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_ /u,^ 


Cfatenbon (|)re6e ^eriee 













LiTT.D., LL.D., D.C.L.. Ph.D. 



'Were man to live co-evol with the sun, 
The patriarch-pupil would be learning: still.' 

Young, Night Thougkts, vil 86 






flV K<iH.ACI! MAMT. 1*.*. 

ntmr^it to thb vwjvbmity 





Key to the General Plan of the Dictionary . . , xi 

List of Abbreviations xii 




I. List op Prefixes 624 

II. Suffixes 630 

IlL Select List of Latin Words 633 

Select List of Greek Wori s 644 

IV. Homonyms 647 

V. List of Doublets 648 

VI. Distribution of Words according to the Languages 

from which they are derived 652 




The firsi edition of my * Concise Etymological Dictionary of the 

nglish Language' was published in 1BS2, and it has since passed 

rough several editions. 

Each successive edition contained several corrections and additions, 
in order that the work might be, to some extent, brought up to 


Meanwhile, numerous and important contributions have been 

adcp by many writers, to the study of Indo-germanic philology; 

ore exact methods of analysing phonetic changes have been 
adopledf and important advances have been made al many points. 
Such works as Kluge*s Etymological Dictionary of German, Franck*s 
EtiTnological Diciionary of Dutch, ^podefroy'^ Dictionary of Old 

ench. the Modem French Dictionary by HatzfeJd and Darmcstcler, 

addilion to other highly important books such as the Comparative 

rammar of the Indo-germanlc languages by Brugmann^ have all 
contributed to a much clearer and more exact view of the science of 
comparative philology* Hence the time has come when [^rtial 
emendations of my Conciiie Dictionary, however diligently made, 
have (as I fear) failed to keep pace with the requirements of 
ihe predcnt day; and I have accordingly rewritten the book from 

ginning to end, making improvements in nearly every article, 
tst at the same time introducing into the body of the work 

rdfl which have hitherto necessarily been relegated to a con- 
tinually incrcaaing Supplement. The result is less a new edition 
than a new book> 

Since ihe year t88a above-mentioned, a great advance has been 
made in ErigUsh tciicogmphy. An entirely new edition of Websier 
appeared in 1890, and The Century Dictionary, of which ihe publication 



was begun in 1889, was completed in 1891, In both of these works my 
name appears in the ' List of AuthDriiies cited ' ; though it is seldom 
express!}' mentioned except in cases of considerable difficulty, where 

• the writer preferred not to risk an opinion of his own. But the chief 
event during this period has been the publication of The New 
English Dictionary on Historical Principles, the tjnique value of 
which is even now too Utile understood and respected by the 
general public. The first part of this great national work appeared 
in idS4. 

The chief difference between the second and later editions of my 
Concise Et)'mological Dictionar)' and the present one can now be 
readily explained. The former editions were mainly reproduced from 
the first edition, at a time when^ from the nature of the case, little 
help could be had from the works above-mentioned, owing to the 
fact that they either did not exist or could not be much utilised. 
But in the present work, I have endeavoured to glean from them all 
their most itnportant results. The work has been collated with the 
Century Dictionary throughout, and with the New English Dictionary 
from A to H (excepting a small portion of G). I have endeavoured 

■ 10 make good use of Kluge, Franck, Brugraann, and other autho- 
rities ; and have gladly adopted a large number of corrections. In 
particular, I have now marked the quantities of all the vowels 
in Latin words, as this often throAvs much light upon Romance 
phonology. And in many cases where the result is tolerably certain 
I have given ihe primitive types of Teutonic and even of Indo-germanic 

In all former editions, t endeavoured, by help of cross-references, 

• to arrange derivative words tinder a more primitive fonn. Thus 
tX'ciit, in-fitt^ re-ate and nsus-cti-ak were all given under Ciii. 
But experience has shewn iliat this endeavour was more ambitious 
than practical, often causing needless delay and trouble. Hence the 
only truly practical order, viz, an alphabetical one, has been here 
adopted, so that the required word can now be found at once. But 
in order to retain the chief advantages of the old plan, I have pre- 
pared two lisls, one of Latin and one of Greek words, which account 
for a large number of denvaiives. These will be found in the 
Appendix, f IIL At pp. 633 and 644, 

1 have much pleasure in mentioning two more circumstances by 
rhich I have been greatly assisted and encouraged. Some few years 



:o> my friend the Rev. A. L, Mayhew vas so good as to go patiently 

irough every word of the Concise Etymological Dictionary, making 

lundreds of suggestions for improvement ; and finally sent me the 

i\ty in which all these suggestions were entered. The)' have all 

been carcftilly considered, and in a very large number of instances 

lave been fully adopted. Again, while the revises were passing 

irough the pr^ss, they were read over by Mr. H. M. Chadwick, M.A., 

'ellow of Clare College, Cambridge, author of ' Studies in Old 

English' published by the Cambridge Philological Society in 1899; 

id his exact knowledge of Indo-germanic phonology has been 

rggiL'stive of many improvements. I have only to add, in justice to 

lese scholars/ tmt tliey are not responsible for all the results here 

ivjii, • In &ome few cases I have held to my own preconceived 

V)(*inion ; perhaps not always wisely. Still it was best that the final 

form of each article should be left to the author's decision ; for the 

reader is then sure as to where he must lay any blame* 

Many ariicles which, in former editions, appeared only in the 

supplement have now been incorporated with the rest, so that the 

lumber of words now explained (in alphabetical order) amounts to 

lore than 12,750. 

Considerable pains have been taken to ensure accuracy in the 

printing of the forms cited ; and I have received much help from the 

care exercised by the press-reader. At the same time, 1 shall be 

thankful to any reader who wiJl kindly send me a note of any error 

which he may detect. I have myself discovered, for example, that 

under ibe word dmekry the * Skt. p' is an ertof for the * Skt, f// 

few belated corrections appear at pp. 662-3. 

As 1 freqtiently allude to the ordinary vowel-changes in the course 
rf the work, I may note here those w-hitli are the most elementary 
It! common. They deserve to be learnt by heart at once. 

ANGLO-SAXON. The most usual vowel-change is that produced 
}f the occurrence of an /' ory (which often disappears by a subsequent 
»ntraction of the word) in the following syllabie. Owing to this, we 


fr*/flen;&-r tai due die vq«e£l at amrrgcd in rw fi» ceiav. are 
ctanf^^ itao tfae «jCTes |>ftt5ag n'Wffii- at row ij . 

hfa^m f «y «:, «, 4- ^ *' ^ ^ 

y,%ma^:—/fraaM, to ffll for '/id^; kamJkiL fiiS. 

Moreryver, nb«anchcs and w^-iMMfag y vccbs are oficn fonned from 
ha««»i seen in die past tense snipibr.pasctcsHe pknaLorpttspanxqile 
f/ a ttroog verb, rather than from the iaiiniiite mood. Tins i^mi and 
Urui are from the base seen in the A. S. hamd. pc. t. of itmiam, jo bind ; 
wfoJiM ^mu£Gr is derived from dm viacfa appears in ibe pp^ i m mi m . 
% waf of (fistinction, I lefcr to hmS- as the ' prime grade. a> A«^- 
as the ' second grade/ and to b^md- as the ' weak grade* 

J-OMly, oar modem words of natire origin bdong rather to the 
Midland (or CMd Mercian) dialect than to the 'Anglo-Saxon' or 
WeMex ; and Old Mercian emploTs a (mutated to e) vfaere the A. S. 
has ta, and sometimes / for A. S. a>. 

ICELANDIC. This language abounds in somewhat similar vowel- 
changes, bat very few of these appear m Engitsh, But we must not 
pass over the frequent fonnation <^ d^ivatives from the past tenses 
(mlngular or plural) and the past participles of strong verbs. Thus 
baiif IceL bei/a, lit ' to cause to bite/ is the causal of bita, to bite ; its 
form may be explained by the fact that the pt l of i^ is btii. 

Again, as regards the Romance languages, especially French, it 
muM be borne in mind that they are also subject to phonetic laws. 
These laws are sufficiently illustrated in Mr. Paget Toynbee's trans- 
lation of Hrachet's Historical French Grammar. In particular, I may 
note that most French substantives are derived from Ladn accusoHves ; 
anH that to derive bounty from bonitdt (nom.), or honour from Lat 
honor (nom.), is simply impossible. 

For fuller information, the reader is referred to my Principles of 
Kngllfih Ktymology, First and Second Series ; the former deals chiefly 
with the native, and the latter with the foreign elements of the 
UrtKiiftge. My Primer of English Ktymology contains some of the 
more Important facts. 

I subjoin a key to the plan of the work, and a list of abbreviations. 




5 1, Order of Word*. Words are given in their alphabetical 
order; but a few secondary derivatives are explained under some 
more important form. Thus campaign is given under Camp^ and 
cannon under Cane. 

\ 3. Th© Words eeleoted. The word-list contains nearly ail 
prirnary words of most frequent occurrence, with a few others that are 
remarkably prominent in titerature, such as urtan^Ud. Honionyn:ioU3 
forms, such as bay (u^d mfive senses), are numbered, 

{ J. Beflnitions. Definitions are omitted in the case ofconrmion 
words J but explanations of original forms are added wherever they 
seemed to me to be necessary, 

$ 4, LanguasG. The language to which each word belongs is 
distinctly marked, in every case, by means of Letters within marks of 
paieDtbesb. Here the symbol — or - is lo be read as ' derived 
from/ Thus Abbey is (F- — L. — Gk. — Syriac); L e. a French word 
derived from Laiin ; the Latin word being-^ in its turn, from Greek, 
whilst the Greek word is of Syriac origfin. 

The order of derivation is always upward or backward, from late 
to early, and from early to earlier forms. 

The symbol + is employed to distinguish forms which are merely 
<(igm.]te^ and are adduced merely by way of illustrating and confirming 
the etymology. Thus, bite is a purely Engiish word, derived from the 
Anglo-Saion Bifan. The other Teutonic forma^ viz. the Du. l>ijien, 
Iccl 6ita, Swed. biUi, Dan. bide, G. dtissert, and the other Indo- 

rmAnic forms, viz. IjkX.Jindrre (baseyfrf-) and Skt. bhid, to cleave^ 
are merely cognate and illustraiive. On this point* there commonly 
exists the most singular confussion of ideas; and there are many 
Englishmen who are accustomed to derive English, of all ihlngs^ from 
Modirn High German! 1 therefore iniroduce this symbol + by way 
of warning. It has its usual algebraical value of pius or additional; 
and indicates * additional information to be obtained from the com- 
parison of cognate forms.' 


Tbc sfwAcA > meant' older ikn.' or 'More prndve tfaui'; the 
symbol < means * imuigq than,' or ' derived from.' 

{ s- Brmho^ctTmngm^m TV nmbob, mA *s F.=Freiich, 
are not naed in ibdr imnl vagne sense, k> as u> bafle die cnqoirer 
wfao wiabcs to find die words re£erTcd iol Every srmbol las a spt^ial 
UHu, and has reierenoe to ccstam books, in one aK Irasi of wtich the 
vord oied may be Ibond, as I have ascertained far nqraeH- fay knkii^ 
tbero all out I have piupotljt osed, as far as vas practicable, the 
most easily accessibJe authorities. The cmct sense of each symbol is 
g:iTcm in the list belov, 

f 6, Boots, In aocne cases, a vord is tnced back to its ordinal 
Indo-gcrmanic root. The root is denoted by the symbol %^, to be 
read as 'root.' Thus htar, to carry, is from %/BH£R. Some of 
these roots are iDnstrated br the lists in f III of the Appendix. 

} 7. DerimtiTeB. The symbol Der., L c. Derivadvesy is used to 
intro'ioce forms related to the primary vord. Thus, onder Act^ I 
ik)te such derivadves as act-um, ati-ivt, ftc, vfaicfa cause no cifficolty. 


Anb, — Arabic ; u in RichardsoB*t Pcr- 
sUo and Arabic Diet, ed. F. Jobn- 
ton ; 1819. See also Dene's Sop- 
pleineDt to UtU^i F. Diet. 

A. S. — Ang^o-Sazoa; ai in the dictioo- 
arie* by Boswoith and Toller, Ett- 
muller, and Grein ; in the Vocabu- 
laries edited by T. Wright and ProC 
Wiilker; and m Sw«et*s OUert 
English Test*. 

Barar, — Bavarian ; as in Schmeller's 
Baycriscbes Wbrterbndk ; 1837- 

Bret. — Breton ; as in Legonidec's fi^et 

D<ct„ed. i8ji. 
Bmgm. — Bnigmann, Grandriss dcrircT- 

gldchcnden Gramnatik, Aec; toU i. 

(snd ed.>, 1897 ; toI. fi 1889-90. 
C. — Celtic ; used as a general term for 

Irifh,Gaelfc, Welsh, Breton, Cornish, 


Coni. — Coaiish ; as in WilliaiBS* Did.; 
I 1865. 

Dan. — Danish ; as in FcrrmU and Repp ; 
Dan. dial — Danidi dialects ; as in 
Molbccfa, 184I. 

Dn. — Dotdi; as in Calisdi and in the 
Tandmits Dvtch Diet Middle 
Dotdi words are from Oodemans, 
Hexham (1658), or Sewd (1754). 

E. — Modem Englidi; as in N. E. D. 
(New English Dictkmary; ; and in 
the Century Dictiooory. 
M.E.~MiddIe English English from 
the thirteenth to the fifteenth oen- 
toTMS inclasiTe); as in Stratmann's 
Old English Diet., new edttioo, 

F. — French. Host of the forms cited 
are not precbdy modern French, bnt 
from Cot « CotgrsTc^s Dictiottary, 



ed. lQ6o. ThfsAccounti for citation 
of fbims, sQch OS F. reaxaiion, 
wiihoQi iccenu \ the F, aci:enl« 
bring mostly mrjdera, Such worrii 
AXt itsb&Uy maikcd M. F. (Middle 
French L See also Ch« dictioflanes 
by Hktifeld fmd UttXxL 
O. F. — 0\^^ French ; aa lq the die 
tiooAncft by Godcfroy, Btireuy, or 

Fti£i. — Fn»ic; u In Richthofcn, [840. 

G»cl.— Gaelic; rs in Maclcod and 
Pewar, 1839: or Macbain, 1896. 

G.— tJciman ; as in Fliigel^ 1S83. 

iow G< — Low GermaA; as in the 

tiiemcrti Wbrtcrbueh, 1767. 
M. U. G.— Middle High Gcrtnan ; lu 
in Schade, AUdeataches Worter- 

O. H. G.— Old High Genamn j as in 

the SBjne volume. 
Git. — Greek; k5 in Liddell and Scdlt't 

Goth. — Mceso - Gothic ; as in Balg's 

CIoii»ry» 1887-9. 
Hebi^Hebrew; its in Gesoiiui' Diet., 

H'flid. — HindujUai -, u in Forbes, Bate, 

or Wilson's Gloomy of IndUui 

Icel." Icelandic ; u in Cleasby and Vig- 

fu»<m. 1^74. 
Idg. — Iljdg-gcnnanic ; the family of 

Un^uJiges which ioclade^ San&krtt, 

Gre^k, Latin. English, &c. 
Irish. — Irish; (t* in 0*f<dlly, 1864* 
Itml.— ItBlisn ; as In Meadows, 1S57; 

Torrimno, i6)IIS ; and Florio^ 1598, 

L. — Ldlin ; u in Ixwis and Short, 1 S8c. 

Late L —Late Latin ; at in the hite»t 

edition of T>ui;ange ; by L, Favrc, 

1884-7, Low L. -Late L. words 

of non^Latin origin.) 
lUth. — LithnaniAn ; as in NdSelmann's 

Diet., iS«i. 
Low (;.— Lvw German ; see tmdcr G. 


Mftlay. — As in Maisden'i Diet., iSiij 

cf. Notes by C. P. G. Scoti. 
Mex. — Mexican; as in llic Diet, by 

Sitn^on, Paris, iS'^^^ 
M. E. — Middle English; see under E. 

M.H.G.— Middle High German; see 

under G. above. 
Nww.— Norwegian ; as in Aasen's Norsk 

Ordbofi, 1S73* 
O, F,— Old French; see tinder F, abovt 
O, H.G. — Old High GermaQ; see under 

G. above, 
O. Sai.— Old Saxon ; as in the Hr^liand, 

&C.J ed. Hcyne, 
O, Slav — Old Slavonic; as in Mik- 

losieh, Etym. Diet., Vienna, 18S6. 
Pcrs, — Persian; ai in Ricbardson^s Arab. 

and P«ft, Diet.? or in Palmer's Pen. 

Dic1.jl876; d Hom.Neupersiscbc 

Etymologic, 1895. 
Pcmv. — Peruvian ; a& in the Diet, by 

Gonzales, Lima^ 1A08, 
Port.~-Porttjguese ; aa in Vicyt*, 1857. 
Prov. — Provencal ; as in Raynouard's 

Lcxiquc, and Bart&cb's 

Chrestomalhie Proven^'Ale. 
Rnss. — Rusiian; as in RcifTs Did., 

Scand, — Scandinavian ; used as a general 

term for Icelandic* Swedtshi^ Danish, 

and Norwegian. 
Skt.— Sanskrit; as In Beii£ey's Diet., 

Span.— Spanish; as in NcnmAnn^ ed, 

SeaODC, 1S63 : Pineda, 1740^ or 

Minshen^ 162^. 
Swed-^Swedish ; as in the Tauchnit? 

Diet, or in \Videgren» or in 6Dian. 
Swed. dial^ — Swedish dialectic; as in 

Tent, — Teutonic ; n general term for 

Knmlisb, Dutch* Geimaii, Gothic, 

and Scandinavian. 
Turk,— Turkish ; a* in Zenker's Diet., 

W. — Wehh; as In Spnrrell, 1B61. 




dbC^-^iative ease. 
«!«cli— <f«rf ffw irr il 
Iter. — Etenvxtnc. 

freqneat. — frtqmemuiawt. 
g/sn. — gczk^thne aac 
Le.— idcst,thatiL 
lAf. — mfioUiTe iKood. 

btterj, — tntojecuoa. 

m. pr OMic— maif Hnfc 
a. ^ neat.— oestcr. 

Some of the longer anides are marked off into sectkHis by the use 
of the Greek letters fi, y. This is merely intended to make matters 
clearer, by separating the vanons statements from each other. 

Notes at the end of an article are marked off by begmning widi 
the symbol Y. XIV, XV, XVI, mean that the word was introduced 
in the 14th, 15th, or 1 6th centmy, re^>ectivety. Hyphens are freely 
introfluced to shew the e^mtaicgual (^vision of a word. Thus the 
wr>rd eoncedi is derived from I^ cm-cidere ; meaning that concidere 
can be resolved into con- and cedtre. This etymological division is 
often very different from that osoally adopted in printed books when 
words have to be divided ; thus capacious can only be divided, etymo- 
loglcally, as cap-ac'i-ous^ because cap- is the root-syllable ; whereas, 
when divided according to the pronunciation, it becomes ca-pa-ci-ous. 

Tiicorctical forms are marked by an asterisk preceding them. Thus, 
unrlcr Harrou) ( 1 ), the Teutonic type ^bergoz, a hill, is the primitive 
Teutonic form whence the A. S. beorg and the G. berg are alike de- 
scended ; and under SttiU (s), the A. S. form ^fei must have been 
•bihl in Old Mercian. 



The symbols tS and }> are both written for M. In Icelandic, p has 
the sound of M in MfW, and ^ that of M in /^/; but the M.E. and A.S. 
symbols are confused. The M.E. symbol j conunonly represents j' at 
the beginning of a word, and gh in the middle. A. S. short and long 
vowels, such as a and 3, are as distinct from each other as c and 17, 
or and « in Greek. 

The distinction between the two values of A. S. long a (as 
made by Dr. Sweet in his A. S. Diet.) has been carefully observed. 
Thus the A. S. a invariably represents the mutation of A. S. a (as 
usual), and corresponds to Goth, at; but A. S. d represents the 
Wessex sound corresponding to the Anglian and Kentish /, and to 
Goth. /. For example, h^al is from A. S. h^Jan, cognate with Goth. 
hailjan^ G. heilm ; but deed is from O. Merc, ded (Wessex ddd), 
cognate with Goth, deds, G. that. 





ifiricf, an, C&) See An. 
[i\ u in a-dawH ^A^S, ofdUfif. 
Here a * A. S.^: tee Of, Ott. 

On. ^ This ia ihe commonest 
the prcfiK d-< 
A" (3). M in a-ifffi^. (E) Here »-— 
A. S. and' ; see Along. 
MLt {-i). u in O't-ur, {E,} Here a-« 
A. S. d*; srv ArJBQ. 

(5), AS in afhitve^ a^siringenL [F. 
'L, ; ^ L ) Hcfc d= F. pfciix n - L, 

to ; sec Ad-. 
Mr- ,6), ai in o^vtrL (L.) Here a-=> 
tji «ce Ab- (I). 

{fX %Aivk a-mtnd. (L.) Heretf-JW^Mi/ 

^ JU (^t OS iA aiiu. {\\) Sec Alu. 

y)j &£ m a-hyix, (Gk,) Htre a* — 

Ck, d- or ^< ; see I7n*» Abyw 
A- ;io). u in (t^dSff. (£.) For ix/ £/<?; 
aer At, Ado. 

A^ [ 1 1 i, 09 lo a-wart. (E. ) Here d^ u 
for M , E. /', i', A. S. ^- ; see Awwe, 
A- (i'). M in a-vast^ (Du.) For Du- 
ra//; wr AviuE. 

(I), frejix. (L.) L. a^, from; 
iM with E, u/i Kc 0«- In F., ii 
d or tfv- ; ice Advuitoffe. 
Ab- I %\ prtfix. i.L.) For L. ad, to. 
by AtthtiJlaticrn ; icc Abbravljite. 
Abafik. (H.) For m AofA A. S. 
ivnSrr; m:« A- <l> and B«ok. 
Abaft. (.K.) From the prefix 4K- (il, 
luid ^-ti//, ibort {01 l>i-itft^ by aft. TIiu*i 
«l>-^/-soa by afi. i.e. at the part which 



lies to the aft, Cf, M. E. bia/ien. Gen. 

and Exod, 337?; A.S. A^tr/fun. See A- 
fa'i, By» and Aft. 

Abandon. ^F,-Low L,-O.H.G.) 
M. K. abandounent vb.^ F. abi^mhHiner.*' 
h\ ^ bandsn^ at libeitj? ; ortg* in (he puw^cr 
(of). — L. Of/, at; LowL. Aswi/j/M.^iiiituqi^ 
an order, decr^ r from O. H. Q. ftan, 
giimnion&, ban ; see Ban. 

Abane. (F. -L.) M. K. ahmtn, from 
A- c 5 } and Buo ; imital ing O. F. abaissier^ 
lo lower, 

Abftftll, \J^ M, E. ohfssrhen^ atmis^ 
(Aftt, abaien. — O- F. eiimsSf stem of pret 
parL of rjAiir (F. /5a^*>), lo astcoish.— 
O, F. Iff- ( -L. fje, out, very much] ; and 
Aj/r, hakir, to cause aitonishmcRt, a 
word of imitative uhgin from the interj. 
(5a^ / of a&tonishment. ^ Sometimes con- 
fust d with a^dji in M, E. See BaaliflLl. 

Ablfcttt. iF.-U) M. K. d^/^n.* 
O. F. aAa^rf . — Late L. *iU^iUre, \o beal 
down (as in ItaU). — L. ad, to; and baUre^ beat. See Bat^r. ^ Henct 
Atfi'f, foi a-hatt, Cf. Ab- (J)^ 

Abbot. iL.-Gk.^Syriac.> M. E. 

ahhei, fi^W, A-S. ahhod-^\.. ahbat- (o^m. 

a^hai)^ an abbot, lit. A father ^Gk.A^&ax. 

'Syriac aifbd,9, father; Kom. riii. 15, 

abbesa. (F, - L. - Gk. - Syrimc) 

Lati? L, ahbatusa - L, ahbdt- (ni abov*^ ; 
and 'ilia i>Ck. -tacra, fem suffix. 

abbay. (F. - L, - Gk, - Syriac) 
M. 1:. .slheyt. - O. F. aUh. - Lale U 

^£S9r»' *-^£ 



iii-.ifva-— 1_ fir- '.'.r a-' 
?r-.ftt 17. -jf 1- c- 

i: <a — «■■* /.c-^.riiirw 

• I. fir irzo ; «i"irr. to 

.'.■ V ' 


vy. --•: i- 


•:; 1 _*i.-... 

-i v**^ "-r 



fr-c: 1..-- '- 

J,. <•.; f'rCn 

>tt Err. 

iLKi* O.F. 1= .^ :_ 

H ?:c r« ».-- 2: KcA- 

1;:. Z. >f I- cxxv. 
i^L-.^^ } rrisi xs r" =-:ci A S. •=Mt/, 
rii JT'-^. :■•' fridsK zi iztat. ft-e Abide. 
AteUsk. ?.-l- F uKa-s: arm 
;■: i^rrs. "t ;c fihn.;*.*!. fiwwrr. 10 

t, I- Trzez rev of U 
r=r^ r-wxT fr:c tsatt v&kli 
• I. fi.'. xvxt; nB»-. for 

a'-fV'' V, fX'^-jt, wr: -.r. j'v:'^^^- — F. 
A- Ia-. a^ ; t.'A O f. -Kirr. :o ia:t a 
i>3-,. t'- ►*•- 'X.. i:m. !:=.'. .^.'^ ^-ir cj^t 
?', ;^.'jt '^:.u.l v: '.Vj. ;> L."t Stt Bait, 

AbfTftace, •x;«c'.LU-jr., fz:spEs:fioc. 

'f. - T- A. f- oAtian-e. KLSptnsio::. 
wa i:;.'. ;;'?"-'; . — ^ - « : *•-': j<aii'. pr«. ;;-"- 
of O K ^<vr ^, t-2ytr^, ro ripe. eij<ct 

Ablunr. '- . I- al-hirrj't. '.'J vhhr/ic 
ff'/f?- jr, •Trr'vr. — I, arf, fros ; -MTrr/, to 
'i-'ra/I ' f. Horrid. 

Abid« ': , to •a:-. 5or. E. A.S. 

L L. £Ai 

a f'l'/'jfi 

.X, as^ i-iian, to 

;/;•.':. -«; A- '4, ;:/: Bide. 

AbicU ^,. to vjffer for. j^y for. E , 
If. -'. ; oorrr.;,"-; from M, E- a/jrn, to 
;^y 'or, liv 'o vjy up, rt'irrfim, — A. S. 
iihjfi'an. to )/v. for. Sve A- 4_ arid Bax- 

AUeet, in'sr.. Jit. c=« away. I„ 
I. nht*fu-., ^•.i^%*. swav. pp. of aJticere^Vt 
»,.-»xt a*.i-. — 1„ (j//, aw^y; iit^ere^ lo cast. 
rf J*:t r,. 

Alljlirtt. C'.^ J', al'ti'tr/irf, to f!eny; 
If, lo i*':ar away from. — I^ a^. from; 
tiirnre,\; kw#-ar.*L. /»/•-, from nom. >'//;, 

AbljttiT«. ^\. , \.. aUdtfuus, lit. 
latii.K awny. — J. tfA, from: ami /atum 
( (ffUutu,, lo l;rar,tike; allied to tolltre^ 
to l:il" , S' *• Tolerftte. 

Ablas«. ''K., For 9H hhu\ fcce A- 
f Z; nnd lJlU4. 

AbU, powerful, ftkilfal. 'F. - L.) 
M. K. ahh, hal'U.^O. V. haffile, able, able. 
*!• fta/'ilht (fthy lo hamllc, active. — L. 

:.-i-:t^ u hiiCic-.=al =^-"<"— crore oot 
tl* S:— li Lewzs and scict . Fonned 
fr-.-zi L ji e^pv, :>:= lis begiicicg; 
ir'-;re :<^Ks i> ihe atl. cc r -ifr .Vcigil, 
.5-. : 6*: . 

AbortiOB. I-' FroQ &X. of I^ 
j^:K::. az "tiaeh- fcirth. — I- aiortms^ 
■-.. .:' ^s.'S'in. 10 aU.*L ir.% away; 
cr^n. :o ahse. '^gir, Cf. OrieaU 

Abomd. F. — L. A. F. ehiitJer, 
O r. jV'.'j'Vr. —>ifi:^»Y, 10 oveifloir. 
— L a-. -.*-.-.■; trnJ^. A vare. 

About. £■' M. El a^M^tm. ahrutm. 
A-S. J;;;;-ff. cnr:':an\ short for rn-Ar- 
;7:jrr : where .V o^jwers :o E. fy, and jii!j«, 
"•-•.war^, is related 10 ii/. ocU See A- (a , 
By r tA Out. 

Above. E.> M.E. ahcvett, atmfm, 
A.S. tUufan, for *»-^-ir/a»; where Ar 
answers :o E. iy. and w/I;ii, npwaid, ii 
cxitn'led from Go:h. uf* op. See A- ^a', 
B7, Up. A.S. ufdn^G. cUm, A. a 
U'u/tin = Do. bffotn. 

Abrmde, to scrape oft (L.) L. ab- 
T'jdere. to scrape off. — L. a#, off ; radertt 
to «crapc. Der. ahrasicH ^from L. pp. 
af'rasus . 

Abreast. E.; Put for on breast \ 
'ce A- ' 2 , and Breofit, 

Abridge. (F.-U) M.E. abn^^gm. 
A. F. abre^cr'^O. F. abreger. abrigiert to 
shorten.*- 1, abbreuidre, to Morten.— L. 
ab-, put for <i^-, to: and breuis, short, 
Cf. Brief. Doublet) abbrcviaie. 



Abro»cl^ to #et. (K. aaJ F.) Put 
lo ttl am broach \ see A- (j) And 

Al]^t>ad. (E.) M. E. fl^rtwf/ ; put for pw 

^■.v</; lit. on broad; &ec A* ( J j and Bread. 

Abrogate. (I>.) Vjom pp.. of L. a/'- 

rvf^dtt, to repeal & taw.i^l,. ab, away; 
rojC^irt^ in njk, propose a law. 

Abrapt* (L.) L attuplus, iip. of 
ahrumpcn, to break off. — L. afl, ofT; 
rumfrrt. to breait. 

AbsCASV. Li a ^Ihcnng of hnmatm 
ii' : '; liL ft going awfty.— L* 

*- : - .//, pp. o? ahs-ihitit^ lo go 

ftway. — L. d/^j, mway; cMtr^, logo, cede. 

AbftClAd. \\'-.) Yiuxw L. ah-iciftde*^, 
lo ot oC^L. tf^, ofl; ifinJfre, Co cut. 
S^r. niseissa, from fcm. oJT L, tihtcinttt^ 
fn^ of *T" 

AbBCc : \ > into hiding, (L.) L> 

aiuffnu\>^., .-.' — L. o^j, iWflyifiWwVr^j 

to hide Ccftiitri is from r^w- Uum)t to- 
gcthcTi and V/rrc, lo put» allied to Ski. 
«Ma» Ic) put. ybiiE, to ptflce : Bmgm. 
1. ( «9<| ) Set Do. 

AiseXLt, ad> (F.-L.) XIV cent. 
O. K. tiHent, adj.— L. abjent-^ stem of j^- 
;/ivi» being nway. — I^ al*", away; 'lat^, 
being, <j"C^urring also itL/r*?-jfJfJ. Cf. Skt, 
MM/, jprcs. pt. of dj, to be ; ffoni '/£S, lo 
be. Cl Fr«fl«att 8octh. Der. absence, 
F. iibifnfr, I.. aijtn/iO'. 

Abaolntef uiireftnLined » compkte^ 
<L-) I.- iif'10/iieffi, pp, of ah'Solnere, to 
Mt (rce.^ 1 , ai. from ; ioivere, to Jaoscn. 
abaOlTA. (Lh) L^ ft^ioimere^ Co uit 
free fabovc). Der. ahsehtt-iQn^ from the 
pp. above. 

Absorb. (I-) L. aHtrrbrrt, to iwal- 
Inw. — L, dA, AWAy ; Mr/vrr, to <inp up .+ 
Glc. ^o^'«iir, to sop np. (Bnigm. ii. 
f ^t.) I>eT« abfor^t't^ttf horn pp. oi^- 

Ab«toia^ (F. ^ I«) F. <t^/r*w/r .0. F. 

aiUntr\. mm L, ahi-finirty to refrain froim. — 
L. ik(j, from; tenure, to hold. Pot. a^f- 
itMewt, F. ahitinffne, fiom L, ^sfitieaiia, 
\h. : ahitfnf-ian. from the pp. 

Abstamionfl. ( 1^^) L. abfUmim^ 
rcf (niii in;;; 1 roni tttoag diinlc^ — L. £f^j, ff am ^ 
thn^fitm, strong dtinki whence /^flnt-/f»/iM» 

AbfltrMt. (L/i L, abs/mattx, pp. 
of mh-trahtr*. to *ltnw Away.— L, tf«, 
nwny ; frairre, to draw, 

Abvtrai4» (L-) L- a/isfrums^ diffi* 

colt, conccfvled ; pp. of abs-frudert, lo 
lhru9t awAv. — L. aAi, away; irui/irf, to 
ihnjsL See Intrude. 

Absurd. (I") L. absitn^St inhar- 
moniotrs, foolish. — L. ab^ iiom; surdus, 
deal, iJiiLiuliblf, harsh. Cf. Surd. 

Abundance, ^F,— L>) F. altondam^. 

— L. afuudtifitin. Sec Abouod. 
Abuflft, vb. (F,-L,j F. ahmtr, to 

use amiss. — L. a/ttlsuj, pp. of ab-ult^ To 
use amii^i. — L. a^, away {.onussj ; uiJy 
to u^. 

Abut, to project tow'n ids. (F. — L. ami 
G.) O.K. iihoHffry lo thrust towards,— 
L. iirf, to ; O. F. boufer, beier^ to thrdst. 
Sec A- (3) nnd Butt (i)t 

AbyiS, a bottomless galT. (I--Gk.> 
MtUon. L. (^'ysiUs.^KaV.A^wsitotfhoXXom- 
]e&s,»Gk. d-, short for dc-, ncg. prefix; 
nnd ^tPtrfftii, -riepth. See A- (5!^ Un- (l). 

Aoaciar a tree. tL. — Gk.) L. 01:4-^. 

— Ghh li^fajvicE, the thorny Egyptian acada. 
** Gk. Axhi a point, thorti. (^y'AK.) See 
Hnigm, ii, \ ^% (4). 

Academy. tF. - L. - Gk.) F. 

n grove where Plato lavght, named frum 
the hero Akathmus. 

Accede. (U) L. ae-cidtre, lo come 
towiuds, as^nt to, — L fff- (for mi), lo; 
lY^rrt, lo tome, cede. 

Accelerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

lUi'ili-nij (., ifj f|nicken, — L wf* [for iirf), 
to; ^j^'iT/-, qaick4 Cf> Celerity. 

Acceat. fF.-L.) F^aifrt*/, sb,-L. 
ace. aicfiiiuBt, 0, tonc.»L. tm- ^for tid) \ 
cnHiu^^ a tingingi from cantrt, to sing. 

Accept. \ F. - L.) F. acupitr. — t. 
acaptari, {reqtietitativc of at-cifta, to rC' 
ceivc. -ft L, df- ^for ai/l, to 1 ca/erg, eo tftke. 

Access. (L.) L. ai'^<jj'«u« a coming 
unto. — L. Oi^tftruSf pp. of tU'<fiifine^ to 
accede. — L, a*r* (for ad), to; f/Jere, to 
come, cede, 

Acctdent. (F.-L.) F. ffffiVfrM/, a 

chflnce event (Col.). — L. etHititft-^ Last of 
pres. pt. of Qccideref to happen. — L. at- 
(for d(/), to; cadeft, to falK l>er. a(< 
tidifUt, Y. tfi*riV/<rtif«, 1- attidfHtia. 

Aeolaim. (L.) Formed from L. d^- 
dfimdre., lo Cry oat at.— L* of- ((br ft/l^, 
at : ciihm'it^, to cry out. For ihe apcUing, 
cf. Olaim. 

AccUri^* (t.) XVn cent. Ftoib 
L. aalmidiUM, ace. of au^uiiat.^L, Of' 
[Jot ad] ; and ciiM^HS, sloping, a slope ; ice 
Lean (I). (^KLEIj Unigm. L ( 465.) 


^. • . ^ 

rL c 

«r X - ^^ ;■ 

V J 

; •> - ' V 

,/r- ** ;'" ■•■ ' 

./,-•*■ •• .■ ,' wv^:'-.*' » , a.' .'.'' u,' 

f XA ,' -. ',.^.'.JV,* i^* 

.. .•>'^*' ,*. .,.■.• k. -'.. -lUrf*. ■ r .'. ... ^*/ 

Aib'>MAt, 'V 'ir . A i- «/4(A&r » .■^i.-: — O r. 3 tiff. :; 1 iijai. — 1- */, 

tttUHttf -' t )f a, V, f^fHftf. ^*,mf.Uf V, v. <«/ •/ t •>».•:. If Chi^ 
• /, . ' »;. n't i v: '^m put^tyt *.-, -jjii. jjl^nrff w*^ ^^ v/'^zreu G^ See 

»-. / Acidf v,vr. u-.up. F — L-: ff*- L.' 

tkMii^gVk,%W%, '^ i. ', *" «/'4w/«r. *■«'/</< —1. *ri/»;. lit -;tr=r^. V-^K, 

tttu-ttt^tuulre ,» m»/.iit*iU wU't t^k/l •.•.ktyj: AclOlOWlodfe. K. XVI CCHt- 

'A 4,»i": »'c*i/«<^*«, //'/H* /,*'»: I. ^M'.K^ M K, >&ff«T4'.W^*« ; fro:', iht ^i.ibrtfa/trfA/. 
-I. /»/... • •.•*«*'/'rj(., ire j^f inVi. K. j&/j4rj/< /Y'; M^Xnowledge. The 

A4f49r*ti/«n, ifi'M4-^' M./ I-zm/* av. |,.'':fjx i* '!u<: to M.£. axn^u-fii '-=A.S. 

'#1 i. lintfha, nfi*:iv "L ai'retui. \iy. t^H'ti'twan,, with the umc sense; hence 

*A III iii.ittr, Ui III* t» A.-J- ^tt. ui '1'tt ud ; tk«- [.r*:fix is A- if. 

inurtt, Ui i^t'tw, |(i'.h'Hit|v'! ionu it'im . AcflU, top. Gk.y Gk. 4U-/117, top, 

(«• «f/«, Ut Hiftiri! ' f f}r*iiUi. 1 *Uu\t *n\^t:. f^KKj to [MeroeO 


JL !/ I. 



Aeoljtev ft serrilur, (F.-Low_U- 
lilt, I r. h\'/ru^ Cot, — Lite l^ae^tythus. 

— *'-V. .i«iiAr-i'y-H. a foUower. — Ck. d-, 
WUh (akin to Skt, sa-, with; ; *^A«y*ot, a 
path ; 10 ihiiKUtfXov^i = & trjivdling-com- 

Aconite, tnonk'^-hood. \ ¥, — L. — 
Gk.i 1'. Ar^7«»iV. »L. flfjWff/Mffl.-Gk. 
^a^irTror, ft pUnt ^ perliaps 60 callei^l fram 
IHrovi^g Ir dx^roiTt on SUtp sharp rocks. 

— dr. ocH^rrj, 3 whetstone, shAr|] stone. 

friiii , pu'jicrly * fniil of the field/ from 

A, S. rftrr, a field ; «jcc Acre.+Iccl^njfflrw, 

Dan, crj^^n Goih. ajfr^air, fj^it ; from Icel* 

aJt-r, |>.iii. ftfr, Goth, it^r/, a field. ^ Not 

ftnm »vrA. 

Acouatio. (Gk.) Gk. ^vi7TiffuT, 

ting to hemtig (or sotmd .^Gk. 

(•v»t*-. lo hear. 

ACf^nailLt. (F— L-) M.E. afgntym- 

t4»y tSTUcr atointen — O. F* otottt/er^ 

•ftfifTt lo acquaiol whh.-»LaLe L, 

f^lifdrv, to jti&ke kno«ii (Bnidtct).* 

Off, to : mci *eirgytit^rf, forimcd frcnn 

fdjcyttfui^ pp, of eegnoKtrtj to know, See 


Acqmeaoe. (L.) U atgvi^seere, to 
f<!St in --1- *w- (for ad), to; qmesnre^ (o 
irsl. Sctr Quidt. 
AcquifO* (L.) L. ac^vrreni Iq get, 
In.— 1,. ac- (idr atf), lo ; guitr^rr, to 
k, Der« at^vhitioH ; from ]ip. <r(-- 

Acquit. <F.-L.) M.E. a^vilen.-' 
iy V\ a^ptiirr^ to lettlfl ■ claim ; Late L, 
nictjvitt^rt.^l^ Of- (for ad), to; ^ttiffarg^ 
tI>, fonxie«! frora gui?fus, dischnrgerf. free, 
rcie. nt rtakt. See- Q,uiet. 

Am. (E ) M. F: ffjf^, A. S. flYrr.+ 
Po ukifT, Icc'l, tf^r, Swed. iJittfr, Dam agrr, 
Goth a*r/* G, aikeri, L. o^r, Gk. d-^/hii, 
Skt. ^'rtf. Tcut. lypc'djf^Ji; Wg. type, 
•Uprw. The orig. »cnse wu * pasture." 
(y'Ati. Dep. anfr-n. i|, v. 

tail. (!..' roineti by adfling 
yiiiri-, Kletii of (?ffr, sharp; on 

/ y. (F. — 1„) F. eurimohtt, 

— . ' I '^-lit,*!.. rffrt\ stem of nur/- 

AcrobAt, a tumbler. (F.-Gk.) F. 
o^ro^j'/ — Gk. dxp-i^ATOf, Ht. v^alkltig oji 
tlftrwi — C'rk. iJUpo-r, a pomi. tieut- of 
'i ; And i6ar^i, veibal adj. of 
! It ; iCE Come. 
rupvjjji, » cilvlel. (Gk.) lit. 



* upper city.' — Gk. iitpth-r, pointed, upper; 
and ffuXis, a city. 

AcrOBB. (E. ffWo'Sciuid,) Forenrrffsj; 
sec A- i a '■ and Crcua. 

AcToatic, [I short poem io which the 
initial Ic(tcTs sjweK r *oTd. (Gk.i Gk, 
Axpoerixif' ** Gk. fittpo-i, poiEtcd, aJ^O 
finst ; and ffT(x«i « row, line, frf^m vak 
gradp of ffTifx'*'? t° E"* (^ STl'JGH.) 

Act, 5l>. ( K . - L ) F» fli'/A -t L. flf /w J. 
m., aad acfupt^ n. — L. arftts. done ^ pp. of 
rfj/r^jto do, drive. Sec AKeDt, 'D^t* act- 
ton ; aei-ive iF, iif^'jA) ! flfj'-w; ffcZ-f/*!?/ tL, 
a^tuatii) I aff-uary (L. acisttinta ; act-u- 
aff (from pp, of llatc 1« a^tud/f, lo per- 
fontt, pnt in action). 

AcTUUftlU (L.) I- ar-U'ttun. sharp- 
ne«9, ncutene&s. Cf. arvfrf, lo iharpen. 

ACTlt'6. (LO 1* arittHS^ sharp ^ pp. of 
ae tt ire, lo shnrpen. {^AK, to pierce.) 

Ad% prfjix. (L.) L. iirf, to, cogriate 
with iL AL ^ L. od* beCDires Af-lxfore 
f ; fy^- bef./; ag- Iwf, j; aA bcf, /; an- 
bef, « ; ap- bef. / ; a^ bef . r j aj~ bef. j ; 

Ada^e, ^ saying. (F . - L-) F- fl'^t^- 
L. Otiiti^inm.mrL, aJi aoi! agium, any* 

jng; cf. rt/t', I jfty, 


daauuit* (F. - L, - Gk) M. E. 

a^amaurrl, a, dinmnnd, a mn^et.^O. F. 
witfrnanL — L. odemania, ace, of aJamai. 

— Gk. cUlti^T, A very hard metal or stone ; 
lit *cncoijqaerabIe/"Ck- d- ( = E. »w-)* 
and ^rijyae', I conquer, tame. See Tune, 

Adapt. (F.-l.) Early XVlI ccnt,- 
F. ffi/o/'/rr. — L. miupt^rt, to fit to. — L. 
arf, to ; apitfre^ to fit, frotn aftuSy fitj apt. 

Add^ (L,) M.E. iuiifen.'»h. aA/rrv, 
lit. to pnt to, — L. ad; and •*/*«■, to put. 
See Abscond. 

Addei^i a viper. (E.\ M, E, m/dere, 
also ncnititre, mdilere. \An otitftr tcsiilted 
from a tia^ider, by mistake,] A. 5. nifdre, 
fiifMtrt^ a snake.'+G, notUr^^ snake; also 
cf. led. Kdflr. Golb. «af/r;f (with sliort a\. 

Addict. (LO From L, ftA/iVinrj, p]). 
nt ad dieere, to ftdjtidge^ assign.— L. tfrf, 
1«: tftitrf, lo »ay, appoint, Cf, DictHoD. 

Addl^dr corrupt, v)ipicK]uctivc. (,)-) 
Due to an atlribqtive use of the ^f . K. »ib. 
m/Wp fiJth, Hied in the coniptmnd w/rZ-ij, 
lit. * filth-egg* — I jitc L. <>tr«OT i/rrrttr^ 
tirine-e£E; mistaken form of L, i>uufH 
tirffitifK, wind-egg, due to Gk, vvptoir wvf^ 
wind-epg. Orjp- 'mud,' from A.S, fli/^r/d, 
mud iGrein). CT. Low G. flat/, a puddle. 

Addr€H, vb. (F.-L) K. ff./r/j«r. 


*»K. a, to; tfttsser, to direct, dress; see 

Adduo*. (!'•) ]'• oii-dricere, to lead 
to, biiug iurwanl.ML, of/, to; tiitcerey to 
li'ad, |jrjri(;. 

Ade|^. ft proficient. (L.^ K. adepttts. 


standing the sense of O. F. mo^tr, to 
pot side by side, arrazige. •- L. at, to ; and 
r'tfx/d, near ; see Jonat. 
Adjntaatf lit assistant. (L.) From 
L. adiutant-em^ ace. of pres. part, of 
adiiUarty to assist, frequent, of ad-itmdrt. 

out- yn\u, \iA* ohtniiicn) prof icienc}' ; pp. of) to aid.^L. a/, to; imidrtf to help. Ol 
udifdui^ Id nliimii.^L. d</, to; /r//Vl, to Aid. 

<it/ltiiti, prilmpi rrlatnl 
( I. Apt. 

to apttis, fit. 

A4iiimist6r. (K.-U) M.£.<im£«* 
isfrcH,^0,¥. amiuisirer.^h. ad-minis^ 

Ad^^uat*. (1.. I 1'. tidift/utUtts, pp. /rar«, to minister ^to). - L. a/, to ; minii' 
of iidm/UiH,; (u make equal to. -L. ady\trdrt^ to serve, from minister, a, servant, 
lo ; iri/Hiitr, to iimkc equal, from (ryrm x, • See Uinister. 
rquitl. I Admirai. -,F.-Arab.) M.E. ad- 

Adhara. (}-.) 1« ad-htfr?re, to stick ; w/ra/, more often amiral.m,Q. F. amirai^ 
to.^L ad, to; hif/rr^, to slick. j amiraii, also amine; cC Low L. a/wi- 

Adiaa, farewell. (F.) M.K. a (/ir>M. \ ra/dtss, a prince, chief.* Arab, amtr, a 
• 1*. >) f/f>tf, (1 commit you) to Uod.«>L. j prince ; see Bm^. The snffix is dne to 
tid J>eum, to God. See Deitj. ' Arab, a/ in amir-al-bahry prince of the sea. 

AdipOB«, fatty. I.L.) Late L. adi-\ Admire. t.F.-L.) ¥. admirer {0,F. 
Jhnui, fatty. >-L. aJip , stem of adfps^ sb., ! ami/vrV*L. admirari, to wonder at.— 
tat. ( oiinectiun with Gk. £A»^, fal, is | L. ad^ at ; mtrdrif to wonder, 
clouhtful. j Admit. C^) L* ad-mitferty to let 

Aditf access to a mine. (.L.) L.udit'-Hs, | to, send to. — L. ad, to; miitere, to send. 
approach, entrance. — 1« adit-um, «ipine of | Dor. admiss-ion ; from pp. admiss-us. 
oiZ-f/Y, to go to.— L. Ai/, to; />Y, to ^o. j Admonish. (F.— L.) M.E. oamv- 

A4JA0ailt| near to. (L.) From base , istfH ; so that admonish has taken the 
of pres. pt, of L. ati-ia(?rt, to lie near.— , place of amonestf with changed snffix doe 
L. ad, near; iaffre, to lie. j to verbs in -isA. ' I amoneste or wame '; 

Acyootiva. ^F.-L.) F. adjgttif \icvL\. \ Wyclif, i Cor. iv. 14.— O.F. amonesUr,^ 
•iztf). — L. a*i'iectfmusy lit. put near to.— i Late L. admonestare, new fonnati(Ni £rom 
L. ad-iechts, jip. of oiAiV^rv, to pnt near.— | L. admcm're, toadvise.—,to; mot^re^ 
L. dk/, to; ioferty to cast, throw. [ to a«lvi5e. Cf. Monition. 

Acyoin, tolienextto. (F.-L.) O. F. | A-do, to^lo, trouble. (£.) M. £. a/ 
adJotn*ire.^L,ad-iMn^re{^^.adiunitus)^ \ do, to do ; a Noithexn idiom, whereby ai 

was u^ctl as the sign of the infin. mood, as 
in Icel., Swedish, Sec. See Do (1). 
Adolescent, growing up. ^L.) L. 
aJo/esfent'em face of pres. pt. oH ad-olescere, 
to grow np. See Adult 
J^pt. (L.) L. ad-optdrt, to adopt, 
choose. ^h,ad,iQ\ ofiHrey to wish. 
Adore. (.L.) L. ad-^r&re, to pimv to. 
— L. orf, to ; orart, to pray, from os (jgen. 
also aiu^vn ^ »a/M;fr/i\— O. F. ajugir^ to | or~is\ the mouth. CC OimL 
decide. — L. adiiidicdrc, to award. — L. ad, ' AdoxiL (L.) I« ad-omdrt, to dedc. 
to ; ifidutire, to judge, from iudic; base | — L. ad. to ; omSre^ to adom. 

to join to. — L. ad, to ; iui^re, to Join. 
AcUonm, to put off till another day. 
(F. — I *. . U. F. ajomer, properly to draw 
near to day, to dawn ; also, to .ippoint a 
day for one. — Late L. a*(fnmdre, 'diem 
diuere alicui;' Ducange.— L. ad^ to; and 
Late \..Jurnms \\\a\. giortto'^ ^ a day. from 
L. adj. aiurnus, daily. — L. dies, a day. 

ndge. ,F.-L.) M.E. adiugen\ 

L. ad I 


of index, n judge. See Judge. 

Abjudicate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
Oiiiadtiitre (above). 

Aiyure. Cl'*^ ^ ad-iunire, to swear 
to; in late I«, to pnt to on oath.— L. ad, 
to ; iiirJre, to swear. See Jury. 

A4JUt, to fit exactly. (F. - L.^ From 
F. adjuster^ * to adjust, place justly ; ' Cot. 
L. ady to ; iusius, just, exact ; see Juat. 
% A new F. fonnatioo, dne to misnnder- 

Adown, downwards. (£.) M. £. 
adune. A.S. of-dSne, lit. from a down or 
hill. — A. S. of, off, from ; and dune, dat. 
of dun, a hill ; see A- (1) and Down (a). 

Adrift. (E.) For on dr^\ aee ▲- 
yi) and Drift. 

Adroit. (F.-L.) F.m/rviir, dexterous. 
- F. a droit, rightfully.- F. J ;L. ad), to ; 
Late L. dtreetnm, right, justice, nent of 
L. directm, pp. of di'rigert, to dinet, 



from L. ^' (for dACr-), apait, And 'cgert^ lo 

Adnlfttioa, naUery. (F.-L.) Y, 
mdiUation.^V^ ace otinhtiontm, from 
mdmi^iip. flatury.-L. aJuhiitiS^ pp. of 
admiari, to fTairer. 

jUlxdt. 1«) L. a-iuUm, grown u(> ; 

)|*. ftf ad'&Utcfrt, to grow up^**' L. arf* to ; 
1 iiiv« fftfm rcUtcd lo d/c/v, to 

Awwiwci^te, lo mrrapt L. XVI 
cent. — 1.. it^iaUn-iitwi^ pp. of ntiuit^drt, to 
coirupt. — I,. chiuffcKi an, adulterer, a de- 
bater ct nuincjf, 

Adultery. CF.-L.^ M. E. oom/n^; 
but A lalct form wn-* offtftffrie, in tcnita- 
tion ol l^itii. CJ. O, i-'. mioufrie. (W^ttlfnV, 
; from azwttre, an adultern-, 
prcM^ntcd L aiiuiUf ;>ceaboye); 
attfjtirre wm eqtiivadcut in sense to 
I^. <t./ti//t'nnt>t, adiiltcry. 

Adtunbrfttc. (L,) From pp. of L. 
^ umhr^te, to shadow forth. «L. ad^ EOi 
HmSta. fl iJifldow. 

AdTVJlCQ, lo go forwAtd. (F. — L.*) 
XVI ctT,( A inistakt-n form; for M* IL 
OMamrff , (K'tfrti^ert. — F. ovaNCfr^ lo go for- 
w&nl tiT before,— F. avant, btforr. — Lu*, 
&oni ; a«/c. befonr. See Aate-, Van, 

Advantage, pf LI fii (F.-L.) Amis- 
Uktii lorni luf M. \^, svaniiigs.— Y , avant- 
formcrl with snffix h^ from oran^, 
ore \ &CC fltjovc. 

Advent, approach. I'L.^ L.tuh^nitti, 
Apltruach—I., aJtteniits, pp. of ad^uettln, 
tu Aj'itio.u:U. — L. lit/, tu ; utnirt, to come, 
i'f. VeulLLTi?, 

Adv^iitfire, <F."L,) M.F*ff«fff/tt«; 
Fi fl- replaced ty L. orf-. — F. 
iurt, a chance, occurrence. — L. ad- 
UiHtiira, fern, of atiuentfirus, about to 
haj>pcn, fut, part. Qiadwfiif^, to flpproflchj 
ser nbovc. 

Adverb. {F.-L.^ Used to qoatify a 
verb. F. tfi^/r^fr^. — L. aJfterh'um.'^h^fici, 
to; ucrffum, a word, a verb. 

Adverse. F. - L ) M,F. advert [O. F. 

invrj;.«t. <j*iii«rrfi/, ttirned towards, also 
oppofcd lo; pp. of L, iuiuerUre, to turn 
to X*ec beltAw), I>&r aJi'<ri-ary, adi}frfity. 
Anvecrt* (L..) L. ad'HCfUrt, to turn 
to, legMfl. heed. -L. ad, to; utrUrt, to 
btm ; •« Varse. Der. iu-whKri-tni^ not 


Ivertiso. (F*-L.) M K. atft-riuti, 
Ut<t adu(fiit€. From ihc hft«r of nryi-r- 
tiu^QMt, pres. pi. of avtftir, (o inFonn, 


wank. » Late L. aduerlrrtf put fbrL, adutt- 
itr^f to lorn to, Uecd ; see above. 
Advi<:e. iF. — L.) M.£. auii {avis), 
without ff.-O.F. st>fj, an opiuian : orig. 
a compound word, put for a vu, i.e. ac- 
cordin)^ to my opinion. — L, ad^ niiconiing^ 
to; uisttm^ that which hna seeninl {^ood 
To onc» orig. neut. of ttiitts, pp. of uidire, 

to SiCe^ 

Advise* (F.-L. } M. £. nduiuM. aIso 
aufscn faviitn)^ without rf. — O, F. irvistr^ 
to be of opinioti. — O. F, aujj (alinvc). 

Advocate, sl>' i^t— L.) M. F, adz>cfaf, 
*an advocntei' Ci"l, — L. aduotdfiti, on 
'advocate* one 'called upon' to plead.— 
' L- cdupcd/uj, pp. of oi/'ttpctirg, to ca!l to, 
call upon. — L. ad, tu ; uocdre, 40 call. 

AdvowBon- ^F.-L.> A.¥. avo^fon, 
oUo dd^jUji),HJ patronage; hence tht right 
ofpicsentatiori to a benefice (Roquelort).- 
Lale L. aduofdiiatiem, ace. of aduocdtifi, 
pAtioflAge. — il^te L. ^itdidfus^ a patron; 
the snme as L. odHoc^ftUt an advocate. 

Adze, A coopef a axe. (E.J M. £. adst^ 
adest. ^\. S. i^eia, an ad re. 

Aerial. (L-Glc.) Formed with snffw 
'fl/ from L am-wj, dwelling id the air,— 
L. tur, MT. — Gk> ijjp^ Air ; see Air* 

AerolitOi n nKfteoiic stone. (Gk.) 
Also anvIiiA, which is a. better fartn.^ 
GJc. tlf^o-, from d^p, nir ; A/fiior, b atone* 

Aeronail^p ^ balloonist (F. — Gk.) 
F. dtViJfttJWJ'^,- C;V. Jfpo-^ from drifif air; 
I'ai'T'^n, a s^iilor, from vavf^ a ship. 

Aery, an l-hpIl-'s ntst^ brood of eagles Or 
hawks. ^;F. — Late L.)— F. mm *an airie 
or Qest of hawkes; ' Cot, — Laic L. area, a 
nest of a bird of prey ; of nnccrtaiD orl^. 
T Sometimes mUtpelt eyry, by confusion 
with M. £. ^t an eg|^^ ace Kgg. 

JEsthetic, relined. (Gk.l Gk. qIu^tj- 
rtitus. pcrcqnivc, — GJc, aloBio&ai, to per- 
ceive. tv'AW ^ sec liri^gm. ii. § 84 1.) 

an^BthetiCf relieving imin, dulling 
sciiS-Ttirjn, —Gk, ui", nuti dfiQ aJfrflijniK^. 

A£^. (tl-> Y or on far. 

Affilble. tF,-L,) Y.afi^lf,-~'L.afd- 
itihi, easy (o be spoken (o.wL* a/'^odf 
tt* ; /jrT. to sjx'ak. 

A&ir . 1. 1* . - L ) M. E . aJJ^nre. - 0. F. 
ii/arf, oftn'r^t it bustncas ; ori^;. a fairtt 
i.e. (syruclhingl to do, - L. ad^ to j Jaitrtt 
to do. 

Affeet. (L.> L. aj^iUdre, lo apply 
onewU to I hence, to act upon) ; iretjucnil. of 
afficir£j tu aim at, tjcat. — L. tif- -^ a*/^ lo; 
Joitre, to dO| act. Dflf. dii-ajic^f. 





AffMr, to assew, confinn. 'F. — L.', 
O, F a/ewtr, to fix the price of a thing 
'officiary,. — Lice L. a^orare, to fix a 
pri'X.^t^a/- for a/ ; and y^nvMf, market, 

Aflance. F.— L. O.F.a/fisiiiY, crest: 
cf. a^'', afiir. to trust whence F- aj^ .— 
O. F. a -L. aJ^f to; And/tJojit-, steoi of 
es. pt. of Late V.. fidan^ to trust. &">ra 

. fidirt to tmst. Cf. La:e i^.ffdim:ia, 
a ple^k'c. 

AAoaTlt, an oath ''L * Late L d^- 
dduilf 3 p. i. pt. t. of afftJd't, to pitdge. — 
\^,n/'^ad,io\ \j3XtV.fiddrt^ioxL./idtre. 
to trust- 

AiftUatiOB. 'F.-L.) Y. affiliation^ 
an adojition as a ion. * Late L. ace. affiUa- 
iiontm — L. a/"- = tfrf, to ; ///I'tf/, a »on. 

Afflnity. ''F.-D F. affiniU.-t. 
affinitdiem, ace. *Aaffinita$, neani'^ss. — L. 
affiniSf near, bordering on. •- L. af- 'for «/ , , 
to, near; finis, boondary, end. 

Afim. F.-L.) M. £. affirmen.^ ' 
O. F. afermtr^ to fix. — L. affirmare. ^V.. 
ttf- 'for rtrf;, to ; firmdrt, to make finn, 
from firm'is, strong ; see Firm. 

Aflv. 'L.) Lately. a^d/'^'I>acange', 
frciucnt. of L. affigere (pp, affix-us), to ' 
fast 'n to.* L. tf^- ^,for iu/), to;y^n?, to fix. j 

Aflict, to harass. (L) XVlcent-L.| 
afflielns, pp. of affii^re^ to strike to the ■ 
groand. — l.a/'*''foradr;,to; and^fjfirr^, to ] 
daih. So also conflitt^ from pp. (onftictus; 
%nfii<t\ 9Jid di. pro-flig-aie. 

AilllMIiee. (F.-L.) F. affluemi.^ 
K affluentia, abundance. —L. affluent-em 
(ace), flowing towards, pres. part, of 
affluere, to flow to, abound.* L. af- (for 
a/;, to ; Hue re, to flow. 

Afford. (E.) Altered from aforth, 
M.K. afortken, to provide, P. PI. B. vi. 
30I. — A. S. geforiiantforfiian, to further, 
promote, provide — A. S. ^^-, prefix; and 
foHi^ forth, forward ; sec Portb. 

AA*ay, lo frighten. ( F. - L. an.i Tent.) 
XlVccnl. M.F« affrayen.^O. F.effraier, 
es/re.'r, to frighten. — Low L exfriddre, to 
break thr king'ii {waco, cause an affray or 
fray; henw, to disturb, frighten. — L. /-jr; 
and O. IL Q.friiu (O./riede), peace. (See 
Romanifi. 1S7S, vii. lai.) Dor. affray, sb., 
also sp-lt/«jy ; and a/raid, q. v. 

Aflreightment, the hiring of a veswl 
to convey cargo. (F. — L. and G.) An 
E. siKlling of F. affretement, now written 
affrittment^ the hiring of a ship.— F. 
affrtter (now affr4t*r\ to hire a ship. — F. 


for L. a f-, prefix ; and F. fret, the 
ht of 1 ship. See Fransfat, FrBisht. 
hi, to fngfatcn. '£.> The 
donbie/^is late. From M. E. afrtg^t, used 
as a pp., affrighted. - A. S. dfyrkt^afyrkted, 
pp. affrifjhtcd : from iafin. dfyrhian 'not 
used'. — A. S. d~, inteasive; %jA fyrlUam, 
to tenrifv. inmfyrkto, fright ; see Fright. 

Afio&t. F.-I..', M. E: ^n»*//if.- 
O. F. j/r^ier, to coafroat, oppose (ace to 
face.- Lite L. afframtdre.^l^ af- ;for ad\ 
\o ; front-em J ace. of fr^ns, foiebcad, 

Afloat. '£/ For onfioai. 

Afoot. (F.) For on foot. 

Afore. (E.^ For on fore; A.S. «»f- 
foran^ afore. 

AfiiucL (F.-L. ami Tent.) Orig. 
affrayed, i. e. ' frightened.* Pp. of Aifrar, 

Afresh. (E.^ For OH fresh or of fresh ; 
see Anew. 

Aft, After. '.£.) A.S. aftan, be- 
hind ; ^/er, after, both prep, and adv.^ 
Tcel. aptan, behind, ap4r, fi^r,backwaids; 
Don. and Swed. efter, Du. aehter, O. H. G, 
aftar, prep, and adv. behind, p. Aftan 
is extended from Goth, afy off; see Of. 
After is a comp. form, likeGk. irw-T^/»-af, 
further off; it means more off, further <^, 
hence behind. Der. ab-afi, q v. ; afier- 
ward (see Toward . 

Aftermatli, a second crop of mown 
grass. (£.) Here ii/?^ is an adj. ; andavd/A 
means 'a mowing,* unaccented form of 
A. S. map. Allied to Ue«d, How. CC 
G. mahd, a mowing ; naehmaMd^ aftermath. 

Aftenaosti hindmost. (E.) A. S. 
aftemest, Goth. aftumists\ but affected 
hy after and most The Goth, aftu-m- 
ists is a treble saperl. form. See Aft. 

An, A^hftf a cliief officer. (Turk.) 
Turlt. aghd, master. 

Again. North E.> Cf M.E. ayein, 
A. h. ongegn {ongean^ . — A. S. on\ and 
gegtt, of which the primary meaning seems 
to have been * direct,* or * straight.' 
(X.E.D.)+Dan. igien^ Swed. igen, again. 
affainst. (North E.) The f is added. 
CfTM-E. ayeineSi ngainst; extended from 
M. E. ayein, against, with adv. suffix -es. 
— A. S. ongfan, against ; the same as A. S. 
ongean, ongegn, again ; see above.-f Icel. 
fgfp'i G. entgegiHi against. 

Aifate,(F.-It.-L.-Gk.l 0.¥. agate, 
o^he. mm Ital. ^gata, agatka, an agate 
(Florio).— L. achdiem^ woe of aehdUt.^ 


Ck. 4]Kitn;T, «» a|;Ate ; so named fmm being 
liraiKl near ihtr rivr- * '- ■-■ ^: - 'vV 
Ag»,tF— U) ■ -Uie 

X^i£lStuum.^\.< , -^ -. .^(^rroiii 

Cik. aJ«uv; irqth* iUWs\ .SkU trj'Mi, lift;. 

brvi;io. ii. I Ml. 
▲gent. fl'> XVI cent. I, ^jvcw/-. 

» ' 'l (pp. tiiiiiS ., ID do, 

• ■' — v' . . ^ . ,< 

AggflomerAt«, to mosa together, (L.) 
I'M 111 j(j>_ (tj i_ ti^i^ittrnftdn. Ii> farm into 
4 (iij-i4.— L, *^'' [ - ad) : aiiJ^/i'«/(fr^. slcin 
ol ghmur, a mass, ^allj cl»ic of thread, 
alltc"! \n i^lohtfi, a jjlobc ; sec Olobe, 

^il^glatinate. \i^-) Eroin pp. of 

ti^i:T.iiiHtife. lo glttc ioccthcr, — 1„ ji^'- 
(^ ti.t' , 1(1 ; xi'ifftft-, for /^hffert, \\i\iv. 

Jt's-, ^^enl ol pre*, pt. of ii^ratuttr^ lo 
calarjjc. Al>o a^anMr (v, itii one ^)*-^ F. 
rf {fijr I- tit/ 1; ami gmriiitr, to increase, 
from I., ^andirt, lo CDtai^Cj wtvicb ii 
from U i^antiis^ ^tx9X. 

AggtaT&te. kS") t^rotn pp. of L. ^f- 

to; ^r,in.i'i, to load, from^awij, heavy. 

jLggregate, i.L-) F«.m pp. t>l L. a^'- 
gn^ikft^ 10 collect intg a flock. - L. ag- (fgr 
W;, to; ,j(r^fg-, item kA gr/x, a flodc 

A£gTeflB,taaltHCk. ^F. — L.) M.F.^- 
g^t'-ar _ I,, ^fjTJJrti, p'p. of aggredi, to 
aiNiU.^L. (^ ^^forai/), to; ^atffj to ad- 

Aggri«Te. (F.-L.) M, M. fi^nvn.^- 
^ , a^nTvr. to overwhelm* — O. F, d, to ; 
grri'er, to burtleii^ — L. a</, to^ graniire, to 
weigh dovifii, fiom grtmist henvy, grave. 
Sec Qnvo (i)' 

A^bftSti hoiror-stiQck. (E.1 Misspelt 
for ii^i^n', u tiJch ifi short for agaited, pp. of 
M. K tf^j/i«, to terrify ; Cb. C, T. a^^i ; 
Ixg. of Good Wotncn, Dido, J48.— A. S. 
a-, prefix; MsA^isdat, to terrify, torment. 
j9- A. b, ifjitan i« frotn the baie gJs- = 
Golb. ^"-f- in ui-^it-jan, to terrify. (^ 
OHwAlS.) Br;tnm. ii. 4 80 J. 

Agile. P. - 1 - 1 XVI tcni. F. ^7*'. 

— L. a.;t<!i. nimble; lit. e-asiiljr driven 
aJwiut.— L. ifi^frc, tu drive. 
Agiattnenti, the putnrage of cattk 
hv ajt;riM.inttir. ,F. — L,) From iheF^ vb, 
AlVj.Vt, Lo a>si^r> 4 resting-place.— F. a 
( - L..ii/i,to ; aiul O.Y.gisU, s coEich,1odg' 
IttijJ. votnil lb. from O, F. grnr i^.gisir), 
to li«, (ri^m L- iacerc^ to lie. 


Agitftte* (L.) L. 0gitatm^ pp. of 
a^uiye, lo ket;p driving about, frequent, of 
ngete, to drive ; see Ageot. ^. V^AG. 1 

Aglet^ a tug of a lace. (K.-^L) Also 
avi^iet, ispcn&er, F. Q. ii- 3. 36, — F. aiguit- ' 
kfU^ ditnin. of aiguifk^ a needle, — I^ic L. 
acu(Hia„ dimin. oi a^ m^ \k needle, pointed 
thing Cf Acme. \^M^,') 

A^iuulr (0 A com on ihe foot, fi'j a 
sore i>cside the nail. i.E.) The &eji4c hfl»] 
becti coJtfuscd or perverted. J'ro.m A. S. 
angtuigi, a com on ihc foot (stc A. S. 
Lecchdiims, ii. Mi, § .^4Vt with wMcli cf. 
0. tricaic o^ieil^ on^iit, appaicntly uwd | 
in a similar sense, tioin a prefix ang , 
signifying Afflicting, paLtiin^^ and A. S. 
rug!, a nail [a& of iron), ncncc a hard 
roQud- beaded excrescence or iwart fixed in 
liie ilc^h ; .^ee Anger aod Nail. ^ Soon 
misuiiderstood 4& refcJTJnj; lo the nails of 
the toes or fingers, nnd so made to mean 
' 3 sore be&ide the nai! ^ ; proU by codi- 
paring (wrongly) the Gk. iropoi'i'xt"* a 
wbittow (ht. b^ide the nail , or by con- 
fuAioQ with F. (inecnatlUi a sore (Cot). 
bceN. L.D. 

A^oater allied. (L,) L. agndiust 
a U led ; pp. of agitsiii = aJ-gnajti. — L. tirf, 
tu ; najci, earlier form gttojciy to be bom. 

AffOi AgOnOt gone away, past. (£,) 
M L, j,^'^ij. jj^tf/i, age^Hy pp. of the verb 
tfiT?«, to pass by, paa away. A.S. dgiftf, 
pp. of J/flM, to pass away. Sec X- (4) 
and Oo> 

Agofft in eagemeas, (F.) For a-gvsgj 
in activity, in eagerness, where a- is 
the pEcrix A« <j). Adapted from O. K. 
€ngogu£j (Litlrt'i, or rt .^e^w* i^Godefroy), 
in mirth. Cot. has «/r^ fw t£t goguis^ ' to 
be frolieke, , , , ia a veine of minh/ The 
origin of O, F. gvgii/, fun, diverfion, is 

A^ony. (F.-L.-GkO M.E.f^m>. 

— i* ai^onit. — L. (J^'rt/j.— Gfc. dTftrta, orig. 
a conle=l.— «.lk, qtuv, contest— Gk.a')f<»J'i 
to drive. (»/ AG.) 

Agautif a rottent animal, oFlhe guinea- 
pi^ lamily. 1 F. — Sp.~ Wraiil) V^agmtiL 

— Sp» 'i^'Tfj'r — Brmil. iigufi, Ofttti, 
AgirflJFft,akindofdasp. ^F.-O.H.G.) 

F. agrsi/t-, alio agraphe (in Cotgrave), 
a hook, clasp; agrafer, to clasp. The 
verb is from F. a 1 = L. ocT), to ; and 
M, H.G. kra/ff, O.H,G. ffupg, ihrffpfi>, 
a hook, which is allied Lo K. itramp. 
Affr««p to accord, tF. -L) O. F. 
<^fr*drr,lo receive favourably. -O- F. agre. 



favonnbly.— O. F.a ^«U a/;, acceding J Jjmr. (£0 Fiom a ekar, mk ricr, on 
to ; ^e, grtt. pleasure, from L. grdfum^ . the turn (G. Doaj>lAi, tr. of Viigil, h. vii, 
ncut. of j^rdfus,t^etiT, pleading. Cf. Grace, prol.^. 0A.S. MtruT7r,aatbetiini;cr. A^ 
Dor. dij-affre£. • cyrran, cierram, to tnm. See Otmr (a). 

Agricnltlire> LO ^' agrj mituraf ■ J^kXBoho, in a bent podtioD. (Scud.) 
culture of a field. - L. ^yrf, gen. of a^er^ ! M. E. I'w ik/wAffS«, Beryn, 1838, Feriiapa 
afield; and rW/z/ra. See Acre and Cul- j firom Icel. 1 '(•w^, into a crook; with 
tor3. E. Apcp, i. e. bend, sapeTfloonaljr added. 

AffriniOll^f, a plant. (F. — L. — Gk.; | Here ktng^ is the ace nf ket^, a atwk, 
M. E. ttgrtmoint^ fgremoitu.^'SX- F. «/^j- , tvist, kiok. Ct also Icel. imtjAcgpmjv, 
moint. — L. a>-gtmdnia, arggtnow.'^iik. bent into a crook, from ketigr, a crook, 
dfijffia»rj. T^ewis and Short, L. Dict.^ 1 tinst. kink, and bo^nn, bowed, pp. of 

Aground. £.) For on ground. I lost rerU hjuga, to bow. See Kink and 

AgVA* ^ fever-fit. (F. -^ L.) Lit. ' Bow (1). .Very doabtfal ; a gneak) 
'acute' attack. ~0. F. ajpu, fern of a^ Akin, of kin. (E.) For^ibir. 
(F. aigu , acute.^L. tuuta {/ebris)^ acute Alabaster, (F.~L.~Gk.) M.E.«£ti> 
(fever) ; fem. of acu/us; see Acute. < dartre. ^O. ¥. alabastrt (F. a/IMAy^,.— L. 

Ah! (F.-L.) M.E. a:-O.F. a\^ alabaster, alabastrum.^GV. aAodovrpor, 
T^. a^ ! j &x.a0aaTos. Said to be derivvd from AUt' 

Ahead. '[E.) For on hfody i.e. in a | bastron. a town in Egypt. (Pliay.) 
forward directioo. See A- '%:. \ Alack. (E-) Prob. a corruption of H.E. 

Aif a sloth. (Brazil.) From Brazil, at. 

Aid. rF.-L.) M.E. aid€tt. - O. F. 
aidtr.^\*. adiiit'fre, (nqacat. oiadiuudrt, 
to a^st^L. ad; and iuudre^ to help, pp. 
tutus, Cf. Hrugm. ii. S 583. 

Ail, V. (E.; M. E. eiien A. S. tglan, 
to pail ; cc^nate with Goth, agljan. — 
AS. egie^ troublesome (allied to Goth. 
aglusj hard . Cf. A. S. f^, terror, orig. 
pain ; see Awe. 

AixUf to endeavour after. 'F. — L.) M.E. 
einttn. From confusion of (1) A. F. 
tsmrr, from L. aslimdre, to estimate, aim 
at, intend ; and (3 O. F. a^smer, from L. 
ad-astimare, comp. with prefix ad-^ to. 
See Esteem. 

hXx'X). F.-L.-Gk.)«>. 
— F. air. * L. aer. * Gk. d^^. air. 

air 2 , mien, affected manner; tune. 
(F. - It. - L. - Gk.) F. oiV, look, tune. - 
Ital aria^ * a looke, . . a tune ; * Florio. — 
Folk-L, neut. pi. aira, treated as a fem. 
sing. (Diez,. — L. Jcr. — Gk. di^ (above). 

Jartv a point of the compass (Gael.) 
Gael, aird^ a quarter or point of the 
compass. Cf O Irish aird, a point, limit. 

Aisla, the wing of a church. (F.— L.) 
llctter spelt aih » F. ailt. — L. Qia^ a wing. 
Prob. for *axia, dimin. of Axis. 

Ait. E.) SeeBjrot. 

Aitch-bionei the rump-bone. (Hyb. ; 
F. — L. and E.) Orig. spelt nache bom.^ 
O. F. natht, sing, of noshes, the buttocks ; 
and E. bom. Nacku ■» Late L. naiUds^ ace 
of Motica, dimin. of L. natis, the hot- 

aHaek! alas! a shame 1 lit *ladc.* (It 
cannot be the same as o/ox.) 

Alacrity. (L.) Formed by analogy 
with etUrity^ from L. alacritdiem. ace of 
alaeritds, briskness— L aliter, hnA.. 

Alarm, a call to arms. ,K. — lut.— L..^ 
M. E. alarm*. — F.a/arm^.— Ital. alVarwu, 
to arms ! for alk armt. — Late L. aJ 
illas armas, for L. ad ilia arma, to 
those arms * to your arms ! 

alarum. (F.-Iul.-L.) The same 
word, with an old pronnnciatioa, in which 
the r was strcHigly trilled. 

Alas! (F.-L.) M.£.ai^.-O.F.aAu 
(cf. F. A//as\ ~0.r. a, ah! and /as, 
wretched that I am ! •- L. ok*, and lauus, 
tired, wretched. (Allied to I«te.) 

Alb, a white vestment. (F.-L.^ M.E. 
aibe — O. F. o/Ar.^Late L. alba, sb.; otig. 
fem. of L. albuSf white. 

AIbacore» a kind of tunny. (Port — 
Arab.; Port, albacor, alba£ora. Said to 
be of Arab, origin. 

Albatross, a large sea-bird. ' Poit. — 
Span. — Arab. — Gk.) Formerly alio aiga- 
/fw;. — Port alcatrazy a cormorant, alba- 
tross: Span, aicatraz, a pelican.— Port. 
akatruz, a bucket. Span, arcaduz, M. Span. 
alcaduz (Minshen), a bucket on a water- 
wheel. *> Arab a/-^a</vj, the same (Dozy). 
Similarly Arab, saqqd^ a water-carrier, a 
pelican, because it carries water in its 
pouch. (Devic; supp. to Littrc.) 

Album, lit that which is white. (L ) 
L. album, a tablet, orig. neut of albas, 




Albnnisiif vrhitc ofl^gg <L) L,ali>ii- 
tHt'H i^tii I also affmni ^ut), white of «££•— 

Alcsyde, a ;Daer ; sec OadI 
Alckeuy. CK,-Arnb -Gk.^ O. F. 
d I hi tine — Amh. a/, the ; flriri timid, 

[obiiMy cun(ti4c«l with x^^"i> ^ niing- 

" i>tn (;k- xJ''"'i t*^ r"wr <>«*. m** 

* " Mcrl. L-Arnb/) Med. I.. 

r, Applied to pure tpirit, though the 

vu ft fine im pal I table powder, 

^MJ(nK ai, the; and iKfhf or fN^f, a 

cntlf-riDm, vcrj' fine rowiier of ondmcmyf 

jx^M trt jwint the eyelids with, 

Alcoran ; sec Koriui, 

Alcove, 1 vaulted ircess. ("F.—SpAn.— 

Ar*b.'i ^. rt/ifi*v/. — Siian, atcoba, 3 recess 

ill a toom. — ArBlt it/, the; ami qdhihih, a 

^Tinll.domr, cupola i hcacea vnulttd space 

Alder, a tree. (F..) M . K. rtA/f*-, fl^A-r 

u/ tictnt: fxcrcscent). — A. S. aiar i{t/cr^ 

ij/r),+l>ti. */j ; Tcel. i^!r (fnr I'/r) ; Swed, 

CRrlicr f/irtj; Span, a/ijff (isom tJothic'i. 
'Ic«t. fitrni-i •rt/ui., *!»//*, *fl//j-. Allied 
li> l.ith. ntkims^ L, ttintis ffur *a£ino$) ; 
Kit^ .'./^jiirt; nnd perhaps to Elm. 

Alder>» iwefiK^ of all. In nhitr Hiftsi 
j(Sh.) ; here flA/fr fc, foi (iZ/nfr, O. Merc. 
«/rtt. A, S. /a^rOf geu. p], Qkf a/, ffi/, aH, 
?W All, 

AldeniLaa> (£.) Merc, ai^rman, 
A.S. r(i/i/i7rwf (jw . w Merc rt/r^r [fald^r), it 
chief ; juitl wd/r, maji^ Allied \o O. Fries - 
mid<tr^ a [arent; G. r/Tirm, pi. parebU ; 
Aiul In ]» al tor^ a bTinger up, from aUri^ 
to nourish. Cf. OldL 

Ale. 'li^ M,E. n/c— A-S ^fl/if, gen. 
cU^ (Metn •a/!M^)-+Icel.,Swed.j and UiUi. 
#/; IJlhoui. o/hj; Kuu, fr/cvma. 

AlAmlno, a vessel for disdlling. (F.— 
Spu. - Armb, - Gk«) M. E. nlfmlyk. • F. 
iiaiaml^iqut t.Cot.). — Span. a^aml>iifH<, ^ 
lAmb. «/» the ; and airM^ ipronouijced itm- 
$if\ % Mill.'^Gk, a^i^if, a cup, |;ob1ct ; 
OP r*f » ■till. Cf. Ifimbeok. 

Alert. ('F*-1ia1,-L.'» F. ahrte \ hx- 
mcrly ■allrrtf, and (in RabeUh) u rhertt, 
j.c on the watch. — iCal. aWerta, on the 
WAtch ; from ihc phr. j^ar^- itllfrfa, to 
»>iu:i(1 erect, be on one's guard. — TtaL alia 
(for a At), at itte, un the; tfta, fem. of 
grtp, erec*. — L. n*/, to, at ; iiiam^ feiw ncc, 
of j///, he ; fTidAm, fcm. ace. of frtitni, 
erect ; wr Broot. 

Algebnu lLaIc L.-Anib.) Late I. 

n/j^rtf, computation. « Arab. a/, the ; and 
jd^r, setliiiE' "pairing ; also, the rHiiclion 
of frflclionslo integers in adthindic; hence, 
algelira, — Arab> root ja/vtra^ to aet^ con- 

Algnasil, a i)oUce*officer. (Span.— 
Aiab.) Spin* a/^tfuaul — Arab, d/, the ; 
twrtifr, a viiier, officer ; see Viaier. 

AlgHBL, lAndal-wood. (Heb. <- Skt.) 
In 2 Chron, ii, S, ik. io; spell fflmu^, 
\ Kings X. \\.^W^^'ummim,<}X\itt.xi%- 
potto) a/muffTfrt \ n bortowed word. Sup- 
posed by Mm Miiller (Jfi. I-ong. i. 232) tO 
be from Skt. z«a4''"''(<>, aaodal-wood; where 
-i^ is a suffix, 

Alias. ^1.) \4, ntiai otherwise, »: 
atiiti, anuihcr ; see Alien. 

alibL (L) I- o/f'^A in another place, 
^ ti. d//-, ns in (t/iaj ; and suBik -j^/ as in 
i-bi\ tht-rc, M-^i, where. S« bclow» 

alien. F. -L.) M. E. o/iVa^.-o. f. 

aiien. — l^.aiifHHi, strange; a stranger^ — L, 
»w'<MJ, another., + Gk. aXAos, ajiother; O. 
Irish («*j5*. W. at//, a//; Goth, a^/j (stem 
a/f'j-\ other; see £Lae. 

Alight(i)i J*! defend from (E. < M. E,] 
alihicn, lo alight from horseback ; A. S«] 
niikiiin, the prefix a- being = A. S. a- 
The simple form iihfOH n1*o occuta in A. S,,'1 
meaning to make light, relieve of weight, 
alight (from a horse) ; from itht^ light, 
adj; SeeLi«lit(3). 

alight [^), to light upon. {K^ M.E. 
ahhtfv, w tth reference to the compUtidH ofj 
the flciion of alighting. See above. 

Ali^n ; ^e Aline. 

Ali£e, similar, t^^.i M. E. alike^ olikeS 
A, S. ^n/zV, like \ from /if* like, with prefix ' 
(?H' - on. prep. 

Aliment^ food, (F.— L.'i ¥.aHmenl. 
«- L. aiimtr/ium, food ; formed with 
suflix -mtntttm from it/i?r^, to nourish. 

alimony a money allovtred for a wife's 
sDpport t;poi3 her acparation from hef 
husband. (L.) L. alimonia^ noombcncul 
— L. aitn, to nourifth ; see nbove. 

Aline, AHnii to ran^cin a line. (F. 
~L. ) AitapttMl from mod. F. a/(^^er, lo 
range in a line. From the phr. J f'S^e^^ 
into line, — L. ad^ to ; fJnta^ n line, & 
Line {jiiin^ 1» the belter apcllmg (ocl 
the E word.) 

Aliquot, (L.> L. al»)fti^, some, several 
^hence, proportionale). — L, aH'MSt Other; 
and auot, how many. 

AllVi, ia life, (E.) From A.S. m Sft, 


k lA; who* /^tiKiax- a( i^.Sfe; » 

ir. v^^ 

AIL F^ M.E.a/, B=:s.;«%li.- 
O M^',. «/, *7; A. S. «/. f L eaCc-f-Ice: 

tf//r, .STp^r-.oZ/; ljas,a/; Dt «.'; O. H. O. 

«m; al^Kfi Wj Imli joi^ aH, £ron I<fg. 

flUy a<dT^ ctserlT. la the ptr. mllrt* 
hrake 'crxT*a}jaCi>4rai£ , Joqges ix. :^ 
Here th.* laorrcci a J-Z^, tor * cceri j/ cane 
ttp alwot A,b, isoo, ia f^aee of tr« olfi 
imtm, which linked /# to the Terfc; c£. *^/ - 
is Uiroiten tbiike rcgioim,' Cfaaaeer, C T. 
»7«7- bee To-, /r/^. 

alSMWi. £.) A,S.£u/-iffJi/,Le.qiiite, 
the f|:reate«( poit, nearlr all ; afiectcd hj i 
fo''^. K. ntast. Sec Most, | 

alw&7, always. (£.. (i; A.S.ak/w 

ttTif- every way, an accns. case. >. M. E. ' 
aiki weit, in every way, a gen. case. 

JUlaj, 'K. M. L. aSty^, alaum the 
stem of which is doe to A. S. ahg-ts, dUg- 
tii, 2 and % yiKU X. sing. <^ A.S. alicgoM. to 
lajr down, put down, whidl prodoced also 
m. K. aUggen^ to lay or set aside.* A.S. . 
d-, ytefix; and U<gan, to lay, place; see 
A* ^4) and Iaj i). ^. Bot roach cod- 
fu«ed with other ft^rins, especially with M. E. 
altgt^en, to alleviate, from O. F. aUgtr^ 
alfgitr, K. atUuiart', and with old forms 
iAallify. SeeN.KD. 

AlMf«. <¥.-L., M.¥^aleg€n,aUggen, 
In ff/rm, the word answers to A. F. aUgi'trf 
aligitr - O. K. estigUr Csee Godefroy) ; 
from A, K. a O.F. «-, and Hgier.^l^ 
4X' J and iitigdre^ \xi contend (Ducange), 
from l« //i ((jen. ///-//), strife. Latinised 
%%adUgitire CDucangC;, and treated as if 
allied to J-, allfgdre rK. alUgiter) \ hence 
the spnae imualfy answers to that of L. 
slUgAre^ to adduce.— L. aU (for a/), to; 
AV/7rr, to dls]iatcb, to tell, from leg-^ base 
it\ hk, law. 

AU«giM10«, the duty of a subject to 
hU lonr { V. - 0. 1 1, G.) M. K. alegcaunce. 
I'trrmed from F. n (»>L. ad)^ to; O.F. 

c£k : GaSk. XT. J4.*Gk. Aa*-, 
OBK U mXXm, coer: sid l|iyuiM, to 

speak^froM. i | ipi ap£aeeo<aw i m Hf ; c£. 

hganre, Hgmmt, homage, from p. F. Hgti 

{leg*, licgi 

HgtMtt Goilrfroy) was due to a supposed 

ilegt, lirgr, Sec LUg*. % The form 

coiinexloii with L. /i(f»lr#, to bind. 

AUmovt. (]..-Gk.) XVI cent. L. 

af/f^ona.~U\t. AxXtfynptn, a description 

wl out thing uodci th« imtgaof anoUMr.«- 

&«eiv. ItaL-L' laL a/fr- 

L' FroBpp^ofLatcU 

mEaian^ ued far L. mSemirz^ to lighten. 
L- a^ KT «/ , to ; iemirz, lo lift, l^tca, 
frc-B [emit. I^^ 

▲Di^.awalk. :F.-U?: 3<.E.«S7. 
—O.F. .xJ/^. a galkiy ; apaiticqiialsb.— 
O. F. A>', to go : F. «2^. ^L Hie ety- 
moiogy cialUr, modi and long discnsscd, 
is not yet settkd ; the Pror. cqnnaknt is 
allied to ItaL amdmrr, to go. 

AIUgKfeor. .Sptt. - I- Lit ' die 
lizard.*^ Span, el l^garto, the lizard, Le. 
the great lizard.— I- rTZr, ^ that; laeerta, 
a lizard. See Lisard. 

AnrtnTfttilf . rcpetitioD of initial 
letters. L) Coined from I. a/- ^for md:^ 
to ; and tUera^ a letter ; see I*ettor. 

Allocate, to set aside. ,L.) From 
pp. of Late L. aUocdrt, to allot— L. td- 
' =adj, to ; leedre, to place; from Ucus, a 
place. C£ Allow (i^. 

AJlocntioiLt an address. L.) From 
L. a/locu/id, an address. ~ L. «/- (for tut), 
to ; locu/id, a ^Kaking, from Uciims, pp. 
of loauif to speak. 

Al^oii^^l (Latel^-O.Fxankish.) Late 
L. aiiodidlist from aliodium, aiddium, a 
derivative cf alodis, a free inheritance 
(Lex Salica). It means 'entirely (one's) 
property,' from O, Frank, o/n/ ; where fl/- 
is related to £. a//, and od signifies ' pro- 
perty ' or * wealth.* This O. Frank, dd is 
cognate with O.H.G. 5t, A.S. ead^ IceL 
autry wealth. Cf. Goth. amdagSj blessed. 

JJlopathyi a treatment by medicines 
which [Hoduce an opposite effect to that of 
disease. (Gk.) Opposed to homctopathy, 
q. v. — Gk. a\Xo>, for dXXot, other; and 
mtf-ciV, to suffer ; see Alien and Pathos. 

AU<^« to assign a portion to. (F. — L. 
and E.) A. F. ahUr.^K. F, a. from L. 
ad, to ; and M. £. lot, A. S. Moi ; see Lot 

Allow (i)» to assign, grant (F.-L.) 
F. aHouer, to let out for hire, assign for 
an expense. —Late L. aUoedre^ to ulot.— 
L. «/• (for a/), to ; and hearty to place, 
from Ueust a place. 


AUow i^, lo Ajyprove of* (F. — U) 
M. E. iii'iMinv.— O. r . ai0t$tr, ifttcT aUetur, 
lo appro vf^ or — L. iUIauddn^^l., ai- (fur 
A^, to; iattJdn^ to pnu&«, from /ok/*, 

AUoyf A <ltic proportion m mixing 
mcLttU. (b\ — L' Vgnncrly a//fly ; M. K. 
Afrty. •O, K. alay^ ^l(y, a//^. — O.F, aincf, 
iiityir^ lo combine. — L. altigtlre, lo biiitl 
toj^lticf : w* Ally. The O. V, aUi\ ah., 
became i7/t7i, whiiih wns miiaudcntood as 
being d /oi ^ L. aJ U^tm, ni:coTiliiig lo rule 
or L&w(l.htr^). 

AMwAa (L.) i,, otiaJere, to lat^gh ILU 
allui^r lo pp. afluiut).^!^. af* {^aet), 
al : Utiftft, tu sport. Der. ai/us'ton. 
I A littre. li> tempt by n bfliu (K.-L, 
^^^H^ Ci.) A. F. a/Mrfr ; from V. a Uurn 
^^Biothc bait or bre. — L, 0r/, Co; M.H.G- 
^^^modtr (t. *ttdtr\ a bait. Sec Luxe. 
^^K^Hnvial^ washed Hown^ applied to 
j^^WU ,L.i L, atiuttius, alluvSal. — L. a/- 
(-adT), to^ in addilion ; lutre, to wash. 
AUJ, tobind togeibcr. ;F.-L) M. E, 
tfA'm.^O. F. tf/iVr, to bind up. — L. at/, 
to : /^giirr, (O bind. Der. aJU-artct, M. E. 

s, .MmiLnack. (I^te L.) 

tc L. a.'fniwa<:h. ^ Origin linknown ; 
{ Arnlj. onjgin Dozy). 

hty. ^E.) O. Merc* almahtig^ 

litiktig. The prefix u O. Metc> 

O. Sax. oZ^* O. IItG- d/a-, rcUtetl lo 

All. AtiiJ fice Might. 

Almond. (F -L.-Gk.> M. E. al- 

lond.^O. F. a!Mntti/re, raorc coircctly, 

Mi/rv ; the al being due to Span, aail 

b. tnn«(mce; mod. F. amamie.— 

I.. ai<ijfQiaia^ amy^^datam^ ui Almond; 

wh-^iHjc the forms ^Htygifia^ omyJla^ 

aruyn^fla, amyndra (see Br&chet). — Ok. 

<i^f 7^^T;r, d^iii^ySaAor^ Kit almond. 

Almonor ; see Ainu. 

AlniOtft. vE.) A. S> talm^sti kc All. 

(.1^ — Gk.) M, E, afmesst^ Uler 

A S. irimitiSi. — Fclk-L. •!!//- 

inftj (whence O. F. alm&stu^ V. an- 

w> Ici\). iiitwsina) \ Lfttc L. d^^-mifsynti. 

Jk. jAf^fuxTi^ij, pity; licncc abiu, — 

, lAc^^A/i*. pitiful. — <>k. JAffiX to pity, 

\\l, iKfiK, pity. ^ Thui aims u a 

aimoaer. kF.^Li— GkO CF-d/wirf- 
r, a i]]*tributorof aim*. ^O. F. rt/w^JM^, 
i« 1 I'. anf/iLm. — Ffitk-L. *aHmosina 


71^ Aigum, 1). V. 


Alo«, A pl&nt. (L. - Gk.) I,. 
(?Uny ^—Gk. tUuij ; John lix. jg. 

Aioffc- (Scand.) IceL J hpt (pron- 
/tf/?), aloft, in the air-Iccl. a (=A. S. 
on)t in ; h^i, air. See XioA, 

Ajoner. ' E>) M. E. al oiKy al oon^ 
written np.irt ; here a/, ndv., means 'en- 
lirdy,' and oon \\ th^ M.E. fonn of fl/wr. 
Cf; Do. a^/reiT^ G* a//«M, See All and 

Along (0, lenethwiie of. (R) M. E. 
ithng. A. S. analang^ along, prep, with 
ficn. ; orig. (Jike O. ^x. atitlapg) an adj., 
meAuing complete (from end to end).- 
A. S. and; prefix (allied to Gk. urri, 
Skt. dn/f, over AgTiinsC) ; lung, long, Th« 
Krtw is 'orer apaiDst in length,' or -long 
from end to end/+G. tfttian^, along. See 
A- (3) and LoDff (i ) ; nnd sec Anti-- 

Al<Mi|f (a) ; in phr. ati nhng sf you^ 
&*t-. {pS) Eqni^aletit lo M, E. tltntp^ 
Layamoct] 15503.— A. S. gehtttg^ ' dcpeaa- 
ing oq/ u rn on 6tim gttang^ along of 
that.-A.S, ^, prefix; hrtg^ long. 

Aloof) nway. ( E. and Da.) For pn ioef; 
answering to Dn. t£ ioe/^ to windward. 
Cf. Du. /a/ koudiit, to keep the luff or 
weather-gJigc, Dan. k&idi luven, to keep to 
tlie windwflfcl ; which su^gcsled oar phnue 
' to hold Aloofp' i c. to keep away (from 
the leeward shore or rock). Sec JioM. 

Alond, loudly. lE.) From a-, prefix, 
due to A. S, jjrt, prcp^ ; and A»S. Alud, ^ 
loud. Sec A* {!) una Loud. 

Alp. [L.) L. Atpis, the Alps; of 
Celtic origin. Connected with L, athm, 
white (Stokes), Dar. trans-a!^ine, I. c. 
bcsond the Alps. 

Alp&Oa, C!?i>aji. — Peruvian.] Span, o/- 
pfua; from /flu?, the Peniviftti name, with 
the A^Fll^ dcf, .irt. a/ prchited. 

Alpkabot. tate E. ^ Gk. - Phce- 
niciaq. j Late L ol/ihal?tum.^Q\i, SXtfxL, 
&%ra, the names of q and &, the first two 
tettus of the alphabet ', Heb d/i^/<'ii, an oX| 
the name of the finX letter; and iffthf a 
holism, the name of the second letter. 

Already. ' E ) M.E. a/ redy^ quite 
ready ; hum al, quite, reprcseiUing the 
netit. of O. Merc, ai, tW, used odvtrbuUly, 
ami Beadf. 

Alio, (E.) M.E. a/ /t>, quite 40 ; A, S* 
it}h-wA ', we above. 

Aitar, .L.) A.S. *rMw, Malt. v. 34. 

-L, ij/^JjY, an altar, high placc.<*L. 
alini. high. 

Alter. (L.) Laic L,ii//r^rn, to niter. 



«>L. a^er, other. ^L. a/- 'ts in al-ius] ; 
with comparative soffix -terO'. 

•Itercationy a dispate. ''F. - L.; 

alUrcationemj ace. of allercatiS. * L. alUr- 
taiuSf pp. of aiUrcdrif to dispute, speak in 
tarns. «L. aiter, other, anodiier. 

alternate. < U) L. tdumaim, pp. 

of altemare, to do by turns.— L. a//«r- 
nus^ reciprocal. — L. a/Z^r (with snffix 

Although. 'E.; M.£.a/Mi>^A; see 
Alreadj- and Thoofji. 

Altitude. F.-L.) XIV ccnt^F. 
aliiiude.'^ L. aliUudo, height *L. aZriu, 

alto, high voice. (Ital — L.) XXaX.alto. 
' L. altui, high. 

Altogether. (E.) M.E.d//<^A^. 

qaitc t'f'^ethcr. See Alreadj. 

Altniiem, regard for others. '^Ital.— 
L. ; wUh r;k. suffix.) Coined from Ital. 
alirnij another, others, a form of a//rv, 
another, when preceded by a preposition. 
Orig. a dat. caae.*L. alieri huUy to this 
other; datives of altera other, and hicj 

Alum. (F. -L.) M. E. a/MM. -O. F. 
alum ; F. aiun. * L. aiunien, alum. 

Alway, Always. (£.) See All. 

Am. K y See Are. 

AiwWlw (E.) For on taain, in strength, 
with strength ; see A* (3) and M«iii, vx 

• Amalgam. (F. or Late I Gk. 7) F. 

antaij^me. Late L. amaigama, a mixture, 
esp. of quicksilver with other metals. 
Origin nnknown; said b^ some to be a 
corruption or an alchemist's anagram of 
malagmay a mollifying application; per- 
haps with Arab, a/ (—the; prefixed. *Gk. 
/uiAaY/ia, an emollient. «Gk. /toXuro-fir 
(for *>iaX(Lr-^<(F), to soften. --Gkl fiaXoMStt 

Amaaueneiji, one who writes to dic- 
tiUion. (L.) L. dntanuensis.^L.. a r/uutii, 
by hand ; with suffix -unit's. 

Amaranth, an unfading flower. (L.- 
Gk.) Properly amarant, as in Milton ; 
but -aHth is due to confusion with (jreek 
S¥0oSf a flower. •• L. amaran/us. — Gk. 
dit^paifrot, unfading, or as «b. unfading 
flower. i»(ik. d-, not; and ftapaivttVf to 
fade. (VMEK.) 

Amass, to heap up. (F.-U-Gk.) 
F. amasser, to heap up. » F. ^ masstj into 
amass.«L. ad, to; masuit a nuut.»Gk. 
fiaCe, a barley-cake. See Xaaa (i). 

Amatory. -X-) L. amoiSnmt loYiii£. 
— L. amator, a lorer.^L. aatirt^ to love ; 

with suffix -/Jr-, -/or, of agent 
Amaae, to astoond. .£.; M.E. ammstm, 
A. S. dnuuian, pp. amas0d\ Wal£ttn*i 
Horn. p. 137, L 33* From A.S. a- 
'prefix*^; and ^masiam, to perplex. See 

Amason* a female waizior. (Gk.) Gk. 
dfta^in', one of a warlike nation of women 
in Scythia. f To account for tiie name, 
the Greeks savd that these women cnt off 
the right breast to shoot better; from Gk. 
d; not ; and /M^it, the bccast ObvioQiIf 
an invention. 

Ambassador^ Embassador. (F. 

• Late L.-C.' F. am^assadatr,.'^ P. 
ambass€uie, an embassy ; prob. borrowed 
from Ital. am6ascim/a.^LUit L. amkueia 
(Lex Salica) ; more correctly ^atnbtuiia ; 
a missioo, service. « L. ambactmSf a servant* 
emissar)-; Csesar, de BelL GalL vi. 15. 
The L. word is borrowed £rom an O. 
Gaulish (Celtic) word ^ambaeios?) a slave, 
lit. one driven about a pp. f<»m frcun 
amH-, prefix, about, and the verb ag-j 
cognate with L. agerti cf. O. Irish imm' 
agim, I drive about, send about (Fick, 
1894, U. 34; Bragm. ii. f 79.) Cf. W. 
amaeth, a husbandman. 

Amber, v F- - Span. - Anb.) M. E. 
aumbre. * F. ambre. * Span, ambar. * 
Arab, 'anbar (pr(»iouncea 'amb€tr\ am- 
bergris, a rich perfume. % The resinous 
amber was so called from a resemblance to 
ambergris, which is really quite a different 

ambergris, i- e. gray amber. Called 
^Hs amber in MUtoo, P. R. ii. 344. The 
K. gris^ gray* i* from O. H. G. ^m, gray ; 
cf. G. enis, hoary. 

Ambi-f Amb^-p prefix. (L.) L. ambi-, 
about ; cf. Gk. d/i^, on both sides, whence 
£. prefix amphi: Kelated to L. oWtf, 
Gk. </i^, both. Cf: A. ^.ymby Irish im, 

Ambientf going about (L.1 L. amb' 
tent' J stem of pres. part of amb-tre^ to go 
about from irr, to go. 

AmbigaOQSf doabtfuL (L.) L. amb- 
iguus, doubtful, lit driving about (with 
•ous ( = L. -osus) in place of L. -itf). — L. 
amb-f about ; and agire, to drive. 

Ambition. (F. — L.) F. ambition, ^h, 
ambifiontm, ace. i^ambitio, a going roond^ 
esp. used of ^hig round to solicit votes ; 
hence, a seeking lor preferment— L. amb- 



Umm^ tupln« ot am^frr, to go about (but 
tmhftifi retains t^c short i of 
ttgm, the wpinc o( ire., the simple veib '. 
[i Aml»le, (F.-L.) M. lC-iiwW£M.-o.F. 

thUr^ tn i^n at ah (asy pace. — L. afrt/^U' 
iSnr. to walkr 

aml^nlULCev a movcaMc hospital. F. 

— I., l^.af/t^u/a/he, — I,, sM^w/aw/-, &ttrni 
oTprC". ii;ir[. 'li amf'iiliire^ tu walk. 

ambulation^ r^ walking RbcaL (L.) 
^rvOi 1.> tj rtiht.'tJ/Uf A walking j(bout**L. 

' t/tttut, ttp, of atrtt>uftire, 
ABbroaia, f<XH^ of the godh (Gk.l 

farm afnfiBpnrc'^ immortal. — Gk. d-, 

r "* ■■-'i; nntl ">j/J|(>otm7» for *t*poT6i 

>, tnort:il ; 5CC Mortal- Cf, 

hr... .. ,,.■, immon.ll. See AmATUith. 

Ambry, Aumbry, » cuplioArd. ( V. - 

L.) M.K ixn'mihty , mvmtry, Proropt. 
I^wv. ; ibe J* U wtcnseent.-* 0. F. aumairty 
d/M^/v. 0/«;ar^, ft repository ; properly, 
'jrumt: bnt also a cupboftrd.* Late L. 
t cnpbosrd ; armdriMimi a. K- 
J>ositf>Ty ft>r armis, — 1., ^n/in, arms. 

Ambolancfi, -ation ; se? Amblo. 

AmbtlSClkde* tSpnn.— Lftte L.) Frotti 
S|Min. ftni^iftiifa^ .in ambn^h, Orig. 
pp. oi ftrfhosrar^Xo set in nmbosh.— Lati' 
Lilt, iinboi^titf^ M%. to set in 4 bush or 
Ihkket. *L. ijn- (for m), in ; and I^tc L. 

unbusb.. (K.-Ljite L.) Formerly 

i^uih.^O^Y. itHbuscAtr^ tmhmattr, to 

ia ftmbnsh. — Late L. im&ofcdtt; ns 

Ameer, the same as Bmir, q. v. 
Ameliorate. (t-'-L.^ 7vtt/t L. suffix^ 

Kiirmcil «]ih suffix -ai^ (-L. ~aius)lTQm 
y. anU^iarfr^ to helterj impruve.-*F. A 
'. ' - ' in addition ; -meUorfr (a-l^lc 
1 , lo make better. wL, mtfier-, 

U .-. - -s bcttef. 

Am^a. i.L. — Gk. — HebO 1^ amen.^ 
ilVAtajify verily. — Heb, dmen^ vfrily, so be 
it,»Hcb. amhtfiiTitx. tttic — Heb. dman. 
to cotifiitn ; rtrij^. ' !o be finn.^ 

Amenablfii easy to lead. (F. — L,) 
hrarn 1- zniftier, to IcJid to, brinf lo. — 
F- i. lo, w(cM(T-, locomlwci^drive— L.a/, 
to ; l-ntc L. f/iintirt, to cctnJact. lead abowt^ 
fll:o to drii'c oiit» t^ha^ awivy ^ L. winatiy 
In ItiTcnU'n <« L. mirtir, threats. 

Amend. { F. - 1^ ) M. E- amftuitn. - 
h', aftuHiier. ** I« ffft(n*itirt, to free from 
fault. — L. t, from ; w«W««i, a fault. 
uatadft. (F. - L.) M. E. amtmJis. 

Eb. pi.— O. F. aminde, repiuiit{on.«*0. Fi 

afijtm/cr ffibovt^. 

Ajneiuty, plcftsantness. ( F. - L.) M F, 
aail J-. trwrfliiV/. — L, amiTJiitatfm., acC. 
attumitds. — L. amtoius, pleasant- Cf. 
amarff to love; 

AmerOd, to fine, (F.-L.) A- F. (co! 
O. F.) amfrrsrf, lo fine. - O. F. a ( * L. mOi 
to ; mtrcicr^ to p&y> acquit, but usually to 
thank ; cf. Laic L. mfrddre^ to fix n tine. 
Cf 0. F. mercit (F* mcrci). tbeLoks, pardoo. 
— L. mcnMfm, aec, of mcrtes^ reward, 
wagesr also pity^ bdalgcnce, ibanks 
(posing into tbe sen^ oi' ^fine*), — Li 
merc-^ stem of merx, merchandise, tiafiic. 

Amethystraeeni. (L.-Gk.^ L^flwe- 
Mji/z/j. — (tk, d>jfdirpTo$, nn Acnetbyst; «o 
called bccaiisc supposed to prevent dmnk- 
niness. — Gk.4l/ci'^LrcFTfi<f,Dot dnmken. — Gk 
A-, rot I and fuOi^vVf to \x dninkcu^ from 
fti&i\ strong dripk; see UeiKl. 

Amiable. (F.-L.) OF. (^wiW/*, 
friendly ; alau laveable, by confusion wit 
iii'ma&iff {(iQW L^ a7MaMiii).^'L.amieaf>iiif\ 
frifndiy. — L. amicttx, a friend. •- L. amdre, 
lo love. 

amicable. ( L.) L. amltaMUsj friendly ; 
n% above. 

Aiaioe (i)t u oblong piece of linen, 
vflrionsly worn by priests. (F. — L.) M.E. 
amyit^ and (earlier) amiL^O.y. amix^ 
aw*/ (Bnfguy). — L» d)*«V/-Mj-j a covering. 
--L, amictus^ pp. of amiifr^, io throw 
Totmd, - h. am- amy}, around : liKtiVf u» 
cast. (2)* > pilgrini^s robe, (O. F,— 
Span. ^ — Teut. 'In omiVf gray;' Miltottj 
RR. iv. 427. -O. F. aumvrc {Y. numitsje)* 
I^te L. a/miicia.^Span. almucio i^Pineda] ; 
ftrhere ffi seems to be the Arab. def. art. 
ycL Port- mi/rf a), — G. miitu, a cap (cf. 
LowL So. Nttttch], But G. tauiie maybe 
from Ijilt L. 

Amid, Amidst, Id the middle of (E.l 
Amidi-i ia lengthened from M. E. amiddes. 
Again, amtdde-i waa due lo adding the 
adv. snfBjt -r to amidde^h.^, pw middan, 
in the middle ; where middatt 19 the dlat. of 
middij ib.f the middle. — A^S. m/t/, i/r/^A/, 
adj., middle. Amid- A. S. cff middan laa 
beforcl- See Mid. 

AmiB&r ftdv. wrongly. (E. 9r Scftnd.) 
M. E_ p» mLu^ i. e. in eitur.* It^el, a wiV, 
amiBS. — Iccl.d ( — A.S.AH If ill ; fiviV/adv.f 
wron^dy i^doe |o an older lost pp. }, See 

Anut^, (F. - L.) O.^.amfsit, amii/fd, 






— La^tc L. *fl jw TiiiaUm , dcc, of 'iiwif /- 
^Htdi, friefldship. — 1.. amlcut, friendly;— 
L. mndre, to lave. 

Ji^mniOiLiiftj BJi alkali, iL. — GV.— 
Kgyption, I Ssggested by L. sal am- 
*/tt5nfr}cum . rodc-salt. •- Gk. dnfn<i}ViaKiiy ^ 
aal ftuiiinDniaCt rock-salt.— Gk- dfifuwtdts. 
J^ibyan.— Gk. if^^wi', the Libyan Ztriis- 
Ammon ^ a word of R|T^ptian orij^in ; 
Ilenwl. ii, 42, ^ It is said that sa! am- 
ntpffiac was first dbtaincd near the temple 
of Ammon* 

ftmiMoiiit*ya fossil shftIL (Gk.) Coined 
with sufftx 'iff (Gk. -m;f ■ from tJic nAme 
AmmoQ ; becau&e the shell rcsembLes the 
twisted ram's liorij on the IJ*ad of the 
imagL- of /npUcf Ammon. 

Amtw nwi+rirtTi^ slore for defence, (F, — 
L.) From Mid. F. /jmuttitiott , a soldier's 
CDittJiptiouof w/?^«fVj'>i'/. due to substituiing 
ramH*iiti&H fnr la ifiUHtfiCfff iLi(tr(5),— L. 
fiCc. wiinf/ien^ffi.a defending. — L. mutti- 
hts, pp. of wtlftttr, to defead. 

Axanestyi liU » forgetting of offences. 
(h, — L. — GL) F. ttmmrtu.^h, amnis- 
//d,**Gk. d^rjjtfTta, forget fulness, esp. of 
Wrong,— Gk, AfLvt^trtni. forgotten. ^ Cik. d-, 
not ; and tivho}iai, I rvinember. CV'^^^^O 

Among, Amongst, (1^0 The earliest 
M. E. form is cifuattj^e, whciiee amon^s 
with added s (n common ndverbial suSix); 
And hctiee amangs-t with cKcrcscenfe /.— 
A. S. imnantff^, ptep.^an\ong,*^A.^,ffj/, in ; 
wrt«,jf, a miitufg, crowd. Cf, Mingle. 

Amorous. (K.-L.l O. F. uttujreSi V. 
nm&ttreux. — L. amorosus. — L. amor, love. 

Amorphous, formkas. (Gk.) From 
Ck. U-, not ; nnd ^<fp^-^, shR|.>e, foTm. 

AmOUUty to mount tip to. (F. -L^ 
O. h\ ammiier, to amount la. — O.F. a 
mifnf, towards a mountain or Lai^e he^ip. 

— L. ££</, to; montetn, flCC. of rrtimi^ u 

Amour, (F. — L,l F. amonr, — L, 
amcrt'tn, ace. of amar^ loVC- 

Amphi'f /^^j. (Gk,) Ck, (J>4i/n', on 
both siilr''. around ; See Ainbi'. 

Amphibion^. (Gk.) Gk. d^f^ioi, 
living CL double life, oil land and water, 

— Gk. d;i0(. on both sides; Bim, life. 
Ampliibraoh, a. foot iu prosody. 

(Gk. I Tfit fool tutnpgscd of a &hort 
syllflblc on each side of a long one {u-w> 
Gk. &jtipi&pa.xv^,^ii)/i, d/4^, on both sides ; 
and ^pax^^'^i sljort ; see Ajuphi- and 
Ampliit)i«atrd. (Gk.) Gk. i\t^t9ia^ 

rpav^ a theatre *rjth sests oil ronnd the 
arena. -Gk. A^, around ; iinrpov^ n 

Ample* full. (F,_L.) F.amfh.^L. 
ampin f, spacious, 

Amputa'to. [^^■^ From pp. of L. 
ampudirc, to cut o(In>titld about, — L. apt-, 
abort for ajw^, arndt-, ronnd abont; 
pitti'ii\\to tzlcnnsCjftlso to lop or pnine trees. 
'- L. pufm, clean, 

Amulet. (F -M F. amuUm.'^X^ 
amutfUwi^ a ulisiiiaii hung round the neck. 
[Once thought to be of Arabic origin \ bot 
now given up.] 

AmUBOt to divert, (F.-L.) F, amustr^ 
' to amuse, ruAke to muse or think of, to 
gaje at;' Cot. — F. h ( — L. dtO, to, at; 
O. F. mftier^lQ ga^cr at, stare stfmuie; see 

An, A, ind$jinite 4tri£cie. (K) A H 
short for ail ; nnd uJt is an utiaccenled fotm 
of A . S. 17/1, otie ; 5ce One. 

An-f A-T *K?- P^jfi^' (Gk.) Gk- d^', 
dU, cDgantc with L, rn-, fltid it. un-\ see 
Un-. In-, A- (9), 
f. See And. 

Ln-^/'-^Ajf. (Gk.l Gk.ara-,dj^: 
frora Gk- tlfcij open, on, up, back, again; 
coETiflte with E. dit ; see On. 

Ana, Azin&i a fiixteenth of a rupee. 
(Hind.; IHnd. iina^ 2. si.'ctcenth part, efip. 
of a mpcc. (H. H. Wilson.) 

Anabaptist,. (Ck.) OnewbobaptijEei 
ngain. Coined from Gk. Qy&, p^ki ; fttld 
baptiit. See Baptise. 

Anacbronismt error in chronology. 
iGk.) Gk. lijfajfpafjiflr^rir.^Gk. dra^Dn'- 
{m^^ to refer to a wrong time. — Gk. drdi, 
up, hnck wronu) ; yjpivc^^ time. 

Anaoond&T ri larye serpent. (Ceylon.) 
Now ustMl of a S. American boa ; but Bt 
firat applied to a l.irge snake in Ceylon. 
The Tamil armi-kondra means * which 
killed an ekphnnt ' . Yolc), 

jk ^ff ffti fr ^ hltMirllfsane^a. (L.'-Gk,) A 
Ijilinisetl fDrm of Gk. Avattaa^ want of 
blood, — Gk, iii'-i not ; o?/ifl, blood. 

Antesthetic, roiderinj^ ittaeasible to 
pain. (Uk.) Coined fruqi Gk. d^^s n[>t ^ 
fttld aI(T£'t;Tixut|fn11of peiceptioii ; see An- 
flnd ^0thello. 

Aiuignuilr ^ change \u a word dtte to 
transposition of letters. ( F. — L.~Gk.l F. 
anagram me. ^^-~ anagramfna,^G\i. dfii- 
7pa/ifta.«>Gk* dwi, np^ here nsed dijtribu- 
cively ; yp>&mAa^ n letter of the alphabet. — 
Gk, *r/id^ci»', to write. 






r. a- 

Aaaloffyf pioportion. (F.^Lt'-Ck.) 

equAlUy of f fttios, <- Gk. (Iva. u | *on. 
thrcmghofUt r -XoTtOt from ^07-01, a won.5, 
fttAtement, from Kiyuv, to speak. 

AnalpBiul. (Ok*) Gk.^faAutrtF^niTesQlv' 
ing into pArt^i loD^eriiDg^^Gk, avaXvtvy, to 
imdo, resolve. — Gk, i»'a, back : and \yfjk^, 
to loosen. i,^/L£U.) Der, ijna/yw, v«bj a 
coined word. 

Axuuias, the pine-apple plaot. (Sjpiau, 

— Bt«,) SpiiJi, an&nai Pineda); moii. 
SnftD. 4H4jtfd. — Kraril. hakoj or pmho. 
^ Tbc F'L-niv, naiiic is ofhu/'aila, 

Anftpnst^ Ana^Bt, ^ foot in pros- 
ody. i,Gk.j L, rtJM/ifj/wj, — Gk, i^ii- 
Toiffrot, stnick back. rebounrHng \ becanse 
it u llie repirsi of a dactyl, — Gk. draFoffli", 
to Urikc back. > Gk. dra, b«ck ; and Ttit'<i»', 
to strike . 

An&rchj. F.--L,-Gk.^ XVI cent. 
i-' . attoj-Jtii — U fliMrscjijd. — Gk. liwpxK 
uf|;avetnmenL—Gk.^rapx'>^f, without 

^rvlcr.^Gk, ir-, ntg- prefix; ^px^^- " 
iter, from ^^x***'* ^o rulCf to be first 

AMmth# i \" Vi ^ cutse, lU-Gk.) ].. 

isnaiktma^^i'tV.. om^i/ia, a th-ing devoted 
or Aocuncd. — Gk. dvarttfi^juf^ I devote.* 
Gk. d»^, up : Tf^H'f ^ plac«, set, Cf. 

Ajt^tomj- (F.-L.-Gk.) F. tfM 

^piff^r, — |„ Ana/£rWd. — Gk, dmrojuia, Ihc 
same fts (tmOTo/riS, dissection, —Gk. JLvarift^ 
vur^ to out up, — Gk. ^^^ up ; Tifwuf, to 
cut. L f. Tqibo. 

Ancestor. (F. — L.) M.E.{i)aa^iJfrt, 
O. K- itMdStrti from L. ttnieuswr^ nom., 
a predecessor, forcgocr ; and M, E* (j dw- 
cissauTt O. F. ameiscuKt from L> ««/#- 
(usvrtm^ acc. — L. a«/if , before ; ctss-us, 
pp. of caUrt^ to gn^ 
AuchoiT. L. — Gk.) The current spell- 
Lmitn,tca tJic false L. forrn, anchora. 
S. dUfffr. — L. amom •: wrotigly anfhifra). 
Gk, d7*upa, an anchor. lit, a bent hook ; 
cf. (ik. u'^Koiy, a html. ; V'ANQO 

Anchoret, Ajichorite, a tccIu^, 

I* -Ijilt L.-'jk 1 t. iinnihoniU (Cot.)^ 

— Lale L. aT>air>!!i>r^7a. — t.k. ^f^xwpr^i\ij 
e who retires from the world. — Gk. di^a- 

(V, Id retire, — Gk. tb'tt, back; and 

iV, to withdravp, from x^9^^* spnce, 

V*'HE, GHO.) 

Anchovy f a 5sh. (Span.— Buqnelj 

Span. CHihifva ; cf. Basque anchoa^amku^, 

an anchoTy. Pcfhapi * dried fiiU ' ; from 

Bttnqvc dMited, dry. 

Ancient (0» old. (F.-L.) With 

— Late \„ atffidnm. o^d, bclongiag to 
fornier time. Formed wUh suffix -dnjfs 
from jTM^a, before. 

Ancient (j) < a bannertStandard-bctucr. 
(l'\— L.) Confnscd with anneni ( \) ; but 
from 0. F- euftigne, m. ' en-<iigDe, auocicBt, 
&landafd-b<:aref ; ' Cat, ; also for O, F. tn- 
sHgn^f^, r, ' a banner;' Cot. See Enflign. 

And. y 1^0 A^ ^- ^tfd^ ^^- 4* O- Fries. 
atida, ettdi; O. H. G- ^nti^ Htiis^ G. urui, 
Prob, related to L. ante^ before, Gk. drri, 
over agfliast. 

an. if. (E.) Formerly atso and; 
Havefok, aSOl , &c ; ihc same word as the 
above. Antf*^ if if, a redu|jlication. Bi*t 
and if=' but if if; Malt xxiv* 48. 

AlldanteiSlf^wly. (Ital.) iKvU.amfante, 
moving RJowiy, pres. pi. of attdarf, to 

Andiron^ a fiie-ilf^, (F.— L,) Not 
ccpnnccted with iron, bat cnrmpted from 
M. E. andtj-ne, anndirnt^ aundire. — O. F. 
tifklitr ; mod, V . iattdUr, put for fartdiff^ 
where i* h the def. art. Cf. Late L, Oftde* 
rtus, uttdrfta, a fife-dog. 

Anecdote. (F,-L.-GfcO F. *w«f' 

i/i?^r>-La(e L. aruidoia^ orig. aneut, pL — 
Gk- i^F^K'loTa, neat. pL of Awinhoro^^ 
unpublished ', hence an [inpnblished story^ 
storj' in. private Ufe,— Cjk. Av-, not; lir, 
out ; and Sorrit, given, allied to Uhmpo-f I 

AnenLonei a flower. [Gk,) Gk. iUf> 

tt^ri> lit. wiiid-ilower.i^Gk.t&f^oT, wind. 

Anenti regarding, with reference to, 

IJ.) M.Li. artcHf, amni$s\ older form 

one/iHt^ where the / is excrescent. A, S. 

antfen^ enefett, near ; later form t>nemH, 

— A. b fl»j on ; £/eH^ even. Hence iff/r^y^ ^ 
even with, on an equality with, Cf. G. 
neben, near ( for irt eben >. See Bven. 

AAercid, dry, applied to a barometer 
having no liquid mercnry in it. ^Gk.) 
Corned from Gk, d-, not; ■'inp^-t, wet; 
ffB-«, form^ kind. 

Aneurysm^ a tnmour dne to dilata- 
tion. ^Gk Gk. &.vt</pv<t^,-A. widetung. 

— Gk. ^y-y for 0*11, up; and titf^ivuv, te 
wifkn, from fuptJt, wide. Also afuun'siH. 

Anew. ^E.) M.E. ^-»Jiw. A,S.^ 
niffttv, John iu. 7 (Kuihworth). From Of 
and New. 

AngeL (F,-L.-Gk.) 0.¥, an^cfe, 

— L, angeiu^. — Gk. Af^fhas^ a messenger. 
CL Gk. HffipQti a mounted conHcft ixam 




% The A. S. f. 

cirm wns 

t^f, directly from L, att^dus* 

Anfifdir* (Scami.) M. E, anger, oft^a 
\4iiU the fecnsc o/ vtxalion, trouMc — Icel. 
artgf, grief ; Dim, artg'rr, Swed. dw^r, re- 
j^rrt. + K, atigor, a. slmnEling, anguish. 
(^AN'*;iL) ?«e below. 

Angiuft) acute pnm. (L.) I. artgina, 
quinsy, iiL choking. — L,fl«^ff(f, lo choke. 

Angle (iK a corner, F.-L.) M..E. 
art>;ie,— \'\ angU.^h. aNguius, Eta (LUgle. 
Clf. ilk. liyiVuAiUt, bctit« 

An^le(3>, a hook, fish-hook. (E.) A^ S, 

WSit,fi ftsh-hook ; dimin. of a//^, tf*r^, 

stiti^', j^ridklc ; cf. IceL nt*pt z prickle, 

Ck, (S^^u^, a bent bookj fakt. an^tj), 

A hogk^+Dnn. anfffi ; G. angei^ dimin. of 

O, H. tj mtgo, a pri<Jtle, ishhook. Allied 

(d A.aohor, Der, oHgitj vctb, to fish, 

^^ An gill alt. ^1-'. --L.) M. E. anguis^j 

^Bnijvr^' — O. F. anguine ', F. angois^e. — L. 

^ftn^sfia^ narrowness, poverty* peri^lexity. 

— L. an^tfuSj narrow. ••^L. a/iggre, to 

choke. \VANGH,) 

Anilindi ^ substtmce i^rbich furnishes 

a number of dyes* (F.— S|jan,— Arab»— 

I*tra. — Skt ) FoTined, with snflii -tne, from 

ariii^ a dyestttff, — F. d«/A — Spao, a4ti, 

niiire. — Arab, an-ni/; for af-m/, where a/ 

ii ibc clef, art,, and wiY is borrowed from 

Purs, ttfff blue, or ihe indigcnplanL — SkL 

wf/rf, blue ; ttW^ ihc indigo-plnnt.^ 

AnimoL (I-) L.awi>wa/, a living crea.- 

ti]re--»I. amWj lireathj life. (j^AN.) 

animadTfirt, to censure. (L.) i- 
cffil/3iiiiftiiy/fr£, la icni the mmd to, hence, 
lo criticise, mL, anipt-, for animuSf the 
mlm! (allied lo amrna, breath); W, to; 
anil H^rtcr/, to turn (sec Veraol, 

Allitliat6i> (1.0 L. oHtmaiuSi pp. of 
^■fl/i/wrir^, (u cn^luc witli life. — L. anima^ 

^^^WjimOBitry, t F- - I- '^ F. animfftU^^ 

-I.. finirntiiitiUem, nt:c. of anim^iitds^ 
,yeh«inciicv, — L. amm^'sui, vuhement, full 
mind or cnartigic, — L, nnimuSf mind, 
luragr, naulun. 

AnWB, ft hr.rb. (F.-l Uk.) M, E. 

dtf/ic, rt«yi, — F. ants i Cot. ). ^ L. antsum ; 
Ali4t anr/^MM.-Ck. ot'iiror} dl^^w, orig. 


lkdr,i^li<l"lilfn«*sure. CDu. — LatcL.) 

unkcr, (lie •iuiu-,-]jWe L, tjHrtnti, 

|r tniiir, ^ hwcd. tinkitrf ; G-«"iiJ^r; fram 


f Arsw, »0. Fries* anM: nlso A.S. anW 
with a longtr iuRix cf. O, Fncs. i'»*^-^^";,+"" 
D&n. and Swcil. attJk^/; UcL oH/a 
f^nkia = *anktiia ; Du, and C rn^A Ftr 
haps allied to Skt, aitgult^ a. finger, ahgti^ 
A limb. . 

AiUiai, ^ small coin ; see A.db^ 

Ajtmaia. (F.— L.) F. annatn, pi. «b, 
— 1« anndihi pi. adj., for W;-/ anHdleJ^ 
yearly books, chronicle* ; fiom anmUUf 
yearly. — L. anttuSy a year. 

Aiuieali Co t^mpe]- bylient ((i) £.; 
(a) F. — L.) Two distinct words have bcea 
confused. 1, M, E. artr/m, Xq intUme, 
kindlcr beat, melt, bam, A. S. ctn^/cin, to 
btim, kindle; from im^ pmfix, and tt/aia^ \o 
Loni. Ct A. S. (?&rf, fire* 3. M. E. anf/rw, 
to enamel gliss, — Prdixa- fperhflps — F. J, 
L. ad) ; and O. F, pw^/rr, wrVV^r. to cnaine], 
orig, lo paint in binck on yold nr silver.— 
Late L, rtig^llaret to blacken, — L. nigtUus^ 
blnckii^h ', from nigsr, black, 

Annex, (F.-L,) ¥,annejctr.^\.,aH' 
tbfXUSf pp. of anmiUriy to I; nit or bind lo. 

— L. an- (for &d)^ to ; and VKctere, to bind, 
AnnildlAte. CL.) L. annihildtHSt pp. 

of annihiiartt lo reduce to noihing, ■• L* 
aw- (for W>, to; and m/itV, nothing.^ 

Anni'v^TMKty* {L.) For'anaivcr- 
sniy mcmoriiiL' — L, artnimtrsdHtts^ re- 
luming yearly. — L. mini- (from ia/w-), 
from attftuj, a year ; atid uersus, pp. of 
uerttri^ to turn (lie*: VerBe). 

AmtOtate, ^'^ make ciote« on, (L.) 
From pp. of L. atin^tan^ to mAke notca 
on. — L, art- (for s*/), lo, on; notdrt^ to 
mark, from nr^a, a mark. See Nota. 

Annotmcfi. (F.-LO Y^attn^m^.^ 

l^ anNUHtinf£^ to ^iiinoiince.^ L. flM- ( = 
ad)fioi itunii'irtt to bring tidings, from 
nuN/ius^ a mt^sscnger. See ITu&oLor 
Annoyi to ^■ex. (F,— L.l M. E. ottciiH^ 
atttiien. — O. F. aNoier, &nuier^ to annoy. — 
0. F. anoi, arru* (F, ennm), venation, Cf. 
Span. itu>jo. U. Venetian tH/xita. vcjtation. 

— L. fn d^ri^t'tf, lit. iu lialrcil. common in the 
Late L, phr, iw «//-» Aa^ui, lit. I had in 
hatred, 1 WW annoyed, with ; cf, L. itt Otfia 
£sj£, to be h-itcd by Cicero). — L. i>/, iu ; 
rt//i>, abL ofw/iam, hatrcil. 

J^TianaJ, ycnrly. (F.-L.) M. E.<w- 
w/W— F. (V^ww/,-L, aHHHrt/i'j, yearly.— 
L> anmu, a ye-ir, 

annuity. (.A. F.-L.) A F. attftHtV; 
A. u. 1304. — Late L. annurftUem, Acc. of 
attnuifiU. — L. ff^Jtur, a year. 

Annul, (l*) i- anmUldrt^ to bring 




ntM»g»»»l^ an- (for tuT), to: nn/htSt no 
«ae I tec Ifull. 

iSrii^ Adj. ; tTom annttJuj, a nngi enrlicT 
tpetling itnujus ; diniin. of L. <tmm/, i 
rounding, i circulnx fonii CLcvi'is)* 

Att^yne, n diug to allay p^n. (L.— 
<»k.j XVI cent. Late L, anCniynuit i% 
drug relieving paio.— Gk* ib^Awrjt^ free 
frocn ptAn. * (ik. di^-, not ; Ajod dS^i'v, 

Anoint* (T-^L.) M. E. anoint^ used 
At a pjj. «c anointed. — Oi F. en^int^ pp. of 
tttMm^tt to anoint. p-O. F. m, upon; 
mmJrr, to smeRn — L. irt, ttpan ; iMjvn;, 
to ftnoict See TJnsueiit. 

AUfflilftly i^^) O^' ^yoitmXia, de^ 
iriaCion from rnlc— Gk. AifufULKoSt nnevcn, 
^(J,k. Av-, not; and ^paK&i, even, related 
to tVii«, one and the same. 

Anon, iinm^Lftlelv. (E.) "SI. £. stiffn. 
nmwn ; ^\vn anan, A-S. ffn ^irt^ lit, "in 
one moment ' — A. S, en^ on, in; any one. 

AnoujvKma, niuutiless, [.(^k.^ Gk. 
4ircu*-c>>j>u(, namelc:H ; with -em added.— 
tjli. dy-, neg, prefix ; and ^^votm^ name. 

Another. (E.) For an eiher^ one 


Answer, to reply. (E.) A. S. attd- 
twiriany andFwarimtt 1o answer, speak in 
itpljT ; ft weak vetb. — A.S. andsrv&ru. a 
Kpl^. — A. S. and'^ a^nat, in reply; 
snvriatt^ to apeaJc, to sweai. The A, S, 
fiM/'sG. /thA (in awA&iWif^pi)B>Gk, drri; 
9er Ajati- inrt Sw«art 

Ant. (Iv) M, iu ant/r. short for amtft. 
A. S, ,fmttt€^ in emtncC, &&t. Poublet* 
immef. <j, v. 

AntA^gfoni^, ATI opponent. i^L, — Gk.) 

ill upi'Oftent. — Ok, drr-, for Affi, agaitist ; 
%in\ ^•^v'^\u^^m, i straggle, from dTtJiv, ft 
cun(''vt I yAG-^i 

Ant&rctio. (L. — Gk,^ L^antarftkui. 
•>(.>k, ^tapitTiH^\, souihfm* opposite to 
ftrtUc — Gk. diT', for *ilm, opposite to; 
laA ApttT^xwt. arctic See Arctio. 

Anto-, prefix., before, (L*) L. antt, 

cf^fc. Alliwi to Antl^, q. v, 

Ant^edent* <.!*> i- af^t<hUHtu 

sicm ttf prr^ j>Mt, of antii.hUrc, to go 

I tiffiirc, — T. jTwrr-* hefore ; tidfrt^ to go. 

Antedilavlajif before the llood, (L.) 

L. .//(/^, before; tiJiumum, deluge, n. 

uujitiiiif* uwiy. — L. dtlutrt^ to wash 

aw .IV. — I, (iT-, apaTt; /«/«■, Co wmh. 

Ant«lope. tF.- L.-Ck.l In Spenser, 



Fh Q* i, 6. a6.-0. F, anUtop^^XjiXx^ 

r7n/a?i7j9Hj.«Latc Gk. d^floA^oir-, the stem 
of di'tfuAo*/', tiscd by Eustathiua of Anlloch 
to signify some uncertsia quadntpetL Of 
Bnknuwii ori';!!!- 

Antennae, feelers of insectfi. (L.) L. 
antenna^ pi- ot an/fviMa, properly the yajd 
of a sail. 

Antepenultitna, the Inst syllable but 
two m a word. (L.) L. aw/^, before; 
pit-mtltima. fern, adj., last but one, ^m 
/Vf?r-f, alfiiosl, uiiima^ la^, 

Ant69?ior. ( L. ) L. anttrior^ former, 
more in front, compor^ adj> from anttf 

Antliem. (L.— Gk.) Yovm^ly anUm. 
A, S. i/n/rfn.^LjLXn L> aJiiiphdria, an an- 
them. — Gk. dyTf^^wJ-cf, considered aa fem. 
sing., but really neat, pi. of dvr/^oirw, 
sounding in responw to ; from the alternate 
singing of the taa]f<chotrs.«i-Gk. dn-t, over 
aeainsl ; ^an*^, voice, »oand. 

AntHttr, the summit of the fitamen of 
a flower. (Gk,) From Gfc* tlj'^fofi^UQom- 
Jojj. — Gk- &.v$tiy^ to bloom ; ok^w, a young 
bud or sprout. 

anthology, a collection of choice 
potms. (Gk,j Lit. n collection of flowert. 

— Gk* (i»T?t>Ao7*fl, ^ gathering of flowew.— 
Gk. i.Y9o\irfo^y flowei-gnlnerin|j. *• Gk. 
di'ffcj-j for S,vBo^^ a Sower j and xiynv, to 

Anthxacitei a kind of hard coaL 
(Gk,) Gk 6,v$paKirjitf resembling coals. 

— Gk^ Av^paK-^ stem of liv^/wif, coal. 
AntSiropophv^, cAnuibals. (Gk.) 

Lit. * men-caters,' — Gk. AvQpamo^yoi^ 
man-eatiug^-^Gk, ai^/wT«ir, a man; ^nd 
tpar^fTv, to eat. (^HHAGw \ Brugm. L 

Anti-, Anio ^rc/jr, agniiut. (^Gk ) 
Gk. iyri^ against ; allied to L. ^tftt, 
before. Cf» Skt. aniii over :tgQ.iiist, allied 
to omAi, end ; sec Snd. % In anti-<ip^£t 
the prefix ii for L. a^/*. 

Antic* fanciful, odd ; as ab. a trick. 
iltal.-L.) Orig. RTi adj. Adopted in 
the XVI cent, from Ital. antuoj with |be 
Knse of * grotesque ' ; lit. autique, old.-* 
L. anft,/atii, oM. See Antiqtie. 

AntichriBt, (F, ^ 1.. - Gk ) O. F. 

Aittecrisi— L. Atitichrtsius (Vulgate). 
»-Gk. 4*TijrftVres (1 John ii. iS). — Gk. 
iiFr/, against ; \pi^Tro^^ Christ, 
Anticipate. (L.) From Ibe pp.%if L. 
anti'ii/'i'iri, In take bcfoiehand. — L. anti-, 
before ; and ^aptrt^ to take- 


AnticlimftXi^ (Gk.) From Anti- and 

da/£ W.I.. iinlideitum^ & rr mrdjr, ^ Gk- di^t' 
A^ruv. 1 rtmedy ; a thing gfren m^ a 
remedy.— Gk urrt, agai&fit; Soriv^ ueoc 
of AoTut, ^vcD, from SiSvfU, I give 

AjttizELO&jt a mcuL fLatc L.> Lat« 
L (tnrimcftsum. (XI oenL) Origin nn- 

Antipathy. rOt) FtxHu Gk. drrin- 
fttOp aniipjiihy^ lit. * ii EufTerifig; (fceliiig 
stroogly) against.' — Gk. liwi, against ; 
•moBtiv^ to ynffer. See Pathos. 

A&tiphoil- L. - Gk.) Late L. anli- 
phthM. an anihem ; stc Aathem. 

Astiphraaia. (Ok.; Su Aa^- and 

Antipodes. (Gk.) Gfc.(i*Trt'oa*Ttpt, 

intn wim t'eet opposite to oors, from nons. 
*in^. dfTinrooi. -• Ok. drri, opposlttr to; and 
aoirt, foot» cognate with Foot- 
Antique, old . (F. - L, ") F, antiqMt. — 
L. oMifiquHi, also anticus, formed with 
Boiiix -fV(/.r from antt^ before ; as posticus is 
from /tpj/, Ijehifit!, Doublet, anik. 
Antiseptic, ccMsnteracCing putre&o 
tion. iGk .' Gk. fb^Ti, against ; and 
flT^FTiifo?, patrefyiog, ff7»T-i5f, rotten, from 
tfi^ftr, to i-ol. 
AntiBtrophe. (Gk.) From AnU- 

ftnd Strophe. 

An tithe Bis« CCk.) From Anti- aad 

Antitype. \^^ Ftom nAntt- and 


Antler. (F.) M, E. amttettrt, for 
autUdiirr Q),^0. F. artt^iUier^ said to 
have been once in use Ci^ttney. In this 
case the O. F. word is supposed lo be 
equivalent to a Late U *aniiKuldrem^ occ., 
i. e, the briuidi (of the horn) in front of 
the eyes ; cf. G, mt^^-rprassii a brow- 
antler llit. eye-tpnoni). See I^Btfmma. iv, 
349. From nnte, before^ and o^u/us, the 

Anns, the lower 0TiEic« of the boweK 
(L.} L dnuj, 

AnviL (K.) M. K. anref/, anfeM^ an- 
ftit. A. a. an&itt, cnfiUL'miVS. tm, <w. 
tw, uiKitn; and n vcrh *^^<Uan (s« hc:low)» 
C3uul of */taltiin, to'intu, rcdupl. verb 
rf»['Tiate with O. H. G. •falzntt, MH.G. 
-.:/v»;. whence G./i/a.n ^oove. % Some 
il-rivf it from m and /t^alfan, lo fold; 
however, the O. H G ana/ah, nn anvil, 
in nut durivctl from ttHa^ on, uiid/o/i/aH^ 


to fold np, hot froin M. H. G. vahem, as 
■bo^i^ Cf. L. jRh'ttj, aA anvil, irom rn* 
on, and ludert, to strike ; and note the 
A.S. glou : ' Cft/o?, ferciitio, tnfllte;* 
Voe. Ji;'. 5. 

AuionS. (t^^ L.aMjri-u/f (31ftfV»«d; 
with scffix ^ffiu.^L. angtf^^f, to cbokc. 

Any. E,) A. S. ^mg, any; from (f«, 
one. wi:h soffit •*; (^ -y). + Ptt. ffMr^', 
from itti, one; G- dttifftr^ from rtfli, one. 
See One, 

Ac^ta, (L,-Gk ) Laic U wrtA^ 
Gk. dopr^. the grcst att«fy *ri«flg* from 
the heart. -i-Gk. dfipctr^, to rise np; 
dii^ir, to nitSc. 

Apaee. (^ an/ F.) For a f*ti^ \. e. 
at ft (good) pace : where a 11 put for 
iw i'd, tt-fa^} ; see A- {i\ Paeg, M, E. 
fitu, is from F. /om {L. pasnu). isee 

Apart, aside, CF.-L.) F. A f^rt, 
apart, atoae« singly ; Col — L, ad fiarfsm, 
lit. to the one part or side, apart. ^L, d^ 
to ; fiartem^ ace. off^ars^ a part. 

apartment, a separate room, (F.— 
Itfli. - I^) F. appatiemtni. - lul. etppar- 
iartun!6jnn apaiti!nenl,a partition, lit* V^pa- 
mtjcjn. — Ital. a/partarr^ to separate. » 
tla). (1 partt. spart. *«L. ad ptaiimx see 

Apatll^. (Gk.) Fnnn Gk. JniArui, 
want offeeliog. — Gk. d-, not ; antfffp, t 
sufTcT. See Pathos. 

Ape, (F.) M. E. <i/« ; A. S, a/a,-f Do 
oi/ : IceL api \ Swed. a/a ; G. affe \ 
Irish rr/rt (from K/i ; O. Bonem. cp. 

Aperient. L.) XVli cent Lit 
* openirtg.'— I,. ap(rieni-, stem of pres. pt, 
of ap^rire, tO open. Perilaps from a/-, old 
form of ab^ from, away, and -«/r- = Litii. 
TWffv in Titrii, to moTc (to and fro)» 
whence Ijtb. aMoirei\ lo open^ Bmgra. 
i- « 3G1. 

Ap«Z. (L ) L, r)/«jf, sommit. 

Aph-,/"-/^- (Ck.) Se^Apo-. 

AphnreaiSt tlie lakitig away of a 
letter ..T vvUahlc from the btginoing oi 
a word. lU-Gk.) Late I- apfurr^sh.^ 
Gk.^^iV*<rir» « taking aviray.*Gk.df',f( 
dvii, away ; tufustt^ a laking, from Vtlpttv^ 
lo take, 5^e Heresr- 

Aphelion, the point in a planetV orbl 
ffirthest from the sun* (Gk*) Coined froi 
Gk. df/»-. for dmj, from; l^^ios, the suH. 

Aphorisnit a deftniliou. (Gk.) 
aipo^itr^Cv. a definition,^ Gk« Jutf'Q^i^Wf t 




I, UmiL - CJc a<^-. Tor dmJ, off; 
lo limit, frotti Sjpos, a boondiiTy. 
Apiary. « pl*« for bees. (L.) L. ff/i- 
^x*tm^ iK(U, o( aptdriuj, bctunging to 
» L. afii't stem of <i/>fi, a bee, 
deCtt. (,£» <>«^ I''0 Orig, (at fio 
['»oc1)'! a fui-e, where « U Ihe m<\eL article. 
ApO-, A"<^r, off, (Gk.) Gk, dinJ, off. 
■ im; t'ojjnaJc u-ith E, <f/, 0^: *ec Of. U 
Come-« ^^- befoic *ij aspirate. 

ApocalyoM, (L.-GM m,e. dA?- 

'M/ifii \\yclif). — L. a/^aiyp^is. — Uk. 
'Aro«iAv^«, a revelation. — iik, ilrwfoAvw- 

-rfd--, to uncover, reveal- — Gk- <i»^, off j 

anil miAvBTfif , to cover Cf voAicf, a cot. 
Apocope. (L.-Gk.) L,a/tf4c/^.-Gk. 

ifloKoiT^, a cntlmg off i,of a Utter)- — 

(;k. tiff.;, nff ; ajid *(SirT*(Vj lo hew, tut, 
Apoc^^lba. {Gk,} Lit. 'hidden 

thuii^s;^ Tieiict-, uncanonica] books of the 
r01<i TesLameat. — Gk. diriffrpvi^Hi, 
^♦f iw^KpM^t, biddcD. — Gk. a^oupv^rTtnify 

lo hide away. — Gk. drd, froin, a^vny; 

Apog'6>9» ibe p{>iiit of the moon's orbit 
furiht-^i Irom Ihc earth. i^F. -L.-Gk' Y, 
^f^'i^< (vC'-'l.). — 1,. tipt^iTtfru, — Gk, dir^ 
nor, heui. of &vit-<fatQ%t away ftam earth. 
— Gk, dwii^ ft^*ay from i 7t5> drib. 
Apologue, a lable, slory. (F. — L.- 
Gk.) h. a/^^tu, w L. <iJ^iogw, ^ Gk. 
^^wuAoTror, a Tiblc—Gk. cJwy, off; XirjQS, 
;di, from Atyiii', Lo iay. 
I^^logjr. a defence. (L.-GIc,) L. 
O^MI^fa, — Gk. dffoAci^m, a speech, mnde in 
wfence. — Gk« diro, off; AtJ'^Oj, a speech 

Apophth«gm» Apothegm. C^^^ 
,Ok. dimi^v^a, a tbirtg uttered, a ter«e 

lying. — Gk. dttu^off, out ; and ^iyye^*, 
1 cr^* fllnud, ulter, 

ApopIeXT. (F. -Late L,-Gk.) F, 
apof/txie —Late L, rf/o/tfj/'a* — Gk. dro. 
*Air|i£4a, stupor* apoplexy^ — Gk,\it9- 
ifiiV, to ciijjplc by a stroke. — Gk. d»v,off; 
mk^a-mv. to stiikc. 

Apoataoy. (K-Ljite U— Gk.) F. 
ufojtajtr. — Late L. apfistaii*i.^i\\i- &*o- 

ratrfa, late fonu for diVMara'Tit, revolt, lit, 
'ft itandine away Jrom.' — Gk. *l»u. off, 
aufty ; ffTOffiT, a itaiiding, fram tfrn-, 
base allied to iift^t^i, I iilscc, Cf, StAttcs. 

apo«tat«, (Ulc t. - Gk.) M. E, 

^mfiMiala. — LAte L. ajMiAi/it. — Gk, dso- 

OTijTT/f, :! deserter, apostate- oGk. dv^.off ; 

ffrdriyt. (tantJtng, from 'trrti- (sec above), 

ApoBtle. i^L-Gk.j A. S. apcsteLm^ 


L. di^j'/tf/uj. — Gk^ diTtiffTOi^ior, one who is 
sent off. — Gk. Av6^ off; tniKKtiv, to send. 
Apoatroplie. (L, — Gk,) L. fl/<»- 
j/r^yir, — lit. dnfriiTTpw^iTf a tumiiig away;' 
in ihetoric, a lumuig away lo addrcM 
some oJie ei»!- — Gk, dvo, away ; oTpi^uv, 
lo turn. ^ la the sense of a muk used to 
denote an omiBsLoD^ it ihovld be a^sitvfh 

Apothecary* ^F. — Late L. ~ Gk.) 

M. E. apjU^ary^ potitary^^O, K. a/Wfl- 

fjiVj?, — Late L. apothfidrius, lit. a store- 
keepers-Late L. apoth^iii^ ft store-house' 
(cap. for drugs), — Gk. dpi^Piyinj, a store- 
house. -^Gk. dvu, away ; ri-^-pn. I put. 
ApotheosiSi deirkauon. (L. - Gk.; 
h, a^'V/'/f('..r>-. — Gk. dirttfl^wtfif, dciBcalioji. 
^Gk, <iffotf<iictf, 1 deify, set aside as a god. 

— Gk. d»ii, away, fully ; ^iwi, a cod, 
AppaL to temfy. (F.-L.) Theprcsciit 

aea^ is late; the M. £. apaiied meai^t 
' rendered p«lc *; cf. Chaucer, C T., 10679 
,F 3651,-0. F. apaliir, apahr^ appaiir, 
to wax pnle, also to make pale (Cot.).— 
O.K. (J-, prefix; O F. palf.p^IIc, pale.— 
L. dff, to i paniJiii, iMle. Cf. Pale. 
AppaiLage, Apanage, provision for 

a dcj>enderit, A:c, 1,1-'* — L*) O. F, aptinti^ 
>,aIso appana^f), pryperly^ a provisjofl for 
maintenajice. — O. F. apattn^ lit, to supply 
with bread (Ijite L. appdndr^).-^!^. ap- 
(for ad , to, for; ptm*is, bread. 

ApparatUflt £«=>■* (L.J U appanJttts, 
pieiTftrauju.-L. apparatus^ pp* of oppa^ 
r^rf, to prepare f&r.— L. tti/^ for; parort, 
to f;et ready. 

Apparel, to clothe. (F.— L.) M. E. 
apiimiicii. * O. F. apafiWfr^ to dr«B, 
apparel. — O. K, d , lo ; paniikr, parailler^ 
to assort, put like things with like, to 
arrange, from par^il^ like* similar, — L. 
ad, to; Med, L. partfu/us (Ducanpe 
has parkh^ parifah), similar, from L- 
pari-, £tem of par, eqaal. Cf, F&r, Dex. 
(ipparei^ S. 

Apparition. fF.~L.) Y.-apparitio», 

— L, ace. sfpp,jriii&ntm.^\^ appdrcrt, lo 
npptar. S«.f Appear, 

apparitorg an ofiicer u-bo attends 
mflgisLcalts to txecutc their order*; an 
officer who screes ihc proiUiMrof a spiritual 
coun. (L.) L- appat-iiitr, au atteodant, 
lictor. «*L. apptircre, to appear na alteud- 
ost, wait an. See Appear. 
Appeal, V. (^F.- L.) M. E. apeUn. — 
O- F. aptUr^ to call.— L, app^iidn^ to 
addreiiit call upon; a seconoary form. 




Affmr^ "- -Acjot Tut-.ifc f.-L. 

K t^ ^P^rtn — O. r. 9f€r'. '.'jlx. S!«i tt 
iv ;.«» fcv-v «/<'^* </ O. >. c/srw: 

a/^tiem — A. ^. ^f<^^, a/^iier, O. >. 

Of* /</; « /•«*.'.. t'> » ;*x3t.— L. ^ 
partm \fs % }0sKfi. See Pcaeft, 

$fm. y. *A afftlUr^ O.f. a/e*er, t& 

ApMB4v 'o L-'-uiL 'F--L., Forr^j 
»lw/ M. fc, apemdcM, tft peitaia to.— O- F. 

aftndre. •'* ctj»c:^-: oc— ■!- oppendert, ira 
I* afifi€nMr4, to xo^^ to or Bpo.*.»L. «;»- 
'for */ , *o ; pcf^lert, Vj lun^ 

appendix. — 1>. atftnd^, to ui»[>aai npoa. 
— I,. «/ for «/ , to ; pindfre. *o vcigfa. 

Appmrtaaa. 'K-L.> M. t^ a^- 

Unen.^fy Y. ap^rtenir 'V. appofUmir, 
Vt tj^lffOi^ Vf.^U. ap- 'for ad)^ to; per- 
Unirt, \f» f^elong. .V« Ferteia. 

App»tit#. F,-Uj O.r. appeJit.'^ 
Im aMetituit an ap(«tite; lit 'aftaolt 
ni^'^fi. — L. a/^Z/r^ftoaltack. — L.^ for 
otf/r to ; petere, to letk, attack. 

^n^lMd. fL.) U applaudere, to 
a^ifiTaod. •» !>. a/* ''for tut), at ; plaudtre, to 
appUoH, clap '^hands,. Per, applauUt 
(n»m pu. appiausm. 

Apple. K.; MK.a/^/. A.S.<^^, 
^/T-f fin. <z//^/; Icel. epU; Swed. o^ilr; 
Dan.<«^i>: 0.ap/el\ livhahkal% Gael. 
uhhai ; W. o^ ; Ross. UUthko ; Litfaiiao. 
oboljfs, Ori^^n nnkDoim. Some c<»mcct 
it with AIjcIU in Campaoia ; cC Verg. 
Mn. vii. 740. 

Ajn^ly. ''F.-L.) yi.'E.apl/en.-O.T. 
ap/ur.^L. applitdn, to join to, tara or 
apply to. — L. ap- 'for ad)^ to ; piudf^^ to 
fold, twine. Der. appli^ofKe ; also appli- 
taiUn (K. afpiicaii^H . 

AppOffgiatnra, a grace-note orpassing 
tone prefixed, as a snpport, to an esBcntiaf 
note of a melody. (ItaL — L. and 0\i.\ 
Ital. appog^atura^ lit. a support. — Ital. 
appo^are^ to lean upon. — Ital. ap- (for 
0f/), t<n upon ; poggio, a place to stand or 
IcaJi on, ^c — L. ad^ to \ tedium, an cle- 
vaUd place, a balcony, uom Gk. nUwr. 

K- O 

Lase 1. fmrnciin, tc imrrV ^ a yam^ tea 
Ljae L/wTg. a pciac. fc^ 
;&. : tet FoizA. ]lae.JuaM 
ippiMlilM F— L. F. 

TO pCCtkc OK tSL — F.^ JMltte* 

/, c TTT-wiir cf 1. c^ ^«/ , to; 
a pxtkc: sec FotiaB. 
Appose. F.-L F. V^ I I I ; fagaed 

t-v rc:r?«=: L a/p ma ot , cm tie aaalo^ of 
cffmpeur^ ejcptstr, aod ccker pnanaed le- 
pftMr:ad*es €€ caspoaads of l^pimtni 
bK£ really fomed oa F. >t«s^ iraai L. 
pamtdrf . Se= Pome. 

■JpfWrfcft I—, I— it^^^mter. ineablc; 
pp. Of a /pimef r^ to pet Bcao.— I* ^ (far 
ddf , to ; p^mrtt to feit- Sec Pnitian. 

Apwrmlee. CF.-U M.E. ^^maum. 
to i^DC— O. F. '^tisa- 'di Q. K i|^rr- 
/vr in Roquefort . — O. F. »-, prefix ; 
prtiur^ to Talce, irom pnii, vafaic, price 
— I- duf, at : fretimm. a prioeL 

apijgeciate. L.) Fm pp. of U 

mpprttiarc. to ralne at a price.— L. mp^ 

'J<x ad ^»t: prelimm^ a pnec. 
Apprekeild.(F.-L.^ ¥.^pnk£mdn 
. 'CoC . — L. apprekaUen^ orif. to lay bold 
i o£ — L. op- lor o^ , ta at ; prtktmden^ 
j to grasp. See Pmbenaila. 

, sppreatice. F.-U) O.F.^^rciri&, 

jnom. of t^aUif (see Godcfroy, lt. 
' aprtmiu,. The O. F. apremiis, oprtmHf, 
represent Late L. ^ap^trndittvus^ nom^ 
and * apprcndUivum^ ace, from a Late L^ 
^apprendiiusj used as a pp. of L. 
apprendert, to learn, short for L. apprt' 
kctuUre, to lay bold of above). 

ftpprieef to inform. (F,— L.) Frooi 
the M. E. sb. apriu, infcHinatioii, teach- 
ing. — O. F. aprise, instmction. — O. F. 
a^ris^ apris^ pp. of aprendrt, to leam. — 
L. apprendere (abore). 

Approacll. (F.-U) Vi.Y^appneken, 
aproaicH. — O. F. aprochurf to approadi. — 
L. apprcpidret to dntw near to (Exod. iii. 
5). — 1^ ap- (for ad)t to; proper near. 

ApprobatiolL. (F.-L.) V.approba- 
tmt.^\.. ace. apprcbdiwHtm^ approval.— 
L. apprabdtuiy pp. otapprobdrt, to approve. 
See Approve. 

Ap p rop r iate. (U) From pp. of L. 
appropridrtj to make one's own.— L.<^ 
(for ad)t to; prpprim^ oat^t own. £iee 



Approve. (F. -L.) O.T.a/J^rowr.^ 

lo . /^ll^^/|■, U* tf-it, try, esUWin &a good. 

Drr, *j//'p ri//; dii-atptm't. 

Approxiliiftte. u-} From pp. r>f L. 
nf^rejtmitu, lo t1»w near lo, — I^. a/' 
(Jw iw/), to; firo^imuj, very n«ar, sapetl. 
adj. from frofit^ nror. 

Appnrteaiuice. (P^-L.'i A.F.a/Mr^ 

/rmaart.f I'O, 1- a/htr/.-nattfir), that 'which 
l»eifptnp» to.— O, F. a/*arUmi-^ lo belong to. 

Apricot. (F.-PorL - Arab. - Gt.- 

■ ,) KoroicfJy nlso s/ri^ivM^ from Vofl. 

i^rucifMe itifcclly. Also nbn'roi. — F, 
ahruet, * the abrico?, or ajiricock plism i ' 
<.'"t.— I'nrl, ff/^fTVfytftf, — Arab, al rar^iii/, 
VibcTC T^ - **' • -'--^ art.— Miti. Ck, n/jniiifii- 
«of f [ ; pi, ii^i.!ruirm. llic 

JpI. mjHi: hoffowctl from L. /r.j:- 

fit^ua, aphcotk, neul. pi. of pntfcq^uus^ 
another Inrrn of ftitror^ precocious^ early 
ripe (riiiiv; Morliji), 13, 46},— L. frtt, 
befDrchAnrf: and ramere, lo cook, ripen. 
Sc* Precocious ana Cook, ^ Thus the 
iiord rcachc^l w* in a vtrry indirect manner. 

April. (1^/: r. AprVii \ laid to be $0 
un^d bct^tiic the cAfttv then opens lo 
frodnec new fruit.— L. d/^/'rv, to open; 
•ec Ap«ridnk 

ApfOlL. (K.— L-T Foraterly- flu/n^if.— 
O. \ . naprron. n 1 jrge icloth ; augmentative 
fotoi of O. V, na^t; a. dolh (t, ff(;//f).— 
t'. Mia/fia^ a, [tApkin, clolb (wilh cbuigc of 
M ti> ff, AS In F. na//r, 9. mat). Sec 

Apse, fl'- — Ck,) Now u&ed of a ic<xsi 
At the eod of 9. church; formerly ,(j^«, 
afisij, a tuming-poiot of a planet's otbit. — 
L. afsii, pi. a/iiirfri, a. bow, tum.wGk, 
di)tJi, n tyiny, faslcnitijj, felloe of a wbccl, 
curre, bciw» arcb, —»T*ii',to lie^ hind. 

Aptt fit. i^L.) XIV cent. U rt/Cwj, 
UMQ Ai pp. o( fff'itcf, to reach, get, but 
roUj pp. of (>. La.t fTfifre, to fit or joia 


Aquatic. (U) L. a^/vatfetis, perialn- 
Ing to wntcr —I,, aguit, wntcr, 

Aqtia-foHie, - 1. at/na /iffiit, strong 

imoaximu.-'^. a^u/in'urii, a water- 
♦r^s- I — 1 .. tt^ua, walrr 

ftqufikritLS. *■ L, a^utiriMSt a water* 
bearer, * 1 ti'/uii, water. 

aqueduct.'- 1- ui^vaJuitttt, a coQ- 
i\ua ; frnin t^yifcp. gen. nf rf^wa, water, and 
Jmiui, a du-.!; sec Duot. 

aqueous. As iffrumL. *a^Mf«f, ad). 

a foTiTi not useil. — L. aqtis, wcttT. 

AaviJiiiei Jite aq mj^Ip, (F.— I„) F. 
aquiiift ; hence «<i at/ui/fn^ * a nrtsc like 
art ea^le ; ' Cot — L at/ut'/inus^ adj. from 
Oi/u.'/a, ftn ca^lc CT £&sie. 

Arabesque. F.-ItaU^Arab.l XVII 
cent. F. WrrtAcrjptff^ Arahian-likc; also 
full of tlouhshes. like ttnc Arabiim work. 
~Ilal. jira^^u0\ where -^sce^E. -fsh.^ 
Arab, 'ara^^ Arabia. 

Arable. (F. ^ L.) F. am/'U.-U 
atiiMij, tliat tan be ploaghn)^ — L, artirr, 
lo ploui;h. (VAR.) See Ev (j>. 

Arbiter. [.L.) Jn Milion.— L. nrAiV^r, 
a ^viiruss^ j*idgc, umpire. 
arbitrary. (L-> 1q Milion. - U 

arht/ninus, oh^. like the deciaion of an 
ttinpirc. — L. arfiitrdrff to ftct as umpire, 

— L. Qr/'iftr (above). 

arbitrate. CL-) From pp. of L. 
arhiir.'trf, i-i act as umpire (above). 

ArboreoiLS, belonging to trees. (L.) 
L, arhfi Hi, adj. from arbor^ a tree ; with 
siifFiji -(HIS. 

Arbour, a bower. (F.-^L.) The word 
seems to be really due to M.H. Afr^ere, 
also rr/'irrf^ from O, F. herhier, l^ kir- 
Hriuttu a herb-garden, also an orchard.— 
h, htriHi,^TttSS.,heih. The special sease 
1*^3 dnc to coafosion with L. arftor^ a 

Arc, (F--L.) XIV cent. F, ««.- 

L. anttm. ace. of ffrrftj^ a bow, ofch. arc. 

arcade, ;F. — luL — L^) F> arcad€, 

vital, arfafa, nn arched place; fcm. of 

pp. of anctrt, lo Arch.»ItaL i^€&, % bow, 

— L. ace. artum (above). 

Arca&a. (L.) I^ nndtta^ things kept 
sccretif secrets,^ L. nrrere^ to keep. 

Arch { I), a vault, &c, t.F.-L.) O. F. 
ari:^e, a zansl, box (L, ana^ $ee Arlc) ; 
also, by confusion, an arch, owing tQ the 
ii» oT Med. Ljit. arfa with the sense of 
L. anus, a bow, Rtch. See Aro. 

Arch I i), fognish, waggish. (I^ — Ck.^ 
* Ha arch a leei ;' Tatkr, no. 193. The 
cxamplrt in the New E. Dictionary prove 
that it is nothing bnl the prefti Arch-, 
chief (for which see below ^ usjiJ Kjinr^tcl; 
and peculiarly, Cf. * The uiosl afck act ' 
in Sbnk. Rich, lll^ iv, 3. j ; * An heretic, 
an €ur£h oDe;' Hen. Vllt. iii, a. 101, 
Al&o ' Hyends . . . n very arch rellow, a 
downright hypocrite^; Bunyan's ritgrimV 
Progress. A.S. artt-, 0»F. ffrrAf'^ l>. 
arcAi^t Gk. d^x<- Cpnefix). See below. 




Acdl^, pr^^ ctad. ^.-C^) like 
Uxrzi ^r<K' n d&e to A. & aru-^ at is ^ru- 
Hictap, a^ X7cfiifij£<09, and toO. F. mrdu', 
a.i Ui arcfU'diacre, aa frhricarML. Tbu 
(xm vaj> i^Mm^nA ixKmx L. or^As^sOk. 
i^^t', *A is ^x''**^**'^t *"* ardibtsbop. 
— Gk, ^y«ir, to be finz, to reJc ; d Gk. 

dta^pm, dec; bet, ta arck-mMgtI. the rA 
r4tLaii*t:d Lard aj i in the KomaDce 
laagcagcs, oo accocx^t oi the folloving a. 
Cf. llal. arcoM^tla, Span, arcan^. 

areluMloor. Gc., gJc- ^xa(aA«7»«- 

*Gk, dfx^«*> aztdcnt, which is &Y]«n 
ipxkt the Leginsiag ; asd the nffix -/!0^, 
Gk. -XoTia, doe to Xvyof, ducosrie, Irom 
fUjttr, to »pcak. 

ardUUC- Gk.^ Gk. 4fx*''^*^uitiqiie, 
priniitive. — Gk. J^x****** <^*C^ ^X?> 
a bcgsonii^. 

arclUttflK. (Gk.^ Gk.ifxau0>i^, an 
antiqnatcrl phrase. * Gk. ifX9^*^' ^ 
•peak astiqnatedly. • Gk. i^x"^* <>^ 

Arehar. T— I-/ M.Z.arci^.^ 

A. F. ar^Jur; O. F. arckur, a bow-man. 
»Late L. arcdrisu, a bow-man; frcnn 
arcuSf a bow. 

AsoluijrpSt the original type. (F.- 
L. — Gk.; F, arckety^^ 'a prinripall 
type ; * Cot.^L. arefutjrpum, the original 
pattern.— Gk. Afx*'"''^t *■ modd ; nent 
of dpx*Tvwofj itamped as a modd.— Gk. 
*«C*-"**fX*-» prefix (leeArchi-); rnof, 
a type. 

Aiehi-, /n^, chief. 'I Gk.) L. 

archi; for Gk. dipv*- ; see Azeh-. 

Mrehi]IUUldntO.(U— Gk.) l^arcki- 
mandrita^ a cbi^ or principal of monks^ 
an abbot. — Late Gk. dpxifi'»^T^9f the 
tame — Gk. dpx*-'f chief; lahfhpa^ an cn- 
dofore, fold, aftenranis a mooastciy. See 
Aroh- and MadTignl. 

•JXhipelaffOf chief lea, i. e. Aegean 
sea. Ital. — Gk.) Ital. arcipelago, modified 
to archipelago. — Gk. ^X'-f chief; and 
mikayos, sea. 

■rehitaet. (F.-I — Gk.) ¥.ar<hi- 

Ucte.^h. archiUctuSf the same as archi- 
te(tc9t, ^OV. ApxiTiKTwif, a chief boilder 
or artificer. « Gk. (Ipx<> chief (see Arohi-) ; 
WiTTM', a carpenter, boilder. 

•JrohitraT*. (F.-Ital.-L.amfGk.) 
In Milton. — F. arekitrave.^ltaL arcki- 
trave^ the part of an entablature rating 
Immediately on the colomn. A barbaroos 
COBpooitd ; from Gk. ^px*'* P^cfiZf cbieC 

pnacipUy ^H I^L twtitMj wo^ ca iwwbf 
a tcsBL See Ttev*. 

• Av^hsW* &■ fLm ptMic iccovds; bat 
pr .yerlr az. ardtim is a pAaoe v^Bie le- 
coerk m trpT F.-L— GL> F- «r- 
ck^. pL «r£ianer; Coc— L arctearai^ 
arckitum.^ (^A^X^i^^t^F^bbc baJMiag. 

I resaoeooe as maptfiMBL—Gk. 4n% * 
heginciBp. a aaa jim aCT. 
Aictie. F.-U-GL) ».E.«r«ft.- 

|0. >\ arti^ue; F. cn^SiifHr.— L. arrtiaa. 
' — Gk. AfKrvmU. zcar the mtfcllitiwi 0^ 
! the Bear, nacthesn. — Gk. f^na, a faeax. 

Coe=at£ with I. mnmt; sec ItaOBSL 
. Der. amt-antit. 

Axdest. F.-L> Xn'ccflL M.E. 
I dnMSutf.— O. F. ar^amt, ptes. part, of 
' oriVr, to bnfn.»L. ardaU-£m^ mac at 

prcs. pC afardert, to fcsm. 

acdonr. (F.-L.) OS. 

bcaU^L. ardircm, aoc. of «/idbr. a fans- 
ing. fervour.— L. atraBSrc, to hmtn. 

AnhunUL (L.) L. cnAr-av, steep, 
difficolt. high; w]ChsBfl&x^w.+Irish«n^ 
hiffa ; Gk. i f i ^s , mnAt. 

Aztt, prcK. pL of the veib sabrtaDtnc. 

F.^ O. Northnmbrian mrwm, O. IfcK. 
eamn, as distingmsbed from .\.S.';WesKz) 
Jill/, simd, rindom, Cf. IccL «r-ii, dier arc^ 
From the Idg. V^i ^ ^^ = ^^ 
also are Skt s-^mH, Gk. cl9-«r, JU 
G. J-wrf, loeL tr-u (lor •<!-«), they are. 

UBu O. Noithomb. am. O. Merc «mk, 
A. S. A?jK.-f Skt. lU-SM, Gk. dVr Goth. 
f'-M, IceL ^M ; &C. 

a^ O. Northmnb. or^, O. Mac M^ ; 
A.S. eart (with / doe to -/ in jn»/V, abalt, 
&c.\ led. <i/, «ft. 

is, A. S. u.-f IceL er, later er. CL also 
Goth, and G. is-/, Skt ar-/i; Gk. t^Ti, L. 
«r-/. See also Be. Was. 

Ax0tL, (L.) XVI cent L. orw, an 
open space. 

Araea* * genus of palms. (Port— 
Canarese.) Port, areca. — Canarese adiH, 
adikg, areca-nnt; r being substituted for 
the cerebral d (H. H. WUson). Accented 
un the first syllaUe. 

Axafiwtioii; *cc Arid (below). 

Araaa. (L.) L. ar^na, sand; the 
sanded space in which gladiators fought 
Orig. karena ; dl Saimefiuataf sand. 

Argant, (F.— L.) White; in heraldry. 
—F. argemt.^'L. argemtrnm, silver; from 
iu brightness. Ct Gk. dpyvpos, silver 
Skt arfmma(s), white. (VARG, to shine.) 
Bnigm. i If 519, 604. See below. 



gifLwtui, a4j frr»m argiiia^ clay, csp. 
•liitr tiny. Cf. Gk. «ip^, wbitt;. 

— t;k. d/"7tirai''n7T* OM wbo sailcil in ihe 
•hi}* Ar^o. »Cik. n-fTfik}, the nnmc of Jason's 
^ip (lit. swift, from iif76r. swift) ; and 
Fs*np. B tailor ; see Nautloa). 

JLrgOSyi • merchnnt-TCweK (Dftlma- 

ti*:*.! »Mjrmefly »pelt ar^u and raj^vs/ 

•re N. ftn«! Q. 6 S. IV. 490 ; Aibci's Kny, 

■nicf, ii. 67). The origi acnsc wai 'a 

ip pf RtLgtisa.' which is the name of a 

port in Daltnatia. Kogttm ftppcAr* in 

XVI renl. K as Aragoyse, 

Arffno. (K — LO M. E, argutn, ^ 

0, I". afX'iff.^T.ji\t L. argiiuire (I* nir- 
!tft^^, irMttent. o{ arptcrt, tP prove by 

meat, liL to make clear ; cf. argfi/us^ 

Acid,dr7. (L.) XVII cent, hdridtts, 
dry.— 1,. iJf^rrr, to be dry, 

OrefactioiL ^L.) XVI cent Coiaetl 
fiom 1 „ aT^/\ictrt^ to m^Uce drr. — L. are-r^, 
la be drr ; and/drr/V, lo make. 
Alig&t* (E.) For pnn;fA/,b the right 

Aria6. (E.) M. E. jim^. A. S. 
iiriti.ift. — A, S. d*j pielix ; /fiflitf to riae. 

Aiistocracy* (Ok.) Modified from 
Gk. AptervKpatiaf goveniincnt by the 
Dohlci Of *best' tnco. — Gk. dpioTiJ-, for 
itfrnt, liest ; and xparttifj to be strong, 
cm, from *p«itvt^ slronc;. The form 
<rTof is a superlative Erom the base 
Af^ teen in «i^tr^, encdUnce, Der, arista- 
crati£ ; Vi^heiice aru/aetst, for * aristocratic 

Aritltmotic, cr,-L.-Gk.) In Sh 

— t- . artrhm^tiipie ; Cot. — L. aritAnutira. 
^<>k (ipitfiMiTTfdj, the scieuctr of numbers; 
frm. of ii/ii(i^^T*«</f. adL, from i!ipi$fu-H¥^ 
lo number. — Gk. Jf«9^f^ number, reckon- 

AriCi > chest, ffOK : hence a tirge float- 

chr*f f«' \ ; cf. 1. unJt, (o keep. 

Arm 1, pan of the body. (E.> M^E. 
flrw. A .S. *iirjw. + Pu. j/^wj ; IceUa/w/-^ 
Pfta.» .Swctl.f ami fl. rfrw* ; Ciolh. artwj ; 

1. ffrjwMj. th« *h"uhlcr I KtuK. nBrnCi 
»hotit4!er. See Krtigm. i. f 514. 

Ana (i*^, to furnish with weapons. (F. 

— 1..) y. nrmtr, -> I,, armartf to fttf- 
nUh with anti^.— t. arma^ armSr 

amudk, s ilect^ (Sp«a.-U) Span 

armada, an armed fleet % itm. of armada, 
pp. of armar, to arm. — L. anttdrif to arm 
(above). Doublet^ army. 

nrnUbdiUo, an animnl. (Si-sn.-L.> 
Span, arttmdilk, ]it Mhe littie armed orie,' 
becTiiisc of its hard «hell. Dimin. of ar- 
tmutoy pp. of armar, In ann ; as above. 

anuajne&t. iL) I', emtdmintum, 
an equipment. — I-. ariHatt, tt> OJTn, equip, 
— 1., {iftMii, nrms- 

armattHf^i dotiblet of ariDOur. 

amistic^, iF, -L.) F arm/jfiViC.— 
Mod, I,. * ij rm is ff /IN m, coined on the 
anstogy oi i^l-sfiiiuM, i.e. solstice. wL* 
armi-, fi>r (7^/4,arni&; and -jttrium * (or 
■ ttafiutH (IhroQE** atonic poajlion], from 
sfafutttj supine of ifdrc, to stand. i^Cf. 


azmonr. (F-L) }A,E.arm(Hir,<sr- 
murt.^O. V. anfiurt^ amtiHrc'L, ar~ 
mdiura^ armour. — L, armtUtts, jip, of 
arffrr!/^,toaTm. P-L.dr0id,arms. Doublet, 

iLmUi, 8, pi. weapons. (F.— L.) M. E. 
arm^. — O/F. arm^t, nl.»-L. drff/a, nnil. 
pi,j nrms» lit. * fitlin|^ V^K, to fit.) 

OXmy. (F, — I.) O- F, arwifi*, fern, of 
pp. of armer^ to ann- — I. arma^n, fem. 
of pp. of armart, to aiai. — L. dr#/a, 

Aroint thMl ! begone ! Orii^iP un- 
known. The Hsufll ■e^rvnce to ryntye in 
Kay doH» ttot help us. 

Arouttt ^ sweet tmelL (L. — Gk.) 
I.atc Ij. cr&ma.^QV.. ^p^fta^ a EpicCi 
sweet herb. "Dot. arffma^-ic, from the 
Gk, Klem dfta^fiat'. 

Aronnd, prep, and adlv. (E, and F«*- 
Iv,) M, E, arouftifi for ^ r^fif/j see 
A- (2) and Bound. 

Arouse. {)L and Scand.,) FromA- C4) 
and XtQUBB. 

Arq'aebtlBf a kind of giTD. (F — Dti» 
F. arquihm, 'an hnrtiuebuse, or hand* 
ytin/ Cut ; WoWoqw hat ki6use,^\Vi\t:vXA 
vnii.iLion of Mid. Du. haukbvfse. Da- 
haakbui, lit. 'a Eun with a hook.' This 
rcfcTi lo the Hook wberebv it was ail ached 
lo a point of supportt—Mid. I>«, hatch, 
Du. k&ak, a hook ; and Mid. Du. *«/«* 
Du. ^»j, a hand barrel gun. See 

Arvack, an ardent spirit* (Atftb.) 
Arab, 'dray, sweat, joiise, essence, diitilled 
spirit, — Arab, root 'arot^a, to sweat. 
% Somettmca shoitened lo /Wifr; ef, Sp«n. 
mqmy airack, 




(F.-L.) M.E. 
O. F. mmtmtr, to speak to, 
«ia,€kc,nTai^-O.F. m (U «<;, i^; 
rtumir^ msmmuv, to Rnoa. fren O. F* 
vetttv, rmittm^ tcuoSj aMo^ froa L aoc. 
ra/imtm ; tee Batmam. 
JUtma^, fj- - L «/ O. H. G.) 
M. £> #fl|l y i y j >, tfrwmfit- — O. F. #>tj y < i tf V 

to pal kilo a nak.— O. F. « (I. A/)»to: 
rmi^'tr, rengur, to nafc, from O. F. 
ttitf, mf/. a nak. See Bank. 
Ajmatv knkv]^ BOiorioMly bod. (F. 
^t*.) Tldi iiro«d is BOW ■■rrrfifntrt lo 
be B neic tittiaia citrrumf {tL fianmt ior 

Ikicf, C. T. 17173; aad k« Plen Ftov- 
Ban, C. TsL 307, Sk Kmnt. 

Amw, tsiiHHIry. f F.) So ouned horn 
Ains, IB ArtoUf nonb of Fnaee^ 

Azraji vcrbt (F.~U an/ O. Lo>wG.) 
O. F. omSMr, to anaj. — O. F. arrai. 
mnwit pveparatiocL^L o^ beconmf «r- 
ttflbfie r)» 10^ for : O. Low G. aod O. Fries. 
ridt (e£ GocIl gara^-t\. mdj, A. S. 
nidt, remdr ; vo tbxt to arre^ is ' to get 

Amar«, (F.-L; FrouM.E* 
artrt, ftu*.^ la the rew- — O, F. armr (F. 
iUrPm » bdi ind. — Late L. dt^ rtfra^ b&ck- 
wvd.— 1^ otf, ?o; reirOthtbunL ^ Whiit 
wc now csll drrrarv soswcxs lo M. E. 
srervgeSi %. pL fonnod frvm M. E. d/-erc 

Al3««t, to ciDp. (F.-L.> O. F. a«f- 
/<#- t,F» arrittr). to suy.-O, F. a (-L. 
d^, to; L. rt start, tu stay, remfio, from 
re-t bock, and iAin;, to staad ; see Hast 

Azrinft. (F.^L.) F. tfrmvr,— Litte 
Lk arri^n. aefrf/\fric, to come to shoiV] 
land —I.. 4u/. to ; rifiaj thore, bank. Per, 

Arro^te. (L,) From pp. of L. am- 
gdrt, Eu ask, adijr^t, Attribute XOy add to. — 
U d./*- (for d/>p to : r&gdre, to ask. Der, 
arrttgnni, Ccom the pres. pt- 

AjTIQW. (J^ M. I:. tfrrti*f, (TrtW. A.S, 

tf/TcA and <ii/A (rarcj»+ Iwl-^r, 3m aiTQw 
jcn. FTtur ; i^ied lo Goth. ari^-tt^iiM, 
Arrow From Tent, base arAa'-; cog- 
rfib L iif'tT-Hf, a bow, 
tw-root* (£-4 Socftll«d,itisaid, 
tlic iuLim of the Mara$aa war 
Bsed as sa antidote Bgaiii»t pi^soacd 
Ar»e* K.I M. E. arr,frs, A,S, 4m. 
«f Uk, £p^, the nunp. Idg. type •o/-wj, 

dodt-7*'^ BBaWJ' 

to Aab. «/. dcC udde. 
wrt dadu— Anh. ^Gnr 

far makap tkia^ dock-Taid. •- AxsbL dSr, 
a bo«tte ; ^ die ; aad pmmmk. an, oadfc. 

(L. - Gk. - AniL - Peis.) 
Lcie Lfsanaarsi. — Gk-ifom*»i,arfcgflsc; 
aecBHBgto Bcwi a omk pciondeiilkealdbfr- 
MJiti kid agia^r fcacy tkal nelab vocal 
4HIEKHI seaxft^. Btf ftslij ootiuoca fron 
Anb- lU'JwnifM ; wboc mt is far c^ Ibc; 
de£ art^ and termiiA, orptsuaC. h from 
Fen. Mtrmit ofptscat, jriloar imflBC ^froai 
fisr, goki). See De«sc> pL 4. 

nnwM. ft Nwriinc — T tn-ms, pp, 
arderf, to bom. &e ftrilaaiii 

Ark (1). 1 p^cpies. of fcibL (£.) 

Ajft (>). skilL (F.'U) M.E. 0tf. 
O. F. art.^'L. arftm, mcc, id mrj, AflL 

the «iBd*pipc; also, an artay.— A, a pt f 

pio, wind-pipe aitetT, 

Artettuuii &dj. F.'' ArinitmwttbwK 
nsmpd from F. JirUiun, sd>. fafsicd bom 
Art4ii^ a pTortnce in the noitii of Foaoe, 
where tixK wells were cailjr ia ose. 

Artichobe, (itnl^A/ib.) XxmL^H^ 
euK£9f 1 corrtrpt form : Florio ako ^rca 
tbe £pelliii|»s mttkuiiKto, awxkiH^ti also 
(without tike or, which answers to the 
Anb. def. ait, a/, the) the foims asrdmtm, 
(OFcicffo. Cf, Span, akofk^fa, ai» wti- 
choke:. • Anb. a/kAattAm/t or ^atsAaft an 
aitichoke. ^ Kat Arab, a^'^^ JumfcT 
(Dici), which b a modem oormpt faun 
borrowed from Italian, 

Article, A small ttctn, part of speedi. 

kuuckle, sjticlc in gmirimar ; lit. * a Small 
joint.* Diiuia^ o( ar/HS* a joint, Umb, 

Articulate. iL.) L. or^i'rWJ/vj, dis^ 
tind; pp. of artuuidnty to supply mritfa. 
joiais, divide by joioC&.—L. arlKuhu, a 
joint {abi>vr>. 
Artifice. (F-L.) in Milion.-F. 
«rft>fff, — L. arfij^aumt n tmde, handi- 
crafl: hence ikill. — L. ur//-^ «lcm of arst- 
art : and -y^-, for faare^ lo make. Per. 
artif^-cr, a skilled workman. 
artiller;. v^.-L.) O.y.ariUUru, 






equipment of w&r, nuLchincfi Cfi war, in- 
cluding crus»>tww6> 3cc.r in early timcs.^ 
O. F. ArtiiUr, to equip,— Late L. •rtr/fV- 
^<W, to inttk« machines ^ a verb infermi 
frotn thcib,ar////ajrtfr^amaker of niadiine&, 
{•Jd^^ndcd from ar//-, stem of <ir/,arL \Vtf 
aim ftml ariiUidtor, aus>yenng to aji older 
*iirluuLit^r\ alio Laic L. articuium^ mti- 
ficc ; artitHia, art. 

ftrtisfta, a workman, (F.-ItaJ. — L.) 
y. jj^/ijiiw — ■Itnl. arti^no,s. workiMan.— 
LaLc L, *artUi<ifiHs, dot found, but formed 
from L. itttifHS, cunaing, artful, **L. iir/i'-, 
ateni oiafj, art. 
As, couj. (E„) M. E. ttTtOit, aisf, also, 
4ii so. -•/.T 11 a contraclii/j] of d/j(?, (Proved 
by iSi? K Madden. ?>ee Also. 

ABiiidfttid&, AMiaifietid», ^ gum. 

(Med. L. — Pers. ««./L,) jrrom |:'erB-ajM% 
niASlic; the h- /afidat fetid, rtrft^ra lo tt^ 
nfftnuvf smell. Sec JfelidL 

AsbfistOft, a noinenir i,Gk.) Gk. A- 
v0iQT9t, iinqutiichable; because it is ld- 
cOmbDititlc — Gk, tU, n^g, prc-l^ic ; anri 
-ffja*ffT<Hr, quenchablc, from &84rvvni^ 1 
qui-nclit c^iui^uiih. b«c Bragm. i. ii 6^ .^, 

AscO&dt (L.I L. astritdiert^ to climb 
II].. — L. oif, to ; icandete^ to climb. See 
ScAn. Dor. asc^its-uvi, from pp. rtJrtw^wj. 

AftOertadlL. iF. -L.l From O. F. 
a/^rjatfuf , actrterur, to make certain 
iVritii .'" inserted). — K, a ' =\^,ad, to); and 
urUiirt, tcrtaifi. See CertatD. 

AxcotiC. (Gk) Gk. aarrpjiKJy, KtvcD 
to exercise, industrious ; applied to hermits, 
yi\i.Q itnctty exercised theinsc]ye& ia reli- 
gioui devotion. »Gk. dajn^rj^c, one who 
practises an art, im nthteCt-. — Gk. d^jr^rf^ 
to wotk, cxcTci&e ; alsoj lo morUfy the 
body, as ai) ueetie. 

AsciibitioiU, inddental. (L,) Comedy 
as if JFuiu I., 'ascitkiusy from asdtus^ pp. 
i*f ftxdictre. or aJsitstf/r, to receive, leam. 
■•L. arf« to; msiere, lo leiurn, inceptive 
form of iriVtr, to know. 

Aaoribo. (L,) L. ascndertt to write 
down tu one's account •Li a- (for aJT), to ; 
ifrthfi t^ lo write. 

AalL, & tree. (E.) M. £. aith. A. S. asc 
H^Ltii. tf jf^ ; Iccl. (U>r; Dan. and Swed. 
«ii ; G. tsfhe. Tcwl. lyix *aiJh% Cf. 
huss. fajrwr* Lith. £riV, ash. 

AflliAiaed. (E.) A.S.djrdMA/, pp. of 
djfuw/*tj«^ to put to sbanic. — A.S, o-, ex- 
:It : iittwwn, to &hamc» from Siamu^ 

me- p. Or for A.h. eficuminf, with the i ai/^ffus, pp 
•ciuc CwUb picti* e/', off. vcr)(). ' ' 

AbIms. (E) The pi. of luA, which it 
Utile uiied, M. E, flJcA*, aj^, *in£* ; the 
pL ii commonly auAtn, itx^n^ bot in North- 
ern E. it is asches. askrs. A- S. ipjcj', pi, 
(TJ^dn, rfjuw, £Ut'an,-jhr>u. flJi'A ; 1 eel. and 
Swed. ojjtfl J Dan. oikt; Golh. 4iBjns, pi, 
azgon \ G- ^.tj^/. Tent, stems *askm', 

Aflhi&r, Jiahler, » facing mitde of 
Muared stones, (K — L.) It consists of 
thii) (labs of ^tone for facing a bmldittg ; 
formerly applied to a square hewn stcuie ; 
and, probabty^ so called because it took 
the place of the tifwdm benm^ used for 
the same purpose. — O. F. aisiUr (Livre 
d» Kuijj, cxtctided from O. F, atselie^ 
aisieigi a little board, dimin. of di'j, a. 
plank. — L. axilla^ dimio. of L. axis an 
sxis, al&a, a board, a plank, 

AaluWQ. (t.) Ymenshcrt. 

