the other persons : 

suere, to sew, su-5, su-i-mus, su-i-tis, su-u-nt 

1 Observe that the first person singular of the Present has o, but that its stem 
has o. 



DERIVATION OF VERBS 



167 



Note. — The four groups of inherited verbs just mentioned — viz. a group 
of a-verbs, or verbs of the First Conjugation, a group of e-verbs, or verbs 
of the Second Conjugation, a group of i- verbs, or verbs of the Fourth Con- 
jugation, and a very few u-verbs of the Tliird Conjugation — served the 
Romans for all time as models for the formation of new verbs from the 
stems of nouns and adjectives. Thus all the Latin verbs were either in- 
herited by the Romans or made by them on inherited models. 



THE FORMATION OF VERBS FROM THE STEMS OF NOUNS 

AND ADJECTIVES 

360. A-Verbs are generally formed from a-stems, but sometimes 
from other vowel stems and even from consonant stems, especially 
from n- and s-stems : 



cur-O, 


-a-re, 


to care for, 


fro!ri ctir-a, 


care 


lacrim-6, 


-a-re, 


to shed tears, 


'* lacrim-a, 


tear 


numer-0, 


-a-re. 


to number y 


'* numer-us. 


number 


lev-0, 


-a-re, 


to lighten, 


" lev-is,. 


light 


aestu-5. 


-a-re, 


to rage, 


" aestu-s. 


a raging 


nomin-o, 


-a-re. 


to name. 


*' nOmen, 


name 


oner-0, 


-a-re, 


to burden. 


" onus, oner-is, 


burden 



361. E-Verbs are generally formed from o-stems,^ rarely from 
consonant stems: 



alb-eo, -e-re, 

claud-eO, -g-re, 

flOr-eo, -6-re, 

luc-e5, -6-re, 



to be white, 
to be lame, 
to flower, 
to be light. 



from alb-US, white 

** claud-us, lame 

'» flOs, flor-is, flower 

liix, IGc-is, light 



(( 



1. E- Verbs are generally intransitive ; indeed, from the same stem are 
sometimes formed an a- Verb with a transitive meaning and an e-Verb with 
an intransitive meaning : 

to be white, 1 • ' ,r, 

_ l.^ y from alb-US, 
to make white, } 

to be bright, \ 



alb-e5, -€-re, 

alb-5, -a-re, 

clar-eO, -e-re, 

clar-o, -a-re. 



(( 



clar-us, 



white 



bright 



to make bright, 

362. I- Verbs are generally formed from i-stems ; but sometimes 
from o-stems, u-stems and consonant stems : 

fin-io, fin-i-re, to finish y from fin-is, end 

len-io, l6n-i-re, to make gentle, '* len-is, gentle 



1 Remember that o-stems have an ablaut form in e. 



from 


cap-ere, 


to take 




da-re, 


to give 




cur-rere, 


to run 




ag-ere, 


to move, drive 




scrib-ere, 


to write 




cur-rere. 


to run 



168 ETYMOLOGY 

serv-i5, serv-i-re, to serve, from serv-us, servant 

gest-iO, gest-i-re, to gesture, ** gest-us, gesture 

cust5d-i5, custod-i-re, to guard, " custOs, guard 

363. U-Verbs are formed from u-stems : 

met-uQ, met-u-ere, to fear, from met-us, fear 

stat-uO, stat-u-ere, to place, /* stat-us, position, place 

364. Frequentatives, or Intensives, denote Eepeated, Continued, 
or Intense Action. They are of the First Conjugation, and are 
formed from verb stems or roots with the following suffixes : 

to b5 ito tito sito 

cap-to, to snatch, 

da-tO, to give frequently, 

cur-sO, to run about, 

ag-itO, to move violently, 

scrip-tit6,i to write often, 

cur-sitO, tq run hither and thither, '* 

1. Frequentatives were originally denominatives formed from the parti- 
ciple in tus or sua, but ito became an independent suffix and was added to 
the stems of verbs, regardless of the form of the participle ; hence ag-ito, 
not ac-to. The extension of to or so by ito gives the compound suffix tit6 
or sito, but some verbs formed with these suffixes may be explained as de- 
rivatives from other frequentatives. Thus cant-ito may be formed from 
cant-o, a frequentative from can-o ; curs-ito from ciira-5 from cur-ro. 

2. A few Intensives of the Third Conjugation, denoting Eager rather 
than Repeated action, end in esso, rarely isso : fac-ess5, to do or perform 
eagerly, from fac-ere, to do, perform; incip-isso, to begin eagerly, from 
incip-ere, to begin. 

365. Inceptives, or Inchoatives, denote the Beginning of the 
action. They are regularly formed from the present stem of 
verbs by adding sco : 

gela-sco, to begin to freeze, from gela-re, to freeze 

cale-sc5, to begin to be warm, ** cal6-re, to be warm 

virg-sco, to grow green, *' vir6-re, to be green 

obdormI-sc5, to fall asleep, '' obdormi-re, to sleep 

1. The endings ^sco, esc5, and isc5, including the stetfi vowel of the 
primitive, finally became independent suffixes, and were added to the stems 
of verbs and apparently to the stems of nouns without regard to the char- 

^ Remember that before t, gr becomes c and b becomes p ; see 55,1. 



'on 


3 em-ere, 


to purchase 


(( 


' scrib-ere, 


to write 


(( 


ed-ere, 


to eat 



COMPOSITION OF WORDS 169 

acter of the stein vowel : trem-Ssco, trem-isco, to begin to tremble, from 
trem-ere, to tremble; puer-Ssco, to reach boyhood, from puer, a boy. 

366. Desideratives, denoting a Desire to perform the action, 
end in turio or surio : 

emp-turi(5,i to desire to purchase, 
scrip-turiO, to desire to write, 
g-surio/-^ to desire to eat, 

367. Diminutives, denoting a feeble action, end in illo : 

cant-ill-O, -are, to sing feebly, from canUare, to sing 

cOnscrib-ill-O, -are, to scribble, '* c5nscrib-ere, to write 

1. Diminutives in illo are probably formed from verb stems through 
diminutive verbal nouns. 

368. Denominatives are also formed with the suffixes ico 
and igo: 

medic-or, medic-ari, to heal, from medic-us, physician 

claud-ic5, claud-icare, to be lame, ** claud-us, lame 

rgmig-o, reniig-are, to be an oarsman, " rgmex, oarsman 

mit-igO, mit-igare, to make gentle, ** mit-is, gentle 

1. Observe that in medic-or the letters ic belong to the stem of medic-us, 
while in claud-ico they have become a part of the suffix ico ; also that in 
rSmig-o the letters ig belong to the stem of r6mex, while in mit-igo they 
have become a part of the suffix igo. 



COMPOSITION OF WORDS 

369. Many compound words are formed by uniting two or more 
stems and adding the suffixes of inflection when needed. The stem 
vowel of the first member of the compound generally disappears be- 
fore a vowel and generally takes the form of i before a consonant : 

magn-animus, from magno-animo-s, magnanimous, o disappears 

grand-aevus, ** grandi-aevo-s, of great age, i disappears 

omni-potens, ** bmni-potent-s, omnipotent, i retained 

corni-cen, " corim-cen, trumpeter, u changed to i 

capri-cornus, '' capro-comu-s, caprl-corn, o changed to i 

1 Em-p-turio ; p is generally thus developed between m and t ; see 52, 5. 

2 E-surio, from *ed-turi6, from ed, the strong form of the root of ed-5 ; for 
euphonic changes, see 52, 1. 



174 SYNTAX 



PART IV. — SYNTAX 

87NTAX OF SENTENCES 
I. CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES 

376. Syntax treats of the construction of sentences. 

377. A sentence is a word, or a combination of words, express- 
ing either a single thought or two or more thoughts. ' 

1. A simple sentence expresses a single thought : 
Romulus urbem condidit, Romulus founded the city. 

2. A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences : 

Ego r6g6s gieci, vOs tyrannOs intrOdiicitis, / have banished kings, you 
introduce tyrants. 

3. A Declarative Sentence has the fonn of an assertion : 
Miltiadgs accusatus est, Miltiades was accused. 

4. An Interrogative Sentence has the form of a question : 
Quis non paupertatem extimgscit, who does not fear poverty ? 

6. An Imperative Sentence has the form of a command or entreaty : 
Libera rem ptiblicam metii, free the republic from fear. 

6. An Exclamatory Sentence has the form of an exclamation : 
Reliquit quos vir5s, what men he has left ! 

378. Simple Interrogative sentences are generally introduced 
by an interrogative pronoun, adjective, or adverb, or by an inter- 
rogative particle, ne, non-ne, or num: ne asking for information; 
nonne generally implying an affirmative answer, and num a nega- 
tive answer: 

. Quis doctior Aristotele fuit, icho was more learned than Aristotle ? Quid 
tandem te impedit, what^ pray, hinders you ? Ilora quota est, what time is 
it f Ubinam gentium sumus, where in the world are we f Estisne v5s l6gati 
missi, were you sent as ambassadors 9 Nonne nobilitari voluiit, do they not 
wish to be renowned ? Num igitur peccanuis, are we then at fault ? 

1. Hut questions in Latin, as in English, sometimes dispense with the in- 
terrogative word, especially in impassioned discourse : 



SYNTAX OF SENTENCES 176 

Ego n5n poterO, shall I not he able f Vis r6ctg vivere, do you wish to live 
rightly f 

2. The particle ne is regularly appended to the emphatic word of the sen- 
tence ; appended to non it forms non-ne. It is, however, sometimes added 
to other interrogative words without affecting their meaning, as in utnim-ne, 
quanta-ne, etc. 

3. An emphatic tandem, meaning indeed, pray^ then, is often found in 
interrogative sentences, as in the second example. 

4. Nam appended to an interrogative also adds emphasis, as in ubinam 
in the fourth example. 

5. For two interrogatives in the same clause, and for an interrogative 
with tantuB, see 511, 3 and 4. 

379. Answers. — In replying to a question of fact the Latin 
usually repeats some emphatic word, or its equivalent, often with 
prorsuB, vero, and the like, or, if negative, with non : 

Nempe negas, do you indeed deny? PrOrsus nego, certainly I deny; 
c. Tusc. 5, 5. Possumusne esse tuti, can we be safe f NOn possumus, we 
can not; C. Ph. 12, 12. Tuam vestem detraxit tibi, did he strip your garment 
from you? Factum, he did, lit. done = it was done ; T. Eun. 707. 

1. Sometimes the simple particle is used — affirmatively, s&nS, etiam, 
ita, vSro, certS, etc. ; negatively, non, minimS, etc. : 

Visne sermOni dSmus operam sedentgs, do you wish us to (that we should) 
attend to the conversation sitting? San6 quidem, yes indeed; 0. Leg. 2, 1. 
Venitne, has he come? Non, no ; Pi. Ps. 1067. 

380. Double or Disjunctive Questions offer a choice or alterna- 
tive. The first clause generally has utrum or ne, or it omits the 
particle ; the second generally has an, as follows : 

utnun, an, 
ne, an, 

— , an, j 

Utrum ea vestra an nostra culpa est, is that your fault or ours? ROmamne 
venio, an hie maneam, am I going to Borne or am I to remain here ? Haec 
vera, an falsa sunt, are these things true or false? 

1. A negative in the second clause gives an n5n, very rarely nec-ne : 

Isne est quem quaerO, an nOn, is he the one whom I seek or not? T. Ph. 862. 
Sunt haec tua verba, necne, are these your words, or not? C. Tusc. 8, 18. 

2. In poetry and later prose the first clause may have utnim-ne, or 
utrum . . . ne, and the second an : 



whether, or 



176 STJ^AX 

Utrumne persequ6mur Otium, an, etc., shall we enjoy our leisure, or, etc. ? 
Utrura praedicemne, an taceam, shall I make it known, or be silent? 

3. By the omission of the first clause, the second sometimes stands alone 
with an in the sense of or, and sometimes an is used to introduce inter- 
rogative sentences which do not seem to involve an ellipsis : 

Quid ais, what do you say? An v6nit Pamphilus, or has Pamphilus come? 

4. By the omission of the second clause, the first sometimes stands alone 
with utnim : 

Utrum hoc helium n5n est, is not this war? C. Ph. 8, 2, 7. 

5. One or two rare forms occur in poetry, as ne . . . ne, in Vergil, and 
. . . ne, once in Horace : 

lustitiaene prius mirer belline, should I more admire your regard for jus- 
tice or your martial deeds? V. ii, 126. MM5ra minSrane fama, are they supe- 
rior or inferior to their fame? H. E. i, 11. 

6. Disjunctive, or Compound Questions, are sometimes extended to three 
or more members. Indeed Cicero, Pr5 DomO, 22, 67, has a question of this 
kind with eight members. 

II. ELEMENTS OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 

381. The Simple Sentence, alike in its most simple and in its 
most expanded form, consists of two distinct parts, expressed or 
implied, and of only two : 

1. The Subject, or that of which it speaks. 

2. The Predicate, or that which is said of the subject. 

382. The Simple or unmodified Subject may be a noun, a pro- 
noun, expressed or implied, or some word or words used as a 
noun ; and the Simple or unmodified Predicate may be either a 
verb alone or a suitable verb, generally sum, with a Predicate 
Noun or a Predicate Adjective : 

Cluilius moritur, Cluilius dies. Ego scrib5, 1 write. Vicimus, we have con- 
quered. Dolere malum est, to suffer is an evil. Vita cara est, life is dear. 

1. In these examples observe that the subjects are Cluilius, ego, the 
pronoun implied in vici-mus, the Infinitive dolSre used as a noun, and 
vita. These subjects are all in the Nominative, according to 387. 

2. Observe that the predicates are moritur, scribo, vicimus, malum 
est and cSra est. Malum, thus used, is called a Predicate Noun, and cSra 
a Predicate Adjective. 



SYNTAX OF SENTENCES 177 

383. The Complex Subject consists of the simple subject with 

one or more modifiers, generally an adjective, a noun in apposition, 

or a Genitive : 

Albanus r6x moritur, the Alban king dies. Cliiilius r6x moritur, Cluilius 
the king dies, Perutiles XenophOntis libri sunt, the books of Xenophon are 
vei*y useful. 

1. Observe that the complex subjects are Alb^us rSz, ClailiuB r6z, 
and Xenophontis libri. 

2. In distmction from a predicate noun, or a predicate adjective, any 
noun or adjective used simply as a modifier of the subject, or of any other 
noun, is called an Attributive Noun or Adjective. 

3. A noun or pronoun, used to describe or identify another noun or pro- 
noun denoting the same person or thing, is said to be in Apposition with it 
and is called an Appositive : Cluilius rSz, Cluilius the king, Appositives 
therefore form one variety of attributive nouns. 

384. The Complex Predicate consists of the simple predicate 
with its modifiers. These may be objective modifiers, adverbial 
modifiers, or both : 

Gloria virttitem sequitur, glory follows merit. Sapientgs fgllciter vivunt, 
the wise live happily. In his castris Cluilius moritur, in this camp Cluilius 
dies. P5ns iter paene hostibus dedit, the bridge well-nigh offered a passage 
to the enemy. 

1. Here observe that the modifier in the first example is the object vlrtii- 
tem, in the second the adverb fSliciter, in the third the adverbial expres- 
sion in Mb castris, and in the fourth the direct object iter, the indirect 
object hostibus, and the adverb paene. 

2. All nouns may be modified like the subject ; see 888. 

3. All adjectives may be modified by adverbs, and some adjectives may 
be modified by certain oblique cases : 

Satis humilis est, he is sufficiently humble. Semper avid! laudis fuistid, 
you have always been desirous of praise. Hab6tis ducem memorem vestri, 
you have a leader mindful of you. 

III. ELEMENTS OF COMPOUND SENTENCES 

385. A Compound Sentence may consist of two or more inde- 
pendent sentences, combined without any change of form : 

Sol ruit et months umbrantur, the sun hastens to its setting and the moun- 
tains are shaded. Audendum est aliquid, aut omnia patienda, something 
must be risked, or everything must be endured. 

HARK. LAT. ORAM. — 13 



386. A Compound Sentence may consist of two or more sen- 
teuceB so combined that one of them retains its independent fonn 
while the otheia are made subordinate to it : 

S opus est, before you begin, there is need of 

1. In senteDceH of this kind the part which makes complete sense, — con- 
■ult5 opne set, there is need of deliberation, — ia called the Principal or 
Independent Clause; Lind the part which is dependent upon it, — piina- 
quam Inotplas, before you begin, — ia called tlie Dependent or Subordinate 
Clause. 

2. The subordinate clause may be the subject or the predicate of the 
compound sentence or tlie modifier either of the subject or of the predi- 

Quid dies ferat,i incertum eat, what a day will bring forth ig uneertatn. 
Exitua fuit 5rati3nis, sibl ntlllam cum his amicitiam esse posse, '^ the close of 
his oration vias that he euuld have no friend»hip teich them. Ego, qui tS 
confirms,^ ipse mS nOn possum, / who encovrage you am unable to encour- 
age myself. ZSnonem, cum Atheuls esaem,' audiebam, I heard Zeno leken 
I was at Athens. 



SUBJIiCT AND PRinilCATS — HUIjES OF AORHEtMEaTT 

SUBJECT NOMINATIVE 

387. Rule. — The subject of a Finite Verb is put in the 
Nominative : 

Romulus rSgntvit, Romulus reigned. GlSria virtutem sequitur, glory 
follows merit. Ignoi'o quid agila, / do not know how you are. Ego rSgia 
eieci, vQs tyrannoa intrSdiieitia, t have banished kings, you introduce 
tgranls; Aa hbt. 4. ca. 

1. A Pronominal Subject is seldom expressed, aa it is implied in the ending 
of the verb, as in the third example, but it may be espressed for emphadia 
or contraat, aa in the last example. 

2. For the diSerent forms of the subject, see 3S2. 

3. The subject of an Infinitive is put in the AceusatiTO ; see 



' In tbe first example, the ulause quid dISs ferat 13 tlie Euliject ; 
Blbl . . . poBBB is the preilti^ate; in the third, qui . , cOnflrmO, a modifier ol 
tbe subject; imd la tlie (uiinli. cum . . . eeaem, a modifier of the predioaCei 



uud, 
taot I 

i 



SUBJECT AND PREDICATE— RULES OF AGREEMENT 179 
AGREEMENT OF VERB WITH SUBJECT 

388. Rule. — A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in 
Number and Person: 

Romulus urbem condidit, Romulus founded the city. Castor et Pollux 
ex equis pugnare visi sunt, Castor and Pollux were seen to fight on horse- 
back ; C. N. D. 2, 2. Scribam ad te, / shall write to you, 

1. Participles in compound tenses also agree with the subject in gender 
according to 394, 1, as in the second example. 

2. For the pronominal subject implied in the verb, as in the last exam- 
ple, see 887, 1. 

3. A General or Indefinite subject is often denoted by impersonal passive 
forms and by certain persons of the active, as the first and third person 
plural Indicative and Subjunctive and the second person singular Subjunctive, 
dicimuB, we (people) say ; dicunt, they say ; dicSs, you (any one) may say : 

Ad vesperum pugnatum est, they fought till evening. Quae volumus, 
credimus, we believe what we wish. Agere quod agas c5nslderat6 decet, you 
should do considerately whatever you do ; c. Oflf. i, 27. 

4. The verb is sometimes omitted, when it can be readily supplied, espe- 
cially est and sunt in proverbs and brief sayings : 

Omnia pmeclara rftra, all excellent things are rare ; 0. Am. 21. Quot homi- 
nes, tot sententiae, as many opinions as men; T. Ph. 454. Ecce tuae litterae, 
Zo, your letter; c. Att. 13, 16. 

5. Dico and facio are often omitted in short sentences and clauses : 

Pauca d6 m6, a few words in regard to myself; 0. N. D. 8, 2. Quid opus 
est plura, what need of (saying) more f C. Sen. i, 8. Quae cum dlxisset, Cotta 
finem, having thus spoken (when he had thus spoken), Cotta closed (made 
an end) ; C. N. D. 3, 40. 

6. Facio is often omitted in Livy after nihil aliud (amplius, minus, etc.) 
quam, nothing other (more, less, etc.) than, merely ; nihil praeterquam, 
nothing except, merely : 

Nihil aliud quam stet6runt par&tl ad ptignandum, they merely stood pre^ 
pared for battle; L. 84, 46. 

7. Certain brief forms of expression very often dispense with the verb : 
quid, what ? quid enim, what indeed f quid ergo, what then f quid quod, 
what of the fact that? nS plura, not to say more; quid hoc ad m6, what 
is this to me f nihil ad rem, nothing to the subject. 



180 SYNTAX 

389. Synesis. — Sometimes, especially in poetry and in Livy, 
the predicate is construed according to the real meaning of the 
subject without regard to grammatical gender or number. Thus 

1. With collective nouns, iuventus, multitfldd, pars, and the like. 
These, though singular in form, are often plural in sense : 

luventds ruit certantque, the youth rush forth and contend; V. 2, 68. 
MultitUdo abeunt, the multitude depart; l. 24, 8. Magna pars abeunt, a large 
part withdraws ; s. 60, 8. 

Note. — In the first example, observe that the former of the tv\ro verbs is 
in the singular and the latter in ,the plural, not an uncommon construction 
yfith collective nouns. 

2. With milia, often masculine in sense : 

Sex mIlia peditum m5re Macedonum armati fu^re, six thousand of the 
infantry were armed in the manner of Macedonians ; L. 87, 40. 

3. With quisque, uterque, alius . . . alium, alter . . . alterum, and 
the like : 

Uterque eorum exercitum educunt, each of them leads out his army; 
Gaes. G. 8, 30. Alius alium dom5s suAs invitant, they invite each other to their 
homes ; s. 66, 3. 

4. With a singular subject accompanied by an Ablative with cum : 
Dux cum principibus capiuntur, the leader with his chiefs is taken ; L. 2i, 60. 

5. With partim . . . partim iu the sense of pars . . . pars : 

Bon5rum partim necessSria sunt, partim nOn necessaria, of good things 
some are necessary^ others are not necessary ; c. Part. 24, 86. 

6. Occasionally in poetry with a neuter pronoun or adjective limited 
by a Partitive Genitive : 

Quid hue tantum homiimm (= tot homings) inc6dunt, why are so many 
men coming this way f Pi. Poen. 619. 

390. The verb agrees, not with its subject, but with the Predi- 
cate Noun, or with a noun after quam, nisi, etc., when that noun 
is nearer than the subject and when the subject is an Infinitive 
or a clause : 

NOn omnis error stultitia dicenda est, not evei^j error should he Called 
folly; c. Div. 2, 43. Puerl TrOianum dicitur agmen, the boys are called the 
Trojan hand; v. 5, 602. Nihil aliud nisi pax quaesita est, nothing but peace 
was sought; G. Off. i, 23. Contentum suis rebus esse maximae sunt divitiae, 
to be content with one^s own is the greatest wealth; c. Parad. 6, 3. 



SUBJECT AND PREDICATE — RULES OF AGREEMENT 181 

391. The verb often agrees, not with its subject, but with an 
Appositive, regularly when the appositive is oppidum : 

Corinthus, Graeciae lumen, exstinctum est, Corinth^ the light of Greece^ was 
extinguished; C.Man. 5,1 1. Volsinii, oppidum TuscOrum, concremStum est, 
Volsiniij a town of the Tuscans^ loas burned. 

392. With two or more subjects, the verb may agree either 
with one subject and be understood with the others, or with all 
the subjects conjointly : 

Homgrus fuit et Hgsiodus ante Romam conditam, Homer and Hesiod lived 
before the founding of Rome; c. Tusc. i, i, 8. Aut mor6s spectari aut fortuua 
solet, either character or fortune is wont to be regarded. Pomp6ius, Lentulus, 
Scipio perigrunt, Pompey, Lentulus, and Scipio perished. Ego et CicerO 
valemus, Cicero and I are well; C. Fam. 14, 5. Tu et Tullia val6tis, you and 
Tullia are well. Pater mihl et mater mortui sunt, my father and mother are 
dead; T. Eun. 517. Labor voluptasque inter s6 sunt iuncta, labor and pleasure 
are joined together ; L. 5, 4. 

1. The verb generally agrees with one subject and is understood with the 
others, when it stands before the subjects or between them, as in the first 
example, and when the subjects represent inanimate objects, as in the second 
example. 

2. A verb agreeing conjointly with subjects differing in Person, takes the 
first person rather than the second and the second rather than the third, as 
in the fourth and fifth examples. 

3. A participle in a compound tense, agreeing conjointly with subjects dif- 
fering in Gender, is masculine if the subjects denote persons, otherwise gen- 
erally neuter, as in the sixth and seventh examples. 

4. Two Subjects as a Unit. — Two singular subjects forming in sense a 
Unit or Whole admit a singular verb : 

Cui senatus populusque ROmSnus praemia dedit, to whom the senate and 
Roman people (i.e. the state as a unit) gave rewards; C. Balb. 4, lo. Sed 
tempus necessitasque postulat, but the time and necessity (i.e. the crisis) 
demand; C. Off. i, 28, 81. 

5. With Aut or Neque. — When subjects connected by aut, vel, neque, 
nee, sive, or seu are of the same person, the verb generally agrees with 
the nearest subject, but when they differ in person, the verb is generally 
plural : 

Aut Brutus aut Cassius itidicavit, either Brutus or Cassius judged. Haec 
neque ego neque tu fecimus, neither you nor I have done these things; T. Ad. 

103. 



182 SYNTAX 

APPOSITIVES AND PREDICATE NOUNS 

393. Rule. — A noun used as an Appositive or as a Predi- 
cate of another noun denoting the same person or thing 
agrees with it in Case : 

Appositives. — Cluilius rex moritur, Cluilius the king dies. Saguntum, 
foederatam civitatem, expugnavit, he took Saguntum, an allied town. The- 
mistoclcs veiii ad te, /, Themistocles, have come to you; N. 2, 9. Venus, 
regina Cnidi, Venus, the queen of Cnidus; H. l, 80. 

Predicates. — Usus magister est, experience is a teacher ; C R. Post. 4, 9. 
Vita magistra est, life is an instructress; c. Rose. A. 27, 75. Exstitisti tu 
vindex nostrae liber tatis, you have appeared as the defender of our liberty, 
Servius rex est declaratus, Servius was declared king. 

1. An appositive or a predicate noun with different forms for different 
genders must agree in gender as well as in case ; as Clulliua r6x, Venus 
rSgma, fLsus magister, vita magistra, above. 

2. An appositive or a predicate noun may agree with a pronoun, whether 
expressed or only implied in the ending of a verb. Thus ThemistoclGs above 
agrees with a pronoun implied in vSni, while vindez agrees with til ex- 
pressed. 

3. Clauses. — A noun or pronoun may be an appositive or predicate of a 
clause, or a clause an appositive or predicate of a noun or pronoun : 

Ceterum, id quod nOn timSbant, prope libertSs amissa est, but liberty was 
almost lost, that which they did not fear ; L. 2, 8. Facinus est vincire civem 
Romanum, to bind a Boman citizen is a crime. Oraculum datum erat vic- 
trlc6s AthSnas fore, an oracle had been given that Athens would be victori- 
ous; C. Tusc. 1, 28. 

4. Partitive Apposition. — The parts may be appositives or predicates of 
the whole, or the whole may be an appositive or predicate of the parts : 

Duo rgges, ille bellO, hic pace, civitatem aux6runt, two kings advanced the 
interests of the state, the former by war, the latter by peace; L. i, 21. Ptole- 
maeus et Cleopatra, r6g6s AegyptI, Ptolemy and Cleopatra, rulers of Egypt; 
cf. L. 87, 8. Nautius et Furius consults erant, Nautius and Furius were con- 
suls; L. 2, 89. 

6. Predicate Apposition. — Appositives sometimes have nearly the force 
of subordinate clauses : 

Aedem Salutis dictator d6dicavit, he dedicated the temple of Salus when 
(he was) dictator; L. lo, i, 9. 

6. Possessives admit a Genitive in apposition with the Genitive implied 
in them : 



AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES 183 

Ad tuam ipslus amicitiam, to your own friendship. NOmen meum absentis, 
my name in my absence. 

7. Locatives admit appositives in the Locative Ablative, with or without 
a preposition : 

Albae c0nstit6runt in urbe opportuna, they halted at Alba, a convenient 
city; C. Ph. 4, 2. Corinthi, Achaiae urbe, at Corinth, a city of Achaia; 
T. H. 2, i. 

8. Predicate nouns are most frequent with aum and a few intransitive 
verbs, 6v&d5, ezsistd, app&re5, and the like, and with passive verbs of 
Appointing, Making, Naming, Regarding, and the like. 

9. Predicate nouns are used, not only with finite verbs, but also with 
Lifinitives and participles, and sometimes without verb or participle : 

Orestem s6 esse dixit, he said that he was Orestes. Dgclaratus r6x Numa, 
Numa having been declared king. CaniniO c5nsule, Caninius being consul. 

10. In the poets, predicate nouns are used with verbs of a great variety 
of signification ; 

R6xque paterque audisti, you have been called both king and father (have 
heard yourself so called) ; li. E. l, 7, 37. Ego quae (Hvom inc6d0 rggina, I who 
walk as queen of the gods; v. i, 46. 

11. The Dative of the object for which (433), pr6 with the Ablative, and 
loc5 or numer5 (or in numero) with the Genitive, are often kindred in 
force to predicate nouns ; 

Male est hominibus avaritia, avarice is an evil to men (is to men for an 
evil). Sicilia nobis pro aerariO fuit, Sicily was a treasury (for a treasury) 
for us. De5rum numero eOs ducunt, they consider them as gods (in the num- 
ber of). 

12. For the Predicate Accusative, see 410, 1. 

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES 

394. Rule. — Adjectives, whether Attributive or Predi- 
cate, agree with their nouns in Gender, Number, and Case : 

Fortuna caeca est, Fortune is blind. Verae amicitiae sempiternae sunt, 
true friendships are enduring. Usus magister est optimus, Experience is 
the best teacher. Haec aurea vasa, these golden vessels. Sol oriens diem 
conficit, the sun rising makes the day. Certum est liberos amari, it is 
certain that children are loved. 

1. Demonstratives and participles are adjectives in construction, and 
accordingly conform to this rule, as haeo v&aa, 851 oriSna. 



184 ^SYNTAX 

2. Remember that in the passive forms of the verb the participle some- 
times agrees with a predicate noun or with an appositive ; see 390, 391. 

3. For the distinction between an attributive adjective and a predicate 
adjective, see 383, 2. 

4. Agreement with Clause, etc. — An adjective may agree with any word 
or words used substantively, as with a pronoun, clause, infinitive, etc. Thus, 
in the last example, certain agrees with liberda amarl When an adjective 
agrees with a clause, or with an Infinitive, it is always neuter, generally 
singular, but in poetry it is sometimes plural as in Greek : 

Ut Aeneas iactetur nOta tibi, how Aeneas is tossed about is known to you; 
V. 1, 667. 

5. A neuter adjective used substantively sometimes supplies the place of 
a predicate adjective : 

Cum mors sit extrSmum, since death is the last thing; c. Fam. 6, 21. Triste 
lupus stabulis, a wolf is a sad thing for the flocks; v. E. 8, 80. 

6. A neuter adjective with a Genitive is often used in poetry and in late 
prose, rarely in Caesar and Cicero, instead of an adjective with its noun ; 
especially in the Nominative and Accusative : 

Miratur strata viarum,i he admires the paved streets ; V. i, 422. Corruptus 
vanis rgrum, deluded by vain things ; II. s. 2, 2. Cuncta terrarum subacta, all 
lands subdued; H. 2, i, 28. 

7. Sometimes, though chiefly in poetry, the adjective or participle con- 
forms to the real meaning of its noun, without regard to grammatical gender 
or number : 

Pars certare parati, a part (some) prepared to contend ; V. 5, 108. Abgente 
nobis (= mS), in my absence; T. Eun. (>49. Dgmosthenes cum ceteris erant 
expulsi, Demosthenes with the others had been banished; n. 19, 2. 

8. Agreement with One Noun for Another. — When a noun governs 
another in the Genitive, an adjective belonging in sense to one of the two 
nouns sometimes agrees with the other, especially in poetry and late prose : 

MaiOra rgrum initia, the beginning of greater things; L. i, l. Ad iiisti 
cursum amnis, to the regular course of the river; L. i, 4. 

0. In poetry an adjective or participle predicated of an Accusative is some- 
times attracted into the Nominative to agree with the subject : 

Ostendit se dextra, she shows herself favorable ; v. 2, 388. 

395. An adjective or participle, belonging in sense to two or 
more nouns, may agree with one and be understood with the 
others, or it may agree with them all conjointly : 

J Str&ta viSrum, poetical for stratas vias. 



AGREEMENT OF PRONOUNS 185 

Dubitare visusest Sulpicius et Cotta, Stilpicius and Cotta seemed to doubt; 
C. Or. 1, 62. Temeritas ignOratioque vitiosa est, rashness and ignorance are 
bad. Castor et Pollux ex equis pugnare visi sunt, Castor and Pollux were 
seen to fight on horseback ; 0. N. D. 2, 2. 

1. An attributive adjective generally agrees with the nearest noun ; a 
predicate adjective less frequently : 

Agri omngs et maria, all lands and seas; c. Tusc. l, 28. Huic Hyperid6s 
proximus et Aeschines fuit, next to him were Hyperides and Aeschines; 

C. Brut. 9, 36. 

2. A plural adjective or participle used with two or more nouns of differ- 
ent genders is generally masculine, when the nouns denote living beings, or 
are in a manner personified, otherwise generally neuter, used substantively ; 
see 394, 5 : 

Pater mihi et mater mortui sunt, my father and mother are dead; 
cf. T. Eun. 517. R6x rggiaque classis ^ prof ecti, the king and the royal fleet set 
out. HonOrSs, imperia, victOriae fortuita sunt, honors, commands, and vic- 
tories are accidental things ; c. Off. 2, 6. Inimica inter s6 sunt libera civitSs 
et rex, a free state and a king are things hostile to each other. Labor 
voluptasque, dissimillima natura, inter se sunt iuncta, labor and pleasure^ 
things most unlike by nature^ are joined together. 

Note. — Moreover, with nouns denoting inanimate objects, the adjective 
or participle is sometimes neuter, irrespective of the gender of the nouns : 

Stultitia et temeritas et iniustitia sunt fugienda, folly, rashness, and 
injustice are things to be avoided; cf. c. Fin. 8, ii. 

3. Two or more adjectives in the singular may belong to a plural noun : 
prima et vicSsima legidnes, the first and twentieth legions. 

4. In the same manner two or more praendmina, personal names, in the 
singular may be combined with a family name in the plural: Gnaeoa et 
PubliuB Scipiones, Gnaeus and Publius Scipio. 

5. For Roman names, see 354, 3. 

AGREEMENT OF PRONOUNS 

396. Rule. — Pronouns agree with their antecedents in 
Gender, Number, and Person : 

Nemo est qui te non metuat, there is no one who does not fear you. 
Graeci rebus istis, quas nos contemnimus, delectantur, the Greeks are de- 
lighted with those things lohich toe despise. Nihil agis quod ego non videam, 

1 Here regria classis is in a manner personified, as it represents the soldiers 
who manned the fleet. 



186 SYNTAX 

you do nothing which I do not see. Ego qui te confirmo, ipse me iion pos- 
sum, / who encouraged you am not able to encourage myself* Vis est in 
virtutibus; eas excita, there is strength in virtues; arouse them. 

1. When the antecedent is a determinative in agreement with a personal 
pronoun, the relative takes the person of the latter : 

Haec is f6ci qui sod^ls Dolabellae eram, / who was the companion of 
Dolahella did this ; c. Fam. 12, 14. 

2. Pronouns which have predicate nouns associated with them generally 
agree by attraction with those nouns : 

Animal quem 1 vocSmus hominem, the animal which ice call man ; c. Leg. 
1, 7. Thebae quod^ Boe5tiae caput est, Thebes which is the capital of Boeotia ; 
L. 42, 44. Ea^ erat confessiO, that (the fact stated) xoas an admission ; L. 1, 45. 

Note. — Pronouns are not usually attracted when they are neuter and 
stand in a negative sentence nor when the predicate noun is a foreign 
proper name : 

Nee sopor illud erat, nor was that sleep ; v. 8, 178. Fltimen quod appel- 
latur Tamesis, a river which is called the Thames ; Caes. 5, 11. 

«S. Pronouns, when used as adjectives, conform, of course, to the ordinary 
rule for adjectives ; see 894. 

397. Synesis. — The Pronoun is sometimes construed according 
to the real meaning of the antecedent without regard to gram-^ 
matical form, and sometimes it refers to the class of objects to 
which the antecedent belongs : 

Equitatum praemittit qui videant, etc., he sends forward his cavalry to see, 
etc.; Caes. 1, 15. Earum r6rum utrumque, each of these things; C. Div. 1, 62, 
Quia fessum militem habgbat, lis quifitem dedit, as he had an exhausted sol- 
diery, he gave them rest. Democritum omittamus ; nihil est enim apud istos, 
let us omit Democritus ; for there is nothing in the works of such. 

398. Two or More Antecedents. — When a pronoun refers to two 
or more antecedents, it generally agrees with them conjointly, but 
it sometimes agrees with the nearest, or the most important : 

Pietas, Virtus, Fid6s, quarum^ ROmae templa sunt, Piety, Virtue, and 
Faith, whose temples are at Borne ; C. Leg. 2, 11. Praeter culpam ac pecca- 
tum, qua 2 semper car^bis, except fault and error, from which you will ever 
he free; c. Fam. 5, 21. 

1 Quem attracted from quod to agree with honaineni ; quod attracted from 
quae to agree with caput, and ea from id to agree with cOnfessiS. 

2 Quarum agrees with Pietfts, Virtas, Fides, conjointly ; qu5 with culpam, 
the more important. 



AGREEMENT OF PRONOUNS 187 

1. With antecedents differing in gender, the pronoun confonns to the 
rule for adjectives, being generally masculine if the antecedents denote 
persons, otherwise neuter ; see 395, 2 : 

Lat5na et Apoll5 et Did.na, quOrum divlnura domicilium compllftvit, La- 
tona, Apollo, and Diana,, whose divine abode he pillaged; c. Ver. 5, 72. In- 
cdnstantia et temeritds, quae digna nOn sunt deo, inconstancy and rashness, 
which are things not worthy of a god; cf. c. N. D. 3, 24. 

2. With antecedents differing in person, the pronoun confonns to the 
rule for verbs, preferring the first person to the second and the second to 
the third, see 392, 2 : 

ErrSstis et tQ et collSgae tul qui sperfistis, both you and your colleagues 
who hoped, have made a mistake; C. Agr. i, 7. 

399. Relative Construction. — Originally the relative was a pro- 
nominal adjective in agreement with the antecedent repeated in 
the relative clause, as itinera duo, quibus itineribuB, two ways, by 
which ways. Generally the antecedent is retained in the principal 
clause and omitted in the relative clause, but sometimes it is re- 
tained in the relative clause and omitted in the principal clause, 
and sometimes it is omitted in both. Hence the following forms : 

1. Antecedent in both clauses : 

Erant itinera duo, quibus itineribus domO exire possent, there were two 
ways by which they were able to go from home; Caes. i, 6. 

2. Antecedent omitted in the relative clause, the usual construction : 
Marius qui Italiam obsidiOne liber&vit, Marius who freed Italy from siege. 

3. Antecedent omitted in the principal clause, but retained in the rela- 
tive clause. In this construction the relative clause in classical prose 
generally stands first: 

In quem SgressX sunt locum, TrOia vocfttur, tJie place where (into which) 
they landed is called Troy; L. i, 1. Quam quisque nOrit artem, in h&c s€ 
exerceat, let every one practice the art which he knows; c. Tusc. i, 18, 4i. 

4. Antecedent omitted in both clauses. This is common when the ante- 
cedent is indefinite, or is implied in a possessive pronoun, or in an adjective : 

Sunt qui cfinseant, there are some who think. Vestra, qui cum integritate 
vixistis, hOc interest, this interests you who have lived uprightly ; c. Suii. 28, 79. 
Servili tumultti, quOs, etc., in the revolt of the slaves whom, etc.; Caes. i, 40. 

NoTB. — In the second example, the antecedent of qui is a personal pronoun 
implied in vestrft, and in the last example the antecedent of quoa is servo- 
mm implied in BenrHI, of the slaves. 



1B8 SYNTAX 

5. Attracted. — The relative is sometimes attracted into the case of the 
antecedent, and in poetry, rarely in prose, the antecedent is sometimes at- 
tracted into the case of the relative : 

Notante iudice, quO^ nOsti, when the judge whom you know reprimands; 
H. s. 1, 6, 14. Urbem,^ quam statu5, vestra est, the city which I am building 
is yours; V. i, 673. 

6. Clause as Antecedent. — When the antecedent is a sentence or clause, 
the pronoun is in the neuter singular, but the relative generally adds id as an 
appositive to such antecedent : 

Rggem, quod numquam antea acciderat, necav6runt, they put their king to 
deaths which had never before happened ; c. Off. 2, 28. Sin £ vObIs, id quod 
nOn sp€r5, dSserar, but if I should be deserted by you, which I do not expect; 

G. Bosc. A. 4, 10. 

USE OF CASES 

GENERAL VIEW OF CASES. —NOMINATIVE AND VOCATIVE 

400. Cases, in accordance with their general meaning and use, 
naturally arrange themselves in pairs, as follows : 

J J Nominative, Case of the Subject. 

1 Vocative, Case of the Person Addressed. 

jj J Accusative, Case of the Direct Object. 

1 Dative, Case of the Indirect Object. 

TIT J ^®^i*^iv®» Case of Adjective Relations. 

* \ Ablative, Case of Adverbial Relations. 

Note. — The Nominative, Vocative, Genitive, Dative, and Accusative have 
probably retained, with very slight modifications, their original force as de- 
veloped in the mother tongue from which the Latin was derived. For the 
Ablative, see 459. 

NOMINATIVE 

401. The Nominative is used as follows : 

1. As Subject of the Sentence ; see 382, 1 ; 387. 

2. As Appositive to another Nominative ; see 393. 

3. As Predicate Nominative ; see 393. 

4. In Exclamations ; see 421, 3. 

1 Qu6 attracted from quern into the case of the antecedent ; urbena attracted 
from urbs into the case of the relative. 



USE OF CASES 189 

VOCATIVE. — CASE OF ADDRESS 

402. Rule. — The name of the person or thing addressed 

is put in the Vocative : 

Tuum est, Servi, regnum, the kingdom is yows, Servius. Quid est, Cati- 
lina, quod te delectare possit, what is there, Catiline, lohich can please you f 
O di immortales, immortal gods. 

1. An Interjection may or may not accompany the Vocative. 

2. In poetry, and sometimes in prose, the Nominative in apposition with 
the subject occurs where we should expect the Vocative : 

Audi tu, populus Albanus,! hear ye, Alhan people; L. i, 24. 

3. Conversely, the Vocative by attraction sometimes occurs in poetry 
where we should expect the Nominative : 

Quibus, Hector, ab Oris exspectate venis, from what shores, Hector, do 
you anxiously awaited come? V. 2, 282. lane libentius audis, you prefer to he 
called Janus^; ii. s. 2, 6, 20. Macte nova virtute,^ a blessing on your new 
valor ^; v. 9, 641. 

ACCUSATIVE 

403. The Accusative is used as follows : 

1. As Direct Object; see 404. 

2. As Direct Object and Predicate ; see 410. 

3. As Double Object — Person and Thing ; see 411. 

4. As Direct Object with Infinitive ; see 414. 

5. As Subject of Infinitive ; see 415. 

6. As Accusative of Specification ; see 416. 

7. As Accusative of Time, Space, and Limit ; see 417, 418. 

8. With Prepositions and in Exclamations; see 420, 421. 

Accusative as Direct Object 

404. Rule. — The Direct Object of an action is put in the 

Accusative : 

Marius Italiam liberavit, Marius freed Italy, Populi Roman! saliitem 
defendite, defend the safety of the Roman people. Romulus Romam condi- 

1 But populus Alb§.nus may be a Nominative form with the Vocative mean- 
ing foUowiug the analogy of all nouns and adjectives except those in us ; see 75, 1. 

2 Or, you more (jladly hear yourself called Janus. 

3 Supply est5. Literally he enlarged by your new valor. In this expression, 
macte has become so far indeclinable that it is used in the Accusative singular 
and in the plural. 



190 SYNTAX 

dit, Romulus founded Rome, Librum de rebus rusticis scripsi, / wrote a 
book on rural affairs. 

1. The Direct Object may be either the Person or Thing on which the 
action of the verb is directly exerted, as' Italiam and aaliltem above, 
or the Result of the action, the object produced by it, as R5mam and 
librum. 

2. Passive Construction. — In the passive construction, the noun or 
pronoun which is the direct object of the active becomes the Subject 
Nominative : 

Laudant exquisitissimis verbis legiOnSs, they praise the legions with the 
choicest words. Laudantur exquisitissimis verbis legiGnSs, the legions are 
praised with the choicest words; c. Ph. 4, 8, 6. 

3. An Infinitive or a Clause may be used as a direct object : 

y enmi audire non vult, he does not wish to hear the truth. Quis sim scies, 
you will know who I am. 

4. The object of a transitive verb is often omitted when it can be easily 
supplied : moved = moveO m6, / move ; vertit = vertit sC, he turns. 

405. Special Verbs. — Note the use of the Accusative with the 
following special verbs, many of which admit other constructions, 
as the Dative or the Ablative with or without de. Thus ; 

1. With verbs of Feeling or Emotion, of Taste and Smell; as dfispG- 
rSre, to despair, to despair of; dolSre, to grieve, to grieve for; gemere, to 
sigh, to sigh over; horrSre, to shudder, to shudder at; maerSre, to mourn, 
to mourn over; mirSxi, to wonder, to wonder at; ridfire, to laugh, to laugh 
at; sitire, to thirst, to thirst after; olSre, redol6re, to have an odor, to 
have the odor of; eapere, to have taste, to have the taste of: 

Meum casum doluerunt, they mourned over my misfortune; C. Best 69, 
145. Pacem dSsperavI, I despaired of peace; c. Att 7, 20. Detiimenta ridet, 
he laughs at losses; H. E. 2, i, 121. Oration6s redolent6s antiquitatem, ora- 
tions savoring of antiquity ; C. Brut. 21, 82. 

Note. — DolSre takes the Accusative or the Ablative with or without d5 ; 
dSspSrare, the Accusative, the Dative, or the Ablative with d5 ; ol5re and 
redolSre, the Accusative or Ablative : dSUct5 dolSre, to gneve over a fault; 
salutl or dS salute dSspSrSre, to despair of safety; aibi dfiap^rftre, to de- 
spair of oneself; redolSre thymo, to have the odor of thyme. 

2. With a few other verbs ; as durSxe, to grow hard, to make hard ; sup- 
peditibre, to abound, to furnish bountifully ; tacere, to be silent, to pass over 
in silence : 

Ego multa tacui, / have passed over many things in silence; c. C. 4, i, 2. 



ACCUSATIVE 191 

3. Several impersonal verbs admit the Accusative; as decet, it befits; 
dSdecet, it does not befit; iuvat, it pleases; fallit, fugit, praeterit, it 

escapes : 

Orat5rem IrSsci minimg decet, it by no means becomes an orator to be 
angry. Nisi m6 fallit, unless it escapes me, unless I mistake. 

4. Miseret, paenitet, pudet, taedet, and piget take the Accusative and 
Genitive ; see 457. 

Note. — Many verbs which are usually rendered by transitive verbs in 
English are intransitive in Latin, and thus admit only an Indirect Object or 
some special construction ; see 426. 

406. Many Compounds of intransitive verbs with prepositions, 
especially compounds of verbs of motion with circum, per, praeter, 
trans, and super, take the Accusative : 

Mutinam circumsedent, they are besieging Mutina. Murmur cOntiOnem 
pervSsit, a murmur went through the assembly. Pyrgnaeura trSnsgreditur, 
he crosses the Pyrenees. Undam innatat alnus, the boat floats upon the 
stream ; V. G. 2, 451. T5la modo exit, he only avoids the blows ; v. 6, 438. 

407. In poetry, rarely in prose, a few verbs, chiefly those of 
Clothing and Unclothing, — induo, ezu5, oingo, accingo, etc., — are 
sometimes used reflexively in the passive, like the Greek Middle 
Voice, and thus admit an Accusative : 

Galeam induitur, he puts on his helmet ; v. 2, 892. Inutile f errum cingitur, 
he girds on his useless sword; V. 2, 6io. Pueri suspgnsi loculOs lacerto, boys 
with satchels hung upon the arm ; H. s. i, 6, 78. PSscuntur silvSs, they browse 
upon the forests; V. G. 8, 814. Iun5 necdum antiquum saturata dolOrem, Juno 
not yet having appeased her old resentment; v. 5, 608. 

408. Verbal Adjectives and, in Plautus, a few Verbal Nouns 
occur with the Accusative : 

Vitabundus castra hostium, avoiding the camp of the enemy; L. 26, la 
Quid tibi banc cdratiOst rem (cflratiOst = cdratiO est), why do you care for 

this f PI. Amph. 619. 

409. Cognate Accusative. — Even Intransitive verbs admit the 
Accusative of an object of cognate or kindred meaning, generally 
with an adjective or other modifier : 

Ttitam vitam vivere, to lead a secure life ; C. Ver. 2, 47. COnsimilem Itlse- 
rat ille ludum, he had played a similar game; T. Eun. 686. N5m0 servitatem 
servivit, no one lived in servitude ; C Top. 6, 29. 




I 



1. Note the following use of neuter pronoanH and adjectives in a kindred 



Eadem pecuat, ke malcea the same mistakea; c. f. r. f. 19. Idem glOriSri, 
Ifta same boast; C, Ban. lo. Hoc pueri poaaiuit, have the boys this 
poiesT f c. Tiuo. 2, U. 

, Note the following poetical conatruotions'i 
PQgnavlt proelia, he fovght battlea; JJ. 4, 'j. Vdx bomiiiein soiiat, the 
imida humaa; V. 1, 3ss. CoTOiiftrl Olyiiipia, to be crowned lelth Che 
Olympic crown; n. E. i, 1, m. 

Tot-o AcoaaativeB ol tbe Same Persou 
410. Rule. — Verbs of Making, Clioosiiig, Calliug, Regard- 
ing, Showing, and the like, admit Two Accusatives of the 
, Same Persou or Thing ; 

Hainilcarem imperatorein feccrutit, they made Hamilcar commander, 
Anonmregeinpopulttscre&yit, ike people madeAneus king; L. 1,88. 
Summum consilium appellSruot senatuni, they called their highest council a 
le ; of. C. gen. C. Cato Flaccum habuit collegam, Cata had Flaccus as a 
colleague; N. 24, i. 

I. Predicate Accusative. — Oneof theae two Accusatives is the Direct 
Object and the other a Predicate Accusative. In the passive the direct 
object of the active becomes the subject Nominative and the predicate 
Accusative becomes the predicate Nominative : 

Populus Roniauns consulem nie fgcit, the Roman people made me consul. 
CSnsul factus sum, / was made consul. 

. HabSre, to hnve, admits two Accusatives, as in the fourth example 
imder the rule, but when it means to regard, it usuall; takes, instead of the 
edicalB Accusative, the Dative, the Ablative with In or prS, or the Geni- 
e with looS, nomero, or In numerfi ; 



Panpertas probro habSrl coepit. the abaencK of vfeaUh began lo be regarded 
ai a disgrace; ». <'■. n. SesS ilium nOn prfi amIcS, sed hoste liabitHrum, that 
he should regard him, not as a friend, but as an enemy ; Oaes, ], 44. Beductas 
In hostium numerO habuit, he regarded them as enemies, vthen brought back. 

Note. — These constmetions are also nsed with other verbs meaning to 
regard. 

3. The Predicate Accusative is often an adjective ; 

IpsOs caeoCs reddit avaritia, aearict mitkes ll' '••d; of. C. Kohj. A. S5. 



ACCUSATIVE 193 

T'wo Accusatives — Person and Thing 

411. Rule. — Some verbs of Asking, Demanding, Teach- 
ing, and Concealing admit Two Accusatives — one of the 
Person and one of the Thing : 

Me sententiam rogavit, he asked me my opinion ; C. Q. Fr. 2, i. Pacem 
te poscimus, we demand peace from you; V, ii. 362. Philosophia nos res 
omnes dsyamt, philosophy has taught us all things; cf. c. Leg. i, 22. Non te 
celavi sermonem, / did not conceal the conversation from you; O. Fam. 2, 16. 

1. In the passive the Person becomes the subject and the Accusative 
of the Thing is retained : 

Rogatus ego sententiam multa (Hxi, having been asked my opinion I stated 
many things ; C. Att. l, 16. Omn6s militiae art6s Sdoctus f uerat, he had been 
taught all the arts of war ; L. 25, 87. Id c6lari nOn potuit, he could not be 
kept ignorant of this ; N. 7, 5, 2. 

2. Two Accusatives are generally used with cSlo, doceo, Sdoce5 ; often 
with rogo, posco, reposco, and sometimes with dSdoced, ezp5sc5, AS- 
gito ; consulo, interrogo, percontor, etc. 

3. Instead of the Accusative of the Thing verbs of Asking or Questioning 
generally take the Ablative with d§, c616 sometimes takes the Ablative with 
de, and doceo and Sdoceo the Ablative with or without d6, an Infinitive 
or a clause : 

Quem ego interrogem d5 turibulis, whom I may question about the censers, 
M6 de hSc libr5 cglavit, he kept me ignorant of this book. D6 sua r6 mS 
docet, he informs me in regard to his case. Litteris Graecis doctus, instructed 
in Greek literature. SOcratem fidibus docuit, he taught Socrates to play on 
the lyre ; c. Fam. 9, 22. T6 nihil sapere docuit, he taught you to know nothing. 

4. Quaero, to ask, and verbs of Imploring and Demanding generally 
take the Accusative of the Thing and the Ablative of the Person with ft, ab, 
de, 6, or ex. In the passive the thing becomes the subject and the Abla- 
tive of the person is retained : 

Quaerit ex sol5 ea, etc., he asks him in private (from him alone) about 
those things; Caes. i, 18. Pacem a v5bis petimus, we implore peace from you; 
L. 6, 26. Id ab e5 flagitabatur, this was earnestly demanded of him. 

412. The Accusative of a Neuter Pronoun or Adjective occurs 
in connection with a direct object with many verbs which other- 
wise seldom, if ever, take two Accusatives : 

H5c te hortor, / give you this exhortation ; C c. 1, 6. Ea mon6mur, we 
are admonished of these things; cf. c. Am. 24. Numquid aliud m5 vis ? do you 
wish anything else of me f Illud t6 oro, that I ask of you. 

HARK. LAT. ORAM. 14 



194 SYNTAX 

1. In rare instances, 5r5, mone5 and its compounds admit a noun as the 
Accusative of the thing • 

Auxilia r6gem Orabant, they asked auxiliaries of the king ; L. 28, 5. Earn 
rem n5s locus admonuit, the place reminded us of that event; 8. 79, l. 

413. A few compounds of trans^ and in rare instances of circum 

and praeter, admit two Accusatives in the active and one in the 

passive : 

COpias flumen tradtixit, he led his forces across the river; L. 22, 46. Prae- 
tervehor Ostia Pantagiae, / am carried past the mouth of the Pantagias; 

V. 8, 688. 

Accusative and Infinitive 

414. Rule. — Many transitive verbs admit both an Accu- 
sative and an Infinitive : 

Ut doceam RuUum tacere, that I may teach Rullus to he sUent; C Agr. 8, 2. 
Edocuit gentem casiis aperire futiiros, he taught the race to disclose future 
events, Sentimus calere ignem, we perceive that fire is hot. Regem ti:a- 
dunt se abdidisse, they relate that the king concealed himself; L. 1, 81. 

1. In these examples observe that docuit and Sdocult admit two Accu- 
satives and that the Infinitive here simply takes the place of one Accusative ; 
that RuUum and gentem are the objects of the finite verbs ; that ignem, 
in the third example, may be explained either as the object of aentimus or 
as the subject of the Infinitive, calSre, we perceive fire to be hot or that fire 
is hot ; and that the Accusative rSgem in the last example is plainly the 
subject of the Infinitive, abdidisse, that the king concealed himself. These 
examples illustrate the development of the subject of the Infinitive out of 
the direct object of the principal verb. Hence we have the following rule, 

415. Rule. — Subject of Infinitive. — The Infinitive some- 
times takes an Accusative as its subject : 

Platonem ferunt in Italiam venisse, they report that Plato came into Italy, 
c. Tusc. 1, 17, 89. Civitatis sapientissimum Solonem dicunt fuisse, they say 
that Solon was the wisest man of the state. 

Accusative of Specification 

416. Rule. — In poetry, rarely in prose, a verb or an adjec- 
tive may take an Accusative to' Define its Application : 

Niibe umeros amictus, with his shoulders enveloped in a cloud; H. 1, 2, 81. 
MUes fractus membra lab5re, the soldier with limbs i 4 labor 



ACCUSATIVE 195 

(broken as to his limbs) ; H. 8. i, l, 5. Aeneas os deo similis, Aeneas like 
a god in countenance ; V. i, 589. 

1. This Accusative sometimes concurs with the Poetic Accusative after 
passive verbs used reflexively. Thus umeroB above may be explained either 
as an Accusative of Specification or as the object of amictus used reflexively ; 
see 407. 

2. The Accusative is often used in an adverbial sense, developed largely 
from the Accusative of Specification and the Cognate Accusative, as multum, 
plurimum, cStera, reliqua, etc. ; partem, vicem, nihil, aecus, aliquid, 
hoc, illud, id, etc. ; id aet&tis, of that age ; id temporis, at that time : 

Cgtera ignarus populi ROmani, in other respects ignorant of the Boman 
people ; s. 19, 7. Maximam partem lacte vivunt, they live mostly (as to the 
largest part) upon milk ; Caes. 4, i. Id hominibus id aetatis impOnitur, that is 
placed upon men of that age, i.e. of that time in life ; C. Or. i, 47, 207. Locus 
id temporis vacuus, a place at that time vacant; C. Fin. 5, i. 

3. Id genua, omne genus, and the like, apparently in the sense of Giua 
generis, omnis generis, etc., are probably best explained as appositives: 

Aliquid id genus scribere, to write something of this kind (something, viz. 
this kind). 

Accusative of Time and Space 

417. Rule. — Duration of Time and Extent of Space are 
expressed by the Accusative : 

Romulus septem et triginta regnavit annos, Romulus reigned thirty" 
seven years; L. i, 21, 6. Cato annos quinque et octoginta nEtus excessit 
e vita, Cato died at the age of (having been born) eighty-Jive years, Septin- 
genta milia passuum ambulare, to walk seven hundred miles, Aggerem 
altum pedes octoginta exstruxerunt, they erected a mound eighty feet high. 

1. Duration of Time is sometimes expressed by the Accusative with per : 
Per annOs viginti certatum est, the contest was carried on for twenty years. 

2. Duration of Time sometimes so far coincides with time in or within 
which (487) that it is expressed by the Ablative : 

Pugnatum est hOrls quinque, the battle was fought five hours, or in five 

hours; cf. Caes. C. 1, 46. 

3. Distance regarded as Extent of Space is expressed by the Accusative 
as in the third and fourth examples, but regarded as the Measure of Differ- 
ence (479) it is expressed by the Ablative. Moreover, the Ablative of 
Distance sometimes takes &, or ab : 




196 SYNTAX 

Milibus paseuum sex ft Caesaris castrls cOnafidit, ht encamped at the dig- 
(once of six miles /row Caesar's camp; caes.i.is. Ab maibuE paaauum 
duObus castra posuSrunt, they pUeheii their camp two miles off (nt or from 
the distance of two miles) ; CacB. 2, 7, a. 

, In expreHsions of age with mSior or minoi', the Accusative may be 
oHed with natus or tlie Ablative with or without n3tus . 

MSior aniios BexSgintS ciltus, more tAan sixty years old; n. 21. 2, Minor 
qulnque etTiginti annia natus, less than lv>eitts-Jlve years old; N. 2a, 3, Maior 
umlH qiilnqu3gints, nvire than fifty years of age; L. 42, ss. 

Limit of Motion 

418. Rule. — The Place towards which the motion is 

directed as its End or Limit is generally denoted by the 

Accusative with ad or in, but in names of Towns by the 

Accusative alone : ^ 

L«giones ad urbem adducit, he is leading ihe legions to or towards the eity, 

C. Pb. 7, 1. Hanni' ^,1 exercitum in Italiam dilxit, Hannibal led an army 

into Italy. WinA legati Atheiiaa sunt, ambassadors were sent to Athens, 
31. Reditus Romani, a return to Rome. Carthaginem Novam in 

hiberna Hannibal concessit, Hannibal retired into winter quarters at (lit. 

to) New Carthage; L. 21. is. 

1. The last einunple illustrates the fact that when a verb of motion takee 
'o nouus denoting the limit of motion, both nouns must be in tlie Accoaa- 
'e, even when the English idiom requires the use of at or in, in tranalatlng 
.e of them: into leinler quarters at Neie Carthage; Latin idiom, to JVeu 

Carthage into u>inter quarters. 

. Uibs or oppldam, with In, may stand before the name of a town, 

but Jf accompanied by a modifier, it regularly stands, with or without In, 

after such name : 

Pervenit in oppidum Cirtam, he came into the toien Cirta; 8. 102, 8e con- 

tnlit TarquiniCs, in urbem EtrOriae, he betook himself to Tarquinli, a city of 

Elniria; cf. c. k. p. 2, 1», Capuam coloiiia deducetur, urbem amplieaimam, 

a colony will be conducted to Capua, a very spacious city; o. Agr, 2, 29. 

. By a Latin idiom, verba meaning to collect, to come together, e1<!., — 

D5g5, convoco, congirego, oontrahfi, oonvenlS, advenlo, perrenlC, 
G., — are usually treatHd as verbs of Motion and accordingly take the Accusa- 

' Originally the Limit of Motion was nniformly designated by the Aucusatli 
Irithout a preposition. Names of towns have retaliied Ihe original ciinatruction, 
while most otlier names <•! places have assumed a preposili< 



ccusa- 
Lsatlve I 



ACCUSATIVE 197 

tive, with or without a preposition. On the contrary, verbs meaning to place, 
— loco, colloco, pono, atatuo, conatitud, etc., — are usually treated as 
verbs of Rest, and accordingly take the Ablative (483), generally with a 
preposition : 

Omn6s in iinum locum cOpias cOgere, to collect all the forces in one place ; 
Caes. 6, 10. Omnes tinum in locum conveniunt, they all assemble in one place, 
Romam Italia tota convenit, all Italy assembled at Rome. Spem saliitis in 
virtiite pOngbant, they all placed their hope of safety in their valor ; Caes. 6, 84. 

4. In the names of towns the Accusative with ad is used in the sense of 
to, towards, in the direction of into the vicinity of and in contrast with ft, 
or ab: 

Tres viae sunt ad Mutinam, there are three roads to Mutina ; c. Ph. 12, 9. 
Ad Zamam perv6nit, he came into the vicinity of Zama ; s. 57. Ab Di^iO 
ad Sin5p6n navigaverunt, they sailed from Dianium to Sinope; C. Ver. l, 84, 87. 

419. Like names of towns, the following Accusatives are used 
without prepositions : 

1. Regularly domum, domos, rus, and Supines in um : 

Domum reductus est, he was conducted home; c. Am. 8, 12. Alius alium 
domOs suas invitant, they invite each other to their homes ; 8. 66, 8. Domum 
reditiO, a return home; cf. Caes. i, 5. Ego riis ib5, 1 shall go into the country ; 
T. Eun. 216. Ad Caesarem congratulatum convSn6runt, they came to Caesar 
to congratulate him; Caes. i, 80. 

Note. — A possessive, or a Genitive of the possessor, may accompany 
domum and domos, as domuln CaesarlB, to Caesar^ s house; domos 
suSs, to their homes. With other modifiers a preposition is regularly used, 
as in illam domum, into that house. 

2. Sometimes the Accusative of names of Islands and Peninsulas, and 
even of Countries : 

Latona conftigit D6lum, Latona fled to Delos; cf. c. Ver. 1,18. MiltiadCs 
pervenit Chersongsum, Miltiades went to the Chersonesus; N. 1, i. Dicitur 
Aegyptum profiigisse, he is said to have fled to Egypt; c. N. D. 8, 22. 

3. In poetry and late prose, the preposition is often omitted before 
the names of Countries and Nations and sometimes even before com- 
mon nouns : 

Italiam v6nit, he came to Italy ; V. l, 2. N5s Ibimus Afr5s, we shall go to 
the Africans; V. E. i, 65. Lavina v6nit lltora, he came to the Lavinian 
shores; V. i, 2. Ille infitias ibit, he is going to deny it (to a denial of it) ; 

T. Ad. 839. 



198 



SYNTAX 



4. A Poetical Dative occurs for the Accusative : 

It clamor cael5, the shout ascends to Heaven; V. 6, 461. Dam mferret 
deOs Latio, while he was carrying his gods to Latium ; V. l, 6. Facilis d6- 
sc6nsus Avemo, easy is the descent to Avernus; V. 6, 126. 

Note. — See also Dative in Poetry and late Prose, 428. 



Accusative with PrepositionB 

420. Rule. — The Accusative may take a Preposition to 
aid in expressing the exact relation intended : 

Scribam ad te, / shall write to you. Ad te ante lucem veniet, he mil 
come to you before light. Insula contra Brundisium est, the island is oppo- 
site Brundisium. Post me erat Aegina, behind me was Aegina, Insulae 
propter Siciliam, the islands near Sicily. Secundum naturam vivere, to 
live in accordance \oiih nature. 

1. Note the force of the prepositions in the following expressions: ad 
urbexn, to the city; in urbem, into the city ; per urbexn, through the city ; 
post urbem, behind the city ; prope urbem, near the city. 

2. The following prepositions are used with the Accusative alone : 



to 



ad, 

adversus, i 

, > opposite 

adversum, J 



contra, opposite 



ante, 

apud, 

circa, ^ 

circum, J 

circiter, 

cis 

citra 



;is, I 
jitra, J 



before 
near, at 

around 

about 

on this side 



erga, 

extra, 

infra, 

inter, 

intra, 

itixta, 

ob, 

penes, 

per, 



pOne, 


behind 


post. 


behind 


praeter, 


beyond 


prope. 


near 


propter. 


on account of 


secundum. 


next after 


supra. 


above 


trans. 


across 


ultra. 


beyond 



versus. 



towards 



towards 

outside 

below 

among 

inside , 

near 

on account of 

in power of 

through 

3. The following four prepositions are used either with the Accusa- 
tive or with the Ablative : 

in, into^ in subter, beneath^ under, towards 

sub, under super, above, about, beyond 

in and sub with the Accusative after verbs of motion ; subter and super 
generally with the Accusative : 

Hannibal exercitura in Ttaliam duxit, Hannibal led an army into Italy ; 
N. 23, 8. Sub montem succ6dunt, they approached towards the mountain. 
Subter murOs hostium avehitur, he is borne under the xcalls of the enemy. 
Super Numidiam esse, to be beyond Numidia ; s. ifl, 5. 

Note. — For the Ablative with these four prepositions, '^ \ 3. 



ACCUSATIVE 199 

4. Prepositions were originally adverbs (312, 1) and many of them are 
still used as adverbs in classical authors : 

Ad milibus quattuor, about four thousand, LegiO itixta cOnstlterat, the 
legion had taken a stand near by. Props a SiciliS,, not far (near) from 
Sicily. Supra, infra mundos esse, that there are worlds above and below. 

5. Conversely, several words which are generally adverbs, sometimes 
become prepositions and are used with the Accusative: propiua, nearer; 
prozimS, nearest; pridiS, the day before; postridiS, the day after; clam, 
clanculuxn, without the knowledge of; usque, as far as, even to : 

Propius periculura, nearer to danger; L. 21, i, 2. Quam proximg Italiam, 
as near as possible to Italy ; C. Ph. lo, ii. PridiS eum diem, the day before 
that day; o. Att. ii, 23. Postridie ludOs, the day after the games; c. Att. 16. 4. 
Clam patrem, without father's knowledge; t. Hec. 396. Usque pedes, even to 

the feet ; Curt. 8, 9. 

Note. — For the rare use of the Ablative after clam, see 490, 4. 

Accusative in Exclamations 

421. Rule. — The Accusative, either with or without an 
interjection, may be used in Exclamations : 

Heu me miserum. Ah me unhappy^; C. Ph. 7, 4. Me miserum, me miser- 
able^; c. Att. 9, 6. O fallacem spem, deceptive hope. Pro deorum fidem, 
in the name of the gods.^ 

1. An adjective or a Genitive generally accompanies this Accusative, as 
in the examples. 

2. Instead of the Accusative, the Vocative may be used when an Address 
as well as an exclamation is intended : 

Infelix Dido, unhappy Dido. 

3. The Nominative may be used when the exclamation approaches the 
form of a statement : 

En dextra fidgsque, lo the right hand and the plighted faith; V. 4, 597. 
Ecce tuae litterae, lo your letter; c. Att. 13, 16, i. 

4. The Ethical Dative is used in exclamations after ei, vae, ecce, and a 
few other interjections ; see 432 : 

Ei miliT, quid faciam, woe to me, what shall I do? T. Ad. 7S9. 

1 See Milton, Paradise Lost, IV. 73. 

2 Some of the Accusatives found in exclamations are readily explained as the 
object of omitted verbs, while others may be the survival of rude unfinished 
sentences from a primitive age. 



200 SYNTAX 

DATIVE 

422. The Dative is used as follows : 

1. As Indirect Object — General Use; see 484. 

2. With Special Verbs; see 426. 

3. With Certain Compound Verbs ; see 429. 

4. As Possessor ; see 430. 

5. As Apparent Agent; see 481. 

6. As Ethical Dative ; see 482. 

7. As Indirect Object and Predicate ; see 488. 

8. With Adjectives ; see 484. 

9. With Special Nouns and Adverbs ; see 486. 

Indirect Object 

423. The Indirect Object designates the Person To or For 
Whom, or the Thing To or For Which, anything is or is done. 

Dative with Verbs 

424. Rule. — The Indirect Object of an action is put in 
the Dative. It may be used either alone or in connection 
witli the Direct Object : 

Mundiis Deo paret, the world is subject to God, Tibt seris, tib! metes, 
for yourself you sow ^ for yourself you will reap. Ego Caesari supplicabo, 
/ shall supplicate Caesar. Pecuniae serviunt, they are slaves to money. 
Vita vobis data est, life has been granted to you, c. Ph. 14, 12. 

Militibus signum dedit, he gave the signal to the soldiers. Tibf gratias 
aginius, toe give you thanks, Natura hominem conciliat homini, nature 
reconciles man to man. Leges civitatibus suis scripserunt, they wrote laws 
for their states ; C. Leg. 2, 6. 

1. The Indirect Object generally designates a Person, or something Per- 
sonified, as in the examples. 

2. The Dative of the Indirect Object must be distinguished from the 
Accusative, with or without a preposition, denoting the Limit of Motion, 
and from the Ablative with pro, meaning /o?', in defense of^ in behalf of. 
Compare the following examples : 

Patriam nobis reddidistis, you have restored our country to us, MissI 
ICgati AthSnas sunt, envoys were sent to Athens. Convenit dlmicftre prO 
patria, it is seemly to fight for one^s country. 



DATIVE 201 

3. The force of the Dative is often found only by attending to the strict 
literal meaning of the verb ; nubo, to marry (strictly, to veil one^s self, as 
the bride for the bridegroom) ; medeor, to cure (to administer a remedy to) : 

Venus nupsit Vulcano, Venus married Vulcan; c. N. D. 3, 23. 

425. The Dative of the Indirect Object may be 

1. The Dative of Influence, generally designating the Person To 
Whom, sometimes the Thing To Which, something is or is done: 

Civitatibus libertatem reddidit, he restored liberty to the states. 

Here belong most of the examples under the rule. 

2. The Dative of In teres t,^ designating the Person For Whom some- 
thing is done : 

Non nobis s5lum nati sumus, we were not born for ourselves alone. NOn 
solum nobis divites esse volumus, sed liberis, we wish to be rich, not for our- 
selves alone, but for our children ; c. OflF. 3, 15. 

3. The Dative of Purpose or End, designating the Object or End For 
Which something is or is done : 

Receptui cecinit, he gave the signal for a retreat ; cf. L. 34, 39. NOn scholae 
sed vitae discimus, we learn, not for the school, but for life; Sen. Ep. 105. 

4. The Dative of Relation, designating the Person In Relation To 
Whom, or In Reference To Whom, something is or is done : 

Tu illi pater es, you are a father to him ; T. Ad. 126. Tridui iter expeditis 
erat, it was a journey of three days for light-armed soldiers; L. 9, 9. Est 
urbe Ogressis tumulus, there is a mound as you go out of the city (to those 
having [= who have] gone out of the city); V. 2, 712. 

Note. — A Dative is sometimes thus added to the predicate when the 
English idiom would lead us to expect a Genitive depending on a noun : 

Ses6 Caesari ad pedes pr5i6c6runt, they threw themselves at the feet of 
Caesar; Caes. i, 3i. Urbi fundamenta iOci, I laid the foundations of (for) 
the city ; L. l, 12. Mihi horror membra quatit, a shudder shakes my limbs; 

V. 3, 29. 

426. With Special Verbs. — The Dative of the Indirect Object 
is used with many verbs which require special mention. Tims, 

1. With verbs meaning to please or displease, command or obey, serve or 
resist, benefit or injure, favor or oppose, trust or distrust, and the like : 

1 Observe that the Dative of Influence is very closely connected with the verb, 
and is, in fact, essential to the completeness of the sentence ; while the Dative of 
Interest and the Dative of Purpose are merely added to sentences which would be 
complete without them. Thus Divites esse volumus is complete in itself. 



