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SDte rudD -YMERSHY- liBl 
















*Were man to live co-eval with the son, 
The patriarch- pupil woald be learainf; still.* 

TOUNG, Ni^hi Thoughts, vil, 86 







iMTRODVCnON ••••••••••vii 

Key to the General Plan of the Dictionary . . . U 

UsT or Abbreviations . . , . . xi 

CoNcisB Etymological Dictionary of the Engush Lan- 
guage I 

Corrections and Notes . . • . • . .573 


I. List of Prefixes 580 

IL Suffixes 586 

IlL List of Aryan Roots 587 

Brief Index to the above Roots . . . .597 

IV. Homonyms 598 

V. List of Doublets 599 

VL Distribution of Words according to the Lan- 
guages from which they are derived . . 603 

Supplement 613 



TttK present work is not a mere abridgement of my larger Etymo- 
lopcal Dictionary, such as might have been compiled by a diligent 
book-maker, but has been entirely rewritten by myself; and 1 have 
Coand that the experience gained by writing the larger work has been 
of considerable assistance to me in making occasional slight improve- 
ments. My object has been to produce a convenient hand-book for 
tbe o«e of thai increasing number of students who wish to learn 
the bistoTT of the English language, and who naturally desire to have 
Anglo-Saion and Icelandic forms presented to iliem rightly spelt and 
ftOOcnniAted, a point which seldom receives sufficient attention. 

'*-- * "inguishing feature of this abridgement, as well as of my 
la -nary, is that all the forms cited can actually be found in 

iht U3U.W Qooks of reference, except when marked by an aslerisk, in 
vhich aae they are theoretical. 

^ '\fy^ has been attained by presenting the results in the 

h:. sible form; but I have, at the same lime, endeavoured to 

gwd against becoming obscure. In my opinion, the habit, frequently 
adopted, of citing supposed cognate words (often misspelt) wifhcmt 
j^wy wla/ t/uir meanings art, is a very bad one, and leads to guess- 
il^ and vagueness. It is, accordingly, to be understood that, when I 
do DOC give the meaning of cognate words, it is because their sense 
a^Teeft «ith that of die English word so nearly as to prevent ambiguity. 
Tbos tmder bik, which is derived from the A. S. bitan^ to bite, I cite 
ihr ri..P.... Icelandic, Swedish, Danish, and German forms without 
ci because ihey all mean precisely the same thing; but the 

L-ii:n ^ Vrii forms are used with a slight difference of sense; 

and I y give that sense. 

I do not, in general, give the history of the use of the word under 
dtaconioo, unless there is some special point which is necessary to be 
kuowu for the sake of the etymology. Kor such histor)*, accompanied 
fay flhitfntlve comments, references, and discussions, I must refer 
■Bhients to the unabridged work. 

In the course of writing this abridgement, I have taken occasion 
U several corrections, which, in the larger work, are only to 

be .^....^. uv the Second Edition or in the Supplement. 


There is one point to which I wish to draw especial attention. Bf 
the advice of a friend, I procured a copy of a Dictionary of English 
Etymology by the Rev. J. Oswald, written on an unusual but excellent 
plan. The author airanges all the derivatives of the Latin cedtn 
under the heading of the Latin cedOy so that words such as acctdt^ 
concede^ recede^ succeed, are all presented to the eye at a glance. The 
advantage of such an arrangement is obvious, and I at once de- 
termined to adopt it, merely substituting the representative English 
word cede for the Latin cedo, and so in other cases. At the same 
time, I adopted two very considerable improvements : (i) the retention 
of the alphabetical order for the derived words accedcy concede^ ftc^ 
with a cross-reference; and (a) the extension of the principle to 
words of English and Scandinavian origin. Mr. Oswald gives the 
words only under the primary form, which is a great inconvenience, 
seeing that this is often precisely what one does not know ; and, yoA 
for want of the cross-reference, he omits the derivative anctsler 
altogether. At the same time I have found his book very useful, as 
far as relates to that part of our language which is of classical origin. 
With respect to words of Teutonic origin it is practically valueless; 
thus the only word given under W is the word wonder. 

But it is precisely with respect to these Teutonic words that most 
light is desired. Even a school-boy would correctly make out most 
of the derivatives of cede (though he would very likely miss a$icesior 
and decease)^ but very few even of our best schokirs could correctly 
draw up the list of words connected with do^ such as ado, deed, deem, 
doff, don, doom, dout, dup, indeed. This I claim to have done (and in 
the main correctly) for the first time ; whilst I also endeavour to 
emphasise the fact that deem is derived from doom, and not (conversely) 
doom from deem, as is so oflen ignorantly said by those who have pro- 
bably never even heard of the phonetic laws by which Anglo-Saxon 
sounds are regulated. 

The last remark leads to a principle of the first importance in 
etymology, viz. that no et3miologies can be trusted for a moment 
unless they can fairly be shewn to be consistent with the ordinary 
phonetic kws which regulate the various Aryan languages. It is 
impossible to piu^ue this matter further in the present brief intro- 
duction ; it must suffice to lay down the one great principle whidi 
will regulate all future researches, viz. that the right understanding of 
the vowel-sounds lies altogether at the root of the matter. 

As I frequently allude to the ordinary vowel-changes in the courte 
of the work, I may note here those which are the most elementary 
and common. They ought to be learnt by heart at once. 

ANGLO-SAXON. The most usual vowel-change is that produced 
by the occurrence of an i (which very often disappears by a subsequeitf 
contraction of the word) in the following syllable. Owing to thii, we 


ly lind iliat Llic vowels, as arranged in row (i) below, are 
<k»ngctl imo tlie corresponiiin^if vowels in row (2), 
( I ) a,<f,Ut Mf eo, d, 6, f$, fd» e6. 

(3) ^ y, y^ >, y. ^ ^. y. )^. / 

Eumpk :— /y//^7/i, to fill, pm icir/uilian*\ (tom/u//, full. 

Moreover, 6ubs'.antives and secondary verbs are often formed from 
fc*wiwm in the past tense singular, past tense plural, or past participle 
of* nrwig verb, rather than from the infinitive mood. Thus dafidznd 
^vt from the base aeen in the A. S. imnd, pL L of bindan, to bind ; 
^huKhmdlt is derived from that wliich appears in the pp. bund-cn, 

ICELANDIC. Thia language abounds in somewhat similar vowel- 
tfciiigcs, but very few of these appear in English. But we must not 
)U9 ow the frequent formation of derivatives from the past tenses 
or plural) and tiie past participles of stronpf verbs. Thus 
btUa, lit * to cause to bite,' is the causal of 6ffay to bite ; its 
17 be explained by the fact that the pt. L of bUa is beii, 
\, as regards the Romance languages, especially French, it 
borne in mind that they also are subject 10 phonetic laws, 
is bctUT known since these laws have been sufficiently illus- 
?**«! iu Mr. Kitchin's translation of Brachet's Historical French 
>oimar. In particular, I may note that most French substantives are 
from Latin aausativfs ; and that to derive bounly from botiitas 
\ or honour from Lat. honor (nom.), is simply impossible. 
Dot a litdc surprising that many etymological dictionaries 
ignore thti^e most significant, elementary, and essential facts. 
and very worthy exception is £. ^Killer's Etymologisctics 
icli der Knglischen Sprache. 
)in a key to the plan of the work, and a list of abbrcviatioiiB. 



CMsr of Wopda. Words are given in ihcir alphabetical 

bvk •tich words as are mere derivatives fi-om others arc only 

under some more primary form, the cross-reference to which 

jlicd- Thus Aci is explained under Ageut^ as slated. If 

L^' be made to Agcni^ it will be found that, ^\\ex Agcni has 

f*^** explained and its root given, all allied words, such as act, agiu, 

*^<i/lr, amhigwmt, Ac, follow in alphabetical order. These derived 

•^5 arc marked by having no capital letter, and being sot a little 

10 llbe right tlian tlie rest. If the student has any difficulty 

itt % word, owing to the alj)habctical order being dius occa- 

itcrrupled, let liiin keep his eyes on iht words prinkd in 

Iht htai of evtry columit, which refer to primary words only* 








§ i. The words 8eleot«dL The woH-Jist contains nearly 
the wonts of most frequent occurrence, with a few others that 
remarkably prominent in literature, such as uitaneUd. Homonymi 
forms, such as bay (used \wjivc senses), are numbered. 

§ 3. De&nitions. Definitions are omitted in the case of comixw 
words ; but explanations of original forms are added wherever ih 
seemed to me to be necessary. 

§ 4. Language. The language to which each word belongs 
distinctly marked, in every case, by means of leiters within marks of 
parenthesis. Here the symlxil — is to be read as ' derived froi 
Thus Abbey is (F.-L.-Syriac) ; i.e. a French word derived 
Latin ; the Latin word being, in its turn, of Syrtac origin. 

The order of derivation is always upward or backward, from 
to earlier forms. 

The symbol + is employed to distinguish forms which are in< 
>g7mU, and are adduced merely by way of illustrating and confirmii 

e et)-mology. Thus, bite is a purely Englhh word, derived from 
Anglo-Saxon MUin. The other Teutonic forms, viz. the Du. hijUn^ Ii 
bita^ Swed. bita^ Dan. bide, G. beissen^ and the other Aryan forms, 
\j^\., findere (baseyfi/-) and Skt. bhid, to cleave, are merely cognate at 
illustrative. On this point, there commonly exists the most sinj^ 
confusion of ideas; and there arc many Englishmen who are 
customed to derive English, of all things, from Modem High Germi 

therefore introduce this symbol + by way of warning. It. has 
ttsual algebraical value o^ plus or additional \ and indicates *addiLioi 
information to be obtained from the comparison of cognate forms.* 

5 5. Symbols of Languages. The symbols, such as F. = f ren* 
are not used in their usual vague sense, so as to baffle the enquirer 
who wishes 10 find the words referred to. Every symbol has a 
unse^ and has reference to certain books, in one at least of which 
word cited may be found, as I have ascertained for myself by lool 
ibein all out. I have purposely used, as far as was practicable, cl 
and easily accessible authorities. The exact sense of each symbol j 
given in ihc list btlow. 

§ 6. Rootfl. In some cases, words are traced back to their origii 
Aryan roots. The root is denoted by the synjbol ^, to be read 
'roou' Thus bciir^ to carry, is from ^lillAR. A list of.roots, wl 
iheir mcanin>,% is given in the Appendix, p. 5S7 ; and a similar 
M-ilh fuller explanations and numerous examples, in l)ie Appendix 
iny larger Dictionary, 

\ 7. Dorivatives. The symbol Der., i.e. Derivatives, is used 
ilroduce forma related to the primary word. Thus, under 
under Act, such mere derivatives as 

give A<i 

Mi'ivt^ &C. 




15— At^^lo-Sr 
hf Botwofi 

in Uichitdson's Tcf 

Did., ctl. F. Jolio- 
aUn Uoic's Sup 
'■" TiicL 

■, Gicin. Leo, 
Ltc; aitJ ill llie Vocabularies 
Uj T. Wright. 
wun I lu in Scbmcller's 
Wbrtcibach ; 1S27 

Ion; M in L«)»oiiidcc's Bret. 

wsrJ as a general tenii for 

II u in WiUinms' Diet. ; 

in FcrraU uid Kepi* : 

as In the Tftiichnitr Dutch 
Otd Dui^ wunli arc (roro 
llcxtiam (165S), or 

I iLJiglwi; as ta Webster s 

Enfrltkb (English from 

to the fidetnth c<n- 

ke^; 9% in Siratmanii's 

T -1, 1S78. 

L>l - cited 

. . .. i.i-h.bul 1660. 
,!on of forms, 
V. retrenitcn, withoDt ac* 
ihc F. mccrntii beirif^' purely 
' e dictionaries 

:.i MJt: dictionaries 
cfort, or (in &oaie 

•Fhoact as in Richthofen, 1840. 
Ot«3tr : as in MulIccmJ and 

15.- Cere ' iligel, tA rflfii. 

^.G.— .- i..^ 'Ii^lh German; as 

Wackerr.flgpr* Wortcrluich. 

IM T1i£h Ccrman ; as in the 


s» in lotldcU and Scott's 

Goth.— MoMO-Gothic; u m Skeat's 

Glossfiry, 180S. 
Heb. — Hebrew ; as in Leopold's Dict» 


Mind. — Hindoitani ; as in Forl«cf, Bute, 

or Wilson's Glossniy of Indiaa 

TocL — Icelandic ; as in Cleasby and Wg- 

fa5>on. 1874. 
Irish.— Irish; as in O'Reilly. 1864. 
Iul.~ Italian; as in Meadows i*»57. 
L. — I^tin ; asinWhitcandKiddle, 1876. 
Low G. — Low German ; as in the Bremen 

Woitcfbuch, 1767. 
Lilh. — Litliuanian ; as in Nesselmann's 

Diet., 1851. 
Low L, — Low Latin ; as in the Lexicon 

Mannale (abridged from Ducangc) 

by Maipne d'AmU, 1866. 
M. E. — AltUdie English; see under E, 

M. II.G.—Middle High Gennan ; see 

under G, above. 
Norw. — Norwej^ian ; as in Aasen's NonJc 

Ofdljog, 187.V 
O. F. — Old Frerich : sec under F. above. 
O. Ij.G. — Old High German; sec under 

G. abo\*c 
O. Snx.— Old Sixon ; as in the Heliand, 

cd. Ilcyne. 
Ten. — Pcnian ; as in Richardwn's Arab. 

and Pcrs. Diet ; or in Palmer's I'crs. 

Uict^ 1 8; 6. 
Port. — Portu;;iie5e ; as in Vieyra, 1857. 
Prov.^Provcnfal : as in Ravnouani'« 

Lexique Kouian, and iJai tsca\ Chro- 

tomatbie Proven^ale. 
Rnss. — Ku>sian; as in KcifTsDict., 187^. 
St:and. — Scandinavian; nvd as a general 

term for Icelandic, Swedish. Uani&h, 

and Norwegian. 
Sltt.— Sanskrit; asinRcnfey'sDict., i8fi6. 
Span —Spanish ; as in Mendows, 1856. 
Swcd —Swedish : ss in the Tancbnili 

Diet., or in Widtyrcti. 
Swed. dial. — Suedish dialects; as in 

Kieti C'S07). 
Tcul. — Teutonic ; a peneral term fof 

L^Qlch. German, an^l Scandinavian. 
Turk. — Turkish; as in Zenker's Dict^ 

W.— WeUh; as in S{mrw», i86x. 



»cc. — sccnsalive case. 

Adj.— aH=-:;.e. 

a»Jv. — adverb. 

A. V. — Authorised Version of the Bible, 
, 1611. 

hcf. — confer. i.e. coni[Kire. 

Ch. — Chancer. 

com p. — comparati ve. 

conj . — conj unction. 
)dAt.— dative case. 

I)cr. — Derivati-ve. 

dimut — diminutive, 

f. or fem. — femiiiine. 

frequent. — frcqumlalive. 

gen. — genitive case. 

i.e. — id est. that i.*}. 

inf. ^infinitive mood. 

iiiterj. — interjecLiou. 

lit. — literally. 

ma^'ic. — masculine. 

iieut.— neuter. 

nom. — nominatiTc caie 

obs. — obsolete. 

orig. — original, w originalljr. 

pi. — plural. 

prep. — preposition. 

prcs. part.— present participle. 

prcs. t — present tense. 

pp. — post participle. 

prob. — probably. 

pron.— pronoun. 

pro v.— provincial. 

q. T. — quod vide = which «ec. 

s. V. — tub verbo — under the \ron3« 

pt t. — past icnse. 

&b.-— substantive. 

Shak. — Shakespeare. 

sing. — singular. 

superl. — SQperlatire. 

tr. — translated, 9r translation. 

trans. — I ransi t i ve. 

V. cr vb. — verb. 

Some of the longer articles are marked off into sections by the 
of the Greek letters p, y. This is merely intended to make matt 
clearer, by separating ihe various statements from each olher. 

Notes at the end of an article are marked off by beginning 
the symbol V. XIV, XV, XVI, mean that the word was introdc* 
in the 14th, 15th, or i6th century, respectively. Hyphens are 
introduced to shew the eiymological division of a word. Thus, im( 
Ccdit the word concede is derived from Lat. con-ccdcre ; meaning 
concedcrt can be resolved into con- and cedere. This etymologic 
division is often very different from that usually adopted in prinl 
books when words have to be divided; thus, capacious can only 
divided} ctymologically, as cap-ac-i-out^ because cap- is the r< 

Theoretical forms are mnrked by italics. Thus, under other^ 
Icel. anlharr* is given as having probably preceded the known fc 
annarr\ and anicr* as possibly the original form of Lat. alUr. 

The symbols C and ^ are both written for M. In Icelandic, b 
the sound of M in Mm, and S that of th in that; but the M.E. ana A.| 
symbols are confused. The M.E. symbol ) commonly represents^; 
the beginning of a word, and gh in the middle, A. S. short and 
vowels, such as a and i, are as distinct from each other as t 
% or o and « in Greek. 


(F- 1 Sec An. 
X-wvt - A.S. (ifdiint. (E.) 
,_ ._ ' ^r^ Of. Off. 
pft. •« ir Put for M foot ; 

% I •.ommoncst value 


■ •'kmjr. (£.) Here a- » 

i^L.) Hcrt « » F. <) -. L. m/, to; 

•stft*trr/. (L.) UcTe»'»Ua; 

In tf^acrMt/, (U) Here a-m/W 

am! r- «= tl tf or /x : sec E!x-. 

u la o-Au. (F.) For A/iW ; tec 

t <Gk.) nert«-«Gk. 

u •ii ■: ;^^. (£.) For cl Jo\ Ke 

a. I- ,1 vo/-i» lE.) Here ii- — 
r.) Here d lithe 
A&, Apooc. 
VMJX. (,Du.) ForDu.^W 

P*.) L. di, from ; short 

lonn ASi, Co};nale with 

Ve Of. In F^ U l/ecomca a- or op- ; 

U) Pu! for L. ad, to. 
' Abbrf>vi»te, 

F i< 9n ^k, A. S. onb^ -. 

J), Bx, uid 

A- C() *ni! B«k 


Abase ; sec A- (5) and Btwo. ^ Same- 
times c"iifu*c(l with af>at^ in NT. I'-. 

Abash (F.) M. E. atHutfun, ahaijfhett, 
aiai^n.^O. F. ejinthiis-, stem of pres. I'orl. 
of isiKihir (K. ^'i>jhir\ to astonifch — O K. 
«• ("L. #x, out, very mucli' ; aiid bahir^ 
to express vlonisliment, a word of iniila- 
live orijj'n from Ihc inter), bah ! of nslonish- 
ment. fl" Sometimes confused with aOajg 
in M. E. Sec Baahful. 

Abate ; see Batter ( 1 ). Doublet, hafe. 

Abbot. {L.-Syiiac.) M.K, a/'^,aM(Hf, 
A. S. abbod. — L. dJ^r- (nom. abdiu), an 
abbot, lit. a fatlier. — Syrioc uMn, a father; 
see Rocn. viii. i^. 

abbess. iK. - L. - Syriac.) M. E. «*• 
bgjse,mmO. F. abase, aSa^ise.^h. abtstt-tssa. 
• L. abdaf' (as above), and -wio = Gk. -itfim, 
fern, suffix, 

abbey. (F.-L.-S>'riac.> M.E.a6be/e. 
••O. F. a&fig.^lxtvt }. aiilHU-ia^ 

Abbreviate; see Brief. 

Abdicate; see Diction. 

Abdomen. (L.) L. abxhmen (.stem ab- 
damiH'']. lower juiit of the belly. 

Abduco. Abduction; sec Duke. 

Abed.;!', t VoiQnbtd\ sceA-(.a)andBed. 

Aberration; sec Brr. 

Abet, to incite ; &ce Blto. Der. bet, short 
for abet, sb. 

Abeyance, expectation, su&pcnsioo. (F. 
~ L.) F. ab/iatiff. s«»i>ciision. waiting 
(Roq.) — F. a ; and be'ant, pres. pt. of O. P . 
A'Vr (F. lkiyer\ to gajw, ejt|tecl anxiously. 
•• I« eui. at : and badare, to £a[)e, 

Abhor; sec Horrid. 

Abide u)« to wait for, <E.) ; sec Bide. 

Abide {3), to MifTcr for. pay for. (II.,) In 
, Sh.; corrtipled from M. E abytn, to pay for, 
tit. to buy up. ralccm. — A. S. dby<gaM,dbH- 
^^an, to iiay for. Sec A> (4) aiul Bu7- 
I Abject, mcaii ; see Jot (1). 

Abjure : see Jury. 
I Ablative. \JL.) L. abUuimm, lit. taktag 




■way. ~ t^ a&, frt^in ; and latum ( = f/o/nm), 
to bear, take, allied la toUert^ to take. See 

Ablazo. ;E.) For on blatc\ sec A- (i) 
aii'1 Blaso. 

Able : wc Habtl. Der. aliUty s L. aoc. 

Ablution ; sre Lava. 

Abnegate ; sec Negation. 

Aboard. (E.) For cm In^nii see A- (a) 
and Board. 

Abode, sb. : tee Bide, 

Abolish. (F.-L.) F. aholiss^^ stem of 
prcs. pt of aholir. — L. abolert^ to abolish. 

Abominate : see Omen. 

Abortion: sec Orient. 

Abound ; see Undulate. 

About. (K.) M. £. abuten, ahonttn \ 
h.'SAhUatt^ OHbtUan ; sliort Iqx on-he-^ian, 
lit. on by-outwanl : where li/aiv, outward, is 
from ii(, out. Sec A- (i), By, and Out. 

Above. (E.) M. E. aA7Tvrt,a^w/f/*; A.S. 
4bu/an, short for tm-be-ufan, lit. on-by- 
lipward : where a^^^u*, upward, is extended 
from Goth, u/, up. See A< (a). By, Up. 
(A. S. ujaH ~ G. A&fM. A. S. U-u/an - Da. 

Abrade, to scrape off; see Base. Der. 

Abreaiat. (E.) Put for m bnaif; see 
A- I 2), nnd Breoat. 

Abridge ; see Brief. 

Abroach, to aet. (E. anJ F.) Put for 
ie Sit itii l-rvarA ; see A- (3) and Broaoh. 

Abroad. i,E.) M. E. a*n>«/i put for <»« 
brxK*J', lit. on broad : see A* (a) and Broad. 

Abrogate ; Mrt! BoKation. 

Abrupt ; set Bupture. 

Abaceaa ; sec Code. 

Abscind. Abscissa; see Rescind. 

Abscond, to go into hiding. \L.) L. 
abitt>uti(i{,io hide. — L. a^J, away ; cot$tUre, 
to hide. Cotuiere is from coh- {cum), to- 
gether, and •f/rrr, to put, allied to L. dart, 
to give ; see Bate. 

sconce (1), a small fort, bulwark. (Du. 
— 'F —L.) Also applied to a hclinct, and 
even to the head. — O- Du. sch*iHtst (Dii. 
sfhanf'). a fortrcis. sconce. •■ O. V. <sc9Hser^ 
lo hide, cover ; pp. ttcont. — L. ahsconsus, 
used (AS well OA aouoHiiitus) as pp. of abi- 
ceHiiifi, to hide tabovci. 

sconce {^^, a candlestick. (F. « L.) 
M. E s<ance, scimi, a covered light, lantcin. 
«0. F. t^(0»s/, a. dark bintcni (kot|ucfort). 
wt.. aJfsumsa, a dark Inntem ^ia late L.) ; 
from L. tUncortJUi, hidden. 

Absent. (L) XI V cent. - L, 
stem of ab-£ini, being away. — 1... oA-. 
•tens, bcinij, occurring niso in 
Here -smt is an older form of a 
from ^ AS, to be. Sec Preae&l 
Dor. af-s^rtrf, F. absence, L, absttti 

Absolute, Absolve : sec Soh 

Absorb. (L.) L. ahiorUrt, to 
— L. ab, away; sorhtre, to sup on. -f^' 
fi<Kpitt¥, to sup up. Der, ii6iorf*t-i9Hfi 
pp. absorNus. 

Abstain ; see Tenable. 

Abstemious. (L.) 'L.ab^t(m{ur\ 
ing from strong drink. — L. abt, 
Mum, strong drink, whence /*ffn 
drunken. (VTAM.) 

Abstract; see Trace (i). 

Abstruse; see Intmdo. 

Absurd; see Surd. 

Abundance. (F.— L.) V.abot 
L. aburrJan/ia, Sec Undulate, 

Abuse ; sec Uae. 

Abut, lo project towards. (V. • LT 
G.) O. F. abouter, to thrust towaidsi 
aJ. to ; O. F. bcter, to thrust Sec A> 
and batt (i), s.v. Beat. 

Abyss, a bottomless ^If. (L. * ( 
Milton. L. a^jjMj.^Gk. d^mraot, botf 
less. — Gk, d-, short for d*--, neg. pi 
$vaa6s, depth, akin to Bathos. 
(9\ Un- (I). 

Acacta, a tree. (L.-Ck.) L. 
Gk. ibcawm. the thorny Eg>ptian 
Gk, d«if, a point, thorn. (^ A] 

Academy. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. 
* L. acaiiemia. * Gk. uxo^Mfio, 
where Plato taught, named from ihe" 

Accede; see Cede. Der. 

Accelerate ; aee Celerity. 

Accent; see Oant {t). 

Accept: see Cspaoloua, 

Access . see Cede. 

Accident ; see Cadence. 

Acclaim ; see Claim. 

Acclivity. {L.) XVII omt. 
F. aoHvit^*. * L. aictiuitunm, 
c/iN4faf.^\ for a./; and rfit 
jp - .,_t,..,.. ■ see Lean (i"!. 
y tl-.-L> K; 
. ace. of i^f/ii 

proclivity. (L.) From L. 
& sIo|>e, tendency. ~L.j 
sloping forward. 
Accommodate ; see Iffoda. 



tec Company. 
8 see Ply. 
; sc* FleiuuT. 


t- ■"-'^•!ve. 

') F. tUi-OUfrer, 

. -, to dress, amy 
IBGenmia; perhaps ^t) coa- 
. twmturr, a Kwing* rouiirt, 
K. €HUturt, to sew together 
i) with L. cu/zum, tillage, 

t) ; r"^ ■ " ■^ O. F. (omtre, 

laa '^ iigeof sftcreil 

B L'. L . , • = L. cHJeoi, 
ecicr. (Tbe last U be&L) 
wc Crevovnt, 

t«: MC OamnUte. 

see Cor*. 

Emcd (E.) M.E. a<-(Tr/;V/i. 

[J anil cmnian, to cune; sec 


I M« CX«eom. 

Im' on dic«. (K.-L.-Glt.) 
EF. 43 - ' - t"»k. tlf ; Rfti'l 

Rnti .itioa of (fs, 

I tUk.) Gk.fU/i^- 

<• - uii- ; suti v«^aA^, 

|W«Lij K. Head. 
Im« Add. 

r ■ ^T. E. a*/, a better 

. A.S. Leechdoms, 

I *■ rX ook; A.S. 

J .le; as in L. 

i'p. eJtit), to 

^ ^pctl d/A/ by con- 

-oxOTj which tt collate with 

CA»lt4U (I). 

colourless. (Gk.) See 

T.;ffrL.) F 

uiaf-td (L. 

cot F. tff/r- 

$u, bitter. ~ L. at-tr, 

) Gk. AiT'/i^, lop, sharp 

looV'tbood. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
AVM^mM.^Gk. dN^fifoi*, a 
k1 freu glowing |y •M<>*^ai«, 

OQ Steep iharp rocks. *Gk. in-ei^, a whet 
itone, Jiarp stone. 

acrid, tart. (L.) Coined by nddine -u 
to L. acr-, stem of Offr, O., &harp,{ 

acrimony. (F.— L.) ¥,acHm<n'Hi.~L^, 
acri-moH-ia. — L. aeri-^ for ar/r (above). 

acrobat, a tnmbler. (Gk.; or F. — 
r-k.) F. Oitobatc. - Gk. ^pofiA-nft, lit. 
one who wnUs on tiptoe— Gk. atipo-tr, a 
point, neul. of dx-pot, pointed ; and Bar^s, 
verbal adj. of Baivfiv, to walk ; see Oomo. 

acropolis, a diadel. (Gk.) Lit. ' u^jper 
city J * Gk. Siepo-i, pointed, upper ; and 
viSAij, a city ; sec Police. 

acrostic, a short poem in which the 
initial letters spelt a word. (Gk.) Gk. 
dx^totfTiYiof.— >C*K.&po-f. pointed, also fir^t: 
and ffri'x; base of irrixof, » row, ordef^, 
line, from V^TIGH; sec Stirrup. 

acumen. (L.) L. ac u-rrun, sharpness, 

acuto. (L.) L. aatiuSf sharp; pp. of 
aS'H-^rt, to sharpen. 

aglet, a tog of a lace. (F.«>L.) AJso- 
ayguiet, Spenser, F. Q- »• S- 26. — F. af^iU 
Uite, dirain. of aigjniU, a neeHIc — I-ow L. 
atUiu/a, dimin. of ac-us, a needle, pointed' 

ague, a fever-fit. (F.— L.) Lit.'acute^ 
aiUck.-O. F. ainte, fcm. of a^u (F. ai^u), 
acute. i-L. aatfa {fel'rii), acute (fever); 
fern. cAaattus; see aouto (above). 

eager. (F. - L.) M. E. egrt. - O. F. 
errt (K. aj^fr). — L. acrtm, ace. of tu-er^ 
sharp. Der. vin-tgar, 

exacerbate, to embitter. (L.) From pp. 
of txacfrbart^ to irrilalc. — L. tx, verj- ; 
acer^uj, bitter; see acerbity, above. Sl-c 
aUo Awn. Edgo, Sgg (3), Eglantine. 
Acknowledge. (E. ; tc/M Scaud, suffix.) 
XVI cent. M. E. kncwUchcn ; the prefix is 
due to M. E. tUeruntfen ( - A. S. oncndwatt)^ 
with the same sense; hence the prefix is 
A- (j). The verb htotvUchin is from the ib, 
knawUcht, mod. E. knowieJ^t \ see Know* 
Acme : sec Acid. 

Acolyte, tt.^rvitor. (F.— Low L.— Gk.) 
F. a£olyU, Cot. - Low L, a<9lythm. - Glu 
AniiKovOot, a follower. — Gk. 4-. wiib (akin 
to Skt. sa-t with); WAii'&oi, a path; so 
that (ixuAoti^uf sa travelling conii>anioR 

Aconite; &ee Aold. 
Accra. (E) M.E acorm, A.S. trry 
fruit ; properly ' fruit of the field,' fro 
A. S. Avr, A field ; sec Aore.-4- IccL oka 
Dan <^vfM, Goth, o^t/^sn, (tvuVi (tow (tx\. 


kin ^^ 



air, Dan. <^^, Gotb. aJkrs, a field. % Not 
from aai. 
Aoouatlo. (Gk.) Gk. 6Movmtii6$, relat- 
ing to heanng (or sound). — Gk. djmvur, 
to hear. 
Acquaint. (F,-L.) M.E. tKipte/nfen, 
eoriier tuohtftn.^O. F. araiHler, {uointier, 
to acquaint with. * Low L. A/tV^iVa/r, to. 
mnkc known (Brachct). — L. 4ui, to; and 
fognifan*. formed from (Qgnttus, pp. of 
€i>^&s(€rt^ to know. See oogniMUDoe, 
quaint. i.v. Noble. 
AoquieBce ; sec Quiet. 
Acquire ; sec Query. 
Acqiut : 5c« Quiet. 
Aore. (E.) M.E. aktr. A.S, <««•.+ 
I D u. aiJtert lotX.aJkr, SwoihAker, Dan. ager, 
^^Both. aJ^n, G. acker^ L, agxr^ Gk. ^ypi*, 
^^Bkt ajra. The orig, sense was cither * pas> 
^^■ue/ or 'hunting-ground.* (^AG.) Dor. 
^^^or-Ht q.v. 

