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^ B 

« 8 » 7 



History of Norwich. 
















By a. D. BAYNE. 






5 4, 



Some account of the sources of information should be 
given in the preface to a history, in order to assure the reader 
of the authenticity of the narrative. No one can have 
turned over a bookseller's catalogue of local historical pub- 
lications without observing how few they are in comparison 
with the extent and importance of the particular district in 
view. The fact is, that most of the productions of the early 
authors are either very scarce or are entirely out of print. 
No city or county can boast of so many industrious topo- 
graphers and antiquarians as Norwich and Norfolk. If 
we arrange them in alphabetical order, we have : — Ames, 
Beatniffe, Blomefield, P. Browne, Brettingham, Sir Thomas 
Browne, Chambers, Coiy, Cotman, Dixon, Eldridge, Sir 
Richard EUes, Forby, Sir John Fenn, Sir Andrew Fountaine, 
R Fitch, Gibson, Gillingwater, Hudson Gumey, Green, 
Gunn, Gurdon, Harrod, Ives, Kent, J. Kirkpatrick, Le Neve, 
Lawrence, Mackerell, Manship (both father and son), 
Marshall, Tom Martin, Matchett, Neville, Nashe, Parkin, 

vi Prtf(ue. 

Prideaux, Quarles, Richards, Sir H. Spelman, Sir John 
Spelman, Clement Spelman, Swinden, Dawson Turner, 
Wilkins, Watts, Wilkinson, and the Woodwards (father and 
son). Most of these, however, were andquarians, and con- 
tributed more to archsology and topography than to history. 

Mr, J. Kirkpatrick, in the early part of the eighteenth 
century, was the first who formed the plan of a r^ular 
historical narrative. He spent the greater part of his life in 
making researches and collecting materials for a history of 
Norwich ; and he wrote an immense quantity of matter in 
thick folio volumes, the whole of which he left in MS. to 
the old corporation. They comprised — 

No. 1. A thick folio volume of the Early History and 
Jurisdiction of the City; date 1710. 

No. z. A similar folio volume, being an account of the 
Military Slate of the City, its walls, towers, ponds, pits, wells, 
pumps, &c. i date 1722. 

No. 3. A thick quarto. 

No. 4. Several large bundles, foolscap folio ; Annals of 

No. 5. A fasciculus, foolscap folio ; Origin of Charities, 
and Wills relating thereto, in each parish. 

No. 6. Memorandum books of Monuments. 

No. 7. Ditto of Merchants' Marks. 

No. S. Ditto of Plans of Churches. 

No. 9. Paper containing Drawings of the City Gates, and - 
a plan of Norwich. 

No. 10. Drawings of all the Churches. 

Preface. vii 

No. II. An immense number of pieces of paper contain- 
ing notes of the tenure of each house in Norwich. 

No. 12. A MS. quarto volume of 258 pages; the first 
sixty devoted to notes upon the Castle at Norwich, the 
remainder to an account of Religious Orders and Houses, 
and the Hospitals of the City. 

After the new corporation was constituted, all Kirkpatrick's 
MSS. were dispersed into different hands. The late Hudson 
Gurney, Esq., obtained possession of some of them, and 
published a very limited number of copies of those relating 
to the castle and to religious houses. Mr. Dawson Turner 
edited the last-named MS. (No. 12), and it was printed 
in 1845. He says that all the other MSS. had disappeared, 
but that they were safe in the custody of the old coq^oration, 
thirty years before (18 15), when Mr. De Hague held the 
office of town clerk. 

Fortunately, Mr. Kirkpatrick was the contemporary of the 
Rev. F. Blomefield, the historian of Norfolk, who appreciated 
his researches, anil bore this testimony to his merits : — 

" Mr. Kirkpatrick was a most laborious antiquary and made 
great collections for the city of Norwich, of which he published 
a large prospectus. In pursuing his studies, he worked with 
Peter Le Neve, Norroy ; and as they were very intimate, they 
mutually exchanged their collections for this place, Mr. Kirk- 
patrick giving all his draughts to Mr. Le Neve, and Mr. Le Neve 
giving his to Mr. Kirkpatrick- To the labours of both these 
gentlemen I am exceedingly obliged, and did I not acknowledge 
my obligations in this public manner, I should inwardly condemn 
myself as guilty of the highest ingratitude." 

V* ■ ■ 

viii Preface, 

Mr. Blomefield was, indeed, indebted to his deceased 
friend for the most valuable parts of his History of Norwich, 
published in 1742. It is the only part of his work which 
can be properly called history, the rest consisting of topogra- 
phical descriptions of different hundreds and parishes in 
Norfolk. Mr. Blomefield began to print his " History of 
Norfolk" at his own press in his own house at Fersfield, in 
^739> t)y subscription, and intended to publish a list of his 
subscribers when the whole was finished. During his life 
the History came out in monthly folio numbers ; but he died 
when he had proceeded as far as page 678 of the third 
volume. This volume was completed by the Rev. Charles 
Parkin, rector of Oxburgh, Suffolk ; and after his death was 
printed in 1769 by Whittingham, bookseller at Lynn, by 
whom the "Continuation" was published in two more 
volumes in 1777, these two volumes being very inferior to 
the previous three. Blomefield's work is of course the chief 
source of information respecting Norwich, and it has been 
republished in many abridged forms, the best edition being 
that printed by J. Crouse for M. Booth, bookseller, in 1781, 
in ten vols., the last relating to Norwich. Many smaller 
abridgements have also been published, carrying on the 
narrative to a later date. 

The most reliable authority for the whole of the eighteenth 
century is the "Norfolk Remembrancer," compiled with 
great care by Mr. Matchett. R. Fitch, Esq., published a 
very full and accurate account of the Old Walls and Gates 
from J. Kirkpatrick's MSS., illustrated with views by the late 

Preface. ix 

John Ninham. B. B. Woodward, Esq., F.S.A., librarian 
of the royal library at Windsor Castle, has also been a con- 
tributor to the history of the old city, but as yet we have 
only brief reports of his lectures " On Norwich in the Olden 
Time," as published in the local journals. He directed 
attention to the purely fictitious accounts of the origin of the 
city to be found in the early historians, who drew in all 
good faith on their fertile imaginations. He gave a much 
more probable account, and described the progress of the 
city at different periods, as quoted in the following pages. 
Mr. Harrod, too, has contributed a good deal to more 
accurate views of early periods, especially in relation to the 
earth-works of the castle, and to the monasteries. 

The chapters on the " Rise and Progress of Noncon- 
formists in Norwich " in this history, are the first given in 
any work of the kind, and supply information which will 
readily account for the political condirion of the city. From 
a few hundreds in the seventeenth century, the Noncon- 
formists have so greatly increased that now they number 
many thousands, and have at the same time attained to con- 
siderable wealth and influence. 

The chapters on Trade and Commerce supply a new 
feature in Norwich history, and are very important to men of 
business. The information on this head, including the 
history of the Manufactures and of the \Vholesale Trade of 
the city, is for the most part taken from Essays, by the 
compiler, to which the prizes were awarded at the Norwich 
Industrial Exhibition of 1867. 

X Preface, 

The great length of the secular narrative must suffice as 
an apology for the brevity of the ecclesiastical details, which 
occupy the greater portion of Blomefield's work. A full 
history of the churches in Norwich would fill many volumes ; 
indeed, Kirkpatrick's account of the Old Religious Houses 
occupies as many as 300 pages. But the general reader 
would not be interested by such details. 

A full history of Norwich, up to the latest date, has long 
been wanted, and the present compiler has availed himself 
of all sources of information, but he has been obliged to 
compress a great deal into a small compass. He has intro- 
duced many notices of eminent citizens of every period, 
including bishops and ministers of all denominations, who 
exercised much influence in their day and generation. 

Accurate views of local history afford the clearest insight 
into the state of society at different periods. Thus the 
records of Norwich Castle prove that nearly all the land 
in the country was either assigned to bear, or was chargeable 
with, the castle guard of some castle or other in ancient 
times. The castles being fortresses were the centres around 
which large towns arose, and where people most congregated 
for protection in lawless ages. The whole island was one 
vast camp during the feudal period. Monasteries were the 
only places of refuge for travellers, or for the destitute poor, 
and when the religious houses were dissolved, an entire 
change took place in the state of society. 

Local history, properly imderstood, is not a dry register of 
events, but leads from particiilar conclusions to higher 



generalisations. The predominance of certain ideas at 
different times produced all the events of those periods. 
Norwich men took an active part in all the great movements 
of the day, — ^in the Reformati6n, the Civil Wars, the 
Commonwealth, and all the agitations of more modem times. 
Therefore, the story of the city is interesting and important 
in every period, and it is identified with the whole course of 
events in East Anglia. Indeed, it is difficult to separate the 
history of Norwich, the capital of East Anglia, from that of 
the whole district. 




Survey of Norwich. Rise and Progress of the City 
— The Modem City — Public Buildings — Parishes 
and Parish Churches — Nonconformist Chapels. 9 — 115 


Chapter I. 

The Ancient City — Old Walls and Gates — Desecrated 
Churches and Chapels — Monastic Institutions — 
Monumental Brasses ... ... ... 116 — 145 

Chapter II. 

The Aborigines 

146— 151 

Chapter III. 
Norwich in the Roman Period — The Venta Icenorum 152 — 157 

Chapter IV. 
Norwich in the Anglo-Saxon Period 

Chapter V. 
Norwich under the Danes 

Chapter VI. 
Norwich in the Norman Period ..* 

151 — 161 

162 — 164 


xiv Summary of Contents. 


Chapter VII. 
Norwich in the Twelfth Century ... ... 169 — 172 

Chapter VIII. 
Norwich in the Thirteenth Century ... ... 173—176 

Chapter IX. 
Norwich in the Fourteenth Century ... 177 — 182 

Chapter X. 
Norwich in the Fifteenth Centur>' ... ... 183 — 187 

Chapter XI. 

Norwich in the Sixteenth Century — Bilney*s Martydom 
— Dissolution of the Monasteries — Kett's Rebellion 
— Queen Mary — Queen Elizabeth — Eminent Citizens 
of the Period ... ... ... 188— 211 

Chapter XII. 

^-'Norwich in the Seventeenth Century — The Civil Wars 

— Eminent Citizens ... ... ... 212 — 240 

Chapter XIII. 

Nonconformity in Norwich — The Independents — The 

Baptists— The Methodists ... ... 241—257 

Chapter XIV. 

' — ^Social State of Norwich from Fourteenth to Eighteenth 

Centuries — Trade Regulations, &c. ... 258 — 267 

Chapter XV. 

^^Norwich in the Eighteenth Century — Social State — 
Nonconformity — Eminent Citizens — Norwich in the 
Nineteenth Century ... ».. ... 268 — 356 

Summary of Contents, xv 



Histoty of the Norwich Navigation... ... 357 — 365 

Chapter XVII. 
Leading Events of the Nineteenth Century ... 366 — 378 

Chapter XVIII. 

The Reform Era — Commission of Enquiry respecting 
the Old Corporation — The Election of Stormont and 
Scarlett ... ... ... ... 379 — 404 

Chapter XIX. 
The Reign of Queen Victoria — Leading Events 405 — 415 

Chapter XX. 
The Murder of Isaac Jermy, Recorder of Norwich 416 — 428 

Chapter XXL 

The Census of 1861 — New Poor Law Act — Visit of 
Prince and Princess of Wales, the Duke of 
Edinburgh, and the Queen of Denmark — The New 
Drainage Scheme ... ... ... 429 — 454 

Chapter XXI I. 
History of the Triennial Musical Festivals ... 455 — ^474 

Chapter XXI 1 1. 
Eminent Citizens of the Nineteenth Century ... 475 — 540 

Chapter XXIV. 
Norwich Artists in the Nineteenth Century ... 541 — 551 


Chapter I. 

Rise and Progress of the Manufacture of Textile 

Fabrics, and Present State of the Trade ... 55 2—594 

xvi Summafy of Contents, 


Chapter II. 

Trade and Commerce of the City — Banks and Banking 
— Wholesale Producers and Dealers — Cattle and 
Corn Trade — Traffic by Rail and Water, &c. 595 — 633 


Chapter I. 

Political History — Elections for the City — List of 
Members of Parliament ... ... 634 — 683 

Chapter II. 

Political History continued — Lists of Mayors, Sheriffs, 
Stewards, and Recorders ... ... 684 — 705 

Chapter IIL 

Ecclesiastical History — Origin of the See — Lists of 
Bishops, Deans, and Clergy — Dignitaries of the 
Diocese — Nonconformist Ministers ... 706 — 721 

•Chapter IV. 
Religious, Educational, and Benevolent ... 722 — 735 

City Authorities and Officials, &c. ... ... 736 — 738 


Aboriginesofihe Districl... 

... 146 

Act obtained lor Paving and Ligbling 

agi, 3*4 

ABrituHural Implement Makers 

... 6it 

Agricultural Sociely's (Royal) Visit 
Agriculture, Chamber of ... 
AEeiander Rev. John 




Alfred Prince, in Norwich 


Alfred the Great, Reign of 


Allen Thomas, M. A. 


Anchorages or Hermitages 

Ancient City, The 

Anderson William. Notice of ... 



Andrew's, St. Hall-^ec St. Andrew's Hall 

Angles, Arrival of 

Anglo-Saxon Coins ... 

160, 161 

Anglo-iiaxon Dynasty, Restoration of 

Anglo-Saxon Period, Norwich in the 


Archa^)l(«ical Society, (British) Visit of 
ArlUts of Norwich ... 



An, School of (in Free Library) 

... ^1 

Assiic Courts, City and CoHnty... 

- ... 3I? 

As.'iizes removed to Norwich 


Austin Friars... ' ... ... 

... iii 

Bank, the Crown ... 


Banks and Banking 


Baptist Chapels 

no, lit. 113 

Baptists in Norwich, History of the ... 


Barbauld, Anna Lelitia 


Barlow, Peter... 


Barracks, Cavalry ... 


Bathurst Bishop 

36, 300, 328 

Bathuw Bishop, Memoir of ... 


Bathunt BUhop, Professor Taylor's account of ... 
Beechey. Sir ^filliam 

■ ■- 3^9 


... t36 

Bethel Built 



Index to Contents, 


Bible Society, Norwich Auxiliary Established ... ... 335 

Bignold, Sir Samuel ... ... 378, 381, 432 

Bigod, Hugh ... ... ... ...169, 170, 172 

B^, Roger . ... 163, 166, 168, 169, 172, 173, 174, 175 






Bigod, William 

Bilncy, the Martyr 

Bishop Bathurst, monument of ... 

mentioned in Afonihly Magathte 


Professor Taylor's account of 

Memoir of 

Goldwell, tomb of 

Hall, driven out 
„ Memoir of ... 

Hall's palace 

Herbert de Losinga (first bishop) 

,, Norman statue of 

Hinds, memoir of... 

Home, monument of ... 

Nykke, tomb of 

Parkhurst, tomb of 

Pelham, notice of 

Stanley, memoir of 

Wren and the ** Book of Sports" 
Bishop's Palace, History and description of... 
Bishops of Norwich, list of 
Black Friars 

Blomefield, the Norfolk Historian 
Blind, Hospital for the 
Blythe, Hancock 
Board of Health 
Boleyn, Sir William, tomb of 
Bombazines, manufacture of introduced 
Book of Sports 

Boot and Shoe Trade, Wholesale 
Bourn, Samuel 

Bracondale Lodge (Miss Martineau) 
Brand, John, B. A. 
Brasses, Monumental 
Bread Riots ... 
Brethren of the Sac Friars 
Brewers' Mark', ^c, Mr. R. Fitch on 
Brewers, Wholesale... 
Bridge, Carrow, first stone laid 
,, Duke's Palace, erected ... 
„ Foundry, first stone laid 
Bridge W., M.A. . . 
British Archaeological Society, Visit of 


51. 191 

36, 521 





222, 227 









127, 306 

327, 733 



78, 244 




140, 563 
286, 292, 340 








Association for the Advancement of Science, Visit of 444 

Index to Cotttenis. xix 


Brooke, Sir James, educated at Grammar School ... 45, 726 

Brown, Rev. Robert ... ... ... ... 243 

Browne, Sir Thomas, memoir of ... ... 230 

Brush and Paper Bag Makers ... ... ... 620 

Burial Grouna — the Rosary ... ... ... 108 

Bury and Schneider unseated ... ... ... 656 

Buxton, Thomas Fowell ... ... ... 104 

Caer Gwent or Guntum, Norwich called so by the Iceni ... 10, 157 

Caister, a village on the bank of the Taas ... ... 10, 1 1 

Caister and Norwich, Traditional Couplet ... ... 10 

Caister Camp ... ... ... ... 105, 157 

Canons Honorary ... ... ... ... 718 

Canute assigned custody of Norwich Castle to Earl Turkel 152 

Cardinal Wolsey visited Norwich ... ... ... 189 

Carmelite Friars ... ... ... ... 137 

Caroline, Queen, Address to ... ... ... 350 

Carriage Manufacturers ... ... ... 620 

Carrow Abbey ... ... ... .-.84, 139 

Carrow Bridge, first stone laid ... ... ... 333 

Carrow Works (Messrs. J. and J. Colman's) ... -.84, 605 

Carrying Trade ... ... ... ... 625 

Carter, Rev. John, memoir of ... ... ... 239 

Castle built ... ... ... ... 11, 163 

burnt by Danes ... ... ... ... 12 

description and history of ... ... 30 

fortifications of ... ... ... ... 21,22 

Mr. Woodward's opinions ... 23, 119 

Kirkpatrick's opinions ... ... 23 

Mr. Harrod's opinions ... ... 24 

made the public prison ... ... ... 178 

Corporation, the ... ... ... 339 

Hill, View from ... ... ... ... 47 

Cathedral, additions and repairs by Eborard, John de Oxford, 

Walter de Suffield, Ralph de Walpole, &c. 29, 30, 
Brasses destroyed during Commonwealth 
Chartists attended at 
Cloisters, description of 
Close, Upper and Lower ... 
Dignitaries of the 
Dimensions of... 
Edward I. and Eleanor at 
Exterior, description of ... 

Injuries by fires, wind, and lightning 29, 30, 189, 
Injuries by Reformers 
Ini'-rior description of 
Monument of Bishop Bathnrst 
Bishop Home 




















212, 323 

3i» 2'9 


Index to Contmts. 













f » 


Cathedral, Monument of Sir William Boleyn 
Original Structure ... 
Prideaux, Dr., Inscription in Memory of 
Queen Elizabeth dined in Cloisters 
Tomb of Bishop Gold well 

Herbert de Losinga 
Nykke ... 
Miles Spencer ... 
Yarmouth people ask for stones for a 
Catherine, Queen, visited Norwich ... 
Catholic Apostolic Chapel 
Cattle and Com Trade 
Cattle Food and Manure Trades 
Cattle Market, cost of improvements, &c. 
Cavalry Barracks 
Cemetery, Public (opened 1856) 

„ The Rosary 
Census of 1 86 1 
Chamber of Agriculture 
Chantre/s, Sir Francis last work 
Chapel Field 
Chapels, Nonconformists*... 

Ber Street (Wesleyans) 

Calvert Street (Methodist Free Church) 

Catherine's Plain (Primitive Methodists) 

Chapel-in-the-Field (Independents) ... 

Cherry Lane (Baptists) 

Clement Court (Catholic Apostolic — 

Irvingites) ... 
Crook's Place (Methodist Free Church) 
Cowgate Street (Primitive Methodist)... 
Dereham Road (Primitive Methodist) ... 
Dutch Church (Free Christian Church) 
Ebenezer (Baptists) ... 
French Church (Swedenborgians) 
Gildencroft (Baptists) 
Jireh — Dereham Road (Baptists) 
Lady Lane (Wesleyans) 
Octagon (Unitarians) 
Old Meeting (Independents) 
Orford Hill (Baptists) 
Pottergate Street (Baptists) 
Prince s Street (Independents) 
Priory Yard (Baptists) 
Queen Street (Swedenborgians) 
St Clement's (Baptists) 
St Faith's Lane (Jews) 
St. John's Maddermarket (Roman Cath. ) 




f > 





f > 







f » 




f > 



















loi, 432 























Index to Contents, 


Chapels, Nonconformists* (continued) 

St. Mary's (Baptists) 




f » 




St. PeteVs Hall (Presbyterians) ... 112 

Tabernacle (Lady Huntingdon's) ... no 

Upper Goat Lane (Friends) ... 113 

Willow Lane (Roman Catholics)... 113 

Chapels, Desecrated ... ... ... ... 133 

C hari ng ( Sherers' ) C ross removed ... ... 275 

Charitable Institutions ... ... ... ... 732 

Bethel ... ... ... 270 

Blind Hospital ... ... 327, 733 

Doughty's Hospital ... ... 733 

Great Hospital (called also Old Men's, 

St. Giles', or St. Helen's) 79, 197, 279, 733 
Jenny Lind Infirmary ... 430, 733 

Lying-in Charity ... ... 377 

Norfolk and Norwich Hospital ... 280, 733 




f f 





f » 


Norwich Magdalen 
Orphans' Home 
Public Dispensary 
Charles II. and Queen visited Norwich 
Chartist Movements 
Christ Church, New Catton 
Church Congress in Norwich 
Church of England Young Men's Society 
Churches, All Saints 

Christ Church (New Catton) 


despoiled by Reformers 

Holy Trinity (Heigliam) ... 

list of 

number of, in olden tiniei 

St. Andrew 

St Andrew (Eaton) 

St. Augustine 

St. Bartholomew (Heigham) 

St Benedict 

St Clement ... 

St Edmund 

St. Etheldred ... 

St. George Colegate 

St George Tombland 

St Giles 

St Gregory 

St Helen 

St James 

St John Maddermarket 

St John Timberhill 

St John Sepulchre ... 

f » 



f » 









f » 








f > 



• • • 







406, 408, 




• • • 



• • ■ 







• • • 



• • • 



• • • 



■ • ■ 



a • • 



• ■ • 



• • • 



• • « 



• • • 



■ • ■ 




Index to Contents, 

Churches, St. Julian 

St Lawrence 

St Margaret ... 

St. Martin at Oak ... 

St Martin at Palace 

St. Mark (Lakenham) 

St. Mary at Coslany 

St. Matthew (Thorpe) 

St Michael Coslany 

St Michael at Plea ... 

St Michael at Thorn 

St Paul ... 

St Peter Hungate 

St Peter of Mancroft 

St Peter per Mountergate 

St. Peter Southgate ... 

St. Philip (Heigham) 

St Saviour 

St. Simon and Jude 

St. Stephen 

St Swithin 

Trinity, Holy (Heigham) 
Cigar and Tobacco Trade 
City and Coimty of Norwich 
City Tail 
City Library ... 
City Officials, list of 
City separated from County of Norfolk 
Civic Feasts ... ...52, 197, 

Civil Wars, the 

Clabbum Thomas, monument of 
Clarke, Dr. Adam, in Norwich... 
Clarke, Dr. Samuel, memoir of 
Clergy, ignorance of, in fifteenth centuuy 
Clergy of City and Hamlets, of ... 
Close, Cathedral, Upper and Lower 
Clothiers, Wholesale 
Clover Joseph, artist 
Coaches, Mail, to London 
Coal Trade 
Coins, Anglo-Saxon 
Coins of Iceni 
Collinges Dr. 
Commercial History 
Commercial School 
Compounding for Poor-rates abolished 
Cooper Henry 
Com Exchange (old) opened 
description of 


















1 70 

99, 355 

• • • • • • \^ \ 

1 70 

204, 378, 402, 403 et passim 










160, 161 






Index to Contents. 



Com Exchange, portraits in (Earl Leicester & Jno. CuUey, Esq ) 59 
Com, high price of ... ... ... 286,293 

Com Trade 

Corporation, Municipal ... 

First Mayor of New 
History of the 
Last Mayor of Old 
Members of, for 1869 
Present state of the ... 
Presents to Jhe, by Lord Howard, 223 ; 
Sir Robt Walpole, 275 ; Sir Armine 
QoT^T^^vyvi^ 0\^t Commission of Inquiry ... 

Evidence of Athow, John... 
Bacon, R. M. 










Bamard, A. 

Bignold, S. (mayor) 

Bolingbroke, Alderman 383, 391 






Francis, John 
Gumey, J. J. 
Newton, Alderman 
Palmer, George 
Robberds, J. W. 
Simpson, W. ... 
Stan, John Rising 
WUde, William 
WUlett, H. 
Wright Mr. 

391. 394 

383* 388, 392 


Cosin, Dr. John, memoir of 

Costume of various periods 

Cotman, J. S., artist 

Coimcil Chamber 

County Jail (the Castle) 

Crape Manufacture 

Crome, John, artist ("Old Crome") Memorial of 

Crome, Miss, artist 

Crome, T. B., artist 

Cromwell and the Commonwealth 

Cromwell, John 

Crosse, John Greene, memoir of 

Crotch, Dr. William 

Crown Bank (Har>'eys and Hudson) ... 

Cmcifixion of a boy by Jews, alleged 

Dalrymple, William, memoir of 
Danes, Incursions of 
Danes settled in Norwich... 
Dean and Chapter ... 
Dean and Chapter*s Library 




• • • 



• • • 



• • » 



• • • 



• • • 



S8>. 592 



. 542 

• • • 



• « • 



• • • 



• • • 



• • • 



• • • 





xxiv Index to Contents, 


Deans of Norwich, list of ... ... ... 715 

Deave, Reuben ... ... ... ... 308 

Denmark, Queen of, visit to Norwich ... ... 443 

De Domini Friars ... ... ... .. 138 

De Pica or Pied Friars ... ... ... 138 

De Sacco Friars ... ... ... ... 139 

Desecrated Chapels ... ... ... ... 133 

Desecrated Churches ... ... ... 127 — 133 

Dignitaries of the Diocese ... ... ... 717 

Diocese, Dignitaries of ... • ... ... ... 717 

Disfranchisement of Freemen ... ... ... 374i 402 

Dispensary, Public ... ... ... 325, 733 

Dissolution of the Monasteries ... ... ... 1 94 

Dixon, W. R., artist ... .. ... ... 547 

Domesday Book ... ... ... 12, 13, 165, 260 

Dominican Friars ..» ... ... ... 138 

Doughty's Hospital ... ... ... ... 733 

Drainage, the New Scheme for ... ... ... 446 

Drapers, Wholesale .. . ... ... ... 616 

Dress at different periods ... ... ... ... 553 

Drill Hall ... ... ... ... 98 

Duchess of Norfolk (died 1593), monument of ... ... 70 

Duke of Sussex visited Norwich ... ... ... 345 

Duke of Wellington, Statue of ... ... ... 63 

Duke's Palace Bridge erected ... ... ... 347 

Dungeon Tower ... ... ... ... 76 

Dutch and Flemings, arrival of .. ... ... 166, 557 

Dutch Church (Free Christian Church) ... ... 114 

Elarlham Hall ... ... ... ... 103 

Earlham, Hamlet of ... ... ... ... 103 

Earthquakes felt in Norwich ... ... ... 278 

Eaton, Hamlet of ... ... ... ... 104 

Ecclesiastical History ... ... ... 706 

Eldin burgh, Duke of, in Norwich ... ... ... 443 

Education in Norwich ... ... ... 726 

Edward I. and Eleanor at Cathedral ... ... ... 29 

Edward HI. and Philippa visit Norwich ... ... 178 

Edward VI. Commercial School ... ... ... 726 

,, Grammar School ... ... ... 45, 726 

Eighteenth Century, Norwich in the ... ... ... 268 

Eldon Club ... ... ... ... 641 

Election, First under the Reform Act of 1867 ... ... 662 

Election of Stormont and Scarlett (see Stormont and Scarlett) 

Elections since Reform Act of 1832 ... ... 650 

Elizabeth Fry ... ... ... ... 104,503,505 

Elizabeth, Queen, visits of, to Norwich ... ... 43, 51, 205 

Elizabeth Woodville, Queen of Edward IV., visits Norwich ... 185 

Index to Contents. xxv 


Eminent Citizens, Notices of— 

„ Alexander, Rev. John... ... 490 

,, Anderson, William ... 307 

„ Barbauld, Anna Letitia ... 307 

„ Barlow, Peter ... ... 307 

„ Bathurst, Bishop ... ... 520 

„ Beeche^, Sir William ... 307 

„ Blomeneld, Rev. F. ... ... 306 

„ Blythe, Hancock.. ... 307 

„ Brand, John, B.A. ... ... 307 

„ Browne, Sir Thomas ... 230 

„ Carter, Rev. John ... ... 239 

„ Clarke, Dr. Samuel ... 236 

„ Cooper, Hennr ... ... 308 

„ Cosm, Dr. John ... ... ' 238 

„ Crosse, Jofain Greene ... 530 

„ Crotch, Dr. William ... 538 

„ Dalrjmple, William ... ... 526 

M Deave, Reuben ... ... 308 

„ Enfield, Dr. ... 298, 309 

„ Fenn, Sir John ... ... 309 

„ Fry, Elizabeth ... 503, 505 

„ Goslin, John ... ... 239 

„ Gurney, John ... ... 499 

„ Gurney, Joseph John ... 503 

„ Hall, Bishop ... ... 226 

„ Hall, Thomas ... ... 309 

„ Hinds, Bishop ... ... 524 

„ Hobart,Tohn ... ... 310 

„ Hooke, James ... ... 310 

„ Hooker, Dr. ... ... 536 

„ Kaye, John ... ... 210 

„ Kinnebrook, David ... 310 

yy Kirkpatrick, John ... ... 303 

„ Lens, John ... ... 310 

„ Lubbock, Dr. ... ... 311 

„ Mountain, Right Rev. J. ... 311 

,» Opie, Mrs. ... ... 537 

„ Parker, Archbishop ... ... 211 

„ Parr, Dr. Samuel ... 311 

tt Pearson, Dr. John ... ... 238 

„ Rigby, Dr. ... ... 311 

,t Robert, Viscount of Yarmouth ... 237 

»» Saint, William ... ... 312 

t, Sanby, George, D.D. ... ... 312 

„ Say, William ... ... 312 

„ Sayers, Frank, M.D. ... ... 312 

ft Smith, SirJ. £., M.D. ... 313 

Index t0 Contents. 

aisiiop •.. ... S" 

" ;; Stevenson, William ... 3'3 

„ Taylor, John, D.D. ... ... 3I3 

„ Taylor, Professor Edwaid ... 475 

Tiylor, WUlUm ... ... 3'3 

„ „ Thuilow, Edward, Baron ... 3'3 

„ „ WUluns, William ... -. 3'4 

„ Wilkins, WiUiam. sen. ... 314 

„ „ Wilks, Rev. Mark ... ... 48a 

„ „ Windham, William ... 3'4 

„ Wrench, Sir Benjamin ... 3'4 

Enfield, Dr. ... ... ... ..- a98, 3^ 

Erpingham Gale 


ir Thomas ... ... ..■ 46. 5> 

^uu^.utrt Gate ... ... .-■ -■ 4° 

Eihibitioiia, Great, (1851 i 1862) Norwich Contnbntor* to 43^- 43° 

ExhilMtion, Norwich Indostrial ... ■.. ... 443 

Extent of Modem City ... ... ... .■■ 'S 

Fistolf. Sif John, House of ... ... -.- 46 

Fenn, Sir John ... ... ... ■■■ 3°9 

Fifteenlh CenluTy. Norwich in the ... ... •**3 

Fires, serious injuries by ... ... ... '88, 177. 3^3 

Fish Market ... ... ... - °4 

Fitch, R.. Esq., on the Old Walls and Gates 

Flag of Frrtrce taken by Nelion 

PlcrairiEs, Arrival of 

Flemish Rcfngees banished ... ... — -" 

Flint Implements of tceni ... ... .- '4« 

Flint Straclnre, cnrious spedmen of ... - 7* 

Floods, violent, in Norwich ... ... 269, 37* MO 

Flour Mills ... ... •■■ - "! 

Fortificalions of the Old City ... •" - '» 

FoiiiidryHriHge, first stone laid ... ... 334 

Fourteenth Century, Norwich in the ... -. '77 

Fourteenth to dghleenth Centuries, soaal flale ... »S» 

Franciscan Friars ... ... — ■" '37 

Franshamjohn ... .-. - - 3°? 

Free Christian Church ... ... -■ - "♦ 

Free Library ... _ ... . - - ,^' 

Treemasons. Dean Tridi»ux,fii*tniaaeT here ... .-. 372 

Freemen, disfranchiBemenl of ... - - 374. 402 

French Church (SwedenborgiMl) ... - - "A 

French Revolution commemorated ... — *°4 

Friaries ... .... - - ■" .'3° 

Friars, Cannelitet or White ... ... — '3J 

Friars de Domini ... .-. •" — '3» 

Friars de Pica or Red FriMi ... ... — "3" 

Index to Contents. xxvii 


Friars de Sacco ... ... ... ... 139 

Friars Franciscan or Grey ... ... ... 137 

Friars of St. Mary ... ... ... ... 138 

Friars, Preachers (Black Friars) ... ... 138 

Friends* Meeting House ... ... ... ... 113 

Fry, Elizabeth ... ... ... ...104, 503, 505 

Fynch, Martin ... ... ... ... 249 

Gates and Walls, old ... ... ... ... 121 

Gateways of Cathedral ... ... ... 46 

Gedge, Mr. G., promoted National Rate ... 410, 412, 414 

Goslin John, Memoir of ... ... ... 239 

Grammar School ... ... ... 45, 726 

„ Brooke, Sir James, educated at ... 45* 726 

„ Lord Nelson „ ... ... 45» 7^6 

,, Valpy Dr., once head master ... 45, 726 

Grantham Thomas ... ... ... ... 253 

Great Exhibitions (1851 and 1862), Norwich Contributions to 430, 436 
. Great Hospital (see Charitable Institutions) 

Grey Friars ... ... ... ... 137 

Grocers, wholesale ... ... ... ... 617 

Guardians, Corporation of ... ... ... 375» 43^ 

Guild Feasts ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Guild Hall, description of ... ... ... 5° 

„ memorials of Nelson in ... ... ... 5' 

„ Bilney the martyr confined there ... 5^ 
Guilds and Pageants ... ... 180, 208, 239, 274, 282, 403 

Guild, the Tanners* ... ... ... 74 

Gumey Family ... ... ... 103, 498 

„ Hudson, on Venta Icenorum ... ... I53 

,, John ... ... ... ... ... 5^^ 

„ Joseph John ... ... ... 3^» 5^9 

„ „ buried in Gildencroft ... 111,518 

Hall, Bishop, memoir of ... ... ... ... 226 

Hall*s Bishop, Palace ... ... ... 100 

Hall, Guild (see Guildhall) 

Hall, St. Andrew's (see St. Andrew's Hall) 

Hall, Thomas ... ... ... ... 3^ 

Hallett, Rev. J., on History of Old Meeting House ... 251 

Hamlets — Earlham ... ... ... ... 103 

,, Eaton ... ... ... ... 104 

„ Heigham ... ... ... ... 98 

„ Hellesdon ... ... ... 103 

Lakenham ... ... ... ... 104 

Pockthorpe ... ... ... ^o® 

Thorpe ... ... ... ... '06 

„ Trowse, Carrow, and Bracondale ... 'o^ 

Harrod on Fortifications of Castle ... ... ••• 24 


Index to Omtents. 

Han, Rer. R., od (^ Coitaiiici 

Harrej, Charks 

\Kxrrcjt John 

Harrey, Kobeit 

Hzrrey, Sir R. I. H., Bait., ... 

Heigmun, Hamlet of 

Hdwsdon, Hamlet of 

Henry h visited Nonricfa 

Henry VI. risited Norwich 

Henry VII. risited Norwich 

Herbert de Losinga (fust bishop) 

9f tomb of 

Hermitages or Anchorages 
Hinds, Bishop, memoir of 
Hobart, John 

Hodgson, Charles, artist ... 
Hodgson, David, artist 
Holy Trinity, Church of the 
Hooke, James 
Hooker, Dr., notice of ... 
Horticultural Implement Makera 
Hospitals (see Charitable Institutions) 
Huntingdon's, Lady, Connexion 

Iceni, the 

,, Coins of ... ... 

„ Flint Implements of 

„ Woodward on 

„ Sepulchral Urns 
Independent Chapels 
Independents, History of the 
Indigent Blind Hospital ... 
Indulgences to those buried in "Pardon Cloister" 
Industrial Exhibition 
Innes, Rev. J. B* ... 
Iron Trade 
Irvingites* Chapel ... 

Jail, the City ... 

] all, the Countv 

] enny LInd Innrmary 

] ermy, Isaac, Recorder, Murder of 

] ewM accused of crucifying a boy 

' ewH, first settled in Norwich ... 

, ews, large influx of 

^ cw»' Synagogue 

] ohn's (King) visit to Norwich 

' ohn of Gaunt visited Norwich ... 








• •• 



• •• 



• •• 



• •• 



• • • 



• • • 



• • • 



• •• 



• • • 




• •• 


• • • 









• • • 



■ •• 






430. 733 


• •• 



• • • 




Ifidex to Contents. xxix 


Kaye, John, memoir of ... ... ... ... 210 

Rett's Castle ... ... ... ... 136 

Kelt's Rebellion ... ... ... ... 198 

King (see Royal Visits) 

King Exlward VI. Commercial School ... ... 726 

King Exlward VI. Grammar School ... ... ••• 45> 7^6 

Kinghom, Rev. J., Tributary Lines by Mrs. Opie ... 256 

Kinnebrook, David ... ... ... ... 310 

Kirkpatrick, John, memoir of ... ... ... 303 

Kirkpatrick — buried in St Helen's Church ... ... 80, 305 

„ on fortifications of Castle ... ... 23 

Ladbrooke, Robert ... ... ... ... 548 

Lady Huntingdon Chapels ... ... ... no 

I^kenham, Hamlet of ... ... ... ... 104 

Law of Settlement and Removal ... ... 414 

Legge, Dr., memoir of ... ... ... ... 209 

Lens, John, M.A. ... ... ... ... 310 

Library, City (at Free Library) ... ... ... 61 

,, Dean and Chapter's ... ... ... 44 

,, Free Library ... ... ... ... 61 

„ Literary Institution ... ... ... 60 

„ Norwich Public ... ... ... ... 59, 298 

Literary Institution, Norfolk and Norwich ... ... 60 

Lollards' Pit (see also Martyrs) ... 136, 184, 193, 203 

Lord Abinger ... ... ... ... 401 

Lord Nelson ... ... ... 45, 51, 56, 288, 289, 330 

Lubbock, Richard, M.D. ... ... ... 311 

Lunatic Asylum, new one contemplated ... ... 441 

Lying-in-Charity, Established ... ... ... 377 

Magdalen, or Female Home ... ... ... 733 

Mail Coaches, first started to London ... ... 282 

Maltby, Dr. Edward ... ... ... ... 297 

Manufacture of Bombazines introduced ... ... 204 

Manufacture of Worsted introduced ... ... ... 1 66 

Manufacturers of the last century ... ... 302 

Manufactures mentioned in ''Paston Letters'* ... ... 178 

Manufactures, Norwich, at Great Exhibitions ... 430, 436 

Manufactures, Norwich, presented to Princess of Wales 437 

Manufactures — Textile Fabrics — History of ... ... 553 

„ „ in Eighteenth Century 569 

„ ,, in Nineteenth Century ... 578 

Manure Manufacturers ... ... ... 622 

Margaret of Anjou (Queen of Henry VI.) visited Norwich ... 185 

Market, Com ... ... ... ... 58 

Market Cross, the ... ... ... ... 188 

Market, Cattle, cost of improvements, &c ... ... 49 

Market, Fish ... ... ... ... ..• 64 

XXX Index to Contents, 


Market Place, dimensions of ... ... ... 63 

Market Place, formerly the Great Croft ... ... 18 

Martineau Family ... ... ... ... 106 

Martyr, the Boy William ... ... ... 174 

Martyr, Thomas Bilney ... ... ... 51, 191 

Martyrs (see also Lollards* Pit) 184, 191, 193, 196, 203, 206, 242, 243 

Masons, Free, Dean Prideaux first master here ... 272 

Mayor and Sheriff, alternate nominations of ... ... 429 

Mayor, the first ... ... ... ... 72, 170, 684 

Mayors and Sheriffs, complete list of ... ... ... 684 

Mayor's Feast, curious speech at a ... ... 53 

Mayors' Feasts (see also Civic Feasts) 52, 204, 378, 403 et passim 

Mayors' Gold Chain ... ... ... ... 271 

Members of Parliament first elected for Norwich ... 176 

Members for Norwich, complete list of ... ... 669 

Methodists, Calvinistic ... ... ... 256 

Methodist Free Church Chapels ... ... ... 112 

Methodist, Primitive, Chapels ... ... ... 112 

Methodists, Wesleyan ... ... ... 112, 257 

Miles Spencer, Tomb of ... ... ... 34 

Ministers, Nonconformist... ... ... ... 720 

Modem City, situation and extent of ... ... 15 

Monasteries, dissolution of ... ... ... 1 94 

Monastic Institutions ... ... ... 135 

Monumental Brasses ... ... ... ... 140 

Moore William (last Mayor of Old Corporation) ... 401 

Mountain, Right Rev. Jacob ... ... ... 311 

Municipal Reform Act ... ... ... 170, 400 

Murder of Isaac Jermy, Recorder ... ... ... 416 

Museum, Norfolk and Norwich ... ... ... 60,401 

Musical Festivals ... ... ... 324, 333, 356, 403 

,, History of ... ... ... 455 

Mustard and Starch Manufactory (Messrs. J. and J. Colman's) 84, 605 


National Rate advocated by Mr. G. Gedge and others 410, 412, 414 

Navigation, Norwich, history of the ... ... ... 357 

Nelson, Lord, educated at Grammar School ... 45, 726 

memorials of, in Guildhall ... ..'Si* 288 

portrait of, in St. Andrew's Hall ... 56, 289 

statue of, in Cathedral Close ... ... 45 

victory of, celebrated in Norwich ... 330 

New Catton (Christ Church) ... ... ... 92, 405 

New Mills ... ... ... ... 74 

Newspaper, first in Norwich ... ... ... 269 

Nineteenth Century, Norwich in the ... ... 315 

Nonconformist Mini.sters, list of ... ... ... 720 

Nonconformists (see Chapels) ... ... ... 109, 720 

Baptists ... ... ... no, III, 112 

Catholic Apostolic ... ... 115 

f f 

Index to Contents. 


Nonconformists (see Chapels) continiud 

Friends ... ... ... ... 113 

Free Christian Church ... ... 114 

Independents ... ... 109, no 

Irvingites ... ... ... 115 

I CW5 ••• ••• ••• ••• AEj 

Ladv Huntingdon's Connexion ... no 

Methodist Free Church ... ... 112 

„ Primitive ... ... 112 

,, Wesleyan ... ... ... 112 

Presbyterian ... ... ... 112 

Roman Catholics ... ... 113,114 

Swedenborgians ... ... 114 

Unitarians ... ... ... 113 

Konconformitj in Norwich, history of ... ... 241, 294 

Norman Conquest ... ... ... ... 165 

Norman Architecture, specimens of .. ... 62 

Northwic, Norwich named so by the Angles ... ... ii 

Norwich — Aborigines ... ... ... 146 

and Caister, traditional couplet ... ... 10 

"a Port" ... ... ... 357 

Antiquities ... ... ... ... 116 

Assizes removed to ... ... ... 381 

became a Danish City ... ... ... 12 

Bishops, list of ... ... ... 708 

Clergy of City and Hamlets ... ... 719 

Corporation of (see Corporation) 

Crape Manufacture ... ... ...581, 592, 593 

custody of, assigned by Canute to Earl Turkel ... 162 

Deans, list of ... ... ... 715 

during Civil Wars ... ... ... 216 

during Commonwealth ... ... 222 

extract from Domesday Book ... ... 166 

first represented in Parliament ... ... 176 

from fourteenth to eighteenth centuries ... 258 

in the Roman Period ... ... 10, 152 

in the Anglo-Saxon Period ... ... 158 

in the Norman Period ... ... 165 

in the Twelfth Century ... ... ... 169 

in the Thirteenth Century ... ... 173 

in the Fourteenth Century... ... ... 177 

in the Fifteenth Century 

in the Sixteenth Century ... 

in the Seventeenth Century ... ... 212 

in the Seventeenth Century, Sir Thos. Browne and 

Lord Macaulay on ... ... 224 

in the Eighteenth Century ... ... 268 

in the Nineteenth Century ... ... 3'5 

Jews first settled in ... ... ... 165 







• 9 


Indfx to Contents. 

Norwich (tvntinaed) 

,, made a Staple Town 

„ Mayors aaii Sheriffs, complete list of ... 

„ Members of Parliament for, complete list of 

„ Navigation, history of the 

„ Nonconformity, history of ... 

„ Recorder of, Isaac Jermy, miirdeied 

„ Recorders, list of 

„ seriously injured by Fire 

„ Shawl Manufacture 

„ Site of, fonnerly under the sea ... 

,1 Stewards, list of 

„ supplies against Spanish Annada 

,, under the Angles 

„ under the Danes 

„ under the Reform 



1 (New Act) 

Venia Icenorum of the Romans 


hapel (Unitan. 
bridewell, a curious 
Old Corporation (see Corporation) 
"Old Crome," artist 
Old Meeting; House 

Rev. J. Hallett o: 
Old Men's Hospital 
Old Norwich 

„ fortificaliona of 

Old Walls and Gates-Mr. R. Fitch on ... ... 1 

Opie, Mrs., buried in Gildencroft 

Notice of 
Oiphan^s Home 

Paper Bag Makers 

Paper Manufacturers 

"Pardon Cloister" Indulgences 

Parker, Archbishop, memoirof... 

Parishes and Palish Churches 

Parliament — Norwich first represented in ... 

Parliamentary Reform, Movements in lavour of 284, 341, 380, 

Pair, Dr. Samuel ... 

Parry, CapL W. E., Freedom of City presented to 

**Pastoii l.etteis" on Norwich Manufactures 

Paving and Lighting, Act obtained for 

Paving of Norwich, wor^t in England 

Pearson, Dr. John, Memoir of 

Pelham, Dr., present Bishop, notice of 

Perpendicular Architecture, Specimetu of 

Peter, the WUd Youth 





Index to Contents. xxxiii 


Physical Condition of Norwich at an early period ... 9 
Plagues and Pestilences ... 203, 206, 213, 214, 259, 377 

Pockthorpe, Hamlet of ... ... ... ... 108 

Police Introduced ... ... ... ... 403 

Political History ... ... ... ... 635 

Poor Law, New Act for Norwich ... ... 438 

Poor Law Reform ... .. ... ... 410 

Poor Law Removal Act ... ... ... 412 

Population, &c., by Domesday Book ... 12, 13, 260 

„ at various periods... 13, 315, 375, 408, 430, 435 

Portrait of J. H. Gumey, Blsq., in Museum ... ... 60 

Portrait of Nelson by Becchey ... ... ... 5^ 

Portraits and Pictures in St Andrew's Hall ... ... 57 

Portraits in Com Exchange (Earl of Leicester & J. Culley, Esq. ) 59 
Portraits in Shirehall (Lord Wodehouse, Earl of Leicester, and 

H. Dover, Esq.) , ... ... ... 5^ 

Post Office ... ... ... ... ... 62 

Precedence, Questions of ... ... ... 213 

Presbyterian (Scotch) Chapel ... ... ... 112 

Presbyterians (Unitarians) History of ... ... 295 

Prideaux, Dr., Inscription in memory of ... ... 34 

Primitive Methodist Chapels ... ... ... 112 

Prince Alfred in Norwich... ... ... ... 443 

Prince and Princess of Wales in Norwich ... ... 443 

Prince's Street Chapel ... ... ... ... 109 

Priories — Benedictine and St Leonard's ... ... 136 

Priory Yard Chapel ... ... ... 112, 253 

Protestant Association Established ... ... 407 

Provisions, high price of ... ... ... 286, 293 

Public Dispensary Established ... ... ... 32$ 

Public Library ... ... ... ... 59 

Publishers, Manufacturing ... ... ... 615 

Pull's Ferry ... ... ... ... ... 44 

Puritans, their doings and sufferings ... 219, 243, 244 

Queen (see Royal Visits) 

Queen Caroline, Address to ... ... ... 350 

Railway Communications ... ... I5f 16, 409 

Rajah of Sarawak, Educated at Grammar School ... 45» 726 

R^, Sir Peter, tomb of ... ... ... 65 

Rebellion, Kett's ... ... ... ... 198 

Rebellion, Wat Tyler's ... ... ... ... 178 

Recorder of Norwich (Isaac Jenny) murdered ... 416 

Recorders of Norwich, list 01 ... ... ... 7^4 

Reed, Rev. Andrew ... ... ... 251 

Reed, Rev. Andrew, on the Rise of Nonconformity in Norwich 247 

Reformation, the ... ... ... ... 184, 206 

Reform in Parliament, movements in favour of 284, 341, 380, 643, 648 

xxxiv Index to Contents, 


Reformed Parliament — first election (1832) ... ... 650 

Religious History of l^orwich ... ... ... 7^2 

Rifle Volunteers ... ... ... ... 433 

Rigby, Edward, M.D. ... ... ... ... 311 

Rise and Progress of the City ... ... ... 9i >i 

River Wensum, rise and course of ... ... ... 16 

River Yare ... ... ... ... 15 

Robert, Viscount of Yarmouth, memoir of ... ... 237 

Roger Bigod ... 163, 166, 168, 169, 172, 173, 174, 175 

Roman Catholic Chapels ... ... ... 113,114 

Roman Invasion ... ... ... ... 152 

„ opinion of Rev. Scott Surtees ... 152 

Roman Roads ... ... ... 117, 118, 119, 153 

Rosary Burial Ground ... ... ... 108 

Royal Agricultural Society's Visit 
Royal Visits — Catherine 

„ Charles II. and Queen 

„ Duke of Edinburgh (Prince Alfred) 

„ Duke of Sussex 

„ Edward I. and Eleanor 

„ Edward IIL and Philippa 

Elizabeth Woodville (Queen of Edward IV.) 
Henry I. 
Henry VI. ... 
Henry VII. 





,, John 

„ Margaret of Anjou (Queen of Henry VI.) 

,, Prince and Princess of Wales 

Prince Alfred (Duke of Edinburgh) 
Queen of Denmark 
Rush, James Blomfield, murderer of Isaac Jermy, Recorder 

Saint William 

Saints, All, parish of 

Sampson and Hercules' Court ... 

Sandby, George, D.D. ... ... 

Sandrin£ham Gates, the 

Savings Bank opened 

Say, William 

Sayers, Frank, M.D. 

Scarlett, Sir James, made Lord Abinger 

School, Commercial 

,, Grammar 

,, 01 /vrc ... ... ... 

Schools, Endowed and Charity 
See, Bishop's, origin of ... 

„ removed to Norwich 

Separation of Norwich and Norfolk ... ... ... 1 70 

• •• 




, 225 


• • • 



• • • 


43, 51, 


• • • 



• • • 



• •• 



• • • 



• • • 





• • • 



• • • 



, 612 

• • • 



■ • • 



• •• 




• • • 



• •• 



Index to Contents, 


Sepulchral Urns of Iceni 
Settlement and Removal, Law of 
Seventeenth Century, Norwich in the 

„ ,, Sir T. Browne & Lord Macaulay on 

Shawls made in Norwich 

Sheriffs of Norwich, complete list of ... 

Shirehall, portraits in (Esurl of Leicester, Lord Wodehouse, 

and H. Dover, Esq.) 
Shoe Trade, Wholesale ... 
Shops, Warehouses, Banks, &c. 
Sixteenth Century, Norwich in the ... 
Slavery, Abolition of 
Smith, Sir James Edward 
Soap Manufacture ... 
Soc, Sac, and Custom 
Spanish Armada, supplies against 
Springfield, T. O. 

„ first Mayor of New Corporation 

St Andrew, Parish of ... 

Andrew, Parish of (Eaton) ... 
Andrew's Hall, description and history of 
dimensions of 

Flag of France taken by Nelson 
Mayor's Feasts in 





























49, 50 



...368, 37if 374 
373f 588 




52 et passim 

Musical Festivals 53, 324, 333, 356, 403, 455 

Portraits and Pictures in 

Portrait of Nelson, by Bcechey 


used as Com Hall and Exchange 
Augustine, parish of ... 
Bartholomew, Heigham 
Benedict, parish of ... 
Clement, parish of 
Edmund, parish of 
Etheldred, parish of 
George Golegatc, parish of 
George Tombland, parish of 
Giles, parish of 

Giles' Hospital (see Charitable Institutions) 
Gregory, parish of 
Helen, parish of 

Helen's Hospital (see Charitable Institutions) 
James, parish of 
John Maddermarket, parish of 

John Sepulchre, parish of 
ohn Timberhill, parish of 
Julian, parish of 
Lawrence, psuish of ... 
Leonard's Priory 



54. 272 












Index to Contents, 

St Margaret, parish of ... 
Mark (Lakenham) 
Martin at Oak, parish of 
Martin at Palace, parish of ... 
Mary, Friars of 
Mary Coslany, parish of 
Matthew (Thorpe) 
Michael at Coslany, parish of 
Michael at Plea, parish of 
Michael at Thorn, parish of 
Paul, parish of 

Peter Hungate, parish of ... 
Peter Mancroft, parish of 
Peter per Mountergate, parish of 
Peter Southgate, parish of 
Philip (Heigham) 
Saviour, parish of 
Simon and Jude, parish of ... 
Stephen, parish of 
„ S within, parish of 
Stanfield Hall, Murders at 
Stanley, Bishop, Memoir of 
Stannard, Alfred, artist 
Stannard, Joseph, artist 
Stannard, Mrs., artist 
Staple Town, Norwich made a ... 

Starch and Mustard manufactory (Messrs. J. and J. Colman's 
Stark, James, artist 
Stevenson, William, F.S.A., 
Stewards of Norwich, list of 

Stormont and Scarlett's Election — Commission of Elnquiry 

Evidence of Bush, Henry 

Cooper, William 
Cozens, Mr. 
Francis, J. 
Rust, Thomas 
Turner, Alderman 
Wortley, Mr, 



Stracey, Sir H. J., Bart., M.P., unseated 
Street Improvements (London and Opie Streets) 
Streets named from Trades 
Streets, names of, first put up ... 
Surtees, Rev. Scott F., on Roman Invasion 
Survey of the City ... 
Sutton, Dr. Charles Manners 
Swedenborgians (French Church) 
Sweyn, landing of 





















84, 605 










Index to Contents. 


29s. 344. 350. 

Tabernacle Chapel ... 

Tanners* Guild 

Taylor, Dr. Tohn 

Taylor, ProKssor Edward 
„ „ Memoir of 

Taylor, William 

Telegraphic Communications 

Textile Manufactures, HistoiT of 

„ in Eighteenth Century 

„ in Nineteenth Century 

Theatre Royal 

Thelwall, the Republican Orator 

Thirteenth Century, Norwich in the 

Thorpe, Hamlet of 

Thurlow, Edward Baron 

Tillett, J. H., petitioned against Sir H. J. Stracey, Bart 

Tobacco and Ci^ Trade... 

Tombland, St George's 

Towers of the Old City ... 

Trade R^ulations in Seventeenth Century 

Trade Stations and Rows in Olden Times 

Trinity, Holy, Church of (Heigham) 

Trowse Millgate 

Turnpike Roads opened 

Twelfth Century, Worwich in the 

Tyler's Wat, Rebellion 

Unitarian Chapel (Octa£[on) 
Unitarians, History of the 
Uphobterers, Manufacturing 
Urns, Sepulchral, of Iceni 

Valpy, Dr., Head Master of Grammar School 

Venta Icenorum 

Gumey, Hudson, on the 
Woodward, B. B., on the 

Volunteer Infantry 

Volunteer Rifle Corps 

Wales, Prince and Princess of, in Norwich 

Walloons settled here 

Walls and Gates, old 

Ward Elections, cost of contests 

Water Gate to Cathedral Precincts ... 

Water Works 

Wat Tyler's Rebellion ... 

Weavers' Co-operative Society ... 

Weavers, disturbances by 

Weavers, number of (in 1839 — 1840) 



.. 61, 


no, 256 


295. 313 

458* 643 













19, 121 












325» 326 

433» 738 



3I9» 320 




373, 406, 583 




Index to Contents, 

Wellington, Statue of 

"Wensum River, rise and course of 

Wesley, Revs. John and Charles in Norwich 

White Friars 

Whitlingham (Sir R. J. H. Harve/s) 

Wilkins, William ... 

Wilks, Rev. Mark 

William, "The Boy Martyr" ... 

Windham, Major General, " Hero of the Redan** 

Windham, William ... 

Wine, Spirits, and Beer Trade 

Woodws^ B. B., on Fortifications of Castle 

,, on Venta Icenorum 

Wool Weaving Introduced 
Workhouse, first act for erecting a 
Workhouse, New (built in 1859) 
Workhouse, Old 

Worship, Places of (see "Churches" and "Chapels") 
Worsted Manufacture introduced 
Wren, Bishop, and the " Book of Sports** ... 
Wrench, Sir Benjamin 

Yam Company, first stone of factory laid 
Young Men's Christian Association 



112, 257 


482, 637 








The Wistory of Noi\wich. 


%\&i and ^rfi^rtss of the (I[ttg. 


N tracing the rise and progress of the city, it is 
necessary to inquire respecting the physical con- 
dition of the district around it at an early period. 
Before the dawn of authentic history, it is in vain to 
expect full information on this point ; but the natural 
changes that have taken place may be traced with 
tolerable clearness. Geologists inform us that the 
whole area of Norfolk, including Norwich, was in 
remote ages under the sea ; that by the slow accumu- 
lation of alluvial matter islands were formed in this 
estuary ; and that the waters were divided into several 

We may speculate as to the causes of these changes 
of the level of land and water, but we cannot doubt 
the fact of such changes having taken place. When 
or why the great body of waters retired to its great 
reservoir in the bed of the ocean is unknown ; but 
whatever the causes, it is certain that between the first 

lO Survey of Norwich, 

and the eleventh century the waters did gradually 
recede till the river assumed a narrower appearance. 
The higher part of the city from Ber Street up to 
Lakenham was probably, 2000 years ago, like an island 
surrounded by water flowing up the valley of the 
Taas on that side, and over the valley of the Wensum 
on the other side. 

The existence of Norwich as a city during the 
Roman period from B.c. 50 till A.D. 400 or 500 is very 
doubtful. Camden says that its name occurs nowhere 
till the Danish wars. If it did exist, it was only a 
fishing station, for then a broad arm of the sea flowed 
up the valley of the Yare, and covered a great part of 
the north side of the present city. Indeed, for 
centuries after the Christian era this arm of the sea 
may have flowed over the greater part of the ground 
on which the north side of the city now stands. In 
the course of time, however, the arm of the sea 
gradually silted up and left only the present narrow 
river Wensum flowing into the Yare. 

Tradition has handed down this couplet : 

" Caister was a city when Norwich was none, 
And Norwich was built of Caister stone." 

There is, however, no evidence that Caister was ever 
more than a village on the banks of the Taas, where 
the Romans built a camp to overawe the neighbour- 
hood; while all the old Roman roads have always 
radiated from Norwich, proving that it was a place of 
importance in the Roman period. The Iceni called it 
faer Gwent, altered by the Romans into Ventat so 

Rise and Progress of the City. 1 1 

that it was the Venta Icenorum of the Romans, who 
probably threw up the mound on which a castle was 
afterwards built, in the Anglo-Saxon period. 

Norwich very likely took its rise after the departure 
of the Romans, about A.D. 418, on account of the dis- 
tracted state of the empire. Then, the camp or 
station at Caister being almost deserted, the few re- 
maining Romans joined with the natives, and they 
became one people; and the situation of Norwich 
being thought preferable to that of Caister, many 
retired hither for the facility of fishing and the easier 
communication with the country. Caister, however, 
though almost deserted, kept up some reputation, till 
the river becoming so shallow, cut off all intercourse 
with it by water and reduced it to a place of no im- 

After the departure of the Romans, the Angles 
from the opposite coast made themselves masters of 
this part of the island, and to them is chiefly owing 
the further progress of the city and its present name. 
" Northwic " signifies a northern station on a winding 
river, and may have been so called because of its 
being situated north of the ancient station at Caister. 

Norwich Castle was probably built in the reign of 
Uffa, the first king of the East Angles, soon after the 
year 575. About 642 it became a royal castle, and 
one of the seats of Anna, king of the East Angles, 
whose daughter Ethelfred, on her marriage with 
Tombert, a nobleman or prince of the Girvii (a people 
inhabiting the fenny parts of Norfolk), had this Castle, 
with the lan46 belonging to it, given her by her father. 

12 Survey of Norwich, 

About 677, this Tombert-and his wife granted to the 
monastery of Ely, which they had founded, certain 
lands held of Norwich Castle, by Castle guard, to 
which service they must have been liable before the 
grant, for, by the laws of the Angles, lands granted to 
the church were not liable to secular service, unless 
they were at first subject thereto whilst in secular 
hands, which proves that this was a Royal Castle in 
the time of King Anna. 

The Danes soon came over in such large numbers 
and so frequently, that they at last got possession of 
the whole of East Anglia, and became the parent- 
stock of the inhabitants of parts of Norfolk and 
Suffolk. In ICX)3, Sweyn or Swaine, King of 
Denmark, came over with his forces and, in revenge 
for the massacre of the Danes in the previous year, 
burnt Norwich and its Castle, as well as many other 
places. They afterwards rebuilt the city and castle, 
and came hither in such large numbers, that Norwich 
became a Danish city, with a Danish Castle, about 
lOii. After the restoration of the Anglo-Saxon 
dynasty, the city entered on a new career of pros- 
perity, and according to the Domesday Book of 
Edward the Confessor, it contained 25 churches, and 
1320 burgesses, besides the serfs or labourers. It was 
still the capital of East Anglia, with a few hundred 
houses, but the greater part of the area round the 
Castle presented only marshes and green fields. Two 
broad arms of the sea still flowed up the valleys on 
each side of the city. The whole district all around 
consisted of marsh, and moor, and woods, and yet 
uncultivated land. 

Rise and Progress of the City. \l 

In 1094, Herbert de Losinga, then Bishop of 
Thetford, removed the See hither, and began to build 
the Cathedral, from which time the city increased 
yearly in wealth and trade. Domesday Book (1086) 
contains an account of all the lands and estates in 
England, and also of all the towns. Norwich was 
then next in size to York, and contained 738 families. 
Thetford had at the same time 720 burgesses, and 
224 houses empty. Thetford, therefore, was decaying 
and Norwich was rising. In 1377, a census was taken 
of several great towns in England, and Norwich was 
found to contain 5300 people, for a migration hither 
of Flemings and Walloons, who introduced the manu- 
facture of woollen and worstead fabrics, had increased 
the population. In 1575, the muster roll of men 
delivered to the government capable of bearing arms 
contained 2120 names, which would be the proportion 
for 15,000 people. The population in 16^3 amounted— y 
to 28,881 inhabitants! In 1752 it had increased to \ ,4^ 
36,241, and in 1786 to 40,05.1. In 1801 it had | 
decreased to 36,832. In 181 1 the number was 37,256, 
and during the next ten years so large was the in- 
crease that in 1821 the number was 50,288. In 1831, 
when the census was taken, Norwich contained 
61,116; in 1841, 61,796; in 1851,68,713; in 1861, 

Notwithstanding the continued succession of wars 
from the revolution in 1688 to the conclusion of the 1 
peace in 1763, the city continued to prosper, and its 
trade had become very great, extending all over - 
Europe, and Norwich manufactures were in demand _ 

ame serious in 1774, and were not termin 
, wlien the independence of tlie United St 
nowledged. During tliis period, in fact 
the place was so good, that great nutnbe 
:ame from the surrounding villages and 
nployment in the factories. After the pas 
saving act in 1806, the new paving of 
imenced, and proceeded very slowly. 
y work was interrupted at intervals from 
money, and the Commissioners got dee] 
[n forty years they spent ;^300,ooo, and 

the worst paved town in England. 
J was very defective, and the hamlets were 
at all. The supply of water was altoge 
rnt, and in the hamlets was obtained f 
rhe Board of Health was established in il 
le powers of the Public Health Acts, 
en its provisions have been carried out. 
condition of Norwich has subsequently grej 
d and the rate of mortality decreased, o^ 
nse and judicious measures which have b 

d^he J^odep (Tits. 

The modem city, with all its improvements and 
extensions, presents a very different aspect to what 
it did in former times, when it was enclosed by high 
walls and gates. It stands for the most part on the 
summit and sloping sides of a rising ground, running 
parallel with the river Wensum on the southern side, 
above its confluence with the Yare. Its greatest ex- j 
tent from St Clement's Hill (north) to Hartford 
Bridges (south) is four and a quarter miles ; and follow- 
ing the zigzag line of boundary it is about seventeen 
miles in circumference, comprising 6630 acres of land. 
Within its jurisdiction, as a city and a county of itself, 
it includes the picturesque hamlets of Lakenham and ' 
Bracondale on the south, of Catton on the north, of . 
Thorpe on the east, and of Heigham on the west, in 
which direction Norwich is rapidly extending. 

The city is situated in the eastern division of 
Norfolk, of which county it is the capital. It is 20 
miles distant from the sea at Yarmouth, 108 miles 
distant from London, 42 from Lynn, 22 from Cromer, 
43 from Ipswich, 72 from Cambridge, and 99 from 
Lincoln ; being in latitude 52** 42' N., and in longitude 
I* 20^ R of Greenwich. The Great Eastern Railway 
system places it in communication with all the towns 
before named, and all the large towns of England. 
There is a railway station at Thorpe for the Norfolk 

iNavii^ation is carried on by river fi 
to Yarmouth. The Wensuni, wliich rise: 
enters tlie city on the N.W., and leaves it 
It pursues a boldly serpentine col 
:he town, first traces for a short space 
imits, then describes a semi-circle round 
, then winds through a thinly-built part 
and next traverses a compact eastern si 
ence, that may be called a hill, compai 
flatness of the surrounding country, exter 
right bank of the river and terminates n< 
^nd ; and this eminence bears on its sumn 
lopes all the more ancient parts of the cii 
ge portion of its present streets and buil 
e outline of the area within the old wa 
: resembles the form of a cornucopia, wi 
;v end twisted round from the S. to the S.l 
leen aptly compared to the figure of a haun< 
n. A strong flint embattled wall, flank< 
r towers, pierced by twelve beautiful gate 
led by a broad ditch, formerly surround< 

TJu Modem City. ly 

of walls which were permitted to remain are a few 
strips, here and there, of crazy ruin. The city inside 
the walls is divided into thirty-five parishes, and has 
five more and parts of two others within the county 
of the city. Altogether it contains forty parish 
churches, exclusive of the Cathedral, the French and 
Dutch Churches, and Christ's Church, New Catton ; 
and upwards of twenty Nonconformist chapels. It 
formerly included about twenty other parishes, but 
they have been consolidated with some of the present 
parishes, and the churches either desecrated or taken 
down. Among the chapels which have altogether 
disappeared may be mentioned the Chapel . of St. 
Mary in the Field, St. Catherine's Chapel, Hildebrand's 
Chapel, Magdalen Chapel, St Michael's Chapel, 
(Tombland), St Nicholas's Chapel, St Olave's Chapel, 
(near King Street gates), and others. 

The older portion of the city in most of its street 
arrangements is very irregular ; and its thoroughfares 
are narrow and winding, following in some instances 
the line of the ancient walls. Some of its houses, 
however, are handsome structures, and are often ad- 
mired by strangers as beautiful specimens of squared 
flint facings. The old street architecture, however, is 
rapidly vanishing before the hand of improvement 
Many of the half-timber, lath and plaster houses, re- 
markable for their grotesque gables and picturesque 
appearance, have given place to plainer, but more 
comfortable and convenient dwellings ; some of which 
have handsome fronts, more especially round the 
Market Place, and in the principal streets. We may, 

i8 Survey of Norwich, 

especially, notice the warehouses and shops of Messrs. 
Chamberlin, Mr. G. L. Coleman, and others in the 
Market Place ; of Mr. Caley, Mr. Fiske, Mr. Livock, 
Mr. Dixon, Mr. Sawyer, and Mr. Allen in London 
Street ; the offices of the National Provincial Bank in 
London Street; and of the Crown Bank on the 
Castle Meadow. 

The Market Place. 

The Market Place, which occupies the centre of 
the city, is one of the most spacious in England ; and 
being overhung by the singularly massive square 
tower of St. Peter's, and presenting several specimens 
of antique houses of the gable-front construction, is 
very picturesque in its appearance. It was formerly 
the great Croft, belonging to the Castle, on the outer 
ditch of which it is supposed to have abutted. The 
first parts built upon were the east and west sides and 
the north end. The other portions were built by 
virtue of royal licenses. As already indicated, it has 
been within the last few years greatly improved, by 
the erection of new houses and fronts ; and upon the 
whole it may be said to be well paved — ^though as 
regards the paving of the city generally, there is 
still room for improvement. The approaches to the 
Market Place, it should here be mentioned, were 
formerly very narrow and difficult, and they are not 
even now all that could be wished ; but many im- 
provements have nevertheless been made at very 
great expense. Thus, London Street has within the 

The Modem City. 


last few years been widened, at a cost of ;6'20,ooo ; 
and Opie Street has been opened from London 
Street to the Castle Hill. Of course, the principal 
places of business are mostly clustered together, 
either in the Market Place or in the nearest 
streets; but in former times, every business in 
Norwich had its particular row or station. Thus, in 
ancient deeds, we read of the Glover's Row, Mercer s 
Row, Spicer's Row, Needler*s Row, Tawer's Row, 
Ironmonger's Row ; also of the Apothecary's Market, 
the Herb Market, the Poultry Market, the Bread 
Market, the Flesh Market, the Wool and Sheep Mar- 
ket, the Fish Market, the Hay Market, the Wood 
Market, the Cheese Market, the Leather Market, the 
Cloth-cutter s Market, the White-ware Market ; all 
of which we find mentioned before the reign of 
Richard H. ; for about the latter end of the reign of 
Edward HI., trades began to be mingled in such a 
manner, that many of these names were lost 

Survey of Norwich. 

Norwich Castle. 

HlliH over the centre of the old city, over all its 
churches, and towers, and streets, rises the Norman 
Castle, frowning in feudal grandeur over the whole 
district It stands on the summit of a mound or hill, 
steep on all sides, which appears to be chiefly the 
work of nature, with additions by human labour. 
The embattled quadrangular keep, in its restored 
state, retaining all the details of architectural decora- 
tion peculiar to the Norman style, presents a faithful 
image, though without the grey antiquity, of its 
original exterior, and is a noble striking object from 
whatsoever point it is seen. The common history is, 
that a fortress existed here during the Saxon period, 
and that Uffa, the l^t King of the East Angles, 
formed one of earth, according to the rude method of 

Norwich Castle, 21 

the times. In 642, Anna, another of the East Anglian 
kings, is said to have resided here ; and during the 
Danish wars, this fortress was often taken and retaken. 
Alfred is believed to have repaired it, and to have 
erected the first stone structure, which was destroyed 
by the Danes in 1004. Canute probably erected 
another castle here about 1018, and after the conquest 
it was much injured during a siege, and was rebuilt by 
Roger Bigod. The plan of the fortifications has been 
a subject of some controversy. According to the 
account commonly given of the fortress, it consisted 
of a barbican or outwork to defend the entrance ; 
three nearly concentric lines of defence, each consist- 
ing of a wall and ditch, and enclosing a ballium or 
court ; and a great central keep, as the last resort in 
the event of a siege. The area comprised a space of 
twenty-three acres, and each ditch had a bridge over 
it similar to the one now remaining. The barbican, 
or outwork of the fortification, was situated beyond 
the outer ditch, if it ever existed. The wall com- 
menced at the opening called Orford Street, and 
gradually extended to the end of Golden Ball Lane, 
the other extremity terminating in Buff Coat Lane. 
The widest part is stated to have been forty yards 
broad, and gradually decreasing at the extremities, 
the length being about 220 yards. Part of the original 
form of the wall was supposed to be traceable from 
the position of the buildings erected on its site in 
Buff Coat Lane. The road to the castle from Ber 
Street was supposed to pass through the barbican, 
exactly where Golden Ball Lane recently stood. The 

22 Survey of Norwich. 

circuits of the outer vallum and the middle vallum 
are minutely described by most of the local historians ; 
but unfortunately there is no sufficient evidence 
in support of this old theory of three ditches 
round the castle — nothing but a vague traditional 
story, filled up by imagination. The editors of the 
history published by Crouse in 1768, say: 

" This castle was defended by a wall surrounding it, built 
on the brow of the hill on which it stands, and by three 
ditches ; the outermost of which reached on the west to the 
edge of the present Market Place, on the north to London 
Lane, which it took in; on the east nearly to Conisford 
Street, and on the south to the Golden Ball Lane. The 
postern or back entrance into the works was on the north- 
east, by which a communication was had with the earl s 
palace, then occupying the whole space between the outer 
ditch and Tombland. The grand entrance is on the south, 
from which you passed three bridges in going to the Castle. 
The first hath been immemorially destroyed ; the ruins of 
the second remained till the ditches were filled up and 
levelled thirty years since ; and the third still continues and 
consists of one whole arch, exceeded by very few in 

Mr. John Kirkpatrick, who wrote an account of the 
Castle in the last century, gives quite a different 
description of the earth works. He notices the 
present ditch, and a second entrenchment lying 
between the present ditch and the Shire house, which 
then stood near the old weighing house on the hilL 
Jtie also refers to the Shire house ditch as a distinct 

Norwich CastU: 23 

entrenchment He describes a bridge house on the 
inner side of the great southern ditch in the middle of. 
the present Cattle Market, and the line of the houses 
forming the southern limit of the Cattle Market 
seems to show the limit of the outwork. 

Mr. B. B. Woodward, F.S.A., in his lectures 
delivered here on "Norwich in the Olden Time," 
adopted this view of tfie earth works, which he 
believed did not consist of three concentric lines of 
defence. He described the Saxon fortress as pro- 
bably no more than a strong palisade carried along 
the inner edge of two great trenches and the top 
of the steep bank of the small stream called the 
" Cockey ;" the buildings consisting of a great timber 
hall with offices and stabling. He believed that the 
Normans strengthened the outworks, cast up the great 
mound, dug the vast inner ditch, and reared the 
noble donjon, which, before the "restoration" of its 
exterior, was a fine feudal monument After the 
Norman period the earth works, Mr. Woodward 
thought, underwent great changes. The horse-shoe 
trench on the east side disappeared and was built 
upon. This horse-shoe trench enclosed the Castle 
Meadow. Another smaller outwork was formed on 
the south side of the original great southern trench, 
both of the last named being crossed by bridges. 
In support of this view, Mr. Woodward referred 
to the account given by Kirkpatrick, who, as we 
have said, described the second ditch as lying 
between the great circular ditch and the Shire house, 
which then stood near the old weighing house. The 

24 Survey of Norwich. 

old way from King Street had been disused be- 
cause the growth of the city had so greatly altered 
the defensive character of the fortress. In addition to 
this, there were the names of two churches, one of 
which was St. Martin's, (originally called "on the 
Hill,") but afterwards "at Bailey" or "at the Castle 
gate;" and the other, St John, now Timberhill, but 
then "at the Castle gate." Unless a way existed 
through the outworks to the castle hill, these churches 
could not have been properly called ** at the Castle 
gate;" and as the "Bailey," was the space enclosed 
within the intrenchments of the Castle, the other 
name of St. Martin would be quite inappropriate. 
The Buckes, in their view of the Castle, represented a 
ruined building, like a bridge house, on the inner side 
of the great southern ditch. Before the end of the 
last century, the level of the south side of the hill was 
raised to form a Cattle Market 

Mr. Harrod, some years since, at a meeting of the 
Archaeological Society held in the Museum, exploded 
the theory of three circular ditches by showing from 
the city records that houses had always stood on the 
sites of the supposed outer and middle ditches ; the 
inner vallum was the only one, and extended round 
the base of the hill on which the keep is erected, and 
is plainly traceable at the present time. It is planted 
with trees and shrubs, having a gravelled walk in the 
centre, and is enclosed with an iron palisade. The 
area of the upper ballium is level and comparatively 
high, and forms an irregular circle on the summit of 
the hill, surrounded by an iron railing. The great 

Norwich Castle, 25 

Keep situated within this area is a massive quadrangu- 
lar pile, 1 10 feet in length from east to west, 92 feet 
10 inches in breadth from north to south, and 69^ 
feet high to the top of the merlons of the battlements, 
and the walls are from 10 to 13 feet in thickness. 
From the basement to the top are three stories, each 
strengthened by small projecting buttresses, between 
which the walls are ornamented with semi-circular 
arches resting on small three-quarter columns. In 
the upper story the backs of some of these arcades 
are decorated with a kind of reticulated work, formed 
by the stones being laid diagonally, so that the joints 
resemble the meshes of a net. To give it greater 
richness of effect, each stone had two deeply chased 
lines, crossing each other parallel with the joints, so 
as to present the appearance of Mosaic. On the ex- 
terior of the west side are two arches which appear to 
have been originally intended as a deception to the 
enemy, giving an idea of weakness externally, where 
in fact was the greatest strength ; for the wall is not 
only 13 feet in thickness in this place, but, within, it 
was additionally barricaded by two oblique walls 
which were, long ago, taken down. On the east side 
of the keep there is a projecting tower called Bigod's 
tower, which was most probably built by Hugh 
Bigod, third Earl of Norfolk, who succeeded his 
brother as High Constable of the Castle, early in the 
1 2th century. This tower, which was an open portal 
to the grand entrance of the Castle, is of a richer kind 
of architecture, and in the genuine Norman style, and 
since 1824, has been entirely restored, so as now to 

26 Survey of Norwich. 

exhibit its pristine aspect, which is certainly different 
from the rest of the keep. The interior of the keep 
has been so greatly altered in order to adapt it to 
prison purposes, that the original arrangement of 
apartments cannot be traced. 

The style of architecture has been a matter of dis- 
pute, as to whether it is Saxon, Danish, or Norman. 
Mr. Boid, in his history and analysis of the principal 
styles of architecture, ventures to challenge any one 
to prove the existence of any monument in this 
country of real Saxon skill ; nor has any specimen 
been discovered. Mr. Wilkins, of Norwich, who has 
described both the ancient and modern states of the 
fortress in Vol. xii. of the Archaeologia, believed, how- 
ever, that the part which yet remains might have been 
constructed chiefly in the reign of Canute, but that it 
is notwithstanding in the style of architecture practised 
by the Saxons, long before England became subject 
to the Danes, and is the best exterior specimen of the 
kind. Other and later writers, with much better 
evidence, believe the whole keep to be Norman, of the 
time of William Rufus ; for it is similar in style to 
Castle Rising, built in the reign of that king, by 
Albini. The earth works and stone works are very 
similar. The whole of the exterior of the keep has 
been refaced, the original style being preserved. It is 
to be regretted that the work was not wholly refaced 
with small square stones, in the Norman manner, in- 
stead of commencing with the large massive freestone, 
which is coloured to represent smaller stones. This 
defect, however, on being discovered was remedied, for 

The Cathedral 27 

a great part of the exterior was finished after the 
Norman fashion. The county jail stands on the east 
side of the keep, and was built on the site of a pre- 
vious prison in 1824-28 at a cost of ;^i 5,000. It 
comprises a governor's house and three radiating 
wings, and has room for 224 male prisoners. Three 
bridges are, as we have said, thought by some 
authorities to have crossed three ditches, but for 
more than a century the present bridge has been the 
only one. This bridge consists of one large semi- 
circular arch. Mr. Wilkins supposed that it was the 
original bridge built by the Saxons, but this is only 
conjectural like the rest of his theory about the earth 
works. At the termination of this bridge, upon the 
upper ballium, are the remains of two circular towers, 
14 feet in diameter, which are supposed to have 
flanked the portal of the ballium wall. The history 
of the castle will be given at some length in subse- 
quent pages. We shall now proceed to 

The Cathedral. 

This grand Norman pile is^he great ornament to 
the city, but its situation is so low that its goodly 
proportions can be seen only from one point of view, 
namely from Mousehold Heath. From that elevation 
it presents the dignity of a great work of architecture, 
and the spire may be seen on a clear day, on the 
north, at a distance of twenty miles. The noble 
tower, with its gracefully tapering spire, second 
in height only to that of Salisbury, the flying 

28 Survfy of Norwich. 

buttresses, and the circular chapels at the east end, 
are objects of interest to the attentive antiquarian 

The cloisters on the south side, and the bishop's 
palace and grounds on the north, and other premises^ 
shut out from puWic view most of the exterior, ex- 
cept the west front A fine view of the splendid 
effect, produced by a series 0/ unbroken lines, may be 
obtained opposite the south transept, where the whole 
pile, comprising the transept, tower, and spire, blend 
themselves into one harmonious whole. The interior 
from the west front entrance presents a most imposing 
appearance, and when surveying the vast length of the 
nave, we feel that our forefathers 

" Builded better than they knew, 
Unconscious stones to beauty grew." 

We shall first give, in as complete a manner as our 
limited space will permit, a sketch of the foundation 
and progress of the edifice, the erection of which 
occupied a century, and then we shall describe its 
different parts, exterior and interior, including the 
nave, the screen, th# choir, the transepts, and the 

The original structure was begun in 1096 by 
Herbert de Losinga, the first bishop of the diocese. 
The portions he built comprise the choir, with the 
aisles surrounding it, the chapels of Jesus and St 
Luke, and the central tower with the episcopal palace 
on the north side of the church, and a monastery on 
the south. Bishop Eborard, the successor of Herbert, 

The Cathedral 29 

added the nave and its two aisles, from the ante-choir 
or rood loft, to the west end. The building, as left 
by Eborard, remained till 1171, when it sustained 
some damage by fire, but was repaired by Bishop 
John de Oxford, about 1 197, who also added some 
alms houses to the monastery. The Lady chapel at 
the east end, which has long since been destroyed, was 
the next addition to the building, and was erected by 
Walter de Suffield, the tenth bishop, who filled the 
See from 1244 to 1257. 

In the year 1271, the tower was greatly injured by 
lightning during divine service, and in 1272 the whole 
church was damaged considerably, in the violent war- 
fare which was at that time carried on between the 
monks and the citizens; but in 1278, having been 
repaired, the church was again consecrated by William 
de Middleton on the day he was enthroned Bishop of 
Norwich, in the presence of King Edward I. and 
Eleanor his queen, the Bishops of London, Hereford, 
and Waterford, and many lords and knights. We 
can now form no idea of the grandeur of such a 
ceremony in that age. 

The tower having been much injured and weakened 
by fire, a new one, according to Blomefield, was begun 
and finished by Bishop Ralph de Walpole ; but this, 
says Britton, more properly applies to the spire, the 
style of which, rather than of the tower, corresponds 
with that period. Bishop Walpole ruled the diocese 
from 1289 to 1299. Before his translation to Ely, 
which took place in the latter year, he commenced 
the cloister at the north-east angle, and built the 


30 Survey of Norwich. 

chapter house. He only completed a small portion 
of the east aisles. The chapter house has since been 
destroyed. The rest of the cloister was built by 
Richarde de Uppenhall, Bishop Salmon, Henry de 
Will, John de Hancock, Bishop Wakering, Jeffery, 
Symonds, and others, and was completed AD. I43C^ 
in the 133rd year from the first commencement of the 

In January, 1362, the spire was blown down, and 
the choir thereby much injured ; but under the 
auspices of Bishop Percy, the present spire was erected 
and the choir repaired. In 1629, the upper part of 
the spire was again blown down, and in 1633, at a 
general chapter, it was ordered to be repaired. In 
1843, seven feet were added to its elevation, with the 
present finial which formed a consistent termination 
to the crockets. 

In 1463, the church was much injured by fire, the 
wood work in the interior of the tower having been 
ignited by lightning. Under Bishop Lyhart, however, 
it was again repaired and ornamented. The splendid 
stone roof of the nave was added, the cathedral was 
paved, and a tomb was erected over the founder, 
which was afterwards demolished during the great 
rebellion. About the year 1488, Bishop Goldwell 
built the roof of the choir of similar but inferior work 
to that of the nave, adding the upper windows and 
Pying buttresses. He also fitted up the choir and the 
pels around it, and covered the arched stone work 
lead. In 1 509 the transepts having been much 
by fire, Bishop Nykke repaired them, adding 

The Cathedral 31 

stone roofs to them in the same manner as the rest of 
the church. 

At the dissolution of the monasteries, the cathedral 
suffered greatly from the zeal of the Reformers, much 
curious work being destroyed ; and several obnoxious 
crucifixes, images, niches, tabernacles, and paintings, 
were removed. In 1643, the fanatics took possession 
of the church and the adjoining palace, and plundered 
them of all that was valuable. The Yarmouth people 
being in want of a workhouse, sent a petition to the 
\jytA Protector, praying that " that great useless pile, 
the cathedral, might be pulled down, and the stones 
given them to build a workhouse." Of course the 
petition was not granted. Soon after the restoration, 
the church was fitted up again. In 1740, the nave 
and aisles were newly paved, the tower was re- 
paired, and the church cleaned. In 1763, the floor of 
the choir was again repaved, the stalls repaired and 
painted, and other improvements made, not always 
in harmony with the original structure. 

The edifice was extended, embellished, altered, and 
repaired by many bishops and by wealthy families 
till it was completed about 1500. Alternate dilapida- 
tions and restorations followed. The dilapidations 
were sometimes sudden, sometimes gradual, and the 
restorations have continued at frequent intervals al- 
most to the present day. The entire pile was repaired 
and beautified on an extensive scale in 1806-7. The 
decayed ornaments of the west front were restored, 
and many improvements in other parts were effected 
in 1818 and following years. The south front was 

■w • ^^ ^^* ^rA x.^ ^, \.« J VA & A VA 

it features were brouirht into view bctwc' 
iS43'aiul 1868. 

: ])ilc as it now stands, comprises a n; 
en bays with aisles, a transept of three b 
wing, a central tower, a steeple, an a 
:y on the north-east side, a choir of four 
aisles, an apsidal end, and a procession 
hree chapels, in the south side, the nortl 
md south-east side; and a cloister with 
3f eleven panes to the south of the nave, 
sions of the Cathedral as taken from i 
rement are as follows : — 

igth of church - - - 407 

,y nave to choir screen - 204 

choir from screen - - 183 

roof of nave - - 251 

transept - - - 178 

adth of nave and aisles - 72 

„ choir from back of stalls - 27 

aisles of rhoir - - ▼ •• 

The Cathedral 33 

The Interior. 

We shall now proceed with our description of the 
interior, which contains the finest specimens of Nor- 
man architecture in existence, and admired by all 
men of taste. Nothing can exceed the grandeur of 
the lofty nave, massive columns, and wide circular 
arches. The whole pile is chiefly of the early Norman 
style, wherein the semi-circular arches and massive 
short columns are the leading features. These are 
considerably varied in size, moulding, and ornament, 
in different parts of the edifice. 

The Nave comprises fourteen semicircular arches, 
ornamented with billet and zigzag mouldings, and 
supported by massive piers. The arches of the tri- 
forium are of similar style to those below. The 
magnificent roof, the work of Bishop Lyhart, the 
rebus of whose name is of frequent occurrence upon 
the vault and corbels, is ornamented with 328 hi,stori- 
cal figures, curiously carved, in a kind of relievo 
peculiar to itself, beii^ chiefly composed of little 
figures, most exactly put together, said to be the only 
work of the kind in existence, being a complete chain 
of sacred history, beginning at the tower with the 
Creation of the World ; the different days of the 
creation being disposed of in the several figures in the 
intersections of the arched work of the roof. The 
Fail of Man, Noah's Ark, and incidents in the lives of 
the patriarchs, are represented in the first seven 
arches ; the rest to the west end represent events 
narrated in the New Testament The interior of the 

34 Survey of Norwich. 

nave looks much too long in proportion to the rest of 
the pile, and the triforium is out of keeping in con- 
sequence of its heavy circular arches being too high 
as compared with those of the tier below, but the 
piers of the nave, with the grand arches which they 
support, are splendid specimens of Norman work and 

The south transept is Norman work modified by a 
few innovations, and is flanked by square turrets, 
arcaded at the top and terminating in pinnacles. The 
nortli transept is of similar character. The side aisles 
are low, and the roof of plain vaulting. The west 
window is of unusually lai^e size, and is of the same 
design, as regards the tracery, with that in West- 
minster Hall. This window has been filled in with 
gorgeously coloured glass, being designed as a me- 
morial of Bishop Stanley, who was buried in the 
middle of the nave. 

In the seventh arch of the north side are the re- 
mains of a doorway, with a stone bench, formerly 
leading into the monks' preaching yard, now part of 
the bishop's garden. Even after the Reformation, and 
up to the time of the great rebellion, sermons were 
preached here before the Civic Authorities and the 
Members of the Cathedral Between the sixth and 
seventh pillars is an unpretending inscription to the 
memory of the learned Dr. Prideaux, formerly Dean 
of Norwich, author of the " Connection of the Old and 
New Testaments," who died November ist, 1724. The 
tomb between the corresponding pillars on the op- 
posite side is that of Miles Spencer, Chancellor of the , 

The Cathedral . 3^ 

Diocese in 1537. Between the seventh and eighth 
pillars is the low tomb of Bishop Nykke, who died in 
1535. At the eighth pillar a pulpit formerly stood. 
Bishop Parkhurst's tomb stands in the next space, 
between the eighth and ninth pillars. 

The Screen was originally the division between the 
lood-loft and the chapel of our Lady of Pity. Bishop 
Lyhart erected the rood-loft, and upon it the princi- 
pal rood or cross was placed with the representation 
of the Holy Trinity, to whom this church was dedi- 
cated ; together with the images of the Blessed Virgin 
and St. John, and such other saints as were esteemed 
here. The rood or crucifix, of full proportions, was 
made of wood, and in most churches was placed in a 
loft constructed for the purpose over the entrance 
from the church into the chancel. The nave repre- 
sented the Church Militant, and the chancel the 
Church Triumphant Those, therefore, who would 
pass out of the former into the latter, must go under 
the loft ; that is, must go under the cross and suffer 
affliction. But no rood was complete without the 
images of the Virgin and St. John on either side 
of the cross, in allusion to St John xix. 26, — "Jesus 
saw His mother and the disciple standing by, whom 
He loved." 

The Choir contains sixty-two stalls according to 
the number of the old foundations, namely, a prior, 
sub-prior, and sixty monks. They are adorned with 
rich and quaint carvings and canopies, as far as 
the west pillars of the tower. The "misereres" 
(projecting brackets on the under side of the seats of 

36 Survey of Nofwich, 

stalls in churches), are richly carved and present a 
great variety of design. Among the stalls the Rev. 
R. Hart discovered upwards of sixty misereres, and he 
described them very minutely. In every example 
that he had seen the space under the ledge is carved 
in a bold relief, with an ornamented boss on each side 
to balance, as it were, the centre, whatever it might 
have been. As may be supposed scriptural or 
legendary designs are not often found in such a posi- 
tion. There are, however, a few examples. 

The interior of the tower, which is raised on four 
massive arches, presents three arcades, the upper and 
lower forming galleries, and the former containing the 
lower windows of the lantern, which are filled with 
painted glass. The clerestory and roof of the chancel 
arc the work of Bishop Goldwell. Here is an admir- 
able specimen of engrafting a later style upon the 
Norman architecture, with as little violence to the eye 
as possible. 

The tomb of Bishop Goldwell stands within the 
chapel, formerly dedicated to St. James, and with its 
canopy forms a rich specimen of ornamental sculpture 
and architecture. On the east side of the fifteenth 
north pillar is the monument to the memory of the 
learned Bishop Home, author of an excellent " Intro- 
duction to the Study of the Bible." In the space 
between the seventeenth and eighteenth pillars was 
the chapel dedicated to St. Anne, and in the next 
space was the seat occupied by Queen Elizabeth, 
when she attended divine service during her visit to 
this city. The monument to the late Bishop Bathurst 

The Cathedral. 37 

now occupies the spot, a sitting statue sculptured in 
white marble. Not only for its intrinsic merits is this 
statue of great value, but also because it is the last 
finished work of Sir Francis Chantrey, who visited 
Norwich for the purpose of fixing it only a few days 
before his death. Opposite to this monument is the 
altar tomb of Sir William Boleyn, now despoiled of 
its brasses. Sir Thomas Browne tells us in his 
*• Repertorium," that, during the Commonwealth, "more 
that a hundred" brasses were reeved in the Cathedral 
alone, — a greater number than the whole county of 
Norfolk could now supply. Hence our readers may 
easily understand what an immense number of these 
interesting memorials must have been lost, indepen- 
dently of the number that have been partially despoiled 
by the removal of their canopies. 

At the foot of the altar steps, in the middle of the 
chancel, is the tomb of Bishop Herbert de Losinga, 
erected by the Dean and Chapter, in 1682, in the 
place of one destroyed during the civil wars. It has 
been levelled with the pavement and presents a long 
Latin inscription from the pen of Dean Prideaux. The 
east windows of the clerestory were the gift of the 
Bishop, the Misses Morse, and the Dean and Chapter 
of the Cathedral, and were erected between 1840 and 
1847. The lower one in the triforium is an obituary 
window to the memory of the late Canon Thurlow, 
placed there by his friends. This space had before 
been occupied by a window with a pointed arch, 
representing the Transfiguration. The window was 
removed to the south transept, and the arches of 
both windows have been restored. 

:hapel, the bishop had an uninterrupted v 
; throne directly in a line through the \vl 

The custos, or master of the high altar, ar 
ounted for the offerings made there, wl 
i a large sum ; and at the annual process 
:ity and country clergy, on the feasts of 
rinity and St. Paul, something consider; 

tone roof of the south transept, as well as * 
Drth, was raised by Bishop Nykke, about i 

same time, probably, the old Norman i 
into the chancel aisle was filled with the 
lerous mullions and tracery, which charactc 
period of pointed architecture. The adjoii 
ds to the chapel of our Lady the Less, bt 
lied Bawchyn's Chapel, having been d 
> the Virgin and all the Saints, by Willian 
n, about the middle of the fourteenth < 
The founder is buried in an arched v 
he chapel. This chapel is now used as 
)ry Court Adjoining is St. Luke's Cha 

The Cathedral 39 

Herbert's original foandation. The font was brought 
from the parish church ; it is richly carved with 
designs of the seven sacraments, &c. Passing round 
at the back of the altar we come to the Jesus 

The north transept is similar to the south. From 
the east wall of it there was a doorway leading to a 
chapel, said to be the ancient Vestiary. The arch 
has been filled up, and the entrance is from a small 
door on the outside. Over the exterior of the door 
leading to the Bishop's palace is a niche, containing 
a figure, said to represent Bishop Herbert, one of the 
few specimens extant of a Norman statue. 

The Exterior. 

The exterior of the Cathedral is not vciy imposing. 
The west front was the work of Bishop Alnwick, in 
the reign of Henry VI. It is divided into three com- 
partments, forming the termination of the nave and 
the aisles. The central division presents the grand 
entrance doorway, and a large central window filled 
with coloured glass, which we have already described. 
It rises into a gable, formerly pierced with a 
small light, now a niche, flanked by two turrets 
with spirelets and round-headed single panels, and 
surmounted by a cross. The doorway is formed 
by a bold deep-pointed arch, and is much en- 
riched in the spandrels and side fascix with mould- 
ings, niches, pedestals, statues, and other decorations. 
The central window is divided, both horizontally and 

40 Survey of Norwich, 

vertically, into three leading compartments, and sub- 
divided by small mulHons; and has good decorations 
of perpendicular character. Each of the two lateral 
divisions of the west front exhibits pure Norman work, 
and is of three stories ; the first pierced with the 
doorway ; the second pierced with four windows 
separated only by small columns ; the third displaying 
three blank arches, and flanked with a small staircase 
turret At each side of the great window, and at the 
extremities of the side divisions, are Norman turrets, 
lately restored and substituted for very debased 
cupolas. Engravings are extant representing this 
front with high and slender pinnacles where the Nor- 
man turrets now stand. 

The north and south elevations of the nave show a 
three-storied aisle ; and a clerestory and triforium, 
with an embattled parapet in each, exhibit a great 
height, and tiers of blank arches or arcades with some 
later perpendicular windows. On the exterior of the 
nave will be observed many traces of alterations in 
times long subsequent to the original building. The 
lowest tiers of windows are of comparatively modem 
insertion, and intersect the string course of a billet 
moulding, all round the exterior of the edifice. Next 
above is the arcade of blank arches, with semicircular 
mouldings, having regular bases and capitals, and 
continuing round the whole structure. Above these 
was the tier of original windows now closed up, but 
surmounted by windows of the sixteenth century. 
The exterior of the side aisles is here terminated by 
a plain embattled parapet of the same date as the 

Tkt Cathedral 41 

windows before mentioned. The windows of the 
clerestory are, however, Norman, and have blank 
arches on each side, and continue the same all round 
the upper part of the nave and transept. They are 
surmounted by a parapet similar to that of the side 
aisles. The exterior of the south transept has been 
lately restored, and various old houses that blocked 
up the entrance have been cleared away. 

The tower is grandly Norman in four stages, each 
adorned with arcades, columns, and tracery mouldings. 
It has, at the corners, square turrets with their angles 
cut otf, and is surmounted by decorated battlements 
and crocketted pinnacles. The spire is decorated 
English octangular, el^antly proportioned, enriched 
with bands, and boldly crocketted in ribs running up 
its angles. It terminates in a handsome finial, and 
is the loftiest in England except that of Salisbury. 
The base of the spire is supported by projecting 
buttresses at each angle, terminating in a small 

The Cloisters. 

The Cloisters, which arc entered by a tasteful 
modem door on the south side of the nave, form one 
of the most beautiful quadrangles in England. They 
comprise a square of about 174 feet, and are iz feet 
wide. They were commenced by Bishop Walpole 
about 1297, but were not completed by succeeding 
prelates ttU 143CX The style of architecture is the 
decorated, with traces of the perpendicular. The 

43 Survey of Norwich. 

eastern part is the most ancient, and a progressive 
chaise may be observed in the tracety of the win- 
dows, commencing at the north-east corner, con- 
tinuing through the south and the west, and ter- 
minating with the north sides. The roof is much 
admired for its exquisitely beautiful groining, and its 
bold yet el^ant bosses, with their sculptured subjects 
and tasteful foliage. The doorway leading from the 
eastern aisle of the cloisters to the nave is deserving 
especial notice, being a pointed arch with four 
columns on each side, having archwolt mouldings, in 
front of which are seven canopied niches, with richly- 
sculptured crockets containing figures Above the 
door, at the south-west comer, are carved figures of 
" The Temptation of our First Parents." In the first 
two arches on the west side of the door are two lava- 
tories, where the monks used to wash their hands 
before going into the refectory or common eating hall. 
Over each of these are three niches, where images 
formerly stood. The cloisters are surpassed by none 
in beauty of architecture and solemnity of effect. 
They branch off from the south transept, and enclose 
a square court or area. There are eleven noble win- 
dows or arched openings on the western side, twelve 
on the east, eleven on the north, and eleven on the 
south. All these windows are divided into three 
lights by two columns, and are decorated with a 
variety of beautiful tracery. They are of decorated 
architecture, except eight on the north side, which 
have perpendicular tracery in decorated arches. The 
upper portion of the tracery of all the windows ap- 
pears to have been onra filled with stained glass; 

The Bishop's Palace. 43 

The pavement of the north side of the cloisters was 
torn up in the great rebellion, and relaid by William 
Burleigh, Esq. In this alley Queen Elizabeth dined 
in public when she visited Norwich in 1578. In 
memory thereof, her Majesty's arms and those of the 
nobility who attended her were painted on the wall of 
the church, and properly blazoned with supporters, 
etc., but they were entirely effaced a century ago. 

The dormitory of the monks adjoined the cloisters 
on the south. At a short distance from the cloisters 
are the only remains of the Priory founded by Bishop 
Herbert, consisting of three massive clustered columns, 
the capitals of which are curiously carved. 

The Bishop's Palace. 

The Bishop's Palace stands on the north side of the 
Cathedral Church, to which there was in former times 
a passage from the door of the north transept, arched 
over with stone similar to the cloisters. The original 
palace was founded by Bishop Herbert, but has under- 
gone so many repairs and alterations, that but little of 
the first building remains, and that part adjoins a new 
structure, in a similar style of architecture. In the 
garden there is a fine ruin, said to be remains of the 
grand entrance into the great hall, which reached to 
the site of the present episcopal chapel, and was 1 10 
feet long, and 60 broad. This chapel was restored in 
1662, and in it are monuments of Bishops Reynolds 
and Sparrow. The entrance to the episcopal residence 
is from St Martin's Plain, by the palace gate, built by 

44 Survey of Norwich, 

Bishop AInwyck about 1430. It has a lai^e pointed 
arch of several mouldings, and the spandrels are filled 
with tracery ; but it has suffered materially from in- 
judicious repairs. Over the arch is a series of pan- 
nelled compartments with the letter M crowned. On 
the west side is a small door, on which, amongst other 
ornaments, are a heart and mitre, the supposed rebus 
of Bishop Lyhart 

The Cathedral Precincts. 

The Cathedral Precincts include the Upper and 
Lower Close, and a lai^e portion of garden ground, 
with good houses on the south side. The Upper 
Close was formerly used as a play ground to the 
Grammar School ; it is now enclosed with palisades. 
At the south-east comer is the Audit Room, which 
contains the library of the Dean and Chapter, The 
Lower Close was enclosed by Dean Lloyd, in 1782, 
and converted into a garden. At the extremity of the 
Lower Close, near the edge of the river, still stands a 
double arch of black flint, which is considered the 
roughest bit of picturesque in Norwich, and has been 
frequently sketched. It was formerly the Water-gate 
to the precincts, and is now known as " Pull's 

The Free Grammar School 

The Free Grammar School. 

The Free Grammar School, near the west end of 
the Cathedral, was founded by Bishop Salmon, in 
1325, and annexed to a small Coll^iate Chantry. 
At the dissolution of this college, the Corporation, by 
their Hospital Charter, were required to find a master 
and usher, and to remunerate them out of the ample 
revenues assigned to them by that charter. This 
trust was transferred, in 1836, from the Corporation to 
the Charity Trustees. There are generally a little 
more than a hundred pupils at the school. The 
celebrated Dr. Valpy was once the head-master ; and 
in addition to many eminent scholars, the celebrated 
" Norfolk hero," Lord Nelson ; Sir James Brooke, the 
Rajah of Sarawak ; and other noted characters, were 
educated here. Opposite the school is a colossal 
marble statue of Nelson. It was executed by Mr. 
Milne, of London, and has been highly commended 

46 Survey of Nonvick. 

as a work of art Of this school, and also of the 
Commercial School, which is under the same trust, we 
shall have more to say in subsequent pages. 

The Gateways to the Cathedral on the west side 
are deserving of notice. 

The Erpingham Gate 

is situated directly before the west front of the Cathe- 
dral, and is in an excellent state of preservation. It 
was built in 142S by Sir Thomas Erpingham, (who 
lies buried in the choir of the Cathedral) as a penance 
for having espoused the cause of Wickliffe. It consists 
of a lofty pointed arch, in the mouldings of which are 
a series of thirty-eight statues in canopied niches. 
The spandrels are highly decorated with tracery 
mouldings and shields, the whole being enclosed in a 
kind of square frame with semi-circular buttresses, 
each of which is divided into four compartments with 
statues, niches, pedestals, and shields. As a matter of 
some interest, it may here be mentioned that over 
against the front of this gate Is a lat^e block of build- 
ings, enclosing what is commonly called Sampson 
and Hercules' Court The grotesque wood figures, 
designed to represent these personages, formerly sup- 
ported the portico, but are now placed in the paved 
court The one holds a club, and the other the jaw- 
bone of an ass. The house itself was formerly owned 
by Sir John Fastolf, and afterwards by the Countess 
of Lincoln ; and in the time of Henry VII. by 
Elizabeth Duchess of Suffolk, who used it as a city 

The View from the Castle Hill 47 

house for herself and family. It is now in the occupa- 
tion of Messrs. Pratt and Hancock, wholesale grocers 
and cheese factors, who have covered in the whole 

The Ethelbebt Gateway 

leads to the south end of the Upper Close. It was 
built by the citizens as an atonement for the injuries 
done in a quarrel which they had with the monks in 
1272. The chamber over the arch was formerly used 
as a chapel dedicated to St Ethelbert, the church of 
that name having been destroyed during the riots. 
The west front has a modem pediment of stone 
tracery, inlaid with flint Beneath is a series of blank 
niches with a statue in the centre. In the spandrels 
of the arch are figures, in basso relievo, of a man with 
a sword and round shield attacking a dragon. The 
east front consists of stone tracery and flint with 
painted windows. 

The View from the Castle Hill. 

We shall now return to the Castle-hill Walk, which 
is favourable for a view of the whole city, with all its 
churches and towers. If we take our position on the 
eastern side we shall see the broad vale of the Yare, 
where the Romans came up in their galleys and 
landed on that side of the river, then very wide. We 
shall see also where the first street (King Street,) 
extends southward the whole length of the city, with 
tall diimnies of great breweries sending forth volumes 

iciuues Liic v^atiicaiai, tin- vjiciiunicii ^\^nww 

^ Church, Moiischold Hcatli, Kctt's Casth 
'it, the hamlet o( Tliorpc, the churches of S 
Jountergatc, St. Juhan, and St. Peter Soutl 
ing Street Walking round to the west sid< 
efore us the spacious Market Place, and th 
rch of St Peter Mancroft, with a mass c 

From the Market Place we see several line 
running in a direction from east to west 
•eet, leading to St Giles' Church, and S 
et, in a straight line to Heigham. Here i 
>und, the Guildhall is a conspicuous objec 
the right we have London Street, Prince 
, Andrew's Street, Pottergate Street, an 
ict's Street, running in lines from east 1 
re, the chief objects are the churches < 

Maddermarket and St. Gregory ; and i 
ce, St Lawrence, St Margaret's, and S 
at Coslany. From the north side of tt 
Ik we see Exchange Street, Post Offic 
ding into St Andrew's, and St George 
tt Street, and St Augustine's, and S 

The Cattle Market. 49 

Clement, St Peter Hungate, St. Michael at Plea, 
St Paul, St Simon and Jude, St Edmund, and St 
George Tombland. 

The Cattle Market. 

The Cattle Market, on the south side of the hill, 
has been greatly extended, and presents the most 
extensive area for the purpose in England. On the 
east side whole blocks of old houses have been cleared 
away, and great additions made to the space for the 
display of horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. The 
improvements cost the city over ^^50,000. Every 
Saturday the hill presents a busy and highly in- 
teresting scene, and a vast amount of business is 
transacted here in the space of 3 few hours. The 
area has recently been further enlatged by the demoli- 
tion of some old houses at the comer of Golden Ball 
Street. A line of new houses has been built on the 
east side, ending with the handsome show rooms of 
Messrs. Holmes and Sons, the well-known Agricultural 
Machine Makers, who have won many prizes for their 

The Shirehall. 

The Shirehall, on the Castle Meadow, was erected 
from a plan by William Wilkins, Esq. It was com- 
menced on September 9th, 1822, and opened Septem- 
ber 27th, 1823, and is a poor imitation of the Tudor 
style of architecture. It stands on the north-east side 
of the Castle, and is a substantial brick edifice. 

50 Survey of Norwich. 

possessing all the usual accommodations. It com- 
prises Crown Court, Nist Prius Court, and rooms for 
witnesses and others. The county assizes and sessions 
are held in these courts. Near the crown court there 
is a small room communicating, by a shaft, with the 
prison above, whence prisoners are brought down for 
trial. The grand Jury room is a large apartment, and 
the walls are adorned with fine portraits of the late 
Lord Wodehouse and the late Earl of Leicester, 
painted by Sir T. Lawrence, There is also a portrait 
of the late Henry Dover, Esq., for many years 
Chairman at Quarter Sessions. 

The Guildhall. 

The Guildhall is a large antique building, chiefly of 
flint, at the north end of the Market Place. It was 
completed in 1413, when the windows of the Council 
Chamber were glazed chiefly with stained glass ; but 
all these ornaments have disappeared, except in three 
east windows. The furniture of this room is of the time 
of Henry VIII,, and the wood work is ornamented 
with the linen pattern. The room has been much im- 
proved of late years. The principal court is on the 
ground floor, where the city assizes and sessions are 
held. The Police Court is in a room above, opposite 
the Council Chamber. The Town Clerk and City 
Treasurer have offices in the building. The Police 
Station is on the ground floor of the east side. 

The interior of the hall is decorated with portraits, 
some interestit^ trophies of the battle of St Vincent, 

St. Andrew's Hall. 51 

presented by Nelson, the city r^alia, and the buskins 
of a famous dancer, who danced from London to 
Norwich in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. When that 
Queen visited the city in 1578, there was a magnifi- 
cent banquet given in the Council Chamber, and a 
pageant devised for her amusement was exhibited. 
In one of the cells at the bottom of the building, the 
martyr Thomas Bilney was confined, and there tested 
his powers of endurance by holding his finger in the 
lighted flame of a candle, to prove his willingness to 
suffer his approaching doom. In 1660, the lower 
court at the west end, now used as an assize court, 
was set apart as a cloth hall, and the room above as 
a place for the sale of yam. During the present cen- 
tury the hall has been much improved on the south 
side. New windows should be inserted on the north 

St. Andrew's Hall. 

St Andrew's Hall stands in the centre of the city, in 
the parish of St Andrew. It was originally the Church 
of the Convent of the Blackfriars, the building of 
which was begun about the year 1415, by Sir Thomas 
Erpingham, who died in 142S, before it was finished. 
It was completed by his son. Sir Robert Erpingham, 
who was rector of Bracon Ash, in Norfolk, a friar of 
the order of St Dominic, and a member of this con- 
vent This convent extended from St Andrew's 
Street to the river from south to north, and as far as 
Elm Hill on the east The cloister was on the north 
side of the church, with a burial place in the middle. 

$2 Survey of Norunck. 

The convent kitchen was at the north-west corner. 

Between the nave and choir of the church there was a 

neat sexangular steeple, which had three large bells in 

I it and a clock. It was built about 1462, and fell down 

I on November 6th, 1712. A turret was afterwards 

\ erected in its place, in which a clock bell hung. At 

1 the dissolution of the monasteries in 1538, the citizens 

J applied to Henry VIII., through the interest of the 

, Duke of Norfolk, for a grant of the convent for the 

use of the city, and requested that he would allow 

{ them to make the church into " a large hall, for the 

i mayor and his brethren, with all the citizens to repair 

{ unto at common assemblies," to make a chapel of the 

f choir, and to appropriate the rest of the building to 

\ other purposes. This was complied with, and the 

', petition is dated June 2Sth, 154a After this, the 

guilds of the several companies in the city, twenty in 

number, used to hear mass in the choir, and make 

their offerings in that place ; and most of them held 

; their feasts in the halL 

■■ In 1544, Henry Fuller, Esq., being then mayor, 

kept the first mayor's feast in grand style in the new 

■ hall. In 1561, the Earls of Northumberland and 

j Huntingdon, the Lord Thomas Howard, and Lord 

j Willoughby, with many other lords and knights, came 

' to Norwich to visit the Duke of Norfolk, and they 

|. lodged at the Duke's palace. At that very time the 

mayor's feast was held ; and William Mingay, then 

mayor, invited the noble lords and their ladies to the 

banquet They accepted the invitation, and were 

entertained in princely style ; and they expressed great 

St. Andreu^s HaU. 53 

satisfaction with their reception. After dinner, Mr. 
John Martin, a wealthy citizen, delivered the following 
characteristic speech : — 

" Maister Mayor of Norwich, and it please your Worship, 
)rau have feasted us like a King. God bless the Queen's 
Grace. We have fed plentifully ; and now, whilom I can 
speak plain English, I heartily Ihank you Maister Mayor; 
and so do we all. Answer, Boys, Answer. Your Beer is 
pleasant & potent, and will soon catch us by the caput, and 
stop our manners : And so Huzza for the Queen's Majesty's 
Grace, and all her bonny-brow'd Dames of Honour. Huzza 
for Maister Mayor and our good Dame Mayoress. His 
noble grace, there he is,* God bless him, and all this jolly 
company. To all our friends round county, who have a 
penny in their puise, and an English heart in their bodies, 
to keep out Spanish Dons, and Papists with their faggots 
to bum our whiskers. Shove it about, twirl your cap cases, 
handle your jugs, and Huzza for Maister Mayor, and his 
brethren, their Worships." 

On many subsequent occasions, the hall was the 
scene of grand civic festivities, to which we shall have 
to allude hereafter. 