202 SYNTAX 

Ego numqaam mihl placul, / have never pleased myself; 0. Or. 8, 4, 15. CrCL- 
delitSs el displlcebat, cruelty was displeasing to him. Imperat aat servlt 
pectinia cuique, money rules (commands) or serves every one; H. E. l, lo, 47. 
DeO oboediuiit maria, the seas obey God. N5n licet nocgre alterl, it is not 
lawful to injure another. Omn6s nObilitati fav6mus, toe all regard nobility 
with favor, Diffid6bant ServiliO, they were distrusting Servilitis. 

Note 1. — A few verbs of this class take the Accusative : laed5, reg5, etc. 
Note 2. — Here may be mentioned the use of the Dative with iaci5 and 
died accompanied by satiB, bene, or male : 

Miht numquam satis faciO, / never satisfy myself; C. Fam. l, l. DI tibT bene 
faciant, may the gods bless you; T. Ad. 917. Male dlcSbat tibi, lie slandered 

you; C. Deiot. 12,33. 

Note 3. — For fid5 and c5nfid5 with the Ablative, see 476, 8. 

2. With verbs meaning to indulge^ aid, spare, pardon, believe, persuade^ 
flatter, threaten, envy, be angry, and the like : 

Indulgebat sibi, he indulged himself NuUIus pepercit vltae, he spared the 
life of no one. Caesar IgnOvit omnibus, Caesar pardoned all. Mihl cr6de, 
believe me. Facile Nerviis persuadet, he easily persuades the NerviL Huic 
imperiO minitabantur, they were threatening this government. Probus invidet 
ngmini, the upright man envies no one. 

Note. — Some verbs of this class take the Accusative : dSlect5, iuv5, etc. 

3. The Impersonal Passive of verbs which take only an Indirect Object 
in the active retains the Dative : 

N6 mihl noceant, that they may not injure me; C. C. 8, 12. Mihl nihil noc6rI 
potest, no injury can he done to me; c. c. 8, 12. 

4. Some verbs admit either the Accusative or the Dative, but with a 

difference of meaning : 

Hunc to. cav6to, be on your guard against this one; H. 8. i, 4, 85. Foedus 
rggi cavet, the treaty provides for the king ; c. Agr. 2, 22. Deum cOnsuluit, he 
consulted the god. Vobis cOnsulite, consult (take measures) for yourselves. 
Perfidiam timemus, loe fear perfidy. LegiOnibus timfibat, he was fearing for 
his legions. Qiiis me volt, xoho wishes me f T. And. 872. TibI bene volO, I wish 

you well ; T. Ileaut. 950. 

Note. — Cavere aliquem, to ward off some one; cavSre alicul, to care 
for some one; cupere aliquid, to desire something; cupere alicul, to 
wish one icell ; prospicere, providgre aliquid, to foresee; prSspicere, 
etc., alicul, to provide for; temper&re aliquid, to govern, direct; tempe- 
r5re alicul, (of things) to restrain, (of persons) to spare. 



DATIVE 203 

5. With Bcrib5, to write, and mitto, to send, the Person may be denoted 
either by the Dative or by the Accusative with ad, but with nuntiS, to 
announce, the person is generally denoted by the Dative : 

Labi6n5 scribit, he writes to Labienus. Scribara ad te, / shall write to you. 
Ea res hostibus nuntiatur, this fact is announced to the enemy. 

Note. — Dare litterSa alicui generally means to deliver a letter to some 
one, especially to a carrier or messenger, but dare litter&s ad aliquem 
means to address or send a letter to some one : 

Litteras ad t6 numquam habui cui darem, I have never had any one by 
whom to send (lit. to whom I might deliver) a letter to you ; C. Fam. 12, 19. 

6. A few verbs admit the Dative of the Person and the Accusative of the 
Thing, or the Accusative of the Person and the Ablative of the Thing : 

Praedam militibus dOnat, he gives the booty to the soldiers ; Caes. 7, 11. 
Atticus AtheniensSs frumentO dOnavit, Atticus presented the Athenians with 
grain / cf. N. 26, 2. 

7. Interdico takes the Dative of the Person and generally the Ablative 
of the Thing, sometimes with d5, but the Accusative also occurs : 

Omni GalliS. Kdmanis interdixit, he forbade the Bomans all Gaul, 

427. A Dative rendered from or vnth sometimes occurs where 
our idiom would lead us to expect the Ablative, as with verbs of 
Differing, Dissenting, Eepelling, Taking Away, etc., and some- 
times with facio, misceo, etc. 

SibI dissentire, to dissent from himself SibI discrepantSs, disagreeing 
with themselves. Populus nOn adimit el llbertatem, the people do not take 
from him his civil rights; C. Caec. 84, 99. Quid huic homini facias, what are 
you to do with (to) this man f C Caec. 11, 81. . 

428. Dative in Poetry. — In the poets and in the late prose 
writers, the Dative is used much more freely than in classical 
prose. Thus it occurs with more or less frequency with the fol- 
lo\ving classes of verbs : 

1. With verbs denoting Motion or Direction — for the Accusative with 
ad or in : 

MultOs dgmittimus Orc5, we send many down to Orcus ; V. 2, 898. It clamor 
caelo, the shout goes to heaven ; V. 6, 451. 

2. With verbs denoting Separation or Difference — instead of the 
Ablative with ab or d5, or the Accusative with inter: 



206 SYNTAX 

1. Instead of the Dative of the Apparent Agent, the Ablative with & or ab 

is sometimes used : 

Quibus est d, vObis^ cOnsulendum, for whom measures must he taken by you ; 

C. Man. 2. 

2. The Dative of the Apparent Agent is sometimes used vnth the com- 
pound tenses of Passive Verbs : 

Miht consilium captum iam did est, / have a plan long since formed; 

C. Fam. 6, 19. 

3. Habe5 with the Perfect Participle has the same force as est mihl 
with the Participle: 

Pecunias collocfttSs habent, they have moneys invested; c. Man. 7, 18. Equi- 
t&tum co9,ctum hab@bat, he had collected his cavalry or had his cavalry coU 
lected; Caes. i, 15. 

Note. — The Dative vnth the Gerundive, whether alone or in the Peri- 
phrastic Conjugation, designates the person who has the work to do ; while 
with the compound tenses of passive verbs it designates the person who has 
the work already done. 

4. The Real Agent, with passive verbs, in classical prose is denoted by the 
Ablative with & or ab '^ ; see 468. 

6. The Dative is used with the tenses for incomplete action, to designate 
the person who is at once Agent and Indirect Object, the i)erson by whom 
and for (to) whom the action is performed : 

Honesta bonis viris quaeruntur, honorable things are sought by good men; 

C. Oflf. 8, 9. 

6. In the poets, the Dative is often used for the Ablative, v^rith ft or ab, 

to designate simply the agent of the action : 

Neque cernitur uUi, nor is he seen by any one; V. i, 440. NtQla tufir 
rum audita mihl sorOrum, no one of your sisters has been heard by 
me; v. i, 236. Regnata arva SaturnO quondam, lands formerly ruled by 
Saturn ; V. 6, 793. 

1 Here S. vobis is necessary to distingcuish the Agent from the Indirect Object, 
quibus ; but the Ablative with 9» or ab is sometimes used when this necessity 
does uot exist. 

2 The Dative with the Gerundive is best explained as the Dative of Possessor 
or of the Indirect Object. Thus, suum cuique incommodum est means every 
one has his trotihle (cuique, Dative of Possessor) and suum cuique incom- 
modum ferendum est, every one has his trouble to bear. So, too, mihi con- 
silium est, / have a plan; mihi cGnsllium captum est, 1 have a plan 
(already) formed. 



DATIVE 207 

432. The Ethical Dative, denoting the person to whom the 
thought is of special interest, is often introduced into the Latin 
sentence ^ in the form of a personal pronoun : 

At tibi venit ad m6, but lo, he comes to me ; c. Fam. 9, 2. QuO mihl abis, 
whither are you going ^ prayf V. 5, 162. Quid inihl Celsus agit, what is my 
Celsus doing f Quid vObls vultis, what do you wish or mean f Ei mihl, 
quid faciam, woe to me, what shall Idof T. Ad. 789. 

Two Datives 

433. Rule. — Two Datives, the Object To Which and the 
Object or End For Which, are used with a few verbs, either 
alone or in connection with the Direct Object: 

Vobis honori estis, you are an honor (for an honor) to yourselves; 
cf. c. Or. 1, 8, 84. Est mihl magnae curae, it is of (for) gi-eat interest to 
me; c. Fin. 8, 2, 8. Odio sum Romanis, / a/n an object of hatred to the 
Romans; L. 85, 19, 6. Id mihi est cordi, this is pleasing (for my heart) to 
me; C. Am. 4, 16. Venit Atticis auxilio, he came to the assistance of the 
Athenians; N. 8, 8, i. Hoc illi tribuebatur ignaviae, this was imputed to 
him as cowardice; c. Fam. 2, 16, 8. 

Quinque cohortes castris praesidio relmquit, he leaves five cohorts for 
the defense of the camp ; Caes. 7, 60. Pericles agros suos dono rei piiblicae 
dedit, Pericles gave his lands to the republic as a present ; lust. 8, 7. 

1. The Dative of the object or end is a Predicate Dative. Thus in the 
first example the predicate is honori estis ; see Predicate Nominative (898) 
and Predicate Accusative (410, 1). 

2. The verbs which take two Datives are Intransitive verbs signifying to 
be, become, go, and the like : sum, fio, etc., and Transitive verbs signifying 
to give, send, leave, impute, regard, choose, and the like: do, doii5, diLco, 
habe5, mitto, relinquo, tribu5, vert5, etc. The latter take in the active 
two Datives with an Accusative ; but in the passive two Datives only, as the 
direct object of the active becomes the subject of the passive ; see 404, 2. 

3. One of the Datives is often omitted, or its place supplied by a Predicate 
Nominative, or by ad with the Accusative : 

NavSs null5 USUI fu6runt, the ships were of no use ; Caes. 0. 2, 7, 1. Td illl 
pater es, you are a father to him ; T. Ad. 126. 

1 Compare the following from Shakespeare : ' He plucked me ope his doublet 
and offered them his throat to cut ' (Julius Caesar, Act I., Scene II.). * He pres- 
ently steps me a little higher * (Henry IV., Part I., Act IV., Scene Ul.\% 



208 SYNTAX 

4. With audiSna two Datives sometimes occur, dict5 dependent upon 
audiSns, and a personal Dative dependent upon dicto audiSna, and some- 
times dicto oboediSna is used like dicto audiSna : 

Nobis dicto audientfis sunt, they are obedient to us; C. Ver. 6,82. MagistrO 
dicto oboedigns, obedient to his master; pi. Bac. 489. 

Dative with Adjective^ 

434. Rule. — Many adjectives take the Dative as the In- 
direct Object of the quality denoted by them: 

Id militibus fuit iiicundum, tJiis was agreeable to the soldiers. Mihi dif- 
ficile est dicere, it is difficult for me to speak. Atticus amicissimus Briito, 
Atticus most friendly to Brutus. Canis similis lupo, a dog similar to d wolf. 
Proximus sum egomet mihi, 1 am nearest of kin to myself. Locus castris 
idoneus, a place suitable for the camp. Id causae est alienum, this is foreign 
to the case. Universae Graeciae Utile, useful for all Greece. Indtiles sunt 
bello, they are useless for war. 

1. The Indirect Object of an Adjective, like the Indirect Object of a Verb, 
generally answers the question to or for whom ? or to or for what f See ex- 
amples. 

2. Adjectives which take the Dative are chiefly those meaning agreeable^ 
dear, easy, faithful, friendly, like, near, necessary, suitable, useful, together 
with others of a similar or opposite meaning, ^ and with verbals in ilia and 
biUa. 

3. Idem, like adjectives of likeness, admits the Dative : 

NOn idem illis censere, not to think the same as they ; cf. c. Fam. 9, 6. Idem 
facit occidenti, he does the same as he who kills; n. A. p. 467. 

435. Other constructions sometimes occur where the learner 
would expect the Dative : 

1. The Accusative with a Preposition : in, erga, adveraua, with adjec- 
tives signifying /riewcZZy, hostile, etc., and ad, to denote the Object or End 
For Which, with adjectives signifying useful, suitable, inclined, etc. : 

Perindulgens in patrem, very kind to his father ; C. Off. 3, 81. MultSs ad r6s 
perutiles, very uspful for many things; c. Sen. 17. 

1 Such are accommodatus, aequalis, alienus, amicus, inimicus, aptus, carus, 
facilis, diflicilis, fidelis, infidelis, finitimus, gratus, idoneus, iucundus, iniucundus, 
molestus, necessarius, iiotus, ignOtus, noxius, par, dispar, perniciosus, propinquus, 
proprius, salutaris, similis, dissimilis, diversus, vicinus, etc. 



GENITIVE 209 

2. The Accusative with propior, prozimus ^ : 

Propior inontem, nearer the mountain. Proximus mare, nearest the sea, 

3. The Ablative with or without a Preposition : 

Humani nil S. m6 aUgnum putO, / consider nothing human foreign to me ; 
T. Heaut. 77. Homlne ahenissimum, most foreign to or from man; 0. OflF. i, is. 

4. The Genitive with adjectives meaning like, unlike, belonging to, char- 
acteristic of and a few others ^ : 

Cyri simiUs esse voluit, he wished to be like Cyrus; C Brut. 81. Populi 
ROmani est propria libertas, liberty is characteristic of the Boman people; 

C. Ph. 6, 7, 19. 

Note. — With Bimilia Plautus and Terence use only the Genitive ; Ovid, 
Horace, and Vergil generally the Dative ; Cicero generally the Dative of 
persons and either the Genitive or Dative of things. 

Dative with Nouns and Adverbs 

436. Rule. — The Dative is used with a few special nouns 
and adverbs derived from primitives which take the Dative : 

lustitia est obtemperatio legibus, justice is obedience to the laws; 
c. Leg. 1, 15. Opulento homini servitiis diira est, serving a rich man is 
hard; Pi. Amph. 166. Congruenter naturae vivere, to live in accord with 
nature; c. Fin. 8, 7. Proxime hostium castris, nearest to the camp of the 
enemy; Caes. C. 1, 72. 

1. The Dative occurs with a few nouns and adverbs not thus derived : 

Tribunlcia potestas, mtimmentum Ubertati, tribunician power, a defense 
for liberty ; cf. L. 8, 87. 

2. For the Dative of Gerundives with Official Names, see 627, 2. 

GENITIVE 

437. The Genitive in its ordinary use corresponds to the Eng- 
lish possessive, or the objective with of, and expresses various 
adjective relations. Indeed, many Genitives and adjectives are 
so entirely synonymous that they are often used the one for the 
other. Thus belli ius and bellicum ius, the right of war, are often 
equivalent expressions. 

1 Like the Accusative after propius and proximS ; see 420, 5. 
3 As similis, dissimilis, assimilis, consimilis, par, dispar; adflnis; proprius, 
sacer-, contrariiis, insuetus, superstes, etc. 

HARK. LAT. GRAM. — 16 



212 SYNTAX 

Vir magnae auctOritatis, a man of great influence, Mitis ingenil iavenis, 
a youth of mild disposition. Vestis magnl pretii, a garment of great value. 
CorOna parvi ponderis, a crown of small weight. Exsilium decern annOrum, 
an exile of ten years. 

Note 1. — For the Predicate Genitive of Price, see 448. 
Note 2. — For the Ablative of Characteristic, see 478, 2. 

4. A Defining or Appositional Genitive, having the general force of 
an appositive (393) : 

Virtus continentiae, the virtue of self-control. Tellus Ausoniae, the latid 
of Ausonia. NOmen carendi, the word want (of wanting) ; C. Tusc. l, 86. VOx 
voluptatis, the word pleasure ; c. Fin. 2, 2, 6. 

6. A Partitive Genitive, designating the whole of which a part is taken : 

Pars fluminis Rhfinl, a part of the river Bhine. Quis vestrum, which of 
you f Omnium sapientissimus, the wisest of all men. Nihil honl, nihil mall, 
nothing (pi) good, nothing bad; C. Am. 4. 

Note. — The Partitive Genitive, though generally a noun or pronoun, may 
be an adjective used substantively in the Genitive singular of the Second 
Declension, as boni, mall. Adjectives of the Third Declension, on the con- 
trary, regularly agree with the partitive word, but in rare instances they are 
attracted into the Genitive by another Partitive Genitive : 

Quicquam, n5n dicO civllis, sed htimanl, anything, I do not say civile but 
human ; L. 5. 8. 

441. The Partitive Genitive is common with nouns and pro- 
nouns used partitively : 

Maxima pars hominum, most men (the largest part of). MagnO cum pon- 
dere auri, with a large quantity of gold. Montgs auri pollicens, promising 
mountains of gold. Unus quisque nostrum, every one o/ us. Consulum 
alter, one of the consuls. Aliquid cOnsilii, any wisdom ^'i^-ny thing of wisdom). 
Id temporis, that (of) time. 

442. The Partitive Genitive is also common with numerals ^ and 
adjectives used substantively, especially with comparatives and 
superlatives : 

Mille misit militum, he sent a thousand soldiers» Quattuor milia equitum, 
four thousand (of) cavalry. Horum omnium fortissimi, the bravest of all 
these. Prior hSrum in proeliS cecidit, the former of these fell in battle; 
N. 21, 1, 2. Aetatis extremum, the end of life; 8. 90, i. 

I For th© construction of tlnus, see 444, 1. 



GENITIVE 213 

1. Pronouns and Adjectives, except neuters, when used with the Partitive 
Genitive usually take the gender of the Genitive, but Predicate Superlatives, 
when thus used, generally agree with the subject : 

Quis eSrum n5n ggregius, who of them is not eminent f Sapientum 
octavus, the eighth of the loise men ; h. s. 2, 3, 296. Indus est omnium flumi- 
nuin maximus, the Indus is the largest of all rivers; C. N. D. 2, 62. 

Here observe that quis and octa.vuB take the gender of the Genitive, but 
that the superlative xntzimus agrees with the subject. 

2. In the best prose, words meaning the whole do not admit the Partitive 
Genitive, but poets and late writers disregard the rule : 

Omngs omnium 5rdinum homines, all men of all ranks. Cuncta terranim, 
all lands; H. 2, i, 28. Macedonum omnes, all the Macedonians; cf. L. 81, 45, T. 

Observe that in the first example, the adjectives are used regularly in 
agreement with their nouns, while in the last two they are used substan- 
tively and take the Partitive Genitive, though the partitive idea has entirely 
disappeared and the construction is partitive only in form. 

3. In the best prose the Partitive Genitive is rarely used after any adjec- 
tives except comparatives and superlatives, but in the poets and late writers 
the use of this Genitive is greatly extended : 

Sancte deOrum, tho\i holy god; v. 4, 676. Di6rum ffistOs, festal days; 
H. s. 2, 2, 60. Strata viarum = stratae viae, the paved streets; V. i, 422. Ad 
multum diei, till late in the day ; Liv. 22, 45. 

4. With Nouns, quisque, each^ every^ and uterque, each, both, generally 
agree as adjectives, but with Pronouns they are generally used substantively 
and take the Partitive Genitive, though in the case of uterque, agreement is 
not uncommon : 

Quisque imperator, every commander. Uterque exercitus, each army. Quis- 
que eOrum de quaque r6, each one of them in regard to every thing ; Caes. 4, 6. 
Utrlque nostrum gratum, acceptable to each of us ; C Am, 4, 16. His uti^sque 
persuaserant, they had persuaded both of these ; Caes. 2, 16. 

5. The Neuter of Pronouns and Adjectives with the Partitive Genitive is 
sometimes used of Persons : 

Quicquid erat patrum, whatever (of) senators there were ; L. 2, 85. De5ruin 
quicquid regit terras, whatever gods rule the world; li. Ep. 5, i. Quid hue 
tantum hominum inc6dunt, why are so many men (so much of men) coming 
this way ? Pi. Poen. 619. 

443. The Partitive Genitive is also used with a few Adverbs, 
especially with Adverbs of Quantity, Degree, and Place : 



214 SYNTAX 

Satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum, enough of eloquence^ of wisdom too 
little; s. c. 5, 4. Lucis habent nimis, they have too much light; o. F. 6, 115. 
M^ime omnium nObilium Graecis litteris studuit, of all the nobles he most 
devoted himself to Greek letters; c. Brut. 20, 78. Ubinam gentium sumus, 
where in the world are we f c. C. i, 4, 9. 

444. Instead of the Partitive Genitive, the Accusative with 
ante, inter, or apud, or the Ablative with ez, de, or in, is often 
used, especially when the Whole is denoted by a cardinal number, 
or by a noun in the singular : 

Thales sapientissimus in septem f uit, Tholes was the wisest of the seven ; 
c. Leg. 2, II, 26. Quis ex tant^ multitudine, who of so great a multitude f 
Ante alios pulcherrimus omn6s, most beautiful of all (before all others). 
Apud HelvetiOs ditissimus, the richest among the Helvetii, 



1. In the best prose, unus is generally followed by the Ablative with 
or dS, but sometimes by the Partitive Genitive : unus ez BnmmiB virfs, 
one of the greatest of heroes; unus dS xnulUs, one of the multitude; unus 
eorum pontdum, one of those bridges, 

Gkenitive in Special ConatnictionB 

445. The word upon which the Attributive Genitive depends is 
often omitted : 

1. Especially when it has been expressed with a preceding Genitive. 
Then the second Genitive is sometimes attracted into the case appropriate 
for the governing word : 

Conferre vitam TrebSnl cum Dolabellae, to compare the life of Trehonius 
with that of Dolahella; c. Ph. 1 1,4, 9. Natura hominis b6luls antecedit, the 
nature of man surpasses (that of) the brutes ; cf. c. Oflf. i, 30. 

2. When it can be readily supplied, especially aedSs, or templum 
after a preposition, as ad, ante, S, or ab : 

Habitabat rex ad lovis, the king resided near the temple of Jupiter; 
L. 1, 41. Hannibal annOrum novem, Hannibal^ (a boy) nine years of age ; 
L. 21, 1. Aberant bldui (viam), they were tioo days'' journey distant ; c. Att. 6. 16. 

446. Observe also the following constructions : 

1. The Genitive of a Proper Name seems to depend directly on an- 
other proper noun in many cases in which we supply the word son^ 
daughter^ husband, icife^ or slave: 



GENITIVE 215 

Hasdrubal Gisconis, Gisco^s HasdriihaJ, i.e., Hasdruhal, Gisco^s son; 
L. 28, 12. Hectoris Andromache, Hector'' s Andromache^ i.e., Hector'* 8 wife; 
V. 8, 819. Huius video Byrriam, / see his Byrria, i.e., his slave Byrria; 

T. And. 357. 

2. Two Genitives are sometimes used with the same noun, one sub- 
jective, the other objective or descriptive. To these a third Genitive ia 
occasionally added : 

Helvetiorum iniuriae popull Romani, the wrongs done by the Helvetii to the 
Boman people ; cf. Caes. i, 30. Memmi odium potentiae nObilitatis, Memmius^s 
hatred of the power of the nobility ; cf. s. 80. 

3. A Genitive sometimes accompanies a Possessive, especially the 
Genitive of ipse, solus, unus, or omnis : 

Ad tuam ipsms amicitiam, to your own friendship ; c. Ver. 8, 4, 7. MeS. 
tinlus opera, by my aid alone ; c. Pis. 3, 6. Tuum studium adul^scentis, your 
devotion as a young man ; c. Fam. 15, 18. 

4. The Genitive is used with instar meaning likeness, image, but 
generally used in the sense of, as large as, of the size of, equal to : 

instar montis equum aedificant, they construct a horse of the size of a 
mountain; V. 2, 15. PlatO instar est omnium, Plato is worth them all; 

C. Brut. 51, 191. 

5. The Genitive is used with prIdiS, postridiS, ergo, and tenua, 
nouns in origin, and as such governing the Genitive; pridiS and postri- 
diS are Locatives : 

Pridie eiiis diel, on the day before that day ; Caes. i, 47. PostridiS 6ius di6i, 
071 the day after that day. Virtutis ergo, on the ground of merit, Urbium 
Corcyrae tenus, as far as the cities of Corcyra ; L. 26, 24. 

Predicate Genitive 

447. The Predicate Genitive is generally Subjective or De- 
scriptive, rarely Partitive. When used with transitive verbs, it 
is of course combined with the Direct Object. It is most common 
with sum and facio, but it also occurs with verbs of Seeming, 
Regarding, Valuing, etc. : 

Est imperatoris superare, to conquer is the business of a commander; 
Caes. c 1, 72. Oram Romanae diciOnis f6cit, he brought the coast under 
(made the coast of) Boman rule; L. 21, 60. Fi6s nobilium fontium, you 
will become (one) of the noble fountains; H. 8, 18, 



Iil6 SYNTAX 

1. Aeqoi, boni, and reliqul occur as Predicate Genitives in such expres- 
sions as aequi feicere, aequi bonique facere, bonX c5n8iilere, to take in 
good part J and reliqui feicere, to leave : 

Aequi bonique faci5, / take it in good part; T. Heaat 788. MllitSs nihil 
reliqui victis fecere, the soldiers left nothing to the vanquished; 8. 0. 11. 

2. For the general use of the Predicate Genitive, see also 439. 

Predicate Gtenitive of Price and Value 

448. The Predicate Genitive of Price and Value is used with 
sum and with verbs of Valuing; especially with aestimo, fado, 
and puto : 

Par\i pretii est, he is of small value, Magni emnt mihl tuae litterae, your 
letters icill be of great value to me. Patrem tuum pliiriml fCci, / prized your 
father most highly (made of the greatest value); c. Att. 16, 16, D. £a mSgnl 
aesthnantur, those things are highly valued. Hon0r6s mSgni putftre, to deem 
honors of great value. Non flocci faciunt, they care not a straw (lock of 
wool); PI. Trin. 211. N5n habeO nauci Marsum, / do not regard Marsus of the 
least account; c. Div. i, 58. Huius nOn faciam, / shall not care that (a snap) 
for it; T. Add. 163. 

1. The Genitive of Price or Value is generally an adjective, as mS-gni, 
parvi, tanti, quanta ; pluris, minoris ; mSzimi, plurimi, minimi, but 
pretii is sometimes expressed as in the first example. Nihill and a few 
other Genitives occur, chiefly in familiar discourse. 

2. With aestimd the price and value are denoted either by the Genitive 
or by the Ablative ; 

Si prata magn5 aestimant ; quanti est aestimanda virtus, if they value 
meadows at a high price, at what price ought virtue to he valued? C. Parad. 

6, 3, 51. 

8. In expressions of price and value, pendo, common in early Latin, is 
exceedingly rare in the classical period : 

Quae parvl pendunt, which they regard of little value; T. Hec. 518. Ea v5s 
parvi pendebatis,! those things you deemed of little importance; 8. C. 52, 9. 

4. Tanti, quanti, pluris, and minoris are used as Genitives of Price 
even witli verbs of Buying and Selling, though with these verbs price is 
generally expressed by the Ablative : 

Canius emit tanti (luantT Pythius voluit, Oanius purchased them (the gar- 
dens) at as hifjh a price as Pythius loished; cf. C. Off. 3, u, 59, VendO meum 
nOn pluris, quam ceteri, fortasse minOris, / sell mine (my grain) wo higher 



1 An illustration of Sallust's fondness for archaic constructions. 



GENITIVE 217 

than the others^ perhaps lower, Quanti emptae, purchased at what price f 
Parv5, at a low price; H. s. 2, 8, 156. Vgndidit hie aurO patriam, he sold his 
country for gold; V. 6. 621. 

5. For the Ablative of Price, see 478. 

Predicate Genitive TTvith RSfert and Interest 

449. The Construction of refert and interest is as follows : 

1. The Person or Thing ^ interested is denoted by the Genitive, but 
instead of the Genitive of a personal or reflexive pronoun, the Ablative 
feminine of the Possessive is regularly used : 

Neque refert cuiusquam, nor does it concern any one; Tac. An. 4, 88. Quid 
MilOnis intererat, how was it the interest of Milo ? c. Mil, 18, 84. Interest 
omnium, it is the interest of all. Salutis communis interest, it concerns the 
public welfare. Tua et me§, interest, it is your interest and mine ; C. Fam. 16, 4, 4. 

Note. — In a few cases the person is denoted by the Dative or by the 
Accusative with ad ; chiefly with rSfert, which often omits the person : 

Die quid rgferat intra, naturae finSs viventi, tell what difference it makes to 
one living in accord with nature; H. 8. i, 1,49. Quid id ad m6 refert, how 
does that concern me f Pi. Pers. 4, 3, 44. 

2. The Subject of Importance, or that which involves the interest, is 
expressed by an Infinitive, or clause, or by a neuter pronoun: 

Interest omnium rectg facere, to do right is the interest of all ; c. Fin. 2, 
22, T2. N5n refert quam mult5s libros habeas, it matters not how many hooks 
you have ; Qf. Sen, E. 5, 4. Quid tua id rCfert, how does that concern you f 

3. The Degree of Interest is expressed by an adverb, an adverbial 
Accusative, or a Genitive of Value : 

Vestra h5c maxime interest, this especially interests you; C. Sul. 26, 79. 
Theod5rI nihil interest, it does not all interest Theodorus. lUud mea mSgni 
interest, that grea\ly interests me; C. Att. ii, 22. 

4. The Object or End for which it is important is expressed by the 
Accusative with ad, rarely by the Dative : 

Magni ad honorem nostrum interest, for our honor it is of great im- 
portance ; c. Fam. 16, i, i. 

Note. — The most plausible explanation hitherto given of this construction 
is that the Genitive with rSfert depends upon rS, the Ablative of rSs contained 
in the verb, that the Possessive, meS, tuS, etc., agrees with the Ablative rS, 
and that interest, a later word, simply follows the anah^gy of rSfert. 



1 A thing is rarely so 'ised uuless personified. 



Oenitive with AdjectlveH 




r 

^H 450. Rule. — Many adjectives take an Objective Genitive 
^B to complete their meaning : 

I' 
■ " 



Avidi laudis fuiBtiB, you have been very desirous o/ praise. Cupidua ea 
glBiiae, yoii are fond of glory. Piudcus lei militaria erat, he mas skitlert in 
ililari/ science; H. 9, i, 2. Habetia ducein iiieinorem vestri, oblitum sui, 
you Sail* o leader mindful of you, forgetfid of hitmelf; C. C. 1, B, 19. Plena 
GraeciB: poetarurn f uit, Greece was full of poets. Gallia homiaum fertilia 
fuit, Gavl leas fntilful in men. Homo amantissimus pa,tria«, a man verg 
fond of his cauntry. luventSs belli patieiis, youth capaUe of enduring the 
hardships of mar; 8. C. 7. 

Thia Genitive correaponds to tlie Objective Genitive with novins. Com- 
pare tlie foUowiug ; cuplduB gloilae, destrotis of glory ; propter gISriae 
«npldltfitem, 011 account of the desire of glory. 

2. For tbe Genitive wiLli dignus and IndlgnuH, see ISl, 1. 

4fil. Thia Objective Genitive is used, 

I. With Adjectives denoting Desire, Knowledge, Skill, Recollection, 

and the like, with their contraries ; saplentiae studiSsua. studiiiwi (atu- 

L dent) ofmsdom; poritUB belli, skilled in irar ; conscius oonlfirStionia, 

cognizant of the conspiracy ; InauStus navigaadi, viiacqiiiiinled with nm'i- 

\ gatioa: 

Qais eat onmiom tam IgnSma rSrum, who ia so ignorant 0/ all things f 
Omnea immemorem beneflcil OdSrunt, all hate him xeho is wimin^l of a 
faeor; c. oir. a, is, 63, 

.. — CertUB witli tbe Genitive in tlie beat prose occurs only in the 
phraae certiCrem facere, to inform^ whicli lakes either llie Genitive or the 
Ablative with. dS, though Caesar admits only the latter ponatructton ! 

CerllOrem rafi aul cOnsilil fecit, he informed me of his plan ; C. AM. J, i, 8, 
Uia de lEbns certior iactua, having been iiifoj-med of these things. 

. With Adjectives denoting Participation, Characteristic, Guilt, FuU- 
I, Mastery, etc., with their contraries: ratiSnla pBrticepa. endoined 
with (sharing) reason: rattSnis expers, deslilule of reason; manifeBttu 
1 rBrum oapitfilium, coni'ifled of cnpilal crimes: 

Grat Italia plena GmecHrum artiuui, Ital;/ was full of Oreeian arts; 
' C. Arch. «. 6. Viri propria est fortitOdO, fortitJide is characteristic of a true 
I man. Mel poiena aum, 1 am master of myself. Omnea virtfitia compotfi» 
I beaaaunt, all (who kk) pouesatd of virtue are. happy: v Tq» 



GENITIVE 219 

Note 1. — A feAV adjectives, as similiB, dissimilia ; aliSnua, communia ; 
contrariuB and auperatea admit either the Genitive or the Dative; see 435, 4 ; 

Canis similis lupo, a dog similar to a wolf; C. N. D. i, 85, 97. Cyri similis 
esse voluit, he wished to he like Cyrus; C. Brut. 81, 282. 

Note 2. — Conaciua may take an Objective Genitive in connection with 
the Dative of a personal or reflexive pronoun : 

M6ns sibi cSnscia rgcti, a mind conscious (to itself) of rectitude. 

3. With Present Participles used as Adjectives: 

Est amans sui virtus, virtue is fond of itself; C. Am. 26, 98. Vir amantissi- 
mus rei publicae, a man very fond of the republic, Virtiis efficiSns est 
voluptatis, virtue is productive of pleasure ; cf. c. Off, 3, 83. AppetentCs glCriae 
fuistis, you have been desirous of glory. 

Note. — Observe the difference in meaning between a participle with an 
objective Genitive and the same participle with a direct object. AmSna 
patriae, fond of his country, represents the affection as permanent and 
constant ; whereas the participial construction, sunSna patrisun, loving his 
country, designates a particular instance or act. 

452. In poetry and in late prose, especially , in Tacitus, the 
Genitive is used : 

1. With Verbals in az and with Adjectives of almost every variety of 
meaning, simply to define their application : 

Fugax ambiti5nis eram, / was inclined to shun ambition ; o. Tr. 4, lo. 
Tenax propositi, steadfast of purpose ; ii. 3, 3. Aevi matiirus, mature in age ; 
V. 5, 73. S6ri studiOrum, late in studies; H. s. i, lo. Aeger animi,^ afflicted in 
spirit; l. i, 58. Fidens animi, confident in spirit; V. 2, 61. 

2. With a few Adjectives to denote Separation, or Cause, like the 

Ablative : 

Liber lab5nmi, released from his labors ; H. A. P. 212. Integer vltae scele- 
risque purus, of upright life and innocent of crime; H. i, 22. NOtus animI 
paterni, distinguished for paternal affection; H. 2, 2. 

453. Adjectives which usually take the Genitive sometimes 
admit other constructions. Compare the following examples: 

1. Genitive, or Accusative with ad or in : 

Avidi laudis fuistis, you have been very desirous of praise; C. Man. 8, 7. 
AvidI ad pugnam, eager for battle ; L. T, 23. Avidus in novas r6s, eager for 
new things ; cf. L. 22, 2i. 

1 Probably a Locative in origin, as animis, not ajiimdrum, is used in similar 
instances in the plural. 




SYNTAX 



2. With Terbs of Accusing, etc., the Genitive with nfimlne, otlmln*, 
I ladioiS, or some similar word is sometimes used. Thia maj' be the 
I origiiiiil cotiBtriictioii, tind if so, it is a sufficient explanation of tlie Geni- 
^ tive with these verbs.' Compare the following examples : 

NS queni innocoittem l&diclO capitis arcess&s, that t/ou should not arrnign 
Ian innocent man on a capital charge; c. iiir. i, u, gi. Iniuiicum frStrie capitis 
B^rces^t, he arraigned fiia brother^x en&ny on a capital charye; Ad Her. i. ii, is. 

Note. — Latin verbs of Accusing, nlien they mean simply to find fault 
B With, to complain of, talcs the AccusaCiTe of the crime, or fault, as in English - 

Inertiam acotMs sdaKeceaiiaai, you complain of Che ivdoleuce of Che goung 



_ J. ' With Terbs of Couderaning, the Penalty is genendJy expressed by 
■ ^Mie Ablative, with or without de, or by the Accusative with a pi'eposi- 
[* tioti, usually ad. The Ablative is regularly used when the penalty is a 
[ fine of a definite sum of money: 

Pectlnia mnltatus est, he was eondemned to pay a fine in money ; N. i, t. ». 
Si ilium morte multAssem, if I had eondenined him to death. TertlS parte 
agri damntlU, condemned to forfeit a third of their land. Multo» ad bSstias 
condemnlvit, he condemned many to the wild beasts; Suet, Cal. !7. 

4. Notice the following special expressions : d6 maleatate or mBlestStla 
damuare, to condemn for high Creamii ; dS vi damnSre. to condemn for 
assault; dfi pecOnlTa repetundiH poBtul3re, to proti'cute for extortion; 
Inter ^cSiiSa damnare, to convict of homicidi'. ; vCtI damnStua, < 
d&nned Co fulfill a vow = havhig obtaiued a wish ; ad metalla coudem 
I tiu, condemned Co Che mine». 



OenltiTe with Verbe ol Feeling 

457. Rule. — Miaereor iiiitl miaerSscS take the Objective 
f Genitive ; mlaeret, paenltet, piget, pudet, auiT taedet take the 
Accusative of the Person and the Genitive^ of the Object 
which produces the feeling : 

1 Observe, however, that the use of tbe Genitive with ibew verbs in Latin av- 

I eords entirel; witb the Eugliah idiom : as. he uiof accused uftreasvn, 

I ^ The Genitive with some of these verbs of feellag duubilcss follows the au- 

! alogy of olber coDstractions. In which Iha Genitive depeni!9 ou a noun or ad]w- 

tive, expressed or underatood, hoc with others It aeems tu ilepemt dlrei'lly on the 

anbatantive idea suggested by llie vi>rl)s Ibtinselves. Tints taedet rcaijily sii^- 

Kesls its exact oquivuh-ut taedlum oapit. Indeed, Seneca's taedium eum 

Titae paptt, in which vltae dejiends apou taedium, is equivaiuoi to eum vitae 



GENITIVE 223 

Miseremini sociorum, have pity on our allies; C. Ver. l, 28, 72. Arcadii 
miserescite regis, pity the Arcadian king; V. 8, 573. Eorum nos miseret, 
we pity them (pity for, or of them moves us); C. Mil. 84, 92. Nostri nosmet 
paenitet, we are dissatisfied tvith ourselves, T. Ph. 172. Fratris me piget, 
/ am grieved at my brother. Me stultitiae meae pudet, / am ashamed of 
my folly. Me civitatis inorum taedet, / am tired of the manners of the state, 

1. Miserescd belongs to poetry. 

2. Miseror and commiseror, I pity ^ deplore, take the Accusative in the 
best prose : 

Miserantur communem Galliae fortunam, they deplore the common fortune 

of Gaul ; c&ea. 7, 1, 5. 

8. The impersonal verbs miseret, paenitet, etc., sometimes admit an im- 
personal subject, as an Infinitive or clause, rarely a neuter pronoun or nihil : 

Neque m6 vixisse paenitet, nor am I sorry to have lived; C. Sen. 28, 84. 
Non te haec pudent, do not these things put you to shame f T. Ad. 754. 

4. Pudet sometimes takes the Genitive of the person in whose presence 
one has a feeling of shame or unwortliiness : 

Me tui pudet, lam ashamed in your presence ; T. Ad. 688. 

5. Like miseret are sometimes used miserSscit, oonmiiBerSscit, and 
miserStur; like taedet, pertaesum est and, in early Latin, distaedet 
and a few other rare words. In Suetonius pertaesus occurs with the 

Accusative. 

Genitive with Special Verbs 

458. In certain Special Constructions, largely colloquial, or 
poetical in their origin/ many verbs by analogy occasionally ad- 
mit the Genitive, or if transitive, the Accusative and Genitive : 

1. Some verbs denoting Desire, Emotion, or Feeling, like adjectives 
and verbs of the same general meaning and construction : 

Cupiunt tul, they desire you ; Pi. Mil. 968. N6 tul quidem testimOnii Veri- 
tas, regarding not even your testimony ; C. Att. 8, 4. Ego animi^ pendeO, 
/ am uncertain in mind; cf. C. Leg. l, 8. Discrucior animl,^ / am troubled in 
spirit. Desipigbam mentis, / was out of my senses, 

2. Some Verbs of Plenty and Want, as compleS, impleS, ege5, 
indiged, like adjectives of the same general meaning (461, 2): 

1 Greek influence may also be recognized in some of them. 

2 Animi in such instances is probably a Locative in origin, as anlznls, not 
animdrum, is used in the same way in the plural. 



224 SYNTAX 

VirtQs exercitatiOnis indiget, virtue requires exercise; cf. C. Fin. 8, 16 
Ege5 cOnsilii, / need counsel; c. Att. 7, 22. M6 compl6vit formidinis, he hcts 
filled me xoith fear; Pi. Men. 90i. 

3. Some verbs denoting Mastery or Participation, — potior, adipl- 
Bcor, rSgno, — like adjectives of similar meaning (461, 2) : 

Partis Siciliae potitus est, he became master of a part of Sicily ; N. lo, 5. 
Rggnavit populOrum, he was king of the peoples ; H. 8, 8o. 

4. In the poets, a few verbs which usually take the Ablative of 
Separation or Cause admit the Genitive : 

M6 laborum levas, you relieve me of my labors; Pi. Rod. 247. AbstinetO 
Irarum, abstain from quarrels; ii. 8, 27, 69. D^sine querellarum, desist • 
from your lamentations. Mirari belli labOrum, to wonder at warlike 
achievements. Damni infecti prOmittere, to become responsible for pos- 
sible damage; cf. c. Top. 4, 22. 

Note. — The Genitive in Exclamations, in imitation of the Greek, occurs 
in three or four isolated examples in the Latin poets, but it is not found in 
Terence, Vergil, or Horace : 

O mihl nuntii beati, the glad tidings to me ; Catul. 9, 6. 



ABLATIVE 

459. The Latin Ablative performs the duties of three cases 
originally distinct: 

I. Ablative Proper, denoting the relation From : 
II. Instrumental, denoting the relation With, By : 
III. Locative, denoting the relation In, At. 

Note. — This threefold nature of the Latin Ablative gives us a basis for 
a general classification, at once scientific and practical, although in the course 
of the development of the language so many new applications of these origi- 
nal elements were made that it is sometimes impossible to determine with 
certainty to which of them a given construction owes its origin. 

I. Ablative Proper 

460. — The Ablative Proper includes : 

1. Ablative of Separation; see 461. 

2. Ablative of Source, including Agency, Parentage, etc. ; see 467. 

3. Ablative of Comparison ; see 471. 



ABLATIVE 225 

Ablative of Separation 

461. Rule. — The Ablative of Separation is generally used 
with a preposition — a, ab, dS, or ex — when it represents a 
person or is used with a verb compounded with ab, dS, dis, 
sS, or ex : 

Legiones abducis a Bfuto, you alienate the legions from Brutus ; C. Ph. 
10, 3, 6. Caedem a vobis depellebam, / was warding off slaughter from you, 
Plebs a patribus secessit, the common people seceded from the patricians. 
De foro discessimus, we withdrew from the forum. Caesar copias suas e 
castris eduxit, Caesar led his forces out of the camp; Caes. i, 50. Ex oppido 
fugit, he fled out of the town, 

462. Rule. — The Ablative of Separation is generally used 

without a preposition when it is the name of a town or is 

used after a verb meaning to relieve^ free^ deprive^ needy be 

without^ etc. : 

Demaratus fugit Corintho, Demaratus fled from Corinth ; C. Tusc. 6, 87. 
Roma acceperam litteras, / had received a letter from Rome, Qui Narbone 
reditus, what a return from Narho ! C. Ph. 2, so, 76. Leva me hoc onere^ 
relieve me from this burden; C. Fam. 8, 12, 8. Magno mp metu liberabis, 
you will free me from great fear, Murus defensoribus imdatus est, the 
wall was stripped of its defenders; Caes. 2, 6. Non egea medicina, / dp 
not need a remedy, Vacare culpa magnum est solacium, to be free from 
fault is a great comfort; C. Fam. 7, 8, 4. 

1. With the Ablative of Separation, the preposition is more freely used 
when the separation is local and literal than when it is figurative : d6 lord, 
from the forum; ex oppido, out of the town; but met A liber&re, to free 
from fear ; vac&re culpa, to he free from fault, 

2. The preposition is sometimes used with names of towns, especially for 
emphasis or contrast, regularly after longS : 

Longg ab Ath6nis esse, to be far from Athens; Pi. Pers. 161. 

3. The preposition is generally used when the vicinity, rather than the 
town itself, is meant : 

Discessit a BrundisiO, he departed from Brundisium (i.e. from the port); 

Caes. C. 3, 24. 

4. Many Names of Islands and the Ablatives domo, humo, and riire, 

are used like names of towns : 

HARK. LAT. GRAM. — 16 



226 SYNTAX 

L^mnO adveniO AthgnSs, from Lemnos I come to Athens; PI. True. 91. Cum 
dom5 prof iigisset, when he had fled from home ; C Brut. 89, 806. Video rure 
redeuntem senem, I see the old man returning from the country, Vix oculOs 
attx)llit humO, she hardly raises her eyes from the ground. 

Ablative of Separation with Special Verbs 

463. With moveo, cedo^ and pello in special expressions the 
Ablative of Separation is used without a preposition : 

LocO ille mOtus est, he was dislodged from his position ; C. C. 2, l. Eundem 
vidi cedentem Italia, / saw the same man leaving Italy ; C Ph. lo, 4, 8. Civem 
pellere possessiOnibus cOnatus est, he attempted to drive a citizen from his 
possessions ; c. Mil. 27, 74. 

464. With many verbs the Ablative of Separation is used, some- 
times with and sometimes without a preposition. 

D6 prOvincia dgcessit, he xoithdrew from the province ; C. Ver. 2, 20, 48. 
Decedgns prOvincia, withdrawing from the province ; c. Ug. i, 2. Expellet 
ex patria, will he banish them from the country? Me patria expulerat, he 
had driven me from the country. 

1. Note also the expressions ab oppidis prohibSre, to keep from the 
towns ; 8U18 finibus prohibSre, to keep out of their teiTitory ; dSpellere S 
v5biB, dS provincia, to drive away from you, from the province; totS 
Sicili3. dSpellere, to drive from the xchole of Sicily. 

2. Arceo generally takes the Ablative with a preposition, but at variance 
with general usage it sometimes omits the preposition when used in a purely 
local sense : 

TU hunc a tuis templis arc6bis, yo\i icill keep hiyn from your temples; 
0. c. 1, 18, 83. . T6 illis aedibus arcebit, he will keep you from this abode ; 

0. Ph. 2, 40, 104. 

3. Interdico regularly takes the Dative of the person and the Ablative of 

the thing : 

Gallia Ur)man!s interdixit, he forbade the Bomans the use of Gaul; cf. 

Caos. 1, 40. 

465. With adjectives meaning free from, destitute ofy the Abla- 
tive of Separation is used sometimes with and sometimes without 
a proposition: 

Haec loca ab arbitrls libera sunt, these places are free from spectators; 
cf. c. Att. 15, IG. Animus liber ciira, a mind free from care; c. Fin. 16,49. 



ABLATIVE 227 

1. Notice also the following expressions: ntidua SL propinquis, destu 
tute of relatives; nudus praesidio, destitute of defense; vacuus ab 
defSnsoribus, without defenders; gladius v§lgm§l vacuus, a sword with- 
out a sheath. 

2. Ezpers generally takes the Genitive, but sometimes the Ablative : 

Omnis 6ruditi5nis expers fuit, he was destitute of all learning; cf. c. Or. 2, l. 
Omn6s fortunis expert^s sumus, we are all destitute of fortunes; s. c.33. 

3. Some adjectives with this meaning take the Genitive ; see 461, 2. 

466. In the poets and late writers the Ablative of Separation, 
even in a purely local sense, is often used without a preposition : 

Columbae cael5 v6n6re volantgs, the doves came flying from the heavens ; 
V. 6, 190. N5n poterit ver5 distinguere falsura, he will not be able to distin- 
guish the false from the true ; H. E. l, lo, 29. Cecid6re cael5 lapidgs, stones 
fell from the heavens ; L. l, 81. 

1. Notice also the following expressions from Vergil and Horace : Lyci§l 
missus, sent from Lycia ; cadere nubibus, to fall from the clouds ; car- 
ceribus missus, sent forth from the barriers ; l&bens equo, falling from 
his horse. 

Ablative of Source 

467. Rule. — The Ablative of Source, including Agency, 
Parentage, and Material, generally takes a preposition, — 
SL, ab, dS, S, or ex : 

Source in General. — Ab his sermo oritur, with (from) these the conver- 
sation begins; C. Am. i, 6. Hoc audivi de patre meo, this I have heard from 
my father. Appellata est ex viro virtiis, inrtue was named from vir, a man. 
Ex invidia laboravit, he suffered from unpopularity; c. ciu. Ti, 202. 

Agency. — Ab his amatur, by these he is loved. Mons a Labieno tene- 
tur, the mountain is held by Labienus i Caes. 1, 22. 

Parentage or Ancestry. — Ex me natus es, you are my son, Oriundi ab 
Sabinis, descended from the Sabines ; L. 1, 27. 

Material. — Erat ex fraude fact us, he was made of fraud. Pocula ex 
auro, cups of gold; C. Ver. 4, 26, 62. 

468. The Ablative of the Independent Agent, or the Author of an 
action, takes the preposition a or ab : 

Rex ab suis appellatur, he is called king by his own men. NOn est c5n-» 
sentaneum vinci a voluptate. it is not meet to be overcome by pleasure^ 



STNTAX 



1. When anythinfc U peraonitied and treated as the agent of an acUon, 

the Ablative with fi or ab 111»; be used as in the secund example above- 

2. The Ablative without a preposition may he used of a person, regarded 
lot da the author of the action, but as the means by wliich it is efEected: 

Comua NumidlB flrxaat, fte itrp.ngihmiK the inings ifith Numidians. 

3. Tlie Accusative with per may be used ot the person through whom, 
througli whose agency or help, the action Is effected : 

Ab Oppilnicfl per FabriciOs factus, made by Oppianicys lhro7igh the. agenri/ 
of the Fabricii; tf. C. On. S3, «a. 

Note. — Compare these three kiiidt«d constructions tor the names of 
persona ; ab OpplSnlcS, bij Opplantcuf, the author of tbe action ; par 
Fabriciaa, Ihrnuyh Che Pabiicii, i.e. through their agency or help 
NomldlB, toith jVuiiiuifa»!, used as Uie means of tlie aci 



cUon, I 



469. The Ablative of Parentage and Ancestry is generally used 
1. With fi or ab, in designating Remote Ancestry; 
Belgae sunt orti ab Germ&nia, the Belgians originated from the Oei 
I. c«i». 2, 4. Oriundi ei Etrflscta, deicended from the Etruscans. 



I 

Perfool^n 



2. Without a preposition witli the verb nfiaoor and 
Participles, as natUB. prCgnfitus, ortuB, and in poetry and late prose, 
with editUB, genitua. aatue, etc. : 

Si parentibua nati sint hnmilibus, if they have been flom of humble 
parentt; (.'. Am. 18, To. NSbill genere nSH sunt, they mere born of a noble 
'.; r. Vsr. B, TO, 180. Regis iiepOs, fllift ortua, the grandnoa of Che kinff, 
born of hU daughter; L. 1, aa, 1. Edile rSgibus, thou deseendnaC of king$; 
, I. DiB genite, thou descendant of gods; v. ft, 643. Satae PeliS, the 
dauglUers of Pelias; O. M. T, 8M. 

470. The Ablative of Material generally takes 9 or ex, and ia used 
Vrith verbs or participles, and sometimes with nouns ; 

Erat ex fraude factus, he was made of fraud. Hom9 ex aniniO cOnstAt et 
oorpore, mo» eunaiets of a sowt and a body; of. c. n. d, i, bb. Vas ex QnS 
gemma, a vase from a single gem ; c, Vw. 4, bt, «e. 

1. The Ablative of Material is often UBed witiout a preposition in poetry, 
and sonieiimes even in prose : 

Acre cavfl clipeus, a hoUow shield of bronze; ft. v. a. bfib, PIet.fta abiete 
puppfe, painted stems of fir. Constat 1SIa OrStiO membris, the tehole di»- 
•K ts tnade up of tiMmber». 



ABLATIVE 229 

Ablative with Comparatives 

471. Rule. — Comparatives without quam are followed by 
the Ablative: 

Nihil est virtute^ amabilius, nothing is more lovely than virtue. C. Am. 8. 
Nihil habet iucundius vita,^ he considers nothing more agreeable than life. 
Amicitia, qua nihil melius hahernxxs, friendship y than which toe have nothing 
better. Nihil lacrima citius arescit, nothing dries sooner than a tear. 

1. Comparatives with quam are followed by the Nominative or by the 
case of the corresponding noun before them : 

Melior est carta pax quam sp6rata vict5ria, better is a sure peace than a 
hoped-for victory ; L. 80, 80. Ngminem aequiOrem reperiet quam m6, he vrill 
find no one more just than (he will find) me. Equum mellOrem habet quam 
tuus est, he has a better horse than yours is; C. inv. i, 31, 62. 

2. After qu£un the second of the two nouns compared is sometimes 
omitted : 

Themistocli nomen quam SolOnis est illtistrius, the name of Themistocles 
is more illustrious than that of Solon ; cf. c. Off. i, 22, 76. 

3. The Ablative is used chiefly in negative sentences. It is freely used 
for quam with a Nominative or Accusative, regularly so for quam with the 
Nominative or Accusative of a relative pronoun, as in the third example 
under the rule. In other cases quam is retained in the best prose, though 
sometimes omitted in poetry. 

4. After plQs, minus, amplius, or longius, in expressions of number 
and quantity, qu£un is often omitted without influence upon the construc- 
tion ; sometimes also after m§ior, minor, etc. : 

Tecum plus annum vixit, he lived with you more than a year ; C. Quino. 12, 41. 
Minus duo milia effuggrunt, less than two thousand escaped; L. 24, 16. NOn 
amplius novem annOs natus, not more than nine years old ; cf. N. 28, 2, 8. 

6. Instead of an Ablative after a comparative, a preposition with its case 
— as ante, prae, praeter, or supra — is sometimes used, especially in poetry : 

Ante alios immanior, more monstrous than (before) the others; V. i, 847. 

6. In poetry and in conversational prose, alius, involving a comparison, 
other than, is sometimes used with the Ablative, but in the best prose its 
regular construction is alius ac or atque, alius qusmi, or alius nisi : 

1 This Ablative furnishes the standard of comparison — that from which one 
starts. Thus, if virtue is taken as the standard of what is lovely, nothing is 
more so. VirtClte = quam virtus ; vita = quam vitam (habet). 



230 SYNTAX 

Putare alium sapiente bonOque beatum, to consider any other than the 
toiae and good happy; cf. H. E. i, 16, 20. Nihil aliud nisi pax quaeslta est, 
nothing but peace was sought; cf. c. Oflf. 1, 28, 80. 

7. Qu£un pro denotes that the two objects compared are out of proportion 
to each other : 

Minor caed6s quam prO tanta Victoria fuit, the slaughter was s^nall in com- 
parison with the victory ; L. 10, 14, 21. 

8. Note the following special uses of the Ablative : plUs aequS, more 
than is fair; plus iustd, more than is proper: 

Celerius omni opiniOne v6nit, he came sooner than any one expected; 
cf. Caes. 2, 3. Id spg omnium serius fuit, this was later than all hoped it 
would be ; l. 2, 3. 

0, In rare instances, mostly poetical, a few verbs and adverbs involving 
comparison — as mSUo, praesto, aequS, adaequS — admit the Ablative : 

Null5s his mallem ludOs spectasse, no games would I prefer to have seen 
rather than these; H. 8. 2, 8, 79. M6 aequg fortunatus, equally fortunate with 

me; pi. Cure. 141. 

10. With comparatives the Measure of Difference — the amount by which 
one thing surpasses another — is denoted by the Ablative (479): 

Hibernia dimidiO minor quam Britannia, Ireland smaller by one-half than 
Britain. 

n. Instnimental Ablative 

472. The Instrumental Ablative includes 

1. Ablative of Association; see 478. 

2. Ablative of Cause ; see 476. 

3. Ablative of Means ; see 476 and 477. 

4. Ablative of Price ; see 478. 

5. Ablative of Difference ; see 479. 

6. Ablative of Specification ; see 480. 

Ablative of Association 

473. Rule. — The Ablative of Association is used 

1. To denote Accompaniment, or Association in a strict 
sense. It then takes the preposition cum : 

Cum patre habitabat, she was living with her father^ Cum his armis 
eruptidneni fecerunt, with these arms they made a sally; Caes. 2, 88. 



ABLATIVE 231 

2. To denote Characteristic or Quality. It is then modi- 
fied by an adjective or by a Genitive : 

Flumen rlpis praeruptis, a stream with precipitous banks; Caes. 6, 7. 
Summa virtute adulescens, a youth of the highest worth, Cato singular! 
fuit industria, Cato was a man of remarkable industry; N. 24, 8. 

Note 1. — The Ablative of Characteristic and the* Genitive of Character- 
istic supplement each other. The Genitive is generally used to designate per- 
manent characteristics, as Kind, Size, Weight, Value, and the like. In other 
cases the Ablative is generally used. 

Note 2. — The Ablative of Characteristic may be either Attributive, as in 
the first tv\ro examples, or Predicative, as in the last example, 

3. To denote Manner or Attendant Circumstance.^ It 
then takes the preposition cum, or is modified by an adjec- 
tive or by a Genitive : 

Cum silentio audit! sunt, they were heard in silence. Templum magna 
ciira ciistodiunt, they guard the temple with great care. Epulabatur more 
Persarum, he feasted in the style of the Persians, Cat5 summa cum gloria 
vixit, Cato lived with the highest glory j C. Ver. 6, 70, 180. 

Note. — The Ablative of Manner often takes cum, even when modified by 
an adjective, as in the last example. 

474. The Ablative of Association is used without cum in a 
few special instances, as follows: 

1. A few Ablatives, perhaps involving the idea of Means: arte, according 
to art, skillfully; cl&more, with a shout; consilid, o?i purpose; 5rdine, 
in an orderly way : 

Ngm5 solitus via dicere, no one accustomed to speak properly; cf. c. Brut. 
12, 46. Aut VI aut fraude fit, it is done either by violence or by fraud; cf. C. 
Off. 1, 18, 41. 

Note. — The Accusative with per sometimes denotes Manner: per vim, 
violently; per fraudem, fraudulently ; perludum, sportively, 

2. The Ablative of Association is sometimes used without cum, after verbs 
meaning to mingle or to join together, as confundo, iungd, misceo, and 
their compounds ; also whenever the idea of means is involved, especially in 
military operations: 

1 Note the close connection between these three uses of the Ablative — the first 
designating an attendant person or thing, the second an attendant quality, the 
third an attendant circumstance. 




!rNTJX 



Sii^nll» cOnfanditiir nndls, it mingles vrilh the Slcil{att waters; T. 8. ■ 
I baptotiilSsBOnlerciUncta, depravity joined leilhrritae; C. Or. 8, 68, »1*. Gravi- 
I tfite mIxtM iepOs, pleiigantry united with dtgnitg ; O. it. P. 2, 1. Ingentl exer> 
citfi profectus, having set out with a large armij; L. 7, a. 

NoTu 1. — In military language the Ablative of Association generally takes 
, if without inodlflere or modified only by a numeral, otherwise it in gen- 
I erall; naed without cum : onm ezsioitfi, but JngenG ezercttS. 

E 2. — Instead of the Ablative of Association, the Dative is Homeiimea 
I used with verbs denoting Union or Contention : 

Sapieutia ittncta ^loquentiae, wisdom united to eloquence; ct. 0. Or. S, SE, 143. 
Solus tiM certat, he alone competes viilh you; v. e. E, 9. 

. A special use of the Ablative of Association is seen with faciS, B5, and 
1 in such expressions as tlie following : 
Quid hfle homine faeiSs, what mill po« do with this manf C. Vbt. S, JB, 
Quid te futflrum est, what will become of you f C. \'t,t. a, si, IKS. 

HOTE. — The Ablative with dB oceura in nearly the same sense : 

Sed de fratre quid fiet, but what will become of my brother ? T. Ad. dh. 



Ablative of Cause 



475. Rule. — 
Cause, Ground, 
ft preposition : ^ 

Gubernatoria ars 
itt usefulneM; 



The Ablative of Cause, deaignatiDg tte 
or Reason for an action, is used without 



^e 



iitilitate laiidatur, the pilot's 
1, IS. Quisqiie gloria diicitur, e 



•t is praised because of 
is influenced 

hg glory. Liixuris eivitsa IftborSbat, the Male was suffering from luxury. 
Nimio gaudio deaipiSbam, / was teilii with (from) excessioe joy. Kegiii 
oupiditate inductua couiiirBtiSuem fScit, influenced hj the desire of ruling, 
he formed a conspiracy. Timore perterriti ad Ithenuin contenderunt, 
I mowed by fear, they hastened toward* the Rhine. Aeger erat vulneribus, he 
ill in consequence if his umunds; H. 1, T, S. 

When the cause is fear, anger, hatred, etc., it ia often combined with a 
I Perfect Participle, as in the fifth and sixtti examples. 

2. Caustl and gratia, as Ablatives of Cause, are regularly limited by tlie 
' Genitive or by a possessive or interrogative pronoun : 



1 The . 



>t CaiiB 



mental case and in part from the ti 



I lieen developed in part from the Iiistru- 



ABLATIVE 233 

Quern honQris gratia nOmino, whom I name as a mark of honor; C. Rose. A. 
2, 6. Vestra hOc causa vol6bam, / desired this on your account; C. Or. i, 86, 164. 
Qua gratia iussi, for what purpose did I give the order ? T. Eun. 99. 

3. Examine the following specimens of the Ablative of Cause, more com- 
monly limited by an adjective or Genitive, conauStiidine, iiire, l§ge, sen- 
tentil, and Ablatives in u from verbal nouns : consuStudine 8u5, in 
accordance with his own custom; me5 sententia, according to or in my 
opinion; alionim hortSLtu, at the request of others; hortSLtu suo, at his 
own request; populi iusau, at the bidding of the people. 

4. Instead of the Ablative of Cause, the Ablative with SL, ab, d6, 6, ex, 
is sometimes used to emphasize the idea of Source, from which Cause was so 
readily developed, as ez conauStudine auSL, in accordance with their custom ; 
ez aententiSL tuSL, in accordance with your wish : 

Mare a sole collticet, the sea gleams with the light of the sun (from the 
sun). Ex vulneribus perigre, they perished of their wounds, 

6. The Ablative with prae in classical Latin generally denotes a Hin- 
drance or an Obstacle : 

N5n prae lacrimis possum scribere, I cannot write on account of my tears. 

Ablative of Means 

476. Rule. — The Instrument and Means of an action are 
denoted by the Ablative without a preposition : 

Ipse sua manii fecit, he did it himself with his own hand, Cornibus tauri 
se tutantur, hulls defend themselves with their horns, Sol omnia liice collus- 
trat, the sun illumines all things with its light. Terra vestita floribus, the 
earth covered with flowers. Lacte atque pecore vivunt, they live upon milk 
and flesh ; Caes. 4, 1. Aurelia via profectus est, he went by the Aurelian 
road; c. c. 2, 4. Porta Capena Koniam ingressus, having entered Rome by 
the Porta Capena ; L. 26, lo. 

1. The Ablative of Means is used not only with verbs, but also with a few 
adjectives, as contentus, praeditua, and frStua : 

Domo sua regia contentus nOn fuit, he was not satisfied with his royal 
palace; c. Ver. 5, 81, so. HomO summ5 ingeni5 praeditus, a man endowed 
with the highest abilities. Neque humanis cOnsiliis fr6tus, nor depending 
upon human counsels ; c. c. 2, 13. 

2. Adficio with the Ablative of Means forms a very common circum- 
locution: hondre adficere = bonorSre, to honor; cruciSLtti adficere, to 
torture : 




Omnea Iaetft13 sdflclt, he glaMena all ; Ctt: s. 
Is ben^ted; c. Agr. i, 4, 

. This Ablative is used nith fld&, cSnfldS, nltoi, Innitoi, aamuEscS. 
■wmBfaoiS, reclplfi, tonefi, etc: 

NemiJ tortilnae atabililUle cOnfldll, no one trusts the stability of fortune; 
uso. B, 14, «I. SalQa ygritate nititur, aafity rests upon truth. NQllO officio 
asguefacti, trained to (familiar with) no duty; Csea. 4. i. Sise casiils teaC- 
bant, theg kept themselves in camp; cies. a, 24. Mariam tSctO receperunt, 
they received Marius into their houses. 

. The follofftiig Ablntives deserve notice : 
Quadragiiita hostiia sacrificare, to mate a sac 
17. Facere vitulS, to make a naerijlce leith 
mere, to play upon the lyre; CTuac. i, '2, 4. 
(ivitb the ball) ; It. s. l, a, iS. 



■ijtce with Jbrty tietims; 

I ralf; V. E. 3, IT. Fidi- 

Pila ludere, to play h 



Ablative of Means — Special Uses 



'«^ 



477. Rule. — I. The Ablative of Means is used with otor. 
fruor, fungor, potior, veecor, and their compounds : 

Pliirimis rebus fruimur atque utimur, we enjoy and use very mnrty 
things; C. n. d. 2, 60. IM. Fungitur officio senBtoris, he is discharginr/ the 
duly of a senator. MagtiS erat praeda politiis, he had obtained great booty. 
Lacte et came yescebaiitur, they lived (fed) on milk andjlesh ; s. bb, t. 

I. These deponent verbs are all eurvivals of the middle voice, and accord- 
ingly contain the direct object in IbemaelveB, while the Ablative ifl the means 
by which the action is effected ; tliua Stor, I use, I serve myself by meaits of; 
Imor, / enjoy, I delight myself toith, etc. Originally transitive, tbey are occa- 
sionally so used in classical aotliors: 

Uteris operam meam, jok shall have (use) my assistance ; PI. Poon, 1089, 
. UtOT admits two Ablatives of the same person or thing; 
'acill niS uteiur patve, he mil .find me an indulgent father ; T.HMntMI. 
. Potior admits the Genitive: 

PartiH Siciliae potitus est, he beeavte master of apart of Sicily ; if. id, s, 

II. The Ablative of Means is used with verbs of Abound- 
ing and Filling and with adjectives of Fullness: abundS, 
redundo, adfluS, etc.; complex, ezple5, impled, onero, etCi^ 
ODUBtuH, refertUB, plSnus, etc, : 



ABLATIVE 236 

Villa abiindat lacte, cUseo, melle, the villa abounds in milk, cheese, and 
honey; C. Sen. 16, 66. Deus bonis explevit mundum, God has filled the world 
with blessings; C. Univ. 3, 5. Naves onerant auro, they load the ships with 
gold. Naves f rumen to onustae, ships loaded with grain. Urbs referta 
copiis, a city filled with supplies ; C. Att. 7, 13. 

1. Compleo and impled take either the Accusative and Genitive or the 
Accusative and Ablative : 

Me complevit formidinis, he filled me with fear; Pi. Men. 90i. Italiam ve- 
stris col5nis complere voluistis, you wished to fill Italy with your colonists. 

2. Most adjectives of Fullness occasionally admit the Genitive. With pl6- 
nuB this is the regular construction in the best prose. In Cicero refertua takes 
the Genitive when used of persons, but the Ablative when used of things : 

Erat Italia plena Graecarum artium, Italy was full of Grecian arts; c. Arch. 
3, 5. Domus referta vasis Corinthiis, a house full of Corinthian vases; O. Rose. 
A. 46, 133. Mare refertum praedonum, a sea full of pirates; c. Rab. P. 8, 20. 

III. The Ablative of Means is used with opus and dsus, 
often in connection with the Dative of the person : 

Militi nummis ducentis iisus est, the soldier needs two hundred sesterces;^ 
PI. Bac. 706. Auctoritate tua nobis opus est, we need your influence, Cpn- 
sulto opus est, there is need of deliberation ; 8. C. l. 

Note. — With opus est, rarely with tisus est, the thing needed may be 
denoted by the Nominative, or an Infinitive ; rarely by the Genitive,'^ a su- 
pine, or an ut-clause : ^ 

Dux nQbIs opus est, we need a leader; c. Fam. 2, 6, 4. Opus est t6 val6re, it 
is necessary that you be well; 0. Fam. 16, 14. Temporis opus est, there is need 
of time; cf. L. 22, 51. Ita dictti opus est, it is necessary to say so ; T. Heaut. »41. 
Mihl opus est ut lavem, it is necessary for me to bathe ; Pi. True. 828. 

Ablative of Price and Value 

478. Rule. — Price and Value are denoted by the Abla- 
tive, if expressed definitely or by means of Nouns, but by 
the Genitive or Ablative, if expressed indefinitely by means 
of Adjectives : 

Auro virl vitam vendidit, for gold she sold her husband's life; 0. Inv. l, 
50, 94. Fanum pecunia grand! venditum est, the temple was sold for much 

1 Lit. there is to the soldier a use for or with two hundred sesterces. 

2 First in livy. * In Plaatas and late ^i<^^^. 




mones. Multo sangnine Poenia yictoria Btetit, the victory cost the Carilta- 
ginians (stood to tlietn at) mack hlno-t ; L. Sl.ao. Lis a^stitnatur centum 
talentis, ihe Jlne is jixed at a hviidred lalenle. Veualis decern mllibus, 
for sate at ten thousand (sesterces); <-'. l-»oI t, n. 

Prata magno aeatimant, they value meadovjs highly. Quanti est aeati- 
manda virtus, hou> highly should eirlue be valaedf Quern pluriml fecetat, 
ahom he had esteemed niost highly; N. 13, !, Venire qUAtn plilrimQ, to 6e 
laid at an high a price ai possible. Eciit, he purchasedT Quauti, /or hain 
much t Viginti minis, /or twenty minae; T. Eun. DSi. 

1. The Ablatlye of Price is used with verba of Baying, Selling, Hiring, 
Letting ; of Costing ; iif Being Cbeap or Dear, as emo, vSndo, tBosS j 
oondQcS, looo ; Bt6, conatS, liceor, and with a fi:w adjectives of liin- 
dred meaning, as vSn&Iia, fur sale; cfimB, dear; vDls, cheap; see ex- 
ftniples. With these words only live Genitives of Price are iwed : tanti, 
tauU-dem, qnantl, pliirls, and mlnoria. 

2. With verba of Valuing the following Genitives are used, parvi, mSgni. 
pennagul, tantI, tantl-dem, quanU, plQils, plfliiml, mlnoria, mluitni, 

3. Instead of the Ablative of Price, adverbs are sometimes used, as bane 
«mere, to buy well (i.e. at a low price); bene v§ndere, to tell well (i.e. at 
a high price). 

4. Bzchangiiig, — With verbs of Exchanging — miitS, commtltS, etc. — 
the thing received is generally treated as the price, as with verba of aeliing, 
but, in poetT7 and late prose, ihe tiling given is often treated as the price, aa 
with verba of bujing : 

Victor paoe bellum mQtarit, the victor exchanged waT for peace ; S, C. «, lo. 
Cilr vidle permfttem Sablnfi divitias, why should I exchange, the Sabine vale 
for riches? ii.a, i,4T. 

6. But with verbs of Exchanging, the filing given is sometimes designated 
b; the Ablative with cum or pro : 

Cum patriae caritate glOrlam conunQtSi'e, to exchange love of eountrj/ 
glory; cf. a Be.i. w, bt. 

6. For a fuller treatment of the Genitive of Price, si 



Ablative of Differesce 

479. Rule. — The Measure of Difference is denoted by the 
Ablative. It is used 

1. With Comparatives and Superlatives : 

Uno die longioreni mensem facinnt, they male Ihe month one day longer 
(longer by one day) ; O. Ver. S, oa, im. Sol raullis pavtibus maior est quam 



•'^^ 



J 



ABLATIVE 237 

terra, the sun is very much (by many parts) larger than the earth; cf. C. N. D. 
2, 36, 92. Tanto longior anfractus, a circuitous route so much longer. Con- 
spectus multo iucuiidissimus, a sight by far the most pleasing, 

2. With verbs and other words implying Comparison : 

Multo mihl praestat, it is much better for me; C. Seat. 69, 146. Virtiitem 
omnibus rebus multo anteponunt, they much prefer excellence to everything 
else ; cf. C. Fin. 4, 18, 51. 

3. To denote Intervals of Time or Space : 

Homerus annis multis fuit ante Romulum, Homer lived (was) many 
years before (before by many years) Romulus; C. Brut. 10, 40. Paucis die- 
bus post mortem African!, a few days after the death of Africanus; 
c. Am. 1. Milibus passuum sex a Caesaris castris consedit, he encamped 
at the distance of six miles from Caesar's camp; Caes. i, 48. 

Ablative of Specification 

480. Rule. — A Noun, Adjective, or Verb may take an 
Ablative to define its application : 

Agesilans nomine, non po testate, fuit rex, Agesilaus was king in name, 
not in power; N. 21, 1. Fuit claudus altero pede, he was lame in one foot. 
Hi lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt, those differ from each other 
in language, institutions, and laws ; Caes. 1, 1. 