^■Aorid, Acrimony; see AoW. 
Acrobat^ Acropolis ; see Acid. 
Across. (K. and Scaiitl.) For on cfws; 
lee A- i2)'and-^OBS. 
, Acrostic : see Aaid. 
Act; fteeAffent. 
Acumen, Acute : see Aoid. 
A.d-, prtfix. (L.) L. Of/, lu, cognate with 
E At. ^ L. aU becomes or- before t ; a/- 
bef. /; (xy- bcf. ^; aA bef. /; a«- bef. 
H ; a/- bef. / ; ar- bef. r; *i- bci". / ; a/- 
' Adn^o, a saying. (F.^L.) F. ada^ 
I *L. Oiia^ium.^V.. ad\ and agium, a say- 
' ing;>. 1 iav. (V AGII.) 

Adamant (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
^^miatiuiimtt a diamond, a magnet. — O. F. 
^H|tf!a//;aM/. — L. aJamanta, ace. of otiamas. — 
^^Bk. d^ftat, a very hanl metal or slone ; lit. 
^^nnconquemhle.' — Gk. d- ( = E. «« ); and 
hafuiuv. \o com)uer. lame; see Tama, 
diamond. tF.-L.-(;k.> M.E. ///a- 
«/. — O. F. diamante coiruplion o{ ada- 
nt; SO also Ital. Span. diartianUf G. 

d&pt ; see Apt. 

dd. (L,) M. K. additt.^h. add/rt, lit. 
put to.~L. a</; anil ■•/f/r, to yut^dartf 
yivc (VDA.) SeelXJlo(i). 
dder, a viper. (EJ M.E. addert\ 
o tiaddftr, fuiidtre. WAn addtr resulted 
from a nadder, by mistake.] A.S. mrdn, 
a snake. 4* lo^l- n^S''« Goth, mtdn, G. 
ttatUr, a snake. 
AddJot: see Diotlon. 
Addled, oorrupt, uDp.odaotive. (E) 

mann). Orig. ' muddy,* from ATS. 
mud fGrein). Of. Low G. AdtU, 

Adoreea; sec Bogent. 

Adduoe : see Duke. 

Adept ; see Apt. 

Adequate ; see Equal. 

Adhere ; see Heaitate. 

Adieu, farewell. (F.) M.E. m 
F. J ditu^ (I commit you) to God.< 
Drum, to God. See Doily. 

Adjacent Adjective . see Jet (fl 

Adjoin, Adjunct ; see Join. 

Adjourn : see Diary. 

Adjudge, Adjudicate ; see Jac 

Adjure ; see Jury. 

Adjust; sec Just. % Not from 
ajostir, mod. F. ajeuttr. 

Adjutant: see Aid. 

Administer ; see Minor. 

Admiral. (F.-Arab.) M.E. 
more often amiraLm^O. F. amiral, 
also amirt\ cf. Low L. admu 
prince, chief.* Arab, amlr^ a pri 
Elmir. The suffix is due to Arab.] 
amir-ai-baJir, pnncc of ihc sea. 

Admire : sec Mtraola. 

Admit : see Blisaile. 

Admonish ; sec Monition. 

A-do, 10 dc, oablc. (E.) M. E. 
to do; a Norlhcru idiom, whereby 
used as the sign of the infiu. mt 
Iccl., Swedish, &c. See Do < (). 

Adoleaoent; see Aliment. 

Adopt; see Optative. 

Adore ; see Oral. 

Adorn ; see Ornament 

Adown, downwards. ^E.) M. Ew< 
A. S. ofddne. lit. off a down or hitLj 
0f^ off; and dtin; see A- (i) and 

Adrift. (E.) For m drift \ see 
and Drive. 

Adroit: sccBeeent 

Adulation. Oaiicry. (F.-L.) F.j 
tion. — L. ace. adula/iotum, from 
flnttery. — L. adulatus, pp. of 

Adult ; see Aliment. 

Adulterate, to corrupt. (L.) 
— L. aduiUraiHs, pp. oi adiihiwiiri^ 
nipt.«I>. aduUer, an tulultcrer, % 
of money. 

Adumbrate: see Urabraee. 

Advanoe. to go forn-srd 'F 
mistaken form, in the X\ ' 
auamtn. avanctM.^Y. u 
ward or beibrt. — F. ffrwwf. i^n.T 

bdbre. See Anle- 


»» orofii. (F. mm L.) A mift- 
r M* E awan/ngt, — F. avan/- 
hf inftx -agf from atsuU, 

^venture : se« Tantur«. 

Advert, Advertise; tee 

▼i«e , lec Vision. 
AdvoWBon : &ce Vooal. 

s uc (£.) M.£. AiV/. 
M. AdEcjtf. tn ailze. 
le'tt Acat, brood of eagles or 

U)^ F. a/r/, • an aiiic or 

* CtA.^LowL. area, a nest 

pnjr; of tmccruin origin. 

It ^ry, by coofusion 

(Gk.) Gk. dffPTfi- 
,«-Gk. oitrtfo^, I perceive. 

t' ■ (ig pain, dulling 

^' . and oiffC^ijrtjrtit. 

L ¥uT ^'N far, 
pMt: ucPaot. 
reaeftm. (F. - L.) O. F. 
■ iht Dtioc of A thing (oflici- 
^ . to fix a I'rioe. 1* 

)i -jm^^ market, 

.lidnvit; Kc Faith. 
we FUlal 

<U) XVI eeot-L. 

affi'^ert. to strike to the 

^ ;T/r, to tlojh. 

w Flnont. 

Cornipted from a/Qrih, 

1o provide, P. 1*1, H vi. 

•t^tifff. /*t^'j3M, to further, 

, pfeJix: and 


._!■ - I ■ ■ •*■ ..1 t 

, tij^ntytn. — ' ■-, 

.•■Low L. ,'j, 10 

caiue an allray or 
frif^Vtcr. — I. cr; 


^^. oi arrrtiy 


AflVlght : >ee Fright. 
A£f^nt : see Front. 
Afloat. (E.) foTotiJioat, 
Afbot. (E,) Vox on foot. 
Afore. (E.) Voton/art;»ran» 
AlVaia (F. - L. aw*/ Tent.) Pp. of 

AA-eeh. (E.) For Qnfrtih or pffrtsh ; 
see Anew. 

Aft. After. (E.l A.S. a//, </?. again. 
behind ; after, nfter. both prep, and adv. + 
Icel. aptan, behind, tf//r, aftr, backwards ; 
Dan. and Swed. e/ter^ Du. achttr. O. M G. 
a/iar, prep, and adv., behind, p. Af-t is 
an extcnsioD from Goth a/, oB ; kc Ot 
After is a comp. form, like Gk. drw-T^^.w, 
further off; it means more off, fuithcr off, 
hence behind. Der. aS-afi, q. v. ; afttr- 
warii (lee Toward). 

aftermost, hindmost; a corrupt form, 
ioxaftemost. (E.) h.S.aftenust,Go\h.aftu- 
mists. The Goth, aft-um-ists is a double 
super 1. form. 

Again. (E) M, E. ayein, A.S. ongtgH, 
oM^eiin.^A.S. em anil griin^ a^ain. in 
return, perhaps connectal with gdn, to gu. 
+ t)An. »^/M. Swed, t,^fn, again. 

against. (E.) Formed with added / 
from M. E. ayeints. agnitist ; extended Horn 
M.E. aycitt, against, with adv. suffix -ej, 
•• A. S. Qtigedn, against ; the same ns A. S. 
oh^Ah, again : see above. ^ loeL / g^ph 
G. entfregen, agaiu^t. 

Agate. (F. -U-Ck,) O.F, ^^e, 
agaiAe.^L, achatem, ace. of ar/hi/j/.-^Cik, 
ii;(firi;t. an agate ; io named from being 
found new the river Acfiata (Sicily). 

Ago. (F.-L.) O. K. aage, eJagt.— Low 
L.«/a//niiw.**-, crude (otm oi Mas 
(short for ttui-fas)^ age.*-L. ttuum, life, 
period. 4* Gk. aliof ; Goth, aiws ; Skt. cva^ 
course. (V^l.) 

AgeAt. ^L.) XVI cent L. agtnl-^ 
stem of prcs. pt o{ agtre fpp. a^'tus), to do, 
drive, c<M)duct, •fGk.<(7cii',^ii; Skt. 
a/, to drive. (^ AG ) Sec Aoha. 

act. (L.) M.E. art.'^h, tutttm, ncut. 
of pp. arfiu, done. Der. aet-icn, offive, 
aet-or; ttr/'t-a/ (U aitua/ij); aet-u-ary 
(L. Oi-fuariuf) : aet-^^te (Low L. actuare, 
to perform, pat in action). 

a«ae. (F.-L.) XVI cent. V. agile. ^ 
L. ttgiiii, nimble. liL easily driven aboot. 

••L* agtrt, to drive, 

agitate. (L.) L. d^Vd/at/, pp. oi^tart. 
to keep driving about, frO^UCQt. of o^rt. 





ambl^oufl, doubtfuL (L.) L. am&- 
igUMs, doiibtfuC lit driving about. * h, 
amfi-t about ; and agtre, to drive. 

co-ogrulato. to curdle. (L.) L. c^pi- 
iafus, pp. of coa^iartf to curdle, — L. 
coapz/um, rennet, which causes milk to run 
together. — L. <v (<•««), together; ag'cre, 
10 drive. 

cogent. (L.) L, co^iu/-, stem of pres. 
part, of j'lTj'T/v. to compel ; put for eo-i^ere 
I ^(OH-a^rt*')^ lit. to drive together. 

cogitate. (L.) U co^itatm^ pp. of 
cogitare^ lo think; pal for co-a^^tart •. 

counteract. (Hybrid : F. cmd L.) See 
Counter, and aot above. 

enact. (F. -L.) Sh. -F. r«, in - L. 
in ; and aot. Lit. ' lo put in ac!.' 

exact (I). precise. (L.) Sh. L, fjraf/iu, 
pp. of exi^re, to drive oat, weigh oat — 
L. tx \ and agert. 

exact (3). to demand. (F. — L.) Sh. 
O. F. trvif/^r. — Low L. exaciart.^X^ rjc, 
out; and iT^TMpr, supine of o^rr 

examine, to icst. (F. - L.) F. tx- 
amimr. — L. esaminare^ to weigh carefully. 

— L. ixamin; stem of examen, the tongac 
of a balance, put for txapmn • : cf. exigere, 
lo weigh out. — L. ex, out; agere. to drive. 

exigent, exacting. (L.) iitem of pres. 
pi. of^irt. — L. rjr ; and agnr. 

prodigal. (F. — L.) O. V. prodigal.'* 
Low Lai. prOiUgalii ; due to ll prodigus^ 
lavish ; put for prodagut*, — L, prod-, 
forth ; and ag^n. 

transact, to perform. (L.) L. trani- 
a£tus, pp. of tramigete. — L. tram, beyond ; 
and agtre. 

Agglomerate, to ma«s together. (U) 
Pp. of L, agglom/rarf, to form into a mass, 

— L. ag-=ad; Jtnd gfam^r-, stem ctf ghmus, 
a mass, ball, clue of thread, allied to 
giobtts, a globe ; see Globe. 

Agglutinate ; sec OIuo. 

Airgrandise ; sec Grand. 

Aggravate ; see Grave ( 2). 

Aggregate ; see Grogariooi. 

Aggress; see Grade. 

Aggrieve ; see Grave (a). 

Aghast, horror-struck, (£.) Misspelt for 
a^poj/, which is short for agattid, pp. of 
M. E. agaittn, to terrify; Ch. C. T. 134,1; 
Leg. of Good Women, Dido, J45. — A. S. 
<f-. prefix; and gth/au. to terrify, torment. 
p. A. S.g^tUn, is from the b.ise r<i'- = (Jot.*!. 
^ais- in uf-gaij-'j<j», to terrify. (^GHAU>.) 

Agile, Agitate; see Asent. 

Agiot. cK.-L.) See Acid. 



Agnail, (i^ a sore beside the 
corn on lhe| fool. ^E. ^ K. — i 
worsts appear to be coiiFusctl 
A. S. angfur^J, a sore by ike nail 
Leechdoms, U. 81. | 34), with wim 
Friesic egtut'i, on^qmii, apparently u 
a i-imilar senile: lhi& is from a piclix 
fiignif\'ing afiliciing, paining, and *Mt/ 

Anger and KalL (2) O. F. - 

botch, aore (Cotgravc); alli- 
angHntt aniuiHa/ia, a carbt^ 
L- angtHa, quinsy, and angtre^ 

AfO, Agone, gone away. 
M. E. ago^ ogon^ agMn, pp. of 
agon, to pass by, pass away. A. S. 
of JgJn, to pass awny. Sec A- (4) SOi 

Agog, in eayciness. \C?) I'm ( 
gug, in activity, in eagerness ? -• Wi 
activity; gvgi, to agitate. See A- (»} 

Agony. {F. - L. - Gk.) M.E. 4 

— F. agornt. — L. agonia. — Gk- m 
orig. a contest » Gk. A^i/v, cont^ 
Gk. &rfnv, to drive. (^AG.) 

antagonist, an opponent, <Gk.| 
^vTa'ytkartfjrijt, an opponent. — Gk, drJ 
aarri, against; and dfvrlio^tUy I 
from d-ywv, a contest. 

Agree ; see Graoo. 

Agriculture. (1*) L. ai;ncul 
tuie of a field —L. ifgri. gen. of M 
field; andruUura. Sec Acre and Ool 
peregrination. (F.-L.) F./i^ 
tiitn.^h. pf/rg>inafiofum^ ace. of /C 
ruiffo, a wamicnng. — L. pgr, 
o{ ptr/grinan, to travel. •!- 
foreign, adj. from pertgtr, a ir-T-ciin 
who passes through a land. — L. 
through ; ager^ land, field. 

pilgrim. (F.-L.) O.F./ 
found as p^Urin, a pilgrim , 
pelUgriHO.perrp-inc, a pilgrim.— i.*^ 
mus, a foreigner, stranger ; as adj. 
tee above. 

Agrimony, a plant. (F. * 
M.E, agrtmointt ignmoiHe,^^ 
moifu. — L, argemoHtd, argtmi 
ApyHtiiry^. (White, L. Dict.)»i 

Aground. (E.) For^rr, 

Ague. (K.-L.) See Aotd. 


Ahead. (E.) For on ^cad=n 
a forward direction. See A- (>1. 

Aid, (F.-L.> M.E. atJen.-~^O.W.\ 

— Low L. ai/arg, aiuiart. shmteued 
of U adiitian, Irequcau <rfF 


■ad i$mart, to help. pp. 
•- — L. a/fiufant; 

c, to 0--i5isl, 

XVI cent. — L, fth, for 
tther; and aJiufor, an 
Fb. mJiutart. 

.L.«Gk.) ME. air, eir.^T. 

-nv .*iS;^air. (VAW, \VA). 

FonnciJ with snffix 

veiling in liieair.^L. 

of ■ church. (F.-L.) 
,« F. tfiViT. » \^ itia, a wing. 
dbniD. of Axil. 

iat A (May* on ehar. on 
jl*». If. of Virgil, b. \\\. 
cerrt, on ihc turn. — A. S. 

S ttirn, Scu CbAT (3). 

• l-cnt pftMtion. (Scand ) 

A-<a); »nd lixX.kfng^ginn, 

CTtwk, from im^, a crook, 

id faWnw, l>ovrc«I, pp. of 

iga, to bow. See Kltvk ajid 

- M 

,k.) M, E. a/a 
(wtiU/rT (F. aibdtrt). « L. 

— Gk. cUdjdatfT^y. 
■FiTciI from >r/i2- 


1 : a ■:o,'niption of M. K. i 

a iJwmel hi. • lack.' (It 

kntc tii^aiaj.) 

ft.l formed, on a supposed 

MC. of L. aJarritat, brisk- 

(Iial.-L.) Ital. a.Vc,fT». 
of alcutr. 
Mc Arma. 
.) M. E. a.U/. - O. F. ajiw 
f). - O. F. d, ah r and Au, 
I am!— L. aA\ and iativt, 
(Allied to Lata.) 
illi veamoit. (F. -L.) M.E. 
tf/lkr.MLow L. a/^; fern, of 

lit H..f «-', ,s i. wUi!r. (L.) 

* i,. aJhumen 

while of esff-*^- 

;F.-Low I-.1 M. F- au^urne, 
(. sitrvD'Cutgurvd ur light 


yellow. — O, F. aufwtnr, aIl>otfu, blond 
(Godcfroy); re^larly formed from Low 
L.a/lmrnus, whitish, light coloured. Florio 
explains Itnl. aiburno by ' that whitish 
colour of women's hair called an aibttrn 
or aburn colour.' Cf. L. atbuntum, the 
iap-«ood or inner bark of trees (I'liiiy), 

— L. allms, white. - 

Albatrosa. a large sea-biid (F. — Port. 

— Span. — Arab. — Gk .) F. d/to/rtfr, formerly 
algtitroi. mm Port, alcalraz, a cormorant, nlba^ 
tross: Span, akatrat^ a pelican. » Port. 
aUatruz, a bucket. Span, anaa'ut, O. Span. 
aUatiui (Minsheu). a bucket on a w.iter- 
whcel. — Aiab. al-qadus, the ftame (Dozy). 
w>Arab. a/, the; and Gk. xafioi, a water- 
vcswl ; see Coda. Similarly Arab. la^qS, 
a water-carrier, a pelican, because it carnes 
water in its pouch. (Devic ; supp. to Litti^.) 

Alchemy. (F.-Arab.- Gk.) O.F. a/- 
chemit. dtyiu/Nii. ^ Arab, a/, the; and 
I'imyA, alchemy, — Late Gk. xv/"'**. chemis- 
try; for xf^^'o. « mingling. — Gk. xiuv^ to 
pour out, mix. (^GKU.) 

chomiBt, Christ. (Ck.) Shortened 
form* of akhtnttsff (xlckymist, formed by 
dropping the Arab, article al, 

AJcohoL (F. — Arab.) F. akoot, furmerlv 
also alcohal^ applied to pure •spirit, though 
the orig. »en»e was a fine impalpable pow- 
der. * Arab, at, the; and kahiil, kokl^ or 
ktAl^ a coUyrium, very fine powder of anti- 
mony, nsctl to paint the cycbtows with. 

Alcoran ; sec Koran. 

Alcove, a recess. (F.-Ilal. — Arab.) F. 
a/r<Tcr. — Ital. aUot'o, the same a<> Span. 
aUo&a, a recess in a room. — Arab, a/, the; 
and qubhah, qobbah, a vault arcii, dome^ 
cupola ; hence a vaulted space. 

Aider, a tree. (E) M E. aAiVr, aiUr 
(d being excrescent). — A- S. atr. + I)u. th\ 
Icel. dlr; iiwed. aj', Dan. eik^ ei; G. rr// ; 
O. H. G. <Ura\ L. ainus \ Rnss. otekka, 
{V AL.) 

Alderman. (E.) See Old. 

Ale. (E.) M. E. a/f,- A. S, /«/«.+ 
led., S wed, and Dan. «/; Lilhnon. ahu; 
KoM. oi\ olevina. 

Alembic, vessel for distilling. (F — 
Span.-Arab.-Gk.) M. E. aUpthk."?. 
altxmhique (Cot.) • Span, alambiqut. — 
Arab. tU, the; and antik (pronouncctl am' 
ink's, a still. — Gk. li/i^i^. a cup, goblet; 
can of a GtjU.-Gk. &^^, 4l/i^<vr, foot of a 
goulct ; allied to L, nntbo^ % bow. 

Alert. (F.-ltal.-L.) See B^ffent. 

Algebra. (Low L. — Arab.) J-ow L 



alj^hxt, compDtatiuD. *Arab. (z/, the; auid 
faftr^ setting, repairing -, :lIso, ibe rcUictiou 
of fractioiu lo integers in arithmetic ; hciicr. 
ilgcbra, — Arab, root j'a^ra, to set, con- 
sol ulale, 
Al^iazil. B police-<'flicer; see Vlaler. 
Alburn, umial-wood. (Heb. - Skt.) 
In i Chroo. ii. 8. ix, to; spelt almug, 
I Kiiij^s, X. II.— Ileb. a/^/mm/)?/, or <tnin»- 
pose*I I atmugim ; a bcirrowed won!. — SIct. 
vaisU'ka^ saiidal-wood ; where 'ka is a 
Alien. (F.-L.) M. E. aliau.^O. F. 
aiicH. — L. alienuj. sbsnge ; a stranger. — L. 
alius, another. + Gk,tfXAor, another; Goth. 
aiii, other ; see Else. Allegory. 

aliaa. (L.) Low L. o/m/. otherwise. •• 
L. aiius. 

alibi, (L.) Low L. aiibi, in another 
pUce. — L. d/i'-, iiom alius ; and sufhx 'hi 
%& in i-^f. there, uhi, where. 

ftliquot. (L.) L. aliquot, several 
(hence, proportionate), — L aJi-us, other; 
and ^W0/, how many. 

alter. (L,) Low L. alferart, to alter. 

— L. alfer^ other. — L. a/- (as in al-ius) ; with 
coinpaf. suffix •ter(\rya.n •fara), 

altercation, a di<-pute. (F.-L.) M.E. 
alter caiien.^O. V. altercation. •^L. alUna- 
ti^rtem. (ICC- of alicrcatio. — L. altercatus, 
pp. of aUfrrari. to dispute, speak in turns. 

— L. alter, other, anotner. 

alternate. (L) L. altemafus, pp. of 
aJternart, to do by iHms. — L. a/ter-nus, 
reciprocal. — L. alter (with suffix na). 

BUbaltem. inferior to another. (F.- 

L") V. subalterne. Cot. — L. sttdaltemus, 

subordinate. — L. sui, under ; alter, another. 

Alight. (E.) See Lieht |.a). 

Alike. (E.) Sec LU© (i). 

Aliment, food. ^I'. - L.) F. aliment. 

— L, alimattum, food ; formed with 
suffix •metUum from aJin, lo nourish. 

adoleseont. Rowing op. (L.) L. aJo- 
iacmf; stem of pre?, pt, of adoleseert, to 
STOW op. — L a.if to ; oleseert, inceptive 
lonn 01 ttiin^ to grow, from atertt to 

adult, one grown ap. (L.) X^adultHs^ 
pp. of aJoiescere, (o grow up (above"). 

ooaleBoa, to ^raw logcihcr. (L.^ L. 
etalesufc.^h. to-, for <■(?« - (am, together; 
and aleuert, to grow, frequent of alirt, to 
Alive, in life (E.) For en Ihu » in life ; 



Alkali, a salt. tArab.^ AmK «/, 
amlya//, ashes of glass-wort, ^\hich al 
in soda. 

All. (E.) M. E. al, sing.; 
A.S. m/, pi. eaJle. + Icel. allf, 
Dan.a/; Du. a/; O. H.G. a/; 
pi. a/lai; Irwh uile ; W.^/A 

all. adv., otierly. In the 
&raJie (correctly u// to-braJ:e'^, Jut!ge«, 
Here the incorrect atlte, for 'utterly, 
up about Aj>. 1500, in of 
iJiom which linked to to the verb: cCii 
is tebrokm Ihilkc retjioun/ Chaucer, 
3750. Sec To-, frtjix. 

alder-, prefix, of all. In at^ir- 
(Sh.); here aider is for alter, A. S. 
gen. pi. of fd/j all. 
almighty. ».£.) K.S. eal-miMtig. 
almost. <E.) A. S. ealmJtst, i.e. qriM 
the greatest part, nearly all. 

ofone. (£.) M.E. a/ <»fv»all one,U 
by oneself; sec One. 
already. (E.) M, E. al redi<=' bU rcarfy. 
also. (E.^ M, E. a/ str, i.e. fjulTt: so. 
although. (E.) M. E. al, in Oic ^aix 
of ' ewTi ; ' and theugh ; see Though, 
altogether. (E.> M. E, al togrtktr, 
alway, always. (E.) (i) A.S. mM 
weg, every way, an accus. case, (il M,t 
ttlles weis. in every way, a pen. oiic. 

as. (£.) Short for also', XL £. iM 
aise^ all, as; see So. 
Allay. (E) See Lie (I). 
Allege; see Iiogal. 
Allegiance: ue Liese. 
Allegory. ^F.-Gk.i XVI cent. F.o/fc- 
^Con'e. — L^ afl(\ip^nj. — GV, rUAFj-yo^. 
scription of one thing umlcr the i: 
another. — Gk. dXXrtyopuv, to speftk 
imply something else ; Galat. iv. 44. 
dAX»*.stem of (lAAos, other ; and I70, 
to speak, from dycp^. a place of 
cf. offtiptiy, to as^mble. Gk. 
alins ; see Alien. 
AUegro. (lial.-L.) .See Alrt.- 
Alleltiia. (Heb.) SceHallelnji 
Alleviate. iL.) .See LoTitjr. 
AUey, a walk. (F.-L.?) M.E 
— O. K. a/ee, a gallery ; a p,iT\icif"ial ill, 
O.F. aler, alter, to go; !•. .i.'.Vr. p. T 
etymology of alter, much and '"•■• ■' 
cn&:>ed. ii not yet setilcl; ihc < 
is aner, a/tner, e»mivfl!cnt to li : 
to go. Perhaps from L. aJrtart, to 
lo, come by water, aniw, cume ; 
attditjrt*, put for aJita^e. to apjifi 
▲Uionoai mc LU^^iu-vat 



lee IiiMTd. 
i ; sc< lilnimcnt. 
t« I^ooui. 
. hKT Itoqiiiioiou*. 
L.T L -(). Low G.) Low 
■um, aiaJtutn, of 
itlaJu^ a free in- 
It means * entire 
' i, «/(*./; where oV 
»w ng: i.ics 'property' or 
I O. 1j>w G. oti I* cognate 
vili/, Iccl. auiSr, wealth. 
itment by medicines 
>(KMtlc cHcct to that of 
to kpmtref^ihy, 
for dXXof, othtr ; nnd 
r; MtAU«aandF«tl&o«. 

ft attSgn, grant ; see I«ootu. 
to pnuse, apt>rove of; see 

D See p. 143. I- 4. 
oalon : see Ludioroaa. 
p»L.««r<^G.) See Lure. 
U> See L»ve. 
loe: &^ Ligament. 
Almanack- (F. - Gk. ?) 
r,-if ^ — I rtw L, altnanafhus. 
-- '* {Easebius), at- 
1 tniknown; net of 

IE.) A.S^ talmiktig. From 


.-L-GIl) M..^. a/maun./. 
frt. men correctly. ama»>ire ; 
^to Span. aiiil Arab, influence; 
it. ^ Xm amycfiaia^ amy^Ja- 
j; wbcocc ihc for msflOTjyi/'/ii, 
fft^ivmjm*^ra (we Urachct). 
^ ^^nvT^oA^r, ui almond. 

k) A. S. imimMst ; &ec Ul. 
^Gh-) M,E. almeat, later 
f«,r9V.— Ia'p I* eU/moryna. 
-■• alms, --Gk, 

', to pity, 
p « ,-*•., ..w ii'fin. 
|F.-L.-.Gk.) O. Y.almos' 
\m of alnu.«*0. F. almostu. 
pNtf^'K tUtmejyna; Sec 
l»ry. reUt-np toftlms. (Low 

vnarittMt an 

(LoGk.) Uo/o^^rUoy). 

Alone. CE.) See One. 

Along (E.) Seelfong(i). 

Aloof iDu.) See Luff. 

Aloud, (li.) See Loud. 

Alp. (L.) L. Alpes, the Alps; of CcUic 
orlj>in. Cf. G.iel. aI/>, a bi^h niouutain. 1 
Dnr tram-alp-ine, i c. beyotid the Alps. 

Aipeica. tSpan. > Peravian). Span, a/- 
p<ua ; from the Peruvian name. 

Alphabet. (LowL.-Gk.-ncb.) Low 
L..a//Jiad^fM/ti.^(j\^fpa^ 0iJTa, the names 
of a and 0. Ibe first two letlem of the 
alphabet. »lleb. tiJe/^Jk. an ox. the name of 
the first letter ; and A^f/t, a house, the name 
of the second letter. (Realty Phurntcian.) 

Already. (E.) M.K. aJ rtdy^ quite 
ready ; »ee All. 

AlBO. (£.) M.E. a/ $9, quite so; A.S. 
talswd : see All. 

Altar; sec Altitude. 

Alter. Altercation, Alternate; tee 

Although. (E.) M. E. al thogh : icc 
All and Thongh, 

Altitude. (F.-L.) XiV cent -F. a///- 
tuJt. - L. —d/ri/Ji(A/. height. - L.d//MJ, high. 

altar (L.) A.S. d//a«. MatLv. 34.— 
L. attart, an altar, high place-- L, ailus. 

alto, high foicc, (Ttal.-L.) ItaL a//o. 
- L. altuj. 

contralto. (Ital.-L.') Ital. contntifo^ 
counter-tenor. — Itol. (imtra, opposite lo^ 
and alto, high (above). 

exalt, (l* . - L.) F. txalter. - L. tJtaJiare, 
to lift out, exalt. — L. ex, out ; altus, high, 
haughty. (F.-L.) Short for ME. 
hautein, arrogant. — O. F. Aaufairt, ' bauty ;* 
Cot.-O. F. Aau/. oldeat form /uU/, high. - 
L. a//ur 

hautboy, a musical instrument. (F.» 
L ami I>u.) F. hautbois. — F. haut, high ; 
/Wj, wood. • L. d/fftj. high ; Du. \>>^'<i, 
wimhI. See Buah (i). It is a wooden in- 
klrumcnt with a high tone. Henoe Ilal, 
oho>. I>orrowe<l from hau/bcis. 

Altogether. (E.) M.E ai togtihtr^ 
quite to|;ethcr. See AH- 

AlutQ. (F. - L.) M.E. alum. - O.K. 
aium \ F. d/wn. — I., alumtn, alum. 

Alway. Always (E.) See AU. 

Am. (£.) Sec Are. 

Amain (E) Vux on main in strength* 
with strenglb ; see A- (i) and Main, sb. 