Aside. <E.) Ygx OH silk* 

Ask. .F.) M. (;.. Aiken, axitn. A. S. 

dscian, iiAsjan aaian \ the last answers to 
prov. E. ex. + Du. eisch^ni Swed. asks\ 
Dan. askev G. hiijchin, O. H.G. tiscm. 
Tcut. lyjaes *aif/k(ht, 'aisJ^ojatt, Cf» Ku6s, 
iskatCf lAxh. jriktiti^ lo seek ; Skt. cri^iiA«3~, 
a v-ish, desire, f.r,^^ to search. 
AskanCfl, obliquely. (Ital.— L.J Spelt 
aj(a»fe by Sir T. Wynt \ asmnchi by PaU- 
gravc, who gives tU iramtrs, en hr^nani, 
as the K. equivalenL Etym. doubtful ; but 
pTob. due to Ital- sionsare, * to go a-stopc 
or a scotKt, or a>skew, to go &i<}etin ;' Flono. 

— Ital. s- 1, <= LaL ext out of the way^ ; and 
eama re , * to go n-slopc, give place ; * Florio, 
1\\ii is derived, according lo Diez, from L. 
tamj>i(lr£, Lo turn round a place, bend 
louod it ; cf. Gk. tcafivrtiv., to bend- 

Askew, awry. ^O. Low G.) For im 
skeiif, HcjtbamgivcsM.Dn.jfi^^/'.'askcw, 
awty ; ' see Bkaw. 
Aslant* tScond.) For tm sfafti. 
Asleep, (E,) For on sittp \ Acts xt^. 

AslO|ie. I'E.) Yox on slope. 
Asp, Aspic, a KrpcTit. ^F. - L. - Gk.) 
F. as^, aifu-. — L. asf-idem, flcc. of 9spii. 

— Gk. wffp-ii (geo, dcnriSoi*, an asp- 
AsparagHSf a vegetable. (L.-Gk.- 

Pf rs, J?) L, asfaragtts.^Qk^ ^v^T&pafot. 
Supposed lo be of Peri, origin ; cf. Zend 
fparegfia^ « slioot. a proa^ ; Litbuaji. 
spvrgnj, n sJioal (Fick, I'rellwiti). 
Aspect, (L.) U aspatuSi look^-l. 


\ yim ad), tOp at 


lo look*- 1- a- 
to look. 



Aq^ea, Aap^ a tree. ,E.) M. K asp^ 
Cllauccr, C.T. 2923; o^^ isancdj. (like 
^i>leUH)y aad is used for aspen-tree ; cf. Ch. 
C.T. 7349. A-S ttspey aps.^tyu. esp; 
IccL ^sp, Dan. and Swcd. ajr/ ; (.>. £j|/if, oj/r. 
Cf. Lithuan. apitstts ; Ross. MiWa. 

Asperity. (F— L) F. asp^ri/^.~U 
aspcntattm, ace. oiasperiidSt Fonghness. — 
1.. aspcr, rough. 

Asperse, to cast calumny upon. (L.'^ 
From L. aspersus, pp. of aspergert, to 
besprinkle. — L. as- (for ad) ; sparffert, to 

Asphalt. ;Gk.') Gk. &ir^aXTvt, SffipaX^ 
Tvy, asph.alt, bitumen. A foreign woid. 

AsphodeL ;Gk.) Gk. 6ffip66€ko$. a 
pliiit of the lily kind. Der. daffodil^ 

Aspliyxia, suffocation. (Gk.) Gk.d- 
ff^ia, a stopi»ng of the pulK: c£ d- 
a^icror. without pulsation. — Gk. d-, not ; 
and c*pv^iSy the puls^ from 9fv{cir, to pul- 
sate ; cf. i7^try/ii^, pulsation. 

As^re. vF.~*L.) to breathy 
covet, nspire to.— L. asptrarc^ lit. to breathe 
towards. — L. a- (for o^, to; spirarty to 
breathe. Ber. aspirate^ t. to prwiounce 
with a full breathing. 

Ass. \C - L.) M. £. asse. A. S. ojja. 

— Irish oxMff. — L. oxixrau; whence also 
\V. asytty Swed. driM, Icel. omi. Hence 
also (or from L. dinun. tueilus) came Irish 
asalt Du. eui, Dan. and G. eselt Goth. 
asiius. Prob. of Semitic origin ; cf. Arab. 
atilfiy Heb. atkim, a she-ass. 

Assail. (F.-L.) M.E.oxar^.-O.F. 
asaillir^ to attack. — Late L. assalire; L. 
assiiire. — L. a^» to ; salzre, to leap, rush 
forth. See Salient. 

Assart, the offence of grubbing up trees 
and destroying the coverts of a forest (F. 

— L.) Krorn A. F. assarter. F. essarter^ to 
grub up, clear ground of shrubs. — L. ex^ 
out, thoroughly : Late L. satidre, frequent. 
of L. StJrrtu. satire, to grub up weeds. 

Assassin, a secret murderer. (F. — 
Arab.) t'. assassin. From Arab. ^aMJMm, 
pi., eaters of ' hashish/ the name of a 
sect in the 13th century ; the ' Old Man of 
the Mountain ' roused his followers* spirits 
by help of this preparation, and sent them 
to stab his enemies, esp. the leading cru- 
saders. — Arab. Ijfashuk, an intoxicating 
preparation from the dried leaves of Can- 
mthh induOf a kind of hemp. Cf. Arab. 
kaskiy^ dfv. 

kUlt. (F.-L.) O.F. Oixa/r.-L. 


ad, to ; salhu^ a leap, attack, from taUmSt 
pp. of salfrt, to leap. See Awfl. 

Assay* ^ : the same as Ktsmar, q. r. 

AM^rmVft, (F.-L.) O.F.assembUr. 
— Ijile L. asstrnteldre, to collect (difTerent 
from L. assimuidrtt to fei£^).— L. tis- (ftur 
ad^^ to ; simuly tt^ether. 

AJlseat. (F.-L) O. F. as:ttN/£r.*L. 
assenttre, to assent, agree tow— L. as- (for 
ad), to ; seniire, to fiscl, pcrcerre. 

Assort. (L.) From L. assertut, pp. 
of asserere^ to add to, claim, assert— L. 
as- (for ad), to ; serere, to join, comiect. 

Assess, to fix a tax. (F.-L.) O.F. 
assesier.^Latt L. atsessdrty to sit as as- 
sessor, to assess ; cf. 1* %h. assessor, one 
who adjusted taxes ; orig. a judge's asns- 
tant, one who sit by him. — L. asusstu, 
pp. of assidere, to sit near. See Aasiae ( 1 ). 

Assets, sufficieDt effects of a deceased 
debtor. (F. — L.) O.Y.asuz^imn.asuis), 
sufficient (to pay with) ; properly an adv., 
but, in E., mistaken to be a pi. ^*I«. ad 
satis, up to what is enough. 

Asseverate. (L.) L. asseturatus, pp. 
of asseuerdre, to speak in earnest. — I^ of* 
(for ad;, to ; seu^rus, earnest. 

Assidnons. ;.L.) L. assidu-us, sitting 
down to, applying closely to; with suffix 
-ous.^l* asstd^e, to sit near.— L. as- (fu- 
ad;, at, near ; sedere, to at See Sit. 

Assign. (F.-L) O.T.assigntr.^X^ 
assigndrey to assign, mark out to. — L. a> 
{(otad), to; sigmdre^ to mark,fiom stgrnmsm, 
a mark, sira. 

AssiJnuate. (L.t 
simildrt, to make like to. — 1« as- (for ad), 
to ; similis, like. See Similar. 

Assist. (F.-L.) F.assis/er.^' 
sis/ere, to step to, approach, assist — L» as- 
Jot ad\ to ; sistere, to place, stand, from 
stare, to stand. 

Assise ( I ), a session of a court of justice. 
(F. — L.; M. E. assise.^O.F. assise^ an 
assembly of judges ; also a tax, an impost. 
Probably fem. pp. of O. F. ass^r, to sit 
near, assi^ a judge. — L. assidere, to sit 
near ; see Aasiduous, Absbbs. 

assise (>'. a fixed quantity or dimen- 
sion. ^F. — U) O. F.oxjir^, a lax, impost; 
the Late L. assUa was also used in the 
sense of a fixed allowance of provisicms. 
The same word as the above. Another 
form is Siie, q. ▼. 

Associate. (L.) From pp. of L. oi^ 
saadret to join to.— L. ox- (for ad-\ to; 
socidre, to join, aasodate.— L. soeius^ a 




oorapftnioJir lit. loliower. — L. stqui^ to 
follow, See 8eQtifino«. 
AsSOtl, to 2li«olvc, acquit. (F.— L.) 

of msauJrt, moidrt, to ■b»olve.»L, &i^ 
tviurre, to (thiolvc. — L. ah, from; loiuere, 
to Uk>!;£?i. S>:c Solve. Doublet^ ti^^TU. 

A.s&0iuuit. I'.) L. ajfiifird/i/ , stem of 
ajr^f/<TN5, snitnding like; prci^ p{. or,<Ujj}fi- 
Jr-r. to rtsjHmd ui — I- aS' {(uf ad-), to; 
jondrf, to S(^ur|ll^ Crom tonus, smmd^ 

AmtrL i F. - L.) O. F, ojsortir, lo 
sort. ii^«oTt» match (15th century. wO. t\ 
AS- (• L. <**-, for L. iit/)f 10 ; Jffr/-, stem of 
I* f#rr, lot. Sec Sort. 

Aion^rr. if» &oftei>> appease ; (Prov- as»a- 
viar\.*- h' . a i=L. aa)^ Co i and L, mduijj 
swttr. See 9ua"T0. 

mmjUut), to tftke to onorlf. — L. ox- (foj 
d)/), lo; jUrtufVt to Iftke, which h from 
epurr» to take, with a prefix of doubtful 
origin. Der* assumpt-iot* (from the pp»V 

Jliimrd* (F. — L.) M. £. asstenft.^ 
O K astwa; lo make secare, — O. F, a 
( s: L, (J*i), lo ; sfHr. snre, froni L. ffoiruSt 
iccnre, snre. See Sun. 

Aftter, a flower, (Gk.) Gk. Aor^p, a. 
•tar S<_* StftT, 

BAtoruJt. (.Oi^O Ok. diTTf^ffxw^ a 
Uttlt stitr, alto an attetisk *, usetl for dis- 
ttn^'utslliuc fine pa&&agE:s in MSS. — Gk. 
dffTip*^ ^teiu of iiTTrfp^ a itor. 

ftflt^roidr A tniour planet. (Gk.) Pro- 
perly an ad),, signifying 'gcar-[ike.'<— Gk. 
Airrtpo-tiiit%, slaj-likc — Gk. dartpo-^ for 
d^n^, a star ; and «73-«Tr fomit figure. 

Astlun.^^ ditlicully in brmthjng. (Gk j 
Gk%afiS>MT^ pantiiig.— Gk.iUffty, to breathe 
biTird. Cf, Gk.^iyp^ I blow. See Air^ 

Astir. (E.) For OH stir; Barbour's 
BrRce, six 577 

AstoniBh, AstouiuL (F. — L.) The 
ai!dition ol iih, nj» in fjufing^'isi, is due 
to analogy with other verbs in 'I'M. M. E. 
ajfauun, uitunitn, as/onen ; whcDce lat^r 
Aiteny, aflenvartU lcnj;th£ncd lo tisionish ; 
also cstouruf, by tfae addition of excrescent 
</ after n, u in soutui, from F^ f^rfi, At) 
from O. F. iit<sfntr (nsod. F. iiamur'^ lo 
amaj;c.«*Latc 1.. ^txtonate^ to thunder 
out, from fx^ out, ami taH*ire, lo tbu»dcf, 
Ct^^'KWrf^lo thunder at, astound^ with 
prefix at- fnr L */, at), 

Axtrfty. l-on^M^/m/; Barbour*! Bruce. 
vlU. iv5. Sec 6aay. 

Aatrictioii* (I-) From L. ace. oj- 
triithmm, a drawing together. — L, astrii' 
his^ pp. oi asiringgre ; see AitHngflQt. 

nAstrid ©. ( E.) For (Ja {the) s/riJe, 

Astrin^eitt. (L.) From stem of prea. 
pt. ()i asimsgere^ to bind or draw closely 
together. .- L. a* (for ad), to j ifrittgerty to 
draw light. 

Astrolosry. (F.-L.-Gk.> Y.oitra- 
logi(. — l.. mtrohgia, {\) astrcmomy; (3) 
a^rulogyj or acttncx: of the Mari^- — l^k, 
doTpoADTfo, astronomy. — Gk. acrpa-, for 
^oTpow, a star ; and -Xv^ia, olli^Uo Autot, 
a discourse, from X^'^fin', to speak, 

Aatronomy. (F.-L-Gk.) F. as- 

tfiftfOiiiie.^h.. astrQneiKiQ,^C)/i. darpfh- 
tru fiiiL, —Gk. 6arpo-¥, a star; aod -fofifa, 
atUcd 10 vSfK/s, Uwi from pffutri to di*- 

Afffcnte. (L.) L. as/ufuSf crafty, cun- 
ning-— L. as/us, craft. 

Ajlimder. (E.) For *»« iundtr. A- S. 
Qtt lundran^ apart. See 8imder. 

Aaylxim. (L.^Gk.) L. ai>/Hffi,-Gk. 

affi^Aoj', an osyluci ; nent- of ^otAof^ adj. 
unhanued, safe from violence, -Gk. 4-, 
not; and qv\-^, a right of seiiure; cf. 
(TfAjiiu, 1 Jtspoil an enemy. 

AjK3rtM.ptote« a line which, indefinitely 
produced » does not intret the curve which it 
ctiDtinaaUy approaches. (Gk, ) Gk. dtrv^i- 
wTort-oi, not famnc togf ther, not coioddent. 

— Gk, d[», not ; {rv^,7or (rtv, together ; and 
ffTiUT(Ji^ fsLllLng, from mrT*ti' (pt^ t. W- 
irrwiw), to fait (^PET.) 

At* (H. 1 M. E. a/p A. S, ,*/. + loel. at ; 
Guth. a/. Dan.arf; Sweii. rf/; L, ai/. 

Atabol, a kettle-drum, (fiuan. - Arab.) 
Spruu atuhat. — Arab, a/ (for a/, def. article) ; 
tiibly a drum. 

AtAghan ; see Tataghan. 

Atheism. (Gk.) Coined from Gk. 
dfi* ojj denying the gods, without a god; 
with suffix -tfffli.**Gk, d*, negAtive prefix; 
Pfcif, j>od. 

Atllixst. (E.) U.'E.pfihurU^athurst^ 
very thirsty; orig. pp. of a verb. A.S. 
cfpyrsUd, i/crf thirsty ; pp. of i>/}jrrstim, lo 
be very tliirity,— A. S* (J/^ very tprefix) ; 
and Ayrr/dF*, to thirst ; sec Thint. 

AtLlete. (L.-Gk.) L. a/A/fta.-Gk. 
ABSijtTjSf a combniantr contender ia gamca- 

— Gk.<iS'Ai-#(N',ti> contend ior a priie. — Gk. 
dC\os (for df-^Aor), a contest j i&\ov (for 
ft^t^Asi'), a priie. Sec Wed, 

Athwars* ucros^. For ^h ihwart, on 
the transverse, across ; aev TbLWoft. 




Athui. (Glc.) NAined after Atlns. the 
demi-gwj who was said to betir the; world 
on his shauldcTS ; bis figure used often to 
appefl.r on the tide-page of atlase?, — Gk. 
'ArXor (gen, 'ArAai'To*), prob, 'th« *HS- 
tainer ' or ^<arer, from ^/TEL, to bear 

atl^n'tiCi an ocean, named after Mt. 
Alias, in the N.W. of Africa. (Gk.) From 
'hTkavTi-, stem af "Arkat; wjth suffix 


AtmOspherO. (Ok.1 Lit, 'a sphere 
of air round the earth.' CotneiJ from 
dr/Ao-, stem of dr^u^f, vapour, air ; and 

Atoll, a gronp of coral islands fortnidg 
a rinjr. (Maldive IsUndsO *Wc derive the 
eKpreasion frotn (he Maldive iaianda . . , 
warre the form of lh« word in aiohi. It is 
prob. connected with the Singliakse prep. 
atul^ inaide.' (Yule.) 

Atom. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. o/flw (Cot-). 
— L. aldmus.'^KjV. aroftof, 5b..aii indtvlst- 
ble particle ;! allied toarofiai, adj., indivisi- 
ble. — Gk. d't not ; to/i-, ii-grade of t«^, aa 
&een in rifU'irttrf to cut, divide, 

Atotkfi, to set at oact to reconcile. (E.) 
Made up from the words ft/ and oiUf and 
dae to the tre<]uent use of the phrase at 

attain, — L at- (for aJ), to; fangvrf, to 
attainder. (F.-LO From the O.F. 

aiehitir€^ verb, lo convict; a&ed stibstan- 
tively ; ?ee above, 

Ifcttaiut, lo convict, (F, -L.) From 
M. E. affeynf^ auynt, convicted^ whence 
the verb has been evolved ; orig. pp. of 
O, F. ateinJn (abosfe). I|f In no way 
allied tn taint. 

Attar of ROfle0. (Arab.) Aho, leu 
correctly, otto of rerei^ i.e. perfume. —Atab. 
'iV;; perfume. — Arab, rout 'aiara, to smell 

Attempor. [F. — L.) 0,F. affm/^rfr, 
to motlif), — 0,F. a ( — L. ad), to; Umpter^ 
Umperer^ to temper, — L. temperdrt^ to 
apportion, regulate, qualifv- See Temper, 

Attempt. CF.-I-> 'O. F. fl/^fl^^ir, 
to ntidertali*?. — L, aittntare, to attempt — 
L. at- (for ad), lo; ttnidre^ to try ; sec 

Attend. (F.-L.) O. ¥. atendrg, io 
wait — L. nttendcrt (pp. ntUn{Hi\ to 
stretch towards, give heed to. — 1« a/- ifor 
fflt^j, to ; ttndert, to stretch. Der ^ftttnt' 
tan (from the pp,} ; atient, adj., i Chron, 
vi. 40, vii. 15. 

Attenuate* (L.) From pp. of L, at- 


(WW, at one (i, e. reconciled) in Middle 

l-^gli^h. Ai at j« = sU agreetl ; Rob. of J /^wjuJrr ^ to make thin. — L. a;- (for(U/),to; 

Glouc. p. 113. Tyndall has oSffHtmakfir^ \ f^uuHSf thin. See Tblll. 

Lc. reconcileFf Works, p. t^S. Der. aioru- 
meni^ i.e. at-otM-mint \ we actaally find 
the word QHtrntnt, leconciliation, in old 
authors; see Hall, Satires, iii, 7. 69, 

Atrocity* (F.-I-) V.atrocit/, Cot.- 
L. a/rthMtei/t, ^cc.ol tttroeitds^ cruelty.^ 
L atritii-^ from atrax„ cruel. 

Atrophy. Gk.'t Gk. drjpo^a, want of 
notjri^hiitcnt of food, hunger, wasting awny 
of the body, atrophy, — Gk. j-, not; and 
rpiiptiy (pi. t. Tf-rpw^Hi), to nouri*h. 

Attach. (F.-Tcat.?) O. F. ^taeher, 
to attach, fasten. — O. F, 0, for L. 'i^, to \ 
and (perhaps) a l^w G, word with the 
seoM of E. AirA, a nail. S'jc Took. Cf. 
Flcard nttakir, to attach ; Hrct, tachti> to 
fasten, from Mr^, a tack, natl ; and see 
Dotach, Attaclc. Der. atia^h-fnent. 

attack. ( F. - IiaL - Teut. ?) F. ntta- 
yw^r— ttal. tittiiaar£, to fasten, attach; 
aitoifart f/aHagNa, ' to ioyne bstteU," 
Horio. C^*(;nate with F. aitaektr^ £0 that 
attaik is a doulilet o( attack. 
' ' ;ailL (F.-L) M. E. ateinen.^ 
atei^ti'i prei. stem of alcinJre, 
Uftdrif to reach (0, — L. ftfttttj^rgf to 

Attest. (1-0 ^- n/feittiri, to be witness 
to.— I,, af- I'-drf), to; tfitfirij to be 
witnes, from L. /irr^u, a witness. 

AttiCt a small upper fcwsm* {L. — Gk.) 
It orig. meant the whole of a paraptwflll, 
terminating the iippei facade of aR edifice. 
Named from the .It/ie order of archilecture; 
see Phillips, ed, ^1^o6,^h. Attiats.^Gk. 
*Att(*(Js, Attic, Athenian. Cf. F- attifuf, 
an attic: JUi^ue^ Attic. 

Attire, (F.-Tent,?l M.E.fl/iV.a/j'r, 
sb, ; atireHj atyi-ifu verb. — O, F. atirvr, 
to fldom (RoqnrfDrt\ — O- F, a (=L. 0*/, 
prefix;; andO. F. ttn, Utr^t a row, file; 
Ro that atirier is properly ' to arrange/ Cf- 
O. Prov. /;Vra, a row \. Bartsch "i. See Tier. 

Attitude, ll 111.- T-^ Orig. a painter's 
term, from Italy. — Ital. aftitutiine, aptness, 
skdl, attitude. — L. aptitHtiinem^ ace, of 
apfifudo. [i[>titu(3c. — L. ap/fii, apt. 

Attorney, (F.-L) ^^.K. attmrn^^ 
— O. I. atontf [i c. atorni], lit. * one ap- 
pointed or constituted ; * pp of afoftter, to 
direct, prepare, qoniititate,"" F, a { = L, aJ\^ 
to ; O. F. tomtr^ lo torn, from I- ter- 
nart. See Tura. 




Attract. tL-. ¥,pp. 
of a(tr.ih,-rr^ la »tLracL*«L nt- i^^ad'', 
to : ff\ifi/rY, »o draw. 

Atrbribnt^. (U ) From ^MSiitttiti pp, 
ftj L. aUri/'ttttf, to assign.— !.. aA { -^aajt 
to; thhtfr/, to as^gn ; fice Tribute. 

A^frrntrSrtn. \\^.\ Frotn 'L.. zicc, aftrt' 
U'oH/sn, a. rubbing "^ weiring away. — L. 
atltUui, jtp, oi irtttrtrt, to rub aw,iy--«L, 
fit' X a<ii/t, at ; f/ti'tt, to rah. Sec Trite. 

AttlUie» to hring lu a like tunc. ;L. 
anJ U — Gk,) From L. at- {— *h^J, Io; 
and E. Tune, q. v. 

Auburn. iK.- 1-.) M. E. tiScrtte. an- 
/wrjtr, tir^i^. dlron-ciiUiorcd oiUkIu yellow. 
— O,'j^rytt.ittiivmf, blond tGodefroy ;. 
*[jLte I,, afhstrttus^ whitish^ lifi^^t- 
coloured. Toriiano explains Ital. ftlhurtta 
hy * that whirifih colupr of wonicn^* hair 
callixl an tjf'urn colour.* Cf. L. alburtium^ 
the sap wood or iimer bark of trtes 
(riiiiy).— L afhiif^ white. 

AuctiOU, CI^^) ^^- attcitetum^ acc. of 
(tpmio, 3. ^Iti by aucLion, lit. 'an incren&e/ 
liccaust- ihu sale is to the highest bidder,— 
L, aititut^ pp. cioHgen, to iocfease. Sec 

Audacious. C"^ - 1) ^^ audmieux^ 
l>c»M , HI] (i nci ous* — L. *0udticmm . not 
fount! ; cxtcniloil from L. tttii/Oti ., from 
auifajc. l>oltL~L. auJrrtt 10 dare. 

AudittnCB. (F. — L/ F. atidieruf, 'an 
aiidit-ncc "T licarmg ; * Cot. — V^autiitnlia, 
a. hcflring.^L. audicnt-r stem of pies, pt. 
oiiiuiiite, to hear. Foi *atfiidire\ cf. Gk. 
atcr0i<T0ait lo perceive, foi A.fivBtc^i. 
BrngTD. i ( a^o, 

audible, (I.. I^tF I^ o/^i/ij^i/rr, tha,L 
Bin be heard. » U autftn^ to Fieftr. 

ftOdit. 1 1.. I i->om L. audittts, a 
hrarmi;. — L. /iWiVr, lu heir ; whence alu 

Aug^r. E. ) For Hdinifvr. M.E. na»f- 
itavtgiir], naugtr^ a tool for boring 
Ir* — A*S. na/ogar^ an anger, lit, navc- 
pJcrcCT, toi iToring holes in the nare of a 
wlicci, — A. S. na/jtf.anavf ; i-ur, a pleicerp 
that which gores ^ i>ee Nave (i) and 
Oore 1.3). + D«. avtga^ (for «dtyjtfaO J 
led. «d/arr; Dan. lunvr; Swed.isr^'rire'; 
O. II . < i. ttaisi^fr^. 

Aught. . EO M. E. ohU ^htt imght^ 
A. S. tiki, earlier dXft'At ; (torn a, ever, nad 
Bp/A/, a creature, wight, whit ; Ul. ' e*cf a 
whll/ See Whit. 

Auffmeut. (F.-L.) Y. crngmmtfr.^ 
L.a/^wf/f;jr-<,locnUrge.* L. anffm^rtium. 

an increase. — L, augerr, to iDcm5e>. See 

zi sooUi-sayei ; &aid to mean a divinrr by 
the flight and cries of birds.. Hence a snp* 
posed etymology (not certain) from anii., a 
birdj and -^r^ telling, allied to garrire,lti 
»bot:t. Cr L, au-cefi, a bird'C.alcher. 

August. (U) i- afigmtus, venerable; 
whence L. auguit, venerable, niid Au^it^ 
the month named after Augusius Ca«ar. 
Cf. Skt. tyiflj, strength. Umyiti. i. $ J13, 

Auk, a ^a-binl. (Si^anfl.) Sued. alJia ; 
D;iR. aikei Iccl. a//'a, <7/^a, an auk. 

Auut^ ( F. - U ) M . E. awrt/'i' - A. F, 
autitf, 0. F. ante i,niod. F. e-anfe).^ht 
amiia, a father's sister, Cf.G, awry^Cf^, nofie. 

Aureate. (L.) Late L. au rear us, giltj 
from aureus, golden; in place of L. au* 
rrt/wj, gilded, pp. of &urdrt, lo gild^«L. 
attrum^ gold \ O. L, ausutn, Ber. fflir- 
r/ziir, a gold-colotired chrytialis ; attr-e* 
ol a, anr-e-oif, the halo of golden glory 
in paintings; a nr^rcMJ, gold -producing, 
from ffrrf^ to bear. 

Auricula, a phint. (L.) L. munathj 
the lolfc ol the ear ; used to mean the 
■ be.iT'5KiT,' a kind of primrose ; see below. 
anricnlar, told in the car, secret. \L.} 
Lat*: L. auruu/dtis, in the phx, aa^/f m/^/hj 
foiifesiio^ auricttlar coikfession, — J>. auH- 
rtt/a, the lobe of the ear ; double dimin. 
frrmn auti-s, the ear. See Sar. 

Aurora, the dawn, {h.) L. mtrora^ 
the dawn ; from prehistoric •tfwirpfd.^'tjk. 
/E!!oUc afwr. Ion, i^i^ davm, from pre- 
historic *flvffaj!f. See Sttat. 

Auscultation, * listening. i\.^ L, 
auSiuUtUhnt^nh iicc. of auscii/f/ittp, a 
listening; from the pp. of auHuiithr, to 
liateti. — L. •itim-, base of atifis. the ear. 
See Ear. 

Auspice r favomr, patronage. (F.^L.) 
F, auspict, n token of things by the flight 
of btrdst an omen, good ft^rtuni?^ — L. au' 
iphium, a watching of birds for the pur- 
pose of flugiiry. Short for *itmspiaHftt. — 
L. aui-, for auis, a bird ; and spictre, 
sffun, to spy, look into. 

Austere. (F.-L. - Gk,) M. £. 
austere. — U. F. auiUn. — I., auii^rus, 
bar^h^ severe. — Gk, auffrij/wi, making the 
tongue dry, harsh, — Gk. avtti^^ to dry. 
See fine. 

Austral. (F.-L.; ^rU) VVc find F. 
atiilraUy 'southerly;* Cot.«»L- AniirdiiSt 
southerly. ■» L. Anstttf the South wind. 



^utf-^nK-ii^t O'.r. . » ;, smiumnrm: 
i*.v: — ''/r fv^crr^. Tvt'iirfr: 5-x. ■■tr- 

Asthor. >* -I-/ M ^. wr»r, 

u / v.* v-** u M 1'. rii .— O >. a«/er 
fT ^iA '.%f . '. ,'^ ' i."xr***er. ;fr'-'w*r/ — I- 

'^ lir^, ytA. I>«r. cmU iae^4^Ay, & 

ovr. bu.'fvntiD^, firrAk Ok. ffAt^iM, v> 
irnE« 'k« Orftphie,. 
Mitoeracj. '<'>1l^ 

tcftx -^x f'>r ^sk -Ttu 

Mp^MTtia, «'A/>:c*^ jyyv«r. — Ok, air*-, lelf ; 

Mfiariur, to rule. — Ok. tffarvii ftrong; 
ognaf: wi*h K. Hard. 

fttttOBUltOBf a vtlf-mrjrin^ machine. 
'f'f.j Ok, a^^/aar«r, furot. of a^'^>iar<-/ff 


S- Mat \. < 
%...:>«. Nxseifms ^ SET :t.£ciu^ 

rr:'sr:.'« . C-.cp:«r.ifre;: ^r *.•.♦. *- t: ; 
lii". ■:■«:.'- ^-Jli: sctsi ;c >. F. r'ijt*- ncl^^ 
'.-- ■>► ',c »cl- Jtf- t: : ■*>-#- i; be 
Avalaacka. ?.-!• ?. cs^rJcnrcr. 

ac-aJIer ^*, nri;>,«r; nc lis :vi scck wi» 

Ik- 'v^ iSe nT^T.*— F. £ =1- «/, m; 

'"■.v. » for s,. — F. onzrisr.Ml. cadrKRic, 

A«lap/je4 ^vi'Jk ^tfffiixAM. ^ L. OMJru:. grsedj; c£ I. 

(r^jai Ok. afr^ tfwrVjv:, greeiT. — L. oktv, to «v£|j^desre. 

Ava«t, itop, ho>i fut. Dc Dc. Anr 

va.v, 4«W(/ ra.V. hoM ^at.— r*c. «;». sheet 

fori.'! '/ A^ud, iiLptr. «' iiAunv. to bold 

Ke HoM; ; ■=/! vaii^ {^st .see Vaat '. 

AT»tar. Skt. Skt. tfcui^anx, dcacsent ; 

hence, the dcKcnt of a Hincn ceztr m 

Mtf-movififr. — Ok. o^^-, for <a&rw, «elf; if>carnate fonp.—Skt. avOj down; uadtri, 
arid -fuxT^t, c'^ate with Skt. ma/4s, to paM over, pas*. 

thrntf^ht, c/jntider«;^, kn/^wn, pp. of fflUM, | ATaontr \xgrjoc ! (F. ~ L.' A F. 
to tKink. f^^hS.j , ofavn/ ; O.F. avan/, forward E Sec Ad- 

muUmomj, felf-i^orrenuiKOt. ^Gk,) Tanee. 

Ok. atnwtrtiiat independence. — Ok. abr^ 
voitfA, free, lirinjf \ty 'inii\ own laws.— Gk. 
aiWf, n^-.U; and fo/t^, law, from ri/iofmt, 
I sway, ¥%tt«tv, to distrihiote. 

antopf^, pers^Aal intpecti'jn. (Gk.) 
Ok. aCraifritt, a seeinff with frfie's own eyes. 

— flk. atrro f ulf ; ^t, si^t fsee Optfc^. 
Anto-darlil, '^fftV-L., Lit. 'decree 

of faith ; ' a jnd^ment of the Imjoisition, 
alwi, the executirjfi t4 such jndf^ment, when 
the decree or sentence is read to the 
victims.— I'ort au/a, action, deeree; da^ 
short for de a, of thr ;//, faith. [The Span, 
fonn in auto rfp //, without the article 
/a Port, a.] — I^. a/tum^ ace. of actust 
act, deed ; tie, prep. ; iila, fem. of i/ict he ; 
/idem, ace. uijtdrs, faith. 
Atttniail. (K.-L.) M.E. auiumpne. 

— f i. K. aufom/htg. — L, autumnus^ a$utum- 
HM$^ autumn. {Perhaps allied to aug/re, 
U» incFcase.) 

Awdliarjr. n^.,- L. anxiiUirims, 

At*, hail. ^L.) Short for Ami Mariaj 
hail. Sfary 'Lake i. 38,.— L. oh^, hail! 
imper. sing. <Aauere^ to &rc wclL 

AT«Bg«. (F.-L.) O. F. avemgUr, to 
avenge. — (L. a(f, to; venguTf to 
avenge, from L. uindudre, to Uy claim 
to, also, to avenge. See Vindicate. 

Arratailf the mouth-piece of a viior. 
(F. — L. J A. F. aveniailU ; O.F. esventaii, 
air-hole.- O.F.rxxtfff/fr, toexposetoatr.— 
L. £r, out ; tuntus, wind. Sec Ventail. 

AvmilO. (F. — L.) F. onwKf , otAvMitf ^ 
access ; hence an approach to a bouse (esp. 
one shaded by trees) ; fern. ofavenUf pp. of 
F. avenir, to come to. — L. adj to ; tunire, 
to come. 

Aver. (F.-L.) A.F.andO.F.OTWW. 
—Late L. autrdre, adufrdre^ to affirm to 
be true. — L. ad, to; uh-us, true. 

Average, an equalised estimate. (F.) 
Formerly a duty, tax, impost; then, an 
extra charge on goods^ the incidence of 



* chiLrge, the general eaiiinate or 
■ppoitionmeDt oF ]os» of goods, &.C. 
Fevrmcd, \fith suffix -agt, from F. avar-u, 
now usually 'damage icf. Spaa., aiv/'jj, 
haii^ri<i, * tKe custom pftld for good* that 
we ciponctl' (tinciU), Port* and Ital. 
OTtiritt, Lnte L. ttvfirj'a, ffvfria), A 
Mediten-aneAti mftrttime (etm» crtj;, si 
ing ' duty charged on goods ' (C. P. M 
ioN. E. Dj. Ori|^n unknown; perhaps 
£1001 lul. itffrft hatvri^ good^. chaitels 
iVmappir)f a sl». use i}i J^ax^re^ Aaivr (L. 
JlwArnr)» to possess. % Not from Arab. 
'avdr, dftinn^e, which is bofrowed from 
Itnl. rfntrM. in a late ^nae. 

Avftrt. {L.) \.. d^uerren, lo tain away. 
— I., it \ - *fA\ iifT, nway ; utrttrt, lo turu- 
Der. at'£ru, fioin I,, jjp, auersur. 

Aviafy. (L.'i J^ auiatium, a place 
lor birds; ncuL of adj. a/tiiin'us, beloftcing 
to bifiis.— I^ tiur^ stem of (^wfj, a biiu. 

Avidity. (K-L.; k. oi'/£/f/<^, grccdi- 

eagerness.— L. autdiiafem, ace. of 
Uih'as, eagimess.* L, iiuitfust greedy, 
dMUuttt. — t,. (7«rrc, 10 crave. 

Avd^atian. CL.' From L. authd- 
ti^im^ aL'c. iji itHPidiiOt a calling anny of 
the atu-mujo, hence a divcr^ion^ amuse- 
ment ; afierwatdi used in the sense of 
Cftiploymcnt. — L. /F«(v/J/mj, pp. of J-wefiirr j 
lo call away, — L. if f-d^), fronit away; 
vft'.ify, to call. See Vocntion, 

Avoid, tu ahun. (F,- L.) M. K- 
W« \ -^afoidtn^^ lo empty, empty otiti 
rid vti I later, to keep away from, ^un. 
*»0*F. ^ji'tfir/iVr, to empty ottl^ get quit 
of. — O. F". fs-, prefix ^1.. #x, oal); nad 
O. !■'. i'w(?. t*Hiat (h, Mrif), cmply, void, 
See Void. 

Avoi3HlU]^Ois. (F. - L.) Fonnerly 
fftvrr dfc /Wfj .Aftglo-F. aveir dt peit)^ 
g(XKli of weighty i.e. hwvy artictes, — F, 
^vtir, goodi, twig. Mo have;* rf>, ol; 
O. Y.foii, K. t\ /liiit weight. — L haf>fre, 
to have ; (i?, of; ptnsum, (hat whit;')] is 
wei|;hed trtic, neut of ArwiKi^ pp. of /Vfw- 
jrfrr/, to weigh, II The V. fvis a now 
micsjvltyvWj. See FoUe, 

AvOUCli. (F.-L. M. E. ozwr^^^fM. 
wO. K. tf^v A/rr, to catL upon aii ^ar^inlor 
(^GofJefroy . — I- ftifuxdrt, lo cnll In or 
somtpon a witnessj.^L, ad^ t&; tstcJr^ 
to call it Vouohl 

ledgcj lecognise, — L* */, to 1 tt^dn, lo 
call. ^Another M. K. avowfa^ Id bind 
wiifa a vow, to vow, is obsolete ; ice Vow. 
Doublet^ dZ'fiHf-^ (abovei. 
Await. I F. ^ L. am/ O. IL G.) O. F. 
aTvaitiir^ ugaificr, lo wait for. — O. F, o 
( = L. ii</), for ; tvaitiett lo wait, from 
O. H. G. zuakffjty to wBldi| from the sb, 
zvakfa (<Je ivtiilit\. a watching. SccWftil. 

Aw&k«, AwaJken. E.) Af. l£. 

atiKshititf awal'cn ; and an^aiinta^ awakr- 
ntn \ both orig, intran&itjve- Two A.S. 
verbs are eonfused ; nusitiart, wk. vb,; 
and tmwi^^nan, with wk. pres, t., hut 
jlTong pt. t. PMuw, pp. flAfiftfj-^tt, TTie 
pte^TX Is uthfir A' (ij or A- (4)* See 
WKkQ. Waien. 

Award, vti, (F.-L. <md O. Low G.) 
M. IJ. aivarden.^A, F, (ia«ii/'i/fr ; O, F. 
ts^ifQrdtr, (ignrtkr^ to examine^ adjadge. — 
O. F. ^/- ^ = L. f j), oDt ; 0. F. ttfarder, to 
ward, guard, from O, Low G., as in O, Sax. 
wartUn (cf. G. warUn), lo watch, guard. 
See Ward, Oua.rd. 

Aware* (^ ' A corrvption of M. Ll. 
iwar.ywiir, aware (comooii) ; from A. S^ 
gntftrr, aware. — A.S. gt-^ a commoD 
prefix, tiot altering the scQic ; uwr, ware, 
wary ; see Wary* « 

Away, [K,) For ott way, i. c- on 
one'ji way, bo as to depart. A.S. otrweg, 
away. See War. 

Awe. (Scand.) M. E. di^, agkf» QUt. 
\h\wi ^e, fghe, eye; all oHg, dissyltabk. 
The latter ict Kre from A. fj. egr, awc]« 
Iccl. ij^\ awe, fear; Dan. */pc.+A,S. <47:; 
Golh, affis, fear, anguish; Irish ea^f^ 
fear, terror; Gk^ '^X^^i nngutsh, afflietton. 
tVAGH.) Der. irtv-fttl. 

Awkwafdi clumsy. (Scand. aitd £. ) 
Orig. an adv., signifying ' tiajiftversely/ or 
'in a backhanded manner.' NL E. aiok- 
ittard^ uu'l'WQiri : ' aukii><iti be couth him 
ta'^he gave him a backhanded stroke, 
Watkce, Hi. 17^,. p. The aufhk ■U'ard\% 
E.1 as in /sr~u^rd. an--ward, Slvl. The 
preiix is M. F, au^,ajf^, contrary, i^crverset 
wrong ; thii U a conLraction of led. o/n^- 
fSwcd. afvug^ in \Mdegren], like hawk 
irom A.S. ita/x.— \^e\, f/ttgr, often con- 
tracted to o/^y adj., turning' the wrong 

way, back forema!it» contrary. 7. Here 
()/- is fori)/-, off^ ftom, away; and -*rf- if 
, tu confess, to declare openly, a 5ul!ix, Cf. O- H. G, uA"'^* ^^- H> G. fd- 
(F, — L> ME. oppTEvn.— 0. F avffWT, icA, turned away, perver« ; from a/Vj = 
mwr. ■»!.. ai/»K''rrr, tocatlupoo ; Med. L. G. ir£, off, away, and the sufllx -A, G. 
tfl nil on as patron or clienti to acknow' Thus the sense of a^vk h ' tnrued away * ; 

3^ c 




a/-j co^ate nith B. &/, o^,] old edd. of Shuk., &c. Ongin oncertain 
j perhaps & Tariant of y^A. 

AyalLi & Dative wahing'iDiud, in ImH 
(Port. - I-.0 Fort (xia, a nurw, govern 
(fem. o(aia, a lalor\ Frob. from L. ji/ti 
a grandira[ithtf-—L. auuSj n grantl father. 

Ay6, adv.» ever. tScand.) M. K. o/. — 
Icel. n, e^'cr.^A. S. a, ever, also /rs'd ; 
Goth- aiw, ever, casc-forros from Tent 
*aftti>&s (Golb. aiws), an age^ which 
allied lo L. aituDf, Gk, afdtf, an age, Cft 
Gk. a'fi, aft, ever. 

Aye-Aye, a kind of lem^r, (F.— Mada- 
gasc:ir-) V. aye-ajfe, stipp, to Littre. 
From iKe nalive Dnmc ^f-iTy in Mac^Agos- 
cjir ; said to be numed from its cty. 

Axinxutll, I Amb.) j4zimulAa/ c\tc:\ 
arc 4^eat circles on the sphere that ytttss! 
through ihe u-nith. Properly, aiimuth is 
a pi. form, ariiwcring to Arab, a^-sftmill, 
wnj-s, or points {or qHarter*"! of the horizon 
fi-om ai samty sing., the Wft)% or pomt (oi 
quaiteri of the hoTiJon. — Arab, a/, ihc 
fltid.taMJ/, a way, quarter, direction; whence 
al>o I-l icftiih. Sec Zenith. 

AsotOi iutrag(?n. (F. — Gk.) Socalled 
bccaiiic destructive to aiiimd life,— F* 
a&ote.^CV. A-, ntrgative prefix; i«mie6%, 

f>re«n'ing life, from jlw-^i Hfe, £dctr, to 

Azure, blue. (F.-Arab,-PeriO M^K 
asur^ azure. ^0.¥, atur, mure; n. cor* 
niptetl form, standing for iasttr, which w 
mistnken for fasur, ns if the initial 
indicated the dcf, article;; Low 1.. /asw. 
an nznre-colotircd stone» bl&o calU'd la/ 
hufli, — Arab, Afia-arff (sec DevL}. — Per*. 
ftjjttK'arif, lapis laiuli, a blue colour. So 
calleii from the mines of Lajwnrd, wheie 
the Upis Injflli tvns found cMatco Polo* 
ed. Yule). 

n in 


irom Icel 
Gfc. ^wo. 

AwL (E.) M. E. mtW, o"^ [we also find 
a/, tf/]. A, S- flttv/, flH'W^ ; perhaps cog- 
te with L. acultm, a stingy spine* allie^^j 
L. B^MJ^ a needle. ^ The A, S, ep/ or 
it/, an awl, &cems to be a dislmi^ word, 
fcnd allied to Icel. a/r ; G» *iA/* ; Skt, trru" 

Awn. (E. M. E. agutte {ii\h. cenL^, 
ffUKM£, aitfffe, A.S. pi. aptan, Corp, GL 
«^ Icel. 1'^, ch.ifTj a husk - Dan. ainUf 
ohttff; Swed. n^j, only in pi. agnar, 
hu&k^ ; GolU. afiaiui ; O. H. G. i^ana, 
chaff. Cf. Gk. pi. axi'at, chaff; O. L. 
e^ta^ a straw. 

Awning. (O. F. ?) In SirT. Herbert^ 
Tr.ivcls, fd. 16135* P' ^ ? ^^^ proper sense 
i^cetTii to be ' a sail or tarpauHng ^^prcad 
above a ship's deck, lo keep off the jtin's 
beat.* Perhaps from O, F, atizfan, atnant, 
mod. F, auvgni, ^a pent-house of cloth 
before a shop-winJow;' Cot. Cf. Prov. 
anvart. Laic I^ attUvattiux^ anvanna, 
azvitfuj, PerhAi's from L- a»ii, before ; 
uaanuSf a fan (fern. sIj . 

Awry. (E.J For <?w wr/, on the twist; 
Barbour, lintcc, iv. 705. iJce Wry. 

Ax«, Ax. (E.) M. E. ax, rx. A.S. ax, 
cildLT toiTns afus^ acus.^Dw. aaki; Iccl. 
ifx, <>jr/; Swed. J^ Jfl ; Dan, dxfi Goth. 
akiifizi ; O. H,G. rfftAfir; G. ar/; La/ria 
t^if for *a<-stia) ; Gk. di''»'fj. 

Axiom* (GkO XV cent.-Gk. d^fop/ia 
Igen. (lfjw>ictTai),warth» quality ; ia science. 
«na»s«nipitofi. — Gk.d^iwQijI deem worthy. 
•p>Gk. afior, worthy, worth, lit. 'weighing 
as much as/ — Gk. Ayt4y, to drive ; aUo, to 
weigh. '^AG.) 

Azijltaxb^ (LO L. dj^iV, an aicisp axle- 
tree, + Gk. A£wfi Ski. aikj^a, .in axlc» 
wheel, cart, Cf. also A. S. fax, an axle ; 
Dd. as; Cm. achse^ Ru'^^. os'\ Lith. aj£i/. 
CV^^-** '^^ drive.) See below. 

UCl«. (Scand.) M. E. ajcx?, [A. S. has 
eaxf, but only with the wnse of Moulder.] 

— led. j.THiIy aKtBi whence pxultrf. an 
asle-lree ; Sivcd, and Dun, a.\el, ajtle. 
^4 Ic is a dtmin. uf th^ fnrra appearinig 
in L, itxhi see KtXw, Cf. W. cfA*-/, axle, 
ar. nxU'tntt where /n?* is n block of 


Aj! loterj. <F.l M. IC. <y/ A natwnil 
itjtcrjcclioh. % The phr. ay mt is French \. 
O, F. rtj'w//, flliis for me [ Cf. Unl, aktnt^^ 
Kpnn, fty (it tttf, C.k. nifiot. Sec Ah. 

Ay* Ayo, yea, ye*, lE. T) S|)ett / in 




Baa, tobteat. ',£.' In^h&k.; an 
tive word. 

Babble, i^.) M. K. haMtn^ to prat 
mumble, chatter. The suffix -/IP is fi 
quentative; the word means 'to keep 
Baying Au, j^fl/svllohlcaimilaiiveorachnd''] 
nltcinpts to spr.ak. + nu. /xth^fttt ; H 
fn/il^i lcel./«M/d; G.Ai//^/'m; andcf. Ki 

B&be, K.; M. K. An*, earlie&t fomi 
ttakitt. Probnbly 4liie to infantile utterance: 
cf. Babble, 


BftbinUA, BAbironasft, a kind a( 

Willi bog. {^[aUy,) MaUy Aa^i" n/siJ, 
\kt ' tleef-hrtg/ or ^hog like a Jeer' ; Irofn 
»rtjj, dccr» aad /^lii^fi ling* 

BaImiOB. (K. or Low LO '-). F. /tt/mw, 
I. i>af>ou!H\ wc also find M, K. 6al>iatf, 
NUian^ Ut^ietfim; Low L, ha&inoynHi^ a 
bibotjrv (a. 13, tjQ^V Origin tindrrtain, 
Cf. O. Y . ^fmt, ft [jrimace (Godcfroy'. 
I'rolr. from the motion of the lipR. Cf. 

Bacchui&L ( L. — r; k . ) L. Bacchdnalis^ 
B vvofhhi|ipcr of Hatfhus, go<l of wine — 
tjt. Bji*if'^'» jT^d of wine. 

Bachelor. {T.~h.) M. E.MMr^rr.- 
C). F. hi-'hfUr^^ljii^ L, *itt^fa/drts^ but 
only fcmtic! ii itif^a/tinux, a hoMcr of a 
wnall farm or estate, cnllcd in i,:ite L. 
/taiio/iifia, Remotci i>riEin linknowti^ and 
much dbpuicd. Hanlt}' from Late L. 
htKcat for I-. utU'-ft, ft co»r. 

Back. I-:.> M. E, ^ir. A.S. A^r.^- 
Tocl. bai:: O. S«x. ^^: O, 1-nci. hfk. 

^//.-w T. TL B. ii. So ; fstiiwanit M, E, 
Aj.-TfWi/ (Cursor Miindi, 1043). 

backgammoiif a gAiuc, E.) lt\ 
Butkr s riudjbnis, p[. iiL c, a. The sense 
is * back-ija,rinic,' fiecausc the pieces, when 
Uken, arc put batk. See ^mmoa {i), 

BnooXL. (.K -Tent*' M»E.^wj.-O.K. 
w; Ij^wt I,. ha<o.^O, H, G, fiotAo^ 
, H. C. Ari<4f, bouock, hftm^ a flitcb of 
Cr. (f. b<sih4, a wild Row ; M. Dm. 
A pig; M» Dan. l^tkkfy a pig. 

BwL (,E.j M. Ii, ^irf^if. Formed from 
A. S. h^dJd^ s., a hermaphrodite; and 
allied to At S. ksitHng^ no eCTcmiii&te 

Baidffe,(IJnknowii.) Af , E. /u^ ; PrDoipi. 
Parv. Low L. ii^a, hagta. " signnm, in- 
tigQC 4|iicj»ddani ; ' Ducan^'e ; appaienlly, 
a l^ttn rerston of the E. word* Origin 

h§Ldft^r* {VukaowaA SpeU hazard 
in Sir \. More ; a nicknarne fat the i^rock* 
Dr. Mnrray shews that Ajt/j/crr^ animal with 
ii ha.!\£ nr iirtpe. Sec above, 

BadinaM, jesting talk. (F.-Prov.- 
l,."> V. i^diNaff.^¥, haJinfK, to jeat.— 
F. itaifiu^ odj,, jfslitig.— Prov. ^/r/fr ( - F, 
^i/rr^, tit. to gnpc; henpe, to be silly. •• 
I-ute L. Aii^rfriT. to gn]sc ! prob. nnmilotivc 
•t[i|;;lfi, from ha^ eapreasive of opening the 
iiitmth. i'i. Babble, 

Bafi«, ^"'foi!.<1is:Tace. (F, ?-G.?) A 
Scotch word, u explained in HairsChron, 


Men* Vni, an. «. T^ h&guU U • a 
reproach among the Seo[(es' ; it meao^ in 
disi;nii:e, vilify, Cf. Lowland Sc. bauchle- 
[XV ccni. b&v-hkX lo vilify. Origin doubt- 
ful : but cf, F. b€j^ir, to deceive, mock 
(Col.), I'of&utr CLoL hnffbuer^ to baftic, 
revile, di^raccl; allied to Ital. beware, lo 
flout, seoKe (Florio), figm *<^tf, n. agoff; 
Norman F* haj^er^ to slap m the face ; 
Prov, h«fa, a scoff, Prob^ from M, IT. G, 
hfffcn, to scold ; cf. G. tnigen, Du. IttffeH^ 
to bark, yelp; of imitatiic origin, like 
Du. paf^ a pop, a bqx on the ear. 
Ba^. (Scand.'v M. E. ^'ii^. — tcel.^t^i;;;^', 
O.SweJ. l>agg{, a bag, pack, btindle. Not 
foqnd elsewhere in Teutonic. 1 GacL hog\%. 
from E.^ 

bagatelle, 3 trifle, a game. (K,-](a1. 

— Tcnt.'i V .bandit ^ a trifle. « Ital. h&giU- 
teth, n tiille, dimiji. of rarmcsaii ba^aia, 
a little property ; from Lombard l^^a. 
a wine-skin, of Tcut. origin ; sec Bag, 
baegace (]\ 

baggage 1 , luggage. F.-Scand,' 
M , E . mj^gft f^gagi. — O. F . Sagajpr, n col- 
lection of boadlei,— O. F. ivtgu^, a. bundle. 

baggage ^]\ 4 worthless wnm an. {h\ 

- Scand, I The same as Ba^sroffe ( 1 ;, in a 
depraved sen^. Perhaps influenced by F, 
^agassCt *a baggie, qoean/ Cot.; ItaL 
^tgasciat ' a baggnge-wench ; ' Florio, 

Bail (l)i sccnriCy ; s<i Terb, to sccnre. 
iF. — L.) O. F. ^*V, £. custody; from 
i*ailUr^ a Uw term, to secure, to keep in 
custody. — L. haiuiiite, lo cniry a child 
about, to take charge of a child* — L. 
{hjinfus, a porter, carrier, 

bailiit (F.-L.^ M. E^AaiVi/I-O. F, 
baillif^ Cot, — Late L. kfjulfvffm, ace of 
irajuhvas, a cuitodinii, tfcc-L. bdinlilre 
r' above). 

baUiwick, i,F.-U; and E.) From 
M. E. itaiii^ abort for haiiif (aborc) : and 
M. £. ittiki A. S, 7wV f a district ; hence, 
'district of a bailiff; ' later, 'office * of th^ 

Bail 3), a bucket. Sec Bal« (t^. 

Bail ,1\ at cricket (y,-L.IJ O.F.AfliV, 
an iron pointed itake \ Godefroy adds that 
* in the arrondis^emeiits of VervIuK aud 
Avesncs, kit/ is the name uf a horizontal 
piece of wood fixed upgn two stake*,* 
iVrhftp£ from L ikuti/Mm, a itick, 

Baim|Ad>i1d. (E.) M.E.^rN. A.S. 
bfftrtt> + '«*!'< Hwed.t Don., and Goth. 
A/rn, Lit. *that which it bom;* Tern. 



lyjw ^harnom^ nent. sb., from At»> jrjd 
^Tnde of btr-an^ to bear ; with Buffix -?/^. 
^«e Bear (H. 

Bait, to fctA. (ScaaJ.) Lit. ' to make 
lo hile ;* a traii is ' an cattcement lo bite/ 
M, E. hailaii &r»/rf«. — Iccl. 5///it, to mnk^^ 
Eo bite, causal of ^7/0, to bite ; Swed. betfi* 
to posture ; Swed. Ute^ Dan. M/, n bait. 
See Bfte. 

Baiitf, course woollen stuff. I'F, — L.) 
An error for hayi-s, pU of F, lisye^ * the 
doth called baycs ;' Cot. — 0» V* f<ffi* bay- 
coloured* ** L. badius, bay. From the on g. 
cdloar. Cf. Span, tayo, bay, bayeta, 
baixe ; iStc. See Bar (t^. 

Bake. (£-) M^ E. ^F^^^t. a. S. hn^aH, 
pt t *iVt pp. bacen. -|- IceL and Swed. 
MAa ; UftTj. io^ ; Dn, baiiktn ; G- SaeAen ; 
cf. Gk. ^/:«Y'"' '" f'^Ji^i- (Vl^HOG,) 

Bakahiah., Ba^ckslieeah, a present, 

situU gratuUy. JVrs.) IVrs. l^abhshish,, 
a gratuity; ftom ^khshTdatt^ to give; 
^jlfjfcp a share, portion. CC Zend, Mkfht 
to distribute; Skt. hhaj, to divide. 

Balance. (F. -U) ^f. fl balanct.'^ 
F. baianci, ' a b:LUanae, pair of weights or 
bftUftnces;* Cot, Cf. Ital. bUancia^ — L. 
6ifancem, act of &i/tt».r, having two scales. 

— L. h'-t for Ms^ dauble, IwiNte; and latix^ 
a difih* pliiUer, scale of a balance- 

Bala8-ruby« a variety of ruby, of a 
pale ri)ic-red or orange colour, (P.— 
Low L. — Arab. — Pen.) Formerly Calais, 

— F. Calais ; Med. L. hatasfuSt Sa/ascjui. • 
Arab, haiakhsk, a ruby (Devlc). — Pers» 
itad^ksfiT„ a ruby; named from Hndakh- 
^9in, Ni of the rivei Amoo (Oxus), 

Baleou^* (Ital. -Tent.) ItJil. kik&ue^ 
paicotu, f-Tij;. a stage, — O, H. G, bakho, a 
bcflin.+0,Sa3(.^H6ff, a beam. See B»lk{t\ 

BalcL CC.) M. E. haiUd ; the orig. 
Acnac wfts 'shining, white/ iks in ^ Aa/?- 
J^KfflT »tag/ a stag with a white streak on 
its ^ce ; cf, prov^* K. /^/i* a white-fHcrd 
bone. — ' Gael, and Irish 6t7/, ba!l, a hp^A^ 
mark, speckle Tproperly a white Bjxjt or 
streak); Bret- /«/, a white streafc on an 
animal*s face; W, btUi^ whiteness in a 
hoRc'* forehead. Cf- Ok. ^X*ev, white, 
*f«i\n*^iT, bald- headed ; Lith. ^(7//a/,wlitler 

BftldacUin [prsnounfefi h^oXdakm or 
bacliiiikinl, .1 canopy over an aUnr, throne, 
Ac. {V, &r Iial. -Arab.) F. b&ldafmn i 
ItaL f*aliitfi-ihiuo, a canopy^ teiteri ori^ 
han^inira or tapeilry made at Uagdad. — 
[(al Hah^aufi, Bagdad. — Arab^ lia^hifdiit 



Balderda«lL| poor stuff. ^.Scand. ?) 
formerly incant a jumbled mixtare of 
liquori. Cf. Dan. halAar, nOJK, clalter; 
and (iaikef lo sUp^ ilap. Hence it ap^ars 
[ViVx fiajl>-d<iih] to have niEiuit a contused 
noise; ieviondarily a liodge-potlgt (Halli- 
wcU) ; and generally, any mixture. (Un- 

Baldric, a gitdlc, (F.-M. H. G.- 
L.) O, V, *Niidri€ (not recorded), older 
form of O. F. baf^nf, thlJrfi- Low L. 
Ba/tMnftis. — M . H. G» ba/iUrt^rA, a clrdle; 
extended from O. H, G. ba/z, a belt. — L. 
ftalitus, n belt. See BeU. 

Bale (0. n package; see Bali (j% 

Bale (i). evil. ;E.) M. E. bale. A.S. 
U*\!u, biilu^ evil + O, Fries, and O. S. 
A(i/«; IceU bui^ mtsfortuoe; O. H. G. 
baio, destrttciion. Teat, ^balxttoiti, neat, of 
^bahivz, adj. evil ; cf. Goth. ^/vtHntKitf, 
wJLkednesiii. Der, haU-fui. 

Bale U)' t*° empty water out of a ship. 
(F.-Tcut.) XVII cent. It means lo 
empty a »iip by means of bails, i.e. 
buckeU.-F. hailU, a bucket, Cf. Do. 
halU, a tub; Swcd. h&ija^ Dan, balUi^ G. 
halje^ a tub. ■^ Late Lat. *b<uula (Diez), 
dLmin, from Dn. ba^, M. Da. /-af jfr, a troujf b. 

Balk (I'll a beam, ridge of land, (E.) 
M. £, balke, A. S- ba^ca^ a ridge, heap; 
which explains btilktd — laid in heaps, 
I Hen. IV, L i. (^.^O. Sax. baita, a 
beam ; Do, M/A, a twam, bar ; Swed. &aik, 
a beam, partition ; G. butktn, TeaLstem 
*baikon-, a bar. Cf, FhaUn^ 

balk {.?)« baulk, to hinder. (E.) 
M. K. 6&ikcn, To put a ^di^ ot ^r !□ a 
manV way. 

Ball CO. ■ spherical body, (F, ^ 
O.H.G.) M,E. iHfi, baik.^Y, ba/U,~ 
M. H. G. Atf/Zf. O. H, G. ba/h {G. da/I), 
n ball, sphere. 4" I*-*!- As/Zr. 

bale (r\ n package, rF._0. H. G.) 
M. E, *(j/f.^F. Ai/^, a ball, also a pack, 
as of merchandise ; Cot. The same ts F. 
ba//i, a ball ; hencCr a tound package. 

Ball <a>, a dance. (F.-Late L.) F. 
bif/, — F. balisTf to dance, — Late L. bailtrrr, 
to i!.incc.+(>k, paWt^uYt lo dance. 

ballad. (F.-Piov.-LateL.^ M.E. 
6a/ade*^0.¥. baiadt\ F. Ar/Aw/f.— Prov. 
haiada^ a song for dancitig to. — LaTc L. 
M/ifrt, to dance. 

Ballast, aload to ateadya«hip, ^Scand. 
tfj^ O. Ijow G.) Three forms arc found; 
(i) O. Dan. barlfuf, i.e, Isoe load, mere 





"weight. Swcd. hat-last; (Jl 0. l-fiw G. 



kiUoiif i.t. ' bale Inst/ uscImi load^ Du.^ 
I>Mi., K. Fries, baihst ; {y) Dw, fv^-lsjf. 
i.r» bock load. Of these, (3) heerm due la 
popuUr etymology; and U) arase out of 
(1). S« Ijast (41 ; alfn Bare, Bale (?\ 
Bftek. Cr. M. J)u. Ui'dat^t, evil deed 

3mUot. cy. - Lale L.) F. baitet, dtmin. 
of AjA ti dance, See Ball (a). 

BaUooh, a targe ball. (K.^O. }{, G,) 
yormLrl) baitt^t, a haW nsfd in agnmeUke 
football; (also Hlhm^ from IiaL haUom, 
in Florio).—O.F. ^«/dh, '» liltle ball, or 
pack ; a foolball ar baloon ; ' CoE. Mod. 
r. i^ton ; Span. Baion ; Ual, patlont ; 
angmcntative form of F. A«//?, &c,j a ball. 
See Ball u 5. 

bfOlot* (lial.-O.H.O Ita!. *b//w- 
furt^ 'lo cast lots with bctlleU, a% they 
v«c in Venice i' Florio, *- Ital iKiIlotfa, a 
litilt ball used for Toting ; dimin, ofltal. 
M//d. aball. SccBaU(i). 

Balm. (F. - L. - Ck,) A modiAcd 
»peUiDg ; M, E. hasttUt hami, haume. — 
O. F. Aiixwf* — L. h^S{imum'. — G\t.. ^oAffa- 
^o»', fmgratit resin of the ^dAaa^i^it, or 
bftlsam-lrec. I'rob. Semitic ; cf. Heb* 

balsam. (^1.. — Gk.) L. bahamum \ 
ai above. 

Balutiter* a mil of a ataircas?, smaU 
colomti, (K.-Iul. — L.— Gk.) F. taius- 
frti haiustresf ' baUUiers, liltU, round, 
nod short pillars, ranked on the put»dc« of 
dolstcrs, terraces/ iit, ; Cot. ~ IiaL baiitm- 
/^Pi a baltuter; so called (roin a jancicd 
rescmbUoce to the Hower of llie wild 
pome£i»nate.*ItflL tmiausu^ hatatutra, 
the flower of the poniL-graiiale. » ],. halaus" 
//ttM.^GIc. ^oAaiiaTioi^, ihe flr^vver of ihc 
j^rild pom egra ante, Der» htthistr-ade, F, 
ujfroiU, frnni Ita1.^d/af';r/j'a/f}, fumiahed 
with Uluncrt. 

Bamboo. iM^ilay - Canareae.) XVI 
coil, Miilay i^athi.^ CinAKSt 6aithu, 
or hjMzvu. hamboo. 

Bambooslflt 'o bcnx, (Unkoowu.) 

Ban, a proclamation. (£>) Chiefly in 
tht pi. htrnnt (of marriage). M. E. ban^ 
A» S. jyf>'furt, n pTficlanwiion (the prefix 
f /- making no difference). Cf. A* S» if^ant- 
MdM^, to Buinmon, order out. loflucnoed 
by O, F. ^attf of G. origin (as below). + 
X)q, Jhn, excommunication^ !<%! nnd 
Swed. f^rnrt^ Dan. ^411/, O. H.G.AaWj a 
ban. Ait from Teul. strong vb. "ha^trtan-, 
lo prgclaim ; aj» in O^ H. Gt if&nnan, Cf. 


L./iijM<r, a rumour. (^BHA>) Itnigm. 
i. fi 55^>. 

H&naiiai ibc plantnin-Lree. (S[Hin.) 
Span, bantina. fniil of the hanan& ; aaid to 
be of Africajj qrigin {from Giiinea\ 

Band (0^ Bond. (ScnTid.) M.E< 
band', variant, hoNJ. — 1(x\* ifattd% Swed. 
iH3fsd\ Dan. /joffifft/i cf. Dit. snd G. haftd. 
Tent* *baHdatTtt n. ; from battd-^ and giadc 
nf bittd-nn^ to bind ; kc Bind. Allied to 
A. S. /vwrrf', Gotli. imadf^ a hard- Cf, SkL 
handha, a binding. Der. bandage \^, 
battdage)'; i/and-f^X', dandeg, q.y. 

band (3)^ a company of men. (,F.— 
Tcul,) F. bandf ; CoL ; Ashencc G, baude, 
a gang, set. •< Low Jjit, fuifida, a gfltig ; 
allied to Low I^ injndtim, a Lanncr. See 
Banner snd Bind. 

Bandannftf a ^Ik handkeichief with 
white ^pplft. ijiind,) Hbd. hfindhml^ 'a 
mode of d)xing in which the doth is lied 
in <^ifTerent places^ to prevent (he parts lied 
from iccei^ing^ the d)'e . . .a kind of »iik 
cloth ; ' ^hnkespear's Hind. Diet. 

Bandicoot, a XsiT^t Indinn rat.(Telugti. } 
'I'tlugu faadi-kclku^Wx. pig*ral (Yule).— 
Tc\./\iiiiiiy a jii^', kclkn^ti rat. 

Bandit. ^Ju^l. O. 11. G.) In Sh.- 
Ilnl. ihinditc^ outliiwed. pp. of hattdirt^ lo 
prosaibe*— J.owL. latittirf^ to proclaim. 
~0. H. G,. i*Qnnau, to siuinmDn; wfaeAiE 
O. H. il. inrn, cogn&tt- with E. ban. 

Bandog, a large do^. (K) Odg. 
tia*iddi\i^, n dt^ that is lied up. See 
iVmijii. ]'oiY. p. 41- iM:e Band ■i''. 

Baudyi, to beat to B[]d fia, LontCxid, 
(F. -Tent. - Grig, to land (Tui icrvilc),— 
F. hand^r, ' lo bind ; also, to bnndiCf at 
tennis;" Cot. ^ir /wmtT'irr, tolcagbengaitut. 

— K. f>and^, a band ; see Band ia). 
bandv-legged, bowkcgid, (F.- 

Teut. ri//f/ Scrijul.': I'roi), from f>iiudy^ fyt* 
merly the luimc of a bent stick for plnyine 
a ^mc called bandy^ in vliicli a ball wba 
bafuiitd n bon I . See above . 

Bane, harm. (E-) A, S, bar^a, a miir' 
dtrer, bnne.-t-^' Sax. and O, W. G. AjMt*; 
led bani^ Dan. and Swcd. Itine, death, 
merder, Teut* stem *A3tfflff-, m. Cl Goth. 
hitttja^ a wound. Der. bant-fuL 

Bang 1 1\ to beat. (^Scand. In Sb, 

— Igcl. hanga^ Dan. bankt^ to beat; O. 
Swed. Jrf/i^, Icel. Arn^^ a hammeriag* Cf. 
G. hengety, a cudgel. 

BaM (?)» a narcotic drug. (Per*.— 
Skt*) Pcrs. Mrt^. — Skt. bhangd, hemp ; the 
drug being made from the wild hemp, 




_ 1 m.' : ■- -.n.! 

B&aian; set B&c7 

•ftf^fi 'i ffi ¥.— '. H 

'•tttir. : :nnir. *.- 


■<«■. » 

Banister*; a Lc—.-r-.r. 

Ba^Jo, t -ii-j^"--^.?:-; :-.-. -a.*. :'S.-.- 

of z-^K^Cf. ic:~:-', c ^•znS^s.^\*x'.. 

with ibrre Krii:^T — Gi. rtulUpa. 'ji^ 
same, rcrhai-i v: tgyit. cr!^*. 
Bank .1 • =■ ^v-:.i V ca--h. Scar.^. 
M- t. f^irrke. — <■,». S=£:<-i. •fjHftr- ori^- 

uf a river; cf. Dan. cjJrif, hifct^. *j:ir<. 

Idiik ; «be:ioe al^ Norm^:. }*. fan-/ue, a bank 2]. 


I ^ar-_ -; »:=ai: .Ji*. a fcrr; O, laA m 
s E- -.''itf'2* . a 
— 'sra. 

Butliar. t= B&3C ,&?; 

:'.i2ij'.*rc:^ ai POKJ-Sm^. 
it'i'jt'.zz^ hazrZi: vis. *^*fTr Abk 
ii^x -^-t'nr: b=: reaIN- as ■r'uff^in a of 
*,'. rzKz^tn- viih tbc same 

je::;.! : Lc 'a child bcgocmaami 

z.rA in tlie marriage-Sed llafa;. CL 

bank. Teut. klcm 'l<ank9n: C"f. O. >si. 

jaa, a 

tree. Poct.~Skt* 

and Du. ^anJ^, O. i<iH-.h, A.n.leM, h:.;;.lia. lo*. aaatire came fbrtfae 



a iK-nch 'sc« Bench . 

bank 2,, for iii«y:j«y, K.— T«j*. h. 
f-audtu, a inoiiev-chaii;;er*B tab'? vr fjtuch. 
-M. Du. inimk,^. /««(, s. Umb, 
tabic. See above. 

bankmpt. V- — lu!. - 'ieui, aW 

\..) Mfyjifici from K. itatt'^iun-nte, bui«k 
ruptcy, by a knowle^j^e of th'.- relatioii of 

u.:^i beca'^>e vsed as a maifcA-phce Ibr 
m'jrcLasti cr * bacnyans.' as ve tooMd 
th'^ra; »£« Sir T. Herbcxt. Trav^ cd. 
*'^ftW"r'* >23.— ?ort. &ajBMit,aiiIiidba 
tnerLha^r. — SkL Aaoiy, a mcrcbanL 
Baobab, a tree. African., The natnc 
ii%nit in Scitc^l Adansoo . 

Baptise, iBaptiM. F.-U-Gk.) 

the word^/»j, broken. ~Iul.^n^a l'orni«:rly baptiH\ M.£. hapiu€m,^O.Y* 
rotta, a broken barik, due to tlic inoricy- /japtiser.^h. baptizare.^i^, fiamriCf^l 
changcr'ft failure — M. II. G. lane, a Ixmch from Hdwrttr^ to dij>. Ber. hafiisi. Gk. 
^Mc above; ; and L. rufta^ Uin. of rttptui, fiawnvr^t, a dipj^r ; 6a/tism, Gk. Omwnm* 
pif. o( rum/rr^, to break. : /aa, Bawrtfffiot^ a dij^ping. 

banner. F.— Tcut. M. K. Ifantn. , Bur, a rail. 'K. — I^tcL.; M.£.Affmr. 
— O. I", iattere {«U|jp. to 'iodefroy, s. v, : — f). K. /izr/'t'. ~ Late L. barra, a bar. 
haniiii,, al*o ^«/<'«. — Ixiw X.^kiNdaria \ Barb 'i . Iiv^k cm an arrow. (F.— L.', 

I)ucant;« Kivc«A/«</.frw,, a banner. — l^jw - F. torft-. — I., barba^ a beard. HcnoeO.K. 
K. iniHtiHttt, batittum, a Ktandard. From \fltiche harbelie^ * a bcanled ur barbed 
a Tcut. 'KanffobardiC/ iKiurcc ; cf. Goth. ■ arrow ;* Cot. Sec Beard. 
Ai//'/7w, a kif;n. token. ' t'cxillum, (^uod ! barbel, a fiiih. (F.— I^) M.E. bar- 
bandkun n|/[K-liant ; ' I'nuluni dt Otiiis ', belU\ — <>.]•. barM. — F. barUau. — L. har^ 

lMn,i;oh. i. 20. I'rob. allied to Band (i^ 
and Band ^2,. 

banneret, orif;. a knight who had 
nicii iiudci his own banner. 'F. — Tcut.) 
.M , XL fHiHOd. •- f J. I' . biinertt ' F. banntreti ; 
lit. ' liaiin ■K-d/— C). Wbanere (alxive;; with 
MitKx 'ft K ]>|'. 'Otm. 

Bannook, n cake. '(*.-L. ?, Gael. 
/i/////m4, a cake. rcrh:i|ih from \» ptini- 
lium, A x\\\n^ baked ; itwn pam-s, bread. 

Banna, i>T. of Ban, q.v. 

Banonet. K.-Ital.-Teul.) Y.ban- 
>/mV.-p iHinilutto .Toniano),a fca!4; 
alHf a Ixtich ; dimin. uf bamp^ a bendi.— 

bfiim, dimin. of barbuif a barbel.— I. 
batba, a Ijcard. % Named from four 
bcard-Iikc aj^ijcndagen near the mouth. 

barber. (F.-l.) M.K. Arr^wr.- 
A. F. barbcur^ with ttuflix -our^ijaX. ace. 
'iitortm ; cf. O. I*', barbUr, a barber. 
— F, barbe, a beard; from L. Aa/Ar, 

Barb (2;, a hone. (F. - Barbary.) F*. 
barb€, a liarbary hone; ruuned from the 

BariMVOns. (I — <^K ^-^ l^rbarus\ 
with nifilx -«M/.— Gk. fiapSa^ot, foreigD, 
lit. stammering; a name given by Greeks 





to ex|irv4ft the etrange sooiu! ot ftircign | lor slunng. A..S. ttm ix ftir ^fVHyti'i 
XanfiMaffrc^ <'(. f ., h,rfhus, siamrarring'. I cognate with T<:cl. ranu ; see Il4s«Mk. 

Blirbdd, AC\:N->tilr«^, Armed ; snid of 
hones. \t.-Scfimi. ?i Also (mwe cor- 
rectly), i^tiitxi'^Y. hnrd/, 'barbed fti a 
bone,* Cot, — V\ i>ani<, horsc-jrmonr. — 
loel. ^r{^, a hhm. Hgc; aUt^ » iMak 
<»r *flU)cd pfow of a wurdiip (cf. fHir6t\ a 
sbidd*: : whence n ma) have fjeen nfiplierl 

to h<"fr»Ci ''Dic/\ 

Barbel, Barber ; ^ve B«rb < i . 
Barberry, Berberry, a ifamb. 

(Me(i_ L_j hium Mcti_ L. Mrfianftti bar- 
berry-Xfce i of unkjiown ori^n. Hence 
also M. K. herftfrii^ Sji, fi^r/rrri, nnd even 

A.S. ^i!/fffa, +Low G> l>aim\ Jiweil. 

perhaps alUcfl tn Ferment. 

Barm j^i, tlic lap. (JC' M. E. Ai/7w. 
A. S. iitftrm, Irtp, iKi^onn+O, Sax..^^we<1,, 
Dun. harm ; led- harmr-, Goth. Mtms. 
Tent. t\pc ^fvtr/Hoz ; from /fli--, 3ijd grade 
of hran. lu bear t see B&ar 1 1). 

Bam» (E.; S«e Bftrley. 

B&macle U 'r '"^ l<infi of goose. (F.-- 
Med. L, I>imin. from F birnaque Cot/; ; 
Mcfl, r. A/'r#hf/'/». * Bernanr. noes awds 

1 AfaK bartons. %'\'ht spetllng paluhinbtis similes;* Dncange. Used hy 

puld be fterh<ry or kirhiry-, no con- 
en ion w isli i*£rry. 
Barbican, (i"") M. E^jr^/iviw. — K. 

h*xrf'*it vxiif , 'A barbicnu nr outwork of a 
caidlt; aIjo^ 1 Tuop'hnlr ; also, an outlet 
for WDter. Hardly from Arab, barhakhf 
«ii aqueduct, i scwcT (Dcvic). 
Bax^ (C.) H'. /Wiy/(/, ld»b ami 
Ciael. ^tr./, h pocl- Cf. Cik. ^/mE^'iv, to 

Bare, ii-:.) M.E, A*ir. a.s. krr, + 

led. Arrr; G. Air, A*»r. Teut, type 
^fnti^i ; L'f. Lid), hmas, O. Sliv. /^.tr?, 


Barffoia, (F.-LAtet.) M. E, ^»- 

tiiraldu^ Camdrensis. Cf. Port. Ivmma, 

Max Miilkr, lectures, iod Series.) 

barnacle (2), n sort of ^hellfisb. vF. 

— Mod. L.) The s&mc as Barnacle (n. 

See N. E. !>■; nm* Max Miiller^ Lect. mt 

Stiencf nf Lnngnage, ed, 7, ii, 58,^, 

Bamacleaf ^peccacles, orig. irons pm 

on the noses uf horses lo kttp Llicm (jaict- 
.y. Thf aetiae of ' speclflLlc^' i-i Inte, 
3iiiil diK' to almmmoasallusauiu M.h./v^- 
iHit-!-, dimin. Ifernakill. fit^tmk for hors, 
h^yttakiil, Chamit*' (i.e, L. ^amury, f'lOtnpl. 
I*af\\ We find hdrnat in A. F- m an 


_ Fhy, ^!S.i; Wright's Vocab. i> loo, I. 5. 

fyil,r^.»fl, K. fmtr^igttur^ Aargrffir, to Origin unknown. 
Her, -»Ijtc 1„ 6arcamijr£f to change Bar013(ieter«an in&trumcnt for measuT- 
about- Kctiioterorigifi unknown. ing iht weight of Ihe air. .lik. Gk> ^po-^ 

Burffe. 1*'.— I-ntc 1- -C? M.y.J\irge, I for|floj»r, weight ; and jiijfittv, n measure; 
— I', Xir^r. — l-fttc I., i^arga, varifltil of see Metre. 

t'<inui sveBark j , | BUTOIL, a title J.-I^tc I..!' M, K* 

ba^k i,i)p barque. iF. — 1-ale I.,— AffrtJw, — F. barim; older form /vf^ iiom. 
C. y) /y«Ti^,it ii ftn t^spelUtig of F. htjrquf, ] i^Pmv_ Air), Ihesuffis -p« marking tbt ncc. 
« little shjp. — I^te I.. Arirtti^ .1 sort ofE^hip case (Diez . CI. Itab f>ar{>He, Sp. vnfvn, 
01 tafge Utnt. a li|^ter. Perhaps of Celtic \ Port, Viintfi,^ Ijite L. Mrf*, «cc. 'OHem. a 
cirij^in Thum-ywu.,, — O, Irish ?>ar<: (fcm. man, a n^ale. Origin tinWnnwn* 
tY'Stem\ a b.irk. 1 Barotlchet» cumiLgc- iG -Iu1. — L 


Bark i Or the rind of A tree, (Scand.) 
M.K. /'d/'it^ — .SwL'd- /'tfr*; Dan. barit', 
led, ivrkr. Tent, type *^fl',.fwi. 

Bark 1 ,!■, to ydp na n dog, (E.) M. E. 

rtrn.'m X. S. ficrctiH^ to bnrk. Cf, Ted. 
i/ii, A. K. hoffiaH^ to Uik, Ttrbaps 
ef itnitAtiTe ntigin. 

Barley. 'K.' M,R. /^ar/r'. — A.S.Arrr//,-. [Atrr^fff. 

G. h<tJ-ut5ihi,^\Uy\. liarecHOf bii^K^dif, a 
chnrint, orig. a two-wheeled car. •*!,. ^1- 
ri"^wf , two-whcele<i ; with suffix -ot^t'W 
assiinilated to that of tarr-otiie^ a chariot 
I Pier' ,— I., i>i-y donble ; and rotu, a wheel. 
Barracks. (F. — Ito!.) F. haraque. 

\ »]ta.L liariuia^ a tent for soldiers ; cf, Sn. 
rf. A. S. 7<r»r, baiicv I.owl. S<. Ai'rtr, ; and Aar^w. a bar, pale. 

Prob. connected with Late 

;/.. fof/iV, Itke. Cf. also f loth. ^f'lVf a;, 
rufldc of bnilcy ; \.,for^^oxXi. 

bariL .K. ' M. F., hertit. A. S. hfim^ 
coatr. fonn of Ur-ern (l.uke iii. i?'',— 
A.S. A<r^, liiiflcy ; and mt,^'tt, a place 

Barrator, one! who mcites tn qnarrclii 
Kiid lausuit^. {f^ Formerly hi^natour, 
baratouf ; from M. lu har-nt, deceit, strife. 
••F. harai, ' cheatinj^, deceit. ;;wile. ntH» 
a barter/ CotKru^c. Allied t^ BnrJer. 




^InRtjenced by loct ininittd^ a fight, a 

Barret (F-i m.e,/««a-o.f. (and 

F) ^i7r(V, Perhaps Jtdhi Ijitc L. /vrra, a 
bar. pjilc ; from the slaves of it, 

SaXTAll. (F.) M» E. AarrtiM. — A.F. 
&9rain<, e ; (X F. f^r^haitig, fern, ^rf- 
k^ingnt, b<traiffttc\ F, hf^hajgnc^ sterile. 
Of nnknown origin. 

Bftrricadfl. <F.-Span.) F. /ii^W- 

i-rfY^. — Span, banictifta, a barricade, lit. 
one mnde with barrels lull of earth. — Span, 
harricit, a barrel. I'erhfips from Spui. 
larrii^ a bar* see BuncAl. 

Barrier, F.) U.E.. harrtre.~0,7. 
^arr^r i,Gode/roy^ s.v. &assem]\ V. bar- 
rilre.'^V. ktrrer^ to bar up.— F. httrrCi a 
bar. Set Bar. 

barrister* (Low I») A barbarous 
word ; formed with stiftn-fj/er { = Lqw L. 
-i's/tfn'iis) from the sb,dar^ Spelman gtves 
the Low L. form as barrffsi?rtitt, 

Barrow (O* a burial-mound, CE,) For 
birfo-ii* (like i*ar;on for person^ ^cc.)- 
M. K. hrgh^ ecriv, a. hill, monnd. O. 
MerL-, 4^ffy ; A. S. ^tfr^, fetfrA, a mountain, 
hill, inoand. -f- 0. Sax., Dn*, G. ^rjti 
Teut. type Hrr^ot;, a hill. Cf. O. Irish M, 
a maaalEun ; Skt- brhant^ It^^'E?' 

BaKX>w(2\a wheel-bjirrow, (EL^ M.E, 
/vTrftvf.— .A-.S. /wr-, jimI grade of^r-aw, 
to bear, qniry. Cf. M» H. G, raih-btr^ 
whccl-bmrrnw, from raj^ wheel. 

Barter, to traffic. (F.) M, E. barityn. 
— O. I-', hat^ttr^ hffraier^ ' to cheat, beguile, 
also to barter ; ' Cot. 0. F. har^^ * cheat - 
ing, also a Imter ; ' Cot. % Of doobtfnt 
ori[jin ; perhaps Celtic (Littr^l, Cf. Biiet* 
harady Ueachery, Irish brath^ \V. brad^ 
treachery, Gael. <^rfjM^adv!Uitagc V^ytinfiir 
means ; Irish br&daik^ Gael, hradath, 
thicvi&Ii, Tognish ; \V, braJtt. to plot, 

BartOUi n coDrt'^'ard, manor. (H.) O- 
Northamb. ^ire-tun i.Matt* iii. i2>. — A, S. 
bere, barlcT; and /mm, an enclosure; see 
Barley arMl Town. 

Bax^es, in chemistry. (Gk) Named 
from iti weight.— Clfc. ^optJTTjr, wefght — 
Gk. &ap\n, heavy. Sec Orftre (i). 

baiytOIie. (Ital.-Gk.) Better An'^ 
tOHi\ a mmical term for a deep voice. ^ 
Ital. baritoHo. a baritone. — Gk. 0apv^f, 
hemvyn deep ; and tuvos, h tone; see Toae', 

Baealt. iL) Al^ /^sn/fcj, L. ba- 
saltti^ a hard kind nf mnrhle in -/Rtbiopia, 
Ao African word (I'liny:. 

Baee {i). low. vl '-!*) M. l-:. ^i. 

Aijf. — F. bos, m., AitJJ/, fem. ^ I Jte L. ^j- 
j-tf/, low; the same word at l« Sasfm, 

proper name, which seems to have meant 
'atom, fat/ raiherthan merely Mow.' 

Baee (>).a fonndaiion. (K,-L.-Gk.) 
M. E bas. — F- Aijf. — L. ^/tr. — Gk. ^m«, 
a &lep, a pedest.n1, base.-*Gk. bue ^^i 
to go (as in 0mvtiy, to eo) ; with suffix 
HTf- (for-T(-); c('fi(f),AQ<iitt^,fTom 
^lTW, to go. Se* Oome. 

Baeement, lowest floor of a buiblmf. 
(t. — haL— L/} Appears in F. bs teitbofje- 
mettt, the bas^menl of a building ; formed 
from JOHX^nnderj and -bftisertuat , borrowed 
frum Ital. fiasiaraenfo^ lit. an alu^sement — 
Ital. bassare, lo lower. — Ital. A^jja, low.«» 
Lati? L. hassus; s« Baaa (i), 

Baeenet, Basuet; see Buinet. 

Bashaw; the old farm of PashA. 

BashfU. (Jt\ ajui E,) For ahash-/u!\ 
fee Aboah. Prob. by confusion with ai^mt 
and bast. 

Baeil(i),aplaat. (F.-L,-Gk.) O.F. 
b^xsilt (Supp. to Godefray) ; short for 
hiUiiic\ cf. V.basiiii, 'herb basill;' Cot. 

— L. hnniicum, ncKt. o^hasilHUS, royal" 
Gr. ^nor,A4Jryt', basil ; netit, of ^ctfftAi 
rovJil.— Gk. )ffncfjX*ifi, a king. 

Isasilicar " ^^K^ ^^"- (T^- Gk.) 
basiika^ fem. of basilictis, royal. 
baeiliak, a fa bled sc rpent. {h. — 01 

\^ Iniiiliscus.^QVi, ^aaiXtriKin^ lit. roya 
also a lizard or ser^^ent, named from a spot 
on the head like a crown (Pljny^ viii. 21 )^ 

— Gt. ^dmXii/t, a king. 

Basil (3), the hide of a sheep tanned. 
(K, -ijpan,— ArabO A. F, baseyne [LibcT 
Albus, 315). — F. ftasatu:, M. F. bassatti.-^ 
Kpan. fxtdana^^ dressed sheep-skin.— Arab. 
biijJnah, the [tnnerj lining of a garment, 
for which basil-teather wa» used. Cf. Ar.ib. 
bafn^ the inside. 

Basin, (F--Litc L.i M. K /w*-m, 

AjjjVi,— 0. F. f'ttritt, ba^/iin; F, b&sstft,^ 
Late L, bmhTiittfi baichfttttf^ a bnsin 
(Dilc). Stipposed lo be from Ijite I* 
hacfa, water-vessel (Isidore)* Cf. Do. ^^, 
A bowl, trough. 

basinet, basenet, basnet, a light 
helmet- (F.-Latc L,. In :Spcn»er; F. (^i, 
vi. 1. 31. — O, F. batittfl, dimin. of t'oan, 
a basin ; from its shape. 

Baeia, L.— GkJ i^ basts. '—GV.$^t*\ 
see Baao {i). 

Bask, f Scand.) M, IC ba^ia, to bathe 
oneself, ralsgrave ; and cf. f'^the hire, to 
IwyJc henelft Ch. C, T. Konnes 






Talc. |47--lcrl, 'da^/iii lalci /wffiw/;. 
for Mtu Jtk, \i\ tmtliL' iintMll.. Cf. alw | 
8wTtl. dial, ai {>&S4X rt^ i solcn, lo bosk in 
llir itm, fntitfisk, ftshci blinking in the «uii ; 
(W'«»1jjwvKMr„ ii« Bfttbe^ % Formed 
like Bujik, 

Buket. (KT) M.E, ikiskct. Mod. 
Nonnari V. bas4fHftU (Moi»y). Origin 


Basnet ; xc BMinet. 

Pftff'g \X)y the lowest part., in music. 
(F. — I*) The aamc word ha Biua \.\\ \ 
b«( M9 »pcU b imitaLioa 9f Ital. ^/j^c, 
BBaa{j:.'BATBe,afi!!h. (li.) M, £. 
i^ifi »1^ Aiur, A(i*-r with los^ of r\ 
A*^. Aarj. a pcrch.+Du. Soars; Q. 6ars, 
rtch, a prrcn, Namflct from its pricklw. 
u •Ajjtj-j jnd gratle of Teut. root 
ywhcncc nlso Briitl«, \\. v. iZf. Skt. 
"/I'l pointed. 
IftASOOlLv A bnjc instrument, ( K. - L. 
F. OiUioff, aQgmcntative from K. ^if«, 
bftse (in muaic\ f«m. of ^/, b^frCi See 

BMi. * E. M. E. fmst\ hstin, % lime- 
Efee, A. S- ^-f J/t Uittfr bark uf a liine- 
iree; whtncc bast is madt. + lcci.» Swcd., 
D»n., G. (''fl.i/ Ofleii sj>ch kfji, 
Bajftfifd, ui illcgitimntc child. {K) 
E, kuta'd, applicrl to Will, I.-O. F. 
tiard^ the iftiuL' st* /f/* i/t A?>/', lit. ' tbc 
" oia putfc-saddlc, not of a hcd. [The 
1 a ^j/ iVv«j illegilinniatc, ucturi 
!ob. of Gloiic, p. 516.] — O.K. hctit^ Q. 
pack saddle (F. M/lj wilhsuifis -aft/, from 
O. 11. Cj. Ai>n^» faanl, first ii»ed a& a iatiffii. 
injiropff iiaai« and (hen generally. 
Baato (jj, to bciL iScand. ?< The 
lortQ Aiij-// occurs as a pp, in i^f^a- Cf, 
Swcd. Afljjfj 10 strike, beat, whip. 

BftSt^ .J;« to pour fat over meat. C'^^Q' 
Imowa.^ taSti. * 7i» Aa/^^, liuire / Levins, 

8urt« il\ to &ew slightly. (F.~M, 
M.t;.i M.K. 3<i//«i.-0. F. A(w/iV, F. 
^W/i'". to 5CW slightly; « tailor's term,— 
H- G. biiUn (for *6aiijtitt)^ to bitid ; 
to tie with but.~G. ^/f, bast. S«c 

Baotiler a rtJTtt«», :f.' o.f. i>a$hi/i, 

i buJlJing.^-O. F, Awrrr (F, l^itir]^ l<j 
build, Ofiyiii unccriaiii ; perhaps (ilUcdto 

Bastinado* v^piui,) Fiooi Spaji. Aeu- 
toHiiJti, ft Urftting.— Spui. hast&Hi a «tick.>* 
Lite L. MiMm^tn, *ec : icc Bfttciii> 


Bastion, i.l'.-lLal.j F, d<t4/i>rf.*Ilal.< 
baiftcHc, \fZt\. of a fottUication. — ltii!,Aij;. 
/fVf, to bnild ; allied lo O. F, bastift to' 
btiild. Sec Bftatilo, 

Bat ,1^ a ctid^ct, £.) M. E. ^ofi'ir.— 
A. a fttfj?/ (Ejig. StndicB, xi. 65), Cf, Irish 
^/d, ^astalT. Der ^/-/^r^ with double 
dimin, sufiix */^//. 

Bat (31, Q winged ihbidiudI, '.Scajad.) ' 
B£U)\^ tnkeu the place of M. E. hakke m, 
Dan, J«i^^<,fiOW only in^dlf-iff. 
evening-bat. Cf. O. Swcd, tiaf/-6afjta, 
* night-bat* v^hre} ; for lA'hich yn fijtd. 
Sw«l. diaL Hatt-hatta : Kictx^ 

Bfttdl. (£0 A tdich Is AS mbch as is 
^^{dfc^l at once; bcacc» a qtiaotity- M.E. 
bacih/, a biking; from A.S- ^rdit, to 
bake. See Ba3c«, 

B&t4 (t), to beat dowD, diminish. 
' F, — L.) Short for Abnie, by loss of a. 

Bat« (i), strife. Cf-"L.) M.E, Aj/^j 
a dipt ioTvn of Deb^tfr, in the sense of 
strife, ^ So also /<;«*? for di-Jtnci, 

Bath. (E,) M, F- ^». A.S. ^^^4.+ 
Icel. m\ O.ILG, /'-aJ; Swed., Dun., 
Du,,G,W. Teuu •Ar/fl/fl, ncBtCT, Th« 
orig. sen^ uras a place of warmth; cf., 
O. If. G. i^rjyijrt ;G. ^A<f»\ lo foment, 

"batho. (E.) A.S.^uitfjdn, to bathe. ^ 
A. S, AiTff, a bath- And see BHk. 

BathoB. Gk.' Liu <li?pth, sinking.— 
Gk. ,6(4^01, depth ; cf, 0<iSyf, deep. 

Baton, Batoon, a cndgeU ;F. F. 
bMcn^ O, F, /'i3j/^n. — I.4ita L. iKLSfbnevt^ 
ace. of /^rfj/fl^ a ctidgcl. Origin doubtfel \ 
connected by Die« with Gk» ^affTiii"«r^ to, 


Battalion. \ F. - Ital. -L,) F, brnnUhn. 

— lial. batiag^ignt,^ battalion. — llnl. ^rr;'* 
faglitt, a battle ; sec Battle below, 

Batbon U), to |,To>v fat; to fatten, 
^Scaod.) Orrg. iulraJisitive, ^Icel' t'oifta^ 
tn grow better, improve, recover- Cf, 
Goth, gabatHan, to be bettered ; !ceL 
bai-t, s., improvement, E, Bottdr. q. v., 
and Boot ;3l Cf also Du. Satiu, Co 
>icld profit; Am/, profit, 

Batt0n (Jji « wooden rod. 1 F.) To 
/>df/fM d(»wn is to fo&ten with battetts. Baifen 
is merely another sjjelling of Baton. 

Batter I , to Uat. (F.-l,.) M.E. 
Bai-tf'en't with frer^ueDUttve suffii ^tr*, 

— F. baltri, — L, JkttUri^ poptilar foroi of 
$aiiuire, to beat. 

batttV ( J > ^ c^™ pomid of eggt. floar, 
and milk, ^F. - Li M. E f^feur^ i>a/ur^. 

— O. F. Aa/ttn^ a beating. — F. Aa/Zw fn 




beat (above). So calLd because beaten 1 Say (a), a kind of laBtd ; properly, 
Op. bcrr}-trcc, (F.-L.) M. E. hay^ a betry 

battery. fF* — L*) ¥,baierie, balttrU^ ] — F. haifi a berry.— L. AJ^ir, n berry, 
'tieating^battefyi' Cot - F- W/>y, to bent B&J (3), inlet of the gta- (F.^L) F* 

battle, f F.-L. I lA.'E.batmld, bataik. 

— 0. F. hixtailh, ( I j a. fight, ( 1 11 baltalioa. 

— Folk-I,. /'dZ/JAdT tieut. p!. ituraed i;ito 
a Jem. 5mg',)» H^hls; l^te L. haiiuJiia„ 
neut pK of adj. &ai/Uif/ts, fighting.— LaU 
L. h^tuir^i 10 beat. 

dom-c, l^foitipt. Parv, — Trav. baledor, Spaii. 
bijiui&r, a waahing-tKctlc. which was aii»o 
ftl first the Muse of the E. word. [The 
comiptioti to httttUda&r was due to con- 
fusian with haltU, vb. to fight,] — PtOv. 
^«, Span, hatit, the same as F. battre^ to 
beat ; with stifhx -i/irr, which in Prov. and 
Span. = L. sulBx -t^r€m, ace fprm from 
nom. -/tJr, cxpfcssing the agent. 

Battlement, (F.) M. K. bafdmmt, 
biitilmeHt ,^ battiUtmtnty from O.F. baUU- 
lier^lfn fortify ; formed from baiaiiie^h^\X\e, 
fi^jht, but confuicd with O. V, btutitUr^ to 
fortify, derivative of O, F. haitiri to build, 
bee B&ttlei and BoAtile. 

Bauble (i ), a fool's mace ; (i) a play- 
ihiiig. iF,i 1 1 ) M. E. h^i^it, M*/^, Aa^i'/. 
(iowcr, C A. i, J 14; (i) M. 1£, /ldA«?/, 
Tudor L. haubU. From O* F. hauki^ 
babcif ^ child's plaything i.Godefroy - 
l^erhaps connected vijlti M. Ital. Sabhoia^ 
a toy I, Florio ) i and with L, itabfiius, a fool, 
Cf. tL B&bble. 

Baviiif a faggat, (F.^ Prov. E. (WUla.) 
Iniviti, s faggot ; hence, a$ Rdj,, soon kin- 
dled and tiurnt out, 1 Hen. I\' . iit. a. 61. w 
O. F, /ayK'. n faggot, bundle (Godefroyj 
Koijucfort). Remoter otigin unknown. 

Bawdi A procurer Of procure&a, go- 
between. I F,-U. H. G.) The full M, E. 
fonn is batedsttvf, P. Plowm. A. iii. 40 
^another \\S, has tew*//j,—0. F, *baltie- 
str&: (found oaly in the later form bat^c- 
ir0t), cquivatcni to LaC, fr&Huba, a bride* 
woman. —U. J I. G* f>afd, bold, pay, lively 
(copmle with E. /W</j; and M. H. C- 
ilT^flzen, vb. [E. ftntt). 

BawL, ^^Scand.) IceL batiia^ to low as 
a cow ; Swed< ^c>£if to betloff % see Bull, 

Baj (ij, reddbh browft. '.F.-Lj 
M. L. *flr.-*0. F. Aar,-!. badius, bay- 
col 00 red 

bayard. F. - L.) A bay hotse ; 
from the cvlouf 1 also, any bone. The 
Kufhx -ard it Teutonic ; »cc Bfta(«rd> 

i>aie, an inlet. — Late L. buin^ a harbour 
!,Isidorcj. p. Confused with bajf, a rcceM 
in a wall. •-O.F. bate, a gap —Late L. 
'ifadtita^ fero. of pp. oi baddrf^ to gape. 

Bay (4;, to bftrk as a dog. it.— L.) 
M. h. bixyfn. — 0.¥. Aawr, to yelp (Godc 
froyj, Cf. ItaL bai'are^ 'to baike/ Florio. 
From the sound. 

Bl^ (5 ). in ]>hr. a/ &y, (F. — L/i For a/ 
abajf.'—F. abais, abbnit; Hrc &ux ^ch^ to 
be at bay^ lit. • to be at the bnying of the 
dogs.^ PI. of F. oA^*, the bark til a dog ; 
verbal sb. from F. aboytr, O. F. uhaier, to 
yelp, bay. — O. F. d (for L» at/ ; ; and baier 

Bay-windew i from Bay (3. Mct P) 

.ij:i3 Window. 

Bayonet. V.) XVII cent. V.baioti- 
neiU\ bayonetU,a. knife; Cot, Probably 
named from Bay&tme (France), whcfC 
first niatje or used. 

Baaaar. (Pcrs.l Pei$. boMdr, a mar* 

BdeUiom. (L.-Gk.-Heb. A pre- 
cious ^ubsLa.nce. — I.. hdeUisint.^G^t. ^M\' 
Ajoi'. — Hcb. b^de/a^k (Gen. ii. la). 

Be-, i>ieh*. (K.) A.S. Ar-. prefix; 
oflen causative, as in bf-numb, to make 
numb. Note also he-head, to deprive 
tlie head ; hi-sii, to set upon, set roui 
bt-mir£f to covet with inire ; &c. 

Be, to exist (E,) M. U, it-zw. A. 
bfON^ to be.+W. itod, to be j Kus*. buih 
I., for^ (pt, u/ifi) \ Gk. ^wii' ; Slrt. Mi 

Beach. (K.? XVI cent. O 
' $hin^lc.' Prob, E., and the same ^ 
pruv. E, bacAty a Tatlty ; also, a sandbank 
near a river. A. S* di££, a valley j Kemble, 
Cod. Dipt ill, 3S6. 

Beacon. (E,) M, E. A^i^^/i. A.S. 
^farrt, bfat, -f 0, Sax. ^?i^flfl ; O. H. G, 
bouhhaH. Tent, type ^htiuktuim, beut 

Bead* (E.i O rig. • a prayer j ' benoe 
a perforated ball, for counting prayci 
M. E. ^^^, a prayer, a bead. A.&. 
gebcd, a prayer. — A. S. hiddan ( -^ *bid/(>ti^ 
to pray. -f Da. ^t/f; G. *rV/ir; Got' 
*«&, ■ prayer. See Bid (0. 

Beadle. (F.-TcuU IX.¥.. baitl.^ 
O. F. ^edei, F. bediSH, a beadle : lit * pro- 
claimer,' or* messenger." ^pM, \\,0, i^iitil* 
O, IL G. M/(/. - O. II. G, btft', weak 



•f M#/tf/«. C. hift^rt I cogAAie with 

to bicL Cf. A. S, ^(/f/, a 

n»i fiom ^iadan. Sec Bid 
B«iaglet A du^. fUnknown.) M. K. 
A/i'i'^, -^qul^c of Low Degree* L 7?i. 

lAte L. fvfi'Hf, of Gaulish origin. Cf. 
Irish Ain-, \\\ ki^i^ A crook, a hoolt. 
Beaker. cScand.-L.-GkO M.E. 

Sat. inheri\ Dd. fi^kcr^ G. ^A<rr; ItaL 
hiickUri, 0. Perhaps from Lale L. ^/c^i- 
n'liw, « *Jnc-cup, — Gk. ^**t, nn earthen 
wine^vciMl : & wuM of Eaiilcrn origis. 

Beam i% ^ piece gf timber. {LI 
M,K, /v^crt. A. Sh hcattt^ a tree. + Du. 
dh^AV ; G. i'aiim, Cf. «Ub Icel. ba^tMr, a 
tree ; Goth, fta^ms, 

B^am v^>, flray. (K) [Usually idefi* 
lificni with BQ&m (i\ spccinlly used lo 
signify a column of light; cf. A. S* hjfr- 
ttiiiJi fejw/, ' the pillfti of fine/] Bui A. S. 
h^am, A beam ta» in iunnr-f'eam, & sua- 
beun) UMwers to n Tcut. tyi>e 'bau-ttUK. 
prob. QOgliKtc with Gk. <^u*<rif, light, <^c»r 
(fof ^f Of), also ^t, light. Sec Phoa- 

Bean. (£•) M, £^ ^Hf. A.s. <»^n. 

•4-t)u. boon I Ice], ^hpi ; 0. II. O. potta^ 
h^Ha (G. bokru'^M Tcut. type *l*aiifhi^ L 
Bear >,r. to c*rr)'. (K.) M,E, /V/o/. 
A. S. ^TTdxr.'^lceL A^ird; O. H. G. ^rdM ; 
Golit' A£|j>(i« ; aUo L,/^rrrj Gk, tp^ipttv \ 
Skt. Mr ^ U. \j. befiwtt I bear ; Kus^> ^ro/^;, 
to take* carry ; Pcra. ^nnfaH, to bear. 

Bear U\ an aoiroal E. M. £. ^^f. 
A.S. *Vnfj,-fIccL ^nj ^*»rw'i; O. H, G, 
^/Tp, /V'"!?! G, Air; Dm. &^r. Cf. Liih. 
*?r(iJH brown ^KJugc^ Tcut, type ^btriftt-. 

Beard, li.) M- E. Acrr/, a. S. Uani, 

+ Du*ifrtfaA/; G. /^rtrt. Teul.lypc *har^o^. 

' Wixd Ig Kus>. benktiii \A\\uhar-dtt; Lr. 

r&d, bcArd ; from Idj:;. tV[tc *bhaniha. 

Beast. (F.-L.; M/E. /^Jte.-O.F. 
^i// ;!■. jft//f\ — L. heilm, a beast. 

Beat. E.) M, E. /V/f/f. A.S. i^dAi/f. 
+ IceL AjrtJ-a; 0,l\.i^. ptHan, M, H. G. 
h^%fM, Tcwl, type "bauian-. 

B«a4d&< fK.-L.; ¥. AMtt)iir.''U 
keSii^cartt to make happy. — L- bedfi-, for 
dt/ifNi,pp. tit ^lifif Co bleu, make happy; 
and -/i*-, for far f re, to make, 

beatitude. (F.-L; f.i^atHtfdt. 
— L. ^£>Ustudiftetn^ %cc. ffocn nom. /'tfoi'i- 
ftMlp, btencdiieu. — L. ^/r*, fot 6ta/i4s» 
blcfi«c<1 : wiih itiffijc. -tiUif. 


BeaQi a dres&y mai:i. ;>. — L.) K. ^» ; 
O. E. /W,^ L. ^{!/ui, fair. For ^btnius ; 
frcim /'(•/(- i;^as in ^H't)^ variant of ^rt», as 
in hcti-us, yood. Bn»gm. ii. $ 67. 

beauty. ( F- - L.) M, E, i5«*/^r-A.F. 

ace of bfUif^s, faunc«s. — L, M/uSt fair 
(aboTc). Der. dtanti-fu!, l/eauit-vus. 

Beaver . 0. an atimial. (K.) M. E. 
itcvfr. A- S, *^r, Ucfof\ + Du. ^'^r ; 
led. hjiirri Dan. f/trvir; Swcd. iia/ts(r\ 
G, ^iiS?r; Ktiss. ^iP^r* ; Lith. fefrfw J ; L. 
jJ^^, Skt. iKibkrif! (1) brown ; (a) a Iftrge 
icbocnmon. Teut. type *&ehritx\ Idg* type 
*bhtbhtusy lei^npUcatctl dcriv. of bhm-, 
brown, tawny. Ilrugm. i. ^ 566. Sec 

BeaTer '>v Bever, lower j^rt of a 
ht'lmci. \f\) Altered by confusion with 
Acatvr-/j(j/, — M.E. lHivt£r£,*^O.Y. bavitre, 
a chjld^» bib ; aUo, the bcv^r [lieflver; oi 
a helmet. » F. Aaw/', to slaver. — F. ^t^tf, 
foam, slaver. Perhaps fiom the move- 
jnent of the lips ; uf. Bret badeutj slaver. 

Beaver (3', Beyer, a stiort imme- 

ihale itpaat. F.^L.) M.E. 6rttir (•= 
ftnv^).- A. F. hfivre. a drink ] aubslantival 
tiie of O- F. i}£Vre, f^tivrCf \q drink, — L, 
biittri, to drltik. 

BecalBLr to make calm. See B9- and 

Because. (K.j/i^F.-'L.) SeeCfttue, 

Beoba&ce. (E. artd F. - L.) See 

Beck ^i), to nod, give a &ign. (E.) 
M. lu A,'k-yn, the same as tii:k-*iyn^ to 
beckon (^Prompt. Parv.i. Sec Bsokon. 

Beok '?\ a itrraiTi. (ScamJO M^& 
A'-f.- Il'cI. bikkr ; Swed. Ad^i ; Don. Atfl * 
a atream. Tcut. lyiw *^Hia, A\to 
TcDt, type ^baXn'z ; whence Diu ftfJ^t a. 
licck : G. ba^Jtt 

Beckon. (E,) lA.E.behrca, A. Ss. 
b?CHan, bfdcitian (al«o lutcftan), to make 
sign^, — A,S. ^^if^ a Hgn. Sec BeMon. 

Becemei (F.^ A. S. ^iuman, to 
aLnivc^ happen* turn out, btfall. + Goth. 
bi'kwim^n ; cf. G, U-qucm, suitable, be* 
coming. From Ba- and Coma, 

Bed. lE.) M, E, htd. AS. ^<^, AkA/. 
+Du. bed; Goth. Aff.//; G, kit. Tcul. 
type "fHiiljom, t\. 

bedrid, bedridden. (E.) M.E. 

bedrtUc ;Cb, C T, 73^^; iV*/r*<irw (P. 
PI. B. viii,85l. A.S, bedrida, b^dr^da.XlU 
' a bedrider ;' une who can only ride on a 
bed, not on a horie, — A, S. M^, a l»cd ; and 



a ■ii itf ia g Anb ; firig pi •* An 

K Mr Vc A,S. «f,«riier 
/-(c. + J^o •^v - "^^ '1 ^ ***- tC O- 

• flMmr' 3 cf Ski. M/. tv fesr ; a U. Gl 

hi-k^H. Ui (rrinUe. 

^V#iv. vt]., bcccbcfi ; faotli d«rif^T«» iby 
laiUBiioe, troa the older fem ^. See 

B««f K - 1. M. E, ^^^ - A. F. hff\ 
O. K. /w/ 'F. bauf * — I.. t9utm, »oc, of 
&f#, sb oi.-ffvk J9<rv9,<n; If. ^, Oftcl. ^d, 
VV.^i^u'. .Skt./«, A S. fj5,«€o« ; wc Cov> 
btf«f-#%torf » ytotiMd of (tie jfuard. 
(MyhO i^l. 'an eatrr of Iref ; ' b«iicr, ui 
laol. CC A.S. hUf'itta^ a toaf-nter, 
^ The iMttal flrrivAtkm ^fmm 
r. StMTcni Inuj^nafy txaufctitr, Utcr 
•Twit t'ttftiirr) it !it»IOPicall> (/owlc**. 
Bmt. K, M. K. Ur4. A. S, /vtfr. + 
Jtu, ajirJ fi, AirVr; loci, t'J^rr. 
B§«stijitfS; Kc BlottLngc. 
&«»t. ].< M.E./Wf.^ 
K. i'.ia, X^ci 'I'Unj"). 

Botl» O, An iiiMcl. K.} t*rov. K. 

Utif. A. S. *iV#/a, ]it • (jllfri); oiic.'- A. S. 

'/ . w«!ftk grade of /i//<»f, (o Mtc ; wttli adj. 

MfTii -oi\ cf. nuu-&/, WAhcful, Sec Blt«. 

B««tl« ' J;i • Uruc inatlel. (K.) M. t:. 

^W. A. S, ^^/r/ ^ U, \\rii *Aiffrl 

v. MtTc, Vv/^/^; tf. I.uw (;. /vU/. Tciil, 

ty|»c*^'/«/-i7<>i, ' a bcnlrr ;' f rom •A»«if-fl«', 

t«cjit : »cc Beat. 

^••ti^ {3f I lu ovrrharif;. H) Kruiu 

M. li. nilj. Ai/rS-t/fouuvJ. * liectle- 

Dwed ; ' r Howrti. A. v. to*/, Oric. 


Latel. " 

. - , ^;^, Ivov l^ toilnatt, «ae of • 
cn<dcT, 6n( cdabGwd Bt Lkse, 
J 107. Named ■Her Lukbcxt Lc 

BegBii, Bcefai>d,i>aic Lc B^ 

ia Uc £alect oC ^'i— r; allied to 
Fkanl ttiguer^ F- ii^yrr. 
npgllH, m the £. IfidkSw ft l»dr o^ ^<= 
bifikot tank. ,Pcre.-T»rt) Ptrt *f- 
;(«'«» a f|wak, laadjr of nak.— Tvk. ih^» 
^2% ■ bc^f goTTfoor, Sec Bcr- 

Pthwfj intcFol. I EO Fonsslr tt Uie 

M. E. phraM em my htJk^lau = oa mj 

lichali. Ml ror tide; wUdtiiUd for Uk 

j A, S, ]>hr. ^ir iMiH his'/t, <]Q the mAt of 

j (mr t by confaiioD wich Af kmlff {mtK 

Died in tbc same sientt:. Frofin A. S* Ar,, 

br; (uv^ /ji-'r/f^, iU>, ^dt. Sec HaIL 

I j9teilaT«. E:./ l.c. lu ^•'4<»v «ocaetf» 

' or cxTitn^I (meicU ; from Aapi witb prefix 

Af*, llie Mine ns prep^ ^. 

Fvnitcd abnormally ffo'ti the verb to 
^have \ vmifuspd irilh F. ab. fW^ir, (i) 
wca I th, 2 , ability. C f. Lowl . Sc Jtavit^, 

I wcallb, (I'j behaviour. 

B«]Ma<L '■ £. From B«- and Hood. 

B«bQiiiC)til» Jieb. -Egyplv* Heb. 
i'£hci>rC'ih, £.aid lo be pU of ivAcffUiA, a 
brui^i ; Lilt prohnblv of E^-pt- oriji^n. 

Behest, Behind, Behold. (K ) ixc 
Heat, Hiad. Hold 1,1 . 

Bthoofp advaaUge, iJL., M.lL.tah- 
hauty for ibc adranUge ol- A. S. hehS/^ 
niIv*nla^e. + 0. Fries, ^t^n/, I»u. *^Afl^ 
ntU milage r G.fvArt/] .Swed, /vA/; 
/vAc*', occd, ^. The jirtfix /<<' is A. 




K. Ay. The adm^'le *b. appears in Icel. \ pres&ion to ihf rj'ca, the pupiH of whti.h 
i^, inoilcratton, meaSTire ; cf. Goth, ga- it cx^Aiuls. 

k^tiw, tein(»einnce, self-restraint. Krum 
A- S. k,Y. Jill] Mem fif the vb. HfiBVe. 
bflbove^ lo befit. ■ IC > A, s. A^Aj/iatt, 

«Th loririril frijiri ihc bb. lyfhof nbovc. + 
Du. hthatvtu^ from 4I1. bthste/', Swed. /*- 

Belabour, Belay : ^^ Labour, 

Beldl. il I M. I- /r/*rM. A. S. 

, BeUigereat. (L,) More correct]/, 

hdii^ratit .— l ,, Ixliigrraffh, stem of pre*. 
Int. of b^Ui^nfrt^ to CATty on war. — L. 

fttlii't for ^('//p.^ stem of M/jtm, war: 

jf/r*rr*, lo car^y on (wftr\ H^Hum it for 

U. Lat. dutUum ; ttp BueL 
BffllOW. <E.) M. li. ^v/Vwtt (c. 1300V 
j Not TuUy cxpbmef). It may have rcs&ttnl 

from confusion of A.S. htihn^ to roar, 

iifalnan, fhc/tau, to alter; iraivilntinir }.. [ Iwllutt'^ witli Ihc Kr, verb Mgan, to be 
/ru«/,J/v,usef( ligunvtivdy. I'f. ^rf/r. sb.+ ^"E^y, or vviih Ihe rare y^xhl*jflgtatt^ to 
liiu /fi/Zrw. tobray. See B*llow ami Bell, bellow (whiuh would have givwi fii7l(nv\ 

BaldlUIL. (K - U) Ironically for ^Z- 
t/amt^ i.e. firw lady* — F. /V//^ i/ffwc — L. 
^'Ati, fern, of Miui„ fair ; nml ifoiHhm, 
\^\y, feni. qI iUmsnttSt lord. Sec Boau. 

Bele&gner. t^I>ii-'' Scc L«aeaer- 

Bei«m&it«, a fos&il. Gk.) Gk. 
fit^.tfO'i'nft, n «tone »hnp«d ILkc the bead 
of a dart.-uk. iSJKfftvov^ n dart.^t'k. 
^4aa«k. to tvst. Vf^.wKI-O 

Bel^. fF.-C.) OriK* 'n watch- 
lower.' Comiplfd rjartly by mdurncc of 
Mi) horn M. \\, her/ray, hrftt/, ft wotch* 

Wrr. — (.K I*', h'rfiti, itrfroi, he/froi (F* 

— M. W.i n.t'ctr/rii^v, walth-lnwer 

Jbl . H. G. hire-, fur A^^;f', bn^e of hrr^ft, 

lo protect; and M, ILfi. ftmt, // tW^, a 

w/y) I 

Sec B«U, ( r. Bull. 

B«ll0WI, Scaiul.' Nr. K. ^A; Mjf, 
Mffii', A bng^ but aUo tised in (he special 
sense of '1*1 low f.' Bdiint'i h the pi. o( 
Mi K. /V*'a?<". a hay. from lecL ^-Z^-r; and 
M, E. /W# (from A.S.1 also mciuis M!y, 
Cf. G. j*/rjj^-VWi4' ™ * blow-bag^/ a pai/ 
of bellowi; A.S. hii?st-Mg. bcUow>, Sit. 
* blait*1i;iy.' Sfc Wlow. 

TjoUy, .E.^ M. !■:. /Wj-. A.S, jW^'. 
^^, a bag^ ikin (for holding ibings) ; 
hence '>tet\ belSy.+Icel. /y^, bog; 
fm. Ari/^, skin, bellv j Swetl. i',ti^, belly, 
bellows ; Dan. A^rij. hosk* telly ; la. 
A«i/^; Gotb, Aa/^j, bng. Teut. type 'AaJSpfr. 
From iaf^-} ■*"*] **f"i "^^ Tcut. root btig 

pUce of iccBrity, a ti:>wer, the same woni 1 1 =Idg. VBlILLClh, to swclL Cf, Irlih 
ai G. /rM.*S', j-f vitu ; bcnce the lit. lense 1 i^4^, bajf, belly ; fiofgrntHjl swell j W, iW, 

U ' a pmlectlnf;; shellcr,' watch-tower* 
Allied to Borotueti vt\\*\ Free. 

B^liO^ (K-i A. S. ihiro;^ati^ to tell lie* 
»b<fni. From fc-, by. prctix ; and ttoi^Mt^ 
tol.L'. Seffl,ie(j). 

BeHATe. >K0 M. E. htkutn \ivtn*eH). 
llu,* prefix /v^ wa» Kub^tituted for older 
jpf V ■■ O. Mejc j^^f?/aa, A,S. gdi^fjttf gr- 
ijf/au, lo iKrIicve; tit. to hobi dejir^+t^u- 
gnMrntn ; OH. Ct. gihu^iTtt, i'^g-favben ; 
Goth, ^■fnu/'jati. Teiit. rypc ''fauhitttt, 
with ^. prefix i from Aiw/^, and 
ttem or Tent, root "/rj/A-Itig. ^LKUUH, 
10 tike. See Lief. 

Bell. iE.) M. E. MU, A,S, ^//f. 
a belL+Pn, hfl. Pcrhnu* riftmet] from lU 
loud Bound \ cf. A. S- imihu, to roar, 
bellow. See BaUow, 

Bellft, a fmr Ut\y. 1 F, -L.) F. MU. 
km. of ^■. /ftm. < t, F. /y/, &iir.-«I.. A-Z/rw, 
fair, fine, Sec BeAU. 

beUadonna. Ital. - L. ^ Ital. kl!a 

i^ft»a, latr lady — L- /^r/Aj Jominn ; f^t-e 
Boldam. Anamej^iveri to ihc nigbt^faaili', 
from the U5e of it by ladirt 10 give ex- 

belly, Por, hU&u*s, % V. 
Belong, Beloved, Below; see 

L>ODff> LiDve. Low, 

Belt^ n gfriLllc. , I . ; M. K. ^-i-//. A* S, 
^rt.+ Idtl. A-/// ; Irish and Gad. /w//. h 
belt, border; O. H. G. b&h ; Swcfl, ^v//<'; 
Dan. bfFiti, All boirowed from !., hafieus^ 
a belt. 

Beltane, Old May-day. (C ) O. Triali 
Mt^ufy \\ indisch ) ; lit. ' hre-kLndling/ from 
an t>lii custom. Celtic typo *Mif-fe{/)ttio * 
where Ada' 13 cognate with A,S. A?/, a 
blaze, and itpHid i* from ^f^/^tfoi^ type of 
O. Iiish /^H, hre ; cf, L. A'/^rrv, to be wami 
i.Flck. ii. I ig, 164). 

Bemoan* {E.) From Be> and 

Bench. (F.. M. E. ^iiMA-A,>v 

j*^Mt-,-f im. Ajw/\ .1 ttench, table, bnnfc for 
niujiey ; Swc<!, Utftk ; Pan. hariX:; TceK 
/VWr ; ( ;. hank. Tent type ^^tth't. 
doublet, Mw-f. 

Bend « t^ bo»v, cnrve. fE, M. E, 
hxff'iftt. A S, hfthiiiH, orfg. to ftring a 
bow, fatten a bfiiid or ttrine to It; cf. A, S 


(F. -<;.) O-F. 

baad; tceCoccnve, TV 


~ re.) if.E.*rw/i^. 

prep, bdam.^K, S. Ar- 
Cr G. nied-m, mted-er; tec 

{£.> A.& III ■!■■■■ 

IP «iqr, aaaat. See Qso<k 

A.&lyBZf Femed»wiai«Ued-«r(clM.E. 

aeatfL ' aot iaa^\ ih. dat to kv mt $ ai», to be- 
-m; ] yenh, sMort. B3r. TV <»1H «I WM of 

— L.Afl«f,vea 


Banedictioa. !F.-Lj F> MM^b-- 

«ad Mtrt, (jo ipeefc (an 
iMniaon. (F.-L) X.E. 

B«A«A«lor. U) I. htm^mam-, a 

doer of good.-^ L. Amr, «cU ; ««1 J^M^^ 

A doer, from^ifiTr, to «iot 

- F, Ai^n^^tf XoC\-L*le U hnufinmm, 
ft emU of aa cvutc; L. AflBQCrrAtai, a 
iKUHJoxiig, I kiadims. — L. Am#» wdl ; 
tnA/acett^ to do. 

bttiett^ TF.-L.) ModUvd (badly 
from M, C hnfii. - O, F, ^/n/^ (F. 
hidttfiSif}.'^!^ bcK^offttm, t ktadiKift ooa> 
leri«d : oevti. of pp. of btn^atert^ lo do 
mil, be kind. 

B«q«TOlaaiC«, i^.-\J) Y.himMp- 
kmt (CotV— I- hemtH^tlmiia, IcindAeu.^ 
L. ace Un4 uvi^nttm, kind, lit. well- 
wi«bln^. — U Arite, well; mud MnUmitm, 
wee cfiuleMs, «rUhing, from hpU, t with 

Benighted. E,> S« Niffht. 

Benign, !K-l..) O, F. Anri/w (F. 
A^mnt*!^ '''*«#^w/^kind; thort fi^ •^^ 
Hij*tnuf -pL, Afm-, for *h€u$tt, viriam af 
ApifH/, food; 4ad •^pVHM/, hom 'a« in 
fmaigTHMs), Uxjta grwrf, old form of 

bleuing ; tee Bmadio- 


*fprt< for CTfticj *kMUtf hent-gnu (In 
p1ai]e-iufnei).+0. H. O. !*/»»». a *mw, 

B«niUlba From Se- fttid TVumb. 

Bsusoltt, 4 Tf«lnoi]i lubttBUce. fF. ^ 
IlaL — Arab.) F. Uttjein. 'gam bcntoifi 
or gnm beajftraLn / Coi. * ItaL Atm- 
~ ~ Jtftl. ^ 

occw : Tk. ir-, i»-, prdbr nd 


ijaw. CapvJ u 

(ttilk saftx vO fr« Uf^ hme *;»• 
wksKs <■—>■■, to wacf ^ie«C0» A. S^ 
Or, I ap) ; aul Anuar k thtt a rcbIv 
6enw. of A a iri to . w beqfaatlu 

,SL) A. a Mi4«^M. lo 

lc^J,^ luL 

I . »e>ft«aoe.< 

g^mrtt 10 be 

hrgmmttfm, the uwenoe ctfieJ bezguDoc— 
IfaiL ^1^1— n^ a io«ra ia LflMliasdr. 

BacgUofc(x), «UBd ofpear. I.F.— 
luL-^iut) F> irrgmmtOt (Cd),.- 
Iul.iWv;jwMrY-«ipI. •«!]«■ a kiaJ ofcxoel- 
lent pcan, coae onl of Toiky : * Toniano. 
.Tnifc, J^ ^rmAdir ' prtftce*s pear/* 
Tsik. Afif , prifice ; «fwW, pnir. 

BCRT. <E,) M.E.#rr(/. A. & Arnc 
+Da. Jv«, Affltf; loeL J^; Swcd tdr; 
Dan. Act; G. Aivrr; Gotb. f^n\ AH 
froiD a baie Au^. lJt> * fidible Cmit ; * cf» 
Skt. ikaSf lo eat. DWr i»a-^erfy, 

Bnth. .E-> ForiMily ' coHTenient 
tea-room *; prob. ftvwn the M, E. fitrtm, 
to be»r ; «4 if ' bcarine-off room/ CC 
cirov, E. kfffJt, a fbocboH, grasps pcffitioo. 
See Boar (i> : and dL Blrtli. 

B«ttL ,U-Gfc--Skt.) M,E.*en7. 
-O. ?. VrtV-L, «rr//**.-Gk. j9qi»»A. 
A«; cf. Arab, btllaur, crystal, betyl.^ 
Sit. vaiAurya CPraJtrit veivnya\ orig. 
befy1> l»ioq|*bt from Vtdiln iu S. India 
(Vulei iStthtlinek'*- 

B#MAt| Bmuttp ^ ir*^!^ circle, in 
benildry. tF^-U-Gk.) InUbdcd to 
represent a gpM coin of Byf»iiiicLR>.> 
O. F, btsanl, ' an jmdcot gotiJ coin ; ' 
Cot. — L. Bjftatttiunt. — VAf.* B^virriciy, the 
name of Constantinople* 

B^tt^MSb- ^.E) ^'- 1^- ^MvA«n. from 
A/-, prefix J and ftfhert, SoMlhcm form 
coirc^pondiog (o Northern t^JI^m, to aeek. 
See BMk^ 




Befleem* Beset> Beshrew, Be^iln Sh, Sonn. m.— O. K *HviIy *AMtv/, 
sidOp B^Bieg'e} s^-c Beem. Bit, Shrew, | only fouod in mod. F. Mveatt, and ia F. 

Besom f a broom. lE.l M. £. ^^wr^ 

Teut* type *hsmati-^ m* 
Befl(>t, Bespeak ; w^ Sot, SpdAk, 

Best; »re Belter. 

Besteftd; ('om Be- and 8Uftd> 

BesUaX :.K.-L. F. beiOal.^l^ 

,S« Bvut. 

Bestov, BestreWi Bestride ; see 

Bet, to wdger. (F*-Scand.) Short for 
aivr^ia the kqsc to maintain^ or 'back,' 
uo^ U explained m Phillips^ ed, 1706, 
See Abet. Der. Af/, sb. 

Betake. (I^- an*^ Scand.) Se« 

BetOlf * species of pepper, ri'qit,— 
Mahayalim.) Poa. A;?/^/, ^^tf/^. — Sf aUya^ 
Hm veni/a, \,v, veru d/a, mere lenf (Yule). 

Bethink, Betide, Betunes, Be- 
token ; see Think, &c. 

Betrsy, (T. — L. ; un't/i E. ^re/x.) 
From ^', pi<fi< ; and 0. F. tratr (F. 
trahi*-^\ to ilelivcr up, from L. iradere^ 
% The ptcfti ^- wn.5 <lue to cotitiuiQC) 
u ith btti'i^y* See TrAdiUon. 

Betroth. <^.'\ See Troth, 

Better, Best. ;£.) 1. From the 
Teut. b4»c *M/« good, WAS formed the 
TcdU comp. ttera •*a/iRw»», u in Goth. 
Aff/iia, belter, A. S. ^/'^nx ;wtih mmation 
from a to *), M. E, hftttr. The A. S. bft, 
M. E. htt, IS advcrbml a&d CDrnparative. 
%, Frum the wmc base was fonncd Coth. 
haiista, hn\, A.S, inUi ifor *r^/j/), M, E. 
ikit. Sirailflily D«. (V/cr^iw/; Icel. lAc/rj", 
hair; Dan. ^i/rf, f>e*isf\ Svicd> baUrt^ 
hait ; G. fc-jwr, Atj/. D*r- (from the 
^me bttsc) 6a/Uu, hci (a). 

Between* £■ > A. S. httivhRon, be- 
tween; t-ailicr httvpronum,^\,^, ^. by; 
tuvfftHffi, dftt. pi. of ixt'c&ne, double, *llie<1 
Co /uvf. iwo ; see Two- Here hv^num 
(ttl&O twinum) 4RSh ers to (roth. tioiihttmm. 
Oat. pi. of fntrknat, * twa each/ t-T* L, 

Tie t w ixt t (£•) (M. E. bctwixx lo 
tttiich / wu aflerwmd^ «dde(t ^ A^ S> 
^frviXy h4tU'U.v^ betTt*f0X, hthtt^ht, appa- 
itndy extenifed from A. ^.hetwik„ beiweicn. 
From A' S, he^ by ; and *twiA , aBiwenng 
to twtth \r\ Gotlt. /ttttVi nai, two each. 
S*r ibove. 
BiiT^ tlopin^; to <lop^r «tant. (F.> 

bnveait^ * a kind of sqctiie [4:att!ciitct'& rule], 
baving moveable and compB5&e branehes, 
or the one branch compasse and the olber 
strnight; some cad it a bev4!(\' Cot. Cf. 
SpArt. baivti. Origin miknown. 
Bever» a ]HJtalii>n ; see Bearer Tj). 

Veverage. (F.-L.) 0. F, b^/nfgt 
(Supp. tu (iLiilefroy), <lmik.-0. F. Vpnr, 
fioirre, to drink. «].» tifur^, to drink. 

"beTy. vF. - L.) It anfiwcR to O. F. 
Artrf, a drink ; from O. F. ttvre^ to drink 
(above). Cf, Ital. bevit^ a bevy (Florio) ; 
also, a drink LTtirriano). 

Bewail, Beware, Bewilder, 

Bewitch; SIX' 'Wail, Ware, Wild, 

Bewray, to distlose. fE.^ Prcn^erly 
to accuse. iT, K. btivraietf, biwrryfHi lo 
diiclost. A, S. i^v prtfix istx- Be-) ; and 
joifgttn, to accuse (for older '•Ufogiant 
with DiiQtatiof] from c to f). Cf led. 
rdgjW (for mr^ii), to slander, Swed. wj/a, 
to discover ; O. Fries, biivr 0gia^ to accuse ; 
Golh. tiTokJan^ to accuse; G. ;m^m, to 
Lensurc. ^. These are caudal verb>, from 
Ihc base lervA- seen in Golb, wrohs^ 
accusation, Iccl. r?g, a alander. 

Bey, a cOTcnior. (Tuik.) Turk, hig 
I proii. nc^irly as baj), a lord, prince. 

Beyond, CE.i M, E. ^^'(*HdV. A. S. 
U^iottdau^ beyond, — A, S. iV', for be ot /•#, 
by ; and i^t&nd^ preji. across, beyomi, from 
^i»n, joii. Cr. Goth, jaztjdre, tbilher, 
j^iipfi tliere ; from Jaitts, that, yon. See 

Bexelf the part of a ring in wbtch th« 
stone b &et~ (F.) Al$o spek h^HI'^ it 
also meaiis a bloping edge. — O. F. bisel 
(Roquerort) ; mod. F. hiieatt^i. bc/cl, basil, 
slants sloped cd^. Cf. Span. i*istl, the 
slanting edge of a lookiDg-gU^a, Per- 
hnjis from L. his^ double. 

£esiquef a gatne at cards. (Fi - Pen.) 
F. beiigtit (with g] ; also hJsy (LittriK 
fl. The first form^Pcrs. hd2Jfkah<, sjwrt, a 
game; the secotid = Pers. iJif, play.— 
Pcrs. bds^idim^ to play, [A g;ues«.] 

BesOVT, A atone. \!F. — Span. — Arab. 
— Ptrs ) O. F, bexaar, ¥. /^SiWn/.**Span. 
i^c::4Mr — Arab, hadi^iahr.^ Pers, /nW-wAr, 
befuar ; lit, ' couiiter«poi»on,' from itt 
supposed virtue, — Pcrs. /fji/, txpellui|£ ; 
nnd tdfir, p<*isQn. 

Besonian, a beggarly fellow. (F.^ 
In 1 Hen- IV. V. 3, i (K. Formerly 




'jwacn; cnwte hy Athtotg C» -ran to 

t, (pcU i4i0fg**e, in Ccrtgrsve, 
filthe knave - . . bisoaiao.' Or from 
Juu^wr, need, want ; whence kis^gni, 
'pi. ' Dcw-Icvieil sonldien, SDch 21 cmnr 
. , . needy (o ibe wnr»'; Torriano (not ta 
Floriov Ofigixi anknown. 
Bi», prefix- ( U) L, rfi-, fof *tfHi't iwioc. 
^ U <^» twck So also (rb. 9<% Skt, Jtri. 
Sec Tiy«, 

BijM, \V. — L., F. ^wfi a iUnU 
ilupe ; bencr, iDcliuaUofi to oot «dt. Cf. 
Ita!. i~MtJffit i-^i^i^i^, CrMiqiic. Origin 

Bib. 'I'> A dolh imdcr a child'i 
chin; from M. E. SiMcit\ w drink. — t- 

l.uVe rii, \x)\ L. ^/Ar/fJ if/«»fm iVdlg.)- 

BlbU. :i'.-L."r.kO M.F«A/^- 

h\ hthU.t^'LAW K. tidiia, fern. ^ng. ; for 
1.. A(Ma. neut. pJ.^Gk. ^i^Aia, coHeciion 
*if writing pi. of Bt&^AQtff little book, 
(limln, of ^(^Atff, 1 book,-t;L ^u^Xo^ 
Egyplian papyru-s ; hcnc«, * book. 

bibliogija-phy, Gk,) Gk. 3*Mi'--, 

for ^i^Atof ; an<l y^&^tiV, to write, 

bibUomania. (Gk.) Ok. ^i^V, 
fur ^f^Ai^k* ; rniil Mao^ 

BiC€. (IM Properly *grayi*h/; hence 
A/rtc' ^7""'' erajisb bloe. — P. hif^ dusky. 
Cf Ilal. ^'fVtf, gray- Origin unknown, 

Bioker, to skirmish. vUaceitaiiL) 
M, K. likir, a fight ; HAmn, to tklrmisb. 
Cr, M. !•:. htkgn, vo peck ; *«*ffl, to throat 
wtih ii pointed wupon. Apparently from 
O, F. btqutTy to Strike witii ibe beiJt (see 
Beak ; or from A.S h^eeA^ & pick-aite. 
Cf. Du h'kkin, Kit notch a miil-stujic ; alio 
tL Frie». hikkem^ to hack, E^^^r ^(^^ 
hikkin^ to hack^ ^f'lifif, a pickaxe (G. 

Bic7CL0, [Hybrid.'^ In ose since t&6B. 
Cojiicfl f'tom Bi- and CyoLo. 

Bid 'Or ^"^ pi^^' (1^0 N^^'ly obso- 
lete ; presen'c*! in MdJiag-praytr^ and in 
io biii Iraifs (pray prayer*"], M. E. hidden. 
\K S. /'^//dw ^ Dh, /W(Arw ; G. ht'tteu ; 
Iccl. -^iVf/sr^ Goth, bidjan. TciU. type 
*hidjitti', allied to h. /idff, I trust ^ Gk. 
witfw, I prevnil upon; fmmyBHIUDH. 
See Urugm. I $ 5^^ ; ii. ( 890. 

Bid . i > lr> command. (E.) M. E, A^rfrw. 
— A. S /voJan, to command. +D11. f'iedfH* 
to oPei : Icel. (^^|J« J G. ^/Vrtw : Goth, 
aaa I'tudfTH ; Gk, ««(rtfD>ja(, I enqtiifc ; Slcl. 
Awi/i, tnt tmr1<TsianiL Tcut t^jjc *hfudait . 
liHKUUH-i Cqnfaacd with Bid, r 


the Jbcmol'wIiidihAw taken tlie|ifaioeof 
tho«e of Bid > . 

Bidftv to await, wait. iK.'i M. £. Udem^ 
h.S. ««^. + D«. MdcM', (eel. ^'««: 
Swed. &kla* Dw. Aj> ; (^ith. irafiuff: 
O. H. G. MiOM, TcoL type ^HJam-, 

Kamaialm Iflsiing two years. '.L.> 
Formed as ii from f-uiiMt-Mm, a space of 
two ycarft ; the cme L uord is AiroMnAStr. 
— L. ^* two ; an'l ttnmaHt, l»ti&g a year, 
yearly.— L. aamts. So abo tri-mmM^ 
fr<Hn /n'- (for //"^j!, three; pt4tdr-t$miM/t 
more correctly qiMdri-tmMiai^ from fmaJrj' 
(for foaJnij) . belocgiqe to fncr ; fuinfmi* 
wrutiaij from ijttinqai' (for ^ui»i^»f\ Ii»t; 
dtc-^ttmiatf from act em ^ ten; t<i$t-tnmsi. 
from cenhnfh a hundred ; mtM-aHua/^ 
from fffiV/ifr a thousand, «Scc» 

Bi«r, a frame oo which a corpse b 
bifiw, (E.) M.E. A««, fc?^f, A.S. 
Air» Vr. -- A. S. (^-, jid «cra of ^toa, to 
carry. + ria^ Aoor; O. H. G. i>dra (G. 
AaArt); allied to Icel. Intrar^ fem. pU; 

B£«Btiiigfl, Bee9tii^9. the hr«t 
miik given by a cow after calving, (E,) 
A. S. hysting^ bysi (fw *hi*stj^ ihid; milk* 
From A.S. ^^iw/, first milk after calving, 
+D11. Mali G. h£ii-milk. 

BiftliOftiedf two pronged, (L,j Ijite 
L, f'ifuridtus, pp. of hifttrfHrtf to pait in 
two directions -• L- di'/arcus, two- 
pranged; from M-(f', double; furta^ a 

Big". :Scaad.T) M. EL htg; also ^i[£^. 
rich I Hampole}. Not A. S. Cf. prov. K. 
(tug, bij», W* boastfuL Prob, of Scand. 
origin. CA Norw. higgCf a strong man. < 

Kg'viiyi A fionble manriage. (F.-^L* 
djtfi/Uk,; F. ldgamie. — lA\^ L. h'gatftia; 
a clumsy compouml from L, dt\ double 
(see Bi-;, and Gk. -^ftia^ from 'yfAftm, 
marriage. It shotild rather have been 

Bi^ge&, A j3ight-<ap, iYJ) M. K 

h£gut>t, a biggin for a child;* Co*. 

Named frnm the c^pi worn bybcguuies; 

see B equine. 

Biffbt, 3 coil of rope, a bay. \J?~) 

M.iT hi^'hf. A.S. fyki^ as in mxttret 

byht,jx bight i'bsiy! of wftTer seeGrein).— 

A.S. ^ug', wesik grade of f^tlgan, to bow, 

i Ixend : with miitnlion of u tu j".+C* kwhi, 

Tcut> type *h*Afi:. See Bow ^ 1). 

I Biffot, An obstinate devotee t** a creed. 

. F. F. Atgof, *an hypocrite, «iipersli- 

Miow;' Cot, Applied by the 



Krench tn the Numuna m a temi of 
rrpToach .\Vac«), Of unknoMrn origin. 
It it »n oltlcT w**rcl than bfj;ttWf, wUh 
which it sccmt lo have becii «iomewbAt 
Cflnfttscl fll ft Idler pericKl. 

By«m, Mriiifcct. (F.-C?) Y.bij^t. 
Pcrltaps from Brcl, hiiou, a rifif; with a 
(tone, a lingcr-Hng, from hiz, 4 tingtr. 
Cf. Com. bt'iot* \i\\^ same), fiom *jj, 
Iff, a. finger; \\\ hyson, ring, from ^f, 

Bilfaanyt a whonlc*ljciTy> fScand.) 
|>an, ^tMefhrr, a bilbcny; where Arr i« K. 
^ri/. In M. Dan., AjA' had the lensc of 
Dan, htgfr^ i, e. 1>oss (Kalkar). Cf. Norw. 
Ma, n awctlin^, tumonr, ^ North Eng. 
hles-htrry hif«f-btrry\ sec BlooberrF- 
In both cftsw, -^r/^ lftk« the V,. form ; 
^ee Berry* 

Bilbo, A sword I Bilboes, fctieTR. 

i^Npatii) Both named from fli1bo:v at 
Nlbao in Spain, famons for Iran and 

Bila iV !Mrcrettoa from the liver. (F. 
-J..I F. W/f,— 1« /'///f. L. MHs is TpT 
•^n/j>, BrtiETii, i. t s:7 ; cf. W, (^wi//. 
Bret. Afi/A biic (Fick, cri. 4. ii. 1 ;f >. Der. 

Bile ^ t}p a boil (E.) See Boil (1). 

Bilge. (F. — C.) Av^r'xaxitQi hu/gt, 
tvhicb orig. meant the bottom of a ship's 
hnll I whence hilge-wattr (N» £. D.). ^ 

Bill ^>)i achoppCTjSword, (EO M, E. 
^/A swon!, axe. A, S. A*'//, sword, ase. 
+ <1. Sax. AfV, O. II. G. Mi, n. ; (cf, G. 
f*illi\ ate, r I. Tcot. lype *^/jffrrty a. 

bill ii), a bird's Mc. ^£0 M. E. 
*/7^ A S. fii/t (Tent, type •AiAi 1). Allkd 
to mUyi). 

Bin (3'. a williiiE, acconat. (P. — L.) 
A, F. W?/f. — Tjite r. /'///(I, a writinf^; the 
dimin. vihiUtta^bidUfa, shewing that ^itla 
i* ft coinipticjn of 1„ buila, a papal bnll, 
Sic, see Bull ^3'. 

biUet 0. a note. (F.-L.) A. F. iS/A 
/////. — Late i.^ bitUtia, i^Ufta, dimtn, uf 
i^iUa, a writing j «cc BlU ( J above. 

BiUot l-' I * to£ ^i wnod. iK.) F. 
i4ihiU\ hiltai, a bitlrt f>f woiv). Dimin. 
KtiHiif. n !»»);* Uiiinp. Origin nnkiiowiu 

biUiardfl. ll.) F *r"//rt«/, 'abilUrd, 
or the iiitfk wherewith w-c touch the ball 
at liillyArds;' Cot. Fornitnl with fiiiflin 
'rtrr/ ;*i, *Aanif) from ^*7/f, a log, slick, .11 

BilUoBi •ecHtlUon. 

Billow, » wave. i.M«ind.) feci, hyigfa^ 
ahdlt)w; Swcd. ^^{/a; Don, ^'/^r.+M* 
H. G. f>uigi, a billow, a bag. Lh. ' a 
iweli' or surge ; cf. IceL M^'a^ to inflate, 
poff out. 'Ine loel. Ay/^^ nas mntation 
tif n 10^, and, like M- H.G, i«/f-f, is from 
iftwig's ^rd Item of ^ctgntt^ to Ewelt with 

BilL. (E.*l M. F^ AfV//«. A, S. ^/w^J, 
a niixnjTftT- Lu, ti. j. + Du. Afw, G. ivMttc-, 
a sort of lusket, Perhnps of Celtic origin ; 
cf. Gaulish Lit. ivnrta, body of a can : ^^'. 

Binaryi twofold, (L,) L. AiHdn'ur, 
consisting of two thing4.*L. hJmts. two- 
fold.— L. hi'^ double ; see Bi». 

Bind. (E) M. F. Hmfeu. A. S. ^rif. 
dan. + Du* and G. hinden ; Icel. and 
.Swcd. bitkda \ Dan. ivWi: ; Goih. t*mdaH ; 
Skt. ^W/6. to bintl. ^y'lillENDil.) 

BiJlg, a heap of corn ; obi. i^Scaml.) Tn 
Kune)' a Poems. .-Icel. ^ingf^ Swed, f>ittffif 
a heap.^'^f' H.G. hjgt, a heap wf corn ; 
whence Itai A/*-rf. ^ fUstinct from ^i>f, 
thoLi£[h ^ML'EliAps Confused wjth It. 

Biknaclo, a bnx for a chip's compau. 
(^Foji, — L. A singuUr cnrruption ol the 
older word hif/atU^ by confusion wiib inn, 
a chcsl»*-Port. bittieota, a bittnde (i.e. 
binnacle) ; Vieyra. Cf. Span, bi/oi^ffru, 
F. hahitacii, tht tiftmc. The Port, titatola 
stAiids for *^abifa(oia-, the first syllable 
being tost. -^ L. hatiiiiiulunt, .t little dwell' 
ing, i. e. the 'frame of timber in the Eletr- 
age of a ship where the compass i^tands* 
(Bailey)-" L. ^tn^i'/rirf, to dwell; frt-quefit- 
of habere, to have. 

Binocular J having two ejres. (L.*) 
From Ijit. hitt'iy two each; oatt-HS^^ eye; 
with svl^x -iiris. 

BiiLonii^f having two tenu». (L*^ 
Krom L.1IC I.. Hnomi-Hif cquiv. to L* 
bin^mims, ndj, having two names ; with 
suftiit -rfViA From L. i*i% two • HffrntM-, 
for mhtf//i,9 name. 

Biography. (Gk,) A wriltew ac- 
count ijl A I lie; from ^o~, for ^lur, life; 
nnd ypntpttt', to write. The sb. 0hs U 
allied to Quick, 

biology, /^k.) Science of life ; from 
(.It. 0*0', tiir fl'oij tifc ; arid '^oyin, a dia- 
c*>Drein|r, from Xifym, n discourse. 

Biped. (L» I.. /'*/p^^* stem of ^i/^ts, 
two*lootcil ; from h\ two 5 /rv, foyt. 

Sireli, » tre*- E/i M. E. ^*VvA/, 
A.S, AiVr^. f.+G. AiVl^ f.<Teut. *h>k^ 

jOM*. p. AUo A.S. /vr-4, V-Vi. 4* TMi. 





Ah* Sfcg. 4fci /«, m \md <rf 


!• irnf aiw, orif. a tctflet a&^Luc I. 
dMi. Sice Dm— ■■ 

Cf. ktL li«r«n m.: S«c4. ^n/. Dfto. 

i^l9r< C : O. !r. G. rti^rf G. gtburfj ; 
CkilJk. gmimmrtJkj, £.<T«sU '^lArtfir « td^. 
4«^ ii^L >4r^/. t MoviteMX All 

Inr. SeeB«ar(i). 

akadofckte. (F.-U) K. 
if, lit. twice cooltnL^F. ^ i,L. tit \, 
« ; ud nn'r, coolced, ftoMi U fatfi/m, 
o( (ottus, pp. oif^atrt, to cook. 
Biaeei. l-.j Ffom L, aa, tbott for 
^LT. l«ice; sad uci-itm, sapiDe of Btedrtt 
lo cut. 

^'i£<^«u. — C^ MtfcwK, a fcitfaop; liL 

that mtcbei, frotn 4r«»«-, ff^^ndft df «wv-, 
a% k atrtV-TAjtat, 1 i|i]r, orctlMlk. See 

ako tpdi wCmmi^ Koomi/t w^smuik. 

Wwt^ a (inwlniped. (I.— Tnt) L. 
Auwi (ninjr ■ ; Late Ck^ fiiemr, Xot a I. 
«&rd« bat borrowed from Teotoalc ; 
O. ILG, wiivnt, Q, wistmt, a buon; 
A. S. KvtfifW, A wiM ox ; Tcct. vtmrndr. 
Sec O. H. G. witMnt in Schade. 

Bissextile, a name for tca(>-jo>r. 

J_ l_itf L ftiifrxfi/is armut^ hiMtxtilc 
)car. — L. Hiuxiut^ an inLcrs^Ury day; >o 
eallei beuaaK the mtercaUted day ^fc^r- 
neriy Feb. 34) wfl« <:alled the sixth of 
ibe calendi of March; tbcfe being ihos 
two dajs witli Ihe tame name. — L. ^>, 
twice ; sexfttt, lixih, fnjro i£Xt six. 

BiMOO, Porbliod. ^E,) fa Sk M.E. 
MjM. O. Northamb, if-wm blind (Matt. 
Ix. s&k. Origin unknown. 

8S«tr«t* <l^^ btowo. (F.-G.7) K. 
r/rr, a dark hfown. rcrSaiM from prov. 
h'ftUr, daik, gloQiny* also bistre (Flu- 

Bit ^ili* mouthful snuli piece. ;E.) 

From A.S, ^(/ , wtak grxi- n/ 
bncu-flia. Am^: kei. ii/«: SmvL iUTt 
Daft, iiiitf <Te«i. t«pc •hifwm , m. 

iit(sJ.acsrbfMakaae. (E.) it E. 
Mv. A-HMff. ■ualMc.«MiC'<TcB. 
type *it/i'z, I btie : cC JmO^ a ettiL^-Uiu 
£^ii led. >v/r;/ C<iw^)3 SmO. kil; 

Bitch. L. M.E.^i<.MrrAr, A.& 

BiU* J- M.E.4nM. A-Sl 
4-Dl* Ujitm', loei iiC«; S«cd. 
Daft. HJt ; G. hnt5gn. Tnt. type 
Atbed 10 UjSMJirt pLt-JTJi ,u> dkan; 
bit. Mii/. 10 ckave. (V^HEfDO 

dT ifiteir. lo btie.+I>ii. Mfer; letL Mtri«ni (F.-UieU) T^ 
m » added. U.K. ttit^, ki^mtrt,»¥. 
Haar^ *a bktor [bittcnij;* CoC Piol^ 
oaaaed 60a its cnr; <£ L. kAtirt, hmHrw^ 
lociylateabiUeiB; wtoieealaoL.AiDJ!p; 
wd to mem * biucm,* tho^h tkc mmc 
wocil M iy«lAf^ Lc bnHid. 
BItte, nanl tens. ($c»«d,r) Tbe 
HH/ aie two scrosg poets em deck fo 
wbklk cabks aie fji»med. Prob. faxm 
Icct MH, a bit, moatbfal icc Bit >} ); 
alio» a CTDB-booa in a hoaae ; a tfawait 
f U ^>vjufnu«) io a iZup. [F. iay/j. bm« 
(lee Cot)* Span, ^rst, nujr ^*e beca 
borrowed hom K.] Ct also A. S> Alfu^, 
M able for li«/Idyig a ihip, from. AAlaw, 
to rcstfatn, curh, equivalent ,in form > to 
IccL Afi/a ; ice Bait. Also Swed. Sc/titg, 
ft Wu, when« ^tiH^ttlt^ a bitt bolt, bitt- 
]jia ; Dan, htJtHg : oied alio on lami for 

j icAbcring hotics, as ia Swcd, Se/m^it/i^ a 

' pre for letlkeringr from jSvi^d, to p:L^0Te, bait. 

I mtumen. Ci») i^ ^it^mta^ mineral 

I pitch, Cf. E^gm. i. 1 663. 

I BiTftlve. F.-L.) From Bl- and 

I Valve. 

! Bivouac. {F.-GO K. ^/w«af , orig. 
^iviU.^Si^iss. G. ivrwfkt^ aa adtUciooial 
watch »t night t^^^^^^j! ^- bei-gtAat, 
to add'^G. ^', in addition : zpavI/, a 
watch, from xctuktn, to wake, Soc Wak« 
;i . Cf. GArrwdrArf'. 

Kaarro* odd. F.— S^on.^ F. j/- 
sarnt, ttrnqse* caphnouj : on^;. ' valiiuii.' 
*^Aa.^'Mmr* valia;il, gall:int. iWhapa 
of BaufBe ori^a; cf. ^«(|uc hzarrit, a. 
braxd. CC Span, kpmbre de kigvft, a moo 






of spirit ; where hi^oU means ' ntcma- i 

Bla1»,iotd1Ules. (E) }A,Z,hhhbe, 
tx tcU'Ulc ; blQkrtn, to bflbblc. Cf, Dan. 1 
hitti>h' (, to babble ; Dan. diftL hhfff^^ G. | 
piapptrn^ tn babble, prate. Of Imitative 
origin ; cf. GaeU/AiA, a soft noise ; plabair, 
% fcKLbbler: blt^barcn, a stAmmereT,, Mabh- 
diuh^ babblJDP, garrulotU. 

Black. \X^ yi.E.bitUt. A.S. «/d<r. 
bUt fwhich editors hart ofloi coBfusert 
with bhHf bright, shining]. Cf. led. 
hlaih\ tlark ; nlso A. S. ^A?r* Low C». Wrt^fr, 
O.H.G. hlofh, Iccl Ai*>&, Swcd, A/^*, Dati. 
/y^fi, all meaning ' ink/ Connexion with 
Pvi HiJi^en, to acorch, li doubtfuL j 

bl&ckgtiaxd, a. term of reproach. {E. 
ffW h'.) From /'/rtfi ojid guard. A nume 
givea to «ctiUionJ, turnspits, nnd kitchrti ' 
menials^ from the dirty work done by 
Ihcm Set Trench, Select Glossary. 

Bladder. CH.) M. E. biiufdn. A. S. 
bLhUn. hhhire, a bU»t*i, bladder (lit 
bluAviiif^ oiitj, + Du. hiaar ^IctX. ii/(rfr< I] ; 
O. II, G, biaeam (G. hiaiUr). Ttot. type 
*^bi^irctt', wk. fcin, From Tent, stem 
*£/(f^. to blow (i«c Blow (i) ^; wKh stifflx 
-rf*T^ ^milutoGk, -Tjpd cf. xt^t^, ftpoO* 

Blftdep a Icflft ^!it or n &woid. (E.^ 
M. R. ^/*/** A. S. Wftrf, a leaf.+lcel. 
^/a^, Svircd., Dan.> Du. biaeff n leaf, binder 
G, A/iJ/A Teut. type *b!a-LUiH, neut., witli 
Max Iff ' blown,' i. e, * flourUbinfi ;' pp. 
form fwith stiffii -l/c» =t Idg. -/^J from 
VltntA. Ser BloTW i a}. 

BUbabflirrj, Bleabttrr7, a bilberry. 
(Scand. and E.) From North E. AAw, 
livid, dtrk ; and hfny. The form ^Azf i» 
fmm ktl. ^Ar-r, livid ; lec under Blue. 

Blain, a pustule. (E.^ M. £. /t/«f'n. 
A, S. bUgfH. a boil, + Du, ^/fiW ; Dan. 
hlrtn. CrO. H. (i,//cii/w^o«^', weak-eyed. 

BUm«, vb. (K. - L. - Gk*) M. K, 
$iamfH.^O.V\ biiumer, to blame. — L. 
Biaif^hrrtuitf, to &peak ill, aJ&o to blame. 
— iik. jBAatTff^M^iV ^ see Blupheme. 

BlaaoK (Or to whiten, (F. -O. H. H,) 
From F. bfsnchir, to whitfla.^F. ^Aittf, 
trhUe ; see Blank below. 

Blanch (}), the sAmc as Blfl&oh. 

Bland. LJ L. bla*idui\ mild. 
blaodisll, to flaticr. (K.^L.) M.E. 
hianHtsrn. — O, F. blattdis-, ^em of pres. 
part oi bliTHifir^ to Heitler.^lr. biarufiruXo 

Blailk, while. <F. - O. H, G.I la 
Wilton, IV U K. M. -F. A/d^- .-O. IL O. 

htanekt white. Nasalised fonn from 
0. 11. G. /^A/A, shining; tf. Gk. i^Aw-j-tuf, 
(Naming, shining, from <^ki'^-<iv^ io j-hifte. 

blA&kttt. (F.-O, H G.) Orig. ofa 
while colour. M. £. i/anJta.^A. F. ^/am- 
M (F. blartchef^t Jimin. fiom iAim-, white; 
see above. 

Blare, to tnake a loud noi$e. (£.) 
M, E, blartti, Cf. Dn. f>/aren, Low G. 
bfsr^en, to bleat; M. H.G. bUrett^ biir- 
rfn {Q. f/arrrrr'^, to l>leat, blubber. Prob* 
imitfltive, like i^/ro/; but cf Bla*a(a}, 

Blason; ?ee BUaon. 

BlBhtpboilLfli to ipcnk injorionsly, (L. 
-Gk,l t.. Nasihftndrr, — QV. ^Aoff^- 
fiirv, to speak ill of.~Gk.,0Aiff^juoT, adj., 
ipcaking eviL — Gk. QKatJ-,, for *SAfl^«-, 
i, c. huitful cf. B^-Afi-fi, hurt) ; and (^i^/J^ I 
srty : see Fame. Krugm, i. % 74^. 

Blast, a. blowitig, ^E.) M.E. A/oj^ 
A.S-M^j/, a blowing; cf, IceL biifsir, n 
breath, blast of a immpet ; O. H. G. 6!dsf, 
Formed with Idg. »ufhx fif' from the old 
ba^e of Blue '2). 

Blatant, noisy, roitritig. 1 £.) Spcnacr 
has 'bhtaftt beast"; F.Q. vi. !i i^head- 
jng^ ; also b/aUan/, id. vi, j, y, Piob. 
imitative, Cf Lowl, Sc. blad, to abuse ; 
bia//fr, A rattlitig noise ; G. pfafij a cnub* 

Blay, ableak(fiih'. (E.) A.S.b/J'gt, 
-flJa. b/n'; G.bhiht. 

Blasa ti> fi flame. (E.) M. F. hlase. 
A. S, Wfjc, n flamCf in comp* ^J/ biaie, 
a bright light ; b!tti«^ f, a torch ; <Teut. 
type 'Maiott. Cf. M. H. G. /^AiJ, a torch ; 
also G. b!<isse^ Icel. bitst^ a ' bla»' of 
white mark on a hone, Swed, biibi the 

BlaS6 (j)] lo proclaim, noise abroad^ 
(Scajid.i Mark i. 45. M. E. bhicn> — 
Icel. Mija, to blow, blow a trumpet, sound 
an fllarm ; Swc*!, Mtlstt, to sounds Dan. 
M*FStj Do. hlawttt to blow a trumj et ; G. 
blasen. Also Goth, u/blhartt to pufl" up. 
<Teut. type ^blUs^ait*, to blow; wbdicc 
A. S. bi^sti E. ^/(T//. Much confuaed with 

BlaiOIl {i), BlaflOn, a proclanLatioD. 
HamUt. i. 5* jj ; Shak.Sim, 106, A tor- 
ruptiDn from Blue ' 2 , M. li. ^im^ru, to 
proctaim ; due to confusion with BlAion 
{i\ below, 

BlaS0& ('\ to ponrtniy ArmoriU beaX" 
ingn. ^ t,^ ^r, F. hlasoH^ blajeuHt a ihicld; 
whence bian>n, verb, to describe a shield. 
— F. bim^n^ il coal of nrnt«, otif. a liiield 
(BracheO. Cf. S]i«ij, bhsvn, hexiUdry, 



latoniy* glf^ry. hacir M.isati, to blazon^ i A. S. suidGoch. blandau* sir. inlupl. 

" anaj'j to bliizotK brag, JkmU; suggest- O. El. G. ^iarttan, tQ mix. 

\g a > vcr)' dDTibtful^ i^otinexion witK G. ,' Bleis, ta conspcrate, &c. (H.) The 
hiau/i, to blow the trumpet, a.% done by | on^, Mn*e mny have been *to crmsecnite 
hetalds, to proclaim a victor's fame ; sec I by blood,* i. e. either by sacrifice or by ibe 
B1b«6 (3 > Above. (SeeSchekr) Or if The , sprinkling of blood, as the word can be 
nrrg- sense was a. bright mjirk mi a tvliield, 
it is allt&i to Blaea i> 

Bleaberry; &ee BUkeberr^. 

Bl«ach. K) Orig, -to whiten :* M.E. 
hh'ihm, Ancren Riwle* p. 514, b i» A.S. 
'/f/iTi' A.S. /iliic, Miiningr bright, [Vile, 
See bleak iielow. ^ IceU fi/itk/a ; Du. 
hleekeft i G, NaLfwn \ <Tcut» "Nmkjan-, 
bloMi^ ( % ortg. palo. (Scimd.) ^f. E. 
J'iiik,'^\<x\> hleikty pale ; :^ived» ^/c^ ; 
Dan. /'/fi-.+A, iS, hia^-\ Da. ^/f f * ; G- 
A^Ui^h, Teut. lype *A/rrtiifed£, From *hiaiM'^ 
*troi)g grade of Teut. HUikatt- (A, S. 
Aii£ati)i to thine. 

bleak (J^, a fixb. (Sand.) From t^ 
pile i;i'>lour. 

31eftl>ey6dt hrinng WAtery, inflimed, 
or dim eyes, 1 E,> M, E, Uftr-eyid, 
Cogiuite with Low G. Narr-^grd, blear- 
eyed ; cf, Man'-o^s^f, an eye wet with tears, 
from hhinm, to howU weep j which weins 
to be allied to K, i*iare. 

Bleat, t) M- K' W//^M- A. S. ^/c^- 
/i7M, fi^hm, to bleat as a sheep.^r)u. 
Matmi O. ILG. piatau. Cf. Buss. bU- 
/a/^» to falcw ; V^'^fre, to wec|>. 

Bleb, Blob, a stnall bubble or bUsten 
l^FC. ( Cf. M. K* hhhcrt a bubble on water ; 
hhtiihtr, a, bubble, Hy comparing^ hhhher, 
i'hifib^r^ with hithf>k^ hkvinij much the same 
mcAning, we see the probability thftt ihcy 

clearly tr-icftl buck to hloed, M. E, &£fssent 
A. S. %t?tjhii, O. KarthtLiiib. &ffdsia, htenJ' 
sin (Matt, XXV. J14, xxvi, 36), which can 
be explained Ifom bionf^ blood .with the usual 
vowel-change from o^aoeoi?. Teal, type 
*f'foiiisim. C f. Need, (Suggested by Sweet ; 
An^lin, iiL 15^*) 

Blight. ^H:V XVn cent, Ofunfcnown 
origin ; perhflps allicfl to M.E. />/kAfm»^, 
mildew^. Ami cCM, H. G. A//i-sf, G. M>:, 

Blind. (£•) A.S.Mtad.^Dii.mndi 
Icel AfjWr ; Sw.. Dan., G, M'W;<Tetit, 
type *hiittdoz ,Idg. bnse *bhltftiih-\ Cf. 
Lith . hlfnii-s ■ % pr. s« l'UaJiia.r\ to become 
dim i«r llie sun). 

blindfold, vk (E.) M.E. WfifA 
f^ldtn, verb (Tyndale^ ; corruption of 
(tiiriii/efden (Palsgrave), where the tt h, 
eicrettctit* The Itup word i*, fififtJ/rlUn, 
to * fell ' or strike blind, Ancreji Kiwle, p, 
106.— A.S. /'/iW, blind; and y^-Z/aa. to 
strike ; fe-L' Pell. 

Blindman^s buff ; Kefiuff. 

Blink, to wink, to glance. (E,' M, E, 
fiiinken, to shine, to glnrtce ; whence tnod. 
E, Mink, by change of rn to ?>j, as in 
many words. Allied to A.S. if/anc, while 

as in Waw-dt ft white hoTse\ cognniewilh 
O. H. G. A/dffrA. M. H. G. Wtfrtr; see 
sunk. Cf. Du., G. Nmk/n, Swcd. 

are imttative, from the actioQ of forming f'h'ftka. Dan. f'linke^ all laic foms; and 
a bnbhlf! with the Ups. A. S. h/uan, to shine. 

Bleed. ^J^O M, E. Va/th. A.a ^/^- | Bliea. 4K.) See BUlbo. 
datt, furmed : by mutation of to f- from j BUettT, (F.— Teut."; M. E. httittr^ 
A.S.MV, blood.<Teut. lype *Mv^«-, to I hlisUr, (Not fonnrt before 1300.WO. F, 
lose blood >Icel. '^Ai?'Jfl. \ Nestre, • tumenr/ Godefroy. Of Teut. 

Blemiek, to stain. 1 F.) \{. E. W/- ' origtn ; cf. Tci-I. ftlnsfr (dat. Urffn')y a 
wiVjji^f.— < >, F- Wifwjij-^stem of pres- i'Sn, bla-st, also a ^welUnij, nllietl to K, BlAit. 

of hUmir^ hUsmtr^ to wouml, stain, make 
paltf. - O. F. bUttii^ bksmi^ wan, pale. Of 
unknown origin. 

Blenck, to shrink from, 
hf(Hih£}}. to avoid, elade, 
Xf* deceive ; as if from a, Teat, type *hhmk- 
/tfw-, coiTsal of *hiinkiin-, to blink. Bot 
proof is wanting. 

Blend, to miK logeiher. (Scand. 
M, v., Nfttiirn, Doe lo bUnd-^ base of the 
prcA. mdii^ gf Iccl. blatida Swed, t^landa, 
" m. idande,, to blend ; cognale wilh 

Ftam the iintiun of blowing out, 
Blitbe. FO Nf. F. MVA/. A.S, 

/(/fflf, ^wcet, happy.+O. Sax. j^/?fl»\ briijhli 
<E,') M. R. I eind ; Du. hiijde, hiij\ I«K Nidf', Swed., 
A,S. A/enraH, Dan. ///df; O.H. G. ^'/kA; glad; Goth. 

f'/eiiJtit mervifuW kind. 

fdui ; contn from A. S, ^/I'd;, huppinesa, 
lit. blilheness, - A.S. hii^e (nboi-e\ + 
<_>. Sax. Niisit, hiidu<t* happiness, Teut, 
stem *hiiiiin \ v\\\\\ u <//,lhe buffiiC beinj; 
tiiiy ai In I- itrtti-iift. 






Bloftt, lo swell. (.^cinilO Wv uuw Bloteh, a luofc bl^i. [iL) A r 
£Cntr*kUy use hioaUfi lo mciiti ' pulTcil i VAtinnt of l>ht. iierhops sii^gcs-lctl Ti) /«/cft. 
otii' or 'swollen/ ju if allied to bf&w, Bloaae, a too^c oiilct fro<:k\ (1'- 
liut the y\, \L. (urui w&i blffut, ftuft ; con- | From V. f'/rttfe, a. (tock iiiueh used by 
nccUil wtlh let]. Mauttj ■oft^ efTcTninnle, workmen (XV'UI cent. . Origin onknuwii. 
imljccile, ^/afna^ to brcome spft* Icisc Blow O. to puff, (K."^ %\,E. /'/e^fVH, 
caata^. C(, Sucil. M'A Dan. Mirf, soft, ' A*S. hhiz^an. + ti, Hift'tf- O, I). Li, /■/<*- 
pulpy, meUow. Allied lo Icel. (*/flj<Or, | //jyi ; nllicd iv I-.yrt/r. 
sr>rt ; A S 6/efl/, Ci. /'/ii!p:i<Ar, vr^ak. • Bl0W('t''i to blcKim, fjouri&li a& a flown. 

bloatdr* 1. prepared herring. (Scaiu^, lE) M. K. ^'l^win. A. S. W(^Tc««.H|hDu. 
A h!oa!ry is a cure*' fish, cured by Bnii.»fcc ; Uefijett ; G. hinhrn, Ot 11. t !. hincjan, 
but formerly a ' Kuked ' fiih. — led- hfaufr, ^ Allied to L. fl^rht \ vtx FIouHdi. 
ih>fi. Cf. Swed, ^ibtjisk, soaked lish ; from Blow (3)/ ft stroke, hit. (K.) M.K. 
WffOi, to Boak, steep; firom We/, soft iAmir. Not in A. S. ; L^t we fiod M. Dn. 

flroDg verb ifiottucn j)t. I. ^/u/^ ♦ to slrike, 

BXoT>, ft babUe. (K,) Sec BUb. 
Block, o^ Iflirp; piece of wood. F. — 

M. H. a. ^/(vA. n block ; cf. Dn. AM, D:m. 
^A'-f. Swod. fi/iKJt, I>or- htock'trdr 
Blond. (F* X\' ceni. F. /VtfW, m- 
N^Me/f^ fern. ' light yellaw ;' Cot. Kcfcnvd 
by DieE to led. blanJittn, mixed j cf- A. S. 
i'UnJrH'feaji , having hair of miiiglt.-d 
toloiir, gtav-hained. Sec Bl«tiil. % But 
the Low L. form is ^ittndus, pointing to 
a Tctit. lyj>c *i//ufffU-f naswerin^ to Skt. 
hnuthna-s, reddish, pdle yellow (KJ«ge . 
<.'f. O, bliiv. bri>n\ white j linigtn. L 

Blood. (^:.) ^.V:, Mod, Mood. A,K. 
/'vVW.+ lHi. ^/iv,;', Icel. /«/flff, Swed. */*/, 
1 iolh. hhWt : t;. ^/«/ ; <Teut. ty^w V'/otfff/ft, 
n. Ilentc /'/(tfA/, 

Bloom, a flower. (Scand.) M, E. 
/Verm*- ; not in A. S. — Iccl. ^i.?w, M^mt, a 
flower; ^w<d, htpmmn i L'>in. f>lcrnmg.'\- 
I'ti. A/tww/ ; Coth. ^j/^wB J jilted to O, Ir, 
hiftth, l^.ff^i ; ace Plowar. Aod ace bctow. 

vicsfMif. i\. S. iff^slma, a blossom ; (rom 
base ^/(V of A* S. M'-rPflM, wilh iuft'ites 
-jy nud -w<i Tcul. •^ttt(}ti,-^\y\i. blaesiw, 
M. IL ii. blufiit (with sndix -j/}. See 

Blot ( i>. a «|>ot. (Scand. ?) M. E. hhi, 
Ifittie. Origin unktiouh. It ha& some 
icscmbliuicc tu iDel. hhtir, a blolf staiu ; 
l>ftn. di&l. ^/it/, ji &pot, a blol. 

Blot C3)> <Lt brtckgninmon. .Scuid.; 
A hhl \% an 'etiw-se*!' piece. ^IMd. hht, 
bftK. naked : whence gixfe sig bift, to Lny 

dress flax by bvatipy ; C ILG. Nitiwan. 
whcticc G, WtiwfMjlobciit: Goth. A/t'^i^-au. 
to strike ^ ilH from Tent. *ifliUfiiMti'f to 
strikp. History obscure,') 

Blnbbor, {^.) M. E,^/c»Ar'r,a1^bble: 
blohriN^ lo bubble upt to weep copiuual). 
Of imitative origin ; cf. Blob. Ilic 
biubhtr of the whale consists of bladder- 
like cells filled with oiL Biubhtr-lipNxi 
with swollen lips. Cf. t, Frie*. hittoUr, 
a b[]bbk, a blob of fai; biui/bcmy lo 

Bludgoon, C^. PrF. XVin cenl. 
Of unknown orl^iL 

Blll«, a (»lDur. CF,-O.H.G.) M.K, 

blue-— O. ll.G. ^/ne, blue, livid, V*. Nau. 
+Iccl. bliif, livid ; SweiL MB, Djin. Wjii ; 
A. S. MiTi' (O. E. Textile p. fiSS i < TcuL 
type ^i'i^v^i. Cognate with Lat- /I'nrtWj, 

Bluff, downri^-ht, rude. tDn.?) A 
b/ujfii a steep headland. It App^rs to be 
Dutch. M.Dii.iAf/;flat» broad; tlagiurt^ 
one having a broad flftt face, alio, a 
boaster iOudeinflii&) : blaf van hit voor^ 
ffo&f't, uJi* flat of .1 forehead' {Ilejiham); 
biafen^ bh-ffnt^ lo mock (id.). Cf. L, 
Fneft. bhifftn, to make a Doisci bluster, 
ijnpose on. 

Sl'cmdor, to Houndcr about, nr. 
(Scand.) M. K blcndrtn^ to confuse, lo 
move blindly or stupidly. Formed (as a 
frequentative) from IceL b/ufixfa, lo do«t, 
slumber; Swed. bhtnda^ to shut the eyes; 
Dan. btuttdf, to nap, Cr. Ictl. biu$tdr^ 
Dan. and Swed. NUftd, a dote, a nap. 
From the sense of *confti5ion.' Allied to 

utjcsclf open, cx[xji>c oneself: Swe«l. fUft, 
nsiir'i ; bUfta, to lay onoelf open^+Uu. Bloud nnrl Blind. 
/' I bfc^fiUf/m, to ex|Hjse; G. ] BlundorbuflBf a short gun. (Hyb,) 

Allied to Icel. ^/awfi^, soft ;' In fojx'. Formerly s\)ch biatfUrbutit, 
kcir jjLuuL. I fldtiturbHise i^Paliber, Folk^Etymology); 



Bhoit for aharde, used hy rilsgmvc.— !■*. 
abffrJer^ * to approach, acco^ii^ abbooni, 
or lay aboord ; ' CoL — F- s, to i^L. nt/); 
*tfn/, edge, brim, side of a ship, from 
Icel, i'ct^, Du, (*0crd, side of a thip. See 
Board (i)^ 

I C<irn, ^E?j^/, Irish uid Gael- ArW^ oic all 
borrowed fioin E.] Origin anknown, but 
perhaps a bte formati^u (with auHix -sf) 
from A. H. Began, if&n, lo boast i cf. prov. 
E. fe^, to boast. 

CI. IceL^J//-; Swed^/; Du.ietff: Rubs. 
^t*/"; \V. ba*i; Gael, ^/(-rt^ a boat. p. The 
let], word U boiTnwcd from A, S. ; uid 
Eh? other formi either from 1£. or Iccl» 
Tent tyjK; 'fmiiifSf m. 

lioat-SWaiu. ;£.) Lit. * boat-lad ; * 
Ic-l. JTaJiM, a lad 1^ ■ A- S. siv^/t). 

Bob. lo jerk. (Ej Perhaps jmitalive, 

Boblsmf d wooden pin on which thread 
is wound ; round tape- iK.) Formerly 
/W(>j. -»F. hc^tne^ *a qui! for a ^pioniDg 
whce-leT a sknne; ' Cot. Ori£. unl^Down. 

B^«, to forcsbew. (E.) M, E. Badin^ 
hifJian^^A. S. ^Afitfji, loaiinounce.*" A.S. 
iNhia, a niessenger ; doJ, a mcs^ge. From 
hcd-j weak grade of ^vxiau, to command^ 
onnoiiiice. Sec Bid t^.i. 

Bodies, stftyA (E.) A corniption of 
d^i/ia ;^pl. of ^a/)>'), which was the old 
spelline. i,Cf. F. cfirset^ frora corps.\ 

BodJEilL, orig. a sniall *^aggcr. (?) 
M. E. boyifekin^ Ch, Origin unknown. 

BocITt ^t*^ frame of an ajijmaL (E.) 
M. !•: 7Wi'; A.^,A)./jrjr.+0. H. G. /ttofk. 

Boer; the samt a$ Boof. 

Boffip (C.) Irish l>o^h, a bog^ from 
Acy, soft; cf. Irish i^gaim, 1 shake; a W 
being a soft qDagraire. So also Gaef. 
hog&tt, a quagmire; bog, ^y^ jro\&\ ; bing^ 
Ln suften, also tu agiute. CT. O. Irish 
/W(, soft. 

Boggard, Boggart, a spcclrt. (C. ; 
tcUh Y. su^t.) From beg, variant of 
BuK i); with sufftx -ar*/, art {¥. -ard 
a£ in bast-ard), Ste below* 

BogglOf to start aside, swerve for fctr* 
(C.*) Prob* coined from piav. l^^hcggftt 
begk^ s spectre, Cf. W. i>'*f^^ ft goblin; 
^yS^h a acdfecrow ; hu^wi^ a ibreaC, 
^^/w, to Ihjcatcn; bwg-wtht lo scare* 
Kee Bug Ci). 
Bohea^ B kind of tea, (Chinese.") So 
named from the B^hta hills; the moon- 
but the v«rb, formerly spcU Atf^fltj b^rdy ii , tain called Bou-y (or K^m-i) is utu&icd in 


3 fiwii uu a jest/ Appifcnlly from 
X. ptantare, Lo plant [see FlAlit) ; and 
"I^a. hm^ a t.'^n* o^K- ^ box, Lirrel; *ce 
Box (i)' But the coiresponding Do. wotd 
Sf. dojriJitbus, i. e, thcnder-gun. 
Blunt, dull (Scand.?) M. £. ^/wh/. 
A/ow/, dull, dulletl. Orinn unknown ; 

iicrbfli>5 allied to Icel. Munda, Dan. 
iiittt/e, to sleep, doze j see Blundor. 

BlllTr ((> slain ; a atain. (Scaud, f) 
PrOfwily * lo dim'; mctajihoricallj', *to 
deceive. Wc find: *A ^/rr^r, deceplio ; 
t$ fi/irtr. fallci^ ; ' Levins (1570V Of 
uncertain origin. Cf Svred. dial, hlm-a^ 
to blink, partially close the er^i Swed. 
f^h'rs, Swed. dial. MW, lo blink : Mirra 
fen augtt. to quiver (be dim) before the 
eyes, SAid of a ha^e cnused by heat; 
BAVnrian f/crr, a mist before the eyes. 

BllUrt, to utter impulsively. iK.) 
l^wl. Sc. fi/ift^ to make a noh-:^ in weep- 
ing i cf. M, E* blinu, to make a loud 
no[«. to Wd«. Of iraitJitlve origin. 

Bliuh. [ \l^ M. E. blasfh^n, Musshen, 
to i^low. A, S. biyscatt, ascd to translate 
L. rufiitirtj to-*ibine (Mone, Quellen, 355^; 
cf, aiflysian^ dhtiiian, to blnsh ; from A. S. 
biys in bei'l'fys, lit. 'a firc*blare/+ Du, 
hhten^ to btush, fraTti i/pr, a blush ; Dan. 
Musse, to flame, g^ow, from hius, a torch ; 
Swcd, fthssn. to blftzct from bhsij a torch. 
From TfiH. root *bie.u£, to glow. 

Bluster, li^ be boiiiterous. (11.) Doubt- 
less associated in idea with hiasf i\ct\, 
hi^jtr, Swed, bl8s(). Cf. E. Fries. /A/a^j. 
Urn, to be tempestuous (csp. of wind) ; 
hUiiter,, i'fujer, a hreciej Musea^ to blow 
strongly; ^i'w«^ wind. 

Boa, a large snake, (L.) L. ^ 
(Pliny); perhaps allied to f^/, an ox ; from 

iu sije. 

BoaTtiuiammaL (R) M.E. ^r/,^r. 
A.S. Vvfr. + Du. *ffr; M. IL G, if^r, 
Tctil. type *bair^%, m* 

Board (I). (E.) U.IL hotd. A.S. 
^ffrrf. board, sidt of a ship, shield, + Do- 
i'O&rdi TceL ^/iff, plank ^sid(^ of q ship; G* 
itinfi Gtiih. 'fniurd in fotn huardt a foot- 
stool. Cf Irish, GaeL, W , and Cora. 
^d, a board (from E.>. Tent. type. 
rdem, n, f[ The sense ' side of a ship ' 
rxplaiftS sfar-boartf^ /ar-botird, an board, 
^•er-hoarJ. Dep. !>card^ to have mcaU a* 
a liwlger x from board, a table. 

board {2), to go on board a ship, to 
flccofit. ^h\"TeutO Tbc sb. Ooatii \^ E,, 





III* ptoTince isf FffJtita or Fttkian^ on ihr 
S. £, coftst of Chini. 

Boil tl'. to bttblttc Bp, (F, ^I^> O. F. 
Mfiir.XQ boil 'K. it>ttfV/iV^»— I*, hultfre, to 
Ituhlile op, lxtiL«>L. Am/Ai* k bubLle; see 
Hull (a>. Cr KormrtH F. h^iilir^ ta 

Boil(J>, * iin*H tomnur. (E.> ?ror. 
V^HU> pfoK fifTwtea by /W/'i'*. M. E» 
Ay.V. A.S. ^/, ft iKiif, iwcIlmg.+Dn. 
futl'y ("p. jVtf/f cr. Gmh. u/bauijan, to 
I'tiff iTp ; Icel, J^T'ia, a bump (with mittA- 
tionV Sec Bowl (jV 

SouteroviB. (P/' LrngthcDH from 
M. V. i'cijfem, Ch. ; lit. 'noisy/ I^ohttfus 
Anvwers lo O. F. &siU&us, latn«. but the 
flifffiencc ID smsT \% remarkable. The 
O, F. Mst&Uf alto meant 'rougb/ as 
applied \Q a baJ road; hence perhajis 
M. El. h^istoui^ rotigh, coarse, nois3\ 

Bold, (t:-^ M, F^ Md, M<i; AS. 
/ra/d, ^/J, fiaf/.J^\a\. baHr\ ]>«. /^m/; 
O. tt,G, Aj/i/; cf. r.o(h* haithaha, ndv., 
bul.ilv. Tent, type •/«^. 

BolOa stem ofa Iree. (Scaild.) M. E. 
Aj/f.wRel, ^/r, *Wr, the tnink of a tree, 
Mcm; Kwcd, bSl ; Dan. ^hA Cf. Gk. 
faA-a7f, a log, trunk. Cf. Bftlk (t\ 

Bollodt swollen. (Scnnt^.') Karller 
ioTtOM are M^ E, boiUn, pp., and hvlned, 
jtp. The latter Is the pp. of M, F-. hoin^n. 
to swell. — I>an. A«W, Swe<l. ffu^ttu, led. 
Mftnii, tn swell, inchoative formj from 
irk prade of Ac/^ fcf, Icel. Ms^h^ to in- 
flate", t'f. A.S* fvl'ivn fpp, f*o^euu to 
iweU wtth ati^er. See Betldwa, Billow. 

Bolttet. C^O A.S. ^;rrr»^ith sufEx 
**//r aa in hot ttrr. From its round ihAjY- 
+ 1>B. Aa/j/rt-, huhirr\ Ictl. Aj/f/r; O. 
H. G /ff/i/flr (G pchtrr\. Tent, ty|>e 
*i'u!^iitvt\ from Teul. •/!«/, weak grade 
of •/««/, to pTiff up. See Boil (a), (See 

Bolt (0* a stotit pin cf iron» an arrow, 
(E.") A, S. ^»/^+^^l. Ai'W/, formerly hiiH ; 
Jinn, /W/; G, Ao/:, h0htn. Hoot nnknown. 

Bolt U 1. Boult, to sift meal. (K.- 
J..-<ik,l -Spett Hitttt in Palsgnive.— 
O. K. huUfr; mod. F. hluUr\ oldest form 
bultL'r^ a eomptian of ^hurtUr. lo sift 
through coarse cloth* cf. M. Ilal. hurat- 
tart, lo Iioult (Florio). •m- O. F. and F. 
^'wr/, coarw woollen clotb, — Late Ijat, 
huTa. <^fra^ coarse ted doth. — Lat. 
f'uffus. ttdf\Uh, — Gk. wvpp6f, feddiihi — 
Gk, *vp, fire. See Bureau and Flra. 

BolnS, .1 !"£*• pill. tl..-Gk.) Lute 

I^Muj (not I.. ^Hi\ a Latinised form 
ofGk. S&K^t a clod, lump. 

Bombf A sh''!^ fof carition. {h\ t>r Span. 
^Ix — Gk,"^ F, A?mAf; Span.&»«Aff. "-l- 
Atfin^jf a humming noific, »Gk. ^fifiw^ 
the same. See Boom fi). 

bombard. (F,-L-Gk.> The verb 
is from \\. tcmfiardy a fireat gun ; Sh.— F, 
i^mi*arJt, b catmon ; extended from F. 
AffJw^c ; fee Bomb. Der. b<mthard-iirf Y, 
homf^a^Tdifr (Cot,). 

Bombast, oHg.coUon wnddin^;; hence 
paddinfT, nflected lan^oage. (F. — L.— 
GkO From O. K. bi^mhact (with added i), 
cotton wadding, — Late L, ffomhoi^m^ ace. 
of Ai?m^jr, cotton ; for L,. b&mi^x, — Gk, 
3^/t&v^t silk, cotton; orig, a &ilkvri?nn. 
Cf. ' to tn\k /ill: f ran. ^ 

bombaxine, bombasme, a fabric 
of silk and worsted. ;F.— ].. — Gk/; F, 
^(jjwAij/«.— I jtte L. hcm^aiiniim,-^!^ hcm~ 
fiffinust adj. silken; from Aemtryjc, silk; 

ste jA-bovc. 

Bond. (E,) See Bind C I). 

BondaffO, KTvitude. (F. — Scand.) 
M.F, nn* A F. t^ttdagt, ^rvilud* ; the 
ftcnse Ijcing due to confusion with the verb 
(fi Httd. Bet Tf. gri^, meant the condilioh 
of a itrndtitatt , colled in A. S. ^»da, a 
\Tord borrowed from Icel. b^di, a hu»- 
bandroaii. And i^di- huattdi, a tlUcr ; 
from Icel. h'i^i to lill, prepare, co^ale 
with A- S, ^Hfifr, 1c> dwell, and G, Mtim. 
Thns A.S, honda. »i allied in &CRse and 
prijjin to E. hocr, q. v. 

Bono. (E.) M.E, ^«t«; A,S, Af*. 
4-Du. Af-fff; IceLiVfH; Swed. Af*/ ; Dan. 
^fff ; O. H. CJ. hti'tt, Ttnl. ty[« ^haittom. 
bonfiro. (E,i Orig. ■ bone-fire, 
* Bant-Jirt^ ignis osflinni;' Catholicnn 
Angllcamim. a. n. 1483; where ^k/ i* 
the Nortbem form fAhmt. Cf. ricaid/N 
i/V, a bonfire. 

Bo&ito, Si kind of tunny. (Span.— 
Arab,) Span, bmnite. — Arab, tvyftitk, 
a bonito. 

Bonnet. (FO Y^hmmt; 0,¥. latt^f 
I'A. IP. 1047), the name of a sliiff of which 
bonnets or cap« were made. Origin 

BounXt ^'■"- (F.— I-.) From F. f^nntf 
fatr* fern, of hm^ good,— L- battut, good ; 
O.L. tfucHUJ. 

BonSO, a priest, (Fort. — Japanese.) 
Port. ^flM. — fip. ^jvi^, K religious man. 

Booby. (Sp«i.-L.) span, Mv, B 
blockhead, bogby (related to F. ^rtM^^*, 



- I. 


Eimk. iyftfj Smvoi. lytf, c-uJuuigt^ 

Book. (1^: M.E.^Mi*; A.&JiJK,a'ah0beot7. tfiAa; G. i^af<. cpoit 

book : also, 

rd. Aft^ ; Daxt. Aqf ; G. 'vri ; mil m the cwcsl ; * b et jB e it ■» x '»'<^'V- 

of nook*: Go(k./Mfe, > letter, pL BofA^ Lov L. - Axab^ - PctK 
.vrition. ^ Whli A.S. Mr. bcccb. d L. Afrwjr; kIsq MnarMv*. — Afmbh 
^/M/, s oeedl, Gk. ft^vx, & tree vitb Perm. M^vti, bonx (V»]|efs% 

«■ edge. ;F. — Low 



V.K.«M«^ T< 

■ / 

y »i 

*w^'H; not Jbund ta HA.S.+f>L irmmtm^ toeJaini Sjon. Aanrfa^ra), aa edgioc.— 
to boorn^ to ght <mt a bolknr ao^wl Iftc Low I. ArnCirjra. cdfja^.^Low 1, Afr^ 
an cmptT bttnrL An icsitaem wetd ; ; ^^nt (ItaL Jwnitf^. Span, ^vn^, F. 
1i;:r I^ f^M&Mi, Gk, fiopSoSf ft bMMui a R . i«ndW^^, to edge «- Low L. JmnAu F. 
Boom 2>, apole, ^Dn.) V^^mm; iW^ .-Trai- lO. Low C) i<rd; side; see 
tk - l_>ii. fxnn fA B««m (!> fioand. 