1. Natu and Supines in u are often used as Ablatives of Specification : 

Minimus natti omnium, the youngest of all. Difficile dictti est, it is diffl- 
cult to tell (in the telling) . 

2. The Ablative of Specification is often used with verbs of Measuring 
and Judging, to show in reference to what the statement is true : 

MagnQs homings virtute mgtimur, non fortuna, we measure great men by 
(in reference to) their merit, not their success; N. 18, i. Benevolentiam nOn 
ardore amQris, sed cQnstantia itidicemus, let us judge of good will, not by 
the glow of affection, but by its constancy. 

3. The Ablative of Specification, in a strict sense, shows in what respect 
or particular anything is true, and, in a somewhat freer sense, in regard to 
what, in reference to what, it is true. 

4. For the Accusative of Specification, see 416. 

481. To the Ablative of Specification may be referred the Ablative with 
dignuB and indignua : 

Digni sunt amicitia, they are worthy of friendship ; c. Am. 21, 79. T6 honOre 
indignissimum itidicat, he judges you most unworthy of honor ; C Vat. 16, 89. 




STlfTAX 

1. Id rare l&BtaDces, mostlj poetical, dlentiB and 1 
the Genitive: 

DlgnisBimimi tuae virtlltia, most laoHliy of your high character; of. C Ait. 
8, IB, A. MagnOnim haad umqiiam indlgnus avOniin, newer tiitworlhy of my 
great sire»; V, 12. inii. 

2. Dlgnor, as a passive yerb meaning io be deemed worthy, takes llie Abla- 
tive ; but ns a depgjiejit verb meauiiig to deem tcoiihy, used only in poetry 
and late prose, it takes the Aecusative and Ablative : 

Honors dignifttur, they are deemed worthy of konor ; c. inv. e. 03, lei. Haud 
t&ll me dignor honOre, nut of auch honor do I deem myself urorthg ; 



HI. LocativQ and Iiocative Ablative 



482. The Locative and the Locative Ablative in a meastti 
Bupplement each other. They include 

1. Ablative of Place, generally vtith the preposition 

2. Locative in Names of Towns ; see 488. 

3. Ablative of Time ; see US. 
i. Ablative Absolute; see JB9. 



M 



Ablative of Plaob 

483. Rule. — The Place In Which anything is done is 
denoted generally by the Locative Ablative with the prepo- 
sition la, but in names of Towns by the I-ocative : 

Caesar duaa logiones in Gallia conscripsit, Caeiar enrolled two legion» 
in Gaul. In oppido obaid§bantur, Ihey were besieged in Me toam. Exerci- 
tum in hibemis collocavit, he placed the army in winter quarters. 

Romae supplieatiO redditur, nt Rome a Ihnnirngiving t» appointed; Ohm. 
i.m- Alesiae obsidlbantur, they were besieged at Alesia. Dionjsius Co- 
rinthi pueros docehat, Dionysius taaght boys at Corinth. Carthlgine reges 
c»%abantiir, at Carthage kings were elected; N. !S, 7. Arixtldea Athgnia 
fait, Aristidea was at Athens. 

1. In Ite names of Towns, instead of the Locative, the Ablative is used, 
■with or without a preposition, when qualified by an adjective or adjective 
pronoun, and sometimes whea not thus modiHed : 

la DiyricO, in ipsa Alexandres, (n Hlyria, in Alessandria itself; C. Alt, 
11, 18.- Longa domiiiari Allia, to hold smay at .Mba Longa; V. 6, 7M. In 
monte AlbSnO L^vIuiSque,' on the Alban movnt and at Lavinitim ; L. A, S9. B. 

1 Here LBvInlS is prubalily assimilated to the case of monte AlbftnO. 



ABLATIVE 239 

2. When oppid5 or urbe accompanies the name of the town in ex- 
pressions of Place, if without a modifier, it takes the preposition in and 
is followed by the Ablative of the name ; but if with a modifier, it follows 
the name, and is used either with or without the preposition : 

In oppidO CitiO est mortuus, he died in the town Citium ; N. 6, 3. Albae 
constiterunt, in urbe opportuna, they halted at Alba, a convenient city; 
c. Ph. 4, 2, 6. CorinthI, Achaiae urbe, at Corinth^ a city of Achaia ; Tac. 
H. 2, 1. 

484. Like Names of Towns are used 

1. Many Names of Islands and Peninsulas: 

Con5n Cyprl vixit, Conon lived in Cyprus; N. 12, 3. Miltiadfis domum 
Chersonesi habuit, Miltiades had a house in the Chersonesus, 

2. The Locatives domi, rurl, huxnl, xnilitiae, belli, and a few others 
found in poets and late writers : 

Et domi et militiae consilium praestabant, they showed their wisdom at 
home and abroad; C. Or. 3, 83, 184. Run agere vitam cOnstituit, he decided 
to spend his life in the country. RQmae et domi tuae vivere, to live at 
Borne and in your house. Dgprehensus domi Caesaris, caught in the house 
of Caesar; cf. c. Att. i, 12. Tamquam alignae domi, as if in the house of 
another. Truncum reliquit hargnae, he left the body in the sand; V. 12, 882. 

Note 1. — Domi may be modified by a possessive, a Genitive, or aliSnua, 
as in the examples ; when any other modifier is required, the Ablative with 
in is generally used : 

In privata domO f urtum, a theft in a private house ; c. 0. 8, 7, n. 

Note 2. — Instead of domi with its modifier, apud with an Accusative of 
the person may be used ; apud m6 = domi meae, at my house : 

Apud te fuit, he was at your house. Fuisti apud Laecam, you were at the 
house of Laeca ; c. c. i, 4. 

485. The Locative Ablative is often used without a preposition : 

1. When the idea of place is figurative rather than literal : 

Me5 itidiciQ stare mal5, 1 prefer to abide by my oion judgment; c. Att. 12, 21. 
PrQmissTs manure (poetical), to abide by promises; V. 2, 160. Nova pectore 
versat c5nsilia, she devises (turns over) new plans in her breast. Pendgmus 
auimis, we are peiplexed in mind; c. Tusc. i, 40, 96. 

2. The Locative Ablative qualified by totua, and the Ablatives terrSL and 
man, especially in terrSL manque, are regularly used without the prepo- 
sition ; loco and locia are generally so used ; occasionally other Ablatives, 
especially when qualified by adjectives : 



240 SYNTAX 

SOInafe td&inbeimiior^ Ui/e report spreads through the wholedtif; L. i, 4», i. 
N&tldnibiis term mariqae imp^rare, to rale nations on land and sea; C Mm. 
t»> ssw Eikleixi Loco nali sunt, they xwre bom in the same situation ; c. Sose. A. 
31» 14». Beiiqols oppidi paurtibiiSy in the remaining parts of the town. 

iL la poetry and Uua prose^ the Locative Abiative is freely used without 
the preposition: 

Lilcls habitSmixs opSeis^ we dwell in Aady groves; T. fi, 673. Popolns 
laetiim. the^rts t«r crepoit sonuiz^ the people made the jogfid applause thrice 
resouMd in the heater; il. i» it, ^ 

<k By a di£&»nence of idiom^ the Latxn aomethnes uaes tide AblatiTe with 3, 
ftb« ^ or fl9B» wht»e ^e Kngti^h would lead us to expect the Locative Abla- 
tive« but in such cases ^e Latin calls attention to tiie place from, which the 
action proceeds : ft or ab dsstrS^ on the right (from the right) : 

H^ ab utriHiue latere pri5ti^^)at« these he protected on both sides; 
CsMK». c. u ^ Continentur iln£b ex parte Bhgno, altera ex parte, monte 
RLrd% they are shut in by the Bhine on one side^ by mount Jura on 
another: Ca*^ u i. Ex tn^u^ pQgnSre vM sunt, they were seen to Jight 
on horsebiwk; c. y. D. a» i, d. 

5« Instead of the Locative Ablative, especially in plural names of tribes 
and pei>ples, the Acciu»ative with apod or intar may be used : 

Hvit^ m%ua uiter Beiges auctOrit^te, a state of great influence among 
the Biflijitt* ; Ciws. % 15. 

NoTK. — The Accusative with aptid, meaning in the works of is the reg- 
ular form iu citiuir authors : 

lUe apud Terentium, that tcell-knovm character in the works of Terence ; 
C. Fin. \ 10, iS. 

Ablative of Time 

486. Rule. — The Time At or In Which an action takes 
phwe is denoted by the Ablative without a preposition : 

Sol is occasii suas copias Ariovistus reduxit, at sunset Ariocistus led back 
his forces^; Ca^^s. l, so. Postero die liice prima movet castra. on the following 
(lay at dawn he moves his camp. Bellum ineunte vere suscepit, he entered 
upon the war in the beginning of spring. 

1. The A))lative of Time is frmnd in the names of Games, Festivals, 
OfRcpR, and in almost any words that may be used to denote time: 

Llhprftlibns lit t eras accCpl tiiSs, I receivpd your letter on the festival of 
Lihpr; v. Knm. 12,25, 1. Crmsulfltfi dCvCniiims in medium certamen, in my 
consulship I became involved in the midst of the strife; C. Or. 1, l. 



ABLATIVE 241 

487. The Time Within Which an action takes place is denoted 
by the Ablative with or without in, sometimes with de : 

Ter in ann5 audire nuntium, to hear the tidings three times in the course 
of the year; c. Rose. A. 46, 132. In di6bus proximis decern, within the next ten 
days, N6mQ his annis vlginti rei ptiblicae f uit hostis, there has been no enemy 
of the republic within these twenty years. D6 tertia vigilia castra movet, in 
the third watch he moves his camp; cf. Caea. c. i, 63. 

1. The Ablative with in is often used to call attention to the Circum- 
stances of the Time or the Condition of Affairs : 

In perlcalOsissimO rel publicae tempore, in a most perilous condition of the 
republic. In tali tempore, at such a time (i.e. under such circumstances). 

2. The Accusative with inter or intrSL, like the Ablative with in, may be 
used of the Time Within Which ; the Accusative with ad or in, of an Ap- 
pointed Time, and with ad or sub, of an Approaching Time : 

Haec inter cSnam dictavi, I dictated this during the dinner. Filium intra 
paucGs dies amisit, within a few days he lost his son. Omnia ad diem facta 
sunt, all things were done on the appointed day; Caes. 2, 5. Ad c€nam homi- 
nem invltavit in posterum diem, he invited the man to dinner for the next 
day. Sub vesperum exire, to go out towards evening. 

488. The Interval between two events may be variously ex- 
pressed : 

1. By the Accusative or Ablative with ante or post : 

Classis post digs paucOs v6nit, after a few days the fleet annved, PaucOs 
ante digs, a few days before. Homgrus annis multis fuit ante ROmulum, 
Homer lived many years before Bomulus; c. Brut, lo, 40. Paucis ante digbus 
nOluit, he declined afexo days before. Paucis post annis, a few years after. 

2. By the Accusative or Ablative with ante quam, post quam, or post, 
generally with an ordinal numeral : 

Post diem tertium quamdixerat, the third day after he had spoken; 0. Mil 
16, 44. Aun5 ipso ante quam natus est Ennius, in the very year before Ennius 
was born. Non5 ann5 post quam in Hispaniam vgnerat, in the ninth year 
after he had come into Spain ; N. 22, 4, 2. 

3. By the Ablative of a relative and its antecedent : 

Mors R5scii quadriduO qu5 is occisus est nuntiatur, the death of Roscius 
is announced four days after he was killed; c. Eosc. A. 86, 104. 

Note 1. — PridiS quam means on the day before^ and postildiS quam, 

on the day after or a day later : 

Postrldig vgnit, quam exspectaram, he came a day later than I had ea^pected; 

C. Fam. 16, 14. 

HABK. LAT. GBAM. 17 



242 SYNTAX 

Note 2. — The question how long ago? may be answered by the Accusa- 
tive with abhinc : 

Abhinc ann5s trecentOs fuit, he lived three hundred years ago; C. Div. 2, 67, 118. 

Note 8. — In rare instances the Ablative with abhinc is used like the Abla- 
tive with ante : 

Abhinc difibus triginta, thirty days before; C Ver. 2, 62, 186. 

Ablative Absolute^ 

489. Rule. — A noun with a participle, an adjective, or 
another noun, may be put in the Ablative to add to the 
predicate an Attendant Circumstance : 

Servio regnante viguerunt, they flourished in the reign of Servius (Ser- 
vius reigning).* Consules, regibus exactis, creati sunt, after the banish- 
ment of the kings,^ consuls were elected; L. 4, 4, 2. Caesar equitatii praemisso 
«ubsequebatur, Caesar having sent forward his cavalry followed. Hoc dicit, 
me audiente, he says this in my hearing. Legates discedere, nisi miini- 
tis castris, vetuerat, he had forbidden his lieutenants to depart, unless 
the camp was fortified ; Caes. 2, 20. Caelo sereno obsciirata liix est,* while 
the sky was clear, the sun (the light) was obscured; L. 87,4, 4. L. Pisone, 
Aulo Gabinio consulibus, in the consulship of L. Piso and Aulus Gabinius. 

1. The Ablative Absolute, much more common than the English Nomina- 
tive Absolute, generally expresses the Time, Cause, or some Attendant Cir- 
cumstance of the action. It is generally best rendered by a noun with a 
preposition — in, dunng, after, by, with, through, etc.; by an active par- 
ticiple with its object ; or by a clause with when, while, because, if, though, 
etc. ; see examples above. 

2. A conjunction, as nicd, tamquam, etc., sometimes accompanies the 
Ablative, as in the fifth example. 

3. The Ablative in this construction generally refers to some person or 
thing not otherwise mentioned in the clause to which it belongs, but excep- 
tions occur : 

Obsidibus imperStis, h5s Aeduls tradit, having demanded hostages, he de- 
livers them to the Aed\ii; Caes. 6, 4. 

1 This Ablative is called Absfilute, because it is not directly dependent for its 
construction upon any other word in the sentence. In classical Latin it ex- 
presses both Instrumental and Locative relations. 

2 Or, while Servius was reigning, or, while Servius was king. 

• Or, after the kings were banished. 

* The construction by which a noun and an adjective, or two nouns, may be in 
the Ablative Absolute is peculiar to the Latin. In the corresponding construction 
in Sanskrit, Greek, and English, the present participle of the verb, to be, is used. 



ABLATIVE 243 

4. In the Ablative Absolute, Perfect Participles of deponent verbs are 
generally found only in the poets and late writers. With an object they are 
first found in Sallust : 

Sulla omnia pollicitO, as Sulla promised everything; 8. 108, 7. 

6. Two participles, or a participle and a predicate noun or adjective, are 
occasionally combined with a noun in the Ablative Absolute : 

Agr5 captO ex hostibus divis5, when the land taken from the enemy had 
been divided; L. i, 46. Hasdrubale imperat5re suSectO, when Hasdruhal suo- 
ceeded as commander; n. 28, 3. 

6. An Infinitive or Clause may be in the Ablative Absolute with a neuter 
participle or adjective : 

Alexander, audits Dar6um mSvisse, pergit, Alexander having heard that 
Darius had withdrawn, advances; Curt. 5, 13. Multi, incertQ quid vltftrent, 
interierunt, many, uncertain what they should avoid, perished; L. 28, 86. 

7. A Participle or an Adjective may stand alone in the Ablative Absolute : 
Multum certatO,! pervicit, he conquered after a hard struggle; Tac. An. 11, lo. 

8. Quiaque or ipse in the Nominative may accompany the Ablative 

Absolute : 

Causa ipse pr5 s6 dicta damnatur,^ having himself advocated his own 
cause, he is condemned ; L. 4, 44, lo. Exercitus, multls sibi quisque imperium 
petentibus, dilabitur,^ while many seek the command, each for himself , the 
army goes to pieces ; 8. 18, 8. 

9. Abaente nobis, in my absence, in which n5bla is used for m6, is an 
instance of Synesis : 

Quid absente n5bls turbatumst (= turbatum est), what is the disturbance 
in my absence? T. Eun. 649. 

Ablative with Prepositions 

490. Rule. — The Ablative may take a preposition to aid 
in expressing the exact relation intended : 

Maturat ab urbe proficlsci, he hastens to set out from the city. Ab his 
amatur, by these he is loved, Statua ex acre facta, a statue made of bronze. 

1 Here the participle is used impersonally, it having been much contested. 

2 In the first example ipse may be explained as belonging to the subject of 
damn&tur, but in the second quisque has no grammatical connection with any 
other word in the sentence. A plausible view of the construction is that sibl 
quisque, which in certain connections lias become almost a stereotyped formula, 
has been brought over unchanged into the Ablative Absolute from the clause 
which it represents. 



244 SYNTAX 

« 

CSram frequeutissimo conventu, in the presence of the crowded assembly» 
Dulce et decorum est pro patria morl, it is sweet and seemly to die for 
one*s country» Tauro tenus regnare iussus est, he was bidden to limit his 
realm by Mount Taurus (to reign as far as Taurus) ; cf. 0. Deiot. 18, 86. 

1. Note the force of the prepositions in the following expressions: ab 
urbe, from the city; ex urbe, out of the city; in urbe, in the city; cum 
urbe, with the city; pr6 urbe, before the city or in behalf of the city. 

2. The following ten prepositions are used with the Ablative only : 

a, ab, abs, from, by e, ex, out of, from 

absque, without prae, before, in comparison with 

cOram, in the presence of pr5, before, for 

cum, with sine, without 

d6, down from, from tenus, as far as 

Note 1. — A and 8 are used only before consonants, aband ez before 
either vowels or consonants. Abs is antiquated, except before t5. 

Note 2. — Ciun, when used with a Personal or a Relative Pronoun, is 
generally appended to it. 

Note 3. — Tenus follows its case. Being in origin the Accusative of a 
noun, it often takes the Genitive ; see 446, 6. 

3. The following four prepositions are used either with the Accusative or 
with the Ablative : 

in, into, in subter, beneath, under, towards 

sub, under, towards super, above, about, beyond 

In and sub with the Accusative after verbs of motion ; with the Ablative 
after verbs of rest. Subter and super generally with the Accusative ; sub- 
ter with the Ablative rare and mostly poetical ; super with the Ablative 
meaning concerning, of, on, used of a subject of discourse : 

Hannibal exercitum in Italiam duxit, Hannibal led an army into Raly, 
Quam diG in Italia fuit, as long as he icas in Italy. Mllites sub montem suc- 
c6dunt, the soldiers approach towards the mountain. Sub pellibus hiemSre, 
to winter in camp (under skins). Subter murum hostium avehitur, he is 
borne under the \rall of the enemy. Subter d6nsa testudine, under a compact 
testudo. Aquila super carpentum volitans, an eagle flying above the carriage. 
Ilac super r6 scribaiii, I shall write on this subject. 

4. A few words, generally adverbs, sometimes become prepositions, and 
are used with the Ablative, as intus, palam, procul, simul (poetic), and 
rarely clam : 

Tali intus templO, within such a temple ; V. T, 192. Palam populQ, in the 
presence of the people; L. 6, u. Procul dubiO, without doubt or far from 
doubtful; L. 89, 40. Simul his, with these; H. 8. i, lo, 66. Clam vObis, with' 
out your knowledge; Caes. o. 2, 82. 



SUMMARY OF CONSTRUCTIONS OF PLACE AND SPACE 245 

Summaxy of Conatructiona of Place and Space 

491. I. The Names of Places are generally put 

1. In the Accusative with ad or in to denote the Place to or into 
Which : 

Exercitum in Italiani duxit, he led an army into Italy. 

2. In the Ablative with ab, d6, or ex to denote the Place from Which : 
Ab urbe proficiscitur, he sets out from the city. 

3. In the Locative Ablative with in to denote the Place at or in Which : 

Hannibal in Italia fuit, Hannibal was in Italy. In oppido obsidebantur, 
they were besieged in the town. 

II. The Names of Towns and words which follow their analogy 
are put 

1. In the Accusative to denote the Place to Which : 

Legati Athenas missi sunt, ambassadors were sent to Athens. Ego riis 
ibo, / shall go into the country. 

2. In the Ablative to denote the Place from Which : 

Demaratus fugit Corintho, Demaratus Jled from Corinth. Platonem 
Athenis arcessivit, he summoned Plato from Athens. Cum domo profu- 
gisset, when he had fled from home. 

3. In the Locative to denote the Place at or in Which : 

Romae et domi tuae vivere, to live at Rome and in your house. Cypri 
vixit, he lived in Cyprus. 

III. The common constructions of Space are as follows : 

1. Extent of Space is denoted by the Accusative : 
Agger altus pedes octoginta, a mound eighty feet high. 

2. Measure of Difference is denoted by the Ablative : 

Sol raultis partibus maior est quam terra, the sun is very much' larger 
than the earth. 

3. Distance, when regarded as Extent of Space, is denoted by the 
Accusative, but when regarded as Measure of Difference, by the Abla- 
tive : 

Septingenta milia passuum ambulare, to walk seven hundred miles. 
Milibus passuum sex a Caesaris castris consedit, he encamped at the dis- 
tance of six miles from Caesaris camp. 




I 
I 



USB OF ADJBCTITBS. 

492. Adjectives in Latia correspoud in their general uae to 
adjectives in English. 

1. In Latin, as iu Englisb, an adjective may quiilify tlie complex idea 

loTined by a noun nitli une or mote other modlfieis : duae legidnes novae,' 

I two neid legion»; nivSa longae veterfia, old vmr vesaela; colmmia auraa 

I sollda, a eolvmn of solid gold; onerSria nSvia mSzljna, a very large thip 

[ burden. 

Note. — In general no connective is used, when adjeciivea are combined 

I as in these examples; but if the first adjective Is mull^ the connective is 

I TunaUy ingerted, thoiigb it la Bometimea omitted, especially when one of the 

adjectives follows the noun: multae bouaeque* aiteB, many good aria; 

mnlta et praeciaia^ facinora, many lllu»Moui deeds; maltae Uberae 

ctvltstfis, many free states, mann republics; multa bella gravia, many 

493. Prolepsis, or Anticipation. — An adjective or a participle is 
sometimea applied to a noun, especially in poetiy, to denote the 
result of the action expressed by the verb : 

SubmersSs' obnie puppes, overvshelm and sink the ghipi (overwhelm 
the sunken ahips) ; V, 1. Be. Scilta latentia condant, they eoneeal thetr 
(hidden) shields; V. 8, sai. 

494. Adjectives and Participles are often used Substantively 
in the plural. Thus : 

1. Masculine Adjectives and Participles are used ot persons ; Neuter 
Adjectives, chiefly in the Nominative and Accusative, are used of things: 
fortes, dlvltSB, pauperSa, the brave, Che rich, tkt poor; multl, pauot, 
oruiSb, many, few, all ; nostil, Tfiatil, snl, our frlenda, your friend, their 
friends; BpsctantSa, audlentSe, dIeoeatBB, ipectaton, hearers, learners; 
bona. OUUa, futiira, auoiZrtiiijs, useful things, future events ; mea, nostza, 
omnia, mij things, our things, alt things. 

495. Adjectives and Participles are occasionally used Substan- 
tively in the singiilar. Thus ; 

■Here duae mndltiGB nut simply I SKlOnea, lint le^IOnSe nOva« ; so VBterSs 
qualifies nftvSB loHBae, jcnr vc$seh. 

*Ut, many and good; many and illuairlotis. 

■ Observe that aubmereaB gives the result of the action denoted by obrue, 
and is not applicable tu puppSa until thnt nction Is performed ; latentia llkewiae 
^ves the reanlt of ci ' 



USE OF ADJECTIVES '247 

1. In the masculine in a collective sense, especially as a predicate Geni- 
tive after est, etc., and when accompanied by a pronoun: RomSnua = 
Romani, the Boman^ the Bomans; bonus, the good man, the good; aapi- 
entia eat, it is the mark of a wise man or of wise men = it is wise; Mc 
doctuB, doctua quidam, this learned man, a certain learned man; hie 
RoxnSnuB, Romanua quidam, this Boman, a certain Boman. 

2. In the neuter in the Nominative and Accusative, in the Partitive Geni- 
tive, and in the Accusative or Ablative w^ith a preposition : bonum, a good 
thing, a blessing; malum, an evil thing, an evil; nihil boni, nothing (of 
the) good; nihil hum§ni, nothing human; in futurum, for the future; in 
praeaenti, at present. 

3. Conversely a few substantives are sometimes used as adjectives, espe- 
cially verbal nouns in tor and trix : victor ezercitua, victricSa AthSnae, 
a victorious army, victorious Athens; homo gladittor, aervua homo, a 
gladiator, a servant ; populua 15t6 r6x, a people ruling far and wide. 

4. For the use of adjectives with the force of qualifying Genitives, see 437. 

496. Equivalent to a Clause. — Adjectives, like nouns in predi- 
cate apposition, are sometimes equivalent to clauses : 

Alterum vivum amavl, alterum non 5di mortuum, the one I loved while he 
was alive, the other I do not hate now that he is dead; c. Oflf. 8, 18. Ab homine 
numquam sobriO, from a man who is never sober ; c. Ph. 2, 82. 

497. Adjectives and Adverbs. — Adjectives are sometimes used 
where our idiom requires adverbs or adverbial expressions : 

SOcratgs vengnum laetus hausit, Socrates cheerfully drank the poison; 
Sen. Prov. 3. Quod invitus faciQ, which I do unwillingly ; 0. Rose. A. 42, 128. 
Castris s6 pavidus tenebat, he timidly kept himself in camp; L. 8. 26. In 
amOre est tOtus, he is wholly in love, Erat ille R5mae frequSns, he was 
frequently at Borne, Senatus frequgns convenit, the senate assembles in 
large numbers ; C. Fam. lo, 12, 3. 

1. The adjectives chiefly thus used are those expressive of Joy, Knowledge, 
and their opposites, — laetua, libSna, invitua, triatia, aciSna, InaciSna, 
prudSna, imprudSna, etc. ; also nullua, aolua, tdtua, unua, propior, 
proximua, etc. 

2. A few adjectives of Time and Place are sometimes used in the same 
way, though chiefly in the poets : 

Vespertinus pete tectum, at evening seek your abode; H. E. l, 6, 20. 
Domesticus otior, I idle abo2tt the house; H. s. i, 6, 127. 

3. Note the following special uses of such adjectives as prior, prunua, 
prmcepa, poatrSmua, ultimua, etc. : 



248 SYNTAX 

Est primus rogfttus sententiam, he was the first to be asked his opinion ; 
L. 87, 14. Princeps in proelium Ibat, he was the first to go into battle ; L. 21, 4. 

4. Certain adjectives, as prImuB, medius, ultdmus, smnmas, etc., may 
designate a part of an object; as prima noz. the first part of the night; 
BommuB m5n8, the top of the mountain. 

5. In rare instances, adverbs seem to supply tlie place of adjectives : 

R6ctissim6 sunt omnia, all things are perfectly right ; C. Fam. 9, 9. Nunc 
hominum mOrCs, the character of the men of the present day ; PI. Pew. 886. 

6. Numeral adverbs often occur with titles of office : 

Regulus consul iterum, Begulus xohen consul for the second time; cf. 0. Oflf. 

8, 26, 99. 

498. Comparatiyes and Superlatives. — Latin Comparatives and 
Superlatives are generally best rendered by the corresponding 
English forms, but comparatives may sometimes be rendered by 
somewhat, unusually, too, i.e. more than usual, or more than is 
proper, while superlatives are sometimes best rendered by very : 

Ego miserior sum quam tu, / am more unhappy than you. Senecttis est 
loquScior, old age is somewhat loquacious. Gratissimae mihl tuae litterae 
fugrunt, your letter was very acceptable to me. Quam maximus numerus, 
the largest possible number. Unus omnium doctissimus, without exception, 
the most learned of all. Quantam maximam vastitatem potest ostendit, he 
exhibits the greatest possible desolation (as great as the greatest he can); 
L. 22, 8. 

1. Certain superlatives are common as titles of honor: clSrissimtiB, 
n5biliBsimuB, and summus — especially applicable to men of consular or 
senatorial rank ; fortissimus, honestissimus, illiiBtrisEdmuB, and splendi- 
dissimuB — especially applicable to those of the equestrian order : 

Pompgius, vir fortissimus et clarissimus, Pompey^ a man most brave and 
illustrious; c. i. Ver. 15, 44. Equites ROmani, honestissimi viri, the Boman 
knights, most honorable men; c. c. 1, 8, 21. 

499. Comparatives after Quam. — When an object is said to 
possess one quality in a higher degree than another, the two 
adjectives thus used may be connected by magis quam, the usual 
method in Cicero, or both may be put in the comparative : 

Praeclarum magis est quam difficile, it is more admirable than difficult, or 
admirable rather than difficult; c. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 11. DitiOres quam forti5r6s, 
more wealthy than brave; L. 39, l. 






USE OF PRONOUNS 249 

1. In a similar manner, two Adverbs may be connected by magia quam, 
or both may be put in the comparative : 

Magis audacter quam parate, with more courage than preparation ; C. Brut. 
68, 241. Bellum fortius quam felicius gerere, to wage war with more valor 
than success. 

2. The form with magis, both in adjectives and in adverbs, may some- 
times be best rendered rather than : 

Ars magis magna quam difficilis, an art extensive rather than difficult. 

3. In the later Latin, the positive sometimes follows quaxn, even when 
the regular comparative precedes, and sometimes two positives are used : 

Vehementius quam caut6 appetere, to seek more eagerly than cautiously ; 
cf. Tac. Agr. 4. Clari quam vetusti, illustrious rather than ancient, 

4. For the use of comparatives before quam pro, see 471, 7, 



USE OF PRONOUNS 

500. Personal Pronouns. — The Nominative of Personal Pro- 
nouns is used only for emphasis or contrast: 

Naturam si sequ6mur, numquam aberrabimus, if we follow nature^ we 
shall never go astray. Ego r6g6s 6i6ci, vOs tyrannOs intrOddcitis, / have 
banished kings, you introduce tyrants ; Ad Her. 4, 53. 

1. With quidem, the pronoun is usually expressed, but not with equi- 
dem : 

Facis amice tu quidem, you act indeed in a friendly manner, Non dubi- 
tabam equidem, / did not doubt indeed, 

2. A writer sometimes speaks of himself in the plural, using nos for ego, 
noBter for meus, and the plural verb for the singular : 

Vides n5s multa c5narl, you see that I attempt many things; C. Orator, so, 105. 
Et nostra lectitas, and you often read my writings; 0. Orator, 80, 106. Librum 
ad t6 misimus, I have sent the hook to you; 0. Sen. i, 8. 

3. In Plautus and in Horace, noster, our friend, occurs in the sense 
of ego : 

Tu m6 ali6nabis numquam quin noster siem, you shall never make me to 
be any other than myself; pi. Amph. 399. Subiectior in diem invidiae noster, 
lam daily more exposed to unpopularity; H. s. 2, 6. 

4. Mei, tui, BUI, noBtrl, and vcBtri are generally used as Objective 
Genitives; nostrum and vestmm, as Partitive Genitives — though wltbi 



250 SYNTAX 

omnium, and in certain special expressions, nostzum and vestmin are 

used as Possessive Genitives: 

Hab6tis ducem raemorem vestrl, oblitum sui, you have a leader mindful 
of you, forgetful of himself; c. c. 4, 9. Uni cuique vestrum, to every one of 
you; c. Ph. 5, 1. Communis parens omnium nostrum, the common mother 
of us all ; C. C. i, 7. Quantus consensus vestrum, how great unanimity on 
your part (of you); c. Ph. 5, i. 

6. A Personal Pronoun with ab, ad, or apud may designate the Resi- 
dence or Abode of a person : 

Quisnam 9. nObis ggreditur f oras, who is coming out of our house f T. Heaat 
561. V6ni ad m6, / came to my house ; C. Att. 16, lo. Run apud s6 est, he is 
at his residence in the country ; cf. c. Or. l, 49, 214. 

501. Possessives, when not emphatic, are seldom expressed if 
they can be supplied from the context : 

In eO studio aetatem constimpsl, / have spent my life in this pursuit. Sic 
oculOs, sic ille mantis ferSbat, thus he moved his eyes, thus his hands, Mea 
domus tibi patet, mihl clausa est, my house is open to you, closed to me; 

0. Rose. A. 50, 146. 

1. Possessives sometimes mean appropriate, proper, favorable, propitious, 
as aliSnus sometimes means unsuitable, unfavorable : 

Ego ann5 meo c5nsul factus sum, I was made consul in my own proper 
year (i.e. on reaching the legal age) ; cf. C. Brut. 94, 323. Ferunt sua flftmina 
classem, favoring winds bear the fleet; V. 5, 832. Ali6n5 loc5 proelium com- 
mittunt, they engage in battle in an unfavorable situation; Caes. l, 15. 

2. Remember that the Possessive is regularly used for the Subjective 
Genitive of personal pronouns, and sometimes, though rarely, for the 
Objective Genitive; see 440, 2, Note 2: 

Tua sul memoria delectatur, he is delighted with your recollection of him ; 
0. Att. 13, 1, 3. Neque odiO id fecit tu5, nor did he do it from hatred of you ; 

T. Ph. 1016. 

3. For the possessive in combination with a Genitive, see 446, 3. 

502. Reflexive Use of Pronouns. — The Personal and Possessive 
Pronouns may be used reflexively; sui and suns are regularly 
so used : 

M6 ipse c5ns5lor, I comfort myself; C. Am. 8, 10. Ipse s6 quisque diligit, 
every one loves himself Anteposuit suam salutem meae, he preferred his 
own safety to mine. 



USE OF PRONOUNS 251 

1. Reciprocal Use of Pronouns. — The reciprocal relation which objects 
often sustain to each other may be variously expressed, as by inter nos, 
inter vos, and inter s5, each other, one another, together; by the reflexive 
Bui with ipsi ; by alius alium or alter alterum ; and by repeating the 
noun in an oblique case : 

Pueri amant inter s6, the hoys love one another. Milites sibi ipsI sunt im- 
pediraentO, the soldiers are a hindrance to one another. Alius alium domOs 
suas invitant, they invite one another to their homes. Homings hominibus 
utiles esse possunt, men can he useful to men (i.e. to one another). 

503. In simple sentences and in principal clauses,, sui and suns 
generally refer to the subject : 

Per s6 quisque sibi cSrus est, every one is hy his own nature (per sS, 
through or of himself) dear to himself; C. Am. 21, 80. Caesar c5pi^ suSs 
di visit, Caesar divided his forces, 

1. As sui and suus generally refer to the subject, the demonstratives 
is, ille, etc., are generally used to refer to other words in the sentence : 

Deum agnOscis ex operibus 6ius, you recognize God hy (from) his works, 

2. Synesis. — When the subject of the verb is not the real agent of 
the action, sui and suus may refer to that agent : 

A Caesare invTtor sibI ut sim Iggatus, / am invited hy Caesar (real agent) 
to he lieutenant to him ; C. Att. 2, 18. 

3. With such indefinite and impersonal expressions as the following, 
sui and suus refer to some indefinite person conceived as the author of 
the action : 

DefOrme est de s6 praedicSre,! to hoast of one^s self is unseemly; 0. Oflf. l, 
88, 187. Perventum ad suOs erat,^ they had come to their friends; L. 88, 8. 

4. Suus, meaning his own, their own, Jilting, etc., especially with qtiis- 
que, and the plural of suus, meaning his friends, their friends, their pos- 
sessions, etc., are used with great freedom, often referring to oblique cases : 

lustitia suum cuique distribuit, Justice gives to every one his due (his 
own) ; c. N. D. 8, 15. Su5 cuique iudicio est titendum, every one must use 
his oxon judgment; C. N. d. 3, i. COnserva tuis suOs, for the sake of your 
friends, spare their friends; c. Lig. ii, 88. 

504. In Subordinate Clauses expressing the Thought, Wish, or 
Purpose of the principal clause, as in the Infinitive clause, final 

1 Here observe that the reflexives s5 and 8u6s refer to the indefinite agents 
of the action expressed by praedicftre and perventum erat. 



262 SYNTAX 

clause, indirect questions, and the like, sui and buub generally 
refer to the subject of the principal clause ; in all other subordi- 
nate clauses, they generally refer to the subject of their own 
clause, and are called Direct Reflexives: 

Sentit animus s6 vl sua movCri, the soul perceives that it is moved by its 
own power; c. Tusc. i, 28, 65. Ubii Orant ut sibi parcat, the Ubii ask him to 
spare them. Perv6stlgat quid sui civ6s cOgitent, he tnes to ascertain what 
his fellow-citizeris think, NCminem cOgnOvi po6tam, qui sibI nOn optimus 
vid6r6tur, / have known no poet who did not seem to himself to he the best; 

0. Tusc. 5, 22, 63. 

1. After verbs of Advising, Exhorting, etc., sui and suus generally 
refer to the Subordinate Subject, as the person in whose interest the 
advice is given : 

NerviOs hortatur n6 sui llberandi occSsiOnem dimittant, ?ie exhorts tJie 
Nervii not to lose the opportunity of freeing themselves; Caea. 5, 88. 

2. Two Reflexives. — Sometimes a clause has one reflexive referring to 
the Principal subject, and another referring to the Subordinate subject : 

Respondit neminem sScum sine sua pernicifi contendisse, he replied that 
no one had fought with him without (his) destruction ; Caes. i, 86. 

3. When the Reflexive refers to the Subordinate subject, the Demon- 
strative or Determinative refers to the Principal subject : 

Persuadent Tulingis uti oppidis suis exustis una cum iis proficlscantur, 
they persuaded the Tulingi that, having burned their towns, they should 
depart with them; Caes. i, 5, 4. 

4. Reflexives are sometimes used with participles, referring to the 
agent of the action implied in them : 

Hunc rex exc6pit diffldentemquei r6bus suis cOnfirmavit, the king received 
him and encouraged him when he had lost confidence in his own strength ; 

C. Man. 9, 23. 

5. Reflexives are sometimes used idiomatically with a few prepositions, 
especially with per, propter, cum, in : 

Valetudinem ipsam propter s6 expetgmus, we shall seek health for itself; 
c. Fin. 5, 17. Cacsar Fabium cum sua^ legiOne remittit, Caesar sends back 
Fahius icith (having) Ms legion; Caes. 5, 53. ^ 

1 Observe that if an equivalent subordinate clause be substituted for the parti- 
ciple diffidentem, as in the translation, the reflexive would be entirely in order, 
and would refer to the su])ject of its own clause. 

2 Observe that cum legione sua is equivalent to leg-iSnem suani ha- 
bentem, in which the use of the reflexive is the same as that described above 
under number 4. 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 253 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 

505. Hie, Iste, ille, are often called, respectively, demonstratives 
of the first, second, and third persons, as hie designates that which 
is near the speaker ; iste, that which is near the person addressed ; 
and ille, that which is remote from both : 

lovem, custOdem huius urbis, Jupiter the guardian of this (our) city. 
Muta istam mentem, change that purpose of yours. IllOs quOs vidCre nOn pos- 
sumus neglegis, you disregard those whom we can not see. 

1. Hic designates an object conceived as near, and ille as remote, 
whether in space, time, or thought : 

NOn antiquO illO mOre, sed hOc nostrO 6ruditus, educated not in the manner 
of the olden times^ but in this our modern way ; c. Brut. 35, 132. 

506. Former and Latter. — In reference to two objects previously 
mentioned, 

1. Hic generally follows ille and refers to the latter object, while ille 
refers to the former ; 

AcerbOs inimicOs . . . e5s amicOs . . . ill! v6rum saepe dicunt, hi numquam, 
hitter enemies . . . those friends . . . the former often speak the truth, the latter 
never; cf. c. Am. 24, 90. 

2. Hic refers to the former object when that object is conceived of as 
near in thought, either because of its importance or because of its close 
connection with the subject under discussion. It may then stand either 
before or after ille : 

Melior est certa pftx quam spSrftta vict5ria; haec in tuft, ilia in deOrum 
manti est, sure peace is better than hoped-for victory; the former is in your 
own hand, the latter in that of the gods; L. so, so. Senex . . . adul^scSns 
. . . ille vult diu vivere, hic did vixit, the aged man . . . the young man . . . 
the latter wishes to live a long time; the former has lived a long time; 

C. Sen. 19, 68. 

507. Other Uses of Demonstratives. — Hic and ille are often used 
of what belongs to the immediate context : 

Haec quae scrib5 et ilia quae anteft questus sum, these things which I am 
writing and those of lohich I before complained ; s. 24, 9. His verbis epistulam 
misit, he sent a letter in these (the following) words ; N. 2, 9, l. 

1. Hic et ille, ille aut ille, etc., this and that, that or that, are sometimes 
used in the sense one or two, one or another: 

Hoc signum et illud, this statue and that, one or two statues. 



254 SYNTAX 

2. HIc, as a demonstrative of the first person, is sometimes, especially in 
poetry, equivalent to mens or noster; and hic hom5, rarely hlc alone, 
to ego : 

Supra banc memoriam, before our time (this memory); Caes. 6, 19. Hic 
homOst (hom5 est) omnium hominum praecipuos, this man (myself) is the 
moat favored of all men ; Pi. Trin. iii5. Hunc hominem vellfis si trftdere, if 
you were willing to introduce me (this man) ; H. 8. l, 9, 47. 

3. late, as a demonstrative of the second person, is often applied to an 
opponent, or to a defendant in a court of justice ; accordingly the idea of 
Disrespect or Contempt seems at times to be associated with it, though not 
strictly contained in the pronoun itself : 

Quae est ista praettira, what sort of praetorship is that of yours f O. Ver. 
2, 18, 46. Animi est ista mollitia, nOn virtus, that is an effeminate spirit^ 
not valor. 

4. nie is often used of what is well known, famous, and in that sense it 
is sometimes in apposition with a Personal pronoun : 

Magnus ille Alexander, that famous Alexander the Great ; C Arch, lo, «4. 
nie ego liber, ille ferOx tacui, 7, that unrestrained, that fearless one, was 
silent. 

6. nie is sometimes nearly or quite redundant, especially with quidem : 

ApollOnius ille quidem su5 cOnsiliO, sed etiam m6 auctOre est profectus, 
Apollonius set out of his own free will indeed, but also with my advice; 
c. Fam. 13, 16. Qui venit, multum ille et terris iactatus et altO, who came, after 
having been much tossed about on land and sea ; v. i, i. 

6. A demonstrative is sometimes equivalent to a Genitive or to a prepo- 
sition with its case: hic amor = amor huius rei, the love of this; haec 
oura = cura dS hoc, care concerning this: 

Ea f ormidine multi mortal6s R5manis dediti obsidgs, from the fear of these 
things many were delivered as hostages to the Romans; 8. 64, 6. 

7. Adverbs derived from demonstratives share the distinctive meanings of 
the pronouns themselves : 

Hic plus mail est, quam illic boni, there is more of evil here than of good 
there; T. And. 720. 

DETERMINATIVE PRONOUNS 

508. Is and idem refer to preceding nouns, or are the ante- 
cedents of relatives : 

Dionysius aufugit ; is est in prOvincia tua, Dionysius has fled; he is in your 
province. Homines id quod volunt credunt, men believe that which they 



DETERMINATIVE PRONOUNS 26^ 

desire, FScit idem quod fScerat Coriol3.nus, he did the same thing which 
Coriolanus had done, 

1. The pronoun is is often understood before the relative or a Genitive : 

Sunt qui c6nseant, there are those who think, Flebat uterque, pater de 
filii morte, d6 patris filius, each wept^ the father over the impending death of 
the son, the son over (that) of the father; c. Ver. i, 30. 

2. Is with a conjunction is often used for emphasis, like the English 
and that too, and that indeed : 

Unam rem explicabO, eamque mSximam, one thing I will explain, and that 
too a very important one. Audire Cratippum, idque Athenis, to hear Cra- 
tippus, and that too at Athens; cf. c. Oflf. i, i. 

3. Idem is sometimes best rendered also, at the same time, both, yet : 

Qui fortis est, idem est fid6ns, he who is brave, is also confident. Cum 
optimam naturam dei dicat esse, negat idem, etc., though he says that the 
nature of God is most excellent, he yet denies, etc. j c. N. D. i, 48, 121. R6x 
Anius, r6x idem hominum Phoebique sacerdOs, King Anius, both king of 
men and priest of Apollo ; v. 8, 80. 

4. Is . . . qui means he , . , who, such . , , as, such . . . that : 

Tti es is qui m6 5rnasti, you are the man (he) who has honored me. Ea 
est R5mana g6ns quae victa quigscere nesciat, the Roman race is such that it 
knows not how to rest when vanquished; L. 9, 8. 

5. Idem . . . qui means the same . . . who, the same , , . as ; idem . . . 
ac or atque, idem . . . et or que, idem . . . ut, idem . . . cum with the 
Ablative, the same . . . as: 

Animus t6 ergS, idem est ac fuit, the feeling toward you is the same as it 
was ; T. Heaut. 266. E5dem m6cum patre genitus est, he is the son of the same 
father as I (with me) ; Tac. A. 16, 2. 

509. Ipse adds emphasis, generally rendered self: 

Quod ipse Caesar cOgnOverat, which Caesar himself had ascertained. Ipse 
pater fulmina molitur, the father himself (Jupiter) hurls the thunderbolts. 
Ipse dixit 1; ipse autem erat Pythagoras, he himself said it; but he was 
Pythagoras. 

1. Ipse belongs to the emphatic word, whether subject or object, but with 
a preference for the subject when no special emphasis rests on the object : 

1 Applied to Pythagoras by his disciples. Ipse is often thus used of a superior, 
as of a master, teacher, etc. 



268 SYNTAX. 

6. Relative clauses in Latin, with or without antecedents, are sometimes 
equivalent to nouns, adjectives, or participles in English, as, il qui audiimt, 
those who hear, hearers ; homlnSs qui nunc aunt, men of the present gen- 
eration, our contemporaries; il, quda Bupr§ disd, the above-mentioned 

persons : 

Polltus lis artibus, qu9,s qui tenent, Srudltl appellantur, accomplished in 
those arts whose possessors are called learned; C. Fin. i, 7, 26. 

7. Qui dicitur, qui vocSLtur, or the corresponding active, quein dibunt, 
quem vocant, etc., are often used in the sense of so called, the so-called, 
what they or you call, etc. : 

Vestra, quae dicitur, vita mors est, your so-called (your which is called) life 
is death. Lex ista, quam vocas, n5n est l€x, that law, as you call it, is not 

a law ; C. l)o:n. 19, 50. 

8. A Relative Clause is sometimes equivalent to the Ablative with pr6. 
Quae tua prudentia est = qu& es prudentiSt = pr5 tuft prddentift means 
such is your prudence, or in accordance with your prudence : 

Sp6r0, quae tua prudentia est, tC val6re, I hope you are well, such is your 
prudence (which is, etc.); C. Att. 6, 9, i. 

9. The neuter quod, used as an adverbial Accusative, often stands at the 
beginning of a sentence or clause, especially before si, ni, nisi, etal, and 
sometimes before quia, quoniam, utdnam, etc., to indicate a close connec- 
tion with what precedes. In translating, it is sometimes best omitted, and 
sometimes best rendered by now, in fact, but, and : 

Quod si forte ceciderhit, but if, perchance, they should fall; 0. Am. 16,68. 
Quod si ego rescivissem id prius, noio, if I had learned this sooner; T. And. 258. 

10. The neuter quicquid, of the general relative, accompanied by an 
adjective, a participle, or a Genitive, may be used of persons : 

Matr6s et quicquid tecum invalidum est d6lige, select the mothers and 
whatever feeble persons there are with you; V. 5, 715. 

11. The Relative Adverbs quo, ubi, and unde are sometimes used of 

persons, instead of relative pronouns with prepositions : 

Apud e5s qu5 s6 contulit, among those to whom he betook himself. Is unde 
te audlsse dicis, he from whom you say that you heard it; c. Or. 2,70, 286. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 

511. The Interrogatives quis and quid are generally used as 
substantives, who? what person? what? ichat thing? Qui and 
quod are generally used as adjectives, what? of what kindy sort^ 
or character? 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 259 

Quia clSrior Themistocle, who more illustrious than Themistoclesf Quis 
ego sum, who am If Quid ego dic5, what am I saying f Qui locus est, 
quod tempus, what place is there f what time? In qua urbe vivimus, in 
what sort of a city are we living f 

1. This distinction between quia and qui, quid and quod, was almost 
or quite unknown in early Latin, and it is not always observed even by 
Cicero : 

Quis hom5 t6 rapit, what man is seizing you f Pi. Rud. 870. Quis rCx 
umquam f uit, what king was there ever f C. Div. l, 43, 95. 

2. Which of two is generally expressed by uter. Which one of a larger 
number is expressed by quia : 

Quaeritur, ex duObus, uter dignior ; ex pltiribus, quis dignissimus ; of two^ 
we ask, which is the more worthy; of a larger number, who is the most 
worthy; Quint. 7, 4, 21. 

3. Two Interrogatives sometimes occur in the same clause: 

Quis quern fraudavit, who defrauded, and whom did he defraud (who 

defrauded whom) ? C. Rose. C. 7, 21. 

4. Tantus sometimes accompanies the Interrogative Pronoun : 
Qui tantus fuit labor, what so great labor was there f C. Dom. 11, 27. 

5. Quid, why f how is that f is often used adverbially, or stands appar- 
ently unconnected : quid enim, why then f what th^ji f what indeed f quid 
ita, why so f quid quod, what of the fact that f quid si, what if f 

Loquere, quid v6nisti, say, why have you come f Quid ? n5nne responde- 
bis, what f will you not reply f Quid quod dglectantur, what of the fac^ 
that they are delighted f C. Fin. 6, 19, 52. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 

512. Quia, all-quia, quia-piam, and qui-dam may be conveniently 
grouped together. Of these, quia, any one, is the most indefinite, 
and quidam, a certain one, the least indefinite, while allquia and 
quiapiam, some one, not distinguished from each other in meaning, 
are less indefinite than quia, but more so than quidam : 

SI qua civita^ fScisset aliquid Sius modi, if any state had done anything 
of this kind. Num quid vis aliud, do you wish anything else f POnere iub6- 
bam, de quO quis audire vellet, / asked any one to name the subject about 
which he (any one) might wish to hear ; 0. Tusc. l, 4, 7. Forsitan aliquis 6ius 
modi quippiam fgcerit, perhaps some one may have done something of the kind. 
Est aliquod numen, there is a divinity. Accurrit quidam, nOtus mihl nOmine 
tantum, a certain one runs up, knovm to me only by name ; H. B. i, 9, 8. 



I 



1. QuiB US a, substantive, luid qui as an adjective, are uaed chieSy after 
u, nisi, nfi, num, and in Kelative clauaea ; see the first three examplcE 
above. Tliey suuittimes sland in tlie relative clause, even when logically 
they seem to belong to the antecedent clause, as in the third example. 

2. Most of the foruiH of allqula may be used either as nouns or as adjec- 
tives, but allqnid is a noun, and aliquod an adjective. Aliqnis and aliqul 
souietimes mean Eome person or tiling of importance, notf , or value : 

AudS aliquid, si vis esse aliqulB, dare something, if you wish to i 

3. AllqnlB seems at times to mean Tnaii^ a one .■ 
Dlxerat aliquis sententiam, many a one had expresied his opinion; Cwe. 



Allquis is sometimes used with numerals to denote an appr 
rtmmber, cliietly in familiar Latin ; 

AliquOs viginti dies, some twenty daps. 

6. Qnldam, with an adjective, la sometimes used to qualify or soften d 



Est gloria Holida quaedam rSs, fflory is a aomevihat substantial thing- 

6. Qnldam with quaal lias the force of a certain, a kind of, as it wefi9 

Quasi quaedam Socratica raediclna, a kind of Socralle taedieine. 



' 7. NeBcl5 quia and neaoiQ qui often supply the place of Indefinite pro- 
nouns, especially in poetry : 

Hie nesciO quia loquitur, here some one (I know not who) «pen 

613. Quia-quam, any one whatever, is more general in its moc 
ing than the simple qtds, any one. Thia pronouu aad the pronom- 
inal adjective uIIub are used chiefly in negative and conditional 
sentences, and in interrogative sentences, implying a negative : 

Meque mS quisquam ibl fignOvit, and no one whatever recogulted me there ; 
C. Tssc. 5. Sii, liM. Num censes Qllum animal sine corde esse posse, do you thint 
that any animal can 6e mthout a heart ? 

1. Nfimfi is the negative of quisquam, and like qolaquam is 
used as a noun, though with the designations of peraons it may be used ai 

Aut nSmn aut CatO sapiens fuit, eUker no one or Cato was wise. P 
cOgnovi poetam, / have known no poet ; c. Tuat. 5, 22. 

2. NtUlua, the negative of QUub, is generally used as an adjective 
it regularly supplies the Genitive and Ablative of tlfimO ; 




GENERAL INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 261 

Nulla aptior pers5na, no more suitable person. N6rainem laesit ; ndllius 
aurls violavit, he has injured no one; he has shocked no one^s ears; c. Mur. 

40, 87. 

8. NuUuB and nihil are sometimes used for an emphatic non : 
Philotlmus nuUus venit, Philotimus did not come ; C. Att. ii, 24. 

GENERAL INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 

514. Quivis and quilibet mean, any one you wish, any one you 
please, any one whatever; quisque, every one, each one: 

Quivis heres pectiniam potuit auferre, any heir whatever might take the 
money. Quidlibet faciat, let him do what he likes. Quod quisque dixit, 
what every one said. 

515. Quisque is very freely used in Latin, but chiefly as 
follows : 

1. After Reflexive, Relative, and Interrogative Pronouns: 

Ipse s6 quisque diligit, every one loves himself. Defendat quod quisque 
sentit, let every one defend his convictions (what he thinks). Interest qu5s 
quisque audiat, it makes a difference whom each one hears; C. Brut. 58, 210. 

2. After Superlatives and Ordinals, where it is generally best rendered 
by all , every ; with primus by very^ possible : 

Epicureos doctissimus quisque contemnit, all the most learned despise the 
Epicureans. QuintO quOque anno, every four years (every fifth year). Primo 
quoque tempore, at the earliest possible opportunity, the very first. 

3. After unus, as in iinus quisque, every one, every person : 

Ego n6vi et unus quisque vestrum, I know and every one of you knows, 

4. Observe that in all these examples, quisque follows the word with 
which it is associated. This is the usual order, but the reflexive often fol- 
lows in poetry, and sometimes even in classical prose : 

Quod est cuiusque maxime suum, which is especially one^s own; C. Off. 1,81. 

5. nt quisque . . . ita with the superlative in both clauses is often best 
rendered, the more . . . the more : 

Ut quisque sibi plurimum confidit, ita m9,xime excellit, the more confidence 
one has in one^s self the more one excels; c. Am. 9, so. 

6. Quotus quisque means, hoio rarely one, how few: 

Quotus quisque disertus est, how rarely is one eloquent, or how few are 

eloquent ? C. Plane. 25, 62. 



262 SYNTAX 

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES 

516. Alius means another, other; alter, the one, the other (pt two), 
the second, a second. They are often repeated : alius . . . alins^ one 
. . . another; alii . . . alii, some . . . others; alter . . . alter, the one 
» , , the other; alteri . . . alteri, the one party . . . the other: 

Aliud est male dicere, aliud accusftre, it is one thing to revile^ another to 
accuse. Alii glOriae serviant, alii pecuniae, some are slaves to glory^ others 
to money. Altera (filia) occlsa, altera capta est, one daughter loas slain, the 
other captured; Caes. i, 53. Hamilcar, Mars alter, Hamilcar, a second Mars; 
L. 21, 10, 8. Alteri dimicant, alteri timent, one party fights, the other fears. 

1. Alius and alter repeated in different cases, or combined with alifis or 
aliter, form various idiomatic expressions, which, if judged by the English 
standard, would seem to be elliptical : 

Alius alium dom5s suas invitant, they invite one another to their homes; 
8. 66, 3. Aliter alii vivunt, some live in one way, others in another; C. ad Brut 
1, 13. nil alias aliud sentiunt, they entertain one opinion at one time, another 
at another ; c. Or. 2, 7. 

2. The derivative adverbs, ali&s and aliter, are sometimes repeated as 
correlatives, aliSs . . . aliSLs, at one time . . . at another time, aliter . . . 
aliter, in one way . . . in another way : 

Alias beatus est, alias miser, at one time he is happy, at another, unhappy ; 

cf. C. Fin. 2, 27, 87. 

3. After alius, aliter, and the like, atque, ac, and et often mean tJian, 
and nisi, than or except : 

N5n alius essem atque nunc sum, / would not be other than I am ; O. Pam. 
1, 9, 21. Nihil aliud nisi pSx quaesita videtur, nothing except (other than) 
peace seems to have been sought; cf. c. Off. i, 28; so. 

4. Uterque means both^ each of two. In the plural it generally means 
botk^ each of two parties, but sometimes both, each of two persons or things; 
regularly so with nouns which are plural in form but singular in sense : 

Uterque, mater et pater, domi erant, both, mother and father, were at home. 
Utrique vict5riam crudeliter exerc6bant, both parties made a cruel use of 
victory. E castris utrisque, out of both camps. 

5. Uterque standing in two different cases may mean one . . . the other or 
one another : each . . . the other : 

Cum uterque utrique esset in conspectfi, since they were in sight of one 
another ; Caes. 7, 85. 



VOICES, NUMBERS, AND PERSONS 263 

SYNTAX OF VERBS 
USE OF VOICES, NUMBERS, AND PERSONS 

517. The Voices in Latin correspond in their general meaning 
and use to the Active and Passive Voices in English, but orig- 
inally the Passive Voice had a reflexive meaning, like the Greek 
Middle, and was equivalent to the Active with a reflexive pro- 
noun, a meaning which is still retained in a few verbs, especially 
in poetry : 

Lavantur in fluminibus, they bathe (wash themselves) in the rivers; Caes. 4, i. 
Came vescfibantur, they lived upon (fed themselves with) flesh ; s. 89. Galeam 
induitur, he puts on his helmet; v. 2, 392. Capita veiamur, we veil our heads; 

V. 3, 545. 

518. Passive Construction. — With transitive verbs, a thought 
may at the pleasure of the Avriter be expressed either actively or 
passively : 

Deus mundum aedificavit, God made (built) the world, A de5 mundus 
aedificatus est, the xoorld was made by God. 

1. Intransitive verbs have regularly only the active voice, but they 
are sometimes used impersonally in the third person singular of the 
passive : 

Curritur ad praet5rium, they run to the praetorium (there is running); 
C. Ver. 5, 35, 92. Mihl cum iis vivendum est qu5s vici, I must live with those 
whom I have conquered; 0. 0. 8, 12. 

2. Some verbs, otherwise intransitive, occasionally form a personal 
passive in poetry : 

Ego cur, adquirere pauca si possum, invideor, why am I envied if I am able 
to add a few words f H. A. p. 55. Nunc tertia vivitur aetas, / am now living in 
the third age (the third age is being lived) ; o. M. 12, 188. 

3. Deponent Verbs have in general the forms of the Passive Voice with 
the meaning of the Active, or Middle. They have, however, certain forms of 
the Active ; see 222 : 

HOC mirabar, / wondered at this, Pliirimls rgbus fruimur, we enjoy (de- 
light ourselves witli) many things, 

4. For Semi-Deponent Verbs, see 224. 



264 SYNTAX 

PERSON AND NUMBER 

519. In Latin an individual is regularly addressed in the 
singular, but the writer, or speaker, often refers to himself in 
the plural; see 500, 2: 

Sic rar5 scribis, you write so seldom. D6 ceteris saepe dlc^mus, I shall 
often speak of the other things ; c. Sen. i, 8. 

1. For the Use of Voice, Number, and Person in Designating a General or 
Indefinite Subject, you, we, people in general, see 888, 3. 

DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE THREE FINITE MOODS 

520. The Indicative Mood, alike in present, past, and future 
time, represents the action of the verb as an actual fact : 

Gloria virtutem sequitur, glory follows merit. Quoniam d6 genera belli 
dixi, nunc d6 magnitudine dicam, since I have spoken of the character of the 
war, I shall now speak of its magnitude. 

521. The Subjunctive Mood represents the action of the verb, 
as Possible, as Desired, or as Willed : 

Forsitan (juaeratis, perhaps you may inquire ; c. Rose. A. 2, 5. Valeant civ6s 
mei, may my fellow citizens he well. Suum quisque nOscat ingenium, let 
every one learn to know his own character ; C Off. i, 31, 114. 

522. The Imperative Mood, like the Subjunctive, represents 
the action as willed or desired, but it is used almost exclu- 
sively in Commands and Prohibitions. Accordingly, in these 
the Imperative and Subjunctive supplement each other; see 660: 

Valetudinem tuam cura, take care of your health. Saltis populi suprgma 
l6x estO, the safety of the people shall he (let it be) the supreme law; 
c. Lcp. 3, 3. N5li imitari mal5s medicos, do not imitate incompetent physi- 
cians ; C. Fam. 4, 5, 5. 

USE OF THE INDICATIVE 

523. Rule. — The Indicative is used in treating of facts: 

Romulus septem et trlginta regnavit annos, Romulus reigned thirty- 
seven years. Nonne nobilitarl volunt, do they not wish to be renowned? 
Si haec ci vitas est, if this is a state. 



USE OF THE INDICATIVE 266 

1. The Indicative thus treats of facts, not only in the form of statements, 
as in the first example, but also in the form of questions, as in the second, 
and of conditions or assumptions, as in the third. 

524. The Indicative, though more common in Principal Clauses, 
is also used in Subordinate Clauses, but only in treating of Facts. 
Thus 

1. In Relative Clauses : 

Homings id, quod volunt, credunt, men believe that which they wish. 
For the Subjunctive in Relative Clauses, see 689. 

2. In Conditional Clauses : 

Si haec civitas est, if this is a state. 

For the Subjunctive in Conditional Sentences, see 673. 

3. In Adversative and Concessive Clauses : 

Quamquam festinas, n5n est mora longa, although you are in haste, the 
delay is not long. 

For the Subjunctive in Adversative and Concessive Clauses, see 686. 

4. In Causal Clauses : 

Quoniam supplicStiO dgcreta est, since a thanksgiving has been decreed. 
For the Subjunctive in Causal Clauses, see 698. 

5. In Temporal Clauses : 

Cum quiescunt, probant, while they are silent, they approve. 
For the Subjunctive in Temporal Clauses, see 600. 

525. Special Uses. — Notice the following special uses of the In- 
dicative, apparently somewhat at variance with the English idiom : 

1. In expressions of Duty, Propriety, Ability, and the like; hence in 
the Periphrastic Conjugations, especially in conditional sentences : 

Eum contumeliis onerasti, quem colere debebSs,^ you have loaded with 
insults one whom you ought to have revered; c. Phil. 2, 8S. N5n suscipi 
bellum oportuit,^ the war should not have been undertaken; L. 6, 4. MultOs 
possum 1 bonOs vir5s nOminare, / might name (I am able to name) many 
good men; c. Tusc. 2, 19. Relicturi agr5s erant,^ nisi litterSs misisset, they 

1 In these examples, the peculiarity in the use of the Indicative is only apparent 
Here, as elsewhere, it deals only with facts. Thus, quem colere deb6b3.s, 
whom it loas your duty, in fact, to revere ; oportuit, it was actually proper that 
the war should not be undertaken ; possum, / am able, etc.; relictdri erant, 
they were about to leave, or on the point of leaving. 



266 SYNTAX 

would have left their lands if he had not sent a letter; G. Y«r. 8, n, Haeo 
C0Ddici6 nOn accipienda fait, this condition should not have been occupied, 

2. The Indicative of the verb sum is often used ¥rith longnm, 
aeqaam, aequios, difficile, irlstaxn, melius, pSr, iltiliiiB, etc., in such 
expressions as longnm est, it would he tedious ; melius erat, U would have 
been better: 

Longam est omnia €namerare proelia, it would he tedious (it is a long task) 
to enumerate all the battles; y. 23, 5. Melius fuerat, pr5missam n5n esse 
serv&tum, it would have been better (it had been better) that the promise 
should not have been kept; c. Off. 8, 25. 

3. Pronouns and Relative Adverbs, made general by being doubled, 
or by assuming the suffix cumque, and the Conjunctions alve . . . alve, 
take the Indicative : 

Quisquis est, is est sapiens, whoever he may be (is), lie is wise; C. Tiuc. 4,17. 
Hoc ultimum, utcumque initum est, proelium fuit, this^ however it may have 
been begun, was the last battle; L. £6, 6. Yeniet tempus, sive retrSct&bis, 
sive properabis, the time will come whether you may be reluctant or in haste; 

C. Tusc. 1, 81, 76. 

4. The Historical Tenses of the Indicative, particularly the Pluperfect, 
are sometimes used for effect, to represent, as an actual fact, something 
which is shown by the context never to have become fully so : 

Vlceramus, nisi rec6pisset AntOnium, we should have (we had) conquered, 
had he not received Antony. 

TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE 

526. The Latin, like tbe Englisb, distinguishes three periods 
of time, Present, Past, and Future: lego, I am reading; legebam, 
/ was reading ; legam, / shall he reading, 

527. In each of the three periods of time, Present, Past, and 
Future, an action may be represented in three different ways. It 
may be Incomplete, Completed, or Indefinite. An action is said 
to be Indefinite when it is viewed in its simple occurrence with- 
out reference to duration or completion. 

528. The Latin has special forms for Incomplete and Com- 
pleted action, but it has no special forms for Indefinite action, as 
is shown in the following: 



T£NS£S OF THE INDICATIVE 



267 



529. 



Table of Tenses 



Time 


Action 


Incomplete 


Completed 


Indefinite 


Present . 


r Pres. legS, 
I I am reading 


Perf. 16gl, 
/ have read 


Pres. lego, 
/ read 


Past . . 


( Iniperf. legSbam, 
I / was reading 


Pluperf. ISgeram, 
/ had read 


Hist. perf. 16gl, 
/ read 


Future 


f Fut. legam, 
\ / shall he reading 


Fut. perf. lSger5, 
/ shall have read 


Fut. legam, 
/ shall read 



1. In this table, observe that Indefinite action for Present and Future 
time is denoted by the Present and Future tenses, and for Past time by the 
Historical Perfect. 

Note. — Observe that the Present and Future may denote either Incomplete 
action, / am reading ^ I shall he reading^ or Indefinite action, / read^ I shall 
read; and the Perfect, either Completed action in Present time, / have ready 
or Indefinite action in Past time, / read, 

530. All the tenses for Incomplete action, the Present, Imperfect, and 
Future, may denote an attempted or intended action : 

Virtutem accendit, he tries to kindle their valor. SSdftbant tumultOs, tkey 
were tiding to qutll the seditions, ExpOnam consilium, / shall attempt to 
explain my plan, 

531. In the Periphrastic Conjugation, the tenses of the verb sum 
preserve their usual force, a\d the meaning of any periphrastic form is 
readily obtained by combining the proper meaning of the participle with 
that of the tense. Thus the Present of the Active Pe*Viphrastic Conjuga- 
tion denotes a present intention, or an action about to take place, and 
the Perfect, a past intention, or an action which was about to take place ; 
the Present of the Passive Periphrastic denotes a present necessity or 
duty, and the Perfect, a past necessity : 

Bellum scrlpttirus sum, / am about to write the history of the war. Quid 
futurum fuit, what xcould have been (was about to be) the result? Ea faci- 
enda sunt, those things ought to he (must be) done, Haec condiciO nOn 
accipienda fuit, this condition should not have heen (was not one that ought 
to be) accepted; c. Att. 8, 8, 8. 



268 SYNTAX 

I. Present Indicative 

632. The Present Indicative represents the action of the verb 
as taking place at the present time. It is used 

1. Of actions and events which are actually taking place at the present 
time: 

Ego et CicerO valeinus, Cicero and I are welL 

2. Of actions and events which belong to all time, as, for instance, of 
general truths and customs : 

Nihil est virtute amabiliiis, nothing is more lovely than virtue ; C. Am. 
8, 28. Fortes f ortuna adiuvat, fortune helps the brave ; T. Ph. 208. 

3. Of past actions and events which the writer, transferring himself to 
the past, represents as taking place before his eyes. It is then called the 
Historical Present, and is generally best rendered by a past tense, as the 
Historical Present is much more common in Latin than in English : 

Du9s ibi legiOnes conscribit, he there enrolled two legions, Caes. 1, 10. 
valid moenia circumdat, he surrounded the city vyith a rampart, 

633. Special Uses. — 1. The Present is often used of a present action 
which has been going on for some time, especially after iam difl, iam 
dfldum, etc. : 

Iam diu ignoro quid agas, / have not known for a long time how you are ; 

C, Fam. 7, 9. 

2. The Present is sometimes used of an action really Future, espe- 
cially in animated discourse and in conditions : 

Qiiam prendimus arcem, lohat stronghold do we seize^ or are we to seize? 
V. 2, 822. Si vincimus, omnia tuta erunt, if we conquer, all things will he 
well; s. c. 58, 9. 

3. The Present in Latin, as in English, may be used of authors whose 
works are extant : 

XenophOn facit Socratem disputantem, Xenophon represents Socrates as 
discussing ; c. N. D. i, 12, 81. 

4. With dum, ivhiley the Historical Present is generally used, but with 
dum meaning as long as, each tense has its usual force : 

Dum haec geruntur, Caesari nuntiatum est, while these things were taking 
place, it was announced to Caesar; Caes. i, 40. Vixit, dum vlxit, bene, he 
lived well as long as he lived; T. ilec. 461. 



TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE 269 

n. Imperfect Indicative 

534. The Imperfect Indicative represents the action as taking 
place in past time. It is used 

1. Of actions going on at the time of other past actions : 

An til eras cOnsul, cum mea clomus ard6bat, or were you consul when my 
house was burning ? c. Pis. ii, 26. 

2. In lively descriptions of scenes, or events : 

Ante oppidum planities patsbat, befoi'e the town extended a plain, Ful- 
gentes gladios vidgbant, they saw the gleaming swords; C. Tusc. 2, 24, 59. 

3. Of Customary or Repeated actions and events, often best rendered 
was wont, etc. : 

Epulabatur more Persarum, he was wont to banquet in the Persian style, 

535. Special Uses. — 1. The Imperfect is often used of a past action 
which had been going on for some time, especially with iam, iam difl, 
iam dudum, etc.^ : 

Domicilium Romae multOs iam annOs habebat, he had already for many 
years had his residence at Borne ; cf. c. Arch. 4, 7. 

2. The Latin sometimes uses the Imperfect, where the English idiom 
requires the Present ^ : 

Pastum animantibus natura eum, qui cuique aptus erat, compar&vit, 
nature has prepared for animals that food which is adapted to each. 

3. For the Imperfect of an Attempted Action, see 580. 

4. For the Imperfect in letters, see 539, 1. 

5. For the Descriptive Imperfect in Narration, see 588, 2. 

III. Futore Indicative 

536. The ruture Indicative represents the action as one which 
will take place in future time : 

Scribam ad te, / shall write to you, Numquam aben^abimus, we shall never 
go astray. 

1 Observe that the peculiarities of the Present reappear in the Imperfect. This 
arises from the fact that these two tenses are precisely alike in representing the 
action in its progress, and that they differ only in time. The one views the action 
in the present, the other transfers it to the past. 

2 This occurs occasionally in the statement of general truths and in the descrip- 
tion of natural scenes, but in such cases the truth, or the scene, is viewed not 
from the present, as in English, but from the past. 



t 

Hftiid< 

I 



t 



The Future, like the Present, is sometimes used of General Truths 

Customs : 
Hataram si sequSinur, numquaro aberrabimos, if we follovi (ahall follow) 
e, we sitall never go astray. 

In Latin, aa in Euglisli, the Future lodicative sometimes has the 
force of an Imperative : 

Curabis et scribes, ijoit xeill lake eare and leriie. 

IV. Perfect Indjoattre 

637. The Perfect Indicative performs the duties of two tenses, 
originally distinct. 

1. As the Present Perfect or Perfect Definite, it represents the action 
oa at present completed, and is rendered by our Perfect with have : 

DS genera belli disl, Iliave spoken of the character of the tear. 

2. As the Historical Perfect or Perfect Indefinite, corresponding to 
[ the Greek Aoiist, it represents the action simply as an historical fact : 

f Accfls3.tus est prOditiOsifi, he uaa accused of treason. 

538. Special Uses. — 1. The Perfect is sometimes used to contrast 
the past witli the present, implying that what has been or was (rue in the 
past is not true at present. This is especially common with compoand 
Passive forms with ful; 

Habmt,nOn habet, AeAad, &ut /te Aosnot; C. Tnto. 1, IS. Fuit Ilium, Ilium 
hae been, or loos; V. z, S2IS. Bis lOnus clausus fuit, Jaitua has been twice 

2. In Animated Narrative the Perfect usually narrates the leading 
'events, and the Imperfect describes the attendant circumstances : 

Cultum miitavit, vesta Medici Btibatur, epnlabltur raBre Persarum, he 
cAan^fd hia made of life, nsed the Median dress, and feasted in the Persian 
\«yle; N.^.a, i. 

t. Conjunctions meaning oa soon as, after, —vht, slmul atque, post- 
gnam, poatetquam, etc., — when used of past actions, are generally 
followed by the Perfect or by the Historical Present. The Pluperfect 
is sometimes used, especially to denote the Hesult of a Completed action : 

Ubl ceriiOrfis facti sunt, as soon as they teere informed ; Cues, i, 7, Simul 
atque in trod uotns est, assoonasflewasintrodHoed. Posteaquam in Formianfl 
sum, as soon as I am in my Formlan tilta. Simul atqne in oppidum vCnerat, 
oa soon as he had come into a town ; o. Ver. i. Si, 41. 




TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE 271 

4. Many Latin Perfects may denote either a completed action or the 
Present Result of that action. Thus cognovi may mean either I have 
learned or / know ; consuSvi, / have accustomed myself or / am wont ; 
doctus sum, / have been taught or / am learned. In this and similar 
cases the Participle practically becomes an Adjective. In a few of these 
verbs the second meaning has mostly supplanted the first, so that the Per- 
fect seems to have the time of the Present, the Pluperfect that of the 
Imperfect, and the Future Perfect that of the Future: 

NOvi omnem rem, / know the whole thing. Meminit praeteritOrum, he 
remembers the past.^ Memineram Paullum, / remembered Paullus. Fuit 
doctus ex disciplina StoicOrum, he was instructed in (out of) the learning 
of the Stoics ; C. Brut. 25, 94. 

5. The Perfect is sometimes used of General Truths, Repeated Actions, 
and Customs. It is then called the Gnomic Perfect"^ ; and if it is used in a 
Subordinate clause, the Present is generally retained in the Principal clause, 
though in Poetry and Late Prose the Perfect sometimes occurs : 

Pecuniam n6m5 sapiens concupivit, no wise man too eagerly desires (has 
desired) money ; s. c. ii, 8. Omnia sunt incerta, cum 9. itire discessum est, 
all things are uncertain^ whenever one departs from the right; c. Fam. 9, 16. 
Omne tulit piinctum qui miscuit utile dulci, he wins (has won) every vote 
who combines the useful with the agreeable; H. A. P. 848. 

6. The Perfect with paene, prope, may often be rendered by mighty 
wouldf or by the Pluperfect Indicative : 

Brutum nOn minus am5, paene dlxl, quam t6, / love Brutus not less^ I 
might almost say^ than I love you ; c. Att. 5, 20. 

7. For the Perfect in letters, see 639, 1. 

V. Pluperfect Indicative 

639. The Pluperfect Indicative represents the action as com- 
pleted at the time of some other past action, either already 
mentioned or to be mentioned in a subsequent clause: 

Pyrrhl temporibus iam ApollO versus facere dSsierat, in the time of Pyr- 
rhus, Apollo had already ceased to make verses, COpias quSa prO oppidO 
coUocaverat, in oppidum recipit, he received into the toion the forces which he 
had stationed in front of the town, 

1 Literally has recalled, and so remembers, as the result of the act. The Latin 
presents the completed act ; the English, the result. 

2 This use of the Latin Perfect corresponds to the Gnomic Aorist Iil G^^^s^. 



272 SYNTAX 

1. In letters the writer often adapts the tense to the time of the 
reader, using the Imperfect or Perfect of present actions and events, 
and the Pluperfect of those which are past. This change — which is 
by no means uniformly made, but is subject to the pleasure of the 
writer — is most common near the beginning and the end of letters: 

Nihil hab^bam quod scriberem ; ad tuas omn6s rescripseram prldiS, / have 
(had) nothing to write; I replied to all your letters yesterday; c. Att. », lo. 
Pridig Idus haec scripsi ; e5 di6 apud PompOnium eram c6naturus,i / write 
this on the day before the Ides; I am going to dine to-day with Pomponius; 

C. Q. Fr. 2, 3, 7. 

Note. — Observe that the adverbs and the adverbial expressions are also 
adapted to the time of the reader. Hen, yesterday, becomes to the reader 
prIdiS, the day before^ i.e. the day before the writing of the latter. In the 
same way hodiS, to-day, this day, becomes to the reader e5 di6, that day, 

2. The Pluperfect after cum, si, etc., is often used of Repeated 
Actions, General Truths, and Customs : 

Cum quaepiam cohors impetum fgcerat, hostSs refugigbant, whenever any 
cohort made (had made) an attack, the enemy retreated; Goes. 5, 86. 

3. The Pluperfect may state what had been true at some previous past 
time, implying that it was no longer true at the time of the writer. This 
is especially common with compound Passive forms with fueram : 

POns, qui fuerat interruptus, paene erat refectus,^ the bndge which had 
been broken down was (had been) almost repaired. 

4. For the special use of the Pluperfect in general, see 525, 4. 
6. For the Pluperfect of Special verbs, see 538, 4. 

VI. Future Perfect Indicative 

540. The Future Perfect Indicative represents the action as 
one which will be completed at some future time : 

R5mani cum venero, quae perspexero, scribani ad t6, when I reach (shall 
have reached) Romp, I shall write you xohat I have (sliall have) ascertained; 
c. Q. Fr. 8, 7. Ut senientem f^cerls, ita met6s, as you soio (shall have made the 
sowing), so shall you reap; C Or. 2, 65, 261. Plura scribam, si plus Otii habu- 
erO, I shall write more if I have (shall have had) more leisure; C. Fam. lo, 28. 

1 The Imperfect of the Periphrastic Conjugation is sometimes thus used of 
future events which are expected to happen before the receipt of the letter. 
Events which will be future to the reader as well as to the writer must be 
expressed by the Future. 

2 Observe that it was no longer a broken (interruptus) bridge, as it had been 
repaired (refectus). 



TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE 273 

1. The Future Perfect is sometimes used to denote the Complete Accom- 
plishment of the work : 

Ego meum officium praestiterO, / shall discharge (shall have discharged) 
my duty ; Caes. 4, 25. 

2. The examples here given of the Future Perfect, together with those of 
the Future under 536, illustrate the fact that the Latin is very exact in 
expressing future time and completed action, while the English, in subordi- 
nate clauses, and especially in conditional clauses, often disregards both. 

TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE 

541. The four tenses of the Subjunctive perform the duties of 
the six tenses of the Indicative, and are, accordingly, used as 
follows : 

1. They have in general the same temporal meaning as the corre- 
sponding tenses of the Indicative : 

Sunt qui dlcant, there are some who say ; s. c. 19. Fu6re qui crfiderent, 
there were some who believed ; S. c. IT. Oblltus es quid dixerim, you have 
forgotten what I said; c. N. D, 2, i, 2. Caesari cum id nuntiatum esset, when 
this had been announced to Caesar; Caes. 1, 7. 

2. In addition to this general use, these four tenses supply the place 
of the Future and of the Future Perfect, the Present and the Imperfect 
supplying the place of the Future ; the Perfect and the Pluperfect, that 
of the Future Perfect, but chiefly in subordinate clauses denoting relative 
time, though the Present, even in principal clauses, often embraces both 
present and future time : 

Erit tempus cum d6sider6s, the time will come when you will desire ; c. 
Mil. 26, 69. Loquebantur, etiam cum vellet Caesar, s6s6 nOn esse ptignaturOs, 
they were saying that they would not fight even when Caesar should xoish it; 
("aes. c. 1, 72. Egestatem suam s6 latiirum putat, si hac suspiciOne liberatus 
sit, he thinks he will bear his poverty if he shall have been freed from this 
suspicion ; c. Rose. A. 44. Dicebam, simul ac timgre d6s!ss6s, similem t6 futCl- 
rum tui, / was saying that as soon as you should cease (shall have ceased) to 
fear, you would be like yourself; c. Phil. 2, 85. 

Note 1. — But the place of the Future may be supplied by the Present 
and Imperfect of the active Periphrastic Conjugation, and is generally so 
supplied when the idea of future time is emphatic ; see Table of Subjunctive 
Tenses, 644. 

Note 2. — In the passive, the place of the Future Perfect is sometimes 
supplied by futurus sim and futurus essem with the Perfect Participle : 

HARK. LAT. GRAM. 19 



274 SYNTAX 

NOn dubito quin cOnfecta iam rSs futQra sit, / do not doubt that the thing 
will have been already accomplished ; c. Fam. 6, 12, 8. 

3. By a transfer of tenses, the Imperfect Subjunctive, in Conditional 
Sentences and in expressions of Wish, refers to Present time, and the 
Pluperfect to Past time : 

Plura scrlberem, si possem, / would write more (i.e. now) if I were able 
(but I am not) ; c. Att. 8, 15, 8. Si voluisset, dimicSsset, if he had wished^ he 
would have fought ; n. 28, 8, 8. 



DISTINCTION BETWEEN ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE TIME 

642. The time of an action is said to be Absolute when it has 
no reference to the time of any other action, but it is said to be 
Relative when it indicates the Temporal Relation that the action 
sustains to some other action. Thus, in independent clauses, 
the Present, Perfect, and Future express absolute time, but in 
dependent clauses, the Imperfect and Pluperfect, and sometimes 
other tenses, express relative time : 

Hasdrubal turn, cum haec ger6bantur, apud Syphftcem erat, Hasdrubal^ 
at the time when these things were taking place^ was with Syphax; L. 29, si. 

Here gerSbantur denotes relative time, action going on at the time of 
erat, — Contemporaneous Action. 

Copias quas pr5 oppid5 collocaverat, in oppidum rec6pit, he received into 
the town the forces which he had stationed before it ; Caes. 7, 71. 

Here colloctverat denotes relative time, action completed at the time of 
recSpit, — Prior Action. 

CupiO scire ubi sis hiemattirus, / desire to know where you will spend the 
icinter ; c. Fam. 7,9. 

Here sis hiem&turus denotes relative time, action about to take place, 
but still future at the time of cupi5, — Subsequent Action. 

543. In Dependent clauses, the tenses of the Subjunctive gen- 
erally denote relative time, and they may represent the action of 
the verb as going on at the time of the principal verb, Contempo-' 
raneous action ; as completed at that time, Prior action ; or, as 
about to take place, Subsequent action. Moreover, they conform 
to the following rule for 



TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE 



275 



SEQUENCE OF TENSES 

Rule. — Principal tenses depend on Principal tenses, and 
Historical on Historical : 

Quails sit animus, animus nescit, the soul knows not what the soul is; 
c. Tusc. 1, 22, 53. Quaeramus quae vitia fuerint, let us inquire what the faults 
were; c. Rose. A. u, 41. Rogavit essentne fusi hostes, he asked whether the 
enemy had been routed; c. Fin. 2, 80, 97. 



544. 



Table of Subjunctive Tenses 



Independent 


Dependent ClaiTse 


Clause 


Contemporaneous 
Action 


Prior 
Action 


Subsequent 
Action 


PRINCIPAL tenses 

Quaero 

Quaeram 

Quaesierd 

Task ' 

I shall ask 

I shall have asked 


quid faci&B 

what you are 
doing 


quid fSceris 

what you have 
done 


[ quid facifts 
quid facttiruB 
sis 

> what you vHll do 


HISTORICAL TENSES 

QuaerSbam ] 

Quaeslvi 

Quaesieram 

/ was asking 
I asked 
I had asked 


quid facerSs 

what you were 
doing 


quid fScissSs 

what you had 
done 


' quid faoerfis 
quid factCLruB 
essSs 

what you would 
do 



545. In this table, observe : 

I. That the Subjunctive dependent on a Principal Tense is put : 

1. In the Present, to denote Incomplete, or Contemporaneous, action. 

2. In the Perfect, to denote Completed, or Prior, action, and 

3. In the Present, either of the simple, or the periphrastic, form, to 
denote Future, or Subsequent, action ; 



SY2fTAS 



ContemporaneoQB, action. 
' Prior, autiou ; and 
of the periphrastic form, to 



Qaaeritnr cflr dfsBenttajit, the qaeation i» asked wkjf the]/ Sttagree. TS&tS 
censeat, there irili he no one who tofll Ihiiik. Ndn dubitan debet, quln 
I luerlnt ante Homerum poetae, it aught not to be doubled that there tuere pott* 
I before Homer; i:. Brut. 1^. Quid dies (erat incertiim est, what a day viUl 
I bring forth is uncertain. Incertum est, quam loDga vita futOra sit, it U nn- 
t certain hois long life villi continue ; c, Vi^r. i, cs, 

n. That the Subjunctive dependent on an Historical Tenge 
B put 

1. In Uie Imperfect, to denote Incomplete, 

2. la ilie Pluperfect, to denote Completed, 
. In the Imperfeet, either of the simple, ' 

[ denote Future, or Subsequent, action : 

Quaeslvil, salvimne eiiset clipeuB, he asked whetker his shield imis taft; 

. ao, Vi. Cum trldu! viam processisset, nOntJiUum est el, uAen he had 

I aivanwd a three dayi>^ journey, it wis announced to him. Timebam nS 

Svenlrent ea, I feared that tkage things mould happen. Incertum erat quS 

misHiiri clasaera forent, i( teas uncertain tohilher they would send the JUH; 

\ L. 30. a. 

PECULIARITIES IN THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES 

546. In the sequence of tenses the Perfect Indicative, the His- 
torical Present, the Present used of authors, and the Historical 
Infinitive are generally Historical tenses, though sometimes used 
as Principal tenses ; 

Quoniam quae aubaidia hahflrSs eiposui,! since / have shown what aiSt 
you have; Q, C. Pet. UonB, 4, 18. ObllLua es quid dixerim, you have forgotttm 

I what J said; c. n, d. s. i, a. Perauftdet CnsticO ut rfignuni occapftret, he per- 
tuaded Casticua to seixe the government ; Cata. i, a. Ubii Srant ut alM i>arcat, 

I the Ubti implored him to spare them ; Ca«a. «, 3. 

547. The Imperfect Suhjuaotive, even when it refers to present time, 
w in conditional sentences, is generally treated as an Historical tense: 

Si probarem, quae ille dlceret, if I approved what he says; C. nn, I. e. ST. 

1. In the sequence of tenses the Perfect Subjunctive is generally a Princi- 
pal lenae, but in relation to another Subjunctive depending upon it it is gener- 
I ally Historical : 

QuaeT&inus quae vitia fuerhit, qudie la patrl displicSret, let us inquire 
I vihat were the faults by which he dhpteaged his father; 




SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDEPENDENT SENTENCES 277 

Note. — Here faerint is a principal tense in relation to quaerSmns, but 
in relation to displicSret it is historical. 

548. The Perfect Infinitive is generally treated as an Historical 
tense, but the Present and the Future Infinitive, the Present and the 
Future Participle, as also Gerunds and Supines, share the tense of the 
verb on which they depend, as they express only relative time : 

Satis docuisse videor, hominis natura quantO anteiret animantes, / think I 
have sufficiently shown how much the nature of man surpasses (that of) the 
other animals; c. N. d. 2, 61, 153. Sp6r5 fore^ ut contingat, I hope it will 
happen ; C. Tusc. i, 84. Non sp6raverat fore ut ad s6 deficerent, he had not 
hoped that they would revolt to him ; L. 28, 44. M!s6runt DelphOs cOnsultum 
quidnam f acerent, they sent to Delphi to ask what they should do ; N. 2, 2. 

549. Clauses containing a General Truth usually conform to the law 
for the sequence of tenses, at variance with the English idiom : 

Quanta c5nscientiae vis esset, ostendit, he showed how great is the power 
of conscience ; c. c. 8, 6, ii. 

550. In clauses denoting Result, or Consequence, the Subjunctive 
tenses have the ordinary temporal force of the corresponding tenses of 
the Indicative: 

Atticus ita vixit, ut Ath6ni6nsibus esset carissimus, he so lived that he 
was very dear to. the Athenians ; N. *26, 2. AdeO excell6bat Aristides absti- 
nentia, ut liistus sit appellatus, Aristides so excelled in self-control, that he 
has been called the Just; N. 8, i. 

1. Observe the temporal force of these Subjunctives : esaet, was, result 
continuing in past time, the usual force of the Imperfect ; ait appell&tUB, 
has been called, the usual force of the Present Perfect. 



SUBJUNCTIVE m INDEPENDENT SENTENCES 

551. The Latin Subjunctive performs the duties of two moods 
originally distinct, the Subjunctive and the Optative. It com- 
prises three varieties ^ : 

1 Literally, I hope it will be that it may happen. Here fore shares the tense 
of sperS, and is accordingly followed by the Present, contingrat ; but below it 
shares the tense of spSraverat, and is followed by the Imperfect, deficerent. 

2 The three varieties of the Latin Subjunctive were all inherited from the 
mother tongue — the Potential and the Optative from the original Optative, and 
the Volitive from the original Subjunctive. 



I 



278 SYNTAX 

I. Subjunctive of Possibility, or PoteDtial Subjunctive, whia 

lepreaentB the action aa Possible ; see SfiS. 
n. Subjunctive of Desire, or Optative Subjunctive, which repi 

seuta the action as Desired ; see 558. 
I. Subjunctive of Will, or Volitive Siibj iinctive, which repifl 

sents the actiou as Willed ; see 559. 

Potential Subjunctive 

652. Rule. — The Potential Subjunctive is used to repre^i 
sent the action, not as real, but as Possible or Conditioui 
The negative is nfin : 

Forsitan qua«ratis, perhaps you laay inquire; C. Rose. A. !. Forsltan 
aliquis qnippiam fecerit, perhapi same one may have dime nomeihing: 
C. Vcr. a. 82, 78. Ita Iftudem inveniga, Ihus, you (any one) iaaij or will min 
praite ; T. And. SB. UbI aocordiae te tradiderls, nequitjnam deoa implores. 
when you hace gieen yourself ap to slolh, you wilt implore Ihe guda in vain; 
a. c. 52, 29, Eum facile vitHre poasis, you may easily avoid him; c.Ver.i.in.H)i 
HSc sine iills dubitBtione confirniaverim, this I should atsert without aiif 
hesitation; c. Brut. 6, 25, 

553. In these examples observe that the Potential Subjunctive 
in its widest application includes two varieties ; 

1. The Potential Subjunctive In a strict senee ia comparatively rare. 

2. The Conditional Subjonctive represents the action as dependent on a 
condition, expressed or implied, but the condition la often bo very va^e and 
so fully implied in the mood Itself, ns in the last two exntnples, that there is 
no need of aupplyiiig it, even in thought, but when it la expreased, the two 
clauses form a regular conditional sentence ; see ST2, ST3. 

554. On tlie use of Tenses, observe : 

1. That the I'reaent may be uaed of Incomplete actions either in PreHSiiC 
or Future time : qulBpiam dicat. snnte one may say, now. or at any time ; 
xee also Ml, 2. 

2. That the Perfect may be used of Completed actions either in Present 
time, as in the second example, or in Future time, as in the last example. 
When used of Fnture time, it may be compared with the special nse of tlie 
Future Perfect described in MO. I. Like that it fixea the attention on tlKt- 
Compleiion or the Result of the action, and like that it is used especially 
earnest and impaasloned discourse. 

3. That the Imperfect is sometimes used In its original meaning 
tense : tum ^cerea, you wouM then have said, and sometimes in Its lal 



m 



OPTATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 279 

transferred meaning to represent the statement as contrary to fact : dlcerfis, 
you would say. The latter is its regular meaning in conditional sentences ; 
see 679. 

555. In simple sentences, the Potential Subjunctive is most 
common in the third person singular with an indefinite subject, 
as aliquis, quispiam, as in the second example under the rule, 
and in the second person singular of the Imperfect, used of an 
indefinite you, meaning one, any one : 

Dicergs, you, any one^ would say, or would have said 

Scir6s, you, any one would know, or would have known 

Cr6der6s, putargs, you would have believed, would have thought 

Cemeres, vidgrgs, you would have perceived, would have seen 

Gangs venaticSs dicergs, hunting dogs you would have called them; C. Ver. 
4, 18, 31. Maesti, credergs victOs, redeunt in castra, sad, vanquished you toould 
have thought them, they returned to camp ; L. 2, 48. 

556. In the language of Politeness and Modesty, the Potential Sub- 
junctive is often used in the first person of the Present and Imperfect 
of verbs of Wishing, as velim, / should wish ; ndlim, / should he unwill- 
ing; m&lim, / should prefer; vellem, / should wish, or should have 
wished; ndllem, / should be unwilling, or should have been unwilling; 
m&llem, / should prefer, or should have preferred: * 

Si quid habgs certius, velim scire, if you have any tidings, I should like 
to know it; c. Att. 4, lo. Ego t6 salvom vellem, / should wish you safe; 
PI. Pseud. 809. NOllem factum, / should not have wished it done ; t. Ad. 165. 

1. For the Subjunctive, with or without ut, dependent upon velim, or 
vellem, see 558, 4 ; 565. 

557. Potential Questions. — The Potential Subjunctive is used 
in questions to ask, not what is, but what is likely to he, what may 
he, icould he, or should he : 

Quis dubitet, loho would doubt, or who doubts f Cdr ego nOn laeter, why 
should I not rejoice f Ciir Cornglium non dgfenderem, vohy should I not 
have defended Cornelius f c. Vat. 2, 6. 

Optative Subjmictive 

558. Rule. — The Optative Subjunctive is used to express 
pure Desire without any idea of authority, as in prayers and 
wishes. The negative is ne : 



280 8TNTAX 

Sint incolumes, sint florentes, siut beat!, may they be safe, may they he 
prosperous, may they he happy ; c. Mil. 84, 93. Stet haec urbs praeclSra, may 
this illustrious city stand secure. Id sit quod spero, may that tfihich I hope 
take place. lUud utinara ne scriberem, would that I were not writing this; 
c. Fam. 5, 17, 3. Utiiiam omnes servare potuisset, woxdd that he had been able 
to save all ; c. Ph. 5, i4, 39. 

1. Force of Tenses. — The Present implies that the wish may be fulfilled, 
as in the first three examples ; the Imperfect and Pluperfect that it cannot 
be fulfilled, as in the last two examples. 

Note. — In rare instances in early and familiar Latin the Perfect is used 
to emphasize the Completion of the action, as in 654, 2 : 

Utinam haec muta facta sit, may she he (have been made) dumb ; T. And. 468. 

2. XTtinam is regularly used, with rare exceptions in poetry, with the 
Imperfect and Pluperfect, and sometimes with the Present. 

3. The first person of the Optative Subjunctive is often found in earnest 
and solemn affirmations : 

Ne sim salvus, si aliter scrib5 ac sentiO, may I not he safe^ if I write other- 
wise than as I think; c. Att. 16, 18. Sollicitat, ita vivam, m6, as I live, it 
troubles me ^ ; c. Fam. 16, 20. 

4. Wishes may also be introduced by velim and vellem : 

Velim verum sit, I wish it may be true; c. Att. is, 4. Velim mihl ign5scS4S, 
I wish you would pardon me ; c. Fam. is, 75. Vellem v6rum fuisset, / wish it 
had been true'^; c. Att. 15, 4. 

6. In early Latin, wishes are sometimes introduced by ut and in poetry 
sometimes, though rarely, by si, or 6 si : 

Ut ilium di perdant, xoould that the gods would destroy him; T. Eun. 802. 
Si nunc se aureus ramus ostendat, would that (if) the golden branch would 
show itself; v. fi, 18T. O mihl praeteritOs referat si luppiter annOs, if Jupiter 
would restore to me my past years ; v. 8, 560. 

Subjunctive of "Will, or Volitive Subjunctive 

559. Rule. — The Volitive Subjunctive is used to repre- 
sent the action, not as real but as Willed. The negative is 

1 Here ita vivam means, may I so live, i.e. may I live only in case this state- 
ment, sollicitat, it troubles me, is true. 

2 Here velim and sit were originally independent Subjunctives, meaning 1 
should wish, may it be true, the first Subjunctive being potential and the second 
optative, but subsequently the two verbs became so closely united in thought that 
sit became practically the object of velim, I should wish (what?) that it may he 
true. Vellem fuisset has had the same history. 



SUBJUNCTIVE OF WILL, OR VOLITIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 281 

nS. This Subjunctive covers a wide range of feeling and 
comprises the following varieties : 

1. The Hortative Subjunctive, used in Exhortations, but only 
in the first person plural of the Present tense : 

Amemus patriam, consulamus bonis, let us love our country, let us con- 
sult for the good; c. Sest. 68, 143. Ne difficilia optemus, let us not desire diffi- 
cult things, 

2. The Imperative or Jussive Subjunctive, used chiefly in the 
third person and generally best rendered by let; but see 560: 

Desinant insidiari domi suae consull, let them cease to lie in wait for the 
consul in his own house ; C. C. i, 13. 

3. The Concessive Subjunctive, used in Admissions and Con- 
cessions : 

Sit ista res magna, admit that that is (let that be) an important matter. 
Ne sit summum malum dolor, grant that pain may ndt he the greatest 
evil; c. Tusc. 2, 5, 14. Age, sit ita factum, well, admit that it took place thus ; 

C. Mil. 19, 49. 

4. The Deliberative Subjunctive, used in Deliberative or Doubt- 
ing Questions, implying that the speaker is in doubt in regard to 
the proper course to be pursued and that he desires to be directed : 

Quid agam, iudices, what am I to do, judges ? Quid agerem, iudices, 
what was I to do, judges ? c. Best. 19, 43. Quo me vertara, whither am I to 
turn f Eloquar an sileam, am I to speak, or be silent f Rogem te ut venias ? 
non rogem, am I to ask you to come f am I not to ask you f C Fam. 14, 4, 8. 

Note. — The negative n5, which always implies a negative wish, is not 
used in deliberative questions, as they ask affirmatively what the wish of the 
hearer is. The negative non sometimes occurs, but it always limits some 
particular word and never implies a negative wish; rogem tS, is it your 
loish that I should ask you f non rogem tS, is it your wish that I should 
not ask you f 

5. Repudiating Questions. — The Subjunctive with or without ut 
is also used in questions which express Surprise or Impatience, 
especially common in Early Latin : 

Ausculta, quaeso, listen, I pray. Ego auscultem tibt, am I to listen to 
you f PI. Mil. 496. Te ut iilla res frangat, how is anything to subdue you f 
0. C. 1, 9. 



282 

Note. — DeliberatiTe and Repadiating qaestions may be readily dlsthi- 
guishetl from the Potential questions cooaidered under 507. The ktter 
never represent the speaker a^ in any doubt or perplexity. They are mostly 
rhetorical questions, used for rhetorical effect in place of assertions, as qai% 
dubitet, icho irould dnubtf equivalent to nftrnfi dnbttet, or nfiiiiS dnbitat 

0. The Subjunctive Is occasionally used to state wliat thould have been or 
ought to have been : 

Potius dlceret, he should have said rather. Bestitisses, mortem pOgnins 
oppetlssSs, you should have resisted^ should have met death in batUe; 

C. Heat. 2(), M, 4rt. 

7. Note the following use of the Subjunctive with ti«Aw|^ ^ ni^ think, 

not to sayy much less : 

Satrapa numquam sufterre stlmptOs queat, nSdum til posels, a satrap wonld 
not he able to bear the expense, much less toould you be able (do not think 
that yr)u would) ; T. Heaut. 4^2. Nec potuSrunt, nMum posdmus, and they 
were not able, much less should we be able; C. Clu. 85, Wk 

IMPERATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE AND nfPERATIVE 

560. Rule. — In commands the Subjunctive and Impera- 
tive supplement each other, the Imperative being used in 
the second person and the Subjunctive in the third : 

Libera rem publicam metu, free the republic from fear; C. C. 1, 8. Per- 
gitfi, ut facitis, r/o on, as you are now doing, Suum quisque nSscat 
iiigeiiiuin, let even/ one know his own character. Secernent se a bonis, let 
them separate themselves from the good ; C. C. l, 18. 

1. The second person of the Present Subjunctive may be used of an 
indefinite you, meaning one, any one, and in early Latin and in the poets, 
even of a definite person : 

Isto bon^ Qt^rc, duin adsit, use that blessing ofyours, while it is with you; 
c. s<iii. 10, :«. Apud nOs hodig c6nes, dine with us to-day; Pi. Most. 1129. 

2. The Future Imperative may be used in the sense of the Present, if 
the latter is wanting, as Bclt5, Bclt5te, memento, mement5te, etc.: 

MementOte hOs esse pertinigscendOs, remember that these are to be feared, 
H. An Imperative may supply the place of a Conditional clause : 

I^accsse, iam videbis furentem, provoke him (if you provoke him), you 
will at once see him frantic. 



SUBJUNCTIVE AND IMPERATIVE 283 

4. In Commands involving future rather than present action, and in 
Laws, Orders, Precepts, etc., the Future Imperative is used : 

Rem pendit5te, you shall consider the subject. Cras petltO, dabitur, ask 
to-morrow, it shall he granted. Salus populi suprfima l6x estO, the safety of 
the people shall he the supreme law ; c. Leg. 8. 8. 

Note. — The place of the Future Imperative is sometimes supplied by the 
Future Indicative : 

Quod optimum videbitur, facigs, do (you will do) what shall seem best, 

561. Prohibitive Sentences. — In ordinary Prohibitive Sentences 
the following forms occur : 

1. N51i and n51ite with the Infinitive. This is the approved form in 
classical prose : 

NOlite id velle quod fieri nOn potest, do not desire that which cannot he 
done ; c. Ph. 7, 8, 25. 

2. Cavi, cavS nS, fac n5, or n5 with the Subjunctive. These forms 
are common in early Latin, but rare in classical prose. The Perfect seems 
to emphasize the Completion or the Result of the action : 

Cave ignOscas, do not pardon, heware of pardoning. Fac n6 quid aliud 
cures, do not attend to anything else. N6 cOnferSs culpam in m6, do not 
throw the hlame on me; T. Eun. 888. Ist5 bon5 tltare, dum adsit ; cum absit, 
n6 requiras, use your hlessing while it is with you ; when it is gone, do not 
long for it; c. Ben. lo, 83. locum n6 sis aspemSltus, do not despise (be not 
having despised) the jest; c. Q. Fr. 2, lo, 6. 

Note. — In prohibitioDS in Cicero, n5 with the present Subjunctive is 
used only of general or indefinite subjects, as in the fourth example, and nS 
with the Perfect Subjunctive with a definite subject, as in the fifth example, 
is exceedingly rare. 

3. In Prohibitive Laws and Ordinances the Future Imperative is used : 

Hominem mortuum in urbe n6 sepelltO, nfive firitO, thou shalt not bury 
nor hum a dead body in the city ; in C Leg. 2, 28. 

4. Negative in Prohibitive Sentences. — The negative, when not con- 
tained in the auxiliary verb nSli, or cavS, is regularly n6 ; with a connective, 
nS-ve, or ne-que. NSve, or 7iotj is the regular connective in classical prose 
between Prohibitive clauses ; neque, and not, admissible in prose to connect 
a Prohibitive clause with an affirmative command, is freely used in poetry 
between any two Imperative clauses, whether affirmative or negative % 




SYNTAX 



NS sepelltfi nSve Qrlto, do not burg nor hurn. 
exIstlmS, tnaiiage your ovm business and do not consider^ ; 
Se cape nee te clvllibua inaere bellla, do not take ami» and do riot (ni 
gourseif in civil wars ; ci. M. 3, 1 16, 

SUBJUNCTIVE IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES 



\m^^\ 



562. 1. The meauiiig of the SufajuiictiTe in Suhordmate Clauses is 

either precisely the same as iu Principal Clauiies, or is a natural develop- 

. ,nient from that meaning. The following eramplea show the process by 

which an Affirmative Subjuiuitive Clause may pass from the Independeiit 

to the Dependent construction : 

Independent. — Veruai sit,* laay it be true. Velini ; v6rum sit," / thould 
wieh it; may J( be true. 

Dependent. — Velim T^rum sit, 1 should wish (what?) that i( mai/ be true; 

O. All. IB, A, 4, ^ 

Independent. — Velinf; beatus sis, I should wish It; may yov be happy. 

Dependent. — VcUqi ut hefttus sis, / should wish (what ?) that yoit maij be 
happy; c. Ait.iu, le, i. > 

Note. — These two examples illustrate tlie two ways in which Afflrmalive 

I Suhjuiictive Clauses may be connected with the Principal Clause; first, 

without any connective whatever, as in velim vSrum ait ; and, second, 

with the connective ut, aa iu velim nt beStus sTs. With most verba the 

second Is the usual method. 

2. The following examples show the process by which a Neg;ati 
Snbjunctive Clause may pass from the Independent to the Dependent 
I construction : 



t, see to it; let nothingi 
(hat nothing mag be wantlnff 



Independent. — Cara ; nS quid Tulliae 
Planting to Tullia. 

Dependent. — Cdra nS quid Tulliae dSsit, 
to Tullia; c, A.i. it.s, s. 

Independent — Praedtoit; ne ISgatOs dimittant, he gives the order: "lei 
them not release the envoys," 

Dependent. — Praedlcit ut nS legStos dimittant, he ghes thr. order that 
j they shall not relea»e the envoys; et. N. i, t, 8. 



iive 

M 



■ varum alt, may it be (rue, is r 
I two eiainples, but in velim vSrun 
[ Which it is now the ol.iwt, IhongU ji 



1 liiilependent Sobjnr 
Bit It bas becdtiie de| 
still continues In 1)<^ I 



tive ot Desire in these 
indent npOQ VBllm. ol 
Subjunctive of Deslra. 



SUBJUNCTIVE IN SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES 286 

Note. — These two examples illustrate the two ways in which Negative 
Subjunctive Clauses may be connected with the Principal Clause: first, 
without any connective whatever, as in curt nS qtiid Tulliae dSsit, as 
nS belongs to the negative clause itself ; and, second, with the connective ut, 
as in praedicit ut nS ISgatds dimittant. The former is the usual method. 

563. A clause containing an Optative or Volitive Subjunctive, when 
dependent, may become, 

1. A Substantive Clause, generally used as the Object of the Prin- 
cipal verb : 

Velim ut beatus sis, I should wish that you may be happy. 

2. An adverbial Clause, used to denote the Purpose or Intention of 
the action, often called a Final Clause : 

Oportet esse ut vIvSs, it is proper to eat in order that you may live. 

OPTATIVE OR VOLITIVE SUBJUNCTIVE IN SUBSTANTIVE 

CLAUSES 

564. Rule. — The Subjunctive, generally with ut or n6, may 
be used in Substantive Clauses which involve Purpose : 

I. In Substantive Clauses used as the Objects of Verbs : 

Scribas ad me velim, / wish that you would write to me ; c. Att. 6, 2, 8. 
Orant ut sibT parcat, they ask thai lie would pardon them. Suls imperavit 
ne quod telum reicerent, he enjoined upon his men that they should not 
hurl back any weapon; Caes. i, 46, 2. 

II. In Substantive Clauses used as Subjects or Predicates : 

In epistula scrlptum erat, ut omnia pararet,^ that he was to make all 
preparations had been written in the letter; 0. Att. 18, 45, i. Est lex amici- 
tiae, ut idem amici velint, it is a law of friendship, that friends should 
have the same wish ; C. Plane. 2, 5. Altera est res ut res geras magnas, the 
other thing is that you should perform great deeds; 0. Oflf. 1, 20, 66. 

1. Subject Clauses sometimes take the Subjunctive vdthout ut, regularly 
with licet and oportet, and generally with necesse est : 

STs licet felix,2 you may be happy (it is allowed) ; H. 8, 27, 18. TS oportet 
virtus trahat, virtue ought to attract you ; O. R. P. 6, 23. Causam habeat, 
necesse est, it is necessary that it should have a cause ; 0. Div. 2, 28. 

1 The Subjunctive Clause, ut parftret, is the subject of scriptum erat. 

2 Sis fSlix, originally independent of licet, may you be happy. So, too, 
virttlB trahat, independent of oportet, let virtue attract. 



286 STNTAX 

III, In Substantive Clauses used as Appositives to Hfoiins or 
Pronoun 8 : 

Fecit yficein his condicionibus, ne qui adficerentur exailio,' he made 
peace on these tenon, thai none ihauld be punished with exile; N. 8,8. Id 
aguiit, nt viri boni esae fideaiitur,' thei/ strive Jor this, (hat they may appear 
to be good men; C. Off, i, 18. 



SUBJUNCTIVE IK CLAUSES USED AS THE OBJECTS OF TEl 

56S. Verbs meaning to Desire, Wish, Ask, Commcmd, Persui 
Determine, Decree, and tlie like, generally take the Subjunctive 
Object Clauses : 

Velim ut tibi amicus dt, / wiili Aim to be (that he may be) a JHend to 
yo« ; C. Alt. 10, 16. Tfl horlor ut OrationCs meis legSa, / exhort yov to read 
ray orutiona; C. Off. 1, 1, 8. OrO ut hominSa cSnservSE incolumga, / ask that 
yott would keep the men unharmed. DecrSvit eentltue, ut Opimiua vldSret, 
the senate decreed that Opimiits should see to U. Hnle persuHdet uH ad 
ho3t£a trSnseat, he persuaded him to go ucer to the enemy. Praediiit ut a6 
legStOs dlmitterent, he charged them not to release the delegate»; ft: *. T, 8. 
HOC tg Togo, nfi deitiitt3B animum, nSve t£ obnil siuSs, / ask yov not to be 
discouraged, aitd not to permit yourself to be overcome; c. Qn. Pr.i. i, 4. 

1. For the negfttive connective between Subjunctive Clauses, sea 
G61, 4. 

2. The regular CDUstructiouB with volo, mSIfi, and n515 are the 
Infinitive, with or without a Subject-Accusative, and the Subjunctive 
without ut, though vol5 and iii915 Bonietiniea take nt; 

Verum Budire non viOt, he does-not tuish to hear the truth. Mihl oredSs 
velim, Iwish you to bdiete me. Id ut faciSa velim, /wCsft you 

3. lubefi and vet6 regularly take the Aeciaative and the lufinitir»' 
in the Active, with the Personal Couatructions in the Passive ; see Bll, 1 ; 

HelvetiOH oppida restituere iussit, he ordered the Belvetii to rebuild their 
towns. Ab opere ISg&tOs diaoSdere vetuerat, he had forbidden the lieutenants 
to leave (depart from) the work. lubentur acribere exercttum, they are 
ordered to enroll an army. 

4. Verbs meaning to direct, urge, etc., and the Imperati' 
faoitS often take the Subjunctive without nt, aad cavS Bometimes 
the Subjunctive without nS ; 






SUBJUNCTIVE IN SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES 287 

Labi6n5 mandat Belgds adeat, he directs Labienus to visit the Belgae; 
cf. Caes. 3, 11, 2. Fac plSng sciam, let me know fully (make that I may know); 
c. Fam. 7, 16. Cav6 existimgs, beware of supposing; c. Fam. 9, 24. 

5. Verbs meaning to detemiine, decide, etc., — Btatu5, c5nBtitu5, 
dScerno, etc., — generally take the Subjunctive when a new subject is 
introduced, otherwise the Infinitive (614) : 

Senatus decrgvit, darent operam cOnsules, the senate decreed that the con- 
suls should attend to it; s. c. 29, 2. Hhenum transire dficrSverat, he had 
decided to cross the Bhine ; Caes. 4, 17. 

6. Several other verbs of this class admit either the Subjunctive or 
the Infinitive, but generally with some difference of meaning : 

Persuadebo tibi ut maneSs, / shall persuade you to remain, Persua- 
debQ tibI hoc v6rum esse, / shall convince you that this is true, MoneO 
ut maneas, / advise you to remain, Mone5 t6 hOc v6rum esse, / remind 
you that this is true, 

566. Verbs meaning to Make, Obtain, Hinder, and the like, 
generally take the Subjunctive in Object Clauses : 

Fac ut t6 ipsum cust5dias, make sure that you protect yourself; C. Fam. 9, 
14, 8. Effgcit ut imperator mittergtur, he caused a commander to be sent, 
Ne mihl noceant, vestrum est pr5vid6re, it is your duty to see to it that they 
may not injure me ; c. c. 3, 12. Dii prohibeant ut h5c praesidium esastimStur, 
the gods forbid that this should be regarded as a defense; C. Rose. A. 52, 151. 

1. XTt with the Subjunctive sometimes forms with faci5 and ag5, 
rarely with est, a circumlocution : 

Invitus facio ut recorder, / unwillingly recall (I do unwillingly that I 
recall); c. Vat. 9, 21. Invitus fed ut Flamininum 6 senatu eicerem, / reluc- 
tantly expelled Flamininus from the senate; C. Sen. 12, 42. 

2. Some verbs of this class which generally take the Subjunctive, 
admit the Infinitive, with or without a Subject, but with a somewhat 
different meaning : 

Ctlra ut valeas, take care to be in good health; 0. Att. 11, 8. Nihil quod te 
putem scire curare, nothing which I think you would care to know ; C Fam. 9, 10. 

567. Verbs meaning to Fear generally take the Subjunctive in 
Object Clauses : 

TimeO ut labOrgs sustineas, I fear that you will not endure the labors; 
c.Fam. 14, 2. TlmeO ne 6vemant ea, I fear that those things may happen; 

«f. C. Fam. 6, 21. 



SrjVTAX 



f 

^H 1. The following examples show the process hj which a Sabjanotire 
^H clause beeoines dependent upon a verb of Fearing. They also show why 
^H nt must be rendered that not, and nS Ihat or lesl: 

I 



TimeO ; nS evenlant ea, I fear; may those thing» not happen. 

TimeO nS eTeniant ea, I /ear thai, or lesl, those things may happe.n = I tear, 
may they not happen ; tiegaUre desire, hence nfi. 

TlmeO; veuiaut ea, Z/eiir,- may those things happen. 

TimeO ut venlant ea, I /ear that those things maj/ not happen = 1 fear, ma; 
those things liappen ; affirmative desire, hence at. 

After verbs of Fearing, ii6 nQa h someLimes used in the sense of 
nt, regularly so after a negative clause: 

NOn vereor nB hoc iiidici nOn proliem, Ida not /far that I may not make 
this acceptable to the judge; c. Ver.4, as, 82. 

3. Ferbs of Fearing admit the Itifinitive aa in English : 

Vereor laudSre praesenl^m, J/eai- (hesitate) to praise yon in your preietice. 

4. Various expressions, nearly or quite equivalent to verbs of Fear 
ing. are also followed by the Subjunctive; as, timor eat; metna, oOra, 
perfculum eat; perTcaloaum est; anxius, pa vidua sam; In meta,iii 
perlculo sum ; cura, timor incSdit ; pavor capit, etc. : 

Num est perlculum nS quis putet turpe esse, i» there any /ear that any one 
may Ihiak it to be disgraceful ? Oral, 42, 146. Favor cSperat militea nS morti- 
ferum esset vulnus, /ear that the wound might be mortal had seiied the 
soldiers, NS quod helium ortretur, auxins erat, he was fearful that some war 
might arise. Snnt in metQ, nfi afficiantur poentl, they are in fear that they 
may be visited with punishment ; C. Fin. 3. le. 03. 

VOLirrVE SUBJUNCTIVE IN CLAUSES OP PURPOSE — FINAL 

CLAUSES 

568. Rule. — The Subjunctive is used witli ut, ne, qu6, 
qu6 minuB, quaminns, to denote the Purpose of the iietiou : 

Itoinani ab aratro abduxorunt Cincinna.tum, ut dic1.aU)r esset, the 
Romans took Cincinnotus from the plow thai he might be dictator; C. Fin. 
S, 4, la. Legibua idcirco aervlmua ut liberi ease possimus, me are servants 
of the laws far thin reanon, that we may be able to be free; c. Olu. M, 1«S. 
Claudi cijriam iubet, ne quis egredi passit, he orders the senate houst to 
be closeil that no one may be able to come out. Medico aliquid dandum 
est, quo sit studiosiur, something ought to be ffii-en to the phgsieian 
(fay this means) he may be more ntlenlive. Neque te d^terreo quo miouB 



SUBJUNCTIVE IN CLAUSES OF PURPOSE 289 

id disputes, and I am not trying to deter yon from discussing (that you may 
less discuss) that point ; c. Att. ii, 8, i. 

1. 1'he following examples show the process by which the Volitive 
Subjunctive may become the Subjunctive of Purpose : 

Independent Volitive. — N6 quid res ptlblica detrimenti capiat, ^ let the 
republic suffer no harm. 

Dependent Volitive = Purpose. —Dent operam c5nsul6s n6 quid rCs ptiblica 
detriment! capiat,^ let the consuls give heed that (in order that) the republic 
may suffer no hai'm. 

Independent. — Vincat,i let him conquer. Contendit ; vincat, he is striving ; 
let him conquer. 

Dependent. — Contendit ut vincat,^ he strives that he may conquer. 

2. Object Clauses and Final Clauses. — Object clauses and Final clauses, 
as they are both developed from the Volitive Subjunctive, are sometimes 
difficult to distinguish. An Object clause, however, is always tlie gram- 
matical object of a verb, while a Final clause is never thus used. 

3. Conjunctions introducing Final clauses sometimes have correlatives 
in the Principal clause, as ide5, idcirc5, e5, etc., as in the second 
example. 

4. Subjunctive clauses with ut or ne are sometimes inserted paren- 
thetically in sentences : 

Amic5s par9,re, optimam vltae, ut ita dicam, supellectilem, to securt 
friends^ the best treasure, so to speak, of life; c. Am. 16. 

5. A clause of purpose may take ut non when the negative belongs, 
not to the entire clause, but to some particular word : 

Suds c5piS,s prOduxit, ut, si vellet Ariovistus, etc., el potestfis nOn deesset 
(non deesset = adesset), he led out his forces that, if Ariovistus wished, etc., 
he might not lack the opportunity; Caes. i, 48, 8. Ut plura n6n dIcam, not to 
say more, or to say no more ; C. Man. 15, 44. 

6. The negative connective between Subjunctive Clauses, whether 
Substantive or Final, is regularly nSve, or neu, but sometimes neque : 

Legem tulit, ne quis accusaretur, neve multaretur, he proposed a law that 
no one should be accused or punished; N. 8, 8. Nunc ut ea praetermittara, 
neque eOs appellem, quid lucri fiat cOgnOscite, now, to omit those things, 
and not to call upon those persons, learn what the profit is; c. Ver. 8, 48, lis. 



1 Observe that the negative clause ne quid . . . capiat becomes negative 
Purpose without any change whatever, and that the affirmative vincat be- 
comes affirmative Purpose without change, though ut is used to connect it 
with contendit. 

HARK. LAT. ORAM. — 20 



290 SYNTAX 

7. Qu5, by whichy that, sometimes introduces Final Clauses, chiefly 
with comparatives, as in the fourth example. Qu5 minus is simply qu5 
with the comparative minus. 

8. Qu5 minus, by which the less, that thus the less, that not, is generally 
used with verbs of Hindering, Opposing, Refusing, — d6terre5, impe- 
di5, ob8t5, prohibe5, reciisS, etc., — and it always takes the Subjunc- 
tive. It originally denoted Purpose, but it often introduces Substantive 
Clauses : 

N5n rectisavit quo minus poenam sublret, he did not refuse to submit (that 
he might not submit) to punishment ; N. 15, 8. N5n deterret sapientem mors, 
quo minus rei publicae cOnsulat, death does not deter a wise man from delib- 
erating for the republic; c. Tusc. i, 88, 9i. Per eum stetit, qu5 minus dlmicft- 
retur, it was due to his influence (stood through him) that the battle was not 

/ought ; Caes. C. 1, 41, 8. 



POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES 

569. Rule. — The Potential Subjunctive is used in Subor- 
dinate clauses, whatever the connective, to represent the 
action as Possible or Conditional, rather than real : 

Nemo est qui non liberos suos beatos esse cupiat, there is no one who 
would not wish his children to be happy ; c. In v. i, 30, 48. Quoniam civitati 
consulere non possent, since they ivould not be able to consult for the state. 
UbI periclum facias, whenever you (any one) may make the trial; PL Bac. 63. 

1. A clause containing a Potential Subjunctive, when made depend- 
ent, often becomes an Adverbial clause denoting the Result of the 
action : 

Ita vixit ut offenderet neminem, he so lived that he would offend no one, 
or that he offended no one; c. rianc. 16, 4i. 

2. The following example shows the process by which the Potential 
Subjunctive may become the Subjunctive of Result : 

Independent Potential. — Probitatem in hoste etiam dlligSmus, we should 
love goodness even in an enemy. 

Dependent Potential = Result. — Tanta vis probitatis est ut eam in hoste 
etiam diligamus, so great is the power of goodness that we should love it even 
in an enemy, or that we love it even in an enemy. 

Note. — The strict meaning of the Potential Subjunctive diligainus is 
precisely the same both in the Independent and in the Dependent form, viz. 



SUBJUNCTIVE IN CLAUSES OF RESULT 291 

we should love; but from this primary meaning was developed by way of 
inference a secondary meaning, we love, as we very naturally assume that 
what one would love as a matter of coiirsey one may love as a matter of fact. 



POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE IN CLAUSES OF RESULT— 

CONSECUTIVE CLAUSES 

570. Rule. — The Potential Subjunctive is used with ut, 
or ut non, to denote the Result of the action : 

Tale est ut possit itire laudari, it is such that it may be Justly praised ; 
C. Fin. 2, 14. Tanta tempestas coorta est, ut nulla navis cursum tenere 
posset, so great a tempest arose that no vessel would be able, or was able, to 
hold its course ; Caes. 4, 28. Nemo adeo ferus est, ut non mitescere possit, 
no one is so fierce that he may not become gentle; II. E. i, i, 89. Atticus ita 
vixit, ut Atheniensibus esset carissimus, Atticus so lived that he was (would 
be) very dear to the Athenians; N. 25, 2. 

1. The Potential Subjunctive occurs with quam, with or without ut: 

Indulgebat sibi llberalius, quam ut invidiam posset efEugere, he indulged 
himself too freely to he able (more freely than so as to be able) to escape 
unpopularity; n. 12, 8. ImpOngbat amplius quam ferre possent, he imposed 
more than they would he able, or were able, to bear; G. Ver. 4, 84, 76. 

2. After tantiim abest ut, denoting Result, a second ut-clause of Result 
sometimes occurs : 

Philosophia, tantum abest ut laudctur, ut etiam vituperfitur, so far is U 
from the truth (so much is wanting) that philosophy is praised that it is even 
censured ; c. Tusc. 5, 2, 6. 

3. Ita . . . ut n6n introduces the Subjunctive of Result, but ita ... ut 
ne, so that not, on condition that not, introduces the Subjunctive of Purpose : 

Singulis consulatur, sed ita ut ea r6s n6 obsit rei pGblicae, let the interests 
of individuals be consulted, but only on condition that this does not harm the 
republic ; c. OflF. 2, 21, 72. 

4. NS with the Subjunctive, denoting the wish or purpose of the writer, 
is sometimes found in clauses of Result : 

Ex quQ efficitur, nOn ut voluptas n6 sit voluptSs, sed ut voluptas n5n sit 
summum bonum, from which it follows, not (I wish you to understand) that 
pleasure is not pleasure, but that pleasure is not the highest good ; 0. Fin. 2, 

8, 24. 



POTENTIAL SUBJDNCTITE IN SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES 

571, Rule. — The Potential Subjunctive is often used with 
It and nt nfin in Substantive Clauses^ as follows : 
1. In Subject clauaea, with certain ImpersoDal verbs meaning 
I it hapfmns, it follows, etc., — aocidlt, acoedlt, evenlt, St, efflcitur, 
I fieri potest, fore, sequltor, etc. : 

Potest fieri ut fallar, i/ may be Ikat I am deceived ; C. Fam. i», Ts. j. Fit 

I ut quisque delectetuc, the result is (it comes to pass) thai eveTy one is 

W'deligliled. Accidit ut esset luaa pleaa, i( happened that the moon was full. 

I 'Ad senectutem accedebat ut i:h«cu3 eaaet, to age was added the fact that he 

not blind ! C. Sen. 0, 16, Eveiiit ut rurl essemus, it happened that 

he country. Spero fore ut contjugat id nobis, / hope that thii will fall 

twlot; CTusc, 1,34, 

2. ' In Subject clauses with predicate nouns and adjectives 

MCa est ut nolint, if tV their custom to be unwilling; c, Brut. 21, m, Fuit 

Beum offiduRi ut facerern, it teas my duty to do it. Verum est ut bonds 

I boui diligant, it ii: true thai the good love the good. Quid tarn incredibile 

Fi quam ut eqnes Kotn&iiua triumph^ret, what so incredible as thai a Roman 

I hnighl should triumph ? O, Man, 21, &i. 

3. In Object clauses depending upon faclo, effioio, etc., of the 
3 action of irrational forces : 

Sdl efficit, ut omnia flOreant, the aun causes all things to bloom (that all 
I things may bloom) ; c. n. n. a, ifl, *l. Splendor veater facit ut peccfire 1 
I periculo uon possitis, your conspicuous position causes this result, that 
xnnot err without peril ; C, Ver. 1, 8, 2i, 

4. In clauBBB in Apposition with nouns or pronouns : 
Eat hoc vitium ut invidla gtoriae comes est, there is this fault, thai i 

t the companion of glory ; N, is, 3. Id est propriura civitBtis ut sit libera, 

1 The Sabjunctive, in some ol these substantive clauses, was developed directly 
from the indepecdent Potential Subjonctive, aa in the first example : Independent, 
potest fleii; tB\\aT,itmo\) be; I may be deceived ; dependent, potest fleii ut 
fBUar, it mag be that I am deceived. In some other examples, it was developed 
throagh the clanse of resalt, as in the aeeond example. If this Is interpreted to 
mean, U ii done in euch a may that eve'ry one is delighted, then ut . , . dSloctatur 
is a clause of resnlt, but, if It Is interpreted as in the text, it becomes a substan- 
tive clause. In some instances, however, sabstantive elanses, apparently with 
the Potential Subjunctive, have sot been developed in either of these two wajrs, 
Jrat formed by analogy, after the general type of sabstantlve claii«e«. 



1 

lit I 



1 



MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 293 

it is characteristic of a state to be free. Soli hoc contingit sapient! ut nihil 
faciat in Vitus, this happens only to the wise man, that he does nothing unurill- 
ingly; C. Parad. 5, 1, 84. 

MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. — INDICATIVE AND 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

572. Every Conditional Sentence consists of two distinct parts 
expressed or understood, the Condition or Protasis, and the Con- 
clusion or Apodosis : 

Si negem, mentiar, if I should deny it, I should speak falsely. 

Here si negem is the condition or protasis and mentiar, the conclusion 
or apodosis. 

573. Conditional sentences naturally arrange themselves in 
three distinct classes with well-defined forms and meanings, as 
follows : 

Class I. — Indicative in both clauses ; Condition assumed as Real : 

Negat quis, negO, some one denies (= if some one), / deny ; T. Eun. 261. Si 
quis negat, negO, if some one denies, I deny. 

Class II. — Subjunctive, Present or Perfect, in both clauses; Condi- 
tion assumed as Possible : 

RogSs m6, nihil fortasse respondeam, ask me, I may perhaps make no 
reply ; c. N. D. i, 21, 57. Si roggs m6, nihil fortasse respondeam, if you should 
ask me, I should perhaps make no reply. 

Class III. — Subjunctive, Imperfect or Pluperfect, in both clauses; 
Condition assumed as Contrary to Fact : 

Tu magnam partem, sineret dolor, habSrSs, you would have had a large 
share, had grief permitted ; v. 6, 80. Ttl mSgnam partem, si sineret dolor, 
haberes, you would have had a large share, if grief had permitted. 

Note. — From these examples it is manifest that a conditional particle, 
as si, if, although regularly used, is not an essential part of a conditional 
sentence, and that it originally had no influence upon the mood in either 
clause, as the mood in each of these examples without si is the same as in 
the corresponding example with sT. Originally the two clauses, the condi- 
tion and the conclusion, were independent of each other, and the mood in 
each was determined by the ordinary principles which regulate the use of 
moods in independent sentences ; see 528, 551. 



296 SYNTAX 

8. The condition is sometimes ironical, especially with nisi forte and 
nisi vSr5 : 

Nisi forte id dubium est, unless perchance this is doubtful; c. Ver. l, 89, lOO. 

9. A condition is sometimes implied in a participle, in an ablative abso- 
lute, or even hi the oblique case of a noun : 

NOn potestis, voluptate omnia derigentSs, retmgre virtGtem, you can not 
retain your manhood^ if you arrange all things with reference to pleasure; 
c. Fin. 2, 22, 71. R6ct6 factO, exigua laus pr5p5nitur, if the work is well done^ 
small praise is offered; c. Agr. 2, 2, 6. N6mO sine sp6 s6 ofEerret ad mortem, 
no one without a hope ( = if he had not a hope) would eot^ose himself to 
death ; c. Tusc. i, i5, 82. 

10. For Conditional Sentences in the Indhrect Discourse, see 646. 

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. — CLASS H 
Subjunctive, Present or Perfect in Both Clauses 

576. Rule. — The Present or Perfect Subjunctive in Con- 
ditional Sentences with si, nisi, ni, sin, assumes the supposed 
case as Possible : 

Dies deficiat, si velim causam defendere, the day would fail me, if I 
should wish to defend the cause; c. Tusc. 6, 85, 102. Ilaec si tecum patria 
loquatur, iionne iiiipetrare debeat, if your country should speak thus tciih 
you, ought she not to obtain her request f C. c. i, 8. Si quid te fiigerit, ego 
perierim, if anything should escape you, I should be ruined; T. Heaut. 816. 

1. The time denoted by these tenses, the Present and the Perfect, is either 
Present or Future, and the difference between the two is that the former 
regards the action in its progress, the latter in its completion ; but the Perfect 
is rare, especially in the conclusion. 

2. In early Latin the Present Subjunctive is often used in conditions con- 
trary to fact : 

Magis id dicas, si scias quod ego sci5, you would say this the more, if you 
knew what I know ; Pi. Mil. I420. Tu si hic sis, aliter sentias, if you were in 
my place, you would think differently ; t. And. 810. 

Present Subjunctive in Conditional Clauses 

577. Conditional Sentences with the Present Subjunctive in 
the condition exhibit the three following varieties : 

1. The first variety has the Present Subjunctive in both clauses. This 
is the regular form in Plautus, and the prevailing form in classical Latin : 



MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 297 

Quod facile patiar, si tu6 commodO fieri possit, which I can easily bear, 
if it can he for your advantage ; C. Att. 2, n, 3. 

2. The second variety has the Present Subjunctive in the Condition 
and the Present Indicative in the Conclusion. This form, somewhat rare 
in Plautus, became the prevailing form in the rhetorical works of Cicero, 
and finally the regular form in Tacitus and other late writers. These 
changes illustrate the gradual extension in principal clauses of the In- 
dicative in constructions once occupied by the Potential Subjunctive : 

Si accusetur, non habet d6f6nsi6nem, if he should be accused, he has no 
defense; C inv. i, is, is. IntrSre, si possim, castra hostium volo, I wish to 
enter the camp of the enemy, if I may be able, 

3. The third variety has the Present Subjunctive in the Condition 
and the Future Indicative in the Conclusion. This combination is 
readily explained from the close relationship between the Present Sub- 
junctive and the Future Indicative, both in etymology and in meaning, 
but it was not a favorite form in the classical period : 

Nee, SI cupias, licfiblt, nor if you should desire it, will it be allowed; 

C. Ver. 2, 69, 167. 

578. General Conditions. — Conditional sentences which contain 
General Truths or Eepeated Actions usually take the following 
forms : 

1. Any required tense of the Indicative in the condition with the 
Present or Imperfect Indicative in the conclusion : 

Parvi foris sunt arma, nisi est consilium domi, arms are of little value 
abroad unless there is wisdom at home; c. Off. i, 22, 76. Si quod erat grande 
vas inventum, laeti adf erfibant, if any large vessel had been found, they gladly 
brought it to him ; C Ver. 4, 21, 47. 

2. The Present or Perfect Subjunctive, generally in the second person 
used of an indefinite you = one, any one, in the condition, with the Present 
Indicative in the conclusion : 

Memoria minuitur nisi eam exerceas, the memory is impaired if you do 
not (if one does not) exercise it; C. Sen. 7,21. Nulla est excusatiO peccati, 
si araici causa peccaverfs, it is no excuse for a fault, that (if) you may have 
committed it for the sake of a friend; c. Am. ii, 37. 

Note 1. — In Livy and late writers the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunc- 
tive are sometimes used. Solitary examples also occur in Cicero and Caesar : 

Si apud principgs haud satis prospers esset piignatum, refergbaiitur, if 
among the pnncipes the battle had not been sufficiently successful, they wer^ 
led back; L. 8, 8, ii. 



298 SYNTAX 

Note 2. — Observe that all the Indicative forms given in this section for 
General Conditions are also used in Particular Conditions. 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. — CLASS IH 
Subjunctive, Imperfect or Pluperfect in Both Clauses 

579. Rule. — The Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive in 
Conditional Sentences with si, nisi, nl, sin, assumes the sup- 
posed case as Contrary to Fact : 

Sapientia non expeteretur, si nihil efficeret, wisdom would not he sought 
(as it is) if it accomplished nothing ; c. Fin. i, 13, 42. Si optima tenere 
possemus, haud sane consilio egeremus, if we were able to secure the highest 
good, we should not indeed require counsel. Si voluisset, propius Tiberi 
dimicasset, if he had wished, he would have fought nearer the Tiber. Num- 
quam abisset, nisi sibT viam munivisset, he would never have gone, if he 
had not prepared for himself a way; C. Tusc. i, 14, 82. 

1. Here the Imperfect generally relates to Present time and the Pluperfect 
to Past time, as in the examples ; but sometimes the Imperfect retains its 
original signification as a past tense of continued action,^ especially when it 
is accompanied by a word denoting past time : 

Neque tantum laudis Nestori tribuisset Homfirus, nisi tum esset honos 
eloquentiae, Homer would not have awarded so great praise to Nestor, if 
there were then no honor for eloquence; C. Brut, lo, 40. 

DEVIATIONS FROM THE REGULAR FORMS OF CONDITIONAL 

SENTENCES 

680. Certain deviations from the regular form of the conclusion 

are admissible from the following facts : 

1. Tlie conclusion is often an independent clause, especially in the 
first class of conditional sentences, and as such it may take any form 

1 The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive alike seem to have been capable 
originally of representing a condition either as Possible or as Impossible, but by 
a shifting of tenses which began before the time of Plautus, the Imperfect gradu- 
ally assumed the latter function for present time, thus relinquishing, in con- 
ditional sentences, its original force as a past tense, though traces of this original 
meaning are seen even in the classical period. Moreover, the use of the Present 
Subjunctive in early Latin in conditions contrary to fact is only an illustration of 
its original use. 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 299 

admissible in such clauses, as that of a Statement, a Wish, or a 
Command. 

2. Certain equivalent expressions may be substituted for the regular 
Subjunctive. 

581. The Indicative in the Condition may be accompanied by 
the Imperative or Subjunctive in the Conclusion, regarded as an 
Independent Clause : 

Si quid peccavi, ignosce, if I have done anything wrong, pardon me; 
c. Att. 8, 15, 4. Quid timeam, si beatus futurus sum, what should I fear, if I 
am going to be happy f Si quid hab6s certius, velim scire, if you have any 
tidings, I should like to know it; c. Att. 4, lo. 

1. The Subjunctive in the condition may be accompanied by the Indica- 
tive in the conclusion to emphasize a fact, especially with a condition intro- 
duced by nisi, or ni : 

Certamen aderat, n! Fabius rem expedisset, a contest was at hand, but 
Fahius (if Fabius had not) adjusted the affair; L. 3, i. Nee v6ni, nisi fata 
locum dedissent, and I should not have come, if the fates had not assigned 
the place; v. ii, 112. 

582. The Indicative of the Periphrastic Conjugations, denoting 
that the action is About to take place or Ought to take place, has 
almost the same meaning as the ordinary Subjunctive forms of 
the same verb. Accordingly periphrastic forms in the conclusion 
of conditional sentences are generally in the Indicative (525, 1) : 

Quid, si host6s veniant, factUri estis, what will you do, if the enemy 
should come f L. 3, 52. Si quaeratur, iudicandum est, if inquiry should be 
made, a decision must be given ; c. Top. 23, 87. Rellctiiri agr5s erant, nisi 
litteras misisset, they would have left (were about to leave, but did not) their 
lands, if he had not sent a letter. Si v6rum respondgre vell6s, haec erant 
dicenda,^ if you had wished to answer truly, this should have been said. 

I. The close relationship in meaning between the periphrastic forms in 
uruB sum and the ordinary Subjunctive forms is illustrated by the following 
examples : 

Quae Caesar numquam fCcisset, ea nunc prQferuntur, those things which 
Caesar would never have done are now reported as his; C. Att. 14, 13, 6. Quae 

» — — — - - — 

1 Observe that the Indicative of this Passive Periphrastic Conjugation, this 
should have been said, has precisely the same force as the Subjunctive in such 
sentences as the following : 

Mortem pugnans oppetisses, you should have met death in battle ; c. Sest 20. 45. 



300 SYITTAX 

ille facttirus nOn fuit, ea flunt, those things which he would not have done 
(was not about to do) are now done ; c. Att. 14, 14, 2. 

2. When the Perfect or Imperfect of the Periphrastic Indicative in the 
conclusion of a conditional sentence is brought into a construction which 
requires the Subjunctive, the Perfect is generally used irrespective of the 
tense of the principal verb : 

AdeO inopia est coactus ut, nisi timuisset, Galliam repetlttlrus fuerit,^ he 
was so pressed by toant that, if he had not feared, he would have returned to 
Gaul; L.22, 32. 

683. The Historical tenses of verbs denoting Ability, as po*- 
Buin, and of those denoting Duty, Propriety, Necessity, as debeo 
and the like, are often in the Indicative in the conclusion of con- 
ditional sentences, on account of their close relationship in meaning 
to the Subjunctive (525, 1) : 

Delgrl exercitus potuit, si persecUti victOrfis essent, the army might have 
been destroyed if the victors had pursued; L. 82, 12. Quern, si dlla in t6 pietSs 
esset, colere dfibebas, whom you ought to have honored, if there was any filial 
affection in you ; c. Ph. 2, 88, 9y. Quae si dubia essent, tamen omnSs bonds rel 
publicae subvenire dec6bat, even if these things were doubtful, still it would 
behoove all good men to aid the republic ; S. 85, 48. 

1. But these verbs often take the Subjunctive in accordance with the 
general rule, especially in Cicero : 

Quid facere potuissem, nisi turn consul fuissem, what should I have been 
able to accomplish^ if I had not then been consul? c. K. P. i, 6, lo. 

2. The Perfect Tense in the conclusion of a conditional sentence is regu- 
larly hi the Indicative when accompanied by paene or prope (638, 6) : 

lT)ns iter paene hostibus dedit, nl unus vir fuisset, the bridge would have 
furnished (almost furnished) a passage to the enemy, had there not been 
one man; L. 2, lo. 

8. The historical tenses of the*verb esse with predicate adjectives (as 
aequius, melius, rectius, satius; iiistum, rSctum, p&r, etc.) are gener- 
ally in the Indicative in the conclusion of conditional sentences ; see 625, 2 : 

Si ita putasset, optabilius Miloni fuit dare iugulum ClSdiO, if he had so 
thought, it would have been preferable for Milo to offer his neck to Clodius; 

C. Mil. 11, 81. 

1 Here repetittirus fuerit is the Subjunctive of Result; but it is in the Per- 
fect, because, if it were not dependent, the Perfect Indicative would have been 
used. 



CONDITIONAL CLAUSES OF COMPARISON 301 

4. In a few other cases also, a conclusion of one form of the conditional 
sentence is sometimes combined with a condition of a different form : 

Si tibi umquam sum visus f ortis, cert6 m6 in ilia causa admiratus essSs, if 
I have ever seemed to you to he brave, you would certainly have admired me 
in that trial ; c. Att. i, 16. Id neque, si fatiim fuerat, effugisset, nor would he 
have escaped this if it had been fated; C. Div. 2, 8, 20. 



CONDITIONAL CLAUSES OF COMPARISON 

584. Rule^ — Conditional Clauses of Comparison, intro- 
duced by ac Bi. ut bI, quam bI, quaBi, tamquam, tamquam bI, 
velut, velut bI, as if^ than if^ take the Subjunctive : 

Tii similiter facis, ac si me roges, you are doing nearly the same thing ^ as 
if you should ask me; C. N. D. 8, 8, 8. In eadem sunt iniiistitia, ut si in suam 
rem aliena convertant, they are involved in the same injustice, as if they 
should appropriate another's possessions to their own use ; C. Off. i, 14, 42. 
Tam te dlligit quam si vixerit tecum, he loves you as much as if he had 
lived with you; c. Fam. 16, 5, i. Quasi nihil umquam audierim, as if I had 
never heard anything. Sic iacent, tamquam sine animo sint, they lie as if 
they were without mind. Crudelitatem, velut si adesset, horrebant, they 
shuddered at his cruelty, as if he were present; cf. Caes. i, 82. 

1. In all these sentences the principal clause is entirely independent of 
the conditional clause. 

2. In the conditional clause the Present or Imperfect is used for Present 
time, and the Perfect or Pluperfect for Past time. 

3. The Present and Perfect may be used in conditions contrary to fact— 
a survival of the ancient usage as seen in Plautus and Terence. 

4. Ceu and Bicuti are sometimes used like ac bI, ut bI, etc. : 

Ceu cetera nusquam bella forent, as if there were nowhere any other battles ; 
V. 2, 488. Sicuti audiri possent, as if they could be heard ; s. 60, 4. 

5. Clauses of Comparison, which are not conditional, are treated as Inde- 
pendent clauses. They are generally introduced by such correlatives as 
ita or Bic . . . ut, thus or so , , . as ; tam . . . quam, so ox as , , . as ; tSUlB 
. . . quSlis, such . . . as; teuituB . . . queuituB, so great . . , as: 

Ut sementem f 6cerTs, ita metes, as you sow, so shall you reap ; C. Or. 2, 65, 261. 
Nihil est tam populare quam bonitas, nothing is so popular as goodness. 
Tam dia requi6sc6 quam diu ad t6 scribO, 7 am comforted so long as I am 
writing to you ; c. Att 9, 4, i. Talem amicum volunt, qual6s ipsi esse nOn 
possunt, they wish their friend to be such as they themselves ca,n not be- 



304 SYNTAX 

n. QuAinvTi, inranlnff a/i ynu wttiht a$ much ai you wtsh^ howewr mucA, 
may atu'otiipany lioot with thu Hubjuiiotivo t 

QuainvlH CiiutiuTOH inultAM licot, though you may count up a9 many a$ you 
with; (). \.vft. H, 10, »4. 

MOODH WITH Dum, Modo. Dummodo 

587. Rule. — TIh^ JimHivo Suhjunetivo \» UHod with dum, 
modo, modo ut, and dummodo, iiiouning if only^ provided^ in 

condilioiiHl cIhuhoh of doHiro: 

I)(un I'Oh tnannant, vorba Hiigant, Iri thain mnnnfacturt worthy if only thi 
favt» rnnnin, Maiioni iii^i^nia, modo |Miriiianeat itiduMtria, mental power» 
rnnnin if ouli/ indunirf/ vonUnuu; ('. Hon. 7, aa. Modo ut hatio iiOblM loca 
titiiOro liiMMit, if onlij it is pnmiUad un to occupy these placet, Dum tiG tibl 
vldoar, iiOn biboro, providrd I do not nnm »o to you^ t do not care; o. Att. 
H, 11, II. H. l)utiitiiodo no coiiiinuutn Hit, provided thin he not continuoue* 

MOODH WITH Quod, Quia, Quoniam, Quanddi 

588. Rule. — ('attrnvl OIuhhoh witli quod, quia, quoniam, 
quttiidO, ^(UKM'ally tako 

I. TIhj Indic-alivcj to iVHHif^ii a roaHon pomtivoly, on oiio'h 

own authority : 

I)oliM'tntiiM Mutii tiiiH littnriM, (plod io ititi^lloxl iatii poHHo ridora, / hare 
hnn drhjfhfrd uulh i/imr trttrr, hrrauHt' I lutrr Inirnfd from it that now you 
mil laujfh : <' Kum \kw,\. Quia naliira iinilan iion potont, Ar/viw/ir nature 
run nut hr rhnnf/rd. (^iioniatn Hiippliralio <bMM*cta omI, ('«b'bratotn illOH 
din.M, sinrr n Ihitnkmjivinti hnn Itvrn drrrrrdt rrlrhratr those day», Qtiando 
paiip<M'i<Mii bnnt'M, ninrc ijoh nhuddrr at poiwrtij* H. H. a, ft, U. 

II. TIh^ Siil)jiiiiclivo to nHHi^n a rcMiMon (louhtfuUy, or on 

anotlicr'M aiitluuity^: 

Ai'iHiidrM notino oxpiilNiiM OHt patrifi, (piod iiiMtuM onnot, wan not Arintidrn 
Itanin/ird ItrrmiHr ({U\ llio allp^(nd ground thai) In- iron Jnntf <'. Tuim h, h«. UMi. 

i Qitod fuid qtila an« in nrlKiti r«lalivn proiiouiiN. Quonlam — QUOm lam, 
wttni now, 

'•> Otmoivn Dint iMiiiNnl ctiiiiNoN willi Dm liuiicativn Htalo a fart, and at thr Natiin 
tinio primnit. Diul fnct nN ii riMiNoii or chuho, ImiI Dial iMiUHnl rliiiiNON with tho Hub- 
JuiirDvo Nliiiply mhh\)x,\\ ii roiinoii. TIiun qtiod lUHtUK «mnot «Ioon not ntatn that 
ArlntliloH wiiH JiiNl , l>ii( itlniply tudloaloM tho allo^^'d Ki'oiiod of btn banlNhmotit. 



MOODS m CAUSAL CLAUSES 305 

Reprehendis me, quia defendam, you reprove me because (on the ground 
that) / defend him. Quoniam clvitati c5nsulere non possent, since they 
could not consult for the state. 

1. Sometimes by a special construction the Subjunctive of a verb of 
Saying or Thinking is used, while the verb which introduces a reason or 
a statement on another's authority is put in the Infinitive ; see 649, 1 : 

Di€s prOrogatiu*, quod tabulas obsignates diceret (= ob^gn9,tae essent), 
the time is extended on the ground that the documents were signed, as he said; 
c. Ver. 1, 38, 98. Lfigfttis accusautibus, quod pecuni3s cSpisse arguerent, as the 
ambassadors accused him on the ground that he had received moneys, as they 
claimed ; c. Fin. 17, 24. 