The Triennial Musical Festivals are held here. And, 
formerly, the assizes for the city ; the nomination of 
candidates to represent the city in Parliament ; and 
the mayor's feasts, which were generally given on the 
day when he was sworn into office, were also all held 
in this spacious building ; and on some festive occa- 
sions, nearly 1000 ladies and gentlemen have dined 
here, including most of the principal families of the 

* Duke of Norfolk. 

54 Survey of Norwich. 

city. Several times between iGsoand l/cxithehal 
was proclaimed "a public excliange for the despatci 
of business between merchants and tradesmen." Th< 
last time was in 1725, when it was used only one year 
It was opened in October, 1796, as a corn exchange 
and continued to be used as such every Saturday til 
1828. Under the supenntendance of Mr. Barry, th< 
City Surveyor, a complete restoration of the hall was 
effected in 1863. 

The exterior of the hall, as seen from the plain 
presents an imposing appearance, chiefly owing to tht 
fine effect of its long range of clerestory windows, ol 
which there are fourteen on each side. The five west- 
ernmost windows on the south side are each of thre< 
lights, of decorated character, being of earlier date 
than any of the other windows. The sixth or eastern- 
most window is of four lights, perpendicular in style. 
On the north side are six beautiful perpendiculai 
windows of four lights, probably the most elegant in 
style in the eastern counties. The principal entrance 
is through the new porch on the south-west, which is 
similar in style to the original building. A large 
entrance door is provided in the centre of the west 
front, and above this there is a large and beautiful 
five-light window, producing a fine effect in the in- 
terior of the halL The interior consists of a nave, 124 
feet by 32 feet ; and north and south aisles, 124 feet 
by 16 feet, each being divided from the nave by six 
lofty and handsomely-moulded stone columns, sup- 
porting seven el^ant stone arches. Above these 
arches are the clerestory windows, fourteen on each 

St. Andrew's Hall. 55 

side, perpendicular in style, and somewhat later in 
character than the other windows. The roof, which 
is of chestnut, is of hammer-beam construction, with 
moulded spandrel brackets and circular shafts. From 
the hammer-beams spring moulded arch ribs. The 
rafters, which were originally visible, are plastered on 
the underside, giving the effect of panelling ; the 
ground-work being intense blue with gilded stars. 
Tlie hollows ip the whole of the timber are coloured 
Vermillion, and gilded paterae are inserted within these 
hollows at stated distances. The circular ribs are 
finished with a bead on the underside, which is deco- 
rated by spiral bands, alternately drab and oak 
colours. The intersection of the main timbers at the 
apex of the roof is distinguished by carved bosses, 
richly gilt The aisle roofs are similarly decorated, 
but without the gilded paterx. At the east end the 
orchestra is placed within a recess, under a fine 
deeply-moulded stone arch, of large size. 

The nave and aisles are lighted at night by nine 
polished brass corouee, of characteristic design, pen- 
dant from the centres of the arched ribs of the roof 
When lighted up at night, during the Choral Society 
and Festival Concerts, the interior presents a very 
brilliant appearance. Amongst the principal attrac- 
tions of the ball are the portraits of city worthies 
and some historical paintings. A fine work of art, 
Queen Eleonora sucking the poison from her hus- 
band's wound ; and another, the Death of Lady Jane 
Grey, by Martin, a native of this city ; may be seen at 
the west end. Large sums have been offered for 

S6 Survey of Norwkh. 

them. The two oldest portraits in the hall are Queea 
Anne and Prince Geoi^e of Denmark. A fine por- 
trait of Admiral Lord Nelson, painted by Sir William 
Beechey, was the last for which the illustrious " Nor- 
folk Hero" sat after his return to England in 1801. 
It is allowed to be an admirable likeness. He is 
standing on the quarter deck of a man of war ; the 
tri-coloured flag of France is lying at his feet ; and 
the flag of Spain lies on a cannon ; leaning against 
which is the sword of the Spanish Admiral, Don 
Xavier Winthysen, surrendered to him on February 
14th, 1797. On the hero's hat is the magnificent 
diamond Aigrette, or Plume of Triumph, and under it 
the rich pelisse of sable fur, both of which were pre- 
sented to him by the Grand Seigneur. He is decora- 
ted with the red riband as Knight of the Bath, and 
with the blue riband and medal suspended therefrom, 
which are the Insignia of the Order of St Ferdinand. 
On his breast are stars of the most honourable Order 
of the Bath, of the Grand Cross, of the Order of St 
Ferdinand, and of the Imperial Order of the Crescent 
Suspended from his neck by a riband, hang two gold 
chains, and another is aflixed to his button hole on 
the right side, all of which had been presented to him, 
at various times, for his unparalleled naval victories. 

" Such honours England to her hero paid, 
And peaceful sleeps the mighty Nelson's shade." 

This superb painting may be seen at the west end of 
the hall on the north side. Gainsborough painted the 
portrait of Sir Harbord Harbord, afterwards Lord 

St. Andrew's HalL 


Suffield, considered one of the best in the hall. 
Amongst the other portraits in the building are some 
painted by Gainsborough, Beechey, Heins, Smith, 
Bardwell, Stoppelaer, Adolphe, Opie, Clover, Hoppner, 
Lawrence, and Thompson. The following is a list in 
chronological order, with names of the painters. 

Qaccn Anne 


Prince George 


BenjamiD NutluU 




Robert Marsh 




Francis Amam 







Thomas V«c, M.P. 




TlKBna* Harwood 




Robert Haivey 




William Clarke 




Hod. Horace Walpolc, M.P. 



WiUiam Wiggett 




Robert Earl of Orford 


■ 743 

John Lord Hoban 



Simeon Waller 




WiUiam Crowe 




Thomu Hu-vejr 




Tbomat Hiunard 




John Press 








Peter Columbine 




Jeremiah Ives, Sen. 




Nockold Thompson 




John Goodman 




Robert R(«ers 








Sir Thomas Chorchman, KnL 




Jeremiah HaitoDrt 




Benjamin Hancock 




Survey of Norwich. 






James P~l* 




Thomas Starling 




Jeremiah Ives, Jun. 




Sir Harborf Harbord, Bt, M.P 


Robert P«rtridge 




Edward and Eleonoia 






John Palteson 



• 797 

John Harvey 




John Herring 




Horolio Lord Nelson 



Rl. Hon. Hen.y Hobart. M.P. 



Rt. Hon. W. Windham, M.P 



Charles Harvey, M.P. 




Thomas Back 




Banabas Leman 




William Sn.Lih,M. P. 



Sir J. P. Vallop 




William Hanltes 




Crisp Brown 




Robert Hawkea 




J. S. Palteson, Jim. 




Henry Francis 




William Simpson 

Town Clerk PhUUp* 


Charles Turner 




T. 0. Springfield 




Sir Samuel Bignold, Knt. 


J. P. Knight 


Rt. Hon. Lord Stafford 

J. P. Knight 


And over ihe west window is 

festooned the Flag of France taken by 

Lord Nelson from the ship Caierau: m l8oa 

The Corn Exchange. 

The Com Exchange is situated in Exchange Street, 

which commences at the north end of the Market 

Place. The original building, which was erected in 

Tfu Public Library. 59 

1828, at a cost of ;^6ooo, being found too small, was 
taken down in 1861, and the present spacious edifice 
was built by a company at a cost of ;^i6,ooo, in- 
cluding the site. The exterior is massive in its effect 
The key stone of the large window has a carved head 
of Ceres. The interior is well lighted from the roof, 
the superficial area of the glass being equal to the 
area of the hall. The inside measurement is 125 feet 
by 81 feet The height from the floor is 66 feet 
At the east end are portraits of John Culley, Esq., 
the originator of the Exchange, and of the late Earl of 
Leicester, who was justly r^arded as the greatest 
farmer in Norfolk. A lat^e amount of business is 
transacted here every Saturday afternoon. 

The Norwich Public Library. 

The Norwich Public Library is located in a spacious 
room built for the purpose at the end of an avenue 
opposite the Guildhall. The first meeting of sub- 
scribers was held there on September 7th, 1837. The 
library contains about 30,000 volumes, including many 
old books of divinity and archaeology. The yearly sub- 
scription is one guinea paid by shareholders, and 26s. 
paid by others ; and subscribers are entitled to borrow 
two sets of books at a time The library is open from 
ID a.m. till 9 p.m. Besides the large room which 
contains the books, there are smaller rooms for the 
convenience of readers. Mr. Langton is the librarian. 

Co Survey of Norwich. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Museum 

is a fine building, erected in 1839, in Broad Street, 
St Andrew's It contains very valuable collections in 
geology, ethnolc^fy, and entomology, but chiefly in 
ornithology. The specimens in ornitholcgy comprise 
nearly all the varieties of the raptores or birds of prey, 
mostly supplied by J. H. Gumey, Esq. A large new 
room in the adjoining building is filled with specimens 
of British birds, also contributed by J. H. Gumey, 
Esq., whose portrait adorns the room. The fossil 
remains of mammalia, for the most part discovered 
in Norfolk, are extremely interesting. Two other 
spacious rooms have just been added to the Museum, 
one of which is filled with Elephantine Remains, con- 
tributed by the Rev. Jno. Gunn ; and the botanical 
department has been enriched by the late J. D. 
Salmon's well-arranged specimens, bequeathed by him 
to this institution, which is open free on Mondays and 

The Norfolk and Norwich Literary 

occupies the upper part of the same buildii^ as the 
Museum, and a large room in the adjoining one. It 
was established in 1822, and contains more than 
30,000 well-selected volumes in the various depart- 
ments of literature. It is supported by several hun- 
dred subscribers who pay two guineas yearly, and the 
shareholders pay a guinea and a half yearly. Every 

The Free Library. 6l 

member has the privilege of borrowing two books, and 
3 pamphlet and review at the same time. A greater 
number is allowed to country members, as well as a 
longer time for reading. The rooms are open from 
lO a.m. till 9 p.m. Mr. F. Quinton is the librarian. 

The Free Library. 

This is a lat^e building at the comer of St Andrew's 
Broad Street ; erected in 1856, and opened in 1857, 
under the Free Libraries and Museum Act, by the 
Corporation, at a cost of /io,ooo. It includes lai^e 
rooms for the Museum and the Free Library, the 
Literary Institution, and the School of Art The 
Free Library, in the lower room, contains about 
4,000 volumes, and the Old Collection called the City 
Library. The middle room above is fitted up as a 
lecture hall. The School of Art is located at the top 
of the building, where rooms are furnished for about 
200 pupils, who receive instruction in drawing, design- 
ing, and decorative art There is a committee of 
management for the Free Library, another for the 
Museum, and another for the School of Art Mr. 
Harper is the librarian. 

The Theatre Royal 

is situate at a short distance from the Market Place, 
in Theatre Street It is a very plain building, erected 
in 1826, but the interior is quite commodious enough 
for the limited number of patrons which Norwich 
furnishes to the drama. 

63 Survey of Notwick. 

■ The Post Office 

is a latge, but hy no means handsome building; 
situate in Post Office Street, near the Market Place: 
There are two deliveries from London daily, and 
mails daily to all parts of the kingdom. 


Norwich appears to have taken the lead in the 
erection of religious edifices At a very early period, 
before the reign of Edward the Confessor, the city 
contained 25 churches, and in the eleventh century, 
5S existed in or near the town. After the conquest, 
43 chapels were in the patronage of the burgesses, 
most of which were afterwards made parochial. In 
the reign of Edward III., 58 parish churches and 
chapels were within the walls, besides 19 monastic 
institutions and cells, anchorages, &c. Norwich still 
contains a greater number of churches and parishes 
than any other city in England except London. 
Many of the present churches are excellent specimens 
of ancient architecture. Several of them are built of 
squared flints. Besides the cathedral there are three 
undoubted specimens of the Norman style, and there 
are also many examples of the decorated or florid 
which succeeded the lancet style, of the transition 
style, and of the perpendicular. This later perpen- 
dicular style, which prevailed during the 15th and 
i6th centuries, is the chief characteristic of the city 
churches. The best examples of this style are the 

Western District. 63 

churches of St Peter Mancroft, St Andrew, St 
Stephen, St Giles, and St John Maddermarket ; also 
St Andrew's Hall. Of all these churches complete re- 
storations have been lately effected. The original 
designs have been faithfully adhered to by the 
architects and contractors, which is the highest praise 
that can be awarded them. In this age we can only 
restore or rebuild ; we cannot invent new orders of 
architecture. All our restorations take us back to the 
middle ages, and the spirit of those ages seems to be 
again revived in our parish churches. 

We shall now proceed to describe the parishes and 
parish churches, in four districts, west, east, north, and 

Western District. 

The western district is the most prominent, com- 
prising the Market Place, the parishes of St Peter at 
Mancroft, St Giles, St Gregory, St. John's Madder- 
market, St Andrew, St. Margaret, St Benedict, 
St Swithin, and St Lawrence. Nearly all the pub- 
lic buildings are situated in this part of the town — the 
Guildhall, the Com Hall, the Post Office, the Museum, 
the Free Library and School of Art, the Public 
Library, and the Literary Institution. The Market 
Place is about 200 yards in length, and 1 10 in 
breadth, but part of that area is occupied by the 
Guildhall, and St Peter's church. A handsome 
bronze statue of the Duke of Wellington, 8 ft 6 in. 
high, was erected, at a cost of ;^iooo, in the middle of 

ti4 Survey of /Warwick. > 

the Market Place in 1854. This statue is placed on 
a granite pedestal, surrounded by a low railing with 
lamps at the corners. The new Fish Market is on the 
western side of the Market Place. It consists of two 
rows of shops with an open space between, and was 
built, a few years ago, at a cost of ;f6ooa On 
Saturdays the Market Place presents a highly ani- 
mated scene, and is well supplied with provisions of 
every kind. It is generally crowded from morning 
till night by the citizens, and by the vendors of the 
produce of the field, the garden, or the dairy. It is 
surrounded by handsome shops, warehouses, hotels, 
and taverns. 

St. Piter of Mancroft. 

This parish was, at the beginning of the Confessor's 
reign, an open Held, that part of it which is now the 
Market Place, being the great croft of the Castle or 
Magna Crofta. Towards the end of the Confessor's 
reign it began to be built over and inhabited ; and at 
the survey of 1086, the whole field was owned and 
held by Ralf de Guader, Earl of Norfolk, in right of 
his castle, who granted it to the King in Common to 
make a new burgh between them, which bui^h con- 
tained the entire parishes of St Peter of Mancroft and 
St. Giles. The Earl Ralf founded the church of St 
Peter and St. Paul at Mancroft, and gave it to his 
chaplains. On his forfeiture, Robert Blund, the 
Sheriff, received an ounce of gold, yearly, from the 
chaplains ; and on Godric's becoming sheriff, the Con- 

St. Peter of Maturoft. 65 

queror gave it to Wala his chaplain, at which time it 
was worth ^^3 per annum. 

Sir Peter Read, though not certainly known to be a 
Dative of this city, yet deserves to be mentioned here, 
because he was buried in Sl Peter's Church, having 
this inscription on his monument : — 

"Hereunder lieth the corps of Peter Read, Esq., who hath 
worthily served not only bis prince and country, but also the 
Emperor Charles the Fifth, both at his Conquest of Barbaiy, 
and his siege of Tunis, as also in other places, who had given 
bim, by the said Emperor, the Order of Barbary, who died on 
the 29th December, Ln the year of our Lord God i566,"' 

If it be demanded why the title of " knight " was not 
put on his tomb, but only "esquire," it may be answered 
that he was knighted by the Emperor Charles V., and 
Queen Elizabeth would suRer no foreign honour to be 
worn by her subjects in her dominions, saying, " Her 
sheep should be known by her mark only." The 
knight lies buried in the east corner of the north aisle 
of this church. His effigy in complete armour is on 
a brass plate on the stone. He gave £,^ 4J. yearly 
from the rental of houses in St Giles', that the great 
bell of St Peter's Mancroft Church should ring at four 
o'clock every morning and eight in the evening for the 
bene6t of travellers. 

The following epitaph in this church is a specimen 
of good versification for the time in which it was 
written, 1616: — 

" Here Richard Anguishe sleepes for whom alyve 
NiHwich and Cambridge lately seemed to strive ; 

66 Survey of Norwich. 

Both called him son as seemed well they might ; 
Both challenged in his life an equal right : 
Norwich gave birth and taught him well to speake 
The mother English, Latin phrase, and Greeke ; 
Cambridge with arts adorned his ripening age 
Degress and judgment in the sacred page ; 
Yet Norwich gains the vantage of the strife, 
Whiles there he ended where began his life. 
September XXIII. Ao Dni. i6i6.' 

The church is a lai^e handsome cruciform structure 
of freestone mixed with flint, begun in 1430 and 
finished in 1455. It is a good example of the per- 
pendicular style, and is the finest parish church in the 
city. It is 212 feet in length, and 70 feet in breadth, 
with a noble tower 98 feet high, covered with panel- 
ing, and containing an excellent peal of 12 bells, 3 
clock, and chimes. The bells weigh 183 cwt 2 qrs. 
14 lbs., and were exchanged for an old peal of ten ia 
1775, at a cost of ;^8oo raised by public subscription. 

The clustered pillars supporting the roof, with the 
arches suriHounting them, are lofty and slender, and 
the windows are lai^e and numerous, so that the 
whole interior has a light and airy appearance. The 
roof of the nave is of fine open timber work, with a 
sort of wooden vault over each window, like a stone 
roof. The Clerestory has seventeen fine windows on 
each side, with short transoms in the heads, and good 
tracery. The vaulting shafts are brought down to the 
bottom of the clerestory windows, and have niches 
under them. There is a chancel or small transept on 
each side of the nave. The font stands under a per- 
pendicular canopy, supported by pillars, and forming 

St. Giles. 67 

a baptistry on a raised platform, with room to walk 
round the font The east window is filled with 
beautiful stained glass, mostly ancient There are 
some fine paintings in the vestry. The church was 
restored, the old pews were replaced by open oak 
benches, and a new pulpit, reading desk, and altar 
rail, handsomely carved, were purchased in 1851. 
During the alterations, a vault four or five feet deep 
was discovered under the stalls of the choir. The 
outer wall of this vault supported the screen dividing 
the choir from the nave and aisles, and contained a 
range of about a dozen earthen jars, placed on their 
sides with their mouths open to the vault. The use 
of these jars has never been ascertained. The benefice 
is a perpetual curacy certified at ;f 10, and now valued 
at £Sy. It was augmented in 1746 with /'200 given 
by the Rev. J. Francis, with j£ioo of royal bounty 
from 1742 to 1810, and with ^^400 subscribed by the 
minister and parishioners in 1818. The Rev. C. 
Turner, M,A, is incumbent. 

St. Giles. 

St Giles' Street, west of the Market Place, is one of 
the best built in the city, and leads to the small parish 
of St Giles. The church, near the top of the street, 
was founded in the reign of William I. by Elwyn the 
priest, who gave it to the monks of Norwich. Con- 
sequently it is now in the patronage of the Dean and 
Chapter. It is frequently called "St Giles on the 
Hill " in ancient records. It is a fine structure in the 

68 Survey of Norwich, 

perpendicular style, and is one of the handsomest old 
churches in the city. It was wholly rebuilt in the 
reign of Richard L, but after 1581 the old chancel was 
demolished. A new chancel has been recently built, 
and the church completely restored. The nave is of 
five bays, and has a good open timber roof, supported 
by angels bearing shields, emblazoned with the arms 
of England, France, and Castile. The clerestory 
windows have been modernised. The south porch has 
a fine groined vault with fan tracery, and is sur- 
mounted by a parvise, and a rich parapet and cornice. 
The nave and aisles are 81 feet long, divided by 
slender pillars, and are lighted by large and elegant 
windows. The tower is 120 feet high, and contains a 
clock and eight bells. The church estate consists of 
small tenements given by Thomas Parker in 1534. 
The perpetual curacy, valued at £70, was augmented 
from 1744 to 1791 with ;^iooo of Queen Anne's 
bounty. The Rev. W. Nottidge Ripley, M.A., is the 

Passing from the Market Place to Pottergate Street 
we come to the parish of 

SL Gregory, 

The church is a fine structure of great antiquity, in 
the perpendicular style. The chancel was rebuilt in 
1325, and the whole pile has received many modern 
repairs. The nave and aisles, with the two chapels at 
the east end, were new leaded in 1537. In 1597, a 
timber spire covered with lead was erected on the 

St. John's Maddermarket 69 

tower, and was the only spire in Norwich, except that 
of the Cathedral, but being unsafe, it was taken down. 
The tower contains a clock and six bells, the latter 
given by the parishioners in 181 8. The tower arch 
is very lofty, and across it is the original stone 
gallery for the singers, with groined vaults above and 
beneath, the lower part forming a western porch 
opening into the north and south porches, which are 
also groined. There are four well moulded arches on 
each side of the nave, with clustered shafts having 
embattled caps. The rood stair turret remains on 
the north side of the edifice. The clerestory windows 
have decorated tracery, and the windows of the aisles 
are of a mixed character under arches recessed in the 
walls. In 1861, Mr. Wm. Smith, and the incumbent 
collected £Zoo for the purpose of restoring the church 
and reseating it in oak. The perpetual curacy was 
certified at £l, and is now valued at ;£^I20. It was 
augmented from 1747 to 18 12 with £\^QO of royal 
bounty. The Dean and Chapter are patrons. The 
present incumbent is the Rev. J. Wortley. 

St Johns Maddermarket 

is a very populous parish near the Market Place, \ 
between Pottergate Street and Charing Cross. The 
church is a lat^e handsome edifice in the perpendicular 
style, consisting of a nave, two aisles, two porches, and 
a fine tower, under which is an arched rood, and on 
the top are four figures at the angles. The fine 
decorated east window is of five lights with flowing 

70 Survey of Norwich. 

tracery. The north porch has a richly^romed vault, 
and its outer doorway is deeply recessed. The roofs 
of the chapel of All Saints at the east end of the 
north aisle, and of St Mary the Vii^In in the south 
aisle, are boarded under and painted with angels 
holding books and scrolls, with sentences from the Te 
Deum, the Angelical Salutation, &c. The church has 
been completely restored recently at a cost of £\2iXi. 
Lady Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, (second wife of 
the Duke, who was beheaded in Elizabeth's reign,) 
died at the Duke's Palace, in this parish, in 1563, and 
was interred with great pomp on the north side of the 
choir, where a mural monument was erected to her 
memory in 1791 by Lord John Howard of Waldon, 
The benefice is a discharged rectory, valued in K. R 
at £^ 10s. 2d., and now at £,\ la It was augmented 
from 1714 to 1814 with ;^i8oo of royal bounty. It is 
in the patronage of New College, Oxford, to which it 
was granted by Flenry VI. The Rev. G. F. Price is 
the present incumbenL 

St. Andrew. 

I The parish of St. Andrew is extensive, and popu- 
lous, and improvements have been made in some of the 
streets, where large premises have been built The 
church in Broad Street, to which it gives its name, 
is a fine large perpendicular structure, consisting of 
nave, chancel, aisles, clerestory, and tower. The latter, 
which has seven bells and a clock, was rebuilt in 1478, 
and the nave and chancel were rebuilt in 1606. The 

Si. Andrew. 7' 

window at the east end is filled with stained glass. 
There are sedilia for three priests in the chancel, and 
several old stalls with " misereres." The interior con- 
tains many ancient as well as modern monuments and 
inscriptions. The whole of the interior has been re- 
cently restored and renovated, and furnished with open 
benches instead of the old pews. The gallery, which 
obscured the noble tower arch, was removed in 1863, 
and the fine screen work, so long hidden, brought to 
light. There is no chancel arch, but the rood stair 
turret still remains on the south side ; and under the 
east window, externally, are some good niches and 
panels. A beautiful carved stone reredos was erected 
in 1850 by subscription in memory of the late Rev. 
James Brown, B.D., who was the esteemed incumbent 
of this parish from 1807 to 1856. The benefice is a 
perpetual curacy valued in 1831 at v^go, and aug- 
mented from 1756 to 1786 with ;f 800 of Queen Anne's 
bounty, and with a grant of ;£^6oo in 1815. The 
church estate is let in long leases, for £22. 16s. yearly. 
The parishioners are the patrons. The Rev. A, C. 
Copeman, M.A, incumbent In this parish, on St 
Andrew's Hill, stood one of the oldest churches in this 
city, dedicated to St. Christopher. It was destroyed 
by fire in the reign of Henry VIII. Remains of old 
vaults may be traced in a line of vaults and crypts 
under the City Arms Tavern, and on the premises of 
Mr. Harman, Wine and Spirit Merchant, higher up 
the street on the east side. 

The Old Bridewell, in this parish, was built by 
Bartholomew Appleyard about the year 1370. The 

^2 Survey of Norwich. 

north wall is 79 feet in length and 2J feet in height, 
and is considered one of the greatest curiosities of the 
kind in England. The flints are squared to such a 
nicety, that the edge of a knife can scarcely be put 
between them. Most of them are about three inches 
square. The surface is very smooth, and no brick- 
work can appear more regular. The building was 
nearly destroyed by fire on October 22nd, 1751, and 
again much damaged by fire on July 28th, I7S3» but 
this curious wall sustained little injury. Mr. Talman 
says, " That the Jews introduced the art of squaring 
flints ;" and Dr. Cromwell Mortimer, Secretary to the 
Royal Society, states that the gate of the Austin 
Friars at Canterbury, that of St. John's Abbey at 
Colchester, and the gate near the Whitehall, West- 
minster, are in the same taste, but the platform on 
the top of the Royal Observatory at Paris, built in 
1667, which is paved with flint in this manner, is an 
instance in proof that the French had recovered this 
art exemplified in the Old Bridewell here. William 
Appleyard, son of the builder, the first mayor of 
Norwich, occupied this house in 1403. After passing 
through many hands, it became the property of the 
late Mr. Newbegin, who converted it into a tobacco 
factory. His son, Mr. J. Newbegin, now holds the 
property, and has lately built a handsome wholesale 
tobacco warehouse on the premises next to the alley. 

In Broad Street, St Andrew's, stood the ancient 
church of St Crucis. It was dedicated to the honour 
of the Holy Cross, and was erected before the year 
1272. It was desecrated in 1551, and the parish 
united to St John's Maddermarket 

5/. Lawrence, 73 

St Lawrence Church stands upon the very spot to 
which the arm of the sea rose in former times, when 
Norwich was merely a fishing town, and this spot was 
the quay or landing place for all herrings brought into 
the city. After the water had receded, the church was 
founded on the same site in the reign of Edward the 
Confessor, in the loth century. In I460, the original 
building was taken down, and the present one was 
erected twelve years afterwards. It consists of a nave, 
chancel, aisles, north and south porches, clerestory, 
and a tower 112 feet high, with six bells. The roof 
of the church is supported by clustered columns, the 
inside is light and regular, and the windows are large 
and well filled with tracery. They were formerly 
decorated with stained glass, all of which was de- 
molished by the Puritans in 1643. There is here an 
ancient octangular font, ornamented with shields, 
angels, &c. In the spandrels of an arched door, in 
the western side of the church, are two ancient car- 
vings, one representing the martyrdom of St. Lawrence 
broiling on a gridiron, and the other a number of 
Danish soldiers shooting arrows into the body of King 
Edmund, whose head is seen lying in a thicket, as 
described in the old legend. The Rev. E. A. Hillyard 
is the present incumbent 

St, Swithin, 

St Swithin's Church, situated between upper and 
lower Westwick Street, is a neat building, containing 
a nave, two aisles, and tower. One side of the nave 

74 Survey of Norwich. 

is supported by pointed arches on columns, and the* 
other by round arches and square piers. The Chapel 
of St Mary, at the east end of the north aisle, had an 
altar, and the guild of the Holy Vii^n, called the 
tanner's guild, was kept there. The rectory was 
anciently in the donation of the See of Norwich, and 
in the year 1200 was annexed to the deanery of Nor- 
wich, as were the churches of St Simon and Jude, 
and Corstweyt, and the deanery of Taverham, and so 
held till 1329, when the deaneries were separated from 
the churches which were then perpetually united. But 
notwithstanding this union, in 1546 Bishop Rugge 
separated the advowson from the bishopric, and 
granted it to William Farrar and others. In 1608, 
John Ward was patron, who suffering a lapse, was by 
the bishop collated to it ; and entry being made that 
the bishop had collated him in full right, it has ever 
since been supposed to be in the bishop's patronage, 
and held by sequestration or license at the bishop's 
nomination. During the cleaning of this Church in 
1834, an ancient portrait of Edward the Confessor, 
painted on a panel, was found beneath one of the seats, 
where it is supposed to have been placed during the 
civil wars. The altar piece contains portraits of 
Moses and Aaron, and the church has an ancient font 
The rectory, valued in K. B. at £6 3s. 4d., has been 
augmented, and is still in the patronage of the bishop. 

/The New Mills, as to a principal part of them, 
are in this parish. Formerly all the city bakers were 
obliged to grind here, and the miller, as a public servant. 

St. Margaret. 75 

. had a livery and badge given him every year. The 
mills are still the property of the city, and in 1706 
were let, with the baker's grant thereto belonging, for 
the term of 87 years, at the yearly rent of ;f 200, but 
reduced in 1708 to £180. The Mills are now let to 1 
Mr. Wells, and produce a large quantity of flour I 
weekly. Steam mills are now also at work in this] 
locality, in the occupation of Messrs. Barber and Sons, 
who are also proprietors of Hellesdon Mills. 

St. Margaret. 

St. Margaret's Church, in Westwick Street, has a 
square tower with a spacious nave, chancel, and south 
aisle. It is a plain building of the perpendicular 
period. The rood stair turret remains on the north 
side of the church, and on the south side of the altar 
is a small pedestal on which the bell that was rung at 
mass stood in former times. The rectory is valued at 
;^8a The bishop is the patron, and the Rev. J. W. 
Cobb is the rector. The church which has been for.} 
some time disused, being in a very ruinous condition, I 
has just been restored. 

St. Benedict. 

St Benedict's Church, at the end of the street to 
which it gives its name, is a small building with nave, 
chancel, north aisle, and round tower. The tower 
contains three bells, and in the chancel is a piscina. 
The church was repaired and re-roofed a few years 

76 Survey of Norwich. 

since, at a cost of £lS<>- The living is a perpetual 
curacy valued at £95, and was augmented by royal 
bounty. The Rev. J. Doinbrain is the Incumbent. 

The Eastern District. 

This side of the city has been greatly improved by 
the formation of a new road called Prince of Wales' 
Road, from Foundry Bridge to the Castle Hill, 
Handsome houses have been built on each side, and 
broad pavements laid down. Rose Lane has been 
widened and improved. The Castle Meadow has 
been adorned by the erection of a new bank called 
the Crown Bank, a very handsome building in the 
Corinthian style of architecture. This is the finest 
building of the kind in the eastern counties. 

The Cavalry Barracks are situated in Barrack Street 
on the east side of the city, on the site of an old 
manor house. They were built by the government in 
1791 at a cost of jC^ The buildings are of 
brick, and form three sides of a square, the centre 
being for the accommodation of the officers. The 
wings accommodate the soldiers to the extent of 320 
men, and 266 horses. The high wall which surrounds 
the entire barracks, including the parade ground, 
encloses an area of ten acres. 

The Dungeon Tower is opposite the barracks, on 
land called "The Hospital Meadow." It is a large 
round tower of brick, originally surrounded by a 
battlement. It was built as a prison for the cathedral 

St. Micluxel at Plea. 77 

precincts. The Norfolk Railway Station stands in the 
hamlet of Thorpe near the Foundry Bridge. 

St. Micliael at Plea. 

The Church of St. Michael at Plea is at the top of 
Queen Street This church was so named from the 
Archdeacon holding his pleas or courts there. It 
is a cruciform church with a low flint tower, and a 
modem bell turret Its transepts were formerly 
chapels dedicated to St John the Baptist and the 
Virgin Mary. It contains several old paintings of the 
crucifixion, resurrection, &c, in the panels. About 
two years ago the tower was restored at a cost of 
;£'250. The rectory, valued in K.B. at £6 los., and in 
183 1 at £^li was augmented with £6qo of Queen 
Anne's bounty from 1774 to 1791, and with a parlia- 
mentary grant of £\ooo in 18 16. The lords of 
the manors of Sprowston and Horsford are patrons al- 
ternately. The Rev. C. Morse, LL.B., is the incum- 

St. George Tombland. 

The Church of St George Tombland stands at the 
end of Prince's Street, and is so named from the open 
space near it having formerly been used as a burying 
place. It has a handsome square tower which con- 
tains five bells, and was erected by the parishioners in 
1445. The nave, aisles, and chancel are covered with 
lead, and have some spacious galleries and ornamental 

78 Survey of Norwich. 

inscriptions of ancient and modem times. The build- 
ing is chiefly of the perpendicular period, but some 
portions are of an older date. Three new memorial 
windows were recently inserted on the north side. 
Messrs. J. and J. King, Prince's Street, put in the 
A stained glass. The Rev. W. Bri dge was ejected from 
\^\ the incumbency of this parish for refusing to read the 
Book of Sports. He afterwards became pastor of the 
Old Meeting House. The churchyard has been 
planted with shrubs, and if a neat iron railing were 
substituted for the present wall, it would greatly im- 
prove the appearance of Tombland. The Rev. K. 
Trimmer is the incumbent 

St Peter Hungate. 

St Peter Hungate Church is in the same street at 
the top of Elm Hill. The original church was 
demolished in 1458, when the present one was built 
It was built by John Paston and Margaret his wife. 
It is of black flint in the form of a cross, having a nave, 
chancel, transepts, and square tower with two bells. 
The roof of the nave is ornamented with figures of 
angels. In 1861 the interior was much improved. 
The rectory of St Peter Hungate, valued in K.B. at 
£i IS. Si^., and now at £6^, was augmented from 
1743 to 1 8 ID with ;£'6oo of royal bounty. The Lord 
Chancellor is patron, and the Rev. S. Titlow, M.A., 
has been rector since 1839. 

St. Simon and Jude, 79 

St Simon and Jude's Church in Wensum Street 
has a nave, a chancel, and a low flint and stone tower, 
with five bells. It is in the perpendicular style, and is 
of great antiquity. It contains a few old brasses, and 
several monuments of the Pettus family, in one of 
which lies, in complete armour, the figure of Sir J. 
Pettus, the first of the family who was knighted. The 
Rev. J. F. Osborne is the incumbent 

St, Martin at Palace, 

St Martin at Palace Church stands opposite the 
entrance to the Bishop's Palace. It has a nave with 
aisles, chancel with aisles, clerestory, and a tower with 
five bells. It is of the plain perpendicular style, and 
contains a good panelled octagon font The east 
vdndow of the chancel is filled with stained glass, 
representing the adoration of the magi, the annuncia- 
tion, the crucifixion, the resurrection of our Saviour, 
&c The living is a perpetual curacy valued at £^o^ 
and augmented from 1743 to 18 13 with ;^i8oo of 
royal bounty. The Dean and Chapter are patrons. 
The Rev. R. W. Barker is incumbent 

St Helen, 

The parish of St Helen is situated on the east side 
of the cathedral, and nearly the whole of the parish 
belongs to the Great Hospital, which is an extensive 
range of buildings, comprising the antique remains of 

8o Survey of Norwich. 

the dissolved hospital of St. Giles, and several modem 
additions erected at various periods, for the accom- 
modation of the alms people who have been increased 
in number progressively with the augmentation of the 
income. In 1850, ninety-two men, and eighty-two 
women were lodged, fed, and clothed at the expense 
of the charity, which also supports a master and ten 
nurses. The alms people must be of the age of 65 
years or upwards before their admission. They are 
clothed in dark blue, and allowed sixpence per week 
each for pocket money. 

St. Helen's Church in Bishopgate Street belonged 
to the monks, who demolished it and consolidated the 
cure with the church of St. Giles' Hospital, now called 
the Great Hospital, on the opposite side of the street, 
soon after the foundation of the latter by Bishop 
Suffield in 1250. The whole of this hospital church, 
which serves as the parish church of St. Helen, is 
still standing. It has a square perpendicular tower at 
the south-west comer, -containing one bell. The 
greater part of the pile has been converted into 
lodgings for the alms people. The church is fitted up 
with gothic carved work and open seats. Kirkpatrick, 
the antiquary, is buried here. The perpetual curacy 
received by lot ;£^2C)0 of Queen Anne's bounty in i8i6v 
and was valued in 1831 at ;^i6 exclusive of the glebe 
house, but is now worth ;£^200 per annum. The City 
Charity Trustees are patrons. The Rev. W. F. 
Patteson, incumbent. 

5/. Peter per Motmtergate, 8i 

In King Street are the churches of St. Peter per 
Mountergate, St Julian, St. Etheldred, and St. Peter 
Southgate, all ancient edifices. 

St. Peter per Mountergate, 

St Peter per Mountergate derives the latter part of 
its name from a gate formerly placed near the church- 
yard, at the foot of the Castle mount The old 
church is in the perpendicular style, and has a nave, 
chancel, south porch with parvise, and a square em- 
battled tower, with five bells and a clock. The build- 
ing has been recently restored and fitted up with open 
benches, those in the nave being stained deal, and in 
the chancel oak. The famous Thomas Codd, who 
was Mayor of Norwich during Kett's Rebellion, and 
who was a great benefactor to the city, was interred 
in the nave. The benefice is now a perpetual curacy, 
valued at £jZ^ and augmented with ;£^200 of Queen 
Anne's bounty in 1766, and with a parliamentary 
grant of ;^8oo in 18 12. The Dean and Chapter are 
patrons. The Rev. John Durst, incumbent 

St, Julian, 

St Julian's Church, in King Street, is a very small 
ancient structure, founded before the conquest, and 
comprises nave, chancel, north porch, and tower. It 
is principally of the Norman period, and most of the 
windows are decorated and perpendicular insertions. 
The tower, which is ruined, has a deeply recessed 
Norman arch, slightly pointed, and having shafts with 

82 Survey of Norwich. 

caps and bases. It has also a small Nonnan loop 
window in the thickness of the wall splayed both in- 
side and outside. The south doorway is a very fine 
specimen of Norman architecture, and was restored 
in 1845, when the chancel was rebuilt and the chuFch 
thoroughly restored at a cost of ;£^5oo. The east 
window was at the same time filled with stained glass, 
representing our Saviour seated and surrounded by 
the evangelists. The font is perpendicular in style, 
cup-shaped and panelled. There was a hermitage 
for a female recluse in the churchyard, but it was 

(demolished at the dissolution. The rectory, certified 
at ;f 19 3s. id., has been long consohdated with All 
Saints. The Rev. C. F. Sculthorpe, M.A, is patron. 

St. Etheldred. 

St. Etheldred's Church, in King Street, is supposed 
to be one of the oldest structures in the city, and had 
in its burial ground a very ancient anchorage, which 
continued till after the Reformation. It is a small 
building with a nave, chancel, and tower. The benefice 
is a perpetual curacy, certified at £z 14s., and valued 
at £jj. It was augmented from 1745 to 1802 with 
£,%oa of Queen Anne's bounty. The Trustees of the 
Great Hospital are patrons. The Rev. W. Bishop is 
the present incumbent. 

The parish of St Etheldred seems to have been one 
of the parishes of the Anglo Saxon period, and in it 
formerly were the houses of many families of dis- 
tinction, including the residences of Sir Thomas de 

St Julian. 83 

Helgheton, of Henry de Norwich, of the Abbot of 
Wymondham, of Sir James Hobart, and of Sir Robert 
de SuUe, who was killed by the rebels in the reign of 
Edward III. No remains of these houses now exist 
All along the east side of King Street, next the river, 
there is a line of vaults, which seem to have formed 
the foundations of old churches now demolished. The 
Old Music House still stands in King Street, in the 
parish of St. Etheldred, and on its site formerly stood 
the house of one of the rich Jews, who settled here in 
the reign of William Rufus. It afterwards became 
the property of his grandson Isaac, at whose death it 
was escheated to the crown. Henry III. gave it to 
Sir William de Valeres, Knt, and in 1290 it was the 
residence of Alan de Frestons, Archdeacon of Norfolk, 
who had a public chapel there. In 1626, it belonged 
to John Paston, Esq., and in 1633 it was the city house 
of Chief Justice Coke. The present house is not older 
than the 17th century. Under it there are very ex- 
tensive vaults of a more ancient date, now occupied 
by Messrs. Youngs, Crawshay, and Youngs, as ale 

St, Peter Southgate. 

St Peter Southgate, near the south end of King 
Street, is an ancient church, with a nave, chancel, 
north chapel, south porch, and a square flint tower, in 
which are three bells. The v/indows are chiefly 
square headed, and the architecture is of the late per- 
pendicular period. There is a good cross on the east 

$4 Suncy of Norwich, 

gable. Part of an old screen remains in front of the 
north chapel. The Rev. W. Bishop is the incumbent 

Carrow Works, at the top of King Street, are the 
most extensive in England for the production of flour, 
starch, mustard, and blue. The works cover an area 
of five acres. They are conveniently situated on the 
banks of the Yare, and are permeated by trams from 
the Great Eastern Railway. Here are laige flour 
mills, starch mills, and mustard mills, in which 1200 
hands are employed. Steam engines to the enormous 
amount of 400 horse power are used to drive the 
machinery. About 100 tons of goods are produced 
here weekly, and sent away by rail to all parts of 
England, Europe, and America, A large number of 
hands are engaged in making the tins and wooden 
boxes in which most of the mustard is packed. We 
visited Carrow Works chiefly to see the mustard, 
starch, and blue factories ; but we were tempted to 
take a peep at the great flour mill which has been 
erected by Messrs. J. and J. Colman, and which for 
magnitude and completeness has few equals. The 
machinery in this mill is driven by a magnificent pair 
of engines of 80 horse power. The Mayor for the 
present year, 1868, J, J. Colman, Esq., is the principal 
proprietor of these great works, and he has built many 
houses all around for his work-people, and also schools 
for their children at a cost of £20C». 

A Nunnery formerly stood outside of King Street 
Gates, and was called Carrow Abbey, from "carr" a 
watering place, and "hoe" a hilL This abbey was 

TJu Northern District 85 

dedicated to St. Michael and St. John. It was founded 
in the year 1 146 by two ladies named Leftelina and 
Seyna, It was richly endowed by King Stephen, and 
consisted of a prioress and nine bcnedictine black 
nuns, afterwards increased to twelve. The site within 
the walls contained about ten acres of land, and the 
revenues and possessions were extensive. At the 
dissolution the abbey and lands became private pro- 
perty. J. H. Tillett, Esq., is the present occupier. 

The Northern District. 

This district includes all the parishes from the 
north-west to the north-east side of the river Wensum ; 
and comprises the parishes of St MichaeUat Coslany, 
St. Martin at Oak, St. Augustine, St. Mary, St. 
George's Colegate, St. Cloment, St. Saviour, St. Paul; 
St. James, and St. Edmund. On the north side we 
enter the oldest part of the city, which seems to have 
been always chosen by the poorest portion of the 
population, near the great factories, which stand high 
above all the surrounding poverty-.stricken dwellings. 

St, Michael at Coslany, 

St. Michael at Coslany, commonly called St Miles', 
is a spacious church, with a lofty square tower and 
eight musical bells. The nave was rebuilt by John and 
Stephen Stallon, who were sheriffs in 151 1 and 1512. 
The south aisle was begun by Gregory Clark, and 
was finished by his son, who was Mayor in 1514. The 

86 Sun'ey of Norwich, 

interior is handsomely decorated. At the east end of 
the south aisle there is a chapel, founded by Robert 
Thorp in the reign of Henry VII., encrusted ex- 
ternally with black flints, like inlaid work. The altar 
piece, by Heins, represents the Resurrection and the 
Four Evangelists, and the floor is paved with black and 
white marble, brought from the domestic chapel at 
Oxnead. There are a few ancient brasses and modem 
mural monuments. The rectory, valued in K.B. at 
£i^ 6s. 8d. and now at £117, was augmented in 
1738 with ;f 200 bequeathed by the Rev. E. Brooke; 
in 1818, with ;^20o given by the late rector ; and from 
1738 to 1818 with £1000 of royal bounty. Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge, had the patron^e of 
the living, which was usually given to the oldest 
bachelor of that college. It has recently been pur- 
chased by the Rev, E. Hollond, Bcnhall Lodge, Suffolk. 
The Rev. R. H. Kidd is the incumbent 

St. Martin at Oak. 

iThe parish of St. Martin at Oak, in Coslany Street, 
nd the whole neighbourhood, is a very old part of 
ie city, full of very poor people. The church derived 
its name from a lai^e oak which formerly stood in the 
churchyard. This was much visited during the reign 
of superstition, and many legacies were given towards 
painting, repairing, and dressing the image of St 
Mary in the Oak. Another oak was planted on the 
same spot in 1656, but that now growing was planted 

St, Augustine. 87 

eight years ago. The church is built of flint and 
stone in the perpendicular style, and contains some 
good piers. In 1852, the chancel was rebuilt and a 
new organ was placed in the church; and in 1862, 
plain open benches were substituted for the old pews 
in the chancel. There are a few monuments and 
brasses in the church, and in one of the former are 
effigies of Jeremiah Ravens and his wife in alabaster. 
She died in 171 1, and he in 1727. The south porch 
is now used as a vestry, and the outer doorway is 
built up. The benefice is a perpetual curacy, certified 
at 20s., and now valued at ;£^I02. It was augmented 
with ;£'200 given by William Nockells in 1722, and 
£1000 of royal bounty obtained from 1723 to 1824 
The Dean and Chapter are patrons. Rev. C. Caldwell, 
B.A., the esteemed incumbent, is much respected for 
his kindness to the poor. 

St, Augustine, 

From St Martin at Oak we pass onward into St. 
Augustine's, where we find various factories and a 
very populous neighbourhood. The church, on the 
east side of the Gildencroft, is in the perpendicular 
style, and consists of a nave with aisles, chancel with 
aisles, south porch and tower. The tower contains a 
clock and three bells. The roof of the north aisle of 
the chancel is finely carved, and the clerestory is 
built of flint In the south aisle of the nave is a 
marble monument in memory of Thomas Clabburn, 
manufacturer, who died in 1858. It was erected by 

88 Survey of Norwich. 

the subscriptions of more than 600 weavers of Norwich 
as a tribute to his many virtues. The rectory, valued 
in K.B. at £6 75. &\A. and now at £150. was aug- 
mented in 1781 with £200 ai Queen Anne's bounty, 
and in 1810, 1811, and 1821, with ;f 1400 in parliamen- 
tary grants. The Dean and Chapter are the patrons. 
The Rev. Matthew John Rackham is the incumbent 

St. Mary Coslany. 

j From St. Augustine's we pass down Pitt Street to 
' the parish of Sl Mary, inhabited chiefly by poor 
people. The church is a cruciform structure with a 
tall round tower of flint, containing six bells. There 
are no aisles. The south porch has a good groined 
vault and a richly moulded doorway, with a parvise or 
chamber above. The chancel has a panelled ceiling 
with rich perforated work. The pulpit is ancient and 
has tracery in the upper part of the panels, with the 
linen pattern below, and a perforated iron projection 
for the book rest. The font is octagonal, and has 
painted shields of arms in its upper panels. The 
rood-stair turret is at the intersection of the north 
transept and chancel. At the west end of the nave 
there is an old parish chest, and in the south transept 
there is a square-headed foliated piscina. Several 
ancient stalls are remaining, and in the north wall of 
the chancel there is a tombstone of the Elizabethan 
era, dated 1578, and having incised figures of Martin 
Vankermbeck, M.D., and his wife. The perpetual 
curacy was augmented, from 1733 to 1824, with j£220O 

Si. George Colegate. 89 

of royal bounty, and is valued at £\ 24, The Marquis 
of Townshend is patron. Rev. C. Morse, LL.B,, is 

St. George Colegate. 

We pass on eastward to the parish of St. George's 
Colegate, wherein are some of the best built streets on 
this side of the city. The church is a lai^e structure 
rebuilt at different periods, viz., the tower and nave 
about 1459 ; the chancel in 1498 ; the north aisle with 
the chapel of St. Mary in 1504; and the south aisle 
with the chapel of St. Peter in 15 13. The tower is 
lofty and has a clock and three bells. The rood-stair 
turret still remains on the south side. The east 
window is of three lights, and is filled with painted 
glass by Mr. Swan, with figures representing Faith, 
Hope, and Charity. The living is a perpetual curacy, 
valued at ;f98, and augmented from 1737 to 1792 with 
£1000 of Queen Anne's bounty. The Dean and 
Chapter are patrons. The Rev. A. W. Durdin, 
incumbent The memorial to John Crome, familiarly 
know to Norwich citizens, and to artists and con- 
noisseurs in paintings as "Old Crome," one of the 
most esteemed of our Norwich "worthies," has just 
been placed in the church of St George Colegate, in 
which parish he passed the latter years of his life, and 
in which he died soon after being chosen church- 
warden, in the year 1821. The idea of erecting a 
monument to the memory of Crome originated in 
1841, amoi^st some of his fellow-citizens who were 

go Surrey of Nonvich. 

lo\'ers of the fine arts, but the subscriptions received 
up to 1844 appear only to have amounted to about 
twenty-six pounds. At the death of Mr, Lound, who 
had been receiving the subscriptions, in 1861, Mr. 
J. B. Morgan, determining to carry out the object of 
the subscribers, recommended the work of canvassing 
for subscriptions, which ultimately reached the sum of 
about ;^ioa Funds having been raised, a committee 
of amateur artists was formed, who consulted Mr. 
Bell, an eminent sculptor, of London, and a native of 
this city, by whom a handsome mural tablet has been 
placed at the east end of the south aisle of St George's 
Church to the memory of Crome. This tablet, which 
is of white marble, is divided into three panels, the 
centre panel containing a bas-relief profile bust of 
John Crome. Judging from the portrait of Crome 
recently hung in the Council Chamber, this is an 
admirable likeness of the Norwich landscape painter. 
Beneath are the" name "John Crome" in gold letters, 
and a palette and pencils ; and above an elegantly 
carved laurel wreath. On one panel is the following : 
" Near this spot lie the remains of one of England's 
greatest landscape painters, born in this city, Decem- 
ber 2ist, 1769, and died in this parish April 22nd, 
1821 ;" and on the right-hand panel, "This memorial 
is erected forty-seven years after his death by admirers 
of his art, principally connected with Norfolk, his 
native county." 

S/. Ciement. 91 

St Clement's parish includes St Clement Within ] 
and St Clement Without The population increased ' 
from 853 inhabitants in iSol to nearly 40CX) in \ 
1861. This lar^e increase occurred chiefly in the j 
northern suburb of the city, called New Catton, which, _' 
in 1842, was constituted an ecclesiastical district, and 
assigned to Christ Church, a new edifice built there. 
Some centuries ago, several old churches, called St 
Anne's Chapel, All Saints, St. Botolph, and St 
Margaret, existed in this parish, but no vestiges now 

St Clement's Church, in Colegate Street, is one of 
the oldest in the city, and belonged to the manor of 
Tokethorpe. It has a square tower with three bells, 
a nave without aisles, and a chancel, all in the per- 
pendicular styles. The chancel contains four dedica- 
tion crosses, and is separated from the nave by a fine 
arch. The tower arch is blocked by the organ and 
gallery. The communion plate weighs 88 ozs., in- 
cluding a silver gilt cup given by S. Sofyld in 1569. 
Three parish houses are let for £26 los. yearly, which 
is applied with the church rates, except a reserved 
yearly rent of 3s. 4d. payable to the Great Hospital, 
pursuant to a lease granted in 1569 for 500 years. 
The rectory valued in K.B. at £j 9s. zd., and now at 
£cfi, was augmented in 1738 with £200 of Queen 
Anne's bounty, and /200 bequeathed by the Rev. 
Edward Brooke. It is in the patronage of Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge, and incumbency of 
the Rev. R. Rigg. 

Survey of Norwich. 

Christ Church. 

Christ Church in New Catton was consecrated by 
Bishop Stanley amid a disturbance caused by the 
chartists. It is a chapel of ease in the improving 
parish of St Clement. It is a neat structure of flint 
and brick in the early English style, comprising nave, 
chancel, transepts, and a bell turret at the west end. 
It was finished in 1S41 at a cost of about ^2500, and 
has sittings for 600 people. It was built by subscrip- 
tion, and by the same means £^800 have been invested 
for its endowment, and ;f200 for its reparation. The 
rector of St. Clement's is patron of the perpetual 
curacy, valued at ;£^I50, and it is now in the incum- 
bency of the Rev. Robert Wade, B.A. 

St. Saviour. 

St Saviour's Church, in Magdalen Street, is a small 
structure, and has a square tower with two bells. It 
has some modern monuments. The south porch is 
now used as a baptistry. The font has an octagonal 
panelled basin, and is supported by four shafts 
resting on lions' heads, and carried through ogee 
canopies with pinnacles between. The perpetual 
curacy was certified at £'i, and is now valued at ^£103. 
It was augmented from 1729 to 1813 with £1800 of 
royal bounty. The Dean and Chapter are patrons. 
The Rev. W. Harris Cooke, M.A., incumbent. 

St. Edmund. 93 

St Edmund's Church, in Fishgate Street, was 
founded in the reign of William I. It comprises a 
nave, chancel, south aisle, and tower with one belL 
The arches of the nave are nearly flat, and the sub- 
arches are carried on shafts with moulded caps. The 
rectory, valued in K.B. at £4. 6s. 3d,, and now at £165, 
was augmented in 1726 with ;£'200 given by Rev. 
W, Stanley and Rev. R. Corey, and from 1726 to 
1 819 with /'looo of royal bounty. The Rev. T. Taylor 
is the incumbent 

St. James. 

St James' Church, in Cowgate, includes Pockthorpe 
in its parish, and was a well endowed rectory till 1201, 
when it was appropriated to the Cathedral Prioiy. It 
is now a peculiar of the Dean and Chapter. The 
Rev. A. D, Pringle, incumbent 

St. Paul 

St Paul's Church, in the square called St Paul's 
Plain, is an old dilapidated building with a small 
round tower, the upper part of which was octagonal, 
but was rebuilt about 1819 of white bnck with stone 
coping. It has some decorated windows, but is 
chiefly in the perpendicular style There is a north 
aisle, and at the east end a parclose, the two screens 
of different patterns, but both in the same perpendicu- 
lar style. The perpetual curacy was certified at only 
£2, but was augmented from 1745 to 1749 with ;f2oo 
of Queen Anne's bounty, and is now worth £'i5a 


94 Survey of Norwich. 

The Dean and Chapter are patrons, and the Rev. 
Bell Cooke is incumbent 

The Southern District. 
St. Stephen. 

I The parish of St Stephen's, on the south side of the 
/city, is extensive and populous. The streets present 
I some good shops and places of business. The princi- 
pal streets are Rampant Horse Street, St Stephen's 
Street, and Surrey Street The Norfolk and Norwich 
Hospital is at the top of St Stephen's Street, and the 
far-famed Norwich Union Fire and Life Office is in 
Surrey Street 

The church, at the west end of Rampant Horse 
Street, is a handsome edifice of the late perpendicular 
style, of the i6th century, with a nave and clerestory, 
two aisles, a chancel, two small chapels, and a square 
tower. The nave is divided from the aisles by fluted 
columns with pointed arches. The windows are large 
and numerous, and that at the east end is filled with 
stained glass representing the life of the Virgin Mary, 
and dated i6io. This church was founded before the 
Norman Conquest, but has been all rebuilt at different 
periods, the chancel about 1520, and the nave in 1550: 
The roof is a fine specimen of open timber-work, and 
is richly carved. The tower stands on the north side 
of the church, and beneath it is the porch. In 1859, 
the interior was thoroughly restored at acost of ;f 1500^ 
and a new carved pulpit and a reading desk were put 

Si. John Sepulchre. 95 

up at the same time. Under the superintendence of 
Mr. Phipson, the county architect, ten new windows 
have been lately inserted in this church, five on each 
side They are in the perpendicular style correspond- 
ing to the style of the building. They are glazed 
with cathedral glass and a ruby border. There is 
also a new window over the south door of the chancel. 
It is glazed with painted glass of a geometrical pattern, 
put in by the London firm that produced the work in 
the lai^e western window, representing the death of 
St Stephen. That window cost ;f 300. The benefice 
is a dischat^ed vicarage, valued in K.B. at £,<^, and 
now at ;^2i2. It was augmented from 1715 to 1812 
with ;f 1000 of royal bounty. The Dean and Chapter 
are patrons. The Rev. C. Baldwin, vicar. 

St John Sepulchre. 

St John Sepulchre is a lai^e church at the top of 
Ber Street, dedicated to St. John the Baptist and the 
Holy Sepulchre, and founded in the reign of Edward 
the Confessor. It consists of a nave, chancel, a sort 
of transept chapel on each side, and a lofty tower 
with five bells and a clock. The font is octagonal and 
is ornamented with angels, lions, &c The east win- 
dow is of three lights filled with stained glass, the 
centre light presenting a figure of St John the Baptist 
The window is in memory of the Rev. Samuel Stone, 
M.A., incumbent of this parish, who was a great friend 
of the poor, and died in 1848. Here is a fine mural 
monument of the Watts family. The rood-stair turret 

gS " Survey of Norwich. 

still remains, and in the south side of the chancel is a 
fine consecration cross. The living is a perpetual 
curacy, certified at £,^ is,, and now valued at jf 144. 
It was augmented from 1737 to 1812 with ;^i6oo of 
royal bounty. The Dean and Chapter are patrons. 
The Rev, W. T. Moore, incumbent 

St. Michael at Thorn. 

This part of the city includes the parish of St. 
Michael at Thorn, so called from the " thorns " 
formerly growing in the neighbourhood, of which there 
is one now in the churchyard. The Rev. A. Davies is 
incumbent of the parish. The church is remarkable 
for its antiquity. 

All Saints. 

At the bottom of Ber Street we may turn to the 
left into the parish of All Saints, where the church 
stands in an open space called All Saints' Green. 
The church is a small structure, having a nave, chancel, 
porch, and tower containing three bells. The chancel 
contains some decorated windows, but the other por- 
tions of the church are perpendicular. The east 
window is modern and filled with poor stained glass, 
but there are some fragments of ancient stained glass, 
containing heads of bishops, &c„ in the windows of 
the aisles. The font is octagonal and in the perpen- 
dicular style. There are three monuments with mer- 
chant's marks upon them. The rectory, valued in K.B. 

Si. John TimberhilL 97 

at ;f 3 14s, 7d., is consolidated with St. Julian, valued in 
KB. at £^. The joint benefices are now worth X300 
per annum. They were augmented with £,yx3 of 
Queen Anne's bounty in 1769 and 1810, and with 
;^2oo given by John Drjnkwater, Esq., and £scx> 
given by S. Thornton, Esq., in 1800. The Rev. 
C. F. Sculthorpe, M.A., is patron, and the Rev. G. S, 
Outram is incumbent. 

St. John TimberhilL 

St John's Timberhill, at the north end of Ber 
Street, was founded soon after the priory of Norwich, 
to which it was appropriated, and it was dedicated to 
St John the Baptist It has a nave, chancel, south 
porch with parvise, and two aisles with chapels at 
their east ends. That on the north, a part of which is 
now used for the vestry, was called our Lady's Chapel, 
There is a hagroscope or squint on the south side of 
the chancel, and near it is a small decorated piscina. 
The font is circular and Norman. The whole building 
needs restoration. The square tower fell down on -^ 
August 20th, 1784, and damaged the west end of the 
church. Its foundations stiU remain, but the bells 
were sold to pay for the repairs. The perpetual curacy 
was augmented from 1738 to 1813 with jfiiooo of 
royal bounty, and valued in 1835 at £"^1. The 
Dean and Chapter are patrons. The Rev. S. Titlow, 
M.A., has been the incumbent since 1^31. 

98 Survey of Norwich. 

Chapel Field. 

There is yet left unnoticed a small district lyings 
south of St Giles', and which is generally known as 
Chapel Field. Near this field once stood a collie 
called St Mary in the Fields, founded about the 
beginning of the 13th century by John Le Brun. 
Soon after its establishment its benefactors were so 
numerous that in a short time it became a very noble 
college, having a dean, chancellor, precentor, treasurer, 
seven prebendaries, and six chaplains. Miles Spencer, 
the last dean, persuaded the college to resign its 
revenues for small pensions, after he had obtained a 
grant of the whole for himself from Henry VIII. at 
the dissolution. The property afterwards passed 
through several hands, and the field is now the pro- 
perty of the corporation. It has recently been en- 
closed by a massive palisade, and much improved as 
a place of recreation ; and a lai^e Drill Hall has been 
built at the north-west corner for the use of the 
Volunteers. The Drill Hall was opened by the 
Prince of Wales in 1866. 

The Hamlets. 


i The hamlets have, of late years, been greatly in- 
Icreased in extent and population, and are likely to 
; leave the old city in the shade. Heigham, on the 
' west side of the city, has become a town, with two 

Heighatn. 99 

churches, and another about to be built, three chapels, \ 
and several large schools. Since iSoi, the population | 
has increased from 544 to 15,000 souls. Many new I 
streets have been laid out between the Dereham and 
Earlham Roads ; long rows of new houses have been 
built, and are nearly all occupied. The National 
School-house, on Dereham road, was built in 1S40 at 
a cost of ;^iooo, and is attended by about 270 

The City Jail, an ugly building, stands in this 
hamlet at the comer of St Giles' Road. It was built 
in 1827 from a design by Mr. Philip Barnes, of 
Norwich, at a cost of £3o,ooa The front elevation is 
massive and is supported by Tuscan columns. The 
whole building encloses an area of 1 acre 2 roods 34 
poles, and contains 114 cells. The house of the 
governor stands in the centre and commands a view of 
the entire prison, which is well ventilated and supplied 
with water pumped by the tread-wheel. 

The New Water Works are in this hamlet, and 
supply the city with water from the river Wensum. 
After filtration the water is forced up by steam power 
to the distributing reservoir at Lakenham, at a height 
of 134 feet above the level of the river at Carrow 
Bridge, whence it flows by gravitation to all parts of 
the city and the suburbs. The present company has 
a capital of ;£^6o,oco in ;^I0 shares, and was in- 
corporated under an act of parliament passed in 1850, 
the powers of which have been enlarged by subse- 

lOO Sumty of Norwich. 

quent acts, so that wholesome and pure water is now 
constantly supplied at very low terms. Excellent 
provision has also been made for a plentiful supply 
for extinguishing fires, by fixing hydrants at every 
IDO yards. 

Bishop HalPs Palace. 

The Old Palace, where the celebrated Bishop Hall 
resided, (now known as the Dolphin Inn,) is in this 
hamlet Here he retired after his expulsion from the 
bishop's palace by the republican party in 1644. The 
house, which is fast going to decay, displays the 
peculiarities of the domestic architecture of the time 
of James I. The front presents two projecting bays, 
one on each side of the door, which afford a light to 
the lower and upper rooms. The doorway deserves a 
passing notice, and some curiously carved heads will 

The New Cemetery. lOi 

be found in the interior, as well as the remains of an 
ancient piscina in the wall at the entrance. There is 
a lai^e parlour on the right hand, wainscotted all 
round from the floor to the ceiling. 

The New Workhouse was erected in 1859 at an 
expense of .£33,000 exclusive of £680 paid for about 
nine acres of land. It is an extensive range of brick 
buildings in the Tudor style of architecture, having 
room for about 1000 inmates, but it has never had so 
many as yet, though the number is increasing every 
year. The debt on the building was ;£22,ooo, and 
will be gradually paid off by instalments. 

The New Cemetery. The greatest improvement 
effected in Nonvich during the present century was 
the closing of all the churchyards for burials, and the 
opening of a new cemetery for the dead. It was 
opened in 1856 and is pleasantly situated on high 
ground next the Earlham Road ; the whole area 
being divided into two parts, one side being conse- 
crated and the other unconsecrated. The whole com- 
prises 35 acres of land prettily laid out and planted. 
It was formed at a cost of .£7000 by the Burial Board. 
There are entrances from the Earlham and Dereham 
Roads. The two principal chapels are of early English 
architecture with porches and apsidal terminations. 
There is also a small chapel for the use of the Jews. 

The long contemplated division of this extensive 
hamlet into three parishes, has at length been carried 

102 Survey of Not-wkk. 

into effect The old church of St. Bartholomew is to 
be the parish church of the new parish of that name 
on the north side next the river. The estimated 
population is 5,6c». The Rev. J. G. Dixon is rector. 
The central part of the hamlet, lying between the 
Dereham and Earlham Roads, with a population of 
4,400, is to form the new parish of St Philip ; but a 
church has not been yet built. The third parish, the 
incumbency of which is retained by the Rev. C. T. 
Rust, includes all that part of Heigham which lies 
between Earlham Road and the boundary of St. 
Stephen's. The population is about 6,40a The 
church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, in Essex Street, 
is the parish church. The church of St Bartholomew 
stands on an eminence above the Wensum, and is a 
small structure in the perpendicular style, with a nave, 
south aisle, north porch, chancel, and a square tower, 
in which are three bells. It has a mural monument 
to the pious Bishop Hall, who was buried here in 
1656. The living is a rectory valued in K.B. at 
;f6 13s. 4d., and now at a little over jCaoa Trinity 
Church, near Unthank's Road, was built by subscrip- 
tion, and consecrated in August 1861, to supply the 
great want of church accommodation which had long 
been felt in this part of the hamlet It is a large . 
buildii^ in the decorated style, and consists of nave, 
transepts, and apsidal chancel, with a tower containing 
one bell, and surmounted by a slated spire 120 feet 
high. The total cost was £70oa 

In 1861, an ancient lead coffin, containing the re- 
mains of a female skeleton, was discovered about 

HelUsdon. 103 

four feet below the surface on a chalk pit at Stone 
Hills, Heigham. tt was perfectly plain, and appeared 
to have been formerly enclosed in an outer case of 
wood, and was probably of the Roman period. Near 
it were found two bronze torque rings of a twisted 
pattern, encrusted with a fine green patina, and 
evidently of the Anglo-Saxon period. 


Hellesdon, adjoining Heigham, is a small and pretty 
village on an eminence two miles north-west of the 
city, but the parish is partly in Taverham hundred. 
It adjoins the river, which is here crossed by a cast- 
iron bridge, built by the corporation of Norwich in 
1819. The common was enclosed in 181 1. The 
Bishop is lord of the manor and owner pf a great part 
of the soil. 


Earlham is a very pleasant village, situated at the 
end of the Earlham Road. The ivy-mantled church 
is a very ancient building of small size. The hall, 
situated in a park, is associated with the honoured 
name of Gumey, and will long be an object of deep 
interest Amongst other members of that distinguished 
family who resided here was the deservedly esteemed 
Joseph John Gurney, who often entertained many of 
the celebrities of his day. It was here that Wilberforce, 
Chalmers, and a host of worthies, well known to fame, 
visited one of the happiest of the homes of England, 

I04 Survey of Norwich. 

where the sterling character of Thomas Fowell Buxton 
was formed and matured, and where he met with the 
partner of his future life. It was the birthplace of 
Elizabeth Fry the philanthropist, of whom there is yet 
no monument in this city. 

The hamlet of Eaton, two miles south-west of 
Norwich, is in the vale of the Taas. The manor is 
about 1300 acres, and belongs to the Dean and 
Chapter, but the soil is let to a number of lessees, 
many of whom have handsome houses in the New- 
market Road, one of the finest approaches to the city. 
Indeed, this road may be called the "west end" of 
Norwich. Eaton church is dedicated to St. Andrew, 
and is a long ancient building covered with thatch, 
and having an embattled tower with three bells. It 
was originally a Norman structure, but it appears to 
have been rebuilt in the early English period, and to 
have been considerably altered in the isth century. 
About two years ago the church was thoroughly re- 
stored at a cost of about ;f40O, when a number of 
beautiful mural paintings were discovered, some of 
them well preserved. The living is a vicarage not in 
charge, valued at £&y, and augmented in 1732 with 
£200 given by the Earl of Thanet, and i[2oo of 
Queen Anne's bounty. 

Lakenham is the next hamlet on the south side of 
the city, and the roads to it are favourite walks of the 

Lakenham. 1 05 

citizens. Caister is an adjoining village, where may 
be seen extensive remains of a Roman camp, built 
before Norwich existed. The configuration of the 
camp may still be traced as a parallelogram, enclosing 
an area of 32 acres, sufficient for a force of 6000 men. 
On the western side, which was washed by the Taas, 
formerly stood the water gate, with a round tower, 
where vessels used to unload. A very large number 
of Roman coins have been dug up here Returning 
to the hamlet of Lakenham, we ascend a hill called 
Long John's HtlL Lakenham church stands on high 
ground above the river Taas, and is a small structure 
dedicated to St John the Baptist and All Saints. It 
has a tower with three bells. The benefice is a 
vicarage united to Trowse Newton, and with it valued- 
at £,2^\, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter, 
and incumbency of the Rev. Alfred Pownall, M.A. 

St Mark's Church, in Lakenham, was consecrated 
September 24th, 1844, and is a neat structure in the 
perpendicular style, comprising a nave without aisles, 
and an embattled tower with turrets, pinnacles, and 
three bells. It was built by subscription at a cost of 
;£4000, and contains 900 sittings, most of which are 
free. The interior has commodious galleries, and is 
neatly fitted up. Ladies presented the communion 
table, plate, books for divine service, font, &c The 1 
population in this hamlet has increased from 428 in I 
1801 to 4866 in 1861. The perpetual curacy, valued I 
at ;^I50, is in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter. 
The Rev. N. T, Garry, M.A., is incumbent 

io6 Survey of Norwich, 

Trowse-Millgate^ Carrow, and Bracondale, 

Trowse-Millgate, Carrow, and Bracondale, extend 
southward from King Street to the river Yare, opposite 
Trowse Newton. They form one hamlet, though each 
division had formerly a parochial chapel. Miss 
Martineau owns the greater part of the soil, and lives at 
Bracondale Lodge, a handsome mansion with delight- 
ful pleasure grounds. The late P. M. Martineau 
collected here many remnants of Gothic architecture 
in 1804, and used them in the erection of a lofty arch 
and an edifice, representing a small priory with win- 
dows filled by stained glass. 


The hamlet of Thorpe, one of the most delightful 
suburbs of the city, lies on the south-cast side, opposite 
Foundry Bridge, and extends to Mouschold Heath. 
It contains many handsome villas, which are mostly 
surrounded by gardens. Many of the city gentry re- 
side in this pleasant hamlet, which now contains about 
3000 inhabitants. The church, dedicated to St 
Matthew, was built in 1852 at a cost of ;£^2300, for an 
ecclesiastical district, comprising that part of Thorpe 
parish within the city liberties, containing about 2500 
inhabitants. It is a neat structure in the Norman 
style of architecture, from a design by Mr. Kerr, for- 
merly architect of this city. It consists of a nave, 
transepts, and apsidal chancel, and is a unique struc- 
ture. The five windows of the chancel are filled with 

Thorpe. 107 

stained glass. The rector of Thorpe is patron of the 
perpetual curacy, valued at ;fri30, which is now held by 
the Rev, George Harris Cooke, M. A., who has a hand- 
some parsonage house, erected in 1863 at a cost of 
;£^I400, in the Tudor style. 

The road from the Foundry Bridge to Thorpe village 
is a favourite walk of the citizens. Thorpe lodge (the 
entrance to which is guarded by couchant lions, and is 
a conspicuous object on the left,) was the residence of 
the late John Harvey, Esq., " a fine old English gentle- 
man," who was a great promoter of manufactures, and 
of aquatic sports. Its present proprietor and occupant 
is Donald Dairy mple, Esq. The old hall, the name 
by which the manor house is now known, stands at the 
entrance to the village. It was formerly the country 
seat of the bishops. Adjoining are the remains of a 
chapel, now used as a coach house and stable. On 
the south side of the river, which was once reached by 
the ferry boat, stands the village of Whitlingham, 
where the citizens formerly resorted by thousands in 
the summer months. The grounds in this locality 
present a pleasing variety of hill and dale, wood and 
water, and the view from the White House includes 
the windings of the "bonny Yare," the opposite 
village of Thorpe, the spire of the Cathedral rising 
above the distant hills, and the frowning aspect of the 
old Norman Castle. The whole of the land here now 
belongs to R. J. H. Harvey, Esq., M.P., who has 
greatly improved an estate of 2000 acres next the 
river. He has often thrown the grounds open to the 

I08 Survey of Norwich. 

The Rosary Burial Ground, in Thorpe hamlet, 
was established in i8ig by the late Rev. Thomas 
J^rummond, for the use of Dissenters. Being aware 
that many of the burial grounds attached to their 
chapels are held on leases under the corporation, he 
urged the necessity of a general cemetery on freehold 
land, so securely vested in trust that it could not be 
converted to other uses at any future time. The 
Rosary occupies eight acres of land in a good situa- 
tion. It is divided into sections separated by plant- 
ings of trees or shrubs, and contains a small chapel. 
It is not consecrated, and ministers of any denomina- 
tion may officiate at funerals. In this beautiful rest- 
ing-place for the dead are deposited the remains of 
many of the worthiest of the Norwich citizens. 


Pockthorpe was originally part of Thorpe, but when 
severed in the time of the Conqueror, with the parishes 
of St James and St. Paul, took the name of Paucus 
Thorpe or Little Thorpe, corrupted into Pockthorpe. 
(The place is apparently wedded to poverty, with no 
,' Divorce Court to grant it relief. It is chiefly inhabited 
\ by poor weavers or spinners, who still adhere to an 
; old pastime, the rearing of pigeons, as appears from 
' many coops at the broken windows. The brewery 
here is an old well-established concern, and sends out 
about ioo,cxX3 barrels of beer yearly. 

Nonconformists' Chapels. 109 


The Old Meeting House, Colegate Street, was i __^3,- 
erected in 1693 by the Independents, a congregation 
of which body had existed in Norwich since the / 
Commonwealth. They had originally assembled in a 
brewery in St Edmund's, and afterwards in the " west a / •! 
granary" of St Andrew's Hall. Mr^Bri^e, the firstft*'/'' 
pastor, who was incumbent of St Geoige's, Tomb-*'/'^'' 
land, seceded from the church in the reign of James 
II., and sat in the Westminster Assembly of Divines. 
The building is a large structure of red brick, fronted 
with four Corinthian pilasters. It contains sittings for 
700 persons, and has spacious schoolrooms adjacent 
The Rev. John Hallett is the present minister. 

Prince's Street Chapel (Independent) was 
erected in 1819. It is a handsome building of white 
brick, and has been enlarged and almost rebuilt at a 
cost of £2000, under the superintendence of Mr. 
Boardman, architect, of this city. It will now accom- 
modate 1000 persons. The new front presents an 
elevation in the modern Italian or composite style, 
with seven windows of ornamental design. The roof 
has been raised and new windows inserted, eight on 
each side. New galleries have been erected with cast- 
iron columns, and ornamental iron front A new apse 
has been added, and a vestry or retiring room at the 
back. The whole interior has been reseated with 
plain open benches. The entrances, staircase, hall, 
and avenues, are laid with tessellated tiles. At a 


110 SurViry of Norwich. 

short distance from the chapel there is a spacious 
schoolroom, with class rooms on each side. The Rev. 
G. S. Barrett is the present minister. 

The Chapel in the Field, (Independent) opened 
in 1858, is a handsome edifice with two imposing spiral 
turrets. Its arched interior has a fine effect, increased 
by the introduction of four painted windows in the 
apse. The building affords sittings for ofx> persons. 
Adjoining are spacious schoolrooms in a similar style 
of architecture. The Rev. Philip Colbome is the pre- 
sent minister. 

The Tabernacle {Lady Huntingdon's Connexion) 
is situate near St. Martin's at Palace, It was built by 
the Calvinistic Methodists, under Mr. Wheatley, in 
1772, at a cost of ;^I7S2. In 177s, the Tabernacle 
was sold to the Countess of Huntingdon, who visited 
Norwich in the following year, and vested the building 
in trust with four clergymen and three laymen of the 
same connexion to appoint ministers whose preaching 
and sentiments are according to the articles and 
homilies of the church of England. It contains 1000 
sittings. The Rev. Burford Hooke is the present 
minister. There is also another chapel of the same 
connexion on the Dereham Road, of which the Rev. 
John Joseph James Kempster is the minister. 

St. Mary's Chapel (Baptist) was originally erected 

, in 1714, butwas rebuilt in its present style in l8ll 

and enlarged in 1838. Rev. Joseph Kinghom waa 

Nonconformists' Chapels. 1 1 1 

pastor from May 20th, 1791, till his death, on Septem- 
ber 1st, 1832. Rev. William Brock was pastor from 
l?33 to 1848, when he resigned his chaise and went 
to London, where he preaches at Bloomsbury chapel. 
Since 1849, the Rev. G. Gould has been the pastor. 
Spacious schoolrooms adjoining the chapel are now 
in course of erection, 

St. Clement's (Baptist) was erected in 1814 and 
contains 900 sittings, and there is a spacious school- 
room adjacent The celebrated Mark Wilks was once 
the pastor. The present minister is the Rev. T. 

Ebenezer Chapel (Baptist), on Surrey Road, was 
built in 1854, the minister being the Rev. R. Govett, 
who some years since seceded from the established 

The Gildencroft (Baptist), in St Augustine's, 
formerly occupied by the Society of Friends, was 
erected in i68a There is a spacious burial ground 
attached, in which lie the remains of Joseph John 
Gurney, Mrs. Opie, and other eminent Friends, The 
Rev. C. H. Hosken is the minister. 

Okford Hill Chapel (Baptist) was opened as a 
chapel in 1832. The Rev. J. Brunt is the present 

There are also Baptist Chapels in Cherry Lane, 
(Rev. W. Hawkins) ; this was formerly a Wesleyan 

1 1 2 Survey of Norwich. 

Chapel in which the Rev. John Wesley preached ; 
Priory Yard, (Rev. R B. Clare) ; Pottergate Street, 
(Rev. H. Trevor) ; and Jireh Chapel, Dereham Road, 
(no regular pastor). 

The Presbyterians recently purchased St Peter's 
Hall, in Theatre Street, as a place of worship. The 
hall contains about 700 sittings, which are generally 
all occupied. The Rev. W. A, Mc Allan was ordained 
minister in 1867, and he preaches with great success 
to large congregations. 

Wesley ANS. The Revs. John and Charles Wesley 
paid their first visit to this city in 1754, but their 
followers had no settled place of worship here till 
1769, when they built a small chapel in Cherry Lane, 
I where the late Dr. Adam Clarke was stationed in 
^ 17S3, and began to display that vast genius which 
afterwards astonished the religious world. The 
Wesleyan Methodists have two chapels, one a very- 
spacious edifice in Lady Lane, and the other, just 
finished, in Ber Street 

The United Methodist Free Church has two 
chapels. That in Calvert Street was erected by the 
Wesleyan Methodists in iSlo, and is a large brick 
edifice with about 1 200 sittings, and two houses for the 
ministers. The other is in Crook's Place, Heigham, 
and was opened in 1839, and contains 800 sittings. 

The Primitive Methodists have chapels on Sii 

Nonconformists^ Chapels, 113 

Catherine's Plain, Cowgate Street, and Dereham Road. 
The first named, called Lakenham Chapel, was built in 
1835, and contains 600 sittings. The second, in Cow- 
gate Street, was built about 20 years since, and con- 
tains 300 sittings. The third, on Dereham Road, was 
built in 1864, on the site of a smaller one, at a cost of 
;fi3i6, raised by subscription. Sunday schools are 
connected with all these chapels. 

The Unitarians occupy the Octagon Chapel, 

SL George's, a handsome building, of the shape im- 
plied by its name. It is surmounted by a dome, 
supported by eight Corinthian pillars. It was erected 
in 1756, on the site of the old Presbyterian Meeting- 
house. Dr. John Taylor, and Dr. Enfield (compiler of 
the Speaker) preached in this chapel. Rev. D. H. 
Smyth is the minister. 

The Society of Friends have a meeting-house in 
Upper Goat Lane, a fine white-brick structure, with 
Doric portico, and lighted by a dome lantern. 

The Roman Catholics have two chapels. In 
the last century there was a chapel connected with 
the palace of the Duke of Norfolk on the site of the 
present Museum, but it was lost when that property 
was sold by him. The Roman Catholics raised 
a subscription and built their present chapel in 
St. John's Maddermarket in 1794. It is merely a 
plain building, but the altar is very handsome. It 
contains sittings for about 600 people. The services 

114 Sumey of Norwich. 

here are carried out with great solemnity, and with 
a strict adherence to the ritual of the Church of 
Rome. There is generally a lai^e congregation at 
divine service. The Rev, Canon Dalton is the 
officiating priest. He resides near the chapel in a 
very ancient building that was occupied by the 
City Sheriff in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, The 
chapel in Willow Lane, called the Chapel of the 
Apostles, is a handsome building, erected in 1828. 
The windows are of stained glass, and the interior 
decorations are very striking. This chapel is served 
by Fathers of the Society of Jesus, commonly called 
Jesuits. It is the custom of that order to change the 
officiating clergy every few years. The Rev. Mr. 
Lane of the order was a contemporary of the Rev. 
Mr. Beaumont, the first priest of St. John's chapel, 
during the greater part, if not all, of that gentleman's 
lengthened ministry of 62 years, and died about the 
same time. The congregation is generally larger 
than at St, John's Chapel. 

Free Christian Church. The Dutch Church, 
in St. Andrew's Hall, originally the Conventual Church 
of the Black Friars, was granted to the Walloon con- 
gregation ; but they now have service only once a 
■T — year, when a sermon is preached in Dutch and after- 
wards in English. During the rest of the year the 
place is used by the Free Christian Church — Rev. J. 
Crompton, minister. 

The French Church, Queen Street — originally 

Nonconformists' Chapels. 115 

the parochial church of St. Mary Parva, and afterwards I 
a cloth exchange — was granted, in 1637,10 the French 1 
Protestant refugees. It is now occupied by the receivers ' 
of the doctrines enunciated by Emanuel Swedenborg. 
Mr. R D. Rogers, leader. 

The Jews — who were formerly very numerous in 
this city — have a handsome synagogue in St. Faith's 
Lane, erected in 1849, at a cost of ;£'i6oo. Rev. S. 
Caro, minister. 

The Catholic Apostolic Church (Irvingites) 
occupy a building in Clement Court, Redwell Street. 
The present minister is the Rev. Arthur Inglis, B.A. 

Since the 17th century Nonconformists have in- 1 
creased from a few hundreds to 10,000 in this city. / 



JHE Castle, Cathedral, and churches already de- 
L scribed are the chief antiquities of the city, but 
' other remains are worthy of notice, and have 
been described by Blomefield, Kirkpatrick, Taylor, 
Harrod, S. Woodward, B. B. Woodward, the Rev. R. 
Hart of Catton, R. Fitch, Esq., and other antiquaries, 
who have explored every part of the old city. They 
nearly all agree in their accounts of the rise and 
progress of Norwich, and of its condition at different 

The Ancient City. 117 


B. B. Woodward, Esq., F.S.A., delivered two lectures 
on " Norwich in the Olden Time," to the members of 
the Church of England Young Men's Society, at the 
Assembly Rooms, some years since. He showed a 
thorough knowledge of all the previous authorities, with 
whom he sometimes differed. He exhibited four lai^e 
maps, presenting views of the Old City at different 
periods, from a.d. 400 to A.n. 1400. He stated that he 
had derived the greater part of his materials for them 
from the series of maps of ancient Norwich made by 
his father, the late Mr. S. Woodward, but he had 
corrected and completed them from the publications 
of various Archsological Societies since they had been 
constructed, and he hoped that they would serve to 
illustrate the growth and progress of the ancient city 
with general fidelity to facts. Directing attention to 
the first map, which represented the condition of the 
Venta Icenorum, A.D. 400, Mr. Woodward pointed out 
the purely fictitious character of the earliest accounts 
of Norwich to be found in the older historians, who 
drew, in all good faith, on their fertile imaginations, 
and both persuaded themselves that they were writing 
history, and that they were believed to be doing so by 

The old-established tradition, that the sea came up 
to Norwich, he stated, was undoubtedly to be accepted, 
but not as having occurred within the historic period. 
From various facts, and particularly from the occur- 
rence of a Roman road at Wangford, near Bungay, 

ii8 Norwich Antiguities. 

near the edge of the present stream, he concluded that 
in the times of the Romans, the valleys of the Eastern 
Counties did not present a very different aspect from 
their present one, though of course where there was 
now meadow, marsh existed formerly, and many 
small streams have disappeared. Mr. Woodward, on 
this point, differed entirely from all the local his- 
torians and antiquarians, and his opinion is not sup- 
ported by any evidence. The existence of a Roman 
road at Wangford, near Bungay, if such there be, has 
nothing to do with the river Yare. Mr. Woodward 
offered no proof that it is a Roman road. All the 
local historians state that a broad arm of the sea 
flowed up to Norwich till the nth century, when 
Sweyn came up with a great fleet and landed an army 
here. Parochial records prove that the river came up 
to St Lawrence Steps at a later period. We may 
therefore dismiss this singular opinion as untenable. 

Mr. Woodward regarded Nonvich as the Venta 
Icenorum of the Romans for several reasons, and par- 
ticularly because it was plain from the occurrence of 
these Ventas in Britain, and none in any other part of 
the Roman world, that this was the name of a British 
town, which its being called the Venta of the Iceni 
strongly confirmed — even, in fact, a British stronghold, 
constructed according to the custom of that people in 
parts of the country without hills. In hilly countries 
, the strongholds were entrenchments round the sum- 
mits of the hills, but then there were small tracts 
of land surrounded by marshes. Such were the 
British strongholds on Bungay Common, and that at 

The A/icient City. 119 

Homing, and such he believed was the Venla Icmorum. 
They were not intended for permanent occupation, but 
as places of safety for their wives and children, and 
for their cattle, in case of the attack of another tribe ; 
and they could rarely be held against the enemy for 
any length of time. In this instance, the trench was 
drawn in a horse-shoe form, from the eastern slope of 
the ground on which the Castle now stands to the 
western side, the steep bank of the little stream, called 
the Cockey, being rendered more steep by art, whilst 
the.Wensum and marshes protected the other sides. 
The position of the Roman camp, as the map showed, 
was determined by its being the fittest for keeping in 
check the Iceni of Vmta, and preventing them from 
marching against the southern part of the island ; and 
it might probably have been placed there after the 
disastrous experiment of what the Iceni could do 
under such a leader as their famous Queen Boadicea. 
In the latter part of the Roman period it would seem 
that the conquerors had less occasion for mere military 
force here, for the remains of a Roman villa had been 
found in the northern side of the camp at Caister. 

Mr. Woodward said the Map of Norfolk still showed 
traces of Roman roads radiating from Norwich. The 
principal roads were — one entering the stronghold in 
the western side, now St Stephen's Street ; another 
entering it on the east, now known as King Street 
This last crossed the river by a ford at Fyebridge, and 
was the origin of Magdalen Street and St Augustine's 
Street ; another road left the fortress on the western 
side, near the river, and was called St Benedict's 

I20 Norwich Antiquities. 

Street ; and the last crossed the river at Bishopbridge 
by another ford, and sent off branches to the north- 
east and east of Norfolk, He believed that nearly all 
the main lines of road originated with the Romans, 
but this is at least doubtful. Norwich must then have 
been a very large town to have required so many main 
lines of roads ; but its very existence as a town is 
uncertain during the Roman period. 

Mr. Woodward's second map exhibited the en- 
trenchments round the fortress as already described, 
at the time of the Conquest Map the third exhibited 
the condition of the city in the time of the Domesday 
Survey, or about A.D, iioo, when 54 churches and 
chapels existed. Map the fourth showed the state of 
the city A.D. 140O, when Norwich was described as at 
the acme of its splendour and importance, and second 
only to Bristol, after London. This arose from its 
being the capital of East Anglia, and the residence of 
so many of the clergy and gentry. Mr. Woodward 
pointed out the sites of some of the old monasteries 
in this period. The Bishop's palace was then within 
the precincts of the close. Besides the monastery 
there, and that of St Leonard's, there were then 
several others in Norwich, In King Street, to the 
south of St. Faith's Lane, were the Austin Friars, 
and to the north of Rose Lane the Grey Friars. Both 
these monastic communities were said to have en- 
croached on the adjacent streets, churchyards, &c., by 
extending their precincts; which accounted for the 
changes around them. The Carmelites occupied the 
whole angle of the city between the river, the walls. 

Old Walls and Gates, 12\ 

and Bat^te Street But few traces of these estab- 
lishments now remaia The case of the Black Friars 
was very different Their magnificent church is still 
almost entire ; much of the convent is still standing in 
St Andrew's Hall, and the Dutch or Walloon Church, 
and the oldest parts of the former Workhouse. In 
addition to these, there had been several smaller 
monastic orders which were merged in the others 
before the isth century. In this period, most of the 
streets on the north side of the town were in existence, 
and some on the south side. 

Formerly, as already intimated, some of our streets 
were named from the trades of those who occupied 
them. Thus there were Saddlers' Gate, now White 
Lion Street; Wastelgate, now Red Lion Street; Cord- 
wainers' Row, now part of the Walk ; Goldsmiths' 
Row, north side of the Market ; Hosiers' Row, in part 
of London Street ; Cutlers' Row, in part of London 
Street ; Hatters' Row, now St Giles' Street ; Dyers' 
Row, in St Lawrence Street ; and Pottei|jate Street, 
stiJl so called. The Cloth Hall stood in the Hay- 
market ; and on the west side were the Butchery, the 
Fishmarket, and various other rows, where articles of 
food were sold. 


R. Fitch, Esq., is the very best authority respecting 
the old walls and gates, of which he made a study for 
many years; and in l86i he published a very hand- 
some illustrated volume entitled, " Views of the Gates 

122 Norwich Antiquities. 

of Norwich made in the years 1792 — 3, by the late 
John Ninham ; with an Historical Introduction, Ex- 
tracts from the Corporation Records, and Papers by 
the late John Kirkpatrick, contributed to the Trans- 
actions of the Norfolk and Norwich Archieolc^cal 
Society, by Robert Fitch, F.S.A., F.G.S." The author 
says: — 

"The history of the walls of Norwich is a history of the 
gate houses, and in speaking of the origin of the first we 
include that of the second. In 1294, being the 33rd 
Edward I., the first mural tax was granted, and continued' 
three years. A second tax succeeded this, and in 1304 a 
third tax was imposed, to continue in operation for five 
years. In the nth of Edward II., a founh tax of the like 
nature was allowed ; and in two years after, namely in 1319, 
the walls of Norwich were completed," 

"When the thickness and extent of the fortifications of 
this city are considered, it cannot be thought surprising that 
a period of 25 years elapsed before these mural defences 
were finished, so far as to render no additional tax necessary. 
It must not, however, be considered that no other pecuniary 
assistance was required towards the work. The citizens 
themselves manifested the greatest interest in the subject; 
and the ancient books of account contain not only entries 
of money expended on the walls and gates, but also register 
the private contributions of persons towards the same object 
and for necessary reparation." 

"It has been previously observed, that in 1319 the walls 
of the city were said to have been completed ; but something 
more was required to render them adequate to the purpose 
for which they were designed. Neither towers nor gates 
could be of use unless properly furnished with munitions of 

Old Walls and Gates. 123 

war and ihe implemeots then in use for their piojecdon. 
This does not appear to have taken place until 23 years after 
completion, namely in 1342, in i6th Edward III., when a 
patriotic citizen, Richard Spynk, for the honour of the 
monarch and the safety of his fellow citizens, gave thirty 
espringolds to cast stones with, to be kept at divers gates and 
towers; 100 gogions, or balls of stone, locked up in a box; 
a box with ropes and accoutrements ; four great arblasters, 
or crossbows, and 100 gogions for each arblaster; two pairs of 
grapples, to bring the bows to the requisite tension for dis- 
charge ; also other gogions, and some armour." 

After stating other acts of this citizen, Mr. Fitch 
prcx:eeds : — 

" From this long recital of gifts, it must be concluded that 
Richard Spynk was virtually the fortifier of the city ; for it is 
clear that until his munificence made the gates and walls 
complete, they were imperfect. Nor did he suffer his work 
to fall into decay ; but by the adoption of niles and regula- 
tions, he preserved to the city the full benefit of what he had 

" Before proceeding further with an outline of the history 
of the Walls and Gates, it should be suted that Norwich 
had been previously surrounded by a ditch and bank for 
protection." ♦ « « * * 

"One benefit produces another, and to Richard Spjmk 
was the City not only indebted for its safety boax aggression, 
but also for an extension of its liberties. 

" It is recorded that Queen Isabella induced the king, her 
son, in consideration of the costs and charges for the Walls 
which had been raised without call on the GovemmeDt, to 

~- —-"^^^ 

124 Norwich Antiqnities. 

grant a charter to the Citizens, that they, and their heirs 
and successors, dwelling in the said City, should for ever be 
free from jurisdiction of the Clerk of the Market and of the 
household of the King, and his heirs, so that the said Clerk 
or his officers should not enter the City, or fee or make 
assay of any measures or weights, or to exercise or do any- 
thing belonging to the said office of the Clerk of the Market 

^^ In this King's reign, according to the Customs* Book, 
there is an account of the battlements on the various gates, 
towers, and walls. These were numbered, in order that each 
parish might be made acquainted with its responsibilities of 
repairs in this respect Beginning from the river to Coslany 
Gate, there were 112 battlements, and 10 on the gate itself. 
From that point to St Augustine's Gate, were 69 battle- 
ments, and on the gate, 12. Thence to Fibrigge Gate — on 
the walls and towers were 153 battlements, and on the gate, 
13 ; thence to Pockthorpe Gate — on the walls and towers 
were 178, and on the gate, 10; and from this gate to the 
river were about 40. From this point to the tower of Conis- 
ford Gate, the river chiefly protects the city, but the tower 
bore 12 battlements; and from the tower on the city side of 
the water to Conisford Gate, were 26 battlements with 14 on 
the gate. Thence to Ber Street Gate, were 150 ; on the gate 
and its wicket were 27 ; and from thence to St Stephen's 
Gate were 307 (here were some strong towers) ; and on this 
gate and wicket were 28. 

"From St Stephen's to St Giles' Gate were 229 (here 
again were several strong towers), and on the gate and 
wicket were 15 ; and from St Giles' to St Benedict's Gate 
were 100, and on the gate itself and wicket were 16 ; thence 
to Heigham Gate 79, and on the gate 4 — and from this gate 
to the tower and wall on the river were 16 battlements ; in 
all, 1630. At this period (1345, according to the Domesday 

Old Walls and Gates. 125 

Book of the City) there was a tax called * Fossage/ to defray 
the great charges of the walls and ditches.** * * 

" In 1385 a general survey was made, and all the walls 
and gates were placed in good repair, with a sufficient num- 
ber of men appointed to guard them. It was also agreed 
that churchwards should be chosen annually, whose duty it 
should be to prevent any decay or permanent injury to the 
fortifications by timely repair or by reconstruction. In 1386, 
the expectancy of invasion caused general fear throughout 
the realm, and particularly in the eastern counties. The 
king sent nearly a thousand men to Yarmouth for the defence 
of the coast ; and so imminent was the peril, that the king 
commanded the authorities of Norwich to place the walls, 
towers, and gates in full and able condition to repel all who 
might appear in opposition to the king's authority, or crush 
a design to injure the city. The towers were therefore filled 
with engines of defence, the walls rendered perfect, and the 
ditches made as wide and as deep as the necessities of the 
case demanded." * * * * 

The author proceeds to show the anxious attention 
which was paid to the preservation of the walls and 
gates, by copious extracts from a roll, dated 13861 
He then gives a full history of the fortifications, from 
which we shall make some extracts in our narrative of 
events at diflferent periods. He thus concludes his 
historical sketch : — 

" Not a fragment of the gates now exists, but the certain 
indications of where, in some instances, they once stood, are 
yet accidentally preserved.** 

With a short notice of these, the account is con- 
cluded : — 

126 Norwich Antiqutties. 

" CoNiSFORD Gate. A fragment of the wall of the east 
side of this gate still exists, attached to the west of the 
'Cinder Ovens* public house at the south end of King Street, 
and also on the opposite side of the street. 

" Ber Street Gate. No portion of this gate remains 5 
but where the structure stood is sufficiently evident by the 
high wall on the west side of the upper end of Ber Street 

"Brazen Doors. Not a fragment remains. 

" St. Stephen's Gate. No portion left. 

" St. Giles' Gate. The house against which the south 
side of this gate abutted still stands, and part of the lower 
walls of the building can be seen.* 

" St. Benedict's Gate. Here a corresponding house or 
abuttal of this gate stands perfect, with one of the strong iron 
staples, on which hung one of the doors, projecting from the 


Heigham Gate. Very slight remains left. 

" St. Martin's Gate. A portion of the north side of this 
gate is left erect and firm, with small tenements abutting 
against it 

" St. Augustine's Gate. No fragment is left. A large 
portion of the ditch between this gate and St. Martin's is 
clearly seen, very few buildings having been erected on its 

" Magdalen Gate. No portion left, but the form and 
interior of the city wall is well seen at this point 

* Since the above was written, the house at St Giles' Gates has been 

Desecrated Churches, 127 

** Barre or PocKTHORPE Gate. Indications are left of 
where the gate stood, with fragments of the wall on the right 
and left 

"Bishop's Gate. Nothing of the gate exists, but the 
exact site may be seen by the necessary increased width of 
the bridge. 

" The precise spot where each gate stood may be found 
by tracing a line of the city wall, where it crossed a street ; 
the gates being of course integral portions of the wall per- 
forated for traffic and fortified with extra work for adequate 


The Rev. Francis Blomefield, of Fersfield, who 
flourished in the first half of the last century, was 
the chief of Norfolk historians and antiquarians. 
He was great in genealogy and heraldry, and very 
elaborate on monuments and epitaphs, while he alto- 
gether passed over more important matters. We 
might almost wish that he had known less of heraldry 
and morp of history ; but his great work must ever be 
the foundation of local history in Norwich and Norfolk. 
A perfect copy of his work, being very scarce, is now 
worth at least ;£^20. It contains most of the docu- 
mentary antiquities of the city, such as charters, acts of 
parliaments, proceedings of public bodies, and other 
official sources of information, of which he has made a 
good use. He has given full details from the records 
of every parish, and of the old corporation. . He 

128 Norwich Antiquities, 

states the great changes which took place in the city 
and county at the time of the Reformation, and the 
dissolution of the monasteries, when nineteen of those 
institutions existed in Norwich. 

Blomefield notices several lai^e conventual churches, 
which were desecrated at the Reformation, and many 
parish churches which have been demolished, their 
parishes being incorporated with those now existing. 

All Saints*, situated in Fyebridge Street, was at 
the north corner of the street called Cowgate, at its 
entrance into Magdalen Street, and was built before 
the Conquest At the foundation of the cathedral it 
was appropriated to the convent, and at the Reforma- 
tion to the dean and chapter. It was said to have 
had a vtry fine font, erected in 1477. In 1550 the 
church was taken down, and the parish, with that of 
St Margaret, was annexed to St Paul's. 

St. Bartholomew's, in Ber Street, was in the 
patronage of the prior of Wymondham, and at the 
Dissolution was consolidated with St John's Sepulchre, 
and the church taken down. 

St. Bittulph's stood in Magdalen Street, a little 
north of Stump Cross. It was founded before 1300 
and was taken down in 1548, and the parish united to 
St Saviour's. 

St. Christopher's stood on the east side of St 
Andrew's Hill, and was one of the oldest churches in 

Desecrated Churches. 129 

the city. It was burnt down in the reign of Henry 
III. The greater portion of the parish was united to 
St. Andrew's and a smaller part to St Michael's at 

St. Crucis, or St Crowches, stood in Broad Street, 
St Andrew's. It was dedicated to the honour of the 
holy cross, and was erected before the year 1272. In 
155 1 it was desecrated, and the parish united to St 
John's Maddermarket 

St. Clement's, in Conisford, situated in King Street, 
was a very ancient church, founded long before the 
Conquest It was united with St Julian's in 1482. 

St. Cuthbert's was situated at the north end of 
King Street, near Tombland. About 1492 it was 
united to the church of St Mary the Less at the 
monastery gates, and was demolished in 1530. 

St. Edward's stood on the west side of King 
Street, near St Etheldred's church. About the end 
of the 13th century it was united to St Julian's. All 
along King Street there are many vaults and crypts, 
which seem to have formed the foundations of old 
churches and monasteries. 

St. Faith's or St. Vedast's was situated near the 
place where Cooke's hospital now stands, in Rose Lane. 
It was founded before the Conquest and was taken 
down in 1540, the parish being united with that of 


130 Norwich Anttquitus. 

St Peter per Mountergate. The latter is a corruption 
of the old name " Parmenter Gate," which should be 
restored by authority. It was the old Tailor Street 

St. Francis' belonged to the Grey Friars, whose 
.convent stood near the site of Cooke's hospital. It 
was a noble church, 300 feet in length and 80 feet In 
breadth, with cloisters and a large chapter house. At 
the Dissolution it was, with the convent, granted to the 
Duke of Norfolk. 

St. James', Carrow, belonged to the nunnery 
there, and with it became private property at the 
Dissolution, the parish being united to Lakenham. 

St. John's in Southcate stood at the north comer 
of Rose Lane, and about 1300 was annexed to St 
Peter Parmenter Gate. The Grey Friars pulled it 
down and annexed the site of it to their convent 

St. John the Baptist's stood on the site of the 
present Octagon chapel. It was originally a parish 
church; but when the Dominicans, or Friars' Preachers, 
settled here in 1226, it was given to them, and the 
parish was united to St. George's at Colegate. They 
immediately built a convent in this place and the 
church was used by them as a chapel, till they removed 
to their new convent in St Andrew's, where they dedi- 
cated their church also to St John the Baptist The 
church is now St Andrew's Hall, and the chancel 

Desecrated Churches. 131 

(formerly the Dutch church) is now the place of wor- 
ship of the Free Christian Church. 

St. Margaret's, in Fyebridge, was a church of 
ancient foundation, situated on the west side of Mag- 
dalen Street, near the gate. There is no account how 
long it has been dissolved. The parish is now united 
with St Paul's. 

St. Margaret's at Newbridge, anciently called 
St Margaret's at Colegate, was situated near Black- 
friars' bridge, on the west side of the street. The 
parish was depopulated by the great pestilence, in 
1349, when the church ceased to be parochial, and the 
parish was annexed to that of St George's Colegate. 
The church occupied the site of Weston's brewery, 
now demolished. 

St. Martin's in Balliva was situated near the 
spot where, until lately, the Golden Ball tavern stood, 
on the south side of the Castle Hill, The church was 
on the right hand of the entrance into Golden Ball 
Lane. In 1562, this church was demolished and the 
parish united to St Michael's at Thorn. Formerly 
all persons dying in the castle, and all criminals ex- 
ecuted, were buried in this churchyard, but this right, 
after the desecration of the church, was conferred upon 
St Michael's at Thorn. 

St. MarV the Virgin's was situated in Conisford, 
and belonged to the Augustine Friars, being also 

133 Norwich Antiquities. 

dedicated to St Augustine. It was a noble structure, 
450 feet long and 90 feet wide, with cloisters on the 
north and south sides. After the Dissolution it became 
private property in 1547, when the church and con- 
ventual buildings were demolished. 

St. Mary Unbrent stood on the west side of 
Magdalen Street, near Golden Dog Lane. The church 
was demolished at the dissolution, and the parish 
united to St. Saviour's, "Unbrent" means unbumt 
The church was called St Mary in combtisto loco, or 
in that part of the city burnt in the great fire in the 
time of William I. Blomefield thinks that the church 
was then consumed, and afterwards rebuilt; and that 
it was erroneously written in ancient documents tm- 
combusto, instead of in combusto. 

St. Matthew's, near the palace, was a small 
church. The parish has, since the great pestilence of 
1349, been united with that of St Martin's at Palace. 

St. Michael's in Coslany was sold to the Austin 
Friars in 1 360, and shortly afterwards the parish was 
united to that of St Peter Parmenter Gate, when the 
church was demolished and a cloister erected on its 

St. Olave's, or St Tooley's, stood on the east 
side of Toolcy Street, next to the comer of Cherry 
Lane. It was demolished in 1546, and the parish 
consolidated with St George's Colgate. 

Desecrated Ckapeh, 133 

St. Catherine's in Newgate was situated on St 
Catherine's Hill. In 1349 the whole parish was almost 
depopulated by the pestilence, after which the church 
was deserted and converted into a chapel, the parish 
being united with that of All Saints. At the Dissolu- 
tion the chapel was granted to Sir John Mitton, and in 
1567 conveyed to the dty for the use of St Giles' 
hospital Thus a large amount of Church property 
was applied to secular purposes. 


Blomefield gives an account of different chapels 
dedicated to various purposes, most of which were 
destroyed at the Dissolution. 

St. Catherine's Chapel stood upon Mousehold, 
about a mile north-cast of the barracks, was founded 
about the time of the Conquest, and was deemed a 
parochial chapel while it was standing. At the 
Dissolution this chapel was demolished and the parish 
united with that of St James. 

The Chapel of St. Thomas a Becket, which 
was not parochial, stood near the same place. No 
traces of the building can now be discovered. 

The College of St. Mary in the Fields, 
originally called the Chapel in the Fields (whence the 
present name of Chapel Field was derived), was a 
chapel dedicated to Mary the Virgin. It was founded 

134 Norwich Antiquities, 

about the year 1250, by JOHN Le Brun, as an hospital^ 
but its benefactors were so numerous and munificent 
that in a very short time it became a noble college, con- 
sisting of a dean, chancellor, precentor, treasurer, and 
seven other prebendaries. Six chaplains or chantry 
priests were afterwards added. The dean was collated 
by the bishop in right of the see, or by the king during a 
vacancy. The premises were very extensive, and were 
granted at the dissolution to Miles Spencer, LL.D., 
the last dean. After passing through many hands the 
property came into possession of shareholders, who 
built Assembly Rooms on the site of the college. 
Bond Cabbell, Esq. subsequently bought the whole 
building for a Freemasons* Hall. 


Guildhall Chapel adjoined the south side of 
the hall, and was dedicated to SL Barbara. It served 
as a chapel for the prisoners as well as for the Court 
to attend divine service when they assembled on pub- 
lic business. It was pulled down long since, and the 
present porch was erected on its site. 

St. Michael's Chapel, Tombland, stood on the 
site of the obelisk, and was one of the most ancient 
religious buildings in Norwich. It was founded by 
the Earl of the East Angles long before the Conquest 
and prior to the building of the Cathedral ; served as 
a chapel for the use of their palace, which stood facing 
the south side of the chapel-yard ; and occupied the 
south end of Tombland, from the monastery gate to 
the chapel ditch. Bishop Herbert demolished it, and 

Monastic Institutions, 135 

the whole site was laid open for the improvement of 
the monastery, and a stone cross was erected on the 
spot Instead of this, the Bishop built another chapel 
on the summit of the hill outside of Bishopgate, and 
dedicated it to St Michael. 

St. Nicholas' Chapel, Bracondale, was situated 
at the comer of the road now leading to Carrow 
Bridge It was much frequented by fishermen and 
watermen, who were then numerous, and who made 
offerings there to St Nicholas, their patron saint It 
was founded before the Conquest and was parochial ; 
but in the time of Edward 11. the parish was returned 
as belonging to Lakenham, with which it is now 

St. Olave's Chapel, near King Street Gates, was 
a parochial chapel long before the Conquest, and in 
the reign of Edward III. the parish was united to that 
of St Peter Southgate. The chapel was demolished 
before 1345. 


Mr. Taylor's Index Monasticus contains the fullest 
account of the old monasteries which, at one period, 
were very numerous in the city. Many of them 
possessed large churches, great wealth, and consider- 
able power. They comprised Priories, Friaries, and 
Nunneries, which were situated in or near King Street, 

136 Norwich Antiquities. 

or St Faith's Lane, or the Cowgate, Formerly all 
the west side of the river was called the Cow-holm, 
where cows fed on the meadows, and Cow^te con- 
sisted of open fields. 


The Benedictine Priory at the cathedral was founded 
by Bishop Herbert as already noticed. The Priory 
of St Leonard's was founded by Bishop Herbert 
before he built the cathedral, and here he placed the 
monks while the priory was being built It was 
situated on Mousehold Heath, opposite Bishop's 
Bridge, and served as a cell to the cathedral priory 
till the Dissolution. At the Dissolution it was granted 
by Henry VIII. to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, whose 
son Henry, Earl of Surrey, erected on its site a 
splendid house, called Surrey house, which has long 
since fallen into decay. St. Michael's Chapel, built 
by Bishop Herbert, was near the priory, and served 
by monks. It was demolished by the rebel Kett, 
who, with his followers, encamped near it, so that it 
has since been called Kett's Castle. Near the re* 
mains of this chapel, in the valley beneath, was 
Lollard's Pit, the spot where many of the early Re- 
formers were burned. 


This class of monastic institutions consisted of 
houses erected for the Friars, of orders grey, or white, 
or black. The monasteries were seldom endowed, 

Monastic Institutions. 137 

because the Friars were, by profession, be^ars, and 
lived on what they could get They obtained a great 
deal of money in the ages of superstition. Many of 
their buildings were lai^e and stately, and connected 
with noble churches in which great personages were 
frequently interred. Most of the monasteries were 
houses of refuge for the destitute poor in the middle 

The Grey or Franciscan Friars seem to have 
been the first who settled here near the site of Cooke's 
Hospital about 1226, This convent was a place of 
great resort, and the church, as already stated in our 
notice of the Desecrated Churches, was a large build- 
ing 300 feet in length, and 80 feet in breadth, with 
spacious cloisters and conventual buildings ; not a 
stone of which now remains. One of the cloisters of 
this convent was called " Pardon Cloister," on account 
of the pope granting indulgences to all who were 
buried there, a source of revenue to the monks. At 
the Dissolution the possessions were granted to the 
Duke of Norfolk. 

The White Friars or Carmelites had a flourish- 
ing convent near White Friars' Bridge, which was 
founded by Philip de Cowgate in 1256. He assumed 
the name from his estates, being the principal person 
in those parts of the city. The monks were called 
White Friars from their dress, and Carmelites from 
the monastery of Mount Carmel in Palestine, the 
place of their first residence, from which they were 

138 Norwich Antiquities, 

driven by the Saracens about the year 1238, after 
which they settled in different parts of Europe. The 
monastery has been long demolished^ and the site 
built upon. 

The Black Friars, sometimes called the Domini- 
can Friars or Friars* Preachers, settled here about 
1226, in the church of St. John the Baptist, which 
formerly stood in Colegate Street, on the site of the 
Octagon Chapel. They afterwards removed into the 
parish of St. Andrew, where they built a large monastery 
The name of the church is now St Andrew's HalL 

Austin Friary. The possessions of this convent 
were bounded on the north by St Faith's Lane, and 
extended as far as the river. At the Dissolution they 
were granted to Sir Thomas Heneage. 

The Friars De Domina arose in 1288, and in 
1290 were introduced here. They had a house on the 
south side of St. Julian's Churchyard, where they con- 
tinued till the reign of Edward III., when, all the 
brethren dying of the great pestilence of 1348, their 
convent became private property. 

The Friars of St. Mary occupied a house situated 
in the yard of the desecrated church of St. Martin in 
Balliva, where the Golden Ball Tavern stood. They 
joined the order of White Friars. 

The Friars De Pica or Pied Friars, so called 

Monastic Institutions. 139 

from their black and white garments, lived in a 
college at the comer of the churchyard of St. Peter 
Parmentergate. They joined one of the other orders. 

The Friars De Sacco, or Brethren of the Sac, 
settled here about 1250 in a house opposite to the 
church of St Peter's H ungate. The whole premises, 
bounded by Bridge Street on the west, by the river 
on the north, and by the street leading to H ungate on 
the south, were settled on them, where they built a 
church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, on the site of 
which St. Andrew's Hall now stands. The Black 
Friars were united with them in 1307, when the con- 
vent was greatly enlarged, extending to the river on 
the north side, and to Elm Hill on the east side. 

A Nunnery formerly existed at Carrow Abbey, 
dedicated to St Mary and St. John. It was founded 
in the year 1146 by two ladies named Leftelina and 
Seyna. It was richly endowed by King Stephen, and 
consisted of a Prioress and nine Benedictine Nuns, 
which number was afterwards increased to twelve. 
The site within the walls contained about ten acres of 
land, and the revenues and possessions were great 
At the Dissolution the abbey and lands became private 

Anchorages or Hermitages were connected with 

several of the monastic institutions in the city, and 
even inhabited by recluses. Anchorets were a sort of 

anchorac^es were abolished at the Dissolutio 


Archaeologists, and particularly to those direc 
attention to Monumental Brasses, the follo\ 
r Brasses in Norwich and the principal vilh 
e neighbourhood, may be considered us< 

are classified under their distinctive charad 
ly — 1st, Ecclesiastics; 2nd, knights; 3rd, civil 
idies; 4th, miscellaneous. The list specifies tl 
jting of effigies generally perfect, with their 
ions, unless otherwise mentioned. 

alphabetical list of the churches, with 
IS brasses in each, is also appended. 