Amalj^am. (K, - Low L. — Gk.) F 
amaigamt, % tnUturc. esp. of quicksil^ 

with other metals. Either a corTUV\\on ot 




alchemist^s uuignun of mala^ma, a molli- 
fying application ; jwrh*^ with Arab, al 
\ '■the) prcfixerU^Gk. /ia\a7/ia, an emol- 
lient. *Gk. itoXaacup (for it^KnK-yuv), to 
soflcn. -Gk. ^laAoiwSr, soft. (^MAR.) 
Amanuensis. (L.) See Manual. 
Amaranth, an unfadinE flower. (L.- 
Gk.) Properly amarant, as in Milton ; but 
-anth is due to confusion with Greek d*"^!, 
a flower. M L. amamu/us. «Gk. dfiapavror, 
unfading, or as sb. unfading flower. —.Gk. 
d; not; and fiapalvnv, to fade. (^M.\R.) 
A.ma8S. (F. — L. — Gk. ) See Macerate. 
Amatory. (L.) L. ama/oriiu, loving, 
— I., amator, a lover. — I,, amare, to love; 
with suflix -tor. (VKAM.) 

amenity, pleasantness. (F.— L.) O. F. 
F. ameniU'.^'L. amatiitaUm, ace, of ama- 
nifas.^L. affhenus, pleaunL Cf, L. am- 
an, to love. 

amiable. (F. - L.) O. F. aimiabU, 
friendly; also ioTp-eablc, by confusion with 
aimabU («L. amahilis), — L. amkabiiis^ 
friendly— L. amicus, a frienO . — lfc.jij«af*. 

amicable. (L.) L. amUabilis, friendly ; 
as alwve. j- 

amity. (F.-L.^ O.T.amistt^amhted, 
amtj/tff. — l,ow L. amici/at/m, ace. of ami- 
cifai, friendship.— L. flW/fMj. friendly; &c. 

amorous. (F.-L.) O.F. amaros; F. 
amoureux. — L. amotvsus, — L. amor, love. 

amour. (F. - L.) F. amour. — L. 
amdrtm, ace of awjr, love. 

enamotir. (F.-L,) O. F. et$amonr, 
to inflame with love.— F. en amour, in 
love: where K- rM — L. in, in. 

enemy. (F.-L.) M.E. /w/mi'.— O.K. 
tnemi. — h. inimicus, unfriendly.— L. «'«, 
not; amicus, fiicndly.- L. d#idn*. 

enmity. (F. — L. ) M. E. mmite. - O. F, 
tnamiJtitt. •~ O.F. en- ( = L. in-), neg. 
prc6x ; and amistiti, amity ; see amity 

tnimioal. (L.) L. inimimlis, extended 
from inimicus. hostile —L. in-, not; and 
amicus, frienilly ; sec aralAble nbovc. 

paramour. (K. — L.) M. K.pammour, 
With li>ve ; orijj. nn adverb, phrnw — V. /ar 
tfurwi//-, with love ; where /wr = L>/Vr. 
Amaze ,- sec Maze. 
AmaEon. a female warrior. (Gk) GV, 
Afia^wv. one ot a warlike nation of women in 
Scythia. ^ To account for the luime, the 
Greeks Raid that these women cut olt the 
right breail to slioot belter ; from Gk, a-, 
not : and t*a\us, tlie breast. Obviously an 

Ambassador, Embassador. (1 
Low L.-O. ILG.) F. ambassa,f.'iir »y. 
amifas^aiie, an cmbass)'; prob. ''■."-! 
from Ilal. aTi^ajrw/i*.— Low L 
(Lex Salictt) ; more correctly am^ . 
mission, scr^'ice. — L. ambaciux, a »ervut. 
emissar)'; Cxsor, de Bell. Gall. \*i. 
O. W.O. ambaht, ampahi, a servant 
Goth, cmdbahti, a servant, p. The O. 
prefix am', Goth. aW-, is cognate 
anU. Gk. dyr/. before, in place of; 
baht means a sen*ant, orijj. ' devoted. 
Skt. bkakta, devoted : hhakii^ tervfafc 
(Origin of L. ambacius disputed.) 

embassy, a mission. (F.— T/>w L,— 
O.H.G.) A F. modification of Law L. 
ambascia ; as above, Cf. F. emfvt'^ ■ ■'• *•-' 
imhasciata^ weakened form of <i'a 

Amber. (F. - Span. — Arab 
(iw/«^nr. — F.flwi5«f.— Span. dmAar. — Anfc. 
'as^bar (prcMiounced 'aminxr'], om!tr';;n*. a 
rich pcrlume. ^Thc resinous .ti 
so called from a resemblance to .-^^ 
which is really quite a cUffercnt 
ambergris, i.e. gray amber. CalM 
gris amber in Milton, P. K. ii. 344. ^ 
F. gris, gray, is from O- H. G, /rtx, ptjf 
cf. G. grtis, hoary. 

Ambi . Amb-, prefix. (L.) L av^ 
about : cf. Gk. ^pi^i, on both sides, whenci 
E. pre6x amphi'.. KeUted to L. awAti 
Gk. QM^. both. 

Ambient, going about (L.) See Ittai> 

AmbisuoujB. (L.) See Agent. 

Ambition. (F.-L.) Sec Itinerant 

Amble. (F.-L.) M.E. *»/«*/!•« -1*1. F. 
ambltr, to go at an easy pncc.— I 
tart, to walk. % Perhaps for d- 
to go about; from amb-, aboot , ..u. •• , 
to go, appearing in Gk. 0alrtir, to go ; ttc 
Ambi- and Base (3). 

ambulance, a moveable hospital. <f. 
— L.) F. ambuUfice, — L. amimianti- 
foim of prcs. jiart. of atithul<tre. 

ambulation, a walking about 
From L. ambulatio. a walking abont, 
ambiuatus. pp. cA atni-ulart. 

oircum ambulate, to W3*k round. CL.) 
L. rircttm, around ; and pp 

iwrambulate. to waj'; h 

(L-) X^-Ptr, through: an'i 

Ambrosia, food of ih' 
Gk. A^fipoaia I fern, of d^. 

Micd form of J^porof, ; 

dfi- for li*"- (E. un ), and ;:,. 

Or rather, from Gic A-, not (£. un-); 



for t^f«r^ " ttoprii, mortal; 
Cf Stt. amxitay immortal. 




Aumbry, a copboaM: >ee 

d«, Ambush: »«cBtuh(i). 

arc M«Uorat«. 
, « Gk « Heb.) L. amm.^ 
rily.— Hcb. Jmv. verily, so be 
6nn, tnie.«»Ueb. dman^ 
^t% Mo be firm.' 

&ee Bmandation. 
see Merit, 
gem. (L. — Gk.) 1^ amr- 
l^iMwTor, an amethyst; so 
SBppOficd to prevent dmnk- 
dj iMbtf-T Of , noi drunken. — Ok. 
tu9iffir, lo be drtmken, from 

ble ; we Amatory, 
"robe; sec Jat (i). 
see Mid. 

r. SceMias(i). 
. — t*) See Ajziatory. 
.aaalkali. (I. -Gk.^EgTpt- 
lactiaafor L. tai ammcnia^um, 
f, «al ammoniac. 
»k. 4^M*M*«i^ Ijbyan.*>Gk. 
ittyan Zrus>Amman: a wuni 
irigin; llerocl. ii. 4J. ^ It » 
^mmoHtac was fint obtaixicO 
^ of Ammnn. 

^f<mil%hcn. (Gk.^ Coined 
Ef/ t,Gk. -trTi) from the nnme 
the shell resembles the 
oa the head of the 

: of ofTcuccs, 
-.- — L- amrtfjiia. 
;»S cap. of wrong. 
I, — Gk. i-. not ; 
It (£.) Sec MiDgla. 
~ .matory. 

)k,) From 

>n. (L. 

Of (arm. «l.>»i ^Mrtt, here 
:• awl ftoftpiv^ I form, from 

(o utia£amt r verb 

Amount ; see Mount. 

Amphi-, prt/x. (Gk.) Gk. ifi^l, 00 

both sirJes, around ; see Ambf-. 

Amphibious ; »e Bjogrflphy. 

Amphibrach, a foot in prosotiy i^Ck.) 
The foot composed of a short sjllabtc on 
each side of a long 00c (w-wV Gk. An»j'{- 
$paxvi. — Gk. dft^, on both sides ; and 
Ppaxi-^. short; see Amphi- and Brief. 

Amphitheatre. (Gk.) See Theatre. 

Ample, full. (F.-L.) F. awi/Z^.-L. 
amp/us^ spacions. p. Perhaps *• amdi/u/uj, 
full on both sides. (VPAK.) 

Amputate ; see Putative. 

Amulet. (K.-L.-Arab.) Y^amufette, 

*L. amuUtum. a talt&man hung roun'i the 
neck. Of Arab, origin : cf. Arab. himtUat, 
a sword-belt hunj^ from the shoulder ; 
hamdii or hifitAytl. a sword-belt. aI>o a 
f>maU Koran hunj; round the neck as a 
charm; lit. 'a thing carried.'-* Arab, c 
hamala^ he carrifd. (Dispotcd.) 

Amuae; .see Muae (1). 

An, A. ituiijimu artuU. (E.) A is 
short for an', and an is an unaccented form 
of A.S. <£ir, ODe; see Ono. 

An-. A-. neg. prtjix. (Gk.) Gk. ^r-, 
shorter form d-, cognate with L. iVi-, ind 
E, un ; see Un-, In-, A- (9). 

An. if. (Scand.) See And. 

Ana-, An',pftjis. (Gk.) Gk. dra., dr-; 
from Uk. dvn, upon, on, up, badt^ again; 
cognate wiih E. ott ; see On. 

Anabaptist; see Baptiae. 

Anochronlam ; see Chronlclo. 

Anflssthetio. rendering insensible to pain. 
(Ck.) Coined from t>k. d*-, not; and 
a\iT$ifTiitvt, full of perception; see An- and 

Anagram ; see Orammsr. 

Analof^ : sec Xiogio. 

Analysia. ((>k.) Gk. dvoAvffjr, arcsolv- 
inj.,' inlo p.irts, loosening, — Gk. Ava^vuv, lo 
undo, rcAolre. — Gk. 6vn, bnck ; and kCuw, 
lo loosen. (VLU.) Dor. afta/yse, verb, a 
coine<I word. 

AnapiBst. Anapest, a foot in prosody. 
(Gk.) L. ana/irs/us. ■• Gk. ufawaiarct, 
struck back, rebounding ; because it is th^ 
ret'erse ufa ilaclyl. — Gk. Avaxtdttv, lo strike 
back. — QV.ilva, back ; and maiuv, to stnkb 

Anarchy. (I*'.-Gk.) See Arch-, prch 

AnAtheina; see Thome. 

Anatomy . see Tome. 

Ancestor; see Cede. 

Anchor. (L.-Gk.) lletter spelt without 
lhe4. M.E ^mAtt. A.^.ampr.^X^AtutfrA 



(also anfhara). ~ Glc Jkympa, an anchor, 
lit a bent hook ; cf. Gk. d-ynb', a bend. 
(VAK, ANK.) 

Anchoret, Anchorite^ a recluse. (F. 
— Low L. — Cik.) K anarhffrete (Cot.) — 
Low L. iinar/)ore/a. — ^J\c. di-axajpijr^r, one 
who retires Irom the woild. — Gk. &vfi- 
XwpciV. 10 retire. — Gk. ova, back: and 
Xvp^^v, to Withdraw, from x^P^* sp^oc, 
room. (VGHA) 

Anchovy, a fi*h, (Span. — BasqaeT) 
Spivn. amhct^a ; cf. ItaKqnc nmhoa^ dnchffva, 
an anchovy. Perhaps 'dried fish'; from 
BA«i|nc an/:Ma, dry. 

AJielent(0. old. (F.-L.) See Ante-. 

Ancient (i), a booncr^ sLindard -bearer, 
t K. — L.) A corruption of ensign ; see 

And. (E.) A.S. aW.-l-OSax. ende; 
Iccl- eHifa, if, moreover (the same word, 
differently used); O H.G. an/i ; G. hmJ. 
Prob. related to L. ohu, Gk. di^t, over 

an, if. (Scand.) Formerly also artdi 

IHavelok, sS&i, Sec, This is the Scand. 
•se of the word, /fn i/mi( if, a reduplica- 
lion. flMf ant/t/^ hot if \(; Matt. xxiv. 48. 
Andante, slowly. (Ual.) Jul. amlattte, 
movioF slowly; from tufdartt to go. 

Andiron^ a ftrc-dog. {y.^ Not connected 
with iron, but corrupted from M.E. and- 
€rw, aiffu/cme, aumiirt. — O. F. andirr; 
mod. F. iandier, put for fandter, where t 
is the def art. — Low L. anderia, amiena, 
amdajium, a fire-dog. Cf. Span, and Port. 
audM, A frame, a bier. 

Anecdote ; sec Dose. 

Anemone. (Gk.) SeeAnJmal. 

Anent, rcRaiding. (E.) See Sven. 

Aneroid, dry. (Gk.) See Nereid. 

Aneurism, a tumour due to dilatation. 
(Gk.) Gk. iv^vpvcfta, a widening. —Gk. 
Av; for (li-u, up; and tvpvrur, to widen, 
from (L'piJr, wide. 

Anew. C£.) See Now. 

AngeL (L. - Gk ) L. attfrfius. - Gk. 

i£7-y«Aoi, a mcisciigcf. Cf. Gk. (Syyn^or, a 

ted courier, from O. Persian. Dor. 

rch-anffti, q. v., tv-an^l-ist, q. x. 

Anger. (Scand.) M.E. artnr^ often 
with the sense of vexation, trouble, •IceL 
OHgr^ grief; Uan. an^tr, Swed dw^r, re- 
gret. + L. a"j,yr, a struiiglini*. an(;uii>h. 
(VAGH, A^'GH,l 

Angina, kvctc sufTrring. I.L. ) Sec 

Angle (Of « comer. <F. - L.) M. B. 


angie. — F. en^e. — L. angrttHt^ arsi 
Cf. Gk. a7wAoj, bent. 1 V AK, ' "' 
quadrangle, s square 6gtire. (1 
F. quadrvm^U. — L. ifuadraifptittt 
of t^tiadr-att^u /lis, lour-aiiglcd ; see 
rate. Dor. So also re*t-afi^, tn 

Angle ( 2), a hook, ti-;li-lu.ok 1 E. 
tf«^v/, a fish book. ■+ Dan. a/i^v/; G^ 
(^ AK, ANK.) Dor. an^'e, verb, 

Anguiflh. (F. - L.) * M.E. 
OMtfpije.—'O F* OHguisu; V. amgpi 
aa^tutia, narrowness, poverty, 

— L. ofi^tstus, narrow. •• ll 
choke. (VAGH, ANGH.) 

angina, acute pain. (L.) L. 
pain. lit choking. —L. oMfftrtf to 
anxious, distressed, (L.) L. 

— L, ttngtrt, to choke; distress. 

AnimaL (L.) L. atiima/, a living^ 
ture. — L. aninta, breath, life. K V AN.) 

anemone, ft flower. (Gk.) Gk.dMfMlM 
lit. wind-6ower. — Gk. ^r^or, wind. 

animadvert, to censnre. (L.) 
madmeritrt^ to turn the mind to. heoc^lj 
criticise.— L. anim-, for animus, (be aA| 
(allied to animia^ breath) : ad, 
Htrtert, to tuni (sec Vorse). 

animate. (L ) L. animatuJt 
OMtmart, to endue with life. — L. 
life. Der. in-animaU, rtaninuUe^ 

animosity. (F. - L.) F. 

— I. oMimositattm, ace. of 
vehemence. — L. animosHf, vehc 
of mind or courage. — I... animt 
courage, passion. And see Bqni 
BCagiuuiimoaa, Puaill&niinoua, 

Anise, a herb. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
atust, anys.^V. anis (Cot.*) — L, 
also (i/i/MMm. — Gk. £ni7o»', *^ 
anise, dill. 

Anker, a liquid measure. (Daul 
anle^ the same. + Swcd, OfthMrt ; 

Ankle. (E.) M. E- a»cU, a» 
A.S. ttn*/fnt>. ^ Dnn. and Swt 
Ecel. okMi, (for omJ^/h). itJkUi thii\ 
enM. Ut. ' a small bend ; * of. 
a bend. Sec Anchor. 

Annals. {F. — I..) F. am 
-L. /I'-'"'"" -' -'■' 
yearly - 

anniversary. iL. 
mcmori.-iI.' — L. anntufriatitis, 
yeaHv.-*U anni- {atnw ), from 


«#t pp. of ¥4fiirii lo turn 

It. {T.»I-.> M.t.annuf/. 
iC » 1* tnmuatij, yetuly. « L, 

LbftinKlwojrcnn. (L.) Korme<) 

ttm, a. Kp»cc o( two ycats ; 
op) b Bi^nHoJu. — V.. H- two; 
Unin^ B year, )cArIy. — I. 
abo trv-in^niai . from /n' i.for 
wadr^nmia!, more coTTCttly 
from ^ladri- (for ^uat/ntt), 

■ * i/. 




> tfin 1 <n 


1. M 

(t-.) Coined from L./rr- 
ig: lit. lA^tmg for years. 
roiifk ; «i«wM/, a ^cnr. 

L.) Forminly -anfl 
iNtf/r. •> Low L^ $N/€*xtfwait4j, 
lived bcyoad A year. •• L. 
] Munu, a year. 

h.aL( fO E: C^) 
Ills have liet'ti 
'), to indnmc, 
.1. A.S. oHtc/itfi, lo 
|>reiix. oii'l u-Zj//, to 
t.rc. (VAL) a. 
iiel glass. — PretiK .j 
i .;.0; and O.K. «^r/<-r, 
»?t. orir. to paint Id black 
•il»*f. — I-ow I„ rtirc/Zarf, lo 
migeiimt blackish ; from niger, 

'L.) F. aittuxer.^L.. art- 

ttfrt, to knit or biml iu. 
to; aitil Mtirtcft, lo bind. 

L. fpntUiUrt, to tic to- 

(<*«««). together ; and 

(pp. H/XM/). D«r. cert' 

L. anni/ii/ti/ujt pp. 
1^ roince to nnthing. •> L, 
to : anj m^, Doihln^. 

I..) Sec AnaaU. 
tee Noble. 
Kc If oncio. 

^Kktariaj;. <.Ln> V,a»ntf/anj, 
mmlmtt a ring ; dimm. uf <i/i- 
ari£. a orcnit 
l^aJngtoalUjrfMia. (L.*Gk.) 

XVII cent. Low L. amniynus^ a drug re* 
Heviog pain. — Gk.df'd'dt/roT. free from pain. 
— Gk tW, not; and i^uvtj, pain. (3. 'Ami 
is tbc/w// fonn of the prctix. os in Zend; 
af rciult't frtim a and o; ttfrnvij ]>rcl). means 
•o finnwing,' from fSitr, to cat {^ \\y.) 

Anoint ; we Unguent, 

Anomaly. (GU.) Gk. <titt»/iaA/a. devia- 
tion from ruIe. — Gk. tlj-cy^ioXor, uneven.* 
Gk. (ij'a. not ; and 6>mA>^f. even, rclalrd to 
u/ii5i, one :uid the same. ^ See Anodyne. 

Anon, immediately. (E ) See One, 

ABonymoua ; see Onomatopoeia, 

Another. (E.) l''or a« iiM^r, one other 

Answer. (E ) See Swear. 

Ant. I.E.) M K. «»/(•(*, short foruw/'/f. AS. 
amette, an emmet, nnt Doublet, fffim^/. 

Antagonist -, see Agony. 

Antarctic ; see Arotio. 

AntO-, prefix, before, (L.) L. ante, be* 
fore. Allied to Anti-, q.v. 

ancient. vF.-L.) With excrescent /. 
M. E. autKUtt.^V. anrittt.^ha^ L. anti- 
anuSf old, bclontjing lo former time. Korracd 
with suffix -anus Irom attfe, before. 

anterior. i,L.) L. anterior, former, 
more in front, odj from atiif, 


antique, old. (F — 1-.) F. anth^tie — 
L. anfujuus, also antktu, formed with 
suffix -iiui from anttt before; aa/Px/f!rHJ is 
Uom pojt, l>eh;nd. 

Antecedent; see Cede. 

Antediluvian . jce Itava. 

Anlelopu. vGk.) In Spenser, F. Q. i. 
fi J^. iS.-iicI to be corniptcd from latt Gk. 
ilrfiaAi>»-, or d.vBnXon-, the stem o^ uv&t\Ka/\tf 
or lii^uAo^, used by Eiifitathitu of Antiodi 
to signify * bright* eyed,' i. c. a gucUe 
Coined from Gk dftfiif, lu iprout. iNoaom, 
aUo lo shine; nnd w\f/ 'gen. iuir(^t\ the eye. 
See Auiher and Optica. ^ Tlic word 
Dorau, tilt* Gk. and Roman name of the 
gazelle, IS from SV^ico/icu, 1 see clearly. 

AntennM, feelers of iosccis. (iJ) L, 
a»/atH*r, pi. of anUnna, properly the yanl 
of A sail. 

Antepenultima ; see intimata. 

Anterior. (L.) .Sec Ante*. 

Anthem. ^L -Gk.) Sec Phonetio. 

Anther, the ^timmit of the stamen of a 
flower. (Gk.) From Gk. uHJ^p^'t, bloom- 
ing. - Gk aftfcrf, to bloom ; d*^or, a young 
bwi or sprouL 

fanciful, odd ; as sb. a trick. 
Orig. an adj.; and the same as 


antholo^, a collection of choice poems. 

'Gk.) Lit. a collection of /lowers. — Gk. 

XvOoKtrfia, a galhering of flowers.— Gk. 

'i»^o^07oT. flower-gathering. — Gk-di-fio-, for 

^yOoff a flower ; and Kiyup, to cull. 

Anthroclto, a kind of hard coal. (Glc.) 
Ok. dvBpaxirrjt, resembling coals. — Gk. 
Ai'Spaic-, stem of ay0pa{, coal. 

Anthropophagi, cmnoibaU. (Gk.) Lit. 
'men-eaters.* — Gk. A^pono^yof, man-oat- 
ing. — Gk. afQpotwos, a man ; and <^7er»', 
to cat. (y B>IAG.) p. Gk. dvep-ofwos is 
lit. 'man-like*; Sromdy^p . (or avSp^^dvtp. 
stem of f^^f^Fi ^ 'n^" i ''"*' '^ (ficn. inriit), 
face, appcannce; see Optica. 

I Auti-, Ant-, //r^r, against. (Gk.) Gk. 
Ayrlt agaiosl; alUcd to L. omU, before. 
Cf. bkl. anfi, over against, locat. of OH/a, 
end ; see Ead. ^ In attti-a/a/tt the prefix 
is for L. antf, 
Antio. (F.-L.) 8ce Ante-. 

Antichrist: see Ohrlat, 

Anticipate; see Capacioiu. 

Antiolimaz ; see Climax. 

Antidote ; see Dose. 

Antimony, a metal. (Low L.) Low L. 
aNfhnpniuift. Origin unknowcL 

Antipathy; see Path o». 

Antiphon; sec Phonetlo. 

AntiphraslB ; see Phxaae. 

Antipodes. (Gk.) Gk. dirrUoitt, pi., 
men with feci opposite to ours, from nom 
ting. oj'Wb'ow. — Gk. QVTi, opposite to; and 
90vt, cognate with Foot. 

Antique. (F.-I^) See Ante-. 

Antiseptic, coon terac ting putrefaction. 
(Gk.) Gk. drrf, against ; and (nywr-tls, 
rotten, from tr^vny, to rot. 

Anttstrophe; see Strophe. 

Antithesis: see Thome. 

Antitype ; see Typo. 

Antler. (F.) M.E. aMH/fUrf, put fordwrt- 
*//«(?)- F. anthuilUr, the brow-antler 
or lowest branch ofa deer's horn. — O.H.G 
cnJi, the forehead ; Dan, dial. a*tJ, Swed. 
annt (for a$uf<), Icel. enni (for enJi), the 
forehead, Cf. L. atttia, hair on the fore- 
head. The meaning of the suffix 'Omller 
is unknown. ^. Or the M. E. aunftUrt 
may be right ; corresponding to an O. F. 
antoiUitrt said to have been once in use 
(Littri). In this case, the O. F. word is 

t supposed to be etjuivalent to a Low L, 
^Htoiuhnum * ; from antf. before, uid 
cmtus, the eye. ^ Prob. the latter. 
AnuB, the lower orihce of the bowels. 
(L.) L, a«w. 


Anvil. (E ) M. F.. nircv//, amfii 
tiftfiifc, ifnhlti.'^A.^. an, on, on, U| 
a verb ftaitan *, itot foimd. but 
with G. j'aJ-un, to fit togiMher, 
/a/s, a groove (Klugc). ^Somc 
it from on and fealJnn^ to fold ; hoi 
the O. It. G. a$Hualz^ an ajivjl, is 
derived from antt on, and XfalJan, to i 
up, but from fahtn, as above. 
itiius, an anvil, from I'ffj oi^ xk) 
to strike. 

Anxious. (L.) See Angiulah. 

Any. (E.) A. S. ^lig, any, U 
one; sec One, 

Aorta. (Gk.) Gk. Afl/m^, the 
artery 'rising' from the hcarU — Gk.1 
«r0cu, to rise up; atipuv, to raise. 

Apace. (E. am 
a foot-pace, where 
phrase has changed 
shw!y (Chaucer, 
meaiis/u/. See Pftoo. I 

Apart, Apartment; see Fart. | 

Apathy ; see Pathos. 

Ape. (K) ME. ape, A.S. a/a.+l 
aap',; Swed. a/a; Irish and Gl 
apa; G. affe\ Gk. ff^vor; Skt. kapi. 
The word has lost initial <(, nrcservedi 
Gk. and Skt. only. The Hch. jb^ 
ape, is not Semitic, but boiroweu nj 

Aperient. (L.") XlVcent Lit 'opeatt 
— L. aperient'^ sicm of prcs. pt. of ^^MV^ 
to open. Sec April. 

Apex. (L.) L. aptx, summit. 

Aph-, prefix. (Gk.) See Apo-. 

AphfiBresis; sic Heresy. 

Aphelion; see HeliooaL 

Aphorism ; sec Horizon. 

Apiary, a place for bees. (L.) 
aniim, neut. of apiarius, belor 
bees. — L. api-, for apis, a l>ec. 

Apiece. (E. anJV,) Put lot oh f& 
where mf -^in. See Piece. 

Apo-, prtfije. off. (Gk.) Gk. dW, 
from ; cognate with E. ef, ojf; see Oli 
becomes aph- liefore an aspirate. \ 

Apocalypse. (L.-Gk.) M.E. nfiotm 
(Wyclif). — L, apocatypiis. — Gk.dffMtoAM 
a revelation.— Gk. anoKaKvwrtiv, to uaco< 
reveal. — Gk. dv6, off; and «aXv«r«ir, 
cover. (^KAL). 

Apocope. (L.-Gk.) L.\ 
AmoHvtni, a cutting off (of a letter). -( 
Aw6,o^\ and«'iirTf(i'.tohew.cut.(^bKA 

Apocrypha ; see Crypt, 

Apogee, see Oeoftrophy. i 




ipii. '■ ■ " rm. (Gk.) Gk 

1 IcTM saying 

4.114 yVt77»pai. I cry 


*T v,T..-Gk.) .S«eFUgu« 
.t« ; see Slatios, 
. A. S, a/aj/W.-T.. 
k. Azv^TvXos, one who is M!nl 
, off: uid ^rAAfiv. to send. 
; c«c Strophe. 
; lec Theme. 
(Gk.) ^jcc TheinzL 
(y ; itc FoU (3). 
rr P*htry. 
c Per*. 

jiiiuiii^iil; see Pultito. 

see Poot^ 
tee Feudont. 



'AS. tf/»;V/, 

. ; Swcd. j//<r ; 

1..... obMal; GeuI. 

•. iiXl>!oko\ Lithiian. 

LI ABAlAj root uo- 

Me PuncoQt- 
I ; ie« Port. 

kpposlle: Kt Po««.PoritioD. 
, Appreciate . see Freoious. 
Appreutice, Apprise ; 

t(F.^L.) See Proplnqaity. 
joo. Approve; vx Pro- 

Ua. (I«.> See Proper. 

(JU) Sec Propinquity. 

lAn^o ,F.-L.) SceTeaablo. 
r ■ -Ajab.-Gk.-L,) 

L r. from Port, albri- 

■ck plum * ; Cot. — 
.— fi.ab. a/ tarqdg, where 
— Mid. Gk. vpam^iov 
* dI. fi>ui«i/«ta. The pi. r^i- 
from L. profopia, 
' f~fvct\ptus, ftnothcr 
■IS, caily ripe 
i frtt, bcfore- 
s'i»r//. to cook, ripeo. Sec 
Jiod OooJi. ^ Thn« the 
tu in a rc(7 iaducct maimer. 

April. (L.) L. Aprilisx siiid to be to 

named because the earth then opens to 
produce new froits. — L. a/^rin, to optii; 
see Aperient. 

Apron. (F.-L.) Sec Map. 

Apse. (I„ — Gk.) Now used of a 
at the end of a chaich; fcmnerljp af. 
apsis, a luming-poinl of a planet's orbit. 
L. afiis, pi. af'siilei, a bow, turn. — Gl 
A.^U, a tjing, fastening, hoop of a wh 
curve, bow, arch. — Gk. £rr<ir, to tie, bt 

Apt. fit. (F.-L.)XVI ccnt-F. d/// 
L. aftus, used as pp. of aftsci, to icnch. 
get, but really pp. of aj-cn, to fit or join 
together. W\V\ 

adapt. (I..) XVI cent. -"L. tufapfarf.<~ 
L. ttd^ to ; and aptare^ to fit, from aptus, 

adept, a prnhcient. (L.l L. adeptus, one 
who has ol'tained prohcicncy ; pp. of 
apisci, to obtain, frequent, oi ap^re, lo fit. 

attltudo. (Itot — L.) Ong. a painter's 
term, from Italy.— Ital. attitudsne, aptiicss, 
skill, attitude. — L. apittudiHem, ace. of 
apn'tuda^ aptitude. — L. aptus^ apt, 

inopt, foolish. (F.-L.) XVII cent.- 
O. V. ineptt, — h.iniptus^ improper, foolish. 
— L. (>/•, oot ; and aptus, fit. (Aliio inapt^ 
from m-. notj and apt.) And see Option. 
Aquatio. (L.) L. aquaticui, pertaiuiug 
to water.— L. otjua, water. 

aqua-fbrtis. — L, aqua fifnis, strong 

aquarius. — Li a^uaritu, a watcr^ 

oquariuQl. — L. a^drium, a WAier* 

aqueduct — L. aqmedutttu, a conduit ; 
from o^r/ci', of water, and dmtus^ a duct; 
see Duot. 

aqueoua. As if for L. aqueus *, adj., a 
form not ufced.«*L. agua, water. 

ewor. (F.-L.) M.E. ewer. - O. F. 
*7«r, a ewer (a.o. l.^fto), answering to 
L ttquan'um, a vcjscl for w.iler — (.kF. 
rrve, water; mod. F. faw— L. aqtta, water. 

eubaqueouB, under water. (L.) L w*, 
nnder ; a'/ua, water. And see Ait, Ejrot, 

Aquiline, like an eaRle. (F. - L.) F. 
aquilin ; hence nez aqaHin, ' a no^e like an 
eagle;* Cot « L. aquilmus, adj. from 
ff^uJla, on eagle. 

eji^Io. (F.-L.) F. ffiW/. -L. a^i/a. 
Arabesque. (F.-Ital.-Arnb i XV 
cent. — F../4nj^/^w<', Arabian like: nU( 
of flotuiihes, like fine Axabiaa work«» li 





<CK»-E. -£4. • Aah, 

tkitf on be pio^glMd. -L «/arc lo pkMcfa- 

ArbiUir. (L.) la Matoo.-*]* o/Mcr. a 
vHacM, ja^if, aafire. 

■Bfirc^ll trfikmtt, to act a* vofbe.* 
L. eH^Ur. 
arbitrate. (L.) From pp. of 1«. aHi- 

tmrt, to act as umpire. 

▲"boTBOoa, bdoogiDg to tit«s. (L.)— I^ 
ari^reut, adj. from aripr, a tree. 

Arbour, a bower. (E.) Cottfued with 
&ui>9tir^ q.T. Bat the void aeens to be 
rcaUy due to M. £. kerbtrt, also erbcrt^ 
Immd L« kirbarium, a herb-garden, also an 
orchard. The ipccLil teitte was doe to 
eonlMKai with L. arbor, a tree. 

Am. (P.-L.) XIV caiL-F. ««.-L. 
arcuMt, ace oi amu a bow. arch, arc 

arcadtt, (F.— IlaL — L.) F. arcade.^ 
Ital. ^rtmta^ an arched place; fcm. of pp. 
of 4rmn, to arch.-Iial. on-tf. a bow.— L 
aoc airifai (above). 

aroh. (F. — I..) A modificitioo of F. are, 
a bow ; like JiuA for ^jfc/. — L, ace. a/r> 
iUM (above). 

archer. <F. • L.) M. E. artA^r. - F. 
arckirr, a bow-man. •■ Low L. anarius, a 
bow-roon : from arrtUt a bow. 

Aro&na. (L.) See Ark. 

Arch (I), a vault, Stc See Arc. 

Aroh (s), roguuli, waggish. (L.*Gk.) 