2. Non quod, n5n quo, non quin, non quia, also quam quod, etc., 
are used with the Subjunctive to denote an alleged reason, in distinction 
from the true reason : 

Non quod susc6ns6rem, sed quod suppudgbat, not because I teas angry, 
but because I was ashamed ; c. Fam. 9, 1, 2. Non quO habfirem quod scribe- 
rem, not because (that) / had anything to write ; c. Att. 7, 15, 1. N6n quIn 
rectum esset, sed quia, etc., not because it %oas not right, but because, etc. 

Note. — In such clauses the Indicative is sometimes used to call attention 
to the facts in the case : 

N5n quod multls d€be5, sed quia, etc., not because I am indebted to many 
(as I really am), but because, etc.; C. Plane. 82, 78. 

3. The quod clause was originally a substantive clause used as Ap- 
positive. Subject, or Object : 

H6c praestamus feris quod colloquimur inter n5s, vse are superior to the 
brutes in this that we converse together; C. Or. l, 8, 82. Praetere5 quod 
banc sibi domum d6l6git, I pass over the fact that she chose for herself this 
home. Hue accedebat quod exercitum luxuriOs^ habuerat, to this was added 
the fact that he had kept the army in luxury ; s. c. 11, 5. 

Note. — Clauses with quod sometimes stand at the beginning of sentences 
to announce the subject of discourse : 

Quod me Agamemnonem aemul&ri putSs, falleris, as to the fact that you 
think that I emulate Agamemnon^, you are in error; N. 15, 5, 6. 

4. From the Substantive clause was developed the Causal clause, as 
follows : 

Propter banc causam quod m6 adiuv6runt, for this reason, that they 
aided me, or because they aided me ; C. Ver. 8, 46, 109. Dol6bam quod socium 
laboris amiseram, I was grieving over the fact that I had lost the companion 

HARK. LAT. ORAM. — 21 



306 SYNTAX 

of my labor, or because I had lost the companion of my labor. TibI ago 
gr3.tiAs quod me uiolestid, liber^tl, / thank you because you have freed me 
from annoyance ; C. Fam. 18, 62. 

Note. — Observe that in the first example the quod clause may be either 
an Apposltive to causam or a Causal clause, that in the second it may be 
either the Direct object of dolSbam or a Causal clause, Le. in these exam- 
ples we see the Causal clause in the actual process of development^ while in 
the third example we have a fully developed Causal clause. In the time of 
Plautus the Causal meaning of quod was just beginning to make its appear- 
ance, while that of quia was already fully developed. 

5. Quia had the same development as quod : 

Doles quia dol6s, I grieve over the fact that you grieve., or because you grieve. 

6. Quoniam and quando were originally temporal particles meaning 
when now, when, and are so used in Plautus, but the causal meaning was 
early developed in both. 

INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE IN RELATIVE CLAUSES 

589. Rule. — Clauses introduced by the relative qui, or 
by Relative Adverbs, ubi, unde, quo, etc., take 

I. The Indicative, when they simply state or assume facts, with- 
out any accessory notion of Purpose, llesult, Concession, or Cause : 

Ego qui to odnfirnio, ipse me non possum, / who encourage you am 
not able to encoimuje. nv/self; C. Fam; 14, 4, 5. Civitates propinquae his 
locis, ul)I bolluni gesserat, states near to those places where he had been 
carrying on war. Athcuieiises, imde leges ortae putantur, the Athenians^ 
from tchom laws are supposed to have been derived. Cumls, qu5 se contu- 
lerat, at Cumae, to which he had betaken himself. 

Note. — So especially with General Relatives : 
Quisqiiis est, is est sapiens, whoever he is, he is wise. 

II. The Subjunctive in all other cases : 

MissI sunt dclocti, qui Thermopylas occuparent, picked men were sent 
to take possessioti (that they might take possession) of Thermopylae; 
N. 2, 3, 1. Donmm, ubI habitaret, legerat, he had selected a house where he 
might dwell (that he might dwell in it) ; c. Ph. 2, 25, 62. Quae tarn firma 
civitas est, quae n5n odils possit everti, tvhat state is so firmly established 
that it cannot be ruined by dissensions? 



MOODS IN RELATIVE CLAUSES 307 

590. The Volitive Subjunctive is used in Relative clauses^ to 
denote Purpose, as in ut clauses (668) : 

Certumst (certura est) hominem conloqui, qui possim vid6ri huic fortis, & 
m6 ut abstineat manum, / am determined to address the man face to face, 
that I may appear to him brave, that he may keep his hands off from me; Pi. 
Arnph. 839. LegatOs R5inam, qui auxilium peterent, mis6re, they sent am- 
bassadors to Home to ask aid (that they might ask aid). Locum petit, 
unde hostera invadat, he seeks a position from which he may (that from it he 
may) attack the enemy ; L. 4, 27, 8. 

1. In the first example, observe that the Relative clause, qui possim . . . 
fortis, aud the ut clause, are equivalent expressions of Purpose. In the 
Independent form, they would read : possim vidSn huic fortis, let me be 
able to appear to him brave; a m§ abstineat meuium, let him keep his 
hands off from me. 

591. The Potential Subjunctive is used in Kelative clauses : 

1. To characterize Indefinite or General antecedents, especially Gen- 
eral Negatives : 

NemO est Srator qui Dgmostheni s6 similem nOlit esse, there is no orator 
who would be unwilling to be like Demosthenes ; C. Opt. G. 2, 6. Quis est qui 
hoc dicere audeat, who is there who would dare to say this f 

Note 1. — Observe that, in these relative clauses, the Subjunctive is purely 
Potential, and that it has precisely the same force as in the following inde- 
pendent sentence : 

Quis hoc dicere audeat, who would dare to say this f 

Note 2. — The Indicative is freely used in relative clauses after indefi- 
nite antecedents, in poetry, especially in Plautus and Terence, and in late 
prose. Even in the best writers it is often used when the Fact is to be made 
prominent : 

Sunt quOs iuvat, there are those whom. it delights; H. l, l, 8. Permulta sunt, 
quae dici possunt, there are many things which may be said; c. Rose. A. 33, 94. 

2. To denote the Natural Result of an Action or Quality : 

NOn is sum qui his delecter, / am not one who would be delighted with 
these things, or such a one as to be delighted; 0. Hams. 9, 18. NOn tu is es 
quem nihil delectet, you are not one whom nothing would please. Neque 
quisquam fuit, ubi nostrum ius obtinOremus, there was no one with whom 
(where) we could obtain our right; 0. Quinct. 9, 84. 

3. In Restrictive clauses, as quod sciam, as far as I (may) know; 
quod meminerim, as far as I can remember; quds ego audierim, at 
least such as I have (may liave) heard, etc. : 



lYNTAX 




F 

^V NOn ego tS, quod Bciatn, umquatn ante bunc diem vidl, a* far as T htm», 

^B / have never seen you be/ore this duif ; PI. Men. SiKi. Omnium, quOs ego audi- 
^K erim, (i/ ii2f loAont 7 tnn^ Adof AcftriJ ; c. Br. &i, 308. 
■ 4.. 
^H oertaii 
^V nlbU 



. In clauses witli quod, or with a relative particle, oQr, quJlii, etc., iu 

I certain idiomatic expi'essious. 'I'hus, after est, there is reason ; aSa est, 

■ nlbU eat, r A ere is no remon; niUla causa est, there is no reiison : aSti 

llabeS, nihil liabeS, I have no reason; quid est, what reason is there f eU.: 



Est quod gaudeas, there is reason why yo» should r^oice (Ibcre is that 
as to whicli you may rejoice); PI.Trln,.1lu. Nihil habeo, quod aecOsem 

^BenEct(iteIn. / hai-e iio renson ti/ complain of old nije; r. Sen. s. la. ;m|^^J 
cauaa nQUa est cQr veliH,' yoit have no reason lehy you should wish. J^^^H 
6. After ilnus, aSlua, and the like : ^^^^| 

Sapientia est ilua quae maestltlam pellat, aiadom is the only thing tojffll^^fl 
dispels (may dispel) sadness; C, Fin. 1, lU, -IS. SOU ceatiim orant qui creStt 
patrSs posaeiit, there were inili/ one hundred who could be made senators. 



I 



6. After Comparatives with quain ; 

Damna maiOra sunt quam quae (ut ea) aeetlmSrl poBsInt, the losses are too 
great to hr, estimated (greater than so that they tian be estimated); L. s, it. 
NoTB. — For the Influitive after ooraparnlivea with qaam, see 643, 2. 

7. After dignus, indlgnuB, idSneus, and aptus : 

Hiinc Caesar idOueum iO-iiicSverat qnein mitteret, Caesar had judged him 
a suitabU person to send (whom he might send) ; caua, o, a. i«. n. Fabuiae 
dignae quae legantur, plays vtnrlh reading (wliich may or should be read). 

NoiE. — Fur the luflnitive wltli these wordti, see 608, 4, and note 1. 

592. The Subjunctive, originally Potential, is used in Relative 
to denote Cause or Reason : 



via verltatls, quae b6 defendat, the power of trtith, that it (which) can 

L dtfend itself; f- <^ni. ia, m. fortilnSte aduleacens, qui tuae virtatis Honie- 

i praecOnem InvSnerts, fortunate yovth, in having obtained (who may 

'' hAnohMD^A) Horner as the herald of your valor; 0. Areh. 10,«. Nee faciUime 

agnOscitur, quippe qui blaudilUur, he is iwt very easily detected, as he is likels 

to flatter. Marltlmae les, ut quae celerem mOtum haberent, maritime affairs, 

as they iueolve prompt movement (as things which would have, etc.). MOn 

procul abemt, utpote qui sequeretur, he teas not far ateay, as he was pur- 

^^ suing (ns one who might be pursuing) ; ^. i^. ST, t. 

^1 lade] 



MOODS IN CLAUSES WITH QUIN 309 

1. Quippe, ut, and utpote sometimes accompany the relative in Causal 
clauses, as in the last three examples. They emphasize the causal relation. 

2. In Plautus and Terence^ causal clauses with qui and quippe qui admit 
either the Indicative or the Subjunctive. The latter mood emphasizes the 
causal relation and is used especially with ut qm : 

Quem rogem, qui hic neminem alium videam, whom am I to ask, since I 
can see no other one here f Ut qui mg tibi esse cSnservom velint, smce they 
(as those who) xcould wish me to he your fellow-servant ; Pi. Capt. 243. 

3. Causal clauses with qui admit the Indicative in all writers, when the 
statement is viewed as a fact rather than as a cause : 

HabeO senecttiti gratiam, quae mihl sermOnis aviditS>tem auxit, I cherish 
gratitude to old age, which has increased my love of conversation ; c. Sen. u, 46. 

4. In Sallust quippe qui regularly takes the Indicative : 

Quippe qui rggnum animo iam invaserat, since in thought he had already 
seized the kingdom ; S. 20, 6. 

693. The Subjunctive, originally Jussive, is used 

1. In those Relative clauses which are equivalent to Conditional 
clauses with the Subjunctive (673): 

Haec qui (= si quis) videat, nSnne cOgatur cOnfitgri, etc., if any one should 
see these things, would he not he compelled to admit, etc. ? c. N. D. 2, 4, 12. Qui 
videret, urbem captara diceret, if any one saw it, he would say that the city 
was taken ; c. Ver. 4, 28, 52. 

2. In those Relative clauses which are equivalent to Concessive 
clauses with the Subjunctive (686, II.) : 

Absolvite emn, qui se fateatur pecunias cepisse, acquit him, although he 
confesses (let him confess) that he has accepted money ; c. Ver. 8, 95, 221. Ego- 
met qui leviter Graecas litteras attigissem, tamen complGrgs digs Athenis 
sum commoratus, although I had pursued Greek studies only superficially, 
yet I remained in Athens several days; cf. C. Or. 1, 18, 82. 



MOODS WITH Quih 

594. Rule. — I. Quin in direct questions and commands 
takes the ordinary construction of independent sentences: 

Quin conscendimus equos, why do we not mount our horses f L. l, 57, 7. 
Quin taces, why are you not silent? Quin iino verbo die, nay, say in a 
single word; T. And. 45. 



310 SYNTAX 

II. Qutn in subordinate clauses takes the Subjunctive: ^ 

Nee dubitari debet, quln fuerint ante Homerum poetae, nor ought it to 
he doubted that there were poets before Homer; c. Brut. 18, 71. Neque recusare, 
quin armis contendant, and that they do not refuse to contend in arms. 
Nemo est tarn fortis, quin rei novitate perturbetur, no one is so brave, as 
not to be disturbed by the suddenness of the event; Caes. 6, 89, 8. 

1. In number I., observe that the use of quia in commands is developed 
from its use in questions. Thus, quin tacSs, why are you not silent f implies 
a reproof which readily passes into a Command, as quin tac6, nay, be silent, 

2. In number II., the quih clause in the first example is developed from 
the interrogative quin = qui-ne, meaning why not? Qum . . . poStae, why 
may there not have been poets before Homer? The mood is Potential. In 
the next example, qmn is used in the sense of qu5 minus and thus intro- 
duces a clause of Purpose ; see 668. In the last example, quin is equivalent 
to qui non and introduces a clause of Characteristic and accordingly takes 
the Potential Subjunctive. 

595. Quin is used after Negatives and Interrogatives implying 
a Negative. Thus : 

1. After negative expressions implying Doubt, Uncertainty, Distance, 
Omission, and the like, as non dubito, n5n dubium est, nihil abest, 
nihil or non praetermitto, etc. : 

N5n dubitat quin sit Troia peritiira, he does not doubt that Troy will fall ; 
C. Sen. 10, 31. Non erat dubium, quin plurimum possent, there was no doubt 
that they had venj great poioer; Caes. i, 3. Nihil abest quin sim miserrimus, 
nothing is wanting to make me (that I should be) most unhappy. Ntlllum 
intermisi diem, quin aliquid ad t6 litterarum darem, / have allowed no day to 
pass xcithout sending (but that I sent) a letter to you. 

2. After verbs of Hindering, Preventing, Refusing, and the like, to 
>lenote Purpose, like quo minus and ng after the same verbs : 

Quin loquar liaec, numquam me potest deterrgre, you can never deter me 
from saying this ; ri. Amph. 559. Retin6rl n5n potuerant quin t6la c5icerent, 
they could not be restrained from hurling their weapons; Caes. i, 47, 2. 

8. After facere non possum, fieri non potest, etc., in Object and 

Subject clauses : 

1 Quin in subordinate clauses seems to represent two separate words : an inter- 
rogative quin = qui-ne, whii not^ from which was developed a negative relative, 
meanin<2: by xohich not = quOminus ; and a relative quia = qui n5n, quae nOn, 
quod n5n, who not. 



MOODS IN CLAUSES WITH CUM 311 

« 
Facere non possum, quin cottidie litteras ad te mittam, / cannot but send 

(cannot help sending) a letter to you daily ; cf. c. Att. 12, 27. Efl&ci nOn potest 

qnin e5s Oderim, it cannot he brought about that I should not hate them, 

4. After nSmo, nuUus, nihil, quia, and the like, in the sense of qui 
non, quae non, ut non : 

Nemo est, quin malit, there is no one who would not prefer ; cf. C. Fam. 6, 1, l. 
NemO est quin audierit, there is no one who has not heard. Nulla fuit civitas 
quin Caesari pargret, there was no state which loas not subject to Caesar, Quis 
est quin cemat, who is there who does not (would not) perceive 9 c. Acad. 2, 7, 20. 

5. After various verbs with numquam and in Interrogative clauses 
with umquam : 

Numquam tam male est Siculis, quin aliquid facete dicant, it is never so 
bad with the Sicilians that they cannot say something witty ; c. Ver. 4, 43, 95. 
Quis umquam templum illud adspexit quin avaritlae tuae testis esset, who 
ever looked upon that temple without being a witness of your avarice f 

6. A pronoun, is or id, referring to the subject of the principal clause, 
is sometimes expressed after quin : 

Quis venit quin is d6 avaritia tua commongrfitur, who came without being 
reminded (but that he was reminded) of your avance f 0. Ver. 1, 59, 154. 

696. Special Verbs. — Certain verbs which take quin with more 
or less frequency also admit other constructions. Thus : 

1. Non dubitd admits either a quin clause or a dependent question : 

NOlite dubitare, quin liuic cr§datis omnia, do not hesitate to intrust every- 
thing to him ; C. Man. 23, 68. Non dubitO quid nObis agendum put6s, / do not 
doubt what you think we ought to do ; c. Att. 10, 1, 2. 

2. A few verbs of Hindering and Opposing, especially d6terre5 and 
impedio, take the Subjunctive with nS, quin, or quo minus : 

H5s multitudinem deterrgre n6 friimentum cOnferant, that these deter the 
multitude from bringing the grain together ; Caes. l, 17, 2. Quin loquar haec, 
numquam m6 pot6s deterrere, you can never deter me from saying this. NOn 
deterret sapientem mors qu5 minus rei publicae c5nsulat, death does not deter 
a wise man from deliberating for the republic; C. Tusc. 1, 88, 91. 

CLAUSES WITH Cum 

697. The particle ciun, like the relative from which it is 
derived, is very extensively used in subordinate constructions, 
as in Causal, Concessive, and Temporal clauses. 



312 SYNTAX 

SUBJUNCTIVE WITH Cum IN CAUSAL AND CONCESSIVE 

CLAUSES 

598. Rule. — In writers of the best period, Causal and 
Concessive clauses with cum take the Subjunctive : 

Cum vita slue amicis iiietus plena sit, ratio monet amicitias comparare, 
sitice life without friends is (would be) full of fear, reason adinses us to 
establish friendships; C. Fin. i, 20, 66. Quae cum ita sint, perge, since these 
things are so, proceed. Quippe cum eos diligamus, since in truth we love 
them; c. Am. 8, 28. Utpote cum sine febri laborassem, since indeed I had 
been without fever in my illness. Cum praesertim vos alium miseritis, 
especially since you have sent another; C. Man. 5, 12. 

Phocion fuit pauper, cum divitissimus esse posset, Phocion was a poor 
man, although he might have been very inch; cf. N. 19, 1, 2. Socrates, cum 
facile posset educi e custodia, noliiit, Socrates, though he could easily have 
escaped from prison, was unwilling to do so; cf. c. Tusc. 1, 29, 71. Cum multa 
sint in philosophia utilia, although there are many useful things in philosophy. 

1. Observe that the causal relation is emphasized by the addition of 
quippe and utpote to cum, precisely as it is by the addition of these 
particles to qui; see 592, 1. Praesertim added to cum, as in the fifth 

example, has a similar force. 

599. Indicative in Causal and Concessive Clauses with Cum. — The 

Indicative in Causal clauses with cum is the regular construction 
in Plautus and Terence ; and it is used in all writers when the 
statement is viewed as an actual fact, especially after laudo, 
gaudeo, gratulor, and the like : 

Quom optume fecisti, since you have done excellently ; Pi. Capt. 428. Quom 
hoc non possum, since I have not this power. Cum de tuis factis conque- 
runtur, since they complain of your deeds; C. Ver. 2, u, 155. Gratulor tibi, cum 
tantum vales, I congratulate you on the fact that you have so great influence. 

1. Concessive clauses with cum sometimes take the Indicative to em- 
phasize the fact rather than the concession : 

Cum tabulas emunt, tamen divitias suas vincere nequeunt, though they 
purchase paintings^ they are yet unable to exhaust their wealth; 8.0.20,12. 

2. Ut . . . BIG and ut . . . ita, though , . . yet (as . . . so), involving 
Comparison, rather than Concession, generally take the Indicative : 

Ut a proelils quietem habuerant, ita non cossaverant ab opere, though 
(as) they had had rest from battles, yet (so) they had not ceased from work. 



MOODS IN CLAUSES WITH CUM 313 

MOODS IN TEMPORAL CLAUSES WITH Cum 

600. Rule. — Temporal clauses with cum, meaning when^ 
while^ after^ take 

I. The Indicative in the Present, Perfect, and Future Tenses : 

Libros, cum est otium, legere soleo, / am wont to read books when I have 
leisure; c Or. 2, 14, 59. Turn cum urbem condidit, at the time when he 
founded the city. Cum Caesar in Galliam venit, when Caesar came into 
GauL Cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt, when men shall govern 
their desires. 

I. Cum Inversum. — Here belong clauses with cum inversum, i.e. with 
cum in the sense of et tum, and then. This is an inverted construction 
by which the leading thought is put in the Temporal clause which generally 
takes the Historical Present or Perfect, often with repente, subitd, or some 
similar word, while the Principal clause generally takes the Imperfect or 
l^luperfect with vix, nondum, iam, etc. ; 

Vix ille hoc dixerat, cum iste prOnuntiat, etc., scarcely had he said this 
when (and then) that man proclaimed, etc.; c. Ver. 2, 88, 93. Di6s nondum 
decem intercesserant, cum alter filius necStur, ten days had not yet inter- 
vened Men (and then) the other son was put to death. 

II. The Subjunctive in the Imperfect and Pluperfect Tenses : 

Zenonem, cum Athenis essem, audiebam frequenter, / ofien heard 
Zeno when I was at Athens; C. N. D. i, 21, 59. Cum dimicaret, occisus est, 
when he engaged in battle, he was slain; N. 21,8, 2. Fuisti saepe, cum 
Athenis esses, in scholis philosophorum, you were often in the schools of 
the philosophers, when you were at Athens. Caesari cum id nuntiatum esset, 
maturat ab urbe proficisci, when this had been announced to Caesar, he has- 
tened to set out from the city. Cum tridui viam processisset, niintiatum est 
el, etc., when he had gone a three days* journey, it was announced to him, etc. 

1. It will be found on an examination of these and similar examples that 
temporal clauses introduced by cum with the Imperfect and Pluperfect 
Subjunctive name, or describe, the occasion on which the action of the 
principal verb is performed. Thus presence in Athens was the essential 
condition on which alone one could hear Zeno, and in the fourth example the 
announcement made to Caesar was the actual cause of his hasty departure 
from the city. These clauses therefore sustain a close relationship to causal 
clauses with cum, and probably take the Subjunctive after the analogy of 
those clauses. They are used chiefly in historical narration, in which the 
causal relation of events is often manifest. 



314 SYNTAX 

2. The Subjunctive of the second i>erson singular, used of an Indefinite 
yoM, meaning any one^ may be used in any tense : 

Difficile est tacere, cum dole&s, it is difficult to be quiet when you are 
suffering ; C Snll. lo, 81. Cum quOsdam audlres, when you heard certain per- 
sons ; C. Brut. 85, 184. 

601. Indicative. — The Indicative in the Imperfect and Plu- 
perfect in Temporal clauses with cum is the regular construction 
in Plautus and Terence, bub it is exceedingly rare^ in the classical 
period. It is used, however, in temporal clauses, which logically 
are nearly or quite independent of the principal clause. Thus 

1. After cum = at tum, as often in cum interim, cum intereS, when 
in the meantime = and or hut in the meantime; cum etiam turn, and even 
then ; cum ndndum, hauddum, and not yet : 

Caedgbatur virgis, cum interea nuUus gemitus audi6b&tur, he was beaten 
with rods, hut in the meantime no groan was heard; C. Ver. 6, 62, 162. Mul- 
tum digi prScesserat, cum etiam tum 6ventus in incertO erat, a large part of 
the day had passed^ and even then the result was uncertain, 

2. After such correlative expressions as tum . . . cum, then , . . when; 
eo or ill5 tempore or diS . . . cum, on that time or day . . . when^ and 

kindred expressions : 

Senatus tum, cum florgbat imperium, dgcrfivit, the senate decreed at that 
time when its power was at its height ; Q. Div. i, 41, 92. EO tempore p^ruit, 
cum parere necesse erat, he obeyed at that time when it was necessary to 
ohey. 

Note. — So in the dat'ng of letters : 

Cum haec scrlbebani, sperabam,^ when I wrote this^ I hoped; C Fam. 8, 18. 

3. After cum, meaning from the lime when, since, during which, in such 

expressions as tlie following : 

NSnduin centum et docem anni sunt cum lata est l6x, it is not yet a hundred 
and ten years since the law icas proposed; c Off. 2, 21, 75. Permultl anni iam 
erant, cum nulla certamina fuerant, it was already many years during which 
there had been no contests. 

1 Caesar, De Bello Gallico, has about two hundred and forty instances of the 
Imperfect and Pluperfect Siibjuuctive in clauses with cum, and only one of the 
Imperfect Indicative, expliiined by 601, 2, and seven of the Pluperfect Indicative, 
explained by 601, 4. Nepos has upwards of three hundred Subjunctives in these 
clauses, and only four Indicatives in the Imperfect and Pluperfect tenses. 

2 Remeni])er that the tense is here adapted to the time of the reader, while to 
the writer the time is present. 



TEMPORAL CLAUSES 316 

4. More commonly after cum, meaning as often as, whenever, in clauses 
denoting Repeated Action or General Truth, though the Subjunctive is 
often used : 

Haec renovabam, cum lic6bat, / was wont to renew my acquaintance with 
these subjects lohenever an opportunity offered; C. Acad. P. i, 3, u. Cum rosam 
viderat, tunc incipere v6r arbitrabatur, whenever he saw (had seen) a rose, 
he thought that spnng was beginning ; C. Ver. 5, lo, 2T. Erat, cum dg iure 
civili disputargtur, argumentOrum c5pla, whenever the discussion was about 
the civil law, there was an abundance of arguments. 

Note. — Memini cum, I remember when, generally takes the Indicative ; 
audio cimi, vlde5 cum, and animadverts cum generally the Subjunctive : 

Memini, cum mihl desipere vidgbare, I remember when you seemed to me 
to be unwise ; C. Fam. 7, 28, l. Sole5 audire ROscium, cum dicat, I am accus- 
tomed to hear Boscius say (when he says); C. Or. i, 28, 129. Ego ex iis saepe 
audJvi, cum ^cerent, etc., I have often heard them say (from them when they 

said) ; C. Or. 2, 87, 155. 

TEMPORAL CLAUSES WITH Postquam, Ubi, Ut, ETC. 

602. Rule. — Temporal Clauses, introduced by the parti- 
cles, postquam, posteS quam, after ^ — piidiS quam, postrldiS 
quam, on the day before^ on the day after; ubi, ut, simul, 
simul atque, when^ as, as soon aa, — state facts, and accord- 
ingly take the Indicative, generally the Perfect, or the 
Historical Present : 

Postquam omnes Belgarum copias ad se venire vidit, castra posuit, 
after he saw that all the forces of the Belgae were coming against him, he 
pitched his camp ; Caes. 2, 5, 4. Pridie quam tii coactus es confiteri, etc., 
on the day before you were compelled to admit, etc. ; C. Ver. 5, 80, 77. UbI de 
eius adventii certiores facti sunt, when they were informed of his approach. 
Id ut audivit, as soon as he heard this. Simul in arido constiterunt, as 
soon as they stood on dry land. Postquam vident, after they saw. 

1. The Pluperfect is used to denote the result of a Completed action, 
and to mark the interval between two events : 

Postea quam bis cOnsul fuerat, after he had been tioice consul; 0. Div. c. 21, 
69. Annis sex postquam v5verat, six years after he had made the vow; 

L. 42, 10. 

2. The Pluperfect is also used to denote Repeated or Customary 
action : 



316 SYNTAX 

Ut quisque vSnerat, haec vlsere solebat, every one, as he came, vfos wont 
to visit these objects ; c. Ver. 4, 8, 5. 

Note 1. — Other tenses of the Indicative are comparatively rare, though 
the Present and Imperfect are sometimes used to denote Incomplete action : 

Postquam aurum hab6s, now that you have the gold; Pi. True. 919. Post- 
quam nox aderat, when night was approaching ; 8. 5S, 7. 

Note 2. — In a few passages, the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive 
are found after postquam and posteS quam : 

Postea quam sumptuOsa fieri funera coepissent, SolOnis l@ge sublftta sunt, 
after funerals had begun to be expensive, they were abolished by Solon's law; 

C. Leg. 2, 25, W. 

3. In Livy and the late historians, the Imperfect and Pluperfect Sub- 
junctive are often used in temporal clauses to denote Repeated action 
and General truth, and sometimes even in earlier writers : 

Id ubi dixisset, hastam mittebat, when he had said this, he was wont to 
hurl a spear ; L. i, 82, 18. Ut quisque veniret, as each one arrived; L. 2, 88. 

4. In any temporal clause, the Subjunctive may be used in the second 
person singular to denote an indefinite subject, you, one, any one : 

UbI periclum facias, ichen you make the trial ; Pi. Bac. 63. UbI revSnissSs 
domum, whe7i you (any one) had returned home. Priusquam incipi&s, con- 
sults opus est, before you begin, there is need of deliberation ; s. c. i, 6. 

TEMPORAL CLAUSES WITH Dum, Ddnec, ANl) Quoad 

603. Rule. — I. Temporal clauses with dum, d5neo, and 
quoad, meaning as long as, take the Indicative : 

Hoc feci, dum licuit, / did this as long as it was allowed ; C. Ph. 8, 18,88. 
Ilaec civitas, dum erit, laetabitur, this state will rejoice as long as it shall 
exist. Donee eris sospes, as long as you shall be prosperous. Quoad potuit, 
restitit, he resisted as long as he could ; Caes. 4, 12, 6. 

II. Temporal clauses with dum, ddnec, and quoad, meaning 
until, take : 

1. The Indicative, Present, Perfect, or Future Perfect, when 
the action is viewed as an actual fact : 

Delibera hoc, dum ego redeo, consider this until I return; T. Ad. 196. 
Donee perfecero hoc, until T shall have accomplished this. Quoad reniintia- 
tum est, until it was actually announced ; N. 15, 9, 8. 



TEMPORAL CLAUSES 317 

2. The Subjunctive, Present or Imperfect, when the action is 
viewed as something desired, proposed, or conceived : 

Differant, dura defervescat ira, let them defer it until their anger cools, 
or shall cool; c. Tusc. 4, 86, 78. Exspectas dum dicat, ^ou are waiting until 
he speaks (i.e. that he may speak). Donee consilio patres firmaret, until 
he strengthened the senators by his counsel. Ea continebis quoad te videam, 
you will keep them until I see you ; C. Att. 13, 21, 4. 

604. Special Constructions of dum and donee. — Note the following : 

1. Dum, meaning while, as distinguished from as long as, generally 
takes the Historical Present Indicative (633, 4), but in the poets and in 
the historians it sometimes takes the Imperfect Subjunctive : 

Dum ea geruntur, Caesari nuntiatum est, tchile those things were taking 
place, it was announced to Caesar. Dum ea gererentur, bellum concltur, 
while those things were taking place, war was begun; L. lo, 18. 

2. D5nec belongs chiefly to poetry and late prose. It is not found 
in Caesar or Sallust, and only four times in Cicero. In Livy donee, 
meaning while, is found with the Imperfect Subjunctive of a repeated 
action, and with the meaning until it is found with the Pluperfect Sub- 
junctive. In Tacitus, when it means until, it generally takes the 
Subjunctive, whatever the tense: 

Nihil trepidabant, donee continent! velut ponte agerentur, they did not 
fear at all while they were driven on a continuous bridge, as it loere ; L. 21, 28^ 
Rhenus servat violentiam cursus, dOnec OceanO misceatur, the Bhine pre- 
serves the rapidity of its current until it mingles with the ocean; Tac. A. 2, 6, 8. 

TEMPORAL CLAUSES WITH Antequam AND Priusquam 

605. Rule. — I. In Temporal clauses with antequam and 
priusquam the Present and Perfect are put in the Indicative 
when the action is viewed as an Actual Fact, and in the 
Subjunctive when the action is viewed as something De- 
sired, Proposed, or Conceived : 

Antequam ad sententiam redeo, de me pauca *dicam, before I resume 
asking your opinions, I shall say a few words in regard to myself; 0. C. 4, lo, 20. 
Nee prius respexi quam veniinus, nor did I look back until we arrived. 
Priusquam incipias, consult© opus est, before you begin, there is need of 
deliberation; s. c. i, 6. Non prius duces dimittunt, quam sit concessum, 
etc., they did not let the leaders go, until it was granted, etc. ; Caes. 8, 18, 7. 



318 SYNTAX 

II. The Imperfect and Pluperfect are put in the Sub- 
junctive : ^ 

Pervenit, priusquam Pompeius sentire posset, he arrived before Pompey 
could become aware of his approach ; Caes. c. 8, 67, 4. Paucis ante diebus 
quam Syracusae caperentur, a few days before Syracuse was taken; L.25, 
31, 12. Antequam de iiieo adventu audire potuissent, in Macedonian! 
porrexi, before they were able (had been able) to hear of my approach, I 
went straight into Macedonia ; C. Plane. 41, 98. 

1. When the l^incipal clause is negative, and contains an historical 
tense, the Temporal clause generally takes the Perfect Indicative, as in the 
second example under the rule, rarely the Imperfect, Indicative or Sub- 
junctive : 

Nee, antequam vir6s deerant, exptignati sunt, nor were they captured untU 
their strength failed ; L. 23, 80, 4. NOn prius ggressus est quam r6x eum in 
fidem reciperet, he did not withdraw until the king took him under his pro- 
tection ; N. 2, 8, 4. 

2. The Future Indicative is exceedingly rare, and is found only in Plautos 
and Cato : 

Priusquam istam pugnam pugn^bO, before I fight that battle ; PL Psead. 684. 

3. The Pluperfect Subjunctive is very rare ; see the third example 
under II. 

INFINITIVE. — SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES 

606. The Infinitive is a verbal noun with special characteris- 
tics. Like verbs, it has voice and tense, takes adverbial modifiers, 
and governs oblique cases. 

607. Rule. — Infinitive. — Many verbs admit the Infinitive 

to complete or qualify their meaning : 

Cupio videre, qui id audeat dicere, / desire to see who wUl dare to say 
this ; c. Phil. 5, 2, 6. Proelio supersedere statuit, he decided to avoid (abstain 
from) a battle; Cacs. 2, 8. Desin5 quaerere, I forbear to inquire, Latine 
loqui didicerat, he had learned to speak Latin ; 8. 101, 6. Quid facere 
cogitas, what do you intend to dot Dubitas abire, do you hesitate to de- 
part? Porsium iion euro legere, / do not care to read Persius, Debes 
hoc resciibero, yon ought to tcrite this in reply. 

1 The Subjunctive in the Imperfect and Pluperfect is sometimes best explained 
like the Subjunctive after Dum, and sometimes like the Subjunctive of t^Q 
historical tenses after cum; see 600, II. 



ORIGIN AND EARLY USE OF THE INFINITIVE 319 

1. The Infinitive is used especially with transitive verbs meaning to dare^ 
desire^ determine; to hegin^ continue^ end; to knoio, learn; to intend, pre- 
pare; to hesitate, not to care, refuse; to owe, be under obligations, etc. 

Note. — After these verbs the Infinitive is the object of the action, like 
the Accusative with a transitive verb, but with some of them the Subjunc- 
tive is sometimes used ; see 565, 568, etc. 

2. The Infinitive is also used with Intransitive verbs meaning to be able, 
to be wont, be accustomed, etc. : 

Mortem effugere n6m0 potest, no one is able to escape death. Riiri esse 
sole5, I am wont to be in the country, 

ORIGIN, EARLY USE, AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFINITIVE 

608. Originally the Latin Infinitive appears to have been made 
up of Dative and Locative forms of a verbal noun. Indeed, in 
early Latin and in the poets, rarely in classical prose, it is used 
in special constructions with nearly the same force as the Dative 
of Purpose or End (425, 3). It is thus used : 

1. With many Intransitive verbs, especially with those which denote 
Motion, eo, abe5, venid : 

Ula abiit aedem visere Minervae, she has gone to see the temple of Minerva ; 
PL Bac. 900. Ibit aurum arcessere, he will go to get the gold. Non populSre 
penates vSnimus, we have not come to lay waste your homes ; V. l, 527. 

2. With Transitive verbs in connection with the Accusative : 

Pecus 6git altCs visere months, ^ he drove his herd to visit the lofty moun- 
tains; II. 1, 2, 7. Quid hab6s dicere, what have you to say ? Dederat comam 
diffundere ventis,i she had given her hair to the winds to scatter; V. i, 8i9. 

3. Sometimes, chiefly in poetry and late prose, with verbs which 
usually take the Subjunctive : 

Gentem hortor amare foc5s, / exhort the race to love their homes ; V. 8, 188. 
CunctI suaserunt Italiam petere, all advised to seek Italy; T. 8, 868. 

4. With a few adjectives : 

Est paratus audire, he is prepared to hear; C. Inv. l, 16, 28. AvidI com- 
mittere pugnam, eager to engage in battle ; o. M. 5, 75. F5ns riv5 dare nomen 
idOneus, a fountain worthy to give its name to the nver; n. E. i, 16, 12. 

1 In these examples with transitive verbs, observe that the Accusative and In- 
finitive correspond to the Accusative and Dative under 424, and that the Accusa- 
tive, Dative, and Infinitive correspond to the Accusative and two Datives under 
433. 



SYNTAX 




^^M NoTB 1. — With adjectives, and parCiciplea used a^ sdjectiv< 
^^K live, rare iti prose, la frefil; used in poetry in a. vnrielf of conatructiona : 
^f Cimiare peritus, skilled to aiiig, or in tinging ; V. Ep. 10. »2, Piger scn- 
bendi feire IftbOrem, (■«iuclaiit to bear the labor of writing ; H. 9. 1,4. la. Erat 
dlgnuH amarl, he was worthi/ to be lueed. Cerla mori, determiited to dif. 
Vitulus niveus Tided, a calf snow-white to view; k, *. s, ». 

I Note 2. — Tbe Inflnitive aiso occurs, especially in poetry, with verbB) 
nouns and nitb such, expressions oh oSpla est, tempns eat : 
CupldO SlygiOs innSre lacQs, a desire to sail vpna the Stygian lakes; 
T. fl, 13B, Quibus molliter vlvere eOpia enit, who had the mean» for Uting at 
tate; s. C. n, 6. Tempus est maiora cOnart, it is time to attempt greater 
Oiinga; L. s, is. la. 

609. Infinitive as Object or Subject ^From this early use of the 
Infinitive to denote tlie Object or End of the Motion, or Action, 
expressed by the verb, was gradually dev^eloped its use as n Gen- 
eral Modifier of the yerb and as the Direct Object of the action; 

Exitnus IGdOs Tisere,'^ we have come ovt to see the uports ; Pi. c»s. «M. Mor- 
ffugere n6inO potest, no one is able to escape death. Magna n^Olia 
Toluut agere,' they wi'aft to perform great deeds. Scythls bellum inferred 
deorevit, Tie decided to wsire war against the Scythians; s, i, a, i. 

1. From the use of the Infinitive as the direct object of the action 
was developed its use as the Subject of the verb : 

DScreverunt nOn dare signum, Ihey decided not to giee the signal. DfcrS- 
)t nOa dare signaio, it toiM decided not to give the signal. 

2. The Infinitive sometimes occurs with Prepositions: 
Multum interest inter dare et accipere, there is a great difference between 

f gtning and receioing; sen. Ben. s, lo, i. 

610. Historical Infinitive. — In lively descriptions, the Present 
I Infinitive, like the Historical Present, is sometimes used for the 
I Imperfect or Perfect Indicative. It is then called the Historical 

Infinitive, and, like a finite verb, has its subject in the Nominative : 
Catillna in prima aeiS versarl, omnia prOvidere, multum ipse pOgnSre, 
liostem terlre, Catiline was active in the front line, he attended to everp- 
thlnn, fought much in person, and often smote down the eiiemf; s. c. «o, 4. 



U8£: OF THK iNFIlflTIVE 321 

1. The Historical Infinitive sometimes denotes customary or repeated 
action : 

Omnia in pSius ruere ac retrO referri,' all things change rapidly for the 
worse, and are borne backwards; V. G. i, 199. 

2. Remember that the subject of an Infinitive, when not historical, is put 
in the Accusative, and that it vras originally developed from the direct 
object of the principal verb (414, 415): 

Rggem tradunt s6 abdidisse, they relate that the king concealed himself. 

Note. — In this example, rSgem is the subject of abdidisse, but origi- 
nally it was the direct object of trSdnnt. 

3. An Infinitive and its subject, with their modifiers, form what is called 
an Infinitive clause, in distinction from the simple Infinitive. Thus, in the 
example just given, rSgem s§ abdidisse is an Infinitive clause. 

611. Passive Construction. — When a Transitive verb, which 
has an Accusative and an Infinitive depending upon it, becomes 
Passive, it may admit one or both of the following constructions : 

1. The Personal construction, in which the noun or pronoun which is 
the object of the active becomes the subject of the passive. Thus, rSgem 
trSdunt s8 abdidisse, if made to take the personal construction in the 
passive, becomes rSz s8 abdidisse traditur, the king is said to have 
concealed himself, 

2. The Impersonal construction, in which the verb is used imperson- 
ally, and the rest of the sentences unchanged, becomes the impersonal 
subject. Thus, rSgem trSdunt s8 abdidisse, if made to take the imper- 
sonal construction in the passive, becomes rSgem s8 abdidisse trSditur, 
it is said that the king concealed himself. 

Note 1. — ^^ A few verbs admit either the personal or the impersonal con- 
struction, as dicor, iudicor, niintior, putor, and trSdor. 

Note 2. — A few verbs generally take the personal construction, as iu- 
beor, vetor, and videor ; also, arguor, audior, cogn5scor, existimor, 
intellegor, invenior, prohibeor, reperior, etc. 

Note 3. — A few verbs generally take the impersonal construction, as 
adfertur, confitendum est, crSditur, fatendum est, prdditur, etc. 

612. A Predicate Noun, or a Predicate Adjective, after an 
Infinitive, or a Participle in a compound tense of an Infinitive, 
agrees with the noun or pronoun of which it is predicated, 
according to the general rules of agreement (393, 394). It is 
thus put : 

HARK. LAT. GRAM. 22 



322 SYNTAX 

1. In the Nominative, when it is predicated of the principal subject: 

SOcratSs p9,r€ns philosophiae did potest, Socrates can he called the father 
of philosophy ; c. Fin. 2, i. 

2. In the Accusative, when predicated of the subject of the Infinitive, 
expressed or understood : 

Ego me Phidiam esse mallem, I should prefer to be Phidias; C. Bnit.T8,«5T. 
Contentum suls rebus esse m9,ximae sunt divitiae, to be content with one's 
own is very great wealth; c. Parad. 6, 8, 51. 

Note 1. — In the compound forms of the Infinitive, esse is often omitted, 
especially in the future : 

Flumen neque hostSs tr9,nsiturOs existim&bat, nor did he think that ih» 
enemy would cross the river; Caes. 6, 7, 5. 

Note 2. — As a rare exception in early Latin, the participle in the Futore 
Active Infinitive occurs with the ending Urum regardless of the gender of 
the subject : 

Alters te occisiirum ait, alter5 vilicum, with one (sword) sJie says that she 
will kill you, with the other the bailiff; pi. Cas. 693. 

3. Generally in the Dative, but sometimes in the Accusative, when 
predicated of a noun or pronoun in the Dative : 

Patricio tribiinO plebis fieri ii5n licSbat, it was not lawful for a patrician 
to be made tribune of the people; c. Har. 21,44. EI cOnsulem fieri licet, it is 
lawful for him to be made consul ; Caes. C. 8, l, l. 

INFINITIVE CLAUSE AS OBJECT 

613. The Accusative and an Infinitive, or an Infinitive with a 
Subject Accusative, is used as the Object of a great variety of 
verbs, especially of verbs of Perceiving, Thinking, and Declaring : 

Sentimus nivem esse albam, we perceive that snow is white, N6m5 umquam 
proditorl credendum putavit, no one ever thought that we ought to trust a 
traitor. Sinionidem primum ferunt artem memoriae prOtulisse, they say that 
Simonides was the first to make known the art of memory; C. Or. 2, 86, 851. 

1. Verbs of Perceiving and Thinking inchide audi5, vided, sentiS ; 
cogito, puto, exTstimd, credo, spSro ; intellego, scio, etc. 

2. Verbs of Declaring are dico, ntrro, nuntio, doceo, OBtend5, pr6- 
mitto, etc. 

3. Expressions equivalent to verbs of perceiving and of declaring — as 
iSansL fert, report says; testis sum, I am a witness, I testify; oSnadiiB 



USE OF THE INFINITIVE 323 

mihi sum, / am conscious, I know — also admit an Accusative with an 
Infinitive : 

Nullam mih! rel9,tam esse gr^tiam, td es testis, you are a witness that no 
grateful return has been made to me ; 0. Fam. 5, 6, 2. 

4. Verbs of Perceiving generally take the Accusative with a Present 
Participle when the object is to be represented as actually seen, heard, 
etc., while engaged in a given act: 

CatOnem vidi in bibliothgca sedentem, / savo Cato sitting in the library ; 
c. Fin. 3, 2, T. Videt sequent6s, tinum baud procul ab s6s6 abesse, he sees them 
following, one not far from himself; L. i, 25, 8. 

6. Note the following constructions with audiS : 

Socratem audi5 dicentem, / hear Socrates say ; c. Fin. 2, 28, »o. Sole5 
audire ROscium, cum dicat, / am wont to hear Boscius say ; C. Or. i, 28, 129. 
Saepe ex socerO meO audivi, cum is dlceret, / have often heard (from) my 
father-in-law say; c. Or. 2, 6, 22. 

6. Subjects Compared. — When two subjects with the same predicate are 
compared, and the Accusative with the Infinitive is used in the first clause, 
the Infinitive may be understood in the second : 

PlatOnem ferunt sensisse idem quod Pythagoram, they say that Plato held 
the same opinion as Pythagoras ; c. Tusc. i, 17, 89. 

7. Predicates Compared. — When two predicates with the same subject 
are compared, and the Accusative with the Infinitive is used in the first 
clause, the Accusative may be understood in the second, or the second clause 
may take the Subjunctive with or without ut ; 

Num putatis dixisse eum minacius quam facturum f uisse, do you think that 
he spoke more threateningly than he would have acted f C Ph. 6, 8, 21. AudeO 
dicere ipsos potius cult6r6s agrSrum fore quam ut coli prohibeant, / dare say 
that they will themselves become tillers of the fields rather than prevent them 
from being tilled; L. 2, 84. 

614. An Infinitive Clause is also used as the Object of verbs of 
Wishing, Desiring, Commanding, and their opposites/ and of verbs 
of Emotion and Feeling ^ : 

T6 tua frui virtute cupimus, we desire that you should enjoy your virtue ; 
C. Brut. 97, 881. Pontem iubet rescindl, he orders the bridge to be broken down, 
L6x eum necarl vetuit, the law forbade that he should be put to death. 

GaudeO id t6 mihl suadgre, / rejoice that you give me this advice, Minim6 
miramur t6 laetavl, we do not wonder at all that you were pleased. 

1 As cupiS, opts, V0I6, nol5, in&15, etc. ; patior, sino, iiuperS, iubeS ; 
prohibeS, vet6, etc. ; firaude5, doleS, miror, queror, aegrrS fer5, etc. 



324 SYNTAX 

1. Several verbs involving a Wish or a Command admit the Subjunctive, 
with or without ut or n6, when a new subject is introduced : 

Vol5 ut mihl respondefts, / wish you would answer me; c. Vat 6, 14. Quid 
vis faciam, what do you wish me to do f Suls imperftvit ng quod t€lum in 
hostSs rgicerent, he commanded his' men not to hurl any weapon back upon 
the enemy, 

2. Vol5f n515, mSU5, and cupid also admit the simple Infinitive when 
no new subject is introduced : 

V6rum audire n5n vult, he does not wish to hear the truth. Sen^re quam 
piignare mavult, he prefers to serve rather than to fight Scire cupi() quid 
reprehendas, / desire to know what you criticise. 

3. On the construction of vol5, ndl5, and mSU5, see also 565, 2. 

4. Verbs of Emotion and Feeling sometimes take a clause with quod, 
that or because,, and sometimes with cum, in nearly the same sense : 

GaudeO quod te interpellavl, / rejoice that (because) / have interrupted 
you. Dolebam quod socium d>miseram, / was grieving because I had lost a 
companion. TibI gratids ag5, cum tantum litterae meae potuSrunt, 7 thank 
you that my letter had so great influence ; 0. Fam. 18, 24, 2. 

INFINITIVE OR INFINITIVE CLAUSE AS SUBJECT 

615. An Infinitive, or an Infinitive Clause, is often used as the 

Subject of a verb : 

Infinitive. — Diligi iticundum est, to be loved is pleasant. NOn est mentirl 
meum, to tell a falsehood is not my way. Peccare licet nSminl, to transgress 
is lawful for no one. Facere fortia ROmanum est, to do brave deeds is 
Boman. Vacare culpa magnum est sSlacium, to be free from fault is a 
great comfort. Carum esse iucundum est, to be held dear is delightful; 

C. Fin. 1, 16, 53. 

Infinitive Clause. — Caesar! ntintiatum est equit6s accfidere, it was an- 
nounced to Caesar that the cavalry loas approaching ; Caes. i, 46. Facinus 
est vincire civem Romanum ; scelus, verberare, to bind a Boman citizen is 
an outrage; to scourge him, a crime. Omnibus expedit, salvam esse rem 
publicam, it is important for all that the republic should be safe, 

1. When the subject is an Infinitive or an Infinitive clause, the predicate 
is either a noun or adjective with the verb sum, or a verb used impersonally, 
as in the examples above. 

2. An Infinitive, or an Infinitive clause, may be the subject of another 
Infinitive : 

Intellegi necesse est esse deos, it is necessary that it be understood that 
there are gods; c. N. D. i, 17, 44. 



TUKSES OF THE INFINITIVE 325 

3. The Infinitive sometimes has a demonstrative or a possessive in agree- 
ment with it : 

Quibusdam hoc displicet philosophari, this philosophizing displeases some 
persons; c. Fin. i, i. Vivere ipsum turpe est nSbis, to live is itself ignoble for 
us; cf. C. Att. 18, 28, 2. Tuom cOnfertO amare semper, always consider your 
loving (your love affairs) ; Pi. Cure. 28. 

616. Special Constructions. — An Infinitive Clause is some- 
times used 

1. As a Predicate: 

Exitus fuit 5rati5nis sibi n^llam cum his amicitiam esse posse, the close of 
his oration was that he could have no friendship with these ; Caes. 4, 8. 

Note. — Occasionally an Infinitive without a Subject is so used : 

DoctO liomini vivere est cOgit3.re, to a learned man to live is to think; 

C. Tusc. 6, 88, 111. 

2. As an Appositive : 

Oraculum erat datum victric6s AthgnSs fore, an oracle had been given that 
Athens would be victonous. HOc admirStus sum, mentiOnem t& h€rgditd>tum 
ausum esse facere, / wondered at this, that you dared to make mention of 
the inheritances; C. Ph. 2, 16, 42. 

3. In Exclamations : 

Te sic vexarl, that you should be thus troubled I MSne inceptO dSsistere 
victam, am I vanquished to abandon my undertaking f V. l, 87. 

4. In the Ablative Absolute : 

Alexander, audlt5 DarSum mOvisse, pergit, Alexander, having heard that 
Darius had withdrawn (that Darius had withdrawn having been heard) ad- 
vanced; Curt. 5, 18, 1. 

TENSES OF THE INFINITIVE 

617. The three tenses of the Infinitive, the Present, Perfect, 
and Future, represent the time of the action respectively as 
present, past, or future, relatively to that of the principal verb. 
Accordingly the Present denotes that the action is contempora- 
neous with that of the principal verb, the Perfect, that it is prior 
to it, and the Future, that it is subsequent to it. 

618. The Present Infinitive denotes Contemporaneous Action: 

NOlite id velle quod fieii n5n potest, do not wish that which cannot be 
accomplished. CatO esse quam videri bonus m9,lebat, Cato prefeired to be 



332 SYNTAX 



SUPINES 



632. The Supine, like the Grerund, is a verbal noun. It has a 
form in um, an Accusative, and a form in u, generally an Abla- 
tive, though perhaps sometimes a Dative. 

1. The Supine in um governs the same case as the verb : 

Legat5s mittunt rog&tum auxilium, they send ambassadors to ask aid. 

Supines in um 

633. Rule. — The Supine in um is used with verbs of 
motion to express purpose : 

Ad Caesarem congratulatum convenerunt, they came to Caesar to con- 
gratulate him. Mittit rogatum vasa, he sends to ask for the vases. Legati 
venerunt res repetitum, deputies came to demand restitution ; L. 8, 25, 6. 

1. The Supine in um is sometimes used after verbs which do not directly 
express motion : 

Daturne ilia PamphilO hodiS ntiptum, is she given in marriage to-day to 
Pamphilus ? T. And. 301. LacedaemoniOs senem sessum rec6pisse, that the 
Lacedaemonians loelcomed the old man to a seat; C. Sen. 18, 63. 

2. The Supine in um with the verb eo is equivalent to the forms of the 
Active Periphrastic conjugation, and may often be rendered literally : 

Bonos omnCs perditum eunt, they are going to destroy all the good; 

cf. S. C. 52, 12. 

3. The Supine in um with iri, the Infinitive Passive of e6, forms, it will 
be remembered (235, 2), the Future Passive Infinitive : 

Brutum visum iri a mg puto, I think that Brutus will be seen by me. 

634. The Supine in \mi is not very common, though it occurs 
in a large number of verbs,^ but Purpose may be denoted by 
various other constructions : 

1. By the Subjunctive with ut, n6, qu5, quo minus; see 568. 

2. By the Subjunctive in Relative clauses; see 590. 

3. By Gerundiv^es or Gerunds ; see 622, 626, 5. 

4. By Future Participles ; see 638, 3. 

1 Ac'oordinjj to Draeger, II., p. 829, the Supine in um is found in one hundred 
and seventy-nine verbs, and also forms an element in the Future Infinitive 
Passive of fifty-seven verbs. 



USE OF PARTICIPLES 333 

Supines in u 

635. Rule. — The Supine in u is generally used as an 
Ablative ; sometimes perhaps as a Dative : 

Quid est tam iucundum auditu, what is so agreeable to hear (in hear- 
ing)? c. Or. 1,8, 31. De genere mortis difficile dictii est, it is difficult to 
speak of the bind of death ; C. Am. 3, 12. Sed ita dictii opus est, hut it is 
necessary to say this (so, thus). Incredibile memoratii est, it is incredible 
to relate. Pudet dictii, it is a shame to tell ; Tac. Agr. 32. 

1. The Supine in u is used with adjectives, as facilis, difficiliB ; crSdl- 
bilia, incrgdibilis ; iucundua, iniucundus ; nurSbilis, terribilis, etc. ; 
with fSa, nef&8, opus, and in early or late Latin, with two or three verbs. 

2. The Supine in u is comparatively rare.i The most common examples 
are auditu, aditu, c5gnitu, dictu, factti ; inteUgctu, inventH, memor&ttl, 
nStfi, relate, scitu, t&cttl, tr&ctatii, victu, viau. 

3. It is probable that the Supine in u contained originally the forms both 
of the Dative and of the Ablative, and that such forms as memor&tui are 
illustrations of the former : 

Istaec lepida sunt memorStui, these things are fine to relate; Pi. Bac. 62. 

4. It is generally assumed that the second Supine never takes an 
object, but it may take the Ablative with a preposition, as in the second 
example, or an adverb, as in the third. 

PARTICIPLES 

636. The Participle is a verbal adjective which governs the 
same cases as the verb to which it belongs : 

Animus s6 non vidgns alia cernit, the mind, though it does not see itself 
(not seeing itself), discerns other things; c. Tusc. i, 27, 67. 

1. Remember that participles are sometimes used as substantives (494) : 

C5nsili5 condentium urb6s, in accordance mth the policy of the founders 
of (those who found) cities. Nihil difficile amanti put5, I think nothing 
difficult for a lover. 

2. Participles used as substantives sometimes retain the adverbial modi- 
fiers which belong to them as participles, and sometimes assume adjective 
modifiers which belong to them as substantives : 



1 According to Draeger, II., p. 833, on the authority of E. L. Richter, De Supinis 
Latinae Linguae, the second Supine is found in one hundred and nine verbs, and 
is used with one hundred and sixty-two different adjectives. 



334 SYNTAX 

NOn tarn praemia sequl rScte f actOnim quam ipsa rScte facta, not to seek 
the rewards of good deeds so much as good deeds themselves ; G. Mil. 85, 96. 
Factum praecl9.rum atque divmum, an excellent and divine deed ; 0. Ph. 8, 44, 114. 

3. A participle with a negative is often best rendered by a participial 
noun with the preposition without : 

Voluptates n5n 6rubesc6ns persequitur, he pursues pleasures without 
blushing ; c. N. D. i, 40, ill. NatGra dedit usuram vitae, nulla praestitCtta die, 
nature has given the loan of life without fixing the day for payment. 

4. The Perfect Participle is often best rendered by a participial or verbal 
noun with of: 

HomSrus fuit ante ROmam conditam, Homer lived before the founding of 
Borne (before Rome founded); c. Tusc. i, i, 8. PrOditae patriae crimen, the 
charge of having betrayed the country, 

637. Participles are sometimes equivalent to Qualifying Rela- 
tive clauses : 

OmnSs aliud agentes, aliud simulantes, improbi, all who do one thing and 
pretend another are dishonest, 

638. Participles are sometimes equivalent to Adverbial clauses. 

1. Participles sometimes denote Time, Cause, Manner, Means: 

Plats scribgns est mortuus, Plato died while xoriting ; c. Sen. 6, 18. Fortis^ 
sim6 pugnans interficitur, he is slain while bravely fighting. Reniiiitiant, se 
perfidiam veritos revertisse, they report that they returned because they feared 
perfidy. Romani gratulantes Horatium accipiunt, the Homan^ receive Ho- 
ratius loith congratulations (congratulating). S5l origns diem cOnficit, the 
sun by its rising causes the day ; c. N. D. 2, 40, 102. 

2. Participles sometimes denote Condition, or Concession : 

Reluctante natura, inritus labor est, if nature opposes^ effort is vain. Ista 
iam diu cxspectans, nOn aude5 tamen flagitare, though I have been long 
expecting your treatise, yet I do not dare to ask for it; 0. Ac. 1, 1, 8. 

3. Participles sometimes denote Purpose, the Future in Livy and late 
writers, the Gerundive even in the best authors (622) : 

Rediit, belli casum tentaturus, he returned to try (about to try) the for^ 
tune of war ; L. 42, 62. Dedit mihl epistulam legendam tuam, he gave me your 
letter to read. 

639. Participles are sometimes used in Latin where principal 
clauses would be required in English : 

Classem dgvictam c6pit, he conquered and took the fleet (took the fleet 
conquered) ; N. 6, 2, 8. 



TENSES OF PARTICIPLES 335 

1. Perfect Participles sometimes repeat the action of the preceding verb, 
or give its result : 

Exercitum fundit, ftisum persequitur, he routs the army and pursues it 
routed; L. i, lo, 4. 

640. The Tenses of Participles, Present, Perfect, and Future, 
represent the time, respectively, as Present, Past, and Future 
relatively to that of the principal verb. Thus, in relation to the 
principal action, the Present represents contemporaneous action, 
the Perfect, prior action, and the Future, subsequent action : 

Mendaci homin! n6 v6rum quidem dicenti credere sol6mus, we are not 
wont to believe a liar even when he speaks the truth ; cf. C. Div. 2, 71, 146. Uva 
maturata dulc6scit, the grape, when it has been ripened (prior action), be- 
comes sioeet. Bona semper placitura laudat, he praises blessings that will 
always please (snhsequ.eni iiction). 

1. The Perfect Participle in deponent and passive verbs is sometimes 
used of present time, and sometimes in passive verbs it loses in a great 
degree its force as a tense and is best rendered by a verbal noun : 

Isdem ducibus tisus NumidSs mittit, employing the same persons as 
guides he sends the . Numidians ; Caes. 2, 7, i. IncSnsas perfert nEvis, he 
reports the firing of the ships (ships on fire) ; V. 6, 666. 

2. The Pei-fect Participle with habed has nearly the same force as 
the corresponding English Perfect with have: 

Equitatum coS,ctum habSbat, he had collected the cavalry (had the cavalry 
collected) ; Caes. 1, 16, 1. 

3. Perfect Participles are often used as predicate adjectives to denote 
the Result of the action : 

Id parati sunt facere, they are prepared to do this; C. Qninct. 2, 8. 

4. Tlie want of a Perfect Active Participle is sometimes supplied by a 
Temporal Clause, and sometimes by a Perfect Passive Participle in the 
Ablative Absolute : 

Postquam in TrSvirOs v6nit, RhSnum transire cOnstituit, having arrived 
among the Treviri, he decided to cross the Bhine; Caes. 6, 9,1. Equitatu 
praemissO subsequSbatur, having sent forward his cavah*y, he followed. 

5. The want of a Present Passive Participle is generally supplied by 
a Temporal clause : 

Cum a CatOne laudabar, reprehencU m6 S, ceteris facile pati6bar, being 
praised by CatOy I cheerfully bore being Cto be) censured by the others; 

C, Orator, 18, 41. 



336 SYNTAX 

INDIRECT DISCOURSE - ORATIO OBLIQUA 

641. Direct and Indirect Discourse. — When a writer or speaker 
expresses thoughts in the original words of the author, he is said 
to use the Direct Discourse, Oratio Recta ; but when he expresses 
thoughts, whether his own, or those of another, in any other 
form, he is said to use the Indirect Discourse, Oratio Obllqua. 
The Indirect Discourse regularly depends upon a verb of Saying, 
Thinking, Perceiving, etc. : 

Direct. — Plato in Italiam v6nit, Plato came into Italy* 

Indirect with ferunt. — PlatOnem ferunt in Italiam v6nisse, they say that 
Plato came into Italy, 

Direct. — U tills est scientia, knowledge is useful. 

Indirect with arbitror. — Utilem arbitror esse scientiam, / think that 
knowledge is useful. 

1. Words quoted without change belong to the Direct Discourse : 

Direct. — DuumvirOs secundum legem faci5, / appoint duumvirs according 
to law. 

Direct with inquit. — R6x *'duumvir5s" inquit ** secundum legem faciO," 
the king said, ^^ I appoint duumvirs according to law.'''' 

MOODS AND TENSES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE 
Moods in Principal Clauses 

642. Rule. — The principal clauses of the Direct Dis- 
course, on becoming Indirect, take the Infinitive with the 
Subject Accusative Avhen Declarative, and the Subjunctive 
when Interrogative or Imperative : 

Dico classem magnam superatam esse atque depressam,^ / say that a 
large Jleel icas conquered and sunk. Caesar respondit se id factdrum, 
Caesar replied that he would do it. Cato niirari se aiebat, Cato was wont 
to say that he loondered. Hippias gloriatus est anulum se sua manu con- 
fecisse,^ Hippias boasted that he had made the ring with his own hands; 

C. Or. 3, 32, 127. 

1 In Direct Discourse these examples would read (1) classis magrna super&ta 
est atque depressa, (2) id faclam, (3) miror, (4) anulum mea manu c6n- 
feci. Observe that the pronominal subjects implied in faciam, miror, and 
cSnfeci are expressed with the Infinitive : se facturum, mir&ri 8§, 8§ c6n- 
fecisse. But the subject is sometimes omitted when it can be readily supplied. 



INDIRECT DISCOURSE 337 

Ad postulata Caesaris pauca respondit ; quid sibi vellet ? cur in suas 
possessiones veniret,^ to the demands of Caesar he replied briefly: what did 
he (Caesar) wish? why did he come into his possessions? Caes. l, 44, 7. 
Responderunt ; cur sui quicquam esse imperii trans Rhenum postula- 
ret,^ they replied; why did he demand that anything beyond the Rhine 
should be under his sway ? Postulavit eadem, ne Aeduis bellum inferret, 
obsides redderet,^ he made the same demands, that he should not make war 
upon the Aeduiy and that he should return the hostages. Scribit Labieno 
cum legione veiuat,^ he writes to Labienus to come (tJiat he should come) 
with his legion; Caes. 5, 46, 4. 

1. The verb on which the Infinitive depends is often omitted, or only 
implied in some preceding verb or expression, especially after the Sub- 
junctive of Purpose: 

Pythia praecepit ut Miltiadem imperatOrem sibI sumerent; incepta prO- 
spera futura, Pythia ordered that they should take Miltiades as their 
commander (telling them), that their efforts would be successful; N. l, l, 8. 

2. Rhetorical Questions — which are questions only in form, as they are 
used for rhetorical effect in place of declarative sentences — take the Infini- 
tive. Here belong most questions which in the direct form have the verb in 
the first or in the third person : 

Respondit, num memoriam dgpOnere posse,' he replied, could he lay aside 
the recollection f Caes. i, 14, 8. Docebant 9. Caesare conventura subsidia; quid 
esse levius, etc., they showed that assistance would come from Caesar; what 
was more inconsiderate, etc. ? 

3. Deliberative and Potential Questions generally retain the Subjunctive 
from the Direct Discourse : 

In spem v6nerat, s6 sine p(!lgn& rem cOnficere posse ; ctir forttinam perlcli- 
targtur,* he had hoped (had come into the hope) to he able to accomplish the 
work without a battle; why should he try fortune f Caes. c. i, 72, i. 

4. In the Indirect Discourse, affirmative commands, except after verbs of 
wishing and asking, generally take the Subjunctive without ut, but negative 
commands take the Subjunctive with n5; see examples. 

iln Direct Discourse these examples would read (1) quid tlbi vis? ctlr in 
me&s po8sessi5n§s venis? and (2) car tul quicquam esse imperii cis 
Bhenum postulSls? 

2 In Direct Discourse, (1) n61i Aeduis bellum inferre, obsid§s redde, and 
(2) cum legriOne venl. 

'Direct Discourse, (1) num memoriam dSpGnere possum ?» memoriam 
depOnere nOn possum, (2) quid est levius? = nihil est levins. 

^ Direct Discourse, ctlr fortUnam pericliter? 

HARK. LAT. GRAM. — 23 



SYNTAX 

After InbeS and vetS, commands are regularly expressed by the 
CCiisative with tlie Infinitive, but occasionally by the Subjiinctive with 
without at or n§, especially in poetry : 

Naves sedificari iubet, he orders veaueU to he huilt. Castra munlrl vetuit, 
,he forbade the camp to be fortified. lubCto ut cert£t jlinyntSs, bid Amynlai 
be ms rival; v. e. b, is. 

Moods in Snbordiaate Clauses 
643. Rule.- — -The subonliuate clauses of tlie Direct Dis- 
course, on becoming Indii-ect, take tlie Subjimctive : 

Dico clasaein maguaiti quae ad Italiam raperetur, BupeiStam esse,' 
tag thai a large Jleet, which was hurrying (oiaard Italy, was conquered; 
Mm. 9, ai. Caeaar respondit, ae id quod in Nerviis fecisaet, factiiruni,' 

Caesar replied thai he would do that which he had done in the case of Ike 

Nervii. Hippios gloriatus est anulum quem. haberet Be snB manu con- 
," Hippiaa boasted t/iat he had made with hit own hands the ring 

which he wore. 

1, Clauses introduced by relative pronounB, or by relative adverbs 
as nl:^ unde, qnSrB, etc. — sometimes bave tbe force of independent 

Causes, and accordingly take the Infinitive with subject Accusative : 

eum defertur, ease elvem TtOinBiium qui quererfitur, quetn (= et eum) 

Itdservittum esse, U was reported to him that there was a Botnan citizen who 

made a complaint, and thai he bad been placed under guard; c. Vn. a, «a, lOo. 

DemOnstrabitur, n& si iQdiciO quidetu ilia damnUlA csset potuisse liune ipaum 
lllil supplicium silmere ; quflrS ease indignum, it «till be shown that not 
n if she had been condemned by a court of justice would he have been abit 

to iftJtiet punishment upon her; that therefore ittoaa a diegraeeful act. 

Clauses introduced by certain conjunctions, as nt, quam, qnain- 

.qnam, quia, and cum, sometimes take the Infinitive with subject 

Accusative, especially in Livy and Tacitus: 

Nmn patatis, dixisse eum minacius quam factilrUDi fuiase, do you think 

Mat he spoke more threateningly than he would have acted f c. Pb.a, b.31. 

Slclt ee moenibua InclilsOs tenCre eOs, quia per agrOa vagarl, Ae say» that he 
them shut up within the walls, because they woitld wander through the 

fields. Cum interim ISgem tautam vim habere, when in the mean lime the 

laio has such force ; l. 4, 5i, 4. 

1 Direct, clasBls mAgrna q.uae ad Italiam raplSbatur euperBta est. 

' DiiBi^t, (aciam Id. quod In Nerviis f§cl. 

> Direct, B.llulum quem habeS me^ mama cSnfScI. 



INDIRECT DISCOURSE 339 

3. Parenthetical and explanatory clauses introduced into the Indirect 
Discourse, without strictly forming a part of it, take the Indicative : 

Referunt silvam esse, quae appellatur Bac6nis, they report that there is a 
forest which is called Bacenis ; Caes. 6, lo, 5. CondrusOs, qui GermSni ap- 
pellantur, arbitrari ad XL milia, that they estimated the Condrusi^ who are 
called Germans^ at forty thousand. 

4. Sometimes clauses which are not parenthetical, especially relative 
and temporal clauses, take the Indicative to emphasize the fact stated : 

Certior factus est ex ea parte vici, quam Gallis concesserat, omn6s disces- 
sjsse, he was informed that all had withdrawn from that part of the village 
which he had assigned to the Gauls ; Caes. 3, 2. 

644. Tenses in the Indirect Discourse generally conform to 
the ordinary rules for the use of tenses in the Subjunctive and 
Infinitive ; but notice the following special points : 

1. The Present and Perfect may be used even after an historical tense, 
to impart a more lively effect to the narrative : 

Caesar respondit, si obsidgs sibi dentur, sgs6 cum iis pS,cem esse factdrum, 
Caesar replied that if hostages should he given to him^ he loould make peace 
with them ; Caes. l, 14, 6. Exitus fuit OratiOnis, neque uUos vacare agr5s, qid 
dari possint, the close of the speech was that there were not any lands unoo- 
cupied which could be given. 

2. The Future Perfect in a subordinate clause of the direct discourse 
is changed in the indirect into the Perfect Subjunctive after a principal 
tense, and into the Pluperfect Subjunctive after an historical tense : 

Cum trigeminis agunt rgggs, ut pr5 sua patria dimicent; ibi iniperium 
fore, unde Victoria fuerit, the kings arrange with the triplet-brothers that 
they shall fight for their country ; that the sovereignty shall be on the side 
which shall win the victory (whence the victory shall have been); L. i, 24, 2. 

PRONOUNS AND PERSONS IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE 

645. In passing from the Direct Discourse to the Indirect, 

pronouns of the first and second persons are generally changed 

to pronouns of the third person, and the first and second persons 

of verbs are generally changed to the third person : 

Hippias gloriatus est, pallium qu5 amictus esset, sg sua manu ^ c5nf 6cisse, 
Hippias boasted that he had made with his own hands the cloak which he wore 

1 Direct, ego mefi mana. Ego becomes se, and meft becomes suik 



340 8TNTAX 

(in which he was clad). Respondit si obsidCs ab ils sibl^ dentur, sSsS cnm 
ils pftcem esse facturum, Jie replied that if hostages should he given to him hy 
them, he would make peace with them. 

1. Thus (1) ego is changed to am, sibl, etc., or to ipse ; meos and 
noster to surui; (2) tH to is or ille, sometimes to sm, etc., tuns and 
vester to sans, or to the Genitive of is ; and (3) hic and iste generally to 
ille, but hic is sometimes retained. But the pronoun of the first person 
may of course be used in reference to the reporter or author, and the pro- 
noun of the second person in reference to the person addressed : 

MIror te ad me nihil scribere, / wonder that you do not write anything to 
me; C Att. 8, 12, B. l. 

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE 

646. Conditional sentences of the First and of the Second 
Form in the Indirect Discourse take the Subjunctive in the 
Condition and the Infinitive in the Conclusion: 

Respondit si quid Caesar s6 velit, ilium ad s6 venire oportere,^ he replied 
that if Caesar wished anything of him, he ought to come to him; Caes. i, 84, 2. 
Id si fieret, intelleggbat m9gnO cum perlculO futurum,' he understood that if 
this should be done^ it would he attended with great danger; Caes. i, lo, 2. 

1. The Future Infinitive is the regular construction in the Conclusion of 
the second form, as in the last example. 

2. The Conclusion takes the Subjunctive when it is Imperative or Inter- 
rogative, and when it is brought into such connection as to require that 
mood, as when it is the purpose or result of some other action : 

Scribit Labi6n5, si rel piiblicae commod5 facere posset, cum legiOne 
veniat, he wrote to Labienus to come with his legion, if he could do so coii- 
sistently with the interests of the republic; Caes. 5, 46, 4. Caesar suas c5pias 
prSduxit, ut si vellet Ariovistus proeliO contendere, ei potestSs nOn deesset, 
Caesar led out his forces in order that, if Ariovistus toished to fight, he might 
have the opportunity ; Caes. i, 48, 8. 

647. Conditional Sentences of the Third Form in the Indirect 
Discourse depending on a verb of Saying, Thinking, etc., retain 
the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive unchanged in the Con- 
dition, regardless of the Tense of the Principal verb, but in the 

1 Direct, a vObis mih! . . . egro vOblscum. VObis becomes iis, v5bl8cvim 
becomes cum lis, mih! becomes sib!, and ego, bSs§. 

2 Direct, si quid Caesar m§ vult ilium ad m§ venire oportet. 
> Direct, id si flat or Het, m&gn6 cum periculG sit or erit. 