Boomerang, a wooden iiiSBih wii|HM Borv jX to jnionte V^> H* L 
AiL^oliin-, t- rom tbe native AaibmlMD Acribv, A, & h>i—. + Dtt, Jwv»; led* 

Cl), ftpeUtkn, (Scmd.) If.ll AIsq U/>nf/¥, to bore; Gk. fn^^onr, to 
A^nr, Ch. — Iccl. A^ ; Paa. ajKlS««l.^nH, pboogfa 
{3etition.HKA.& (^Vw, An* (wbeooe *«^ to col' 

Wofrisi*octh j. The senic of * Cavoof ' 
fHe rrom confitsioQ with Boon ^ . . 

I(z. good. (F.-I-) Irtthcjibr, 
' U-i*** coto^tmon* — F. 4m, good. « I. 

rvfttti. S« B0EUI7. 

BcK>T« n pcaianL ''Dn.) Du. A^fr^ 1 
ucaiant, lU. ' tiller of tbe soil/ — Do- 
icHJt^H^ to Till. + A. S. hlaH, to dwell in, 

hcrjcc ^//'j/r, s,, a peasant 'only preserred 
?n rtcix:h*hattr). So atfto G. jScxufn^ to till, 
uhcnc:c hau^r, a pcuaQi; Icel, /'f/a, Croth. 
ffetMir^ to dwell. TcttL stem '^m-, related 
10 Be. (Slfeitbctg, 4 90., 

Boot ' i ), arlvaoinfj^e, profit, (K.^ M, £. 
^/^ ^L A,S. k^, profit.+ Dt). imii; 
Icel, /iV (cf. ^tl/i), advantiLge. cure; l>aQ. 
fvi/^ Swcd, ^/, remedy ; G, i^M«iJ, atonc- 
mtnl; (iutli, A^i/a, Tent, tyjic "A^Ar, f. 
I'jom ^rtf-j strong yrade of ^i'-; tec 
B«t|«t-. Der. /vci-/£js, pro6tle&Sv 

Boot (3), » covering for the Toot. <F.) 
M.E./vfi.-O.yj'titfiV.t'offe : cf.Spaii., 
rort., Laic L. Ao/d. Ori(;in tmkiiowQ, 

Bootb, sScaaJ,) M. E, i^f/u. - M. 
l>aii. ^iiM iKnlkar}, Pan. *a/; Swed. A«/ 
(cf Icct- A/Jj^. a ilwcttitig, hoothV— Daii. 
Kf, Swcd. /«, Tcel. *;?*7, Lo Owcll ; BCtr 
floor. +r;, /.«(/tf, A nail 
^^M f- Cf. alRO Irish 

Brttgm. t i 510. (VBHER, 

(^j;, to worry. (E.) Fossifaira 
OMtaph. me of the Ttrb above ; H«il VUI, 
t s. 12S. 

Boro (s)i ^ ^'^^^ fiLfge in a hvcr. 
(Scafid.7) Peziiaps from IcrL AtTm, a 
billow caused hj wind ; Norw. ^aara, a 
billow, ivecW in tbe sea. 

Boz^Aa, ibe Donb wind. (L.— Gk.) 
L. ^r«H,-Gk. Bfl^^ Bop^s, xhe N. 

BoTonglL. (£.) M. E htrgA, Svr^A ; 
also ^tfrKv. A.S. *«rtfc, AkT (g™- "** 
dat. ^^g^t a fbrt. Perhaps from Tent 
i'urg^, veak grade of •^e^^iii-, to pn>* 
lect ; whentE Gulh, Mrgam^ to hide, keep ; 
see Barrow. + Diu ^^; Iccl. ^or^i 
Sweti. uid Dan* ^^y; G, Av^y; Goth. 
daurgt. See below. Bnigm. i. i^ 5(^6 ; 11* 
I 160, 

Vorrow. I'.t-) ft^ E* l^rwm ; A. S. 
bifr^iant lit. to gi^'C * pledge.- A. S. /iwy, 
IvrAi a pJcdije.-A.S. ^*prj-, weak grade 
*>f />f0r^nf to keep, protect ; see Bar- 
row and Borough, 



k*sf/i, ^I)u. boetimx G. Ajv/f«. 

Boss, A knab, (F.~(J. H. G.) M. E. 

Tent, type /'*"<', itos-^U, K. Aav {K. &esi£)\ tt Ital, 

^M, a hut, i'czui, a swclUi>g ; M. Itxl. boziare, to 

Wf/, a residence ; Lilh, huta, ^uffas, ^ rotiyh-kew, to Irani^le. Prob. from O. H. 

Inuisc, Htv Build. G. i^ian, lo l*at ; a bumj) bcioy the 

Boot J, ' \'\ - L«w (\.) Formerlv »p*lt ' tffctt of a Wow. I'f. i'oUi, ttat. 

hiiifK 'f* (wjotv, prcvj' Cot. Bot«ai7. :>'.-(;)*. l'. htAni^m^ 


orig, nn «dj^>(^k. dor^i^iiit, belon^g 
to j}1uitt. » Gk. &0Tarrt, gra£&, — Gk. 
iHufftffjf, to posture; cf. Parly ^ a (j^nxing 

Sotargo, a cake made of the n» of tbe 
sea nnill^L (Ital. — Arab-; M,ltiJ. h^arge^ 
^V h&iarghe ■; see Florio and Toiriwio, ~ 
Aril*, hutarkka^ botargo ■ given by Devic. 
Stipposcrl to be composed of *tf, Coptic 
<1rl. article, Add Gk. nifHyor, drie<i fah 
(Joum. rics Savants, Jail. 1848, p. 45). 

BOioll (I'u to piitch. (£,) Oripn 
nnknowiu SimiUr ts M^ Du, butsettf to 
itrike, beat, also lo pilch up; cf. Dn. 
hot$tn, to bc«t. 

Botch (ijt a jwelUng. ^F, - G.) ^fjSt — O. North F, A«-*r? Picard 
/<Jt-^^ ; U. F. Apr/ (F. ^Mf ), a swelling; see 

Bdtll* (Seami.) M, E, AaM Scot. 
Afli'M,— Iccl, haSi*; bolh^ dual adj. j Dan. 
bii«Ji\ Swcd. A^^d.-4-G. ^fV/^. And cf. 
A. S. Aff, both ; LaL -3* in nm^ ; Gk, -^ 
in &ii'^' Skt, -Mil in ufiAa, both. Iccl. 
'fl#> i« for 9fir, they, the : $0 that f>ihtk 
vras orig./'ipf words ^ cf- Goth. ^^Jj^//V(7, 
both 1I1C fihipi (Luke v. 7). 
' Bother, vb and sk (E.) InSwifl. Cf 
fafAfr; ptov . E. pu^if^r, coafttsion ; M. E. 

{HtkfrfHf to hestir onCfelf. Onein un- 

Bote, smfttl wortnL (E.) l^wi. So. 
*fl//. Of unknown origiD. 

Bottle (t), ft hollow veiset. > K- 

■ ite L. ^ Gk.) M. E. hffUl.~¥. hHttilii, 

'Late Lai. futicula^ double dtmin. of 

ite L. ^^i/j but/is, a ctjk, & bott; ve 

lutt (J). 

Bottle (J!,a bundle of bay. (F.^ 
O, U, C.^ M. E. h&uL^O. R Aj/^A Atf* 
W/r» A unoU bundle, dimin. of bcfir, a 
bundle, jUofh»y,-0, H, G. AJ:<j. k bunillc 
of struv or flu: allie<i to O* H. G. A/ujw. 
I0 beat (Me Best) ; perhaps frotn the 
l^Htinp of flu. 

Bottom, [E.) M. E, biftmrn* hothcm, 
A- S. /'tj/^/.^Du, Itifd^m ; IceL A;»/« ; Sweil, 
hffUtH', J5«n, ^HH^; G. MfH; LAi./t*ndtrS' 
Gk. vp^fi V ; Vfdic Sk\. hudhn^i^ depth, 
ground, Allt«*^l lo Iri-.h /flM«. sole of the 
ftwt; Gael, i^hm, so1*j, boUom ; W. Aoh, 
bow, iU)ck. See FundMoant. Bmgm. 
i. \h 10.^ 704. 

Boadoir. (F.) F^ /vni^iV, a private 
room for a lady : lit. a pUce to tuIIc in.— 
F. fcHifer, to aulk. Cf, E- f<HU 

Bough. (£.) M. E. h^gh. A. S. %, 


^A; of which the on^. ^etise was *in 
*nn/+Ic«L i'cgr, Swed, A*y, Pan. M', 
the ihouldcf of an animal, hence thr bow 
(shoulder) of a &hip ; G* ^u£\ Gk. f^xii, 
the fore'ann ; Skt. bahvt^ the arm. TcuL 
type *j^^sj Idg, type *6h^ghus. See 
Bow (4). Bnigm. i. % 184. 

Boo^ht, A bend, turn, fold, {\jv9t G,) 
In Spenser, F. Q. i. i. 15. Low C* AftffT^ 
a bend; Dii. begi^ IwAf; Dan. i>ug^. Cf- 
G. ^rA/. The K. form U Bight. And 
Me Boul 

Bonldn?, ^ large stone, (!£.?) Et)-in, 
obficore; cf. Sued, diali. htfUritfitHf a 
laree rolling stone; so called fTom its 
roUing down stream with a cfash.'-Swed. 
^u/ira, to thunder, roar; and ff/ffi, a 
stone- Danish hai bittdrr, to KAXfbttldfr, 
a crash. 

BoiQtt Lo sift meal % see Bolt (2). 

Boil3iC0r ^^ JTimp Tip qmckly. (EO 
M. K. htttien, to bent- Cf, Low G* hrm- 
sirtt to beat, knock at a door; Du. fvnstn, 
to bounce^ throw, from Da. ^ttj, a bounce, 
thump; G. hutnps, bounce; Iccl. heps, 
bnmpl Trob. imitative. 

Bound (i>. to leap. CF.-L.-Gk.l 
F. ^ndt'r, to bound; bnt orig. to rr«ound. 
— I, bfntth'ftitv , to resoortd. — L, hUHthnSf 
a bumming sound. -^Gk. B^t^Baif the same, 
Der. rf'^cKftt^ {¥' rrlvridir'^ 

Boimd {3\ a hottndary. (F.-C?) 
M, h. httndt. Ch. ; with excrescent rf, ■* 
in t&un-d, A. F. houndt, t>uMd^[ O.F, 
I'pttftij a boundary ; also spelt iWwf (Bur- 
guy); J^tc Lat. hsdifin icontr, form 
h&utta), a l»ounH, limit- Perhaps of Celtic 
orig^Ji ; Thnmeysen, 91. Der. bownd-4ir)>. 

BoUILd (3)1 icndy to go- (Scand.) In 
' the ship u bffimd for Spain/ Arc, 
Formed, with cjccreBcent d, from M, E. 
itctitif ready, Ch. C T. 1 rSoy. — Icel. 
l'tii*i»^ prepared; pp. othla, to till^ pre- 
' pare.+-'^- ^- f'uoit ; «e Boor. 

Bounded, the old pp. of Bi&d< (E.) 
I As in ' f'OHHdirr doty/ 

Bounty, orig. goodnes*. (F, — L,* 
M, K, tmmtffy — O, V\ bonUf, — L. act 
I'lmiditem, from f-tmifiii, goodncsi. — L. 
ifcuus, gf'od. See BoEDf. 

Bouquet. (F,-I.ate L.> F. hou^Htt; 
O^ F, botquit^ oTig> ' A little wnod,' dimin. 
of O.F. bei {F. t^oii \ it wot«l.-p-Ijte L. 
hcstHm^ busfum, ace. of f^Kuj, f>us<utf A 
wood ; of unknown orijjin. Cf. Buah. 

Bonrd, a je«t ; to jest, i K,' M. E. 
b^nrdt, sb, ; dearden, v.— F. hgurd^t * 




; hoiirdtr, lo play. Of laBknoWB 
origin. (Not ai in Dies,) 
SoTUn(i)(« boooduy, (F.) lo Sb. 

— F. ^cmti a bonod ; for O- F. hcdiu, 
vuknt of O, F. 69nn*t % bouodAry ; k« 
Bound (3). 

Bourn (iu Bum. a stream. (E.) 

M. L. beutm. A,S. Suftta, a fou&tauii 
streajn, welL+lccl. iirvtmr, Sw*ed- 6rtaai\ 
Dao. htvftd; G. hruHHtn; Goth, ^j^mmm^ 

* spfiug, well. 

Bonso, Bouze, B009«, to drink 
dceplj'. (Da. M. E. ^««rt (ab. i joo\ 

— SI. Du. •//>7iiii, later ^ryifM, to drink 
deeply. — M. Do. buse ;Latiois«d as husa 
by Erftsoius;, hij/se, a large cop, nlso a 
tap, a conduit ^Kili^n) ; IliL buis^ p. con* 
duit» pipe. Cf O. F. ^»f, a coodtiit; 
G, bauifti, to bouse. 

Bontj & turOj a roundf occa^on. (Low 
(i. The ftame as BoULcM (above) ; prob, 
influenced by abeuf. 

Bow (i), to bead. (F-) M. E. A?:i^^rt, 
fv^n, ti^en, A. S. bugan.'^'D-Q, buigen ; 
O. H. G. h'^^arf] Golh. biit^n; Teat. 
type •^*r^m- or *bu^ff: Ct Skt. Wi(/, 
to bend; \jX%, fu^re, lo take (o flighl, 
give way ; Gk. *^\rfHVy to flee, BniBm- L 
f * 658. 701. 
bow <a), « bend. (E.) From the 


bow '3; » 9 veapoo to shoot with. C^) 
M. K. bffwe. A. S. /tf^^a, ft bow ; because 
it is b«it or bffUfeJ.-^Va. boeg\ led. k^\ 
Swcd. &l^; Diii. hut\ 0.\l,Q.b^\ 
G. bog-en. From A. S, ftiij^ ; cf. bog-ftt, pp. 
of bfigatt. In bend, 

bow-WindoWii (E.) A window of 
KiiH-circular form; hot Ihe ^rar a£ ^^> 

Bow [,4)1 Ibe 'shoulder^ uf a ship. 
tScand.) From I«l. ^ojr, shoulder j Ke 
Bough. 4. Du Afl(*f, bow of a ship. 

BowoL t F. - L.) M. E. boiiiL * O. F* 
ifoc't; (mod. K, %-««). — Lat, ace. b^iUuiHj 
a lauaogic ; in I^te L,, an inlcftine ; 
dtmm, of htttUii, ft sausajje. 

BoWOr, an ibodc, cbamber, arbour. 
(E.J M.t, baar^ A.S, /-J/rj a chamber, 

• A.S. biian^ lo dwell. + I«5el. d«r, a 
ehamlier ; Han. buur^ Swcd, A«r ; O, Suit. 
bftfi 0, H. (;. iiiir. Tecl. typrt *bur^m, 
n., •^«/o:, In, ; see Boor, Cf Booth, 

Bowl I , a TOnnd wooden balL i,F» — 
I.. M. L. MiA*. — F, bou/e. — L^ but/a, a 
bubble; beacc» a refund thing, a ba.ll. 

8«wl (3), a dnnking-TCSiipl. <L0 


M. E. ^//f. A. S. b^Ja ; ti^rm its round 
fotm.^'Dn. itf/, ball ; IceL A(ȣ&; O. H: G. 
Mia, bijwl (G. Wfcl. From Teul. ^bui-, 
weak grade of *Vif/-, to sirell ; cf. Gothl 
9^4iaMlJim, t4 puff upL See Boil , z). 

Bow-line. i,Sc»iul,'j AW ao called 
bccau&c a ktep& a sail bati^eJ ^for tt rather 
keeps it straight', bist becaov fasloied lo 
the ahip'i bcr;i\ • Non«. asd Swed, hog^ 
Una, bow4inp, from hg, bow of a ship; 
Do. bKg/tjn, from bof^, bow. Yot ine 
prmuQctation^ cf. hatcT'S^rif. bee Bcw (^ , 
and Line. 

Bow-wimdow; *ce Bow (i>. 

Box (J * the name of a tree. :L. — Gk.; 
M. E. box', A. S- Acx. — LaL bujctts, the 
boi-tree, "Gk, mifoi, the box-tree, 

box (i), ■■ cbesc or cue to put thbgs 
in. <L.-Gk.} M. E, ^(W; A, S, /iwr.-L, 
buxum, anything made of tictx-'Kood x 
beuoc, a box. — Ljil buxttSj the bor-trce. 
(HcQce a bffx at 1 theatie ; a sbootiag-^vur ; 
ft ChriumaK ^x or present ; Sic) CC 

Box {i)i to fight with fists; a blow. 
(E. The Tcib U from M. E, /•<«•, aU^ 
a blow. Cf. N. Kri<^ baJtie, Silt ^^/v, 
a blow (OuImh) ; M, H, G. 6u^, a blow ; 
Du. bdikttSj G.p&fhtM^ to beat 

Box (4,'> in phr. ' lo box the compojit' 
Apparently one of the bumerona uar$ of 
the vb. formed from box ,3), See 
N. E, D. 

Bcj. (F.) M. E. An. h^. PKserved 
in £. Fri^c boi, bay, a t>oy Koolmaii) : 
allied to M. On. bofvt, a ix>y. Do. bM/, 
a knave. + lce]. &>*, a knave : G, btibt. 
Bavarian butb, bu&ybuit a bt>}. Cf. A. S. 
Bffo. personal name. 

Boycottp to combine «iih others In tK* 
foiling to have dealings with auy oal*. CK) 
Yiom the treatment aoconded id Capi. B^h- 
cott, of Lough Mask House, co. Mayo, Ire- 
land« in Dec. 1S80. 

Brabbltt, to quanel. (E,' Cf. Dn. 
bmbiaUn, to stsmmer^ confound ; whence 
broAhtliaai, foolish talk. See BUb» 

BraOfl>, orij;. a firaa bold. (F.— 1.) 
From the notion of embraciuE, — O.K. 
broir, the two amis (6artficlr< ; hence a 
measure of 5 feet, formed wilh esticnded 
arms fCot); arid hence, a grasp. — IjiI. 
hrdtkia. pi. of brd^hitttHf the arm.+Ifish 
^ft»*-, ^^^ brauk^ the arm ; *fk, ^/M)(t(Mr. 

br&OOlot. (F. - L.) F. bra^£id\ 
dtmin.of *>. K. briueii tii arm lei .VarlicbV 






i*r^ihidU<, %u armlet. — L. hrathsumt 

HA Arm. 

Braciif a kind ai hsRlingHlog. \¥, — 
O.) M. L. f>ra(het pl- ^ra(hfs^ — A. F. 
irtukety i»l. of braihtt^ dimin. &f O. t". 
M»r (F. /'fd^H^j. — O. II.G* hrmco (G. 
A;<i/^' , ft duy ibat bunts by the s«nL 

Br^ckeiLi rem. i^^kaad/ M. £. ^ra- 
/tm, y?um O. Iccl. *f'rakm. Lot fonad j 
rrprcMnltd by Swcd- ^rjjtfw, X'ia^. ifrtgtie^ 
fem : cf. Icel, ifurkni. fcm. 

Bracket, a corbel^ &c. (K. — C.?, 
huniRtlv *pcU ^/a^yf^as in Miashcu, cd, 
16^7. S<j named from the re&ciDblancc to 
ihe frottt part of a pair of br«che*, i* 
formerly cia<Jc. — J . t^ragu^itCt * « cod- 
piece,' Cm, (tbe front p&rt of a |iur of 
Drtcchcd ; the allied iSpan. htitpteia a]sQ 


/^OfO/^inftU li<ju<jr.«\Vt ^n^,iDAU; lh»h 
and fiacl. bfaich^ malt, fcnntntcd grain. 
Cf. ijflcl ^Ad,j4. to fETment- 

Brftbman, BrftlutmL. (bkt-j Skt 
^rtf^fflrooa, a brahman, holy maa, ^Skt, 
broAttutn^ prayer; alw devobon, Ik. 'a 
greatness' of the soul ; cf. ^JkdHft great. 
iVBHERUH, 10 be great. 

Braid i), to weave. CF"! ^l.'E.hresdfM. 
A. S. bregdan, drrddttf to Iraiidisb^ weave, 
braid, + Igel. h-^g^a, to brandish, lura 
abont, change, start, braid, &c. i vrbenvc 
I'roj^^ ft sudden movement. 

braid (a;^ full of deoeit. (E.) In 
Alii AVell, iv. 1. 73, ftraiif is short for 
kraidfd^ I, c. full of ^fviiej:i or tricks. M.£. 
braiJf trick, deceit. ^^ A,S. br^gd, deceit; 
from A. S. h^^y 2nd grade oi^^Jaa, Ig 

inemnt a projcctiog mould In an;bitecluTe, ' d/aw out, weave, knit^ braid 

a bracket 01 coibel- Uimin. qI U. F. , BtaH, a kind of Ligature ui fguleniiig. 

^raptt, ■ a kind of martuse,* Cot. ; from 
ienuxvjr, breeches ; ao also Span, tragtafa 
M the diniin. of Span iif^gxUt bieccbe*.— 
I., i'raiir. breechei; uLid to be of Celtic 
(/>r TcutoEiit 7) origin. See Broechaa^ 

(F.— C»Vj O.F. ^r«ifV/» AciAClUfe: orig.for 
fastcxitng up breeches, — F. ^^rtiV, breeches. 
— L. brdat^ breeches. 
BT&in. (E^) U.'EJyi^ytK. A,S,bncgHt 
bntgrN, tbe brain, + Du. ^*«, Ct Gk, 

Brackisll. (Dn.^ Da. Mr^, brinyt ^>HXfwtt the lup of the head. 

riaii^'uu^- older form wra*'^, brackish! Blilkd <t}j a inachiae fur brpukioc 
;,flt-ihain!i ; allied to M Ilu, tvracktt a hemp; a name for vahotis mcclianicAl 

wreck. !>a. wrakntt to reject* blame, di*- 
approve.<^Du. wrak^ orig, 3nd grade of 
i.'ttl-cM^ to wttak ; orig. lo drii^-e. See 

conuivanccs, (0. Low G.) M, L. bra^t. 
— Low U- brake, & flai-btake; M^^Da. 
hrait^, ' a brake lo beat flax ; * Heiham ; 

Wreck. [So also v:v\w^, »o«r, i* allied 1 Da-i/waA* — Du, Arijjt, and grade of ^/v^i-w, 
to z^-nn--tH. ti> wring. Sec Franck.] | lo break ; sec Break, 

BtACt^ %,) Lat ^m^fAJ, (I thin plate : Brake (3 1, bu^h. (E.) NLK. brtntt. 
ur teaf uf metal. 4'Luw G. ifjftit, wjlluix-ba^h t Bremen) ; 

Bradp ^bcand.) M. t. ^nW- — liirel. al»o stximpa uf broken Irccs. rovgh growth, 
t'raJJr, a spike ; Swed. ^/t>t/£/, L>att. breddti , From A. ±j. f<ranu, (pt. t. /tiTc \ lu bicok. 
B fruit-J!iiil. + .\.S. f'ri}n/,a ipikc^ Tcut, MJ In Ihc unsc of 'fern.* modjilied from 
IvfK *(-f-pz,iffz. ( r. O. Irish ^rp/j Ir. &nkf, ' Bracken. 
VV. /'rwM, n sttng. | Bnu&bltt. E.) H.E.hremhit, A.ii. 

B^M, bfow of a bill, sleep bank. alo[>c. | ifrttut!, hrtmltL Allied to Du. btaam, a 
t&iAhd.; M. E- A/Iff, ^n? i^Nurth;. — Icel. I blatkl«n\ ; Swed. ^'^VM-^ir, Ua^i. ^/ww 
/"U, brow ; hence, biow of a hill; sec < V^r, G. brombtcre^^ bladsb*;iri, Here Du. 

itraam, G. *n'*« it-K H.G hrtima answer 
to A. S. ^' i^Mn . see Broom ; of whii^b A.iS. 
6riM~tf(Utt TcuU**/^(?/v*Vtfi; ii the diminn- 
Braa. (F.) \LE. *to«.-0, F* ^^mw. 


Awf f to boa^t, (UncenainO M . L- 
^naggfM, (o sound loudly, to vaunt Ltym. 
wikaowD : CL Gael, hragh^ ao explusion, 
ciaek ; A.S. ^hratj a breaking, i:nu»h, 
iioiw ; Icel. ^/ai, a creaking, i'roMity lo '. f/reii. CJ. W. /'rdrt, Irish i>raH, liusks, 
creak ; connate with L. Jn^r^ nuiae. I ilmfl''jTuni F. j ; Itrel . ^rr/jrrf , hinn 1. from F. . 
" - *' " ■■' ■ '' ■" BraiKSll, \F. -L.) F.^rtf«t>Jr.-l_-itc 

L. bratica, the paw of an animal. 
Brand, a bumiiig piece of woodi scar 

of firCi a 4wc*rd. (E.) M. E. brontit A. S. 

AUo (late; M. F. hagufr, * to flaunt^ 
Wag/ Cot-; M. F. hruffctni^ ' gay, gallant^ 
brnggnni/ whence £. tn^ggaft. We find 
also W. iir^af^ lo vodierate ifrom E,; ; 

Urct.^/dj;.j, IQ brag ijrom F.i. Cf Bra^. ' firattd, a burning, a sword: from ^nutH. 

Br&glfOt, f'W.' M. K, /rJ^A — \V, 3ad item of IVuL 'hrrtnart-^ to bum ; wv 

i'mge/, A kimi of mea-.t ; nlhoA to Irish! Bum. + l^xL ^"jwrfr. a lirt-brond, swoul- 


blad« {fttm its Daihing') ; Swed. and Dan. 
hrayfd, fire-brand, &re ; M. H. G, ifrant, 
a bm.nd, s.word. 

brancliili. (F,— Scimd.) M-K.^rautr- 
ifiiiti.^ F. Aj^tidisf'Onf, pre*, pi, oi/>raMti/r^ 
lo bmntUsh n swnfd. — A. F. brtiftJ, a 
swoiil. — Icel, Anjrti/r ; sec Brand above. 
Ibraudyr (I^m-) Fomerly tran^- 
wint^ bnirtiiy-it'ine ; whence hraady, — Du, 

'rittide-7t>$jftj M, Du. Srtttttiwijn, brandy j 
liL 'burnt' [I.e. diatillccl) wine (or^ ncc. 
ta Kilian, becAtise it easily bctrnsl, — Du. 
braiiden, lo bum ; and tvijn^ wine ; see 

BrajikSr <i P°"^^^^cnt for scolds. (E.> 
Sec Jamieson. Hence were borrowed 
Gael, trangfii (O. Gael, braiuas)^ a sort 
of pillory ; GacK trough Trish hraiKos, & 
halter, 4- Dii, pratt^tr, pincers, bamadCp 
cotlai; G. prangtr, a pilloty; Du. 
j^rfff^jflWy to pinch. QtGoXYLana-prag^n^ 
to hamtfi. 

Bran-new. (E.) Short for ^TrntAwrw, 
i.e, ntw from the fire. Sec Bxund. 

Brant'foz, Brant^oose or brent - 

tfOOBe* i^t prefix i^Scand,, as inSwcd. 
frattdfitf^ a brani-fox, brandj^as. a bretit- 
goose. The orig. Sense is ' burnt,* with 
ihe nijtton of rednesa or blacknL-ss. 
BrB4ner, Brasiert a pan to hoi d coal «. 

^F. — StariH, '. F. Amstfr.^F, ffraisc^ live 
coals. — Swerl, f^nrjd, fire (below), 
Braaii. (£■) M.E. hras. A. S< Mr/. 
rerhn[is allied to llic verb seen in Icel. 
/^njxa, to harden by fire; Dan. l'ra$e^ lo 
fry ; ct Swcd. brasa.^ fire, Der. *rfli'*fl, 

brase {i)r t^ harden. (£.) K. Lear, 
ii I. tt. It means to harden like brass\ 
see below. 

lir&xe i'5)i to omaincnt with bra5S>, 

(E. ) In C^pman, tr* of Uomer, Od. xv. 

113; from hmsSt *b. ' Acro, ic hrasige \ * 

JPMiiCt Gram. p. 315. 

BraBSartp ibc piece vf :u'mour which 

Erotected the nppcr part of the arm. (F. — 
-j F. hrassdrf (Cot.), hritssard (lAiXtt)\ 
also bmssal, Fottned with suffix ►drv/ 
from F. bras^ arm. — L» hrij^hittm^ arm* 

Brat 0\ a doak, rough mantle. (C.^ 
It also meant a Tag» cloul, or pinafore.— 
Gael, and Irish ^/^z, a cloak, ttk^ : 0. Irish 
'/»/, a rough cloak ; W. breihyrt, wooUco 

"oih. (\V. brai is from E) 

Brat (j), a child i ei^p, ' a beggar^i Aro/,' 
Perhaps 'a ragj' the same as BrAt (i), 

Brattioe, a fence of boards In a mine. 


I (F.- Tent.?) M.E. httateki, hrttatex^ 

\hrutaske, a parapet, battlement, — O. F, 

I breUicht^ a small wooden outwork^ battle* 

ment; cf. Frov. bert^ica. Ital. tttieu^f 

I the iiime AdiHtcuIt word ; prob. formed 

! ffom G. brffi^ a plank. 

Bravado. (Span.) See Brave. 

Brave. 1^1'-— Ital.) V.bravf, Minsve, 

gay, fine, proud^ braggard, valiant;' Cot. 

— Jtal. bravo-, the same 11&, and 
Pori./'«ifw; Prov. ^rffH. Ktym. unknownf 
none of the explanations are »tt£factory; 
the Bret. hriit\ O. Swcd. firttf, appear to 
be borrowed from F. 

bravado, (Span.) Altered irom Span. 
brai'adti, '■a bravado;* Minsbeu^s Span. 
Diet. — Span, bravo, brave. 

bravo, a daring villain. (lUl.} Ilfll. 
bmxv. brave ; as a sb., a cut throat, villain, 
bravo! well done! (Ital,) itaJi.bratVt 
brave; used in the voc. case niasc. 

Brawl (O1 lo quarreL (E.?) M.E. 
hrmvU*i. Pcrhiaps E. Cf, Da, braikfty 
to bm^, boAEtt; Dan. bralte^ to prate, 
chatter; G./ra/z/rrj, to brag. 

Brawl 2), Q sort of dance. ^F.-^Scand, 
or Q. H-G.) * A French brattd^' 1- hX. iii. 
9,— F, brattsir, ' a totter, swing, . . . bratvl 
ordflnce;' Cot,— F. Az-aftj/iT, to reel; mod- 
¥. bronUr. Allied to O. F. brnndtUi^ 
(Littre)t brathdilkr^ to shake (CoL), 
frequenL forms of K. brmtdir, to brandish. 
See Brandiflh. 

Brawn, muscle. (F.-O.ILG.) M.E. 
brautty muscle, boar's flesh.- O. F. bfvsn, 
a ilice of fle^h ; cf. Prov, bradtfftt the sam^ 

— O, H. G. brdfen, ace. of brdfe, a itice 
of flesh for roasting. — O H.G. braian 
\ij. brainf)f to'A.S. bntdan. 

Bray 'j). to bmiacj pound, iF. — GO 
M , E, bray^ti. — O, ¥, btttef ( F. brcy/t-)^^ 
O. Saj(, brtkatt kQ, bff<ktn\ to break: 
sec Bretvk. 

Br&y 12 , to make a roariMg nui&e, 
;F.-C.) A. F. brairr^, F. bmtre <Med, 
Lat. bragir/). Of Celtk oKgin; ct Gael. 
bragk, a bui-su explosion, ^rtfy^^i-H*^ tocrackle 
(Tbumeysen) ; and cf. L./rajf-^r^ noise. 

Brace ; »ec Br«aa. 

Brasier ; i^e Brwtler. 

Breach, iE.) M K .^r/r/l/. a fractute. 
*• A. b. brfjr/t as in hliSf-gtbrt'ft, a piece of 
bread fmore commonSy briu, a breakine); 
O. Fries, brtkc.-'h.^* h-aan, to break. 
% M. E. bncht is also pnrily from (J. F. 
^rtcAi- fF. bri<fu)t a fracLurc.— G. brt^htn. 
to break. 







■I-Du. i'rpod\ Icel. J^dHff ; Swe^. and Daii. 
h>i*>fi G. hat, Tcut type '^mitdem, t\. : 
or *5iaitdo-z, nent, form in -03. ll some- 
times means ^ bil ' or * piece*; cf. A. S, 
' frtadnt, frtiita. pdttis,' BLicklLag Glosses ; 
O, Northumb- ^^arf, a bit, moisel ; Jolin 
xiti. 17, 

Breadth. C^,> The final fh is ki*: 
from M.E, ^aiV, brcadlb; Ch, — A»S, 
A/^.r-jtf.+ lcel. ^rfj^?;/; O. H. G. ^fiVi" .;G. 
Atei(i)\ Goth, bfnitifi^ f. From Tcut, 
*lraiJoi. btoad ; sere Broad. 

Br«&k. tE.i M. E. ^rfdtfw; pi.tSmM 
pp, broken* h. S. brttan^ pU t. ^/'trc, pp, 
/'rthffM.+ Llu. breken-, Goth- hrikari; G. 
hmhftt, Cf, I«l. ifraifs, to creak; Swed, 
itraha^ to £r»ck ; Dan, ^rtf^^f ; Ijitr/rrfw- 
^rfr* to brcatc; Gael, hragh^ an explosiyn. 
(V^^R^t^') The orig, sense is to break 
with 3 noise, to crack. 

BireaiDfafish, (K.— Tent.) M.EJr^m. 
-O. F. brume (F. *r^iw^). - M. H.G. 
i^naAum (G. bmsstn) ; O, ILG* br&hiina 
(Kluget Cf. Du. ^rojfw. 

Breast. tE.) M. K (^r^j/, flrWjA A.S, 
brioil. + Icel. i^^'^Jjf L.Swcd. flr^j/, Dan. 
hryU) \ TeuL type ^hrtu^itom^ n. Also G. 
hruit, Dn. ^7rj/, Goth, bruUs ; Tcut, stem 
*hrHs(- (with weak grade)* 

Breath. (E.) M.E.*rtfM,iK/A, A.S, 

iriA>,+ O. H. G- Srarfrti'H, G. jfrrpi/i'/ff . ^rft/tHj 
hroJeij steam, vapovr, exhalatiun. 

Breecb. {e.) See Bre«oheg. 

Breeclies. ( ^-J R^atly a double 
plural, the Jorm bru^h being, in itself, a pi. 
fomi. A. S. iiri€^ breeches; pi. <AhrQ£, with 
the same sense.^DD,. h^oek, % pair of 
breeches; loel- ^n^A (pi. j^rtfir); M.II.G. 
bru&eh. Cf. L. braca, said to be a uoid 
of Celtic (but rather uf Teutonic) origin. 
Sec BroKues. 

bTMCh. fEO M. E. breefh; A. S. 
^A'j ibe breech; A. S. Lecchdora8> ii. 
I46. Cf. A. S. h-fi^ breeches^ pi. of ^rvt:; 
»c* above, 

Bre^d. (i^) A. 8, ^ri^dn, to produce 
oi cherish a brootl,-^ A.S, f'rJJf a. brood 
(with miftaUQti from (' to <";.'+'G, ftru/ers; 
from ^rut. See Brood. 

Breeks, breeches. -ScanJ.^ Northern 
E. From Ice I. brtikr^ pi, of brok ; see 

Breese (i), a gadfly. fE.) M.E-*r^rt. 
A, S. f'floui. 

Brfl«r«i a),astrongwind, (K.) Formerly 
irjV --O, F. Itriii. used by Kiibelais in the 

fftme sense ns F. ^r^, the N. wind ; cf. 
Span, b^iia, Port, briza^ the N.E*windj 
Ital, hrtzza^ a coM wind. Ort^, unknown. 

Bt90€i ^0T cinders, ^F. — Scand.) 
O, F. ^r^-ri (6rtfi^ in Cot,)p F. braist^ lire 
conif. See Braeier. 

Breve. (,ltal.-L.) Oig. a j-*ffr/ note j 

now the longest in use,— Ital. brctfg^ brief. 
— L. brraiSy short. Dflr. sfmi-bf^vi. 

brevet. ( F. - L.) F . brt.-ver, * a brief. 
breviflltj litlk writirjg;' Cot- Dimin. from 
F. &rr/, biieT — L, breuiSf short, 

breviary. (t'-L.) F. 6rfyji'aire.~. 
L, ^euianum, a summary. — L- btiuh, 

brevity. lF,-L,) ¥, brih>tti.^U 
ace. briutiffttm, shortness- — L- hreuh^ 

Brew. (E.) M.E. brtwtn. A.S. 
hreoivan, pt, I. brgaw^ p^.gihran<ift,-^'Du. 
breuzvfn] G.^raueni lixi. bru£ga ; Swed. 
brygga\ Dan. ^ryggt. Cf, L. df-fru-iunty 
new vine boiled down,' TbiaciaQ ^puTci-, 
beer. Cy BH KEU, to decoct.) 

Brewu, Browie, pottA£c. (F.- 
O, H.G.) M. K. brcmti^ ^rra-tv.-O.F. 
hf&ui%, br6iz^ nom. of broud, br&ti, soup 
made with broth of tocat; dimtu. oS breu, 

Eottage (RtKjuefort),— O. H. G, bred, brPt, 
roth; sec Broth. Also ipclt brase. 

Briar, Brier. {E,) M.E, brere, 
A. :S. /»n?r, O. Merc. jJrM 

Bribe. (F.) M.IL bnbe.~0. F. iriA?, 
a piece of bread g^vt'n to a beggar. 
Cf. bribery \o beg; tipan, briba^ idlentSSj 
bribar^ to loiter about; JtaL birba, fraud; 
biibaffte^ an idle beggar. Origin un- 
known : not Celtic. 

Brick. CF,-M. Du/, F. ^/rVw^, a 
brick ; also a fra|rment, bit. — M, Du. brt'ckr, 
a brick; cf. Walloon briqitet, a targe i>Ui:c 
of bread.— Du. btckttt, to break. Dap, 
bru'A-bdt (sec BntV 

Bride. (E.) M. E. brit/e \ also btrtfe, 
brutU, burde. A. S. hryd, a bride. 4- I^u* 
bmidi Icel. ^riitfr; Swed. and Dan. j^rrr^; 
O. H.G. Arrti"; G. brauti Goth, iftufks. 
Teut. type 'bruiihi f. 

bridal. (E.) FormcrJy /'i id^^le^ a 
bride- feast. A, S. bryJ'iaht a brtde-nlC| 
bride-feaiit. — A. S. ^rprf, I ride; and *j/o, 
alt, aUrh :i fc^^l; see AJe. 

bHdegroom. (E.) ¥or brtdf^wm: 
the second /■ is intrusive ; by cunlusiun 
with ^oem, A.S. brpd-^f/ta, lit. bridt-* 
TDnn ; where ffutnn i^ cognntt; with I<. 
Acfft&t^ innrv ; itce Homage, + Du. brttrdr- 
gofti't Icel. bt'tfdi^ufHr; Swed, hradi^ufn: 




Dan. hrutigvm : G. trtiuti^m, O* II. G* 

Bindge. (E-^ M.E An^» Brugge, 
A. S, ^^p'^f. + Icel. f>ry_^ja ; Swed. t^tyggn ; 
Daru f>iyg^Y a pier ; Du. ^riif ; Ci. h-Ucki, 
Tcut. type *^ru^^Jd, T Allied to Tcel, *«?, 
Dan. i^c, a bridge, pBvementT O. Swed, 
hr&^ ft paved wty. 

Bridle. (£.) M. E. jW,i>/. A. S, 

brideL + Du. hrei^eli O* (i. U MV^/, 
briUii [whence F. hridt\ A, S. Afifi/tf/ 
iepreKnt& an earlier ^hri§dtl (cf. hri^Jih, 
a bridle, O. E. Texts, p, 44, L 1 j;), - A. S. 
^rfgii-aa, to pull,tw]Lch (with change of 
^ to /}. See Br9id« 
Brief C 1 ) , short. { F. - L. ) M, K hnL 

— F. href,^\« brtuii-, short.+Gk, flpaxvjj 

faiief (>V a writ, &c (F.-L.) F, 
briefs a brief; Cot- The same a* K, hr^ 
above; from its being in a shori form, 
Brig, Brigade ; s^e Briff^nd, 

Brigand, (t . - Ual.) F. hH^anJ^ a 
robhcn — lul, hHi^antii an intriguer, rob- 
ber; orig. |>rcs. pirt. of hri^iir^y to strive 
sfteT.^Iuli. ^r^T3, strife, quarrel^ iroablc. 
Orig. untreriain. 

lM?igj short fnr brigAntine. 

brigade. iF.-Iul.} F. hn,^f^, a 

crew, iTfXJpt — ItaU ^r4'»^**, a trciopi orig. 
^_ lieni- of pp. of Mj^irt, to ttrivc, fightj u 
I^V brigftUdiuei a kind of armour. (F, 

— ItaL) F. i>rjpim/in£^ a kind of armaur} 
worn by brigandii.— F, Mgand, a robber ; 
flcft aliove. 

brigantiiLe, brig, a ship. (F.- 

ItaL) -ffrj^ is nierety snort for hrigantint. 

— F. hrigantin, a kind of ^ijk — Iral. 
briganiinff, a piTate-ship,»ttal, hrigtiHte, 
a rcbber. Set* BrigaQd. 

Brigbt. (E.'j M. E. ^tt^A^ A.S. 
*Wr^A ferA/. + Icel. ^/ffWr; M. H. G, 
A«rA/; Goth, bairhfr^ shining. Trot. Ijfpc 
*berh!o'., shining. Cf. Gk, (p<tpttut^ while, 

Brill, a li^h. t;,j Origin Dnknnwn. 

BriUiftfit, shining. (F.-L.-Gk.- 
Skt.J F- hrillanf, prcs. part, of hriifer, 
to glitter; cf. Ilal. hrilfart, to sparkle. 
The orig. sense waft to sparkle as a beryl. 

— L. UfyUas, a beryl ; see Berarl^ 
Brim* (E.) M. K. Ar/m. (Not in 

cUr.^M. K. brifin en, to burn, aiid i/iv;/, 
stone. So alw Icel. 6t^miisffiiHH, brim- 
slone. Sec Bum. 
Brindled^ Brinded^ fttrcak&l. 

(Scitnd.^ Icel. btdntf-^ as in f*n^ttdot(r^ 
brindod, said of a cow. •Icel. Naitdr, a 
btand, ftame, &wotd. Thus t'tin^cd » 

Brine, (E.) M. E, *n"w. K.%hftn 
(fur hrifu)^ biitie, salt liquor. -f-M. Du. 
hyytii; Do- *W>'h, pickle. 

Bring* ll^) A. S. ^Wn^n, aka 
brttigan, pt- t. AraAi"**. + D11. Afjr^^jwi; C. 
brmgtn \ Goth, bri^an (wriltea for 
Arifi^fi], pt. t. i**^dhttu 

Brisk. (.Seflnfi,j M.E. AMw^^-Dan^ 
brinJk, veigc; Swed. brink, deiicent or 
■lope of a hill ; Icel. bnkka (for hrinka^^ a 
slnpei cre^t of a hill ; allied to Icel, hrin^^r^ 
ft-ersj&y Uopc, oriz- the breast. 

Brisk. (F.-TiaU) ^^\Xbrmik\n 
LowL y& (1560). — F- !>rjtsqufi * brisk, 
lively, qmcke, rash^ harih ; * Cot. — Ital, 
bfusta, tart, harali; see Bruaque. 

Brisket* (F.) O, F, brtSritf (Brachet\ 
*. V. bret'h€t)y also bruschei (Ducangc) : 
briefly ' the briaketf or brea^t-ptcce^ 
brufkft, * the craw-bonc of a bird ; Cot. 
Mod. F. brfchtt. Cf, Uret. bruihed^ ihc 
breast] i^\i brusk in the dialect of 

Bristle. E,> ^T. E. /Wi//c» hirsik, 
birsi/i: ; dimin. of A. S, byrsl, a bri5tlc.+ 
Da, hontel; Ice!, bunf; Swed, histi 
C. biffsff. From Teut. *b»rr~, weak grade 
of "rffrj^Idg. *AAfrr, to bribtle ; dT Skt. 
sahajrabhrshtif having a thousand points. 
See BuiT. 

Brittle. (EO M. E. bHfd, hoUL 

hniltL For A. S, Htytei ^ttvX. *brutiict, 

from ftrw/', weak grade of A. S. brifiiarft 

to break. It means ' fragile.' Cf, Icet. 

br/5tfiy Swt6, ibry/a, Dan. ^rydft In bieak. 
firO«ob. (F. — L.) M. F- j^ffitf en 

byfifAi^to Kl ft'broiich. tap liquor, — F. 

mtttre en br&che^ lo tap, by piercing a 

barrel. — F. hrochtr^ to pience ; htihi^ 


* a. broach, spit/ Cot. ; Eec Broqob, 

Broads (!■;.' M. E. bf^. as. bra. 

+ l>ii. br^^fi; kcl. brefSri Swed, a 

rWn* *#Vfif; Goth, ^rauilr - G. Am'/. 

Brocade.. i;Spn.n,— I..) Span. ^*w^(Jd'd 

A* SO Cf. Ice), barmr, brim; Swed. I brooAde; tjrig. embroidered, the pp. of 

bttjiri, border, ed);;c; Dan. Anrtwmt; M J verb ^brffcar ,oot used) nnswering to F. 

I»tj, hremf, C^^/^nfm^, border. ^nsrAjr, 'to broach, also, to Mitch., .with 

BriMStoae, mlphur, (E.) M, E. (jreBl stitches;' Cot. — F, *r<w^?.-Late U 

itrimifm» hrfrnftactt^ also ^iv/a^w O^'V' ' bracfa. t*. Ar^<rM; tee Bnsoeh. 






broccoli- (ItttL — L.) Itfll hatcoii, 
spn>uU; pK cti hrfietalo, a sprout. Dimln. 
of l>r0C(O, a skewer, a shoot, stalk, — L, 
irft't'w/, projecling, like teeth. 

brocltlirc, ft pamphlet, tF,^L.) F. 
tt'6chttf^. a few leaves St itcheil together.— 
V, h/vcli4r, Lo «Utchj see BTOOade. 

BrOCkt A badger. (C) A. S ^r^-.- 
\S,, Corn., ftfid Ltret. brdfhi trish, Gad., 
juid Mahx ^roc, a badger. Named from 
his white-slreskert fnce; cf. Gael, hrct-a^h, 
speckled. gra^*^h, asa badger; Crk,^op#^r, 
whit«, RJ^y. (Cf. E, gray, a badger.) 

Sr(>&etf a rerl deer two years old. 
(b'. — L.) 1-. i'/ocari, the 5.ame; so called 
b€C4a:iC be hAa bnt one line to bb horn« — 
F. itwAft a »pit, al&Ot a tiue of a fltog's 
hom ; £ce Brooch. 

Bl!t>gtie9f criar>^e ^oes. Icj^ing?* (C. 
— IL) '»^cL and Iiish /^ri^^, slioej M. Irish 
/'/■.Vr, ^hoe. — A. S. ^^iv, breeches; <?r IccK 
^fi'jfr. See Brecohea* 

Broided. braidefl. (E.) The wk. pp, 
itroii/tJ look the place of the str. pp. 
brouiiTt^ woven, itstJf due to confusion of 
6/eniii/ta H'ith hroidcr (below). Brottxftn 
rt-picsents A. 5. brogdcn^ pp, of brt^dan^ 
to brjiid. Sec Brqid, 

Broid^r. t" fi'lom with nccdlework- 
(Fj [In I Tim. iL 9, broidtrtd (os in 
%ame edd.' )■; an crrof for hr&ukd \ see 
ftbu ve.] Used as the eqot va lent of F. 
brmier, * to imbroyder/ Coi, Tlie pi ia 
dtie* to confusion with hrotJid. — O. K, 
breudir^ also hr^dtr (Snpp. to Godefioy) ; 
cf. I,ate l„ /j/7/S(^(/y, ^rojr?ftrj, embroidered 
work (Ducange). Of unknown origin; 
perha(»5 fr»m Teut. *hr&Zii', svlietice A.S. 
hrord, Iccl. hrdddf^ a spike ; See Br&d- 

Broil ^ U. to fr>% RFilU C^O W. E. 
brotkn. — A. F. firoilUr (Bozon), O. K. 
brtiiUtrt to lioil, roast ( Roquefort). Origin 
miknown; cf. 0,F. hruir, to roast; p«r- 
hajH irom M II, t;. brUtif^^ to scnld ; sec 

BrodI ii), ^ tnmDlt. (F,"! F. broitHler, 
ifj jumblCf confnw, confound. Cf. Ital. 
hreg/iait^ to iti&turb. hv^U, confusion 
(whence E, im-brP:giiG), Origin nn- 

Broker. (F. — l-O ii' E. brocour^ 
an o^nt, intness of a Iransaction. — A. F. 
hro(Gur^ nn agent ; orig. a * broacher * or 
tc^llcr of wtne.^Late L. broccdtoj', one 
who bionchc*. — Lute L.broaat i.e. spike; 
w;c Brooeb. 

BrQminOr ^ chemica] element. (Gk.' 

Kamed from its ill odour. Formed, with 
suffix 'ifu, from Gk. Bpuft-otf x stink. 

Broncliial. (Gk.) Gk. 0p6-fxt^, ncuu 
pl.^ ihe lamificalions of the windpipe.*'- 
Uk. ^pd-yxov, the wim^ptpe; cf. 0ftayx^h * 
gill. Der. bratuh-itis\ from ^p«i^jfoir, 

Bronxe. tF, - lul. - L.) F. I'r&itu. 
— ItoL <^7*tfHSi); btsnzina, made of bronze 
(« ^ rfj), — L. iJj' BrHHiiuiitium. — 1« Bt-un- 
iiHifttm, Brindjsi (in Italy) ; where broDJse 
mirrors vvere made (I'liny, xxxiii, 9). 

Brooclli (F.-L.) Named from the 
piti which fastens it. M. E, brQthe^ % pin, 
pegj brooch.— F, broike, a spit, point.— 
Late L. bfOti'a, a pointed btick ; bivca^ a 
spike ; L, broccus, projecting, like tcelh- 

Brood. (L.) M, K.^r<K/. A.S. J^a/ 
(rare); 'hi bred&S heora Ami* = they 
nourish their bfuod ; ^Uric^a Horn. it. to. 
+ Du, /tim:^/; {i,brn{^ Ticnt. stem *bro^-, 
from a verbal base "bfo-, preserved in G. 
hfii htn^ to acald (orig. lo beat), Du. 
brQ(-uti^ to brood, hatch ; from the idea ol 
' heat ' or * waimth.' Der. brted. 

Brook iS)y to endure, put up with, 
(K) M, E. bt-pkcH^ Itfeuken, A. S. i^7/- 
rdff, to iise^ ctijoy; which was the orlg, 
sense. + Dn. gebruikeii^ Ice!- bruka^ G. 
bt-mtihen^ Goth, brukjan, lo use; cf* L. 
/rwi, to enjoy. Sec Fruit, V^HREUG.) 
Brugm. i. $ I H. 

Brook C^)i i^ smalt strenm. (E.) M. E. 
*rcwA, A.S. ^w.+Do* br&^k^ G. ^rwM, 
a marsh. 

brook-limo, a plant. (E.) M. E. 
brob-kmk(^ btok-iemck. From A. S. btvt\ 
a brook^ and hlesutoi^ brook-lime. 

BrOam. (K.) M. E. hr&me, br^m, 
A- S, broTtt^ the plant broom ; hence, a 
besom made from iwigs of it,-|-Du. brftfi : 
Low G. braam, broom. Tent, type *bni- 
mez. Allied to Bramble, q. v. 

BrOBOf 3i later fonn Qibnrwis or brewis; 
5ec Brewia. 

Brotk.* (E.) A.S. ^n)/>+IceL btv^; 
O, H.G. brpd. TcnL type *bre}ffm, n, ; 
from btj-, br-u-f weak grade of brtu-y as in 
A.y. breffxoan^ to brew. Lit. * brewed." 

Br Otkel. ( E. ; confii std -nitA F. — 
Tcu^) 1. M. H, brethiiy a lewd pertoiij 
ha'^e wretch. — A.S. broC-tn^ pp. of 
brtoSatt. to perish, become vile ; whence 
at&u abrvOen, de(^enenite, base. Henc^e 
was made brof/iei^httuse, a hons« for vile 
people (Much Ado, i. i, 256^ afterwards 
contrflctcd to brathd. fi. Orig. distinct 
from M. E. bcrdd, which wnt used. how< 




#verj ill much ihc sjiihk ^dk. ~0. ¥, bof- 
(ffi, a hut, orig. of boaitJs. -^ Dn. darJ, sl 
pUnk, board; seeBoa^, 

Brother. {iL) M. E. 6fvth4r. A. S. 
&ri>di^r,-^T>^.lfr&ider\ IttA. brddir \ Gotb. 
i>rothar\ Swcd, and Dan, hrotUri G, 
iirUiUr\ Gael, and If. hrathmrx W. 
brawd', Ku&s. brai' i Lai, JrJUr; Gk< 
^/»flTi7/j ■ SIct. AArdff. Tcul. stem *hroiher- ; 
Id^, stem *bhyaUt . 

Brougham, a Uud uf cimngc. (Per- 
gonal natiic.) Dale 1839. Nnmed after 
the tirei Lord Ilroughatn- 

Brow. (E) M, E, /'/-drtr. A S. Arw. 
+ Ice1. hn'tn, eyebrow; Lith. Aruwf's i 
Kuss. &rmv; Gk. fi^i^; Pers, o^rw; Ski, 
/i/mi. Bnigmi_ i. ^ 554- 

Brown. (K,) M. h« ^r^^w. A*S. 
brftn.'^Vu. hruiit; Icel. brftun; Swed, 
i'rufi\ Dan. /'rH/(n; G.^rBHw; I>tth. ^/7//;i3J. 
Cf, Gk, Vpi*"^) 3 load ; Sfct. i^a-bhrw t\ 

BrowBQ. (F.-M.H. GO For ^™hj/; 
lit. ' lu feed Oil yaiing sbt>ots,^j— M. F, 
^rouiter [¥. brcuter)^ \o nibbk off young 
shoots. — M. F- hroust (F, I>ro»i\ a sprig, ' 
shoot;^ bud.— M. 1L G.>^rit7r,a bud ; Bavaf- 
htossi, tifoss, a bud. From the weak grade 
of O.H.G. briotan, to breaks al&o, lo 
break into bud ; which U cognate with , 
A.S f>rr&tfjn. SeeBriUlo. 1 

Bruin. (Du.) In Reynard the Fox, 
ihc l>car U called brttin, i.e. browJi.^Dn. 
bruhf, hruwn. See Brown. • 

Bruise. (E. ; partly F.) A. S. {tor 
itfja», to bruise* lafiucnccd bj- O. F. 
6rttii€r, 6Hj(r, lo break, perhaps of Celtic 
origin ; ct Gael, bris, to break, Irish trU- 
im, 1 break. (The spelling m\ iratn A. S* 
/, occurs in S. Eng. Legendary, jqf,. 58.) 

Smiir « rumoiir. {y. - E. ?) F. /*™ii', 
a noise. — F- hmire, lo make a noise. 
Scheler derives F. brttire from L. rugirct 
to roar, with prefixed ^. F. ^rH/V-Liile 
i,JU. firu^fui, a cUmonr i^Ducajigc}; i;f. L, 

WjivVwj^ a roaring. Partly imttalivL-; cf. 
-C MiiirH. to roar- 
Brunette* t !■"■ - G. 1 F. htimfftf, fem. 
of brumi^ browEiUb. — M, H, G. inun, 
brown ; see Brown, 

Bmnt. (E.) Trob- imitative; d.dini 

itini)f a blow; iiiflufiiced by North E 
|nvn/. i.r. * burnt/ jn if the ' hot ' part of 

Bmih. ^.K.-Tcui.''J M.E. ^r/«fA^, 
B brush : aUo brosh^wood, which is the 

iwigSt — O. F« bnfttf F. irtfiju^ brushwood ; 
al»D^ later, a brush.*- Low L. iSriuod, a 
thicket. Derived by Die* from O- H. G, 
bnrstd^ G. hrsie, a. bristle ; but perhaps 
Celtic (Thurneyacn). 

Brufl^ue* rough io manner, (F, — Ital.) 
F. brusque. — Itil, bmscff^ ^arp, tart, soui, 
applied 10 iVultE and wine. Origin nn- 

Brute. (F,-L.) Y. brtit,itm.bruttn 
— L, ifrtituj, stupid. 

Bryony. ( L, -- Gk L. bryonia. — 
Gk. S/nwi-in, 0pu^VT}t brp'onVi. — Gk. fi^vtiv, 
to tcereir grow luxuriantly. 

Bubble. (E.) Cf. Swed. AhMAj^ Dan. 
bob/n, a bubble ; also Du» tf&/>belya. bubble, 
bobbt'/fft, to bubble. Of imitative origin- 

Buecanier, (F.-lVest Indian.) F* 
bifut'AJitcr, a pirate. — F, boucatur, lo bruil 
Ofi a sort of wooden frame.— F. hctwan^ 
a wooden frame, used by hunters for 
smuking and drying flesh. The word 
fvuian i& said lo be a F. ipeUttig of a 
Tupi (Brazilian) word, and to mean *ft 
frame on which meat is smoke-dried,* 

Buck (1), a tnale deer, goat- (E,> 
M. E. buHe^ A- S. buc, male deer, butca, 
a hegoat.+Du, Aifky Icel. bnikr^ Swed. 
ilpf *, a hegoat ; Dan. bitA^ a hc*goat, ram, 
buck; C. botJt ; also W. irwck, Gael. ^, 
Irish A(^-. Bragm. i. | Soo. 

Buck (3), to steep clotiic* in lye. (E.) 
M. E. b0ukfn. As if from A. S, Hiiciaitt 
not found. Pmb. from A, S. bii^, a pitcher 
(prov. E. f^pwifr, a pail, tub) ; but M. E- 
hsutcu has the specific »n»e of * steep \i\ 
lye/ like M.ILG, btii/igrt, Swed. tyXta, 
Dan. Af^'r, Lov¥- G. biikcrt, huktn (whence 
Ital. bttcarff F. btter\ 

bucket. {E,1 A. F, ^*p/ iBoion). 
Formed with A. F. dirain* suffix et from 
A. S, <^Mf, a pitcher, Cf, GaeK butarti^ 
triih bitireaJ^ a bucket 1 from E. 1- 

Buckle. ^K.-L.) M,E. *^*,rA-O.F. 
^W*Vf (F. boncU), the boss of a shield^ a 
ring, n buckle. — Late L. /tuu/a, the boas 
uf a shield ; htfru/a, benver of a helm, bo&» 

of a sbicldp buckltr. laLat. htrtrttUiy ihc 

check, dim in. oi bthra, \b^ cheek. 

buckler. ^F.-L,) M.E, *^Wm- 
O. F. buil^r (F. biutr/ur), a slvicld; m 
named fnim ihc bo&s on it j see above. 
Buckram, a coar&e clolh. (.F.— 
lLnl,i M.E. (Jo-trA-atf/. — O- F. ban/urrant 
(F- ifou^ratt), a coarse kind of clutb ; low 
I... boiiugraHttus or (in Italy) bfuhiranm 

older seiisci the orig. binf'h being made of! (.for ]ial, bmMirano)^ latfr llaK buirheramt 


nHgin uncertain; perhaps from Kokbnni 


BmckwllAatp (E.) Lit. bcech-whcat; 
from the r^semblaiiGC of its seede to the 
niflst of Ihe beech-trte. The form ^ck » 
frotu A- S> ^, as in hufk-mast^ be^h- 
mflst. So w\%o Du. SiKkitftit, buckwheat; 
K\. buihweittn. Sec Beeoh. 

BuCOliCfr pastoral. CL. - Gk.) L. btlfo- 
/iVwf. — Lik. jSowjrcjAWr, pastoml- — Gk. 
fiovit&Koi, a cDwh«rd.— Gk. ^ou-^^ &n ox; 
and K4XXur, to drive. 

Bud, (£• 7) M. E. ^A/.r, ^ler/^, ft bud ; 
imddin^ to bad- Not found in A-S. Cf. 
Pu. At)/, a bud ; bdUn^ to bud, sprout. 

Bnd^Q (i), to stir. (F.-L.) Y.bcuger, 
to itir ; aj]&wering to ItaL duh'iare, to 
bnbbk up (DLez)--*L. hu/firt; see Boil 
(i) above. Cf. Spvi. MHrt (i) to boil, 
^li to stir. 

Bttdge (i). a kind of fur. (F.?) 
Perhaps reUted to O. F, ifocAti, bvuffut. n 
boung kid, 

Budget, A tnthem bag. (F.-C.) 
I* I'&u^ffi, diiqjii. of Afftige, a, Xra^.^L. 
hui^, :y lenthem bug (Gaulish). »0. Xnsh 
tioie^ Utic^ ft lack. 

BnlT {}),■ the colour of dresied buffalo* 
skin. (F.-U-Gk.) F. ^^?, a buffalo. 
— L. ^/aJus\ see Eiiffiklo, 

Buff (i)f in Bliiidmaii*« buff. (F.) 
Formerly hiimUfrUin Hu^, a, game ; in wfaidi 
g^ine boyi used to i'**^ei ouc (who was 
blinded) on the back^ without being 
caught, if potdbte. From O. F. bufe, F. 
fiuffr, A buffet, blow ; cL Low G. buff^ 
puf, H blo^c- (Liibben . See Bulfot (i). 

Bnj^lo. tT'ort. pr ltd. -L.-GLO 
r«»rt. bii/iilo^ TtaL bu^iito^ orig. a kind of 
wild ux.-^L, bufaiusM^^ dudaltu.'^Gk, 
puv0ii\at^ a buffalo ; a kitid of deer Or 
natelopc. (Not t true Gk. word,) 

BoSer ii). and (3); sc« BtLffat (i). 

BnJfet It), ft blow; to strike. (F.) 
M. £. boffet^ buffti^ % blow, e$p- on tbe 
cheek. ^O. F. huftt^ a blow, diiiiin. of imfe^ 
a blow^ esp, on the check ; cf* bufrr^ bufftr^ 
to puff out the checks, rIUq to buffi^t; mod, 
F. bQuJftr. I'rob, of imita^tive origin^ aiticd 
Ui^ott£jtr, to pulf ; see Buff (i)^ Puff. 

ntt^ifnmcrcr* hcuce, a foolish fcUow. M.E. 
ifujffn, to stttmmcr.^O. F, Am/tt, to puff 
oat the cheekt (hence, to puff or blow in 

bufliS7 (>)• a cuihion, to deader; coa- 
cmftioa. (F.) lit. ' a striker; * from M . £. 


Imfftn, to strike, orijj. to buffet on the 
cheeky «e Buffet (1). 

buJFoOXU \y^ F. hangstt^ a boffoOn, 
jester, one who makcH griniaces. — F, bouffer^ 

BTlffet{3\aHd<^boftr<T. (F.) Y.bvpt, 
X sjdc^board. Ongin uiiktiown. 

Bn^ (0. a spectre, (C) In Sh.-W. 
hog, a hobgoblin, spectre ; Gael, and If. 
biHr^H, aspectre.Hh^Uhuiin. bttHgns^KtrzifiQ, 
from ^^', lo ternfy, allied to Skt. bhuj\ 
to turn asidei see Bow {]). Bfugia. 1. 

Buff (j), an insect. (C.?) Said to b« so" 
named because an object of IciTOf, estcitilig 
diigust; see Bilk (i)> Bnt cf. A, S. 
Heartt-f^utlia^ dang-beeftc (VocOj prov. E, 
ihatn-hug (^Kent). 

Bug-beu^. (G. fHHii EO A supposed 
spectre iQ the shape of n bear; see 
Bu« (I). 

BTigl»0),awiIdos; ahom. (F.-L.) 
BugU^ a horn, ts short for bugii-h^tn; 
a ^j!<^/^ i£ a wild ox. — O. F. bugle, a wild 
ox. — L. ace dikulism, a young ox ; double 
dimin. 0(601, au ox. 

Bufflo (a), a kind of ornament. [Low L. 
btfgBit, pi., the name of a kind of pad for 
the hair (A.D. 1388), throws no ligbl on 
the "Kord.] Etym. unknown. 

Bugle (3)1 a plant. CF.) F. bugie; 
Cot. ; cf. Spati. and Late L. bugufa. Cf. t.. 

'^Hgiiiff, (perhaj») bugle. 
Bit " 

IHglOBPpaplant. i;F.~L.^Gk.) Lit. 
^ ox-tongue.' ^ F . bu^/ffsie. — L. buglJua ; 
also bugtossus^ — Gk. ^otryXawiTOt, ox- 
(ongae ; from die ^hapc of the leaves, — 
Gk, pou^j. ox ; ^Ko/an-a, tongue* 

Boild. (E.} ALE. bitUm. Late 
A.S. byldan', tobuild, — ArS. ^/t/, a houae^ 
vflriant of b&il^ a dwcUingj n.^Tcut, 
^bu'phm^ frotn htt-^ related to biiaH, to 
dwell; KeBover. Cf, A.S. i^Z/ya/i, to 
build, from bc(l (above). [Cf. O. Swcd. 
iylja. to buitd (Ihre). — O. Swetl. bet, 
a bouscT dwelling; IccL bol^ a hou^Cj 
Dan. boi^ a small fafm.] 

Bttlb. (I".-L.-Gk.) F, buihe.^L. 
buUms, a bulb. ~Gk. ^oX^^f, a bulbous 
root, onion. 

BulliiQt 3 mglitingale. (Per^J Fcrs. 
bitlbul, a bird with h tnelodloua voice* 
resembling the nightingale. Of itnitatii^c 

llulge, to swell out. (F. -C.) Formed 
from M- E. bu/gtt a wnllef, pough.-* 
O.F. bot4^ 'bMtgtt a hag. — L. bvl^. 






inliih^ See Budcet. Doublet, 

ft he&ii.*I«1, /vJrtj, a heap; O. Swcd* 
U/i; Vtm. *tf/*» a Inmp. Cf, SwuK 
^M/wd, to twcIL 

BtJk^j), thelniDkorihebodr* (Dn.) 
In fih,»M. Dm. />t4/.tt. thorms {Kiikii^ 
(Trob- canfuicd wiLh Du. hitk. IccI.AwJfcr, 
the(nir>k; Swc6, dttJt^D&n. 6u^,G.^tuMt 
Ule beily) 

Bulk (5). a itnU of a shop. (Scand.) 
Pcrhap* related to BUk. Cf. Dan. dial. 
iutii, A faalfwall ; Iccl. Ar/ir. a beuit, also, 
ft partition ; Line, bnlhr^ a be&mj a wooden 
hutch in a uoTkihnp, Dw. bnlk-h&ad^ a 

Boll (1)1 iitt^lc of the cow. (E.) M> E. 
if/jf, i'ff/^. Not foand m A. S.« bot the 
^Itmin. huUm^ a bullock, occntt Prob. 
* ihc beUower; ' cf. M. H. G. huUiH, to 
Toar ; and tee Bellow, -f I^- ^'"^^ l<^l< 
i&H\ i\, huU£\ l.iihuan. huHus, D«r, 
kuifiKk, K. S» huIftK^ as abovv. 

Bull (2)p a papal edict, (L.) M. E. 
huiU.*-'Liyi. iirtUa, a babble. boSft^ knob, 
IcfLilen ical on an edict ; a bull (In late 

bnllet. 1' F. - LO M, F, ^j^A^r, dimin. 
nf i\ huU, A balL— L. hiih^ a bosa, 
knoh. *i2- 

bnUetm. (F.-ItaL-L.) F. Aw/A'- 
/fM, a lickct. — Ital. bulUttino, a lafe- 
con^tudf pass, ticket. Dimin. oibulktia^ 
a pissport, lottery ticket, dimim of buUa^ 
a ^al, bnll, — L. huiht a ]x)S4, &t. 

Bnll&ce, wild plum, (K?) M.E, 
Ma%, Apparently related to O, F. fe/«/, 
n ImiUbcc; cf, RreL Mai, pehs^ bullace; 
L.nvl.. iVcj/Aj.tJ ; Walloon ^//a* (Remacley 

Bnlldt, Bulletillj see Bull (2\ 

BnJlUon. il-'.-l^,i The A. K. ^//w« 
me tilt a mint, and Ijite L» intflfoaa^ hutiia 
nic-aiit n muss of metal, appj^rt-ntly, from 
iU b^irg melted ; cf. F. bouithfty a boiling. 
MLatc L htt/fiotttm, ace, nf hallio, a bou- 
ing.— L* bttUhi, to bubble «p, boib— L. 
/^w//(i^ a bubble. 

Bully, a noisy toagh fellow. (O. Low 
G.J In SK. The oldest sen*e, in E,, is 
'dear one, lover/ — M. Du, both ft lover 

of eiiher ^t\\ ; borrowed from M. H. G, 

Mf5/f {'*. b\ihle\, loTtr. 

Bulmsh* 'Li M.F-. /'w/iy/i-A/^Prompt. 

rajv..p, J4|,col. 2. Pcrham*BteRi<rasli'; 

frMiji jt« slont Mpm ; cf. SnHL btihiHxnd, 

(inlriNli. — tinn, hi/, stem, (nmk ; «ec 

Soltt. Or ^7 BUS ineari ■ targe,* wlfl 
tJzL to a htIL Cf. *»rj'. -.f J1.7. Ic ' Britten 

BldVKrk. '.ScaxHJ.) Din. Suh'^rk^ 
Swed. k^hfri (Ihre; ; d, Ihl, ^.':.vf^, G. 
^/I'WerJk (wheoct F. hcuirt^arj.. Com-* 
p<ntiided ef Di& A»/, Sweii. A^/. imiik of 
a tmc^ log. loeL hmlr^ h*ir. Uie stem ^ a 
Ire*; and Dat». T^rk, Swed. n^, b work. 
LiL * log - work,' or * bole-work * ; ace 

Bum-bailiff, uoder-baitifT. (E* a>ut 
F.) A ilang tcrni. Todd cjuols passages 
to shew that it arose from the paTaoer 
catching at a man by the hinder part of 
his garmecit. 

Bumble-bedi a bee that boom^^ or 
bum$ S^e Boom (1). 

Bumbc&t. (E.) From hi^ and Am/. 
Orifi. a scavenger*! boat on the Thameis 
(A. D. 1685) ; aLflerwards used to SQpply 
Y»elables to ships. 

BlUiip CO. to thump; a hlov, I'F^) 
Of Imitative origin ; cf, M. Dan. hum/v^ 
10 strike with the fist ; W. /v/tHpto, in 
ibomp ; /nvmj'^ a lump ; Com, Jfm. ^»w, 
a blow. The senses Are: ^1) to strike, 
{3) a blow, (3) its effect.' See Btmoh. 

Biuap (3), to boom, fK.) ImitflttTc; 
cf. Boom (0» and Buaible-bee. 

Bumper, & full qIass. <E0 From 

bHtttp\ with the notion of a humping of 
full glass ; cf. ihumpin^, \. e. great. 

BlulipkilLj» thick-headed fellow, .Du,) 
M, Vh\, i*oomk£ft, a little tree (^ Hexham) ; 
dimiti. of ftoom. a tree, a beam^ bar ; ice 
Bwm (0, The E. hufttkm JiUo meant 
a loEf- block, a thick piece of wood ;Cot~ 
mve, s. V. ChicQmbmtit^ aad see durnkm 
in the £> index ^; hence, readily appHetl 
to a block-head* ihick-fiknlled fellow. 

Bull. (F-) CL prov. F. bugftf, a kind 
of frittcR ; perhaps the same as O. F. 
buptt, a swelling^ or bump due to a biow 
(Barg^iy), also spelt ^/^*, 'a bump, 
knob:' Cot. O.F.^f^ft-/f,i fritter (Gode- 
froy) : also higjtft ;id„ Supp. p, J93V 
' Bisn4it, little rotiud loaves, buns.* &c.; 
CoL Minsheu ha5 Span, hufiuths, ' pan* 
cakn, cobloaveSj buns.* Sec Bunion. 

Doubt fnl.) 

BhhqIl. (K.'O M, E. ffufuAf. Cf. 
M, E, 6*4Mtbf/t,lo beau Proh, imitative, 
like /'Ww/A fmtme, .\n(l lee Bunk. 

BundlO. (K.) M.M.hum/e!. Dimin. 
of O, Northumb. i^MffiA a htintlle (Matt, 
xii!, 3o>. — A. S. f>unU', weak ^rnde 
bindaa, In bind.^Dti, Acrf^/ir/; G. bnnffifx 





kttt^i' Till, ^liw, A hung; f)iAle<:tal fami i>Hnf£'^ from i be ^me ii>t>t, with varyiag 

o( •i^'H-(V,aspic5erTed in F. j^m^^a bung. 

Cojpiatc with Swiss ^w/ (Weigund, *.. T. 

^/kmi'0.*'L /""'"/*'» on orifice; orig. fctn. 

pp. of pnni^ri% to prick. Cf. W. ^wj-^ 

nti oitficL-1 flini^ ft bun£. 

Bungulow, n BengaLl tb niched house. 
f tlind.; Iliml. AtwjtiAm, of ot belonging 
to Ikngal. ft bungalow; Kicli* Bict. p. 
Jg3, tfom ihc name Sengah 

Bnitglff. :Sc9IkL ?) or imJlntivi; 
oii(*in. Cf. Swell* dinl. fstngla^ lo wotIc 
ineffeclvally ; O.Swcd, hmga, to striken 
(Riet?, Ihrt.) An*l cf» BiLiig. 

Bunion, i^^ — O.) O. F. ^wut/om, only 

suffixc- Foi the form htnUu^ nt^ below* 
Boxdttl {y), the refrain of a son;. 
(F.-I^tel^) F. Uurt/an, n dfone-bcc, 
humming of bee&. drone of 4 bagpipe; 
see Cot. «» Late L. bnrddttfm^ aCrC of ^nrdp, 
■ drone. Frob. of imitative origin ; cf., 
Lowland Sc ^irr, to mike i whining 
noise, E. Ann* ^ Confused with Bur- 
den (0- 

Bureftm, (t'\-LO F. 6urtsu, a desk. 
vfTiting- tabic; bo called bccAtise coverett 
with brown baize. — F. bureaut O. F, hnrti^ 
Coftr«e woollen Moff, russet'Coloured. — 
O, F, ^«fVtf» M,F. ifttr^t dark brown; F. 

in the sent* nf a fritter i,<ioderroyl ; btit f^urr, coarse cloth, — L. htrrutt reddish 
(Cftlly an augmentative nf O. F. iwigHt ^iik. vi;^t» reddisili. — Gk. writt^ fire. 
^F. ^ism^ ^ii bump, swelling,' Cotw.-^ I Bufgeon, a bud. (F.- TeutO F. 
i\ il. G. hHfig0f 3 himp !;^Grafr^ in | ^Mr^tfH, a young bud. LeQglfacned Ironi 

Kchmdler) ; cf. IccL htmga, tonvenJC)' 
Jmi atio Ttal. J'ttgrtoftr, .augment, of SttgTrff, 
a t)OiL a twdtirig. Nee Bun. 

ft anfc, a wooden cnse or box^ berth. 
(Seand.) Cf. O. Swcd. j^if^^« the pbink- 
ing of a >hip forming a shelter for mer- 
chandise. && (Ihre) : the u-iual sense of 
Swed. iunie is a heap* pile^ $^:imeCh)ng 
protQLnent ; M. Daa« i*UHke, room for 


^nint, the belly of a saiL ^Scand.) It 
antwcTk tti form to Dan. ^W^ Swed. 
hini, a bondle^ a bunch ; from the weak 
stem of the vnb to Bind. ^ Etut the right 

Languedoc i&urr, a bud, eytf of a shoot 
rDiez).-M. H.G. htrf», O, H. IK /wr- 
yiiM, to raise, po*h &p, push out - M. H. CI. 
/wr, /vr, an elcvatioR ; whence Cr. impor 
\ « i>i /jr'i, upwards. 

BurMKS. (^F.- M. IL G.) M. K. hur- 
grfs. — C», F. htr^th-^ Low Lflt. ^nt-gtmii, 
belonging to a fort or etty. — Low \j.\X. 
htr^ts, a fort. — M, H. G. htn (G. ^«rf) ; 
coeuate with A. S. burg', Art fiorouffh* 

Dxtrgher, (Du.) Forni^iy^j^^.- 
Du< biir^iTt a citixen.'-Du. ^j/r^t Acity; 
cognate with E, Boroucb. 

DUTglftf . (A. F. - £.) A, F. htttj^ftr^ 

words for *buDt* arc Dan. dtt^t "Hvrcd, ^urx'itfTtr; Ijaw L. ^/^r^H/ii/i^r. — Law L 

Mi^, Do 6uil, G. tewi-A ; see BuU (l). 

BmitixLtf (i)} a bird. (El.!) M. £. 
ittfifiN^l also huniyU {'^htfiif/)^ I,owl, | 
Sc. buntUn, Origin unknown. 

^rfftt/dre, to brciik ictti a honse.— A. S. 
btttA* Sur'g ; see BorouKb. 

Ijiirgosuuiter. (Du.jWF.) Du. 

i&urj^e-'rt^cster, a town-matter. — Cu. ^ur^, 

BimtilLff ,;»)» a thin woollen slulf for ' cognate with E, Boroueb; and muittr^ i 
!*g*^. \^' ) l*erhaps *Biftiiig-cloth ^ ; from * master^ from O. K, MtisUt ; see Maater, 


M. E. i^nten, prov. E. 5h»/^ to sift. Cf. 

F. itaminiy in the sarne icnses. 

BnrSO&et, a helmet, i F.) F. b^tr- 

tuipt^tt, ^n bnrganet/ Cot* So called 
^, _ _ , ^ , ec^ise rust used by the Burgundiaiis^*- 

also a shackle, a fetter. — O. F. huit^ & "■' "" '* ^■■ 

fetter, F. bmh>s T buoy. — Late L. Ar/u, 3 
fetter, ctog. — L, &?/iy* pi. A collar for the 
neck, uri^. of leather. 

BtLT, Burdock ; see Bare. 

Burbot, -^ '"i^h. (!*'■) F. b^nrbmU 
f».l>u /la^^v.v'. — (■. bcHrbeUery • to wnltow 
in mtu!/ Cot^ — F. 6finrbe, mud; of un- 
known iiri^in. 

Burden r 

1 . 

Burthen* ^ tuatl tarried. 
A. S liytiSrH. n lo;id. From Tcul. 

F, Beur^gttt, Burgundy. 

Buriftl. (H.) y[,E. bun'//, ^int/,A 
tomb; also sptlt btritii, 6iHeh.^\,S. 
byrgfh, a tomb, —A, S. byrgrtn^ lo bmy; 
see Bmy, The spelling with -tf/ ii due to 
assocUiion with furtfui/, &t 

Bnxinp A^i engmver'^ tool. I'F. — G.^ 
F. ^wrjTM : Ilal. bon'tio* Prob, from 
Nf. H. G. /jtffVfi ft, fvAtr»). lo bore; lec 
Bora -a). 

BnXJCe, 1«i mnrdcT by tuffocatioii ; t* 

weak grade ol *M(i/r-, to bear ; see I murder, stifle. {Fersonfi! name.,i Fmni 
B«ar '■(}- + IccU hyt5i. byt^t; Swe«*. the name of /'rtr**', an IjUhman wlio-crtir 



Tnitted murders by saflbcationi execuleil 
^1 Edinburgh, Jan sS, tSiQ. 

Buflf i><i pick knots and loose ihrenda 
frDm clolh. (F. — L.) To dwi is to pick 
off ^ttr/j. M. E. hirle^ a. knot iq cloth. — 
O* F. dfHrU I Himifi. of F- i^ouffe, a flock 
UT lock of wool or hair. — Late I,, ^urra, 
a waollen jj.nd : fillied to L. burntf trifles, 
trash, Lair L. ribttrrui, rough. 

blU'le#Cllie, cornii;. (F. — lul- — L.) 
F. i^'ur/if Jf/wj^ — lUK bitritsfOy ludicrous.* 
Ilal. hitrfa, waggery, b trick. A dimia. 
from L. htrra, UifleSi noasco^ (Ansoniiu). 

Burlj. CE.) M. E. ditrii, hnrlkhf, 
^rU \ pmvt E. howiiriy ; Shetland ^foerly. 
FDrm<:d by adding the suffix */y {A. S. 
•Jt<) to A, S. diir, a bow«r, a lady^s 
chamber ; hen^Cp the oM senses of ' fit for 
a bowtr/ slately, excellent, large, great; 
Slid, Jinally^ stoat, big, E^ g. *a. bur/y bedL' 

Slirii(])j verb, (E.) ht .E, Aitiujt \ p\s0 
bnnnfH. There are two forms, a. inlrans* 
A,S. fK&ntan, dyr/tan, strojig verb, pt. l. 
Utim, firau. pp. dorrtiit.'^O. Iceh dn'ntia ; 
^Gothi trinfian \ Teut. type Hnunan' ; cf. 

L» S» dtjftre, flame, fi, trans. A, S, bartian, 

rk, vb,4*tcfl.^'nf/;rM, Daa. bramic^vi^. 
hraHHa ; G» breftti^n \ GoLh. brannjan ; 
Tcut.type^^/ndjyiJ/Jan-^cati&al to the former. 

Bum (Up a brook ; see Bourn (a). 

Bmrnet, a plant, (F, --O.H. G.) 
Lovt- L, Aw-'W/A — O* F. krMfUt€,t\ic name 
of n flower : kurmfU^ bruntfie^ a kind of 
dark brown clolh^ al:^ a brunette. See 
BruneU«. Named from the dark brown 
colour of the flowcrfi. 

btlMiiftll^ to polish. (F. ^ O. H. G.) 
M- Iv I'urniihtn ; also fmmtH. — O. F, 
hutiiir^ brunir (prcs. part, AiirMif-a/tf}, to 
trm brown, to polish* — O. H, ii. brUnen 
{<.*brfitiJ{iM),^0.\{.Ct. hrftn^ brown; sec 

Bnraouittp BitrnooBe, an upper 

cloak worn by the Ambs. (F. — Amb ) 
F. //M«wt«, /ffwrwtfitf, H^ Arab, bunrnt^ a 
kind of high-crowqed cap, worn formerly 
in liarbary and Spajn ; whence Span, ah 
herfwi, ^ kind of duak with a bE>od, 

Burr, Bxir. (t: ) M. E. hnrrt, knob 
cm a burdock ; b^rrty ronghn^ in the 
throflt. Not in A.S. K, Fries, fmrrt^ 
bfim^n burr, burdock^+Swed.^^rtif, a*eft- 
nrchin; *fl^Ap/-/r. a burdock: Dat^.berre, 
burdock. Ffom Tcul. base V*utL-<,*bffrj-, 
weak grade of Teui. root ***rr, lo bnitlc. 
SecBriatlo, D«r. hirJfHk, 

\ Burrow* fi slicli^r for rnbbils* fE.) 
I M, K, b0iv*gh, a cnvct shelter; njcrdy a 
varied spelling ol Soroush. Der. fiurri*uft 

BnrBBT. (Med. L.-Glf.) Med. L. 
bitrsiiriitSf n purse-bearer^ — Med. L, bftrxa, 
n pun*. — Gk. 0vfKra^ a hide, wine-slcin. 

Burst, (]£.) M. K. bersUn, truUHy pt. 
t. brast, A. S. bers/ffH, to burst asunder, 
break; str. vb.-|-Du. &JrstM\ G. htrsten\ 
Iccl, brejfa i Swcd. brijtai Dan bristi % 
al«i O, Irish brist-tm [ioc *breSt-i'N), I 

BnXT (i}> vb. (E,) M- E. b»nttt. 
A.S. fiyri^aa^ byrgatt^ lo hide in the 
ground, bury* From burg; weak grade 
of b^orff^H^ to bide; sec Borough. 

Bnzy (J)p a town, (E.) As m Canter- 
bury. ~ A. ^, byr$g, dat. olbttrk, a boroughs 
See Borough. 

Bus, a shortened ibnn iA^mmbti^, (L.) 
See Omnibui. 

BubIl (i), ft thicket* (Scand.-L.) 
M, E, bufch, btuk, — Dan, bask^ Swed, 
huikt,^ bush, shrub. +Du. itost^h] 0. H. G. 
buu ; G, busfh, AU from LaLe L, bcfrus, 
a busb ; a word of uiikoown origin. 

Buflk (3), the metal box in which an 
axle works, (Du,~L,-Gk.) \l,E.hiiii. 
— Du. ffhs, a box, barrel (of a. gun) ; G. 
bucAse.^lAtt h. bn^Ft'j, a box,— Ok. »1J^^f^ 
a box, — Gk. irtjfw, box-wood, Liox-trec. 
See Pyt 

liusbelf n measure. (F^ — L.-^Gk.) 
M, E. buihei.~A,Y. bdusseilt^ O- F. bftiistf; 
Late 1.^ busteiim, a imAll l>ox ; for 
*boisU/, dimht, of O. l\ boistt, a bux.— 
Late L^ buxida, ace of buxif, a bax ^H 
(above [. ^H 

Buakfi, to get oneself ready. (ScajidO ^^ 
Icel. bthtsM, te get oneself rcndy.-Icel 
^wa, to prepare; and •/*, for j/nfr, oneself^ 
See Bound (3) ; and cf. SmJe, 

Baak (3), a support for a womui*& 
stays. {¥,) M, F. btfSipUj 'a bu&ke« or 
bnste ; Cot. Mod, W bust. Of uncertain 
orijijin, Cf. M. F. bur^ ' a busr|ije ;' Cot. 

Buvbn. : Du. ! Du, broeskcii, buskin 

suflii -A/w. Or from M, F. brouuguin, ^| 
now tr&dtqnin ; or from Spatu borcij^i. ^^ 
Origin unknown, 

Buaa^ 10 kiss. (E.) [The old word w*a 
Vj/.»F. ^iiJ^r. to kiss.— Lai. bitsimn, a 
klM.] Tbe moilcm buss, of imitative 
origin, may have been partly suggested 
by U. QL prov, G. (liavAtiftn) bmsnt^ 





tokiis; Ulb. huitoti, tokuj^; aim Gael. 
aoti W. bvs, motitli, Up. 
BmJt. F. ~ Itftl.) P. ^mt*. - tuL 

hH4i9, the buiit, trmik of buuiiui body, 
slAy&; Latif L, bustum, the tnmk of the 
boHy, Kiym. uiicenatn. 

Bnatard, 1 bin.l. [F. — L.) Formerly 
aUo hiiiifii :Shcrwood). — O. F. Bufanfe^ 
*a. ba&tAffl; * Cot. ^MckL. F. ffM/dr^ir.) " L- 
(Tm/j* taniit^ ji slow bird iPUiiyt ^' H^ %• 
m). Cr, I'ort, al^itatdtt^ also dtfarda, n 
basloi<l. ^ Both O. F, hiitarde an^t F. 
4>ulat\li arc from a/^/j (ania ; in th«^ formtr 
aifte» iiulUl a is Hroppcri ; in tlic latter, 
ouiarde itands for an older mistardiy whtre 
«*/ « L. /iw«, See Did. ^«*'j /^ri/fl, 
lit. ' sIqw bird/ is far Ctom bcmg truly 
dcftcriptivc ; «o thai il is prob. a atibatitu- 
tton for some form roreign to Latin* 

BustlS. 'Scand.' A vmi^Lnt ol* lob- 
coletc) htikU, to prepftre ; also, to hurry 
about. Frequent, of huib^ tu prcpAr« otic- 
self; ^cc Biuk {\\. CT. Icel. /fHi/Zd, to 
ipliiJi about OS a Itah^ 

Susy, ifc^) M. Y., Hsy. A. S, diit'^ 
,ryiiX'). Active ; whence Msgu^ exertion. -4- 
Uu, .''f:i](,'V busy* 

But 0). P^P- *Dd conj-, except. ("E.) 
A. ^i ^f ^^/tf^t^'if^ftn^^j^/ffjit. *witbont.*— 
A, S, iV, by : i^fu^, ilUv. without, from At, 
out . + Dii . i'uitrn. 

But i-i: : MvButt O), Butt (a), 

Batcl&ttr. (F.-G^) ^\.}L.6ocffir.'~ 
0. F. b0<kun orig> one who kills goat*,— 
O. F. ^ F. ^4«^), a goat.^G, ^^, a 
g«aL See Buok, 

SaUsr. F^Late L.~Gk,) M, E. 
AvtiitTf one who attends to bottle* ; from 
M. F. ^^/, a bottle ; see Bottle. 

Butt . 0« a push, thrust ; to thrust, (F 

fiuii^. Co^ate with tcel. htiir, short ; 
see Buttock. D©r. buft^crui. 

Butt !>), a kinct of Hal tish. (E.) 
Allied (o Swcd. *M//tf, a Ittrbol, M, DaD. 
6utt€, Low Li. ^«/, Du. hot, A Imtl. Prob. 
from /'fi'/. stuuipy ; see Buttook. 

BlLtt«r. (1™ - Gk.) M. E. Aoierti 
A- S. l^Htere.'^X.. i^iityrMm.^-Ck. Sovrv 
pov, bullcT, I'lnbably gf Scythian ongiri. 
blXttei^y, i.F.j A. S. hutttir-jirage^ 
lit. butlcrHy. So called from its excre' 
meat resembling butter, as shewn by the 
M . Du. hotir- t<kijti, a bu ttcr-rty» 1 it. 
buttcr-voidci iKillaoV + Du. inftcrvlUg^ 
ti, hutttr-JiUgt. 

Bntteryi a place for proviidons, csp. 
liquids. F.— LateL,) A corraption of 
M, K. bctiifrk^ a buiicry, properly a place 
fur a butler^ from M. K. liftiler, n butler; 
see Butler. (Thus buttery ^hcitUry^ 
i.'oiifused with the word hotter, 

BTlttoCk* (.E^) \^.Y..humk, Formed, 
with dimin. suffix -ak (A. vS. Mcj, from 
kuttt a thkk cndi a slump* Cf. Icel. 
^ttttr^ short, buif^ n lo^ ; Dan. ^m/, ^^cd^ 
buH^ stum^>y, suiIy ' Du. bci, blimc, dull. 
See Butt I 3\ 

Button. \^\ - O. Low G.) M. E. 
btipn^ also, a bi>d. — Q. F. ^/im \F, 
Aj«/iPH],a l»ui!,a butlon; properly, aiound 
knob pusbtd out.-O, Y.boitf, to push, 
pu&h niil ; ^tc Butt ^i}'. 

fauttroBV, a support, in architecture. 
(F. — O. Low ii.) M^ El* bet eras I FaUgrave 
has AoUrtu, fnittftnj. Orig. a plural form, 
us if for *huiterttu^O. F. b&utttxt, pi of 
tsnttrtt^ a prop. — F. ivutfr, to thrust, 
prop. CotpTive also hsa hu/^tit, a. but- 
fress. from the same verb ; fice Butt (I |» 

But^r °- companion or partner in a 

— O, I-ow G.) [The seti&ei of the sb. may work. \^y, — I«w G.) Shortened from 

be referre*] to the ^vrb; just oa F, Sufti, 
a Lhni«t, «!epends on bcukr, to strike.] 
M^K* iiWfrM, to pnshj strikf. — O. ¥.6at^r, 
?g ptiib, bqltf strike. — O. Frank, *i*iVffrt, 
corresporu!ii^g to M. Du. inkitftt, to Wat. 
M. IL G. imgn, O. H. G. A^sdift to beat. 
I)«r. jw// {ruoimd to sbgot at >, froni H. F. 
^/U, the iome, allied to F. Aut. a mark^ 
from dutrr, O, I', j^n^, to hit, Dbt* 
O^^A See B«at. 

Batt {2\ a lar^e barrel. CF"--L.> We 
Jmd A. S. i*)'W: but our moi). word is 
leally F.»0. F. ficuft, F. rfcM, ' the veastd 
which we call a ^n//;' Cot*Lat« Lat* 
iuNa^ huttu, a cask. 

Btttt U)» * ihiek et*d. (E.'l M. K. ^ut. \ 

boty^/eiffote or hegtyjeiiffw^ oue who shares 
booty with others. Ffom ^y^ old spell* 
ing of boQty - F. &u/tMt booty. Of Low G. 
ongin ; see Bc^oty. 

Bnzotu, {ii.) M. E. bcxom, hufttum ; 
the old sense was obedient, obLi|^iD|^t go<x]- 
hgmoured. Lit, 'bow-some' — A. S. hug- 
arif to bow, bend, obey ; and 'Jhav, i^ufliK^ 
as in wiii-ffW#.-#-Du. ^ttigsaam; G, Nfg- 
S(t/fK See Bow (t ), 

Buy, (E.) From A* S. dyg^^ as In 
fj/^esi, fyj^i^i i and 3 p, sing. pre«. of 
A. S. i^fj^oM, lo purchase, whence M. E. 
f'nggtn, bt'gT^eu, + Goth, iufjatf. Dor. 
aA/iiSr ( J J , q. v. See Sweet, N. t-^G. § 1 apj- 

Bnmi* \^'] An itnllative word ; tf. 



l.ui%l. he. iitLz^ to his^ J ltd, i'Hi^iiat'K, lo 

Bustard. (F* - L., M, E. /^osmi/, 

hisa/d, ciii inferior kind of falcoiii ^ K. 



a couks cabin; ft]«o *ihc chimney in a 
ihip,* Scwd. (Ilcncc alsu i>an. kahyi, 
SweJ. kahysa, caboose- 1 

Cabriolet* vl''-^i^l--l'> ^^ i* 

bttsard,^Y. l>tiir, i> biUntftfil ; wilh siifliK i short fgr cti^rtQki.^V. eahn&itt, a cab; 

-IT? if in 
— L. btlie&^ n $pajiciw*hawk. 
By, prep, {\L) M, E, iti. A, S, ^f, 

»iff;+Dti. *y; G. ^i-/; GotLM Cf.Skt. 
m-thi, Gk\ d>i-^', 

Byvlaw, a la^^ dlTeelmi^ il lownship. 
iScandO rofinfrly abo lirfata. -* IceL 
/'7-r, /fp-r, a village ^gcii. (Hsjar^ whcoi^* 
^/v -^i ; /cjf, a taw. So also Pan. by-hv, a 
toiivn-law. \ce\, bilr ii atlied to ^jw, to 
dwell. See Boor* 

Byref a iM>w-U(>tL&e. (E.) A Northern 
E. ileriv, of ^u'l'r. A. S. J^ri?, a shed, 
liut. — A. S. ^wn a bower ; cfi Icel /'^r^ a 
jiantry. ^ee Bow^r. 

from its aupposcil lightness. — 3*. I'aAnWir, 
a capcr^ leap of a goat ; furmerly t^Qpricle. 
^Ital. ^a^riola, a caper, o kid* •p llaJ. 
^a/fr/0. Wild goat; i-a/^a, a Ae-goat^ — 
L. iap^r, goat; fern, iiipra, 

C&oao,atrcc. (^pan* — Mcxtcdu.'] tipan. 
i'ticap ; from the Mexican name [tiuauiiti } 
of the tree >¥bence chocolate is made* 
% Not The san^e as ^A-tiJ. 

CachiniLatioM. U- ) 1" ^^^^ imkin- 
HdticHim, loud laughter. — L. faf>Jr«rtff/r» 
to laugh. Cf. Caokla. 

Cacaucha, a dance* (^Span.) b|iAn, 
faf^fff. /iff. 

Cacique, a WMndian chief, iSiKin,- 
\V. Inmaiu) Sp:in, t\uupif, an Indian 
prince. From me old language ijf Ha)ti. 

Caok, to go to stuoL (L.) M. E, 
cakbiH.'-h. faafrf. 

CaoUo. (EO M,E. idkckfi, a frc- 

t|Qentalivc Jbrm. Not io A. S. + Du. 

Swcd. kaikla'f Dan. k&gU\ G. 

The sense is * lo keep on saying 


Cab<Oi Bce CabrioUt. 

Call v2), a Hcb* measure. ^Hcb.. HeU. 
ifoif^ the iSthparl of ancphah. Thelitei-al 
sense is * hollow *; cf. Ueb i^abab, lo form > ka^elftt 
ID Mie shape of a vouh ; see Aioove. ^'atkelti, 

Ca"bftl» (^F. -Heb.'l Orij;. • a secret/ !■'* kak;* ct gtzHi^, gtyithU^ ga^'-k, 
to^d/itr/the Jewe£Caball,ahidden5<;iencej^ CftCopHony, a bait>h Eoiind. ((jk/i 
I'oU— W^h. qahbtildJt ,Tcct:\\\\QWt mysterious | Uk, KaKOif^nufla, n harsh sound, "-Gk, itaxA' 
doclrine.^Heb. ^dbalt to receive; qibbii, ^>a»'oi, harsh. ^ Cik. Kwto-\j bad; and 
to adopt tt doctrine. ^fKitf-^jSOtindi, Der. (^^^^^^^^(^{Gk, fca^u- 

CallDaffe (Oj a vegetable. (^K-L.) | ^wob)* 

M. L. ta/ac^f, cabocht. — V. (Picard; ^a- Cadi ^ 1^^ fellow. (K, — L-^ Shgit 
i^cke, lit. 'great head;* cf, Piiard (Cij^hj^ for Lowi, Sc. ^<i^i>, an etrand-boy: wc 
f , f^dM-r ioi'tUf large headed cabbage. — L. ' Jiimie^on* -« 1''. catk/ ; &ee Cadet 


aip-tt{, head ; with augmentative sujfix ; 
cf. Itah fa/Vtchi'a, head of a nail. 

Cal^bage \.i'\ to siteal. 'F,) From 
t . nt/fi!stci , to pat inlui basket ; Norman 
iabassir^ tu cabbage ',aud *cc Supp. to 
Godclrtpy).— F, iabatj a baaktt ; Konnan 
tohas, tai1or'Acabb.ige; of unknown ori^iji* 

Ca^r, a (»ole^ (C,— L.) Gael, tt^r^ 
a Mfter. — L. type *ca/>nay a nAer; see 

Cabin* (F.) M.E cfjj^'t?^«, — F. iraA7«f. 
*^ Prov. ^ahiinn, — Late L, topaitna, a 
hul s'l^iilure), 

cabixidt* (F.) F, cahitut, dimin. of 
F aifana, a cabin labovc). 

Cable. ;K.-U. M. E. f<i^/f*-O.F. 
fViA/f . ^ LaLe L. ca/itlum, iapiam^ a sirong 
ihuUing^ ro;>e.— L, caper^t lo hold. 

CaboOM, thecookVcabin on board ship. 

Uu.j I'ormcrly ifami/Mif ~T3u. k»mlruu. 

CadayerOUB, corp^c^ike. (L,. L. 
{adduer6$m.^'\-~- eaiidu^r, a cofpiie--*Ea1. 
t'aJ-ere. to fall, fall dead. 

Caddia, a kind of m ur^ted lace or tape. 
^F.j l:i \VJnL Talc, iv, 4, 308. M. E* 
^a</dj, explained by bomhiiimum in 
I'rotnpt. I'arv, ; (hence Iiish taJtu^ cad- 
dis). Though also used lo dcnulc *\voi- 
sled,' it was orig. coarse silk. — F, cadaru, 
^tiie coufse^t part of sitke^ whereof sleavc 
is made/ Cot, Cf, Span, »"*i*/f?#iiJ, coanc, 
entangled silk^ that cannot be ^pnn on a 
reel ; Port, cadar^o, a coarse silk. Origin 
unknown ; probably En^terRf Der. cadtHs- 
wontt. from the caddts-likc sJiape of the 
CBAe of Hic larva. 

Caddy, a small box for Ira* l^talay.) 
Better spelt tatfy. A small paijkage of 
lea, Lc&s than a half-cbc^t. t« called iu the 
tea-trade a iO^y or ca///.*Ma]ay kdtlt a 





wnijlil if aUu uscii \a Cliiiia and Japau, 
and tea. iv uHcii made up in jiatkaj^^ con- 
twining unr calty. 
Cade, a biLncl, cuk. (I'\ — L.-Gk,- 
WtSi.: y . iaj£.<— I., rdi/nrj, n batTtrl^ t:jsk. 

CadeiLCft, a fall nr the ^oicc. i^L'- — 
lul. — L.) M. K. lat/fHirft**^. iatieiue, * a. 
cadence, just ialliug t>l wt^rtls;' Cat.— 
Iltl. rac/cM^. — l^tc L. m.f€ittm^ a falliti^. 
•i^L, cadfHt-., stem of pT<^, pi. of riu/ifrf, tu 
raVI+McLf-J^/, to fall 

Cad^tp orig. a. yoimgcr sod. (K — L.) 
I'', t^ii/f/, a yoimgcr brother; I'rov. iap*fel. 
CaftUt \A A Gascoh form-Lnlt: I., tuptt- 
tUuHi (the livbstittitioa of t fur // bting 
tq;uUr in tiascon ; V, Meycrj ; lil. a little 
OuuDger) head, dimin. Irvtn L. iaput^ a 

Cftdi, A JLiil(;c- (Arab.) Arab, yrrd/^ 
yjs/, n cadi orcazi, a judj^c- 1 [enct^ Spa^i, 
aiioiiie, the judge (E- tf/iTiry^*. ; where ff/ 
is lUe Amb. dcf. artictc. 

Caducous, fnlUng. (L.) L. ia/i/^ i/j, 
falling: with suflUx m7MJ."L. cjfcitrf, (o 
falK Sec GftdoDce. 

CfiOBUra. vl"' L, rrf-jjvnr, a euttijig ; 
a pause in a vi:»e<«L. I'^ff-itj, pp. uf 
t^iferT, to cut. 

C&ftaM, n Turkic ganucQi. (,Turk.) 
Turk. </is/f:i/i^ a. dtcstt. 

idfvd, ],. idHfat a carer, den, cA^t^l-*. 
..atius, hollow. li« Obv0, 
CftiQae,abofti. (K.-Turk.) y,fai^ti<. 

- Turk ittii*, a boat. 

CujrtLi a pile uf sluties. (C\) Cad., 
Irish, W ., WrtU rarw, a yfag^ rock ; alao a 
pile fif stonci 

Caitijr. (F, -U) ME. io/y//l- 
A. K. iai/i/, a captive^ a Vfretch (K. t/u(ft/}. 

— 1,- fit/ttuum, aifi;, of faptiuusi kc 

C^olo. (F.) F. cajoli/y to cajole; 
formtfriy, to chatter like a jay. IVrbap 
of imilAlive ortj^in ; cf. fOtkit. 

C^anat, Gajeput (with / wi >), * 
Ifcc yicl'liii^' fln oii! < Malay.) Malay 
Je^jfu /ii/iA, lit. 'white wwd.**^ Malay 
iiiyitt 'wovi, putih^ white. 

Cft]E«, {\:. vr Scand.^ M. E. 4'i»t^. 
N. Ftie*, htk, ktig, late IceL and S^swi, 
/flln; l>nti. k(^f!t. Tcrut. slcm 'jtoUM-, 
fern.: frtiin Teut. n-ot 'id*-, of which the 
blrtrtig ^jrade i* *hck- (whence prgv, E. 

Calab&sh, tJiL !>hcll of a ^'ourtt (t 
— SpiD. — Arah, — rtfg.i F. iaU(>as.f(.— 
Span, rii/<iAj^ i^l'ui L itr/o^Ofa;. — Arab. — 
?ers. hharbui» a tD«lon : Ijt. ' a^^^outd/ 
i. t, laige gtiurd. — Pcrs. /.^ar, nss (hejice, 
Goarse. ; ^//^r/f^ uJuriferoiiafniil. CrSkt. 
kftaia, all o&s. 

CBlnmiat, ii bctb. rF,-i.. -Gk,> 

M. F, i'a/atmfif. Col.- Late L. laltimtntha. 

Calamity. ^ F. - ] .,) V . iaiamilL - 
L. aci-, (aiumitai$m^ a misfoFtiuie. 

Calash.* a aon uf earrlagc, i^F, — G, -^ 
.Slavonic.) F. (d/.\^r — G. kaUukt.^VtH. 
I'o/tiskat a. ajns:!] cnrriaije^ dimin. %>l kaiat^, 
a carrifflge; Ku&s. ko/taska, a cariiigc>« 
I'qI.*^, awheel; O* SUv.ifl/*^, (VQtL-i 

CalcarcOUa. \L.) iihould be t^ul* 
tanfftf j.^L. :tt/ttiriiij, t>crUiniiig to lime. 
"L, ta/f', ilcfn of ta/,r, Lime. 

calcme, (F. - L.) >. *a/fiW^r.- 
MihI. ]•. mkituire, to reduce to a cftlx.— 

L. *a/i-, stem ol i(i/.r, lioii;. 

calculate. iL.) L. .aAu/(^^Jii, pp. 
uf tahuitir^, lu ictkoii b\ help of aoial] 
jrtbbles, — L* la/tjt^tts, ]>ebble; dimiD. of 
at/je^ a stone. 

GaldrOA, Cauldron. (K,-L.^ M.K. 
<attif^rffH, A. V\ oiudrufK'^iX Ncwib ¥, 
(PicartI) tauiffrfftiy for 0, 1*'. ihtmderctt, 
mud. F- ihaudren .(ItJil. laltUf^itt, i3(>an. 
iaidervii), a vessel fur hut lAiter. l^Jitcndetl 
frum \,, t:aliidt-ia,^\\a\. bath. — I., taliuif 
cojitr. form uf <a/ir/iji, hul.^L« ca/frt^ lo 

Calendar. 4,t.) l. (akmlittum, an 
accoufit-bouk kc|>l by muiieychangcib; iki 
called became mlerc^l waia due on the 
iaUndi (1st day) of each month - aiau^ a 
calendar. — L. iaiinda^ calends. 

Calender KS),^ ma chine for preasbg 
cloth, (F. - L, ~ GkO F. vulandtt,^ 
Med, L. *iahnJFa^ ftUruftii^ a calender^ an 
adaptation uf L. iyiittiirui. a cjlinder; see 
Cjrlinder. Der. caitHJer^ a smnother of 
linen, a Rit&iaken form for caUttditr. 

Calender {i)» a kind ol wandering 
niunk- ( F. — f 'era.) F, ujiertJxr, — I'ers. 
t/ahnJart a kind of wandering Muhain,' 
madan mook. vehit abandtmb everything 
ajid r<rtire* frotit the wurld. 

Calends. (U> I" ta/fHtf.rt i, pb,, 
the tiriitday of the (RomatO month. Orig, 
obftcurc ; hat certainly from the b«K <^a/% 
4^ In O. I. at. iaiiiftt to proclaim. +Gk. 
tta^*if:, (o •lumman, AlliekL to Hid* (j). 

Calenture, ^ feverous niadiit:!i&. ^1*, 



^i-L. cttlciil'^ stem pf i>re*. pt. of 
to be hot. 

Calf ^0* (E."! M.E- *rt// O. Merq. 

ijwecl. ka//'. Dan. '('o/f ; Golh. kalbei 
Q. kaib. Ber, <a'^<4 vb., A- S« cealjSau. 
Pcrh*pi allied to ibkt. ffar&^a, womb, a 
fcelys. Brugm. i. § 656. 

Calf (3), the Lhick hiad put of th« 
sbaok. (£.1 Perhaps tbe same aiIIk above; 
cL Gaulish L. galba, great-helUed j Icel. 
iJ^H calf oJ" the leg. Sw Cave in. 

Caliber, Calilire, ^<^^^ o( a gun. 
(Ft) K. caiibr^y size of a bore; Span. 
calihtt tifij.^), Etym. unknown. Perhaps 
fiom Arab> ^J/jA, a, form^ mould, model, 
Ritib. Diet. p. liii (Diez). Mahn sug- 
geftts L. qua itbrd, with what mcuure. 

Calico^ cotton -doth* (E. Indian.) 
Named from CaliaU^ on ibe Malabar 
coast, whencf it was first imported. 

Calif , Caliph. (F,-Arab,) ¥,cati/£, 
ti &m:oic^or ol ihe prophet. ~ Arab, kha- 
it/oA, successor. ^Amb. H/nUi^a, to suc^ 
imd, Doublet, khalifa. 

Cali^aphj, Oam^aph^rt gf^'^^ 

writing;, (^Gk. Ck. wtAXi^pai/Jta. — Gk. 

*aAAi-, prefix (for wiAAoj^ beauty, from 

iMAiSf, good, fiir) ; and -y^t^ifv, to write. 

G aliathe ziica, caUifltli«uic b , 

^actful cXLTcirvts. (Ok. J tfom tjkr 
#aAA,f^0t»'-7T, adorned widi j^trcnglh. «• 
CjIc. JirnAAf- (for jtoAAoSj beaalyj from 
juXti?, fair) ; and a&ir-os, strcn^h. 

Calip«rSj compasses. (F.) Voitaliber- 
compaatSy i. e. compasses for measuring 
dmrnf^ters: see Caliber. 

CaliBtheuicB ; sec C&li«rfrphy. 

Calivert i^oit ufmuiakcL (F.) N&cned 
iivin its (ahber or bQie ; sec Kersey's Dit^t* 
Sec Caliber. 

Calk; uuftUy Cftalk^ q. V. 

GaJL (EO M, E,£fl//^« A-S.«rt///a»; 
d[,hiUkCiilh,9. herald. E. Frie^ kaUeti.'^ 
Icel. OLod Swcd. jfea//a ; Dan. ^^rAfV ;; Uu. 
ia//ry* : O. H. (J. ihalUn. Tent, type 
*kai&n- or *kali^an„ weak verb : ijf. W. 
^a/w. to cal], Russ. ^okis\ voice^ aoujid. 

€#all«i, Callat, a worthless \voman. 
(F.-Lqw L, ^l.ow G.) In Oth, iv. j. 
I J K — F. £ailUiUt X gositip, chatterer \ 
lit. A liittle qiuul ; dimm. oitaiiU, a quail, 
also a womaj]. Li ttr^ gives ^iii'/& *i»f^^, 
femmc gaiajQle. Sec QooiL iLktubt* 

Gallptui, haid. (F.—L.) V.^aJtiUJi.^ 

L, taiidius, lhidc-£kiniied.~L- ta//m, 
luitt, hanl ^kin. 

Callow, uiifled}^cd, bft!d. (L.) M. E. 
caln, Liiltwt. A. £. iTd/u, bald^-fl^i^ iiaatt 
bald 1 Swcd. Afl/: G.ildA/. Tent. *Ai/kw, 
early borrowed from L. ctduus, bald. 

Calm. CF,~L.-Gk.) F. €aim£^ adj. 
Allied to Prov^ ihaumf, the time when the 
flocks rest ; K, 4h6mcr (formerly chaumtr)^ 
to rest from work ; Ilal. mima, Ttii. • Late 
L. cauma, the beat of the aun (whence, 
time fbf rest) ; Job xtx. 30. [It is siig- 

fc&ted that the change from au to ^ was 
ue to association with L. cal~^re, to be 
hot.]^Gk. KauMi. heat — Gk, ^oi'itf, to 
bianj, Der. Af-*^di/w- 

CalOUdl, a iireparation of mercury. 
(Gfc.) Coined to express & whiU product 
from a bia€k sul^taace, — Gk. jraAo^i, fair; 
and /(iA-as, black. 

Caloric. (F,-L.) F. caforifta.^L, 
c^or, heat. — L. iolire^ lo be hot. 

CaloHSCf tDBLkingbot. (LO \^.iai&ti- 
_fi£us, uiaktin/hut. — L. ^'a/JW-jStcro aimier, 
heat; and -jvr-t foryffie;rc, to tnakc. 

Caltbrop, Calirap, a. stax-tbi^tle, a 
ball with spike* for annoying cavaln'. 
(L, aW Teut.) M.K. kaiketm^^ A.b. 
caUfir^ppti, a stax-thi^tle. Corned from 
L. ca!ci-^ stem of rdAr» the heel ; and the 
Teutonic word irap. Lit. ' heel- trap'; see 
Trap, bo also F. i'^duii^/m//f,the same. 

Cflj^umei, a kind of pipe Jbr tobacco. 
(F. — L. — Gk,) Norman F. caJufnei^ a 
pi{»d ; parallel form to Q. F. ckaiemel, F, 
tkaitimtau, a pipe. — JL. calamus^^x reed.— 
Gk. froAaf^of, a ree^. See Bhairm. 

CalmtL&y. (F,— L.) y^caUmHit.^i^, 

citiuntma^ false accusalioo-^L. caluif 
(oJti^rf, to deceive. 

CalT«J see cut 

Calx* (L.) L. calx, «toae, lime (stem 
£a/c ; in Late L., a calx. 

Calyx. (L. ^ Gk.) L. cafyx. - Gk. 
iid^v(, R covering, calyx (or cup) of a 
fluvrei- AUtcU to Helm (3). 

CaUL, a ]jrojcceion on a wheel, (thi.) 
Du. kamtHy n comb (set Kilian ^ Low G. 
iat/tm I ci. DsQ. <taffli, comb, aUo a ridge 
on n wheel, cam, at cog. See Comb. 

Can&briCt (Ftimdci».) Named from 
Kamerijk, also called Cambruy, a town 
it) Flanders^ where it was first made. 

<;uil«L a'-L--'Gk.-Ht:b.) ME. 
carmi,tamai/, (kamti.^0. North F. iamtl^ 
0. h. <>&a'^^. ^L. fUJWr^tty. — Gk. (ra>(7\uj. 
•> Heb. goMtdL Cf. Arab. /awW. 





ittttf ti k . I I* nrtiici ly*ii mtio/-n rJa fjii, — L- at- 
M?Ufiatitn/ii.^ tik, kittit}\i*rtaf>t&\ii, giraffe: 
partly like a canit:!, |>aitly like a pard.— 
t'lk. iKfijuufXo-i, a camel (Hch. ^tfunif) ; and 
wapSaXii. a pan! ; see Fard. 

CfttUOllift* ^l^cr^oiial Dame.') A plftnt 
iinmtd ^l>y Lidnanis nfter Geo. Jos. Kamcit 
iL Moraviaii J«uil ^i7th i,t;nl.), who de- 
iciibcd the plnnl-i in the inland of haiQU. 

Camelopard ; s,eo ComeL 

C&meO* '.UnUi Itnl. iaftimeo,Vk Cameo, 
picLiuus iluitL- carted iti relief. Orij^Ln 

C&moyft. I' I- f^iittrra, a chnmber ; 
hci)4:(r iitm^ra of'Sitrta, a daik uhambcr, 
bo* fof photo^jiapby 1 wc Gh&iiiber. 

Camlsti 11 itufF i,F\ — Amb.) Kornicrly 

*m/td€)\iai losl (in ». y. The ])i>. (V/z/A, 
A.S. (/(^T known, otilv survives in //«- 
fi?//Mj which sec. Aliicd lo Ken and 
Know. fVt^KN.) 
Can '.J.J a *Jtirkin£-yei*eK E.l A, S. 

5wfd. iitftf/a ; Dnn. Aani/t ; G, Ji-oMMf, a 
tankard, mug, (Apparenilj' a Inic Tetti. 

C&UaI. (F.-L,' p. faMa/'Cwbcni;c»lso 
Db. konaat^. — L. canfiih, a chnnuelt Uench. 

CftaftlV, a birdj n uine, a dance 
I Canary J&Icrj,ds._,i AU i;anicd from tlic 
Ciinary Ulajids. 

Cancel. ^ F- - 1- ) F. cattceiitr. - 1 j w 
L. /ant'e/iiirf, lo cancel a deeil by dniwiiij 
1iri?& jicToss It. »L. iamelhtj, agratjnij, p! 

catuiin^ lalUce-Tft ork. crossed lines f dliniri. 

fd/Wfif. — M.!-. iatmhty Cot.; iupposcd iifj)!, .dz/tT/Jatliccwork 
10 be numeiMfom conlaininff frfwc/ J hftir. ... 

Kt'ally from Arab, khaml^i kkixmatat, 
cnmlct ; Ktch. IHct. p. 6?S. 

Camomilo \ $cc Chamomile. 

Camp. >.-li.iJ.-I«) t.^a/;// iCot.V 
mIIaI. iampp, a Jicld, camp^wl^.ir^w^f^.fJr 
flc*:. a( ttiw/ffts, n lictd, j^ruimd licld hy nji 
finny. Hni^i. L t 5(^3. 

Campain, ong. ■ large field. [¥,- 
ItaL — 1,. I T'. fiifftfiai^K, laitif^^u^ an 
D^Kii firld.^Ital. ctimpagfta, n ttcld ; also 
R cflmp&ign. — L- rautpdnra, open field,— 
L, <nMptii, ■ field. (Also spelt chitw/at£tt. 
hikI t'^'cn ifut^tpiffn in old authon.) 

oaiupfifltTftlr grriwmg jn fields. (J..) 
I'rt'iu 1-. tiiifip*sfr'i$, growinp in fields; 
with sisflU /r/. — L, fam/ui, a l\eUK 

Camp&nala. ^l.. Lit. *a hule belt/ 
din>in. i-f [ , (4rw/>i7ff/7j a bcH. liencealso 
t^mftinifc't m^ 

Campkor. [F.-Amb.- Malay,) For- 
merly s]H.-lL lamphirt wilK aji inserted f , 

— K. itxmphrty ^ cfunpbin; ;' CoL — Lt»w 
L. (amphpra 1 whein;*,* the form £amphpy\. 

— Ainb. -ff^yWr.cainphor ; cf.iSkl. kittpttm, 
camphor. — M alay kdpur, lit. chalk : ff(j/»j7r 
ffiirui, chalk of BarouS;, a oamc for cam- 
phor. Btitvus iii in S&matra. 

Can (i)> I ntn able, \y^^ A.S. raff, 
nmn, lit utirt 3rd peifon^ sing, p"**. (•' 
.umtaa, lo know. The pres. t, Cd« ii 
tcnily nil old jvrf. t. ; the same pecaliarnv 
0Ci:iini ill l>ii. kunwtt, Iccl. and Sweci. 
ktfNNii, l^Kii kuH'if, to know, tc» be able; 
G. Jk'nruii, to know, p. The pt. t, is 
r0M/</r *^'*'' iiitixivlvc /; M.K. {^ttJe^ A. S. 
^^?flr ; cf. Coth, h*Nthii, Uii- hcude^ G 

CanCQlT. L-) L. <'aHiyr, a crab; nit 
nn ' ealijig* luraour. Cf. Uk. mapK/roi, Skt. 
kaFk'a\A\, a crab; cf. Skt. kaykara^ hard. 
Namtd from itsbard shell!, Dmgm.i. (464. 

Candel&bnuu* (L.^ lu.iandihibtum, 
a i:aiidle-holder; from (Qtid^la, a candle. 

Candid. (F.-L. 1 F, KJHtftVe, while, 
fair. MDCere. — L. tandidus^ while, ishiniiij;. 
— l^ iftnJ^rt, to »hine. — L. 'rwi/rfiVf, ti.> 
set Wi fire [,in comp. f'«-<^M(/cnf).+SLl 
f*iiff</(for ff^flfft/j 40 shine, : V^Q^^ND,; 
Uiugm. i. gg 456,818 (*). 

candidatSr iL.'i L. fimdidittHiy 
white jol>eiJ ; because candidates for iffficc 
*OTC W'hitt. — L. AdHditUtt. white, 

candle. >.L, .\..S. ^HdV/.*].. ^ri» 
</jVti, a tandle*»L. rmtdcrr, lo gloiv 

candonr. iK.— L,y ¥. ea/ideur.^l.. 
ace ntHdvrftit, brightness : bcncc, siiiteriiy; . 
Candjf^ crystallised sugar. ^^F.-Ital.- 
Skl, ' V. iUfre trJHi//.siignr-candy; whence 
\\ it iandir, * to CAndie;' Lot •^hal. 
rand/r^t to candy ; iandi, candy ; ^h,ktfff 
iandi, ingar-candy,— Arab. ytrM*/, sugar; 
whence Ami'. \^nttdi^ made of stig^r. 
The word lit Arjan ; cf, Skt- ^^^-iriddtu, 
sweetmeats, Wdnd^i, a btuken piece, h&m 
khaa^., to break. Der. iu^ar-iandyf lul. 
iMitiirrc inndt. 

Candytuft, ft plant. ^Hyb.) From 
i amiy, \. t. t'andia Crete) ; and Ht/t, 
Can«. I- - 1 ,. - Uk.) M. t *<»ic, 
lii'jrrr. — F^ t'^ti/tc, — L. ru^fj'iild,— Cki wii rti, 
a reed, Cf, Heb ijitneh^ reed; Arab, 
t/atitVi, c.ihr. 

canisteri (L-tlk.'i L. {fwhtmm, 
a li^'hl bai^kct, — Clk. vdratrr^for, |he »aDio. 

kottHU ; fthcwin^ ihni A,S. ^m^^ ^or | — <Jk. inii^~«d»va, H iced 



CaiULOS;. r — Itnl. — L— Gk.J K. I Canorous, iLincfu!. il,.t L. foM^T'Us 


tanfiH*^\\sA. eanmnte, a cannon, ong. n 
great tube, a enn-barrcL— L, catma, a teed ; 
sec CELne. % Tbc iSpaJi. caiiOHf a tube, a 
dnp e^rgt, is- cognate- 

canon ( I S a nile. (L. - Gk.) A. S. 
f rtfftfff, — L. **aHtf w, a rule, — f ik, jifoi'ifcd', a rod. 
rule.— Gk, ^acij-r^ai-fat a (straijjht) CAne. 
CfiULOn (jI. a ril^nitaiy of the chuKh, 
(F,— L. — GkO M.E, ranitn, tattttun.-^ 
O. F. catiffjpti, nowrAanoiN^, — lAi.^attoni- 
fum, ace* of rawpHtVrtf, aHj., one on the 
chtirch-roU or liit— L. canon, the church- 
i*A\ ', aho, a rule. Sec canon i), 

C&ninOi {L<) L. canlttus^ bclong^big 
(" .1 Hojr „ J^. frtMtf^a dog; sec Hound. 

C&nister; 5?c Oane« 

C&Jllcer, (K-L ) North K. rartcrg. 
{h\ ^ArtWfff). — L, ftiHcrut/i^ nee, of ^awiyr, 
R era b^ a canker. SccCftncer, ^The G. 
id«*t<fr may be Tcuionic (Klogc); so 
perhaps K. (anker in tlic sense of * Hisease 
of trees'; cf, Gfc- 7dy7p«, an eicresccnce 
on trees, 

Caimel-coal. (L aW E.) Lii. a 
' candle-coal,' because it bums brightly. 
iVov, E. niiinel^ a candle- See Candle, 

Cannibal. (Span -W. Indian.) For- 
mcrlyifflMii^/. — Span.f(i«/A7/: for CariAa/f 
a Caiib„ native of the CaribbeiLn 1i^lan<fs, 
The \V. Indian (Hayti) word ^ari^ jataaa 
* brave." I-Ience also Cafibtin. 

CaiUlOlX ( 1 ^ ; see Cane, 

Cannon (7). at billiards. (F^-Spnn.) 
A corruption of airt-Qm, shortened form of 
K. caramboltf^ v.* to make a caiinon at 
billinrds, to touch two other balls with 
one's own ; iec Hoylc*? Garnet O'^'g- 
«nse, to touch the red batl ; whence 
iornmbokr, to cannon [as aljovei and 
i&reimHifi^i, tb , a canrion, — Span, t-aram- 
Ma, a manner of playing at billiards, a 
device, trick, cheat. Origin anknowti. 

Canoe. (Span.~\V. Ind,) Span^fdM^Ki; 
orit;. n Haytian word Jot ' boat. 

Canon > D &nd (2) ; ice Cone. 

Canopy. (F.*Ital.»L.-Gk;; Shodd 
be (fffio/y; but we find F, tanap^^ Ixirtowed 
from I(al- ranff/^. (Also F. ffl«^^.) — L. 
t^Hopfum, Jfldilh niii. ^.p^Gk, K^jm^f**lii» ^ 
an Egyptian bed with mosquito curtains 
(hmcf^ any *<o ft of hangings}. — Gk. iriiM'iknr-i', 
item of ifdwfli^, a mosquito, finnt ; lit. 
' cone-fat;ed * or ' coiie-hcadcd/ from the 
vhape of its head. — Gk, trorfn-s, a cofic ; 
and w^, fate. appesTance, from Gk. base 
on, to Me [i*c Optic* , 

with s.\\^%-0m, p^ l^ caffere^ to sing. Rragm. 
I. 6 181, 

oant iOt l^ ^'^C ^Q A whining way. 
whine- (L.) L. cantdrt (whence Picard 
and Walloofi ran/gr, to singi ; freqncnL 
of fU'wrv, to sing. CaNt was at first a 
beg(;.ir's whine ; hencc^ hypocrisy ; see 

CanticlOi (L») I^ ^rtw/xViit/Hm, a litl 
Bong ; dimin. of ^'aK^AfMm, a sonjT ; dimin 
of cantHs^ a song; cf. foafuf, pp. of 
tantre, to sing, 

canto. (ItaK — L.) ^i^^.fant/t,&. sing- 
ing. MKitian of a poem.'-h. ace, ia«/»a«, 
a sinjL^injj, >ong (abore). I 

cansonet. CltaL — L) llal. (oigs' 
Mi/fa, dimin. of cam^mf, a hymn, »ong.— 
Lr. rantid^riem, ace. of fotUtc. a vong« — L. 
I'liii/Hs, pp. of rrtMfif, to sing. 
Cant ( 2), an edge ; as verb, to tilt. ^Du. 
— L.) Du, ktrtUf an edge, comcr.+Dan, 
and Swcd. iani^ edge ; G. ktatft, a comer. 
P» All from I^te L. eaa/its, a corner ; whicll 
is prob, from L, f(iH/(ftifi- = Gk. jeoFflot, the 
corner of ihe eye, felloe of a whceL 
Canteen. (F*-ItaLj K, tnnttHt.^ 
ItaL fatitina. a cellar, cool cave thefice 
the sense of vessel for liquidsi, OHgin 
doubtful. Fcrhaps froDi Laic L. t^art/us, a 

Canter, aneasygallop. (Proper name.) 
Short for CanUrhiry gallop, the Jiacc at 
"W'tiich pjWims rotle thither. 
Canticle, Canto ; ^^ Gaut (i). 

Cantle, a small piece. (F.- L. Y\ O.F, 
fa«jf<f/. a small piece (F, cAan/eau)^ dimin. 
of Ttoird tratt/ (F. ichatU)^ a comer ; Ijile 
L. (tiMiiis. Prob, from h,tanthm, comer 
of the eye ; see Cant it). 

CantoajaTcgiou. (F. -Itat.! f.fartian. 
— Jinl, cattiont, a nook, angle; aUo, a 
corporation, townabip (Toiriano' ; Late L, 
canienutHx canie, a ftgionj proWnct 
Origin dcubtful. % Cnrfttm (in heraldry)* 
a comer of a shiekl^ is from l'\ fffftian, 
a corner, ItaL cantont, from Ital. tatifo, an 
edge ; see Cant (j). 

Cuivae. (F. ^La — Gk.^ M>£.f>TrfrrAr. 
North F. rdtffOdJ. — Late L, eanahddiis^ 
hempen doth- — L, camtabis^ hemp. — (ik. 
v^rm^cT, hemp, CL SkL psna* heniip ; 
see Henip. 

canTaBS. T, — L, — Gk,) nrig. lo 

toss in a canv&i sheet, to criticire or 
dtf^iUffi thornnphly. From tam'ast %h, 
Cansonet; ^treoant (t.. 

in. " 



lActtc, orig. n Caribboin ward, cahtic'hu. 

Cap, fi head-covering. !.Ldte L/i A. H. 
c<i//if. — Lale L. f*i//a^ a cap (liidorc'i, 

Cap&ble. ' F. - L ) K. fa/^/>/e. - LaT* 
I.. iiij^Hi/is, c*>mpri'hensibl«; aftcrw^rJ*, 
utile to hold.— I_ ifi/^t'g, to hold beldw^- 
capaciootfj «blc xo cunuin. il..) 
Coined from 1-. tapad-, stem ol iapiu\ 
ftble 10 hold.-U iapere, lo hold, conltin ; 
»re Hauve, Bnigm, i. S 63?,. '^QAP.) 

CapariSOIlt trappings of a har&e. (F. 

— S^ui. — Laee L.) O.K. /<i/»«™/jp«. — 
SiNUU c&parm^H, cover fgr a saddle ; Aug- 
mmueive from Med. I„ (nfato, a covrl; 
from Span. «a/o, Ji cloak, cover. — Late I- 
tiipa, a cajie; m liclow. 

OftM dX a ooTering for the sliouMer^. 
<r.-Ute L.) O. North F, tap, - Lste L. 
i'lf/d. ft cape (Isidore of Seville ; whence 
also Prov., Spim., Port, (apa, Icel, kofa^ 
Sii.-. Athrii to i-<T^. Doublet^ fcr/V. 

CapQ \i i Ji headlniicl. (F.-hnl,-I„; 
[' . E4j/. ^Ital, f'^i/t?, head, headUnd. ^L, 
iO/ttfi, head. 

Caper ( I 'f to dmnce about, (Ital. - r^) 
Al»brcvi»led from foptvoM (Sir P. Sidney). 
• ttaL ii^f^rioian. to skip as a goat — ttal. 
,aj^fto/a, ' n cAper in dancing,' Florio ; 
aUo, A Vid ; dimin. of rapra, a she-goat. 

— I„ m^rn^ a ihe-goftt ; cl- taper, he-^oat. 
Hh^Jk. MOtjMTf, a goat; A.S. hafer^ Icel. 

CaMir (1^ the flowcT-bud pf a certnin 
plant. (F.-L.^Gk.'l M. F. tapre (F, 
fii^r^j.— L.*'a//(rr//. — Gk.*(iirira^s. caper- 
plant ; iu fruK ; uf. TeTi. -trtAar, capers. 

Capei^OoilEie. (Gael.) Here « repre- 
sent* M, K, i, 7>ron* as j*. — Gael- ifl/w//- 
f'tf///^, great cock of the wood ; lit. horM- 
of the wood>*Gae1. eapuii, a hor^ ((ee 
CiavftlieTi ; foUU, gen. of <oiU^ a wood» 
cognate \y\\h. K. Holt. 

Capillary, Ukc hair. (L,) L. capil 
idrii. .idj. ; from {apiUut^ hair. Fcrbaps 
allied to mp-ttf, the head. 

Capital ' ■ I . chief ( F. *• L.) F. lapitaL 
«L- mpitdiii, belonging to the head. — L. 
Mpit'i stem oifaput, the bc3d.<4-^^t»^AA' 
mTm), skull ; A. S. Aa/e/a^ hcad« Brngm. 

capital Jy, stock ofmntiey, (F. — 
I- I F. iiiptfa/ ^Latc L. lapifd/e, wealth ; 
ncM. of K^piitfits, chief; sue Capital (il, 

OapitaJ (.1 . Iirncl of a pillar, U-^ c^*^ 
F* - U.I I, «a//////wwr, head of a pillar ; 
diuun* ffom L. taput^ head. Or from O. 

North F. aipittl (F, thapiUat*, ; from I.. 
iaptttHitm fsi^ovc). 

capitation, poll-tax. <F, — !..> F. 
iapit<tticit , — 1 jt e 1-. a cc. ((tpitHfionim , 
pbll-tax, — L. capit'i stem of tv/^/, poll, 

Capitol. ' L-) The lemplc of Jupiter 
at Kome, called Cspi/fl/tumr — L. tapii-, 
stem of tapuft ft head ; Inii the reason for 
the name is obscure; &ee ^^mith, CU&i. 

capitTllaiT, relating to a chapter. ( I,.^ 
Mrd, ]~ iapitulifris, adj. of fafii/H/uM, 
a chapter of n talbcdral, or a chapter of 
a book ; see Ch&pter. 

capitulate. (L.) \jL\^\..iapiiaiatHf, 
pp. ot ctipsftiiarf^ to divide into chapters, 
^Iso to propose tenns (for surrender),— 
l^teL-fd/Z^/Nw^a chapter; see Olmptar. 
DeT. re fapilulatt. 

Capon. X. — Gk.i A.S, ifl/vM.— L. 
aoc. (Apotiem ,, from nom . ^ii/tf . — Gk. j^varr ^ 
a capon 
Caprice. iF,-ItQl.-L.7^ V^caprne. 
-* Ital. mprii^io, a whim. Perhnps from 
Ital. fapro, a be-poat; so that captiicia 
might mean a fmk like a goat's; see 
Oaper ;i\ 

oapricom. (L,i \„ taphtotmtf, 

horntd like ,i poal.— L. capri-, lor <apra-f 
stem of (ap^r^ goat ; and taru-u, hom. 

CapriolCi ^ peculiar Iri&k of n horM. 
(F. — Ilffll.-L,^ F. capriok fspc t'ot..r.*- 
ItaL iaprwia, the leap of a kid; see 
Gapar {O. 

CapeilCi to op^et. (Span. 7 — L.) Per- 
hftp^i from Span, rapumr^ to sink (a ship) 
by the head t apparetitly a derivative of L. 
loput, ihc bead. (A gurss.) 

Capstan. (F.*Span.*L.?) F. ca&€- 
jtan; Prov. caAtstan.'^iSpan. fa&estrafffi, 
radrtsfantft A cnpatan. Of lhe»e fotms, 
ia&^stranie i^ (he better^ and is allied to 
Span, faltei/fvgf, a halter* or n hnltenng, 
and to fflAf j/njr, to haller, — I * rapisfraui*^ 
stem of pre*, pt of fttptftrnrft to halter, 
*L. capiitrutH (Spjtn. tabfstrG], a haUer. 
— T.. capettf to hold; with doable tnffix 

Capaole, seetl-vciscl. iF.-I-,) f. 
iftpstilf, n small case. — L. fapjtth, rlimin. 
of iiiput, a c3-se ; ^ee Case 1 1 ). 

CaptailL. (F. ^[^) M. K *apitffiH.^ 
O- !■. ti3#jVfl/M. — I^ie l..f<ipffiittfHJ,faptt 
*/w«i, fl leader of soldiers.- L. tf>/j/-,ltem 
of taput^ head . 

Captions. (K.- L.) F, mptienx^ cavil- 



_,"L. iCapi/ostii. — ]., c&/>ih, a tikitL^, itrfmTi'y'fi-a, caraway seeds ot |»Kiut. 

iophwliccif argnmcrl. — L- taf-tus^ pp, oJ ^ Ok. *af>r fnfoi', cumm. 

/fr^, to hold. See Capuioua. Cafbin^^ i^F. -Gk.) Foiuterty ^m- 

captlTep '1'"' — L-i t- i^ptif (^fcm. ^i>ff, a niusket, the wca[>on of a carabin^ 
!>r//m','.'i-L. <&ptJmts^ a captive— L* or tnuakcUer.— V. tarubiu, 'an arfiuc- 
ia/ftts. pjT, of i-apfrt, to lake.+W, fti^/-^, buijcr;* Cot, Terhai^ ffura O.K. -W^/Ww, 
H Lapti'ie ; O- Irish *-d(*^/j a female captive. , sl Ught-anneci soldier ; of uncertain oHgin* 

Oftptor. (L* L. iT/j/Coj, a taker. — L. Cftfboti. i.P^-L."; F. tar&afie, — L. 
(Yi/-, as ii] ia/vf/, to take; with suffix -/(jr, ace iarbonetn, a coal. 

Capture. (F.-L.: K f-fl/Zwrf . - L, , carbon&do, broiled meat. (Spad.— 

ij*/ttrET,a taking;, — L.ftf/-, as mca/vn^ to 
take ; with fcro* suffix -ftlra. 

CapUCbin, hooded fria r , hood, { F . - 
Ital. - Late U) M. F. fiffmhini F, 
11T//A-/M. —Ital. ^apfuiifuj, a aEnall hotrfK 
heincL* a hofxled friar ; dimui* of aappuiiia-^ 
a cowl, — Ital, cappa, a cape ; see Cap aud 
Cape ^i)^ 

Car, (F.-C) M.E.ffl)T*.-0. North F, 

L, Span, tarbonaJa, meat broils over 
coals.— Span* larhoti, coal; sec above. 

d^btULCl^. I'- mriiunruius. (l) a 
small coal, (aj a tarbimgle, gem, from iLs 
glowing, ^:^) a red tumour, Houble 
dimii;. oi L. carha, coah 
Carboy, a large fjlass bottle^ pTotedcd 
by wicker-work, (Pcra,) Pers, qarafiah, 
a large flagon ; which is prob- of Arab, 

— Late L» iarra, I.; allied to L. <arrus, 
a car; of Gaulish oiigia. -> UrcC. karr^ 
a chariot ; W. *iir, O. Gael. *Jf, Irish 
farr. Allied lo L, iurrtu, a chariot ; 
Bni^m. i. g 516. 

C&niCOle. (K- Span. I F. cArtu^, 
(ura<aU^ a siail ; whence /ai/r te (aroroU, 
applied to a manccuvrc by soldiers, and to 
turns made by a hor&e. —Span. tatAffl. 
a stmil^ winding ^laiiijasc, turning about 
(froLfi the &naJl-shcM'5 f<ptial forro;. Per- 
bapb of Critic origin; cf. Gael. carm:k, 
circling, winding; car, n turn, twist, 

Cafafe^ « glass watcr-bottlc. F. - 
KpaiK — Arab ,1 F. farafe. —'i^^a. garrtt/a^ 
a cooler^ vessel to cool wiaes in. — Arab. 
£hird/\ dran^hts of water ; Arab, root 

hitrq/a, to 3raw water. (Dozy, Devic) 

~ Or from Per*. ^arS^aht a lai^e flagon j 
but st-c Carboy. 

Carat. (F. - Iiah-Arab. -Gk/ F. 
tanii^ a vCrj' light ncight. — llaL taraio,^ 
Arab, qirrdt^ a pod, husk« carat, 24th 
|iart of au ounce, —Gk. Htpana*^ friiil of 
the locastHrcc; alio^a cB.ial ; lit- 'a small 
ham/ — Gk. xtpar-f stcni of Mt/Mi, a horn ; 
see Horn, 

CaraTAii. tF.-tVri;> F. (dnTT/n^ir.- 
TerB. kt\i'v^>iiH> % ciiravAn, coavoy. 

caraTausary. (Fer»/i Pcrs. lor^ 
'vdmuuty^ an inn fur caravans.- Pera. 

rtrji'(7n, caravan ; tardy, public buitdingp 

i&rre^z car (Diicange, s. v, jS/rtftW/ww!!. j origin. Cf. Arab, qtrbah, a water-skin, 

waler- bottle. 

Carcaneti (F.^'l'eut.y Dimin, ofF. 
atrcnft, a collar of jewels ^ or of gold*— 
O. H.G, qttina^ the throat; cU led. 
kv^rh\ pi, the throat ; L.iih.g€fi/rf throat, 
^cfii, to drink. Bmpn. I. ^ 653, 

CaroatOt Carcaaa. ^F.-Ita1.j From 

M. V- airipfAssf, a dead body. — Ital 
mriaaa, a kind of bomb-i^hell, a shell; 
also, a skeleton, frame; cL Port, cttfiasstx. 
a carcaac, a voy old woman. Of tinknowii 

CNurd (1), piece of pasleboard. (F. - 
Ital. — Gkp) Cofmpliojx of F. <arUi 'a 
cirtl/ Col.— ItaL titrtdi L. ir^f'/d. — Gk. 
Xflpi**?? >;iprtjtp B leaf of papyrus. Dor. 
iard^ard. Doublet» c/wir/. 

Card i^\ an instnimcnt for combing 
wool. (,F^— Lj F.iflralr.— MedJ..(^d/'*/ttji. 



Cartway, Carraway* ^Span. - 

Arab,) Span. a/'KuroMueyOt a caraway; 
where ai U merely the Atab. def. art.; 
wTittCQ furvi*-AraU k^rwiya-u. 

L. mriiuits^ n thistle; for waul-LOmbiiig. 

Cardinal. iK'i 1- \rarJiHiUis, pnn- 
cipal, chief ; ijrij^- relating to the hinge of 
n dour. — L. tartitM't stem of tania, a 

CardoOll, a plant (F.-Frov.-l.. 
F. taz-doH^ Cot — Pr&v. lardan ; with aug- 
ment. suAia from Med. L. iard-us, a 
thistle. Sec Card (3). 

Cmr^* (E.) M. £> ca/^^, A. S. ffw, 
cearu^ auxiety. HK O. Sax. /d#v, sorrow ; 
O. H. G. tAans, a lament; Goth, iara: 
Teut. type •/'rfrtf, f. Hence, ronr, vb.; A.S. 
t-nriutt, ^ Not allied to U. aira. 

CarO«li» (F,-L/] Lit, *to cWrh the 
keel ; * hence to lay a ship on its side. — F. 
cariitt, na;-?«c, keel. — L. tflr/fld. keel. 

Career. (.F.-C.J F . (orr^r;, « »ce- 





.Btc L. i'ftrrJri'a Nt'a^, Q POtA 
lot cAT^.^l-nie L. ttjtia^ \„ tamis, a car; 
of Celtic origin; net Ot^. 

CareiB. [ t*". - Ital. - Ul F. carrsst, 
nittadWae.'m lta1.i'anf:2A,iLCnrcss,rarHlling, 
«»LAle L. tiirifi'a, dearneM. — t., oirus, 
de*r. Bragm. l ji 6.^7. 

Gftrfkx. F.-l«) M. E. fat/<mkcs, 
■ I'lace wrWr?! four Toadi meet — 0. P. |*L 
{rtfrtf&urx^. the sftine; frtim sing, tam^ 
f^trg-. . l.aic L. quoiirifmcu?^ four-forked, 
— f,. quntiri' (rom quatnor , fotir: and 
/wnij» a fork. See Fork. 

CargD. I ^pno. — C. I Span.ctf^yp.freight, 
load; cC *^«3r^dr, to locid. — LaU I^ r^^rri- 
ftfrti to lortd R CAr ; kc Cimrge. 

iiifttra , n >tuificnl pictnre; so allied because 
rjiAggcrnteil or ^ overloaded.' •« Ital. ^an- 
frtw, to loftd, burden, -I^te E* ^armdra, 
10 load A nr: SK CbArg«, 

Carkr bnnlcn, mntiely. yt'^'-C.) A.F. 
fi?riy, S'orlh. F. ionn of F. fhargt, i.e. 
load; see Ch&rge. Cf. Nf . E. karitt a 
loail ; !i-^ in 'a Irfrjfc of p<ppir' 

Carkanet ; ^'e<^ Cftrc&aet. 

CarD3daati'r«, cii|xrlling wind from 
1 he IkhI)', 1 F, — L.) K carminfitif^ ' wind- 
voiding;* Cot, — L. ,'arTMiat/f-fts, pp. of 

ami Undrr, to lift, remove^ ukc away, 
from frttis. light. 

rtesh-iaiinij, — L. frfrw/-, tlccl* item ofL'fffv, 
flesh ; and ttor'tirf^ to devour. 

Carob-trce, the locnst-tree. K. — 
Ami*. M. F. tarohf, *atvNhe, — /VraK 
khrttrtxb, henn-podfi. 

CftTOclie, Carrochfl, n kind of conch. 
(F. - ItnL - C.^ Nearly obsolete ; bnl 
the present sense of ftirrii^giS i* dne to it.— 
F. i f^rrtTf i^ri*. varisnt t>t larfvsse, * a caroue 
or caroach/ Cot. — ItaK tarrairiti, ear- 
rv:u:i, a chnriut. Fxiended from Ital. 
i^ativ, a CAT, 5i« 0*r. 

Carol, a song. iF.-L.-Gk.?) For- 
raetly, a kind of dapce.— 0-F, nin^V, 
a singing) dance. Hodefroy 4. v. can>if' 
cites SvriB Rom. (craula^ a. rotmd-dnncei 
alio a dancc-soDg. Proh. from 1*. 
(Affraulff, a flute-pkyer to a choms.— Gk. 
XopavKrfT, the same, — Gk. x*P*»^f) * eJionii^ 
ronnd-doncc ; and avA.uc, a fluTe. 

Carotid, at^j< i.(ik.) Gk.H/wrjA^, 
the two great arteries of the neck ; it wa* 
thought that an alteralion in the flow of 
blood through them caused Mupor. — 
Cik. KapuM^ I ^tupcf) ; nApoff stupor, 

GaronJial, (i a drinking-bout ; C^\ a 
pagiraiii. (I. F.-G»; J. F*-ltal) 1. 

tttmitujrf, to card wool i^hencF^ m old Sometimes u^ ai if from the vecb t'drm/.r 

medicine, to cleanse from groM hnmoiirt 
with soffist -7hus,^\.. ct^rmin-y from c^t- 
mfH, A Cftrd for wonl.— I*, fdttrt^ to 

Carminfti v^pnn. -Arab. — SktO Span. 
(Vf^wm. short form offnffHtxftt, adj. ; ftom 
rarwfjur'p crimson. — .'^mb.^rrw;':/', crimson ; 
from ijirmi£^CQC^u\aA. — ^kt , ^rjw i, a worm ^ 
I he cochineal insects 

Carnage ; »ee below. 

Carnal. 1-) J^. fitrudlh, ikshly.«- 

I.. rflrw-j 8tem of r^/w, fleih, Bnigm. I. 

4 5I5- 

camaffe.. (F.— lO F. ra^a^^. Ilcsh- 
tinie, vlnutjlitcr of animals. — Late L, mr- 
MrtVfVww/. a tribute ot Heah-meal ; cf 
■ ii'Uiitum^ time for eating l1cih*^L. aifH-, 
Hiem of i-tjrt», flesh. 

eam&tioiL. ,F.-T..) F* fartt/ttiat. 

below, 2, But, in old fiothors, fdreHi/i 
(alio (atonsah means a sort of p^ngennt. 
of whkh some kind of chatiut-race forraeil 
a principal pan; Dryden, V^irgil, Mn, v, 
7;j', — F. coffauiei, a tiking-mattih. — Ital. 
(iVPSfiie'i also spell pttvsefh^ a tourna- 
mei]t ^ of Dncertam origin. 

CarOUt«< (F. — If.) y.carout^ Va ca- 
roussc of drinke,' Cot. — G. gat-aus, right 
out; Bsed of emptying a bumpcn — fi.jQir. 
qtiUe: and aui. out. (Ralei^neven wfiies 
garousc, tltreclly from G. gamni.) Der. 
lafoui-a/y but only in one sense of that 
u'lirJ ; see above. 

Carp i.iTij a fish- (F.) M. E, tar/f, 
XV cent-- O- F. f(ir/tf t^p*"' J'*^^- ^^^A*- 
llai, rar/a, Florio' : nho Du. karf^t \ 
Iccl. karji \ Dan, karpt ; Swed. ifl// ; 
G. karp/in\ O. H.G. <harfh9\ K111&, 


hcolnuf I l.ittrc '.»I«ncc. eanuifioHem^ ■ h^rff j Lith, i-ar/a, 
hinri^,p»r, (-«rt«*, stem of frfn?, Hcsh, Carp [i''. to cavil aL ^Scftod.) M. E. 
! F. — Itel. — r.. ) F. idnta- 1 mv/^n^ wiiich often mrixly means to talk, 
',Shrovctide.**It^l.."fff7!rt'rf/A*<i''«iM'«''rf, ' say.- Jcel. kar^, toboa«.t; i^wrd, dial, 
lavi three day* before Le:it. — Med. I., j htrj^a, (o boaU, talk much, ^ The pre- 
m/fVtjU,iarHf^tTtfwfif,Tcmova} of t^csh. sent sinister tcn^e is tfue to toninvion 'with 
rnvetidc — I. ,n»^»^ w.ncc.ofr/i/'(t, flc-ili; I . iitr/frr^io pluck. 



O. Nurth W ^arf'itjh'cr ;¥, charp^tttitr .^ 
Laic I-. ^ar/^Mttfri/ti, sb. ; car/^NH'jf^, to 
woik iri tjrobcr. — 1.. fiir^iMfttf/t, a earrmgc ; 
A wohS of Celtic oiigin. — O. Irish ^iir^i^ 
Gael, and Iristi caHfut, W. arh^dt ft car- 
rinfi-', charioE, litter, 

Carpet. ,K.-LJ O. F. c-jr/i/i?. - Late 
I., mrpita, airpeia, a kind of Uiiuk clolh ; 
^Srt earpia t\ rharf-U). lint. — L. ^r^r- 
/t-rt, to pluckt pull to pieces tlint being 
made of r-igs puUed to pieces, and carpet, 
prohAbly, from shmls). 

Carrack. (F.'i O. F< carrnpte^ a ship 
of burden ; Late Lat, tarraca, tbc sanae. 
Of unknown origin. 

Caniikge. (F,-C.) M,^, that 
which if tfiiritiJ about ^^iisiti IJibIc, A. V>). 

— O. F, tan'ij^e ; from mrier^ to carry ; see 
Garry. ^ Its modern use U due to cun- 
Tusion with faroch, a vehicle (Massingcr, 
KencjL^ado, i. 2) ; lec Coroohe. 

CoxTlClll. ■ F. " Lv) M. K. carffifftte, m 
carcase.— O. Nurth b\ taroi^u ; I Ale L. 
cftrmiti, a itarca^e, •* L, r-flr^, flesh, 

CarTonade* a sort of i^atinon. (Scot- 
laini. ) So named because mnde at Carron, 
iti Stirlingshire* 

Carrot. (F.-L-Gk.) F. fareft^ ca- 
rW/t'.— L. caro/a, mmQU.. napoiT^y, a carrot. 

Carr^* (F.— C.) O. F. rar/Vr, — Late 
L. crtrnrttre, — L. rom/j, a car ; see Car, 

Cart, (t:.) AS. cnrt, rra/; cU Du. 
kra^. Of from Iod..*fl^/r,aeait f whence^ 
prohnbly, Picard carfi, a cart. 

Carte, a bill of fate. (F.-Gk.) Chiefly 
ia the V. pbr. farit hfancHe^ lit. white 
paper. ^ Lnlr L. f^i/r/a ; see Oard (O. 

cartel. (.F.-ltaL-Gk.) ]*\far/e/.^ 
Ital. tdrttlh^ lit. a Bmall paper; dinhrt of 
^d/'i'ft, [^i|^)er, bill; ice Cud (l). 

CTartilag^a. (F.-L) F, tartiiagt, 
grjstk*. — I^ oi'Hitjginem^ ace of ftirtHago. 
Det. cartifagitt ffus. 

Cartoon. iF, — Ital-GkO V.carion.— 
llal. iiirtofit, lit. a large paper ; frcnn»"B'/a, 
a card ; i*e Card (r :, 
cartouohe, cartridge. (F. - luL 

— Cik. Cartridge (wiitJi intrusive r) i* for 
{Qrlid§t, corrupt fortn of tifrteufhe.^^^ 
fitriaucht, a rolt of paper. —ItaL rartoceh, 
a roll of iiapci, cartridge -Ttal. taria. 
paper; Late l^ftff/j; see Card (11. ^ The 
cartriil^ look iti name from tlic paper in 
which II wac rolled up. 

cartulary, a register. ( Late L. - Gk.^ 
Ijiti: L, ,,jifNl<frtM*ftf fMariuifjriiim, a 

register — Late L. ihariulx^ a document^ 
diaiin. Zil charta^ apapcr ; see Card (i). 

Carre. (I''0 yi-c^. kemtu, AS. f^orrtm; 
pt, t, itarf^ pi. mrfon, pp, (or/irt. (The 
A. S. (corfan would have given ^(Mnrvt ; 
£ wa& retained from the pt. pi. and pp.] 
+ DiL Jcerven ; G. kerbetty to ngtcb, cat ; 
also Dan, kat'Vi, Swed. Jtar/z'a, to notch, 
from ibe lud &tcm. Gk, ypi/^tt*: Brugiti, 
i ^ r9>- 

Cascade. (F, — Ital. — L.) F„cajfade,^ 
Ital. *-iiJt-jYfl, a watcrfaU ; orig. fem. pp. of 
t'djfrt/r, lo fall. For ♦tdJfVdrii?. — L. f<u«7«, 
to totter. — L. rmunt, sup* of eadere^ la fall. 

Caee (t), an event. (F.-L.) M. E. 
f4».^F. <^a;.<p»L. ttco, ftuurrtf a fall, a 
case.— L. fffJUJ, pp. oS foJerr, to fajl- 

Caee (2), ft receptacle. (K.-L.) O, F- 
cflw/. — L. f/f/w, a box, cover."" L. ri>/*rf, 
Lo hold. 

Caseiaatfl. (F.— ItaL) Ft (asemaU^ 
a loop-hole in a fortified wall. — llal. casa- 
mafta, 0. cli&inber built tinder a wall or 
bulwark, to hinder tht»sc who enter the 
ditch to scaW the wall of a fort. It s^i-ems 
to mean *" dark chamber.'- ItaL And L. 
fflja, house, cottage, room; and llal. r'/rf/Zd^ 
ftim. of rnaUo, orig. mad, but the Sicilian 
mattu iriean^ *■ dim/ 

CaaemeiLtr fr^me of a window, (F.— 
L.) Coitied with the sense of fncaigmmt, 
that which aicoses or encloses. Fioni 
case, verb ; with siftHx -mtHi. 

Cash., t;oln, (F. -LO Orig. a till or boE 
to keep money IQ. — K* casie^ a case ; see 
Case ; Ji above. Der. eash-hr^ sb., one 
who keeps a money-box or cash. 

C^feiew-Iiuti the nut of a W. and E. 
Indtiui tree. ; F, — Brar-iUaii ?) Ca-ifitw it 
ft corruption of F- acajou, which is said to 
be from the native Brazilian name atitjaf>a 
or oiajaiba, ^Malm, Littr^O 

Cailiier, to dismiis from serricc. 
(Dn. - F. — L.) Du. canttvrt, to cashier ; 
merely borrowed from F. fajier^ * to 
breake, burst, . . al*o to casseere, ilis- 
chargcf^ Cot. [Du. worrls, bonowed 
from F„ end in -f7'^,]-L, ^uanan, to 
shatter, frequent, of ^uatcre, to shake; 
which annexed the senses pf L, (nistire, lo 
anniiL disch-'vrfic, from L.^ojmj. void, null. 

Caeluaiere, a loft wool. (TndiiiO ^ 

cnlleti irorn ihe v.ileof ^^W^wJ/nf^in India. 
Also spelt casiim^rtf. kirfiyvtert. 
Caeino, a room for dancing. (Itat.— 1.,) 
Ital. casin^^ dimin. of caia, a cottagv, 
house. — L. fOMj n cottage. 






Cask. (SpAn, -L.j Span. raxf«, a iknll, 
sherd, coat of an oniou ; also a co^k o( 
wine, n CAMjUe or helmets TheoriE. icuAc 
i% * bufk '; cf. Span, cascara^ pedf, rind, 
shell, PoTt. fOii'iif rind« — Spiui. faStar^ to 
btirst op«i ; fhnn^ (as if from Ijnx, ^tfttai- 
suiirt} from an extension of L. ^uajjiirf, 
[o hrciik* buiTit ; kc Qua^. 

CftSqUBi a helmet (F.— Spnn» — L.) 
F. ffJiiT/u^.^Span. cajc0^ a betoicl, head- 
picLt; src nhove. 

Casket, d smAll box, (Sp&n.^LO Ap- 
partnlly confused with F. inisttU^ * a small 
csskct ; * Cot FanDHiIty^ it is a climin. of 

Casquft; seeCftsk. 

CaasaTm a pUnt. vS^iui, - Hiyti.) 
Span, iiiui^t also ("ouvi, * the hread made 
in ihc \\. Indies of the fniit called the 
yui-a ; * Pineda. It properly rnesin* the 
plmit. whtcli is alsocallerl maniuc ; said to 
be (torn the !lAyli ninshhi, with die utnc 
Mfise. Sec K. £den'& woiki, ed. j\rber, 
p. 175, See TApiooA^ 

CaSfdA, Ji species of lanrel. (U-Gb,- 
Hcb.J L. rctrm, rarjfii. — Cih. j(a0(a,aApicc 
like cinnamon.— Hcb. i/efjt'^A* in P». 3ilv. 
Sj^ 1 pi. form from qetsi'oh, cii$&ia-tHrk.— 
mb, root ^afsa\ to cut away ; because the 
bark is uut oflE, 

C&sBimerd ; kc Gaahnirara. 

C&asock, a veslment. (F,— Itall F. 
casu,/u(. — Jtal. riwOiYa, an outer coal. Of 
MnctTlaiii ori^n. 

CaaBOwary, n bird, (Malay.) First 
brouglit from Java. Malay kasuwari. 

Cast. (SoMd.i Icel. jfraj/a, to throw ; 
Swrd. ^(f'f'j „ Pan» J^/tsfi, Dep, recast, 

CastanetSt in^tmmcnts uscfl for 
making a snapping noise. (F. — Span.— 
L, — GkJ V. caiiagniilis^ 'fingcr-knack- 
era, wherewith playen make a pretty 
HOIS'* in >otne daAoea;' Cot — Span, cm- 
fatirfas, ea*tanet*; pi. of fas/aAtfa^ a 
ioa]ipi«g noi« resembling the cniL-king of 
tCNUted chestnuts, —Span. ^r^ajr^-nj^rt, achci't- 
DQt, — Uit. €^stanta, the chestnut-tree.— 
(ik. MiSernu'Dr ; fiee Chestnut. 

Ca^tftt a breed, race. ^Pott.- L,] Port. 
cusfA^ A race, oiig* a ' pure' breed ; a nnme 
givfrn by the Vqt\, to classes of men in 
India. — PoTt. casfa, fern, of foito, pure. — 
I» iaifns, pure, chaste. 

castigate. 1 ; U iosn^dtus, pp. of 

t'atttgtjre, to chasten ; lit, * to keep pnre.'— 
1.. fiiifus, chaste. Doublet, fhastisf^ 
Cavtl*. iU) A. S. iosuL-^L. eas 

Ullum, d tmi n . of ta ^tru/Hy \ fort ifi ed 
place* Dep. taiteilaH, O. North 1-, iaitc- 
/atn^ O. h- thasUlain^ the kf^epcr of a 
chastil^ or castle; alio chdtelaine (fem. of 
!:■". cAiUt/mH ^ O- F. i-Aa:f/ir/ai>j),no'wapplie<l 
to a lady'fr chain or 'kcepec' of keys. 

Caator. (L. -Gk.) L. caiter.^Gk, 
tfocTTftijp^ a beaver. But of Eastern ongia ; 
cf, ^IaIay k^sisiri^ Skt. iastun, musk ; 
Pew. ^^"ts, beaver. 

castor-oil. Named from some con- 
ftiaion witlt i^attcretttUj * a medicifte made 
of the liquor coDtnincMt in the little bagi 
that arc neid the beaver's groin ;' Keney. 
But it is really a vegetable produciion. 

Castrate, it.) L. «uirti(m> pp, of 
iasirare, to cut. 

GasuaL { F. — L.) F. tamel, - U catu- 
n!ht bapiieniog by chance. — L. i"rf««-, 
stem uf fifrHJ, chance. See Cue (i). 

Cat. E.? A. S. car.+ Diu, Dan. Aa/, 
Tccb koitr, Sw. ltd//, li. itrt^fr, katui L. 
fvlj'ttf, W. iTo/^, Ir+ Gael. <at, Ross^ J^of', 
*iJjA*a, Arab* qUt, Turk, jfc^ifi. (Proh, 

Caia>r prefix. (Gk<) Gk, Mani, down, 

CataclTBm, deluge. (Gk.) Gk, ura- 
jrAvff|Uor, 3. dashing over, flood. — Gk. *aTd, 
clown ; jirXi^^fu', Lo dashj wash, ai waves. 

Catacomb. Ital. - L.) Ital. ro/a- 
<j?jwAi, ,1 .-^pulchral vault. — Late L. foAi- 
cumimi \ of which the kusc and origin are 

Cata&IClliet A ^tage ot platforta, 
chiefly used at funeraU. (F. — Ital.) F. 
(fiiafahptg.^\ia,\, iat&faka\ of unknown 
origin. See So&ffold. 

Catalepsy* a sudden setiure. (Gk*) 
Formerly tataUpsis, — Gk. vai^i^ir. a. 
grasping, BeiaQg^ — Gk. #ard, down; Ao^- 
0Aifmv, (o ^ize. 

Catalogue, (F. - Gk.) K. eaiahpit. - 
LateLat. fttt.ra/a/^sjfifm.'-Gk.^nTdXoTof, 
a counting up,cnrolinent. — Gk, vor^i, fully ; 
Xi'^iiif, to say, tell ; see Logto. 

Catainaraiii a sort of mft. (Tamil.) 
In Forbe»» Hindustani Diet., ed. 1859, 
p. 3S9, we have ' kalmanm, a raft . . ; the 
word is orig. Tamil, and mean* titdUgf.* '^ 
Tamil idttN, bisding ; maramt wood 

CataplaSnl,^ a poultice. (F. — L.— 
Ok. K ta/afi/asma . — I, . caiaptasma , — 
Gk. jtarawAa^^a, a plaster, poultice.— Ck. 
)tiiTa.*Kao^ti¥, to tprtail over*- Gk. mrJ, 



fully; niid v\*taffnv, to inould ; see 

Catapult. (Late L. -Gk.'j Laie 1.. 
^aiafitiia, nti engine for throwing aumes- — 
Gk. KaTQTriKrri^, ihc »;. — Gk. Tard, 
cHown ; ifnK\fiv^ to swing, hurl. 

Cataract. (T,, — Gk.) L. calararla^ 
ficn. vii^ I [^.^Gk. Kam^ft&xr^^, as sb-t a 
WBterfalli as atlj.^ broken, nuhing down. 
I'rol:). nHicd to «ara;3^^Tf>ru/ii, I brezik 
clown ; the l aor. Kartyt^it^*- was Ji.ied 
of the rushing down of lAaterfnlls and 
■itormi — Gk. nara, down ; >1^*t//ii, I 

Catarrh. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) 1'. 
fa/arrhf. — Late L, caiarrhus. — Gk. 
woTffl^^ooF, a flowing down (of rheum), 
n cold in the head,«»Gk. imrd, down \ and 
^^ttf. to flaw. 

Catastroplie. (Gk.) Gk.ifaT«oTpo^, 
.nn ijvcrturriifipjj sudden tam.p^Gk. jcard, 
*luwn : atpt^tif, lo turn. 

Catoh. (F. ^L.) O. Pieard ca^hitr, 
varicint of O. F. chacitr^ to hunt, chase j 
hence, to catcli. It SLnswers to Ital, cai- 
iifir^, Lfltc L. ^capiiart^ extended form of 
L. Cfrftitrt, to calch. — L. capfits, pp. of 
fapere, to seize. % We even find M. Do. 
katisett, \o catch, borrowed from Picard 
fitthkr. The ^t. E. pt. I. aiH^i imttflled 
latt^ft, pt. t. of M, E. laifhcn, to cctcb. 
Doublet, ihase (i ;l 

Catechise. (L~GkO Late L. ra/^- 
fhtnire. B Gk. *aTi75^f(e4k, to catechise, 
instruct ; lengthened form of /earrtxiti*'* to 
din Into ones eara, lit. 'to dm down.'-<- 
Gk, icaT-Af down; ^j^fiV, (o Aound ^ cf. 
^Xoi, A rin^ng in the ctirB ; see Eeho. 

CategOxy, a doss, (Gk.) Gk, ttaTrt- 
yapia, aa acciiialian; but in logic, a prc- 
dii:atnent or class. — Gk. mfnjyaptlv^ to 
aCcusC-wGk^ jrar-ii, dpwn^ against'; "tiyo* 
fittv, with the soise ofd-ypptvtu^, lo declaim, 
flddrew an assembly ^ from A-yopA, on 
Catenary, belonging Co a chain ; vsed 
cf the curve in whicb a chain hniigs. (L.) 
From L. ra/^fm, a chain ; see Clutii. 

CateTf to buy provisions. F» — h,) 
Formed r3 a verb from M, E. caf&ur, ^ 
bcycr of provisions (whom we should now 
call a (aifr-rr). Cafpur Is glioft for 
arafahr. formed (torn ainft a buying, pur- 
chase, Ch* prol. 571,-0, F, a^af (motl. 
F. achat), a buyiii;^. ** Fnlk'K- maptttm, n 
pnrchi^e ; for &i\-aptufft. — Folk-L. accap 
inrf, to purchase ^a, i\ loOo), frequent, of 


acdperiy l^i receive, nlso to buy 
Aooept and Galea. 

Cateiran, a lli^hlatid robber. fGaeU) 
[^w L. fiUerattUft answering to Gael. 
ttathairtu, lit. ' tommon people ; * cf. 
itQikmrnt-ihoiUct s. pi., freebooters, out- 
laws. From Irish e^thtrn, fatJferrr, a 
iroop, band ; cf, L. cafrnta, a band of 
men. See Sora* 

Caterconsui. (F. --],.) Nares («1. 

iSyrt) has: * Caf^r'i'itun'as, fricrids so 
famiUar that Ibey eat together.* If so^ 
t he w ord i a from tWfr, vb„ and 

Caterpillar. (F.-L,) Aik^jtetl from 

O. F. (katipths£, n caterpitlnr ^Godefroy); 
the latter half of the word was assimilated 
\^ pilUry one vt\iopilht or robs or spoils. 
O. F. i-haUpiiofi is lit. 'hairy shc-cnt;.* 
O. F. chafe, fern, of ikat^ cat; pcloit, 
hjLiry.*-L. rrt/wj, cat ; /tifvsus, hairy, from 
pi/us. n hair. 

Catei'Waul, (E.) M. K, la/rn^tfum; 
coined from tae, and ccdTiv/i, to make a 
wailing noi$e. 

Cates, provisions. (F,>U^ So called 
becau^ provided by the cateuf^ mod. E. 
foier-fr ; tee Cater, ' Cater, n §tewardi a 
provider nfr(f/('j:; ' linret (1580). 

CatliartiCr purging, cGk.) Gk. jraftip- 
Tttcos, jjurj^jitivc — Gk. ica$aip^tWfio cleanse, 
pnigc.— Gk. Ka&apo\, jiure. 

Cathedral, il- - Gk,) L. .>?///(■- 
drj/t'j ftiifsia ^a cathedral church, or one 
which has iv bishop's throite.wLatc I,. 
caiAedm, Vi throne. — Gk, KaH^pa^ a ficat. 
^Gk, fraf)-^ for frarii, down ; n,nd i3/Mij a 
seat, chair, from f ^'i>>iai 1; =^ ih-yofmi"; 1 sit : 
see Sit. 

Catholio. (U - Gk.) T.. ifirhoIit'Hs 
(TcrtuIIian.) — Gk. Ka^Xtwiit, univc-rsnl. 
» Gk, KoBlk'tM), adv.. on the whole, in 
general. — Gk* «a0-, for irard, According 
lo i mid SXou, gen, of BAoi, whole. 

Catkin. Cf>u.;! A looM spike of 
flowers^ named from its soft downy ap- 
pearance— M. Dii. kditeken, *a killing/ 
Hexham. also meant 'calkin'; cf. 
F, chattofii in Col.) DimLn. of Du, Jiai, n 
ait i;M_ Du. kattt). 

Catoptric, felating to optical reflec- 
tion, (Gk.) Gk. JcaToiTT-^wyy, leflexivc — 
Gk. xarovT/rai', a mirrOr. — Gk. ff«T-d, 
down, inward ; St-tc^i, 1 see, wUli suffix 
-Tjwi', of the instrarocnl. 

Cattle. (F.-L.l M.E.*rt/f/, property; 
hence, live stock, cattle. — O. North Y. 



Ui- •► Law L. fapiiiili, cA^^ital , prnperty ; 
sec Capital jjaiid Chattels. 

Ci&HCUSi A EiAtnc npplii^ Vn certain 
l>u1)liL:aI nic-?ting«. (Amerkati Imtian?] 
tiaiJ to be fruni an Algonkin worrl nicnn- 
ing to tpcttk, to counsel, whence karo-kaio- 
aiu, a touiJiellor. * Their elders, called 
f<turtt-tit'a.iiau^Ars\' CnpL.S[nith*s Woiks, 
c*f. Arber, p. 347* ' Cath&r&tisc, which is 
cnplfline;' id, p. 377. <ff ThU is roaic 
likety than the enlifc-1y nnsopporlcd story 
jiboDt (auikers' meetings, 

Candalr bolongin^Mo the Uil iL.) I., 
tauJii, the tail. 

C&ndlai a wsnn drink. {T.~L.) O. 
Xorth F, caudtlf O, F, thmtdtl^ n sort of 
wum drink.— O. F. chaud, thaU, hot.— 

C&Ul| A nct« covering, esp. for the heaid, 
CF-; i>. f. r«/^, *ft kind of Ixltlt cap;' 
Cot. Origin unknown. 

Cauldi^n; ffcCaldton. 

Cauliflower. ^.F. - L.) Formerly 
fciy^iity. I loni M. E. rd/ (O. K. cfiOi a 
cablajp:; and ^ory^ from O. F. j^cri. 
Jtfun^ pp. of Jfntn'r. to flonriah. The 
O. l*. I'll/ i& fjom [.> ace. iaukm^ froR] 
tanfis. SL cabbajjc j aji^^eun'r is from 1.. 
^M>r/^^,luflnuri9h, See Col« and Flourish. 

Canlk, Calk, it\ - L ^ M. V.. 

r^ankfti, td dead; hence, to &fjaeeze in ;'as 
oakum into a ahip's $£ani$^»0. F. itiim- 
^M^r, 10 iread ; to tent a' wound wiih \m\. 
■M 1.. takart, to tread, fonx down by 
pressure. — L. (ale-, stem of ituii, (he heel. 

CauBtt. CF,-'L.) F. rdMi?.- L. /aHTa, 
4'<ffMfjti^ a cauK. Dor, catae^ vb, 

CausewaT, a paved way, raised way. 
■J*,— I.,; anJE. Formerly fatis-ry-tetj^] 
by adilid^ Tvay to M. E» fausf^ rausif, 
iVN^^,— O. Noith F. (•aw^w imod. F, 
(hauif^f, Prov. raujadtr, Spnn. caiidda), — 
tjklc L. ftihidta^ for fa/citi/a uia, a paved 
way. — Late I.. i-akidts4s, pp. of mkt^ire^ 
lo make a roadway by trending it down ; 
from L. (dkdn^ (o tread. — L. i'd/('% site m 
of r^/r, Uccl ; see Caullc 

CaiUltiC. (L,-Gk.. Lrau^/Sittt.^ 
CW. jUrtpflfiWi, buming^. ^ Gk. ncavim'i, 
burnt. — f-^k wa/iiv yfut. Kawrai}, to bam. 

oatiteriso. (F.-Latc L-Gk.) F. 

«o»/fr/jtfr.^Late L, faut^nsdft, to Kar. 
~Gk, ifijtrt-ijpni^'ftr^ to War. — Gk. gavrrf 
pi&»', a bratiding-iron. ^ Ck. vairji'i to 
burn sboTC . 

CailtiOll> (F. -L. F- foutiau. ^ I.. 
ace. ratitifiarm^ hee«t.— L. ..r/^rir*, pp. of ' 


CeiL, CtEL 

cflwAv, to b«wMc- Ck Skt. Aiier(j\ wtw. 
BtMjjnrv. i. 4 1^35. Der. /*re-iat$ti&ff. 
Cavalier. (F.-Ital.-L) F. rava- 
tfer, a horseman. — Ual. iovaiier^^ the 
same. — L. cabaiityrium, aci-', ol tabailatiui^ 
the same. — L. rabaiiHt, a horH. See 

oavalcado* , I»\ -^ Ital. — L.) F. 
tnttthadf. — Ital. cttva/toia, ft troop of 
hurscmcn ; orig. fern, of pp, of rava/i'are, 
to ride. — Itril. foimilOj a hoiae. — L. i-d- 
hafium^ ace. of ^abalhts, a bon^e. 

ca7ali*7. F. -^ itfti. - I./, o. F. 

(iWalkrii-. — Ilnl. tavaiUria^ cavalry. — 
Ital. fHvoHtre^ a knight ; see CaTalier. 

CaT6. 'F.-^.> M. E. fflM^. — O. F. 
rflJY, a cavt- — Folk-L. (dTW, a uvc — I.. 
*'nMW/, hollow. f^KEU-t Der. iai'-ity, 
cav-tni '. F. tavtrne^ L» iOtKrtiii . 

Cave in. (M. Do.) Tropcily lo 
raAr »*, a phrase introduced by Du. 
navvies. Cf. W. Flahders tnkah^tt, 10 
cave in ; E, Friesic ial/rVf lo calve as a 
coWt whence kalfen in, to cave in. The 
falling portion of earth is compnrcd to a 
calf dropped by a cow. Confused with 
<avty a hollow. 

Caveat, a caution. (L) 1- iontat^ 
lit. lot hitn bcwflft — L. fflWiVr. lo bewart\ 

CaTiare, roe of the stur^cDti. ' F.^ 
Ital.) F, f+irirf*-. — Ital. ^atVo/'i'; whence 
also Turk. kJtdtydr^ CAvi&re. 

Cavil. (F.-L.) O. F, f&i'iiU*.~\.. 
tauiihirij to b«nter; hence, to wmnglc, 
object to. — L, fdui/ia^ a jeering, cavil- 

Caw. i.E.) An imitation of the en* of 
the crow or daw. Cf, l>n. J^aanxt/, Dan. 
Aaa, !v JnckJaw : which are tmitative, 

Cayniani ^^ Annencan alligator. (Ca- 
ribbean.) Also ipmmatt. iTie apeiiing 
faywan is Spani^. — Caribbean afayiiman 

to Injler, go slowly, cense ; frrquent, of 
c^iife (pp. ttsiHi\ to yieldp go away, 


Cedar, A ir*e- ■;F.-L.~Gk.) o. F. 

i idit^ — L. (tdrns. — Gk. WS^r. 

Cod«. (L.) A late word (. a. d. t633). 
— L. ^^/^>v, to £0, lo come, to yield, 

Ceili del, to line the inner roof Ot 
walls of a room. ^K. — L.) Hence the 
'b. I'fiiing or iid inS' M- E- £ff/fftt lo 
ccii; fxoin the ib, jy/r or o"//, fl canopy.— 
F. <-/«'/, acanooy; ihc 4ame woM as r/>/, 
hravei*. fCf. ital. ft'fh. hrnvrn, a cnttopr. 



]«-L.fiC&u», hcsKn. ^ Not to 
nik E.ii^Barvldi jm/; agr 
«HU ttti (7. riSfr) ; odx with L. ^i^Urv; 
ti» hkfe. The L. f»l^e, to csaboAc, letns 
lo Im«c lad Mae ce tbe word. 
U\ nnri niMiMr ii ; e£. Bl. £. ^viWrv, 
• caatoyf. Late L. i»W^rm. 
OeludiAtt, a pt^t. (K.-Gk.) O. F, 

^EmM.*Qc x*-*^**^'*"* iwiUow-worL — 
Git. x*A<Aer-, tfcn of x*^^^* * inraUov, 
(Tlie«r binimm;) 

of ^iebrdrtf U freonentt to ftolautise, 
lMaaar.<^L. (tititer^ freijoented, popaloos^ 

a«c. ffJerifditmt speed.— L, rr^^ qokk, 

C«1«E7. (F.-U-Gt) F, f/Zf/t, iij- 
tnodBcea from the Ptedraontcse ItaJ. «/• 
/m' : for luL se/iitif pL of i£timo, panlej, 
^ L. uiintrt, putlcy. — Gk. ff^Xiror, & kiad 

of pVllcTr 

Celibate. (U) The arig. loae w«s 
' a »inglc li£e ' ; h wu aflenwfia an 4dj., 
ud sgnin % ^., meaniDiF ' chic wtio id 
idngle. — L_ txliiatau, tb. ccUbocj, single 
Ule. — L. f^U^t Ctem of ctf &fo. sngle, ui- 
mftnied- D^. ctHboiy (fw *cali6dfia\. 

CelL ^L^) M. K. r^/^. - L »/;d, 
tmatl room, but, CL it^rt^ to bide. 
Sec Helm (2). (VK£l-> 

cellar. ;F~-U)^. A*F- 
^riVy^; O. Y .€tH*r.''l^ teliarHtm, Aodl&r, 
— L. alb 'above). 

Celt <.■)» ■ nunc origmaUy pvsi to the 

^ oK <C,) From 1- pi. Ctiia, the 

tt; Che word probftbty meant ' <rmr^ 

^ cf. A,S, kild, Iccl,, war; 

iditi, 10 iliike ; L. ptrtcUert^ to 

fftrike tbroo^, beat dotm (Kbys). 

O^Jit {3), A primilifc chisel or txe. 

lAtc L.J Late L- liltis^ »samed oora. 
tbe nbl rf//!£ - =with ft chisel J, in the 

ul|ratc V'crsicxi of Job lix. %^ fint thu 
readine ii doe to lovc error^ tnd th<n 
stemB to be no sDcb word in I^tin. 

Cement. ^F.-Lj O. P. dm&d,^ 
L. iirmrnfum* nibble, chippings of stone ; 
hence, orrAcnt. Perbnp* for *fitdmfHtttm, 
bomiadfre, incut ' Rfugm. i. i 5^7)* 

Cemetery. 'U— Gk.) LaieL.f^^- 
ierium . — < i k . MOiftifr^fum', m sleepinjg-plaoer 

pML. tA Ul Miecfv Affied to M>>k, T 
Ik doTC * SkL ^V w lie dowb 

A neoilicT of X [aodm}) fiatczaMty 'J«raae\ 
— L. cwmMm, a. oo«vea.t. •^ Uk. ««pj0i^, 
a CC»iMat.«*Gk. ncv^^kM, Irnqg kOClUl}; 
-Gk. <w^, oonsoa ; tfUi. lifew 
Geaotepih. (F. -I^-Gk.) O. F. 

£t>aciapke, — I. i-fiTfl^tfiw — Gk. «<v#- 
TdfHr» aa empty tOHb^ — Gk* 


:rv. — Gk. «», 

cmfty; T* 
Ceaeer. 'J-l*) U-W^trnxr.^ 
O. F. ttjuitr, ttmtr (Godefroy): rinst- 
cfud Jroia O. F. ^naaui0-. — Lite L. im- 
temdriatm, also nwyauwriMf (wfacBoe 
Biod. F, emtnutir}. » L. tuywiw, i^ 
ocBie; ^«B p|k of mtmJtrt^ 10 kadlc^ 
t^w TnriMiaii 

^L.) I. Aauar,atixcr, walaer, 
dibc. — L. cmtirt^ lo give an 
Ofnuon, appfaise.^>Skt. fam-i, to i^^iac, 

anntrn^ ong* opiaioiiu — !«. £€tfurt 

CenaoA. f L^) L. whrt, a register- 
iqg, ^ L. etnjfre 'abovej, 
Ooil't, a htLodfed, as ui /fr ^vn/. (L,^ 
In Araerica, tbe hundiedch part of a 
dollar. -• L. tenfuptt a htmdfed ; see 

eesibeiuuy* 'X.) L. ttmthtoHms, 
iriatiog to a honored. — L. cemltttmSf a 
hmidred (mto. disoibutiTdiy). — L. <fmt$tm, 

eenteH'MJal . (L.) Coiaed to meaa 
iclating to a century. — L. eeHt-um, taHft- 
drcd ; 47/rwNj^ a year. 

oenteBiTTieL ih.) L. tmtisim'ms, 
hunirc'jiM.-L. ««/•!*«» httwired, 

Oentiffrftde. ^I-' Divided into a 
hnttdred degrees. — L. ten/i-, for ttntam, 
hundred : g-rnd-iis^ a degree ; see Orade. 

Geiitipede« centiped. (F, - U) F. 
tfHtip^Ji. ■■>- L. ctH^iptm. ■ taany-lootoil 
(Ut, hundred -footed' insett — 1« f r«Jfi-, for 
^enium^ litindred; a/kd /^of-p item o( fipf, 

centuple. L.? L. rtntttfUx {item 
ctntui'hi- , a hundred fold. — 1.. OMfm-m^ 
hQudrrH ; /r/U-iin, to fold. 

CentnxiOtt. I- > I- ace: eeni'MriJf-' 
mm, a capiaia of a hontlred.^L. eeMtuHa 

c eiitnr y. fF.— L) T, t^nfutif,^ 
L. citUuria, a body of a hundred men ; 
number of one hundted. — I. <t>tf»-m^ 


I Intl to sleep ; In > CttttKBTi (L. - Gk.) U C/MAsKrw^, 



»Gk. M{yT&vpos. centauf, a crcatnrv bftlf 
itum und hjtJ* lior^ ; which some hA-vtccaa- 
pAiril nitli Skt /^timfAafvaj, • denu-god. 

centanryf ■ plant. (,K.-t;fc.) L. 

frrt/«7W'y(i. — Uk, xftT<tvpftQ¥^ centaury; % 
plaTii n.tijierj iViffn the Ct/t/*ju r Chnijii. 

Centenary. Centeanial^ Centti- 
pie, Centurion, ^^^ ; ^cc> Cent. 
Centre. Center. (F.-L.-Gk-i F. 

iiJtirf. — 1„ iiHirum. — Gk, ttfrrpt^f k 
'P*''^* fi*^*'l. prick, centre, — Gk. vcfWu, 
1 coaH an. Cf, W»f^/^j, a spike. 

oentrifn^Al, flying from a centre. 
(Ty-) J,, retiih-. for nnft^-^ stem of rf«<- 
/rT*w : tLnd/wjf-^i-. to fly. 

centripetal, tending towards it 

eenuc. L U (tniri' i.abovc}* pet-ert. 

to 5«;k. 

Gerajnic, relating to pot^, <GkO 

Gk. KfpatuH-iit, adj\ — Gk. Wfo^-oc, potter*! 

CflTth. Cf. KipttS-i-y/u (fat, K*paifta) , I mU. 

Cere, to cOAt wiih wax. U-) L> 
i-fTiitt. to wax. — L-fpTfi, wajc,-f ^IC' *Til^fi 

eereclotlL« (L^omi^E.) Lit. a waxed 


eeremeni. iL,) From <ert\ Tritb 
5tifTii -niffii ; I,, -mfrt/um), 

cerose, white lend- .F.-L.) o. F. 
urusi. — \.,ferutia, white leAd. ~ L. ^/ra , 

Cei^&l, feinting to com. (L,) L. 

Cerebral, relating to tlie brain, (LO 
Frotn L rfrf/^r-uttt, the brain. Ct Gk, 
«fd|Hi, the hccitl. Uru^, t. ^ ^ip.. 

Cerecloth, Cerement ; ^« cent. 
CeremouT. i>. - L; M. E. rerf^ 

ceremoitj, rite. 
Certain., (F, — LJ) O. F> (ertein, 
fertniH — L. ttrt-iis, iiure; with suffix 
-.fir»j. Allied to I., cerntre. to diserimi- 
nale ; Gk. v/wVn**, to separate, decide. 

certify. (F,-L.) M, R. rini/f7t.~ 

F, itrtt/tfr. -m Late L* eerti^ar^, to make 
»nrc-*-L. LYr/A, for f^/p-, Jttem of frrCwx 
(above; ; .ind ^c-* fory^<'-«¥* to miike. 

Cerulean, azure, i.L.{ L. ^arukui, 
ftrrMlui. blue; for *faluUus, 'nflu/us, from 
firhum, tky. Bmgm. L ^ 483. 

Ceruee, u-bite-lead ; tee Oftra. 

Cervical, belonging to the neck. (I..) 
irotri J_. r^riiU't »lcni at emtix, ncdc^ 

CervinLe, i^clnting to a hsft. (L.) L. 
''^'rwrn Hi.— .L. i^tnhui, A hart; sec Hart. 

CeaSi Umil, roeainrc. (F, - L.) In 


I Hen, IV. ii. i. B, Orig. a lax, jate, 
ratfog, ftssessmeni ; sfe Spenser^ State of 
Ireland, Globe ed., p. 643. col. a. For 
frfjj; from s^s, Tcrbj to rate; which is 
short for JUaesa. 
CeasatiQD, r'F.^L.) F. ctssaticu.^ 
L. acc- ffTJiTfttinemt n ceasing ■— L. rfistr- 
tus, pp. of ussdrtt to ceaac. ■* 1* fessus 

eeerion. (F. — L.) F. ajrien. • U 
Hcc cttsiffHtm, a yielding. — !„ ^vjjwx, pp, 
of ctderi, to yield, to <^e. 

Ce&e-pool. (Hybrid.) Mo«t probably 
cqiiiv. to {st\cwss^f^f\ Sec K- E, D. Cf. 
Ital. eesso^ A privy iTolriaro) ; which i» 
a sfaortened fomi of strtsso, a retreat- — 
L, shessttSt 'the draught;' Matt, xv, 17 

Cetaceous, of the whale kind. (L.— 
Gk.) L. f^j^j.aiGk. jH^toT, a fte^-monRter, 


Chablifl, ti white wine. (F,) From 
Cha5/it, f 3 mi, £, of Auwrnr, in the de- 
partment of Vonne, France, 

ChafSa, to warm by friction, vest. (F.— 
L.) M. E, (h&nftn, to wann. — O, F, 
chm^fer (F. tthaujfr), to warm ; cS. Prov, 
{aifar^ lo wann* — Ijitc L* *caif/dn, to 
wann J for I„ cait/atttnt^ to warm, make 
to glow.— L.^a/P^rt, to g\ow;^fre, 10 

Cliafer. Cockchafer. (E.) AS. 

fifer (sulsQ ffa/tjr], a kind of beetle.Hhl^U' 
kfvtri G, Jt^en 

Chmtt, (£•) A. S. ftft/. Inter fhir/, husk 
of grain. +Du. *fl/; Low G. k&f, % The 
xtrb tc fha^'^to chafe, i. c, vex. So also 
'thaff^wax^ for c^iiff-WAx* 

cliaffiliClL, a. bird. (E,^ I.e. eAtt^- 
fimh \ it frcqueata baiti-'daon. 