Monumental Brasses. I4[ 

1499. JohD Sm^h, priest — chalice. SI. Gila. 

Henry Alikok — chiUct Calniy, 

Thome Coke, rector of Bodham^ — chalice lost, insciipCion only 
remaining. St. Mithatl at Coslany. 

An individual unknown — chalice. Porin^and Magna, 

Randulphus Pulvertoft — inscription only. 

Thi Cat)udral (Jisus' Chafd). 
1531. William Richics, vicar of Bawbuigh. BawburgK 

1545. TTiome Capp, vicar. St. Stephtn. 


^1460. Joha Toddenham. A small figure, with scroll from the moulh. 

St. yohn in Maddo'marka, Norwich, 

1499. Thome Heveningham, and Anne, his wife. This is a beautifiilly 

executed brass, and is placed under a canopy upon an allar 

tomb. He died 1499. The blank intended for the date of 

the death of bis wife still remains. A'Mfringham. 

IJ59. John Corbel, and Jane, his wife. He died 147a The blank left 

for the dale of her death still remains. SprmialgH. 

1565. .Sir Edward Warner. PlumsUad Parva. 

1568. Sir Peier Rede. Discovered to be a Palimpsest, in 1S51. 

St. Pdtr Maitcrojt, Noraiiik. 


f l3Sa Richard de Heylesdone, and Beatrice, his wife. Htlladan, 

13S4. John de Heylesdone, and Johanna, hb wife. An inscription only. 
1412. Walter Moneslee, and Isabella, his wife. 

St. yahn in Maddermariil, 
1432. Robert Bailer, and Christiana, his wife, St. GiUi. 

■435- Robert Brasyer, and Christiana, his wife. A celebrated bell- 
founder. St. Stffhai. 
Roberti Brasyer (mutilated). St. StfpluH. 
1436. Richard Purdaunce, and Mai^aret, his wife. ^. Gila, 
1436. John Asgar, the younger. St. Laairrnrt. 
f 1445. Alice Thomdon. Frittatham. 

142 Norwich Antiquities, 

146a Thomas Bokenham, and wife. St, Stephen, 

ri46a A Lady (unknown). Frettenham, 

147a Jane Corbet, in Brass, of John Corbet, and Jane, his wife — see 

* * Knights. " Sprmvston. 

1475. William Pepyr, and Joan, his wife. Inscription and four shields 

lost St, John in Maddermarket, 

1475. William Norwiche, and Alicia, his wife. A Bracket Brass. 

Canopy mutilated. St, George at Colegaie, 

1495. John Horslee, and Agnes, his wife. St, Swithin, 

1499. Anne Heveningham, in Brass, of Thome Heveningham, and 

Anne, his wife — see "Knights," Kctteringhanu 

A Lady (unknown). There are two Inscriptions, with a figure 

of a Child, inserted with this Brass, in the wall of the church, 

which do not relate to it. Ketteringhanu 

1501. Richard Ferrers, Mayor of Norwich, in the years 1473, *478t 

1483, 1493, 149S. Merchant's mark and inscription only 
remaining. St, Michael at Coslany, 

1502. Thomas Cook, St, Gregory, 

1503. Edward Ward. Bixley, 
1505. William Dussing, and Katherine, his wife. In winding sheets. 

Kir by Bedon, 

1505. Thome Tyard. In winding sheets. Bawburgh, 

ci^io, Juliane Anyell. Witton, 

15 14. Margaret Pettwode. St, Clement, 

15 15. Henrici Scolows, and Alicia, his wife. In winding sheets, with 

four evangelical emblems. St. Michael at Coslany, 

1524- John Terri, and Lettys, his wife. An elaborate Brass, with 
twenty lines of English verse. St, John in Maddermarket, 

^1527. John Gilbert. Fragments of canopy and inscription only re- 
maining. St, Andrew, 
152S. Edwardus Whjrte, and Elizabeth, his wife. 

Shottisham St, Mary. 
^1538. William Layer, and wife. Inscription lost. St, Andrew, 

1540. Nicholas Suttherton. An inscription and shield. A palimpsest, 
now in the church chest, formerly at east end of nave. 

St, John in Maddermarket, 
1546. Bel Buttry. St, Stephen, 

1558. Robarte Rugge, Mayor of Norwich, and Elizabeth, his wife. 

St. John in Maddermarket, 

Monumental Brasses. 143 

156a Helen Caus, wife of Thomas Caus, Mayor of Norwich. This is 

one of three effigies which represented Thomas Caus, Mayor 

in 1495 ^^'^ 15^3* ^^^ Johanna and Helen, his wives, and is a 

late example of the pedimental head dress. The other effigies 

are lost Si. yohn in Maddermarket, 

A Mayor of Norwich, and his Wife. Name and date unknown. 

Inscription lost Si, John in Maddermarket, 

1577. Anne Rede, wife of Sir Peter Rede (whose Brass lies in St Peter 

of Mancroft Church). St, Margaret, 

i6oa Mary Bussie. Lost since 1850 ; formerly in the church of 

St, Peter of Mancroft. 
1605. Mis Ane Claxton ; an inscription and shield. 

St, Mary at Coslany, 

1649. Clere Talbot, and his Wives. Dunston, 

1818. Mary Elizabeth, wife of Edward South Thurlow. A cross, brass, 

with a border inscription ; laid down within the last few years. 

The Cathedral (north side of Choir). 


1452. Thomas Childes. A skeleton figure, inscription lost 

St. Lawrence^ Norwich. 
An individual unknown. A heart with three scrolls. 

Kir by Bedon. 
A small figure in winding sheet ; comparatively modem. 



St, Andrew^ Norwich. 

John Gilbert -.---. 1^27 

William Layer, and wife .... 15^8 

The Cathedral, Jesu^ Chapel, Norwich. 

Randulphus Pulvertoft ..... 1499 

Mary Elizabeth, wife of Edward South Thurlow - 18x8 

St, Clement, Norwich. 

Margaret Pettwode - - - - - 15 14 

144 Norwich Antiquities, 

St. Gtorgcat ColrgcJt, Normch. 

William Norwiche ..... njj 

SL Gila, Nonvkh. 

Robert Baxter, and Christiana, his wife - - 143s 

RichanI Punlaunce, and Margaret, his wife • • 1436 

John Smyth, priest ..... '499 

Si. Grtgpry, NonmcK 

Thomas Cok ...... 1503 

St. John in Maddtrmarktf. 

Waller Moneslce, and Isabella, his wife - 1413 

John Toddenham ...... £1460 

William Pepyr, and Joan, his wife - - • 1476 

A Mayor of Norwich, name unknown 

John Terri, and I^tlys, his wife - ■ ■ 1524 

Nicholas Suttherton ..... 1540 

Robarte Rugge, and Hiiabcth, his wife ■ - 1558 

Helen Cans 1560 

St. Latorenct, Nomiilh. 

John Asgar, the younger .... '436 

Galfridus I.anglcy ...... I437 

Thomas Childcs ..... 1453 

SI. Margarrf, XonoicA. 

Anne Rede ...... 1577 

SI. Mary at Coilany, Nurwith. 

Mis Ane Claiton 1605 

St. Alichatl al Cvslany, Noraiick. 

Richard Ferrers - - . - . - 1 501 

Hcnrici Scolows, and Alida, his wife ■ ' - 1515 

Thome Coke ■ ■ . ... 

SL Peter 0/ IHanervfi, Noraiiih. 

Sir Peter Rede --.... 1568 

The Brass of Maiy Bussie, date 1600, has been lost since 1850 

5f. Peter at S-mtigate, Norwich. 

Roger Clarke --.... 1487 

iK. Stiphtn, NoraiicK 

Robert Brasyer, and Christiana, his wife - - 1435 

Thomas Bokenham and wife .... I460 

Roberti Brasyer ...... 

Thome Capp, vicar ..... 15^5 

Bel Buttiy ....... 1546 

Monumental Brasses. 145 

Si. Swithin, Norwich, 

John Horslee, and Agnes, his wife • - - 1495 

Walter Goos, priest - ... - 1497 


Thome Tyard ---.-- 1505 

William Richies — chalice • - - • * '53' 

A small figure, in winding sheet . , - 


Edward Ward ...--- 1503 


Henry Alikok -*.--- 


Clare Talbot, and his wives ... - 1649 


Alice Thomdon ..... ^1445 

Lady (unknown) -.---. ^1460 


Richard de Heylesdone, and Beatrice, his wife • 1380 

John de Heylesdone, and Johanna, his wife - - 1384 

Richardus Thaseburgh - - - - . 1389 


Thome Heveningham, and Anne, his wife - - 1499 

Lady (imknown) . . . . - 

Kirby Bedon. 

William Dussing, and Katherine, his wife • • 1505 

An individual imknown. A heart with three scrolls - 

Plumstead Parva. 

Sir Edward Warner ..... 1565 

Poringiand Magna. 

An individual unknown — chalice 

Shottishatn St. Mary. 

Edwardus Whyte, and Elizabeth, his wife • • 1528 


John Alnwick ------ 1450 


John Corbet, and Jane, his wife . . - - 1470 


Juliana Anyell .... - '''505 


Norwich is very remarkable for its antiquities, 
[ its historical associations, its manufactures, and 
its trade ; and also for the eminent men who 
have flourished at various periods in the city. It was 
the scene of many important events in the times of 
the Iceni, the Romans, the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, 
Danes, and Normans. It was the royal scat of Anglo- 
Saxon princes. It was the Hierapolis Monachopolis 
of the middle ages ; famous for its churches and con- 
vents ; and in later times, celebrated for its Norman 
castle and cathedral. 

The first foundations of history are very often mere 
traditions, which are transmitted from parents to their 
children, from one generation to another. Probable 
only in their origin, they become less probable ia 
every succeeding age. In process of time fable gains 
and truth loses ground. Hence it is almost impossible 
to ascertain the origin of any place claiming a high 

The Aborigines. 147 

antiquity. The early writers could not divest their 
minds of the fascinating fables of Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth. In former times, when the power of imagina- 
tion prevailed, the distinction between legend and 
history was scarcely recognised. For centuries there 
are not even legendary accounts of East Anglia or of 
its capital. But instead of legends, there are perma- 
nent memorials of the past ; great earthworks, fortifi- 
cations, camps, strongholds, buildings, churches, ruins 
of monasteries and abbeys. The soil has yielded up 
relics of the dead — weapons, utensils, coins, ornaments, 
and sepulchral ums, showing the presence of the Iceni, 
the Romans, the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Danes, and 
Normans, at different periods. All these energetic 
nations were concerned in events that took place in 
Norfolk and Norwich. 

The Iceni appear to have been politically indepen- 
dent up to the period of the Roman invasion, B.C. 55. 
Their alarm in consequence of that invasion led them 
to negociate an alliance, but we have no reason to 
suppose that it was ever carried into effect. They 
took the lead in a rebellion which the Roman General 
Ostorius was barely able to quell ; and Roman 
historians bear testimony to the valour with which 
they struggled to maintain their liberty. The superior 
discipline of the Roman soldiers enabled them, how- 
ever, to triumph over a semi- barbarous people, unpro- 
tected by body armour and unused to military tactics ; 
but it was no easy victory. For about 600 years after 
the defeat of the Iceni, no reliable information re- 
specting that people is to be found in any history. 

148 History of Nonvicli. 

Indeed they dis«ippear from history altogether, and we 
can only infer what advances they made in civilization 
from the scattered remains that have been found in 
the eastern counties. These remains prove that the 
Iceni were not semi-savages, but that they had made 
some progress in useful arts, that they built houses, 
and wore woven garments. 

There are no remains in the eastern counties of 
cairns, cromlechs, Druidical circles, or other memorials 
of ancient perseverance and mechanical skill, nature 
having interposed an absolute veto. But there are 
remains of earth works and tumuli, burrows or arti- 
ficial mounds in which were deposited the urns or 
ashes of the dead. There are thousands of pits in 
many places, and these are supposed to have been the 
foundations of Icenian houses. Remarkable excava- 
tions are thickly clustered all over Weybourne Heath, 
var>'ing from 8 to 20 feet in diameter, and from 2 to 
6 feet in depth. 

The Norwich Museum contains some remains of 
articles made by the Iceni, amongst which may be 
mentioned sepulchral urns, varying from the most 
primitive simplicity, up to forms and patterns worthy 
of any age. The chevron ornament, which is by far 
the most usual style of decoration, has been traced 
not merely in India, Egypt, Etruria, and Nineveh, as 
well as in Saxon and Norman work, but even among 
the works of ancient American settlers in Yucatan 1 
The Museum also contains specimens of Icenic Celts 
or javelin heads, made of flints, which appear to have 
been originally fitted on a wooden shaft or handle, with a 

Tlie Aborigines. 149 

provision for drawing it back after the infliction of the 
wound, by means of a cord passing through the ring, as 
in the metal specimens. It is probable that these flint 
specimens were in use long anterior to the Roman 

About 1844 or 1845, some discoveries were made in 
Norfolk of gold torques and coins of the Iceni. In 
March 1855, at Weston in Norfolk, 300 coins of the 
Iceni were found. The most ordinary type is the 
rude representation of a horse on each side ; others 
have two crescents placed baclf to back ; and on some (in 
about the proportion of one in twenty,) is a rude pro- 
file of a human head, while in a few instances there is 
a figure of a wild boar. Beneath the horse in some 
cases are the letters E C E or E C N, (supposed to be 
a contraction of Iceni,) also C E A, T, A T D, 
A T E D, or A N T D, which antiquarians are as yet 
unable to explain. Probably all the coins, like a 
single coin which has been found of Boadicea, the un- 
fortunate Queen of the Iceni, were subsequent to the 
Roman invasion, for Ctesar expressly tells us that 
the Britons in his time used metal rings instead of 
money, the value being determined by their weight ; 
and Camden, with great probability, supposes that 
most of the British coins must have been struck as a 
sort of poll tax or tribute money to the Romans. 

Generally speaking, the antiquities of the British 
period are articles of the most urgent necessity, and of 
the rudest possible form ; but a long interval of tran- 
quillity brought even luxuries in its train, and it is a 
very remarkable fact that even the lapse of 1800 years 

ISO History of Norwich. 

has scarcely eflected any change in some articles of 
general utility. The discoveries made at Herculaneum 
and Pompeii have led to a revival of the classical 
forms, both in porcelain and in plate, the greatest prac- 
tical compliment that could be paid to the taste of the 
Koman artists. 

Among the objects which have been found at 
different places may be mentioned sepulchral vases, 
varying, of course, in style and taste, but in some 
instances most beautifully formed ; funeral lamps, 
lacrymatories, (or phials supposed to have contained 
the tears of the sorrowing relations,) fibults (or 
brooches), gold rings, gold seals, steelyards, weights, 
tweezers, a curiously formed brass lamp for three 
lights, a patera of Samian ware, and coins of the 
Roman emperors. All these may be seen in the 
Norwich Museum. 

There is no evidence of the existence of Norwich 
as a city for 400 years after the Christian era. The 
whole island was a howling wilderness, and Norfolk 
was a vast common, like Roudham Heath. The 
natives lived by hunting or fishing, and sheltered 
themselves in the woods, or in caves, or huts. Water 
covered nearly all the area in which the city is now 
built, and filled all the valley of the Yare. The 
aborigines, called the Iceni, probably lived in huts 
near the banks of the river, as it afforded a good 
supply of fish ; but there is no proof that they lived 
in any place that could be called a town or even a 
village. There is in fact, no reliable account what- 
ever of the natives, how they lived, or where they 

The Aborigines. 


lived in this district ; for they have not even left any 
names of places, and very few traces of any progress 
in the useful arts, and certainly none of any buildings. 
On Mousehold Heath, near the city, and at various 
places in the county, there are hollows supposed to 
have been made by the Iceni as the foundation of 
huts, or of houses of wicker work, or some other 
perishable material, with a conical thatching at the 
top. Externally they must have looked like very low 
bastions, having doorways, but apparently neither 
chimneys nor windows. 


J^ottffiicti in the %mm f eriod. 

HHEN Julius Cxsar invaded the island, B.C. 55, 
1 he found seventeen tribes of the ancient 
' Britons or Celts, and the Iceni, inhabiting this 
eastern district. They belonged to a very old family 
of mankind, of whose beginning there is no record, and 
their end is still more remote in the future. They first 
planted this island and gave to the seas, rivers, lakes, 
and mountains names which are poems, imitating the 
pure voices of nature. Julius Caesar only made an 
inroad into the country through a part of Kent, and 
gained no permanent hold of the island. The Rev. 
Scott F. Surtees, in a recent work, maintains (and some 
persons think successfully) that Julius Caesar effected 
his first landing on the coast of Norfolk. 

The Romans, under Claudius, landed on the eastern 
coast; and established his power in this part of the 
country. He built strongholds at Gorleston and 
camps at Caister, near the present site of Yarmouth, 
and on the opposite shore at Burgh Castle, where 
extensive ruins yet remain. Advancing up the arm 

T)u Venta Icenorum, 153 

of the sea, the Romans built a camp at Reedham ; 
and sailing yet higher up they built camps on the 
southern side of Norwich, at Caistor and Tasburgh. 
Historians for a long time believed that Caistor was 
the Venta Icenorum of the Romans, and preserved a 
very ancient tradition, that Norwich was built of 
Caistor stone out of the ruins of the Roman camp. 


The late Hudson Gurney, Esq., collected ample 
materials for a full history of Norwich, but the only 
result of his researches seems to have been a letter to 
the late Dawson Turner, Esq., on the question of the 
Vetita Icenorum mentioned by the Roman writers, 
whether it was Elmham, as Blomefield supposed, or 
Caistor, as later historians believed, or Norwich, as 
most antiquarians now think. The question is of 
some importance as regards the antiquity of the city ; 
for supposing it to have been the Venta Icenorum of 
the Romans, with all the Roman roads radiating from 
it, the Venta must have been a large place. Main 
roads were of course made for traffic and for means of 
communication, which imply the existence of many 
people living in settled habitations. 

Main roads prove a certain advance in civilization ; 
but the question is, whether the Romans really made 
all the roads attributed to them, in Norfolk and 
Suffolk, during the four hundred years of their occu- 
pation. Main roads might have radiated from Caistor 

r w watmrnifm^ltiii 


1 54 History of Norwich, 

originally, and afterwards might have been diverted 
to Norwich. 

Mr. Hudson Gumey adduced some proofs that 
Norwich and not Caistor was the Venta Icenorum. 
He says — 

" The first question to examine, on the view of Norwich, 
Norwich Castle, and the Roman Camp at Caistor, may be, 
whether Norwich or Caistor be the * Venta Icenorum * of the 
Romans \ Norwich standing on the Wensum, and Caistor on 
the Taes, on the opposite side of what was the great 

"To begin, then, with Camden. In his accounts of 
Norwich and of Caistor he falls into the most extraordinary 
errors, confounding the courses of the three rivers, the 
Wensum, the Taes, and the Yare. He places Norwich 
upon the Yare instead of the Wensum, and gives the Wen- 
sum the course of the Taes as ' flowing from the south ;* 
and still more strangely, as a king-at-arms, he attributes the 
erection of the present Castle of Norwich to Hugh Bygod, 
' from the lions salient carved in stone on it, which were the 
old arms of the Bygods on their seals, though one of them 
bore a cross for his seal' " 

Mr. Hudson Gumey remarks on this error — 

" Now the lions were two lions passant r^ardant, very 
nidely carved, one on each side of the arch of the great 
entrance, and the Bygods, whose original arms were or, a 
cross gules, never bore the lion till assumed by Roger Bygod 
in the reign of Henry III., who took the arms of his mother, 
the heiress of William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, in whose 
light he became Earl Marshal of England." 

The Venta Icenorum, 155 

Thus Camden is disposed of, and other authorities 
are quoted in the letter in favour of Norwich being 
the Venta Icenorum. 

"Horsley, in his Britannia Romania states that Venta 
was the capital of the Iceni^ situated on the Wentfar, and 
thence deriving its name; and misled by and quoting 
Camden, he places Venta at Caistor." 

" King, who, bom in Norwich, might have been supposed 
to have been better informed, in his Munimmta Antigua 
follows Camden, and turns the Taes into the Wensum ; and 
in his paper in the fourth volimie of the Archaoiogia^ he 
pronounces the existing Castle of Norwich to be * the very 
tower which was erected about the time of King Canute.* *' 

Mr. Hudson Gumey, after setting aside Wilkins as 
an authority, proceeds — 

"In 1834, I went over the Camp at Caistor and the 
country adjacent, with Colonel Leake, who may be con- 
sidered the greatest living authority for the sites of ancient 
cities and fortified camps, and he at once said that he was 
convinced that Norwich was the Venta Icmorum, and 
capital of the Iceni, and Caistor the fortified camp planted 
by the Romans over against it, on the other side of the 
estuary, to bridle, as was their custom, a hostile population." 

After quoting a letter to the same eflfect, Mr. Hudson 
Gurney continues — 

"In the Roman Itineraries you have three Ventas; 
Venta Bulgarum, Winchester; Venta Silunmi, Caer Went, 
in Monmouthshire; and Venta Icenorum; and of these 

156 History of Norwich, 

Ventas, the confusion between Winchester and the Venta 
Icenorum seems to have been begun very early, both with 
the chroniclers and romancers, probably from the one having 
retained the rudiments of the name, and the other becoming 
known as Northwic." 

"Sir Francis Palgrave, in the researches which he has made 
for his forthcoming history of ' England under the Normans,' 
being led to the examination of all contemporary authors, in 
order to clear up points which he found otherwise inexpli- 
cable, has referred me to the two following passages, 
which would seem to prove that Norwich was the Venta 
Icenorum almost beyond dispute." 

Here follow Latin quotations from the life of 
William the Conqueror by William of Poictiers and 
from Ordericus Vitalis under the year 1067. 

William of Poictiers says : — 

" Gwenta urbs est nobilis atque valens, cives ac finitimos 
habet divites, infidos, et audaces ; Danos in auxilium ceteris 
recipere potest : a man quod Anglos a Danis separat millia 
passuum quatuor-decim distaL Hujus quoque urbis intra 
mcenia, munitionem construxit, ibidem Gulietmum reliquit 
Osbemi hlium praecipuum in exercito suo, et in vice sua 
interim toti regno Aquilonem versus prxesset" 

And Ordericus Vitalis states: — 

" Intra maenia Gwentje, opibus et munimine nobilis urbis, 
et mari conliguae, validem arcem construxit, ibique Guliet- 
mum Osbemi hlium in exercitu suo prsecipuum reliquit, 
eumque vice sua toti Regno versus Aquilonem pneesse 

The Venta Icenorutn. 157 

And Mr. Gurney proceeds : — 

"Taking, then, Norwich for the Venta Icenorum of the 
Romans — called Caer Guntum by the British, and Northwic 
by the Saxons and Danes — you find the Capital of the 
Iceni, founded on the shoulder of the promontory over- 
looking the Wensum, towards the great estuary, which 
formed a natural stronghold for successive races of inhabi- 
tants. Whilst the Romans, fixing their permanent camp at 
Caistor, on the Taes, where that river joined the estuary, 
into which the Wensum, the Taes, and the Yare, all dis- 
charged themselves, would command the passage into the 
interior of the country; and taking Caistor for the *Ad 
Taum,' you will find the distances sufficiently to agree with 
the Roman Itineraries." 

" The Camp at Caistor contains an area of about thirty- 
five acres, and the Roman station at Taesborough, on 
another promontory higher up upon the stream, has an area 
of about twenty-four acres." 

Another strong point in favour of Norwich having 
been the Venta Icenorum is, that all the roads 
radiated from the city to all parts of East Anglia. 

In tracing the rise and progress of the city we 
must remember that it was in the centre of a vast 
common, and that it was the nucleus of an agricul- 
tural community, at first without any trade or any 
kind of manufactures. It was merely a collection of 
huts or a fishing station, near the banks of a river or 
arm of the sea. The social state of the place should 
be considered with reference to the progress of agri- 
culture at different periods in the surrounding district 
Norwich was for ages only a small market town, with 
a very small number of inhabitants. 


Jpomich in the ^njU-^aum period. 

|HE destruction of all documents relating to East 
, Anglia, during the irruptions of the Danes, has 
' rendered this period the most obscure of any 
period of our history. The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes 
having subjugated the fair territory of England, they 
divided it into seven kingdoms, called the Heptarchy, 
in which Norfolk formed a part of East Anglia. The 
Anglc-Saxon leader, Uffa, established himself in this 
part of the island, in 575 ; and assumed dominion 
over that portion of the eastern district now divided 
into Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire, giving it 
the name of East Anglia, of which Norwich was made 
the metropolis. Norwich was, therefore, a royal city, 
and the residence of the kings. Uffa, the first king, is 
supposed to have formed here a strong entrenchment 
of earth on the site of the present castle, encircled by 
broad ramparts and a ditch, as under the present 
Saxon arch. Uffa, who died A.D. 578, was succeeded 
by his son Titul ; on whose demise, in 599, his son 
Redwald assumed the reins of government and em- 
braced Christianity, but by the influence of his wife 

Norwich in tfte Anglo-Saxon Period. 1 59 

renounced it again. He was succeeded, A.D. 624, by 
his son Erpenwald, who was killed by a relation 
named Richbert, A.D. 633. His half brother Sigebert, 
who succeeded to the crown, established the bishopric 
of Dunwich, in Suffolk, and formed the first seminary 
for religious instruction, which led to the establishment 
of the university in Cambridge. Fatigued with the 
crown and its cares, he resigned it, A.D. 644, to his 
kinsman Egric, and retired into the famous monastery 
at Bury St. Edmund's. 

Norwich then became one of the chief seats of Anna, 
king of the East Angles, who gave the castle, with the 
lands belonging to it, to his daughter Ethelfrida on 
her marriage with Tombert, a prince of the Gyrvii or 
Fenmen, who inhabited the fens of Lincolnshire and 
the adjacent parts of Norfolk. At the same time 
Tombert granted to Ethelfrida, as a marriage settle- 
ment, the isle of Ely, which for greater security was 
to be held by castle guard service to the castle of 

From the time of Anna till the reign of Alfred the 
Great there are few events on record except the fre- 
quent incursions of the piratical Danes, who at last 
over-ran East Anglia, and had their head quarters at 
Thetford in 870. But the reign of the Great Alfred 
was distinguished by his decisive victories over those 
Northern marauders. One of his chief objects was to 
fortify the principal parts of his kingdom against 
hostile attacks. Finding the walls or ramparts of 
Norwich Castle too weak for repelling the attacks of 
the Danes, he caused others to be erected with the 

l6o History of Norwich. 

most durable materials. That it was a noted militaiy 
station, and a royal castle in his time, is evident from 
a coin struck here in the year 872, having round the 
)\es.AAEIfredRex, and on the reverse Nortkwic. After 
making peace with the Danes in 878, he assigned to 
them, for their residence, the whole of East Anglia, 
and their leader Guthrum fixed his seat at Norwich; 
but, breaking his faith, the city and county were 
wrested from him, and reverted again to the Angles 
under six successive sovereigns. 

Edward the Elder succeeded his father, the illustri- 
ous Alfred, in the year 901, and kept the Danes at 
bay. Ericke, one of their chiefs, held East Anglia 
under the king, till he rebelled in 913, when he was 
overthrown and slain. Athclstan, who succeeded 
Edward, totally expelled the Danes, and reduced the 
whole kingdom under his government. In his reign 
Norwich flourished, and it is probable that he was here 
in 925, for a coin still extant has on the obverse 
Etkalstan, and on the reverse " Barbe Moti Northwic" 
that is " Barbe, mint master of Nonvich," Among the 
other East Anglian coins struck here, the following 
may be mentioned ; one of Edmund, the successor of 
Athelstan, inscribed round the head Edmund Rex, and 
on the reverse Edgar Mon Northwic; several of 
Edred, coined about 946, and inscribed round the head 
Eadred Rex, and on the reverse Hanne Mo Northwic ; 
two of Edward the Martyr, having on the obverse 
Edward Rex. Angl. and on the reverse Leo/wine Mon 
Nor. ; and three of Ethelred the Unready, having on 
the obverse Edelred Rex. 

Norwich in the Anglo-Saxon Period. 


There is no account of the castle after the time of 
Anna til! the Danish wars ; and then it was often won 
and lost by the contending powers. 

Blomefield, in his History of Norfolk, vol. II. p. 4, 
notices the coins of several Anglo-Saxon princes, 
Alfred, Athelstan, Edmund I., Edred, Edward the 
Martyr, and Ethelred II. The circumstance of Alfred 
coining money here is remarkable, as at the date of 
this coinage, (872) the government of East Anglia 
could only have just come into his hands, upon the 
extinction of the East Anglian dynasty in the person 
of St. Edmund, and the country either was or had 
just been in the military possession of the Danes, 

During the reign of Athelstan the city appears to 
have been in a flourishing state. In the reign of 
Edward, 941, and his successor Edred, 945, it greatly 
increased in wealth and extent. The greater part of 
the city was then built on the north side of the river 
Wensum, with a small population. The city is cer- 
tainly of Anglo-Saxon origin, but as an Anglo-Saxon 
city it was destroyed by the Danes, and no vestiges 
remain of its Anglo-Saxon buildings, excepting, per- 
haps, one or two round towers of churches. 



HE Danes became settled in the city, and forti- 
fied themselves against all enemies, about loi i ; 
and the next year, Turkil or Turketel, a Danish 
earl, took possession of all Norfolk, having expelled 
the English Earl Ulfketel, and held it under Sweyn 
till his death, which happened in 1014. Then the 
Danish army chose Canute his son for their king : but 
upon Sweyn's death the English took courage and 
sent for Ethelred out of Normandy, who returned and 
drove Canute out of the country. Turkel, however, 
continued governor of the East Angles, and he per- 
suaded Canute to return ; and he became king of 
England in 1017. That monarch assigned all Norfolk 
to Earl Turkel ; and according to the old author of 
an Essay on the Antiquity of the Castle : — 

"Committed to him the custody of Norwich, which his 
father Sweyn burnt and destroyed; and to keep the East 
Angles secure to him, he (Canute) was most like to be the 
builder of the present stone Castle of Norwich. For when 
by compact with the English nobles, the law called EngUshire 
was made by universal consent, for the safety of the Danes 

Norwich under the Danes. 163 

that were by agreement to remain in England, Canute sent 
home to Denmark his mercenary army of Danes, but in 
great caution built several strong forts and castles, garrisoning 
them with such Danes as had been settled in England before 
his time, intermixed with such English as he had confidence 

The author of this ingenious Essay produces sufficient 
ar^ments to show that there was a building in the 
fortifications in the reign of Canute, and that there 
had been one since the time of King Alfred, and that 
Canute might have repaired or even rebuilt it Indeed, 
there must have been a castle before the Conquest, as 
in Domesday Book a number of tenements are stated 
to have belonged to the castle. The present building 
was probably reared after the Conquest, it being so 
like Rising Castle and others. Roger Bigot very 
likely built it, and Thomas Brotherton repaired it in 
the reign of Edward I., as proved by his arms still in 
the stone work. Certain it is, from the time of Sweyn's 
settling in the city in lOio, and the Danes swarming 
hither in large numbers, it rose almost at once to great 
importance, as appears from the Survey in the reign of 
Edward the Confessor. This is highly probable if 
we believe the best authority on the subject, namely 
the Saxon Chronicle, which states that the city rose 
from desolation, in 50 years, to be a place of great 
magnitude, far exceeding its former size. The Danes 
came hither in such numbers that they became the 
parent stock of the people of Norwich and Norfolk ; 
and this is proved by the names of many places in 


History of NorwUh. 

Edward the Confessor began his reign in 1041, and 
the Earldom of Norfolk was given to Harold, son of 
Earl Godwin, who was afterwards king of England, 
and on his rebellion was seized by the king and given 
to Algar, son of Leofric, Earl of Chester, who resigned 
it again to Harold at his return; and in 1052, on the 
death of Earl Godwin, Harold, in recompense for his 
generosity, gave Algar his earldom again ; but he 
being banished in 1055, it came to the king, who 
pardoned him at Harold's request, so that he enjoyed 
it till his death, when it came again to the king. 


Slopiqh in th^ Itopan ^^rjol 

HE Norman Conquest of England caused many 
changes in Norfolk and Norwich. One of the 
immediate results of the invasion, in 1066, was a 
vast influx of foreigners into the county and city ; and 
the pressure of the Norman yoke was felt as much in 
Norwich as in any part of the kingdom. It was about 
the same period that Jews began to settle here for the 
first time, enriched by the extortions incident to a 
conquest, and, as Fuller says, " buying such oppressed 
Englishmen's goods as Christians did not care to 
meddle with." 

William the Conqueror caused a survey to be made 
of all the lands in the country, the register of which 
is called the DOMESDAY Book, and was finished in 
108 1. It is written in Roman with a mixture of 
Saxon, and is still preserved in the chapter-house at 
Westminster, amongst the national archives. It was 
printed in the 40th of George III. for the use of the 
members of both houses of parliament, and the public 
libraries of the kingdom. It specifies the extent of 
the land in each district ; the state it was in, whether 

1 66 History of Norwick 

meadow, pasture, wood, or arable ; the name of the 
proprietor; the value, &c Domesday Book, p. 13, 
states : — 

"In Norwic, in the time of King Edward, were 1320 
burgesses, of whom one was so much the king's vassal, that 
he might not depart or do homage (to any other) without his 
licence. His name was Edstan; he possessed 18 acres of 
land and 1 2 of meadow, and two churches in the burgh and 
a sixth part of a third, and to one of these churches there 
belonged one mansion in the burgh and six acres of meadow: 
these six acres Roger Bigod holds by the king's gift. And 
of 1238 (of the said burgesses) the king and the earl had 
soc, sac, and custom ; and of 50 Stigand had the soc, sac, 
and patronage; and of 32 Harold had the soc, sac, and 
patronage," &c., &c. 

Soc, sac, and custom was the entire jurisdiction, 
for soc is the power that any man had to hold courts, 
wherein all that dwell on his land, or in his jurisdiction 
are answerable to do suit and service ; sac is the right 
of having all the amerciaments and forfeitures of such 
suitors ; and custom includes all other profits. At this 
time, also, there were no fewer than 136 burgesses who 
were Frenchmen, and only six who were English in 
the new burgh, which comprised the parishes of St 
Giles* and St Peter's Mancroft The Dutch and the 
Flemings, about this time, came over the sea and 
located themselves in the city and county, and intro- 
duced the worsted and other manufactures. 

William I. gave the Earldom of the city of Norwich 
to Ralph de Guader, who designed to wed the 
daughter of one William Fitz-Osbern, sister of 

Norwich in the Norman Period, 167 

Roger Earl of Hereford, and a relative of the king. 
This matrimonial scheme not pleasing the king, it was 
prohibited, but barons in those days would sometimes 
have a will of their own, and the fair affianced was 
made a bride within the castle walls, whose doorway 
in an angle marks the site of the act of disobedience 
to the sovereign. After the sumptuous feast, with 
its attendant libations, a rebellion was planned by 
Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon, and 
Northampton, and Roger, Earl of Hereford. Having 
carried the forbidden marriage into effect, they be- 
came bold in their language and designs, until a 
chorus of excited voices joined them in oaths as con- 
spirators against their lord the king. Treachery re- 
vealed the plot, and the church lent its aid to the 
crown to crush the rebels. Lanfranc, then the primate 
and archbishop, sent out troops, headed by bishops 
and justiciaries, the highest dignitaries of church and 
law, to oppose and besiege them. The bridegroom 
fled for succour to his native Brittany, leaving his 
bride for three months to defend the garrison with her 
retainers, at the end of which time the brave Emma 
was forced to capitulate, but upon mild terms, obtain- 
ing leave for herself and her followers to flee to 
Brittany. Her husband became an outlaw, her brother 
was slain, and scarcely one guest present at that ill- 
fated marriage feast escaped an untimely end. 

Nor did the city go unscathed. The devastation 
carried into its midst was heavy ; many houses were 
burnt, many were deserted by those who had joined 
the earl, and it is curious to read in the valuation of 

l68 History of Norwich. 

land and property, taken soon after this event, how 
many houses are recorded as void, both in the burgh 
or that part of the city under the jurisdiction of the 
king and earl, and in other portions, subject to other 
lords ; for it would seem that the landlords of the 
soil on which the city stood were the king or earl 
of the castle, the bishop, and the Harold family. 
Clusters of huts were then built round the base of 
the hill, and constituted the feudal village; its in- 
habitants consisting of villains, of which there were 
two classes, the husbandmen or peasants annexed to 
the manor or land, and a lower rank described as 
villains in gross, or absolute slaves, transferable by 
deed from one owner to another, the lives of these 
slaves being a continual state of toil, degradation and 

After the banishment of Earl Ralph, the king, 
having obtained possession of the castle, appointed 
Rt^er Bigod constable, with a limited power as 
bailiff, he having to collect the rents and revenues 
belonging to the crown. He retained these honours 
during the reign of the succeeding monarch, William 
Rufus, though he joined in the fruitless attempt to 
place that king's elder brother, Robert Curthose, on 
the throne. These troubles were not ended till 1091, 
when the king made peace with his brother Robert, 
f^reeing that the lands of those who had assisted him 
should be restored to them. 


^ordch lit i\\t iJujelfth (!i^iitni[!T. 

BOUT the commencement of this century, a 
considerable addition was made to the popula- 
tion of the city by a vast influx of Jews, who 
originally came from Normandy, and were allowed to 
settle in England as chapmen for the sale of con- 
fiscated goods. They afterwards became numerous, 
and were so much in favour with William Rufus that 
he is said to have sworn, by St Luke's face, his usual 
oath, that " If the Jews should overcome the Christians, 
he himself would become of their sect" In his reign 
the present castle is supposed to have been built 

Henry I., on his accession to the crown, met with 
great opposition from many of the nobles who were in 
the interest of his elder brother, Robert, Duke of 
Normandy ; but Roger Bigod strongly espousing his 
cause, became a great favourite. In the first part of 
his reign, the king gave him Framlingham in Suffolk, 
and continued him Constable of the Castle till his 
death. He was succeeded by his son William Bigod, 
on whose decease Hugh Bigod, his brother, who 
inherited his estate, was appointed Governor of the 
Castle. In 1122, the king kept his Christmas in 

170 History of Norwich. 

Norwich, when, being pleased with the reception he 
met with, he severed the government of the city from 
that of the castle, the constable of which had been 
heretofore the sole governor. Henry I. granted the 
city a charter containing the same franchises as the 
city of London then enjoyed, and the government of 
the city was then separated from that of the castle, 
the chief officer being styled Propositus or Provost 
The liberties of the city from the time of Henry I. to 
Edward HI., were often suspended and gradually 
enlarged. In 1403 the city was separated entirely 
from the county of Norfolk, under the nam« of the 
county and city of Norwich ; and the first Mayor was 
then elected by the citizens. The old corporation 
generally comprised a dignified body of men, who 
mantained the hospitalities of the city. Under the 
ancient charter the corporation of Norwich consisted 
of a mayor, recorder, steward, two sheriffs, twenty- 
four aldermen, including the mayor, and sixty common 
councilmen. • The Municipal Reform Act transferred 
its government into the hands of a mayor, a sheriff, 
and a town council consisting of forty-eight councillors, 
and sixteen aldermen elected by the council, who 
unitedly elect the mayor and sheriff. To these, and to 
a recorder, with an indefinite number of magistrates 
appointed by the crown, the government of the city 
is entrusted. 

King Stephen, on his accession, granted the custody 
of the castle to his favourite, Hugh Bigod, who was a 
principal instrument in advancing him to the crown, 
by coming directly from Normandy where Henry I. 

Norwich in tJie Twelfth Century, 171 

died, and averring that he on his deathbed had dis- 
inherited his daughter Maud, the empress, and ap- 
pointed Stephen, Earl of Bolyne, his heir. The 
citizens, therefore, taking this opportunity, used what 
interest they could with the king to obtain a new 
charter, vesting the government of the city in coroners 
and bailiffs instead of provosts ; but the affair took a 
different turn to what they expected, for the king, 
upon a distrust of Bigod favouring the cause of the 
Empress Maud, seized the castle and all the liberties 
of the city into his own hands, and soon afterwards 
granted to his natural son William, for an appanage 
or increase of inheritance, the town and burgh of the 
city of Norwich, in which were 1238 burgesses who 
held of the king in burgage tenure ; and also the 
castle and burgh thereof, in which were 123 burgesses 
that held of the king in burgage, and also the royal 
revenue of the whole county of Norfolk, excepting 
what belonged to the bishopric, &c The whole rent 
of the city, including the fee farm, was then about 
£jQO per annum. The king restored the city liberties 
for a fine in 11 39. 

During the reign of King Stephen more Flemings 
came over ; and these successive immigrations were a 
real blessing to the land. England had not been a 
manufacturing country at all till the arrival of the 
Flemings, who introduced the preparation and weaving 
of wool, so that, in process of time, not only the home 
market was abundantly supplied with woollen cloth, 
but a large surplus was made for exportation. The 
Flemings were kinsmen of the Anglo-Saxon race, and 

172 History of Norwich. 

were distinguished for that probity in their commercial 
dealings which afterwards became the characteristic of 
the English merchants at lar^e. 

Henry II., in the first year of his reign, 1155, took 
the city, castle, and liberties from William, the natural 
son of Stephen ; but, as a recompense, restored to him 
all those lands which his father held in the reign of 
Henry I. He also prevailed upon Hugh Bigod to 
yield up all his castles, whereby the whole right 
became vested in the crown ; the king governing the 
city by the sheriff, who paid the profits arising there- 
from into the exchequer. About the year 1163 Hugh 
Bigod was restored to the title of the Earl of Norfolk, 
and at the same time appointed Constable of Norwich 
Castle, by which means he became sole governor of 
the city. In 11 82, the citizens recovered the liberties 
of the city on paying a fine of 80 marks to the king. 

Richard I. was crowned September 4th, 1 189, and a 
riot happened on account of a Jew attempting to enter 
Westminster Hall contrary to the king's express com- 
mand. Many of the Jews were killed, and their houses 
plundered and burnt. A rumour was thereupon 
spread throughout the nation that the king did not 
favour them, on which the people of Bury, Lynn, and 
Norwich, took occasion to rise and rob great numbers 
of them. On November 27th following, Roger, son 
of Hugh Bigod, was created Earl of Norfolk, and 
steward of the king's household. By his means the 
city regained as ample a charter as London then 
possessed, for in 1193, the king granted the city in fee 
farm to the citizens and their heirs, for a fee farm rent 
of ;f 1 80 yearly. 


ING JOHN ascended the throne in 1193, and in 
a few years afterwards the barons rebelled 
against him. In 1 2 15, Roger Bigod, Earl of 
Norfolk, joined the insurgent barons. The king seized 
the castle, expelled the carl, and appointed the Earl 
of Pembroke and John Fitz-Herbert Constables of the 
Castle. Lewis, the Dauphin of France, having ob- 
tained a grant of the kingdom from the pope, brought 
over a large force, ravaged the counties of Norfolk 
and Suffolk, took the castle, and reduced the city. 
He made William de Bellomonte his marshal and 
constable, and placed him with a garrison within the 
castle walls. 

King John granted two charters to the citizens, 
bestowing certain privileges ; and he came to the city 
in 1256, as is evident from the Charter of Liberties 
granted to the port of Yarmouth, it being dated 
March 25, 1256, by the king at Norwich. On the 
same day he likewise granted his third Charter to the 
city, bestowing certain commercial privileges. In 1265 
Simon Montfort and his adherents seized all the 
king's castles and committed the custody of them to 

174 History of Norwich. 

their own friends, and having also gotten the king's 
person into their power, they obliged him to send 
letters to the sheriffs of counties, including Norfolk, 
commanding them to oppose all attempts in favour of 
the king. But the king having routed the barons at 
Eversham, removed all the constables which the 
confederates had appointed, and amongst the rest 
Roger Bigod ; in whose stead, John de Vallibus, or 
Vaux, was made Constable of this Castle, and Sheriff 
of Norfolk and Suffolk, and soon afterwards, in con- 
sequence of great disturbances in the city, he was 
ordered to enter it, and did so, notwithstanding its 
liberties. In December, 1266, the displaced barons, 
headed by Sir John de Evile, entered the city and 
killed many persons, imprisoned more, plundered the 
town, and carried away the wealthiest of the in- 

According to Blomefield, about this time, on a Good 
Friday, the Jews were accused of having crucified a 
boy, twelve years of age, named William ; and the 
date of his alleged death, March 34th, was marked as 
a holiday. No evidence is adduced that the crime 
was committed, and no motive is assigned for it. The 
date of the year is not given, and the boy's name 
besides William is not stated. The Jews denied the 
charge, but it was generally believed, and they were 
terribly persecuted. The people then seized upon 
every pretence for robbing and plundering the poor 
Jews. It is said that the crime was discovered by 
Erlward, a burgess, as they were going to bury the 
body in Thorpe Wood. On this the Jews applied to 

Norwich in the Thirteenth Century, 175 

the sheriff, and promised him 1 00 marks if he would 
free them from this charge. The sheriff sending for 
Erlward obliged him to swear that so long as he lived 
he would never accuse the Jews nor discover the fact 
About five years afterwards, Erlward, on his deathbed, 
made known the whole affair, and the body, it is said, 
having been found in the wood, was taken and buried 
in the churchyard of the monks. They alleged that 
many miracles were there wrought by it which 
occasioned its being removed into the church and 
enshrined in the year 1 1 50. 

Edward I. succeeded to the throne in 1272, and in 
the next year the king appointed Roger Bigod, Earl 
of Norfolk, to be Constable of the Castle. The inter- 
dict, which was removed on Christmas eve, was re- 
newed on the day after Epiphany, but was taken off 
till Easter, when it was renewed the third time. In 
1274, the affair between the monks and citizens con- 
tinuing unsettled, it was referred to the pope, who left 
it to the decision of the king, who adjudged the 
citizens to pay 500 marks yearly for six years, and to 
give the church a cup of the value of £\QO, and 
weighing 10 lbs. in gold. The monks were to repair 
their gates and to have access to all parts of the city, 
and some of the chief citizens were to go to Rome to 
beg the pope's pardon. These conditions being 
agreed to, the king restored to the city all its ancient 
privileges on payment of a fine of 40s. yearly, besides 
the old fee farm. The interdict was also removed on 
November ist, 1275. The king kept his Easter in the 
city in 1277, and he granted a new charter in 1285- 

176 History of Norwich. 

In 1289 the liberties were seized, but were restored 
again at the end of the year. Soon afterwards the 
kii^, while on a pilgrimage to Walsingham, granted a 
new charter. In 1296, the city first sent representa- 
tives to parliament, originally four in number, who 
were paid for their services, but on account of the 
expense the number was reduced to two members. 



J9[ortFieh in th^ c^ourt^^nth (Tenfnr,!). 

In this century this city and other towns began to 
obtain political privileges. The kings of the 
middle ages found themselves obliged to sum- 
mon burgesses to parliament in order to obtain 
supplies. The early parliaments appear to have been 
convened chiefly for this purpose, and were constantly 
dissolved as soon as the business for which they met 
was transacted. Formerly the burgesses returned 
were always citizens, who really were representatives 
of the city and its interests, and not merely supporters 
of the ministry of the day. There is no record of the 
early local elections, but lists will be given of the 
burgesses returned. 

Edward II. began his reign on July 7th, 1307, and 
he reigned nineteen years. Walter de Norwich, son 
of Jeffry de Norwich, was so much in favour with the 
king as to be one of the Barons of the Exchequer in 
131 1, and in 1314 was summoned as a parliamentary 
baron, and afterwards made the Treasurer of the 
Exchequer, which office he held several years. He 
obtained liberty for free warren in all his demean 
lands, and a fair to the manor of Ling in Norfolk, on 

178 History of Norwich. 

July 20th, and two days following. He continued in 
favour till his death. 

In the reign of Edward III., A.D. 1328, the king, by 
a statute, made Norwich a staple town for the counties 
of Norfolk and Suffolk, by which the trade of the city 
was much increased. In the " Paston Letters" we find 
the following reference to articles of Norfolk manu- 
facture : 

" I pray that you will send me hither two ells of worsted 
for doublets, to happen me this cold winter, and that ye 
enquire where William Paston bought his tippet of fine 
worsted which is almost like silk, and if that be much finer 
that ye sh'd buy me, after seven or eight shillings, then buy 
me a quarter and the nail thereof for collars, though it be 
dearer than the other, for I would make my doublet all 
worsted for the honour of Norfolk." 

In 1340, Norwich Castle was made the public prison 
for the county of Norfolk, and the custody thereof 
was committed to the sheriff. A great tournament 
was held in Norwich, at which the king, with his queen 
Phillippa, was present ; and they kept their court at 
the bishop's palace. In 1342 the king and queen 
honoured the city with another visit 

In 1344 a new charter was granted, by which the 
liberty of the castle was reduced to the outward limits 
of the present ditch, and so continues. By this 
charter, the citizens became proprietor of the ancient 
fee of the castle, that is, the castle ditches, and the 
great croft, now the market place. 

In the reign of Richard II., a.d. 1381, Wat Tyler's 
rebellion broke out in London. Insurrection became 

Norwich in the Fourteenth Century. 179 

prevalent in many parts of the kingdom, manufactures 
declined, and discontent became general. Norwich 
and Norfolk shared in the general plunder at the 
hands of armed bands. Under John Lyster, Litister, 
or Linster, a dyer, 50,000 men attacked the city 
and committed great depredations. They were, 
however, pursued to North Walsham by the king's 
troops under the command of Henry Le Spencer, 
Bishop of Norwich, and defeated. Their leader and 
many of his adherents were taken and executed for 
high treason. They were hung, drawn, and quartered, 
according to the barbarous usage of the times. In 
1399, the bailiffs having put the city into a proper 
posture of defence, openly declared for Henry Duke 
of Lancaster, son and heir of John of Gaunt, the late 
deceased duke, their especial friend. On this declara- 
tion, Henry gave them strong assurances that, when- 
ever it was in his power, the charter which they so 
earnestly desired for electing a mayor, &c., should be 
granted them, and he was afterwards as good as his 
word. The great connection there was between John 
of Gaunt and this city, arose through William Norwich, 
a knight, who was a friend of the Duke's, and who 
frequently visited the town, for which he always ex- 
pressed great regard. In 1389, the great John of 
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, visited this city, and was 
honourably received. 

In the first year of Henry IV., Sir Thomas Erping- 
ham, knight, a Norfolk man. Warden of the Cinque 
Ports, and Lord Chamberlain, obtained the King's 
Charter, dated at Westminster, February 6th, 1399, 

1 80 History of Norwich. 

confirming all the former charters ever granted to the 
city. In 1409, through the interest of Sir Thomas, a 
grant was made to the city for a certain term of years 
of the alnage and survey of all manner of worsteds 
made in Norwich and Norfolk. 

St. George's Company took its rise in the second 
half of the fourteenth century, and consisted of a 
society of brethren and sisters associated in honour of 
the Martyr St Geoi^c, who by voluntary contributions 
supported a chaplain to celebrate service every day 
in the cathedral before the altar, for the welfare of the 
brethren and sisters of the Guild, whilst living, and of 
their souls when dead. In this state they continued 
till the fourth year of Henry V., when that prince 
granted them a charter dated at Reading, incorporating 
them by the name of the Aldermen, Masters, Brethren, 
and Sisters of the Fraternity and Guild of St George 
in Norwich ; and empowering them to choose yearly, 
one Alderman and two Masters, and to make all 
reasonable orders and constitutions for their own 
government ; to have a common seal ; to sue and be 
sued ; and to maintain a chaplain to pray daily for 
the health of the king, the alderman, masters, and 
sisters whilst alive, and their souls when dead ; and 
lastly to purchase ;f 10 per annum in mortmain. The 
prior, mayor, sheriffs, and aldermen of the Guild, had 
power to expel or remove any member for bad 
behaviour. In consequence of this charter, ordinances 
■were made for the well-governing of the society, and 
for yearly choosing one alderman, four masters, and 

Norwich in the Fourteenth Century, i8i 

twenty-four brethren, for the Assembly or Common 
Council. In 145 1, by the mediation of Judge Yelver- 
ton, the disputes between the Guild and the city were 
settled ; when it was agreed that the mayor for the 
time being should yearly, on the day after the Guild, 
be chosen Alderman of the Guild for the year follow- 
ing his mayoralty, that the Assembly of the Guild 
should consist of twenty persons, and that the common 
council of the city should be eligible for admission 
into the company, but be liable to the charge of the 
feast Indeed, the chief object of the Guild was feast- 
ing. Every brother took an oath on admission. The 
Aldermen and Common Council of the Guild had 
power to choose such men and women, inhabitants of 
the city, to be brethren and sisters of the Guild, as 
they might think fit But no man living out of the 
city could be chosen unless he was a knight, esquire, 
or gentleman of note. Many other orders were made 
in regard to their procession, which was always very 
grand. This Guild, with the other ancient crafts or 
companies of the city, made a very splendid appear- 
ance on all public occasions. The companies were 
then on the same footing as those of the city of 
London now are, and some of the trades long con- 
tinued as a fraternity, and chose wardens among 
themselves. From the Friday after May day, to the 
Friday before the Guild day, the members of St 
George's Company used to meet every evening at the 
Guildhall in the Market Place, where they refreshed 
themselves with as much sack and sugar rolls as they 
pleased, besides two penny cakes from the baker's. 

1 82 History of Norwich. 

Being thus assembed they sent for the last chosen 
feast-makers, and asked them whether they intended 
to bear the charges of the feast, " which " (said they) 
" will cost you more than you think." By this they 
so terrified timorous, wary people, that they were 
persuaded to buy it off, though, had they agreed to 
make the feast, it would not have cost them much 
more than £(> or £"], which sum they were glad to 
save. The Company continued till February 24th, 
173 1, when the committee appointed for the purpose 
reported to an assembly held that day, that they had 
treated with St. George's Company, who had agreed 
to deliver up their charters, books, and records, into 
the hands of the corporation, provided the latter would 
pay their debts, amounting to £216 155. id., which, 
being agreed to, they were accordingly delivered up 
and deposited with the city records in the Guildhall 
Thus terminated this ancient feasting company by the 
surrender of all their goods to the corporation. 


Hor^ttrirh in th^ (#i|[t^^»th (Tentiirm 

T the commencement of this century (in 1402) the 
grand affair of obtaining a new charter occupied 
the greater part of the time of the citizens, but 
as nothing could be done without the concurrence of 
Bishop Spencer, they at last found means to soften 
him, and to obtain his promise that he would not 
oppose them in this their favourite object. All ob- 
stacles being now removed, they offered to lend 
Henry 1000 marks, which so far obliged the king that 
he was willing to give them as full a charter as they 
could desire. This was accordingly done, and the 
new charter was granted on January 28th, 1403. By 
this charter the city obtained a full power of local 
self-go vern ment. 

Henry V. began his reign on March 20th, 141 2, in 
which year the city was in great disorder, occa- 
sioned by the disputes between the Mayor and 
the Commons, respecting the election of mayors, 
sheriffs, and other officers of the corporation, and the 
powers granted by the charter, concerning which they 
could not agree. These contentions exhausted the 

184 History of Norwich. 

city treasury, and at length they were settled by the 
mediation of Sir Robert Bemey, John Lancaster, 
William Paston, and others. The burgesses who 
served in Parliament in this reign were R. Brasier, 
R. Dunston, W. Scdman, J. Biskelce, H. Rufman, 
W. Eton, J. Alderfold, W. Appleyard, R. Baxter, and 
Henry Peking. 

In 1422 the doctrines of the Reformation were intro- 
duced into the city, and several persons were executed 
as Wickliffites or Lollards. A large chalk pit, in 
Thorpe Hamlet, on the outskirts of the city, is to this 
day called " Lollards' Pit" 

Henry VI., when only nine months old, was pro- 
claimed king on August 31st, 1422, and in his reign a 
general persecution of the Lollards broke out in this 
I diocese. The Lollards were men who earnestly 
I desired the reformation of the church, and they were 
followers of that great and good man John Wickliffe, 
but they were called Lollards as a name of infamy. 
They were so zealous for the truth that they chose 

1 rather to suffer grievous torments and death than 
forsake their faith. On this account about 120 persons 
were persecuted for their profession of the pure gospel 
of Christ. , 

On June 6th, 1448, the king paid a royal visit to 
the city, and among other preparations the gates were 
decorated, and the King's arms, and the arms of St 
George, were painted and raised on six of the gates. 
In 1449, his Majesty paid another visit, after a sojourn 
with the Earl of Suffolk at Costessey. The king 
entered Norwich by St Benedict's Gate, which was 

Norwich in the Fifteenth Century. 185 

especially ornamented for the occasion. These f)eace- 
able entries, with the picturesque pomp of a royal 
procession, always pleased the loyal citizens. 

In 1452, it being rumoured that Edward earl of 
March, son to the duke of York, was advancing to- 
wards London, the queen, much terrified thereat, 
tried to make as many friends as she could, and for 
that purpose came to this city, when, in full assembly, 
the Commons resolved to advance 100 marks as a loan 
to the king ; and the aldermen at the same time 
presented the queen with 60 marks, to which the 
Commons added 40 more, so that the king had now 
200 marks of the city. The citizens then obtained a 
new charter, dated March 17th, and consented to in 
full parliament. It contained a restitution of all 
liberties, a general pardon of all past offences, and a 
confirmation of all former charters. 

In 1460, during the contest between the houses of 
York and Lancaster, the mayor and aldermen raised 
forty armed men and the Commons eighty, and ap- 
pointed Wm. Rookwood, Esq., their captain, with 
whom they agreed for six weeks' pay, at six-pence a 
day for each soldier, and sent them to the assistance 
of the king, who wrote them a letter of thanks, with 
a request that they would maintain the soldiers for 
one month longer, which was readily complied with. 
In 1474, the king visited the city, and was presented 
with a sum of money by way of benevolence; but in 
the following year the city had to pay £^Q 6s. lid. 
for the forces employed in France. 

In July 1469, Elizabeth Woodville, the queen of 

1 86 History of Norwich, 

Edward IV., visited Norwich and remained here several 
days. Her majesty, with a great retinue, entered the 
city through "Westwyk Gate," which was decorated 
for the occasion. John Parnell was brought from 
Ipswich to exercise his skill in ornamentation ; and 
under his superintendence, a stage covered with red- 
and-green worsted was erected, adorned with figures 
of angels, escutcheons, and banners of the royal lady 
and the king, with a profusion of crowns, roses, fleur- 
de-lys, &c. Gilbert Spurling exhibited a fragment of 
the salutation of Mary and Elizabeth, which required 
from him a speech in explanation. 

In i486, being the 1st Henry VH., on the rebellion 
of Lambert Simnel, who assumed the name of Edward 
Plantagenet, the king, expecting an invasion of the 
eastern parts of his kingdom, made a progress through 
Norfolk and Suffolk to confirm the inhabitants in their 
loyalty, and spent his Christmas at Norwich, when the 
city made him a handsome present. Hence he went 
a pilgrimage to Walsingham, so famous for its pre- 
tended miracles, where he made his vows ; and after 
he returned victorious, he sent his banner to be offered 
there as an acknowledgment of his prayers having 
been heard. 

The monastic institutions of this city might claim 
the honour of having some learned men connected 
with them in the 15th century. Thomas Brinton, or 
Brampton, a monk of Norwich, attained to such an 
eminence in the schools of England that his fame was 
spread abroad, and he was sent for by the pope to 
Rome. He often preached before the pope in Latin, 

Norwich in the Fifteenth Century, 


and being first made his penitentiary was afterwards 
raised to the see of Rochester. His sermons preached 
before the pope were published, with some others. 
John Stow, who flourished in 1440, was a Benedictine 
monk of the monastery of St Saviour, in Norwich, 
and doctor of divinity of Oxford. It appears, by his 
works, that he was at the council of Basil. His works 
were Tlu Acts of the Council at Basil ; various Collec- 
tions ; and Solemn Disputations, &c. John Mear, a 
monk of Norwich, and D.D. of Oxford, was a person 
of subtle art for explaining difficulties. He was 
divinity reader at several monasteries, and the author 
of several works, which have all been lost 

S i^ X^ J ^ 'i* ^ ^ "k ^ "^ \^ '^ 'iJ^yi 


|^i>r,ttriiih in iht ^iifttentti Q^entuiij. 

j|T the commencement of this century most of the 
~ houses in the city were built of wood with 
thatched roofa This accounts for the number 
of fires which broke out at different times, and which, 
in 1507 and 1509, reduced a large portion of the city 
to ashes, no fewer than 718 houses being consumed in 
the latter year. These conflagrations induced the 
corporation, in 1 509, to issue an order that no newly- 
erected buildings in the city should be covered with 
thatch, but this injunction not extending to those 
previously erected, some few still retain this dangerous 

In 1501, John Rightwise, then mayor, began build- 
ing the cross in the Market Place, and finished it in 
1503. It was a commodious and handsome pile, but 
falling into decay, it was sold by the Tonnage Com- 
mittee in 1732 for;^i2S, and soon afterwards it was 
taken down. About 1506. St. Andrew's Church was 
built, near the site of the old church of St. Christopher. 

Henry Vlll. began his reign on April 22nd, 1509, 
when the city was in a state of great distraction, on 

Norwich in the Sixteenth Century. 189 

account of the terrible fires which caused much destruc- 
tion of property. In that year a great part of the 
cathedral, with its vestry, and all the ornaments and 
books were destroyed by a fire, which broke out on 
St. Thomas' night. In 1515, the Lady Mary, sister to 
the king, and her consort the Duke of Suffolk, visited 
the city on their return from France, and were nobly 
entertained. Henry VIII., while he continued a 
papist, burned the reformers; and when in a fit of 
anger he disowned the pope and assumed the English 
tiara, he was no less zealous against both Papist and 
Puritan, who would not bind their consciences to his 
royal decrees. During the prelacy of Richard Nykke 
or Nix, the bigotted bishop of Norwich, several 
church reformers were burnt here and at other 

In 15 17, Cardinal Wolsey visited the city to mediate 
between the citizens and the monks, but their disputes 
were not finally settled till 1524, when the jurisdiction 
of the convent was ascertained and separated from 
that of the corporation until 15 3^- when they were 
converted into a dean and chapter. 

On March 2nd, 1520, Queen Catherine and Cardinal 
Wolsey visited the city, and all the city companies 
went to meet the queen " in Puke and Dirke Tawney 
Liveries," and the city presented her with 100 marks. 

In 1522, in consequence of the many vexatious suits 
in the Sheriff's Court for words and trifling debts, it was 
t^reed that four aldermen be named, one out of each 
of the great wards, to sit in person, or by deputies, 
every Wednesday, from eight till nine in the morning, 

igo History of Norwich. 

to adjust all debts undn- two shillings, and all actions 
on words, for the ease and peace of the city. This 
institution was of great benefit, and in some measure 
answered the purpose of the old Court of Conscience, 

In 1524, on September 2nd, through the mediation 
of Cardinal Wolsey, a composition and final agreement 
was sealed between the prior and the city at the 
Guildhall, by which the city resigned all jurisdiction 
within the walls of the priory, the whole site thereof 
being hereby acknowledged to be part of the County 
of Norfolk and in the Hundred of Blofield ; and the 
church gave up all right of jurisdiction in every place 
without their walls and within the walls of the city ; 
so that now, Tonibland, with the fairs kept thereon, 
and all things belonging to those fairs — and Holm- 
strete, Spytelond, and Ratten Row, with their letes — 
were adjudged to belong to the city, and to be part of 
the county thereof. The prior and convent and their 
successors were also exempted from all tolls, customs, 
and exactions whatever, by land or water in the whole 
city, or county of the city and its liberties, for goods 
or chattels bought or sold for the use of the prior and 
convent, their households, or families. 

In 1525 the king granted the city another charter, 
confirmed likewise by parliament, in which the late 
composition and agreement between the city and prior 
was fully recited and established, and new privileges 
were granted. 

In 1530 the king was declared supreme head of the 
church of England ; and was acknowledged so by act 
of parliament in 1535. In the latter year an act was 

Bibtey's Martyrdom. 191 

passed for recontinuing liberties in the crown, by which 
all cities, boroughs, and towns corporate, had their 
liberties and privileges fully confirmed. 


A short account of the martyrdom of Thomas 
Bilney, in 1531, may serve to illustrate the persecuting 
spirit of the age. He had renounced the tenets of the 
Church of Rome, and was condemned on the following 
passages extracted from two sermons which he had 
preached in 1527, at Ipswich. 

"Our Saviour Christ is our Mediator between us and the 
Father ; what need have we therefore for any remedy from 
saints ? It is a great injury to the blood of Christ to make 
such petitions, and blasphemeth our Saviour." 

" Man is so imperfect by himself, that he can in no wise 
merit by his own deeds," 

" The coming of Christ was long prophesied before, and 
desired by the prophets ; but John Baptist, being more than 
a prophet, did not only prophesy, but with his finger shewed 
Him, saying, ' Beheld the Lamb of God, whUh taketh away 
the sins of the wond! Then, if this was the very Lamb 
which John did demonstrate, that taketh away the sins of 
the worid, what injury is it to our Saviour Christ, that to be 
buried in St. Francis' cowl should remit four parts of 
penance? What is then left to our Saviour Christ, which 
taketh away the sins of the world? This I will justify to be 
a great blasphemy to the blood of Christ" 

" It is great folly to go on pilgrimages ; and preachers in 
times past have been antichrists; and now it hath pleased 
God somewhat to shew forth their falsehoods and errors." 

192 History of Norwich. 

"The miracles done at Walsingham, Canterbury, and 
Ipswich, were done by the devil through the sufferance of 
God, to blind the poor people ; and the Pope hath not the 
keys that St. Peter had, except he followeth Peter in his 

" Christian people should set up no lights before images 
of saints, for saints in heaven need no lights, and images 
have no eyes to see ; and, therefore, as Ezechias destroyed 
the brazen seqjent that Moses made by the commandment 
of God, even so should the kings and princes of these times 
destroy and bum the images of saints set up in churches." 

It was further deposed against Bilney, that he was 
notoriously suspected to be a heretic, and that in his 
sermons he had exhorted the people to put away 
their gods of silver and gold, and to desist from 
offering to them either candle, wax, money, or any 
other thing ; and that in rehearsing the Htany he said, 
" pray you only to God and no saints ;" and when he 
came to that part, Sancta Maria, &c., or, O Saint Mary 
pray for us, he called out, " stop there." 

These and many other articles of the like nature 
being proved, he was exhorted to recant and abjure 
them ; and upon his refusing to do so, the Bishop of 
London, having pulled off his cap, and made the sign 
of the cross on his forehead and breast, pronounced 
the following sentence : — 

" I, by the counsel and consent of my brethren here 
present, do pronounce thee, Thomas Bilney, who has been 
accused of divers articles, to be convicted of heresy ; and for 
the rest of the sentence we will deUberate till to-morrow." 

Bilney's Martyrdom. 193 

The next day Bilney was again asked whether he 
would recant and return to the unity of the church ; 
when he desired a day or two for consideration and to 
consult his friends. In fear of a dreadful death at the 
expiration of the time, he subscribed his abjuration ; 
and being absolved, he had the following penance 
enjoined him ; to bear a faggot at the procession at 
St Paul's, bareheaded, and to stand before the preacher 
during the sermon there, and to remain in prison till he 
should be released by Cardinal Wolsey. When in 
prison, the reflection on what he had done drove 
Bilney almost to despair, and he suffered all the 
agonies of remorse for more than twelve months. 

At length he resolved to seal that truth which he 
had so shamefully abjured, with his blood. For this 
purpose he travelled to Nonvich, and on his way to 
the city he openly preached those doctrines for which 
he had been condemned ; and being apprehended, was 
confined in one of the cells under the Guildhall. Onf 
August 19th, he was taken to Lollards' pit, outside ofl 
Bishopsgate, and burnt there in the presence of a\ 
crowd of horrified spectators. 

This and many other instances may serve to show I 
the persecuting spirit of a church which had arrogated I 
to itself a dominion over the consciences of men, andl 
dared to propagate a religion of fear as the religion of* 
Christ. Afterthe Reformation, which had now begun, , 
the same persecuting spirit was manifested by the 
Church of England ; and many suffered here for their 
nonconformity to the Establishment, Several other 
martyrs were burnt in Norwich during the same reign, 

194 History of Norwich. 

Iand in 1539, one William Leyton, a monk of Eye, in 
Suffolk, was burnt here, for speaking against a certain 
idol which used to be carried about in procession at 
Eye ; and for asserting that the sacrament ought to t^e 
administered in both kinds. 

In the same year peace and amity were settled 
between the church and the city on a much more 
stable foundation than had been previously effected, 
by an arrangement as to jurisdictions of the authorities. 

In 1534 an act was passed for rebuilding those parts 
of the city which were laid waste by the late fires ; 
by which it was enacted that if the owners of such 
void grounds should, by the space of two years after 
proclamation made by the mayor for all persons to 
rebuild or enclose their grounds, neglect to rebuild on 
such ground, or sufficiently enclose the same with 
mortar and stone, then it should be lawful for the 
mayor, etc , to enter on such vacant grounds, and hold 
and retain them to their own use and their successors' 
use for ever, discharged of all rents and outgoings 
whatsoever, provided that, within two years after such 
entry n)ade, they either rebuild or enclose them as 


If, in giving an account of the state of society in 
the middle ages, we were to omit from our enumera- 
tion of causes the vast influence of the clergy of the 
church of Rome, we should present a very imperfect 
view of the subject. The priests dominated over the 

Dissolution of the Monasteries. 195 

minds of men for many centuries, and their influence 
either for good or evil pervaded all classes of society. 
This influence caused the erection of monasteries,/ 
nunneries, priories, and friaries, nineteen in number,! 
in Norwich before the 16th century. Monastic insti-l 
tutions were originally beneficial to society. In the 
dark age.s, they preserved learning to some extent, 
and were houses of refuge for the destitute. No 
doubt there were many good self-denying men and 
women amongst the monks and nuns, who did some 
service to the poor who then abounded in the land 
But in time the monasteries sunk for the most part 
into dissolute confraternities; stupid and sleepy, where 
not vicious; and banded together against the liberties 
of the nation ; and there were constant broils between 
the monks and the citizens in Norwich. 

The king having entirely renounced the authority 
of the church of Rome, and assumed the title of 
Head of the Church of England, caused a very strict 
inquiry to be instituted into the state of all monastic 
institutiona This inquiry resulted in their suppression, 
more for the gratification of the monarch's avarice 
t'lan from his desire to benefit his subjects ; and most of 
the monks in Norwich and Norfolk, as well as in other 
parts of England, were sent adrift with small pen.sions. 
The king, indeed — in revenge for being excommuni- 
cated by the pwpe — suppressed 1148 monasteries in 
England, whose revenues amounted to £183,707 yearly. 
He either seized the property for himself or divided it 
amongst his favourites, and the Duke of Norfolk ob- 
tained a great part of it in Norwich. The dissolution 

tg6 History of Nonvick. 

of those ancient institutions caused a great deal of 
poverty; the priests were driven out homeless over 
the land, and the poor had no houses of refuge and no 
means of relief. 

In 1538, Thomas Cromwell, lord privy seal, the 
king's vicegerent, sent injunctions to ail bishops and 
curates, charging them to take care that an English \ 
bible of the largest size be placed open in each parish I 
church, for every one to have recourse to. The open I 
bible was generally read in this city and elsewhere, I 
and this, no doubt, promoted the reformation of re- I 
ligion. In spite of the tyranny of kings, the domina- 
tion of priests, and the superstition of the people, the 
Reformation still advanced, and the national mind was 
emancipated by degrees from ancient thraldom. 

In 1545, one Rogers, of Norfolk, was condemned 
and suffered martyrdom, for opposing the six articles 
of an ac t passed for aboMshing div ersityj jf opinions in 
__religion. Tliis act"^n{licted the penalty of death upoft 
tliOsf— 1st, who by word or writing denied tran- 
substantiation ; 2nd, who maintained that communion 
in both kinds was necessary; 3rd, or asserted that it 
was lawful for priests to marry ; 4th, or that vows of 
chastity might be broken ; 5th, or that private masses 
are profitable ; 6th, or that auricular confession is not 
necessary to salvation. 

The king died on the 28th January, 1546 ; and his 
exequies were celebrated here with great pomp, as 
appears from the chamberlain's account ; though what 
good he ever did for the city it would be hard to say. 

Norwich in the Sixteenth Century, 197 

He was a king who spared no man in his anger and 
no woman in his lust. In his reign, 72,cxx) personsi 
were hung for political offences or for the crime ofl 
poverty as a warning to others. The "Merry England"" 
of those days was in fact a terrible country to live in. 
Men were beaten, scourged, branded with hot irons, 
and killed without mercy or limit. 

Edward VI. was proclaimed king on January 28th, 
1546; and on February 25th, his coronation was 
celebrated with much pomp in Norwich, where great 
rejoicings took place. Six large guns were fired on 
Tombland ; the populace were treated with plenty of 
beer; and bonfires were lighted in several of the streets. 
There was a grand procession with a pageant, in which 
the king was represented by an effigy of king Solomon. 

On March 8th, 1 546, Edward VI., and the executors 
of his deceased father, granted to the mayor, sheriff's, 
citizens, and commonalty, the hospital of St. Giles* in 
this city, now called the Old Men's hospital, with all 
the revenues belonging thereto for the maintenance of 
poor people dwelling therein, all which the late king 
had promised to give them at the request of the 
citizens, a short time before liLs death. 

Norwich has always been noted for its civic feasts 
and good cheer; and Bale, writing at this time (1549), 
in his " Continuation of Leland's Antiquities," says: — 

"Oh, cytie of England, whose glory standeth more in 
belly chere than in the searche of wisdome godlye, how 
cometh it that neither you nor yet your ydell masmongers 
have regarded this most worthy commodytie of your 
countrye ? I mean the conservacyon of your antiquyties, 

198 History of Norwich. 

and of the worthy labours of your learned men, I thynke 
the renowne of such a notable act would have much longer 
endured than of atl your belly banquettes and table triumphes, 
either yet of your newly purchased hawles, to keep St 
George's feast in." 

And again he says : — 

" I have been also at Norwyche, our second cytie of name, 
and there all the library monuments are turned to the use of 
their grossers, candelmakers, sope sellers, &c." 

Small credit is here given to the city for the patron- 
age and promotion of intellectual pursuits. 

In 1549 the city was the scene of an insurrection 
resembling that of the Jacquerie in France, and the 
War of the Peasants in Germany. The facts of this 
local rebellion were simple enough. The poor people 
objected to the enclosure of waste lands, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Attleborough and Wymondham, by the 
nobility and gentry, who had been put in possession 
of the abbey lands, which had been previously appro- 
priated for the use of the poor, who still considered 
that they had a right of commonage on the waste 
lands and open pastures. The rebellion commenced at 
Eccles, Wilby, Attleborough, and the neighbouring 
villages, the inhabitants of which were enraged at Mr. 
John Green, lord of the manor of Wilby, who had 
enclosed that part of the common belonging to his 
manor, which had from time immemorial been open 
to the adjoining commons of Hargham and Attle- 

Keifs Rebellion, 199 

borough, and in which the people had enjoyed all 
rights of intercommpning with each other. The 
people continued quiet till Wymondham fair, on July 
7th, when they collected in large numbers. The 
leaders of the movement, accompanied by a large 
number of others, went to Morley, about a mile from 
Wymondham, and laid open the new enclosures ; and 
on returning to Wymondham, they destroyed all the 
fences by which the commons and wastes were en- 
closed. John Flowerdew, of Hethersett, incensed at 
the destruction of his fences, gave forty pence to a 
number of the country people to throw down the 
fences of Robert Kett, alias Knight, whose pasture 
lay near Wymondham Fairstead. They carried out 
his wishes to the full, and on the following morning 
returned to Hethersett, where, at Rett's instigation, 
they laid open other enclosures of Flowerdew*s. After 
this, the rioters appointed Robert Kett and his brother 
William, a butcher, to be their captains, and the move- 
ment soon assumed the form of an organized rebellion. 
The numbers of the rebels quickly increased, and 
marching on Mousehold Heath, they took possession 
of the mansion of the Earl of Surrey ; and thence 
proceeded to lay siege to the city. They held courts 
of justice under a large tree, called the " Oak of 
Reformation : " and having augmented their numbers 
to i6,ocx) from the citizens, and strongly fortified their 
camp, they summoned the city to surrender. For 
months they maintained hostilities, and the country 
round was pillaged and laid waste, until at length 
they gained an entrance to the city, and took the 

200 History of Norwich, 

mayor and several councillors prisoners to their camp. 
A strong force was thereupon sent down for the de- 
fence of the city, under the Marquis of Northampton, 
and a regular battle was fought at the base of the hill 
on St. Martinis Palace Plain. In this engagement 
Lord Sheffield was slain ; and the rebels, having 
forced the Marquis to retreat, plundered the city, and 
set fire to it in many parts. In short, all attempts to 
quell this violent insurrection were ineffectual, till a 
large army, which had been raised to proceed against 
the Scots, was ordered to march to the relief of 
Norwich, under the command of the Earl of Warwick, 
who arrived under the city walls on the 23rd of 
August. On the following day, after making an inef- 
fectual offer of pardon to the insurgents, on the con- 
dition that they should lay down their arms, the 
king's troops commenced their attack ; and having 
made several breaches in the walls, and forced open 
some of the gates, they soon entered the city, and 
took possession of the Market Place. In the midst of 
this scene of blood, the king's ammunition carriages, 
having entered apart from the main body of the army, 
were captured by the enemy, but were soon retaken 
by a detachment from the Market Place. A large 
body of the rebels still remaining in the city now 
made a lodgement on Tombland, and through their 
superior local knowledge, greatly annoyed the soldiers 
by posting small parties at the angles of the different 
streets leading to the Market. The Earl of Warwick, 
however, brought out his whole force to scour the city, 
and the rebels, after setting fire to their camp, were 

Rett's Rebellion. 20 1 

obliged to quit their post on the hill and retreat to 
Dussyn's Dale, oa Mousehold, resolving to finish the 
business by a general engagement in the valley. 

On August 27th, being re-enforced by a newly- 
arrived detachment of troops, the Earl marched out of 
the city to attack the rebels, to whom he again offered 
pardon, provided they would quietly lay down their 
arms; but, confident in their numbers, they refused to 
capitulate. A bloody conflict ensued, but the rebels, 
being unaccustomed to the discharge of artillery, were 
soon in confusion. Of this the Light Horse took ad- 
vantage, and advancing to the charge, drove the rebels 
from the field and pursued them with great slaughter. 
Over 3CX» were killed, and about 300 of the ring- 
leaders were afterwards executed. The gates of the 
city suffered much damage during this insurrection. 
The rebels set Bishop's gate on fire, with some of the 
houses in the street, and those belonging to the Great 
Hospital Pockthorpe, Magdalen, St. Augustine, 
Coslmy, and Ber Street gates, shared the same fate. 
When the disturbances ceased, the repair of the city 
generally was commenced, and especially of the gates. 
Outside Magdalen Gates a gallows was erected, at 
which place and at the cross in the Market Place 300 
rebels were executed. Two, styled prophets, were 
hanged, drawn, and quartered, their heads being 
placed on the towers, and their quarters on the gates. 

Robert and William Kett were tried in London for 
high treason and rebellion, and convicted. On Novem- 
ber 29th, they were delivered to Sir Edmund Windham, 
High Sheriff of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, to 

202 History of Norwich. 

receive punishment. Robert was conveyed to Norwich, 
and being brought to the foot of the castle, was drawn 
up to a gibbet erected at the top, and there left hang- 
ing alive till he died by famine ; and his body, being 
entirely wasted, at length fell down. A similar sen- 
tence was executed upon William, who was suspended 
alive upon the top of Wymondham steeple. This 
fearful rebellion having been thus brought to an end, 
the citizens, after the departure of the king s troops, 
began to repair the damages to the walls and gates. 
Unhappily, however, their trials were not yet over, for 
the late disastrous occurrences were followed by such a 
scarcity and dearness of provisions, that the corpora- 
tion issued an edict, requiring all the wealthier 
inhabitants to find corn for their own households else- 
where, so that their poorer neighbours might have the 
exclusive benefit of the city markets. 


The Princess Mary was proclaimed hereon July i8th, 
1553, and was the first English Queen in her own right, 
and the people of Norwich and Norfolk rushed to her 
standard, impelled by the memory of Kett's rebellion. 
The queen was a bigoted Roman Catholic, and in her 
reign popery was revived in its worst form, associated 
with all the atrocities of the most sanguinary persecu- 
tion. Protestants were gathered like fuel for burning ; 
and as for the Puritans, no fate could be too severe for 

In March, 1556, William Carman, of Hingham, was 


Queen Mary. 303 

burnt in Lollards' pit, outside of Bishop's Gate. He 
was charged with being an obstinate heretic, and/ 
actually having in his possession a bible, a testament,! 
and three psalters in the English tongue. I 

On July 13th, of the same year, Simon Miller, 
merchant of Lynn, and Elizabeth Cooper, a pewterer's 
wife, of the parish of Sl Andrew, were burnt together 
in Lollards' pit. On August 5th, Richard Crashfield, 
of Wymondham, Thomas Carman, William Seaman, 
and Thomas Hudson, were burnt for heresy in the 
same place. 

On July 10th, 1557, Richard Yolman, a devout old 
minister, seventy years of age, was burnt for heresy. 
He had been curate to that learned and pious martyr, 
Mr. Taylor, of Hadleigh. 

As if a judgment had come on the country for such 
atrodties, the quartan ague and a new sickness soon 
afterwards raged so violently, that it was said that 
" fire, sword, and pestilence," had swept away a third 
part of the men of England ; and it is recorded that 
ten of the Norwich aldermen fell victims to the latter 

During this short reign, the city was afflicted by the 
presence of those merciless persecutors. Bishop Hopton 
and Chancellor Dunnings, at whose instigation several 
martyrs to the reformed religion were burnt here in 
1557 and 1558. Happily the career of this bigoted, 
blood-thirsty, priest-ridden queen, was cut short, and 
a new and brighter era dawned upon the nation. 

204 History of Norwich, 


This queen ascended the throne on Nov. 7th, 1558, 
and was proclaimed here on the 17th of the same 
month. She was a zealous promoter of the Reforma- 
tion. The form of worship used in the churches was 
similar to that in the time of Edward VI. ; but the 
protestants were almost as intolerant in this reign as 
the Romanists had been before, though they claimed the 
right of private judgment ; and the principle of tolera- 
tion was not recognised for centuries by any church, or 
sect, or party. 

In 1 561, on the Guild day, the Duke of Norfolk, and 
the Earls of Northumberland and Huntingdon, with 
many other nobility and gentry, dined with the Mayor, 
William Mingay, Esq., in St. Andrew's Hall, which 
could scarcely contain the company and their retinue. 
The entertainment is said to have been very magnifi- 
cent, and the expense of the feast amounted to 
32s. gd. 

In 1565, the prosperity of the city, which had begun 
to decline, was again revived by the settling here of 
330 Flemings and Walloons, who had fled from the 
Netherlands, from the rigid persecution under the 
sanguinary Duke of Alva. In 1570, by the fostering 
encouragement of Queen Elizabeth, the number of 
these foreign settlers had increased to 3925, and by 
the introduction of bombasine, and other manufactures, 
they contributed much to the wealth and prosperity of 

The Reign of Queen Eligabeth. 205 

During the long reign of Elizabeth, numerous 
conspiracies were formed for the re-establishment of 
Popery, and in 1570, John Throgmorton, Thomas 
Brooke, and G. Redman, were hanged and quartered 
here for having joined in these traitorous enterprises. 
In 1572, the Duke of Norfolk and several other noble- 
men were attainted and beheaded for similar offences, 
at London, York, and other places. The Duke not 
only espoused the cause of Mary, Queen of Scots, but 
even offered to marry that Roman Catholic Princess, 

In 1574, a rumour was spread of invasion by the so- 
called invincible Armada, Norwich, towards the 
general defence, exhibited on its muster roll 2120 able 
men, of whom 400 were armed ; the total number 
enrolled in the whole county of Norfolk, being at the 
same time, 6120 able men, of whom 3630 were armed. 
Happily there was no occasion for their services, the 
Armada being destroyed by a storm at sea. 

Queen Elizabeth made a pr<^ress through Suffolk 
and Norfolk, from the i6th to the 22nd August, 1578. 
She came on horseback from Ipswich to Norwich, 
though she had several coaches in her train ; and she 
lodged in the Bishop's Palace. For several days she 
was entertained by splendid pageantries, principally 
allusive to the trade and manufactures of the city. 
Whilst here she dined publicly in the North Alley of 
the Cathedral Cloister, and often went a hunting on 
horseback, and to witness wrestling and shooting on 
Household heath. The city records contain full details 
of the pageantries on the occasion of the royal visit 
In no other city was the Queen received with greater 

2o6 History of Norwich. 

cordiality and pageantry than in Norwich. The cor- 
poration, the inhabitants, the clei^, with the nobility 
and gentry of the county, contributed largely to afford 
the royal lady as pleasant and costly a reception as 
should be pleasing to her as a spectacle, and demonstra- 
tive of exuberant loyalty. This joy was soon turned 
into mourning ; for, says a record known as the 
Norwich Roll, " The trains of Her Majesty's carriage 
being many of them infected, left the plague behind 
them, which afterwards increased and contynued, as it 
raged about a year and three quarters," Nearly 5000 
fell victims to this dreadful malady. 

In 1578, Matthew Hamond, of Hethersett, wheel- 
wright, a heretic and blasphemer, being convicted of 
reviling the queen and of denying the authority of the 
Scriptures, the Godhead, the atonement of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and the existence of the Holy Ghost, 
was set in the pillory on May 13th, and both his ears I 
were nailed. Afterwards, on May 20th, he was burnt i 
in the castle ditch. In 1587 and 158S Francis Knight I 
and Peter Cole, of Ipswich, were burnt in the same 
place for their deistical sentiments. 

The Reformation was not only stayed, but thrown 
backward by this arbitrary, despotic queen. Though 
she was well disposed to reformation in the abstract, 
yet the fear of popish influence and a jealousy for 
her ecclesiastical authority over the church, made her 
act in the spirit of the worst excesses of popery. She 
persecuted all who disputed her authority in religious 
matters. In vain did the exiles return, hoping for 
peace and " freedom to worship God." The expulsion 

The Reign of Queen Elizabeth, toy 

of a multitude of clergy, who refused to conform to 
many impositions, and the many hardships suffered by 
the puritans, especially in Norfolk and Suffolk, evinced 
that no concession was to be expected from her. Her 
great idol was perfect uniformity. To enforce it, she 
passed many laws, which made nonconformity worse 
than felony, and she treated the Puritan as a rebel 
against all authority, both human and divine. A 
beautiful "Memorial "of the ministers of Norfolk is 
still preserved in vindication of their loyalty, and in 
advocacy of greater liberty of conscience. The result 
of it, however, was that seven or eight of them were 
suspended in Norwich. But instead of this being the 
means of stopping the progress of Puritanism, the 
sincere inquirers after truth were incited by such 
harsh measures to fresh investigations, and more 
emboldened to declare their views. 

In 1582, on a second return made of the strangers 
settled here, they were found to be 1128 men; 1358 
women ; 815 children, strangers born ; 1378 children, 
English bom ; in all 4679. The whole population was 
about 15,000, and the citizens continued to return 
burgesses to parliament from time to time, but not 
so frequently as in former reigns. During this reign 
William Kemp, a comic actor of high reputation, and 
greatly applauded for his buffoonery, danced a morris 
dance all the way from London to Norwich in nine 
days, and was accompanied by crowds of people as he 
passed on from town to town. When he arrived in 
Norwich he was very kindly treated by the citizens, 
who turned out to meet him in large numbers. 

2o8 History ef Norwich. 

Norwich Pageants were celebrated during the 
middle ages, and occupy a large space in the records 
of the corporation. Books of the several companies 
relating to the pageants have been lost except that of 
St. Geoi^e. but some additional information has come 
to light on the subject. A series of extracts were 
made early in the last century from the Grocers' book, 
showing the proceedings and expenditure of that 
company in regard to their pageants from 1534 to 
1570, and also the versions of the plays in 1533 and 
in 1563. All the plays of that period were called 
mysteries or miracle plays, and were founded on bible 
history. The play was performed in a carriage called 
a " House of Waynscott, painted and builded on a 
cart with fowre whelys," Painted cloths were hung 
about it, and it was drawn by four horses, " having 
head stalls of brode inkle with knoppes and tassels." 
The vehicle had a square top with a lai^e vane in the 
midst, and one for the end, and a large number of 
smaller ones. The company was evidently unable to 
afford the cost of four horses in 1534 ; only one was 
hired, and four men attended on the pageant with 
"Lewers." One of the plays was called "Paradyse," 
and was performed by the Grocers and Raffmen. It 
begins much in the same manner as the Coventry 
play, with God the Father relating the planting of the 
garden of Eden, the creation of man and placing him 
there, and God's intention to create woman. The 
other characters are Lucifer, Adam, and Eve, who 
exhibit the incidents related in Genesis, Of the 
good taste or propriety of these entertainments any 

Eminettt Citizais of the Sixteenth Century. 209 

observation is needless. They formed a remarkable 
feature in the life of the middle ages, and show the 
childishness of the people. The dialogues in all these 
plays are puerile doggerel. 

Eminent Citizens of the Sixteenth Century, 

Dr, Legge, 

Few of the citizens of Norwich could make any 
pretensions as to birth, whatever they might say about 
their birth-place. Among the natives of this city of 
obscure parentage may be mentioned Thomas Legge, 
LL.D., who was educated in Trinity College, where he 
was fellow, as also at Jesus College, till he was chosen 
by Dr. Kaye as second master of Kaye's College. 
He was Dean of the Arches, one of the Masters of 
Chancery, twice Vice-Chancellor of the University of 
Cambridge, and thirty-four years Master of Kaye's 
College. Justus Lipsius eulogised him as a very ex- 
cellent antiquary, and as an oracle of learning. He 
was a great benefactor to this college, bequeathing 
£600 for the building of the east part thereof, besides 
several lesser liberalities. Thomas Bacon, the fifteenth 
Master of Gonville Hall, had done great damage to it, 
and left it in debt; but Dr. Legge and his two 
successors repaired all losses, acting not so much like 
the masters as the stewards of the house. Dr. Legge 
was the author of two tragedies, namely, " The 
Destruction of Jerusalem," and "The Life of King 
Richard HI.," which last was performed before Queen 

2 1 o History of Norwich. 

Elizabeth, with great applause, in St. John's College 
Hall. The doctor died July I2th, 1607, leaving the 
college his heir, and he was buried in it, so that he 
left his native city only the barren honour of his 

John Kaye. 

John Kaye. or as he is sometimes called, Caius, was 
born at Norwich in 15 10, and studied in Gonville Hall, 
Cambridge, from which he removed to travel abroad. 
He took his degree of M.D. in the University of Padua. 
In the reign of Edward VI. he was appointed principal 
physician at court, a place which he enjoyed under 
both the Queens Mary and Elizabeth. The College 
of Physicians of London elected him one of their 
Fellows, and he presided over that body several years. 
Being very rich and desirous to promote learning, he 
procured a charter from Queen Elizabeth dated 1565, 
to turn Gonville Hall into a College ; and he endowed 
it with the greater part of his estate. He lived as an 
ornament to his profession till July, 1573, when he died, 
aged 63, at Cambridge. He wrote the " Antiquities 
of Cambridge," an excellent book ; and he presented 
it to James I. as he passed through his college. The 
King said, " Give me rather Caius de Canibtisl* a work 
of his as much admired, but hard to be got. He was 
master of his college for some time, but in his old age 
he resigned that office to Dr. Legge, a fellow compioner 
in his college, and a native of Norwich. 

Eminent Citizens of the Sixteenth Century. 2 1 1 

Arckbishep Parker. 

Archbishop Parker, a native of Norwich, flourished 
in this reign, and was a great benefactor to the city. 
He was born August 6th, 1504, being the son of 
William Parker, a wealthy citizen. He was educated 
at the Grammar School here, and in 1520 he was sent 
to Corpus Christi College, where he took his degrees 
of B.A., M.A., and D.D., before 1538. The Queen 
afterwards appointed him Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and he was very active in persecuting the Puritans here. 
He was the author of many works which showed much 
learning. Hedied on May 17th, 1575, and was buried 
in Lambeth Chapel. 


^or^trich in th^ ^erqntcentli (I[entnrQ. 

fHIS was a very eventful period in the annals of 
the city. The century opened with storms and 
inundations in the physical world, heralding 
commotions in the political world. On April gth, 
1601, a sudden storm of hail and rain passed over the 
city, whereby the upper part of the Cathedral spire, 
which had been lately repaired, was beaten down. It 
fell on the roof of the church, which it broke through, 
doing great damage to it as well as to the walls of the 
choir. The spire was split on the south-east side from 
top to bottom, 

James I. was proclaimed king on March 24th, 1602; 
and soon after he was seated on the throne he granted 
a general pardon to the mayor, sheriffs, and commons 
of this city, for all past offences. The local occurrences 
were not very important during this reign of 23 years. 
There were, however, great disturbances between the 
citizens and Dutch strangers respecting trade rights and 

Norwich in t/ie Seven teaith Century. 213 

In 1602, the plague raged with unusual fury in this 
country. As many as 30,578 persons died in London, 
and 3076 in Norwich. This visitation was attended 
with so great a scarcity of food, that wheat sold for 
ten, rye for six, and barley for five shillings per bushel. 
In the summer of 1609, the city was again visited by 
the plague, though but few died of it. 

At the assizes held August, 1617,3 dispute arose 
between Sir Henry Montague, Lord Chief Justice of 
the Court of Queen's Bench, and John Mingay, Esq., 
then Mayor, concerning precedence. This was occasion- 
ed by the indiscretion of Sir Augustine Palgrave, Sheriff 
of Norfolk, who had imprudently informed the Chief 
Justice that it was his right to sit in the chair at the 
preaching place in the Green yard, with the Mayor on 
his left hand. This the Mayor opposed, resolutely 
asserting his right to the chair; and the Chief Justice 
as resolutely insisted, being misled by the information 
of the sheriff. But this matter was afterwards set 
right, and the sheriff was obliged to acknowledge his 
error, after having been severely reprimanded by the 
Judge for misleading him. On the next day, a contest 
of the same kind happened between the High Sheriff 
and the Sheriffs of Norwich ; when, to prevent any 
disputes of the like nature in future, it was determined 
that only the High Sheriff should attend the Judges 
when they are upon the county business, and only the 
Sheriffs of Norwich when they are on the city business. 

Charles I. was proclaimed king, on March ist, 1625. 
The mayor of Norwich, stewards, justices, sheriffs, 
and aldermen, were present at the ceremony. 

214 ffistory of Norwich. 

On March 31st, 1625, Charles I, was proclaimed In 
Norwich, and on May 1 3th following, Thomas, Earl 
of Arundel and Surrey, Earl-Marshal of England, was 
appointed Lord -Lieutenant of the county of Norfolk, 
and of the city of Nonvich, and county of the same. 

On October 19th, 1625. the citizens petitioned the 
king to be released of taxes, on account of their 
poverty and the ravages of the plague ; and in 1641, 
the citizens petitioned Parliament, to be dischaiged 
from paying ^^2500 assessed upon them, on account 
of their great poverty and the impossibility of raising 
the money. 

In 1626, writs of quo warranto were brought against 
the mayor, &c., for refusing to furnish two ships of 
war demanded of them ; and the corporation, on the 
trial, which took place in 1629, obtained a verdict in 
their favor, having proved that they neither used nor 
usurped any privileges but what their charters war- 
ranted. During this contest the city raised a sum of 
money, and presented to the king by way of loan, as 
settled by the lord keeper, lord treasurer, comptroller, 
and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, who came 
hither for that purpose. 

In 1627, an order arrived for levying 250 foot 
soldiers in the city of Norwich and county of Norfolk, 
of which number the citizens were ordered to furnish 
25 ; but they would raise no more than 17, that being 
their full proportion. 

During this reign the plague raged with great 
violence in the city and county. On July I2th, 1625, 
the king issued a commission to the mayor, &c., to 

Nonvich in the Seventemth Century, 215 

scour the city ditches, to remove all nuisances in and 
about the city, to repair the walls and turrets, and to 
tax all residing in the several wards, according to their 
ability, toward the work ; it being thought very 
necessary, in order to stop the plague which had been 
brought from Yarmouth, and begun to spread here. 
The mayor had previously requested the bailiffs at 
Yarmouth to order all the wherrymen to carry no 
infected persons dwelling in their town to the city. 
Constables of every ward gave notice that no person 
coming from London should be entertained without 
notice given to the aldermen of their ward ; and watch 
was set at every gate, day and night, to hinder all 
persons coming from infected places entering the city, 
and the carriers were commanded to bring no such 
persons, nor any wool whatever. Notwithstanding all 
this caution, the plague began to spread, so that on 
July 23rd, the aldermen of every ward appointed 
** Searchers " in each ward, to be keepers of such per- 
sons as were suspected of being infected. The bellman 
warned all the citizens to take their dogs and swine 
outside of the walls, on pain of being killed. On July 
30th, the watch of the gates ceased, it being known 
that the plague raged within the city. Twenty-six 
persons died of it in that week ; and before August 
1 1 th, it had so much increased, that it was resolved 
that every alderman should have power to send his 
warrants to the city treasurers to relieve the infected 
persons ; and the plague abated that very week. 
Orders were issued that the doors of all persons who 
died of the disease should be nailed up and watched. 

2i6 History of Norwich, 

Every one who begged about the streets was whipped, 
because all the poor were then relieved, so that no one 
had any excuse for begging for food. 

In 1634, under date of March 23rd, a letter signed by 
the king, was directed to the mayor, sheriff, and alder- 
men, requiring their constant attendance at the sermon 
preached every Sunday morning, either in the Cathe- 
dral or Green yard, and that they would be there at 
the beginning of the service, after the manner observed 
in the city of London ; and that none be absent 
without the consent of the bishop. On this point a 
court was held, and it was ordered that the mayor and 
court should constantly meet at the Free School, and 
thence proceed to church agreeably to his majesty's 
instructions ; the king having great regard for their 
spiritual welfare. 


The first parliament of the reign of Charles I., in 
1625, has been severely censured on account of the 
penurious supply which it doled out for the exigencies 
of a war in which its predecessors had involved the 
king. Nor is the reproach wholly unfounded. A 
more liberal proceeding, if it did not obtain a reciprocal 
concession from the king, would have put him more in 
the wrong. But the Puritans in parliament formed a 
majority, and were determined not to vote money with- 
out a redress of what they deemed to be grievances. 
The king finding he could not obtain the supplies he 
required from the House of Commons, determined to 

The Civil Wars. 217 

rule without a parliament, and to raise money by 
some other means. Hence the contests between the 
king and the parliaments, which were often called and 
soon dissolved. This sen'ed only to aggravate the 
embarrassments of the crown. Every successive House 
of Commons inherited the feelings of its predecessor, 
otherwise it would not have represented the people. 
The same men, for the most part, came again to 
parliament more irritated and difhcult of reconciliation 
with the sovereign than before. Even the politic 
measure, as it was fancied to be, of excluding some 
of the most active members from seats, by nominating 
them sheriffs for the year, failed of the expected 
success because all ranks partook of a common 

In 1642, July I2th, the parliament voted and 
declared the necessity of recourse to arms, and on the 
29th of the same month, Moses Treswell was appre- 
hended for attempting to enlist men into the king's 
service, after having been forbidden to do so by the 
corporation. The citizens supposing that this act 
would be deemed a declaration against their sovereign, 
ordered a double watch to be set in every ward, and 
a provision of all military stores to be made. They 
received a letter from the parliament thanking them 
for their great services in sending up Captain Treswell, 
and exhorting them to raise the militia, and to prevent 
anyone from levying troops within their jurisdiction 
without consent of parliament. Soon afterwards, the 
king issued proclamations requiring the assistance of 
his subjects against the rebels, but no r^ard was 

2i8 History of Norwich, 

paid to them in Norwich. On the other hand, the 
magistrates ordered a general muster of the trained 
bands and volunteers, and put the city into the best 
state of defence, fearing an attack from the gentlemen 
of Norfolk and Suffolk who had declared for the king. 
As a further proof of their zeal they sent fifty 
Dragoons for Colonel Cromwell's regiment, which 
composed part of the troops under Lord Grey of 
Wark, raised for the preservation of the peace in the 
associated counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cam- 
bridgeshire, Hertfordshire, and Huntingdonshire. As 
soon as these had marched, the magistrates raised a 
hundred more dragoons, and to mount them, gave 
orders for seizing the horses of those citizens who 
favoured the cause of the king, and who were called 
malignants. On March 13th, the city raised fifty 
more Dragoons, and on March 26th, 1643, a hundred 
men were ordered to be raised and sent to Cambridge 
to re-enforce the associated army. The weekly con- 
tribution levied by parliament on the county was 
;fi25o in the following proportions: Norfolk ;£^II29, 
Norwich ^^53, Lynn £2*]^ Yarmouth £1^ 16s. 5d., 
Thetford £^ lis. gd. On April 2nd, being Easter day, 
Captain Sherwood marched to Lynn with a hundred 
volunteers to secure that town from any sudden sur- 
prise by the king's forces. On August 12th, a meeting 
of the associated counties was appointed on account of 
the danger with which the city was threatened by the 
approach of the enemy, and the castle was ordered to 
be fortified. Lincolnshire was also admitted amongst 
the associated counties. Lynn was garrisoned by the 

Tfu Civil Wars. 219 

forces of the parliament, and fortified at the expense 
of the Association. On November 18th, four of the 
Court, representing the Association, were fined ;^io 
each for want of expedition in collecting the proposition 
money, and the Earl of Manchester ordered the im- 
mediate assessing and levying of such sums of money 
as should have l)cen raised by any edict of parliament. 
This stringent commission was carried out by force 
of arms. 

In 1643, it having been agreed between the English 
and Scotch commissioners that j^iOO,ooo should be 
immediately advanced to the Scots, to enable them to 
put their army in march for England, an order was 
sent down to Norwich for levying £6ooo, part of the 
said sum in the following proportions: in Norwich, 
£26$; in Yarmouth, £174; in Lynn, ^132; in 
Thetford, £27 18s, g±, and the remainder in the 
county of Norfolk. 

By order of the Court, on March gth, 1644, seven 
pictures, taken from St Swithin's Church, the Angel 
and Four Evangelists from St Peter's, Moses and 
Aaron and the Four EvaJigelJsts £rom the Cathedral, 
and other paintings, were publicly burnt in the Market 
Place. A committee was appointed to "view the 
churches for pictures and crucifixes," in consequence 
of which, these over-zealous Reformers committed 
all kinds of outrages and excesses by destroying 
monuments in the churches, and burning valuable 
paintings, as stated by Bishop Hall in his "Hard 
Measure," a pamphlet on the proceedings of the 
Puritansi On Christmas eve, 1645, the mayor issued 

220 History of Norwich. 

orders to all the city clergy commanding them 
neither to preach, nor to administer the sacrament, 
in their respective churches on the day following, 
and to the inhabitants, charging them to open their 
shops as on other days ; so little did the Puritans 
in that age understand the principles of tolera- 

In 1648, a petition was presented to the mayor, &c., 
signed by 150 persons, praying for a more speedy and 
effectual reformation, and complaining that their faith- 
ful ministers were discouraged and slighted ; the 
ejected ministers countenanced and preferred ; old 
ceremonies, and the service book constantly used, and 
the directory for worship almost totally neglected ; 
and further praying, that the ordinances against super- 
stition and idolatry might be put in strict execution ; 
** so, shall the crucifix on the cathedral gate be de- 
faced, and another on the roof of the cathedral neere 
the west door in the inside, and one upon the free 
school, and the image of Christ on the parish house of 
St. George at Tombland be taken down, and many 
parish churches more decently made for the congrega- 
tions to meet in." The mayor, John Utting, paying 
little r^ard to this petition, was sent for to London, 
and Mr. Alderman Baret put in his place. After he 
was gone, the common people, having a great affection 
for the mayor, went to the committee house, then on 
the site of the present Bethel, where the gunpowder 
was kept, and set fire to ninety-five barrels, which 
killed and wounded about one hundred persons and 
greatly damaged the adjacent buildings. For this 

The Civil Wars. 221 

outrage six of the perpetrators were hanged in the 
Market Place 

On January 30th, 1649, King Charles was beheaded 
at Whitehall. Soon after the death of the king the 
House of Commons published a decree to forbid the 
proclaiming of Charles Stuart, eldest son of the late 
king, or of any person whatsoever, on pain of high 
treason ; and afterwards enacted that the kingly ofhce 
should be abolished as unnecessary, burdensome, and 
dangerous ; and that the state should be governed by 
the representatives of the people without king or lords, 
and under the form of a Commonwealth. 

In 1650, on discovery of an intended insurrection in 
Norfolk in favour of King Charles, which was to have 
broken out on October 7th, several of the conspirators 
were apprehended and tried at the new hall, in 
Norwich, before three judges, commissioned by the 
parliament for that purpose. Their sitting continued 
from December 20th to December 30th, and they con- 
demned twenty-five persons, who were all executed, 
some of them at Norwich and others in different 
parts of Norfolk. 

On June 24th, 1654, an ordinance was published for 
the six months' assessment for the maintenance of the - 
armies and fleets of the Commonwealth, at the rate of 
;C 1 20,000 per month for the first three months, and 
jf 90,000 per month for the rest Towards each 
monthly payment of the last sum, Norwich raised 
£2i,Q and Norfolk ;iJ466o. On August 29th, an or- 
dinance was issued for ejecting scandalous and 
insufficient ministers and schoolmasters; whose quali- 

222 History of Soru-ick. 

fications were to be tried b)~ commissioners appointed 
for that purpose in e^ci^- county. In consequence 
of this ordinance many able dinnes io the king- 
dom were ejected from their livings, and their places 
filled b}- such as best suited the views of the ruling 
party. During the Commonwealth, the city was put 
in defence against the royalists, the castle was fortified 
for the service of Cromwell, the goods of the bishops 
and clei^y were sequestrated, the bishop's palace was 
sacked, the cathedral and churches were plundered 
and defaced, and Bishop Hall was turned out and 
driven into retirement at his palace in Heigham. 
which is still in existence, being used as a tavern called 
the Dolphin. He died there and was buried in the 
old church in Heigham. We shall speak more at 
length of this distinguished prelate in our notice of 
"The Eminent Citizens" of the 17th century. 

On the death of Oliver Cromwell, which happened 
on September 3rd, 1658, the mayor of Norwich, like 
the mayors of other towns, received letters from the 
privy council, notifying that event and the election of 
his son Richard Cromwell to the dignity of Protector, 
and commanding him to proclaim the said Richard 
protector of tlie tlirce kingdoms, which was done 
accordingly on the seventh of that month. The new 
proctector's honours were, however, but of short con- 
tinuance ; for in the month of April, 1659, the army 
obliged him to dissolve the parliament which he had 
convoked, and soon afterwards deposed him from his 
high office. During the fatal contentions respecting 
tlic prerogatives of the crown and the privileges of 

Norwich in the Seventeenth Century. 223 

parliament, the city sufTered leas than might have been 
expected, and Norfolk less than many other counties. 

The citizens, tired of strife and commotion, were 
among the 6rst to hail the return of monarchy in the 
person of Charles II., who was proclaimed here on 
May lOth, 1660, and the sum of ;^iooo was presented 
to His Majesty, on behalf of the city, by the mayor, 
who received the honour of knighthood. In 1663 the 
king granted to the city the charter by which, with 
little interruption, it was governed till 1835, when the 
municipal act came into force. In 1670, Lord Howard 
presented the corporation with a noble mace of silver 
gilt, and a gown of crimson velvet for the mayor. In 
1671, the king and queen and many nobles visited the 
city, and were entertained in grand style at the palaces 
of the bishop and the Duke of Norfolk. 

In 16S2, a majority of the corporation surrendered 
to the king the charter which he had granted them 
nine years before, and in lieu of it a new one was 
substituted not so favourable to the city ; the king 
having reserved the right of removing magistrates of 
whom he did not approve. 

In 16S7, by the mandate of James II., ten aldermen 
and nineteen councillors were displaced ; but the 
arbitrary conduct of that monarch soon brought about 
his ruin, and when Henry, Duke of Norfolk, rode into 
the Market Place at the head of 300 knights and 
gentlemen and declared for a fr^e parliament, the 
corporation and citizens responded with loud acclama- 
tions. After the glorious revolution of 168S, the first 

234 History of Norwich. 

charter of Charles II. was restored to the city, and the 
aldermen who had been removed were reinstated in 
their offices. 

William and Mary, king and queen of England, 
began their reign on February 13th, 1688, and during 
their reign the city flourished exceedingly, and the 
country in general was prosperous. 

In 1697 the coin was regulated afresh, the old 
money being called in and recoined, for which purpose, 
mints were established in various places, among others 
one in this city, which coined £2^^,37 j. The quantity 
of coin and plate brought in here to be coined was 
17,709 ounces. 

We may here give the statements of two eminent 
writers respecting Norwich and Norfolk in this cen- 
tury. Sir Thomas Browne, jun., in 1662, wrote as 
follows about the city and county : — 

" Let any stranger find me out so pleasant a county, such 
good ways, large heaths, three such places as Norwich, 
Yarmouth, and Lynn, in any county of England, and I'll be 
once again a vagabond and visit to them." 

And he wrote so with good reason. Few, if any, of 
the cities of England then contained more handsome 
buildings, or presented so good an appearance as did 
the old city of Norwich, while only London and Bristol 
surpassed her in the extent and importance of their 
commerce. Lord Macaulay, in his graphic History of 
England thus describes the state of the city in the 
17th centuiy : — 

Norwich in the Seventeenth Century. 225 

" Norwich was the capital of a large and fruitful province. 
It was the residence of a bishop and of a chapter. It was 
the seat of the manufacture of the realm. Some even 
distinguished by learning and science had recently dwelt 
there, and no place in the kingdom, except the capital and! 
the universities, had more attractions to the curious. The| 
library, the museum, the aviary, and the botanical gardens of 
Sir Thomas Browne were thought by the Fellows of the 
Royal Society well worthy of a long pilgrimage. Norwich 
had also a court in miniature. In the heart of the city stood 
an old palace of the Duke of Norfolk, said to be the largest 
town house in the kingdom out of London. In this mansion, 
to which were annexed a tennis court, a bowling green, and 
a wilderness extending along the banks of the Wensum, the 
noble family of Howard frequently resided. Drink was 
served to the guests in goblets of pure gold ; the very tongs 
and shovels were of silver; pictures of Italian masters 
adorned the walls; the cabinets were filled with a fine 
collection of gems purchased by the Earl of Arundel, whose 
marbles are now among the ornaments of Oxford. Here, in 
the year 1671, Charles and his court were sumptuously enter- 
tained ; here, too, all comers were annually welcomed from 
Christmas to Twelfthnight ; ale flowed in oceans for the 
populace. Three coaches, one of which had been built at a 
cost of ^£^500 to contain fourteen persons, were sent every 
afternoon round the city to bring ladies to the festivities, 
and the dances were always followed by a luxurious banquet. 
When the Duke of Norfolk came to Norwich he was greeted 
like a king returning to his capital ; the bells of St. Peter's 
Mancroft were rung, the guns of the castle were fired, and 
the mayor and aldennen waited on their illustrious citizen 
with complimentary addresses." 

226 History of Norwich. 

Eminent Citizens of the Seventeeinth Century. 
Bisltop Hall. 

Dr. Hall, Bishop of Norwich, the first English 
Satirist, was a noted character in this century. He 
was bom July ist, 1574, in Bristow Park, within the 
parish of Ashby de la Zouch, in Leicestershire He 
was educated by a private tutor till he was fifteen 
years of age, when he removed to Cambridge, and was 
admitted to Emmanuel College, of which he was a 
chosen scholar, and took the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts. His satires were published in 1597, 1598, and I 
1599, and added greatly to his reputation by their I 
pungency and classical style. They equal the satires! 
of Juvenal and Persius on similar themes, and in I 
lashing the vices of the age. 