INDIRECT DISCOURSE 341 

Conclusion they take the Periphrastic Infinitive, the Present in 
urum esse when the condition belongs to present time, and the 
Perfect in urum fuisse when it belongs to past time: 

Respondit, si quid ipsi a Caesare opus esset, s6s6 ad eum venttirum fuisse, 
he replied that, if he needed anything from Caesar, he would have come 
to him; Caes. i, 3i, 2. Clamitabat, neque aliter CarnQt6s consilium fuisse 
capturOs, neque Ebur5n6s, si ille adesset, ad castra ventures esse, he cried 
out that otherwise the Carnutes would not have conceived the purpose, nor 
would the Eburones he coming to our camp; Caes. 5, 29, 2. 

1. The conclusion of this form of the conditional sentence in the In- 
direct Discourse corresponds to the Periphrastic Indicative in the Direct 
Discourse. Thus, in the first example, the conclusion in the Direct Dis- 
course would be ad tS venturus fuL Hence we have here the simple 
change from the Periphrastic Indicative to the Periphrastic Infinitive. For 
the close relationship in meaning between the Periphrastic Indicative and 
the regular Subjunctive, see 582, 1. 

2. In the conclusion of conditional sentences of the third form the circum- 
locution, futurum esse ut or fore ut with the Imperfect Subjunctive for 
present time, and futurum fuisse ut with the Imperfect Subjunctive for past 
time, is used in the passive voice and sometimes in the active : 

Nisi ntintii essent allatl, existim3,bant futdrum fuisse ut oppidum ftmitte- 
retur, they thought that the town would have been lost, if tidings had not 
been brought ; cf. Caes. c. 8, loi, 8. 

3. Remember that in the conclusion of conditional sentences of the 
third form, certain special verbs (683) generally take the ordinary forms 
of the historical tenses of the Indicative. In the Indirect Discourse the 
Perfect Infinitive of course takes the place of this Indicative, and in 
deponent and passive verbs it sometimes occurs where we expect the 
circumlocution : 

Platonem existim5, si voluisset, gravissimS potuisse dicere, I think that 
Plato could have spoken most forcibly, if he had wished; 0. Off. i, i, 4. Re- 
spondit, si populus R5m9,Dus aliciiius iniuriae sibi c5nsclus fuisset, n5n fuisse 
difficile cav6re, he replied that if the Roman people had been conscious of any 
wrong doing, it would not have been difficult for them to be on their guard, 
N6m6 mihl persuSdebit, multOs vir5s tanta esse conatOs, nisi cernerent, etc., 
no one will persuade me that many men would have attempted so great 
things, unless they perceived, etc.; c. Sen. 28, 82. 

648. Conditional Sentences of the Third Form depending on 
verbs which require the Subjunctive admit the following con- 
structions : 



342 SYNTAX 

L If the condition relates to present time, the entire sentence remains 
unchanged : 

Honestum tale est, at vel si ignOr^rent id homings, suS. tamen pulchritudine 
asset laudd,bile, honor is such that, even if men were ignorant of it, it would 
still be praiseworthy because of its own beauty ; cf. c. Fin. 2, 15, 49. 

II. If the condition relates to past time, the condition remains un- 
changed, but the conclusion, though unchanged in the passive, takes one 
of the following forms in the active : 

1. If it is an indirect question, the Perfect or Pluperfect of the 
Periphrastic Conjugation is used, the tense being determined by the 
general law for the sequence of tenses: 

Die quidnam factdrus fuerfs si cSnsor fuissSs, say what you would have 
done, if you had been censor; L. 9, 88. 

2. If it is not an indirect question, the Perfect Subjunctive of the 
Periphrastic Conjugation is generally used: 

Quis dubitat, quin, si Saguntinls tulissSmus opem, t5tum in Hisp^iam 
aversQri bellum fuerimus, who doubts that if we had carried aid to the 
SaguntineSj we should have transferred the entire war to Spain ? L. 81, 7. 

3. But verbs denoting Ability, Duty, etc., possum, oportet, etc., 
generally take the Perfect Subjunctive of the regular conjugation: 

Haud dubium fuit, quIn, nisi ea mora intervenisset, castra capl potuerint, 
there was no doubt that the camp could have been taken, if that delay had not 
occurred ; L. 24, 42. 

INDIRECT CLAUSES 

649. Indirect Discourse in its widest application includes, not 
only reported speeches, but all indirect clauses. 

I. Subordinate Clauses containing statements made on ' the 
authority of any other person than that of the speaker, or on 
the authority of the speaker at any other time than that when 
the statements are reported, regularly take the Subjunctive : 

Laudat Africanum quod fuerit abstinens,^ he praised Africanus because 
he was temperate; c. Off. 2, 22, 76. Hospitem inclamavit quod mihl fidem 
habere nohiisset, he rebuked the stranger because he had been unwilling to put 
confidence in me. Privatim petere coeperunt, quoniam civitatl cOnsulere nOn 



1 Quod . . . abstinens, on the ground that, etc., the reason in the mind of 
the eulogist, not of the historian. 



INDIRECT DISCOURSE 343 

possent,^ they began to present their personal petitions^ since they could not 
act for the state. LibrOs quQs frater suus reliquisset,^ mihl dOn^lyit, he gave 
me the books which his brother had left; C. Att. 2, i, 12. 

II. Indirect Questions are subordinate interrogative clauses and 
accordingly take the Subjunctive : 

EpaminOndSs quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus,^ Fpaminondas inquired 
whether his shield was safe ; cf. c. Fin. 2, 80, 97. QuSlis sit animus, animus nescit, 
what the nature of the soul may be, the soul knows not. Quaeritur, ctLr doctis- 
siml homines dissentiant, the question is asked why the most learned men 
disagree, Miror cur m6 accuses, I wonder why you accuse me, Ut t6 
oblectCs scire cupi5, 1 wish to know how you amuse yourself 

1. The Subjunctive is put in the periphrastic form in the indirect ques- 
tion when it represents a periphrastic form in the direct question : 

Cupi5 scire ubi sis hiemattirus, / desire to know where you are going to 
spend the winter, 

2. In indirect questions ne and num are used without any perceptible 
difference of meaning : 

Quaesivit, salvusne esset clipeus, he asked whether his shield was safe; 
C. Fin. 2, 80, 97. Num quid vellem, rogavit, he asked whether I wished any- 
thing; C. Att. 6,8,6. 

3. Si is sometimes best rendered, to see whether, to see if to try if etc 
In this sense it generally takes the Subjimctive, but it also occurs with the 
Indicative, especially in the poets : 

T6 adeunt, si quid vis, they come to you to see if you wish anything; 
c. Fam. 8, 9, 2. Inspice, SI possum don^ta repOnere laetus, see whether I can 
cheerfully return your gifts. 

4. An Accusative, referring to the same person or thing as the subject of 
the question, is sometimes, especially in poetry, inserted as the direct object 
of the principal verb : 

Quis tuum patrem, quis esset, audlvit, who ever heard who your father 
was (heard of your father who he was) ? C. Deiot. 11, 80. N6sti MS,rcellum, 
quam tardus sit, you know how slow Marcellus is, NOn m6 pemOsti, quftlis 
sim, you do not know what sort of a person I am ; T. And. 603. 

1 Quoniam . . . n5n possent, since they could nott as they thought. 

2 Qu5s . . . reliquisset, which he said his brother had left. 

8 Here no question is directly asked ; we are simply told that Epaminondas 
asked a question, but this statement involves the question, salvusne est 
clipeus, is my shield safef 



[344 



SYNTAX 




6, A Pergonal PasBtve constmction, correspoDdlDg to tbb form of ftae 
ctive, U aoraelimea used, allhough indirect questiona are in general either 
lie objects of active verbs or tlie subjecta of impersonal pB^ve verbs : 
Perapiciuntur quaiu sint leves,' iC it eeen (they are seen) how inconstant 
they are; o. Am. ii, as. 

, Often in early Latin, as In Flautus and Terence, and sometimes in the 
poets and in late writers, the Indicative is used iti indirect questions, or at 
least iu questions nbicb would take the Indirect form in tbe beat prose : 

I/Oquere tii, quid puerS factumst, tell what has been done vjith the bay; 
1. Trim. 7S7. Quin tH. dic, quid est quod me veils, nay, tell what ft is, that 
foutelshofme; T.And.u. 

650. Indirect Double Questions are generally introduced by 
ilie same interrogative particles as those which are direct (380). 
1. They generally take iu the first member Qtrum, o 



second an, sometinies a 



a the 3( 



e of or, and i 



r 



Difficile dictQ est, utrum tiraaerint, an dll§xerlnt, it is d(ffleuU to say 
whether they feared or loved. Quaeritur, sintne di necne flint, [he question is 
asked whether or not there are gods; c. N. D. i, w, fli. 

, fiat they often omit the particle in tbe first member, and take in 
the second an, or ne in the sense of or, and neoae, or an uSa, in the 

VIvat an mortuus sit, quia cQrat, who cares whether he is living or dead f 
C. Ph. m, 16, 33. FiliuB nepdsne fuerit parum liquet, whether he was the son or 
the grandson is not at alt clear. Sapientia bea,tOs efficiat necne, quaestiO eel, 
whether or not wisdom makes men happy is a question. 

3. Other forms of indirect double questions, as those with ne . . , ne, an 
. . an, etc., and those without any Interrogative particles, are rare or poetic : 

Qui teneant, hominfsoe feraene, quaerere cSnatitult, ht determined to as- 
eerlain who inhabit them, whether men or beasts; v. i, bos. Velit, nOlit, scire 
difficile est, it (a di^ult to find out whether he wishes it or rfoes not with it. 

i. An, in the sense of whether uot, implying an affirmative, la used after 
expressions of doubt and uncertainty : dubltfi an, nsBclfi an, baud aclfi 
an, I doubt whether iiul, I know not whether not = I nm inclined to think; 
dabinmeatan, IncertumeBt an, It i» uncertain whether not = it is probable: 

' ObsePYB that the passive construction corresponds to the active persplcl- 
nnt, eOB quam slot laves, ihi-ii perceive them, lioin innonxlnnt they are, a {gnn 
entiTel; analotrous to nfiati M&rcellum, quam tardua sit. given aboTa> _ 






INDIRECT CLAUSES 345 

DubitO an Thrasybulum primum omnium p5nam, I doubt whether I should 
not place Thrasyhulus first of all (i.e. I am inclined to think I should), 
Haud sciO an omnium praestantissimus, I am inclined to think the most dis- 
tinguished of all; C. N. D. 2, 4, 11. 

651. Indirect Questions must be carefully distinguished 

1. From clauses introduced by relative pronouns or relative adverbs. 
These always have an antecedent expressed or understood, and are never, 
as a whole, the subject or object of a verb, while indirect questions are 
generally so used : 

Relative. — Ego quod sentiO loquar, I shall say what (that which) I think. 
Interrogative. — Dicam quid intellegam, I shall state what I understand, 

2. From clauses introduced by nescio quia = quidam, some one, 
nesciS qud modo = quodam modo, in some way, mirum quantum, 

wonderfully mucky wonderfully, etc. These take the Indicative : 

Hie nescio quis loquitur, here some one (I know not who) speaks. Id 
mirum quantum prOf uit, this profited, it is wonderful how much (i.e. it won- 
derfully profited). Mir6 quam dglectat, how wonderfully it delights, 

652. Clauses closely dependent upon an Infinitive or upon a 
Subjunctive are virtually Indirect clauses, and as such they gen- 
erally take the Subjunctive : 

Quam bellum fuit c5nfit6rl nescire quod nescirgs, what a fine thing it was 
to admit not to knoio ichat you did not knoio ; o. N. D. i, 80, 84. RecordatiOne 
nostrae amicitiae sic fruor ut beate vixisse videar quia cum ScipiOne vixerim, 
I so enjoy the recollection of our friendship that I seem to have lived happily 
because I have lived with Scipio. Vereor n6, dum minuere velim labOrem, 
augeam, I fear that while I wish to diminish, the labor, I shall increase it; 
c. Leg. 1, 4, 12. Cum timidius ageret quam eOnsuesset, since he acted more 
timidly than had been his custom; Caes. c. l, 19. 8. 

1. In clauses dependent upon an Infinitive or upon a Subjunctive, the 
Subjunctive is used, when the dependent clauses are essential to the general 
thought of the sentence, as in the examples just given, but the Indicative is 
used when the clauses are in a measure parenthetical, and when they give 
special prominence to the fact stated, and often when they are introduced 
by dum, especially in the poets and historians : 

Militgs misit, ut eQs qui f ugerant persequerentur, he sent soldiers to pursue 
those who had fled (i.e. the fugitives); Caes. 5, lo, l. Tanta vis probitatis est, 
ut eam vel in eis quQs numquam vidimus, diligamus, so great is the power of 
integnty that we love it even in those whom we have never seen, Petam ^ 



350 SYNTAX 

2. Autem and vSr5 are postpositive, i.e. tliey are placed after one or 
more words in their clauses. 

660. Illative Conjunctions (316, 4) denote Inference: 

Nihil obstat ; erg5 omnia prOspere, igitur beate, there is no opposition, 
therefore all things are moving prosperously, therefore happily ; C. Tusc. 5, 18, 63. 

1. Igitur is generally postpositive: hie igitur, this one therefore, 

661. Causal Conjunctions (316, 5) denote Cause: 

N6ni5 enim maeret su5 incommode, for no one mourns over his own mis- 
fortune ; C. Tusc. 1, 18, 30. 

1. Enim is postpositive ; etenim and namque are stronger than enim 
and nam. 

Note. — The use of Subordinate Conjunctions has been iliustrated in the 
discussion of Moods in Subordinate Clauses. 

RULES OF SYNTAX 

662. For convenience of reference, the principal Rules of 
Syntax are here introduced in a body. 

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE— RULES OF AGREEMENT 

1. The subject of a Finite Verb is put in the Nominative (387). 

2. A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in Number and Per- 
son (388). 

3. A noun used as an Appositive or as a Predicate of another 
noun denoting the same person or thing agrees with it in Case 
(393). 

4. Adjectives, whether Attributive or Predicate, agree with 
their nouns in Gender, Number, and Case (394). 

5. Pronouns agree with their antecedents in Gender, Num- 
ber, and Person (396). 

VOCATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE 

6. The name of the person or thing addressed is put in the 
Vocative (402). 

7. The Direct Object of an action is put in the Accusative 
(4M), 



RULES OF SYNTAX 361 

8. Verbs of Making, Choosing, Calling, Kegarding, Showing, and 
the like, admit Two Accusatives of the Same Person or Thing (410). 

9. Some verbs of Asking, Demanding, Teaching, and Conceal- 
ing admit two Accusatives, — one of the Person and one of the 
Thing (411). 

10. Many transitive verbs admit both an Accusative and an 
Infinitive (414). 

11. Subject of Infinitive. — The Infinitive sometimes takes an 
Accusative as its subject (415). 

12. Accusative of Specification. — In poetry, rarely in prose, a 
verb or an adjective may take an Accusative to Define its Appli- 
cation (416). 

13. Duration of Time and Extent of Space are expressed by 
the Accusative (417). 

14. The Place towards which the motion is directed as its End 
or Limit is generally denoted by the Accusative with ad or in, but 
in the names of Towns by the Accusative alone (418). 

15. The Accusative may take a Preposition to aid in expressing 
the exact relation intended (420). 

16. The Accusative, either with or without an interjection, may 
be used in Exclamations (421). 

DATIVE 

17. The Indirect Object of an action is put in the Dative. It may 
be used either alone or in connection with the Direct Object (424). 

18. Two Datives — the Object To Which and the Object or End 
For Which — are used with a few verbs, either alone or in con- 
nection with the Direct Object (433). 

19. Many adjectives take the Dative as the Indirect Object of 
the quality denoted by them (434). 

20. The Dative is used with a few special nouns and adverbs 
derived from primitives which take the Dative (436). 

GENITIVE 

21. A noun used as an Attributive or Predicate oi %x5LQ»\X>kKt^<s*5sss. 
denoting a different person or thing is put m NiXv^ V^^\>csJC\^^ ^s^aj^- 



;i52 SYNTAX 

22. Many adjectives take an Objective Genitive to complete 
tln'ir iiioaning (450). 

2.*). Vt'ibs of Remembering and Forgetting — memini, remim- 
Bcor, iiiul obliviscor — regularly take the Objective Genitive when 
usril i»t' Persons, but either the Genitive or the Accusative when 
used (.f Thin-s (454). 

2-1. W'rbs of Keminding, Admonishing, and Verbs of Accusing, 
Conviclin»^', Condemning, Acquitting, take the Accusative of the 
INTsnii and the Genitive of the Thing, Crime, Charge, etc. (456). 

2.">. Misereor and miseresco take the Objective Genitive ; mise- 
ret, paeiiitet, piget, pudet, and taedet take the Accusative of the 
IN rson and the Genitive of the Object which produces the feeling 
^457> 

ABLATIVE 
I. Ablative Proper 

2G. Tlie Ablative of Separation is generally used with a prepo- 
sition — a, ab, de, or ex — when it represents a person or is used 
^vith a verb compounded with ab, de, dis, se, or ex (461). 

27. The Ablative of Separation is generally used without a 
pre])osilioii when it is the name of a town, or is used after a verb 
nieaniiii; to relieve, free, deprive, need, or he loithout (462). 

2S. The Ablative of Source, including Agency, Parentage, and 
]\tatei'ial, generally takes a preposition, — a, ab, de, e, or ex (467). 

2\). Comparatives without quam are followed by the Ablative 

(471). 

n. Instrumental Ablative 

30. The Ablative of Association is used (473) : 

(1) To denote Accompaniment, or Association in a strict sense. 
It then takes the preposition cum. 

(2) To denote Characteristic or Quality. It is then modified 
by an adjective or by a Genitive. 

(3) To denote Manner or Attendant Circumstance. It then 
takers the preposition cum, or is modified by an adjective or by 
a Genitive. 

31. The Ablative of Cause, designating the Cause, Ground, or 
Reason for an action, is used without a. ^^^^o^vtvow (^75^ 



RULES OF SYNTAX 353 

32. The Instrument and Means of an action are denoted by 
the Ablative without a preposition (476). 

33. Means. — Special Uses. — (1) The Ablative of Means is 
used with utor^ fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, and their com- 
pounds (477). 

(2) The Ablative of Means is used with verbs of Abounding 
and Filling, and with adjectives of Fullness: abundo, redundo, 
adfluo, etc. ; compleo, ezpleo, impleo, oner5, etc. ; onustus, ref ertiis, 
plenuB, etc. 

(3) The Ablative of Means is used with opus and ustiB, often 
in connection with the Dative of the person. 

34. Price and Value are denoted by the Ablative, if expressed 
definitely or by means of Nouns, but by the Genitive or Ablative, 
if expressed indefinitely by means of Adjectives (478). 

35. The Measure of Difference is denoted by the Ablative. It 
is used (479) : 

(1) With Comparatives and Superlatives. 

(2) With verbs and other words implying Comparison. 

(3) To denote Intervals of Time or Space. 

36. Ablative of Specification. — A Noun, Adjective, or Verb may 
take an Ablative to define its application (480). 

m. Locative and Locative Ablative 

37. The Place In Which anything is done is denoted generally 
by the Locative Ablative with the preposition in, but in names of 
Towns by the Locative (483). 

38. The Time At or In Which an action takes place is denoted 
by the Ablative without a preposition (486). 

39. Ablative Absolute. — A noun with a participle, an adjective, 
or another noun, may be put in the Ablative to add to the predi- 
cate an Attendant Circumstance (489). 

40. The Ablative may take a preposition to aid in expressing 
the exact relation intended (490) . 

USE OF THE INDICATIVE 

41. The Indicative is used in tTeatmg ol i'aic,\>'& ^*^*^* 

HARK, LAT, ORAM, 24 



354 SYNTAX 

SEQUENCE OF TENSES 

42. Principal Tenses depend on Principal Tenses, and Histor- 
ical on Historical (543). 

SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDEPENDENT SENTENCES 

43. The l^otential Subjunctive is used to represent the action, 
not as real, but as Possible or Conditional. The negative is 
non (552). 

44. The Optative Subjunctive is used to express pure Desire 
without any idea of authority, as in prayers and wishes. The 
negative is ne (558). 

45. The Volitive Subjunctive is used to represent the action, 
not as real, but as Willed. The negative is ne. This Subjunc- 
tive covers a wide range of feeling and comprises the following 
varieties (559): 

(1) The Hortative Subjunctive, used in Exhortations, but only 
in the first person plural of the Present tense. 

(2) Tlie Imperative or Jussive Subjunctive, used chiefly in the 
third person, and generally best rendered by let; but see 560. 

(3) TIk^ Concessive Subjunctive, used in Admissions and Con- 
cessions. 

(4) The Deliberative Subjunctive, used in Deliberative or 
Doul^ting Questions, implying that the speaker is in doubt in 
regard to the proper course to be pursued, and that he desires 
to be directed. 

IMPEKATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE AND IMPERATIVE 

4G. In commands the Subjunctive and Imperative supplement 
each other, the Imperative being used in the second person and 
the Subjunctive in the third (560). 

SUBJUNCTIVE IN SUBOKDINATE CLAUSES 

47. Substantive Clauses. — The Subjunctive, generally with ut or 
ne, may be used in Substantive Clauses which involve Purpose. 
Thus (564) : 



RULES OF SYNTAX 355 

(1) In Substantive Clauses used as the Objects of Verbs. 

(2) In Substantive Clauses used as Subjects or Predicates. 

(3) In Substantive Clauses used as Appositives to Nouns or 
Pronouns. 

48. Final Clauses. — The Subjunctive is used with ut, ne, 
quo, quo minuS; quominus^ to denote the Purpose of the action 
(568). 

49. The Potential Subjunctive is used in Subordinate clauses, 
whatever the connective, to represent the action as Possible or 
Conditional, rather than real (569). 

50. Consecutive Clauses. — The Potential Subjunctive is used 
with ut, or ut non, to denote the Kesult of the action (570). 

51. Substantive Clauses. — The Potential Subjunctive is often 
used with ut and ut non in Substantive Clauses as follows (671) : 

(1) In Subject clauses, with certain Impersonal verbs meaning 
it happens, it follows, etc., — acddit, accedit, evenit, fit, efficitur, 
fieri potest, fore, aequitur, etc. 

(2) In Subject clauses with Predicate nouns and adjectives. 

(3) In Object clauses depending upon facio, effido, etc., of the 
action of irrational forces. 

(4) In clauses in Apposition with nouns or pronouns. 

CONDITIONAL, CONCESSIVE, AND CAUSAL CLAUSES 

h2. The Indicative in Conditional Sentences with bi, nisi, m, 
sin, assumes the supposed case as Eeal (574). 

53. The Present or Perfect Subjunctive in Conditional Sen- 
tences with si, nisi, ni, sin, assumes the supposed case as Possible 
(576). 

54. The Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive in Conditional 
Sentences with si, nisi, ni, sin, assumes the supposed case as 
Contrary to Fact (579). 

^5, Conditional Clauses of Comparison, introduced by ac si, ut 
si, quam si, quasi, tamquam, tamquam si, velut, velut si, ds if, than 
if, take the Subjunctive (584). 

b^, ZStsi and etiam si, when they mean althoitgh^ introduce 
Adversative clauses and take the Indiea\.W^,\svx\)"^V'ev>L*^^'^ ^sjiftaKs. 



.•^56 aJNTAX 

even if, tliey introduce Conditional clauses, and accordingly take 
the same construction as u (585). 

T)!. (1) Clauses introduced by qnamgnsm and tametu contain 
adiiiitteil facts, and accordingly take the Indicative (688). 

{^2) Clauses introduced by lioet, qnam-vis, ut, or ne^ are Con- 
cessive, and accordingly take the Concessive Subjunctiye; see 
559, :^. 

58. The Jussive Subjunctive is used with dum, mode, modo nt, 
and dummodo, meaning if only, providedy in conditional clauses of 
desire (587). 

59. Causal Clauses with qnod, qtda, qnoniamy quando, generallj 
take (588) : 

(1) The Indicative to assign- a reason positively, on one's own 
authority. 

(2) The Subjunctive to assign a reason doubtfully, or on 
another's authority. 

RELATIVE CLAUSES AND QUIN CLAUSES 

60. Clauses introduced by the Relative qui, or by Relative 
Adverbs, ubi, unde, quo, etc., take (589) : 

(1) The Indicative, when they simply state or assume facts, 
without any accessory notion of Purpose, Result, Concession, or 
Cause. 

(2) The Subjunctive in all other cases. 

61. (1) Quin in direct questions and commands takes the 
ordinary construction of independent sentences (594). 

(2) Quin in Subordinate Clauses takes the Subjunctive. 

CUM CLAUSES, TEMPORAL CLAUSES 

62. In writers of the best period, Causal and Concessive 
Clauses with cum take the Subjunctive (598). 

63. Temporal Clauses introduced by cum, meaning when, while, 
after, take (600) : 

(1) The Indicative in the Present, Perfect, and Future Tenses. 

(2) The Subjunctive in the Imperfect and Pluperfect Tenses. 



RULES OF SYNTAX 367 

64. Temporal Clauses introduced by the particles postquam, 
poBtea quam, after^ pridie quam, postridie quam, on the day before, 
on the day after; ubi, ut, simul, Edmul atque^ when, as, as soon as, 
state facts, and accordingly take the Indicative, generally the Per- 
fect, or the Historical Present (602). 

65. I. Temporal clauses with dum, donee, and quoad, meaning 
as long as, take the Indicative (603). 

II. Temporal clauses with dum, donee, and quoad, meaning 
until, take : 

(1) The Indicative, Present, Perfect, or Future Perfect, when 
the action is viewed as an Actual Fact. 

(2) The Subjunctive, Present or Imperfect, when the action is 
viewed as something Desired, Proposed, or Conceived. 

66. (1) In Temporal clauses with antequam and priusquam the 
Present and Perfect are put in the Indicative when the action is 
viewed as an Actual Fact, and in the Subjunctive when the action 
is viewed as something Desired, Proposed, or Conceived (605). 

(2) The Imperfect and Pluperfect are put in the Subjunctive. 

INFINITIVE AND SUPINE 

67. Infinitive. — Many verbs admit the Infinitive to complete 
or qualify their meaning (607). 

68. The Supine in um is used with verbs of motion to express 
Purpose (633). 

69. The Supine in u is generally used as an Ablative, some- 
times perhaps as a Dative (635). 

MOODS IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE 

•' 70. Principal Clauses. — The Principal clauses of the Direct 
Discourse on becoming Indirect take the Infinitive with the Sub- 
ject Accusative when Declarative, and the Subjunctive when 
Interrogative or Imperative (642). 

71. Subordinate Clauses. — The Subordinate clauses of the Di- 
rect discourse on becoming Indirect take the Subjunctive (643). 

ADVERBS 

72. Adverbs qualify Verbs, Adjectives, ^-a^ o^<£^ k.^^^'?^ V^^, 



358 SYNTAX 



ARRANQEMENT OF T770RDS AND CLAUSES 

• 

663. The Latin allows great variety in the arrangement of 
the different parts of the sentence, thus affording peculiar facili- 
ties both for securing proper emphasis and for imparting to its 
periods that harmonious flow which characterizes the Latin 
classics. But with all this freedom and variety, there are certain 
general laws of arrangement which it will be useful to notice. 

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS IN A SIMPLE SENTENCE 

Gkeneral Rules 

664. The Subject followed by its modifiers occupies the first 

place in the sentence, and the Predicate preceded by its modifiers 

the last place : 

Sol origns et occidens diem noctemque cOnficit, the sun by its rising and 
setting makes day and night. ScipiO Africanus Carthaginem Numantiamque 
delfivit, Scipio Africanus destroyed Carthage and Numantia; C. C. 4, lo, 21. 

1. The Modifiers of the Subject either follow it or are grouped around 
it. Substantive modifiers generally follow it, while Adjective modifiers 
may stand either before or after it ; see 671, 1-5 : 

Cluilius rex moritur, Cluilius the king dies. Verae amicitiae sempitemae 
sunt, true friendships are enduring. Homines industrii in Asia negOtiantur, 
active men are engaged in btisiness in Asia. 

2. In the arrangement of the modifiers of the Predicate the place 
directly before the verb is generally occupied by the Direct object, or by 
an Adverb which directly qualifies the action : 

Fortiter helium gesserat, he had loaged imr valiantly; Flac. 89, 9S. Rem 
puhUcam f6licissim6 gesserunt, they administered the republic most success- 
fully ; Caes. C. 7, 7. ** 

3. In the arrangement of Objects the Indirect object generally stands 
before the Direct : 

Dargus Scythis helium Inferre dgcrgvit, Darius decided to make tear upon 
the Scythians. 

4. Expressions of Place, Time, or Means generally stand before the 
other modifiers of the verb, often even before the subject : 

Ath6ni?ns?s loc5 idoneCi castra fecerunt, the Athenians pitched their camp 
in a suitable place. Proximo dig Caesar 6 castris utrlsque cOpias sufis 6duxit, 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS 359 

the next day Caesar led out his forces from both his camps; Caes. l, 60. 
Marius commeatu nd,v€s onerat, Marius loads his vessels with supplies. 

665. Emphasis and the relative importance of different parts 
of the sentence often cause a departure from the Grammatical 
arrangement just described. Thus, 

1. Any word, except the subject, may be made emphatic by being 
placed at the beginning of the sentence : 

CatOnem quis nostrorum oratOrum legit, who among our orators reads 
Catof Q. Brut. 17, 65. NumitOri Remus deditur, Remus is delivered to Numitor, 

2. Any "word, except the predicate, may be made emphatic by being 
placed at the end of the sentence ; 

Nobis n5n satisf acit ipse D€mosthen6s, even Demosthenes does not satisfy 

us ; cf. C. Or. 29, 104. 

3. In any phrase within a sentence the emphatic word stands first : 

Mihl tini cQnservatae re! ptiblicae gratulatiOnem d6cr6vistis, to me alone 
you have decreed a thanksgiving for having preserved the republic; C. C.4, lo, 20. 

4. Two words naturally connected, as a noun and its adjective, or a 
noun and its limiting Genitive, are sometimes made emphatic by sepa- 
ration : 

ObiurgatiOnes n5n numquam incidunt necess^riae, sometimes necessary 
reproofs occur; c. Oflf. i, 88, 186. 

Note. — A word is sometimes made emphatic by being placed between 
the parts of a compound tense or between n6 and quidem : 

Consu@tudO imitanda medic5rum est, the custom of physicians should be 
imitated ; c. Off. i, 24, 88. N6 iUud quidem, not even that, 

666. Two groups of words may be made prominent and em- 
phatic either by Anaphora or by Chiasmus. 

1. Anaphora. — Here the order of words in the second group is identi- 
cal with that in the first : 

M€ cuncta Italia, m@ universa clvitSs cOnsulem d@clS.ravit, me all Italy, 
me the whole state proclaimed consul; 0. Pis. l, 8. 

2. Chiasmus. — Here the order of words in the first group is reversed 
in the second : 

Fragile corpus animus sempitemus movet, the imperishable soul moves 
the perishable body; c. R. P. 6, 24. Satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum, 
enough eloquence, but little toisdom» 



A£RASGEMEST OF WORDS 361 

Special RqIbb 

671. The Substantive Modifiers of a Noun generally follow it, 
■ but Adjective Modifiers may stand either before or after it : 

Fausaiiias in aedetn Minervae c6nfagit, Fansaniai fied into the temple of 
E Jffnei'na ,' N. 4, a, 3. Usus magister est optimua, experiente is the beet teaeJter. 
~ !ua ager R5iiiaii0 adiacet, the Tttacan terrilory borders on (fte Boman. 
Modifiers, when emphatic, generally stand before the noun ; 
CatSois OratiOnea, Cata'a orations; XenopliOutis librl, Xenophoii's books. 

2. In a few expresaions, the Genitive has a definite position liefora Its 
loun and in a few othera a definite position after it; 

Magister equitutn, (fte masler of the horse ; tribiinuB plSbis, Iribane of the 
people; tribQnua mllitnm, tribune of the soldiers, etc.; sen&tQs auctOritaa, 
(fte authorili/ of the senate; BenatQs c5naultum, a decree of the senate. 

3. In certain expresaionB the Adjective regularly followa : 

CTvie RomSnuB, o Bomaii citizen; populos ROmanua, the Somnn people; 
pontifex raSximus, Che chief priest ; dl inunortalfiB, the immortal gods ; genus 
hamsnum, the human race ; iiia civile, dvll lam, etc. 

Wlen a nouji is modified by an Adjective and a Genitive, the usual 
r is Adjective — Genitive — Noun ; 
I Omnes Graeciae civitatfe, all the states of Greece. 

■ An Adjective is often separated from iia noun by a monosyllabic 
Wltion and Bocnetimes by two or more words : 

n periculo, with great peril ; maxima post bominum memoriam 
',e memory of man ," N. 3, B. 

1 of Adjectives. — Adverbial modifiers generally 
jiectives while Objective modifiers more commonly 

( expectation. Appetentfa gl5riae 
IS of praise. 

^nd before them (664) : 
Eflt, death is never far 



SYNTAX 

667. Eindred Words. — Different forma of the same ■word, oi 
different words of the same derivation, are generally placed neat 
each other. 

OMW. Eenex de senectQte scrlpsi, /, an old man, taroCe W an olii man 
I about old age ; o.Am.i. 

668. A word which has a commoQ relation to two other words 
connected by conjunctions, is placed 

1. Generally before or after both ; 

GraeclH et littei^s et doctSrIbus, by means o/ Greek titerat'ire and Greek 
teachers; a. TuecI, i. El belli et pacts artibus, by the arU both of oar and 
of peace; L, i,si. 

Note. — But a Geoittve, or an ftdjeotive, following two nouns, more fre. 
qnently qualiflea only the latter : 

PercunctatiS ac den!lnti3.U0 belli, the inquiri/ and the declaration of war. 

2. Sometimes directly after the firat, before the conjunction: 
HonOria certamen et glOriae, a struggle for honor and glory ; 0. Am. 10. 

669. Moreover, the context often has some sliare in determining 
iie arrangejnent of words in the sentence. Thus, 

1. A word or phrase closely related to some part of tlie preceding 
aentence generally stands at or near the beginning of its own sentence: 

lo his castrls Albilnus rgx luoritur, in this camp the Alban king dies. 
Note.— In hiBoaBtila refers back to caatra in the preceding sentence. 

2. A word or phrase closely related to some part of the following 
Bentence stands at or neai* the end of its sentence: 

Apud HeivetiOa longfi nObilisaimns fuit Orgetorii, among the Hflwtti bf 
far the highest of the nobles was Orgetorix. Is coniQraiLOnem nObiliiati» 
tficit, he formed a conspiracy of the nobles. 

870. Euphony and Rhythm. — The beat Latin writers in the arrange- 
ment of words regard sound aa well as meaning. They aim at variety in 
the length. Bound, and ending of sacoessive words and pay special atten- 
tion to the manner in which the sentence closes. A word of two or more 
Byllables with a clear and full sonnd ia generally selected tor this place : 

FQbllus AfricSnus, CarthSgine dSMta, Bioulornm urbea elgnla moDumen< 
Usque piilcherrimls exOrnfivit, Fublius Africanua, having destroyed Carthage, 
adorned the cities of the Sicilians teith the ntoat beaut{fiil atatves and monii- 
menlg; O. Ver. s, s, 8, 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS 361 

Special Rules 

671. The Substantive Modifiers of a Noun generally follow it, 
but Adjective Modifiers may stand either before or after it : 

Pausanias in aedem Minervae cOnfugit, Pausanias fled into the temple of 
Minerva ; n. 4, 5, 2. Usus magister est optimus, experience is the best teacher. 
Tuscus ager RQmanO adiacet, the Tuscan territory borders on the Roman. 

1. Modifiers, when emphatic, generally stand before the noun : 
Catonis 5rati5n6s, Cato^s orations ; XenophOntis librl, Xenophon^s books. 

2. In a few expressions, the Genitive has a definite position before its 
noun and in a few others a definite position after it : 

Magister equitum, the master of the horse; tribtinus plebis, tribune of the 
people ; tribunus militum, tribune of the soldiers, etc. ; senattis auctOritSs, 
the authority of the senate; senStus consultum, a decree of the senate. 

3. In certain expressions the Adjective regularly follows : 

Civis ROmanus, a Roman citizen; populus ROmanus, the Roman people; 
pontifex maximus, the chief priest ; di immortaies, the immortal gods ; genus 
humanum, the human race; ius civile, civil law, etc. 

4. When a noun is modified by an Adjective and a Genitive, the usual 
order is Adjective — Genitive — Noun : 

OmnSs Graeciae civitatSs, all the states of Greece. 

5. An Adjective is often separated from its noun by a monosyllabic 
preposition and sometimes by two or more words : 

Magno cum pericul5, with great peril ; maxima post hominum memoriam 
classis, the largest fleet in the memory of man ; N. 2, 5. 

672. Modifiers of Adjectives. — Adverbial modifiers generally 
stand before adjectives while Objective modifiers more commonly 
follow them : 

Exspectatio valdg magna, a very great expectation. Appetent6s gloriae 
atque avidi laudis, eager for glory and desirous of praise. 

673. The Modifiers of verbs generally stand before them (664) : 

Mors propter brevitatem vitae numquam longg abest, death is never far 
distant in consequence of the shortness of life; cf. c. Tusc. i, 88, 91. 

Note. — When the verb stands at the beginning of the sentence the modi- 
fiers of course follow it and may be separated from it ; 

$Uent l6ges inter anna, laws are silent in i/oar^ O. WL^\t>. 



SYNTAX 




^B 362 

^^M 674. Modifiers of aclverbs generally atand before them, but 

^H depanding on an adverb usually follows it: 

^H Illud valdg graviter tulSrunt, they bore this with great displeasure. Con- 

^H gruenter naturae vlvit, he. Uvea in harmony vtltli nature. 

^P 675. Pronouna. — PossesBives generally fallow the nouns to which they 

H belong, but other pronominal adjectives generally precede their nouns, 

Demonstratives and Interrogatives regularly: 

Copias BiiSa divlsit, he diJiided his/orces. CQstOs huiua urbis, tke guardian 

o/ Ms city. In qua urbe vlvinius, in icAnt sort of a city are we living f 

1. nle in the sense of inell-knoicn usually followG Ita noun, if not accom- 
panied by an adjective: MSdSa ilia, that viell-knovm Medea, but MSgnua 
iUe Alexander, thatfamona Alexander the Great. 

2. Pronouns are often grouped together, espeoiallf qolsqae with Bnua 

OTBUl: 

Per b6 quisque sib! cSrus est, every one is by his own nature dear to him- 
self; C. Am. !1, BO. 

876. Prepositions generally stand directly before their cases, but tenuB 
and TBTSUB follow their cases : 

TaurO tenus, (la far as Taurus, NarbSnem versus, towards Narbo. 

1. The prcpositioii frequently follows the relative, scmetunes other pro- 
nouns, and sometimes even nouns, especially in poetry : 

Italiam contra, over against Italy ; quibus dfi, in regard to which ; hunc 
post, Oifter him. See also ITS, T ; 182, 2. 

2. Genitives, adverbs, and a few other woids sometimes stAnd between the 
preposition and Its case. In adjurations per is usually separated from its caee : 

Ad edrnm rErum facultatetti, to a supply of those things. Ad bene be&tf- 
qua vlvendum, for living well and happily. Per egn hss lacrimas te 6rO, 
limplore you by these tears; v. 4, 8U. 

677. Conjunctions and Relatives, when they introduce clauses, gen- 
erally stand at the beginning of such clauses : but aatem, enlm, quidem, 
quoque, vSr6, and generally igitur, follow some other word : 

SI haec clvitfis est, if this is a stale. II qui audiunt, those who hear. Ipse 
autem omnia videbat, but he himself sate everything. See also 659, 2, and 
660,1. 

1, Conjunctions and relatives may follow emphatic words : 

Id at andlvJl, as he heard this. TrOIae qui primus ab 5ns vCnlt, who ei 
Jtrslfrom the shores of Troy j i 




ARRANGEMENT OF CLAUSES 363 

2. Que, ve, ne, introducing a clause or phrase, are generally appended to 
the first word ; but if that word is a preposition, they are often appended to 
the next word : 

In forOque, and in the forum. Inter nosque, and among us, 

678. N5n, when it qualifies some single word, stands directly before 
that word ; but when it is particularly emphatic, or qualifies the entire 
clause, it sometimes stands at the beginning of the clause, and sometimes 
before the finite verb or before the auxiliary of a compound tense : 

Hom5 nOn probatissimus, a man by no means the most approved. N5n fuit 
Juppiter metuendus, Jupiter was not to be feared. Pecunia soluta n5n est, 
the money has not been paid. 

1. In general, in negative clauses the negative word, whether particle, 
verb, or noun, is made prominent : 

NtiUa videbatur aptior persona, there seemed to be no more fitting char^ 
acter. Nihil est melius, nothing is better. 

679. Inquam, sometimes 516, introducing a quotation, follows one or 
more of the words quoted : 

Nihil habeO, inquit, quod accusem senectutem, / have nothing, said he, 
of which to accuse old age; c. Sen. 5, 13. 

680. The Vocative rarely stands at the beginning of a sentence. It 
usually follows an emphatic word : 

Vos, Quirltes, in vestra tficta disc6dite, you, Romans, retire to your homes. 

ARRANGEMENT OF CLAUSES 

681. Clauses connected by coordinate conjunctions (315, 1) fol- 
low each other in the natural order of the thought, as in English : 

Sol ruit et montes umbrantur, the sun hastens to its setting, and the moun- 
tains are shaded. Gyg6s a nulls videbatur, ipse autem omnia vidsbat, Oyges 
loas seen by no one, but he himself saw all things. 

682. A clause used as the Subject of a compound sentence (886, 2) 
generally stands at the Beginning of the sentence, and a clause used as 
the Predicate at the End : 

Quid dies ferat incertum est, what a day may bring forth is uncertain. 
Exitus fuit 5rati5nis, sibi nuUam cum his amicitiam esse^ tJie clo^e. oS ^iXvA 
oration was, that he had no friendship toith these meu. 




1. This arrangemeot Is tbe same ae that oE the Eimple sentence ; see B84. 

2. Emphasis and euphony ofWu have the same effect on the arrangement 
of claiiseB as on the arrangemeut of wurds ; see BBS, 670. 

683. Clauses used as tbe Subordinate Elements of compoimd 
senteuces admit three difEereut arrangements. 

1. They are generally inserted within the principal clause, like the 
subordinate elements of a simple sentence: 

ArioTJstuB, ex equla ut colloquerentur, postulavit, Ariovislus demanded 
that they should converse on homeback; Caoa. i, *3. Libenter homines Id 
qaodTOlunt crEdunt, men wilUngli/ believe that mhich they leUh; Caei.s, IB, A. 

2. They are often placed before the principal clause: 



Note — This arrangement Is generally used when the Hubordinate clause 
either refers back to the preceding sentence, or is preparatory to the thought 
of tbe principal clauee. Hence Caueal, Temporal, Conditional, and Conces- 
sive clauses often precede the principal clause, and in sentences composed 
of correlative clauses wltb is . . . qui, tails . . . qaSlii, tantua . . . qBantna, 
turn . . ■ cum, ita . . . ut, etc., the relative member, i.e. the clause with qui, 
qualia, quautus, cum, ut, etc., generally precedes. 

3. They sometimes follow the principal clause : 

Enltltur ut yinoat, he atHves Ihnt he may conqtier. SOl eflicit ut omnia 
flOreant, the sura causes all things to bloom. 

Note. — This arrangement is generally used when the subordinate clause 
is either intimately connected in iliought with tbe following sentence, or ex- 
planatory of the principal clause. Hence, claoses of Purpose and Result 
generally follow the principal clause, as in tbe examples. 

684. When either the subject or the object is the same both in the 
Principal and in the Snbordinate clause, it usually stands at or near the 
beginning of the sentence and is followed by the subordinate clause : 

Hostfis ubi prtmum iioscrOs equltfls cCnspexSnint, ccleriter nostrOs pertnr- 
bSv6runt, the enemy, as soon as thpy sate o«r cavalry, quickly put ovr men to 
rout; Cues. 4, u. IllautpotuI tull, those thing» I endured as (well as) /could, 

1. When the object of the principal clause is the same as the subject of 
the subordinate clause, it usually stands at the beginning of the sentence : 
V58 iiionefl ut forli aniinlj sU\6, f coimasX nou IQ t»B oj a rftutOLgeous tpMt. 



LATIN PERIODS 365 

685. Latin Periods. — A carefully elaborated Latin sentence con- 
sisting of one or more subordinate clauses inserted in the princi- 
pal clause, or placed before it, and so combined with it and with 
each other as to make one complete organic whole, is a Latin 
Period : 

Ut quod turpe est, id quamvls occultetur, tamen honestum fieri null5 modO 
potest ; sic quod honestum n5n est, id utile ut sit effici n5n potest, as that 
which is base, although it may be concealed, can in no way be made honor- 
able, 80 that which is not honorable can not by any possibility be made useful; 

0. Off. 8, 19, 78. 

Ut saepe homines aegn morbO gravi, cum aestU febrique iactantur, si 
aquam gelidam biberunt, primO relevari videntur, deinde multO gravius 
vehementiusque adflictantur, sic hic morbus qui est in re publica, relevitus 
istius poena, vehementius vivis reliquis ingrav6scet, as men ill with a severe 
disease if they take cold water when they are tossed with heat and fever, often 
seem at first to be relieved but afterwards are much more grievously and vio- 
lently distressed, so this disease which is in the republic, though alleviated 
by the punishment of this one, will gain greater strength while the rest are 
alive; c. c. i, 18, 81. 

Note 1. — The examples under 683, 1, and the first example under 684, are 
also short and simple illustrations of the periodic structure, so popular with 
Latin writers. 

Note 2. — For further illustration of the Latin Period, see Cicero's Third 
Oration against Catiline, 12, sed quoniam . . . providSre; the Oration 
for the Poet Archias, 1, quod bi haec . . . d6b6muB ; also Livy, 1, 6, Nu- 
mitor inter primmn tamultum . . . ostendit. 



>>•?<>•- 



PART v. — PROSODY 



686. Prosody treats of Quantity and Versification. 



QUANTITY 

687. A syllable is long if it contains a diphthong or a long 
vowel, or is the result of contraction : haec^ dico, nil. 

1. Fxae in compoaition is usually short "beloie «^ '^crw^x -^i^^ekSi'^teM^* 



f 866 




^H 688. A syllable is long if its vowel is followed in the same 

^H word by a, double consoiiaut, or any two consonants except a 

^^B mute and a liquid ' t dvix, semis, sunt. 

^^1 1. A syllable la al50 long before Iwo cuneonante, evBH if only one of them 

^^V belongs to that nord ; and in the thesis (785) of a foot it is generally long 

^^U before a donble consonant oi two single consonants at tbe beginning of the 

^^m folloning word. 

^H Note 1. —The aspirate b never affects tlie quantity ot a syllable. 

^^M NOTH 2. — In the early poets a short final syllable ending in b often re- 

^H maina short before a word beginning with a consonant ; sometimes, also, 

^1 short flnal syllables ending in otlier consonants remain short in that si 



I 



L syllable is long before 1 consonant, except in the compounds of 
lugiim. Even in the compounds of laol5 with won osy liable prepositions 
the first syllable is long, although 1 consonant is suppressed in writing; 
ablclo, adlcio. 

3. In the early poets many syllables, long by position in the Augustan 
poets, are sometimes short, as the first syllable of ecce, Ule, Immo, nempe, 
omniB, quippe. 

NoTB. — In Greek words a syllable with a vowel before a mute and a 
nasal is sometimes short : c7cnuB, Tecm§BBa. 

689. A syllable is short if its vowel is followed in the same 
word by another vowel, by a diphthong, or by the aspirate h; 
dies, viae, nihil. But a few exReptions occur, 

1. For 3 before another vowel, see 79, 3, and not* proper names in ains: 
auIST, 09iua. 

2. For e or g before a vowel, see 134 : diei, fidBl, rfi, BpSl, and note 
Shea and RbSa. 

3. For I or 1 before a vowel, see 93, 4, ITS, and !S6 : tfam, fiEbam, but 
flsH ; lllIuB, totloB, hut alterluB. Note also ^ns, DlSna. 

Note. — In Greek words, yowcls are often long before vowels because long 
In the original : MSdSa, Sfir, AenSSs, TfSea. 

690. A syllable is common in quantity if its vowel, naturally 
short, is followed by a mute and a liquid: agri, patria, 

' Here the sjlUble is long by nature it the vowel ia long, but long only by 
position il the vowel ia short. For U\r Uilden noaatity of vow»1b W org ttW 
a double conBonant, aoolW. 




QUANTITY OF FINAL SYLLABLES 367 

1. A syllable ending in a mute in the first part of a compound before a 
liquid at the beginning of the second part is long : ab-mmpo, ob-rogo. 

2. In Plautus and Terence a syllable, not in a compound, is short before 
a mute and a liquid if its vowel is short. 



QUANTITY OF FINAL SYLLABLES 

691. Monosyllables are generally long: da, si, do, dos, pes, sis, 
boB, par, BoL But note the following exceptions : 

1. Enclitics : que, ve, ne, ce, te, pse, pte. 

2. Monosyllables in b, d, I, m, t : ab, ad, fel, sum, et ; except sSl, sol. 

3. Ac, an, bis, cis, cor, es, fac, fer, in, is, nee, os, per, ter, quia, vir, 
▼as, and hie and h6c in the Nominative and Accusative. 

692. In words of more than one syllable 

1. The final vowels 1, o, and u are long; a, e, and y, short: 
au^, servo, fructu ; via, mare, misy. 

2. Einal syllables in c are long ; in d, 1, m, n, r, t, short : illuc ; 
illud, consul, amem, carmen, amor, caput. 

Note. — D5nec and liSn are exceptions ; also final syllables in n and r in 
many Greek words. 

3. The final syllables as, es, and os are long ; is, us, ys, short : 
amSs, nubes, servos ; avis, bonus, chlamys. 

Note 1. — Plautus retains the original quantity of many final syllables 
usually short in the Augustan age. Thus the endings &, §, al, &r, or,* Is, 
us, &t, 6t, it, often stand in place of the later endings a, e, al, ar, or, is, us, 
at, et, it. Some of these are retained by Terence, and occasionally by the 
Augustan poets. 

Note 2. — Plautus and Terence often shorten final syllables after an 
accented short syllable : ama, dedi, domi, viro, pedes. 

Note 3. — In Plautus and Terence the doubling of a letter does not neces- 
sarily affect the quantity of the syllable : 11 in ille, mm in immo. 

693. I final, usually long, is short in nisi, quasi ; common in mihl, tib!, 
sib!, ib!, ubi ; and short or common in a few Greek words. 

694. O final, usually long, is short in duo, ego, eho, cede, cite, Hico, 
mode and its compounds, and sometimes in nouns of the Third Decb^usAs^^ 
and in verbs, though rarely in the best poeta. 



PRosoD r 



^^^H 



695. A final, usually short, is long 

1. In Uie Ablative : mEnsa, bona, ilia, 

2. In the Vocative of Griclt nouns in SB: Aen6a, Palla. 

3. In certain nuraeralB: tclgintS, quadragintfl, eti-. 

4. In verbs ajid particles : ama, cilra ; circa, luxta, antea, friistrS ; 
except Jta, quia, bSia, and puta uaeil adverbially. 

696. B final, usually sliort, is long 

1. In the First and Fifth DeclensionH, and in Greek plurals of the Tliird 
Declension : epltom§ ; dlS ; tempB. Hence in bodie, pridie, postridlfi, 

2. In the singular Imperative Active of the Second Conju^tion : monS, 
doc6. But e is EometlmeH short in cavS, vidS, etc. , and In the comic poeU 
many dissyiiahic Imtifratives wiUi a short penult shoiten the ultimate: as 
habe, inbe, mane, move, tace, tene, etc. 

3. In leie, fermS, She, and in adverbs from adjectives of the Second 
Declension : dootfi. rfictE ; except bene, male, and sometimes in the early 
poets maxumfi, probS, temerS. 

697. As llnal, uiiually long, is short In a. few forms, chiefly Greek : anaa, 
Aroaa, lampaa ; Alcadaa, herSaa. 

69S. Ea final, usually long, is short 

1. In the Nominative singular of the Tliird Declension with short incremenl 
(702) in the Genitive : mlleB, sometimes mHes in I'lautus, obsea, inteipre» ; 
except ablSs, arlSa, parfea, Ceres, and conipoiiJuU of pSe, as bipes. 

2. In penea and (he compound.^ of ea, as ades, potes. 

3. In a few Greelt forms : Arcadea, TrSadea, Hippomanea. 

699. Os final, usually long, Is short in compos, ImpoB, exoa, 
few Greek words: Dfilcs, meloa. 

700. la final, usually sliort, is long 

1. In plural cases : mSnaia, vCbla. Hence forls, gratia, Ingr&tla. 

2. In Nominatives of the 'iliird Declension, increasing !oiig in the Geni' 
tive : QniilB, Salanua. 

3. In the singular Present Indicative Active of the Fourth ConjngalioD; 
andli. 

4. In the singular Present Subjunctive Active : poa^s, vella, ufiUa. 

6. Sometimes in the eingular ot the Future Perfect and of the I'erfeot 
Subjunctive: amSvetla, docnerlB. 

6. In early Latin sometimes in pulvis, cinla, and sangufa. 
Note. — MavTs, quivls, and Mtenrt» \e\si.\tv ftia t^jiMi^.^^,^ at trt». 



^ 



QUANTITY IN INCREMENTS 369 

701. Ub final, usually short, is long (1) in Nominatives of the Third 
Declension increasing long in the Genitive : virtHa, tellua, but palus occurs 
in Horace ; (2) in the Fourth Declension, in the Genitive singular, and in 
the plural : fructuB ; and (3) generally in Greek words ending long in the 
original : Fanth^B, tripus. 

QUANTITY IN INCREMENTS 

702. A word is said to increase in declension, when it has in any case 
more syllables than in the Nominative singular, and to have as many 
increments of declension as it has additional syllables : sermo, sermo- 
niB, sermdnibus.i 

703. A verb is said to increase in conjugation, when it has in any 
part more syllables than in the second person singular of the Present 
Indicative Active, and to have as many increments of conjugation as it 
has additional syllables : am&s, am&tis, am&batis.^ 

704. If there is but one increment, it is uniformly the penult; if there 
are more than one, they are the penult with the requisite number of syl- 
lables before it. The increment nearest the beginning of the word is 
called the First increment, and those following this are called succes* 
sively the Second, Third, and Fourth increments.' 

Increments of Declension 

705. In the Increments of Declension, a and o are long ; e, 1, u, 
and y, short : ^ aetas, aetatibus ; sermo, sermonis ; puer, pueronim ; 
mQes, militis ; fulgur, fulguris ; chlamys, chlamydis. 

Note. — The quantity in the increments of Greek nouns is best learned 
from the dictionary. It is usually that of the original Greek, 

706. A, usually long in the increments of declension, is short in the 
first increment (1) of masculines in al and ar: Hannibal, Hannibalis; 
Caesar, Caesaris; (2) of nouns in s preceded by a consonant: daps, 
dapis ; Arabs, Arabis ; and (3) of ISr, nectar, pb ; mas, vas ; s^, fax, 
and a few other woixis. 

1 Sermdnis, having one syllable more than sermd, has one increment, while 
sermdnibiis has two increments. 

2 Am&tis has one increment, amfibfitis two. 

8 In ser-ni5n-i-bus, the first increment is m5n, the second 1 ; and in mon-u- 
e-r&-niU8, the first is u, the second e, the third ra. 

* Y occurs only in Greek words, and is long in t\i^ \wcxw£i!wi\.^ <il \i«vi»a.Vs^"^"5i.. 

BABK. LAT. ORAM, — 25 




' 370 PROSODY 

707. O, usiully long in the increments of declension, is short [n the 
first increment (1) of neuters in the Third DeclenBioii: aequor, aequoria; 
tempus, tempoils; (2) of nouns in ■ preceded by a consonant: (ops), 
opla 1 anil (3) of arbor, bSa, lepua ; compos, impo9, memor, immomor. 

708. E, usually short in the incremtnls of dccleiisEun, is long in tlic 
first increment (1) of the Fifth Declension : diSi, diSrum, rEbus ; but note 
HdSl, iSl, spSi ; and (2) of vSr, hSrSa, locaples, mercSa, qul§8, InqolSB, 
Tequies, plebs, ISz, iBx. 

709. I, usually ishort in the inoreinenta of declension, is long in the first 
increment (1) of nords in Ix; rSdIx, Tadlcis; and (2) of dis, IJb, vIb, 
Quirls, Samiiis- 

710. n, usually short in the increments of declension, is long j:i the 
first increment (1) of nouns iu He: Ms, iiliilB; salua, salutis; palBe, 
paiadia; and (2) of fur, (friiz), frugls, Mx. 

Increments of Conjugation 

711. In the Increments of Conjugation (703) a, e, and o are 
long ; 1 anil u shoii; : amamus, amemus, amatote ; regimus, Bumua. 

1. A, usually long in the increments of uoiijugaiiori, is short in the first 
increment of the verb do, daia: dabam, circumdabam. 

2. E, usually long in the inoteniHnrs of conjugation, is generally abort 
before i : amSveram, aiii3Teroi regeie, legeila ; see also S18-ESI. 

3. I, usually short in the Inerementa of conjugation, is generally long, 
except before a vowel, in the first increment of the Fourth Conjugation and 
of those verbs of the Third Conjugation which follow the analogy of the 
fhurth : audita, andlvl, aadltum; cuplvl. cuplverat. cupTtns. 

4. Note also (1) rfmus, Bitis ; vellmus, veliti» ; ndlite, nSUtS, nSH- 
tSte ; (2) the different persona of ibam, ibfi, from eo ; and (3) the endings 
limna and ritls o£ the Future Perfect and Perfect Subjunctive ; am&Teri- 
mns, amSveiitia. 



I 



. U, usually short in the incrementa of conjugation, is long in the parti- 
cipial system : Tolfitum, ToIfltflruB, amatOnis. 

QUANTITT OF DERIVATIVE ENDINGS 
712. Note the quantity of the following derivative e 

1. Sbrum, Scrum, Strum : 
flabrnm, simulai-nini, aratrnin. 

2. tda, Ido, tudfi ; agO, [go, figo : 
dalceda, cupldo, solitude ; votfigft, ortgt), iu=TG.^ti. 



QUANTITY OF STEM SYLLABLES 371 

3. 61a, He ; SUis, 61is, ulls : 
querela, otHq ; mortalis, fidelis, curalis. 

4. §nuB, 6nu8, inus, 5nu8, unus ; §na, 6na, 5na, fina : 

urbd.nus, egSnus, mannus, patrOnus, tribunus; membrd.na, liab€na, an* 
n5na, lactlna. 

5. &rls, OBUS ; &vuB, ivus, tivus : 

salut9.ris, animOsus ; oct9.vus, aestivus, tempestlvus. 

6. &tu8, 6tus, itus, otus, dtUB. 

Slatus, facetus, turritus, aegrOtus, comtitus. 

7. 6ni, inl, oni — in Distributives : 
septeni, quinl, octOnl. 

8. adSs, iades, idSs — in Patronymics r 
Aengad€s, Laertiades, Tantalidgs. 

9. oluB, ola, olum; ulus, ula, ulum; cuius, cula, culiun — in Di- 
minutives : 

filiolus, filiola, atriolum ; hortulus, virgula, oppidulum ; fiOsculus, particula, 
munusculum. 

QUANTITY OF STEM SYLLABLES 

713. All simple verbs in io of the Third Conjugation have the stem 
syllable ^ short : capid, cupi5, facio, f odi5, fugi5. 

714. Most verbs which form the Perfect in uT, except inceptives, have 
the stem syllable short : dom5, secS, habed, moneo, alo, colo. * 

715. Dissyllabic Perfects, Supines, and Perfect Participles generally 
have the first syllable long, unless short by position : iuvo, iuvl, iutum ; 
fove5, fovl, f5tum. 

1. Eight Perfects and ten Supines or Perfect Participles have the first 
syllable short : 

Bibi, dedl, fidi, liqul,^ scidi, stetl, stiti, tull ; citum, datum, itum, litum, 
quitum, ratum, rutum, satum, situm, statum. 

716. Trisyllabic Reduplicated Perfects generally have the first two 
syllables short unless the second is long by position : cad5, cecidi; 
can5, cecini; curro, cucurri; but note caedo, cecldl. 

I II,. a 

1 That is, the syllable preceding tYi^ c\i?i.T^cX«m\Ka% 
'IiiquI from liqu©5: UnquS has W^viSL. 



372 PROSODY 

717. In general, inflected forms retain the quantity of stem syllables 
unchanged unless affected by position: avis, avem; ni&b6s, nfLbium; 
levis, levissimuB. 

718. Derivatives generally retain the quantity of the stem syllables of 
their primitives : bonus, bonit&s ; animus, animdsus ; civis, civicus. 

1. But remember that many roots have a strong form and a weak form 
r320, 1): 

dic5 dIcO odium OdI 

dux, ducis dticO regO r6x, rggis 

Udes fld5 sede5 sMes 

aom5 hilmanus tegO tSgula 

legd l6x, l6gis voc5 v5x, vOcis 

719. Compounds generally retain the quantity of their elements; 
ante-fero, d6-duco, prd-dtlc5 ; but note dSier5 (de, iur5). 

1. Pr6 is generally shortened before f followed by a vowel : 

Prof anus, profari, proficlscor, profiteor, profugiO, profugus, profundus; 
but note prOferO and prOficiO. 

Note. — Pro is shortened in procella, procul, and in a few other words. 

2. At the end of a verbal stem compounded with faci5 or fio, e is gener- 
ally short : calefacio, calefio, labefacio, patefacio. 

3. I is usually long in the first part of the compounds of di§s : merfdiSs, 
pridi§, postridie, cottidiS, triduum. 

4. Hodie, quasi, quoque, and siquidem have the first syllable short. 

VERSIFICATION 
GENERAL VIEW OF THE SUBJECT 

720. Latin Versification is based upon Quantity. Syllables are 
combined into certain metrical groups called Feet, and feet, singly 
or in pairs, are combined into Verses.^ 

1 Modern versification is based upon Accent. An English verse is a regular 
combination of Accented and Unaccented syllables, but a Latin verse is a similar 
combination of Long and Short syllables. The rhythmic accent, or ictus (724), 
in Latin depends entirely upon quantity. Compare the following lines : 



TelT me 


not', in 


mourn'-ful 


num'-bers. 


Life' is 


but' an 


emp'-ty 


dream'. 


Tru'-di- 


tur' di- 


es' di- 


e'. 


At'fi- 


des' et 


in'-ge- 


ni'. 



Observe that in the English lines the accent, or ictus, falls upon the same syllablea 
as in prose, while in the Latin it laWs xmUoxxoV^ \i^^i\o\i^«.l\\aWtf8j^. 



GENERAL VIEW OF VERSIFICATION 



373 



1. In quantity or time the unit of measure, called a Time or Mora, is a 
short syllable indicated either by a curve w or by an eighth note in music, ^. 
A long syllable has in general twice the value of a short syllable, and is 
indicated either by the sign __, or by a quarter note in music, J. 

2. Triseme. — A long syllable is sometimes prolonged so as to have the 
value of three short syllables, indicated by the sign l_, or \. 

3. Tetraseme. — A long syllable is sometimes prolonged so as to have 
the value of four short syllables, indicated by i_i, or- J. 

4. A long syllable is sometimes shortened so as to have approximately 
the value of a short syllable, and is marked by the sign > ; and two short 
syllables sometimes seem to have approximately the value of one, and are 
marked ^a^. Syllables thus used are said to have Irrational time. 

5. The final syllable of a verse, often called ayllaba anceps {doubtful 
syllable)^ may generally be either long or short at the pleasure of the poet. 



721. The feet of most frequent occurrence in the best Latin 
poets are 

1. Feet of Four Times or Four Morab 

Dactyl one long and two short sj \j 

Spondee two long syllables J J 



I IS \ 



carmma 
l€g6s 



2. Feet of Three Times or Three Morab 



Trochee 1 one long and one short \j 

Iambus one short and one long ^ 

Tribrach three short syllables \j kj \j 

Note 1. — To these may be added the following : 

Ditrochee 



Anapaest v^ vy bonitfts 

Proceleusmatic \j kj kj \j calefacit 

Bacchius ^ dolOr6s 

Cretic vy mllitfis 

Diiambus kj \j amoenitSs 



Greater Ionic 
Lesser Ionic 
Choriambus 






W KJ 

KJ \y 

WW 

WW 



l€gis 

parens 

dominus 



clvit9.tis 
sententia 
adul3sc€ns 
impatiens^ 



Note 2. — A Dipody is a group of two feet ; a Tripody, of three ; a 
Tetrapody, of four; etc. A Trihemimeris is a group of three half feet, 
i.e. a foot and a half ; a Penthemimeris, of two and a half ; a Hephthe- 
mimeris, of three and a half ; etc. 



1 Sometimes called Choree. 

* Most feet of four syllables are only compounds of dissyllabic feet» Th»& ^3ba 
Diiambus is a doable Iambus ; the Ditrochee, a dou)D!\ftTxo^'&^\ >Caft^2QLQtsaM2ssQa»^ 
a Troebee (Choree) and an Iambus. 



374 PROSODY 

722. Metrical Equivalents. — A long syllable may be resolved 
into two short syllables, as equivalent to it in quantity, or two 
short syllables may be contracted into a long syllable. The forms 
thus produced are metrical equivalents of the original feet. 

Note. — Thus the dactyl becomes a spondee by contracting the two short 
syllables into one long syllable ; the spondee becomes a dactyl by resolving 
the second syllable, or an anapaest by resolving the first. Accordingly, the 
dactyl, the spondee, and the anapaest are metrical equivalents. In like 
manner the iambus, the trochee, and the tribrach are metrical equivalents. 

723. In certain kinds of verse admitting irrational time (720, 4), 
spondees, dactyls, and anapaests are shortened so that they have 
approximately the time of a trochee or of an iambus, and thus become 
metrical equivalents of each of these feet. 

1. A spondee used for a trochee is called an Irrational Trochee, and is 
marked — >. 

2. A spondee used for an iambus is called an Irrational Iambus, and is 
marked > — . 

3. A dactyl used for a trochee is called a Cyclic Dactyl, and is marked 
— v^ v^ or v^\^. 

4. An anapaest used for an iambus is called a Cyclic Anapaest, and is 
marked kj kj— or w^ . 

724. Ictus, or Rhythmic Accent. — As in the pronunciation of a word 
one or more syllables receive a special stress of voice called accent, so in 
the pronunciation of a metrical foot one or more syllables have a special 
prominence called Rhythmic Accent, or Ictus. 

1. Feet consisting of both long and short syllables have the ictus uni- 
formly on the long syllables, unless used as equivalents for other feet. 

2. Equivalents take the ictus of the feet for which they are used. 

Note 1. — Thus the spondee, when used for the dactyl, takes the ictus of 
the dactyl, i.e. on the first syllable ; but when used for the anapaest, it takes 
the ictus of the anapaest, i.e. on the last syllable. 

Note 2. — When two short syllables of an equivalent take the place of a 
long syllable in the thesis, the ictus is marked upon the first of these sylla- 
bles. Thus a tribrach used for an iambus is marked ^j ^ kj» 

725. Thesis and Arsis. — In every foot the syllable which has the 
ictus is called the Thesis (putting down), and the rest of the foot is 
called the Arsis (raising).^ 

^ Greek writers on versification originally used the terms fi^ms and Otats of 
raising and putting down the loot m maxc\i\\i% ot \w Xi^^^Wu^ \.vcckfc. Thus the 



GENERAL VIEW OF VERSIFICATION 376 

726. Rhythmic Series. — A group of feet forming a single rhythmic 
unit by the predominance of one ictus over the rest is called a Rhythmic 
Series, or Colon. 

1. A Rhythmic Series may consist of two, three, four, five, or six feet, 
but never of more than six. 

727. Verses. — A verse consists of a single rhythmic series, or 
of a group of two or three series so united as to form one distinct 
and separate whole, usually written as a single line of poetry. It 
has one characteristic or fundamental foot, which determines the 
ictus for the whole verse. 

Note 1. — Thus every dactylic. verse has the ictus on the first syllable of 
each foot, because the Dactyl has the ictus on that syllable. 

Note 2. — A verse consisting of a single rhythmic series is called Mono* 
colon ; of two, Dicolon ; of three, Tricolon. 

Note 3. — Two verses sometime unite and form a compound verse (746). 

728. Caesura or Caesural Pause. — Most Latin verses are divided 
metrically into two nearly equal parts, each of which forms a rhythmic 
series. The pause, however slight, which separates these parts is called 

1. A Caesura,^ or a Caesural Pause, when it occurs within a foot (736). 

2. A Diaeresis, when it occurs at the end of a foot (736, 2 and 3). 

Note 1. — Some verses consist of three parts thus separated by caesura or 
diaeresis. 

Note 2. — The term caesura is often made to include both the Caesura 
proper and the Diaeresis. The chief pause in the line is often termed the 
Principal Caesura or simply the Caesura. 

729. The full metrical name of a verse consists of three parts. The 
first designates the characteristic foot, the second gives the number of 
feet or measures, and the third shows whether the verse is complete or 
incomplete. Thus 

1. A Dactylic Hexameter Acatalectic is a dactylic verse of six feet 
(Hexameter), all of which are complete (Acatalectic). 

Thesis was the accented part of the foot, and the Arsis the unaccented part. The 
Romans, however, applied the terms to raising and lowering the voice in reading. 
Thus Arsis came to mean the accented part of the foot, and Thesis the unaccented 
part. But most scholars at present deem it advisable to restore the terms to their 
original meaning, though some still prefer to use them in the sense in which the 
Roman grammarians employed them. 

^ Caesura (from caed5, to cut) means a cutting; it cuts or divides thA l<vc^t» 
and the verse into parts. 



376 PROSODY 

2. A Trochaic Dimeter Catalectic is a trochaic verse of two measuies 
(Dimeter), the last of which is incomplete (Catalectic). 

Note 1. — A verse with a Dactyl as its characteristic foot is called Dao- 
tylic ; with a Trochee, Trochaic ; with an lamhus, lamhic ; etc. 

Note 2. — A verse consisting of one measure is called Monometer ; of two, 
Dimeter ; of three. Trimeter ; of four, Teti*ameter ; of five. Pentameter ; of 
six, Hexameter. 

Note 3. — A verse which closes with a Complete measure is called Acatst' 
lectic ; with an Incomplete measure, Catalectic ; with an excess of syllables ^ 
Hypermetrical. 

Note 4. — The term Acatalectic is often omitted, as a verse may b^ 
assumed to be complete unless the opposite is stated. 

.Note 5. — A Catalectic verse is said to be Catalectic in syllabam, in disyl — 
labum, in trisyllabum, according as the incomplete foot has one, two, oir' 
three syllables. 

Note 6. — Verses are sometimes briefly designated by the number of f eet> 
or measures which they contain. Thus, Hexameter (verse of six measures) 
sometimes designates the Dactylic Hexameter Acatalectic, and Senarius^ 
(verse of six feet), the Iambic Trimeter Acatalectic. 

3. In reading catalectic verses, a pause is introduced in place of the 
lacking syllable or syllables. 

4. A Pause or Rest equal to a short syllable is marked /\ ; a Pause 
equal to a long syllable is marked 7\, 

730. Verses and stanzas are often designated by names derived from 
celebrated poets. Thus Alcaic is derived from Alcaeus; Archilochian, 
from Archilochus ; Sapphic, from Sappho ; Glyconic from Glycon, etc. 

Note. — Verses sometimes receive a name from the kind of subjects to 
which they are applied : as Heroic, applied to heroic subjects ; Paroemiac, 
to proverbs, etc. 

731. A Stanza or Strophe is a combination of two or more verses into 
one metrical whole ; see 747, 1, 2, etc. 

Note. — A stanza of two lines or verses is called a Distich ; of three, a 
Tristich ; of four, a Tetrastich. 

732. Rhythmical Reading. — In reading Latin verse care must be 
taken to preserve the words unbroken, to show the quantity of the sylla- 
bles, and to mark the poetical ictus. 

733. Figures of Prosody. — The ancient poets sometimes allowed 
themselves, in the use of letters and syllables, certain liberties generally 

termed Figures of Prosody. 



GENERAL VIEW OF VERSIFICATION 377 

1. Elision. — A final vowel, a final diphthong, or a final m with the 
preceding vowel, is generally elided^ before a word beginning with 
a vowel or with h : 

MOnstr"" horrend»»™ infOrme ing€ns. Verg. 

Note 1. — Final e in the interrogative ne is sometimes dropped before a 
consonant : Pjrrrhin' conniibia serves ? Verg. 

Note 2. — In the early poets, final b before a consonant is often so far 
suppressed that it fails to make position with the following consonant; ez 
omnibus rSbus. 

Note 3. — The elision of a final m with the preceding vowel is sometimes 
called Ecthlipsis or Synaloepha. 

Note 4. — The elision of a final vowel or diphthong is sometimes called 
Synaloepha, or, if at the end of a line, Synapheia. 

2. Hiatus. — A final vowel or diphthong is sometimes retained before 
a word beginning with a vowel, especially in the thesis of a foot. It is 
regularly retained in the interjections 6, heu, and pr6. 

Note. — In the arsis, and in early Latin even in the thesis, a final long 
vowel or diphthong is sometimes shortened before a short vowel instead of 
being elided ; see Verg. Aen. 3, 211 ; 6, 607. 

3. Synizesis. — Two syllables are sometimes contracted into one : 
deinde, udem, usdem. 

Note 1. — In the different parts of dSsum, ee is generally pronounced as 
one syllable : deesae, deest, deerat, etc . ; so ei in the verb anteeo : an- 
teire, anteirem. 