Cliaffer. (£•) The verb is from the 
M. E. sb. (hii0Qre^ also cia^arr, a. bargain- 
ing,— A. S. frtj/, a bargain, and /(»r«t a 
jtmmey, also business ; sec Cheap nod 

Chaffinch ; !^ee Oh&£L 

Cliagrill* lF.) I'. ^Anerin, melan- 
choly. [Diet identifie* it with F. ihugrin, 
ihs^en ; but wrongly.] 

Chain, (F.-L.) O. F, f^ai^e, Ma/w. 
— L. t-atfoa, a clialn. 

Chair. iF.-L.-Gk.) M. E. f^o/r*, 

f/m. A throne, raised leat, chair.— Gk, 
Ka$i Bpa, a «eat, ^ Ok. «atf • , for fmrd , down ; 



sent, from t^oum i *= jB-^^tl^ 
T «it : see C*thedi*l, 81t, 

ObLAiSfi, '1 Hgttt Carriage. (F, — I-^ — 
GkO F. ikdiit, a chair.filsOf a chaise; n 
Pariiian moHificftiion of K. chaire^ a pulpit, 

Glf. J i- ih^A-^tUnittff Rev, XX L [9, — Gk. 

OlinJldroil, & coaUmeasure. <F. -L.") 

O. h\ i'haiiiriiti, orig'. a caldron ; see 


Chalice, a cup. (f. -L.) K.V,(haiiri. 

n, K t<?/fVv» — I,, itn/iif^m, ace. of fd/ixtO. 

tWVitd to caiyx^ luit nof llic ^ame /ia, a fallifijj,, a thancc. 

hfipptii; SCO Oftdonoo. 
Chalk. 1^0 M.K,Ma/*.-A.S, «rt/r 

iSoultieni ■— L, ^a/ts stem of fn/.F^ lime. 

Challeii.^6. ' /• - 1^0 ^f, H. f-^rt/iTM^, 

dikn^ey nltcn in ibe sense ' a tlnini/ — 
A, K, ihfikti^^ O. F. rj^cr/tJM^v, f>j/eHge, a 
tlispate, clciiiti ; an Accusation. — I,, laluiti- 
niu, fnlse .icctiT-nlJon; sec Oalumay. 


nnmetl from Chtvupa^tti- \i\ l-'mncc, which 
means ' a plMiii ' ; see beltfw. 

champaign, utxn country, ip.— U) 
In Sh. F,fAflw//^i^^i^. dC which the Picoi*! 
form Whs (ampai^n^ ; see Caiup&igia. 

Champ&k, a tree, l^Skt.) Skt. r/^(7///^ 
paka, till.- ctinnipak. 

Champion, F- \.. o. t', ir^dy^- 

ft'ott.^l,. itim/>/<wm, aoe, of ^mufh, n 
comhitant (Isiilore'. — 1-» camfytt^, a place 
(or military cxerciae; 3 peoiliai use of 
cawfus, a fiehl See Camp. 
CnftiUOe, hap, (F, - L, j M. E, fkeaumv. 
— O. V. ihmwi:, ^-^aflH^f. — T.ate I.. *at/tt/' 
. fitiJerCj to foil, 

Ghanool. (F. -t..) !so cailed beemiM 

orig. fenced off by z latticed screen. — 

0. ¥. ihatii-eit mn enetosnre fi-nced off with 

ftn open screen. -* Laie I-. ianffl/ns, a 

' chancel} KTeen ; L„ <caatr/if, pi., a gralinjj; 

, chancellor, (F,-L.) 0,<mfe- 

Chalybeate* J- — Gfc/l Used of /*(*r - Late [- ace ra»rr/fari»m^ a cHftiiii 
wittr omtaiiiing iron. Cuiietl from I., 1 cellor; orig. an officer who stood neat the 
Jui^yb*St steel. — Crk. jc«*'W^ '^slera xaKvQ-., \ screen before the ji!i,1gnitnt'Seat,*i"L, tan- 
■steel ; named from the CAa/y^r, n people j rfi/t, a gritinff; see Cbanoel, CaooeL 
of PontiiSt who mnde it* I chancei7. tF. — L.) For 1 ^*iM*v/*y ■ 

Chamber. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. rAtim-\M,E. Muw.v/ifWIf, — O. F. thaiiteiUrif.,^ 
hre; Fiov. {^ambra. — X^. catiUra^ ^amam, l^te 1- ^att^fllaria, the record-room of a 

a v^ult, vaulted room, room. — Gk* *a^apo, 
a vaulted place, 

ohuaberlain. (F,-O.H,G,-L.- 

I j k . ) F. c/iajfi^fr/a in , O. F- chamhirUftc. --■ 

fitNcel/'fr/us ] ^e ObaoeeUor. 

Chandelier, 'J.-L^ O.r, tM^tm/e- 
ftW, a. cancUeholder. -^ Ijile l« caH^* 
idrius, in. ; cf. iMfitii'IuHfT. n cantUe*'Stiek. 

O. (!. tj. ihnmeriifw, M, If.G. kameriin<\ ; — L. catufilAi ace C*jidle. 

one who has the c-ire of rooms^ formetl 
with suffix 'l-ifh i^the aame as E. i-htg^^ , 
from 1.. camfrii (aboTc)- 

Chameleon. i.L.-Gk.^ L, f A^ffr^- 

/f!-<7/(.*lTb:. \a/m(>.\fa»', lit. K grotUld-Uon, 
ilwAff-tion ; a kind of li^ard>-Gk, x*»^'' 
on llie ground ; also dwarf, in comp, j ; and 
xiftiy^ Moa. Cf. I. httmJ, on the ground. 

GhanLomile. i^teL, »Gkj [ai« 

I,. fawamtVa ^//mwi?wjV/fl). - Gk, x'V*'^- 
^T^Aof. III. groHnd-apple, from the apple- 
like smell i>f the flower. — Gk. x°!^~i °^ 
the ground (sec abovt-") ; >j^A.(H'/ apple. 
Cluumoia. (F. - G.} Y. cliamoii; 
borrowed from gome Swiss dialectal form ; 
cf, Piedmontese t/rwwja. — M. l\. Q, gamz 
(for \^'iffiu:), n chamois (G. ^emxi}, 
Chftmp, :o eat noiiily. (,Ej Formerly 
'aw Of ^hantm ; of iiuitfltive origin, like 
w, to crush. Cf. Swed. <lial. -fjwjff, to 
ew with ulifficnHy. 

Champagne, (F. - 1..^ A wme 

chandler. {F. — L,^ 0>F,tAa>ivv/wr, 
a chandler. » Late l.« catreiriiirim, % 
candie^seUer. — L. aiudfla ■ sec Candle. 
Der. cent-chaiuUer^ where ckfxmihr merely 
means selltT, de;^!er. 

Change, vh. (F. - L. ' O. F, fAtiHgif\ 
irAfl/rjTiT,— I-tIc L, 'TambiarCj to change 
(LesL Salien . — L. iamltrt, to exchange. 
Cf, Late L, fiiW'rwwjT. exchange J whctice 
F, €hangt, E, change^ »b, 

Channel, ^f. — L.) M, E. £hauil, 

£aiuL — 0.¥, i-hnnety cfirn'l, a canal. «•!.. 
ace canii/em ; see Oac»1. 

Chant* F. — !-•) F- chatttSTr vb.— L. 
mntiirtf to Bine ; frequent, of cane/r^ to 
sing. Der. f^d/r/ ^7, M. E, rhauut^rif^ 
Late L. *<ini'lriii ; ih^mti-d^r^ M, E, 
chautiie cltfr^ clear-«iug)ng. 

Chaos* (Gk ) L, ^^i^i'j', Lat. spelling 
of Gk. x"'<^f> chaos, abyi^, lit 3 clelt, Cf. 
Gk. -j^iitTKttVj to ga])e« See Chaam. 

Chap i>. to clearc. ctack. ^K,' M. K. 





p KVOtiiiJ m^de !>} n utU. E, Fries- kiippttt^ 
\^ cut ; iidI fcittm! in A. tJ.+ M. Utt, kitpf^u^ 
10 cut ; Swcd. kappa^ Dan. **yvv, to cul ; 
(.;. kapp<n, 10 cut, loi». *Set Chop i,i , 

Chapel. F.-L. O. K, (haptie.^ 
IjIc L. AojppiiU, on^, n *hirinc tft \*hich 
wit- preserved iLe nipii or cope ftf iir 
Martin (Uca^jheO. — LAlt L. nf/S3, *tippa, 
gfljie, hcMidcd clontc ; sec Ofiptt fi ;. 

Ckapenm . ( F . - L. ;; Fp ihafvren , a 
I»rotcclor ; orig. ft kliid cf h^xxl.— K. ihapt, 
a cc^pc. — Laic L. ^^f/u ; u above. 

GlLapitM« the capital of n cutuitm. 
\ t . — 1 O, F. ikit/tfti^ usiuiUy a chaiHvr 
or a ho^k« but represeikling L, iapituhtw, 
w)iXc\\ ittcutt ' ^bapilej' * u well us 
' chsplcT.' Jicc Ch&ptar. 

Cliaplet. \Y*- L, M. L< <hap£tcL'^ 
O, F- i'uipeUt^ a bcad-drc^^ wreath. — 
tJ. I", ikapei^ head-drcsa. — O- F. ^^i/f, a 
i.O|.ic ^ bcc CbApi@ro&. 

Cliapm&Xif a merchant. ; E.) The 
faniiHar .//.t/ is murt-ly tiliort (at t/tupman, 
— A. S^ itTiipf/tarif a. mfichant,— A. S. (iitp, 
ltn:t:, IjattfT (itc Cheapi ; and /ftan^TDUi. 

Ch»p>^ ChopB, the JAWS. (E,) A 
Ulc wuril, of unliiHmu orii^in; (wssibb' 
(torn Chap . r . ^ Tcrhftps suggested by 
North 1'.- ihajf^ oi ihaffs, jaws (Cleveland 
t-iloss-). — Iccl. i^japlr {fii proa. Jis ft), iht 
liw ; i?W(M!. *£>/C, Uan. hitf/t, jaw. 

CbftptfiPp n Oivisiuii of a book, synod 
(jf t;lcrgy- i^ I' - — L.) M , E. chapitrCfin both 
ven&ct.o t. yhfspiin, vatiatii of hii older 
fprm *hnpiiie, — L. titpiiu/tim, a chapter 
of a book ililllc heajtii; alsti, in Late L.^ 
» M-ntjdj diitim. qI caput , n head, 

CnUbT .1.:. £1 turn of work. (t£.; Also 

urjg. a turn, hcDcc* A ti|>ace o[ tirtie, turn 
of xiotky Arc — A. S, rer?- (bcJow). Hetic*. 
(har-iiifmait, & woouui i«'ho iIocb a turti of 
work. Sec AJur, 

luiii of work, ;lil,'l M. F. ihcrren^ iJ^ar- 
rrn, to turn ; A.S. etrran^ lo turn. — A. S. 
rt/r ,(/>/A *>''i^). a lufti. % The sense 
' burn ' i*. Uier than the ftppcarnuce of the 
nil. thart&U. 
CliaT (-l^ 0^ (iisii. (CJ) Oftinknown 
on^'in; ixrrhnpK tiDmod frouj it* red belly 
[the W. iiiuiie U, torgdch, reil-bellicd, from 
fcr, belly, ami £<xh, red].— O^ Gael, ttora, 
T*-ri, from ifrtr, blood; Irir>h crffl/", redj 
alio bloc.l 

Character. ,L*-i^k. L.juuaitff- 

— Gk. xapavT^p, an cii^rnvcd or slumped 
m.irk— Ilk. \af>ao<juv^ to fiurow, Miralch . 

Charade. (F.-IVov.) Y. ^katatfc^ 
latToduced fn.>ni rro\'ui^al (hartttdiif n 
loa^ talk, from charta. to cbdlter ^Supp. 
(o Littrc) ; cf, Lanuui-'tiM; iJ/iirmdi-, idle 
Iftlk. Cf. &ho 8pnir< i/iotfiii/at speech or 
actioH of a down, from Hpua. ehttrfff » 
clown, ].>ca^Jil. 

Chaf coal. (Y..) ¥xwa ikar and toaii 
but Ihe »»iic of that remains unknown ; 
tome refer it lo M. 1^ ,.ha t^tt^ to titni (as 
if to I urn to cual , Wt I here is no ^jrvuf 
of ihU. Sec char \2), 

Cluurge. (.K.-C'O F. t/iitr^'tti\ \a 
loftd.— Latf L. carr-ihtft, lo load n tai.— 
L. larrusj a car, a GnuU^ word; ¥ce 
Onrkr CfkT. Der. ihar^'trt A dish ox horsci 
bocaui* ettrrying r burden. 

cbaHot. ;,F.-L\} V. chariot, JkWg- 
meiitrtlivt uf F\ tAtfr, a car, — !-, turrttj, a 
CUT ; >crc Car. 

ClL&rit?. iF,-l«i O.F, fhariut.^ 

L. auc. karitdumy luvc.wL, rrfruy^ dear. 
Urtigtn. i. J 637. % Not aUitd lo Ck. 

Charlatan. 1*' . - Itnl.) K. sharkt^tn, 

— UaL Mittj/uhi/iat a inouDtebAitk, yrcat 
talker, ]naUler,'»-Ital. tiarfart, to prattle ; 
i^'iar/a, prnltle ; prob. of imitative origin. 

Charlookt a. kind of wild mubiard. 
(E,) \'tv\\ F. iitriotk. - A.S. fCf^fV; 
origin QDknown. 

ClLBrBl. . F. — K) M, F. ihnrmtt »b, 
•■O. 1-, iharittc, aji encbAntmeut. — L. rdi^' 
wd/r^ fi soni^t ^nchanlmeiit. 

ChaxiLel. V F. - L.> Tf operly ah adj, ; 
containing <:a^ca»«, as iti iharml-ftomc.^ 
O, F. chanifi, atij. carnal; as s!>. a t'vtnt- 
tcry. — Late L, fflr«if/i:*, ^luiscJ by^J^iArtJ 
(fieab-housei ; WrightAVUlker, \oc. 184. 

Chart. I F. - U - Uk.) O. F. i-^^rr/-', 

— L. cAarfa, A |Aper, — Gk. x^^'7* ° ^^^^ 
of pn per. Doublat, i ani \^ i ). 

charter. U'^ - '- - tik) M, E. 
chartfC^O. F. tAar/rrf. — Late L. cariuia, 
a Etmall |>a(?er or document, — L. f-^irr/a, a 
paper ; sec above. 

Chary, careful, cautious. lE.) M, £, 
ihat-i. A.S. iitiri^i^, fuU of care< ud* — 
A.S. i£aru^ tiint, care.«i^Du. kaHg, G. 
kitr^t sparini;. Ch^ry Bicaol (l , Morrowfut, 

jihccdfuk Sec C*ro- 

Chase ^ia to hunt Aficr. ^^F.-Lj 



-^ L- /inc, a oottvc 

ila iBuntttve word; 
fittwaiUc; dbaOei. Sved. 

F.-L.; ¥,ekii4Mt.<X^. 

w L- tmiitJhim, dimin. of c^Mirxm, 
plaee. Dor, cttstiU-itn ; also 
for wfaich ipcc Cwtle. 

/K.-U* Ft of M.IL 
.^MrC imot T, Also CfttlJe, ->0. F. tkaU/, 

^1 X'.wih F. xnit!^ property 
Chatter : iec Ch&t. 

I . x^. Tbc r i« iiuflted hj ooofosioD wilh 
K* tkamdrtH^ a cmldron. — O. K. tkAttdun, 
oUcr fomu mWiui, r«j^wn, entruli 

froa Mid. Low G. kaidmn, the lajae.] 
TViaghl to be from Late L. ^aidurui, 
m £sh contjuning eninils (Ddcaitgel. Pct' 
1mm from L. taifdas, m^im (K. (hand . 

Cb&wi3, t»y-form of Jftwi ; see JftW. 

CJne&Pt ^^ ^ '*^*^ pric? ; orig. a. sb, (£.'; 
M,E. *-^r'^^. bartef. price; »Iw*7* « 
«b- Henoe, gwxi chtap^ in a good laukeT 

M ui ftdj- A. S. f^/, price; wLrnce the 
verb ifa^iaa, ta cheapen, buy. So aUo 
k^4fpen, to buy ; G, 

ii vi^ old* The ori(. 
of fAfr-^ «M-lciac"Le.iBiiKl tfae klic 

kfae, fciBi; At am; «lieoee ^Asi-J*?. 
cfaeck.Mte. fit. ' the b^ 
Anb. jmT, ht K dttd Sutsriy we k««c 
F. ^iw, ft ckcx^, BCfMlK; defeM, pL ^1m, 
ItaJ. M«cii^ ■ iuBMi of a elK»- 
m2» m cbedt. defe«i. See «!«« 
% Drrk fliewY ihftt O, F. tsrhee 
w ef ttiUlU Ax^i. e^ktMig-^ vbem cat ■» 
far flT, the de£ art., wd #^^ k the AmU 
pniiL ofP«n. «MA. 

to mark iirith 
if'.-VvtC To Biifc with 
«miT«lBcelhvne<iiiach0»'baaKL M. E. 
cMtkktr, fitken, m ehe» lM»irf. (Hence 
7I5 CJkfiin,ui ■ii-i^)*O.F. uritf^ 
fKKT, a dt^bnid, al», ao odienia; 
« Low L. fcaftaHmM, a clie«*-bop]v. «« 
XjUfW L uotci, cben, pi of fcmrrtiSj fn*n 
the Arab, form of Perv :fj|tf4, kinp. 

elMOkMrS, ekMOASS, ma JId name 
for tbegameatdimjigliU: bomthc^iftitf 
or ehett-b^ard ; lec aboire. 

clLeck*llLAte. F. — Fen. a/kf Atab.) 
From Arab, ^skdg-mat, for jhdA'maty the 
kin^ IS 4lead ; tee Cheek. 

luieqUA. 'F. - Pcrv) A pedaotk 

cpelling of eJuek^ frooi confusion with 

I exckeqittr ; it tf realty a name given to ■ 

draXt for laooef. of which 00c keep* a 

memomidiun or cotmt^'tAiek. 

elMOfft^l^c gaoK of tbc kio^ (F.^ 
Per*,) iLquivalcBt to fketki, i.e. kinga; 
iec Chsok above. *0, F^ tHka, cbos ; 
really the pi. of tJiket^ check, orig. ' king* 
% From Pers. MJi, a king, were formed 
O. F- tMcAi(, F. ^(f*/£, E, Mrti, Hal. uatto. 
Span. xisqtUyJaiptf, Port. ;r&^ttf, G, itAdfA, 
Da. sekoik. Dan. J^to/. Swed. scMack, 


T>a. 4(M»/, a barga^m 

Swed. Mop, Dan- A«^, a pu^ba*e ; GotL Low Lai. iikim fciuc<jratm - game 
kaufa*i ' ueak vL ^ lo trafTic, ^ Some cSrckv "r urkb4,'> 
»ay thai ihcK word« arc bont^wed from Ch««k. K > M.E, r4«lf, Mr^Ar 






tk, jiWf chei^k ; Swed. ktth^ Jaw. 
.C1l#^* (.F, — U* M. K. fhtfV^ arig. 
tte mien; htnce, *io be of good <^?/"/ 

— O. K. chcn, the &(£■. —Lftte L. rnru, 
hkce. rKclMioniTiip toGk. ttapa^ the head, 
U ffoubiful.) "Dfft, fhifr-fuf. 

Clie^ie. (1-.) M. t. <'A*r/f. O. Merc, 
^yjr lA. S. ff«, for earlicT *ct£seK*f/asi^ * 
with i-muUtiou ; prehistoric A.S. •iT^j/ 
< *^Asiat, ^ L. faiem, cheese -, whence 
other forms (G, jtuj^, Du, kaoi] are bor- 
rowed, Sievcr^, jnd H, ( 75 *- 

Cheflta, Clieetah, the himiini; leo* 
l^id, a ]ropni~<l iLi$o^ Ini the chase. (Hii^d. 
-^kt.) Iluid. Mffff. -Skt. chitmka, a 
chcttA; from chifra, spotied, also visi- 
ble, clear. — SkL cAiV, to perceive. See 

Chemise* (f**- — 1- 1 ^- (hemisf. — 
L.ate L. camisia, a *h]rt, thm dfe&s ; 
whence O. Irish iaimmu, shirt 1 Stokes). 

Cbcmi^, Clisrniist; ^o^ lor a/- 

ih^ndif', st'c Alohemy. 

Cheque, Chec|uer; sec Check. 

Cherish, i . - I 1 (X F. (htris-^ 
tfcni ot fiTtfs. pi. di ckerir^ lohotd dear.— 
K. rArr^ dear. — L. (drui^ dear. 

CheiTOOti * cigar. (TnmiL) Tamil 
ihtirHttu^ a roU ; hencd a roll of tobacco 

Cherry. ;K.-L.-Gk,; M. E.rA*r»", a 
mistake loi chtris^ the Anal jr being mis- 
taken for the i»l. inflexion.— O. North F. 
(herisi^ O. F. f^md; repmenliog Kolk- 
L. *eertmi^ *rfrej£ii.^ L cfrasuj, a chenr- 
trec;_Gk. rf^paffot, a chcrry-lreej usually 
tajd to come from C^cscs, in Pontua ; 
A stoty which Curtins doubts, 

Chtftf n kind ofaiuru. (!) Unknown. 
Cf. Irish ceari, a pebble. 

Cherub . ' Heb.) The true pi . is ik(r$th- 
im — lUb, k'rftv ipL -*Viff7«), (i mystic 

CherrUj a plnnL CL,-Gk.> A,.S.«r- 
_fitit. — L fhtircphyiia, pi. QichttrtphyHMm, 

— (_tk. ;(-iu/i<<^bf^Aoi', chcnril, lit. pleount 
Icaf.-Gk. x**^^!!-, lo rejoice; ^»»AXffi'» 

Chew ; !>ce Ch«ok. 

ChftBt. J^ - Cik. 1 M . E. rfttstt, {hisie. 
A..S ,ij.v, — 1>, nsta.^GV. itiarrj, a chest, 
box i;\(hcm:r (.,*. kthf/, Ji:c.)» 

Chestnut, Cbetant* (F,-L.-Gk.i 

Cfusitttt is shorl for rhet/uu/^ which is 
^nri for ehetfrn-uitf. nut of the ^fHitfH, 
vr^hicli i» the old name of tht tree, ciUtd 

rii/f/i3r|c"f)>«* L» (aitan-ta, chrstnut-lrrc. •> 
Gk. ^narni'OFt a chestnut. Chestnmta are 
said CO have been called ttkoTtx¥n, m mapva 
KarrfQvma, from Kii«rra»^, CaMajja, the: 
name of a city in Ponttia where they 
abocnded; but more probably from Armen. 
kajkern't m. che^tnul-tfcCj fiom Jtoili, a chest* 
nm Klnctf . 

CheT^-de-M«e, an obstruction with 
spikei. iF.) *huracof Friciland/ n 
jocolsr name; the pi. <7jrt«jwjr-i/df-/r»« is 
commoner. See below, 

chevalier. ( F, - 1*) F* cAwa/ifr, a 
ho^^t.■man. — t, chtvalj a horse.- K, frt- 
fniiittHt, Qci:. of {Ahaiius, a hone. 

Cheveril, kid leather. rF,-L.> O.r. 
chevrtie^ fem.j a Itllle kid. Dimin. of 
O.F* chevTf^ F. ik^r^^ a ^, kid. — I.. 

Chewen, -in onlina^, itTberpldry, te j 

aerablmjir ivm rafters of a boQie. (F. — L.*) 
(%!ost likely meant to fepTcseiit the &iddle- 
peak. — F. f if ATim, *akid, a chevron in 
building, a rafter;' Cot. Augmentative 
form iA fkevrt^ a she-goat. — L. mpra^ a 
she-goat; see Caper (i„ Cf. L* (nfirt- 
oiui, vvhicli likewise cncaui a j^rop. 
Chew, Chaw. K^.\ M.K. rJini*an. 
A. S. (?tni»an, to chew. eat.'^DU' haituwtHX 
ti, k<iHeH \ O. H. G.ifHKViM : Rus^.yrt«/rf. 
Cf. also Itel* fyg^J^i fyg^h w i^hcw 


ChiheUk, ■ TurLiah pljic. (Twrk*i 
Turk, ihilniki fhybiiky a ^tick. tube, pipe 
(ZenL:cr, |>. ,149.- 

Chioaaery. ^T.-PcrJ) f. fAiVa- 
Htric^ wrangfing;, pettifogging; Cot, — F- 
fkii'atur, to wTnoglc ; ortg, to dii&pttte in 
the game of the mall or ihnane (Bmchet . 
Perhaps from the medieval Gk. r^vKAtntm^ 
a H-ord of ftyuuitine origin (id.j ; from 
Per;;. ckaMg^dHt a club. bat. 

Chichen. EO Sometimes shortenc^l 
tn ihiik ; but the M. E. word Is cMkitt, 
A, b. i-MCffr, earlier ^dmcim* + I>u* kithen, 
kuiAtn, a chicken. Low G. ktikett; cf. (p. 
iitfA/einy a chicken, Icel. kjaklmg^ SMrcd. 
i^ikHrtg ; related lo Cook, which uiewi the 
weak grade *cu(- ; sec Cook (l). Sieven, 
2nd eil. 4 f^S- 

Chicory, * plant, succory. (;F,-L.- 
Gk.'i \\ ikii&rde.^l., fiV^^nwiw. — Gk, 
ct^Djpfn, neut. pi. ; al&Q mxwpif>^, ^*X^Pf> 
snccoiy. p. Suagry i% a corrupter form 
of the worH» apparently for iia9ry or 
tiihoiy^ from L. iuk^iutHn 




to chldCi brawl ; pi. t. adifr 

Ckl«£ <K 

on<l Oiyirjitng of/*. 


K. r^/, f A/^, (lie hutl. •* L. 1^1% 

j/uat Ifal. -'(/^ . — },. f-ftjfmf, lira«)' 

it. k€f ihief, fj. V. 

— J.itc 1.. tiif>iiJneHi,tapHanut, m chjiUui. 
— !. (j^i/ from .v;/tf/, d head. 
Cbilfoiiitr, ^ LtitilxArd. (F.; Ul. a 

(lickcr, iIao a cupboard.— iC^/^jv, ang- 

ddgaail' F. 'I,,. lUir twuted; 

another ■jJclUng uf K f^cZ/r^r/f. a link.— 
K. rJtafnf, O. K. ekaiat, a chain. —L. t^a- 

M.K^ ckif^<kii/.^\ ChlncluIlA, a seaU roAttA taiinal 


ChiW, K M. 

Tent, lyp** *ktiJ*om, 
thti, \Ytt woml>. 

B. A /'/ai'tt caased by 

ficut ; cf. 

A.S. ciki. 
Goth, *//- 

fJrig. a sb. A. ^i. 

Teul. lypc *kiilh, 
»b. ; from *kaI-aN, to l>e cold, as in A. S. 
(ij/'iu. Ui !*"C(iM, Ictl. i'li/rt, to freeze. + 

C>im«, ib. (K, - I.. - (ik.) M. E. 
Jiimbf, of whkh the **fifi. kensc was cym- 
bal ; hfiic-* the chime or riiigitij^ nf a cym- 
hal. Shartcned from O, F. rhimhale, dia^ 
lectal farm «)r O. V, iff/iki/f, a cymbal. — 

iivhttihlookilikcA iKipuUr form {oTtymlni}, 
D*r. (hitttc, verb. 

i'^/vji^rd^ — (A, x'>*<'*P^' !^ bbC'jg^iat ; alio, 
a fahtilouii mmuter^ with a goais IxKly. — 
(ikn y'^/^^i, lie-L»oal. 

Chimney, (fr. -L, -Gk,) F. (htminh, 
'11 thiriiJKy;' Col. — Ijnte L, (iimiti4/a, 
|)rovklcLi%vhh ft chimney; beace, achimnc^ 
» L, iamitttii, an <3veu, a fire-place. 
**lvi»'"J. «vtrii, furnace, 

ChimvAnEee, nil n]>i?. I'Artiecin. I ^ni 
ludarHifLr tint lh«: iinruc ii tiimtanzee in 
llir iiiij^Mjourhtintl o( the gulf oM>utnea. 

Ohin. (K.) M.K. €hin. A.S. tm.'^ 
liu. irm, Iccl. kinn. Ilan. X-ir»/^ Swcd. 
>/«./; iJulh, kinnttt, the ihcek ; G. htiH, 
iiKin ; I., ^vwa, chctk i Gk, 7f>w, chtn ; 
cf. SkL AiiH/ti, jaw 

Ohinii. (. hiria. Short for *AmazfiJre. 
■ir Wftic fruin Chittn- The imnit of Ihc 
tfilo wris formerly i /iiHrify; wc have 
i[i|K-tl ilic Itiia] J, and iik ihinttt aa a 


(S^ttn. - L. i^paa. ^kimckiBa, tit. 'afillle 

bug,' ȣ if from tta sowU ; bat nndncTTedly 
su liamrd. p^ Scaa. chiiuh^^ a bog. — L. < J- 
miiim. itc. i>f f/*wj:. m bng. 

CllillcllOXlli; ike aasH as CincbotiA. 

Cluncoagll, wbomiiig-congb. .E.) 
Fur '^hink'>vugk\ c£ Scoldl kiMk-£smgk^ 
iiHk'koit kai/ meant r^u^^. A iitii is a 
catcb in the bfath. nasaUsed form of a 
bue *kikf to ga£p. ^I>u. £ifti/iMJ/i M, 
Tiu.JtJuihiheif; Swc6. kikkoita^ chincoagh» 
kikna, to gasp ; G. jl^^/c^fMr to gasp. 

ClliJie. C^^' - *^' H.G. O. F. ^frAiW ,F. 
4<hine , the bai^k-bone. — O.H.G. f<6iL;r4, a 
needle, prickle (G- schunt^ a tplicl). For 
the (cnse, cf. ll spma^ a thorn, spine, 

Clkillk ^ i), a cleft. ',E.; Fortned with 
iuffiaed k^ from the bate of M. £. chim, a 
glcft, rift. — A.S. tirtu, a chiak. — A.S. crH*, 
weak grade ofcma/t^ to split (Strang vbj. 
^Du. yfcfffff, a chink, al&o a grnn, a^m/w, 
to bud ; cf. G. hciwtu, fJoLh. kgttmH^ to 
bud. iGennLnaling seeds make a crack la 
the ^^ound.'i 

Cunk (21, toiiD^lie. \\\,! An imitative 
word; cf. dink^ ilattk^ and see Ohin< 
cou^b, K, Fries, kinbftt \a jitroDg vb.^ ; 
M, Dan. kinke. 

Cbiiiti, (Hindustani -Skt) Fot^MhIs, 
pi. offAjM/. MiDrl. ^kkJsit, spotted cotton 
cloth, named from the variegated patterns 
on tl ; thhU, cbinti^, also a spot.— Ski. 
tAi/fa, variegated, spAtled. SeeCheetA, 

Chip, vb. I K.; Related iwitb a light<-i' 
vowel) to fAafi (l) or cA^; rs if tg cut 
a little at a time- CA A. S. fir-ty^poJ^ 
glws lo prtutisns ^Lyc); E. Fries, kipf^tu 
to cut. 

Chirogiraphy, handwriting. (Gk.) 
Fruiij ijk. xti^o-^pQi^uv , to write with the 
hand. — Gk- \tt.^n-^ from )c*J/i, the haiid; 
ypdififitf, to write. Cf. tftito-maHfy. for- 
tDtic-telliug by Uie band; fAtfO'/yvt/'ist^ 
One who hiuidle& ^and care^< the feet. 

Chirp. (F.) Ahofkimtp. M, FrArV- 
/Vrt, Al*o Ni. E. fhirkfM, fhitmtn, to 
thifp* The forona ihir p^ ihirk^ ihir-m 
arc from an imitattve ba>e ; cf. Du kitttH, 

I 1(1 COfl. 

ChimrgttOIL, the old »pelliiiR uf f/rr- 

(ifWH- (F- — L — Gk.) F <.hirMr^i(tt. 
'a surgeon;* Cot, — F, <Airto£i^. »ur- 
ycry.^L. t^i/«r^itf,*»Gk. x"P'**'Fy*'^< a 



riting with iht hands, akill with the 
ids, ail, surgery, — Gk. x**fi^^ from 

ffiV, the hand ; anJ Ip7«ir, To work. 

Chii«L ( K. ^ L,T M , E. r Ai>/. - A. K. 
f^Xj/-/, U. F. fj>^/ (K. t-t's^aH\ Cf. I^ic L. 
€is4NuSf sciasofi (.A, U. l.ljii, 0. F. ns/I 
ansTwers to Late L. *<heUum, with the 
Sctttc of L, ittcriutn, a cnUing instrutn^nt 

^gctiusj ; see ScheUf's note to Die*.— 
*(ijiim, for iasum^ ^tipinc of ctteUKt, 
to cn( ; whence aUo Late L. imfSfir, a 
cuvcr, curiei ; see Cwiur*. 

CMt (I). a pert child. tE.) M.E.<^Ai>, 
a whelp, cqb, kitten. Allied to kii4ing 
(left. ker/injp')y and to kii-hn \ cf. G, *t/Vtf, 
ft ft-mAltr cat. 

Chit 131, a Khool, sprout. (E.) InHol- 
'land'a PlinVt jciii. 4. Perhaps allied to 
M^E. thiiki,^ sprout (N.E.D.)*- A. S. 
<'rtf, a germ, spEout. Cf. Goth. kein'Bm-, to 
proHncK a ^mit ; G, kdtft, a germ.. 

Oiivalry. (F--L.) M-E,fAni«/rw,-* 
U.F.i^Arr-twVrjVthoi^monship, knighthood* 
— F. thrval, a home. — Late h.iahailumj 
QiC. (if td/ht//tts, a horse. 

GUoiizi*, a pole green gas. (Gk.) 
Named from itscolotLr> — Gk. x'^^-^U P^^ 

chloi^ofoi^Sll. >.Gl£. ffWi/L.) The latter 
eletucEit rtiatts to/ifrm;y/ oiiKi/crmiL acid. 
Mil acid formerly oHaiac^ from red anti. — 
formudy an axiL. 

C&OOolAtef n ps3te made from cacao. 
(Span. ~ Mcx.) i>pan. tAofffitUf. — Mci. 
thocolati, chocolate ; Clavigero^ Hist. 
Mcx. i. 4-13. ^ Not flJUed lo (Qcaa. 

Choice. (F, - Tent.) Not E. M. EL 

»#H. - O. F, fh^is (F. ^AjfcT), - O. F. 
■»>, O. North F. <0isir, to cho<»e. Of 
Tctit. origin. — Goth, kaus/an^ to tt}^ 
lest; ctu&al of kiusan, (o choose. Sec 

Choir, tF.^L.-Gk.) The fAorr of a 
church is the part where the choir sit. 
Also ^x^^. quirt; M. R ftiiir, qutr.— 
O. F. n«r, later fAofwr, *Ehe qmire of a 
church, a iro'-'p of singers;* Cot. — L, 
cAfifNm, ace* of ihorus. a choir. — Gk. 
Xty^^ a dance^ a band of dancers or 
iifiijeri Sec Chorus. 

thf^ktH. A. "S, tAMi'an ; only in the dcri- 
VBtive dei^UH^. to translate L. mtainaJia, 
which the glusiislor hardly se<-mB to hav« 
undcntotKJ, nnrJ m the pp. d^^otf, iElfric, 
flotn. i. 116 : with change from ^ to ee, 
iborttqij»|[ of ^ to 6 In M. L.^ and suUc- 

(]ucnt lengthening. Cf. Icel. AakUi it 
gulij , ii-a*, the guild. 

CholeiTp the bile, auger- (F, -L Gfc.)' 

Anger wu rappoaed to be oue to exau of 
bile. M.E. «/*/-.— O.F. €Qiert.^\^,tkoUra^ 
bile ; also cholcrHr bilioQs complaint. — Gk. 
XoX^pd, chotera ; X'^'n* bile; X"o^or, bile, 
wrnth Sre 0*U. 

cholera. vl'-Ok.) \„ <h&Ura 

above. And see Mftlftnoboly. 

ChoOM* rKO M.E. f^fjrm, ihttsem, 
A. S. LvWdtt (also ceiian)i to choofc 
(pt. I- r/xj, «(ij), + D«. and G, kiesen, 
IceL i^i^Va, Goth, kiusatt; Teul> t>pc 
•*fi*/-tfrt'. AHicd to L- ^^-fart, to tastv, 
Gk. fwiQfuuj 1 tastCj Skt. >«M, to refcb* 
(VGLUS.) Sec Gii«t. bnigm. I. $ fioa. 

Chop i,()' t<> c^^: A I^ter form of 
Chap t^il. 

Chop <a), to barter. (E.) Piobably a 
variant of fkap, a. verb which wenis to 
hme btcii evoUed from the sb. (AapmaH. 

Chopine, n high-hcclcd shoe. \V.— 
Spmi., Li Hamlet, ii. i. 44^ ; iardtapitu* 
-O.F. ihapin; la^cr (Jttt//tt (CotglRVe)* 
— Span, thapitt, a. clog w ilh a corlc solc» 
WDinAti'fi slioe^ high cork shoe. Perhaps 
from Span. M«2A), a thin plate (of mclal), 
u»cd Ci> !tlren|;thcn the work it coven. 

Chops I see Cbtipa, 

Chord, (L. ^ GL) L. f-it^rc/a. - Gk. 
X(^^^« the 5trtt]g of a muitca.1 inatrument, 
orie> a string of {jul, Bmgm. i- \ 605. 
^ The sninc worH ils Cord. 

Choma. (I^— Gk.) L. i^A^rtfj, a band 
of tingci^^Gk. X'^*?^^' ^ ^ancCp a band of 
dancers or &ii}ger&. See Choir. Der^ 
tAer-a/, ihor*i-sUr, 

ChoTLgh, a bird, (E.) M» E. fkfijtt 
(kfiu^h. Not found in A.S., which ha& 
^howcTcrj the forms rfl?, ^i"i>, and the early 
fonn£ ciat, fkyar. Somewhat £imi1ar fonii» 
are seen in Du. Aaaitw, Dan. Jtaa^ Swed. 
kaja, a jackdaw. 

Choose, to cheat. (Turk. V> To act as a 
f house or cbeaL Ben Jonaon hA^fkimts in 
the senie of 'a Tmk,' wiih the implied 
senM of 'cheat*; Alchemiit, i. i. The 
allu&ion la alleged (o be lo a Turkish 
fkmus or interpreter, who committed a 
notorious fiand in i6D<^~Tiirk. (hstuh, 
a »rgeajil, macc'^ bearer, PaEmcr's Pert. 
Did. ; tkavmshf a aetfeanl, herald, mes- 
senger, Rich, Diet p. s^. Or (medU 
ately) from M, Ital. ^iam. 
ChrlBtn I Rec bdow. 
Chrufei tht: anoipteil one. (L.~Gk.) 







nnuinled. — (^k. x^Ew, I rvb, aj]oim. Per. 

Chrisltait, Christ- gsttiem, &c. ; Chtist- 

ias {^^ Maaa i anfi christ, opponent of 

\\x\%i from Gk- ofW, against; sec 

r juhii U. iS). 

chjrism, holy iinctioD. (L. — Gk.) 
Also spelt iknscme, wheooe chrij^mc-fhiid. 
It child Wi*aritig a chrisartte-thikt or cloth 
which a child wore after holy unction ; cf, 
O. K. irtsmi^ * the crJioms. or oylc ; ' Cot. 
— Lale L. ^hrisma^ holy oil. — Gk. xplsfta, 
an un^utfnUintik. xp^^ (^ above). 

OkrOnL^tiCi rc^lAtiug to colours. (^^0 
iJk. ;^>wfiir(MiJt, adj.^Gk. x^i'^o^'^i^ stem 
of .Ypi^;ia, colour: nUied lo Xfi^, skin. 

oktome, chrominm. ^Gk.) A 

iR^tal ; its compounds exhibit bCAiitiful 
colours. »(jk. )(^pwft~aj colour. 
Chronicle* (t^ -Lale L.-Gk,) M.E. 
fiviiLii, with iusertefl f\ also avrti^e, 
yj/Vjjuf, — A, F. ^rom'ckl O. F. croftii^mt, 
rsittii^uii, chronicles, nnnah. •- Late L. 
fkroniia, fern, sing,; ft>r neut, pi.— 
Gk. x^o**'*!") P^M annals. ^Gk. XP'**'**^*'^- 
Aij. from xplv^t, tliiie. Der. thton k 

chronology, science of dalM. (Ck,) 
FroiG x/''i*'o*f- ^i™*^ -Aoya, from ^^7-«, 
discourse ; &c^ liOgic, 

ChrOnOmotorp tiine-iDfra&urcr. (GkO 
From xf^^^'^'^i time; ^ir^ov^ iiiL'tiJure; &cc 

ChtysaliSi the Jono taken by some 
iij'secla. (Gk.) Gk, XP"^"^^*-"! '■^^ gold' 
coloured sheath of butler Hieij chrysali*. — 
Gk* xpyff-uf, f^old. 

ohryS^nthQixiiiu, n flower. CL- 

^tfiof^ a marigold,— Gk. xP^'^^t t'^ld ; 
&v$ifiQr, A bloom^ from dy9€ttf^ to blooni, 
related to 6i'&os, a flavver, a bud. 

chrysolite, n yellow stome, (F. — L. 
-Gk.j O. K, <fisoiiU,^\.. rhtys&iitMus, 
Kcv. xxl. 90. — Gk. x/ivffuXiffw. — Gk. 
;^ptr)7u^f, gold ; )u*of, stone. 

chTTJloprftie. CL.-Gk.) \..(htyso- 

fftiius, Kev. xAi. 20. -i-Gk. x/'Worpoffo*, a 

ycllow-gfcen &tone. — Gk. xp"*""^! fioM; 

■wpi<to\\ A igTMO) l«k. 

Chuht a fish. \V.) Klj-m. unknown. 

Ohuok (])< 1<J iUikc ^'eiiLly. to^i 

Tcut.) Formefly wrilteit -A^-t (Turber- 

ville). » 1*'. choquer^ to give ft shocks jolt. — 

I>u. sr/ioHvn, lo jolt, shake ^ allied to IC, 

sActi' and shaki. 

Chuck u}, lo chuck as a hen. v^! 

Aq imitative word ; Chi hfi^ ^pAfiJ^ lo ex 

pre^ Ibc Qoisc made bv a cock ; C. T. 

15180 (U. 3464^, Cf,<^/iv/*. 'D^t.ihttfk'/t, 

in the sense Mo clutk " 

Chuck (3), a chicken. A v»ri«ly 

ihiik, (or chit'kitt. See ilbo\'fe. 

Chuckle. <:L. I To <htuUe i& to lau^h 

in n siijhjircised way? cL Chuok \3'. 

Chniap, a log. (E.) Cf. Swril, iltfll. 
I'uuipa, to chop into logs ; iuM/^m^', a 
log, round stick ; also Icel. Im/thr, trC- 
htmff}\ a log of wood, from Ictl. htmh\ 
nasalised form of kttbltr, a diop[iin^; 
Jccl. kubha, to chop. Der, (hump-cud, 
i. e. thick end. 

Church. tGk.) M.K.<^/fm^^,(7//r'Cc^^f. 
A, S. tirUi* later a>rr; (cf. lecl. Hrtijk ; 
G kirche^ Du. Arr*). — Gk. wnfpiojuii'j k 
church, neut. of jrupiacyt, belongtnj^ lo 
the Lord j or (possibly) from Ck. *u/Biwja, 
pl.^ treated as a fern, sing, — Gk. xvpiw, 
a lord, orig. mifjhiy. — Gk. nv^i, strcuj^tli. 
Cf* Ski. fi7riT, a hero. 

Churl. (E.) M. E. , 4*r/. f A«/7. A.S. 
frpr/, a man. Hh Du. kcreJ^ G. -frtfWj Dan. 
Sw. Iccl. kitrl. Tent. ly]>es, *kcrioit 

ChiUlt, «b. (H.) A. S. ffr/M ; older 
form iin'n (printed rirm\ Corp. gloss. 
t86i5. 4' led. ki'n/a, Sweil. I'rtn/a, Dan. 
kicrfKt a chum; cf. O, Swctl, ^'ertm, 
Swcd. i-arna, Dan. kiirttt, to chum, Du, 
k^rnen-, lo chum. 

Chutney* Chutuy, ^ kind of hot 

rtHsh. iHlnd.l Hind. ^ftcUni (Vule). 

Chyle, milk) fluid. (F.lL.-Gk.) K 
rAjc/if. — L. i-Af/iu. * Gk. x^A^s, }uii:e;.M 
Gk. xi^ (.^X*f-o')f I pour. (VGHEU.) 
Chyin«r liqi^it] pulp- (L.-Gk.) For- 
merly fA^wKj. — J^, fiir/z/f tf r, «« Gk. Xv/'tfr, 
juioe. -Gk, x^'*; as above. 

Chymist i &^ Alchemist. 

Cf. Dan, ^0&if, u scalj |>rov,.Swed. tu&bft^^ Cic&trice, scar, (I*.— 1») V.tkatric£. 
chuhby, fat ; Norw. kahhtn^ stumpy \\ <-!..( /. ufncem^ ace. of rictitrLt, & acar, 
^wcd. kuh^, a block, log. Thi& docs not 1 Cicerone. ..Ual, — L.) llaLfiVr^pn^, a 
explain the cA ; bnt see Cbump. guide; urig.a Cicero.^L. acc- C<V^/vwfw. 

chubby, fal. iK,) Lit. 'likeachub;' ' propr name, 
cf. I'lov. :>vicd. ktti>i*ttg (ubvve;. Cut, lit. a chief or commuidei:. ^bptu, 



V^ually n tiUc oi Ku)- Uia£. 
EiattoniLL hcitf of Spaiu. — Amb. myyid, 
loftl ; Kichardson's Diet- p. ^4. 

Cider. (K. - L. - Gk. ^ Hel.) li 

merely means strong drink. M. E. iktrn 
fjrdtr.^Y. iUrt\ O. F, rt^i/rrf [for ^iisris, 
— L. sieem . ~ (J L oijTf jpa, stiong d 1 i n k . ^ 
Htb. ihekdr^ slfOJig drink.— 1 Tel*. jrArfirfr, 
lo be imoxicAtfld, 
CieliiLg; »cc C»ll. 

Cigar, Se^l^. ^Spjui ; ispm. ryfnrrp ; 

Cinohous, I'tntvimi bark. (^p«n.} 
Nnnitil aller the Countcfci of ChiHihotft 
wife of LLc goverrioi gf Pem, cured Ly it 
A-1'- 163S. (Jhjnclioti IS S.L. of MAdriii. 
(Shott]dl l< ikittih^Ha.) 

Cinctnrd. 1 1,) L, a>r^/frra, a gkdlc, 

Cindex', (E.) MUspclt for jiWrr <li)' 

we Oiucr&ry). A.S. simftr^ • storia/ slag. 
4- led. iinJr\ Swed. simhr \ G. iiiiitr ^ 
iliu^a, \k litnet FHi, iintfh, cinders. ^ The 
A. J>. ,um^ft occurs iti tbc Sih ccftturjs 

Cineru^, rclAtiitg lu the osbes t>f Iht^ 
tteacl ^L.l L. dntTiiritu. — L- fiW**, 
»i'.cm [tf (imj, dniti iL!tbc» of the (^eftd.^- 
lilf. *ticif, duit. Der. litttrarta, a flower ; 
named frum the fl&h-culubrtd dov-n on thu 
l.iives- Urtigm. i. 5 *^4- 

CiAnftbnr, Cisioper. ;,L,-Gk.- 
Tei^. L. <iftnnbans. — Gk. wirfuAipii 
icimilion, tiQin IVrs, linji/rah^ Hnjar/] 
led Irnd, vcnndjaii, citina1>ar. 

CumAmoai a spice. (L. - Uk. - Hcb.' 

jgiMthimim; said to be of Mnlay orifiip 
llUesenius. Cf. Malay '1'«jkh maNist cinna- 
mon ; from hffjM, wchkI, matiis, sweet. 

Cipher, (K. - Spwi, - Arab,) O. K 
<t/>f IK. tAx^rrX a. cijiber, uto, — Spaon 
i^i/rfl— Afflb, /{/r, rt dphtr; lit. ' cuijily 
lUin(j ; ' from jt/r, adj. einiity ; Kjdi. iJici- 
r- 937' CA trmnaUtion of Skt, futtya. (I) 
empty; (a) a eipher.) Der. iU-tiphtr^ 
from L, d^, J!i the vcrl^l sense of vn*, and 
<ipher\ ct M. V.dtihi^tr^ 'todcevpher;' 

Circle, (F.-LO A.S. Wrfv/j bin M,E. 

(■//(■/if, — I*, f<rrf/r — L. tifxtiim^ dimin. of 

tiriuu a ring, circle ; ^c Biug {iV Der. 

rmdrclf, icmi^iinU ^ and set- tiratm: 

circus, 1 ring. (L.) L. f/«*ifc* (above u 

CirOttit. (F.-t> F. rrVrwiV. - K 
ftcc. fircmfftm, a goijsg Tonrid,— L, riV- 
iHiluSi aUo iinuwtruj, pp. i>f unHmire 

\fiXio ffViW/>v)» to go iwimd. wL. ^iniiHu 
rt>upd ; /r<, l© go, 

GirClUll'f /r^j, ruimJ. (1.) 1..] 
f$rrum, jirouud, round; ori|;. sec <ifj 
arcuj, a circle ; see Cirole. Der citfum' 

{hcc Aiuble} ; and &n; below, 

pp. af iirtUfHiiJeit^ tu cut rounds « L*| 
(inum^ Tound ; ajid i-trdrtr, to cut. 

circiu&f&ro&ce. ii~ ' L. dimm- 

yi/rw/rtT, btiuniJaiy of a cudtr-— L timtm- 
/erctrt*^ stem of pits. pi. Glt^nvtU'/rrrtf lo^ 
cam Tonnd ; fjom /<rfrf» to Uor. 

mmfifJiQ, a s^Ilnble marked with a trir- 
cmiitlcK 1^*) or ' betit ' inuk^— L. dnttm 
JtfjcttSf i>]\ of (ir<ffm-jie*itre^ to bend 
jound ; itum^iit^rt y to bond. 

circm^j&cent* lying ncnr, (U> 

FroDi slem of ]>^L'^. part o\ iirium^iadir^ 
to lie around : fium I'a^crt, to lie. 

circumlocutioiL. i-) I» dtxHtH* 

hxittiif^ a i_»criplifasis.— 1-. nrfttmf^tttttiy 
pp. ofcmvimVdjfl/, ta 5i>rak in a round- 
flbiiul v-ny ; from AywF, io speak. 

cirotuii«cribe. (L.) L. atrtrttt- 

unhfi^ lo write or draw aruund* to limit, 
Tfniin sifibcre, lowrilc. 

circumspect, prudcnL <V^ 1.. <7K< 
ttiWi/'e*'tits, pr'udcnt i i>rig- pp. of ttti'itm- 
ipkae. to look flToiitid; from spefcrt, to 

oircuniBtaiice. (1' . ~ L.; Adnj >tcd 
ffoju O. J" . fir, ciHsfiittie. — I., rir<,-tittnta.uiitt^ 
lit. a binndtjig Around^ also nn ntlribuu-, 
circum&LoxLce ^influenced by Y , (ifam^ 
j/ff/r.'i , — L. iirnttftsiattt-, slciu of |.>re4. pt. 
of (iraim-^ttUi . to btand round j from sttlrr, 
to itnnd. 

Cireua ; &cc Circle. 

Cizms, a fleecy cloud, tendril. (L.) 
L. .rir-mj, a cutl^ cutled hnir. 

Cist, a sort of tomb. ^U-Gk.) L, 
cijfa, A chest.— Gk. man), a box, cbcsL 

oiatem, [Y- - L. - c;k.) K. fitfefnt*. 

^I„ fijtcma, a rcBcrvoir for wfltcf.**L. 
ct.f''4T» as above. 

oistTfteiit a }iritjfib motiumetit. {L, 
afui W.) \V, fi's/fan, a atone chest. 
monument made with fuur upright stones, 
and a fifth on the lt>p, — \V, (t?f, a ch«t 
^from L. eirfa) ; and »tMtt^ a stone. 

Cit, Citiidel ; wc civil (below). 

Cite, tu &umniont quote, (F. — L,'i F, 
ii'jVr. — L. citart, freqnetit of i^t^tx^ \f> 
roii&Cp excite, call -)k Gk. «<&>, 1 ^ 


tMplacc of ^t. E- iie/tver, quick, nimble, 
<2U, jirof. 84,-0. K J^/ivrt, free, prompl, 
alert ; compoutHled of L, <fi^ prefix, and 
/fiSi-r, fix-c ; sec: Bellver, 

CleWt ClU^t ^ '^^^' ^^ thread. {£.; 
M, E, £ic:if£. A.S. {iiwiHt & clew ; iil»o 
dHTot (EpinalgK^/jrffw?*rif). + Da. kiuwcn, 
whence kitiw^tun, to wind on dew* (t. 
r/tfjir up a 5(iil) ; M. Low G. k/wti'cn ; and 
cf. G. kn.iH(I {toz *kl(iu£i], a. cicw. Per- 
haps allied to l^.gitten. to driw together. 
Cf. Claw. 

Click, (F.) An imitslive word, cs- 
preaaing- a ligbler and thinner sound than 
Clftalc. £. Hrira. *//**«». Cil Du. klik- 
klakkrrt. to cliuh. 

Cliouti {V.'-^h.') F. cAkw/, a suitor,— 
L. ih'ttttefti, acc- of ftien^ ^ ciu£nSj orig, a 
hearer^one who listens to eidvioc ; pres. pt. 
of cfuen, to hear. \ i/KUE\}. 

miff, fl steep fock, headland. 1 E.) 
A. S. di/^ a rock, cUff.+Dn. and IccL 
iJ/i/; O. H.G. jt/^/>. CC G. and Dan, 
ktippe^ Swcd. klippa^ a crag ; and IceL 
khify a Tidge of cliffs^ 

Climapte. (f.-i Gfco yi,^,dimnt, 

— F. //iwj/. — Lite U dimaf-, stem of 
f/fV'/ii.^Gk* kXi^iot'^ stem of vAiVa, a 
slajsc, Jane, region of the earthi, climate. — 
<.*k« K>dvtiv, to lean, ^lope; see Itoan. 

olimactftr, a ciitical time of life, (f . 

- Gk.) M.K. {linuuttrt, adj.; whcrie« /'wm 
fiiiftacUrt, ' ihe cUmaterictiU f/iV'' year ; 
every 7th, or 91 h, 01 the 63 year* of a 
mans life, all very dangerouti, but the last, 
mo&t;' CcH,— Gk, KXifiOKrifpf a step of a 
Iflddtr, a i!angeroH5 period of life. — Gk. 
nKitnH-^ stem of iv\r>iiijf, a ladder^ climax, 
ttiih snffix -rgp of the agent ; see beloit 

Clintftg, the highest degree. i,Gk.'< 
i\k, Khit*ai^ a [adder, staircase, highest 
pitch of eipreiston (in rhetoric). —Gk. 
HKivitv, to «lope. D#r aHfidimftr, 

ClioKI. CL- - Gk.) L. t/i'm<jf a climate. 
»Gk, A-Xi^ia ; seeOlimat«. 

Climb. {F„) M.E. t/tV/ii^H, pt. t^f'/iw^. 

A,.S, , ft'ffd*tjtt, pi. t. riarrtf', pi. t7wwAjfl.+ 
Du. t/ifttm^H^ M. ILG. kiimtttett. Teul- 
t)'|ifl •MVw/vjtf-, The #1 waA orig. in- 
setted in the present stera» and did not 
belong to the toot ; a* i« shewn Uy Icel. 
i4/^, to dttnb. Hence It U allied to 
CIhv« (2). 

<nini# J ^cc Climate. 

Clinah» Clenoh* to rit'et. ,'KO M.E. 
rStftrktttf kitJikttt^ to strike smartly, to 
laake to clink ; <»uul o^ kUtikiti^ to clink. 


Cf. Da. i/i'/ik, 3 latch, rivel ; also^ b blow^ 
and O, H.G. khaka*t, to knot or biiHl 

Clin^* (E.) M. E. cUttg:in, to become 
stifi, be matted together. A.S. dinian 
(pt, t. clang, pp, e!ut^H\ to dry up, 
shrivel up.-l-Daa.i^rt^, to citwter. Allied 
to Swcd. khngOf to climb ; O. H. G. 
dunga^ a clew* 

Cb&ioal. (F.-I — ^Gk/; ¥,(!imptc, 
'one that is bedrid;' CoC. — L. dimius, 
the lamc. ^Gk, w^jj-icm^ belonging to a 
bed, a physician ; ^ xAiwir^, his art. — Gfc, 
wX/kij, a bed.-»Gk» «MVnr, to lean; ice 
Le&Q (t). 

Olink. (E.) E. FrlML klinkttt. Naw- 
listitl form of CUok.-f'Dn. kiinkift, to 
sound, pt. I- khfik^ j>p, i^kJ^ttkrn ; Swcl, 
' klittka, to jingle. Cff. OUink. 

Clinktil?, a hard ciader. t^^D^) Du, 
klifik^r^ a clinker, named from the tinkling 
sound which they make when they strike 
each other. — Du. jt/mitffl, to clink ; cog- 
nate with E dink. 

clinQnanti glittering, fF, — Dn.' In 
Shiik. Lit. 'tinkling.*— F.i-/*«fiWJi4 pres. 
pt. of O. Y. diii^itef, to clink. — Du* 
kiinkin (above)* 

CUPi to cut. 'Scind.) M. E. khppitt. — 
IceU kHppa^ Swed. hiippi^, Dan. kfippf^ 10 
dtp, shear hair, Cf. Snip* D«r. dipper^ 
a * cutter/ a fast vessel. 

diq^ne, a gang. :. F. - Du. \ F> di^tttt r 
gang, noisy set— b. F, dijutr^ to elide, 
make a noise. — Da. llik&en, to click, 
clash ; also to inform, lell ; cf. Du. kfrkhrr, 
a tell-tale. Sec Ollok, 

Cloak, Cloko. E.-C.) M*E.*/^f.- 

O. North F. ihque^ O. F, do^he.^X^XfL 1.. 
it&ca^ a bell ; also a horseman's cnpe, whUh 
resembled a bell la Ahnpe ; tec below. 

elock, (C,) The orig senie was 'bell ' ; 
bells prec«led clocks kir noiifym^ times* 
Either from M. Du, dQ<kt (Dn. *A)*\ 
bell ; OT from O, North F, chque^ a bell. — 
Late !^. d&e'An^ & bell ; of Celtic origin, — 
Irish f/fl^, El bell, clock ; d&gahu, I ring 
or sound as a bell ; O. Irish doft a bell. 
Cf. W. f^«A,a bell. &c. The G. gfcckf i». 
a borrowed word ; sn als© Do. */*>*, &c* ' 
Clod. ^E.) }>\.^ dod, d&d4t. A.S. 
d&<i ill coTnpouods), a lamp of eafitt. 
Tctvt. type ^kiu-ifo-, from Che weflk grade 

lofTcut-root **//tf',toitick tc^thet. See 

I Clew. Cloud. Cf. aiol. 

I Cl<^ff, a hindrance; n wooden sole wf, 

1 a shoe : wooden shoe. ^E.) M. E. * 1' 



a log, tilump. Xi^t found in A. S. A Utc 
won! : cf. Dan. kta^r, lund (Molbftjb;. 
Cl0iBt«r. F.-L.) M.E. thittfr.-^ 
OF. ^f-ffirtre ,F. f/*/Tf^'). — L. itausfrum, 
lit. cncltsnrc — L. r/fUfj-Hj, pp, of tiau- 
d4re, TO fehttt. See Clbtua. 

dote ti , losbac in. F. -U) Nf. E. 

£i«Jttt,^0.¥ . €loS^ I pr, L of Ot F» f/iJr«. 

</AJtf. & field ; disiha, ert-elatf, in^dost. 

dOM (i")^ «hui up. ;F.-L.) M. E. 
<■/«, ^/au. — O. F. f/#f, pp. of i:Ji»''* (abo¥cy 

C^los«t. (F.-L.) O. F. f/iuf/, dimin. 
cf r/tij. iin enclosed space. —O.F. f/w, 
j>p. : »cc close ,' a). 

Clot, tt^) Ki.E, fjfl?/, fJIfif/e, a ball, 
e*p. i>( cflnh, A. S. r/wr, <*A'/. a luiDp,+ 
<;, i-Zd^;, a lump. Teot. type •kitti-ta-. 
from the weak grade of Tcut. base *kieuf \ 
tee Cleat. Cloat, Cliut«r, 

Clotlu (t: : M. F. cioih, (laik. A.S 
r/;^ +|)M, */«(< G. -f/i-/</^ ft dress. Der, 
fhthn^ A. S, titii^as. pi. ot r/iiS. 

elotlL^, to cover with a doch. <£,) 
\r !•„ Jfi//jgf$, .Va/^/h, ].>(. I, <kthcdt (or 
ila*iUe>^ pp (tothid (ot i^/d;*/). Formed 
from j\, S. ^/f(ff.+I>n. khtden, from jfi/rfi-f/ ; 
»o jil&4i G, khiden^ from i/^//i'. ^ But the 
pt. I, aiitl pp. dad «e of ,Scand, origin : 
cf. kcl. kuoidr, pp. of i/ffffo, to clothe ; 
Swcd. khjtid, pp. Qi kiada. 

orwpoure; Ihe same word a& M. £. r//?i^, 
ft ma^ of rock. A. S, f/w/, a round mass, 

mBK of rock, hill. From Teni. root 'ti^u, 
to »lick lot^cther; see Clew, Clod* 
Clonfll, ^ hollow in a hill>-%ide. f'E.) 
M. \L ilcuith, cidjt. Answering to A.S. 
VAU, not foUEjd ; coenate \filh O, K. G. 
km. The A.S. V.Vii (-O.U.G. kiah, 
tx* ill A'AiA w/'A/^* Korstemann; represents 
a 'I'cut. ir(je *kMHxo-, from 'i/rtjrjt, j^ri 
grade of VAVx; cf. ti. kJinge, O. H. G. 
(kliitf^. a cloti^h <AcadM Aug. and Sept. 

Clout, a pnlch. i;F^) M.E.*^/(wr A,^ 
<.tuf, .1 patch ; whence W. */«/■ Com, **/«/» , 
a patch, cloul ; Ir. and Gael, i/ud, the | 
^me Oiig, sense * maaa, piece of staff* ; 
(trip. Tent, type Htut^&z, from Tent, root 
*kh't/-, *kUui', as seen in Olot. Closely 
allied to Cleat (which \i from thr and 
jrrnde of the ^mc root). 

CIOVO i\ a Icinii of spice. fF, ^1,,': 
M. IC j/iwi' ; llie i^hftQjje to iVtffv, in the ' 
With cent,, waa dne to the mUnencc i 
of liJil, (hfffTv — Fi f/pi/t fi tiail : r/an\ 

di pr^t, ' ft dove,* Cot. ; frtun the 
semmoBce to a nail. Cfl Sptin. rArp», a 
nal^ also a clove. —L. >.iauum^ ace. of 
eidut»s» a nail +0. Imh ^/tf. a tiaiL 

CIOVO (i^^, a batb. or spherical sJkell of 
a bulb of garliCi &c (£.) A.S ^/M/», f ; 
dr. tfnf-v^^ a buttercup ilU clove-wort". 
Named from its gleavage into shells * 
A. S. (•/«/> weak grade oi i!?&faH, tospUt: 
tec Clvara (r). Cf. Iccl. klJfi, a ctefE. 
Clove (i), a wttghL ^F.-L.) A. F. 
r/?i« ; the «ame word ai Clow ^i).*Latc 
L. tJtiTtis, a vrcighl (foi wool>, 
GlOTer, I.E.) M* F.. i-Zdrvr. A. S. 
cid/rt. c£f/rr, irefoil.-l-Du. k/mvf, whence 
Swcd. ki^JWr, Han. */. «yr; Low G. 
kitttt ; ct G. */rf. % The wppcaef! 
connrJtiofi with dtavt [ O i* impossible. 
Clown • (ScA nd . '^ IceL khtftti^ a el nnifty, 
boorish fellow \ Swed, dial. kJunn, % log, 
k/uns, a clowni&h fellow; Finn, kinni^ a 
log; cf. Dan, klmtttf, clumsy. Allied to 
Clmup. Orig. sense ' lop ' or * c\o^V 
Cloy* ;F,— L.l Oiig. toitop up^ hence, 
to&aie. M.F.fA^j^ff/tocIciy.stopupi' Cot.; 
a by-form of F. dvuvr ;0. ¥. tipfr\, to nail, 
fnsten up. [A hone prtilccd s^ilh a nail, 
in shoeing, w«$ said to be de}tti.j**0, F, 
i/jj F. clcH^ a nail; see Oiove > i). % VUy 
i in E.) is Qiuatly short for <i<-d^ or a W«/. 
where the prefix a- represents F. /«- ; Ke 
F. endmtfr. ertchytr in Cotgravc. 
Club .i), a bca^7 stick, {Scflnd."! M.K. 
dtibhi. — iceU kiuhha. kiumba^ a club ; 
Swed. ^/nr^. a club, log, lump ; Dan. kht^^ 
club, kiumpt lump, A mere vnriiml i»i 
Gluxnp below. Se« Qolf. 

dub ;j% an flssocintion, fScand/< 
XVII teiit. Lit, *a dump of i»cople. ' 
Cf. Swcd. difiL khii'b, a clump, lutnp. alio 
a knot ofpeoLilc iKictE\ S« above. 
Cluok. ;E.i ^l.E-f/tf-tAfM, to clack 
as a hen ; n mere variant of Claetu-f 
Du. kUHe/r. Dun. kfukkt, G. ^luektti \ 
L^'/rt irt. An imitative w onl . 
Ciuft ; src Clflw. 

ClunPi a mass, block. '^F.) XVI 
cent. Nut in A.S.. except as in cfym^rf, 
a clump. Cr. Ilnut k/ttm/'^ Swed» kiumfi; 
]>a. ^ijflu/. Low t;. k/tiirt/, a clutnp, 
himp, log ; (1«l kittmist, a club, with /- 
for /% From kfHw/-, weak gratte of 
Tcut. *k/(m/>', as in M. H.G. kUmf/fii, u\ 
presi tichtly together, Cfr Clanip- 

Clumiy. Scsntl.^ CF. M, K. i/ttmud. 
(/(;w.ic</. bcnninbed; l;entimhed fiHffC'* ntr 
cliimiy. This l» the pp. of ^/w 




benumb, or Ca feel benumbed. CL Swcd. 
diiL klummjen^ bcnambed (Rietr) ; Icel. 
klumsiM^ lock-jawed* Cf. Du. kttmnun^ to 
pinch; kieUf/utt,lo bchtmnn\KA,l'icHmst:k, 
numb with cold ; also A. S. rA^/n, dam^ a 
boM, cln^ji. See Ctammr* 

CluBtftr, A hunch. (E.) A.S. dusifr, 
f^j^i"r,abanch,-|-LowG*i/«//tfn Suggests 
A. Tcut, type *Jk}uf'frfi„ a duster; formed 
with sufhx -/™ from *jfeiW-, weak grade of 
Teat, root *kkut-, to mass together; for 
which see dot, Olest, Olout. 

Clutck, to sebc. (E.) M. £. fht^chen, 
tlkckeH, A* S, dyaan (whence pp. fr- 
r/rA/» SomneT), We &nd alio NT. E. el^t.^ 
ft cUw; which wu soperseded by the 
verbal form, 

Clutt6Tr * clotted mus ; oJso shttUr, 
vb., to dot, (E,) Cluiier, 7b.» ii a varjant 
of (hlttr^ to run into clots ; lee Clot, and 
cr E, Frie*. kiuttm^ to become dotted, 
Ciutter also meant confusion, a confused 
heap, tnrmoilf din ; hy adaciiitioti with 
CUtt«r. Cf, E. Fries. ki<^rr^ a mttle. 

ClyBter. (U-Glc.^ L. i-fysftr, an 
injection iiito the bowels. — Gk* KAv(7T^f>, a 
ulystcr, iyringe* — Gk, ifXu^wr, to wash.Hh 
L. £lH£ret to wash, (y^KLEU.) 

Co-« pteBx. (LO L. f^, tof^ether i 
UMd for trffff- {=ium\ together, l^efore a 
rdwel. Hence, to-^JkuHt, ca-e^ual. «- 
o/^ro/f , tff'ordinate* See others below ; 
an(^ aee Con-. 

Coach. (F. -Hong.) F. coefu^ 'a 
coach ; ' Cot, Etym. disputed. Said, as 
caj-ly AS A. D. i555r to be a Hungarian 
word ; Erom HuBg. kocsi^ a couch, »o called 
because fi«t made at a Hung. vilUge called 
A'tfi'Ji' or A'o€s, near Raab ; see Littri^ aod 
Bcckmann, HiiL of Ijiventions. 

Coadjutw. (F.-L.) XV cent, A.F. 

c»aJJii/0ur,-^h. {i>-,ioi fffft' =f««,togethen 

d aJiuUf, an assistant, frotn vb, tufi»- 

ire. to a&siSL-*^L. aJ'^ to; tuu/frr, to 

el p. 

Co&ffulAte, to ctirdle. (L.) L.t^t^fH- 
Mius, pp, oi cffdgulart, to curdle. - U 
fi^lgultttti. rennet, which causes milk to 
ran together. — L. nf^ fitim), together; 
ag^fre, to drive, 

Coal. (E.) M. E. fflA A. S, rp/.+ 
Uu. *iwA led. Swcd. *»/. Dan. *«A G, 
AflAJt-. cr Sk( >r«/, to blaxc. 

COftUsOe. to gtow togetbet. {I-.1 L- 
t&aUuerf. — L co-.iQtcon- ^cum, togcthcf ; 
and ahfitn^ to giow, inceptive iA alert, to 




Ccweae^ ronch, (F.-L.) 
fJMrjrf , an adj. which arose fayok the phrase 
*'» fO»rst to d«iote anything of an orabary 
character; cC mod.. E. of rtw-rjf. S« 

Coast. (F.-L.) M.E.fW/A-0. F. 
<r<7j/ir f F. c6lt)^ a ribj slope of a Mil, ihoie. 

— L. {"i^x/o^ a rib. 

Coat. { F. - G.) M. E, cote. - O. F, 
ioU F. rjj//^) ; I^w L. r0/a, r<H^/a, a coaL 
■>M,H. G. ^^///, .6h^/£^ a coarse malitlej 
O. Sax. coit the same. 

Coax, (K,?) Formerty<'5*«, vb., from 
(ffkfs, sUi a simpleton, dupe, Perhapi 
allied to Cooker or to Cockney. 

Cob (Ok a round lump, knob. (E.) As 
applied to a pony, it nicans short and 
stout, M. E. *^^ a great person 
(Iloccleve). In ^Qtnc aeases, it seems to 
be allied to A. S. copp^ a top^ summit. 

cobblo (i), A small round lump. (E.) 
M. E. ioi*ylst&ne, a cobble*5tooc. Dimin, 
of ri?^ lalxjve). 

Cob (3 ), to beat, (E,) Cf, W. ^p*io, to 
thump; £-£>A, a btmch ^ prov. EL cofff to 
atrlkc, esp. on the cep or head. See Oob 

Cobftlt, & mineral. (G.) G. kobait, 
cobalt ; a nickname given by the mijiers^ 
because considered pt^Uotioua; belter 
spelt kobeldf meaning (tj a dcmocii u) 
cobalt. Of G. origin (Kluge). 

CobblA (i); set Cob (iT, 

Cobble 1,3)* to patch ap. (E.) Orfgia 
unknown ; cf. Oob (1), of which it secma 
to be tlic frequentative. 

Cobnu B, hooded snake. iPort. — L.) 
Port, cff&ra, also rp^ra dc capcila, j. e. snake 
with a hood.~L. ftf/if^rtt, snake; iii', of; 
cafie//t4m, ace of fo/V/Zni, hat, hootl, 
dimin. of fJ/rr,, a cape* See Notes and 
Queries, 7 S. ii. 205. 

Cobweb. fE.V M. E. cpfuv^, toppe- 
\utb\ from Jl. K, ^cppt, a spi«lef, and unb. 
Cf. M, Du, to, kopp€^ •» spider, nr a cob,' 
KexhaiD. From A. S. (^p<lt >i in attpr- 
•^0/As, a spider; lit. poison-bunch: from 
A, S. ffttffr. ntQr, paisoPi and ftf/, a head. 

Coca, a Peruviflu plant. 1 St»,in. - Pemv.) 
Sdbu. coca. — Pcniv. cma \ Gatcilasso. Pern, 
bk, 8. c, 15. Distinct both from ctfrw or 
coto and i-jf^ifl. Dar. fPi-d-m*;. 

Cochineal. F. — Span. - I« - Gk.J 
F. iotktuiHt.^^yikV,. cachtmiiat cochineal 
^.inade from insects which look like berries ). 

— L. (ocdrtus. of a scarlet colour; see 
Isaiah i, t8 (Vulgate}.— L. c^cMfU, ft berry; 









wirti ft 

rtIRs trir, of 

whence W, **TT, to fontlfc. 

ftUo krnp», M|)ipo«id to be » facirf.— Gk. 
ttMM. a h^Tjf mrhmtm\_ 
Cook :t .amlefaM. (E.) M.E.^*L 

L. SL f«r<^ ; horn fhc bird s cty. * Cnde 

FTalr* -157. Cf, Skt, Im^AkM, a cock;' Mo codier, to focter/ Hextiini ; M. K 
[l^laUx ^»i^«^, crafting of eoikt. And . ^wr/rWr, 'to duidlo, cocker, pftmi 
CiielcoOb {s chiUI ; ' Cot PcihAps jroiu tA>, jl$ H 

sock* tbf Slop-code of X bsTnelt U the to mnkc a nettle-cock ''>r chtck of, 
•uocvqnL So also G. Id^jv, (t .' 1 cod;, Oockerol; ^<x Cock (r. 

<a) A siopHcock. 

OOCk, p*rt of tbe lock of a soo. From 
il£ origiRxl shape ; ct G, dtm TfaJkn ifiait- 
mev, to cock i ^iia. 

OOokadOt a knot of ribbon on m hat. 
(K.) K. t9fmatdt, fen. of ^sifmard, uacf ; 
aba f^itardi^ Uitiiei A M ct^tmnie, * aoy 
boBdtet orcApworn [troitdly ; ' Cot Formed 
With suflit -on/ from F. /^, a cock (from 
the bird's cry . 

cockerol, a, jonng cock. (E.) Dotible 
dimin. of Cock (J >. Cf. pik-rrti, 

COeklofti upper lofl. (£> a»d Seand.) 
From iAi and kft. So also C i4«4R/«/i0f, 
A roost, cocktott \ Dan. ioftkammtr^ a lofi^ 
chamber, room up in the raften. 

Cock ( j), a pile of hay. < ScaJiil.) Dan, 
k&ii. ft ht-ai}- proT, Dan. /u<t, a hay-cock, 
mi kekkt k^ki^ to cock hay ; Tcel. *^**r, 
jtunp, ball ; Swed. koka^ clod of earth. 

Ooek 'jt). to stick tap abniptly. CE.'' 
.AppArirntliy with relereticc to tbe posture 
.of a iock's head when crowing ; nr to that 
of his crot or tatU Cf, Gael icv, lo ca«k ; 
ttS in rn* ds ^hcindd, cock your (>oiinet ; 
ioc-fhr^Haih, cock-nosed. And set Cock- 

Cock (4 . CoGkbOftt, a ^mall boat. 
^F. -L. — Cik,) O, F, .^Y**^. a- kind of 
boatt ori^;. a shell* LY. Sjxlii. *ft<j, hal. 
rfwmi a small sliip. Dcnvcd i^by Dlcz) 
from L. toHcha, a *hcU; from Gk, «ff7ir?, 
n cockle : iec Cookia (l). 

Cookado % sec Cook {\\ 

CookatOO, a kind of parrot. (Mfttay.') 
>talny hiiui/fi^i ; frotti the bird's cry. Cf. 
Rtahiy kiikfik, crowing of cocks. Ski, 
kuHufa, a i:o<:k. Sie Cook \X']^ 

Cockatrioo. K.-^Lme L*-L.) Ity 
cunfiwioti wilh rw*, it was said to be a 
niofisiei hatched from a coek^i e^g. >- O. F. 

fofat'iif. ^ Ijiie L. to^*Urktm, ace. of ' shell. See Ooak (4). 
rAtUrix, iafit<i/ti'jF^ answering to a. Lntin Cod 1,1), afi»li. (K.!) Spett iW(/r In 
lype Vd/* J/rrjr, I e. * the treader or tracker,* | Falsgrave. Pcrhiip* aiimc(^ from its rnnml- 
04Cd tn n-niCer the Gk. lx*'^f^t*aA', nnd ed shipc; <t. M. Ilu. iot/tjV-, a club llcx- 
alkerwarda transfetfcd ig mcftn 'crocodile' ham) ; and see below. Deir. iW (Vw.c^ n 
VMi wcount Jn N. E. D.)<«L, faks-rt, to | youni; cod ; M> K. iOiifyag. 

97 K 

Cooklo \ I )« t wrt of bivalve. (K. - U 
-Gk.) M. E, ^^if/. [C£ w*, a cockUs 
(P. Plowman, C. x. 95^ ; A.S. AJ-fW/dj 
(where iJ" ^seaV"] — F, ♦wMi^/Zr, a cockle 
sbetl ^ cf.Tul. tAjft/jT^S*. — Lat lype *^wA^1 
tium^ for (Viv< 4//j'»M^ a cockle, shell-fish. | 
— Gk. tay\vKiowy A codclc, dimin. of 
rBA.17, from iKv^ciiir, a cockle or miutel. 

Cookie \J^,^ weed amoo^ com. (1 
A.S. i9f(fK taPC4; wHencae C^aeL 
tarn, btiskt, cockle; *9g9tl(, com-cocklej 
IrUh ta£af/, com-cocklc. 

Coduo i^\ to be uneven^ packer upuj 
(Scand.) Of Scaod, origin; cf, Nonv, 
tviittftf InmpTi uncTcn, * cockled up;' 
from Notw. JeoA/t, a little lump, dimiTi. 
Avk, m lump; see Cook {i). Cf. S^ 
toJtkfi^ dimin. of Jbafa^ a clod. 

Cockloft ; see Cook ( i ). 

Cockiieyt orig, an effemliiate perum,, 
{}Lf Moiiu has: ' Cihfktr^lii, cacklings 
of hent ; aUo e^p as we say (KhtHigs' 
From M. E. toktmaj^y a fooli^ pcnoD, Ch, 
C. T, -|ao&, U%. ' cocks' egg r^ Le. yolk- 
less i^g. From yi. E. afkm^ gen. pL of 
r^, a cock ; and «>■» ry, A. S, *f^^ egg. 
Sec C^ S. I^wrrie, bhropsbirc Folk-Joie, 
p. ijg. 

Cockroach. (SpanO Fnrm Smn. 
(-M^'4fitj4'4<i, a. wood-louse, cockroach; from 
iHca I, a I so iUL'o)^ a kind of caterpillar. 
Origiri uncertain. 

COOOn Li)p CoOOf the cOCOa,-niit palm* 
(port.) Port, and a|»fi. ^ikv» a btigbear, 
an tigly mask to fiigliten children ; hencs 
applied to the cocoa-nut on account of] 
the monkcjr-Uke face at the base of the 
ntit Cf. Span, iprflr, to make grimncei. 

Cocoa L^\ a corrupt forra of Caoao. 

Cocoon, *3*« of « chrysalii. ^F.-L,-* 
Gk.) F. (-uitffl, a cocoon ; from ^oqnt, 11' 

C PBf 


Cod (a\ ft huskj bsfi, bolster, (E.) 
Htrncc. pfas-f<h/, husk of a pCa. A, S. fo/t/, 
ft ba^.+Icd. AA/t/t\ pillow, ^c^r/j iCTOtum ; 
Sweri. huffJf, a ca«bian. 

Coddle, 10 pamper, reader cfTeminatc. 
(F. — L- 1j Perhaps for caudlt^ vb, (in 
ShalC')« to trral with caudh ; sec Oaudle. ' 
Cf- prov. E. eoddte, to parboil, stew. ^ 

Codo, n digest of laws. (F.-L.) F, 
CMJf. — ll eadiiem^ ncc. of rA^^x, a tablet, 
k ; older form caudex, a trook of a 

codicil. (L.) L. t^kHfus^ a cckIiciI 
to n will ; flimin, of codex (stem cdiiit-). 

Codling (i I, CodHn, a kind of apple. 
(C- ?) Earlier spellings pt^nilin^, ^^tiad^ 
Jt'ng; quoiiimg. Apparently formed, with 
E. sumx 'iittg, from Irish cuetrfj an apple- 

CodHiLff (3 ; SH God (0< 

Coei^Oe. l,i- ) L- fotrref-e, to compel. 
— L. co-ycum), together; areirt, to en- 
dose, confine, bUin to arca^ a cbest ; see 

Coffee. (Turk. -Arab,) TmtV, qah- 
f/-^, — Arab, ^ahwah^ coflce. 

Coffer. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. 4-^m 
*-0. F. c^/t-f, also *-^H. a chest.— I., acc 
fp/>/iinttfn. — Gk. K6^vost a basket. 

Co£&. [F. — L. — Gk.) Ohg. a cfl*e, 
cheat. — O.F> (q/trtf as above. (Doublet 
of <efficr.) 

Gogt (1)1 ft looth OQ a wheelrim. 
(ScJVftd,^ M- EL ("jJi^ir [whence Gael. 
and Irish <c6g, a tnill-cog; W. i&e&i^i^i. 
cogs of a wbeclj ► No t i n A * S, — M . 1 .lan ■ 
kaggt, a cog. ^Jlg^'Ajiil^ a cog-wheel 
(Kalkar) ; Swed. An^ge, a cog ; M* Swed. 
Ai^ rihre). 

Co^ {2), to trick, (Saiad.) Prob. 
to CQteh as Vr-ith a r£>;f ; to rif^ a die, to 
check it so ai 10 make it faU as dcflrcd. 
CL Swetl. dial, ktt^, Norw. k&g^i to 
dupe; Swcd, Att^a, * to clitwl, to cog;* 

Cogent. (LO L. (t^n/-, stem of 
prrt. part, of f^grrt, to compel : for 
«-flfiF^tf (=£pn-agrrf), iJL to drive lo* 
gcther. Brngtu, i, $ 568. 

Cogita.te. (L.)^'jd/»j, pp. of 

i&gitdrf, tij think; for tQ-agitartt jrom 
r^-, ^fTff-^ together, and t^itare, to agitate, 
freqccnt^ of ^i^Tfrif^ to drive. 

CogUftte, (L-) I-. (0-£7tJius, allied 
by birth. — i.. <-ff (for <rtfwi, together ; 

~ atm, bom, old fonn of mUta, pp. of 
fCiV to be born; see Natal. 


Coglli8&&Ce. knowledge, a badge. (.K. 

— L,) Formefly conisjurt^t^^O. F, can- 
ftcin^HCij knoivledgej M, F^ (&gnoissa»ie. 

— O, F. eaH&usant, pres. pL of O. F. 
ffittoistre, to know. — L. te^csi-fn!, to 
know. ** I^ jTflw i^cMw/'), together, fully; 
^Oifin'^ to know ; fice Know, 

cognition, pctcepuoiu {L.) From 
ECC, of L, i&gnitio. — L, iogtntHi, pp. of 
iogiiffsiere (above). 

cognomen, a sumame. (L.) L. r^- 
gHi'mtcti, a surnamf.- L. cfl' (rtfW^, wilh; 
nemen^ a name, altered tn j^t^trun hy con- 
fisiion with ^Oictrt^ mutfrsj to know. 
See Notis, Name. 

Cohabit. (L.) I„ ce-haNUirrf lo 
dwell together with. — L. co- \.cum*\^ to- 
gether; kabitdn^ to dwell. :iee Httbt- 

Coliere. (L.) L. ifikafrre, to tilick 
logcthet (pp. (^tfAflrjtfJ>. — l„f*-, together; 
Acer^gf to itlck. Der. ijiAci-ik^n, coAes- 
ive, from the pp. 

Cohort* a band of soldiers. (F* — 1-.) 
F. coharfe.^h. acc teAef/emy from iff^ortj 
a court, also a band of soldiers. See 
Oourt^ of which it is a doublet, 

Coif, Qnoif; a cip. (F.-G.-L.) 
O. F. coi/i, aoifft I Low L. (d/^d, a cap. — 
M.H. G. hufff^ ^nfife, a cap worn under 
llie helmet ; O. H. G. ehuppha ; stem 
**«//v"rf"---0- H.C, fhupft :G. kopfli a 
cup^ also, the head — L. crxf/jtVi ; see Cop. 

Co^n ; 9^ Coin. 

Coil!!), to gather together. (F. — 1*) 
* Coikif np iu a cable;' Beaumont and 
Flctchtr. — O* F. cciilir^ to coUect, — L. 
C9l{i^re\ see Ck]lleot> 

Coil (a), a noise, bnstlc- (F. *^ L.I) 
Ori^. a colloquial or slang cxprcuion; 
prob. from Ooll(0. ^Vc find '■ c6il of 
hay,' a heap ; and icil, tu twist. 

Coin. (F.-L,) M* E. fffin, - O, F. 
f^jW, a wedge, stomp on a. coin, a coin 
I stamped by means of a wedge% * L. 
lunfi^m, ac& of cun&tSt % wedge Pcrhnps 
allied to Gone, 

coign.. (;F,-L.) F. roing^ fPfft, A 
confer ; lu. a wedge (a£ above). 

Coincide, to ngrcc with. (L.> U fff- 
(for (t>v-=fMw, with); and ma'derc, lo 
fall upOQ, from >n, upoti, and fiuitn^ to 

Coistrelr a "><?*" fdlaw* (F. — L.) 
For tPHsirei, the older form (Palsgtave). 
An K, fldnptflLioii of M. F. cemtiiti^r, 
an armour- bcarvr, U«kcy ; llL ' one who 






pontard ; viriini of O. F. i-enuff/^ better 
f9»fe/t * knife. — L, n$iieUHm, ace of .w/- 
tfilui, ^ Smile J dimin. of ctdttr. Sec 

Colt ; »ec Qaolt. 

Cok«, charred coal. {^, !) ' Ohl^» 
pit-coal or Bcacoal chwfedi' Kay, 1674. 
Etym. unknown ♦ cf. M. E. ioOt, tht core 
(of fto upplcl. 

ColA&der. Galleild«r» a strainer. 
(L.) EquiVDletit lo Med. L, ^oidtorium^ a. 
strainer ; apparently coined from L. t^iani-t 
item of pfes. part, of toldrt, to atraio^wL. 
f^/um, a sleTe* Or the M. E, <alindore 
may have been taken from Span, coftviitr, 
a »t miner (from L. fdlSrey 

Cold, (k.) M. £. ftf/t/, kald, adj.; 
O* Merc, fd/t/, A. S, fia/J. adj. -|- Tcel. 
*ff/*/r, Swed, *«//» Dan. kolii^ Du. *tftf*/, 
Goth, A«/f/f, G, kalL Tcut. *ka!Uoz, 
cold ; fram Teiit. •iii/^ to be cold (as in 
Iccl kaiOi to frccM), with &affix -</ffc«Gk. 
-T<i(. Cf. I. at. ^/^iiiui, cold; see Oon- 
S9Al. Chill. Cool. 

Cole» Colewort, cabbage, i U) For 
-wfiri, tee IWort, M. K, rfl/j fdi*/. A, S, 
ftm/^ tJuv/ {or IctL ^^/). * [« can/if^ a 
stalk, c.ihb.ige.+Ck. »awWj, a italk. 

Col0>Opt^rm, ahcalh - witiged insects, 
i^Gk, i«k, «roXfcl-T( a sheath; irr^ip-^Si'j a 

Colio* iF.-U-Gk.) Short for fo/i'i 
/s?i'». — F, cdfi^ut, adj. — L. f^AVjw. — Ok. 
jrvAtdiri>i, fox «aXi«ur, sufTering Id the colon. 
^t;k. jt^IAeji-, See Colon (a), 

Colifl«llll&. (Med. L.*Gk.) Theiame 
m&£Cf0Ji^m,a lai^e amphitheatre at Rome, 
so lUU&ed from it» mai^nitude ^Gibb^jn). 
The Ital. word is toA'-iz-o, Ste OoIoshuh. 

CoUapBOt to shrink together, fall in, 
(I...1 l^Tsi use4 in the pp. iQllspMd, 
Etigli&hed from L, eo/fapsnt^ pp. of colidbi^ 
to fall together, — L,ffl/' 1 forf(?jf-,i.e, *wff(J, 
loc;ether ; ia^i^ lo slip. See Iiapae. 

Collar. (F, - L,> M. E. and A. F. 
— O. F. ro/kr^ a collar.— ^L. (ctliin, a 
d for the neck.*(.. iO//Mm, the ueck.-f* 
S. kra/j, i},Aa/j. the neck. 
collet, the part of Che rin^ in which 
the BtoDc Ls &et. (F. — L.) Y^oli/if a 
collar.— F. f*/, neck-»L. c&llHm, neck. 

aide by Aide. *- L. rdU (for tom'^-tMrffX 
with- I^tfdiis^ lateral, from hUr-^ for 
*laUs-, siem ot/aius, ^ide, 
CoUatioUi a companaoia ; ft^nnetlv, a 

conference. iF. — L.j O.K. f^lhtion^ n 
conference. — L. ace. (olintionetttf a bring- 
uig together, a conferring. ^ L, {oiltiiumt 
supine in nse with the verb (onftrrt^ lo 
bring logethcr (hut from a different root). 

— L. fct- \_ for fff«- = fMWi^, together ; IdtufH, 
supine of toiltrt^ to take, bear. Sec 

ColIea^O (>^. * partner. (F.-L.) 
M. F. .c/%u£.— L. ca//?^^ a partner ui 
office. — F. (ef- (for cpw-j fwwi), with; 
U^re, to choose ; see L^e^nd. 

CoUeagno (a)* 10 join in an alliance. 
(F. — L.) O. F. colHguer^ f0//egvfr, to 
colleague with. — I* ioUigart^ to ^d 
together, — L. r^A ffgr cpri*, fWiBfl), to- 
gether ; iigfjre, to bind. See Ifoasuo (iV 

CoUflCtp vb. F.-L.) O.V.c&iitatr, 
to collect mcnt) (Roqueforii. — Late L» 
K&IUddri \i\\t same), from co/k/^ta, a col- 
lc<;tioD> orig. fern, of pp. of roUigtri^ to 
collect, — !., cff/- (for ion-, cunt), with; 
iegere, to gather ; see Lagend. 

OOlldOt, &b. r L.) Ijitc L, iQiJ<fta, n 
collection in money* an assembly for 
prayeij hence a short prayer ; see aboir, 

CoUoClL, a girl. flriAh.) Irish ctii/in, 
a girl : dimin. of ratir, a conntry-woinan, 
Gael, cmlm, dimin. of cuiU, 

L.) O-P^f^^/ZiYf, — L,ffl//4^Kw*, ipdety of 
colleagues or companions. — L. foUega, a 
eoUeaijiie ; see Colleague 1. J ), 

Collet ; «>^e CoUaj'. 

CoUidGp (J) L- ioliiderty lo dash tO< 
gether. — L, aoi- ifoi iOfi-^ cum)^ together ^ 
iiFiferCj to strike, hart. Der. f^llhi^n 
(from pp. £piiis-ui). 

Collie, CoUy^p a kind of ahepberd'a 
ilog. <E.) Komnerly, coa/ly, <&leyi prob^ 
the same as CQal-y^ coal-coloured, black. 
Cf obs. ^eiiyt adj., coal-black; cQiHid tn 
Shak. M. N. D. i. t. 141;. 

Colliw. (E.) M. E. €(fiur \ from M.E. 
iTj/j coaL Cf. hffiv-ytr^ saw-yer. 

Collooatfli to place togel her. (L.) 
From pp. of L. (oi/ocSrt, lo pla^^e together* 

— L. tal' ffor^tfrt-, c«Av), together i /ocare, 
to plcice, from fxui, a place. 

CoUodiOQ, a wlution of gnU'COttoa. 
pGk.) From Ok. *oAAtt^i;n. glue-Iike,« 
Gk. «6AA-a, gloc; -*ifl7*, like, «!>«, 

CoUop, A fclice ot tneaU «£. !) M. E. 
ish^, CQt-hopfc\ pi. eoi hapj^s (P. Plow- 
Dijin^ whence M- Swed. HHopi^ Swed. 
kaiaps^ Here c ^A = coal ^we O^* ' 


I can 


Swcd. 6h\,^M^tf}Aa/'fiT, a. cake ]>akcd over 
gledes ot hot coals, i E. Bjoikman), 

CoUoony- ( L.l ?'"ioiii L. colfoquiftrn, 
conversation. — J* (tf/-/o^nT, to converse 
wilh, lit. to apeik togErlher. — L. roA (for 
f0ft-^ f-ww\ together; /ot/ui, to speak. 

ColladBf to <ict With oLhcfE in » frnnd, 
(L ) L, ftf/Ziidfie i(pp. ^mUtlftfAy to play 
with, act in collasion wtth. « L- r^A 
ffor -'f)«-, fHrv':, with- Iilihrf, tg play. 
Der. ti}!itti-i\:i3i. from llac pp. 

ColGcynth, Goloq^iiiiitid&, pith of 
iht fruit ol" a kind ol cucumber, (Gk.) 
From the notti. and ace. coses of Gk. 
KoktiKV¥9h (cici;. xakfyttuvBihti'fj a kind of 
round gourd or ptitiipkin. 

Colon (lij A mnrk {;) in wrttin^ and 
printing. (^Ok.l Gk, muXov, a lirnb, 
clause ; Uencen a stop marking off a dAUse. 

Coloxi I 3)j part of the intestiaa, (Gk.) 
Ck, H^thM', the ^riie. 

Coloneli (F.-Ital.-U) Sometimes 
fojime/^ wliich is (he Span, spelliiig;; 
wlieiice ihc prominciation as kurneL — F. 
fahtuf, rotonnel. - Ital. i'^/i3«*/i'<i.n colonel ; 
!iL A little column, as being * the upholder 
of the rejjimcnt ; * Torriano. The colonel 
wai he who led the company at the heart 
of the re^ment. Dimin. of lul, to/^hm^t, 
a column. -L, f9h*mn<iy a column. See 

colonnade. F. - Jtnl. - L.) F. 

I'o'oitnade. — Ital. c^bnuata , n range of 
columns. — till, la/aiftta, a column i^above). 

Colony. (F. - LJ K. ^olanU* — L. 
(Ohmia, u. colon)', l>antt of husbnndmen. 
»L. ^offfftui, a husbandmAn. — L, fp/fn, 
to till. Cohre b for *qneUre% d. L. 
I'lMuifTHm^ a sojourner. Brugm, i. 4 lai. 

Colophon^ no inscription nt the end of 
a li>oak, \s ith title, and ^ometimes^ name 
flnd date, ifik.j J-ate L. tsicphim, •-Gk. 
iruAo^j', a summit ; hence, a Anishing- 
stroke. AlJLcd to Oolumn. 

Coloqnintida ; &ec Coloorn^h. 

Colo^ans* i,L. -Gk.) 1.. c^fmstts,— 
Gk. KoAotfffiJf, a large statue. "Dvr.f&ffiss- 
iii, i.e. large; (&listum, q, v. 

ColoUTp F.-l..* M. E. rt?Aj«r.*-0 F. 
'Oi'our I* I'jyiz/r/frj. — L. ace. ro/Jrem, from 

Colportenr* ti hnwtcr of wares. (F. - 

J. 1 it 'one who tariiei^ wares on his 

k ; * l\ <&fpifrf(u*-. *- F. (o/pGrfrr, lo 

fv on the nick. — F. c*/, i*rck; p^rtrr, 

cflrry.— I., t^'fnm, urck ; for/dn^ tn 

carrv, ... 


Colt. (E-) A. S. *-(?//, a young cittieV 
younj; ass, &c.+Swed. dial. /■»///, a boy ; 
Swed. ni'w//, Dan. -fjjr/i/, a bfood; cf. Dan. 
dinL f:&liHt\i^, a lad, 

Colnmbine, a plant. < F. -L.) M. K, 
f"r>/jff(^m.— Lnte L. c»lttmht$tn, a colum- 
bine; L. esiumfnntts, dovc-ljke ; from n 
supposed rc&emblance. ^ U co/nm^^ a 
dove. See Culver. 

Colmnni a pillaf, bod;r of troops. 
(F. — L.) L- I'alutfttTa^ a pillar; cf. 
rolumerr, culmen, a Bummit, colih^ a hill, 
Gk. MAwFik, ahill. See HilL {^QEI,.") 

Colnro, one of I wo gte^\ circles on the 
cclestiAl sphere, at ri^ht angles to (he 
equator. [L. — Gk.l So called because 
a part of them is atwAys beneath the 
bortj:.on. The word means docked, clip- 
ped.^ L. i'c/iinis, curtailed ; a colure. 

— Gk. K6\ovpof^ dock-tailed, truncate ', a 
coture. v-Gk, xuX-or, docked, clipped [ and 
olpA. n rnlL 

Coltft oilf a 1aaip-on made from the 
seeds of a variety of cabbage. {F. — L. ami 
Do,) F. colid, better Cfiftai, — I>u. k&^lzaad. 
rape-seed, cabbnge-aerd. — Dd. k&<U (bor- 
rowed from L. £aulif),^ cole, cabba^ ; and 
Du. zaaJ= L. lectf. 

Com*, prefix. (L-) For L. c«w» uiih, 
together; when followed by K /, w, 
/. Sec Ooa-. 

ComOi, (Gk.) Gk. tta^, a deep sleep. 

Comb. (K. A. S. fdwfl, a comb, crest, 
rid^e.-^Du. jf-«w, IccliflWr, ]>jn. Kwtd. 
ifram f G. kamm. Teut. type *kiim^' ; 
Idy. type *^ombhos ', cf, Gk, yo^i^i, a 
pin, peg; Skt./iitti^^i-j, a tooth. 

Comb, Coomb, a dry measure. (E,} 
A. S, ittnih^ n i;np,+Du. *J/«j a bowl J G., 
kum//^ ittmr/i/'f a bowl. 

Combat, (F.-L.) Orig* a verb. - F, 
csmhaitrt^ O. F. iombittrt^ to fight with. <- 
F. ftfW' (Tor L, f«ffi\ with \ and F. f>aftrt^ 
O. F, ^flj'n't to fightj from *i^itrrf^ lor 
L. iwttuere, to teat. Der. fffmAat-aa/f 
from the F. pr^, p^ 

Combe, a hollow in a hill-^ide. fC.> 
W, ru'Ni, Com. -'//wj. a holloTP. dale; 
Celtic type *kumf'ii, a Talle)-; cf. liish 
iCtfttmr^ a valley. 

Combine* '.I'.l I^.<vw^;>^rf>tonnile. 
join two things together— L. com- {tttw' 
together : lud /■ftfui. twofuld. See Binary. 

Combustion* F, — I .. ; F. r &mMn 

/f"(iH, — L. .ICC. .oiuf'uiiii*rtcm, n bumiug op. 

— L. i omhttst'Hi^ pp. tif com-hurfrf. to iiuin 
up. — I..» -iwr* (fm fttm\ together; nnA 



ipefh,ipsl jirtre, to bum. with & iasetlcd datlw of a senkncc, acnnma <lm| matk; 

by assocUlion wiUa am/t-urere, ihe claiisi.'. — tpk. it6it'Tttr, to hew* liUikc. 

Oome. {U.) A.Sri/wa/j, pt. U^(n';tw» CottLmaad. Jb^ — L i iK 1*'. r^^w- 

S"»p. <'Mtfii*rt.+ I>a^ tem^tt^ toel. iowa* Don, , tnand^r^ i-^suamfer. — L. n?wtfi^ucftirt, lo 
\ommc^ Kw. k^twrna, iioxh. kit't/fmn, G» ci-tiust to; confused with Laic L rtw- 

^.'i'ljk^ Skt. ^w, to go. fyHivKM-l 

Comedy, iK— L. — Gk.i O.h'. icntri/if, 
* a jilny;' (-.'ot^^L- f'(T///(rri'/>ri.'»Gk. jvu^^' 
Sm. a comedy. -> Gk. awtufj^tt a comic 

(rtitnt procession; doiAtif, a sin^r, fiom 
Ati^tt\', to sin& A CDimecly wn^ a fnliv^ 
$pt;ct^dc« with siDging, Sec. See Ode. 

comic. iL.~Gk.) L. cctauus. — 0\i, 
iFMttnetif, l>cToi)ging to a witoF, us jibovt. 
Comjfily, (E) M. E, femfi^ kumli. 
A* .S-t/z/iT/t, earlier form cy>nh\\ l-eantiful, 
fftir. The A. S. cymt, L']iiqui&itt:^ is closely 
ftlLic<l to Q. H. G. iiimig, weak, (tnder, 
am! to 0. H.'G^iMMr, wuli Hifiiculty i^G. 
4^i]irMV The A. tSJ^'wis ■faor'encd bcfiTT 

if/r^. and the M. E, iemh ifitu, As&oiustei ^tc measure in comp«mon with ; a coin«0 

tuatiiiriM, A 

tfittiudlrf, ijsii in mtcn^tvc form of tttitn* 
dare, lo command. lEotli forms art from 
L. liJw- itum), together j snd munJJriy lo 
put into (he b^ctds of^entniat to. cocnmand. 
Sec MoQdAto. 

Commemorate. ^L ) From the |iu. 
of K. iiwtrncf/f&nifrt lo call to mirnl. — I,* 
iTiiw- ; foT t-«wj\ together ; Mtw^rare, to 
mention, from mtmor^ mindftil. 

CommexLce. (F.-L.) V.cotttmctutri 

Q, Y . iometiur iwilh one m ; cf. Ital. 
catnincui/Y''. — L- itfJrt- \tiifH], toj^thcfi 
itii/uhr, to begin: sec InittaiQ^ 

CommieiLd, iL.*) L. iOfuwcmt'iij'f, !<.» 
tDtnihi or commit lu ; sccCkJiniDEUid, 

Commenanratd. U"' Kmrn I.. 
i^itinettsiii atui. ^^ if from ^cpnitnotstirdrf. 

vyV\ }A,\L itrmen, to come, and io gsinrd 
the »i use of ' becoming,' j>]easing, decorous. 
Cf. M' lu ^i'/H<, a wefik person. 
Comet> <sL.-Gk,) Late A. S. ri»/ffe/d. 
— 'L. t'em^fa^^Kj\i, *cfi.^nitf loni^-hAired ; 

n tailed 5tar» comvt. — Gk« JVUM)7» bair.^'L- 
c^Wit, bjiir. ^ Also O. F. ionufe. 
Comfit* &b., a sweatmeal. (F.--L,) 
Fonnfily fifnjlt, {&nfiif,'^0.¥. eortft, lit. 
confci:lcd, prepared; pp. of (jfr/frr. — L. 
i&M/fiftffft, pp. of t'i}Mjii^rf, to [iTcp.ire, put 
together. — L, cifw- 1* Mffi I , togctner ; /otcff, 
l«» m:\kC' Sec ConfHt. 

Comfbrt, vb. (F. - L.) M, li. fpn- 

/firUn,, later t&mfLirffn,^0. Y, ctmforitr, 
to comfort. " Lflie L, ion-fortltri^ to 
ftroneThen, — L. (i?^/- ^i-Ntri'\ together; 
Aml/*jr/-f/, srrong ; hcc Force i^i'. 

Com&ej, B plant (F. " L,i O.K. 
i0H^rt^ titrnftne ; Late L, (Hmjitia ', pro- 
bably for I<al.4«'f/^n<j i.PUnyi, comfrcy, 
a name giveii to the plnut from its sup- 
po«d heaJing powers. — L, c^H/trttere, lo 
grow logrthcr,h»l up ;Celsu!>),— L. im- 
{(Mm), together; ffrarrf, 'orig.) lo boll. 
V It was also called t-att^rma {Uom L 
^firmiirtt tn mnkc brni), luid cvtrso/fi/it 
(from L, solhidri, to innkc iolid;. 

Comic ; sec Comedjr. 

Comityt Q'I'rtnitY. L.) 1^ coi»iiiatim, 
ACc. uf *rt/tti/i}i, urhanll^. — L 

fricmlly, coartcoH6. 

orJ. — L. ttm- .»''«), with^ 
measure: scis W;»-i*sur9. 
Commie&t, vb. ^F*-" 7^.v \f .^jmrnenttr. 

— Lfltt L. lomfufiiiitrf, for L. ii.mmfnfiin, 
to consider, make a note on, — 1« rrw- 
mentus, pp, <y( *firftr/tirriscT, to devise, ^L. 
ftfw- {<^fft), wilb ; 'W*/rt- foT *mfft, to 
ihiakr fli in mewtn-f { ^ *fH£-meM-ri, I 
retnemLer, and ttiat-i, mind, Sec Hentftl, 

Comm.orc6r traffic. (F«~ L.'i l'\ ti'W 
Wf'-ff, — L, tffrrirrirrctum^ Iradt.— L. r^w/- 
; - iiim , * ilh ; iW(:c*t-, stem of merjr, 
merchandise^ with sufi'in -f um* 

ComLmiJlfttioD., a ihrcatcning, de< 
nounciiig. ^F, — L-'i F. fffttfttiiNti/ioM.— 
I« ncc tvmmiHdfriine/H, a ihreatcniuB.— 
l« to/tiffi ifid/us, pp. of (V w ■ mirtdrif to 
threaten. -pL. fi?w- (i-ww), inien&ive prtBx: 
nnti wiMdrij to threaten. See HeuAO^. 

CommittgU, 1- *iw(^ E) From 
Com- nm) Minftle. 

GomJUiim'^Olli <^ rcfluclion to small 
frn^jint'iit^ 1. i FcrmLid from L. rCW' 
miuut-iii, pj> of i-Qm-mmueret lo break 
11110 smq.1t pieces; see Mintite, 

Commu9r<ttion. i.F.-L.'} M. F. 

fvmntiitmiicti — L, aec. iirtn*uiiirdiivtttnt^ 
part of .111 oration itUendcfi lo excite pity. 

— L, c&mtms^nfri^ lo excitti pily : pp. -dt- 
^ tt4). — L. f(jjw- Un»i), wilh; Mtjenhf, 

ctfmt'i, ' lo pity, from L. mhtr, wretehcil, pitiable. 
i CoiIUIliSSAi:?! ^^ officer to whom 

Comma. ^L.— Gk.) L, ri?///M(r,*Gk. something is entrtuted. (l^'i Med. L. 
«'y^^, rU^ii which is tii^ck. a -^tamp^ a tanimintiHaSf a commb&ary. * L. i^^f- 




■W/j-iffj, ]>ji. oi cofttmttt^r^, \o coinmLl; act" 

OOXKUHitf *o cnlrusi Id. (L.'^ L, cAiH' 
mHUr^t lo Bend oul, hcEin, enlmU, 

^vith; ttiifiere, to send, pnl fortli. D&r. 
cefumisi-iotf, ¥ . (Qtnmisifo/t^ from I,, ace 
ftf w; m issii^ttcm , pe r|*el rat ion* 

CommodiouB. (b\~L.> o.v.iom- 

tfiaJtf'rix -^ Med. L, tGWtfWH/iojtts, uaeFul,— 
L. i-6fHfrfdtfuSf fit, fiuitftfale. — L. ^ram- 
^c'lfnvK with ; m&Uiu, measure, 

COUmodotfta the commander of & 
squadrun. i,Du. — Y. — L.) Koniictly 
spelt cvmmandorc C1695); also (OfHfftittt' 
iUtir, AS iu LJntch ; Hexbam has: ' tAffi 
C&mmatuimr van tin Stadi, The Com- 
mandeur oT a Towae/» F. fvttttnandi^tir, 
fl commaader, — L. ace. type *ft>j/t/Ha»' 
ddtdrem, from Late L. i&mmaHdsre ; 
see OonnmaDd. 

ComtlLQlL. ;F. — ]..) M. E. fommnHy 
comoHH. — C). K. fomun. » \^ /ommutti::) 
common, j^iitraL — L. ii;^rf- ((-lywiAogtther 
wiih ; ami t^fmii, icatiy |y »prtc'(PktUus) ; 
cf. Miinusj servtce. 4 As If * helping each 
other,^ Cf< Lith. mainai, Ril^^. mienaf 
baiter. Ltrwgm. i. $ aoS. Dor. €cmmuH' 

commune, verb. (K. -L.") M. E, 
comutun.i-i). ¥. rowmuHtr, lo commune 
with; l^te L., €^fftmu/MfV,^L,.(PwwNmfy 

comnioji (aJiove). 

oommnnicato. (i.j L. ft>wm/inf^ 

commun. Dar. excommuHii-ate* 

Commotioiu (K.-L.) ^.f^mmfifion. 

— I-, toftifitdtivfuw. iscc. of ftf w rw^Wtf, ^ L, 
comm^i'Us, pp. of comtrtou^r^, lo JUlurb. 

— L. fff//*- (fi/Mr), intensive; and moiure, 
to more. See Move. 

CommUtai tu exebcmge. (L,} L. com- 
muiiirt, to exchange with, » L. ftfm- (fWJWj, 
with I muttire, 10 change. 

Comp&ct (1), adj., £utenn) to^lher, 
fitted, do-ic. firm, (F.-I-) M- F. t-?wi- 

/vi^oft), a, compnniun.] — Med, L. r^w- 
/•Ante/Hf auc. oJ ^atfi/tinits, a taking of 
tneah l:ogtthci^— L. f<?m- \^i'f*m)t logctbej-; 
and /ami, bread ; see Pantry. I>bt. 
{^m/amcn, frptn C), F, compariio/i. Alio 
tiiC^M/<iHy, O. \\aei:&mpa(gtiUi^ from F. a 
(for L. aJ) and O* F. iam/tit^^tUrt to asso- 
ciaie with, from mm/ai^tU, company. 

Oomp&r0, to £et together^ so as to 
exatniiic likcQcsi or difference. ^F. — L.) 
K. tomparer.— 'L. tom/aror^, to adjust, *cl 
together. — ].. cotftpar, c^vcciual-— JL. €0ttt- 
{cum], together; /ar, equal . 

Compqjftment. (F,— IiaL-L.) 1*^ 
ccmpiUlifit^ntt 'a partition;' Col. — ltd. 
i0iMfitrtimcnSo.^\\2.[. CQmpartirt\ Jjite L. 
iomparilrc^ to share- — L, tom- {^uui)j 
together; partlrt, to shsire, to part, from 
pat-tt-^ (led. stem of/i3;-i, a pEtrt. 

Compass. ^F, -- i:.)* >. compas, a 
circui^ diCle, Uwit.^ Mso, n pair ofcom- 
j«i^«.*-L^te L. 's&mpussuSj a circmt^^-L. 
/■pw* (fww}f ^"^th J fassus^ a 1).icl% step, 
passa^, track ; $q that fomfasjtds - a Uat^k 
that joins logelher, circuit. liee P&oe. 
Dar. compoji, verb ; fom/mjies, s pK^ am 
insimment for drawing circles. 

Com^pOBBioii. (F^ - L.) F. com- 
pasnon, — L. tfirfi/aJsion^fUt aco. of ^CJW- 
fuissij^ syinpatliy, — L. ««- (('uw)^ with; 
faisiOf suITeiinF, from pati, to endure. 

€Ompatilde. (F.-L.j Y.comp<Ui' 
bitt ' cumpatible, conciiiTaMc ; * Col.— 
Latt L. cffmpafiiiNif adj,» Ubed of a bcue^ 
ficc which coutd be held logcthci' with 
anuiher. ^ L. rfw/(i//, to cudurc together 
with. — L, fUtn- {cum), wilhi pati^ to 

Com^peer, an aBsodate. (F. — L.) 
M. E. romper. "¥ . csm-^ together; O. K. 
ptr^ a peer, etjual. — L. ofm' Uum)^ lo- 
gctbcr; parem^ ace of par, eqnal ; see 

Compel. > L.) L. totH^p^ikre, to com' 
pel, IjI. todrivc together.— h. irow- {atm'^j 

/iir/*,— L. fpmpattus, fitted together, pp. i tuEclher ; /^//fr*!. to drive. Doi. lompah- 
of fompitt^rt^^L, ftfw (fwfflji togetht^; /tf«, from jjp. totnpuh'us. 

partx^rr, to fallen, iscc Fact 

Cf^Q^pa^ ly), sb., A bargain, ngi^x- 
ment. (L,J \., foutpactum. sli. — L. cotH' 
paftus, pp, q{ (ompctfisfu to ai^rce witli* — 
L. ftfw- {ittm)^ with ; padrti, to make a 
bargain f inceptive form of O. LdE. paitn, 
to agree* See PHot. 

Compuuy* iF. — L.*) M E, <:0iM/i2MK. 
- 0. F* cffffipotm. [Ci, «Uo O. V. {ampaiu. 

Oom.pendious^ biief. (F. - LO K. 
($mptnd%tu3i, — L. tewprndrdst/Sf adj., txom 
compiHdmM^ no Abrid|FmcaE, lit. a tavinj;, 
Kpahn^ of cipciiie, — L. compfndffrTi, to 
weigh ti^-ctlicr. — L* fflwr- [%um)j .with; 
ptmicre. to w-i^h. 
compeiisat*. f L-} ^'otu pp, of U 

tamf^rtsdrt^ to weigh *jnc thijig agninst 
aiiuliicc. ■* L. «vjw- (rtunr}, togcllicfj /cN' 




sarty l^^ wei^h, rreqcienl. of pcndtrs, Lo 
wlIji^Ii (pp. /rrtJ/« I. 

Compete. (L.) L. (^wptrftrv, • L. 
itfw- uKWj), logclhtr; pfftrtr lo strive 

COmpOtflUt, (K.-L.:^ M. F. c^m- 
PeUnl ; orij;. pre*, part, nt comfi^Ur^ to be 
suffigicjiC for. — L. comp^erti to be sufficient 
fttf. — L, tcm- uu'ft), with ; peUrt^ to seek, 

ooxapfltitor. (L.) L. competitor.^ 
rival candidate. *• L, iOm- :ium), with ; 
fieiiior, a seeker, fr ora pefUus^ pp. afpitt/Vj 

Compile. (F,-L.) O, F. fAJw/^Ver.— 
1,. iompi!dr€, to plunder^ piUagt* roi> » so 
that the word bad, at firsts a ^iiibtcr moin- 
lAg.x-L* com- [t'Hfli)j with ; piidre, lo rob. 
Ste Fill '». 

Complo^cent. CJ^.) From ticm of 
pr«. pt, of Komptacirey lo please. — L. 
^*Mr- {.aim\^ in(eii:>ive ; plmerc, to please. 

complaisant. iF. -L.) ¥. anti- 

piaijant, ob^quious, pres, part, of fom- 
piaire, to please,— L, (ompiof^t, ta please 
ComplaitL (F. - L.) O. f. rp/«^ 

//iif^f', A stcin of lOMp/aifiifrr.^ ]., 
fompiaH^tn. to bewail. ^-L. ^om- {tum), 
wilh ; pifififftrt^ to bewsiU lit, to stiikc, 
httt the breast. 

CompleMdillt. (L.) L-iomp/^entum, 
that which completed. -' L. camp/tri 
(^below*]. Doublet, {omplimmt, 

eamplete* perfect, tL.) L. i-owp/rtits^ 
pp, of (Omp!?ri^ to fulfil — L. rtfw- Ua/tt), 
tOECther ; ^/rr*. lo fill. Alljed Iq pli'ttuSy 
fall. See Flenaxy. 

Complex. (L. ) L. cffmp/c^rttst &i- 
twinei! loundj hence, intricate j pp. of 
c6iHpU<ti, to embrace. — L. mm- {ta/u), 
together ; and pUctert^ tu plait, allied to 
piii-drt^ lo twine, iitc Pleaohi 

oom.plexion. (F. — L.) F. i-£ivi' 

pifjcien, apjitarancc, — L.. fQNtpUxiontfN^ 
ate* oi {cmpkxie, a comprehending, com- 
]t»ss, habit uf body, complexion. — J-. lOnf 
plexus, jip. of iompiectit lo surrunnd, 
entwine. — L. r^w- (r»/n), together; //ff- 
/fz-gj to plflit. 

GOzaplicate. .L.) From pp. pf K. 
(^mpiicin, lo fold together. — L. fflw- 
(fww , U'^LTf thtr \ pHcdre^ lo fold. 

COJnplicitj. (F. — L.) F. compikite\ 
* a bad cuiiltilcracy ; * Col. — F. ^ompiUi-^ a 
confedeiate. — L. complutm^ nee. of «w- 
Pltx. interwoven, cOfdedefate with ; we 

Compliance, Compliaiit; formed 

wilh F, suffices -artct^ -ant, from the \crb 
to £smply, which, however^ is not of Fi 
ongin ; seu Comply. 

&iapliment. (F. - Ital. - LO F- 
(QmpHmcnt. — ItaJ- ccJtipHmeuto, corapli- 
metit^ ctviUly. — itAl. camplin, to fill up, 
to auit. "■ L. iompUri^ lo fill up ; see Coni- 
plete, Doublet, comthmtttt, 

compline* (F. — L.' M* ^^compiiitj 
the last church -service ol the day ; it was 
orig. an adj. {\\ke goU'€n from gafd;^ and 
stands for iompHn sffHg ; the sb. is tompiU 
1 Ancrcn Riwle). — O- K. wmpUU (mod. F, 
fomplkSf which is pM, cotuplme. — Late 
L. Lifmplctit (Bc. hera)^ feoi. a I compleiui, 
complete; becanst; it completed the 'horns* 
of the day's lieivice x see Compl^ta. 

comply, to yield, accord with, (Ital- 
— L.) Uaasno doubt been supposed to 
be allied to ply f whence t^omptiant^ by 
analogy with pliant), but js quite dUtinct^ 
and of lul. origin. — Uah *r(?w//;Vc, to fill 
up, fulfil, to suir, 'also to tise ctimptU 
meutSf ccTcmotiies, or kind ofhces and 
oifefs;* Toftiano. Cf. Spati. cciuptir, lo 
fulfil, satisfy. — L» <:emplirc\ to &tl np; sec 
Oomplete. Cf. suppiy. 

Complot, A conspirncy; sec Plot (l), 

Com-ponent, composing. i,L.) L. 
i&Tttppii^ftt-^ sum of prea. ^Ual carttpcnert^ 
lo comjMJse. — L. tom- uum), together; 
Pfifteifj to put- See Compound, 

Compoifti to be!ia?e,smt. (F.— L.i F. 
sg ^emporter, to behave. — L. romportdre^ 
to carry tO|jethcr. *- L. t^om- (£X^\ to- 
gether ; portihi, lo cairy. 

Compose. (F, - L. oW Gk.) F. 
tompoi£r, to compcund, tnnkc ; Col. — ' 
F, f#w- iL. tiifn)^ Itjgclberr nnd ¥.poiir, 
to put, of Gk. origin, as shewn under 
Poae, ^•v, 4f Distinct from compound. 

Composition. (F.-L, F. composi* 
Hon, — T.. ace. compoiitidficni, ace. vi £Qm- 
posifh, a putting together. ^L. eempitfitut, 
pp, ill [.. lompomre , see ooinpounii. 

€Om.poMt, a itiiMare. ^F. - L.) O. F. 
fvmpost, a mixture. —L. eimipfftitrintf neat* 
of compositus^ pp. of (omponete (below), 

compound. {F. — L.) The d is ex- 
ciescL-nt ; M. F. «////o*(««i. — O. F, <-tfOT* 
p^ftri i^Hartscb). — L, cemp^ert^ to com- 
[loundj pBt logether, — L. iom- \<itm')y, 
lugethet : pdnerey lu nnt. See OompOBeut. 

Com.pre]iend, (L.) V.^comprthtU'iifre^ 
to gra^p. — 1-. iom" {pi*tt\ logctbciT and 
pnhtntUri^ to &eiu ; kc Prehenillfl. 




Siifi, fr«|iicnl. ti^ prepuri, to press. 

Comptise. 1%-L-) Froto O. K 
^atnptii, comj>ris„'d, comprehended ; pji. 

' rompremfn, Ig q^mprehcud, — L. <£»W- 

^-ehittJerr; see Comprehend. 

Coinpromise, a &ettkment hy con^ 
gcssioDs. (^K. — L.l K. fcmpremis, *fl 
toniprotnU?,miiluriil promise;* Cot, Orlg. 
pp. of Y, ^oittpr^mfiirCi ' to pBl iinio cam' 
promise;' CM. — I., eompn'tnitUre^ to 
make a mutual ]mimi$c. --L. "^w- (r»w), 
mulually; pr^mittert^ to promiic ; sec 

Comptroller, anatlier spetUng of <en- 
ir^iUr \ s«.c Control. 

Cofiipul9i033L, ^F. — L.) !^te CampeL 

Compunotion, remorse. (F, — I.,^ 
C>, I'. iAitipHtttiioH^ — I,ite ].. flee. n>tu- 
ptifiifiV'itcm. — I.. ritmpHttt tuj, pp, o[ fOtn- 
Piirij;!-, 10 (eel remorse, psis, oU'Qmpttn^ere^ 
lo iirit-k. — L. ,-sm^ {turn)', pttttgrrf, to 


Compute. (L.) U fompfttiifr, (o 
rciiikoEi. — L. <-*j/M- (.tUfft), together; pnl,rr£, 
to >c!ler\r up^ reckon. Doubl^tj <0Hn( {2), 

Comrade^ (F.-Span.-LHj V.rawar- 
Ar/f ^Span. (amarada^ a com].i<iLny ; nl:^ 
an auodMe, comrade, — Span, t-^wa/ii, n 
chamber, cabt-i. *L- (&mtra^ a chamber. 

Con (■), to study, pcruiie, acan, (E,) 
M* E. fUHHftt ; A. ?>, (tinniaHf to test. 
AltlL'd to A. S. ftififtatif to know ; aee 
Oaa (1), Dor. afi-fomur^ \, e. ale-tester. 

Cob [3), short for foHtra, against. i.L.) 
In Ihu pKrase ' pro and fc^i." 

CoiL't /'"^J"* (L-) For rifW' {*um), 
vith, when ihe fotLowing letter is t^ii^g, 
J. M* ^t J. /, or p. Jlefore t>, m, /, it i* 
i-^JW- ; before /, ftfA ; before r, ffl/'- ; litfore 
/i M or t»r 

Concatenate, (l^ ) L- f^frraft-nattis, 
pp. of i<yiudK-mir£, to link logHher. — L. 
(tiw- iiW'T:. together; fothta. q chain. 

Concave^ (F.-l,.) F. ^umrtrv,— L- 
e^thttum, hollow. **L, f^M (<'»!«)* with, 
EocelhcT ; cauuj, hoUow. 

Conceal. (,F.-L.) O, F. tem^kr. 
— L. foHii'ltire^ 10 bidct— I. ton- \(t4m], 
eoniplL-tely; ffYrtr?, lohide. Sec H^bti >' J ), 

Concede. ( L.) L. fofuhiertt to retire^ 
yield. — L, rpH* (i-Hm'i, tugethcr; ctJcrt, 
10 yjcM. Dar. tffmissifitt (from pp. ivm- 

Conceit. ( F. - L ) M» E. /t^M^tii/, ftfM- 
fifVi Fatnicd as If from ihe^p. of O. K. 

.I'wirw/V, lo coutcinr, tliuujfb llit 
pp, was tdMiVJV (F. rs«,'«'; by analogy 
with if^ni/, q.v. Set below. 
conceive. {V.-l,) M, E, fomn^cti, 

fffHtiftrtL — A, ¥. fo/treiv^, a stem of U. J''. 
t^mtvirt rffmtvpir^ lo toiiceivc-— L. rsM- 
fip^tv, to concdvc. — J^ r^^M- (rww/J, nlto- 
gelhfr ; fttperf, to take, 

conception, ^K,— L.*) K. ipunptiou. 

^Jj. t-oti^rpfiJu^m ^1,, (^ttifpt*tfSf pp. ol 
t&tuipc'te^ to conceive natiovcj. 
Concentre, to Hmw lo a centre. i.K.'^ 

together ; aitd centr-utft^ a ceiitrcj from Gfc. 
rnVT/wf ; sec Ceatr«. Ser, MMC^u/f'ir, 
cffnciiiU*ati (m&dem), 
Concern, vb. (K.--I») Y.tsiuarto. 

— L. loncerttiri, to miK ; in Ijile l^t , to 
refer to, icfiiard^ — L, wh- {turn., wiib; 
.111(1 ii>'Hft(^ to separate, deciec, obiervf. 
-4* C;k. *^rfir, to separate, decide ; Lith. 
skir-ii^ \q separate, d»tmgiil&h. Unigni, 
tL S 611, iV^KER.) 

concert* iP',— Ital— L.) Ofier* con- 
fused with {ptfsctt in old writer*, — Y. cetf- 
ferter^ Mo consort, or a^^rec together ^' 
Cot.t'ltal. tfiHur/arff 'to agree or tunc 
together, sing in consort/ Florio ; cf, rtfwr- 
i'ftt&i sb.j agreetneDt. The Ital. forms 
shew that it was derived from \.,ccnreft&fe, 
to contend, struggle together ; indeed, we 
find alsoSpan. i&nartar^ to settle or ndjinst, 
covenm^l, bari^ohi ; which also points to 
the ^me origin, [It wonld seem that the 
L. vb, took up (he sense of to settle hy 
debate, and to, to ngree,]- L. *vrt- [tUiMif 
together; terfarf, to contend, vie wiih^ 
orig. * lo decide by contest i ' fre(|UCJi(. of 
cenu'i, to decide. See Conoem. Dor. 
conrert, s.l.i, „ cQittert-iHa. 

Concession. ^F.-L.) Y.totuestioH, 

— I. ace. «'iJMif«/(iff/wi..B"L. (oiicissiis, pp. 
c>i (OittffUfe^ to concede ; see CoooaiIa, 

Condli a marine shell. (L. — Gk.) L. 
(-pw(7/a, — Glc, KifyHTj (al&o^tiytosfjacocklc- 
shelL^'^^'^ f^K&Aa^ n conch. D^r. <eii- 

Conciliate. (L.) From tht pp. of L 
tatta'fitif^, to bring tofjelher, conciliate.— 
L. a^fhiffttm, n council : see CouoQil. 

Concise. (F, — L. ; *r I^^ F. eonrii, 

— L, /{fftastrs^ biicf, cut ihon ; pp, fji .v/f 
fjVfrif, — L. fpw- \fum)^ intetisive; aedcje, 
lo cut. Der. caftr^h'fffft. 

ConclaTB. (K, — L/) F. tcmfavf, n 
small room (lo meet in). — L. tefuhruf, 
a room ; iater^ a pltuc of assembly 





cutlinab, ai^euihly. Orig. a lucked np 
pUce^^L. rvN- tjtttmjt tugeUier; iiauu, 
ft key. 

Conclude. (L.) L. anf^uden, to 
sbul up, dose, end. — L. CiJM' *citm>, 
logctlier; Hjnd 'cIuMre >^i'iaHiifre, to fthut. 
Der. ^Diuhfs-ien, Similarly t.x-iimii, itt- 
€iitJt, prt iUfiie. it^tiudt't whence in*dtts* 
ivit prt^lasifftif si-dui-ioH (.from p\t, 

COAOOct, 1,.!^) FrqTn 1^ ^ncoctuif pp. 
of lencin/tifre, to cook together, digest. «« 
L. loft- I tarn: i *-iJi/w*-rtf, to cook. 

ConcoDiit&iiLtr nccotnpatiym^. ^L.) 
From L. ^*jh- j^twiw), tpgethcrj aod 
tamitaNMm. ace. of pMS. pi. kA nfmt/dri, 
to accoiDpRny, from nfmif', sl^m oi^ fiwtej, 
a compftnioo ; see Coont (■). 

Coaoord, (K — L,) F. ^t^ttcor^e.^L. 
{OHtoniiiif agreement. ^ L. ffimorti-i stetii 
of i(»H-ti?rj'. ik^etirn^.^L* ^0H- i/iim) ; c^f 

itrm (iffti- ;, the lieart. 
Ot^nCOrdant, iF.-LO K. tonrard- 

U, pK>. I'L nf ftWf^rdi'f, to (igTCt. — L. 
n?HKeP-ii(hf^ to agree •!- (^ttt&rti- (abovcn 
OOnCordA'tt 1^1'. -'L.) F. con^oniai^ 
Ml agrL'rnitiit, — Late I^ €<tncordaiHm, a 
cciuvfrjitloiu tiling ajfreed on, csp. between 
the pope nivl K. kings; pp. q{ tONicrdare^ 
to a^rtc I ttUwe). 

CoaC<kitrA6. ( K. — 1^> F. mncouFs. — 
L- ace. f^ftittnum, a running tagether.— 
L. «w(tf«rji*j, pn, of fOti*inrr€rf, to run 
togctlicr. * L. iwf- [iMtn)„ together; and 
runrrr, to rim. Sec CoaOur, 

ConCretfli formerl into oaa num. (I„^ 
L. d^turiS tii, pp, yf eom.res£frtf to pow 
toj;ctii(-r-*»l.. (fp»- i,4T¥«), together ; <tts- 
ttre, to (;rf>w, 

ConCUbULO* kY'— I^) O. F. (pttatifhtt, 

— L. rtrjfifi^jV/a.— L. f^M^ L'^'hJI] logethet ; 
fuAar^, try lie. 

ConcftpiAQemee. (F.-L,) F.toncu- 

^,vHrv, ^ 1,. lamupisctHtta, desire. — I- 
fVHittpiittrt, to tlc^irc ; inceptive form of 
^tffbii^rr. — L. f^ri- ((tri#ii,\ intcnstvc ; ^iid 
Oif^n, lo lon(* for. 

COdUniZ. (L>) L. r^^f^^rrirfv, 10 rtm 
logrtlier, a^rer. «I^ (^n- {/um), lugclher; 
cttrtfrt, \o run, Dot, t^mPUrs€, 

CoActuei^lL. I'\ — L.) Wc&ncuffiffH. 

— L. iTotuttsitmtiH^ ace of tOHtitaWt a 
vlf»lcnl ihaViiig- — L. lOHtus^ut, pp. of 
taHtiiiert. to ahnkr togcthct. » L. tO/i- 
(iww/ . t .^vther; ^uaUrt^ to shake, 

Cotidfimii. (F.-Ui 0, F. i<w*iVw/tf/-. 
^ L. ionJtmndrt, 10 coQdemii wholly. pr> 

nounee lo be gnilly, — |„ ruw- \fum)t 
wholly ; 4/amndr^i to condemn. 
Condeiue. ^F, — L.v ¥ , iffntiemcr,^ 
1.. tPHiiiNJiitf.^L. fOMt/^tuMt, very thick. 
^l^iQH- ium^nVevy; iii:Hj«jjlhick,d«o>e. 

CondoBcend. iF. -l.) ¥. ffifn/t^ 

si£tfJre, — iji\c L. cGndfi^indtrg, to gratit 

( III. to dcstcntl with).Ml..,i<m- ;{j*jw},wlth; 
(i^uftuUrc. to de£ce]id ; &ee DAiooDd. 
Dep, iamii'seMi-ion, from the pp. 
Condign, well merited. vF,-L.) O. F. 

tffHiftffti^, — L, i'tmiiignus^ Tcry worthy. « 
L. 4VJ«- \LUfii\^ ver>- ; dignus^ wurlhy. 
Condiment. i.L.) L. ccndimentwu^ 
iieQsoiiungi juiuce. «-L, i&ndire, to kasoji, 

5pici.-| preserve i^as fruit). 

Condition. (F.-L.) i\ifNdififfn,~ 

I.. iOHdilionem, acc of {cnditi^^ a late 
spelling of (0Hdki&» a covcriAttC, condition. 
— I,, lij'ffc/firi'r, to talk over logctbcrj agree 
Iipini.-*L. ton* {cum), together; dicertj to 


Condole* (L) ]^- (ottd^ifre^ to grieve 
wiib. ^ L. (aft* {(Mm), with ; ddtre^ to 

Condone, (I..^) K. ^wvi/im^r^. to tunil, 
pardou.-L. ctfw- ifwrn), wholly; d&ndrit 
to give; sre Donation. 

Condo^t a large bird. iSpon.-reru- 
vianO Span, tdndor.^ Pcruv. fUMtur, a 

Condnoe. ^L. L. cttn/tkert^y to draw 
iD^ct her towards, lead to. — L ii?m- i,;wjw), 
t<^lher; dt'ucrt, to lead. 

OOndnct, ^b. ^L,'i Late 1« cffTMUftus, 
defence, protc>;tionp guards eMort.^L.ftw- 
ductus, pyr, o{ iOH-ducert [above), 

<Mmaiiit, (,F. -L.) M. £. fpHt/jvi?.— 
O. F. ffttduitp a condoit. — Ljile L-^an- 
dtrcttu, a defence, ewort ; aUo^ a canal, 
tube ; siec above. 
Cone. iF*-L.-UkO M.F, cmr.^L* 
iTtfWMr. — Gk. MWfof, A coae, peak, peg. + 
Skt. fdtta /, a whrtatone; cH L. fpj, the 
iiamc. Sre HonQ. Brugm» i. f 40K 

Coney; "f* Oony. 

Confabolftte. L,) From pp. of L, 
£OH/tibuidrij to lalk togelber. — L, tott' 
\icum)^ with; y^^/i/rj", lo couverte, from 
fahuhy a discoiirw ; see Fabla, 

Confectr lo make np into sweetmeats. 
i,L,) L. iCHjgiitis^ pi^. ol *aHjiur£, to pot 
together, moke up. — L. icH^ \fum). to- 
gedipr : foiitt, to put. Der, coujcd-ion^ 
{on/tvftontr. Sec Comflt. 

Confedemte. (L/) L.£ou/u-d^a/ui, 

united Ly a covenaflt, pp. of (on/etdtrari. 




•/iv/fj-, stem of fii-fffif, a trealy. See 

of /li-Jtif, a trealy. 
Federal . 

Qoh£ot:* (t'^ }*"rom L. (Ofi/fft^, lo 
bring lojrtlhcr, collect^ bc-slow,wL, f^w- 
{itif/i , together; firre^ to bring, bear 
% Not from F. 

Confers. ( F. - L.) O. F. rotifesser. - 

Laic L. fPf^W(f«, — L, tmifessiis^ pp. of 
iiinft?ri^ lo confess. - 1^ ctf^;- (rMflx^, luUy; 
fafcn^XQ Ackiiowledi^e, allied xo fan, to 
Bjxrik. Cf. Gk, ^T<s. a sj^cch. Bnigm. 

ConEde. (^*) L. co^\fertt to tmst 

fully, w L. c^H- (atm), hi\\y;/fdeiv, lo 


L, x^nfmttiat, i,ti jiour tugctlicr, qonfouiul, 
— L. coH- C<^/r/M)j togtiher ; /wWfi'f J lo 


prttir. See Fuse (O. 
Coufratemity. Y. - 1 -. ; From J .. 
can- {'A>tt)^\i\\\i\ auri Pfitomily, <{ V. 
Con&Ont. 1 K. - L. ;■ K. ionfrmhr-, In 
brin^ lace to face. — Med, L rott/i-0$tMn^ 
to be near lo. — L. ^--piJi {luw), together; 
/rffHi , stem oi/rofts, forcliea/l, front, 

COIlftlSd. (,1") ^f- ^- isnftis^ Usc^l lis 
[I pp. in Ch^ttcer. — I« i&it/Oms, pp. of 
f6n/utuJert, lo confouiwl ; see Confound. 
Gonixite. C^*-1^0 y. fOH/uler." \,. 
con/ilfiirf, io cool by mixing cold water 
with hot, lo allay, also to confute, — I. I'on - 
iru^t, nlhcd io/uUs, fnsth \ sec Faith. \ {(um:\ together ; */fif<xrg, to pour otil Ci> \ 
Configuration. O". - LO I', fc"- cf./M/u, n watcr-vesid to pour from, from 
/ij^ira/iifH. — L. rottfi^^h'fi/icn£ffi , a con- the L. bjiseyw-j to pour* Ltrugm. i. § 605. 

fomiition. — L. (onfi^umfus^ pp. of ««' 
fffthHre^ to put loj^eihtT. — L. i-«jm- i;<«m. ; 
figrtriifi^ to fashion, ftoaiy?j*//'d, A figiire. 
Sl'c Figure. 
CoiLfilier to limit- (F* — L.) F* rtfw- 
/('rtt'/v to keep "Within Simus, — M. F. 
(Oftfu, iicai; Cot.-l- lOfiJhiis^ boldciing 
on. — 1- fon- {rt/Hij^ with ; _/7«/i, bonndary. 
See Pin»,l. ^ Mod, F, ha.s only rett/ini, 
sU pl.» con^iie^i; representiag O. K lott- 
ffftis, L fen/iniaf pi, ; whrtit* E. tonfitus. 

confirm. !.(•. — L.) M. K. (tf/{/ir/«i7/. 
— i>. 1'". i(*tt/et'mty. -p L. tonjirmdrt^ lo 
make tirm, strejigllicn. — L. tiw- (fww), 
fully i/vW(rr/, to strengthen, irom Jifmtts, 

ConfisOAtei to ftdjiulgc to be forfeit. 
(L.; I., fimjii(i7tus, pp. of f,}iijfnt.f7-^, to 

See Futile. HefUtQ and Fuae fl). 

Congeal* (K.-L.) l\ tVfJ^eler.^h. 
coii^/ih ^,U) cans? to freeze together. ■» L. 
eoM-, togt'ther ; ^e/an, lo freeze, froTa^lu, 
frO!)l. See Oelid. 

Congee, Gong^i le&vc to depart, (K> 
- L ^ 1^ . fp/^j'^c'', ' Itavc, djstoiision 1 ' Cot. 
O. K. ton^ii, fUii^e, ruft^it ■, Bargtiy) ; the 
same as Fiov. ri7//i;a/, — L^te L. fpmuiius, 
leave, permission (^VIII cent.J ; the same 
as L. (SfHffictifud , a travelling lu^elb:-r» 
nli^ leavt of absence. — L, iom- \fum}, 
together; w/^Jfns, a cOursC| from pp. of 
trtfare, to go. 

Oongonial, kmdrcd. U^ Cuhiett 

from L. fOii \.iU/H}, with; and grtiiaif 

adj. from I. jiytims; see Genial. 

Congenital. (L) Cnincd by adding 

ftf to ilic ol>s. wo(d ^citi^enitf XVII 




lav by iti n coffer, to coiiriscale, irnnsfcr to ceiil.'. — L. ttifixi^fiiati. bom with, — L. ioti- 

ihe trcflsurj-. — L. toft- \citm\ r Jijcus, a 

Confiagration. (i" - *- L.) ?% <r^M- 
Hvi^anQit. - L. ace. ionJiftgrtUmum, a 
great burning.-^L. ri*rt- ('V/w ^ toyclbcr; 
j^^nir^, to bum. iicc Pla^rant. 

Confiict, an cncottmtcr. (L.) L. (&»' 
Jfidui, a 5trikii]g tofjelber; fram the pp, 
of iQitfii^ai, to strike I0(jethcr. — L. (cn^ 
\^nm\ \vi'^*il\vc\i fiigtre^ to sti^ike, 

Confinent* (L.) From stem, of prcs. 
pt. ol fciifiutrtf to How together ; sec 
Fluent, So also tmtfiuXy slX. from the 

\itim'\ , with ; ^nfiitts, borti^ pp. oi^'i^fUrg, 
lo produce, bee Genital. 

Conger* ^ »ea-ccU (_K, - L. - Gk. 
M,K.itfw^#.^0. F, ftfrt^vtf*-*!. fengrnm, 
flcc. of fi>«^'>'wjf by-fonn of n^Hgtr, a sea 
cel.^Gkt 'jnJ'yT^, ihc same. 

Gongenes, a buss of panicle^. (L.> 

L. tmi^^^rirs, B heap. » 1„ tettj^tr/rft tr> 
bring t^sij-eilicr.— L. ii?n^ i^tj/w), logelher^ 
gfuffi, lo tarrv, 

COngefltlon»accan)ulfllioo. (L..^ From 
L, ace. fongafi^H^m.^L. tongestiti, ]tp. of 
congetyrt (above). 
Conglo1>e, to funn into a i:lobe. (L.l 

pp. :On/fn.xffS 

Gonibrm. (F.— L.) F. ^enj^rmtt,^ \\^. i^cn^ghlnirc—V^. fott- (r«w), together; 
L. icft/eri/t<ir£f lo fflihiun like. — L. rtm-^ \^ohtt^. a ;;lot»e. 

togi'llicr ; /or^^tfjr?, lo form, from .^rw/a. Conglomerate. (U^ From pp uf 
form. U-euj;Ufiur,iri\ lu wind i:ilo a bull, heap 

Gonfonnd. (F. — L.) Y . ian/enJrf.^ [ lo^elher. * L. tsn- {cum\ together; tad 




^htmt'. fnr *i'U//Uff stem uf ^fonths, 

CSonglutiiL&te. (I-) From pp. of 
In iOtn^b'ttiMin-f, lo glue to^jctJtcr* — I.. 
^'ffW- \*Hm), togelher; g/iiiinJnc, to (jluc, 
from ^hititt-i .4ttni oi ^uietij glac. 

GoUgOIlp a l^int] of tea, (Chinese.) Ui 
tin' Amoy iKalect, cnlleri Jkat^-ktt /r. where 
katSis^-hu is lit, ' Work, labour;* i. e, tea on 
whicK la)M:'ar has been txin iifled (Dougbt). 
Thf \n\c Chinese is ktittg'/u cA'a, with 
Uie ^imc sense. 

Congratulate, i-) From i>j>.of L. 
icii^rasultin, to wish much joy, — L. fOM- 
^(««/ , fully , i^^attttari^ to wish joy, from 
Atlj. i^/ditti, pleading. Sec Onice. 

OoilgTegate. 'L) Krom pp. of L. 
fon^trg-irTf, to collect itito a flock. — t« 
i'en* ii*m), togethtr; p'^^'ttv, lo asicm- 
blc a ftock, from grt^-^ $Uai af grej , n 

GongreBB, a meetbg together. U. 
L ioif^'rif'iis,~i„i.atfj;reiSiif, pp. gf r^H- 
£rtJit lo mcL't tiijjHhcr. — L. (iW-,logelhcr; 
grUifi, it» aflvancc, u:ilk- 

C^ngme, to agtw^ suit ^U) L. tm- 
^THr/y, to suit. Root uncertain.') Der. 
trH^rif-oitf, from L, tcti^rtt/Uj suitable ; 

Conjecture.. (F.— L^) ¥»4m/W/tttt. 
— 1- rati tt't ill tit, a c4:itin^ together, a 
(fuess, ^ L. ^^/im/ffi^ p]^, of iont'ittft lo 
throw or i>ul to|jjelher. -* L, *w/- fwwf , lO" 
gclliA-r: titii'i^e^ (o throw. 

Conjoin. i,K. — L.) O. I**, tottj&ittdtv. 
I,, (oniungrre (pp, eoHUitttftti). \x> join 
together. — L. rtf«- (t'««), together; iww 
^r*'*', to join, S« Join. H^r. i^njumt* 
iiiH^ ri^Hjttftff'irvi, frniit the pp. 

ooqjiLgal, Ktatihg to mflrrUgC' (t'- — 
L.I !", itntjugtit — J,^ iONiui^ttlit, n<\\.^ 
I.. t£>itt\i,v//i. ace. of £omus:j a spouse. ~ 
I.. *i»w^, t<»jjelher; m^, illietl to itm^eref 
lo joirt. iai;uttt^ a. yoke ; see Join, 

oai^Ufpatioii. \l^) From L coHtu- 
X'ffto, :i *:o[)jiig:itigii ^Priscian ; lit. a 
yokiiij; to^;clhtr.*-I- .'Ottiii^diuSy pp. of 
ioniugs'trt, to yoke toj^tther. -* 1., iVm- 
(j7///i . tn^'L'Uicr; iug-utn^ti yoke. 

Conjns'e. ;K.-L.) "SX.M. i(?murefi.— 
1". tpiry/irc/; — L, *onffi*$iri, to >wcrar tu- 
lictt cuinbilie hv oath. ^ L, 4'0H', to- 
her ; itirdrt, to ■we-aj ; we J«ry- 

CoUBect. t^-) I" toniictUrt^ lo lie 
toijf !lu-r — I. ^tf/r- {/iim\, together; and 
ne> /,->£, to himl ;pp. next*i\. Der. f*»«- 
iio:-Ki7» l^not r4';<tM«:t^ui'(lt from the pp. 



' ConJU7€* ,,!'".- I.'' 1*'. iOHtiiivr.'^l.. 
' ct?Hniu<rff to close the eyei nt, tivcrJook. 
' — L. rtJM- '<'um\ lui^cther; mJ "^//^wf/v, 
I to wink; cf, ntcfdrf, to wink. + tjolh. 
Awntvin, to bow ; Uru|>m. 1. § 664. 

' CotmoisaeTir, a criiieaL lin\^c. • F.-- 

1-) i'\ iOnnufsseur^ formerly ti?*iiteiiS(ur, 
A kciowiiig one. — O, t. t&nitmiJ-dJtt, [iTcs. 
pl^ of O. K. ifftici'sfr^ ; see Qognismice, 

Comiutlial, (Lj ],. tf?iitift^itUjiy rc- 
I^Lting to mutiage^wl^ i^o{n)ttiii'intiit w.av- 
riage, — L. cen^ mm , *ilh ; ttitbir^^ to 
marry. See NuptiAl. 

— O. K. +i?ni/J/frJi;,— 1„ tOH^thfrt, lo seek 
nftcr, go in qnc^t of; in LAte 1^., to con- 
quer.— L: i-fW- [iufft , with: ^tturrtrt, to 
^eek. D«r. roin/ufff. M. K i-^tf'/tii-ji/^^ 
from Ijtle I.. 1 stti/i/e j/tj, L. f&fii^Htiifa^ 

Co&sa&gni&eone. it.) From t.. 

€onsaK^ttiui ttu tclnicil by bI<to<1, n il h 
*iiflix -flwj. — I . rfl«- (,*tfjw\ together; 
tan^iitt , stem of sanifiiist blood. 

CouBcience. i- . - L.) F. ofttsck/nf. 

L.I i>wi> /i-ff/M.corisciousnesa. — L.rtfMJr^rV«^, 
stem of piei. pt. of nfinsfir^, to know Jtlon^; 
Shith- ~ I-. ''Oft- {(Uf/i}. with; sti/t, to 
' know. .Sec SeJenoe. Def. ^onifiomihlt, 
'an ill-ton trivect ^<ID]\I, used a!i\i contrac- 
tion of i*>/^JtfVM((f i-O^/p, 

eoneciOTlS. ^L.^ From L.rv?wi4-t-fij, 
nwaie, with snffut -p«/.— J„ fsH/f/iV, Iw he 

aware of l^above). 

Goiia< if'.'i L. (ifmrti^H^, cn- 
' rolMj pp. ol totturibirtf to write down 
together. — L, ton- {iittft)t together: uri- 
I i^rri', tn wriie. 

I Consecrftte. H-) From pp. of L. 

j i-^ttJi'inffY., to render HiuwJ* — L, rtfw- 

[ irM/w , with, ^hnllj; SttftWff to eoliK- 

crate ; sa? Baored. 
^ GoiiaeciitLT0. (F. — 1»^^iijE'«^u- 

1 rr/j Cot. Konned with shUik '^^I^L. 'iuusf 
I from L, c0ns/t://t-HSf pp. of fonsftpti^ to 
I follow together. — L, rCM' itWwi), together ; 
i^yui", to follow. Sec SsQueuee. 

couBeqnent. !> ' L. ttf^sn/ntHt- , 
stem of pres, pt. of cottjr^ut (above . 
Consent, vb. (^K. — JL) F. <tntentir» 

— L. iotniHtire, to itgrcc lo. — L. ncn* 
I <£um , witli ; sfHdrt, to feel. See Aeiifte. 

ConBerrfl, vb, if'". -L,;i Y.totismyr, 

— L. ioHi{ra.dfr, lo pretcrve, — I.. f(i«. 
Ufim), fiilly^l struiirf, to keep. X>et. i*»W' 
jfnr, lb : a'Mitn' a/fir/. See flrrve 

, Consider. .F.-Uj o.F. ««/**/'""'. 




« L €«•- V«« 

■Mfir; tier XOm 

^.-Li P. 

dMtf*^ tmmA ismm tram Oirt, 

(r.-u r aKi««kr.*L. 

CoiiP<m»Mt> aciw^ with. (F.-Uy 
f. iOu>ifna*tft MomaaC; Cat*U <«»•- 
lUHi-, fUni of pre*, pt. fA «amtttiFw, to 

to •ooad ; we 4o«s4 ;i;. 

<pn*$rt', ficn of loiuafi, rjnt whoftham 
I»rufcri7 irtth «Aotb«r, * partorf . ^i L. ftfw- 
(rjtfw>« loK«thrr ; /atT-, »t«oi of Mr/, « Um, 
ftb«rr. }icv Mart. 

vidlhlr, wrEb •uffiJt 'OUir. — 1^ f^mf*ittr<, to 
M« tiMromjrhlf. - I., /^m-. fully ; tputrt, to 

U ctmpirin, \\t tfrtath« toj^ctbcr, cdiH' 
Uftr. |fto(. i« 1. '0M- (jrjWiH;, together; 
ipirArt, to lir«>tbr. 
OottVtKbU, « j»cauc-*rfliL<T. (F.-l. 

jfaltiii, lit < cciunt of the lUbU.' th* title of 
n rti^rtiurrnfthe Komaii empire •odaflct' 
wnr'U III uic Anionic tlkc rnnkt* See 
Count < I 'i niitl SUbl*. 
Conitmnt, lirni, (F.<-T.> F. rim- 
i/tfrt/, — L. fffntfn/tf', item nf (Wij/anj, 
firm; ofliK;. |vre«. |>t. of fomtilrt, lo klAnd 

Conat«Ua>tioii. F, - 1.. ' K. ccntUi' 
tatiati —I,, jti.. nwsfe/iitfi^HiMtiAuttcT of 

l'l> 'W ttrlhfti to del wiiti.jMATi, fforo 
/////u, « •t»r. Ser Htar. 

Oonatammtion, I . - 1.. V. t^n- 

Atf, pp^ af I— ifiMii (hriovV 

MBfftriliiL «.L) L. ftmstnurtt to 
bapt«fcibeff.bBiU.oaftitfti«; iftL«i«I^ 
to eoa mnfc » patgc.— U tftv- wua^.l^- 
geAer; tfrmtftf t» pik, 

CL«) L. rfiMimf, i ooosnL 
Etyv. iloBbtM ; bot Allied to t^strUrty 
to oooalt : kc licki>w. 

tOHiuUdrc* to conult ; Eretjiaenl. fonn of 
cffn-fuMrf, to cooraU. Rum qoo^ruun; 
pr&b. allied to Ji^ih-if to tit : cf, i^imm, 

» IK41. 

CoaSBUM* {^'.' 1— rdMJu^rurr^ lit. to 
lake up trhollj.— U <att* iitim/^ logetber, 
whnlly ; t&mtrtr to Like up, fn>m *tupS', 
rtllied to tui, under, up, and^Mt^ft, to take, 
Jmy. Brngm. i. { 340. Der. (vmutfijaicH, 
ff<»m thi; jjjj. 

Cotttnuniu&te. fl^) From pp- ^^ I- 
ronrummiire, to bring into oo« sum. to 
jHrrfecl.^U (KJM- ttitttt. jogclhcr: »jw* 
m4rt, to titm, from tumins, a ^om ; aec 

Contaot. ib, L.'i L. <9ttta<tm. k 
touching. « L, fotttoffui, pp. of iimiin^irt, 
to touch cluscty ; sex Contis^Dl. 

flontngion. (F.-l., h\ *ff»titpon. 

— L. fffHfdgi^ne/tt, acq. of tonfijx^o, a 
touching, hence gonial; ion. — L.<ivf- ic7/w), 
wttli ; /ifff'f jiid i^tailc of /d(^, a» in */ti,r- 
/wj >/di-ftii . |)p, o( eaM^t*'t. 10 touch. 

pOntftin. F. — L,y Front n tottic >lein 
of U*F. *tfy«tfrti>.«-L. io/ttiitrri, lo hold 

1 04 



togrther, conta^iq ; pp. r^Mftn/ui. — T„ rim- 

(rt^'w)^ together; fe»r>r, m ho\f\. 

Coiltamiiiate, ; L.) I< rom pp, of L. 

cOH/dmtrtafr, Ui dfftlc. — L. lOHttimia-^ 

rm oJ i&ut-:m^», conUjjjion ; which slamli 

in ftutus, for *iag--iui, pp. of //itt^rei to 
toncli, Hru}tin. t, | 768,, 
Conteniii'. (F. - L) M. F. cent^mMr. 
— L frnfrmnrret to despise. — L. rpn- 
{rttfri), with, wholly; Umtutf^ to dc- 

oonteitipt. K--L.) U.Y . fCHUmpe, 

Cot, — Iv tameiuptus* scorn, — L, rflit* 
frmfiitr, pp rii .lyntemmrt (wJbovtU 

Contemplate. (U) From pp. oi 

nnitmpi^'trt, to xhscrve* consider; uied at 
first of flUgnrs.-^L. rwi- (fww) ; tfrnpium, 
an o[x;n space forobwrvaiion (by ftugnrs) ; 
we Temple, 

CoatempOrAllOOUfl* (L.^) L. nevr- 
tim^ratu-ttSt uij., tt the ume timc'r with 
suflix -tfVA-^L r0»- frt*w), wilh I Hmpor-^ 
for */€mfoi-, >tetn of Umpus^ time. 

contemporaz^r, Cl^) L.£wt-rWith; 
and L, ietnpordrius, temporftryi iKlj.» from 
t/mfvr- (above). 

Contend. (F.-L,") O.Y.c^nttttJr^.^ 
L. iQiiUmUrt, to stretch oBt, exert, liijhL — 
L. ^^H- \atm\ fully; tendtrg, ta atrivc, 
Der. tQHUnt-ion ifrom the pp. (tmtentns). 

Content, ocij. (K-l.i F. f&tnent, 
tidied.* L. f&nitntm, content; pp, of 
\HHfrt ; sec COQtKlxi. Der. dh-fffn- 

Contest, vk [F.-L.) F. conmter,^ 
L, coMteii^in, to atW (o witness, to bring 
Bn Action. -mL. C(?«- cum^t togcdlrr ; /«- 
/flrf, to witness, from tesfif, a wiiness. 

Context. (I^} L- ^env^TAwf. a joining 
to^tbcr, order : hmcc, coulc t of ^ booltj, 
•P L. fonlfxtiiS, pp, of ei»ttf^jciri^ to wenve 
togctlicr, — J, rsn- (atm)^ togctlier ; 
Uj:^u, tfi weave. 

ContlGfuona. (I. ) [.. fomigH-tis. that 

mxy be loQchcd, tirarj mth fuffin -PHt,^ 
L, ht-oit. i;^<^wiw(, with; Bnd fa^-, as in 
tac'tut ^for *tai^-tHt)^ pp. of tangen^ to 
touch ; see Contiiifaai, 

Continent* (F,— L.^ F. roHthunty 

adj., mwlcrate. — L, fanfitifrti-^ stciii of 
pfrt. pt. ff i-off/iHcrf ; see ContMii. 
Continffenti dependent on. \..^ 

From ^teni af pres. pt of effttfrrtj^^re, to 
tODch« reUtt (o.« [.. r^tv- (ruw) ; tanj^r/, 
to loudi. Sec TuiffOnt. 

Continue. iF. - 1.,) F . (entinu€r. - 
Ll i^nUntuirt^ to continue >pL. fotttmuui 
ibclijwV Der. dis-coniinue, 

Continuoue. 'I^) I., fontimt-us^ 
lit. holdin^i tM|:tthcr ; with sufhx -tfw/*« 
L, fOtt/ttt^rv^io bdd together^ ctmtmn. See 

Contorts iL.) L. fPHi^rtui, pp. of 
i-tfttfiir^u^^, fo twist together. — L. rwf- 
ytufft'., together ; tarq^ere, to Iwisi. 

Contour, an outline, iF. — FtaI,-I.O 
V* i:oHtour^ csp. in flu nrlistic sense.— Ital. 
fontcrno^ a. circuit; c^mtomart^ *to en- 
circle;' Florio. — L. ("dfl- (fwmj» together ; 
tfirttatr, to roimd oA, to ttim ; see Tiinii 

Contra-, /rf/x. (L.) L. i&Mfrd, 
agAinat ; ong, the a,b1. fern, of An obs. adj. 
prep, (ojjcfhtf ; cf. ixtrt\ from fj:terus. 

Contraband. (SpAn.— hnl. •- L. and 

Tent. ; Span. . ontrt^nd^^ prol^ibiled goodti, 
— tt^L 4-dnjfr(i4V^Mi/b, prohibited goc^i. — 
Itnl. amtrft (^ J . centra , ngninst; bando^ 
a bao, from Late L. ^wnhw, a word erf" 
Tent, oii^n, viz. from O. H. G. hatty a 
commnnd. See Ban. 

Contract (')» to draw (oedther. (L.) 
L. I'&mnutfts, pp. of (cntriihfre^ to dJ»W 
toE«hcr, — L. (i>pr- Kum)^ together; /m* 
Atfrt, to dmw. 

contract (i\ a bargain. (F.-L.) 
M. V. ivrtfruff ; CoL — I^ (timtrat/rtrrr, 
Aiic, ol toutrOifHS, sb., A drn^ving together, 
A bargain. vL, rffNlmc(u$f pp, {abovcV 

Contradict. (K.) I-* cisHfradit/Mi, 
pp. ol t'0f/fr,}du-tfVt to ,<Lpeiik agnins^t. ><i L. 
ivnfrti^ nj^nins-t ; d/rere, to spenk. 

Contralto. [,ita1.-I.' Ital I'^N^r- 
a//{), i;oLintcr-tenor> -^Itnl, cirttira, oppo* 
$ite tOj and alfiif high. — L. r^/nr, ugatnit; 
tt//wj, bigb^ 

Cent^l^TJ* F,-L.) A. F, .v»/™r«; 
K. ii*Hii'tjire, ^ L, catirarius^ contittty ; 
from cenfrJ, ngaintt ; sec OOBtni-. 

Con^EBtr ^b- (F,--!*) ¥ . coitfrai/tr^ 
to strive, contend against 1 hence to be ii\ 
opposition to, &c,). — I-ate L. cpn/raiiart, 
to stand A^inst. — L. t^HtrSy agaiait ; 
jfffr*, to <;T3nd. 

Contrav'ene, to hinder. (F.— L.) F. 
coufrtvetiir^ * lo ibwnrt ^ ' Cot.— Ijite L. 
fpnfrrfuftttrg, to oppose ; lo breath a law, 
« I„ ^tttttrvi, ngfiinsl * ufmrf^ lo come. 

Contribute, il •) Krom pp. of L. 

i-ottt*'ii>urrf^ In contribute, lit, [lay lo- 
prther. — L. con- {/uttA^ together ; fri* 
ourrtt to bestow; ice Tributo, 




Contrite. jF.-L.^ ^.toHtrii."!.. 

contyittfSj ihnTOUuhly brui&rd, hence, peni- 
Icnt ; pp. of L. conUrtrt, to rub togt'llier, 
bruise, — I. can- \cnm\ together] Hnrt, 
In mb. S« Tritft, 

Contrive. (P. — I- ^'mT Ck.) An 

nitcrefl sjjtlltng \ Sf . K. fontrotien, (ort* 
Ireuett {= ,-datrof£fi, coittrgvt'it.^O.Y, 
{pntrt?vfr, to finil, find out (Bartschj.i^ 
(X F. <ti>n- (1-. con-, iorrum^ ; O. ¥>irozvr, 
lo find; see Tisjver, ^ Cetttrizff {d. 
rrti'Uve': is from M. K. c^Mtffve, aniwering 
to O. K, fontr^HV-^ slressed stem of f^ffl- 

Control, *l^- (F' — I'/ Cettt*'ol is short 
(oT rs/it/fra/I, old form of coitnitr-reii,^ 

f >. F, ti}Ntrfrfff\I)e, aduplitalereKistei, used 
to verify the official or fif^t-made roll,— 
O.F.^ffH/r^,over (ig^instf rp/(/y.a rull,— 
[^ ^ONtrit, against ; rotuiumf ace. of rtf- 
ht/us, a roll ; see HolL 

Controveariy. (F, - LO A. F. rm^ 

fren'^rsic ^t^'i'^U'^L.t'^ttftvitirsia, n quar- 
rel, ^ L. toftfrpuirstti , opposed > ^ L. 
fontiv-. muse, or nenU form corrcspondinfj 
ifi ffm. cotttrd, against ; ucnm, pp, of 
ittrrfffi, to ttirij. See Ooutra-. 

Contmnacy. fF. -!,.■' k.¥. ^ontu- 

tHorie , 1 303 K — L. fonliinuTcia., obstinncy - — 
L. tantttmafi-^ stem of rUHtufittLx y sliib- 
lioni. — L, fOtt-{t-tiHi),\'trf\ and ^/itm-ax, 
prob, from tum-tTe, to iwell with pride ; 
»re Tumid. 

Contumely. (F. — L*) }^.¥. fonin- 
uitlii.'mm I., (oniumriia, in«!ul1, reproach; 
prob. allied to conUtmada \ see Oon- 

Contuset to bmlse severely. (L.1 L. 
i:»ntttsH%, pp. f fonftindin^ to h mite 
wvercly, — L. (on- (* h njr\ with, much ; and 
iundirt^ to strike. 4-^^ I- ^W'/> to strikt; 
{ioth, ihiutati, to ilrike. (^ySTEUD.^ 
llmj^m. K § S18. 

Connndnun. (Unknown.; Formerly 
fiscd in the tense of whim^ crotchet, nr 
Ihjbi. Alio fuottuftitrum I arig in tiTiiv. 
slang : prob. i»f ].. origin. 

ConyJBlleftCPj iL_; L. ffntualdsi'trt, Co 
ticf^lD to groiv well i on iticepllTC form. 
— L. r&ii^ { -n^w"), fully; tialert^ to be 

Convene, I o assemMe. F.-l-.^ F, 
fi>HT'.-nif, to nssetnblc.^l. lomtt^njti, to 
come lo^'ether. ^ I« <*r^ rMW). togelhrr; 
viuire, to come 

convenient. suhnMe. ^ F. ~ I.. "^ 

Kroiii ^iffdi *(f f., tptfttrmens. >h^iitl»ble; 

orig. pre*, pt. of f&nuetiir^, to oome to- 
gether, «iit i^abnvel. 

convent, fL.'i I.. i'^jvn^f£/Hf, an av 
senlE^Iy. — L. rpttut^ntits^ pp, ai rerj'jtftiTri. 

convention, t,*" ■ — L'' I*. ^^wi-nw- 
/j*(?w, 'a compact;' Col. — L, ace *"*wi- 
iuntioftfm, a meeting, compact. — L. fpw- 
U'C'rfns. pp, at t'0U-itmirtj to meet. 

Converge. (I**) Jjite L, ronuer^fe^ 
to incUae together (Isidore). — 1.. ('(»i*i 
\cum'\, tc^ether; Her^erCt lo bend, in- 

Converse, vb. (F. - 1^.) F. fom>tnef\ 

10 as-r^Kinte with; Cot.— L. fotwersftfi^ to 
live with. — L. f<>ji» rrtm^ with ; nerftifi, 
to dwell (lit, turn oneself abouti, orig, 
pass, of the frequent, of ttfrfftr^ in iiirij. 

convert, vb. iF.-L.) O. F. i^m- 
TV^^f'r. — Folk-L, *ieriv^rfirf. for 1- fpn- 
uerioe, to turn wholly, change. — 1.. VffH- 
(rww). wholly i ufrt(r£,\Q\y\m. 

Convex, (L.) L. (onut^us. arched, 
vniiUcd ; related to {Ottuehirf, to bring 
lOEClher (hencr-, to iiniie by an arch'i. — L, 
f&n' (fnr iitJti , together ; ufkfre, to carry, 
bring. Set Vehiole. 

Convey, Convoy, vb, F. - LO 
M. K. coiiutun, i-oiiu&irn {iam^i^Ht ratr- 
vt*ufi\ to convey, also Ui ctinvoy,- A. I-'. 
(■0nv(ifr, O.Y . fonveifr, tn convey^ convoy^ 
accompany on the way. — IjiLc I.. ^(imtiiJ>e<, 
to aecompnny. — L. ^p/f- [t'wirf\wilh; wiitj 
way. ^ Comvy is ihc A. F* or Nornlaa 
form ; tottvoy \% rarisian. 

Convince^ (L.) L- cottuincitre. 10 
overcome by proof, — L. *on- ycum'^, 
wholly : ftinffre, to conquer. Her. fon' 
victt verb and sb.. ffom A.F. i&tfvutKl^ 
fffiiu/f/tts, pp. of {QHuincere. 

Convivial, (I^-l Coined 05 adj. from 
L couHtui-ufit, a feast, — I., fon- inuffi>, 
toectlier ; uiurrf, to Jive (hence, call. 

Convote. (F. — L.) F. iom*oqittr.*^ 
\^ fifnu6fdjrj to call togetber. — L. fw/-, 
together; u&mre; to C3\t 

Convolve. (!■'■) L- <^»uelufrt\ to roll 

together, writhe about,- J-. ton- (fum\ 

together; «o/w<^rt. to roll, I>er. t-fftn'i>/tif* 

ion, from pp. £omtoln(tti\ fffftw/j'-uf-Ms^ 

' L €0niw/iiU/iiS^ 0. twining plant- 

I Convoy; see Conver. 

Convnlfle, to Qgitatu violently. tL.) 
L. rofntttiiifs, pp. of fONHtlkrt, to pluck 
op, conviil.^e. - L. f*>«*- C<^««). withi, 
■cverdy; «///^/r, to pluck. 

Cony, Coney, * rablit. fF. - I..)] 

M. IC. cr'^i": fllw><j«jyi5^, AngUk-F. reniif^ 



nbbit; a word of imccrlAin origin. 

Coi>> 'J"-) A purely imilatiTc word ; 
til«o spcU /'w^, ft! fHii'fia, ftfik. 

COOJE. iJ-'J) NL K. token, to cook ; 
fS. f(V, A cook. — L, fotfttttf^ n cook ; ca- 
rfv, lo cook. -f^li' *'<"'**■' I '^'^t. fiach, 
to oook ^ KuBs. /-r.-A-f), to bmkc. (V^EQ ; 
whence fjit. */.f^H^/V, bccotntrnf "qtieipttre 
by atsimUAtiun, bihI ihcn i^nerei Gk. 
•p-«^-mr, whuoce W<rJ«r.) hmgim- i, jf 
f.6(* A,S. .w- Late L, r.Vwjr, for ioqnus, 

Coolcittv a cake ; see Okk^. 

Cool. (K.i A. S. f.i/j eool.+C^- *tff/; 
Tlul 1yj>e *kol'Uti ^Iso, with mguiion, 
Dan kit}^ G, kiiki \ from ifiV-j and prncte 
of 4'</^^, As in A. .S. ta/itHf Icel, jtd/d^ lo 
frwic 'pi, t. /v/l ; ?4'e Cold, 

CoollOi Cooljr^ au E^l Tiidiiu! porter. 
: Hind, fir TamiM Hind. ^^7/^ ji iaboarer, 
[lortLT, cooley \FortKs); jjcolx from A*?//, 
a Iribnl name (,Vulc\ Of from Tftmil^w/i, 
diily hire or wngei; bcncc, a day- 
bbounr (^ Wilson), 

Coomb ; ^e Oomb. 

Coop. 'U' M.K. ai/f, a bngkct; 
aii>wtrii)ig lo A-S. *f"«yv» not foond, thou{jh 
ijF/V iwilh I'mutation) occurs as n {^tD>4 
111 *)'W/MMy, — I,, cw/tft fl tub, whence also 
t)ii. iiti/>, kcl. iw/ri, ft bowl ; n\so I^le K 
4iiJ^j, whence G. iv/e, tob, val, coou; 
O. Sax, aifa^ a. tub. Cf. Skt. ilr;//>ij, a pjt, 
h'lllow, D«r. cojf-tr, tulj^makcr. 

C0-0p<kr&t6« J ■) From pp, of L. 
,o-i>/^tiiri, to work witb ; from r^» ffMwi'i, 
wilfi; nmKyvrf^n, to work; lec Oporatv, 

Co-OX^inAt^. \-) From L. cij- {ciim\ 
with ; »nd the pp. of ffrtfifnirt, lo order. 
Sec Ordinate, 

Coot. (E.) M. E. i-^r, fATAr, a wnter- 
fowl.+OtL J^Mt, ■ COOL Origin unknown. 

CopfVl* '.Span. - Mtxicftn.) Span. ciT^d/, 

— \Ux. iff/*tlu, jc^.in. 

Go-pftTCenor, a to-psttner. F. - L> 
J\uY£iaer is (he true otd spcllirig oiparftttr ; 
Bee Futner, 

Copo ii , orig. a c*pc. fijitc U) M* E, 
rtfjV, vxrlicr rj/V ; A. S. *4>//v», not foimd ; 
tiwt led. ^iijsi i^cur?, — Late L cif/rt, a 
_^ ipr : see Cape ' i "\ [C f. AA'f f^^*" 
"A, JS. /rf/Vi, ) Dflf. cefiNs^ff<?tte. 

CopOi'p l'> VIC with. ,K. "I.. — Gk.'i 
M. K iit/^tt^ -iW/VWp lo fight. — O, F. ro/Vr', 
fiw/f-r , fftl/vj, t*i strike I F.r*'wyVr, ty L'ul'. 

— U. f\. «*7/, 'iw/*, *'c^t a blow. » Laic L. 
lOffHii^ I., 'ohfhuf, n blow, ••Gk. *uA<n/>#j. 
n hW'W iMi the cftr. Sec Coupon, 


OOMOlc» 0, sitiaI) Ruj^inn c<r>tn, worth 
lessihftR {'t ; a huruirt.'iiih part of a rouble. 
(KufeA. '' Kusa. Jdit/^iriia^ i\ copeck ; dimin. 
of kiws. ^ff/*^j a bncc. So called fiom ihc 
figure of Ivan IV, holding n /aHit ^1535). 
See Houble. 

Copions, smple, (;F.~L.'l O. F. iv- 
/rV»-r. — L. (dpwsNs, ptcntifu). — L. ci^wt, 
plenty; for V^-^/ia. — L. iV- i,tor {um\, 
together; op-, baw of*///, wenkh. Cf. 
iu-offa^ want. 

Copp«rp&fnetiiI. (Cyprus.' M.E rdf/^r. 
A. S. lo/or. fcLale L. cuprr, L, (Vpntttt, n 
conlraction for Cttprinm j-f^ t yprian brjisa. 
— Gk. KCwpiot, Cyprian ; Kt'v/'Oi^ Cypins, 
whence the Romans got copjier. 

COpparafl, ^ulphnie of iroo. F. — I^) 
M, E. fspt-rvsi; — Q.F, lij/rnyj*- c^upij-pst) ; 
qf. hnU topparosa. AcL-ording to I>iri, 
from L, I'uprl rQsa^ rose of copjierj » tnui&- 
lution of tik. ^^Ajv-ov^Cf, brass * flower, 
ccppcru. But this is prob^ only .1 pfipular 
etynnplogy ; and the X^le L, luprout H'ctns 
to be merely an adj. form from %Hprnm. 
Sm N.K.D. 

Coppico, Coppy, CopSOi n ^^mall 
' wo<kT. K. — L. - (ik.) Coppy is shori for 

I (V/Zi'iv, and rp/j^ is contr;tctctl — n, F, 
iopeii [Low L. jTfl/im'a}, underwood frc- 
tjuenlly cut, bnish*oo*l. — O F. «v/Vr F. 
t^auper], to cBt.-O, F. fu/ (F, cenp'i, a 
itroke. — LowL. iTj/jfVjrf/, f^ ra/apAtts, slroke, 
blow. i-Ck, KvAaipot^ A blo\v, ^T '^> F. 
4'fyVij answers to a Late L. type \tfip4iiT' 
a'um., from (^Ipon^ to strike. C'lViO' A^oftc 
from *oppke being taken as i-appiis, pi. ; 
and I'd//* itf/Ji from rednttjig a luppoaed 
pi, \0ppis to feps, 

Coprolitd, (Gk,) Lit, 'dung-stone.* 
Made from Gk. vurpo-f, dang ; and Ai'tf-oc, 
a stone. For -lift, ef. Aerolit*. 

CTopulato. 1 1") From pp. of L. fi'/*"' 
iar^f to join. — L. ^lypuh, a b&od ; ;ee 


Copy* .F-I^) M.K. ,opy, nbun- 
dooce i the mod, sense is diie to the mul- 
itpljcatiottofftn original by metin*of i*y*/>/. 
~0. F< ifipUt abundAiice : also a copy — 
f- i'pttt, ^>It'nly ; tev Copious, 

CoqUettO. i,F.) F.t'cy;**-//*', 'apralJing 
or proud gossii),' Cot.; fetn. o( lO^tfet, n 
liitlfe cockfdimm, offp^, a cotk, Cf. prov, 
■■1. iTthkjf, i. Cr strutting at a cuck. 

Coracle, a light wickc) boat. {\\\) \V. 
iont'gf, ftiTU',^'/, coracle ; dimin. of lorwg; 
A &.rsskie^at'fu'j^, a boat, frsmr. S^* '•*'i 
cu>ach(ittf cotacie, from titnuh 

I I 


3. J. Jrrtfe^ 


■resale, 3. :^-u 

i ^a. '"ier- rich. «vr«^B, C£. ^: 

nna /'/^xv. -n axiriwxc CI Aah. nr' Sac Tnbftirr -««»■■ vxs 

Jun. A dcr:ni.£. £m<ic «ie^ fine:. 

OKbflL ?- —I-, '^^ F. »Hdl ft mrwa. fr'jm ««r. ibl, >■£ tram, a crrw . 

a S'jtOKi ji arrnttw.Tar* , JT'.Aft tie a0'J'J<M €«0m : • iTSK. T- A. S. at-v.-^!^ 

■IK 1 7fn)e.'unic at»k,^fl '^-l^ 40H«i/mm^ k»rtm^ led. Dsi- 5««r^ G. Asw. Goo. 

for carvtilum, aec. r/ ^yrxvjBSvr, dxiaa. hmmrm. T«c tj^ •ij tf i- m . li|. trpe 

•rf 1. :«f7uu. ft riT'™, ^ XfmmtA H'Jm 'frrm^m, cnn; vicKce j. atrr. xr^ar, 

mratai. a -iaMict CnU tdtsutti y.ctHeiiU, Ic^l x/>^m, cxe. C£. Lxl g^smmm, 

L. orhifuia^ 'inom. tAe^rtii. * tttflce! . {n<s ; fxt^^/fna*-. vaca '5>c>v=_ pc>. '^/^. 

QwA. if.^U^fik., ICE. ^^TMfir.i. I><mbtec /!-«»«: SeeCfaBRL. £n2a.i. 

F. ^»rq£e, ^ Lx*« U £tfr:^, ft tUft rop« ; *W I fo^. V^^^' 

wmc as L. cMar^t. •Ok. Xf'T* (^ «naf CoBB s « > faard CMatsoemce ok t^ 

of ft mmusu samrwmettL Dtr, im'd-m^ fotA, F.— U> O.f.c^M F.r^.akocs, 

"F. €ar>ia^ ; tsrd-^m 'F« etrJ^m ; ^jn^- h^nr *vcillQ|p.->L. tamm, a bois; see 

•Wjirr K <9wdeiurf a tvift </ rof*. alio Hom. 

ftGrftrFnaTrViMuediiidiatviaK; fram cwf— , borar ■aBbrane ia tbe ere. 

cgrdeitr. 'A '.wM VJyn,, See Chord. "l^ 1^ €*num. iam. at csrmemi, bcnr.— 

OK^ittL y.^Lj y.e^rJiai^htagtf. U r^rni^xhcm. 

• L. Mr'//', •ied. sreai «f ^^, bcart; with . fffnit^*. a ifanb. n>B.— L' M. Da. 

-aAi ; <ct B««rt. ( JtanulU, • the frail of the oomeUc-trec.' 

a tbidc'nUjcd or corded Hexham; dM. (LC/jnuOavw. corDd- 

'F.-J^y F. r^de dm rat, a Uade- tiee; Wcigand. [dM. F.r«iaae,acor- 

^OBC, trfV<!A*«4 IA Kfifg^vt'i i lit. ' ko^f 1 o^beiry; <vn«ftUSn^, cornd-tRC-'^Late L. 

ecM^' Sw C'yH ai*«1 BojaL f^malittm, conM^-tiec.* L. r#nvav, a oor* 

C fl t dw fal#r, fth'/eiaak/r. ^F. —Span.) . nel-tree ; from the hard, honij natme of 

M. K. i^diwantr^ a wf/fk^ in rardewatte, \ the wood. — K e^rmH, a born. 

ftffTllfUnr. a kind <d cfaaloedoDf. 
fV. — J*^ Formerly ecmaOne. — F. fvma- 
tint, 'the comtz or comaline, a fleib- 
coloored stooe;' Cot. C£ Port. €prm- 
tina ; also luL earmpla^ ^i) a eorael-tree, 
'tf a cornelian, iHob. lo named becaose 
it* arfoDT raembles that of the fruit of the 
coracl-tree (Schade).— Late L. eomiala, 
cornel-berry; comoUmm, comeL — L. ««r- 
fuui^ adj. of tamus, a comd. ^ Altered 
to ecu-ntoltu in Late L. (Scbarle, p. > 379^1 
earfuiian in E., and cameot in G., from 
a popular etymology which connected it 
with L. (am; stem of rar<o, fleah. Cf. 
onyx = Gk. &^, frnger-naiL 

OOmar. (F.— L.) A.K.<-tfrw«;0. F. 
eamiere.^ Med. L. comiria^ comer, angle. 
-»Med.L. eomat angle. — L. comua^ pi. of 
comu, horn, projection ; taken as a fern. 

eomat. (F.'-L.) M.E.r0rNi^,ahoni; 

later, a troop of hoise ;who carried a r?'- 

tutit or itandard) ; also an officer o'such 

a troop. *F. ^nw/, comHtti dimin. of F. 


te. leather tA Ijit^t/^A.'^O,^. icnhuan, 
CordoTsn Uather. — f/atc J>. Cordoa, CV^r* 
dovainHpaln ^i» Corduint., 

Cor«tMrd'>mtr<ifi ^tii(«4ice. (f.—'S^.T) 
Etym. douUfal. Fcrhsps from F. ^-tfr, a 
horn, also, a et/m on Oi« ff*ot, callosity. — j 
L. <#r»», a h^rf-n, a b/^»y exere«ccnce. 

CorUAdMr. 'F.-I..-Gk.^ F. r4^ 
tfj^r-J.. ecriofpirum 'whence A.S. <'</• 
^|fmfr^,,«.Gk. mofiafpoi', udpiw^ coriander. 

Cork. ^Span.-J^; Apparently from 
O. Span, aieorqut, a atflc fthr<. which 
seems to be an Arab, form allied to Span. 
al-<omcqui^ the cork'trcc, where al is the 
Arab. oef. art, and €ornoqu€ is formed 
Irom L. quern-ui Un ^qtttrcnus). oaken, 
adj. from I^ qu€r>us, an osk. ^Bnt the 
^nft of the tree was called, in Span., eorcke, 
cprekfi.^l,. cortt'cfm, ace. of £ortiX^ bark. 
Hence eork is often derired from Span. 
corcko, though k for (k seems improb- 

Oonaonuit, ft Mrd. (F.-L.) The / 
{s excrescent. «*F. tormptwt ; O. F. e»rmtt- 




CoontiM. (F.— ItRt.> M. F, uid Picurd 

'ledge for hMginf: UpBiry (Floriol ; 
lUIiaUy, a crow (fioia I^acc. t^ralum, a 
crow). Ori}^tn uncerti.ii); by &ome identi- 
fiH with ffrrpair, a squ&re l'nime.*-Gk, 
iropftrt'K^ ctirvflt ; an th., a. w reath. 
Corolla. (U) L*tv/^c^/^, dmm. or^i? 
f^ftd, n crown. See Crown, 

eorollAXy. (Ia) 1^ r^nj/Ziartjum, apre- 
seat of a garland* a gratuity; «Uo, ui 
additioDaJ iiircre±icc»Ml. tatvUa (above). 

fX)roiuil, acrowR. iF.-L.) Properly 
ad;, — F. totvfta/, adj,-^!^ cOTffndlu, 
l>etoiiging to a crown. — I^rtfn»ffo, a crown. 

OOirOUfttioll. l.L. ) I-^tc L. ace. corond- 
ti^nfm. fiom pp, of r^ronarr, to crown.— 
L. ^^nma, a. crown. 

COirOtier, (F.— L.) AI*o frvupHfri 
bolh furma represent A. F. cprttHfr^ t&rtmer, 
Xfltiniscd n.£ cordnariui, a crown-offiieer, a 
coroiier (Afterwards Latinisicd a^ rfif^' 
n^tfir\^0, F. i&rant^ x crowa. * 1- ronma. 
a crown, 

eoro&et, (F.-L) Dimin. ol O. F. 
iorem. A efuMn. — L. cotffna, a crown. 

rann.ft^ ailuge, lit, ' a ho\rlingtc^elher.' — 
(iael, /*?wA- 1! = h. <vffr\ logether; r^mUth, 
a howling, irom the verb fih§, \q howl, 
cry. roftr, uhicb is from rAtt^ih., an outoy. 
So aKij Irish fffranach, a dii^. 
Oospocal 1 1 « A fnbonlinftte officer. 
(F*-Uj O. F. fsrforai. -^l^xti L, rer* 
p^raiis, a captain ; a leader of a body of 
troops. -• L. ferfar-, for ^f&rf-oi-^ item 
n{ fffrpns, body. ^ F. bus now ihc form 
fttfifira/, from ItaU ettporaU^ a chief of a 
bdtid ; AS if from ItaK ^v/^. head i L, 
f&pHt< ; but this dn^ not exphvin the -cr-, 
COfpOVml (3), twlooging (0 the body, 
(K.-I,.) O. F, i^orural, fetf<frd,~\« 
rorpdfrdJis, bodily.— L. forpor~^ for Vcr- 
^W-, stem of forpuj, the body. I>Br, 
Vfrona L, rorper- cerpor-aff, £orper-e-ai 
(L, iorfffif'Ui), &C' Iinjgm. 1. ^ 55(5. 

corps, oorpsA, ooma, k body. 
( F . ^ L. ) [ H erf f&rpt Ji h , ; i-tfrjr i& ffora 
the (>. ¥. for'f. I M. E, tttn, torps.-^O. F, 
fms, M.l' ..-^^fytj.thebody. — L»f#r/>«j, body, 

GOrpole&t^ <F. -1^) ¥,carpHietti.~ 
I., ,crfjfirrtt$fjf^ fat, — 1« c^TpHi^ IkkIv, 

C03*pilicl6. 1I-) L. ferpHS-fH-/nm, 
duiibk- dnuirt. ot^rfutj body. 
Conral, an encln'^nre for animals, pen. 


(Span. — L^ Span, i&rrai'. a court, vafdj 
enclosure- Span. «rriJ, a circle^ a tiug of 
people met to see a ^ow. From thq 
tihi^se ((yrrtr tortus ^ to hold a buU-lightf' 
Jit to run bulls.- X- furtm^ 10 nm (Diei). 
Sec Itraat, 

Correct, arfj. (JL) L. cernetuSt pp. 
of (orrrfirre, to Correct.- L. t'or- (foe 
fO«- ^rrim , together ; rf;^re, to rule, 

conregidor, a Sp&ni^ mflgistrate. 
(Span. — L.) Span. £&wT»gidar^ lit. *cor- 
rCdoT.* — *Span. tarrtgir^ lo correct. w»L. 
Ci>rrii^€re (alKJvei, 

Correlate, to neUte or ttht trttitii«Uy«l 
(L.) Coinc<i from L. t»r- {'^ntm^, to- 
gether ; and Relate, q, t. 

Correspond. <,F.-U) Y.fomspon- 

dre.^L. cor- t^for fon-, cum), tofrriher; 
and KospoDd;, q.T. 
Corridor, ir'-Iial.—L.1i ¥. fam'dfir* 

— Ital. (orriderf, a swift horse; also, a 
long (tanning along) jjnjlery. — Ital. cor- 
rtn, to nm. — L. atrrtrrt to run, 

Corrie. (Gael.) Gael. rinr£, a circular' 
hollow surruimded with bills, a moimtain 
dell; al^o, a cauldron . [Cf. G« kcssfl^n 
kettle, a ravine.] + O. Irish n»>v, iprt^ n 
kettle ; \\\ /a/r, A. S. 4tnrr, & cauldron. 
Hrugm. i. § 123. 

Corroborate. (I-^) ^rom pp, ofL, 
f&nvAffrire^ to strengthen. ^L, f^ir- (for 
f<7fiE- — rt#jw), wholly ; raVr-, stem of Jvl^Mr^ 


Corrode* <F. - L.) F, tvrrfnier, - L, 
C0rr<>dfr^^ to gtiaw to pieces, — L. t'or- (for 
tO»-m. cutH), whoUy; rodtr*, tp gnftw. 
Dot. (crrosh^, from pp. ftfprflr-wj, 

Corrody, Corooy, allowance^ pen- 
sion. 1, Low Ijt.— Ttul,,^ A. F. forodit, — 
Low L. forroditfm, eariicr cattPt/mm^ L, 
form of A» F. fonni. preparation, pro* 
vision^ allowiLQce. See Curry . l). 