* Ho artk a leer;* Tatlcr, od. 193. Not, 
ai I once thought, from M. £■ argk, 
arwgj tiraid, which is represented by 
Scotch terie. The examples in Mnmy s 
Dictiooary prove that it is aothing but 
the prefix Aroh-, chief (for which see 
below) used separately and peculiarly. CI. 
' l*he most orM act ' in Sbak. Rich. 
III. iv. $. a ; 'An heretic, an oral 
one ; * Ueo. VIII. liL a. loa. Also 

• Bycnds ... a very artA fellow, a down- 
right hypocrite ; ' Buoyan's Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress. A. S. arcf-f L. archi-f Ck. ^x*' 

Arch-, frtfx, chief. (L.-Gk.5 The 
form arxM- i« due to A. S. arr/-, as in artt- 
kiuiofi, an archbishop. This form was 
boaowcd from L. anhi- -> Gk. Vx^'i '^ 
ia d^X''****''''^^*'*! on archbishop. •- Gk. 
^PXU\r, to be first, to rule; cf. Gk. &pxht 

ftc; bat, fia onA jmgti, the 
dwntfy fsom iW Glu, the U 
aoMeol aa A 

nuutobj. (F.^Gk.) Ia Mil 
Mcnsiaf. -Gk. ^nrx^ >*dt 
mat.— Gk. £Mi^t«, wftkoet a( 
^-, eeg. pccnz; aad inc^ ' 

ar^uBoloQr. (Gk.) Coir ' 
Bocai. v^kk k f : 
be^iniiig; aed the sofix ^^^^ , 
dee to A«>y«; i f i M i i e iw!, from Ai' 

arehale (Gk.) Gk. V^^oZe^, 
primitive. — Gk. i^x4. a bccinning; 

arehateD. (Gk.> Gk. opyos^i 
aattqaated pfcraer. — Gk. c^x^Sw, toi 
atttiqttatedly. — Gk. c^;)^^^. okl ; Acc^ 

archetype. F. - U - Gk. ) See TJ 

arch!-, /«/-r, chief. (L. — Gk-] 
arcAi: for Gk. ^^Xi-, prefix; as nbovC 

archipelago, chief sea. i.c. .\eecaii 
{,!ul — Gk.) ItaL arrt/>tJa^ modifi« 
artkipeJago. — Gk. dpx*-* chief ; and WAi 



arohltecL (F.-L—Gk.) 

architrave. (F. — lUl.-L 
In MiUon. — F. arcAitrave, — ItaL ■ 
travt, the pari of an entablature te 
Immediately on the column. A barbi 
compound; from Gk- dpx'-f prefix. ( 
principal, and l^K. trabem, ace of tnk 
beam. See Trave. 

archlTes, &. pi., public rrcords; 
prooeily aa anAtv* is a place when 
cords arc kept- F. archtf, pi. A/ml 
Cot. — L. arckiuum. ankium. ^Ck, 
X<roy, a public building, residence of n 
trates. — Glco^X^.a beg inning, a magis|! 
and even a magistrate. 

hoptarchy, a go>*emrocnt by sene 
sons. (.Gk.) XVII cenl.-Gk,iirT-, fori 
seven ; and -<ipx''°< doe to Vx*^* bcgini 

hierarchy, (F.-Gk.) ¥, Aur^ 
Col— Gk. hpapxia. power of an UpAi 
a Blewaxd or (»e&idcut of sr^ --? '■• 
Gk. Up-, for Uput, sacred; :. 
lule. ^ Milton has ;S(/mfrA - • 

monarch a sole ruler. (F. — L. — 
F. m^vMryuv. — L. menarrka. ^mGk. ft 
Xnt, a sovereign, sole r\itcr. — Gk, ^i«r 
M^rof. aloDC : and a^x'^f* t° rule- 
oligarchy. (F.- 1, -GV *-" -' 
Ml/. — Low L. c/ii^tiftkia. ^ ' 
govciuiuoit by a few men. — 


i^ km. Utile ; sad •a^x*^ ^om ifx**^* 

U. — O.F. fctriarrkt; Cot. 

* Ck. «wr^dpxv't the 

of a n£c (ipplicd lo a 

abL A.O. ^40). *Gk. 

of var^p, a falher; and 

SiV Fatbeir. 

(U - Gk ) L. Utmwxka. - 

nf ^itif cbiefB; Luke. 

■'•0^1, Attic lorrn 

^<ir, to rule. See 

ImT; aeeAra. 

yc ' • -CV.1 XVI cent. -F. 
Hr ' 11/. «(ik. u^vTioirf, nrat 

Mi: -" -: ihc llcar, tiuMhcra. — 

lOTv B bcftr. Cognate with I* urstu ; 

tareUe. (U^Gk.) U antarttiati. 
. i»-nMm«vt, toutbein, opjobite to 
«•»'"' fur (iKfi, 0|i)i0^iLe to; 

fK' See AoU-. 

Ufi4. .- , XIV cent. M.E. ar- 

Itrnf. mr^mt, p<cs part, of arUre, to 

^^^Hpn L. lUti^rtm, ace. of ani0r, 

■^mdiarisnu (P. « L ) OF. 
t {aaOMttftrimi. -lU F. arJair, to bunt. 

III)' -t for L. a/i/vMj, steep, 

lit. h .T»t/. high. 

i ■ - \trrb uiljftlantive. 

. .i.- t- . .. lonn; O. North- 

ttft tf^vn. Ai <:.i.iiJi^uithc<l frDmA.S. 
oimCm. Cf. Icct. ir-u, Ihey are. 
for oi^^n) and s-inJon 
'•#■, in whieh the ofi ia an 
acr doc to the same Aryan 
V are, fi'om whence al5o 
uff-i*. L. /•*»/. G. /-iW. 
;Iuj £1*1. &c (VAS, to be.) 
i, Ol Norttoub. mm, A. S. /<m : from 
ryia hmo AS-MA, I am, where AS 
I not *lo be.* anJ MA u tlse hr<>t 
uroiotxa 'L «v). Hence al»o fskt. 

; Ac. 

", KS.fHrt. Here 

I the suffix 5 or 

IK 101 ^Tii, ['jonouo ; see Thou 

tf, wcmlbencd form of ^AS. 

I A'Tfiji form U AS-TA, i.e. * is 

Ic-ii, L. u-4. G. 


ATM. (L.) XVllcenL-JLorM. tDopea 

ArefiM2tlon ; see Arid. 

Arena. 1,1.) L. arnwu, sand ; the sanded 
S{:>a*x in which gladiators fought. Propettj 
»r<lt karena, and im/ allied to artrt. 

- .J 

F. ar^m'.^L. arymtum. silver: from iU V 
brigbtncas. (•^AKG, to tfainc.> Sec below. 
Argillaoeous, clayey. (L.) U argii/a- 
eettJt adj. from argiHaf day, csp. while clny. 


Argent. (.F.-L.) White: in heraldry.-. 

'. df^M/.^L. arxcfttu 

trigbtncas. (•^AKG, t< 

Argillaoeous, ctaye 

fMj. adj. from ar^lta^ 1 
t%/ARG.) See above. 

Argonaut. (I^ — Gk.) l^ argonataa,^ 
Gk. a^oi«wT^t, one who sailed in the ship 
Argo. — Gk. 0/1701, the name of Jason's ship 
<;,liL iwift, from dpy^t, swiftj ; and fovrijr, 
a tailor ; see NauticaL 

Ar^OBy, a merchant -vesscL (.Dalmatian.) 
Formerly »peU aragousy and ragusy (see 
N. and Q. 6 S. iv. 490 ; Arbcr's Eng. 
Gamer, ii. 67; aragoujy has been found 
by Dr. Murray). The orig. sense was 
' a ship of Ragusa,' which is the name of 
a port in Dalmatia. Ilic name may have 
been confused with that of the ship Ai^o, 
as explained above. % This lesull is now 

Argue. (F.-L) M. E. argn€9i.^Q. F. J 
arjpur. *> L. argtitrit to prove by argvmcnt, I 
lit. to oiokc clear ; cf. of^itiut^ dear. 
VAKG, to shine.) 

Arid. dry. (L.j XVIU cent-I. aridm, 
dry. — JL artre, to be dry. 

■roCftction. (L.) XVIl cent. Coined 
from L. are/aiert^ lo make dry.— L. art-re, 
10 be dry; and^^^f^, lo make. 

Aright. (E.) For om right, in the right 

Ariae ; see Rise. 

Aristocracy. (Gk.) Modified from Gk. 
upicTiwparta, govenunent by the nobles or 
• bt-sl' men. — Gk.dpiiJTo-, for d/«ffTot, best; 
and Hparuv, to be strong, govern, from 
mftiTin, strong. The form op-taroi is a su- 
perlative from the base d/i- seen in np-rtof, 
hi. (ip-iT^. excellence. (V AK. to fit.) 
Per. aristacmiic ; whence aristocrait pot 
for ' aiistocratic perMjn.' 

autocracy. (Gk.) From Gk. ahrmtfA- 
Tim, absolute or despotic govenimeiit.— 
Gk. aiiro', fcir ovrvt, self: and fffiarn'i', to 
nile« from it^ri/r, strong. Her. aitiocnU, 
Gk. nirvKparatp. 

democracy. (F.— Gk.) Formerly *ir- 
miH'Oiy (MU(on). — Q. F.jgmiMtafu , Cot. 

» Gk. JH}po*par«l<k, popular govemmenu 
rule by the people. «Gk. Aq^o-, foi brjpo*. m 





country-district, also the people; and irpa- 
Tttv. to nile ; as above. 

theocracy. (Gk.) Lit 'govcniinent 
by God ;• similarly fonned from tficlt, God; 
see Thoiam. 

Arithmetlo. (F.-Gk.) In Sh.-F. 
ari(hm/ti4]U€ \ Cot. — Ck. d^tfp^TutiJ. the 
science of iiunjhrn) ; ftm. of dpifl/ii/Tcjror, 
adj, from &pi^ixLi, number, reckoning. 

logarithm. (Gk.) Coined from Gk. 
AoT". «tcm of AtiTor, a woni, a proportion, 
ratio; and dpi&^ir. a number; the sense 
bcine ' ralio-n timber.' 
Ark, a chest, box ; hence a large Homing 
vessel. (L.) A.S. iirr, — L. arxa, a chest, 
box.- L. amn, to keep. (V ARK) 

aroana, (L.) L. arrana, secrets, things 
kept secret —L. arcire, to keep. 
Arm CO. part of the body. (E), M. E. 
arm. — A.S. ^dr/M.^Du. ar»i; Tcel. arm*'; 
Dan.. Swcd,, and G. arm: Goth. arms; L. 
armus, the shoulder ; Gk. Apfi&t, joint, 
aboolder. {^ AK, to fit.) 
Arm (}), to fuxTtish with weapons. (F.— 
L.) See Anna. 

Armada. ArmodiUo, Armament. 
Armistice, Armour. Army ; see 

Arms. 8. pi- weapons, (K. — L.) M. E. 
flfwi//. — O. F. armes. pL — L. arma. neut, 
pi., arms, lit ' filtintjs.' (v^AR. to fit,) 

aUunn, a call to arms. (,F. — Ital.— L.) 
M. E. a/arpif.-'F. a/arme. — Ital. alVarnu, 
to arms I put for aJU arw^. — T,ow 
iiiaj armas \ for JL ad ilia arma, to those 
arms I to your arnis t 

alarum. (F.-Ital.-L.) Merely a 
Northtrn E. form of alanft. 

ambry, aumbry, a cupboard. (F.— 
L,) M. E. axi/mtbry, awnury\ Prompt. 
Parr. ; the 6 is excrescent, — O. F. amtatir. 
a repository ; properly, for arms ; bat also, a cupboard ; 
armarium, a repository for arms. — l^arwa, 

arm <i), verb. M. E. armen. - O. P. 
arm€r. — L. arman, to furnish with arms. 
»L. arma. arms. 

armada, a fleet. (Spao.-L.) Span. 
armoifd, an armed fleet; fern, of amiaJo, 
pp. of artftar, to arm — L, armare, to arm. 

armadillo, an animal. (Span. — L,) 
Span. arMadilto, lit. • the little armed one.' 
becanse of its hard shell. Dimin. of ar- 
mado, pp. of armar, to arm ; as above. 

armament. (L.) L.armam€H/um,ui 
tquipmenL •!« armart, to arm, e<]uip. 

armlstico. (F.-L.) F. a^w//i 
Low L. annistUium* . not used; bi 
right form.— L. arwi-, for amia, anna 
■sti/ttm for ttaium, supine of 
make to sLind, cause to l>e still, cai 
stare, to stand. (Cf. Solstioa.) 

armour. (F.-L.) M.E anni 
muTi.^ O. F. armurr, armeiitr.^^Lt. 
ttira, armour. — L. onKO/ifX, pp. of di m»% 
to arm. 

army. (F.-L.) O. F. arma. feii. of 
pp. oi armer, to arm.— L, armare^ to arnt 

Aroint thee! begone I iiScand.) ' 
ruption of prov. E. (Cbeshirc) ryni 
i.e. get out of the way (^Kay).»Iccl. 
to make room, clear the way. — Icet 
spacious, allied to E. room. (A yu. 

Aroma, a sweet smell. (L. — Gk.) 
L, aroma^^y. dpoffta^ a spice, sweet 
'£. from the Glc. stem 

Around, prep, and adv. (E and F.taL 
M.E. atvunJ ; put for ^n rauH*LL icci 
(il and Round. .^f^ 

Arouse ; see Boaae. j^^ 

Arquebus, a kind of ^. (F.-Ih,) 
F. arijuebuse, 'an harquebuse, or hAid- 
gim;* CoL — Walloon harkihust, diaJeelsl 
variation of l>u haakl-uSt lit. ' a gun witb 
a hook.' The 'hook' prt■^ ' ^ r^t-^* i.-. 
the bent shape of it ; the v. 
were straight.- Du. kaak,^ n 
a hind barrel, a gan. See Hftokbut. 

Arrack, an ardent spirit. (Arab.) Anb. 
'amy. sweat, juice, essence, riiitillcd spirit.— 
Arab root 'araqa, to sweat % f^onietiniM 
shortened to Ha(k\ cf. Span. ra<^ue, arrack. 
ratafia, a liquor (F.-Arab.iiM./ Ms- 
lay.) V.ratafia\ cf. tafia, rum-arinck.* 
Malay araq tdfla, the spirit called A^; 
where araq is borrowed from AnU 

Arraign ; see Bato (t). 

Arrange ; see Rlns. 

Arrant, knavish, notoriously bad. (T.m 
L.) This word ts now ascertained to be a 
mere variant of errani (cf. fanon for /*r 
ion). Chaucer has thftf ertaunt^ amuii 
thief, C. T. 1 71 73 J and sec I'icrs PUnr- 
man, C vii. 307. ike p. 137. coL t. 
a V. Brrant. 

Arraa. tapestry. (F.) So named tnm 
Arras, in Aitois, north of Fraiice. 

Array ; see Bida. 

Arrears ; see Rear (3). 

Arrest ; see State. 

Arrive ; see River. 

Arrogate ; tee Bogatlon. 


M E. anrtM*, artr.r. A. S. 
"V.+ Iccl. w-p an w- 

■aUduic ^i, - , ____vicd 

M. F. srj, trx. A.S. *«. 
- rab.) Span, tfrima/. 
I. arsenal ; Iohj^ 
;.- jMj, wliere the a- 
• -ude. Cf. Itnl. 
.V. — ,\iab. (/*ir suu£ai, 
iction, place for mfilfing 
•- Amb dtir, a house; 
tnde, construction. 
.— GW,) Late L, arsemmm. 
ic ; lit. a male prin- 
ul the Ktrnii^c lancy 
dlfTcretkl Kxc9.~Gk, 
;r, A male. 
Ard«nt. * 
■. {vcs. of verb. (E.) See 

im. (F.-L.) ME ar/.- 
I. mrf/ut. ace. of arji skill. 

^-L.) In MtUon.-F. d/T*- 
I'X't'iirr^. a tratlc. handicraft -, 
crude form of art, 
■ 'i, to maiie. Dor. 
U ktorkman. 

. - U) O. F. artilitrit. 
BA^-awcbincs of war. in- 
in early tiine:i.— 
.» Low L. artiUart^t 
iSfiCii a verb Uifcrrctl from 
A maker of machbes. 
erode form of an, art. 
lF.-ltaI.-L.) F. 
a workman. — 
F*, Dot foond. but formed 
r^ ^tcning, artful. — L- atii-, 
T art 

L. tntrt-, ctcm of wrj, 
ivt.— L. u«, not; ati^ Kkill. 
.»Ok.) L, ariina, properly 
•lio^ aa artery. -Gk. 




A,Vi I'F ^ ■J'f^ft'an wet/s are 
. formcfl from 
nb of Fraiuct'. 
in use. 

' ) ItaL arti- 

itirTc; r lono alM gives the 

kiiisffo ; also ( with- 

to th« Arab, dcf. 

art. ai, the) the forms carnoffo, carciq^. 
Cf. Span. aUoihofa^ an artichoke, « Arab 
o/ harskaf, an artichoke. ^ Not Arab. 
ar'Ji shauki (Uici), which it a corrupt 
ffmu horrpwed from Italian. 

Article, a small item, part of speech. 
iF.— L.) F. a/*//>/f. — L. articuiuSf a joint, 
knuckle, article in grammar j lit. 'a i>ma11 
joint.' Dimin. of arltu, a joint, limb. 
^V AK, to til, j<»in.) 

articulate. (.L.) L. artmdatHs, dis- 
tinct ; pp. of ariUuhirt. to supply with 
joidt*, divide by jomls — L. artuului^ a 
joint labovc'i. 

Artifice, Artillery. Artisan ; sec Art. 

As (i), conj. ^E.) M.£. ai, a/r, alse^ 
also, at so. As is a contraction of also. 
\Provcd by Sir F. Madden.) Sec Also. 

Ab (jI, iclative pronoun. (Scand.) Now 
vulgar: but found in M. K. as equivalent 
to * which.' — O. Icel. ts, mod. led. cr, ii^^ed 
OH a rr^l.-vtivc pronoun. (So given in IceU 
Diet. \ but rstiicr the uoic as Aa (l).) 

Asaicxtida.AflttafoBtldA, a gmn. (Pers. 
and L.) I'crs,ii*.i. the name of the gum; 
the X^faiida^ feiid, lefers to its offensive 
smell. See Fetid. 

Asbestos, a mineral. <Gk.) Gk. <{• 
<Tf^«TTOf, unquenchable; because it is in- 
combustible, — Gk. (1-, tirg. prefix; and 
•ff/Jiar^r, quenchable. from a^iyyvfu, i 
quench, extinguish. 

Ascend ; see Boan. 

Ascertain : sec Certain. 

Asoetio. (Gk.) Gk. 6air^aA, given to 
exercise, industrious; applied to nermi(&, 
who strictly exercised tnemselves in reli- 
gious devotion. — Gk. doKt^Hii, one who 
practises on art, on athlete. — tik. daxtiy, 
to work, cxerciw; aUo, to mortify the 
body, as an ascetic 

A&oititious; sec Soienoe. 

Ascribe ; sec Baribe. 

Ash, a tree. (E.) M. £. Ar<^^. A.S. icrr. 
-4- Du. ejcA ; Icel. atAr ; Dan. and Swed, 
as/: ; G. €scAe. 

Ashamed; see Bhamo. 

Ashes. ^E.) The pi. of asA, whidi is 
little used. M.E. orM^, a.xe, sing.; the 
pi. is commonly ojrA/n, oxen, but in North- 
cm E. it is auka, tukit, A.S. asu^ pi. 
ajfun^ taxtn, ajcam.-^D\i. atcA; Icel. and 
Swed. asJta; Dan. atkt\ Goth. Oigv^ pi. 
aamn ; G. asfht. 

Ashlar, Ashler, a facing made of 
&<]uare*l stones, (,F. — L.j It consists of 
thin slabt of stone for facing a buildinf^; 




tu called because it took the place of the 
ihingles or tiles used for the nine 
O. F. aheier (Lirre des Koi£)« 
teodcd from O. F aistlU^ aisieli. a Utile 
dimm. of ait, a plank. •• L. astit, 
tunes ojcis, a boanl, pbmk ; whence 
[iEhe asru/a, a ihin piece of wood^ « 
■hingic for rtHjIing. 
ABhore. (E.) Pat for em s^an. 
Aaide. (E.) Put for wi xi^/^, 

(E.) M. E. asJk^M, axien. A S. 

tcian. dftrian, ^sian : the last answers lo 

ir.E„ax.+T>a.eistAen\SweiS- taka; Dan. 

tAt; G heiuhfH, Cf. Ross, iskaie, lo 

«eck: Skt. uk^hhd. a wiih, destrt^ uk, to 

search. (V IS. ISK. to search.) 

Aflkance. obliquely. (Ital.-L.) Spelt 
a icamt by Sir T.NVyat ; astancke by Pal§- 
Riavc. who ^ives dt trauers en hrgnanJ, as 
the K. efjuivalenL Etym. doubtful; but 
pri-b due to Ital. seaman, 'to go aslope 
Of tf scon<t, or askew, to go siddm;' Flono. 

— Itil, /- y - Ldl. «r, out of the way) ; and 
nnsatt, ' to go a-ilopc, giTe place ;' Florio. 
Thii ii derived, according to Di«, from L. 
eamf'sart, to turn round a place, bend 
round it ; aMJc-l to W. cam, crooked, and 
Gk. »n;i»Tiii', to bend. 

Askow, awry. ^Scand.) For om tktw ; 
m LmasUtiou of Icel. d sid^ on the skew; 
tf. Icel. fin/r, ikcw, oblique; «e Bkev. 

Aslant. (Scand.) For fin i/anr 

Aaleep. (E.) For «»//«/; Acts xiU.j6. 

Aslope. (E.) For imtlcf€. 

Asp. Aspic, a serpent. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. flj/V, aj/i<r. ~ L. ojr/f f/rm, ace. of aspis. — 
Gk. AffwiT (gen. davfSot), an asp. 

Aap&ragVB. a vegetable. (L. - Gk - 
Pen. 7) L. asparagus. •• Gk. 6^wiiparfu%. 
Supposed to be of Pere. origin ; cf. Zend 
fpartgha, a prong; LJthuan. spurgu^ a 
snoot (Fick). 

Aspect : 5«e Speolaa. 

Aspen, Asp, ■ tree. (E") M.E. asp, 
Chaucer, C T. ayaj ; oj/Vw i» aji Adj (hkc 
\g^*ien), and is user] for aspfnirtt ; cf. Ch- 
C.T. 7JH9. A.S. itsp, tf'/V. ^ Du. etp; 
Icel. otp. Pan. and Swed. asp ; G. aspe, dspt\ 
I-irhunn. a/ussis; Russ. osima. 

Asperity. (F.-L.> F. arpMi/. ^ L. 
aiprrifa/tm. ace. of aiperiias, roughnea. • 
L. ajp^f, rough. 

exasperate, to provoke. (L.) From 
the I'p of rjr atfrrart, to roughen, provoke. 

— L. tx, very ; asptr, rough. 
Asperse : see Bparse- 

iBphfcU. vOk ) Gk. df^^rei, ffffoArw. 

asphalt, bitmnen. Prob. a loftlgB 
perhaps PhoEudaa. 

Asphodel. <Gk.) Gk. 
plant of the lily kind. 
daffodil. (F..L.-Gk.) Tlvi 

later addition; perhajis ^ ^ 

iTai^rthiiiU. tnoalatcd 
M.t. affodilU; Prompt 
/AA^iZr,alao4;^ViA//rt'th'an<xiill. or 
dill flower;* Col. - U asphtsdelns, 
A^f6StXm (above). 

Asphyxia. foffocatioD. (Ok.) 
fffu£ia^ a stopping of the pulse. »- 
ff^/tmrot, without pulsation. — Gk 
and ff^v^ctr, to puUate ; cf. ff^vy, 

Aspire ; see Spirit. 

Ass. (E.) ME. aste. A.S 
\V. asyn, Swed. Ama, IccL aim. 
Gk. iV«. Also Irish asa/, Vv. 
and G. <///, Goih. oj/.m/, l- « 
of Semitic origin ; cf. Heb. a/ 

eaaeL (Dn.) Do. iuf, an ass \ §m- 
support, a painter's eascL Prob. 
directly frcm L asfiiaa. 

Assail ; see Salient. 

AaBassiiL.asccrec niunlerer. (F.oAnk. 
F. assassin. From Amb. kashithitt, 
ers of * ha5hish.* the name of a »ecK 
ijth century; the 'Old Man of the 
tain ' roused his followers' spirits 
of this drink, and sctit them to 
citemies, esp. the leading v 
kashisk. an intoxtcitin^' 
the OuMo^tr ituii^a, a \.\- ■•-■- 

A^MUlt ; see Balieal. 

Assay ; see Basay. 

ABsemble: see Similar. 

Assent ; see Seuae. 

ftnnrrrt ; see Series. 

A— fiM ; see Sedentary. 

Assets : ue Bate. 

Asseverate ; see Severe. 

Assiduous ; kce Sedentary. 

Assign : see Sign. 

Assimilate ; see Similar. 

Assist ; see Stabo. 

Assise : see Sedentary. 

Associate ; see Boqaence. 

Assonant : see Sound ^^ 

Assort ; see Sort. 

Assuage ; see Saasion. 

Aaatune; &ec Exempt- 
Assure : eec Curo. 

Aster, a flower. ^Gk.) Ok. dfr^^ 
star. Sec Star. 


<Gk.> Ck. AffTtptgKot, a ]!ttte 
•. ii»ed fordittinj^iUh- 
MSS.-.Gk.dvTc^-. for 
ol Aoriift, a vlaj, 
lOf pl&nct. (CkO Vto- 
ifyiog ' tlar-Iike,' — Gk. 
ike. •• Gk. iartpo-, crude 
tux: aotJ iiBor, form. 

(F.-L.«>Gk.> F.«i//Tj/<»fi>. 

• ' ' ' astrology, 

VtfTi'tt. AS- 

:':.>■,» »tar: 

aJtini to A^rjroi, ■ discoursc. 

to spetlc. 

(F.-C-Gk.) F. aitro' 

Car; uid -vofiia, nlliol to 
/iiir. to dUtiitmte. 
'-•D O.K. t/esAjfrt, •« 
de:*CoT Lit. 'iJ I fortune.' 
L. i^t, with a untster or bad 
-.-, • atar. pUnct. also 
L. lufrum, * star. 
iii^uuj' m btcalhmg. (Gk ) 
•* Gk. d^^ur^ to breathe 
to brcftthe. CL bkt. vJ, 

For Mf «/i>; Barbour's 

id. (E. : modified by 
•wjI. aa ID extimgu-ith, 
villi other verba in iih. 
thm i em, arUntm : whence 
■ftawanis lengtliened lo 
by the addition of 
Iff, u in sfiunJ, liom F. 
S. dstunian (7), to itau com- 
il«d of J-, prefix, and 
aact e4uivalcnt of the 
toainaxc; sec A- (4) 
ihtless much confosed 
by, O F. titonner 
T> amue : this is from 
ibundci out, from tx- 
tlkimiicT: cce Thunder. 
ir^/; Barbour'i litucc, 

Pnt i..r on {tJk<) struU. 
' -^'-riwfont 

y ; sec Aater. 
u iji.'w/ur, craAy, cnn- 
r, crxft. 

^E.) For pm fttm/tr* A.S. 
ajiaft. Sec Bonder. 

^Gk.) L. av/MiN.-Gk. 



affvAof, an asvluro ; neut of iffvXor, adj. 

unbanned, safe from riolence. — Gk. d- 
not: and iJvKt}^ a right of seizure; avXaatf 
I (lcs]>oil an CTiemy. 

As3rznptotG, a line which, indefinitely 
l>rouuccd, does not nicel the curve which it 
cuntinunlly approaches. (Gk.) Gk. Affvft- 
wrvrott not falling together, not coincident. 
— Gk <1-, not ; av/t^ for ovv, together; and 
vTtirrvSf falling, from itinmy (pL L wi- 
.» to fall. (V^AT.) 

At (K.) M. E. tf^ AS. «/.+ kel. of; 
Goth, of', Dan. o^: Swed. A/', \Ltui. 

Atheism ; see Theism. 

Athirst. (£.) M. £. ofthursi^ aihursL 
very thirsty; orig. pp. of a verb. A-S. 
of\yrsUd^ very thirsty: pp. of ff/l)j'r//ii«,to 
be very thirsty •• A. S. of^ very (prefix); 
and ^rstaiiy to thirst : see Thirst. 

AtUete. <U - Gk.) I-. athleta. - Gk. 
d^Ai^r^f, a combatant, contender in games. 
*Gk. df^AffjV, to contend for a prize. a-Gk. 
^9\oi (for &t6Ko%\ a contest ; ^Aof (for 
dedXop », a prize. Sec Wed. 

Athwart, across. For ott thwart^ on 
the tnuiBversc, across ; see Thwart. 

Atlas. (Gk.) Named afler Atlns, the 
demi-god who was said to bear the world 
on his shDulders ; his figure used often lo 
appear on the title-page of atlases. — Gk. 
■'AtAoj Cficn. 'ArAo»'Tiit>, prob. "the sus- 
tainer' or l»earer, from ^ TAL, to bear. 

&U.autic, sn ocean, named after Ml. 
Atlas, in the N.W. of Africa; from aude 
form 'ArAavn-, 

Atmosphere. (Gk.) LU. 'a sphere of 
air round the earth.* Coined from uxfuj-, 
for (iT^iJr, vapour, air : and Sphere. 

Atom ; see Tomo. 

Atone : tee One. 

Atrocity. (K.-L.) F. o/nviV/, Cnl - 
L. atrocUateniy ace. of atrotitas^ cnielty.— 
L. airoci , crude fonn of atrox, cruel. 

Atrophy. (Gk.) Gk ilrpoi/xfl, want of 
noun^'imeitt or food, hunger, wastittg away 
of the body, atrophy. —Gk. d-, not; and 
rpi'}'(ty (pi, t. T<.T/)o0a) to nourish. 

Attach, Attack ; sec Took. 

Attain ; sre Tangent. 

Attaint ; »ce Tausenl. 

Attar of Boaes. (Arab.) Also, lea 
correctly, ottooj n>stt^ i.e. perfume. — Aral' 
'isr. perfume— Arab, root 'tUam, to smell 

Attemper ; see Temper. 

Attempt ; see Tenable, 

AttAnd ; ICC Tend 



Attenuate : ice Tenoity- 
Attest ; see Teatament. 
Attic, ft smnll opper room. (Gk.) It 
orip. mratil the whole of a parapet wall, 
terminating tlie upper tafade of an edifice. 
Named from the Attic order of architecture ; 
see Phillips, ed. i 706. — Gk. "ArruriSt, Auic, 
Athcninu. Cf. F. atti<p4e, an attic ; Atfiqutf 

Attire. (F.-Teot> M.E. atir, aiyr, 
sb. ; atiren, atyren, verb. — O. F. atitier, 
to adorn ( Roquefort). ••O.F. a ( = L. ad, 
prefix); and O. F. //«, a row, file (Iturguy^ ; 
so that alirier is properly *to arrange.' 
Cf. O. Prov. tiem, a row (BarUch). B. 
From a Low G- form, answering to O. H. G. 
tiarit G. «>r, an ornament ; cf! O. Du. titr, 
'cesiure, or countenance,* i.e. demeanour 

tiro, to deck. <F.-Tetit.) Both a« »b. 
and verb. M.E. tir, tyr, sb. : which is 
nothing but M. £. atir with tlie initial a 
dropped. Tbcs tin is merely short for attirtf 
like peai (of bells) for afptaL 

Attitude. i,llal.-L.) 'ijee Apt. 

Attorney : sec Turn- 
Attract ; »ec Traoo 1 i). 

Attribute ; s^ee Tribe. 

Attrition; see Trito. 

Attune ; see Tono. 

Auburn. (F'.-LowL.) See Alb. 

Auction- (L.) L. auciifffifm, ace. of 
auctio, a sale by auction, lit. • an increase/ 
because the sale is to the highest bidder.— 
L. au£tus, pp. of augert, to IncreaM. See 

augment. (F.— U) F. an^fntfr.'m. 
L. aitgnftntarf, to enlarge. — L. augmttttum, 
an increase. — L. augere, to increase. 

auffUBt. (L.) L aMgushts, venerable ; 
whence E. 9Hgustf venerable, and Auptst, 
U^e month named after Augustus Caesar. 
^L. au^ert, to incrcaw, magnify. 

author. (L.) M.E. aulor, aulour\ 
also auctor, smetour. (It docs not seem 
lobcused inO. F.) — L.(ii/r/tff, an originator, 
lit. 'one who makes to grow.* — L. ntfr/fi/, 
pp. of rtw^**, to incrense. 

auxiliary. (L.) L. auxUiarim, helping. 
assisting. — L. auxilium^ help. — L. aui^rr, 
to increase. 