Note 2. — I and u before vowels are sometimes used as consonants with 
the sound of y and \y. Thus ariete becomes aryete ; tenuSs becomes 
tenxivSB. 

Note 3. — In Plautus and Terence, Synizesis is used with great freedom. 

Note 4. — The contraction of two syllables into one is sometimes called 
Synaeresis. 

4. Dialysis. — In poetry, two syllables usually contracted into one are 
sometimes kept distinct : aur&I for aurae, soluendus for solvendus. 

Note 1. — Dialysis properly means the Resolution of one syllable into 
two, but the Latin poets seldom, if ever, actually make two syllables out of 
one. The examples generally explained by dialysis are only ancient forms, 
used for effect or convenience. 

Note 2. — Dialysis is sometimes called Diaeresis. 

1 That is, partially suppressed. In reading, it should be lightly and indistinctly 
soondedi and blended with the following syllable, as in Eu^lV&Vi'^^Vc:^'. 

" Th« eternal years ol God m^ \ict^ " 



378 PROSODY 

5. Diastole. — A syllable usually short is sometimes long, especially in 
the thesis of a foot : Friamid6s for Friamid§8. 

6. Systole. — A syllable usually long is sometimes short: tnlenmt 
for tul6runt. 

7. Syncope. — An entire foot is sometimes occupied by a single long 
syllable ; see 720, 3. 

Note. — In reading syncopated verses, the long syllable must of coarse 
be allowed to occupy the time of an entire foot. 

VARIETIES OF VERSE 
Dactylic Hexameter 

734. All Dactylic Verses consist of Dactyls and their metrical 
equivalents, Spondees. The ictus is on the first syllable of every 
foot. 

735. The Dactylic Hexameter^ consists of six feet. The first 
four are either Dactyls or Spondees, the fifth a Dactyl, and the 
sixth a Spondee (720, 5).^ The scheme is,' 

Quadrupe- 1 dante pu- | trein soni- | tu quatit | ungula | campum. Verg. 
Arma vi- | rumque ca- | no Tro- | iae qui | primus ab | Oris. Verg. 
Infan- | dum re- | gina iu- 1 bes reno- | vara do- | lOrem. Verg. 
lUi^ in- I ter se- | se mag- | na vi | bracchia | tollunt. Verg.s 

1 This is at once the most important and the most ancient of all the Greek and 
Roman meters. The most beautiful and finished Latin Hexameters are found in 
the works of Vergil and Ovid. 

2 The Dactylic Hexameter in Latin is here treated as Acatalectic, as the Latin 
poets seem to have regarded the last foot as a genuine Spondee, thus making the 
measure complete. Some authorities, however, treat the verse as Catalectic, and 
mark the last foot ^kj /\. 

8 In this scheme the sign ' marks the ictus (724), and \Jtj denotes that the 

original Dactyl, marked w w, may become by contraction a Spondee, marked 

^ , i.e. that a Spondee may be used for a Dactyl (722). 

^ Expressed in musical characters, this scale is as follows : 

The notation S d d means that, instead of the original measure J si* ^^^ 

equivalent s 4 may be used. 

6 The final i of il'li is elided ; see 733, 1. 

8 With these lines of Vergil compare the following Hexameters from the Evan- 
geVme of Longfellow : 



VARIETIES OF VERSE 379 

1. The scheme of dactylic hexameters admits sixteen varieties, produced 
by varying the relative number and arrangement of Dactyls and Spondees. 

2. Effect of Dactyls. — Dactyls produce a rapid movement, and are adapted 
to lively subjects. Spondees produce a slow movement, and are adapted to 
grave subjects. But the best effect is produced in successive lines by variety 
in the number and arrangement of Dactyls and Spondees. 

3. Spondaic Line. — The Hexameter sometimes takes a Spondee in the 
fifth place. It is then called Spondaic, and generally has a Dactyl as its 
fourth foot : 

Caxa de- | um subo- | I6s mag- | num lovis | incr6- | mentum. Verg. 

Note. — In Vergil, spondaic lines are used much more sparingly than in 
the earlier poets, ^ and generally end in words of three or four syllables, as 
in incrSmentum above. 

736. Caesura, or Caesural Pause. — The favorite caesural pause of 
the Hexameter is after the thesis or in the arsis of the third foot ^ : 

Anna- I ti ten- | dunt ; || it | clamor et | agmine | facto. Verg. 
inf an- | dum, rfi- | gina, || iu- | bes jeno- | vare do- | lOrem. Verg. 

Note. — In the first line the caesural pause, marked ||, is after tendmit, 
after the thesis of the third foot ; and in the second line, after rSgma, in the 
arsis of the third foot. A caesura after the thesis of a foot is termed a Mas- 
culine caesura, while a caesura in the middle of the arsis is termed a Feminine 
caesura.8 

1. The Caesural Pause is sometimes in the fourth foot, and then an addi- 
tional pause is often introduced in the second : 

CrSdide- | rim ; || v6r | illud e- | rat, || v6r | magnus a- | g6bat. Verg. 

2. Bucolic Diaeresis. — A pause called the Bucolic Diaeresis, because origi- 
nally used in the pastoral poetry of the Greeks, sometimes occurs at the end 
of the fourth foot : 

This is the forest primeval ; feut where are the hearts that beneath it 

Leaped like the roe, when he hears in the woodland the voice of the huntsman ? 

^ A single poem of Catullus, about half as long as a book of the Aeneid, con- 
tains more spondaic lines than all the works of Vergil. 

2 That is, the first rhythmic series ends at this point. This pause is always at 
the end of a word, and may be so very slight as in most cases not to interfere with 
the sense, even if no mark of punctuation is required ; but the best verses are so 
constructed that the caesural pause coincides with a pause in the sense. 

8 The Masculine Caesura is also called the Strong or the Syllabic Caesura ; th* 
Feminine, the Weak or the Trochaic Caesura. Caesuras are often named from 
the place which they occupy in the line. Thus a caesura after the thesis of the 
second foot is called Trihemimeral ; after the thesis of the thkd, lP«^V^<«s3^xMKwiiv\ 
after the thesis of the fourth, Hephthemimexal. 



380 PROSODY 

Ingen- | tern cae- 1 10 soni- | turn dedit ; || inde se- | ctltus. Verg. 

Note. — The Bucolic Diaeresis, or Caesura, though often employed by 
Juvenal, was in general avoided by the best Latin poets, even in treating 
pastoral subjects. Vergil, even in his Bucolics, uses it very sparingly. 

3. A diaeresis at the end of the third foot veithout any proper caesura! 
pause is regarded as a blemish in the verse : 

Pulveru- I lentus e- | quis f urit ; || omn6s | arma re- | quirunt. Verg. 

4. The ending of a word within a foot always produces a caesura. A line 
may therefore have several caesuras, but generally only one of these is marked 
by any perceptible pause : 

Arma vi- | rumque ca- | nO, || TrO- | iae qui | primus ab | Oris. Verg. 

Note. — Here there is a caesura in every foot except the last, but only one 
of these — that after cand, in the third foot — has the caesural pause. 

6. The caesura, with or without the pause, is an important feature in every 
hexameter. A line without it is prosaic in the extreme : 

ROmae | moenia | terruit | impiger | Hannibal | armis. Eno. 

Note 1. — The Penthemimeral caesura has great power to impart melody 
to the verse, but the best effect is produced when it is aided by other caesu- 
ras, as in 4 above. 

Note 2. — A happy effect is often produced by combining the Hephthe- 
mimeral caesura with the Trihemimeral : 

Inde to- I ro || pater | Aen6- | as || sic | Orsus ab | altO. Verg. 

737. The ictus often falls upon unaccented syllables, especially in the 
third foot, but in the fifth and sixth feet it generally falls upon accented 
syllables; see examples under 735. 

738. The last word of the hexameter is generally either a dissyllable 
or a trisyllable. 

Note 1. — Two monosyllables at the end of a line are not particularly 
objectionable, and sometimes even produce a happy effect : 

Praecipi- | tant cu- | rae, || tur- 1 bataque | funere | m6ns est. Verg. 

Note 2. — In Vergil, twenty -one lines, apparently hypermetrical (729, 
DOte 3), are supposed to elide a final vowel or a final em or um before the 
initial vowel of the next line •, see Aen. \, ^'^^\ ^^Q^A.'^ia^. 



VARIETIES OF VERSE 381 

Other Dactylic Verses 

739. Dactylic Pentameter.* — The Dactylic Pentameter consists of two 
Dactylic Trimeters — the first syncopated or catalectic, tlie second cata- 
lectic — separated by a diaeresis. The Spondee may take the place of 
the Dactyl in the first part, but not in the second : 

jilGro IjilwTy |^7\ ll^ww I jf.v^w| wA, or 
^ UTJ I -^ C70 \ \—i\\ Z.\^\j l^vyw I.^A^ 
Admoni- 1 tu coe- 1 pi || fortior | esse tu- 1 0. Ovid. 

1. Elegiac Distich. — The Elegiac Distich consists of the Hexameter 
followed by the Pentameter : 

Semise- | pulta vi- 1 rum || cur- | vis feri- | untur a- | r&trls 
Ossa, ru- | inO- | sSs || occulit | herba do- 1 mus. Ovid. 

Note. — Elegiac composition should be characterized by grace and ele- 
gance. Both members of the distich should be constructed in accordance 
with the most rigid rules of meter, and the sense should be complete at the 
end of the couplet. Ovid and TibuUus furnish us the best specimens of this 
style of composition. 

2. The Dactylic Tetrameter is identical with the last four feet of the 

hexameter : 

Ibimus I 5 soci- | I, comi- | tfisque. Hot. 

Note. — In compound verses, as in the Greater Archilochian, the tetram- 
eter in composition with other meters has a Dactyl in the fourth place; 
see 745, 10. 

3. The Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic, also known as the Lesser Archilo- 
chian, is identical with the second half of the dactylic pentameter : 

Arbori- | busque co- | mae. flor. 

* The name Pentameter is founded on the ancient division of the line into five 
feet; the first and second being Dactyls or Spondees, the third a Spondee, the 
fourth and fifth Anapaests. 

2 In musical characters : 






'frf 



4 4 4 4 d 4 1, 



or 



4 ^ 4\4 4 4\a^ 4 4 4 4 4 4 I 

Thus in reading Pentameters, a pause may be introduced after the long syllable 
in the third foot, or that foot may be lengthened ao «»a \.q %^ ^'Sv iSkSja&Nsx'^N ^^^ 
729, 3. 



390 PROSODY 

Ekiturnian Verse 

2. The Saturnian verse is employed in some of the earliest remains of 
Latin literature, but its nature is still in dispute. According to one theory 
it is purely accentual, with trochaic rhythm. The verse is divided into two 
halves by a diaeresis. The first half verse has three theses; the second 
usually three, but sometimes only two, and in the latter case it is usually 
preceded by an anacrusis : 

Dibunt milum Metdlll || Nadvio po^tae. 

Prim» inc^dit C^reris || Proserpina piier. Naevias. 

Note 1. — In the early specimens of this meter hiatus is common, but in the 
later literary Saturnians it occurs chiefly at the diaeresis. 

Note 2. — There is usually one unaccented syllable between every two ac- 
cented syllables, but in the literary Saturnians there are regularly two unac- 
cented syllables between the second and third theses. 

3. According to the quantitative theory held by some scholars, the 
Saturnian is a trochaic verse of six feet, with anacrusis. Each thesis may 
be a long syllable or two shorts ; each arsis may be a long syllable, two 
shorts, or a single short. A short final syllable is often lengthened under 
the ictus, and an arsis is frequently suppressed : 

Dabiint malum Met^lli || Na^vi8 poitae. 

Noctu Troiad exfbant || cdpitibds op^rtis ; Naevius. 

Note 1. — The principal pause is usually after the fourth arsis, but sometimes 
after the third thesis. Hiatus is common, but, in strictly constructed Saturnians, 
occurs chiefly at the end of the first rhythmic series. 

Note 2. r— There are many modified forms of both the accentual and quanti- 
tative theories of the Saturnian. 



APPENDIX 



•o> 



HIDDEN QUANTITY 

749. On the natural quantity ^ of vowels before two consonants or a 
double consonant, observe 

I. That vowels are long before na, nf, gn,^ and before the inceptive 
endings 8c5 and scor : 

COnscius, c5nsul, Inscrlbo, Insula, amSlns, audiSns ; confer^, c5nficld, In- 
Mlx, InferO ; benlgnus, m9gnus, mSgna, rSgnum ; gelSscG, flOrSscG, silSscG, 
cOncupIscO, sciscO ; adiplscor. 

1 It is often difficult, and sometimes absolutely impossible, to determine the 
natural quantity of vowels before two consonants, but the subject has of late 
received special attention from orthoepists. An attempt has been made in this 
article to collect the most important results of these labors. The chief sources of 
information upon this subject are (1) ancient inscriptions, (2) Greek transcriptions 
of Latin words, (3) the testimony of ancient grammarians, (4) the modem lan- 
guages, (6) the comic poets, and (6) etymology. 

Valuable information on the subject of hidden quantity will be found in the 
following works : 

Stolz, Fb., Lautlehre und Stammbildungslehre, historische Grammatik der latei- 

nischen Sprache, Erste Band. Leipzig, 1896. 
Bruomann, K., Grundriss der vergleicheuden Grammatik. Strassburg, 1888-93. 
OsTHOFF, H., Zur Geschichte des Perfects im Indogermanischen. Strassburg, 

1884. 
Marx, A., Aussprache der lateinischen Vokale in positionslangen Silben. 2te 

Auflage, Berlin, 1889. 
Seelmann, E., Die Aussprache des Latein. Heilbronn, 1885. 
Christiansen, J., De Apicibus et I longis. Husumensen, 1889. 
RoERSTEB, W., Bestimmung der lateinischen Quantitat aus dem Romanischen. 

Rheinisches Museum, XXXm. Frankfurt am Main. 
Grober, G., Yulgarlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter, Archiv fUr la- 

teinische Lexikographie und Grammatik ; I-VI. Leipzig. 
KoRTiNO, G., Lateinlsch-romanisches Worterbuch. Paderborn, 1891. 
Lindsay, W. M., The Latin Language. Oxford, 1894. 

2 On the direct testimony of Priscian, confirmed by inscriptions^ all v<yK^%."%x?^ 
long before the endings gnus, gna, gnum.*, aiid.,\TV'Nr\c^N c^WJcka^^r^X^x^j^^Koss^- 
ber of words, simple and compound, primitive w\^ ^^xvi^XNN^^'^Xs^sSa.^!»^^ K5s>s»Rk 



II 



GENERAL INDEX 



Note. — The nambers refer to sectioDs unless p. (= page) is added. Adjs. = 
adjectives ; advs. = adverbs ; appos. = appositlve or apposition ; comp. = com- 
pound or composition ; compar. = comparative or comparison ; compds. = 
compounds ; condit. — condition or conditional ; conj. = conjugation ; conjunc. 
= conjunction ; constr. = construction ; ff. = and the following ; gren. = genitive ; 
grend. = gender ; grer. = gerund ; indir. disc. = indirect discourse ; instrum. = 
instrumental ; loc. = locative ; pred. = predicate ; preps. = prepositions ; prons. 
= pronouns ; qualit. = qualitative ; quant. = quantity ; seq. = sequence ; subj. 
= subject or subjunctive; w. = with. 



A, a, sound ; qualitative changes of , 24 ; 
a shortened, 89, 3; 84, 2. A in nom., 
ace, and voc. plur., 75, 2, A-nouns, 
Decl. I., 78 ; a-verbs, 201 ; 206 ff . ; nouns 
in a, Decl. III., 97, 6; 110, 5; gend., 
122. Derivatives in a, 334, 6 ; 338 ; a 
in compd. verbs changed to e or i, 231. 
Conj. of a-verbs, 359, 1 ; 3(>0. A-final, 
quant, of, 692, 1 ; 695 ; a in increm. of 

_decl., 705; 706; of conj., 711 and 1. 

A, ab, abs, in compds., 374, 1; in 
compds. w. dat., 429, 2; w. abl. of 
separation, 461; of source, 467; 475, 
4; of agent, 408; w. abl., 490, 1, 2; 
w. gerund and gerundive, 629. 

Abbreviations, 354, 6 ; 758. 

Abhinc, denoting interval, 488, 3, n. 2 
and 3. 

Abies, §s in, 698, 1. 

Ability J verbs of, in apodosis, 683; in 
indir. disc, 648, 11. 3. 

Ablative, Decl. I., 78, 7 ; 80,2; 5 in, 695; 
Decl. II., 84, 1; Decl. III., 107, 6; in 
i-stems, 102; 125 ff.; 128, 1, 2; Decl. 
IV., 131, 2; p. 49, footnote 3. 

Ablative, translation of, 78 and footnote 
3 ; syntax of , 459 ff. Abl. w. loc, 393, 
7; w. comp. vei'bs, 429, 2; w. adjs., 



435, 3; w. refert, 449, 1; w. dS w. \ AccSeL\\.,GO\!kaUMm\,V 

411 



: 



memini, 454, 3 ; w. verbs of accusing, 
456, 1 ; w. verbs of condemning , 456, 3, 
4. Abl. of separation, 461 ff . ; of source, 
467 ff . ; w. compar., 471 ; instrum. abl., 
472; of association, 473 fP. ; of cause, 
475 ; of means, 476 ff . ; of price, 478 ; 
of difference, 479 ; of specification, 480 ; 
loc abl., 483; of time, 417, 2; 486 ff.; 
abl. abs., 489 ; w. preps., 490 ; w. advs., 
490, 4; infin. in abl. abs., 616, 4; abl. 
of gerund and gerundive, 629 ff. ; of 
supine, 635. Ablatives as adverbs, 307. 

Ablaut, 21 ; 326, 1. 

Abode denoted by pers. pron. w. prep., 
500, 5. 

Abounding t abl. w. verbs of, 477, II. 

-abrum, & in, 712, 1. 

Abs, see a, ab. 

Absente, constr., 489, 9. 

Absolute abl., 489. Absolute and rela- 
tive time, 542 ff. 

Absque w. abl., 490, 2. 

AbstineS, constr., 458, 4. 

Abstract nouns, 62, 2 ; plur., 138, 2 ; from 
adjs., 345. 

-abus in Decl. I., 80, 2. 

Ac, 315, 1 ; 657, 1 ; meaning as, 608, 5 ; 
than, 516, 3. Ac si w. subj. in condit^ 
684. 

AcataXecWc, 1*2^ , ^ . 'i «aft. V. 



420 



GENERAL INDEX 



Dum, 316, 1 and 3 ; w. pres. indie, 533, 
4 ; 604, 1 ; w. subj. in condit., 587 ; in 
temp, clauses, 603 ; 604. 

Diunmodo, 316, 3; w. sabj. in condit., 
587. 

Duo, decl., 166 ; O in, 694. 

Duration of time, 417. 

DarO w. ace., 405, 2. 

>du8, derivatives in, 328, 5, N. 

Duty, verbs denoting, in apodosis, 583; 
expressed by pass, periphras. conjug., 
621 ; in indir. disc., 648, II., 3. 

Dux, decl., 98. 

Dv, initial, changed to b, 52, 3. 

E 

£, e, sound, 10 ; changed to i or o, 25 ; 
231 ; e shortened, 39, 4 ; 134, 1. Nouns 
in e, Decl. I., 81 ; in e, Decl. III., 103; 
gend. of nouns in e, Decl. III., 122; e 
in abl., 107, 4; in dat., 107, 6; S in 
stems of Decl. V., 134, 1 ; in gen. and 
dat., 134, 2 and n. ; S in plur. of Greek 
neuters, 110, 9; e-nouns, 134; e-verbs, 
201 ; 209 ff. ; 369, 2 : 361 ; 6 or e in 
adverbs, 307, 1 and 2; 308, 1; 311; 
e final, quant, of, 691 ; 696; in increm. 
of decl., 705; 708; conj., 711, and 2; 

_ e in compds. before facio, 719, 2. 

E, ex, see ex. 

Ea, 307, 3. 

Eadem, 307, 3. 

Easy, dat. w. adjs. meaning, 434, 2. 

Ecce w. demonstratives, 178, 7 ; w. dat. 
in exclam., 421, 4. First syllable 
sometimes short, 688, 3. 

Ecthlipsis, 733, 1, n. 3. 

Edim, 244, 3. 

Editus w. abl., 469, 2. 

-edo, e in, 712, 2. 

Edoceo, constr., 411, 2 and 3. 

Efflcio, constr., 571, 1 and 3. 

Effigies, defect., 141, 1. 

Ege5, constr., 458, 2. 

Ego, (led., 175; o in, 094. ! in mihl, 
693. Egomet, 175, 4. 

Ehem, interj., 317,1. 

Eheu, interj., 317, 3; e in, 689, 2. 

Eho, interj., 317, 5; o in, 094. Eho- 

dum, 317, 5. 
M, sound, 11 ; changed to 1, SS. "Bi, 

JDter/., 317, 3 ; w. dat., 421, 4. 



^a, interj., 317, 2 and 6. 

-els, patronymics in, 342, 4. 

-Sla, e in, 712, 3. 

Elegiac distich, 739, 1. 

Elegiambus, 746, 2. 

^lis, adjs. in, 348 ; e in, 712, 3. 

Elision, 733, 1. 

Ellam, 178, 7. 

Ellipsis, 751, 1. 

Ellum, 178, 7. 

Em w. demonstratives, 178, H. 

Ein6, S, in perf. and p. part., 749, VIL 

Emotion f constr. w. verbs of, 405, 1; 
458, 1 ; 614, 4. 

Emphasis in arrang. of words, 665 ff.; 
by standing at beginning, 665, 1 ; at 
end, 665, 2; by separation, 665, 4; by 
anaphora, 666, 1 ; by chiasmus, 666, 2. 

-Sna, 6 in, 712, 4. 

Enallage, 751, 4. 

Enclitics, accent of, 17, 1 ; quant., 691, 1. 

End, dat. of, 425, 3. End of sentence 
emphatic, 665, 2. 

Ending t constr. w. verbs of, 607, 1. 

Endings of gen., 76; case endings, Decl. 
I., 78,7; Decl. II., 83, 5; Decl. HI., 
107, 4; Decl. IV., 131, 5; Decl. V., 
134, 5 ; in compar., 151 ; 152 ; of prons., 
179; verbal endings, 254; personal, 
255 ; mood and tense signs, 256 ; deriv. 
endings, quant, in, 712. 

-em, e in, 712,7. 

Enim, 315, 5 ; position, 661, 1 ; 677. 

-ensis, adjs. in, 351 ; 353. 

-enus, adjs. in, 349 ; e in, 712, 4. 

Envying, dat. w. verbs of, 426, 2. 

E6, adverb, 307, 4. 

E6, ire, w. supine in um, 633, 2 ; constr. 
w. infin., 608, 1. I in ibam, ib6, 711, 
4 ; i in itum, 715, 1. 

Epenthesis, 750, 4. 

Epitome, decl., 81. 

Epulum, decl., 147, 5. 

Equivalents, metrical, 722. 

-er, final, development of, 26, 4; 27, 5; 
nouns in, decl., 85ff. ; 99, 2 ; adjs. in, 
decl., 91 ff. ; 126; compar., 152. 

-emus, adjs. in, 349; 355. 

ere = erunt, 239. Ere, infin. ending, 
a loc. form, 333, 2. 

Erga w. ace, 420, 2 ; after adjs., 435, 1; 
= ^^\s..,44Q, 2, N. 1. 



\ 



OEifERAL tNDSX 



421 



-erunt for Srunt, 239. 

Es, e in, 691, 3; in compds., 698, 2. 

-Ss, nouns in, decl., 101, 7; 105 ff. ; verbal 

noans in, 333; gend., 115; 117; es, 

nouns in, decl., 97; gend., Ill; Es, 

es, final, 692, 3; 698. 
Esse omitted, 242 ; 612, 2, N. 1 ; 620, 1, n. ; 

in perf. pass, infin., 620, 2. 
-6ssirQ, ess6, in perf. subj. and fut. 

perf. indie, 244, 4. 
-esso in intensives, 364, 2. 
Est ut, 506, 1 ; est quod, 591, 4. 
-ester, >estris, adjs. in, 351. 
Bt, 315, 1; 667, 1; meaning (W, 508, 5; 

thariy 516, 3. Et . . . et, et . . . que, 

que . . . et, neque . . . et, et . . . 

neque, 657, 4. 
-St final in Plautus, 692, 3, n. 1. 
Etenim, 315, 5; 661, 1. 
Ethicaldat., 421, 4; 432. 
Etiam, 315, 1; 657, 1 and 3; in an- 
swers, 379, 1. 
Etiam si, etiamsl, etsi, 316, 4; in 

advers. clauses, 585; etsI in indep. 

clauses, 586, II., 4. 
-etus, e in, 712, 6. 
Etymology, 4, III. ; 318 ff. ; figures of, 

750. 
Eu, sound, 11; qualit. change of, 36; 

inter j., 317, 6. 
Eugre, euhoe, interj., 317, 2 and 6. 
Euphemism, 752, 11. 
Euphony in arrang. Of words and clauses, 

670; 682,2. 
<^us, adjs. in, 347 ; -eus, 353. 
Evenit, constr., 571, 1. 
Eventus, eventum, decl., 145, 5. 
Ex, e, in compds., 370; 374, 6; w. dat., 

429, 2. 
Ex w. abl., 461 ; 467 ; 470 ; 490, 2 ; w. abl. 

= part, gen., 444 ; w. gerund and ge- 
rundive, 629. 
-ex, -ex, decl. of nouns in, 98, 120; 

compds. in, 369, 3. 
«EiXanimls, exanimus, decl., 146. 
Exchanging, constr. w. verbs of, 478, 

4 and 5. 
Exclamations, ace. in, 421; voc, 421, 2; 

nom., 421, 3; dat., 421, 4 ; gen., 458, 

4, N. 
Exclamatory sentences, 377, 6 ; infin. in, 

616, 3. 
Ejdatimor, constr., 611, 2, if. 2. 






Exos, OS in, 699. 

Expers w. gen., 451, 2; w. abl., 466, 2. 
Exp5sc6 w. two aces., 411, 2. 
Ex-stingru5, 1 in perf. and p. part., 749, 

VII. 
Extempl5, 310. 
Extent of space, ace. of, 417. 
ExtrSw. acc.,420, 2.^ 
Exu6, constr., 407. 



Pac l(ft face, 241, 1; w. subj., 565, 4. 

Pac ne w. subj. in prohibitions, 561, 2. 
Pacilis, compar., 152, 3; w. dat., 434, 2 

and footnote 1 ; w. supine, 635, 1. 
Paci5 in comp. verbs, 373, 1 ; omitted, 

388, 5; w. dat., 426, 1, n. 2; 427 ; w. 

pred. gen., 447; 448; w. abl., 474, 3. 

Paci6 ut, 566, 1 ; 571, 3. E before f 

in compds. of faciS, 719, 2. 
Pacult&s, sing, and plur., 140. 
Faithful, dat. w. adjs. meaning, 434, 2. 
Palsus, compar., 156. 
Pama fert w. infin., 613, 3. 
Pames, decl., 146, 3. 
Pamilia, gen. of, 79, 2. 
Par, defect., 141, 1. 
pas, indecl., 137, 2 ; w. supine, 635, 1. 
Patendum est, constr., 611, 2, n. 3. 
Favoring, dat. w. verbs of, 426, 1. 
Pax, quant, of increm., 706. 
Fearing, constr. w. verbs of, 667. 
Pebris, decl., 102, 3. 
Feeling, constr. w. verbs of, 405, 1 ; 457 ; 

468, 1 ; 614 and 4. 
Peet in versification, 720. 
Pel, defect., 141, 1. 
Pelix, decl., 128. 
Feminine, 67, 2 ; 69; 115 ff. 
Per for fere, 241 ; e in, 691, 3. 
-fer, compds. in, 369, 4; decl., 86, 2; 

adjs. in, 92, 2. 
Pere, ferme, e in, 696, 3. 
Festivals, plur. in names of, explained, 

139, 3; plur. in -alia, decl., 145, 2, n. ; 

abl. in names of, 48(5, 1. 
-fex, compds. in, 369, 3. 
-flc5, verbs in, 373, 3. 
-flcus, compds. in, 369, 4; compar., 153. 
Pidi, 1 in penult, 715, 1. 



422 



GENERAL INDEX 



Figures of prosody, 733 ; of speech, 760 ff. ; 

of etymology, 760 ; of syntax, 761 ; of 

rhetoric, 752. 
FUia, dec!., 80, 2 ; apparent ellipsis of, 

446, 1. 
Filius, voc. gen. fill, 83, 6 and 6. Ap- 
parent ellipsis of, 446, 1. 
Filling f abl. w. verbs of, 477, II.; gen. 

w. adj. of fullness, 477, n., 2. 
Final conjuncs., 316, 5. Final clauses, 

668. Final vowels and syllables, quant. 

of, 691 ff. ; in Plautus and Terence, 

692, notes. Final syllable elided, 733, 1. 
FingrS, i in perf. and p. part., 749, VII. 
Finis, decl., 102, 4 ; sing, and plur., 140. 
Finite verbs, 199, 1 ; agreement, 388. 
First decl., 78 ff. First conj., 206 ff.; 

257 ff. 
Flaerito w. two aces., 411, 2. 
Flattering^ dat. w. verbs of, 426, 2. 
P16s, decl., 101. 

Pore ut, constr., 571, 1 ; 619, 2 and 3. 
Forgetting f constr. w. verbs of, 454. 
Pons, is in, 700, 1. 
Formation of verb stems, 245 ff. ; of 

words, 319 ff. ; of nouns and adjs., 

328 ff. 
Fors, defect., 143. 
Forsitan, 310, 1. 
Fortuna, sing, and plur., 140. 
Fourth decl., 131 ff. Fourth conj., 215 ff. ; 

284 ff. 
Fractions, 165. 
Frango, stem vowel long in perf. and 

p. part., 749, VII. 
Fraus, decl., 106, 4. 
Freeing, abl. w. verbs of, 462 ; w. adjs. 

meaning free from, 465. 
Frenum, decl., 147, 4. 
Frequentatives, 364. 
Fretus w. abl., 476, 1. 
Fi'iendbj, constr. w. adjs. meaning, 434, 

2; 435,1. 
Fractus, decl., 131. 
Frustra, a in, 695, 4. 
Prugi, indecl., 137, 3; compar., 154,2. 
Prilgis, defect., 142; quant, of increm., 

710. 
Fruor w. abl., 477, I. ; gerundive, 623, 

1 ; a in fractus, 749, VII. 
Fuam, 205, 2. 

Fuisse in perf. pass, intin., 620, 2. 
Fullness, derivatives denoting, 346*, gen 



w. adjs. of, 451, 2; 477, 11., 2; abl w. 

adjs. of, 477, II. 
Pungror w. abl., 477, 1 ; gerundive, 623; 

a in fanctus, 749, VII. 
PClr, quant, of increm., 710. 
Future tense, 196,1. Fut. indie, 536; 

for imperat., 536, 2; 560, 4, n.; in con- 

dit., 577, 3. Fut. imperat., 660, 2; 

661, 3. Fut. in temp, clauses, 600, 1. ; 

605, II., 2. Fut. time in subj., 541, 2. 

Fut. infin., 619. Fut. particip., 640. 
Future perf. tense, 196, 2; 540; how 

supplied in subj., 541, 2; In condit., 

674, 3 ; in temp, clauses, 603, n., 1 ; in 

indir. disc., 644, 2. 
PutTirum esse ut, 619, 2 and 3; 647, 2. 

G 

Qt from c, 5, 2; sound, 12; changed to 
c, 55, 1 ; dropped, 58, 1. 

Games, names of, constr., 486, 1. 

Gaude6, constr., 599. 

Gein5 w. ace, 406, 1. 

Gander, (55 ff. ; in Decl. I., 78 and 6 ; 
Decl. II., 82 ; 87 ff . ; Decl. HI., Ill ff. ; 
Decl. IV., 131 ff. ; Decl. V., 134 ff. ; 
general table of, 136. 

Gener, decl., 86, 3. 

General relatives, 182, 3; use, 514 ff. 
Gen. subject, 388, 3. Gen. truths, 
5.32, 2; in condit., 678; in temp, 
clauses, 601, 4 ; 602, 4. 

Genitive, endings of, 76; Decl. I., Ss 
79, 2 ; iim, 80, 1 ; Decl. II., i for ii, 83, 
8 ; um, 84, 3 ; 6n, 89, 1 ; Decl. III., um, 
102, 5 ; 106, 7 ; p. 38, footnote 2 ; 12(i, 
2; 130; orum, 110, 5; 5n, 110, 7; i, 
110, 4 ; as, 110, 3 ; Decl. IV., uis, uos, 
i, 131, 3; 133, 2; Decl. V., e, i, es, 
134, 2, 3, and 4 ; gen. wanting, 141 ff. 

Genitive, syntax of, 437 ff. ; how ren- 
dered, 437; uses, 438; w. possess., 
393, 6; w. nouns, 439 ff. ; attrib. and 
pred., 439; attrib., its varieties, 440 ^ 
in special constructions, 445 ff. ; pred. 
gen., 447 ff. ; of price, 448; w. refert 
and interest, 449; w. adjs., 435, 4; 
450 ff. ; w. pres. particips. as adjs., 451, 
3; w. verbs, 454 ff ; in exclam., 458, 
4, N. ; gen. of gerund and gerundive, 
^^§)Ss, Po^vtlou of gen., 671; w. adj., 



\ 



GENERAL INDEX 



423 



Genltus w. abl., 469, 2. 

Gtentes, Roman, how designated, 354. 

•grer, compds. in, 369, 4; decl., 86, 2; 
adjs. in, 92, 2. 

Gerund, 200, 2 ; of impers. verbs, 302, 4 ; 
in seq. of tenses, 548. Syntax of 
gerund, 624 ff. ; cases of, 625; denot- 
ing purpose, 626, 5; 627, 2. 

Gerundive, 200, 4; syntax, 621 ff. ; 
gerundive constr., 623; w. gen., me!, 
etc., 626, 3; denoting purpose, 626, 5; 
627,2. 

-grintA, numerals in, & in, 605, 3. 

Giving t two dats. w. verbs of, 433, 2 ; 
gerundive w. verbs of, 622. 

Glyconic verse, 730; 745, 3 and 7. 

Gm, quant, of vowel before, 749, 1, n. 1. 

Gn lengthens preceding vowel, 15, 3; 
749, 1. 

Gnomic perfect, 538, 5. 

-erd, decl. of nouns in, 100, 2; verbal 
nouns in, 337. 

Goings two dats. w. verbs of, 433, 2. 

Grfitia, sing, and plur., 140; grr&ti&, 
constr., 475, 2. 

Gratis, Is in, 700, 1. 

Gratulor, constr., 599. 

Greek nouns, Decl. I., 81 ; Decl. II., 89; 
Decl. III., 109 ff. Long vowels in 
Greek nouns, 689, 3, n. 1 ; 692, 2, n. 

Grtts, decl., 107, 2. 

Guttural stems, 98. 

Gutturals, 7; 8, 1; with s forming x, 
61 ; lost, 58. 

H 

H changed to c, 55, 2 ; lost, 58, 7 ; does 
not affect quant, of preceding syl- 
lables, 688, 1, N. 1. 

Habe5, constr., 410, 2; w. perf. part., 
431, 3; w. two dats., 433, 2. 

Hac, 307, 3. 

Hadria, gend., 78, 5. 

Haec = hae, 178, 1. 

Haud, use, 655. 

H6ia, interj., 317, 6 ; a in, 695, 4. 

Hem, interj., 317, 1. 

Hendiadys, 751, 3, n. 1. 

Hephthemimeral caesura, 736, foot- 
note 3. 

Hephthemimeris, 721, 2, n. 2. 

H€rSs, quant, oi increm., 708. 

Heroic verse, 730, n. 



H/5r08, decl., 110. 

Hesitating, constr. w. verbs of, 607, 1. 

Heteroclites, 145 ff. 

Heterogeneous nouns, 147. 

Heu, heus, interj., 317. 

Hexameter, 729, n. 2 and 6; 734 ff.; 

last word of, 738. 
Hiatus, 733, 2. 
HibSr, decl., 86, 3. 
Hie, decl., 178 ; use, 505 ff. ; for meus, 

noster, hie hom5 for egro, 507, 2. 

1 in hie, 6 in hdc, 691, 3. 
Hie, 308, 2. 
Hidden quantity, 749. 
Hiems, decl., 100. 
HUaris, hllarus, decl., 146. 
Hindering, constr. w. verbs of, 566; 

568,8; 595,2; 596,2. 
Hiring, abl. w. verbs of, 478, 1. 
Historical tenses, 198, 2; hist, perf., 

197, 2; im, 2; 537, 2; pres., 532, 3; in 

sequence, 543 ff.; 546. Hist, infin., 

610. 
H6c, 307, 4. 
Hodi6, 134, 2, n. ; 6 in, 696, 1 ; O in, 

719, 4. 
Horace, logaoedic verses in, 745 ; comp. 

meters, 746; versification, 747; lyric 

meters, 747. 
HorreO, w. ace, 405, 1, 
Hortative subj., 559, 1. 
Hortor, constr., 412; w. infin., 608, 3. 
Hortus, sing, and plur., 140. 
Hostile, constr. w. adjs. meaning, 434, 

2;435, 1. 
Hours, Roman, 756. 
Hae, 307, 4. 
Haiusmodi, 178, 9. 
Humilis, compar., 152, 3. 
Humus, gend., 87, 3; hum6, 462, 4; 

hum!, 484, 2. 
Hyperbaton, 751, 5. 
Hyperbole, 752, 7. 
Hypermetrical, 729, n. 3; apparently, 

in Vergil, 738, 2. 



i, i, sound, 10 ; consonant sound of, 12, 
2 ; 733, 3, N. 2 ; qualit. changes of, 26 ; 
i shortened, 39, 4; lost, Tift, Cv^lvcv^gsc^, 

. and \oc . ol \ici\va^ \xv Va^ "^wx^ft^ N». ^«vv. 



1424 



F 

^m In 1, 102 ff. : ISS ff. : 1 ohnnged to e or 
^M dropped, 103, l;IiaBbl., 103. I-verlia. 
^H 21T ff.; 399. 3; 362. SUm vowel 
^B changed to 1 lu compda., 369; 1 as- 
^H Bomed, 3fl!l, I. I final, quant, of, 692, 
^1 I; 693; In increm. at dec1.,T0(i; T09; 
^B conj., Til and 3; in compds. of dlSs, 
H Tl», 3. Length of Byllable before 1 
consonant, 688, 2. 

■la, nouuBin,34S; 3C0,3; 3M. 

laclO. spelling and proaun. of compda., 



-iacus, adjB. in, %<<. 

-iodSe, patroDyiiKCi. in, 342 ; b in, T12, 8. 

lam, nith dta, dudiun w. pees,, Si3, 

1 ; w. Impetf., 53fi, 1. 
lambelegus, T46, 1. 

lamble varaa. 72il, s. 1; T43 ff, ; rtipody, 
T43; 747, 18; diniBter 



GENERAL INBEX 



I 



s, 737. 



IS, derirative» in, 330; 




anBln,344, 4; Tin, 712, 2; 4g5, 
1. verbs in, 368. 
IDS in, 348,3; 1 in, 712, 3. 
nico, o in, 694. 
lllon, dacl., 89. 

-lUs,adj». in, compar.. 102,3; I57,t;w. 
dat., 434, 2; derivatiTes in, 32S; 352; 
-niB, adJB. in, 348. 
maborw. dat.,439, B. 
nialive conjunoa., 315, i ; 660. 
nie, deel., 178; ose, 505 ff. ; position, 
tiTS, 1 ; first syllable aometimes ihrnti 

imc,'(lec1., 178, 6. ^^1 

IlUc, 308, 2. ^^H 

nilm, llUno, 307, 5. ^^H 

-IIIB, dlmiautlvea In, 367. ^H 
HIS, meo, 307, 4. 



743, 3; tatrametet, 743, 4; atanza. 

747, 15. 
lambua, 721, 2 ; irrational, 723, 3. 
■UtDils, adJH. in, 353. 
-ioa, patronymics in, 34:z. 
■ibsm ^ Ifibajn, 344, 1- 
Ibi, »08, 2; lin, HiJ3. 
-Ibfi, -Ibor, = -lun, -iar, 244, 2. 
IbuH for Ha, 181, 1. 
-IciuB, adjs. in, 347 ; 350. 
-lofl, denominative vetbit In, 368. 
Ictna, 721 ; place of, detBrmined, 737, s. 

'.\ in heiam., 734; on unaccented Syl- 



353. 



-Id, olil rtbl. ending, 107, 6. 

idem, decl., 181; w. dnt., 434, 3; use 

of, 508 : Idem . . . qm, .'iOS, 5. 
-ides, patrooymica in, M2 ; 1 in, 

712, 8. 
Idas, 754, 1., 3. 
■IdO, I in, 712, 2. 
Idflneus w. infin., 608, 4 ; IdSneus qui 

w. snb]„691,7. 
Idas, gend., 133. 
-iSnsiB, adja. in, 353. 
-iar In pros. pass. inSn., 244, 6. 

numeral adverbs, 171, 



:., 102, 2 and 3 



ton 



■2U, 3 ; adverbs in, 307, 5 

Imber, decl., 106, 6. 

Immemor, qaant. of increm., TOT. 

Immo, 6rat ayl. sometimes abort, GSM, 3, 

Impedlmectvuu, siu)(, and plur., 140. 

ImpedlS, coustr., 568. 8 ; 596, 2. 

Imperative mood, 196; ayntax. 660 ff. 
Iraperat. aentencea, 377, 5. Imperai. 
aiib]., 559, 3; inindir, disc., 642. Im- 
perat, and aubj. in oommande, 560 ff . ; 
in apodnsts, 581. S In imperat., Conj. 
n., 096, 3 ; shortened, 696, 3. 

Imperfect tense, 196, 1; Indlc, 534ff.; 
w. lorn, lam dlQ, etc., 5%, 1 ; in let- 
ters, 639. 1 ; in condit, , 578, 1 ; in temp, 
clauses, 601; subjuuc, 541, 2; 644; 
S46; 547; subj. of deaire. GS8, I; in 
condit., 578, 3; T. 1; H79; 584, 3; In 
temp, claoae, 600, II.; 603, n., 3; KCU, 
1 and 2; 605, H. ; in Indir. disc.. 647. 

Impersonal verbs, .103; impers. paM.. 
302, 6 and 7; 426,3; 611, 3; 621, 3 and 
3 ; w. siibstant. Clause aa subject, 511. 

Implefl, constr., 458, 2; 477, It. 1. 

Iiiiplnrhig, constr. w. verba ot. 411, 4, 

Impos, OB in, 699; quant, of inorem.. 



. force of adverb, 497. 1. 
dats.ff. verbs of.4.?3,2. 
374,7; w.iiat., 429. In 
w. abl.,4i», 3; ■ 

abl. of time, 

I^lSI.. QtOD., Dot, J 



707. 
ImprQdena i 




GENERAL INDEX 



425 



In, iDsep. prep., 313; in compds., 370; 

375, 4. 
-Ina, noaus in, 349, 3. 
Inced5 w. ace, or dat., 429, 4. 
Inceptives, inchoatives^ 277 ff. ; 366. 
Inclinationf constr., w. adjs. of, 434, 2; 

435, 1. 
Inclutus, compar., 156. 
Incredibilis w. supine, G36, 1. 
Increments, quant, in, 702 ff. ; decl., 

706 ff. ; conj., 711 ff. 
Inde, 307,5; 316,4. 
Indeclinable nouns, 137; gend., 70. 

Indecl. adjs., 137, 3. 
Indefinite pronouns, 185 ff. ; use of, 

512 ff. Indefinite subject, 388, 3; 

600, n., 2. 
Independent clauses, 386, 1. 
Index of verbs, p. 403. 
Indicative mood, 193; use, 620; 623 ff.; 

in condit., 573; 574 ; 581 ff. ; in adver- 
sative clauses, 586 ; in coneess. clauses, 

686 ; in causal clause, 688, 1. ; w, cum 

causal and coneess., 6i)9; w. cum 

temp., 600; 601; w. dum, etc., 603; 

in indir. disc, 643, 3 and*4. 
Indigre6, constr., 458, 2. 
Indlfirnus w. abl., 481; w. gen., 481, 1. 

Indigrnus qui w. subj., 591, 7. 
Indirect discourse, 611 ff. ; moods and 

tenses in, 642 ff.; moods in prin. 

clauses, 642; in subord. clauses, 643; 

tenses, 644; prons. and persons, 645; 

condit. clauses, 646 ff . ; direct changed 

to indir., 653. Indirect clauses, 649 ff. ; 

indir. questions, 649, 2; 650; subj. in, 

649,2; indie, in, 649, 6. 
Indirect object, 423 ff. ; varieties, 425 ; 

w. adjs., 434; w. direct obj., 424. 
Indo-European languages, 1. 
Indulging, dat. w. verbs of, 426, 2. 
Indu6, constr., 407. 
-JnS, patronymics in, 342, 4. 
Inferus, compar., 155, 2. 
Infinitive, 200, 1; origin and develop. 

of, 608 ; gend., 70 ; in abl. abs., 489, (i ; 

in seq. of tenses, 540 ; 548 ; syntax of, 

606 ff. ; of purpose, 608 ; w. adjs., 608, 

4 and n. 1 ; w. verbal nouns, 608, 4, 
•N. 2; as object or subject, 609; 616; 

w. preps., 609, 2; historical, 610; vr. 

verbs w. ace., 013; pred. after, 612; 

tenses of, 617; in indir. disc, 642 ; 643, 



1 and 2; in relat. clauses, 643, 1. 

Infin. clauses, 610, 3 ; as subject, 615 ; 

as pred., 616, 1; as appos., 616, 2; in 

exclamations, 616, 3; in abl. abs., 

616, 4. 
Inflection of words, 319 ff. 
Influduce, dat. of, 426, 1. 
Infrft w. ace, 420, 2. 
Ingrratis, is in, 700, 1. 
-ini, i in penult, 712, 7. 
Iniacundus w. supine, 636, 1. 
Injuring, dat. w. verbs of, 426, 1. 
Innitor w. abl., 476, 3. 
Inquam, position, 679. 
Inquies, quant, of increm., 708. 
InsciSns w. force of adverb, 497, 1. 
Inseparable preps., 313 ; in compds., 376. 
Instar, indecl., 137, 2; w. gen., 440, 4. 
Instrumental case, 459, 2. Instr. abl., 

472 ff . ; 476 ff. ; of gerund and gerun- 
_ dive, 630. 

Insuetus, constr., 453, 2. 
Inteerer w. gen., 452, 2. 
Intellegror, constr.. Oil, 2, n. 2. 
Intending, construction w. verbs of, 

607,1. 
Intensives, 364. 
Inter in compounds, 370 ; 374, 8 ; w. dat., 

429. Inter vr. ace. , 420, 2 ; = gen . , 4 44 ; 

to denote time, 487, 2 ; inter nSs, inter 

vOs, inter sS w. reciprocal force, 502, 

1. Inter w. ger., 628. 
Interdlc6, constr., 426, 7 ; 464, 3. 
Interea, 310. 
Interest, dat., of, 425, 2. 
Interest, constr., 449. 
Interior, compar., 155, 1. 
Interjections, 317 ; w. voc, 402, 1 ; w. 

ace, 421; w. nom., 421, 3; w. dat., 

421, 4. 
Interrogative prons., 183 ff. ; use, 611 ; 

position, 675. Interrog. con Junes., 316, 

8. Interrog. sentences, 377, 4 ; 378 ff . ; 

in indir. disc, 042. 
InterrogrS w. two aces., 411, 2. 
Interval, abl. of, 479, 3; interval be- 
tween events, how expressed, 488. 
Intra w. ace, 420, 2 ; to denote time, 

487, 2. 
Intransitive verbs, 190, 2; 192, 1; w. 

cognate ace, 409; impers. ^auaa.^S^^ 



\ 



426 



GENERAL INDEX 



-inus, adjs. in, 349; 363. 

Invenior, constr., 611, 2, n. 2. 

In Vitus, compar., 15(>; w. dat. of pos- 
sess., 430, 2 ; w. force of adverb, 497, 1 . 

-16, verbs Id, of Conj. III., 225 ff. ; quaut. 
of stem syllables, 713; verbal Doaus 
in, 333; diminutives, 340, 5; verbc w. 
suffix io, 359. 

locus, decl., 147, 1. 

-i6nS, patronymics in, 342, 4. 

Ionic feet, 721, 2, n. 1; verse, 744; 
stanza, 747, 19. 

-lor in comparatives, 151 ff. ; decl., 127. 

Ipse, decl., 181; w. abl. abs., 489, 8; 
gen. of, w. possess., 446, 3; use, 509. 

-ir, nouns in, decl., 86, 1. 

Iri as auxiliary in f ut. pass, iniin., 297, 4. 

Irony, 762, 5. 

Irrational time, 720, 4. 

Irregular comparison, 162 ff. Irreg. 
verbs, 290 ff. 

Is, decl., 181 ; use, 508 ; is . . . qui, 508, 
4 ; is in quln clause, 595, 6. 

4s, decl. of nouns in, 102; gend., 118; 
adjs. in, 12G; 127; patronymics in, 342. 
is in ace. plur., 102 ; 105 ; 107, 4. Is, 
is, final, 692. 3; 700. 

Islands, gend. of names of, 69; constr., 
419,2; 462,4; 484,1. 

-issimus, a, um, in superlative, 151. 

-iss5, iiitensives in, 364, 2. 

Iste, decl., 178; use, 505; 507, 3. 

Istic, decl., 178, 6. 

Istic, 308, 2. 

Ist5, istSc, 307, 4. 

-It final in Plautus, 692, 3, n. 1. 

Ita in answers, 379, 1 ; ita . . . ut n5n, 
ita . . . ut ne, TnO, 3 ; ita . . . si, 575, 
1 ; 654, N. 2 ; ita . . . ut, 584, 5. Mean- 
ing of ita, 654, N. 2. 

Itaque, 315, 4. 

-itimus, adjs. in, 352. 

-it5, f requentatives in, 364. 

-ibus, adjs. in, 'MQ. 

-ium, decl. of nouns in, 83, 6; ium in 
gen. plur., 102 ; 103 ; 105 ; verbal nouns 
in, '\X\\ denominatives in, 344; 350, 3. 

Iube5, constr., 565, 3; 642, 5; in pass., 
611,2, N. 2. 

IQcundus w. supine, 635, 1. 

IQdicld, ronstr., 456, 2. 
IQdicor, constr., 611, 2, n. 1. 
IQererum, decl., 145, 2. 



lunfirO w. abl., 474, 2 ; CI in perf . and p. 

part., 749, Vn. 
luppiter, decl., 107, 3. 
lOrO w. infin., 619, 1. 
ins, decl., 101. 
luvenis, compar., 158. 
luventa, iuventOs, decl., 146, 6. lu- 

ventOs w. plur. verb, 389, 1. 
-ius, decl. of nouns in, 83, 6 and 6; 

derivatives in, 330; 350; 363; 364; -ius 

in gen. of adjs., 93. 
luvO, constr., 426, 2, N. 
Itlzta w. ace., 420, 2; & in, 695, 4. 
-ivus, derivatives in, 331 ; 360. 
-Ix, decl. of nouns in, 98; gend., 120; 

quant, of increm., 709. 



Joy, 8i>ecial use of adjs. expressing, 

497, 1. 
Julian calendar, 764. 
Jussive subj., 659, 2; in condit.,687; in 

relat. clause, 693. 
Juvenal, versification, 747. 

K 

K seldom used, 5. 

Kindred words placed near each other, 

667. 
Knowing, constr. w. verbs of, 607, 1. 
Knowledge, adjs. of, w. gen., 461, 1; w. 

force of adverbs, 497, 1. 



L, stems in, decl., 99; gend. of nouns in, 
122 ; 123. Quant, of monosyl. in, 691, 
2; of final syllable in, 692, 2. 

Labials, 7 ; 8, 1 ; 47 ; labialized velars, 
45 ; labial stems, 96. 

Lacer, decl., 92, 3. 

Lacus, decl., 131, 2. 

Laedo w. ace, 426, 1, n. 1. 

Laetus w. force of adverb, 497, 1. 

Lampas, decl., 110. 

Langujige, Latin, 1 ; 2. 

Lapis, decl., 97. 

Lar, quant, of increm., 706. 

Latin language, name, derivation of, 1 ; 
'i. \^i\\.\w^x\Q^,^^. \a.\.vw literature 



\' 



GENERAL INDEX 



427 



LaudO, constr., 599. 

Laurus, decl., 133« 2. 

Leap year, 755, n. 2. 

Learning y constr. w. verbs of, 607, 1. 

Leaving t two dats. w. verbs of. 433, 2. 

Legr5, 6 in perf. and p. part., 749, VII. 

Lengthening of vowels, 37 ft, 

-lens, -lentus, adjs. in, 346. 

Le6, decl.,100. 

Lepus, quant, of increm., 707. 

Letters, classification of , 6 ; 1 \ sounds, 

10 ft. ; names of, indecl., 137, 1. Tenses 

in letters, 539, 1. 
Letting^ abl. w. verbs of, 478, 1. 
Lev5, constr., 458, 4. 
Lex, quant, of increm., 708. 
Libens w. force of adverb, 497, 1. 
Liber (Bacchus), llberl, decl., 86, 3; 

liber, a, um, 85 ; 91. 
Licet, 316, 4; w. subj., 564, IL, 1; 586, 

H. 
Li6n, S in, 692, 2, n. 
Lifirer, decl., 102, 3, n. 
Likeness^ dat., w. adjs. of, 434, 2; gen., 

435,4. 
Limit, ace. of, 418. 

>limus, a, um, in superlative, 152, 3. 
Linguals, 7 ; 8, 1. 
Linter, decl., 106, 6. 
Liqui, 1 in penult, 715, 1. 
Liquids, 7; 44, 2; 48. Liquid stems, 99. 
Lis, decl., 106, 4; quant, of increm., 

709. 
Literature, Roman, 753. 
Litotes, 752, 8. 
Littera, sing, and plnr., 140. Dare llt- 

ter&s, 426, 5, n. 
Litum, 1 in, 715, 1. 
Locative, 73, 2 ; in Decl. L, 78, 4 ; Decl. 

IL, 83, 4; DecL III., 108; domi, 133, 

1 : Decl. v., 134, 2, n. ; as adverb, 308. 

Abl. w. loc, 393, 7. Syntax of loc, 

482 flf.; loc. abL,482ff.; 631. 
Loc5, constr., 418, 3. 
Locuples, quant, of increm., 708. 
Locus, decl., 147, 1 ; loc6, locis, con- 
str., 485, 2. 
Logaoedic verse, 745. 
Long syllables, 14, 1; 687; 688; long 

vowels w. hidden quant., 749. 
Longrinquus, compar., 157, 2. 
Longrius without quam, 471, 4. 
Jjfidlcra, defect., 144. 



Ltldus, sing, and plur., 140. 

LuSs, defect., 143. 

-lus, la, lum, diminutives in, 340. 

LQx, defect., 141, 2; quant, of Increm., 

710. 
Laxuria, mxuriSs, decl., 145, 4. 
Lyric metres of Horace, 747. 

M 

M changed to n, 55, 5; developing p, 

52, 5; stems in m, 100. Quant, of 

monosyl. in, 691, 2; of final syllables 

in, 692, 2. M final elided, 733, 1. 
Maere5 w. ace, 405, 1. 
Magris in compar., 159; 499, 1 and 2. 
Mfternus, compar., 154. M&grni, constr., 

448, 1. 
M&ior in expressions of age, 417, 4. 
maior without quam, 471, 4. 
Making t verbs of, w. two aces., 410 ; w. 

subj., 566. 
Male, w. dat., 426, 1, n. 2 ; e in, 696, 3. 
M&IS, constr., 471, 9; w. infin.,orsubj., 

565, 2; 614, 2. 
Malus, compar., 154. 
Mane, indecl., 137, 2. 
Manifestus w. gen., 451, 2. 
Manner, abl. of, 473, 3; expressed by 

particip., 638, 1. 
Mare, decl., 103, 2; marl, constr., 485, 2. 
Margrarita, decl., 147, 2. 
M&s, decl., 106, 4 ; quant, of increm., 

706. 
Mastery, gen. w. adjs. of, 451, 2; w. 

verbs of, 468, 3. 
M&teria, m&teri€s, decl., 145, 4. 
Material, derivatives denoting, 347. 

Abl. of material, 467 ; 470. 
MatUrus, compar., 152, 2. 
Ma-vol5, etc., 295, 3. 
M&xime in comparison, 159. 
M&ximI, denoting price, 448, 1. 
Means, abl. of, 476 ff.; expressed by 

particip., 638, 1. 
Measure of difference, abl. of, 479. 
Measuring, abl. w. verbs of, 480, 2. 
Med, 175, 6. 
Medeor w. dat., 424, 3. 
Medial vowels, 7, 2. 
Medius fidius, mehercule, meher- 



428 



GENERAL INDEX 



Melos, deal., 110, 9; os in, 699. 

M€m€, 176, 5. 

Memini, w. gen., 454; w. ace., 454, 1 

and 2; w. abl. w. de, 454, 3; w. cum, 

(iOl, 4, N. ; w. pres. infin., 018, 2. 
Memor, decl., 128; quant, of increm., 

'.07. 
•men, -mentum, verbal nouns in, 336. 
Mensa, decl., 78. 
Mensis, decl., 102, 5. 
Mepte, 175, 6. 

Merces, quant, of increm., 708. 
Meridies, gend., 135; defect., 138, 4. 
Meritus, compar., 156. 
Messis, decl., 102, 3. 
Met, emphatic pronom. ending, 175, 4 ; 

176, 2. 
Metaphor, 752, 2. 
Metathesis, 750, 5. 
Metonomy, 752, 3. 
Metrical equivalent, 722. 
Metus, defect., 141, 1. 
Meus, decl., 17G, 1. 

Ml = mihi, 175, 1 ; voc of meus, 176, 1. 
Middle voice, 517. 
Miles, decl., 97. 
Militiae, loc, 78, 4; 484, 2. 
Mille, 1(J8; use, 163, 2; symbol for, 170, 1. 

Milia, masc. by synesis, 389, 2. 
Million sesterces, how denoted, 757, N. 4. 
-mini, pers. ending, 255 footnote. 
Minime in answers, 379, 1. 
Minimi, denoting price, 448, 1. 
-mino in Int. iniperat., 244, 5. 
Minor in expressions of age, 417, 4; 

minor, minus, without quam, 471, 

4; minoris, constr., 448, 1 and 4. 
Minor w. infin., 019, 1. 
Mirabilis w. supine, 635, 1. 
Miror w. ace, 405, 1 ; w. gen., 458, 4. 
Mis, 17.^), (). 

Misceo w. dat., 427 ; w. abl., 474, 2. 
Misereor, miseresco, w. gen., 457. Mi- 

serescit, miseretur, constr., 457, 5. 
Miseret, constr., 457. 
Miseror, constr., 457, 2. 
Mitto, constr., 420, 5 ; w. two dats., 

433, 2; w. gernndive, 022. 
-mo, verbal nouns in, 330. 
Modifiers, 383 if. Position of modifiers 

of subject, 004, 1 ; of pred., 004, 2; of 

objects, 004, 3; position changed b-j 
emphasis, 665; modifiers of uouna, 



671 ; 675; of adjs., 672; of verbs, 673; 
of adverbs, 674. 

Mode, 316, 3, 657, 4, n. 1; w. subj. in 
condit., 587. N611 modo . . . sed 
(verum) etlam, 657, 4, n 1. O final 
in modo and its compds., 694. 

Mone5, constr., 412; 456; 565, 6. 

Money, Roman, 757. 

-mdnia, nouns in, 336 ; 345. 

-m6nium, verbal nouns in, 336 ; denom- 
inatives in, 344. 

Monocolon, 728, 2, n. 1. 

Monometer, 729, n. 2. 

Monosyllables, quant., 691. 

Months, gend. of names of, 68 ; names of, 
in -ber, decl., 102, 6 ; Roman months, 
754. 

Moods, 193 ff. Mood signs, 256. Indie, 
520; 523 ff. Subj., 521; 641 fit. 
Imperat., 522. Moods in condit. sen- 
tences, 572 ff. ; 587; in advers. and 
concess. clauses, 586; in causal 
clauses, 588; in relat. clauses, 589 ff.; 
w. quin, 594 ff . ; w. cum causal and 
coucess., 597 ff. ; w. cum temp., 600; 
in iudir. disc, 642 ff. ; in indir. clauses, 
649. Infin., 606 ff. 

Morae or times, 720, 1. 

Morphology, 4, II. ; 60 ff. 

Mds, sing, aud plur., 140. 

Motion to, how expressed, 428, 1 ; 429, 3. 

Moves w. abl., 403. 

Mulciber, decl., 80, 3. 

Multi, indef. number, 166, 3. 

Multiplicatives, 162, n. 1. 

Multitado w. plur. verb, 389, 1. 

Multus, compar., 154, 1 ; plur., 166, 3. 

Mus, decl., 106, 4. 

Mutes, 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 44 ff . ; series, 45. Mute 
and liquid, quant, of syllable before, 
690. 

Mut5, constr., 478, 4. 

N 

N assimilated to 1 or m, 53, 4; lost, 58, 
5 ; 59, 3. Stems in n, 100. Quant of 
final syllables in, 092, 2. 

Nam, 31.5, 5; in questions, 378, 4. 

Name, dat. of, 430, 1. 

Names, Roman, 354. Names of towns, 



GENERAL INDEX 



429 



Nasals, 7, 5; 44, 2; 48. 

Nasal stems, 100. 

Nascor, constr., 469, 2. 

N&t&lis, sing, and plur., 140. 

Nata, abl. of specif., 480, 1. 

Natus w. abl., 469, 1. 

Nftvis, decl., 102. 

Nd, vowel short before, 749, IX. 

-ne in questions, 316, 8 ; 378 ; in double 
questions, 380 ; in indir. quest., 649, 2 ; 
650, 1, 2, and 3; position, 378, 2; 677, 
2. E elided before consonant, 733, 1, 
N. 1. , 

N€, 316, 4 and 5 ; 655 ; w. optative subj., 
558; w. volit. subj., 559; w. subj. in 
prohibitions, 561, 2 and 4; in substan. 
clauses, 562, 2 and N.; w. verbs of 
fearing, 567, 1; w. subj. of purpose, 
568 ; in result clauses, 570, 4 ; in con- 
cess., 586, II. Ne non, 567, 2; 655, 1. 

Nearness^ dat. w. adjs. of, 434, 2; gen., 
4^,4. 

Nee, 315, 1; 392, 5; 657, 1. Nee . . . 
nee (neque), nee . . . et (que), et 
. . . nee, 657, 4. B in nee, 691, 3. 

Necessary, dat. w. adjs. meaning, 434, 2. 

Necessity, verbs denoting, in apodosis, 
583 ; expressed by pass, periphras. 
conj., 621. 

Necesse est w. subj., 564, n., 1. 

Neene, 315, 2, n. ; 316, 8; 650, 1 and 2. 

Neetar, quant, of increm., 706. 

N§dum w. subj., 559, 7. 

Needing, constr. w. verbs of, 462. 

Nefas, indecl., 137, 2 ; w. supine, 635, 1. 

Negatives, 655; w. potent, subj., 552; 
w. subj. of desire, 658; w. volit. subj.. 
559 and n. ; in prohib. sentences, 561, 
4; w. quin clauses, 595; w. particip., 
636,3; position, 678, 1. 

Nesrlegr^, @ in penult of perf. and p. 
part., 749, VII. 

NSmo, use, 513, 1 ; w. quin, 595, 4. 

Nempe, first syl. sometimes short, 
688,3. 

NepOs, decl., 97. 

NSquam, indecl., 137, 3 ; compar., 
154, 2. 

Neque, 315, 1 ; 392, 5 ; 656, 4 and 5 ; 
657, 1 ; in prohibitions, 561, 4 ; w. sub- 
stantive clauses, 568, 6. Neque . . . 
neque, 656, 2 ; 657, 4 ; neque . . . et, 
et . . . neque, 657, 4. 



N€ . . . quidem, 656, 2 and 3. 
Neseid quis, qui, quot, 189, 1 ; 612, 6; 

651. 
Neu, see neve, 
-neus, adjs. in, 347. 
Neuter, decl., 93; use, 188. 
Neuter, nom., ace, voc., plur., 75, 2; 

neut. by signif., 70; by ending, Decl. 

II., 82; Decl. III., 122 ff . ; Decl. IV., 

131 ; 132, 1. Neut. pron. or adj. as 

cognate ace., 409, 1; 412; w. part. 

gen., 442, 5; in pred., 394, 5; w. ger- 
und, 626, 1. O in increm. of neut., 

707. 
N6ve, neu, 316, 6; in prohib., 561, 4; 

w. substan-. clauses, 568. 6. NSve 

. . . nSve, 656, 2. 
Ne-vis, ne-volt, 295, 3. 
Nex, defect., 141, 2. 
Nf, vowel long before, 749, 1. 
Ni, 316, 3; in condit., 574 ff. 
Night, Roman, divisions of, 766. 
Nihil, indecl., 137, 2; for n6n, 513, 3; 

w. quin, 595, 4 ; Nihil aliud quam, 

nihil praeterquam, 388, 6. Nihil 

abest, constr., 595, 1. 
Nihili, constr., 448, 1. 
Nimis w. part, gen., 443. 
Nisi, 316, 3; w. abl. abs., 489, 2; than 

or except, 516, 3; in condit., 674 flf. 

nisi si, 576, 7. 
Niter w. abl., 476, 3. 
Nix, decl., 107. 
N615, constr., 565, 2; 614, 2. N61i, 

nolite, in prohib., 561, 1. 
NOmen, 364, 3. 
Nominative neut. plur. in adjs., 129; 

Decl. II., & changed to a, 78, 7 ; 79, 1; 

Decl. III., 107, 6. Syntax of nom., 401 ; 

nom. for voc, 402, 2 ; in exclam., 421, 3. 
N5mine, constr., 456, 2. 
Non, 655; in answers, 379, 1; w. 

potent, subj., 552 ; w. general neg., 

656, 1; position, 678. N6n quod, 
quin, quo, quia, w. subj., 588, 2; w. 
indie, 588, 2, n. Non mode (solum) 
non, 656, 3 ; n5n s51um (modo, or 
tantum) . . . sed (v3rum) etiam, 

657, 4, N. 1. 
Nones, 754, I., 2. 
N6nne, 316, 8; 378. 

Nos = ego, noater = \!c^^>aa»., ^j^.^'Ln 



\^ 



430 



GENERAL INDEX 



Nostrfts, possess, pron., 176, 4. 

Nostr&rum, nostrOrum = nostrum, 
175, 6. 

Nostrum, nostri, use, 175, 2 ; 500, 4. 

Nouns, morphology, 62 ff.; gend., 65 ff. ; 
person and number, 72; cases, 73; 
decl., 74ff. ; indecl., 137; defective, 
138 ft. ; heteroclites, 145 ; heterogene- 
ous, 147 ; verbal, 200 ; derivative, 
328 ft. Syntax, 387 ft. ; agreement, 
387 flf. ; verbal w. ace, 408; general 
view of cases, 400; nom., 401; voc., 
402; ace, 403 ff.; dat., 422 ff.; gen., 
437 ff. ; abl., 459 ff. ; w. preps., 420; 
490 ; nouns used as adjs., 495, 3. 
Nouns, positions of modifiers of, 671. 

Novus, compar., 156. 

-ns, sufi&x, 328; decl. of nouns in, 106, 
2; lengthens preceding vowel, 15, 3 ; 
749, 1. 

Nt, vowel short before, 749, IX. 

Nabes, decl., 105. 

Nab6 w. dat., 424, 3. 

Nadus, constr., 465, 1. 

Nanus, decl., 93; use, 188, 1; 613, 2 
and 3 ; w. force of adverb, 497, 1 ; w. 
quin, 595, 4 ; -« n6n, 513, 3. 

Num, 316, 8; 378; iu indir. quest., 649, 
2,2. 

Number in nouns, 72 ; in verbs, 199 ; 519. 

Numerals, 161 ff . ; adjs., 162 ff . ; sym- 
bols, 170; adverbs, 171; w. distribu- 
tives, 171 , 2 ; in compounding numbers, 
171, 1. Numerals w. gen., 442; w. 
relat., 510, 4. 

Numquam followed by quin, 595, 5. 

Nanti6, constr., 426, 5; nantior, 611, 
2, N. 1. 

Naper, compared, 311, 4. 

-nus, adjs. in, 347 ; 349; 355. 

O 

O, o, sound, 10 ; qualit. changes of, 27 ; 
6, shortened, 39, 4 ; o-nouns and adjs., 
82; verbal nouns in 5, 334, 6. Nu- 
meral adverbs in 6, 171, 4. O, final, 
quant, of, 692, 1; 694; in increm. of 

_ decl., 705 ; 707 ; of conj., 711. 

O, interj., 317, 1, 2, and 5; w. ace, 421. 

O si w. subj. of desire, 558, 5. 
Ob in corapds., 374, 9 ; w. dat., 429. Ob 

w. Sicc.f 420, 2. 



Obeying, dat. w. verbs of, 426, 1. 
Object, direct, 404 ; infin., or clause as, 

404, 3; omitted, 404, 4; indir. object, 

423 ; 424, 1 and 2 ; 434. Object clauses, 

564, 1 ; 565; 568, 2; 613. Position of 

obj., direct and indirect, 664, 2 and 3. 
Objective compds., 372, 2. Object, gen., 

440, 2; w. adjs., 450 ff.; w. verbs, 

457. Objective modifiers, position of, 

672; 673. 
Oblique cases, 73, 1 ; use of, 403 ff. 
Obliviscor w. gen., 454 ; w. ace, 454,1. 
OboediSns w.^wo dats., 433, 4. 
Obstd, constr., 568, 8. 
Obtaining f constr. w. verbs of, 566. 
Ocior, compar., 155, 1. 
Octon&rius, 741, 3. 
Od, old abl. ending, 84, 1. 
Oe, sound, 11. 
Office, derivatives denoting, 344. Offices, 

names of, in abl., 486, 1. 
OhS, 317,3; § in, 696, 3. 
Oi, diphthong, qualit. changes of, 34. 
-Ola, o in, 712, 9. 
01e5 w. ace, 405, 1. 
onus, olla, = ille, ilia, p. 69, footaote. 
-olus, -olum, o in, 712, 9. 
Omission, expressions of, w. quin, 

595, 1. 
Omnis, gen. of, w. possess., 446, 3; w. 

part, gen., 442, 2; first syl. sometimes 
__ short, 688, 3. 

On in gen. plur. of Greek nouns, 110, 7. 
-6na, nouns in, 349, 4; Q in, 712, 4. 
OnerS, constr., 477, II. 
-6ni, 6 in, 712, 7. 

-onus, nouns in, 349, 4 ; Q in, 712, 4. 
Open vowels, 7, 1. 
Opera, sing, and plur., 140. 
Oportet, w. subj., 564, II., 1; w. pres. 

infin., 618, 2. 
Opposing, dat., w. verbs of, 426, 1; 

constr. w. verbs of, 568, 8 ; 596, 2. 
Ops, defect., 142. 
Optative snbj., 551, II.; 658. 
Optimates, decl., 106, 7. 
Opus, work, decl., 101. Opus, need, 

constr., 477, III., n. ; w. supine, 635, 1. 
-or, verbal nouns in, 333; gend. of 

nouns in. 111 ; 113. 
-or final in Plautus, 692, 3, n. 1. 
OxaW^E) o^oWc^v^a., ^^^ Indirect discourse. 



GENERAL INDEX 



431 



Orbis, decl., 102, 4. 

Ordinal numbers, 162 ff. ; decl., 169; w. 

_ quisque, 516, 2. 

OrO w. two aces., 412. 

Orpheus, decl., 110. 

Ortus w. abl., 469, 2. 

Os, ossis, o in, 691, 3. 

-Qs, -OS, decl. of nouns in, 97, 3; 101, 2; 
gend.. Ill; 113; decl. of Greek nouns 
ijQ, 89 ; Greek neuters in os, 110, 9. 
5s, OS, final, 692, 3; 699. 

Oscan dialect, 2. 

Ostrea, decl., 147, 2. 

-5sus, adjs. in, 346; 5 in, 712, 5. 

-6tus, 6 in, 712, 6. 

Ou, diphthong, qualit. changes of, 36. 

Ovid, versification, 747. 

Owing, constr. w. verbs of, 607, 1. 

Oxymoron, 752, 12. 



P, euphonic, developed, 52, 5; assimi- 
lated, 53, 6 ; changed to m, 55, 4. 

Paene w. perf. indie, 538, 6 ; 583, 2. 

Paenitet, constr., 45Y. 

Palam w. abl., 490, 4. 

Palatals, 7; 8,1; 45. 

PaJas w. u in Horace, 701. 

Pansrd, & in p&ctum, 749, VII., N. 1. 

Panthas, voc, 89, 5 ; as in, 701. 

par, quant, of increm., 706. 

Parasitic u, 10, 3. 

Pardoning^ dat. w. verbs of, 426, 2. 

Parens, gen. plur., 106, 2, footnote. 

Parentage, expressed by abl., 467; 469. 

Parenthetical clauses in indir. disc, 
643,3. 

PariSs, es in, 698, 1. 

Paris, decl., 110. 

Paroemiac verse, 730, n. 

Partlceps w. gen., 451, 2. 

Pars, sing, and plur., 140; in fractions, 
165.; w. plur. verb, 389, 1. ' 

Participation^ gen. w. iadjs. of, 451, 2 ; 
w. verbs of, 458, 3. 