Dr. Hall, in 1624, refused the bishopric of Gloucester, 
but in 1627 he accepted that of Exeter, holding with 
it in commendam the rectory of St Breock in Cornwall. 
At this time he seems to have been suspected of a 
leaning to the Puritans, and it must be allowed that 
his religious views were more consonant with theirs 
than with the lax Armintantsm of Laud. But at the 
same time, Dr. Hall was a zealous supporter of the 

On November isth, 1641, he was translated, by the 
little power left to the king, to be Bishop of Norwich, 
but having joined with the Archbishop of York and 
eleven other prelates, in a protest against the validity 
of such laws as should be made during their com- 

Eminenf Citizens of tJtt Seventeenth Century. 227 

pulsory absence from parliament, he was ordered to 
be sent to the tower, with his brethren, on the 30th of 
January following. Shortly afterwards they were 
impeached by the Commons for high treason, and on 
their appearance in parliament were treated with the 
utmost rudeness and contempt The Commons, how- 
ever, did not think fit to prosecute the chaise of high 
treason, having gained their purpose by driving them 
from the House of Lords, and Hall and his brethren 
were ordered to be dismissed ; but upon another 
pretext they were again sent to the tower. In June 
following. Hall was finally released on giving bail for 
;C5ooo! He returned to Norwich, and being received 
with rather more respect than he hoped for, in the 
then state of public opinion, he resumed his duties, 
frequently preaching to large congregations, and en- 
joying the forbearance of the predominant Puritan 
party till April, 1643, when the destruction of the 
church was contemplated. About this time, the or- 
dinance for sequestrating notorious delinquents having 
passed, and our prelate being included by name, all 
his rents were stopped, his palace was entered, and 
all his property was seized, A friend, however, 
gave bond for the whole amount of the valuation, 
and the bishop was allowed to remain a short 
time in his palace. While he remained there, he 
was continually exposed to the insolence of the 
soldiery and mob, who demolished the windows and 
monuments of the cathedral. At length he was 
ordered to leave his palace, and would have been ex- 
posed to the utmost extremity, if a neighbour had not 

228 History of Norwich, 

offered him tlic shelter of liis humble roof. Some 
time afterwards, but by what interest w'e are not told, 
the sequestration was taken off a small estate which 
he rented at Heigham, to which he retired. The 
house in which he lived, now called the Dolphin Inn, 
is still standing, and should be carefully preserved as 
a memorial of a great and good man. 

Bishop Hall, in his tract Hard Measure ^ has given 
a most touching account of the treatment he ex- 
perienced. He says in his tract "The Shaking of 
the Olive Tree :" — 

" It is no other than tragical to relate the carnage of that 
furious sacrilege whereof our eyes and ears were the sad 
witnesses, under the authority and presence of Linsey, Tofts 
the sheriff, and Greenwood. Lord, what work was here ; 
what clattering of glasses, what beating down of walls, what 
tearing up of monuments, what pulling down of seates, what 
wresting out of irons and brass from the windows and graves, 
what defacing of armes, what demolishing of curious stone 
work which had not any representation in the world, but only 
of the cast of the founder, and skill of the mason ; what 
toting and piping upon the destroyed organ pipes, and what 
a hideous triumph on the market day, before all the country, 
when, in a sacrilegious and profane procession, all the organ 
pipes, vestments, both copes and surplices, together with the 
leaden crosse which had been newly sawn down from over 
the green yard pulpit, and the service book and singing 
books that could be had, were carried to a fire in the public 
Market-place ; a lewd wretch walking before the train in his 
cope trailing in the dirt, with a service book in his hand, 
imitating in an impious scome the tune and usurping the 
words of the litany formerly used in the church. Neer the 

Eminent Cilisms of the Srventeentk Century. 229 

publick crosse all these monuments of idolatry must be sacri- 
ficed to the fire, not without much ostentation of a zealous 
joy in discharging ordinance to the cost of some who 
professed how much they longed to see that day," 

The good bishop's sufferings did not damp his 
courage, for in 1644, we find him preaching in Norwich 
whenever he could obtain the use of a pulpit ; and 
with yet more boldness, in the same year he sent A 
modest offer of some meet considerations in favour of 
Episcopacy addressed to the Assembly of Divines. 
During the rest of his life he appears to have remained 
at Heigham, unmolested, performing the duties of a 
faithful pastor, and exercising such hospitality and 
charity as his scanty means permitted. He died, 
September 8th, 1656, in the 82nd year of his age, and 
was buried in the church of St. Bartholomew, in 
Heigham. In his will, he says: — 

" I leave my body to be buried without any funeral pomp, 
at the discretion of my executors, with the only monition 
that I do not hold God's house a meet repository for the dead 
bodies of the greatest saints." 

He left a family behind, according to Lloyd, of 
whom Robert, the eldest son, was afterwards a clergy- 
man, and D.D. His wife died in 1647, His prose 
works were published at various periods in folio, quarto, 
and duodecimo. They were collected in a handsome 
edition of lo vols., octavo, by the Rev. Josiah Pratt, 
and are his best memorials. The " Meditations " have 
been often reprinted. As a moralist, he has been 
called the British Seneca. 

ajO History of Norwich. 

Sir Thomas Browne. 

Sir Thomas Browne flourished in this century in 
Norwich, as a Physician, Dr. Johnson wrote a memoir 
of him, from which we leani the following particulars. 
He was born in London, in the parish of St Michael, 
in Cheapside, on October 19th, 1605. Of his childhood 
or youth there is little known, except that he lost his 
father very early ; that he was, according to the 
common fate of orphans, defrauded by one of his 
guardians ; and that he was placed for his education 
at the School of Winchester. He was removed jn 
1623 from Winchester to Oxf<Md, and entered a gen- 
tleman commoner of Broadgate Hall, which was soon 
aftenvards endowed and took the name of Pembroke 
College, from the Earl of Pembroke, the Chancellor of 
the University. He was admitted to the degree of 
B.A., January 31st, 1626-7, being the first man of 
eminence who graduated from the new college, to which 
the zeal or gratitude of those that love it most can 
wish little better than that it may long proceed as it 
began. Having aftenvards taken his d^[ree of M.A., 
he turned his attention to physic He practised it for 
some time in Oxfordshire, but soon ^erwards, either 
induced by curiosity or invited by promises, he quitted 
his settlement and accompanied his father-in-law, who 
had some employment in Ireland in the visitation of 
the forts and castles, which the state of Ireland then 
made necessary. He left Ireland and travelled on the 
Continent, and was created an M.D. at Leyden. About 
the year 1634 he is supposed to have returned to 

Eminent Citizens of tfte Seventeenth Century. 231 

London ; and the next year to have written his cele- 
brated treatise, called Religio Medici, or, "The 
Religion of a Physician," which excited the attention 
of the public by the novelty of paradoxes, the dignity 
of sentiment, the quick succession of images, the 
multitude of abstruse allusions, the subtlety of disqui- 
sition, and the strength of language. At the time 
when this book was published the author resided at 
Norwich, where he had settled in 1636, by the persua- 
sion of Dr. Lushington, his tutor, who was then rector 
of Burnhara Westgate, in West Norfolk. His practice 
became very extensive, and in 1637 he was incorpo- 
rated Doctor of Physic, in Oxford. He married in 
1641, Mrs. Mileham, of a good family in Norfolk. 
He had ten children by her. of whom one son and three 
daughters survived their parents. In 1646, Sir Thomas 
Browne published his "Enquiries into Vulgar and 
Common Errors," which passed through many editions. 
In 1658, the discovery of some ancient urns in Norfolk, 
gave him occasion to write " Hydriotaphia, Urn- 
burial, or, a Discourse of Sepulchral Urns ;" in which 
he treats with his usual learning on the funeral rites of 
ancient nations, exhibits their various treatment of the 
dead, and examines the substances found in the 
Norfcdcian urns. To this treatise on Urn-burial was 
added the "Garden of Cyrus; or, the Quincuxial 
Lozenge, or Network Plantation of the Ancients, 
Artificially, Naturally, Mystically Considered." He 
doubted the Copernican hypothesis, on the same 
ground as some divines distrust the Cuvierian system 
of Geology, as opposed to Genesis. These vitx^ all 

232 History of Norwich. 

the tracts which he published, but many papers were 
found in his closet Of these, two collections were 
published in 1722, and all his works were issued in a 
cheap form by G. H. Bohn, and are in the Norwich 
Free Library. To the life of this learned man there 
remains little to be added, but that in 1665 he was 
chosen Honorary Fellow of the College of Physicians, 
as a man " VirUite et Uteris omalissimus," eminently 
embellished with literature and virtue. In 1671, he 
received at Norwich, the honour of Kn^hthood from 
Charles II., a prince, who, with many frailties and 
vices, had yet skill to discover excellence and virtue, to 
reward it with such honorary distinctions, at least, as 
cost him nothing. 

Sir Thomas Browne, in 1680, wrote a Reperiorium, 
or Account of the Tombs and Monuments in the 
Cathedral Church of Norwich. The basis of the work 
was a sketch hastily drawn up twenty years previously 
on the information of " an understanding singing man " 
ninety-one years old, in order to preserve the re- 
membrance of some of the monumental antiquities 
which barbarous zeal had destroyed. The reckless 
character of these ravages has thus been exhitnted 
in a description made on the spot and at the moment, 
by one who suffered in his person, property, and 

Thus the kntght lived in high reputation, till he was 
seized with a colic, which, after having tortured him 
for about a week, put an end to his life at Norwich, on 
his birthday, October 19th, 1682, having completed 
his 77th year. Some of his last words were expressions 

Eminent Citisms of the Seventeenth Century. 233 

of submission to the will of God, and fearlessness 
of death. He lies buried in the Church of St Peter 
Mancroft, within the rails at the east end of the 
chancei, with this inscription on a mural monument, 
placed in the south pillar of the altar : — 
M. s. 





BUT OCTOBR. I9, l68l. 


Mr. Simon Wilkin, F.L.S., in a supplementary 
memoir, states that Dr. Browne steadily adhered to 
the royal cause in perilous times. He was one of the 
432 principal citizens, who, in 1643, refused to sub- 
scribe towards a fund for regaining the town of 
Newcastle. Charles \\. was not likely to have been 
ignorant of this, and he had, no doubt, the good feeling 
to express his sense of it by a distinction which was, 
no doubt, gratifying to Sir Thomas Browne. Sir 
Thomas is supposed to have lived in the last house 

234 History of NorwicfL 

at the south end of the Gentleman's Walk, where the 
Savings' Bank now stands. Blomefield asserts that he 
lived where Dr. Howman then lived, (1760) and that 
he succeeded Alderman Anguish in that house ; and 
Mr. Simon Wilkin says that he ascertained by refer- 
ence to title deeds, that the last house at the southern 
extremity of the Gentleman's Walk, Haymarket, 
belonged, in Blomefield's time, to Dr. Howman. This 
house was for many years a china and glass warehouse, 
and tradition has always asserted it to be Dr. Browne's 
residence. The last occupier was Mr. Swan, and the 
Jiouse was pulled down to make room for the 
Savings' Bank. It contained some spacious rooms. 
In the drawing room there was, over the man- 
tel-piece and occupying the entire space of the 
ceiling, a most elaborate and richly ornamented 
carving of the royal arms of Charles II., no doubt 
placed there by Sir Thomas to express his loyalty, 
and to commemorate his knighthood. In Matthew 
Stevenson's poems, i2mo, 1673, there is a long poem 
on the progress of Charles II. into Norfolk, in which 
the honour conferred on Browne is thus noticed : — 

" There the king knighted the so famous Browne, 
Whose worth and learning to the world are known." 

Early in October, 1673, Evelyn went down to the 
Earl of Arlington's, at Euston, in company with Sir 
Thomas Clifford, to join the royal party. Lord Henry 
Howard arrived soon afterward, and prevailed on Mr. 
Evelyn to accompany him to Norwich, promising to 
convey him back after a day or two. " This," he says, 

Emifunt Citizens of the Sevettteenth Century. 235 

" as I could not refuse I was not hard to be persuaded 
to, having a desire to see that famous scholar and 
physician, Dr. T. Browne, author of the Religio Medici, 
and Vulgar Errors, &c., now lately knighted." After 
arriving in Norwich, Evelyn says : — 

" Next morning I went to see Sir Thomas Browne, with 
whom I had some time corresponded by letter, though I 
had never seen him before. His whole house and garden 
being a paradise and cabinet of rarities, and that of the best 
collections, especially mcdails, books, plants, and natural 
things. Amongst other curiosities. Sir Thomas had a collec- 
tion of the eggs of all the foule and birds he could procure, 
that country {especially the promontory of Norfolk) being 
frequented, as he said, by severall kinds, which seldome or 
never go further into the land, as cranes, storkes, eagles, and 
a variety of water foule. He led me to see all the remark- , 
able places in this ancient city, being one of the lai^est, and 
certainly, after London, one of the noblest in England for I 
its venerable Cathedralle, number of stately churches, 
cleanesse of the streets, and buildings of flints so exquistely 1 
headed and squared, as I was much astonished at ; but he 
told me they had lost the art of squaring the flints in which 
they once so much excelled, and of which the churches, best 
houses, and walls are built The Castle is an antique extent 
of ground which now they call Marsfield, and would have 
been a fitting area to have placed the ducal palace in. The 
suburbs are large, the prospects are sweete, with other 
amenities, not omitting the Bower gardens, in which all the 
inhabitants excel." 

At that time the hamlets of Thorpe, Lakenhatn, 
and Heigham, were all fields or cultivated grounds and 
gardens, and the city was interspersed with gardens. 

236 . History of Norwich. 

Dr. Samuel Clarke. 
Samuel Clarke, D.D., was the son of Edward Clarke, 
one of the Aldermen of Norwich, where he was born 
in 1675, and where he was educated at the Grammar 
School, his father being at that time one of the 
representatives of the city in parliament In 1691, 
he was entered as a student in Caius College, Cam- 
bridge, where his great capacity for learning was soon 
developed, and where he became distinguished as a 
metaphysician, mathematician, and divine. He was 
the author of many works, the chief of which was a 
" Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God." 
Upon his entering into holy orders, he became Chaplain 
to the learned Dr. Moore, Bishop of Norwich, with 
whom he lived in great esteem, having the advantage 
of the fine library of that prelate. In 1704, he was 
called to an office worthy of all his learning, namely, 
that of lecturer on Mr. Boyle's foundation. He 
preached sermons concerning the Evidences of Natural 
and Revealed Religion, which will alwaj's be highly 
esteemed. Soon afterwards, he was presented to the 
living of St. Bennet's, near Paul's Wharf, London, 
and where he constantly preached without notes. In 
the same year he translated the Optics of Sir Isaac 
NexvtoH into elegant Latin, which was so acceptable 
to that great philosopher, that he presented ;£^500 to 
the divine, being j^ioo for each of his children. He 
was soon after made one of the Chaplains in Ordinary, 
and in 1709, Queen Anne presented him to the Rectory 
of St. James', Westminster, when he went to Cambridge 

Eminenl Citizens of the Seventeenth Century. 237 

and took his degree of Doctor of Divinity. He died 
on May 17th, 1729, aged 54 years. 

Robert, Vixount of Yarmouth 

In 1683 died the Rt. Hon. Robert, Viscount of 
Yarmouth, Baron of Paston, Lord Lieutenant of Nor- 
folk and Norwich. He was buried at Oxnead. His 
funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. John 
Hildeyard, LL.D., then rector of Cawston, and it was 
afterwards published. At page 27 there is the follow- 
ing passage, referring to the deceased viscount ; 

"Great was his love to the ancient, loyal, and honourable 
corporation of Norwich, because the members of that body, 
generally speaking, loved the king ; they found him their 
friend and, maugre the blast of calumny, the naa (harter shall 
remain a token of it He spared no cost nor pains, as 
themselves can witness, to make the world believe that he 
loved them. Most of the tables of his house were spread 
together for their entertainment, and all his friends employed 
to bid them welcome ; nay, his very sleep was ofttimes 
broken to find out ways how best to serve them, and he 
commended the care of the city with his last breath, to all 
his best friends, and the blessing of God." 

Happy corporation, that had such a friend ; but 
Blomclield says, 

"Whatever the Dr. (Hildeyard) might think of it, the 
effects of the new charter now began to be too visible, for 
Mr. Nic Helwys was chosen mayor, and eleven common 
council in room of those eleven of the sixlj- common council 
appointed by the charter, which were not qualified ; but such 

2jS History of NorioicJi. 

choice was of no force till confirmed by the king, who sent 
a letter under the privy seal, dated at Windsor, May 17th, 
signifying by the Earl of Arundel that he approved of them, 
and the names of the two elected sheriffs were signified to 
the Lord Lieutenant, and that they were persons of loyalty, 
and therefore they desired his lordship to give his gracious 
Majesty information thereof in order to his approbation." 

Dr, John CosifL 

John Cosin, D.D., was born in this city in 1594, and 
finished his studies in Caius College, Cambridge, where 
he took his last degrees. When he entered into holy 
orders he was presented to a Prebendary in the 
Cathedral Church of Durham, and appointed Arch- 
deacon of the East Riding of Yorkshire. But the 
civil wars breaking out, and he being an active Papist, 
he was obliged to seek refuge abroad till the Restora- 
tion in 1660, when he returned, and was promoted 
first to the Deanery of Peterborough, and then to the 
Bishopric of Durham. He died at Durham, aged 78, 
in 1672. 

Dr, John Pearson. 

John Pearson, D.D., was the son of a Clergyman in 
Norwich, where he was born in 161 3. He received 
the first rudiments of learning at Eton, whence he 
was removed to King's College, Cambridge, where he 
finished his studies, and took his degrees. His first 
ecclesiastical preferment was a Prebendary of Salis- 
bury ; and soon afterwards he was chosen Rector of 

Eminent Citizens of the Seventeenth Century. 239 

St Clement's, East Cheap, where he remained till 
1660, and where he wrote his learned explanation of 
the Creed. At the Restoration, he was appointed 
Archdeacon of Suirey, and afterwards he was promo- 
ted to the See of Chester, where he continued till his 
death, in 1686. 

yo}m Goslin. 

John Goslin, a native of Norwich, flourished in the 
17th century. He was first Fellow and then Master 
of Caius College, in Cambridge, Proctor of that 
University, and thrice Vice Chancellor thereof, a 
general scholar, eloquent Latinist, and a rare physician, 
in which faculty he was Regius Professor. He was 
a great benefactor to Catherine's Hall, but left his 
native city only the honour of his name. He died in 


The Rev. John Carter. 

The Rev. John Carter was an eccentric character in 
the city during this century. He was bom at Bram- 
ford, in Suffolk, in 1594, and became upper minister 
of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, which position he held 
from 1638 to 1653. He preached three extraordinary 
sermons before the corporation, preparatory to the 
guild day festival in 1644, 1647, and 165a The title 
of the first is " The Nail Hit on the Head, and Driven 
into the City and Cathedral Wall of Norwich;" of the 
second, "The Wheel Turned by a Voice from the 
Throne of Glory;" and the third, "A Rare Sight; or, 

240 History of Norwich. 

the Lyon Sent from a Far Country, and Presented to 
the City of Norwich in a Sermon upon the Solemne 
Guild Day, June i8th, 1650." The third sermon fills 
1 50 pages, is the length of several modem sermons, and 
must have occupied two hours and a half in the deli- 
very ; a terrible long grace to a guild day dinner. It is 
ornamented with many wood cuts, among which is the 
lion in various attitudes, couchant, guardant, rampant, 
passant, &c., giving the preacher opportunities of 
displaying his knowledge of, at least, the terms of 
heraldry, and sarcastically to apply them to the 
magistracy. He says : — 

" In one respect, your city arms do very welt befit you. 
It is a lion with a castle over it Many of you can be like 
lions, very courageous, so long as you have a casde over you 
for protection and countenance ; but take away the castle, 
and who will expose himself to danger? What a sordid 
thing is this ! There is a lion couchant, but never did I 
hear of a lion crouchant, or current, a fearful and dastardly 
lion. Who among you will strike down a disorderly ale-house, 
if the brewer that serves it be an alderman, a rich man, or a 
friend ?" 

The rest of the discourse is replete with coarse 
expressions, biting sarcasms, and party prejudices, not 
likely to have edified, and much less to have pleased 
the congregation. 


J5oni;im|fflrmitg in J^foncinh. 

She Church of Rome reigned supreme over ail 
, Europe for a thousand years, but in the 15th 
' century, reason revolted against her authority, 
Lutheranism and Calvinism were the first forms of the 
revolt on the Continent, and they assumed the names 
of Presbyterianism and Puritanism in England and 
Scotland. Norwich, in common with Norfolk and 
Suffolk, eventually took up the cause of the Reforma- 
tion with a zeal and vehemence which make them 
stand alone in the annals of history. 

Norwich Nonconformists, in times of the fiercest 
persecution, held many prohibited meetings, which 
were sometimes discovered in different parts of thel 
city. Norfolk, situated as it Js in the eastern coast, 
was the'reluge ol^many protestants, who fled from the 
Netherlands to escape froni the severe persecutions of 
the infamous Duke of Alva. Even before this time, 
there were many in the county and city who objected 
to the new service book, or English liturgy, published 
by the authority of Edward VI. 

242 History of Norwich. 

The Reformation made much progress here in 
the reign of this young and pious king ; but even 
then a disposition lingered to retain and enforce 
some of the Romanist rites and ceremonies. The ex- 
cellent Bishop Hooper, who after all became a martyr, 
would probably have lost his life simply for refusing to 
wear the priestly vestments, through the rigour of 
Bishop Ridley (who himself aftenvards suffered martyr- 
dom) had he not at length consented to wear them at 
his consecration. The Baptists, the Unitarians, and all 
who went beyond the new state model were consigned 
to the flames. 

Bishop Hooper was born in the year 1495, and was 
burnt in the reign of Queen Mary. The sixty years 
of his life formed the most important period of English 
history. When he was born, the Reformation had 
just begun ; when he died it had struck such deep 
roots amongst the people, especially of Norwich and 
Norfolk, that neither force, nor persecution, nor argu- 
ment could stop its progress. In Bishop Hooper's 
time, and in his diocese of Gloucester, the ignorance 
lof the clergy was amazing. Out of 3 1 1 of his clergy ' 
Ihe found 16S unable to repeat the ten commandments; 
I31 out of the 168 could not tell in what part of the 
Bible the ten commandments were to be found ; 40 
could not tell where the Lord's prayer was given, and 
31 did not know who was the author of it. In Norfolk 
and Norwich the clergy were quite as ignorant of 
Scripture, They practised all kinds of impositions 
on the people who were debased by superstition, im- 
morality, and vice. There was over all the land a 


Nonconformity in Norwich. 243 

darkness which might be felt. The people had no I 
bibles nor testaments, and the prayers of the church 
were all in Latin, and of course the people could riot 
understand them. There was scarcely any preaching 
at all, but instead thereof profane miracle plays were 
performed in the cathedral, and were paid for like any 
other dramatic performance. 

In 1574, so notorious was the city for the non 
formity of many ol the ministers, that when nrd^;r< 
weire gfyen to Archbishop Parker "to punish the, 
PunCan "mmisters, and put down the prophecyings,! 
and readings, and commenting on the Scriptures, whichf 
had been introduced into the church," the queengaye 
himj rivate orders tn hl°tJ' " "''^'' Nnnviflhi fl'-'T-M-fl 
ingly, in 1576, many ol the Norwich ministers were 
suspended and treated so severely, that even the Norfolk 
justices presented a petition to Her Majesty, praying 
for lenity towards them. y •, 

Robert Brown, a eleiwaiaii of Norw i cl i j origi nated I /^<^ 
the sect of the Brownists, afterwards called the Inde- I 
pendents.. He was at one time a zealous promoter of 1 
that system, but English societies existed before him, 
holding similar views. According to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, 20,000 persons at least held independent 
principles of ecclesiastical polity. Amongst these 
were many men of great learning and distinction, all of 
whom were commanded to quit the realm. Wherever 
found, they were imprisoned, with or without law, 
for life. Elias Thacker and John Copping suffered 
death at Bury St, Edmund's, John Lewis was burnt 
at Norwich. Francis Kett, M.A., for holding "de- 

244 History of Norivich. 

testable opinions," was also burnt alive in Norwich. 
William Dennys was a martyr in the same cause, 
at Thetford. Greenwood, Barrow, and Penry fell as 
martyrs of conscience. Johnson, Smith, Answorth, 
Canne, Robinson, and Jacob, only escaped by flight 
to Holland, and found liberty there to form several 
churches, and to compose an elaborate account of their 
doctrines and principles, a fact which testifies to their 
enlightened piety and superior learning. 

In the reign of James I. no favour was shown to 
the Puritans, but on the contrary, severities were 
continued. The king amply fulfilled his threat to the 
Puritans at the Hampton Court conference; — "//" this 
be all your party has to say, I tvill wake them conform 
or harrie thetn out of the land, or else do worse'' By 
these proceedings the country was rendered almost 
destitute of preachers, and scandalous men undertook 
the care of souls in place of the zealous refugees. 
This King James published the " Book of Sports," in 
vindication of the encouragement of various games on 
the sabbath day. Bishop Kennett styles it " A trap 
to catch tender consciences," and a means of pro- 
moting the ease, wealth, and grandeur of the bishops. 
This book was, in the next reign, (Charles I.) re- 
published by the bigotted Archbishop Laud ; and it 
was ordered to be read m every church throughout the 
kingdom. The bishop of Norwich, then Bishop Wren, 
was very peremptory on this and other points. He is 
said to have driven upwards of 3000 persons to seek 
bread in a foreign land. The woollen trade of Norwich, 
which had been created by the Flemish refugees, was 

Novconformity in Norwich. 245 

mostly in the hands of the Puritans, and the rigorou^ 
measures of this prelate nearly destroyed it bJ 
banishing them. ^ /^ l^-*- /t>f 

Mr. W, Bridge, M.A., was the lecturer of St. George . 
Tombland, Norwich, up to the year 1637. He was a 
pious and learned man, who held other livings and 
performed his duties well. To him, on a certain day, f 
came Bishop Wren's order to read the "Book of 
Sports" on the next Sunday in church. He sat in 
dejection, with the odious volume before him, ab- 
horring the profaneness of its contents and its daring 
contradiction of Scripture. He resolved not to read 
it. He took counsel of his brethren, and several of 
them together refused compliance, fled to Yarmouth, 
and thence with sad hearts embarked for Holland, 
where they spent many anxious years, hoping to be 
allowed to return. Laud informed King Charles I, 
that Bridge had left two livings and a lectureship and 
had fled to Holland ; and the king wrote against his 
name this bitter sentence : " We are well rid of him" 
It was an expression worthy of a bigoted and worldly 
mind. Thus it appears that the reformation was not 
the work of kings or bishops, or the great and learned. 
The history of those times is the history of perse-/ 
cuting power in opposition to the progress of thel 
Gospel — an opposition the more dreadful inasmuch! 
as it was carried on under the pretence of doingl 
scr^'ice to religion. 

The Reformed Church of England acknowledged! 
the right of private judgment in theory, but ignored it I 
in practice. The Puritans, on the other hand, carried ( 

ton, I 
lof I 

246 History of Norwich, 

it out to its legitimate consequences ; and Milton, 
their great champion, advocated absolute freedom 
thought and speech as the birthright of every man. 
No doubt Puritanism ran into some excesses of 
bigotry and intolerance, but it was an intolerant age. 
Puritanism, however, preserved civil and religious 
liberty and the right of private judgment, and perpetu- 
ated that right to all sects and classes of the nation. , 
Puritanism has been chained with the sin of schism, 
but the early reformers were forced into it by perse- , 
cution for conscientious scruples respecting points of I 
doctrine and discipline. William Bridge, Asty, Allen, 
7 1 Cromwel l, and Fynch, all were thrown out of their 
_\r\ I livmgs by the Act of Uniformity, and became Non- 
/ / conformist ministers in Norwi ch. Without any con- 
ference the question put to thelTfTvas, " Will you upon 
oath conform f " The answer was, " We cannot." 
Immediate expulsion followed. Where, then, was the 
sin of schism } Their sin would have been in con- 
formity. They would have proved to the world that 
they were mere hirelings, like the " Vicar of Bray," who 
changed his religion to please the reigning sovereign 
of the day. Bridge, returning with some others 
to his native county, founded the first Independent 
church at Yarmouth about 1642. A year later the 
church at Norwich was formed into a distinct body. ' 
They met at hrst in a brew-house in St. Edmund's, | 
afterwards in the refectory over the cloisters in the 
convent formerly belonging to the Black Friars. 

Nomonfoftnity in Norwich. 

The Independents. 

We shall now briefly advert to the rise of the 
Nonconformist religious denominations in this city, 
and quote a passage from a discourse by the Rev. A, 
Reed, delivered at the Old Meeting House, Norwich, 
on February 27th, 1S42, or the occasion of the second 
centenary. He said, — 

" There is no doubt that in or about 1641 many refugees 
returned to their homes in Norwich, Yarmouth, and other 
places. Those who returned to the two former localities 
had been united together in fellowship with the church at 
Rotterdam. They earnestly desired that, as they had been 
companions in suffering, they might not cease to form one 
church. The difficulty was where to fix the joint society. 
Norwich offered liberty and opportunity. But the proximity 
of Yarmouth to the sea was desirable for safety. Early in 
1641 they met, probably in Norwich, to discuss the point; 
and agreed to send to Rotterdam for leave to gather in 
fellowship here. The assent reached them in the autumn, 
authorizing them to form a church at Norwich or other 
place. On November 13rd, 1642, they met to form a 
church. Most of the members' names, twelve in all, we 
find afterwards attached to the Norwich covenant They 
did not settle the question of place at this mcetmg. 
The Yarmouth church book records a resolution to fix 
the church at Norwich for the present They met again 
for this purpose, and the brethren at Norwich, out of 
an earnest desire to finish the work of incorporating a 
church, yielded that the church meetings (i.e. ordinances 
and ' meetings for admission of members) should be for the 

248 History of Norwich. 

present at Yarmouth. The church was to settle with all 
convenient speed where most liberty and opportunity ap- 
peared, and wherever the increase of the church was greatest; 
but none of them were required to remove their habitations 
at present. Soon after this agreement, however, the Norwich 
brethren find these concessions too inconvenient ; they beg 
that the church may be settled at Norwich, and that the 
Yarmouth people would remove to the city. At length they 
consent reluctantly to part company, and a separate church 
is formed at Norwich. But the materials for the society 
already existed, and owing to these facts, the early date of 
1642 appears to me to belong as much to us as to our sister 
society at Yarmouth." 

The records of the congregational church at Beccles 
contain information of much historic value to all the 
congregational churches in Norwich, Norfolk, and 
Suffolk, and from those records the following par- 
ticulars are derived. On June loth, 1644, the 
Church at Norwich in the Old Meeting House was 
regularly formed. Mr. Oxenbridge, assistant pastor 
at Yarmouth, and several of the Yarmouth brethren 
were present, when the covenant was adopted and 
signed afresh. On July 26th, 1647, Mr. Timothy 1 
Armitage was unanimously chosen pastor. The mem- 1 
bers were 32 in number. ' 

After the death of Mr. Armitage, in 1655, Mr. 
Thomas Allen, M.A., gave up the station he held of 
"Preacher to the City" in January, 1656,10 become 
pastor of the Old Meeting. During his long ministry 
of 17 years, the cause continued to flourish, the con- 
gregation being large. He died September 21, 1673. 


Nonconformity in Norwich. 249 

On October gth, 1675, Mr. John Cromwell was 
ordained pastor, and Mr. Robert Asty an assistant 
pastor, Mr. Asty was an ejected minister of Suffolk, 
an author, and a useful, devout preacher. Still the 
church grew, and was the centre of much good to the 
city and county, for many congregations were estab- 
lished in Norfolk and Suffolk, at Wymondham, North 
Walsham, Guestwick, Tunstead, Stalham, Edgefield, 
and other places. 

Then followed, about 1685, Mr. Martin Fynch, who 
was an ejected clergyman of Totney, in Lincolnshire. 
An elaborate inscription yet remains on his tomb- 
stone, to record his worth and usefulness. He was 
carried to his grave on the shoulders of his deacons, 
amidst great lamentations of the whole church and 
congregation. About two or three years before his 
death, a handsome and spacious brick edifice was 
erected, which is the present Old Meeting House. In 
1688, the Revolution promoted the cause of religious 
liberty Many distinguished residents in the city now 
joiiied the- nonconformists, and the resources^oT tTie 
society were increased by endowments Jeft for the 
benefit of the poor, and other purpose s. 

Mr. John Stackhouse succeeded Mr. Fynch in 1690, 
and continued pastor for 17 years. Towards the close 
of his pastorate, the church began to suffer from its 
altered circumstances. It had become far too worldly / 
for its spiritual welfare The bonds of unity, so long 
preserved by Christian charity, grew weak. The 
members divided in reference to the choice of a co- 
pastor, and the dispute ran so high, that the minister 



250 History of Norwich. 

and most of the congregation were actually driven out 
of their place of worship, and were obliged to fit up a 
meeting house in the ruins of the Black Friars' convent 
Mr. Stackhouse died without witnessing a reconciliation 
between the mutually offended parties. 

J4n_Thoaiaa_SLOlt left the pastorate of the church 
of Hitchin, in Herts, and settled in Norwich in 1709. 
The two parties were reconciled under his ministry, 
and he returned to the Old Meeting House about 
1717, under very favorable auspices. His son, Mr. 
Nichoi Scott, became his assistantTand a most unhappy 
difiference on a point of doctrine once more kindled 
the flame of discord. The son was dismissed in 1737, 
and numbers of his hearers left with him. For a time 
he lectured in the French Church, but finding little 
encouragement, he became a doctor of physic, and 
practised in the city. The father's mind was so shat- 
tered by the dispute, that he became almost unfit for 
ministerial work. He died in 1746. 

Mr. Scott was, in his latter years, assisted by Mr . 
Abraham Tozer, who now succeeded to the charge at 
Norwich, 5EI^oddr4dge assisted at his ordination, 
and Mr Samuel Wood was chosen co-pastor with Mr. 
Tozer. On the removal of the latter to Exeter, Mr. 
Wood, afterwards DrWoM, bekt^be past©«Lfl^e 
■ for twent y Vears. The church enjoyed, under his care, 
a season of prosperity and peace, and the meeting 
house was densely crowded. He died, November 2nd, 
1767, much lamented. 

i-Mr. Swrntd-^-NcwtoUi^ who had been assistant 
ireacher, was ordained pastor February 16th, 1768, 

Noftconformity in Norwich. , 251 

and continued in the office fifty -six years . * He gave 1 
the second list of the whole number of members, 1 
which had increased to 108. He had five assistants [ 
in succKSten: — Mf. Hull was the last assistant, and on 
the death of Mr. Newton, June 29th, 1809, succeeded - 
him in the pastoral office. The number of members 
increased to 112 in 1811, and to 156 in 1S20. Mr. 
Hull officiated fourteen years, and then resigned in con- 
sequence of a disagreement with the deacons. He 
became a church clergyman and perpetual curate of 
St. Gregory's in this city. 

The Rev. Stephen Morell removed from Exeter and 
was chosen pastor in June 17th, 1824, and he died in 
October of the same year. The church next invited 
the services of the Rev. J. B. Innes, of Weymouth, in 
1825, and being chosen pastor, he continued in the 
office twelve years. He died in April, 1837. He 
was greatly beloved by his personal friends, and his 
character and talents were held in general esteem. 

The vacant office was next filled by the Rev. J. H. 
Godwin, who was ordained to it on December 6th, 
1837. After fulfilling the pastoral duties for two 
years, he became resident tutor of Highbury College. 
The Rev. A. Reed was then invited to fill the office, 
and became pastor over a church of 190 members. 
He continued till 1855, and then removed to a wider 
sphere of labour. The Rev. John Hatlett was invited 
in the following year, and is now the esteemed minister 
of the church. Mr. Hallett, in a recent contribution 
to the pages of the Evangelical Magazine on the 
history of the Old Meeting House, says: — 

252 History of Norwich. 

"The Rev. A. Reed, B.A., now of St. Leonard's, was Mr. 
Godwin's successor till 1855. Under his superintendence, 
bicentenary services, commemorating the foundation of tlie 
church, were held, which, judging from published and oral 
reports, must have been of a stirring and deeply interesting 
character. Spacious school-rooms were erected, and large 
day-schools established. Many still live in our midst who 
gratefully attest the faithfulness and success of Mr. Reed's 

"In April, 1856, the writer was, he believes, divinely led 
to occupy the vacant post. For obvious reasons, the history 
of the last twelve years must remain untold. It may, 
however, be stated that the present pastor, like his pre- 
decessor, has had the privilege of celebrating a bicentenary. 
For reasons before assigned, it will probably be conceded 
diat_nowhere was it more proper that a bicentena ry com - 
O-Of tjie t^^xtmeot-of r66t-6liQuld^be~Iield than 

in this Old Meeting House, and that a more fitting way 
of commemorating it could not be devised than that of 
enfranchising the building in which some of them_labpured, 
and the ' yard ' in which they sleep. This was accordingly 
done. The premises, wh^cb■we^e^easehold, and the lease of 
which was nearly expired, were purchased and repaired at a 
large outlay, and then put in trust for the denomination. 
'Thus, for nearly two centuries, has the Lord preserved to 
Himself a worshipping people in this place. Thousands 
have found this ancient sanctuary the very ' House of God,' 
and, literally, ' the gate of Heaven,' and are now enjoying 
the full glory they anticipated here. And,' adds my pre- 
decessor, with a thankfulness and faith in which I fully share, 
' still the waters flow strong and deep, and the banks are 
green with promise, and through future ages Che brook shall 
not be dried up, but with purer, wider, stronger, and more 

Nonconformity in Norwich. 25 3 

fertilizing current, shall foim one of those millennial streams 
wherewith the whole earth shall be watered as a fruitful 
garden of the Lord.'" 

The Baptists. 

Mr. Martin Hood Wilkin, in his life of Joseph 
Kinghorn, gives the following account of the origin of 
the Baptist denomination. A General (Arminian) 
Baptist Church was formed in Norwich in 1686 by t 
the learned and zealous Thomas G rantham. They 
purchased a part of the White Friars' Priory in St 
James's, on the site of which they built the Meeting 
House now known as the Priory Yard ChapeL From 
this Church several members separated at a very early 
period and formed the P articu lar (Calvinisti c) B aptist 
Church, over which Mr. iCinghorn afterwards presided.-' 
Of its history he hasIeTt" a-somrwhat elaborate sketch 
in the notes of the last sermon he preached in the 
Meeting House, in St Mary's, before it was taken 
down in 181 1. He says, 

" Of the origin of this Church I find no record. The first 
date in our old Church book is 1691. In 1693, we find ao | 
account of admonition given to a brother who had, 'for | 
several years past,' withdrawn himself from die Communion 
of the Church. • * * I find a statement of the senti- 
ments of the Church in that time, entitled, 'The several 
articles of our (aith, in which with one accord we agree.* 
Of the state of the Church I can say but litde. A list of 55 ] 
members follows, which appears to have been the number I 
at that time. Of their minister I can say still less, except ' 

354 History cf Norwich. 

that the second and third articles in the book are drawn up 
with that precision which marks the junction of talent and 
education, especially at a time when few had any claim to 
the advantages of a classical education. One of these is 
signed ' Edward AVilliams, pastor.' » • * * At this 
time our ancestors met for the worship of God in the 
'Granary,' in St. Michael's Coslany. Their baptisms were 
performed in the river. At one period, a friend had pretnises 
convenient, and in the memory of some now alive, they were 
used for that purpose ; but such is the effect of habit, that 
the prejudice in favour of a mode so primitive continued 
some time after better conveniences were obtained. From 
this period nothing of importance is to be discovered tilt 
P1745. Then the premises which stood on this spot were pur- 
\chased and the Meeting (house) was erected, which was 
/nearly tivo-thirds the si^e of the present building. When it 
/ was finished I do not find, but from a private record I am 
' informed, that Mr. Lindoe, who for many years was an 
honourable and valued deacon, was the first person baptised 
in this house, and this was on March isih, 1746. From this 
period, for some time, the Church seems to have worn a 
flourishing appearance on the whole. They had a minister, 
Mr. John Steame, who was evidently a superior man. He 
died in July, 1755- Rev. George Simson, M.A., ffom Cam- 
bridge, accepted a call from Mr. Steame's Church, went to 
Norwich, in 1758, conrinued there two or three years, ancTthen 
removed to Warwick, where he had formerly been pastoi, arid 
where, weighed down by age and infirmities, he died suddenly 
in 1763. After this period there was an evident decline for 
some years, though to what extent I am not able to say. 

I Afterwards there was an appearance of prosperity. In 1766 
I find a list of members again, amounting to 59, the largest 
number hitherto met with, but alas ! after that period, there 

Nonconformity in Norwich. 255 

was much to be lamented. There was the evil conduct of 
some, and a spirit of division in others, which all tended to 
mischief. « * * * But we are now approaching a 
period within the remembrance of many of you, in which it 
will be useless to attempt to trace the history of events 
which you know. Suffice it then, to say that causes already 
mentioned brought the Church and congregation down to a 
very low ebb, when Mr. David, whose name X have heard so 
many of you repeat with esteem and affection, first came 
here. On his ordination, the list of members that appeared 
in the Church book, and which included all the members as 
they blood at that time, was only 31 ; and now events took a 
turn. The short period of his life was distinguished by its 
utility. The Meeting House became too small for the con- 
gregation, and in 1783, it was enlai^ed to its present size." 

Such is Mr. Kinghorn's account (condensed) of the 
early Baptist Churches. After a visit to the North, he 
returned to Norwich in July, 1789, and then com- \ 
menced the long career of his ministry at St Mary's 
Chapel, though the invitation to the pastoral office was 
not received till some months afterwards. He rigidly 
adhered to what is called "strict communion" in his 
Church, admitting only those who had been immersed 
to the Lord's supper; and on this point he maintained 
a long controversy with Mr. Robert Hall, of Bristol, 
who advocated " free communion " with all believers 
in a Work published in 1815. The Rev. J. Kinghorn 
was much esteemed by his numerous friends, including 
Mrs. Opie, j. J. Gurney, Esq., Rev. J. Alexander, 
Bishop Bathurst, Mr. W. Wilkin, Mr. W. Taylor, and 
others, of Norwich, and many more men of learning 

2S6 History of Norwich. 

all over the country. He took rank among the Non- 
conformists with Mr. R. Hall of Bristol, Mr. Foster, 
the author of Essays on Decision of Character, Mr. 
Innes, and Mr. James A. Haldane, of Edinburgh. 

The following Tributary Lines are by Mrs. Opie, 
on hearing it said that J. Kinghorn "was fit to die." 

" Hail ! words of tniih, thai Christian comfort give ! 

But then the ' fit to die,' how fit to live ! 

To live a bright example to mankind, 
' Feel to the lame and eyesight to the blind ! ' 

To lift the lamp, the word of God, on high ; 

To point to Calvary's mount the sinner's eye; 

To tread the path the first Apostles trod. 

And earn that precious name, ' a man of God.' 

He lived whom Christian hearts deplore. 

And hence the grief— he lives for us no more. 

But faith exulting joins the general cry, 

He, fit to live, was greatly fit to die ! " 

Mr. Kinghorn was succeeded by the Rev. W. 
Brock, who was the esteemed pastor for many years, 
and is now the minister of Bloomsbury Chapel, 
London. He was followed by the present minister, 
the Rev. G. Gould. 

The Calvinistic Methodists in Norwich seem to 
have been originated by Mr. James Wheatley, who 
came to the city about 1750, and preached at first in 
the open-air, on Tombland and the Castle HilL 
jGreat excitement was produced, and a temporary 
building was soon erected, and called the Tabernacle. 
The site has been changed, but the name is still re- 
tained. The present Tabernacle was built in 1784. 

Nonconformity in Noraiich. 257 

. The Wesleyan Methodists first appeared in Norwich 
\ in I7S4, when the Revs, John and Charles Wesley 
visited the city, and the Rev. j. Wesley preached here 
for some time, and on leaving, appointed Mr. T\_Olixer 
in his room. One of his successors"was the Rev. 
Rr"Robinson, afterwards at Cambridge, who also 
preached for some time at the Tabernacle ; and 
another was Dr. Adam Clarke, the learned Com- 
mentator, who was appointed in 1783, but left in 
1785. Their first chapel was built in 176$, liTCherry 


facial ^faie of ihQ d^Hg from thq Jant[teenth to 
tliq (Bightijqnih Ci;nftiric5. 

■ EFORE we proceed to chronicle the leading 
local events of the i8th century, it may not be 
altogether unprofitable to review briefly the 
social state of the city during some 300 or 400 years 
preceding. In doing this we may now and then have 
to advert to matters to which we have alluded already; 
but at the risk even of an occasional repetition, it will 
be worth while — in order to help our readers to appre- 
ciate subsequent improvements at their proper worth — 
to consider a little more minutely than we have yet 
done, the physical circumstances under which the 
citizens have lived in former centuries, and the various 
influences to which they have been subject. 

A " Chapter of Horrors " might be written, descrip- 
tive of the plagues, pestilences, famines, floods, and 
fires, which devastated the city and county for 300 

Plagues and Pestilences. 259 

years. It would seem as if the darkness and gloom 
of the physical world corresponded at times with the 
superstitions and vices of the people. The dark ages 
were ages of terrible calamities, and England was 
then a terrible country to live in. Plagues and pesti- 
lences now and again desolated the whole land, and 
Norfolk and Norwich did not escape the ravages of 
diseases emphatically named the "Black Death." 
Exaggerated accounts must have been given of the 
desolations caused by these various scourges, or else 
both city and county must have more than once lost 
the great part of their inhabitants. 

Blomefield is responsible for very dark pictures 
indeed ; but his statements, right or wrong, have been 
endorsed by later compilers of local history. We are 
told, by one writer, for instance, that : — 

"In 1348, the plague, which had lately ravaged the 
greatest part of the known world, broke out in this city ; 
wherein there died, according to the most credible accounts, 
within the space of twelve months, upwards of 57,000 
persons, besides religious and beggars ; and this will not 
appear very surprising, when we consider that in some places 
not one-fifth part of the people were left ahve, and that 
Norwich was more populous at that time than it has ever 
been since. It then contained sixty churches, besides con- 
ventual ones, within the walls ; and the large parishes of 
Heigham and Pockthorpe, and the large chapel of St Mary 
Magdalene without them." 

Such is the astounding statement in a local history 
printed by John Crouse, in 1768. Where he got his 

26o History of Norwich. 

"credible accounts" he does not say, and he n 
gives the statement of the Domesday Book, that in 
ioS6, the city contained only 1565 burgesses; so that 
the population must have increased in 250 years to a 
most fabulous extent, for S7,ooo persons to have died 
of the plague in 1348. In 1377, a census was taken 
of some large towns, and Norwich was then found to 
contain 5300 people. But in truth the number, S7,O0O, 
very probably applied to the whole diocese, for the 
same local history states : — 

" This severe visitation was not confined to the city alone, 
but cruelly extended itself all over the diocese ; so that in 
many monasteries and religious houses, there were scarce 
two out of twenty left alive. From the register book it 
appears that in the course of the year there were 863 insti- 
tutions. The clergy dying so fast, that they were obliged to 
induct into livings numbers of youths who had but just 
received the tonsure." 

The register in question was, no doubt, one of the 
whole diocese. 

In 1 361 there happened a great dearth, attended by 
the plague ; this was called the second pestilence. 
And on January 15th, in the same year, there arose so 
furious a storm of wind from the south west, as to 
throw down the tower of the cathedral, which falling 
on the choir demolished a great part of it The storm 
raged violently for six or seven days, and was suc- 
ceeded by a prodigious fall of rain, which occasioned 
incredible damage by inundations. Where the in- 
undations occurred is not stated in the local history. 

Plagues and Pestilences. 261 

but if in the city the damage must have been great 

In 1369, the plague broke out afresh and carried off 
great numbers of people very suddenly. Yet in 1371, 
the citizens were commanded to furnish the king with 
a good bai^e, sufficiently equipped for war to serve 
against his enemies, the French and Spaniards. This 
does not indicate that the city had been almost de- 
populated only a few years before. Indeed, during 
all this time the citizens had been doing their best by 
legal contests to hinder Yarmouth being made a staple 
town, though they did not succeed. 

About 1390 a great mortality broke out in the city, 
occasioned by the people eating unwholesome food; 
and this not so much from a scarcity of corn as of 
money to purchase it. The plague raged greatly in 
Norfolk and in many other counties, and was nearly 
equal in severity to the first great pestilence. So 
states the local narrative which we have just quoted ; 
and yet, according to the census of 1377, as already 
stated, the population was only 5300! What reliance 
then can be placed on such accounts .' The calamities 
recorded were, no doubt, suiBciently awful without the 
aid of exaggeration. 

In 1578, the plague again broke out, and continued 
to rage nearly two years ; destroying 2335 natives 
and 2482 strangers. During the infection, it was j 
ordered that every person coming from an infected I 
house, should carry in his hand a small wand two/ 
feet in length ; and that no such person should appear/ 
at any court or public place, or be present at anjj 

1263 History of Norwich. 

I sermon ; and that the inscription, " Lord have mercy 
f on us," should be placed over the door of every infected 
house, and there remain until the house had been clear 
of the infection for one month at least. 

In 1583, tlie plague broke out once more, and 800 
or 900 persons died of it, chiefly "strangers;" and in 
1588, the same disease again raged in the city,but not 
very violently. Notwithstanding all these awful visi- 
tations, no proper sanitary measures appear to have 
been adopted. 

In 1593, there happened so great a drought, that 
many cattle perished for want of water ; but it is • 
stated that in the year following it scarcely ceased 
raining, day or night, from June 21st to the end of 

In 1602, the plague again raged with almost un- 
precedented fury, there dying thereof 30,578 in 
London, and 3076 in Norwich, This visitation, more- 
over, was attended with so great a scarcity, that wheat 
sold for ten, rye for six, and barley for five shillings a 
bushel — a very high price in those days ; and the 
poor in the city must then have been in a dreadful 
state of destitution. Again, in the summer of 1609, 
the city was visited by its former scourge, though but 
few died of it. The mayor received a letter from the 
privy council to keep up the ancient strictness and 
severity of lent, as if the poor had not fasted long 
enough ! 

In 1625, we find that something like sanitary mea- 
sures were begun. On July 12th of that year, the 
mayor received a commission authorising the body 

Plagues and Pestilences. 263 

corporate to levy a tax on all the inhabitants, to be 
applied towards scouring the ditches, and the removal 
of all nuisances in and about the city, the better to 
prevent the spreading of the plague which had lately 
broken out in Yarmouth, having been occasioned by 
the arrival there of some infected persons. These 
precautions not Having the desired effect, the Black 
Tower, then on Butter Hills, was fitted up for the 
reception of the afflicted poor. In September, about 
40 died in a week, and the plague raged till May, 1626, 
when it began to abate. As many as 143 1 persons 
died while the disease continued. 

In 1646, the plague again made its appearance 
Norwich, but its effects were not very fatal. In i66j, 
however, it broke out once more, and made dreadful 
ravages;" carrying off 2251 persons. During its 
tinuance. at the instance of the County Magistrates, 
the Market was held in the Town Close, and the City 1 
was not quite cleared of the disease till the end of I 
1667. The Bishop then ordered September igth to 
be observed as a day of general thanksgiving to God . 
for His great mercy in putting a stop to the pestilence. 
All quite right and proper, but had there been more 
cleansing as well as praying, the city might not have 
suffered so severely. The Corporation had utterly and i 
entirely ignored its chief duty in regard to all sanitary | 
rules and regulations. There was scarcely an apol<^^ 1^ 
for a system of drainage, and never a sufficient supply - 
of water. The poor people were cooped up in narrow 
yards, courts, and streets, and, on account of high 
prices, could seldom obtain wholesome food. They 

adful 1 / 
coil- ]}/ 

264 History of Norwich. 

had a terrible revenge in these direful plagues, which 
destroyed the rich in their fine houses, as well as the 
poor in their hovels. 

I Some idea of the social state of the city during this 
period may be formed from a few gleanings from the 
City Records, from which it will appear, that from the 
14th till the i8th century, though the authorities 
neglected to improve the sanitary condition of the 
city, t hey t ook great care to protect the peoptejrom 
frauds of brewers, traders, and manufacturerSi_ viho 
were at least strongly suspected of being addicted to 
dishonest. practices. Mr. R. Fitch, orthTT'city, has 
published some interesting notices of " Brewers' Marks 
and Trade Regulations." These are of great historical 
interest, and we therefore make no apology to our 
readers for reproducing the following extracts : — 

" Scarcely a trade was exempt from these regulations, some 
of which were attended with espionage so peculiar and strict 
as to lead us to wonder why public opinion, although in 
those days admittedly weak, was not so far aroused as, by 
its own voice, to free the community from some of the 
petty, if not the heavier restrictions. 

" Brewers, we discover, had especial symbols of their own, 
which they registered when licensed to follow their occupa- 
tions, and it was also found that these marks were borne by 
successive followers of the same trade, until the business of 
succeeding firms became extinguished by the death or retire- 
ment of the last of a long line of brewers, and then only did 
the particular symbol fall into disuse. 

" From the year 1606 to 1725. no less than fifty separate 
k marks have been found in the City of Norwich, some of 

Trade Regulations in the lyth Century. 265 

them being borne as symbolical of a particular brew-house, 
by eight or nine persons, who followed each other in one 
and the same occupation. These marks were noted in a 
variety of documents, belonging to the Corporation, one 
preserved in their muniment room. They appeared, for 
instance, in a ' Brewer's book,' or the book of the ' Clarke 
of the Market,' and in books recording the proceeding of 
city courts and assemblies. The following extracts taken 
from the ' Brewers' Book ' relate to the government of all I 
brewers' houses and tippling houses, fully bearing out the | 
opinion previously expressed as regards the strictness of the/ 
laws by which such places were regulated. 

"'The cnquirie for Brewers to ye Booke of ye Clarke of ye , 
Market, and is taken out of his booke : — 

" ' Items, to be enquired of Ale brewers ; whether they brewe \ . J 
their ale of anic mancr of fustic, dustic, or wealved maulte, 
mixed or mingled with any hoppes, rosoii, chalke, or any other -'''^ 
noisome or unwholesome com or liquor. 

"'And yt they make noe rawe ale or long roping ale, keeping 
their Ale fixed, yt is to say, twelve pence highning and twelve 
pence lowning in a quarter of maulte. For when ye mace buy a 
quart of maulte for two shillings, then ye may sell a gallon of ye 
best ale for an halfe penny ; three shillings, three farthings ; 
foure shillings, foure farthings ; five shiUmgs, live farthings ; 
six shillings, six farthings ; seven shillings, seven farthings ; 1 \/ 
eight shillings, eight farthings; nine shillings, nine farthings; I 
and so forth and no further. J 

" ' And to sell a quarte of the best ale for a halfe penny, with ~.. 
measures true sized, and sealed according to the King's standard, " 

and doing the contraric to be pur 

"Thus it appears that brewing was a very ancient business 
in this city in the i5th century, and the best ale was sold for \ 
a half penny per quart before the iniquitous malt-tax was 

266 History of Norwich, 

" The following are extracts from the statutes, &c. 

" * Statute 23, Henry 8. That no Brewer shall hence forth 
occupie ye mister ie or craft of coupers, no make any barrells, &c., 
wherein they shall put their beer or ale. Penalty 3<L 4d. for 
every vessell. 

" * Every vessell to be made of seasonable wood, and marked 
with ye coupers' mark, ye contents of every vessell for Beer, as 
above said or more. 

** * Coupers not to inhance ye prices of vessells, but keepe this 
rate, on forfeit of 3d. 4d. for every vessell, defective or enhanced, 
viz. Barren for beer, ix^- ; Kynderkyn, v^- ; Ferkyn, iijd- ; Ale 
Barrell, xvjd* ; Kynderkyn, ix^- ; Ferkyn, v**- Brewers not to put 
Beer or Ale to sale but in Barrells, &c., contcyning as above 
said. And to sell at such prices as affixed by ye Justices of ye 
Peace of ye County, or Maior, Sheriff, or other head officers of 
City, Borough, and Town Corporate, under forfeiture as above, 
under Beere brewers out of Clarke of Markets book, half to ye 
king, and half to him who will sue.' " 

" No doubt other traders, as well as brewers and keepers 
of tippling houses, were regulated by corresi)onding laws. 
Indeed this appears from the records and orders in the books 
of the corporate assembly. In the 8th year of Edward IV., 
the mayor issued an order in the name of the king, that 
brewers were not to sell yeast, but to give it away to whoever, 
wanted it, as it had been freely given away time out of mind. 
By the 4th and 5 th of Philip and Mary, it was enacted 
that :— " 

"No here brucr to brewe nor sell to any typpler, or other 
person, any here called doble doble here, but only two sorts of 
here, viz., best here and small bere, upon forfeit of ye beer and 

According to the Brewers* Assembly book, 30th July, 
1657, the brewers agreed, by reason of 2/6 excise per barrel, 
that they would not sell any strong beer to any ale-house 

Trade Regulations in the lyth Century. 267 

keeper, under 13/- per barrel of beer, and excise, it was 
also agreed in August, 1657, that alehouse keepers might 
sell one wine quart of strong beer for a penny. There were 
three sorts of beer of different prices, viz., 4/-, 6/-, and 10/- 
per barrel, beside excise. The brewers of beer petitioned 
strongly against the tax of 3/6 per barrel, as a great hardship 
and injustice. The names of 40 brewers are recorded in this 
city, from 1600 to 1725-" 

" Brewers' marks are entered as early as 1606, and as late 
as 1725. The mark. No. i, John Boyce, was first borne by | 
Henry Woodes, in 1606, and after him by five successive 1 
brewers, ending with this John Boyce, in 17*5. As yet, the 
regulations relating to trade marks generally are very imper- 
fectly known, leaving a wide field of research to those who 
desire further information. The same marks passed from 
one brewer to his successors, and they were held in all their 
integrity, till within a century and a half of our own time. 
It would be an important contribution to local history, if all 
the rules relating to trade could be collected and elucidated." 


Ilor.tttrti in 1h^ (Kijjlif^itnth d^cnlnr^. 

^HE Reformation had now become an established 
, fact in the Churches of England and Scotland ; 
' the glorious Revolution of 1688 had been 
accomplished ; the civil wars were over, and the coun- 
try enjoyed a long period of repose. Local events 
had, it is true, become of less importance, because less 
connected with general history ; but the narrative will 
not be the less interesting to local readers. Walls and 
gates still surrounded the old city, and confined it 
within narrow limits. All the principal streets within 
the walls were now built. The population had in- 
creased to 28,000, the working classes being chiefly 
employed in textile manufactures, which were in great 
demand all over Europe. The operatives were well 
employed and well paid during the greater part of 
this century. It was, in short, a flourishing period in 
the history of Norwich, as rq^ards its manufactures 
and its trade. 

Queen Anne was proclaimed here on March I2th, 
1701, and was crowned on April 3rd, 1702, with 
extraordinary exhibitions of joy. In this year, too, 

Norwich in tfic Eighteenth Century. 26g 

the art of printing, which had been for some time ./ 
discontinued here, was revived, and Francis Burgess // 
soon afterwards opened a printing office near the Red v 
Well. In 1701, the first newspaper, called the Norwich 
Gazetter^was-pabhshcd by Henry Cosgrove, he being 
assisted in the undertaking by the celebrated Edward 
Cave, the original planner and founder of the Gentle- 
mans Magasine, which was first published in i73i- 
The Gazette was subsequently enlarged, and called 
the Norfolk Chronicle and Norwich Gazette, published 
by Messrs. Stevenson and Matchett The former -J— 
gentleman was a learned antiquarian, and published 
"The Antiquities of Ely," 

In 1705, the Weavers' Hall was broken open, and 
the books were destroyed, since which time the custom 
of sealing stuffs has been disused. What was the 
cause of the tumult does not appear. 

In 1706, a great part of the city was laid under 
water by two violent floods, both of which happened 
in the month of November. 

In 1711, the first act was passed for erecting work- 
houses, &c., in this city; by which it was provided — 

"That from and after the first day of May, 171a, there 
shall be a coiporation to continue for ever, within the said 1 
city of Norwich and county of the same, and liberties thereof, I 
consisting of mayor, recorder, and steward, justices of the / 
peace, sheriffs, and aldermen of the said ci^ for the time , 
being, and of thirty-two other persons of the most honest,' 
discreet, and charitable inhabitants of the said city and ] 
county, in the four great wards of the said city, and the I 
towns, and out parishes in the county of the said city, in' 

270 History of Norwich, 

such manner as is hereinafter expressed, and the said thirty- 
two persons shall be elected on the third day of May next 
ensuing, or within three days after, at an assembly of the said 
city, for that purpose to be held, by the votes of the mayor, 
sheriffs, citizens, and commonalty, in common coimcil 
assembled, or of the major part of them present" 

Then follow the provisions of the act by which 
all the parishes in the city were incorporated for the 
relief of the poor. The Court of Guardians was consti- 
tuted, and empowered to assess to the poor rates all 
lands, houses, tenements, tithes, stock, and personal 
estates. The assessment of stock and personal estate, 
as may be easily imagined, caused great dissatisfaction 
amongst the rate-payers possessed of property, and 
was abolished in 1827, when a new act was obtained 
which considerably altered the constitution of the 
court. This act was further amended by another 
passed in 1831, and that was superseded in 1863, by 
the act at this time in force. 

In 17 1 2, the steeple of the new Hall, now St 
Andrew's Hall, fell down and was never rebuilt 

In 171 3, the Duke of Ormond was appointed Lord- 
Lieutenant of Norfolk and Norwich, in the room of 
Lord Townshend. 

George I. was proclaimed here on the 3rd of August, 
1 7 14, two days after Queen Anne died. 

In 1714 a Bethel was built for the reception of poor 
lunatics by Mrs. Mary Chapman— one of the first 
charitable foundations in this country for those un- 
happy persons. In 17 17 she endowed the same by 
her will, in which is the following pious clause : — 


Nonvich in the Eighteenth Century. 271 

" Whereas it has pleased Almighty God to visit and afilict 
some of my nearest relations with lunacy, but has blessed 
me with the use of my reason and understanding; as a 
monument of my thankfulnesss for this invaluable mercy, I 
settle Bethel, &c., for this purpose." 

She was the widow of the Rev. Mr. Chapman, minister 
of St. Lawrence. 

In 1715, in consequence of the rebellion In the 
north, an artillery company of lOO men was first 
raised in Norwich. William Hall, Esq., was their -^ 

On January 8th of the same year. Sir Peter Seaman,] 
an Alderman, died and left provision for binding out//""/. ' 
two poor city boys yearly. On December 17th of the' 
same year, Thomas Hall, Esq., merchant, died. He 
founded a monthly sacramental lecture ; bequeathed 
several legacies to charities, and left £100 for a gold 
chain to be worn by the Mayor of Norwich, and which 
is the same as is now worn by the deputy mayor. It 
weighs 23 ozs. 6 dwts. Mr. Hall was interred with 
great funeral pomp at St Geoi^e's Colegate. His 
portrait was presented by John and Edward Taylor, 
Esqs., to the corporation, and was placed in the , ' '*' 
common council chamber, May, 1821. '' ^ h' 

An act was passed i 
of the manufacturers ( 

magistrates, and for regulating the elections of such 

""SHout this time another act was passed for clearing, 
deepening, extending, maintaining, and improving the 

i in 1722 for the better qualifying ^ _ 
rs of stuffs and yams to act as /\\ 

2/2 History of Noranch. 

haven and piers of Great Yarmouth, and for deep- 
ening the rivers flowing into the harbour; and also for 
preserving ships wintering in the haven from accidents 
by fire. For these purposes certain duties were to be 
paid for 21 years after Lady day, 1723, on all goods 
unladen in the haven of Yarmouth, or in the sea called 
Yarmouth roads. This act was very important to the 
navigation between Yarmouth and Norwich. 

In 1724 the Sheriff's Office was rebuilt, and the 
statue of Justice placed on the Guihihall. Alderman 
Norman died the same year, and left an estate in 
Norwich for charitable purposes. 

About this time the society of " Free and Accepted 
I Masons" appeared publicly in this city. Mr. Prideaux, 
I son of the Rev. Dr. Prideaux, Dean of Norwich, 
. // author of ' The Connection between the Old and New 
I Testaments," was the first Master here. Their lodge 
' was at the Maid's Head Inn. B. Bond Cabbell, Esq., 
has within the last few years bought the old Assembly 
( Rooms in Theatre Street for the Order. 

On September 28th, 1725, a petition was presented 

to the mayor and corporation, signed by the principal 

traders in Norwich, requesting the use of the New 

,' Hall in St Andrew's for an Exchange, which was 

V immediately granted. On October 4th of the same 

year, the court, attended by nearly 200 gentlemen 

and principal tradesmen, came to the New Hall in 

; St Andrew's, which was then opened and solemnly 

I proclaimed to be an exchange, on which occasion the 

; Recorder (Stephen Gardiner, Esq.) delivered the fol- 

" lowing address ; — 

Norwich in the Eighteenth Century. 273 

"Gentlemen, — This place is now opened with an intent 
to promote traffic and commerce, Here, fonnerly, God was 
worshipped, though in a corrupt manner ; and may the con- 
sideration of the sacred use this building has been put to so 
Tar influence all that shall resort hither, that nothing in the 
course of business may be here transacted but with great 
justice and honesty, I wish success to this undertaking, and 
the prosperity of the city in every respect." 

The hall continued open as an exchange onl y one v^ 
year, and it was open every day in the week except 
Saturdays and Sundays, which proves that a consider- 
able mercantile trade must have been carried on in 
the city at that time. Soon afterwards was begun the 
impolitic system of local taxation in trade, which has 
almost ruined Lynn and Yarmouth, and which greatly 
retarded the prosperity of Nonvich. In 1725 the"! 
corporation obtained an act, which came into operation 
on May 1st, 1726, for levying toUs upon all goods or [ 
merchandise brought up the river higher than Thorpe j 
Hall. The dues were to be applied towards rebuilding [ 
the walls and bridges, &c., but this was done to a very J 
small extent. 

On February 24th, 1726, in consequence of the 
proceedings of the Pretender, Charles Stuart, who -Y 
endeavoured to secure the crown of England, a loyal 
address of the corporation was presented to King / 
Geoi^e I. by the city members. That monarch died 
at the palace of the Bishop of Osnaburgh, on his way 
to Hanover, on June nth, 1727, 

George H. and his Queen Caroline were crowned on g ^ 
October lith, 1727, and there was a grand illumination I " 
and bonfire here in honour of the event. 


History of Norwich. 

^ A 

^ In 1729 an act was passed for the better regulating 

:1 I the city elections, and for preserving the peace, good 

^ \ order, and government of the city ; and at an assembly 

I on the Guild eve, the mayor and aldermen of Norwich 

t first sat in the council chamber, and the comqion 

council in their own room ; for^by that art a majority 

of jjach body was required to a corporate orde r, whilst^, 

before it passed, the two bodies sat, debated, jjxd Yotgd- 

/ together. In 1730, under this act, three nominees for 
each of the four great wards were first elccte'd,'w£2 
^ returned the remaining number of common council- 
men, sixty in the whole. 

In 1730, the Norwich Mercury was first issued by 
y/ William Chase. It was afterwards published for many 
years by the late Mr. T? 1 ^li g rf\ l\/r 1 rlr on^ i^ Ra rc\^ a nH 
Mr. Kinnebrook. "Mr. R. M. Bacon was the editor, 
and one of the most talented men who ever appeared 
in this city as a political writer and critic. He was the 
author of " The Elements of Vocal Science," and other 

At the quarterly assembly held in 1730, on St. 

Matthias' day, 161 freemen were admitted and sworn, 

and afterwards it was reported by the committee, 

appointed for that purpose, that they had treated with 

St George's Company, who had agreed to resign their 

books, charters, and records, into the hands of the 

corporation, which was done accordingly, and the 

power of the company ceased. In consequence of 

this, the form of a procession was arranged-JoF-the 

> Quild^^ay.instead-ofjhat formerly exhibited .by the 

^ St George's Company. It was furtTier ordered that, for 


Norwich in the Eighteenth Century, 275 

the future, every mayor shall be excused making a 
Gujld^breakfast, or holSing any mayor's feasts in May 
or A ugust, as heretofore, and that, in lieu thereof, the 
new mayor shall make a feast, on the day. on which , ^ 
Jie is ftwornyat the New Hall, and there.£ntertaill the /^\ 
recorder, steward, sheriffs, justices, aldermen, and their 
lacH€S,~and the common coimcilmen ; and every mayor 
who makes such a feast shall be entitled to the sum ^ 
of ;^ioo, to be paid by the chamberlain immediately 
after the said feast 

In 1732, Sherers* Cross, commonly called Charing 
Cross, a neat ancient stone pillar, was taken down. 
The cross was so called from the sheermen or cloth 
cutters, who principally dwelt in this part of the city. 
The corner house, in the reign of Edward II., belonged 
to Christopher Shere-hill, or at Sherers' hill. In the 
same year the old Market Cross was demolished, 
being sadly out of repair. 

In I733» July iith, the Rt. Hon. Sir Robert 
Walpole, of Houghton in Norfolk, was, in person, 
sworn a freeman of the corporation, and presented by y/ 
the mayor with a copy of his freedom in a gold box. 

In 1734, Sir Robert Walpole presented the city with 
a gilt mace, beautifully enchased, weighing 168 ounces. 
On the cup part are the arms of Sir Robert and of the \ 
city. A_new damask gown was also bought by the • 
corporation, to be worn by the Speaker on all public 

On October 30th, 1739, being the king's birthday, '/ 
war was proclaimed here against Spaia The mayor ' x^ 
and aldermen attended on horseback in their scarlet 


2^(^ History of Nonuic/i. 

gowns, with the two sheriffs, who appeared for the 
first time in the gold chains given by Thomas 
Emerson, Esq., of London, a native of this city, to be 
L-worn by the slicrifTs of Norwich for the time being. 
A portrait of him was placed in St. Andrew's Hall at 
the expense of the corporation, and the honorary 
freedom of the city was afterwards presented to him. 

In 1740, the cathedral was cleaned and repaired. 
It was again repaired and beautified in 1763, in Bishop 
Younge's time ; and in 1777 and 1780, two painted 
windows, representing the Transfiguration and the 
twelve Apostles (finely executed by the Lady of the 
late Dean Lloyd), were placed in the east end of the 
choir. Subsequently, these windows were removed to 
another part of the cathedral. 

In 1 74 1, April 4th, it was ordered by the corpora- 
tion of Norwich, that no stranger should exercise any 
/trade in the city more than six months without taking 
/ up his freedom. 

In 1744, May 3rd, war was proclaimed here against 
France, by the mayor and corporation, on horseback. 
r In September, 1745, the magistrates and principal 
inhabitants associated in support of the government 
' and in defence of the liberties of the land, in conse- 
quence of the rebellion in Scotland. An artillery 
company, of about 100 men, was raised in Norwich, 
' and Lord Hobart appointed commander. 

In 1746, October 9th, there was a general thanks- 
giving on the suppression of the Rebellion in Scotland. 
A magnificent arch was erected in Norwich Market 
Place, which, with the whole city, was illuminated. 

Norwich in the Eighteenth Century. 277 

In 1747, an act was passed for holdiog the county . ^ 
suimner assizes and sessions in the city, till a new V' K, 
Shirehall could be built. 'i..j'- 

"'On February 7th, 1748, peace with France and -y^ 
Spain was proclaimed here, the mayor and corpora- /' 
tion attending on horseback, preceded by a party of ■A '.■-'. 
dragoons and the artillery company. \ '\'. 

On October 22nd, 1751, a fire broke out, which de- f ' , 
stroyed the bridewell and several adjoining houses. 'P 

That extraordinary man, "Peter, the Wild Youth," 
was confined there at the time. When a child, he was 
lost in a wood in Germany, and was found, at the age 
of 12, naked and wild. This bridewell house was built 
about the year 1370, by Bartholomew Appleyard, 
whose son William was, in 1403, the first Mayor of 
Norwich. There are some fine arched vaults under 
the premises, and the wall next St Andrew's church, 
built with flint, is well worthy the observation of the 
curious. ,1 

An act was passed this year (i/Jl) to open the 1 
Port of Yarmouth for the importation of wool and •' 
woollen yarn from Ireland, ^hkh was very bene: J 
ficial to the city. 

The numbeT of houses and inhabitants, in the city 
precincts and hamlet.s, in 1752, was as follows: — ] ^ 
7139 houses, 36,169 souls, being an increase of 7288 , - / 
inhabitants since 1693, when the population was only '. 
28,881. . 

In I7S5. a table was drawn up settling the habitst 
to be worn by the mayor and corporation at public! 

2/8 History of Norwich. 

A slight shock of an earthquake was felt here on 

January loth, 1756. On May 3rd of the same year, 

the freedom of the city was voted to the Right 

jHon. Wm. Pitt, and Henry B. Legge (the former 

, being late secretary of state, and the latter, chancel- 

li> Aor of the exchequer), for their conduct during their 

' /honourable but short administration. The freedom 

of the city, and thanks of the corporation, were also 

voted to Matthew Goss, Esq., for his present of the 

gold chain which has ever since been worn by the 

mayors. A public subscription was made for the 

poor, in consequence of the high price of wheat, and 

scarcity of work, and 12,000 persons in Norwich were 

supplied with household bread at half-price for some 


On July 1 2th, 1756, the Earl of Orford put the act 
for the better regulating the Militia in execution. 
This act fixed the number of men to be raised for 
Norfolk and Norwich at 960, of which the city fur- 
nished 151. 

On June 21st, 1759, there was a most violent storm 
here, some of the hailstones being two inches long, and 
weighing three-quarters of an ounce. On July 4th 
and 5th, the Norfolk Militia, commanded by Lord 
Orford, marched from Norwich to Portsmouth, and 
passed in review before His Majesty George 11^ at 

In digging under the rampart of the Castle Hill in 
1760, two very curious bones were discovered, sup- 
posed by some to be amulets, which the Druids wore 
at their sacrifices. 

Norwich in the Eighteenth Century. 279 

In 1760, King George II. died at Kensington, on 
October 2Sth, and his grandson, George III. was pro- 
claimed king, in Norwich, on the 29th, by the mayor \ 
and corporation, preceded by the four Norwich com- M-^ 
panies of militia, with flags, banners, and music. On J^ 
September 22nd, 1761, the coronation of their Majesties^ 
was celebrated with great splendour in Norfolk, and in J 
Norwich there was a general illumination, and a grand / 
display of fireworks from a triumphal arch erected in / 
the Market Place. 

On October 27th, 1762, there was a sudden flood in 
the city, which laid near 300 houses and 8 parish 
churches under water. It rose 12 feet perpendicular 
in 24 hours, being 15 inches higher than St Faith's 
flood in 1696. 

In 1763, January 3rd, John Spurrell, Esq., died, 
leaving £\'i%^ to the corporation, the interest to be 
applied for the benefit of the poor in the Great 
Hospital, and for other charitable purposes. The 
Earl of Buckinghamshire, alderman Thomas Harvey, 
and Mr. Robert Page, gave £,\fX> each to Dought/s 

In the same year Sir Armine Wodehotisc, Bart., 
gave a valuable volume to the corporation contain- 
ing some old statutes, in which the prescriptive right 
of the corporation to its present legal name is sup- 
ported. It had been the property of the Wodehouse 
family for 200 years. A vote of thanks was 
passed to Sir Armine Wodehouse for his present 
He was a member of parliament for Norfolk from l^/ 
1736 to 1768 (32 years), and died in 1777, His^' 

28o History of Nonvich. 

death was occasioned by a herring-bone stickir^ in 
his throat 

On January 7th, 1769, the church belonging to the 

Dutch congregation was opened for the poor of the 

.. workhouses. The poor continued to attend till the 

^ New Workhouse was built in Heigham, after which 

they attended divine service in the chapel there. 

On November 19th, 1770, there was a great flood in 

Norwich, four inches higher than that of 1762. The 

Sufferers were relieved, by a subscription, with money, 

coals, and bread. On December 19th, of the same 

year, there was a violent storm of wind and rain, such 

as had not been remembered since 1741. Happisburgh, 

Postwick, and Strumpshaw windmills were blown 

down, and much damage was done in the city and 

county ; many ships with their crews were lost on the 

Norfolk coast. In tlie same year the following tum- 

/pike roads were made and opened, from St. Stephen's 

, Gates to Trowse, from St. Stephen's Gates to Watton, 

' from St Benedict's Gates to Swaffham. from Bishop 

/ Bridge to Caister near Yarmouth, and from Norwich 

I to Dereham, Swaffham, and Mattishall. 

^ On March ist, 1771, the names of the streets and 

highways in the city were ordered to be fixed up for 

the first time ; but this order appears to have been very 

imperfectly carried out In the same year the founda- 

^*^ion stone of the fJorfqlk and Norwich Hospital was 

laid by Wm. Fellowes, Esq., who was a great promoter 

ol that benevolent institution. It was erected by a 

» /public subscription in the city and county ; and it was 

-■ (opened on July nth, 1772, for out-patients; and on 

Nottvich in the Eighteenth Century. { 281 

November 7th, in that year, for in-patients. It has 
been of great benefit to the poor, who have always 
been attended by the principal physicians and surgeons </ 
in the city. 

In 1774, St. Andrew's Hall underwent a complete 
alteration. The old gateway and wall next Bridge 
Street were taken down, part of the green yard was 
taken in, and the old city library room was rebuilt 
over the gateway, thus defacing all that part of the 
hall. At the last restoration the old city library room 
was pulled down, and a new porch was erected, with 
many other improvements. 

In 1779, the new year was ushered in with a most 
terrible storm of wind and rain, accompanied with 
thunder and lightning. The lead on St Andrew's 
Church was roiled up, and great damage was done in 
several parts of the city. In October of this year, the 
navigation from Coltishall to Aylsham was completed 
for boats of thirteen tons burthen, at a cost of £6ooo. 
About this time smuggling was carried to a greatj 
height, even in broad day. 

On January 20th, ff^g) at a numerous meeting of 
citizens and county gentlemen, a petition was agreed 
to and signed, praying the house 01 commons to guard 
against all unnecessary expenditure, to abolish sine- 
cure places and pensions, and to resist the increasing 
influence of the crown. A strong protest was after- 
wards signed against the proceedings of this meeting. 
Mr. Coke presented the petition. Armed associations 
were formed against the government at Yarmouth, y 
Lynn, Holt, and other places, /\y^ 

282 History of Norwich. 

On March 24th, 1783, manufactures of textile 

fabrics in the city being very prosperous, the pa gean t 

ofThe Golden Fleece, or what is called Bishop Bl aize, 

Was exhibited by the wool combers, in a style far 

, surpassing all former processions of the kin d in 

^y' Norwich. The procession began to move at lO a.m. 

from St Martin's at Oak, and thence passed through 

the principal streets of the city. On December 3rd, 

of the same year, the Black Friars' Bridge was 


In January, 1784, the Amicable Society of Attor- 
neys, in Norwich, was instituted. On May 1st, at an 
assembly of the corporation, the freedom of the city 
was voted to be presented to Mr. S. Harvey, Mr. 
^ Windham, and Mr. Pitt. On December 13th, the 
Norwich Public Library was first opened and located 
J in the old library room, formerly over the entrance to 
L^t Andrew's Hall. 

On March 2Sth, 1785, mail coaches, between Norwich 
and London, were established, performing a journey 
of 108 miles in fifteen hours, by which alteration in 
V the post, letters arrived from London a day sooner. 
This was considered a great improvement Subse- 
quently, half a dozen stage coaches ran between 
Norwich and London daily. In July, after various 
ascents by several persons. Major (afterwards General) 
Money, at 4,25 p.m., ascended with a balloon from 
Quantrell's gardens, and at 6 p.m. the car touched the 
surface of the sea. During five hours the major re- 
mained in this perilous situation, and at 1 1.30 p.m. was 
taken up by the Argus revenue cutter, eighteen miles 

Norwich in the Eighteenth Century. 


off Southwold, bearing west by north, and he landed 
at Lowestoft on the following morning. On October 
1 8th, of the same year, the " Friars' Society for the 
Participation of Useful Knowledge" was instituted. 
This society first suggested the scheme of the associa- 
tion for the relief of decayed tradesmen, their widows, 
and orphans. With them also originated the Soup 
Charity in this city, and it was long supported and 
conducted by them, but of late years it has been a 
separate charity. ^ 

On April 26th, 1786, the Norwich and Norfolk / 
Benevolent Medical Society was instituted. In May, f 
an exact account of the inhabitants of Norwich wa9-' 
taken from house to house, and the population was / 
ascertained to be 40,05 1 souls, exclusive of those living J 
in the precincts of the Cathedral, being an increase of 
n early 4000 since 1752. This entirely contradicts the 
statement ~or~MT:" Arthur Young, in his Tour of . 
England, published in 1770, to the effect that 72,000 I , 
persons were then employed in manufactures in th^_J 

On November sth, 1788, the centenary of the~\ 
glorious Revolution of 1688 was celebrated in this city I X 
and county by illuminations, bonfires, public dinners, 
&c, but more particularly at Holkham, where Mr. 
CokertHe late "Eail of Leicester, ~gave -a-gramtUgc, 1 
ball,-suul-«upperrand a display^oC-ficeiuojcs^c. The J 
citizens appear to have been more sensible then than 
they are now of the immense benefits they derived / 
from that great change in the British constitution and •/ 

284 History of Nottvich. 

Next year (1789) a revolution broke out in France 
and astounded all Europe. It caused a mighty com- 
motion and a general war, which lasted many years, 
and destroyed millions of men. Norwich, like every 
other city in England, was affected by it, and lost 
nearly all its foreign trade during the terrible conflict 
\ On July 14th, the Revolution was commemorated by 
1 republicans at the Maid's Head Inn, in this city. 
y\ Among the toasts of the day after a dinner were 
^ L "The Revolutionary Societies in England," "The 
Rights of Man," and " The Philosophers of France." 
The Revolution, however, had not advanced very far 
in its atrocities when most people regarded it in a very 
different light, and associations were formed here 
against " Levellers " and Revolutionists." 

On December Sth, 1792, the mayor, sheriffs, and 
seventeen aldermen of Norwich, pledged themselves 
to support the constitution of Kings, Lords, and 
Commons, as established in 168S. Meetings of the 
inhabitants were also held in tJiis city, and in Yar- 
mouth, Lynn, &c., and declarations of loyalty and 
attachment to the constitution were unanimously 
agreed to and signed ; for men had begun to be 
alarmed by the " Reign of Terror " in France. 

In 1793 a petition for parhamentary reform, signed 
y by 3741 inhabitants of Norwich, was presented to the 
« House of Commons by the Hon. H. Hobart, but was 
'• not received, it having been printed previous to pre- 
sentation. This indicated a great advance in liberal 
opinions towards the end of the last century, chiefly 
amongst the Nonconformists, who had greatly in- 

Norwich in the Eighteenth Century. 285 

creased in numbers, whilst the church was asleep. 
The vast expenditure in the long war against France 
caused a great increase in taxation. 

On April I2th, 1794, a great county meeting was 
held at the Shirehall, to consider the exertions which 
should be made at that crisis for the internal defence ^ 
and security of the kingdom. The High Sheriff, 
T. R. Dashwood, Esq., presided. The Honble. C. 
Townshend moved resolutions, supported by the Mar- 
quis Townshend, Lord Walsingham, Mr. Buxton, Mr. 
Windham, and Mr, Joddrell, for forming volunteer 
corps of cavalry, and for entering into subscriptions to 
maintain the same. Mr. Coke condemned the war 
in toto, and insisted that it might have been avoided, 
or at the least brought to a conclusion, by a negociation 
for peace, and he moved as an amendment : 

" That it is our duty to refuse any private subscriptions 
for public purposes and unconstitutional benevolences." 

So much altercation and confusion ensued, that when 
the High Sheriff put the question, it was impossible to 
tell which party had the majority ; and a division 
being deemed impracticable, the chairman proposed 
that such gentlemen as chose to subscribe would retire 
with him to the Grand Jury Room, which was agreed 
to. Nearly j^6,ooo was subscribed, and the amount 
was afterwards increased to £\ 1,000! 

On October 21st, 1795, a memorial was transmitted 
from the court of mayoralty of Norwich to the repre- 
sentatives of the city on the high prices of every 
necessary of life, requesting them to support such 

286 History of Norwich. 

measures as might have a tendency to reduce them, 
and to facilitate the restoration of peace. Prices of 
corn and provisions had risen to an alarming height; 
wheat to loos., bariey to 30s,, and oats to 30s. per 
quarter, and symptoms of rioting had in consequence 
appeared in Norwich market. 

At a county meeting heid on July 20th, 1796, in the 
Angel Inn (now the Royal Hotel) it was resolved to 
petition parliament for the removal of the Lent assizes 
from Thetford to Norwich, and a petition was pre- 
sented accordingly. The bill brought for this object 
into the House of Commons was strongly opposed, 
and finally rejected ; but afterwards the assizes were 
removed to the city, and have been held there ever 
since. This year the sum of .£24,000 was collected 
for the maintenance of the poor in Norwich, while 
the population was under 40,000, or half the present 

In 1797, February 14th, the Norwich Light Horse 
Volunteers were organized, of which John Harvey, 
Esq., was afterwards appointed captain and major. 
On February 22nd, the Norwich Loyal Military Asso- 
ciation was formed, of which John Patteson, Esq., was 
appointed captain, and afterwards major; and R. J. 
Browne, C. Harvey, and A. Sieley, Esqs., were ap- 
pointed captains. Military matters then occupied a 
great deal of the attention of the citizens. 

On March 4th, intelligence was received here of the 
defeat of the Spanish fleet by Admiral Jervis, and 
served in some measure to dissipate the general gloom 
which at this tithe pervaded the public mind. 

Norwich in the Eighteenth Century. 287 

On April 25th, a great county meeting was held in 
the open air on the Castle Hill, and a petition was 
almost unanimously adopted, praying His Majesty to 
dismiss his ministers, as the most effectual means of 
reviving the national credit and restoring peace. This 
was moved by Mr. Fellowes, seconded by Mr. Rolfe, 
supported by Lord Albemarle, Mr. Coke, Mr. Mingay, 
Mr. Plumptre, Mr. Trafford, and others. On April 
28th a counter county meeting was held, and an 
address to the king was adopted, expressing confi-' 
dence in the ministry of the day. ^ 

On May i6th the citizens followed suit. At a 
numerously attended common halt a petition to His 
Majesty, praying him to dismiss his administration, 
was carried unanimously, with the exception of one 
spirited Tory, who had nearly fallen a victim to 
popular vengeance on the spot A counter address 
of the citizens was afterwards signed and presented to 
the King, who must have been a good deal bothered 
at the time by such evidences of the violent agitation 
of his subjects. 

On May 26th, attempts were made here to seduce 
the military from their allegiance ; and on the follow- 
ing day the republican orator, Thelwall, arrived in this 
city, which caused a great commotion. On the 29th, 
a party of the Inniskilling Dragoons proceeded to his 
lecture room, opposite Gumey's bank, drove out 
the persons assembled, destroyed the tribune and 
benches, and then attacked the Shakespear Tavern 
adjoining, in which a disturbance had taken place. 
After destroying the furniture and partly demolishing 

288 History of Norivuh. 

the house, and also breaking the windows and destroy- 
ing the furniture of the Rose Tavern, in which they 
supposed the lecturer had concealed himself, the 
dragoons, on the appearance of their officers and 
tlie magistrates, retired to their barracks. Thelwall, 
in this affray, fortunately for him, escaped and fled to 
London. Davey, the landlord of the Shakespear 
Tavern, on being pursued by the soldiers, threw him- 
self from the garret into the street, and was much 
injured. At the subsequent assizes, Luke Rice, a 
tailor of this city, was indicted capitally for aiding and 
abetting the soidiers in this outrage ; but as the offence 
charged in the indictment did not come within the 
meaning of the statute, he was acquitted. He had, 
however, a very narrow escape, On June ist of the . 
same year, (1797) a mutiny broke out on board the 
fleet at Yarmouth, and several sail of the Une hoisted 
the red flag of defiance. 

In January, 1798, the sword of the Spanish Admiral 
Don Francisco Winthuysen, presented by Admiral 
Nelson to the corporation of Norwich, was placed in 
the Council Chamber of the Guildhall, with an appro- 
priate device and inscription. 

On February sSth, at a general meeting of the 
inhabitants of this city, more than £z,zqo were im- 
mediately subscribed as voluntary contributions to- 
wards the defence of the kingdom. In a few weeks 
afterwards, the whole subscription amounted to more 
than XScxX), a proof of the loyalty as well as liberality 
of the well-to-do citizens. In May, the following 
Loyal Volunteer Corps were formed for the purpose 

Norwich in the Eighteenth Century. 289 

of preserving internal tranquillity, and supporting the 
police of this city, viz., the Mancroft Volunteers, Capt. 
John Browne ; St. Stephen's Volunteers, Capt. Hardy ; 
St. Peter per Mountergate, &c., Capt. Herring; St 
Saviour's and St. Clement's, Capt. Fiske ; St. Andrew's, 
Capt. T. A. Murray. 

On June 19th, the Norwich Light Horse Volunteers 
and Loyal Military Association attended J. Browne, 
Esq., to the cathedral, previous to his being sworn 
into the office of mayor ; afterwards the Association 
fired A feu dejoie in the Market Place. 

On October nth, at a meeting of the wealthy in- 
habitants of the city, a subscription was entered into 
for the relief of the orphans of those brave seamen 
who fell on August 1st in the ever memorable battle 
of the Nile ; and on the 24th of the same month, at a 
special assembly of the corporation, an address of con- 
gratulation was adopted to his Majesty on the late 
victory ; and it was agreed that a request should be 
made to Lord Nelson to sit for his portrait, to be 
placed in St. Andrew's Hall. His Lordship assented 
and the portrait was painted by Beechey and placed 
in the hall, where it may still be seen. 

November 29th was appointed as a day of a public 
thanksgiving for the late naval victories, and was 
celebrated as such in Norwich with the greatest 
festivity. In the morning the mayor and corporation, 
accompanied by the Light Horse Volunteers and the 
Parochial Associations, attended divine service at the 
cathedral, where an excellent sermon was preached 
by the Rev. T. F. Middleton, afterwards Bishop of 

290 History of Norwich. 

Calcutta. The sword, taken by Lord Nelson was 
borne in the procession. On their return to the Market 
Place there was a feast, and in the evening an 

In 1799, October 28th, the Guards and several other 
regiments, to the number of 25,000 cavalry and in- 
fantry, landed at Yarmouth from Holland. Next 
night the Grenadier Brigade of Guards, commanded 
by Col. Wynward, marched into Norwich by torch- 
light, and were soon afterwards followed by upwards 
of 20,000 more troops. Through the exertions of 
John Herring, Esq., mayor, and the attention of the 
citizens in general, these brave men received every 
accommodation that their situation demanded. The 
mayor soon afterwards received a letter from the Duke 
of Portland expressive of the high appreciation by the 
government of the mayor's loyalty and activity on 
this occasion, and of the humanity of the citizens who 
supplied the wants of the soldiers. The mayor was 
afterwards presented to his Majesty at St James', and 
offered the honour of knighthood, which he declined. 
The Duke of York, Prince William of Gloucester, and 
several other officers employed in this unsuccessful 
expedition, also passed through the city on their way 
to London. The sum of ; was raised this year 
for the maintenance of the poor of the city. 

On January 23rd, 1800, John Herring, Esq., then 
mayor, summoned a general meeting of the inhabitants 
at the Guildhall, to consider the propriety of applying 
to parliament for an act for the better paving, lighting, 
and watchii^ of the city, for removing and preventing 

Norwich in the Eighteenth Century. 291 

annoyances and obstructions, and for regulating hack- 
ney coaches. At this meeting a committee was ap- 
pointed to consider the plan proposed, and to report 
to a future general meeting. This committee held 
several meetings, and at length made a report, which 
was laid before a general meeting of the citizens on 
March 3rd, The estimated cost of lighting, watching, 
paving, &c,, was only £2770, The produce of the 
tolls was estimated at £\j\^, and of a rate of 6d. in 
' the pound at ^^3000; making the total receipts ;£47i5, 
and leaving a balance of £\<^^ for the commence* 
ment of the work, which sum would have been in- 
creased by some annual payments. The general 
meeting adopted the report, and a petition was signed 
by most of the inhabitants of the city in favour of a 
bill to carry out the improvements. Unfortunately, 
however, the petition could not, from some unforeseen 
circumstances, be presented that session. The project 
was, for a time, postponed ; but an act was obtained in 
1806 to carry out the object, and commissioners were 
appointed for the purpose. This body consisted of 
the dean and prebend, the recorder, 28 members of 
the corporation, and 24 parochial commissioners, an- 
nually elected, in all 136. This heterogeneous body 
continued for about forty years, and after spending 
over £yyafXO, left Norwich the worst paved town in 
England, and also left a debt of £,\j,fXXi, which still 
remains as a legacy to the city I 


History of Norwich. 

Social State ok the City in the Eighteenth 

Before the end of the i8th century, various im- 
provements were made, among which may be men- 
tioned, the demolition of the old gates, the widening 
and opening of several streets, and the erection of a 
new flour mill, worked by steam power, near Black 
Friars' Bridge, for better supplying the people with 
flour. Still, large numbers of the poor appear to have 
been for a long time in a very destitute condition. 
Famines were of frequent occurrence, and riots often 
took place on account of the high prices of every 
kind of food. In 1720, on September 20th, a dan- 
Tgerous riot broke out, and rose to such a height, as to 
I oblige the sheriffs to call in the aid of the Artillery 
I Company, at whose approach the rioters instantly 
/ dispersed. Again, in 1740, riots occurred i(i several 
1 parts of the country, and in most of thc/'towns in 
/ Norfolk. The magistrates of this city jstHwi the mili- 
tary to their aid, and six or seven lives were lost 
before the rioters could be quelled. Again, in 1766, 
ia consequence of the great scarcity and advanced 
-^rice of provisions of every sort, some dangerous riots 
1 broke out in several places. In this city the poor 
j people collected on September 27th, about noon, and 
I in the course of that day and the next, committed 
/ many outrages by attacking the houses of bakers, 
/ / pulling down part of the New Mills, destroying large 
- 1 quantities of flour, and burning to the ground a large 
( malthouse outside of Conisford gate. Every lenient 



Social State of the City. 293 

measure was tried by the city magistrates to pacify 
the poor starving people, but to no effect The 
magistrates therefore were compelled to repel force 
by force. On Sunday afternoon they, with the prin- , 
cipal inhabitants, attacked the rioters with such v 
vigour, while they were demolishing a house on 
Tombland, that they were dispersed. About thirty-, 
of the ringleaders were taken and tried, and eight of 1 
them were sentenced to death, but only two were I ^^ 
executed. They suffered the extreme penalty on J 
January 10th, 1767. 

Strange as it may seem, Norwich was, at this time, 
in a more flourishing state as regards trade than it has 
ever since been known. Wages were not high, but 
employment was universal. On April' 2Sth, 1796, fine 
flour having risen to 70s. a sack, a mob attacked 
several bakers' shops in the city. The m^istrates 
and inhabitants assembled and proceeded to the 
places against which the attacks of the populace were 
directed, but the mob did not disperse till after the 
riot act had been read and three persons apprehended. 
On May 17th, a dreadful affray took place near 
Bishop Bridge, between the soldiers of the North- 
umberland and Warwickshire regiments of Mihtia. 
Several were terribly bruised and others wounded 
with bayonets before their officers could part them. 
Education was. at this time, at a very low ebb, and 
the clergy neglected the poor. Few schools were yet 
opened for their children, who grew up in ignorance l„.— -^ 
and vice. Working-men ."(pent their hard-earned 
money in drunkenness, or indulged in the most brutal 

394 History of Norwich. 

- -Sports, such as prize-fighting or cock-fighting. They 
^re also demoralised by bribery and treating at 
I contested elections. In fact, ward elections were so 
I frequent that the city was kept in a perpetual state of 
L agitation and turmoil. We can now form no notion 
of the misery, poverty, and vice, which these local 
""flections inflicted on the city. It was often said that 
a single ward election did more harm than all the 
/ sermons in all the churches and chapels did good. 
These local contests at length prevented capital being 
eWlployed in manufactures, ancTmade p olitics ttie hrst 
object ot all "tEe mfluential cTtizeiTsrwHo, if they were 
ilot, strove to beconie, memBers oflhe old corporation, 1 
not from any consideration of public duty, not to / 
promote the welfare of the citizens, but to serve their 
own political or personal interests. There is abundant 
evidence that the prosperity of the city, and private 
friendships, were alike poisoned by the party spirit, 
engendered by frequent ward elections ; at the same' 
time the moral character of the whole working popu- 
lation was greatly deteriorated, and the working 
classes themselves greatly depraved. 


JDuring this i8th century the Nonconformists -be- 
came, veiy numerous and powerful in the city and 
^ountj;, Methodism imparted a healthful stimulus to 
the revival of religion. It aroused the church and all 
denominations. Besides the very flourishing bodies 
of Wesleyans and Baptists, the Independents made 

Nonconformity in the iStA Century. 295 

great progress. Within two centuries, in place of one,/ 
several chapels arose ; and throughout all England, 
^w towns exhibited a greater increase of Noncon- 
formists than Norwich. We have already given an 
account of their rise and progress in the 17th century, 
but we have not yet noticed the Unitarians. A his- 
tory of the Octagon chapel in Norwich, by Mr. John ..— ^ — 
Taylor, formerly of this city, and continued by his 
son, Mr. Edward Taylor, contains a full account of 
the rise and progress of the Unitarians here. They 
were at first called Presbyterians, but that name was 
inappropriate, as they never had the Presbyterian y^ 
polity nor doctrine. Mr. John Taylor says, the first 
Presbyterian chapel was built in 1687, on a piece of 
ground, formerly part of the great garden or orchard, 
" sometime belonging to the prior and convent of the \> ■ 

late friars' preachers," of whose deserted walls the Dis- \ \ \*'^ 
senters took possession. The building was so con- ^ 
structed that it might be converted into dwelling 
houses in case their preachers were compelled to 
abandon iL 

Blomefield, in his History of the City, says : — 

"In 1687, the Presbyterians built a meeting house from 
the ground, over against the Black Boys ; and at the same 
time the Independents repaired a house in St Edmund's 
fonnerly a brew house." 

After the passing of the Toleration Act, in 1689, 
this meeting house, which- bad-nijt been long finished, J 
was duly licensed. Dr Collinges,a learned Presby- f 
Krian minister, was tfie first pastor' appointed to preach 

296 History of Norwich. 

by the congregation. He had a considerable hand in 
the "Annotations to the Bible," which were begun 
and carried on by Mr. Matthew Poole, and which go 
under his name. 

Dr. Collinges died in January, \6of^, and was pfQg^ 
bably succeeded soon after by Mr. Josiah Chorle y^^ 
who was not a native of Norwich, but came from 
\ J.'' " Lancashire. He ofl^ated about thirty years, and was 
succeeded by the/lSjev^^Efifer Finch) a highly esteemed 
'^ ' preacher for many years. After he died his funeral 
sermon was preached by Mr. Taylor, who said : — 

"Surely the character of Mr. Finch, drawn out so even 
and clear without any remarkable spot or flaw, through the 
long course of sixty-three years in this city, must be deserving 
of remembrance and imitation, since it must be the result of 
a steady integrity and solid wisdom." 

The Rev. Mr. Finch was one of the first pupils who 
entered into the first dissenting academy, erected after 
the Reformation, by the Rev. Mr. Frankland ; and he 
survived almost all the 300 gentlemen who, in the 
space of thirty years, were educated in that academy. 
He died October 6th, 1754, on his 93rd birthday, and 
was buried in St. Peter's Church, in this city. His 
descendents were residents here till 1847. His son 
was many years clerk of the peace for the county of 

Mr. John Brooke was invited to take his place 
towards the end of the year 17 18. This minister 
was born in or near Yarmouth, where some of his 
descendants have generally resided. He resigned in 

Nonconformity in the \%th Century. 297 

'733> aid removed to York, where he died.' Dr. Johiy 
Taytt* was elected to the vacant office in \TiZ' and 
•continued till 1757, when he resigned. He was ther 
author of many works of a religious character. In 
1753 the old chapel was pulled down, and a subscrip- 
tion was raised of nearly ^^4000 for a new one. The 
first stone of the new building was laid on February 
2Sth, 1754, by Dr. Taylor; and within three years 
the present elegant chapel was completed at a cost of 

£517+ . f<>:^ 

\^Mr^gmuel.,Bourn>fon of Mr. Bourn of Birmingham, 
was ordained co-pastor with Dr. John Taylor, and he I 
published volumes of sermons which established his J 
reputation in that kind of composition. He reslg»«d-ui 
1775, and retired to a village near Norwich. Several 
gentlemen, who afterwards attained considerable emi- 
nence in science, were brought up under Mr, Bourn's 
ministry, viz.. Sir James Edward Smith, so long presi- 
dent of the Linncan Society; Mr. Robert Woodhouse, 
the eminent mathematician and professor of astronomy 
at Cambridge ; and Dr. Edward Maltby, afterwards 
bishop of Durham. Mr. Bourn removed to Norwich 
not many months before his death, and died in the 
83rd year of his age ; he was interred in the burying 
ground of the Octagon Chapel. Mr. Bourn was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. John Hoyle, who was minister 
for seventeen years. He died in the S'st year of 
his age, on November 29th, 1775, and was interred in 
the Octagon burying ground. 

On December 15th, 1776, Mr. Aldcrso n was chosen 
minister, and soon afterwards Mr. George Cadogan j . 



298 History of Nonuich. 

Morgan became co-pastor. He had been educated 
under the inspection of his uncle, the celebrated Dr. 
Richard Price, so that great expectations were formed 
of his abilities, and the congregation were not disap- 
pointed. He soon, however^ -resigned^ and weqt to 
Yarmouth; and in 1755, /Dr. William Enfield ^yas 
invited to become co-pastor with Mr. Alderson, and 
he accepted the office. In 1786, Mr. Alderson resigned; 
and in 1787 was succeeded by Mr. P." Houghton. 

In 1784, Mr. P. M. Martincau projected the establish- 
ment of the Public Library at Norwich, in which he 
was cordially seconded by Dr. Enfield, who was one 
of the earliest presidents of an institution, which for the 
extent and variety of its catalogue surpasses most pro- 
vincial libraries. In the early periods of the first French 
Revolution, a periodical work was established by 
the liberal party in Norwich, entitled ''The Cabinet;" 
to which the principal contributors were Mr. John 
Pitchford, Mr. Wm. Youngman, Mr. Norgate, Mr. C. 
Marsh (afterwards M.P. for Retford), Mrs. Opie (then 
Miss Alderson), Mr. John Taylor, and Dr. Enfield. 
After publishing many learned works. Dr. Enfield died 
in the 57th year of his age, on November 3rd, 1797. 
After his death, three volumes of his sermons were 
published by subscription ; and among the subscribers 
'' were persons of almost every sect in Norwich, from 
the cathedral prebendary to the independent minister. 
More than twenty beneficed clergymen's names appear 
in the list, and it is very well known that Dr. Enfield's 
sermons have been heard from many pulpits of the 
established church. Professor Taylor, late of Gresham 
college, thus wrote in a supplementary memoir: — 

Nonconformity in tlie \%th Century. 299 

"With his dissenting brethren Dr. En6eld was always on 
the best terms, especially with Mr. Newton and Mr. Kinghom, 
the ministers of the Independent and Baptist congregations. 
'i]he_Presbyterian congregation, comprising many individuals , 
tit station and influence in the city, took the lead in every v 
movement of the dissenting body, who' never appeared ma 
more united and honourable position than when Dr. Enfield 
was their acknowledged head. The state of society during 
his residence in Norwich, was eminently suited to his habits 
and tastes. Parr, Peei, Walker, Howes, and Smyth were 
his contemporaries. Parr was the head master of the 
grammar school, Potter was a prebendary of the Cathedral, 
and Porson was occasional resident at the house of his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Hawes erf Coltishall, a village a few 
miles from Norwich. Dr. Enfield was a welcome visitor at ^ 
the bishop's palace ; for though Dr. Bagot had no political 
or religious sympathy with the minister of the Presbyterian 
congregation, he knew how to estimate his talents, his 
manners, and his admirable conversational powers. Among 
the residents in Norwich at this time, with whom Dr. Enfield 
associated, were Dr. Sayers, Mr. William Taylor, Mr. Hudson 
Gumey (afterwards M.P. for Newport and a vice-president 
of the Society of Antiquaries), Dr. Rigby, Dr. Lubbock, 
Sir James Edward Smith, the Rev. John Walker (an ac- 
complished scholar and one of the minor canons of the 
Cathedral), Mrs. Opie (then Miss Alderson), Mr. Bruckner, 
the minister of the Dutch and French protestant congrega- 
tions at Norwich, and others, who though unknown to the 
world as authors, were yet worthy associates in such a 

Dr. Enfield's estimate of the character of society 
at Norwich, is thus expressed in a letter from Liver- 
pool to Professor Taylor's father : — 


joo History of Norwich. 

" Vou will easily imagine the pleasure I feel in enjoyflig 
the society of my old friends here, especially that of Mr. 
Roscoe and Dr. Cunie ; but with these and a few other 
exceptions, I find more congenial associates at Norwich. 
For a man of literary tastes and pursuits, I can truly say 
that 1 know of no town which offers so eligible a residence." 

Mr. Roscoe and Dr. Currie, referred to above, were 
then in high reputation in Liverpool, 

The altered state of Hociety in Norwich, about the 
end of the i8th century is thus depicted in a paper in 
the Monthly Magazine for March, 1808, under the 
title of "Fanaticism — a Vision," which was generally 
attributed to the pen of Sir James Edward Smith : — 

" You know ihe flourishing and happy state of this ancient 
city in the early part of your life, and particularly how 
peaceably and even harmoniously its inhabitants lived to- 
Igether on the score of religion. Christians of various 
'denominations had each their churches, their chapels, or 
their meeting houses, and in the common intercourse of life 
all conducted themselves as brethren. The interests of 
humanity would even frequently bring them together on 
particular occasions to pay their devotions in the same 
temple. The bishop (Rathurst) treated as his children all 
who, though they disowned his spiritual authority, obeyed his 
-.pivine Master; while the Presbyterian, the Independent, 
the Catholic, and (he Quaker, partook of his hospitality and 
repaid his benevolence with gratitude and respect. This 
state of society, worthy of real Christians, was broken up by 
those who wore that character only as a mask. A set of 
■men, interested in promoting dissensions, by which villany 
and rapacity might profit, and in decrying those genuioe 

Eminent Citizens of tfie iStA Century, 301 

fruits of religion, that salutary faith and pure morals, which 
by comparison shamed their own characters, after long in 
vain attempting to exalt blind belief in general, and their 
particular dogmas, in preference to a useful and virtuous life, 
but too successfully obtained their end. On all the great 
truths of revealed religion, honest men could never be long at 
variance. On disputable points they had learned a salutary 
forbearance, which enabled them, while they thought for 
themselves, to let others do the same. The only resources 
of those who wish to stir up religious animosity, is to bring 
forward something that no one can determine. The less 
mankind understand a subject, the more warmly do they 
debate and strive to enfoice the belief of it" 

Eminent Citizens of the i8th Century. 

Mercliants and Manufacturers, 

Among the eminent citizens of this century may 
be first mentioned the chief merchants and manufac- 
turers, who were very intelligent, wealthy, and enter- 
prising. They were also benevolent, and the founders 
of various charitable institutions. Many of them were 
Nonconformists, and active supporters of their chapels, 
while they carried on a great foreign trade. The cor- 
respondence which they had begun on the continent 
they extended in every direction. By sending their 
sons to be educated in Germany, Italy, and Spain, 
they cultivated a more familiar connection with those 
countries. Their travellers also were acquainted with 
various languages, and went all over Europe, exhib- 
iting their pattern cards in every town on the conti- 

302 History of Norwich, 

nent Norwich could then boast of rich, energetic, 
enterprising, and intelligent men, who made the city 
what it was in their day. Lest their very names 
should be forgotten, we shall place them in this 
record. Amongst the manufacturers were 

Messrs. Robert and John Harvey, 

Messrs. Starling Day and Son, 

Messrs. Watson, Firth, and Co., 

Messrs. John Barnard and Angier, 

Messrs. Thomas Paul and Flindt, 

Messrs. J. Tuthill and Sons, 

Messrs. William Barnard and Sons, 

Messrs. Edward Marsh and Son, 

Messrs. Bream and King, 

Messrs. Martin and Williment, 

Messrs. Peter Colombine and Son, 

Messrs. James Buttivant and William White, 

Messrs. W. and W. Taylor, 

Messrs. J. Scott and Sons, 

Messrs. E. Gurney and Ellington, 

Messrs. Patteson and Iselin, 

Messrs. Booth and Theobald, 

Messrs. George Maltby and Son, 

Messrs. William and Robert Herring, 

Messrs. Worth and Carter, 

Messrs. Bacon and Marshall, 

Messrs. Ives and Robberds, 

Messrs. J. and J. Ives, Son, and Baseley, 

Mr. Robert Partridge, 

Mr. Bartholomew Sewell, 

Eminent Citizens of the i8tA Century. 303 

Mr. John Robinson, 
Mr. Robert Wright, 
Mr. John Wright, 
Mr. Robert Tillyard, 
Mr. Daniel Fromantiel, 
Mr. J. C. Hampp, 
Mr. John Herring, 
Mr. Joseph Cliver, Jun., 
Mr. Oxley, 
and others, all of whom have passed away. 

Mr. John Kirkpatrick, 

yix, John Kirkpatrick, a linen merchant, who lived 
in St. Andrew^was "a learned antiquanati of this 
period, to whom the city is greatly indebted for his 
researches and documents respecting the antiquities 
of Norwich, but only fragments have been published. 
The late Mr. Hudson Gurney obtained possession of 
most of his manuscripts, and published his account of 
the "Religious Orders in Norwich," in 1845. This 
work was compiled from a manuscript quarto volume 
of 258 pages, in the handwriting of the author. Mr. 
Dawson Turner, the editor, says, in the preface : — 

" Mr. Kirkpatrick's father was a native of the village of 
Closebum, in Dumfriesshire, a fact recorded by his son in 
his will, and further proved by the arms on his tomb (in St 
Helen's church) which are those of the baronet's family of 
Kirkpatrick, of Closebum. From Scotland he removed to 
Norwich, where he resided in the parish of St Stephen. 

304 History of Nonvich. 

His son John was apprenticed in that of St Clement, and 
subsequently established himself in business as a linen mer- 
chant, in St. Andrew's, in premises opposite Bridewell Alley. 
He was there in partnership with Mr. John Custance, who 
was mayor in 1726, and was the founder of the family of 
that name at Weston. In the year of his partner's mayoralty, 
Mr. Kirk Patrick was appointed treasurer to the Great Hos- 
pital, in St. Helen's, an office which his premature decease 
allowed him to occupy only for two years. He married the 
youngest daughter of Mr. John Harvey, great-grandfather of 
the late Lieut.-Colonel Harvey, of Thorpe Lodge, where his 
portrait was preserved during the lifetime of that gentleman. 
It has since been engraved in the very interesting series of 
portraits of the more eminent inhabitants of Norfolk, of 
whom no likenesses have yet appeared, a work now in 
course of publication, under the superintendence of Mr. 
Ewing. With such, Kirkj)atrick is deservedly associated. 
He died childless. Of his family, nothing more is known 
than that he had a brother of the name of Thomas, who is 
mentioned by Blomefield as being chamberlain of Norwich 
at the time he wrote. The account books of the corporation 
contain several entries in reference to both the one and the 
other, but not oC-sufficient interest to warrant the quoting of 
them at length. ' Of the latter, they shew that he was elected 
, ' chamberlain with a salary of thirty pounds per annum, in 

Ithe room of Matthew King, in 1732; that in the same 
year, the freedom of the city was conferred upon him ; and 
that twelve years subsecjuently he was removed from his 
office, by reason of irregularity of his accounts. To the 
"aiifiquary, their testimony is invariably honourable; the 
most frequent notices being, votes of money for the service 
he had rendered in adjusting the different accounts of the 

Eminent Citizens of the iSt/i Century, 305 

Mr. Dawson Turner further states : — 

" Mr. Kirkpatrick was one of the most able, laborious, 
learned, and useful antiquaries whom the county has pro- 
duced. He was especially an indefatigable searcher into 
local antiquities, and had his life been spared to the term 
allotted by the holy Psalmist to man, it were impossible to 
say how much of what is now irretrievably lost to us might 
have been rescued from oblivion. He had accumulated 
copious materials, but his early death prevented him from 
digesting and publishing them. Better far had he contented 
himself with amassing less, and turning what he had got to 
account ; a lesson hard to learn, but most important to be 
borne in mind and acted upon. As it was, he was obliged 
to leave the fulfilment of his task to others; taking all 
possible care for the safety of his collections, and not doubt- 
ing that those who came after him, seeing what was prepared 
for their hands, would cheerfully undertake the office, per- 
haps with a praiseworthy zeal for communicating information, 
perhaps with the not less natural desire of building their 
own fame upon the labours of their predecessors. But in 
his expectations he was sadly mistaken, and has but fur- 
nished an additional proof how difllicult it is for any one to 
enter completely into the objects and ideas of another, and 
consequently how imperative it is upon all, ourselves to 
finish the web we have begun, if we wish to see it come 
perfect and uniform from the loom." 