Audacious. (F. — L.) F. ttutiadeux, 
bold, audacious. — L. auiia,'iosut * , not 
found; extended from L. au<fdii-, crude 
form of iiH(/djr, bold. — L. au,iere, to dare. 

Audience. (F.-L.) F. autiicHte^ 'an 
audience or hearing;' CoL — L. au,iitfitiA, 


a hearing — L. audienti', crude fonn fli 
pres. pt. of audire, to bear ; cC L. tfufil. 

the ear. (^AW.) 

audible. (L.) L. oudibiHj^ thnt can be 
heard. — L. audirt. 

audit. (L.) Perhaps from L. audiim, 
a hearing: but in Webster's Diet, it is uid 
to have arisen from the use of the 3rd pent 
sing. pres. audit, he hears. — L. audin, to 
hear : whence also attdi-tor. 

auricula, a plant. (L.) L. aurimU, 
the lobe of the ear; used to mean the 
' bear's car,' a kind of primrose ; sec belov.. 

auricular, told in the ear, secret. IL.) 
Low L, auricHlaris, in the phr. aunfmtant 
ron/euio, auricular confession, — L.awnifak. 
the lobe of the ear; double dimtn. froa 
aunt, the ear. Sec £ar. 

auscultation, a listening, (L.) t^anh 
m/Za/io, a listening. — L. aus^uftafnt, ftp, 4I 
ausiultare, to listen : contr. form for au;iiW' 
it-are\% frequentative form from atisuutt*, 
old form of auricula, the lobe of the CVt 
double dimin. of awrtr, the ear. 

Obedient. (F.-L.) O. F. «^i/r/Mi;« 
L. eltditnt-^ stem of pres. pt of oMftf 
^O. L. obofdire\ to obey. — L. *5-, nctf i 
and audirt, to hear. D©p. dit oUiftetit. 

obeiaonce. (K. — L.) M.E. cMsantt. 

— O.F. ebtiianfe, later F. ohjissatue, oti^ 
dience, — L, pheJitntia^ obedience ; hcno^ 
respect. — L. «Ar«/«>M/*-. stem o( pres. ptfitf 
obtdirt (above). 

obey. (F.-L) M.E. ehfym. - O.T. 
obtir. — L. oUdire. Her. ditooty. 

oyer, a term in law. (F. — L.^ Oyef 
and tertniHer means, literally, * to hear ami 
determine.' — Norm. F. oyer (F. owir), to 
hear. — L. audirt, to hear. 

oyes, oyes. hear ye I (F.«-L.) Pablk: 
criers l^gin by saying oyts, now comijijtrf 
into yist — Norm. F. eyts, 2 p. pi. iw 
pcmtive of oy^r, to bear (al>ove). 

BCOUt (I), aspy. (F. — L.) M.E iMift. 

— O. F, escpufCt a spy, — O. !•". eici*ttttr, b» 
listen. — L. amcttf/art; see auaoultatfett 
(above). * 

Auger, a tool for boring holes. <K) 
See Nave (iV 

Aught. (E.) Foritw^it: sec WWi. 

Augment (F.— L) Sec Auction 

Augur. {L.) M.lCdM/wr.— I fVT 
a sooth s.nycr: said to mean a 
the flight and cries of binl». H» 

Eoscd etymology (not certain) frou. uiui, 
ird. ana -^r, telling, allied to garrirt^ M 


k) From pp. of L. 
:ttte augury* to con- 


ME. auHU. - O.K. 

, — L. amtta. a father's 

', a grondmolhcr, 

icT. G, ammt. nnne. 

L. aurta/us, gilt, 

ir, gilded, pp. of 

OMrvm, gold ; O. L. 

jDor. aur-e!ia, a gold- 

(....^.-'_,, lur-e^^.the 

rigs; aufi' 

• '/. to bear. 

unolc. vI'-~Ll ^' 

for i'^ri&f, whcte 

of an'oi: %ct oriole 

• L.) In hemldry. F. 

fvith a window) in a 

E. firicJ, oryalt, a 

ctp. a room for a lady, 

— Low L oriolum, a 
portico ; prob. for 
B omnmcnted with 

M, gold. ^ S« F'liny. b. 

PHtom of gilding apart- 
>td standard of France. 
he, the sacrrd standard 
L. aMrifiamma, lit 
bcoraw the banner wu cat 
rtrips at the outer edge, nn-i 

— L. fl*rr-, for o«/»-, 
ft gold ; and yfciffi ma, a 

Ihnrth. (F. - L.) 

?/«r, golden. 

r©f brass. (F.-L.) F. 

led gold.'""F. or, from 

' mouiUt pp. oimoudrt, 

in, which from L. 

ifiShyw ralpharrt of arsenic 
' gold ptint-' F. ot-timtnt. 
ifw. gold paint. * L. Avn-. 
IxL fismtnlum, a pigment, 
f»rr. 1 V— • 

;>itl slnnc-crop. 

od M 'i>ut. M b. 

l\u», * orpiD, or lire'long ; 
* Cot A docked form of 

^UMUltAUon ; seeAadi- 



Aurora, the dawn. (L.) L. avrem, the 
dawn ; put for an oldtri ausosa *.+Gk. ijif, 
..4iolic afaff ; Skt. uikAsd, dawn. (^US.) 

Auepioe. (F.-L.) See Aviary. 

Austere. (F.-L.-Gk.) '^A.'E. amUrt. 

— O. h' . aujtfr:f.»h. aufUrvs, harsh, severe. 
■•Gk. a^Tij^r, making the tongue dry, 
harsh. — Gk. aSor, parched; aCur, to parch, 
dry. See 8ere. 

Austral. (F.-L.; *r L.) We find F, 
QMitraU, ••outhcrly'; Cot. — L. j^iw/nr/w, 
southerly. — L. Austtr, the South wind. 


Authentic. (F.-I..-Gk.) M. E. an. 
tifitujue, auifnti'A. — O. F. anttntiqut. later 
attikentiqut{}ZoX,')^ L.attMf«/#fTi*/, original, 
written with the author's own hand. — Gk. 
oMtfTicvr, vouched for, warranted. — Gk. 
o\AivTt\\. one who docs things wilJi his own 
hand. (Of uncertain origin.) 

Author. (U) See Auction. 

Auto-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. ayro-. crude 
form of a\rTo%, lelf. Dor. autO'hio^rafhy, 
a biography written by oneself (see Bio- 
grapby) ; autogrttph, something in one's 
own handwriting, from Gk. 'ip&^uv, to 
write <scc Oraphio). 

automiLton, a self-moving machine. 
(Gk.) Gk. airroiAarov, neut. of avro/iaroi, 
self-moving. — Gk. avrd-, for ovrdj, self; 
and a stem ftar-, appearing in ^r-ti^, I 
seek after, strive to do. Cf. Skt. ma/d, 
desired, pp. of mdn, to think. (^MAN.) 
autonomy, seU-govemmcnt. (Gk.) Gk. 
avjovo}ila, independence. — Gk. oiriivo^nr, 
ijtc, living by one's own laws. — Gk. avru', 
self; and wifxoftat, 1 sway, from vifttty, to 
distribute (see Nomad). 

autopsy, personal inspection. (Gk.) 
Gk. avToif/ia, a seeing with one's own eyes. 

— Gk. avTO; self; 6^it, sight (sec Optio). 
And «*c Aristocroey. 

Autumn. (L.) I., autumnus, auchtm- 
nus, autumn. (Perhaps allied to augtrt, 
to increase.) 

AtixUiary. (L) See Auction. 

Avail ; see Valid. 

Avalanche : see Valley. 

Avarice. (F. — J..) M . E. auanu (with 
u for »». — F. flran*rtf.— L. auttritia, greedi- 
ness. —L. auarus, greedy; cf. L., 
greedy. — "L.aufre, to wish, desire. (V AW.) 
avidity. (F.— L) ¥ .(rviJiU,gT^*:*\\mv^ 
efi(;crncjt$. — ]>. auUiMiem. dcc. of auuUtas^ 
eagerness. — L. amdus, gnwdy, desirous. 

Avast, stop, hold fast. (Du.) I>u hfiu 
vasi, hmd muff bold fact. i» Da. Ami, short 




fonn of houd, imper. of koudem, to hold 
(sec Hold) i And vast^ fast (&ee FmI). 

AvELtar. (Skt.) Skt. atfo/dm, descent; 
bencc, the d»ccnt of & }Iindu deity in 
incarnate form. — Skt. Ofwi, down; and ni, 
to pa&s over, pass. 

Avaunt, bcyone! (F. — L.) Shoil for 
F. gM avanf, fonvard I See AdvADoe. 

Ave, hail, {h.) Short for ^tu Maria, 
hail, &fary (Luke, i. aS). — L. auf, haill 
imper. sing, oi aurrr, pcrh.ips to be pleased, 
be propitious. Cf Skt. «/, to be plea&ed. 

Avenge; see Vindioate. 

Avonuo ; sec Vonturo. 

Avor ; see Very. 

Average; seep. 190. col. i, 1. ay. 

Avert : see Verte. 

Aviary. (L,) L. auian'um, a place for 
birds; neut. of adj. auiarias, belonging to 
birds. *L. aui-f for auis, a bird. 

auspice, favour, patronage. (F. — L.) 
T. ampict, ^ token of thmgs by the flight 
of birds, an omen, good fortune. — L. au- 
t/iauaif a watching of birds for the put* 
poie of augury. Snort for<iiiij/iWww;».— 
L. aui; for ami, a bird ; and spUirt^ spiurt^ 
to spy, took into (tiee 8p»aial). 

bustard, a bird. (F. - L.) Fonnerly 
also hiuard (Sherwood). — O. F. bistarde» 
' a bustard ; ' Cot. Mod. F. ou/an/^. — L. 
a$iu larJa.xHovr bird (Fliny. N. H.x. 33). 
Cf. Fort, abctariiaf also SeiarJa, a buhtard. 
^ Both O. F. Hxtardt aiid F. outarUe are 
from auit tarda ; in the former case, initial 
is dropped; in the Utter, outardt stands 
for an older vrntardi^ where 9us ^ L. awiV. 
See Dirt. 

oatrich.abird.(«^Gk,) M.E. 
^triie, oysttycJu.^O.V. osttiue; mod. F. 
autruiht, Cf. Span, aveiinu^ Port, a&es- 
truz, an ostrich. — L. auis strulhio, lit. 
ostrich-bird. Here stnUhia is from Gk. 
rrpovSiojv, an ostrich ; extetuled from or^ovB- 
UT A bird. And see Bgg. 

Avidity ; see Avarice. 

Avocation. (L.) See VocaL 

Avoid. iF.-L.) Sec Void. 

Avoirdupois. (F. — L.) Formerly awif 
dt poU (Anglo-F. Je f€is), goods of weight, 
'.e. heavy articles. — F. axvir, goods, «jiii;. 
Mo hnvc*; at, of; O. F. ficis./tis, weight 
— I*, hahertt to fiavc; de, of; pcrtjum, Lhai 
which is weighed out. neut. fti pcmut, 
pp. id ftrfdfre, to weigh. % The F,/vis 
u now mis&jtell poids. See poise, p. 341, 
col. I. 
awAiioh; see Vooal. 

Avow, to confess, to declare r.r^euU 
(F. — 1*) See Vow. where it ii. 
that the mod. £. avotu in ratln ' ^ 
connected with VooaL 

Await ; see Wait. 

Awake, Awaken ; see Wake. 

Award; see Ward. 

AvTBTBi see Wary. 

Away. (E.) For *« way, 
now often used as if it meant ojf" (01 
the way. A.S. enw,^, away. See Wiflr. ' 

Awe. (Scand.) M. £. ay, a^he, awi: 
also /v, t^Af, eyt; all orig. di " * 
The latter 5«t arc from A.S. ^^ ^ 

former, not from AS. ifga, av\c , 

was also n&ed), but rather from Icel. 0gK 
awe, fear: Dan.azv.+AS. tf;$T, <>^; Gom. 
tj^, fear, anguish ; Irish ^agfiat^ fcar. 
terror; Gk. ix°'i anguish, afmctioa; L 
anj;ffr, choking, anguish ; Skt. ag^A, fla 
1'he orig. sense ia 'choking.* (<^ AGU.) 
See Anffuiali. Der. aw-fuL 

oil. (E.) A.S. iglan, to paIn.-A& 
eg€, fear, orig. pain (above). 

Awkwan£ clumsy. (Scand. and E) 
Orig. on adv., signifying ' transversely.' or 
' in a backhanded manner.* M . E. awhacx^i^ 
awkumrt\ * owkwari he couth htm ta'> 
he gave him a backhanded stroke, Wallace, 
iii. J 75. p. The suflfix -warJ is E., as is 
fer-ward, on-ward, &c The prefix i> 
M. E. auk, ttwk, contmryj perverse, wroitf t 
this is a contraction of Icel. 6/ug-t 13(C 
hatvk from AS. ^a/**. — Icel. o/ugr, oftca 
contracted to efgu^ adj., turning the *TaS 
way, back foremoit, contrary, v. Hcre^ 
is for of, off, from, away ; and -«f- is 1 
suffix. Cf. O. H. G. <7/-hA. M. H. G, «*■ 
uh, turned away, perverse; from 4^»G. 
ab, off, away, and the sufBx -uh, Al^ 
Skt. 0/rfi, apaHch, lomed away ; from sp^ 
for o/Si, oH^ away, and aAch, to bend, fll 
which an older form must have beea 
nasalised for ok. 6. Thus the sense 
is 'bent away ' ; from Icel. a/, cogr 
£. 0/, off; and a sufhx, from the 
to bend. See Of. 

Awl. (E.) M. E. awv/, ««/. «/, el. 
awe/, also ix/, an awl. + Icel. a/r : G. 
Skt. JrJ; lit. 'piercer.' Cf. Ski. 
to pierce, causal of n', to go. 

Awn. (Scand.) ME. (^t/ji/ Cijth 
azccru, aumt. — Icel. o^h, chafC a 
Dan. avnt^ chaff; Swed. a^-n, only 
a^nar, husks. 4* Golh. aAaHj : O, 
^MUta; Gk. ^xi'a. chaff. Cf, Gk. tfx*^ 
^alT, husk of corn, L a.'uj, chaff; naucs 





In pcldt-Itnns; the lU. fcns« being 

ntn^. C'>1*-^ In Sir T. 1{eriert'« 
il«» i4. >66£, p. R ; the profiCr scn&e 
t to be '• tail or tTrpanUng sprmd 
^■^p'« iWcV, to kfcp ofT the sun's 

tag; aw w iy, « clothes- line; Rich. 

pk. >o6 ; rat nihcr from O. F. 
Wt Low L. flMpnvMtf, * ft pent-house of 

brfon ft iiiot>-window ;' Cot. 

1X> (^) For #M im*, oo the twiu i 

Dor, Brace, it. 705. Sec Wry. 

Bt ▲>.(£.) M. E. <u-, <x. A.S.OLr. 

D. NortiiDaib. «rara, aro//.^- Icel. ^, 

S«rcd. ^.fltf; Dmii. lir^; Goth ii>»%n: 

G. mnMiu, G. axt ; L. ajtia, for d/xi'a ; 
lf^»<* : Rse)^ «/r. Cf. Gk. ^i^, sharp. 

. ) XVTI cent -Gk. Af'uufm 
^..K- ' »■>* worth, qaalitv ; in science, 
mptioe-*C'k a^<L>ai. 1 (Jeem wortliy. 
Q^^ Voithj. worth, lit. ' weighing 
Idk M.'wCk iyttw^ to driTe; ftlso, to 
k m matk mx. (y AG.) 
\Mt ult. (D L. «.n>, as aids ^e- 
^Glc 4f«r ; G. drAjf ; A. S. ear, on 
^'^ '^W, an axle, wheel, cart. 

■ e.) SeeAvlo. 
M. E. axti, txt! ; it also 
ft ' ftboaUcr.* A. S. foxt, the shoulder. 
d. iU/. AooldcT' joint ; Atn//. axis; 
r and UftA. Ajr//, ihouMer, axic; G. 
r. aiMiBldcr, «ri/^ axis. p. The G. 
^^UH. G. aAmAi, i» the dimin. of G. 
^HH. C. «Aj)ft. The shoulder joint 

|BHK- (K.) In Skftlc. ; an icoitfl- 

4)la. (£) H> E, ha^Un, to prate, 
bic, dHllcr. The Hiflix -U is Cre- 
iUl>e; tiM word means *to keep on 
I A*. AOf^iyUables imiCative of a child's 
fpt» to CMtk-^Da. SaMtUn ; Dan. 
- ' iJMi; G. Av^/m; and cf. K. 

is the axis on whicb the arm Ilp t, .-^jr/r, 
an E. word, is diitiin. of the form nppc.Tttng 
in L. ajiu ; see Axis. Dcr. ajr/(-/tite, 
where ?f« is a block of wood. 

Ay) interj. (E.) M. E. /y/ A natural 
interjection. ^ The phr. a^ mr ii I'leiich ; 
O. F. ax^^it alas for tnci Cf. Itnl. ahim/, 
Span, ay di mi, Gk. or>*oi. See Ah. 

Ay, Aye, yea, yes (E.) .Spelt / in oM 
cdd. of Shak. It appeaift to be a corniplton 
of yea : see Yoa. 

Aye. adv., ever. (Scand.) M.E. tty. — 
led. «, ever. + A.S. li, ever, nUo dwa; 
Goth. aiWy ever, an adv. fonnetl from aiwi^ 
an age. which is allied to L. ituum, Gk. 
of^, an age. Cf. Gk. altt, itl. ever. 

Azimuth. (Arab) Azimufhal circles 
are great circles oo the sphere that pa» 
through the ufiith. Properly, azimuth is 
a pi. form, answering to Amb. as-santtil^ 
ways, or points (or quarters) of the hori/on ; 
fronn at same, sing., the way, or point (or 
quarter) of the horiron. — Arab. «/, the; 
and xamt, a way, quarter, direction ; whence 
also E. ttmth. 

Asote, nitrogen. (Gk.) See Zoology. 

Axure, blue. (F. — Arab.) M.E asur, 
ature. — O. F. atur, ft£ure ; a corrupted 
form, standing for laxur, which was mis- 
taken for I'atur, as if the initial / indicated 
the def. article. — Low L. iatur, an azure 
coloured stone, also called laptj lazuli.^ 
Arab. Idjward, lapis InzuU, a blue colour. 
So called from the mine* of Lojwurd, where 
the lapis tozuU was found (Marco Pulo, 
ed. Yule). 



M & fa^. earliest form 6a- 

W.. ' ■■' . ' ■'tt nnd Com. ^Hihapi, 
ifln ' - I ■ '1 luin. of VV. m^'fif. a 
lad. Ufd itx^ii rmx^,a (on, from Eaily 
ifptf, « aoa JWiy*)- Or due to tnfaolile 

Baboon. (F. or Low L.) F. hahou 
we ftl&o find M, E. babion, hafnan, btt^' 
wine. ^ Law L. habfwynus. a baboon (a.o. 
1205). Origin uncert.iin. 

Bacchanal. (L.-Gk.) \^. Barchanitiis, 
a wo'shipper of Bfuehus, god of wine.— 
Gk. nri«\'oi, 'laifx*". K*>*' of wine- — Gk. 
laxity, to shout, from the shouting of wor- 
shippers at the fcsttval of /acthus. Lit. 
'to cry \a\ V 

Baohelor. (F.-L) M. E. hofhtUr.^ 
O. K. ia^hiltr, — Low L ixuiatahmt 1 
holder ol a small farm or estate, cflllcrl tn 
Low L. laiitiijna. Kcmoier origin wn- 
kuuwu, and much disputed. Perhaps from 

i'n ^1 





Low L. Idnc, pat for L. uat£A, %. cow. Ko( 
from Celtic, viz. W. b^k^ little ; as b&s bees 
wrongly suggested. 

Ba^ ^E.) &(. E. »ai. A, S. hat, -f 
IceL Afl*. Der. aback, q. t. ; batk-bite^ 
M, £. bakhittn P. PI. B. ii. So) ; ^bri- yiard, 
M, E. banvard : Layiim. ii. 578), &c. 

Backgammon, & gBme. \^^) In Bntlcr's 
Iludibras. c. iii. pt. 3. The sense is * back- 
gsme,' bccaufic the pieces, when talcen, are 
put back. See Oame. 

Bacon. (F,-TeoL) M.E.ia4-w».-O.F. 
hofffii ; l^w L. 6<uo. « O. Du. Imken, bacon ; 
from bai. a pig. Cf. O. H. G. foiho, 
M. H. G. boi^he. a flitch of h.ocnn. 

Bad. (£.) H.£. baidt. Formed from 
A. S. ba^tlt s., a hermaphrodite ; and 
allied to A. S. batfling, an effeminata 

Bodga. CLowL.-L.') M.E.Ai^-.PromjTt 
Parv.— Low L. ^.fi'«i, ^x^o, 'signum, m- 
figne quoddam;' Ducangc. — LowL. Ajj-a.a 
golden ring ; also a fetter (liencc, probably, 
anything l>onnd round the aim) ; also spelt 
^ii, fl rinf;;, link of a chain. •> L. biuca, btua, 
a berry ; also, a link of s chain. (Doubtful.) 

Badger. <K.-L.) Spell bayard \ix Sir 
T. More; a nickname iorxhc brock. M.E. 
baJger, hagtr, a dealer in com, or, in a bad 
len&c, ■ stealer of com, because the animal 
was supposed to steal com ; so also F. 
blainau, a ba/lgcr, lit. *com-stealer,* from 
bi^t com. Badger stands for bladger, an- 
swering to a Low L. t^j\^ ablaiaiuarius*^ 
due to Low L. ablalum, com. Cf. O. F. 
btadier, * a merchant, or ingrosser of com,* 
Cot., Low L. bliLiaritax from Low L. bla- 
dtim, short for abladum, ahiaium, com. 
p. I-ow l^abfatum signifies 'carried com,* 
hence ' stored com ; from. L. ablatum, 
ncut. of abhtus, carried away. « L. ah, 
away: and lotus, put for tiattu, borne, 
earned; from v^TAL. to lift. € Hut 
Dr. Murray sbcwii that ^W^r^s animal with 
a baJgt or sthpe. 

Badinage, jesting talk. (F.-Prov.— L.) 
F. ftaa'ifiij^. — F, badintr, to jest. ■■ F. 
baiitn, an; , jesting. — Prov. badtr ( = F. 
bayerX lit. to gni>e; hence, to be silly.— 
Lale L. baiiare. to gape ; prob. of imitative 
origin, from ba. exjjrcssive of opening the 
mouth. Cf. Babble. 

Bafflo, to foil, disgrace. (Scind.^ A 
Scotch word, as explained in Hall's Chron. 
Hen. VIU. an, 5. To baffult is ' a great re- 

ironch amnnp the Scotles;' it means to 
ice. rili^. Lowland Sc. batahk 

(XV cent ha£hU\ to Tnifr.«-Lo«t 
hauth^ baugk, baach iwith euttutat 
gk), insolhcicnt. dull f*Ki<i nftotiU), 
poor, tired, jadeil 
micKKiV <• Icel 
biigr,aaeasy.biigr,^v>i.,. , ..<> 
to hinder, oppress. Prob. 
V.bcJ7^, to mock. 
Bag. (E.) Put for ba/f ME. hi 
O. Northomfarian b^fic* ^g> Loke^ I 
35.+Goth. balgs, a wine-sLin: G htk 
skin ; Icel. Ar^, a skin, a bog. So j 
GaeL ha!gt ^/f, also ^^, a liTithem \ 
Lit. 'that which swells out.' CTNJ 
BALG.) See Bulse. 1 

bagatelle, a tride, a ^me. (F.««Iti 
Teut,^ K.A:^-v;;^.atriflc-ItaLi«^|i<( 
a tiille, diinin. of Parmesan bAgaia^ a| 
property ; from Lombard A^o, a wfaiM 
of Teut. origin ; sec Bag, ba^*Be(l] 

>M«gag« (0, luggage. (F.-C.) 1 
bagj^age^ bagage. — O. r. bagagt, a coUed 
of bundles. •■ O. F. bague, a bundle. 
Celtic origin; Bret, beoi'k, a b 
batch, a burden ; Gael, bag, ba/g, a 
see Bag. 

baggage h), a worthless woman. 
C.) Corrupted fiom O, F. bagaste, ' 
gage, quean/ CoU Cf. Ital. ba, 
worthless woman, p. Perhaps or^a 
camp-follower, ba;;gagt-woman: fionQ 
bague, a bundle ; see Bagc^e ( i \. y.; 
Mumy makes it the lamc as Bagcag«j 
in a dcpia^-ed sense. ,1 

bellowa. (E.) M. E. b^U, btfy. Id 
a bag. but used in the Kj^ecial sobJ 
' bellows.' Btllawj u the pL oi M 
t07v, a bog, also another form of Mh\ 
beity is another form of bag. Cf- G, I 
bal^, a * blow bag,* a pair of bellows;. 

belly. (E.) M. E. My. A. S. 
est form b^Hg, lit. a ba^. 4-Du. 
belly; SwcJ. bdlg, belly, oellows; 
baig, busk, belly ; Gael. bo!g^ bog, bti 

bilge. (Scand.) Pro[)Cily the 
rant part (belly) of a ship or 
the Terb to biigr, lit to till - 
beg^in to leak, as a ship.— I'.in. ^i/j 
suill, Swed. dial, baiga, to fill one*i 
AUo written bulgt. 

bilgo-water. (Scand. a*- 
which enters a sfiii' v.^ieTi 
biige, or by her \. 

billow, a W.1 
a billow ; S 


or surge; c> , ; 


{9\ A lewd of ftir. (F.-C.) 

' the wool dressed 

kin.' — F. baugi, 

-' ■' '-'tlipx, A little 

-Gael. 6olXt 


bag.xi-. — C.) V,hfiU' 

ai F. Amt^; see budge above. 

{i\aacnity; &9 vcib, to secure. (F. 

O. F. l^ilStr, a law term, to secure, 

n ia ocit'-''- — I 'kiiuittrt^ to carry 

I abovt, ' ,c nfachiltl. — ll 

» w - Cf. also O. F, 

M E. .^llVl/:-o.F. 

W L. MlV/jMMf.«*0. F. 

am/ E.) From 

-/'; above); and 

. an oEhce, 

. See IJale (.0. 
(F.-L?) O.F.Aj«7- 
•^i^ of paluade or barri> 

Ul fski or Xtcks. Tcrhaps from 
Tttmr, a icide. (Very doubtful.) 
m,i child (E.) See Bear (I). 
t, to feed. (ikamL) See BLta. 
IHt^ (F.-L.) See Bay ti). 
Da (£.) M. E Mim, A.S. ^im, 

Mr. pft. imtn.^liu. ^HfMi led 
hnd, Mia: Dan. ^^y: G. ^i^n ; 
^pMir« to roaaU (V liIIA<'.) 
En. IE.) A batch is as much as Is 
[ at OMs: hoQce. i quantity. M. E. 
% a feiUae : from Adi/M. to bake. 
»adt. (F.-L.) M. K. Mame.~¥. 
m^ *ft hallaaoc. pair of welghta or 
)tmi Cot. Cr lt«l. fii/amia - L. 

^rir a<r£^ uf i'i.Lr>ir, hnving two SCAlei. 

bic* twice; and /nffjr, 

of B baUuce. 

JMvy. ^iul.-Teu^) See Balk (i). 

IL iO M E. ^i/tt^: the orig. 

IMt ' ihiBinr, white,' as m ' balJfae<d 

s it9f «\tn a white streak un its 

.i.t^l .n( I. w». Ad/, io//, a spot. 

:i while spot or 

■c Mrcak on an 

m a horde's 

ff. (Scand.) It 

..c'l- .t.,..u -thn. 

-►iiir:; ai.' 'lap, 

ji;j:..c ;t ap(;«an i.l .-^> lo 



have meant a confused noise; secondarily 
a hodj,^. podge (IlalliweU) ; and generally, 
any tnixture. See Bellow and Doah. 
Baldric. (F.-0. 11. G.) See Belt. 
Bale (.1), a p-icknge: see Ball (a). 
Bale (a), evil, u.) M. E. baU. A. S. 
healu^ evil.<4-lce1. A*)/, misfortune; Goth. 
Ww/^in Wtwj-ww^/.wiclicdness; O.H.G. 
bxilo, destruction. Dor, balt-ful. 
Bale (3), to empty water out of a ship. 
(Du. ?) XVI cent. It means to empty 
a ship by means of bails, i.e. buckets. 
Perhaps Dutch ; cf. O. Uu. txiillit, a tub 
(Hexham), Dtj. balit^ a. tub, hciien, to bale 
out. Cf. Swed. 6aJJa, Dan. baUie, G. Ai^>, 
a tub. We find aX'io F. baiiU, a tub, which 
Liitr^ derives from Bret. W, a pail, though 
relerred by Diez to a diniin. form from 
Du. Ax*. O. Da. back^ a trough. (Doubt- 
Balk (r), a beam, ridge of land. (E.) 
M. £. kalkt. A. S. bahot a heap; which 
explains ^i/<^</— laid in heaps, 1 Ikn. IV, 
i. 1. 6i.4-(^*^:ui. balko, a l>eam ; Du./fa/^ 
a beam, bar ; Icel. bdlH^ bdlkr^ a bnik, 
pattiiioa; Swed. Ao/i, a bcam« partition; 
Dan. bjiTlke, s beam ; G. baiAen. C>rig. a 
ridge made by the plough, (y' BHAk.) 
Sec Boreal). Bar. 

balcony, dial. — Tent.) Ttal. ha/ttme. 
pakiffu^ orig. a stage. — O. H. G. falcho, a 
scifTold ; cognate with O. Sax. baUio, a 
bcMin (above). 

balk (3), baulk, to hinder. (E.) M.E. 
baJken. To put a Az/.^ or Azr in a inan*& way. 

bulk (3\ the stall of a shop. (Scand.) 
InSb. — Iccl.^J/ir, a l>eam; also, a inanition 
^pronounced with d like ow in e^t/)i see 
Balk, above. Der. bulk-kesuiy a partition. 
Ball (O, a dance. (F.-LowL.) F./W.- 
Low L. bailarty lo dance. ^Gk. ^aAAi^''ffU'f 
to dance. 

ballad. (F.-Prov.«Low L.) M. E. 
balaJe.^O.Y . baladi\ F. baUaJe. ^Vrof. 
ballatla^ a song for dancing to. — Low L. 
baliare, to dance. 

ballet. (F.-Low L.) F. baiUt, dimin. 

of bal, a dance. 

Ball(a).aiiphcricalbody. (F.-O.H.G.) 

M. E. balU, - F. balU. - M. H. G. -W/r, 

O. H . G. patld, a ball, sphere. + Iccl. bollr. 

bale \\), a package. U'. — O. H. G.) 
M. E. baU.^V. baU^ a ball, also a pack» 
as of merchandise; Cot. Tlie »ame as F, 
UilU, a halt ; hence, a round package. 

balloon, a large ball. (F.-U. U. G.) 
Formerly baU^ti^ a ball used in a gam« 






tike football. -O. F. bahn, *k little ball, 
or pack : a. football or baloon : ' Cot 
Mod. K. batloH : Span, halon \ Ital. pal- 
lout \ aagmentative form of F. balU, &c^ 
a ball. 

ballot. (F.-O. H.G.) F. baUoler, to 
choose lots. >-F. f>allotte, a little ball Dsed 
for voting ; dimiii. of K. balU, a balL And 
see Bole, Bov/1. Bolt, Bolster. Boil (i), 
Boiled (under Bulfffl). 

Ballad : tee Ball { i \ 

Ballast. (Du.) See L&de (i). 

Ballet. (F.-LowL.) SeeBaU<i). 

Balloon, Ballot; see Ball (3). 