CorrugAteir (L.) From pp. of L. 

eiirTugdrt^ to wrinkle.— L. t&r- {fum), 
wholly ; and riigiire^ to ^mciklc, from 
if-j^Mi, ft wrinlfle. 
Corrupt, adj. (F.-L.^ A,F,c{>rnpf, 

— I., comtptus^ pp. oiforrumpfrf^ to break 
wholly. Corrupt. — L. rflT' ii^ior rfw-'=^*"iiw*, 
whi.ilJy ; ramptrt^ lo break. 

Ooreair. i. >* - — ItaL — 1-) F . ^artaire 
(Prov, ffirsofit one who m.ikes the counc, 
i-arsa). — 1^1. torsar^^ earlier f^riarv^ a 
pirate. — Med. 1.. fursdrius, a pirate, — 
L. cursHf, A coarse. See Oouno. 

CoreOf a body. ( F. - L. ) M. E. ^art. 
<K F. /an. — I ., j-prfiuf^ a hiidy. 



an I 




coiraet* (F.— L) F. fifrseu a pair of 

ftvb.; tlimin. of O, F- cors^ body, 

CE>r8let. ( f . - L.) F- cffrsckt, ' a. little 

ly/Cot,; hencci btxly-armoiir, DouWe 

dimin. nf O. F. rr^fJ, hndy (above). 

Cort^^e* ;.K,-ltal. -L.) F,car/!-^€^3 

irain^ retinue. —Ilil. c^rii^^irio, a retintie, 

•»ItaK f(?r/ft a court, — L. iorfej/i^ <o- 

harfet/t, ac*-. of ^aAort^ n conrt \ see Court 

COrtos, the Sp^Lo^. nationn^l assembly. 
Span, — Li^ SpAn, fff,n^if, p], of <ffr/<', n 
conn, — 1« corfem (above). 

CortoXj batfc* tL.y L. fCT-Ztr gen. 
tcrrirt'T'; hark. Dor. coHiraf. 
Comacate. (L.) From pp. of L, 
foriifr.irf, tct tjUtter. 
Cocrettep » *raaU friipite. f F. —Port. -- 
L.) h'. i'(?rE'f//f.— Port. )"ijr£v/i7 J Span. 
t&rMii, a cnrvettc — I.. eerhtiHf n slow- 
SaiUng jhipofbiirdcti, »[<. i'^j^V^iV, ^ basket. 
Cosnuc, TclAting to the world, (Glc.) 
{'Wi. KnuiAiHxtu odj,, [fom Jcuo'^iDi, order, also 
the worlil, imiverae. Dar. coitito-^eny , 
fpsmo -j^raphyt costri& ■ lo^. i-osma-ffoHfe 
(ciliaeii ">f Ihc world, Gk. ffoXiVi^s, n 
itiren '. 
caamBtiCi that which b^autlBcs, (Gk.^ 
k. «qtf^ip^t«ui, -ikined in ndoming ; 
whcncL' also F. comUiiijtfe>^Ok, ttoaftiii^ 
I ci'Ioiri "-Gk* K^nftdi, order,, omament. 
Cossaclc, a li{rliE-arined S. Russian 
anldicr. kiisi* — Tatar, ) Russ^ kffzaJi, 
ak' \ uf Tatar (Tartar) origin. — Tiirki 
zziiq^ a vagabond ; ii predatory hor^' 
nn (Yiile\ 

CoAaetf lo pet. ,E.) From ifiih cent, 
ir/rf.rirf,a [ict-Iambfa pet. Prob, the same ft5 
A. F, cosceif cffiet, a cottar; A.S. tot-st^ta^ 
a dwfUer in a cot, * cot'Sirter/ From 
S, cet^ cot ; Xf?/flp dureller, from stitan, 
at Cf. prov. G. kjssaf, a cottager. 
Ro Ital. oiikcia^ pet lamb i^Florio) j from 
<"rtffi. a eotta^*] 
Coit,vb. (F.-L.) M.E.rt>j/(!H.-0. F. 
fasUr I b\ rod/ffr^ to cost.*- L. fortstitr^, lo 
stand togethcfj lut; hIm tocost. — L. ffw- 
Cft/w , together; a^nd j/(f/v, to staii'''. 
Costal, rdatinf^tti the hba. (L.) From 
L. .^('f^rf^ a rib. Sfie Cout* 
Gostermoitg'er. (F. anrf E.'j For- 
atwily ioiimi-nm/tj^tr^ or fssearif'trifln,^. 
scIIlt nt fflsfarJs Of apple** [The suffix 
PM^^r IB K- ; '4te Monger.] M. F, 
fititnrd. an apple, where the s^iffix -flnns 
V\ ; piob, frnm O, F. rtfj/r, F, ert^c, n rib: 
^./fut'f u^ttlh lihbe^l frait JlBmilionl, 


Costivo. (.F--L,^ Frmn O. F. ^iif/rtk'- 
— 1., constipiitus^ constipared. Sec fim- 
ilifer\\\ l.ittrL-; and Constip&te, 

Costniiie. ',F,-IiaI.^L> O.Y.c&s- 

ftttiie, a taslume. — Ital. eostttffte ', Low I-, 
titsiftmit; see Custom. Doublet of ms- 


Cosy, Cozy, comfortable, snugty sbet- 

tered, i^C. ^) Lowland Scotch cosU, coth' 
I Hums). Ktym. unknown ; perhftpi cf, 
(lacl, ("iWrAf fhaxi^fh^ abomuUng in rO' 
cc?&ea, also anug, sheltered ; Gael. r*r>Xt a 
hollow, rc'cess, cave ; Tri^sb ntaSj a gave. 
Coti & small dwrlling; CotOp ^n en- 
closure, (E.) M. E, fi>U, A. S. ffl/, fij^tf, a 
cot, den ; Norlhumbrian r£i/.+llii,itt/j IceL 
^^z*. cot, hut; prov. <;. ^c///, cot. Der. 
cott'age (w'uh F. suliSx) ; I'o/f-ar ox fo//-fr ; 

ooteriet a set of people, iF,— Teut.) 
F, foicnc, a set of peo^jle, couipany j 
Allle<l to O. F. i-ofcrie, servile tenure 
I Littre) ; Low L. ^ettnUf a tenure \>y 
cottar? who clnbbr^l together. — l^w I- 
foia^ a col, — Tlu- kot (nlpovc't, 

CotiUon, CotiUioiL, a dance for 4 of 
S ptriona. F. - NL ILGO I*- fotiihru lit, 
a petticoat; see Colgravc. Fominl, with 
suffix 'thon^ from O. F, ip/f, a coat, 
frock ; sec Oo&t. 

Cotton (0. a downy stibstance. (F.— 
Span, - ArabO ^L E. antl A. F. tOtoutt. ^ 
F. ro/tf«. — Sjiftn, rfl/flf;, aigotim, cnUori 

where a/ is the Arab. arl.K — Arab, (^w/h, 

^lutun, cotton. 

cotton (j)( to aj^ce. From a technical 
««,c nf i-oitott^ to form a down upon ; frotsi 
Cotton (1); sec Narcs. 

CotylfldOB, seed-lobe. iGk-) Gk, 
tcorvXr^v. a cup-shaped hullow, ^ Gk. 
kotvKti, a hoUow veisel, cup, 

CoUcU, to lay down, plarc, s.i, < V .— 
L,) M. £. fOUfh£ft, U> set, arrange — O.F, 
f&ucher, roltfwr^ to place, — L. calhctiriy to 
put together.— L. tiff- {a*fn\ together j 
and /ofJr^, to place^ from fp^us, a place, 
Der. rifftc/t, sb., a place on which one is 

Couch*gr&S8, a ^3S3 which U trouble 
some as a weed. (K,' Here r&tich is a 
v^rinnl of qmf^k, paUtalUid fDrm of 
f/fffV*, i.e. tenacious of life : «ce Q.uiok, 

I A .S, ^cahfitati-, only ff«u»d in the dcriv. 
e^hhttan, to mnke :i noise. [The utiial 

I to cough: M. IL G, hhht'n, G, ttntr/ittt 






to g^tp. From an imitative bag-c *tfuft, 
*kttfi. 10 gasjt ; 9ce OMnoough. 

CouH ; see Ctm u). 

Conlter, part of a plong^h, (L.) yi.'E. 

knife. Cr pei-'idUrt^ to slrite. 

Conucil. ^.I' . - L.) F. €onnh. — L. ton- 
fiiium., an assembly called together. — L* 
ti>n-' ^rxm), together; nJid talilrt^ to 
siimm-n. % Often coufuset) with canttsfL 

Counsel. (K. — L.) II. E. t0tneiL^ 
O. I'. .ii/iJrtV, — L. fcnsilium, flelibtnutton. 
« L< *omtihrf, to consult ; s^e CoDst^t. 
^ CjfiL-it confustti with (Quuril. 

Conjxt UJ, a title of nuik. (F.— L. 
Tttc wiriy, bcnse was ' companion. A» F, 
ifatiHle yi\yiX in M. E»). — O. F, i'sm/i? ; also 
f^mU.^ L. fomiumt 40C. of tomts^ s cum- 
IxirttiMi (item cmn-it- ). — L-fo/«- (for t'tfw-), 
logctiicf: ;ind ii-um^ supiii* of irf, to go. 
Dei". tonn/ess\ alst) iautti-y (below''. 

Const J\ to reckon. (F* — Lj K. 
ffi/f/fr, furmcrly also tVfff/Kcr.^h. nmtpu- 
ttirc, tu oimpxite; sc« Compute, 

Conntesiftiicfli. i^'.-^L) O. F. i^on- 
uttaf/r^, y^tnuTCt demeanour; also looli, 
'isj^jfj, — L. tOttHufnisa, continent, which 
in tale L. meant 'gesture, dcmeanonr.* -^ 
[..iimtimnt-, slem of prea. pt. oi foniin^re\ 
«ccC0D|ineiit. "Dvr fiis-icttnteuantf, vb^ 

Coimt^r, ft pteuc to coiuii ^ith, n 
Iforc^n. F, — L, M. E. coUfttmtr.^O.¥. 
i4Mttour, ^Oitntour. From O. F. rotf/i*r; 
see Count (i% 

Couatoiv. t*^/ji- (F, - L.) F. (outn, 
n^:ai;i>l. — I,, cffntfii, HgainsL 

Counteract. F>-L.) SceCDoatdr-, 

//i/iA-, MU] Act. 

CoTUiterfoit, imitated. (F. - L.) 
M. K. rffMw/fjr/o/. — O. F. cerUre/ait, j>p. 
of t-snftv/air£f To imilnlc. — K. ctrntfi, over 
ftKnirisEr like ; /a/r^, to make — I,. (cntrSt 
ftgainst ; /acere, to make. 

Conntermatid, to r^oke an order. 
1, 1" . ~ L. F. coHtnmander, to recall a 
commainl. ^ F. ijtifn ^^, caw/nji^ ngaiiivt ; 
tmmd^'r i L, rthiruiarc), to command. 

Conntoxpftne t ), a cowrlet fori bed. 
fF. — L.) An flUtred form, in place of 
ipiintirpehit^ ai in Shafc--M. F. efftttn- 
fcinct, ihe back-stitch or quilting-^Citdb, 
also a quilt ; Cot. p. Thus nanietl, by a 
l'"'"^^r -Viiiiloey, from a fancied i-'onut-C' 
ti 3 K. 4'uij/rc/ufifr//r, lu work the 

I' from .LW/rt - U f<wi//vf% But 

really cnjinectcd with M. F. t&ntt fpomtft\ 

luijiuh alwiniolgravc). Iti bcl^itfj/y/Y 

poinft is ft cotruption of O, F* tPHtepoinff, 
a counterpane ,.=«e amrttpohttf in IJui^j. 
• L. iukitii pnncia^ a coiiiitcqinnc, a 
stitched quilt ^acc DucangcV — L. ('M/nVd, 
B quill; pnrtcta. fern. xA pmtrtnx^ jip, of 
pun^^rt, ii> prick- See Quilt, 
Coviteil^Uie (2 ^ counterpArt of a 
deed. (F, — L.,) lS\y¥. iPHirefan, conire* 
pant \ Cot. — F. faufte (L, fffntrd)^ over 

[ flKiInsi; /dw, a piece, pirt ; ?ee Fane. 

I Connterpoint, the campotiiig of 
niu^ic in iiarls* .F. — L.') M.V. irau/n- 
pMMff^ * a ground or plain song^ in music ; * 

' Cot- The lit. sfrnsc a point agnimf pofnf, 
from ihe/tfiwi'/ or dots which repreienied 
tntitlcal nolc&. »nd wire plncetl on staves 
over or against each other in eom|K)silioiii 

j in two or more parts.— F. f^nfiv L. eon- 
/nTi, against ; pdnt, a point ; we Point, 
Conntwrpoiae, (F.— L.) Ffotn.'tfHM- 

Ur and pei^e ; wc Poind. 
I ConntemCiUrp, cxlerior slope o* a 
ditch^ (F -Ital-L. aWTctil,) F, {fftt- 
trtS(iXrpc\ Cot, — Ilal. eonfraicsrpa, * 
Ital. centra^ over agitinst - Jrdf/a, a «caq^« 
See Counter and Soarp- 
Conuterflign, to attest by signing in 
addition, F.-L.) F. t-onlr€5igtiei\ Mo 
snl^igne; ' Cot,*- F, fontn, over ngninst ; 
sii^itr, in sign ; Kfc Counter- nnd Qlgn. 

CoimtarteiLor. i F. - IiaL - L,y M. F. 

cpnir^tiiutt/'; <\il,**ltal, contnttcttore. n. 
CDuntcnt'iior, the hi|>liest adutt male voice. 
~Ilal.ri?ii/'niz,again&tp over against^ tetiifrt, 
a teni^r ; see Tenor. 

CoantarTflJl. (Fi — L.) M. E, (cft- 
imvi/tft, — 0,h\ rontrrt'ai/-, n *tem iif 
raH/rrvafoir^ tQ nvnd against. — CK F. c-iJM- 
trf, Bgaioiit; vafoir, to avail, — 1„ t&utni, 
against ; na£rrf^ Co be strong. 

CoiULt^, iF.-L.) M-F. coHtrft.^ 

Ot F\ contrte \, - Ital. contrada.,^ Lam L» 

tontruda, t'onitdta, a region, lit, thai which 

lies opposite ; cf. C ,Kigiini, country, lit. 

I opposite, from.5^^(*w, o|;posite, ^L. (^fl«/#'J» 

I opposite ; iiee Contra-. 

Conntrj-dAllCe* C^O Fromf^WM/ry 
' find i/jjrt^f. (The 1', ietttrni^nst was hot- 
lowed rrnra this L. furm.'j 
I Conn^p orip. a province governed by a 
count, {¥, - L^ M. E, isnntee. - O. F. 
f&Hitte (i.e. eouH'tf), F. rtfiw//, i province. 
*> Late h. (omiffitum, ace. oi iemittltM^ ^ 
coiiittyUhougli the old meaning waaacom- 
pbny or sidte).— [^ coniil-, stem of rtfmrf» 
a count ; see Count (l). 

Couple. (F.-L.> O.F. tapff. Inter 




fOtififf.— L cpfula^ n bondj hsisx^^ (hat 
which joins t short for Vo-flZ-tt/a.-p^L. fp- 
{cum)^ together; and O. L, aperc^ to join, 
prescri-e'l in the pp* aptus ; s«e Apt. 

Coupon r oiit of a scries qf conjomed 
tickets or certificates. (t\— L.— (Jk/i K 
f^upoH', n p icce c iit oft\ a cou poa . — K . ctrnper^ 
to eut, sUsli, — K, row/, ,i blow.«Lat« L- 
foipus^ short for ^^[aphus, a blow.«»Gk. 
jftiAni/ioT. fl blow on the ear. 

CoUl^ge. ^F.-J--) F. fiJMri^, O. F, 
fflf'j^'f ; f>.>rTned wtthsuffijt-ajp [L.-d/icum) 
from O. h\ far, heart. •• L» fw, heart. 
Dor. ettcourage. 
Courier. , M.V.ceiurter, 
R runner ; F* raitm'rr,^}tn\. cam'rre^ lit, 
* runner.' — ItaL i&frire, to nui. — L. fur- 
tv*^, to T«n. 

ODnrsOp (Fl— L,) F* ceurse.^'L. fur- 
sHui. ncc. of cursus, n cuurne ; from pp. of 
tttrrfte. Dor. ccntrs-fr, a swift horse. 

CoiltI (i). It ynrd; rgyal retinue,)udicial 
asscmMy, (F.-L.) M, E, f<ni, ^-urt. ^ 
O-F. iort, curt y. (eun),ji court, a yarH» 
also a tfibuaal.— L, ace. t^ortfm, c^korfem 
(nom. iohers)^ a pen, enclosnre, cattle* 
Y^xAf coDTt, a)^ a, cohort, or btnd of sol- 
dier*.— L.f^ n^w), togeihcf ; and horf-, 
as in hort-ui^ ji ^rdcn^ yard, cognate with 
yard. LV^^HRK.) 

COnrt :;3). to seek favour. (F,— L.) 
From the sb. effurt; hence, to practise arts 
in vogue at court 

eonrteonSf of courtly mannera. (F* 
— L.) M, E. ii>rfrts, later cot^toust^ 
O. F. f0rttjs, courteous. — CK F. -rer/, a 
court ; with suffix -iw (L. -fmij). 

OOUrtesau. (F.-ItaL-L.'i Fem. 
oi h. (ourisian^ el coartier. — l(al. «^or/«- 
^aff^ Florio e&rtegiatw^^ a couJ tier. For 
'twimiantf, nn cKttnsion of im^tst^ cour- 
teons ; from FuL £ertr» court. — L. ace 
u'irfew , ■&« Court fi), 

OOUrteBJ* F. — L.) M.K i-aftcsif. 
^O. W rtjrifiie, courtesy. — O, F, cerieis^ 
courteon^ ; see courteoiu. 

OOUrt^^. ! F. — L.) M. E, fourttour. 
From A, F. *teriei-cr [O. F. roHm-er), (o 
Uve at court; with sufiix -<wr L.-ii/premi. 
I »CK F. f^t, a court. 
I Coiirt okrdfl; a corruption of ccai 
fUr'tii, y'xcIujcA cEirdet, the old nanie. 
Courteous, &c. ; see Court. 
Cousm. F^L.) M, E. rnyjm -O. F, 
r&stm \y . iOHiin I Late L. io^inus^ ll-il. 
^^fNgino, Romaunsch ntirs'tt^ fw^drttt .'^l^ 
^^^mto^rinitSt the thilil of a mother'^ twister, 

a cousm. — L. coft- uum)^ together: w^r7- 
ttttSt foi *Jti4^J'r-Jflarf, belonging to a sister; 
from L. ififvr (for 'jtorj*-), a si&ter ; cf, 
Skt. JtM^/'j a ^i&ter. See Biat«r. (Cf. 
Hrugm, i. S 3ig,> 

CoTO, fl nook. [ E.) A. S. ci/^i, ft cham- 
ber, a, cave. + Icel. -to/ji", a hut ^ Swed. 
jtij/bfl ; G. Jtohtti, a cabin. ^ Distinct 
from cisvi. coop, aitOtfr^ Brugm. i, f 658^ 

Covenant, agrepmcnt. (F.-L.) O.F. 
capt-nojtt, also cotw^nattf, ftgrccmcnt. ^ 
O- F. £o{n)venant^ pres. pt. of fo(n)i'fWfr, 
to asaemble, agree. — I^ rfntufnin^ to as- 
semble, come togclhtr ; &ec ConvoiJO- 

Coref » to bide. ( F. - L.) U. F. covrir 
(c&uvrir'i.^lj. iodptrirt^ to cover. — L. fih 
I, fwjn(\ wholly : (?/(•««, to shut, hide. For 
^op^uerJn i cf, l^ith* m-foeriu, I shut, 
vartait doors, Oscan ncc, im*, a door. 
Biugm. i. I i50, 

coverlet. (F.— L.) U. U. ^averUte. 
**A. F. torvrltf^ fevvr/if (not in O, F.I, 
a bed-coTcr, — O. F, covrir^ to cotcf; /jV, 
a bed, from L. Uchtm, ace, of UffHt^ a 

0OTM?t< tF_— L.) O. F. tffPtrt, pp. 
of fWi^iV, to cover (above). 

Covet. (F-— 1-.) M, E. ffltfrt'/fw (fo- 
veiten). -A. F. £ffvcitcr (F. (OHP&itif). 
Cf. Ital, cti&itare (for cupitnre), to covet. 
Formed, as if from L, 'cupifiitdrtt from 
enpidi id-tent^ acc,^ eager desire, which 
tft from {upfduSi dcsaroua of. — L, ruptr^, 
to desire. See Cupid. 

Carrey. (F»- L.> O, F. cpiw (F. ««- 
Vtr\ a brood of partridges; fern* of pp. of 
(*«vr (F, fff»wr)»to hatch, sit-.- L.rwWnr, 
to He dowfi, tit. Cf. Cifc, Jct^pu*^ bent. 

COTUI, secret agreement, frand ; a Iftw- 
term. ;F.--L, M. E. fovirtf. — 0. F, 
fovintf agreement*.- O. F. ca^entr, to a»- 
serable, agree. — L. i'tmutmrf, to come 
together. Sec- Cod veoe, Covenant. (The 
O. F. covim anstt'ere to L«te L. contitttia, 
pi. tii (otwenium i an agreemenl. *i 

Cow ill, fetiialeof tltc bull. TEO A,S. 
CM ; pi. £^, whence M, £. 'frf, and ibc 
double pL iy-tfw = -tmrf. Tcul. stem *iu-, 
whence also Icel, yt/r. + Du. Jtcf, Swed. 
Dan, jfc3, G- *mA : Tent, stem ♦/■(?-, Also 
Ilish.Qtnd Gael. ^, W. Aw, 1- A^r {gen. 
iatt-u), Clf. 0oit, Pers.^iw. Skt.^* (nnrti, 
#th*j) ; cf, Ross, govitiih, oxen. Idg. 
sterns *^>w ou-^ *^w)o4t''^ Sec Be&f 

kinep cows. (E.) \daHt*U pL, made 
by adding -«, short for ■*« A. S, -ff»), to 
M. E, ty, A..S. i>. cowa. The A. S. r^, 




pi. of fTl, ft COW* ib formed by vowel- 
chajjfic from « If >* 

Cow 17 * In dishcarlM. (Scand.) loel. 
k'iegii, lu l)Tajmiw ovec ^ Dnn. ^<'t In 
tctfitc, subdue^ Swed. kufvii^ to sup- 

CoW«J^. CF. — L,) A.F.i-^Jmardrf^ahDLrc, 
ft tovv^iTil, V. louard^ & c()wa.n] ; cf. ItaL 
ii?dftrd&, % cow3.rd. Probably named rroni 
Ijie 'bo^UiIcd* hare.-0"F. ioe (luL 
€oda)t L tail ; with F. snfi^x -an/, from 
Tcut. -Aart, orig. hftcd, - L. I'ouda^ a 

CoWflr* (Souid.) M.E. <M»(nfff.->lcel. 
kurd^ nan, ^vrf, to doic, lie quiet; Swed, 
ki*ra. to i-'ower. li* qaiel I Swed. dial. Mura, 
ig ait htmdjed up. Cf. U. ^ducrw, to 

Cowl (i\ ft monk's hood. (L.'] M. E. 

fUiiA. Q cowl i cf. ftlsO iUCtti/HS. 

Cowl i.^i, a vessel cftrricd! on a pole. 
{¥. — L,) M E^ f^f/. — O.K. f jn«/{firtwiiM;, 
fi Utile tub; dimin. of nvtv, ft vaCj tub. ~ 
1-, tv7/Vi» a tub. Der. anvi-sfaff, 

OoWYy^ a small shell lueo for money. 
^tilnd, 'bki.'i lliud. imuri, a small shell 
{^Cjffiraa ttustuta^ used as coin in the 
lower jkrnvinccs of India,— Ski, kafarda, 

Cowslipt fi flowtr. i,E,,i M. E. *oit^ 
ilfippt. A.S. fiisJa/'jUef <u-ily^/>e^ lit. cow- 
ilop, i. c. a piece gf dung, i,OtbcrA^S. 
names of plaiiU arc of & very homely 
chsracteT.) Cf, 9xHp^ t}^ v. ; and prov, t, 
hull*^ii!<f>^ fl Ufge kind of oxiip (BriUenu 

Coacoomb, \yA A fool, nuncd from 
bi^ iQik'i (Oftii^, or fool'i^ cap, cap with 11 
ti'Mjk'* t^rc'st, 

CoxBwatiu (K. oW Scand.) For 
((hi-^a/j^jv; ifgm <ror* (4), a bqatj and 

Ooy. (1',-L.) O. K. «i*. older form 
yjwi^ quid, still; spelt foy^ gu^^ in Col* 
LTave, — Volk-L *'tt*^ium, ace. nf \uittUi 
for i , tfistifut, still. Sec Quist. 

Coyota, a prairlc-woIf. ,Mcx[cati.) 
Frnni voyi^t^ Span, pron, of M». loyotl. 

Coi411. ^F— L.) To r^uii ii ID act 
ft> tfttitH or kinsman, to spunj^e upon, 
lirtjuilc, — Y. (ousimr^ to call cousin, to 
fr)>on;^^, live on other people ; m« Hftmil- 
lon and Cotgnive.**F . i9tttift, a CPU»in ; 
*ce Gdusln.. 

Crab >i\ ft shcll-tiiih. i^') A. ij, 
<n%hf'a.J^\i:fi\. kraMr\ i>wed. krvMa, Dan 
irt^AV. L>u. jb*d^. (j. kraMf. Allied to 
t. tVict* And Du. ^raMrn, lo scntcfi 



claw ; I.,, xteh O, H. U. ir<hh\ a ciab, 
Du . i'-i'^//, n crab. Set- Crayflah. 

OrOibbddt petvish, cramped. CH 1 
PVam frfl/, ab, ; i. e, qrab-like. E>nnppi%h 
or awkward. Cf- Du. kfaJfhfR^ to scratch, 
hif'/>^a, to he peevish. 

Crftb (J , a kind of apple. ^E.) Cf. 
Swcd. kniMti/'li, crib- apple. Perhaps 
aiUml lo crabbed (abovcl. 

Crabbed ; see Crab (i). 

Crack. \E^} A. S. cnn^iaHf to crftck. 
+ Du. iraJttfi. to crack, creak; G. Jtra- 
f^rti. CC Gael, erac^ a fi»a«re, <*»*ir', a 
crack, lo crack (from E> , Imitative, like 
crakf:, creak, croak-, <raih,^%aik^ kit^k, 

cracknel. ^K, -Dn.) Konncil>Yra*^- 
mi, cOfiupLitm of F, tro^ufiin, a cracknel. 
— Dn. ira^e/ii^^, a cracknel. Named from 
its cri&pneM,**Du, kraktn^ to crack, 

craze, comorake« a bird. (,£.) 

Krom it§ cry I M V., (raJtcH, to cty out. 
Allied to irack, iroak. 

Cradle. i.E.) x.s.tnjdoi. Cf.o.H.G. 

traito, a basket; also Q. H, G, crvav, 
prov, G. krsfUj n biakct. 

Craft, skilL lE.^ AS. fn^/.+Du. 
kracht, Jtel. krap(r.,firajir. SMtd. I>nn, G. 
Am//, force. Cf, A. S. cra/t&ttj to crave, 
demand. Der. kanM-cmJt, 

Crag. 1,C.) W. n^eu^. Gad. fr^Hf, 
crnK, rt}clt; Irish rrw^f, a rock; cf. W. 
careg. GaeL carraig, rock, cliff, Brtl, 
karrtk, O. Irish ftirrtV, a tock* 

Crake ; hc Crack, 

Cram. <■ li)-) A. S. i^rammiaH, to ^tufT, 
4- Itel. krtmja^ Swcd. krawa, I)a.n. 
knifnme, lo squeeze. Krom tramm--, and 
grade of the str. vb. inmtH'^ut, to cmmblc. 
Anit cf. Crajnp. 

Cr&mp. i^F. — Teul.i F. trampt^ *the 
cram|>c/ Cot; ef. (ramfcH, *a cramp" 
iion.' — Du.^ram;*, actanip, spasm. From 
the and pradc of Tent. *kr£mpan-f ^krim- 
fart' J to dnLW together, aa tn O. H.G, kfiin- 
ph&n^ to dr^w together, str. vi>. Cf. E. 
(rimpi cramp, <rv*Hpk ; Icel. knfLppr, 
cran^^ ; krtppa, to pinch. And tom'- 
]:>arc Ci^nk. 

Crane, a bird. (E.) A< S. mM.4^Dii. 
JiraaK^ IccL trani (faf jtnifH")^ Swed 
/nmo, Dan. /raw*, G, kran'-kh ; W, and 
Bret. gttntH, Gk. 7^pai'oi, a i^aae, alto a 
crane for raising weights. Cf. L. gruj^ a 
cmne, Litb. garnys^ a stork. From 
yCEK, to cry oulj cf. Gk. T^pwf, voice 
craaberxy . ^Low G.) Modom; from 



}Vf if, l-nuiuftfi: Ilcryliatii* , li. kratt- 
Itert!. lit. cinneljtny ; tl. Dan. tratteher 
y fraiii /jvj JVf — tratt£f ju a Lg ve) ; JS we'd, 

CianiniiL, (L.-Gk.> Med. L. <ra- 
/n'um. — iJk, xpSviov, skull j allied tompa, 

Crank (i), a Lend, (F. i M.^aftX'i. 
Allied lo E. tries, kriinkcn, pp., bent. 
Cf< Uii, kr&nkdf n wrinklCj krenkfien^ 
lo wrinkle, tuni, wind. I'eut. bose 'jtre//^-, 
VAtLniit of *krfng-. Hi. Grinffe, Crinkle. 
crank (is easily upsft, ns a boat. 
{\L,'i I, e, Easily bent or twisted aside, 
ilL Du, kmnk, ill^ poor; alstn hrettgittf tii 
careen a boat ; -Swec!, knittga, Dan. 
<<*r«M^^, to lied ovei ; **e Cringe. 

cr&nJC i^Sf lively. i,li*) The iarne 
wonl. from the idea of tummg quickly. 
Cf, Norw. krin^t active, bri$k j Dan. dliL 
i:-tiH^, dexterous. 

Cranny. (I"'- L*?) M. E. irttny. 
^ 1' . (V ijw, a notch ; with E. suflix _>*. 
AlJied to kd. £"r/mf, a notch (Flurio,, Cf, 
Late L. r/"f>itf» a notch (a worti of doobt* 
All aulhorUy). See Oren«lUto. 
CrantB, n garlind. ;M. Du.-G.J M. 
Un. krants. Uu, kraits, a garland, wrca(h 
l^whetice Daiu kfands, Sw. kram). All 
from U. i'rau'^, .i iiwrcatU. 

Crapd, (K.— ].., F, ry^/!k:, fonncrly 
cmpc^ * frizzled^ crisped, crisp ; * Cot, 
Krom Us wnnklei:! stiifcLce. — L, iritfuf, 
ctuk'l. iJL't Ofiflp. 

Grare, a small &hip. (F.) \jx C^b. 
ir* 2, Jt>5. M.E. rraj'tr* — O-F. cmur^ 
<r&-r, a war-vcsseU Of imknowii origin. 

CrasH. vb. \E:) onmilativc origin ; 
cloiely allied to rrOt'A. Cf. f/euA, r Au/; ; , 
3[i<t slil- Crais. . 

Cl^aaiBi (Ok.) Gk- MpitTiif 3. miiing ; 
htiice, contraction. — Gk. tttp^afyvfu, 1 

Cratfl* 1 1-.) I.> c'ro/j'ujj thick, dense, | 

Cratchi a crib, manger. (F. -O.H.Gk) 

Ml. r/rc.7/<r. - (1 F. efet^Ae {cr^i-Ae);\ 

Prov. ^tr/iAa.^Ci K, G. cripf€a (whence ' 

(1 krippi\, n crib. See Orib, 

Crate. .}-) L. c"i^^, a hurdk; hence^ 
a wicker o&se, &£. 

Crater. 1 1.. - Gfc.) 1* tratir, a bowl, 
a cTAtcr. — Gic. mfAri)^^ a liiT]^« bo'w! in 
nhich llnnip) wcrt mixed. ^GL Kt^awityx^ 
I mix- 

Cravat. : F. - Slftvonic) F. cravaie, 
i' a Lrijalian, {l'\ a cravat. CravaJs 
were lutroduccd bilo France m 1636^ as 

wnrii by tltc Cr<}n/it(fi.u \\\ik wvfv ualk 
iii F. Cya&i^s uT CtcK'iifcs or i t'aVttltj. 
Crifoi h a name of Slavonic orijjJn ; cf. 

I Kuis. AViM/', a Croatia.:). 

I Ck^ave. (K.* A. S*. tra^aH^ tu crave, 
aik. Cf. IceL i>'€/Ja, Swcd. Jtrtt/zu, Dnr. 

I irave, tn demand ; IccL J^ra/ti^ a dt:- 

i niiiml. 
CraveXL. K.-S,.?) The oldcat form 
ifi M. E, i'rarjiUti^ with the ^niie of beaten, 
folltrd, or overcooie. 1. Mr. Nicol sD}f' 
gcistcd that it i& a dipped fonn of O. F. 
travanUt pp- explained by Cotgrave by 
* opprosed, foiled ' ; this ii iht pp. of 
O. t. ^rax/atUer^ to bnenk, uppreii^^ Late 

' L. ^cnpatitarei formed from crtpant-^ stem 
of ptes, pt. of cnpdre^ lo crack, brenk. 
Cf. .Span, ^uihaniat, to crack, break. 
2, But it scem^ rather to be due to a cou- 
h]»inn of the K. vb. to ituvi -w'wh M.E. 
crcannti used in the preciise 8en?c of 
receeant, crnvcn, beattn; this answers to 
O. F. treaft/^ trusting, from Lat. ace. 
crfiiiHtetii, believing; from tretkre^ lo 
believe, in Late L,, to yield, lo fe»r (d. 
n I'r^ani). Cf. prov. E. ifaf/dcH, ^roi/anf^ 
a coward; prob. from an A.F- form oi 
h. c/Vi/ettUm. 
Craw, crop of fowls, ^E,3j 

rrauv. A* if from A. S, ^cmga^ tlie neck ; 

not found ; N. Fries, ^rajy, neck^ craw. 
Allied to Du. Xrma^, G. km^vrt^ neck, 

eoUnr (whence Late Icel. ^tJri, Swed. 

krti^e, ban ^nii't, a cellar). Note also 

Dan . kro , the craw of a bird ; S wed . ktif/va, 
Crawflllli the same as Crayfiab. 
Crawl, (Scand.'l Prov, F. cni^r, 

fn^e, to crawl. — Icel. kra^a, lo paw, 

craw! ; Swnl. krajla, lo (jropc , Dau. 

ktavlc, to crawK Cf. N. Fries, kfabl$\ 

ktawli, to crawl j Low (j. kraurhi. Krc; 

qucntaiive from Tent, base •jtra^-, to 

BCfutch, tlaw ; see Grab. 
Crayfish. (F. - O. H.G.) Altered 

from 5f.K. fn?i'j«. — O. F. (revisie, es- 

rreviise (_iicm'is$e'\, — O. H.G. crtbii, G. 

^v*j, a crab ; allied to G. krabhy a crab ; 

see Crab (, i ). 
Crayoti. (F.-L.) F. crayfl/i; cxlcfldcd 

from F, craU, cbalk. — L. cTt'ta^ chalk. 
Crave. (Scand, M. F. erased^ i e. 

cracked. — Swcd. lirajd, Dmu kmse, tu 

crai:kie ; whence also F- /iraur, \o brtak 

in piccev Cf. Swed. s/d ttt ^ras^ Dan. 

s/aiu i kraty to brrak in shivers. 
Creak. (H.) M^h^AnJttn. Allied I0 

tmirt, iTiui. Cf. Dxu i^rUk, a cricket, 




to crack. Uf imilfitii-* origin, 
Or^WJSk, (K*-!* — Gk., iy.V.eresnu 

(K, tritfte) J renlly the same word tji O, h". 
rrcsme {U. (fit'imt), chrisni flhough con 
fuictl with L. <rtmcf\ ihick jtiicc;- — Laie 
1.. t^f/swa, cQnsccnited uil-»Gk. x/*-*''/<oif 
nil ungutnl ^ s^sr Chriam. 
Crease (i\ a wMnklc, as in foldmy 
jwi^Kfu &c, (F, — L.) Earliest 9j>elUii|^ 
crta.stf a ridge (later, a furrow). Vflrianl 
of frci/f ridge (ai of a roof). L'f, Walloon 
rnrij, 4 Crest, ridyc of a roof, kr^tU^ 
wiinkled (KhmcIic) i Trov, fr«/, rrm, n. 
lidgc; and pTov, K. t-^carf, a tiiigc'tilc of 
a Ffiuf. (AfAen, heyt. i8, l897.> 

Crewie C^ > Creese, a dsgger, (Ma- 
lay,* Malay /'/-/"jj 'a digger, kria, or 
crec£e l* MaredctLi 

Create. (I^) Krom pp. of L, crvatr, 
10 make.4'^kt. /f, tu tnakt. Der> freu/- 
ttrf, O, K. (rcdfurf, L, (rtiltitra. And see 
CrOflC«)3t. Uru^^Tn. i. ( 641. 

Creed* (i- ) ^J- E, fi-ci/f ; a.s ifftia. 

— L, f^/fl, I believe; the first word of 
the creed. + O* Irish trftim, 1 believe; 
Sifct. (raJ-dtitihdmi, 1 believe. Uer rred- 

f^/«* ; rrtdit (L, pp. trtfiitusi ; trtiUtaloiii 
(I- rrhiuimu ^^ Briii;ni. i. S 539- 

Creek, (H. ?j M. L< rn-it^, a creek. + 
l>u. krtek, M. 1)11. JiriJtf; uf. Iccl. ^rrAj, a 
Lrack, nook (whcuM 1*'. tri^ifr). The 
uHi;, KitK is 'a bcad,^ as in Kwtrtl. <Hal. 
ttrmkiik, bend of the arm ; i^r/jt, an angle, 

Creel* on angler's o^i ba&kcL (K^ — 
LO O. V, fra^ wicker- work iDqcange^ 
a.v. *-/ffla),— I* type ^fr^tViadum, for 
frAtitHta, wicker-work, daiiblt: diniin. of 
(ratts, a burUlc, Sec Crat« and Orill. 

Creep, 'tO' **■ K- ^r^pcnx a. s. 

^rrt^w.+ liu. krnif€Hi Icct krjupa, Swedl. 
krypii, llan. hrybt^ lo cfawL I'cut. type 
^kttupun,, str, vl>, 

Creeee ; ^^' Creoae (i . 

CremiktlOB., hnminy. ^U> L- f/-^WfJ- 
fii'ttftft, ncc oiiriffniiio; from pp, of rrr- 
ff/j'ffr, to bum. 

Cre&ftte, notLhciL (U) Krom Late 
L. 4 f'l'MJ, M, I[a1. crtua^ a nt»tch, 

Creaell*te. (UlrL,-K.-L.) From 
i»p, 'if l.flte L, fNtuthrf. lo fumiih with 
battlements, **tt. h\ rrrw^^, a battlement; 
tlimm. of Ci. K. /««, h\ <7iari* a notch, 
fiotn 1 j|Te L. rrrwa (abyTc', 

Creole, ouc borm ill ihe W, Irnlkfr, but 

of JduroiKaii blowl" F. -i?p.iii, ~ L.) 1' . 
rr/fl/c,-»Sii«n* trhlh^ a ncijro CLiriit^ition 
of *iri\uiilio^ dimiii. of tn'atiff, one edu- 
cated, iniiLructed, or'ii|;ht u]*; btnce, a 
child of Kurojican blood, iitaJe i* pti, 
of triare, lo cieate, al^, lo educate. — L. 
I'ioirf^ hi crcRtc, make. % Cf, S| an. 
i-natiilia, ilimin. of rrfWd, aseivant-maid. 

Creoeotet °- lir^uld distilled from tar^ 
(Gk-^i Lir, Mksh 1 reserver.' — Gk. «/>«', 
fo4- Kpitxi, fltrsh ; and tfftnr-^ short for aitn-ij^p^ 
pxeseivLT, from nut^'ny. lu pre^cr\e, (111- 

Creeceut, CU> The * increasing' 
moon. — L. rrtwftti-, ^tcm ul pica. pt» of 
irtmn, Lo i^rowj incrcflie ^pp. crt•-tui)^ 
inchonlive form allied to ctt^^re^ to 
malic ; sec Ol*ate. 

Creei. (EO M. K, cri-f, also *ffrjtf \,hy 
shifting of t . A. S, itttse, leru^ ittsix. 
■l-nu. (fvfJt M. Du. niid Low G, ktrst^ C, 
krtae, O. li, G. (reiia, 

Creseet. f, ^l.) ML, cnssa, 

a light iu a cup at the top of o pole.— 

' O. h. (rcsitt, uaiiict, a crt!»set :'willi 

greaw in nn iron tup t — <) V, fratsu (Y. 

\^raiiSf)t ctease; Liltfe.--yolk-L. *traisia, 

[ greasei from L, r* us fits, thick ^ <]cn£C, Sft 

alio >\'alloon irachiy a cresset from 

I fraihc, grense. 

Creit. (F-L.) a F, rr^-i/* ^F. 

j fr'//^.) — L. ^mMi A cofflh or tuft on ft 

' bird'*, htaii, crest, 

Cretaceone, chalky- (T„: l. rrf- 

/f7ff wj, nil], from Cf^ta, chalk i viith iniffix 

, Crevice^CreTaBse. ^F--!-^ M.t. 

; crei'iii, fmttst, rriTajji;.*-0. F. iTrtwjjf, 
a rift (Late L. tre/ijfta:,^0 F, ngi^r^ jo 
I bur^t ssimder. -^ L. nff>drt^ to crockte, 
I buniL 

Crew. (F- — L.') FoTtncrly a ue, short 
for auntf, a re-infotcemeni — O, F. tfr- 
rJYftf, increase; orig. fern, gf pp, of Of* 
crviitrf, to increase. — L. accrej/tfTt to 
grow to.^L, fff- ^for rn^jj to; aestergj lo 

Creweli a thin wonted j-nrti. Origlrt 
Crib^ a manger. (E. A. S. .rrji8^.+- 

allied to Icel. Swed. krtfifda, Dan. kryhbc. 
Allied perhaps toM. H, t^.krehe^ a basket f 
Iml not to DiK korf. ij. koH'^ if these are 
from L, fcrrffis^ Dat. rri^> verb, to p»t by 
in a «ib, purloin : t-*ii*hag£^ where ttib is 
tlie Accrci *lorc of ciudt 


^=gfe Jg- 



CxioJCi a Sf»!i>m or t*vist in the neck, 
{E.) M. El, fry&Jia; also used tu the seAae 
of wrench. Prob. allicti tn Craok, 

Cricket I'O* "^ iDieci. {F. — Tent.) 

cricket. ^O- V. <riqiur, to creak, mttlc, 
chirp. — Du, kriik, a cricket ; knkkrakkm^ 
to rattle From the imitative base^n^; 
cf. proT. E. fflBt'jti;/, tnaktr, a cricket: 
Hexhum has, M. Du. kricktn, * to create/ 

Crickfk't ( 7 ^ a g^nie. (K. — Du.) The 
game ws^s obce played with a huokcd 
stick (Cot , s,v, ircsif ,^ O. F, fni/uei, 
' bitan servant dc but nu jeu de boiile;' 
Godefroy.— M,Du. jfr«V*»-4m-Atf, a cniLch; 
H^xhnm. Cf. A, S, cfiic, ftycc^ a cnitqh, 

CriniO. (F, — L , ) F . <rime, — L, f ri- 
r/MM, an accu^tion, fnnlt {stem cri/ttin-) ; 
allied to iermrt, to decide. + (.ik, teptftat 
Kpijm. A dccisiori ; itptfdi', to judge. Der, 
crimiH-di, criminate ; hence, recHmitUiU 

Crimp, to wrinkle. (E.) In late bm ; 
aiisweriug to an A.S. *crcmf€iH^ E» Fries. 
AtfttiptH, cftQsal deriv. of Cramp. The 
t>rig* str, vb. otcuis ns Iv Fries, tuid Du, 
krimpett^ O. H.G. kHmfatt; Tcul. type 
*krempan- {krimpan-i. to draw oneself 
Ingcther^ shrink up ; pt- 1* *kranip^ pp, 
*krHmpanO', See Cramp aad Cnunple. 

CxitnaOll. (F. — Arab. — ijkt.j M . K. 
cfemosin. — O. F. t'rnmoutH. crautoisyne 

f«c trartufiii in Litire: ; Low L* irame- 
sittui, ftlso iamtesimUj crimson (Span. 
c9fm€sij Ital- chirmist).^ Ktfkh. prmitt, 
crimspn ; from gtrniiz, the cDchinenl in- 
stcl. — Ski. Mrmi\s)t a worm. Brugm. i. 

Uring'O. (K,) M.E. fnfijjf*jpf- i:aii5a] 
derivative of A.S. ctin^it, iHnfatt^ to 
sink in battle, fall beni-aith the foe. 
Crituan is a strong verb; see Gridik, 

CElILgl^f ^^ iron Hoe- (Low GO 
LowG./frfTw^rf/, aring(Liiob«i\* E. Fries. 
kriftggi; allin] to Ecel. kringia^ a circle 
(^cf'^mA^r, pi., the pullie^ oi a dra^-net). 
Dimio. of L, Fries, ^rin^, a ring. Dq. 
krin^, a circle ; allied to Crinkle, Crank 
I I i, .inH Cringe. 

Crinkle. E.) M. E. crinkled ^ crefickd^ 
twijtcd. A frequent' fgrni of the eauaal 
dcriv, of rriM<6. ^h^ch occurs in the A. S, 
str. vb, trittcattt to SlJik in a heap; ««e 
^Crinolinai a Udy^s stifT &kirt. (F.— 

I,) i\(nrufh'i*f, [I hair-clolh, M^ criDo- 

1 3 

line. — F. critt (L. RCc. critam), hair ; 
and /(Jv- Hax, hence thread,, from L. linumt 
ilux, a]&o, a thread. 

Cripple. lE") yiAL crrpei, (ruf^t \ 
O, NortboDib. crypei, Luke v^ J4> Lit 

A creeper.' — A, S. crttf', weak grade of 
crrcpan (pl.t. creap\ to creep; with suffix 
'f/ {for -(./.p-) of the agent 4- Du. krettpeiy 
Icel. kryppili, G. kriipp^, Cf. Dan- iroi- 
/i#i^ Cffom *^^, lo cfeep). See Creep. 

Cri^s; see Crltio, 

Crisp, wrinkled, curled. (L.) A.S. 
crhp,'^,.irispus, curled. Brn^^ i. \ 565^ 

Critic. iL. — Gk.) L. ti-iik$iS,'^Gk. 
Kf>^7ite^,$^ able to discern ; cf. Kp(nr|f, a 
jadi^e. — Gk. Hfl-wuv, to judge. DeP- rW/- 
erian^ GUn xfir^^ov. a test; dui-critk^ 
from Gk. 0iajrpirLWi!»f, fit for dislin^isbing 

oriflia. (Gk^ Gk,#pm^adi$ce^)iII£r 
a crisis. «^Gk. KfiAt***, tojud^. 

Croak. (£■ ' Cf. A. a. crUtetung^ a 
CTo^klnj;. Of imitative origin. Allied to 
craii, crtak. 

Grockot* (F*-Latc L,) F. ftvfh^i. 11 
little Hook ; tUmin. of *row, a crook.— Late 
L. croicum, ace. tif iroicus^ a hook. 

Crock, a pitcher. (C.) A.S, €roc<a. 
Of CtUic orifiin. CF. E. Irish rrwdrt, Gael, 
o(5f, Iri&h tivgg/f, \V. cfOfAtiH, a pitcher, 
pot,+Gk, M;jixuiT<r^E (foi jt^pafrj^n, a pitcher. 
So also Dg. iruti, Icel. IruJtJtiz, Sued. 
Anf'fd. ■Dan^ krukHf G, ^'i<[i'. 

Crocodile, F.— L,— Gk.) F. t^-Atf- 
diie.— I.. trc<^iilm^^ Gki KpDirOfi<iA.oii, a 
liiattl. a crocodile, 

Ctochb. (L.~Gk.) L. ^rA^Hj.— Gk. 
xpuKiii^ crocus, safTroUi Perhaps Semittc ; 
cf. Arab, jttirkaaiy Hi:h, JttirkotH, fiaffron. 

Croft. 1 E.) A* S. en/A a fidd.-f'I)u- 
kfvt/if, krv/f, & field ou tb« downs. 

Croanl60h. (W.) AV. crvmiak. a flog- 
^onc laid acrosa othcrv»-'\\\ crom, fem. 
of cr-urm, crooked, bent; fJ^cAy flat «tone. 

Cronet an old woman. CF.~L.) Tusber 
has (rifnc, an old ewe, Prob, from Picard 
iarcai^ caj-non; whence Vi.\}ik. karoHu^ 
hvnue, aa old thecp. See Carrion. 

Crony, on old chum, (Gk.?) ^'^PY^ 
has cArany iN.E.Dj. Perhaps fot Gfc. 
XjpdiPiOT, a Mong'tosting' friend ; ^s ituoM 
in collef^c- slang Skinner). Butter nmea 
ci-ottiis with m&Hiei. 

Crookt n book, bend. 'Scand.l M. !*» 
crok tAncrcn Kiwlc). — Iccl. krdkr,SYttA, 
kroff. Pan. krog, ho'»k^ I wend, anj^le. 

Crop. (E.jf A. b, irvppi the to^j of ft 






bnl, the cnit of « bird; ctng, m. bundli' 
riencc tbr verb lo trap^ lo cut off the 
)i ; and hcticc ^-ly*, « hm-ctUl-f-Dn* 
irV/, G. jfrrujiy^s bud's ciop; Icel. k'Vf'/r^ 
a hunch; !>wccL J^rv//, tWn, .^z. trunk 
of th« body. Cf. W. f^ffiit. Gad. and Ir, 
^^r^/idM^ bitd^i CTo|i. [To c^rc^ ^h/ is to 
Iwnch out,] 

GTOap ii\ hinder port of a horic. (F. 

— Tcut. V. i*n?rt/v, crupper; orij*. pra- 

lubcrancc. ^Tcel. krtppr, a ntinch (above). 

CmppOr. (K.— Icut-T ¥.(r(wpi^re 

(O. F, fr^fUrt),»*Y . ir^upc (O. F» ^tvpf^ 

Croquet* a gam«. ^K. — LateL.) From 
N. Frcnvli tre^uelf n, litllc hook, bent 
« : tUt same as F. cr^MtL Sec 

CrosMJTi (F. ^ Late L.) M. £. ^fvcer, 
ftvs^r, flee, Formttl, with sttfiix -<t, from 
M< L. <rvi^f, in the same tentc of * bishop's 
Slalf/— O. F. ir&ce, 'a cnasicr,* Cot. ; mod. 
K. ffwjw; Laic L. rrwra. — O. F. c^bt, a 
book ; SKV Croohflt. ^ Not from rrcjx, 
though eftflj^ confused with M. R cr&isttr, 
a coinage fnJin U. F« fr£>/j, a cross. 

CtMB* (L,) ^f. E, f-rvj-; from Iccl. 
^rvtj^ adopted ftvta O, Irish fros,m>-lL. 
iTUi-tm^ juc of rmj'f a cross. Her. 

CroBBf adj. (I^) Ong. transverse, 
from ihc sli:ipc of a cross; hence^ pccvtsh, 

Cratchet, in music. (F. -^Late L.) 
!•« frohcf. 'a limall hc»ok, a quaver in 
mtijic ; ' Col, (The hecked mmrk now 
called a qaaver was called fttifA^ in 
French.) See Oroe3t«l, 

Cl^Otfim* plant. (Gk.) Gk. Mpirwrf a 
tick, H'liicli ihc cantor-berry rtsemblca. 

Croucll, i,F,-I^teLO M.E.frpH- 
c/ftn, to sloop, bend* -^ O. K, ^rA-^//\ 
lo RFOW crooked ^(iodcffoy), — 0, l'\ 
i7 1\ Af , n crook ; also irOf. — Lal< L, itVT' 
I'NW, .ICC. oi froixus. a hook. 

Croup (i\ n disirase, (E,> From Low- 
land Sc. ^*-w<yV, (TTP/V, to croak, mftke a 
hflrsh iioise. Of imitative origin ; aaau- 
eialcii wUh rrtTTw, fnmi, and with Korlh 
V' ■■ * - "'r-. fo call, shout hoarsely, from 
\\ cftk vb., lij cfy out. Cf. A*.S, 
/ , : . t. Arnfp) , ty cry oui j G, rj^M 
^JJt. I. rr.'/ 

Croup ^3), of a hoiTc; kc Crop. 

Crow i . vb. {IL '• A, S. tfaiifa « ( pL t . 
L'tm').to crow.+DiL. Atftai/fn, Ci, Jirdhett, 
ifuctk verb* : aR«l cf. O- Slav, ^rajofit Liib. 
V, iv trow. Of ImiUtive origin 

crow \.^ ' n bird. hS^ A.S. *^*-iirir' 
i^see above .^-O.S, h;iM. l>u. tnttti^ <^ 
iru^f, B^, rfvw-htr, bar with a tiow- 
like beak. 

Crow4 (i), topush. throitg. iJE.) A^S. 
*irudaa pr, s. crydr}^ pi. t. frittif), lo 
push ; whence frir^^n, X'*''**^. ■ crowd, 
throng. 4- M. Do. krvjr^m^ Jtni/f», Du. 
krmeti, to push alone j t. Iries. jtri'i^/cMj 
kHidcn* Tent, type 'jlirw^w-, ar. vb. 

Crowd C3), a fiddle. ^W.) M. L\ 
^rijjw'i'. — W, frifM, a tnmk, bdly. aowd, 
violin, fiddle; Gael. ^rHfV, b&rp; O. Irbh 
frotj harp. 

Crown. CP' — I- — tik ) M . E. tarmify 
forvurtf whence <rfUNe''..«^0. F. torotu 
(F. ^flJfn?ww^).^L. i^ifrprtri, a wreath. — Gfc. 
j(o/»a/vr|i, end, tip; Kopoam, a wrtfltl], j^'ai* 
Land.^Gk. ffcjpftv^, bent, curved. Cf. 
Gk. fcwprdij L, fumust bent. 

GrociaL [F. — t^) F. cm^iaft ' cmsa- 
Ukc;' Cot — 1«<-™W-, dec!. stem offriw, 
a cross; with suffix -J/A. 

cmci&, V I" • ^ ^) t>, F. < rufi^tr, « 
Lftte L *^'miifiiart, for L. {ruiiftgtrt 
(ppL ^rmi/ijcus\ to fix on a iTOSs.— L. 
rrwfi, d alive of fr«ur; /t^r^t to fix ; ace 
Fix. Detp. miajijt; *ioti. 

Crucible. (L.) From Late L. (rttd- 
bolum. i^i" a night-lamp, v 3) a ve&jseJ for 
meltiag mctsls. The lamp may have 
been bo named from b;iviiifi four noulcs 
with wicks, forming a gross (s»ill a com* 
mon Itfil. prtttcm^ ; as if from fr**./-,dn;l, 
stem of rrw-Tf a cro^ ; wi(h &u(Tix -bcfifm 

' -ffutum, as in fundti/uHK a censer. 

Crude. (U) L. ^nitfNtf raw. AlHcd 
(o Baw. 

cmeL (F.- L.) O. F. fntel - L. 
i-rff.frffs, cruel ; allied to (tUt/ur, nw 
i^^ibove ■- 

CrUOt. (K-Tctit.) A. F. ervef, a 
iinnU vessel (Godcfroyj ; dimin. vi t\ F. 
t-r«/V, rrj/*". pot.— Low L. rmja, ft pllcliet. 

— O. H. G, ^rwi^, G, Jh^, a pitcher; 
Allied 10 Crook 

Cruise. (Do.-L.^ I>n. kmisen, lo 
cniisc, cross the sea,— Du. krttii, a cross. 

— L, Bcc. frih-iffi, from trujt, a cro?*; 
wiih lengthen in 1; of tl. 

CnUI&D. (E*) Pfov. IC, i-FWfw. A, S- 
cr6ma. (The final /!^ is ej(crcsccnt.')4'l)^' 
krHt'm, Pan. krumme, G, krume^ a 
cnimh, CC Ilnl. gT'uitu!', a clot. Der. 
crunth-it, verb ; t'l. Du* kntimtUn, G. 
knifnr»n, to crumble. 

Crumpoti a l^Jnd of cake. .E.) W; 



crffftipid ^aJte to render Lat. ia^a- 
^Huttt (Ki. xxix. 33) ; cf. prov, E, irumpy 
cnke^ crUp cake. For cnuHp-sd^ pp> of 
it. E. frumpcn, tq curl a]j (whence E. 
ii*itmp/£\ Cf. G. ktiimpeUf krumpea^ to 
cmmpic, cttfl Bp; krutniHi gwt^; Da. 
kromrti£H, to crookj curve. See below. 

CnunplD, vb. (E.) Kreqtienuiive of 
obs. crump, to curl up. From irttmp*, 
weak grade of A. S. ^rnrnp^H, str. vb. ; 
see Orunp and Crimp. 

CamtlcH, (E.) An imitative word, 
Cf, prov, K. crinch, craiuh^ to crunch, 

Crupper ; «« Crop, 

Cmral. (L.) L, trrurdlh, belonging 
TO Ihe leg, — L. ^^/^-, Etem of crus, Ihe 

OrUflOdo. (¥, ami Span. ^U) The 
form 13 due Iq coafmion of F, erphsdt 
with Spmu (-rf/lddx. — liUte L, fruiidfa, 
sb. fetn.j a Eiufking with the ctossj pp. £. 
of rntiidri^ to cro^.«-L, frwfi-, dcd, 
slem of <Tw.r, a cross. 

Cniaet a i^mall pot. ffL) M. E. crw£. 
\\\ Fries, /nw, E, Fries, >/^*'x, + Itid, 
^/"wj, ft pot ; Swed, h*ujf Dild. knttu, a 
mujj : I^- 't'WJ, <^up, pot, crucible ; 
M, H, G. krffsi, G. JtrattJif mug. 

Cmvll, (F.-Teiil.J O. F. imsirj 
cruiiir, troissir, to ciack, break ; (Span. 
iruxir, Ual. cr&sciare). From a Tciil. 
^ppe '^kraustjan- (sec Diez), causal foim 
from Goth, kriu^lan. to gn&ib with the 

CnUit. ;F, - L.) O, F- croHsit iF. 
frorfr^^ — L. (rujtd, crust of bread, CC 
Gk. vfiiiDf, froat ; sec Crrat&l, Der. 
(rusi-y, bard like a crust, stubborn^ 
harshly curt of people). 

Cmtell. (E.; M, E. crmcke ; from 
A* S i'f/<^<% a crutch, slnJT, -(- l)u. kn*k, 
Swed. kryckay Dan. krykke^ G, hriidni. 

Cry. (F. -LO M, K. fr^M ~F* rrrVr. 
{FulTcf forms occur in Ilal. grtdan, S]Mm. 
gritar. Port, ^/dr,) — L. quiritars^ lo 
shriek, cry^ lament (Brachct) ; lit. 'to 
implore the &id of the Quiritff* or Roman 
ciliicns tVarro). 

Crypt. (L. - Gk.) L. cr^pta. - Gk, 
Kpuwr^ a vault, bidden cave ; orig. fem, 
ol )tf>virr6t, hidden. — Gk. Hpvtrtit't to hide. 

CrTvtal. (F, -U — Gk.) Fonnerly 
criitaL — O. r. iHital. — L, ctystalhwt^ 
cmUL—Gk. M^varo^^Ds. ice, crystal. «- 
Glc cjptKrriuHirt lo freeze. — Gk. Kpwtt 

Ciib« (E.?j Etya. unknown. Cf, 


Shell . I'ofib, to biuie forth younj,', fl_ _ 
only to a seal ; Icef ^W, k^pr^ a yoang 

Cube. ,F.-U^Gk.) F. «iif.-L 
ace. 4:fthim, — Gk. rv^^f, a cube, die. 

Cubeb. a spicy berry, (F*-Span.- 
Arab.) F. cabthe, in Cotgrave»— Span. 
cuinba. — Arab, ka&ti&a{t)^ pi. Ad^fAiul, 
cnbcb. an ELrpnuitii^ 

Cubit. (L.) L. ful>i/tts, atj elbow^ 
bend ; the length from the elbow to the 
middle finger's end- Allied to L, tM^rv, 
to lie down, recline ; sec Covey, 

Cuckold. \Ki wi/A C, suJIa;) M,E. 
koketuoM, boMctwid, i^hf/d.^O. ¥, emu- 
auftf iffHCuai i^Godefruy), a cuckold. » 
O. F. fwTM ;F. cffuefftt^,, a cnckoo ; with 
deprecLitory suflii •^atty -d/, from G. 
-waid (Die/, Gram, iu 34C), Cf. 0« F, 
cttiH {V. <siKcii\ a cuckoo; secondly, a 
man whose wife is unfaithful. (Thei^ are 
endless attugioaa to the comparison be- 
tween a cuckoo and a cuckuld; see Shak. 
L, L. L. V, 2. 930. &C,) 

Cuckoo, (F.) F". «r«farwij from the 
bird^t; cry, Cf. L. cueutuSt a cuckoo; Gfc, 
tt6mcv^j a cuckoo; /t^M^Vj Hi cry; Ski, 
kai'i/a', a cuckoo; Irish tuat^f W, i'o^, 
Cf. c*^v!% ectkafffc. And see Coo. 

Cucumb«r» .U) The * is excrescent; 
Ai.E. rMtv/M^r. — L. cuatttufVM, ace. o( 
at(tirniSj a cucumber. 

Cud. (E.) ME. fwt/f, f<fc/^. jrNrW>, 
A. S. ewidUj cweodu. cf$dti. TtuI, tyj* 
*kivedrvom, iieut. Cf. Skt, jatu-^ re^iu ; 
ilEso Icel, kwii6a, reUD. Orig, &enK| 
'l^tutinou^ substance/ 

Cuddle. (E ) Perhnpa for \oulfiU, lo 
be familiar, to fondle ^ from tjwM. adj. 
familiar, well known; A, S^ ('wffj known, 
pp. of ir»nflaff,toknuw. See Cui(i). Cf. 
prov. E, lowf/f, ioTiug ; tooi/t^ to fondle. 

Cudgel. (E-) M.E. itttA-g-^/ A.S. 
cyc^fh, in (Ircgory'i rastoial Care» ed. 
Swtcl, |i. 297, Cf, Oog, 

Cudweed, {E.) From fWand bv«^; 
* tbc plant being Administered to cattle 
that had lost theii cud,' So aljio cud- 

Cue* for an actor (L.?) SomclEmcs 
writicn q or ^u in the 16th cent., &nd 
supposed to be for L. quando, when. 

Cu II)' to slrike. (Scand. ?} Cf. 

Hwc^l, kn^a, to thru»l, pushf M^ Swed. 

kitjfii^Q strike, lo ciifT (iKrc), 

dim {.i\ part of the sleeve. [L. 7) 

M. i:, fitjf, €o^e. Cf. lAte A. ii. (it^t^ a 





kind of cap (L£«^ ; M. H. G- ktiffe, 
knppc, kufft^ & coif; lee Calf, [V'tfy 

CoiraSji* (F. — lUL — L.) Formerly 
ii*r,i.r^, — O. F, €uir&£t (F, citira^ii). — Ital. 
toraxsa, n cuirass. Fomicd (roro L. 
eortdf£us, leathern.— L. cortum, leather 
(u'licnce F. futr, leather ^ 

CiaiaB6B»pI. (F.-L,) O.y.cuufaujt, 
srtiioiu L >T the thighs. ~ F. cuisst^ ihigh. -> 
L. fifXf:, hip, Bmgtn. i. j 609. 

Cvlde^. (C.) Uiih {^filff/if a Culdee, a 
»crviLiu uj tJod. — Ir* f«'/* (O. Irish £^if), 
servant; siid n/f, yen. ofjA'a, God. 

Culinary. (L.) I., cuiinanus, bc- 
k>!i^ing to the kildieii' — L. i'u/ma, 

Cull, to collect, select. (F,-U) M.E, 
tu/iett. — O, F. (oiUir, ntillirj to colleet. — 
L. (oiligtret to collect. See Coil (l) and 

CuUender ; svc CoUnder. 

CuUion, in wretch* (F. — J,0 A cowiic 


CiLUis, a stroDg broth, boiled and 
Btmtncd. iF, — L.) ¥QTXi\^t\y toiys, fixity s, 
— O. F. eoltix, fou/eis, later cffuUi, * A 
culli«/ Col. ; sobsLanlival use of celds, 
IsItT ceuiii, 'gliding,* Cot.— L. tj|>e *cdlA- 
titius; from fc/arttio slnun. Cf Port- 

Culm, B stem. (L.) L. £ulmus, a 
Etalk ; nllied to cai9tn«s^ a stalk. See 

Culmi&ata. (L.) From pp. of L. 
isftninitrf. lu comp to a top. — L. (ulmin-^ 
stem of £uimtH {-ceiumen\ a top* ijee 

Culpable. tF,-L.) M. K. (^ftw/^T/^/r 
0. F, iu/fiiM'f^ <ciptif>k. <&u/XibU {V, louf- 
aifh , — L, fuipdifiiii^ blimcwurtby. — L. 
cui/dre, to bUmcH — 1^ (ufptt-, a fault- 

culprit, (F»~L,) Iq Drj'dcn. Not 
orig. iD single woidt but due to a fu^Lcin of 
A-F. a*f- (for ruipoAI^, i.e. tP^'^^y) ""'^^ 
/j-i// ur jSrw/ (i c, ready lo prove it); 
ajgnifyin^ thfll the cleric of the ctowa was 
r.:7iily {I. prove the indictment (N. K. D.). 

Culter ; ^t* CouUor. 

Cultiyat«« (l>') Lale L. cuitivdlui^ 

lip. of £HixiVf}rt, to tiU, — Late L, tultivus^ 

tit for tilimg.— L. ittltmSt pp. of roUrt, lo 

till Hru^. i, I lai. 

ooltiire. <F. -L.) F. iuUutt.^h* 

ftttltira' allied (o tuft-UJ, pp. of foiere, 

lu nil. 


Culver, t; y A.S. ^-m^*. a uove. 

Culyerin. (F.-L.) Corrupt form, 
for *r«/rt'r/H, — F, cpultvrine, a culvmn; 
a piece of ordnnnce named from iti long 
shape, like a soake.^O. F. otttUuvriH, 
addcr-lilce; irom fm/ri/crc, ao adder. ~L. 
t'oiuhra^ ioluinTf an adder. 

Culvert, an arched dmm. (K.— L.) 
Of duubttul orifijiij ; perba;^ formed, wilh 
added t, iiom O. K. touitnure, * a cbnimelj 
gBtter,' Cot. — F, ceuitr, to trickle— L. 
ididre, to stTois, drain. Compare Fort- 
cuUiB nod Culiia, 

Cumber, (F. ^ L&te L.J M. £. cem- 
brtn, — 0. 1" . combrxTy lo hinder (rare) ; 
usual lofm ffH-f4?m3jTrr. ^Lale L. ittmbt^i^ 
a heap, a barrier; of dotibtftil origlii. 
[Cf, L. cH0f9tluSt a hcflpj but tdio G, 
kummfr, giicfj opprc^it^n, prov. G* h»m- 
rtur^ nibhiah. Thus f«m^fr*ito put a 
lie.ip in the way.] Der. en-cumber^ from 
O, r. t-NiOfubrer, to cnciirobcr, load. 

Camiu, CumiuiUj a plant. (L.^ 
Gk— Helj.' M. t. (Qmifu A. S- iumin^ 
(^nm. — L. cumlnum^ Mutt, xxiii. 15.** 
Cik. wii>j4^cv. — Ileb, kammoM, cumin. 

Cumulate. , 1^^ ' From pp. of L. 
fiimufarc, to heap up.^-L. cumuiuSf a 

Cuneatet^'^lfC'^Ap^- (1^-) Formed, 
wilt siiliix 'fl/Cj from L- utmr vf, a wedge. 
Allied to Cone. D6r. mnei-fcrm \ L & 
wedgt'shaped. Sec Cold. 

Cunning, odj. (L.) Orig. prci. pi. of 
M, H- (fthturt, to know ; heticc, * knowing,' 
From A, b. iuttnan^ lu know ; KeOui(l . 

Frum A. b. tuitnait, to know. J'cThaps 
sugge&tc^t by Uel. kuHnaftdi, knowledge ] 
from IceL kfiHHa, lo kiK4^w. 

Cup. (L. ) A, S. *r»//v, a cup. - Late L, 
t^H//(i, vanajil of L, cupUt a tub, in Lale 
Iv, a drinkirig'tessel^ whence al«o Du. 
Dan. kQp. V. t'pufif, Ac See COOp. 

cupboard. i.L< iz»^ E.) M. £, rw/- 
bffftftr, orij,'. a ^ide^board ior holding cups ; 
AlUt. r«>emi, E. 1440 ; Itlorlc Artii. 
J 06. 

Cupid, ^o(^ of love. (L.) L. atptde, 
desire. — L. riyV^c, to desire, + Skt. A*/, 
to become exuitcd. Der. mpid-i ty, ¥. 
€ufidir^, from L. ace. cufiiditiU^m, 

Cupola. (ltal.-L.,i llal. cupoht a 
doQLCT from it^ shape. •- L. tiipi/u, a smnll 
ciftk, a little vault; dimm. of L. itipa, a 

CupreouBf copper}'. ,L.j L <7v/r<-iij, 





«l copjicr; with suflix 'aitj.''L, m/ntWt 

Cur. lE'^ M* E- ^ur-iioi^ ;ab. 1125). 
+M. Du* jfro/T*, a house-dog; cf. Swed. 
dial, turre, a dog. Name*)! frotii yrowting- 
Cf. prov. Ej r«rr, to purr; Ixiw G, 
kHrf£H„ to snarl (lAthben); Icel. iurra, 
to murmur, grumble; Swcd. kurra^ to 

Curate ; ^c Cute, 

Curb. (F. -^ L.) M. E. courinH^ to 
bend, — F, iourher^ to bcmi, how, — L. 
iurutire^ to bend; from atrttus, bent. 

Curd. (K.j M, E. (THn/. <:«*</. Frob. 
froni A. y, erud-f related to truilaUj 
to crowds press together. CI Ir. gruth^ 
Gaehj^rum, curds. (Fide, ii, 119.) 

Ctice. (F.-L,! O. K. cure.^L. rtim, 
atieiidoa ['|>rim. Ital. *kaisd}. Brugm. i. 
f 874- ^ Not allied to cart, 

eurate* (L.) Med. L. curatus, a 
pheat,, curate ; cf. curium ftftujifium, 
a bene^ce with cure of aottb. — 11 rwra, 

onrioaB, C^- - l,j o. f. fttrm. ** l. 

cttrioffts, attentive. — L. cura^ nttentioti. 

Cnxf e W. ( K. - L ) A. F. cxperfa, 
c&vrefeUj curftu ; O. F, iavrefta ( F, <(fuvrg- 
fitu), a fire'Corer, covering of fire% time 
for pittlin^; out fire*. — O. F, rnvrir, lo 
cover ;y^tt, (ire (^<Uyi«'HAiJ, ao/. oi/oatSf 
heiiTlh, iirc ; see Govar and Focua, 

CorioUB ; see Core. 

Curl, sb. ^E.} M, E, cati 'with shift- 
JQij of r) ; from M. E. ifu/f artj., curly 
i^A.lK l.^oo'. Not in A. S. K. Fri^, 
kruUa, krui!, Jtrtt/, a tarl.+Du. Jhru/t a 
curl, krulUn, to curl ; Dan. Jtri>//e, a cutI, 
.Swt'ii. kfulli^, curly ; G. kroiU^ a curl> 
M- K,G, hrfiite. Cf. Norw. ntrw//, a cUfU 
aofoethia^ rolled togethcf ; kmlla, to curl, 
bend of bow together. Allietl to E. Frie^. 
kriUi'H^ lo bendt turn, wind ; Low G. 
kf^nnH, to turn; N. Friai, ^f'^ia//, closc- 
twi^ttfd ; aiiggestinc; Tcut, base ^hrtlian-, 
to wtnd, sti. vb. (traiiclc, Koolman). 

Curlew, a bird, iF.) M, F, iorlUu^ 
•a Lurlufi' Cot. Cf. Ital. ihiurh, n cur- 
lew, thmrhin, lo howl, Swed, *wr/a, to 
c<>o ; litt llifit it is rmmed from its qry. 

CurmadgeoD. (li.?^ Oricta unknown. 
In ojic jetstance spelt corn-mUtigiH (PblL 
HolUmi', ns if a boarder of com, hence^ 
a stingy fellow; where mudpn ii for 
mud^iii^^ pres. pL of mu^^ to hoaidif 
alito apek mo(Kh ^M, K. w^fM^n), to skulk ; 
fryin O. F. Mtti^r. to Uidc. But this is n 

forced &pe1lin)f» {fiviiig a wrong due. In 
iS9^' ^^ ^^'^'^ cQrmulficH, with the aanie 
sense. The first ziyllable scemi! to be ^j'^» 
4 whelp ; and we find Lowl, Sc. murgean, 
to mockito grumble ; mudge^t^ a grimace. 
Cnzrant. (F,-L.-Gl:.) Fmracrly 
rqyjytti ^/(ermtnt. — F. raisins dt C^rinthe^ 
^ currants ;' Cot. Hence, curfsttf is a cor- 
ruption of Corinth (L< CoriHtkus^ Gk. 

ChU^rent, running, flowing. (F.^L.) 
M, K. mrranij Q. F. iurani, pi^s. pt. of 
atm, farri (F, co»rif\ to rxin. — ll CJir- 
;^^ri, to nm, Prob. for *iurs^re. Drugtii, 
1- S5 499- 5*^- Perhaps allied to Hor»«. 
CtUxicle. (L.) L. iurriiulmn^ a 
running; also^ a light car.«*L, t-ttrreri^ 
lo mn. 

Cuxry Ci)i to dieas leather. (K.-t. 
rtffi/ Tent.) O. F, cofreitr (Goderroy), 
earlier forms cont^dtr. idure^r^ later ieu* 
roytr^ (ourr^iiTy to curry, drew leather, 
orig. lo pruparc. — O. F. emtrti, older form 
tunreid, getir, preparation. A hybrid 
word; made by prclixiug con- ( = L. «(7M, 
futii) to O. F. ret, order (Ital. -irda m 
arrJd&y array), p. 't his (>. F\ r<:( it of 
Scacd. origin ; from Dao, redt, order \a^V^> 
to set in order), IceL r(*i't/* tackle. Pre- 
cisely the same O. F. rei helps to form E. 
ar-ra.y\ see Array. ^ To curry favour 
is a corruption of M. F', /tf iurry /atvf, to 
rub down a borsc ; /"ktiv/ wxi a coEdmoii 
old name for a horse. 

Curry (a), ■ seasoned dish. (,T«mil 
From Tftroii Jkarif saucej relish for xicc 
■ Yule). 

Cliri#. CS") A, S, i«rjra«T verb; furSf 
hb.j an im[vecation. Cf. O. Jr. cftrsaij^m^ 
'I reprehend' iW indisch>. Der^uf'^trnd, 
from M, E. tuorsiin, lo curse exlreiucly. 
where the prebx a-^^A.S. dr-, very; sec 

A- (4)^. 

Cursive, (U.) Med. L. atnitfusy flow- 
ing; said of handwriiini;. — I,, tnnm^ pp, 
Kti ittrrm^ to run. S« CujtsdI. 

OtU^SOfy. ^L.) Laic L. iursimus, 
hasty, — L. iunort-^ dect, st(;:m of (ursor, 
a runner.^L. rwrj-i/j (nbove'i. 

Curt. {L.) L* iurtuSf short, cut short. 
curtail. (F.-L.) It ha^ nothing to 
do with (aiil, but is an alteration <si the 
older form turtai^ verb, lo dock ; from the 
adj. iur/al, havuij^ (i d^iclccd tail ^All'a 
Well, ii. 3. €$). - O. F. i<*Nrfau/r> later 
coHrtoutf •curtail, t>cJJig tuftnlled ; ' Cut, 
The aacDc as Itftl. <artalda. ' a i:Qrtall 






a t&ile,' Rorio. Formed, I From a L, type *<:stttintnt, for 
ritll soffix -omit ( ^ luL -^Jtff Low L. f^JiKf ftbottcfwd form of a^HsuffvJtMm, 

fttmit < G. Bxfl/f/f power, from Q. F. 
^ort.-^L.. curiuj. short.. 

aOC. tif rAEJHAWp. custom* ~ t.. coMmrfut^ 

f>p. of iWfMw«nrrvv to aocn&tam, incboAtire 
orm of ^coKsn^re, to be accustomed. — L. 
iWi- i.fiiJH), together, v«t ; fM^s.-rrt 'pp-i 

tocl. m^i. I, Volgmte), % screea^ plAiQ | tu^tHi , to be ACCttstomed ; possibly from' 
wall of A fort, orig. a sttiaJl ^ard. — L. sttMSt own; »o tlwt jir«<-rrr-to biiirc II 



eerf'fttt, ace. of f^T, a conit, S« Court 
Cnrtleaxe. <F.— L.) A p^rvenioQ 

uf iuttL\:x, vhich wftS A perversion of 

(utu^m, all oM speiling of fMfiaxs. Sec 

Curtsey* t F- — I*) The wme word u 

rmtrusy, i. e, a conrtiv «ct 
CvrVftt A l^^( line. ;L>) Late L, 

fUft'US, L. iTMnviu, bcnl* Hh ^^' *vpT&t. 

bcuti, Der. ntrvahtrt, I., ruruiftiira, 

fmm pp_ of (uruar£, (o bcml ; from 


CUC^et. ^Ital, — L,'^ Ital. ri}rtv//a, a 

curved ImlP, bound; dlmln. ftom M. Tl.i1. 
fcn*^ 'Itnl. (*Binv\ bcnt.->L. rHnri/j 

CnAk&tt the rlng-doTe. (E.) A.S, r»- 

fftifU, A wild pigeon ; also ciUcoie. Here 
\tt(oU prol»ably" means 'shooter, darter** 
from ucatan, to shoot (cf* A*S. /f/tf/a, a 
kind of trout 1 ; and perhaps tii refcra ta 
Uie ' CMi * of the bird. Cf. Lowl. Sc. rffry- 
skiti, a i'ushat. 

ftfSiAift.^O.F. ^oittitt, fOHSsm. a ctishion. 

\\y \.s sttpfHMicd that O. F. (QtJtin W)i4 the 
triM- form, alleied to ^t^tfjiui (perhaps) by 
the infTuence of O. V^toutfy a qqilt,] — L. 
tjrpc *t0xsttvm, a support for the hip, 
iroin fojc^^ hipf thig^h i,tike L. cu^tai, 
e1bow-cu!»hionf fjom rttiituj, elbow), Cf. 
Ital. iUjiiui*^ ccshinn, citscia^ hip; Span. 
coJiN.ciiih\\iii^{niJa, hip. {fipmniita, iSgi, 

P- s?^) 

CnsP' i"-*) L. r-Mj//j, a point. 

Cuitard. C^- * It^'- - 1-) *'or ^I- *■- 
jAm«'< by shiftine of r> Formerly rwj- 
Yf, inniaHf, and orig. used with the 
sense: <if 'iMsty.' — F. {rvvsttjdf, a pa^ty^ 
— Iial. rrut/tfi*!!, • a kinde df daintie pyc ; ' 
H;i»rio, ^|„ fiiiittita^ fern, pp, of t'rtfsiarf^ 
to <rncm*l. — I^, irits/tt^ a tcrust. 

one s own way. 

Cut. {Scwid.^ M. E, fu/U/t, a weak 
verb. Of ScAnd. origin, but the traces of 
it are &ot many. Cf. Mid. Swed. kut/a, 
lo cut (Ihre)! Swed. dial kn/A. kiia, 
lo cttt small uritb a kntfr, also spelt 
ki^bta, kota. kilfa \ kvta^ or kytii\ a knife 
,Rieti): \cx:\.lnii, a Htl!e knife; Norw, 
kytftl. ityfrf, Ijttful, a knife for barking 

Cuticle . (.1^ ) L tHtiiuia^ double 
dimin. of etttis^ hide, skin. See Hide. 
Der. mt-an-e^tms, from ntt-h. 

Cntlaas. i F. - L.) K. t-^utdas^ * a cot - 
telas. or courtelas, or ibort sword ^ * Cot., 
(Cf. Itnl. (oiteifa^ii^, ' a cttrtlefti/ Florlu ; 
which is the same word.) -OF. -«</*•/, 
rttliti {¥. f^fiffau\ a knife; cf. Itnl. cot- 
t4iU^ knifr ; with aoc. ^ufliji miiYMM. — L. 
acc. fnUtUnm^ s Itmfe ; dimin. of iuittr^ a 
coalter. ^ The F, af, Ital. -ouWo - L. 
'iUium \ bnt F. fouitias was actitnllj^ 
turned into E. curtUaxf. Yet a *-Nrt/f~ 
ajcd was a Bort of sword I 

cutler* iF.-L.) ME. t^der,^ 
O.K. rnTf/iiT'-. — L^tc L. cuifdUriuj, kRifc* 
maker. — L. miuUttSy a knife aU^ve^. 

Cutlet. lF. -L.> F. .tVf/r//f. a cutlet ; 
fonnerly costtkit^^ a little fib; dimin, of 
O. F. <^U^ rib.— L. <9stAt a rib; lee 

Cuttlei A fish, (lu) Formerly eudtU. 
A. S. .-iM>/f, a cuttle-fisb. Cf. G. huttd^ 
^st'h (perhaps from E.), 

Cvcle. ^F.^L.-Gk/ F. ^cU.~U 
cyeJttm, acc.of t^i /«/. — Gk. m^sk*>t, n circle, 
cycte- + SkU iliiikra-, a wheel, Circle. 
Allied to "WlieeL Der* iythtff ^ Gk. 
(nfrAwi-, whirling round, prrs. pt. ofirtrfrXoop, 
I whirl round ; tpi-fyih \ hi-iyik. 

C y gne t ^ a young swan* i F . - L. - Gk.) 
I ninnii. of O. K. fi^te. a ^wan. Strangely 

Custody. J") I.. THiM/ni.a keeping ' cjiOtit;h, ihls O.K. word is m*?/' immedi- 
Ijuartt.— I ., rustwi iy, stem of rwT/ii7f , . .iiclv from J,. ryrwwJ, a &xf nn ; liut the 

a ; lit. * hider.' Cf. Gk, k*v&uv^ 

a giiarr 

icrhi.Tc. Stf Hide, VKKUDHJ Hrojim. 

Cusiom. (F. -t»l M.K. rttstHmt.— 

oldest (J. F. s|K>lltng ^in» dsnt <,ns tt] 
Spani&h). from I.alir I„ ctdnHs, n swnrt, 
vftriaiit of r^f/iWA — (ik. icii*nif, a iwan. 
Cf i.. (itottiA^ ft siork* See hie? ; ^th c*l, 

■ p. ;h 



inart, Utcr cylittdn. — L. fyUfuittti, *- Gk. 
tfdAjr^^pot,AToUcrj cylinder, — Llk-jn'^VSftj', 
to roll; frot&^Xj>jfr', torolU C(. O.Slav. 
jtfila, a wheel, (VQ^'^L-) 
CymVal. (K.-L.-Gb.) M.E.nm&a/e. 
— O, K, timbale. — L, cyvibaJum. — Gk, 
jici/fi0aA*if, a cvmbal ; nametl from i6s cup- 
like shape. •• CL. xvfi&rf, a cup. -|- Ski. 
kHmkha-, a jar. Allied to Oup ; and see 

Comb (J . (v'kkubh:.;. 
Cynio, lit. doi>-Uke. ^L.— Gfc.) L.o'w- 
CMr. — Gk^vt'P'tirui, c!og4ikc, ii Cynic — Gk. 
(BKv-j as in nfuc-ot, gen. of *rwu*', a dog (E. 

CyuosurO. (L.-GkO L. cyttatura, 
the stars in the mil of the consleUation of 
the Lcsicr Bear ; one of thes« is tbe Pole* 
star (hence, a centre of attrftclion).*-Gk. 
KvrocQvpa^ the Cynosure, tail of the Leaser 
Bear ; lit. ' dog*9 tail.' — Gk, Kvvo-i, gen, of 
*i™i', 3 (log ; wpi a tiil. 

Cypress (i > a tree, (F.— L,-Gk.) 
M . Jj.. « i/zrj, -p O, F. iypris^ Inter cyfir^i. — 
L. fupreisus^ cypanssus, — Gk. «vra/Ma'<ror, 
cypreis-lrce. Of. Heb. ^^i^^A^r. 

CTproSB 'J). a cloth of gold, a kind 
of saljm. SI kind of crape. j^F. — L.) PaU* 
grave explains F, mapfi by * a cypres for 
fl woman? neck"; Cot^jrave has ' ires/Kt 
ciprcia, cobweb lawn ' ; which BUgE^sts 
tome cnnfu&ioh of cypress with crapi. 
The origin of iyfr^ss \% doubtfu! ; but 
it occurs as ciprts^ cypin in Pters Plow* 
maa, and u cyprus in Sir Degrevant, It 
seenai to have been imported [roofi the Ule 
of Cypi-Hn. 

Cyst, n pouch \m onimala) containing 
morbid milter. (L. — Gk.) Formerly 
written rrj://j:.«> Late L.r)fjCij, -'Gk.Nt'OTiE, 
a bttgh pouch. 

Qk^, the emperor of Russia. (Rusa. — 
Teut— L) Rust, ttart (with * mule , a 
king. O, Slav. c^Mrf.— Goth, kaisar.^ 
L. Cesar. ^ This has been disputed ; 
but sec Mmt. xiii. 74 in Schleicher, 
ludogcrmanischc Chicstamathic, p. 275, 
whete O.Slav, cesarstvo occnrfr for Rnss. 
tsarstifo, kingdom ; &lc. Der. ^fdimtrr/s, 
from Kuss. tsarevkh', cjcar'a son ; ftaritsa, 
from Ruas. fmritm, empress; rmr-iW, 
with Ital. Bttffix -tVfd, from G. fern, tttflix 

Ottb ^i)i to iirike gently* (E.i M. E. 
rMm ; ilfto da&b*, a blew. Not in A. S. 

Cf. M. nu. dahhaiiy to pinch^ fninblej 
dabble; G. fappstt^ to grope, prov, G» 
tappe^ fistf blow. Sec Dub, Tap* 

daljblo. (l^.) To keep on dabbing;] 
fretjULnt, of (/fl/V, + M. Du. dahttUn^ to] 
fumble^ dabble; frequent, of Nf.Du, dahbeH 

Dab (3), expeit. (EJ) Prob. fro 
<£?^ (0; perhaf^ influenced '^f dapptr 
by adept, 

Bab (3), a fish. (E.) M. E. dabbe, 
Prob, Allied to d&h, a light blow^ a soft 
m.-t^'^dnbbed down. See Dab U ;l dabbloi 

Sabble ; -jec Dab (l)- 

Sab-chick. E.) Formerly loC^^frArV^, 
doP'i'hicJc. Ct. A, S. diip-eaid, a moorhen, 
lit. ' dipping duck ; ' ifofpettan, to dip oiten, 
immei^c ; Du, dabbtr^ a float. Sec Dip. 

Daoe, (F. -^ O. Low G.) Formerly 
dane.^O. F, (iiiri^, nom. case of the word 
also spelt dart^ meairmg (1) a darl, {%) « 
dace. The ftah is also called a dsrt or 
adtirr, fratn iti swift motioQ^ See Dora (3)^ I 

Docoiti 3L robber. (Hind.) Hind, 
ddkdii, a robber belonging to an armed 
gang ; from 4d^'^i robbery by a gaag 
[^Wilson;. Der. dateit-y^ robbery, 

Dnetyl. tf-— Gfc.) L. dadylus^ the 
metricalfoot marked -ww«^Gk. SdirrvAov, 
a finger, a dactyL 

IM.. (E.) A child's word for ' father.' 
So also \V. tad, Irish daid^ Bret, taty /ad^ 
father ; Gk. raTaj Skt. tata, dad. 

Dado^ (Ital.— L.) Formerty used 
the die. Of «;|tiare part in the middle of the 
pedestal of a column^ afterwatxli applied 
to the part of an apartment between tbe 
plinth and tbe impost moulding. ~llaJ, 
dad^, a die, cube, pedestal. (Cf. Prov. 
daf'M, a die.)— Folk-L. da/amt assumed iv 
mean ' a die * ; lit, * a thing giTen, a lot.' — 
L. da/am-t neat, of pp. of dare, to give* 
See Difl (aV 

1>&frodiL CF.-L.-Gk;} The rf is a 
later addition; perhaps fiotn M.V.Jiitir 
d'affrodillt, iranalate^i 'daffodil-flower.* 
M. E. aff&Iilk ; Prompt. Parv.— M, F. nj- 
phodiU, also afrvdifle, ' th'affodiU, oi\ 
asphodjll flower;* Cot. — L. asphodelus.^ 
Gk. dcr<jh55<^Dii a kind of lily. Sec Ai« 

Daft, foolish ; the same as D^ft. 

D^ger. ^ F.) M. L. da^n ; allied t( 
daggtfi, to pierce. — F. dtJgnf^ a dagger; 

ofunknovm origin (not Celtic). Cf. llaL' 

Span, ^^^t Port. 4u£^ii, dagger. The 



Port, ronii suggcsLs an KMtem origin ; 
cf. Met), (iiik&ttkt to slrikc. 

Daggle, Lq moistem, wet with dew or 
«:pr*y. iScmnd.) Freqiicntfltive verb from 
fewcc. iia^, Icel. tiii^ (c^"- ^f*SS^)* dew. 
Cf, led. i/n'^'i?*!, (n Ltcdflw. Sec Dew. 

Forra«il by s.d(\ing -if- trpe to F, Dt^f^rrg, 

a ni-monat name, the inventor (a. ii. 18381, 

Dahlia. (Swnl.) Named after IM^f, 

a botanist (A.D, 1790' 

Bainty, a delicacy. (F. -L.) M. E, 
diiNUft ong^t a sb.. ■ pleasnnt thing' ; cf, 
A. F. dtyutti^ gicedinc^ (^Bozoni. ^ 
O. F. damtit i. t. dain4ii)t agreenljleJitfss. 
-* L> ace dtpnitdiem ; see Dignity. 
^ The O- F. aaintk is the (rue popular 
O. F* form ; diptiteit is n pedantic form ; 
cf. O, F, datR, old spelling of digtu^ j 


Dairy, (Scand.) M. E. deyeryt^ % 
room for & deye, i. e, a milk^woman, farm. 
servanL — O. Norw. dcij^a, SwrtKl- d!^.i, it 
maid, dairy^rnaid, who was also the bread- 
nutser; ihcorig, sense is 'knc-Ader ofdoagh.* 
-Teut. type Vai^-yi-M-, &b, f., nv if from 
(Golh.) deigan (pt. t- rf^nir/)^ to mould ; 
whence hIk) Goih. ^'gt, IccL ir^<;i^t Swed. 
% doiigh: sec Do^gh. % Tht cognate 
borrowed A. S. Jtige occun once only ; 
•ee Thorpe, JJipi, p. 641. 

Dlifl, K raised 0oor in 11 hall. (F.-L. 
— Gk.) Now used of the raised platform 
00 which the high tfthle in a h:ill standi. 
Properly, it was the laJilc itutf\ but was 
aliiu used of ■ canopy uv^r a seat of state, 
or of the feat of slate. M- E, dHs^ d^jts. — 
A, K. dth„ O. F. doiSt & high table ^t^Supp. 
to Cj«idcfroy).— «L. diifNNi, act of dt'srut, 
m quoit, platter; in Utle L. a lable» — Gk. 
Blffvov, A quoit, disc. See Diso. 

Daily, t^.) M. E. da)>£iyf (4 tyllft- 
bles), A,S, diigrt ^*^, eye of diy, I.e. 
the sun, which it rescmblei. 

Dal«< a valley. {K.) M, E. daJ£.~^ 
A,S. d,ti (pi. Jff/.i*).4lcd. dair, Dm. 
Swed. ^W. a dale; Dd. d^/; Goth, «j4tt/j ; 
G. /W: also O. SUv. tif/6 iKufls. dW'i ; 
cf. Gk, 0ii\ot, m vault. Der. de/!. 

DftUy, to trifle. (F.-Teui.) ME. 
^Hen. to pUy, tHfle.-A, K. and OF, 
dotitr^ to converse, diat, p«&s the Uoic ui 
light convene (Bozon). Of Teal, ori^to ; 
cC Bavarian daUn, to fpcnk md act as 
children i^chtneller) ; mod. G. 
dakhn^ to rnf!<», 

Daliaatio« a ve«troent. (F 

lioatia.^ F. da/'fta/ii/rtf. — L. da/otti/iea^ 
{tustis) ; fena. of Daimatii'uSy belnnging In 

Dam (Ot * mound, bank against water. 
(E*j A*S, d^ii/fftt only in ibe derived 
verb /or^drmmart, to dam up ; O. Fri( 
dam*, North. Fries. dJm. ^ Du. 
loel. dammr, Dan. (frtw, Swed, damm, 
M. H.G. iam, <_f* damm, a <iaTOi dike. 
Cf. Go\h. fait f da ff I Nt/itH, to dam ep. 

Data I 3), a mother, applieti io animal*. 
I V ~ L,) The same woid ns Buna. 

Damage. (F.-L.) M. E, dSawa/r.- 
A, F. damage (F. dVwmdjv^; cf. Prov* 
damna/jg^ answering to Late L, *damn<Jl§-l 
fww, harm ; we find l.att I„ JamnuikuM^ 
condemned to the minn. — L. damnditu, 
pp. of damndrf\ see Danxn* 

Damask, Otni. — Syna.) M, E. dif- 

masht, cloth of ]>amai^i5, — ItaL tft3AUdJf'0» 
— llcLi. «^w<j^f^, damask, Dammeuq^ Da- 
mascns (C>en. xiv. l^';. Der. datnask- 
rose ; fiamtisk-ing^ to inlay with gald (F. 
Jiim&j^uiftfr^ from damastfit'i/i:, ndj.\ 

Dame. (F.-f..:. M.E. /uw^.-O. F. 

dtim^, a Indy. — L. domina\ l^ax. of domi- 
nus, a lord. Sec Doa (3)* 

Damiii to condemn, (F. —L*) M. E. 
daniHtn, dampttttf,^V. damrtfr.^t.. dam' 
ftdrejlo Mon^cmn. fiac.^l.. da HWM Mi, loss, 
fine, penalty, Brtig. i. { 763. 

Damp. CE) t:f- WE. dam feu, to 
Kuffocate; K. Fric^. t/dw/^ vnpour.-f'UQ. 
d^mp, Tnponr, steam ; I lari. damp, G, 
dampf^ vapour ; Swed. damb^i\'^^. Froiik 
the and grade of Teut. *dfmpan-, pt. (, 
*da/ttp, pp. *dHfTipano- ^ aa in M. H. G, 
dimp/tn^ iimpfftt, str. vb^, to reek ; ef, 
Swed. ^ia\. dtrntut, str, vb,, to reek. Sec 

Damael. < F, — h.) M . £. datnos^L ~ 
O, F, tiamffsik, a girl, fern, of damrtul, a 
young man^ squire, t>iige. — Lnte L. domi- 
(tliurt 4 pagCj short for *domimceiiuj^ 
double diroin. of dominui, a lord. l^Pigcs 
were o^en of high birth.) 

Damaon. iL.-SjTta.) M.K*/<jwa- 

jiYMi". — L. Damftuffttim i^pnmum)^ pUim 
of Damascus. Sec Damask. 
Dance. {F.-O.U.G.) M.H. (Aw». 
(tn,^0, F. (jfawj^/--— 0. 11. G. dans^, tu 
drag along (as in a roimd dance).— 
O. n. < r. a&tiSy lad grade of dittsent to 
pull, draw ; allied (o E. ThJji, Cf. Goth- 
vulgar) I fif-rhimati^ to draw towards one. 

I DandLelioOt a ftower. (F. — L.^ F. 
^ Dal- f Jtnl d€ lion, tooth of a lion ; named from 


M from J 



the jage^ Icttvca.— J« {Unt-em, ace. of 
iiens^ Itioth ; d?, pfep, ; kantm^ acc« of 
li&^ lion. 

S&ndla. (EO Prob, of imitatire origin ; 
cf. M» I"\ il&f/incr, dotMin^r, * to rock, 
(Iftncille^ lull/ Cot. ; M 1(aI. dattdaiattt 
dotid&iart, * (o dandle Or play the baby/ 
Florio; t/aiido/ai dondela-, a toy. Godc- 
froy give* M. F, dandifur, lo balance «r 
iwnv the body, Cf- E. Friw* dindatineu, 
\o walk tin intend ily, sway from udclo aide. 

I>&]ldriff, gt^urf on the head. (E.) 
KrtriRcrly a[so dmtdtuffe. Of cmknown 
oriein ; but cf. jirov. E.^^jm, scurf, dandtr^ 
a slight scurf on tb^- ikin ; and i^pcrhaps) 
driby a driblet, or drift^ n fine Rhowcr. 
^ Tbe W, mariV'dQn, dandriff, U from 
manu, deac), and /i7/f, atcin. 

Sandy, a beau (E. *). Origin unknown. 
Prov. K. darttty^ gay, fine. Note M. Dan, 
dandtt brave, excellent. Dandy is also a 
form of Andrew, [F, dartdm, 'a mea- 
cockj noddy, (liiiny/ Cot., i^ unsuitnblc*] 

Pangar. (F, — L.) ME. d&ufigtm, 
powcTf tsjj, power to hann.— O. F. ^/aw- 
^V^ (K, danger)^ aUj datti^tr (XI II cent.l, 
absolute power, irrcsponiible authority. 
TbiH answers to a Lale L. type ^domniii- 
rium, *domimarittm, not found, but regn- 
Urly foiniecl from Late L. d&m:i\miim^ 
power, authority. — Late L* domnut, L, 
domiuiit, a lord. 

IhUltfle, to swing about, (Scand-) 
Dan. ^ftgie, Swed. dkL datt^ta. to swing 
about ; cL Swed, «nd Ii^L dingla, D^n. 
^it^j to swing a.bout : frequentative 
forms from ding (pi. t. dang)^ to throw 
nbout. See Diog;, 

Hftllkt moi^t. [^Sc.ind.) M. £• d^fil^, 
wei (csp, witb rcf, to dew% — Swed, dial, 
dank, marshy (;^round ; Icel. dokk (stem 
*iianiFwo-^,Q. pool. Cf, Swcd, diAl. ddnka, 
to moisten, Dan, dial, d^'wtf, dynkt^ Norw. 
^ffiff, to wet ; also Dan. diaL dunkei, 
moltit, Swed. dinL dHnheihett moisture \ 
North. E. dankfr, a dark cloud; .Sw«d. 
(tial. and M Dan. dunkeft, naosty; G. 
dun^el, dork. 

]>appAr. (Dn.) Orig. Rood, vnliant ; 
hence brave, fine, sprwce, XV cent. — Uu, 
dap/vr^ brflve.+0, H.G, iaphar^ weif^lity, 
valiant, G. fa/ftr. bnve; Roh. da/tmi^ 
good, Bnigm. i. | 563. 

Dftpplttr ^ ^P'^t on ati anjmal. I^Scand.) 
Icel. depifi. a spot, dot ; a dog with spots 
over Ihe eye* is also called dtpifi. The 
orig. *en5c v% ' a little pool,' from Norweg. 

-^ - 

j/^iyv, a pool, a wet anlotch; whence 
idea of '^ splnsb ' or * blot,* 

IkBJ?0 {i}, to venture. (E.) M. E* 
Tfiare; pt.t.dffrsie,durf/i. A,S.Uilfarr, 
I dare; A* rii'drr, he dare; pt. i. dars/t: ; 
infin. *df4rrart. + Golb. /^-dari, I dare, 
'iiajtrsfa, 1 darst, infin. ifaarsan ; O, H. G. 
/(i;% 1 dare, infin. furtan. Also Gk. tfap- 
fffi'c, to be bold, BpaoM, bold ; Skt. </r/A, 
to dare. {:^DHEKS,) Brngm. L ^ 502* 

Dare (2 , a dace. [F.-O. Low G.) 
A new form, made by taking darce (old 
furtn of diu/} as a pL form ( = dari)^ ahcl 
ibence making a singular fl'^r. now uSjrf. 
See Dfloe. 

Bark. lE.^ M.E. ^/^z-jt. A.S,di^arf, 
with a broken vowel ; for older ^dgrc. 
The O. H. G. larchattjan, to hide (answer 
Ing 10 W. Germ. *diirhn-jaH) is from the 
jnd grade *dark uf tht snme bajie. 
also O, Sax. der-ni^ A. S. derm^ O. H 
tar-ni, stcrtft, dark ; see Tttxnivli. 

darklLXLCTi in the dark. (E.) Forme<l 
with adv. buffis -liu^, as mfiaf-huff, M, E. 
htdling (headlong'), A. S/WVi'/jrf, back- 

Sailing. (E.) }iUE. dfr/inr, A.S. 
dt-orUng^ a favourite. — A. S. i^&r^ (ift 
cnmp. di^f*-), dear; with double dimin. 
suffix ■f-'tHg, See Dewr. 

Sam* (E.) XVII cent. Prob. from 
M. E. dgrufti, to concesl^ from dertu, adj.. 
lecret, bidden ; cf, prov. E. Arw, i/(r*w, 
to hidCf to stop up a fao1e.«-A. S. drrfu^ 
dyrjtf, secret ^ hidden. + O, Sax» dfr/tr^ 
O, H. G. /ami, secret. See J3ju-k. 

Damftl. (F.) M, E. datym/, dtt-nti. 
From an O. F, word, now only preserved 
in Walloon (Kouchi). d&rt/elU, fJamet 
(H^rt\ Hitherto unexplained ; but cf. 
Swed. d&t'^ as \\\ dt^r-trpf, ur lepe, domtl 
( Lowl. Sc. dontfl ; ; and O . ¥. ntelkt neile 
iLote L. nigrfid:, damct iGodcfroy"). The 
Swed. dAra means to atupef)' (as with 
Ixjiium iemttlfn/um) ; cf- Dan. daarHi a 
fool ; Walloon darttiu, daurrtise, rlrunken 
(Grand ^agnage). 

Dart. (F,-0, Uw G.) M. E. dart^ 
(}. h dart F. dard). Of Teut. origin : cf. 
A, S. d^rod, a darl. Swed, dart, a dn^jj^ir, 
Icel. darrafir, ^ dart, O, TL G. fart, ^ 

Baah. ll-) M, E, dittrAen, Ct Ijow 
dasthfiK lo tliraih 'Jler^haMs ; 
daskf. to slap, ^ivletl. daska^ to bent ; we 
spi ak c«f walcr dat/ttti,^ ft)Tftin»t rocks. 

Dastard. Scand.; with K. sujfis.) 

the I 





M» E, dmtQrd \ where -^i^d is a F. suffix, 
M ia liu/UarJ, tingg'at-t(. Dasf appears 
10 be for dazedx ci. Ictl* littstr^ rxhAiutcd, 
pp. of data, to be ont of breath \ flUsfffffr, 
extiButtrfl^ wcnry, pp. of dasask, to be 
wnry; see Dace. Cf. Icel. ^u', a lacy 
liellow, M. Ltu. dasaert^ a fool (wlicnce 
Mi£. das-art (i.e. tifai c)dri/)p a dulUrd, 
in N. E. D.>; Low t>. diukoffi, & block- 
hend (Bcrghitas/. The orig. aensf ■■ ' stng- 

Datd (t , a given pornt of time. (F.— 
L.I M. E^daU.-i'V. date, dalc.<p^Late L. 
daia, a dmte; L. data, neut. |]l. of datus, 
given^ dated. — L. dar^, to givc^f^^"'^- Ai- 
ItttHr I give; Aarut, given j 5kt» daddmi, 
I give; Rusi. dW^, to give. (^DO-) 
Brwgra. L (S 167, 16S. 

O&teC^^. fniit of (hepalm. (F.-L.» 
Gk. M. E. da/f,-^0. F. da/e (F. ./rt//^), 
also datflt^ a date.^L. dnifyfum^ ace, of 
</<«r/y/w/,«Gk. W*nr«^Of^ a finger ^ also a 
date (lomewluLt like ft finger). But it is 
prabftble that SdjcruAr^T, a d.ite, was n word 
of Semitic origin, asijmitnte<i to the word 
for ' finger/ Cf. Aiamaic ditjlii, a palm- 
Ifee (see Gea. i. 37) ; Arab, daqat. 

Daub. (F.-L.) M. E. ci^wW-O. F. 
dau^er^ to plaster ; answering to an older 
form 'dalbtr. — L. dfo/bArr^ to whilen, 
p]R9ter.»L. c/f, down, very; ai^rt. to 
whiten, from aibus, wtute; see Alb. Cf. 
Span, jalhegar ( ^ *di^aibicSre), to planter. 
Dor, Sf-iianK 

DaTiffhtor. (E.) M. E. d&iht^, doh' 
iff. A. ^. dcA/fff. -^Db. divAi^^ Dan. daf- 
i$r, di>frrr,Swcd. dff/fer^ loel. doftir^ Goth. 
danht^r, G, f&(hUr ; Ru5S. rfdr*^, Lith. 
duktr, Gk. tfvTOTTj^, Pers. duHtat-t Skt. 
dnhitr. Orig, Knse iJoubtfuL 

Datmt. CF. - LO M . E. daunUn. - 
* > Jv lianter ; also dffnitr, — L» tiomitare, 
tn 10 mc, mbdue; frequent, of damdrt, CO 
tame : see T^me. 

BaiipJhitt. (F,- L.~Gk.) F. dauphin. 
a (Jiolphiii ; see Dalpfain. A litlc of the 
cldnt son of the king of FTai>ce, who took 
it from the province of Daupkiny (a. p, 
1349^; and the province had formerly had 
w%rr4l luitU niimeJ /faapArt*, 

Ihrntt * tttpport for «hip*» boaU, 
^lleb,V) FoTTHwly ^pcU David, u if from 
m proper name (a. i>. i6j6J. Al»o calWii 
davUi in A. F.^ a dlmin. of O. F. AnV, 

DnW, E^'*) From the noi»e made by 
the b(nJ; cf rrfrt'.+O. H. G, faha, a daw ; 

dimin. (dhf/^ (now G. dohU\ a daw 
whence ItftL /a^fp/a, a daw (Floiio). D«, 

Dawk« traDsport by relays of men and 
horses, (Hindi.) Hindi ^J*, post, trim»- 
port, &c. (Vble). 1 

Bawn; see Dar 

Da^^ Cl'-) ^1- ^^ '^'i>'> '^'■^ '^^'- A.S< 
dtig.^ pi, i/iTjfaF.+Du. Dan. SweU. dag^ Icel. 
i/d^jpi-^ (J. tag^ Goth, off^, AUird to IJth* 
dagas^ hot time, autumn ; d}0i^ 10 bura. 
Tcwt, type Vif^-ws ; Idg, lyjie Vi*c>fAiU ; 
from ^h\\)L^H, to burn ^ Skt. d^h^ tn 
bumi, ni-d&gha-, hct stra&oa. /^Oj^ is the 
hot, bright lime; as opposed to mgki^ 
^^ In no way allied to L. diis. 

dawlL, vK (Scand^) M, £. daufnin\ 
ftom the older sb. c/ati'mn^. — Swcd. Dun. 
da^in^^ ■ dawning, dawn ; as if from a, 
verb ^da^-tta^ to bKome day, from Swed 
Dan. d^, day, 3. We also find M. E.^ 
dtrtvan, to dawn; from A. S. dagioM, to 
become day, <tawn. — A.S. dEa;^, baae of 
diT^, day. ;Cf. yintfw, vb+) 

Daywoman, dHify-woman. [Scand, 
and J:o In .Shak. L, L. L. i. J. 157* 
The addition of woman i& DPcdlcsi, Day 

« M. E. d^e. = O. Norw- deigja, a maid ; 
cap, a dairymaid ; lee Dairy. 

Dai«. (Scand.) M, E. c£i/ffv,io stupefy, 

— Swed. dasa, to lie idle ; IceL nkfajifr. te^ 
be wearied, lit- to d«se oneself, where -ji 
is the refleiire lafiix; dasi, a laty man; 
dasmf$j lazy; Dan. dial, ^iiff, to be idtc ; 
Low G, daseti, donvt lo be listless; im 'n 
dds lein, ta be in a ' daze' (.Berghauj). 

da^Utfp to couhtse, (Scaod.) From 
d&:e\ with frequent, suffix ^U, Dsr. A** 

l^^{i^, prefix. {l..\&rV,-h,] L. d?, 
down, nway, trom^very; heoce sometimes 
F.dSf-, at, O.F. ^^. 

"D^it), prefix. (F,-L.) F. a^, O.P. 
tttS' ; from L. dis- x kc Dia*. 

DoaGQn. (L. - Gk.) M. £. dekm. 
A, S. dfiusrt.^'Li. dia£&HU5.^{^\t. Ai^Jtoi^i, 
a wTvant^ a deacon, Cf, J^-jcocw, I Rm 
quick, f^-JVDi^i't, a maid-flcrrant. 

Bead. (H. ; M. F. ^^ A. S. ci^a^ 
dend.4-l^u, dlKM/, l^an. ddti, Swed. fA;*rf, 
IceL dauSr,, Goth, dattfhs. Tetit. type 
*a^N-y!«, ori^. a pp. with Idg. snffix -/*- 
,Teut. -fl^ trora the vb, *d5i«./a»- (Icel. 
4£o;/'')> 10 (Ji«- See Die (iV 

Btaf. K. ^ M. K. d^tf. A. S. <£d/.4- 

Du. (iv/. Dan, rftfp, Swetl.i^^, loci, daitfr, 
Goth, ^Aiw^r, ( r, sauh, Orig. ^ obfnscate^t ; " 


g^- !^"^^' 



P ten 

to Git. Tt^or, smoke, darkness, 
Htapor, Tv^-koi, blind. (yVHEVnU.} 

]>ei4 (J)> a shore. {E^} M. E. dtuL 
A^S. dfi, a share, + Dn, c^w/, Dan, dferf^ 
Swcd. A/, Goth, daifi, G, thfii. Cf, 
0. itlav. (/tVf?, ■ part^ iJrugm. L $ 375 (aV 
deal (J)r to divide, distribute. (.E.j 
M-E. diitH. A.S. d;^/flM.-A.S. rfr^/, a 
Bb&re (abov«). -f- Da. deehn, Dnn. o^/f, 
SwcH. rfif/flj Iccl. ditila, Goth, dailjan^ G. 
tktilen ; cf. ihc respective sbs. fabovel. 

Deal (3I, a thih board. (Du.) Du- dfci^ 
*. plank. +G. dick; ae£ Thlll> 

BeaiL :F,-L.) M. E. deH£.^0,F, 
ert (F, dbj'tfrt). — L. d^dnum, ncc. of 
Jnjj/. one set over ten solditfrs. 01 over 
ten monks., a dean. — L. decern^ ten. 

DeAiV. (J*^-) M' K. ^h£^, a. S. dfofVf 
t^rSt tlear^ precious*+Dan. ind Swed. jrfyr, 
d«.r, costly, Icei. 'ifprr, dear, predom; 
O. Su. ifiuri; G. fhiiur. 

de&rtll, Karcity. (E.) M, E. dcrihc^ 
dearneiis ; hence, dearth. Nut in A.S«; 
but formed as heal-fh, v/arm-tA^ Scc*^ 
IceU dyrfl^ valac, from j^lrr (above) ; O, 
Sax. dittn't/ia, value, from dititi^ dear, 
precious: O, H, G, tiurida^ from /'wn" 

Death. X) Vi.V.,d€ith. A.S. fl?o#. 

^Du.o^/, Dan.Swed.d^jf/^ Goth, f/ajE^^;/^, 
/<»i/; cf, Iccl. danfii. Tent, type *rfbH- 
«^ foi-med with Ide, suffix -/«-, TetiL 
'-iJw-, from Ihe baae *(£m- ; *ce I>6ad. 

Debar (F.) F. diharrtr\ O. F- dti^ 
barrtt\ From De- (al and Bw. 

Debase* (t,, sm;^ f.-Lo Fonned 
ftom I'i.ji*' bf pre6iiiD^ L, di^ dowti. 

Debftte. <F — L.^ M.E, ^Sr^fn.'i^ 
O.K. di-fnttre^ to debate, argar. — L, e^^ 
down ; haftere, to beat. Se« Bftttor (1 ). 

Debauch. cF,-L. <iMrfTciii.) 0¥. 
deskiui^tety vY. ii^baui'her)^ * to dcbosh, 
lUftr, reduce, misie&d;' Cot. Die? sap- 
pnacs that the on?, sense was ' to entice 
awajr from a workshop' ; it is certainly 
derived from the O, F, prefix dts' I'L. disAt 
ttwny. And 0. F. hauche, exjilamed by 
RoquefoTt as ' a little hous«,* and by Cot- 
grave tn * a course uf sioncs (*t brickis 
in building,' Cf. M. V, cmbaueher^ to uie 
in bu^tne^ employ, esbauchfr, to rfiagh- 
hew, frnine. Godcrioy gives dtsbamher 
only in the 9«n$c of * rough-hrw/ bnt hii; 
Supp, adds — ' detach from ome'^ service. 
lorn aiide, disiract/ The orig, seoie of 
haiu'ht waA proh. ''balk,' \. e. beam, hciicc 
fnme of a hnildinig, courw in building. 



small building, &c ; of Teut« origin ; s<c 
Debenture, acVnowltd^ment of a 

debt. (L.) Fonnerly dehcntur (Baconi. 
— L. dcUntur^ lit. * they aie due/ bccauic 
such receipts begajs wiiJi Lbe words dibm- 
tur mihi LWebster); pr. pi. pas*, of 
fi"/'ft', I owe ; sec p^bt. 

Debilitate. (S«) From pp, of L, 
dfbiNhtJ-e, to weaken. — L, ifrfitlis, weak,— 
L^ di, liWay* dot ; -bitis, prob. alliei^ lo 
Skt- Aff/tr-, strength ; cf. dur~iaia- (for 
dus-Aafa-\ feeble. lirugm. i, | 55,^ 

Debonair. .F,l M. E. dthmrf, de- 
fi&ttaif'^ \ A. F. dihoputire for i/f A?» 
air/, Ut.ofa good stock, — L..^ir, of; bon^us^ 
good; andO, F. si'riff place, stock, nice, 
a word of uncertain origin. Pie* 
suggests that it rcpreacnts Lnt, ace. 
agrtfm, field, 

Debcmck^ (F.-L.) F. d^fitmc/ur, to 
ancorkr to emerge from ; hence, to miirch 
out of a narrow pais.— F. ^^^ ^"O, F. dut- 
<L. diS')f Amy; Mid b&vthef mouth, 
opening, from L. bmci^a, mouth. 

DebHjl, broken pieces. (F. — L. and 
Tent.) F. dlhris^ fragment*. — f*. F. dt- 
btisier^ to break to pieces. — O. F. df-j 
from L, de, down : and brisier (F. 6rii^\^ 
to break ; see Bruise. 

Debt. (F.-L,) A b4d spelling of 
dett^ M. K. detU,-0. F, d^tte (but io M. F, 
miispelt Ai/f). — I— dihi/a, a »nm dee; 
fern, of dibi/ujt owerl, pp. of dMirt, to 
owe. DHfrf^iff'hih?re iPlautus), i.e. to 
have away^ have on loan. — L, d^-, down, 
away : hahert^ to have, Der, dehr-»r, ", 
M. E, dfi'tur^ Jjom O. F, dettur, L, ace. ^H 
dibitetvm. ^1 

Debut. (F*- L. and O, H. G.) A first 
appeanuice tn a play, — F, di6u(, a fint 
stroke^ first cast or throw at dice, first play 
in the game of bowls : verbal sb. of d^htUr. 
M. F. disbuitr, * la pnt from the murk he 
aimed at ^ (at bowls), Cot, ; hence, to come 
in first, be entitled to lead, trom I 
dis-, from, and K. /j/v/^mark. SeeButl(t 

Decade. C F . — L - Gk, ) F. dfcade, ' k 
decade,' Cot; i. e, an aggregate of ten.— 
L. decadetHt ace of deeas, — Gk. ^ivaAa, 
ace. of Smif, a company of ten, — Gk. 
hina, ten ; !*e Ten. 

decagon. .Gk,) Named from its ten 
angles. — tifc. B(«i, ten ; TOit'-ia, a corner, 
angle, allied to f^^Vy knee ; see Kneo. 
Der. htudetfi-^^n {tv^m^ eleven) ; 4^€a^ 
gon flwSfivci. twelve). 





ieaahedron. Ck.) ^fllmrd from its 

ten sidr^ ^-r linsc^.^Cik- 84iiru,'ten; fS-^, ' 
a hAX, lit. ' <tc.-it/ from t^oftni Jot fSvopid^ j 
T sit : sec Sit. Der. d^-dica hedr^n i,Gk. I 

d^calOfft&d. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. cM-a- 
hf;iie,^\>.^ft\flffgum, acc^ of dtrabfftts*-^ 
Gk. 3«'CtiAoYu'r, the t^n cotarnEuidnif nt|. * ' 
Gk. A^Nn, ten; \6yQtj a i^peech, ^)ring ; 
sec Loffio. 

decaayllftbie* having Icu ftyllablct. 
(Gkr) <-k. iiiKfl, ten; ffvAAa^i^, a syllable. 
J^er, ftffnitYn^yflaftic (Gk. Ir^c^a, eleven ■. 

D^cadenoo, ^ecay. ,K. - LO F, i^i-tt* 
^I'^iY. — ^ I i-i^ . L, d?iiiiieiUia, -> L, d?, down ; 
t&dfnfia^ Vi faHin^ ; wc CftdonM. 

S^Caznp, to depart. 1,F-L0 L. d^ 
fitnrfifi' ; O. I* . descampcr, orig. to rtmovc 
& camp.-'L. ^j/-, awfty: and t&mpus, a 
field, later, a eamp. See D«- {2) nnd 

DecauaL (L.) Belonging to a dcnn. 
— ]„ doimtts, a dean ; with siiffiji -a/ 1, [,. 
■,j/r"r) ; we Dflan. 

Dttcailt. ;F. — L. and Gk.) F. dkatt^ 
tfr (^paji, rfftviw/ur). — Met). L, dtc$trtthihe 
{ft word of the iilchemisU), ti* pnur out.— 
i V *ff, frorn ; taHihits^ the ' lip of a cup, 
a [K.ciittar uk of Gk. JMi'^ttt, comer of the 
eye (llal^rdd), Der* dicant-tr, a v^mc- 

Vt>*l I . 

D«ca^itatft» (l^.) Frflm pt». of Lnte 
L. dicaj>itijri, to behead. -L. a^^, oft^ and 
tapif^, stem of cupiii, head, 

Deear* to fall imo niin. (F. — L.) 
O. NartTi F, du^ir (Sjjiiii^ dtcntr) ; >^ri- 
anl of O. F, dt^hmr. dtchfcir, — O, F. </•?- ; 

ditim, ten («*c Ten' ; and uir, a 
(see Virile). 

Beoexmial, brlnnging to leu yean. 

L;; I' or 1.. d^cenf$-<i/t\ of ten yeftrt ; 
tf 6{-fnfUaL^L. de^-irfii ttn ; afinuSt a 

Uc cttnt. (F. - L.) . F . d'-vf «/. - 
d/i'gnJemt sec of pre*, pt of dtclrr^ 
bccom^', befil; cf. «/iffMJ, hoaour. 

Deception. ^ F, - L,) o. F. ^ipf/^iV 

— 1. ace. dfi^pddntm.^X^ dt^tptui^ 
of iifiip^if, to deceive ; see Deooivo. 

Decide. (F.-L.) F. ./A/.^^r,-L. 
^idcrc. pp. dictius, to cot off, <kcidc.- 
riV, down; nnd tmitre^ to cot. Der. 
fti'ieti i^fTom pp. i/A*Jjitf), 

DeciduouB, falling off. (.L) L. 
a'.t'if-H'\ that falls down; with suffix -^1 

— L. i/iridf-r^, to fall dowtt.^i™ <i^, d( 
and cadere^ \.q full. Sec Deoar* 

Decimal. 'F. — L.'» O, F« didmaL^ 
Laic L. dfeitntUis, bclonj^ing to litlis- — 
L. dnima, a tithe; Jeiti. o^ mdmui, tentb. 
Cf. L. dtfem, (en. 

deciiELate. X.) From pp^ of X^ ^ir- 

(itiiiirf^ to select evety lentil man^ for 
pum^hraent.^L. dmm, ten* 

Decipher. (F. a»i/ Arab,") Formed 
alter t. diihiffrtr^ to i.lcclphe*. — F. rf^, 
O. F. i//^, L. rfM-, apait; OJpheri q. v, 

Deckp to cover. (Du.^ Du. iUkktn, to 
cover ; rfc^i^ a cover, a ship's deck. Cog- 
iiai^.- with E£- Thatoh, q.v. 

Declaim. L/) Formerly dtdame.' 
L. *('.vAiw;tJ7-(-, to c^ aloud. »L. di^ doi 
fully ; iiamdrtf to cTy ; see Claim, 

Declare* IF.-L,} O.Y, d^ifar^r. 

and^A^f (F.r,*p/ri, lit fall — L.*y?,dowTi J L. diJtlnsrm^ ii> make cleaf* declare.— 

and Folk-I* (Otftrt^ cad^tx, to fall* variants 
of I., fad^rr, to fall 

Decease. ^F,-L.) M. E. df^ts.^ 

O F. r/^ft-f (F. (iWj\ i^eath.-L, ace. 
didtsnnt^ departure^ death. »L. dictsiuSy 
pp. of d?<:Mtri, to deparU— 1» i/if, from; 
ifd^rr to ^o away. 

Deceive. '; F,' — U) A. F» dKtivn ; 
O. K, detrctir, dectvoir^ pres, *ubj, dec^ivt, 
— L. dliipert, \f\ take away, deceive. — I^ 
/&. away ; nnd capfff, to take, Der. i/f* 
^/iV. from n. I' . d^itif, pp. of dtrrvfir. 

December. (L. i ^r F.^i..) o. F, 

/ii-^,mf'tf. — J,. Dt*-fmher, — I., dtretn, ten ; 
nf; it M'nt the tenth mootb of the Roman 

DecemTiTt ^^e of ten magictr^itcs, 
(L.1 L, dfcftftttir^ unc of the dte^mnin. 
or Irn men joined iti a commUsioa. — L. 

*//, fully ; ch'inti, clear. 

Decle&jnoii* iF,— L/i o.F, d^^/itu 

fpw, u>fil for I he ' declcBsion' of a tun 
— I ,. d/iiiiitlti3ngmf ncc, of didffiAtio, de- 
flitiatioo, declenaion. — L. dit/imlfits, pp. 
of d^clhiiire {ht\o'^], 

decline. iF.-L) O. F. dfdirter.i 
L d,r/iHiirt; to lean or bend aside from. 
L d^'^ from ; 'c/trtdra (only in comp.), to 
lean ; Mre IncUna, Ijsaii (1I. 

Declivity. {F.-L,) ¥. d/cfntU> 
L. dt'Jiuif^w^m, ace of d^f/int/Jtt 
downft'nrd alope. **■ L. dSf/ftttf, ilnplnj 
■Inwnward. — L, i//, down; t'/lttuit a slope, 
liill. See Lajui (1). 

Decoct. ''iJ) 1'. d^iY/lfS^ pp. of di"^' 

twpifn^ to boil duwn. — I., ^^f down, 
aw:iy ; <v,/ff<*v, lo cook. 
Decollatioii, a beheadbg. ^F.-l^) 




OF. deteifatiim.'-'LAXe L, ace. 4^(oM- 
tiontm. From pp. cA ditcUUrt, to behead, 

-L. rf/, ofTj c&Uum, the neck. 

Decompose. (K-L. s^w/ Cfc.) F, 
diiomposer >. XVI t.'i ; from df-^ prefix^ and 
fumpossr, io cooipose- See Compose, 

DeoOEOte^ (1-) Frompp. ofcfar^r^fY, 
to adorn. — L. dtcSr- (for *dec0sA, stem of 
defMf, honourt ornament; cf. L. deafre, to 
be fit. 

deoOFTUn. (LO L. di^Srtttn^ seemti* 
ncss^ ficut* of dcidrus, seemly. — L. dec&r-^ 
stem of deior, seemliness, nllied to d!fi-s(j 
tnbovcK D«r, iti'dadrmm. 

DeOOTi a cnntrivaticc for cntching wild- 

down ; dicare, to proclaim % from dKr-j 
wcCLk gnulc of </fV-j I1& in direre, to wiy, 

D^diice, 1.1'-; I" dfducet-i, to bting 
down (hence, to infer . — L. t//, down; 
ductre, to hring. Sec Dq1c«. 

deduct. (I-) Orig, to derive from. 
^\^. dldu<t-u^f pp. of didmere, to bring 
down ( above]) 

Deed. C^O M. E.^^^^. O.Merc.//M 

A.S. ol?^. + Dti. dnad, Icel. (Altf. Swed. 
rt^i/. Dan. daad, Goth. tfAA» G. that^ 
O. H. G, tm. teut. type *mdh\ Idg. 
type *ilk^(is \ from -%^DHE, to placCj put, 
do. See Do. 
D«enL. (E.) M.E. demcH, A. S. ^^^^ 

ducks, (r. aw(/Do.] Coined from prov. K. matt, to judge, give a doom. — A. S. dam. 

A doom ; see Poom< Cf. Du. d&imefi, 
Icel diimti (for f/tf«a), Swcd* rfl^mtf^ Dan, 
d^mme, Goth, dtm/an^ 0. H, G. fucmimi. 
Tent, type ^donijan^, from ^ddmoZf doom. 
Deep, profound. (E.t M. K. ^f/, 
A,S. ^Ay«, + Du. (/i^, Don- dyh. Swed 
<^Vjf/>. leel. djftfr, G. /ii^^, Goth. ^r«/j. 
Teui. ij^pc 'j>w/tft; sec Dip. 

deptllf f^ecpneaa. \\i^ Frpta di»^ j 
cf. Iccl '^iv'^^ depth, from djupr^ deep.+ 
Do, diepte\ 0<itb. dau^itha 

Deer* (K) M.£. d^/r, an snimaL 
A. S. diar, a wild uiimnU+Da. diir, Dailt 
djfr, Swed. c^Wr, Iccl. i^r, Go<b. rfirffj, 
{_r. MiiJr* TecL type *^d£U2am\ Idg. type 
^dheusc'Pt^ prob, * animal*; from *dhats-i 
to brtnthe CK-luge). Bmgm. i, { 539 CO- 
Uer, wiidiT^tusSt q.v. 

Defkboe. (F, -L.) M, E* dtfaten,-^ 
O, F, des/atier, to deface, disfigure. — 
O. F. rfvr <],. dis-)^ apart; /?«, face; 
sec Face. 

De^J^ate« to abate, deduct. ^L.) 
Kroro pp. of Late 1- di^alrUrr or difaJ- 
{&ri, to abate» deduct, take away-^l« dif- 
I ^dir-)^ a]ia«, or else ^, nway^ Late L. 
fakSre, to cut with a sickle, from L. /atx 
(slcm _/&/.'-", A sickle. 

Defame. (F.-L.'j M. E< da/amen^ 
di^iimen,^0. F, diffamsr, to take away a 
man's character.— L. difftim&ri, to spread 
a bcid repoTt.—I.. ^i/- (for dis-\ apait; 
f^m<t, a report. See Fame. 

Default. CF.^LO M. E. dc/auit.^ 
O, F* dcfauit, a defaull, from df/aiiiir, to 
fail ; imitating fauU from fail fir. See 
De-fi} and Fault. 

Defe&8&IICe« ^ rendering null. CF. — 
L.) A*F, lawtefcn de/imtue. a itndering 
void, — 0. F* dk/iesantf dtfdiant, pres. part. 
oidt/airt. disfiun, to Jeftdcf void.«*0, F. 

»^, a decoy, by prefixing the E. de- (F. 
L. fl?j. E. coy is from Dn. ^tiwi', g 
tags, decoy^ M. Du. koye, older form 
koitW£ Hexham) ^ from L, cattea, whence 
also F. and E. <a^ ; see Ca^e. ^ The 
prefixing of df- was probably due to con- 
fasion with M. E. cffyettf to quiet i &o that 
de-foy seemed to mrani a 'quieting down.' 

Dacreage. fF.-Ui A. F. descrg^s, 
dtSffeis, O. F. descrais, *b., a decrease : 
from dkrcrviiire, yb., to decrease. — Lately, 
ditrrescere, used for L, tUcrfscere, to 
diminish fpp. d?tr//Ui'\.^L, tU, down, 
nwny ; irescere, to crow, 

decrement* U-^ l^* d^r^menfum, 
a decrease. — L. dffr/'fftSt pp* of d/cm- 

Decree. (F.-L.' M. B, derret. • 

O.K. Jui-ret-'L* dfcriium.^l^ d^ir^ltiS^ 
pp. o{ dictrts^re. to decree, lit. to separate. 
— 1„ i/^t AWtiy ; centtrii to distinguish. 

decretal. (F--L.) O.K. ^*rr,rW. 
— I^jle 1.. (/Arr^/OA', a decree. — L.fll?ir^/Mi^. 

Decrepit^ ^L.: T^. dfcrepitwi^ noise- 
le$>i, creeping about like an old mao^.-iged. 
L. flif, away ; cn/iVur^ noisCj allied to 
rfirfiUf pp. of crep^rr, to crackle, make 
a noi&c. 

Deor7p to condemn. {F.— L.l O. F. 
(Uicritr, lo cry down, disparage- O. F. 
des'- (L. rfrV-), implying the reversal of an 
wet, and here opposed to * cry up ' ; criery 
to cry, ^^e'^: Cry. 

Decussate, to cross at an acute angle. 
tL.) From pp. of L. de^HisSr^t to cross, 
to put into the form of an X.— L.iitfMfn'jr, 
a coin worth ten asses (as-es), and ihcre- 
fow marked with X, l.c, len. — L. daem, 
ten : assu< stem of at, an ace; see Acs. 

Dedicate, to devote. (I») L. d/tiica- 
Htf, pp. of dfJifurt, to devote. — 1» di. 





dfcf- ;L. tiiS'^i, apart ; /aire {i.. ftuert)^ to 

defeat. (t\-L.) M, E. dtfmUH, to 

dcfcai,^ A. V. dt/tier^ fornicd fiom O. I-', 

jcmJcrvoiii i^ibove). 

Sefecate. (L.) Froro pp. of dffae- 
itifr^ :o free from du-jjs, ■•£. djf^ out ; 
JA€c^ slexa offftdy \\,/afi^Sf drc^. 

Defect, (L J L. d^/e^/Hn, a want- ^L- 
df/'ft/UT. pp. of tfrjiccri, tu fnil, oijg, to 
nntlo* — L. */^. nwfty; Jaart, to miikfr. 
Dar. tie/tit-iiirt^ -w*. 

Defiftl&d. ^K.-L.) M,E. «/;/^nd!!n%. — 
O, h. 4k/etfdrt.^\.. d/ftmitre^ to defend^ 
lit strike down oi AWay^wL. di^ down; 
*ffndtreAo sii ikc only in com p. dffcn^re, 
(ff'ftndert. t f. t;. 4!4t^itf, lo strike ; Skt. 
h&n. V<^IIwEN.^ Biu^ra. i. S O64. 

defeiice. (IT.-L."^ M.K. dtftHte,- 
O.K. i/if/f/fitf. » L. dfftm^^ A dcfcndijiE 
(TcniilliAii)^— L. df/(tts-uit pp. of tf^v 
fendm (atxjvc). Also M.iL defens^ O. F. 
defcnx^ from L, dii'tmum^ neat* 

befar (> \ to'delflv. i.K-L.) M.E. 
difftrren.^0. Y. difftrtr^ t*i dclay. — L, 
dtj^irre^ to >»car different Wiya, delay. •-L. 
i/r/* ,for fZ/V"), apart ; /em, lo boir. 

defer (l)« to l^y before, tubmit ane- 
ftclf. |>\-L,) O- F. de/erer, 10 admit or 
give Way to an appcaL— L. diferre, to 
bring down, bring before onc.~L. df, 
flown : fem^ to bear, carry, 

Deficieat, L,) Vrom stem of pret. 
pE, of drjiftre, to liiil ; sec Defooft. 

deficit, lack. \\A L. <^«V, it fails; 
3 p. i, jtfcs. zsidiftcri (above). 

Defile (r), to pollute. (F.-L.; ion- 

with L. Qttd £.) M. E. dt/ottien^ to 

Ufldifr foot ; later spelling i/^^/^; 

" (0. Thi* word i^ obsolete*, but 

f^£ge>t1^d a liyljriH campound made by 
prv^mg L. fllf, down, to the old word 
Jii4, to defile i,Macb. iii. i. 65I - A. S 
JpiaM [itiT */uijatt)y lo defile, make foul, 
wracd \hy vowel-cbange of u to jr) &om 
A, S*/»A foul ; wc Foul, 
Beflle (1). tomoTvliin ftfile. (K.-L.) 
F, d^/fr, to defile- r. (iV.-O. F,dfej' (L. 
rfii-), a|>art j J^^£ft lo Rpin thrcada, from L. 
fiinm^ thread. Dap. dtfiU^ *b., F. d5^//, 
a narrow pa&s&gc ; '*tig. pp. ^f JJ^fiier. 
BefijLe* iF.-L.) y. F, o^mr, to 
dcfuic, t:(,>igclD<-lc. ^L. dljittirty to limit- 
— 1« fiSf {town ; JiHirty lo end, from finis^ 
end . 
DefieOt* U'.> i- d//«itrt, tu bend 

down or aside, —L. d^, down i ^^ctirt, to 
b«nd. Dor, dejitx-i&n^ from dfificx-nff 
Peflour, Deflower. ^F.-LO M.E. 

deJlouren.-^O. F, dcfeurtr^ Cotg.«»Lite 
L, dijldtt\rt^ lo gather flowers,*!.* J/, 
away: _>fii»-*. for_^i?j. a flower. 

D&fluzioilM CL.) From acC- of I.. ri7* 
jSuxid, a. ilowing down, — L* d^^ down; 
Jiu.x-us^ pp. oifiuert, to flow. 

Deforce, to difip<HSe». (F. — L.) 
Legal, —A, F. dtfontTi to dispoft»5s(Med. 
L, diJfori;idr€\^0, F. ([£5-=f/lffj- ;L, d$S')t 
away: and F.y&rc*. SeeFor(». 

Deform. (F.-L,) M, K. deformsH, 
chiefly m pp. deformed. — O. F. di^^mer, 
to deform ; CoiJefnoy, — O, F. dtjfbrmg, 
adj., deformedj ngly; Cot. ^L. df/trrmis^ 
ugly. — L. df, away : /ifrttiat shape, bcaoty. 

De&aad. (F.^-L.) O.F. dt/muder. 
— L, d^/rauddre, lo deprive by frand--*L. 
t//t iiwnv ; fraud- ^ item <Afr&us<, fraud. 

De&ay. (F.-L. flwrfo. H. G.) O, F. 

disfraycTy to pay cxpcnsei ; Litlrc. — O. F. 

i/rr- (L. j//f-^ ; fraier^ to spend. Fr^r 
is from O. F. yrvM, */^f, iRtcTfratf, mostly 
uied in the pi. frais/frts if./ratj)^ at- 
peiuc» ; cf. Low L, /rrdxt/n, a fine, com- 
position. — O. H. G. /ndu (G, /riede), 
pCAce; also, a fine f of a breach of the 
peace. See AfFr&y. 

Deft, neat, dexterous. ^E.) M. E. d^, 
da/L A. S, da/h, as seen m gt^dtifit, mud> 
gentle, meek ; gcdafftia^ fitly, teatOQ* 
ably ; dafian, to prepare. Cf, A, S^ ^- 
da/'tn^ fit^ pp. of a lost strong vb. ^dafan ; 
Ctii'\\i, gadaban^ to beiitf^ti^j, litltng. 

Defonctr dead* (L.) L. de/untiuit 
i. e, having fully performed the coutsc of 
life, pp. cfd{fuf^lt tt> pcrforni futty, — J« 
d/, niily j and /urtjff, lo perfonn ; see 

De^. <F.-L.; M. E, i^fH. - 0, F, 
difiir^ dfffitT^ dtijitr, orig, to jtnounce 
onc'a faith. ^Idle L, dij^dart, to renounce 
iaith* — I^ dif' Cibr i/w'-),; -fUliirt 
(from fidui, faithful), to trust; cf. L. 
fidert^ to trust. Sec JPnith. 

Degenerate* ll-) From pp, of L. 
d^gemfdrf, tu become bale. — L^ di^t$ter^ 
adj., bnic. — L, df, down; fffTter- (lor 
■iw»t;j-V stem olgtrttts, race, See Qenua. 

De^lutitioiL, iWjLllowing, F, — U) 
F- t^dnh'tiffn,'^L. di^ dowtj; giuiUttS^ 
pp. aigliitiref to siwallow. 

Degrade. iF.-L.} O- F. dAgr^der^ 
to ilepiivc of rook or office, — Late L. «//■ 





^'a(/iJ«, the same.— L, (//j from ; gifiidus^ 
raufc. StL- Grade. 

degree. \\'^ - 1- ' O. F. %jy, ^egrtr^ 
(L kiep, imnk ; odg: fl step tiiyum {Mt&A. of 
slairs), — L» dl^ dowTi j graJus. a siep, 

Debiflcetit, g^piug^ (J- U dihi- 

lititi , stem of prcs, [it* uf tiikkseert^ to 
gape ti|tcn. — L, tf/, down ; hisitre^ lo 
gape, inceptive o( Airfrpj to yawn ; see 
Beify, Deiat ; s« Doity, 

Del|fn, i,t. - L) M, E. {i£igiUH.^ 
A. F. deigii'y a stem of O. F. di^fiiMr^ lo 
deign* — L, rfi^fmiir, by-fono \>\dign&ri, to 
deem worthy* — L^rfy^jgHMj, wotthy* Brugm. 
ii, $ 66. 

Deity. (F,-L,i M,R. (fc//^.-n.F. 
^fVf. — U dtitdtit,n^ ace, of deitds^ ddlVj 
UodhcBd, — L. d/fi-f for ^("^hj, God ; cf. 
dfuttSf ^udMke. Cf. W* duw^ Gael, and 
Ir. i/j'ij, Skt. ti'i^viT , a gcd ; Uk. ftds^ Skt. 
dftira*, divine, .Sec T«e8ti*y, 

deiiy. iV. ~ L.) M. K, dii/yen. — 
t>. K.^//fr, Mo deirie^* Cot.-ljitc L, 

— L. »!?**» for tKUs, a ^od\ anrf -yfc-» for 
/aier^f to make. Der. dtij^at-wts^ dac to 
]3p. of d^ijiciire, 

deiflt. ^F.^L,) F. ^^1//*. From U 
dt-Tti ; with tiiflix 'tit. 

D^ectj to cai;t down. ('L.^ From L> 
diieitus, p]>. of dritgrt \fUiicerc\, to cast 
down*^L. iVi", fiown ; iatcre, lo ibrow. 

Solay, vli* (F.-Ui O. F. rfi^/flj^tfr, 

dihticr, alsof/if/wr (Godcfroy), ll ani^w^rs 
in sense to L. dih^Mrc^ to defer, delay, 
ptit off; which wocld properly e^^'^ O- ^'■ 
diker. JJi/tt/dre is from dt/ii/us, deferred, 
put off; from L. fA'- {dii-t, apart ; Af/nj^ 
borne, pp, ot tul/frr, to Ufl, sustain, bear, 
^ The O. V. ipeiling with di CAUsea a 
diniculty. Der, difaj/, sb. ; O.F. deiau 

Delectable. iF.-I^) Late M. E. 
dr/caid'/c'-V. d^U((ahie.»h. diiettdhitU^ 
ddighlfiiL — 1,. diitiiari, lo dcliehl ; fic 
quciit. of d^iUet^t to allure. See Da- 

Delegate, a chosen deputy. (L.) L. 
d/ft'gil/tis^, pp. of dHi^rt, lu depute, ap- 
poiat- L. di^ away; lig&rti lo depute. 
Sec Ij«^t«. 

Delete, to erase. (L.^ L. dilctm, pp. 
f^ldif?rc, to destroy. See below. 

BeleterioUB. (Ok.) Late L. diii- 
t^fi-tr,^ \\\\\\ ^tif^x -iW/. For GU. Jt^Ai^ 

^p*ut, iiuxiuus. — Glk. Bi^Xtjt^p, a destroyer. 

iGk. Vi^ilff^c, I bornij injnre. 

Delf. (I^u.) Lartheitwate first made at 
Dii/t, formerly Dei/, a town in S. Holland, 
about A. V, 1310 (Haydn). The town waa 
uamed froiii its de/f ov canal ; cf. Delve. 

Deliberate^ carefully weighed and 
considered. 1L.1 L, ^V;'^#;v?77W, pp, of c^- 
/limrdrr, lo consuU. — L. rt, thoroughly; 
fibrdre, to weigh, from //^rtf, a balance. 

Delicate, dainty^ rtfined. (L,) 1^ 
dgUcatuSj luxurious ; probably allied to 
diNcia Tor d^ttcia^ pL), pleasure, delight, 
and to L. d^Iic^re^ to amDse (below"). 

delicioufl. (F.-L,) 'M.^E.deh'ihuj, 
— O. I . dc/uioits. — Late L. diliridsits^ 
pleasant. — L, d^li^ia, pleasure, — I^ de- 
fifen, to amuse, allare. — L, de^ away; 
/nrerSf to entice. 

deligJit. (F. ~ L.) Misspelt for d^/iU. 
M,E. Z/ifefi. verb.-'O. F. dtUUr, dilei- 
rtr. — L. drW/^ire ', see Delectable. 

Dalineatfl. (L.) From i>p. of L, 
dt/i/ifiirgi to sketch m outline. •■L. ttj 
down ; fmeiire, to mark out, from //««, 
a line. Sec Lioe. 

Delinquent, failing in duty. tL.) L. 
dHinqtfCfii' ^ bltin of pres. pt. ol a?/;w^/^^rc, 
to fail, to omit ones duty. — L. dt^ awav, 
from ; linquertt^ to leave. 

DeUqaesce, to become liL|uid. (L.) 
L. d(tt,pus*rrc,X.^ become liquid »L. a!^t 
away; UijUcicere^ inceptive fonii oiiJ^iifft^ 
to be w'tt. See Liquid. 

Delirioua. (L.) Acnined word twilh 
siifHx '^wj), from L. dciiri-urfii madjiess, 
which is aUo adopted into Ectgli^, — L. 
d?/ints^ mad ; lit. * going out of the 
furrow/ — L. a!?, from; and iira, a furrow. 
Cf. O. H* G. Irisa, G^g-iet'jt.a track. 

Deliver. (F*-L,^ O.K. delwrer, to 
act free, — Laic L, df/Ibfrdn, to set free. — 
L* dtj from ; iiB^rare, to free, from /fScr, 

Dell» a dale. CE.) M. K df-//g. A.S. 
rfr/A neut. ; Cutt. SaJc. i, ^^7 ; ii. 71. 
Teul, lyjM *da/jffM ^ see Dole. 

Delta. (Gk.) Gk. iiXra, the letter A; 
answering to Ileb. da/e/A^ the name of the 
4lh letter o( the alphabet ; orig. ' a duor of 
a lent.* i Orig. Pboeniciaii.) Dor. dtZ/Wrf. 

Delude. (L^ L.d^/itdgre{pp.d^luFHs), 
to mock at, cajulc^ — L. (^, down; /udrrVf 
lo pL-iy. Der. dfh45'iat$t from the pp. 

Delage. F.-L.) OF, rff%.:*-L. 
dif$ntit**"t a washing aw.^y.■»-L. diiuentf 
to wash ftwaj-. — L. *//- '</f'j''u apart; 
/f/rrf, to » ash. allied to Ii«va. 

Deiye, to dig. (L.) M.E. dSe/M^ff. 


A. S. tUlf&n^ |it, t. iif^iif, pp. dcIftii,'^l\M. 
dclviH ; M.H.G. tetbett, Ct Russ. di>/- 
biit, to hallow out. Ihugtn. i. $ 5:] i \ J>. 

^tf^Mf. — Gk, Si^^Ti^ryit, a popnliir IcAtJcr. 
— Gk. A^/i-oTj people; ^70^01^ leading, 
&0Q1 dY'ti". to lefcd* 

Demand. CF*-LO f- dcmnmUr^ to 
dcmaudj lequxrc — L. demattdt'ttt-^ to en- 
trust ; tn Ute L,« to df-mand. ^ L, J?, 
mwny ; mtitidiir^^ to commissiun^ ordcf. 

Demarcation. ^Span. * L, and 

M.H*G.) from Spall, dcmorcaci^m {'Xi^'h,, demoiiri, di'meUre^ to pulldown.— 

N.E. D.); whence aki) F^ dimaraUicH, 
■^ i„ df^ dpwa ; and Spsji, ^drrfirr^ 1u 
mark, >. ward of German origin ; «e« 

DeacaA (i), to conduct; rrjicx,, to 
^hqvr. (K. — L.> M. K. dcmeHtM.-^O. V. 


DetXttiae,, trnn<<fcicnc«, dccciuc. (K, - L.' 

O. I'^ difuiii, dgimist. Um. of pp* of 
d^fmeffff, Xti displace, dis[nls& — 1» ia7iv/jr^- 
ttita : sec Diamiea. 

Democracy. 1 1*'-- Gk.^ Formerly 
mo€raty (Miltoii) , — M. F. d^tnoctatte \ C< 
— (!k, S|fj|ii>«^T(a, popular gcYCmtnci 
rale by the peoplt. »Gk- ^i^*i»'» for 
A CDtmCiy-dj Strict, nUo the people ; am 
tfparfrf, 10 rule. Cf. O.Ir. dum, a rdinne* 

Demolull. CF.^^L.) 0,¥.demeiiss^^ 
inchoaiive stem v( dfrndtr^to^tmoiish. 

d?^ from ; mdUj^ heap, muss. 
Demon. (,!.. — Ok,) Formerly ^jwnir. 

$pitU. LI, Zatu^at, I impart. 

Demonvtrate. (l,) From pp, of L, 

dcmun^ttikrt. to show fully. — L. ^, down. 

litmeatr^ to contluct, (l^ide^ maniij^, — WWy \ tJtonstrt}rc,\ohhoWfUQm.ministrKmt 
O. V. at ( - L. dr\ down, fully ; metier, to n portcnl. Sec Mourter. 
condact, from Laic L. mtndrf, to drivi: | Demoraliset i^ coinipC in moraU. 
cn^tle, conduct, froniL. »wi'«tfri,lothicatcii* ' 'K.-L.) Mi,hI. F. d/morahirr.^Y , di'^ 
Sec Hen&oe. | U. F. dts \\.. dis^). njjnrt - moral, tnorsl; 

demeanonr. (F.-L.) M, K, rf'c^Mf'r;- with swftk -w ^«F. -*jf^, for Ck. -if*i^ . 

urt XV «4iLj ; a coined word, Iruin 1 Sec Moral. 

M. K. dtmtntH^ to demean^ ilxJiave ; &ec Dem,1iri vb. (F.-^L.) O.T. drwottrcr, 
I>«mean 11 . ydcmfufcr, to tairv; htncc* to hesjiatc — 

Dem^ean (2). to debnie, lower. (Hy* L, ^tfitf/>ir/^ 10 ilcUy fully > L. li^, fully ; 

LriU ; !.> jn^ K.> Made, like dedas£^ 
from the pretiK De- ^i), auid the ad/. 
ntciiK^ Sec V«AD I . 
Demented, msdi. (L, Pp* of tbu old 

»ctI> In dt'mrtif.^i^ die men/lire, to drivo 
tmt of one's mind.— L. df, from; mtnf-, 
stem of m^ns^ mind. 

Demerit, ill <tescn* (F.-L.) Alio 
merits in a j;i*«/ sense; Cot* i. l. 376.— 
O. F. demeritt„ desert: aljwi a fault, de- 
ment.— Late I . dfmtfiittm, a. fault ; from 
pp, of L, dfmtrirt^ dimtr^ri^ to deserve 
(ill a ^'<«/ sense). — L. ^, fully; merire^ 
mt-rtri. Vn dejiCiTe. See Merits 

Demesne. (H.^L.) AA, dgmtinf, 
ditufiU. also dtwesne [wHli silent J Other 
speHin^ uf Dom^n, q. v. 

Demi-, half, (F, - L.) O. F. dtmi. 

mttrdrt, to delay, ftom nu^rtty delay, 
Demnre. (F.-L.) XlVceut. Coined 
by prclixini^ i^^ [sxt De- \l)), to M, E, 
/Muri, mature, calm, demuTe, — O. F* wrwr 
i^V. t/ifir)^ mature. — L. wnffini-i ; se^ , 


Demy : a spelling uf dtmi% 

Den* iK,) M. F. dt-w ; A. S. fjfe/(«. 4j 
cave, allied to deHU, a valley. Hh M. Dmj 
dcniu, a. cave (Kilian), 

Denary! relating to tenft. (L.) L. 
dfHdriuj ^ coatainiiig ten.- l.,detii {^*de€' 
Hi), j>K ten by ten. — L. dtt-emy ten. Hence 
denier, L. dctttiriui, pitce of ten iaa-c»). 

Dendroid. (.Ok.) Gk, Uv^¥, a tree ; 
-(t>Bifr. like, from tlhtK^ form, &hapc> 

Denixen, ti naturaliaed cHiieo, ihKa- 
bilanl. ,F. — L.) Formerly rftf]K«i««.— 

lialL-B> I . at-c. dimidium, h&lf.- I^ f//-^ ' A. F. and U. F. deinxnu aUo d^AraOfl), 

i//> . npart ; /nedius, middle ; &ee M^'dium 
DemijOiLn, a kind of |ftr>^ bottle. 
tF.j truui F, dame/farttti ; cf. Span. 
•damajtmrm. Much di&putcd, but n^ of 
Eastcru origin. The F. form is right at 
it stands^ though ofteq much pemTicil. 
Frotu K. dame Sp. d&ma], lady; and 
/eattHt (Sp. Juatia\^ Jalie, Jo*ii. S« 
N, L.IJ. 

used in the Liber Albus to denote a Uado- 
within the privilege of the city franchise^ 
AS opposed m/oreitt. F'otmed by adding 
the suffix -ttn { — L. ^fln/Mj) to O, F. deint, 
□ow lipclt danf, within. ^L. dt iftluj, hoai 
within. — L. o^, from ; jWau, within, aUied 
to Interior. 
Denominate, L.) From pp. uf L. 

dfTt/^mitiiire, to riaiay.-'L, rr^^dgvrn. fully ; 



nSminari, to name, from nt^min'^ stem of 
wmen, a ttatne; see Nouii« 

fuf/dre, to mark out. — L, ^, down ; 
ttiit,;n, to Eantk, from w^tf, a maik. See 

BeUOUemeilti the nndQlng of a 
knat. (F.-L) F,*/4^^«w^wm/, sb., from 
diaouer^ to oodo a knot. — L. ^ju-> ap&rt ; 
Hoddrg^ to knot, irom n^m, u knot. See 

DoUOIUlCe. I.F. — L.) 0.¥.denff»cffr 
— L. dBnuniiSret to declare.— L, *^, down, 
fnllj; nurUidn, to tell, from nufHittSt a 
messenger. Sec Nimoio, J>et*deimi»Hai- 
iiNi, from I* pp. dinutui^tus. 

Denvfl. (L**) L« den^nsi thick. -4-t'>k. 
BoiTiir, thick, Brugm- i, $ 851, De5". (vw- 

Dent f ^xv Pist. 

DeiLtaL ^L.) Formeij with sufl^x -d/ 
t,F. -a/, L. -&lis) ffom I., ^n/-, stem of 
dtns^ a tooth, cognate with L. Tooth. 

dent&tfid, furnished tvith teeth, 'L 1 
L. tUniMus^ tootbcfd. — L. dtnt'^ stem of 
«t/ti, ti loolh. 

dentielei a little tooth. (L.] "L^den^ 
iktdtn, iluuble dimjn* of d^ftj^ a tooth. 

denti^TlCd, tooth-povfder. lF.— L/) 
1*', dtuiifrice,— L. d^intifriiittm i^Plinyi.— 
U. dsnii', decl. stem of t^/u, a tooth ; 
/rt'c-dfv^ tf) nib. 

dantiat, {F.-U) r.dtn/iiU. Coined 
from l„ ifeH/; stem of rff«r, a tooth, 

dentition. iX-) ^ diMntidmm^ ace. 
o'{ detitdio, cutting of teeth. —I^ (A^/ryj7Hj^, 
pp. of diittirf, to cut tceth.vL. dcnti-, 
dccl- ^tem or filfiii, a tooth. 

Denild^p Eo lay bore. (L.) L, dinu- 
dare^ la make fully bare.'^L. di^ fully; 
nuddn, to Uy bare, from ttHdaSf bare. 
Sec Nude. 
Denunciation ; sec Denoiuico. 
Deny. ,1-. — l-i M.L. (/^m^jr. — M.P\ 
dent'er, earlier form deutur.^l^.dfttegdrif 
Cu dciiy fully. — L, d/^ fully; negdn, to 
deny, See Neg^AtioD. 
Deod&nd, lii> a thing to be given to 
Gotl. (L.) From L. dea,Ajit, Q^drttif God ; 
danduM, neut. of dattdtts, to be givcDj 
from dare^ to give. 

Dftpftrt, F-Li O.Y.d^paHir.det- 
far/t't, to divide, to part fronu — L. «/i/-, 
away from ; flKtrftn, to part ; sec P«U"t 
Cf. L. dupeftit^^ 

Depend. F.-L.) O^Y^dtpundrt.iQ 
(]c|iciid, hvig on; CoL^L, dg^nd/rt^ to 

hang down or ffom. - L. d!^, down, from ; 
pcndirr, to bang, bee Fendajit. 

Depict. Cl'') Formerly used s$ a pp. — 
L. d/pkius, pp. of d^pingerSj to depict^ 
lit. paint fully. — L, dl^, fully; pifigtre, lo 
paint, Cf. Picture. 

DepUatorjT, removing hair. (I.) 
Formed, in imitation of M. F. depi/afmrt 
CCot.,, from a L. adj. *dipilM&rhts, not 
foaod. — L, f^/i^^'^-zif, to pluck 
L. di^ away: pitdre, to pluck away hair, 
from pf'hti, hair. 

Depletion. L.) * n^ieiioH, ^n^m^ty* 
mg ; Blount. Formed, in ioutattotL i>f 
ripUd&n^ from L. dipUtus^ pp, of dsplin^ 
to empty. «L. di^ away; pi^n^ to fill* 
See Plenary* 

Deplore. F, -i..;cr L.) O. F. A- 

p!or€t\^h. dipionite^ to lament over.— 
L. dij fully ; pfotdrtf to ury out, wail, 
weep. Br^gm. i. \ 154* 

Deploy, to oi>en out, extend. {Y. — h.) 
V. dipfoytr^ to unroM, unfold; O-F. ifej- 
piffier^ to uufold.— L. */« » apart; p/uilre, 
lo fold. A doublet of DiBpLay. 

Deponent, one u^ho testifies, {L.; L. 
df/ifm*// , stem of the pros- pt. otdFp^rtttVf 
to lay down, nUo :,in late I-.) to testify.— 
I .. d/, down ; pvture^ to lay. See Poaition. 

Depopulate. 'X^^'j Frcjmpp. of L,rf^^ 

popuJdrt^ to lay waste ; iti Late L. to dc> 
prive of people or inhabitania. Orig. lo 
ravage by means of mulliludea.^ L. di^ 
fully ; pitpuiSn^ to populate, hll with 
pcopk', tTOmpvfv/us. people ; see P«opl4. 

Deport. (F.-L.i M. B\ flfc/tfrt'*/', to 

bear, endure ; re depttriir, to forbear, quiet 
oneself. — L. diporfUrt, lo carry down, re- 
moTe ; with extended senses in Late Latin. 
Der. dup&rfmejit, O. F. dtpcrttmtut^ be- 
havioar. fl^ For the varying scuk^, sec 
F. d^porttr. 

Depose, f F. - L. and Gk,') O, F. ^ 
/ffj^r todiipiact.^n. F. de^ '!..(*], from ; 
and F, p&nr^ to place, of Gk. origio, oi 
shown nodei Foae, % Much confuicc! 
with derivatives frotn £l/^^r¥, to place. 
ixe below. 

Deposit, vb. (F.-L,> Obs. F. dt- 
positer, to entrust. — Med. L. dipasiidn^ to 
lay dowD.^L* dfp&iitum^ a thing laid 
dowOp nerul. of pp. of dipdturc ; sec Do- 

deposition. I*. - L,) O. F, dcposi- 
/fa9M. --L. ticc, d^pifsittffttem. a deporting. 
— Li d/pesiiui^ |>p* of d?poK£rc, t« lay 
down ,abQve;« 




fX K. depoil, *L. iii/^sitiim^ a thing lairt 

Dopr&76* H\ — L. I M E- x/^/r(rw^«,— 
O, F- (/f//'d(fr. -il.. dipraitdr^t lo tiinkc 
crt>oi;cfl. (iirtortj vHintt ^ L. <A'. fully; 
/I'virtM.'i, cjowked. (.lefiravetl. 

Deprecate. L.i From pp. i.f j.. 

ti^prtit}t'i, lo ptay a^inst, pray to ictrnvvt. 
— L» //tf, away ; Jfr/t3rj\ to pr*y. See 

Depreciate. L.' From pp. of L. 
i/''/*ftft\}'t,, la lower the price of. — 1- «rtr, 
tlr-iAii ; pf'ftium, priiie. See Freolotui. 

Depredate. .1-; From pn, of L. 
fU^^t^iiiAn, to pUinrlcr.— I,, li^, fully; /«?' 
,/<jr/, iij lob, ir om /'ftfifti^ p«y ; »« Prey. 

DepreSI. (K^L.i O. F. d^prtsar 

GuttLfroy ..— L. l)]»e *iiipressiltf\ from 
1.. iii'prfysits, pp, of d^primert^ to press 
tttAviK* (., itf, down ; prfuirre^ to pr^u. 

DeprlTe. (F*-L.j tJ. F. Jffirivtr 
(Ciiwlcfmy . " Laic L* i/fpriviire, to dc* 
pmc of office, dcijittdc. — 1 , f//^ fully; 
/*v//<i/Y. 10 deprive. ;isec PrlvatQ. 

Depth ; ^c Da«p, 

Depute. (F.-L.) \\.V.depi*t£r%CoX. 
*-L. d^pntare^ to tut off, oUo to impute, 
destine. •L, t//, down ; puU\rt, to cut off, 
orig* 10 cleanse. Der. deput^y M* F. 
deputi^. one deputed) pp. of depttttr. 

Derajige. (K.^ L. aw^ o. n. G.) F. 

idira.*t\;tt , lo diuf range ; formerly ^/Sfj- 
now^jf*'. — L (/I'jr , apart; O. F* rangitr^ 

%i*gitr, lu tnn^c ; see Ha&se. 

Derelictioa, complete abAndQiimeDt- 
(L.) L. ai.c- dirtlidiontm-f complctt- neg- 
lect.^ L. dfntutHS^ [jp, Qi^ dfrelittpure<,\o 
fooakc. — I-. i//. from ; re/fn^rtcre, In leave 
beliJiitlt frotn n-, back, uiil lin^turf^ to 
leave. See Relinquiali. 

Deride. C^-) l^'- d^nd^'f^i to laugh 

dowj], laagh at; ^m di", down^ «nH 
ridfre, to l*ngh. Dwf* */;/■« n^, from 
pp* dirhlti. 

Derive* (F.-I,.^ O, F. d«rivtr, to 
derive, also to drain. ^L. Uinurtre, to 
lin off water. ^ L. d^, from ; rfuiti, a 

Demn, skia. (Gtc.j Gk. Ar^jua^skin.— 
Cik.$4'/>({F, to flay: co^^natc wuh K. Tew'. 
vb , la jciul. 

Derogate* }■>•) From p]j* of L, d^/V' 
goff. la rfpcal a Iaw» detract from^ — L^ 
.i//. away ; f&ffiire, to a^k, propotc ■ Uw. 
[S^ce RosMfon. 

Devriok, n kind of crone. iDii.'t Onp. 
the gullows ; find named from a. Dutcli 
bangman ; see T, Dekker, Sevtii F'cn^Hy 
Sins of I^ndon, cd* Arber, p. I7.*»r>n. 
DtWryk, Dirk. Diederik\ niisWL-fing (o ti, 
Piefruh^ A,S. /^fydriif *ittlcr of tbe< 

Dervia, DerTieh, n Pemran monk, 
asLctic. ;Hcrs,i l*cf*, dafvhh, pmir ; r 
fictvjsh, who profcsstd poverty- Cf. Zend 
dri'^it-, poor {Horn H 

Deseant. ( F. - r. i Urig, a variation 
in ii song, — O* Nonh F, dei^-ttnt .O. F. i/cj* 
iAanf ,A kind of jong* — I-alcL. dhtonius^ 
a. rtrfrjiin, kind of singing. — f „ dis-, #parl ; 
juid liJNftty. a fioni;. See Oant ; i ', 

Deecend* f. - ]. j m, V\ dtufndr^^ 

Ct"t*— i -^ d.-utmitrtt tit. k) tlimb down.— 
1:. j'/, down; stand^rt, to elinih ,' see 

Deeorilie. <.L,0 \*,dffcriteyi,\ti\in\e^ 
down* describe fully i pp. det/riptus 
^whence darHpfioH), *• 1« </)?» down; 
itrihtre. to write. SJee Borjbe. 

deicrj fF.-L.) M. K. rf«f/r*7'i'«,ti> 
discern* — U- F- destrire, ^ott foim of 
O. F, diicnvre, to describe. — 1.* dfsrrfitrf. 
^ Sense affected by O. F. dei^r/er, to pro- 
claim, piib1»h ; from O. ¥. dts- [L. dis-), 
and fhtr, to cry. 

Cesecrate. (L.> From pp. of L, d^- 
s£(ri:r£ or d^sacrare^ lo i:oJisccrqte ; (with 
change of sense due lo O. F, dejsatrer, to 
profane, from L. dis', apart). » L. di^ iwWy \ 
iatt'dr^^ to account a» sacred; *cc Sacred. 

J!eB<at 11), a waste. i,F.-L) O.F. 
deirri, n wilderne&a. — L, dlitrium, neuL 
of dis€ttus, waste; pp, of dfsenre, to 
desert, a biuidon. — L, d^, away tnegative) ; 
str^tt. to join, 

Teaert (i\ laerit. (F.-L.) O.F. 
dt'ifn, itra. deserte, lie a tiling deservtd, 
pp of dcscfvir^ to deserve ; sec below, 

deaerve. i,F.-L.) O, F, dfsftvtr^m* 
L. d/Si-rut're^ lo serve fully ; in Late L., to 
deserve. — L. t/if, fsLly ; serutrt. to serve, 
See Serve. 

DeelLabiUe* ctrclecs drets. i F. - U) 
V. d^ihaifiiii^ undress. — F. d/sAa^h'Ur, to 
undress.* ¥.d^i{h dis-), a^jntttawdy, tm-; 
hahilUr, lo dress; sec Habiliment. 

Desiccate, to dry up. {\^\ From pp. 
nt 1 . d^sii cilit:, to drain dry, ■• L. d^, 0.wtl 
sh'fire. to ilry, from srti^uSy dry. 

Desiderate ; Kt Devire. 

Deei|flli vb. ;F,-L.^ O.Y.deui^i 
to denote* to dc5igti,*(.. disiignftrc, lo 


^ ^ 



:«. i* aj:~~"*»iT 


ilf^Twrtiifw 7-1. ' ? Oi- 

.« ^/'» 

' // — J. d*if€*luin, %ii. 'A d^spt^tu:.. Vi >»;. Cv^i- — 1* tfif, do*^ ; Jj-Vr/, lo 
*j/ii**tt,^A ••I. ttftftttui, \t\.. 'A df:pf<4't, I'-.ku- 

tfc H^*«,l#:a CO«'.rXj.>K. ^- -O. K. ^:- ,L- ^i>- . 

D««Dr/IJ. 'f* (.OF tU-p*ftlUr 'V . %\At*\ y.ta^ht, % fUiI, tack; acc Tack. 
fi^f-NMt/ht , 1*, 'imttfftl.^t.. diipoii^rt, to < D«:r. dtia/.hment. Cf. Attach. 
I/ImmI'i »i, ///, fiill/ , i^iAre^ \et ^n'^ DfltsU, a unall part. F- — L,' O- F. 
'/f '.l'/itiiit|;, Uttm ip*tUitm, %\i'i%\ ; we ; detail^ * a {jcecc-mealing, alio reiaile, rr a 
Mp'fll i •^llinje by parcel! ;* Cot. — O. Y.eUtai'.Ur^ 

DMipond. 'I". I.' df'.ptmdirt^ 'i^ foj to cut ioro piccM. * O. F. Je- X- Ji-\ 
pirtfflla* lully, 'i^ to|[ivc up, yield 'henoe, ! Hown fully; tailler^ to cat; tte Tulor. 




0er. ifrfaff\ verb >, which is irom the ah. 
in K., though in F- it it the other wayi. 

Detain, V, - [..^ From a. ionic Bttm 
of (>. F. fl'ii/rw/r.— L- i^isfifrf^ to hoM 
hack; pp. i/*"tert/wi'. — I., t^^, dowa ; fcnire, 
to bald. D«r. dftrmicH iiiom the pp.1. 

Detect* 1,1-) P'rom L dfte>:tits^ pp. 
ol t^^tf^ry't". to uiicovrr, cxpoic,— L. a*-", 
away r ff^f^rt, tg cover. See Tesumant. 

Deteiiti,oii ; »e DtitAin. 

Deter < L.) L. diiei-rirt^ to frighten 
ftom.**I- //(Tj from; terrfre^ to frighten, 
tjlce Terror. 

Deterge, to wipe off. <io I„ */.?if^^ 

^rr, Itt wij-tc nff. «•!.. f*', off; ff/x^f, to 
wiiwr. Der. dfUrg^ent, from rhe pies. pL 

pp. of tiiteri^r&r*, to m«k<_- Vforsc. — T. 
mUfrieTt worK« Formed from t/^, away, 
from ; with comj>. su^i(e« -ter-wr. \^ 
aI&o in-ter-hr Irora m.) 
Determine. [K. - L.) O. F. nfe/rr- 

mttur .mm I ., (UifrmtnArgt to bounds end.— 
1 . ^iV*, <k>wn, Ixilly; ttu-mrftthYt to bound, 
iTom termitntj^ n hotindary ; see Term. 
Der. pte iitttrmine* 
Detect. !F.-i„) M.F, Mtittr, t(* 

lonthe.ol,, HttistAriy to cxccrntc, imprc- 
tOiOc evil by c*11ing down ibc gods to wil- 
neu.^L. dl^ dnvim ; ttsttlH^ to witness, 
irom /ryiij, n witness. 

Dethrone. « F, - L. dW Gk.^ M . K. 

fieithroner, *to tmlhronc;" Cot, — O.K. 
rfij 1.. f/jj-t, apart; ]» tht^»tts^ from 
Gk. tf^oiU'DT, a, throne. See ThronB. 

Detonftte, to explode. iL.i L. ^/i^- 
JvJ/Mj^, pp. of dffcn&rt, to explode, «L, 4j<r\ 
fall)-; /'t'MJr;, to tbundcT, 

DetOHTf a winding way. (F. — L.) F. 
dittwr^ 4 circuit \ verbal sb. from F- 

(tcumfr^ to tnrti aaide, — K. elJ- ;l" (/i'j- , 
< Bjmrt : /^wrw^r, (u turn. Sec Turn, 

Detraction. F, - L. i O. F. detra<- 
9i0H.— \.. d^traciififu^m, *cC* of ditractio^ 
a withdrawal ; hence a taking away of 
oflc'i cffrriit, — L* d^/rtu/uj, pp. oS ^fra- 
Atrt, to take away, also to aiEparmee.— 
L, dt", AWiiy ; rrtiAtrt, to diaw. Sec 
TrAoe 1 :. 

Detriment. (F.- L.I 0,F,deirimrfti. 
» L. d<'f»^ffftf»fuMj loss; lit. *« n»bbiiig 
Rway/*].. ditti {us, pp. of dfttrtrt^ lo 
mb down : with suffix -jiMfw/ww, — 1,. 4i^ 
down ; trrrrgj to riih. Sec Trite. 

Detmde. ;L.) I.. d?triidae, (o ihniat 
iJowis. - I . d^t dowft ; trUdfrf, to thru&t^ 

Deuce .i:,atWM, at ^nuU. V.~W 

O. F. detij I.F. (jV«-r. aliioaSjiM, two.^Li 
du^s^ pct'. of (i'r(i?. two. 
deuce u]» the devil. (LowC— F.- 

J,, I Law U. de duus ! the deuce ! (Bre* 
men Worlerhnchl ; G, afer daux! Ofig. 
on eiclamation on throwing the dttue or 
two at diCf, as it was a lo&ing throw.™ 
O. F, di>us. two i?ibovcj. 
Deuteronomy. (L.-Gk.) Late L, 

diuicmtioniiunt, ■■ Gk. twvTtpovoftita/, a, < 
second giving of the Uw**Ck. SitJiKpo-*, 

sccnnd ; vu/mt, law. 

Devastate. ;L) From pp. of L. <tf- 
ucslOrt, to lay woBie. — L, rf/, down; 
aidjtflrf, lo lay Wflstc, ffom adj, Waf^j, 

Develop* to unfold, open Dtit. (F. - 
L. and TeuLi F. d^vtiap/nf. O. F. dex- 
vetaper^ desvduper, — O. F. des- ,L. t/iV-), 
apart ; and the ba^e vdofi- or wfiup-^ which 
appnft also in envt/ep<. This ba» reprc* 
sents Teut. wiap', as tti M, E. tulapp^n^ to 
wrap up ; see Lap (3)« Wrap. 

Deresti, to unclothe. (F, — L^} From 
M.F, dfsifilir, to devesL^L, dii-^ off; 
and ttiitire, to clothe. Doublet, divest. 

Deviate. ' l^ From po. of L. d>- 
uiAte, to go out ofthe way. — L. di, from ^ 
uia, way. 

derione. vl-.) L. a^i'-tfj, going oat 
of the way; with suAu -4«U. — L. j^» 
Trom ; w/^ij way. 

DeTioe, a plan. (F. -L.) M. K. 
fltwjKJj d^ma {dtiys, devine),-^0. f.dtvis, 
dfft'se, a device, aUo a division.'- Late L, 
diutittm^ tfiufia, a division; also a jodg- 
ment, devicir ; orig. rveuL and fieiD. of 
pp of diutd^rt, lo divide ; »ee J>lvid«. 

deria e, to plan. (F, - L.) M . I*;, di- 
uhiH (dfvts^ett), — O. F. deviser. — O. F» 
drviT or dcT'ue, sb. labove). 

Devil. L. - Gk. A. S. dio/ui, dio/fiU 
— L, fy/n^o/uj, —Gk. Oi(il9oAoi, the slam- 
derer, the devil.— Gk. hitt^ttXhuv, to throw 
across, traduce^ slander. ^Gk.&d^ihrough» 
acroiis; flrt^AjiK, to throw; sec B«l«miiit«. 

Devione ; f«e Deviate. 

DeTi^ie ; ^^ei: Device. 

DCTOid, qtiite void, i, F. — L.) M* K* 
deuaid ; dun- to dewtideJ, pp. of deuoidtH 
\deisaiden)^ to empty, — O.F. dtnmtdttr^ 
dtsv^idier, to empty out. — O. F, de^ 
(L- dis-'i ; tmditr^ to empty, from ewt/r, 
VHtde, adj. empty; see Void. 

Devoir, duty. [F.-L,'i M.F. ^hmV. 

*. M, F. dfVair, O, F, detvir, to owe; 
used ab a »b.*L. d^Sire, lo owe ; ^ec Dabt. 




duwii, bring or transfer to, — L. iie^ down \ 
wdueri, to Toll, % A frequeiiii old sense 
of e^trnohv was * to tranifcr.' Per> devchti- 
f'ifff, (rom the pp. divdfitifs. 

Demote, vb. (I-) L- deuatus, pp. of 

dC'UifU^n. to dcvole, vow fully,— L. di^ 

futly; tfOturgy to VOW, See Voto» 

Devour. 1 1' . — L.) O. F- d^anr ( ( p. 
5. pr, dfVffurt,^^ L, dltt&r^rc^ to consume, 
eat up, — L. f//, fuUy ; «t^rdn, to gulp 
down. Sec Voracity. 

Bevout. (F*-L,l M. E, aki«/((fn«/), 
ill so Sp< It dttimsU. — O. h - dtrtio!^ dcTotcd. — 
1-* dfiwtus^ pp. of dfisou^ti \ sec Bevote. 

Dew. (K.) M, K. fi^M, d£iv. A.S, 
lA'iiu', ilew.-f-Dnr dftutVt JceL i*^ ^Ecn. 
difg^ar). Dun. </Mf, Swed. ^Z-j^y, G, Mdw. 
Tent, type Vawu^v Perhaps allied to Skt> 
^Affp, to ran, flow; GU. fr^eir, to nsrj. 

Ddxter* (L,) L, dexter, on the right 
hand side, right. +Gk- BffuJy, right, Skt. 
i]&jij,i(i>ia-^ on the right or south, Goth, 
taihsu'ti. right hnndj XV. deh^K, rij^ht, 
southern, Gael, nnd Irish d£as kthe saoae). 
The Skt. dakshiim- is orig. * clever*; cf. 
Skt, dtjksha-, able, daks A, to be strong. 

Dbt, agovemorof Algiers. (F,— Turk,"! 
F. ofej'. — Turk. i/Jj, a maternal uncle j 
afterwards, in Algier*, an oflictf. chtcftaiii. 

D]^OWf a siftve ship (?> Mod. Arab, 
^fo, liHt not an Arab, word (Vule). Orig. 
lanfTtiage unknown. 

Dl- (rl, prefix; apart- (L,) L, dt-, 
flhorterform of rfi'j- ; Mtf DiA*. 

Di- (a), pi^fijc; twice, double. ^Gk.) 
Gk. Si- (for &it), twice. + L, &is, dt' ; Skt. 
dvis. dt/i-. AllJeti to Two. 

Dio-j prefix, [Gk.) Gk. ^ta, thruugh, 
between, apn.rt ; alUed to Di- {i\ and to 
Two, % in de&ily nil wortls Ijeginnifl^; 
wilh diQ'^ except dml, dmrui^nd, diaty. 

Diabetes, a diacaEM^ accompanied with 
cxi;e&sivt discharge of urine. (GkJ Gk, 
^nt&j\Tj}s, n p,iir of compasAK, a siphon, 
dLnbetes.«(ik. haQtiivMiV, Id stand with , 
the lc^s3,part (like compasses oi: a&iphon). 
«Gk. ht&^ a^iart \ ^airtty^ to go ; see 

DiaboUcaL l- — Gk, L. diahcik-us, 
devilish. — Li k, din^oAifcuf, drv)Ii&h,<^(Jk. 
hi6.ii'\ox^ the devil i see Bevil. 

IHakC01k.&l, belanging lu a deacOn> 
(F, - L. - GkO F. dtactfrtft/. — Laie L, 
didcffndiis, from L. ditfiortus, a deacon ; 
see De&cOTii. 

Diacritic. (Gk.) Gk. 6ta«^T<K(;s,di»- 

itni^ttve. »Gk, ^loxpjVeiJ', to scji^mtc^ 
Ukp S({i, ii[ifirl ; Hfiveo\ to judge, 

Di&deiUfi fillet, cioun, .;F. — L. — Gk.^ 
M. K. and O. F. dttrdemc^L.. diadima.^ 
Gk. Sinjtj^, a fillet. — Gk. hia^ liparl, 
across; Sl~u, I Ijind^ allied lo 8kL (/J, Jo 
Lin<t (whence ii/<'f//'!i7A, a gazlaad). (y^DKO 
linigm. iLj 70;, 

Diteresifir ^ mark (^) of scparatioa. 
(L. — t;k.> L. diiHttsis.'^GXi. Zim^tcHf n 
dividLng,>-Gk.Ki-d,apait; ai'jiMffiSjatakmg, 
from oipftV, 10 tAke. 

Dift^nosiff* sclentidc determination ft 
a di^ase. (Gk.) Gk. Jkitvuhtii, a dis- 
tinguishing, —Gk- 'Sia, between ; yl^u)ffi9^ 
enquiry , from Trwrat, tu know. 

Diagonal* kF, — L. - CJ k, > F. drnqotm/. 

— L, ai'tg^ulis, running from coiner to 
cornet.^Gk. htay^'tos (the BAme.'i. — Gk. 
5(A, through, between ; T^wa, an luiglCj 
bend, allkd to 7^^, knee; see Knee. 

Dia^ain* (U— Gk-^ X^diap^mma, 
a scale, yanml {hfince,sketcb,pUn'i,— -Gk- 
ftta-ypniu^ta, A hgiiie, plan, gamut. — Gk. 
h\o.'yp^ip*iv , to iiiaik out by line^^ describe, 
*■ Gk, 5(d^ through , 7p'i^ifu', to w rile, 

DiaL (I M. K. i^f'fi/,— Med. l^.diiUis, 
lelatiag to a day ; hence n plat? for shm'^ 
ing the time of day.— L.4/irj, day. Brug<u. 

Direct* a variety ofalaneuftEe. (F.— 
L. -- G k .) F . diakcU, — L. diitUdu f , f^ — 
Gk. A^iMjifTpy, f., discourse, )angtiBg«T 
dialect. — Gk. IvaXly^ttai^ I discour^. — 
(ik. 6(*S, b-Awcen^ \i-)f*ik, to speak. 

dialogue, n discourse, ;F, — L- — Gk."; 

F. diiih\^ti€. — L. diahgtim, ace. o^dinhgus. 

— (jk. S<aXo7i>c. a conventatioiii. — Gk* 0ia- 
A^yo/uit, I discourse (above). 

Diaitiotfil^i the line tncasBrtng the 
breadth atross or tliickness throuph. 1 F, 
-L. — Gk.) Mid. K, dmaiitri^ 'ft dia- 
meler ; ' Col. — L, diamttras. — Gk. iiri- 
^cT^, f. — Gk. Sid, through,' nirptv, a 
Kifagure ; cf fittp^iv, to inccisare. 

Diamond. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E.rfw- 
wfl/ri*. — < I. I' . diiifuanf, aUcTcti foiin of 
adamant", so alM-» llal. Span. diinaattU^ 

G, diamant, dtmnttt. St« Adamant. 
Diapason, n vvhole uctave, harmony. 

(L.— Gk.i 1^ diti/niidn. an octave^ con- 
cord of a itTtte^ wiih iU octave. — Gk. 3ui- 
waoSn', concord of first and lost notes of an 
octave, lit. * ihiough all ' the nolci. — Gk, 
6tA^ through ; irdirur, g^^* pl' fcni' ^f vai, 
all (x<^3vy being understood) ; sec Pao-y 







XMaper, figuretl Unendollu (F.— L.— &yi/e[ (ipparenlly formed frqin Da.b ; see 


Lilt,} C(. 0.b\ lii'a/'r/, dUptred ; from 
the verb diaprer, to diaper, or * divtrsifie 
with Houri>hinys \ ' Cot. The verb is 
Ibrmctl from U, K. diasfret later ttiafiri, a 
line doih^ often (Ascribed ns A/anc; white). 

— LiLte L. A'af/rus, a&).f ftl^A used as ft sb. 
(Iiiriiica tic di(tif>ra a/^^flV-^Ijiie Byiantine 
Gk flidfftpM, adj., pure white; from &-a. 
wholly, dffff^j white (ste N. E, D.). 
^ Not the anme os Ital. diaspr^, a JAsper ; 
biit cf. Prov. diaipiT, dtaspres, diaper, 
cosity clnlh vRartsch ; also Late L. ai/yrrt\ 
white mon^cy (DiiCfliigc). 

BiaphanOUS, transparent. iCk.) Gk. 
itapav-t}'!. tr,in^j!arenC ; with soffix -pffj, — 
Gk. &n, Ihrougii ; ^r-, ntlied to '^ivtiv^ 
to shtw. hruf^ro, J. $ 195. 

Diaphoretic r cnusifig per^pImtioT?. 
(L, — tjk. L. diap/iij>rt'tintff sudoiirlc — 
Gk. Sm^^iyTiifiii (the snme), — Ok. Sia- 
^^igiTif, per^pirotioti.— Gk. &n^£^«V, to 
carty off fby perepirallotiV ^ G*;. Aia, 
Ibroufib ; ^fii-, to c«rry, ftltied to f^ptir, 
to bw ; sec Beaf- 

Diaphragm, fi divliiing membrane. 
(F.-L. — eik.) F. diaphra^te. •*]... dta- 
fiArof^ia.^iiK. btafpaftM^ pArtUiod, mid- 
hff. •■ ^ik, 9id. between ; ^fHUrpw ijiit. 
+£Afw^^ I fence in, enclose. 

DiazrllCBa. (.L.'-GkO L.di^rrAtra.^ 
Ck* ff(«iL/^^a, lit, ^a Rowing ihraugb,' — 
Gk, hafifiitiv, 10 How through. — Crk. &ia, 
ihroiigh ; ^*i*'. (0 flow. 

Diwry. vl- I- dfarimtt, a titiily 
alkm Alice, alio A diOfy.^L. rfriF/, a day. 
Sci: Dial. 

Biaatolti, dilnlation of the health (Gk.) 
Gk. htaajoKif, n drnwing tiiutidct, dilata* 
tion.^Gk. StoffTiA^ni', to put aside or 
aparL««Gk% Zt&^ apajt ; uWAAftr, to ptit, 

Diafeonic. pro^'ccding by tones. (Gk.) 
Gk. AiaruKiJFDtj from Startwoi ilit. sittetchcd 
out^, dUionic. — Ck» ZiartWuY^ to stretch 
out.—Ctk, 9id, fully *, ritVff*', to stretch, 

Biatribo. ;K,-r..-Gk.) V.diaftifi^. 
«L. diiifrtfiiij a lenrncd flisputittion. ^ 
Gk, 3iaT/j(^\^, R wearing away uf time, 
wast*; of ttme, di^u»ion. — Gk. ^ntpi' 
fiin\lo waste time, to discuss. — Gk. Jtia, 
ihoroughly ; TpiQmr, to mb, waste away 
(.with lon^ iV 

Bib, to ilab lightly* <E.) A lighter 
fiiitn u{ da/f. Hcticc di&6tr, a dibble; ^e 

cUbblOfiin instninventfor »'tltng plants, 
by making holts. i^E.) M. l'» d^Aii, tU- 


Bice, pi- of Difl (3), q. T, 

Bicker, half a score, (I-O M.F. rf/J 
{cf. Icel. cA'-Cr), — L. di^tf-ittf A set of ten. — 
Iw, det-c}ft. I en. 

Bicotvledo&i 'i plant with twoued*' 
lobes, tuk.) Krom Gk. ^r*, double: 
KaruAijScin', a ciap-&ha|)C!d h*»llow, from 
noTiik^, a cbp. 

Dictate. (L.) U dtftafm, pp. o( dii 
/itri, to dictate, freqnentatiTe of rfTf^r^, tO 
say f !.»elow\ "Dev- dittai-or, 

dictioSp ^iilk. iK. — L.; F^diiffort,'^ 
\ .. dic/iOfUfft , acc> Gldiriio, a SATtng^.^L, 
dirtui^ pp* of di'frt, to saVvappoint ; allied 
to d/rtfn^to tt^H, publish. ^Gk. Stfjcfv/w, t 
shew; Kkt. dtf, lo shew; fJoih. .^rffrt^aw, 
to announce, (•- ui'gfft, to accnse, poinl 
oul, I'rvigm. i. § 207. (^DKlK.^ 

dictioitary. (L.) Late T.. dk/tonii- 
iium. futrm*! inm du/fon-^ stem ofrfiV/i^, 
a sayiiip, word (above}. 

BidactiCf instructive, (Gk.) Gk. &- 

leach ( » '^iSac-ffACfif^ ; atlied to 6ova>, to 
ihink, fiffo^ai, Tonig fur S<fx*/"Wi I accept ; 
cf. I., dhcfrg, to Icam, doct/f, to leach* 
ItnigTu. I * 707, (VDt:K.) 

Bidapper, Bivedapper, a bird : 

see Dire, 

Bie \i\ l«J loM life. (Scnnd. . M. E, 
dyen^ de^t-n; I^ite A..S, t^fizM. » JceU 
rfwa; .Swell. diK l>an» £^r, to du\ + 
M. H. G, /(?;rrrt>i'// ; cf. Rum. (fax if t}^ ti> 
strangle. The Tcut. bare ii '(/(?m, whence 
*datf-/iifi f Icel. dry Ja\ Cf. Dead, Death. 

Bie ''), ^ iiiinil Liilje for gaming, [F, " 
L.l Used aj Mdg. of M« K. dyi, more 
nsaally (/«/, dice- — O. F. dtz^ dice, pi. of 
rir/, a die (F, tU). Cf, Piov. (Aj/, linl. 
Span. dad0. a die*— Late L. da/ttm, lit. a 
thing given or drcieed ; hence applied to 
a die for casting lots. — L. datki^ pp, of 
dare, to give. Sec Date {%). 

Diet 1 \ regimen. (,F.— L.. — Gk,: M. K, 
dicfe. — Q. K. diiU^ daily fare. — I.ate I., 
dt?fij, dttt'fa. a laliofl nf Jood^ — Gk. SiaitiHf 
mode of !ifi?^ diet. Brogm. 1. § 650. 