Blomefield, who was a contemporary, acknowledges 
his great obligations to the learned Norwich antiquary, 
and recorded the death of his friend and his being 
buried in St. Helen's Church, Norwich. The tomb, a 
black marble monument, by the steps of the altar, 
bears the following arms and in.<^ription : — 

3o6 History of Nonvick, 

" Argent, a saltier and on a chief, 
Azure^ three woolpacks of the field, 
Crest^ a hand holding a dagger proper, 
Motto — I make sure. 

" Here resteth in hope of a joyful resurrection, the body 
of John Kirkpatrick of this city, Merchant, and Treasurer 
to this Hospital. He was a man of sound judgment, good 
understanding and extensive knowledge; industrious in his 
business, and indefatigable in that of the Corporation in 
which he was constantly employed. He died, very much 
lamented by all that knew him, on the 20th day of August, 
in the year of our Lord, 1728, aged 42." 

The Rev, F. Blomefield, 

The Rev. Francis Blomefield, rector of Fersfield, 
lived some time in this city, compiling his history of 
Norwich, which he brought down to the year 1742. 
He was born at Fersfield, July 23rd, 1705. He was 
installed rector of that parish in 1729, when he almost 
immediately commenced collecting materials for a 
history of his native county, but his work is more a 
topographical survey than a history. He did not live 
to complete it, having caught the small-pox when in 
London, of which he died, in the 46th year of his age, 
on January 15th, 1751. He began printing his great 
work in 1736. In 1769 it was continued (but not 
completed) in five folio volumes by the Rev. Charles 
Parker, M.A., rector of Oxburgh. 

Eminent Citizens of the I ith Ctntury. 307 

WiUiam Anderson, F.R.S., came to Norwich as an 
excise officer, and his great talents introduced him to 
the most scientific characters of this city. He ob- 
tained the situation of clerk to the New Mills, in 
Heigham, and was a considerable contributor to Mr. 
Baker's works on the Microscope. Many of his papers 
on Natural History are published in the transactions 
of the Royal Society. He died in 1767, and was 
buried in Heigham churchyard. 

Anna Letitia Barbauld, sister of Dr. Aikin, of Yar- 
mouth, resided at Norwich. She was the authoress of 
" Evenings at Home," and other valuable works for 
children, and died in 1825. 

Peter Barlow, the celebrated mathematician, and 
author of many of the articles in Rees' Encyclopaedia, 
and the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, was the son of 
a warper of this city. He was bom October, 1766, in 
the parish of St. Simon and Jude. 

Sir WiUiam Beechey, the eminent painter, resided in 
this city in the early part of his life, and executed 
several of the paintings in St. Andrew's Hall, par- 
ticularly the celebrated portrait of Lord Nelson. He 
was knighted by Geoi^e III., and appointed portrait 
painter to his majesty. 

Hancock Blytlie, schoolmaster, mathematician, and 
teacher of languages, resided in Timbeihill, and was 
the author of several small works on astronomy. He 
died in 179S, aged 73 years. 

John Brand, B.A., was a native of this city. Hi» 
father was a saddler in London Lane. Young Brand, 
having a turn for study, went for some years to the 

3o8 History of Norwich, 

continent, where he acquired the languages and cus- 
toms of the people so strongly, that on his return to 
England he received the soubriquet of Abbi Brand. 
In 1744 he was reader at St. Peter's Mancroft He 
was the author of several articles in the British Critic, 
He was rector of St. George's, Southwark, and of 
Wickham Skeith, in Suffolk. He died in February, 

Henry Cooper, barrister at law, was born in the 
parish of St. Peter's Mancroft. He was sent to sea in 
the early part of his life, but was afterwards called to 
the bar, and was made attorney general of the Ber- 
mudas. After a brilliant career, in which he rapidly 
became one of the leaders of the Norfolk circuit, he 
died, after being twelve years at the bar, in 1825. 

Mr. Reuben Dcai^ was a large manufacturer in this 
city, who, in December, 1769, became the fortunate 
possessor of a prize in a lottery worth ;^20,ooo. The 
number was 42,903. It came into his possession in 
the following singular manner. His foreman, who 
was in a confidential position, had bought two tickets 
in a lottery, and after some time thought he had 
speculated too far, and told his employer that he 
feared he had done a very foolish thing. Mr. Deave, 
being informed of the circumstance, thought so too, 
but offered to buy one of the tickets. His foreman 
took them out of his pocket and gave Mr. Deave his 
choice. Mr. Deave, however, said he would make no 
choice, and bought the one offered to him. Shortly 
afterwards the lottery was drawn, and this ticket 
proved to be a fortunate number for ;£^20,ooo, while 

Eminent Citizens of tlie iStA Century, 309 

the other was a blank. Mr. Deave, who had paid for 
the ticket, gave his foreman a cheque for £^QOy but 
the poor man was so vexed at losing the prize that he 
hung himself on the next day. Mr. Deave was much 
grieved at this, and often said afterwards that the prize 
never did him any good, for he gave a power of 
attorney to a man to draw the money in London, and 
that man bolted with it, and was never heard of after- 

William Enfield^ LL,D.,zxi eminent literary character, 
was for many years the minister at the Octagon Chapel 
here. He was much beloved by his congregation^ 
and died November 2nd, 1797, aged 57, and was 
buried in the chapel, where there is a monument to his 

Sir John Fenn, the editor of the " Paston Letters," 
was born here in 1739; on presenting the first two 
volumes of these letters to George III. in 1787, he 
was knighted. He died October 14th, 1796. 

John Fransham, the Norwich Polytheist, a very 
eccentric character, was born in St. George's Colegate. 
He was an excellent mathematician, and was a great 
admirer of the ancient writers on this science. He 
frequently took rapid solitary walks, with a broad 
brimmed hat slouched over his eyes, and a plaid on 
his shoulders, and was supposed to sleep often on 
Mousehold Heath. He died on February 1st, i8ia 
His biography was written by his pupil, Mr. Saint. 

Thomas Hall, Esq., a merchant, lived in the early 
part of this period. He founded a monthly sacramen- 
tal lecture, left several legacies to the charities, and 


310 History of Norwich, 

£\QO for a gold chain to be worn by the Mayor of 
Norwich, and which is now worn by the Deputy Mayor. 
He died on December 17th, 17 15, and was buried 
with great funeral pomp at St. George's Colegate. A 
portrait of this pious and liberal benefactor was pre- 
sented by John and Edward Taylor, Esqs., to the 
corporation, and placed in the council chamber. May, 

John Hobarty Earl of Buckinghamshire, sat as mem- 
ber of parliament for this city from 1747 to 1756, 
when he succeeded to the peerage. He was a liberal 
benefactor to the city. He was born August 17th, 
1723, and died September 3rd, 1793. 

James Hookc, a celebrated musician, author of more 
than 24CX) songs, 140 complete works or operas, one 
oratorio, and many odes, anthems, &c., was born in 
this city. At the early age of four years he was 
capable of playing many pieces, and at six he per- 
formed in public. He died in 18 13, leaving two sons 
by his first wife. One of them was Dr. James Hooke. 
Dean of Worcester, who died in 1828. The other was 
the celebrated author of " Sayings and Doings." 

David Kinnebrooky an eminent mathematician, was 
born here. He was master of one of the charity 
schools for forty years, and never absented himself a 
single day until his last illness. He died March 23rd, 
18 10, aged 72. 

John LenSy Esq., M.A., ancient sergeant at law, 
is believed to have been born in the parish of St 
Andrew's, and was educated here. In 1781, he was 
called to the bar. He first practised in the Courts of 

Eminent Citizens of the iStA Century, 311 

Kings Bench, but being made a sergeant, confined 
himself chiefly to the common pleas. He was after- 
wards made King's and next King's Ancient Sergeant 
On more than one occasion he declined the offer of 
the bench. He died August 6th, 1825, in his 69th 

Richard Lubbock, M.D,, was born here in 1759, and 
was educated at the Free Grammar School. He ob- 
tained his degree at Edinburgh in 1784. On his 
return to Norwich he practised with great success. 
He died September 1st, 1808, and was buried at 
Earlham church. ^ 

The Right Rev, Jacob Mountain^ D,D., was the 
first protestant bishop in the Canadas. He was born 
in the parish of St. Andrew. He presided over the 
church in the two Canadas for thirty-two years, and 
died June i6th, 1825, in the seventy-fifth year of his 

Samuel Parr, LL.D,, was master of the Free 
Grammar School from 1778 to 1792, when he resigned 
on being presented to the rectory of Buckden, in 

Edward Rigby, M,D,, was born at Chawbent, in 
Lancashire, December 9th, 1749. He was under the 
tuition of Dr. Priestley until he was fourteen, when 
he was apprenticed to Mr. David Martineau of this 
city. In 1805 he was elected mayor, and died Oct 
27th, 1822. In August, 181 8, the corporation voted 
him and his lady a piece of plate of the value of 
twenty-five guineas, as a memento of the memorable 
birth of their four children at one time, and the event 


3 1 2 History of Nonvich, 

was recorded in the city books. Two of the children 
lived to be nearly twelve weeks old, and the other two 
not quite seven weeks. 

William Saint, one of the mathematical masters of 
the Royal Military Academy, at Woolwich, was a 
native of St. Mary's Coslany. He wrote the " Life of 
Fransham,*' and was a contributor to the "Lady's 
Diary." He died July 9th. 18 19. 

George Sandby, D.D., chancellor of the diocese of 
Norwich, personally presided in the consistorial court 
of the Lord liishop of Norwich for nearly thirty years, 
during the whole of which time no decree of his was 
reversed by a superior court He died March 17th, 
1807, aged ninety-one. 

William Say, an eminent mezzotinto engraver, was 
born at Lakenham in 1768. 

Frank Sayers, M.D., an eminent physician and 
literary character, who for many years resided in this 
city, was born in London, March 3rd, 1763. He was 
the author of * Dramatic Sketches of the Ancient 
Northern Mythology," " Poems," " Disquisitions, Meta- 
physical and Literary," *' Nugx Poeticae," and " Mis- 
cellanies, Antiquarian and Historical." He died 
August 1 6th, 1 8 17, and a mural monument is erected 
to his memory in the Cathedral, with a Latin in- 
scription by the Rev. F. Howes. His works were 
collected and edited by the late William Taylor of 
this city. 

Sir James Edward Smith, M.D.,F.R.S,, president 
of the Linna^an Society, London, and of the Norwich 
Museum, and member of several foreign academies. 

Eminent Citizens of tlu i^th Century, 313 

was bom in St. Peters Mancroft, December 2ncl, 1759. 
He received his education here, and graduated as a 
physician at Leyden, in 1786. He assisted materially 
in the establishment of the Linnaean Society, in 1788, 
of which he was the first president, and he continued to 
preside over the society until his death, March 15th, 
1828. He was the author of several admirable botan- 
ical works. 

William Steveftson^ F.S.A., who was for many year^ 
proprietor of the " Norfolk Chronicle," and who edited 
a new edition of " Bentham's History of Ely Cathe- 
dral," was born at East Retford, in 1750, and died at 
his house in Surrey Street in this city. May 13th, 1821, 
aged seventy-one. He was, in the early part of his 
life, an artist of no mean pretension ; and was esteemed 
an antiquarian and numismatist of considerable know- 
ledge and research. 

3^0/in Taylor, D.D.y was a native of Lancaster. He 
came to Norwich in 1733, and was a minister to the 
Presbyterian dissenters in 1757. He was the author 
of several theological works, and died at Warrington, 
March Sth, 1761, aged sixty-six. 

William Taylor, a celebrated German scholar, and 
a very eccentric character, author of an " Historical 
Survey of German Poetry," and a translator of several 
German works, was born in this city, and resided for 
many years in Upper King Street He died in 1836, 
aged sixty-nine. 

Edward Baron Thurlow was born at Bracon Ash, in 
this county. He received the rudiments of his educa- 
tion at the Free Grammar School here. He rose 


314 History of Norwich, 

successively to be appointed solicitor general, attorney 
general, master of the rolls, and lord high chancellor 
of Great Britain, and was created Lord Thurlow in 
1778. In 1793 he resigned the seals. He died at 
Brighton, September 12th, 1806. 

William Wilkins, sen., architect, was bom in the 
parish of St. Benedict, about the year 1744 or 1747. 
He received but a limited education, but possessed an 
admirable taste for design, and his plans and drawings 
were very beautiful. He was the author of a clever 
essay in Vol. xii. of the " Archaeologia," on the Venta 

William Wilkins, Af.A., son of the above, was born 
in St. Giles* parish. He was educated at the Free 
Grammar School here. He was employed in the 
erection of several public buildings in London, and 
numerous private mansions. His literary labours were 
confined to the subject of architecture, and his** Magna 
Gnccia " is considered to be an excellent work. 

William Windham, This eminent statesman re- 
presented the city in several parliaments. He was 
born in London in 1750, and first sat for Non\ach in 
1780. In 1783 he was appointed secretary to the 
lord lieutenant of Ireland, and made his first speech 
in parliament in 1785. He died in 1806. 

Sir Benjamin Wrench^ an eminent physician, who 
practised here for sixty years, lived in St Andrew's. 
His house occupied the site of the present Corn Ex- 
change. He was lord of the manor of Little Melton 
in Blomefield's time. 

Norwich in the Nineteenth Century. 315 

Norwich in the Nineteenth Century. 

We have now arrived at the present age of political 
progress, and material prosperity ; the age of inven- 
tions, railways, newspapers, and telegraphs ; the age 
of expansion and general intelligence. George III., 
George IV., and William IV., have reigned in this 
century, and have been succeeded by our beloved 
Queen Victoria. Under her benign sway the old 
semi-barbarous state of society has passed away like 
a dream, and we live in a new social era, the result of 
the progress of education, of the march of improve- 
ment, and of the spread of true religion. 

As it has been often stated by local historians that 
Norwich formerly contained a very large population, 
and as this statement is very generally believed, we 
may here correct the mistake by giving the returns, 
which show a very gradual, and very slow increase 
from the earliest period to the present time. The 
parochial returns show that in 1693 the population 
was only 28,881 ; in 1752 it had increased to 36,169; 
and in 1786 to 40,051. This was the greatest number 
up to the end of the last century. In 1801 it was 
36,832, not including 6,000 recruits for the army, 
navy, and militia ; making the total number 42,832. 
This indicates a very slow increase of population. 
The following are the returns for the present century : 
1801, 36,832; 1811, 37,256; 1821, 50,288; 1831, 
61,116; 1841, 62,294; 1851, 68,713; 1861, 74,4i4» 
being an increase of about 500 yearly. Norwich in 

3i6 History of Norwich. 

1752 contained only 7131 houses, and in 1801 8763, 
of which 1747 were returned as empty. In 1831 the 
number was 14,201, of which 13,132 were inhabited. 
Now the number is over 21,000, and the rateable 
value is iTi 78,882. 

We must now leave the stately march of history for 
a more broken and interrupted step. There is some 
difficulty in detailing the events of this period, for 
every reader is more or less acquainted with it, and 
has viewed it in relation to his own interests and pre- 
judices. The records of facts are so voluminous, that 
every reader may think that there is something 
omitted, or misrepresented, or exaggerated. It is 
impossible, however, to mention every local occurrence 
which some one may think important, every accident^ 
or fire, or crime, or every grand concert or entertain- 
ment. We have to deal with events more connected 
with general history ; and we shall first state the more 
remarkable occurrences of a civil or municipal character, 
reserving political matters for a subsequent chapter 
But in order to render our narrative of local events, 
and especially local elections, more intelligible, it will 
be necessary to give a brief account of the old cor- 
poration, whose proceedings occupy so large a part of 
our records. 


This body claims a prescriptive origin. Certain 
privileges were granted to the city by the charters of 
different sovereigns, the first being that of Henry I., 

Norwich in the Nineteenth Ctntury. 317 

which was annulled and again renewed by Stephen. 
The particular privileges conceded by it cannot now 
be ascertained. The next charter is that of the 
5th Henry II,, but this is only confirmatory of former 
grants, and the original is still preserved in the Guild- 
halL One granted by Richard I. contains some 
estimable clauses. The most prominent are, that no 
citizen shall be forced to answer any plea or action in 
any but the city courts, except for those concerning 
possessions out of the city ; that the citizens should 
have acquittaiue of murder, which is equivalent to 
granting them a coroner ; that they should not be 
forced to ditel, that is, should be exempt from the 
general law which was then in force, of deciding causes 
by single combat ; that they should be free from toll 
throughout all England ; and that they should have 
other liberties, all highly important, and no doubt 
justly appreciated by the citizens of that period. 
King John's charter is similar to the preceding, and 
that of Henry II., with the addition that all persons 
living in the city, and participating in the liberties of 
the citizens, shall be talHated or taxed, and pay as the 
^foresaid citizens of Norwich do, when tollages and 
aid shall be laid upon them. It is probable that the 
principal authority was invested in bailiffs, instead of 
a provost, in 1223, as there is no evidence of the 
existence of such officers before that time. 

Two deeds of Henry III., and several of succeeding 
kings, all either confirmed or enlarged the privileges 
granted to the city ; but our attention is most attracted 
by the concessions of Henry IV., which established 

318 History off Norwich. 

the constitution of a mayor, shcriflfs, &c. The original 
charter is lost, but those of his son and more modern 
princes have sufficiently preserved the spirit of it The 
cliarter of Henry V. made the extensive territory 
within the corporation limits a county of itself, 
excepting only the castle, which belonged to 
Norfolk. This territory was, I:^ the boundary act, 
included for the purposes of representation. Twenty- 
five charters, the latest by James II„ are known to 
have been granted, and probably others existed and 
have been lost When the innovations, made in 
old establishments during the Commonwealth, were 
gradually reformed, the citizens petitioned for a re- 
newal of their rights. The charter of 15th Charles 11, 
was obtained, and under it the city was governed till 
the passing of the Municipal Reform Act, Most of 
the old charters were granted in consideration for sums 
of money given or lent to kings to enable them to 
carry on wars. Many of the charters were more in- 
jurious than beneficial to the city, as they created 
monopolies of one kind or other, or gave powers to the 
old corporation \vhich were frequently abused. Those 
who wish to study those old documents more minutely 
may find them in Blomefield's history. 

The old corporation was more ornamental than 
useful to the city for 400 years. Under it the sani- 
tary state of the city was so bad, the drainage of the 
city so defective, and the supply of water so in- 
sufficient, that plagues and pestilences, which carried 
oiT thousands of the citizens, were of frequent occur- 
rence. Ward elections were so often contested, that 

Norwich in the Nineteenth Century. 319 

bribery, treating, and intimidation, were quite common, 
and the corruption of the freemen and lower classes 
was universal. Physically and morally the city was for 
centuries in the worst possible condition. The ward 
elections were carried on with a spirit which was sur- 
passed in no other place. They were considered as 
trials of strength between different parties ; and if they 
happened at a period when a general election was 
anticipated, an enormous sum of money was spent in 
treating and bribery. Indeed, it has been asserted on 
good authority that no less a sum than ^16,000 was 
wasted in the contest for a single ward in 1818 ! The 
city was divided Into four great wards, each of which 
was subdivided into three small wards. The mayor 
was elected by the freemen on May ist, and sworn 
into his office on the Guild day, which was always the 
Tuesday before Midsummer day. He was chosen 
from the aldermen, and afterwards he was a magistrate 
for life. One of the sheriffs was chosen by the court 
of aldermen, the other by the freemen on the last 
Tuesday in August. The twenty-four aldermen were 
chosen for the twelve smaller wards, two for each 
ward, whose office was to keep the peace in their 
several divisions. When anyone of them died, the 
freemen of that great ward in which the lesser ward 
was included, for which he was to serve, elected 
another in his place within five days. The common 
councilmen were elected by the freemen dwelling in 
each of the four great wards separately ; for Conisford 
great ward on the Monday ; Mancroft on the Tuesday ; 
Wymer on the Wednesday; and the Northern ward on 

320 History of Norwich, 

the Thursday in Passion week, thence called "cleansing" 
week. They chose a speaker yearly, who was called 
speaker of the commons. The old freemen therefore 
formed the whole of the local constituency for munici- 
pal purposes. 

Memoirs arc often the best sources of information 
respecting public matters, as they let us behind the 
scenes and show us what the actors really thought 
and did. A good memoir of the late Professor Taylor, 
which appeared in the Norfolk News, of March 28th 
and April 4th, 1863, contained the following, "So far 
back as 1808 wc find Mr. Taylor recording that he 
was 'elected a common councilman for the fourth 
time.' " He also states that the contest for nominees 
in the Long ward was " the severest ever remembered." 
Few people now-a-days could realize the import of 
those few words. Few understand how much was 
implied by the once common phrase " a battle for the 
Long ward." The combatants would have scorned 
such mealy-mouthed appellations, as "conservative" 
and " liberal," or indeed any name but that of the 
colors under which they fought. They were "blue- 
and- whites," or "orangc-and-purples;" the former being 
what would now be called the " liberal," and the latter 
the "conservative," party. To be a blue-and-white 
or an orange-and-purple, was to be an angel or a 
devil, as the case might be ; the angels being of course 
those of your own side, to whichever you belonged. 
Great was the potency of colors : though not supposed 
to be worn at municipal elections, they were a rallying 
cry, and they were always at hand to be flouted, like 

Norwich in tite Nineteenth Century. %2i 

a red rag at a turkey, in the face of the enemy. 
Even housemaids and children concealed them about 
their persons, in readiness to show them slyly from 
some window, both to encourage their friends and 
exasperate their enemies, whenever a procession 
passed. Great were the preparations for the contest 
A sort of civic press-gang prowled the streets by night 
for the purpose of "cooping chickens," which, being 
done into English, means carrying men off by force, and 
keeping them drunk and in confinement, so that if they 
could not be got to vote " for" it would be impossible 
for them to vote "against" If they could not be 
safely secured in the city, they were "cribbed, cabined, 
and confined " in wherries on the river, or the broads, 
or even taken to Yarmouth and carried out to sea. 
When the day of battle came, great was the shouting, 
the drinking, the betting, the bribing, and the fighting, 
till the longest purse contrived to win the day Of 
course, the dirty work was done by dirty men. But 
leading men on both sides were so used to see this 
sort of thing, that they considered it only as a necessary 
part and parcel of an election. It was regarded rather 
as a limb which could not be safely severed from the 
body, than as a shabby coat which disgraced the 
wearer. Besides, palliating rhetoric was not absent 
Better do a little evil than surrender a cause essential 
to ihewelfareof the state! "What we did," we honest 
orange-and-purples, or we pure blue-and-whites, " was 
done in mere self-defence." 

322 History of Norwich, 

Leading Events in the Nineteenth Century. 

1801. January ist, 1801, being the first day of the 
nineteenth century, and the day on which the Union 
of Great Britain and Ireland took place, the 13th 
Regiment of Light Dragoons dismounted, and the 
Militia fired ^fen dejoie in the Market Place. 

January 3rd. The old Theatre (built in 1757) was re- 
opened after extensive improvements. The alterations 
were executed after the designs of William Wilkins, 
Esq., the patentee. This theatre was formerly a good 
school for young actors, and many promising perfor- 
mers have first appeared on these boards. Of late, 
operatic performances appear to be most in favour 
with the gentry. 

February 24th. Charles Harvey, Esq., the steward, 
was unanimously elected Recorder of Norwich, vice 
Henry Partridge, Esq., resigned. 

April 4th. Mrs. Lloyd, widow of the Rev. Dean 
Lloyd, died at Cambridge, aged 79. This lady painted 
the Transfiguration, and other figures in the eastern 
windows of the Cathedral. 

In April, the ward elections were the causes of great 
contention. In consequence of objections being made 
to the elections of two nominees of the Wymer ward, 
and three of the Northern ward, on the ground of 
their being ineligible under the corporation act, having 
omitted to receive the sacrament within a year previous 
to the election of the common council, the mayor did 
not make the returns till several days after the usual 

Leading Events in the i()tk Century, 323 

time. At a court held April 4th, after the objections 
had been fully heard by counsel, the recorder (Mr. 
Harvey) declared that the persons objected to who 
had the majority of votes, having omitted to come into 
court according to summons, were not duly elected, 
but as no regular notice had been given previous to the 
election, the candidates in the minority could not be 
returned. A new election for the above wards accor- 
dingly took place on May 25th and 26th. 

June i6th. Jeremiah Ives, Esq., of Catton, was 
elected mayor a second time. There was no guild 
feast this year at St. Andrew's Hall. 

June 2Sth. An awful fire, which lasted two hours, 
broke out on the roof of the Cathedral, and in less than 
an hour, 45 feet of the leaded roof, towards the western 
end of the nave, were consumed. Some plumbers had 
been at work repairing the roof, and set fire to it either 
accidentally or intentionally. The damage was about 
;f 5CX). The Lord Bishop (Dr. Sutton) was present, and 
distributed refreshment to the soldiers and people who 
assisted in arresting the progress of the conflagration. 

1802. Peace was proclaimed throughout the city 
on May the 4th, in due form; and the mayor and 
corporation went in procession from the hall through 
the principal streets. There was a general illumination 
at night. At a quarterly assembly of the council, a 
congratulatory address to his majesty on the restora- 
tion of peace, was voted unanimously. 

On May 21st, the city address was presented 
to the king, at the levee at SL James' Palace, by 

with and Sharp of thiscit}-, and Mr. AsIiIl 
Mivs. J)iriin;^t( >n, Mr. Jlirtlcnian. and Mr. J 
the princii)cd puiTurnicrs. 

October 2 1st There was a severe cc 
election of an alderman in the great nort 
the room of Francis Colombine, Esq., re 
numbers were — for E. Rigby, Esq., 26 
Davey, Esq., 259. 

1803. February 8th. At a full me< 
the Guildhall, a committee was appointe 
a bill to be laid before a future meetii 
paving, lighting, watching, and cleansing 
petition to the house of commons for lea^ 
a bill, was afterwards presented, but it 
opposed as not being then expedient 
however, ultimately carried. 

March 7th. At a special assembly of 
tion, an address of congratulation was a 
presented to his majesty, on the providen 
of the late traitorous conspiracy agaii 

Leading Events in tJte igth Century 325 

Thetford, also voted an address of congratulation to 
the king, and a similar address was adopted at a county 
meeting held at the Shirehall. 

March 21st. The portrait of Captain John Harvey, 
of the Norwich Light Horse volunteers, painted by 
Mr. Opie, at .the request of the troop, was placed in 
St. Andrew's HalL 

April 27th. A public dispensary was established 
in Norwich, and has been a great benefit to the poor 
people of the city. 

August 1 6th. France having again threatened to 
invade this kingdom, a meeting of the inhabitants of 
the city was held at the Guildhall, for the purpose of 
forming a regiment of volunteer infantry under the 
regulations of the Acts for the defence of the realm, 
when resolutions to that effect were adopted, and 
upwards of ;£^6400 subscribed, and 1400 citizens en- 
rolled themselves under the command of Lieut-Colonel 
Harvey. A rifle corps was also formed, of which 
R. M. Bacon, Esq., then editor of the Mercury, was 
appointed Captain. Both parties manifested the great- 
est enthusiasm, but fortunately the services of the local 
warriors were not required. On September 29th, a 
new telegraph was erected on the top of Norwich 
Castle, to communicate with Strumpshaw Mill, Filby 
Church, and Yarmouth, so as to give notice of any 
danger. In October, the Norfolk and Norwich volun- 
teer regiments agreed to perform permanent duty at 
Yarmouth in case of invasion, and many of them were 
stationed in the port during the succeeding two months. 
The victory of the Norfolk hero, Lord Nelson, at 

526 Histrrj cf Scrz^ich. 

Traiilcir. ir. iS::. cifczuraged Napoleon I., and he 
rel:r.c-:rj:ji his :r.:cr.:::r. to :n\-ade this land of free- 
dom:- Ir. ' -ly. : ".:•-;. the Iccal militia act was passed, 
ar.d n:^r.v .:' :he vilur.recrs transferred their services 
to :hit h-:oy. The vc'.ur.teer corps cf Xoni-ich and 
Norfolk Aorre iiilir.iL-i on March 24th, 1S13. The 
West N . r:' 1!-; r.i'.i:: i rcturr.ed to Norwich from Ireland, 
on Miv ii:h. l^:v, and were disembodied on June 
1 71!: ::: :h^: \ -^r. A Ijn^ peace of 40 years ensued, 
but thj Id trjiie of Nor.\ ich destroyed by the war, 
never rcvivijd. In January-. 1S17. upwards of £yxX} 
were contributed t:» relieve the poor, many of whom 
were em:/.oved in makinti a new road to Carrow, and 
in otJicr public w- -rks. the trade of the city being in 
a state of <taL;nation. 

1804. January- iSth The city of Xonvich Regi- 
ment of \'oluntcer Infantrj'. 600 strong, commanded by 
Lieut. Col. Har\ev, received their colours. The 
banners, given by the mayor and corporation, were 
first consecrated in the Market Place, by the Rev. 
E. S. Thurlow. probcndar\- of Norwich, with a suitable 
address and prayer, and were aftenvards presented by 
the mayor, John Morse, Esq., to the colonel in due 
form. The king's and regimental standards were then 
delivered to tlic ensigns. The Artillery, under CapL 
Eycrs, stationed on the Castle Hill, fired salutes; the 
Regiment fired three vollies; and St. Peters bells rang 
merry peals. 

June isL The city of Norwich (or 7th) Regiment 
of Norfolk Volunteer Infantry-, commanded by Lieut. 

Leading Events in tite i()th Century, 327 

Colonel Harvey, entered on one month's permanent 
duty in Norwich. The Regiment mustered 500 strong, 
exclusive of officers. 

June 4th. The anniversary of His Majesty s birthday 
was celebrated in Norwich by the grandest military 
spectacle ever witnessed here. Upwards of 1700 men 
of the Royal Artillery, 24th Regiment of Foot, and 
the Norwich Volunteer Corps, assembled on the Castle 
Hill and fired 2l fen de joie W\\h fine effect. During 
this year the citizens were often entertained with 
military displays. June i8th, Major General Money 
was appointed to the staff of the eastern district ; in 
which a force of 32,cxx) men was now fully completed 
for the reception of any invading enemy. 

June 1 8th. The corporation granted the site of the 
Blackfriars, in St. Andrew's, to the court of guardians, 
for 200 years at their old rent for the purpose of im- 
proving the same, and repairing the Old Workhouse 
for the poor, the plan of erecting a New Workhouse 
having been abandoned. Subsequently, large sums 
of money were wasted in repairing the old house, 
sufficient to build a new one, and ultimately it was 
found to be absolutely necessary to build a new house, 
which was done at a cost of ;^30,ooo. 

1805. January 17th. At a public meeting held at 
the Guildhall, it was resolved to establish an hospital 
and school for the indigent blind, in Norwich and 
Norfolk. Towards the foundation of this admirable 
institution, Thomas Tawell, Esq., contributed a house 
and three and-a-half acres of land in Magdalen Street, 

328 History of Norwich, 

valued at /^io50. Mr. Tawell, who was unfortunately 
blind, introduced his humane proposal in an able 
speech, appealing for subscriptions. A large sum was 
at once subscribed. The hospital was opened on the 
14th October following. 

February 2nd. Dr. Charles Manners Sutton, bishop 
of Norwich, was nominated by the king, and chosen, 
February 12th, archbishop of Canterbury. On the 
13th, His Grace arrived at the palace, Norwich, from 
London. On the igth, the mayor and court of alder- 
men proceeded in state from the Guildhall to the 
Bishop's Palace, where the recorder, Mr. Harvey, 
delivered an address of congratulation to the arch- 
bishop on his translation, to which His Grace returned 
a dignified answer. Next day, the clergy of Norwich 
waited on His Grace, when the Rev. Dr. Pretyman, 
prebendary, addressed the archbishop in an appropriate 
speech, to which His Grace made an impressive reply. 
On the 17th His Grace preached his farewell sermon 
in the Cathedral. 

February 24th. The clergy of Norwich having inti- 
mated an intention of applying to Parliament for an 
increase of their incomes, then very small, by assess- 
ment, the council, at a quarterly assembly, resolved 
to oppose the application ; the citizens, in vestry 
meetings, being unanimous against the measure, which 
was never carried out, 

March i8th. Dr. Henry Bathurst (one of the 
prebendaries of Durham) was elected bishop of 
Norwich by the dean and chapter. He soon made 
himself universally beloved by the clergy and the 

Leading Events in the i()th Century. 329 

citizens. Professor Taylor gave the following account 
of the late and also of the newly appointed bishop : — 

"In 1805, Dr. Bathurst succeeded Dr. Sutton as bishop 
of Norwich. The latter, who had been translated to the 
See of Canterbury, was a man of polished manners, extrava- 
gant habits, and courtier-like address. He was too polite io 
quarrel with anybody and too prudent to provoke controversy. 
He neither felt nor affected to feel any horror of Unitarians. 
He invited them to his table, and at the request of the 
mayor, he preached a charity sermon at St. George's Cole- 
gate, knowing that my father had been asked and had 
consented to write the hymns." 

" Dr. Bathurst removed from Durham to Norwich, and as 
he was a stranger in his new residence, never having taken 
any prominent part as a public man, little expectation was 
excited as to his future conduct He was known to owe 
his elevation to his relation, Lord Bathurst; and it was 
generally taken for granted that his views on public afifairs 
were similar to those of the administration of which that 
noble lord was a member. Ciuiosity led me to the Cathe- 
dral to hear the new bishop's primary charge, and I soon 
found the spirit it breathed to resemble the benevolence 
that beamed from his countenance." 

" What the bishop preached he also practised. He never 
shrunk from appearing to be what he really was, nor while 
he received a dissenter in his study with politeness would 
he pass him unnoticed in the street He was to be seen 
walking arm-in-arm with persons, of all persuasions, whom he 
respected, in the streets of Norwich. He was not afraid of 
shaking ' brother Madge/ as he called him, by the hand, nor 
of welcoming Unitarians to his table. What he was as a 
member of the house of peers, on all occasions in which the 

330 History of Norwick, 

great principles of religious liberty were cooceraed, is well 
known. I have only here to speak of his conduct as a 
resident in Norwich." 

Sept 3rd The committee of the court of guardians 
appointed to examine the poor rates of the city and 
hamlets, for the purpose of obtaining a more equal 
assessment, made their report, in which they stated 
that an increase of ;^ 16,000 stock and £i%oo rent, 
calculating on the half rental only, might be made, 
and recommended a general survey and new valuation 
to be taken, in consequence of the great alteration 
which had taken place in property since 1786, when 
the previous survey was taken. 

December 17th. There was a grand entertainment at 
the Assembly Rooms, in honour of Lord Nelson's 
glorious victory off Cape Trafalgar ; more than 450 
ladies and gentlemen of the city and county were 
present. The rooms were decorated with transparencies 
and brilliantly illuminated for a grand ball and supper. 
The victory so celebrated, and which had been won 
on October 21st, was dearly purchased by the death 
of Viscount Nelson. The last order given before the 
action began, was by the newly-invented telegraph : — 
*' England expects every man to do his duty." 

1806, January 9th. This day the great bells of the 
several churches in the city were tolled from twelve 
till two o'clock, it being the day on which the remains 
of the immortal Lord Nelson were interred under the 
dome of St. Paul's Cathedral. The body, after lying 
in state in the hall of Greenwich Hospital, was brought 

Leading Events in the i()tk Century. 331 

thence on January 8th by water to Whitehall stairs, 
and carried on a bier to the Admiralty Office, and 
deposited in the Captain's room for the night. Next 
day the corpse was removed on a funeral car, drawn 
by six horses, to St. Paul's. The Duke of York headed 
the procession, the grandest ever witnessed ; 500 
persons of distinction attended at the funeral. 

February 24th. At a quarterly assembly of the 
corporation, a loyal address was unanimously adopted, 
to be presented to His Majesty, ** expressive of their 
gratitude for the paternal affection which he has shown 
to his subjects, by waiving every consideration, but 
the public good, in the appointment of men of the 
first abilities in the country to the high offices of 
state !" 

1807. March 4th. A committee of the House of 
Commons declared Mr. Windham and Mr. Coke not 
duly elected, and another election took place for two 
members for the county. Sir J. H. Astley, Bart, and 
Edward Coke, Esq., (of Derby) were returned without 
opposition. Mr. Windham afterwards took his seat 
for New Romney, and Mr. Coke was returned for 
Derby vice his brother, who had previously accepted 
the Chiltern Hundreds. 

May 14th. The anniversary of the birthday of that 
illustrious statesman, the Right Hon. Wm. Windham, 
was celebrated at the Angel Inn (now Royal Hotel) 
by a large party of his numerous friends. William 
Smith, Esq., M.R, presided. 

June 1 6th. Robert Herring, Esq., was sworn into 

332 History of Norwich. 

the office of mayor of Norwich; and he afterwards 
gave a dinner to 150 gentlemen at Chapel-field house. 
October 6th. The first meeting was held of the 
revived Norfolk Club at the Angel Inn, Norwich. 
Sir John Lombe, Bart, was in the chair. The Hon. 
Colonel Fitzroy, Mr. W. Smith, and Mr. Windham 
were also present 

1808. January. By the telegraph, orders from the 
Admiralty Office were received at Yarmouth, in 
17 minutes. The chain of communication was by 
Strumpshaw, Thorpe Hills, Honingham, Carlton, and 
Harling, and from thence proceeded between Thetford 
and Bury, over Newmarket Heath to London. 

Captain Manby's invention for rescuing persons 
stranded on a lee shore, was approved by the Lords of 
the Admiralty. Parliament rewarded Captain Manby 
at different times with grants amounting to £6000^ 
and adopted his apparatus at many parts of the coast 

July 29th. At a special assembly of the corporation 
of Norwich, an address to his majesty was agreed to 
unanimously, on the subject of the noble struggle of 
the patriots of Spain and Portugal against the Ruler of 
France, and of the generous aid given to their endea- 
vours by the government 

1809. January. In consequence of Colonel Robert 
Harvey not being joined by a sufficient number of the 
Volunteers under his command to become a local 
Militia Battalion, he resigned the command of the 

Leading Events in the igth Century. 333 

Norwich Volunteer Regiment, and was succeeded by 
Colonel De Hague. 

May 9th. The six Regiments of Norfolk Local 
Militia first assembled to perform 28 days' exercise. 
They were stationed at Norwich, Yarmouth, Swaffham, 

and Lynn. 

October isth. The Norwich com merchants de- 
manded of the farmers a month's credit, instead of 
paying ready money for their corn as heretofore, but it 
was resisted by the growers, and ultimately abandoned 
by the merchants. 

November 2nd. After an interval of seven years, 
there was a grand musical festival here, combining 
oratorios at St Peter's Church, and concerts at the 
Theatre, under the direction of Mr. Bfeckwith, eldest 
son of the late Dr. Beckwith. Professor Hague, of 
Cambridge, led the band. 

1810* January 20th. The disputes between the 
com growers and buyers in the city and county, having 
been amicably adjusted, a reconciliation dinner took 
place at the Maid's Head Inn. Amongst the toasts 
was. " Fair Play — ready money on both sides, or ready 
money on neither." 

February 4th. Died at Gunton, in his 77th year, the 
Rt Hon. Harbord Lord Suffield. He represented 
Norwich from 1756 to 1786. He was much respected 
by his constituents. 

April 26th. The first stone of the new bridge at 
Carrow was laid by the mayor, T. Back, Esq., in due 

334 History of Norwich, 

August 6th. The first stone of the Norwich Foundry 
Bridge was laid by Alderman Jonathan Davey, the 
projector of the undertaking. 

September 27th. A contest took place for the 
office of alderman of the great Northern ward, in the 
room of John Herring, Esq., who died on the 23rd, 
aged 61. The poll closed as follows — for William 
Hankes, Esq., 258 ; N. Bolingbroke, Esq., 229. The 
former was declared duly elected. 

December 8th. The Rev. Edward Valpy, B.D., was 
elected by the aldermen, master of the Free Grammar 
School, Norwich, in the room of the Rev. Dr. S. Forster, 
resigned. Under Mr. Valpy, the school attained great 
celebrity, and here Rajah Brooke and other eminent 
men were educated. 

1811. January isth. Mr. Thomas Roopewas con- 
victed at the sessions of having sent a challenge to 
Mr. Robert Alderson, Steward of the Corporation, to 
provoke him to fight a duel ; and was sentenced to 
pay a fine of 40/- to the king, and to be imprisoned for 
one month. 

June 29th. Mr. Thomas Roope was sentenced in 
the Court of King's Bench, to be committed to the 
custody of the marshal for three months, and to find 
sureties afterwards, for a libel on Thomas Back, Esq., 
late mayor of Norwich. 

August 6th. A portrait of Thomas Back, Esq., was 
placed in St. Andrew's Hall. It was painted by Mr. 
Clover, a native of the city. 

September nth. A numerous meeting was held in 

Leading Events in the i^th Century. 335 

St Andrew's Hall, with the mayor, J. H. Cole, Esq., 
in the chair, when the Norfolk and Norwich Auxiliary 
Bible Society was instituted The Bishop of Norwich 
(who was present) was appointed president, and the 
three secretaries of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society also attended. Annual meetings have been 
held ever since. 

1812. June 16th. Starling Day, Esq., was sworn 
in Mayor of Nonvich for the second time ; but in 
consequence of his advanced age and infirmities, there 
was no dinner in St Andrew's Hall, on the guild-day. 
Mr. Alderman Davey (who was one of the unsuccessful 
candidates for the office of mayor on May 1st and 2nd) 
gave a dinner under the trees adjoining his house at 
Eaton, to about 500 freemen of the liberal interest 
Strange as it may seem now, contests often took place 
for the office of mayor, during the old corporation, 

July i7tlL At a meeting of noblemen, gentry, and 
clergy, held at the Shirehall, (Lord Viscount Primrose 
in the chair,) the Norfolk and Norwich Society for the 
education of the poor in the principles of the Church 
of England, was established. Upwards of £^000 was 
subscribed for the object The Lord Bishop of Nor- 
wich was elected patron, and Lord Suffield, president 

1813. May ist A contested election for the office 
of Mayor of Norwich came on, and was not finished 
till next morning, when Alderman Davey and J. Har- 
vey were returned as the two highest ; but on May 
3rd, an objection was made to Alderman J. Harvey, 

336 History of Norwich, 

as being ineligible, from his not being a resident 
inhabitant of the city, as required by charter. Coun- 
sel's opinion was obtained in favour of that objection, 
and another election took place on June /th, when 
another contest ensued, and after a spirited poll the 
numbers were — for Alderman Leman, 797 ; Alderman 
Davey, 801. The Court of Aldermen elected the 
former gentleman. 

July 4th. Great rejoicings took place here on the 
arrival of the news of the great victory obtained by the 
British army commanded by the Marquis of Welling- 
ton, over the French army, under Joseph Buonaparte, 
at Vittoria in Spain, on June 21st, when the enemy lost 
151 pieces of cannon, 415 waggons, all his baggage, 
and many prisoners. The Marquis of Wellington was 
promoted to be a Field-Marshal. A form of prayer 
and thanksgiving for this victory was used in all the 
churches on August 1st 

1814. May ist. An election took place for the 
office of Mayor of Norwich, and the contest lasted two 
days. Aldermen Back and Robberds being the high- 
est on the poll, a scrutiny was demanded on behalf of 
Alderman Davey. The scrutiny commenced pn the 
1 2th, and continued till the 19th, when Alderman 
Davey declined proceeding further. Aldermen Rob- 
berds and Back were then returned to the Court of 
Aldermen, who elected J. W. Robberds, Esq., to serve 
the office of Mayor. 

June 3rd. The Expedition coach being the first to 
arrive in Norwich with the news of the definitive 

Leading Events in the igth Century, 337 

treaty of peace, (signed at Paris on the 30th ult,) was 
drawn by the people four times round the Market 
Place, and through the principal streets. 

June 8th. The Newmarket mail arrived in Norwich 
with news of the Corn Importation Bill having been 
thrown out of the House of Commons by a majority 
of 10, and was dragged by the excited people for hours 
through the streets. At night a great bonfire was 

June 27th. Peace with France was proclaimed. 
The mayor and corporation went in a procession of 
carriages from the Guildhall through the principal 
streets, preceded by trumpets, and accompanied by 
thousands of people. 

July 7th. The thanksgiving day for the happy 
restoration of peace. The mayor and corporation 
attended divine service at the Cathedral. About 700 
children from the church schools went in procession 
to St. Andrew's Hall, where a plentiful dinner of roast 
beef and plum pudding was provided for them by the 
treasurers of the charity schools. The poor in their 
several parishes participated in the general joy, and 
were regaled with plentiful dinners, paid for by 

1816. March 4th. The late Professor Taylor stood 
a contest, for the third time, for nominee of St Peter's 
Mancroft ward. Of course he was beaten, this being 
an orange-and-purple ward, but he polled 107 votes. 
However, he was soon afterwards elected a common 
councilman, without difficulty, in the Northern ward^ 

338 History of Norwich, 

where the blue-and-whites had always a large majority. 
This was on March i6th, and on May 3rd he was 
elected a member of the court of guardians. He took 
a very active part in local politics, and was the first 
man who ever reported and published the proceedings 
of the common council 

June 23rd. The glorious news was received in Nor- 
wich, with triumphant rejoicings, of the ever memorable 
victory obtained by the Duke of Wellington over the 
French army, commanded by Buonaparte in person, 
at Waterloo, near Brussels, on the i8th. Buonaparte 
fled to Paris, leaving upwards of 200 pieces of cannon 
in the hands of the allied armies. 

June 27th. Rejoicings were renewed here on the 
news being received of the second abdication of 
Buonaparte, the immediate consequence of the grand 
victory of La Belle Alliance. 

1816. January i8th. This day was appointed a 
thanksgiving day for the restoration of peace, and it 
was solemnly observed. The mayor and corporation 
of Norwich attended divine service at the Cathedral 
Sermons were preached at the different places of wor- 
ship, and collections were made for the poor. 

January 2Sth. At the 5 1st anniversary of the Castle 
corporation, Thomas Back, Esq., alderman, presented 
two medals to be worn by the recorder and steward 
of the society. Each medal bore a good like- 
ness of Mr. Pitt, on a beautiful cameo ; the motto 
round which was Non Sibi sed Patrice Vixit. On the 
reverse were the words, " Presented by Thomas Back, 

Leading Events in the igtk Centnry, 339 

Junior, Esq., to the Castle Corporation, Norwich, in 
commemoration of the great victory of Waterloo, ob- 
tained on the i8th June, 1815, by the Allied Armies 
under the command of Field Marshal the Duke of 
Wellington ; " and around this was the motto, " In 
memory of the Right Hon. William Pitt ; died the 
23rd January, 1806, aged 47." 

January 29th. Died, aged 86, Robert Harvey, Esq., 
called the Father of the City of Norwich, for his great 
benevolence and liberality and promotion of trade. 

February 20th. A numerous meeting was held at 
the Guildhall, Norwich, with the mayor, J. H. Yallop, 
Esq., in the chair, when resolutions against the pro- 
perty tax, and a petition founded thereon, were passed 
unanimously. Similar petitions were sent from Lynn, 
Yarmouth, and other towns. County meetings were 
also held to petition against the tax. 

March 29th. At a public meeting held at the 
Guildhall, Norwich, with the mayor in the chair, it was 
resolved to establish a bank for savings, where ser- 
vants and others might deposit a portion of their 
earnings. It was opened on April 29th, and has con- 
tinued to be very prosperous. 

April 3rd. A meeting of merchants, manufacturers, 
and others, was held at the Guildhall, Norwich, John 
Harvey, Esq., presiding, when resolutions were passed 
to instruct the city members to watch and oppose the 
intended measure for allowing the exportation of wool 
free of all restrictions. This measure was for the time 

April 4th. At a public meeting held under the 

340 History of Norwich, 

presidency of the mayor, a petition to parliament was 
adopted for the repeal of the Insolvent Debtors' act 
as being injurious to trade and commerce. It was not 
repealed for a long time. 

May nth. The West Norfolk militia returned to 
Norwich from Ireland, and were disembodied on the 
17th of June. 

May 1 6th. A number of riotous persons, chiefly 
youths, broke into the New Mills, in Norwich, threw 
some of the flour into the mill pool, and committed 
several outrages on persons and dwellings before 
they dispersed. The pretext for the disturbance 
was the want of employment. They assembled again 
on the next evening, but were dispersed by the magis- 
trates and military, and several of the rioters were 
taken into custody. Similar proceedings took place 
at Downham and other places in Norfolk. 

June 17th. At a quarterly assembly of the corpo- 
ration, an address of congratulation to the Prince 
Regent was voted, to be presented to his Royal 
Highness, on the occasion of the marriage of the 
Princess Charlotte of Wales, and Prince Leopold of 
Saxe Coburg. The address was presented by the 
city members. The marriage took place on May 2nd. 

June 1 8th. This day being the anniversary of the 
glorious victory of Waterloo, the non-commissioned 
officers and privates of the First Royal Dragoons, and 
other soldiers quartered in Norwich, were treated with 
a handsome dinner in the cavalry riding school, several 
gentlemen having entered into a subscription for that 
purpose, the corporation adding the sum of £10. 

Leading Events in the igtA Century, 341 

Robert Hawkes, Esq., first suggested the enter- 

July loth. An address of congratulation was voted 
by the court of mayoralty of Norwich, to be presented 
to the Princess Charlotte and Prince Leopold on their 

October 14th. A public meeting was held in St 
Andrew's Hall (Mr. Sheriff Bolingbroke in the chair), 
when certain resolutions, and a petition to parliament 
founded thereon, were agreed to. The petition was 
for the greatest possible retrenchment of the public 
expenditure, and for a Reform of the House of Com- 
mons. Thus early began the Reform movement, and 
it continued to extend all over the country. It be- 
came stronger and stronger, till at last it overcame all 

1817. January ist At a public meeting in the 
Guildhall, with the mayor, William Hankes, Esq., 
presiding, a subscription was commenced to relieve the 
labouring poor, which amounted to £}fi^o. The poor 
people were employed on works of public improve- 
ment, and were supplied with soup, &c Upwards of 
j^iooo was also raised at Yarmouth for the same 
laudable purpose, and 460 men were employed in 
forming roads to the Bath House, Jetty, &c The 
committee in Norwich granted ;f 270 to be expended 
for labour on cutting a road through Butter Hills to 
Carrow Bridge, which was effected in the course of the 

March 26th. The severest contest took place ever 

342 History of Norwich 

known for nominees of Wymer, or the Long ward, very 
few votes remaining unpolled. Some of the freemen 
came in post-chaises from Thetford to poll. The 
numbers were, Messrs. S. Mitchell, 306; J. Reynolds, 
305 ; A. Thwaites, 292 ; Messrs. W. Foster, 297 ; R. 
Purland, 288; C. Higgen, 283. Mr. Foster was suc- 
cessful, having five votes above Mr. Thwaites, one of 
the old nominees. 

April 4th. On Good Friday morning, Wright's 
Norwich and Yarmouth steam packet had just started 
from the Foundry Bridge, when the boiler of the en- 
gine burst with a tremendous explosion, by which the 
vessel was blown to atoms, and of 22 persons on 
board, five men three women, and one child were 
instantly killed. Six women with fractured arms and 
legs were conveyed to the hospital, where one died. 
The remaining seven escaped without much injury. 
A subscription amounting to £>Z^o was raised for the 
sufferers. Soon afterwards, a packet was introduced 
on the river, worked by four horses, as in a thrashing 
machine; the animals walking in a path 18 feet in 
diameter. The vessel was propelled from six to 
seven miles an hour, as wind and tide favoured. This 
packet did not long run, and steam packets were 
again introduced, which went from Norwich to Yar- 
mouth daily. 

September 26th. A meeting was held in St. An- 
drew's Hall, when an auxiliary association to the 
London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst 
the Jews was established. The Lord Bishop of 
Norwich was appointed president. Annual meetings 

Leading Events in the igth Century. 343 

have been held ever since to promote the objects of 
the society. 

December 3rd. At a special meeting of the cor- 
poration, two addresses of condolence, one to the 
Prince Regent, and the other to Prince Leopold, of 
Saxe Coburg, were voted, expressive of the grief of 
the citizens on the death of the Princess Charlotte. 

1818. January 5th. The court of guardians having 
determined to proceed in the valuation of the property 
in the city and hamlets, Messrs. Rook, Athow, and 
Stannard were appointed to make such valuation. 
They were to be paid ;^850 for their trouble. 

A repository was established in Norwich for the 
sale of articles of ingenuity, to increase the funds of 
the society for relieving the sick poor in Norwich. 
The first exhibition took place on Tombland fair day, 
at Mr. Noverre s room. 

March i ith. This year, the several wards in Norwich 
(except the Northern ward) were strongly contested, 
particularly the Wymer ward. After a spirited poll 
for nominees of the common council, the numbers 
were for Mr. Foster, 361 ; Mr. Higgen, 357 ; Mr. 
Purland, 355; Mr. Mitchell, 345; Mr. Culley, 340; 
Mr. Beckwith, 322. The liberal party at last obtained 
the ascendancy, but had to pay for it. The expendi- 
ture at this local contest was estimated at some 
thousands. From £1^ to £/^o were given for votes, 
and the freemen were brought in carriages from the 

May i6th. This being Guild-day, Barnabas Leman, 

344 History of Norwich, 

Esq., was sworn in mayor of Norwich for the second 
time. The corporation went in procession to the 
Cathedral, preceded by the Blue and White Clubs, 
the freemen wearing those colours in their hats, which 
was considered improper and ill-timed. Mr. William 
Smith, before the procession started, after recommend- 
ing his friends to abstain from this display of party 
feeling on such a day, pulled his colours from his hat 
and put them in his pocket. It being quite a matter 
of taste, his example was not followed. 

1810- This year some important meetings were 
held, and a good deal of political excitement prevailed 
in the city. Mr. E. Taylor was elected sheriff after a 
contest with Mr. T. S. Day. The former was evidently 
the popular candidate, the numbers being for Taylor 
807, for Day 530. In acknowledging the honour 
which had been conferred upon him he said, — 

" There are times, gentlemen, when the post of honour is 
the post of duty — times when it is the duty of every man to 
stand forward to maintain and uphold the laws of his country, 
and prevent them from being outraged. Such, gentlemen, 
are the present Scenes have recently been exhibited in a 
distant part of this country which I blush to mention. The 
laws have there been outraged and trodden under foot, not 
by the people, but by the magistrates, whose duty it was to 
protect them. At Manchester we have seen a merciless 
soldiery, or rather, I should say, persons wearing red coats, 
and pretending to be soldiers, let loose to butcher men, 
women, and children in cold blood who were peaceably and 
legally met to discharge a duty which they owed to their 

Leading Events in the igtA Century. 345 

country. The right of petitioning is a right which, till 
lately, we have enjoyed uninterruptedly, none daring to 
make us afraid ; and where is the man who will tell me that 
these people did not legally and constitutionally meet ? But, 
gentlemen, they have been treated in a manner so brutal and 
inhuman, that our history furnishes no parallel." 

He alluded to the " Peterloo Massacre " as it was 
then called, and which excited universal indignation 
throughout the country. 

January 25th. The birthday of Mr. Fox was com- 
memorated, by nearly 250 gentlemen, at the Assembly 
rooms. The earl of Albemarle presided, supported 
by Mr. Coke and Viscount Bury. The high sheriff 
was at the head of the right hand table, and Mr. Wm. 
Smith of the left. After dinner, speeches were 
delivered, setting forth the views of the Liberal party. 

April isth. A public meeting wss held in St 
Andrew's Hall, when a petition to the House of Com- 
mons against the duty on coals (6s. 6d. per chaldron) 
was adopted by acclamation. R. H. Gurney, Esq., 
M.P., assured the meeting that he should support the 
prayer of the petition, and do everything in his power 
towards alleviating the burdens of his fellow-citizens. 
The tax was ultimately abolished. 

April 22nd. The duke of Sussex arrived in Norwich 
and lodged at the house of William Foster, Esq., in 
Queen Street, where his royal highness was waited 
upon by the mayor and corporation. Mr. Steward 
Alderson, in an address of congratulation on his 
arrival, informed his royal highness that the whole 
body corporate had voted to him the freedom of the 

346 History of Notwich, 

city, which the royal duke was pleased to accept, at 
the same time returning a dignified answer. On the 
next day a grand meeting of the Masonic brethren, 
320 in number, was held in Chapel-field house. The 
large Assembly room was decorated in the most 
splendid style. At 10.30 a.m., the duke of Sussex (as 
grand master of England) installed Thomas Wm. Coke, 
Esq., M.P., as provincial grand master, with the ac- 
customed Masonic ceremonies. His royal highness 
delivered an impressive charge, on investing Mr. Coke 
with the jewel, apron, and gloves. After this ceremony 
a procession was formed, every oflScer and member of 
the assembled lodges wearing his full masonic costume 
and jewels, and the banners were carried in the pro- 
cession to the Cathedral. In the evening, there was a 
sumptuous banquet in St. Andrew's Hall, at which the 
royal duke presided, supported by Mr. Coke and 
I. Ives, Esq., the deputy provincial grand master. 
About 254 persons dined, and many ladies were 
present to witness the festive scene. Toasts were 
proposed in right royal style, and duly responded to. 
Next day His Royal Highness was admitted to the 
honorary freedom of the city at the Guildhall, where 
he took the customary oaths. After visiting the exhi- 
bition of the Artists* Society, the royal duke left Nor- 
wich about noon and proceeded to Holkham, paying a 
visit to Sir George Jerningham, at Cossey Hall, on his 
way thither. 

May 28th. The anniversary of the birthday of 
the Rt. Hon. Wm. Pitt was commemorated at the 
Assembly rooms, Norwich, by a very numerous com- 
pany of noblemen, gentlemen, and citizens. 

i f 

Leading Events in tfie 19/A Century. 347 

June 4th. The anniversary of the birthday of the 
long afflicted sovereign, George III., who had entered 
on the eighty-second year of his age, was celebrated 
for the last time in Norwich, Yarmouth, Lynn, and 
other towns, with the accustomed demonstration of 
loyalty and attachment. 

July 15th. Meetings were held in Norwich, and 
resolutions were passed, and petitions to parliament 
adopted, against the proposed additional duties on 
malt and on foreign wool. Petitions were also pre- 
sented to parliament praying for an alteration in the 
corn laws, in consequence of the depressed state of 

September i6th. A public meeting was held in 
St. Andrew's Hall, in order to take into consideration 
the late disastrous transactions at Manchester, on 
August 16th. The mayor, R. Bolingbroke, Esq., 
presided, when resolutions were adopted asserting the 
right of the subject to petition the king, and the 
legality of the late meeting at Manchester, censuring 
the conduct of the magistrates and yeomanry, and 
recommending a subscription for the relief of the 
sufferers. An address to the prince regent was agreed 
to for the removal of ministers from his presence and 
councils for ever. The address was afterwards pre- 
sented by the city members. 

October i8th. A public meeting was held by 
adjournment at the Guildhall to take into considera- 
tion the propriety of erecting a bridge over the river, 
near the Duke's Palace, to connect Pitt Street with 
the Market Place. A proposition to that effect was 

348 History of Norwich. 

negatived, but a bill for erecting the bridge was intro* 
duced into parliament and ultimately passed. Nearly 
;f 9,000 were proposed to be raised, by shares of £2^^ 
each, to complete the same. The bridge was built in 
course of time, and toll had to be paid for many 
years. By the exertions and influence of the late 
T. O. Springfield, Esq., the bridge was made a free 
thoroughfare, greatly to the convenience of the citizens* 

1820. January 5th. At a special meeting of the 
Diocesan Committee of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge, held in Norwich, (the Lord 
Bishop presiding) resolutions were adopted to counter- 
act the evil effects of infidel and blasphemous publica- 
tions, by issuing tracts of the Parent Society at very 
reduced prices, and a subscription was entered into for 
that purpose. 

January 24th. The anniversary of the birthday of 
the Right Hon. C. J. Fox was commemorated by a 
grand public dinner in St. Andrew's Hall by 460 
noblemen and gentlemen, amongst whom were the 
Duke of Sussex, the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of 
Albemarle (who presided), Viscount Bury, Lord 
Molyneux, and many other leading gentlemen of the 
liberal party. The hall was handsomely decorated, 
and the names of Fox and ALBEMARLE appeared in 
variegated lamps, and in a semi-circular transparency 
was that of SUSSEX, in letters of gold upon a ground 
of purple silk. 

January 30th. A messenger from London brought 
to Lord and Lady Castlereagh (who were at Gunton 

Leading Events in the igtk Century. 349 

Hall) the melancholy tidings of the death of King 
George III., which became known in Norwich on the 
following morning, when nearly all the shops were 
closed, and the bells of the churches were tolled for 
three hours. The king died on January 29th, in the 
82nd year of his age, and the 60th of his troubled 
reign, during which long wars desolated E^urope, 
doubled our national debt, and impoverished the 
country. His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales, 
(who was appointed regent on February 6th, 181 1,) 
immediately ascended the throne. King George IV. 
was soon afterwards seriously indisposed with inflam- 
mation in the lungs, but happily recovered from the 
attack in the course of a week. 

February ist King George IV. was proclaimed on 
the Castle Hill by the High Sheriff, Sir William 
Windham Dalling, Bart, amid the cheers of those 
assembled. On the same day His Majesty was pro- 
claimed in the city in full form and with great re- 

March 6th. A spirited contest took place for the 
gown, vacant by the death of Starling Day, Esq., 
alderman of Wymer ward. At the close of the poll 
the numbers were for Henry Francis, Esq., 413 ; John 
Lovick, Esq., 372 ; majority for Mr. Francis 41, who 
was declared duly elected. In this month Messrs. 
Mitchell, Beckwith, and Culley were elected nominees 
for the long ward without opposition. The other 
three wards were contested. After the elections for 
Wymer and the Northern wards, processions took 
place at night to celebrate the triumph of the two 
contending parties. 

3 so History of Norwich, 

August 2nd. A common hall was held for the 
purpose of getting up an address to be presented to 
Queen Caroline. Mr. Alderman Leman presided, and 
Mr. Sheriff Taylor introduced the subject, declarit^ 
that their duty was not merely to vote an address to 
Her Majesty on her accession, but to protest against 
the proceedings adopted by His Majesty's ministers, 
against her " whom we ought to honour as our Queen, 
and esteem as a woman." He denied the imputation 
that this meeting was held for factious and seditious 
purposes. He reviewed the various charges which 
had been brought against Her Majesty, and mentioned 
several instances of noble conduct on her part He 
regarded the erasure of her name from the liturgy as 
a gross insult, and spoke of the firmness, and sagacity, 
and judgment which characterised her determination 
to return to England. He reminded his hearers of the 
enthusiasm which attended her entry into London. 
But no sooner was she arrived than a large green bag 
was laid on the table. Now he had an instinctive 
horror of a green bag, as he had once the honour of 
occupying a small corner of one. He then challenged 
the ministers, through Mr. Coke, to prove any one 
of the charges brought against him in the green bag ; 
and he received an answer that it was all a mistake, 
and that Norwich should not have been inserted. The 
resolutions were carried by acclamation, and he after- 
wards presented an address to the Queen at Branden- 
burgh house. 

There was but one opinion here as to the character 
of George IV., and with respect to the Queen, all the 

Leading Events in the i()th Century, 35 1 

world agreed that she was much to be pitied. Men's 
passions were so strongly excited, that whichever side 
they took, whether for her or against her, her conduct 
was viewed through a false medium. Nothing showed 
this more strongly than the behaviour of the two 
parties upon her death. The blue-and-whites, many 
of whom had never put on black for a royal personage 
before, were to be seen dressed in black and white, 
while on the other hand the orange-and-purples, not 
content with appearing in their ordinary attire, flaunted 
about in the gayest colours. 

December 12th. In consequence of the numerous 
robberies committed in the city and county, public 
meetings were held, and resolutions passed to grant 
high rewards to watchmen who might apprehend 
offenders. More burglaries had been committed in 
that year than in the preceding twenty years. In- 
creased poverty had produced crime, and the " Old 
Charlies '* were of little use. 

1821. March 7th. E. T. Booth, Esq., (sheriff) was 
elected an alderman of Great Wymer ward in the 
room of the late William Foster, Esq., who had died 
on March 3rd. There was an opposition ; at the 
close of the poll the numbers were, for Mr. Booth 
444, Mr. R. Shaw 433. 

March 3st The freedom of the city having been 
voted at the quarterly assembly of the corporation on 
the 24th ult, to be presented to Captain William 
Edward Parry of the Royal Navy ; that gallant 
officer attended in full uniform, and was sworn in at 

352 History of Norwich, 

a full court of mayoralty. The parchment containing 
the freedom of the city was presented to him in a box 
formed of a piece of oak, part of the ship Hecia, with 
an appropriate inscription. 

April 9th, loth, nth, 12th. Cleansing Week ward 
elections took place. Conisford ward no opposition, 
Messrs. J. Kitton, J. Angel, and J. P. Cocksedge 
(nominees); Mancroft ward no opposition, Messrs. P. 
Chamberlin, J. Bennett, and J. Goodwin, (nominees) ; 
Wymer ward, Mr. A. A. H. Beckwith 432, Mr. J. 
CuUcy, 432, Mr. J. Reynolds 423 (nominees), Mr. J. 
Parkinson 254, Mr. Newin 249, Mr. R. Purland 236, 
Mr. S. Mitchell 45 ; Northern ward, Mr. T. Barnard 
418, Mr. T. O. Springfield 416, Mr. S. S. Beare 416, 
(nominees), Mr. G. Morse 231, Mr. Troughton 230, 
Mr. T. Grimmer 231. 

May 1st. The election for mayor came on. At 
the close of the poll the numbers were for Alderman 
Rackham 986, Alderman Hawkes 950, Alderman 
Marsh 630, Alderman Yallop 631. The former two 
were returned to the court of aldermen, who elected 
William Rackham, Esq., to serve the office of chief 

June 1 8th. This being Guild day, William Rack- 
ham, Esq., was sworn in mayor, on which occasion he 
gave a sumptuous dinner to about 650 ladies and 
gentlemen in St Andrew's Hall, the hall having 
previously undergone various alterations and improve- 

July 27th. The coronation of George IV. was 
celebrated here in a very splendid manner, and 

Leading Events in the igth Century, 353 

gave occasion for a display of the exuberant loyalty 
of the citizens. This king, called " the finest gentle- 
man in Europe," had governed the realm for nearly 
ten years, and visited the city in 18 12. His reign was 
peaceful and prosperous, and he was a great promoter 
of the arts and sciences. The most important event 
of his reign was the passing of the act for Roman 
Catholic emancipation, by which Roman Catholics 
became entitled to all the rights and privileges enjoyed 
by the rest of the community, a measure strongly 
supported here by the liberal party. During this 
reign the citizens of Norwich took a very active part 
in all the great movements of the age — the Roman 
Catholic Emancipation movement, the Anti-Slavery 
movement, and the Reform agitation. Strong contests 
at elections took place on all these questions. Bribery, 
corruption, treating, cooping, and intimidation, were 
resorted to by both parties on every occasion, as will 
appear in a subsequent chapter, on our political 
history'. Party spirit never ran higher in any town 
than in Norwich. 

1822. January 24th. The anniversary of the 
birthday of the Rt. Hon. C. J. Fox was commemorated 
by a public dinner of the liberal party at the Assembly 

February 24th. At a quarterly meeting of the cor- 
poration it was unanimously resolved, that a piece of 
plate, of the value of 150 guineas, be presented to 
Charles Harvey, Esq., the recorder of Norwich, as a 
testimony of the high appreciation entertained by 

354 History of Norwich, 

that assembly of his upright and impartial conduct in 
the performance of the duties of his office, and of his 
zeal on all occasions for the interests of the city. 

March. When the elections came on in Cleansing 
Week, there was no opposition for the Conisford and 
Mancroft wards, and the orange- and-purple party 
mantained their ascendancy. Wymer ward, Mr. J. 
Reynolds 401, Mr. A. A. H. Beckwith 401, Mr. J. 
Culley 401, (nominees); P. Greenwood 56, W. 
Simmons 56, R. Widdows 54. Northern ward, Mr. 
A. Shaw 379, Mr. S. S. Beare 368, Mr. E. Taylor 200^ 
(nominees) ; W. G. Edwards 189, A Beloe 193, 
T. Grimmer 190, St. Quintin 190. 

May 1st The election of mayor came on. At the 
close of the poll the numbers were for Alderman 
Hawkes 957, Alderman J. S. Patteson 908, Alderman 
Thurtell 364, Alderman Yallop 318; the former two 
were returned to the court of aldermen, who elected 
Robert Hawkes, Esq., to serve the office of chief 

June 1 8th. This being Guild day, Robert Hawkes, 
Esq., was sworn in as mayor, and he gave a grand 
dinner to the citizens in St. Andrew's Hall. 

September 27th. The weavers, 2,361 in num- 
ber, subscribed for, and presented a piece of plate 
to John Harvey, Esq., as a testimony of the high 
esteem in which they held him ; and he deserved it, 
for he was a great promoter of the manufactures of 
the city, and a friend of the operatives. They were 
then in a prosperous state, and well employed by 
many large firms who executed orders for the East 

Leading Events of tlu 19/A Century, 355 

India Company to the extent of 20,ocx) pieces of 
camlets yearly. This trade continued till 1832. 

1823. January 23rd. At a meeting held in the 
Old Library Room, St. Andrew's Hall, a society was 
formed for supplying the poor with blankets at a 
reduced price ; and upwards of 1 100 were distributed 
during the winter. 

February 24th. At a quarterly assembly of the 
corporation a lease was granted to the magistrates of 
the city, for 5C0 years, of the piece of land outside of 
St Giles* Gates, on which it had been decided to build 
the new jail, at the annual rent of ^^50. 

March 4th. At a meeting held at the Guildhall, 
petitions to parliament were adopted against the 
Insolvent Debtors Act. 

March. Cleansing Week for the ward elections 
passed off without any opposition; the orange-and- 
purple party kept the Conisford, Mancroft, and Wymer 
wards, and the blue-and-white the Northern ward. 

April 14th. At a special assembly of the corpora- 
tion, a petition to His Majesty was adopted, praying 
for two jail deliveries in the course of the year. 

April 25th. At a meeting held at the Guildhall, to 
take into consideration the state of the West India 
Colonies, with a view to promote the abolition of 
slavery, resolutions in favour of the object were carried. 

May 1st. The election of mayor took place, and at 
the close of the poll the numbers were, Alderman 
J. S. Patteson 835, Alderman Francis 774, Alderman 
Leman loi, Alderman Yallop 94. The two former 


History of Norwich. 

were returned to the court of aldermen, who elected 
J. S. Patteson, Esq., to serve the office of chief 

May 3rd. At a quarterly assembly of the corpora- 
tion, the freedom of the city was voted to the Hon. 
John Wodehouse, lieutenant of the city and county. 

June 17th. This being Guild day, J. S. Patteson, 
Esq., was sworn in mayor ; and he gave a splendid 
dinner to a large party in St. Andrew's HalL 

1824. In September of this year the first Norfolk 
and Norwich Musical Festival was held in St. Andrew's 
Hall, and the concerts given were well attended by 
the nobility and gentry of the county. This Festival 
was very much promoted by Mr. Edward Taylor, Mr. 
R M. Bacon, then editor of the Mercury, and other 
amateurs in the city, and proved eminently successful, 
the hospital receiving the sum of ;^2,399 out of the 
profits. In 1825, King George IV. presented the 
hospital with a copy of Arnold's edition of Handel's 
Works. It was determined that a triennial festival 
should be held in aid of the funds of the institution, 
and that the Noru'ich Choral Society should be main- 
tained in an efficient state for that purpose. 


J^or^tri^h flHtiijgHtion^ 

|BOUT this time a very important movement 
took place in the city, with the view to make 
"Norwich a port," and many meetings were 
held to promote that object. Here, therefore, will be 
a proper place to review the proceedings in reference 
to our navigation to Yarmouth and Lowestoft. The 
history will show the grasping selfishness of the old 
corporation at Yarmouth, which always tried to tax 
the trade of the city, and opposed every improvement, 
even when it was for the benefit of both towns. 

Norwich, no doubt, derived its mercantile and 
carrying trade from its original situation as a sea-port 
In ancient times the Gariensis Ostium, or mouth of 
the Yare, extended in breadth from Burgh Castle to 
Caister, the two Roman camps being opposite each 
other. The spot on which Yarmouth now stands was 
then covered by water, and a broad arm of the sea 
extended all over the present marshes to the city, 
which was then a sea-port, before Yarmouth had any 
existence. This appears from the legal contests that 

35 8 History of Norwich. 

took place in later times between the burgesses of 
Yarmouth and the citizens of Norwich. 

Non\'ich had long been a mercantile and trading 
town, and one of the royal cities of England, and 
ships came up by an arm of the sea to an openi 
market, which was held every day in the week. Public 
marts or fairs were held twice a year, with all manner 
of merchandise for sale to citizens, strangers, or 
foreigners. The traders for centuries used this right 
of buying and selling, loading and unloading all their 
goods and merchandise, free of all tolls and dues. 
Foreign merchants paid at Norwich 4d. on every ship 
of bulk, 2d. for every boat, and all other customs for 
their merchandise. 

At the commencement of the 14th century Yar- 
mouth began to be a rival port to Norwich, and some 
legal contests took place between the two towns 
respecting their rights and privileges. In 1327, a suit 
was commenced, and in 1331 it was renewed, between 
the citizens of Norwich and the burgesses of Yarmouth, 
relating to certain tolls which the latter imposed on 
goods, claiming the right to do so under the charter of 
Edward I., which made Yarmouth a port Indeed, 
they appear to have been so incensed at the city 
becoming a staple that they proceeded so far as to 
stop all vessels coming through from their port to 
Norwich. A very remarkable contest consequently 
arose, and terminated in favour of the city. The 
result of the suit was, that the bailiffs of Yarmouth 
were commanded to make proclamation in their town, 
" That if any hindered or in any way molested the 

Norwich Navigation, 359 

merchant vessels of what kind soever from passing 
and re-passing through the port of Yarmouth, to and 
from the city of Norwich, they should forfeit all their 
goods and chattels, forfeitable, for so doing.** Yar- 
mouth was, therefore, prevented for a time from 
levying duties, but subsequently regained the power 
of doing so to a great extent 

If Norwich in former ages was an important sea- 
port, the question naturally arises how it ceased to be 
so. There is sufficient evidence that after the year 
500, the arm of the sea became narrower, though at 
that period the water came up close to the Castle 
Hill. After 1050, the river was much reduced in 
breadth, and a new town arose round the fortress. 
Centuries elapsed and the river became still narrower, 
and streets were extended on each side. At length 
the stream became so shallow that it was no longer 
navigable for sea-borne vessels, and the ancient trade 
of the city began to decline. The citizens, occupied 
by political contests, did not keep up the navigation 
for sea-borne vessels, as they might easily have done. 
Attempts were made in this (19th) century to retrieve 
the long neglect of former ages by some schemes of 
improvement, but these attempts almost entirely failed. 
Still the city owed many trading advantages to its 
river, which is navigable for wherries and packets to 
the sea. 

The navigation between Norwich and Yarmouth 
has not been, for centuries, suited for sea-borne vessels, 
owing, chiefly, to the shallowness of the channel over 
Breydon. The embouchure of the river into the sea 

360 History of Norwich, 

has been frequently blocked up by shifting sands, and 
vessels have been detained fourteen days before they 
could get into the river. Indeed, at the present time 
there is great danger of the mouth of the harbour 
being blocked up at Yarmouth altogether. 

Prior to the year 1762, the quantity of coals brought 
from Yarmouth to Norwich, annually, was 26,000 
chaldrons. Of these, nearly 5000 chaldrons were 
carried out of Norwich into the surrounding district, 
so that 21,000 chaldrons were consumed in the city. 
At that time, the king's dues and the Yarmouth dues 
amounted to 8s. id. per chaldron, which was felt by 
the consumers to be a grievous tax. A cheap and 
plentiful supply of coal has always been of the utmost 
importance to the citizens, not only for domestic 
purposes, but also as fuel for manufacturers, dyers, 
hot pressers, lime burners, brewers, and maltsters. 
Yet, at the period referred to, this necessary commodity 
was heavily taxed, to the extent of ;^I200 yearly, 
more than was paid on an equal consumption in 
London. This tax was rendered more grievous by 
the illegal measurement at Yarmouth. The legal 
chaldron consisted of thirty-six bushels ; but, at 
Yarmouth the chaldron was estimated not by bushels, 
but by a measure called a melt, sixteen of which were 
computed to contain a chaldron, but did not As 
may be supposed, the injustice naturally caused con- 
siderable dissatisfaction among the Norwich coal 
merchants and other citizens, and frequent complaints 
were made of the grievance which was ultimately 
abolished. This was important, for formerly, from 

Norwich Navigation. 361 

the north of England, immense quantities of coal 
and- heavy goods were brought by sea, vid Yarmouth 
to Norwich, for distribution over the eastern side of 
Norfolk and Suffolk. The importation of coal, by 
this route, has, however, been greatly diminished ; not 
only by the opening of railways in every direction, 
but also by the working of the central coal fields of 

By the act of the 12th George I., c 15, commonly 
called the Tonnage Act, the corporation obtained the 
power to levy tolls on all goods brought into the city 
by any boat, keel wherry, lighter, buoy, or other vessel 
as follows : — ^4d. for every chaldron of coals, for every 
last of wheat, rye, barley, malt, or other grain, for 
every weight of salt, for every hogshead of sugar, 
tobacco, molasses, or hogshead packed with other 
goods, for every three puncheons of liquor, for every 
two pipes of wine, spirits, &c., for every eight barrels 
of soap, raisins, oil, pitch, tar, &c For five years 
prior to May, 1836, the average amount of revenue 
derived from the tonnage dues was £^70y showing 
that a very large quantity of goods was brought by 
river to the city. After June 24th, 1836, the tolls 
were let by auction for £i'i7S \ in 1838, for ;^i2io ; in 
1840, for i^i22o; in 1847, for ;^iooo; in 1850, for 
^^1050 yearly. This shows that after the opening of 
railways the dues were reduced, but not so much as 
might have been expected ; the wherries continued to 
bring in a large proportion of the heavy goods. 

The project of opening a communication between 
Norwich and the sea, for sea-borne vessels, originated 

the south side. In the same ycixr 1 
SLir\'c\', to ascertain tlie jJiMcticabili 
coniniunication witli the sea at Lowe.^ 
this report was laid before the pubJ 
^'■' mouth corporation had signified the 

- ^ to oppose either of these plans, it 

Jjl determined to carry out the communl 

\ toft, although the expense was doi 

\ Yarmouth plan. This turned out tc 

' fortunate undertaking. Subscriptions 

] fresh surveys were made; and in \\ 

having been formed, an applicatioi 
u Parliament for an Act; but being < 

J , Yarmouth corporation and timid own< 

lands, who were fearful of an inundat 
by a majority of five. This act, how* 
passed in 1827, after ;^8ooo had bee 
corporation of Yarmouth in opposing 
the object of that body was to retain t 
the Norwich trade, which was then ver 
On May 23rd, 1827, the bill for n 

Norwich Navigation. 363 

a grand procession having been formed, they marched 
through the city, while guns were fired in all directions. 
The celebration concluded with a bonfire at night 

In effecting the great undertaking of a communica- 
tion with Lowestoft, the river Yare was deepened near 
Norwich and the navigation was continued by that 
river as far as Reedham, whence it was carried across 
the marshes by a new cut, two miles and a-half long, 
to the river Waveney, along which it passed to Oulton 
Dyke, which was widened and deepened to Oulton 
Broad, whence by a short cut the canal entered Lake 
Lothing, through which it passed to the shore at 
Lowestoft, where, by cutting through the bank, the 
tides were freely admitted into the lake. Here a large 
harbour was formed, covering 160 acres, nearly three 
miles in length, and averaging from fifteen to seventeen 
feet in depth at high water. In this work the company 
spent their whole capital of ;f 150,000. 

On September 30th, 1833, the Norwich and Lowestoft 
navigation was opened, when two vessels came from 
the latter place and arrived at the wharfs without once 
touching ground. This caused great rejoicing, and 
the advantages of the undertaking were soon apparent 
But the company wanted money, and were obliged 
to borrow it from the Exchequer Loan Commissioners, 
into whose hands the port fell in 1842. Norwich 
traders might aftenvards have recovered possession of 
the port for a small sum by a combined effort, but 
they lost the opportunity. The commissioners dis- 
posed of the port and navigation to a new company 
at Lowestoft, and that company, after expending 

364 History of Norwich, 

large sums in repairs, sold the harbour and navigation 
to Mr. Peto for almost a nominal price. He, with 
other gentlemen, organised another company, raised a 
capital of ;^200,cxx) (afterwards doubled), and obtained 
an act of parliament for the formation of a new har- 
bour, and a railway to Reedham in connection with the 
line to Norwich. The new harbour was made, and the 
railway was opened in 1847, from which year the 
carrying trade of the port gradually increased. Before 
1850 the importation of coal and the harbour dues 
increased five-fold, and the importations of corn in- 
creased 10,000 quarters yearly. The number of 
vessels was doubled, and of course employment in- 
creased in proportion. The harbour and railway con- 
tributed a large traffic to the Eastern Counties lines. 
Norwich traders made great use of the port, and 
through it brought quantities of coal and heavy goods 
to the city. There is every mechanical facility 
afforded for the loading and unloading of vessels ; 
and port dues are lower than at Yarmouth. In 1851, 
the number of vessels that entered the harbour was 
1,636, or 131,767 tons, showing an increase of 23,000 
tons. In the same year there was an increase of 
6,997 tons in the coal imported. Of course, as the 
shipping trade of the port increased, the railway traffic 
increased also. One of the chief sources from which 
the additional revenue was derived was from the fish 
traffic ; for in 1851 the packages were 78,000 in num- 
ber, and produced a freight of ;£^3,739. The traffic 
also in coal and goods has greatly improved. 

Between 1840 and 1850 the corporation of Norwich, 

Norwich Navigation, 


aided by the city merchants, made a most determined 
effort to improve the navigation to Yarmouth. A 
large subscription was raised for this purpose, and 
Mr. Cockburn Curtiss, the engineer, was engaged to 
make a survey of the river Yare, and to prepare plans. 
He did so, and his plans were approved by the citizens 
generally ; but the corporation of Yarmouth gave 
notice of a strong opposition. Application was made 
to parliament for a bill giving the corporation here 
jurisdiction over the river down to the mouth of the 
Haven. The bill was opposed and lost, and the 
Norwich corporation were defeated after an expen- 
diture of some thousands of pounds. 


Reading (Kudnts (co7ttinued). 

E resume our chronological list of the leading 
events of the century : — 

1825. January Sth. At a public meeting held at 
the Guildhall, a Mechanics* Institution was established, 
and it was continued for some years in the rooms 
above the Bazaar, St. Andrew's. 

March. Cleansing week passed off without opposi- 
tion for the second time. 

April 7th. The clergy of the archdeaconry of Nor- 
wich agreed to petition in favour of the claims of 
the Catholics to have the same political rights and 
privileges as other people. 

April I Sth. At a public meeting, held in St 
Andrew's Hall, a petition for a revision of the Corn 
Laws was adopted unanimously. The petition after- 
wards received 14,385 signatures, and was forwarded 
on the 26th to be presented to parliament. As yet it 
was not proposed to repeal the Corn Laws, which were 
then a monstrous injustice. 

Leading Events, 367 

May 1st The election for mayor took place, and 
the numbers were for Alderman Day, 679 ; Alderman 
Booth, 597 ; Alderman Leman, 152 ; Alderman Burt, 
150. Thomas Starling Day, Esq., was elected. 

May 3rd. The corporation adopted a petition 
against the Catholic claims, the members going quite 
out of their way to perpetuate a great wrong. 

May 31st. The anniversary of the birthday of the 
Rt Hon. William Pitt was celebrated by the members 
of the castle corporation. 

June nth. The first stone of the new theatre was 
laid, and it was erected on the present site. The 
building is only a piece of patch-work, and has no 
pretensions to architectural design. It is no credit to 
to the city in any respect. It was opened on 
March 27th, in the following year. 

June 2 1 St. The mayor (T. S. Day, Esq.,) was 
sworn into office ; he afterwards gave a dinner to 
upwards of 460 gentlemen in St. Andrew's Hall. 

August 30th. A contest took place for freemen's 
sheriff; at the close of the poll the numbers were for 
Mr. Brookes, 865 ; Alderman Springfield, 501. The 
former was returned. 

September ist. The corporation presented a piece 
of plate, of the value of 100 guineas, to William 
Simpson, Esq., chamberlain, in testimony of their high 
esteem for the ability and integrity displayed in the 
discharge of his official duties ; and of their unanimous 
approbation of his long and faithful services. 

November 2nd. Sir Thomas P. Hankin, Lieut 
Colonel of His Majesty regiment of Royal North 

368 History of Nofwiclu 

British Dragoons, was interred in the Cathedral with 
military honours. 

November 2ist. At a public meeting, held in St 
Andrew's Hall, a Society was formed for promoting 
the Abolition of Colonial Slavery. The late J. J. 
Gurncy and all his family were great advocates of 
negro emancipation, but the diabolical injustice of 
slavery continued for many years to be the di^^race 
of England. At many meetings held in this city, the 
late J. J. Gurncy denounced the atrocities of the slave 
trade, and advocated its abolition. This object was 
at last accomplished after a violent agitation through- 
out the countr}', at a cost of twenty millions sterling ! 

1826. January. This year, in consequence of the 
iniquitous corn laws, bread was dear, work was scarce, 
and the poor were destitute. Nearly £^ooo was sub- 
scribed for their relief. 

March. Cleansing Week ward elections passed off 
without opposition, except in the Wymer ward, where 
it was merely nominal. 

May 1st. The election of mayor took place. 
Messrs. Booth and Pattcson were returned to the 
court of aldermen without opposition, and Mr. E. T. 
Booth was elected. 

May 30th. The anniversary of Mr. William Pitt s 
birthday was again celebrated by the members of the 
castle corporation. The dinners of this and other 
clubs served to keep alive party spirit. 

June 20th. This being Guild day, E. T. Booth, Esq., 
was sworn into the office of chief magistrate; after 

Leading Events, 369 

which, the Rt Hon. Robert Peel, secretary of state for 
the Home department, and Jonathan Peel, Esq., the 
new member of parliament for the city, were admitted 
to the freedom of the city. 

August 29th. A contest took place for the office of 
freemen's sheriff. At the close of the poll the numbers 
were for Mr. James Bennett, 1164; Mr. Alderman 
Springfield, 1079. The former was returned. 

November. Parish meetings were held in many 
parts of the city, and votes of thanks were passed to 
Crisp Brown, Esq., for his strenuous exertions in pre- 
venting impositions in paying public money for the 
new jail, then considered a job. 

November 21st. William Simpson, Esq., was 
elected town clerk and clerk of the peace for this 
city, in the room of the late Elisha De Hague, Esq., 
who died on the i ith inst, at the age of 72. 

December 6th. Robert Alderson, Esq., was unani- 
mously elected recorder of the city, on the resignation 
of Charles Savill Onley, Esq., and on the 12th, Isaac 
Preston, Esq., was elected steward of the corporation, 
vacant by the resignation of Mr. Alderson. 

1827. January 7th. On the intelligence being 
received here of the death of his late Royal Highness, 
Duke of York and Albany, the bells of the different 
churches were tolled for some time, and the shops 
were partially closed on the following days. 

January 20th. This being the day appointed for 
the funeral of his late Royal Highness the Duke of 
York, the melancholy occasion was observed by a 

• •\^V.1V %»cfcl 

on with several severe contests. 
J. ^Marshall, 213; T. luluards, 2 
(nominees) ; J. An^^^ell, 204; i\. B 
Cocksedge, 202. Mancroft wai 
J. Goodwin, T. Eaton, C. Hardy (n 

8~S ward, W. Foster, 435 ; J. S. Parkins 

^^ 429 (nominees). Northern wa 

\1m 424; R.Shaw, 415; H. Martinea 

ll£ G. Coleby, 237 ; T. Grimmer, 244. 

i'*j May 1st. The election of mayoi 

close of the poll the numbers wen 
[v 918; Alderman Yallop, 86y ; A 

566 ; Alderman Browne, 565. Pet 

' si « 

: .4. 

I J elected. He lived for many year 

built of flint in St. Mary's. 

June 19th. This being Guild 
Esq., was sworn into the office of cl 
August 28th. The election fc 
came on ; at the close of the poll 
for Mr. Alderman Springfield, 121 
474. The former was return pH 

I * 

; * 



, 5 ' 


Leading Events. 371 

were for J. Angell, 218; J. Marshall, 196; and the 
former was returned. A scrutiny was demanded by 
Mr. Marshall's friends, but was afterwards abandoned. 
This month Mr. Myher Levi, a Jew, and his wife 
Hannah Levi, a Jewess, having been converted, were 
baptised in the parish church of St. Stephen's, and 
received the name of Herbert. 

1828. January loth. The members of the castle 
corporation celebrated their sixty-third anniversary. 

March. Cleansing Week elections. Conisford ward, 
J. Marshall, 240 ; T. Edwards, 240 ; A. B. Beevor, 
239, (nominees) ; J. Skipper, 225 ; S. W. Mealing, 226 ; 
R. Merry, 225. No opposition in the other wards, but 
for Mancroft ward, J. Bennett, A. Bcloe, and C. Hardy 
(nominees) ; and for the Northern ward, S. S. Beare, 
R, Shaw, and H. Martineau (nominees). 

May 1st. A contest for mayor, which lasted two 
days ; at the close of the poll the numbers were for 
Alderman Yallop, 1212; Alderman Thurtell, 1210; 
Alderman Angell, 1097 ; Alderman Patteson, 1020. 
The two former were returned to the court of aldermen, 
who elected T. Thurtell, Esq. 

May 5th. At a public meeting held at the Guild- 
hall, resolutions were passed and a petition to parlia- 
ment was adopted for the immediate alleviation and 
ultimate extinction of slavery in the West India 
colonies. The petition afterwards received the signa- 
tures of 10,125 persons, and was 150 feet in length. 

June 1 2th. The anniversary of the birthday of the 
late Rt. Hon. William Pitt was commemorated by a 

372 History of Norwich, 

dinner of the Tories at the Assembly Rooms. About 
1 60 gentlemen were present. 

In August, the new Exchange Street was opened, 
and on October nth, a new Corn Hall was opened to 
the public. 

1829. January and February. Petitions were 
adopted against the claims of the Roman Catholics by 
the Brunswick Constitutional Club, and other in- 
habitants of this city ; but counter declarations from the 
clergy of the diocese of Norwich, and from a " Society 
of the friends of civil and religious liberty," were 
agreed to. The agitation on this vexed question had 
now reached its height in the country. 

February 17th. Even the common council now 
agreed to present an address to the king for the re- 
moval of Roman Catholic disabilities. 

March. Cleansing Week ward elections came on. 
Conisford ward, J. Marshall, 258 ; T. Edwards, 
259; J. Youngs, 253, (nominees); J. Skipper, 83; 
S. W. Mealing, 84; R. Merry, 82. Mancroft ward, 
no opposition, J. Bennett, A. Beloe, and C. Hardy 
(nominees). Wymer ward, W. Foster, 466 ; G. Kitton, 
464 ; A Barnard, 464 (nominees) ; J. Culley, 397 ; 
J. Brookes, 396 ; E. Newton, 394. Northern ward, 
S. S. Bearc, 342 ; R. Shaw, 343 ; H. Martineau, 
341 (nominees); T. Grimmer, 63; E. Hinde, 64; 
W. Fromow, 64. 

May isL T. O. Springfield, Esq., and John Angell, 
Esq., were returned to the court of aldermen for the 
office of mayor without opposition, and the former was 
chosen mayor. 

Leading Events. 373 

June i6th. This being Guild day, T. O. Springfield, 
Esq., was sworn into the office of chief magistrate ; 
after which he gave a grand dinner to upwards of 800 
ladies and gentlemen in St. Andrew's Hall. 

July iSth. A public dinner was given to Thomas 
Thurtell, Esq., at the Norfolk Hotel, attended by 80 
gentlemen, in testimony of their approval of his 
honourable, impartial, and upright conduct in the 
performance of his duties as mayor during the previous 

1830. January. Great disturbances took place in 
the city in consequence of differences between the 
manufacturers and weavers concerning wages. On 
the 1 2th, between 3000 and 4000 weavers collected in 
the avenues to the workhouse, where they greatly 
interrupted the business of the court of guardians, but 
they were dispersed by the magistrates and patroles. 
Munificent donations of £200 from Hudson Gurney, 
Esq., and £\QO from London were distributed amongst 
the distressed weavers in bread and coal, under the 
direction of a committee. A general subscription was 
afterwards raised in the city, amounting to ;f 2300, for 
the relief of the poor. 

March. Cleansing Week ward elections. Conisford 
ward, T. Edwards, 251; J. Youngs, 251; W. G. 
Edwards, 249 (nominees) ; J. Skipper, 233 ; S. W. 
Mealing, 232 ; R. Merr}*^, 228. Mancroft ward, 
J. Bennett, 195 ; H. Newton, 196; B. Boardman, 196 
(nominees); W. Burt, jun., 50; W. J. Robberds, 50; 
P. Nicholls, 50. Wymer ward, J. Culley, 521 ; 

374 History of Norwich, 

J. Winter, 520 ; J. Bcxfield, 5 16 (nominees) ; W. Foster, 
376; G. Kitton, 374; A. Barnard, 374. Northern 
ward, T. Grimmer, 292 ; E. Browne, 290 ; W. Fromow, 
289 (nominees) ; H. Martineau, 278 ; R. Shaw, 276 ; 
W. Newson, 276. 

March 29th. On the evening of the Conisford 
ward election, the gates leading to the workhouse were 
pulled down and destroyed, and considerable injury 
was done to the offices adjoining, by a great concourse 
of persons riotously assembled, and who were return- 
ing from a procession formed by the defeated party. 

May 1st. John Angell, Esq., was elected to serve 
the office of mayor. 

May 3rd. The common council adopted a petition 
to the lord chancellor for two general jail deliveries in 
the year. This was subsequently granted. 

December 23rd. At a special meeting of the 
council, Isaac Preston, Esq., (afterwards Jermy) was 
elected recorder of the city in place of R. Alderson, 
Esq., who had resigned. 

1831. January 12th. At a meeting held' in the 
Old Library Room, St. Andrew s Hall, a petition to 
parliament was adopted, praying for the entire aboli- 
tion of slavery in the British colonies. 

February ist At a special assembly of the cor- 
poration, Fitzroy Kelly, Esq., was unanimously elected 
steward of that body, and he held that office till the 
passing of the Municipal Reform Act. 

March 22nd. A petition was sent from the city 
against the disfranchisement of the freemen by the 

Leading Events, 375 

proposed Reform Bill. The signatures were limited 
to freemen, denizens, and apprentices. 

March. Cleansing Week ward elections. Conisford 
ward, J. Skipper, 270; R. Merry, 265; B. Bunting, 
237, (nominees); T. Edwards, 169; J. Youngs, 167 ; 
W. G. Edwards, 167. Mancroft ward, no opposi- 
tion, J. Bennett, H. Newton, and B. Board man 
(nominees). Wymer ward, no opposition, J. Culley, 
J. Winter, W. J. U. Browne (nominees). Northern 
ward, S. S. Beare, 344; R. Shaw, 337; W. Enfield, 
347 (nominees) ; T. Grimmer, 222 ; E. Browne, 220 ; 
W. Fromow, 220. 

This year the Lent assizes were held in Norwich by 
adjournment from Thetford. 

May 1st. J. H. Yallop, Esq., was elected mayor 
for the second time, and he gave a grand dinner in 
St Andrew's Hall. 

In this month a census of the population was taken, 
showing 27,910 males, 33,437 females ; total 61,347. 
Inhabited houses, 13,283 ; uninhabited houses, 1,082 ; 
total 14^365. 

June 20th. Samuel Bignold, Esq., was elected an 
alderman without opposition in the room of John 
Patteson, Esq., who had resigned. 

August 22nd. The new act of the court of 
guardians received the royal assent, and came into 
operation. This act has since been superseded by 

September 12th. The election of guardians took 
place under the new act. 

3/6 History of Norwictu 

1832. January nth. At a court of mayoralty it 
was resolved to present a memorial to the Home 
Secretary and the Lord Chancellor, praying that 
Norwich might be included in the ensuing circuit of 
the judges. A committee was appointed to prepare 
the memorial. A special court was convened on the 
14th to receive the report, and a memorial was 
adopted which was presented by the members for the 
city. The petition was granted, and the council 
passed a vote of thanks to the Lord Chancellor. 

April. Cleansing Week for ward elections. Conis- 
ford ward, J. Skipper, 266 ; R. Merry, 264 ; 
B. Bunting, 266 (nominees); T. Edwards, 157; 
J. Youngs, 159; R Mills, 157. Mancroft ward, no 
opposition, J. Bennett, B. Boardman, and H. Newton 
(nominees). Wymer ward, J. Culley, 489; J. Winter, 
484 ; W. J. U. Browne, 485 (nominees) ; W. Foster, 
388 ; A. Barnard, 383 ; T. Edwards, 382. Northern 
ward, S. S. Beare, 380; R. Shaw, 371 ; W. Enfield, 
381 (nominees); T. Grimmer, loi ; E. Browne, 109; 
H. Steel, 107. 

May 1st. The election of mayor took place with- 
out opposition. Mr. Alderman Stevenson, and Mr. 
Alderman Bignold were nominated, and they were 
duly returned ; the aldermen chose S. W. Stevenson, 
Esq., then proprietor and editor of the Norfolk 
Chronicle, After being sworn in on the Guild day he 
gave a grand dinner to about 900 ladies and gentlemen 
in St. Andrew's Hall. 

August 28th. The election for freemen's sheriff was 
severely contested. At the close of the poll the 

Leading Events, ny 

numbers were for William Foster, Esq., 1282; Mr. 
Alderman Steward, 1275; and after a scrutiny the 
former was declared duly elected. This was a triumph 
for the blue-and-white party. 

September 3rd. An election took place for an 
alderman of Mancroft ward in the place of J. S. Patteson, 
Esq., deceased. Charles Turner, Esq., was elected ; 
F. Morse, Esq., being the other candidate. 

November nth. This day, at all the churches in 
the city, thanksgiving services were performed for the 
cessation of the cholera, and for the mild manner in 
which the inhabitants had been afflicted as compared 
with other places. The Norwich Lying-in Charity 
for delivering poor married women at their own homes 
was established, and it has been of great benefit to the 

1833. January. The town clerk of this city re- 
ceived a circular from the secretary of state, requesting 
to be informed of the mode of electing members of the 
corporation. The town clerk forwarded his answer on 
the 2 1 St. 

March. Cleansing Week for ward elections. Conis- 
ford ward, no contest, J. Skipper, R. Merry, and 
B. Bunting (nominees). Mancroft ward, no opposition, 
J. Bennett, B. Boardman, H. Newton (nominees). 
Wymer ward, J. CuUcy, 486 ; J. Winter, 484 ; W. J. U. 
Browne, 486 (nominees); G. Kitton, 122; R. Miller, 
122; C. W. Unthank, 121. Northern ward, S. S. 
Beare, 300 ; R. Shaw, 298 ; W. Enfield, 300 (nominees); 
T. Grimmer, 206 ; H. Steel, 204 ; J. Sinclair, 203. 


History of Norwich. 

May 1st. At the election for mayor, Aldermen 
Bignold and Turner were returned to the court without 
opposition, and S. Bignold, Esq., was chosen to serve 
the office. On the Guild day he was sworn in, and on 
this occasion he gave a magnificent banquet to about 
I ICO ladies and gentlemen in St. Andrew's Hall. The 
same place was the scene of great festivity on June 
20th and 21st, when dinners were given to the electors 
in the orange-and-purplc interest, those in the Conis- 
ford and Northern wards to the number of 750 on the 
first day, and those of the VVymer and Mancroft wards 
912 on the following day. Great was the rejoicing, 
but it was of short duration. The days of the old 
corporation were numbered. 


vf^g^^T^*^^^ -^^^C^i^^qpS'^r!.' ^I%^1^«^r^^^ ^ff.- ^(^ t^^^Tw ^T^<^^^» 
fV SH? ^Af S^^ "idb^ •-•-.^-^■» - ' ■- e^j^ ft-^-w .--K*- i^^jL^ ■-• !.-■> "^^n e-^i-n .. -_i ^, «^/i-w <i^^ g\»f»» <'*3j^ .jr\ 


a;he |lc|[orm (Kr^a. 


ILLIAM IV. ascended the throne in 1830, in 
a period of great political excitement. During 
^^"^^^ his short reign of seven years, there was the 
greatest political agitation ever known in this country 
about a Reform of Parliament, a measure which the 
people had long and earnestly desired. Many meet- 
ings were held in this city, and petitions were adopted 
in favour of reform, long called for and long deferred. 
In fact, the king, during the early part of his reign, 
had other and more pressing causes of anxiety. His 
accession to the throne brought him an inheritance of 
the jealousy, to which the country had been gradually 
roused, on the subject of the extravagance and cor- 
ruption of the old systems of government In the 
effort to reduce a vast expenditure, the House of 
Commons was in no mood to be so liberal to the new 
sovereign as he thought he had a right to expect 
The ministry were withheld, by the very forcible 
opposition of one of its members, from asking the 
house to grant the expenses of the queen's outfit, and 
the king himself had to submit to the mortification of 

Abbe\'. The aiisj)icious event \v. 

Norwicli in a m^'-t l wil anil {''}'> 

lc'>li\ ilio < '} the (la\' C' mh nunc(al with 

li of St. Peter's bells, and the wavinc^ ol 

f the public buildinj^s. The mayor 

» the corporation went in procession fr 

to the Cathedral. After their retur 
regiment of the First Royals marchec 
Place and fired three vollies. The 
supported Gurney and Grant receiv 
a dinner was given to 600 of the fre 
for Wetherell and Sadler, at Laccohet 
citizens, in fact, have never lost ar 
displaying their loyalty, but they 
something in return. Several petitior 
i Norwich in favour of the Reform Bill ; 

i. !, of the bill was celebrated here with 

ij : festivities, and a public procession on 

p This brief reign was remarkable, n 

abolition of the slave trade after a 

i which convulsed the whole country, z 

i . - - 


- TK 

The Reform Era. 381 

An Act of Parliament received the royal assent on 
June 23rd, 1832, removing the assizes from Thetford to 
Norwich ; and the corporation passed a vote of thanks 
to John Stracey, Esq., for his exertions in obtaining 
that measure, and also a vote of thanks to the lord 
chancellor for having granted two jail deliveries in the 
year. Since then the city assizes have been held at 
the Guildhall, and the Norfolk assizes at the Shirehall. 
The city sessions are held every quarter at the Guild- 
hall, and the petty sessions daily at the same place. 

The reformed House of Commons having presented 
an address to His Majesty, praying for the appoint- 
ment of a commission to inquire as to the existing 
state of municipal corporations in England and 
Wales; the king, on July i8th, 1833, complied with 
the address, by issuing a commission; and notice 
was subsequently given to the mayor of this city, 
S. Bignold, Esq. (now Sir Samuel Bignold), of the in- 
tention of the commissioners appointed to investigate 
the affairs of the Norwich corporation, in compliance 
with a request from a meeting of 300 citizens, held on 
the 13th of May preceding. A special meeting of 
the corporation was at once convened to consider 
the course to be pursued, and the assembly determined 
on a reluctant submission to the inquiry, so far as 
regarded the production, by the corporate officers, of 
all "charters, books, deeds, accounts, papers, and 
muniments of title,'* but at the same time protested 
against the commission as illegal and unconstitutional, 
and against the right of the commissioners to make 
any inquiry whatsoever. As may be supposed, the 

si-nin^' tlunr naiiR-, \V. J. I 

Kl.WAkli Sll UAKh, silLlifK ,.( 

l\w ucro not i 
ostentatious opposition to their 
course of their enquiry showed a 
the predominant party. Witnei 
make statements reflecting on t 
living and the dead, and every ; 
for the gratification of political, 
revenge. This will appear in the 
of the evidence, taken from the Di 

The Inquiry Respecting the C 

This inquiry was conducted by 
John Buckle, Esqs, and commei 
25th, 1833, at the Guildhall. Nea 
of the corporation were examined, a 
gentlemen. Some strange statem 
to the effects of nart-u •.";-;■■ 

The Reform Era. 383 

J. J. GuRNEY, Esq, said, " I believe that there are many 
most laborious and useful magistrates in the city, and no 
persons would be so fit as many of those who have already 
been accustomed to the business. I do not find the slightest 
fault with the application of the magisterial power. It is 
my most decided opinion that the magisterial authority has 
been impartially exercised." 

W. Simpson, Esq., said, "Whatever money may have been 
spent, it certainly has not been the money of the corpora- 

Alderman Bolingbroke said, " I have been an alderman 
near twenty years ; I do not know of any corrupt application 
of the corporate funds to elections or any other purposes. I 
do not think any misapplication of the corporate funds could 
have taken place without my knowing it" 

As the inquiry proceeded, however, evidence was 
given of the influence of party spirit in the distribution 
of patronage, appointments, and employments, and 
also in admissions to freedom. It was proved that 
the police were very inefficient, and often refused to 
act in cases of riot, and when the mob were pulling 
down polling booths. As to the expenditure of 
money at local elections, 

The Mayor, S. Bignold, Esq., said, " I am quite sure 
that if respectable persons were to offer themselves at local 
elections, it would repress the excesses which sometimes 
take place. The local elections are attended with consider- 
able expense. I am not aware that the aldermen interfere 
in these elections. I am not aware of anything which would 
prevent the aldermen interfering in the promotion of sheriffs. 
They consider the oath as debarring in the one case and not 

nf 1 

> g<.-t ■ 

hosj)ilals, being given by aldermen 
municipal elections, I have never see 
knowledge of them has arisen in th; 
, asked myself and told that A and £ 
never fulfilled their promise." 

" Question. Do you think that the 
local elections are carried on tends to 
and intelligent persons from filling the i 

Answer. I am sorry to say that tl 
intelligent persons have contributed to t 

Q. Has that been the case generally 

A, I should say, generally, with thi 
this city on both sides, connected and u 

Q. Have the members of the cou; 
tributed to your knowledge ? 

A. Not to my knowledge. 

Q. Is it your belief that they have o: 

A. I think thev w-^..1'' ■•- ' ' 

The Reform Era, 385 

Q. The oath makes no distinction ? 

A. There is an impression to the contrary. 

Q. If there had been an extraordinary excitement at 
elections, can you say that in no case that excitement was 
enlarged by the aldermen ? 

A. I should say in no case. 

Q. What do you consider the intention of the aldermen 
in subscribing to the funds ? 

A. I can only answer that question in general terms, that 
the excitement has never been increased by any act of the 

Q. Are you acquainted with the case of Homigolds with 
reference to the elections ? 

A. In no other way than by your drawing my attention 
to it. I know of no other note to that effect. No improper 
persons have been admitted into the hospitals on account of 
their votes. 

Q. Have they in all cases been fit and proper persons? 

A. Certainly they have. 

Q. Do you think the same persons would have been 
introduced if they had not been political supporters ? 

A. Not identically the same persons. 

Q. Are there instances where persons have been put in 
by the aldermen, w^ho have not been political supporters ? 

A. Yes. I have put an individual in myself who was 
not a political supporter in any way. 

Q. Are such instances rare or frequent ? 

A. I am only able to answer from information I have 
derived from my seniors ; I should say they are frequent. 

Q. Are the great majority of persons admitted freemen ? 

A. Yes. I think they are. 

Q. A e the excej)tions few ? 

A. I do not know. 

yj > «. 

.7u <(Hisi(icr the [)Owcr of th 
l)ccn L'xcrci^c'l />.>//'} fiJr, ox for iiilUiciK e : 

A. ( "rri.iiiiK . hiithi /I Jr. 

(j. I)o \(ju think this i)rivilege is freC| 
favor of political opponents? 

A. No. There are twenty-four alderm 
age is about 15 — 24ths on the Tory side 
Whig side. 

Q. Is it your opinion that more urgen 
passed by, and others taken on account of 

A. I think not ; I think very pressing < 
preference over political supporters. 

Q. Is it, in your opinion, a justificati< 
put into the hospital under such a pre 
pressing case ; and would the alderman exe 
do it under an impression that he was 1 
breach of duty, or of violating his moral fe« 

A. I think where an alderman had mad 
he would be perfectly justified in performin 
person was a fit and proper object. 

Q. The alderman, so promising, in the 
pressing case, would he change his turn ? 

A. It is done frequently ^dv fV.« -*~ 

The Reform Era, 387 

tions for local elections. Sometimes the subscriptions have 
far exceeded the necessary expenses. In some cases, but 
not generally, the subscriptions have been under the manage- 
ment of a committee. An individual mostly takes the 
management. He has the whole of the funds under his 
care, and is not accountable to anyone. The committee 
never interfere. It is left to one individual to manage the 
funds. The mode of distributing the money is known to 
members of the committees, who are generally members of 
the corporation. I do not know of aldermen being members 
of the committees. Aldermen have subscribed, but very 
rarely, at contested elections. A good deal of money has 
been expended on those occasions. The general supporters 
of the parties have been subscribers, including the common 
council, but not the aldermen. The scenes at elections 
have been very disgraceful sometimes. I recollect the 
election of Alderman Marshall. I have heard that the 
scene on that occasion was very disgraceful. I have heard 
that much money was spent, but I think ;^iooo would be 
the outside. I recollect the election of Alderman Steward. 
Money was spent on that occasion, but nothing like ;^iooo. 
I remember the election of Mr. Steward for sheriff. I have 
heard that money was then spent I heard that the Whig 
party gave a large sum for the last six votes that they polled, 
and I believe it to a certain extent. No doubt there was 
money spent by the Tory party to a large extent. I have 
heard that from ;^io to ;^i5 were given for a vote. There 
was a large subscription by members of the council, but not 
by the aldermen. I think Mr. Steward subscribed, but I do 
not know to what amount. On other occasions subscriptions 
have been made for the same office. Money was given to 
the freemen, but the far greater amount was spent in giving 
them beer and tobacco on either side. It has been carried 

« ■ , 

[r,-.- »>- 

-J oect:ons: an-J he uould rather h 
^ tnan promote them ciir... t,v 0^70 

:--^: Not only h:.d there been bnW 1 " 

.J ^-S zatun to a feartul extent • 1 . "" " = 

-: rZ .,,H,ef here. He ,X- ^ehr'"^ ^ 

election of the magistrates and ctnr ° 
means. <^orporate . 

< : 



The commissioners asked Wk,. 
consider would be „;7- •, V''^^ "'«le , 
replied:- P^-f<^rable? and J 


™ent; f mean hSe^Jr '"'■'' ""' *^ ' 
of the town -n,: '^o'^nected witf 

tJ'erefore C'Jl^rT '"^ "^ ^^"'^ 
^-the predomTa:etf^?X T 

A good deal of evidenr. „„. _.•... 

The Reform Era. 389 

proceedings of this sort seem to have occurred at the 
elections of Alderman Angell and Alderman Spring- 
field, when there was a vast amount of bribery, 
treating, and cooping. 