Balm. (F.-L.-Gk.) A modified ipell- 
inf; ; M. E. ikiume. — O. F. hausme. -■ L. 
baisamum.'^Gk. &^(ra^v, fragrant resin 
of the /lAXutt/iOf, or bal&.im-trcc. Prob. 
Semitic; d Heb. Msdm, balsam. 

balsam. (L. — Gk.) L. dalsamum ; as 

Baluater, a rail of a stair-case, small 
column. (F.-Ital.-L.-Gk.) F.da/usfn; 
laintircj, ' ballistere, little, round, and short 
pillars, ranked on the out.Mdc3 of cloistera. 
terraces,' Sec ; Cot. * Ital. baianslro, a ba- 
luster; so called from a fancied resem- 
blance to the flower of the wild pome- 
{>raniite. * Ital. dahusto, balaustra, the 
flower of the pomegranate. « L. bafausHum. 
^Gk. ^oAoutrrior, the flower of the wild 
pomegranate. Cf. Gk. daAavot. on acorn. 
Der. oa/ujfr'at/e, F. da/ustnu/t, from Ital. 
6a/us/m/a, furnished with balusters. 

banisters ; cormptlon of baJusten or 

Bamboo. (Malay.) XVn cent Malay 
iHimhii, the same. 

Bamboozle, to cajole. (Unknown.) 

Ban, n proclamation. (E.) Chiefly in 
the pi. banms (of marriage). M. K. ban. 
A. S. gtbatfH, a proclamatioD (the pnrBx 
gt- making no diRcrencc). Cf. A. S. dban^ 
nan, to summon, onler out. -f' l^u- ban^ 
cxcommunicilion : haMnen,io exile; Icel. 
and Swed. bann, Dan. band, O. H. G. ban, 
a ban ; Ice), and Swed. banna^ to chide, 
Ban. bandt, to curse. Cf. l^fama, a ra* 
mour. (yiillA.) 

abandon. (F. - Low L, - O. H. G.) 
M. E. abandoune, verb. — F. abandffnnrr,^ 
F.a bandit, at liberty (Brachety*L. Of/, 
at ; Low. L. ftatu/um, aUo bannunt, an 
orier, decree, from O. H. G. ban, fait, a 
sommoai, ban (above). Der. aband»H- 

baadlt (1tal...O. H. G.) lu Sh.- 

Ital. bamfite. outlawed, pp. of bariffirt, ts 
proscribe. — Low L. banntrr, to proclaim. 

— O. H. G. bannan, to summon; 
O. H. G. ban, cc^nate with E. 6am. 

banlBh. (F.-O. H.G.) M.E. 
shen.^O. F. banis-, stem, of nres. 
bam'r, bannir, to proscnbe.— Low 
mn ; as nbove. 
banns. (E.) Merely the pi. of ban, 
contraband. (ItaL-Teut.) luLa 
trahbando^ prohibited goods. «- Ital, 
( >=^ L. contra), against ; bando, a boo, 
Low L. bannum, n word of Teut orij 

Banana, the plantain-tree. (.Span.) 
banana^ fruit of the banano ; prob. 
Indian origin. 

Band (i), Bond. (E.) See Bind. 

Band (3), a company of men : see Bind- 

Bandit, a robber : sec Ban. 

Bandog, B&ndy, Bandy-legged ; ne 

Bane. harm. (E.) M.E, bant. K% 
bona, a murderer, lane. -^ Icrt. bani ; Dss. 
and Swed. bant, death ; Goth, baiya, f 
wound ; Gk. ^vm, murder, ^oriir, t 
munJerer. (^BHAN.) Dot. biitiifuT. 

Bang (I), to beat (Scand.) Ii: - 
banke, to beat ; O. Swetl. bdn^^ I , 
a hammering. Cf. Ski. bhaui, to br 
bungle, to mend clumsily. (I 
Swed, dial, bangta, to work iucflcctl 
from Swed. dial, bunka, bonka, or 
to strike: see Bang (x). 

Bong (a), a narcotic drug. (FVn,) 
ban^. Cf. Skt. bhangA, hemp; the 
being mode from the wild hemp. 

Banish. (F.-O. H. G.) Sec Ban. 

Banisters, cormption of Baluaters. 

Bank (i)> a mound of earth. (£.) U.^j 
bankt, b^ukt (Layamon, >rlS,s)* 
bam (nn authorised), 4* G. Du. 
bench; Icel. bakki (for banki\ a 
O. H. G.pan^A, a bank« a bench. Doi 

bank (a>, for money. (F.-TeuJ 
banque, a money-changer's tabic or 
-O. Du. bamk, M. H. G. bant, « 

bankrupt (F.- Ital. -Tent. 
Modified from F. bcxn^juetvu 
by a knowledge of the rein' 
to I.. — >'■" »•-' .- ^ "<■ 

— M. M.G. bftnct a tKUcli; and i^, rwm^l 
(em. of mftui, i»p. of r>tm/<ft, to faieak. | 

baaqikot (F.«-Tcut) Y. Samtrnti $i 


^^ B MBsD bencfa or Ubie ; dimin. 
^Kvlif. H.G. 6a$te, a bench. Ublc. 

^^mmk, • tench, tabic, bonk for 
nSmA. snd Vm. 6imk ; G. bank. 
MK^BAlUMret : see Bind. 
^■k* ft cake; (C.) OmL ^ffmK^, a 




fil. of B&a, q. ?. 
IL (K.-T«ul.) See B&nk. 
(Jjin.) A fowl from Baniatti, 

r« nSSiaj. (Unknown.) 

■a Infiinl. (E,) Prob. for 
IbV, CBt wnpped in twaddling bands ; 
loufe dbnlR. uflu -Aii^. See Bind. 
gr«Ji> • tf<c (Skt.) An KiigUsh. 
bmIvv Mine for the tree. So called 
IC wttA M a nmrkct-fiUae for mer- 
'Uuuijrau.' at we teimed them ; 
Il«H!wn, Trm*cU, cd. 1665, pp. 
t. A0iy» a merchant. 
Uvc (ACncui.} The native 

ipttM. {F.-L.-GkO For- 
hmpttu; U. E. baftiitn.^O.F. hap- 
■ L. JM^iMif.^^GJL. ^arrrCcif; from 
ir« ID dip. I>«r. ia/rttf. Gk 0aw- 
'; itjfiiim. Ok. |liirTt<7>ia, a 

(Gk.) One who baptizes 
frum Gk. drd. itgain; and 

, « r»iL <F.-C.> ME Aarr/.- 
AsfTv. « Rret. iurrrjf, a bar: i^>r, 
k of a Ix" ^'V 'I' i":--! nr./i Trish 
I ft Itfr. ' I'uL 

L Aarwfftt^ a :ait ior ioMicrs. Of 
ooria; Beet ^% a brtnch of a 
Gfto. Atrr^ a ipike. damacA, top- 
Ma of trees Smrm^kaJ, a but or 
nv L. Acme, palisades. 
,»C.S M.E. Aj«;.-O.F. 
. — K 6atrt, a bar; from 
[t. p. 1 hit the wotd is of 
b 4hn»n by W. ArnV, Gael. 
A*'* »■ ■ ^ bnrrcl; 

1^'. A*', -■• c below. 

- - ,; K, /«r/i- 
< taiTicnde. lit. 
rt , lull of earth.— 

a Lo^icL — Spaa. Aorra, a 

(F.-C) M.E, iur«f«-F. 
P«.«F. Aarrvr, to bai up.^F.Ao/nr, 


barrifiter. (lx>w L. — C.) A barbarous 
word ; formed with suffix -isferi = Low L. 
'ii/ariuj') from the sb. Air. Spelinan gives 
the Low L. form as l>annrferiuj. 

debar. (L. anJ C.) Coined from L. dt, 
from : and 6ar. 

vmbargo. (Span.— C.) Span, ^m Ad f;^, 
an arrest a stoppage of ships; lit. a put- 
ting a bar in the way. Formed with pre- 
fix ^m* ( = Ijit. in) from Span, fmrra, a bar. 

embsuTass. <,F. — C.) F. em/fatrasser, 
to pciplex; lit, to hinder, put a bar in 
one's way.— F. tm- (-=L. in), and a stem 
6amis-, doc to barrt, a bir. ^ The stem 
barms- can be accounted for by the Trov. ^ 
barras, a bar. Span, barras, a prison, both ^| 
uicd as singular, though really the pi. ^| 
forms of Prov. and S(.<an. barm, a bar. 
The word is Scuthern F. 
Barb (i>. hook on an arrow. (F. — L.) 
F. <Var^. — L. barba, a beard. Ilence U. F. 
Jltschf barbtUtt ' a bearded or baxbed 
arrow ; ' Cot. ^| 

barbel, a fish. (F.-L.) M.E. bat- ^ 
^/.V. — O. F. barbel. F. ^r^'au. — L. bar- 
btUus, dimin. of barbus, a barbel. » L. 
barba, a beard. ^ Named from four 
beard-like appendages near the mouth. 

barber. (F. - L.) M. £. barbcur.^ 
O. F. barbier, a barber. — F. batbt, a beard ; 
as above. See Board. 

btirbot, a fish. (F.-L.) F. barl'ctt,^. 
burbot ; named from its small beards 00 
the nose and chin. — F. barbe, a beaid. 
Barb (2), a horse. ^F.-Barbary.) F, 
barbt, a Barbary hoise: named from the 
Borbaroofl. (L.-Gk.) L. barbants.^ 
Gk. 0Apl3apof. foreign, lit. stammering; a 
name given by Greeks to express the 
strange sound of foreign languages. Cf. L. 
baJbus, stammering. 
BarbedL as applied to horses ; see 
Barbel, Barber; sec Barb d). 
Barberry. Berberry, a shrub. (T.» 
Arab.) Y* berbcris; Cot. — Arab. A*r-Wr»V, 
the larbcrry-lrce. % The spelling should 
be birbtry or batbary ; no coonecLion wilb 
Barbic&a. (F. — Arab. 7) M. F« batbkan* 
— F. bsirliuant, a barbican or outwork of a 
castle; also, a loop-hole; also, an outlet 
foe water. Perh.ips from Arab. borboAA, 
an aquedncL a sewer TDevic). 
Bard. (C.) W. baniJ, Iri^h and Gael. 
*Ani, a poel. 




Bare. (E.) M.E. bar, A.S. bar. + 
IcdL berr\ G. bar; Lith. basoitbosuj, bare- 

BargaiiL (F.-Low L.) M. E. bargayn, 
»b. — O. ^■. bar^aigHer, bai-giner, to chaffer. 
»Low L. barcaniare, lo change about. 
Supposed to be I'rom Low L. barcOy a batk 
or ship for mcrchaiidi^ ; sec Bark (i). 

Barge; sec Bark (i). 

Bark (i), Barquo. (F-Low L.-Gk. 

— Egypt.) Bark is an E. s|>cUing of F. 
Sarqtit, a little ship. — Low L. bana, a sort 
of ship ; shorter form o( barua^, dimin. of 
6an's, a sort of boat (Proj>ertiiis). — Gk. 
0a^it, a row-boat. Of Egyptian origin ; 
Coptic barit a boat. 

barge. (F. - I_^w L. - Gk. * Egypt.) 
M.E. barvi.^V. barge. — Low L. barua*^ 
dimin. of barit; as above. 

debark. (F.-Low L.) F. d^barqutr^ 
formerly desbarquir^ to land from a ship — 
O. F. da' (L. dis\ away; and F. barque. 
So also ttnbark (F. em-barquir) j whence 
di:- embark. 

Bark (i\ the rind of a tree. (Scand.) 
ME. ^f>/. — Swcd. bark', Dan, bark\ 
Icel. borkr. 

Bark (.3), to yelp as a dog. (E.) M. E. 
birken, — A, S. beorxan^ bonian, to bark. 
Perhaps allied lo break, to make a cracking 
lioEse ; d L.frag-or, n crash. 

Barley. (L) M.E. barli.~K.^. b<rriU. 

— A. S. ber€, barley ^Low Sc. bear); and 
'lUj put for //(, like. Cf. aI$o Goth. 
barizeins. made of barley; L. y&r, com. 
See FariDO, Leek, Oarlio. 

bam. (.E.) M. E. bem^. A. S. bem, 
contr. form of benem ^Luke, iii. 17).— 
A.S. bere, barley; and irn, a place for 
storing, corner. 

barton, a courl-yard, manor. (E.) O. 
Konbumb. bert-tdn (Matt. iii. 13), •A. 8. 
bere^ barley; and /«/«, an enclosure; ace 

Barm (i), yeast. (E.) M.E. berfnt. 
A. S. beorma. + Du. herm\ Swed. b;tnna\ 
G. bUrme. Allied to Ferment and Brew. 

Barm (1), the lap. (E.) Sec Bear ^i). 

Bam. (£.) See Barley. 

Bamaole (1), a kind of goose. (Low 
L. — C. 'i) Dmiin. from F. bttttaqtu (Cot.), 
Liiw L. bermua. * Bernaca, aues aucis 
palu^tribus similes;' Ducange. Used by 
Giraldus Catubrcnsis, and presumably of 
Celtic origin. (Sec Max Miillcr, Lecturef, 
tnd Series.) 

Barnacle (2). a soft of shell fi«h. (C. ? 


or L. — Gk.) Prob. a dimin ^"r.^rr, I 

btirfteach, u. limi-ct ; Gael, t: 

brtnig, Bret, bt^nmk^ britmi' t 

Cum. brtnnic, limpets, derived by K. U 

Hams from br^H, the breast, which 

limpet resembles in form. p. O 

it 15 a dimm. of L. f^rna, a a 

femacula being changed into 

(.Max Miitler, Lecturer, ii. 5^4). 

also means a ham, thi^h-bone. ^ 

a ham. y< Or the same as Bi 

BarnacIoB, spectacles, orig. i 
the noses of hoiKS to keep ihem 
(C?) The sense of 'spect.icle** is 
and due to a jesting allu:iion. M 
nak, dimin. bemakili. ' Bernak 
btmakW, Cbamus ' (i.e. L. eamns} ; 
Parr 1 suspect ber$$ak (for br 
the tame word as brank or brm 
Braaka. The sense is just the 
6nd bemae in O. F. (in an Eng. M 
Wright's Vocab. i. ;oo, 1. 3. 

Barometer, for measuring the 
the air. (Gk.) Gk. ^o^o-, for ^opor, 
and fAirpar, a measure ; see Metre, 

Baron, a title. (F.^0. H. G.) It 
banm.— F. barvH; older form ifr ( 
bar), the suffix -an only marking the 
case <Diez).-0., a man. 
porter (cf. G. frucht'bar^ fruit 
Perhaps from O. H. G. beran^ to 
Bear (1). % Uncertain. 

Barouche, a carriage. (G. — IUL«> 
G. banttsche. — Ital. barottriff birteek^ 
chariot, orig. a two -wheeled car.^L. 
rfftuit two-wbeclcd.»L. ^i*. doublei 1 
rfffa, a wheeU 

Barracks. (F.-.Ital..C.) SeeBlf 

BarreL (F.-C.) See Bar. 

Barren. (F.) Kl.K ^/Yiif.-»0.#» 
rai^iu\ ¥.brthaigrte,hizx\\t. Of 

Barricade, Barrier, Barrister 

Barrow (1), a burial-motmd. (K.) 

Barrow (a), a wheel -barrow, (E^ 
Bear (i), 

Barter, to traffic (F.) M. E. 

— O. F. bareter, barnUr, 'lo cheat, bqp 
also to barter ;' Cot. O. F. barai^ *^m 
ing, also a bi'tfr' rm 
origin; Dlt-. 
CUV, to trans I 

(Llttri^). Cf. UjcL ii^piui, ticft. 
brath^ W. Ar*/, Itcachery, Gael 
vaittai^e by unfair mtatis; Irish 




(E.) S«eBar1«y. 

ftM, kn AttoiiXTj. (Ck.) Namc<l 
it» wrigbi.«»Gi. 3opvr»^i. weight* 
t^6%, bair7. See Qrftro {i). 
rfUmm. (lul.-Gk.l Better bari- 
■ ■wntml trrrn for a deep voice. » 
KonE^MW. t tontone. — Glc. &apv-^ 
.deep; uu] v^rui. a tone: we Tone. 
Bit. (F. • L.) F. basaiu. - L. ta~ 
s hml kind of marble in i^thiopia. 

' •■<-ny). 

:■ -L.) M. E. /wjj, 

r, fcm.* L«iw L. has- 

- word u L. /tojJUT, 

ieertu to hayc meant 

, ( ' rely • low,' 

liiser, oMairser; 
"*. io lower. — L. Oii, 
ad Lcnr L. hatsart, to lower, from 
, lo». Dor. Ai\ift mfHf. 
MCtLent, lowest door of a buildiog. 
UaL — ! . ' A pf-ran in F. as souinujt- 
itr .^ ; formed 

Mt borrowed 

tt^- «=j/ -"'v-i^i-.^. m. n:i Buiucincnt — 
\ttmn, to Imrer.wltal, ^/i?. low,— 
L. iairmt. 

-tst put in mtt&Ic. (F. — L.) 

1 Av, low. Cf. lul. ifaiso. 

l»^reUe£ iUxV - L.) Ital. idiJtf- 

Vb Sm vnler X««vit7. 

MMMB. a ' ' nient (F.-Ttal. 

FkAst.-. :an4t a bassoon. 

L*P^- 1 

IMIH .1 !• . - I .) Formed 

JHt : T'- </r. down. 

fc^ ■■' (F.-L.-Gk.) 

^^ft pt- — Gk. base $a-, 

L .. , 4. : xjM, oa above. 
(F. - iUl. - U) See 

<»^ • 

■D«lt BMUtt; Mc Buln. 

hftiL <7. «!•/£.> Put for a6<uh/Hi'. 

bMJfc. Probi by confosioci with a6ast 

n - .l,.,f .V _T _<;l 'i Short for 
;* Cot.— 
, royal.— 

mg- >^ac«Ati/T, a king. 

rilS' (U-Gk) L. 




ak.) Ck, 

,» , ..^> » .word or scr* 

pent, named from a spot on the bend like 
a crown.- Gk. Baakkivt, a king. 

Basin. (F.-C.) M. E. badn, basin,^ 
O. F. baa'n; F. &7/x/«. — Gael. i>ac, a hol- 
low; W. bachf a hook; Biet. ba/:, tki^, a 
.shallow boat 

baaenot, basnet, a liji^ht helmet. [ F. — 
C) In .Spenser. —O. F. ^^iW/, dimin. of 
iijiin \ from its shape. 

Basis. (L.-Gk.) See Base (i). 

Bank. (Scatid.) M. E. haskt, to bathe 
oneself. Pa U^rave: and cf. 6a/ht hirt, to 
bosk herself Ch. C. T. Nonnea Prcslca 
Tale, 446. — Icel. ba^ia sik, to bathe one- 
self; cf. Icel. batiast (,for baf'ask), to bathe 
oneself. Cf. also Swed. dial, af basa n£i 
solnt, to bask in the sun, dai//tsk. fishes 
basking; in the sun. See Bath. % Formed 
like Buflk. 

Basket. (C.) M. E. *a.t^/.- W. Ajr^/t/; 
Com. bai(et/\ Irish Itascnd; Gael. Inmaid, a 
basket Perhaps from \V. basf;, a platting. 

Bass (i),tn music. See Base (i). 

Bass (3), Barse, Brasse, a fish. (E.) 
M.E. bane, boft (with loss of r). A. S. 
btTrs, a perch. +Du. baars \ G. bars, barsck, 
a perch. 

bream, afish. (F.-Teut)€em. 
- O. F. brcsmt (F. brittu). - M. II. G. 
brahsem (G. braiscn) ; O. H, G. prahi<ma\ 
extended form of G. ban. 

Bassoon. (F.-Ital,-L.) SeeBMe(i). 

Boat. (E.) M. E. Aw/ ; bast-tre, a lime- 
Irec. A.S. bait, a lime-tree; whence Uist 
is made. + Icel., Swed., Dan., G. bast. 
Perhaps allied to Bind, 

baste (^), to sew slightly. (F. - M. 
H.G.) M.E. bast<H.~O.V. bastir, F. 
M/i>, to sew slightly ; a tailor's term — 
M. li. G. boiUn, to bind ; orig. to tie vdh 
bast. — G. bast, basL 

Bastsjrd, an illcf^itimate child. (F.) 
M.E. bastard, applied lo Will. I.-O. F. 
bastard, the tame as Jits de bast, lit. ' the 
son of a pack-saddle/ not of a bed. [The 
expression a bast tbere, illegilimntc, occurs 
in Rob. of GIouc. p. 516.] — O. F. bast, a 
pack -saddle (F. bJt) ; with suftix -ard, from 
0. 11. G. Mart, hard, 6rst used as a sufhx 
in ] •roper names and then generally. 

BaHto(i), tobeat (Scond.) Ick\. beyjta, 
to lient ; Swed. bitsta, to ihump. Ct 
O. Swc<l. ba:a, to strike. 

Baste (3), to pour fat over meat. (Un- 
known.) In Sh. * Ta boitt. Unite ; ' Levias. 
ctl. 1570. 

Baste \,i), to MW tlighlly. See Ba^l.. 



BaatUe, a fortress. (F.) O. F. Aas/il//, a 
buiWiug.-O. F. ixufir (F. Idfir), to build. 
Origin uncertnin; perhaps aUici.1 to B»ton. 
bastion. (F.«*ltal.) F. ^//pk.— Ital. 
Ms/i'ofie, part of a fortification. — Ital. 6as- 
4irt, to build ; allicU to O. F. tastir. And 
s«e Battiement. 

Bastinado (Span.) See Batoo. 

Bastion. (F.-Iul) See Bastdle. 

Bat (1), a cuilgcl. tE > M. K. hatie.-^ 
A. S. Aa// (Ent;. Slndien, a. 65). Cf. Irish 
baia, hat. a staff. Der. bat-Ut^ with double 
dimin. surHs -/«/. 

Bat (a), a winged mammal. (Scant).) 
Corrupted from M.E. bakke.-^M^xx. bakke^ 
now only in comp. ajun-bakke, evening- 
bat. And hakke is for blakkt\ Icel. U^r- 
blaka, a 'leather- tlappcr/ a bat.* Icel. blaka. 
to flutter, flap the wings. 

Batch. (E.) See Bake. 

Bate (1), to diminish. (F.-L.) Short 
for abate, by loss ot a ; see Batter (i). 

Bate <i), strife. tF.-L.) M. E. baii\ 
a dipt fonn of Debate, in the sense of 
strife. ^ So aiso_/if/irt for dt/mci. 

Bath. (E.) M.E. baY A.S. &r3.+ 
Icei. AaS; O.n.Q. pad, bad, O. Swcd. 
bad. The orig. sense was a place of 
warmth ; cf. O. 11. C. bdhen (G. bdken)t 
L. fouirv, to warxn, foment Allied to 
Fomont and Bake. 

bathe. (£.) AS. banian, to bathe.- 
A. S. ^rS, a bath. And sec Bank. 

Bathos. (Gk.) Lit. depth, sinking. -Gk. 
^.Iflor. depth; cf. /infl^i, deep. (v^GAIlH.) 

Baton, Batoon, a cudgel. ( F.) F. bdtm. 
O.K. Aof/OM. — Low L. biutontm, ace, of 
basto, a cudgel. Origin doubtful ; connected 
by Dicz with Gk. PodTu^fir. to support. 

bastinado. (Span.) From Span, bos- 
tiwada,^ bcAling. — Span. &aj/on, a stick~ 
lx>w L. bas/ijnem (above). 

batteiL ta). a wooden rod. (F.) To 
baifdt down is to fasten with battem. Batten 
is mctcly another sjjelling of Baton. 

Bftttalion. (F.-Ital.) See Batter (i) 

Batten (i), to grow fat. fatten, (Scand.) 
Sre Better. 

Batttin (2); see under Baton. 

Batt«r (i\ to beat. (F. - L) M.E. 
AxT/m. - F. battre. — L. batttt, popular form 
fdbatuertt tn tieat. 

ftbate. tF.-L.> M.E. aW^.-O.F. 
f/r.»Low L. abbittteret to beat from ur 
Town. * L. ixb, from ; and bat^rt, for batueri, 
U beat. ^ Hence batf^ to beat down ; by 
Iota of « 


battalion. (F-1tal.-L.) F.bataOlmi, 
»Ital. baftap'ionc, a. bittatiuii.— ItaL Atr» 
tagiia^ a battle ; see battle below. 

batter (a), a compound of cggss, 0oai, 
and milk. (F.-L.> M. E, Ajfw</-.^0. f. 
ba/ure, a beating. — F.^//nr, to beat(,aboT^. 
So called because beaten up. 

battery. (F.-L.) F. /■'''"• f^^f*'^ 
' beating, battery ; ' Cot. •• I- 

batUa. (F.-L.) M.E. 
-O. F. bataiUe, (i) a Fight, ;i) a bati 
Low L. bataiia, a fight. • ll 
bafuere, to beat. 

batUedoor. iPror.-L.) M. E. ii^ 
dourt. Prompt. Parv. — Prov. bnUdtfr, $paiL 
batidor, a washing-beetle, which was Um 
at 6rst the sense of the £. word, 
corruption to battMoor was due to 
fusion with batt/t, a small bat.] •> ' 
b<Ur/, .Span, batir, the same as F. 
beat: with Euffix -dor, which in 
Sp.m. a,L. snflix -torem, ace. form 
nom. -tor, expressing the agent 

combat. (F. — L.) Orig. a verb.«K 
€ombattn, O. F. combatn. to fight with.* 
F. com- ( « L. com-), with ; and F. battn,. 
O. F. batre, to fight. Der. cambaZ-aat (F«>. 

debate. (F. - L.) M. E. deUfm. 
O F. dfbatn, to debate, argue. * L. ^ 
down; batert, to beat ^abovc). 

rebate, to blunt a sword's edge. (F.« 
L.) O. F. rebatrt, to l>eat back .n^iin. — 
F. rr- (L. rcA. back; O. V.batre, P.battn, 
to beat ; see Batter (i) above. 
Battlement. (F.) M. £. ba/i 
btiiUmertt. No doubt equivalent 
O. F. bastittemaU*, from O. F. b^^ 
fortify, deiivative of O.F. bastir^ to 
Sec Bastile. 

embattle (i>, lo furnish with 
mcnta. (F.) M.E. tmbattttin.^O, 
(cL. im-, for in-, prefu,); ami U.F^.] 
tiller, to fortify ; as above 
Bauble (1), a fool*^ mace, <C.T; 
¥.. suffix.) nificrenlfromArKA/4r(«), 
babyfi, bafi/c. Iiabct (Gowrr. C. A. I 
Named from it- 
I'ablen, to s.wii. 

b^biiU^^Xo kcc^ \ ^ . , — . -1 

see Bob. 

Bauble (a), a plaything (P. « Ql^ 
Corr. from F. bstbioU, a child's loy.-«iv' 
babboia, a toy.— Ital. fhibbeo, a stiupAsttf 
cf. Low L. f'dhu.'ui. a simpleton Frov 
uttering ot indistinct sounds. d[. Gk-fc 
Cctf, 10 chatter ; sec Babble, Bar b aWtt. 

Tb« carrnniSoa of F. Baht&U was du to 

nrd, A lewil ptrwn (F. « G.) See 

iwt (Scaod.) Tcel Sttmla, lo low a& 
: Svot. M/a, lo roar; ice BoU, 


dV «Ali»h brown. (F.-L.) M.E. 
.•Ol F fei —I- iku/ins, I nij -coloured. 
baiaai, omrtc woollen stofT. (F. » L.) 
«rrDr (or Acr|v/, pL of F. baje^ * the 
o3lea trtyo;' Cot. -OF. Aw. bay- 

;ft»»UnT. Fi'-'^' •' '-'•' colour. 

Iht^. bay. ba;. c. 

(F.-L) ' A ; from 

obiovr. Thr taf^x -AriV th I eultmic. 
( i\, • IcsBii of Uurel ; pro[>erly, a 
■' - I. > M. K. bay, x htiry, 
»F. i-' -L. dch<a, a berry. 

t thf »ca. (F.-L.) F. 
•B inkt . ' i :vf, a fjap. — Low L. 
A*, fn». oi I j'- ...1 t\itf,irg, lo ^'P*^- 
biky-wiiulow. a wimlow in a ivctss. 
woni A«r* oucnmg. came to mean any 

.') ft BUlldillC. 

bMksft&dOR. (F.-L.) For 
.-. .. dAs|WN. — O. F. a/Aa^^r ; Cot. 
«< «t; sod AoM^n; to yelp. Cf. 
B o«rL 

k*\ in phr. «/ fe/. (F. — L.) Fc; 

K . *A«j. oii^^ ; ^/rr awLT a^u, to 

be at the bayinu of ihe 

- W» the bark of a Ao^ ; 

-». ..^.^ * .Miv^n O. F. oMayer, to 

' ; {ron Bay (3) and Win- 

(T.) XVIf ceDt F. ^<w- 
itfy«n fc ; Cot. Named 

B^tfmu. wberc tir^t inada. 

'■*- '-, a maiket. 
IIS sutslancc. 

paifii. <fcL; A.K ^% prefix: oflea 

iliv% IB in ^UNm^ to make Dumb. 

alao U-kiaJt to 'JcpTime of the head ; 

f, to ael vpoa. act roond; U-mirt, to 

with mm ; Ace 

tA cxos. (^E.) M. E. Atfjt. A. S. 

\i% I^^W. An/, to Ik; Kou. Ami//; 

t./M): Gk. ^*w\ iikt. ^Aii. 





!. * 

■| XVI 

f c- 



' ;. . 

.1 I . ! . . 





» UV«.[ 




JaUi^ a culgc bcnk ol a river. AUi«d 

Beacon. (E.) M, K. /$«>^/if. A.S. ^<ir/M. 
beck (i). to oorl. (F. — C.) F. birqutr, 
to bob ; Col. - F. inc. beak. Sec Peuk. 
(Misplaccil ; unless i( be used for b€<bon.) 

beckon. (E.) M.E, htcmn. A.S, 
U\nan, bcxUtucM, to moke n sign. — A.S, 
bifH, beiifen, a beacon, token, WKn. 

Bead. (E.*) See Bid (1). 

Beadle. (F.-O. H.G.) See Bid (a.) 

Beagle, a doc. (Unknown.)^it, 
Squire of Low fVgrre, I. 771. 

Boak. {,F.-C.) See Peak. 

Beaker. (O. Low G.-L.-Gk.) M.E. 
biktr, fyker,'mO,'&^\. biktri; Iccl. bika/r, 
a cup.^Du. heiUr', G. b^chtr; lul. buthien, 
p. From Low L. bicarixim, a wine-cup.— 
Gk. ^('xor, an carlhcn wiiic-ves>cl ; a word 
of Eastern or i^D. 

pitoher, (F. - O. H. G. - L. - Gk.) 
The aamc word. F. fichitr, *a pitcher; 
a Languedoc word;' Cot. — O. II. G. pi- 
ihdri (G. ^<'A«/-). — Low L. bUariMm \ as 

Beam (t), a piece of timber. (£.) M. E. 
bttm. A. S. bcdm, a trec.-f Du. b96m \ G. 
banm ; Goth, bagnu. 

beam (a^, a ray. (E.1 Tlic same wofdt 
ipccially used to signify a 5ttai|;ht ray. 
A. S. byrH€Hd< bedm, ' the pillar of tire.' 

boom (2\ a beam, pole. (Da.) Dtt. 
boom, n tree, a beam; see Beain<j). 

bumpkin, a thick headed fellow. (Dn.) 
— O. Hu, boomktn, a little tree (Hexham); 
dimin, of boom, a tree, a beam, bar. The 
E. bttrnkiH aUo meant a luff, block, a thidt 
piece of wood (Cotgravc, 5. v. Chicambault)', 
hence readily applied 10 a block<bead, 
thick-skulled fellow. 

Bean. (E.) M. E. htnt. A. S. A^Jn.-f 
Iccl baun; O. H. G./fJna: W'.ffiien. 

Bear (i), to carry. (E.) M.E. tftnn. 
A. S. btratt.-^ViQXh.. bairan ; V.,/trr£ ; Gk. 
^piir: Skt.Mri. (VBHAK.) Der. «/• 

balm, a child. (E.) M. E. *arw. A.S. 