Biet f.i), an assembly, (F. — L, — Gk.) 
M. F, diett, ' a dicic, parliament;* Cot.— 
Mcd.L. ^/frf^^r, a public assembly ; al^o a 
ration of food, diet, — Gk. ^foira, amode of 
life, lUcl; ace Diet (ll ^ The pcctiliar 
use of the woid was doe to a popular 
etymology whtch connected dti^fa \oftet\ 
Bpell di?/a) with difs^ a day ; we even 




find dittt& Qwd to tncoti ' a rlay^s fooracy ' ; 
and diifa foi " a tiay** work ' dud ' 8 daily 
office or duty ' ; Uucance. 

BiiTer. (F. - \^\ M. F. difcrtr. - L. 
dijferrs^ to (^rry npsrl^ to differ — L, dif- 
( for dij-' , apart ; fertt^ to bear. Cf, Defer. 

Difficulty. 'F.-U) }A,?.,diJUuUee. 

— O, F, dijfic}ilfe,^l^, diMcu/faUni, ace. 
of di^uJias ilor ^dijHcihlits, Uke/iiiw/fdr 
forydiTi/jViw), difijcult>.-L. diMriiiSf hard. 
-L. rfi/^ (for (A>*), upait J f^iiis^ e**? ; 

set Foaile^ 

Diffidont, (L.) L. diglden!', stem of 
diffidtm, pres. pt. c\ diffJdtre, to distrust. 

— I., ^^jt/-,' - rfij-), apart ; fjdftty lo tniatt 
allied to /pi/^j, faith. Sec Faith. 

Piffif fl- I L») l„ di^istis, pp. tii dif- 
fufiderg, lo shed abruad,— L, rf^* f =d'/j-'j, 
apart ; fnndtrt^ to poiir ; set Fiue ! 1 1- 

Dig. tF.-Du.) F. (fi^fitfr^ to make a 
dike — K. digtte. a dike.— Flem. iww/ Du, 
t/jj^, a dike ; ste Dike. 

Digest, to fL3siniiUte food. (L.) M, R, 
digfsl^ u^d as a pp. ■'digested. — L. di/^s- 
ius^ pp, of c^gerete, to carry apart, stpa- 
ratc» dissolve, digest. — L, dfA ^^for rf/j-.', 
apaft ; g^^^rt^ to carry, 

l>igllt,n domed, \$S) /?i]f^ m a pp. la 
short for digkttd, from the oIjs, verb dt^ht, 
to attange, |irepare, M. E. dthUu. to pre- 
]iarB. A.S. dthian, lo set in order, z,ij^ngis. x 
borrowed from L. dii-tdn^ lo dictate, pre- 
if-oriJ^e ; se« DIctfvte. 

Digitus finger, tigure. (L.) h. dt^'ifnj^ 
a finger: hence a figure, from- counting oil 
the fingtfrs. 

Dignity. (F.-L,'i M,E. d^psiftf,^ 
O. F. di^fetS. — 1,* digJtlt^Umt ace, uf 
digniiiis, worth iuess.— L. d/^Ks, Worthy. 
ilrngm. L § 763 (,^). 

digmiy* ' I"*. - !"■* O. F. digmfer..^ 
Med* l- df_^iiifie^irr£^ to make woi-ihy. — L. 
digtti-, for dtji'^MMS, worthy; -JScare, for 
foi^erg, to make. 

DigrdttB, 111- tt> step afiidc. L.) L. 
di_^rfh>tti, tip. of di^edi, to go a^de. — L. 
rfj- (for (//J ), apart; ^ntdi, to go. See 

Dikfli^ a trench, trench nnd embankment, 
bonk, (t,) M. E- ^ifi. A. S. dlr, niasc. 
+t)u. <///*, Ice]. di'Ai, Dan. i/y^, Swe<l, 
diW, Vj. (riih, potid, tank. Der. dig^ q. v. 
Sec Ditch, 

(figs, to nib. i,U) From pp. of L. dilA' 
pidan^ 10 scatter like siuncs, — L. dl- (for 
dis-)f apart ; iapid-^ stem oi iapis, a slone. 

Dilate. (K-L.) O. F. rfiVa/^r, to 
widen. -*L, djlaidre, to wideti. — L. rff- 
ffoi dis'\ apart; /./Yw^, broad. Sm Lati- 
tude. Der- diiai-ffry, A. F. dHatorie. 

Dilft mmfl., a p^rplcx-ity. (L, — Gk, 1 L. 
^///c'W/Hir. — gL aiAi7^>ia, a doable proposl- 
tioq^ or ojgunient in which one is caught 
between iwo diliicultics, — Gk, 5f-^ twice, 
double; A^^>ui, an assampcioii, premiss, 
See Lemma. 

Dilettant^i ^ lover of the fine arts. 
{Ital.-L,! Iial dihttanie^ lit, *ddighl- 
iog in/ — Ttal. diUtture, to detight, — L. 
d^te<tiirt, to delight ^ ace Selectablfl. 

Biligeilt, indiisirious. (F.-L., O. F. 
djfigenl. ^l,, dtlii^etit-^ stem of dtft'gvnSf 
careful, diligent, lit. lo^'ing (fond); pTcs, 
pt. of df/i^rrf, to love, kIccI, lit. choo«c 
between.-* I., dt- ( = dtt-)^ apart p /^P^*** to 
cboosrC, .See Iiti^nd, 

Dill, a plant. ,H.) M.E. ^/Y/f, A.S. 
diU.-^Jyu. dr!k, Daii. rf;/*/, Swpd, 1///^, CI. 
t////. (/iV/r, O. n. G, /fV/i'. 

Dilllttf, ^I'.) L* dilfilut. pp,of rfj/j«/ie, 
to wasJi away, also to mix with vrnter. — ]- 
iff- iiot dis-^. apart ; lu^rt, to wash. 

Dim. (K.) M. ILrf/m. A.S.ji/rVw.dark. 
+ lcel. dim$*tr, dim ^ M, Dan, dirn. t'f, 
M. H> G. //w>w^r, dim; Swed, dinntia, a 
fog, haze ; O. hir^h <i^/w. dfirk- 

Dinxei ll:c tenth p&rt of a dollar. F.— 
L.) F. dfttti. O. V. disme^ tenth. - 1.. 
diiimii, a tithe ; fern, of L. dA'imtts, tenth, 
aJlied to dec^m^ ten^ See Ten. 

DimenBios. K.-L) O.Y. dtMen- 
sien. — l,. ace. dimfnsfd/um, a measuring. 
— I.. dJnutiius^ pp. of dfme/iri, to measure 
off. — L. lit (for dis-), apart; me/i'rt, to 
measBre. Sett ICeaaure. 

Diminiihf Co lessen. (F< ~ L.^ Coined 
from L. 1// ( = f/iji, apart, and K, mttrijA; 
In imitfttion of I., dtrntnutre. to dimipish 
(below). .See Minish. 

dimiuutioiL F.-L.l F, dimimt- 
fiiftt.^L. .icc. dfmhfufvJnenf, diminotioji. 
^ L. dimimdits, pp. of dfmfnaert, lo 
Lessen. — L. rf/- 1; — (/w-), apartj mittu£rt, 
to lessen. Hec Minute, 

DimiBBOry, giving leave to depart. 
U..) 1" if'tfihseriiis^ g'vitifi leave to go 

Dilacenite. \\^.) From pp. or L. 
dii<iirr>irr\ to tear apart, — L. di^{i<it dis-\ dimit/itv, to wud .iwav. — L. t/< 
npnrt ; /'J< f Jr<r, TO tear. See JiftOflrat*. 

Dila'^idartfl> t>» pull Jowu sttotiv ^udd- 

bcfore another judge, — L. dimissut, pp.of 
dimitfttv. to wud .twav. 
awny ; mitten, to send. 

(for <///•), 

Dimity,^ white stulT. ;!tal.— L. — Gk.) 



It*l. dimito (\A,ffimifj , * a ^ind of coane 
cotton or llanr)! ; * Vlurio,— Late L. liimi' 
turn (,pL dimita), silk woven with iwo 
thread*. — Cfk, 2(jiiror, mo'^e with l «Touble 
thrcAJ. — GW. Ai-, double ; ^Vot, a thread 
of ihe woof. 

IHmplQ, a imall hoUow. (£. f ; M, E. 
dympuTl, rerha|>3 Tiori a bfl:^ *ilMmp-, 
■Hied to oT;)*. Cf. Dan, dial- dnmf>, a 
hollow in a licM ; dybM^ a pool, a huLlow 
in the up|WT lip ' Malhcch i ; Dn, ii<fnipfieji, 
tfl dive; G. Jnmp/fi, M, H, G, tUmpfd. 
O. H, C!. tvmphiio, a deep pyul. Also 
] .ith. r/i>/^Hj, hollow; dit&ti, to be holljw 
(prcs. I. dumf^ti\. 

IHlLf i:1amotir. C^i.^ M. E. f/rn«, (//fm'. 
A, S. dytft, dpi; dyrtNart, lo rcsnuiui. + 
l«l. dynr^ SwcJ, ^/iJrt, Daii. difn iiuiae ; 
Skt. dAuHi-, totiing,dApam''jm. din^ dkvan, 
Id r«oU4id^ 

Sine. i¥.-L.) M. E* dinen.^0, ?. 
dtftttr^ h\ dftwr, to dine — Lftte Ih, 'drs- 
iHnan, *hi>n for *disiiwMdrt, to tirtak 
one^flriut.->L. eft'j- * ih'flrtjirt, to fast, from 
jiiufiux, faiting. (RomAnia, riij. 9s;.) 

diiuicr, vl'--^') M,fc. flVw*-; from 
<1, I'. dtsHer, to dine ; Ibe InRnittTe mood 
l»eing u&ed u t sb. 

Dm^, to throw violently, bfal. E.?") 
M. K. mutj^H^ pt, t, rffl/^ji'', pp. dtfMgrn ; a* 
A strong verb ; tliough not found in A. S, 
Cf. \ixl,deMgia, Dan. cff/'4^,bwed.f£f>^ptz, 
to bait^; all weak verbs. Cf. M. Dan, 
din^'t, to Uunt nn ed^^c hy Ifcaling on it; 
O, I L G.faftx&/, a hftrntncf. l*'roni a TcQt, 
type *t(cn^<iH-, 

Dmglo, A deep ddl. (E. er ScandO 
M. K. dingle. C(. dtmhte, im a similar 
sense. Of uncertain t>rigui. Ci. J>implo, 

Dinffo, the native doe of Australia. 
(New li. Wales.) New S. Waks rf/n^, 
written ieittge in 17^8 ;Moms), 

lHng7, (liny. i}L) Orig. soiled with 
dung. «. L Ak S, dfrt^HHi ffor *dytf^ i ung^ 
with J ai/), a dutij^in^ ; (rom rf^w^f, <luwg ; 
*o alfto Swed. dyH^ig, duiigj* ijom i/i'ff^. 
dunj; ; tiee I>ang, tor the prDnmiciatitin* 
cf. 5if"gy Colli e<l lo stin^i- 

^^^87 'wiihhard jfj.Dixi^^, aitnflll 

boAt , I, Ticngal 1 . ) tk-ng . dingy, a sma 1 1 
boat ; • It has become legitimately incor- 
puralt'tl In ibe tcjcabnlar) of the Uriti&b 
NavVf n< \he naitt^ of thr smalls ship's 
boat ' , Viilci. 

Bixmor; tee Dine. 
Dintt a blow, force. (R) M. E. dtnt. 
du»J , al»o i/ri/. A>.S. dytt/, a blnw.-^ 

Jcel. dyntr, a dint, dynta, to dint : Swed, 

dial, </m«/, 3 ^ifoWe, dvnta, to ilrike* 

Diocese. (K.-L.— Gk.) M. E. ^iV- 
fiVr, — O- p. diociit (F+ diffc?se),^i-,. dix' 
ciTti. » Gk. 0ii3Jinja'4(, administration, a 
province, dioce&e. — Gk. dio^iw, 1 keep 
house, gxjveifi,— lik. &- (for 8ta', throogh' 
out ; tiUiv, 1 dwell, occup)% from or««r, a 
houfte ; see Wiok, a town. 

Diopfcrios, the science of the redaction 
ofliKhl^ (Gk.) <ik. rd SjojTTpiJifii.dioptriia* 
wGk. Sioirr^CfSf, relating to the ilomipa^f 
an o)>tical; imtrumcni for laktiii; hcightt* 
Ac. — Gk. 8<-d, through; baie *aw~ (foL 
iifiiiitm'), to sec; -rpa^ fern, instmmental 
suf&K. See Optiofl* 

XdOTATOAi a scene seen through a small 
oj^cniiig. \<''kJ\ G k. fit- ( for iSmtf through; 
tpa-fxa, a it)^bt, froni bpiaaj, I ^ce. 

Di]^, lo plunge, imioerge. (I£.) M, K* 
di/>/rrt> A* S. dy/pan; later difpan : for 
*di4/>-/an^ causal fijrm from the iba« i^Af/^, 
weak grasle uf difn/^ as iecn in A. S. (//^, 
deep ;; see- Deep. Cf. Daii< dyppt^ to dip. 

Diphtheria, (Gk.j Krum Gk, *<^ 
*rf^, leather ; iiom the leftthery nature of 
tJie false mcmbnuic formed in the disease. 
Cr Gk. ftt^ft>, lo make supple. 

DiphthoiLg'i a unioa of two vowel- 
Bounas ui one syllable. (F. -L. — Gk,) 
Kormerly dip(hmg {V^xx Jonson\-^M. F, 
dipthoH^f, — L. act diphihi>nff$t>n , f. — G, 
**^*77"'i wiih two &4.»unds.^Gk. Si tfof 
i*'f), double; ^*A-|r7or, fiouiid^from ^^770- 
^1, I cty ouL 

Diploma, {i-*- Gk.') T.. diploma, ft 
document confenin;* a ptiviJcgc, — Gk. 
diirAAi^j a thing folided double ; al§43, a 
licence, diploma iprob* orig. fotiled 
doublei.'Gk. J^wX^ot. dotible.^Cjk. Si- 

5U . double; --^K^t, folded. Der. di 
p/irfrtaf'ii,iTom ^wXaifiat-^Hcm ofStiiAappa, 

Diptera, iwo-wmged insects, i^CIl) 
Kai^mGk.J^' ^'n^doubte; HTffi&v^tvflng, 
from the Weak grade of niTOf/oi, 1 fly. 

Diptyeh^ a double-foUllRg tablet. (L. 
-Gk.i J ate L. pi, dipiyi^a. — Gk, K- 
wTv)i^a, a pair of lablL'ls; ncul. pb of &'• 
irru\'Of, folded in two. — Gk. 81- 'Mi\ 
double ; ■''"I'X^i ^ fold, -rrvoinnv^ to fold, 

iHrA. iL. ' L. 4//1VJ , fearful. 

IhroOt, adj, Ui L. dtre€(m, pp. of 
dirigtn^ to direct. — l^rfT* for </fV- ), apart ; 
n^rt, to inle, 

dirge.^ (L.^ Formerly diri^; from 

the fuait word of the antbetn ' din'/^v, Oo« 

1 minns meus/ in the office for |hc dead. — 1., 





uO:^, direct thon cf. Pk. v.A' ; 3 p. imper. JhflCOHSOlate. 1- Lutt L, du^iMt- 
ttitig. oi dirtj^re abovtj* scidtui^ cr.nit'' -ri'^i-i- — 1— Jit-, apajt ; eauh 

iSixky a Hagijer, Da, T> Spek d^* t^l^us. pf". oi iy«:tVj>i", to consok; fmm 
(A. I>. i6o3 ; sImj i/'^r^. PcrhApA from Dd. con- cttm , wiLh, sSidri, |o comfoct. See 
</<7/A^ A dagger; a word of SIatodic orifpii. Sol&ce. 

rf. polish tttiUh., adaeger. ^ Iiisfa ^/rr, JHsCOrd, sb. TF. — L." O, F. dtscord^ 
a pnniardj u bofrowedlVorai E, discord, vanance; formed irom O. F. Jti- 

IKrt. (Scand. From M» F« dnt {yi\%h 'r«rd^, vb,, lobcftiwunoe. — L.^/iV^nR^ffT 
tbtftrd T;,— IwU rf-r/'/. dirl, etcmiiciit or| (the same'. — I^ diaord-, stem (rf dhrars^ 
birdfi. Cf. Icel-^r//a. to void excrement.^ I Adj. discordanL — L. dii-^ apon ; tard-^ 
M, l>u. rfrir/<. I)«. dr£€i, sb^ drijten^ vb. ' stem of ^^i>r, heart, 

Dif-* /r<^. >L.i U rfw*, apart; cF. DiflCOtUlt, ^»Trt>. F. — 1- Fotroeriy 
Ck. fti-, a|»art ; Jiee Di-. Hence O. F. disc&mpt. — O. F. dfu^*ttf>ttr, to redcon 
dSr/-, whidi fometimcs becomes (Aj- in K., back of ofT. — O. F, f/fj'- L, j/i'j~). awajr ; 
and tfittn^ttmcfi dt ^ as in d^'fioi. The r<9w^^r. to count : s^c Count ^i. 
prefis dii^ commonljr npresiu the re- IllSCCii1irB6. F.— L. O. K. diic&urs^ 
vertat of an act, goinewhat like the hi &b.~L. diuttnum^ acc of J/wunus, a 

verbal prefix w«'. For roost words be- 
ginning with this prefix, see the simpler 
fonni. For enAniple, for dii-a^nsft tee 

fiAtiie ; and «o on, 

IHsatt^r. ^F. — L. M. F, demure, 
'a rlisasitr, raiirorlDne ; ' Cot, \i\\. 'ill- 

runotn^ abvut ; *Uo^«. cRnvei&alicia.w L. 
diifursus, pp, i»\ disfurrtrt , lo tup aboot, 
*-L, Hii', apart ; turrtrt, lo ntn. 

uU&femenn.. — C). F. dtxcoitvrir, to un- 
cover, discloi*?, — O, Jr . del- L. i/ij-), 

fortune/ — n. l'\ //rj*» for L. iUs-. with a apart; louvtir^ to cover, ^5ec CoT<ar. 
»inift|cr or had &cnK; and M. K. a%tre^ ■ jftiscroett prudent. iF. - L.l O. F. 
n itar, planel, also dertiny^ fortune, from dhrret.^L. dinrrittts, pp. of du-cemtre 




I,, a^fittm, a tiar. 

Biibtitse. (F.-U flA/ Gk.) o. F 

i/rifHfttner^ to take ont of a pnne.-^O. F. 
y/fj' J., dii), a^ay ^ F. haurif, a pane, 
frcitn J, ate L. buna^ <%k. jSiJ/wra, a skin 
i.hcrK:c. ji hag . See Bupaar. 

Disc, Disk, a round plate. ;L.-Gk.y 
\.,diuHf^ ft cjuoit, a plalc.«>Gk. fiiajr&f, q 
c]i]oil.-.(ik. 3v««iV, lo cast, ihrow. Ilrugm, 
i. i 744< See DUli» D«ak, D&ta. 

DitCem. (F.-L.. F, disrermr.^L. 
disitrttet-t, lo separate, dttLrmine.»L.ifj>', 
apart \ temeri, to aepartite- Cf- Con- 

DiflCiple. (F*— L.> F. dixn'/'fe.-^L. 
f/f<f-i/!t(iu'/i, R.ZC, of disdfiuius, a (earner, 

— f^. diutrt^ to learn ; flUieiJi Jo dac/re, to 
teach ; lee Doolte. Dor, disiipi-inf, 
l\. V, dill i/t/tne, L. diidj^lina, learning. 

Disclose* F. -L.I M. K. disdosett. 

— (). V , dfiihi-^ pret. stem t>f dtsffprrf, to 
imclo^r, Ofjen.v J.. di\cinud£r£^ to unclo&e. 

— h, if//j% ftpart; \hu4erf. in close. See 

XHsconifit, F, -L.) Vi.V.. disfom/if 
iJiuot: .— 1>. F, dtuoit/ii^ [liscoiufitcd, pp. 
tit diMoiifiyt, ' ttxliftcnmftt, vnmpii'th/ Cot- 
i- f », !■ . I'/r'/- : nnci ionjtte^ to preserve, mukc 
re/n!y,— L. dis-, njjart ; nml fottjuere^ li> 
prc»cr\*e. complete, frotn J., .tfw- Mum . 

to iMitioeni ; see Diacem. Per, distr^- 

Duicrepitnt, diWering. fF.-L/i M,F, 
disfttpiin'.^l. disftepntti- J stem of prta. 
pari. L'f diitrf/ntu, to differ 'in sounaj.— 
Lf. ///f". apart ; irf/nire^ to crackle, sound. 

Discriminate. !'• ' J^" discrimina- 
tfis, pp. of disrriminitrt^ to separate, — I.. 
dhnlmiii-, slctn of discrJtH^u, a icpara* 
tioti. ^L. disf&ttten vpl* I. duftfm\, lo 
dislinguish, — I., a»s apnri ; ttnurt, to 

BiBcarBiTe. CM From L. diimrs- 
us^ pp. of dtuurrere, to Ptm aliout; with 
sufliK -^cv« Sec DiacouTM. 

Discuss. J'.; M. E. dhmsitd, pp, 
driven awar.«»U dhiu^mi^ pp. of ««- 
£n(ere, to shake asunder ; in l-alc L.* f^ 
di*cu5S. .^L. dis^, apart ; quaff rt, lo ihalkc. 

DisdMJI, sh. F.-L.i M. F. dhdeyn. 
— O. F. dtsdiin. sb. — O. F, desdrgnier, lo 
diadnin.*-0. K^ rf^f* i,L. rt'iV-j, npnrt ; *y<j.'«* 
i^r ^ h, diptari}^ to think worthy, bom 
digntts, wonhy, ^ O, F. dfsde,ipn€r &c«mi 
to have Ijeeti MiUtilutrd for L. did/'^thirS, 
to (lisitniii 'i^ih prrfTK i/^'^itown .. 

DiseU(9. Fj O. F. dfiaue^ want of 
cn&e---< '. r\ rt^t-f- ',L. rfiV- i : (T«.rv. ease. 

Disembark. kF,) M. F. ^/.rf/w/Affr* 


toKeilkcr,/(ir4Tr, to pat, make. See Faot. I ^Hrr, lo embark ; mc EmbArk, 




Suwaubogliet to t1uw into the »a, as 
« rivci, iS|^(in, — I.,) Span, dt^stmhifcor^ 
to disembogue. — Span, tia- ■ L. rfij- , 
apart; gmhtfcar, to enter tbe mouth, frnm 
^w- 'L. in), into, mid AatiJ iL. buica , 

Disgorge* (F.-U) O.F. dtsg&rgtr. 
— U. l". tUi- (I^ (rf/j-!', ftway; £t"T^» the 

Sivgrace. i^— Ital . - L,^ M . K, tih- 

^fnvf. — IiaL disgrasia. ^\^ dii-y apart; 
/^^atfa. yincc. Sec &r40Q, 

HiBgmse, vb. {¥. - 1„ nwrf O. H. G. 
O, (■ , (if :•.{'/* iff f'f IQ dt!ifjl*ise. — O. K, ito- 
il.. o7f-.. apnrt; and j^r'se, guisc ; see 
Quise. l-ii. * to change the guise of.' 

Bisgnsti vb. iF.-L) M. h\ dei' 
gct4tfer, ' lo distaslt, loath ; ' Cot. — O. ¥. 
dfi''l..dis- . ti|jart ; ^dusUr^ to tute,from 
t^gttsliite^ lo »Bste ; sec Quit (j). 

XlitK, A jilitler. a.. - Gk.) M. E. 
■/y^t-^. A. .S. f/r'jt', a disli. — L, dueus^ n 
qimil, plntit-r ; see DibOn 

Disll&bille ; &ee Oeihabille. 

Xhslievil, (I'.-L.) M, t. disr^^eJff 
^Cot , , " |(-» niicbevell,* L c. to diaordvf tlic 
hair.— O F, dfs- {L. di^-), npart; r^rt^^ 
(F. jfJ^iv^), a hair, from L. i'a/iUarti, ace. 
€A fii/>iihti. hair 

Disinteres'ted. (F, — U^ Ffam 
Di«- u and infrifsfed\ s« Intfirest (j). 
IHalc ; £^t^ Dioc, 

Dislocate. ^^ put out of joint. (L.J 
From p|}. of Late L. diili>fiihe^ to put out 
of place. — L. dis-. apart ; Iftf^are^ to place, 
firjtn toius^ place. 

DiMinftL K.-L.) Orig. A. F. dii 
mat, unlucky days (A. r. IJ=;6^. [The 
phrftSrC wm mtstindeRtcKxi^iind dismai was 
Ufftte^ a,", an ndj., with thr addition of 
dtiys ; and Inter, of other sbs. 1 — L, rfj'^j 
wd/;', evil days. Cf. F. /;/«.:// = Mon-ilay. 

DuiiaaiLtla.. (f. — Lj W.V.desmatt- 
t€Hti\ ' to uke a mans clooJke oET hU backc; 
also, to raic walla;' Cot. — O. t. dnfi :L. 
dij'}, apart ; manUifr^ to cloak, from 
man/r!, sb. ; see M&ntle. 

SimLay, Ij discoungt, iK.-L. and 
(». H. (t, ) n F *iiirjr}Uiyrr. not foand 

cvccpl^/iVwf )>'('*, pp.^ai i'islsgravc. p. .;iy . 
Imt cxnilly the tame a£ Span, damnyin 
1 l^rt. dfsnuiirr. tlal. iM/i^'n/T:, to di^Ri^iv 
tctrjfv. The O. F. ^iUtttiayer wm eariy 
tupp1ante<l by amaytr m the tniiLe %en^L\ 
wmeh only dirfcicd \\\ xutMltuting thr 

fireHl tt- L, rfjr-i (or £/(U» ,1., */if.\ The 
alter |Art (-Wtf/^fr' of Ihne wordta i^ frnm 

O. H, G. maj^att y.. mi>g€H:^ lo have 
power, be able. Hcnci: 'drimayer nnd 
tsmayet-, at first Bsed in the bitrans. unK, 
to lack power, faint, be dtscourngedf bat 
afterwards, actively, to di^ourn^c. Cf. 
Ual, intit^rt (for *dnma^n), ctig, to 
1d^ courage, also to disn^ay (Ftorio). 
.See May" ! i }. 

DismiBfl, to send away. (F,-^L.1 A 
cuincd word ; Suggested by F, deswfttt'e, 
pp. distnis^ Mo (lupEncp, dkraiasi' Cot. 
The troe L, form is dimifUrt, to teod 
^way.. L di' (for dts-), apart» away; 
mifmt, lo *eiid. 

Disparager '^^ <^<r indignity, to lower 
ill raiik or r>ilt?em. (F. — L.) M. E. dti- 
partf^t'tt. ^iK F. dapan^r.^O, F. a!«% 
apart ^ fafy^Vf rank. — L. rt^tV-^ a]>arl; 
Ijite L. ^•dtu-um, society, rank, eijiuility 
of rank, from J* /dr, equal (Diez^, Se« 
disparity. (F* - Lj F. dhf^n'f/ 

Muti^aienc . iTom L. dif'^ Apart; and 
Y.pari:^, etjiifil ity ; see Parity. Suggested 
tjy L dispar. unc^tiil 

Diapatoh.* Deapatch, (Span,-L.) 
Kormerly sp-ll dis-^ not V^j. ••ispan* des- 
pathar, to dispatch, exiietltlc, — L, dis-^ 
away; and [.. tygve */^iiUii\\ lu fasten, fix, 
fiom pact til, pj). of /angttv, to fasten, 
(See N. li. D,) €f. Ual 4pa^,tar^, to dia- 
patch C^'lorio)* An&wcrine lo a L. type 

Dispel, >X.i J.. dhpeUstty lo drive 
a>iinder, — i « ///j-, apart ; pclktf^ lo drive. 

Dispense, F. — L.. O.F, dispenser, 
to dit|;cii^ with.- L. dis/rnufr^, lo weigh 
out, frcqyenl. form of diipindert, to wrigh 
out.-^ J., dts , apajl i p^iidefi, to Weigh. 

Diaperser to i^^ait(.*r abroad. (F,— L.) 

Jl- F. dtipeiscr. 1' Him I., pp. dfipttSHit 
I pp. uf dispi'P-^t't, to scatter abroad. — J.. 
1 1^*'' i.for j^/jf-)» apart \ ipatxff'f- to scatter, 
! Diaplay, V.-L. A. F. d^ipinyer^ 
' U. F. dfipleinr, lo unfold, shew,- L dix-, 
I apart ; pfialre, to fold. Doublet. */f//(y* 
! Disport. K.-L.) }\.l\. diipoiUH» 
{to afnusc.— O, F, it dtipotUr, to Amuse 
] otiestlf. orig. to cease Irnm labour; lalcr 
• df potter, (uid confused wilh Deport, — L, 
' dh; ^\4^\, port^rt, to tflfry thence, to 

removeiiiie'MrirfromorecaAe from lalionr}, 
. Hence sp^ri, q. v. 
I Dispose. F -I. mtd<yk: o y.dif 

poser, lo arrange —L'. F. dis L dtt-), 

spart ; )■, A'f<"; to place ; ue Poae, 
bispoSltiOlI* ^F,-L., F. ditpoii 





L— L ace dis/>&:ttUty*ttemt a selting in 
Oiler. — L. f/is/^st'/us, pp, of dhp^ntrt, to 
set in various places, to flinnge. — L. dis-^ 
apart J pt^ncrg^ to place, ptit. 

Dispute. {F. -L.j ¥. dispuitr.-m\„ 
dtiptttiirt, la argnc. v L. di$*^ apart ; 
puiatt, to think. See Fatatlva. 

From L. dhqutuHB^ a search into, -i*!^ 
disijmsifHs, pp. of disqulreret to examine. 
L, dii^, ,-t|<art ; ^u^ttre^ tu seek. 

Disruption, (L.) From L. j/iVrfrf/Zw, 
diruptio,vi breaking asunder. — L. d'?'ir7y»- 
ius. dirupruSt pu, of disrumpert^ dirum^ 
pert, to break apart, — L, dli , (/?"-, apart; 
*^mf>trt, to burst. 

Hisseot. SX'A From L.^ijjff/-ifJt pp. 
of disstolre, to cut apart,— L. fl*(>-, apart j 
Si^ar€^ to coL 

DisBflmblfl. CF. - L.j O. F, d$s- 

K, dli"), apart; lembUr^ lo &e«mp appear; 
cf. O, F. dhiimttfer. to dissemble. *- L. rf/j-, 
Apart, aWH}'; ji'mit/are, to pre ten J ; cf, L. 
aissimuL'tn^ to pretend thai a thing is not 
iS^.x Simuliklfl. 

Disa^mmatd* (1- ) From pn, of L. 
diis^mittdit, to scatter seed. — L* dts-, 
a|Kirt ; s/minare, la *ow^ frcim j?ffiin-, foj 
i^men, seed* 

Bisveilt, vb. (L.) L. dissiMJre (pp. 
diatmuiy, to differ in opinion. — L. rfM-, 
apnrt ; unttrc, to feel, thini;. Der. t/iJ' 
lens-ien^ from the pp. disscnsus^ 

DiSMertation, a treatise, t. L.) Krgm 
L, disstrtsxtio^ a debfllC — L. diistrtdtut^ 
pp, uf diii&ridre^ to debate ; fretjuent. of 
dut£rtr£^ to diyjoip, discus*. — L. dh-, 
apart ; anre^ to join. 

Dissever. iF, -L/i O, F. rfF^jre'/rr. 

— Late L. ditirparare. *m.\j. dtS't apart ; 
s^irr.irf, tLj separate. 

Sissident. L) U dissident-, stem 
of pres. pt, of disst'dfr^, to sit apart, to 
iiisji^ree. — T^. dis-^ apait ; ffd^rr^ to ^jt^ 

iMaimilar. unlike. ^F.-L.) M. F. 
diin'miiiiifr.—ij^Y. dis^ {l^, dis-), apart; 
and simiinue^ like ; see Similar. 

diBBimUitude, dissimnlatioii; 

from L, diS', npartj and BiiuiliCud«,almu- 

XHsiiipate. (U) From pp. of L 
dtjiipdfr^ \Q disperse, — L. ift'x', npart; 
aiid O. L. mpar^f to throw; wc find also 
inupiire. lo throw into. Cf. Ski. ^/Ai/, to 
tliri..w, Hdi^jTi, i, % yfir. 

piflaociftie. (L. : From the pp. of U 
disTtHtiifr, \u feparate from. « U fAV , 

apart ; sofutre^ to asisoctflte, from terr'tfj, a 
cQtnpniitoti, See Soeiable. 

Diasolmte. vl-j 1-. (//jWn/hj, licen- 
tious : pp* ol" I., disioiuert ybclow), 

dissolTB.. (L.) i„ dissoluire^ to di»- 
solve, loosen, relnn.^L, dt^-, apart; S6i~ 
uere, to loo?en. See Solve. Dcr. ^fu- 
lelni-ion i,from pp. dhseinfus). 

Dissonant, (f. -- L,) m. f, dhse- 

ttcitti , Cot. — L, disiottani-, stem of ^t^s^ 
\il. oi diiienii/v, to be unlike in sound — 
I., rfix-j apart: s&nafv, to sound, from 

SONUi-, SOltlul. 

DtSSTiade* iF.-L.") F. dUsuadtr; 
Cot^'^i.. dissioidfr^, to penaade froin.-^ 
L, di'i-. niviit; ittnd/rr, to persuade; sec 

Distaff. (H.) A distaff is a j/a# 
Atdizj-ttgd wiih fits, ready to be spnij ufi, 
' I -Jy^f/ a dysfafff, I put the Aaxc upon 
it to spynnc ; ' FalsgTHVe. M. li, distaff 
dyieitaf, A.S. ditta/. The A. S, distaf 
stands for *dtse-ifa/, where sitr/^ K, s/aj^, 
Aaii •rfij^rs^LoHf ti. dussCj the b^ncb of 
flast on a distaff (Bremen); also spell disf, 
diirne i^Liibbcnl ; E, Friea, difiert. See 

Distain. (F,— L.) M, £. disfeitun.-' 
O. F. dasifign-j a stem of desfeindrt, lo 
distain, take away colour. •* O. F. d!sj*- 
i^L, f//j'), away; and Uindre, from I, 
Humeri, to dye. 

Distant. (F.-L./ O.F. fffjj'afl/.-L. 

disfaii/fm, age. of dtslaus. pres. pt. of 
disiare^ to stand apart. — L. f/f^-, apart; 
stfirf., to stand. 

Distemper (Ot lo derange the tem- 
peratiicot of body or mind, (F. — L.) M.E, 
dhUmperen.^O.V. dt^ttmprer^ to mil ; 
whence pp. desUmpri^ immcxictatc, exces- 
sive. — O. K */«■- (L. */rV-)j apail; ttmprtr 
(mod* F. {rtmper\ frpm L, ttrnpirdre^ lo 
regulate. Sec Temper, 

disteupor (})i ^ kind of palotlog. 
(F. — I,.) O. V . destemprer, later dcitrtm- 
per, * lo soake, Eteepe, moitten, make fluid, 
liqnid, or ihitty CoU ; the same verb as 

Distend. (L*) l» disfend^rr, to stretdi 
aj)an.— L, dis-, apart ; tutdcrt^ to strt'tch } 
see Tend. Der. disfrttf ion (irom the 
ppn difleHt-Hi], 

Distichi a ecuplci. (L.-Gk.^ L. 
diitifhtfiy diitkhtm*^QV* U^t%xov, ft cuwp- 
It't (ia vcr^) ; neut, of fcWixoi, having two 
rows. — Gk. si- ;*>), dotible; arixm, a low, 
allied iQ «Tfli'x«iKj to gv. (VSTFlGIl 



XMvtU. V, - L, ti F. dhtifhr *- 1. 
i/iffrir^. dfiiiildrt^ to drop yr tiickle 
fluwn.^1^ df^ down; sliiUire^ to dropi, 
from itiiia, n dro]>. See Still (3). 

SiBtin^fidalL, to Tnark ofi, (F. ~L,) 
O. t. tiiiUn^fr^ tn HUtiiignish ; the sufEi 
•m4 hits bceu added by analogy, and cfinnot 
!)c accoBnted for in the usual wny. — L. 
dhiinj^uert, to mark with ti prickf dia- 
liiiy^niah {■pXi.dislim-(us).^L. dh iiox dis-\ 
ftptirt ; 'siiNgufrt (not in usci, to pricks 
allied to Gk- ati^u^'* to prick^ and K. 
siifk, vb. See I&Atig&te. Rmgin, 1. 1 666. 
distiJlCt* (F.-L.) O.K. dhiina,'^ 
L. distim-tuij djctLngui&hcd ; pp. of ^V- 

IHstovt. (L.^ L. dht&rttts^ pp. of 
dts(ofijufrc,\o twist Midc. — L, .rf(j-, npart; 
tonpthr, to twisl ; see Torture. 

Sutract.vb. (L,i From L^dirfrac/m, 
pp, of diifrahtre, to draw nport. — L. d»-, 
«mtt : truhett^ u^ draw ^ sec Trnoa 1,1 1. 

IHrtrftiA. (F.-U) O. F. ifesti^igrt*, 
a item of desfraittdrtf to slroin, press, vex 
f'Xireroely, constrain whence lu Mise goods 
for debt), — L. dis/rirtjerrf, to pull asunder 
(scrlielowl. — L.^' ^f//j';i,Qpait ; Uritt^re^ 
u> «lrnw light ; see Btrinsenl. 

distrevii cAlamity. '>.--L.) O. F+ 
disfrtsif^ oldest foim desfrtte ; from a 
FiJlk-l-. ^disiriffia (not u&edi, regutnrly 
fortned from L. disltittm, pp. of dis/rin* 
^re. (o puU asunder im l^tc L. to punish. 
afHict ; ; 9«e Diatrain. 

IHs^^nffllt. iL-j A modilication of 
dhfrarf[ ^^ustractcd^ from L..distra£t-Hs i 

Dutributei 10 ftllot^ deal oui, iLJ 
Kroiii diifiif>u/'Ui^ pp^ of L. di^ftibueit^ 
to dpali out, allot ae^jrately^— 1'. dis-, 
apart ; tribuire, lo Aisign ; m Tribute. 

Burfcrict, a region. (F. «L,j M, F, 
liiiTticT, ^ Late Ij. districtnts, lenrilory 
wlirTcin a lord h&spou-er tocoforce jiutiee- 
— L, dijtrirtus, pp. of disttingtte ; *« 

^wtnrb* <F.-L.) M. E, de^tmUrt , 
d/ifcurfif/t.'m'O.Y* datffHtttr^ to vex. — L, 
disfurfi/:rft to disturb. — U dis^ flpan ; 
Utrhijr/, lo disorder, from /W^An^ n toraultt 
crowd. Sec Torbld. 

Ditch. lE.) M,E. dkhe-, cf. A.S. 
^rV^ tl.ii, nf die, fem. [also ntmc.], a dike ; 
-rr Dike. 

DitliyT&liii>,akindorbymn. il^-Gk. ■ 
1^ <^/^^^af/^Aiiri« — Gk, SiPi/^^ot^ a hymn 
in licmt^ui of Baccdus- 


lHttftitty,n plant, ^F.-L.^Ok.} ME. 
dytmit. ^ O. F. diian^ ditfam* — L. dt'i- 
tomnuM, ncc. of dttifamnus, -^ Q\c^ &r- 
ropftvr^ Sfirrapii^or, ditlniiy ; rtanied from 
Moujil Diff? in Crete, where it grew. 

Ditto. (Itfll.-L.) llaL dtf/a^ d£tt0, 
thai which hai b«n ^id. — L. dktttm, 
neiil. of pp. Qi dtctn, to iay. 

DittT. (F.-L.) M. E, dii^,~0. F. 
)/r/(', a Kind of ixwrn. — I-, dktntum, a thing' 
dictated ; neut. of difttifus^ pp. of dufarf, 
frequent. otdtrfft\ ^ee I>iotAt«. 

XHm^^tlCi provoklDg d tschaige of uii ne, 
(.F.-L.-(jk.i U.¥\diur£tiftii', Cttl.-L. 
di6rffu-us.^Gk. hifvpijTtKd . ** Ck . ^tQV- 
pittv, la jiass urine — fik. Ai^, ihrough ; 
oZpov, Hfine; see Urine. 

DilUlUkl. CL,) 1.. diftmdiis, daily.— 
Lv diurmts. daily. — L. dt'/s, n day. 

DiTKUt a coDnciUchamber, sofa. > PeTV) 
Pers. di7'tf», a tribuna] ; Arab, dayumfti a 
Fovnl coiiri, tribunal, cobitcil of state. 

^varieate, to fork, diverge. (L.) 

From pp. of L. dtUijrifari, to spread apart. 
*-L. di' (for dis-), apart : Wflwwj-, stradd- 
ling, lri>m uartis^ crooked. 

Diy^. Kj ^i.L. ditiit/t, duuin 'ii=t'), 
A, S, dy/an, to immerse* weak verb ; con- 
fused with diifan„ strong verb (pt. t. dta/^ 
pp. ditftn , to divc + fccL '^tf, to dip. 
AUiffl tn Dove, D«>p, Dip. 

didappori J^ ^lird. (,£.] Short for i^iW- 
da/fgf, L(. A.S* dti/edfififia, a pelican/ 
Here dapptr [.^A,tj. d^pd) means a 
dipper 01 diver; aind dwe-dap^-^^vit- 
dipper, a reduplicated woni. 

IllT€ir|f6. < L,) Coined from L, JT- (for 
dTij'i, apart; and sw^fr, vb. Sec ITerge 

Diven, DiTerse. vanons. (F, - L 

O. F. (iivtrs, inasc , rf(iwrj<, fern., 'divert, 
differing ; ' tot^ — L. dtutntii^ vatiou* ; 
orig. pp. of dwertirej lo inrn asundcTf 
acparale. divert ,,beiow). 

divert* iF. — L.) M,¥.dhvrftr, *\o 
divert, alter ; ' Cot. — L. dittfritrt, 10 
turn aside— U df- \dis-\, apart; nerttre, 
(o turn. Der. divtrs-iott, from pp. 

Di^ett* (L.) Late L. dfttejftrr, in 
place of L. dhusttrr^ to strip olT clothes, 
— L. dt' tfor dij-)^ apart, Bubiltttited for 
L. de-, down, awny ; tujtfrf, to clotht, 
from Mfstit, clothing. See Vest* 

Divide* i.L. ) L, ditiit^rt, to divide, 
separate (pp, rfr(r;*«5).— L. di' \dh-, 
apart ; and *mdert, a lost verl>. js 




Bienning 'to &epAralc': see Widow. 
(VWIDH.) liniffm. i. { 589, it. jaS. 
Der, divh-ipn (from the p|*. '. 

Divine. U-.^L,) MAi.devm. — O.V. 
devin. — L, jTmnm, divine, god-lLkc; 
fillifj.l in diuHS, gotlltke, diHs^ gCKl j see 

Divorce* sK (F.-L.) O.F.dhvtr^.^ 
L. diuortium, a aepntnlirin, "- L. djuoritr^^ 
the same as dtufrUn^, to turn nsirie, ¥cp.i. 
rale ; see Diverts 

Divulge. :F,-L.) F. rfiW/frr^, ' to 
divulge, rtveai i' Cot. — L. timu/j^tfrc^ to 
pablish abroad. ^1., ^-^ for dit-^ npnrt ; 
uuigdre^ to publish, from uuiguSt the 
people, n crowd ; sec Tulgor, 

Duelki to deck ont (E.) To diun was 
ori^. 10 furnish a di^^inff with f!ax. hence 
to deck out. See Distaff, T^QT^b^-dizcn, 

DixE^. i£. t M. E. i(y.iyi dusi A,S. 
dysi^, looltsh, stupirl, -|- li, Frie*. dii^^^ 
diiiy, JooUsh ; O. H. G. ttuh-. From 
Tcut. *rfMJ-, OS in Low G. diufji^ to loiter 
(Ldibbcn) ; allied to Tent. Vhj*, aa in Du, 
auiteUtt^ lo be di£?y. PiMhapi further 
iillied to A. S. djinhj Du, dwiittj, foolish 
(Franck), from Teut, atem *ihvfi-. 

Do, to perform. 1 E.) M. E^ dxn, A. S. 
^n, pi, t ^/}^y£p pp, gtdan ; thcr ong, sense 
is 'put' or ^ piace.'+Du. ^^h, O. H. (r, 
fuett, il. ^^H>*. Tcut. stem •i/t^-, Allied 
to Gk, Tl-9rj'fH, I put, Skt. dha, la plaoCt 

yi^HE.) Hragm. i. 5 119. 

Docile. (F,-L.> Y^d^ilc^'L.doiiiis, 
teathfible. — L. t/itf/ry, to teach. Allied to 
DUolple and Didaotlo. 

doctor. lF, — U) M* E. diH-toar,— 
Vi,"?. il?>/>>uf.^h. dif<;i&r£tit , ace, aidiHUr^ 
a teacher. — L. dofcrt, to teach. 

doctrine. (F. -L.) F. fjW/m»..^L, 

doitrin/t, lore, learniag. — L. do, tor, a 
leacher. ~ L* daccre,, to teach, 

doeumeat. iF^-L.) ^^ , dommtHt , 
«iL. dotummtmu^ A pro<>C— L. doc^re^ to 
teach, shew. 

Dock i\ to curtail (E.?) From 
^->, ab., the «tump of a tnil» stump, cut 
cad. CL E. Fnes. /i!c<^^^, ^^>{, a bnmllc, 
btmch (as of s(?aw); Dh. dok, a Utile 
bunch i.of strAW) ; Dan. d^lke. a skein, 
*hort colomn, bftlniter ; G. d^hr a skein, 
rait, phtg, peg; LowG-i/Atj^] a btinch, 
■mmp, peg fUcrghaiis'. 

Dock 'i^/ a plant 'F/ A. % d^ct-^ 
M, Pu. i/ih-*^/ 'fls in diftkfn iihilttrn^ rfocfc- 
Icnrea, Henhumi \ M* Dan. ^*doHa, wntcr- 
{lock (KalknL\ So alto Gael. dfi,^Aa^ n 

bunlock ; Irish mffiiaH'dogka, a ^xtuX 
duck, where mtacan mcftiiis a tap-rooted 
plant, as a carrot, Der. htr-dock. 

DoclC {^)t ^ basin (or stiips. 'Du.' 
M. D«. th(bij a harbour twhencc Dnn. 
rtb/'^V, Swed, rffV^rt, fl, dotke)^ Du, */<?>; 
^ llistorv obscure. 

DoCke^i a label, ticket. (E. T} Orig. 
alisttact^ apparently allied to Doak (l)|i 
C History ob&curc, 1 

Doctor, Doctrine, DocuaieiLt; 

see Boall0. 

Dodecag'ou. iGk.^ Named from Us 
I J angles. Farmed like dgfO^H, with 
Gk. 5^&itta. twelve, instead of B^«:a, ten. 
See Deaajfon* 

DodecaJiedron. ^Gk.1 Formed with 
Gk. ^^va. fivclvc, in place of ScM, (en 3^ 
see Decahedron, 

Dodlfe* to go hither and thither, to 
quiljble. (E.) XVI cent, Orif^, tf> walk 
misteadily, hence to go frora side tn ^itle 
a* if to cseapt' ; pcrhnps allied to prov. R \ 
dade., to walk nnatendily, Scotch dadd/f,. 
doddlt^ to waddle, aW, to jog, dadgt^ 
jog along, dodgtt^ to hobblej North 
dffiUitr^ to shake, totter, dadgv^ dotigi^ to 
walk clumsily. (Very doubtful.) 

Dodo, an extinct bird» (PortO Fort. 
dottdi>t silly, fooliah; the biid bcin^ nf «t 
clumsy make. Snid to be borrowed 
Devonah. dold, stupid, the same as E. do 
(Diej), See Dolt, 

Doe. lE.^ M.E. uSw, A.S, (ii.+DMi. 
i/dfl. Swed. dtt/-^ iu do/kjert^ a buck, oiny 
be allied to G- damhinch, a buck, whcrtin 
the syllnblc dam- is thought to be borrowed 
from L. dihua, a deer. But A-S, da may 
be Teutonic. 

TXoSt to put off clothei, {E,\ Short for 
ddoff^ i. e. pnt off. Cf riStfw, rfw/. 

Doff. (I'll M. K. doff^. A. S. does^, 
(r>u, nlsif, Swed, i^^', a tna&tifTi Dan. 
^/tfjgr?, a bull-dog; I.owC. do^^, F. ^/ii^vw; 
nil borrowed from K. ;- Der, ^h?^, verb, to 
track, fullow as a dog ; do^~id^ si^tlen ; 
dflX'f'heap, very chca]> ^.sec N. F- D.) ; 

Do^e, rt duke of Venice, i;iraU-L.)| 

ilat, d*»^. prov. form of •rtUv, !i<iukc.-I. 
diU'eM,a,tni, ui duA\ a lender. Sec Dii1m>.. 

Dogf^erelf wtciihed poetry. (E.>)j 
M I., -/,'trr*-/, Ch, C, T* i3fl53r Oiit-inj 
ntjLfit.nrt ; but prob, fonried from *Aj(f,^ 
Cf do.i^-rime. poor verses (N, E. D. L 

Dogmfti A definite tenet. (Gk.'f Gk^i 
h't^tvK, nn opihion '«tem Su7fiarV — f»l:. 



Ao«#'a>, I am of D|jmioik. Allied to Do- ace of c/cV/^AfffM^, Adolphid. — Gk. 0ffA< 

DoiXy, n small ti.ipkin. ' rcrsoi^dl tiame.j 
horroeny we read of 'tfaify stufT,' and 
* iiitify petticoats.' Sai<! to be named after 
*lbe fmiiious Doiiy' \ Spectator^ no. 3S3, 
Jan. 14, i7li, Mcnttuned Li Diydcus 
KiikI Keeper, iv, i 1.1^79). 

Hoit, ^ small coiti. (Da. — Sceuiil) Du. 
JjMif, a doU.^Iccl./wiV, apiece, bit, small 
cam, doiL — Iccl. 'Pviia (pt. I. "^vcif^, to 
cut, B losi verb, bas the sfiijve ils A^S. 
/wifan ; lec Thwite. 

]>Dle, A portion. (E.> M. E. £^> i/d/r* 
A< S, ddl, a. divbiiin (.Exod. vUL 33). A 
variant of Deal \i^^ q, v, 

DcilefhIfUd. (Hybrid: F.-Ltfifa^E.) 

iht auf&K -/«/ is hi. M. K. (/«/, */u(!/, rfff/ 
^Scotch ii&ol'it sonowj griet— O. K. flf«?/, 
fiW 1 1 . deuif), grief; verbal sb. of O- V, 
dffioir, 10 grieve. —l-ij'i?//Km4n ^or^daUum^ 
yricf of heurU — L, dt}!^re^ to gric\'e, 

dolour, (Ft — L-) M. t. dofimr,^ 
i)-b\ doiffur^^Xj. dolortm, acc^ of ^^^r, 
grief, — L. lAi/^, lo grieve* 

Doll. iGk."! From ZA?//, for Difrothy ; 
■ fa.nij Liar iia tnc» of G k . ongin (^cc 
X, F. D. 1 . Cf, LowU ijc, fll»/-flifj', a doll. 

DoUar. \ Low G. — G,> Low g. daUr; 
Du, dtuldcr, % dotUr. Adapted and 
borrowed from G. thaitr, a dqlliLr. The 
G. ihalir b &hort for Jomhimstfuthr t a 
coin made from silver ktund Ssijonehims- 
fhaJ (Joocbini's dale) in Bohemift, ab. 

DolmftH, a kind of looie jacket. (F. - 
G. — IIun^. — TurkO ¥ .dolman, ^Q. doi- 
matu t£)Vy/«rr«, -iHimg, d&imatty. ^1vii\i, 
JaliiMittt. deiiimah. n kind of long robe* 

SoUanon, a monuuieut of tuo uprij^hl 
storufc, with a thirfJ across thrm. (F. — C.j 
F. i^wrfrt- •• Krct. doiftffH^ lit. 'stone* 
tabic ; * Legooidec, -•^ Iktu iSi^ tool, a 
table (froDi 1^ tdbula\ ; and mtn, a stotic ; 
t.C4:ordm^ to Legunidec Hut(«ee N. K D.) 
tliifr IS due to some mlitake ; the F- 
dffftff'fff iccm* lo lepretent the Cornish 
t^'im^H, stODC with * hole beneath ; from 
Com, tii/i^ a hole {W. /tt^.\ and mia 
{\N. mit£ft\, a Alone. 

I>olOfilit«, a kittd of rock. {¥.\ 
Namcil in J794 from M. DoiomtUy a 
French j^cologbt (tj^o-iSoi), 

Holonr; M:r DolafUl. 

Dolj?km,Afisb. i:F,-L.-Gk) M.K. 
^ipkttu.^O h',daH//iiiff (now etaufih^ii). 
— Volk-L. dtiipnttm, tor L, de^phiHum, 

stem of AvAi^ti, a dolphiu 

Dolt. ^L.k Cf. Dcvonsh. dWt/, a dol 
M. E. du/t i=duf£ed); from M. E- dnJ, 
dull ; see Bull. 

Domain, (F.— I*) F. t^maim, &U ; 
from U, F, tfcwcriwr.-adj,, beloagiii[* Lo a** 
one^ft Dwu.— 1- dofHittuui, adj.. belonging 
(o a lord the nem. domi'ttUutu was uicd 
for L. dominttttHy lordship}. — L* demmi 
a lord ; allied to L, demdte. Lo lai 
subdue ; see Tiuae. Doublet, dcm(u%\ 

Domei ^F. - ItaL - L,) K. <AJ/Mtf 
ItaL dtt(>/}i^i d0f»fi, a cathedral cKii 
(house of God). — L. diiiftum, rlc. ri: 
demus, a house, a building. t^[)KM.,i 
See Timber. BiT]g;in. L ^ 13.S. 

doHLfifftic. (F. — LO F, douustitf 

— L. domcs/nui, beloaging lu a hoti^ebul 

— I., dern-rti, a bouse (aborcV 
domicile. (F.— L.) 0,¥, defftuiit, 

a maasion. — L. i/iwfiW/fw/N, a habitation. 
*L. f^ffri-, for ^jvf/^j, n hioiuc; and 
-iii'iHin^ ]>o-'Stbly alHied to Cell. 
Domesday; see Dooul 
Domiuflt^. [JL.) From pp. of <^W 
ndri^ to be lord over* — L. domiHUS^ a 

dominO'eT. (.Du. — F, — L.j M. 1 
dffHiifitf^rfi, 10 feast lusurioiisly (Ou 
manbj ; borrowed from O F. demintr^ lo 
govern, rule — L. domindri, to be lord 
over (ab'nT'. 

doixunical. (F. — L.) 0,W dpmmi' 
^aL — L.ite L. dcfmim'cd/is, belonging to the 
Lord's day^ or to the Loid. — L. dominie 
Hj, belonging to a lord. — L. damiauj, « 

dominion. lF. — JaX^ I..) O. 
iicffti/n an. ^hnlc L. dentittidH^m, acc. 
domitiio, Io;dship ; alUed to 1., d^min* 
ium , lordship^nL, dominu^ (^abuvc . 

domino* iF. — I... F. domino, a 
ninsquerHde-dicesB ; orig. n master's hood. 

— L. ilffmittujt a master ^^abovej^ Der. 
demirifffs, bb. pi., a game- 
Don ^1 )) to put oil clothes* I K. Sliort 

for tla en, i, c, put on. Cf. <fejf» deuf, 

Don 'V). A S^joJiish title- i,Span.— L. 
Span, doti^ sir. — L, dtmiaum^ aoc* of 
Jamttiui, a lord. 

DonatloiL. (F. — U) F. donatum - 
L- acc. donuiidnem^ a gift» from the stem 
of the pp. uf doNiirtt to give — L. ddnum^ 
a gift. Cf. Gk» ftw/wk, a gift 

Doigon i Ke Dungeon. 





Donkey. i.'.imdK.) Double ditnm, 
with buflix i-iy ( = LdwJ, Sc» -rV^-iVt ai 
in karsitkif, a LilUc^ittle horse, BanfT^h.), 
from dun^ famiUar name for a horae, from 
it* colaor (Romeo, i. 4. 41! ; see Dun {i"). 
^ So also M>li. doH^ck, prov. E. dunntKi, 
a hcJEC-aparraw, from its colour. D^nkty 
i^first found m ijS.s) was a prov» E, word, 
which, seems to hare rimed wilh mcnkty 
iwhence the spelling), CL Somersets- 
iiuitHi^kef, pron- oi denJkfy, 

Donna. Utn-h-I,,) Ital donna, "L. 
domittUt mistress, fern, of demirtrn^ a 
mnster. Doublet, duetfna. 

Doom, n jutfgment, decision. (E.) 
M. E. ddm. A. S, d3/ti, Hi. a thinj; sc( or 
decidfd on: from J'Jw* to set, t^o; see Do. 
+ Swed. Dan. data., Feel, fl^w^j Goth. 
daittSf O. II. CI. taom. Teot, lypc *d0m^?z, 
a statute. Cf. Ctk. 0>^i, Uw (fram rf^/u, 
r scti. Dor. rt'ffw. 

doomsday fdomesday. (K.) A.S. 

dd/na d^g', <lsi}' '.'^f duQiii or judgtnentr 

Door, '1 gate. K . M. K. di?r#, duti!. 
A. S, f/?f . 04 ; ditru, f.+ O. Sax. iibr, Goth. 
daar^ G, Mi^*', n. ; and Icfl. t^yrr, f, pl.^ 
Dm. dor, Swed. d^rr^ Du. diur^ G, ihiir, 
i, 5iii£4 T^ut. types 'durffw^ n, ; *dures, t 

fl, CL J*. y&'YJ, Litli. dttrys^ f. pi. ; O. 
rish^n^/^n., W.i/rtt-/, m.; Russ. ^tur^^), 
CJk. St'prt, Skt. dtfiir, f, Bmgm. u ( 461. 

DormaJat, skeping, (F.-L.) F. rfdr- 
WA3«/, pre*, pt, o\ dcrmift to sleep. --L. 
darmirf, to sleep, +Skt. <i>rf, lo ftlwp ; 

dormer-window. ^F. and Setuid.) 

A tiorwir w:is n sice ping 'room. — O. F. 
dorm€i}f-.— \j. iformlldrium fbelow'i. 

dOrtnitory. (L.) h, dormUorinm^^ 
aLceping-chAm7]>er ; ncut* of dorniiforiuj ^ 
adj., belonging lo aleepingn ■» L. d6r*Hfior^ 
a ilecper.— L. ihrttttrn, to sleep, 

DormonSO. F. nW F^) M. K. dof 
ftttfui. The prefix is perhaps short for 
North E. darnt, to doze ^whence dttr/n. 
ffuftue\, Cf. lce].t Norw,, atid Swed. dia]. 
dofffta, to doze; all apparently from F. 
denntr, to sleep ; see Dormant. We find 
Risy ^>rov, K, Jorrtt, a sleeper, as if from 
flj?/", to sItrtjK 

Dormck, a klad of dolh; idfsff/tti. 
(Flemish.) Named from Hem. IhnticJt^ 
better known by the F. name of Timrmiji 

Dory, a fish; »« J0ha Dory, 

Dose. ( F. - L, - Gk . ) (J. F. oIjw* a 
quantity of medfcme given at otiue. *- 
Med. L. (/iWJj. — Gk. *&rn, a giving, — Gk. 
Sl^wfu i4temj Sv', ^s-), I give, Brugm. 1. 
5 167. 

Dot, (£1.) A* S. t^iM/, Diily in the sciuc 
' bead of a boil.' Cf. Bu, d?i, a little bnndlc 
ofspoilt wool, &c., good fof nothing (Sewcl'i; 
Swed. dial. ^/, a little heap, small lump; 
M. Dan, def, a bunch ; M. Frie*. do/, dottt, 
A heap, bQDch, lump, Cf. Norv/^dcUea, 
pp. of oJf//a, to fall, to fall to pieces, 

Dat6. >F.i M. E^da/ittt, dctta, to be: 
foolish (Layamon}.4~ M, Du^ daten, to 
dole, mope; Du. duften, to <!oie ; JlcI. 
dcifa. to nod with sleeps M. H. G.^Mun^ 
to doze, iiizen^ to mope. 

dotng'e. (K. ; wt/A F, suji^.) M. E, 
dfii&ge', Irom M. K. etW-fn ; with F. su^st 
~ag« IL, diicvm), Cf. B, radoiage, from 
rad&tsr^ to dote. 

dotlU^di ' E, wiVA F. i.Hffixl\ From 
c/ff/^, with K- suffiK -ard iO. H, G. A«»»t'j. 

dotteral, a kind of plovcf. I K.) A 

bini easily <jAUght ; from de/^, vb.j with 
fitifiix as in eofk-erei. 

Double. (F.-L.) 0. F. dshk, later 
aSw*/f. — L. du/>lMi, lit. twice -hill. — L. 
dW'tf, two i -p^ujy allied to fiUttut^ full. 

donMet, (F.-U) M.E. da^Ut.^ 
O. K. douhkit, tm inner (double) garment. 

»F. dciibk. double; with siafliK -^, 

donbloOH. ^F.— ijpan. — L.) F, dtw* 
^tf/f. — Span. st'oMon^ a coin, the dsu&U of 
a pisi ole> — Span. I'/^i?, double. »L. <//'* 
//ftfj l^above). 

doubt. (F. - U^ M, E. douien, — 
O, F. d^/fr. — L. dubitdt^f to he of two 
minds : alUed to dtdiUs^ doubtful ; lee 

DoUOenr. tF-— L.) F. dmmnr^ lit. 
sweetneu (.hence, pleasant gift 1 . — L. t^w/- 
(Srtm^ nee oidufcor, iwcctnc^. — L. dulds, 
sweet- See Dulcet. 

Douche, a shower-bath. (F.— lUl.— 
L.) F, daitfke^ a shower-bath. — Hal. 
doiiia^ a conduit , water-pijie. — Ital. ^f/- 
arf^ to pour: equiralcHt to Lmc LaU 
*ductiari^ derivative of L, ductus, a duet ; 
see Duct, 

Do^b.. (t:> M.E. liij^, (i^^> A. S. 
ddA (stem ^<^\4-t>ii> ^^<(^ Han. £iEe^, 
Swcd.i/ejf.Icel i/«'f,Goth-£^';^*. akntaded 

(Lat, ToytKuus'] 

Dorsal, F, — L.) F. uCtfrirt/, belonging I IcTop, G. tei^. The Goth, dai^s is from 
to the hack. — Late I. dotsdfit.^h. d&r- * daiY. ^nd «em of det'gart^ to knead; sec 
j«j», the buck. Dike. >,^DIIFltjlI > Hiu};m. 1, 4 604. 




Itottghty. iK.) M.K. dohfi, iitthtiA Dowse ^j), to txtiiigtiTKh. The umc 
vaUcint, :\.'>. doht 4 i;,v:ru\{c^r iorm dyhfi^^ br Dowse (t) ; sense perhflps mggesteti 
vsHajnt. — A. S. tftt^nu, to be worth, l»e by(/f'W,q-v, 

Icel, DozolOffy. CL.-Gk.) 

tiygiiui^^Q . iiUhti;^ ; vLrioiisLy formed from 
the Tciat. verb ',/it^tt-. 

SoUBei ^o immerae. (E.7) Allied 10 
M, Do. i/«.«Mj Mo smite with violence' 
(HexhamW Sci Dowba \i). 

I}012t, tn eilinguiah. (E.) Short for i/a 
truf, t. c. put OTit, 

SoTO^ A binl, (E.) A. S, du/e, only 
in comp. diift-th^pfi, lit. x divd*. — A.S, 
tfte/an, In plunge into. + O' Sai. duzvi, 
Goth, dudp, it. fauit^ a dove* Itt. diver, 
rSa *Uo I,, to/umia^ a. dove, i« allied to 
Ck. MAwjuSfy* 4 djvcr» «eA-bird. hirsi 
applied tci Ae^-gnlis, &c.] 

dOTOt&il. ta fasten boards together. 
yl'.,) From (Witf and /a//; from the shnpe 
of the fitted cndb uf the board [■^). 

Dowag'eri a ^idow with a. jointure, 

^K, — LJ O. t\ (huoj^fre ; from dauUffr, 
art cndownienti Again Jouagt is coined 
with auffix (Hpf) from K, do%tei\ to endow, 
— (., v/fV/Irt", to endow,— L. liiV-, ilem of 
do^t a gift, dowry. Allied to da-fiutft^ a 

fifr, <^r<, to give, Der. fM-*/4J?i% from 
'. rif ind daucr. lirugm. i. § 167. 
dower^ *n endowment* (F* — }^,\ 
M, h. ii'.eit'<!'rp, — O. F. doairt^ later douairt. 
«L.^le L. >i/fV^WHffr*«-L. d'(^^n!,to endow 
i,abrtvi; . DflT. dawr*y^ »hort for dmtfer-y. 

Dowdy ; ^ct Bud«. 

Dowlas* a coAne linen. ^.BretO From 
Daouiaj, S, E» of Brest, io Britt:i0y, 

Down (i), soft plttmage. (Scand,^ 
Mi M. dimtn. -• Icel. dsHn, Swed. dun, 
DiiH. duuti^ dawn ; whence Du* d^is. 

Down I J I. a hill. C.) A. S, dtht, a 
hill. — Irish dun, m foititied hill, fort; 
fJacK dun^ W. An, & hill-fort.-|- A. S. 
/WM ; see Towd. 

down ',3), prep. *nd adr. (E^ andO 
A coimpiioa of ^invft - A. S* ofdffm — off 
the bill, downwards. ^ A- S. of, off ; dune^ 
dmt. of f/<^N, a hill ; see Down <■%)* 

dune, a tow sand-hill. ,C,1 XVltl 
cent. — F. dutte. ~ M. Du- ^/mm^ ^iDu. 
dunt)', of Celt, origin. See Down !,3). 

DOWSO ;■>• to vtrike in the fat^. 
^K. ?) Apparently the ume as Douno 
■ aborej. (r£. Norw. :/»/, a push, blow; 
Kf, iMi, ^<%ffHf to strike, E. Fries. dUsieit, 
to fthke. 

D0WS9 J < to immcnc; )<e Doua^. 
ProK thr !«.ime a» Dowse ^i> 

zology. (L.-Gk.) L. doxologin. 

*-Gk. Sfl^oAo-yifl, an ucription of praise. 

— Gk. fi«f«-, for Auf^ct, glf^'^yp <3>^ig* ft 
notion ; -^07^01, from \iftiv^ to {peak. 

Doi^. (M. D«,i A cfliil term, Cf. 
E. Fries, dchtji, dlmin. cf dokhc^ a doll. 
Prab. introduced from the Netherlands.— 
M. DtJ. diifki, a {foil, Cf.O. H. r,. /tf.YA*?, 
a doll^ abo a term of endearment '^G. 

Dose* (St:And.) Swed. dinK dusa^ Dan. 
(fojc, to doie, mope ; Ice!, //Mrop lo do« ; 
M. Dan. dAit^ to be torpid. Alliedi to 

Doseu, twelve, (F.-L.) O. F, t&f 
jff/Wt>.rfiJ<*wti»i!),adoan* — 0*F*d'tfw[K. 
douif)^ twelve ; with &uffiK -tuW :L. •^rna, 
as in ivy^Z-rfrri'.— L. dttpdettm, tw(lve.«P L. 
duo^ two ; dii^m^ ten* 8ee Two and Ten, 

Drab (x\ a slut. <E.) Cf. Iri^th draAaj^^ 
Gael. difiha,i^, a slut; Gael, p/rflA3[rj4,ditly : 
Irith f^rrrj, a spot, &tflin (all from K.,i. K. 
Fric4. dnd'/t^ jjiiddlc-walcr. Alio Dn. 
dntii^, f, drc|;s* draff; allied lo 

Ilrftb 2iiduU light broivti. (F.-l,. j 
The colonr of ondyed cloth, — F. d/tt/^, 
doth. See Drape. 

Drsdim i vx Dmm. 

Draff, dregs. (E.) M. K. dt-af ;Uya- 
monj. + Elu. draf faogswa^h, i/rcrAAf, draff; 
loel^ draf, SweiJ. dra/, Dan. drav^ drci^s; 
C. tniher, pi, [Cf, Gael. «id lri)th dr&bk^ 
draft", from E,] 

Dnift; fee Draught. 

Draff* >b. ^^ScandO M. E. dm^^fti a 
Northern form allied to Icel. dr^gu^ to 
draw. Cf. Swed, dri^% a drag, giapnci ; 
dragga, to tl^ig- S^ee Draw, 

Dragontan, kh interpreter. Span.^ 
Arak. Sjian. ^n^ww/i; [Lflle Gk. *pa- 
yoii^ai'oirj, an interpreter. » Arab, tar- 
juiHiiH^ on interpreter, tranftlator ; tec 

Dl^Lgon. (F. -I^-Gk.) F. dragon, 
<-[, ICC drochiemf from nom, drae&.'^ 
Gk. 0/u«nr»', a dragon, lit- * Kcine ; ' from 
his supposed sharp sight. — Gk. Bjpiu-, 
weak grade uf l^ptrvnat, I see. ^ Sucb u 
the Usual account 

drag'OOli. F.-L.-Gk.| f.dnagon, 
a dragoon ; mj called because the dragoon* 
ori^- nad a dntgon on their standard ; or 
tatber, becAUse they werv armed with a 
short carbine called ;jn F. i dr^g^iti 



w TcK. * d ' w ^ i^ <X B. G. 

;r. - I- - Gk.** 

pvt of BO over;' C«C*L.^nKabM.- 

»-Ca. h^mitm, I 

% i »ii aEcm V'o^'**'* > ■" *^ * di^aa.— | /mlr. goK. Tmm Te«L % fc e*j— -, Hl 

■ndcc • VDAH., P«r. drtmti-if <iKm , ^- .\vweni^ to A. S. *irfr«kx, 
Zfufrnt' : Ac 4oit foaad , far *i^ i<r - > »-; 6< 

dravtie, dbeim. 'Glc.> Gk. I^poiv- ^i%k« ; kc Himi 
ri««^ cflcdtvc; allM to Imwt^m, verts] Undn ■>), to 
AiH.oCM». I peHbm* <T. - Lue I. * Gk: To A^^ H 

Smpai, to cover witli <iodu T.-I.; «pinkk u ia Mmp rihn^ <;M. £- dh^ 
f, 4hjr*pr, 10 m«Jcedoch,»F.dha^»cioth; |or mixed covn. — Ol F. ~ 
\m* 1«» ira^fiui. Of anknovn «%{■. Cbcn ; ftbo ft 

JOrftW, K. d^n^MV. A. S, altcfed tonn irf fi w^f— ii, pL olfn^pr— l 
drttxan A S. -a^- beo9!»ire M.E. -tf&«- . «GIl r^rjri^B, lOMryliiw^ tik£ to nt- — 
4 t^tr. tirajftn, kel. $«Ttl* /n^jB, Dan. 
titafy, i'tt^. dragatt^ G- tr/jgrtt, to poll 
• Iwii.', rftny. Teot. type *dragam*^ pt* t. 

draogltt. draft, l*- />n^ is & 

i^h^metit' *Ti<Mtaj;, M. K. drAHght. dr^kt. 
rrom AS. i{ra;,'*ati -, wt'b Miffiactl ^+ 
f >»t. tfra^f^ a. (00*1 < ffom dfettyn, (o carry : 

((«liri ; (#, fratht, % Icrt-I, from fraffrti 
dTAWh i^' I'tcr^urnlatlveiitc/rdUf; 

!i«fn|il*l t«i ftr^ai^I/ itaai dr^. Introduccrl 

Gk, wpmjH^ (J «or, g T pa yw^ to gnaw. 

IlXVgfl, lees. Scud.) PL of M. L. 
dr^ mirr : we mbo fifid M. tL. dr^ggtSf \ 
dre^~IoeL dr;^, pL drrggjar, dngs; 
Swed. A'tgg, pL <lrtp, ieu^ Per!up« 
from led. t^viga* to dr^w. Diistiact tob 
L.j/rmeif diegs of oil ; Bragm. L | 427. 

Ilr^sdl, Tb. ;E. i M. E. drtfvkm, 
A, S. dreruait. cauul of drifKttn ; hcncv 
* to D)Akedriiik.*4'1^> drettJum, loel. drtlh- 
k/it. Swcd, drafjJta^ Goth> dragk^^ Od 
trdnJttft- See Dri&k. 




toerect, set up, drcsi? ; onswcriiig to a Late 
L. form 'difrt/itirt,^!^. directuj^ pp. of 
tGri^rt, to direct ; ste Direct. 

Ikribblfi. CE*) Frequentative of obs. 
E. dri6, to drip slightly ; whkb is a 
weakened form of drip. Cf. drt&iff* See 
Btlp. So al» Dan. dial driWe. 

3>rift; SM Drive. 

DviU 1.1), to picnrc, to linin soldien- 
(Du.; Borrowed from I)u. drilleH, to drill, 
to boiCt to turn round, shake* hrdndish^ 
drill soldicrft, form to amn- Allied to 
M. H. G. drtlUti^ lo Inm rotind (pp. ^tf- 
dniUr*), Low G» rfm/^ twisted tiglil. 
T«ut. type 'thrtllan- 'pt. i, ^thmil). to 

Allied to Thrill, 

Iftrill (a)* to tow com in rows.' (E.'^' 
The same lu driU^ to trickle, which icems 
to be a v.-imt)t of trill, to trickle. 

DriUiaff, a coanc cloth used for 
trouicts. ^, — L,, Corrupted from (J. 
driiUckt ticking, huckaback. — L. frilh-, 
Item of iri/is, having thire llirra*!^. — L. 
^#n-, from /«j, three ; liiium, a thr^d. 
See Thme. 

Dxink. (K.l AJs, dnni^an, pt E. e/FUMr, 

gp. */n^W(rw, + l>u, drinkfii^ IccK dtetkti, 
wed. driiJM, Drji. driJtkft Goth, dngkan 
\ ^ drinkan \ , G, trinkeu, TenI, 'drculart-. 
IMp. (Scand.i M. K. i^^i^/f/f. — Dan. 
I^A^» ''^ ''^P ( * Tcwt. *drujMaH-). 
From TcbL ^drvp-f weak grade of ^drtn- 
fan-f as i^cen m Iccl. drjttpa^ to drij^i^ A. S. 
drrvpan lobs. K. drte^}, G. inf/en* CL 
O. Ir. tntcht, a dew-drop, ik* Drop. 
DriTe. (E*i M. £.(/«««, \>^.dff/ati 
(pt. t, i/j*aJA. pp rf'T^w ,t . 4- Dn. drijvea-, 
I«l. rfW/i, Swed. drtfva, Dan. c/zirrj Goth. 
dfeiihan^ G. irei&in, Tcut. *dreitan-, 

djri^. 1'.. ) M, E. drtjt^ 1- onncd ff om 
*/r//^, weak grade of o'n/aff ; wilbiufllix -r. 
+ Du. ^/r///, IceL i^y/. Swed, Dan, ifn//, 
G. //T/h Der. adrift ^ on th£ drift ; see 
A- iJi. 

drove. <E) M. E. rfj^. A. S, ^n|/^ 
a druse. Fi-ont rfrdy, jod gra^eof */rj/drt. 
Drivel, vb. ^L. M. E. (/rrtr/fn. A.S. 
dfi^tan^ to dribble or nui at the doM. 
Lu M, K. d/uveien, to drivel. From the 
b«tt dra/-, Hi in M* t. *fria/, draC Stfc 

|huKXe« <Q titta tlightly, (E.) For- 

;r]y drij/l or dtisU^ to keep on dripping. 

■rcflucDt. form of M. E, drtstm, A. S. 

sdM, to drip ; Rt Dr«ftry. Cf. Dan. ' 

r/j», Ui fait ui dru^ ; Swed. dial draj/a. 

BtoU. : K . - 1 > u .1 M . V\ drfi/r, * a plea- 
sam W[ig;*Cot.»D«. rffW/i^, ndd.ilrangci 
M.l>u* dfv/, 'ft juglar;' tleshfitn. Ttr- 
hft|»a from Du, droll- , pp, stem xii drilUn^ 
to turn, wheel, whirl abocit \ see Drill (I). 

Dromedary. (F.-L.-Gk.) M, E. 
drom(dQ,vif wt^yj. Y . drff»tedairi (older form 
*dromedani . — Ijte L. dreniadiirius. — 1^ 
droniad-f item of xfremaJt a dromcdaiy. — 
Gk. bpofiai'^ stem of A/tc/ui, fust runDing. 
— Gk. BpQtAttv, to nin.+Skt dtam, to run. 

Drone 'ii to hum. kE.) M,E,dnmfM 
(ntst> droutun., Nat in A. S» Cf. loeL 
drynja, Swed, iAbwh, Dan. drone, to droae, 
roar, nimble, &c. Cf. Goth. druHjiu^ a 
suund. Gk. 5^5»^or, a dirge; Skt, dkra^^ 
to ioucd. - . - 

Drone (7. a non* working bee. (Low 
G. , NL K. j:/m/r. A. S, dran ; which i\)lkx 
E. Fries. (/f'flWf-) w(u prob. borrowed from 
O. Sax. drSH. Cf, M.H.G. trens (G. 
drohftt beiDg borrowed from Low G.). 
Tcul. stem* *dr^-, *dren- ; cf. Gk. &y- 
^P^Sj^ _a wild-bcc, $pm^ i.Hnychius;. 
^|\VitK the paTallti atemi Vnlw-, *drtn', 
cf. the sterna of Queen aekI Queui. 

Droop i see below. 

Drop, sb- I E. ) Nt. li '^■^tf, *b. \ hence 
dropifn, drefpe/i, vb. — A.S. drt^^ ih. ; 
dro/>i4iff, vb, Theae are from the weak 
gtatlc *<^nir>- ^A. S. drep-) of the Teut. 
vb. 'drtu/an- (A. S, drfopan)^ to drop, 
drip.+Du. rfn^, sb., IccU drttpij Swed. 
drif/V) l}u\.draadit ij.tropfm. See also 

droop, to sink, fail. i^Scand.) M. L. 
c/nw/f r;. <- IceL drupa, lo droop; weak 
vb., allied to drjiipa, ctro&g vb,, to drip — 
Tent. *drtup&ft- (whence also G. trie/en) ; 
see above, Cf- ' I am ready to drop^* i, c. 
I droop. 

DropST ; s«? HydTopvy^ 

Droslilyt Drosky , n kind of carriage. 
f^Rnss. Kui,s. drczhkt, drflJkifH low foar* 
wheeled carriage ^the J Konodcd wb in 
Fiencb). Dimm. of dt-4^gi, a waggon ; 
which was odg, pL of dr^gu, a pci^ [pi 
a Qk,rriage). 

DrOM. (E.) M.E. d>wj. A-S. dVor, 
drosst dregs ; cf' also obs. E. drvserr^ A- S, 
drosna, pJ., lees, dregs, + M- D**- ''i'w^i 
Ices (Kiliai]) ; Du. Swiim, dregs* tce$f 
G. drttsen, pi. dregs ; Q. H. G« trttiotta^ 
tru^s&HQy hu^iks of pressed grapes. j 

Droaght, Drouth ; ace Drr* 

Drove ; see Drire. 

Drown* ^bcand.) M. E, difiUH*Ht dt'U' 




(F.-L.-Gk.) F. rfrtf/v.-L. tiru/>a,M 
ovcT'ripc olive. »Gk. ipunwA, tbe same^ 
Diy. K.1 M, K. f/rw^. A. S. ^tys*. 
Cf, Du. dr&og, dry ; G- trccktv, dryj 
Icel. draui^, a di^ log. 3 

also drouiht ; P. Plowmntf;. A.S. iT>7jjf5 
dfoughi. ^ A. iS. drugiaH^Xo be dry ; <//j^ 
dry.+Diu droogf£, droughty from drso^ 
dry. DoubLflt, dmuih (RliUon), 

Dryad, a nymph or the woods. {L. 
Gk.) L. ZJrj'dt/--. stem of Dry^s, a wt 
nymph. —Uk. fi/wa5-» slcm of S/Jius^ Ihc 
same. — Gk* B/>G-f, a ticir ; see Tree. 

DhaI, consisting of tia-o, (L. L, dutUts^ 
da&L — L flW, two; see Two, 

Sllbi to confer knighthood by a »troti 
{ F. ; M. K. dHbbtti. A. S. t/tf^^n ; A. ^ 
ChrojK an, jd8& [So also Swe<l, dnbha. 
Usually drrtFetl from Q. F. aduh^i\ iidou* 
ifit\ itdi?i*er, to dub a kni^^hl; a Koitintiic 
^ord of unknown origin (Ilal. a(M^hare^ 
O.S])an. and Prov. turAAiflr, O.Port. adub^ru 

3\ Diez derives adi/it^r, conversely, froin^ 
uMan; which is hatdly tenable; 

N. i;. r». 

Dubious. ^L.) From L. dubivtu.\ 
doiiblfnl. — L. da^ium, doubt; RL-ulcr of 
L. du&iuSr dombtful, moving in Iato direc- 
tions, -^L. du-o, twu. See Two. 
«t. F.I M.¥.drogii£f,'iikiad Duool. [t.-L.) V. dmai, ad}.; fToto. 
at's hair silk^ hnlf woo) ; * Cot. ^h<. .1 duke ; see Dtika. 

ducat, ft coin. (F--Hh1.-U; O. 
drtiaL^ Ital. dufafa,, ft ducAt, slso a duchy ; 
named irom L, dnidtHS (duchy of Apqlia) 
alluded to in tbc legend apon it; see 
duchy l^low, 

dnclieas. (F.-L.) O, F. duckesse 
(Late ]„ duiisia), fem. of dtii\ dvikc; see 

duchy. (F. — L.) F. rfjc^-A/.— Late L. 
dm'tffufH. ace, of ducdfrtf, a dukedom, » 
L. f/wt-, Etcm of f/iu', a duke. ^ AI&o^ 
O. F. dvcM^f, fcm,, ni if from Ijitc 1- 

Duck (t), to dive, bob the head. 
}A,)i.diikeH, d^ukiH. Not b A, S.+Du.l 
dniken^ to stoop^ dive < G^ fttuihtu^ (O'] 
plunge, dive* "J'tut. type 'dtaJtuw^ pU L. 

fffM.— >M. Dan. di-ukrte, divtt^u, dravne, 
dr&Ht, to sifik, bn^ drowned \Kalkar) j Iccl. 
dfukfia. The m^'W- wus preserved iti Swed, 
drnukHiX^ A- S. drUHcttian, to be tlturik, 
aI»o lo sink^ to be drowned. Sec Dtuh- 
kfln^ ^iE. Bjorkman.^ 

Drow9e« Drowzo, to be slugj^Ulu 
(F,) Formerly droits. A.S. dtunan, to 
be tlui^gi^ ; alHed to A. S* dreosatt, to 
fail : aUo to drip, to fall. See BrauT'. 
Dor, drswty. 

Drub, to beat- (Arab. ?^ * Drub, to 
beat the solcft of the feet with a sticky a 
pimi^htnent used tn Turkey;' ^Fhillipsh 
Apparently a travellers' word. Perhaps 
from Arab, ^arh {zarH), ti beating with a 
stick ; from Arab, rQOt ifdf^Sa {zara&a] ^ 
he beat ; Rich. Diet. p. 953. (N. E. D.) 

Drudge, vb. (K.) M. K, dru^gert. 
A, S* *dryig£tin^ not found ; but regalnrly 
fofmeel from dr-u^-^ weak grade of dr?&gatt, 
to work, perform, endure t^^Teut, *dreit~ 
^ort'^Gotb. dn'ti^n, Lowl. Sc- dree). Cf. 
IceL drja^'virkr, one who works slowly 
bat surely. The Gael, dntgatr^ a drudge^ 
n (ram £. 

Druff. K^-) M. E. drcgge. dm^v,*^ 
O. V drqgHe, a. druij- Also Ital. and Span, 
dtoga. Origin unknown; perhaps Cri- 
ciitaL Der, drvi'^'iif 

of siul 

IHitiin. of dfv^c, used in the sense of 
rtibbisb, poor slutT; from the coarseness 
ot the material; cf. K, 'a drtt^^ in the 
market.' % Probably not the same word 
as ¥<■ drsgtii, a drug. 

Druidi a prje&t of the ancient Britons* 
(F,-U-C.) F. Druide.'-X.. (Gaulish) 
pU Drttidt^, Druidae ^Lewis and Short « 
Cf. 0< Irish dntid, dat. and ace. oi drui. 
%. magtdftn, soroercr; Ir. draoi, druidA, 
GapI. drrtidA (whence also A.S, dff, a 

Dmm^ (Da. I XVI cent. Impeifectly 
ada|jtcd from M. Dii. ffv/HMf, irommil, a 
drum; Low G. truHtut^ ; Do. trem,-^ 
O. il- G^ trumbd^ frumpd^ M. H, G. 
trumme, a pipe, ti:um|iet ; Iccl. trumba, . „ 

a pipe, trumpet. [So also Ital* ir(mtba^ ^dauk {whttiOcG. iatt*'k^tft),i>p.*dttk-afio-, 
Span, tromfia.] OfimiUtive origin. > From the weak grade <fH^- we have I )an. 

DmuJcftrd. (fi. i tvifA F. jujix.) \dui:itf, Swed, dykai to uihich the$horten- 


From A. S, r/fw/fc--, base of pp, of e/nnfaw^ 
to "Irink ; wiih K. sufTix -arj/ (G. *tfrO. 

dnmken, drunk. {E.) A. 5. ^/vm 

(fir, p[u of dri'tiiratif to drink, 
Dl^pOt A ilesbjr ft^uit curilaLning a ftone^ 

in^; of the vowel in mod. K. dn^A tnay have 
been partly doc, 

duck (3v ^"^' ^^-') ^^'^- doA^fi 
diiJU* tit, *dJvcr;' the suHix -f reprc" 
8ciit« the A. S. f. siifAx of the a^ent. A. S,J 




dit^t. a duck. Frum the verb ibove, 

rf. Dftii tiNkattJ, lit. * A\ 

Swe«"l. dyhj^gil^ * diving fowl/ Dor, 
riiftr4'./-/H^, with {Rouble dimLn, suffix, 

Ihiek (3\ a pet. darling. (E.) Appa- 
rcDiIy the ume a« Duok (3). 

Ihio^ (.f \ light canvas. (Da.) A ciati- 
taX wordn — Du, d^ii, lincQ clolh, cuivns. 
+ nan. ^tif^, Swcd. ifejt, Iccl. diikr^ G. 
/N.^, f). H.G. iuah. 

Dmotp conduit-pipe. \L.) L, duttuSt 
a lca<iing ihenct. a <luct), — L. datttts^ pp. 
ol diiigff^o lead. Sec Duke, 

dnctlXft. <>". — L,) F. iittitiit^ tnatle> 
«Uc. — L. ductility easily led. — L. dn^i-mf 
*j>p. of daare (vbove). 

JDhild^, All exqtibitct a dmady. Of tin* 
knoiMi ori^jin, ( Ab. lfi8;i.) 

I>Udg«Q&(i), rvseotmcnl. Of unknown 

Dudgeon (3 j, hAft ofa dagi^cr. (Ifn- 
known.; M. E. rfp^Tfln, n kind of wood 
used for the handles of daggers, Ktym. 

INdSi clotbei. (Scjiail.) 

dux,^}.. dux, ft leai1er,wL. dik$^,\^ 

ttudts tks wcW ns dMfts ; ihe n u-ai prol>. 
once long.^lcel. du^t, swddiiling doihe% ; 
</.r>Ad, to wrA|> np. Cf. E* rftfTfrf, a w^qman'i 
cop, II slut; dffwd-y, ill dicsscd. 
]#no. (F.-L.) M, E. [iWf, drwi.^ 
<l. K. ^1/, rnasc., i/fuf, fern.; pp. of tfr- 
iv»>. tft owe. — L, df^re. Sec Devoir. 

— L. diuHum^ a fi^hl between two men 
i.arcbaic form of L, (^//ftfjvir.vrar^. — L. £^>^, 

dnet. (TvaL-I..l h&l. duetto, music 
for two. — ]taL rfwf, two. — L. dtio, two 

DlL^&IL&. (,S{UUi.*l..) ^pnn. da^iiaf 
a married lady, duenna. — L. domma* fern, 
af d^mintff^ a lord. See Douna, 

Ihlftt j see Dael 

l>TLffiel» coarse woollen cloth, (IDq.) 
Ihi. duffel \ so called from Bufftt. % place 
Bew AntMicrp, 

S>1liFeirj 3 stupid pc-rson. (Scan*?.) 
Lowl Sc. d/ni'fart, formed wilh isuffiv -art 
from Iheadj. dltrrt/ ftDpid^da]]; lit, 'deal/ 
p-Tcrl_ dauf-r, deaf; *ee Deaf. 

lend. ^VDKUKO ^ The L. •«. </«*-*« 
would have given O. F\ daii^ F. <^(%r; 
like F. noix from niKtm, ^rotx from 
inuem. ^N. E. D.) Brugm. L f £,91. 

Sixlcetp sweet. (F, - L, ) M, F, damet 
\Q<i\.), refashioned after L. dukis (cf. 
Il&l. dif/cttf If.. ^O.F. dfis (F. dMM), 
sweel,— L. dttlcis^ sweet. 

dulcimer. (F.-Span.— L.> Roque- 
fort hjis F. douiftmtr vtmdited ' ; cf. 
O. V. d&t%Uim(k 'Oodefro)"). — Span, dukt* 
tiitl^j a dulcimer ; named from its sweet 
$ound . — L. f/Wfi' mthSf sweet souDd; &c« 

Bull, itupid, £.} M, £.^n/; cognite 
with Low G. duii; answering lo Teul. 
*duljot. Closely Allied to A S. dol^ 
fooUihr cognate with Du. dal^ mad, O. toi!, 
mad* RHiwcring to Tem. *dul-^n. Both 
are from Teut. 'du!- {<i*di*rui . weak 
grade of *dwil'{iit, as ieoi in A, S, duKhn, 
10 eiT, to be stupid ; see Dwell. Cf. A.S. 
^dwfil-^ed, a false god, idol ; Irish utd W. 
jamieson has daii, blind. Bmgm. i, t i75 i^) 

Sulse, an critible ^^eaweed. (C. ) Irish 
duiifas^, Gael, ditikasg^ dulse, Aceording 
tn Maelcod. it nieAiks ' water-leaf,' from 
Ir. And Gael, duiliet leait and tiisg\4}t 

Ihua'b* !,K. M.E, de*ft6. A,S, rfMwA, 
mule. + Dw* ic/flwi^ Iccl. dttmhr, Swed. 
ditmSy Itan. dum, Goth, dumbs, G. drtm/tt, 
*.h }\. G. iumhj tump', stupid. The orig. 
M-nsc scftn^ to have been 'stupid,' and 
l^erhaps Goth, dnmhs is allied to tioth, 
diittifif deal ; &ec Deaf. Der. duwmjf 
( _ dHtrth-jf) . 

Dtimp (I It an ilt-ihapen piece. (E^Y) 
I'sov. K rfHm/i a durosy lump, a bit; 
dumpy, short and thick. ProbaWj' • a Ihing 
tjlrown down in a mass* \ see Damp (1). 
dimLpliUtf, a kind of pudding. (E. >J 
A Email solid ball ofj>udding; dump-J-ing 
i« a doul Ic dimin. ol dnmp (i)* 

Bunp (1). to itrike^ flmg down. 
iScand. ?) Cf. Low I, Sc. dump„ to beat 
Dan, dttmpe, to plump, pluitge ^ Nprw, 
dum/a; Swed, dial. di^m/a.wSwcd. dial. 

]>ll|^, a icat. (Scnnd.i Perhaps allied J e/f/M/., as in dtt/npiS, lupine of sti. vb, 
lu Swed, dftff^, Dan da^gr, lo suckle ) dim/Hi, to fall down plump. 

Cf. Goth. dciddJaH, O, H,G» /ifdw. to 
auckle. f Hut cf. Skt, £/vA« to inilk, 

Dll0Oll^« ^ scacow. (Malay.) Malay 
dttVi^it^, di'iyong^ a tea*cow. 

Buke, n leader, i.F, — L.) M.E. duk,^ 
O, V\ due. Rcc, fomicd from CK I*', nom. 

Dunpi^, meljinchDly. i^Scand.) Swed, 
dial. dumftH, melancholy, orig^ pp, of 
dimi*a, to iteam. reek ; Dan, dump, dull, 
low,+Du. fltw/. damp, haiy, G. dump/, 
damp, dull. Allied to Dftmp ; cf. * Ig 
damp onc'a spirit*.* 



Ihm (i), browa. iC.) A.S.flfwflWpdarfc, 
^JrUh and GacK d(ft$», brown ; \\\ dwtt^ 
dun, dujfcy. Celtic type *da/tHifs, 

Htw. .J), to urge fpr paymenl, (Scuid.) 
Said (in J 70S) to be derived from (he 
name oi Joe Dun, a famons bailiff in the 
time of Henry VIL But |K:rha|is from 
the notiuji ofnoisiness. Cf. M. K. dutunn^, 
a load riaise. — IceL dunaf to thundery 
koma tiHum dyn/yrir dyrr^ to mtke a diD 
before onc'& ctoor ; Swed.f^iijj to make a 
noise. Allied to Dia. 

DlUlC6t ^ stupid person. (Scotland.) 
From the plir, ' a Duns tnan,* i«e. a nntive 
of Dttttsc, m Berwickshire, In ritticulc of 
the disciples oL JTobn Z?»f/j Scotus, ^hool- 
man, died A.E). 1308. ^Not tobeconfu^d 
with John Scotui Erigena^ died A- D. 87^1. 

Done, a low sand-hill. (F.-Dp, — C.) 
¥. duttt.^M. Du. diin/! (^Du. dui«) ; cog- 
nate with A, S. dffrt, a. duwn ; see 
Dowb 13), Bragm. t, § iii, 

Dun^. i,£.) A. S. diiff^.-^Sv/cd. dynga, 
4 lung; Dan. dyti^, a heap, mass; C 
dung. Root uncertain ^ it aitswers, io 
fomiH to the pp. of Ding; ; as if it were 
' what !■ thrown dovm or away.' Cf. 
Swed, dial, do^, (i) heap, (3) dung. 

Dimgeon, BoBJon* (I'.-L.) M, E. 
c^fll^iCiJM, — O. F- duNJoH^ tho chief lower 
of a L'aatlc— Laic L. tto/fimontrm^ ace. of 
dGmniOy a dtmgeon-tower, chief'lowcr; 
shortened from demtrtU, properly duiiii- 
nion, fruila! powers see Dominion. 

Dniuwasaal, a Highland gentleman, 
yeoman. (C-J In Sii W. Scott'a Bomty 
DvmUc. — Gad. dmtti ttasal, geotlenuui. — 
Gael, duint, a man {\V. dyH)\ uasatt 
noble* gently bom (W. mhei), orig. 
'cxaUci;^ see Brugm. i. $ 319 14^ 

12 leaver to the shcct>.»L. duadectmJ. abl. 
of duodecimus, twelfth ; cf. L- duodedm, 
twelve : see Doboq. 

Ilnodttllllllli the 6r3t of the sm^iU 
iutestLDes. > L-.'i l-4tlc L> duodenum^ :so 
calltxi becau»« about (2 tinger-brcadlhs 
long. - L. duodenK twelve apiece, distri bu- 
tjurc form of dttadidm^ twelve ; see Baieu. 

Sup. (.E/J Short for d<f Hp, i.e. lift up 
(a lati^hji \ to open a door. 

Dape, a person easily deceived. (F.j 
F. fiftyv, B dupe. The M. F. dupe meant 
1 hoopoe; whence dupc^ a dupe, bccjiiifc 
the bud WM easily ca^ht. (So also Bret. 
houp<nkt a beopo*, a dup«.. Perhaps of 
imit&tivc origiD. 

Duplicate, two'fold. (L.) L. duj 

aUas, pp. of ditplkare^ to double. »] 

duplk', stem of duplex^ two-fold (below) 

dix plicity . '> . - L.) Lit. d onbleni 

— F, duplidti.^'L. aoc. dnpluitdiem. 
duplici'^ dccK stem oi duplex, tvvo-fold.,-^ 
I., du'ti^ iwo . flt'ii'drt:, lo fold. 

Dnranco, Dnratioii ; see Buta. 

DofbakTi n ital) of audience, 1ev«. 
(Ptrs,f Pers. darhdr^ a prince's conrti 
levee; liti *door of admittance.'— Pers. 
dar^ door ( = E. d!«?r) ; and ^?r, aiimiL- 
t.ince, court. 

Daroi 10 last. (F. - L.) ¥7dur^r 
L ditrdttf to iasL — L. dfiruj, hard, liu«tin^ 
-flrifh and Gael, ^»r, firm ; W. dur^ 
steel. Cf, Gk« BCvofitT, force. D^r. dftr' 
in^, ori^. prcs. pi. ui dure\ dur-abte^ Sec. 
doranoet captivity. (F.-L.j The 
nrig. sense wa$ long endniance of haidj&hjp. 
O; F. dttram^, duriiuon. — F. duret^ to 
\aA\\ with suHlix -afitei s^ee above. 

duratioiL. (P.— L.) 0.¥ . duration 

— Laic J^, durdiidftemi ace, oi dfiratio. 
coined word ; froni the pp. of L. dura 
to last* 

dnmrSt hardship. (F.«L.^ lJi,K. 
du t€^s£. — O . F . durtsci. — L. durUia , harsh- 
ne?.s. — L* diiru^, hordj severe. 

DQiian, a fniit. (Mftlay.) Mrilay t/w- 
riau, CL Irutt with a ptickJy rind.~Malay 
durt^ a ihora, prickle. 

S^OSk, dim. (Scand.) Properly an adj. 
ME. doik^ dark» dltn ; dcosf, the sbcuc. 
Piob. a Northern form ^,a* the ik did not 
become j^j. Cf. A. S. d^jr {Iot *dfftc)^ 
translating h.^duus} Vocab. 339. 36^ — 
Swed. dial, anska^ to driztle ; duskug, 
miity, dim : Norw. dusky mist, duskr/pt, 
Bt)« tain. Der. ffwj<i^, %b, ; whence dusk-y, 

Ih&st. (K) A.S. rfJij/. + Du. flWi 
Icel. £/)»/, dujst, Dan. dyst^ meal . 
dunstf vapour, fine dust. All from 
Tent- base *dunst- (for *dwHni-t-\ the 
Ijeing luat e;ccept in G. Ct Skt, dkvai 
to i^\. to pieces (pp. dAvai-ra'). 

Ihltcll, b<;lon^ing to Holland. (Qj 
Formerly applied to the German^P^ 
Diutsi% German ; lit. belonging to the 
people; M. H. G. dtui-iii, where the 
sufhx -isA =- E. -isht and diui La coguate 
with A, S. pied, Goth, ihiudij^ a people, 
nation; Ir. Hta/A, a people; cf. O. 
fffuia, a city, Bragm, i. i 11 S- 

IhLty. (A.F.-L.1 M.E. dWa-tf.c. 
A. F. diut^t ^u>y vO« F. haa only dtviri 




A coined word : from A. F. rf/w, rflw. Juf. ' hard to dtge*t.-Gk, ^a% prafiii, c^^il 
and ibe MifTat -r/ iL. ^/fJ/^wi. See Due. bad seji?*; viartiv^ m cuok, digest; see 

Bwale ; see Dwell. Cook. Der. dyiptpik from flifffirfWT-flr). 

l>wajf. iK.) M.Ew/«f^rj,A«r^l* the 
^rqircsera* the giitluraK O, Nf ere. rfiiwr^, 
S» i/iMft'rj-* a dwLrr.-f-Du. ^Aevr^, Tcel. 
'A*"y. Swcd. Dan, dverg^ G. >¥tvj;f. Tent, 
type *divfrf; 02, 

Swell, vli-l M, E, fhveflea^ to linger. 
A. S. tiitffihm^ in the acUvc sense to retard, 
»lsoioK-dncc ; alsn dlriWirt/i, to gn nnmy, 
tor, tarry, dwell. Ciu^al of A. S. *dwtJan 
(pi. t. •»/tt>W. pp. dnviien), to be torpid or 
dtill, to em+Icel, dtv/ja^ lo dwell, delay, 
ohg. to hinder ; Swed. dvdljas, to dwell 
(reflexive) ; Dan. (A^i/i'i!, to linger^ M.K.G- 
twethn^ to hinder, deUy. Teul* type 
^dvtaljan, causal of the str. vb. *dwtlars- 
(pt. t. *dw^i, pp, *ditrufafto-\ to be Uirpid, 
to Mflse, tu err lA.S. *dweian, O. H. G, 
jfi-fTif/aH\ Cf. Skt. rf^pr. to bend aside, 
dAur^ftf', fraadolent, VDHWEL.) And 


dwale* deadly ni^btshade. (Scand.) 
XAmctl from its soporilic effects. Dan. 
dvaJt. btdpor, dvaJtdrik^, n soporjfitr, 
' dwale^rink ; ' Swed. dvala, a Itancc. 
Cf. A.S* dwaia^ an error, stttperaclion, 
from the and grade of A, S* ^tlutian 

Dwindle, K.l The frequent, form of 
M. i:, di^'ffut», to dwindle^ A.S. divirutn 
i^L t. dii'tih], to dwindle, languufa. 4* 
|<}ceU dviva ; Swi^. ti*ina, to dwindle, 
fnnc away ; r>u. Vir-dtai/rtert, to vanish. 

Diy^e, lo colour ; a colour. ^E.) M. K, 
de^M, vb. ; d^!^, &b. A.S. dfagiatt^ vb,, 
to dye -, from (i!*iiA, sb., dye, colour. A.S, 
dfoA <gcn. d^ag-f , ib. f., answers lo Teut. 
tm ^dauff'd. % Not allied to L./wfiij, 
wnicb is from Gk. tf^vK^^%. 

I>7ke ; ?ce Dike. 

DyiUUnic^ relating to force. {Gk, 
Gk, Afiii^itut, powerful. ^ Gk. 6viro>i4f, 
EHJvrer.^Gk. Avm^tat. I am strong; ice 

C^ttajrt^t lordship. iF.-l„-Gk.> 

wi(rt<t>3, lordship,— ^Gk- SwBtrnjf, a lord. 
— Gk. RiJKd^KM^ I ■m itron^. 
Dye^ltmf, diieaae of the entrails, 

T«pia..*Gk. ffwtf-, prefix, with ft baditenser 
fKr<^, pl.^ the mvraids. bowels, from 
/"rrot, wiihtti, )r, in ; see Intarior. 
Hyapepsy, indi^stJun. .1.. -Gk.i L. 

dyj/v^ytii. ■*-(ik, 8i'(Tiri^-fa.»Gk.Svaw*»Tai, 

E-t prefix; «ee Bx-. 

Each^ every one, (£.^ M. E. t^At, iUk, 
A.S- ^/c, each, ihort for ^-gi-Itc, i.e. 
aye-hke i^ercr-Uke or ever alike .^ Da. 
eik^ each; O. H- G. <r*>^//A, M,H,G. 
Uj^eiichf G.J^hker, Sec Aye. 

Ea^er. [K.-L.i M. K. i-^jv.-A.F. 
fgre .F, (n^ri),^L.. acrtm^ ncc- of of-^rr, 
shnrp. ijcc Ao1d< Der. vi'n-igttr. 

Eagle. CF'-L.^ M.E. ^«.-A.F, 
f^/i^, („». F, ai^t (F. dJJf/^).« L. aquiia. See 

Eagre, tidal wave in a river, (F. — L.) 
O. F. ai^'u^re, a flood (liodcftoy), — I^te 
L, agNdria, a conduit; dl ^pWirt^ in 
irrigate. — L, ff^Md^ water. Sec Bw«r. 

Eanling, a lamb. (E.) Eanfing- is 
from the vtrb fan^ which is/-MW witbont 
the prefix y* \^\, S, ^-) . See Teui. 

Ear .1 ', organ of hearing. IK. M. K. 
frt. A. S./arr.^DQ. (w^ Ictl- '/'fl. Swed. 
(Vrisi, Dan. tfre, G. okr^ Goth, awjci. Tent- 
tyjw *auan-, Cf. alao Russ. wMffj L. 
attfi-f, IJth. ansiSt Cik, ofit, O. Iriih A 

earwig, an insect. i^E.) A. S. Sar- 
zf'iV^, fiom its bong suppoied to creep 
into the ear C(. A. .S. wi^^^ a kind of 
insect ; prov, K, wiggif, to wriggle. 

Ear II, spike of com. (Ko M.E!. iv. 
A.S. ^dr i,p],) ; Northumb.f^fr.-I-Dn.flvr, 
I«l. Dan. Swed, ax \iot ahs)^ Goth. oAr, 
G* fli*rif. Teat, type *aA(K, ♦dArc-, cognate 
with L. (Uti5 (gen. aarii). firogm. i, 
$ i8i. AllictI to Ave. fVAK.) 

Ear '3"^, to plnngh. i E.l M. K, *ww. 
A.S. rrtflw, to ploiagh.+Icel. f^/'** ^oth* 
arjan, L. ayari^ l.ith. riir/*", Kuss, Qrat(f). ; 
also Irish aroim, I plough, Gk. d^(^« I 
plough. (VAK.) 

EarL (t-^ m . e. tri. A. S. <w/. -f 
Ictl. 7dr/, 0*Sa>!. sr/, a roan. O. None 
■ runic') Ivpe erilaR, 

Early, soon. (E.! ^.V..trty. A.S, 
(?r//Vf, adv* r from *(friff^ adj., not used.* 
A. S. i?r^ soon ; //*-, like. Sec Bro, 

Earn. (E,) M.E. crwiV«, AS^earman, 
+0. H. G, arrtoft 'cf. also G. frnftn^io 
reap, from WiW/'f, harvest). Tent, type 
^azidnejan^ toget the profit of labour ; 
from (he sb, *ai'a\mi Icel- etm'i. labour ; 




ct, O. H*G. arun^ Gu|h. atatts^ a hftrvctbt. 
(VAS,> % Others connect it with Gk. 
dprvfiat^ I earn. 

E&m4Mt (t;<, seriousness. {E.} Properly 
» sb,, as in * In earnest.' M, E, erneit^ sb* 

O^ H. G. erftttst, Teut. type ^ernmiU, 

Earnest (i\» pledge, (F,-L.-Gk, 
— Heb-) The / i& added. M. E, ^nwy; 
mlio tpelt erUs, aries. Dimin. of O* V. 
trreSj anvi (F, (P"r>lfj , f* pi.— L, arrJka^ 
orrAada.^Gk, op^a^c^, a pledge, *■ Heb. 
*4ndiw«j security ; from 'ifrav, to give 

SArillu (E*) M, E. */^^tf. A.S, KwiSff, 
4»Dii. Qordt^ IceL^^HS, Din . Swcd. yiin/, 
Golh. afrtha, G. ^roSr. Tcol. types *ertkl, 
^erihmt., f. Cf. Gk. </>«, e»tb. 

Earwig; «« Bu i iV 

£a>ft. ^.F.) M. E. if«.— O, F^diVf, ease. 
Cf. ItaU u^/iJ. ease, Port. rtiiJ, occasii«n. 
Orig, Bukiiown. D«r. Jis-aui, 

£&sel. [^Dtt.-Lj Da. #«/, an ass; 
albu a tupijort, a painter's eaJcl* [Cere/; 
Goth' dj-jVur.]~L. aseiius^ dimin. of L. 

SftStftbequarterorfUQ^rise. ,;R0 M.E. 
*jr. A. S. Aur/, »dv., io ihe cail ; ^asfan, 
from the eaat.+Du. offit\ G, ffW, Diin.ii't/; 
Swrd. (fsfan^ G. crftrrt ; Du. 0O.iUr'^ G- 
wr^r-, Dan. Swed, '&sUf, IccL awj/f igen, 
onj/r-jr). Tent, types *aas'^tt-f *a«j-/i»-«o-; 
also *aus/'rfl- , for Idg . ■flitr- ft>- ,,4ct oaatorj, 
Cf. L. aurora dawn» Gk. i7*i«( *<«, aBa^s, 
dawQ, Skt- wj^Jj, dawn. Brugm. i. | Ji8 

tioster^ (E.) M . E. *^/^r» A,S* fatfor-, 
in liomp. ; raslrg, Lu, xxii, J, Knsttr,— 

one who standi under droppings rrom the 
eaves. 3 secret listener. 

£bb. < F„) M. E. ebde, A. S, <^^3, ebb 
of the tide. + Du, eb^ /^^, sb. [whence 
Dan. *s5Af, sb, and vb,, Swed, wA, *b»]. 
Perhapft the Tent, tj'pe is *a/jon-^ with the 
Knse of going off; sec Off* 

Ebony F ^ bard wood. ( F. - L. - Gk. -^ I 
Heb. ) b ormerly i'fi^'W, — M . F, **«», ebony, 

— Heb. hcFimtm^ pi. ebony woodj prob. % 
non-Semitic word, 

Ebrietyi drunkcnocss. 1 F. - L.'i F. 
^bri^t^.— \.. ace. MnVM^i-w, — L. chritts^ 
dranken. Der. in-ebnaii^xo nuakedmakeo. 

Ebnllitioik, a boiling orer. (F.-L.) 
O. F. t'huiliifon.^l^ ace. ihu/tiitdHtm ; a 
rare word, Trom /buHttui, pp« of /&tti/fre^ 
to bubble Up.^L. /, oQt; hui^re^ to 
bu^We; see Boll 'ii. 

EcEtf^i 2 i^ame At cards. (F. ^L. (jW 
Gk.j In thLigaiAc, cardc may U^ dis^^arded 
and excbangiecl ; hence the nAme. -^ V.Aart/^ 
discarded, pp. of ^cttricr, to discard. — L. 
**, Out, away ; F. rarte, frrun Ijite L. earta^ 
from Gk. x^ipnj. a leaf of [Japcr^ hcn» a 

EocentYiCf departit^ from a centre, 
odd. 'l-, — L. -Gk.) F. fs<erftfi^ue.^ 
Late L, ^^^jf/rfVA^i^ — Gk. 4«<>»-Tp«iv, oat 
of the centre; with suffix •/inAT^^-Gk. ^ir. 
oai ; 'iivTpur, centre. See O^otra. 

Ecclesiafttie. i,L-— Gk,) LaicL.^*-^//- 

fjaj/i'<«^,— Gk> l**fA7ff(a(rriiif(jrj belonging 
to the iMKkrfdia, i. e. assembly, ehnrch.— 
Gk-fjcj^X^rot. summoned. ~Gk. Ixttaxiat^ I 
call forth. — Gk. It^ fut ; jraAicu^ 1 call. 
SoKolon* (F. -L.^ F. ichehtt an 

A. S. eastr^t a goddess whose festivities | arra^gt-menc of troops in parvHeE dirt- 
Wert at the vernal e<]ainox ; see [ieda, De sioni ; orig. a round of a ladtler — F. 
Tetdporttm Ration-, c. 15. d. ijA\\..\iehtlle^ a ladder (O. F. tschUl^y 

^ttitra^ f. dftwn; Skt. Hira-, m. a ray. 

Eftt. iE.j M. K. fUn. A.S. «/dH.+ 

Du iten, Icel. /.ia, Swed, ^a, iJan. tfiAr^ 

Si'^a A ladder ; sw Boftle U'l). 

Gk. ^ix^t * *Qund^ echo^ cf. ^X^ft ^x^tt 

Gotb. fVffw, G. gsFtH. Teut type Vij*-, ] a rioging Boise. Dor. (af^f'h ist, i\. \. 

Eouit. (F,"Teut.^ F. /-Vd/, splen- 

Cf. L. fdn'f^ Gk. |B*ii', <ibi. jrf, to eat. 

EaT0Jla the cli|>p«l edge of a Ihalclicd 
roof. K. Also E. diftl. ^lU^e*) atnth. 
M. E. /-w^i-; pi. c«a« '-=/aEtfj«; 
alsn t^M^ffc*. A.S. ^iTf, a clipped) ctlgc 
of ihfltch. wbetice ffnian, (o shears alio 
^offa, whencf oe/suft,^, Corp. gl. 474.+ 
Icel. w/j, Swed. <! «/?) ; Goth, uhi'-v>a. 

dour ; III. * a biin.ling foith.'*»F. Mater ^ 
10 bunt forth; O. F. sfid&tcr. to bnrst. 
Origin ikmbifu3 ; perhft^is from L, l>pe 
*ix<iappi(art^ farmcti from Low G. ktap* 
fi^rt^ lu clflp* make n nr^i»e ; see Clap. 
EelftOtiC, choosing out ; hence, a 
philuflopbcr who sclcttcd doctnncit from 
vflrioo* leet*. iGk, Gk. lit^*KrtK»%^ 

ft porch» from the pfojcctiun of the eaves ; I selecting ; as fb, an E<;lcctic.— ( !k. 

O. H. G. fipitta, Teut. lype *of>eiwa. I Xi^itc, to »clei;l . •* Gk. i*. tml ; hi-^uy, I(i_ 

Pmb» alUeil 10 Over. Dee. ntrvM^nffper^ I choow. 



Eolipae. (F^-L.-GkO M. £« k/cjiU-, I coined word, from tbt ab. #iA'Av 

fvAfi^it« A fftilurc. esp. of tight of the sun. I fidticatei i^L.) From L. tducAins^ 
— Gk. ivAf/vni'f to ieaive out^ fnil, suffer pp. of idmAre^ to educate: nKtcd lo L. 
eclspst, — Gfe. !<, oat; Wirtii', to leave. idHcerc^ to bring out. — L, /^ out ; dikert^ 

Eclo^nep « ps^toml poem. (L.^Gk,) 

L. tiiogij the Y. word wa* /Jf/f^^l. — Gk. 
4xAoY^f * selection, c$p. oi poem?, — Gk, 
iitKif^tv^ to choose out ; &ee EoloQtlg, 

XQ hHng. 

eduod. (L.) L* tdikfre, to bring oBL 
Dsr, fdU'tthn fffom pp, idurt-ui]. 
Eel. (E.*) M.E. /A A.S, iW. + Du. 

SfCOmomy. (t.-L.-Gk.) Formerly m/, Jccl. a//, Dsn, (w/, Swed. tt^, G. od/. 

a4&ntmy, *• M ■ F. tecen^mit. — L. acffnsmia 
*(ik. o>firopoj<i/a, iriin>igem'cn| of ai boiisc' 
hotd.— Gk, t.Ua»^^oT, fl steward,— Gk. 
e2«<i-« for otitskt, a house ; and r/>itiK, to 

fIcrO 'lilt. 

Ecstasy. (F.-L.-Gk.> O. F. «• 
/4xiV Ji,>»>-*Ijite L, fistasis^ a trance,— 
C>k. l^iroT<t(T(r, displacement; also, n trance. 
«^()k. |jtf, nut; oTQtfit, a standing, allied 

til Ti^ra/^ni, I ttfind, 

EoQjnenio&I, gmctal. l. - ck.) 
Late \.na<iimtmcHi\ with suffix W. — Gk. 
nkrav^tfrur^, bntvctsal. — Gk. oixovfiivTi 
{«c. 717), Ihe mhiihiled woiM, fern, of 

Teut. lypc V/«. 

Eoryi limid, nflected by fears, melan- 
choly, jstriinge, i^E) Scejftmicsoru M.E. 
arj ai^A, <*'"<J^ ^''^1 ^i^i timid \ spelt ^r/ 
in (JursorMundi, J7685. — A,S.«a»^^ Mr4, 
timid, cowardly. Cf. led. «i'*'^i '"''J'') 
G. 0^; Du, rr^t bod. 

Eflto«, (F.-L.) R <^af*v.-K. r/- 
i,L. ^'i (or **, out") ; ftod/^wf, from Kolk- 
L. 7^/B (for h, fofitm^ at*;, ui faiiiSK 
facp. Sec Fac». 

EffiBCt. \ F. - L.) A Y, ifftii ^y. effft). 
— L. tfftctum^ ttcc of efficitts^ an effect,— 
L. effectus^ pp. of t^ccre. to work out.— 

oJjr^i/^Mvn. pre*, pt, pass, of vJw^iw, I inhabit. 1.. //-, for ftx^ thorougldy ; foftre^ to do. 

EffeminBitv. iL.) Frum pp. of L* 
e^minCite^ to make womaiii&bT- L. #/^,, 
for f;r, thoroughly^ //mimtf a woman. 
See Pfrniniufi* 

Effendi, i^tr, master. (Turkish ~^Gk.) 
Turk. f/gndi\ sir.— Mod. Gk. d<pivrt}f^ for 
Gk.avff^t^tnTr^a despotic master, mt«r; act 

EfferveiCd. (L.) h.eferufutre.~U 
e/-, for i-4 , out ; ftrmsttrt^ to be(^ to 
boilf inceptive oi/fruire, to bojl, 

Eff^tOt exhausted. i,L.> L, tfffim. 

weiLkeocd by having brouf^bt forib jouni,'. 
— L. tf-, foi 

— Gt, e7*(o(. a houp«. Brxtgni. i. j ^H 
Eciem&i. a brcaktnp out of pn&tiiles oo 

the !»kia, (Gk.) Gk, <ir^V/ija, a pustule.— 
Gk. JjKf,V«iF, to boil over.^Gk* ^k^ ant; 
fifii*', to boil. See Teut. 

Edd^. iScand.) M.E. ydy i = idy). 
Tcel. (fia^ an cddy^ whirlpool ; cf. i6a. to 
whirl about ; Swed. <Jial. r'da, rd&, Dan, 
dial, iJ^^ fui <^dy. F'crhap* formed from 
IccL i'rt-» A.S* ("i/-, Goto. r'</- (prefix , 
b-ickwrirdf. C(. brugrn. i. ^ 574, 

Edge, :E. - M. K. <^yir. A. S **i;^, an 
edgf, border'f Du. <fyi!t UcL Swed, txf^ 

Dan. jf^, G ^i-f. Tcut. type *agJA. Cf. — L. ^-, for rJr, out ; J7fus^ ha» 
L. «k]V^, Gk. (uciit a point, Ski. fffTi-^ edge> brought forth; allied to L, fui^ i wu 
comer ^AK-') (Hrugm. i. f 361 ; n. ft 587). 

Edible, t-at able, ,L-> Ijil* E. ft/i^iZ/j. Em<MU^, force, virtue. (L.) L. tJS- 

— i.. ft/cr^, to cflt; see Eftt. fj^ff. efltcii^e ptfWer.*pL, r^i'de-i alem of 
Edict* \^) I" fdti'fuM, iicut, of pp, t^ax^ ufHcacious. — I.. *^(rrt\ to effect 

t%i idu^e^ to procUini,-*L. /, mil; dUert^ (below 1. 

(o^pcnV, I efficient* L.^ From atcm of pre*. 

Edii^. (1' -1-^ 0,F. fi/yfcr. - L. ^pt, ol .?^«r^, tocftcct; lec asbot. 
oi&Jialft, to build (hence, initructj. — L. | Efflgy. 'F.-L.) F. e^pg.^L. t^ 
WA, stem of ad^t, a liuildln^, orig, a I j>T;)n, ace. of e^grfij siti image, — 1., f^^<', 
hcnrth : yf^r-, for faitrt. to tnake. Dor. I baae of *0in^re^ to form. — L. ef-. for «*, 
fdi^ce, V,Mifi(e. \.,,id}fidHm,A building: om\Jiffi^erf, to ffirm. See Figure. 
fdiff, l.,ff,f7/tf. a ma^^istrare who had thf j EffloresceJlCe. F- — L.) F. fjlort- 
carc of jjuhtic buililin^**, \^\^^^.\.%20^.\Mimi^ hi. 'a flowering.* From h. e^o- 

EdltlOll. ^F.— I,, n. F. ft/jTiiiJw iH,%— rrsetri^ inceptive form of tjfierrrt^ to 
\ .. Mifiihifm ,<k<:c, oi ^iiith. a publishitig. *- ' blossom out.— L, -f/^**&r, ont ; Jitirtrf^ to 
h'/drfm. PI*, of A/rrv, to give out, puhlish- | biossoin. See Floral. 
»L, ^, oul ; darf, to give. Bttr ^f///, a EffiueiKlttt Q flowing, |^L..j Frnui the 




prt?a, pt* of tff!utr£f to flow ouL *- L. */-, 
Cnr fx, out i^titrt, to flow. See Plnent. 
Effort* (f^ - 1-.') F. e^(trf, an effort ; 
verbal ab, from F. ^efforur^ to cnctcavotir. 
»Metl L. ex/ariidr^^ lo use fortx. — L. 
Mr. out ; fi>rti'i^ strong. See Force. 

•• F. ejfr,iiuerh, 'impudency ; * Cot. — 
O. F, tffrenti^ shamdc^s^ — O, F, £f- \X"- 
*/-^ for rfxi, out; /rttn/j face, forehead (ai 
if pulling forward the forehead). Cf, P". 
af-fr^nier^ lo oppoie face to face. See 

Effctlgdnt, blight. (LO Frotn $tctn 
of prcs. pt- of L. tffuigfrA^ to shine forth. 
-* L. tf'^ for tx^ out ; fulgirt, to shine, 

£ffltBO. (L.) L- tffmui^ pp. of f^J« 
fir^c, to pour oi 
futtJere, to pour 

^^f , to poor out. — L. ^ 

pp. ot f^ 
f lor tJtj 


£g^ (i)^ the oval body whence chidcens, 
^c. are hiiLched. (Scand,) M« E* eg^ pi. 
^■JTJ. — IceL egf, Dan. ag^ Swed. <*i2f + 
A.S, (F^ (= M Iv *y: ; Dti. fi, G. «'. 
Froh. allied to Iriih Hgk, Gael, tfii, W, 
n^i 1.. ouu/H, Gk, wdf, egg» Bmgin. i. 

Egg (a), to insHgate. (Scmnd.) M. K. 
i^ggn.^Jsxhiggjd, to gottd on -a-Icel. fjijf, 
an edge (ptttnli. See Hdga, 

Eglautme. iF.-l..) F. /jiJatOiiv, 
M.J', aiglanfiiu^ atgiatttt^f, sweet-briar. 
-• O. F. aigian/, the lame. — I- 1)^6 
Kt^ent-uSf prickly (not found). — L. orw-j, 
a necHle ; -Unius (as la uiru-lertim). Cf* 
L. a^uleu^, a pricfcle, dimin. of ji^iwj. See 
Aglet. [V.AK,^ 

EgOtlAt, Egoist, K self-opinionalcd 
person. (L.) Coined from 'L. igs^ I; aee 
I. Cf. F. i/^iite (\. D, I7J5). 

EgrotfiOOA* excellent. [L.) I., fgre* 
^-HSj chosen ont of a flock, ckcellctit ; 
with suffix -tTHf. — L. /j out; .friy^p stem of 
P'fx, a flock. 

EgreiH, a going out. (L.) L. fgnssm> 
— L. <t'7M/Wfi pp. of igr^di^ to go oat.~ 
I ., (", out ; gradi^ to go. 

Egrttti (he teaser white heron. (F,-- 
n. n. GO M. F. t^ftUj at^prtfe, dtmin. 
of ft form *aigre (whence also Prov. a*^- 
QH, O. F. hair-en, K. her-^. ^O^H.G, 
heieir htig^r, a heron. See Hopon. 

J^L I iiiteij. (E.) M. K* ^, a. A. S. 
Aj; Pu. -if/ G,ri! ?.ekt 

Eid«r*duck. Swcd. dw^/ E/i The E. 
*yw(.0 i<i here (idded lo the Swcd, spelliog 
of Icct. tsiir^ an eider-dtick ia proncn^nced 
like » tQ tirnt) ; whence Dan. edfrfugi 

(eider-fowl) J Swed. it/dtr i and cf. S? 
dial. A/. Ber. eitier-tiortm , loci tf^dn/jG 

Eight. (K.) M. K, dghf/. A. 
^dVa.Hhl^v, iir>i/, Icel. d/fa, D«x. 
Swed. J//dt *Joth. afifau, G. df>i/; ti 
PTv^^j Gael. ft-Ai/j W. wf^A, L. odOt 
(Wt*lf, V^ers. iashf^ Zeiid drA/'rt.Skt.aj-A/d 
Id^, type *ckiS.u\. l>or. iigh-tieH, A. 
enAtaifng, mA/ttf^fte; fig-h-fy, A. S. (Ai 
tahlati^- £igh-th, A. S. takteSa. 

^■qI, Tinegar, (F,-L.) In Shak. 
M. E, "fljtf/, HfiVi?, (MjiV. — O, F. fl/fi"/, fiV*/^ 
also liwi', vinegar (Godefroy). Jisi/ np- 
pcai s to be ;t dimin. foim of atsf. — I -ate L. 
atifitSf bitter; closely related to L.acffum^ 
vinegar. The Goth. akiii„ vinegar, A.S- 
^rirfj G- e^sig^ is dae to Late L, mffum 
L, a^iturn. 

Eisteddfod, a congress of (Wrf 
bards. (VV.j Vv.^jrffl/i;^!^, a sitting^ con- 
gress.— W. eistedJ^ to iit. 

Either, (ti.) M, E. ei4her, ait fur, 
A. 5* iP^tfj contraCEc-d form oi iigkwaptf. 
Comp, of ii'jp-Avfix/er\ where 4 = ayet 
(for fr-^ is a prefix» and Atoa/tr = whetht 
+Du. ifiUr, G.jtder, O, H, G. /chwi' 

Bj&cnl&tef to jerk out art DttemiK 
;L. From pp. of L. Hdiuiari^ ta 
Dut.**L. /, oat; iacu/um^ a ml&sile, : 
ifurent, |o cast, 

Cgect. (L.) L, /tWfSfi, fretjueutal 
of L, /iffTF^ to cast out,— h,/^ out; M 
to cast. 

Ehe {i),to augment. {E,) M.E. tJitrt. 
O. Merc. Itart^ A- S. Tg^an, Mrcain vb. 
Tent, type *iittkjan-. weak vb, \ allied to 
IccK ^wjfff, Goth, tiukdn I neuter^ str. vb, ; 
cf. L, aw,^rt. (jy'AUGw.) Brufjm 1*4^35. 
eke (a*), also, (E.) M, K, ftk, the. 
A,!5. ftff.+Da. mk., Icel. aub. Swed- i*rA 
(flnd)f Dfln. ^^ (and), G. i^mh. Ail from 
the Teut. base tmh- above. 

Elaborate. (L-;i L. fiahdHUusy 

of ilabofs^fi. lo labour greatly.** L. .f, 01 
greatly ; iahdr^re^ to wort, from iai 
stem oUafvr, labour. 
Elaad, a S. African antelope. (Vn.- 
- l,ith.) Du. itanJ, an elk. — G. ehnd.-^ 
Kithuan. **/»/>» an elk> d, W, tl<xin^ »_ 
hind, Ru5s. o/^M<T^ ^ stag+ See Blk- 
Elkpse, to glide away, (l,.) From 
ilapuis^ pp. of ^itlbi, to glide away,-L. 

I atvay ; lilbi^ to glide. 

I Elastic* lCk«'} Formerly g/as/tti 

■ Gk. *iAQcrTt]ir(/i, propulsive, coined fr 
Gk. ^^aGu = JAoirVu, 1 drive fut. iSAV' 

I Cf. Gk, MaffT^, also JAar^^, a driver. 




Elate, lificfl up, proud. (L."; L,lfd/m., 
•tifled iip.«L, /. out ; Aifus, used «s pp, of 
'fitft, hut :iUicd to t&Hire, lo lift, 

lAfY^roK, A HUticK (of Iament,\ — Gkj 

ElboWp the bend uf the Jirm. (E.) L, r/r w.-t'*v//f'^i, n firsi principle. 

" _ ■ Elephant. .F*. - L. ^ Gk.) M, E. 

— A, S» */»t «*gnif>'iiiB 'ell,' orig, ' anni ' j f/v/^JMw^, o!i'/aunt. — 0. F. ^tifant, eli- 
owl J^ttfiA) n bow, A bending (see Bow). ,yt»(/. — L. rU/>AtiN/fm, ace. of ^UjtAas. — 
A. S. tfivj [ft aftied to Goth, aiiitta, » cubit, t^^k. i\/<^E, sin elephant* Origin uMknuwn ; 

W. ff^rn, Irisb MiVf, L. M/n<j, Gk. wA<mj, 
Kkt. arattti'^ (he dhow. See EIL+Dn, 

Eld, old 1^. (K.) M. E. /^/Ar, old 
Kgc ; 0, Merc. */»/<?, old ngc r from aM, 
old. Ct A. S. itUu^yidu ; from /dA^, old. 
+ Icc]. *//i : Han. rf/^rf. Sec Old. 

•Ider 0, oldtrr. (E.) Both u adj. 
and sb. O. Mere. .Wrfm (A. S. yi/nr), 
elder, adj.; compotative of atd i;,A, S. 

€isld') , old« 

eldest. (E.> O. Merc, ^tdtsta (A. S* 
fU<std\j saptrl. of ff/i^lA.S. /dy^, old. 

Sldev (3 I, a tTCf . {^E.^i The rf* is eitcre- 
•cetit. M. K. f//fr. A. S, //iVw, tUtrrn.J^ 
Low G, eHoortf, %^ Distinct Irom ald^r, 

Eleo&mpaner a pUnc. (L.) A. S. 

gfftoTtf. (Uiht^ ptnerted from L, r/fu/d ; and 
yA.¥ ,ftiu/f-ttim/>aft/ fCotO"!-' inula cam- 
ftinai elccAmpane, Here ^amfiJna prob. 
means' wild, growing ia the neMj^^ Crom 
L. ratupur^ a field. 

Electr chosen. (L.) L. /h'ftiff pp. of 
/U^tr^f to choose oat.«*L. i*, OBt ; /f^r^, 
to choose. 

Eleotric. fL.-Gk,) Coined frgm L, 
iUitrurrtt atnber, which has ctectric pro- 
perties. — Gk. j5a**t/>ok, amber, also sliia- 
biij mctcil; allied to ^xixrwp, gleacning, 

ElectlLUrf, a kind of cusfection. iV\ 
~ L, - Gk. 1 M t. Jf/mtrir. - O, F. ^f- 
iuairv, M, F. tUctuaire,^ Lale L. iUi:tuS- 
rium^ //(f/Jinum, a ro -dicine that dissolves 
1q the mnuth, Peih.'^i.d tor *e r Jrct-JIn'um^ 
from Gk. tuXtntrCf^ an electuary, from 
inXtlxny^ to lick oat.^Gkr i«, oat! 
Xtixtt*^^ to tick. 

EleemoeTaaryi relaitn^ to flltn^. 

Jill .nlmHiritT ; from f/</wi*>jy»(J, [ilmB.-»Gk. 
jAir;^-).T.:i t;r, pity^ alms. Sec Alma. 

SUegaJlti choice, iicnt, i.K.-I..) M. F. 
4i4gatiT. — L. ile^attt-. item of fUgnnSy 
\3t9ixivX^ neat.<^L. ^, out; itg-^ bm of 
^jUT'^ to choose. 

Elegy, a foneial ode. (K.-L.-Ck,) 
M. F. fU£ff.'' L. tit^a,'* Gk, tA^^tiaf 
tefn. ttt»E-, ^1 ^l<^Ky p ^ri^. neut. pi. of 

some comj>are Hub* «■////;, nn o%, 

EleTAte. (t") Frompp. nfr.,^A-Wffr/, 
to lift upr — L. if out; feutln, lo lighten, 
lift, from /«*!>, light. Set Levity. 

EleveiX. k^A M- K, ertieuitt, A. S. 
{a'iijlrojun, endin/iftt ', O. Northuml 
jr//t/rtf. + Du. £^' IccL ftii/it, Dan, fUftf. 
Swed. <^«, Goth, ai'/i/i/; G. tf^, O. H. Gi 
titi/t/l p. A compomiid of Ttul, *^irt-^^ 
ohtt;'and -/^--=Liihiian. -//jta (in v/»to*t 
/riiffr, eleven) . Lilh. -//jta perhaps meani 
' remaining * ; cf. L. linqMere^ to leavej 
Brugm, ii 4 175* 

E&, (EO M,E,*/^, O.Merc, *//+ 
Icel. d^r, Dan, (tif\ also G.alp, a night- 
more, Der. //A'"w, ndj,, for *ff{f^tn bnt 
prob. suggeiteci by ihe M. E. gen. pL 
eivene, of elves (in the SoBthem dialect). 

Elioitp to coax out. i,L.) From pp, 
of L. iiiftrt^ to draw out hy coojring,— 
L. iy out ; iattrtf to oitice. And 

Elide. CI") L. il%d€r€^ to strike out.-* 
L, ^, out \ ladert^ to d>-uh, Der« eiis-i&m\ 
ifrom ppl ?/tS'Us). 

Eligible. tK.^L.) r^A^'i^/^.^-Mcd. 
L. ^tt^iliilis, fit to be choteti^— L. i/^grrt, 
to choose out ; see Sloct. 

Eliminate. {L.) From pp. of JL.^ 
^/imindre, to thrust out of, — L, i, forth J 
ttmitt-, stem of iimen, a threshold. See 

Eliiion ; se^ Elide, 

Elixir. (At.-Gk,) Me*!. L. */wfi>; 
for Arab. */ Hisir^ the philosopher's atone, 
csp, a sort of powder (Dcvicl ; where il ia 
the dehaite unicle. — Gk. irjpioVf dry pow* 
dcr, or f^j^K dry (residuum). 

Elk, a^kinq of deer. iG.) Prob. adapted 
from M. H. G. tick, an elk ; O, H. G. tfaAfi. 
Cf. Icel, figr^ Swed. dg., an tlk ; Kdss. 
otepUt a stag; 1- aAvf, Gk. aA*ij. W\^ 
torr obscured Found in A. S. as t/ik. fih, 

iSU. (E.I ly\.\LtU£^eIni. A.S,//(i*jw,] 
a cubtt,+nu. r/&, */j Uel. di/fVr, the ai 
from the elliow lo the tip nf |hc middle 
6ngvr ; Swcd. a/iw, Pbji. sfeH^ Goth. a/rm<HJ 
G, (?//^, ell ; I., m/wi, cll)OWr cubit ; Gk, 

iXjwT, elhtiw. Eii - ti- 111 r^'dtrw. 


-^g^ »- 




£llipsO, (L. — Gk.) Formerly f/A/m, 

— L. el/ij^us. — Gk. ^AA<[^/r, a defect, an 
ellipse of a word ; also^ an oval figarEj 
becAOfte its plane forms with the t&8c of 
the cone k l^s an^le than that of ii para- 
bola* — Gfc. iWiiir€i>, to lt.*ave iti^ leave 
behind. -^Gk. ik-, for Ir, in; Aii'vftv, to 
Itave, co^ate with L, iirt^*urv. Der. 
tlliptiCf adj., Gk. JXXfjwTmfut. 

Elm, a tree. (E.) A,S, ^/«,+O.H,G. 
f/w ; i:f. Iiitl. Slmr^ Dan-a/m, Swed. a/m j 
nlso L. hUhhs (whence G. uluu^ Du. c/wi. 

Elocution. (I^^i Fram L, ^ixiiiid- 
mm^ acc- of ilocuiio^ clear atteraacc. — L. 
iifKHtm, pp. of claqm, to speak out.~L. 
/, out ; /iY"') ^'^ speak, Cf. Eloquent. 

EloiglLp Eloili, to rcmoirc and keep 
At a distance, Id withdraw. (F. — L.) 
O. F. tshif^ntr^ to remoTC, keep away 
(Law L, txloHgitrt), *• OF* ts^ away: 
^I^JAI^ (F. Auff), far off.— L. 4fx, awny; 
/ffK^j adT. far off, S« IiODg. 

Elope. CA. F* — Scand*) A* F. aloptr^ 
to rtm away (from %. husband ; see N- E* D*) . 

— A. F* d- pfcfix (perhaps for O. K. «-, 
away, as in R, a-^iiMj ; and M. K. /p^^, 
tc^^atl 'Cath. Angli(rntn\ from \z^\.hUiupa^ 
cognate with E. L«ap, % Or from A. S, 
dhhlop-e/t^ pp. of p/tkiiopait, to escape ; 
from A, S, (j^-^ away, and hllopan^ to rHU^ 
10 Icnp. 

SlOaaent. (F, — L.) M.E. il&queni. 
w O. r* «/^*«rt/. — L. iloqwnl-^ Blem of 
prei. pt* of iUqttt^ to speak out ol^ clearly. 

— L. /, out ; hifuij to Apeak. 
Else, otherwise. (£.^ A. S. dies, adv.; 

ftem *flj^iP-, signifying * other,* as io Goth, 
aiJiSf othcr.-4-S*cd. ei/esl \ allied to L. 
aiiaSf and to Alien, The snITix -ef marks 
the pfen. <:a*e, neuter- 

ElTtcidatfii iL*) From pp. of LAte L. 
fluiid'~ii'^\ to tnake clear.— L^/, out, very ; 
!ufU lis^ lucid, clear* See Lucid. 

Eludey to avoid slily. (L,.; L, ffiid^rt 
fpp. f/Usui), to tnock, deceive — L. i, oot ; 
l&icrt^ to ptay* ' Dor* ilus-&ry^ from the 

Bl^ninm, a heaven, (L.-Gk.) L, 
-;^j7tfm. -Gk, iSAwJto*-, shnrt for ijktJpujv 
wpBfw, tilt Elysian field ^Od.^. 563). 

Em-,/«^j-- (F.-L.) F.rfffl-<L. /»«. 
ffor r'w), in, before h and /. Hence <w- 
halm^ to anoint with balm^ em-hank^ to 
enclose with a bank, cast up a bank \ tm- 
hi/il/^ tif invest with a body, &c* 

Emaeiftte, (L.) Ftooi pp. of L. 

fmmfi^rt^ to make tMn, — L, /, very ; 

mtvr'-^ base of maftt's^ leanness; cf*. 
Emaaate* (L*) Prom L. im*lHiUi 

pp* of fmatiJkrt^ to floiT OUt*^L./, Ot 
mafulr€^ to flow. 

Emancipftte* (L.) From pp. of 
imAtuipare, to set free. — L. ^^ out ; mdiw- 
cipar^^ to transfer property* — L. matirip', 
stem of man^cepx^ lit, one whu (nk^s pro- 
perty b hand or receive* it. — L, matt-uf. 
Sand ; lapcre^ to t.ike. 

^m&BCTilatei to deprive of virility. 
\\u,} hrom pp. of L. rffiaj:i:ji/ttrr. — L* /^ 
away from ; masculus^ male. See Maa- 

Embargo. (Span.) Span, emhar^^ 
an arrL"^t, ;i i>ti>ppage of ships; lit. a pat- 
ting a bar in the way.— Late L. tj 
*imbarricarf, to bar id. Formed 
prefis, ^w- (=^Lat. in] from Span. Sarria^ 
a bar* See Bar, Barricade. 

Embark, t^\-'Late L.) F, ernhar^ 

SM^. — Late L. imhaniin^ to put in a 
ark, — L. im- (for rw)^ in ; daria^^i bafk ; 
see Bark ; 1 ';. 

EmbarraflB. (F. -Span.) F. tmtar- 
rasser^ to oerplci ; lit- to binder, put 
bar in one a way. — Span, imbaroiaf. "' 
saute. — .S]:aii. tm- '}.. im-y for i'w>, 
hi\mi :i h^u Cf. Elmbargo; and Bar. 

EiabaBSy, a mission. (F.-Late L,- 
C) A modificiliun of O. F. atn^aisa; 
cf. M. F, embassaJt, ItaL imltasdata^ weak- 
ened form of amhasaafa^ All from Lat 
L. authasctiVa ^ sb., orig. fcm. of pp. 
amfiauitlri^ \o sesd on a mission, frar 
amffiiicia, a mission. See AmbaaBador. 

Entbattl^t to fumi'ih with battle^ 
raents. iF*) M. E. embaitifkH. • O, 
fHt- (Li im , for »« , pfL-fix) ; anrl O. 
ihfuilli't, to Fortify* See B&ttlement. 

Embelliah. (F.^L) M, K. emi 

//jjvw. — O* K. cmbettJS'^ stem of prcs. 
of fmbelUr^ to beatHify. -0*F, *?«- 
I'w, ; nnd /y/. fair. See Bella, 

Ember-day** (E.) M. R, /w^ 

as ill ymhr-wtke. \,S. ymdrett-^ proJ 
from ymhync, a circuit, af period ; || 
ember-days are days that reeur at each 
the four seasooa of the yeur. The A.S." 
ymb-ryne is lit* *■ nnning round.* — A. S, 
ymb^ round (^^^G. um^ Gk. ^/4^*) ; ar 
rynt^ a run, eoiiTw; see Bom, Pre 
confused with L. fu&tuer tfmp&ra<, foi 
aensuns; w['.cnce G. ^tfii/<w^/; 
EmberSt luhea. (£*) M. F.* tnt, 
A.S. *myr^an^ embers; A.S. 



doms, Hi, JO (rfireV + Icel. timyrja^ 
Dun. emmrr, Swcfl. moya^ O. H. G. 
timHrJa.^h. Lmbcr, Cf. Ice l-riVfl-r, vapour j 
|)K>V4 10. PAM-? - A. S. •iJffil, vapour. 

itittfr, to mAkc AWAy wirh i\. D. 14^4).— 
O.K. en- (for L» m-j prefix); and O.K. 
hiSitlitr, %o TfiJil treat, destroy, upparcntly 
fiom U. K, hes- iLaic I- *«-* otw as a 
pejomtivc prefix't. Cf^ O- F A^rt/, liU 
trcatmrht, torture : ond sec Besile in the 
N. K. IK iff C'ertflitily inHuencedi in the 
16th cent, by a SBpfmsed etymology from 
imb^itl, TO weaken,, au obsolete verb 
frunir"! fioin the iidj. imhecile, q.v. 

Emblttm, iF.-L.-Gk,) M* F\ jw- 
Itlffm.'^i., emhlfma, -^ Ok. ttxBkiifia^ a 
thmg ptit on. An ornament «Gk. if^-, for 
ir, in, on ; BAXAuv^to thiow, to pot. Sec 

Cmblouieiljbfl, the produce of ^own 
Umds, crops which a toititt may cat after 
the determination of his tenancy. (K — L.) 
O. F. ffttA^iUffuttt , harreiL — O. F. cm- 
h/air, emhliuUr [Y, ^ut^/iiver}, to sow 
with com.— Late Lal> imtladdrt, lo sow. 

— L. ittt' (for rw), in; Late i- bUidttm 
e^K aMltum, n crup, com, lit. * wIibc is 

Bmbolinn* (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 

e$Hikfiiim(.^ L. rmAp/wwrPJ-— Gk. Jfiiffo* 
Ajff>i<^, an ifltercjibtion or insertion of 
days, to complete a period. » Gk, j/i, for |y, 
in; ^(iAA*n', til cast ; cf, V^O'^'Sr, "-o inser- 

Entbonpoill'tf [jlumpness of peraon. 
(F. — J. 1 K. em/witpoiutf plumptkeffi- 
For rfw itw ^'ftf, in t,'uod case.^L, j«, 
in ; Simti/u^ utoX. v( bonus, good ; putu- 
turn, point 

EmlioaB (Oi ^^ v^om with boiBa or 
raisciJ wofi;. (F, — L. artrf G,) From 
Bin-, i»fcri«; uid Boca. 

£ltlt>OSB (3), Id tftke iheller, or drive 
to abeUer in 1 wood, &c. (F. — Lat« L.) 
O F. emiK'tquer^ to shroud ia ih wood.* 
O, K. <m- ;I,. f« I, in x O. F. Aux^-f m wood ; 
ice Bouquflt. 

BBlb0110b.111W« (Ft — L.> ^.emboH- 
tkmrt, ihe moulh OT opening (of ft rivet). 
wFf €mhfiuiker, Co put m or to the mouth. 

— L. ifl, ia » F, bcnche^ from hucra^ the 

Exabrfteo* (F.-L.- O. F. embrarfr, 
to ^ol^p iti the anns. wO. F. em-, iot fa 
i;L, fin;; And bmct, tbe grasp of the 
jumn: sec BnuM. 


Bmbvarare. (F.^ F. fmht-amrt^ 
aperture with slant ^Ides. « M , F. ^f^iAi 
to slope ihc sides of a window.**O.F.j 

iL. j>*\inj M.F. brastr, * to dene, 
chnrafret:* Cot, (Of uoknowa origin.) 

Embr ocation, & fo me&ting. ( F . — 

j Latt' L. — t.j li ,) O. F. emhrot-iUicn^ — Med. 

L. tmbto^tUus, pp. oi tm&ratAre, to fooient. 

j — Gk. ^^^ox^t » fomentation. — Gk* i>*- 

MSp4X">^> i^° ^o^ in. — Gk. l^-^lr, in: 

dpfX^ftr^ to wet, soak. 

Embroider. (F.) From Xm- and 
i BroideT. Cf, O, F. emdrodtr, to em- 
I broider. 

Embroil. (F.] From F, embnmifU 
Ult confiiw. — F, ftw-^ [^L. !*«-, for '")■ 
j brouUI^r, to confuse. See Broil (ajr 
and cf, Imbfo^Llo. 

£mbryo. (.F.-Gk,) FarmerJy em- 
htyon. — M. F, tmbryoM, — Gk. j>j^/nw, 
the cmhryo, foetua. — Gkt rf>i*=»4K, within 
d/ivof, nettt. of pres. pt of fifi'kii^, to 
full of, swcU out. 

Em.6iidtktiO]l* (L.) Coined from the" 
pp. of I.- I'm^tfilare, to free ftom fanlt.^ 
L. /', Ulx hom ; mendttm, miHiiu,a f&ult. 

EmenUdf a green gem. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M. L. rt^ifrande^^Oje . esmeraude (Span, 
tsnuraida] ; also gtmfr^gtfe. -• L- rMd- 
tngdumt ace. of smarngdns, — Gk. a^- 
/mitSot, an emerald. Cf, Skt. marakaia^f 
an emerald. 

Emerge, to rise from the Kft, Appear. 

L.i \.. Pttfrj^rt, !o riw out of water.— 
— I . ,', onr ; miff^rf., 10 tiip ^ see Mor^. 

EmerodB ; ^e Hemorrboida, 

Eme^i n hard uiberal. (F. — lul.— 
GkO ^rnierly tmtrit \ XVII cunt.*' 
F\ /meri\ M, F. tmeril, «w^nV, — ItaL 
smcrii^Iio. — Gk, tf>i^^tf, Oftvpiif emery. 

Emetic. (U-Gk.) L. tmtiiijti,^ 
Gk. j^rrjivut, causing sickness. — Gk, 4^< 
I vomit ; ^^et' Vomit. 

Esuigrate. iX^') From pp, of L 
migrArf, to wander forth. — L, ^, 
rm^^re, to wander f see Mipat«. 

Emineiitv esccllcjit (L.) 'L.^mincnt- 
stLrti t»f ptcs, pt oifminfrt, to projec 
excel. — L.('. out ; *mi»^rr, to project ; 
which cf. im-mittetit, pr0-miHeiU, 

Emir, a coaunaniler. [Arab.> Arab^. 
atHlr^ a nohUman, prince. — Arab. rQ< 
ftmara, he commanded, De?, oiimir-al. 

Emiti <^» &ead forth. (L.) L. imttttrt^ 
to send forth; pp. imiSiuu-^L, i, out; 
mitten^ to send. Der. rmission, emt'sf 
ary, from the pp. 




avtoie^ \, S. atwiit, of irat^fi/, ah &»(.+ 
G. attuije, O. H. G. 4meha^ or nmeiia* an 
ant. Doublet, anf, 

SiamfrW ; see Eaew. 

ZStUOllieilti soflenin(j. (F. — L.^ M.F, 
,§m<^iitnt.^L i-Rt&Ifient' %Krm oTprc*. pt, 
'of itttalUrt, to soften —L, /, out, veiy; 
puffiire^ to sofiqn, from mal/i-i, snO* 

£moinmeii.t, ga.m. «>'. -L.i O. F. 
em^nminL'^l^. imotuminium^ whcit is 
gviafrd by labonr, — LYwitVi"r/,irt work out, 
«ecLinin1i»h. •* L. f^ out, greaily ; m^Urt^ to 
work^ from mdhi^ h<ap, alsq effort. % So 
D&ttally eiplajncd; but the short vowels 
in 'W/iV«- suggest a deriTitioQ from imS- 
hri, tu firind thoroughly. 

SmotiOfl.. \\A Cotn^ from L. hniflus^ 
pp, ol hnoufre^ to move away or much. — 
L. /. out, much ; m&Hire. to tnovip. 

SmperOFt a ruler. T, — !,;■ O. F, 
emptrcor.^Xt. im[*fiiiiMim. ace. of im- 

riltor, a ruler. — L. trnpinlr^^ to nile. — 
im- for (M-)^ upon^ over; /vtrOre, \q 
mnke re.idr, order. Dor- empr-fMs. 

Edpha^Bilt, stress of voice. (L. — Gk..) 
L. etnphaiii^ — Uk. fju^Kicrir, a decTaration, 
emphasis; orij^. appearance, — Gk. ip'pai* 
j-d/ifli, 1 appear. — Gk. ij;*' ^Jcj, in; 
] appear, whentc ^j^ir. an 

Esaptr, void, -J^*' M.K, tuipti. K.i 

,7mtrj,'^ ,?me/ij^^ lit. full of leiMire. — A. ' 
(fm/a, t?tm-t/a, leisure, oldur form fM/>f4 
Kpin. Glos. 680^. FerbAps <?meifa is fo| 
*JfM6//ifn , from iF-^ prefix, privaliTc, aiw' 
MTif/, a meeting for bu&ir>c%!„ 

Empyrean, Empyreal, pei-tnininj 
to demenu] fife* r.-tik.) Adjectivi 
coined frgni ].. fM/yr(r^$ii^ Gk, 'f^mJjv" 
oiar^ e;itendcd from ifi-wvp^t^ exposed to-] 
fire.--Gk. ^>*"=riirjn J wvp, fire: &ecFiv«« 

Eiuti, Emeu, a hud^ (Port.) Fgit. 
i'wrf, .in ostrich. 

Emulate. iL.) From pp, of L. 
tPMu/.irt\ to try to equal —I,, itmutut^ 
stri^in^ to crjual. 

Emiilflio&r n milkdike mixture* (F. 
h. M. K. imu(si£iti% formri! from I. 
imuh-us, pp. ol imul^lr^, to milk out* — - 
I-. ?, out ; mu^gfr^, to nailik ; see Uilk. 

En-^, prtfix. (F. ^ L.1 F.fff'. — L. jff-. 
lu ; sometimes used with a cnusal force, ai 
en-ras/, f/t-thain^ Sec. Sec Em-. 

Enact. iK.-L.) In Shak.-F. ?«-, 
in I.. fH ; mill Act. Lit. * to put in act. ' 

EnameL vb. iV. ^O. H. G,) M. E. 

tniimaiii', s[>,» enamtltn, vh.'^X.Y, etia' 
nuUfr, fnnniailler, vb. — F. r"!* (L in),, oo ; 
ttmat'ir, (or O. F. ^rj-Mdi/, enamel (-Itml. 
irnaittf;, fronj O. Low G, jff/a// > Lubben)« 

^(»<&;j«i{, ] appea 

Appearance ; sec Ph&se. Dor. thtphaiU, See Bm&lt. 

from Gk. *V(paT(*^f^ significant. , Enamonr. (F. — L,;, O.Y- frutmfttvr. 

Empire. iF.— [,.) F* cw/iV/. — L, i"«- ; to inllaroe with lovc-— F- fn ammtr. In 

frrinm, command.— L. im- itt-\ upon, love; where F. ^m is from L. ifl, in, and 

over : parifrt^ to make ready^ ordt-r. 

Empiric^ )> ii'i°^^ doctor, iF,— L.— 

Gk.) M. F. £tti/*ingui. — L, imptrkus, — 
Gki iii'nti,pi«ui, experieocetl ; al^ one of 
A certain set of physicians. —Gk. i^^^iv. 
in; wtipa -i*i«pini, a trial, cwperienqc, 
allied to w^os. a way, and to E, F«pe^ 
Bnigm. \. % J93. 

Employ. ,F. — L. !' M. F, tmpiijytr^ to 
employ. — 1-. tmpfk^re, to implicate (jo 
Late L., to use for» employe - L. im- ifbr 
r'H- 1, in ; fififdrtj to fold ; see ImpUoftte, 

Emporium, a mart. L.-Gk.'i L. 
fmpunut/L — Gk ifiiiii^M, a mart j neut of 
ijLW&pkiti, camtnctciaL- Gk. l^vopJn, com> 
ineroe, |jh"Vof. a trav^tler^ merchant.- 
Gk. I (- =. ^fc-, in ; *i5/»Df , a way ; «e<r Pftfe. 

Emprise, enterprise 'F. — L,*) M. £. 
tmpriie —I J. F- fmpn'ff; orig. fern, of 
tmpnr, pp, of O, F. trnprtn^irt, tn lake In 
hand. — I. I'ffr- ./w , iu; pt^hotdot^ to 

amour from I., ace amflr^m, Inve, 
Encamp. tF.-L.; Coined from ^j#^ 

iF, en. J, I'wi and cofli/; hence 'iq' 

form into a camp/ See Gamp. 
Encase* K.— L.) Ct F. ^ffmrVi^p^i 

* to put mio a cue j ' Cot.^F, en, in (Lij 

rri'*; ntid M. F, «V}iUf, aiJ», a caie 

Cue a). 
EncanatiOt rf^latln^ to designs humt 

in- iF,~L. — Gk.T h. /ttramftt/uf ^l» 

ftuausfffus.'^Gk. tyKavarntui. relating to 
burning- in. — Gk. i¥, in; ttnioi, I bum. 
Sec Gatm. 

Enceinte* pregnant. (F. — L,) F./m- 
rir/jrj^f . — Lfltc L. irtn'nffn, unfiirt»iaid of 
pregnant woman, fem. of pp. nf fin^rri 
to girti, with ncg. prefix t'n-, ^ Uidd 
eipTflins I ,ftte I., imifiifa a* mcatiinj 
' ungirt ' ; so als« llal. ituinta ' Florio'i. 

Endlant. (F. — L.^ h^. rMAa/tffr. u 
charm, — L. inrattf/Sn-, tu repeat a chanU — 
L. i/r-, upon; and »a»t*irif, to kiuK : *** 
Cant r 




Bli«hflSt« rr.-L.) M. K. ^Hi-Atfjj«; j *dAfrf./«' Cf. <> Irish ituf. Skt. 
' to euchsce lt wt tji gold : ' Cot, Hence | tfnd* limit. % Htuuc the prefixed 
to embr-w. — 1'. *rtp in L, /«*) ; and fAasse o/tfi-,iTH^ in ati-stoer, 
(K. r^ff/v , the sACDe as e-dJ^j^, L case ^ $w I Endeavour, to aClctrrpL \)^^ — 
Cave (3 , j Coined Jiom the M. K. sb. tiftf*', ctf 

Encircle. (F»~L.) From Hn- and daly, with F. prefix en- = L. in). 
Circle. I CoDipare the old phraie 'to do hiK tiettr* 

Encline. (F.-r. M, E etifUnni.-^ -to do hit daly {Qh. C- T. 155)8) ; vk 

O.F. fth'/itter.^'L. im/fft^fe; &ceInQLiAe. 

Enclitic. iGk) lik. J^^AiTixiff, en- 

ciinitnj, <Upend*Dt; nsetl of a word uhich 

D 9 voir. 

Endemic, peculiar to i dhtrkt. /<k,) 
Gk. ii'lli;i^-oT, l?*]onginu to a people- — 

leans' Its aicctit upon Another. — Gk. Gk. ir, m; ^fu,Si a people; £« D«mo- 

iyx^^r^lv^ to lean Dpon» encline.— Gk. Ir 
0:1: w^fftfir, to kan^ see Xiean (t). 

Enclose. (F,— l.^j Pn>m Ed- and 
Close ;i\ Cf. A J*, t^tdoj^ pp, of ett- 
ihrre^ to shct in. 

Encomium, commendation. ^L. — Gk.' 

hfttmiiitys, lnudatory, ful] of rcveliy. ^ Gk. 
jfr, ia ; iwpioft revelry. 

Encore, again. [F. »L.^ F. fiifon 
(- Ital. anc^ra), still, Again.— L, ^d/;ir 
floruwi:, for ih ftuMt- h^ram^Xo Ibis hour; 
Kc ftour, % SomewbaC fii»pa(cd. 

Encounter, vb. <, K. - 1., ) O* K. en- 
tjufttr, to m^et ia combat. — F, ^«, in j 
.i'ittn, nf^atn:^!.— L.i'ffjinj *i7«/rfl, against. 

EncOUnkge. (F, -L.l V , tfuffuruger', 
from F. ^M \L, in) and iouragi ; sec GoU' 

Encrinitei the ' atone lily ' ; a fossU. 
;Gk.) CotiiL-d from Gk. iv^ mi tcpbov^ a 
)ilr; with suffix ^irrjt. 

Sncro&cli. (F.-L. awrfTwit) Ut. 
to hook away, catch in a hook.— (J<F. 
rncrvfkifr, to seize upon, — F, tn, xn j ttv* , 
a hook ; ct F. ai-rrft-A^r, to hoctk tip. — i.. 
i», in; and M,. Du. jftinp^f^, Icet kr^kr^ Slc. \ 
Mre Crook- 

Enciunber. (K.-I. 7) a F. ^t-^m- 
^<v-, |o block up (a way). — Late L, /»- 
^m^rdrf, to obstruct. — L. I'/f-^ m; and 
l.Rie L. fifmhnts, an obstacle, S« OuiU' 

EtLC^Olic&lt cJrcnlar^ said of a letter 
sent round (ecclesiastical). From Gk. 
t'fitvitXt-B^, ciuular [said of a letter) ; with 
iiiffix '■iof. — lik. iv, in ; wJ^Xo-t, a ctrule. 
enoyclopSedia. [Zl-Gk.) Latinised 
ffum in coined) Gk. 'iymntXfrttuht'ia, for 
lytvitAKK wain#fa, circular (or compteie) 
inslfuction; from \yKvnhtfi9 (_at'Ovc)^ and 
«'atd«ja, li]>trllCtLon. 

End^ ill. E: M. K. ^W^ A.5. tn^ie, 
"b.+Dn rimff, Iccl. fmfiry Sw.rfW.f, Din. 
«W<r^ Goth. attdiiJ, 11. fHtU. I'eut. type 


Endive, a plant. fF.-U' F. «;rffVf 
fltal, rwrfiWfl), — Lat. type *tH/if>/a^ adj.j 
from L. irtti^ts, inttitits^ tndive. 

EndO^pen, a plant that grows from 
within. i.F. — Gk.) F. indoghie ^813% 

Latinised from tjk. i^h^^or^ nctit. of Frora Gk. Ivfto^r, within; 7**-, tase of 

7i''¥»''Ci>jai , t am born^ allterl 10 yivm, race. 

Endorse. (F, -L.^ FormtrlyrW^W/. 
0. F. tudirsierj to put on Ihc back of.— F. 
eri^ on ; Joit the backj from L. iiftrsunif the 
bnck 1. wbi nee the spellinff with */\ 

EndoW. ( F . — L. ) A . F. endawer. 
Frtjm \' . tn- and //cf/^r. — L. in-, in^ and 
.iotHre, to gi^C a dowry, from d^-^ stem 
of </i'/, a dowry; cf. dan, to give, 

Endue (Oi to endow. (;l'',-LO An- 
other kptliing oitudc^f, XV ccnt.*P*0. F. 
indoir flater ertdevrr-, to endow (Burpny). 

— L. /», in; and ddfure, \o eodow; &ee 
above. % Confused both with O.F. en- 
Juirt, to introduce (fiom L. r'w.Mifrf), 
ncid vi\lh Endue ',j'i below. 

Endae d > to clothe, {l^- A corrtj^v 
lion of itidiftt ; cb m ' fttdtti thy tniniatrrs 
with righlcousncii.' i* L. iNdMgr^, to 
clothe. See Indue (j) ; and see above. 

Endure* (F.-L,) tPl.£. fndt*rfn.^ 
F. fftdtfter.^9, tn 'L. m)\ and dutrr 
I L. duntn., to last. See l>ur6. 

Enemy. 'F. — l.) M. E. ttttmL^ 

O* F. (fw^r/wf, — L. itiimlfUM^ uafriciidly,<i 
L. irtf not 't amitttj, fiitDdly^ ftotti 
amSre, to love. 
Energy. (F,-L.-GkJ O.^encrgie, 

— late L. ^w^^a.— Gk. kvi^u^, vjgottr, 
action. — Gk. iMp7^r, at work, — Gk, 
in ; fp70F, work ; tee Work, 

Enervftte. lU) From pp. of 
/ttfrudre, to deprive of nerve or itiwigtL 

— L. if, out of; tttruujf a nerve; tee 

Enew. ' F. — L,^ Misipelt tmmtvf in 
Shak. ; read €nnt*^ to drive into the vrulcr. 
• K. fM, ia; A. F. twt F. <-(?«* water^ 





frum L. a'jtia^ C£ U. F. inruvr, to aotik 
ill watt-r I liodcfroy)* 

BnfftOff, to endue with a ficf. I.F- — L-^ 
ami Q, 11. G.\ The spellmg is Nottn&n 
¥.; formed from F. jM (L, iit\^ La; wid 
Jhi\ a fief. See Fief 

Enfilade, a straight line or passage, 
(K. — L.J ¥. £njilad£, a long string i.of 
thiflgs'i . — F , enfiier^ to thread. — K. en- 
(L, irt^. in: rf/, a thread, from L. j7/«m, 
a thread. See File (i% 

£iLga^9* (K.-L.) O. F. tngttgtr^ to 
bind by a pledge.— F. tn i^L. j>i\ in; 
g{ig£, n pled^ ; sec O&ge, Der. fA'i- 

Engender, to breed (F.-L,) M. E. 

erdre, to produce. — L. /«, in: ^iienlte, 
to breed, from ^«ffr- i^for *jgems-i, stem 
of j^i^wMj, a Rioc, See OetlUs. 

Engine.. i^F.-L.) O. F. fN^, a. 
tool. • L. irtgtnium , iiAturnt cnpadty, also, 
ui iavention.— L. iw^ in; gitii-^ as id 
g^nitu ; SM QentOB. 

English, bclaii^'in^' to the Angle*. (E,; 
A. S. jt'ffg/i'ir, --ft>^'/i>(r. — A. S. En^ie, 
j^Hgi-t, p]., the Angles; with soffix -ij^^ 
-ifih. Cf. A. S. Angel'Cyftn^ Angle kin 

Ett-g^oiledt indented with curved lines; 
in hcraldrj. (K. — L. flrtrf TeiiL) 0,F. 
rn^isle^ pp, of cngntUr, to engmil (indent 
&a with bailstones). »0. F. en^ in ; gnsk 
(F. ^i^&'i t bail. — L, i>i, in ; tJid ^rbapi) 
G.yf*i>J, ^irit. Sec Orifcil (3). 

Engrain, Ingriun, ta dre of a fast 
colrjur- \)f. - L. M. f^ engreyntn^ to 
dye fn g^t^***, i-e. of a IJist colout. Coined 
frutD F. ^rf iL. lit) ; attd O. F. gnaitu, 
* the serd of hcibs, also grftia, wherewith 
cloth is died in ^otn^ acnrlet die, ficarkl 
in grciit;e; ' Cot, From Late L- grdrui, 
the cochineal ' bcny ' or insect ; a feni. sb. 
formed from the pL (frdna) oigr^unHj a 

Engrave, C^* «««/ E.) From Bn- 
aiid Orav« (1) ; imhatintj O. F. tftgraver 
(from I^ i'« and O, H. G. fra^ort. Low C 
^roi*K, co^ale with E.grav*). 

EngrcBS, to write in large letter^ to 
Ok:i:uuy wholly. (F. — LO The former 
<]egal^ sense h the older- A. F. engrosser. 
From F . fw gr&ae^ 1. c. in liir^je characters, 
— L. (Mn in ; Late L. grcssay lar^ writing, 
lioin 1^. gr(f%iui, thitk. 

Bll1**-**f**t to raise, cxall, iQcreftAc. 
(F, — L» A' F, ttthaumtrf a form of O, F. 


cnhtUifrr^ tHkancier^ to lift i,Ual, ianai-^ 
Mym, — L, iw ; ftftd Late L. affidfv, 
Uitf (ttitn aiiuj^ high. 

Enigma* ^L.— Gk,) L. a-mgma, 
Gk- Aiviyt^a. {^tm aJriy/tar- , a rlddU 
dark saying. — Gk. ohfi^vQ/nu, I ^pcak 
riiUilcs-^Gk. alvot^ a talc, story. D<i 
£Hit^mai'if (from the stem). 

EbJoIiIi to bid. 'F. — 1-) O.F'. /* 
johidrt 1 1 p. pres. injoin-s). — L. iniut 

rif to bia, ofdain^ drig. to joiu into.< 
m. m J wttgert, to join. See Join, 

Ei^oy, tojoy ID. (K. — L.) M. K. « 
I'iJWfl \= ert/oyitt) ; A. F. tftwi^r.'^V. 
(L. t w ; O. F. jW*, F*^fl«; kc Joy. 

Enlighten, vb. [,E. ; »'/M F. fit 
fix. '..'oiDcd With F. prefix tn- ^L. in\ 
froiii fiffhUH^ vb. ; ftee Xilghtdn. 

Enlijitr to enter on a list. (F.— G.|^ 
■mifh W.—L.firijix:) Coined by piefijdng 
F* ftt (L tft) to List (j). 

Enmity, (F.— L.) M.E. ettmiie.* 
A. F, inemite ; O. F. fffawi>/;Vi;/:. — O. ] 
en- i.L. m-], neg. prefix; and amtsiieif)^ 
amity; sec Anut3r« 

Ennni. :F.-LO Mod. F. rHAu/, an- 
nojaJicc ; O. F. anpt. See Annoj^. 

EXLOrmOIUi, great beyond inejtsnre, 
(F. — L.) Formed from eiu>t*m (obsolete) 
with snfiii -0us, — M . F, enomu, I1 ugc. -* \ 
hufrmis^ out ai rcle, hflgi!. — L. f^ out 
norma, rule. See KormaL 

Enongh. (E.) hL E. im^A, ^rH^^-J 
l^]. inffAe, enoghs. A,^.gttfi^A,gmt*g, pi 
gen^ge, sufficient; dticd to A.S. ^"w* ' 
ii stil!ice&.+IoeL gnogr^ Dan, yii?*^ Swi 
iw[f, Du. gfiwi^gt G. gertftg, Goth, gamh.. 
The ^' is a prefix. Cf. L. namisi-i, t< 
obtain (pp. nac-fm) ; Ski. na^, to atiain, 

Enonire, .F-— L.) ME. r/f^Mtrrf/iii 
altered from iffqtttre to ett^utre, nnd latct tej 
inquin^ iindcr the influcncv gf tlit- L. fc 
« O - F- tttifuirre^ en^Hcrir^ — L. ittqitir 
to search into. — L. in, In; ifHarere^ 
seek. Der, rrrywiVjc, often tunicd ii 
ittquiry; enquest (now infuesi', froi 
O. K. £fii/u,'rfe^ L. inftusita \.w,i, a 
cnouiicii iitlH>. 

Enaample, iF.—L^) 'M.^ettstu»fi/e, 

— A. ¥ .tMStimpU, corrupt form offnam/i/e^ 
txempU.^h. ejccmpirtM^a. sanaple, pattern. 

— L> eximerty to ^Wct a lauiplv-^L. «jb^ 
out ; (fiwf*y, Ui lake. Beif. utm/Ze. 

Ensign* iF. - L.*i O. i'. rw^^wj 

moru L-om-ctly fttsfigtit, ^a si^i 
si|pic, jitiiudard ;' Cot. -J ate L. imiptiAf 
pi, of L. ^Mjj|^i»r,a «tan<liud.^i.„ tntignUf 


mark on iy." S« 

remarkable. ^ L, in 
tnaj-k ; U e. * with a 

£]isillbge, the storing or gmin, flee, 
underground. (F. — Span. — L. aMX Gk.) 
K. iftstiage^ — ^^n. tnsiiar^ to store up 
andergroQJict^tipaD.. crt^ in; j//^, a pit 
for storing gnuCL-<L. in, b; sir^iSf bor* 
rowed from Gk. a\p6s, a pit for storing 
grain . 

Ensne. (F.— L.) 0>F, tmu-, a 
su-m ul: tHsivrtj to follow After. ••Late L. 
iuffi/H^rf^ for L. insequl^ to ibllow upon. 
— L, *>i, on ; jf^«/"j to follow, 

Sn^lirdifo m.'kJ'eBDre. (F. — L.) A. F. 
CNntttrer.'^Y. en (L, rw)^ la; and O. F. 
itiif, *.iirc ; sec Sum. 

Entablature. iF. - L.) Obs. F, 

iHialiitftfrc, ' an iotablature; ' Cot. [Cf. 
Ilal. intavoltitura^ *a planking,* Toniano; 
from intav^lar£, ' to trtjard.' Fitirio.] Pro* 
pcrly ' somrthtog laid Hat/ and, thuugh 
Aow applied to tAc put of a building sur- 
moantlng tbe columns, ong« applied to a 
panel OF flooring. — L. rw, upon; •/o^M' 
Mri^ a verb fottncd from the &b. tabuid- 
tmm, boiirdworkj a flooring, from tsimla^ 
a plank : mx Table. 

Sntailt to beiitow as a heritage- (F.— 
L,, Orig, tn convert an cilate intoj^e- 
l0r^ KffAiurn ialiidtum^ where iaitiatum 
mean* ^ liniUcd ' in a certain way )» From 
K. ^«- iL. i>#) and taiiUr \JaUiiirt). In 
toother sense we find M, ^enttuiett, io cut, 
carve *>Q. F. entailUr^ to garvc, ^ave, — 
P. tH^ (L. ffl), in ; and laiiUr, to cut : aee 
Tailor, Tail (j), Tall]r. 

Etltftng?^; from Bd^ and Tangle^ 

Suier. .F.-L.) M.E,fn/rrrt.»O.F. 
CHtttr — L. in/*iit€^ to go iato.« L. x«, in ; 
and *frtlr£, \o go through i!cf. pcne^trUrt 
ood ^rr/Mj) ; allied to Stt. tara-^ a pit;i&agc. 
Sec Uiiigiti. ii* $ 5791. Der* entr ance, 

Saterpruie^ (F*-l;.i o,k. r/i/rc 

prists ttttcrfrtHSi^ an enterprise. — O. F. 
tnUt-^isy pp. tff tnitf-prendtr^ to under- 
take. —Late I., i^erfrentiere.'^^— in/fr, 
among ; frrtnJtre, Abort tor p^htmiirtt to 
lav hold t>r, Sec FrehDa^9, 
fint^rtain. (F. ^ L.j O. F. etUtf- 

ieftir-.^\^\t: L. in/frien^re, to entErtaiOp 
lit. ' (u hoM oT keep amcmg,*— L^ iH/zr, 
amoni;; iai^'t^^ to hold. 
SnUlnfliasillf inspiialion. (L.'Gk.) 
Late 1^. enikuiiasttius.^^V, hrffcxxitaif^vij 
iDspUaiiuii. *(jk. ir$Qvoti(«. 1 am inipiad. 


♦-Gk. h6to§^ full of the gr«J, havtng a god 
wiihiii, inspiied.^Gk. if, in; di^, a 

ISutiCd. (F.— L.) M/E. vituren.^ 
O.K. ittticirr^ gniiektr^ to eidte.— Lat 
type *iniitiiir£, to kliidli^f tet on firr.^L. 
in ; and *iitius^ for tiii^, a fircbrood. Cf. 
F. tUtiser^ Ital. attisutre, to set on fire. 

Entire. <F.— L.> O.F.m/u/-, whole. 
— L, in/i^ffrum, ace. of Sitffgitr, whole. 

Entity* bting. (L.) A coined word, 
with siifni -/Kr from h. ctiei', dccl. item of 
*rrjfp a tbint\ a being; see EaaenoQ. 

Entomology. (F.— lik) \ eftfom^ 
U^ie (A, (J. 1764;. From Ck. Hytofio-v^ 
an insect ; neut, of fKro/jo-t, cut into, so 
called from the \STy thin middle part (sec 
Inaact).— Gk. ivj in; riftMtv, to cot; 
with suMx 'Ao^ta, dtsconrsc, frum J<(juif, 
to speak. 

EutTails, tbe inward purts. (F.-L.) 
O. F, iHtraifU^ intestines.*' Late L. itttrS^ 
iia^ alao (more correctly) inirSwHy en- 
trails.— L. interama^ enlraik. Dent. pi. of 
interamus, inward^ adj., fram ittUr, 
within, iff The O. F- tniraitU was a fcm. 
sing, made from a neut. pU 

£ntreat. (F,-L.) Orig. to treat; 
then to tn at with, iKScich. O. F, rnfrmitr^ 
to treat of. — F. tn «U in), in, concern- 
ing ; F. traiUr<X-- tmctOre^ to handle, 
treat ; iee Treat. 

Enomerata. (L.) From pp. of L. 
cttttmerSrt^ to reckon op. *■ L. /, out, fully ; 
ttumir&tt.^h.^ from Humerus^ number. 

Eannciatei <L,) From pp. of L. 

intiiut\}}€, bLtter ^pelt iKuniiA»e^ to utter, 
declare fally. — L. /^ fully ; numiart^ to 
tell, from nun/iits,A messenger* 

Envelop. (F. - Teut/i M. E. etwoiupeti. 
O. V. eirvotup^, later envei^/vr. to wrap 
in, wrap round, enfold. — F. en (U (w j, In ; 
arid O. F. voluttr, vokpi-r, vhptr^ to *rap, 
from a base vlop-^ to wrap. Thi^ base re- 
sembles M. E. wlapptn^ to wrap ; whidi, 
howe^Ti, t-'- not known ostslde Englisli, 
See Lap \j^\. Note Walloon rwalp^, to 
envelop ^Remacle): M. litA.g^iu/pattfKo 
wrap (Florio). Cf. Develop^ 

Environ, to sTjiroimd . (F, - L. ) O. F. 
invirffnner^ to anrround. ^ F. tmfiron^ 
round about.— F> fn (L. j»), tn ; O. F- 
viroHf a circuity from crVw, to turn, vect ; 
Bee Veer. 

EnvOX- 'F.-L.l O. F. €ttvay, a send- 
mg— 0< F, ^KtW«r, to tend.- F. /^ kv^V^ 





nn the way, — I*, tn kww, on ihc way, 
Cf. luL hiviart^ lo send. 

EttVy, ab. I. !■". — L, M.E. ^tiuie ^en^ 
2'te . — O. F. em'Tf, — L, itiurtiia^ zwr[\ sec 

EpftCt. ^F.-Lcte 1..- Gk,. O.F. 
(antl V, e/^cte, iin addition, tbe tpa-cl 
(a lerm in astconikmy . — Late L, fjkicta.** 

-*Gk, i«r/. upon; icwiop^ a tirdc; 

Epidemic, afTccting a peopk. J 

Gk») Formfil from L. ipidrnuts, cpi- 
deniic — Gk. iwilr^^ia^^ nmong Ihc people^ 
Eeneral, — Gk. €*i, among; Sv^citj |>eop| 

Epid^rxnis, cutide. iL. — Gk.^ 

Gk» Jffa«rij ;fnr ^n-offrJr 7;t<pi), lale fern* ^ <;^iiri:rwM. — (il^, ^HiSi^^^fr, upper skin,— 

Gk. (iri, Upon ; iipfi-Oj skin* Sec Derm. 

Epig'lattiSi the cartilage forralDg a 

Ikl i>vi;f iheglotli^. (Gk,) Gk. im^XiuTTif:. 


of iwaKT^tf added, —Gk. ig^yttt/^ ty bring 
IQ, add. — Gk. ^JT-, foi ivi, tu ; and ^vtt*', 
to lead, brin^r. V^*^' 

Ep&ulet, a shoulder knot. l-.-L.- 
Gk. F* ^pauiet{e\ dimin. from t'JHtttk 

(O. V, cipaulc , a sbouMcT. — Latu U i £|»igrun, fl short and pithy poem or 
spaiula^ shoulder-blade: L. uNiiuia^ a ! savin i:. t.-L.-Gk.. K. /pt'eniffimr. 


bfoad blade ; sec Spatula, 


— L. cpigramma. 

Gk. fvt'-ypa^/ui, an 

Eperglie, an omAniental stand for Ihe I insa-jption, cni^rdm. — Gk. IrtTpa^iC, to 
cciiUtf 01 a table. ,F. — L. jwrtfG. F. ■ in&cribL, — Gk. ini, ui>on t ^jpd^iK, to 
iptrgm^ coinmonty spelt ^p^rgm^ lit, I writt. See Grimmap, 
thfiftiness, spsLringness, 5a called from 
the mtihod of oroamentatioa ; the F* taUit 

fff^patjpw \f. applied to a sort of omamea- I /c^jAi. — Gk. inAi^^ta, ^mAi^^if, a gcizui 
lation ill whick certain parts arc cut away i •-Gk. twiXafn^vuv^ tu &cizc tipon. — G 
ani^ filled in with enamel, leaving' the dc&i^n . frf, oti ; Ao^ariir, lu sciu. Bei. e") 
I'w relif/^ i. e. spatrJ or left uhmt. Sec | /<■///<" <'Gk. 4wiAi^*r4«pt), 

Epilepsy. CF.-L.-Gk.) M. K.<^;- 
iepstt, 'the n^lliDg sickness;' Cut. — 1„ f/>i| 

Littre, and Cotgravc (s. v. espayim:. — ¥. , EpiloffUO. 1,1 - -L, — Gk.) Y./pihssie, 
^ptiif^ntr\ O. F. espargner^ ^ipetxtier^ lo —L. /(*/i^v«j. —Gk, ^ifiXo-yM^ii concluding 
spare.— O. H. G. sparen^ G- sparen^ to j sivtdi. — (ik. Iiri, npun ; A^YOt, a speech. 

spstre : s^e Spare. 

Epiphany, Twilfth Diy. 

F.-L - 

EpJlall, a Hebrew tnctsure. ;HcU— Gk.n U. h. /pipAanU.^L- tpiphania.^ 
Kgypl-; Heb. ^AtiA, a measure; of Gk. jiri^^-ia, mauifcstatLoo : orig. acnt, 
Egyptian orifjiu ; cf. Coptic opi\ measure. ] pi. qf iiti^vios, mflnifeat, but usL-d as 

Ephemera^ sing. ; orig.pL, flics thai ] equivalent to ^vipAvtta, sK-^Gk. Jin^- 
live for a dfty, (Gk.) XVll cent. — Gk. | rtiv, to ihew forth — Gk. *»*, to, forth ^ 

iif>71f*tpa, neat. pi. of itfyrnxtpos^ lasting for , tpahav, tt> shew 
a day,— Gk. ltp-=iitt, for; ^fi'f^r * ^^y- 
Der, ff'htfmr^al^ adj. ; €phemtr4t i^Gfe. 
4^iUff«, a diary), 
Ephod] part of the print's habit. 


bet Fhatitoin, 
Episcopal, F. " L. - Gk. O. 
episcepaL—l^, tpii^optVis, belongin;j to 
bishop. «*L. episiSpuSf a bifihup. — Gk. ^fJ- 
(Twoiroj, au over-set I, bishop —Gk. litl. 

tb. ipfioeff a vestment. - Heb. ^ upon ; (nrmriir, one thai watches. See 

itpAaat, to pnt on, 

Spi', prg/,T. i_Gk.) Gk. W, upon, to, 
besides; spelt fpk- in /pJk^^mfra/, ep- in 
ip'isoJ^, ep-dth, £p-ode. 

Epic, narrative, t;L.-Gk.) L. tpictts. 

— Gk. |prt«uij narrative. — Gk- '»ar, woiiJ, 
narrative, sonj^ ; see Voice. 

EpiO0iL0, of common gender. (L, ~ 
Gk.i L. eptt'n'nus.wmQk. fmwutj'tjs, com* 
mot]. — Cjk, *ir(, amon^; dfOii'Ot. comrocwi. 

£pi01ir9| '1 follower of iCnictiiUs. {h- 

— Gk. L. £piiurus.-mi\\i, Siriiruc^tis^ ft 
proper name ; lit. 'asiiitant.* 


EpiBOdfi^ a story Introduced into an- 
other. (Gk,) Gk. iufKju&iQv, orig. tieiit, 
of iiiiiiTu8iti*, coraiiifij In btsides — Gk. ^ir- 
t^ri), bcsiile- ; fictiSiQE;, coming iu, fiom 
*U, in, (5^ijitj a way. 

Epistle, a letter, (F. - L. - Gk.) 
O. r. ^pistk, aJso tpistn.^l^. ephteh- 
Gk. iirtffrfiAT7, message, lclter,»Gk. ^i 
^vikkuVf to send to. ^Gk, iirf, to; frfi 
^fiv, to equip, ^nd. 

Epitaph, (F.-U^Gk.) V./pitaphe, 
-*L. epifaphium.^Gk. IwtrA^iai, \\\Kjn 

Epicycle* A £.ma11 clrL-le, with its luntb-— Gk. j«t, on ; rj^* a foliib 
centre on ihf circumfercuct; vf u lar^t one. I Epithalamiiun, a titarriacc - aoi 



9aXnfuov, (iritla.! ioni;. — Gk, J'st, upon, 
for ] I'nAa^or, briflc-chiimbcr. 

Spithet. (U - Gk.) L. efithttm. - 
Gk. jirj^fToi', an epitbet; neuL of^irWiror, 
atthbtited. « Gk. jti, besides; tff-r^, 
placed, JroxD i9f-, wenk grade of t^Aj^, I 

Spltoma . (!>< - ^ ^ ) L. ipitomi. - 
Gk. (siTCJ^, a aurfac<r<^in;cisioi3, aliiD an 
abridgmeiK. — Gk. iWj apoa; riiirnr., tn 

ElK>cll. (L.-GkJ l-aleL. ^/VcAiJ,- 
Gk. iffoxJ^i * slopi ptusct fixed date. — Gk. 
hr- (l»r}. upoo ; 'x*'*"! ^° holdj check. 
(ySECH,) Bragra. i. $ 6oa. 

Epodc- (F.-L Gk.) 0,K.<^r- 
L. ^/t^if^i. — Gk. ^rfi^T, An epodic, «ome- 
thkij* sung aficT. — Gk. iw4t upon^ after ^ 
Jff'Scjir, to sing. 

EqiU^. [LJ) L. <r^wf/ir, eqaaK— L. 
ifquust jusr» exact. 

^q^jlimity, eycnoets of mind, (L,) 
From [.. .Tt^uammitast the same. — L. 
aqun-tutnit, ot even temper, kind. -* L. 
aqU'Us, cmia.1 ; animus, mind. 

•qnatioiLr a statemeot of cuitfttlt]^. 
(L-) L. ace ci^Mdfh»emt an equuisinj; ; 
from pp. of aquHrtt tn make eqaiJ,«-L. 


eq^mlibrium, even baluidng. {L.j 
L, >iqitilthrium, — L, ^quiiibrii^ evenly 
balnnced. — L. tTijui-, for itquu3, even; 
iihra^ a halarice ; see Xiibrate, 

•Qt&il&OX. . I* ■ — L,) F , ^(fuirfoXf. — L, 
aqHinoiiium. time of equal day and njghl. 
■^L. ft'fui-t for trg^us't na^ii-^ dec^ stem 
of «/'j\ a nirht ; 5« Nigbt. 

e^lllipolleilii ci]ual ly potent (F, — L.) 
O. le, £iJuipuIcHt,^\„ aiiHtp^iieni-^sXcm of 
a^uipcikm. of tqtial powcf- « L. aqui-, for 
mf»**J : foileits^ pre»» pt, of poliire^ to be 

•^nity, (F.-L.) O.F, eqmti.~U 

a^uitdUm. ace. of aqviMif eqaity.— L. 

«qliivn&leiit. ^F,-L.") M. F. ^ywr- 
lu/rr//. » I . iiqttiualfHt-f fitcm of pm. pt, 
of ^quiua^f^ to he of equal force. -^L. 
itfiti-, for <tfyv«j' ; malh-f^ to be worth ; see 

O^aiTOCoL (L>1 Formed from L. 
a^i'i0t~ui, Alt doubtful »en9t. »L. H'f^u/-, 
a^tiUJi UM-, Item of UMdre^ to cat); 
see Voloo. Bar. ii^uivoc-ate, to speak 
doiiHtfally. ^ ^>o also t^ui-angular, £i/ui- 
muiiifiii inA^ 

Equerry, an oiitcer who has charge of 

horses and stnblcs, (K.-O.H. G/- Pro- 
perly iqutrry means a stable, and mod. E. 
tqntrry ^ands for squirt tfiht fqturry, — 
Wicurit^ O. F. tscurif, a stable; Low L. 
scArut, a ltablc-0. H. G. sHrot sJ^utra 
{(j. scAttter), a sheller, stable; allied lo 
O. H. Gi jAUr, a belter. Htngm. i. ^ 109. 
tVSKEUo ff Altered to tqutrry by 
confusion wi+h iqtttis, » horse. 

EquestriEin ; see Equjue, 

Equilibrium j sec Eaoal. 

Equine, i.L.) L, iquinut, relating to 
hofits. — L. tquus, a hor*e.4*Gk. Xmin^ 
(Jjeiftii); Skt lafDa; Pers.oj^iO. Irish fcA ; 
A. S. toh, Brugm. i. } 116, 

aqueatliaJL. ' J Formed from. L. 
epicstti^ aein of tqtusfer, belonging 
to horsemen. — L, eqtKSt a horfreman. «« L. 
eguui, n horse. 

Equinox ^ !^ce EqQ«l« 

EdQip, to famiih, lit out. (F. -ScanHO 
M. F. equiptr^ 0, North F, tsquiper^ lo 
fit out ; A; F. tikippfr,^\i^^. ihipa^ to set 
in orfer, perhnps allifd to skipy n ship. 