Mr. William Wilde, afterwards coroner, gave evidence 
as to the election of Alderman Springfield, in November, 
182 1. He was one of the committee for conducting that 
election. Mr. Ives, a retired clergyman of the Church of 
England, was the other candidate. The Northern ward was 
then two to one in favour of Springfield. About 440 to 
240 would have been a fair poll if no money had been 
given. When the vacancy occurred, Mr. Springfield was not 
in Norwich. Mr. Wilde continued, " I sent for him express, 
and when he returned we heard from good authority that 
great sums had been offered by Ives's party first. We 
generally sent out freemen to see how markets were going. 
Springfield was returned, though it was generally reported 
that Ives's party meant to buy the ward. But Springfield 
s;iid he would not be bought out We went then into a 
regular system of buying, they buying all the men of ours 
they could, and we buying all of theirs we could. About ;£^io 
was a regular price. We spent ;£^6oo or j[,ioo in buying 
votes. On the morning of the election, Mr. Ives's party 
commenced by giving two sovereigns each at the polling 
place. Mr. Springfield paid his men the same. In con- 
sequence more than 300 out of 430 who voted for Springfield 
took two sovereigns at the booths. Persons draw a dis- 
tinction between money paid at the booths, and a bribe at 
any other place. Many who take money at the booths will 
not accept bribes in any other shape. Springfield's election 
cost ;^i53o. The money at the booths is openly given, and 
it is not considered a crime to take it. I think about 60 or 

.Miu.tii > cici iioii uif >anic svsicni was toll 

same at \\\irtl e lr< in 'ii>. 1 li n r '_:i\ lm^ ^{. V 

L'K-ill<Ml t. >]■ ( « 'inilK )!! COlllKll (MlK loiaNc 

lew lu^laiu c.^ (A SLK h a hiL^h pri( c. 1 oiux 
of a nominee ^20 for his vole. That s 
i. given. I have known promissory notes gi> 

Jj do not recollect an instance of notes given 

p I have no doubt of the fact. The usual ph 

Jj to say * My family will not vote unless you | 

jj hospital,' and application is then made to ; 

J; think the effects of what I have been 

debasing and demoralising. I have knowr 
!; have for years withstood the temptations 

j; elections ; and when once they have fallei 

• I have observed their conduct to alter, and 

h much changed. I am perfectly satisfied of t 

** of the course pursued hitherto, and in very f 

ithe money given been any benefit to the frc 
I the contrary. The effect has been the sam 

,, giver and receiver of bribes. I should be s 

, any of my children in the course which I ha^ 

Commissioner Buckle then thanked Mr. 
very open and candid manner in which hi 

The Reform Era, 391 

parties of men employed by each party going about the 
streets molesting any persons whom they met of the opposite 
party, attacking freemen personally, and by improper intru- 
sions into their dwelling houses or other places where they 
were supposed to be concealed. In some instances where 
they were in search for a voter, and could not find him at 
his own residence, they went into the residence of other 
persons, not in the ward where the election was to take 
place, to search for individuals. Witness gave several 
instances of cooping. 

Alderman Bolingbroice also stated instances of cooping 
that came under his notice as a magistrate. 

Mr. John Francis said, " 1 have been a manufacturer in 
Norwich many years, and I consider the acts of the corpora- 
tion to have engendered every species of bribery and strife. 
Its patronage is invariably exercised in favour of political 
adherents. During the last ten years our commercial 
interests have materially suffered from it. It creates dis- 
union between those gentlemen where friendship would 
othenvise exist. The local elections are pregnant with evil ; 
they take men from their work, those who are not free as 
well as those who are free ; and in case of a contest it is 
impossible to get any work done for six weeks after ; and 
this in the spring time of the year when work is brisk and 
calls for close attendance. The consequence is that the 
masters suffer materially. I never engaged in bribery at 
elections, except at the late election for sheriff, when I 
bought a bunch of four in the market for ^8 ; I also offered 
another man ^^5, but he wanted ;£^io, which I thought too 
much. The numbers, however, were running close, and I 
went to buy him at that price, but I found that he had been 
settled for and voted. Therefore I saved ;£^io." 

Mr. a. Barnard said, "At the election of Mr. Foster as 

■*" Gd:>rge PAOiEa was exunin^ ver 

lt\ stated that be had alwurs roced in the 

that he had received a noce froai Akkn 
foar shiTIings weekly till his brother's chflc 
the hospital The note was written 
Mr. BatsoQ in Mr. Sprii^neld's presence 
It was given to witness for his vote in £a,y 
at the election of sherinin 1832. ^Mtm 
o£^ered the hospicil by any alderman on tl 

A great deal more evkience was add 
of admission to the hospital given 1 
The last part of the inquiry- u^-as the 
relating as it did to the effect of local 
trade of the city. 

J. J, GuRXEY, Esq.. said, ^ I can assure 1 
J that they have no notion of the sin, guill 

^ poverty, which our local elections inflict t 

The Reform Era, 393 

was his firm conviction that one single ward election does 
more harm than all the preaching in all the churches and all 
the meeting houses in all the year does good ; and I believe 
it to be true. I would observe that I make no distinction of 
parties; both, to my knowledge, are equally guilty; and 
whenever the managers find a purse, tliey fly to it as an 
eagle does to a carcase." 

Mr. H. WiLLEiT was of opinion that the local elections 
were an injury to the lower orders, notwithstanding the 
money they received. There was less work done on account 
of these elections. Party had a very injurious effect on the 
trade of the city. He thought Norwich suffered from 
carrying on trade in a different manner to that pursued in 
other towns. The trade had not paid in previous years, and 
capital was not employed because it did not pay. The 
trade was carried on upon such a system that there was no 
inducement to employ capital. An open rate of wages 
would cause capital to be more beneficially employed. A 
great deal of capital had been lost to the city. At that 
time there was less capital employed in this city than 
in any manufacturing town of its size in the kingdom. 
He thought the city had been brought into this state by a 
fixed rate of wages, and the trade had been gradually leaving 
the city for years. The fixed rate operated against the 
workmen, because it prevented their being employed re- 
gularly. In consequence of this small capitals were employed. 
The men thought they would be injured by a fluctuating 
scale, but he believed the contrary. While the country 
generally was never more flourishing, the city was never in a 
worse state. Manufacturers feared so much annoyance, that 
they would not risk altering the present system. Many 
influential men were of his opinion as to the fixed rate of 
wages, but dared not avow it, lest they should lose their 

^. luc iimiicntial men v 

with nianufactiircs. lie l)clic\etl ]M)litiis 
< on.>hkTalioii with all of ihcin. He bchcxci 
hcn>ion u\ \iolcii(c dclcrrLHl all the niai 
attempting to alter the fixed rate of wages ; 
^ reduced, or else the whole trade would h; 

•=? This caused such a disturbance that he dare 

ll The civil power was not sufficiently strong j 

2! the Dragoons were called out to enable h: 

5« His warehouse was attacked, and his windoi; 

S!| The magistrates rendered all the assistance 

it and measures were adopted to prevent any 

His premises were guarded by special consta 
three weeks. 

;■»; Mr. Wright, one of the largest manufc 

;;!] city, said he was attacked in consequence ( 

' jf wages. Vitriol was thrown on his face, by wh 

i; . sight of one of his eyes. A majority of the 

!• considered a reduction of wages to be neces 

1;: of them became alarmed and did not ackno^ 

^•i reduction prevented a further decrease of a d 

But for the reduction there would have I 
decline of the trade. Formerly the traHp wa 

Tlie Reform Era, 395 

scale of wages advisable ; but they were not in a condition 
to alter it. He thought the alteration would create more 
strife between masters and men. He considered a fixed 
scale to be a disadvantage to the men, but it was not too 
high. He believed that the local elections prevented capital 
being employed, and disunited the people. But for these 
local elections there would have been more trade. Both 
parties had united in promoting one establishment, but six 
such mills would not supply all the yams wanted for Norwich 

Mr. John Athow regarded the local elections as the 
cause of the ruin of the city, as far as such ruin had taken 
place \ as ruinous both to property and morals. The mode 
in which the elections were then conducted had contributed 
to the poverty and depravity of the city. He believed that 
the streets were in a more disgraceful state than in any other 
town, from what he had seen, and from what he had heard 
from commercial men visiting Norwich. 

Mr. R. M. Bacon, then editor of the Norwich Mercury^ 
believed that [the prosperity of the city and private inter- 
course were all poisoned by the party spirit engendered by 
frequent municipal elections. 

Mr. J. W. RoBBERDS, a manufacturer, connected with the 
corporation from 1807 till 1827, said that during that 
period he had seen the working of the municipal system, and 
witnessed the strife of parties. He believed that by the 
contests in the different wards the character of the whole 
population of the city had been greatly deteriorated ; that a 
great depravity among the lower classes had been produced ; 
and that the character of the whole corporation had been 
affected. He knew that individuals had entered the cor- 
poration, not from any consideration of public duty,. but to 
serve their own private interests. 

I ► - 


Thomas Rust stated, " Mr. Grimmer, 
me to vote for Stormont and Scarlett, 
^50 down, and to i)rocure me jQ^o of tl 
Christmas. He promised distinctly to 
money. I have taken an active part at 
I believe there was great bribery at the 
members of parliament I do not thii 
bribery previous to the last election. I 
instance of it I saw some bribery at 
election. I was up two nights working 
j: never had money offered to me at local ele 

offered ;^ 100 at the last general election tc 
votes. The proposition was made by two ! 
^^ of Stormont and Scarlett One of the ps 

«i large quantity of promissory notes. I told 

playing a dangerous game. The partiza 
lend money to whom I like ?' I replied, 
depends on the conditions.' The gentlema 
proposition said, * This is the way we do 
proposers were not members of the corporat 
away and called again. One of them pulle< 
of sovereigns, and said he would not oniv 


The Reform Era, 397 

Henry Bush said, " Aldennan Turner authorized me to 
give £(i to a voter, to vote for Lord Stormont and Sir James 
Scarlett, and said that was the most money they were then 
giving. I would not take the money as I said it was not 

Mr. Alderman Turner declared on oath that the state- 
ment was false. 

Mr. John Hayes said, " On the second day of the last 
general election, Mr. George Liddell gave me three sovereigns 
for my vote, but never told me in which interest I was to 
vote. Mr. Wortley, one of the common council, also gave 
me three sovereigns to vote in the interest of Stormont and 
Scarlett. I took the sovereigns but voted in the Whig 
interest, and carried the money to the committee and gave it 
to Mr. Beare and Mr. Springfield It was returned to me in 
four months afterwards." 

Mr. Wortley denied the statement, but several persons 
were named who were present when Mr. Wortley paid the 

Mr. Cozens was examined as to the evidence which had 
been given before the House of Commons' committee by 
Mr. W. J. U. Browne, then sheriff, who when asked whether 
there was any committee for conducting the election of 
Lord Stormont and Sir James Scarlett, replied, " Certainly 
not ;" and the manuscript was produced of a letter which 
appeared in the Mercury^ in answer to one sent out by 
Mr. Robberds, in which Mr. Browne spoke of " the committee 
for conducting the election ," and signed hhnself as chairman. 

Mr. J. Francis mentioned circumstances to prove that 
there was a committee, and produced a note. 

Mr. William Cooper, deposed, "There was no formal 
committee. If anybody had asked him for a committee 
man, he could not have stated one. He should say the 

398 History of Norwich, 

whole party formed the committee. He was active during 
the election, but he was not aware that he belonged to any 

Commissioner Buckle: — "We have a letter in Mr. 
Browne's own handwriting, in which he states that the 
committee was not dissolved, and he signs himself chairman." 

Mr. Cooper observed, " Mr. Browne has given his own 
explanation of that I am not prepared to give any other 
interpretation to the circumstance. I have given my opinion 
and my belief as to the existence of the committee." 

Commissioner Long said, " I have no doubt, Mr Cooper, 
you have spoken perfectly correct At some elections there 
are committees, and at others it is thought better to avoid 

After the prolonged inquiry, a special meeting of 
the corporate body was held on January 9th, 1834, to 
determine what should be done in consequence of the 
course pursued by the commissioners. A great deal 
of virtuous indignation was expressed, and it was 
resolved — 

" That it is the confirmed opinion of this assembly, that this 
corporation would have been perfectly justified in refusing 
their sanction to the attendance of their members and 
officers, and in declining to allow the production of their 
charters and muniments before the commissioners, consider- 
ing themselves well advised in regarding the commission as 
an assumption of power contrary to law, and as an exercise 
of prerogative, totally at variance with those constitutional 
principles which, in defining the limits of regal authority, 
guarantee alike the public rights and the private of the 

The Reform Era, 399 

" That on these grounds, and influenced solely by a strong 
sense of duty, the assembly of the 15th November last, 
recorded their protest against a commission so dangerous in 
precedent, so menacing to the privileges of chartered institu- 
tions, and so hostile to the cause of civil liberty. Yet, at the 
same time, animated with reverential attachment to the 
king, unwilling to be deficient in proper respect towards 
functionaries acting in the sovereign's name, and above all 
being unconscious of having, either in a corporate or magis- 
terial capacity, done any act calculated to prejudice the 
interests of the city, or to bring discredit on themselves as a 
body, the assembly of the 15 th November last, ordered that 
the town clerk and other officers should give the fullest 
documentary information for which the commissioners might 
think fit to call." 

" That this corporation not only by such order, but also 
by subsequently permitting oral evidence to be given by 
their members and officers, now feel themselves the more 
imperatively called upon to express their mingled sentiments 
of regret and disapproval at the course of examination pur- 
sued, an examination governed by no rules of evidence 
recognised in any English courts of law, but carried on in a 
manner irregular, vague, and arbitrary, precluding the slight- 
est hope of arrival at such a conclusion as can possibly 
conduce to the ends of truth and justice, still less such as 
can prove congenial to the good feelings of any well-regulated, 
candid, and impartial mind." 

" That this assembly, considering that the great mass of 
information received by the commissioners, emanated firom 
the most decided and unscrupulous partizans ; that many of 
them were intimately connected with, and implicated in the 
transactions to which allusions were made ; that those 
allusions involved charges against highly respected and 

400 History of Norwich. 

honourable individuals, since deceased, whose representatives 
had no means of refuting the aspersions cast upon their 
memories ; that many also of those who came forward as the 
most material witnesses to impugn the conduct and character 
of the corporate body, stand self-convicted as the active 
unblushing agents of gross corruption, and by their own 
admissions have proved themselves unworthy of credit — 
considering all these things, and looking moreover to the 
incontrovertible fact, that not one farthing of the corporate 
funds has been either appropriated to electioneering purposes 
or diverted from its originally destined and legitimate^ 

"Do PROTEST against any report being made by the 
municipal commissioners respecting the corporation of Nor- 
wich, based on statements so utterly unfit to justify parliament 
in legislating on so important a subject, and do most respect- 
fully towards the crown, but with firmness and fidelity to 
the obligation of their oaths as corporators, deem it their 
duty to resist every attempt to exact from them a surrender 
of the charters of the city and, therewith, of the rights and 
privileges of the freemen of Norwich." 

"That this assembly invite the various corporations 
throughout the kingdom to make common cause with them 
in endeavouring by every lawful and constitutional means of 
resistance to defeat any design that may be in contemplation 
for wresting from them their ancient charters, fianchises, and 

A committee was appointed for this purpose, and to 
devise means for protecting the charters, rights, and 
privileges of the corporation. But all this opposition 
proved to be of no avail, and the Municipal Reform 
Act came into operation in 1835. 

The Reform Era, 401 

1835. In January, 1835, the number of registered 
voters was 4018. At the election in this month, the 
bribery oath was administered to every voter. Sir 
James Scarlett, who had represented the city in parlia- 
ment from 1832 to 1834, on being made Chief Baron of 
the Court of Exchequer, was raised to the peerage by 
the title of Baron Abinger of Abinger, in the county of 
Surrey, and of the city of Norwich. He took for his 
motto, " Stat viribis suis^' and on application to the 
corporation, was permitted to use the two angels, 
supporters to the city arms, as supporters to his own. 

On January 28th, the first conversazione of the 
Norfolk and Norwich Museum was held, and was 
well attended. On the 27th and 28th, a dinner was 
given to the electors who voted for the defeated 
candidates, Messrs. Harbord and Martin, at the late 
election. About lOCX) dined on the first day. 

March 23rd. A meeting of the hand-loom weavers 
was held in the Cellar House, at St. Martin's at Oak, 
to petition the legislature to establish local boards of 

In April an alteration was made in the conveyance 
of letters to and from London, being transmitted by 
the Ipswich instead of the Newmarket Mail, by which 
means the citizens got their letters earlier. On the 
third of this month the mayor and corporation waited 
on Lord Abinger, at the lodgings of the judges, with 
an address of congratulation on his first visit to the 
city in his judicial capacity. 

June 1 6th. William Moore, Esq., was sworn into 
office as mayor of the city. This was the last Guild 

402 History of Norwich, 

day under the old corporation. It was celebrated 
with all the customary civic splendour. The Latin 
speech was delivered at the porch of the Free School 
by Master Chambers, son of John Chambers, Esq., of 
the Close, and he was presented with books to the 
value of ;^5 5 s., as was also Master Norgate, the orator 
of the preceding year. At the dinner in St. Andrew's 
Hall about 800 ladies and gentlemen sat down to a 
sumptuous repast. 

July 14th. A meeting of the freemen was held in 
St. Andrew's Hall to petition parliament to preserve 
to them and their children the privileges they had so 
long enjoyed, but they soon lost their exclusive 
privilege of voting for members of the corporation. 
The Municipal Reform Bill passed on September 8th, 
and received the royal assent on the following day. 
On Sunday, September 27th, the mayor and corpora- 
tion attended divine service in the Cathedral for the 
last time under the old charters. The Hon. and Very 
Rev. the Dean (Dr. Pellew) preached the funeral 
sermon of the old corporation. 

Michaelmas day this year passed over without the 
customary ceremony, owing to the new Municipal 
Act coming into force. From 1403 it had been 
customary to swear the sheriffs into office on that day, 
and for many years they had given inauguration 
dinners. Mr. Winter, the last speaker of the old 
corporation, was presented with a handsome piece of 
plate by that body on October 21st ; and at a special 
assembly held on December 17th, a vote of thanks 
was passed to the mayor, William Moore, Esq. This 

TJie Reform Era, 403 

was the very last meeting of the old corporation under 
the ancient charters of the city. 

On December 26th, the day fixed by the Municipal 
Act, the first election of councillors took place under 
the new law. 

1836. January ist T. O. Springfield, Esq., was 
chosen the first mayor of the new corporation. He 
had been a very active partizan in the Liberal interest 
He was a member of the council nearly all his long 
life ; his influence was very great in promoting the 
return of candidates of his own party. On the occasion 
of his going out of office, a dinner was given to 
him in St Andrew's Hall. About 600 sat down to 
a sumptuous banquet 

March 1st The new police, eighteen in number, 
made their first appearance under Chief Constable 

On September 20th, 21st, and 22nd, the Norfolk 
and Norwich Musical Festival was held in St. Andrew s 
Hall, when the concerts were well attended, and 
realised a large sum for the charities. 

December ist S. Bignold, Esq., was the chief pro- 
moter of the Norwich Yarn Company, which had a 
large capital, the whole of which was lost to the 
shareholders. On the occasion of laying the first 
stone of the yarn factory, the pageant in honour 
of ''Bishop Blaize" was revived, on December 1st, 
1836. The whole affair was cleverly got up, and 
admirably conducted. The procession having com- 
pleted a tour of the city, returned to St Edmund's, 


History of Norwich, 

whence they preceded to the site of the new building, 
where S. Bignold, Esq., laid the first stone. This being 
done, the procession set out to St Andrew's Hall, 
where 900 persons, men, women, and children, sat 
down to an excellent dinner. 


K^ijjn cf ^n;en ^idoria. 

|UEEN VICTORIA was proclaimed here in the 
' usual manner, on June 23rd, 1837, amid great 
' rejoicing. On Thursday, August 17th, Dr. 
Stanley was enthroned in the Cathedral ; he was the 
sixty-sixth bishop of the diocese, and the thirty-third 
since the reformation. After the installation about 
a hundred of the gentry, clei^, and laity dined at the 
Norfolk Hotel. This bishop was a great promoter of 
the education of the poor. An episcopal chapel was 
opened in Heigham on August lOth, and afterwards 
consecrated by the bishop under the name of " Trinity 
Chapel." His lordship also consecrated the new 
church at Catton. 

1838. January 3rd. A meeting was- held in St 
Andrew's Hall to petition parliament to abolish the 
apprenticeship of negroes in the colonies. On the 5th 
the new district schools were opened in St Augustine's. 

4o6 History of Noriuich. 

On July nth, a very numerous meeting of the 
camlet weavers was held, for the purpose of resisting 
the proposed reduction of wages. About this time 
some differences existed between the men and their 
employers respecting wages. Col. Harvey was re- 
quested to mediate between them, and he did so, but 
without any good result. The city was much dis- 
turbed in consequence of these disagreements. 

1839. On May i8th, a meeting was held at the 
Norfolk Hotel to consider a bill about to be presented 
to parliament for the improvement of the city, and to 
give the citizens an opportunity of objecting to any 
of its clauses. On June 19th this bill passed, but very 
little was done under it in the way of improvement. 
A great part of the city remained undrained, and the 
pavements continued in a bad state. 

On August 1 6th, the Norfolk and Norwich Art 
Union opened their exhibition of pictures at the Bazaar 
in St. Andrew's. About 400 pictures were exhibited, 
some of them of great merit. 

About this time much excitement prevailed in the 
city respecting the designs of the Chartists, who, 
although they were not numerous, were considered 
dangerous, as they were known to possess arms, many 
guns and pikes having been taken from them by the 
police. On Sunday, August i8th, the Chartists 
attended divine service at the Cathedral, when the 
bishop made a spirited appeal to them. Many meet- 
ings of the Chartists were held, and exciting harangues 
were delivered, advocating the five points of the 

Reig}% of Queen Victoria. 407 

charter, including universal suffrage, and vote by 
ballot, which, some of their opponents said, meant 
** Universal suffering, and vote by bullet." 

1840. On February loth. Queen Victoria's wed- 
ding day was kept as a holiday, and addresses were 
adopted, to be presented to Her Majesty and Prince 
Albert The poor of the various parishes were sub- 
stantially regaled, and the citizens were admitted free 
to the pit and gallery of the theatre. On many sub- 
sequent occasions, on the birth of a prince or princess, 
the citizens have shown their loyalty by presenting 
addresses of congratulation. 

On February 25 th, a meeting was held in St. 
Andrew's Hall to consider the necessity of a bill then 
before parliament, for " repealing and altering the 
existing paving acts," and to oppose the same, if 
necessary : when a petition was adopted to be pre- 
sented to the House of Commons, praying that the 
bill might not pass. The Marquis of Douro presented 
the petitic 1. 

On June iSth, at a meeting in the Guildhall, 
addresses of congratulation were agreed on, to be pre- 
sented to the Queen and Prince Albert, on their 
happy escape from an attempt at assassination. 

The first annual meeting of the Norfolk and Nor- 
wich Protestant Association was held on October 15th 
in St. Andrew's Hall, when 2000 persons were present. 
Addresses were delivered advocating the Protestant 
cause. Subsequently many similar meetings were 
held in thiS city. The speakers always raised the cry 

408 History of Nofwich, 

of " no popery," explaining that they meant, "No with- 
holding of tlic bible from the people ; no worshipping 
of God in a dead language ; no bowing down before 
images as helps to devotion ; no divine homage offered 
to a human being, though the mother of our Lord ; 
no prayers to saints ; no priests pretending to offer 
the sacrifice of Christ continually in the mass ; no 
polluting confessional ; no persecuting inquisition ; 
no Jesuits with their hidden works of darkness; no 
licenses for doing evil that good may come ; no ab- 
solution for the worst of crimes ; no power of a priest- 
hood over courts of law ; no canon law to overrule 
the statutes of the realm ; no cursing with bell, book, 
and candle ; no enforced celibacy ; no nunneries where 
women are buried alive ; no convents for lazy, vicious 
monks ; no masses for the dead ; no fictitious purga- 
tory ; no power of priests to forgive sins,*' &c, &c 

1841. In June this year the census of the united 
kingdom was taken, and the result, as regarded this city, 
showed but a small increase of the population, the 
total number being 62,294, while in 183 1 the number 
was 61,304. The number of hand-loom weavers had 
been greatly diminished by the competition of steam 
power. Many of them left the city, and others went 
into the boot and shoe trade, which had now become 
of some importance. 

This year many political meetings were held in the 
city, of Tories, Whigs, Radicals, and Chartists. The 
prospect of a general election kept the city in a state 
of great excitement The leaders of the two former 

Reign of Queen Victoria, 409 

parties tried to prevent a repetition of such scenes as 
had taken place, by a compromise, which was a most 
hateful thing to the freemen, and working men 
generally. When the election came on in June, 
Mr. Dover, a Chartist, nominated Mr. Eagle, a Chartist, 
of Suffolk, and afterwards, it was said, received a bribe 
of ;^S0 to withdraw the nomination. In consequence 
of this, a riotous mob assembled in the Market Place, 
and Dover had to be protected by the police from 
their violence, for if they had got hold of him, they 
seemed as though they would have torn him in pieces. 
On the following day the mob having learned that 
Dover was at a public house in St George's Colegate, 
went there and dragged him thence, threatening to 
throw him into the river. He was much injured, and 
would probably have lost his life but for the timely 
arrival of the police. 

1843. On August 9th, a dreadful storm of hail, 
rain, wind, and thunder, passed over the city and 
county, and did immense damage to property, espe- 
cially to the growing crops. Parochial subscriptions 
were raised to the amount of ;^S,622, and private sub- 
scriptions ;^4,39i, towards compensating the sufferers 
for their losses. An immense number of windows 
were broken by the hail in the city, and many places 
were flooded. 

1844. This year the railway was opened bet\^'een 
Yarmouth and Norwich, and in the next year the line 
was opened from Norwich to Brandon, simultaneously 

4IO History of Norwich, 

with the Eastern Counties line from London to Ely. 
This caused an entire change in the mode of travelling, 
and in the carrying trade of the district All the old 
stage coaches were of course discontinued. 

Poor Law Reform. 

1846. About the year 1846, the high rates in Nor- 
wich became the subject of complaint and discussion. 
A good deal of alarm was excited in the city in 
consequence of a proposal of Sir Robert Peel, then 
prime minister, to alter the law of settlement, so that 
all persons who had resided five years in any place 
should have a permanent settlement there. As many 
families belonging to the county parishes were then 
resident in Norwich, it was feared that they would 
become chargeable to the city and be a permanent 
burden on the rate-payers. This apprehension proved 
to be well founded, for after the passing of the Poor 
Removal Act, hundreds of county families did become 
chargeable to the city, and have been so ever since. 

Mr. G. Gedge, of Catton, instituted inquiries on the 
subject ; and being a member of the court of 
guardians, often called attention to it. He was, in fact, 
the first in this city to advocate a general or national 
rate as the most effectual remedy for the evils of the 
then existing system of rating. He spared neither 
time, trouble, nor expense in promoting his views, 
which were generally approved by the more influential 
citizens. He employed Mr. Hutchinson, an emment 
statist in London, on the recommendation of Mr. 

Poor Law Reform. 411 

Wakley, to collect information respecting the gross 
inequalities of the system of rating all over England, 
and this information was published and circulated in a 
valuable work, from which nearly all the statistics on 
the subject have been derived and quoted by members 
of Parliament 

Mr. Gedge introduced the question of a national 
rate at many meetings of the court of guardians in 
1846. He showed that the poor rates then collected 
annually amounted to about five millions. Nearly 
the same sum was raised by the property and income 
tax ; and it followed that if only those were rated who 
paid the latter tax, the charge throughout England 
and Wales for the support of the poor would not 
amount to more than sevenpence in the pound. But 
including all the parties not then chargeable to the 
property and income tax, and who would be fairly 
liable to the poor rates, the annual rate would not 
amount to more than half that sum. This would be 
a most important difference to the great mass of the 
rate-payers, whose payments to the relief of the poor 
would be greatly diminished, whilst they would have 
the pleasure of knowing that the poor would be better 
cared for, and that those comforts which they had 
a right to expect, as producers of wealth, would be 
placed more immediately within their reach. 

Mr. Gedge explained that, as all the parishes in the 
city were incorporated in regard to the relief of the 
poor, a general rate being raised from all those 
parishes for that purpose, his proposition was that this 
general mode of rating should be extended over the 

412 History of Norwich, 

whole country, and that a general rate should be 
raised to be applied for the relief of the poor 
wherever they were located. He showed that if each 
parish in this city supported its own poor, the rating 
would be very unequal, and some of the richest 
parishes would pay least, while the poorest and more 
populous would pay most. To prevent this in- 
equality, all the parishes had been incorporated. This 
had been found to be a great improvement, and it 
should be further extended. Many persons, fund- 
holders and others, living in lodgings, were exempted 
from poor rates. Many large establishments in 
Cheapside and the middle of London paid no poor 
rates, because the poor did not live in those localitiea 
Many persons living in fashionable towns also escaped 
poor rates, for the same reason, while the industrious 
and the middle classes had to bear the burden. He 
therefore maintained that there should be a national 

Most of the members of the court of guardians 
concurred with these views, and ultimately a petition 
to Parliament was adopted in favour of a national rate. 
The petition was duly presented in the House of 

On Wednesday, June lOth, 1846, an important 
meeting of the rate-payers of the city was held in the 
sessions court, at the Guildhall, to petition Parliament 
against the Poor Law Removal Act, which had been 
lately introduced into the House of Commons. The 
mayor, J. Betts, Esq., presided and opened the 
proceedings. Mr. S. Bignold, Mr. T. Brightwell, 

Poor Law Reform, 413 

Mr. J. G. Johnson, Mr. E. Willett, Mr. A. A. H. Beckwith, 
Mr. Banks, Mr. Newbegin, Mr. Hardy, & Mr. G. Gedge, 
addressed the meeting in support of resolutions, and a 
petition was adopted against the proposed alteration 
in the Law of Settlement and the Poor Law Removal 
Bill. Mr. G. Gedge moved a resolution, — 

" That this meeting is decidedly of opinion that the only 
effectual alteration of the law of settlement, by which free 
scope would be given to the laboiw of the people, would be 
to abolish the present law of settlement and rating, and to 
substitute a general national tax on real and personal 
property, and that a petition founded on this resolution be 
presented to the House of Commons." 

He showed the very injurious operation of the law 
then existing, and expressed his belief that a national 
rate, if obtained, would prove a great benefit to the 
city. Mr. Sheriff Colman seconded the resolution, 
which was carried unanimously. 

After this meeting, two petitions were presented to 
Parliament, from this city, in favour of a national rate; 
one from the court of guardians, and one from the 
citizens at large. These petitions, however, had no 
effect, and the Poor Law Removal Bill was passed 
into a law. The consequence was, that about 1500 
families belonging to county parishes, who had lived 
five years in the city, obtained a settlement in it, and 
most of them soon applied for relief This greatly 
increased the expenditure for the relief of the poor. 

At the monthly meeting of the court of guardians, 
held on December ist, 1846, Mr. G. Gedge moved a 

414 History of Norwich. 

resolution of which he had g^Ven notice at the previous 
court, in respect to a national rate, and he urged the 
usual arguments in favour of that measure. He 
wished the support of the court to a petition to be 
presented to Parliament during the following session, 
for the total repeal of the mode of rating to the 
relief of the poor, then in operation, and the substitu- 
tion of a national rate. He believed that public 
opinion was now fixed on this question, and that a 
national rate must come. A petition was adopted, 
nem con, 

1847. A meeting of the city operatives was held 
on Wednesday, March 23rd, in St. Andrew's Hall, 
for the purpose of petitioning Parliament to abolish 
the law of settlement then in operation, and to 
establish a national poor rate. The meeting was 
numerously attended by working men, who manifested 
a great interest in the question. Several of them 
delivered speeches against the law of settlement and 
in favour of a national rate, and a petition to Parlia- 
ment was adopted. Mr. Gedge spoke at some length 
in favour of the measure, which he believed would be 

A public meeting of the citizens was held on 
December the 2nd, 1847, to consider the evils arising 
from the alteration of the law of settlement The 
mayor (G. L. Coleman, Esq.) presided, and many 
influential gentlemen addressed the meeting in sup- 
port of resolutions deprecating the alteration in the 
law, and in favour of a more equitable system than 

Poor Law Reform, 415 

that in operation. Sir S. M. Peto, M.P. for the city 
expressed his concurrence, and the resolution was, 
carried unanimously. Subsequently, several meetings 
were held in Norwich in favour of a national rate. 
During the same year, also, an association was formed 
in London, having the same object in view; and, 
eventually, the movement resulted in the passing of 
an Act of Parliament, by which a union poor rate 
was established in every county in England. This 
has proved to be a vast improvement of the old 
system, and a great advance in the direction of a 
national rate, but still the poor rate is levied on real 
property only. The most equitable system would be 
for every man to pay according to his ability, whether 
he be a landowner, a shipowner, a houseowner, a fund- 
holder, or an artisan. 

Before the Removal Act passed, the Norwich 
guardians were quite aware of the effect it would have 
on the city. In order to prove that their apprehen- 
sions were well founded, they caused a census to be 
taken in the city and county of those paying a yearly 
rental of £(> and under, and an inquiry to be instituted 
as to the settlement of the tenants of those houses. 
They found, after a full investigation, that more than 
a third of the houses were occupied by persons not 
having a settlement in Norwich, but in other districts. 
The operation of the act was to throw the expense of 
the maintenance of such persons on the city, at. an 
estimated cost of ;£^5000 yearly. This was represented 
to the government, who paid no attention to it, and 
the Act passed nevertheless. 


^eadinn (Kuente (continued). 

|N the autumn of 1848, the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England held a meeting in this city. 
The exhibition of stock and implements took 
place in a large field near the Newmarket Road, and 
attracted thousands of visitors. The trials of imple- 
ments took place on land near the city. Lectures were 
delivered by the Rev. E. Sidney and others at the 
Shirehall. The members of the Society and their 
friends dined together on two occasions, in St. 
Andrew's Hall. Addresses were delivered by Professor 
Sedgwick and other eminent men on various subjects. 
S. Bignold, Esq., was mayor during this year. 

Murder of the Norwich Recorder. 

Late on the night of November 28th, 1848, the 
city was startled by the intelligence of the murder 
of Isaac Jcrmy, Esq., the Recorder of Norwich, 
and his son. His son's wife (Mrs. Jermy Jermy), 
and her servant, Eliza Chastney, were also fired at and 
wounded by the same murderous hand. The first 

Murder of the Recorder of Notwich, 417 

news of these murders and attempted murders excited 
universal horror. They appeared to be so inhuman 
and atrocious, that public feeling was wrought up to 
the highest pitch ; and all the reports published in the 
local and metropolitan journals were read with the 
greatest avidity. James Blomfield Rush, a farmer, 
well known in Norfolk, and a tenant under Mr. Jermy, 
was at once suspected and apprehended. He was ex- 
amined before the magistrates, committed, tried, found 
guilty, and executed. We give a short account of 
this terrible tragedy. 

Mr. Jermy, with his wife and family, lived at a 
mansion called Stanfield Hall, about two miles dis- 
tant from Wymondham, and Rush lived at a neigh- 
bouring farm house, known as Potash Farm. The 
Preston family, of which the recorder was a descendant, 
originally came from the village of Preston, in the 
hundred of Babergh, Suffolk, and settled at Beeston 
St. Lawrence, in the hundred of Tunstead, in Norfolk. 
In 1837, the Rev. G. Preston died, leaving his son, the 
recorder, heir to Stanfield and his other entailed 
property. The recorder, previous to his father's death, 
was called Mr. Preston ; but soon after that event, he 
took the necessary steps for complying with the 
stipulation in the will of Mr. Wm. Jermy, from 
whom the property had descended, that the possessor 
of the estate should assume his name and arms, and 
accordingly he took the name and arms of Jermy by 
license from the crown. He was a county magistrate 
and one of the chairmen at quarter sessions, recorder 
for Norwich, and a director of the Norwich Union 

41 8 History of Norwich. 

Insurance Office. Indeed, he had been all his life 
closely connected with the city. 

There had been some disputes relative to the 
Stanfield property. It was said that one of the male 
relatives of William Jermy had disposed of his rever- 
sionary interest in these estates for the trifling con- 
sideration of ;£'20. This occurred in the year 1754. 
In June 1838, when the Rev. George Pearson's furniture 
and library at Stanfield Hall were advertised for 
sale, a person named Thomas Jermy, a grandson of 
John Jermy, with a cousin of his, named John Larner, 
put in a claim to the estate, and served notices both 
upon Mr. Jermy and the auctioneer to stop the sale. 
Larner then attempted to obtain possession of the 
hall, but was shortly afterwards ejected by Rush, (who 
was then acting as bailiff" for Mr. Jermy,) with a party 
of labourers. Larner then cut down some timber and 
carted it away ; and he and his party were appre- 
hended for the offence, but he himself was acquitted, 
though his accomplices were convicted in penalties. 
Shortly afterwards placards were posted in the neigh- 
bourhood, stating their intention to obtain forcible 
possession. This they attempted to do, but they were 
apprehended and committed to the assizes. They 
pleaded gtdliy, and were sentenced to various periods 
of imprisonment 

Rush, being aware of all these circumstances, may 
have thought that he could perpetrate the murder in 
disguise, and that suspicion would rest on those who 
claimed the estate. It was stated and believed that 
he was a near relation to the recorder, who, when he 

Murder of the Recorder of Norwich, 419 

came into possession of his estates, employed Rush as 
his steward, but rescinded his leases, having found 
that they were illegal. This created the first ill feeling 
between the parties. The recorder granted new leases 
to Rush, but, as the latter alleged, at higher rent. 
Rush soon afterwards took the Potash Farm in Hethel, 
under Mr. Calver ; this farm adjoining the Stanfield 
estate, and being very convenient for his occupation. 
It being for sale, Mr. Jermy wished to become the 
purchaser, and he authorised Rush, who fixed the 
value at ;£^3,SOO, to buy it for him. Rush attended 
the sale, and having bid ;£^3,SOO for Mr. Jermy, bade 
^3*750 for himself. The recorder, though much 
annoyed by this transaction at first, was induced to 
lend Rush the money, on mortgage, to complete the 
purchase. The equity of redemption, or the owner- 
ship, therefore belonged to him. A number of mort- 
gage deeds were executed, the last of which was 
dated September 28th, 1844, and it recited several 
prior mortgages. 

The effect of it was, that a sum of £^000 in all 
was charged upon the estate, by way of mortgage, in 
favour of the recorder, and it contained a provision 
that the money was to remain on the security of that 
estate until the 2,0th November^ 1848. The interest on 
the £sooo was 4 per cent, or ;£^200 per annum, and 
Rush became tenant so as to enable the recorder to 
distrain for rent Rush now held three farms, and in 
October, 1847, ^*^ ^^s in arrear of rent for the Stanfield 
tarm, and the recorder put in some distresses. Rush 
being ejected went to live at Potash farm house. 

420 History of Norwich, 

Mr. Jermy also brought an action against Rush for 
breach of covenants. This action was tried at the 
March assizes, 1848, and it, as well as the previous 
distresses, seemed to have occasioned rancourous feel- 
ings in Rush's mind towards Mr. Jermy. He published 
a pamphlet which professed to be a report of the trial, 
calling Mr. Jermy a villain, and stating that he had no 
right to Stanfield Hall. This showed that Rush 
cherished malignant feelings towards his victim. 

Rush appears to have for some time premeditated 
the murder of Mr. Jermy and his whole family ; and 
he ultimately resolved to carry out a deep-laid scheme, 
both of murder and robbery. He got a young woman 
named Emily Sandford into his service as governess, 
and seduced her. He then employed her to draw up 
some quasi legal documents, as she could write like 
a lawyer's clerk. According to one of these docu- 
ments, signed " Isaac Jermy," that gentleman gave up 
all claim on Rush, if the latter gave up all papers and 
documents relating to the Stanfield estate. The 
signature was of course forged. After the murder 
these documents were found concealed under the 
floor of a bed-room in Rush's house, ready to be pro- 
duced had he escaped suspicion. 

Rush's conduct before the murders had been 
observed. He had taken every precaution to throw 
off suspicion. During the latter part of November, 
he had been in the habit of going out at night, 
pretending to be on the look-out for poachers. He 
ordered a quantity of straw to be littered down from 
his homestead to the fields towards Stanfield HalL 

Murder of the Recorder of Norwich. 421 

A portion of the path which had never before been 
littered with straw, was then littered by his direction, 
and the straw ceased where the green sward began, so 
that he could walk from his house towards the 
recorder's mansion, without any danger of his foot- 
steps being traced. Before November 28th, he had 
caused everybody to leave his house except Emily 
Sandford and a lad named Savory. On that day he 
returned home about 5 p.m., and asked when the 
dinner would be ready. Emily Sandford said it 
would be ready soon, upon which he remarked, 
" There is just time for me to go into the garden and 
fire off my gun ;" and he went into the garden and 
discharged his gun accordingly. This was intended 
to account for his gun having been recently used. 
He had bought a double-barrelled gun in London 
the last time he was there. After tea he appeared to 
be extremely agitated. He went up-stairs to his bed- 
room and put on a disguise ; one part of which was 
for the whole person, being in fact a widow's dress, 
which was quite new. Another part was a black 
crape bonnet with a double frill hanging by it ; and 
the frill rendered it difficult for any one to discern the 
wearer's features. He enveloped himself with a large 
cloak, armed himself with his double-barrelled gun, 
and went out to do his work of murder between seven 
and eight o'clock. Nobody saw him leave the house. 
The night was dark and windy and well suited for the 
deeds of an assassin. 

Soon after eight o'clock, the recorder's dinner being 
over, he was sitting alone in the dining-room, little 

422 History of Norwich, 

dreaming of the doom that awaited him and his son. 
His son and his son's wife, who had retired to the 
drawing-room, were about to partake of tea and to 
amuse themselves with a game of picquet, the cards 
being on the table. Mr. Jermy was in the habit of 
going outside the hall after dinner, and on this evening 
he left the dining-room and walked to a porch in front 
of the mansion. Rush, who knew the recorder's habits 
and expected him to come out, was standing near the 
porch in disguise holding his loaded gun in his hand. 
As soon as Mr. Jermy reached the porch, Rush 
presented his gun, fired, and shot him through the 
heart. He fell backwards, groaned, and instantly 
expired. Rush immediately ran to the side door, 
entered, and proceeded along the passages leading to 
the staircase hall. He passed close to the butler, who, 
affrighted at the appearance of an armed man in 
disguise, retired to his pantry. Rush passed on to the 
door opening into the staircase hall. Mr. Jermy, jun., 
who had heard the report of a gun, opened the door 
at that very moment. They met ; Rush drew back, 
presented the gun, and fired ; and young Mr. Jermy 
fell dead in the hall. The assassin then passed on 
into the dining-room, no doubt with the intention of 
exterminating the whole family. Mrs. Jermy, still in 
the drawing-room, on hearing the second report, im- 
mediately went into the hall, and passed over the 
dead body of her husband. Eliza Chastney, one of 
the female servants, on hearing her mistress screaming 
for help, ran up to her, and holding her by the waist 
cried out, **My dear mistress, what is the matter?" 

Murder of the Recorder of Norwich. 423 

At this moment, Rush came out of the dining-room, 
and seeing the two women opposite to him, levelled 
his weapon and fired twice, wounding Mrs. Jermy in 
the arm and her servant in the leg. The murderer 
then made his escape by the side door, leaving death, 
misery, and woe behind him. He did not escape, 
however, before some of the servants had made their 
observations of him. Eliza Chastney had marked the 
man, and she afterwards identified him at the trial. 
Strange to say, several persons were standing at the 
gate close to the bridge, heard the reports of a gun, 
and heard the alarm bell ringing, but did not imagine 
that anything serious had happened. Some people 
are so stolid that an earthquake would scarcely arouse 
them. A man who had been employed in the stables, 
hearing the reports, thought that the hall was attacked 
by a band of ruffians, went to the back, swam over 
the moat which surrounds the hall, and ran to the 
house of a neighbouring farmer (Mr. Colman), and 
having obtained a horse rode to Wymondham, spread- 
ing the alarm as he went 

In the meantime, the scene at Stanfield Hall was 
one of utter dismay. The cook had fled to the 
coach house with little Miss Jermy, the daughter of 
Mr. Jermy, jun. The cowardly butler, who might 
have seized the assassin in the passage, rushed to 
Mr. Gower's, another farmer, for assistance. The 
maid servants conveyed their wounded mistress up- 
stairs to bed. Eliza Chastney was lying wounded on 
the ground ; Mr. Jermy, sen., was lying dead in the 
porch, everybody being then uncertain as to his 

424 History of Nondich, 

fate ; and Mr. Jermy, jua, was lying dead in the halL 
Mr. Colman, Mr. Gower, and Mr. Gower's two sons, 
having received some vague information, had hurried 
to the hall, and were the first who discovered what 
had happened. The servants were all panic-stricken. 

What was the conduct of the assassin after the 
murders } Emily Sandford, whom he had seduced, 
though at first she told a false story, revealed it all 
in the course of the inquest and the examinations 
before the magistrates. Between nine and ten o'clock 
on that same night. Rush's knock was heard at his 
own door. Emily Sandford went to the door to open 
it, but without a light, and she did not see him come 
in. He went upstairs to his own room, put off his 
disguise which was found there by the police, and in a 
short time came down again without his boots and 
coat. He told Emily Sandford to make haste and 
put out her fire and go to bed ; and before he left her 
he said, " If any inquiry is made about me, say I was 
not out more than ten minutes." She followed, after 
she had put out the fire, and asked him where she 
should sleep. He told her that she was to sleep in 
her own room ; that being the first night she had done 
so for a long time. She went to bed, and between 
two and three o'clock in the morning Rush, who had 
heard voices outside, rapped at the door of her room 
and desired her to let him in ; and she did so. He 
came trembling to her bedside and said, " Now you 
be firm, and remember that I was out only ten 
minutes." She was extremely agitated and inquired 
what was the matter ; but he would only tell her that 

Murder of tiie Recorder of Norwich, 425 

she might hear of something in the morning. Taking 
hold of his hand she observed that he trembled 
violently. Next morning the police, who had watched 
the house all night, apprehended him, and on the 
same day he was examined before the magistrates. 
Emily Sandford also underwent a lengthened ex- 
amination, and persisted in stating that Rush was out 
only a quarter of an hour on the previous night ; but 
at the inquest subsequently held by Mr. Press at 
Wymondham, she confessed that her first statement 
was false, admitting that Rush did not return home 
till after nine o'clock, and that he told her to say he 
had been out only ten minutes. She also gave 
evidence as to all that passed between her and Rush 
that night, as already related. 

On the morning after the murder the police searched 
Potash farm house, and found two double-barrelled 
guns in the closet in Rush's bed-room, but these were 
not the weapons he used. The gun he had used 
was afterwards found under a manure heap. In the 
house the police found a black dress, a grey and 
black frontlet, female wig, and a long black veil, as 
for a female head-dress. These were hidden in a 
closet in Rush's bed-room. Concealed under the 
floor of a closet a number of documents were also 
found, which turned out to be the forged deeds before 
alluded to. These formed an extraordinary link in 
the case, and after repeated examinations the prisoner 
was committed to the assizes for trial. The bodies of 
his victims were consigned to their last resting place 
at Wymondham on December sth, in the presence of 
a vast concourse of spectators. 

426 History of Norwich, 

The trial of Rush excited universal interest all over 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. It commenced at 
the Shirehall, Norwich, on Thursday, March 29th, 
1849, before Baron Rolfe. It continued six days, and 
each day the court was crowded to excess. He was 
not defended by counsel. Mr. Sergeant Byles stated 
the case for the prosecution, and then called a number 
of witnesses who clearly proved the facts. Having in 
the preceding part of this narrative stated all the par- 
ticulars, it is unnecessary to give the evidence. The 
documents which were found in a secret place under 
the floor of the bed-room closet in the prisoner's house 
were produced, and several of them were proved to 
be forgeries, which, if carried into effect after the 
recorder's death, would have placed the prisoner in a 
very good position with respect to the farms which he 
occupied, and would have rid him of all his liabilities. 
A powerful motive for the commission of the murders 
was therefore apparent. The servants at the hall, 
who had seen the disguised armed man there, all 
deposed that they believed the prisoner to be the 
man, as they had known him before, and as they had 
recognised him by his height, form, walk, and gait 
Eliza Chastney, who had been severely wounded by 
the assassin, was brought into court on a couch, 
attended by medical men. When asked if she saw 
the assassin in court, she pointed to Rush and said, 
" That is the man." She had seen him several times 
at the hall. When he fired at her, she saw the whole 
form of his head and shoulders, and she knew no one 
else having a similar appearance. Emily Sandford 

Murder of the Recorder of Norwiclu 427 

entered the box apparently in a weak state. She was 
examined at great length, and she stated with much 
clearness all that had passed between her and Rush 
and other parties in reference to the documents pro- 
duced. She also gave a full account of the prisoner's 
conduct on the night of the 28th, as already narrated. 
When the prisoner commenced his cross-examina- 
tion of this witness there was a profound silence in the 
court, all present being anxious to know how he 
would treat the unfortunate female whom he had 
seduced, and who had given evidence against him. 
He appeared to be under the influence of strong 
emotion, so much so as at times, as to stifle his utter- 
ance ; and he was frequently on the verge of bursting 
into tears, yet he mastered his feelings, and put his 
questions mildly in an assumed endearing manner, 
trying to rouse any affection that she might have left 
for him. She gave her answers in a low tone, and 
sometimes weeping, which excited the pity of the 
spectators. Nearly all the questions put by the 
prisoner were irrelevant to her evidence in chief, but 
not all the blandishments and frequent adjurations of 
the questioner could elicit answers to suit his purpose. 
At length he put questions which roused her indigna- 
tion, and she reproached him for his perfidy in not 
marrying her as he promised. If he had done so, she 
could not have given evidence against him. Four 
days were occupied with the case for the prosecution. 
On the fifth day tlie prisoner commenced his defence, 
and he spoke on that and the following day fourteen 
hours without making any impression whatever in his 

428 Histofy of Norwich. 

favour. He began by admitting a guilty knowledge 
that something was about to take place in the hall on 
that night. He said parties had consulted him as to 
the expediency of taking forcible possession of the 
hall, as had been done some years before. He advised 
them not to do so, but still he apprehended that some- 
thing serious would happen. He left his house at 
eight or half-past eight o'clock on the night of the 
murders, and he went to the boundary of his own 
land. When he got to the fence leading to the hall, 
he waited a few minutes and thought he would go 
back as he felt ill, but at that moment he heard the 
report of a gun or pistol in a direct line from the halL 
He then heard two more, and was struck with amaze- 
ment, as the parties to whom he alluded had always 
said, if they took firearms it would only be to intimi- 
date, not to use them. He then heard the bell rung 
violently, and he hastened back to his house as quickly 
as he could, and he went through the garden into the 
house. Having given this account of himself on that 
night, he proceeded to comment on the evidence with 
a view to show contradictions. 

Mr. Sergeant Byles replied, showing that the prisoner 
had only strengthened the case against him. 

The learned judge summed up in a lucid manner, 
the jury soon returned a verdict of guilty of wilful 
murder, the prisoner was sentenced to be hung, and 
the dread sentence was executed on the bridge in 
front of Norwich Castle on the morning of Saturday, 
April 2 1st, in the presence of many thousands of 
spectators. The unhappy man remained impenitent 
to the last. 


Reading (Kqnts (continued). 

BOUT this time the two parties in the council 
became nearly equal in numbers, and the Liberals 
found a difficulty in selecting a mayor and 
sheriff every year from their own party. They ac- 
cordingly proposed that each party should nominate 
a mayor and sheriff alternately. In 1848 S. Bignold, 
Esq., was nominated a second time, and elected 
unanimously to serve the office of mayor. From that 
time to the present the chief magistrate and the sheriff 
have been selected from each party alternately. This 
has also led to the members of the various committees 
being selected so as to represent all parties fairly, 
and the former exclusive system has been discon- 

1850. In 1850, in consequence of a memorial to 
the General Board of Health, established under the 
(1848) Public Health Act, Mr. Lee, a civil engineer 
and government inspector, came to Norwich and com- 
menced an inquiry respecting the sanitary state of the 
city. The inquiry lasted a fortnight, and Mr. Lee 

430 History of Norwich, 

heard evidence given by all the officials and other 
parties. He afterwards prepared a very elaborate re- 
port, showing that the supply of water was insufficient, 
that the drainage was defective, and that many 
causes of prcventible disease existed. He advised the 
application of the Public Health Act, which was ulti- 
mately done. A company had been previously formed 
with a large capital, and had constructed works for 
the supply of water from the river Wensum to all 
parts of the city. The abundant supply of pure water 
proved very beneficial to the health of the inhabitants* 
and entirely relieved the Local Board of Health from 
all trouble on that point, and they had only to contract 
for the supply of water to water the roads and streets 
during the summer months. 

In January of this year Jenny Lind gave two con- 
certs in St. Andrew's Hall, which was quite filled, at 
high prices, by fashionable audiences, more than 2000 
being present at each concert. The proceeds, amount- 
ing to ;^I253, were generously given by the celebrated 
songstress for the foundation of the Jenny Lind 
Infirmary for Children in Pottergate Street It was 
established in 1853, and visited by the Queen of Song 
in 1856, when she was so much pleased with the 
management that she added ;^SO to her former gifts. 

1861. The Great Exhibition of 1851, which was 
opened in May, attracted thousands of the citizens to 
London, where many of them spent weeks in viewing 
the wonders at the Crystal Palace. Norwich manu- 
facturers sent many specimens of their shawls and 

Leading Events, 431 

textile fabrics. Amongst the exhibitors were Messrs 
C. and F. Bolingbroke and Jones ; Messrs. Middleton 
and Answorth ; Messrs. Towler, Rowling, and Allen ; 
Messrs. Willett and Nephew ; Messrs. Clabburn, Sons, 
and Crisp ; and Messrs. Grout and Co. ; all of whose 
productions were much admired and commended. A 
very large number of our operatives were conveyed 
by special train free to London to see the Exhibition, 
where they had an opportunity of inspecting the best 
productions of art of the whole world. This wonder- . 
ful exhibition was supposed to be the harbinger of 
universal peace, but it was soon followed by the 
Russian war, which greatly depressed the trade of the 
city and of the whole country. It cost about a 
hundred millions of money, destroyed thousands of 
brave soldiers, and spread a general gloom over the 
minds of men. It ended in the fall of Sebastopol, and 
the triumph of the allied armies. Russian aggression 
was stopped for a time ; but was the rotten Turkish 
empire worth the waste of men and money } 

The census, which was taken in this year, showed 
that the population of Norwich had increased to 
68,7 1 3 persons who were in a comparatively prosperous 
condition, for trade was good and provisions were 

1863. On November ist, S. Bignold, Esq., was 
elected mayor of Norwich for the third time, and he 
filled the office with great approbation throughout the 
year. He lent the money required in the first instance 
for the new building erected for the Free Library and 

announced that Her Majesty had b< 
pleased on the previous day to confer 
knighthood upon him, on the occasion 
ing the addresses, voted by the council 
April last, pledging their loyalty to th 
Her Majesty declared war against Ri 
thereupon resolved unanimously, on t 
A. A. H. Beckwith, Esq., 

" That this council beg to offer their hearty 
to Sir S. Bignold, the mayor of Norwich, on 
the dignity which Her Majesty has graci< 
upon him, and wish him many years to ei^o] 
worthily conferred." 

I . 1856. The New Cemetery was op 

I Board of Health, and the east side of : 

|V crated by the bishop. The other side 

Si to the Nonconformists. Since then about 

'*•" have been interred in the spacious area 

acres next the Earlham Road. The j 
been well laid out and planted with trees 


■* 4 

t; * 


. 1 

Leading Events, 433 

good service for the lovers of angling on the two 
rivers, which formerly abounded with fish near Nor- 
wich. But on account of the pollution of the stream, 
anglers are obliged to go down as far as Coldham 
Hall or Cantley to fish with any prospect of success. 

The Russian war having been brought to a close, 
peace was celebrated here with great rejoicings and 
illuminations. Major General Windham, " the hero of 
the Redan," visited the city, and a grand banquet was 
given to him in St. Andrew's Hall, where he delivered 
an eloquent address on the events of the war and its 
successful termination. 

In August the annual congress of the British 
Archaeological Association met in Norwich. Meetings 
were held in the Guildhall, St Andrew's Hall, the 
Public Library, and other buildings. Addresses were 
delivered by Professor Willis, Mr. Britton, and many 
other gentlemen. The members and friends visited 
the Cathedral, where Professor Willis gave a descrip- 
tion of the edifice. They also made excursions to 
Ely, Dereham, Binham, Walsingham, and other places 
of interest On their return to Norwich they dined 
together at the Swan Inn. 

1858. The Local Government Act came into 
operation, and gave the corporation full power to 
carry out all necessary improvements. 

1859. On November 19th, the Norwich Battalion 
of Volunteers was formally enrolled, 300 strong, in 

434 History of Norwich, 

three companies, under the command of Colonel Brett, 
a highly-esteemed officer. The other officers were, 
Capt. Middleton of the first company, Capt H. S. 
Patteson of the second company, and Captain Hay 
Gurney of the third company. The force gradually 
increased in number till the battalion became 530 
strong, in six companies. Colonel Brett resigned on 
account of ill health, and Colonel Black was appointed 
to the chief command ; next to him Major Patteson ; 
Capt. Henry Morgan first company, Capt John Steward 
second, Capt. Peter Hansell third, Capt. Charles Foster 
fourth, Capt. J. B. Morgan fifth, Capt. E. Field sixth ; 
Lieut. H. Pulley, Quarter Master ; John Friar Clarke, 
Quarter Master Sergeant ; T. W. Crosse, Surgeon ; 
Rev. F. Meyrick, Chaplain. The corporation subse- 
quently granted a piece of land at the north-west corner 
of Chapel Field, and a company of shareholders built 
the Drill Hall for the use of the members of the 
corps, which has the reputation of being very efficient 

1861. A meeting was held on January loth to 
consider the best means of relieving the distress which 
had for some time prevailed, owing to the depression 
of trade ; and within a month, more than ;^4,ooo were 
raised for the relief of the poor. Since then the 
weavers have gradually found employment in some 
other branches of industry, especially the boot and 
shoe manufacture, which has greatly increased. Hun- 
dreds of operatives are also employed in iron manu- 
factures, and in making machines for agricultural and 
horticultural purposes. 

Leading Events, 435 

This year a census of the population was taken, 
showing a great increase, the total number being 
74,891 persons, viz., males, 33,863 ; females, 41,028. 

Inhabited houses, 17,112; uninhabited houses, 739; 
building, 103. 

The parishes within the city, together with their 

respective population in i85i and their real property 
in i860, were as follows : — 

All Saints - - 667 ;;^2,28o 

St Andrew - - 978 7,828 

St Augustine - - 1,890 4,281 

St Benedict - - i>38i 1,869 

St Clement - - 3,961 7,554 

Earlham - - 195 1,845 

Eaton St Andrew - - 930 8,759 

St Edmund - - 753 1,706 

St Etheldred - - 614 i,559 

St George Colegate - 1,607 4*9^3 

St George Tombland - 687 4,865 

St Giles - - 1,586 6,391 

St Gregory - - 934 4,936 

Heigham - - 137894 3^,799 

St Helen - - 507 901 

St James - - 3,408 5,384 

St John's Maddermarket - 537 4,959 

St John Sepulchre - 2,219 4,452 • 

St John Timberhill - 1,302 2,496 

St Julian - - 1,361 3,142 

Lakenham - - 4,866 15,745 

St Lawrence - - 877 2,421 

St Margaret - - 664 1,608 

St Martin at Oak - 2,546 3,789 

St. Paul - - 2,90 

St. IV'tcr H ungate - - 39 

St. Peter Mancroft - 2,57 

St. Peter Mountergate 2,86. 

St Peter Southgate - 45; 

St Saviour - - 1,532 

St Simon and St Jude - 28^ 

St Stephen - - 4>i9i 

St Swithin - - 695 

There are also within the city jurisdictio 
Hellesdon, population 393, belonging to H 
'» ' Thorpe hamlet, population 2,388, belonging 

^ Thorpe St Andrew ; Trowse Millgate, Carr( 

dale, population 687, belonging to Trowse pa 
.^ 249, extra parochial. The population in 18 

I , property in i860 of all Hellesdon were 4( 

II all Thorpe St Andrew 3,841, ^9,003 ; of al! 

ij ^3,534. 

I > 
■ I 





1862. In 1862 the Great Exhibits 
afforded some of our city manufacture) 
portunity of exhibiting their production 


4-1, « «i-:ii -^ 

Leading Events, 437 

their poplins and poplinettes. The shawls of Messrs. 
Towler, Rowling, and Allen obtained honourable 
mention. So much for what are usually regarded as 
the staple products of Norwich. But Norwich won 
for itself the admiration of the world in some other 
matters. Messrs. Barnard and Bishop, for instance, 
were spoken of far and wide for their splendid park 
gates in ornamental wrought iron, which were subse- 
quently purchased and presented to the Prince of 
Wales, and now adorn one of the entrances to His 
Royal Highnesses park at Sandringham. Of course 
also Messrs. Colman took high prizes for their world- 
renowned mustard and starch — the medal given them 
for mustard being the only medal granted in the 
United Kingdom for this article of commerce. As 
publishers, Messrs. Jarrold and Sons received honour- 
able mention for their educational works, and publica- 
tions of high moral excellence. 

1363. H. S. Patteson, Esq., was mayor in 1863, 
when on March loth the citizens again displayed 
their enthusiastic loyalty by processions, illuminations, 
balls, &c., on the occasion of the marriage of the 
Prince and Princess of Wales. Their Royal High- 
nesses have made themselves very popular in this 
county, by living part of the year at Sandringham, 
and participating in all the festivities and amusements 
of the gentry and inhabitants. On the occasion of 
the marriage of their Royal Highnesses, seven of the 
principal manufacturing firms presented, through the 
corporation to the Princess Alexandra, specimens of 

obtained a new act of parliament for ? 

nianac^ement of the j)oor, and repe.din^ all 

Under the new act the present l^oard of ' 

constituted with a reduced number of gu 

I the whole management is more in accorda 

\ New Poor Law system. Norwich is no\ 

• " parishes, divided into districts, each hav 

j attendants. By this new act all former ac 

'!• the Norwich Small Tenements Act of li 

i pealed, and the city was brought under tl 

, . of the General Poor Law, and all other 

laws from time to time in force with re 
poor in England. The union is now < 
; ' sixteen districts, viz. : — 

: i I. St. Peter Mountergate, St George ol 

J i* 2. St Mary in the Marsh, St Martic 

3[ St Helen, St Michael at Plea. 

^ ' 3. St Petdr H ungate, St Simon an< 

' * Andrew. 

.. .|' 4. St John Maddermarket, St Gregor 


Leading Events^ 439 >. 

10. Eaton, Earlham, and Hellesdon. 

1 1. St John Sepulchre, St. Michael at Thorn, St. 
John Timberhill, and All Saints. 

12. Trowse, Carrow, Bracondale, St. Peter South- 
gate, St Julian, and St Etheldred. 

13. Lakenham. 

14. Thorpe, Pockthorpe, St Paul, and St James. 

15. St Saviour, St Clement, St Edmund, St 

16. St Michael at Coslany, St Mary at Coslany, 
St Martin at Oak, St Augustine. 

The board consists of forty-two guardians, elected 
for the sixteen districts as follows : — 

For each of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, 
eleventh, and twelfth districts, two guardians; for 
each of the sixth, seventh, ninth, thirteenth, four- 
teenth, and sixteenth districts, three guardians ; • for 
the eighth district five guardians. For the purpose of 
this act with respect to the limits of the palace of the 
bishop of Norwich, the same are deemed to be locally 
situated within the parish of St Mary in the Marsh. 

The following are the qualifications for voting in the 
election of guardians : — 

A. Occupiers of rateable property who respectively are 
rated in respect thereof on a gross assessment of ten pounds 
and upwards. 

B. Owners of rateable property, who respectively are 
rated in respect thereof on a net assessment of ten pounds 
or upwards. Provided, that where two or more persons are 
joindy rated, one only of them shall be entitled to vote, and 

440 History of Norwich, 

in ever}' case the rating shall have been in the last two rates, 
each made at least t^'o months before the day of election, 
and in respect of property in the district in which the person 
votes, and the rates shall have been paid at least fourteen 
days before the day of election. 

At every election of guardians the rate-payers 
voting have votes in accordance with the following 
scale: — 

A. If rated at ;^io and under ^25, one vote. 

B. If rated at £,2^ and under ^50, two votes. 

C. If rated at J[,^o and under ;^75, three votes. 

D. If rated at ^75 and under ;^ioo, four votes. 

E. If rated at ;^ioo and under ;^i5o, five votes. 

F. If rated at ;£^i5o or upwards, six votes. 

And no rate-payer at any election of guardians for any one 
and the same district have more than six votes. 

All the compounding provisions of the act were 
abolished by the Reform Act of 1867. 

The old court of guardians had the management of 
lunatic paupers, who were maintained in an asylum in 
St. Augustine's. Great care appears to have been 
taken of them, and many of them were cured, more 
in proportion than in any other town. Nevertheless, 
the lunacy commissioners who visited the asylum re- 
ported that the place was unhealthy and unfit for 
lunatics, and recommended, or rather demanded that 
a new asylum should be built in a more healthy 
situation. This the old court of guardians considered 
to be quite unnecessary, and the whole matter was 
transferred to the council under the Lunatic Asylums 

Leading Evefits. 441 

Act of 1853, that body having the option of taking 
the matter in hand. The council, already over-loaded 
with municipal business, Board of Health business, 
drainage, paving, lighting, watering the roads, &c., 
actually undertook the management of the lunatic 
, paupers, in 1863. After many discussions a majority 
of the members decided that a new asylum was un- 
necessary, and refused to build one. The Lunacy 
Commissioners, however, made a strong report to the 
Secretary of State on the subject, who sent down an 
order to the council to build an asylum. Since then 
land has been purchased for its site, which is likely 
to cost from ;^30,ooo to ;t40,ooo ! 

1864. In 1864 the operatives made a very laud- 
able effort to improve their depressed condition by 
establishing an " Industrial Weavers* Co-operative 
Society," and held many meetings to promote that 
object. The Rev. C. Caldwell, and other gentlemen, 
advocated their cause. The society was supported 
by donations, and J. H. Gumey, Esq., advanced a 
sum which had been left by his father for the benefit 
of the weavers, the principal with interest amounting 


1866. The Norfolk Chamber of Agriculture was 
instituted, and frequent meetings of the members have 
been held at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich. The ob- 
jects of the chamber are to watch over all measures 
affecting agriculture both in and out of parliament, to 
co-operate with the General Chamber thereon, and to 

442 History of Norwich, 

take such action as may be for the benefit of agricul- 
turists. At the meetings of the members interesting 
questions have been discussed, and C S. Read, Esq., 
M.P. for East Norfolk, has generally presided, and 
given much valuable information. 

The most important event in this diocese of late 
years was the holding of a Church Congress in Nor- 
wich. A preliminary meeting to consider the proposal 
was held in the Clerical Rooms on Saturday, Decem- 
ber loth, 1864. When this was announced there was 
no little apprehension in Low Church circles, but the 
proposal was approved by most of the clei^, and 
they requested the Lord Bishop to preside over the 
Congress, which was held in October, 1865. After 
some delay his lordship reluctantly consented, and 
never before was there such a gathering of clei^ in the 
city. St. Andrew's Hall was filled every day for a 
week in October, 1865. High churchmen throughout 
the country made it £^ point of duty to attend the con- 
gress ; and the proceedings at the daily meetings were 
of a very interesting character to churchmen generally. 
Addresses were delivered every day on very important 
subjects ; and the bible history was ably vindicated 
against the objections of geologists and freethinkers. 
The church as an establishment was well defended by 
her champions. Three local newspapers were pub- 
lished daily, containing full reports of the proceedings. 
Dr. Pusey read a discourse of great interest in defence 
of the Old Testament narratives. 

Leading Events, 443 


The Royal Visit to Norwich. 

In November the Prince and Princess of Wales 
travelled from their seat at Sandringham to Cossey 
on a visit to Lord and Lady Stafford, who entertained 
their Royal Highnesses in a princely style. Their 
Royal Highnesses, during their sojourn at Cossey, 
visited this city, entering by way of the Dereham 
Road and St. Giles* Road, and passing under triumphal 
arches amid the acclamations of thousands of the 
citizens, it being a general holiday. They stopped 
at the Guildhall and received an address from the 
corporation. Then they proceeded to St. Andrew's 
Hall and attended a morning concert of the musical 
festival. Their Royal Highnesses, on leaving the 
hall, rode along the principal streets, through the 
Market Place, and up St. Stephen's to the Chapel 
Field, where they were joyously received by the 
Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows, and where they 
planted two trees in memory of their visit. Their 
Royal Highnesses thence proceeded to the new Drill 
Hall, which the Prince of Wales formally opened. 
After this ceremony their Royal Highnesses returned 
to Cossey Hall. They were accompanied by the 
Queen of Denmark (mother of the Princess of Wales), 
and by Prince Alfred (the Duke of Edinburgh). In 
the evening the city was brilliantly illuminated. 

1867. The Norwich Industrial Exhibition was 
held for six weeks, from August isth till October 20th, 

444 History of Norwich, 

1867, in St. Andrew's Hall. About I<XX) exhibitors 
sent specimens of works of art and useful articles^ 
which quite filled the hall. Hundreds of splendid 
paintings were lent for the occasion, and the show 
attracted many thousands of visitors. The industrial 
part of the exhibition was most creditable to the 
working men of Norwich, many of whom gained 
medals and money prizes for the best specimens of 
useful and ornamental articles. The mayor, F. E 
Watson, Esq., distributed the prizes on November 5th. 

1868. The great event of the year 1868 was the 
meeting of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science in the city. It commenced on 
August 19th and continued till the 26th. The old 
city was filled with distinguished visitors from all parts 
of Europe ; and the hotels, inns, and lodging houses 
were crowded with strangers. Non\^ich gave a hospit- 
able welcome to the Society. Dr. Hooker, who by 
association and descent is a Norfolk man, delivered the 
inaugural address. The various scientific sections held 
daily meetings at different public places. The pro- 
ceedings were reported in daily issues of the Norfolk 
News and the Norfolk Chronicle^ and also in the 
regular issues of the Norwich Mercury. 

On November the 9th, J. J. Colman, Esq., retired 
from the office of mayor, and E. K. Harvey, Esq., was 
elected as his successor; John Robison, Esq., was 
at the same time chosen as sheriff, as successor to 
Robert Fitch, Esq. As this is the last act of the 
council which we shall have to chronicle, we take 

Leading Events, 445 

the opportunity of adding a few words on the pre- 
sent state of the corporation. By the Municipal 
Reform Act all previous charters remain in force, 
except so far as they are rendered inconsistent 
with the provisions of that act, and the city is 
now divided into eight wards, and incorporated under 
the style or title of the "Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Burgesses of the city and borough of Norwich." The 
corporate body consists of sixteen aldermen and forty- 
eight councillors. The mayor is chosen annually on 
the 9th of November from the members of the council, 
who also on the same day choose the sheriff from the 
same body, or from persons qualified to vote for 
councillors, and who are eligible to the office of 
councillor. The members of the council are chosen 
annually on November ist by the inhabitant house- 
holders of three years' successive occupation, the 
freemen having been disfranchised for municipal pur- 
poses. The aldermen are elected by the council, and 
go out of office every three years. Committees of the 
council are appointed for conducting the business of the 
corporate body. The corporation is possessed of 
various estates, tolls, and dues, the profits and pro- 
ceeds of which are placed to the Borough Fund, under 
the act, and are applied towards the reduction of the 
rates levied on the citizens. Several large estates 
which were in the hands of the corporation for 
charitable purposes are now vested in charity trustees. 
The corporation still pay fee farm rents to the crown, 
over ;^ioo yearly. There is in trust of the corpora- 
tion an estate of 112 acres, situated outside of St 


iv^iLiiij^iiL lor inc despatch of busin 
the coniniittccs are held ahiiost 
C(»r[)()rate, as a Couneil and l^oar 
rates as we liave already said 
;£^45,ooo yearly. The Board of G 
same room, and raises by poor n 
yearly, making the local taxation j 
per annum. The City Police and ] 
direction of Mr. R. Hitchman, th 
occupy the basement of the Guil 
comprising nearly a hundred men, ; 
very efficient. 

This year an extensive schem 
an effective drainage of the cit> 
brief history of the proceedings y 
movement, and take the opportui 
time of giving some details as to the 
of the Local Board of Health. 

The New Drainage S 

y • - 

TAe New Drainage Scheme, 447 

steps should be taken to divert the sewage from the 
river, but this was more easily asked than done. The 
Board of Health, however, requested their then surveyor 
(Mr. Barry) to report on the subject ; and subse- 
quently Mr. Bazalgette visited Norwich and surveyed 
the stream. 

In the autumn of 1865 Mr. Baxalgette's report was 
received. It recommended a plan of conveying the 
sewage through main drains to Crown Point to irrigate 
the land there. The board discussed the report 
and appointed a sewerage committee, who entered 
into negotiations with R, J. H. Harvey, Esq., M.P., 
for irrigating part of his estate at Crown Point 
Mr. Harvey was to pay the cost of preparing the land 
for irrigation, and the annual cost of pumping ; but 
after a preliminary notice had been given of the in- 
tention of the board to apply for an act of parliament, 
the board determined not to proceed at that time 
with the application for the act 

The board subsequently entered into contract with 
Mr. Hope, of London, to sell htm the sewage for 
thirty years ; and the necessary works were ordered 
to be commenced on March 20th, 1866. The board, 
however, being pressed by a strong opposition to 
the scheme, in a few days afterwards rescinded the 
contract In consequence of this, proceedings in 
chancery were commenced, and an injunction was 
ultimately obtained. 

On May 3 1 st, 1 866. the board resolved, " That it 
is absolutely needful at once to take measures to 
divert the sewage from the river." Negotiations were 

. ....ii, at £i 5s, per acn.-, fur 
.SL-wa;^r of lliu cily tu be ci>i 
]nim|)ci] ovL-T tlic land. Many 
to tiiis measure, that the rent 
the experiment would prove a f< 
ever, to a resolution of the boai 
9th, in the same year, the 
necessary steps to obtain an at 
did obtain it in June, 1867. 

After the act was obtained, I 
engineer, by direction of the ct 
with the preparation of the nece 
specifications for the drainage wo 
the board the following contract; 
namely : — 

1. For the steam engines (with 

Clayton of Preston) 

2. For iron pipes {the Staveley ' 

Iron Company) 

3. For laying such pipes (Mr. Johr 

of Norwich) 

4. For the erw*^"- 


The New Drainage Scheme. 449 

Other sums are required for constructing drains, 
sewers, penstock chamber, and other subsidiary works, 
and the entire scheme is proposed to be carried out 
under the sanction of the act of Parliament, at the 
estimated cost of ;^6o,ooo. 

A very powerful opposition was raised against the 
scheme. A memorial, very numerously signed, was 
presented to the board of health against it. Public 
meetings were held at which the whole thing was con- 
demned as unnecessary, expensive, and likely to be 
a failure. Eventually, after much discussion, with a 
large minority against it, and in opposition to the 
opinions of the citizens expressed in common hall, the 
board resolved to carry out the scheme, and the works 
are now in progress. The general plan is to construct 
two main drains, one on each side of the river Wensum, 
to intercept the sewage and to cany it to Trowse, 
where a pumping station has been erected, and engines 
will be set to work to pump all the sewage over the 
land hired at Crown Point estate. 

The drainage expenditure, though so enormous, has 
been only a part of the expenditure of the board, upon 
which the duty falls of repairing all the streets and 
roads, lighting, watering, &c In the first half year of 
1867, the estimated expenditure was as follows: — 




Repairs to streets and roads 



Lighting the same 












Interest on loans 

- "^ZTfi 


Interest on bonds 


^^641 118 

450 History of Norwich, 

Twice that sum would be jQiifiii 3s. 4d. for the year, 
quite irrespective of the drainage works. 

The annual abstract of the accounts of the board 
issued in 1867, shows the receipts and payments 
from September ist, 1866, to September ist, 1867. 
The receipts amounted to ;f 15,873 3s. 6d., the. pay- 
ments to ;^i 5,323 1 8s. 2d., which sum included 
;f 1204 1 6s. 7d. sewage expenses, (chiefly law charges). 
Of course the receipts were derived almost entirely 
from the half-yearly rates. The expenditure included 
;f33i4 9s. 8d. for interest, the rest being for repairs to 
streets and roads, paving, lighting, sewerage works, 
salaries, &c. 

Mr. Morant, the present able engineer to the Board 
of Health, made his first annual report in May, 1867, 
and showed the expenditure in his department for the 
year preceding April 5th, 1867, to be as follows: — 

£ J- ^' 
Repairs to roads - - 2192 4 11 

Paving - - 870 o o 

Sewers - - - 576 2 2 

Urinals - - 86 13 o 


The engineer's next report was for the year ending 
April 5 th, 1868, and was divided into three heads. 
Repairs to roads ; repairs to paving ; and repairs to 
sewers. First with respect to roads. The cost of the 
macadamised roads had been ;£^2329 12s. 7d., being an 

Tlu New Drainage Scheme, 451 

increase of £>\Z7 7s. 8d. Some new roads had been 
taken by the board, and were repaired and cleansed, 
and all the roads were stated to be in good order. 
Second, with respect to paving. The expenditure had 
been ;f 1088 8s. lod., being an increase of £21% 13s., 
but a part of the Market Place had been newly paved 
with granite at a cost of £216, Third, with respect to 
the sewers. The cost of repairs, &c., had been 
£^\6 5s. 5d., being a decrease of ;f29 i6s. gd. 

Since 1850 the annals of the city consist chiefly of 
proceedings of the corporation as a council or Board 
of Health. Meetings have been held almost every 
fortnight for the transaction of public business, which 
has been largely increased. The proceedings of one 
single year, even if summarised, would fill a volume. 
The corporation has levied rates to the amount of 
;^45,ooo yearly! and the expenditure has been of 
equal amount. This has been caused by many public 
improvements, by widening old streets and opening 
new ones, and by the extension of the area of the 
Cattle Market. 

Mr. Morant gives the following account of the drain- 
age works : 

" The drainage of the city of Norwich flows into the river 
at numerous places, as is commonly the case; it is the 
object of the new works now in progress to intercept all the 
old sewers, to prevent the sewage flowing into the river, and 
to convey it to one point For this purpose several deep 
sewers are being constructed, varying in size from 18 inches 
in diameter to 6 feet high by 4 feet wide, of oval shape. 

'' The point selected for the pumping station is between 

452 History of Norwich, 

the railway at Trowse Station and the river Yare ; and a large 
piece of garden ground has been purchased, and engine and 
boilerhouses, workshops, &c., have been erected. Adjoining 
the engine-well are the grating tank and penstock chamber, and 
with these the principal main sewer communicates. This 
sewer, which is 6 ft by 4 ft., is intended to be carried under the 
bottom of Bracondale, Carrow Hill, and along King Street to 
near Messrs. Morgan's brewery, where it will receive the high- 
level sewer. This sewer will be from 30 ft. to 80 ft. below 
the surface of the ground. From this point it will be 
5 ft. 3 in. by 3 ft 6 in., and will be continued along King 
Street to the top of Rose Lane ; here one branch will turn 
off to the right under Rose Lane, beneath the bottom of the 
river near Foundry Bridge, under the towing path, to beyond 
Bishopgate Bridge, where it will unite with the present outfall 
sewer, and receive the whole of the drainage of the northern 
portion of the city. From Rose Lane the main will continue 
to Tombland, where a branch will extend to Bishopgate 
Bridge, with subsidiary branches to Quay Side, &c. ; it will 
then turn to the left under Prince's Street, St Andrew s 
Broad Street, Charing Cross, and Lower Westwick Street, 
and will unite with the present sewer emptying itself at the 
New Mills. 

" From the end of the principal main near Messrs. 
Morgan's in King Street the high-level sewer will commence 
with a flight of granite steps, about 30 feet in height, and 
continue 4 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft., gradually reducing, and carried 
under King Street to Rose Lane, across the Bull Ring, 
where it will be about 44 feet below the surface, under Opie 
Street, Bedford Street, Pottergate Street, West Pottergate 
Street, Mill Hill, Rose Valley, Mount Pleasant, Town Close 
Road to Ipswich Road, and will provide for the sewage of a 
very large district hitherto entirely undrained. 

The New Drainage Sc/ieme, 453 

" Self-acting Storm Overflows are provided at several con- 
venient points, and also numerous shafts for access to, and 
ventilation of, the sewers. At the pumping station at Trowse 
the sewage, after passing through gratings to prevent sticks 
and other substances from choking the pump valves, will 
pass into the engine-well, from whence it will be pumped 
through cast-iron pipes 20 inches in diameter, laid under the 
Kirby Road to near the cross road leading to the Bungay 
Road, and then be led in a main conduit across the centre 
of the land hired by the Board., and by means of small feeders 
to every part of the farm. 

" The steam engines will be three in number, and of the 
kind known as condensing rotative beam engines, with steam 
cylinders of 35 in. diameter and 6 ft stroke. Each engine 
will be provided with a high lift pump connected with the 
pumping main, and also with a low lift pump ; the object of 
the low lift pumps is to enable the rain water to be pumped 
into the overflow sewer in time of heavy storms, when the 
sewage is so greatly diluted as to be little more than soiled 
water ; the first scouring of the sewers will be pumped by 
the high lift pumps on to the land. 

"Four boilers, each 27 ft, 6 in. long and 7 ft. diameter, 
with two flues, are provided to produce the steam necessary 
for working the engines, and the chimney shaft to remove 
the smoke is 140 feet in height 

" The foundation of the engine had to be carried down 
29 feet below the surface, and much difficulty was found in 
getting in the walls on account of the force of the springs, 
the bottom being 22 feet below the water level in the adjoin- 
ing river, and from the same cause considerable difficulty is 
met with in driving the tunnels for the sewers. In Trowse 
for example, the soil proved to be running sand and mud, 
which was very troublesome to overcome; the same soil 

454 History of Norwich. 

exists under Rose Lane, Foundry Bridge, and Bishopgate 
Street, but nearly everymhere else the tunnels will be in the 

" Irrigation by sewage is no doubt quite in its infancy, but 
from the very satisfactory results arrived at at Barking, 
Croydon, Norwood, Edinburgh, Banbury, Rugby, and other 
places, there is good reason to hope that eventually the 
Hoard's Sewage Farm at Crown Point will prove a success." 



Borujiiih IRusical Jestiuak 

INCE the year 1824, musical festivals have been 
held in this city triennially, for the benefit, 
originally, of the hospitals, and lately of various 
other charities also, and for the promotion of musical 
science. These celebrations have been so successful 
on the whole that the total surplus receipts over the 
expenditure have amounted to more than ;^io,ooo. 
Works of the greatest composers have been well per- 
formed by the most eminent instrumentalists and 
vocalists of the day, and thereby a taste for music has 
been diffused throughout the city and county. 

The patrons of the festivals have included the 
Queen, the late Prince Consort, the Prince and 
Princess of Wales, the Duchess of Kent, the Duchess 
of Cambridge, the Duke of Cambridge, the Princess 
Mary of Cambridge, the Duke of Wellington, the 
Marquis of Lothian, the Earl of Roseberry, the Earl 
of Gosford, the Earl of Orford, Lord W. Powlett, 
Lord Stanley, Lord Walsingham, Lord Wodehouse, 
and many others of the nobility. The committee of 

456 History of Norwich, 

management have included the Lord Lieutenant of 
the county, the Earl of Albemarle, Lord Ranelagh, 
Lord Sondes, Lord Hastings, Lord Stafford, Lord 
Suffield, Lord Bayning, Hon. W. C. W. Coke, Hon. H. 
Walpole, Hon. W. Jerningham, Sir J. P. Boileau, Bart, 
Sir W. Foster, Bart., Sir S. Bignold, and others. 

The first musical performance for charitable pur- 
poses is said to have been on the anniversary of the 
Sons of the Clergy, in 1709; some fifteen years after 
which period, the meeting of the three choirs of 
Gloucester, Hereford, and Worcester, was instituted, 
those cathedral cities sending their choristers to each 
place in alternate years. These early music meetings, 
however, were held in the evening, and seem to have 
been limited to the performance of Anthems and the 
Te Deum. The first occasion of an Oratorio having 
been performed in the morning appears to have been 
at Hereford in 1759, when the Messiah was given. 

The Birmingham Triennial Festival was instituted 
about the year 1778, and that of Norwich, as now 
held in St. Andrew's Hall, in 1824, previously to 
which the Norwich festival consisted of the yearly 
performance of an Oratorio in the cathedral for the 
benefit of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. The 
performances of later years have been on a much 
grander scale. The festivals at Birmingham and 
Norwich now stand pre-eminent among provincial 
musical meetings, both for the excellence of the per- 
formances, and for the special interest given to the 
programmes by the first production of new or little- 
known works. Among other claims to honourable 


Nonxnch Musical Festivals, 457 

distinction in this respect, it is the chief and will be 
the lasting honour to Norwich that Dr. Spohr's sacred 
Oratorios were first performed here, his earliest pro- 
duction being conducted by himself in person before a 
large audience. 

The selection of works and music to be performed 
has always occupied a great deal of the time and 
attention of the committees, who have made it an 
object to bring out some new work at every festival. 
Most of Handel's best Oratorios have also been per- 
formed, including, of course, the "Messiah." which 
is never omitted from the programme. Haydn's 
'* Creation" and "Seasons" have also been frequently 
given, while Dr. Spohr's " Calvary," " Fall of Babylon," 
and "The Last Judgment," Dr. Bexficlds "Israel 
Restored," Pierson's "Jerusalem," and Molique's 
" Abraham " were first performed in this city. The 
programmes have also included Sterndale Bennett's 
" May Queen," which won all hearts ; Benedict's 
brilliant "Undine," and many other approved com- 

The committees, acting on the principle of securing 
the highest talent, have generally engaged the best 
vocal performers whose services were available. In 
proof of this we need only mention the names of the 
following female vocalists : — Madame Viardot Garcia, 
Madame Caradori Allan, Madame Clara Novello, 
Madame Sainton-Dolby, Madame Alboni, Madame 
Malibran, Madlle. Tietjens, Madame Patti, Madame 
Lemmens-Sherrington, Madame Rudersdorf, Miss 
Louisa Pyne, Madame Grisi; and among the male 

458 History of Norwich, 

vocal performers may be mentioned Signor Lablache» 
Herr Formes, Mr. Weiss, Signor Rubini, Signor Belletti, 
Signor Morini, Mr. Santley, Mr. Sims Reeves, Mr. 
Cummings, Signor Gassier, Signor Giuglini, Signor 
Mario, Mr. Pliillips, Mr. Lockey, &c, &c. 

The Norwich Choral Society, comprising 300 mem- 
bers having good voices, altos, tenors, and basses, has 
contributed greatly to the success of the festivals by 
the excellence of the choral performances, especially 
in grand Oratorios. The Choral Society was estab- 
lished in 1824, and had its origin in the establishment 
of the musical festivals, Professor Taylor being its 
chief promoter. In 1825 the Professor removed to 
London, and the direction of the society was confided 
to the Rev. R. F. Elwin. The management of affairs 
was entrusted to a committee of twelve, who were 
annually elected by ballot at a general meeting. The 
practice was held in the Old Library Room or in 
St. Andrew's Hall. The society has undergone many 
changes, but has always mantained its high reputation 
for choral performances A memoir of the late 
Professor Taylor, which appeared in the Norfolk 
News, contained some information as to the part he 
took in promoting the festivals. We give the follow- 
ing extracts : — 

" We learn from the Quarterly Musical Review, which was 
edited by the late Mr. R. M. Bacon, that at the Festival of 
1824, * Mr. Bacon, Mr. Taylor (late Professor Taylor), and 
Mr. Athow, were nominated as a committee for the entire 
conduct of the musical department.* Vol. VI. p. 434. The 
same authority says a little further on, * Mr. Taylor under- 

Norwich Musical Festivals, 459 

took the formation of a Choral Society, which he accom- 
plished with a degree of knowledge, skill, and perseverance, 
that cannot be too highly praised.* Again *The musical 
committee then decided on the following vocalists and 
instrumentalists, &c/ From all which it seems that the 
triumvirate managed the musical department. 

" Mr. Fitch once wrote to Mr. E. Taylor requesting him 
to state what share he had in the management of the first 
festival. The following was Mr. Taylor's reply, dated 
March 25th, 1847. 'When the Norwich Festival was re- 
solved on in 1823, I made the entire selection (morning and 
evening). I engaged every performer ; I selected the entire 
band, and I formed and trained the Choral Society. I have 
done the same for every subsequent festival (until the last, 
^845,) with the exception of having nothing to do with the 
Choral Society, or any of the country performers. Every 
Oratorio brought out (and a new one was always brought 
out) was translated and prepared for performance by me.* 
These were the following performed for the first time here. 
'The Last Judgment/ Spohr; 'The Crucifixion,* Spohr; 
'The Fall of Babylon,* Spohr; 'The Deluge,* Schneider; 
' Redemption,* Mozart ; ' The Death of Christ,* Graun ; ' The 
Christian's Prayer,* Spohr. 

" It will be seen by the above how little Mr. E. Taylor 
left for anybody else to do. Mr. Taylor's two associates, 
like the wings on a stage sylph, were more for ornament 
than use. His statement is confirmed by the Musiail 
Review^ which says, 'The Hospital Board presented to 
Mr. Taylor a piece of plate, of fifty guineas value, for his 
services in raising and instructing the Choral Society, and 
for his general assistance.*** 

The memoir before mentioned further states : — 

460 History of Norwich, 

" At the Nonvich Festival of 1830, Mr. Taylor introduced 
Spohr's Oratorio of* The Last Judgment' for the first time 
into this country, the words being translated and adapted to 
the music by Mr. Taylor himself. This was followed at 
subsequent festivals by other oratorios of the same composer, 
which for originality, richness, and beauty, are unrivalled in 
their way. After the performance of * The Last Judgment,' 
Mr. Taylor became personally acquainted with Spohr, and 
one day, getting an invitation from Mendelssohn to visit him 
and his family at Dusseldorf on the Rhine, where Spohr 
then was, the invitation was accepted, and thus Mr. Taylor 
first became known to the illustrious composer, with whom 
he formed a friendship which lasted as long as they both 

**At the Norwich Festival of 1836, the expenses exceeded 
the receipts by ;£^23i 5 s. lod. We give an extract from a 
letter, written in the following year by Mr. Taylor to 
Mr. Henry Browne, which will be read with pain, because it 
shows that Mr. Taylor received far other treatment than he 
deserved at the hands of the committee of management. 
Mr. Taylor said, * I hear of the discord engendered by the 
winding up of the Festival with much concern, and which 
seems to threaten the existence of future ones. How it 
happened that the last terminated so unprofitably has always 
been a mystery to me. I think it ought not.'' 

And Mr. Taylor goes on to state the amount of 
work which he himself did for nothing. 

All the festivals had been hitherto successful. The 
first, in 1824, produced a surplus of £2y^ to the 
Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. The second, in 1827, 
afforded that institution £16^2 ; the third, in 1830, 
yielded ;^535 to the hospital ; the fourth, in 1833^ was 

Norwich Musical Festivals. 461 

also successful; but in 1836 the expenses of the 
Festival, as has been shown, exceeded the receipts by 
;f23i, and a general board of the hospital resolved 
that no part of the funds belonging to the institution 
should be used for any purpose connected with the 

At the Sixth Musical Festival, held on the 17th, 
1 8th, 19th, and 20th September, 1839, Dr. Spohr 
conducted his own new Oratorio of " Calvary," before a 
very large audience, in St. Andrew's Hall. The per- 
formance was very grand, and produced a thrilling 
effect on the audience. The selection of such a sub- 
ject as the Crucifixion for an Oratorio drew forth a 
good deal of criticism, but there could be no doubt of 
the musical merits of the composition. 

After the performance of " The Crucifixion," Spohr 
and Mr. Taylor were travelling outside the coach to 
London, when the former expressed a wish to write 
another oratorio for Norwich, but said that he was at 
a loss for a subject. Mr. Taylor then suggested The 
Fall of Babylon. This led to a chat about the effects 
which might be introduced in the way of contrast, &c., 
and ultimately Spohr promised to write the oratorio 
if Taylor on his part would write the words. The 
bargain was struck, and the result was a work which 
will live to the end of time. 

The Festival of 1842 was by far the most brilliant 
that had been held. Of course Dr. Spohr's " Fall of 
Babylon " was the chief attraction. It was performed 
in the presence of the largest and most fashionable 
audience ever seen in St Andrew's Hall. Numbers 

462 History of Norwich. 

of the gentry could not obtain admission. People 
stood under the long galleries, and along the passages, 
and in every corner of the building. The performance 
was a splendid success, and greatly added to the fame 
of the composer. Professor Taylor translated the 
Libretto, and was the conductor of the Oratorio. On 
the following day he conducted the performance of 
Handel's Oratorio of " Samson," to which he added 
selections from Handel's works. This caused a good 
deal of adverse criticism, but it was not without 
precedent. On Friday morning the Professor con- 
ducted a performance of Handel's ** Messiah." 

The Festival of 1845 commenced on Tuesday even- 
ing, September i6th, and continued on the 17th, i8th, 
and 19th. The programme included miscellaneous 
concerts on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday 
evenings ; a selection of sacred music, and Haydn's 
Oratorio "The Seasons," on Wednesday morning; 
another selection of sacred music, and Spohr's Oratorio 
" Calvary," on Thursday morning ; and Handel's 
sacred Oratorio ** Messiah," with additional accom- 
paniments by Mozart, on Friday morning. All the 
concerts were well attended. The principal vocalists 
were Madame Grisi, Miss Dolby, Madame Caradori 
Allan, Miss Poole, Signor Mario, Signor F. Lablache, 
Mr. Hobbs, Mr. Machin, Mr. Hawkins, Mr. Bradbury, 
and Herr Staudigl. Mr. Benedict was conductor; 
Mr. J. Hill, chorus master ; Mr. F. Cooke, leader of 
the band ; Mr. Turle, organist. The chorus comprised 
the usual number of voices. The band included the 
best instrumentalists in England, and the festival was 
very successful. 

Norwich Musical Festivals, 463 

The Festival of 1848 commenced on Tuesday, 
September 12th, with a miscellaneous concert, followed 
by similar concerts on Wednesday and Thursday 
evenings. On Wednesday morning the programme 
comprised a sacred Cantata, by L. Spohr, "The 
Christian's Prayer," and Haydn's Oratorio " Creation." 
On Thursday morning Mendelssohn's Oratorio of 
" Elijah " was performed. On Friday morning "David 
Penitent," a sacred Cantata by Mozart, was given, 
followed by Handel's " Israel in Egypt," one of the 
best of his numerous productions. The principal 
vocalists were Madame Castellan, Madame Alboni, 
Madame Viardot Garcia, Miss A. Williams, Miss 
M. Williams ; Signor Lablache, basso ; Mr. Sims 
Reeves, tenor ; Mr. H. Phillips, basso ; Mr. Whitworth, 
tenor; Mr. Lockey, tenor. Mr. Benedict was con- 
ductor ; Mr. H. Blagrove, leader of the band ; Mr. 
Harcourt, organist. Professor Taylor translated " The 
Christian's Prayer" for this occasion. Mr. J. F. Hill 
was chorus master. 

In September, 1852, the Festival again comprised 
grand miscellaneous concerts on the Tuesday, Wednes- 
day, and Thursday evenings, which concerts were well 
attended. On the first evening, Mrs. Fanny Kemble 
read the "Midsummer's Night's Dream," but the reading 
was a failure, as she could only be heard a short dis- 
tance from the orchestra. On the Wednesday morning 
a new Oratorio, " Israel Restored," by Dr. Bexfield, 
was performed for the first time at a festival. 
On Thursday morning Mr. H. H. Pierson's Oratorio, 
"Jerusalem," was performed for the first time, and 

464 History of Norwich, 

occupied nearly four hours. On Friday morning the 
"Messiah" was performed as usual. The principal 
vocalists were Miss Louisa Pyne, Miss Alleyne, Miss 
Dolby, Madame Viardot Garcia, Madame Fiorentini, 
Signor Gardoni, Signor Belletti, Mr. Weiss, Mr. Lockey, 
Herr Formes, Mr. Sims Reeves. Mr. Benedict was 
conductor; Mr. H. Blagrove, leader of the band in the 
morning performances, and Mons. Sainton in the 
evening performances ; Mr. J. F. Hill, chorus master. 
At the close of the performance on the Wednesday 
morning (September 22nd), a short selection from 
Handel's Oratorio of ** Samson " was given as a tribute 
of respect to the memory of the late Duke of 
Wellington. Madame V. Garcia sung the solo— 

" Ye sons of Israel, now lament, 
Your spear is broke, your bow unbent. 

Your glorj'^s fled. 

Among the dead. 
Our hero lies, 
For ever closed his eyes." 

The " Dead March " was played and the chorus sung — 

" Glorious hero, may thy grave 
Peace and honour ever have ; 
After all thy pains and woes, 
Rest eternal, sweet repose.'* 

The Festival in September, 1854, again comprised 
miscellaneous concerts in the evenings, and Oratorios 
in the mornings. On Tuesday morning, September 
1 2th, the programme included Rossini's "Stabat 
Mater,*' Meyerbeer's ''91st Psalm," and a selection of 
sacred music. On Wednesday morning Beethoven's 

Norwich Musical Festivals, 465 

Service in C, and Haydn's " Creation " were brilliantly 
performed. On Thursday morning Mendelssohn's 
" Elijah " attracted a very large audience. On Friday 
morning the ** Messiah " was given, with the additional 
accompaniments by Mozart The principal vocalists 
were Madame Clara Novello, Madame Angelina Bosio, 
Madame Castellan, Madame Weiss, Miss Dolby, 
Mr. Sims Reeves, Signor Gardoni, Herr Reichardt, 
Signor Lablache, Signor Belletti, and Mr. Weiss. 
Mr. Benedict was conductor; Mons. Sainton and 
Mr. H. Blagrove, instrumental solo performers ; Herr 
Hausman, violoncello; Mr. J. F. Hill, chorus master. 
On Tuesday evening the concert included a descriptive 
and characteristic Cantata, called " Tam o' Shanter," 
the words by Burns and the music by Macfarren. It 
consisted of a solo and chorus, which were sung with 
great applause. Indeed, nothing so comic and lively 
had ever been heard before at any festival. 

Notwithstanding all the attractions of this festival 
it proved a failure in a financial point of view, and it 
was feared that these triennial musical meetings would 
no longer answer, but their promoters determined not 
to give them up. A committee was appointed ; efforts 
were made to secure by all proper means success in 
future ; and several of the county nobility joined as 
members of the committee. That this determination 
was made on good grounds, was fully proved by the 
success of the three subsequent festivals of 1857, i860, 
and 1863, the surplus from which was, in round num- 
bers, severally, £^2^y ;^9i6, and ;^I22I. From these 
sums no less than £2000 were distributed amongst the 

466 History of Norwich. 

The Festival of 1857 commenced on Tuesday 
evening, September 15th, with a miscellaneous concert, 
and similar concerts were given on Wednesday and 
Thursday evenings. On Wednesday morning the 
programme comprised a sacred Cantata by Louis 
Spohr, "God Thou art Great," a Hymn of Praise 
(Lobgesang) by Mendelssohn, and the " Requiem " of 
Mozart, his latest work. On Thursday morning 
Beethoven's Sacred Cantata, ** The Mount of Olives," 
and Haydn's Oratorio, " The Seasons" were performed. 
The '* Messiah " was given on Friday morning, and 
concluded the festival. The principal vocalists were 
Madame Clara Novello, Madlle. Leonhardi, Madame 
Weiss, Mrs. Lockey, Madlle. Piccolomini, Signor 
Gardoni, Signor Giuglini, Signor Belletti, Mr. Lockey, 
Mr. Miranda, and Mr. Weiss. Mr. Benedict was con- 
ductor ; Mons. Sainton, H. Blagrove, and Herr 
Hausman, were instrumental solo performers ; Mr. 
J. F. Hill was chorus master. 

The Festival of i860 was under ver>' distinguished 
patronage and eminently successful. The programme 
included Haydn's "Creation," Handel's "Messiah," 
Dr. Spohr's "Last Judgment," Herr Molique's "Abra- 
ham," and Handel's " Dettingen Te Deum," all sacred 
music of the highest class, assigned to the morning 
performances. The evening concerts comprised Gluck's 
" Armida," Professor Sterndale Bennett's Pastoral, "The 
May Queen," Benedict's Cantata, "Undine," besides 
selections from the most popular operas, part songs, 
madrigals, symphonies, and overtures, all of which 
were admirably rendered and highly applauded. 

Norwich Musical Festivals, 467 

The choice of so large a work as Hadyn's " Creation," 
one of the finest of his productions, on the first evening, 
was considered desirable, as it gave full employment 
at once for the principal vocalists, the chorus, and the 
band. As many persons could not attend in the 
morning, an oratorio in the evening gave them an 
opportunity of hearing a great work well performed, 
and the lovers of sacred music readily seized the 
opportunity presented to them of attending the per- 
formance, which was never more perfect. No band 
could have possibly played it more exquisitely, no 
chorus could have sung it more honestly or earnestly, 
and the solos were beyond all praise. 

Wednesday morning was assigned to performances 
of a sacred and very solemn character ; Handel's 
" Dettingen Te Deum," and Spohr's " Last Judgment." 
Handel composed five Te Deums, but the finest is 
that written in 1743, in celebration of the victory at 
Dettingen, then thought a great event The victory 
was rather unexpected, and as George H. commanded 
in person, the rejoicings in England were very general. 
Horace Walpole wrote, " We are all mad ; drums, 
trumpets, bumpers, bonfires ! The mob are wild, and 
cry * Long live King George and the Duke of Cumber- 
land!'" After the **Te Deum," there was a short 
interval preceding the performance of Dr. Spohr's 
great work "Die Letzten Dinge" (The Last Things), 
the earliest of the composer's three oratorios. In 
1825 it was brought over from Germany by Professor 
Taylor, and it was first performed before an English 
audience at the Norwich Festival on September 24th, 

468 History of Norwich, 

1830, under the title of '* The Last Judgment," which 
does not convey a very correct idea of the work. It 
was received with the greatest possible favour, like all 
other works of the same master, in this city. The 
grand theme is set forth in a series of paraphrases of 
scripture texts referring to the final consummation of 
all things. 

The novelties at this festival were Professor Stemdale 
Bennett's Pastoral '* The May Queen," and Benedict's 
brilliant Cantata, " Undine," both of which were per- 
formed with great success. The Pastoral was produced 
with complete success at the Leeds Musical Festival, 
in September, 1858. Mr. Chorley composed the 
poem, and he deserves some credit for the verses, as 
well as for the dramatic character of the piece. The 
overture is a beautiful composition, and the whol^ 
work displays a marvellous combination of simplicity 
and ingenuity. Herr Molique's new Oratorio, "Abra- 
ham," was performed here for the first time, and 
conducted by the composer, who at the close was 
greatly applauded. The words are taken from the 
Old Testament, and the characters personated are 
Abraham, Sarah, Hagar, Isaac, Angel, and Messenger, 
who in turn depict the different scenes in the life of 
the patriarch. He is exhibited as a saint, as a warrior, 
and as a great sufferer. Full scope is given for the 
display of human passion in almost every phase, from 
triumphant joy to a sorrow that borders on despair. 
The incidents are picturesque, striking, and varied, 
calling all the powers of the orchestra into play. The 
principal vocalists were Madame Clara Novello, (her 

Norwich Musical Festivals, 469 

last appearance in Norwich,) Madame Weiss, Miss 
Palmer, Madame Boi^hi Mamo, Madlle. Tietjens, 
Signer Giuglini, Signer Belletti, Mr. Sims Reeves, 
Mr. Wilbye Cooper, Mr. Santley, Mr. Weiss. Instru- 
mental solo performers, Miss Arabella Goddard, piano ; 
Mr. Sainton, Mr. H. Blagrove, Signor Fiatti, violoncello ; 
Mr. Benedict, conductor; Mr. J. F. Hill, chorus 

The Festival of 1863 commenced on Monday 
evening, September 14th, with a performance of 
Handel's grand Oratorio, "Judas Maccabaeus," which 
was eminently successful. The large audience seemed 
to be carried away by the martial music On the 
Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday evenings, mis- 
cellaneous concerts were given. On Wednesday 
morning Mr. Silas conducted a performance of his 
own sacred drama, " Joash," with success. This was 
followed by a " Scene at the Gates of Nain," from the 
Oratorio " Immanucl," by Henry Leslie ; also selec- 
tions from the Stabat Maters of Haydn, Pergolesi, and 
Rossini, and a selection of sacred music "Elijah" was 
performed on Thursday morning, and the "Messiah" 
on Friday morning. Another novelty at this festival 
was a Cantata, entitled " Richard Coeur De Leon," 
composed expressly for the occasion, and performed 
on Thursday evening with immense applause. This 
Cantata embodied the romantic story of the warrior 
king in captivity, being discovered by the minstrel 
Blondel, who at last caused the liberation of the 
monarch. The principal vocalists were Madlle. Tietjens, 
Madame Lemmens Sherrington, Madame Weiss, Miss 

470 History of Norwich, 

Wilkinson, Miss Palmer, Madlle. Trebelli, (her first 
appearance in Norwich,) Mr. Sims Reeves, Mr. Montem 
Smith, Mr. Santley, Mr. Weiss, Signor Bettini, (his 
first appearance here,) Signor Bossi, (his first appear- 
ance here). Mr. Benedict was conductor. Instrumen- 
tal soloists, M. Paque, violoncello ; Mr. H. Blagrove 
and Mr. Sainton, violins. Mr. J. F. Hill, chorus 

The Festival of 1866 was deferred till November, 
very unwisely, in anticipation of a visit of the Prince 
and Princess of Wales on the occasion. This caused 
a lai^er attendance on the day their Royal Highnesses 
were expected, and a smaller on all the other days. 
The arrangements for the visit were also injudicious, 
to say the least. Their Royal Highnesses should at 
once have proceeded to the Wednesday morning's 
performance, but they were detained at the Guildhall 
to hear an address from the corporation, and then they 
were allowed to go to St. Andrew's Hall in the middle 
of a performance, which was greatly interrupted. 
Their Royal Highnesses, therefore, could not possibly 
have appreciated Costa's Oratorio from hearing only 
half of it. The festivals have been always patronized 
by royalty, and by the nobility, gentry, and clergy, 
and have never failed to attract the county families ; 
but this year (1866) was the first in which members 
of the royal family were actually present 

The general programme for 1866 when issued, pre- 
sented some points of peculiar attraction, including 
" Israel in Egypt," by Handel, on Monday evening ; 
an Anthem by Dr. Spohr, and the Oratorio of 

Norwich Musical Festivals. 471 

" Naaman/' by Costa, on Wednesday morning ; " St. 
Cecilia," a new Cantata by Benedict, selections from 
the Passion Music of Handel, and first and second 
parts of the " Creation," by Haydn, on Thursday 
morning; and the "Messiah" on Friday morning. 
Most lovers of sacred music would have preferred 
Haydn's entire Oratorio to the sombre Passion Music 
The committee, acting on the principle' of securing 
the highest talent, made engagements with Madlle. 
Tietjens, Madame Rudersdorff, Miss Edith Wynne, 
Madame De Meric Lablache, Madlle. Anna Drasdil, 
three of them appearing for the first time in this city ; 
also with Mr. Sims Reeves, Mr. Cummings, Signor 
Morini, Mr. Santley, Mr. Weiss, and Signor Gassier, 
all well-known vocalists. The instrumentalists were 
all first-class performers. The choral body was much 
improved and strengthened, and included 62 of the 
best trebles ever selected, 24 contraltos, 35 altos, 
59 tenors, and 67 basses. 

Handel's Oratorio, " Israel in Egypt," was splendidly 
performed on the Monday evening ; the solos were in 
the hands of first-class vocalists, but the absence of 
Mr. Sims Reeves was a disappointment. Mr. George 
Macfarren had improved the instrumentation by the 
addition of parts to the original score. He had no 
occasion to apologize for doing for " Israel," what 
many musicians have done for other productions. It 
is not presumptuous to have recourse to the resources 
of more modern instrumentation, so long as the charac- 
ter of the work is not altered. 

On Wednesday morning, as we have said, the 

472 History of Norwich, 

Prince and Princess of Wales were present The per- 
formances commenced with Dr. Spohr's Anthem ** O 
blessed, for ever blessed, are they," the first time of 
performance, and it was admirably rendered. Mr. 
Costa then conducted a splendid performance of his 
own Oratorio of *' Naaman," founded on a part of 
Old Testament histor>', relating to the restoration from 
death of the son of the Shunamite by the prophet 
Elisha ; a subject not very well adapted for musical 
purposes. All Oratorios are cast more or less in the 
Handclian mould, but Mr. Costa has introduced more 
of the secular clement than usual. 

On Thursday morning the hall was well filled by a 
large audience desirous of hearing a performance of 
Handel's Passion Music, and Mr. Benedicts new work, 
** St. Cecilia." As to the former, we may state that 
there are two works of Handel entitled ''Passion 
Music," one produced, it is believed, in 1704, the other 
in 1 716. Dr. Chrysandcr caused the publication of 
both these works by the Leipzig Handel Society in 
i860 and 1863. It is strange that these two produc- 
tions should have slumbered so long unheard and 
unknown till the selection was performed in Norwich. 
Interesting as the Passion Music might be, the all- 
important event of this morning's concert was, the 
production of Mr. Benedict's new Cantata. "St 
Cecilia" has long been a favourite subject with both 
poets and composers. Among the former, Fletcher, 
Dr>'den, Pope, Addison, Congreve, and a host of versi- 
fiers, have contributed Odes in honour of the patroness 
of music Many of these Odes are still in existence. 

Norwich Musical Festivals, 473 

with their accompanying music, of various degrees of 
merit; the principal being those by Purcell and 
HandeL These are great names, but the construction 
of the older works is entirely different from the Cantata 
now performed for the first time with great applause. 
After a short interval the concert was continued with 
the ** Creation," which could not have been better per- 
formed or with a stronger cast 

Friday morning has been always assigned to the 
performance of the " Messiah," and to hear it every 
seat in the hall was this time occupied, and numbers 
could not obtain admission. We have heard this 
sublime Oratorio scores of times, in London and in 
many large towns, and here at every festival since 
1840, but we never heard it rendered with greater 
effect than the last time (in 1866). 

Norwich has in many ways obtained credit and 
advantage from the Musical Festivals. Their high 
character has placed the city in a very eminent 
position in the musical world, and many of the citizens 
cherish a just pride in endeavouring to qualify them- 
selves for the maintenance of that degree of excellence 
which the festivals enable them to exhibit in the 
choral performances, which the best judges have pro- 
nounced second to none in the kingdom. On the 
whole the festivals have contributed largely to the funds 
of important charities, and will no doubt continue to 
do so if conducted with judgment and economy. 
They have always attracted large numbers of visitors 
to the old city, for the same facilities which make it 
easy for us to go elsewhere to hear good music, enable 


History of 1 

others to come hither for the same purpose. Many 
pcryjns uill always come from distant places to hear 
a well-trained Norwich chorus And besides all this, 
not the least of the benefits derived from these 
triennial meetings, is that they encourage an inter- 
change of good feeling and hospitality between the 
city and county, and afford to those who enjoy music 
such an amount of pleasure as must contribute, at 
least for a time, to cheerfulness and happiness in their 
social intercourse with their fellow creatures. 


Professor Taylor. 

tROFESSOR TAYLOR claims the first place in 
our notices of the eminent citizens of this period, 
as a politician, a musician, and a public man. 
After his death a memoir of him appeared in the 
Norfolk News of March 28th, and April 4th, 1863, 
and from it we derive the following details : — 

" Mr. Edward Taylor was the great grandson of the 
celebrated Dr. John Taylor, a man not less beloved for the 
kindliness of his disposition, than he w^as venerated for his 
vast learning. Dr. Taylor was bom at Lancaster in the 
year 1694, and came to Norwich (according to Mr. Edward 
Taylor's account) in 1733. Here he remained till 1757, and 
here it was that he produced many of his works, amongst 
others his famous Hebrew Concordance, which was published 
in two large volumes, folio, and was the labour of fourteen 
years. Many copies of the frontispiece (a fine portrait 
engraved by Houbraken) are still extant in this city. Dr. 
Taylor must have been fond of music, and must also have 
made it a personal study. This we infer, less firom his 

I . 


» < 

...yiiiciins many of tlic finest melodies w 
'I'he inslriK lions were intended to enal 
at si^^lit. 

''When Dr. Taylor quitted Norwich, 
son, Richard, remained, and carried oi 

I j manufacturer in St. George Colegate. 