^jrw.+lccl., Swed., Din., and Goth, //arwj 
Skt. bharna. LiL 'that which is bom,' 

barm, the lap. (E.) M. E. barm, A. S. 
btarm, Up, bosom. — A.S. ^nan, to bear. 

barrow (j), a whqpl-banow. (E.) 
M. E. bartntfi. — A. S. bt^-an, to bear, carry. 

berth, a secure position. (E.) It ap- 
l>ears in be tlic same woid as birth. Cf. 
M. E. i'ir!^, btr^, bur^^ a biitlij race, naliunj 
runk, i>'ace, station. 

bier, a frame un which a corpse it borxie. 
(E.) }A.E.bun,Ur*, AS. Air. -A.S. 



Aet-art. to carry.+ IccK iarar; h,/tretrum; 
Gk. 4piptr(ni¥. And see BrothDr. 

birth. tE.) M.E. Inrti, birihe. A.S. 
^are\ aXio gtbyrd, birth. — A.S. htratt, to 
bear. Cf. led. dufJSr, G,g-gdurt. 

burden <0, burthen, a lond carried. 
(E,) A.S. tiyr^tn, a load. — A.S. bor-en, 
pp. of /</*ir«, to bear + led. fi/r^r, byr^i; 
^wed. i^nia ; Dan. hyrdt ; <Joth. baurthti \ 
G.AiirJe; GV. ^frfot, 

forbear. (.E. ) A. S. forUran ; for the 
prdix/pr-, iec For- (a). 

ovcrbearinff. (E.) Lit. brarinp over. 
Bear (i), an animal. (E.> M. E. (Vnr. 
A.S. betu. + led. ^»u, bjom\ O. H. G. 
/V/TJ; Ski. bhalla. 
Beard, (E.) M. E. btrd. A.S. Anxn/. 
+ On. baard\ led. Air^5, a brim, verge, 
hcik of a »hip; Rusa. ^^oriU; W. M//; 
L. lartHi. 

barbed, nccoutirtl ; laid of horees. (F. 
— Scand.) Also bardcd^ the better form. 
•• K. 6ardJ, ' barbed as a hnise ; ' Cot. — F. 
banie, horsc-armonr. — IccL bar^^ a brim 
(liL beanl) ; also a beak or amicd prow of 
a U'.tr xhip; whence it was applied to hones. 
Thus barl>td is a sort of F- translation of 
barded. See Uarb (i). 
Beast. (K. - L.) M. E. b<sU. - O. F. 
btitt (F. bitt!) - L. bettia^ a beast. 

bestial, (F.-L.) Y. bestial.^Ubisii- 
mJis, beast-tike. — L. beitia. 
Beat. (E.) M. £. b^ten, A. S. Udtam. 
+ led. bauta ; O. H. G. p6^am, M. H. G. 
b6ten. ^Teut. / BUT, to beat) 

abut, to prujevt towards. (F. — G.) In 
Shak. *• O. F. ahoUr, ahouUr, to thrust 
against. - F. a ( = L. */). to ; M. H. G. 
b^zfn^ to beat : sec butt (t) l>dow. 

beetle, a heavy mallet. (E.) M. E. 
btUl. A.S. bytet, a mallet, beater.* A. S. 
btAtan, to bent. 

boss, a knob, (F,-0. H. G.) M.E. 
boise, knob of a buckler. — F. hoise^ a hutnp, 
bump, — O. II.G. pSum^ to beat; a bump 
being the effect of a blow. 

botch (1), to patch. (0, LowG.) M.E. 
bOichfH. — Du. boisen, to strike ; O. Du. 
butitH, to Strike, repair From the notion 
of repairing roughly by hammering. Du. 
bcf-sem is from the nme root as A. S. 

botch fj). a Bwdling. (F.-O. H.G.) 
M.E. boitbt.^O.Y. bote, a IkiU. botch, 
boll : K. Hme. Sec bOM at>ove. 

bottle (3\ a bundle of hay. (F. - 
.O.Ii.G.) lA.K.b^i/.^O.F,b0it/,b0U/U, 


a small bundle ; dimin. of bit/fr, « 
of hay. - O. H. G. fi6tff, btftff, a 
of flax; allied to O- H. U. y^»i*, 
beat ; from the beating of ftaic. 

butt U)t AH end, ihtust; to thnot C 
-O. H.G.) [The sen&es of the sb 
be referred to the verb ; just as F. An 
end, butt-end, depends on bcMfgr, to 
M. K. bu//en, to push, strike.— O. ~ 
to push, bull, — M. H. 
O. H. G. /Stan, to bent. Per 
from O. F. bat, F. bout, an end (sec 
below); buff (to shoot at), from 
the same, alHetl to K. bu/, a mark, 
to hit. Dar. a-biit (above). 

buttock. (F.; w$rJi E. suJLr.) It 
bo/o/t, bottok.^O.l'. Aw (F. beut\ an e 
(cf. E.bu/t'THd); vrilh dimin. Buflix -ttJkii 

button. (F. - O. II. C.) M E. 
also, a bud. — O. F. /vt/iM (F. btmiamX 
bud, a button ; properly, a round 
pushed out. — O. F. boUr, to posh» ; 
out; see butt (i). 

debut. ^F.-L. ami O. H. G.) A 
appearance in a play. — F. d^b*4f, a ft 
stroke, lint cast or throw at dice. T 
urig. sense seems to have been ' a 1 
aim,' or 'a miss;' it is allic<l to O. 
desbuttr, ' to repell, to p«t from the OM 
aimed at," Cot.— L. </«>-, a^art; aud F.J 
a mark ; see butt (i) above, 

rabbet, to cut the edges of 
that tbcv overlap and can be i 
- L. and G.) F. raboUr, to 
or lay even ; cf. rabot^ a join..; _ ^ 
plasterer's beater. * F. r^> a^aia 
abo«r^ later abouitr, to thrust 
abut.) - L. ft; a^tn ; ad, to ; and 
b^tm, to beat. See abut, and 

rebut. (F. - L. and *L H. G.> 
r(fvu/rr,lo repulse.— L.rr-, again; M.U 
Ocfrm, to l»cat ; see Boat iabi>ve). 

Beatify. (F. - L.) F. bMf:/?^. - 
btatiftcart\ lo make hapj^.— ! 
beafuf. pp. qI bcartt to bless, ir 
and ;/fV-, for factrc, to make. 
L. btm, well. 

beatitude. (F.-L) F. 
beatitudintm» ace. from nom* 
blessedness. oL. Awri-, for 
wiih suffix 'fudi>. 
Boau, Beauty. (F.— L.) 
Beaver, i i ^ - . 

bever, A. S. 


a. Ski. i^Kru, a Uigc 



lower part of a 

So fpelt by confusion wiib 

>F. Abt*^, a ctiilO's bib ; also, 

LTcr) of a bclmct.^F. haitr, 

isv, fbatn. sUvcr. fcrhairs 

foA^iu, slaver. 

nuke caUd. See Be- and 

F.-U) Sec Cause. 
l£.«MfK.-L.) SceChuioe. 

Beckon; mc Beacon. 

, Don. ^k'f a 

tlC^^ ^Tcc Come. 
I) MV. V/ A S iVr/. *r,/f/. 

Vff, used 

f3i > .'I from A. S. 

a i ' one who can 

a bci\ uut uo a boibc, — A S. 

aiid riW-d*, one who rules, 

;Il) m.e. v<//m//.-a.s. 

r, a pUcc, station ; si-e 

kb, BedaAsle, Be- 
BMllaen. ike X>abble, 

• ■» M.E. btMeirtf cor- 

tn Palestine. Now 

iidl of SL Mary of 


'*m Arab.) F. Mouin. a 
ilx — Arab, f^Iawiy, wild, 
lb* dncTt — Arab. ^</f/'. ilc- 
<}ciicit, IcaUiiig a waiulcnitg 

Bedatead : »ee Bod. 
I. E. Ar/. A.S. irt(, a;. + Icc!. 
. fU, iikt. i^ha ^rare). Cf. 

Srr B/>oV 

':-O.F. Aw/; 

■f ^#, an OK 

^^, A .> .ii, a cow; »cc 

a yt<»m.ift of ihij g-nard. 
» ratt % ITic 

t'&om ■ u-i'itiis^i 

BOW cni..pcU UiffUUr)^ i% 

iticn, aibi CaUc 

• villi esi ft horn. (F.-L) 

BugUt a horn, is short for hugh-hom ; a 
hi^U is A wild ox. — O.K. hugU^ a wild ox. 

••L. ace. i-ucuium, a young ox: double 
diinin. of ifos, on ox. 

Boer. (E) M. E Arw. A. S. *«fr-.+Du. 
and G. i^/>r; I eel. bjdrr. Probably con- 
nected wiih Brow. 

Beestinga ; sec Biestinge. 

Beet. (L.> ME-fr^/*. A.S. A(//.-L. 
/V/a; beet (Pliny.) 

Beetle (i), an insect; see Bite. 

Beetle (j), a mallet ; see Beat. 

Beetle (3), to jut out, hang over : see 

Befall. Befool, Before ; sec Fall, && 

Beg. (£.) SeeBid(i). 

Beget, Begin ; &ce Get, Oin (i). 

Begone, Beguile; fee Go. "Wile. 

Begtline, onr <;>f a class of religious de- 
votees. (F.) Chiefly used in the fcm. ; F. 
iK'gHtHe, Low L. btj^'hiua, one of a rtligiuus 
onicr, fii^t established at Licgc, about a.i). 
IJ07. Named after Laml)ert I-c Bi-gue, 
priest of Vxh^c (lalh c). Lc It^^jue rtiians 
*stammeiec,' from the verb l^.'guif to staio- 
oicr, to the dialect of Namar. 

Behali; intercut. (E.) Sec Hair. 

Behave, Behaviour. (E.) See Uave. 

Behead. (E.) Sec Hoad. 

Behemoth. (Hcb-E^yptl \Uh. Kht- 
Hukh, sftid to be pi. ()f bchemdht a lea-t; 
hut rc.-illy of Kgypt. origin. 

Behest, Beliind, Behold. (E) See 
Heat, HlDd, Hold(l). 

Behoof, advantage. (E) M. E, to bi. 
hcuf, for ihe ftUvantagc of. A.S. bthx^f, 
advantage. + O. Frir*. behSJ, Du. bthctf, 
ndvautagc; G. behu/; Swcd. bche/\ Pan. 
bfhov, need. p. The prefix A* is A.S. be, 
E. by. The simple »b. appears in Iccl. 
AiJ/i muflcratiou, mcasnrc ; cf Goth. j^iMob- 
aiMJ, tcrr.perance. sclf-icslrsint. From 
V KAP, to coritain. whence the ideas of 
modcraTioii, fitness, advantage. 

behove* to befit, (E.) A. S. bfAif/oM, 
Verb formed from the sb. ^c^**/" above. + 
Du. At-AtVTYM, from sb. btkeef; Swcd. bt- 
h\^<>i ; Dan. bthitvi. 

Belabour, Belay ; see Labour. Lie ( 1 ). 

Beloh. (£.) ^.^.btlktm, \.ii. btaUoM, 
to belch. Allied to Bellow. 

Beldam. tF.-L.) Sec Belle. 

Beleaguer. (Du.) See Lie (il. 

Belemnite, a fossil. (Gk.) Gk. 0fAi>»- 
riTijf, a »toDC &hape<l tike the head of a 
darl.^Gk.. &4>.tfivoy, a dart. *Gk. jSaAAtiv. 
to cast. (VOAK.) 




Belfry. (F.-G.) Cirig. 'a watch-tower.' 
Corrupted (partly by kiflucncc of Ml) from 
M. E. btrfray, berjrey, a. watch-tower. — 
O. F. btrfroit, Ur/rat, btUfreit. - M. H. G. 
bercfritt a watch-tower. — M. H. G. ^rr-, 
for ^^'S^-i base of Urgen^ to protect ; vid 
M. li. G. /«/, frid, a place of Kcariiy, a 
tower, ihe same as G./rUJf, peace ; hence 
the lit. sense is ' a guonj-peace,' watch- 
lower. Allied to Borongh and Free. 
BeUe, BeUeve. (E.) See Lie (j), Lief. 
Boll. ^K) SeeBeUow. 
BeUe, a fair lady. (F. - L.) F. btlU, 
fcm. of K. beau, O. F. M, fair.^L. tuiius, 
fair, fine; {)erhapscontr.fro[n<^fffM/»r,dimin. 
of beniu, another form of bonus, good. 

beau, a dressy man. (F.) F. beau, fine ; 
as above. 

beauty. (F.-L.) M. E. beaule. - F. 
bcaKtJ^ O. K. bel:et. * Low L. b^lUiatem^ ace. 
oi betlilaSt fainie&s. — L. btUus^ fair. 

beldam. (F.-L.) Ironically for bel- 
dame^ \. e. fine lady. •• F. btlU dame. * L. 
4xUa, fcm. of beUm\ and domina, lady, 
fern, of Jatfiinuj, lord. 

belladozma. (Ital. ~ L.) Ital. biJ/a 
</<c?n»a, fail lady. ~ Lobelia domina\ asabovc. 
A name given to the nightshade, from the 
use of it by Lidies to give expression to the 
eyes, the pupils of which it expands. 

embellish. (F. — L. ) M . E. tmbelissfn . 
-•O. F. imbiiiss; stem of prcs. pt. of em- 
bcUir, to beautify. — O. F. tm- ( = L. i«) J 
and btl, fair (above). 
Belligerent. (U) See Dual. 
Bellow, tumalcc a iuud i)m>c. (E.) Ex- 
feuded frorn M. V.. beilcn, llie more usual old 
form. A-S. bellan, to make a loud noi&c. 
(^ BHAL.) Cf. IccL belja, to bellow. 
beU, (E.) M. E. bilk. A. S. telle, that 
hich makes a loud noise, a bcU.— A.S. 
'//dii; u above. And boe BuU (i). 
BeUowB, Belly. (E.) Sec Bag. 
Belong, Beloved, Below ; see Xions, 

laOVe, liOW. 

Bolt, a girdle. (E.) M. E. beU, A.S. 
^//.^Icel. belti\ Irish and GaeL M//. a 
belt, border; L. balteus; O. II. G. Ao/j. 

baldric, a girdle. (F.-O.H.G.) Q.F. 
baldric* (not recorded), the oWlt form of 
O.K. bala'ret, baldrei\ Low L. baldringm. 
»U, U. G. balderti^/i, a. girdle; extended 
from O. 11. G. ba/x, a belt. 

Bemoan. (£.) See Moao. 

Bench. (E.) See Bank. 

Band. (K.) See Bind. 

Banaatn. (£.) Sec Nother. 


Benediction. (F.-L.) F. 

— L. benedirtionem , ace. of bi 
blessing. — 1>. benedic/us, pp. of 
to speak well, bless. — L. btn4, well; 
dictre, to speak (see Diction.) 

beniaon. (F. — L.) }A..V.. betieyiwi.* 
O. F. bfntiiOH.^l^ ace beMedictictitm. 
Benefactor. (L.) L. benefactor, a dt 
of^ood. — L. bene, welli andyitr/ffrj adf 
from fa^rrt, to do. 

beneaoe. (F. - L.) M. E. betufiet. 
F. biW/ee (Cot.) - I-ow L. bew/tnuM, 
grant of an estate; L. ben/fini4f?$, a wi' 
doing, a kindness. — L. beru, well ; 
fa^ere, to do. 

benefit. (F. - L.) Modified (I 
from M. E. bieitfet.-^O. F. bun/et (F. 
faif). — L. benefactum, a kindness 
nent. of pp. ctCbenefiuere, to do well, 
Benevolence. (F, - L.) F. AA 
(Cot ) - U hctuualentia, kindaesA. » 
bemuolm, beniuoius, kind, lit. well-wilt 

— L. bent-, for benus'^banus, good; 
im/^, I wish (see Volunlarx). 

Benighted. (E.) See NigM. 

Benign. (F. - L.) O. F. btrn'^m 
*/»/«). — L. btnigytus, kind; hi; 
m[^nus*. ^L-beni, (or bcHUS '^i 
and -fftMUf, bom (as in ittdt^,... 
genere*, old form of gisnert^ to ticjjeL 

Beniaon, blessing; see BenediotioB. 

Bent-graaa. (E.) M.E. *«*/. A.! 
beonet, bent-|frass (onccrtnin.) ^O- M- 
phtHi, G. binse, bent-grass. 

JBonumb, Bequeath ; see KS 

Bequest, Bereave; sec Quoth, 

Bergamot, a kind of pear- (F.«l 
F. btrgamoiUx CoL - lul. btr^i " 
pear; ol&o, the essence called bcr^ 
Ital. Bergamo, a town in LomtNiraT^ 

Berry. (E.) ME. berie. A.S- 
berffi (%tem bes-).^X)^ bts, &eag\ 
ber\ Swed. and Din. har\ O. b€trt\ 
ban. Lit. 'edible fruit;* cf. SkU. 
eat. Der. gooseberry^ &c. 

Berth. (E.) See Bear. (!>. 

Beryl. (L.-Ck.-Skt.) M.E. 
L. beryllus. — Gk. ^/j^t/AAot ; 
hilhiur, cr^'stal, beryl. — SV ' ■ - ' 
lai'ii l.-culi, brnuj^ht from 

brilliantjshininf;. (,F - 
F. brillaui, prei. pait. o' 
cf, Ital. brillare, to s| ^i 
Ken^e was to sparkle aii a bwii 
bery/lHj. a beryl; whence a!*© 
btrilluSf an eye-glaw, O. ^ri/Ah 

I. Beset, Beshrew, 
; Kc Seek, Seem, Bit, 

broom. (E.) M.E. btaim, 
A.S. ka9»A,^\hx. Ustm ; G. Usta. 
, BsBpeiUc; Ke Sot, Speak. 
Me BeiMr. 
ttd; •« B(«*d. 
IL <F-L) SecBeuL 
w. Bc«U«w, B««Crtde; lee 

D wftfcr. (F. « Scand.) Short for 
lh^ tcmr to Duisuin. or ' back.' as 
spUaad fa rbillips, ed. 1 706. See 
Dar. Itff, lb. 
». (E.OM^Scand) Sn Take. 

a sfrc r t c-S pcpl^r (fort. » 
In. - ilim 

L C 

y, (E. oW F. - 1^) £c£ Traitor. 
tlL (E.) 5c« True. 
r Beat <E.) l. From the base 
3od, wai fonned Goth, hatiza, better, 
M.E. tttttr. The A.S. hit, 
aiSvcfbiai aod comparative. 
■une base was fonnctl Goth. 
AS A-.'/r .for h<t€i(), M.E. 
'.'// ; IccI- belrit 
■ rd. Ihittrt, bait, 
''iirtt^ excellent; 
make fortiinnte. 
lar. uttco. (Scand.) 
flMflfcwIcel. kttna, to grow 
^y flC AffCd, trans, to imcTOsr. 
BAT. eood. ex. Golh. ^ij. 
ii, avaiU 

itace, prafiL (E.) M.E. 
.S. Ad^ pro5t. From the 
hdi^ hati, sdrBnlagt. one ; 
icdL Af<, tuDcdj : G. hmst, 
X>«T. A«v^>4rj/. profit Icsi. 
t, Batwict; K« Two. 
* •I'^?^; I0 tlope, sUot (F.) 
SoasL ]«l.i-0. F. Hvei*. inn^i; 
md m nod. F. ^tv«M, and in F. 
*tt khid of aqniic [carpenter's rule], 
pwaUe and comjtauc branches, 
M bfaack cofn(flU»e aitit the other 
; WBffodl h aMv//;* Cot. bptta 
Orlcki unkimm. 
«CH, Bevy ; wc Bib. 
IL B»w«r0. Bewilder, Be- 
WaO, Warjr. Wild, Witeb. 
to dWoM. (EL) Vropcriy to 
IL Uw r mi m , Uwr^m^ to dia> 

BIB. 37 

cIo<e. A.S. bt', preBx (see Be-); and 
■O'rri^n, to accuse. Cf. Icel. mr^a (for 
ITJ;^7<>). to Klaoder. Swed, riya^ to discover; 
O. Iries. iiwrogiat to accuse; Golh. u/rifA- 
JtiH, to accase ; G. rv^a, to censure. B. 
These are ciusal verl«, from the $b, seen in 
Goth, wrchs, accusation, led. rJ^, a slander. 
Boy, a governor. (Turk.) Turk, big (i>ron. 
nearly as bay), a lord, prince. 
Beyond. (E-) Sec Yon. 
Besel, the part of a ring in which the 
stone is set. (?.) Also spell basil: it also 
means a sloping edge. — O. F. t>iiri. mod. F. 
bUeaH, a bezel, basil, slant, sloped edpe. 
Cf. Span, bixel, the slanting edge of a look- 
ing-glass; Low L. bisaiur, 'lapis cni duo 
sunt anguli ; ' Ducange. (Perhaps from L. 
bis, double ; and a/a, a wing?) 
Beaomr, a stone. (F. - i*ort. - Pers.) 
O. F. bitaar, F. b^xaard. — Port, besaar 
(Brachct). — Per*. fnid-%ahr^ bezoar; lit 
* poisoD-expcHcr.* from its supposcfi virtue, 
— Per^./zi*/, expelling; and «Mr, poison. 
Bi-, prefix. (L.) In bi-as, the prefix is 
F., but of L, origin. — L. bi-, put for dui'^ 
twice. — I... duo, two. So also Gk. 2i-, Skt 
dvi. See Two. 

Biaa. (F.-M F. biais^ a slant, slope; 
hence, inclination to one side. — Low L. 
ace. bifacem^ from bifax, one who squints 
orlook5sideways(lMdore). — L.^'-, double; 
and /WiVi. aface. 
Bib. (L.) A cloth for imbibing moisture, 
from M. E tnbUn, to drink. — L, bibfrt. 
to drink. Hence wint^bibber (Luke, viL 
3^)i L. bibens uirtum, 

bevera^, (F.-L.) O. F. boz-mi^y 
drink. —O. F. bevre, boivrt, to drink. — L, 
bib<rg (above), * 

bevy. (F.-L.) F. ^rpiV. a flock, com- 
pany. Prob. from O. K. bevre, to drink 
(above). Cf. O. Ital. befa, a bevy. 

imbibe, to drink in. (F. — L.: cr L.) 
F. imbiber (i6lh cent.) — L. im-bibere, to 
drink in. 

imbrue, embrew, to moisten, drench. 
(F. — L.) O. F. embryer; x'embrutr, '10 
imbrue or bcdaUe himself with;* Cot. — 
F. em- (ih in, in) ; and a causal verb 
'bez'rer, to give to drink, turned into -hrfver 
in the iOlh cent., nrid then into -hmer\ sec 
F. abrtHver in Urachcl. — 0. F. bevre (F. 
boire), to drink. — L. bibert. 

imbue, to cause to drink in, tinge 
deeply. (L.) L. imbuett, to cauie to 
drink in; i%hcrc buere is a causal form, 
allied to bibtre. to dnnk. 




Biblo. (F,-L.-Gk) M.E. WW/.-F. 
hbii.^V,. /^td/ia. ~Gk. 0t8Kia, collection of 
writings, pi. of $i$\iov, httle book, dimin. 
of Biti\ot, a book.^Gk. ^u0Aot, Ej^yprUn 
pApvnis : hence, a bonk. 

bibliography. (Gk.) Gk. ^ii9X/o-, for 
0i0y,tiir ; and yr^tiv^ Xo write. 

bibliomania (Gk.) Gk. d.^xio., for 
$i$kia9 ; and Mania. 
Bioe. <F.) Properly • grayish ; ' hence, 
grayish blue— F. 6ut, fern, of bit, du&ky. 
CI. It-il. big^io, gray. Origin unkuown. 
Bicker, to skirmish. (C.) See Peak. 
Bid (i), to pray. (E.> Nearly obsolete; 
ireserved in &tJ,iinf-^/ixyfr, ami in to ^tJ 
(pray prayers). M E. hidden. A. S. 
\hU4iin. + Uo. bidden ; G. HtUn ; Goth. 

oaad. (E.> Orig. ' a prayer ; ' hence a 
perforated ball, for counting prayerv M. E. 
otde, a prayer, a bead. A.S. btd, gehed, 
ApmycT.^ A.S. btddan, to pray.4-G.^^/; 
^Dti. mr, abed. 

beg. (£.) Frequentative of Ai*/. M. E. 
l^tj^en, A.S. btdecian, to beg; frequent. 
^oipiiMan, to pray. Cf. Goth, bidagwa, a 

;gar ; G. btttUr, a b^gar, from bitttn. 

lid (j\ to command. (K.) M. E. M/^n. 
•-A.S. htSdan, to command. + b\ettH\ 
Goth, ana-hiudan ; Skt. Mhaya, to inform, 
Cfluial of hndh, to awake, understand. 
(VJinUDII.) Confnseil withBid(i). 

beadle. (F. - Tent.) M. E. bedtt. - 
O F bedel^ F. bedeau, a bca'lle; lit. * pro- 
claimer,* or *mes«<^igcr.' — G. bitten, Du. 
bitdeH\ co^atc wilb A.S. bttUan, to bid. 
Cf. A. S. byUl^ a beadle, from Mdan. 

bode, to forcsbcw. (E.) ME. bodrm, 
^A/f'(iff . — A . S. bodian, to announce. 'A.S. 
b^fa, a me-isenger; bod, a message. Cf. 
Iccl. bfida, to announce; bot^, a bid, offer. 

Bide, to await, wait. (K ) M. E. biden. 
A.SMdan.^Uu.beiden; \cc\.Mtia: Swed. 
^'da ; Dan. Inr ; Goth, beidan ; O. il. G. 

abide. (E.) A. S. dhidan. The prefix 
^ = G *r-; see A- (4). 

abode. (E.) M. E. aAW, deloy. abid- 
ing —AS. <£•. prefix; and M^, pt. t. of 
$fdan, to hide. 
Biennial. (L.) See Annala. 
Bier. (E) See Boar (1). 
Bieatinga, Beestlnga, the firat milk 
pi\(ii Ia.t cow after calving. (Iv) A.S. 
i" ', befisf, thick milk.<f Uu. bieji\ 

\. :'ih. 

imuruated. (L.) Se« I^ork. 


Big. (Scand?) ME. *»>; m\ 
rich ^Hampotc). Not A.S. Perhaps 
bil^t the /being dropped, ai iu b^. 
Icel. beigfa, to inflate, puff out; Hi 
bf/^, to fill one'i maw, cram 
Swcd. dial. ba.[^'^, buJgtg; big. Kit 
related to lag and buJ^. p. Or ia it 
to Irish baghdch, Gael, bagtuh^ 
bulky, Skt. baku. Urge? 

Bigamy, a double marriage. (F. *] 
and Gk.) F. ^^jomiV. — L,nte L. ^y 
n clumsy compound from L«. A/* 
(see Bi-), and Gk. •7a;ua, from fa/ 
marriage. It should ratbei have 
digamy (Gk. Stya^a.) 

oryptogamia, a class of fi( 
which fructihcatioo is concealed. 
Coined from Gk. jt^utto-, for «f 1 
dew (sec Orypl) ; and •yafi-M^ to 
from THftoi. 

monogamy, marriage with 
only. (L. — Gk.) L. moHfi^^ntt. «■ 
fiifvrfania.^Gk. fiovvyatiof, iiiarry>ng 
once. «• Gk. novo., for /iar^« Mkle 
Mono-), and -70^9. fiom f^iu>t. 

polygamy, maniage with many 
(Gk.) Gk. ToAvya^itt. — Gk. 
marrying many (sec Poly-)- 

Bight, a coil of rope, a bay. (£.) 
Bow {i). 

Bigot, an obstinate devotee to • 
(F. - Tent.?) F bi^f. 'on old Ut 
word stgnifving for God'i sake, 
criie, superatiiious fellow ; ' Cot, 
by the French to the Normans 
of repriAch i.Wace). The supfKKi 
it stands for O- H. G. bi /roe (by 
after alUnot improbable. It is an 
than beguin*, with which it tccji 
been somewhat coofuied at a later 

BJjoti, a trinket. (F.) F. bij^m, 

Bilberry, a whortleberry. (Scand^ 
(HyUebar, a bilberry ; prob. a ball*l 
from ]cc1. b^ilr, a ball, and Daa. 
berry; see Ball. % North Eng. bita4 
« bltU'beny; see Blue. In both csl 
■bet-ry take« the E. fonn : see J- 

Bilbo, a sword ; Bilboea, fct ; 
[ioth named from Bilboa or 
Sp-iin, famous for iron nnd steel. 

Bile (I), secretion from the ' 
L 1 F. bile - L. hiiis. Dor 

Bile (a), a boil. <£.) Sec i. ■ 

Bilge. (Scand.) See Ba«. 

Bill (1), a chopper, swoni, 
M.£. M/, sword, axe; Hk^ bIrdV 


iilU, in uce. 
1/ cf. Skt ^iV, 

t: sec Btm(t). 

;(sX « Icf ar ftCMxl. (>.-C.) F. 
hlitt, » bilSri of woo«I Uimtn. of 
1«^ uwn}».*}tret. tiiJl, a stump of 
Inrft fnfh Vr, trunk of a Uee ; \V . 

ax Ci F, *i7Ziin/. •* 

c '- rrwilh wt touch 

*- Formed with 

ii'*i , m *iVjV, ■ log, 

( above. 

^{fL) SecBftff. 

M . K hinn*. K. S. ^mj*, a 
7.^ Da. ^n, G. iimM/, a 
Fakapt allicii to Bant- 

(L.) L. Hmtrius, coq- 
• L. himm, two-lbld. 
(U) L. amhmarit to unite, 
i|^ t«cctber.»L ctm- ^tum), 
T; Mill Mmmtt ttrufold. 
. (C) U. H. HnJtn. A. S. 3fW^. 
■ml O. himJen\ Iccl. and bwed. 
\X>m Hn^lr: Goth. bim.ian; Skt. 

faAlening. (E.) M. E. 

cTiiMCrN-f r:hi.. Iccl, Sned., 
imtdii Ski, dandAa. Der. 
fr, AtfOb/AaJC 

d (3\ I -oirpany ofzaeD. (F. — G.) 
idr . ' , a gang. Kt. » 

ti, , J bind. 

dos. « n-'vc >j.'e ^£.) Orig. ^n^- 
doc 1^ » **^ vp- ^^ Fiompt. 

Ojr. to beat to and fro, contend. 

rbervile). — F. 

at teiiais: * 

% to laig^e aguiu&t. — G. 

bead o( nctti sec band (2) 



~* • ■— — - — — — -.—I 
f.) Oiir. to ^nJ (Tarbei 
t ' to wo : ftlto. to buiilir. 

bow-l^{ed. (F. amJ 
U for F. AandJ, pp. o( 
abo 10 bmd a bow iCot.) ; 
and band. 

M K Atf»^«.-O.F. 
■- U.G.&OHt/, 
'*rr ft. 

A. S. deniftm, orig. to string a bow, fasten 
a band or string to it. *- A. H, dim^ a bond, 
bond : sec band ( 1 ) above. 

bodice, stavs lE.) A comiption of 
Miti, which was the old tpcUmg. (Cf. 
F. ceritt, (rorn tarpj.) 

\ body, the frame-work of an animat (E.) 
M . t ^h/i ; A. ix 6w/tX'. +0. H . G. /crack \ 
Skt. handka, (1) a bondage^ fttter, (a) the 
tx)dy, coiL&idcred as coiilmiiig the soul. The 
orig. sense '\% Miitle bund/ the &uiEx -ig 
^G, -a*-A) bcicg a diniinutive. 

bond, a tic. (K.) M. E. bomi, the same 
.15 M E. ban*i; sec band (O above. 

bundle. (E.) M. E. bumUl. Dimin. 
of A. S. b%mii, a bundle. — A. S. bnmien^ 
pp. of biHiifn, to bind. 4* I^u- botuiti; G. 

Bing. a heap of com ; ^t. (Scatid.) In 
Suney. — Icel. thi^, Swe<l. binfft, a heap. 
% I'tob. di&lincl from bin, though perhaps 
confused with it. 

Binnacle, a box for a ship's compass; sec 

Binocular. (L.) See Ooular. 

Binomial. (U) See Noble. 