EqTupoUent, Equitgr ; ^^' Bquat 
Equivalent, Eqiuvoeftl ; ue 


Era. .L.) L. dns, an era, Axed date. 
From a particular Kax of Jm, counters 
(for calculation!, pi. ot as, bta&s^ money. 

Erflidicata. (L.) From pp. of L, 
irAfniHref to root out*— L. /, out; rtfrfi"* 
f^«, to root, from rdJic-, jtcm of r^dix, 
root. See Radix. 

£arAa«. Vl-> L- frJj*tr, pp. of iridtrt, 
to scratch out. -L. /, out; /Airr*, to 

Ere, before. (E.) M. E. #r, A. S. 
i!?r, won, before; adv^ P>%p< and conj.+ 
Du. *«-, O. H. G. *V, G, *^*r; Golh, 
airiSf Kocner, comp, of a(>, Icel. Jr, adv., 
enrly, soon, ^ Tbe two lait axe positive, 
not comparative, fonm. Cf. Gk, |^, 

ttftrlyi Boon, (E.) M. E- rrfy. A. S. 
(?r/Srf. ndv. ; from *ifrftf, adj., not ased.^ 
A. S. .?r, soon ; /;"t% like. 

ervti ^o*>n<^si-. <,£/' M. E- *ri^ AS. 
^/r/j*, snpcrlativc of irr, soon. 

Erectf adj. (L.l I., fri(tMt, oprighi; 
pp. of iri^rt^ to tet up ftrai^ht. — L. f^ 
out, up : rf^re, lo make straight, rule. 

Ermino, a beast. ^F. - O. H. G.) 

M. E. £rmiru ** O ¥^ trmitu fF, fier- 

mim),^0, H. G. karmitt, emunc-fur ,G 

69 ^^ 




hermiiin).^ 0. II. U. hartnif, nti cruiiuc* 
+ A.S.Ajrjrffjrn; Lithuan. jsi/vw^f, AWcaAcI' 
^BtitUatifeI<.1 supports ibc derivation Irom 
At fUdtiui mfn, nii Armenian iiiitmse ; cf. 
ron{t\ t/s mus. 5U]>poscd to be an crraine. 

di!-£^ lu efit away.wL, t^ tt\A j r^lm^ la 
gnaw, _D;sr. ires^on (from pp. ftOS'US,. 

lo love. "Gk. ipofTi-t crude form of fpaw, 
love; allkd to Ipnnm, I love. 

iBrr, to siray. (F. — I „) M. E. arr^Hy^ 
O. F* ^/-rtfr, — L. trnlrf, to waader [foF 
•£*'j'-iJi''jf,,+*J' /V;vw, tQ *tray, Gulh, df/': 
j'afi, lo raike to stray. Rragm. i. 6 878. 

Orratunit an error, (L.! L. crra- 
titt/i^ ncut. of pp. of crrAre^ to make q 

erroneous, faulty. \h.) Put for L, 
^/TPHt'-fff, wandering ; with suffix -tfttJ.** 
L. frrdtf ttbovey 

error. >>. - 1-i M. E. errour. — 

O I'. trrmir.^'L, err&retftt nee* of ^rwr, 
n intsUke. — L. endrc (,above\ 

Errand. li-^ M. E. irend£, A. S. 
xlr^ndi, a message, business. +0. Seut* 
ilrundi, 0» li. ti- ifrtwii\ a jncsfiagc ; cf, 
ImL aytotJi, ontidi, Swed. Urtntit, TJnn. 
aretide. Usually connected M'kh A, S. Ar^ 
Icel, flfrr, Goth.a/rw/j a messenger; which 
Utiardly possible. 

Errantf wandering. (F, -L.) ¥, tr- 
i-aiil, prej, pt of O. I"\ tmr, tirtr^ lo 
wandcn — Late L. Utrdre^ lo travel. — 1^ 
iUr^ a journey. ^ It sometimes repre- 
atiiils ibc [jircs. j^t. nf irnu^, to wander. 
Doubltil, arrant, 

firratiuni Erra&eons, Error ; 

sec Ere, 
Erilt; sireEre. 

Erttbeseent. iL.) I.. stHh^ttnt-^ 

^tcm oi prts. pi. of fmh^surt^ to grow rcch 
— L, /, out. uiochi rui>€ii<ft^ lo grow rcti, 
ijicepuve form of fuUr^^ to be red. See 

Emctftto. i,L* From pp. of L. htu- 
iSrg^ \o b«kb out. — 1» /, out; fUftSrt 
to belch ; allied to e'rugtre^ to belch ; cf. 
Gk. iptvyfsdai. Urugni, i. {) 331, 

Erudite* kamed: ,l,.i L. frndituit 
Y\\. of crudire, la free from rudeucfis, lo 
teach,*-]-, i', from; nalu, rude. 

EruptioXl* L. From 1-. rruptii^HtPi, i 
ace, of irupiia^ a Iprt-akinfj out. — L t'rjfftui, 
pp. uf irumpire^ to break out. — L- s", out? 
rtimfiete, to break. 

ruliH-ss on llu' sVin.«-Cik. I^pttfi-j allied lo 
tpv$'pus. red; wf^A.aJ skin. Gf* ipv<il$fjf 
red bli^^hl on com. 

EscaJade, a scftlitfg of walls (K. 
Sipaii, -L. i F. euahik. "Sp^iij, /fca/M 
€iCtxlada^ a scaling ; from eHular, in scale. 
« ^paii. (scaia, a tndilcr, -* L. scAia^ a 
ladder; see BorIo (51. Cf, \tA, smfa 
tLti cscolndc ; Florio also baa ' Siohi 
an t.'5i;rilar]o,' from SpiUii&h. 

Escape. (F- >- L*" M. K. cjfupiu, 
O » Noi t ti I* , fji'a/vr 1, F , ^^happtt , to > 
ill, lo tlip out of otie^s caj^ i Ptcfttd/tv^ 
*•!» ^.r t-a/>/tj, out of one's cape 
Cape 1 - 

EBcarpmeat. t*^*-ltal.-Tcui. 

ijiat/vrfHiti, Formed from F, fsntr/^t « 

scnrp ; iivith suffix -tn£ftt ;.L, -mi:ntt*m\ ; 

s.c Scarp, 

EaclLeat. (F. — Y..^ M. K. ^jr^^i 

yalso i-h(,!c., 9. forfeit to tHc lord of the f« 
—0. F. esihife, Jtul, that which falls 
one, orig. fem. pp. cf tnhioir {\\ /</iftt 
— Late L. exctider^, to fmll to oiie% share. 
— L, f^, out ; and faderc, to fflJl* Hence 

Eschew, to shun, CF. - O. H. G.) 
M, L. eHhfK'cn.^O. F* achivtrt cschrver^ 
to shuD.— O, H. G^ tiitihiitt^ t"J fri^hlen, 
also 10 fear.-O. H. G. ^sdah, M. H. G. 
sihitih^ shy^ timid. See Bby. 

Escort, flguidc.fiuar<T, :K. — Ilal. --L.;! 
O.K. fscifrie. — \xaL scprfa, a {^nide; fem. 
of pp, of sc&r^r£, to sec, perceiTc, guide 
(orip, to set right u — L. fj, entirely; 
r&rrigi^rif, to corrett ; sec Correct. 

ElCXOWp fl deed delivered on conliliun. 
^F.— Teut.i A, F. tfavuwi^ M. K- s^fcucf 
jctviu£ ; the orig. wottl of which saC'U is 
the diminutive. »-0. F. ^saof, a *li[i wf 
pOfchment-— M. Du. itfsr^t^ r blirtd.&lip 
of pti]->er ';Kninii.i i cf. O. H.C* i<T5t^ 
ghred. Sec 81ired mid Sotoll. 

EeCUaget ^ I'cuuuinry satisfactiuu 
lieu of feudal service. ^,^^-L.) O, 
es^aa^ < Late L< sidtil^ium, tor 
with suffix -a^ from O. F, tun, a shii 
bee&use £i<-u^ wos (irst paid in Kcu 
senice iii the field. —L sffifum, .1 shield. 

EsCUleat, eatable- (L.;) I^cjft*/ctiit4' 
fit for tfllin^'. — I- tVfd.foiwL For *edice 
^i^, eJerc, lo tat. Hju^'ih, t. ( 753- 

EBcntclieont Scntoheam^ a junm 

shield. t.F. — L.; Formerly tifOthm 

Sec Bupture. XV ccnt.j A. F. f$iUfkoti,^»Q North 

EiysipelMIt a rcduess on the sktii. , »iHirAtf«ij U- K. rin^j^/i. thciame: answ 




Lag to a L-iiU- L. ncc. *sn4Ji<ifUHtj cjitcodcd 
froflj L stfi/it/n, a shield. 

£soplLB^^ta, ^llct. ^L, — Gk; LatP 
L. irJi'/ZM/,r/.^. — Gk. otaoipajos, the Fullct, 
liL L'on^LVtr of Jooil.^Glc, oIitd- (of dyubt- 
fti! oriifin , i ^07-, base of ^-ytiV, (o caL 

SsoteHc. (Gk.) Cik. 49an-«^(ffut, 

camp, of f(Tw, ncir. , within; from li=.Eb, 
inif, preiK Opposed to exattru. 
I!&X>ali«r, frame-work for tjiuniag treci, 
( K. - Itfll. - L. - Gk.) M.P\ tspaiiier ; 
I'ul,— Ital. spaiUera, back of a chair^ aup- 
]>iirt, c&pa1kr*-lul. }paiia, shoulder. —L. 

t.. s/fitd//i, belong to a spcci&l kmtl. — L. 
}/«as, a kind. Doublet, spa hi, 

Espion&^e ; sec Espr. 

— L. . M. I . (j/Zd/M^/ff, *a planing} level- 
ling* cvcimitig of wiiys;* Cot Formed 
StQXu. O. F. esplancr, to Icrvd i the suf&x 
bcitij4 ilue to an imitarjunof Ilal. i/>iafm/a, 
ai) uplojiadc, A Icvdkil way; from sfiia- 
Hfiit, to k'ver— 1^ £Apiilfti)rt, to level,— 
L. (!jr* out \ /•iA/tttfv, to level, ttom /ieinus , 
fl*i. See Flaint 

£spoil9e. (i\ -L. ' O. F- (spemtr. to 
espouaCf wtd. — L ipoHs&n, to belrotli.P* 
L. ip&mus, pp. of ifiottd^rtt to prooiise. 
Sec: Spoiue, Bpoiuor. 

I«pyfTostty,«e. (F.-O.H.G.) M. E. 
ri/yfyi •-0. F, iJpun~0. H. G, J^^^iff 
,G. /yVi'^fi^tt'^ to spy; >ce BpAoiefl. Der, 
*//»-ff/**a4v, F. es/ifttttit^i\ from M. F. 
*tpio$i, n sjiy, Iwrruwcd from Ital. spiont^ 
a ij^y. ff'-m O. if. Li. spchon, to spy. 

Zaqniref ^ shicld-bcarcr. i.F. — L.) 

ujuiic — Laie Lr/«viMrr'Kr, a ihicMbcAter. 

— I.. s*Hi-um^ H shield, covet (F. ^Vw). 
.V^*^^'-'-; Brugm, i* S io^^ Poublet. 

fiStBiy, AbIAJi ^n uttcmpt, trinL 
<K, — L,, O. F.('j'ja/.airi«l — 1« tf^i^^W^ 
ft Ilia) of weight; cf. f.rJ/rh'/j, a weighing, 
n swarm. * L. /jr ^ out ; og^^rCy tG ilrivCj 
impel, niuve. i^y'AG) 

Esseno^i « •piaht/, bdD|;> (F,— I^*) 

1' tiHtui — L. tiicntia, a being. »L, Vj' 
jrM/*, ticliuuus stL'in uf prc&. pt« of ffj/, 
tn ?>c_ Dof. i$stnti-A( ^ 4ijd sec ruiity. 

EBSOin* All excuic fur not RppcaHii|; in 
tfouft, I . - U »jwj/ tVttt, : O. F. tisoine, 
M. F ^jmW. * An ci^oiiiic^ orexcti&e ; * Cot. 
•»0. F. iii^nur^ tu tstowe ;GoHilclJroy,«^ 


O. F- €S' (L, ATj, iwa) ; and Low 
suHftia^ O. H- G. /ww«<f i.for •/««*/ 
Braune, Jtiv. 9 , laivfiil excuse, ( J, Gothr 
SiittJoH SiJt, to excuse onrself, j^ iutijjn, 
to justify, from lu/t/a, troth; Skt tatja- 
Innv I'rui^'in. i. \ jSy. 
ZSstablislL. F.-L) M. K. isla^lL 
sfH,^0, h, tsfabiisf*, Imte of pies, pt. 
isiadiir^ to eitablish. — I., sl^hilirr, 
establish. « L. it^iii^ firm; ace 8tAblB~ 

Estate, CF.-t) O.F. rj/.//. - 

itaium, ace. q( sfa/us, state ; see Stats, 

Eeteem, to value v^'" -'-^ O. 
ti^imcK^L. (€sitm4r^f. O. I., i/s/itmttn, 
value. Allien! to Goth, uiitaHf tu icgaj 
Brujjnr ii, $ 6gj. 

estimate. L- < From pp, of L. ati 
ffitirt^ \o viluc abovei. 

EatoPf lobar (F^-L.) The same a» 

Efltovera, ^uftplica of Viu-itiUA ncrce 
saries. , F. - L.) A* F. fH^'Sts, M, 
//(rt'f'i^j, I'l. ofj/tfivr; *ee Btover, 

EfltmAgOi to make Kirange. ^F.-I 
O. F- tiirart^vr, to make atranjje, *»0. 
£iiraitgt\ ^tTnugC- — I^ cJctrAruum, acc of 
tjftrtittais , i*.*tt\^\\. on the outside. — ' 

Efltt^at, J^ true copy, in law. (F.^1 
Liu ' extidct' :\* F. tsir^ii, U^m, of p| 
of fsirairt\ to extract- — L. fxtroifa, fc 
oft>p of ^j/r(j^«?^; *ee Extract. 

Efltnai^t oioutb af a tidal rivci. '(U] 
L. ueifitiinum, the same. -iL. t^shnlre^ t<>' 
snrgt:, loaia aa the tide— L. ontuSj beat, 
suf^e, tide. Allied to Etb©r. 

Etcht to tngrare with ncids. ,Du. — G.) 
Du. etitn, to etch* — G. d'/u^/t, to conudc, 
ctcb ; ori^. 'to make to eat;' cniiuil uf 
il. inen^ to caL See Sat, 

Eter&fct. .F.-J„) ME. itcr»tl 
t J. I- ^/,'-w:/. — L. tittntsiht eternal. ^I, 
iiifttmti^ lit. ta&ting for 341 age; for <j:mi 
ttrHHt.»^\^ ifjvf^p Jbr <£Hum^ an age. 

Etll6r, ]>urc upper 211. i.L. 
L, .jV^^r. — Gk. aJftypj upper qir 
its bfigbtncss. — Gk . af^f iv, to 
C*JAIDH0 Uragm. t > i03. 

Etlllc, relating to morab. i^L. — Gk) 
I.. etkiiUi, motal. — Gk. ^6i*6%, inoial. — 
Gk. ^Pof, cuMom, moral nature; tf. itfn*, 
mAima, cusiom.'^iikt. n>t!iihi}-^ ^elf-uiUi 
StrcD^rth. from Jiti, self, i/AiI, to place ; 
Goth, sidus, (j. j/V^2, custom. 

E^UuuGffcUtbirigiLUiUioii, (L,— CL,i 






I. fVAflfVMf. — Ck. i&vm^f^ iialioiioL — Gk, 

Stiolaie, tu blanch plantt. {F. — L.) 
K, iiiffUr ■„ Vfith saffix. -d/*. Irom ,t 
dialectal form mjswcrmg to j'HiuUr^ to 
grow Inlo h&ulm or stalky like ctinLatcfl 
plonU.— F, itiuh, O* t". tiUuIe^ % fiUlk. 
«-l^le L. itupula^ for L* Ui^da^ Ktiaw. 
St-e 3tubbl&, 

Iitiquettd, ceremony. (F, — G.) F, 
iHqhttfU^ n label, ticket^ aUo a fona of 
ijitroduclton ; cf, M. F. ttiqutt (O, F, 
eititfUitj^ ^ a. little note, such a& is j/H^<fr 
»A on the E^te of a cotut/ &c,; Cou— 
Ctt sUcken^ to Btickj put, set, fix; caninl 
of G. sieihiH, lo sticky pierc& See BUak 
(i;, Doublat, lukd. 

EtymOllf l^c true source of n word. 
(L. — Gk .) L. etymon. — Gk. J rv>(cy ; ueuE. 
of iriJ^oi, reaij Inie* 

atymoloffy. <F.-L,-Gk;) F.*/^ 

ymol^jgy. — Gk. «ry/iO-jj true; -Ao^in, 
■ccoQXiL^ from Ki^ttv^ to speak, 

£lL*i pi'cfix, wdL (Gk,) Gk, 4v, well; 
nctit. of <vs, good. Cf» Ski. vasu, wealth. 

EucalTptuSi n gcnois of trees, iD4:lud- 
ing the blue gum-trcc (Gk.j LHilnbed 
from Gk. iv, well ; «aAtrrrijr, covered, 
suiToimded, The reference U lo the bood 
protct-ting the Siemens. 

SucliariBtr the Lord's Sapper, lit. 
thanks^ivtng. (L. — Gk.) L. <ufAarjsfia. 
i^Gk. tixo,pi^af A giving; of Lhnriks.^ 
Gk, ffj well ; xapi^otixUf I show fttvonr, 
from \dpti, fnvour, Cf, Team, 

Xnlogyi prnl&e. (L. — Gk,) From L. 
^itlo^i'ium. -^ Gk. tu^oYtii, praise, lit. good 
Speaking ; with suffix su^eated by L. 
Ihgium^ aji inscription.— Gk, •5, well; 
A*7f*f . lo speak. 

£lUL110h» one who is castrated. (,L.-^ 
Ok,) L. eun^hus. * Gk, «v*'oux°*) ^ 
'cbamberlun ; one who had charge ol 
ilcepiu^f uparLmcnU. — Gk tinj, a couch ; 
Ijrfji'j to keep, have in chaijijc. 

fUVheztiiAiti, a ^flcned CKpressbii. 
(GkO iik. eifpijpia/jdTj the same as ei* 
i^iiJa l]ic uic of worJi of good omen. — 
Gk. #u, well ; (^i^^i, I speak. (^RHA.) 

XtLpllOiiy. (Gk.> Gk. tu^«wui, a 
i^leasing kotind — Clk. r£>fA'»^H^ sweet- 
voiced — Gk. i5, well; V^n^, voice. 

Ettplu*sy, the plant eyc'bright (Gk,,' 
bupiKJ-nirrl lu lir bcJicftcial It* iht cyci ; liL 
* didigbC » Gk. fw^iyiwia, d«li^bt,— Gk. 



f^paipciv, to deligtii. thar : cf. t^ptf»'» 
cheerfuL Allied to Gk, lu, well; ^r-, 
fiEetn of ^f^f, midriff, heart, mind. 
EllplLIUSiat affectatioa b speaking, 
I Gk.j JSo named from a book Euphtus^ 
by J. Lyly (I57g),-Gk, *^v^f, well- 
grown, excellent, — Gk, *!j well; 1^7, 
growth^ from ^vof^i^ 1 j^row* (^/Ulf EU-) 

Enroclydoiii ^ tL'mpe$Liiuu$ wind. 

>^Gk,) Gk. •vptwcAuiojt*^ supposed to mean 
' a storm bam the ensl^'^Gk. cvpo-r, S.IL 
wind; ie/LtlBo*, suri^e, from «Avf»4i', I 
surge, da£b fl« wavt«. ^ Only tn AcU 
KxviL 14; where some read *lfCJt\i>,^!¥^ 
Le, Eur-aquih; from L, .fifr-Mij, E. wind, 
and Aquiioy N. wind. 

£utAan&sia. e^isy death. (Gk,) Gk. 
ti)0apa<rta, eagy deaths cf^ fu^f^Tos, dying 
welL — Gk. <S, well; 9ar<ri'^ to die. 

XTacnat^. (1 ) Fiom pp. of L. 
iuacuJie^ to empty. wL. /, out; utxiuiu^ 

SV»de, iti shun. (F.-U) Y. Evader. 
— L. iiiddere ipp. luiJsm), lo escape.— 
^, away ; uddfrtj to go. ^©r. n*w-i 
<,from the pp.). 

SvaueaCfitit* ^U) From stem 
prt^, pt. ui L. ^•uiiHcsinri^ to vanish 
^I>. /, away I UiHt^s^tt^^iQ vanish, f] 
fficlTiKj, em]il,y, vain. 

ErAAfOllsti writer uf a go-.pel. (F.^ 
L. — Gk.j 0. F. evaftffglii/d,^i„ euiingtl- 

^ofJat^ 1 bring yood tiews, — Gk. *E, well ; 
d77fXtq, tidings, Irciro dyytkoSf a mcs- 
scngi^T ; s^ AngAl. 

ETaporatfli lU) From pp. of U 
ettaponlre^ lo ]ias5 off in vapour, — L, /|. 
out ; uafor^ vapour. 

Evasion ; ^e Bvade. 

Eve, Even, tlic latter part of tht day 
E. i Ev£ tb shuit for tven, i,Ff>r ctfHf- 
ice below.) M. E.^u^.rMfrt. A.S. <f/ii 
</i^. +0. Sax, atartdf Dm. aiSitnJ, G. aVi 
Of doublfiil origin. Dor. even-iiJe^ A. S. 
J/iitittd. rirugm. i. $ gSo. 

evening, even, (L.) M.E 
A. b. S^/ttuHg; formed from 4^*mji, 
grow townriis cvcninij, with aimix 
from itftn, t*ven (abQ¥e^ 

Even, level, (R/) ME <*«ii (««w). 

jtitm, Swtd.ydww, Gotli. j-^wi, *i- «/vw. 

Er^ti icsult. i(LO L. ^ufti/its. /wr« 
/wwi, sb.—L, eutnittf, pj'. uf iu(nir4 
come nut, result *L. /, out ; ircwmr, 1 
comC} ftUicU to Cmuo. 




Srer. [£-) M. E, eutr ,ftfrr). A- S. 
ever. Der. fver-iastrng^ ftvr^ntorf^ 

every, eich one, iK,) M,E, <wfW, 
ftw^nVA- A. S, -?/rj, cvef; and (?/c, each. 
£vfr'Y - r^'fr-i^ih ; see Fach, 

ererywliQre. (K,) M, E. ^w/W- 
k'U'ar.'- A. S, -r/rrf, ever; fftktift^r, Tvhefe, 
The Mt>r<I really stands for ttier-jti'^ffV, 
i. e. tver-whtre; y- is a prefiic {— ^*-j. 
Evict. (L.) From L. ?uut-us, pp* of 
ittiHi'tre^ to evince; also, lo expel. See 

Svidentp (F.-L.) 0.¥. evident, ~ 
1^ ^utiitnt-, 8(cin of luident^ visibLe, ptts, 
p{. of ^ttuffre^ to ECfl clewlj- — L. ^, out, 
clea'ly; wiW<Vv, to *eo. 

EVU. (EO M. E.f«^/. A.&j/</,adj. 
flod sb.H^Da. fwiv/, G. nf^/, Gotli, uHis. 
Tent, type *uSt7at, Proh, allied to i?t«r 
(G. wAfV}, as mcaninp ' excewive,' 

Evince* (L.) L, luincert^ to conquer, 
to jifove beyond doubt *kL. ^, Out, ex 
Iremtly; w/w/icri:, to conqocr. 

Sriiicer&te, to gut. <L.) From pp. 
^f \.. iutnenirg, lo gnt. — L. /. odI : 

Evoke. F.-L.) F.Awfutr.^Ueua- 
ftfrt, lo call forth. — L. if forth ; u&ctlrt^ to 
call, Src V©<jal. 

Evolve* (\^.') L. hi&lutre^ to nnroU, 
diii^loic. — 1„ /^ oii( ; uohitrc^ to roll. D«r. 
tv^iid-ion^ from pp. fu&hiiuT. 

Swe. <K.> NM:. /«V. A.S. fWS, 
Lawk of InCp f 5 , r^r//, a fcmnlc sherp-Hh 
Da. fioif Iceh <*?', M. IL ti. ou%£}g ; Lithann. 
osiiVt a theep^ Kdm, cvtsa^ L. j^njj', Ck, &f, 
O, Tri^h oil Skt- atW'^ & sheep* Cf. Goth. 
irwi'Str, a sheep-fold. 

Bwwr. <F.-L) M.E. fW^r,-A.F, 
ftctfr, *rtviin\ spelt ftoi-r, Koynl WiUs^ 
pp. 74, J7.0L. afuarium^ a. ves&el Tor 
wntrr ; cf, A. F. ttM^ -walcr; mod. F. (au. 
wL. a^u<i, waiter. 

Em-, S^, /^rr/ijF. (LO L. fir, /, out, + 
Gk. It. Jf , ont: Russ. iV, Lith. tji. 

Ezacerliftte, ^o embitter. (L.) From 
pp, fii t^A^rrhtin, to (mtatc. — L. ex, irery; 
A'^Mr^ bitter; see Aoerblty. 

Esaot 'il, prcciie. iL,) Frotn L. ts* 
ofiHi, pp. uf exigtrt^ to ifrive ool, weigh 
oat. — U fx. out i and a^re, to driTc. 

e^B;Ct /), lodcmaDd. F— L.j Frora 
M. F, fxofi^r; Cot (obsolcteK^Lntc L> 
/jj.Afr^. — L. ^J", otil; and d^^wj, pp, of 

Sxa^erate. (L.) Prorn pp. of L. 


ffxd^^FTflnp, to heap up, aimplify. — L* ijc, 
very; a^t^y * heap, from ag- = aii^ to J 
gtf-ere^ \0 bring* 

Exalt, (F.-L.) F. «ffl//^r, - L. *xa/- 
AJ/v, to lift aut, exult — L. «r, out ; a/Zur, 

Examine, to i"t. (F.-LT F. cr- 
amuiff\^L^ fjitftiittelre, to weigh Cftj^ 
t\\]\y, ^L. rjrfrm 1*1' t stem of i-j-JOTrn, the 
tongue of A balance^ for *txdfff/te-» ; tf. 
ejrtFrre^ to weigh out — L. ex, out ^ tigere^ 
lo (IrTve, move. Brtigin. i. % 768, 

Example. ( F. - L. 1 O. F. txamptt ; 
F, fxemptt.^L.. txempium^ *. Bimple, — L. 
txim-ere^ to take out ; with SBflix -him ; 
for the in««rfed p cL the pp. fxem-p-ftts." 
L. ^.r, out ; efffgrt, to take, procure, 

Exa«perftte# to provoke. <L.) From 
the pp, of iJOjprrSre^ to roughen, provoke. 

— L, ^J, vcrv ; as/rr^ rough. 
Excavation. (F.-L.) F. exfovd* 

//(j^j.— L. ficc. excaaSiiStttm^ a hollowing 
out. — L. ^xfauilftts, pp. of excauan to 
hollow om.-U «-r, om ; (am'tre^ to hol- 
low, from /jww/, hollow. 

Exceed. iF.-L.) O. F. MC(^/. — L. 
exdUcrg, lit to go otit. — L^ ^jt, oat ; 
r^ere^ to go. 

Exeeli to sarpus. C^.— L.^ O. F. £r> 
f*//fr, — u excti/ftv^ to rise uj>, surpus^ 

— L. ^jf, oat ; ^itiUre^ lo rise, only in 
comp, anie-^ ex-^pra-ceifirt, nnd in ui-sur, 
high, orig. *niiscd/ Cf. Lithuan, WiH, 
to raise : see HUl, Brugra. i, 4 633. 

!^XCeptr *^ **'^^°'^'^* (t', — L.) F, fjf- 
ttpttr^ to except ; Cot *- L. txupidrt^ 
frcqiiert of txciptrt^ to like out- L. tx^ 
oat; capm^ to take. Dor. tx^tpt^ prep,; 

Exoerptt » selected pasttge. (U) L. 
exierpfum^ an extract ; neot of pp. of 
fxrerpere^ to select — L. «^ oiit ; rerfert^ 
to cull. Sec Hwveat 

^^eesB.. iP.— L.) O. F. /j(vj,— L. 

ace. exifiium, lit. h going out or beyond. 

— L. exiess-f as in ex£essuSt pp. of ^.r^i^. 
dirt ; see £xoeed. 

ExchlUige. ( F, " L ) 0. F. esihangt^ 
sb. ; tichangiir^ vb., to cxkh&nge. — O. F. 
f^ |<U. f j: J r and O. F, cAsftgt, sU, 
thatfi^^r^ In ch.inge. See Ghuiga. 

Exchequer t ■- court of revenue. (F.— 
Per*. J M , K esiMekfre, — O. F. escke^iir^ 
X cheȣ-boatd ; hentx, a dieckered cloth 
on which accounts were reckoned by roe«iii 
of ci>anter% (Ijiw L. ifafcfiriiim\.-^0.¥. 
ts*ku, check ; fee Ohtok. 




ExOile, a duly, tas, Du,-F.-I,^ 
A rnisspelling of M. r>ii. ahm or n^sys, 
eicctse, :Cf. G. iicdse\ esci&e.) — O. V, 
acceii, a tax, ^vcn in Ihe N- E. D. ; allkd 
to Low L. arnsia i; Ducange) : aUo spcU 
/jiffd rirt.l- - Late L. aictnsus, a payment, 
rent; cf, af**cwrjr(", to Inx. — L> flf- (for 
*/), to J flnd (etjrt/s, a tax. ^ For the 
>c>und*change^ cf. Da, VV^t foodj from 
Late L. spenja ifof dt'spertsa]^ a Innfer, 
ji spcnce, 

EX0i#i01l, F.-L.i F. £jicrisiaJM, * R 
destroying ;* Cot.-^l- ace. e^astSium^ a 
cutting out, n destroying. — L. tx^isus^ pp. 
of fxcuiergy to cut out.**L, ex, oat ; atid 
toiftre, to cral. 

Smdaim. F. — Lj F, ^.rr/nwer.— U 
exclamSrt^ to call ODt.«L. rr. mit; dH- 
miirf^ ta cull. See Oloim. 

£xclllde. 'X-. L I'Xi'/iiJiTir, to shot 
out. — L. i-.r, nut; r/aWtft-f, to shut. See 

Excominiuuc&t«, L Ffom pp. 

of L. eji'QrnmtiHi'fdre^ to pnt out of the 
community. — L, ex, out of ; tomnifinis^ 
common. Sec Commuiii<tat«. 

£xcoriate* 'L.) Fiom pp, of i„ w- 

forwrr^ til strip off akin. — L. <^t, off; 
roiium^ hi(k\ ^kin. Isce Ouirass. 

£zo79iiieiit (i). i^L.) K exft'hnen- 
tum^ i^lusc, ortWf*. — L. tx€rifits„ pp, of 
exefmere, to separate, sift out. — L ^r, 
OOt ; f-^rwfr^j trt gin. 

£xorem«&t [3% oat-growth. (L.) In 
Shnk. trom L. excr^mentum.—'L, ixcr? 
tUi^ y)p- of fxi'reii^ert\ to grow out (helow). 
0XOrO9CeilC6. \F.-L, O. F. iX- 
frfsffnce.^X^. exrrficirttin , an outgrowth. 
— L. excrescent- ^ stem of prts. pt. of rjr* 
ff'c/^'wr, to fjfow out — L. fjT, out; €r%i^re, 
togrow. Src Cr<iBOent. 

furmwl with suffix •^j'arr , ffoio 1^ txcfftus^ 
pp. of f ,rf"c' rw/»/ / ; AtL^ Exorement (i). 

Excruciate, to tonurc iL.l From 
pp. of L i-x' ri4> ti'm , to torment jjrcatly. — 
|j, ex, very ; frtifiiire, to torture on a 
pibbet, from frttri-, dec!, stem of (V-hj^, 
B cm*5_ 

Exculpate* L.^ From pp of Ijitc 
L. ex\nip(\rf^ \Q clear nf blnmc.wL. «, 
out of. culpa, hlame. 

Excursios. 'L.*) L, txcursi^mm^ 
acc- of fXCMrritt, a ninning out. — L. /T* 
cttrffts, pp. of txcurr^re^ in run otji. — L, 
f jr, fint ; furnetr, la ran, 

ExoxLM, 'F, -- r. K 

exti'titlre, to fckast from a charge. —1 
out ; atid caura, ,t chorgc, ^ cnuse. 

Execrate. kU) From pp. uf L, *i 
fr^Jrc, for /.ijtvrjr/" (o cutsc yrcatlj 

— L. ^JF, greatly; rac/'iff^, to consecral 
also to declaim accursid, _ L» jatr^m 
nf nt. of ffff^r^ sacred ; ftlfio, acctirscd. 

Execute. i.F,- L.) O. I'\ cxeruffr,^ 
L. exetutus, txsec^fus, pp. of exse^tu, 
follow out, puTsuc, perform, —L. ^, oul 
igimi^ to follow. 

Exegesis, exposition. (Gk.) Gk.^ff*^ 
^ijffir, liiterprctation. — Gk. ^fi77«Vfiaii, to 
txpbin. — Gk, *f, out; if^tio&aty to gxxidC| 
ptrhap^ allied to 866)c. Bnigm. i. § 185 

Exeniplar. { F. — L.) M» K. I'.rfj 

//rt/r<?. — {>. K, txrmfilaire.^L. exctftpfi 
riu/tt, late form of exemp/af, a copy 
which the mod, E. word is now conformedl 

— L. ixempiHrir, jii\y^ seizing as a copj 

— L. txemplum ; sicc Bx ample. B«iF. ^j 
tmphry^ from L- txanpWins, 

exetUpH^, to shew by cK.iiitple. (1 

— L, A coined word : a& if from F. Vx* 
empiijkr. — Late 1- excmpii^iiire, pro- 
perly 'to copy out.' — L, exempli-^ for **j 
e/uf^htm, n copy ;^f-, foi fticcrf, to mak< 

Exempt, freed, (F. -L.i O, F, f.f^ 
empt; whence exempier, to exempt, free. 

— L, txcmptiis^ pp. of tximert^ (o tafce^ 
OOt, deliver, free. — L. ^j\ out; em^rr, 
tiike. Cf. Lith. fw-/i, to take. 

Exequies. F.-L.) o.¥. exiqm 

exif^uiri, 'funeraU;* Cot. — I^ exse^ut'i 
acc. pL of exseqiiiii, funeral ob^quieu, lit, 
* foUowiags/i— L, cxsft^ul. to follow out. 

— L. ex, out ; si^Ht, lo follow. 
Exercise^ sh. (F. — l.!! M. E, excr' 

cise.-m^i). V. ^xirrice.^l^.exerci/ium, exer- 
cije- — L. exerdttts, pp. of exercirt^ tc* 
drive out of an enclosure, drive on, set at 
work— L. ix, out; arcdre^ to enclose: 
see Ark, Der. cxfrchf^ vb. 

Exergue, the !;mall spaec; left licneatl 
the baee-bnr of a. subject engraved on 
coin. (F. — GkO The final ^nt it 
pronounced; ct. pre/a^tti^ &c. — F./jf<r^ 
so called because lying * out of the worl 

— Ok. ifn out of'. tpTfov, work, 

Exert. (L^) Lit, to 'put fonb.* L. 
extrtus, belter 4peh exscriin. thritvl forthj 
pp. of cxsiftvrc^ to Ihrust out* — 1*. /-i^ out 
Sfff*'/. to join, to put. 

Exfoliftte. (L.^l From p\\ ol 1« *j 

fsihttc, ID Strip off lea'ixfr: from fj*. 
and A'/j"«w<. a leaf. 
/jr-wiw— L. ; Exhale. iF.-K) V.€xhalfr.^\.. 




f/Wr**. — *!k. fJ^'fuci^ttv, to drive awfty by 
AHjurntJozi. — GJe. i{, nway ; <'/MrxYrLjr, to 
atljnrc, fiorii upicot, an oath. 

Sxorditmi. l . L- exordium, a be- 
ginning.— L. ^tari/frf, in begin, to weave* 
— I.. M ; ami oriiiri, to begin. Weave, 

pijrijT, eKlcrnaloGl:. ifdrripof^ more oat- 
ward^ tomp. of &<iv. fJAJ^ outward, from 
*(, out. 

exotic t foreign. (L*— Gk,) L. ^M'- 
fMj.^Gt^ JfoiTtjftjT^ OOtwatd, forfign^^ 
nk. (fw, adVii outiAar^Tt from (f, ovit. 

Expand. (L. L, cxpatuicrt pp. ^r- 
pansHi ^ to spread out- — [.. ^jr^ out ; f^tui- 
ere, to spreaw out ; cnui^aL from fafin^ to 
lie open* Cf* Gk, vitvtffu, 1 spread otil. 
Der. ^jc/attstt from the ppi 

Xxpatiato. X'' rrora pp. of 1 , 


A/l/eTnr.lo brcatlieout. — l- r-jf, out; /ul/iJnr, 
to lircothc. 

ExhaBBt. '.L-) From L, ejthavstus^ 
Pp. of f ihiiurf'f^ to <'Tra\v ont, drink up. « 
L i-jr^ out ; Aiturff^, to draw water. 

Exhibit, to show. (L,) From L, 
ex/iifiii ifs, [)p. of exhib^n^ to hold forth. 
— L, /jTj aui; hab^rf^ to have. 

Exhilar&to, to cheer. (L. - Gk, ; wifh 
L. ftrjix., Fiom pp. of L. txM/aftfrf, ta 
gljwldcn greatly.— 1™ rr, very; fti'uri^, 
Ji/arut, filfttl, diecrfiil, from Gk. t^ap6f^ 
chfcfful. Ste HtlMltr* 

Exhort, t- . - 1 .) O. F. ex{h)tfrter, - 
I., fxhartrjfi, to cncoofagfi gfefttly.— tr. 
<'.r. *mi, ^cry ; harUlrt^ to rncoumge ; sec 

Exhume, to cltjiinlef, (F, — L.) F. 
exhumtr. ■» l^atc I- fX^U/fitlre.^ L. /J^^ 
out of; hHtUiis. the ground. 

Exitfentf exactiug. I..) From the 
stt-m n| prcs, pt. of fxij^rt, \Q exact »L. 
Ar : mid ti^erf, lo drive. 

Exa]«, txmiihmcnt. i F. - I,.) O. F, 
esTt't \ latpr ttil, 'an exile, bahishnient : ' 
Cot, — I, /xihuM, bttter exstti**m, baniih- 
mcni; cf, exsui, a bamshed man, — L. /jr, 
out of; and pcrhApfl) s€ii~^rf, to sit, abide. 
Cf. Ooa«u.L Der. exHty verb; hrnce, 
/xi/nT, sb. ("Oiie who is fxt7eif\ 

E»i« ii, to contiJiiic to be, : L.) L. ^x- 
hUre^ belter ijrjjrrf^r^, to stand forth* arise, 
be. — I.. *4r, out; jrif/ertj to set, stundj from 
xAJr,f. to stand. 

Eiat* (I*.' t, <^.«V, L e. * he gots out," 
used As a stage direction ; 3rd per&. s. prcs. 
of fxirti to go out— L. ^.r, out J frct to 
go. ^ ^jrjV, (JepaiturCt is from L, ^.t»/- 
«r. -ih. 

Exodmir departure, I- - GV.) I- 
rji'iA(i. — Lik. ffoRo», n going out.— Gk. If^ 
f>()i ; u^iJt. ri way, a marclh 'ySED.') 

ExOgeUp A plunt thnt incrrase^ o^t- 1 Expend, I0 spend. iT..) I„ cx/erttf^re, 
wnidly, 1\-Gk.) F. rro-i^^Hf i»8l3\ to weigh out, lay out. — I,, ^j:, out ; /«»- 
From <tk. if-*', oulside, from if, out j and drrf^ to wci^Ii. Dor, gx^tise. from A. F, 
If**-, base of ^tTJ'iffAu. lo be iwrn. ! rxj^nst, L- tx/^tisa^ money spent, Jem. of 

Exonerate. Jo From np. of L /x 1 pp. ^jr/yw/wjc: ^xfemfU are, jtoia I^ate L. 
fineiCirc^ tj free ftotn a burden. — L. fjf^ wr/rWi/fVw/, a mUtakeii fomi of the pp. f j- 
away ; enfrsirtj to burden, from oner- paisur 

txttcr cxspattilri^ (0 wander.— 
uut ; sjkt^tilrr^ lo mam, from 
spaiium, s[\-ice. 

Expatri&te. L.j From pp, of Ijtc 
L, ^x/kj/rtilrft 10 bani:)h. — l.. <a*, out of; 
pafriii^ native cumntry, from fi<tlcr^ tilher. 

Expect. iL-i I ' fxpecMri, tetter eje- 
jfifc/tfrg^ to look for onxioiuIr.Ml.. «, 
tliorotighly ; j/^i/rlre', to look, frequenla- 
tive of ipiiftf^ to ste. 

Expectorate^ T -) From pp. of I . 
(xf^d^tilre^ (o expel from the bieast.*^!.. 
tx^ out of; ptitor- for *p€(tos ^ stem ol 
pattii, th^ breast. 

Expedite. .L.) From pp< of L» f^- 
ptiiir^t (0 e?itrica1e the foot^ release, get 
ready. — L.^Xp out; pid-, stem of/^j, foot 
D«T. expiditnt^ from the stem of ihc pres. 

Expel, 'X-'i L- cxpilterif to drive out. 
— 1.. i-.v» ont; pclhre, to diive. D«r, fj- 
pulsioit, O. F. txpuitioH, I.* ace, expul- 
n'lVdrw, from pp* txpnh hj^ 

(for •pt^M'^. stem of awht^ a burden. 
ExOrhitOAty txtravagabt. (F. — L.) 
F. .-.riv/'iViiw/.— I., exa* I'iiatti-^ stem of 
prw. pf. of cxtfrMffrj.; to f!y ottt of a 
Uauk.»[.. rr, out; orM/a, a track of a 
wdecl. from flr/ij\ stem of ffr^ist a wheel, 
with ■.v(h\ -til. 

Sxorciee> l-^-Gk.l Late J,, txar- 

ExperienoQi koowledge dnc to trial. 
(F. - 1 .. ) C). F, ^r/rrKMi-f.- L. txptritnti^ 
a proof, trial. — L. ixpiri^ttt-, iilcm of pm. 
pt. of txpfrfrf^ to mnkc Ei ihortUijh ^ftl 
of I clow . "Dbt. txpiri-metrt^ ^f. F. tr- 
pirimeni* I^ fxperirmttittfi, n iriaU 

expert) t)tf>erieneed, (F. - 1,.) O. F. 
tjp/t/.^L* cjtp^rtuSy pp. of ixperirf, to 




make fall trial of.«L. tx, ihoronghly ; 
and *fierj'H', aa obs. vb. of which the pp. 
pffttus is common. See Peril. 

3Sxpia.te. (L.) From pp. of L. ftr* 
piiirt, t'> alone for fully. — L. <',r, fully; 
piilre, K\t propitiate, from jftrMjr, devout. 

Expire. iK— L.) O.K. txpirfr.^l^ 
txfiJrc, (jetptrifre, to hreathe out, die — 
L. c.t, out J spirdre^ to breathe* 

Explain. (F,™L.) M, F. expltutfr. 
Cot. - L. ^xpfamfre, to make plain. — L.fx, 
thoroughly ; pAfndre, to make plain, lit. to 
flatten, from p/antit, fliL iSce Flalti. 

Explotivs. 'l—> I-. ejcp/^(fui*St fillmg 
Qp.— L, tjcpl^tus, pp. of expUrs, to fill 
np. — L. MT, fully ; //ft^, to fill. See 

Explicfttdr ^f* cxpUin. (L.) From 
pp. 01 L. cxptf^are^ to unfold, explain,— 
TU cJ, out r pfkifre^ to fold- 

explicit. iL,* L- fxpfhi/m, oM pp. 
q\ t^xpUci'irc^ to unfold, mak? plain (above). 

Explode, to drive away noisily, burst. 
(F.-U) M. F. ex^odtr^ Ho explode, 
publicly to disgrace or drive out ; ' L'oL — 
L. expl^rt (pp, expls^sus]^ to drive off 
the stage by noise (the old ^n^ in E.K 

— L. *x, away; piJ^Ure, phtidet^i^ to 
clap hands* Der. explos-ivt, -i^n, from 
the p]i. 

Bzploit. (F.-LO M.E, tsphU, suc- 
cess, Gowcr, C. A. ii. 158^ — 0. F, tipioit^ 
revenue, pro6t; later, an exploit, act. — L» 
tjkpUcitum^ n thing settled^ ended, or dis- 
played; iicqt. of cJipfkitHSi, sec explioit. 
Cf, I-ate L. txpUtfa, revenue. 

Explore^ F,-L.1 f. fjr//tfrcn — L. 
exp/c^rdre. to search out» lit. to maketo flow 
oTit, — L^/x. out; p!srSr4,Xo makelo flow^ 
CL d/'pioTf, iiH'pi&rt. Bmgm, i. % 154, 

Exponent, l— 1 1^> exponent^ stem 
of pres» pt, of expc^nen^ to expound, indi- 
cate.— L. fj^ qal; p^nere^ to put. 

Export. [L:\ L, expQrtar^, to caity 
nwav. — L. ifjf, away ; porfAre^ to carry. 

ExpOSfi. (F4-L. an./ Uk,' O. Fp/JT- 
Lj^«r, to lay out.— O. F. cjr- i,L. tt), out ; 
'r^pot^r, to pUcCj lay. See Poao 1 !), 

Exposition. (F.-L.) F, fxpasififfn. 

— 1-. jitzc. t-.r/^j-ri/ftrMfffi.— L. exppsuttSf 'pp,. 
«if tfxfi'nt'fi:, lo »et forth, expound. See 

ExpoBtnlattf. (l.*^ From pp. of L. 
fxp^siulare, to demand earnestly.- L. up^ 
fully ; /*ojfu?iirf, to ask. 

Exp^ttnd. [.f'>' 1*he tf h cxcr^cent, 

but wna suE^sted by the form of »he O. F. 
infinitive, M. E* ^.v/^wwcjpji. — O. F. es- 
panJjTf^ to explain. — 1™ expt^M^re. to set 
forth, explain. <-L. fx, oul ; pffners, to 
put. See ExpositioB. 

Express, A^ij-rt^Kactly Mated. (F.-L«)^ 
O, F, fxprcs, — L* expre^uis, distinct ; pi 
of rxpHnurt, to press out. — L. £X^ c>iit jj 
pruftere^ to jiress ; see Preaa. 

Expulsion ; »ee IjxpoL 

Expunge. [L.i L. expungtre^ to 
prick out. blot onl, [In MSS., txfmmti&H 
of a word is denoted by dats umtir iV.]— L, 
f,r, ont J pitng^rtt to prick. D«r, «- 
puntr-iO't, from the pp. ejcpaaftas. 

Expurga.te. (L.) tfom pp. of L. 

fxptirgisrc, to pnrify thomnghly.^L, eXr\ 
thoroughly ;/i*ryfl«j to purge, ptlttfy ; SCC 

Exc[nisit0T sought out, eicellcnt. (L,') 
L^ f.zf/ttijffHs, pp. of exqt*frerc>. lo seek 
out. — L. f.v^ out ; ipifirfrc, to lecfc* 

Exae^nieS S «^ Eiequiea. 

Extsnti 1,-xisting. i.L.) Laic L. tjt' 
tant-y stem of extansy for exitafu^ pres. ptr 
cf iXitHre, to stand forth, exist. — L. «r. 
out ; s/iJrt, to stand. 

ExtftS J ; see Eoataay. 

Extempore^ (L) From L. ex ie/M-l 

port, at thu moment.— L. tx^ bom^ out of Jj 
tempore, abl. of iempus^ time. 

Extend. Cl->^ M. £. exf/ndm.^h 
txUttdcfet to sta'tcli out ', pp. txUittnSf 
(xUnjui. — L* ^jr, out ; Undete, to slrelchi 
Ber. fxfeaj-iffn, -ivt (from the pp.)* 

extent. { F, — h.\ O. F. extente, ■ 
commonly esUnte^ extent. — Late L, fX* 
ffnfa, fern, of ixfen/itSj pp. of fxi^ndfrt^ 

Extennilte. (LO From pp. of L. 
eettHdrf, to thin, reduce, palliate. — L. 
oat, very : tentt-h, thin. See Tbiu. 

Extenor, outward. (F~L.) For- 
merly i'xfc>-ic>ur,^'iA.Y*exterieur,^'L, ix- 
Uriorim^ acG. of rxftricr, oiitwttfd^ COm-'j 
parativc of exfu'Uf or fxtcr, outward.—] 
tXt out; with compar. sofflK -ter^* 

Extenninate. (L) From pp, of U' 
^xlermifulre, to pot Of drive tieyondj 
bounds. — I,. tXy out ; terminm^ boundai 

ExtemaJ, ontwatd. U^ From 
exterH'Ui, autivarilj extended fuTm from' 
extenti, outward. See Extorlor. 

Extingnish* ^T-') Cfincd, withsofBit, 

- ish , fnj m L. extitt^u^rf, bet t er txjtingjf 

(pp, fxtt*t<r/uTt exstimtm), to quench. ^J 

L. ^Xf out ; *srmfntr9, to prick, aUo to^ 




Cf. DiBlinsuuh. 
Eztirpat9. [-.) From pp, of L. fx- 

fir-fiiirf. u* root ouL bctlpi" spelt exsiirp- 
Ari, ta pluck up by the stcm.^L. €x, out; 
siirp^s^ stirp-ts^ ihe stem of a tree. 

^[toL (U) 1- extoiiere^ lo lift or 
raise up. — L. ex, out. up ; ioHtre, to lift, 

Extort. I LO L. fxtortui, pp. of ^x- 
tonfuirt^ to twist obt;^ wring out, — U f^^ 

oul ; torqurrt^ to Iwiit. 

£xtra. tL.j L, rx/r^, beyond, beyond 
what is necessary ; 0« L. txtHidr allied to 
L, exttr; sec Eitariof, 

fiztranoo-OB. (U) L. 4x(Fiiw-us. 
exttmaL with bul^x -MU ; extended from 
^x/rJ I Above). Cf< BtraUBO^ 

Eztrftctp vb, (L. I L, extrtK/-vs, pp. 
of txtrtthtiif, to (Imw ottLwL. ex^ out; 
iraherc. ti> draw, 

liZti'ftordmary* (L-) L,ixird-ardi- 
mlrittt. beyond what is ordinai^f nire- — !■»' 
extrti^ beyond ; erdimJriHs, ordinary. See 

Extra vAg'ant. (F — L.) ¥. extn- 

V'^ '' ' ' ' extr^^j^ni-, stttq of 
• : vagant, lit, wan<1critig 

f- ; - . beyond; u(^^m^■px&. 

pt, i>i r/rjiv-J.'/, Ui waJiiler, 
ExtraT-asftte^ to force (btc»od) out of 
\Xi proper) vesuL (L.) Coined from 
#jf/rj. beyond ; udSy a vessel ; with Bitfifix 

Extreme. (F* - L,) O. F. txtrtme. - 
I., (xtit-viut^ superl. of exfei'UJ, outward ; 
skn: Erttorior. 

Extricate* (L.) From pp. of L. tx^ 
trtatrt, lo disditangle. — U tXf out of; 
trmr^ impediTnenti, perplexities* 

ExtriiuiGve^tcmal, (F. — L. ) Tt should 
rather be ^xtriruu.^Q, F. fxtnrtsa^uf, 
tWAfd, * 1 jte L. ftcc txirinsf<Hm, Jiilj. ; 
to \j. ixirins*cta, adv., from withotit. 
L. extrin {^*txirim)f adverbial form 
from txUr^ ontward ; and sicuj^ beside; 
so that extrin-stcms—ou. the outside; cf, 
i$tgtrtm. S«tm is mUicd to st^ttmtum, 
According to^ from ieqm^ to follow ; tee 

Bxtl'U de. Q-" ) L.' txtrudere^ to 
tliniil oiU. '^ L, rx, out ; trudfre^ to 
Ihnifit. Ci Intrud*. 

fit, uf L. rxuhf^tif to be fruitful or 
ukoriaiit. ^\„tx, very ; anil Mii^rdrt^ to be 
itful* from »^i\ fertile, atttt'il t» mAvt, 
udder, fcrllhty: nr<? Udddr, 


Ende. (L-) from L. ixMAre, h 
exsudHtv, (0 sweftt out, distil. — L. rjr« out; 
jHaVf^i-, lo sweat. See Sweat, 

Exult, to leap for joy, iF.-U) F. 
exuUrr.—L. exit/fare, better spelt fXJtt/- 
fSrf, to leap «p, ejCBlt**L, exsttUm^ pp» 
of exsi/ete, to leap nut — I-. ^Jf* out ; taltrr^ 
to Icai L Sec Salients 

ExuviSB, cast skins of uuitials. (h,) 
L^exuHttf, things stripped ofi^^i^ijiurtt 
lo stnp off. CT. I'mcfvuiff. clothes. 

EyaJI^ a nestling. ^F.-L.) For mas; 
by substituting an eyas for a »tas.i-^F. 
mait, a nest ling ; Cot- He aUo givef 
niard^ whefice/aW<rf/i Htard, 'a iiias faul' 
Con/ Cp. Ital. tiidioic, or nidaso faicont, 
'an eya&e-hawkp a youii^ bawk taken out 
ofhcToest;' Torriano. Formed as if from 
Lftle L. ^rttdAumt occ of *nuiax^ adj, 
fiom L. nuius^ a nest. See NoHt. 

Eye. (E-) M.E. tye, fight \ pK o'«» 
^^H < whence eyne). O. Mctc. ^; A. S* 
/^ ***^47ff*+Da. «y, loci, qn;^, Dan, 
fl//, Swed. n^Tt, tloth. ay^^ (J. om^. 
Perhapi allied to Riiss> i»^, L. a^iw/ivj 
'dtmiD. of *pcus'\ ; Gk. ocrp« (dual) ; Lilh, 
ii^/V, Skt. akshi. lirugtn. i. ( 6Si« Dor, 
d^is-y, q- V. ; wtftdovf, q. v. 

Eyelet-bole. ^ F. - L. ; tmd £0 
EytUt is for M. E. flj7f^» rrom M. F, 
Ptilltt^ *a Tittle eye, ui oilet hole.' Cat.; 
dimin. of O. F. fv/Z, from L. octUum^ acc 
*>l ivuius, eye. 

Eyotp a Utile island. (£ ) AUo spelt 
att, eyetf eyght* Laic A. S. y^ (Keoible, 
Cod. Dipil. V. 17, 1. 3ol ; for k.^. f^, 
tgrotf, a dimin- from fg^ j^f, on inland ; see 
Island » 
I Eyre, a drcnit. (F — L.) M,E, n>v, 
circtiit, esp. of a jadge. ^ O. F, tirt, 
journey, way. — O. F. eirfr, to joumey, 
wsmder aljont, ^ Late L. iterSre^ to journey 
(for L, itiHirdre) ; from L, I'Ar, a jonraey. 
See Errant, 

Eyry, I* nest \ we Aery, 

Pable, ft story. (F.-L) Y,^hU.~ 
L fifht/a, a. nai-rntivc. — L.j^-rr, tO fpeafc, 
tclL Sec FfttC. 

Fftbrifi. ( F . - L, ) F. fahri»fHt, -^ L, 
fahric^^ workshop, fabric, •• 1,. /ahri-^ foe 
Jahers a workman. From L. trose V5»fr , 
to be skiUul; cf. Lith. daf-mM, 1 ndoni, 




clean: Golh. g^-tiiib-ith, it \% fitj Riissi. \fuur^ cleaning fire, pnrgston,'. 

Joh'i-uii^ good. See Deft, TittT. /a/fric- 
aU^ frgtn pp. of L./aMttirK to coDitract; 
itnm faMfa (above), Brngm* J, \ 563. 

Fa^adet ioce of a buUdui?. (K.-Iinl. 
- L.; M. ¥./a(iJtie (Cot.). — ItiX, fattiata, 
face of a building. t-Ital./arria, facc.<- 
Folk-I^ /irwJ» Tor L,/aa'fs (below). 

face. (F- - J-) F- /at'f- - Folk-L, 
/oi-ta, for L,/acrt?St the face, appearsuicet 

Facetious, ■>', — L.) F. faiiiku.x 
iCol.,. — M.r.//i-f^if, ' wilty mirth,* id.— 
U. /(h'Hia, wit; common in pL — L,^*^i.'- 
/«;. witty, courteous ; orig, ' hne.' 

Paoilo^ ca?y to do, ;['', — L.) F. 
faiife. — I.,yIrt<^//j!V, i.e, ilo-able. — l«j^««?, 
to drt. UtT./iKilily ; faculty, 

mfike (fioH like. ^ t,, y*-, imp. s. of jfe<v>r, 
to make; umiL% ncot, of simiiis, like; 
*« Similar, fl Wfi nl-^o find ftii'fum 
jtfmiit^ i. c. m.ide like. 

foctt n [iieed, rcnlity, (l^.) L. fattum^ 
a tJec<l ; orig. nciit, ofj^/«/, pp, of/fl^ft'r/j 
to m:^kc, do. 

•■L. factuhuntf ncc, of /oi'fiff. n doing, 
lakin^' part» faelian* — L. /a^tm^ pp. of 
fatit£^ to do. 

£actiti,011fl. (L.) U/iKiitiuS, artifi- 
cinl ; witb siiflis -ctw.'^L, fadus^ pp. of 
fafk'rt, to make. 

factotum^ iL.) ^ ^nentl ageat.« 
I., fiiiijyc tiVum, to do everytbittg, 
foCTdty-p fnciEity to act, (F,-L.) 

tem^ ace. Ktf /aiultas {-facilitai}, fecillty. 
^L.foiriiti, f.iay ^ see FaoUs. 
Fad, a folly. (F.-Ptov.-L.) Ap- 
parently shortened from F./a^fatfc, fiddlt- 

Faces. \L^) L. /*P'«V» dregs j yU 
/izx^ the same. V&t* fi^ui^ni, L. Jav- 
lint it s^ adjn fromy^j', 

Fatf I to dmdgc. i E. ?) * To fa^, c 
cere; Levins (1570, Theorig,?enw 
'Iq drorvp/ Perbaps n cormjition of^tfoj 
ace Flaer (t) ; and ste htlow. 

Pag'-ond, rcmneinu (£. ?) In Mm 
singer, Vtrg. Mnrl. ii. 3. Pcrh.ips ft 
y/fl-.^-^Mf/^ loc«e end ; see above. Cf. 
fi°^ or thc/isiy frdtris ' feathers) ; 
nf SL Alhan^, loi B \ a. 

F^got, Fagot. y. - 1 tft! . -^ ] „ ; 
F# f^S^l\ ' a fiTifrni, ;v hojidle of sticks 
Cot. Of doiifjiriil ori!;^m \ perhaps hof 
rowed from TtaLj^.^iJ^'/tf, 'a faggol,^ Horio; 
a ditnin, from L y?f-wj, a bpcch-trrc_ 

FftiL CF.-l-O F. >i7A>; cf. II 
/fl//ifr,-Folt'L. */j///-|V. for L. /rt/ZiTi-rf, 
beguile* nlso, to be defective ; y^///, lo ei 
Bnigm, U | 757. 

Ftdn. t F. M. E. /yw. A . S. fitg,* 
glad. +(*. Sax. ^/^i^w, lct:K/e^»H, giail* 
Cf. A*S. gr//cfu ;p(, r, j^fffl), tn rejoice. 
Tcut. root •j'tA-* K£ in A.S, gf-Jhn (for_ 
*-/eA-ati) ; cf. Goth, fah-e/^s, ;ov, 

Famt. (F.-U; ^E. E. y^^H/.-o, 

feints weak, pretended ; orig. pp. 
feinJrc, to feign — L. _/fff^r#, to for 
fei^* Sec Figure. 

K^bir (i)j pleasing, bcaiuiful. i,l?.]| 

M. E. fftyr, A. S. ffpgtr, Fair.+Icel- /!?f»"l_ 

Dan, Sw&l./offir, Goih./a^s, fit,0,H,G. 

f^gstf. Teat, type ^^^^nm. Cf. Gk. -r^- 

' Kw*jj, I fasten. Bmmn, i. \S 300, yor* 

Fair J>» » boHday. iF. — I.,i M. K. 
^i/¥. — A. F. _;tiW I F. f&ir^,-^\^,f?ria^ a 
holiday, later, a fair; commoner as pi. 

Col, -Pfov. fadfia, folly (Hatifcld).- ;/?rfti, for *f?s-i(t, fcASl-dnys; allied to 

Prov*y^}/ (Cia5COQy(zJ),fooltfih. m l^/a/uut, 

Fade, vb. ( F. - L, ) n, F . /<idrr ; from 
V-fa.k^ adj., tasteless, weak, timt. <— L. 
ttafufufn, ace. of uapidus^ vapid. See 
Vapid, fl raJ^Tt far/hdf, is from M. Du. 
v/idit'tt: from O, V.fndtr. 

Fad^e, to iit, suit, he content with, 
siicctctL ^E.) Fonned, in some u&cx- 
plflinei] way, from the Tent, base 7^-, t" 
soit, whence also O* Sax. J^^**i A. S. 
JTgattf to joint 5"i** M. K, /fjfttt to ndapt, 
fit, G. fhgfft* Dm. viKgen (see Klti£;e find 
Franck). Cf. Golh. fuiUt-fah /an, to 
•alufy, O. H, i»,giftig, coiiient» I Hi- a^if- 

Feast. Dfugm. li. % 664 
FaiXT. iK.-L.> M.E./n^f7>,/jy/ 

enchantment. [The tnod. bm of the w< 
t5 new ; Jaity » cnchanimetii, the oi 
wofd for *elf' being /?)'.] — O. F, _/rt^/»^/ 
enchantment, — O. Y . fae, a fnyj see Ffty, 
Paitk. (F.-U M. hi >/'M 
fey. Slightly altered from O. V,./ad,/gi 
faith. '^L.j^dt-m, ace. of/V//, ftiiih : nlfici 
lo fldtrt^ to injst. Cf, tJk. irfurn, 
ynHEIDlI.) Allieil to Bid*. iJniem.! 

i, % 101. 

FalcMon, ^ swonl. F. — ItaL — r„l 
M, i'.. fatiih&n. — (). F, fausk^n, * 
faichne '<i pron, aa rA). — I^te \.* fakU 




*fc-w. ace c>( /ft/rH\ A belli ftwimK — L. ,f»a*VA, iSrc.^ from l. /iim,'.", hunger 
/a/rs; (led. stfm oS/'tih\ a. Piokle, Allied O- K. a/amfr, to die of hwiiijcr. 

to /ffcUif, (o bend. 

fidcoa. (F-U) M, E. >«^flw.- 
, 0. ¥,/aticou,/ttufton, •• Ijitc I.. f&h^menK 
ftcc* tii /aliO, a. falcon, so named frnm its 
Tiooltefi uUwa. — L. ybA-^ Btem ol falx, n 

0. 11 G.) LowL./iA//Vi'£?/i«H^*-O.H.{:. 
f<itii^^it^ So fold ; j/Hisy i,G. stukt\, a stooL 
Lf. Wjautgnit, Sec Fold. 
Fall, to drop tlovrn. (E.) M. E,/dt/in, 
D. Mtrc. /j//flff ; A, S,/i?fl/Ai«. + Du. iW- 

/ni}a,G. JafUii. ieul. ya//flH-, Cf. Lhh. 
/*uUt\to fall; and pcrhnpB \.. faHert, to 
ileceive, /tf///, to err, Hrtigm. i. | 7^7. 
D6r. he^faif, from A. S, ht'ftiUlan^ to 1^1! 
cml, happen ; yt-// (i). 
TailaGT. lF, - L.) Fonned by nddi n g 
-J' to }i\ . H. falfaee^ a ^lUcy, deceit, •■ F. 
fallait.^X.. falltleia, deceit. — L. faliHc-, 
stem ot/tiihx^ ilecdtfaL-U. fmkrt^ lo 
deceive. Sec nbovc. 

fallible, l-) \.. faSHbUu, liable 
to err. — 1.. ^ffr", to cir; falten, to Je- 
Fallow (i V ort^. * hftirowed ; * of Innd, 
(K.) A.S. /itt^tig^ fnItow44nd, — A. S, 
/iitik, n harrow. Lf. E, Kriefl. /d/j'<*«, In 
ihllow land ; O. H. G./ffytl^ a harrow. 

Fallow I a \ used with reference to 
colonir. (£.) O. Mejo, /fi/i* • l\..%. ftatu, 
fiaip, pjiic ret!. ycUoui&lt. + Dq, x^aai^ led* 
^/r, pfcle, C f&ht^ p.nle ulsfi /d/i ; I ith- 
ftthes ; cf. alio L. p&mdus, Cik. roAjtlr, 
gray. Skt.ilfli'//d-, gray. Sec Pale. 

False. 1F.-.I..) M. K. faJi. - rt. I\ 

yi/j f./auj).*^L,/aIitts, Inlse; pp* of 
faticrt^ (a deceive. 
Falter, to totter, stammer. (F.. ?) 
M, L. faltrfU^ to loiter; fie<]iieiitative 
from a ba^e /iiZf-. fif obscUTv oKfpn. 
Pcrha|j5 connecterl with Ictl. reft. vb. 
faltra-sh, to be cnrnbcrcflf to be pirzHcd. 

Failie» report. iF. - L. ) F. }amt. - L. 

f^ma, rcjiort. — L. f^rl^ to sptak ; we 

Pat?. "~ 

Family. (F.-L) F. /amiiit.m,h. 

famdm, n hou^ctiAtd. ^ I., fttmittin, a 

Faiki a^n miiiiimcnt for b!(jwin^% 'L.)' 
A. S. yj/rrr. — Lflte L. vannus^ L. 'www«/, 
a fan i^whcnce also F, t«rt"l; *«c Van (a^l 
Jlrugm. i- \ ^}J. 

Fanatic, religiously fncane> (F. — L.) 

(o it lem])le, (3) inspired by 11 divinity, 
enthusJAstic* — L/y^rf«j9f, a tetnpte ; see 

Fanoj. (F.-t.-OW.) RhortfDi-M.E. 
fiittiasii.^O. F. /an/as ff,^l-Aie l.^fhan- 
tasia.^VtV* ipayTaaia, a. making visible 

hence^ ]maginalion\ — Gk. tf>avr6(iiv^ ta> 
d^lay; !H*e Phantom. 

Fandango, a Sppni^h dance. iSpan/^ 
Span, /atitiiin^, *' a dance tiwd 111 the \\. 
Indie* ; ' PLneila \ i 7^0^, 

Fane, a tt-mp1e. i^L.) L. jfilmtM, A 
wmplfi shortened from on eailitr forat 
*/asnom ; cf. Oacfln fisnum^ a temple ; 
ollied Id \,,f2siu5^flna, l^rugm. il, |6fi. 

Fanf^Of 3 Hourish of trnmi^tfl' (F. ~ 
Span, "f K. fati/art!. Troh, of iinimlvc 
origin, or borrowed from ^^^^nyfattfarria, 
bluster, vaunting, which is of similor for- . 
matiun. Jier./anfarr-iftt-iiJe, bluster* 

Fang, a talon, daw. iK.i A.S.fang; 
lit. A seizing* — A. S. */dhisn^ to !ieize, only 
used in the contracted form y^, pt> t^ 
/^f*gt pp. gx/amgtn ; the pp, fomi haviiij^ 
alohc gnivived, evolviflg an infin. mocd 
fn dialeGti.*f Oil. vangett. to CAtch; Icel. 
fd (cf. ffiitgt «b.j a Cfltch of fish) Dan* 
ytttf/, Swed.ya, Goth*yJJj4aH, G. faHgtn^ 
to catch, fiittg, ab.^ a calch, also a fan|;. 
Allied lo I../jMfsrrif ; Bmgm. i, § 411, 

Fuitastic, vtiJ*') <^ik. sM»*Tft<TTiirDf, 

able lo rc]Jiescpt or stew,— Gk. f arrn^fir, 
(d display. See Pajio]r. 

Fantasy^ ' '"^t' ^f*"" of Pmiot. q. v. 

Faqnif T Fakir, an <^lrienlal rcligiom 
men d ica nt. . 1' . — Arab.) ¥. faquir. fakir. 
^\TQ.h.faqfr, one of a leligiuos order of 
mendicants; lit, ^ poor, indigent;' Ricbntd- 
son's Diet. p. ioti>6. 

Far. :K^ M,E./rr. A.S,>(Jf,+ Dtl. 
v^r, Icel.j^am't Swed._^>mi«, adv., Ekin. 
J^irfhQ,fem\ Goth. /^jrrfl, adv. Allied 
to tik. ndpa*, beyond ; Ski pamj^ btyood, 


servant, rHcrm yay/i^/; cf. Os^atj /la/wd/, j/'a/d-, fnr {^Pl^l^-i Thu- comp.yfttftA^r 

hc tlvvclk, I>9T,/amiJt-ar\h,/itmf7iAr$'r'. ! (for M, K. firrtr \\. e. /iir./r')] iii due lo 

Famine. *--L.) f /flwiW.-l.aic 

L, 'famma, unrpcorr'cd. but plainly an 
exteJiMoii Irnfii I . fanu^s.. hum^ei^ Der, 
f&m-iih^ formed ^by aimlnj^' with lan^ 


confusion withy*rr/A*rr, cnmp. of Forth. 

Fairoe. iF,-L.< The orig-. tense is 
•^tuflirg'* hence, a jest in*ci1ed imo a 
ifomeily.wF. /d/^j, stuffing, a tarce. — F 


farcir, to stiifT. — L.yiircjVir, to stoPT.+Gk. 
^pttjattv (for *^p&ji-y*iv)j \q shtit in. 

Fardiel, a pack, btimlle, iiF.— Amb.) 
M. K. /ffT-i/^A- O. F. fardel (F fardtau). 
Dimin. of O. F. fartfCf a burden. Prob. 
from Arab, faraah^ a ptickage (E^evic). 
Perhaps boirowcd through Spanish ; cf. 
H^i\.fardd.faf(i0, a bttndLe. 

fai<«, to travel, speed, (E.) A. S. 
^rant to go* trarcl. + Du. iwrjw, Icel. 
Sw«1,/dn3, T>Qxi. fare^ Q, fakren^ Goth, 
faraft, to go; Tent, "faran- {pX, t, */^), 
CL <.;k, itaptvifftai . 1 trawU V,. txperiiyr^ 
1 puss thtotigh, Skt. /?■, to bring over- 
(V^^E^^O ^^r- fO'rt'wdL Le. may yon 
speed well; thprmt^h-fare^ a passage 
through ; itstlfare, flDCCCSsful practice or 

y^rina, RTound com. (L.) \^, farTna, 
menl. — L. /ur, a kind of grtLin ; allied to 
Bkrley. 'DeT,farifface0Ui, from \L>,farinii- 
tftit. Unigm. i. \ jSo. 

food for cattle, a tiQecllej%»L. y^r (gen. 
f{trr'is)f gtntn (above). 

Farm. >.L.i M. E./rfrjw. [Cf^A-S. 
/f^rWt * fcflB*, food, property, use,] — I-ate 
L.^fWM, a Tefts^ frirm, tribute; fern, of L. 
JittiiHs, dumble. (From ihe_^;cft/ rent; 
flho fonil^ from its support.) .See Firm. 

Farrier. (F, — L.) KoTmerly /im>r, 
mvrorkerin iron. —O.F.yfetwrfthe same"), 
^Li^^(fnWf,a lila£kamUh.»»L-jt^mw, 

TaXlSCfW, to litter ptgi. (E.) From the 
«b./omw, a Utter of pig?,— A. S. fearh, 
» pig; pi. /(foraj. + M. H»G, vanh, a 
pijj ; C,.ffrk-£!\ \..porcus\ »e Fork. 

Farther ; see Far. 

CFiart^biug, fonrth part of ft penny. 
C/«fr, older form /^or^fmff^^A. S. j7ffr^*a, 
fourth: with dimin. suffix -iWf or -i-ing, 
Allinl lo A»S.yti774¥r. four. 
Farthin^e , Fardin jr%l«i a 
iiQopi:^! pL-tLicoat. ,F. — Span, - L.> M,F. 
veriftij^iiJk^ 'a vardingall ; * Cot. — Span* 
v^rdHgadOt a. fftrtbingale. lit. • pro\ii!ed 
with huops*'— Span, vcniugo, young shoot 
of ft <!Te+ rod^ hoop.^Spnn. iffrtlty gtcen. 
— L. itiriiiis, gr«n. See Verd&ot. 
FaBCinato, (U) From pp. of L, 
/asti'fii'ifVj to enchnnt. — I.. J^jrt'MNHt, a 

FaSCiue* ^ handle f( rods. (F.— L,) 
F./asttru.-^L. fasfftta^ u hurdle nf twig-s. 
^L./i/hi, a bundle. 


Faahiotu (F. - L.) o F. f^ceott, 

fdthon^ rniilte, shape. — L. j|ftir>.'''cffww, m 
fif/affiff^ a making; soe F&ctiOD. 
FB«t (1), firm. (E.) A.S. /fj^.+Du, 
tfost, Dan. Swed. ^j/, Icel./oi/r, G./u*;l 
Armen. Aof/. Bbp. /aj/ 1,3)^ fasf (3), 
Brtigm. ii. 5 7g. 

fiurt (3), to nbstnin ^om food. (£.) 
A. S, fai:tan, orig, to make fast, observe, 
be strict ; hoitkfast t*l]Ove).-kDii, vasten, 
Dan. foitft Swecl. and Tcet /asiat G,i 
fasten \ Goth, fasfan, to obserre, fisL 

fiu^ (3)* quick. ^Scand*') A pecaliar 
use oijksi (1) above ; this use is Scand. 
Cf. Iccl. ifreJtJta fast, to drink hardj sofa 
fast, to be fast asleep, f^^if * vtrkum, 
hard at ^aik^fyi^a fijsf^ to follow faxt,&c. 
It means firm, close, urgent, quick, 

&9teii. (t.) .\.s,/fei/m'oJt.tomake 
fast or firm.— A. S.j'Jsj/, 6rm. 

fibStness. (E.) M. E. festms, fait' 
ms$, orig. ' strength.* — A. S. firsttten, the 
tirmARient, a fastness; orig. that which is 
firm. — A.S.ylTid', firm. 
Falltidions, (L.) h^fastidi^ms^ dU- 
daJnJul.-* L./jj/ff^/uM^ loathingi perhaps 
for yastutidivm (Vani5ek),— L, fastu-s^ 
arrogances /fA^ifi/^f, diigost; 10 th^t/a:r/r- 
diutu = n:rrojTniit disfjast- 

Fastiie99 ; f^e Fsjt. 

Fat; I ), gross. -1',) M.^/afl,frJ,fat 
A. S, /f?^^, orig- a pp.^ contr. from 'f?fed, 
fattened, enrichcd.+0. H. C. /etitt {G* 
fast), pp, of a Tent, vb. yaiffan-^ formed 
from Tewt. adj, ^faitoz^ wbicb is rcpr^Cttted 
by Icel. feitr (Swed. /?/* Dun. /-i/^ foL 
Cf. Gk. wittf, Skt. /loan, fat. 

Fat (2\ ft vat ; see Vat, 

Fat«, dc^ti^y. (F. - L ) M. E. fatt. - 
O. F. /of* fatt tuot common^ — L. f^tHm, 
what is spoken; neut. of, pp. of filrit to 
fpeak.+Uk- ^f>jjwi, I say^ Perhaps allied to 
Boon ro. Brugm. k $ 187. (^BH.V) 

Fathn. {K..> M. E. W^r. A.~ 
fftder. The pron. with tk is doc to dialcctt 
in flucnces. Hh Icel- y^'V* Du. vmier, r'an. 
Swed* fad^r, Goth* faJar^ G. iHXttr^ 
/ri/cT, Glf, wQT^p, 0. Irish athir, W 
\piitar, Skt. j»i/r. Idg, type •Ai/^r.. 

Fatbom. (K.) M.K. /arfw*. AS, 
feQm, ihc space leacHed by ihe extendi 

arms, a gresp, embfTiCC+l'u z<acfem. It 
/admr, a fathom, T>\u.favtt, Swtd./rffiM, 

an embrace, (l^fadfti. Allied to Pat«xit,^ 

Fatignet ^ti- 'J--^-) <>. F.ya/r>/f 1 

from fii/t£»ff, to wcnry. — L. ^/J^'iii'r, t< 



Fatuous. 1.1 L fattt^m, *illy. the ^tctii of Kmvdting^-A. S. /5r-, j' 


fccLkIc ; with suffix -our, Der. mj&tNate 
from pp. of L. in/uiuarr, to make a 
f6Dl of. 
Fattoe B. (L* ) L. faueii, pL , the upper 
(wii I'f i(i'- vhroal* 
Paiioet, tt Bpigot» vent. |F. - L.?) 
F. jatMictt a I'aucrl ; J'nuiset^ Cot. 
Origin utiknciwii ; btil cf. M, F. fauljrr, 
lo uitsify, foi^e; alBo/flft/jnT a^j^j «fw, to 
pierce & shield ; hcnct, (o piefct. * L. 

faiiArt, to 6ilsify.wL.^/juj, fobc, 

Fault. (F, - L.> Formerly /aut. 
M. E.^«/f.^O.F.jft«//tf. a fatilu (bF^n, 
vid ltal,/fli?a. a defect.) - Folk-L. ^/oiiiia, 
n defect, fem. of ^/aiUtus^ new pj}. of 

failertf to tJecdi-e ; cf. F, /aiiHr. Sec 
Fait, PAlUble, FiUae. Hence also 0. F. 

fauier^ Spazi. Jaltar^ llaJ. faitarCf to be 

Fatm, Q turnl ^Kobiad) deity. (U) L« 
JauHUS.^h./au^e, to be propilioos (?j 
FatttttUii^ an ami-chair, (F— Low L. 

— O. H. i},\ F. fauUuil, O. F. fauifie* 
['/(Cot.)-"" Low L./a/du/o/ikm, a fald- 

Uool , sec PaldstooL 
Favonr, sb. (F.^l.^ 0,F. /«ww, 

— L./tfWi^/-cM, ace, of jfiiKiw^ fovonr. — L, 
fau^f, t«T] befiicod, orig. * lo venerate/ 

fikTOnxite. (F, - lul. - L.) M.F. 
fnvQtit ; c£ F,^^W)ri* pp. of O. Y,faverir^ 
\a favour. But tbe 6naL t is really doe lo 
bonowiog from \X.iX./(WoriiQ^ pp. noil sb. i 
orig. pp. ol favorin, to fflvomr. — Ilal. 
favon^ favour. — L.yci«»^r»i i>hove). 

Fawn U)* to criny^ lOi rejoice servilely 
uver, (L*) A.S. AtAj«Utt,yf^firidn, to re- 
joice ; vamnts ai fKgtnivi^ to fawn, from 
^^^M. faJD, glad.^IceLyb,f7M, to rejoice, 
welcome one j fttUcd to /^ftim**, fmin. Sec 

Fawn (t1^ a yo»ing deei. (F.-U) 
O.K. /ftrt, /*w», earlier /(few, a fawnj 
answering lo a L.-iie L. forin *fefdn«m 
^not foiind\ ace. nf *fih^, a yoiin}^ one. — 
L. fitm.fcciui, offajjring. Sec Feiue. 

Fftjr, a fairy. (F - LI F. fit, O. F. 
fae. it fay. Cf. Port. /tfi/a, Ilal. /i/a, a 
fny.^Ljile L. /(Vfi, ■ tatc, goddess of 
dntiiiy, a fay. ^L. f&ta^ pi. of L, fatHm^ 
fatr Sec F4t«. T^ex,/aUfy^ 

Fealty, true icrvicc. (F.-L.) <.L F. 
/ua//*-. /.i-Z/rt^f, fidelity. — L,^/Afil/*f«j, ace. 
itf Ji*iHs/.n . rwl«lily,-L. jt(*?A'j, faithful- 
ftntn A^i-j, raitb. 

Fear. <L0 M, F, /nr. A. S). /-fr, a 
tudJcii \)cri\, dui^eip feat. Qnj;. uKtl of 

&tciD of /artw, to go, imvcl.^Icch y&i 
X^^ffcrictiiiifti. danger. 

Feaaible, co&y to be done. (F.-L> 
[Also fehahk^ — M. F. /aisiNf, /a$s&i>U, 
* feasible, doable ; ' Cot. - (>. F. J'ms- 
m fais-artt, pim, pt. uf /atnt^ to do.*>I*i 
Jatcrt^ to do, >>ee F^oth 

Feast. I F, - L,) M . E . ftste. - O, F. i 
fcUi (F./Ai-y.-Late L.Ttji^tt, fcro. sb.-L. 
/«/tf, lit. festivals, pi. of ftitum. beoj 

Feat. i» deed well dtMic. ;f.-l,) m.e. 

Jut, fiie^^K. Y.Jttx O. F. /«i^.-L. >f-j 
/WW , a dixd ; sec Fftot. 

Feather* < E. ) M . F. ///Arr. A . ^. | 
/e^<r, + Uu, p^rfdT, Don, j^dcr^ Kwcd. 
fjiUUr, Ijti. j^ioflr, G. fctitr; L. /VNiM 
(for *pti 5rta\ Ski, ^m-^ Gk- vri^, a 
wiiifi, iw. e Pea. ( y P ET- ) 
Feature, m&kc^fomi* (F. — L.i M. F. 
ffture. ^ A, F. fitun; 0. F. /aiturtt 
fubloR. — L. /dif/ura, nork, fonofttion.* 
hj/Mtus. pp. of/tutn, to make. 

Febrile, telntjng to fever. (F.-LV 
V^Vbrik . ^h. febriiis. — L. /rAn'-jj fever. 
Feliriaary, (L,) L. fibruarim, the 

niiDiith of expiation, » L. /fi^rt'f?, iituL pi., 
a festival oi cxpiatiuh on Feb, 15. — L. 
februum, purificatiou ;/ff*Twdfy, to cxpiflte. 
Of Sabine origin, 

FecklesB, inefTective. AUo fealcu \ 
ihoit Joi iffcii-kizx see Xffb«t, 

FecTLlent, foul. ^F.-L.) Y,fi€ukHU 

— L. fii-iukffius^ full of dregs. — L. Jttiii^ 
dregs. .Sec Fnoei. 
Fecimdity, :F.-L.) W.Y * feconditi 
(Cut.;.— L. ^^n, Jiaimlitatem^ fniilfLilnesa. 
-L. /^fWHdWj, fruitful: allied \o fitus, 
oflsptiag. See Fetua. 

Federal, \.¥. - l.) f. /i^w&L 

Fomicd, with su£Eu -a/^ (torn L. fiEdtr- 
(foi ^fouies* y stem of /taius, a tiea^. 
Akin U:\Jiiits, failli. 

FeOt B lordship, a payment (F, — 
O. H. G. ?' A, F /«, O. F./Ttt < K. f^\ 
a fee, fief. —Late L. fnmm, a fief (Uu- 
auigc) Frob. from O. H.G. /f-^w. pro* 
pcrty.+D*i i«/, Icel.^, Dan /if, Swtil. 
fa, Goth, faikut L. ^m ; Stt, />afU', 
cattle. (v'PEK*) So alio A.S./«A, 
cattle, whence M. E /«, cat tit?, property, 
DOW obsolete. ^ \^'e also find L&te L. 
ftuiium \ «c<r PoudaJL 

Feeble. F. - L,) M fcL ftbU. ^ A. F. 
/(W^ NL F.>iiZr, O. F./fWe ^Godetoy) j 




Tert. bMe/^ (lad en^ ^^ 

«r « 

drive ftwty oncUff 

pcflj * la p«. to fli^^ drive n^r 
swiy, knVf wociy'; «As mkssJ 

A* S* ^nwVf to 

rfciif Ct Kofw, 

Swel >9m, Io dcnm. Fron Tetf- 

•>kiu- ^Hgue mliwHra'. ^ Dbtivct 

A S //f^f, to knrnr, from /K/, nmipC 

Feigii. F-l-.; >LE:/flii«.*0.r. 

^h.^nj(fjv, lo fufra, feign. See Figme. 
J>«r. ffmi (from K- pn./einf: 

V^hBtMpUXf K kitia of mmcnl. (G.^' 
Corrnptcd from G. JtldspcUK ^^ fi^id- 

r#lielty* CK-l; o-F./^ftT^z-L. 

s£c fHktiMim.^X. plld-, ded. ttcm «f 
/i»//j, hip^/y, fruitfol ; allied to J^eli&fr. 

C4U. — I. /e'/tt, a cai ; [>ctha[»« vjBea lo 
(ik. ^^^M, randlc. 
F«U OftOCftUiCtfvfAlt. (E.) O.MCK, 

f>Tilm, A. ^.f/ilan, ciiu»l of O, Merc. 
/iifidH, A. S,/tai!aN, to fall. S<» also Du. 
fv//«/, Dnn./z/j'/, Rw^,/ii/iti, Icel/eila^ 
t'f./tiiitn; all c«ii*al lomit. Tent, tyyi 
*/aiiJan-. cauftit i*i /aiiati*t to bilU See 

r«U J). B *ltin^ E.) M, E, A/. A.& 
MM/.^\)\\, I'd, Tccl. ////, GoUj, '//a 
M, n.'*. iv/; L. /*■//«, Ok. WMa, skin. 
Doitblot, /rf//; cl/i/-M. 

FtU (3^. cruel, dire. (F,-ljitc L.- 
I . 'n M. K.y^A-O H /k/, i.:nicl (cf. lial. 
//'//<:>, I'Mirl . » l.atr I.. /f/U, fih, n mslc- 
iHcliif, fcUm, irnltor. rcrho]* from L.yV/, 
ijnll iN. 1'., W) \ cf. Pu. ilJflL /^A iharp, 
Hltiniz, iLiitl iMulcRiAi. See F*lon. 

7*U Uf, a Hill. C^-flnrl M. IC>/.- 
Icil.^f//,/r//, A htU; Unii /^/dT* Swed. 

' T^iIm. 1^ vtcfced peiWHi. (F.— LatfL. 
-L.r> U.E. A^-O. F. >«M. a 
tnkoc. — LitE L. ,^4nm!w, «cc. of yUPb yWXp^ 
a ttia«or» n^icL See 7^ 3 K 

I D«. ctf, L^ G.. S«v(U Das. /CT, ( 
\Jh. Tem. tTpc ydStas, ft. : ftHled to G. 
/miatm, to pvovv. joiA t«ce(ber. Itac 

7eluae&, a daip. tuL—AnK) luL 

/es'mca. -^ A2ab.yWI, a ship. : See Dcyic. 

yflmiiftlff, (F.— L.^ ¥otfem£il,hjcoiei- 

fa>ieD wiih ■*«/<?. IL E- frmelU.'^O.Y . 

ftmtlU, — L, frmtiU, « yonng woman ; 

, dimin, ai/rnnna, a voman (below). 

fiaaiisiBfl. (F.— L.) O.F. ft^ittif 
— L, Jcmintttus, vomaoly. — L. fimiiut^ 
troiman. Cf. _/?/»«?, 10 sodtle ; Gk, ^*iw. 
female* *7^, the brciit ; Skt. Jhdtri, a 

FemOTftlf belonging to the thigh, ;l^1 
L. fe-mQrhlis ; adj. from fcmoT'^ stem 
finmr. tbigb, 

Fviir a bog tL) M. E. ftH* A. & 
j^«w ^^Du. w-rjw. ktL /fjjj Goth. y<i«j 
niDfL Tcut. t)pc *f&nj^mij n. 
FeiIO#; >l>i:>rt for dtfiWi \ vx Defend. 
Pond ; short far Defend^ q. v. 
Fexid6T ; *hoit for dtfituUr> 

Fennel, -^ \\\^\, <L; M. E. /cy^i-AJ 
A, '&. fmi>i ,jit}ti'^i .—\ . fiUHimium, fennel f 
I doul>lL- *liii;in, <yi fairtum , hay. 

Fenugreek, a pliinu (F.-L.) F^ 
/eftfij^rft\^h,/a4/$uiH Grammy Wx, Greek' 

Feoff; see Pitrf. 

Fement* (l-) L, /frmeft/ttm \ 
fot *fi!rtti m^Nfum '\ Icavcii. * L./crw^r*', U 
(loil. ,S« rervant. 

Fern, i.^.' A,S. /-orM.+rhi, t«ti/r«| 
G. /arnjentftt. ;. SkL /anttt: a winj 


fcaiber, leaf, \Aatit, the ong, scute tctn^' 
•fcither.' Hni|;m. i. { 973. Cf. fllio 
Lhh. Aj/nti/j, Ku&3^, fttNrrvt\^e^^ Irish 
raiV'?! W, tAii/j'U, fern; Gk. tW^*, iero, 
wTfpwi', a witj^', fcalhcr. 

L. ace, /rnYifijUm, ficrccncsb. — L. /i-rivi'-, 
duel. .'■Icno of A''**'-", fierce. — L: /erus, 
fici«, wild. Bnt^tn. 1. £ 319, 
FfirreouB. 'U"; h*/ttrfus, made of 
irc-fi ; with suftix -oni.—l^,/£rj-um^ irgn, 

same as ffrrfti^iftats, rusty ; with go^x 
-Mj.^L. fcrrft^n-^ sttm ni /trrfi^^ nisL 
of iron* — L,/<rr«flf* irott» 

Ferret (^ . a-'i animal, (F,-Low L»- 
I.,?J O. V./urtt, a f«:rrrt,-Lntc U/ihr- 
itUf/^nfftUt a frnnt. Also/tf/'i': said lo 
be Ihe saai« as IjMc L. /wre*, a thief, from 
t. /fir. a tbief. CT. Gk, a^^, a thitf; 
from the ^tiong o-gradc of ^•^i*, to Iwar, 
caft) off. 
Ferret { 2), a. kind of lilk une* (lul. 
— U' 1 roro Jtal, /iifre(U\ * little flowcra, 
flijitrlsfainfjs; nlao foret or ffiTet silkc/ 
MuTio, lU, Q[/ifrfm, dimiu, of 7f*vf, a 
fltnAcr* — L, ^orrm, bcc. o( ^ffs-, a uowcr ; 
ii e Flower. Cf. F. fiturti^ ferret ; from 

JfiJtr, flovvcr. 
FerruginoiLW ; sec Ferreoiu. 
Femue, a mcta! rmi^ at the end of a 
slick, ;f. — I..) Corni| siwlliaj; due 
lu confusion with y?/rw^#, troii) of the 
older form virroii XVI cent* — O^F. jvVj?/ 
^F. Virv/f), a fefrtile; Late L, tv>W(i, the 
Mmc. From L, uirtWa^ a little biacclct j 
tUjnm. of *uiria, an armli:t, only fgiitiiji Jo 
1^1 ittritp. (Diei.'i DuublfaU 
Ferry* vb, (K) M.l£,/^w«. A. S, 

frrian, to coftvcy acrosi ; causal of A, S. 

/kmn, l& ^0. + IceL /crja^ to cfiny; 
tausal of /ana, to jjo; Goth, faryan^ to 
IrtvLl hv ftliiji. See Par«. i\. E.l>,) 

Fertile. J'. - U) V,/itfiU.~h./(r- 
Uiis, fcrliic. — L. ftrrt^ lo beat, See 
Bear (l). 

Fernlei a Ti>d or bat for punithltig 

childfctL (L.^ Fomicrly fintla,^ \., 
/frttht, a rod; orig. the plant ' ginut* 


Perrentt ^lo^ i:c4iou*. (K. -^l..^ O.K. 

/frwptt,^L. /tf'tftMt', stem of pre*, pt* of 
j£ru^f{. lo lioil AlUc<^ to O, Iti*ih ^tf/** 

iiJW, 1 boiL Det. fievtfur^ fnun U. F. 
/^ri'^ir-cl,. ucK /r/t/i'tcm^ heal; jctvui^ 

from U./erni*ius, 
FeM, A hohwtitnl band in heraHry, 


i,I\ — I.. iXlc./eiii i,liflqut;foil); mod. 
F.yitiYt', n fcss, — L.ytiij'fV, a giithj allied 
LuyATtr/j:, a bundle ; &ee f^uo^e. 

Festal. ,!•■.- L, J O.Y./tsial. Fonned 
iwitli F, swffu -i?/<L. -d/ff fmtu V.. fcsi- 
NNit n feast, oii|;, ncnt. of /«/wj, festive, 
jovful. Allied to Fair 1,1) Vnd FAue. 

■f e»tiT»l. (F, - Late L, - L.) Fro- 
perly an aftj. — O, F. fesiival, feslite,— 
Lfitc L*Jesefvaiii,~l^ /isfjuuj (below% 

festive. ^.L,) l^y/estiHiti, Iwlongiug 
td ti fcastt — L./ifJ/M/M, a fcait. 

Fester, a sore. (F,— L.) O. F,/«^vv, 
also Tiftflt Vji'/r. an alcerj whence j^j/Wr, 
lo fcstci (Godclroy .^L.jSsl'tf/tt, a runjiijuj 
sore, See Fiatuls. 

FestiTftl, Festive \ sec F«>t<a. 
Featoon. F. - Ital. - L. ■ W/nien, a 

garland, fvUogn* — Ital, JtstQHC, a jgarUind. 
LFsualiy dciivcd from L. fedium, a feait. 
Fetcli. (E/; St. E. fecihfft^ pi. t, 

/f A/<, ^Af^. A. S. ftiiQn, to fetch. Gen. 
xviii. 4 ; Luke xii. 20. Prob. fiC£'t)an is 
a later form <iifetian^ to fetch Ajiglia, vj, 
IJ7 . Allied to A. S, /if/, a pactj step* 
jounicy; led, ^A a silcp, foot-mea^arc : 
and tu L, /rr (,gen./i*y-fj), a foot, ^ Cf. 
A-S* ge/eccati, O. E. T., p. 178, Der. 

fe/iA^ sb,, a stratagem. 

FSte. f F. -LO Mod, ¥,/fft, tlie same 
OS O. F. />j//; sec Feut. 

Fetich I Fetish, an object of super- 
stitious dread. (F. - Port. - L.) F. 

/iVfVAtf. "Port, ^/Vfftf, sorcery, lit. artificial j 
also, a Tiatne fjjrcn by the Port, to the 
ruUL'hlyiiiadeiidoli of Africa. — L./tfif (7 WJ, 
artificialr-^L, ftui-Ui, pp. of factrt^ to 
FeticL (F.^L.) O. F, ^/.ilr. - L, 

fitvtm, /trtiifus^ ttiaking. — L. frtert, to 
Fetlock. (Scand,' Ait if the ' lock ' 
or tuft of hair behiiid a horse's pas- 
ternjoiijt Cf> Low G.jSfieik (Lubbtn>; 
M, ILG. vi&uioth CKIngel, The lyllablc 
•I-ock is due to a double suHSa, but woa 
ihougbt to refer to IccL A^ir, A.S. /ftr^r 
n lock of hnir. /?/- is prob. allied to 
\ad./ee^ a pace, step, /i*//, ■ pacer fuAcd 
of horses''; and lo Icd.AVr, a foot; tf. 
i<, fentl, pattern \ and &ec Fetctha Foot. 
t^Kltipe^ S.V, Fu$iS 

Fetter, a ahackle- ^E.; M. E. /«-/-fr. 
A. S. /^/i^r, a >ha<:k]c for Ihe foot ; frutn 
VS*/-, Agradc of/tV, foot.+Du, tv/r/-, IccL 

fjoturr\ cl. L. ptJ-Ua and iom-pi-i^ Gk. 
irf*T?, a fetter. T^vtfffttr, vb. 





Fetus, offspring. (L,) L. Jfitts^ a 
bringing forth^ offsprixig, — L, */ti?re, an 
obsolete vcrbf to generate, produce ; 
sUlitrd to /u-i, I was; set Futura^ Be. 
Bragra* i. $ 361^ ii. | 587. 

Pfltl, a ticf - a variant of Pee. 

PttTLd (i), hatirefl, perpetual hostility. 
(F.-O. H, G.> M,K/gd£,/tt^. Modi- 
fied in speUtDg in some unejfnlamed wsy, 
perhaps by the inflBence oI/m. — O. F. 
feide, fauk, feds^ pcrpctunl hostility,— 
O. 1!. G. phida (G. f*hdi\ enmity ; 
cognate with A.S. flhf^^ enaiily, from 
A. "^.fiih.^ hostile. Sec Foe. 

Pend LJ'i. a fief. i,Low L. - F. - 
O, H. G,) Low L. fcudum, a Lntmi*¥id 
form allied to O. F. JiUf also epelt _^e/, 
■ec Fee^ Ftef. (The intrusive d \% un- 
explained.^ tier. /tudaf, adj. 

Tent.) Fiotn M, li. feuUr, n reit for n 
spear. — O. K. feutre<, older fdht^ a piece 
of felt, also a rest ; [irob, at first felted') for 
the lance. Cp* haL/^/Zro, fclL Of Tent. 
origin; bora Low G. fill, felt. Sec 

Fenterer^ n dog-keepen (F.-i^w l. 
--C.) In Jkn Jonson, Every Maii out 
of his Humour, ii. i ; see Naics Older 
Bpclling veivter^ for •vtutr-er. — O* F. 
vtiitri^m.'oA. \* . vnntrt, a mongrel between 
a hound and a mastiff. « Low Ijtt. ace, 
veitrum ; for L. vertagns, vcrta^a, tvr- 
fttsf^tt, n. greyhound. Said to be Celtic. 
Perhaps from Celtic ti/r-, mtensive pTcfix, 
and ^r^t^'--, lo run ; see Fiek, ii. 136, J.S3, 

PeTer, Ji kitid of di«e»se. (L.) M. E. 
/cwr (/ever], A. ^.fifer^pjar\ sec MalL 
viiL ij; ; A. Y . finfre^^h. fthrii, fever. 

feverfew, a plant. rl„) K.'^.pfit- 
fv^t ; A. F, /evcr/ui, — Late L. ftbrifugay 
for I* /ibri/ugia^ ^fercr-d is [jelling.* — L. 
Jtbri-s, UvcT\/ugnre^ to put to flight 

PftW. CI^'O M. E./flw, A-S pl.y&TfcV, 
+3ceL /or, Dm. faa, Swed. /a ; Goth, 
/await pL ; cf. L, J>atKtts, Gk, ■oypoi, 

Pey, doomed lo die. (F,) A. S,/i?jif, 
doom^ to die.+]ceL_/ii|f/-, Du. vtegi C. 
feigt, cowardly; Swcd. ftg. Dm. f^ig, 

POiE, A tti\ Tarkish cap, without a hrim. 
(F. — Morocco.' l'\ and Turk.yrt/ a cap ; 
so called because made nt Fc*, in 

PUUKOt lit 'a bottle/ (Ital.) Itnl 
far/asra^ to make at bottle, kIko, to fAJI, 


break down. See Flaak, (Ongiii 
phraiie ubknown.) 

FiBit^ a decTK. (L.) L* ftai, let it 
done— L./itf^ 1 become ; used ^ pass. 
facert, lo do, but really allied to fut^ 
wns, Cf. A.S. dofi I am, Brngm, 

Pib. (Low G,^ Allied to /&6. fuh <i 
lo delade (Shak.> ; cf. G,/difitt, lo banter 
(fonnerly, lo lie) 5 Weslpnal. [^pketi, a 
small lie, fib (WocsteV 

Pibr«« {Y'-'L.) F- /Arrf.-L. /Ara, 
a thrend. 

Piekle. (E.) M.E./ifa:/. A. S./n 
from *^datt, lo deceive iti comp. ^-^.r/; 
to deceive ; ct^t, »b,, fraud, /i?t-H*r, deceit' 
ful ; /dum, frand. 

PictiOU. (K.~L.) F,/^ViM,-L.^- 
ticrttsjif ace. of Jictiff, t. feigning,™ I.„^rfMjr, 
pp. n^finj^iti^ to feign. Sec Figure. 

Piddle, a violin, (L.) M,f:,//Af/; 
A. '^,Ji6ek: cf. Iccl./fl&, Dan./^/j Du. 
vtdi;i,Q.fiecUL Apparently borrowed from 
Lnte L> ut'fula^ uiduia^ & viot ; 'sec VfoL 

Pidelity, ^ F. - L. ) M. Y.fikliU, - L. 
^dt'/i/dUm, aec- of Jidflitns, faitbfolnes. — 
L. fidili', stem of Jiditii^ faithful.** 
piSs, faith. See Faith. 

Pidlfet. (Scand.) A ditnin. form 
pigc^ to be continually raoHng up ani 
down, Uke^/fjti in North of England, M. E. 
fihtii^ to fidget, lo hasten. Cf, Icel.yfAi, to 
climli up tiimhiy, as a spider: ^s«tA,fika, 
to hunt alter. Notw.^a, to take trouble, 
jtJ^ ttfir^ to hasten after, purine. 

Piducial, shewing trust. (L.) From 
LaLc v.. fiiiucidlii^ adj. — L. ^;Wj^<^, trust. 

-* \..,fhhny lo trust* 

Pieai'->) M.E.j^-F./.-L7r. 
Cf. IcflU^j Dan, j^, Swed.j^^ C. //mi, 
Ut, phu, phy, bkt 
of disi;uit. 

Pieif, land held of a superior- \V.- 
0. H.G.) 0. 1", A/ fomicily spell /« 
I, Roland). See Feo. 'Q&w,fioff,\h., to 
put in legal possession ; from A. V^/^offer^ 
to endow with nftofnTjUf. Alio/eo^/n^ 
A* Y,f§ofi^ pp, hlfmfftr, 

Pi^C (E, ^ M . \..fitd. A. S, /^A/. + 
Du* vtld. G, ^A/ (whence Dan _/>." ' 
Swcd./i//i, Allied t^ A,S. >/<^/, cart 
land. Teut type ^Mlhuz, Cf- Kuss. /£> 
a field ; Skt. pfikiviy (artb* Umg 

field&re, a bird. (£.) 
/rfrc rmiswritten /titttw^rt] 

traveller -. ' see Fare, 



/An/, expressions 


Tioad. (H,j M.IL /■«,/. A\8./foftJ, • TU0 (3:. 10 flcfilc. ^E.) A.S,/^l 
//juif, lit, * ii hating uiitV oiii enemy, (be to make /oul ; fur */tih'aii.'— A.b. /«/, 
enemy; orig. i-rcs, ]>!. of f^if^t\au, to foul. See Deflle U ) and Foul, 
hate -f r>u, vijand^ Dan. Swed. ^^^wji'r; , TiliaJ. {LO From \^ flH-m^ a son, 
Iccl j^'i^"*^'* t'TcS" pJ- of j!5''i to hate ; Goth. \ftiia^ dnuehtcr ; arig infwil : cf. U/Z/rirr, 
fjanh^ imxwjijatr to haie : Q.fiiftd. Cf. I to suck. Cf. PeminiDe, .y'DIIt.) 

blsl //>, to hate Figk). Sec Po». 

Fierce. (F.-L. ME. /jrts.^O.V. 
fcti^ jiifs, old nom* ol O. r. fgr^ fitr, 
iifrce \^. ftr^ proiitlV — L.yir^xtj, wild. 

Pife. 'F.^aii.G.-D F. /r/n?.-p 

O. H. O.fiff/a, Q.ffet/e,a dpp.-CK IJ. G. 

'^fJi, lo blow, whi^^Hc— Lute L. ftpfire, 
lo pipe ; L> /i/ilret to cbirp (au a Urdj. 
htc Pipe. 

Pig. F*-ProT.-L.^ F/^'w^.-Pfov. 

" n^^Folk-L. ytftif used Jor L.^Vwj, a 

g. ^Cf, O- F. ^f , a dg; iniinedifltclT 
from /^V-d. 

Fiffbt. E. M . C. /A/f H, /-/i/^jf , V J>, 
O. Nlt'rc./?'A/tfw, (0 figbt ;y^A/*, a fieht.+ 
Du, Tw^ffn, G, /ecAUft, lo fighl (wncnte 

I Piiibuater, a freebooter, (Spiui,-Du.) 
Span, ^/i^uitdr^ tt mere corruption of Dn. 
vriji*ui(tt\ a fretboottr, — Pu, vrijbuiten^ 
to rob, plunilpf, — Du- rry^ free; ^w//» 
bootv, plutidcT. Sec Boot^. 

Filigi:e6. iF.-ItaL-L.) Fomicrly 
fih^i^fau,: ; XV 11 cetit. — F jf/f^'j'iirtf. — Itnl. 
yi/i^a/Mf liligrec*wurkj fine wrought work. 
— Ilal. _^/tf^ a thread or tow, fhrt, to 
spia; gt^rn^ p*iii or texture ; so caUcd 
beeatiw the chief Icxlurc of it wnswrongbt 
in silver Vfitc. From L. filum^ ihicad ; 
sranutfit grnin. % Tht Smt). Jihj^afia is 
merely bDiruwed frptii Italijin Munlau'. 

Pill, \b. (>1) A,h.fil/*iti; formed 
from/w/^ L e. full, by vowcl-changc from « 

Daji./f^^, Swcd./(r*^ff '. Teut 'fefttdn-. i to j-'.+ Du. vaUtn^ Iccl. J^//"*, Dan. //A/ifj 

Figment* ll^.; L.yf^MM'UJ'wn, an in 
Tculinn.— \^,Jig-^ bft»e qI ^ngert^ to fetgn 

(pp.yfi''fw,i;, for *Ji^ius), 

figure. F. ^ L.) F, A**'^- -- A- 

fiip'tra^ a thing made. — L> y^niNrff fbtir 
^^-!, to make, f^s^ijon, feign. + Goth. 
(ffii^}M, to knefld, Ski. i/i7v» to stntsf. 
yhHtlClI.) Itfuem. i. 4 569/ Dw. 
cfujij;ujv, Jitc/ij^ife, ffatrs-^^rg. 
Filaiaeilt. il'\— L.) F. filamtnL — 

PiUet. :R-L.) M.K.////.-0. F. 

jf/t*/, dimin. ofyf/, a thread.— L.y:/M«f, ■ 
thread. See File (i). 

Fim>eg, PhiUbeg, ^ klU. t Gaelic) 
Ciacl. f^i/i'iLi/A'h^itif, li\c modcftl kilt.-* 
Gael, feikatih, Jiiii% a ki3i, prob. from L, 
atfitm, a. veil ;,Mac:bain) ; and Ae^, lilOe, 
small. Cr W. A?,^^, little, 

PiUIPt to «tiik? with the fmj^-oaiU 
E.) Another 

^ tPt t 
l.ntc l./Ffiitwrtfum, thin thread.— Late | when jerked from the thumb- 
I., /t/drg, to wind thread.— L. _/7/hw, ( form ofjft/; see Flippant. 
thread: see Pile (i). | Pille, use^l for Mj//j. (E.' See ThUl, 

PilberttfniitofhBicU [K.-O. H.G. 
Formerly f>kiiibtrd (Gosver, ; short for 
Phifib<rd or PkiUberi tnit, from the 
jjroprr name PkiUUrt ; iS. Philibeft*s 
djiy i:i Autj, 31); North I\ *mx d« fiihtfi 
tM\ii5y «0. H , Q.Jifii'hirhf, very brij^ht ; 
from ^^/w (G. t7>/). gre,nl>'* ^rAr, bri^bti 
^ t-' ailed id QeiTiiaiiv /.iiminnrtinusst i-e. 
nwt frc»m Lomhardy 1 Weigand^. 

Pilch. fK; Flym. unknown ; possibly 
ftjalcd to JL \L./eltn» to conccftL Cf. Icel, 
/f/#i, to hide, bujy; QcAh. fttkan^ to hide. 

File k Op *lr'''E» liti^*! ordcT. .F. — L.J 
J'anl) from O. F.^/g, a file, franxjiUf; to 
lb read; from Late U y?/.fr^ .«* Pil*- 
OUDt); partly from V^Jil,, ffam 
t^/f/um, a ibinad. 

Pile {i\ * steel rasp 

E.) O.Mcrc 
y7/ : A. S /?ij/.+Du. wyA O. H. V,/tAaia. 

* i. /(iff ; as if from a base yenh: The ' ,Swcd. y^'W* Dan. j^h« ; 1„ fiimi* 
Icel. form is///, as if from a bate 'rhetik'. Pin. 


Filly, a female foal. (iKiuid.j IceK 
fyij'it, a filly, allied to _/*'/(', a foal , cf, 
Dan. Swcd.)^/, i\./iiiifN. See Foul. 
FUcDli a thin akin. E.^ A,S. J^/rwH 
{fjlfimcn)^ ncuL, rocmbraiic (0- Fnw, ^Z- 
m^H^. f., &kin). For W. Tcut. *fi!min-js-, 
frum ^ftlmtn^ -mon-y as in A, S. xfgafelmay 
skin of nn eg'g. Extended from ifie bftie 
_/tA in A.S./tf/, skin, Golh.j^//, skin. See 
Pell {i\ 
Filter, to sttiin- (F.^O.LowG.) F. 
JiUfcr, ohfj. to. strain through felt.^F. 
fiitrt^ a strainer, orig. felt (Littr*).»l*ow 
<.\_JUt, felt : see PoJt. 
nlth, foul matter, (ELj A,S.^/J.- 
A. S. yV;/, ftiul i^by vowel-change of w to 
^ . Su ftlso O. bAt./6/itMt filtb, from 
/w/. fyul. Sec Foul. 
Pin, I'E. A.?>, ^ww, a fm.+Du. w'n. 




fimUis, final. — L.yTff«, eod, 

FinaACe* revcnae. (K. - L> O.F. 
yfrtd/kA — I^te L. Jtnaniia^ paTmeaC — 
Liie i^. flrmr£y to pty a fine. — L^te L, 
finis t a icttled psymtnt, AfinisA o* end, 
i, e, final arrtagcmenC ; L./tttit, eod. 

riaChi a bird. (EO M,E, /«£*, 
A.S. ^^j/'. + Dti, tirtjfr, Dan. yTwjfe^, Swed 
and G. ^«A. Ct W. /ywf, ft cbkRiDcb ; 


Idg, baje '/>en/-, whence U, Iri^h ttaimy 
J 6aJ. Perlups allied to I., peftrr, to 
Hck after; s^ Ffitition. Brogm. iL 

* «M 

7mo (I , cxqaisiCcr thin. (F. — L.) 
O. ¥. jfrtj witlj, perfect — Late I^ /taut, 
fiiw ; Hved in place of I^ /im/us^ well 
rounded or ^ded, iaid ol ^ 

a sentence 

)Dracii«j, ong* pp. ot/tHiriy lo end. — L. 

Jlae (j>4 « tut. (L«w LO. L«« I^« 
fittifj a JiiiCt a final airangetncnt ; L. 
fiHis. end. ^iec PioAnoa (above). 

vitiqer^ IccL J^nffr, DiM. Swert. G- J^ff^f, 
Goih. ji^r^ {-/Iftgri). TVjul type •^rt- 
^fjWf ; ttriij. seilic unknown. 

PlniftL (.1- A coined word ; froiu L. 
fifiist end. Ci.j^naJ. 

flUGAl. <F. ^U) A t^oincd word; 
extended from Fine (t) above. 

fiailll, vb. {¥, - L.; M. K. ^msihett. 
-sO. K.^rt/jrt-, ba4c of prpi. pt, o^^nir, t« 
finisli. — L. //win?, to end. — L ftnu, end. 

OMi/'« D. H. ri, j^V. TctiL type 
Cognate vjth Gk. *i^' C£ Sfct.^ 
(from rM*i, purifying, alfio fire. (^PU.V 

Firs, to cDDdacti diive, buL (£) 
A. S,_A»-f«»», to cofiduct, j-opport. Prob. 
fmm A.S.yirr^ a joamey; allied to Tmr*, 

Firkilt, the fourth part of a baird. 
(M. Du.) NL tL ftrdtkin. From I>u, 
vierdc^ fonrtb ; with suffix -kin (as in X-i/- 
Jfr-Hm) answering to the M. Da-dgablc 
dimin, safhn -kin iQ, -ek-^H in tiMJ^ftitt), 
Vurde U from Dn. vUr^ foar ; lee S*out. 

Fmil(i), adj. (F.-L.> M.E-.A'W*, 
— O.F. and F. _/fer«tf. — L. ^rmuj-j tfccad- 
fast, Dot. /arm. 

flfm (a), a partnership. (Span. — ! 
The older scn^e was 'signatnre' of tl 
house or (as we caJl it) the Gna,. — Span, 
j^rmttj a signatiire. — SpaiL Jirttm^, to 
confirm, sign,- L. ^r'mir^, to make nrm« 
^h.JitwittSy firm (abcrveV 
^i^naJIL^&t, bestial Bphere, (T*~ 

support ; al&o, expanse of the bJcj ^VrI 
gate)<-L. Jirmdrt, lo stroigihta; from 

_firrnit5, firm. 

Pirman. a mandate. (Pers.) P*fn, 
fermati^ a mandate, order; O^ l*ers*yni- 
MJifa (Horn) ; cf. Skt, pmnmHa-^ a 
dc:ctsian, from pra.^ before <Gk. tf/nS) and 
ma, lo mcnsore. 

First. (IC) A. S. fynt, the raperl. of 
/tf/v, with vowel-change of u (A. S. tf) (o 
j)'.+Icel._^rJ/r; D!m.]/&rj^^ ; Swtd./I?r/^<1, 
TeuL type ^furist^^ snpert, from the bi 
V*^^- ; see Fore. 
Firtli ; «m Prith. ^ 

Fijieal) pertaining to the revcntie. 
(F. -L.) O. F./jfo/.-Late L.>ffrt7fV.- 
L^jraj, a basket of rushes, also a pm 

Fiah- <K-) A.S,/jrc+Da,rMMj 
flnitei limilt'j. ^L.) L./lni/ut, pp. /^jJ^, t>arl» and Swcd.jifii, Q.fock ; Go 
of /j«f"*r (above . i^fAr. Tent, lype ^Jisiiaz. Cognate with 

f ioi^i !^ «:a-loch, deep tnlel of the «n. L, piids^ Irish and Gael, i^^gy ^' ^''- *^^ 

{ Scji 1 1 d . j Norw. ffard, Dan. ^T«f , j^iw^ ; 
U€\,fj&r^r. Sec yrith.. 
Fi^# n lret-% {Scand. ■ M, \i. Jir \ answer- 
ing to a mutated form due to A.S.yiri, 
ivhich occure in fttrkuntJu^ a pinr-irte; 
but prob. tjf Scmd, onjjin. Cf. Itcl- 
fyri-tk^gr, ft fir-wciod (written fynskegr) x 

/ura ■^G./akrt,W.ptr, Cognate with L 
ftHnus.tinoMk; andO. Lomhutilic/eriAa, 


(wnlh loii of imtifll/). 

Jisiura. *» L, Jiam^ pp. of fituUn, 
clcavCpHh'^^kt^ M/rf, to clcflvt ; A. S. ^/7j 
to bite. (^HHEID.) And kc V«i 
(i). Brxigm. i. $ 567. 
Firt, (,E) M. E./j/.Z-j^/mj^ A. S. 

ruin Igrl./wra, n fir; cf, Dan.yy'r, Swed. /y>/.+I'D^ v/ftr^, C. /dttJ/, U. H. G. /mj/. 

yjri, Dan. aod SwcdTJ-r, G. //»#*/. M. I I.G. Five 


TcQl. *fmth. % If the oric- Teut. foim 
waa ywthsiit, it tnny be identified wii' 
Has*. //liJi'f, fist^ O. SUv. /fj/J : from 
Idg. hnse *ptH6sti', whicli is allicti 


Fifftnlft, a rtccp, iinrrow ftl»c««». {L) 
troin ihc shape ; L.^Afu/a^ 4 pipe, 

Fit -J], 10 sajt ; as a<ij., aj>l. ^'Sedtid.) 
M, v.. JiiteH^ i& arrange. — IccL and Norw. 
^^u, to knit together; Swed. dial- yF///ii, 
to bind tofjtther ; cf. O.Jitx€tt^ 1o bind iuto 
deeuui frota jStu, a skein. From Icel _/£/, 
4 hem, also 'web' of a bird's f do< ; ci. 
H. Din.J^dde, la knit ; Dcui. aV, a skein. 
P«^pi fttUed lo Fit (j). if InHuenccd 
[ JU to icnsc by M> K./e/e, w^ll done ; from 
O, F./ffliV, Lat./flf/Bj ;^ ae« To»t* 

Tit V 3 )» 3 part of a ]>oein, attack of i\\- 
na&. {K) U.E.jit. A.S.jfStf, d) asong, 
(3> a stiuggle : which perhaps arc the 
fame word. Cf. Pit (i). 

Fitcht ihe same as Vetoh-* q, v* 

Pitchet, Fitch«w,apoletat. (F.- 
M> Du 4 /ttchew is from V\s:ArdJicAeux^ 
M. K.yr'ijjw, a polecat ; older ioim, ^ssei. 
•* M, Uo. fifif^ a polecat ; from the smell. 
CI Iccl. Jiiii^ to moJce a wnclL 

KtS. Kin. (A, t'. — L.) t'ofmeily/z 
(wilh t OB /i). — A. F,^x (with « aa /ji; 
&bo O* F,Jlh,//s. — KJtlius, a son, 

FlTB. <.E.) M. E. y^; sonietimcf ^m, 
a ulund, A. S. // (fot */imf). + D«. 
Dan, Swed. /cm, led, fimm^ Ciolb. 
r, G, /*ff/; W, j9ww/, O. Ir. i<nc. L. 
ft/m^ue^ Liih* /nenM^ ^k, arcWr (/EoL 
v^>tir()^ Skt. /oflfAfl. Jd(^, tvpe ^pcnae, 
J>vr jif-th, K. a*. fifing Ji/tf/n^KS./T/- 

Kjt (F. -L.) O, F. ^, fixed. - L. 
Jixus, fixed ; pp. al/t^re, to fix. 

Fia* (Scond.) Imitative; cl Jctl. 
/xsa, li!ia.Jije^ with the sense of \j. fiedert. 

Flabby ; weakeaed form o(^a//y ; sen 
FlAp. Lf. Low Q Jia^btt a hanging lip ; 

iahbsig^ flabby ^Danneil). 

FlA«^d^ (F.-L.j F. /aff iVf, - L. 

Flag ij. to droop, giow w«irj*. (E.) 

\S ralseticd form fA fimk^ \o hftiii; loostly ; 
M. E. /liikken^ to Bafi Abrmt. From llic 
ba»e /r>3f- of A. S. fia< <fr, flying, Tciving» 
^lorl. foXka, to nivr; ^aka, to flup ; 
Jii'kra, fi*gra^ lyaxv. Jiaffrt, lo llulter; ti. 
toiktrn^ to ^nltrr, ALL fruni the imitative 
i&c //«*-, allied lo ^Av*» Jikker. And 
tmrtly from r>. Y. ffai^Htr^ to be limp ; fTam 
O. F. y?«j^w(r, limp. L,.y?.j(V«j. 

flaif 1', AH iiisigji. (.ScindJ) Dan. 
Jiiig, Swell, y/rt^f, a flag; frgm bate of 
li*l.^(*^ri3, lo rtotter (above). 

fiaf t .Of A f*^<^l : the same wonl 9*^a^ 
(a) ; trom its wavini; iu the wmd. 


Flatf i;4)i PlaffStOttO, n i ivi»^'-stonr. 
(Scoad.) Iccl. /Afj,d, ft flnj; or sinh of 
stone. ThU inijjht ^ive L, *iial, /f^itp [.j.cB^ 
Flaw), but cf. Iccl. y/ao»w, to (lake ofl)' 
DriR. i{\^\. _^a^-if}n'^ He, jfa^', a cm lai 
A wfn^kri-iiL'tl form of Flake^ 

Flagellate. (L.) From pp. of U' 

dimln. ^Ajfa^rum, a scotirg«^ See FlftU. 
Flageolets a sort ofHate. >F.-Prov.) 
M. V . JUi^t^Ut, dimin. oi ^ai^eal^ with tbe 
saoic sens?, — Viov. ^jWs,J^auja/s, a flage- 
olet ; which cannot represent a Late L> 
*^aiaio/ui^ a. Utile flute, aft suggested by 


Fla^tioiU. (h.) L. /deif m-mt 
shamctul \ with saffix -awj* — L. jfti^/ium, 
a dis^'Taccful a^t ; ef. 'L.^dgiiarg, to n*;t 
with violence. Perhaps allied lo FLaeTaut. 
Flagon. (F,-LflteL.) O, F, jtfflftfn, 
acolhcr form ofyfa^ffjA. — Late \^ ^ascS* 
nem^ ace of JlascOf a Aask. — Late L, 
/lurd, I flask. See Flaak. 
Flagraat, gUring^as a fflalt. (F.-L.) 
O. L*. jitsp'artCf properly burning.— L, 
Jiaj^rant-, item of pits, pt. <ii JUx^tirft to 
bam 4-^k. ^>^i-fuvy to bum j Sk. bkrdj, 
{-/BHLEG/i Bragm, i. f 5J9 (j). 

FlaiL tL.) M. E. /!>/, /^i/. /^t7. 
[Later, Aiyc/ (from O. F.yl!y//>F._/?^«}.] 
From L. jlagtU»*m^ a whip, in Late L ^ 
ft f!ai] ; dimin, ofyTt^^ruM, a scourge. Sec 

FlaJCtt, a thin sjii:e. (Scaiul) Norw. 
fi^k^ a slice^ an ice-floe; cf. \<x\. J^akmin 
JtagnOf to flake off, Swed. JiagOt a ilake. 
Perhaps aLlied to Flftf- 

Flambeau. iF.-L. ¥.J!iimhan^% 

torch ; diniin. Q{Q,'S.Jiami^ (below). 

flaZELftj sb. (F. ~L.^ O. F. y^ami?, 
fiammi\ aI>io ji^am/v, — L, ^dmmd *^ag- 
ma'f\ a flame; p-urhaps frum the tmac 
J^^, to bum. See Flfl^raiit. 

clameiL. ', L, 1-, fiamen^ a prit^t of 
KoTiu'. Prt>h. for *Jiog-iHtH, be who 
bums the sacrifice i ci\ Jtjgrare, to bum. 
Or il-^- nllied to Goth- MotAH, to sacrifice. 
Flamingo. (Span. * Pro Vr - L, '\ 5{«n . 
^merue, a flamingo; but said to be a 
Provcti9al word ; die Prov. form it 
Jfamtftjr, vber^thc snfiSx -rfK h supposed 
to be an adtptalion of the Tcut. >vffit 
itt^. The F.fortn ajfamarftt lit. * /laming,' 
but it ixxmi lo imve been confused wiih i\ 
F/amami, a Fii-minf^^ whence the pcctiliat 
form of the Prov. form may have ariun ; 
Pala^rave ha£ * Flemmyii^, J^ammamt* 





Slill, the clymology is certainly froja L, : Z*l£iailtt to display ristenUttotiily. 

^ammii, A damt; {torn the flfttnc-likt; KUciknowii.) It seems to have been jmt* 
colour or the bird. licttlarly used of the display of flattering 

n&nge, a projecting rim. i F- — Teut.l plamea, ^c. Of lutkoown oriein ; most 
The s^rae as prov. 1£.^H^^, 1 projecUoii ; I words in -atmf are French. Somewhat 
c(._fi,inth in hemhtry, an ordinary on each | utnilnr is Swetl, diil. y?[iw^i?, tluUeringty^ 
sidc(oryfrfH*jof Lhc shield, — O.F./ftjH^Atf loosely. ir<Mn fitinka^ lo waver: pcrhapfi 
(A, ¥.Ji(tMke\ fern. sb. allied to b.Jfam:-, nlUed lo Jiakta, to waveif answering lo 
s-idc. Sec below. Nf. XLjiakken ; see Flag (t). 

flank, ibe side. (F.-Teat) M. E. Fla.TQiir.iF.-L.) The fonn Gcenift 

^nc.^i'- ^m, side— O !1-G. A/tWhAtt, to have been influenced by thai of the 
ianka, hip, bend^ lotn; cf. Mid. Du. 'de word uivouy. O. LowL Sc. fieujou.F£^ 
/awf'tfj the Hancks;' Hexham. Allied yS>;i'sr. — 0. F. yfrur, yWKr,y?a«r, smell, 
to A. S. hlan^^ slender; sec Lank. (^Dis- I Ci. !tal. Jlatare^ a hid odonr ; answeritjg 
putcd; but prob&ble; see Kluge, s, v. tt> Late Lh aoc, *Jtai^rim. — h, Jtaim, pp. 
Gfieuk.) , oO^ari', to blow. i^Korting, § 3iiG.) 

FlfUUieL (W.) Pruv. E,^^ann^t, a Flaw, a crack. {Scand.) M.lL^atut. 

belter f<jirm. — W. ^^lartfa, flaEinel, from 
gVilnH^ won]. Allied in Wool- 
Flap, to beat with the wingis. (E.) 
M. E. JtappcH^ to beat ; not in A. S* 

— Swed. Jffjga, a crack, flaw, nlso a flake; 
see FUke. Cf. prav. E. X^^itf, a flake 
(lis of snow) \ also, a ^^t of wind, like 

E. Frlcs.^ii/yv/ff, Imitfltivt-; likejfa^^, to ■ Flawn, akind of custard. (F.— O.IiG) 
beat; see Flag (i \+Da.y:^a//(fM, to flap. M, li./oH«, -F,yflH,0,F.^rft?«, n flawn ; 
Ber.jlaMj* ^flappyj ; yJa/, sb. I Ccf. Span.^iMW, IlaL yTWort^i,— O. il.G. 

Flaro ; see bcloMr. MW<7, a bread flat coke ; G, fiadtn. 

FLaak, to blme. ^E.) M. E. ftasikin, I Allied to Gr, vXart^, broad. 
tp daih ; cf. S»'cd, dial, ^asa, to bctm Fl^C, a pl&cit, i^E. j A S. ^aj,+ Dii. 
violently^ Icel.^dJd, to rush, flas^ a avrift i vlas„ G. fioihs. ?erhaps allied to Goth. 
ruBbnii;. \jtah-t4it, a plaiting, Gk. wX.iK-'mv^ to weave. 

flare. ^Scand : Norw<». /lara. to; Flaj, to strip off skin. (F.) M, li. 
bln£t; apparently a variant of S wed. dial. Jiean. .K.S. ^^sfi^ tn Hav,-!-^^^* J^''- pl^- 

/fasa fni.M>vcX 
Flaak. (.Late L.Vj A* Sjiasci, Jlaxff; 

\vc tttsa fiiid TccL^aika, Dun.JfniJ^fj Swrd. 
Ji&sks. G.jfaii'/it:; but it is hardly a Teut. 

word. — L^te L. fiasea^ a flask ; cf. aUo 

\\\j^as^f Gael.yi^ajf (from E,., Remoter 

orii^in uncertain. Sec Flagon. 
Flat- tS^nnd.) M.K./;a/--Icel./tfy^, 

,Swed. rfaf, Dan.yfrtrf. 

Flattop. (F.^Teut.; or K,) M. E* 
Jtattmn, a frequentative form. Either* 

with sufSx -^r-, frotn O. F./ialer, mod. F, 
Jla/f^r, to flatter i or formed from an E, 

base ^Oi-y of imitative origin ; c(, M. Du. 
JiatUrcn. lo flatter (Hexham) from Q. P". 
fat^r^ which is from IccL^fl/-r, flat; from 

the notion of making smooth. Cf. the base 

y?flA-, seen in M* ^'K^^fitckra^ to flalter, 

Swc<J. dial, fitka^ to cares* i al»o M. E. 
Jlakken, to move to and fro, and G.yfofA, 

fl4i; we Flag (i). The th. Jaitny if 

plainly adapted from 0. F. jiaieritj F. 

' nattdeut* windy. (F.-LO M. F./ti- 
/«/f«<, - Late h, Jlatuienitts. ^ L.^'i/MJ, 
Ucath.^UyTfiiY, to blow; sec Blow I'n, 

t. ^p, pp. ^ginu, Teut. type *^ahan 
tpt. I. *J^i>A), to strike. Cognate with Ltth, 
piakN^ 1 strike ; cf. Lat, /i^tj^, a «ti 
See Flague. ^rugm. ). § ^69. 

nea. (E.) M. E./«, pl./«w, A.S 
Jti-ifA^s. flca-HhlJi". fJjM, !£el 7?tf, G- y?f^. 
Tent* base ^«?ttJS-, or perhaps */tauJk 
allied ty the verb tofiee. Set Flee, 

Fleam, a kind of lancet. ( F. ^ L. > Gk.] 
O* F. JiumCt V. jiammtf a fleam ; Han ' 
ton, — Late L. fiitoma, a lancet (Vocal 
400. n ) ; shortened ftom Late ll JU 
/omum, phieboi&mum, a lancet. -^ G] 
i^kt&atOfiQy ^ A lancet. — Gk. ipKt^o*, rt*rcT' 
stem of ^"^i^t a vein ; to>i-, r>-grade of 
T#V'«i*'» to cut. Hcrtce al*o M, H. G. 
//leJeme, Q.JiUit, Du. v/t/'m, a fleam. 

Fleckj a ^pot. (Scand.) >f, K^ffit.— 
lt*l.^/Ajtr, a ^pot ; Jifkka, to stain ; Swed. 
^rfrA, a spot +T)u. vUk^ G.jfit'k 

Flection ; svc Flexiblv. 

Flod^ftj to bir fumiiihed with feathers. 
(E.i l^ic ^u. Jied^^ is now used in the 
pbce of M, E. ^g^, adj., ready to fly. 
Mf£^ 1< a Kcntiih form of M. E. jf/gg 
ready to fly. From A.S. yfy''^; 



IP the compount^ un/fj'fgt, us in ' htplHrnti, 

unHi^c,* Acftdctnv, a June, 1894 (Napier. 

ifi. Frie$. rftf^^"+ Dti. vlug \M. liu. 
r) ; O. H, G. fwchL Tcut. type 
fngfet, adj. ; from *fittg-^ w^Ak gfAde of 
*^eu^tf-t (o fly. Sec Fly. 
^M, tu escape. [E. M. E.Jleett, pt. 1. 

_/fM, rffiA. [The M. E. pL t. also appears 
as jvf4/tfc. whence mod. iL Jitd, of fScnnd, 
Otlgift.] h.'^.ffon vpL t /r/«A).4.0,S«x. 

^hhaa, ii.^i/Afft', also r«],7?J?;a tpUt 

jf J, also /fJiAa ; ; Swcd. Jfy (pt. I fiydife') ; 
Goth, tkUuhan. Teut Eypc *thltiAhan- 
(pt. \,thh%Hh] : $0 that _/f was crij;. M/f and 
TOcrc wns »o ori^, cOiMiciion with the 
verb i^ Jiy. which has from an early date 

,liecn c-mfnseH wUh it. 

FIaoca. e.^ m. e /«j. a. S./At, 

mrlicr/f/w/; nIso_^j. + Pn. r/i>r»M,H.G. 
t'AVi ; cf. (i. fiit^s^ ; also i't.JiauT, n. woollen 
eoA\, M, H.Gk t'/mj, iv sheepskin. T#ut> 
«lem& *^nisi\ ^Jffuso*, J^w^^* ; po*!*ihly 
ftliietl lo \..plu ma, Sec Plume. 
Fleer, to mock. i,S<3ind.) M. E. 

^ttitri, — Xorw. ^r>w* lo titter, giggle; 
also spell ^/jid; I 'fiJi, dinl. _jtfrW, to jeer; 
Svrcfl /?i>j-j7, lo tilU-r. 

FIa^ (i'. n Ti amber of >bipj. ^^E.) 
"isXAi. Ji^te, /if0tf. A S.^fOf, a ihip j or 
(edilectiveljf ) a ntimber of ihips. — A. S. 

flfdtan. to rtoar. + O. Sax. fi'tatan^ Du. 
vlfftrn, to flow; O, H. G. JiiinviM, to 
float, llnw, G. fiUfsartr, to flow; IccL 

^'/a. Siwtd. yfp/fl, iMn. rf»«(/** Tent. 
yffftUrn* I pt. x/jfattt, Y\\ ^utan0i)\ Idg, 
base *pltt*fi^ as in l.ith. /►/i/.i'/'j, a float of 
afiihlng-nn. CV^Pi-KUj Cf. Ck. »Ai«r, 
to i»ait, Skt. piu, ^ru, to fwitn, floaty 

fl*«t (*>, a cieck. {JL) A.S. //^. a 
ovek, R place where water ^ow<>: fi^oti^ 
a stream. '-A.S, Jire^an, to float, swim* 
see Fleet 1 il. Cf, O, ¥i\t:i.Ji?t stream. 
flftot ^Vt . t^wi ff . ( E. ) Cf . A . S . ^/-^filf , 
awift; icel.^Sf'r, swift. From the verb; 
lec Flaet (1), 

flaoi 14), vb., to move swiftly. {£,) 
From A, S. /fhrtSM • U'C Fleet ( i ) 

Hc»h + led, ^eji, bacon ; 

Sw. r+ /Ar.i", bacon: Do. vUfuh; G, 

^(iuh. Ten:, lypc *^aiskot, n. 

FlfltUSdA-liflt HtTwer of the tily. 
iV. ' I- I O. F. /f «/■ rfi- /*j. M ere /« = 
tjiTe L. nitMT^ cormpl form of I„ fUmm, 
a lily; si-t Flower apcl Lily, 

FlexiWe. iF.-I,' M.V./t,Hhit^\. 


JftxibUh, easily bent, •»■ I . /?/jr«f, pp 
ji^iUre^ la bend. Der, {njttjn^t, 

fl-jBCtioilr a bending, (l.. Better 
Jlt^i'att , frmu L. ace JttJfiottfm, a bend- 
ing. —L^A-.raj, pp. ^jUcUn. So al*o 

Flick| a light Mow. (E.) Jmitalive; 

cf.yf*/. E. Fries.yy*, a flick j Jfik/akk^n, 
to Ktrike lightly- 

Flicker, lo flutter. (E.i M.E//"i/ri'w. 

— A, S Jlicerian, to flutter Imitaiive ; a 

we-ikcned form s^\^aiktr^ fre<juent. of M. E. 

Jiakken, to flap about. Cf. A. S. Jiat&r^ 

adj., flying; O.JliKkern^ to ffutler. S«e 

Flight, act of flying. (E.) A. S./yht, 
allied to Jfy^, flight. +Sw«!. >?f-tA G. 
JlufJki^ Dti. vlHfht. Tent. */uhti- 1 from 
^Hf'p we-ak grade of */ftUi^art'^ lo fly,. S«c 

FUmay, weak^ilight. (E..1 Modem; 
first reLonied in 1703 (Kcrecy), frob. 
imitalive, and su^ekted hy^Im ; note E, 
¥x\^.Jifm,^tm, a film; Dan. dialy^cffAf, 
J^imSf ft «kim on milk. ' For ihe ending, 
cf. /'/fyt fmmpsy, also Nmfsy, ^ven by 
Webster US a U. S. s\7ionviu ol fimsy' ; 
N, K. D. 

Flincli. F.-T?ul.?/ XVI ccnt,- 
U. \ . JftucAir, _^ai»(kir, fltckit ^ to turn 
■side, bend I Of uokoown origin ; perhaps 
from O. H.G. M/rHfaw, answering Co G. 
IfHkea^ to tum> bcnd^ Th« G. Imhii '\% 
from O. H, G, hlama, the side (Ktuge) \ 
see Flank, Flan^. % The initial yf 
wonld then be accounted for praci&ely an 
in the case oi^ank, vij, (rom O. H, G. hf, 
Cf. Link ;i ). 

FUnff, (Scuid.) CI Svred. /(in^i, to 
UKC violent action, romp, race about; i 
Jfiing, flt full speed [taking onc'» fling*', ; 
M. Swed.^m^H to strike; Jtel, /f#j*^, 
(0 wNip; Dan. /PirwjtSf^ to flash; * jMtf^ 
LuUsonmiHaiely The^ form& pre'>tippoie 
a Strong verb *^inga, which the K form 
IK-rfaaps reprcscuU. 

Flint. ' 1 K,) A. S. Jlinr. + Dan, An/ ; 

Swcd.y?(Wii, Perhaps cognate with Gk. 

A.K._/fr?jf, I ifA*Vi?^. a brick. Hrugm. i. H 37,;, 704. 

D«n- /^j*J Flip ('":. vb.. to bllip, jerk UjihTly. (E,> 

Of iitiilativt- ojrigin, likCj^/*/*. L'f. Vlap. 

Flip I J}, a mixture of Iwer niid i^pirit 
with sugar, heated. lE.) Vrob fromjtfr/, 
to beat up. Moisy i.Dii:t* of Norman 
patois) spells it f^ft/'fie, a» if from E. 
/M*V//i/V' ; btit wronyly. 

Flippant* (Seand;^ FUppant i* for 





^i/faii4. the North. M- E, ptm. pt. : /if- 

-anf imilates Uie French fhcnldic) suffix 
in ram^an/jScc^ Cf. prov, E.y?iy*, nimble. 
Hippaot : from the baieyf*/-, as in Icel. 
^sipa, to pTflttle; Swecl. in,il. y?//a, to 
talk nonsense ; cf. Swcd. A'lsX.JIip^ the lip. 

Flirt. (E.) Often written _/?«/-/, meEn- 
in^ to mock, gibe, sLorn ; the Dld>qst sense 
of Jli}'t wiis to jerk tightly away. Of 
imUntive origin; c(. Jlip , ^^ick. So also 
E. Vnm,/firr,JlTrf^ a light hhywijfirtje^ 
a ffit^ily girl. 

Plat, to remove from plitce to pUce. 
(Stand.) M E. ^fV/^M.-lccl. jiytja^ to 
cdiiisc lo flit; 8wed„ /fy/^a , to Hit, icTnovc; 
Dnn. y?*"//? ; cfiaaal of IccL^i^'^flt -Swed. 
fiy(a, Dan.J^^rtif, to float. Sec Fleet (l), 

Plitcllt side of Imfoti, ; E.*) M. E. 
^/ffA^. A. S.yjVff.+Icel. /i*,*f\ a flilch; 
yf/*, a l^ap, tatter. Perhaps nllied ta G. 
j^kk-i a patch ', and to £. Fleck. 

^Dftti to ¥wim on a llqnid larface. 
{£-) M . E. Jlatea, JfpfirH. A. S. Jfo/inn. 
^Icel.Jf&fa^ Da, vlaitm. Tent, ^^utdjan-^ 
wfc. yb,; &om ^i^-, weak grade of ^ru- 
Am-, Lc Hdat^ wKence mod. K. Jf^it. See 
Floet Ml. ^ Confqsrd with F. ^otitr 
(O, F, Jii?/£r)^ lo fliiat, frora Ibc same 
Teul. base ^tt/-. 

Flock ti), iL company of sheep^ Sec, 
{E.\ M Eyf.i-f. A. S._/S?rt-f.+lMl. yK?*ir, 
Dan. ylfcjt, Hwed.yKfVit. 

Flock (*), a lock of wool. (K. — L.) 
O, F. rfft-. — L. fiof^us^ a lock of wool. 

Floe^ a flnKe of ice. (Dan.) Dan, 
fi^gf, OB in iis-fiagt, an iix^floe, Ijt *ke- 
flake.* Cf. Norw, isfiah^ isfiok^ the same. 
Si.-c Flake. 

Flog|lobent, (L.?) AUteword; and 
(in 1676' n caul terra. QLfiaik\ or pro- 
bably iuggcsted by JtageliaU, q,v. Cf. 
Lf?w G.jftJggrr^ a flail, variant of Q.Jffgd^ 
a f)a,il, from Late i^ j^/rge^/utn, a flail; see 

Flood. (E.) Ae S. /«/. a flood ; from 
^^fm<tiHr 'o rtow. + Du. tf/otd, Iccl. /?0fl. 
Swed. Dan. _/£*/, Goth. jfft/M/^ a rivcr^ G. 
^«/A, Tcut. *^^Uut, act of flowing, also 
B flood; from Tent base ^^- ; see Plow. 

Floor. (E.) A.S,ytor.+DH. jj/tffl-, G. 
jfittr. Teut. *rflJ>TJj; cognate with W. 
iiawr^ Itret. /pwr, Irish iar. Idg. *pidrus^ 
a floor ; from */Ai-, lo spread ont> wheoce 
also L, f>id-nitSf plain. See FlBin, 

FloteU, petul&kng to flowen. ^L.J L. 

/f oralis, belonging to Flora , goddess 
llowpr^.— L. ^Or-, as the item of yfi 
s flower; cf. Jior^re^ to flonmb, allied 
Blow u'^ and Bloom. 

florid. ' L.) I- fforiJtii, lit. flbound 
ing with (lowers; hence, rosy, — L.^iJri- 
dccl. stem ofji^i^ a flower liibov*), 

florin, n c^jiq. (P. — Ital - L.) M 
^ort-n abubt A. D. 1303^.— O- h\^ffn'n, 
florin. — lul. ^orino ( ^Jforitta% a coin 
Florence, so called because it bore & lily, 
the symbol of that (own. — Ita!. ^ff^rc^ 4 
flower. — L.jferemj ace. ofyftSfj a (lower. 

fiosculfl. (L.) 'L./ssculm^ a little 
flower ; double dimin. afjiJi. 
Floss, rough silk : fi» in Jfvjs-sili. 
(F'.-LO From M. F. /ujt^^; CoL has: 
* jji^f /Tfljj-Ai-, sleavt silkfi.* [So also Itil. 
fi^^cio^ Venetian ^mw, soft, weak ; Jidda 
stia, floss-^itk.] An adj. formation from 
O- V.^fioihcr^ 10 form into ' flocks ' or tiifta. 
•- F, Jfoi ; se« Ptook (a). 

Flotilla.. (Span.-TettL) Sjmn 
////(}, a little fleet : dimin. oijto/at a 
co^ate with O. F. Jfoft^ & fleet of ships, 
a crowd of people. This O. Y.Jhte ^fem.), 
¥,^o/ie (whence Q^fipitt 1 U from a. Tent* 
soiuce ; cf. Du. vtoot^ Icel. ^oii, a fleets 
A, ^ Jtota, a ihip. From tlie base yiui^ ; 
see Float. Cf, M. E,y?fl/*, a Reel. (Kor- 

flotsam, ^oods lost in shipwreck, and 
tloaiing on tnc waves. (I-aw F. — E.) An 
A.F. law-teitn, lormtiXy ^ots&n (Bloimt). 
A. F. JIoie$Qfi ; O, F. /iotaisoH^ a flooding 
of fields (GodcfioyV — Low L. type ^Rot' 
iatidrunty from yfoitdrf, to float, to flood 
{Y.JloUer). From the Tent, base ^irV- ( ' 
above). Cf. Jetwrn, 

FlOimCO (^X to plunge abutit. (K) 

Cf. ^wcd. disil. and M. Swed* ^i/wifl, lo 

plunge. Of imitative origin, 

FloxuLOO ^j), * planed border on 

drcfts. (F.-L,?) Chaufied from M. 

frifunce, n plait— O. Y.frvnjtr,frt>ni£r^ 
tather, plait, wrinkle ; fr^mtr if front 
knit or wrinkle the forehead.. I'rob. fi 
Late L. ^froniiSrt, not found, btil reg 
laily formed itox& froati ^ decl. sl«n 

frSHs forehead ; see Front. \ Kiirtin 

Flounder (i). to Aounce about. K^) 

XVI cent. .An imitative word; perbttpft 
suggested by /itfume 11) orA Jtotni, cr' 
Dd. ^odJercti, to danji^Ic. fliap, spl 
Ihrou^li mire; Swcil-yTfiiiit/ra, lo fliitler 
Flounder (>)i a fish. (.F,-Scand:' 

[Blt» » 



A.F. ^n/Wrt.-O.F. /i»irf»*^ (,iB Nor- 
mandy). "S wed. j/lnndra, Dtn. Jt^mdery 

FtOlir, finer part of meal. (F, — L.) 
Short for ' flowfr of wheat.' — F. ficur, 
sh6rt foryf<:vr(/if^ritt/, Itour; see Flower 
below iwhich i-i a donblcl}* 

Ho^U-iali, vb. \V, — I*) M- E. fi&rii* 
tA/tt — u V, jtoriii., stetn of prts. pt. of 
Jiotir, 10 flourisli, ■■ Follt-L. ^Srirt^ for 
L. ^Srrrt^ lo blosBom ; cf. 1-. jffifrfscen, 
inceptive form Qijldr?re. S« Floral. 

FlOUtf to mock. (FO TTob- from M. E. 
^QuHn^ 10 pUy the !iute> Similflrly, M, Du, 
Jfuyfm (Du, ^uifni). to play the flule, 
iil&n had once the meaning * to mock, jeer '; 
Ou'lcmaiis See Flute. 

FloWt to stream, (E.) M, E jfinifen ; 
A, iy.^t^att, \it. l,jff<m'; cf* Po, viotijen, 
to flow; Iccl.yfrtff, to flood. Tent, tmse 
^(?- ; cognate with Gk. rA^tK, to float. 
Sc« Flood. 

Flow«r, sb. fF. -t.) ME ^^r, - 
O. ¥. jtfpfcr (K. fiiur\ - L. /i^tm, dec of 
^iTfj, a flower. See Florid. 

Fluotnate^ lo WBVcr (I.,) Frompp 
ci ^u*iii'in. to fioflt about,— l.-^wtrrtfj, a 
V?ftve- — L, JiutttfS, old pp. of /tuert^ to 

FIhA (1% • chimncT-pipe, iF.-L.?) 
Of doubtfnt nrigifi. iFlut, in Phaier'* 
Virgit, X. i09, is prob* & misprint for 
Jtuit.\ Pmb, from ME. ^w^«, lu f]ow, 
ftft the pipe conducts the flow of ihr imoke; 
*To ^nK.Jtutrt' C»lh, Angl. -F./w^r, 
'to flow, gJide;* Col,-L..^i«rif, to flow. 

FluA i^a)i lights lloiicing down, (£.?) 
Cf. piov, E, jffwj^ flue, Perhftps n deri- 
vative of tbc verb Ply (c£ A. S, pi. L pi. 
fiug'&»\ AVc find Low G. jfc/i E» Fries, 
f^M' rtac : cf. G./wi^. fliRbt 

Flnftfit* (L) From latt^m of pro. pt. 
of [. fiutrft to flow^ 

fluid. (F, - E.) O. F. fuUi. - L. 
jtHtJus, flowing. — l,.y?j«TY, to flow, 

Flake (i\ a fisb. (E-l M,E. Jit^Jt^, 

jffuJix. A.S, y^iic, a kind of plaice -f Icel. 

Jt/J^it a, kinO of hnlibut. Lit *flat fish. 

'J'hc L«fl5c ^iV- i* ihc fitfong grade of Tent. 

•/Krfi'-» as seen in Cy^ji-A* Jlat. 

^liko {2), part uf ait aacbor. (E. 7j 
AUo spelt jtfwifr. Terhaps ■ the flat ' end ; 
and the ume word as^Miv(t). Appa- 
rently distinct from G.^unit, the hook of 
■n ancbur. 

yimnm^iy, » light food. (\V.) W- 
/Ijfinnt, ilymtutVii, Hummeiy, aoor uat* 


tn«i1 boiled and jellied. Cf. %V* Jlymus. 
Khcirjy, tarU 

Flunkey, a footrnfin. <F.-0. H.G.) 
Modern. Low). Sc. Jiunkie^ a servant in 
livery. Apparrnlly irora t\ JJan^tUT^ a 
stoul {sic Fianker m N. E. IM. — F, _/?ffl«' 
^tt(rr. * lo flank, to Iw nt ov,t\ elbow for 
a help at ne«l i ' Cot. — F, ^ftiiif, *ide ; 
sec Pbitih. 

Fluor, FlUOr-SpiUr, > mincnil. (L.) 
The L._^JM/ Oil n riowinff' was foiniMly 
in use at a term in alchemy and chemistry. 
— L.yfwfrf, to flow. 

Plnr^, hurT>'. (E.) Swift hu^utry, 
a gust of wind. From ^urr, |o whinr 
(N. E. D.). ImitallTc ; cf. Swtd. diaL 
^Hrig, disordered \^% hnir^ ; ^^f* <'i*- 
ordered bair^ whim ; Norwcg fiwrutt, 
shu^gyt disordered. i\m\ cf, K.jfutfcr, 

FIOmL lI), to iduudntc. (Ej Appa< 
ittitlr of imitalLvc origin ; cf-Jlns/f^ lo fly 
up fiuickly i,N. E. IX}. rerhnps influenced 
Ify V .finx, '3 flowinu, a flux : aI&o»nyfMjA 
at caida; ' Cot, See FIql Ci^m^A, a 
pool of WBtfr (C. Douglai) ; M. Dii.^wj'- 
srii, to push or break out violently ' Hn- 
hami; I^an, dial, y?ft(J^» to Irtish out. 

Flush. \i), ID btush, to TMlden. (R) 
XV III cent. FeTbapsthe&aiTiengFli3jib(i\ 
but mnch influenced by Fliuab. CI. Swed. 
dial, fJeisa. lo bum, flare ; Norwig.yftfjd, 
pa55it'n» vehemence. And sec Fluster. 

Fluail {3), level. (E ?) This is a 
derived sense ; it meant in fall flow, 
abucdnnlly full; hence, level. From 
Flush (1). 

FlxLiter. to heat with drinking, con- 
fiise- (Scantl.) Ice!. Jfaus/ra, to be flm- 
tered ; ^aus/r^ fluster, hurry ; cf. E. Fries. 
Jieiiemtjfuj/tm, to msttc [nawind), Cf. 
Flush C-i) and Fbuh- 

Flnte, a musical pipe. (F.) M. E 

^thute, a. flute (mod. F- ^Ate], I'rov. 
yfaw/d; Of uncertain origin* Thc^ may 
have been suggested by I. J^dn^ to blow. 
Flatter, to Aap the wiu^s. ( E.) M. £. 
j/iff/errrt, lo fluctuate. A. S. Jif>/on'an^ to 
float flbotit; cf. A. S. yfd/, the sea; Jlafay 
a thip — A.S. ^^e/', ttein ofJfpftN, pp, of 
fioian^ to float, Cf. E. Yi\wA.J(utttm, 

Flax. <F.-L.) O, F./#jr, a rtux.*- 

L. fiitjkMtn^ ace, of fiixuiy a flowing ; 

from the pp. of fiuert^ to flow. 

Fly fi), to 'rtoal in air (E,) M, E, 

^iett,jtij<n. K ^.Ji/^gan j pt. t,j^faA ; 




Jfyt}*^ Swed, fiyget^ 0>./iigttt. Teut. tjrpe 
*%ugan', Cf, L. /fihnu, a feather. 
(Vi'LKUr.lL) Nrt! allied lu Flee. Dec. 

Jfy, .iri iiiicctf A, S. Ji^f^.^yf^e ; G./Uge. 
riy (1). 1 vehicle. ; E.) A name gi^'eii 
lo tt kind of fouf-whccled vehicle drawn 
by men at Brighton, in |8[5, Called /^y- 
rwrjrA in rStS (Scott, Heart Midi. chJ I). 
From /?>*. vb. See above. 
Poal. (EO M. E././i, A. S./JA1.+D11, 
veuhtif IccL yWi", Dau. _^i/f^ Srt'cd. j^/rf, 
Goth, /rf/fl, G. fohit-H. Tt'ut, *fuhn-. 
Cognate with, L, piiHiis, young of in 

Foatn. (E) M, E. f&ms, A. S. yiiwjt. 
+Ptgv. <J. /t/rw ; O. H. G. /aim. TciiU 
*faiw&', Co^DRte with Russ. pkna, foam ; 
Ski. fiAtna, foam ; and proh. with Lat. 
spiknta (Jot * spat m»i), foam, and Lat./ff- 
jvyiT.^', pumice. Allied to Spume. 

Fob| watch-pockcl* ^O. LowG.) An 
O, Low G, wonl, only preserved in the 
connote (I.G. :'Pnu,«ian)y«//*fi n pocket; 
for whk'h sec Bremen Wort, i. 457, 

70C^LSf a P^^i^ where Ughl-iays meet, 
(L ) L, yt^rrwjja hcarih; hencej a centre 
of fire. 

rodder, food for cattle, (E). M. E. 
foiider. A, S- f^OTt fdddar \ extended 
form oi/Ptfat food.+Du vonUr^ Icel. /i^^irt 
Dan. Swed, jW^fr, G.fuiUr. Tcul, type 
*/ihirom, nent. Allied to Pood, c. v. 

Poo. (K,) M, \L foa. A.^./ah, adj. 
bostile.^ Tc&t. (ypc *faihoz\ IJg. ^poitjos 
(whence Irish oich^ a foe, with \o^^ of 
/)* From the weak grade Vi'^' we have 
Gk> TiKpiJT^ bitter, Lith. ptktas^ unkind* 
Brupftn. i. S 5H|fi. 

P<Btus ; »<r Fetuj. 

Poff. K.) tn scvcial senses; M. E. 
y^4^f •* ' coanic ET^si ' ; lienee figgfi 
mossy, boggy, murky (whence pierhiips 
the ab./og^ a mL&t\ Ori|rio unknown; i:f. 
DaQ. fog, as in sntt-fog^ 3 blinding fall 
of snow, fyg^^ to drift (as snow) % bat 
there is no clear connexion. 

Foibl^p A weak point in character. 
(F.~L ; O. F. fmblt, F. f^bh, weak, 
feeble ; i»ee Feebla. 

Poil (r), to defeat. iF.-L.) ME. 
/oytau to trampte utider foot. — O. F. 
f&uitr^ to trnmple on, also to oppress, 
foil, overcharge extremely (Cot."). — Late 
l^/ttliiire, foi^re, lo full cloth; see Full 
( 3>. "D^T./aiiy a hUint swuril^ for practice 
Itv/ciiiiig, I. e. parrying ; /aiJ^ a defeat, 

Poil 1)1 a set'off, a» In fctdng a ^m. 

(F. — L,j M. F, ^fuiikt n leaf, * also the 
fityle of precious stone*,' Cot ; Noririan 
foiiU^ fern, ; cf. TtaL fo^Ua, Span. /^lyVi, 
a leaf. — L. /ij/iap pi. oi /oiium, a leaf; 
afterwards used as a fem. sing. See 
Foliage. Also O. F. fncit^f&il^ m. ; f« 

f oiUi to thrust whh a sword, t F. — 1 
Obsolete. LiL *to thmrt with an eel- 
spear or tritlent* — O, F. ^*V«* /tf«»w, an 
ccl-spcar. — 1-. fHseiita» a trident, the 
weapon used by a reiiAritiSy or" glitdialor 
with a net, 

Foiaon, plenty* (F.-L*l 0. F,/ifijfiHt 
abim dance. — B'olk-L. /lisi'ffnfrH, for 
'■ fftstJnefit , ace. oi fUsio^ a pouring 
hence profusion. -i'L./^fMJ'^ pp* vX/uit- 
tiTpouT. Sec S*uaa, 

Faifltf to palm or put off, lo iotrude 
surreptitiously. (Du,) XVI cent. — Do. 
vuistffiy to take in the ^fA or hand; see 
N* E, D. I Low G. iwfea, to (ake in the 
huid^ ; httiee, to ' palm ' a die, to cheat. 
— Du, vHtsf, fist ; see Fict. 

Fold (J % to ilonble together, ( IL) M, E, 
foUUii^ O. yivrz. fnltfati^ A. %. feaUaa ipt. 
i.Jf&/d\, to fold.+ Dtm. /Mi, Swed. /Hla 
(^/afifa), Icet. fa/Ja, Goth, /j/M^jf, G, 
/i/;(?fl. Teut. type */j^/A^i«-* AlUetltoGk. 
Si*irAiiiTioF, donoted ; 9\titTffHP^ lo furm, 
mould. Sec Pt&ater, Der. /?/(/» sb.» 
a plail ; -/ofdf suffix, as tn fwi>-/ofJ, Sec. 

Fold (a), a pen for sheep, (lij A.S. 
/afif, also faio^^ fatttd. Not conotx 
wiih/fl/Y (1), b«t with DAR./fi/J, ft shi 
pen ; Du. viia/f, a dunij-pit ; l^iw G /c, 

Polistf^i a c^wster of Icares. {¥. 
Modifiea from M. ¥ . fueiiia^i, from M, 
fiteiih, a leaf, — L-y^f/Zaj pL o?/if/iut/t. 1 
Leaf; used as fern, slug, 4* ^k- •^i'^>^«>'. 
leaf, Cf. Foil (3% 

folio. (LO From the L. phr. iM/afi^, 
where /j/iti^ is the ikbl. QlfdiHin, a leaf, 

Folkp a crowd of people. (E.T A.S. 
/fl/r.+IceL/o/it, Dan. Swed. /ott : Du. G. 
tWjf. TeuLtyi>e*/ij/-hTW»neut. ^Lilhuan. 
putkas, a crowd, Uuss, p<iik\ an amiy, 
Were pFobablv l>orrowci| (al an early dale) 
from TLutunic. 

Follidef sccdvcssel tK. -L. K 
fpUicttU^ little bag. — L./W/iV/'/wj, doa! 
dlmin. ^i/oilis^ ■ ba|f. 

PoUow. UC.) M.E, /p/iirw. A 
/tj/,j,'/flH^ alsij^(i,ii«, weak MiK lo follow 
HJ-'J. Fries- fclgia, jnHit, O. Sax. /i?/^ 
Du. vol^n ; locljy/gfat Dan./-/^, S 





^; G. fi^gitt. Wc ilso find A. R./wA 

inffan, <pl< t- yW/m/r), >«itb the Mme 
dE derived from A. S.^/, fttll, and 
^ifM. to ?o ; and , in like maimer, 
II. G. foiugan. Hence the orig. sen« 
was. perhtpi, ' lo go in full nQmbcn,* lo 
fgii in a crowd* to accompnny ; and it if n 
riertTfttive of Tent, ^fulioz. full. Set Pull. 
Cf. f>i,^, fyistiin, lo assist, _/«/ifKfli, usis- 
uncc ; dbo from A, S./u/L 

FoUy. (F.-U) M-E. >/7^.-0*F. 
/filifJoiXy -O.F/p/,fogUsb. SeeFofla(i). 

FoiUQint. (F.— L.) M.F./ffmffttir.^ 
L. foment&re, «* L. fimtnium^ thort for 
''ftmimtntum^ a warm appHcadoD, lotion, 
^'L./ovfre, to wirm. 

Fo&dv foolish, ;E,^ M,E. /e^ntf, more 
commfMily f^mn-^d. pp. of /cwrt^w, to be 
wcftk, lo fli^t as a fool ; from tb« M. E. sb. 
/pit, fonne^ n fool. The »lx aiiswen to 
O. Fries, famm, femne^ Fries, fom (see 
llettcmn^, i;.. Fries.T&Hf^^f, amaid, gitl^ 
weakling, timpletoa {«e Koolman), All 
Allied lo A. S. JitmHif a virgin* Bar. 

Font U), twsin of water. (U) A. S. 
^»i,^l^ f&Htem, ace, ot /cm, a fount. 
See Foout. 

Font (1 >,F0TUki,u) aaortmeDtoftypes. 
(F. - L.) l./ffHtt, a caiting of metals. — 
y^fffO/n^ lo melt. Sec Found (j). 

Fttod. CE.) M.E. /«t. A.S. /Jtfa, 
whAt ooe eftts^ The A.S. /fc/- ii Che 
ftroiig grade of the base ^/^^correspooding 
to Gk. war- in irflT-«ff*aj»to feed. From 
the Idg, root /"i-, lo feed, whence L. /a- 
KiX bTwdf /()-*«/««, food, and/a'-jf^*, 
to feed. 5ee Faaturfl. T^vt-foddtr \ fttd. 

Fool Ti), ■ jester (F. - L.) M. E- fil, 
ib. and adi. O.F,/j;(F./w), afooU-L. 
yf^/rn.dicc, of,^/Lr. A wind~bag; ^faUii^ 
paffed dieekf, whence the term wai easily 
tTAJkilenied to a v&iii or foolish penon ; as 
in Late i^fyliis. a fool. Dar. bt-fo^. 

Ibol {>). a dlfb of cnuhed ^uit, &c. 
(F-L.) Frotn Pool CO; najoed like 
tr^e, Floria ius : * Msmttgiia, a kind 
orbloutcf) creairxe, Called n/ffcU or a /n^r 
In F>nj^]isli.' 

f6olS-Cap, paper so called from the 
watrr-mcirk on it. 

Foot. (E.) M. E./^./ooi, y\./ef,ffif. 
A S. /I/, pL y?r + Da, tw/, Icel. /Vr, 
Dan. fod, Swed. /itf, Goth, ^/lu, G./wj,r. 
Teui, tyi»c "^^ (conioivajU'itein), corie'- 
sponding to Idg. type V^r *'*^ "^^ 
%-ariaaU ♦/«t */«'- ^'^' L./^. foot (gen 

pe(f-ii)x Gk. ircnif (.Miotic itw%\ foot (gen 
ffo3-iii), n^^T (^^fSj-tlr^ on foot; Skt, 
j4flrf» a foot (gen, /atZ-ru). Cf. Fetter. 
Fetl&ck, Fetoh. Hrngm, i. $ 578, 

FootTa palt^« mean. (E.) A Tnriant 
of/w^*/r»inuatytN. E. D.). Orig. ' damp;' 
from A<.h,/iik(, damp, with suffix -^. + Dii. 
vochfi^^ dam]"*; Sw^./ttktig^ Uvt. /ugtig'. 
Cf, G./tHiht, O.H. G./uhti,/iihi. From 
a Teut, ^pe */Mhtuj^ damp^ from Teqt, 
base */tMk, OS Id Icel. /jiika, to drift as 
snow cr dust* whence also Norw^ /uk^ 
Tapouf (Franck). 

Fop, a coxcomb. (E.) M.E, fcp, a 
fooL Cf- Da, /ofptH, to prate, cheat ; 
fopp^r^ a wag; fopptrij^ cheating (^E. 
j^^Cwtjk). Qi./b^0fft to delude (Johiuoii). 

For (J)* prep, and conj. [E.) Urig. 
a prep. A, S* fc^t fo*^f before, for ; see 
Pofe.+Dn. ttwr, Icel. fyrir^ Dan. for^ 
Swed. j^n Cr./iir. Ct L. /«Tj for; Gk. 
rptj, before, «i^j near. 

For- {i},prijix. (E.) /ii*^ has Btqallr 
an inteoMve force, or preserves something 
of the sense of/r^m, to which it ic relale£ 
(Quite distinct from /«r-f though olti- 
mutely allied to itO A. S.y&r- ; Icd._/ir-, 
Dan./iw--, Swed, /(!•>-* Do. v^r~. G- »wt--, 
Goth, /fw-, /aj>', Skt. fard*. The Skt. 
y^oni i* an old iustrumentai sing, of/a/w-, 
&r ; perhaps the orig. aenie waa ' away ' 
or * forth/ Bor. for^&r^ f^r-^id^ /<tr- 
/enJ, for-go tmi5SpeUy&flP-^"),yft/^^^.yw^ 
gfve^ for-lom^ f&r-iaki, firr-itutar \ see 
Bear/ Bid, &c. 

Fop- (j),/«/£r. (F.-L.) Onlyin/&r- 
(hst (misspelt f^tflos/), for-feit^ which 

FozuOf fodder, cfate'ly obtained by pil- 
lage. (F! - J-ow L. - Tcut . > M . ¥..forast . 
fcurai^i,—.O.Y.fcuraee.^O.V./arr4r, li> 
forage. -O, F.fim (F.Jium), fodder.* 
Low L. J^rHm^ fodder, — TewL type 
*/^ir0m, fot^der; see Fodder. 

ForOAlinated, perforated. (I..) From 
L. fordmiH; stem of foramen , a small 
hole. — L.y^rcrrtf, to bore; net Bore. 

Foraj, Forray, a mid for foraging. 

F. — Low L. - Tcttt.) Foray, farruy ate 
old Lj?wL Scotch ^pellini^, with Lbc* aeniie 
of ' foraging eipedUicm/ Apparently 
coined from the \A..\.. fffwrUr^ forrrytr^ 
a forager. — O^ F. ftrritr, a forager ; 
from O F-/i>rwr,to forage ; »cc For«c». 

ForlMftT (i)r vb. (EL) From Fop. (2) 
and Bear. \.^.for6cran* 

ForbMUT (3}] sbw, ao aucotor. (E.> 





M. K forhtar (liVallacc*), For fert-hi-tr^ 
due who is before. See Fore And Be. 

FCkCbid* (E-) From Por* (3) and 
Bid (a). A. ^.forheodan.'^T^w. vtrhitden^ 
Goth.,/aurdiuaan, G. itsrbiettn. 

Force CO. fttrcnsth. (F.-L.) M.E. 
/fl/vjf, fon.'^O. F» y2)*v^.— Laic L, f^rtMi 
streagth.— L. yij^j'-i decL stem oi for(ii^ 
Btrong ; O. ]^>fcreits. Allied to Borough. 
Bm^m. i. 5§ 566. 756, Cf. Fort, 

Foroe ("2 , to ^Xnk fowls j sec Pwfc*. 

Force (3 ^ Fobs, wntcrfall. (Scand.) 
Daru fost Swed. ySrj, led. /vrs, /ws., ■ 

ForcepB, pincers. (L.) L, /one/s, 
orig, uaeiT for holding hot iron ; for yiJr- 
mkeps <,Vanicekj. •- L. fortma^ hot ; 
€apere, to hold. 

Ford, (tl) M.R /iri/; nUo forth. 
Ah. ^.ford, a ford^piis3age.+C,^r/. Teut. 
tvpe ^furditz. From Idg. */"'i weak grade 
ofyPliR^ log*; see Faro. AlUcfl lo U 
partus, a h*rbouT, O. Welih {p)ritt Welsh 
rkyd, a ford^ antJ to frith ; see Frith and 
Pore. Bni^. ii. § loS, 

Fore>in front coming first. (E,) A.S. 
f&re^ (or, beforej prep. ; fh-e,f0ran, before, 
adv. ^>Du. lioor^ G, i/^r, GotKy^Km j cf. 
Icel- j^r/r, D.TJi.ytf*", Swed. jOr. Allied 
lo Gk. wapp*, before; ^kV ^ras^ before, 
in front Skt, J^wra, fonperly. Also to 
For^ (t)t prehij q. t. D©p. fon-co'm^ 
^dedt, -cos/, -iostky ^daU, •fatArr, "fingrr, 
■fttot^ -fr^ttt, -go (in Ihe soise ' to go 
before onlf), -ground^ -Aaitd^ -kead^ 
'JMiji^, -Arjfiw^ ^/and, -ipck, -«wafl, *fKW», 

^rdatfif '/^rf, -rank, -run^ -ur, -ship^ 
-ihefUii. -show, 'Stgh^t -tfali (A, S, fan* 
iteaii. sb. lit. * a position in front '), -ta^U, 
'fe//, 'thought, -tnhin, 'tc&th^ -topt -warn ; 
all easily unflerstood. 

Foreclose, to preclude, MClade. (T.^ 
h.) Better ipelt fordcu.^O. F. fere/or, 
pp, t\i fcrdorrt, to exclude, sbtit out.— 
O. F, /or', frotn h. forU, outside; and 
tlor*'e, lo shut, frgm L. chuderi. See 
Fotfeil and Close. 
Forego, to relinquish v see Forffo. 

ForeigIL* (F. - L, > The g IS wrongly 
ioKned. M. E. fomiru, foreyne.^O.^. 
fpr&in, ftlien, strange. — Fo!k-L. ^ferHnus j 
for Late L- fordneui, adj,^ from L..f&rds, 
out of doors, ttdv, wiih flcc. pL form, allied 
to L.foni, doors ; cf, h.f0mmj a market- 
place, and E Ywr. 
ForcjJTiclfre (0, to prejudEt. From 

Fore %n<\ Judge. 

FOT^xidffe C^) ' ^*^ Forjudge. 

Foremost ™ost in front. (EO 
double sujtfrl., the old sapert. form bci 
misunderstood. For "M^R./ormesff througl 
secondary influence of wwj/, — A>S*j^rjw?j^, 
by*fonii of the regular fyrmtst {<,*fur- 
tnistot), through the innoence of A, S. 
farma, which IS cognate with Golh. 
frttrtiit, first, Gk. vpd/M^i, r^hJ^xoj, first. 
Further allied to Gk. wpit^ before. iJruf^izu 

FarenaiCi belonging to law^coorts, 

(L,) CoiDi^d from L, foren^'is, belonging 
to the forum. — L. ^rrfw, market -place, 
meeting-plnce ; orig. n vestibule or door- 
way. Allied to L. f&*'lSt doors, and E. 

forest* ( F. - L. ^ O, Y./ffrgJt - Late 
L.ftrreitts^ free space of hanting-gromid ; 

fere^ta, a wood (medieval writers oppose 
the fotestii, open hunting'gionnd, to the 

fiartUi, enclosed park). ^^ L. fons^ oat of 
doors; adv. allied to L. f^rh^ doon. 
Dflf . forfti^er, ^\%of&riUr\ foster. 
Forfeit, a thing forfeited or lost by 
mis-kcd. (F, — Lo M. E^^z/fife; whence 

farfiUn, vh.-^A.¥. farfeif, U.F, fatfatt, 
a crime punishable by fine, a fine; alson 
pp, of O. Y . f&rfaire ^forifaim, to trspuBS. 
— Late \tmforUfactum , a trespass^ fine ; orig. 
pp. {ncnt.) oi forisfattrt^ to trespAl. lit. 
' to do beyond/— L. faris faren, to ds> or 
act beyond or abroad; from fffrjs, out 
of doon ; and facwe^ to do. See Fore< 
Forfend, Forefendi to avert. (H 

brid ; H am/ Fo M. E. fotftnd^ii 
extraordinary compound of K^/flr*, prefi 
with yVjirf, a fatntli^r abbrevrntiaq of 
f€nd, Se* Fop- (a) and Defaod; nl 
Fend, Fonc9. 

For^e» ,F.— L.) O, F. forge^ ft work- 
shop, — Folk-L. *faHrga, for ^favr^gas. 
i;Schwan) ; for L. fahrica, a workshop. 
See Fabric 'Der.for^^ rb. ~ 

Forget. (E.) From For- (a) 
Get, A i^, fo^rgetan ; E. E, T.)i forgita 
+ i>ii. Vfr^ffH, G. v/r^esitn. 

Fo^^ve. ^^.1 From For (j) and 
Give. A. S. forg^fan^-\'T>iA. t/ergetiin, G. 
Vfrgebin ; Golh.fragiban^ lo gnnt. 

Forgo, ForegOt to gi^'c ap. CK.) 
Beltff ff:go. A. S. forgdHf lo pasA over. 
Yrom For- ifa; and Go. 

Foxjndge, to deprive of by a jadge- 
meiit* (F.-L.) O. V.feryugtfr.^tiovf 
^n^wrfrV^rr, -L./irfj,outwde:aJid "" 




^4rf, 10 judge. See Porfoit 

Fork. CL.> A. S. /tnva. - J^/ttrfSf a. 
fork. Der hi/urtatcif, 

Porlom, <)«»te loit, (E.> M E./tff> 
/t"W. A. S. joHffv^Hf pp, of /or/f^safft to 
Insu ulttrrly ; from for*^ prcfin^ and Iftfian^ 
to Insff ; ate Por- (al and Iitus. So also 
T>an. f^rlortH, Da* and G- vtriortn^ sunl- 
larly rlcriveJ, 

Form. F.-L > O. F. formt. - L, 

yii»rwi*j, shape. Brugm.ii.5 JJ- ^ji/\^^V^V,^ 
<f <J. F. jormt also means ' a bencb,' like 
)L.f^rm, Der form ida. 
Former, more in fiont. (E.) Not 
enrly; Xtl cent.; a false formnticin, (o 
suit M. H, forynatj \. e. forcmu&t ; see 
Porflmowt. Formed by Adding *er to the 
Imsc /prm- of A. S,_/&rw a, (int, teaUj* a 
Ktipcn. form, where -m- is ad Idg. supcrL 
sum^i. Cf. \.. pri-tHiis^ first 
Fomiic, ptttainmg tp ants. C^^.) For 

/^rmif't( : from 'L./o*'mUa, an Bntt 

Foxmida'ble, causitig feitr. (F.-L) 

V, Jattfti'^'iA/e. ^L. formidifbiiis^ terrible, 
■m.v^ f^mtiMfi^ to dread j fcrmido^ fear. 

Fommla, a prescribed form. i^L.) L, 
formula, dimin, i>i /prftMi a form. See 

Foniicate* (L-] From pp. of L./jr- 
wiV.iW, to commit lewdnesi, wck a brothel. 
-L.ytfrwiV-, bas« offfmix. 4 vault, arch, 
brothel. Pcrhapf allied to Fuinaoe i cf, 
O. L- famnSy L, fumtti, an oven ^of 
vjnnlted sUape). 

Forttake. (£/> M.E/?«fl*r«. A. a 
ftfrsanin^ to neglect, orig. lo contend 
ftgflln^t, Of oppObc^ fronij^-j prefiXj and 
taian. to tonlcnd, whence the E. §b, take. 
See For- < j i and 8ak«. So alvo Swed, 
fermka, X^att^/pna^, Da. verzaken. 

ForsootK^ (K.J M. E. for sotht^ for 
a tnitb. A, S, /flr sddt; where ^r = for, 
and jrf^ is Hat of J*»a, Irwth ; sec Bwith. 

ForBwear. l'^) From For- (3; and 
Bw«Ar. A, S,forsH!4ria», 

Fort. CF.-L) O. V.fort, ab,, & fort ; 
a pecoJiar u»e of F- ^/. adj., sUoDg. — L. 
acc» feri^tm^ from Dom. fortsi, ttron^^ 
See Fofe*. 

fort«aioet«^anrort. rF.-L.) o, f. 

fi'tUU%££ ; Late 1- ffirtaJititx ; lee For- 
Irt^aa i:bc]owy 

forte, loud. tHal.-L.) ItiX^f^e.^ /M^r.+M Hu, iwdtr. Dn. ttvr^; O. H. 

und J decL stem of fitiiiSf strong : -ficSrt, for 
fattrt^ to make. 

fortitude. (F "!.0 Y . foftttudt.^ 

"L.fQrtiiu^iif, sutngth. — L./pr^ji'-/, stroni;] 
with suRix -I'HdS?. 

Forth, forward, (E.) M. E. f^k, 
A. S, jfi:-)^, adv. ; rebted to fce^ be- 
fore ; sec Fore. "4"^"' ^*<^f^i, fn"'iii tvwr; 
G. J^r/t M. 11. G. fflr/, frpm t'ori cf. 
Gotn. fiurikis, further, from fmtr-a^ ht>. 
fore. Teut. tf pc *fur-^&- ,• Idg' ^ypc *p»r- 
ttf: See Farther. 

Fort^jr, Fortitude ; see Fort. 

Fortm^litr iwo weeki, (E.) M. 
fouri£nii;h(\ nlso _/wr/fff ff^A/1 — M. 
fouriftt, i.e. fourteen ; wiyiiA, old pi, l 
ni^^hts. A. S. ffp-,vfrtyfit niftt, i)*j al 
iettnitihf ^ SiVfn nif^ht. 

Fortreae. (F.- 1„) M. E, fertretH 
-t>. \!\ forferciff,forUlei£i.^LB^Ktz \^ fo, 
tahtia, a. small fort.^Latc 1^ fortis' 
Uiomui;^ a fort j J- fprfis^ strurn;* See 
Fort, FortaJioo. 

Fortime. (F,-L.) O.f.firtune.'^]^ 

ftfriiina, tlnance.— Ly^/*!-, ftfUed Xofffrfi- 
ded- stem of jOrj, chiuice \ or\g. ' ihi 
which is brout^ht,' or ^ nn event'; front* 
ftrrf^ to bring; sec FMtll©. 

fortuitoil*. (1*) L,' fariuif-uiy 
(visual ^ with safTn -ff«j-, — L. fgriii- (as 

Forty; see Fotit. 

Forward. (E.) M. E./orK»fln/. A.S. 
forc-ii'ayj. ndj. — A.S._/&«^ before^ w/arJ, 
suffix ; see Tow^d. Der. ferw^rd-j. 
M. E. jOrtoajn^iJ, where -^r is the suffix of 
gen. c&se, used adverbially. And see 
FoffBe. (F^-L.'^ F./«jf.-L./«nj, a 
dUch- — L. ^i/j, fern, at ft^Jtus^ pp, of 
fodert, to dig. Bnjgm. i. f 166. 

fOBlilt petrified remains obtained by 

digging. '>. — L.) Vi,^. foxsiU^ * thit 

may be digged;' Cot*— L* /ofxiiif^ dog 

up. — L./wj-«j^ I^* iAf^trt (above^ 

Fotset, a ^pigoc ; sec Fauoet. 

Foster, to nouhah. . E. } A. S.f^itrian^ 

vb. — .\. S./Jj/tf^, nourithmenl ; Tent, type 

*fittromt for '/dd-tmm, ncot,; ilUed to 

fidat food.H^tcel. y^j/r, nunbgi whence 

f^sira, to nurse ; Swed, j^/ra^ D(Ui./?j/ 

to rear^ bring np. 

FotJier^nlosd, bearymus. (E.) A. 

L, flcc, /t*r/ Yffl ^ strong (above'. f^odc 

fbiTtii^. (F.-L.' O. F. yffr/i)ffr, fo From 
make >iiiun)E«<»L. yW^f^irv.^L. fttti-^ F*ihom. 



r, G.fuiffr. Teut. 1 ypc VJJ^- rtfiw , 
•^/', gtroDg grade of *fiii^ ; 



T<t>aX, (E.) M.^/iyfiL A. S, //;/.+ I Pox* (K.^ A, S. /at. + Dti. tW| fa 


Du. vuU, l(x\*/ul/, Dan^/tfH/^ Swed./«/, 
Colh, /v//. G. /am/. Tent, type Vm-Aw j 
cf. led. fu'inH, rotUn. Akin to Putrid. 
i^VXl: Brngm. i % 113, 

foum&rtr ^ polecat. (£. M, E./mA 
fuari, yu/marj; coinp, of M* E, _/«/, fool 
(oa alK.>vt"), and A. o* mcarOt a marten* 
Sere Mart«ii. 

Fonad (i)» to by the fonndation of. 
(F. — L.) M. E, founde a. ~^O.Y, fonder. 
•^L. funddri^ lo found. »L. fuHdiu„ a 
bottom^ foundadon. Sn Fund. Per. 

Found (})^ to cast mcult* (F,— L.1 
O, V. /ottdre.'^L. /utidfrt^ to poor, cast 
metals. ^VCHEUO S«e I'tue (l). 
Jywty/cuHd-ry, ^./a/td-erie^ 

FoUHdoV. to go ta the bottom. (P< — 
L.) M. Vl.fittftdrfftf said of n horse fall- 
iag. — 0. F» fondrtr^ chiefly in comp. 
a/ondrtr (obsolete), e§hndrtr^ to fiiU in 
(still m nse) : ohg. to sink Sxi. — Y.fGndt 
bottom,— L,/w/jrfwJ, bottom. Sec Touad 

Foundling, a deserted cliild. (E.) 
M. E. fnndiing ; formed with suffix -/-(«/ 
from A.S, /***rf . weak grade id Jindan, 
to fiEid.+ Du. ■vondeling, Se^ Find. 

Foinnt (*), a spring. (F, — L.) Fomicd, 
by aftfllogy with tnount^ from F* j^tt/^ — L. 
fonitm^ a^cc. of /(»wj, a fountain. Bwf, 
fount-ain, O. F. foritaim. Late L. /«i- 

Fount '3), Font, an ru&ortm«it of 
types. (F.— L.) O. K /sw/^, a casting? of 
metaU,-O.F. /tfmfr^f, to cast— L. /W«- 
rttrnf , to poor, cast metals. See Found ( 2 \ 

Fonz. (E-) yi^E./eowur^/ewer^/ettr. 
A. S. fiiftutr, 4" I<*L fj^^i^'i tJM' j^**- 

trf>#-; also W. pidway, Gael, ceifftir^ O, 
Irish ^lihir^ L. ^ua/iiof, Gk, r^TTO/Mj. 
T^ff^nptTt irttrwfr, Rais. chtiv**^, Lith, 
ptiitrnt pen. ffl^AJr^ Slct r^am/rfly tdg. 
type, *^itwfr-, "Dot. /our t^^ h.^.fi&rpa ; 
fpurfeen, A,^. fftyivfrtStu^ fer-fy, A.S- 

Fowl (M) M. E. >w/, A. S. >rfB/, a 
biTd. + Du. tt)^?/, Icel, /w^. Dun. fugi, 
Swed. ybff ^, Goth, /ugi-r, f 1 - iw^*-/. Teut. 
type yH^iez, masc. ; prob* for *fiuglo%^ by 
dlsrimilalion ; the foim Jiugtaf, pL occure 
in Matt. xiii. 33 (Raibworth g1o» . nnd 
cf. the adj. /ugsi, flying. From t^w| , 
weak grade of Teut' '^iu,!*~an , to fty, 
S«e Fu|rlem&n and Fir- Bni|,mi.i.| 491. 

\\« ati 

fufhs. Tmi. type */uh-s-, 
find led. j^, Goth, fcrttho, fem, a vix«-ij 
Teut. type '■fkkd, A conne:£ion with Sk 
fufkehha-^ * tail.' is doubtful* Der. vi^ 


hx's gloye; a fancifU name. ilL Norw 
rtvhjdlia^ a foiglowe ; Hc. * foK-bell.* 

Foy, K parting enterlainmcutt by or to 
a wayfarer. (Du. — F,"^ From Da. foei 
l,iri Hcxhamtyfc/f 'a banquet giTren by one 
at parting from bis friends*).— K.^i, Ui ' 
faith J from L. sec Jidjtm \ cf. Late 
jf/^f. in the wnse of 'payment/ 
Fnmck,) Bat jathcr from F, veit, a wa; 
L* uia, Cf. VoTftee^ 

Frao&S. (F. - Ital. - L.) R fmcas, 
crash. — F. fraiantr^ to shatter. — I 
froiossart, to break in pieces, — IlaL ; 
prtp-i nmoDg^and ^assart, to break: iL 
tatcd from L- iniirrHmperi\. Ilal. yrar 
from L» iw/rd, below. Cturarr =L. 1^1 
sd>r, to shatter; see Qtiash. 

Fra.ction. {V. - L* 1 F. fntKtion. - 

ace, j'ra^iiJnrfrtf a breaking, — L. Jra^fuTj 
pp* oi /'attgvrif la bieak. Cognate with 
hrak\ sec BreaJE. 

&actnre, (F.-L.) 0,¥. froi^turt, 
— L. froitura^ a breach.i— X., j^^ur/fa^ pp, 
of /'ff?;ri_Y''f-, to break. 
Ihractious, peevish. :E.; om/F.-L.) 
A prov, K word^as if from North. lE.,/ratcht 
to squabble, chide ; the same as M* £, 
fraafun^ to creak as a eart. Eut it also 
occurs lin 17051 in the sense of ra/r^ffaiy, 
hems formed from fracfien, in the $ctiK 
of ^ disension/ a len^ now obsolete ; sec 
X. E. D. See Fraction. 

Fwipile. (F--L.) ¥. fragile. ~\.. 
frngitu^, easily broken. — E, fnxg'* bM* qf 
frangirff, tn brW-k. See FnOtli 
Doublst^ /r/iiV. 

fragment, (F.-E.) Y./ragmeni 
\., fragrtitntum, a broken niece. — h.frag- 
base oi/rart^ere \ with sunix -ruentum. 
Fragirant. (F.-L,) Y, fragruHt.^ 
\^^ Jr'i^^r^ntim, flcc, ol frdgntrts^ pres. pi. 
of fraip'tiri, to emit an odour- 

Frail, (F.-L.) yi.K./rf^i fr^yf.- 

O. Y.fraife. brittle. — L,//-rt^7^w, ncc of 
fragiiii \. sec Fragile. 

l%ame, to con:%lfucL E.) M. E./rB- 
mitftx u\io fremUn. \.S. fntmian. 
be profitable, ai-ati ; if also /«//»■ 
ffemmaHf to pr<*mote, efTecl, do, lit 
f Hither. ■• A vS. /»«*w, f-trong, good, 




forwjirtf; cr,/rv;w, prep., from, nwiiyi M.C 
ProTH + Iccl./ramti, /ftm/n, to further, 
ftom /ra/nff iidj., (orw Aid ^ /ram, lutv. , 
fonvfljj, nJlicc] to/ra, ftum. Cf, G.Jr$rrtrfty 
good. ly&T. fraifm, sb, 

F^ampola^ ^unrrdsome. (Low GJ) 
Oh^'jltrtc. A\so/mmpaiiI,/fvmpail. Alljctl 
to prbv. L. t'anfipt^U^ a romping child. Cfl 

man ; M- Du. wrttntat^ to chidc^ Dan. 
vranti, to b« peevish, tfrarttert, pecvl&h. 
t'f. *liO Dan, pramfffj warped; Low G. 
wratfifa^A/t^A, motose (Liibben); E. Fries. 
/rantert, wrartieH^ to be cfos}. Note also 
Sc, fnimph, to rilsoTderif and E, frump. 
Tbe eccQiid cleiner.t is prob. from E. ^//, 


rrfUiC, ft French coin. (F- - G.) M. E. 

/rank, -^O A*. /mm \ fiaid to be ifaotl for 

"mMiffrum ^tf* (00 a coin of 1 560) . Sec 

firaaichiM. (F.-G.) M.E. >»»' 

^/!iv,,y,_0 F. franckisf^ privilpf^cd libetly, 

^(t. K, /ntmhu't fitcm of jitw. pi, of 

frumhir^ to frec» — O, F. /rarti, free; sci 

Frank. 0«r, dU/ran^kise^tn/Tamhi^f.. 

Frangible. (L. r \a\s. L. /rnngibUh, 
breakable; a coined word* — L. /ViZW^ftrj 
10 break. See IVftotion. 

Fsfftuio&i a dissolate peraon. (F. — L.) 
O. K. fnii^ant, one who infringes (law) ; 
prus. pt. of /raindre, to break, hence tii 
inrnugc, - L. /fangere, to break. Sec 

rrank, free. (F,-Lgw 1--0. IL G.) 