I I father of the subject of this memoir, was 

1750. In 1773, he entered into the 1 
maker, in partnership with his broth 
where their father had lived. If not a 
John had the reputation of being at leas 
and he was peculiarly happy in writing woi 
"In April, 1777, Mr. John Taylor mam 
youngest daughter of Mr. John Cook oi 
Edward Taylor was bom on the 22nd of 
the parish of St. George Colegate. 
^ " In his boyish days, Edward Taylor wa 

the usual quantity of Greek and Latin, ai 
after retained the flavour of the wine. But 
was his chief delight When arrived at ma 
and well formed; he had a fair, though 
pallid complexion, a penetrating eye, and 
which sounded in 


Eminent Citizens of the 19/A Century. 477 

ancestors, whose religious and political opinions he inherited. 
Hence, he was a Dissenter of the Unitarian School, and 
what was then called a Radical Reformer. Deeming himself 
to be in the right, he of course considered all those who 
differed from him to be in the wrong. But being himself 
consistent, he knew how to respect consistency in others. 
His hostility was confined to men's doctrines and measures ; 
it was never extended to their persons. In a word, he was 
generous, manly, and sincere, and he therefore enjoyed the 
friendship of good and true men, whatever might be their 
party or creed. Mr. Taylor married, in 1808, Deborah, 
daughter of Mr. William Newson, of Stump Cross, in this 
city, a man of upright and honourable character, and a 
successful tradesman." 

The memoir contains a sketch of Mr. Taylor's 
political doings, which we shall give in another part 
of this work, and it then proceeds : — 

" On the 19th January, 1824, he had the honour of dining 
with the Duke of Sussex, at Kensington Palace. The next 
year, 1825, terminated Mr. Taylor's residence in his native 
city, though to the end of his life he continued to take a 
warm interest in whatever concerned its welfare. On the 
2ist of May, having already made arrangements for giving 
up his business in Norwich, he went up to London to pre- 
pare for making it his future abode. On the 5 th of August, 
he served on the Norwich grand jury for the last time, and 
the next day took his final departure. On the 15th, he 
joined his brother Philip and his cousin John Martineau in 
their business, as civil engineers, having hired a house for 
that purpose in York Place, City Road. 

"On the 3rd of January, 1826, the year afler Mr. Taylor 
finally left the city for London, he came down to a dinner 

4/8 History of Norwich. 

which was given at the Rampant Horse Hotel in his honour. 
The original intention had been to place his portrait in 
St. Andrew^s Hall, and Sir James Smith had actually written 
some lines to be placed under it, beginning — 

' Avaunty ye base, approach ye wise and good. 
Thus in this hall once Edward Taylor stood/ 

But that idea was abandoned, and a presentation of a service 
of plate was determined upon by his fellow-citizens. The 
proposition originated with the strongest of his political 
antagonists in the Corporation. The plate was given at 
this dinner at the Rampant Horse, the chairman being 
Henry Francis, Esq., against whom Mr. Taylor had entered 
the lists in the se\'erest contest ever known in the Mancroft 
Ward. This rendered the compliment greater, 

" Mr. Edward Taylor's first music master was the Rev. 
Charles Smyth, a man who was equally remarkable for his 
eccentricity and musical learning. Mr. Taylor always spoke 
with great respect of Mr. Smyth's musical knowledge. How 
long the lessons continued we have no means of ascertaining, 
but we afterwards find Taylor gaining instruction with the 
Cathedral boys under Dr. Beckwith at the music room in the 
Cathedral. He also had lessons in the vestry room of the 
Octagon Chapel ; and he acquired some skill upon the flute 
and oboe from Mr. Fish. But we believe that his musical 
education was throughout gratuitously bestowed, out of re- 
spect to himself and his family. Doubtless he was greatly 
indebted for his extensive knowledge of the art, as well as 
of the German and Italian languages, to his own perseverance 
in solitary study." 

The author of the memoir, after giving a sketch of the 
" Hall Concert", notices Mr. Taylor's labours on behalf 

Eminent Citizens of the igtA Century. 479 

of the Musical Festivals in this city, as already related 
in our brief account of those celebrations. Mr. Taylor 
was one of their chief promoters, and he worked hard 
to make them successful. In reference to Mr. Taylor's 
career in London, the author of the memoir says, — 

" It has been before stated that on the 15th August, 1825, 
Mr. Taylor entered upon a new course of life, in London, in 
connection with his brother Philip and Mr. John Martineau, 
who were civil engineers. Had the business proved lucrative, 
there is no reason to suppose that Mr. Taylor would have 
left it It is certain that when he went to live in London, 
nothing was further from his thoughts than that he would 
ever embrace music as a profession. 

"Mr. Taylor began anew the battle of life by taking 
private pupils. From the first moment of his entering the 
musical profession, his classical attainments, his skill as a 
translator, his superior mental powers, and his extensive 
musical research, were honestly and fully recognized. On 
the 29th March, 1827, Mr. Taylor made his first appearance 
before a London audience as a public singer. His debOt 
was at Covent Garden, at the Oratorios under the manage- 
ment of Sir H. R. Bishop. The song he chose was * The 
Battle of Hohenlinden," composed by C. Smith, and the 
reception he received fi^om a very crowded audience 'was ex- 
ceedingly favourable." 

After quoting some very eulogistic notices of 
Mr. Taylor's subsequent performances, the writer of 
the memoir continues : — 

"In this year (1828) was published 'Airs of the Rhine,* 
accompaniments by William Horsley, Mus. Bac., Oxon, the 
poetry translated by Edward Taylor. Of Mr. Taylor's brief 

480 History of Norwich, 

sketch of German music prefixed to this collection, the 
Quarterly Musical Review (conducted by Mr. R. M. Bacon) 
says, 'It is so agreeably written, and contains so many 
authentic and interesting particulars, that we must do him 
the justice to give it a place at length. It will speak more 
for the publication than anything we can say to interest the 

**In 1837, Mr. Taylor was elected Gresham Professor of 
Music. The place had been for 200 years a mere sinecure, 
generally held by persons totally ignorant of music, but he 
did much to render it useful to the art In 1838 he 
published his ' Three Inaugural Lectures,* which he dedicated 
to the Trustees of Gresham College. He was not content 
with reading his lectures, however good. He illustrated 
them by having some compositions of the master who might 
be under discussion, well sung in parts by a competent choir. 
Amateurs of distinction and professional men lent their aid, 
and this attracted large audiences to the theatre. 

"In 1843, Professor Taylor, who had been musical critic 
for the Spectator for fourteen years, retired from that depart- 
ment, and he received a very complimentary letter from 
Mr. Rintoul the editor, who said, * I can bear my willing 
testimony to the high aims, the great ability, the persevering 
zeal, and undeviating punctuality with which you have up- 
held the cause of good music in my journal for the long 
period of fourteen years. I believe that a selection from 
your writings in the Spectator would comprise a body of the 
soundest and best musical criticism in the language ; and 
when you retire, I know not that any second man in England 
is qualified to sustain the elevated standard that you have 
raised, &c.' High praise indeed, but well deserved. 

" In the year 1 845, Professor Taylor published, in the 
British and Foreign Ranew, an article headed * The English 


Eminent Citizens of the igtA Cetitury. 481 

Cathedral Service ; its Glory, its Decline, and its Designed 
Extinction.' This was subsequently published by permission 
of the proprietor in the form of a thin octavo volume. It 
was a masterly defence of the musical services of ow 
Cathedrals, and of the choirs, against the spoliation of the 
deans and chapters, which had been silently and surely going 
on ever since the time of Queen Elizabeth. It made a 
strong sensation at the time, and even now, whoever would 
strike a blow for the cause of Cathedral music, (which in 
Professor Taylor's opinion is the salt which can alone save 
the musical taste of the people from corruption) will find 
the best weapons ready to his hand contained in this little 

" Professor Taylor, who had been long a widower, died 
(March 12th, 1863,) with the utmost tranquillity, at his house 
at Brentwood. He had three children, all of whom survive 
him ; a son, Mr. John Edward Taylor, who was with him 
in his last moments, and two daughters, one of whom is 
married and lives in Germany, her sister living with her. 

"We believe that Mr. Taylor left injunctions that his 
manuscripts should not be published, which is surely to be 
regretted. If his rare and valuable musical library, the 
acquisition of which was the labour of a life, should be sold, 
we trust that it will not go piecemeal to the hoards of 
individual collectors, but be bought for the use of Gresham 
College and its future musical professors." 

The compiler of this history had some long inter- 
views with Professor Taylor when he last visited 
Norwich in 1857, and he then stated that he had large 
collections of music, and a large number of lectures on 
the music of every period. He delivered a very 
splendid lecture on the music of the Elizabethan 

482 History of Norwich. 

age, in aid of the funds of the Free Library, before a 
large audience, in the Lecture Hall, St Andrew's. 

The Rev. Mark IVi/is. 

The Rev. Mark Wilks, who lived in the last, and in 
the early part of the present century, was a very re- 
markable character as a politician and a preacher. 
From his bic^raphy, written by his daughter and 
published in 1 82 1, we derive the following particulars. 
He was the son of a subordinate officer in the army, 
and was born at Gibraltar on February 5th, 1748. 
When his father and family returned to England they 
lived at Birmingham, where young Mark was brought 
up to a trade, and where he became an itinerant 
Baptist preacher, without any chapel. The Countess 
of Huntingdon heard of his exertions, and invited him 
to her college at Trevecca, to which he removed in 
177s, and studied there for a year. In 1776 the 
Countess appointed him to be minister of the Taber- 
nacle in Norwich, which became the scene of his most 
continued and concentrated exertions. The first 
sermon he preached here was on a Sunday evening 
to a crowded congregation, and he made a great im- 
pression. He preached in the same pulpit that 
Whitfield once occupied, and the simplicity of the new 
minister's appearance, and the negligence of his ex- 
terior, surpassed that of the apostle of Calvinism. 
His long hair fell carelessly over his shoulders ; his 
meagre person and ruddy countenance gave him at 
mature age the aspect of youth. The whole of his 

Eminent Citizens of the igtA Century. 483 

demeanour was illuminated by the fire of affectionate 
zeal, and by an earnestness of manner, evincing that 
he was honest in the sacred cause of truth. From 
this time he continued his ministry till 1778, when in 
the spring of that year he married Susannah Jackson 
of Norwich. This was an event which he ever justly 
estimated as the happiest of his life, but it severed his 
connexion with the patroness of the Tabernacle. Her 
rule was to dismiss the students of her college on their 
marriage. The Countess of Huntingdon regretted the 
separation and recommended him to several destitute 
congregations, none of which, however, were then 
suited to his views. 

After travelling about for some time in Wiltshire, 
where he preached in several chapels, he returned to 
Norwich, and on January 1st, 1780, his new meeting 
place was opened, and he became a pastor under the 
denomination of Calvinistic Methodist, without the 
customary form of ordination. During the interval 
which elapsed between his return to Norwich and his 
establishment as a Baptist minister, his congregation 
rapidly increased, and continued to increase from 
1780 till 1788. He lived in retirement, and performed 
with satisfaction and marked punctuality the duties 
of his ministry. His congregation was formed into a 
regular Baptist church in May, 1788, and it remained 
so all his life. On this change many of his former 
supporters left him, so that his income was reduced. 
He therefore took a farm in the neighbourhood of 
Norwich, and commenced farming on an extensive 
scale. Employment or poverty was his only altema- 

484 History of Notwicfu 

tive, and he followed the example of the apostle 
Paul by supporting himself. 

We now approach a period in his life in which he 
distinguished himself not only as a pastor, but also as 
a citizen and patriot; for in the year 1790 commenced 
those great events in France which laid the foundation 
of the long war between this country and that un- 
fortunate empire, a war disastrous to both. On 
July 14th, 1791, Mr. Wilks preached two eloquent 
discourses to commemorate the leading features of the 
first French Revolution, before crowded congregations, 
composed of the most influential persons in the city 
and its neighbourhood. The propriety of such dis- 
courses from the pulpit may be doubted, but they 
caused great excitement, as the preacher defended the 
revolution, which was then viewed with terror by many 
people. We shall notice this, however, more at length 
in the political part of our narrative, in which we 
shall have to speak of the very active part which 
Mr. Wilks took in political affairs both in the city and 
county. That Mr. Wilks was a rather violent partisan, 
and more of a Radical than a Whig, will appear by 
an extract from his biography, respecting a county 

"When the Honourable William Wyndham first offered 
himself as a candidate for the county of Norfolk, he came in 
the character of a Whig, and a professed friend of civil and 
religious liberty. Mr. W'ilks then warmly supported him, 
and to his exertions Mr. Wyndham attributed his success. 
But the revolution in France effected a strange change in 
the principles of Mr. Wyndham ; and on his secdnd appear- 

Eminent Citizens of the 19/A Century, 485 

ance as candidate for Norfolk, he presented himself in the 
character of a * war minister,' and the enthusiastic abettor of 
the most disgraceful and perilous measures ever pursued by 
weak and wicked men. Instead, therefore, of receiving 
support, he met with the most determined opposition from 
those who had been before his active friends. As Mr. Wilks 
on his former election had supported him by the most 
vigorous exertions, he now appeared foremost in the ranks 
of his opponents ; and Mr. Wyndham regarded him with fear 
and jealousy. The following anecdote will show with what 
gratitude he returned the former services of him whom he 
had called his friend. One morning, as a very intimate 
friend of Mr. Wilks was passing by the house of a poor man, 
he was unexpectedly invited in, and was informed by the 
man that his wife had just found an open letter, the contents 
of which were of the greatest importance to Mr. Wilks. It 
indeed proved so. It was a letter from Mr. Wyndham to 
one of his friends at Norwich, desiring him to be most 
vigilant in watching the movements and expressions of 
Mr. Wilks ; and if at any time he uttered anything which 
might be made to appear treasonable, to make him 
acquainted with it, assuring him that he would take the most 
prompt and severe means for his conviction. No sooner had 
Mr. Wilks read this letter than he hastened with it to the 
printer's, and in a few hours the perfidy of Mr. Wyndham 
was publicly known in every part of the city, and the 
original letter returned to its proprietor, to his inexpressible 
dismay and confusion. The family and friends of Mr. Wilks 
regarded this circumstance as an interposition of a watchful 
Providence. But for this circumstance a few days might 
have seen him the inmate of a dungeon, and his life devoted, 
through the incautiousness of a sentence, to the treachery of 
an enemy. This supposition may appear less improbable 

486 History of Norwich, 

when it is known, that at that time some who had been less 
active and less violent than himself, had been snatched from 
their families during the stillness of the midnight hour, and 
had been conveyed to prison without any form or reason 
assigned to them. This attempt upon the liberty, and per- 
haps the life, of Mr. Wilks had the beneficial effect of making 
him more vigilant over his words, and more cautious, al- 
though not less bold and decisive in all his proceedings. 
Yet his wife and friends entertained so great an anxiety for 
his safety, that they strongly importuned him to seek an 
asylum under the calmer skies of America, but he resisted 
their importunities. 

" It must be mentioned, as an instance of the generosity of 
Mr. Wilks' disposition, as well as a proof that his political 
conduct originated in genuine principles of patriotism, that 
when Mr. Wyndham again returned as a candidate for 
Norfolk as conjoint supporter of the Whig interest in union 
with Mr. Coke, Mr. Wilks never suffered the recollection of 
his private wrongs to interfere with the principles that 
Mr. Wyndham had come forward to maintain, but supported 
him with the same firmness and ardour as he had ever done. 

" But it is necessary to return to those incidents of his life, the 
order of which has been neglected in pursuing the chain of 
his political character, and which he considered of far greater 
importance than any other. In the year 1792, the Baptist 
Missionary Society was established by Carey, Fuller, Pearce, 
and Ryland. Those incomparable men, in a small room at 
Kettering, planted the germ of that tree which has since 
spread its branches into the remotest corners of the earth. 
The Indian Banyan is famed for its fertility ; it is planted, 
it grows, and its branches descending, strike root, and repro- 
duce another tree ; its branches again descend, and produce 
another tree ; trees succeed in endless multiplication, till a 

Eminent Citizens of the igtA Century. 487 

far and wide-spreading beauteous forest is formed from the vast 
trunk of what was once a single plant. In India flourishes 
a moral Banyan; it has been planted by the hand of a 
Carey, a Fuller, a Pearce, a Ryland, and a Wilks ; watered 
and cultivated by their labours and their prayers, its roots 
have taken a deeper and deeper root, and the day is 
approaching when the sultry clime of India shall be covered 
by its shadows, cheered by its verdant foliage, and refreshed 
by its heavenly fruits. 

"It is well known that Mr. Wilks' devotion to the 
missionary cause was early and invincible. Whether he was 
present at its establishment is rather doubtful ; but from its 
commencement he regarded it as the dawn of happiness 
to the world, and put into action all his powers and his 
influence in promoting so benevolent an end. But it was 
not in the mission alone that he evinced his benevolence and 
his disinterestedness. Nine years had elapsed since he first 
commenced farming, and during that time and the succeed- 
ing year he preached regularly, and fulfilled all the duties 
incumbent on his station, without receiving for his services 
the smallest remuneration. Whether in this instance he 
acted in all respects with prudence has frequently been 
doubted by himself as well as his friends. His conduct 
originated in feelings of the purest benevolence, altliough 
perhaps it lost its excellence in losing its justice.'* 

In the year 1797 Mr. Wilks was obliged to quit 
his farm, the lease of which had expired. He im- 
mediately engaged another at Aldborough, a village 
near Harleston in Suffolk, and went there to reside 
with his family in March, 1797. The distance of that 
place was seventeen miles from Norwich ; yet although 
he was necessarily obliged to omit the week-day 

488 History of Norwich, 

preaching, he never once neglected the regular per- 
formance of his pastoral duties on Sunday. In every 
kind of weather he constantly travelled thirty-four 
miles every Sunday to preach to a congregation from 
whom he received no remuneration. This course of 
exertion, however, could not be long continued. With 
the engagements of his farm, which were at this time 
very considerable, and the care attendant on a large 
family of twelve children, he found it was necessary 
eitlier to give up his church or to leave his farm. 
Though his farm was a very profitable one, he did not 
hesitate which course to pursue ; and he took another 
farm at Cossey, near Norwich, where he continued for 
some time, and where he often preached to the people 
in the village. 

In March, 1802, he purchased a farm at the village 
of Sprowston, only two miles from Norwich. Here he 
enjoyed the society of his friends in the city, and in 
every respect his own comfort and that of his family 
were improved by this removal. His congregation 
increased, and the chapel in which he preached became 
too small for all who wished to attend his ministry. 
His friends were therefore desirous of erecting a more 
commodious one, and purchased a piece of ground for 
its erection. In September, 1 8 1 2, he laid the first stone, 
and Mr. Andrew Fuller preached on the occasion. 

In 1 814, he went on a begging tour for his meeting 
house, and travelled through the counties of Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Essex, and Cambridgeshire, and thence to 
London. In six weeks he collected about £400^ but 
his exertions brought on a serious illness. After his 

Eminent Citizens of the 19/A Century. 489 

return his family scarcely hoped for his recovery. On 
May 4th, 1 8 14, the new meeting house, in St Clement's, 
Norwich, was opened by Mr. M. Wilks of London, and 
Mr. A. Fuller. The pastor was present, but in a very 
feeble state of health. He recovered slowly in a few 
weeks, and when his health was sufficiently restored, 
he made another effort to diminish the debt on the 
new chapeL Though he frequently considered him- 
self to be in a dying state, yet at every interval of 
ease he pursued his work with unremitting ardour. It 
is unnecessary to relate all the details of the few latter 
years of his life ; the long journeys he took in the 
years 1815 and 18 16, were a proof of the generosity 
of his heart His last two years he spent in retirement, 
yet in the performance of his ministerial duties ; and 
ever ready to advance the interests of his church, of 
his family, and of mankind. 

He was ill only four days previous to his death, 
which took place on February 5th, 1 8 19. When it 
was publicly known in the city that he was no more, 
hundreds of people went to his house to take a last 
look of him whom living they had so much loved and 
respected And the bitter tears of his surviving rela- 
tives, the deep affliction of his friends, and the sorrow 
of mourning multitudes, bore a sad testimony to his 
worth as a husband, a father, a friend, a minister, a 
neighbour, and a christian. 

He died on his birthday, when he had attained the 
age of seventy-one. His much valued friend, the 
Rev. W. Hull of Norwich, spoke at his interment to a 
large assembly of sincere mourners, and to a great 

490 History of Norwich. 

concourse of spectators. The Rev. Mark Wilks of 
London, his nephew, preached a funeral sermon on 
Sunday, Fcbruar>' 14th, before a large congregation. 
The deceased was buried under the pulpit where he 
had preached the gospel for forty years. Of his 
family of twelve children, including his four sons, 
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, none of them and 
none of their descendants now live in NorwkJi. 

The RciK John Alexander, 

The Rev. John Alexander was the pastor of the 
Independent Congregation in Prince's Street for a 
period of fifty years. He was much beloved by 
all who knew him for his kindly disposition and genuine 
piety. Bishop Stanley often spoke of him in terms of 
the highest commendation as a christian minister. 
He took an active interest in all the philanthropic and 
educational movements of the district, and was for 
.some time the Chairman of the Board of Management 
of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. After his death, 
on July 31st, 1868, a short memoir of him appeared 
in the Norfolk Ncii.'s\ and this memoir contained 
nearly the whole history of Prince's Street Chapel in 
this city. We give the following extracts: — 

** Mr. Alexander was bom at Lancaster in 1792. Of his 
father, the Rev. William Alexander, our deceased friend 
published an interesting Memoir ; and, as showing his own 
appreciation of the excellencies of his parents, he placed on 
the title page these lines of Cowper's ; — 

Eminent Citizetis of tlie igtA Century. 491 

* My boast is, not that I deduce my birth 
From loins enthroned, and rulers of the earth ; 
But higher far my proud pretensions rise, 
The son of parents passed into the skies.' 

;In the same volume we find him thus writing in reference to 
his early days : — * The reader will, I trust, perceive that our 
domestic discipline, union, and affection, together with the 
sweet influences of religion, rendered us a happy family. 
The recollections and the love of home, too, and our 
reverence for holy parents, became a shield of protection to 
us, and "a way of escape" in the day of evil.* With an 
atmosphere like this surrounding his childhood, we wonder 
not that he became in early life the subject of deep religious 
convictions. In 1807 he entered a large commercial estab- 
lishment connected with a household in which * the most 
beautiful domestic order was combined with everything that 
was pure and lovely in religion.' This privilege was greatly 
prized by him, and he ever cherished a grateful sense of the 
goodness of God in placing him there. During this period 
he attended the ministry of the Rev. P. S. Charrier of Liver- 
lx)ol, and joined the church under his care. For some time 
he had cherished a desire, and entertained a hope, in re- 
ference to the christian ministry, which was now soon to be 

" The celebrated Dr. Edward Williams, one of the tutors at 
Rotherham College, happened just then to visit Liverpool, 
and unexpectedly spoke to him on the subject, offering him 
tlie advantages of the institution over which he presided. 
This incident naturally made a deep impression on his mind, 
and led him very seriously and prayerfully to consider the 
matter. Of course, he lost no time in communicating his 
thoughts to his father, who urged on him the greatest caution, 
saying, * God forbid you should takie it up, except in com- 

492 History of Norwich, 

pliance with the will of God.' Nothing daunted, however, 
by the somewhat discouraging aspect of the ministry set 
before him in his father's letters, he intimated to him, in 
reply to his inciuirics, that he retained an unalterable * deter- 
mination to give himself to the work, believing he had been 
called of (lod to it ;' and in 1814 he was admitted as a 
student into Hoxton College. Here the amiable qualities 
which distinguished him all through life soon endeared him 
to every fellow-student, and one still sur\'iving speaks of 
hours spent with him as 'the happiest, holiest, and most 
profitable spent under the college roof 

"In his Thif'ty Years^ History of the Church and Congrega- 
tion in Prince's Street Chapel y he gives us an account of his 
first visit to and subsequent residence in this city. From 
that source wc learn that early in the year 181 7 he received 
an invitation to preach for a few Sabbaths in the Tabernacle, 
and that on Friday, April 4th, 1817, (the day on which a 
fatal steam-packet catastrophe occurred by which many lives 
were lost), he entered Norwich. On the following Sunday 
evening he preached from the text, 'Therefore be ye also 
ready ; for in such an hour as ye think not, the Son of Man 
cometh.* The place was crowded; and, says he, *The 
Lord stood by me and strengthened me.' At the expiration 
of three Sabbaths he returned to I-.ondon, promising to 
visit Norwich again and preach during the whole of the 
Midsummer vacation. He resumed his labours with veiy 
great encouragement at the Tabernacle on July 6th; and 
some legal difficulty occurring as to the power of appointing 
the minister, he consented, with the approbation of his 
tutors, to continue them till the disputed point was settled, 
which was not till the following December. The legal 
decision was such as necessitated him to give notice the very 
day it arrived, that in the evening he should preach his last 

Eminent Citizens of the igtA Cetitury. 493 

sermon in the Tabernacle. On that occasion he chose as his 
text, words which the people believed to have been divinely 
suggested to his mind, * Weeping may endure for a night, 
but joy cometh in the morning.* That text, it was often 
afterwards remarked, built the new chapel. The prospect^ 
however, of the toil connected with the establishment of a 
new church and congregation, and the building of a chapel, 
was such that he shrank from it, and took his place .in the 
coach to return to London on his way to Kidderminster, 
where he had been requested to supply, with a view to 

"But so deep was the impression his services had pro- 
duced, and so warm the interest and affection created, that 
the people would not part from him. On the day of his 
departure, a deputation waited on him and pressed on him 
an invitation to become their minister with such affectionate 
earnestness, that, says he * I felt the appeal to be irresistible, 
and 1 promised to lay the whole matter before my tutor and 
friends, and to make it the subject of serious and prayerful 
re-consideration.' The result was that he returned, and for 
some time preached in the Lancasterian School-room. At 
length the site on which Prince's Street Chapel now stands 
was purchased, and the foundation stone laid on the i6th of 
March, 181 9. It was opened on December ist in the same 
year, and thenceforward, for the space of about five and 
forty years, it continued to be the scene of the living and 
life-quickening ministry of one whose * praise is in all the 
churches.' Of the characteristics of Mr. Alexander's preach- 
ing this is not the place to speak beyond saying it was truly 
evangelical and eminently successful. But he was not the 
preacher only. He was the faithful pastor, the unswerving 
friend, and the cheerful companion as well. Hence in times 
of sorrow or of joy he was a welcome guest, either in the 

494 History of Norwich, 

family meeting or at more social gatherings. He carried 
summer and sunshine with him into every circle, and never 
left any without leaving a longing in every heart, young and 
old, for the next visit When he crossed the threshold, the 
young loved to caress and to be caressed by him, whilst to 
the others the cares of life seemed lessened, and the burden 
lightened, as he spoke to them a few words of loving 
S3rmpathy or wise counsel, and left them with his soft tones 
of benediction treasured in their hearts and vibrating on 
their ears. 

" Time rolled on, ever finding him at his work, till thirty 
years had gone, when his friends gathered round him in 
St Andrew's Hall to testify their high appreciation of his 
excellencies, and their deep and strong affection for him as 
their pastor and their friend. On that occasion it was the 
desire of the people to present a purse to him as a substantial 
token of their esteem, but there being at that time a debt of 
;i^4oo remaining on the chapel, he, with that characteristic 
unselfishness which ever marked him, urgently requested 
that they would abandon the purse, but remove the debt 
But it must not be supposed that Mr. Alexander's energies 
were confined to the cause of Christ at Prince's Street 
Chapel, or that the members of his church and congregation 
were allowed to claim him as exclusively belonging to them. 
This was seen when ten years more of active service had 
passed, and troops of admirers, from far and near, flocked 
again to St Andrew's Hall to do him honour. On that 
occasion the Mayor (J. G. Johnson, Esq.,) represented the 
city, and the Rev. S. Titlow the Church of England, in most 
eulogistic speeches. The Baptist Churches of the county 
presented him with an address, whilst brethren of his own 
denomination, and others, lay and ministerial, seemed to vie 
with one another in magnifying * the grace of God * in him. 

Eminent Citizens of the i()th Century. 495 

The desire entertained ten years before was now carried into 
effect, and a purse, with an elegant skeleton timepiece, and 
a memorial engrossed on vellum and framed, were presented 
to him, and a gold watch and chain to Mrs. Alexander. The 
timepiece bore the following inscription : — 

Presented to the Rev. John Alexander, together with a purse 
of 500 sovereigns, on his commencing the fortieth year of his 
ministry in Norwich, by the members of his congregation and 
numerous other friends, as a memorial of Christian esteem and 
love. — Norwich, June 3rd, 1856. 

From that time the infirmities of age, and the claims of a 
large congregation, led him to desire help, which was secured 
for him in the person of an assistant minister. With that 
help he happily and zealously worked on in his Master's 
service through another decade of years, when once more 
the old Gothic hall resounded with his praises and witnessed 
another outburst of affectionate congratulation. Having 
lived to see the jubilee of his ministry, he now resigned the 
pastoral office, and was presented with an annuity of jC2oo 
and a magnificent epergne, on which a suitable inscription 
was engraved. With trembling emotion the venerable man 
read his reply and acknowledgment, in which, after recording 
the goodness of God and the kindness of his friends through 
the long period of fifty years, he stated that during his 
pastorate more than a thousand members had been added to 
the church, two chapels had been added to the one in 
Prince's Street, four Sunday Schools had been raised and 
supplied with a hundred teachers and with nearly a thousand 
children, and eight members of the church had become 
ministers of the Gospel. 

" Seldom is it the lot of the most favoured ministers thus 
to be blessed and made a blessing. We shall not attempt 

496 History of Norwich, 

to describe what Mr. Alexander was in the pulpit, on the 
platform, in the committee room, or from the press, nor how 
he discharged his duties as chairman of * The Congregational 
Union of England and Wales,' and secretary of *The 
Association for the Spread of the Gospel in the County.' 
Much less shall we venture a word on his private or domesdc 
life. We hope another and abler pen will pourtray his 
character more fully, and hence we content ourselves by 
adding words written by a friend, * His life is his eulogy.' 
It was a holy life, a useful life, an honourable life, a happy 

" The last sermon Mr. Alexander preached was delivered 
in Prince's Street Chapel on April 22nd, 1866, from 
2 Cor. ii. 14 — 17. The last time that he spoke in St 
Andrew's Hall was a few months before his death, on the 
occasion of the mayor's invitation to the Sunday school 
teachers, and the last public religious service he attended 
was in the Old Meeting House on Sunday evening, July 19th, 
1868, where his presence was ever as welcome as in his own 

" Of his history since his retirement into private life, little 
only can be said. At first the ease and seeming uselessness 
imposed on him by the infirmities of age had a depressing 
influence on his mind, but latterly this gave place to his 
wonted calm confidence in God, and his usual joyousness of 
heart. Occasionally, to the grief of his friends, the decline 
of his mental powers was painfully visible, but this was often 
relieved by his still sparkling and felicitous utterances, and 
his fervent devotional exercises. 

"Some lines written in our album so recently as last 
November will, perhaps, best indicate the state of his mind» 
and the theme on which it delighted to dwell : — 

Eminent Citizens of the 19/A Century. 497 

Amidst the fragrance richly shed, 
And beauty blooming in the bowers, 

The willow bends its mournful head, 
And seems to weep among the flowers. 

And so in human life we And, 

How bright soever it appears, 
That grief is rooted in the mind. 

And smiles are mingled with its tears. 

But there's a garden in the sky 
Where mourning willows cannot grow, 

Where tears are wiped from every eye, 
And streams of joy unminglcd flow. 

"And now the time drew nigh that he must die. For 
only a few days he was withdrawn from the outer world. 
During that time it was very evident that constant inter- 
course was being carried on with heaven. On asking him, 
two days prior to his death, if the Saviour he had so long 
and faithfully preached to others was now near and precious 
to himself, he replied, * Oh, what should I do without Him !' 
The day before his departure he was much in prayer. His 
family were all remembered before God, as were also the 
servants of the household. And very touching were the 
words in which he sought a blessing on the ministers of the 
city, and on their work, with whom he had lived in closest 
and loving fellowship. And so he passed away, spending 
his last hours, as he had spent his life, in blessing others. 

"On Tuesday, the 4th of August, he was carried to 
his grave amid the lamentations of a vast concourse of his 
fellow-citizens, and friends from the country, who had known 
him and esteemed him very highly in love for his works* 
sake. The funeral service at the grave was conducted 
by the Revs. G. Gould, J. Hallett, P. Colbome, and 
G. S. Barrett, B.A. ; but gathered there were clergymen and 

498 History of Norwich, 

ministers of every denomination, as well as laymen of all 
classes, from the mayor to the humblest artisan. 

" And so has passed away from our midst, full of days and 
honours, one, whom it was a privilege to have known, and an 
impossibility not to have loved. His Christian catholicity, 
his large-hearted charity, his generous liberality, his un- 
tarnished reputation, and his fidelity to Christian truth, 
together with other virtues that adorned his long life, con- 
strain us to thank God for having given him to Norwich, 
and, now that He has taken him to Himself, constrain us to 
say * Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last 
end be like his!'" 

The funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. 
John Stoughton, of London, before a large congrega- 
tion in St. Andrew's Hall. 

The Gurney Family, 

The members of the Gurney family, from an early 
period, have been distinguished by their station, wealth, 
and intelligence, both in Norfolk and Norwich. Me- 
moirs of Joseph John Gurney, with selections from his 
journal and correspondence, were edited by Joseph 
Bevan Braithwaite, and published by Mr. Fletcher 
of this city. From these memoirs we derive the 
following interesting details respecting the family, and 
the Society of Friends in Norwich. 

" The family of Gurney or Goumay is said to have sprung 
from a house of Norman barons, who followed William the 
Conqueror into England and obtained a large estate in this 
country, chiefly in the county of Norfolk. From them 

Eminent Citizens of the igtk Century, 499 

descended a long line of country gentlemen, who maintained 
themselves at Harpley, and West Barsham, in this county, for 
many generations, and from a very early period had one of 
their residences in this city. The last of these dying without 
male issue, about the commencement of the reign of 
Charles II., the old family estates at that period became 
dispersed amongst females. The name of Gumey was, 
however, honourably continued through a descendant of one 
of the younger sons of an earlier generation, John Gumey, 
the ancestor of the present family. He was bom in the 
year 1655, and notwithstanding his family connections, com- 
menced life in Norwich in somewhat straitened circumstances. 
Devoting himself in his youth to the cause of religion, we 
find him in the year 1678, at the age of twenty-three, already 
connected with the oppressed, persecuted Quakers. 

" The family of John Gumey appear previously to have 
had some connexion with the Puritans. Henry Gumey, 
indeed, of West Barsham, the representative of the family in 
the early part of the 17 th century, had a distaste for Puri- 
tanism, if, at least, we are to judge from the insertion in his 
will (proved in 1623) of a special charge to his younger 
son, * That none hould any fantisticall or erroneous opinions, 
so adjudged by our bishop or civill lawes.' But Edmund 
Gumey, rector of Harpley, one of these younger sons, who 
was a person of influence, became known as a zealous 
Puritan ; he declined wearing the surplice, and was probably 
among those who took the covenant in 1643. After him 
John Gurney successively named two of his children. Others 
of his connexions were also inclined to Puritanism, and some 
of them, like himself, joined the Society of Friends. In the 
case of the early Friends generally, their ultimate settlement 
in those gospel principles by which they became distinguished 
from others, was preceded by a state of much religious 

SOO History of Norwich, 

awakening and earnest seeking after God, in which they 
* searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so.* 

" Through what course of experience John Gumey arrived 
at his conviction, the scanty materials of his history do not 
inform us. I^et it suffice us to know that what he became 
convinced of, was precious to him as the truth, and that for 
it he was prepared to suffer. On the 29th of the ninth 
month (O. S.), 1682, (so the records of the Friends in 
Norwich inform us,) * Friends being kept out of their meeting 
house, met together in the street to wait upon the Lord,' and, 
being there, John Gumey and another Friend, were violently 
pulled out from among the rest, as if they had been 
malefactors, and carried before a justice of the peace, by 
whom, as they declined giving, on such an account, the 
required bail, they were committed until the next quarter 
sessions. In the following year, 1683, he was again im- 
prisoned, for refusing to take an oath, and continued in 
prison, under successive recommitments, nearly three years. 
He died in the year 1721, having greatly prospered in his 
temporal concerns ; and, what is far more important, having, 
according to the testimony of those who knew him, taken 
particular care in the religious education of all his children, 
and continued faithful to the end. 

" His two elder sons, John and Joseph, were both men of 
marked character. John was gifted with much natural 
eloquence, and obtained considerable reputation by the spirit 
and ability with which he successfully defended the Norwich 
trade, before a committee of the House of Lords, against 
some apprehended encroachments. He subsequently re- 
ceived from Sir Robert Walpole the offer of a seat in parlia- 
ment, which, however, he declined as inconsistent with his 
religious principles in the then state of the law. Religion 
had early taken possession of his heart, and about the 22nd 

Eminent Citizens of the i<)th Century, 501 

year of his age, in obedience to the call of apprehended 
duty, he had yielded himself to the work of the public 
ministry of the gospel, in which service he laboured diligently 
for many years ; neither the temptation of prosperity nor the 
kindness and esteem of great men of this world, being, in the 
simple and forcible language of the memorial respecting him, 
* permitted to separate him from that truth which the Lord 
had eminently convinced him of* 

" Besides numerous other descendants, he was the grand- 
father of Martha Birkbeck, whose daughter Jane became the 
first wife of Joseph John Gumey. Joseph Gumey, his 
younger brother, who, towards the close of his life, fixed his 
residence at Keswick, near Norwich, also became a valued 
minister of the gospel among Friends. His christian pro- 
fession was eminently adorned by a life of humility, benevo- 
lence, and moderation. He died in the year 1750, after a 
suffering illness which he bore with exemplary resignation, 
giving a final evidence of the truth of what he then expressed 
that it had been *the business of his whole life to be 
prepared for such a time !* 

"His eldest son, John Gumey, was a man of great 
activity and energy, and notwithstanding his extensive engage- 
ments in business, devoted much of his time to the interests 
of his own religious society, to the principles of which he was 
warmly attached. In the midst of a course of remarkable 
temporal prosperity, it is instructive to observe the fears 
which he expresses in one of his private memoranda, lest 
his increasing opulence should lead away his children from 
those religious habits and associations in which they had 
been educated. He left three sons, all of whom married 
and settled near Norwich. Richard Gumey the eldest, on 
his father's decease, in 1770, became the occupant of the 
family residence at Keswick. John Gumey, the father of 

502 History of Norwich, 

J. J. Gumey, had previously to the birth of the latter settled 
at Earlham. Joseph Gumey, the youngest, resided at 
Lakenham Grove. The three families were naturally much 
associated, and exercised an important influence upon each 
other. At a later period especially, the consistency with 
which Joseph Gumey, of The Grove, was enabled to maintain 
his position as a Friend, and as a christian minister, rendered 
his influence peculiarly valuable." 


John Gurney, of Earlham, is eulogised highly by 
the editor of these memoirs as generous, ardent, and 
warm-hearted, abounding in kindness to all, uniting 
very remarkable activity, both in public and private 
business, with an acute intellect and extensive informa- 
tion. His wife was Catherine Bell, a daughter of 
Daniel Bell of Stamford Hill, near London, her mother 
being a granddaughter of Robert Barclay, the well- 
known author of the "Apology." She is described as 
a woman of very superior mind as well as personal 
charms, and as a serious christian and decided Friend. 
She died in the autumn of 1792, leaving her sorrowing 
husband the widowed parent of eleven children. The 
following list of the names may be found useful : — 

Catherine died unmarried, 1850. 

Rachel died unmarried, 1827. 

EUzabeth, married in 1800 to Joseph Fry, of London, 
became the celebrated Mrs. Fry, who died in 1845. 

John died in 181 4. 

Richenda married in 18 16 to Francis Cunningham, who 
died in 1855. 

Hannah married in 1807 to Thomas Fowell Buxton. 

Louisa, married in 1806 to Samuel Hoare, died in 1836. 

Eminent Citizens of tJie 19/// Century, 50*3 

Priscilla died unmarried, 1821. 
Samuel, who died in 1856. 
Joseph John, who died in 1847. 
Daniel, still living. 

Joseph John Gurney, Esq, 

Among the eminent citizens of this century, none 
will take a higher place than the late J. J. Gurney, 
Esq., the well-known philanthropist He was born at 
Earlham Hall on August 8th, 1788. That hall was 
one of the happiest homes in England. It was also 
the birth-place of Mrs. Elizabeth Fry, sister of 
J. J. Gurney, and almost as celebrated as her brother. 
Here they were both trained with religious care, and 
passed their days of childhood and youth in happiness 
and peace. In after life they were associated together 
in works of benevolence, and the brother often aided 
his sister in many of her schemes for improving prison 

In 1803, soon after he had completed his isth year, 
Joseph John was sent to Oxford with his cousin 
Gurney Barclay to pursue his studies under the care 
of John Rogers, a private tutor. Young J. J. Gurney 
continued at Oxford two years, with the exception of 
the vacations, which he spent mostly at home. His 
tutor, though resident at Oxford, was not in that 
character connected with the university or with any of 
the colleges. The student became an excellent 
classical and oriental scholar, and ultimately the author 
of several valuable religious works, such as " Essays 
on Christianity," ** Thoughts on Habit and Discipline." 

504 History of Norwich, 

He was scarcely seventeen when, in August, 1805, 
he was removed from the care of John Rogers. 
He had become attached to his tutor and to his 
studies, and he quitted the place with regret, but there 
was brightness in the thought of settling at home. 
The bank in which his father was a partner had been 
established in Norwich in the year 1770. After that 
time the concern was considerably extended with 
branch banks at Lynn, Fakenham, Yarmouth, and 
other places. His elder brother, John, had been 
placed in the establishment at Lynn, and his brother 
Samuel had been sent up to London, where he had 
become the head of a district concern ; so that cir- 
cumstances had prepared the way for that which 
J. J. Gurney himself had desired — a place in the* 
bank at Norwich. Here in the enjoyment of daily 
communication with his father, and a home at Earlham 
with his sisters, the ensuing three years of his life 
passed in peace and joy. In the year 1806, he ac- 
companied his father and a large family party in a 
tour to the English lakes and through Scotland. On 
their return, J. J. Gurney was regular in his attendance 
at the bank, but he found time for study at home, 
and he carefully read ancient historians in the original 
languages. Gradually, however, his attention became 
unceasingly directed to biblical literature, which con- 
tinued for some years to absorb much of his leisure. 
His habits of study were eminently methodical, ex- 
emplifying his favourite maxim, which he was after- 
wards accustomed strongly to inculcate upon his 
young friends, "Be a whole man to one thing at a 

Eminent Citizens of the 19/A Century, 505 

time." His position and tastes introduced him to 
the highly-cultivated society, for which Norwich was 
at the time remarkable, at the house of his cousin 
Hudson Gurney, where he was accustomed to meet 
many persons who were eminent for their parts and 
learning. He had early become a favourite with 
Dr. Bathurst, then Bishop of Norwich, and their inter- 
course gradually ripened into a warm friendship, which 
was maintained unbroken till that prelate's decease, in 
1837, at the very advanced age of ninety-three. 
Young J. J. Gurney was but just twenty-one when, as 
one of his father's executors and representative at 
Earlham, and as a partner in the bank, very grave 
responsibilities devolved upon him. However, he 
continued to pursue his studies with ardour, and he 
made his first essay as an author in an article pub- 
lished in the Classical Journal on September 9th, 
1 8 10, under the title of "A Critical Notice of Sir 
William Drummond's Dissertations on the Hercu- 
lanesia." After this effort his mind became increasingly 
drawn towards the principles of the Society of Friends, 
and many of his allusions to his feelings, in his auto- 
biography, are peculiarly interesting and instructive, 
indicating the spiritual phase of his mind. The ex- 
ample of his sister, Elizabeth Fry, as well as of his 
sister Priscilla, who like her, had become a decided 
Friend and a preacher of the gospel, strengthened his 
convictions ; but the influence of other members of the 
family who resided at Earlham, as well as of many 
other estimable persons, tended in an opposite direc- 
tion. The editor of the Memoirs, already referred to, 
says: — 

5o6 History of NorwicJi, 

" Whilst Joseph John Gumey*s religious convictions were 
thus gradually drawing him into a narrower path in connec- 
tion with the Society of Friends, his heart was becoming 
increasingly enlarged in Christian concern for the welfare of 
others. He had already warmly interested himself in the 
formation of a Lancasterian School in Norwich, an institution 
which long continued to have his effective support The 
establishment of an auxiliary Bible Society in this city, was 
an object into which he now entered with youthful ardour. 
The general meeting for its formation was held on the ixth 
of the 9th month, 181 1." 

The philanthropist was married to Jane Birkbeck 
on October loth, 18 17, in his 29th year, and it appears 
to have been a very happy marriage. The event tocJc 
place at Wells Meeting, and, after a short sojourn at 
Hunstanton, the newly-married couple travelled to 
their home at Earlham, where they received the visits 
of niany friends, who were most hospitably entertained 
After his marriage, J. J. Gumey continued at Earlham ; 
and the hall, where his father had resided, and in 
which he himself lived from his birth, was his settled 

" To this place (with its lovely lawn nested among laige 
trees) he was strongly attached all his life. And they who 
knew him there can still picture him in his study among his 
books, or in his drawing-room among his friends, his counte- 
nance beaming with love and intelligence, the life of the 
whole circle ; or in his garden amongst his flowers, with his 
Greek Testament in his hand, still drawing from the books 
*of nature and of grace' that lay open before him, new 
motives to raise the heart to the Author of all his blessings. 

Eminent Citizens of the i^th Century, 507 

" Placed by circumstances, though not the elder brother, 
in the position which his father had occupied in Norfolk as 
Master of Earlham, and a partner in the bank, it was his 
delight, as far as possible, to continue Earlham as the family 
house. Even after his marriage, his sisters, Catherine, 
Rachel, and Priscilla, continued to live with hmi, occupying 
their own apartments, and it was the custom of the other 
members of the family frequently to meet there as under a 
common roof * * * Up to the period of his 
brother John's decease, and for some time afterwards, it was 
the habit of his brothers and himself, with their brothers-in- 
law, Thomas Fowell Buxton and Samuel Hoare, to improve 
these occasions by a mutual impartial examination of their 
conduct, in which each with brotherly openness stated what 
he conceived to be the brother's faults. Happy indeed was 
such an intercourse between such minds. * * * 
Besides this, to him, delightful band of brothers and sisters, 
his house was, as must have been already apparent to the 
reader, freely opened to a large circle. 

"Whilst every year strengthened his conviction of the 
soimdness and importance of the christian principles which 
he professed, he rejoiced in that liberty wherewith Christ 
had made him free to embrace as brethren all those in whom 
he thought he could discern traces of his heavenly image. 

"Towards the close of the year (181 7) in company with 
his wife, his brother Samuel Gumey, his brother and sister 
Buxton, and Francis and Richenda Cunningham, he took a 
short tour upon the continent of Europe, their principal 
objects being to establish a branch Bible Society in Paris, 
and to procure information as to the systems of prison 
discipline adopted in the jails of Antwerp and Ghent Hav- 
ing accomplished their objects, they returned home after an 
absence of about a month." 

5o8 History of Norwich, 

Soon aftenvards J. J. Gurney began to preach at 
meetings of the Friends in Norwich and elsewhere. 

" Early in the year 1818, private business called him to 
London. His sister, Elizabeth Fry, had previously entered 
upon her important labours for the benefit of the prisoners 
in Newgate, and for the improvement of prison discipline 
generally. Joseph John Gurney warmly entered into his 
sister's views, and accompanied her to the committee of the 
House of Commons on the occasion of giving her evidence, 
and afterwards to Lord Sidmouth, then Secretary of State for 
the Home Department. 

** His visit to London and the pamphlet on Prison Dis- 
ciplim\ soon afterward published by his brother-in-law, 
Thomas Fowell Buxton, tended to deepen in his own mind 
a sense of the importance of that subject, and an opportunity 
soon occurred for endeavouring to influence the authorities at 
Norwich to some exertion respecting it The mayor and 
corporation, attended by the sheriffs and other citizens, 
whilst perambulating the boundaries of the county of the 
city, were by his desire invited to partake of refreshment in 
passing by the hall at Earlham. Besides those immediately 
connected with the magistracy many others assembled, the 
whole company consisting of about 800 persons. On this 
occasion, Joseph John Gurney, in an address to the mayor 
and corporation, urged the erection of a new jail, and its 
establishment on better principles, with a view to the em- 
ployment of the prisoners, and the improvement of their 
morals; enforcing his appeal by a reference to the extra- 
ordinary change that had then recently taken place in 
Newgate, through the exertions of a committee of ladies, 
and concluding by offering a donation of ^100 towards the 
object. The effort was not without fruit, though the result 
was not immediately apparent." 

Eminent Citizens of the i^th Cetitury. 509 

The editor of his Memoirs proceeds : — 

"In the 8th and 9th month of this year (1818), in com- 
pany with his wife, his sister Elizabeth Fry, and one of her 
daughters, he took a journey into Scotland, visiting many of 
the prisons both there and in the north of England, besides 
attending many of the meetings of Friends. On this 
occasion, in conformity with the christian order established 
in the Society of Friends, he was furnished with a minute or 
testimonial expressing the concurrence of his Friends of his 
own ' Monthly Meeting * in his prospects of religous service." 

We have now to view the philanthropist not only 
in the varied relations of private life, but also in the 
very important character of a christian minister. He 
gradually became the most distinguished member of 
the Society of Friends in all England, and he often 
delivered exceedingly impressive discourses in Norwich 
and other large towns, preaching the gospel with a 
peculiar grace of manner which fascinated every 
audience. We have often heard him preach before 
large congregations of educated people in the Meeting 
House at Liverpool, and always with great effect 
His journal is full of details of his labours in all parts 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He became a 
Home Missionary, working hard at his own expense ; 
but we must confine this brief sketch to his doings 
here in Norwich. The death of his beloved wife at 
Earlham on October 6th, 1822, put his religious 
principle to the severest test, and in his letters he 
expresses deep sorrow, but he was of too active a 
disposition to be long subdued by grief. During the 
few months succeeding his loss, he continued mostly ■ 

5IO History of NonuicJu 

at home in the enjoyment of the society of his sisters, 
Catherine and Rachel ; his children becoming in- 
creasingly the objects of his tender solicitude. In the 
mean time, besides attending to the necessary claims 
of business, and to the various public objects that had 
long shared his interest, he devoted his leisure to 
study, finding relief, as he intimates, "Not in the 
indulgence of sorrow, but in a diligent attention to 
the calls of duty." 

After giving many extracts from his journal, Mr. 
Braithwaite continues in reference to the anti-slavery 
agitation : — 

"Retiring for a few days to Cromer Hall, he found a 
large and interesting circle. Amongst others, the late 
William Wilberforce and Zachary Macaulay were there, 
deliberating with his brother-in-law Thomas Fowell Buxton 
on the position and prospects of the Anti-Slavery question. 
It was the occasion on which the latter appears to have 
arrived at his final decision, to accept the responsible post of 
advocate of the cause as successor to Wilberforce. In this 
important undertaking, and throughout the succeeding 
struggle, Joseph John Gumey gave him his warm and 
efficient encouragement and support." 

Mr. J. J. Gurney, Mr. Clarkson, Mr. T. F. Buxton, 
Mr. Wilberforce, and others, were earnest advocates 
for the total abolition of the slave trade and of slavery ; 
and they attended many public meetings at which 
they denounced and exposed the horrid traffic. Ul- 
timately, as we all know, their efforts were rewarded, 
. by rousing public indignation to such a pitch as to 

Eminent Citizens of the i^th Century. 511 

result in the passing of an act of parliament emanci- 
pating the slaves in the West Indies, at a cost of 
twenty millions. 

The panic in the monetary and commercial world, 
and the sudden run upon the banks in London and 
the country, have rendered the winter of 1825- 1826 
memorable. As a banker, J. J. Gumey did not escape 
his share of anxiety, as appears from his journal, but 
his firm weathered the storm. Another circumstance 
was at this time deeply interesting to his feelings, 
namely, his attachment to Mary Fowler, daughter of 
Rachel Fowler, a cousin of his late wife. After some 
correspondence he made Mary Fowler an offer of 
marriage, which she accepted. On July i8th, 1827, 
they were married at Elm Grove. On this interesting 
occasion, he remarks in his journal, — 

" Bright, hopeful, and happy was our wedding day. We 
dined on the lawn, a large united company, and rejoiced 
together, I trust in the Lord, Mary and I left the party at 
Elm Grove, in the afternoon, for North Devon." 

They arrived at Linton, and thence proceeded to 
Ilfracombe. There they spent the honeymoon, and 
then the happy husband brought his second wife 
honie to Earlham, where they were received with joy. 
After this he was visited by many eminent characters 
at Earlham, including Dr. Chalmers, who stayed with 
him several days. 

" None can have attentively perused the foregoing pages " 
(says the editor of the memoirs) "without perceiving that 
one leading feature of Joseph John Gurney*s character was 


5 1 2 History of Norwich. 

an unweared active benevolence. Like his sister, Elizabetii 
Fr>', he seemed continually to live under a deep sense of his 
responsibilit)' towards others. A cheerful and bountiful 
giver, it was not merely by large pecuniary assistance that he 
proved his interest in objects connected with the welfare of 
his fellow-men : to these objects he was exemplary in de- 
voting no common share of his time and personal attention. 
The steady devotion to the Anti-slaver}' and Bible Societies 
is already before the reader. In addition to these great and 
often absorbing interests, his exertions for the distressed 
labouring population of Nonvich were unremitting. Year 
after year, during the ^nnter, or on any occasion when their 
distress was aggravated by want of employment, he was at 
his post, stirring up his fellow-citizens to the necessaiy 
measures for the alleviation of their wants. The District 
Visiting Society, which was mainly instrumental in originating 
the Soup Society and the Coal Society, found in him a 
steady and effective supporter. Often would he say that the 
painful consciousness of the poverty and suffering of many 
thousands around him, almost prevented his enjoyment of 
the abundant blessings with which he was himself so richly 
favoured. On one occasion he expended a considerable 
sum in providing the cai)ital for an attempt to supply the 
poor weavers and mechanics with employment during a 
scarcity of work. But, though like many similar attempts, 
it failed to answer the expectation of the promoter, and was 
abandoned, it served at least to furnish another proof of 
the sincerity and earnestness with which he laboured for 
their welfare. 

"The depressions in trade occasioned by the panic of 
1825 ^11 ^c long remembered. Norwich did not escape its 
influence. As a banker, Joseph John Gumey was more 
than usually absorbed in his own immediate cares, but his 

Eminent Citizens of the 19/// Century, 513 

heart at once turned towards his suffering fellow-citizens. 
* The dreadful distress,' he wTites to, a friend, * which prevails 
in the great mass of our once labouring, now, alas ! idle 
population, has been such as to call forth my strenuous 
efforts on their behalf In this, success has been mercifully 
vouchsafed. We have raised ;£^330o in five days.' 

" One more illustration deserves notice. In the winter of 
1829-30, the manufactures of Norwich were again greatly 
depressed. The weavers became" unsettled, holding riotous 
meetings, and using threatening language against their em- 
ployers. The state of things was alarming. J. J. Gumey 
felt it to be his duty to use his influence in checking the 
spirit of discontent that was rapidly spreading. He attended 
one of the very large and tumultuous meetings of the opera- 
tives, and endeavoured to persuade them to desist from their 
disorderly proceedings, and quietly to resume their work. 
With a view of still further winning them by kindness, he 
invited a deputation from those assembled to breakfast at 
Earlham on the following morning. Between forty and fifty 
of them came, with Dover, a notorious Chartist leader, at 
their head. After the usual family reading of the Scriptures, 
they sat down to a plentiful repast which had been provided 
for them in the large dining room, of which they partook 
heartily; and their host afterwards addressed them in a kind, 
conciliatory manner upon the subject of wages, and their 
duty to their employers. The men conducted themselves in 
an orderly manner and appeared grateful for the attention 
shown them. The scene was not soon to be forgotten." 

The editor gives some illustrations of the philan- 
thropist's benevolent character, by narrating instances 
of his visits to prisoners in the Jail, and to afflicted 
inmates of the Bethel and the Norfolk and Norwich 

5 14 History of Norwich. 

Hospital. A volume might be filled by an account of 
his acts of private benevolence, but we must pass on 
to more public matters. He seldom took an active 
part in contested elections, but at the election in 1833, 
after the passing of the Reform Act, the Whig candi- 
dates, one of whom was his near relative, were defeated, 
chiefly, as was generally believed, through the influence 
of bribery. On this subject J. J. Gurney wrote, — 

" As usual, I took little or no interest in the election, but 
when a petition was presented to Parliament against the 
returned members on the score of bribery, I imagined it to 
be my place to subscribe to the object, and wrote a letter in 
the Norwich newspapers stating the grounds of my so doing. 
Those grounds were in no degree personal, but simply moral 
and Christian. But the appearance of evil was not avoided. 
The measure was construed into an act of political pardzan- 
ship ; and I entirely lost ground by it in my own true calling, 
that of promoting simple Christianity among all classes/* 

He had thought of becoming a candidate for the 
representation of this city, or some other place, in 
Parliament. After some long conferences with his 
friends he abandoned the idea and devoted himself to 
his higher calling. Mr. J. J. Gurney was a well-known 
Liberal in politics, but he did not often speak at politi- 
cal meetings in this city. His speeches were always 
short and generally pertinent ; and showed good sense 
accompanied with the seriousness of conviction. On 
whatever side of any question he spoke he was listened 
to very attentively, and all parties believed that he 
delivered the unbiassed opinion of an honest man. 

Eminent Citizens of the igtk Century. 515 

His conduct on every occasion gained him the esteem 
of all friends of civil and religious liberty. 

In 1835, he was once more plunged into deep 
affliction by the long illness and death of his wife. 
Her health had of late years been much improved, 
and she had been unremitting in her attentions to his 
daughter during her illness from typhus fever, without 
apparently suffering in consequence. The disease 
was, however, lurking in her constitution, and after 
some time made its appearance. The fever gradually 
gained ground, and she sank under it on Nov. 9th of 
that year. She died happily, amid her mourning 
friends ; and her husband knelt down at her bedside 
and returned thanks for her deliverance from every 
trouble ! 

His journal contains many details of his visits to 
Manchester and Liverpool, of his journeys in Derby- 
shire and North Wales, of his journeys in Scotland 
and the north of England, of his voyage to America, 
of his journey to Ohio, Indiana, and North Carolina, 
of his journey from Richmond to Washington, of 
interviews with eminent statesmen, of labours at New 
York, of a voyage to the West Indies and proceedings 
there, of a tour on the continent, and of his return 
home. But we cannot follow him in all his wander- 
ings in many lands, where he went about doing good, 
promoting benevolent objects and preaching the 
gospel, his heart being too large to be confined to 
his native country, much less to his native city. On 
his return from the continent in 1 841, he attended a 
meeting of the Bible Society, and delivered his last 

5i6 History of NorwiciL 

great speech, which occupied two hours, on the state 
of religion in Europe. A shorthand writer took notes 
of that address, which was so full of information that 
it was afterwards published in the Journal of the 
Bible Society. 

Soon after his return home he married Eliza 
P. Kirkbridge. The event took place at Darlington, 
on October loth, 1841, as noted in his journal. After 
the marriage he delivered an address on the " Victory 
which is of faith." The dinner party was cheerful, 
and concluded with a short religious service. He and 
his bride parted from their friends, made a short tour, 
and returned to Earlham, which they "reached in 
health and great peace, the place comfortable and 
homeish, and the reception from his dearest children 

J. J. Gurney signed the total -abstinence pledge at 
the house of his friend, Richard Dykes Alexander, at 
Ipswich, on April 8th, 1843. He and his wife attended 
a great " Teetotal Meeting " held at Norwich, on the 
arrival of Father Mathew, on September 9th, that 
year. The lord bishop. Dr. Stanley, was present and 
requested J. J. Gurney to preside. He did so, and 
declared himself to be a pledged teetotaller. He 
spoke fully and carefully on the subject, and the lord 
bishop afterwards expressed his admiration of the 
apostle of temperance as the instrument of effecting so 
much moral good. 

As a man of business, Mr. J. J. Gurney was ready, 
punctual, and attentive. He was very modest, but of 
a candid and social disposition. Though in large or 

Eminent Citizens of t fie igtA Century. 517 


mixed companies he seldom appeared fonvard, yet in 
the society of his friends he was exceedingly agreeable. 
In private life no man was more estimable as a hus- 
band, a father, a neighbour, and a friend. In Norwich 
and in the surrounding district he was universally 
honoured and beloved. He .was a great reader of 
the bible, and he was regular and exact in family 
worship, but he was a stranger to bigotry, no stickler 
for forms, and no friend to mysticism in matters of 

The autumn of 1846 was spent by the philanthropist 
quietly at home, with the exception of engagements 
connected with the attendance of meetings of Friends, 
and with what proved to be a farewell visit to his 
beloved daughter at Darlington, and to his friends in 
several places on his way home. He attended a 
committee of the Norwich District Visiting Society 
on December 28th in that year, and on his return to 
Earlham he complained of great exhaustion, feverish- 
ness, &c. A few simple remedies were administered, 
but the uncomfortable symptoms remaining his medical 
man was summoned on the following morning. He 
pronounced it a slight bilious attack, and seemed to 
have no anxiety about the recovery. The philan- 
thropist, however, gradually sank, apparently from 
exhaustion, and he died on January 4th, 1847, ^^ ^^e 
59th year of his age. The news of his death spread 
a gloom over the city, and the universal lamentations of 
the citizens proved that they regarded him as a father 
and a friend, as indeed he had been to thousands of 
them. The sensation in Norwich and its neighbourhood 

5 1 8 History of Norwich, 

cannot easily be described, and is probably without 
precedent in the case of a mere private individual 
During the entire interval of seven days between his 
decease and the funeral, the half-closed shops and the 
darkened windows of the houses gave ample proof of 
the feelings of the inhabitants. It furnished the 
principal topic of conversation in every family, in 
every private circle, in every group by the wayside. 
People of all ranks vied with each other in their 
eulogies of their departed friend. Everyone had his 
own story to tell of some public benefit, or of some 
private kindness which had been shown to others or 
to himself 

The funeral, as might have been expected from this 
unusual public emotion, was an extraordinary scene. 
All the shops were closed and all business was sus- 
pended in the city. A number of gentlemen, including 
the mayor, the ex-mayor, and the sheriff, went out in 
carriages as far as Earlham Hall. The citizens 
generally formed the funeral procession, and followed 
the hearse and plain carriages from the hall to the 
burial place at the Gildencroft. There was no pomp 
or parade, no mockery of woe. A simplicity in har- 
mony with the character of the departed marked all 
the arrangements. As the procession moved on to- 
wards the city it was joined by an increasing number 
of the inhabitants, who issued forth in a continuous 
stream to pay their last tribute to the memory of 
departed worth. Silently and sadly many stood 
while the hearse passed slowly by, and many a tearful 
countenance among the crowd bore testimony to their 

Eminent Citizens of the igtk Century, 5 19 

love for the dead. The procession gradually increased 
in numbers all the way to the Gildencroft, and after 
the thousands of people had gathered round the grave 
a profound silence ensued, which was at length broken 
by a Friend repeating the verses, ** O death, where 
is thy sting ? O grave, where is thy victory ?" &c 
Another pause then took place, followed by another 
address, and then the body was lowered into its last 
resting place. The circle of mourning relatives, in- 
cluding J. H. Gurney and his wife, the surrounding 
crowd of spectators — persons of all ranks, of all ages, 
of all communions — magistrates and artizans, clergy- 
men and Nonconformists — representatives, in short, of 
the whole people of Norwich, now took their last 
farewell of Joseph John Gurney, and slowly turned 
towards the meeting house, where a meeting for 
worship was to be held. The service was deeply 
impressive, and formed an appropriate conclusion to 
the solemn occasion. At the Cathedral, on the 
following Sunday, the good Bishop Stanley preached 
a funeral sermon before a large congregation. His 
text was " Watchman, what of the night T and after 
enlarging on it, he alluded in a most pathetic and 
impressive manner to the virtues of the deceased, 
and we never before saw so many people so deeply 
moved. The death of the beloved citizen was also 
publicly adverted to in most of the places of worship 
in Norwich. 

Mr. J. J. Gurney was the author of various works, 
the most popular being one on the Evidences of 
Christianity. It is a production more calculated to 

5 20 History of Norwich, 

confirm the faith of a believer than to convert a free 
thinker who may not admit the possibility of anything 
supernatural. He also published a work on "The 
Vows and Practices of Friends ;" " Essays on Chris- 
tianity ;" " Essays on the Moral Character of Christ," 
and " Love to God ;" " The Papal and Hierarchical 
System compared with the Religion of the New 
Testament, &c." His last and best work is entitled, 
"Thoughts on Habit and Discipline," an excellent 
moral treatise. 

Bishop Bathurst 

Henry Bathurst, LL.D., canon of Christchurch, 
rector of Cirencester, and prebend of Durham, was 
installed bishop of Norwich in 1805. He was a prelate 
much esteemed and respected. His christian deport- 
ment, conciliatory manners, and general benevolence, 
endeared him to this city and diocese. He was 
eminently distinguished for his liberal sentiments, and 
for his attachment to the great principles of civil and 
religious liberty. He was often seen walking arm in 
arm with Dissenters in our streets. He voted in the 
House of Peers for the Repeal of the Catholic Disabili- 
ties Bill, and also in favour of the Reform Bill. This 
disinterested and noble advocacy of liberal principles 
is thought to have stood in the way of his promotion to 
an archbishopric. He died April 7th, 1837, in the 
93rd year of his age, and much lamented. A statue 
to his memory was placed in the choir of the 

Eminent Citizens of the igtA Century, 521 

Cathedral This beautiful work of art was the last 
work of Sir Francis Chantrey, and is executed in his 
masterly style from a block of the purest Carrara 
marble. It is placed on a plain pedestal of white 
marble, and fixed in the recess at the foot of the altar 
steps, on the north side of the choir, commonly called 
Queen Elizabeth's seat, because she sat there when 
she visited Norwich. The bishop is represented in a 
sitting posture, clothed in full ecclesiastical costume, 
and the artist has admirably succeeded in giving to 
his face that expression of benevolence for which he 
was so well known. 

The following is a translation of the Latin inscrip* 
tion on the pedestal : — 

To the Memory of 

The Right Reverend Father in Christ, 

HENRY BATHURST, Doctor in Civil Law, 

While for more than 30 years he presided over 

This Diocese, 
By his frankness and purity of heart. 
Gentleness of manners, and pleasantness of conver- 
sation, attached to himself the good will of all : 

His friends, 

In testimony of their regret for one so much beloved, 

Have caused this effigy to be erected. 

He died 5 Ap. A.D. 1837, in the 93rd year 

Of his age. 

522 History of Nonvich, 

Bishop Stanley. 

Dr. Stanley was born January 1st, 1779, and became 
rector of Alderley, in Cheshire. After twice declining 
the office, he was installed bishop of Norwich, August 
17th, 1837. He ruled the diocese for twelve years, 
and was highly esteemed by all sects for his unceasing 
efforts to promote the spiritual interests of every class 
of society, and his readiness on every occasion to 
co-operate with Dissenters in every good work. He 
often attended their meetings to promote religious 
and benevolent objects. In one of his sermons he 
quoted the injunction "The servant of the Lord 
must not strive, but be gentle unto all men ; in meek- 
ness instructing those that oppose themselves ;" &c 
His subsequent conduct furnished ample evidence of 
the sincerity with which he obeyed this injunction ; 
and although some of his clergy were somewhat 
estranged from him by his frequent expressions of 
unbounded charity, yet all were obliged to esteem 
him for his noble zeal and consistency of character. 
He was distinguished for his extensive liberality to the 
poor and his interest in their education. He was often 
seen going about from school to school, and the kindli- 
ness of his heart was so well known to the children that 
they sometimes pulled his coat behind to obtain his be- 
nignant smile, which to them was like sunshine after 
rain. On all occasions he was earnest in his advocacy 
of civil and religious liberty, and active in his exertions 
on behalf of all benevolent associations, both of the 
Church and of Dissenters. He was also a promoter 

Eminent Citizens of the igtA Century. 523 

of all literary institutions in the city and elsewhere, 
and often attended their anniversaries at which he 
delivered animated addresses. He did not lay claim 
to the character of a man of science ; but astronomy, 
geology, botany, and natural history were his favourite 
studies. He was the author of two interesting volumes 
on " The History of Birds," which were published by 
the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. 
He was elected president of the Linnean Society, and 
he accepted an appointment as one of the com- 
missioners chosen to inquire into the state of the 
British Museum. 

Bishop Stanley was so little of a bigot that he 
appeared once on the same platform with Father 
Mathcw, a Roman Catholic, at a temperance meeting 
in St. Andrew's Hall. He then and there eulogised 
the apostle of temperance, and advocated the cause 
with great eloquence. On another occasion he invited 
Jenny Lind, now Madame Goldscmidt, to the palace, 
when she visited this city. At the palace one evening, 
she sang before a large company. When it became 
known that the lord bishop of the diocese had actually 
entertained an operatic singer, great was the indigna- 
tion of some of the clergy. This however did not at 
all distress the good bishop, who held on the even 
tenor of his way, doing good whenever he had an 
opportunity. By his frequent earnest discourses in 
many churches in this diocese, he caused quite a 
revival of religion among the clergy and church-going 
people. He died, much lamented, on September 6th, 
1849, i" the 70th year of his age, and he was buried 


524 History of Norwich. 

in the middle of the nave of the Cathedral, in the 
presence of thousands who had known and loved him. 
A short time after his decease, a slab to his menK>ry 
was laid over his grave, bearing the following inscrip* 
tion : — 

In the love of Christ 
Here rests from his labours 


Thirty-two years Rector of Alderley, 

Twelve years Bishop of Norwich, 

Buried amidst the mourning 

Of the Diocese which he had animated. 

The City which he had served. 

The Poor whom he had visited. 

The Schools which he had fostered. 

The Family which he had loved. 

Of all Christian people 

With whom, howsoever divided, he had joined 

In whatsoever things were true and honest. 

And just, and pure, and lovely, 

And of good report 

Bom January ist, 1779. 

Installed August 17th, 1837. 

Died September 6th, 1849, Aged 70. 

Buried September 21st, 1849. 

Bishop Hinds. 

Samuel Hinds, D.D., succeeded Bishop Stanley. 
He was the sixty-seventh bishop of the diocese, and 
was installed on January 24th, 1850. He was the soil 
of Abel and Elizabetli Thornhill Hinds, bom Dec 

Eminent Citizens of the igtA Century. 525 

23 rd, 1793, in Barbadoes; and at the age of twelve 
he was sent to England, to the school of Mr. Phillips, 
at Frenchay, near Bristol He entered at Baliol 
College, Oxford, but for want of rooms removed to 
Queen's, graduated in honours 18 15 (second in 
classics), and in the year following he obtained the 
Latin essay. He returned to Barbadoes as a mission- 
ary and remained there five years, the three latter as 
vice-principal of Codrington College. After he re- 
turned to England he became vice-principal of Alban 
Hall, Oxford ; and he accompanied Archbishop 
Whately to Ireland, as his private chaplain. He was 
subsequently presented with the living of Yardley, in 
Herts, by Dr. Coplestone, bishop of LlandafT. Dr. 
Hinds again returned to Ireland, having been pre- 
ferred to the living of Castlenock by Archbishop 
Whatcley, and was chosen private chaplain to Lord 
Clarendon, lord lieutenant of Ireland Hence he 
removed to the deanery of Carlisle, but was scarcely 
settled there when he was appointed to the bishopric 
of Noru'ich. He had previously refused the bishoprics 
of New Zealand and Cork. He laboured in this 
diocese for seven years, often preaching in the 
churches, attending religious meetings, and delivering 
addresses of a high character. He generally preached 
at the anniversaries of the Church Associations in this 
city. He resigned the see of Norwich in April, 1857, 
and retired into private life. His health is said to 
have been impaired by his arduous labours in con- 
ducting the Oxford commissions which the govern- 
ment had entrusted to him, and which, added to his 

526 History of Norwich. 

duties in the diocese and the office of chaplain to the 
house of lords, proved too much for his constitution. 
Dr. Hinds is perhaps the most learned of modem 
bishops. His literary talents are considerable; He 
is the author of the " Rise and Progress of Chris- 
tianity/* first published in the '* Enclyclopaedia Metro- 
politana," and considered a standard work^ highly 
esteemed for its comprehensive views of religious 
truth. The *' Three Temples of the One God ;'* 
" Catechists* Manual ;" and " Inspirations of the 
Scriptures," are works from his pen, which testify to 
his deep learning and great research. He is the 
author of many beautiful poems and hymns, some of 
which are familiar to the congr^ation at Norwich 
Cathedral, from being repeated in the service as 
arranged to music The confirmation hymn is simple 
and appropriate. 

Mr. William Dalrymple. 

In a brief history of the Norfolk and Nonvich 
Hospitaly published by Dr. Copeman, we find the 
following memoir of the subject of this notice : — 

" Mr. Dalr>'mple was a native of Norwich, his father 
having removed thither from Scotland. He was bom in 
1772, and at an early age was sent to the Grammar School 
at Aylsham, in Norfolk, from whence he was removed to the 
Free School at Norwich, where he became a lEavourite pupil 
of its then head master, the celebrated Dr. Parr. Here he 
had for a schoolfellow Dr. Maltby, and with both, Dr. Parr 
kept up a friendly intercourse of visits to the latest period of 

Eminait Cittzefis of the igt?i Century, 527 

his life. It affords a strong proof of Mr. Dalrymple's early 
talents and his industry in cultivating them, that, although in 
accordance with the then custom of requiring medical 
apprenticeship to extend to seven years, he was obliged to 
leave school at the age of fourteen, he had yet attained such 
a proficiency in classical reading, and so correct an appre- 
ciation of its beauties, that, amidst all the urgent and various 
occupations and anxieties of his succeeding life, he found 
the greatest relief to his toils in a recurrence to his favourite 
authors. His taste was scholarlike as well as scientific ; his 
conversation embued with classical allusion, and his felicity 
in quotation remarkable.* 

" Mr. Dalrymple was apprenticed in London, and studied 
at Guy*s and St Thomas' Hospitals under Cline and 
Sir Astley Cooper. He returned to Norwich in 1793, and 
opened a surgery in his father's house; and although for 
several years his progress in establishing a practice was slow, 
he at last attained the highest reputation as a surgeon in his 
native city, and for many years enjoyed the confidence, 
friendship, and patronage of a very large number of pTatients 
of every grade of society and in every district of the county. 

"In 181 2 Mr. Dalrymple was elected assistant surgeon to 
the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, and two years afterwards 
succeeded to the full surgeoncy, a post which he occupied 
with great credit to himself and benefit to his profession 
until 1839, a period of twenty-five years. He was then in 
the 67th year of his age, his powers were less vigorous, and 
finding himself no longer equal to his hospital practice, he 
resigned his position there, receiving a cordial acknow- 
ledgment firom the governors, of *the able, humane, and 
successful exercise of his ofllicial duties,' and being honoured 
by a request to accept the appointment of honorary con- 

* Gentleman^s Magazine. 

528 History of Notwich. 

suiting surgeon. In 1844 Mr. Daliymple finally retired 
from professional life, and died in London on the 5th of 
December, 1848, aged 75 years. 

"From the year 1831 to 1835, ^ ^^ ample opportunities^ 
as house surgeon of the hospital, of observing, and profiting 
by, the mode in which the late Mr. Dalrymple performed his 
public professional duties in that institution ; and remember 
with pleasure and satisfaction, that I was sometimes able to 
render assistance, and save trouble, to one so deserving of 
the gratitude and goodwill of those with whom he had to do. 
At the period referred to, Mr. Dalrymple was beginning to 
feel the burden of heavy surgical responsibilities more weighty 
than his somewhat feeble frame would bear ; his naturally 
acute sensibility was increased by a measure of debility 
resulting from overmuch professional occupation. The 
sudden call to perform a serious and difficult operation was 
accompanied sometimes with a degree of shock to his nerves, 
which told upon him injuriously ; and the desire he had to 
save the life of the sufferer submitted to his charge (always 
a predominant feeling in his mind,) would well-nigh over- 
power him with emotion. I have often heard him say that 
he was not able to sleep the night before he had to perform 
the operation of lithotomy, although in such cases his success 
was great; but he possessed so much sympathy for his 
patient, and felt his o^-n responsibility so strongly, that he 
failed to secure to his mind that rest which alone could have 
enabled him to meet the contingencies of his profession with 
composure. This nervous sensibility was due in part to 
original constitution, and increased by professional toiL 
Sometimes it arises from defective knowledge, or from want 
of success; but so far from either being the case with 
Mr. Dalrymple, his knowledge was ample, the result of many 
years' industrious application of a mind capable of vast 

Eminent Citizens of tlie igtA Century. 529 

acquirements — sufficient to have given him confidence in 
the treatment of any case submitted to his care ; his success 
was beyond that of many placed in similar circumstances ; 
such, indeed, as might fairly have been expected from one 
who had so much sympathy for suffering humanity, and who 
devoted the whole energy of his mind to devise means to 
relieve it. For a long period no one but himself, perhaps, 
was aware of the stress upon his feelings which his pro- 
fessional duties, so well performed, were wont to occasion ; 
and when it did become apparent to others, it was delightful 
to witness how pleased, how grateful, how kind in expression 
he was for any attention, encouragement, or assistance 
offered him ; and how highly he estimated the friendship of 
those who watched an opportunity to perform those little 
offices of kindness and consideration, which, although diffi- 
cult to be defined, can always be appreciated by a sensitive 
mind and a feeling heart 

"The experience of a long and active professional life 
endued Mr. Dalrymple with the valuable qualification of 
forming a right judgment in cases of a complex and difficult 
nature, which was fully appreciated and acknowledged. The 
firmness and decision of his opinion upon a difficult case, 
when once formed, could not fail to impress the practitioner 
by whom he was consulted with confidence, and his patient 
with the assurance that dependence might be placed upon 
the result of his deliberations. 

"No one who had the privilege of Mr. Dalrymple's ac- 
quaintance can think of him otherwise than as a kind friend, 
a highly intelligent and well-informed man, an amusing and 
instructive companion, and a profoundly gifted practitioner 
of the art and science it was the business and happiness of 
his life to pursue." 

530 History of Norwich. 

Mr. John Grcme Crosse. 

We make the following extracts from a memoir of 
Mr. Crosse published in Dr. Copeman's History of 
tlu Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, 

** John Greene Crosse was the second son of Mr. William 
Crosse, of Finborough, in Suffolk, and was bom on the 
6th of September, 1790. In order to make known some 
particulars of his early life and education, I cannot do better 
than quote his own journal, which contains many remarks 
upon the subject evidently intended to have formed part of 
a history of his life. In April, 18 19, he penned the follow- 
ing observations. 

"*I never went to boarding school, which contributed, 
with many other occurrences of my subsequent life, to fix 
me in the unsocial habits that hitherto never did and never 
will forsake me. In my early years, no classical learning, 
not a line of Latin, was taught at the proximate market town 
to which I resorted as a daily pupil ; and my first lessons of 
reading, arithmetic, and writing were received from a master 
of whom I entertained the greatest horror, for the ferocity of 
his conduct, the severe discipline by which he drove into us 
the simplest rudimental knowledge. His stem brow, raucous 
voice, and long cane, are now livelily depicted to my mind : 
how much I owe to him, I am even now, with a long life in 
retrospect, unable to tell ; but I was glad when circumstances 
arose that released me from his tutorage.' 

" * Very small matters, and such as we have no control 
over, and call accidental because unable to trace the chain 
of causes giving rise to them, influence our mortal destinies. 
I had attained my 12 th (?) year, under such tremendous 


E mi f lent Citizens of tlte igtA Century. 531 

instruction as is related, when a Welsh gentleman making 
some mistake at college (not implicating his good character, 
an informality I should call it) found it well to rusticate; 
and taking with him his premature wife, sought a living by 
opening a classical school in Stowmarket. 1 became one of 
his early pupils ; and but for this good, easy man's settling 
in the town, should never have launched into such studies as 
Latin and Greek ; of which, it is true, I did not learn much, 
nor very accurately. But he was, nevertheless, a plodding, 
working man; an increasing family made him exert his 
abilities to the utmost ; and I got out of him all the instruc- 
tion I ever received as a school-boy in the learned languages. 
When about fifteen years of age, returning from my daily 
school, in a feat in jumping, I had the accident, I ought not 
perhaps to say the misfortune, to break my leg. The 
respectable village surgeon attended me : he was one of the 
old school ; of fine, soft, soothing manners, clean dressed, 
with powdered head ; rode slowly a very well-looking horse ; 
in short, he was a gentleman, and commanded the respect 
of every one when he entered the house ; he was also a 
skilful and kind surgeon. What wonder that the idea should 
be awakened in my mind to be of the medical profession ! 
to be as great a man as he — the Village Doctor ! to whom 
every one bowed, and who could relieve pain and cure 
injuries so quickly and skilfully. I had conceived an object 
of ambition, and the idea never deserted me. I was in a 
month upon my crutches, and soon recovered ; a surgical 
case fixed my future destinies.' 

" * I persevered a few years longer at Latin, Greek, 
French, and Euclid. My father was successful and able 
now to place me out well ; wished me to be a lawyer, and I 
was for a time under the instruction of a gentleman of that 
profession — attending bankruptcy meetings, and feasting at 

532 History of Norwich. 

midnight at the expense of the already distracted creditors. 
Those were good times for lawyers. A learned chancellor, 
whom I met on one such occasion, I well remember com- 
plimenting me on my quickness in counting money ; but all 
would not do, my mind was prepossessed — I quitted the law 
to follow my inclination ; I made my own choice ; it was a 
pledge to success. The surgeon who cured my leg agreed 
to take me as his first and only pupil, and I was accordingly 
articled in due form for five years.' 

"On the 27th of September, 181 1, Mr. Crosse went to 
London for the purpose of studying his profession in that 
Metropolis, and was the following day introduced to Mr., 
afterwards Sir Charles Bell, whose pupil he became, with 
whom he contracted a close intimacy, and of whose merits 
as a teacher and man of science he always spoke in the 
highest terms of respect and gratitude. In the following 
January, he entered to Abemethy*s Lectures ; and in April, 
181 2, became a student at St. George's Hospital, where his 
industrious habits and intelligence attracted the particular 
attention and marked notice of the medical officers of that 
noble institution. In the following month, he entered as a 
pupil at the Lock Hospital ; and in the course of the year, 
officiated as House Surgeon during the temporary absence 
of the gentleman who occupied that situation. In the 
following winter session, commencing October, 181 2, he 
studied under Brodie, Bell, Brande, Clarke, Home, and 
others; and remarks in his journal, *very industrious all 
this winter, sitting up constantly till past two a.m.' In 
March, 18 13, he became a dresser to Sir Everard Home at 
St George's Hospital ; attended Midwifery under Dr. Clarke; 
and on the i6th of April, passed the College of Surgeons 
in Ix)ndon. After a short holiday, he returned to London 

Eminent Citizens of the igtA Century. 533 

on the 13th of May, and attended the Eye Infirmary at 
Charter-house Square. In June, he resigned his dressership 
under Sir E. Home; became acquainted with the late 
Mr. Travers, Abemethy, Sir W. Blizard, and Dr. Macartney, 
whom he agreed to accompany to Dublin ; and much of 
his spare time during this summer was devoted to the study 
of German, a language he ever after cultivated that he might 
enjoy the profundity and research of the professional litera- 
ture of that country. 

" Mr. Crosse left England for Dublin on the 2nd of Octo- 
ber, 1 8 13, arriving there the following day. In December 
he became Demonstrator of Anatomy under Dr. Macartney, 
and remained there until October, 181 4, when he returned 
to London, having received a very handsome testimonial 
from the numerous students of the school in which he taught, 
as to his ability and energy in the capacity of their instructor 
in anatomy. 

" On quitting Dublin, Mr. Crosse returned to Suffolk, and 
was afterwards introduced to the late Dr. Rigby of Norwich, 
In December he went to Paris, where he remained until the 
end of February, 181 5, during which period he took French 
Lessons, wrote his Diary in the French language, and availed 
himself of every possible opportimity of increasing his pro- 
fessional knowledge. 

"On the 29th of March, 1815, Mr. Crosse came to 
Norwich ; and after remaining one year in lodgings, took a 
house in St. Giles', in which he resided for many years. He 
soon after published his '* Sketches of the Medical Schools 
of Paris," and showed, both by his writings and the industri- 
ous pursuit of his professional avocation, that he was destined 
to arrive at considerable eminence in the locality he had 
chosen for the arena of his future life. On the 19th of July, 
1823, he was the successful candidate for the appointment 

534 History of Norwich, 

of Assistant Surgeon to the Norfolk and Norwich HospitaL 
So great was his desire to becortie connected with the 
Hospital, and so strong the competition in which he 
was engaged to obtain this object, that his health gave 
way under the exertions he made to succeed ; and he was 
obliged to absent himself for a time, on which occasion he 
took a trip to Holland, visiting Brighton on his return. 
The result was favourable, and he returned to Norwich in 
good health. On the death of Mr. Bond, in 1826, he was 
elected full Surgeon to the Hospital, and thus attained one 
of the greatest objects of his ambition. 

" The rapid rise and progress of Mr. Crosse's reputation 
as a professional man, and the large extent of his private 
practice, are too well known to require further notice ; but 
notwithstanding the unremitting exertions required to fulfil 
his private engagements, he never allowed them to interfere 
with his public duties ; and the devotedness of his service to 
the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital was remarkable. It may 
be truly said that no private patient received more kindness, 
skill, and attention at his hands, than did those who were 
placed under his care in the wards of the HospitaL 

"As an operating surgeon, Mr. Crosse had but few 
superiors, and not many equals. He was possessed of con- 
siderable manual tact and dexterity, which, coupled with a 
sound judgment as to the necessity for the performance of 
an operation, stamped him as a surgeon of first-rate attain- 
ments. In his early professional life he studied anatomy 
with great assiduity, and his subsequent occupation as 
Demonstrator of Anatomy at Dublin so impressed the sub- 
ject upon his memory, that the constitution and form of the 
human body were always in his mind's eye; and thus he 
was rendered equal, at all times and upon all occasions, to 
the serious emergencies of surgery. In^ short, he obtained 

Eminent Citizens of the igtA Cetitury, 535 

and held for a long period the foremost rank in his profession 
in this district ; and such was the quality of his mind, that 
he would probably have been pre-eminent in whatever 
locality it might have fallen to his lot to be placed. 

" In 18 1 9, Mr. Crosse published A History of the Variolous 
Epidemic of Norwich^ which has been, and is even now, 
quoted as an excellent standard work. In 1822 he published 
Memoirs of the Life of the late Dr, J^igby^ prefixed to the 
valuable Essay which the Doctor had published some years 
before On Uterine Hamorrhage, 

"In 1835, the Jacksonian Prize was awarded him for his 
Essay on the Formation^ Constituents ^ and Extraction of the 
Urinary Calculus ; and in the same year he received, in 
consequence of this Essay, the Diploma of M.D. from the 
University of Heidelberg. 

"From 1822 to the close of his life, Mr. Crosse con- 
tributed many valuable Papers to different medical periodicals, 
which are of deep interest to professional men. 

" In 1836, Mr. Crosse was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society — a distinction which marked him for eminence 
throughout the whole civilized world. In 1845, ^^ College 
of St. Andrew conferred the Degree of M.D. upon him, and 
there is scarcely a medical or surgical society in Europe of 
which he was not a member, as well as being an honorary 
member of the most eminent societies in Asia and America. 

"During the last year of Mr. Crosse's life (1850), it 
became painfully evident to his friends that he was gradually 
losing that vigour of mind and body which had so long 
characterized him; and at the urgent solicitation of his 
medical advisers, he was induced to leave home for a 
few weeks, when he took the opportunity of consulting 
Sir B. Brodie and Dr. Watson in London, and spent a short 
time with the late Dr. Mackness at Hastings, of whose 

536 History of Norwick 

kindness he afterwards spoke in the highest terms of 
gratitude. On his return home, he endeavoured to resume 
his professional and even his literary avocations ; but al- 
though in a degree benefited by his holiday, he gradually 
lost power, and it was clear that his race was almost run." 

He died in his 6oth year, having been a resident in 
Norwich 35 years. 

Dr, Hooker, 

Norwich and Norfolk have produced an array of 
distinguished botanists, such as Smith, Turner, Lindley, 
and the elder Hooker. The president of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Dr. 
Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S., is the son of Sir William 
J. Hooker, formerly Director of the Royal Gardens at 
Kew, and he succeeded his father in that very im- 
portant post on November 12th, 1865. The present 
director of Kew sprung from a race of botanists. His 
paternal grandfather, a citizen of Norwich, devoted his 
leisure to the cultivation of curious plants. This cir- 
cumstance, doubtless, helped to create that taste for 
botany which, in the career of his illustrious father, 
has borne such ripe fruits. On the maternal side, the 
grandfather of Dr. Hooker was Mr. Dawson Turner, 
of Yarmouth. The eldest daughter of this gentleman 
became the wife of Sir William J. Hooker in 1814. 
Mr. Turner's is a well-known name in the annals of 
British botany ; he is the author of various botanical 
publications, and it was at his suggestion that a 
narrative of a visit made to Iceland in 1809 by his 

Eminent Citizens of tfie igth Century, 537 

future son-in-law was given to the world, a work 
which brought the name of Sir William J. Hooker 
prominently before the scientific world. So descended 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker was born at Halesworth, in 
Suffolk, on June 30th, 1817. Although thus by birth 
a native of Suffolk, he is by descent a Norwich man. 
He has been a great botanical traveller in many parts 
of the world, and he has added greatly to our know- 
ledge of the plants of Asia and India. On August 
19th, 1868, as President of the British Association, 
when the meeting took place in Norwich, he delivered 
the Inaugural Address in the Drill Hall before a 
large audience. 

Mrs, Opie, 

Amelia Opie was the daughter of Dr. Alderson, a 
physician in Norwich, and was bom here in 1769. 
The varied circumstances of her early life gave the 
bent to her after career. In her girlhood she beguiled 
the solitude of her father's summer house by com- 
posing songs and tragedies ; on her visits to London, 
the superior society into which the graces of her 
person and the accomplishments of her mind intro- 
duced her, served to stimulate her aspirations ; and 
after her marriage, in 1798, to the painter, Mr. John 
Opie, she was encouraged by her husband to become 
a candidate for literary fame. Accordingly, in 1801, 
she published a novel, entitled Father and Daughter. 
Although this tale showed no artistic ability in dealing 
either with incidents or with characters, yet it was the 

53^ History of Norwich, 

production of a lively fancy and a feeling heart, and 
speedily brought its author into notice. She was 
encouraged to publish a volume of sweet and graceful 
poems in 1802, and to persist in the kind of novel 
writing which she had commenced so successfully. 
Adelaide Mowbray followed in 1804, and Simpk Tales 
in 1806. The death of her husband in 1807, and her 
return to Noru'ich, did not slacken her industry. She 
published Temper in 1 81 2, Talcs of Real Life \n 18 13, 
Valentines Eve in 1 8 16, Tales of t/u Heart in i8i8, 
and Madeline in 1822. At length, in 1825, her 
assumption of the tenets and garb of the Society of 
Friends checked her literary ardour, and changed her 
mode of life. Nothing afterwards proceeded from her 
pen except a volume entitled Detraction Displayed^ 
and some contributions in prose and verse to various 
periodicals. A good deal of her life was spent in 
travelling and in the exercise of Christian benevolence. 
When in this city she was often seen in the assize 
court, sitting near the judge. She seemetl to take a 
great deal of interest in criminal cases. She died 
here in 1853. A life of Mrs. Opic, by Miss C. L. 
Brightwell, was published in 1854. 

Dr, William Crotch. 

The celebrated musician, William Crotch, was born 
in the parish of St. George at Colegate in this city, 
July 5th, 1775. His genius for music may be sup- 
posed to have commenced with his existence, as his 
parents did not remember any period in which he did 

Eminefit Citizens of the igt/i Century. 539 

not shew a great predilection for an organ, to which 
instrument he seemed to have a special attachment 
Indeed he had 3i penchant for every musical instrument 
at an early age. As soon as he could walk alone, 
which was at the beginning of his second year, he 
would frequently quit his mother*s breast to hear a 
tune on the organ, and when he wanted any particular 
tune, he would put his finger upon that key on which 
the tune began ; and as it sometimes happened that 
more than one tune began on the same key, he would 
strike two or three of the first or leading notes of the 
tune he chose to have played. Before he was two 
years and a quarter old, he played "God save the 
King " with both hands. At two years and a half he 
had played to several ladies and gentlemen, and was 
soon afterwards noticed in the public journals. At 
two and three quarters he could distinguish any note, 
and call it by its proper name, though he did not see 
it struck. His memory was so retentive, that a gentle- 
man only playing to him the Minuet in Rodelinda two 
or three times in the evening, was astonished to hear 
him perform it next morning, as soon as he went to 
the organ. Before he was three years old, he played 
at Beccles, Ipswich, and other places. Afterwards he 
was taken to Lynn, Bury, &c., and in October, 1778, 
to Cambridge. In November, he was nominated to a 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, with a small annuity 
annexed to it. In December he went to London, 
and after performing before the foreign ambassadors, 
maids of honour, &c., in 1779, he was introduced to 
the sovereign, to whom he gave the greatest satisfac* 


History of Norwich. 

tion, as he had done to the nobility and gentry in 
general, but more particularly to the greatest musi- 
cians. At the early age of 22 he was appointed 
professor of music in the University of Oxford, and 
there, in 1799, took his d^ree of doctor in that art 
In 1800 and the four following years, he read lectures 
on music at Oxford. Next he was appointed lecturer 
on music at the Royal Institution ; and subsequently, 
in 1823, principal of the Royal Academy of Music 
He published a number of vocal and instrumental 
compositions, of which the best is his oratorio of 
"Palestine." In 1831, appeared an octavo volume, 
containing the substance of his lectures on music, de- 
livered at Oxford and in London. He also published 
''Elements of Musical Composition and Thorough 
Bass." He arranged for the piano-forte a number of 
Handel's oratorios and operas, besides symphonies 
and quartetts of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven- 
He performed all his public duties laboriously, zeal- 
ously, and honourably, and in private life he was 
much beloved. He died on December 29th, 1847, in 
the house of his son, at Taunton. 


J^optch Jittttsts in the Jpiin^teenth (|entitt[s. 

ORWICH artists must have flourished in the 
17th and 1 8th centuries, as proved by their 
portraits of city worthies in the Guildhall and 
St Andrew's Hall, but we have few notices of early 
painters or engravers. About the commencement of the 
present century, a gentleman named Thomas Harvey 
lived at Catton, and was recognised as a very clever 
amateur artist He painted in oil, admirably, and he 
induced several of the leading artists of the day to 
visit Norfolk, such as Opie, Gainsborough, Sir William 
Beechey, Collins, and many others, who produced 
beautiful works of art 

About the year 1802, a few professional and amateur 
artists, drawn together by a similarity of taste and 
inclination, for the advancement of the arts of painting 
and design in their native city, began to associate to 
form a regular academy. Each member in his turn 
furnished matter of discussion according with his par- 
ticular view ; and by eliciting the opinions of his 
brother artists, mutually communicated and received 

Ic^ue or 1805: — Arthur I 
(cnj^rrivcr) Mrs, Coppin, H. . 
J. Cromc, K. Dixon, J. Fr 
Wm. Gordon of Saxlingham 
R. Ladbrooke, W. C. Lee 
F. Stone, architect This So 
establishment, within twent 
4000 pictures, the productio 
few of which were sold here, 
purchased in London and ot 
local artists were very little 
and old Cmme, one of the ver> 
in England, was a very poor 1 
since his death, his pictures 
thousands of pounds in Londo 

John Crome, sen., was hm 
in the parish of St Peter per 
apprenticed to Mr. Francis W 
sign painter, who, in 1783, live 
he felt the true impulse of | 
surmounted all obstacles. 1 
ertions he cultiv^*-- ' -* 

Norwich Artists of the igth Century. 543 

the principal schools- of Norfolk and Norwich. He 
possessed the rare faculty of communicating the 
ardour he himself felt to his pupils, both professional 
and amateur. His mind was too acute to exact from 
them a servile imitation of his own style ; on the con- 
trary he contented himself with instilling the more 
useful principles of art, and with giving freedom and 
spirit to their pencils. He then invited them to let 
loose the reins of fancy and taste, and to follow un- 
fettered the promptings of imagination. The fruits of 
this wise discrimination were seen in the reputation 
of his son, and his companions in excellence, whose 
works for some time attracted much attention in the 
metropolis to the growing talents and promise of the 
Norwich school of artists. In the other department 
he was seldom without commissions. He principally 
cultivated landscape painting, and he was exceedingly 
happy in seizing small picturesque local scenes, which 
he elevated to a degree of interest which they could 
hardly bear in their natural state. He was in painting 
the counterpart of Burns in poetry, both delighting in 
homely scenes. His pictures were beginning to be 
known and appreciated in London, the great mart of 
talent, and those he last exhibited in the British 
Gallery gained him a lasting fame. He was a man 
of heart, of impulse and feeling, quick, lively, and 
enthusiastic, and in his conversation animated to a 
high degree, especially when speaking on subjects 
connected with his art, the fond, the incessant, the 
earliest and latest object of his thoughts. A wide 
field of enterprise and exertion had just opened upon 

544 History of Norwich. 

his view, the last stage of his ardent ambition had 
unfolded itself, when he was suddenly seized with an 
acute disease, which terminated his life in the short 
space of seven days, on April 22nd, 1821, aged fifty 
years. He was buried in a vault in St George's 
Colegate Church, where the last sad offices of respect 
were paid to his memory by a numerous attendance 
of artists and other friends. Of late years a subscrip- 
tion was raised here for a monument to his memory, 
and after some delay a suitable memorial was placed 
in the church. (See page 89. j 

The following list of Mr. Crome's principal pictures, 
with their former possessors, was extracted from the 
published catalogue of his works : — 

"Lane Scene near Hingham," 181 2; "Lane Scene at 
Blofield," 1 8 13; and "Grove Scene near Marlingford,** 
18 1 5 — Samuel Paget, Esq., of Yarmouth. 

"View at the back of the New Mills,'' 181 7— William 
Hawkes, Esq., Norwich. 

"Wood and Water Scene near Bawbiu*gh," 1821 — Miss 
Burrows, Burfield Hall. 

"View in Postwick Grove,** 1 816— Lord Stafford. 

"Hautbois Common, Norfolk,** 1810 — Mr. F. Stone, 

"Lane Scene near Whitlingham," 1820 — Mr. Charles 

"Scene near Hardingham, Norfolk," 18 16— Mr. J. R 

"Lane Scene,** 181 7 — John Bracy, Esq. 

"Carrow Abbey,*' 1805 — P. M. Martineau, Esq. 

"Cottage and Wood Scene," 1820 — Michael Bland, Esq., 

Norwich Artists of tfie igtA Century, 545 

" Landscape — Evening" — Mr. Crome. 
"Grove Scene," 1820— Mr. F. Geldart, jun. 
"View of the Italian Boulevards at Paris," 181 5; and 
"Fish Market at Boulogne,** 1820 — R. H. Gumey, Esq. 

A "Wood Scene" was the last picture painted by 
Old Crome, in April, 1821. He painted many others, 
and etched a number of plates of Norfolk scenery, 
some of which have been printed. His pictures have 
been lent for various exhibitions and always much 

J. B. Crome, son of the father of the Norwich 
School of Landscape Painting, was a landscape painter 
of moonlights, &c. The editor of the Examiner for 
March, 1828, speaking of this artist's pictures, says : — 

" Mr. Crome's moonlight is good, and has the grey and 
brown hues of Vandemeer, whose moonlight scenes have 
been considered the best as to natural effects ; but except the 
parts under the immediate light of the moon, no specific 
colour should be seen. The browns and yellows here 
mingle well into the black shades of night, and have nothing 
of that flat grey blue which justly made coloured moonlights 
to be compared to a shilling on a slate." 

Mr. J. B. Crome's pictures were "Rouen," in the 
possession of Mrs. Southwell, Wroxham ; "Yarmouth 
Quay" — T. Cobbold, Esq., Catton ; "Yarmouth Beach, 
Moonlight" — R. J. Turner, Esq., Catton ; "View near 
Amsterdam, Moonlight" — ^J. Geldart, Esq., Norwich; 
"Norwich by Moonlight" — Hon. General Walpole; 
"Moonlight" — C. Turner, Esq., Norwich. Several 

546 History of Norwich, 

others of this artist's pictures were exhibited at the 
Norwich Industrial Exhibition in 1 867, and were 
much admired. 

Miss Crome, daughter of Old Crome, was a painter 
of fruit and flowers from nature, and painted success- 

Joseph Clover was a native of this city, but he 
resided some time in London. His first efforts in art 
were directed to engraving, and by the advice of a 
gentleman named Stocks, he took an impression of 
one of his plates to the late Alderman Boydell, in 
Cheapside, whose remarks on this performance dis- 
couraged him from following the profession of an 
engraver, and he remained for some time undeter- 
mined as to his further pursuit in art, until the 
following autumn, when being introduced by his uncle 
to the late Mr. Opie, whilst painting a portrait of that 
relation, he was so astonished at the facility with 
which the artist painted, and so delighted with his 
conversation, that he resolved from that moment to 
be a painter. He took Mr. Opie's advice and followed 
him to town, from which period, namely, April, 1807, 
being nearly four years, he enjoyed that artist's friend- 
ship. In the year 1806, Mr. Clover was accidentally 
introduced to the late Richard Cumberland, the 
dramatic poet, who perceiving that the artist's health 
was much impaired by a too close application to 
study, invited him to his house at Ramsgate, and by 
his introduction he painted several portraits, and to 

Norwich Artists of the igth Century, 547 

the hospitable residence of this gentleman he repeated 
his visits during the summer months for fourteen 
years. In Norwich, he painted three full-length 
portraits for St. Andrew's Hall, besides a number of 
others, and a picture called " Divided Attention," for 
his friend Mr. Turner, of Norwich. This first-rate 
picture excited much interest in London. Some of 
the early pictures of this artist were at Beau Port, 
the house of the late Sir James Bland Burgess, and 
at Battle Abbey in Sussex. Subsequently Mr. Clover 
had the honour of being patronised by the Marquis 
of Stafford and other noblemen. 

William Robert Dixon was a native of this city. 
His etchings of views in Norfolk were in the posses- 
sion of many persons in Norwich. Mr. Charles Turner 
had an interesting collection of his drawings. As a 
scene painter he was much admired. He had many 
tempting offers from the London and other managers 
of theatres ; but being fondly and firmly attached to 
his native city and a choice circle of friends, no allure- 
ments could induce him to leave them. He was very 
popular as a teacher of drawing. He died October 
1st, 1815. 

Charles Hodgson, a native of this city, was a 
painter of interior architecture, particularly of the 
early English style, and of considerable reputation 
for his excellent drawing and correct perspective in 
water colours, which subjects he was afterwards 
induced to paint in oil, in which he excelled. He 

548 History of Norwich, 

was a constant exhibitor in the London exhibitions. 
His pictures were in the possession of several gentle- 
men in the city and county. 

David Hodgson, son of the above, a native also of 
this city, was a painter of exterior architecture, land- 
scape, &c Some of his pictures of interiors of churches 
were in the possession of William Herring, Esq., 
Norwich ; Pair of Landscapes, W. Roberts, Esq., of 
Birmingham ; Large Landscape, Rev. J. HoUingworth, 
Newcastle; Small Landscape, Wm. Gate, Esq., Carlisle; 
Market Scenes, T. Bignold, Esq., Norwich ; Landscape, 
Mr. S. Coleman; Pair of Small Landscapes, Mr. Stone, 
Norwich ; Tombland, Mr. Stone ; Landscape, Mr. G. 
Cooke, engraver; Pair of Street Scenes, Mr. Yarington, 
Norwich ; Market Scenes, sold at the Liverpool exhi- 

Robert Ladbrooke, landscape painter, for many 
years enjoyed considerable celebrity as a drawing 
master, and in 1821 commenced the publication of 
"A Series of Views of the Churches in Norfolk," 
printed in lithography, of which ninety numbers were 

Joseph Stannard was a marine painter, in which 
walk of art he established a high reputation. His 
subjects were generally finely chosen, and painted 
with all the truth and transparency of nature. The 
grouping of his vessels displayed an admirable taste, 
and they were embellished with the most correct^* 

Norwich Artists of the igth Century, 549 

drawn figures, highly characteristic of the stations 
they occupied. 

Mrs. Stannard, wife of the above, was a painter 
of fruit, flowers, fish, still life, &c Her maiden name 
was Coppin, and her mother was rewarded by the 
Society for the Encouragement of Arts, for several 
copies of painting. The daughter's productions were 
highly esteemed by the lovers of art 

Alfred Stannard. The talents of this artist, at 
an early period of his life, gained him the approbation 
of the critics of the London Journals — ^which noticed 
works of fine arts as exhibited in the National Gallery. 
The Literary Gazette of March, 1828, contained this 
notice, — 

"No. 152, Trowse Hall, Norwich, painted on the spot by 
A. Stannard. We think that this work partakes more of 
the Flemish style of art than legitimately belongs to a picture 
painted on the spot; its elaborate finish must necessarily 
have required considerable time in the execution ; and the 
character of our climate is much too variable, day after day, 
to paint from the same hue of atmosphere, and the same 
effect of Chiaroscuro. Be that as it may, the excellence of 
the performance, however it may have been achieved, is an 
abundantly sufficient passport to regard of this artist's picture. 
No. 431, Sluice Gate, on the river Wensum, shews the close 
resemblance of character and execution between the works 
of some of our artists and the best pictures of the Flemish 

The critic might have added that most of the people 
of Norwich are of Flemish or Danish extraction, and 

550 History of Norwich. 

that the Norwich school of painting seems to have 
been derived from the Flemish school The subjects 
painted, and the style of treatment are very similar. 

James Stark was articled to the senior Crome 
for three years, from 1810 or 181 1, at the expiration 
of which time he went to London and drew at the 
Royal Academy, which place he was obliged to leave 
from ill health. The first picture which he exhibited 
at the British Gallery, represented "Boys Bathing/' 
purchased by the Bishop of Oxford. His other 
pictures were " Flounder Fishing," in the possession 
of Sir J. Grey Egleton, Bart. ; " Penning the Flock," 
the Marquis of Stafford ; " Lambeth," the Countess 
de Grey ; " Grove Scene," Thomas Phillips, Esq. ; 
" Grove Scene," Francis Chantrey, Sculptor ; besides 
many others in the possession of George Watson 
Taylor, Esq., M.P. ; Mr. Davenport, M.P. ; Charles 
Savill Onley, Esq., M.P. ; Onley Savill Onley, Esq.; &c, 
&c. In 1827, this artist circulated proposals for 
printing '• Scenery of the Rivers Yare and Waveney/* 
with engravings from his own paintings, and the work 
was beautifully carried out. 

J. S. COTMAN became one of the most celebrated 
artists in the Water Colour Society, and attained a 
very high position in London, where he was appointed 
Drawing Master at King's College ; he published Views 
in Normandy, and also a work on the Sepulchral 
Brasses of this locality. His pictures have always 
commanded high prices. His two sons also became 
eminent artists. 

Norwich Artists of the igth Cetitury. 551 

About the year 1830, there was something like a 
School of Art commenced in Norwich, where artists 
and amateurs could study art in a proper manner, 
from the best casts of the finest statues. Before then, 
artists had to study as they best could, and their 
education was very imperfect. They are much in- 
debted to John Harwell, Esq., for promoting their 
interests in this respect, and rendering them great 
assistance by his knowledge of art. Amongst the 
members of the new society were the Barwells. father 
and son, the Cotmans, the Freemans, T. Geldart, 
A. Sandys, S. Miers, and many others who studied 
art either from the cast or the life. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Art Union opened their 
exhibition of pictures on August i6th, 1839, at the 
Bazaar, in St. Andrew's Broad Street. About 400 
pictures were exhibited, many of them being of a 
high order of merit At subsequent exhibitions, 
many pictures of local artists were exhibited, in- 
cluding some of the Cromes, the Ladbrookes, the 
Stannards, the Cotmans, Hodgson, Stark, Vincent, 
Downes, Sandys, Capt. Roberts, and others much 
admired. A Fine Art Association has also been 
recently established. It held its first exhibition in 
August, 1868. A large number of the pictures were 
disposed of on the principle of an Art Union. 




SFh^ (I[omm^rciat l^istotig of Jtoplrk 

HAT has been the trade of the city, from the 
earliest period up to the present time, is an 
interesting subject of inquiry to the inhabi- 
tants. The sources of information are very scanty, 
for local historians of former days did not trouble 
themselves much about trade, but were content with 
simply recording passing events and the proceedings 
of public bodies. From old charters and acts of 
parliament, and details of local taxation, we may, 
however, learn something about the industry and trade 
of by gone ages. We may discover how people lived, 
how they were employed, and what sort of clothes 
they wore ; and we shall find a remarkable sameness 
from age to age. The trade of any country, or county, 
or town, arises from productive industry in agriculture 

Textile Manufactures. 553 

or manufactures, or in mercantile business, or in carry- 
ing goods from one place to another, or in all three 
combined. All three have existed in this city and 
county ; and it is important to inquire into the past 
and present state of our trade, and the causes whidi 
have promoted or retarded its progress or decline. 

Textile Fabrics. 

In tracing the rise and progress of manufactures in 
this city, it will be necessary to refer to many sources 
of information respecting the garments worn by the 
people of every period. The Roman writers supply 
some information relating to the Iceni and other 
aborigines of this island ; the Anglo-Saxon illumina- 
tions represent the costumes of a later period ; monu- 
mental effigies exhibit the clothing of the middle 
ages ; and many acts of parliament allude to the 
manufactures of modern times. The arts of spinning, 
weaving, dyeing, and dressing wool, linen, and silk, 
were known to all ancient civilized nations. The 
Gauls taught those arts to the ancient Britons in this 
island. Of the kinds of cloth made in Gaul, according 
to Pliny, one was made of fine wool dyed in several 
colours. This wool, being spun into yarn, was woven 
in stripes or checquers, of which the Gauls made their 
summer garments. Here we have the origin of the 
Scotch plaid or tartan, which is called the garb of old 
Gaul to this day. 

The dress of the ancient British females may be 
ascertained from the account by Dion Cassias of the 

554 History of Norwich. 

appearance of Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni, who 
inhabited this eastern district Her light hair fell 
upon her shoulders. She wore a torque of gold, a 
tunic of several colours all in folds, and over it a robe 
of coarse stuff, fastened by a brooch. The common- 
alty and the less civilized tribes, inhabiting the interior 
of the island, went about simply clad in skinsw The 
Druids wore white dresses, and the Bards a robe of 
sky blue, emblematic of peace. The Ovates, pro- 
fessing to know medicine, wore green, the symbol of 
learning. Julius Agricola being appointed to the 
command in Britain, A.D. 78, soon succeeded in 
establishing the Roman sway, and introducing the 
Roman costume, manners, and language ; and before 
the close of the first century the British habit was 
r^arded as a badge of barbarism. Tacitus says, 
"The sons of the British chiefs began to aflfect our 
dress." The southern and eastern Britons disused the 
Broccoe, and wore the Roman tunic reaching to the 
knee, with the cloak or mantle. The female garb was 
similar to that of the Roman women, who wore two 

The Anglo Saxons, Jutes, and Danes, when located 
in different parts of England, spun and wove most of 
the materials now used for dress. The woollen, linen, 
and silk yarns were all home-spun, and the textile 
fabrics were home-made. The civil costume consisted 
of a linen shirt, a tunic of linen or woollen, worn 
according to the season, descending to the knee, and 
having long loose sleeves. It was made like the shirt, 
and open at the neck, and put on in the same manner. 

Textile Manufactures, 555 

It was sometimes open at the sides and confined by 
a belt or girdle at the waist Over this a short cloak 
was worn fastened with brooches, sometimes at the 
breast, sometimes on both shoulders. 

Mr. Strutt remarks that the silence of the Anglo- 
Saxon writers on the subject of Danish dress, while 
they are profuse in the description of the dress of 
their countrymen, proves a similarity of costume. 
According to Danish ballads, black was the colour of 
the ancient Danish dress. Saxon chronicles allude 
to the Danes by the name of the " Black Army." 
Black amongst them had no funeral associations. 
This sombre hue may have been their national colour, 
their standard being a raven. After becoming settled 
in Norwich and Norfolk, they doffed the black colour, 
and became effeminately gay in their dress, and often 
changed their attire. 