Participial system, 235; 253; often 
wanting, 261, 1 ; 272, 1 ; 275, 2; 280. 

Participles, 200, 4; agreement, 394, 1; 
395; 612; wanting, 302, 3; in abl. 
abs., 489, T; as substantives, 494 ; 495 ; 
636, 2 ; in seq. of tenses, 548. Parti- 
cip. for infin., 613, 4. Syntax of par- 



ticip., 636 ff. ; for relat. clauses, 637; 
denoting time, cause, manner, means, 
638, 1; condit., concess., 638, 2; pur- 
pose, 638, 3; for prin. clause, 639; w. 
negat., 636, 3; tenses of, 640. 

Particles, 303 ff.; adverbs, 304 flf.; 
preps., 312 £f. ; conjs., 314 if.; inter- 
jections, 317; use, 654 if.; use of ad- 
verbs, 654 if. Interrog. particles, 
378 ff. 

Partizn, 306, 1. Partim . . . partizn, 
389,5. 

Partitive apposition, 393, 4. Partitive 
gen., 440, 5; 441 ff.; substitutes for, 
444 ; as pred. gen., 447. 

Parts of speech, 61. 

Pamm w. part, gen., 443. 

Parvus, compar., 154. Parvl, denot- 
ing price, 448, 1. 

Passer, decl., 99. 

Passive voice, 192. Passive used imper- 
sonally, 302, 6 and 7. Pass, of verbs 
which take two aces., 410, 1; 411, 1. 
Pass, constr., 518; 611. Pass, like 
middle, 517. 

Pater, decl., 99. 

Paterfamilias, 79, 2. 

Patrials, 106, 5. 

Patronymics, 342. 

Pauci, defect., 144. 

Paupertas, pauperiSs, decl., 145, 6. 

Pause, caesural, 728 ; in catalectic verse, 
729, 3 and 4. 

Pax, defect., 141, 2. 

Peculiarities in conj., 238 ff. ; in seq. 
of tenses, 546 ff. ; in Roman calendar, 
755. 

Pelagrus, decl., 83, 10; gend., 88. 

PellO w. abl., 463. 

Penalty, how expressed, 456, 3. 

Penates, decl., 106, 7. 

Pend6 in expressions of price, 448, 3. 

Penes w. ace, 420, 2 ; es in, 698, 2. 

Peninsulas, constr. of names of, 419, 2 ; 
484,1. 

Pentameter, 729, n. 2 ; dactylic, 739. 

Penthemimeral caesura, 736, footnote 3. 

Penthemimeris, 721, 2, n. 2. 

Per in compds., 159, 1; 370; 374, 10; w. 
ace, 406. Per w. ace, 420, 2; denot- 
ing agency, 468, 3 ; denoting manuer, 
474, 1,N. Per s6, 504, 5; 509,2. Posi- 



432 



GENERAL INDEX 



Perceiving^ constr. w. verbs of, 613 and 
4; &41. " 

Percontor w. two aces., 411, 2. 

Perfect tense, 196, 2; pres. perf. and 
histor.,197. Perfect system, 234; per- 
fect stem, 248 ff . Perf. w. pres. mean- 
ing, 299, 2 ; 638, 4. Syntax of perf. 
indie, 537 ff.; in temp, clauses, 602; 
603, XL, 1; 605, I.; perf. subj., 641, 2; 
in seq. of tenses, 643 ff . ; in condit., 
576, 1 ; 578, 2 ; 582, 2 ; 584, 2 and 3 ; in 
temp. clauses, 600, 1.; 605,1.; in indir. 
disc, 644, 1 and 2. Perf. infin., 617 ; 
620; to denote result of action, 620, 2. 
Perf. particip., 640 ; rendered by verbal 
noan, 636, 4 ; 640, 1 ; time denoted by, 
640, 1 ; w. habeO, 640, 2 ; to denote 
result, 640, 3; want of active, how 
supplied, 640, 4. Quant, of penult of 
dissyllabic perfs. and p. part., 715; of 
first two syllables of trisyllabic redup. 
perfs., 716. 

Pericles, decl., 110, 4. 

Periods, Latin, 685. Periods of Lat. lit- 
erature, 753. 

Periphrastic conjugations, 236 ff. ; pas- 
sive used impersonally, 302, 7; use, 
525, 1; 531; 621; in apodosis, 582. 
Periphras. fut. infin., 619, 2. 

Peritus w. gen., 461, 1; w. infin., 608, 4, 
N. 1. 

Permitting y gerundive w. verbs of, 622. 

Person of nouns, 72; verbs, 190, 4; 519; 
in indir. disc, 645. 

Personal pron., 174 ff. ; use, 500; reflex, 
use, 502; to denote residence, 500, 5; 
recip. use, 502, 1. Personal endings of 
verbs, 255. Personal constr. in pass, 
voice, 611, 1 ; 621, 1. 

Personification, 752, 9. 

Persuadeo, constr., 565, 6. . 

Persuading, dat. w. verbs of, 426, 2; 
subj. w. verbs of, 565. 

Pervenio, constr., 418, 3. 

Pes, es in compds. of, 698, 1. 

Phalaecean verse, 745, 10, n. 2. 

Pherecratic verse, 745, 2, 4, and 6. 

Phonetic changes, 22 ff. 

Phonology, 4, I. ; 5 ff. 

Phryx, decl., 110. 

Pigret, constr., 457. 

Pingo, i in perf. and p. part., 749, VII. 
Fix, defect., 141, 2. 



Place, derivatives denoting, 343. Place 
whither, 491, 1., 1 ; where, dat., 428, 4 ; 
abl., 483; 491, 1., 3; whence, 491, 1., 2. 
Adjs. of place w. force of adverbs, 
497,2. 

Plautus, quant, of syllables in, 690, 2; 
692, 3, N. 1, 2, and 3. Peculiarities, in 
versification, 741. 2 and 3 ; 743, 4, n. 2. 

Pleasing, A2^>. w. verbs of, 426, 1. 

Plebs, quant, of increm., 708. 

Plenty, constr., w. verbs of, 458, 2; w. 
adjs. of, 477, II. 

PlSnus w. abl., 477, 11.; w. gen., 477, 
II., 2. 

Pleonasm, 751, 3. 

Plerlque, defect., 144. 

Pluperfect tense, 196, 2. Plup. indie, 
639; in letters, 639, 1; in temp, 
clauses, 601 ; 602, 1 and 2. Plup. subj., 
641, 2; in subj. of desire, 558,1; in 
seq. of tenses, 643 ff. ; in condit., 678, 
2, N. 1 ; 679 ; 684, 2 ; in temp, clauses, 
600, n. ; 604, 2 ; 606, II. ; in indir. disc, 
644,2; 647. 

Plural, 72 ; wantipg, 138 ; = sing., 138, 2 ; 
500, 2 ; w. change of meaning, 140. 

Plurimi, indef. number, 166, 3; gen. of 
price, 448, 1. 

Pias, decl., 127, 3; without Quam,471, 
4. Pluris, constr., 448, 1 and 4. 

Poetical ace, 407 ; 409,2; 416; dat., 419; 
4; 428; 429, 5 and 6; 431,6; gen., 442, 
2 and 3; 452; 458,4; abl., 466; 469,2; 
470, 1 ; 471, 5, 6, and 9 ; 485, 3 ; 489, 4. 

PoUiceor w. infin., 619, 1. 

Pone w. ace, 420, 2. 

Pono, constr., 418, 3. 

Por, insep. prep., 313 ; 376, 6. 

Portus, decl., 131, 2. 

Posco w. two aces., 411, 2. 

Positive, 149 ; wanting, 155 ; positive for 
compar., 499, 3. 

Possession, derivatives denoting, 348. 

Possessive pron., 176; w. gen. in apposi- 
tion, 393, 6 ; for pred. gen., 439, 4 ; for 
subject, gen., 440, 1, n. 2; for object, 
gen., 440, 2, N. 2; w. refert and in- 
terest, 449, 1 ; use of, 501 ; reflex, use, 
502; w. infin., 615, 3; position of pos- 
sess., 675. Possess, compds., 372, 3. 

Possessor, dat. of, 4H0. 
• Possible condit., 573; 576. 
\ P o^'svxcci va. cowci\\>k& . ,^?^\ ^ .•^i^a. Infin., 



GENERAL INDEX 



433 



618, 2. Facere n5n possum, fieri 

n5n potest, 595, 3. 
Post in compds., 374, 11 ; w. dat., 429. 

Post w. ace, 4^, 2 ; to express inter- 
val of time, 488. 
Posteft, 310; in series, 657, 4, n. 2. 

Posteft qiiam or poste&quam, 316, 

1 ; in temp, clauses, 538, 3 ; 602. 
Posterus, compar., 155, 2. 
Postis, decl., 102, 4. 
Postquam in temp, clauses, 602; w. 

perf. indie, 538, 3. 
Postremd in series, 657, 4, n. 2. 
Postridie w. ace, 420, 5; w. gen., 446, 

5 ; Postridie quam, 488, 3, n. 1 ; 602 ; 

e in, 696, 1. 
Postulo, constr., 456, 4. 
Potential subj., 551, I. ; 552; in subord. 

clauses, 569; in clauses of result, 569, 

1 and 2 ; 570 ; in substantive clauses, 

571 ; in adversative clauses, 585, 1 ; 

in concess. clauses, 586, 1; in relat. 

clauses, 591 ; 592 ; w. quin, 594, II., 2 ; 

in questions, 642, 3. 
Potior w. gen., 458, 3; w. abl., 477, 1. ; 

gerundive, 623, 1. 
Potis, indecl., 137, 3. 
Prae in compds., 159, 1; w. dat., 429. 

Prae w. compar., 471, 5; w. abl., 490, 

2 ; 475, 5 ; quant, of, in compds., 687, 1. 
Praeditus w. abl., 476, 1. 
Praendmen, 354, 3 and 5. 
Praesertim w. cum, 598, 1. 
PraestO, constr., 471, 9. 
Praeter in compds., w. ace; 406; w. 

two aces., 413. Praeter w. ace, 420, 

2; w. compar., 471, 5. 
Praetereft in series, 657, 4, n. 2. 
Praeut, 316, 2. 
Precl, defect., 142. 
Predicate, 381, 2; simple, 382; complex, 

384 ; modified, 384, 1. Fred, nouns, 

382, 2 ; agreement of verb with, 390 ; 

case, 393; gend., 393, 1; verbs used 

with, 393, 8 ff. ; after infin., 612. Fred. 

adjs., 382, 2; after infin., 612. Fred. 

ace 410, 1 and 3; 622. Fred, dat., 

433, 1 . Fred, gen., 439, 3 and 4 ; 447 ft. ; 

of price, 448 ; w. rSfert and Interest, 

449. Clause as pred., 564, II. Freds. 

compared, 613, 7. Position of pred., 

664; 682. 
Preparing, constr., w. verbs of, 607,1. 

HARK. LAT. ORAM. 29 



Prepositions, 312 ff."; originally adverbs. 
312, 1; 420, 4; insep., 313; 375; iif 
composition, 374. Compds. w. ace, 406; 
w. two aces., 413 ; w. dat., 429. Freps. 
in expressions of time, 417, 1 ; 487, 1 
and 2 ; 488, 1 ; of place, 418, 2 ; 419, 
3; denoting /or, 424, 2; of agency, 
467. Freps. w. adjs., 435, 1, 2, and 3; 
w. case for object, gen., 440, 2, n. 1; 
= part, gen., 444 ; = gen. w. adjs., 453 ; 
= gen. w. verbs, 449, 1, n., and 4 ; 455 ; 
456, 1, 3, and 4; of penalty, 456, 3; of 
separat., 461; 462, 1, 2, and 3; w. 
compar., 471, 5 ; accompaniment, 473, 
1; source, 467; manner, 473, 3; 474, 
1, N. ; cause, 475, 4. Cases w. preps, 
ace, 420; abl., 490; abl. or ace, 420, 
3; 490, 3. Freps. as ad vs., 420, 4; 
adverbs as preps., 420, 5; position 
of preps., 676. Freps. w. infin., 609, 
2; w. gerund and gerundive, 628; 
629; 631. 

Presbyter, decl., 86, 3. 

Present tense, 196, 1. Present system, 
233. Present stem, 246 ff. Present 
indie, 532 ff. ; of gen. truths, customs, 
532, 2; histor., 532, 3; 602; w. iam 
dia, etc., 633, 1; in condit., 577, 2; 
578, 1 ; in temp, clauses, 600, I. ; 
603, II., 1; 604, 1; 605, I. Present 
subj., 541, 2; 544; 545; in condit., 
576, 1 and 2; 577; 578, 2; 584, 2 and 
3 ; in temp, clauses, 603, II., 2 ; 605, 1. ; 
in indir. disc, 644, 1. Present infin., 
617; 618, 1. Present particip., 640; 
want of pass., how supplied, 640, 5. 

Preventing f constr. w. verbs of, 595, 2. 

Friapean verse, 745, 10, n. 3. 

Price, gen. of, 448 ; abl. of, 478. 

Pridie, locat., 134, n. ; w. ace, 420, 5; 
w. gen., 446, 5 ; pridie quam, 488, 3, 
N. 1 ; 602. 

Primary tenses, 198. Primary stems, 
323, 2. Primary derivatives, 324, 2; 
328. 

Primitive inceptives, 277, 1 ; 278. 

Primum, primQ, in series, 657, 4, N. 2. 

Princeps, decl., 96 ; w. force of adverb, 
497,3. 

Principal parts of verbs, 203 ; 230 ; 257- 
289. Principal tenses, 198, 1 ; in 
sequence, 643 ff. Ptmcv^i&.V ^V^cqsm^x 
\ 386, \\ *m 'm^vt. ^Yaa., ^J^N «^'^'^ 



434 



GENERAL INDEX 



by particip., 639. Principal elements 

of sentences, 381. Principal caesura, 

728, N. 2. 
Prior, primus, 155, 1; w. force of ad- 
verbs, 4*.)7, 3. 
Priusquam. 316, 1 ; in temp, clauses, 

605. 
Pr6, pr6d, iu compds., 374,12; w.dat., 

429. Pr6 w abl., 490, 2 ; w. ger., 629, 

1. o short in compds. before f, 719, 1. 
Proceleusmatic, 721, 2, n. l! 
Proclitics, 17, 2. 
PrOclivis, compar., 157, 2. 
Procul w. abl., 490, 4, 
PrSditur, constr., 611, 2, N. 3. 
PrOfirnatus w. abl., 469, 2. 
ProhibeS, constr., 464, 1; 568, 8; pro- 

hibeor, 611, 2, n. 2. 
Prohibitions, imperat. in, 561, 1-3; subj. 

in, 5()1, 2. 
Proinde, 307, 5 ; 316, 4. 
Prolepsis, 493. 
Promitto, constr., 468, 4. 
Pronominal adjs., 188; 516- 
Pronouns, 172 ff. ; classes, 173 ; personal 

and reflexive, 174 ; possess., 176; 

demon., 177 ff. ; determinative, 180 ff. ; 

relat.. 182 ; interrog., 183 ; indef ., 185 ff. ; 

special endings of, 179 ; correl., 189; 

as subject, omitted, 387, 1 ; agreement, 

396 ff.; w. two or more antecedents, 

398. Use of pers pron.,500; demon., 

505 ff. ; determin., 508 ff. ; relat., 510 ; 

interrog., 511 ; indef., 512 ; gener. 

indef., 514 ff.; gen. relat. w. indie, 

525, 3. Prons. in indir. disc, 64.'); 

position of prons., 675. Prons. brought 

together, 675, 2. 
Pronunciation of Latin, 10 ff. 
PrSnus, compar., 157, 2. 
Prope w. ace, 420, 2; w. perf. indie, 

538, 6 ; 583, 2. 
Proper nouns, 62, 1 ; plur. of, 138, 1. 
Propinquus, compar., 157, 2. 
Propior, proxlmus, 155, 1; w. ace, 

4;^."), 2 ; w. force of adverb, 497, 1. 
Propius w. ace, 420, 5. 
Proportionals, 162, n. 2. 
Propriety, verbs denoting, in apodosis, 

583. 
Propter w. ace, 420, 2; w. reflex. 

pi'on., 50if 5. 
Pr6rBUS in answers, 379. 



Prosody, 4, V. ; 686 ff. ; quant., 687«.; 
versification, 720 ff.; figures of pros- 
ody, 733. 

Prosopopeia, 752, 9. 

Prospicio w. ace, or dat., 426, 4, n. 

Protasis, 572. 

Prout, 316, 2 

Provides w. ace. or dat., 426, 4, n. 

Proximo w. ace, 420, 5 ; w. dat, 436. 

Proximus, see propior. 

Pradens, decl., 128; constr., 463,4; w 
force of adverb, 497, 1. 

-pte, prons. in, 175,6 ; quant, in ending, 
691, 1. 

Pudet, constr., 457 and 4. 

Puer, decl., 85. 

PungO, Q in panctum, 749, VIZ., N.l. 

Purpose, dat. of, 426, 3 ; subj. of, 668 ; ir. 
quin, 694, XL, 2; 596. 2; denoted by 
iufin., 608; by gerundive, 622; 626, 6; 
627, 2; by gerund, 626, 6; 627, 2; by 
supine, 633; 634; by particip., 638, 3. 
Position of purpose clause, 683, 3, n. 

Puta, a in, 695, 4. 

Puts w. gen. of value, 448; putor, 
constr., 611, 2, n. 1. 

Pyrites, decl.,^1. 

Pythiambic stanza, 747, 16 and 17. 

Q 

Qu, sound, 12; changed to c, 65, 2; 
dropped, 58, 1. 

Quaero, constr., 411, 4. 

Quaiis, interrog., 184, 6. 

Qualis, qualiscumque, relat. adj., 
182,4; correls., 189. 

Qualisqualis, 182, 4. 

Qualislibet, 189. 

Qualitative phonetic changes, 24 ff. 

Quality, abl. of, 473, 2. 

Quam w. superlat., 159, 2; adverb, 306, 
3 ; conj., 316, 2 ; w. compar., 471, 1, 2, 
4, and 6 ; 499, 1, 2, and 3; w. subj., 670, 
1; w. infin., 643, 2. Quam pr6, 471, 
7. Quam si w. subj., 684. Quam 
■ quod w. subj., 588, 2. 

Quamdiu, quam did, 316, 1. 

Quamquam, 316, 4; in concess., 686, 
I., 1 and 2; in indep. clauses, 586, II., 
4; w. infin., 643, 2. 

Qvianivis, 316, 4; in concess., 686, II., 



V 



GENERAL INDEX 



436 



Quand5, 316, 1 and 7 ; in causal clauses, 
588. 

Quanddquidem, 316, 7. 

Quantitative phonetic changes, 37 £F. 

Quantity, 14 ; 687 fif. ; hidden, 15, 1 ; 749; 
signs of, 15, 4 ; varying in roots, stems, 
and suffixes, 325; in final syllables, 
692 ; in increments, 702 ff . ; in deriv. 
endings, 712 ; in stem syllables, 713 ff. ; 
in compds., 719. 

Quantumvis, quantumlibet, 316, 4. 

Quantus, relat. adj., 182,4; interrog., 
184, 6 ; correl., 189. Quanti, denot- 
ing price, 448, 1 and 4. 

Quantusvis, 189. 

Qu&re w. subj., 591, 4 ; w. infin., 643, 1 ; 
@ in, 696, 1. 

Quasi, 316, 2; w. quidam, 512, 5; w. 
subj. in condit., 584. I in quasi, 693 ; 
a in, 719, 4. 

Que, 315, 1 ; 657, 1 ; 691, 1 ; in series, 
657, 6, N. ; position, 677, 2. Idem . . . 
que, 508, 5. Que . . . que, que . . . 
et, que . . . atque, neque (nee) . . . 
que, 657, 4. 

Quercus, dec!., 133, 2. 

Questions, 378 ; double, 380; potential, 
557 ; deliberative, 559, 4 ; repudiating, 
559, 5; in indir. disc, 642, 2 and 3; 
indirect, 649, 2; 650. 

Qui, relat. pron., 182; use, 510; in- 
terrog., 183 ff. ; use, 511; indef., 185 ff. ; 
use, 512. Qui w. indie, 589, I.; w. 
subj. of purpose, 590; w. subj. of re- 
sult, 591; w. subj. of cause, 592; in 
condit., 593, 1; in concess., 593, 2. 
Qui dlcitur, qui vocfttur, 510, 7. 
Quod as adverb, ace, 510, 9; in re- 
strictive relat. clause, 591, 3. 

Qui, loc. of qui and quia, 182, 1 ; 184, 4. 

Quia, 316,7; in causal clauses, 588; w. 
infin., 643, 2. A in quia, 695, 4. 

Quicumque, general relat., 182, 3. 

Quidam, 187, 3; use, 512; w. quasi, 
512, 5. 

Quidem w. pron., 500, 1 ; position, 677. 

Quies, quant, of increm., 708. 

Quicquid of persons, 510, 10. 

Quilibet, 187, 2 ; use, 514. 

Quin,316,6; w. indie, 594, 1.; w. subj., 
594, II. 

Quin&rius, 757. 

Quippe w. relat., 592, 1 and 4; w. cum, 



598, 1 ; first syllable sometimes short, 
688,3. 

Quins, quant, of increm., 709. 

Quis, interrog., 183 ff. ; use, 511 ; indef., 
185 ff.; use,512; correl, 189; w. quin 
clause, 595, 4. Quid, interrog. ad- 
verbial, 511, 5. 

Quis = quibus, p. 71, footnote 3. 

Quisnam, 184, 5. 

Quispiam, 187, 1; use, 512. 

Quisquam, 187, 1 ; use, 513. 

Quisque, 187, 4; use, 614 ff.; w. plur. 
verb, 389, 3; w. nouns, w. prons., 442, 
4; w. abl. abs., 489, 8; w. suus, 503, 
4; 675,2. 

Quisquis, general relat., 182, 3. Quic- 
quid used of persons, 610, 10. 

Quitum, i in, 715, 1. 

Quivis, 187, 2; use, 514. 

Quo, 316, 5; 510, 11; w. subj. of pur- 
pose, 568 ; in relat. clauses, 689 ff. 

Quoad, 316, 1 ; in temp, clauses, 603. 

Quod, 316, 7 ; in causal clauses, 688. 

Quod-clauses, 588, 3 and 4 ; restrictive, 
w. subj., 591, 3. 

Quoi, quoius, p. 71, footnote 3. 

Quom, 316, 1, 4, and 7. 

Qu5minus, 316, 5 ; w. subj. of purpose, 
568. 

Quoniam, 316, 7 ; in causal clauses, 588. 

Quoque, 315,1; 657,3; position, 657, 3; 
677; o in. 719, 4. 

Quot, quotus, relat. adjs., 182, 4 ; in- 
terrog., 184, 6; correl., 189. Quotus 
quisque, 515, 6. 



R 

B, sound, 12 ; assimilated, 53, 5; lost, 58, 
5. Stems in r, 99 ; gend.. Ill ff. ; verb 
stems in r, p. part, of, 253, 2. Quant, 
of final syllables in r, 692, 2 ; quant, 
of e before r in increm. of conj.,711,2. 

Radix, decl., 98. 

Rftstrum, decl., 147, 4. 

Ratum, a in, 715, 1. 

Ravis, decl., 102, 2. 

-re = -lis, 240. 

Re, insep. prep., 313 ; 375, 6 ; in compds., 
375, 6. 

Reading, rhythmical, 732. 

Real condition, 51?» \ ^l^. 



436 



GENERAL INDEX 



Reciprocal ase of prons., 602, 1. 

Recollection^ gen. w. adjs. of, 451, 1. 

Becordor, constr., 455. 

Becasd, constr., 568, 8. 

Bed, re, 313; in compds., 375, 6. 

Bedoled, w. ace, 405, 1. 

Reduplicated prons., 182, 3 and 4; per- 
fects, 251; quant, of first two sylla- 
bles of trisyllabic red up. perfs., 716. 

Reduplication in pres., 247, 6 ; perf., 251 ; 
compds., 251, 4. 

B€fert, constr., 449. 

Befertus, constr., 453, 5 ; 477, II., 2. 

Reflexive or Middle use of verb, 407; 
416, 1. 

Reflexive pron., 174 £F. Reflex, use of 
prons, 502 ft. 

Refusing f constr. w. verbs of, 568, 8; 
595,2; 607,1. 

Regarding y verbs of, w. two aces., 410; 
w. two dats., 433, 2; w. pred. gen., 
447. 

B€srn5 w. gen., 458, 3. 

RefiTO w. ace, 426, 1, n. 1; S in perf. 
and p. part., 749, VII. 

Relation, dat. of, 425, 4. 

Relative pron-, 182; use, 510; general 
relat., 182, 3; corral., 189; original 
force, 399; construction, 399; attrac- 
tion, 399, 5; w. clause as anteced., 
399, 6 ; abl. of relat. = postquam, 
488, 3; w. adjs., 510, 4; position in 
sentence, 677. 

Relative clauses, = noun, adj., or parti- 
cip., 510, 6 ; moods in, 589 ff. ; w. volit. 
subj. of purpose, 590 ; w. potent, subj. 
of result, 591 ; denoting cause, 592 ; 
condit., 593 1 ; concess., 593, 2; w. 
infin., G43, 1; to characterize indef., 
or general anteced., 591, 1 and 2 ; after 
tinus, solus, etc., 591, 5; after corn- 
par, w. quam, 591, G ; after dignus, 
indignus, idoneus, aptus, 591, 7 ; 
position, 683, 2, N. 

Relative and absolute time, 542 if. 

Relievinf/y constr., w. verbs of, 462. 

Relinquo w. two dats., 433, 2; i in 
perf. and p. part., 749, VII. 

Reliqui facere, 447, 1. 

Remembering f constr. w. verbs of, 454. 

RemituUng, constr. w. verbs of, 456. 

Bemimacor w. gen., 454 ; w. ace, 
454,1. 



Repeated action denoted by imperfect 

indie, 534, 3; by cum-clause, 601, 4; 

by plup. indie, 602, 2; by imperf. 

and plup. subj., 602, 3; by histor. 

infin., 610, 1. 
Repelling t dative w. verbs of, 427. 
Reperior, constr., 611, 2, n. 2. 
Bepdsco w. two/u^s., 411, 2. 
Repudiating questions, 559, 5. 
Bequies, decl., 145, 3; quant, of io- 

crem., 708. 
Bes, decl., 134. 
Residence denoted by personal pronouns, 

500,5. 
Resisting^ dat. w. verbs of, 426, 1. 
Rest in catalectic verse, 729, 4. 
Be-stinsrud, I in perf. and p. part. 749, 

VII. 
Restrictive clauses w. quod, 591, 3. 
Result, subj. of, how developed, 569,1 

and 2 ; clauses of, 570 ; relat. clause 

of, 591, 2. Position of result clause, 

683, 3, N. 
Bete, decl., 103, 2. 
Bex, decl., 98; as adj., 495, 3; quant. 

of increm., 708. 
Rhea, e in, 689, 2. 
Rhetoric, figures of, 752. 
Rhetorical questions, 642, 2. 
Rhythm in arrang. of words, 670. Early 

Latin rhythms, 748. 
Rhythmic accent, 724 ; series, 726. 
Rhythmical reading, 732. 
Rideo w. ace, 405, 1. 
-rimus, a, um, in superlat., 152, 1. 
Rivers, gend. of names of, 68. 
Rogro w. two aces., 411, 2. 
R5ina, decl., 78, 4. 
Roman pronun. of Latin, 10 ff. Roman 

literature, 753; calendar, 754; 755; 

money, 757. 
Romance languages, derivation from 

Latin, 3. 
Roots, 318 ff . ; strong and weak, 327. 

Root stems, 323. Root words, 324, 1 ; 

.'^27. Root verbs, 357. 
RSstrum, sing, and plur., 140. 
-rs, decl. of nouns in, 106, 2. 
Ruber, decl., 85; 91. 
Rules of syntax, 662. 
Rus, gend., 119, 2 ; constr., 419, 1 ; 
. rure,462, 4 ; rurl, 484, 2. 



GENERAL INDEX 



437 



S 

S, sound, 12; nnchanged, 50; changed 

to r, 50; 101, 1 ; assimilated, 53, 7 ; 54, 

2; lost, 58, 5; 59, 4; stems in s, 101. 

Decl. of nouns in 8, 106, 3 ; quant, of 

increm., 706; 707. Final syl. in s, 

short before following consonant, 688, 

1,N. 2; 733, 1, N. 2. 
Sacer, com par., 156. 
Saepe, compared, 311, 4. 
S&l, sing, and plur., 140 ; defect., 141, 2 ; 

& in, 691, 2; quant, of increm., 706. 
Saiat&ris, compar., 157, 2. 
Samnis, quant, of increm., 709. 
Sancid, & in perf. and p. part., 749, 

VII. 
S&ne in answers, 379, 1. 
Sapid w. ace., 405, 1. 
Sapphic verse, 730 ; 745, 6 and 7 ; stanza, 

747, 2 and 3. 
Satis, compared, 311, 4 ; w. dat., 426, 1, 

N. 2; w. part, gen., 443; w. facid or 

dic6, 426, 1, N. 2. 
Satur, decl., 92, 1. 
Saturnian verse, 748, 2. 
Satus w. abl., 469, 2 ; a in, 715, 1. 
Saying f verbs of, w. indir. disc, 641. 
Scidi, i in penult, 715, 1. 
Selena, w. force of adverb, 497, 1. 
Scilicet, 310, 1. 
-SCO, inceptives in, 365. Vowel, long 

before sco, scor, 749, 1 and n. 2. 
Sciiba, constr., 426, 5. 
Se, insep. prep., 313; in compds, 375, 7. 
Second decl., 82 ff. Second con j., 209 ff . ; 

260 fif. 
Secondary tenses, 198, 2. Secondary 

stems, 323, 3. Secondary derivatives, 

324, 3; 339. 
Secundum w. ace., 420, 2. 
Secaris, decl., 102, 3. 
Sed = se, 175, 6 ; sed, se, insep. prep., 

313; in compds., 375, 7. 
Sed, 315, 3 ; 659, 1. N6n 861um (modo, 

tantum) . . . sed etiam, 657, 4, n. 1. 
SSdes, decl., 106, 1. 
Seeming f pred. gen. w. verbs of, 447. 
Selling t gen. w. verbs of, 448, 4; abl., 

478, 1. 
SSmentis, decl., 102, 3. 
Semi-deponent verbs, 2aA\2ffl\ 283, 1. 
B^mineciBf defect^ 144. 



Semi- vowels, 7,4; 44, 3. 

Senftrius, 729, n. 6; 743. 

Sen&tus, decl., 131, 3. 

Sending, two dats. w. verbs of, 433, 2; 

gerundive w. verbs of, 622. 
Senecta, senectus, decl., 145, 6. 
Senex, decl., 107 ; compar., 158. 
Sentences, syntax of, 376 ff. ; classifica- 
tion, 377 ff.; simple, 377; compd.,377, 

2 ; 385 ; declarat., 377, 3 ; interrog., 377, 

4; 378; imperat., 377, 5; exclam., 

377,6; in indir. disc, 642. 
Separation, dat. w. verbs of, 428, 2 ; gen. 

w. adjs. of, 452, 2 ; abl. of, 461 ff . ; 629 ; 

emphasis produced by, 605, 4. 
Septe, 175, 6. 
Septenarius, 741, 2. 
Sequence of tenses, 543; peculiarities, 

§46 ff. 
Sequitur, w. subj., 571, 1. 
Series, how begun and continued, 657, 4, 

N. 2 ; rhythmic, 726. 
Serving, dat. w. verbs of, 426, 1. 
Sgscenti used indefiuitely, 163, 2. 
SSse, 175, 5. 

Sesterces, 757, 2 and notes. 
Sestertium, 757, 2, n. 4. 
Sestertius, 757 and 2. 
Seu, 315, 2 ; 392, 5. 
Short syllables, 14, 2 ; 689. Short vowels 

in syllables w. hidden quant., 749, IX. 

and X. 
Shortening of vowels, 39. 
Showing, verbs of, w. two. aces., 410. 
SI, 316, 3; meaning, 575, 1 ; w. opt. subj., 

558, 5; in condit., 572 ff. ; in indir. 

quest., 649, II., 3; w. plup. indie, 539, 

2. SI Quidem, 574, 1. SI . . . sic, 

575, 1, N. 
-si in Greek dats., 110, 8. 
Sic, 308, 2; derivation, 575, 1, N. ; 654, 

N. 2. Sic . . . ut, fi84, 5. 
SIcut, 316, 2 ; sicuti w. subj. in condit., 

584, 4. 
-sills, adjs. in, 352. 
Silver age, writers of, 753, 4. 
-Sim in perf. subj., 244, 4; in adverbs, 

30f), 2. 
Simile, 752, 1. 
Similis, compar., 152, 3 ; w. dat., 434, 2 ; 

w. gen., 435, 4, N. ; 451, 2, n. 1. 
Simple aeivlftv^cft, ?^1 ^ \\ ^^\assv!^a. ^V^ 



438 



GENERAL INDEX 



Simul, 316, 1 ; w. abl., 490, 4; in temp, 
clauses, 602. 

Simul ac, simul atque, simulac, si- 
mulatque, 316, 1 ; in temp, clauses, 
638,3; 602. 

Sin, 316, 3; in condit., 574 ff. 

-sin in Greek dat. plur., 110, 8. 

Sine w. abl., 490, 2. 

Singular, 72 ; wanting, 139. 

Siquidem, 316, 3 and 7 ; 1 in first syl- 
lable, 719, 4. 

Sis, saitis = s! vis, si vultis, 295, 3. 

Siti5 w. ace, 405, 1. 

Sitis, decL, 102, 2. 

-sit5, frequentatives in, 364. 

Situm, i in, 716, 1. 

Situs, defect., 141, 1. 

Sive, 315, 2 ; 392, 6. Sive . . . sive, w. 
indie, 625, 3. 

Size, gen. of, 473, 2, n. 1. 

Skill, gen. w. adjs. of, 451, 1. 

Smell, constr. w. verbs of, 405, 1. 

sQ in fut. perf., 244, 4; frequentatives 
in, 364. 

Socer, decl., 86, 3. 

S61, defect., 141, 2; 6 in, 691, 2. 

S61um, n6n s61um . . . sed (verum) 
etiam, 657, 4, n. 1. 

Solus, decl., 93; w. force of adverb, 
497, 1; gen. of, w. possess., 446, 3. 
Solus qui w. subj., 591, 5. 

Sonants, 7 ; 8, 2. 

Sontis, defect., 144. 

Sotadean verse, 744, n. 2. 

Source, abl. of, 467 ff . ; 629. 

Space, ace. of, 417 ; abl. to denote inter- 
val of space, 479, 3. Summary of con- 
structions of space, 491, III. 

Sparing, dat. w. verbs of, 426, 2. 

Special constrs. w. gen., 445; 446; w. 
infin.,616. 

Species, defect., 141, 1. 

Specification, ace. of, 416; abl., 480 ff. 

Specimen, defect., 138, 4. 

Specus, decl., 131, 2. 

Speech, parts of, 61 ; figures of, 750 ff. 

SperS w. infin., 619, 1. 

Spirants, 7, 7 ; 44, 3. 

Spondaic line, 7.S5, 3. 

Spondee, 721, 1. 

Stanzas, 730; 731 ; of Horace, 747. 

Statud, constr., 418, 3; 565, 5. 
Statum, a in, 715, 1. 



Stem in decl., 74; stem characteristic, 
74, 2 ; in Decl. I., 78, 1 ; Decl. H, 83, 1; 
Decl. III., 96, 1; 98, 1; 99, 1; 100, 1; 
101, 1; Decl. IV., 131, 1; Decl. V., 
134, 1. Stems of verbs, 203; forma- 
tion of, 245 ff. ; classes of stems, 323. 
Stem vowel lost in coinpds., 369. Stem 
syllables, quant, in, 713 ff. ; retained 
in inflected forms, 717 ; deriv. retain 
quant, of prim., 718. 

Stiti, i in penult, 715, 1. 

St5, e in steti, a in statum, 715, 1. 

Strigrilis, decl., 102, 3. 

Strong caesura, 736, footnote. 

Strophe, 731. 

Struts, decl., 106, 1. 

StruO, a in perf. and p. part., 749, VII. 

Sub, subs, in compds., 374, 13; w. dat., 
429. Sub w. ace, 420, 3; w. abl., 490, 
3 ; w. ace. to denote time, 487, 2. 

Subject, 381, 1; simple, 382; complex, 
383 ; modified, 383, 2. Subject nom., 
387 ; pronom. subject omitted, 387, 1 ; 
indef . or gen., 388, 3 ; two or more w. 
one verb, 392; of infin. in ace, 414 ff. 
Infin. as subject, 609. Subject clauses, 
564, 2; 571, 1 and 2. Subjects com- 
pared, 613, 6. Position of subject, 
664; 682. 

Subjective gen., 440, 1 ; as pred. gen., 447. 

Subjunctive mood, 194; syntax of, 521; 

541 ff. ; tenses, 541 ff . ; seq. of tenses, 

542 ff. ; in indep. sentences, 551 ; in 
subord. clauses, 562; in substantive 
clauses, 564 ; in object clauses, 666 ff. ; 
potential, 551, 1.; 552; optative, 551, II.: 
558; volitive, 551, III.; 559; subj. and 
imperat. in commands, 560 ff. ; subj. 
of purpose, 568; in conditions, 573; 
576 ff . ; 579 ; 587 ; in causal clauses, 
588, II. ; w. cum, causal and concess., . 
597; 598 ff. ; w. cum temp., 600, II.; 
w. postquam, 602, 2, n. 2 ; 602, 3 and 
4; w. dum, etc., 603, II., 2; 604; in 
indir. disc, 642 ; 643 ; in indir. clauses, 
649; in indir. quest., 649, 2. 

Subordinate conjuncs., 314, 2; 316. 

Subord. clauses, 386, 1; subj. in, 

562 ff.; in indir. disc, 643; 649, 1; 

position, 683. 
Substantive clauses w. subj., 663, 1; 

5i^4ft.^ 5T1. 



\ 



GENERAL INDEX 



439 



Subter w. ace., 420, 3; w. abl., 490, 3. 
Suffixes in decl., 74; in formation of 

words, 320 ff. 
Sni, decl., 175; use, 502; 503; direct 

and indirect reflex., 504. 1 in sibi, 

693. 
Suitable, constr. w. adjs. meaning, 434, 

2; 435, 1. 
Sum w. dat., 430; w. two dats., 433, 2; 

w. pred. gen., 447 ; 448 ; w. abl., 474, 3 ; 

in periphrastic conjs., 531 ; w. pred. 

adjs. in apodosis, 583, 3. 
Supellex, defect., 138, 4. 
Super in compds. w. ace, 406; w. dat., 

429. Super w. ace, 420, 3; w. abl., 

490, 3. 
Superlative, 149; irregular, 152 ft.; 

wanting, 157; formed by mSlxiine, 

159. Superlative w. part, gen., 442; 

w. abl. of diff., 479, 1 ; w. relat., 510, 

4; w. quisque, 515, 2. Meaning of 

superlat., 498. 
Superstes, w. gen. or dat., 451, 2, n. 1. 
Superus, compar., 155, 2. 
Supine, 200, 3 ; formation, 235, 2 ; constr., 

480, 1 ; in seq. of tenses, 548 ; syntax 

of, 632 ff. ; sup. in um, 633 ff. ; w. e6, 

633, 2; w. iri, 633, 3; sup. in u, 635. 

Quant, of penult of dissyl. supines and 

p. participles, 715. 
Suppeditd w. ace, 405, 2. 
Supply, derivatives denoting, 346. 
Supr& w. ace, 420, 2 ; w. comparatives, 

471, 5. 
Surds, 7 ; 8, 2. 

-8uri8, desideratives in, 366. 
Sas, decl., 107. 
SuscipiO w. gerundive, 622. 
Suus, 176; use, 502; 503; w. quisque, 

503,4; 675, 2; direct and indir. reflex., 

504. 
Syllaba anceps, 720, 5. 
Syllabic caesura, 736, footnote. 
Syllables, 13 ; quant., 14 ff. ; 687 ff. ; post- 
tonic, 19; 24; final, quant, of, 691 ff. 
Synaeresis, 733, 3, n. 4. 
Synaloepha, 733, 1, n. 3 and 4. 
Synapheia, 733, 1, n. 4. 
Syncope, 733, 7 ; 750, 2. 
Synecdoche, 752, 4. 
Synesis, 389 ; 397 ; 489, 9 ; 503, 2. 
Synizesis, 733, 3. 
Syntactic compda., 371, 2. 



Syntax, 4, IV. ; 376 ff . ; sentences, 376 ff . ; 
nouns, 400 ff. ; adjs., 492; prons., 
500 ff. ; verbs, 517 ff. ; particles, 654 ff. 
Rules of syntax, 662. Figures of syn- 
tax, 751. 

Systems of the verb, 232 ff. 

Systole, 733, 6. 



T, sound, 12; changed to d, 52, 2; as- 
similated, 53, 1 and 3; lost, 59, 2. 
Stems in t, 97; gend. of, 122. T 
changed to s in supines and p. parti- 
ciples, 253, 1. Quant, of monosyl. in, 
691 , 2 ; of final syllables in, 692, 2. 

Tace5, w. ace, 405, 2. 

Taedet, constr., 457. 

Taking away, dat. w. verbs of, 427. 

Talis, 178, 8 ; correl., 189. Talis . . . 
quails, 584, 5. 

Tain, 306, 3; meaning and use, 654, n. 2. 
Tarn . . . quam, 584, 5. 

Tamen, 315, 3 ; 659, 1. 

Tametsl, 316, 4; in concess. 586, 1., 1. 

Tamquam, 316, 2; w. abl. abs., 489, 2; 
w. subj. in condit., 584. 

Tandem in questions, 378, 3. 

Tangro, a in tactum, 749, VIL, 1. 

Tantisper, 310. 

Tantopere, meaning and use, 654, n. 2. 

Tantum abest ut, 570, 2. N5n tan- 
tum . . . sed (verum) etiam, 657, 
4, N. 1. 

Tantus, 178, 8 ; correl., 189 ; w. interrog., 
511, 4. Tanti, constr., 448, 1 and 4. 
Tantus . . . quantus, 584, 5. 

-tas, derivatives in, 344 ; 345. 

Taste, constr. w. verbs of, 405, 1. 

Teaching, verbs of, w. two aces., 411. 

Ted, 175, 6. 

TegrS, e in perf. and p. part., 749, VIL 

Temet, 175, 4. 

Tempers w. ace. or dat., 426, 4, n. 

Templum, decl., 83; omitted, 445, 2. 

Temporal eonjuncs., 316, 1. Temp, 
clauses w. cum, 600; w. postquam, 
etc., 602; w. dum, etc., 603; w. ante- 
quam and priusquam, 605; posi- 
tion, 683, 2, N. 

Tempus est w. infin., 608, 4, n. 2. 

Tenses for incomplete and completed 
action, 196 \ prin. and histcsT.^ "^9»», 



440 



GENERAL INDEX 



626 ff.; subj., Miff.; 554; 558, 1. 
Seq. of tenses, 543. Force of tenses in 
condit., 576, 1 and 2; in indir. disc., 
644. Tenses of infin., 617 ; of particip., 
640. 

Tenus w. gen., 446, 5; w. abl., 490, 2, 
N. 3; after its case, 676. 

-ter, adverbs in, 309; verbal nouns in, 
334; decl., 99, 2; adjs. in, 361. 

Terence, peculiarities in versification, 
690, 2 ; 692, 3, n. 1, 2, and 3 ; 741, 2 and 
3;743,4, N. 2. 

Terminational comparison, 151. 

.temus, adjs. in, 349; 355. 

Terra, constr., 485, 2. 

Tenibilis w. supine, 635, 1. 

Testis sum w. infin., 613, 3. 

TStS, 175, 5. 

Tetrameter, 729, n. 2 ; dactylic, 739, 2 ; 
trochaic, 741, 2 and 3; iambic, 743, 4 ; 
Ionic, 744, n. 2. 

Tetrapody, 721, 2, n. 2. 

Tetraseme, 720, 3. 

Tetrastich, 731, n. 

Thematic vowel, 212, footnote 1 ; 247 ff. 
Thematic verbs, 358. 

Thesis, 725. 

Thinking y constr. w. verbs of, 613 ; 641. 

Third decl., 94 ff. Third conj., 212 ff. ; 
268 ff. 

Threatening, dat. of verbs of, 426, 2. 

-tia, nouns in, J^5. 

Tlbur, decl., 108. 

-ticus, -ticius, adjs. in, 350. 

-ties, nouns in, 345. 

-tills, adjs. in, 352. 

-tim in adverbs, 306, 2. 

Time, ace. of, 417; abl., 486; 487; de- 
noted by preps., w. ace, 417, 1 ; 487, 2 ; 
w. abl., 487, 1 ; interval of time, 479, 
3; 488. Adjs. of time, vr. force of 
adverbs, 497, 2. Time, absolute and 
relat., 642 ff. Time denoted by parti- 
ciples, ()38, 1. 

Timeo, constr., 567. 

Times, or morae, 720, 1. 

-timus, adjs. in, 362. 

tingro, tingruo, i in perf. and p. part., 
749, VII. 

-tlnus, adjs. in, 356. 

-tiQ, verbal nouns in, 333. 

Ti8 = tui, 175, 6. 
Titles, superJat. as, 498, 1. 



-tit5, frequentatives in, 364. 
-tivus, adj. in, 350; i in, 712, 5. 
-to, frequentatives in, 364. 
-tor, verbal nouns in, 334; denomina* 

tives in, 334, 4; as adjs., 495, 3. 
Tot, denom. adj., 178, 8; correl., 189. 
TOtus, decl., 93 ; w. loc. abl., 485, 2; w. 

force of adverb, 497, 1. 
Towns, gend. of names of, 69 ; constr., 

491, II.; whither, 418; w. ad, 418, 4; 

whence, 462 ; where, 483. 
Tr&d5 w. gerundive, 622. Trftdor, 

constr., 611, 2, n. 1. 
Trahd, a in perf. and p. part., 749, VII. 
Tr&ns in compds., 374, 14; w. ace., 406; 

w. two aces., 413. Trans w. ace., 

420,2. 
Transitive verbs, 190, 1; w. ace. and 

infin., 414; periphras. conjug. of, 621, 

1 and 3 ; gerund and gerundive, 626, 1. 
Trees, gend. of names of, 69; names of, 

in us, decl., 133, 2. 
TrSs, decl., 166. 
Tribrach, 721, 2. 
TribuO w. two dats., 433, 2. 
Tribus, decl., 131, 2; gend., 132. 
Tricolon, 728, 2, n. 1. 
Trihemimeral caesura, 736, n. footnote. 
Trihemimeris, 721, 2, n. 2. 
Trimeter, 729, n. 2; dactylic, 739, 3; 

iambic, 743; Ionic, 744. 
Tripody, 721, 2, N. 2. 
Triseme, 720, 2. 
-tris, adjs. in, 351. 
Tristich, 731, n. 
Tristis, tristior, decl., 127; tristis w. 

force of adverb, 497, 1. 
Trisyllabic red up. perf., quant, of first 

two syllables, 716. 
-trix, verbal nouns in, 334; as adjs., 

495, 3. 
Trochaic verse, 729, n. 1 ; 740 ff. ; cae- 
sura, 736, N. footnote; dipody, 740; 

dimeter, 741; tetrameter, 741, 2; 

stanza, 747, 14. 
-tnim, verbal nouns in, 335. 
Trusting, dat. w. verbs of, 426, 1. 
Truths, general, expressed by pres. 

indie, 532, 2; by plup. indie, 539, 2; 

in condit., 578. 
Tt changed to st, ss, s, 52, 1; 253, 1; 






GENERAL INDEX 



441 



-tadd, derivatiyes in, 344; 345. 

Tuli, u in, 715, 1. 

-turn, derivatives in, 343. 

Turn in series, t)57, 4, n. 2. Turn . . . 

turn, cum . . . turn, 057, 4, n. 1. 
-turid, deslderatives in, 366. 
-tumus, adjs. in, 349 ; 355. 
Turris, decl., 102, 3. 
-tarus, a, um, derivatives in, 328. 
-tU8, adverbs in; 309 ; deriv. noons, 328 ; 

adjs. in, 346. 
-tus, derivatives in, 344. 
Tussis, decl., 102. 
Tate, tatemet, 175, 4. 
Tuus, possess., 176. 
Two aces., 410 ; 411 ; two dats., 433 ; two 

abls., 477, I., 2; two reflexives, 504, 

2; two interrogs., 511, 3; two gens., 

626,4; two negs., 656. 

U 

U, u, sound, 10; parasitic, 10, 3. U- 

nouns, 107, 2; 131; defect., 143, 1; 

U- verbs, 359; 363. Supine in a, 635. 

U final, quant, of, 692, 1 ; in increm. 

of decl., 705; 710; conj., 711 and 5. 
_ U as consonant, 733, 3, n. 2. 
Uber, decl., 129. 
Ubi, 308, 2 ; 316, 1 ; 510, 11 ; in temp. 

clauses, 538, 3 ; 602 ; in relat. clauses, 

689 ff.; in clause w. infin. in indir. 

disc, 643, 1. I in ubi, 693. 
Ubicumque, ubiubi, p. 72, footnote 3. 
-ubus = -ibus, 131, 2. 
-tlcus, derivatives in, 330. 
-€Ld in abl., 131, 5 and footnote 3. 
-ago, a in, 712, 2. 
Ui, sound, 11. Perfs. in ui, quant, of 

stem syllables, 714. 
-uis = -as, 131,3. 
-ula, verbal nouns in, 335; dimins. in, 

340; uin, 712, 9. 
-aiis, adjs. in, 348 ; a in, 712, 3. 
Ullus, decl., 93; use, 187, 1, n. 2; 188; 

513. 
Ulterior, ultimus, 155, 1 ; ultlznus w. 

force of adverb, 497, 3. 
Ultra w. ace, 420, 2. 
-uluxn, verbal nouns in, 335 ; dimin. in, 

340. 
-ulus, derivatives in, 331 ; 334,6; dimin. 

in, 340; u in, 712, 9. 



-um in gen. plur., 80, 1; 84, 3; 102, 5; 
106, 7. Nouns in um, 338. Supine in 
um, 633 ; w. e6, 633, 2 ; w. W, 633, 3. 

Umbrian dialect, 2. 

Umquam in interrog. sentence, fol- 
lowed by quin, 595, 5. 

-ana, a in, 712, 4. 

Uncertainty, expressions of, w. quIn, 
595,1. 

Unclothing t constr. w. verbs of, 407. 

Unde, of persons, 510, 11; in relat. 
clauses, 589 ff. ; w. infin., 643, 1. 

Undertaking, gerundive w. verbs of, 
622. 

-undus, -undl, 243 ; derivatives in, 328. 

UngfO, a in perf. and p. part., 749, VII. 

Ungruis, decl., 102, 4. 

Unionj dat. w. verbs of, 428, 3. 

Unlike, gen. w. adjs. meaning, 436, 4. 

Unus, decl., 93; 166; followed by abl. 
w. prep., or part, gen., 444, 1 ; gen. of, 
w. possess., 446, 3; w. quisque, 515, 
3; anus qui w. subj., 691, .5. 

-anus, -ana, nouns in, 349, 4; a in, 
712, 4. 

-uos = -as, 131,3. 

-ur, decl. of adjs. in, 92, 1; gend. of 
nouns in, 122; 124. 

Urbs, decl., 105. 

Urging, constr. w. verbs of, 566, 4. 

-umus, adjs^in, 349. 

Ur6, u in ussi, 749, VI., 1. 

-us, nouns in, decl., 82 ff.; 101; 131; in 
as, 97, 4; quant, of increm., 710; 
verbal nouns in us, 333 ; 334, 6 ; 338 ; 
names of trees in, decl., 133,2; neu- 
ters in, Decl. II., 83, 10; gend., Decl. 
III., 115; 119; 122; 124; heteroclites 
in us and um, 145,5; heterogeneous, 
147; 148; us, us fiual, 692, 3; 701. 

Usefuly dat. w. adjs. meaning, 434, 2; 
ad, 435, 1. 

Usque w. ace, 420, 6. 

Usus, constr., 477, III. and n. 

Ut, uti, 316, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 6. Ut w. 
subj., 558, 5; 562, 1 and N.; in repu- 
diating questions, 559, 5 ; w. subj. of 
purpose, 564; 565; 568; w. verbs of 
fearing, 567, 1 ; w. subj. of result, 570 ; 
in concess., 58iB, II. ; w. relat., 592, 1; 
in temp, clauses, 602; w. infin. clause. 
I 643,2. Ut. noTi^TLi^.^yc^i^^, XS^^^^a. 



442 



GENERAL INDEX 



ut . . . ita in comparison, 686, II., 5 ; 

599,2. 
-ut, decl. of nouns in, 97. 
Uter, decl., 106, 6. 
Uter, decl., 93; 184, 2; correl., 189; 

use, 511, 2. 
Utercumque, uterlibet, uterque, 

utervis, decl., 93, 6. Uterque w. 

plur. verb, 389, 3; w. prons., 442, 4; 

meaning and use, 51G, 4 and 5. 
Ut n6n, 316, 6. 
Utinaxn w. opt. subj., 558, 2. 
Utor w. abl., 477, 1. ; w. ace, 477, L, 1 ; 

gerundive, 623, 1. 
Utpote, 316, 7; w. relat., 592, 1; w. 

cum, 598, 1. 
Utrum, 315, 2, n.; 380, 4; in indir. 

quest., 650, 1. 
Ut si, 316, 2; w. subj., 584. 
-atus, adjs. in, 346 ; a in, 712, 6. 
-uus, derivatives in, 331. 
-ux, nouns in, decl., 98. 



V, originally not distinguished from u, 

5, 4; sound, 12; dropped, 43, 1; 49; 

238. 
Vacuus, constr., 465, 1. 
Vae, w. dat., 421, 4. 
Value, gen. of, 448; abl. of, 478. 
Valuing y pred. gen. w. verbs of, 447 ; 448. 
Vannus, gend., 87, 3. 
Variable vowel, 96, 2; 97, 2; 100, 1; 

101, 1; in compd. verbs, 231. 
Varieties of verse, 734 ff. 
Vas, decl., 145, 2. Vas, a in, 691, 3; 

quant, of increm., 706. 
Vates, decl., 106, 1. 
Ve, 315, 2; 691, 1 ; position, 677, 2. 
Ve, insep. prep., 313; in compds., 375,8. 
Vel, 315, 2; 392, 5; 65S, 1 and 2. Vel 

potius, vel etiam, 658, 2. 
Velars, 45 ; labialized, 45. 
Velim, vellem, in wishes, 558, 4. 
Velut, velut si, 316, 2; w. subj., in 

condit., 584. 
VeniS w. infin.,608, 1. Venit in men- 

tem, w. gen., 454, 4. 
Venter, decl., 106, 6. 
Ver, defect., 138, 4; quant, of increm., 

708. 
Verha.1 nouns, classes of, 332; denolmg 



action , 333 ; agent, 334 ; means, 335 ff . ; 
w. infin,, 608, 4, n. 2. Verbal incep- 
tives, 277, 2 ; 279. 

Verbs, morphology of, 190 ff.; classes 
190, 1, 2, and 3 ; voices, 191 ff. ; moods 
193 ff. ; tenses, 196 ff. ; conjs., 201 ff. 
prin. parts., 2(^ ff . ; paradigms, 204 ff. 
comparative view, 218 ff . ; deponent 
222 ff.; 267,1; 266; 281 ff.; 283; 289 
semi-deponent, 224 ; 267 ; 283, 1 ; i-verbs 
of Conj. III., 225 ff.; verbal inflections, 
230 ff.; vowel changes in compds., 231; 
systems, 232 ff. ; verbal endiugs, 254ff. ; 
classification of verbs, 257 ff. ; incep- 
tives or inchoatives, 277 ff . ; 365 ; de- 
siderati ves, 288 ; 366 ; irregular, 290 ff. ; 
defective, 299; impersonal, 302; deri- 
vation and history of, 356 ff. ; root 
verbs, 357; thematic verbs, 368; witti 
suffix io, 359; formation from nouns 
and adjs., 360 ff. ; a- verbs, 369, 1; 
360; e-verbs, 359, 2; 361; l-verbs, 
359, 3 ; 362 ; u-verbs, 359, 4 ; 363 ; f re- 
quentatives, 364 ; diminutives, 367 ; 
denominatives in ico and isrS, 368. 
Long vowel of pres. retained through- 
out, 749, VI. 

Verbs, Syntax of, 517 ff. ; verb omitted, 

388, 4; 642, 1; plur. w. sing, subj., 

389. Voices, 517; 518; person and 
number, 519; moods, 520 ff.; indie, 
523 ff. ; tenses, 526 ff. ; subj., and its 
tenses, 541 ff. ; seq. of tenses, 546 ff.; 
subj. in indep. sentences, 551 ff.; 
imperat., 560 ff. ; subj. in subord. 
clauses, 562 ff. ; final clauses, 568; 
result, 570; condit., 572 ff . ; concess. 
clauses, 586 ; 589 ; causal clauses, 
588; 598; relat., 589 ff. ; temporal, 
600 ff. ; infin., 606 ff . ; gerunds and 
gerundives, 621 ff. ; supines, 632 ff.; 
particips., 636 ff. ; indir. disc, 641 flf.; 
indir. clauses, 649 ff. Position of 
modifiers of verb, 673. 

Verffil, versification, 747. 

Vero, 315, 3; 659, 2; in answers, 379, 1. 

Verses, 720; 727; name, 729; 730; varie- 
ties, 734 ff. 

Versification, 720 ff. Feet, 720; verses, 
720; 727; names, 729; 730. Figures 
of pros., 733. Varieties of verse, 734. 
N ^T&\^c^\\Q>vi Qt principal poets, 747. 



GENERAL INDEX 



443 



VertO w. two data., 433, 2. 

Vera, decl., 131, 2. 

VSrum, 306, 3; 315, 3; 659, 1. N6n 
851uin (modo, tantum) . . . vSnixn 
etiam, 657, 4, n. 1. 

Vescor w. abl., 477, 1. 

Vesper, decl., 86, 3. 

Vestri, vestrum, use, 175, 2. 

Vet5, constr., 565, 3; 642, 5; in pass., 
611, 2, N. 2. 

Vetus, decl., 128; compar., 156. 

Vicis, defect., 142. 

VidS, d in, 696, 2. 

Videlicet, 310, 1. 

Vide© w. cum, 601, 4, n. ; videor, 
constr., 611, 2, n. 2. 

Vir, decl., 86, 1. 

VirgS, decl., 100. 

Virtas, decl.,97. 

Virus, decl., 83, 10; gend., 88. 

Vis, decl., 107; quant, of increm., 709. 

Vocative, like nom., p. 21, footnote 2; 
decl., 83, 5; 83, 9; 89, 5; Decl. III., 
110, 2, 4, 6, and 9. Syntax of voc, 
"402; voc. for nom., 402, 3; in excla- 
mat.,421, 2; position, 680. I final in 
Greek vocatives, 693^; S in, 695, 2. 

Voices, 191 ff. ; meaning, 517 ff. 

Volitive subj., 551, UI.; 559; 564; 668; 
in relat. clause, 590. 

Vol6 w. two aces., 412; w. infin. or 
subj., 565, 2; 614, 2. Volens w. dat. 
of possessor, 430, 2. 

Volucer, decl., 126, 2. 

Volucris, decl., 102, 5. 

-volus, compds. in, 369, 4; compar., 
153. 

Vostrum, vostrarum, vostrSrum, 
175, 6. 

Vowels, classes of, 7 ; quantity, 15 ; in- 
herited, 20; vowel gradation, 21 ; pho- 
netic changes in, 23 £f. ; assimilation, 
31; lengthened, 37 ff. ; shortened, 39; 
lost, 40; developed, 41; contraction, 
42 ff. Variable vowels, 96, 2. Vowel 
changes in compds., 231. Thematic 



vowel, p. 96, footnote 1 ; 247 ff.; vowel 
variations in roots, stems, and suf&zes, 
325 ; 326. Stem vowel lost or changed 
in compds., 369. Final vowels, quant, 
of, 692. Final vowels elided, 733, 1; 
shortened in hiatus, 733, 2, n. Vowels 
long when they represent diphs., or 
result from contraction, 749, II. Long 
vowels of primitives retained in 
derivs., 749, III. ; in compds., 749, IV. ; 
in nom. sing, of nouns and adjs. in- 
creasing long in the gen., 749, V. 

Vulfirus, decl., 83, 10; gend., 88. 

-vus, derivatives in, 331. 



W 

Want, constr. w. verbs of, 468, 2. 
Watches of night, 756, 1. 
Weak caesura, 736, n. footnote. 
Will, subj. of, 551, III. ; 559. 
Winds, gend. of names of, 68. 
Wishing, verbs of, in potent, subj., 666 ; 

w. subj., 565 ; 614, 1 ; w. infin.., 614. 
Words, format, of, 318 flf. ; inflection 

and derivation, 320 ff. ; arrang. of, 

663 flf. 
Writers, Latin, 753. 



X, sound, 7, N. ; dropped, 68, 3; nouns 
in, decl., 98; 105; gend., 115; 120. 



Y, in foreign words only, 6, 2 ; sound, 
10, 2 ; gend. of nouns in, 122. Y final, 
quant, of, 692, 1. 

Year, calendar of, 755. 

Ys, gend. of nouns in, 115 ; 119 ; final, 
692,3. 



Z, in foreign words only, 6, 2. 
Zeugma, 761, 2, n. 



PARALLEL REFERENCES 

SHOWING THE CORRESPONDING SECTIONS IN THE GRAMMAR^ 

OF 1881 AND 1898 



Old 


Kew 


Old 


New 


Old 


Kew 


1 


4 


38 


61 


69-96 


•— 


2 


5 


39 


62 


99 


111 


3 


&^ 


40 


64 


100 


112; 116 


4 


9 


41 


65 


101; IT» 


113 


5 


10 


— 


66 


103; 104 


114 


6 


11 


42 


67-70 


105 


115 


7 


12 


43 


71 


106 


117 


8 


13 


44 


72 


107 


118 ; 119 


9-15 


10 footnote 2 


45 


73 


108 


120 


16 


14; 15 


46 


74; 75 


109 


117 


17 


16 


47 


76 


110 


121 


18 


17; 18 


— 


77 


111 


122 


— 


19-21 


48 


78 


112; 113 


123 


19 


22 


— 


78,7 


114; 115 


124 


— 


23 


49 


79; 80 


116 


131 


20 


37; 38 


50 


81 


117 


131, 2 and 3 


21 


39 


51 


82; 83; 85; 86 


— 


131,5 


22 


24-30 


52 


83,5; 84 


118 


132 


23 


42; 43 


53 


82; 87; 88 


119 


133 


23, n. 


32-36 


54 


89 


120 


134 


— 


44-49 


55 


— 


— 


134,5 


24 


— 


— 


94 


121 


134, 2 and 3 


25 


31 


56 


95 


122 


134,4 


26 


— 


57 


96 


123 


135 


27 


40 


58 


97 


124 


136 


— 


41 


59 


98 


125-127 


— 


28; 29 


— 


60 


99; 100 


128 


137 


30 


61 


61 


101 


129 


— 


31 


50 


62 


102 


130 


138 


32 


52, 2, 3 


63 


103 


131 


139 


— 


54 


— 


104 


132 


140 


33 


55 


64 


105; 106 


133 


141; 142 


34 


53 


65 


102-105 


134 


143 


35 


56; 52,1 


66 


107; 108 


135-140 


145 


36 


57-^9 


67 


107,4 


141-143 


147 


37 


60 


i 68 


4cH 


144 


148 



PARALLEL REFERENCES 



445 



Old 


Xew 


Old 


New 


Old 


New 


145 


147, 6, D. 


203 


204 


261 


260 


146 


63 


204 


205 


262 


261 


147 


— 


205 


206; 207 


263 


262 


148 


90; 91 


206 


208 


264; 266 


263 


149 


91 


207 


209; 210 


266 


264 


150 


91; 92 


208 


211 


267 


266 


161 


93 


209 


212; 213 


268 


266; 267 


152 


126 


210 


214 


269 


268 


163 


126 


211 


215; 216 


270 


269 


154 


127 


212 


217 


271 


270 


156-168 


128-130 


213 


218 


272 


271 


169 


137,3; 144; 146 


214 


219 


273 


272 


160 


149 


216 


220 


274 


273 


161 


160 


216 


221 


275 


273,1 


162 


161 


217 


225 


276 


276; 278; 279,1 


163 


162 


218 


226; 227 


277 


276; 278; 279 


164 


163 


219 


228 


278 


274; 276; 278 


166 


154 


220 


230 


279 


276 


166 


156* 


221 


231 


280 


277 


167 


166 


222 


232-236 


281 


279 


168 


167; 158 


22^230 


— . 


282 


280 


169 


160 


231 


222; 229 


283 


281-283 


170 


159 


232 


223 


284 


284; 288 


171 


161 


— 


224 


285-287 


285-287 


172 


162 


233 


236 


288 


289 


173 


162, n. 


234 


237 


289 


290 


174 


163-166 


235 


238 


290 


290-292 


176 


166 


236 


239 


291 


293 


176; 177 


167 


237 


240 


292 


294 


178 


168 


238 


241 


293 


295 


179 


169 


239 


243 


294 


296 


180 


170 


240 


244 


295 


297 


181 


171 


241 


264 


296 


298 


182 


172 


242 


^ 266 


297 


299-301 


183 


173 


243 


— 


298 


302 


184 


174 ; 176 


244 


266,2 


299-300 


302,2 


186 


176 


245 


266,1 


301 


302,6 


186 


177 ; 178 
180; 181 


246 


256,2 


302 


303 


mXj\m 


247 


266 


303 


304 


— 


179 


248 


— 


304 


306-310 


187 


182 


249 


246 


305 


— 


188 


183; 184 


250 


246 


306 


311 


189 


186 


261 


247 


307 


312 


190 


186; 187 


262 


248 


308 


313 


— 


188 


253 


249 


309 


314 


191 


189 


264 


250 


310 


315 


192-194 


190 


266 


251; 262 


311 


316 


196 


191 ; 192 


266 


263 


312 


317 


196 


193-196 


267 


257 


313 


318 


197 


196; 197 


258 


257, 2 ; 258 


— . 


319 


198-201 


198-201 


269 


259 




•SHJiA 


202 


202; 203 


260 


251,1 


^SXSk 



446 



PARALLEL REFERENCES 



Old 


New 


Old 


New 


Old 


New 


316 


323,1 


365 


400 


414 


(463; 464; 465; 
' 477, m. 


317 


323,2 


366 


400, n. 


318 


323,3 


— 


401 


— 


466 


— 


324-332 


367 


459 


415 


467-470 


319 


369 


368 


387 


416 


475 


319, notes 


321; 322 


369 


402 


417 


471 


320 


— 


370 


403 


418 


472 


321 


340; 341 


371 


404; 405; 409 


419 


473; 474 


322 


342 


371, 1, n. 


408 


420 


476 


323 


343 


372 


406 


421 


477 ; 481 


324 


344 


373 


410 


— 


482 


325 


345 


374 


411 


422 


478 


326 


334; 335 


375 


412 


423 


479 


327 


333; 335; 336 


376 


413 


424 


480 


— . 


337-339 


377 


407 


425 


483; 485 


328 


346 


378 


416 


426 


484 


329 


347 


379 


417 


427 


491, 1. 


330 


348 


380 


418 ; 419 


428 


491, U. 


— 


349-352 


381 


421 


429 


486; 487 


331 


353 


382 


423 


430 


488 


332 


340 


383 


422 


431 


489 


333 


328,5; 329 


384 


424; 425 


432 


420; 490 


334 


355 


386 


426-428 


433 


420 


— 


356-359 


386 


429 


434 


490 


335 


360-363 


387 


430 


435 


420,3; 490, - 


336 


364 


388 


431 


436 


312 


337 


365 


389 


432 


437 


490,4 


338 


366 


390 


433 


438 


394 


339 


367 


391 


434; 435 


439 


395 


— 


368 


392 . 


436 


440 


492; 493; 4^^ 


340; 341 


369 


393 


437 


441 


494; 495 




370; 371 


394 


438 


442 


496 


342; 343 


372 


395 


439 


443 


497 


344 


373-375 


396 


440 


444 


498; 499 


345 


376 


397 


440,5; 441-444 


445 


396-399 


346 


377 


398 


445; 446 


446 


500 


347 


377,1 


399 


450-452 


447 


501 


348 


386 


400 


453 


448 


502 


349 


377, 2 ; 385 


401 


439 


449 


603; 504 


350 


377,3 


402; 403 


447 


450 


505-507 


351 


377,4; 378 


404 


448 


451 


508 


352 


379 


405 


448,4 


452 


509 


353 


380 


406 


449; 454; 457 


453 


610 


354 


377,5 


407 


454 


454 


511 


355 


377,6 


— 


455 


455 


512 


356; 357 


381 


408 


449 


456 


512, 4 and 6 


358 


382 


409 


456; 457 


457 


513 


359 


383 


410 


458 


458 


614; 515 


360 


382 


411 


459 


459 


616 


361 


384 


— 


460 


460 


388 


362; 363 


393 


412 
413 


^\\ 46«. 


. 461 
\ '^'L 


389 


364 


393,4 


4!5\\ ^1 \ ^It» 


^«^\^JV 



PARALLEL REFERENCES 



447 



Old 


New 


Old 


New 


Old 


New 


463 


392 


507 


573 


549 


637-639 


— 


517 


508 


574; 576 


550 


640 


464; 466 


518 


509 


576; 677 


651 


664 


466 


532 


— 


578 


552 


665 


467 


632 ; 533 


510 


579 


663 


666 


468 


534 


511 


680-583 


554 


657-^1 


469 


534; 536 


512 


583,4 


565 


661, n. 


470 


536 


613 


681; 687 


656; 557 


— 


471 


537; 538 


514 


— 


558 


662 


472 


639 


515 


585 ; 586 ; 593, 2 


659 


663 


473 


540 


515, TTI. 


599 


660 


664 


474 


620; 523 


n.4 


561 


666 


475 


524 


516 


588 


562 


666 


476 


525 


— 


589 


663 


667 


_ 


526-531 


517 


592; 698; 599 


564 


668 


477 


521 


518 


602 


— 


669; 670 


_ 


522 


519 


603; 604 


565 


671 


478 


511 


520 


605 


566 


672 


479 


641,2 


521 


600; 601 


567 


673 


480 


511,3 


522 


641 


568 


674 


481 


541,2 


523 


642 


669 


675-680 


482 


541, 2 and 3 


624 


643 


570 


681 


^_ 


542 


525 


644 


671 


682 


483 


559 


526 


645 


572 


683 


484 


658; 559 


527 


646-648 


— 


684 


485 


552 


528 


649 


573 


685 


486 


653-657 


529 


649; 652 


574 


686 


487 


560 


530 


653 


575 


.— 


488; 489 


561 


531 


— 


676 


687; 688 


_ 


562; 563 


532 


606 


577 


689 


490 ; 491 


543 


533 


607; 608 


678 


690 


__ 


544 


— 


609 


579 


691 


492 


545,1. 


534 


414; 611 


580 


692 


493 


545, n. 


534, n. 


242 


681 


693-701 


494 


545, 1, and II. 


635 


613; 614 


682 


702 


495 


646-650 


536 


416; 610; 612 


683 


703 


— 


551 


537 


617-620 


684 


704 


496 


541,2 


538 


615 


585 


706-710 


497 


568; 590 


639 


616 


686 


711 


— 


569 


540 


564; 671; 688, 
3;651, 1 


587 


712 


498 


564, 1. ; 565-5(>7 


588 


713 


499 


665, 2; 564, II. 


641 


624 


589 


714 


andlU.; 568.6 


642 


625-631 


690 


716 


600 


570; 691 


543 


621 


591 


716 


601 


671 


543, n. 


623 


f92 


717 


502 


570 


544 


626-631 


593 


718 


603 


591 


644,2, 


j 622 


594 


719 


~^ 


594,1. 


11.2 


595 


— 


504 


594, n. ; 595 


645 


632 


596 


720 


505 


590 


546 


633; 634 


597 


721 


__ 


597 


547 


635 


598 


TKL.'Via* 


606 


672 


548 


6a& 


\ T^ 


Ifttk 



448 



PABALLSL REFERENCES 



Old 


New 


Old 


New 


Old 


New 1 


GOO 


725 


617 


739,3 


632; 633 


— 1 


— 


726 


618 


740 


634; 635 


750 1 


601 


727 


619 


741 


636 


751 1 


602 


728 


620 


741,2 


637 


762 1 


603 


729 


621 


742 


638 


1-^ 1 


60« 


730 


622 


743 


639; 640 


753 1 


605 


720.5 


623 


743,2 


641; 642 


754 1 


606 


731 


624 


743,3 


643 


756 1 


607 


732 


626 


743,4 


644 


{ 765, notes 1 1 
\ and 2. 1 


608 


733 


626 


744 


609 


734 


627 


745 


645 


756 1 


610 


735 


628 


745, 1-10 


646; 647 


767 1 


611 


736 


629 


745, 10, notes 
2 and 3. 


648 




612 


737 


649 


354 


613 


738 


— 


746 


650 


768 


614 


739 


630 


747 


651 


749 


615 


739,1 


631 


747, 1-19 






616 


739,2 


— 


748 







t 



1 



*1 
•'l' 



1<» 



%■ 



^ 


■■■illllH 1 

3 bios Dll 14.= '■"=' ■ 


-■ 


m 


! 




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