O. l"'. /remi, • Low L. /ranctts^ free ; 

rij*- A Fntik. — O. H> i^./ranko, n Ffauk ; 

ruap& naiactj (rom a wca(^w>ii ; cf, A. S. 

irtca, %. javelin. The I-'rartki were a 

Gcrmajiiic i^eople. 

frftakftlmoigll, the name of the 
tvrniie by vi,hii;li most chatclk- lands life 
held. (F.-O. U, U a«</ L. -Gk.} Lit. 
*&€c fllm*.' — F. /tant^ free; Anglo-F. 
aimoiHe ^ O. F. alm^fmt, alm$. Sec fV&nk 
uul Almoner. 

firanHnc^iLse* (F. - G. attd L.) 
O. h. /ram enans, jnic incense; sec 
Frauk nU>vc And lucenae. 

frankHn, .1 fit-eliulder. (F. - C.) 
M. 1.. /t,T*tktki'u, « A. K, /rauHkelayw, 
l^niltoft, ii. iiix l^w L. /ratua/dnifs, 
/fwHt hilatiHf.^ljQ'n L. /rtmau, fice ; Rte 
l*rattk above). Tb«: snllix is posxibly 
(rom O. H. C -/('«t (-ti. -Am^ u in 
»Ajr-/iV. ; pr«Uc]> as in tAamhrlain. 
Frazitic» ^F.— L.-CL; M.E./^fwr- 



//A sbottcr ionn /feHit'i.^O.V, /tend- 
tiqiu.^h, phrtwiiaHj pAfemtitut, mail, 

— (Jk. ^pcp^ruTi^t, maa, snffcrtDg^ from 
^po-irif, Ircniy, See Freniy^ 

Fraternal, (F -L, 0,V,/trtftrmL 

— Late L. poitmaiis, tb« same as L. 
,/rQit*-»^s, brotherly,-* L. /rattr^ cognat« 

wjlh K. Brother, 

fraternity- (F.^L.) O.P./raUr- 

niUf, — L. acc./rdiitnifdUfT*, btotherhoodt 

— L. /rdUmujf brotherly. — L. /rd/ttf 
brother. Der. cefi/reUtmity. 

fratridd^ .J 1. miird<:rrr of a brother, 

(F. - 1-) O, )t./rutrUuk. " L./rQtridda^ 

a brothcr-slnycr., — L /raf/i-, item of 
/raitr^ brother; iuta^ a slayer, from 

cadtrty to kill \ see Csiura. 

fratricido (^ , mnrdcr of a brother 

(F.-L. : 0.¥. /rtUredJi \\Mti). m. l„ 
/f'^/ndtititm, ihc killing of a brother — I*. 
/ratri-^ item of yfra/i*^, brother ; 'tldiam^ 

a slayinj;, from (sdtrt^ to JtilL 

Frand. ^F.-Li O.F. //aweAr.-L. 
/raUilimf ace, idl/raus^ deceit, guile. 
' ^fftVitflLti to lade a stbip. 1 Low G. fr 
I Fricsicj We now t>8^ / augAi only si a 

pp* }A,Er /rakffH, /agtitt, only in Ihe 
I pp^/rangkt^ Cf. Swed./rflif/ fraught or 
' freight, from /rakt^ a cargo ; Don. p'Ogt^i 

from /ragt, a co4Yi> ; E, Fries, /rmht^ 
yjvif/, ^it a cargo, (a^ charge for trans- 

rt; Also Du. hevrachUn^ from i/rnt-H*/; 
/rfuhttft, from /raiht See further 
under Freight. 

Fray (1), aii affray. (F.'-L,) Short 
for njpray, or tffray, orig. ' terror/ a» 
sliewn by the use oi /ray m the sen&e of 
terror, BroteH, xv, 3f5, Sec Alfrfty, 

fr*y (J), to tcnify. {F.-L.) Short 
for affray ; see Aifiray, 
^^y (3 * *o wear away by rubbing. 
vF. — LO O.K. /riitr \^^va /r&i£r\ t» 
nib (Godefroy). — L,y>iiVflr*, to rob, 

Fr^ftalc(0i8k whlmt t:aprice. (E.) A 
qnick movement : fiooi M, E, /r(k^ quicks 
Vigorous. ~A. S. /iti', bold, rash ; wncitce 
/riciaiit to move briskly. + Icel. frekr^ 
vornciou*; SweH. _/>(i(r*, impudent. Dan. 
yVtfjf, audacions; G./r«A,Mncy, O.H. G. 
/t't^* greedy ; Goth. /aiAit/riks, covctotis- 
Fpoak (2:, to strcfJt, (;K.) a coined 
word : to Btreok capridokuly (MiUoo) ; 
from Freak (j). 
Freckle. A small spot. (Scand.) 'We 
fiod bulh yW^v// and /rfieft qt /tskin,^ 
Ictl./nkfutr, pL, frecHe* ; Swed. /raJiru, 
Dan./'r^M^, A freckle, Cf. nook. 





F^eeo. (E.j M, H./''^* A. S,/^'^a.•^' I entirely. + Goth, fr^-i/an, to (lev 

u, tirtj ', Uota. /^c/r; G, /ret\ Tent. | entirely, from /ra-, entirely, and Han, to 
lype */rtjas • allied To Skt. /n/a-, belovcdj | cat ; Dti, vrttett^ G^Jressen {'=ver-essen). 
agreeable, also tQ E. Priond- Orig. sense ' See Tor' (aj and Sat. 
* dear, beloved'; hence applied to those, Fr0t (i). to omani«it» variegate. 
of the household who were children, not i,F* — L»; stuiY^.) M,E. /y^fUn, toadom 
slaves; cf. L, fihert^ free, also ' children.' rwilh ixiterbccJ work. — O, F. /rrUr^ lo 
Dsr. freedom. A-S- /riodom \ fnestsm^ \ strengthen i^fta with ifon), alio to adorn ; 
IransL of F. /iVrr^yrtiMM/, ' - — - 

Frae-booter, a rover, pimte. (Dn.) 
Borrowed from Da. vnjbuiler^ a free- 
booter, robber, — Du. vrijbuifen, to rob; 
vrijbuit^ plunder, lit- ' free booty.' Du, 
vrit^E^/ru. And see Booty, p. 56. 

frHsnn \ pp. /rtfr^w.+Icel. frjosa^ Swed. 
ffys'i^ "Dan.frystf Da. vrjeten, G./Htrtn. 

Tent type *friusan-. L. pnlrin, to itch, 

originaUy to bum (cf, /'nttna, hoarfrost)^ 

Skt./}/d>Ad', a burning. Bmgnu i. { 562 ; 

n. I 657. (Vl'HIiU.) 

PlfeiiM,aca^o. (F,^O.H,a) M.E. 
/r'^}'ie : later frtygki \ an altered spelling 

of F. freh the fftiglit of a ship, the ^A 

beiQg insert&d by a true) connexion with 
fraught^ q. v, — F. /«s/, • the fraught or 

fceight of a ship, alao, the hire ihat^ patd 

foi a ship;' Cot.-0. H. i},/riJii, 'earn- 
ings,* hire. Thla O. H. G./r/A/ h thought 

to b^ the aame as Q,/ra£ki, a cargo ; and 
/r^ki has bcco supposed to repfescnl a 

Tcut. type ^fraaihiit; ttom/rau prefix 

(see Fret', and *fliAjfii>A. S. tF^/, ac- 

cjuisHion 'fTom a^n, to own). See Own. 
Trenxy. CF. -L. — Gk."* M.E/refUsye. 

— O. Ft frimsic.-^l^. />Afrn?sii. .* Late 
Gk.itfiirrjirttjfar Gk. ^{ffnt, iiiflammatioa 
of the brain— Gk. ^pn'-, base of tpP^'i 
miilriff, hearty Mrnses. Sec Frantlo- 

Frflqaent. ( V. - L.) M . Fr frtqmni. 

— 'L.frrqueutem^ aijc. iiifrequetts^ crowded, 
frequent; prcs. paTtofa lost verb */ri^uirt, 
to cram, allied to fatrire, to cram ; »ee 
Parc0. Bnicra. \\. § 713. 

Fresco. (Ital.-O. K. G.) A painting 
uiifnsk plaster, -Ital.yr^jfpj cool, Cfesh. 
-O. H, U./rtti. {G./ns^A). See below. 

fresh. (E, ,; amf F. - Teut.^ M. K, | of /'ri^, the wife of VViTdcn 
/r€jk ; aho/ersk^ repteKiUin^ A.S./trsc *frija^ fem. oi ^friJQi^ deiir, beloved. 
The form frisk ii from 0> V. /res, freli 'free ' ; Skt, priyd, wife, loved one. 
(J^m, /rej<kx\ . cf niod« V, /rffts^ fresh.— ~ 
O. 11. G. /riu [G frisfh), fresh. Teut. 
*yp< */^itkfii. Allied to Lith. prifskas, 
swrct. unsoured, i e. unleavened (applied 
to bread) \ Km&. pri^muii, fresh. 

Free, Frieu^ 
TrieniL (E,) M.E. /rend. A, 
friondy orig. * loving.' prw, pi. of/rrt?jai 
to Iov«.+1cc1./''jW(^/, Dan./rrfw.Z/^Swc 
/r&nde^ only in the sense of ' kiiiBmJ 
Fl?«t (1), to 'en! away. (E,) A.S- j alaoDo. Pn>«i/,G./ri?«rtj/; Goth./rr/i^/f. 
for TeuL '/ra-etcni to derour I a friejid, prcs. pL oi frijon, to love. 


a ^ — ji f » 

also spelt /irUr. -mO.F, frefet a ferrule 
(Cot,), also a/ret (in heraldry) ; see Fret 
hy Probably infiaenced by M. E./retieH, 
A. S. /rcifwati, to adorn ; from /nrtw t, j 
ornament ^^H 

^^t 1.3)1 ft kind of grating. (F.— L^^H 
Common in heraldry. -O. F. /heff, ^^1 
ferrule \ /retUi, pi., an iron grating (Diei) ; 
/retter^ to hoop ; /reiti, frctty (in heraldry). 
[Cf. Span, /retei, frets ^in hcraldFy) \ allied 
to ItaL /errtaia, an iron grating. ] — F. /tr^ 
iron. — L. ffrrum^ iron. 

fret 14)1 A itop on a inutiical iiutru* 
mcnt. (F. — L.) Frth are bars across the 
heck of the instrument ; probably the same 
word ns/r?/ (3). See N, E, D. 

Friablo, easily crumbled, fF.— L») 
M. t\/na/'/e. — L. friahilh. — 'L./riart^ 16 
rub, crumble^ 

FHar* ■ F. - L.) M. E. fttrt, - O, F. 
/rere^ /reire^ lit. a brother— L. //-a/flfw, 
ftc;. o\ fraler^ a brother, See Brotb«r. 

FlilibU.lo trifle. (F.-L.) Uf imila- 
tix-e origin ; biil prob, suggested by obbo- 
Icte frh^i, adj. frivolouft^ Vi.>^^. /rcvoi.^ 
Y .frivak- —\. /fiuotus , see Privoloua, 

FrioaSBfiat ii^ dish of Jowls cut up, 
(F.) ¥. /rifoss/tj a fricassee; fem^ of pp. 
^ifruAiiit^ to fricassee, al&o, to squander 
money. A fricassee is umde of ciiick 
&c cut up into small pieces. Of unkn 
origin, aome bavc soggealed 1, /rfgt 
tn roa^t, or \^ /ricdtty lo mb ^Kbrtuigi 

Friction. (F,-L.> Y./rkficii.~ 
ace. /rkii^nem, a nibbing. - L. /rictus, 
contr. pp. of /ricar£^ to rub; allied to 
Jrhlrt. to mb; m€ Friable. 

Friday. ( E,) A. S. frigc^d^xg, b- 
lating L. i/j^j Vtiteris ; whcre/r/^rf is j 



Skt. /rf, to love. Allied to Frw, 
Bm^. i. f 567. jyw. /ritftii-iAi/, AS, 

Frieie (i), a coar» woollen cloth. (F. 
— Du J M, F. friu^ frisi^ ' frisc f ' Cot, 
Perliaps due to dni/* dt'/rif^, i. e, cloth of 
Fricslflnd ; with which Cotgrarc identifies 
iL ^ Du. VHtslaniii, Friesland ^ Vriis, & 
FriesUnd^, belonging to FricsUnd, So 
alio cheval Ji frts^j a horse orFrie&laDd; 
whence ehtvaitx dt Friie^ s[iikc& to resilt 
cavalry, n jesting term. ^ Hence OF. 
/Hurt to cover with a lup, to cnrl hftir» 
lofrnj. See Kbrting. 

PriftEO (i)^ part of the entablature of a 
coliiiiin. {b.} M, Y*/riiff * the broad and 
flftt bond that'i next below ibe cornish 
fcomice], or bctwecD it aud the architmve f 
CoL Spaji. frisQ^ a fricxe ; allied to lul- 
/t^gio, a fringe, lace, border^ omaEncnt. 
The Ilftl. /nfft'i) reprwenti L» Pkry^um 
laflifs , Fhrvgiojj work. 

Frigate. (F.-Ital.) M.¥. /re^t, 

* ft frigate ;' Cot,^lU\./rfga/a, A friEftte. 
Oxif^n tmcertain, 

Priffht, {E.) U.V^fiyght O. Kortb- 
urnb. jryhio^ A,S. fyrhi^, fyrhtu^ fright, 
allied toyer^.iimid.+OSax./'^A/d, Dan. 
ffygf' Swed, fntktan^ G. ftirfht. Colli, 
/nurhUt, fright I allied to O, Sax, f&rht, 
O. II. (i^/orofAt, Goth, faurhti^ learftil, 

ITrigid. (L.) L./ri^iVwj. cold, ftdj.a* 
L,/rfgrret to be cold, •- h./rfgus, oold, lb. 
^Gk. jAJYor, cold, Hmgm. t. V S7f>. 

Frill, a mffle on a shirt. (F. ?) 
f^nV/, vb,, was a term in hawking ; a hawk 
that fthiveied, from feeling fAi7/y, wa$ said 
to /r>7/. — O. F. friUer^ to shiver with 
cold. Hence some have deduced the 
«eaK of A hawk ruffling his feathers; Imt 
for this there is no auihoriiy. The ab, 
mnswcrSj in sense, to O. F- frrrei, frdid, 
a ruffle, frill ^ cf. mod. F\ frai^tt a frill. 
It is renjflrkabJe that both ¥* /raise and 
E» /n// mean ' the mesentery of a calf/} 
Perhaps from M. F. vriiit \ Cot. ha^ : 
' vri//a, hook- like edgei, or ends ofleaves, 
. . , fecroU/ F, tviV/ef also tneani^ipmlct. 
ft tendril ; prob. ftom Dan. vrUdi, to Iwiit, 
Irom VTiki, to writhe; sec ^Vriths, 

Frinn, a border of loose Thieads. (F. 
-U)M.^/nmgf.~-O.V. fringe rPals- 

rvc). old^t form of F. frange^ frinfje; 
Wftltadtian form i% frimbie, for *Jim- 
*rr> \by tneCatbess') , — \^, Jimbria^ fcingc ; 
atlicrl tn^fi^nr, a hbre; «ec Fibre. 
FvippeX7i woni-out clotlics, Uub. 

(F. - L.) Stuff sold by a fripUr. - ] 
fripitrf * a fripier, or broker, Irimmcr u[ 
of old ganneal&, and a seller of ibcm so 
niecded ; ' Cot. — O, F, f>^p€ {9\%ii Urp*t 
ft/pi), frayed out fringe, old clothn,. 
Prob. from L.Jibru^ fibre tKbrting), 
Frisk, to skip about. (F.-Teut.J 
From Ihendj./ru*, brisk.— M. Y./rtsqut^ 
• fnskc, blithe, briskc;' Col, ; O.F /ri^w*. 
— O.H. G.^rt"^, IjTecdyj M. H. G. trie.:*, 
bold, lively. Cf- A. b. ftWy bold* See 

Frith (i)> an enclosure, forest, wood. 
(E") Obsolescent; M. ii/riV**, peace, alK> 
enclosare, park. Ci.Vi .ffriiid, park^ forest, 
which is borrowed from M. K. ~ A. ^.frii^ 
ptacc ; friGtt, peace, lecuritVf a^lucn. 
Cf Icef. frihry Dan. Swed. /red. Do* 
vrede, G. fn'ede, peace. Tent, type 
*/rithut ; from V'"^'! ^^^^^ ^^ *f^*-P^^ *'**• 
See Free. ^ The M. E. /WM is aUo 
' wooded country.' This i* prob. a different 
word : A.S. ,^^J^AJr 'Bircn, iii. tao), 

Fritll(2), Futh, aiie&tuary, (Scand.) 
M. E. rf>/A. *-lceL fjor^r^ a lirth, bay; 
X>vsi./on{, Sw^.jfjard, the same. Allied 
to Ford, Hnj^'m. ii. ]o8. 

FritillAiyi a plant. iL.) So aamed 
brcause the chequered markings, on the 
corolla were in some way associated with 
o,^iriUuj.-L./ririUui, a dice-bo«. 

Fritter 'J ■* a kind of pancake. (K. — 1 
L. M. E. /rytffOtrij friieure. [C£ F, 
fritiaii, *a fritter,' Cot*]-0. F, piiurf, 
s fn-inR, disli of fried fish. — O, F. /►li, 
fried. —L./nVi'MJ, pp, ot/rffftrf, to fry. 

Pritter(j),ttfrflenient; Shak. (F. — L.) 
O. F. /n/urc^L. /racturaf a fracture. 
See Fracture. 

firittor ftwaj, to dimmish, waste. 
(K*-Lv) A derivative iiom ffiiitr {7)^ 
a fragment; whence yWWrr, vb.j to cut 
U|» into frai^menlfi. See above* 

FrXToloua, trifling. ^L.l From L. 
friuoi-Hi, iilly ; with snJifix -pwj. The orig. 
sense ^ttms to have been ' mbbcd away \ 
hcQce friueia meant broken potshetds| 
8cc. ^1.. fridrt, friidre, to nibj see 

Frix, FriUr to curl^ render rough. 

Y. — Du. VJ M. Y./riier^ ^ to fri«le, crispc, 
cuile ; * Cot. (Cf, S^^n. frhar, to friEile, 
raise (lie nap on frieze, from/nid, friere.] 
Similarly the Y./riicr xi kom/nsf,/ris<t 
frieie ; «* Frieae {i\ Der./ria-ie^ fre- 
qiietit form, in commoner ose ; cf. O, Frie& 
/nsUtfrtikt a lode of bair. 




Fro. .Si^Aod.) The Scuul. form of 
/nmf.'twi. yVvf, Dui, frtit Iroia. See 
Froe3r. :F.-LowL.) M. E. /wt.- 

O. ¥,/riK ; Low L.yrwf«j^ i mcHik'ft frock, 
also apelt Jlxciu (Ducaoge), IVob. k> 
called bcc4iii« woollen ; lee Tlook (s). 
Cf, Port, /ir&co, * snowHakcr from L. 
Jfoifftr, % So Dier ; bul Brachet deriTcs 
it from O. H,G. hroth \G. rpcJt), q coal, 
in which the initial A U unori^uul. 
Frog ^ I J, *n aoiniil. (E.) M.E,y«g^ 

A, S. /rGgga, /rthea. Also A, S, /rvjc, 
1 frog. + Icel. jroikr^ Du. vorschf G. 

Frog (3), a siibsrance in » horse's foot. 
tL, ?) It 15 shapcH like a fork ; perhaps 
H corruptiOQ of /i?r*, q. v, ; ibe F, Dame is 
feurchetu, la uiy caMj it bju been con- 
foriDcd to Prog 1 J'. 

FroliO, a**jt sportive. (Dn.) XVI cent, away-ward.) And ace Toward 

feO«t« (E.) M. E. /«i/, /*r/l ; A. 
f»r^t (for /mtri'j.+Ehi. vont^ Icel. Dan. 
Swed- Q.frojf. Tcut. tyjJt* ^/tmsIo^, m.; 
*/rtistom, a. From Vriij-, *cak grade of 

yreuian-. lo frccw. Sec Prwflae, 
Froth, Scand.) M. E. /rti/;5^ - Icel. 
fr9Qa,/raut, Dan. _/jnMa!* [Swed. /i™4?«f]» 
fruth, foam on liquids^ From tnc Te 
verb */ratfAat§-f to froth up ; u in A 

fTOTUlCOt t() "^ Wrinkle* carl, plai 
(Kh — L.) The older form oi^Hnce\ *ec 

Froward, pcrveT«. (Scand. jW E. > 

M. L- /rffwarJ^ coromonly Jraward 
(Norttifrn), From IccL frd, fio: and 
ward. CiL A. S. /romttxard^ only in the 
sense * about to depart"; but we still 
keep the ori^. toue of fcoiQ-ward , i. e. 
ftvciie, perverse, (Cf. waywarj^ i. e. 

Ori^. aji adj. — Du. vreiijk^ frolic, meny, 
+t*./rt'AAfA, merry. Formed with »iimx 
^/yA ( - E. Hkt, ly) fmtn the O. Sos. 
y>v- (ai in frifltkoj adv,), O. Fries, /re 
( = G. froh , t merry. Der. yfrff/iV , sb. aod 

From, away, forth, (EJ) A,S. /r^m, 
/ram.-J^ leer /ra, from ; O. H. G. /™jw, 
forth ; Goth, fram^ from. Cf. also Icel, 
/mtttf adv. forward ^Swcd- /^VJ", Dan. 
/rem)', Gotfa,/raw4V,adv.,fuither. Allkd 
to Frame. 

Frond, a. braoch. (L.) l^/rond-^ xlcm 
g\ /rem, a ieafy branch. 

Front, (F.-L) M.E, /rvnt, iote- 
head, -O. F, //WW, forehead, brow. — L. 
JT'StUem^ ace. iA/r&Kti foreheatU brow. 

ftontftl, a band worn oq Lhc forehead. 
( F. - L, 1 O. F, /rviieL - L, /rmiait, an 
ornament Ua a horae's forehead. — h./r9ftt-^M 
stem oi/tiSmi fbrehflid. 

frontUr. (F.-L,) O, F, /nw/iffa, 
fem. — Late l^./roiUtna^/raHfdria^ bordcr- 
JariiL — L. /ronf-, stem of /it»«j front 
(henctj border^. 

frontiapiece, (F.-U) Jot/rvnHt- 

//(*■; ihrough the influence of /»#«. — F, 
/roMiiipict, * the froniispicM Of fore- front 
of A houK : * Cot. — Late \^/rmtUpi(tMfH„ 
a front view. — L. ^Wn/Ai dect. stccn of 
/r9ni ; spcette^ to see ; see 8p«ci«a. 

fronttot ( F. - L.^ O. V. /ronnUi, 
diinin. of O. F. /rmUii% sec &ont«l 

Frore, fro^eo. (E.) A. S. ^rr», pp. 
of/r^MOM, to fxceic. See J*r«««o. 

FruiVJk. !^F. — Teiii,) M. E.^^wwffu — 

O. F, /r&ngnitr^ whence F. r^^Her^ 
lo frowo, Uok sullen. Cf, Ital. in* 
/rigHQ^ frowning^ Ital. dial. (Lumbardic) 
/rignartj lo whimper, make a wry face. 
Of TcbU origin. From Teut* */rtm/an-^ 
as in Swed. dial, /ryrta^ Norw. /roynay tw 
moke a wry lace. (Koiting, % 3,124,) 
FmCtLfy- (F.-LO \\ /rudijier.'^ 
Jincii/alri^ to make frqitfuL ^ L. /ru£. 
ior jTUi/tu, fruit; yfcanf, for J&«Wj to 
make. See JfralL 
ftMLgal^ I hri fty. ( F. - L. J F . /rt*^. 

— L, y^Wi^ffA/, econoaiical ; liU bclangfio 
to fruils.-L./r«,^rt Migal; orig. dat 

/rfttj ,pL /rvff^ijf fruit of the 
Allied to trait, 

ftrot, (F. - U) M. E, yV*iV, - o. F. 

/fH%L^h.fruiiMmf ace xd /ruitHS, frutt, 

— L- /rHftuSf pp. of /rwf^ to enjoy ; 
allied to Brook (1). (yBlfREUG.; 
Utru^m. U ^ 111 ■ iiu $ 531, 

frniticii, i.F. — U> O. F. ffuitiam, 
enjoyiQcnt. — Lat* h. /nfi/tmem ^ ac«, of 
fnuith, cnjoymect. — L.y^iV'jitff the same 
An/rNcfus, pp. oi frvt, to enjoy. 

fituueiL^^ ftumetyi wheat boil 

in milk, ^F, — L) O. F. /tomfHUe, fj 
< furmenty. sodden V'heat : ' Cot. lit 
made with wheat; the 5uffi]c '/^ — L. -o/tf^ 
made wiih.^O. F./dtmnf. wlicat — Late 
V^/rAmtnium \ X^/rumtntumj cvra ; allied 
to V./rifgfs, froit 
Frumpt im ill teinpered person. 
Of doubtlal ori^; hM\ tl. /tamf«ld. 
frmmp fonaerly meaut a 'sneer/ 



rx|>rtfMion i4 cunK-mpl. Tf. I.nw. Sc. 
JnttHph, to M^o\A<t\\frumpie^ locrca-c; 
JrHtnp^ flti ujibCL-mly fold : 1>an. i^m^r/*-/, 

TrUft^Ute* to render vftin. (L.) From 

Iip. of I., /ruslitiri, to render v^iii.H 
^frtisfni. in viiin : one, abl fcm* o( obso- 
lete fli!].y>«j/rffi {*^*Jrud-ttoi)jAtctixixk\.. 
S\\\c<\ tr^ Fruud. 

FxrtUlttUllf n piece of a cone or cylinder. 
(L) X.^frHsium^ a piece cut oil. Cf- iik. 
^par«rjuti, A fragment, from ^pai^jr. to breok 
iiijiicL-es. rrellwjU ; UrQ)^m. t. f fi5J\. 

Pry;] , to dfcss food. (K.-L.) M. E. 
fritn.^iy. F, yW« — 1-, /rigrtc, to roaal, 
'CL Gk, ^pvytiy, 10 j^iArch; Skt. f^Ara/j, (o 

fxy (j , spawn of fishes. ^Scaad.] 
A. H. /rjf ; M. E* /rt", also tiaed (IJJte the 
Itoth^ word) in llie sv^use of ' offspring*'^ 
Icel* /rie, /r/if, spawn, fry; Dan. Swed. 
^ .+tiolh. frahv, seed, oA^spring. Teut. 
lype *frmwcrn, Jicul. Hrngm, i. ( loag. 

JrOOhsift, » fl*>wt;r. ((J.j Named after 
/. /'ink!:. tJ^Ttnan botam:)t« ab. ii;4J- 

Fudge. U') PicArJ /rt-^4(r.V*'W^■Ar/ 
an U]icr]t!CtJon of conlempt (rorhlei;. 

PU«L (F.-L.) M. R/^f// JJarbour). 
A* K. /iwaiii, O. F. fottaitis ^Low L. 
Jballia^, fuel - Late 1* /ficd/ta, pi of 
/etfUc, fuel. « L. /ocus, a hearth. See 

FngitiTa. (F. - L » o. F. >jf»///. - 

I- fugiiiUMS, fleeing away, — L. fugH^um^ 
wipine of /nt^ifjv, to Hcc. +Ufc. ^^U'yitr, 
to flee; Skc. ^Am/\ to bend, Ciiin aside. 
Allied to Bow (i>. Dcr. (ert/n'-f^gul, 

FR^lemttH, the leader of a lite. (G,) 
Vat^u^i^ftUM/i.^ Ci, ^ugtlmattH, the leader 
of a wfng or file of men. — C^jtfwfir/, a wing, 
front Jiuf^^ flight, from Jitt^ti, to fly ; 
MiiHii, n man. See Fl^. 

FuglMi A musical composition. (F, — 
Ilal. - 1^) F./u^u^. — Itnl/u^, a fngiiej 
lit. a flighu-L- /i(»fa, flight, Sec Fur- 

Ftdermm, n point of aupparl. (L.) 
h, fnh rum, a aup]x»rt. — 1-, fnhire, to prop* 

Pnlfil. (E,j M. (•:. julfitUn. A. S. 
Julfylim. to fill full. fttlttL - A. S. /«/, 
full ; fyiian, lo fill. Sec Pull* FiU 

Ftllg«3lt, ftliiDiup. (I'O From £tem of 
pres. pi. of L. fut^tre^ t«j ihine. + Gk. 
^*Y«i*'» tfi bwm: Ski Mra/, to ihine. 
Dot ef-fuii^mi {if- ^ h tx) ; rt-fulgint. 

Tnb^ilLOtlS, »ooty. (L.) 'L^/^i^ino- 

siu, *Ooty. — I- /ri/cA'rw', stem u\ fiti, 
!»u«jI* Cf. Skt* i/Au'it', dust. Allied 
Fume, tlru^m. L | ^^t, 

FnlliO, complete, {E.I A. S. /«/. 
Du. w/. )«K /"//r, |>an»/HA/ yictr ful 
Swed. /«/A Goth. /*r//j, ll. tw//. Tet 
type yniioi ; IJg, type *ff9iutfS. Cf. I. it 
fitnas, full, filled; Kn^. fioJtiuit, full 

a Irish ^rfw (<"//''«)• f"^'; ^^ ;;i/Tf^#ff 

/l^ntis. Idfi, root */j/, y/f.ty fill. Ikuyni, 

Fl&ll 13 . to full dolh, felt. (,F.-L„i 
O. F, /uUr, K fouUr, ' lo full, or thicken 
cloaih in a mill;^ Cot. Al&o *to iramplc 
on,' — Lfltc 1« fuUdrt^ 1 1) to clcaaic 
clothes, J' 10 frtfl. — l,,/w/At, a fBller. 

ftaJlttTi a blevcher of clotb. ' L. 
A, S. fulhrf, a bleacher. — L. /uiht 
fntltr, tjltaciier. See above.) 
I Fuloimate, lo thunder^ hurl lighlniu 
I ,^L.) F;om pp. of L fuimindri, to thun 
I der. «-L. _/H/ff/i'jV';^ ioi Julmfn, n ihun<ler 
, bolt ' '^'/n/ii^men'K^U./u/grre, to sliinc. 

, Fiilsoiiie» doying. K.) h^* l-i /tihu. 

I from M 11 /w/, full; with sufhx-jKrtv [ -K^^ 

-ii/wic Rs 111 winsotm). See Full ( i \ 
, FulT01U,FlllTid, lawny. L.) From 
1 L fuitfui, tawny ; Late h- /uiHidus^ some- 
what launy. Cf. TeUow ; lirugm. i. 

Fnmblft, to gi ope about. (Du,) XVI 
cent— Uu, fommtUn^ to famlile. + i>»ed, 
fumh {t\io f amidol Dan. famk. Ap- 
paienlly m/ is for /iw ; cf. Icel. /dfma, to 
grope abuut, from the &b. appearine as 
A. S _/i7/iw, the palm of the handj allie<d 
to I .. paJma ; s« FiIjd. 
Pnnie, (F. - L.) o. Y. >».- 
/umum, ace. of /iimutf smoke, + Skt. 
dhumrt'^ smoke; (jk. tfv^c^f, spirit, anger. 
(yf)HEU,^ Anied to Fuliginoua. 
fkunigate. L,.} Irom pp. of L. 

fftMn^dri to fumigate. — 1.- /««-» for 
famui, vapour; -igSrtf for agtrtj to drive 

ftlliaitory,apl*flt- CF— L.) Formerly 
fumit^r. — Y. fumtUtrt, fumitory (for 
fume Ji ttrri , — Laic L, fumus terrtt^ 
smoke of the earth ; so oatned from its 
abundance < and perhaps its curly appear- 
ance). Ct G. ttdramh, fumitory, Hi, 
' eirtb-smoke ' I VV, (Wd y mw^, Ut. 'bag 
of sitiokc>' 
Put^ merriment. (K.i XVllI eehL 
orig. rueaot ' a trick * ; from an obft. 
/wff, to cheat, hoax ; prob. from M. 




FwWakbu^jst furthest 

fom.. foKMt L i:<j..aL y^^JL^ >R FoiiC. 11 & iniuilit.. } rum ia'nic.. L bimdtt ie± 

'jite. 'rcie :•-;•: >.«-T-.>»r. r.m. 1. iu£i;% la:: iardia- ; ' Ltn. *}._/.—*--- '.. 

— 1. .* .•Tjjrr.t /KJC^ftk.'-i... •"*:■&.. -L/.- PbtIobC* r^i- u: £ xniic I. A ^ 
£/'./%..' L :;.j&:i.iii_5i •!_ '*1». _ t r'.'-.t : /i<*<fi«jr yrig l iumi»-i-.jxi£. oc tZK iciiTt: 

.^: .•i.c^"" '.-. ;»sri:'nx;^ .c^ -.. to-- + ^- icut hcrjiirt ; Uic sunr &£ I'm. w.t 

T'CJcK- :. siijT»». liTUini. — s i~^ ■»»s:i. V'^Lp' ietvt. Cf G. wiaur iir 

Pud* c K:irt, f - 1- X. i . />»£ i^ufi. . Iru. m<ff . p A£ i: zlc :ri':u. 

'1 l<.'~.»3. fc w*.— ^^,— > >..ij», , _.•■_«• In. t^C'. Ijk:. fpr-. ^-wcl. "7"- tri *.tJi 

L "x-tj:*, tiju.ia. . ct^txii wiu. I. Bt=it at L-yBr. . »hii5*. Ijij. rf-. '.,«•■ - 

B-nT.?=, 0x1. s. . uui Til? sylliiiit ..'". ies. t. := 

/J.A...- "-. '.. — j -.-Tti-ifcrriL- :.(!::•..&:« i:.^. cx *mi. il 'j. er-laui-cn. :. :»e.-aa; 

— 1 "A.*-; 't. L.»it. -■ *--»- ; t'. «* — 1_ -A.Kj- an:. :r. A *■ /I'O'''. psnasacc. set x^esftTc 
. !<r: Frz^d : : : l'.>o Beliere. Idflf. 

Fvaer&l* '^^'..ii^ *.r L btr^ f -L TsnMtgr; bee l^nmezisy 

«.' X Aw-i — L:.:: L, -ifc-i.;.. l: _ 7snUC6« si '-**«^ F. — L_ W L 

::."— I.._-;«t'- ».' *-*t-. . Sus:;:- ;■-■ *i-c». •'.— tbc.:. — O. f . /r*-iMJ-r —1- / 

I ->l:. I. . ^er _•»»!.■-: -^ rr.ia 1 _** vr-*. . a-L. :•' "'mBir, li, — ■!_ *>r«(. ii- 

:n::rml. -.'t-s. . Ll.tri :;_*rr«i. . vtrrL. '-;. >ki. 

TUB^W, s <^**'^6? f'kis'. L. 1. /xs"^-- v*Ar=.ti. g"'.'* set 'Wazm. 

."fc-^i"*. + ut rr.-v^.«. X ^*XiS'- ■ see r-rz^t. . ; i*^ 

8p:=^. ' Funisk,'.. f::K..?-:L: . F.-O.H ■ r 

FOABSL r.-Z- Mi./."*:' rrri": ,'. t /im-x:-.-. iMrprrt kes :c/-w»^--'- 

ir.-:! tz . . r V^ci.. -.--eKTrr:. iz. L«i :: ~ * ^ '«■' :- wi— iz :.5c stftllr.,: :? 

'fcJKi- r-.. -.-»*.. r^/.^'«=-c — I-Kl 1- --,-T*i'- — T-. H ."^nf r« :. jcini-.. 

'kc^.-A.;*-. !:»■:, lii Si;vn L r»- "r— jf>- ^ •>. H S-.'^n*^*^. 2=^:?". pr; :.:. 

•oir JL.-L S-. .r •a«i'/ :'. ..j^.-. rrm=».' .*i: act Teneer. 

Par. F - .'. Lo* i. M •L->-i- FuTov. Il ME />i*- A >. 

O F /'-■'■j "SK'^f. 1 iCisiVi. ,ai>:. ^-T'-r- ■*'!. I. :lt:» +1*1- rwf*". Is^- .■-'"- I'»-"- 

'-=« ■''- .V"." •-:■ '--.t wtii fir. CsiiStr /i'.' S»ei "in-: G. _■»-«. i r-rr:*. 

'-tti-L-.-.t /."'(i IT fsrrr;. K. K. *d?. 'Tci.'- rr:< •^fc-*-- i. C:"- W. »-tr.-«. i 

vj.-,-.*.-: -c-i-. tr.-.cj:-'^, Irt:. /?>. FarttfT E. I ::.»i»:T u* c:ar 

-:-ife' t..n 1'- -J /-;.V'. i jue. '-zii;^. :: v-r. re: x'j-: e\T'.i:ss'i i* *-=; ■"■' 

-^■+*'' /-'-i •* » r«f-.-:i£-; zf. Gi. -:-ri M. E •i.^^rf-.' .\ S-.-i-^rs, a*.- 

r»>s. i. br.4-. L i :74. "=. . S-\-. JiT-^er. x-^.+lx. r^—^r.. 

FWfbelow, I - , i^-e. r ' fr.-^. F. lii .' x--:r ; O. Fr.» -1— ir-i. a.:. 

/ v;.^j i r-.-,c li -jit dill*.- :i -. . Sii. -:--TC'---. *i - l- 'K. -J ."i-^-J-- 

:;a.-i-.: :.•:■:* -v. -_!.^ :::::: :* F. O u-:-/' xi- ;£-t.:?7«i •"i.'^ir'-.'^ i.e. 

" "^^ **-»-■ i"-:*. /..:«J^. s.£,i:i3e. On^— •S'-»'C--j- xi>Win2^ :.-' O* rA-^«^^-■i. 

!- '.•.--»'^ j,--: . cc TA- C Iz thi* T.x»- -^c j:.=:r. 

PlUrbiah, '. _>-[_>•:.•„-.;:_ F-OHG s;:fr.i ;* -w'tr- u« -re.- Dex /*':':^-. 

O r./i'Si.; L*.jc;.*.;-t Kt^ of ^vr*:*. *:.. A. > S^'rr*. :,.-=ffi iroo: /fc^tV-r 

i^ .'-.',.;. :•,.,.-. — O. H. O. ■»'»/T-j«. bT TO* j'-c"^::^ o: * tc .». 

W- n '/ /Hr'.4n :c ;--i:v. clean. ' nih 'ftothest, a 'I'.e iVnc. =iie as the 

«*jr* ' K-per: z: .-.-re. »=d tiw to itgarMirg 

Purl, Vy roll :.;. 4 fca^; F.-Arai- fmrtiur u 'tie aKc:\ of ihc sixt. Tcl 

Jrotu^:,} \y.\\ furiU./^tkilt so roU up tree •-t-si;. ^i f^t u /r^t- 




Furtive* iI'.-L,) M. l./$tfiif, fcm. j/fu/, a caik; orig, » stods. muikr loe 
Jttritvc.^L* rurfiNus, stolen, sceict.— l- V,.fmumt ace. ni/Mtij, a LtnlgzX. 
/ur/rtrnj Ihcfj. — I- /r}rtbt\ lo steal, —L,[ ftist J), tbcsWl of n coUiron. i^Y- 
f(*i% a ihieC+CtL ^p, n (hief^ alliet! to L. ■ In Kersey (I7i5\-»0.F. /(**/» 

<^ip^tVy to bear* carry nwayj. ^V^^^I^O 
Biii|j:iu. li. % 160 (3). 

Pmry. S'^ - 1*) f* /wni, * L, /«™i, 

older form^r«, 

FUBCOUfl, l>rowu, (L.) L. fuff-m, 
brtmn ; with MiRix -t'WJ. 

Fnvo ' ■). to Ricll by b^t. (L.) A bte 
woH. Due to fus-ihU \\vi Chiin€CT\ 
fus-i&n. in Sir T. Browue***U /iista, pp. 
kA f'uitUre, to poBTt melt. Allied to Gfc. 
Xi«t>' I for 'xef -n^-^ Lioth. gmtan^ to pour^ 

J%mbtf\; hts-wn. See Goah. 
FllSfl ■.?' : &<?e Fuse* ,1), 

U) ' /■us£./ui^£t & pipe fiUc<! with wild* 
firCit and pui iiito llic lougli-hute nf 3 
bomb;' Kerecy (1715). i. /"wr^f is fmm 
lulywji?, Ek spiiidlc. a ihafL [of a cohimtij ; 
nlso. It fuse- — L./f/jVjj^, a apitidic. 2. i'Ui« 
b Irgm K. ftisii^ a fusecj i. e. a. spindle- 
ebupnl pipe ; «e bcbw. 

nsae ;j)i « »piDfllo io awatch (F.^ 
I., 0,V. Jutii^ orig. a spindlcful of 
thread -* Late L. /jv/d/iT, the ^.ame i fern, 
of pp. ot jTi\drt^ to U9C a. spindle. *>L. 

Fasil t^i), * ligbt musket. ,F.--L.) 
Orii;. iiul the musket itielf^ but the ste«l 
agati^t which ihc (lint ^tiuck. From F, 
/ttni, * a ftre-stecJc for a tindcr-boi; ' Cot. 
Also in mod. F., a fasti. [L'n Span^/u.r//, 
ft fwit.] — L._/&cf/f, a steel fot kindling ftrc. 
•- L. focui^ a hearth ; &ec Footu. ]>0f . 

Fusil z , Vi spindle, in heraldry* ^L.) 
j\ y\ fuitl (*ee O. v. /nisei b Godefroy), 
Dimin. of L,/jvjwj, a spuidlr. 

FlUiil4 3)»castty molten, il..) \..fiisilis, 
m^ly tnolieo. — L./ftjfij, pp. <A /undtrCy 
tu i.*our. Sec FuM (i\ 

FOJtfti haste, floiry. E./ Probibly of 
imitative ongiiir descriptive of ipluttertn^ 
«(*(( ptifliiig. Cr /h^ i. e, to pBff, and 
Ajji- ^ It cantiol be t'onnected with 
M, E. /iM, adj., eag« ; A.S*/^, eager* 

Fast (I J lo betoinc mouldy. iF. — L.) 
In Hamlet, iv* 4. 59, Cuincd {nym^ ftuty 
vA. jj. 139*, answeniig to 0» K, /mj/^, 
•fufcty, l«lUii; of ihc taik.' Col.-*O.F. 

tmnk.-L./fartWj ace e$/ustis, a (;udgcl 

tblck stick- 

FnJltuuL, A kind of coane ctolh. (F, ~ 
liftl. — Low L, - Egypt. : M. E. fttstaHc 
also ftisiioH i A.¥. fusttisHtj fttslain 
O. F. /w;^*iMwr. — ilal* /hs/^h^i Low i„^ 
ftts/dtuum. — Arab, /ttJhUf a suburb of 
CaLro> ill Kgypt, whence the ^tufT tint 
came. ^ Introduced through Geaoe» 

Fnstl^ta, lo cudgel. (U; From 
]j\). oi L, /ufi(i,'iirty to cudgel. — L- yiii/-, 
stem of/mtis, a cudgel ; -i^dre, for rtiiefjj 
lo drive, wifld, 

Fnst^; sccFutt (i). 

Futile, vain. (,F.— L.) F./«/*/f#»L. 
fiitiiht /utiiHi, that which easily pour^ 
forthj also vain^, cmply, ftilile. I'rom L, 
*/f*'r allle*! KQ fundcrt J io potti:} cf^ Gk. 
xi**^. See Puss (1). 

Fnttocka, ccnaii] timbers in a ihip. 
[X-! ' J''tfflo(ks, ibe compais&LLi|g limber& 
iQ a ship» that inakc the brendtb of it ; ' 
Kersey U 7 1 ii) > Called /oci-s/of^j 111 
Florio» i,v. ffamifii. The fit*t syllable 
ia Idi foat \ /utt&iks Is thought lo be for 
/atff-k(iffAi, and was »j explained in 1644 ; 
AMk rcfctriag ;o the bent »h*pe of the 
limbers, liailey j;ivc£ the iona /iwiAtvJtt, 

Futim. abont 10 bt I.K -L.) O.K. 
/afur, iem. /ulitr£.^L. /uturus, about Ui] 
be t fuU part, from /w-f, 1 wo* ; allied lo 
Bo. (yt«HEU.) 

FnsilHtll, a spongy fungu*,- (E.) Cf, 
piov, t,, /wii>, /*«>, light and spongy; 
Low G, f**^"^, loose, weak ; Du. uoof, 

Ij^Ubt, ft peculiarly formed cros*. (E-! 
Mddctn; and due to a mistake. MS. Lansd. 
874, leaf 190, hMA /yl/olf mcaoiog^ a ^pacc 
\i^ a painted window al the bottom, thai 
Ji!ij ihc /dot. EiToaeouily coanecled with 
the * gammadioQ.* 


Gftbardine, Gaberdino. (Sp«i.— 

TcLii. >>^SM. ^abiJiJina, a ijoaj^ ftotk. 
\Vc also hod M- V.. gnwiktrtiytit ; which 
fjom O. F. ^ha^im, ^ahartliru, 
loow frock, mhapi a* pilgrim's' frutk] 
from M.H.O. wal/art (G, walffaArf 




pU^riningc — M. H,G. Tc«//ifff, to wander ; 
Jfirff travel, ffym^i/viw, to go {K,/>Tmy 

Qabble, 10 praUle^ (£,! Frcquebt, of 
i'fliS, lo pMltle. Of tmjtalive origin; cf. 
Jabhtr. % The M, ^.gahlf^u, to mack^ is 
fitim O, F, §i3&tr^ la mo^k^ which is also 
[>cftia|js of imitative orijgidj or is allied to 

Gabioa. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. gabUn^ 
A gibiun, Urge basket filled with earth.— 
Ita], gttbi'htu, a galiioa; augment, of 
gfibbia^ a cage, also s^lKgiig^a, and alll^ 
to S[>im. ^dvia, a cagr: (for mailmen). 

— L, i&utat a hollow place, cagCj den, 
coop ; Acre Cage. 

Oablfl, a ixiak of a housetop. C^'^ 
Scaud. I M. L, gable, ^O, Y.gablt.^ led, 
j^, Dan. g\ivl^ Swed. ga/ve/, & gabllc.+ 
A. S. £ca/eK a fork; Du, .(u^A a- fork; 
G. ^i^/, a fork. Further allied lo O. Irish 
gaSiti, a, fork, ga11o>vs; \\\ gaji, the fork 
of the tbiji^hs. \Vith a JifTwent gradotion, 
we iitid Goth, gid/a^ pmiiaclc, G. gUf^il^ 
Du. ,^?:i'f/, gii^bte; O. H. G- gthalf head, 
Gk, «*^A7, head (root-form V^**-)- Sec 

Gftby, a simpleton. ^Scaad,] M. Daii. 
^'iiAe:, n fool ' Dan, dim. ^Aftmr^ a sim- 
pleton, allied la Daa. ^^, to ^^ape (Dan. 
WrtH*' incdos * foal "). Cf. feci. £ii/*i, a 
heedlcis rnaa ] ^apamudr (lit gape* 
mouthed) » the same ; Icel. ga^, to gap« ; 
Norw. ^/a, stapid. 

God ( ■)) a wedge of steel, jj^oad. (Scand. j 
M.E. i'ot/, a go^t^'"!^- S*^^^^-i a goad, 
splke^ ''t^i^l?: cognate with Goth, gaiJs, 
a rod, Irish iii/A, L. Aoj/iT^ a ypear. 

g^rd (i), to mmble idly, v^cimd.) In 
Levins. The orig. sense was lo mn about. 

— IccL g^idda, to goad. — Icel- gaddr 
(above), Cf. ort the gu^i^ oq the move, 

Qftff, a li^t fistJing-epsLf, a sort of 
boom, [F. — Teut.) A ship'sftr^is named 
ffom i\it/firkeii end against the mast ; the 
fishing*5|fcar is hooked. *- O. F. gt^fff^ a 
ga£T, irop hook. — Low 0, goj^^f, a two- 
pronged hay-fork ; IC. Fries, gftftl^ a fork, 
& ship's gafT i Du, i-u^*'/, a jiitchforkj 
%h-i\i\ gaff. Allied lo G. gaii£l^ a fork. See 

Qaffer, an old man, grandfather. (F.— 
L, ; rfyi.i' E,l From gramfir^ \Vest E. 
form Ki{ graml^f other. Sec GamniflT. 

CHif« (t") M,E, ^r^-^^M^ to suffocate. 
Apparently of ionilativt ofigia i^le, 
gug^it^ AUo, W, itgio^ to cbokc; iig^ 
the mouth. 

Cteg8(0' a pledge. iK. — Teut.' M- 
gage. — Ttgagx. a pledge Low L. ucuttum ). 
— TeaL ^wadjorn, ii.,aLpledge; a:s in Golh. 
wadi, A. S. wid^ a piedge. " See Wed ; 
and see W&ge. From the same source 
arc ItaL gaggje, Span, an^ PoiU gi^f 
a pledge. 

vage d'. , to gauge ; see Gauge. 

Gaggler, to i-ackle as gt-ese. (E,\ 
frcqutnt. form from the itniiative baiie^^u 
Cf, cmkie, gtU'le\ also Icel gngi, a wil 
goose ; g>igg, the cry of a fox ; Lith. 
g'dgHi, to gaggle. 

€Uiety. (F.-Tcut.) F. gaieU.-. 
gat, gay. See Qbj. 

dam ([), profit. (F.-Tcm.) O. 
gfJtft, F. gagm, from the verb beluii', [3 
jjartly displaced the ht. E. ^?rV^ ndvanlnL 
which was of Scond. origin ; from led 
gngn^ gain, advaatage i ^weA.gagrtj profit," 
Dan, gavft,'\ 

gam (jj, to whi, (F.-Ttriit.) 'Yea, 
though be gaitse and cram hl^ jiurse wltl 
cruncs ;' and agatn, ^ To get a ^-arfff bj 
any trade or Idnde ; ' Cascaigne, Fruits 
of War, St, 69 and st, Gfi.—O. F. g&r'xNfrt 
F, gagHtr, to gain. This F\ gagrur, O. F'. 
gaagtiier (llal. ^iath^^ttat€\ is from 
O. H. G. uvidni^rt > wa'denetty to pas- 
Ijirc, which was the orig, sense of the F. 
word J from O. H. G. iveiJa (G. uvitk, 
pa^ture-groimd. Ct^nale with G.weidfaxt 
A. 8. 'Zt'fliJ, Icel. TTj'flrj, hmiting, the chafie- 
Cf. L. ui-mri^ to hum. Uer. rfgaitt. 

Goinly ; i*e Ungainly. 

OauiSayil^ ^peak again!!?:t. (Sennd. a/iri 
E.) The prefix ii Icel. ^^t^, against; cf. 
A- S ^r^, gt'tjn ; sec Againat. 

O^tp mnnnef of walking, (^amd.^ A 
particular uk of M. E. gai^y a way ; ace_ 
Qate (1). Sec also Qftntlei 12^. 

Oftit^CTf A covering for the ankle, (F,' 
Teut.) ¥.gu/tr£, formcrly^wc/^Tf [Cot,] 
The spelling with git shews the word 
be Teuionie t,^< G. «-), Origin dool 
iiil; iiossibly allied to M.H.G. utsftr^ 
a chud'& chri«om-cloth, Ut. a covcriog;- 
Goth. ivasfij clothing ; see Vuit. 

OalA, (K-ltal.-M.H. G.^ V. gnh, 
borrowed from ltA\, ga/a, festive auire;'' 
whence di gaJa, merrily ; cf. gaiantt^ ^^y* 
lively. See Qall&nt. 

Galaxy, the inlky way, CF,-L,-Gk. 
IL E. gataxu.^O. ¥ - gahjrie,-^\ 
/axiam, ace. of ^i/oxmJ. — Gk. To^ifial 
milky way. — Gk. yaXaitt*^ for •yaXai 
fitem of "Yiwi^ milk, Sere Ii«ot«al. 




Gftltt (Ot *■ >tF<^ng wind. (ScflmK) 
XVI eeM. Of doubtful origin ; but ofl 
Don. go/, farion*; Norweg. eut ^^uifn 
itarm^ a fufioiii Jtfltm, eti gaUt tv^r. 
stormy weather. Cf. IceK ffeUintt^ furious, 
from ^a^ to cry out See Tell. Note 
F* ^lUrtif, a north-west witid* 

0al« (J>, (he bog^myrtle, (K.) A. S. 

daleated, tidm{!t^. (L>) l^gaitd^m, 
— I.. i,-j?//ri. a htflmet 

Gaiingald, (he pungent root of a 
plim. ^, - Span. — Arab.— PcrSc) M. E, 
j^in^aii. — O. F- pi/itiflait ganngaL — 
Span, gaiaiaga. gatin^afe. — Amb. *-*«• 
itjft/tfn, galiD^alc. — Pct&. hhUhnjdti, galm- 
gaic ; sniil to be of Chinese orig;in. 

G&liot ; see Galliot. 

GalltOrbilc. (£.) M.E.gtiiU, O.Merc, 
jffl//fl. + Dtj. gal J leel. ga/l, Sw«J. jd//ci| 
Dtin, A^A/# (for £tf^/e)f Q, gaUt', C /el, 
Gk. xoH Allied to Yellow. Cf- RtiRS. 
jtU/t{£\ gall (/^ ;A) ; /eifm'i, yellow. 

Gall (2 , to rub a sore {ilace. (F.-L.) 
M t.gaiUri M. F.jC»//^a gfllling^itebing. 
Cf. !tal. giilia, j^aia, ' a diaease called a 
windgallc;' Florio. Also I-atc L, fa^i/rt, 
ft soft tumoor ; app. the sitme word ei£ L- 
jgxi/lii, A gatl-nqt ; kc below, % But aUo 
partly £.; cf. A. S. ^aJ/a, (i)gAl^ bile, 
{t) a gall on a horae. So also Dti. ^-b/. 
Sk above. 

<HU (3). A ^n-Tiui. (F.-M O. F. 
^//ff- — L. ^Ta/Zo, n gall-nut, oak-apple. 

GallaAt, gay, splcndidn bmve. [F.— 
M. HG.j O.K. j»//aw/, belief ^larti, 

nth one A Orig. prcs, part, of O, F, 

jftr^ia rejoice. — O. F,j»f/ir, shows, mirth, 
festivity. Cf. ItaL .Span. l*ort. ga/a, 
festive nttitc.) Perhaps from M. II. G. 
fi'ti/Uttt O, H, C. wal/if»t to go on pitgricQ' 

GallooUt A large galley. (Span.) Span, 
, Ar/ft^ir, a ^alleoc, — LateL. j-d/^, a galley. 
[.See G&lley^ 

Gallery, (F.) M. F. ^Ikrii, ^aiene, 
a gnlUiy lo vralk in,— Laie L, guitna^ a 
long portico, gallery. Of unknown origin ; 
^(issibly from Ck. *aXor, wood, timber 
•(Ki>rting\ S« below, 

G&Ueyv ft low-built ship. (F.-Lale !.. 

-^ Gk.? ; M. E. /a/«>. -O. F.^/j'c ; Laic 

V..^l£a, a galley ; IjIc Gk. TaA-^a* ^oAam, 
Orlg, unknowu. Kurting sti»»e$t3 Gk. 
ffnAnv. w{)im1, also sometimes a sTiip. 

Galli&rd, altvdydancc. (Span.-C?) 

Span, galiaritit (with // as iy)^ a kind of 

lively Spanlsli dnnot; perhaps tbroogh 
P.; cf. gaicp gMUani, ' ibc galliflrd;* 
Ccfl. — Span, gaf/ardo, grsy, lively. M. F, 
gaWftrJ meaut valiant or bold ; perhaps 
of Celtic ongin; cf. BreL £9ihiij, pi^wer, 
VV. i^aiiadt able J gaUu, to he able; 0. 
Insh^/t boldnosft (Thumeysen). 

GaUiat, a sort of galley, ( F, — Ital. — 
l^tc L) O. F. ^/ea^g.-^ha.}. galtaxia, a 
heavy gfilky. * ItaL and Late L, geUm \ 
sec Galley. 

GaUigaakiOJi, large ho» or tTODieil. 
I F. - Ital, — I.,) Corieplioii of F. gar* 
gtUi^uit^ gr^UiiqiteSj • slops, grcgs^ gailo-' 
gascdnv, Veoitian&f Cot.— Ital, i^riihesco, 
Grcckifth. *i* Ital. Gnco, a Greek. — 1., 
GracHs^ Greek- The name was given 
to a particular kind of ho&c worn al 
Venice, ^ 

Gallinaoeoiui. (L.) L. ^iJTuau-uJt 
bclopging to ponltry ; with fUfftx -«w.» 
L. galiina, a ben^ — L.^//i/.r, a cock. 

Galliot, small galley. (F.-LatcL.) 
O. Y.galiett; I.aie h gaUeta^ small galley; 
dimin. oi^afia \ see Oailey. 

OallipOt, a small glnzed eartbca pot, 
(F.l from gali^ and Aj/, as being 
bronghl over in galleys. So also gaiiiy^ 
tiU \ cf. guly-halfpetiy. a gallev'halfi»eniiy, 
coin brought over by galUymtn, wha 
landed winea at a place called GalUykty 
(Tharncs itTtet). 

Gallon. (F.'i M. E. ^at&n^ gafau, — 
O. F. gffl/pii , Jaltm. a gallon ; orig, • a large 
bowl;' augmcittattve form of the word 
which appears a* mod. F. Jal*, a bowl. 
Orig. unknown. 

Qalloott, (K.-M.H. a> Y, gafm, 
' galtion-Iace," Cot. ; cf, O. F. fo/«Kr, lo 
adorn the head fwith ribbons^ &c.). [Alto 
Sptui, gahn, ^lloon.]— O. F. ^/^r, Span. 
|a/ii, festivity ; sec Oftllant, 

Gallop. Cl*--i>caiid.) }A.V:. gafopeni 
alfto spelt wafo^ti. — O. F. gahper, vb. ; 
guffffi, jvahp ^liart*ch)^ sb. [Hence was 
burrowed O, H,C. tvahpiirta, to gallop; 
to that it is not of O. H- G- otiiiin.j 
— O. Norweg. *wa/l'Aofif,, 
a gallop (Aaaen) ; Itt- a bounding over 
a ficld^ 'field-hop.' — Norw, *n>aU', later 
tftt//-^ Feel, tvffr, a Held, pUin (cognate 
wtih K. Wold! ; and A^pp, Dan, jfy. ■ 
jiinip^ skip, from Jtop/a^ lo jdmp ; «ee 

GalloWt to terrify. (£.) King Lear, 
iii, J. 44. M. JL giilwiH. A. S. gahuaHf 
10 terrify ; in comp. agarhtait. 






tptlt ,paftat, — O. r. gratm/e] M. F. 
gnrnU^ * a precious fitone called n gnnat 
or yftmrtp' CoL; IjlEc L. jp'^tt4tNS. So 
called from Its rcseinbI«iioe to tht^ aetrf^s of 
the pomegranate, or malum ,^rdndfum> 
lit* seeded apple, — L. grJttum^ a, gmm, 

Gamiah, {¥. — O, Low G. ) Also xvar- 
nisJi. — O, F, ff,ir7tis-^ ftyamit-^ st^ni of 

QaiJi, to hack, cut deeply. ^F, — X^te 
— Gfc.; Formerly garsA, ^ru.^U. 
garsfr^ to scariiy, pierce wiih a laneel.i 
Late L. faraxare, short Tor ittfaraxih 
itukarrtxdre^ lo pierce, incise. Cl, Lule 
i'nrjrt, Mifificalson. by Tuakinii incisK 
m the sk in, cul led in (.rk. f Y^tii^ia^i 
whence ibe Uite L. vb. was formetl. See 

Qftflp. E.) M. E. ^mfifM, ^mJj^K, 
The latter answers lo IccL ^itpa. 
.^'ffia, to vQwn ;cf, Datji. gis^\ Th< 

a eaping. 


pres* pt. of ^#vfiV^ warniry to defend one 

«elf, fortify, garnish- —O, Frank. *tvant 

fan ; cf. O. H. G. tcantcti. M. H. G. \ foTmer repreienta: Ihe cognate AS. •, 

Tfarrtgu, to f^ard against, proi'ide one- '/WH(ROt fonnd). Tee!. ^I'j/Vi is for ^nni; 

self with ; ci. O. H, G. warna, foresight^ [ ta ; c(. Do. ^>/fi', to gasp; A. S^^ii/ww, 

care. See "Warn. 

garaitnpe- (F,-0. Low G.) F. 
garmtufi, gflmiihraeo!. — Low L. jfar?if- 
fivfrt. « Low L. garHitus, orig. pp. of 
mrntre, Jo adorn, which is merely a 
LfltinifeH forrn of O, F, garttir rahove). 

Cl»rr«t, (K. -G,) U.E, gaHu,^ 
CX V. ganu iF.gtt/riu), place of refuge, 
wateh*tuwer. — O- F. garir, ufarir, to 
preserve. ^ O. H. G, itfarjan, lo defend. 
Allied lo ^Wary. 

Gfldrrison. F. — O.LowGO Coniused 
with M- E. gart'soHti, loaHjauH, a reward; 
but the true form is M* E. gamimH, tvof' 
ffison, defence^ stores, supply, — O. F. 
gnrttiiotit store. Supply. *-0. 1* . ^^ntii a/t/^ 
pres. pt. oi gnrni/; to supply, garnish'; 
wc Garolsb. And see Warison. 

€(am>t«, G«rrotte. (Span. -C.) 

Rpa.n.garri}ffj a cadgel^ lying a rope tijjht, 
strRtigUng by means of an iion collar. 
Formed, with dimin. sufifix -oU^ from Spun. 
garrtSf a cIaw, taton, clQlch;^ R^^*^?- ~ 
Bret, W., iiiid Com. gav^ the shank of 
the leg (Piei). Sec Oartor. 

GftnmloiLfl* (L.J L. ^tirmlHs^ talk- 
ative.— L. garrtre^ (o chatter. Brngm. i. 
ft 6^8. 

Ourter. (F.-C.) A.Y.garfir; O.F. 
garfier North of France, Htfcart), spelt 
Jartiir in Cotgrave {f.jarreftire},^0. F, 
and Si>n:\. gargt {F.jarret), the ham of 


Owfteic, belonging to Ihe belly. \Gk, 
Coined from Gk. 700^^-, from yairrqfi^ 
the belly. 

Glit0 '. t), a door, Kote, opening. i£. 
M.E.giifi,yafi. A.S.giit, geatj a ^ce, 
■opening (whence M. E. ya/e) ; pL gaft 
(whcnoe M. E. ga/i). + Ub. gai, a 
opettiDg, gap; O. Fries., O. Sax., Icel 
gai, iUl 0{)eniilg, 

Onte U>, A »tr«^. (ScandO Commoi 
in the North ; it also mean* * a way.' 
IceL ga/a, Swed, gata^ a. way^ pnth , strc 
lone ; Dan. gaj^ ; cf. <^)oth. gaiwv. G 
gasit. Perhaps nlHed to Gate Uj* iui< 
also to the vb. Go, p. Git/n (1) answer 
to Teut. type *gat&m, n., btit gaie {3) 
Tciit. type 'gatitfoti; L Sec Ooit and^ 
OantUt (i). 

Gather. (E,) M. E. gmferen, A. 
gadertan, .^'i/i/rjiwK, to collect, gel togeiher. 
— A.S. gttiUr-, together; also gad^r-^ 
getuUr.'^Wu. gruft'fft, to collect, from 
itf guiiir, together. Cf. A, S. giFd, a. com- 
pany, stjctcly (wheuce ako A. S. ^fifuSr- 
(/*^, a comrade ; ge-gi^a, a companioo) 
Do. goiii, a Bpoiis«t G, gatf/f a hiisbatid 
Goth.^forfi'/jf^, a cousin. Fcfhaps allied 
to Good. 

G«md, a- show, omaiDeiit (L,'': M. 
^H(^.»L.^H(/fV/w»gladneajoy ; hen< 
^\ ornament. *-L. gaydere^ lo lejotcc (bo 
the leg; a dimin, form, — Bret, gur, W. IgJitid-f ns in gtiittrui sum, used as pt, t.V 

gar^ ihank of the leg; Celt, type *gd.rrfs. 
OftS. (Da,) The Belgian chemiBt Van 
Hclmont (died A. D, 1644) invented tuo 
lertns, gas aod dlasi the latter did not 
come into c&e. He telll ns that gos was 
iUggesle.t by Ihc Gk. x^- See N, E. D. 

i^Gk. yn$itiv, to rejoice ; allied to ^arfiv 
(b yfl^4*i»'';, to rejoice; yavpoi, proud, | 
finigm.L 5 589; ii. 16^. IHr. gttwf-x, 

G^age, GfLgBf to measure Ibe eontenl 
of a vessel iF.-Low L-) S()ell pjgt 

GaAconadei boulf ng. Gascony.) F, Shok. -^ O, North F. gaugtr, F. jnugef, ' 
gastemtihlf, boasting ; wif' lo be a vice of ,i gage,' Col. — O. North ¥, ifli»gf, F 
Gaicont ; at Any rate named from them, ijaugtt ' a gage, inttitimail wherewith a 




cmIc if m^iifUred/ Cot, : Low L. gau^fiti a mngpic, dimin. of j^na, « mimtp* 

(A.T*. 1446;', Of 

uhiN'nawq an^in. 

whence it mny UaTc meant * tittlcCatllc*; 

Gftimt, thin, lean. (Scatid. ?; An East- , or {2) a ^try small coin (perhaps paid for 
AfiRliaii word ; perhnps Scaivd, Al&o sprit < the privilege of rending the niirws\ from 
gtttit 1,1^9*), m, NoTwcg. ,f»'r^, f\ *hin ' Ital. ffatiefta^ a coin less than a fnithUi^ 
stkk, a tntl nnd thin Tnan, an overgrown 1 prolinbly from Gk. 7(T{|Ii, a trcftsuiy. 
itripling f A&sen) { Swed.diAL jfBTii-, a kan J GcftTi dress, haniv»«, lackle. (Scaniiaj 
bfitr-slflrvcd horse (Kieti), Doubtful. . M. E. J^ift. — kel. girvi, ,f^»Ti^| £ 

Gaontlet. (K-Somd.) O, ¥>gtintt-- pp]^arcU Ch gerTt^iyrr^ skilled^ drci 
///, ft dotible dimin. of gatU^ a glnvc — O. | pp* of j^ira^ to mnkc^A H. g^anvi, fcm. 

5w^. tBaitTf^ a glove; [)an. Vitrite^ a 
mitten, Icel. w//ri:Btcm vantnA, n glove. 
Cf. l>tf. wdw/, a mitten [prob. borrowed 
from Scand \ Prob, from Wind, verb 
^Norcen » \ cf. G.gtwand, a i^rment ; Low 
G. tt'flrt/. cloth (Liibben), 

Gaaatlet; see Oantlet fi). 

GatUte, A ihm silken fabric. ;F.— 
I'akilifle) M^ F, ^{'rtii? ; Spoil, ^asa. Ct 
Low L. ga^tilium, ganie ; g^auim/t, wtiic 
from Gaza. Said to be from C/iza^ tn 
rakstinr. whence it was fint brought, 

GftTaUdud, fl s<»rt ef trmire, E,) 
l\,'E. gattiikynde i answering lo an A^S. 
form V/p^O'"*'' ~ A ■ S. ^i/"**/, tribute, 
payment ; and %yati,\i\tn\^^on^ conditiou. 
The A,S.jfii/-o/(^vhence Low L, gahiium} 
is from Tcut V*''*» ^'^^ g^ade of Olva, *|. v. 

GftTial* the crocodile of liie GangM. 
\ V. - Hind,) F. gax'wi (a corrupt form). 
— Hind, ^^hafiytilt a crocodiie. 

Gavotte, a dance, (K ) M. F, gav9te^ 
orig. a dance of the Gmfi^r. Gttvat is a 
tobriqoet, in Provence, of the moun- 
taineera of th? Alps (see HatzfeldK 

GftWk, Gatrky, awkward. (K.- 
ScMid.) From Ji. dial gmok-htmded, 
gamlkk* handed f left-handed ; gitifk, clumsy. 
Here ^xwk ii short for guut-ick, where 
-uh iaa lu^x.. Of F. origin ; cf. Burgund, 
^A-, namb witli cold, said of the fmgcr*. 
•-Swed. Dan. valin, bentimbed; whence 
Swed. dial. xfaf^hUndi, Norw, jhii-hfudf, 
hd^-iiig numb^ hands, % Prob. not from 
¥,^m-Ae ,N. E. D,). 

G»y. (F. ^ O. H. G.) O. F, gai, - 
O H. G. wahif fine, beantifat. 

Gftxe. (SciQd.j M.E. gasen.'^Swtd. 
dial .^!fi, to ga7e« stare at. 

Gflxella, an animal. (F. — Span.— 
Afnb.) rormcrly eatri, — O- F. ^lur/, 

wild goat, gaz«lle. 
Gosette. ' F. -Itsl.'l O. F. ^ateitt. an 
abstract of ntws, issueiJ at Venice, <- Ital. 
^zzet/d, a gairttc ; the orig- wo'^e iti 
tilber (1} a magpie, trom Ttnl. ^ti^vMi, 



pi , prepaiatton^ dress, ornament 

gfarv, ready ; sec Tare. And ice Gat 

:»), darb (i)» 

Geek, a dupe. (Du.) In Tw* NL v, 
351.— On. gek^ formerly gick. a fool, sot ; 
cf. G. .i^»'k. the same ; Dan. gjiki fool ; 
Icel. gfkh\ a pert, rude pereon. % Not 
to be cnafuswl with A. S, g^t^ cuckoo ; 
nor with .^ok ; nor with genvky, 

Gftoko, A noctumnl lij^ard. (Malay, i 
Also F. gtika.^ Mfllny g^koa^ a gecko; 
so named from an imitation of its cry. 

God| the fish called a pike. (Scand.) 
IccL gcdda, Swed. gadd/f Djtn. peddi, 
pcd ; allied iogaddr^ a goad ; s*e Gad (1 
Nnmed from the sharp, thin head; herrt 
alo called pikt. 

Gftl&tilie. (F. - Ilal - L. I F, gilitfiHti 
kind of jelly. — Iial.jev/fl^/«fl. — L.^i'/(i/i/jr. 
pp. oi griilrfi lo frceic.^L, ^/tf, fro*t;^ 
ace Gfilid. 

Geld, to emnscalale. (Soond.) M< 
gtldiH. — Icel. geida^ Dfln, ..fVA^ Swe 
f»//tf (for gdldti)% cL Icel. Jfi?/»/r, Swed,^ 
gnii, barren, Perhaps relate*! to Golh, 
gi/iMdf a sickle. Cf. Gall [i\ Der. 
guld-iug^ from Icel, gilding, the same. 

Gelid, coisL J^. J L. gtlidus, » L, ^/«^, 
frost. Allied to Cool. Untgnt. i. § 481. 

Gem. I F. — L.) M. K. grmmt, - K. 
jf-ww?. — L. gtmwOj a bud; also a gem, 
jewel. Brugin. i. J 4x3 14). 

Gemini. ^^) l^- ^»ti*ti, twins; pi 
atx^miiiifs, double. 

OBXLder CO. kind. (F.-L.) M. 
gmdn with eicrciccni rf), -O. F. gtttrt; 
kind.— L. gemre, abl. cate t>i genus, kind. 
kin. % The tmaaoal deriv. from the abl. 
cn4C is dnc tn the common phrases geft^tt 
naiui^ hoc gfturr, emnt grnen ; $0 rIh 
iLil. grtterf, kjiid. 

gender '.^"^i to prodnce. (F. — L.^ 
M. t. gendrm. — O. F- gtndnr u 
UQy).^\,. grufrari, to l>egcl. — L. ^(ri#rr-^ 
for *,fir«^i, Mem of gvnut (above). And 
■see EngflDder. 

Gene&logy. . F. - J .. - Gko M. 



vttlk iftjxri. 

L.) ftom ppu of t- 


(r.-L> O.F. 

* ilk. yiw*mr 
itblr4 to i4»««, race; ■ 

(F.-U) O.F. ^«w/-U 
, |<»c»Mnt i ad], freoi /nrrvi ; >ee 

FroM U gKnuM/Mm, x Mtlle tne^, juiot in 
• plwl: liMtblt tiimfr, of frm?, a knee. 

CO b^et, 
_ . _ . tiv«. K. - h.) O, P, gtmli/.j~ 
i^ ^MiffWHT, Ivlonifing to btrlb, ■ppliedl 
to gmsDUir to A ccriiii) caio of noonf. » 
I ..^.y^^ thove), 

!j^, Lnbom faculty. (L/, L. 

c tuteUr tfyirit of luijf Ofte ; abo 

^,t. iiE. ' LI] b^im nature/ AUied to ffonum. 

Qeiit«el. f; " L ) XVI cotL ; F. 
jyHfu\ — L ^TW/'AV, bctonging lo ihe same 
cian, » igTfttile sftcrwarHs jippTi^d to qstiui 
wetl-bcfd, l'6c^.— 1-- g^nti-, ^I<^:l Mtm of 
|rw/, a cliin. tril-e. Allied to g«Iiuji. 

Oeatl^n, aplint (F'-L.l O. F./rn- 
r^H/, • t^ ^N/(<i/4d ; naroeil afirr Gintius^ 
ao ni-rrijui king, fll*t, » C. I So, 

Lite L. */MlQShM) 

-fttiineofttefciiee. F-U M.F,l 
i.«*Lale I ' ace gtikmjlt riSf ■.■*! 

fl^nwiwy, I L.) L. Mmtfma, of 
me ^VMw ot tfock ; aOicd to L. 

gtmerii, lor •^niarT\ kin, race. ^ C%* 
laoe; A.S. ^yw, km* See 
EK.) Bvwbl. i. i 604. 

(F.-I Gk.) M 

^■^{T^^. - 1- feigiypkm, <- Gk. 7* 

•n^ a oomtiKin^ fiin of 7^^ cajtk 

SMUVter* :F.-L.-Gfe.^ 

Tand-mcMarcsMfit.— Gk. 7««» (aa 
-ft*Tpiat mcnuuneot, from itrrpittt t 
EncasniC, ytifTpav, a iD^UDre; see Metro. 

g«OFgi€. L.-GkO U gr^rp'^nf, 
FcUting 10 hitftbuidnr. — Gk. ytatpn/viif, 
the MJUe. M Gk . 7 w^ryia, tttta^.— Gk. 7M^ 

as aboTc'^, ; ^tpytiy^iptttPf to work. See 

Q«rftmftm, * plant. (U-nic') I.. 
frraniifttit UkiiaiKQ frodl Gk. Tcptu^jor, 
geraniQin or cnmc'i bill l^&ODa tlie &tU| 
w the Kcd-pod).*Gk. 7^parcii, a c 
nlhr«l to Crane, 

G-erfstlcon ; »« i^yrfatcon. 

Oerm, a wed, (F.-L.) f.^trm*^ 
\., germen i>tem ^dw/jb-'i, a Bprontf 
Der ^inmn-f%u from the ^fm), 
germaiLp gemumep a-kin. :F,- 

ComtHs g€i man arc cousins having 
samegnindfaihct. Formerly spgli jpy ffr'w. 
^M,F. gfrmain,^L, ^emidnwm^ acc- of 
^rn-MMwf. citrtcly akiis. Allied to 0«rm. 

Germander, (F.-L.-Gk.) F.^vr- 
mtituft^^^ germander; O.F^ £_n^mfn\ 
^r'OTtfm//Vi' (G'Kfefroy, SupiO : tf. i'». 
ff/rtwutr. — I jilc I., gamauana^ a popu 
alteration of I .titc (ik. ^^q^ov j/jwi, |>vf« 
moDder^Gk* x^'^^iP^* Hfctmaiider; lit. 
' grouod-tr*c/ i.e. law tiee-— Gk. x^^^ 
00 (ke ^'rftbtid ; j^f . tree. 

Oenuid, a put of a Latin verb. ^ 



.. j^ntnffium^ a gertin<l. — L. gtnifrtfus, 
that which 15 to bfi done oc Cftrrtptl on; 

a verbal Btlj. from gartre (pp. ges-htj\ lo 
eiTTy on, ].>crform, bring. (Vt»ES.) 

SSViation. the carrying of Ihc yorxag 

L. ncf. gtstJiivntmi a carrying. — L, gtihh 
/wj, pp. ol ^tiiirff to cam-, frequent, form 
ofgrrrre t |»p./(rrf-(w)» to bring, 

Fium ()p. ot t^csfnu/drtt tu make mimic 
Cesturci. — L. ^attiulttJ* a gettUire, doubtc 
dimin. oi ^stttt, & gesture. — L.^x/K/p pp. 
of ,i;v^i^^*?. 

TOorlc of action. — Lt g^sttti, pp. otgtrtrg, 

Oet. (Scand.) M. E. f1^/^^ pt. t, iw^ 
pp. ft/rrt. — locL ^j'a, pl» t, ^/, pp^fr/mn, 
+A. S, 'saattj pU u 'gat^ pp. -gtrtu^ to 
get* obtnin; Golh, \^'faff ; cognate with 
L. 'hindirt Chftsc ^^i/t, in ft-iAindere^ (o 
seize; Cik. j^st'Sai'di' i^bftse xo^^ to seiie; 
Kusv ^adate, to conjecture. [^GHwtU.) 
Dor, fv-x^f/fat-^t^ Uragm. L S 632. 
GewgitWi a playllMng. specious trille. 
(K.} l'omieriy_f»(faffj(perhapi) onswciiiiE 
to M. K. ^wi^fMK, Ancreti Kiwle* p. 196. 
The yuyn. of M, K, x^'ttf^ut is iincertiin. 
Ongin unknown; mnb V. Oae itaie of 
Jdvu^^ff IS 9. Jew s harp ; cf. Burgundiau 
.^wiM^, » Jew'i harp (Mipiani). Cfl Swed. 
ilUl. xwTWi to blow; Norw. guva^ gyva 

G^Tflir. (led.) Icel.jir^jj"r,Ut.*gLisher.* 
— iceL^ry^a, togiiahi allictl to gjosa (pt, 
t.^iw«), to gtiah. See QuaIi. 

Ohaat^, lemble. ^E.) U,E,gattiy, 
Formt-'d from M. E. gasterty A. S, gifstan, 
to terrify ; allied to Golh. usgaiijax, to 
leirify. .See AahaBt. Allied words are 
j^ited, terrifitdr K. Lear* ii. I. 57: gast- 
wr/i, Oth V. 1. 106. See Oho 6t. 

Ohautt ft landing-place, f^aay. way 
down to a river : mountiiti-[«*fis. Hind.i 
Illml. j^^A Bengili ^Ai/. Set Wilson. 

01la«, boiled or dariii'cKl batter. (Hind. 
-SktO Hind.^f.-Skt. ghfta, clarified 
botier; orig. pp. oigkf^ to sprtnkle- 

Gberkia, smAli cuciimbcr. (Du. ** 
SUv.-lx.w L.-Ck.- Pers.j Short for 
^e^hrrkin, — Dn. agurkjt, n gherkin (of 
which an older t'^^nn was doubtless 
^agurktm { =agurk-him\ becaiue M. Du. 
ttsecl the liiaiin. iuffin -ken where mod. 
Da. Q£ra /V 1, in ra\:tt the fonn ^ugurken 
\r> prrservctl in E. Fnesic.K Without the 
final fl, w« have Du. a^rk* (,Sewcl).— 

Pol. ogftrekt offorek, o,^crka^ n ciicurnScT; 
1k)hem. ^itvz-jtrt. — M. Jul- uttgurta, & 
cacumber (Klorio^, ; Low L. a»giiritiS^ a 
watCT-nieloJi,— Ryzantinc Gk. d77oi)^o<rj 
a watCT-nielon.v^Peni. 4frj{iiraA, a mclon,^ 
II cucumber ; Ricfi'Dict., p. ig^. 

OhoAt, n spirit, (EL.) M, E. j&r/. ^wpi/J 
A. S. ^y/, ^ Du, ,?»fJ/, G. ^/>/. Tent 
\yT^*g^isto%. OfuiiccrtamoHgin; pcrha| 
Allte<l to IgcI. grisa, to rage (.like fire), 
and to Goth, us-gais-jan, to terrify, 
lirugm. L I S16 (3), 

GrOOTtl, a kbd of demon. (Arab.) Peif, 
gk^if, {Ln imaginary sylvan ilemon; Arab. 
ghutva/, m^tmon of the wgod»; from Aral 
gkati'if attacking sudileoly. 

Giant. (F.-L.-Gk.) M,E. jTflff/^ 
gtatif, gxaunt.^A.F. and O, F. gr'an/f. 
gvan/.^L. gigSH/i/rt, ace of giga/.-^Gk. 
jlyui ',»lem 71701^-), a giBJit. Dor. 
gigaiit'fc, from L. gigafif-^ slem of ^'^pu. 

Giaour, an inhdeK (Pers^) Giaour i« 
an Ital. spelling usual among the Frank* 
of the Levant (ByrotiV Per*, gatvr^ ai 
infidel, a lire- worshipper ; variant of Perv^ 
gah-j a Cuebef ; &ee Oueber. 

CHbberisK, idle talk, (Arab, T) The 
hnid £ separates it from the verb gii>btr^ 
to gabble^ which is the rreqnetitative of 
y/^tf, and allied to Ja^Sfr, FuUer has 
CfbirisA^ and Camden CdSHsA; fipparently 
in aUnsioti to GeAir^ an ArHbiaa alchemist 
of the 8th century, and to the jvgon of 
alchemy. Or it tniy be merely imita- 

Gibbet, (F.) M, E, gtAAef, gi^et.-- 
O. F. gih^t {¥. giivf), a gibbet. Probv 
allied to O. V. giJf/, a large ^ick, pcrhaj^ 
a dimin. of O. F. gi^t ,fiA^r * sort of 
stick ^od with iron, an implement for 
slirring up earth. Or is gih-et a dimin. 
from M. Dd. wt'p^, ' a gibbet,' iu Hexham ? 

Gibbon, n kind of ape. (F.) ¥,gtMen, 
in IJuFTon ; of Unknown origin. 

Oibboufl, humped, swelliag. it.}\ 
From L. gii^sMs^ hamped (,whence also 
giA^j£\—^us',gi^^,&tk\impt hoDdi; 
i^LnU'iis, bent- 

CnbOp JibOt to mock . (E. ) Qf imitat ive 
origin ; cH K, Fries, gihelftt to mock, Du. 
gij^Un, to sneer. Note also Iccl. giifa, 
to talk nonsen^, IccL gei/'^ idle talkj 
Norw. gri/^, to make giiraaces. 

GibletSr ^be inteniil eatable parts of 
ft t'owli removed before cookiii(;< '.F,Ti 
M. E. gi^ilet.^O.V. gU*itti^ which, ac- 
cording lo LiUf^, answers to '■ 



t or 

iCT. giiC g^, ^'. 

F) tW~E« 'ivttftMe k hvm tH. gitr, 
tL G. ffitr, M II. G. /fr. i 
Anted to G. gur-if, ^ntdj, aad 

•rmmtm n dhe pL /^/'. 
.a. /^/. -A. 9. Afte. to 




^OIv». fHr-gift-td. 

A>ghccMriv,licbitK»t. ^ScwL) 

■ ft/]^i*aCairftoi^ lf, 

«Mtf A wUrfJ^ tfc^, ClL Bo. 

oTSoikL oitate: d Ic^iniir^ to 

lilw a vTODff diiccuoB, to rdvc « 

Qi|{gl«, to titter. (£.) Of 
Lov G, g^lf (U««ndl), G, inriLrai, la 

uKfi br 
frpm M.E. 

^7) Dimin. of ^i/^e, a flirt, 
i»« (» », gadrfmilltiU 
tha iMflic, ftowm Tale, 759, 
ajllatl to OU or Olcda. 

to imriar with gold. (E.) H, E, 
liiiMn. Kh, gyUoH, ta efld; cf. A.& 
_ (tn, %oMinm> Kormcd (wiih to««U 
iaautlon (rwn Taal, » :>A.S. <r) io» 
from /vA/, gold. Sae Oold. 

Old (i}» onnui of rctplralion in fiih«&, 
^Souid.) H.E.WAtf.-r>asi./ir//tf,S«ed. 
|«^ a iCitl ; M, Dan. ^aUr. M. Swed, j^. 

ilUll >), &riiriJ>c, cha*Tii. Seauil.^ AI40 
f*ly//. •* led. jf jrV, ravine ; Norw. /rif. 

Gill 3 , with ^ »f/ft, n 'jufirtri of a pint, 
[V. - Utc 1..) M. H.giiU.-iK V.grlU, n 
tori of wine-mcaMire, Laic L*gt/M ; cf. Late 
I.. W//jp, ft wiae-reaael, 

OIU f^^;. with ^ soft, a wonan'ft luutic, 
R ultcfaer, groumt-ivy. (L.'j Short for 
CihtGm, from L. iuiiana^ % fctn. naine 
(lof CO L. fuliut ; ace Juljr. Dor. ^I'r/- 
p ' or eili^irt, Jift. 

Oiilie, .1 boy, [iOijc. (C.) QaA. giilt, 
^i^tin^ M«h gi^thi bo)', lad : <>. Irish 
/r/^ a MTvanL 

Jlikfet, ji. li y fca w . Fofnt by 

ILF. /U9&V, 

CoC Frm f.thm^ 

tm;fic.*a«4aC'-Gk -i^---, ft 

CHaitefa, a coDtriiM»a far 
a ftkip*t cuwiiMa^ lo keep H 
(F. ^L;; Totmt^ gimmttit ; 

or jj ■ —1 > I ' ^g. a do«bBe nac, 
TW ' 

la M.r. 
/j«/, ft twin, a dBMD. faa af L. ^ 

gimiUa» *a rinfeC or piercer;' Co(«i 
gmimSrIef, Godefrof (F. .riMfe/' ; 
ifaL ^M»Mfl Of M. H. G. 
fan a bMC «tf^« to 
c£ nod. G. m-mifiiakrrr, a 
Note abo lod. ■I ' la id h v to viod 
■pr wimHil, a *iip«. See Wlnfalo, oC 
vfiich x^iee m the dimio. 
Gtmmal-nBff : McGfaobala* 

Ouatp, 3 kad~ of trtwintng, made of 
|w«ft«dsik,cQttoo,orwoDl. ~ 

a kad • 


SecEtalfar',i73K Named 
firoiB a rrwniMiiifi to Kxne kind of 
«iaiple.«*)L F.gMutpi, a oaaV wimple; 
i^togmmpit <iee iwfaz to CotrrftTc, lt. 
wrini^^-O H*G, mim/ial, a. light robe, 
a&lMt for the bead; G^avMr^^a streuncr; 
K« Wimpta. V ProbL ccofcKd «ith 
/piiptrt, ft thread or silk Uce. See 


^11 II , to begin. (E.) Obsolete ; ofteaj 
Dccdieacty written 'girt, 94 thaii|;b ^ wera 
DEnmed, M, £. ginnat. A. 5. jprnmam, 
Eo begin, commonlj APf-^maiaiv fpl. U 
etigann, pp. £V4^nmrtf).,4~Goth. gifHtaWt 
ta the compt t^H^ginimii , to begin. Bn^tt. 

L S 376. 

Oui (3)* AtrftPtCUfe' (F^— L.) M. 
gin, «hoft for M. £. if$gin, a ooottivaiK 
See En^ino. 

(Ha 3,, «kiadof*pirit. CF,-L.) Short 
for gtMitfa, conuplian of M. F. gtnevrt^ 
jvnipcj.— L, ftcc> iCmf'crvm; sec Jt 

QijiffWa ^ r^^t ^^ * certain plant. 

K. - * » Gk. - Ski.) M . E. giNi^r, ^m- 
gtutrt {-^,«winfV-0. F. gtngitrt (K^ 

- CV. firjl^*P'' -Ski, fflgiKftta, gineer j 



lit. * horn*shajJtd,' from the honiis on it,— 
tjkt. ^rfi^a, a liom ; i«rd. a body. 

CKllgerlyi with ^oft stejw. (F.— L. ; 
Ffoin ihc ndj. V"^**? s**'^'^' dclicalc > wiili 
suft ^). Apparently adapted fiom O. K. 
gtHwr^ gttisor^ more dclicat<^, comp. t"f 
irfK/, iine, delicate, noble: oi'ig- 'well- 
born,' — l'"olk-L. *grft/ftm, L. ^aitum, 
ace. of gitrtjiuj, bom fwtll'bom)^ pp, of 
gi^tft-f, to bfgct. (N.E.D.) 

GinAlUUni » ^i^d of cotton clnth, 
(F. — Malay. ; F. ^tiM^n, — Mnlay grn^ 
^itnj^, slriped cloiU, pinKham— Ntnby and 
Javancie i^iftg^attg, strijK^ti ^X!* P^G. Scolt). 

Gin^le ; the same aKJinsle. 

Gipsy ; the &ainc as. Gjrpay. 

QiraffSp a long-legged animal. V,— 
ispaii - Arab.,] M. F. ^iraffi i^ v 

gira/i), —• Span. gir$xfa, — Arab, ^artJ/^ 

Owd (Oi to enclose, bind rounit. (K>) 
M, K. ^urdert, ^irdcM. A. S, gyrdan^ to 
gird.+O, Sax, gurdian, Dii. g&rdeit, IceL 
^i^-flfr, to t;ird, Dan. gian(e, U. giirfen, 
Tt'Ul. ty|.>c •^tfrt^aw' ; from ^guni-^ wenk 
Crade of Tcnl. *g<en/an- <,pt. t. V*""'')^ ttf 
enclose; cf. Gotb. ^t'^irdan^ to begird. 
Allie<1 to GKTth, Garden, and Tard. 

OiKl(»Vioj^sta»Jibc. (E.) AjTcculiar 
«*eo M,E ^Vfltrt^^^n/rtf, to itrikfj cnt. 
To gi'if fl/-io strike at, jeal at; a gird 
i* a ctU. ^rca^m ; Tarn. Shrew, v, i, 58. 

Qjj^dle. (E,) A..'^- gyrdi!, that wWh 
pids,— A,S,^E>™^'"''l^**eiTd : seeGtrd.i). 
if Du. gffrtiel, Iccl. gyr^iii, Swed. gottUij 

Qu*L (E.I M. E. ^W<, jY/7f, ^r&, 
often used to mean *a boy*; a child, 
Answering to an A.S. form *gyre/-, Tcwt 
•jfWJi7«, a dimiD. form from Teut, base 
*gur-. Allied to N, Fries, gar, a girl ; 
Low G, gort gen. a child, Cf, Swisa 
gnrrt, gnrHt^ a depreciatory terra for a 
girl iSandct*. Ger. Diet. . 

Oiron, Gyroiii in heraldry, the eighth 
part of n shielJ. made by dfawitig a diflt* 
goaal line frotn Ihctop comer to the centre, 
tnd from the centre horitontally towaids 
the aamc aide ; a right-angled triangle. 
(F.— O. II. G. ¥,g7r0H.^giron{L\nTi). 
• O, 1I,G. g^ruM^ 3CC- of gtrp, a lance, 
ijwsr ; M, 11. G. gcrr, a gore or gtisftet in 
a garraenf, a triangular piece. — O, H. G- 
gifr, 4 spear, cognate with A. S. gtir^ a 
ajwar, hec Gore (a). Diet, Schade.^ 

Oiztll. (Scand.; M. E. ^M.-IceU 
fi a girdlcji gitlh ; gtHli, ({Inb round 

the waist; Dnu. givrtl-^tJv\ii, gatnittf 
girdle. Teist. tyiw *^r./(J. Sec OIrd u}- 

CKsti the pitb uf a matter. CF,-L.] 
The gijf U the point wherein tbe iiialter| 
lies, — O, F. pV mod. Y.git), it lic»;j 
wheticc the proverb *c'esl ta que gti 
licvrc/ thai )b where the difficulty H, 111 
' thAt*» where the hate lies.* From the F«] 
verb ^jjV (oo¥*^j,Vi/>), to Vie, — I.. WtvrCij 
lolie. O. ¥.gtjt = h.itirfi.'' See J«t(i;. 

CKtteilL ; bee Cith«m, 

Qi70. iScaml.) M. L.^'i/f vNorlbem)J 
giiun.yetun [Soulhem'* ; pi* l^ i*"/ CNO« 
j»'fl/(S.;, yn.gifen (N,\ j-iWm, j'PW^M S. ;,| 
— Icel. ^r/ti, Dan. ^W, Swetl. gt/ta.^ 
A.S. ^>ii, pt, t. ^^fl/ pp, gi/m ; Du,' 
getvft; Goth,^'^M, G.get^n. Feint. ly])e 
^gehan-j \i\, t. 'jufi* Cf. O. Irish ^'a^'fm, 
I give, I take. 

Qinard. [F,-L.> M. E. ghtr 
d being added). — O. F. gttur, Jt^'ift 
Jttiiier {¥. g/n'tr).^L. gigirittm, <Mily in 
pl» g^g^f'i^ t.Late L. gatria)^ cooked 
eiitraik of poullri'. 

Glabrous, smooth, (L. From L. 
g/a/vr^ bmooth. Idg. stem *gfaifA'fV' i\ 
see Glad. Brugin. i, ^ 589. 

Glat:ial, icy (F . - Ul Y.glMiai, — U. j 
ghitutds, \<x.^h.giadh^ ice< 

glacier, a mouDt:iui ice-fidd. <F.-L.)| 
Y . gloiiir (a Savoy word 1 . — F. gimet ice. ^ 
Folk-L.^e/flfW^ for L. giaciis^ ice. 

glacu, smooth slopt (F. — L.) F. 
^•^/jiW, — M, F. glattr, to cover with ice.— 
l'_x^ait (above), 

fflad. [E.) A.S.^/d-r/. shining, bright, 
I cheerful, glad,+Dy. giad. smooth, bri^iht, 
I IccL g/ii6r, bright, glad, Han. Swed. g/otft 
I G, g^aftf smooth, polished. Cf. Run. 
I g/si/Jrii, even, smooth ; L, glalvr, tuiootb ; 
see Ol&broivi. 

Gladden, Glftd«3i, a plant; In'i 
/seuifttiifrut. tL) AS- gltrcifne; alteretl 
from L. gfadhhis, a swurdtily. Dimin. 
of L, g/adtits, a Kword ; see Gladiator. 

OlM6t 0^ "P^ sp«ce io a wood, (E,) 
The orig. s^nse was prob. an opening foPi 
light, pa&>^ge through a wood ; from A.S.^ 
g^d, bright, Bhiiiing. Cf, Swcil. dial. 
giad-y/*/fn, completely oinm. misl of a 
Take whence tbe ice bsi all mdt^ away, 

Gladiator, a swordsman. (L.) L.g/tt- 
] drat fir. — L. g/adiu4, a aword, 

GlaiTi the white of Ati egg. (F.~1..J 
M, E, g/eyrt,^0.¥. g/airi.^fli tUra, 
fem. of iidruSf brigbl ; Late L, cidra Otti^ 
the white of an c^. 





Br;«cGlMteL 1. >C£^r 
to tfcc \M%m\ laim td Ifce «r<. 

ft Iki^ vvC"* « (be tu: 

ft fffi<*'; dMite. «f giam (. 

L.~ M. V. g&idns, f4. - L>l. ft ftoc 
Mtamdaidt^ MroUaa fUadi; feon L.WMH 

laam. to >Kioe bf%M7. {%) ME. 

G. gS^rgn, to ^lov. Pcrfaftpt ftUieil to 
OlftM. Ct Daa. ^/oa. TceL ^, ^mm 

IokL g(tr, gUiL Ori|f. leniv proU * iluo- 

mSai, Ui famiah wtib gUat. (k!. 
If. e* ^nv - M. E. x^, glAM ; icc 


V^A,& ^#■■1, to flovt 
?:£ Dis. S«cd i^ML t^ la^ 

tA*ii^. & >esL Brai^ L i *u. 
^' -ek ^x , «■ Beofl, jtM- See Ktte&. 

O 'j e k : ? I'JtflK ftt cai^ ; a whkil 

.'. cafd$ *AAf as tkrcc 

- Sb N«o— O.F. 

/Zte^, ft ABC u cxnk ; alto sdi Mrxui^ftr 

(Coikfr^«-M. Da. ic^fJr«w«--'^ 

GoA.^ ; li. Da. -/yU. Dm. ^ok, m^tr 
mkLj^;iaUkft. ^ ifeihfttt I hto 
§t^^ met^^ ^f«^ to plajr at cica 

ffltet ft ftinow nDc^. (C^ Gad. aad 
InA gieamm, O. Imk ^imm ; VT. j^, ft 
ralbT, gicK. Cdtk type * ^j a< Mii. 

£ fri^ gHUtfir, riinpfn j xHff^ 
■I^^Db. /«Mnr^. >]Wi7. ^fiMra 
Dft. aad fjjw cX ^^ppm^ !• 



fPri't' ■ t««ni of light. (U.) A. S 
gtSm\ teuL tjpe *giaimi». -^ O Saji. 
: ^«v, brifbtneM ; O.ll ij. riim«,jiUimc, 
ft flow-iivomi (iron biM *Mm- . AlUcd 
to Gk. ;(bHB^, warm, ace aiimm«T. 

OUfta. : F.j M. K. ^*mn, - O. K. 

tif/fcT, ^iamr {r. giantr], lo gUaa ; I '7* 
,. f^Utwn A.U. RoU J cf. I-ow L. jpZ/Wtf, 
g€titm, f^rfimtt, a. \\^wliu\. Of unknown 
Ofiijiti Tlif A Ji.^i7«, a htfi'lfuln wh«ice 
fTOT. L* j'f/w, to provi*l« bun ' IW 

re«d> fur t ihAUacr, will ti ' i^r 

Ibe O, t" . foFiu. ff ^Ve aI*// iiir>i tuc [urni 

CmbA, ■< iL tK - L,l M. K ^AA.:, 
' K^t^t ]ftn<l bcloauiuff to a {•arxMiogv ; * 
Col — l„ g!i*ha, fcoit, a tlod of earth. 

mU ^a). ft lock oT bfttr. {CO liiib aad 
GftcL/A/^ ftW k. £/«», a lock o^hair. 

iH£ar(s)vtocaslfate .£,'' Tbe«ftftieB» 
/ii^ witb p«£x«l/^*A. S. jr% a com»oa 
prefix. Cu|patc with Da. hMem* to cu- 
traic. M Dtt. ^WMm. See Z^ftA. 

Glide. K yi.E,rm»*pL\g(0U 
A- S ^/i'j''ift. ^ Da, git/t^^ Dan. 
Swod . ^/<i«, G. ^*f^fl . Tcti t type 
dan-, pt t. *jf&M, i^p. *gisJan9%. 

Glimmer, *trb. (E.) M. E. ^i- 

mer;n ^- Lr.w* G. ^iimmcm, freqocnL ul 
gitmmcH^ to fthiuc ; Daji. giimrt, vb., 
glimmer, sb,. gliticr ^ bwed. dial giimmi 
vb.. g/immer^ tb., gliiter* Frequent. 
I»iin f //mmr IT. S wed. ^m>na,lo shine. CI. 
Swcd. dUl. ^/iM, a glaacc, A. S, gkomu 
{far *glimu}t «pkn Jouf ; fiom *gfim; 
wtak grade iA^gietm- ; $cc Gleam. 

glimpse, a bUkKi ^l r a m . ■ IL . K 
njcrij^/j««; M.t- ^limjcn, to Kl^^'i'^ 
roraied with KufB^t -j- from V/iwi i^ibovc; 
Gliat»to ihine, glance, ^Scand.j M. 
ghfiicn. — Swed. iTtal. glunta^ g^iuia, 
hhiltc ; na^alued lirom Icet gli/a, tu duai 




Sec Oli\ ter, 

Qlisteiif Oliatof, to gUtter. (L.) 

Lxtcudcd iioai ba>c ^iV- of M, E. ^/jjiVw, 
to shiijc. A» S. ^iisian ; whence aJso 
I'iismatt, to shine. We aLo find M.L. 
gtisfirtn, gJistrtn, K^ glitter, CI. Du* 
gfiniUreH, lo glitter; Swcd. diaL^tJj. 

Olitt^r. bi,.) M. E. giiirrfn, to shine. 
•V. S. ^ttiim<tm, to sliine; tAteadcd from 
A, S. ^fV^dff, to ^ine. + IccK glitnt^ to 
^^Ijttirif fnitjuent gf ^ftfa, to sbine ; ywcd. 
giitlrat to gliucr ; ^itttr, sb., a sparkle. 
CL GoLli, gHt^munj{in, tn i^liuer. hroin 
•f/iV , weat grailc ut *^Uit-^ ai in O. Sox. 
j^Htan, i.', t:ifisUHt to shine. 

Qloanuugt twUight. (K.) A Scol. 
lorm &i glcomin^, i. c. the time of bctroin- 
luy Uuik; A. S. J/€H-^'Jommun^% jjloom of 
tvt. Hjmn* Suiteci, i6, 16+ Sec Gloom.. 

Oloatf to state, gaie with aiiiDiTation. 
,K.) YvtmtiXy ^/oU XVI ct-iiL}. + led- 
^ioita^ Ui grin, smile snomfully ; Hwcd. 
i\i&\,ghtta,giuUat\.o peep; G,W.?/tf«, to 
itart. Cl. Kusi, ^HtmH^f), (0 T-^k at 

Ol<>b0. a\-L.i O. R ^A^iT. - L. 
^/oifuw, ace o[^/if6uij ft bftlL ; cf. gkmttSt 
a biill, clue. 

Glom.ex«ie, (L.^ Frora pp. oi gle- 
fturtlre, to c^ikct into a bnli. — L,^'/tffl/er-, 
Jfot *^ii>mei, ittHi of giomm, ■ h»ll or 
clew of jfiTD, Stt Olobe. 

G-loOnL (E» A.iJ^-AJm, gloQtn. tws* 
light ; cf. A. S. -ghmmung, twiUglit (s« 
Oloamlng)^ itnd prov, ILg/am, overcast. 
4'Norw. ^/jijwa^ an overcast sky; Low G. 
givm, lurbid, bee Glum. 

0IO17- ii- -L, M. E, i^fertf.-A.F. 
Hid O. F. g-/ime (F. gUiirt). — L g/Sria. 

Glou ,1), luslre. tSc«Bd.> kel. j'/tfJJi, 
ft blaxc, iT^'Ji fi^icry; tjwpl dial, g/t/sia^ 
10 glow ; NoTW.^/rfjtJ, to glow.+M. IL Ci. 
^9ttM, to ^luw, ^^/(i/, liutic; 1>U. ^/?rfAr 
(Kriilck), L. tries ghren. 

OlOSH Cj)r B cotumenLarv, cn^lonntion. 
(F, - L. - Gk.) M. Iv ^W - O. K. ^/«tf, 
'fl gloMe;* Cot,«iL. giSsta^ n diflicuU 
word ictjuiring c2i[iUnatiori. — Gk- 'fKomoa., 
the lofi|pie, a Lan|;uage^ wor^ ticedin^ Cb.' 
plaasiliuii. J)oT,^AfiJ, vh-, g/cu. 

tk glouftiy ; foimcd with mmx •>^n'um 

from L. i^hss-a ^ above). 
gll^ftSOglraplier. it'k.) Coined from 

^•Ayt,j > irarn dk, 7Xwfftfa, a h*rd word; 

glottis. ;.Gk.J Gk. ^AvTTii, the 

moQth of the windpi|>c. — Gk. y^Sirra^ 
KWic form of ^^wcoq, the loDgue. J>ar. 

Glove. ,E.) A,S. f^e^^m (flovc; c(. 
Iccl, g^, prob. borrowe*! from A. S. ^AJ^. 
PoiiSibly ffotn g- for ^ i^ prefix; and 
IceU j^Vii Goth, /fya, the padin uf the hand. 

Glow. {E.) M* E. ^itnvetu A. S. 
gi^wan, ta be ardct^t, to thine brightly.<4> 
Xatig^M, iJnn.^/ftT, 10 glow, stajc, Swcd. 
^A?, to stiuv, Du, g/petjefit '.'. g/uhttt. 

GlOWOr, to look frotvQttigly. 1 K.j 1w 
Fritt g/iirtn. Cf» Low Q.g^rtu, M. Dn. 

glijiitHt *to luok awiy, lo Icaic/ Hex- 
ham ; Du. glttrfn. % M. L. gionn^ lo 
stare, is allied lo giarf, 

Gloae. to iAter(xret, flalter. (F.-L — 
Gk. < M , K. ghitn^ to make glchttesh. ~ 
M. )Lg/ese, a gloss; kc Qloa* i^j). 

Glue. F. ' L.) O. h . ^/w. - Late L. 
^hitim, acc of j'/wj getJ, g/i/tu.^ glue j 
alUt:d to L.giiifett, glue. gU^tm^ leiiacioui. 
^Gk. t>^oivi, tnud, yum. AlUcd lo CUy. 
Bniem. i. ^ 6^9. 

O^uu^ sulkn. (E) M*K ghm/tttn. 
ghmbat. ^humtH, to look gloomy. L. 
Yri^%. giumtn^ giutmH. to look sullen.'l- 
Lqw G, giftnm, a buUcn look, g/uMmen, 
to make turbid ; Norw. giynUy, a sullen 
look, £^y>fi&, gUtriay lo look «ulkn. Sec 


Glnmo, A bracteal covering, iti grAMct. 
(L.'i L. giuma^ a husk, hull. — L, giuten, 
lo pcel.tfikc of) the husk. JScc Cleave (i). 

Glut, 10 liwallow greedily. [K, — L.; 
^L L. gioifftt.^0. ¥, gMtr, ^/bw/ir. — L* 
glutitt, gfuttirt^ lo swallow ; cf- gui^ . the 
throat. D9T,g/ui/ffH. 

stick y. - L. giufin-^ for giuten„ glue- 

Glutton. *,F.*-L.^ M.L. gioim.^ 
(>. F. gUtoft. ^ L. giutmiem. g/Mi^tum, 
act., a gluttoju— \.,giuiire, to devour. 

GlycoriuOc a viscid (iuid, of awect 
IMle. t^K.-GkJ Y.gfy(i*-ine, from Ok, 
•fktfKt^ui, »wec1 ; ftoni Gk. •j\vku<s, &wcet. 

Gljptio, relating to carving in stuuc. 
(Gk. Gk. 7P^vfffi*<Sf, carving, — Gk, 
7XuwT(Jj, carved. — Gk. f\v'p*k¥, to hoUow 
ont* engrave. See Oleftve (0* 

Qnorlv to amul, growU <L.> Ftequeu- 
tative ofgnar, lo jnar), an imitative woid. 
Cf. A.S. ptyrraii, to creak; t. Fries. 
guairen. to creak, wiail + Du. kHetrttt^ 
Ilaa. j£uju/», to growl^ Diu. t^MinYj lo 



crcAk; Swed. knorra, G. iiHurren, to 
growl* G> knarrtrtf Id creak. 

Gllftrled,knot(v, twisted. (E.) GtMfiid 
1!^ fiiU uf gnarls, wh«rc prnt^i is a dimin. 
itf .gnar or fcMar, M, E* kfiarrt, a ktiol in 
wootl. .Sec Sjsarr. 

Gua^ll* ' I^-] M, E. ^tifttHi to i^aish 
thf tccih. J'^ Fries. ^inierH^ gnasUfn, 
lo g^asli.+^*c*'' fi'ttisfra, to aftsh (be- 
iween the tcclh^ ; Dati. A^ftajkr, to gnash ; 
Icel. ^nasfan^ sb.^ a gnashing^^ww/a (pt. t. 

fWiij/), to crack ; G, A-nasUrtt, to crackle.. 
miltitivc ; ■sofllso Dftiu kttasi^ to crackle; 
Icel, gitisfa, \o gn.ish, E. KriL*s*^/J«^ 

QUAt. Ji.i A.S-iWW. Said to be 
naitied from the whirring uf the wings; 
cf. lacK gnata^ to clasli, ^mo/, dash of 

gftffUf. A, S, j^migan, Id gumw, [jt. I. ^Wp//* 

O. loer hiaga, iDDfJ. led. ^raj^, Dan. 
jf*WW, Swed. gna^i. Without the f, we 
have G, wajy/i ; fllso Dfln> Mi^'^^ to gnaw, 
Sw^. ttag^'u^ wbeacc prov. £. ni^, to 

Ondisflr a rock. G,) lj,pwij; from 
its s[iarkling. — O. H. G. gUfhian, to 
■s]iarklt:: t^neista^ a. spark, ^ A. S> ^aj/, 
iLitl. j:^ftfuit\ Q spnrk. 

Gnome, a kmd of sprite. (F.-Gk.) 
V.pi&mi^ n, [;:)ioine; a word due to Para- 
celsus; Trom the notion ihaX gnoHies conld 
reveal secret treasures. ^-Gk^Twi^juij, ititclli- 
Ijciia.'. — Gk. TViUrai, to know. (-^GliN.) 
gUOtUOll, index of a dial, (L -.Cik.) 
L. ^■w/V'/.'j'/. — Glc. fv^fiiUVy an interpreter 
(one vv'ho knows) \ the index of a dial, ~ 
Gk. '^foivai^ to know. 

gnOBtiCi one of a certain sect. (Gk.) 
Gk. TK^wdTdriSi, wise, good at knowing.^ 
Gk. TJ-ftwiot, from ^t-wtJr, known^^Gk, 
TKuvot, to know. 

GuUf a kind of mitclope. ; HotlcQtot.) 
Kcund ia S. Afrii^a. Said to belocLgto the 
Hottentot langunge. 

Qo, to tnovt nbout, proccEd, advance. 

^fbJM, iJon, ^(JTf, Swed. ^i ; G. ^ikeH\ 
O.Vl,Q.gitu,gt$t, ^ *TheTcuL^'^^^-i = 
A.S. ^/-, O- II. G- jf^-) supplanted the 
Idg. v'* '0 ffo, in l^t. /><■, Gk. Uvaij 
Skt, I. Since 'J'eut. gai- ha* no old primi- 
tive Ii0«ti-dcrivftti\e4 in IVut, and lakes 
the place uf Idg. yi (llie Colh. aorist 
riA^ ^ A. S< 4vrj<r Mill remalrisl, and as it 
is injected After the -wi' conjagation, the 

i>uppo4llioa arises tbAt Teut, *gaim, ^gah, 
*gaith are contracted from the veiLfal 
particle^, and the inherited i"w«, j";, i(h — 
SVuimiy ishff iti; cf- Gk. «7fu/^KJuge. 
But this i» mere qonjecture. 
Goad. I K.) M. IL gofi^, A. S. j,w./. 
Tent, type *gaidd, f+Loml wdic ^-u^/fl, 
a gore iDttc.) ; from the base *i'V]/-r Idg. 
*gAiit\ whence abio A. S. gd-f, IceL gxi^rr^ 
O. Irish ^f, a spear ; see Qore i,3 , 

■ Goal, the ttinning-po^t in a rac€- lE.i 
' M. E, g^, Shoreham, p* 145^ Answering 
.to A. S. *^,J/, prob. 'aji impediincnl ; 

wheoce A. S. gj/an, lo impede. Craai^ 

. may have meant 'stopping-place,' 

I doat. t E. ) M . E. f^A A. S, j?vr/. -f 

I Dti. geri, Dan, ^, Swed. ^/, kel, giit, 

,G-gjrfJttgviTfe; Goth, gtiifs, Teut baae 

' *A^iV- f allied to L. AitaNj* 

Qoblboti It moitlhful, a &mall piece. 

t.F. — C.) M, E ^^itAcA a small piece, •- 

, O. Y.gohtfj a mori^el ot food (see LiUrel ; 

' allied to M.F* goit, a gulp (in swullonving ,. 

, -^O. K.^wAfrilodevt-nr.— Gael.. tTSi^p beak, 

bill J mouth ; Iri»h ,^. month. bcak» 

gobble i; I ), to devour. (F.-CO V 
qucntfltive» with suffix -A:, frotu O* 
goii-ir, torievour; sec Oobbet. 

Gobble (2), to make a gabbling noisiE. 
(E ,' Imitative; a variant Gigtti*bit, 

Gobelin, a French tapestry, (FO 
Named from Giles Csh^Hn^ wool-dyer of 
Fans, in the ii^th tent. 

Goblet. (F. - L.) F. gifheFit, *a 

goblet;' Cot* DJmJn, of O. F. gohel^ a 

CQp>— Late L. €Hfiti/Hm, ace. of a'tpcUus^ 

a cup ; dimitt. of L. tHp&^ a vat ; sec 

Ooop, Cf- f'icard fo^e, ai great cup. 

Goblin. F.-L.-G.) O.K. gc^lin, 

— Low L. gobtfiHHiy a gobliu ; properly 

' ■ a household 'god ' ; cf. A. S. cof-godi 

* ]>cnBtes-' — M. H, G. fufbel, a hut ; dim: 

of M. H. G, k&ht, a plall, cog'nate w 

led. ko^f a hot, A. S. r<^« a chamber 

! [KIngeV Sec Covs, 

I Goby, * fish. (L. - Gk.) For l^g^l 

orig. applied to the gudgeon. — Gk. itm&i 

a kiaa of fish, gudge^nii tench. Bar. 


■ God. (E,) A.S. ^.+DiL jW, Icel. 
^-i^, gu^t Dan, jj.'T/^, Swed. gmf, Goth. 
i^^w/Aj G. ^/'/. Teut. type *i^ttfwm ; Idg. 
type *ght4tom, perhaps * the heini,' wor- 
shipped,' a pp. form ; from Idg. ro*L*t *gh 
to wonhip, as in Ski. Ah, la a:tmtl 
(to), whence Au/a-, one to whom tmc 
hcc 14 offcfcd, q Net fcllicd to ..^wr/j 








goddess. (£ M wiiAY.m^.) M. E. 
^iftZfrj-j*? (^W<rjj(r:. Made from ^tt by 
luiding ih« O. h\ laffix, ^fjjf ( — L- *ina « 

SOcmftthsr, (EO M. E. M^ijiif'-f/-, 

fnlhcf ill lirtplism ; isocn guti und /titUf', 

Jrodheftd. iE.) M. ]£. godhtii, alio 
_ //^; llie suffix ojiswcrs Lo A, S. ^^j 
uft'icc, »livte, dignity; set -hood (suffix}. 

Godwitf A bird. (E.'l Oriiiin un- 
known. Can it mcjin ' g*>od crcBtnre'? 
h^^. gChi wikf, a. fiuod wight, good crea- 
ture (wiAi bcuig oflen applied to ooiiiHils 
an^ hink). Sec Wight* 

GoflTeri GaiiffeTp to plait or crimp 
lace, SiC. F.-O. Low C) M, ¥,gttnf- 
fr^t to goffer ; orig. ta mark lite ihe 
edges of w*fcr»,—M. F,^ij^if, ,f^«, a 
water ; see TWftfep. 

Goggl^-^yed, having rolling And 
rtmrini^'cycs. it.: yi.^,^gi^-fyid. 'They 

rg/i Mvith their eyes hither axid thither ; ^ 

loliDEhcd, Dcscr. of iTcland. c. i. C£. 
Ifisb Aiiii Gael. ^^Awj'jSfflt'A, gogglc-cy«i, 
havin|:r wandering eyes, iroifl ^^^ to move 
iligbtly^ and tui7f t^. But go;^ seems to 
be from E-, and of imitative origin. C(. 
prov, K. c^^lt^ BaT&r. gagtin, to be nn* 


Goitre , ( F. - L. ) F. goUrt, a swe Ucd 
tbioat ; Trom 0« K. goitrpn^ the same, «p. 
te SflToy. — I-fttc L. ftcc. type *gHiirU«emt 
fmm L. g-utrur, ihtawu 

Gold, vS:.) A.S, ™/t/.+Dii. ^i««/(fw 

GoUl. fw^ji. Teul. tyji*? *gvi'th«m, n. ; 
Idg. type *gh9i-{^m \ cf. Rui*. Wo/^, Skt. 
A^taJta-, gold ; also Perti. sar, gold, Zciid 
mnziriv-, Ski. hiranya-. Named from ita 
colour. Allied to Tallow. (^GHEL.) 

Golfj A game. (Dti,J MeDtioned A. ]>. 
1457 'Jani.i. The Dame b fitom UiibE of a 
Da. game played with clob aod balU — Du- 
koif, a dab tiscd to strike h«lU with.^ 
Low G, ku!/, hogkey-tticlc; Iccl. kdi/r. 
clapper of a bell, kyf/a, a club ; I>an. koi6^^ 
butl-cnd of A weapon, kaiv, ball, shaft, 
MTOW, Swed» kffi/i butt-ei;d, G. kolh, club, 
mace, knob, 

Ch>lcwlL I the tame as Gftlocbie. 

OondoUk (Ital.-(;k --Pert. ?) Ital. 
^mioiii, dimin. of genda, a boat — Gk. 

banner, ^F.-M. H, U.) M.E 
— O, F. g&tt/attoH.^-lA. H. G. 
lit aatllc-nag/-M- H. G, gumf, 
battle; /atta \G. /aAHi'}^ « banner. ( 
Here piitf IK cognale with A. S. giid 
*gutt/A}f battle^ war ; cf. bkl. Aatt^ to 
Fartff ifi allied to Vau«. 

QODg. (Malay.^ lAftlixy agvag 01 gvn^ 
tlie gong, A sonoroiu instrtimcnt. 

Du, goed. IccL ^(Jr, Dan. bwcd_ god, 
Goth, ^ci^, G. gut. Teul. lyjjc *^id5j?«; 
from ^gdd*, tlionp grade of *gad-^ * Ui\* 
iee Gather. ADicd tft Kds*. ^nuiif 
£uiuble, 0. Slav, g&d^, fit seaiMui. Bef. 
gvifd-s^ sb. pL, i. C- good things, propcily; 
goodxviU, &C. Also jVA/mtm, i.e. ma^cT 
oi the hoci&c, gc^ji^/ef misxitvt oT the 
Goodbye, forewcll. (H.) A familiar^ 
but nitaningless, cotitiacliou of Cisd Ar 
ts.'itk you, the old form of farewell ; 
very common; often written Cod h'u'y, 
% Kof ior Cod Iff ^jf ycit; the foim God 
ifuy you * Coii iv-U'iiA-you you . y^u jt- 

Goodmsia; kc Good. 

GoQSS^ a tiid. ^E, ^ A. S* gPJt pi .j.'i 
(leDgthened & caused loss of n, and gpsi 
*genj < *gnnj). + Du. ^mj, Dan, 
^wed. ^x, Icet, gSs, G. gauf, TeuL t] 
•^Bj ; Idg. I) pe *ghans' ; cf. L. tmst 
Gk< x'7''i ^^^' Aafftia, a Bwan ; 0. IrislT 
^»j, a s^an ; Lith. i^>, a goose. 

Gooseberry. ^,E^ ; cf. P.- M, H, G.) 
In LcviiiSv From goose and Serry; cf. 
g^ougrasi^ &c. o.^ We alio find NorUt 
V,.gr6iers, goo*ebcrrics i J^uin'^ h.osgiout^ 
a gooKbcny- Apparently from O, F, 
•fro-f^t *gr^^^, ^ gooseberry^ not recotded, 
but occurring not only in the 0. K. dimin. 
form grMit/*,grtitli,A goosebeir) ,btit aUo 
tn t^^grtis-aid, Gael.jfroM-<riW,\*f, 
a gooBebcrry, all boirovved fiom M.E. 'Die 
spclliag gtiaisik is a« old ai the ijth 
century ^Bartsch); and an^wen^ to Ibc 
form crostia m the dialect of Coi 
(Montis, p. The orig. O. ¥. *greist 
\^'ifse was Uurowtd fromi M. H. G. ^rw// 
curiiug, crisped, whenk-'e G, krausbttrt^ a 
ciEinhcfTyf a rough gooseberry. Cf* 
krusinir, a goo«ebeny, from krui^ crii 
curkd^ frizzled. The name was firti givi 

«^'5v, a drinkJDg-veasel ; from the shnpe to the rougher kinds of the fruit, from the 

(Dies). Said to be of Pcrs. origin; cf. curling haii? on it; similarly, Levins 

Pert, kamiu, an earthen vt sset. gives the Lat. name as uua trispa ., friztlcd 

GmAoOILi GonfklOO, « kind t>f grape). 





GophMT, ■ Itiad ofwood, (Heb.) Heb* 

Gorbellied, having it fat belly. (E.) 
Compounded o! £, gore^ lU- 51lb, dirE (alfO 
the iJitestioesli ; tnd Mily. So aUo SweO. 
dUl, ^'^j^i^, a fat pmmdi, from^rrdirt^ 
contents of the uttesduOj uid Sa/^, belty, 
See Gora I'l), 

g^OrCirOW, cardoa-crow. (E.) I,e. 
gortcr(tiv \ set- above, 

Chirdiaa. (L.-Gk.) Only in the phr 
*G^rdian knot,' i,«, intricate koot. Named 
fram the Phrygiafi king Gerdius {Titp^Qt)^ 
who tied it. An oracle declared thnt whoo 
ever tindjd it should rclgn over A&iti, 
Alex4Q(ltr cat the knot^ ud applied the 
orvclc^ to himself. 

Gov* 1), clotted blood. {^.) It for- 
tnerly meant filth, A S. gor, filth, dirt 4* 

O, !l, G. ^r, filth. Origlii uncertain, 
Cl0r« 2), a trianguiar piece let into a 

rCDcmt a triangular slip of land^ (E.) 
K, gffre, A. S. giira, a, gore, project- 
ing piece of land : from gar, a dart, a 
t^ieax-point. Named from the sJiape. [So 
also Iccl. gtirif a triaagular slip of land, 
from geirr, a ■Pcai ; G. gehrt^ a wedge, 

rset, gore ; Du 
The A. S. gwr_ 
gir) h from Tcut type *gai*^z, m.; 
allied to GaullEth L. gaesum, a javetin, 
O- Irish ^TH, a spear. 

0Orft (3), to pierc«. (E. > From A. S. 
gAr, a Bpeaj-point [with the usual choiige 
from (f to long o)^ 

Gorg'e, the throaty a narrow pasa. (F. 
-^ L.) Q, h , gQT^, throat. — Laile L. gorgn^ 
variant oF L. gurges, a wlurlpool, hence 
tin Late L ) the E^illc^- ^^oro 'ts voracity. 
Cf. I-. gii*-gu/io, gullet +Skt. ^oi'fiijra-, a 

^rgeoiiflj ihowy, splendid. (F,-I^) 
OJV. and M. V.gffrgttu^ 'gorgeous;' CoL 
The 0. K gBrgiiu bI» meant a go^B^ I 
the sense of ' gorjjeous ' was orig. proud, 
from the awdliag of the throat in pride. 
Cotgrave givea F. se rcngvrger, ' to hold 
down the head, or thru^ the chin into the 
Dcdc as fome do in pndc, or to make 
their fflcev look the fuller ; we lay, to 
bridle it/ H^ce the dedvatian U irom 
^•g'^'^gf- throat (above). 

0Ol?Bfet» afmour for the throat. (F,— 
I..) I'l'im^f-^, I.e. throat. 

Ch>tgO&i a monster. (U-Gk.) L. 
Gprg^iif G«rgio.^Q)t. Tofrtiit the Gorgoti. 

u. jwr, a rnuet, gore.] 
wr (I«l. gtirr, O.H.G. 

« Gk. fon^* few^ 4- O. It. 


GorillA, a kind of large ape. (O. Afri- 
can,) An old word rcvi^xd. In the Peri* 
plus of Hanno, near thr end, aome creatures 
arc desoribed ^ which the inten>rvi«r% calif 
Gonl/as'^'VO. Greek, ^oplh>^a.5. 

Oomuuidue ; tee aoonQand. 

Ch^rSti. (li.) Formerly gorsf.^A, 
gorif, ^orae. Cf. Ski. AriA, to bristle. 

Goshawk. (E.) Lie. 'goose-hawk.' 
A. S. gosAa/tv,^A.S. g^Sy goose i Aq/Wr, 

goaling. £.; Forai«d from A. 
ges. goose ME. #w), with double dii 
suffi* ■/ ing. 

Goapol, the life of Christ ,£,) M. £. 
gospiL A. S. godifiei/.^A. & ^d, God, 
1. e: Christ ; spelf, a story. Lit, * aarratiTC 
of God,* L e. life of CfirisL ^ Oi 
s/vi/y i.e. gooii speiif a tmi&latioa 
witarfx^Ktow • but soOn altered to 
for the E. word was t;arty Introduced 
Icelaud in the form gitl^ipjaii (where 
■sgod, as distinguished ijonx g^6- '^%ooA 
and into Germany as O. H, G. goUpefi 
Twhere j7>^^god^ ai di&tLoguiahed from 
guof, goodv 

Goavauer, (E. • M. E. go^semtr, 
gffseiQmer, lit. * gvost^snmm^' Tlie prov. 
E. Djunc (,[2] Cravea) is sUnimtt^gMSr. 
Named from the time of year when it ii 
mofit MCti, tIk. during ^t. Maxtin*^ summer 
fcarly Novemberli ; geoe were eaten 
Xov, 1 1 formerly. Cf, Lowl, St 
suatmfr (popular Toriiint\ \fiirtinmi 
Al»o called ntmm*r-to/t (UhiibyV 
mmmer'gictttu. Cf. G. s&mmft/aJii 
snmmcr'threadsi, gos&amer ; Du. wmer- 
drmknt ?>wcd, ssmmtrtrdd^ the same. | But 
in G, it is also called madcA^ns^mt/ur, 
lit. Maiden -sommer, der aitmiibtrtommer, 
the old women's summer ; which alio 
means St. Martin's summer.] It would 
appear that summer i» here used in the 
sense of 'summer-film/ lo tbat^aj/awir^ 
goosc-ffammt:r<film. (Bener spelt jwjtf/v<r 
GT j^siummirJ) 

Gossip. tE.) Now a crony ; formerly 
a spuitsof in baptism, M.E, ^/ix>, also 
gcftfsth, lit, * related in god." •■ M. E. gott^ 
god ; sih^ related, frrnn 0. NortHuml 
liifbCf pi. relatives, allied to Ctoth. 1 
relalionthip, G. si/^fv, afhnily. sij 
kinsmen. Cf. Ski. salhya-f nt for 
asaembly, trusty^ from iahhd^ an A£Scmbl] 
Bnigm. i. H IA4 (4), 567. 

aten 0|^H 



QciU^i a hollow- bldfltiil chi^t. (K. - 
Low L.i F, gOHgt. — 1-ow L» *^v^w, 
*gu^taj uLily tccoraed iii the Tgrta gitZ'iA 
(Span. guAta). CL lul. sgorbia^ gouge ; 

Gourd. (F. — L. F. gumtde^ formerly 
^•otiJtouf.fe and eougtiurde ^Coij. — 1- ra- 
(Urfiita, 2. gouid. 

Oourm&nd, a glutton. (F«) K. gvur- 
tftanJ, *fl gluUo»p gonnandr bclly-gcKj;* 
Cot, I^tym. unknowa, "DtT, j^rwoniiije 
{(<it gpurmattd'u/}. 

CklUt ii), K drop, slisKiM, (F.-L.)^w/^, » tljscflse supposcJ 10 be du* 
to denaxion of htimoBrG. — O. Y. geutf, 
.ffOMt/g, ft drop, — L, gutta^ ^ drop, 

OOnt \.-i\ taste. CP',-L.) R ^4r, 
ti-tL", — L-^'wr/iM, taste ; see QuiBt (i). 

Govern. (F, — L. - Gk. ) M, \L. £vtt(t^ 
Ftfff. — O. F. ^wvrtKr. — L. guUrttdtr, ta 
sicer a ship, ntlc — Gk. xi/^^oy,, 1q alcer. 
ft Lilh. kumbriti, to stecr- 

Gowan, a daity. (ScAnd.'j North* K> 
f^nvfan, ^c. y^fJ&Tv gmvan, Cofn inu^igolci- 
Nanicd from ihe colour, » Icei. ^/r, Swcd. 
t'w/, J>a^.^^(i(/^ Norw. ^«/, ^w/, ycUovr. 
Skc Yellow. 

Gowk, a fiifflpleton. (Sciutd/i led. 

cvickoo, simpleton. 

OoW]||alQoaerobe. (C) M.E^WMf. 
— W, ^Tpff, a loose robe. [Jilsh ^««, 
Gtct. Afid Corn, ^h, Manx ^tt, arc from 
E, O. F. gourt4 b Gaulish.] Siokes- 
Fide, p. sSi. 

Orabi Id «)k. {E.) Cr E' Fries, 
£rQb^ig, greedy \ gtidrhelcn^ lo grab al ; 
T)il. gt-abhel^ a scriiubk, ffra^itrtt, lo 
•cnuoblc for ; Low O, ^rtthleiny to grab 
at; Swcd. grahba^ to gni*p,+Skt ^mA, 
O. Skt. £TvifAj O. Pen. fl-nd Zend ^o^, 
to scite. See Garb (2). Cf. Or&ap. 

Grace. (F-L.) O. F. ^.>f^, - L. 
j^itittit, favour, -UffflZ/i J, deaf, plcosiug. 

Or*d«, a dcg«e. (F.-L.) l?,graiU, 
■ dpyrtCK — L, graJumt ace oi gratiut, n 
dcgT'-'C, iilcp.— L. gradi (pp. grtsitts), to 
itt'p. walk, go. C^GHREDH.) t^mgin. 

gnidient, a gndm]]y rising slope. 
(L. \ L, grtniiifit', stem of pres, pt of 
gt^ft, to walk, adviincc. 

^YftdUftl, flitvfliidiig by steps. (L.) 
Oni; xriuum/, ib., a &enrlce'boDk called 
in Cat. f^nttimilf, and in E. ^aJuai or 
^■nt^/.^Latc L, j^aduiiHs, only in neui^ 

^•aduaky a *efTlct-biK>k of portioai iung 
Iff ^raJidiis, u e. on the slept (of the 
choir. — L. ^?Wrt-j, p. 5i?p. 

^Ebdnate. ' L.^s Laie L, graduattUt 
one who ija^ iflicen a degree; pp. of Late 
L, ^in'tiifff.^L. grttifu-i, degree, 

Grftffcj Gf&ffj 10 iriBcrC biid& on a stcia, 
t^F. — L, — Gk.) Gra/i is n Uttr fonn 
^ra^ and due to confusinii with gtft^f 
pp, Shak. hai pp. ^ro/i. Rich. LIL tit 
137. hi,^.gra^tH, to grafr, fiooa gr«^e 
nb.'mQ.T* Giraffe, a &ort of peacU, idso 
slip for graftiugt l>ecau5e it lesembled a 
l>ointed pencil in ^pe.^I^ ^j(t/4jWj. a 
style lo write with< — Gk, ypaipiuv^ ypa- 
'ptiov, the same.^Gk. "fpwptiff to write. 

Grftil {t ■', a gradual^ a service-book. 
;F.^L) M.E, graiif, i^oyi. - O. K, 
jfinor/, — Late L. graddU, also called ^nt- 
dti^kx See grodu^. 

Chradl (3), ihc Holy Dish at Ibe Lait 
Supper, [F. — L. — Gk.) The etymology 
was very early falsified by on easy 
change from San iJnat ,Huly Dlsb> 10 
Sang Rtai (Royal Blood , slmagely taken 
lo mean Real Blood).— ^O. K. ^raal, grealt 
grasaf, a flat dish; with uutncfotis other 
formS;* both in O. F. and Late L. Ii 
would apj^ar that the wurd vr&s cumtpled 

n various ways from Latt L. tj'pe •t/iS/rf/rj 

cf* Laic L, grtif/d/fj a bowl' ; from Late 
fTdZ-iri, a bowl, equivaktit to L. aJier, 
A bowl; see Ota tor. (Diez.) 

ChfOil (3\ fine sBod, (F. - U) In 
Spenser, F. Q- i. 7. 6 ; Vis. Belhvy, st. Ii* 
-O, F. graisU. grutU (t\ griU), thin, 
smaH. — L. gradiem^ ace. of gracHis^ 

GraiXL. ( F. - L.) M. E. grein. - O, F, 
grain. ^1., ^^dfmm, a grain^ com.-^'lrish 
^/■liflj U . ^rouyti, tJognfttc wiih E. Com* 

Gr&llatory* (L.) A term sj^plicd to 
wading birds. — L. ^s/Zif/or, a walker on 
i\i\\A^^l4^graila (for *gradiir , stilts.— L. 
graduSj a tlep ; g'radf, to walk. 

GrftniaXTe, raa^ic. ( F. - L. ^ Gk.) 
M. E. gritmtfy, skill ia grammar, nod 
heme skill in magic, — O, F. rramairr, 
gnnrnnar ; iec GramfiUf . Cf. O. F. 
£ratfioire, (1) a graminaruii, •i^ a 111&* 
{^ician. ^ lite word gtam&ur i( a men: 
COTTU prion of grttmarye or grammar^ 
mcAiiing (T) gTmnamar^ i>j magic 

€(rain«K;7, ihanki. (F.-L,) Fo^ 

uitrK ir^atiud mtrty-t Chascei, C. T. 
S964 — K. gf-attd mini, great thanks ; see 
Oraud and Maroy- 




for ^rxtmctK g»flss ; with lu^x -f-ffttJ. 

Grammar. (F. -L.-Gk.) M.£. 

^ramnufi.^O. ¥. gramaire (XIII ceiit.% 

— Laic Li.gramfftaiiia^ ^ramnjan Schwaii). 

— Gk, yfxixiiijaTiicrj, grammar.— Gk. ypa/i' 
tiaTiHo^, knowing ouc^h letters ; sec below. 

grajumatical. '.F.-L.— Gk.} M.F, 
^grammaiuai; fiom t,, grammatitits , gfam^ 
matical. » Gk, fpaitfaxriK&s^ versed iu one^s 
letters.— Gk. -^/mm^t-, stem, of fr/Kl>t>4a, 
a ictlcr. — Gk. ^pd^fifj lo write. See 

QrampnStaliLT^efisib. (F,-L.) Spdt 

grampasst, ad. 1655.— A. F. ^dOTjfctif ; 
Blk Bk, Adm. 1. i~,2.^L.gtwfd€mJftstem, 
ace q( graftt/if /isdj, grCAl fiab. 

Qranaify, storehouse fof ^ain. (L.) 
L. grd/tartaf pi. — L, ^ra^MWi, corn, See 

Grand, great. (F. - L^) O* F. grand, 

ST&ndeer ^ Spanish nobleman. (Span. 

— LO Span, grarttie, great; also, a 
noblcn^ui.— L. grarufftH, act. o( grandis, 

gT&ndeitr, greatness. (F.-L.) F. 
grandeur; formal with muffin -tur (L, 
-Srffk)^ from grand, £ix;at- 

g^r&ndiloq^uent, pompous in speecli. 
^L.] Coini^d Iroiu L,. gramii-^ decl. stem 
of grandii, great; and h^ueni-, item of 
pres. pt. of /c?^/if^ lo speak \ see Xio^un- 
oiouB. 'I'liL- true L. form is grandi- 

GronS'a, a furn-honse. (F.-L.) O.F. 
gran^, a barn, a iinai-bouse. i-Late L^ 
grdnta, a bam. »L, ^r^^J/iH/n, corn. 

fanite, a bard Monc. (tL&L~L.) 
grtiiiiia, granite, speckled stoac. — 
litX. grant/if, pp, o( grajtifi, to reduce to 
grains (hence, to speckle^. — IiaJ. grant?, 
aen'in.^L-grdaumj&gtaiai sec G^roin. 

Grant. ..F,— L,} M. E. grtiunfitt,^ 
O. V.graanter, grauttier, Uiler spelling of 
eriianter^ creauUrf to cautiuo, o^saie, 
guarantee; whence tlie later senses, to 
praniise^ yie(d; Late L. trtani^re, for 
*£tcdetttdrt. — L. err^tftt-^ ftcm of pm, 
pt^ of cr?derti to tmS't. Sec Creed. 

GrazinlQ, a little grain. (L.j L. grA- 
ttuium, rlimii), oigrdnum, a grnin. 

Grap«. (F.-M. H. a) A. i\ ^tf//. 

M. F./MJ/^/v^, ' tinnch, of duller uf grapes; ' 
Cot. [It) E., tUe sense ba« changed, fruui 
cluoCcT in single bcny.] The orifr, scHi^ 
uf gra/>pc viMA 'ft liooV/ llitn cTusLercd 

fniit,*M, H. G, kn^/t^ O. li, G. Mr/ 
a hook> Allied to CraiBp, Tbe wnWi 
of "^hook' and 'cb&ter' result from that 
gf ' clatching.' 

Gntp^e^ descriptive, pertoiDing 10 
wriun^. L- ^Gk.) L. ^ttj/^/Vkj^ belong- 
ing to painting or drawing. — Gk. '^pajput6t, 
the same. ^ Gk. *fpa^viv, 10 write. Allied 
to Carvft* 

Grapnel^ a grappling-iron. (F. 
M. 11. G.j M.E. grafiewl Dimin. 
M. F. gfafipm, 3 gfapJieL—O. F. gra^ 
a hook. — O. H.G. krapfo^ a hook; 

^aupla, ta dntch. (F.-M. H. cy 
Properly to wJtc with a grapnel. — M. ' 
grappa, »b., ' ihegr&ppU of a *hip; * Cot* 
^ O. F. grapp€y a hook (above^, 

0za#p. (£■) M. E, grojpeu, used ia 
the sense ^ to grope.* A^s«t gmpseii, ia 
Hoccleve. Prob. for *grab-scn, closely 
allieii to Grab, q. v. Ci, E. Friea* 
grapstHj to clntcb : Low G. ^rapUft j 
E- Fries, grapsy a bnjidfuJ ; aUo Lith. 
grdp-ti, to grab (Klnge). 

Gvass, (F.') M.E. ^tf.f, grest aUo 
^rjf. A. S. ^*fj, ^jTffj.+ Du. led. Gatb. 
G. gras ; iawed. grisSy Dan. ^n«. Tcui. 
type 'gra-SQm, p. ; from •|to-, tbe 
ofwhtdl is doubtful; ci.grow. 

Orate (0> ^ framework of iroQ bai 
(Late L. - L.) M.E. grafi. - Ijite L, 
grdta, rrafa, a grating. — L, cnitfs, hardlesi 
See OrAte. 

Grate l^). to mb, scrape. (F.-Teut.) 
O. F, graitr (F. ^ m/^^), - Swed. kr^tt 
Dan. kratte, to scrape ; 0. H. G. tkrat 
(< ^krti/foH), Co scrape. 

Gratefhlt pleasant » ^ Hybrid; F.— 
dwj' [it The first syllable is from O. 
graf, pieasiugr ffom L,grdtm; with £. 
suffix '/;/. 

gratify. (F.~L.) M.¥, granjUr*^ 
L. ffnUi/tiiffe, grdti^inri, lo please. »f 
grdti-, for ^^tuSt pleasing; fttij ^fiw 
lot/iiiirny to make. Der. gra(ifi<t atitf 
gratis, freely. (L, J L. /TffVw, adi 
fn:ciy ,; for grdiiis, »bi. pL oi griiii 
grace; sec QriMe. 

gratitude, (K.^L,) f. gratti 
^Ukit L, /^fiUiftidttuttt, acc. <ii gratitm 
lhankfuln»s5. — L. grdtHi. pleasing. 

gratuitous, Ircdy given. (L.) 
^ta!Hit us, trctl)' given j wilb suflii -pi 
Fnun grdiuS- 
gratoit^, a present. tF.- L,) O. 




tuititi (above). 
gratolate, t n congratulaie. ( L.) 

From pp. ml 1.. ^ip^dtutiiiJ, lo wish ft ptr* 
ft<Mi jojf. As if for *j^aii-tMitirf ; uom 
\^g*aiHS^ plca&ing, Bfugm. L ^ 986, 

C&aTO C0» ^** tut, cngravt, ,E.) M. E. 
grautn, A. 8. ^rttfutt^ pt, t. .^ttj^+I^"* 
grtn^m^ 'DckTi. grave, Icel. ,^r/rt, M. Swtrd. 
grafva, lloth. ^rafian, G. gra^fH. Tent, 
tyjw *grahan-j pL t. *^m*. Cf, Khsb, 
froA*^ fl lornb^ grave. Dar. gravi, ab., a 
thing ciK «ir (iiig onl r A- S. .-fr^. 

GwfcTe (1). sati iF.-L.) F. .fTTtrrtif.- 
l^gratiitH, ncc. of ^titmii, heavy. +Goth, 
J(a«rHf; Gk. ^aptir, Skt. gunt-t heavy. 
Brn^rm. i. f 665* 

OraveL (K — C) M, E, grautL-- 
O. b.rrfltM'/f, dimin. of O. V.grovi, gravel. 
Of Celtic origin; from Cell, bue V"tW-, 
■s in hret. fpvHan, g;\. Com* greu\ 
gT«vcl, W. ^i), ptbbles. 

an sidj, formed from gretn^f (for grtaves, 
q,v.}, refase of tallow. Hence grm^ i-^ (' ) 
tallowy, i'»^ fat, gravy. 
Qray, (E.) M^ E. gt^ay, grey. O. 

^Twr, Dan, grva, bwcd. ^r^» G. grau^ 
O, H. li. ^ra (gen.^ilw-*^/). TciiL stems 
*gr,^g-, *p^^ie-, <*^^^WM. 

QMiie tl), to Bciape slightly. (£,7) 
Fenoerly ^v/r. Appsrently a peculiar 
ue of ^4«r» lo crop giut ; perhaps con- 
Atied with jvjr, i. e. to tcrapc. See Baaa ; 
and Kc QU^iiOo. (Doubtfal.) 

GtfftSfl(3),tofeeckascattlc. (CO M.£. 
gnstHt tL a. S. grttrian.^A. S- gr^rf, 
gross ; see Gxnaa. Der. groM-i^er (tf. 

GTea»e. (F.-L.) M.E. gnu, grrtr, 
— A, J*, ^rfissf, rraisst, ^tiics*, Pa. ivi, 
10. i- Late L. type *i-rassia.^L. i-rassujf 
thji:l-. fat. See Crasa. 

Oi:«»t, lE.) M. E. grti, grteL A, S. 
j^r.-d/. + Du. ^FT«fj C. ^Tftfj, Tent, type 

GreareB ^1), Graraflt tcditnent of 

meUed tallow. ^L.) L, Fries, grafi; pi. 
grti/en^ ereavrt.^hM. Swcd* grtftear^ dirt ; 
hmgrtfwar^ lit. ' light-dirt, re(i»e of tal- 
low in candle^moking ; Swed.dlil..^rn>ar, 
pi., gTMvei ; Low Ci.^fw^, gtcaves; G. 
gi'iibt. O. H. Ct. griHb&,grmpo, 

0r*ftTW (3), leg-atmoor, ^F,) O. F. 
^r/vts, ' (tooCa, also greaves;* Cot. Cf. 
i>^»XLgrr^, gTWVtt, pi of grr/ta.^O. h- 


grrtfft Picard grrtf, the abinlc, ihiii. 
Origin nnknown. 

mebe, a bird. (F.) K, grthe. Cot, 
givtn; j^rmilx, ' a sca-m«w/ (u a Savayatd 
word. Of unknown origin. 

Greedy. ■ E.) A. s, /ri*/i^, ^A/i;r-, 

On. gref$gf Iccl. grtWttgTf Dan. ^fraiirfy 
Goth, gridags ? cf. Skt* gjrdhr^-, greed 
from ^^Aj 10 be greedy* The »b. 
hunger, answers to IceL grOOr^ Goth. 
gridiit, hunger ; Tciil, type *grddui. 

Qireen* !.Ei) M.E.jfnvn. A*S.^Tifti/. 

+ Du. p^oett, led. gtvttitf Dim* 5wed> 
jp^i'W, G. ,^*/fl Tent* type *g*vnJot, 
earlier lypc *g/3-m't (Sievers^. Cf. A. S. 
grv-varif to giow. Allied to Ofow. 
Gri£U is tJic colour of gr&wing herbt, 
Der. greftu, pU sb. See Sward. 
Greeug'a^et 3 gteen plum. Named 
from Sir W, Oaffr, of Hengrave Hall» 
Rcir Bury, befoce a,d. 17^5. There la 
also & It/ut^ ^ogVj A ytttirta Gagff and a 

Greet (,1), to wibte. (E.) U.^grtten, 
A.S. ^f/fl«, lo visitt addresi.H|-DB./«i^£f«, 
G- grussm ; O, Hsls^ gtvtutn* Teut. type 
*grd/'Jan~ ; from the sb. '.fttW-j u in Du. 
j^A-/. G.^^nvj/, a salutation. 

Greet (j\ io cry, w«p. (K,) M 
gfr/eu. A.S.gri^diti^gr&ati.'^lccl.grd. 
Dan. grat^, Swed. gr^ta, Goth, gretan 

Gr^arioue. (L.) L. grtg6ri»it be* 
longing to a flock. -^.L. ,$ti<^-. stem dgrtr^ 
a flock. Hr-O. Irish .^Tai|^< .1 herd af horse*, 

Grenikde, a war-missilt. (F, — Span.— 
L. . Formerly alio^'rawa*yip, which is like 
the Span. form. Named fTom its liikeneis 
la a pomegranate, being filled wiili com 
bustibles as that is wiLhaeeds. — Y.grenadf^ 
*a poroegranet, a ball of wild-tire ; * Cot, 
wSpaa. granada, the soixte; grxtnado, full 
of Kcda.— L, jTifneUW, full of «eeds 
gr^Hum, a grain; aee Grain. D 

13^T^y* the same at Oray. 

Gre7h.otULd. ;E.) M, ^.grtthsuHd, 

grghavHd, A.S.grtgJiMvd; where ^r^f-« 
gfttg- (leeL gr^-)f for Teut. *grau/o: 
Cf. I«I. greyhimdr, a greyhound, from 
IceL gftyy a dog^ hundr^ a hound; ^wy- 
Asifl. a birch. % Kot allied lo gray* 
which ii ^t■p^csent^^d in Icelandic by jfnfr. 
Griddle, ■ pah for baking cakcj* 
(F.-L. Alio girJJt. M, E. grtdii,^ 
U. F. grtdti (Moisyj Diet, of Norroan 
patois), grfii tOode^oy); cf. gridi/Ur, 
vb.»to giill (same). — Late L, ^crSiicuhim„ 

fuU , 

L - 



^ / x^ 



'V »-/^ 

<t:". . --• J- r^e -rl :: 

■ -41 — ". y p-:. 1 itiT 

3fcr" •■-■. 'i. N::t". 

»*•."'' -'lee^ * — ^i. n .- F. 
laJK-v r.-iii vie :'Ari^ ^T *re» 

:t : -4'. 


:-"; .'/I.-, z^*; .TZ-i -.\^. roTT K-ize ,*f i 2«-nf 

'^V'l. /^*w? r.'.-.sft. -i-rrisfiz:* iViz. .iiTT*-. a ♦rli-t' Cf. 


I tif-grijwim^ horror. 



Oriflt, n supply of com to be erounfl. 
(K.) A. S. ^sf^ From the base of 

ffristle, (E.) A.S, jTjjrfr/, cartilnge; 
alUcd lo ^i/. and A. S. grislMti^H, tu 
gnuh die teeth. From tbe bfi*c oigrijul. 
with rejfeitncc to the ntccasity of cniiich- 
ing it if eMeo. So also Du. ^tiorsketty 
gristle, from JtHonen, ia crunch. 

Qrft, coftrtc sand. \E.) Fonneily^w^A 
A- S. ifT'W. grit, + O, Fries, grfii Iccl- 
J77^, G.jrjVj. AllicJ to Grout, Qroat 

GriislyiQriisled, grayish. (F.-M. 

W. G.) Prom M. E. p^sel^ a giaj'-haired 
man. — K.^/x, gray- — M, H. G.jfrf'f^gray; 
cf, Vj.j^rets, a gray*h»ireti man.+ Da.^^J, 
O. SftK, ^'.t, Rray. 

QrOfUa* <,E.) M. E. grtmin. A. S. 
grdiiuin , to groan. Tcul. type •.fTOirtiJirart-, 
Irom *jp-tiin, 2nd grade of •^rff>w»f-j as 

appei part of the shoulder, bkdc,' %ai 
gtoiHt ^mowE of B. hog.' The O. K^ 
grvia ako m^ns ^extremitj, betidl&Dd.'—] 
Late L. type ^Frunmttm, from "L. j^ntt 
nftft to fiTunt.] It iutswcT^ to piov. E, 
gratM, the pluce where the bmnch of a 
tteeforks, the g^toin (Drayton, Pol. L 495). 
^lcel.(fjvm, a branch, onn; Diin. ji;rftt 
Swec] . jfTf « , bran ch, arm , fork. Der. ^rvi'rt 
«/, hnvihg iinfjular curve* that fork off. 

GromweUj a plant. (F.-L.) Fo> 
merly grdnuUe, ;^timeUe, ^amti\ grumgl, 
— O* F. grtmiiy ^enil^ 'the herb gfomil^J 
or grnymil * ' Cot. Prob. from L. grdnum^ 
a ^rnin : from itshaid seeds. 

QrOOia. (Low G. w F. - Low C.) 
M. li. ^omrf. Either from M, I^xi. ^4?w, 
Icel. ^mry n boy, hd (Egilsson); or 
from O. F. •^frow<, in the dimin. grenut, 
L ladj boy, servant^ valet twhcncc F. 
gotfrmef). wbich is prob. from the same 

In O. IL G. /rfwtfMp G. f«rrrt/«j (0 weep, M, Dti. gram. And see Bridegroora. 
grin: Pu, grijmn, to weep, Peihaps Der-j^ri^ww**/, 

»lljcd to Grin. I OroOTO. (Du.) Du, groe/, frl^fvi, A 

ChWAt COi^P^^c^^* "^o^- (^) M.E. trench^ A cha.nne1, R groove. ^Du. grav£H 

grot, A. S. grv/, Fjom *p^', weak 
gisde of VwA (« in A. S. g-rtot). See 
Grft, Orout. 

Groat .i)i a coiawoith4^. (Do* ^ Low 
G.) M.E. gra/f.m,}A. Du. gr06ff.. — O. 
Low G- ^Tfl/f, a coin of Bremen ; meaning 
'great,* became large In compa[]£oti with 
the copper coins iSfhttfortH) formerly in 
vie there ; cf* Do. grocl^ fircat, cogD&tc 
With K»ptixt 

QrOfttv, gmin of oats. (E.) M,E» 
groirs. A» S. gmtatt, pK groats; A. S. 
Lcrchiioms^ lii. 293. 

GlTOGOr. ( F. *- L, ) Formerly grosser or 
iMgrpjtvr, n wholesale dealer.— O. F, gros- 
n*r, m wbotsAlc dealer. — O. F. gtWt great ; 
tee Grort, Der. gr^fgr-y^ formerly frw- 

grog, «piril» and water. (,¥, - LO 
Shntt tot grfigram; it had its name from 
Admiral Vernon^ Dicknamcd Oitf Creg^ 
from bLa gregram breeches {ah* A. IJ. 
'745)i ^c ordered the sulors to dilute 
th(.if ftim with water. 

grogr&lil*a^tQfr, (F.-L.) FonjKrlf 
fr^gr^Hy so called from its coane f^fain,- 

Cpt t grpef), to digj see GhraTo (i). 
Sr. E. .ifT-«y^, a cavt 

Gro|l6» (E.) A.S. grtffijaH, to seize^ 
handle ; hence, to feel <inc s way. — A.S. 
grd^, and grade of gripan, to &eue. See 

Groifl. (F.-L.) O.K. grvs (fern. 

groisi:, grois, great. — L. ^roirjiU', fal 

Ch?ot, (F*-lUl.-L,-Gk.) r.grvi/c, 
a cave. — ItftL grafta.^L* cry/*fa,^Gk. 
(rpviTTij, a vault ; see Cirypt. 

grOt«sqit«, (F.- Kal. -U- GVA 
F. grotti^ui, ludicroRs. — Ital. grot^tca, 
carious painted work, such as wa4 cm- 
ployed oQ the walla of ^otloes, «* lull 
gretia (above). 

grotto. (lUL - L - Gk.) Better 
gretttt. — \ist\.gr&tta (above). 

GrOTUld. (E.) A-S, gruNii, + Du. 
grand, G.grufki; Goth, gruttdU'. Tent. 
type ^grumiut ; also *grunthuMf whence 
Icel. grttnnr^ Dan. Swed. grunJ. 

gronndliilg, a spectator io tht^ pit 
of n thtatie. (.T,.) Ffom grpurtJ, with 
doubtt: tiimin, suffix "i-ing, with a coo- 

nC. F. grvtgrai*»f grogram' — 0> F^ ^''ff.^ lempltiaus torce. 

coarse ; graitn, gmm. gronadfl, dr^s. (E.) So called 

Groin, the dcprtuicn of (he human from being at the bottotn. CI Gti 
botiy in Iront, at the junction of the thiijh grunrtdast lees, from grunnd^ bottoia, 
with the tmnk. iScand,) [Cotifased *ith groand; \t\%'tigrH»t(sit^t^g^^iTomgrHnMt^ 
F. <'iil. ^ivcs 'greiu tU^rc, the b«ftil ot I the bottom. 




gl^on&dael, • plant. (E,) AlfiO 
i^rcuiiJnifiU i fuUand*5 tr. of PHny). A. S, 
^^m<frr,i.'tfx<, a» if ' grountl-flwaUawcr,' 
but feally from the older (orm^ipttuigmtii/gt, 
lit. ' stvallower of pus,' froro iU supposed 
healing qualities; from A.-S. ^wrf, pus. 

growidsill, ihrcfthoUU {\L) From 
^jfrowWnnl «"//, q. v. Also spelt gntnsef 

OvOUp. (F.-Ttal.-G.) ¥. grovpc- 
Ital. /*wj>/w, * knot, henp, group. — O.H.G. 
kr&ffi a crop^ wen on ibe throat, orig. n 
bunch ; Low G. kropp ; Bfte Crop. 

QrOOae^ a bird. iF.— L.-Gk.) Gr&Hu\ 
appears to be a false form, evolv^id from 
the old word gruiy which seems to have 
been taken as & pL form (cf, tnome, mue), 
— M. F. griesike^ firay, spcckted; ptrdrijc 
gruscks, the gray partridge, paul^ ^ruschif 
* a moorhen, the hen of the grice or moor- 
game;' Cot. The oldest iorai\s,j^eochis 
(1 3th cent., in Littr^, 9. v. ^i}i'hi\ variant 
of Gritiche^ fem, ftdj,, Greek. — Late L- 
Grasfisca, f* of Grtu^iscus, Greekish.— 
L. C?r.7ffWf Greek. — Gk, Fpfluw^t, Greek, 
^ The mcfliiinff was changed to * gray * by 
lUc influence of F.^f^ fM'* 

Of OILt, coarse meal ; CrrOQ'bi, dregi. 
(t.) M. E. ^rtj/. — A. S. ^«^ coarse 
meflL Cf. Dii. j-rw/; Icel. ^a«/r, porridge. 
Dun. grod^ Svred, ^of, boiled groatf ; G. 
grUtMft groflls; allied to Uthua^a. grudas^ 
corn ; ll tHJus, rabble. CL Orit. 

Chrove, a collection of trees. (E.) M. E. 
groui iwwh it =i;j.— A. S, jn^ a giove. 

GTQV6lf 1^0 taU 6at on the ground. 
(Scand.) Dae to M, E. groveling^ pro- 
perly nn adv., signifymg ilat on the ground; 
also spelt grajling. grff^inges, where the 
snfibces "A»F, -fiagts are adverbial; cf. 
hiad-lan^^ detr^/tng.^'lai. gru/a, in phr. 
/437<i « grti/H^ to lie gTOVellmg, symja a 
grftfu, Wi Bwim on the belly; cf. al*o 
grii/a, gmjla, to grovel; Swcd. dial, 
£r»Va, flat on otie's bee, /r]^a il gntve, to 
u« on oQe'£ face. 

Cfarow. (E.) A. S. grv^imn, pt. t ^f«r, 
pp.^nftM«.+Dq. CTTct<r(/#«, IceL^rM, Dan, 
/>TiMt S*ed, ^yis. Esp. to produce ^ools, 
as herl>5; allin! to Oi-e«n. J>vt.grffw^k j 
from Icel. gro'ir. ^owth. 

Orowl, to ^niiBble. (F.-Low G.) 
Picard ^*?w//r. — E, Frie$. gruH«n\ cf. 
Da* groikn^ to eitinible ; G. groiUtt^ to 
nimble; Norw* gryht to growl- (Sec 
gtoiin FrandtO 

Omb, to grope in din. (£.) 

gr&hben. Cf. E. Fries, gruMv/a, to g 
about- Hh ^w G. gntbhtln. the sa 
G . griihetrf, O. H . G* grulnfoM^ to rake, 
gmb. Allied to Grave (1). 

Grudge, to gmmblc (F,) M 
gronhcn^ gmciktn^ to rourtnur. — O. 
grouner, ^ronchfr^ to murninr ; Low 
grousstlre, A. D. 1358. Probably^*! 
gru-nt, gr^whlare all from the same Imi- 
tative base ; cf, Gk. ypv, a grunt- 

Gmel- (F. ^ O. Low G.) O. F. grvff 
{F, ,prwai#), — Low L. *griiielhtmj dimia. 
of grutum^ roeaL — O. Low O. grUtt Da. 
gruii^ grout, coarse meal; lee Qrotit. 

QraeBOiiie« horrible CScaud.) Dan. 
gruwifi, drucl, — Dan. ^r«, horror; with 
soffii -som, as In virk-sprnf active. 
Dan. gru£, to dread, gnt^/ig, horrid ,+ 
grttwsaam,0.grausam; yt^H.G. grits, 
^utoeram, from M^ H. G^ grutve^ horror. 
Allied toO. Sax. ^*rj, A. S.^rKrt, horror, 
A. S. be-greosan, to o\'erwhelro with teiror. 

0nitf, rough, surly. (Du.) XiM. gnf, 
big, coarse, lotid. blunt. + G.groh, coai«e 
(whence Swed*^^, Dan. grsv) \ O. H. G. 
gerab; E. Fsits. grtt^g, 

Qvamble, to munmir. (F.— G,> F* 
grammtkr (Cot). — Low and prov, G. 
grummeUrty to gnifflble, frequeat. of 
grummen^ grommen, to grumble ; M, Du. 
gr&mnuUn^ frequcat of grammen. Fram 
*gi'umm', weak grade of Teut, *gremtnam*y 
to ra|je, as in M.H.G. and A, ^,grim 
to rage. Cf. O.gram, anger, and E. 

Gnun6. a clot of blood. (F.— . 
Rare, M.F.jTWAVf, a duster^— L.^TiirMi 
a Uttle heap. 

GrtUHmet, GTOilL0t, a ^hip-boy, 
ring of roiK!. ■ F, -Teut.) O. Y.grffmig, 
a servin|;;i"boy ; cf. Span. grumfU, a ship- 
bov. — M. Dn.^dffj, a boy; see (Jroomu 

dxunsel \ ve aroOGdEUl. 

Qrniit* (E) M.E. grHnffr$. A, 
grunnetian, extension of A-S. gt^M 
to gmnL + Dan, ^TK^^f , Swedf^^frj-w/j 
^pnttJ*iA} ; 10 at4oL,,{^j/Nnrnr, Gk 
AH imitatiTe ; cf, Gk. 7pv, the noise 
by a pip. 

Guaiacunir ^ I^ind of resin, from 
num vitar. w'^paa. — liayti.) S[wn. 
A-^, gu^yacan, lignnm vjtat. From 
language r>f HaytJ. 

QuAOACO* a ^ind of Peruvian 
1 Span. - Pera V. i Span . guamtr^ ( 
— Fertiv* Ai#affw7f-iv, a wild sheep. 

ChuuiO. 'Span. — Perav.) Span 




Peniv. AndNHt dung. 



Gn&nuLtee, sb, ^F. - O, H. C.) Far- 
tncrly ^^uanmty or guramtjr, which are 
better apcllxDgJ. — O. F. ^nzni^, garran- 
ii*i a. wamiily ; fern, of pp, of guraHftn 
to wumnt. «■ O. F. ptraut, tztaratit, n 
warrant; see Warrant, ^vr, gnamnteej 
vb. ; cf. K. garaniir^ 

Guard, vL {Tf.-O. hoig G.) O. F. 

^j-i/fr, earliest fonn UHmier,io gnard.— 
O. Sax. ftun/i'rt, to wntch ; cngnatc ^tb 
A. S. xv4ardmtt^ to wfttdi, from ufatd^ 
sb. ; se{^ Word. Dsf . ^uard-'ian ; &e« 

Ouava. Spflii-— W^Iod.) Sytn^guay- 
afiii ; borrowed ftora the native name in 

Oadgtfon. (F.-L.-Gki M.K^. 

imic^^V. gouJffH.^'V.. giVtidnemy ace. of 
j^V^iff, ft by- fonn of gv^ius. -^Gk. ffv&tSt, a 

gii(igcon, tench, 

Chieber, Gliaber^ n 5re-wonhtpper. 
(F.-Pert.) F. i/irf^rt. — Pei*. ^ir, a 
priest of fire-wotibippeia ; Rich., Diet., 
p. iii^, 

OueldeivrOSti* (I>nO Here guiidir 
standi for (Jur/sfrr, the F. tpcUiag of the 
province of Gefderlanti in HoUond^ 

GnOI^dOIlt recompcn?** (F. — O. H, G. 
HHti L.) O. F, ^terdoH (luL ptidar. 
^flfir). — Low L. vftdi-rdmum, a ttngutar 
Compound of O. M. G. tvidar^ back, aj^ain, 
Kiid L. donum, a gif^< The word is rrally 
a half-transUtion of the tnie form O. IL G. 
VfidarfoH, a recompense. Here uidar - 
G, joifder, hick again ; and Ion [Q.iokft' is 
c<^iiATe with A* S. i^an, Du. /ft?«, a 
ttWArd, alUcd to L. ^u-trum., gain ; Bragrn. 
i- ( 4go. So also A. S* wtSer-leatt, a 

GneriUft, On^rrills. irre^Iar war- 
fare* I Span, -O, IL G.) Spaxi. ^i^rri/fa, 
a ikiirmUh, lit. 'little war;^ dinjtn, of 
gwrra, Trar. — O. H. G. tuerra, war; tee 

Guaaa. (Scand.) M,E. j^wfff. — DflTi. 
jTJj<r^ Swed. _jfij/ij, to guess. 4-K. Fries, and 
Do, ^Vj/w, Iccl, ^ti^^i N- Fries, ^is*. 
gidu. AlUcd to nan, gjftte, to guc-ss ; 
ihe Icel. jTJifrff may be for *git'Ska^ a deno- 
minntive vh, from a base 'gii-isko-f m- 
l^efitoui, acute, frDiu ^/d, to get, aIio, 
topi«5. Sec Get. 

Gciavt. .Scand.*) M. E, gest. mmJccX* 
gtitr. Dan. giat, Swrd.^j/.+A.S. ^w//* 
£jfit\ Du. .tittJ/, Goth, ^^Ci, G. jpwj^. 
Tent type *gastiz ; Tdg. typ* *gksirh ; 
cf. Rnis. jv/f(^)i A guest, alieq; L. A^///;, 


a itrnngef, also an eaemy. Allied to 

Gnida. (F. - Ital. - Tent.) M. E. 
gydea (ako £J«'m), — F. gvidery to guide.— 
IXal^guiilare ; cf. O. F. gni^, SpaD.^Wi'dr. 
The^ (for re) shoirs the word to be of 
Teul. origin. — CSax-TuF/ffM (A^S.^^iyiBM), 
to pay heed to; O. 11. G. W}xan. Allied 
to Wit, Cr Gay-rope, 

Guild, Gild. Sciind The spelling 
guild indtcatK the hard g, M. £. ^7^. 

« Icel. fi/j/f r a payment, a guild ; Dati, 
^'Ailf. --Icet gfaidij (prea. t. geid), to pay ; 
cognate with A, S. ^/o^^n, to pay, yield; 
Kt Yteld.+Dn./iw; whrnpc G. gr7df^ 

Onildert a Dn. coin. (!>«. - G.) 
Adaptation of M. Do. gtiiden^ * a gilder/ 
Hexnam. From Teut. adj. type *gwdiAi- 
ftos, golden, from Tent. ^^Hlik-om^ gold. 
S« Qold. 

Guile, a wile. (F.-O. Low G.) O. F. 
guilt. From b Low G. 'zci/; df. A. S. 
ffff/, a wile (A* S. Chron. 1 1 aS^. "Dtt.he- 
guitf. vb.. with E, prefix ^- ( — ^V 

Gnillotilia. (F.) Named after t 
French physici&n, /. /. GuiUoiitif died 
A.D. !8j4. Firit csedj 11-93. 

Guilt, crime. (E.) M. E. giit. A. S. 
gyltt a trespass; also, a fine for a trc«- 
pasa. Teut. type ^gnM;, m. ; peibapa 
rdsled to A. .S. gsldan, to j^y^ yield; «ee 

Gttineft* £Arricaru) First coined of 
African (>old irovci the Gmnen coast, a. P- 
1663. Der, gwinga-Jifii'I (.from Guinea). 
% The guinea-pig is from S. America; 
&o that it may mean Guiana pig 

GnitniZ0i a lace of cordt^ kind of gimp. 
( F, ^ Teu t,) F. guif'Hrt. - Teul- *ti'i>«f , 
to wind, weave ; as in Goth, tvei/kin, to 
CTOwn (whence aw/jfj.awrcalh); G, tvei/m, 
to rfel^ wind. 

Guia«, way, wise, (F. - O, H. GO 
M. E. giif, gnisi- — O, F, guist, way. wite, 
manner. — O. IL G- rptsa (O, tveiie), a 
wise; cognate with 'WLia {i}. 

Guitar. (F.-L.-Gk.) ¥.guitart.-m 
L. citkara. — Glc. HiB^pa.^ m. Iyr«; aec 

Gnlea, red, (F.-U) M. E. gouUs.~ 
¥ . g3ieuU% ^\t%, red; answering 10 Late 
l^g»ia (pi, oi gula'^y meaning (i) mocih, 
[i) retldened skui^ (3) gules. (See Guta 
ID Ddcange.^ — L. gttla^ the throat. 

Golf. (F. - Ital. - Gk,) Formerly 
fpmifi.^Y. gatft.^\\A\, ^^.— Late Gk. 
tt&K^^^ a variant of Gk. «^vd«, the boaom, 





*. deep hollow, bay^ creelc. Der. 

ChiU(Oi>^ bird. (O Com.^/^>«t 
gall; V^\ j^//ttff I Bret, gwel&n't O, Irish 
foiifrm, *a]gciJo,' 

Gull (j\ ft dnpe. (C) The samct 
ffom the notion lliat a guiiytma a stupid 
bird, ^ But cf. Du» ^/, soft, good- 
Qatar«ri ; M^ Do. gnlU^ * « great wench 
without wit/ Hexham. 

QttUet, the throat (F. - L.) M. E. 
gslei. — }A,¥,gouIet (Cot.j; dirain. of O. F, 
gote, gn^uU (K ^evW), the throat — L 
^/a, the tbro4t. l^rugiD. i. $ 499. 

ffuUyp Hl channel worn by water. (F.— 
L.) Formerly guUet^ — M. V, gonler, *a 
gullet, a deep gutter of water ; ' Cot. The 
£Hmt word LS QuUet (above). 

dulp. (E») M.E. gulpeiSi S^PP^^} 
gin^btn, Cr EU Fries, ana Du, guipfn^ 
to ■Wftllofli' eagerly; Du. ^^^ a gfCftt 
billow, drattght, gulp. Prob. pf iraila- 
tive origin* CL Swcd. giitpHy to dtvonr. 

Gum i^Ot^^^ ol^lbe jaws, (E,) M.E, 
ffffni€. A. S. grmWf jawi, palate. + Iccl. 
gffmr^ Swed. goM \ ci. G* /^umen^ Lith. 
^Hf»/^f, the palate, fintgxD.i. f 196^ 

Q-nm i,i 1, resrn of ccitain trces^ (F. — 1^. 
— Gk.) M, Fl jymme.^F. gommt.—h. 
gummi^ *« Gk, |f('P^(M^ gum. (Frob, of 
Egyptian origin ; Coptic komij ^m.) 

ypOlL. (E,A) MtE. jvfffff ; whence W. 
gWH^ a l^ii (u early as the fomteenth 
cent.). Of ofecnre origin, 

GutLn;. a coarse kind of lacking. 
(Hind.- Skt.) Hind, and Mahratii ^^* 
gpiitf a ULckr sacking. — Skt, goni^ a sack 

GuiLWaltt, tipper ed|^ of a ship's side. 
(E.) ^c gtfHifa^ or gttftne/ in Kcncy 
07'$)' '^ ^'^'^^ '^ ^^ outer timber on a 
^ip'« fiidc ^ and the guu-walt it a uvh 
from which jwwf were pointed. A «tw/« 
is fl ' beam ' ; see W&le. 

GlU*gle, to purl. {)tal.-L.) In Spoi- 
aer, 1 liciitylia, 3. Imitated from Ital. 
g»rgvgfiare, to purl, bubble, boi] ; gvrgo- 
gli0t iJurgUne of a stream.— FtaL ftw^^, a 
whirlpooi.— Li.^r^i, whirlpool; nLgur- 
grt/90, gullet i>ee QorcD^ So also Da. 
gorgt!, G, garget^ throat ; from L. gur- 
guiie. Brujjm. i, ^ 499, 

Omxnard, Qn^ ii«t, a fuh, (F, - U ; 
witM Ttui, sujix.) Gurnard is the better 
and fuller form. The word means * a 
gnmter/ from the soimd which the fish 
atak«« wbeo taken oul of the water — 

M. F. groHgnard (F. grognani}, ||:nut- 
tn^, gniQter, wheooe M. F. goumauid^ 

graugnautj gvniMd (Col.). — M, F. ^rtf/ff- 
cn to gmnl f with suffii -an^ (^ G, ^r/). 
— L. grUNntrej to gmnt ; »ee Qmnt. 

Qnsh. (E.) M. E. gusihett. K. Fries. 
gu5<n, to gush odU-I'^1' r>u- ^yjf»T to 
gush out(Kili(m); IceUjfMJd^allied to^/oja 
(pt,t.^wH)»Norw.^yArfl, toguih- Allied 
to Icet. gjota, to poisr, Goth, giuiatt, 
L. fHndtre. Cf- Du. gudsm, to gosh. 
(v^HhU,) See Gut» Geywr. 

GuBSet. (F,) F. guttsscr, ■ a gusset,* 
Cot, Also ' the pieoe of airaoor by which 
the arm-hole is covered,* id. Named fiom 
its supposed resemblance to a husk of a 
beao OT pea ; dimin. of F. gousse, bu^k of 
bean or pea; cf ItflL^wjnfl, a shell, htisk ; 
of unkDOWD origltL 

Omit (j). A sudden blast, gush of wind. 
(Scaud,) IccK gustrfa giisl, — IceL^j-^ 
weak grade of gjosa^ to gush ; see Quah. 
So aWo Swed. dial, grtst^ streaTn of air 
from an oven^ Norw. ^rf, a gust, 

Guflt (»], relisb, taste. .LJ \-.g**iim, 
a tasting; i^. gusfdrtt la \a%\a. (y^GKUS.) 
Allied to Choose. Der. dis-gitst. 

Gut, the intestinal cnnal. ;E,) ( 
word is allied to M.E, gote, pror, E 
a chAmiel.) M.E. ^M/Zr- A. S, ^i; pi. 
gut{as\ oiig. ' a chanoeL' Monc, QucUcn, 
P* 33Jt J' 198. — A, S, ,§1*/-, weak grade 
of Teut. *geutAn't A.S. g^toft, to pour. 
\yGHE\J.) + Dan. gydff, a lane, M. Da, 
gv/if a channel, G. gssstf a drain,* Sec 

Gatt^perclia. (Malay.) The %\ 
iiig gutta \% due to confuaon with LI 
gHtia^ a drop, with which it has nothing 
to do. — Malay ,^«fA,^/dA, gum, balsam; 
per^ha, the name of the tree producing it^ 

Gutter. (F,-L.1 M. iL gpfrrf, - 
A. F, gH/Urf ; O, K, gu/itrt, gufuti^rt 
(Littfi. fi.v. gouttih't, a gutter). Esp. 
used for catchiog drops ftom the eavea of 
n roof. "- Y. ^tt//f.— L. gufta^ a drop. 

GatturaJ. {F.-L.j ¥. gvtiurai.-~ 
guftHtiUitt belonging to the throat.— 
guttur, the throat. 

Onjr* a hideous creature, fright. <F- — 
Ital. — Teitl,) OKg. used of an effig)* of 
Guy Fawkes, — K C7H/,^ltaL Gut'dt ; of 
Tent, origin, Cf Qulde. 

Guy-rope, Gny, a guide-rope. 
to steady a weight in heaving. (¥. -- T' 
O. F*^«f>;ngnide, — O- F.^iVr, logui 
see GuldA. Cf. Spau.^ia, a guy- 




Onzile. iT,^ Apparently Etiggest«4 
by O. F. ^ffsifler, gvnUier^ to vomil 
[.(G^ftdefroy), understood to mean * to swal- 
[Jow greestily/ The 0. F. tfisgr^siUtr had 

Jlh WOKS (Godcfrqy). Cf. O. Y.gosi/Iier, 

it thro4t* ftlUed to ¥ . ^sitr, \\xe. throat. 

lemaler nource unknown. 

GynuiasiTiiu. {L.— Gfc.) 'L.gymtta- 
sinnl.—i'A. 7t7(i»'(W(*r, Aft athletic school, 
vfheie tncn practisetJ njJted, — Gk, yvfiva- 

£cd. Bar, j^ntmts/ = yvti^atni^t, a 
liner of athletes ■ jQfmnast^k, 

Gypsum. (L.-GJi.-Arob.) L, ^^ 
svm, chalk. — Ck, Tv^tw, chalk. I'rob. 
from VcTh. Jaftiin^ timer Arab.yV^i, piaster, 
mortar: Kich- Dicl-^ p 494* 

Gypsy. (F.-L.-^Gk,- Egypt.) Spelt 
^fsin, Spenser, M. Hnblard, 86. Sborl 
for M . E, Eji^pcien , — O. F. E^^utt, *- 
Late L. j^^piinnus \ from I^ ^Igyptius^ 
ui Egyptian.— Gk. AJt^ttioi,— tik, Af- 
■YiMTT^r, Egypt, ff The supposilion t>ifl.t 
ihcy came fiom Egypi wii* fftlsc ; their 
onninAl home wis Inula, 

^yr^, circakr courae. (L,--Gk.) f.. 
j^f*tts. • Gk* yCpot, ring, circle. Der. 
gyr-aif. from jip. c\ \ ,^ ^rAre, \ 

Gyrfalcon, Gerfalcon, bird oi ' 
prey. (F, — Teut. tind J..i Formerly gtf- 
/aitUffm; &\so j^tre/a$t4-att , iited by Trrvisa 
lotTAnshie L,jgyfv/ii/^o).^0. ¥. gerfalcon. 
-M, ir.G. girt'afkt~tiX H.G. g^r~, for 
/IW, greedy (whence al&u G. ^rVr^ a 
vnltore) ; and I* faifo^ n falcon, % L 
gyrefitife Is a tnistakeo iotm, 

Oyroii ; see Giron. 

GyrdS, fetter*. iF.) M, E. giuts, 
^tti/.- ,\. K. ^'f.^, fetters (Godeffoy). 
CX 0. H» C» h-vff/fn, to fetter. 

Sa, i^teij- (E/ An excUmatoryioiiDd. 
Cr O. Frie*, AflVp to denote laughter; 
G. A^; O. F. ^1^ 

S&berd&ttlLeifr * lelkr of small wares. 
(F/; S41 named from bis selling « stnfT 
called hapirtoM in A. F, ; see Liber Albus, 
e*l. Riley^ |vn. aj«i, a^i, The narpe of 
this KUifT i« of anknown nrigin. 

Hftberg^On, armour for neck and 
brra^i. (F.^O. H.G.) M,F.- Aa^tKSnm, 
AdwAr»/www, — O. F, haaitrgi^H^ kauhtr- 
jpn^ a haoberk; deriv. (treated m.% dlmin.) 
of O. F. Meuierc \ »e Hauberk. 

Habiliment, dreu. (F.-L.^ Y.hah- 

iUtmtnt, Juthmg.— F. MiUtr^ io clothe^, 
orig. * to get fearfy.'-F. habiit^ i^*dy, fit, 
— L. hohiiis, easy to handle, active. ^L. 
habrti^ to have \ 5«c Abl«. 

Habitf practice,ctastom.drT», (F. -L.) 
O. I'\ haifit, a dresa^a CDStom.— h.kabitttm, 
flcc. of ka&iius^ a coiidilion, dress. — I* 
hahitttir pp. of habefi, to have, keep, S« 
Bmgtn. i. § 6.^8. 

habitable. (F.-L.) l\Aa6i/a^U,^ 
I,. Aahitdi>ihs, that can W dwell in.- L. 
hahiiare^ to dwell^ freqtictit, of Ma^rt, to 

habitant. (F.-LO F. JuxbitMt, 
pres. pt. of habHtrj to dwell— 1, kaHtOrt^ 
frcqaent, of AaB^re (above). 

habitat, the natural abode of a |]lant. 
(L. ) L. hahitat^ it dwells (there) j 3 prei. 
5. of Jiabitdre, to dwell Cabove). 

habitation, abode. (F. - L.) F. 
At]/>itaiii>H, "• L. ace. haMidtimim. — L. 
Ati/'iiiifas, pp. of habitdrt^ to dwell, 
frc(|uent. of hahfrt^ to have, 

habitude. (F.-L.) F. kobUnde, 
custom. — L.^d,^iyii(/fj,condition. — L habil'^ 
as in haHius, p^n. o( Mbirt, to have. 

Haeiendftp a farm, estate, fann-hoUK. 
tS|h.ui. — L. ' ^pan, hacitnda^ an estate, 
fjtig. employment. [The c ifi pronounced 
a:^ (h in /^m.] O. !>i)an. /ai^r'ftt^a.^L 
/a,iemifi, thm^ to be dooe; gcnmdife 
neut. pL a{ foitrt, to do, 
Sftclc (1), to cat, mangle. (E.) M.E. 
hakken. A, S. hacaan, to cut, iu the 
cotapJS-katcian.^T)ji.hakkfrt, Dan. hakktj 
Rwcrl, ha^ha, G, Ji/tt-J^en, to ehop, hack, 
TcEt- type* 'Aai-jfafr-, •AoAjt^rlttjf-, 
Hack 3 ; see Hukney, 
Eachb^t. (F.-LowG.) AlsoMa^. 
•- M. I- . haquedtttti * a ha*juebul, a cdivcr' 
(i.e. aaortof masket); Cot. A corruption 
of Low G. hahtbuijt (f)u. haaHuj), an 
arauebua; due, apparently^ to &omc con- 
liuaon with O. F. bntfr, to thrust. Lit. 
* hook-gnu ; ' to called from the hook on 
the gun. by which it was hung on to a 
iupport. - 'lx>w G, hake, (Du. Aaai)y 
hook ; hisst (Da. i>us\ a gnn. See 
Arquebui ; and see Hook« 
Haokle ; r , Hatchel, *n instntmcnt 
for dressing flax ; skc Heckle. 

^**^^1f (I'l. long shining feathen on 

the neck of a cock. (E.) Probably allied 

to Hackle il\. 

Hackney, Hack^ a horse let oat fur 

hire. (F.) m.]i.haMeHty.^O.¥ .kafvtmr, 




'ttn Jimbling horse;* Cot. (Cf. 0. Span. 
Jivranea, Spaa. hacan4a, It*l* fhineetf short 
far ac^hiuea, the Minie.) ILxtcudcd from 
O, F, Aiii/M^f O, Spun* /fictj. Span. Aiira^ a 
nag, gelding; a word of unknown ort^nc. 
II //ac^ is short foi Aafktf£y, aod qaitc 
A laic form ; hence Aof A, verb, i. e. to use 
0$ a hack or hnckncy. 

Hftddock, 3 fish. (E. ^r. £, AaU^ok 
iXIVccnt.). Orig. doabtfnl; the Irish for 
' haddock * is (odog. 

BadeB, the abode of the dead. (Gk.) 
Gk. ^hii, oX^rfi (Attic), iS%i (Homeric), 
the nelher world; in Homer, ihe god of 
the nether world. Of rniknown origin. 

Hadji, Hajji, one who ttu perfonned 
the pilgrimage to Mecca, (Ajrab.) Arab, 
jJla/T, * a Christian who has performed the 
pilgrimage to Jeruulcmj or a Muham- 
medan [who has periurnied] that to 
Mecca, ; ' Rich. Dicti, p. 549. Or^. the 

H«amatite, H»morrhi^f« ; see 

Hematite, Hemorrhago. 

Saft, handle. {K.\ A. S. ha/t, a 
handle, •"A. S. ha/-, base of hihbtiH^ to 
lift; see Heare. + Du. Juft, Icel. h^fi 
(pron. ke/ti), G. htft, a handle. Lit, 
* that which is caught up/ 

Hag« (H.) M. E. htgg4i with same 
sCDEc oi A. S. fifZgtis^ a farVi a witch, 
a hag.+G. Acjrf, Nf, H. G. irt",T^, a witch, 
O. H, G. hiitiSja^ also hogaiitssa, a. fury. 
Perhaps c<vnnecieil with A. S. A^ga, AhtAgc, 
enclosure; but ihi* is onoerUlQ. 

Hag'gaird {f)t wlM, said of a hawk. 
iiF.— *i;,J M. F. kagardf wild; e^ used 
of & wild takoR ; see Cotgrave. Perhaps 
the orig. Knse wu hedge-falcon ; formed, 
with auffii -ard {<.0. H, G, hart\ from 
M. H. O. hag ^G. ka^j a hedge; see 

Saff^pd {2\ le*p. meagre, (F.-G.) 
Really the same as the word above CCot.). 
We aliio had Aa^-tif, i, c. hag-like, from 
Aag'. * The ghiMtly prudes with hnggtd 
face/ Graf,, A Long Story, near end. 
% Mod- G, hifftr may be from M. F. 
ke^rd\ for G, kagttfaik means a haggard 

Klt^ffiS, a dish of sheep^s ctklraiU] 
chopped np, seasoned, and boiled in the 
ibeep'i maw. (E.) M, I-I, hagoi^ hageii. 
Of vnknown origm. Perhaps from kag^ 
to cut : see Haggle (1 ). (The Gael, iai^U 
U from E.I 

Stft^g^lOi (i ),tahackawkwardly, mangle. 

(Scand,") Frequent, of North E. hog^ 
cut ; as hoikh is of hach^ (0 cut ~ 
form A^f is from Icch hoggva^ to h 
cognate with E, htw; see Hew> CC 
Norman dtAl. AoffUir, to hack. 
Sl^fglo 1 3), to be slow in making a 
bargain. (K. j In Cotgrave, s, v, harctUr. 
Cf. FJq. kakkt/fft, * to hftckle. mangtct 
faulter/i. e. stammer (Sewel} ; kakkfUratt 
to wningle. Cavil- It is probably the 
same word as HakbI^ \IU Cf. alaa 
kj^Ut to bargain. 

Hafiiosraplia, holy writings. ^Gk,] 

Gk. ri7jriy/>ttifia, ^ifi^ia .^ hoftki Written 
inspiratniEi. « ( Jk. oi-jio s, holy; ypatp-tt 
to write. 

Ha-ha, Haw-liaw, a sunk fence. (F 
From K. ^diicT, an inle(jei:lionof laoghtH 
hence n. surprise iq the form oT an 
expected obstacle (that laughs at one)! 
The F. word alsf) caeans ati old womati 
of snrpriEing uglincfis, a ' rautiun.' 

EaU (0, iTozcn rain. (E,) M. E. 
kff^Ae/, kayl. A.S. kagl^ -*«Ffp/. + IceL 
hogf^ Uu, Daa, Swed. G, kagtL Teul, 
typ« *Aag(_a)f4fi, m.,*Aa^a)UmfR. Cf. Gk 
^^X^iQif I * round pebble, 

Haol (J), to salnle, greet. (Scan 
M, E. keilmi a verb coined from M. 
heit, haii, ib. ; which is an adaptation gf 
Icel. heili^ prospcrilv, good luck, a sb. 
fonned from the adj. heili, hale, sound, 
fortunRte. Cf, A, S. h^fi, safely, iuck- 
.SeeU&Ie CO. 

hail (3\ AQ exclamation. (S 
Icel. hgili, hale, $ouad; used in greetioj 
This word is common in greeting 
a.ifar keill^ farewell, kcm h^iif^ welcome 
hail ! The Scuid. verb is Icel- kHlsa. 
Swed. Af/ra, Dan, hiistf to greet. Sec 

Hair. (E. ; JM/TwrtfeJlyT,) The true 
E. form was M. E, Ai£r. From A,S, 
A/r. Hj-Du, kaar, Icel. kdr, Dan, 
Swed. iaf ; G. kaar, O. H, G. kar. T 
type *k^fvm^ neut. Further related t 
Icel, kaddr, hair, Teist» type *kazd&z \ aoi 
to I.tth. kassay plaited hair ; a^bo 10 Rnss, 
f&^sat\£), to comb oQt, L. tttren^ to card 
wool. p. Bat the rood, E, form ja d 
to confusion with A. S. h^^^ hair-clot 
which waa replaced by M. Eh kiii 
borrowed from O. F. knire, with rhe sai 
sense* and this O. F, A«>/ was froi 
0. H, G. karra ^for *kafyd), haircloth, 
derivative of O, H. G. kdr, hair. 

Hake, ft fish. (ScsDd.) Cf. Nonr. 




AaAifiiif liu ' hook-fish ; ' from the hooked 
UQxIe^aw. (Sctf Hatch, (ij, 
Makim, a physiciiin, doctor. (Arab<) 
A.ral). ^akim, wue ; dli^o, a. {^octoi', j:>hy^i* 
dan.— Ainh, root hakama^ he cxcrci&ed 

Halberd, Kalbezt, a kind of pole- 
«xe, (F.-if, H. G.) O. F. Aa&i^an/^,- 
M.H.G. hetmbarti^ mi^A. (>. heiiehiirtfy 
ftomctimcs explained as an axe with a 
long handle \ cf. M. H^ G. AdiA^i \J\ a helve 
pielra), OT bundle. But it has been better