The Normans and Flemings who came over with 
the Conqueror into England, and those who followed 
him in great numbers, were remarkable for their love 
of finery, according to our early historians. The 
dresses of the common people of course continued to 
be much the same from age to age, but the habits of 
the nobility were more influenced by fashion ; and the 
reign of William Rufus is stigmatised by many writers 
of the period for shameful abuses. The king himself 
set the example, and the clergy and laity were alike 
infected with the love of costly clothing. After the 
Norman Conquest, a sort of cloth was introduced 
which, though not a new discovery, had not been 
formerly known in England. This was quite a 

the whole Icngtii in one ii 
intersected in tlie otlier. I 
christian era there were no te 
now understand the terms, i 
spun, and all the garments we 

The female costume in N< 
from 1087 to 1 1 54, presents u 
novelty, and that by no meam 
rage for lengthening every p< 
not confined to the male sea 
ladies' tunics, and their veils 
have been so long in the reigns 
Henry I. as to be tied up in ki 
on them, and the trains or skir 
in immense rolls at the feet 
tunic a shorter garment was » 
illuminations of the period. 

The twelfth century is a pe 
began to be particularly mentio; 
from manufactures. It is also 
valuable sonn-*' "*■ --'■ 

Textile Manufactures. 557 

and he presents the coronation robes of the kings, and 
the costumes of the nobles with splendid decorations. 
The Dutch and the Flemings soon came over the 
sea, located themselves in the city and in different 
parts of the eastern counties, and introduced various 
manufactures. William of Malmesbury states that in 
the reign of the Conqueror's youngest son, Henry L, 
a great inundation in the low countries drove many 
more of the Flemings to seek refuge in England ; and 
Blomefield, in his History of Norfolk, says that several 
of them settled at Worstead in Norfolk, and thus early 
introduced the art of stuff weaving there ; which, as 
is natural to suppose, soon began to be extensively 
adopted in Norwich. Gervase, of Tilbury, writing of 
the Flemings says, — 

" The art of weaving seemed to be a peculiar gift bestowed 
upon them by nature ; yet the new comers were not always 
well received by the native population, and had to be pro- 
tected by laws made in their favour. Indeed, the natives of 
Norwich, in every period, have been hostile to foreigners, or 
to any sort of interference with their peculiar branch of 

In the next reign, that of Henry II., "Guilds" of 
weavers were multiplied, and had their charters oi 
privilege in London, York, Winchester, and Norwich; 
and a system of protection, originating with manu 
facturers, prevailed all over the country. During tht 
next reign, that of Stephen, more Flemish weavers 
came over ; and these successive emigrations were a 
real blessing to the land. England had hitherto not 
been a manufacturing country till the arrival of the 

were of tlic Aii^jki-Siixon rat 
for tliat pruhity in their d. 
becimc tlic cliaracteristic of 1 
During the reign of Rich, 
supposed that though the tr 
not increase, yet some of the 
turned from the crusades bn 
of the eastern method of we: 
useful arts flourished in the ea 
introduced here were, howeve 
to the troubles of the reign 
equally disturbed reign of his 
the wise and resolute king, E 
succeed in restoring English ti 
perity. Yet it is clear that ' 
along prospering, for in the re 
peated mention is made of its 
granted a patent to John Peaco 
piece of worsted made in the ci 
being found to check the tra 
In the reign of Edward I ♦' 


Textile Manufacttires. 559 

it was first made, and brunetta or burnetta, with 
several other fine and delicate stuffs, are mentioned 
in this period. Gauzes were afterwards produced in 
large quantities in Norwich. Tartan was a fine 
woollen cloth, which was also much used for ladies* 
robes, and was generally of a scarlet dye. 

In the thirteenth century the materials for dress 
became more numerous, and this period is more re- 
markable for the splendour of costume than for 
change of form. Matthew Paris, monk of St Albany, 
a contemporary historian, describes the pageantry of 
the day, and expresses disgust rather than pleasure 
at the excessive foppery of the times. He states that 
the nobility who attended at the marriage of the 
daughter of Henry HI. to Alexander king of Scot- 
land, were attired in vestments of silk, commonly 
called comtises, on the day when the ceremony was per- 
formed, but on the following day they were laid aside. 

In the reign of Edward III. other foreign clothiers 
came to England, and many of them settled in the 
eastern parts of Essex. In 1353, this monarch pro- 
hibited his subjects from wearing any cloth but such 
as was made in this kingdom ; and he also forbade 
the exportation of wool Both in this reign and in 
that of Richard IL, repeated mention occurs in the 
oath book and court rolls of wool-combers, card 
makers, clothiers, weavers, fullers, &c During the 
reign of Elizabeth a new impulse was given to the 
trade by the emigration of Protestants and others 
from the low countries, and from France, who intro- 
duced important branches of industry. Mr. James, in 

S6o HUtary iff XararidL 

bis History of the Worsted Mannfactmre in 'Ea^bad, 
says, that king Edward IIL so far exteacicd and 
improved that trade, that from his reign may be dated 
a new era in its history. This monandi coald aoC 
with all his sagacity, and the earnest desire he ever 
evinced for the welfare and prospeiity of his svtjects; 
remain long unmindful of the great profit and advan- 
tage of working up the Ei^lish wo<d for domestic 
consumption or export, instead of exportii^ die 
material in a raw state. When, therefore, he c^xniscd 
Phillippa, the daughter of the Earl of Hainault, whose 
subjects were excellent cloth makers, the close con* 
ncction which the marriage occasioned between the 
two countries, and probably in part some suggestions 
of the queen, induced the king, in 1331, to invite 
hither a large number of his countrymen, skilful in 
the art of weaving woollen and worsted. These 
Flemish weavers settled, by the directions of the king, 
and under his special protection, in various parts of 
the country, where the wool grown in the district was 
suitable for the particular kind of cloth made by these 
artizans. The worsted weavers were located in Nor- 
folk and Suffolk, having Norwich for their chief seat 
or mart. Blomefield, in his history, says, — 

" Under the reign of Edward III., Norwich became the 
most flourishing city of all England by means of its great 
trade in worsted, fustian, friezes, and other woollen manti* 
factures, for now the English wool, being manufactured by 
English hands, incredible profit accrued to the people by 
its passing through and employing so many, every one having 
a fleece, sorters, combers, card spinners, &c.'* 

Textile Manufactures, 561 

Alluding to the condition of this trade at the same 
period, old Fuller, in his Church History, says, — 

" The intercourse being large betwixt the English and the 
Netherlands, (which having increased since King Edward 
married the daughter) unsuspected emissaries were employed 
by our king with those countries, who brought them into 
familiarity with such Dutchmen as were absolute masters of 
their trade, (but not masters themselves) as either journey- 
men or apprentices. These bemoaned the slavishness of 
their poor servants, whom their masters used rather like 
heathen than christians ; yea, rather, like horses than men ; 
early up and late to bed, and all day hard work, and harder 
fare, (a few herrings and mouldy cheese,) and all to enrich 
the churls their masters, without any profit unto themselves. 
But, oh, how happy should they be if they would but come 
over to England ! bringing their mystery with them, which 
would provide their welcome in all places. Here they 
should feed on fat beef and mutton till nothing but their 
fulness should stint their stomach ; yea, they should feed on 
the labour of their own hands, enjoying a proportionable 
portion of their gains for themselves. Persuaded with the 
promises, many Dutch servants leave their masters and 
come over to England." 

According to Blomefield, the trade continued to in- 
crease during the succeeding reign, that of Richard II., 
when laws were passed for regulating the sale of 
worsted. Our ancestors were then a plain homely 
sort of people, and like their forefathers, were content 
with coarse woollen cloths for their plain clothes. In 
this and succeeding reigns important changes took 
place in the system of society, especially in the forma- 

562 History of Norwich. 

tion of a middle class, which gradually increased in 
numbers and influence, and became the great support 
of trade. Norman despotism was relaxed, and politi- 
cal liberty was advanced, and the darkness of the 
middle ages was dispelled. 

In A.D. 1403, Henry IV. separated the city of 
Norwich from the county of Norfolk, and made it a 
county of itself, which it has been ever since. This, 
of course, has been a great advantage to the city as 
regards its self-government In this rdgn it was 
deemed necessary to appoint ofllicers, whose business 
it should be to inspect the goods ; and in the reigns 
of Henry V., Henry VI., Edward IV., and RichanJ III., 
complaints were reneu'cd in acts of parliament and 
other documents of the great "crafte and deceite" 
used in the making of worsteds, says, serges, fustians, 
motleys, &c, at Norwich. 

During the short reign of Edward VI,, the making 
of " felt and thrummed hats, dornecks, and coverlets," 
bad sprung up in consequence of the decline of the 
old stuff manufacture ; and in the reign of Mary the 
manufacture of "light stulT's"was introduced. These 
were of the same fabric as " the fustians of Naples," 
and seem to have been so similar to the bombazines 
of succeeding years, that they may be considered as 
the commencement of the great staple of Norwich. 
During the subsequent reigns the city does not seem 
to have advanced in prosperity. Henry VII. succeeded 
in reviving the trade a little, but in the reign of his 
son, Henry VIII., it again declined. Welindbyaa 

Textile Manufactures. 563 

act passed in that reign " that the making of worsteds, 
says, and stammins, which had greatly increased in 
the city of Norwich and county of Norfolk, was now 
practised more diligently than in times past at Yar- 
mouth and Lynn." If so, the trade soon died out in 
those towns, as we have no record of any manufactures 

Philip and Mary passed an act to encourage the 
making " of russels, satins, satins-reverses, and fustians 
of Naples." From this time it appears that the stuffs 
made in the city were exported into foreign countries, 
most probably into Holland and Flanders, and at 
length partial restrictions were laid on the export 
trades, but still a great amount of business was done. 
As yet no one had promulgated the modern doctrines 
of free trade. 

From Cotman's valuable work, "The Sepulchral 
Brasses of Norfolk," we may gather some information 
respecting the costumes of people in the middle ages. 
With reference to the dresses of the ladies, we may be 
surprised at the tardy progress of "fashion" in 
mediaeval times, but a little consideration will enable 
us to solve the difficulty. In the fifteenth century 
money was very scarce, and all the articles of female 
apparel were about twelve times more costly than 
they are at present. Husbands and fathers were 
doubtless " intractable " in proportion. Hence our 
fair but thrifty ancestresses continued to wear the very 
same dresses on all festive occasions for many years. 
Now, however, the facilities of foreign travel, the intro- 
duction of cheaper materials, the results of modem 

564 History of Norwich. 

ingenuity, and the spirit of the age in which we live, 
all tend to rapid, frequent, and capricious changes of 
costume ; but it was not so then, and a lady was fre- 
quently attired as her grandmother had been before 
her! Our ancestors were slow coaches. Centuries 
elapsed before they achieved the ruff^ before they 
discovered the bonnet, before they perpetrated the 
wig! They never dreamt of crinoline. Thus, for 
example, we observe the very same form of kirtle 
or gown — close fitting, low waisted^ but wide and 
pleated at the bottom, during a period of more 
than 300 years, there being only a slight variation in 
the shape of its sleeves. The fall, the flounce, and 
cuffs of fur or some other material, must have been 
also a very long-lived fashion, being observable on 
many brasses from the dates of 1466 to 1537. But 
the designers of brasses may have adhered for a 
long time to merely conventional forms. The Rev. 
R. Hart, in his Letters to a local magazine, says : — 

"The wife of Sir Miles Stapleton, in 1365, wears a close- 
fitting tunic over the kirtle, (the sleeves of which, with a row 
of small buttons extending from the wrist to the elbow, are 
seen underneath ;) the sleeves of the tunic itself are short, 
but there are oblong narrow pendants almost reaching fit)m 
them to the ground. It is buttoned at the breast, there are 
two pockets in the front, and the lower part is fiill and 
gathered into puckers or folds. (Cotman pi. 4). During 
the reigns of Henry IV. and V. the ladies wore a sort of bag 
sleeve, tight at the wrist (like that of a modem bishop). 
About 1 48 1, the sleeve became wide and open like that of a 
surplice. About 1528, the sleeves of the kirtle, or under 

Textile Manufactures. 565 

dress, were, in some instances, cut or pinked, so as to ex- 
hibit a rich inner lining. In 1559, there was a tight sleeve 
ruffled at the wrist, and with an epaulet upon the shoulder, 
pinked ; and at the same period we observe the earliest 
specimen of the ruff, and the rudiments of the habit shirt 
By far the most remarkable varieties are observed in head 
dresses, which frequently supply valuable indications as to 
the date. On the cup presented by King John to the 
borough of Lynn, and in the small figures upon Branch's 
monument, some of the females wear a close-fitting cap like 
a child's nightcap, and others a sort of hood with a long 
tail to it, which is sometimes stiff and sometimes loose like 
drapery. The wives of Walsoken and Branch (1349 and 
1364) exhibit the wimple, covering the throat, chin, and sides 
of the face, and the couverchef (kerchief) thrown over the 
head and falling upon the shoulders. The next important 
variety was the forked or mitre head dress, which first came 
into fashion about 1438, and held its ground for about 
twenty-six years, though there is one specimen as late as 
1492. This was followed by the pedimental style of head 
dress, which began about 141 5, and continued till late into 
the following century. The butterfly head dress, which was 
a cylindrical cap with a light veil over it, stiffened and 
squared at the top, prevailed from 1466 to 1483. In 1538 
we observe a graceful form of head dress, like what is termed 
the Mary Queen of Scots' cap. The mantle, which was 
something like a cope, the jaquette, which may be compared 
to the " flanches of heraldry," and excellent specimens of 
ancient embroidery, may all be studied in the brass of 
Adam de Walsoken. About the year 1460 we observe the 
aumoniere (like a reticule) hanging from a lady's girdle, and 
also the rosary, terminating, not with a cross, but with a 

566 History of Norwich. 

In reference to the dresses of the male sex, the 
Rev. R. Hart gives the following details as to 

municipal costumes. 

" On the Lynn cup, alreadjr referred to, we observe the 
jerkin, or short coat ; also a sort of cape, or short cloak ; 
a larger cloak, and three or four sorts of head coverings, 
viz., a low flat-topped cap ; another something like a helmet; 
a hat sloping upwards from the rim, and flat at the top ; a 
hood with a tail to it ; and another exactly resembling what 
is now termed a ' wide-awake.' On the monuments of 
Walsoken and Branch we notice the jerkin, the mantle, 
cloaks, long and short, (in one instance festooned over the 
right shoulder like the plaid of a Highlander,) and anothtf 
long cloak, curiously buttoned all down the front; also 
several kinds of head-covering, some exactly similar to those 
which have been recently described, others with a broad 
rim turned up, the top being round-pointed or flat ; and in 
one instance we obser\'e a hat and feather. In their monu- 
mental effigies the laity are usually attired in a long gown, 
which has sometimes bag sleeves, but resembles an albe in 
all other respects. It is usually girdled with a leathern strap 
with a rosary of much larger beads than we observe on 
female brasses, and without any decads. Generally speaking, 
these rosaries have a tassel underneath, but on the brass of 
Sir William Calthorp, 1495, ^ signet ring is attached to the 
end of the rosar}% while a beautiful shaped aumoniere also 
hangs from the girdle. About the year 1532 we observe 
gowns with hanging sleeves, like those which are still worn 
by masters of arts at our universities ; and in other instances, 
of about the same date, we observe a pudding sleeve reach- 
ing a little below the elbow of the under dress. The biass 
of Edmund Green, in Hunstanton church, A.D. 1490, is 

Textile Manufactures. 567 

chiefly remarkable from the resemblance that his upper 
garment bears to a pelisse or furred surtout The short 
cloak — trunk hose (something like the Knickerbockers' of 
our own time), and also the ruff, are observable upon Nor- 
folk brasses between 16 10 and 1630. During the first half 
of the fifteenth century, we observe a frightfully ugly mode 
of shaving of the hair all round, to some height above the 
ears. It looks like a skull cap, and is an exact inver- 
sion of the tonsure. Burgesses of Lynn appear to have 
worn, in the fourteenth century, long gowns, the lower 
part of which is open in the front about as high as 
the knees, and with wide sleeves reaching to the elbow. 
There is a richly bordered and hooded cape over the upper 
part of this gown. It is not unlike an amess. Aldermen of 
Norwich wore a mantle open at the right shoulder, falling 
straight behind, but gathered into a slope at front, so as to 
cover a great part of the left arm, while the other was ex- 
posed It had a standing collar, and there were buttons 
upon the right shoulder. A Judge of the Common Pleas, in 
1507, wore his hair long and flowing, and was habited in a 
long wide-sleeved gown, open in the front; apparently it 
was lined, caped, and bordered with fur, and there is a 
purse hanging from the girdle. On his feet he wore clogs of 
a very remarkable form. A Judge of the King's Bench, in 
1545, wore a wide-sleeved long gown, a mantle open at the 
right shoulder, as in the municipal examples, his head being 
covered with a coif or closely-fitting skull-cap." 

In the earlier years of the reign of Elizabeth, the 
Flemings, who fled from the persecutions of the Duke 
of Alva, settled at Norwich to the number of 4000, 
and much increased the prosperity of the city by 

568 History of Norwich. 

introducing the manufacture of bombazines, which 
were long in great demand all over the country. 
Black bombazines were universally worn by ladies 
when in mourning, up to a recent period. These 
bombazines were mixed fabrics of silk and worsted, 
and were dyed in all colours. They did not wear so 
long as the more modern paramattas. 

Elizabeth gave every encouragement to manufac- 
tures ; and when more Flemings sought refuge in 
England, the city of Norwich gained an accession of 
knowledge in the art of weaving with a warp of silk 
or linen, and a weft of worsted, as well as in dyeing and 
other processes. And now the articles manufactured 
began to be classed as " bays, arras, says, tapestries, 
mockadoes, stamens, russels, lace, fringes, camlets, per- 
petuanas, caffas and kerseys." Nothing contributed 
more to advance the prosperity of the city than the 
arrival of the industrious Dutch people, who brought 
with them arts before unknown in this land. 

For centuries the action of government in reference 
to trade was simply in the way of protection, creating 
monopolies under charters, and sometimes for subsidies 
This was especially the case in Norwich, which was 
made one of the royal cities of England, and had a 
market every day in the week, as well as annual marts 
for all sorts of merchandise. The manufacturers first 
sought and obtained protection for their trade under 
charters. Hence arose a system which answered very 
well in the infancy of society, but which became 
obsolete in the course of national development, and 
the extension of commerce. 



Textile Manufactures. 569 

Under the miserable rule of Charles I., the perse- 
cuting Laud succeeded in driving back the industrious 
Dutch weavers to Holland, and causing others to 
emigrate to America in order that they might enjoy 
religious liberty. Thus the best workers were driven 
out of England, and a stimulus was given to the 
Dutch worsted manufacture. The Commonwealth 
government restored prosperity to trade, and estab* 
lished a corporation of fifty-four persons in Norwich 
for the regulation of trade, which then flourished ex- 

In the reign of Charles II., we find that " Weavers' 
Hall " is mentioned ; and though the king taxed the 
manufacturers, the Norwich workers flourished : for 
Sir John Child, in 1681, declared that, " Such a trade 
there is, and hath been, for the woollen manufactures, 
as England never knew in any age." Soon afterwards, 
Louis XIV. revoked the Edict of Nantes, and tens of 
thousands of French Protestant weavers took refuge 
in England, giving birth to the silk manufactures of 
Spitalfields, and stimulating the trade of Norwich. 
These refugees introduced the manufacture of crapes, 
which soon came into very general use for mourning. 

The Eighteenth Century, 

Most of the manufacturers of this century were very 
intelligent men, who had gone through the whole 
routine of their trade, and could do the work in 
every process with their own hands. The worsted 
goods manufactured at this time were calimancoes, 

oiiiiiantincs, grandines, c; 
dines, cillimandrcs. and u 
coluiirs. 'i'lie t;rcatt.-.[ do 
from 1743 to 1763. a perio 

In or about 1776 Joseph 
a few camlets, which were 
dyed of various colours, 
India vessel, who took tl 
About 1782, broad bombi 
Jves, Son, and Baseley. A 
lustres were made by that 1 
camletees were introduced t 
1788, single warp calliman 
tinued for six years. 

Mr. James assures us t 
highest prosperity during th 
century, so great was the < 
source displayed by its : 
dyers of the city were pre-" 
profits were great. The cit 
throughout Europe, and 1 
shown in every principal 
Norwich goods were introi 


Textile Manufactures, 571 

published before 1726, contains an article oh Norwich, 
in which the writer says : — 

*' The worsted manufacture, for which this city has long 
been famous, and in which even children earn their bread, 
was first brought over by the Flemings in the reign of-^ 
Edward III., and afterwards very much improved by the [ 
Dutch who fled from the Duke of Alva*s persecution, and 
being settled here by queen Elizabeth, taught the inhabitants 
to make says, baize, serges, shalloons, &c., in which they 
carry on a vast trade both at home and abroad, and weave 
camblets, druggets, crapes, and other stufils, of which it is 
said this city vends to the value of :/ ^ a year . 

" The weavers here employ spinsters all the country round, 

and also use many thousand packs of yam spun in other A 
counties, even as far as Yorkshire and Westmoreland. By a * 
late calculation from the number of looms at work in this 
city only, it appeared that there were no less than one 
hundred and twenty thousand people employed in these 
manufactures of wool, silk, &c, in and about the town, 
including tfwse employed in spinning the yam^ used for such 
goods as are made in the city." 

The writer of course means to include all the 
females who spun the yarns in Yorkshire and West- 
moreland, as well as in Norfolk and Norwich. Even 
then, 120,000 people is an incredible number, for he 
states the value of all the goods sold to be only^ 
;f 200,000 yearly, so that the people would not earn 
£2 each per annum. 

So flourishing was the woollen trade in this city 
during the second half of the eighteenth century, that — ' 
on February 2nd, 1759, the wool-combers testified 


572 History of N of wick, 

their joy by exhibiting the pageant oL bish op Bla isCi 
who lived under Diodesian, A.D. 282^ aad was a prat 
patron of woollen manufactures. This prosperity was 
interrupted by a war ; but on March 24th, 1783, the 
citizens were again entertained by the wool-combers' 
jubilee, on the return of peace, which had neficia l 
elTect on trade. The most prosperous period appears 
to have been from 1750 to 178a 

Mr. Arthur Young, in 1 771, published his ** Tour of 
England '' in the form of Letters, some of which relate 
to the eastern counties, and Letter XIL to NorwidL 
It contains a curious statement, derived from some 
manufacturers, respecting their trade. At that time, 
^the population of the city was about 40,000, mostly 
employed in manufactures, and the merchants were 
rich and numerous. Mr. Arthur Young says : — 

" The staple manufactures are crapes and camlets, besides 
which they make in great abundance damasks, satins, 
alopeens, &c., &c. They work up the Leicestershire and 
Lincolnshire wool chiefly, which is brought here for combing 
and spinning, whilst the Norfolk wool goes to Yorkshire for 
carding and cloths. And what is a remarkable circumstance, 
not discovered many years, is, that the Norfolk sheep yield 
a wool about their necks equal to the best from Spain ; and 
is in price to the rest as twenty to seven." 

Mr. Arthur Young further states that men, women, 
and boys earned about five shillings per week, but 
that they could earn more if industrious, so that wages 
were not higher a century ago than at present In 
reference to the exportation of goods, he observes : — 

Textile Manufactures. \ 573 

" They now do not send anything to North America, but 
much to the West Indies. Their foreign export is to 
Rotterdam, Ostend, Middleburgh, all Flanders, Leghorn, 
Trieste, Naples, Genoa, Cadiz, Lisbon, Barcelona, Ham- 
burgh, all the Baltic except Sweden, and the East Indie?. 

'' The general amount of Norwich manufactures may be 
calculated thus — 

A regular export to Rotterdam, by shipping every 

six weeks, of goods to the amount of yearly ^^480,000 

Twenty-six tons of goods sent by broad-wheeled 
waggons weekly to London at ^^500 a ton, on 
an average, 13,000 tons per annum, value - 676,000 

By occasional ships and waggons to various places 
calculated at - - - - - - . 200,000 

;^I, 356,000- 

Therefore the trade had increased in fifty years 
from £200/yoo, according to the *' English Gazetteer," 
up toi^i,3S6,cxx)! 

Mr. Young further observes in reference to the 
estimates he had given : — 

"^ Upon a reconsideration of the table, it was thought that 
the ;;£67 6,000 by waggons was rather too high. Suppose, 
therefore, only 10,000 tons, it is then ^520,000, and the 
total ^1,200,000! 

'' Another method taken to calculate the amount was by 
adding up the total sum supposed to be returned annually by 
every house in Norwich, and this method made it ^1,150,000. 
This sum coming so near the other, is a strong confirmation 
of it 

'' A third method taken was to calculate the number of 

574 History of Norwich. 

looms (in county and city) ; these were made 12,000; and it 
is a common idea in Norwich to suppose such, widi all its 
attendants, works ;£'ioo per annum. This also makes the 
total ;^ 1, 200,000, which sum upon the whole appears to be 
very near the real truth. 

'* Respecting the proportion between the original material 
and the labour employed upon it, they have a sure and veiy 
easy method of discovering it The average vahie of a 
piece of stuff is 5s. ; so the material is a tenth of the total 
manufacture. Deduct the ;^i 20,000 from ^^1,200,000^ 
leaves ;^i, 080,000 for labour, in which is included the profit 
of the manufacturer. 

" The material point remaining is to discover how many 
people are employed to earn the public one million per 
annum, and for this calculation I have one datum which is 
to the purpose. They generally imagine in Norwich that 
one loom emj)lQys six persons on the whole; and as the 
number is 12,000 (in city and county), there are consequently 
72,000 people employed in the manufacture. And this is a 
fresh confirmation of the preceding accounts; for I was 
in general told that more hands worked out of Norwich, for 
many miles around, than in it ; and ^1,200,000 divided by 
72,000, gives jQi6 each for the earnings of every pjerson." 

This, Mr. Young confesses, appears to be a large 
'SMtti for men, women, and boys to earn. The popula- 
tion of Norwich being then under 40,CXX), the number 
of looms at the time Mr. A. Young wrote could not 
be I2,cxx), nor the persons employed 72,000 in the 
city and county. Six persons to a loom never were 
required at one time. The proportion was more 
likely only half, or three persons to a loom. Conse- 
quently, the number employed would be only 36/xx> 

Textile Manufactures, 575 

in both city_and county. Divide £ i ^c»,ooo by 36,CXX), 
and it gives £iz for each adult yearly, including the 
profits of the manufacturer. Deduct ;f2C»,ooo for 
their profits, and it leaves ;f 1,000,000 for labour ; 
divide that by 36,000 persons, and it leaves only £2i i^ 
each, yearly, which is nearer the mark. 

Mr. R. BeatnifTe, a bookseller in Norwich, copied the 
statement of Mr. A. Young, and published it in his 
** Tour of Norfolk." He said some gentlemen of in- 
telligence had doubted it, as well they might, but he 
believed it was true. However, in his last edition of 
the "Tour," published in 1807, he gave a very different 
account He said that the merchant was shut out of 
the home market by fashion and out of the foreign 
market by war, so that the annual value of the goods 
was estimated at ;^8oo,ooo, and the cost of labour 
at ;^685,ooo, leaving only ;f 115,000 for the raw^^ 

Messrs. John Scott and Sons, were manufacturers of 
woollen and worsted goods, in St. Saviour's, from 1766 
to 1800, and produced great quantities of taborets, 
floretts, clouded camlets, for Italy; perukeens, self- 
coloured camlets, for Germany; and other sorts for 
Spain. Some of these camlets were eighteen inches 
wide, and the pieces twenty-seven or thirty yards in 
length ; some super camlets were twenty-four inches 
wide, and thirty yards in length, according to the 
pattern books yet in existence. These camlets were 
charged from 50s. to lOOs. per piece, or an average 
of 80s., as we have seen in old ledgers of the firm, 
still preserved and in the possession of a manufacturer. 

576 History of Norwich. 

Originally, all the yarns used in Norwich were spun 
by hand in Norfolk and Suflfolk, thus employing a 
lai^e number of women, young and old. About 

I :" 1720, almost the whole female population of Norfolk 
and Suffolk was fully employed at the spinning wheel, 
and this branch of industry continued till the end of 
the century, and though 50,000 tons of wool were 
produced, it was found necessary to draw supplies 
from other districts. Before the end of the eighteenth 
century, mills were at work spinning y?ms^ and in 
1 8 12, yarns from the mills in Lancashire were brought 
here and spun in bombazines, which were dyed in 
various colours. 

The establishment of mills in Yorkshire, where coal» 
provisions, and labour were cheaper than in Norfolk, 
gave a heavy blow to the trade of the city, which 
would have been more severely felt, but for the fluctu- 
ations of fashion having created a great demand for 
bombazines, for which Norwich was famous. The 

'' Yorkshire workmen and the substitution of machinery 

for female hands, reduced the manufacture of the old 

kinds of goods to a low point, and the trade was 

chiefly maintained by the orders of the East India 

; Company for large quantities of camlets for the 

i Chinese market. 

Messrs. Willctt and Nephew have old pattern books 
full of specimens of shawl borders of very el^^ant 
designs ; in fashion at the beginning of this century. 
These patterns are an imitation of genuine Indian 
designs, the pine-apple being prominent; but great 
improvements in the designs were made by different 

Textile Manufactures. 577 

manufacturers Norwich shawls had formerly a high 
reputation, and were in great demand in London and 
all large towns ; but ultimately French shawls were 
preferred, owing to the superiority of the designs. 

At two general meetings of the manufacturers, held 
at the Guildhall on December 14th and 21st, 1790, 
the prices for weaving were fixed and printed in a list, 
comprising serges, prunelles, satins, satinettes, camlets, 
camletines, florentines, brilliantines, grenadines, blon- 
dines, tabourtines, callandres, &c At a general 
meeting of the manufacturers, held on June 13th, 
1793, at the Guildhall, it was resolved unanimously 
that they would supply the journeyman weavers they 
employed with havels and slaies, free of charge, and 
without deduction from the prices established in the 
table of rates fixed in the year 1 790. The list con- 
tinued in force for some time, even into the next 
century. The camlets made, excepting those for 
China, were thirty yards in length, and about twenty- 
eight inches wide, with warp and wift dyed in the 
hank. Millions of pieces of camlets were made for 
exportation, in which nearly all the manufacturers 
were engaged. The orders of the East India Com- 
pany amounted to a very large sura yearly. Opera- 
tives earned 40s. for each piece of camlet for the East 
India Company, or about ;^iooo weekly on that single 
article. Those were the palmy days for the weavers ; 
days that will never more return. 

Towards the close of the century, the prosperity of 
Norwich really declined. The towns of the West 
Ridmg of Yorkshire, as already stated, became her 

;.-3 HlstJ^ if yjrsTi 

fibres. Tbe increase of 

.•.^::si A. 

c.'.rz.rji i-Tif tze-r "ge!:grir ir^r ia Fngiajxl left 3ior- 
■wjih i^crtrrdt::': :c the f:riic^ trade, vhich was partly 
n.r.^tri i' v.-i Arrerlcin tut. ind entirelv so bv the 
w-ir ATTir rite r.r?r French Re^TjIatioa, which spread 
diis«:U::':c :vtr ill Ewripe. 

I"L- 2iitu:£ir^tk Century. 

At the czcrT—encecient of the present century, 
b«:c:!:a:::r.ei. carrlets. :ir.^ mixed fabrics were the chief 
niar.-fizr-res if N:r*ich. Sodq afterwards crapes 
were pr:c-::ei :r. lir;^e quantities Paramattas were 
next ir.:r d-rei. ir.d in the course of time superseded 
bmbazines f:r ziouming. • Poplins" then came into 
fa-^hirr.. ar.d :he canufacture has so much improved 
that :he demand for this kind of goods has increased 
evcP/ year. Poplins were followed by a long suc- 
ce^-siin of mixed fabrics, bareges, balzarines, gauzes, 
mousseline de laines, cotton de laines, llamas, thibets, 
merinocs. lunettai. or^^andies, stuffs, cloths, velvets^ 
lustres, silks, satins. S:c. The manufacture of shawls 
was also carried on extensively, and for a long time 
Nonvich shawls, for excellence of fabric and elegance 
of design, were not surpassed by any made in 
England. A great trade was done in shawls in Liver- 
pool. Manchester. Leeds, and other large towns. The 
trade, however, gradually declined when French 
shawls came into fashion. French goods of other 
kinds also grew in favour, and affected the dty trade 
in many textile fabrics 

Textile Manufactures. 579 

In 1829, on December 29th, a meeting of weavers 
was held on Mousehold Heath to adopt means for 
keeping up the rate of payment, the operatives assert- 
ing their right to combine to increase wages, as well 
as their employers to combine to reduce them. The 
weavers were not paid by time, but at a certain rate 
for piece-work of different kinds. The rate was 
according to a certain printed scale, to which the 
operatives wished to adhere, while it sometimes 
occurred that the manufacturers desired to alter it. 

During the early part of the present century Messrs. 
Ives and Robberds, of St. Saviour's, carried on a large 
trade in worsted goods, chiefly for exportation to 
India and China, and to different parts of Europe. 
The goods made were all stout worsted fabrics, plain, 
checked, striped, or figured, in vivid colours. They 
were camlets, camletees, satins, satinettes, ladines, 
tabaretts, calimancoes, swan skins, broad bays, red 
kerseys, diamantines, spotted tobines, batavias, hair- 
bines, toys, Rochdale bays, checked paolis, lustrins, 
dcntellos, damasks, dorsettines, poplins, serges, maza- 
rines, and grenadines. The same firm received large 
orders from the East India Company for camlets, in 
pieces 55 yards in length, 30 inches in width, and 
weighing 20 lbs. each. Orders were executed by 
various houses as follows : — 

Year Pieces Year Pieces 

1812 22,000 1822 14,300 

1813 22,000 1824 10,000 

1814 12,000 1825 11,012 

1 81 5 10,400 1826 13,000 


History of Norwich. 





























In 1832 the East India Company suspended their 
orders, but Mr. Robberds continued to export camlets 
from Norwich and Yorkshire to China in exchange for 
tea, as follows : — 







215 pieces 






420 pieces 

He also continued to make camlets for wholesale 
merchants in London till 1848, when he failed in con- 
sequence of losses, but afterwards joined a partner in 
Halifax, and continued to produce lai^e quantities of 
camlets ; but Norwich lost all the trade. 

Besides the camlets supplied to the East India Com- 
pany, goods of the same kind were made for private 
orders by all the manufacturers. During the years 
1830, 1 83 1, and 1832, according to ledgers yet remain- 
ing, one firm made about 7,cxx) pieces for private 
orders, and from 1833 to 1837 inclusive, nearly 9,000 
pieces. In 1833 and 1834, mohair camlets were made 
by the same house to the extent of 6,000 pieces, being 
22,000 pieces in four years. Supposing a dozen other 
houses to have produced a like quantity, the total 

Textile Manufactures. 581 

would have been 66,cxx) pieces yearly. Messrs. Booth 
and Theobald, in Muspole Street, were large manu- 
facturers of worsted goods, and at one time employed 
about i,cxx) hands, men, women, and children, in the 
production of worsted goods, including camlets, for 
the East India Company. Mr. John Francis, of St 
George's, also made a variety of worsted goods and 
other fabrics, employing a large number of hands at 
one time. Messrs. Worth and Carter, in St George's 
Middle Street, and Joseph Oxley and Sons, in St 
Augustine's, produced large quantities of broad bomba- 
zines, which were gradually superseded by paramattas, 
to which the ladies gave the preference. Both fabrics 
were made of worsted and silk ; the only difference 
was that they were differently dressed, the paramattas 
being dressed flat by hot pressing, which gave a 
greater flexibility to the cloth. Messrs. Wright and 
Son, formerly on Elm Hill, at one time employed 
about 1500 hand- loom weavers in the manufacture of 
plain and fancy fabrics, mostly mixed. 

Messrs. Grout and Co. began the manufacture of 
crapes in a small way in Patteson's Yard, in Magdalen 
Street John Grout was then the principal partner, but 
after the mills were built in Lower Westwick Street, 
having realized a fortune, he retired from business. 
George Grout also retired before 1840. Messrs. Martin 
and Company became the proprietors of the mills, and 
after Mr. Martin died, the firm comprised Messrs. 
Brown, Robison, and Hall, who now carry on a large 
trade in crapes, areophanes, and gauzes. The ma- 
chinery in use is of the most improved construction ; 

$82 History of Norwich. 

and in these very extensive works may be seen most 
of the processes connected with the manufacture of 
silk goods. The silk is imported chiefly from China 
and some from India, but a portion is also obtained 
from Italy. The demand for crapes used in mourning 
has, however, a good deal diminished. 

The Albion Mills, in King Street, were erected in 
1836 and 1837, for the spinning of worsted yams, in 
consequence of the great demand in Norwich and the 
difficulty found by manufacturers in obtaining the yams 
which they required for their trade. Mr. George Jay, 
owner of the mills, erected new machinery. And after 
the trade in worsted yarns declined, he imported mohair 
from Asia Minor, and commenced the spinning of 
mohair yarns. He continued this business for some 
years, while mohair goods were in demand. He 
added a new wing to the factory and put in another 
steam engine, both the engines being of seventy-horse 

During the present century, large Mills have been 
built in this city for the spinning of silk, woollen, and 
mohair yarns, and also for weaving those yarns into 
all kinds of fabrics. In the year 1833, a company 
was organised for those manufactures. A large capital 
of ;^40,ooo was raised, and ultimately two factories 
were built, one in St Edmund's and one in St James'. 
The former became a factory for spinning yarns, and 
the latter for weaving goods. In St James* factory 
two coupled engines of loo-horse power were put up 
to drive the machinery. There the city manufacturers 
hired the large rooms and power, and put in the 
machinery, for the production of fabrics. 

Textile Manufactures, 583 

The site of the factory comprises I a. 2r. i8p., with 
a frontage of 460 feet to the river. Above the base- 
ment are six long floors. There have been sixty-five 
frames in the mills for spinning yarns, and 500 looms 
for weaving fabrics; but the number of looms has 
been reduced to 300, and they are not always at work. 
After the erection of the mills, weaving sheds were 
built adjoining. The floors are now occupied as 
follows ; — No. I. Messrs. Skelton and Co ; No. 2. 
Messrs. Towler, Rowling, and Allen, who also hire 
two of the weaving sheds ; No. 3. Messrs. Willett, 
Nephew, and Co. ; No 4. Messrs. Skelton and Co. : 
Nos. 5 and 6. Mr. Park, for spinning woollen 
yarns. Women and girls are chiefly employed 
in this factory. About 1000 have been at work at a 
time, when trade has been good ; but of late, not half 
the number have been engaged. The average earnings 
have been about 7s. weekly. 

In 1838, trade was in a very dull declining state, 
and some differences arose between masters and men, 
in consequence of a proposed reduction in the rate of 
payment. This was resisted by the men, who ap- 
pealed to Colonel Harvey to mediate between them, 
which he consented to do. A meeting was held, and 
the delegates who had been sent on the part of the 
weavers to the north to inquire into the state of the 
camlet trade, reported that they had seen no camlets at 
all to compare with those in Norwich. The north had, 
however, got the trade. The question remained un- 
settled ; but on August 27th, that year, several camlet 
weavers applied to the magistrates for protection from 

584 History of Norwich. 

the violence of those on strike. Mr. Robberds was 
willing to give out work, but would not do so unless 
his men were protected. The application was granted, 
and a strong body of police was sent to the premises 
of Mr. Robberds, where the weavers received their 
work, and they were protected in conveying it to their 
homes. On the Tuesday following, the house of a 
man named Wells was broken open and his work cut 
out of the loom. The city was much disturbed by 
these differences, which ultimately produced great 
injury to its trade. 

According to Mr. Mitchell's report in 1839, there were 
in the city and its vicinity 5,075 looms, of which ix>2i 
were unemployed; and of the 4,054 looms then at 
work, there were 3,398 in the houses of the weavers, 
and 650 in shops and factories. Indeed, by far the 
greater part of the looms belonged to families having 
only one or two. The operatives at these looms com- 
prised 2,211 men, and 1,648 women, with 195 children. 
In that year two silk mills employed 73 1 hands ; three 
worsted mills, 385 hands ; two woollen mills, 39 hands ; 
and one cotton mill, 39 hands, making eight mills, 
employing 1,285 persons. 

An abstract of a census of the Norwich weavers, 
furnished by a report of the commissioners on hand* 
loom weavers, published in 1840, will best show the 
nature and the relative amount of the fabrics then 
made by hand. Bombazines employed 1,205 workers, 
of whom 803 were men ; challis, Yorkshire stuffs, 
fringes, &c., 1,247, of whom 510 were men; gauzes, 
500, chiefly women ; princettas, 242, nearly all men ; 

Textile Manufactures. 585 

silk shawls, 166, of whom 74 were men; bandana, 158, 
of whom 86 were men; silk, 38, including 16 men; 
jacquard, 30 ; worsted shawls, 26 ; woollen and couch 
lace, 22 each; camletees, 20; horsehair cloth, 17; 
lustres, 3 ; sacking, 45. Total of weavers 4,054, in- 
cluding 2,211 men, 1,648 women, 108 boys, 77 girls, 
and 10 apprentices. Their gross wages, when fully 
employed, have ranged from 8s. to 25s. weekly; those 
engaged on fillovers, challis, and fine bombazines, 
earning from 15s. to 25s. weekly; but deducting "play 
time " and expenses, the net wages did not amount to 
8s. weekly. Mr. Mitchell reported that the industry 
and morals of the operatives had suffered much from 
party spirit, riots, and strikes. Of late years the 
workers at their looms have been very industrious and 
quiet, while they have endured great privations. Since 
1840 a large number of the operatives have gone into 
the boot and shoe trade, which offered better prospect 
of at least a decent livelihood. 

Present State of the Trade. 

Most of the old worsted fabrics formerly made in 
such large quantities have become obsolete, and lighter 
mixed fabrics are now produced in great variety, in 
silk, wool, mohair or cotton, or composed of three or 
four kinds of yarns. The goods are known under the 
names of cloths, kerseys, linseys, winseys, coburgs, 
crapes, gauzes, nets, paramattas, camlets, bareges, 
balzarines, grenadines, challis, llamas, poplins, popli- 
nettes, tamataves, optimes, crinolines, cloakings, and 

silk and ccitton ; bareges, of 
tavts, <,( «-or>twl and o-ttor 
w..rst<<] iiiul silk; ci.I.urgs. 
paramattas and bombazines 
llamas, of an inferior kind of 
tbtbet cloths, of worsted warj 
linscys, of worsted with cotto 
cotton warps and worsted shi 
warp and woollen shoot, thirty 
the fabrics, however, may be i 
classes of tammies, tamataveSi 
are woven fabrics, in which 
simply cross, but in the nets 
warp. The tamataves are pa 
and partly the net. In fonni 
comparatively steady, because 
colours were more in demand 
late years, this branch of b 
fluctuating, owing to the char 
desire for novelty, both in the ( 
of every article. New patte: 
constantly beir^ produced, 
processes arc only for the co 

Textile Manufactures. 587 


Mr. G. Jay is the largest manufacturer of mohair 
yarns in this city ; and in the years 1867 and 1868 he 
could not execute all the orders he received. This 
arose from the great care bestowed on the preparation 
of the material at the Albion Mills, in King Street, 
and from the softness of the water which imparts a 
glossy, silky appearance to the yarns. Mohair fabrics 
came suddenly into use, and for some years prior to 
i860, elegant tissues were produced here. These, 
however, soon went out of fashion. All the yarns 
spun here are now sent to France and Germany, where 
they are woven, with silk, into velvets, and then im- 
ported into this country. The velvet jackets which 
are now in fashion have caused a great demand for 
these yarns, and sixty-five frames at the Albion Mills 
are constantly at work. We are only surprised that 
the yarns are not used in the city in the manufacture 
of velvets, large quantities of which are imported 
every year. 

Norwich was the first place in all England where 
the manufacture of fillover shawls was carried on to 
any great extent For a long time the weaving of 
these shawls was a tedious, slow process. A great 
improvement in the mode of weaving was, however, 
discovered by a straw-hat maker of Lyons, named 
Jacquard, in the year 1802, by which means the draw- 
boys were entirely dispensed with and the tackle 
simplified. The new invention was received as a boon 
in England, and at length was introduced into this 
city, where it has been applied to the production of 
splendid fillover shawls, by Clabburn, Sons, and Crisp. 

;^ Histcfj cf Xoranck. 

\V? re^^. however, that these elegant articles of 
Ufiiti a::irt have recestly gone almost entirely out of 

Thfs Late Mr. T. O. Sprin^eld carried on the whole- 
sale .silk business to a ver>' large extent, having almost 
a monopoly of the market, and he supplied with 
dressed silk almost all the manufacturers in this city. 
This ailk was verv' largely used by Grout and Ca, in 
the manufacture of crape, gauzes, aerophanes, &c, 
and by others in the working up of mixed fabrics^ 
especially bareges, grenadines, and various light 
tissues. The same wholesale business is now con- 
tinued by Mr. O. Springfield, in Norwich and London. 
It is estimated that the annual value of dressed silk 
used in this city is over jf ioo,ooa 

Messrs. Middleton, Answorth, and Co., have a lai^e 
factory in Calvert Street, another in Bradford, and a 
wholesale warehouse in London. They formerly 
made all kinds of mixed fabrics in this city, and now 
they produce large quantities of paramattas, grena- 
dines, opera cloakings, and fancy cloakings, hair cloth 
for crinolines, and curled hair for stuffing sofas. 
Crinolines have been made in great quantities by 
this firm, the warp being cotton and the weft horse- 
hair. The demand for them has, however, somewhat 
abated. This firm has largely increased their trade in 
hair-cloth, which is used for general stiffening purposes. 
In the southern states of America, the gentlemen 
wear large trousers, which require to be expanded 
like ladies* dresses ; and, therefore, the larger portion 
of these goods are sent to the southern states of 

Textile Manufactures. 589 

America. The same firm has also introduced hair- 
cloth in many patterns and colours for covering 
furniture, in sofas, chairs, &c. There is an enormous 
importation of horse-hair into England from Russia, 
and from the continent of South America, where 
horses run wild in the great plains called "Pampas." 
The horses arc caught and divested of their tails, 
which are brought into this country in a very rough 
state ; the hair is dressed and woven into a variety of 
fabrics which are in great demand. The trade in 
horse-hair cloth is almost a new trade in the city and 
might be greatly extended. Some fabrics are made 
all horse-hair, and some mixed with spun silk, in 
stripes, and colours, and very pleasing patterns. 

Mr. J. Burrell has built a small mill near the 
Dereham Road, where he carries on the manufacture 
of horse-hair cloth by means of peculiar looms and 
machinery. He imports horse hair, and prepares it 
for stuffing seats of chairs, sofas, &c He also weaves 
horse hair into cloth for various purposes. Mr. Gunton 
also carries on the same kind of manufacture in St 
Miles'; but the trade is yet on a small scale in this 

Mes.srs. Clabbum, Sons, and Crisp, in Pitt Street, 
manufacture shawls in every variety, and also para- 
mattas, bareges, tamataves, balzarines, poplins, fancy 
robes, ophines, grenadines, and mixed fabrics generally. 
The fillover long shawls produced by this firm, on a 
Jacquard loom, gained the gold medal at the first 
Paris Exhibition, and also at the London Exhibition 
in 1862. No description could convey an adequate 

590 History of Noranek. 

idea of these splendid fillover shawls, which are made 
by a patented process, so as to display a self colour 
and a perfect design on each side. They were oa 
view at the Paris Exhibition, in 1867, but not for a 
prize, Mr. W. Clabbum being selected as one of the 
judges, so that his firm could not compete. 

Messrs, Willctt and Nephew, of Pottergate Street, 
are manufacturers on a large scale. The factory itself 
is not very extensive, for most of the weavers work 
for the firm at their own houses ; and there, in humble 
dwellings, produce the beautiful fancy fabrics, which 
arc destined to adorn the daintiest ladies in the land. 
The extent of the operations of this firm enables 
them to introduce a great variety of novelties in every 
season, and thus to compete successfully with the 
manufacturers of France. They were the first to in- 
troduce the manufacture of paramattas, which super- 
seded the bombazines, at one time in such great 
demand. They produce superior poplins, (plain, 
figured, and watered) bareges, balzarines, tamataves, 
coburgs, camlets, challis, crinoline, crfipe de Lyons, 
grenadines, shawls, scarfs, robes, and also a great variety 
of plain fabrics. They exhibited a large assortment of 
goods at the London Exhibition of 1851, and received 
a certificate of " honourable mention " for their para^ 
mattas, being the only award made for that article. 
Messrs. Willett and Co. also received a silver medal 
at the last Exhibition in Paris. In 1867, the same 
firm supplied some rich poplins, which were selected 
for the queen and royal family, from the stock of 
Mr. Caley, in London Street Mr. Caley has always 

Textile Manufactures. 591 

on hand a large stock of Norwich goods, including 
shawls and fancy fabrics of the newest designs. 
Visitors to Norwich should not fail to call at his 
establishment, if they wish to carry away any idea of 
the productions of the old city, 

Messrs. C and F. Bolingbroke and Jones, manu- 
facturers of all kinds of textile fabrics, carry on a 
large business in a building which was formerly the 
city residence of the priors of Ixworth. On an old 
door, which formerly opened into the prior s hall, is 
the following inscription in black letter on the tran- 
soms which divide the panels : — 

iWatia pbiia, mater mU 

SUmfmbsr fiSsHsa IaWI), i^ttor 18. 

William Louth was the i8th Prior of Walsingham, 
from 1505 to 15 15. This door has been noticed 
by Blomefield and others, but not correctly; Mr. 
H. Harrod gave an engraving with description in his 
" Gleanings Among the Castles and Convents of Nor- 
folk," (1857). John Aldrich, a grocer, resided here 
prior to 1549. He was elected an alderman in 1544, 
sheriff in 1551, mayor in 1558 and 1570, and member 
of parliament for Norwich in 1555, 1558, and 1572. 
He was buried inside of St Clement's church, on the 
north side of the chancel, June 12th, 1582. His wife, 
Elizabeth Aldrich, was buried there April 3rd, 1587. 
Messrs. C. and F. Bolingbroke and Jones have almost 
rebuilt the house. They produce large quantities of 
textile fabrics, including poplins (plain, figured, and 
watered) paramattas, bareges, winseys, linseys, grena- 

592 History of Norwich. 

dines, and a variety of fancy goods for dresses^ which 
are in great demand. At the Arst Great Exhibition 
of 1 85 1 a medal was awarded to this firm for poplins^ 
and at the Great Exhibition of 1862 for poplins and 
poplinettes. In addition to the old extensive praniseSt 
the Arm, some time since, purchased the steam-power 
mills in Calvert Street, and they also occupy a steam- 
power shed at St. James' factory. 

Messrs. Towler, Rowling, and Allen, of Elm Hill, 
occupy large rooms in the new buildings adjoining 
St. James' factor}', where they produce large quantities 
of plain and fancy goods, which have been in great 
demand. They make also large quantities of plain 
fabrics, for wholesale houses only. At the London 
Exhibition of 1862, liunourable mention was made of 
the shawls of this firm. 

Mr. J. L. Barber has a large establishment in St 
Martin's Lane, where he carries on business^ making 
reels and winding cotton on them. He supplies great 
quantities of cotton-thread to wholesale and retail 

Messrs. Sultzer and Co. carry on the manufacture 
of crapes to a considerable extent in premises built 
for the purpose in St. Augustine's. 

Messrs. F. Hindes and Sons, who have a warehouse 
in Botolph Street, manufacture paramattas^ bareges^ 
tamataves, grenadines, poplins, shawls, and doakingSL 
They hire a floor also in the steam-power factory. 

Messrs. French and Co. formed a Limited Liability 
Company, and built a new factory in the Mill Yard 
Lane, where they manufacture crapes, which are in 
great demand. 

Textile Manufactures, 593 

Messrs. Grout and Co., manufacturers of gauzes, 
crapes, aerophanes, &c., in addition to their mills 
in Norwich, have other mills at Yarmouth and 
Ditchingham, and at Ponders End near London. 
Theirs is, in fact, the greatest concern in the world in 
the production of crapes and other silk goods. In 
their several mills they employ about 2(XX> handsw 

Mr. George Allen erected a large factory in 1857 i'* 
St. Stephen's Back Street, for the manufacture of 
elastic cloths for table covers, gloves, shawls, and other 
clothing purposes, and for the production also of silk 
and lisle webs. The elastic cloths, which are made 
upon warp frames, are considered to be a great im- 
provement on " Hooper's Elastics," made in the west 
of England, and for wear they are believed to be 
unsurpassed. The manufacture gives employment to 
a considerable number of hands. 

About 500 power looms are at work in the city, 
when trade is good, weaving a great variety of mixed 
fabrics, and no doubt each loom does double the work 
of the old hand-loom. Supposing each loom to pro- 
duce one piece of goods weekly, there would be 500 
pieces weekly, or 26,000 pieces yearly. The prices 
vary in value from £\ to ;^io per piece, and may be 
averaged at ;^5, so that the annual value would be about 
;^ 1 50,000. But at least 500 hand-looms are also at 
work, and supposing that they produce half the quantity 
of goods, the total annual value would be jf 195,000, 
or in round numbers ;f 200,000. We are sorry to state, 
however, as already intimated, that the manufacture 
of textile fabrics in Norwich has for some time past 


History of Norwich. 

been declining, and cannot compare with former years. 
The depression has arisen from various causes, among 
which may be mentioned war, which has deprived the 
city of its best markets. The introduction of cotton 
and silk goods too has nearly superseded the old stuff 
fabrics of the city. Machinery in Norwich is also 
behind that in the north. The wool grown in Norfolk 
and Suffolk has, moreover, been sent to Yorkshire to 
be spun, and has been repurchased as yarn for Norwich 
goods ; and lastly, Norwich weavers have not the 
energy of those in Bradford. Fashion also has been 
one of the causes of the loss of trade, for the fashions 
arc continually changing, and Norwich firms have to 
compete with all England, Scotland, and France ; and 
it is not to be expected that a few houses in this city 
will produce as many novelties as all the rest of the 
world. A School of Art has been established, but it 
has not yet produced many practical designers. 


d^omin ^Filial lisfotig. 


fi^^AVING given an account of the textile manu- 
jm factures in this city, we proceed to furnish some 
(^9^ particulars of the more important of other 
classes of business, which go to make up the sum 
total of the trade and commerce of the city. 

The Banking Business. 

Banking, as now understood, was not earned on till 
the eighteenth century. Before the American war of 
Independence very few country banks were established. 
Norwich manufactures were in their most prosperous 
-State in the middle of last century, and then it was 
that some banks were established in this city. On 
January 31st, 1756, a bank was opened in the Upper 
Market by Charles Weston, who carried on business 
till the end of the century. In 1768, Mr. Thomas 
Allday's bank was opened ; afterwards Sir R, Kerrison 
and Son were proprietors, and in 1808 the bank failed. 
The debts amounted to ^^460,000, and the dividends 
paid amounted to 16s. 46. in the pound. This was the 

596 History of Nofzviclu 

first bank failure in Norwich of any importance, and it 

shook public confidence in banks. 

Messrs. Gurney's bank was established in Norwidk 
in 1775 as a bank of deposit and issue. This was at 
a period the most flourishing in the commercial annals 
of Norwich. The annual value of textile fabrics pro- 
duced in the city was over a million sterling, a trade 
which was of course a great source of business to the 
bank. Henry Gurney, and his son Bartlett Gumcy, 
were the first proprietors. On the death of the father, 
the son associated himself with his three brothm 
Richard, Joseph, and John Gurney ; so the firm con- 
tinued till the deaths of the different parties. About 
1825, Mr. H. Birkbcck, of Lynn, and Mr. Simon 
Martin were taken in as partners. The firm then 
comprised R, H. Gurney, J. J. Gurney, D. Gurney, 
Simon Martin, and H. Birkbeck. After J. J. Gurney 
and S. Martin died, the firm comprised D. Gurney, 
J. H. Gurney, H. Birkbeck, F. H. Gurney, and 
C. H. Gurney ; and W. Birkbeck came in after the 
death of his father. The bank at Norwich has in its 
connection branches at North Walsham, Aylsham, 
Holt, Dereham, Fakenham, and Attleborough. At 
Yarmouth the firm, until lately, comprised D. Gurney, 
J. H. Gurney, H. Birkbeck, T Brightwen, and 
J. H. Ordc. This branch has in its connection other 
branches at Lowestoft, Beccles, Bungay, Halesworth, 
Saxmundham, Eye, and Stowmarket. At Lynn the 
firm, until lately, comprised D. Gurney, J. H. Gurney, 
H. Gurney, H. Birkbeck, S. Gurney, and F. G. Cresswell, 
and this bank extends to Downham and SwalTham. 

Trade and Commerce, 597 

The members of the several firms are now as follow : 

Norwich and Norfolk Bank. 

Henry Birkbeck. Francis Hay Gumey. 

William Birkbeck. Henry Ford Barclay. 

Samuel Gumey Buxton. John Gumey. 

Yarmouth and Suffolk Bank. 

Henry Birkbeck. Henry F. Barclay. 

S. G. Buxton. John Gumey. 

Thomas Brightwen. James Henry Orde. 

Lynn and Lincolnshire Bank. 

Daniel Gumey. Henry Birkbeck. 

Somerville Arthur Gumey. H. F. Barclay. 

S. G. Buxton. Francis Joseph Cresswell. 

The Crown Bank, in King Street, Norwich, was 
opened on January 2nd, 1792, as a bank of deposit, dis- 
count, and issue. The original proprietors were Messrs. 
Hudson and Hatfield, and the first bank was in the 
Haymarket. About forty years since the proprietors 
were Charles Saville Onley, Sir Robert John Harvey, 
Anthony Hudson, and Thomas Hudson. They then 
employed only seven clerks, and now thirty clerks are 
employed at the new bank. On January 13th, 1820, 
a circular was issued by A. and T. Hudson, stating 
that it was with great regret that they announced the 
death of their friend and partner, Mr. Robert Harvey. 
Owing to his death, his brother, Mr. Charles Harvey, 
and Sir Robert John Harvey, his nephew, were added 
to the firm. Before 1820, Mr. Onley withdrew. Mr. 
T. Hudson and Mr. A Hudson died, and before the 

598 History of Norwich. 

end of the Russian war, Sir Robert John Harvey died 
The present proprietors are Sir Robert John Harvey 
Harvey, Bart., Crown Point, and Roger Allday 
Kerrison, Esq., who lives at Ipswich. They have 
lately built a very handsome bank in the Corinthian 
style of architecture, on the Castle Meadow, and 
it was opened in January, 1866. At first the Crown 
Bank had only three agents in the eastern counties, 
but the number has gradually increased to thirty. 
The firm purchased the large business of Messrs. 
Taylor and Dyson at Diss. This was an important 
addition, the Diss bank having extensive connections 
in Norfolk and Suffolk. 

In 1806, Messrs. Starling Day and Sons were 
bankers, in Pottergate Street, afterwards in the Market 
Place, in the court adjoining the Chronicle OflSce; 
and on December i6th, 1825, the bank stopped. In 
1806, T. Bignold, Son, and Co. were bankers in 
Briggs' Street, but did not long continue in business 
The Norfolk and Norwich Joint Stock Bank was 
established in 1820, in Surrey Street This bank 
consisted of a small proprietary, and the business, 
after the loss of the whole share capital, was disposed 
of to the East of England Joint Stock Company, 
in 1836. That company carried on business in the 
Haymarket till 1864, when the bank failed. The sad 
event was the cause of much misery in the city and 
county ; and many persons who had been in com- 
fortable circumstances were entirely ruined and left 
destitute. The proprietors lost all their capital, and 
were called upon to liquidate heavy liabilities besides. 

Trade and Commerce. 599 

There has not been much over trading in the eastern 
counties, and the failure of the East of England Bank 
should be a warning to other joint stock banks, which 
ought to be the safest if well managed. The business 
of the East of England Bank and the premises were 
purchased by the Provincial Banking Corporation, 
limited, and that company now carries on business in 
the Haymarket. 

About 1838, Mr. Balls opened a bank for deposits, 
in the Upper Market He carried on his business 
through the house of Sanderson in London. Sanderson 
failed for ;£^36s,ooo, but afterwards paid 20s. in the 
pound, and had ;£^20,c)00 to spare. Mr. Balls gave up 
his bank in Norwich, in 1847. 

The Consolidated Bank arose from a union of the 
banks of Hankey and Co., and Hayward, Kennard, 
and Co., London, and the bank of Manchester. They 
were amalgamated in 1863, under the name of the 
Consolidated Bank, with a branch in London Street, 
Norwich. The Company gave up this branch, and 
the handsome new premises in London Street were 
taken by the National Provincial Bank, which has 
been established since 1833. 

Country banks are all of them banks of deposit and 
discount ; they act as agents for the remittance of 
money to and from London, and for effecting pay- 
ments between different parts of the kingdom. Nearly 
all of them are also banks of issue, and their notes 
are, in most cases, made payable to some bank in 
London, as well as at the place where they are issued. 
A moderate rate of interest, from 2 to 2\ per cent, is 

6cx> History of Norwich. 

allowed by country bankers on deposits which remain 
with them for any period beyond six months. Some 
make this allowance for shorter periods. Where a 
depositor has also a drawing account, the balance is 
struck every six months, and the interest due on the 
average is placed to his credit On drawing accounts, 
a commission, usually an eighth per cent, is charged 
on all payments. The country banker on his part 
pays his London agent for the trouble which he 
occasions, either by keeping a certain sum of money 
in his hands without interest, or by allowing a com- 
mission on the payments made for his account, or by 
a fixed annual payment in lieu of the same. The 
portion of funds in their hands arising from deposits 
and issues, which is not required for discounting bills 
and making advances in the country, is invested in 
government or mercantile securities in London, which 
in the event of a contraction of deposits, can be made 
immediately available. 

The agriculture of the eastern counties, the most 
productive in England, is the foundation of their 
industrial prosperity, and the chief source of business 
to the banks in the market towns. It is well known 
that since the commencement of this century, by 
means of an improved system of husbandry, the 
agricultural resources of the district have greatly 
increased, as has also the annual value of the produce 
in cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, and corn. The various 
branches of industry and manufactures carried on in 
Norwich and the county are also, of course, to be 
reckoned amongst the sources of the banking business. 

Trade and Commerce, 60 1 

Wholesale Clothiers. 

Mr. Dyer, in White Lion Street; Messrs. Riches 
and Skoyles, Davey Place ; Mr. Womack, Dove Street 
and Lobster Lane ; and Messrs. Steward and Son, 
Tombland ; occupy extensive premises, where garments 
are made for men and boys by the use of machines, 
and are disposed of wholesale to retail clothiers all 
over the district The introduction of sewing machines 
has given a great impulse to this trade, and garments 
of all kinds and sizes are produced here as good in 
quality and as low in price as they can be obtained 
in any part of the kingdom. 

A minute's walk from the Market Place, in Bethel 
Street, are the steam clothing works and warehouses 
of Messrs. F. W. Harmer and Co. Between 200 
and 300 persons are employed by this firm in the 
manufacture of boys' and men's clothing ; their goods 
are sold wholesale only, and are made for what is 
technically called the **home trade." In this establish- 
ment the different processes of cutting, sewing, making 
button holes, &c., which a few years since were per- 
formed by hand labour, are now principally done by 
machinery worked by steam power, to the advantage 
both of the hands employed and the consumers of the 

Wholesale Boot and Shoe Trade. 

This trade dates from the commencement of the 
present century ; and for some time it was confined to 
goods for the home market In 1800, Mr. James 

6o2 History of Norwich. 

Smith began the trade, which was afterwards enlaiged 
by the late Mr. Charles Winter, who carried on a 
g^eat business, both for the home market and for 
exportation to the colonies. On the death of that 
gentleman the concern passed into the hands of 
Messrs. Willis and Southall, under whose able manage- 
ment the reputation of the old house is fully sustained, 
and whose goods command a ready sale both at home 
and abroad. The quality of the goods is now much 
improved, and large quantities are exported to the 

Formerly, all boots and shoes were made by hand 
only, and consequently there was a great difference in 
the quality of the work. The operatives used to take 
their work to their homes. They received so many 
dozen uppers from the warehouses and returned them 
finished, and were paid according to quality and 
quantity. The late Mr. C. Winter first made use of 
sewing machines, for the uppers of boots and shoes, 
about 1856. Afterwards American machines were 
introduced, to sew the soles to the uppers 

About eighteen years since, the manufacturers began 
to make goods for exportation to Canada, to the 
Cape of Good Hope, to India, and Australia. This 
export trade was carried on to a large extent, from 
1856 till 1866. Mr. C. Winter sent large quantities of 
goods to Canada and India, and the other manu- 
facturers to Australia. A number of emigrants, 
however, went into the trade in Australia, and the 
local parliament imposed a duty of 25 per cent on 
English-ma^de goods, which stopped the trade, so that 

Trade and Commerce, 603 

of late, very few Australian orders have been received 
in this city. Notwithstanding this drawback, the boot 
and shoe trade has become a very extensive and im- 
portant branch of industry in Norwich, and about 3000 
hands are employed in the manufacture. Hitherto it 
has been confined chiefly to women and children's 
goods, but men's boots have been made to some ex- 
tent, and there is no reason why the trade should not 
be greatly increased. Machines, as we have said, have 
been introduced in the various processes of manufac- 
ture, and steam power has been applied to the machines 
in two large factories, where vast quantities of goods 
are produced The result has been not to diminish 
but to extend the number of hands, and to increase 
the rate of payment 

The hand machines now in use are chiefly those 
of Thomas, Singer, or Howes. About 400 machines 
are at work daily in the warehouses, and 200 in private 
houses. In two factories, large American machines 
are used for attaching the soles to the uppers at the 
rate of a pair per minute. By means of these 
machines, a pair of boots may be cut out, and the 
uppers, after fitting, sewn together and finished in an 
hour ; and the work, moreover, is better done by the 
use of machines than it usually is by hand. Three 
operatives are required for each machine, two fitters 
and one machinist 

When trade is good, about 3000 men, women, and 
children, are employed in the manufacture, either in 
the warehouses or in their own homes. The operatives 
may be divided into one-third men, one-third women. 

6o4 History of Norwich, 

and one-third children. They will produce, with the 
aid of machines, about iocx> dozen pairs of boots and 
shoes daily. The quantity will therefore be 6000 
dozen weekly, and taking the average price at 40& 
per dozen, the value would be ;C 12,000 weekly. Sup- 
posing the trade to continue brisk for fifty weeks in 
the year, the annual value would be £6oo;cxx>. 

During the year, 1868, trade was very prosperous. 
and manufacturers received more orders than they 
could execute. The quantities before stated may be 
doubled for that year ; and at least 6000 men, women, 
and children, were employed. Their production, 
with the aid of machines, has been about 2000 dozen 
pairs of boots and shoes daily, or 12,000 dozen pairs 
weekly, so that the weekly value has been ;£'24,ooo, or 
;6' 1, 200,000 yearly. Norwich does not transact a 
hundredth part of this branch of trade in England, 
and, therefore, it may be increased to an indefinite 

The principal firms in the trade in 1868, were 
Messrs. Tillyard and Howlett, on St George's Plain; 
Mr. Kemp, in Pitt Street ; Messrs. Willis and Southall, 
who occupy very extensive premises in the Upper 
Market ; Mr. Hotblack, St. Faith's Lane ; Mr. Lulham, 
Fishgate Street; Mr. F^ord, St. George Colgate; 
Mr. Homan, Theatre Street; Mr. Bostock, Swan Lane; 
Mr. Steadman, Bethel Street; Messrs. Barker and 
Gostling, Wensum Street ; Mr. Haldenstein, Queen 
Street; Messrs. Gamble and Davis, Calvert Street; 
Mr. Smith, Calvert Street ; Mr. D. Soman, Calvert 
Street ; Mr. Base, in Prince's Street ; Mr. Copeman, 

Trade and Commerce, 605 

St. Stephen's; Mr. Home, Charing Cross; Mr. 
Worledge, Magdalen Street. 

Mustard, Starch, and Blue Works. 

The Carrow Works have been greatly extended 
since the brief notice in the first part of this history 
was written, and we are now enabled to give a fuller 
description. Messrs. J. and J. Colman employ about 
1200 men and boys in the production of mustard, 
starch, blue, paper, and flour. By the use of machinery 
of the most improved construction, and by selecting 
seed of the finest quality, the firm produces mustard 
which cannot be surpassed in purity and flavour. 
This mustard obtained the only prize medals awarded 
for the article at the Great Exhibition in London, 1862, 
and Dublin, 1865, and the only silver medal at Paris, 
1868. The firm also obtained medals for starch at 
the Great Exhibitions in London, 1851 and 1862; 
Dublin, 1865 ; York, 1866; and Paris, 1868. 

Carrow Works are situated just outside of the King 
Street Gates of the city, on the banks of the river 
Wensum, which is navigable for vessels of about 120 
tons. Lines of railway are laid down in various 
directions through the premises connecting all the 
principal warehouses with the Great Eastern Railway 
at Trowse. Thus Messrs. Colman have every facility 
for receiving the raw material, and for disposing of the 
manufactured goods by land or water conveyance. 
The machinery used is very extensive, and sixteen 
engines are now employed, amounting altogether to 
looo-horse power. 

6o6 History of Norwich. 

On entering the works we pass the timekeeper's 
office, and observe on the right hand a large range of 
brick buildings. Here is the mustard mill, and amid 
all the noise within we are shewn the process by 
which the well-known condiment, mustard, is produced 
in such immense quantities, and in the greatest per- 
fection. The mustard seed, which is grown extensively 
in some parts of this country, is crushed between iron 
rollers, and is then pounded in large mortars, a long 
row of which stand on one side of the mill The 
pestles consist of long wooden rods with heavy balls 
of iron. They are set in rapid motion by means of 
steam power, and the mustard seed is speedily re- 
duced to the condition of flour and bran. These arc 
readily separated, and the flour is brought to the 
requisite quality by means of silk sieves, which vary 
in fineness according to the quality of the mustard to 
be produced. These sieves are loosely arranged in 
frames, and set in motion by means of revolving 
shafts. Two kinds of seed, the brown and the white, 
are thus crushed, pounded, and sifted. The brown is 
far more pungent than the white ; but in order to 
produce a flavour relished by consumers, it is necessary 
to mix these two kinds, and it is the judicious mixture 
which gives the fine aromatic flavour of the mustard 
for which the firm is celebrated. 

Adjoining the mustard mill is the packing floor, 
where a great number of men and boys are employed 
in putting the mustard into tins of various shapes and 
sizes, and adorning them with the handsome labels 
which are so generally exhibited in grocers' windows 

Trade and Commerce. 607 

everywhere, for the demand for this mustard is 

Leaving the mustard mill we enter the starch works, 
which seem to be still more extensive. The process 
of making starch is carefully explained to us. After 
the grain has been moistened with a solution of caustic 
soda, it is passed into the mill, where it is mixed with 
water and ground in its wet state between mill stones ; 
from each pair of which continually runs a stream of 
pure white liquid, resembling thin paste. This liquid 
is placed in large iron tanks called "separators/' a 
considerable quantity of water is added, and the whole 
is well stirred for some time. It is then allowed to 
settle, and the various particles of husk, gluten, &c, 
sink slowly and form a thick deposit at the bottooL 
The water with the starch in solution is then drawn 
off and pumped up into immense shallow vats, several 
sets of which, placed over one another, occupy the 
whole of the upper part of the building. In the 
course of two or three days the liquid in the shallow 
vats gradually deposits the starch held in solution, 
when the water is drawn off, and the starch is taken 
out and placed in long narrow boxes filled with holes 
and lined with cloth. It remains in these boxes for 
some time in order that the moisture may g^radually 
drain out and the starch consolidate. As soon as it is 
sufficiently hardened, the starch is taken out and 
divided into blocks, each about six inches square, and 
put into stoves and exposed to a temperature of about 
140 degrees ; after which it is cleaned, papered, and 
again placed in stoves, where it remains till it is 

6o8 History of Norwich. 

gradually cr>'5talltzed. when the process of manufacture 
is complete, and the starch is ready for sale: 

We now walk across to the other side of the 
premises and enter a long row of workshops, where a 
great number of men and boys are employed in 
making tin-packages for the mustard. Passing by 
long ranges of coopers* and carpenters' shops, we soon 
come to a large square block of buildings called the 
"blue factory." Here the indigo is mixed with the 
finest starch, water is added, and the whole is ground 
in a moist state by large heavy mill st<Mies^ till it 
resembles a very thick, dark blue paste. It is trans- 
ferred by means of a steam hoist to the upper part of 
the building, where it is received and quickly mani- 
pulated by a number of girls, who divide it into small 
cakes and stamp it with wooden stamps of various 
devices, from which it is called " Stamp Title," " Lion/' 
&c. ; or they work it into balls, on which they leave 
the impressions of their finger and thumb, when it is 
called ** Thumb Blue." We leara from the workers 
that the great art of blue making consists in dryii^ it 
carefully, so that the lumps or cakes may harden 
without cracking. We walk through many rooms, 
almost in the dark, for the window shutters, which 
arc closed, are so constructed as to regulate the tem- 
perature, and we have just room to pass between large 
tiers of racks filled with wooden trays, on which the 
lumps and cakes of blue are placed in order that they 
may dry gradually. 

We next take a peep at the paper mill, and admire 
the beautiful machinery which rapidly transforms any 

Trade and Ct*ntmerce, 609 

quantity of dirty rags into a thin milk-like pulp, and 
then into solid quires and reams of paper, all cut and 
ready for use. As we pass we look into the engineers' 
shop and wonder at the variety of the machinery there, 
capable of operating on the hardest steel, and of 
planing, cutting, punching, or drilling it with the 
greatest apparent ease ; and we learn that most of the 
machinery is made and repaired on the premises. 

We are at last taken to the luncheon kitchen, in 
which a good lunch or dinner is provided, consisting 
of as much hot meat and potatoes as any man can 
eat, for threepence. Many of the men and boys gladly 
avail themselves of this kitchen, and obtain a good 
meal without leaving the works. 

On leaving the yard we ascend the hill and observe 
a handsome school-house, built in the Gothic style, and 
we learn that it was built by Messrs. J. and J. Colman 
for the children of the working-people in their service. 
The school comprises several class-rooms, and is fitted 
up with every convenience. 

The Iron Trade. 

Coal and iron form the basis of our industrial 
system in this island, but neither of them are pro- 
duced in the eastern counties, which are, for the most 
part, purely agricultural. Iron manufactures have, 
however, arisen since the commencement of the 
present century, chiefly for agricultural purposes. 
Norwich cannot boast of concerns so extensive as 
Messrs. Ransome and Sims, of Ipswich ; or Messrs. 

6io History of Norwich. 

Garrett, of Leiston, in Suffolk ; but several firms here 
employ large numbers of mechanics in the construc- 
tion of engines, machines, and implements of every 

Dr. William Fairbairn, in his " History of Iron," 
mentions five distinct epochs: the first dating from 
the employment of an artificial blast, to accelerate 
combustion ; the second marked by the use of coke 
in the reduction, about the year 1750; the third 
dating from the introduction of the steam engine, on 
account of the facilities which that invention has given 
for raising the ores, pumping the mines, supplying the 
furnace with a copious and regular blast, and moving 
the powerful forge, and rolling machinery ; while the 
fourth is indicated by the introduction of the system 
of puddling and rolling ; and the fifth and last — ^though 
not the least important epoch in the history of iron, 
is marked by the application of the hot blast, an 
invention which has increased the production of iron 
four-fold, and has enabled the iron-master to smelt 
otherwise useless and unreducible ores. It has 
abolished the processes of coking and roasting, and 
has afforded facilities for a large and rapid production, 
far beyond the most sanguine anticipations of its 
inventors. Some manufacturers, taking advantage of 
so powerful an agent, have used improper materials, 
such as cinder heaps and impure ores, and by unduly 
hastening the process, have produced an inferior kind 
of iron. 

Nearly all the iron manufacturers in Norwich, Nor- 
folk, and Suffolk, are founders, and make their oiwn 

Trade and Commerce. 6ii 

castings for engines, girders, and machines of every 
kind. The principal firms in this district are Messrs. 
Ransome and Sims, before named ; Messrs. Garrett, 
of Leiston ; Mr. Turner, Ipswich ; Messrs. Woods. 
Cocksedge, and Warner, Stowmarket ; Mr. C. Burrell, 
of Thetford ; and Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, & Barnard, 
Mr. W. S. Boulton, Mr. Smithdale, and Messrs. Holmes 
and Sons, of Norwich. These great firms send their 
productions all over the civilised world. 

The important works of Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, 
and Barnard, of Norwich, are situate in St. Michael's 
Coslany, and cover an area of one acre, next the river 
Wensum. Entering from Coslany Street, the new 
counting house is joined on the right by a suite of 
offices, and on the left by the smith's shop, which is 
backed by fire-proof workshops, seventy-five feet in 
length, and five stories in height The large foundry 
is at the east end of the works. A tramway runs 
from Coslany Street into the interior, permeating the 
premises. About 400 men and boys are employed in 
the production of wire-netting, fencing, garden chairs, 
stands, machines, lawn mowers, gates, and every kind 
of horticultural implements. A glance at the operations 
of the firm will, doubtless, be interesting to our readers. 
One of the most important is the production daily of 
many miles of wire-netting, made by curious machinery. 
The strained wire fencing is made on the best principle, 
the bases of both the straining pillars and standards 
being entirely of iron ; and after a test of more than 
thirty years, it has been found very superior, both as 
regards durability and appearance. Messrs. Barnard, 

6i2 History of Norwich, 

Bishop, and Barnard are also makers, on a large scale, 
of bedsteads, mangles, cooking ranges, kitcheners, &c, 
&c, &c. 

This firm, the founder of which was Mr. Charles 
Barnard, a man of modest demeanour, but possessed 
of considerable inventive genius, will live in history as 
the manufacturers of the celebrated " Norwich Gates," 
exhibited in 1862. These were designed by Mr. 
Thomas Jekyll of this city, and by a county subscrip- 
tion were, in November, 1864, placed at the entrance 
to the park at Sandringham, the residence of the 
Prince of Wales. During the Exhibition of 1862, 
these marvellous productions attracted great attention. 
The Times, of April 7th, after alluding to works of a 
similar character, said : — 

** In our judgment, however, the design of these latter is 
scarcely equal to that of the beautiful wrought-iron park 
gates, which are being erected, as a principal nave trophy, 
by Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, and Barnard." 

These were adjudged to be the best in the Exhibi- 
tion. The same firm also produced very elegant 
gates, which were exhibited at the Paris Exhibition, in 
1867, and greatly admired for the beauty of the design 
and perfect workmanship. These gates were only 
thirteen feet wide, and seven feet in height, but they 
occupied forty of the best workmen from morning till 
night for three months, at a cost of ;^7SO in wages. 
These gates were quite unique in design and work- 
manship. There was not a touch of the chisel. The 
hammer did all the work in the most perfect manner. 

Trade and Cofnmerce. 613 

In conclusion, we may state, that after a minute 
examination of the productions at these works, we 
feel convinced that articles can now be executed in 
metal, which surpass the doings of past ages ; and 
that the labour, combined with the intelligence of this 
19th century, when skilfully directed, is quite equal to 
that of the mediaeval period. 

Mr. W. S. Boulton, who occupies extensive premises 
in Rose Lane, is a manufacturer of agricultural and 
horticultural implements; also of strained wire fencing, 
iron hurdles, park gates, garden chairs, iron bedsteads, 
kitchen ranges, hot-water appuratus, &c. He produces 
every kind of railing and palisading in great variety, 
and he put up the iron palisading round Chapel Field, 
which is a great ornament as well as protection to the 
ground. He also supplies a great variety of useful 
machines, such as mincing and sausage machines, and 
almost all articles made of iron. 

Messrs. Riches and Watts are engineers and machine 
makers, at Duke's Palace Iron Works. They are 
builders of condensing engines, vertical cylinder 
engines, and steam thrashing machines ; and are also 
makers of American grist mills, corn mills, mills for 
grinding linseed, &c., cultivators, pumping machinery, 
iron field rollers, and all kinds of implements. 

Messrs. Holmes and Sons, engineers, on the Castle 
Hill, are makers of a great variety of machines and 
implements which have gained many prizes at different 
Agricultural Exhibitions. The firm have also been 
very extensively engaged for thirty-five years in the 
manufacture of drills. During this period, every 

6 14 History of Norwich, 

practical improvement has been introduced, adapting 
them to every description of soil, simplifying the 
different parts, and decreasing the working expenses 
for the renewal of wearing parts. These drills stand 
unequalled for simplicity, durability, and efficiency, 
and are of lighter draft than others, owing to the 
position of the coulters and levers. More than 4000 of 
these drills have been sent out The premises of this 
firm are well situated close to the cattle market, 
and have been considerably enlarged. The new show 
rooms in the Market are nearly opposite to the en- 
trance to the Castle. Entering the works from the 
high road, we may first inspect the foundry, containing 
an enormous crane and three cupolas. Adjoining the 
foundry are the stoves for small castings, and above 
it the pattern-makers* shop. Returning to the yard, 
we may enter the erecting and fitting shop. The 
drill-fitting shop and the thrashing-machine shops arc 
admirably adapted for their intended purposes. About 
a hundred hands are employed in the works. 

Mr. Thomas Smithdale has a very large establish- 
ment at St. Ann's Staithe, King Street, on the site of 
an ancient monastery, remains of which still exist 
next the river. In the large foundry, castings of iron 
are made, up to ten tons ; and the workshops contain the 
heaviest machinery in Norwich. Mr. Smithdale builds 
engines from three to a hundred horse power ; and he 
makes also hydraulic presses, cranes, crabs, mill works, 
planing, shaping, and drilling machines, and boilers 
of all sizes. 

Mr. Reeve, in Pitt Street, is a manufacturer of im- 

Trade and Commerce. 615 

proved kitchen ranges of various sizes^ which have 
been in great demand. 

Manufacturing Publishers. 

Messrs. Jarrold and Sons have, for the last twenty 
years, been engaged in the production of first-class 
educational books, in science, history, and penmanship, 
which are used in schools in Great Britain and her 
Colonies. They also produced the well-known House- 
hold Tracts and other works, bearing on social, moral, 
and sanitary subjects. All are printed and bound in 
their recently-erected workshops in Little London 
Street. They have also a publishing house at No. 12, 
Paternoster Row, London. 

Wine, Spirits, and Beer. 

Norwich merchants carry on a great wholesale 
business in wines and spirits. The principal firms are 
Messrs. Barwell and Sons, London Street and St 
Stephen's ; Messrs. Norgate and Son, St Stephen's ; 
Messrs. Geldart, in Wensum Street; the Wine Com- 
pany, in St Giles' Street ; Mr. P. Back, Market Place ; 
Mr. R. J. Morley, Post Office Street; and Mr. J. 
Chamberlin, Post Office Street; all of whom keep 
large stocks of wines and spirits. 

The brewing business is greatly extending in Nor- 
wich. Norwich brewers produce pale ales, which 
claim to be equal to the Burton, and dispose of 
ioo,ocx) barrels of London porter yearly. Messrs. 
Seaman and Grimmer, though not producers, do an 
enormous trade, and bring in, through Yarmouth, 

fiiO History of Norwic/L 

about 14,000 barrels of London porter yearly, and 
send them all over the city and county. 

Messrs. Patteson and Co. produce 100,000 barrels 
of ale and beer yearly; Messrs. Bullard, 60,000 barrels; 
Messrs. Morgan, 30,000; Messrs. Young and Ca, and 
other brewers, about 40,000. The annual value of 
their productions is at least ;^500,ooa 

Wholesale Drapery. 

This trade is largely carried on by Messrs. 
Chambcrlin & Sons, Mr. G. L. Coleman, Mr. Rackham, 
Mr. Ilcnry Snowdon, and a branch house of Messrs. 
Copestakc and Moore, of London. Their trade is in 
cotton, linen, woollen, and silk goods, plain and fancy 
fabrics, which arc supplied to shopkeepers all over 
the eastern counties. They bring goods from all the 
manufacturing districts, and supply them on terms 
quite as advantageous as the London houses. These 
goods arc chiefly of Scotch, Yorkshire, or Lancasliire 
manufactures, and not produced in Norwich. 

Messrs. Chambcrlin and Sons, a few years since, 
rebuilt their premises in the Market Place, which are 
an ornament to the city. This is the largest establish- 
ment for drapery in the eastern counties. On entering 
the premises from the Market Place, the retail depart- 
ment presents, in all its arrangements, a thoroughly 
complete place of business. The wholesale and other 
departments above are very extensive. In the base- 
ment of the premises is the wholesale Manchester 
room, 180 feet in length, for linen goods, blankets, and 

Trade and Commerce, 


flannels. There is a separate entrance, in Dove Street, 
to the extensive woollen cloth department The 
carpet room is 44 feet long and 40 feet wide. 

Wholesale Grocery. 

The wholesale grocery trade is carried on to a large 
extent by Messrs. Bream and Bennett, Mr. W. Belding, 
Messrs. Butcher and Nephew, Messrs. Copeman and 
Sons, Mr. H. Freeman, Mr. R. Fisher, Messrs. Newson 
and Co., and Messrs. Pratt and Hancock. This trade 
disposes of the bulk of the heavy goods brought to 
the city and sent away from it The following is the 
return of the goods, inwards and outwards, for the 
year ending June, 1867: — 

Goods inwards by river - - 60,000 tons 

Thorpe Station - 30,000 „ 

Victoria „ - 22,661 „ 

Trowse „ - 17,616 „ 



130,277 tons 

Goods outwards by river - 

at Thorpe 
at Trowse 
at Victoria 




100,000 tons 

53>ooo » 

20,434 »> 

7,534 „ 

180,968 tons 

Cigars and Tobacco. 

The manufacture of tobacco was introduced into 
Norwich in 1 815 by Mr. Curr, formerly of St Andrew's. 

6i8 History of NormclL 

Since then the trade has gradually increased, and tbe 
various kinds of shag, twist, and cavendish, are ooir 
produced to the extent of between locvooo and 
200,000 lbs. yeariy, by Mr. Newbegin of Bridewell 
Alle>', and Mr. Kitton on the Dereham Road. 

The only cigar manufacturers are Messra Adcock 
and Denham, of Post Office Street, and Mr. Stevens, 
Back of the Inn& Messrs. Adcock and Denham, 
are the largest makers in the Eastern Counties^ 
and employ a considerable number of handsL At 
their establishment may be seen tobacco froni various 
countries, and the curious enquirer will learn, no 
doubt with surprise, how many distant spots of the 
earth are laid under contribution to supply the demand 
which exists for the fragrant weed in the form of 
cigars — the importations being, amongst other places* 
from Columbia, Cuba, Havanna (in Cuba), Japan, 
Latakia, Manilla, Mexico, Paraguay, Porto Rico, &c 
The operations, too, are interesting, though not easily 
described. From the case or bale in which the tobacco 
arrives, it passes into the hands of the person whose 
duty it is to soften it — a process which requires great 
skill and care ; for the leaf is generally dry and brittle^ 
and has to be shaken and well separated before the 
softening can be properly effected The leaf, having 
been rendered sufficiently pliable, is next passed over 
to the "strippers," whose work is to draw out the 
thick stem which traverses it from end to end. Then 
it has to be sorted — the light from the dark, the 
coarse from the fine — and laid in proper order for 
the " makers/' who with almost magical rapidity, and 

Trade and Commerce, 619 

by the exercise of great nicety of judgment and 
manipulation, convert it into cigars of any required 
size, shape, and weight 


There are several large workshops in this city, 
for the manufacture of every kind of furniture 
and cabinet work; and in these, some hundreds of 
skilled artisans are employed. Among the principal 
establishments may be mentioned those of Messrs. 
Trevor & Page, Post Office Street; Mr. C. J. Freeman, 
in London Street ; Messrs. John Crowe and Sons, in 
St. Stephen's Street ; Messrs. Robertson and Sons, 
Queen Street ; and Messrs. Drew and Corrick, in 
St. George's Middle Street All these establishments 
supply the best articles for furnishing a house or 
mansion. The historian who might wish to describe 
the familiar habits and usages of the present times, 
could not do better than spend a few hours in our 
large upholstery warehouses, where may be seen every 
kind of furniture, from articles which contribute to 
our homeliest comforts, to others which please the eye 
by their beauty and good taste. These may be 
found grouped together in profusion, making the im- 
pression on the mind that this must be a wealthy 
district to require the vast stores of goods kept in 
Norwich warehouses ; but so it is, as every one knows 
who has visited the dwellings of many of our rich 
citizens. Luxuries are enjoyed by the well-to-do 
classes of to-day, which could not be found in baronial 
halls a few centuries ago. 

620 History sf NonvuJk 

Carriage Manufactured 

There are several large builders of carriage!^ g^ 
carts, phaetons, &c, in this city, including Messrs. JoUy 
and Son, St Stephen s Street ; Mr. Thorn, St Giles' 
Gates ; Messrs. Howes, Chapel Field ; Mr. Harcourt, 
Chapel-Field Road ; Messrs. J. and J. Howes^ Red Ubn 
Street; Mr. W. H. Howes, Prince of Wales' Road; 
Mr. Rudling, St Martin's at Palace. Mr. Thorn's 
•* Norwich Car" and "Norfolk Shooting Cart" arc 
well known all over England. Messrs. Jolly build 
every sort of useful and fancy vehicle in the 
best possible style. We cannot here pretend to tdl 
how much the construction of carriages has been 
improved in the present century, as compared with 
the old lumbering vehicles formerly in use. Suffice it 
to say, that by the application of science, English 
carriages have become the best in all the world. 

Brushes and Paper Bags. 

Messrs. S. D. Page and Sons have built a large 
warehouse in the Haymarket, where they emfdoy 
upwards of lOO hands in the manufacture of brushes for 
wholesale trade. They are also extensively engaged 
in the paper trade and in the manufacture <rf paper 
bags by very interesting and curious machinery 
worked by steam power, and by which each bag is 
pasted, folded, cut, and completed in the machine 
with astonishing rapidity. Three such machines, and 
several hands, arc employed. The bags are made of 
various sizes and qualities of paper, adapted for the 
general use of grocers, drapers, confectioners, &a 

Trade and Commerce. 621 

Flour Mills. 

Besides the steam flour mills at Carrow works, which 
produce about 1500 sacks of flour weekly, there are 
mills in St Swithin's and Hellesdon, which also pro^ 
duce enormous quantities. Messrs. Barber and Sons 
are the owners of the water mills at Hellesdon, and 
the steam flour mills in St Swithin's. The old water 
mills in St Swithin's, the property of the corporation, 
are in the occupation of Mr. Wells, and are in active 
operation. There are also many wind mills in the 
neighbourhood, and water mills abound 

Paper Manufacture. 

This business is carried on, as before stated, at 
Carrow works, but the largest mills are at Taverham, 
a few miles from Norwich. At these mills, vast 
quantities of paper are produced yearly, of various 
kinds and qualities, including broad sheets for several 
influential newspapers. The trade has been greatly 
increased since the repeal of the duty on paper ; but 
the increase here is nothing to what it has been else* 
where, since the daily newspapers have reached a 
circulation of hundreds of thousands per day. 

The Soap Trade. 

Another branch of business, arising from productive 
industry, is that in soap, of which Mr. Andrews, of 
Fishgate Street, is a large manufacturer. Within the 
Norwich Excise Collection, there are several soap 
makers, who produce immense quantities of an article 

622 History of Norwich. 

which is used in the silk, woollen, linen, and cotton 
manufactures, as well as for domestic purposea About 
300,000,000 lbs. are produced yearly in the Norwich 
Excise district The repeal of the duty upon thv 
useful article must have greatly increased the con- 

The Coal Trade 

About a dozen Norwich merchants carr^* on a con- 
siderable trade in coal. They receive coal inward 
by river 70,000 tons, by railway 62,ocx> tons ; in all, 
132,000 tons annually. The conveyance, at 6sl 8d. per 
ton, will be ;^ ; and the total value, at 20s. per 
ton, will be ;^i 32,000. The principal merchants arc 
Messrs. J. and H. Girling, Mr. Dawbam, Mr. Pointer, 
Mr. Coller, Mr. Jewson, and others, who now brii^ 
coal by railway from the central coal fields. 

Cattle Food and Manure. 

A very extensive business in artificial food for cattle 
has sprung up of late years, but as yet there are only 
two or three firms engaged in the trade in NorwicI^ 
Mr. John Ketton has mills near Foundry Bridge, where 
he produces about 200 tons of cake weekly, for fatten- 
ing cattle. The linseed or other seed is crushed by 
immense circular stones, turned by ingenious machinery. 
The oil, thus squeezed out, is of great value, and the 
refuse is made into cake for fattening cattle, and sold 
at £i per ton. The oil is of equal value. Messrs 
Gayford, Kitton, and Co., have mills at St Ann*s 

Trade and Commerce. 623 

Staithe, King Street, and produce 100 tons of cake 
weekly. These two firms, therefore, produce about 
300 tons of cake weekly, or 15,600 tons yearly, the 
whole value being iTi 24,800. The oil being of equal 
value, the total trade amounts to ;£'2SO,ooo a year. 
Other city merchants, not producers, send away about 
100 tons a- week. 

The late Mr. William Stark, of this city, was an 
eminent chemist, and the first who produced bone 
manures. His son, Mr. M. I. Stark, continues the same 
manufacture of manures, made from steamed bones 
under a process by which all their gelatinous and 
fertilizing properties are converted into the most 
suitable form for application to the land. He also 
produces large quantities of cake, made from linseed 
and beans. This new article of artificial food has 
given great satisfaction. The mills are at Duke's 
Palace Bridge, Norwich, and Rocklaind St Mary. 
Mr. Reynolds and Mr. Parker also produce other 
kinds of artificial manure in large quantities 

Cattle and Corn. 

These trades properly belong to the county, but the 
transactions in the city are on a large scale. The 
cattle trade is the great trade in the eastern counties, 
and more especially of Norfolk. A vast amount of it 
is transacted on the Castle Hill, greatly to the benefit 
of the city, as it gives employment to a latge number 
of poor people, and brings custom to many inns, 
taverns, and business establishments. Norwich Cattle 
Market is now one of the largest in England, taking 

624 History of Norwich. 

the whole year round, and it is rapidly increastng: 
The following returns show the extent of the trade in 
the city and county. The traffic at Trowse Station, 
from June 1866 to June 1867, was as follows : — 

Cattle inwards - 

- 57,058 

Sheep „ 

- 76,154 


- 9,^55— Total i43>o67 

Cattle outwards - 

- 35,083 

Sheep „ 

- 59,063. 


- 12,493— Total 106,639 

Most of these animals are brought to or sent away 
from Norwich Market 

There are twenty acres of layers belonging to the 
railway company round Trowse Station, and about 
one hundred acres of layers close by belonging to 
private parties. These layers are generally covered 
with cattle and sheep during the season, from 
August till November. The valleys of the Yare, the 
Bure, and the Waveney, afford almost unlimited 
pastures for any number of cattle and sheep, and the 
greater part of the lean stock sold on Norwich Hill 
are brought to be fattened on those pastures. In 
short, the cattle trade on the Great Eastern lines has 
been greatly increasing, and is now the largest on any 
system of railways in England. 

Norfolk ranks the fourth in extent, as compared 
with other counties in England, and eighth as regards 
population ; and it is well known, that since the com- 
mencement of this century, the resources of the 
county, in regard to the production of corn, have 

Trade and Commerce. 625 

been greatly increased by an improved system of 
husbandry. Over a million acres are under cultivation, 
including 200,000 acres of commons and sandy heaths, 
which have been inclosed of late years. In 1831, the 
average yield of wheat was three quarters per acre ; 
but there has been an increase of thirty per cent, since 
that period. 

According to the inspector's returns of sales of corn 
in the Norwich Exchange, the quantities and prices 
have varied greatly in different years, since 1845. 
In the year ending October nth, 1845, the quantity 
of wheat sold was 150,226 qrs., but after the repeal of 
the corn laws, the quantity was gradually reduced to 
the year ending October 3rd, 1868, when it was 
65,903 qrs. Since 1855, the quantity of barley sold 
yearly has varied from 120,000 to 177,000 qrs.; and 
in the year ending October 3rd, 1868, it was 166,796 
qrs. Average prices per qr. for 1868. Wheat, 66/9!. 
Barley, 42/8^. 

The Carrying Trade. 

(By water,) 

The river Wensum flows for a distance of 30 miles 
from Rudham to Norwich, and winding round the 
city, flows into the Yare at Trowse. The Yare winds 
through the eastern division of the county for 36 miles 
to Yarmouth. The Waveney flows into the Yare at 
Reedham, and the Bure at Yarmouth. The three 
rivers, Yare, Bure, and Waveney, are 200 miles in 
length, and afford means of water conveyance from 
the city and all parts of East Norfolk to Yarmouth 

626 History of Nontnck, 

haven. The inhabitants of that town have made no 
fewer than seven havens, one after the other, at a cost 
of millions of money, — enough to have formed the 
piers and quays of solid granite. 

We have already given an account of the proceed- 
ings of the corporation of Norwich respecting the 
improvement of the navigation from this city to Yar- 
mouth and Lowestoft, between 1820 and 1840, and, 
therefore, will not go over the same ground agaia 
We need only add that the improvement has been 
continued both by the authorities of Yarmouth and 
Lowestoft, that the channel over Breydon has beoi 
deepened to seven feet at low water, and that a hand- 
some bridge has been built at Yarmouth, allowing of 
the free ebb and flow of the tidal waters. The harbour 
at Lowestoft has also been kept open, and the naviga- 
tion from that port to the city is still carried on by 
means of wherries and other vessels. These wherries 
are peculiar to the rivers of Norfolk and Suffolk, and 
those used on the Yare carry from fifteen to forty 
tons, drawing from three to four feet of water. The 
mast is balanced by means of lead, so that one man 
can raise and lower it, and on this the sail is hoisted, 
being extended by a gaff. These vessels are well 
adapted for the windings of the stream, and are 
generally navigated by two hands, one of them being 
often a boy, or the wife of a waterman. The corpora- 
tion has jurisdiction on the river from Hellesdon 
Bridge to Hardley Cross, a distance of twenty-four 
miles. This, however, does not interfere with the 
rights of landowners on the banks, all of whom have 

Trade and Commerce, 627 

their respective free fisheries, &c. Ten bridges cross 
the river in its passage through the city and its suburbs. 

Norwich and Yarmouth must ever be united in the 
carrying trade by water, as the river Yare flows into 
the sea. From the statements already made, it will 
be seen that for centuries past Yarmouth has been the 
chief port of the city and county ; that from the city, 
and various towns in East Norfolk, vast quantities of 
goods have been annually conveyed along the Yare, 
Bure, and Waveney, to that port, to be thence shipped 
to all parts of England ; and that Norwich merchants 
have brought in the larger proportion of their goods 
vid Yarmouth. 

In 1866, an act, the 29 and 30 Victoria, c 242, was 
passed for " the conservanity and improvement of the 
port and haven of Great Yarmouth, and the rivers 
connected therewith, also for the levying and abolishing 
of tolls and duties, and for other purposes," This was 
the last Yarmouth Port and Haven Act, and under it, 
the tolls have been increased on all vessels coming to 
Norwich. By clause 144, it was enacted that, "From 
and after the 2Sth day of March, 1867, all monies 
received from time to time by the Norwich corporation 
in respect of the Norwich tolls, shall be applied by 
that corporation as follows : — First, in payment of 
interest on the ^^4000 secured on the Norwich tolls, or 
so much thereof as from time to time remains secured 
thereon ; and after and subject to that payment 
Secondly, in payment of a compensation to the 
Norwich corporation for the abandonment and cesser 
of the Norwich tolls, during the term of seven years. 

628 History of Norwich. 

commencing on the 25 th day of March, 1867, in sums 
decreasing i^ioo yearly, from ;£"700 to ;£"icx5. Thirdly, 
on payment of the principal of the mortgage debts of 
^4000, or of so much thereof as from time to time 
remains secured on the Nonvich tolls." 

Thus, the Norwich tolls will be extinguished in 
seven years from March, 1867 ; in 1874. 

(By Road and Rail.) 

Roads and railways are as necessary as rivers for 
the carrying trade, and even more so. Formerly, 
roads were the chief means of transit, and the great 
roads in the eastern counties were among the best in 
England. The Romans made all the great roads from 
Norwich to Ipswich, Colchester, and London ; also 
from Norwich to Newmarket and London ; and many 

After the commencement of the railway system, 
the merchants of Norwich and other towns felt that 
they must be placed on an equality with other parts 
of the kingdom. Various lines of railways were there- 
fore projected ; acts of parliament were obtained ; and 
the Eastern Counties from London to Colchester, the 
Eastern Union from Colchester to Ipswich and thence 
to Norwich ; the Norfolk from Yarmouth ; Norwich 
to Brandon and thence to London ; and the East 
Anglian lines, were made and opened. Afterwards 
the East Suffolk line was opened from Yarmouth to 
Beccles, Bungay, and Ipswich. The Norfolk line was 
opened in 1845, and caused an entire change in the 
carrying trade of the district The quantity of goods 


Trade and Cotmnerce. 629 

sent along the line to London was soon 100,000 tons 
yearly, and great quantities were sent by way of Ely 
and Peterborough to the large towns in the north of 
England, from which also goods are brought to Nor- 
wich. It is evident, therefore, that a vast amount of 
traffic, by sea or land, was transferred to the railway. 
Goods which, prior to the opening of the line were 
forwarded by road from Norwich into the interior of 
the county, were sent by railway as far as Thetford, 
and thus escaped the tonnage dues ; and when the 
branch lines were opened from Lowestoft to Beccles 
and Reedham, and from Wymondham to Dereham^ 
Fakenham and Wells, there was a still greater diver- 
sicMi of the traffic Large quantities of coal were sent 
by railway direct to Dereham, which socxx became a 
dep6t for central Norfolk. From all the towns along 
its course, the new line took the greater part of the 
carrying trade. It was soon a prosperous line, and 
proved to be of great commercial advantage to the 

The opening of all the new lines immediately caused 
coaches to be discontinued, and threw a deal of 
shipping out of employment at Yarmouth, Lynn, and 
Wells. By railways large quantities of com and malt 
were sent to various towns that used to be sent by 
sea. Goods, too, from all parts of the north of 
England were brought by railway into Norfolk and 
Norwich. For a long time the chief part of the salt 
of England was produced in Cheshire and sent down 
the river Weaver, which flows into the Mersey at 
Liverpool, whence it was transhipped to Yarmouth^ 

Suffolk by river c 
of tliL- line from VA 
linvc been sent b; 
Bromsgrove, Worce; 
lines at the rate of 
lai^e supplies of sa 
and county. What 
trade in salt is only c 
in reference to the t 
goods. The Norfoll 
much with a view 1 
town to London, as ) 
and county to the M 
by way of Ely and Pe 
completely attained, g 
city and county. 

We subjoin a sumi 

Goods carried by r 



Trade and Commerce. 


Goods outward by river 

- 100,000 tons 

„ at Thorpe - 

- S3iOoo „ 

„ at Trowse - 

- 20,434 „ 

„ at Victoria - 

7,534 „ 

180,968 „ 

Cattle inward at Trowse 

- 57,058 

Sheep „ „ 

- 76,154 

Pigs „ „ 

- ■ 9,855 


Cattle outward at Trowse - 

- 35,083 

Sheep „ „ 

- 59,063 

Pigs „ „ 

- ",493 


Tonnage return of goods, coal, and fish, received at 
and forwarded from Southtown Station, East Suffolk 
railway, from July 1866, to July 1867. 

Goods outwards - - - - 8,965 tons 

„ inwards ... - 10,306 

Fish outwards - - - - 15,207 
Coal .•---- 122 





Total outwards 24,294 ,, 
Total inwards 10,306 




The return for Vauxhall Station at Yarmouth, 
Norfolk railway, for the corresponding period, gives 
the following results. 


History of Norwich, 

Goods outwards - 

- 23,ri6toiis 

„ inwards - 

- 14,817 „ 

Fish outwards • 

8,014 »> 

„ inwards 

148 » 

Coal outwards - 

M*3 » 

„ inwards - 

910 „ 

Z^^Z^^ ff 

Tonnage return for Lowestoft, for the year ending 
June 30th, 1867. 

Goods inwards .... 11,513 tons 
outwards - - - . 9,069 



201S82 „ 

Fish inwards 


42 tons 

„ outwards 

9,561 „ 
9,603 „ 

Coal inwards 


2,179 tons 

„ outwards 

13.979 M 

16,158 „ 

Total received 

13,736 tons 

Total forwarded 

39,036 „ 

Total traffic 

52,772 „ 

Thus, it appears that a large proportion of the 
carrying trade of Norfolk and Suffolk is through the 
ports of Yarmouth and Lowestoft 

Trade and Cofnmerce. 633 

The goods sent away from Norwich by river, roads, 
and railways, consist of yams, which arc produced 
here in large quantities, textile fabrics of every descrip- 
tion, boots and shoes to the extent of l2,CXX)dozen 
pairs weekly, brushes, manufactured goods of every 
sort, corn, malt, beer, oil cake, cotton cake, linseed oil, 
mustard, starch, flour, paper, general drapery, grocery, 
and printed books. About 15,000 tons of cake for 
fattening cattle are sent away yeariy, and distributed 
over the eastern countiea The goods brought into 
Norwich consist of raw materials of every kind, stone, 
timber, iron, coal, com, vast quantities of grocery and 
drapery, wines, spirits, ales, porter, fruits, fish, game, 
&c, &c 

:f ^zrwich. 

_ « 

-- E: _E1-._" -- tE-£ ji?:- i EILCA-'IML 

• * 

1. . >;. - 

rt^'.-.r-ifi tire chief political 

t-:-: .-' v.-t ..i-r-;--. i::d we shall now 

.'::r: : . w.r.tct-.z »::>. the present period 

'-•':' -:• -.v ::" -:'-^t:«ril nie^:in^s and elections 

.:..-: .:' =.1 :>.* ::r::e5ted elections, in full 

«. , - : \r: h ::;:;-'.-/ interesting if it could be 

- '>-t -'.r .rt:-itrly the local records are very 

r\',t ^i-: i -r.r-^jiiable. The public journals have 

of co'ir -,••:, b:;i--:ed by part}' considerations, and 

th'rrn it is imjiossible to derive an impartial 


'\'\v'. I*"npMish parliament has now attained the 
patririrr:h;il a;^c of 6oo years. The latest researches 
confirm the conclusions of the earlier' historians, that 

1 _ 

* •• • • 

». IT- fc*., 
. . . . ^' , . 



Political History. 635 

the year 1265 is the date of the first regal summons 
convoking the great council of the nation, at least in 
its complete form, on a muster of lords, spiritual and 
temporal, knights of the shire, and representatives of 
cities and boroughs ; and throughout the whole sex- 
centenary period which has elapsed, the estates of the 
realm have been convened at frequent intervals to 
advise the sovereign on national affairs. Parliament 
gradually effected great advances in the cause of 
liberty ; for, at the time of granting taxes and aids, 
they generally coupled such concessions with im- 
portant provisions for the good of their fellow-citizens 
and the community at large. 

Henry IV. directed a writ to the bailiffs by which 
four citizens of Norwich were ordered to be returned 
to Parli.inicnt ; but, the attendance of members being 
then paid for by their constituetits, the expense was 
an object, and they therefore made interest to get 
the members reduced to two only. Under the old 
charters of the city the freemen were entitled to vote 
for members of parliament and members of the 
corporation ; and householders were not included in 
the list of voters till the Reform Act of 1832. The 
old freemen, therefore, formed the greater part of the 
constituency, and in the course of time became a very 
corrupt body here, as well as in all other corporate 
towns. By the act of 1729, it was provided **that at 
every election for burgesses in parliament, every one 
that votes must swear that he hath been admitted to 
his freedom twelve calendar months before that 
election, and that he hath not been polled at that 

636 History of Na9 wick, 

election before, or in case of an election of two mem- 
bers, but for one person." The Reform Act of 1832, 
however, extended the franchise to ;f 10 householden 
in towns, and gave them a preponderating power in 

For many centuries the House of Commons repre> 
sented only the landed interest, and nearly all laws 
were in favour of the land-owners, who, under pretence 
of protecting native industry, enacted laws to prevent 
or to limit the importation of foreign com. The great 
land-owners in the House of Lords had their nomineesi 
too, in the House of Commons, and ruled the entire 

The first Revolution in France produced a wonder- 
ful effect on the political and re%ious worlds. In 
the year 1790 commenced those great and important 
events in France, which laid the foundation of the 
long war that afterwards raged between that un- 
fortunate empire and this country, and which almost 
ruined Norwich. Party spirit here bq^n to rage with 
increased violence. The Tories were vehemently 
against the Revolution, and the Whigs were equally 
earnest in its favour. It is well known, indeed, that 
the unparalleled convulsions on the continent extended 
their influence to England and Scotland, and raised 1 
storm, although not so disastrous, yet scarcely less 
permanent. The jealousies of government had been 
excited to an unreasonable height, and the suspension 
of the Habeas Corpus Act furnished the ministers with 
an opportunity of gratifying all their revenge on 
political opponents. England, in short, by the base, 

Political History. 637 

suspicious, and mean conduct of her rulers, became for 
a short time the land of persecution and oppression. 
Many of the most respectable men were imprisoned 
on frivolous charges, while others were accused of high 
treason ; and though acquitted by juries, yet imprison- 
ment injured their health, distressed their families, 
and exhausted their property. These disgraceful 
transactions continued for some time, and roused a 
strong feeling of indignation against the government 
of the day. 

Mr. Mark Wilks, a Baptist preacher in this city, of 
whose history we have already given some extensive 
details (see p. 482), made himself very prominent as 
an advocate of the Revolution, and of radical princi- 
ples. On July 14th, 1 79 1, he preached two political 
discourses, before crowded congregations, in defence 
of the Revolution in France, and these discourses had 
a marked effect in the city ; and he became a very 
active political partizan, both in the city and county. 
He took a great interest in Hardy and his associates, 
who had become involved in debt by the great ex- 
penses of their trial. He instituted a subscription in 
all parts of the kingdom to assist the sufferers ; and 
on April 19th, 179S, he preached two sermons in 
Norwich, in which he exposed with great severity the 
injustice of the measures adopted against them, and 

vindicated their characters and conduct The coUec- 


tions, after the sermons, amounted to a large sum. In 
one of his sermons, he said : — 

" In favour of Mr. Windham's acquitted felons, (Thomas 
Hardy, John Home Tooke, Bonney, Kidd, Joyce, Holcroft, 

638 History of Norwich, 

Richton, and Baxter, and all their supposed associates in 
guilt), we may adduce their ixraceable and orderly demeanour 
in all their public and private transactions. By whatever 
names men are called, whether loyalists or republicans, 
whether Reevites or Jacobins, I will venture to say thai 
friends of anarchy are foes of society, and ought to be con- 
sidered as wolves scattering the shepherd's flock, and dealt 
with accordingly. But have we seen one atom of licentious 
wantonness, one spark of civil discord in these friends of 
reform ? No ! the peaceable and orderly deportment of 
these societies has been sufficient to convince every un- 
prejudiced mind how much they have acted under the 
influence of that wisdom which cometh from above, which 
is in its nature peaceable, and productive of good fruits. 

" ITie Jacobins in this city — ^and except at Paris there can 
have been none greater — have given repeated demonstrations 
of their love of peace. At a time when the starving poor 
felt an iniciuitous disposition to riot; when the friends of 
freedom were represented as having formed a design of 
regulating markets, dividing farms, and equalising property; 
and when the imbecile farmer credulously imbibed the 
representation, the affiliated societies in this city published 
this resolve, * T/iat if any member should break thi feace ly 
the violation of cxistiui^ laws^ he should not only be excluded^ 
but iklivercd up itito the hands of justice^ No exclusion, 
however, has taken place in consequence of this relation; 
and the reason has been obvious — there has been no otfencet 
The traitorous conspirators (so called) in this city can call 
upon the Right Hon. W. Windham to bear testimony to 
their love of peace. The opposition he experienced last 
July, he very well knows arose from no personal disrespect, 
nor from any view of incompetency on his part in point of 
talents, but from a love of peace and an inveterate liatred of 

Political History, 639 

this accursed war. Mr. Windham very well knows, that 
when he appeared in the character of a true patriot, when it 
was his creed that *The influence of the crown had in- 
creased^ was ifureasingy and ough