Biography. (Gk.) A written account 
of a Itfc; from ^co-, for 0ioi, life: nnd 
ypaipuir, to wriie. The ib. 3ioi is allied to 

omphtbloaa (Gk.) Gk. A^kpldtot, 
living a double life, both on land and water. 
••Gk. dpi^', 00 both sides ; ffi'os, life. 

biology. ^Gk.) Science of life; from 
Gk. aio; for Qim, life ; snd •Aoffo, from 
Kdyo^, ft discoUXSfi. 

Biped. (L.) Sec Pedal. 

Birch, auee. (E.) M.K.kink*, A.S. 
Aftfrr.+Dn. berkcn-boom (birch-tre«> ; Swed. 
and TccL bJork\ Dan. birk (whence North 
E. birk) ; G. birkt ; Skt. bktitya. 

Bird. (E> M. E. briJ (the r being 
shifted); A.S. brii/J, a bird.csp. the yotuig 
of birds. Perhaps allied to Brood. 

Birth. (E.) Sec Bear (i). 

Biscuit. (F.-L.) See Oook. 

Bisect. (L) Sec Beoant. 

Bishop. (L. -Gk.> Sec Soopa. 

Bismuth, a melal. (G.) G. bismuth\ 
albo Si|m:1i wismmt, wi^smui^ tuiisMUth. 
Orii^in uncertain. 

Bison, n quadnipcd. (L.*Gk.«*Tcul.) 
L btson (,l*lmy>.-Latc Gk. &iav¥. Not a 
true Gk. word, but borro*red from Tea- 
tonic ; O H, (« wiiuHt, (j. witfiti, i.biiODi 
A. S. iivjfftf, a will' ox ; Icel virunJr. 

Biaaeatilo. (L.) bcc 8sa*tfcc*rr. 







Bisscn. purblind. (E.) In Sh. M. E. 
iueM. A. S. ^utH, bi$eni, or bis^Hi, blind 
(Mau. ix. 39). Ferhap» from A. S. II-, by. 
near; and st^n, to see; cf. A.S. gt'sMt, 
ffftyne, conspicuous; also Du. bijiifNtif 
vhort'Sichtcd, G. Ms^L'htig, short sighted. 
Bistre, a dark brown. (F. — G.) V./ojifre. 
ft dark brown. Perhaps from prov. G. 
6ifrftr, dark, jjloomy, also bistre tFliigel). 
Cf. Dan. and bwed. h'sfer, grim, fierce. 
Bit (i) and (2^; sec Bite. 
Bitch. (E.) M.E. Auhi, bkcht. A.S. 
bifce. +■ Iccl. bikkja. 
Bite. tE.) M.E. bUen. A.S. hUan. 
•f Du. bijlcn ; Jcel. bita ; Swed. ^fVa ; Dan. 
bide\ O.MjstH'. L..^Hifen {^X-t-fftU'S. lo 
deave : Skt. Mrj'. to cleave. (^^BHID.) 

abet, to incite. (F.-Scand.) M.E. a/W, 
sb.. instigation. — O. F. abet, sb., instigation, 
deceit; abtUr, to deceive. — F. rt- (L. a*/-); 
and btUr^ to bait la bear), orig. to insti- 
gate, provoke, from Iccl. iciVa, to make to 
bite; see bitlt below. Der. bety q. v. 

bait, to feed. tScaiid ) Lit 'to make to 
bile ; ' A bait i& * an enticement to bite.* 
M. K. Aj/'/fW, ^iV^rt.- Icel. beita, lo make 
to bite, causal of bita, to bite ; Swed. bita, 
to pasture; Swed. btfe, beti, a bait. 

beetle (1). >»" insect. (E.) M. E. bityl. 
A. S. W///. A'/^/. bifeia. lit. ' a biting one.' 
mA. S, b/t'On. to bite; wilh suflixcs -^ 

d -a (of the agent). 

beetle (3), to project ov«r. (E.) We 
talk of a bteilitt^' rock, an image suggested 
by the older term btetU-brototdy M. E. ^'/tfA 
b/vtceJ, I.e. having' prtijecling brows, lit. 
wilh brows projecting like an upper jaw. 
The M.E. bitei also means 'sharp.' A.S. 
bftei, kbarp. — A.S. bltan, lo bite. 

bet, to wager. (F. — Scand.) Short for 
abtt, in the &cn»e to mninlain or 'back;* 
Kc abet above. Der. bet. sb. 

bit(Oi ft mouthful, small piece. (E.) 
M. K. bitt (J syll.) A.S. bita, a morsel. 
— A. S. bitcH, pp. of bitan, 

bit ( j), a curb for a boric. (E.) M. E. 
fjitt. A.S. bill*, only in dimtn. bitel, a 
curb. + Du. gtbit\ Icel. ^iV*V/ (diniin.) ; 
Swed. &r//; Dan. W*/; G. gtbtss. 

bitter. (E.) M. E. ^//<^r. A. S. W//r, 
Ai/ur, lit.* biting.* — A.S, bitett, pp.otbitan. 
+ Du, ^///*r; Iccl. bitr; Swed., Dan., G. 

bifct8« oaval term. (Scand.) The bi/O 
arc two strong posts on deck to which 
cables me fastened. — Swed. beiin^, a bi!t, 
whence btttti^iittg a bitt bolt, bitt-pin ; 


Dan. btiiin^. Orig. used on land for 1c 
ing horses. Swed. betittgbNi't, a peg ffl 
tethering, from btia, to paslure, bait. 
also Dan. btiUn^baU, from bed*, to 
see bait obove. 

Bitter. Bitta ; see Bite. 

Bittern, a bird. (F.-I.ow L.) The 
U added. M.E. bitoure.'^F. bttt^r, *i 
bittor;' Cot. — Low L. bHtontu, a bit 
cf. L. butio, a bittern. Origin uni, 
but prob. from ihe imitative haiC 
make a booming noise : whence L. 
bntirx, lo cry like a bittern, L. /wAp, 

Bitumeti. (L.) L. bitumen., 

Bivalve. (F. - L.) See Valvik 

Bivouao. (F.-G.) See Wake. 

Bizarre, odd. (F.— Span.) F. Hi 
strange, capricious; orig. ' valiazic.' — S| 
bizarre, vali.iut, gallant Ferhttpt of P 

Blab, (0 tell tales. (Scand > M. £. 
a telltale; blabetm, to babble. - 
bfabbrtfXo Iwbble ; cf. Swed. dial. 
Q. plapfirn, to bflbhle. prate. <>f| 
live origin ; cf. Gael. pUb, a soft 
Plabair, a babbler ; blaihirun^ a stamt 
blabhdoih, babbling, garnilous. 

Black. (E.) M. E. blak. A. S-^ 
blac, + Icel. blakkr. dark. Cf. Do. 
to bum, scorch. Perhaps orig. *«:( 
and thus connected with the idea of 
tense light; cf. L. yKri^narr, to bum; 
BUnk, Bleak. Blank. 

blackj^ard, a tenn of repi 
and V.) From biatk and,^ar>/ A' 
given to scullions, turnspits, and kit* 
menials, from the dirty work done by tl 
Sec Trench, Select Glossary. 

blotch, a dark spot (E.) Put 
b!at£A, to blacken, smut (Rich.). Cf. Wt 
bhuA, black, sooty. M. £. SJMem^ 
blacken (MatznerV % In the 
* pustule,* it seems to be confi: 
bfi/cA : but see A. S. bLtc, A. S. ~ 
ii. 8, I. I. 

Bladder. (E.) See Blow (1). 

Blade, a leaf, flat of n ^^ 
biade. A.S. iAr./,alcaf.+ i 
Dan., Du. idad, a leaf. L...^.. , 
Prob. allied to Blow (J). 

Blain. (E) See Blow (1). 

Blame. (F.-L.-Ck/k See B1 

Blanch (1), to wliiieo. (F.^Ol! 
See BUnk. 

Blanch (J).to blench. (E.) Sec 

BlUkd. (L.) U bloHdui, miU. 


to flatter. (F.-I..) M. E. 
■ fiS', rtfm of pres. 
.cr.^L. blanJiri^ to 

(F.-O.H.G.) Sec 

•pcslc iDJoriousty. (L.— 
— Gk. $^aaif>yf^itt¥, 
.^GIcffAdfT^iy^oT, adj.. sj^ieak* 
for SKotf.; from /JAdi^ir, 
If, to bun : and ^i7/«7, 
1 uv ; s<c Fame. 
r.-L.-Gk.) M.E. ^Al- 
io blame. *L. 6/as- 
lU. abo to b1«me.-Gk. 

See Blow (I). 
[t) Sec Bleat. 

[iy SeeBlow(i). 
(»). Sec Blow. (I) 
l<t),and OV See Blink. 
to deceive. (Sciind.) 
to ^Mr, to dim. •Swed. 
/pjr augu, to ciuiver 
[jbcforc the tyt<; i^iu of a 
beat of sinimjcr ; cf. 
\.tHra, to blink with 
iTKiba plrrTt a mist before 

dim- lifted. (Snnd.) ME. 

\.fHiw6i4t^ blear-eyed, blink- 

\rt, ifi/t, to blink. (Das. ^;>, 

) Ct Swtxl //inj, O. Swcd. 

Ittcd. dul. l/um, to blink, 

keye*. like a near-sighted 

iTHH to BUnJc. 

»c Scand.) Pro* 

V y. 'lodcccirc.' 

Aarrt, iicLi'iia ; /o d/irre, 

|Im(I57o>. Sec above. 

^ <ftn. Cf. Gk. 

It 7> • bleating. 

^Bfib)r« ^^^T- (^) Spenser 
F.Q. vi. n (heading), 
the tnftix -an/ i& 
of the K. -anj of the 
C7. M £. bUttndi, bleating, 
u. >a 

KinaD buMile or blister. 
tr, a bultMe nn waier ; 




are formed from the same root, and slgnif;^ 
Mhat which is blown np/ from the root of 
Blow (I). 

blubber, a bubble; fat; swollen; to 
weep. (E.) The various senses are all ex- 
plained by the verb to hlcnv. Tluu Nubi^i% 
a bubble, it an extension of tfob, ' that 
which is blown oat ;' the bhtbbtr o( \hm 
wbnle consists of bladder-like cells filled 
with oil ; hiuhl*€r'Iipp€J. also blobbtr-Up^d^ 
biabiriyppid, means ' with swollen or blown 
out lips. Lastly. blui>btr, to weep, M.E. 
bhbtreHt blubrtft, mcint orig. to bubble; 
Gawain and Grcne Knight, 3174. (See 
Curtius, on the stems <fAot, ^a.) Sec also 

Bleed. (£.) Sec Blow (3). 

Blemish. (F.-Scand.) See Blu». 

Blench. (E.) See Blink. 

Blend, to mix together, confute. (K,) 
M.E. bUnden. A- S. biandan, to blend; 
cf. also bimdan. to make blind.+Icet. and 
Swcd ^Ami/'a, Dan. 3jbn<^,O.H.G. //an/an, 
to mix. 

blind. (E) M.E. hHnd\ A.S. bUnd. 
The uriy. sen%e is 'confuscd.'+Iccl. btindr\ 
Swcd., Dan., G. blind, 

blindfold, verb. (E.) M.E. blind- 
y5»/(/r«, verh(T)'ndalc^; corruption oi blind- 
fclden CPaUgravc), where the (/ is excres- 
cent. The tine word ii hlindjtlUn, to ' fell' 
or strike blind, Ancren Riwle, p. 106.* 
A. S. blind^ blind ; and ftUan^ to strike 
(see Fall). 

bl under, to flounder abont, err. (Scand.) 
M. E, hlendrea, to pore over a thing. 
Formed (as a frequeniative) from Iccl, 
blunda, to doze, slumber; Swerl. bluiuia, 
to shut the eyes; Dan. blundt^ to nnp. 
Cf Iccl. blutuir, Dan. and Swcd blund^ 
a doxe^ a nap. From the sense of ' con* 

blunt, dull. (Scand.) M. E. blunt, 
bloMt. dull, dulled. Allied to Iccl. blunda, 
Dan. blundt, to sleep, doze (above). 

Bless. (E-l See Blow (J). 

Bligrht. (E.> See Blink. 

Blind, Blindfold. (E.) See Blend 

Blink, to wink, to glance. (E.) M.E. 
bUnl'iii, piimroonly ' to shine.' Not fomt " 
in A.S, which has only the lorm *M-i 
but it probably existed, as there nrc mih 
numerous rcl.itcd fonna +Du. fdinken. to 
shine; Dan. M"«^/; Swcd. M'«-fra. Allied 
to A S. blU,iH. U. H. G. blifken, to shine ; 
Gk. i^Kiytiv, to bum. sbine ; Skt. bhr-ij, to 
fhine. (VUHAKG.) 




blftnoh (i>, to whiten. (P.-Q. H-G) 
From M. E. hiauikt. white. • F. Mmt, 
whir«; icr bUf)k tirlow 

bl&noh (2), l)te ume at hfrmk Owlow> 

blank.whitc. (K.-O H G) In Milton. 
p. 1*1. 656. -K (*/a«r.-0 H.G. ^/(iiffA, 
whilr Frcmi Mimhtn*, to ihine (mod. G. 
itimken)\ aJlicl to O. 11. G. biUhen, to 

blankot. (F.-O.H.G.) Orig. of 1 
white culonr. M. E. bianhet. - O. F. blankii 
(F. blamhef), dimin. frotn Nanc, wliite ; see 

bloaoh. (K ) Oriii- * to become pnle ;* 
M K. liUfhen^ Aticren Riwle, p. 334^ 1, i. 
A-S. bloftttt.^fi. S, biJtf, b/iic, shining, pnle. 
Km bUftk lirlow. ^ Iccl. b/ii^ja ; Da. 
bhthn ; G. bttuhtn, 

bUftk ( I ). oriff. pal*. (E.) M. E. bUik. 
A, S blSc, bide, «hini»i|;; allied to bdran, lo 
fchinr +!«!. /y/rt>r; l>u, biffk ; G, (^//-/VA, 

b]«ak (1), A fifth ; from its pale colour. 

bl«noh. to ithfink from. (K,) Some- 
time blttrt^h. M. K. btinehtn, to lum aside. 
A H. bUntttn, lo deceive, orijj. ' to make to 
Mink/ to tmpofec on : thiu to bUmh is the 
caiivaI vvrl>, 'to make to blink :* but it was 
OfiriiuM.-(l with biinkt to wink, hence, to 

blight, to bUit. (K.> From the same 
fOf.t nt A S, bUiUH. to kiilne ; c(. NUctfan, 
I" ' ' r. Wc linfl M. E. btkhtning, 

111 10 Icel. blikna, to l>ecnmc 

I'll'' , 'ii-Mi tin- tninr root. C'f, nl»n Swed. 
p/l.l(i. to li;;htcu, blixi, lii^lilninij. Dii. 
bUku*n, lli;huitni'. Ami uf. A.S- doikgan. 
In amrtrc. Imm the iamc rooL 
JllUfl n< > Srr nilth©. 

•«•■', p"M'('> -f- '. .-'ii^ n//'ft'i, bright, glad ; 
O.H.G. W/Oi, Goth, b/fi/As, mcmtul 

bllM. (E.) MK b/u. A.S. W#r. 
Mi/i coiiti. frora A.S, *MA, *//«/, hai'pi- 
IKW. lit bllthcm-^^.-A.S. W/.S i.aboveV^- 
O. Snx W/ii(i, /•//i/.ie,i, hniiinnc*!. I.. M ,v; ... , ,' \* . 



*■■' ■ ■ '.-nsc ts 

rnliiei 'clIemiitAii.-,' and ti n* conuccte'^] wiib 
Icel. btatti*', *oft, t-nMtiihnrf, imSf^dli? 

/* ' , ' 


iwrll, ovtrtlow. 

blotttar, A jiu] a . ' 1 _ >. . 


A Maoirrts a csi^ fii^ ci 

bat fonr ^krd " 

Mp<^^ n fro* 

i tteep ; from -S !, irJi ^abw^V 

! Blob.abDbfak. (EL) See 

Block, alarceiikceoiwooiL *.C) I 
^/^..W. pite, a block; GarL aidl 
/^or. a block, romd aM^ ti^iVh 
Cf. Irish kbgk, a fncncoU O. Irofcl 
fragment. Henoe alto Do. *.^ 
Swed. */*-*, O. H G. b' 
plakha. Doublet. tiȣ. 1 

bludgeon, a cndgrl (C. .. 
dimin. of fi9c, % b^ocfc; GacL 
mallet. bludgeoQ. clobr diaia. 
block ; Vi^pioeyn^ the tame. 

plug (Do -C.) O. Db^ 
//tff, a peg, bung. Of Celnc 
Ir;^//Br, piM, a. block, plug, 
//<v. a block, duU plogi b^uug. 
block, ping- 

Blond. (F.) A late word- 
m. blenJ4, fem. Might yellow 
fcrred by Diez to Iccl. A 
cf. A.S. blimtUn-foax^ having 
gled coloDr. gray-haired. See B! 

Blood, Bloom, Blosaoizi. 

Blot (1% a spot. (Scand.) 
A/fl//r.-Icel bieitr, a BtaWi (stem' 
Dan. /A-/, a spot, suin : pktu, lo «l 

Blot (2), at bnckg.nmmon (Scu4dJ 
blot is an * exposed ' piece - I^aa. bi^\ 
naked ; whence ^'/p^ ji^blcf *- ' — 
open, expose oneself; Swt- 
blotta. lo lay oKeself opt, -f 
naked, blocdtelltn, to expose i G» 
naked. Allied to Icel. blantF, 

Blotch, a dai^ spot (E.) 

Blouse, a loose outer garm 
bl»us4, a smock frock ; O. F. */« 
properly pi. of bliatti, bliott 
t'lttuJeX formeily a rich 
einluoidtretl with gold- Low 
TiolrtiMy IVts.; zT. PcfS. 
gnniicnt, balyAr^ an elci 

Blonr (I), to puff (E.) 
A S. bJJwats.^G. blaJuni Z» 

bladder. (E) ME. b. 
bKrJr, 1 Mi<((-r. lit. M blowin" 



futulc. (E.) M.E. Mein. 
t boiL-fDQ. 5/Wn; Dan. 
ilotuinotcc. ^£.) M.E. 
: ftlio ^iiutn (Cb.). ui older 

(a> below. 
Uowtn^. (E.) M.E. b^t. 
% lilowm^; cf. Icel. A/<£f/r, a 
»ni bUfte (3) below. 

» fUme. (£.) M.E. bhst. 

\9k fUmr : m comp. 6di-6fi£u, a 

Cf Icrl. biys, Dan. bius, a 

the root, o( bifftvJ) 

10 proclahn, Doiic abroad. 

L 45. M. E. biajfH. A. S. 

ilow (L7«i.4- led. ^/iro, to 

A tnunfxt, Bonnd an alarm: 

•oacid; Don. biast, Du. 

a Unmpet ; G. biastn. 

r, kkicn.) 

'(,t\ a proclamalino. (E.) 

It '. Sbai. Son. I06. A cor- 

Atetf (0* M.E. blaj*n, to 

lA Mniiuioa with blazon (2) 

was cnUiucti iu |ilace of 

[>V ^ pourtray armorial bear- 
.) M^ E. biasoH, b/ttsoHM, a 
AksMi, verb, to deicrtbe a 
a coat of ztms; orig. a 
A siill older scuwc U 
in Span, b/dton, honour. 
faUiow>-, hour biasott^ to 
to bla&on, brag, boast.— 
the trumpet^ as done by 
Lim a ricior'n fame ; see 

. ler.) 

'1 the ikin. (E.^ 

(oi i-iiitu III A. S. ; bnl 

a blister (Kilian. llcx- 

'./m.-. n LI-..1 ,ng, blast 

jn (in a 

..a blod. 

Cu li'»^it lium root of 

iMfeMnris from the &.amc root. 

cuhiy. (E.) The Scotch 

a ooUe m wecpin{^ Ek* 

Aifren.^ SUrtQ, tu make 

aarnc a» b1«r« above. 

Vnw nniptily, fwagi^r. 

'ra; from Icel. 

^ win«l, tcuipe»- 

Me ttia«i /.t'Ove. 

[to UoDdir flooruh aa a flower. 

SUtetn. A. S ^/.^^tuM. 4- 

G. 6iiiktn i L. Jhftft ; ace 



bl»ed. to lose blood. (E.) M. E. bUdtm. 
A.S. b/Man; formed by vowel-change (rf 
to tr - /) from A. S. ^A/t/ ; &ee blood 

bless, to consecmte, &c. (E.) The ong, 
tense must have been 'to consecmte by 
blood,' i.e. cither by sacrifice or by the 
spiinkling of blood, as the word can be 
fairly traced back to b/aati, M.E. biesscM. 
A. S. bUtsiaftt &I&0 i/leUsian^ bloedsum 
(Matt. XXV. ,vt. xxvi. 36), which can only 
l>e from bl6d, blood, by the usual vowel- 
change from 6\f>a or /. (Sweet ; Anglia, 
iii. 1 56.) See below. 

blood. <E.) M.E. hlod, hlo0d. A.S. 
blSd, the symbol of 'blooming* or 
* flourishing' Life.— A.S. bliwan, to bloom. 
+ Du. A/«</. Icel. bU% Swed. btod, Goth, 
b{iyth\ G. blttt. Hence bU<d^ btas\ as 

bloom, a flower. (Scand.) M. E. bhme ; 
not in A.S. — lcel. bUm^ bldmi, a ilowcr; 
Swed. bhmma ; Dan. bUmmt.^Vi^^. btotm ; 
Colli. bloma\ L,.^os; »ec Flower. 

blossom. (E.) M. E. bhsmt. algo 
bhstme. A. S. bl6stma, a blossom ; from 
A. S. bhi-iL'dH. with suflixcs -// and -ma; 
cf. bla-it fiom b/J'Wan, to puH 4* l^*i* 
b/j/J/m ; M. H. G. b/uM/, b/Utt. 
Blow(3), a ttroke, hit (K,) M. E. Woiw. 
Not in A.S.; but we find O. Du. Btronp 
verb bhuwtn (pt. L bhu^, to strike, drc&b 
flax by beating. Alliet) to G. blaucn^ tr 
beat. Also to Golh. bli^^van \bUngwAH\ 
to strike; L^^igere, to l)eat {Iown,y?i/^.vA 
iujtt, a scourge. [^^^\\Lt\G\\t lo beat.) 
See Afflid^ FlagpUato. 
Blubber. (E.t See Bleb. 
Bludgeon. ^C.) Sec Block. 
Blue, a colour. (f.-O. H.G.I M.E. 
blciv, bi(H. - O. F. bioi, later bt&t, Heu, blue. 
-O.H.G. W.iu, blue, livid. 4. [ccl. bt.h 
livid ; Swe<l. bia, I>an. blaa ; also Lat 
/fAUHS. Dot. blaiUrry or bitaberry .fron 
Icel- AAirV 

blemish, to slain. (F -Sond ) M, E 
bleminlun — O K. bUmh,, slt-m ol piea 
pari, of bi'fmir, b/esinir, to wound, »tnin « 
O. F. b/emt, bUtmt, wan. pnlr. -• Kel 
Ntimtxn, the livid colour of a wound. — 
Icel. A/J/*. livid, blue. The orig. sense 
of U. 1*. bL'iuir was * to beat Mock and 

Bluir. downricht. rude. (Da. 1) A b/n^ 
ts a .steep headland. It approfiE to lie 
1 Huch. O. Du. /'/a/ flat, bioad ; bUiff^eri. 
one having a broad flat face, aUo, a 



boutei (Oudemanb) ; hhf van het voor- 
tft^ 'the flat of a forehead* ^Hexh&m}; 

/ffj^ff, bUffm. to mock (id.). 

Blunder. ,Scand.> Sec Blend. 

Blunderbuss, a shon fjun. (Hyh.) In 
Pojic. r-oimctly »i>elt HaatrrbHsst^ plan- 
titrbmsi (y^\\\\tx) \ i.e 'a gun on a rest.' 
— L. ffati/ari, to plaul (sec Plmt) ; and 
Du. bits, a gun, orig. a box, barrel j see 
Box (1). 

Blunt. (Scand.t See Blend. 

Blur, a Slain. (Scand.) Sec Blear. 

Blurt (E.) SccBlotr(i). 

Blush. (E) M. E. 6luschen, blussktn, to 
glow. A. S. bi^scan, used to translate L. 
ruti!ar$, to shine (Mone, Qucllcn. 355). 
Extended from A. S. biysan. only in comp. 
ihlyiian, ablisian. to blu&h : from A. S. 
Mys {blyiV) in bai-biys.Yit, 'a fire-bkic.' 
^ Du. bioziH, to blush, from bhs, a blu&h ; 
SlJan. blusse, to llame, ^low, from Nus, & 
torch; Swcd lUssa, to blaze, from hloss, a 
torch. Prob allied to Blase. 

Bluster. (Scand.) Sec Blow (i). 

Boa, a large snake. (L.) L, boa (Pliny) ; 
perhajK allicfl lo f*os, an ox ; from it* «i/e. 

Bocur, an animai. (E.) M. £. bore^ bocr. 
S. 6dr. + Du. b^^r; M. 11. G. &'r; 
^vas, bfirw*. Perhaps orig. 'wild beast,' 
like Bear (z). 

Board. (E.) ME. borJ. AS. ban/, 
board, i'lde of a ship, shield. -^ Du. ber^i 
Icel. barJ, plank, side of a ship; G.bcrd; 
Goth. -baHni in fofu-bauni, a foot-stool. 
Cf. Irish, Gael., W., and Com. bord, a 
boanl. % The sense * side of a ship ' 
explains star-board, iar-board, on board, 
wver-board. Dor. board, to live at table ; 
from boani, a table. 

border, an edge. (F.-O. Dn.) M. E. 
bordurt, Ch. i» F. bordurt. •• Du. boorti, bor* 
:der, edge; orig. the same word as Du. 
\^ni, a board ; sec alx^vc. 

Boast. (E.?) M.E. bost. \V. bost, a 
dragging; Com. boti; Iriih and Gael. 
Sosa. boost, vain-glory. But prob. £. 

Boat. (E.) M. E. boot. A. S. bat. + 
Icel. b<Ur\ Swcd. bAt\ Dn. bcof\ Kuss. 
bof ; W. boii; Gael. b4ta, a boat. fl. The 
orig. boat was prob. a bat, i.e. slick, branch, 
Stem of a tree: cf. Gael, and Irish ^M. 
staff, stick, pole, branch, bat. Sec Bat. 

boat ewain. (£,) Lit. ' boac-lad ; ' A. S. 
rwJn, Icel. it'tinu, a lad. 

Bob. to jerk. (C. ?) Perhaps imitative. 
Or altered from Gael. Atj,', to bob, ni^'iiatc; 
Irish ^^JM, 1 bobj wag, toss. See Bos. 


Bobbin, a wooden pin on which 
is wound; round tape. (F.) Fc 
bobiM. — F. bobtm. *a quil for a spi 
whecle. a skane:* Cot. Orig. 
perhaps Celtic. Cf. Iri&h and Gael* 
a los^l, fringe, short pieces of 
Gael, babac. tassel, cluster. 

Bode. (E.) See Bid (2). 

Bodioe. (E.) See Bind. 

Bodkin, orig. a small dagger. (C) 
boydekin^ Ch.— W. bidogyn, Imiflptn^ 
ger. poniard ; diniin. of bido^, a 
^. \V. tid, a tapering point. 
bioda^, Irish bidto^, a dagger. 

Body. (E) Sec Bind. 

Bog (C.) Irisli bcgack, a bog, 
soft ; cf. Irish bo^im, I shake ; a < 
a soft qo-igmire. So also Gael, 
quagmire: bog, soft, moist; boff, to 
also lo agitate. 

Boggle, to start a<>ide, swerve 
(C?) Prob. coined from nrov. E.^ 
bo^e^ a spectre. Cf. W. tntt^^ 
bwgwl, a llircat, bygytu, to 
bwgvHh, to scare. See Bug (i). 

Boil (I), verb. (F.-L) See Btill {%\\ 

Boil (3), « tumour. (E.) Sec ^'-'- 

Boisterous. (E.) Lcngihen. 
bcisfotts, Ch. ; lit- 'noisy,' Kr_.„ _. 
bost, noLse. Sec Boast. 

Bold. (E.) M. E. bold, bald; A.& 
bald. + Icel. ballr', Du. ^m/; CRI 
ftald, ba/di cf. Goth, balthaba^ adv. 

bawd. (F.-G.) M.E. band^, Ck< 
O. F. baud, gay, wanton. «0. U. G. 
bold, free. 

Bolo. (Scand.) Sec Bulge. 

BoUed. swollen. (Scand.) Sec Balfa 

Bolster, Bolt (1). See Bulge. 

Bolt (2), Boult, to silt meal. (F. 
Gk.) Spelt bouUe in I' ' 
bulUr ; mod. F. bluttr ; < 
a corruption of Imrcto \ 
coarse cloth. — O. Y.buirt ^F. lurt\ 
woollen clolh. — Low Lat. bmrtit, 
red cloth. — Lat. f/urrus, irtldi 
wvpp6s, reddish. — (Jk. wvp, fire. 

bureau. (F.-I — Gk.) F. 
desk, writing-table; so called 
covered with brown b.iizc. • F, 
0. F. bunit coarse woollen sdil^i 
coloured. — O. F. bmrt (F. Awr)* 
red cloih, — L- burrus ; as above. 

Bomb, Bombard. (F..L...Uk.) 
Boom (1). 

BomboAt, ong. cotton>«radding; 
padding, affeclea language. (h>l ■'^' 


Lev L. fvmf'ast cotton ; 
« Gk. 0A^$v(, silk. 
Item I iiom Pen. 

te, a (nbric of 
<F.-L.»G1<.) F &^m' 
ImrAfl^wu/, nude of 
L. t^mtAx, cotton ; sec 



.) SKBlnd. 

KTviiudc. (F.-Scand.) 




T. &M)*; A.S. ^Jn.-f 
Swrd. h€n\ Dan. 

^ . a I Kine-fiie. * Bant' 
Calhoticon Angliouiutn. 
tmt \\ the Northern form 

kiml gf Ivnny. (Span. — Anb.) 

«i Arab i^y*iis, a hnnito. 

(F. -LowL. - Hia.1.7) F. 

^^jfciww^frt (a r T300), the 

or cai>s 

j! cf, Hind. 

<P.»L.) Fiom F. l*OHM, 
Jwv, pwd. •• L. bonus, good : 

(F.^L.) la the phr. '^<vw 
I, good. • 

doos. (F.-L.) ME. 
."•L- »cc- benitatetn, 
t«X« Anna. 
— Juponew.) Tort. 
fa{L JiAuitf, & rclipoiu auo. 
f. (iSpm— Li -Span, Ap^, ablock- 
(otqrtir'^ 'auhe, stainmcr- 

».A«Ji* l; ; beiice stupid. 

I vkk iji>. DOf^apcFf ; lec B*r- 

.) M E. 6o»k; A.S. Mc, of 

orig. ico*e was s bccch'tree. 

'i% * were pie^e«( of writing 

! *-I>a hfk\ 

L^c-^rj, i^K. y-z-yi/t. a beech 

;t) A.S .»'./ :\ 1-cech: ^rm, 

tolh ' y change 

liwabltic ' -.Vsbove. 

(tl I.' ieftt; 

of > the 

Tt.C i'>:ui '-'('.'(* Is 

Da. Amt^rW/, buckwheat ; 

Boom (i\ to hum. (E.) ME hommm; 
not found in A S. + Du. b^mmtn, to boom, 
to giie out a hollow sound like an cuipl}- 
barrel. An iinilative word ; allied to L 
botnhtu, Gk- B^^tHct, a humming. 

bomb, a &hcll for cannon. (F. — L. — 
Gk.) F. i>^Hthi. mm L bomhus, a humming 
noise. — Gk. 06^^001, the same. 

bombard. (F.-L. -Gk.) The verb 
is from E. bcmbardt a great gun ; Sh. — F. 
bombarde, a cannon ; extended from F. 
bombe. "Det. bombarditr, F. bombanfitr 

bound (1). to leap. (F.-L.-Gk.) F, 
bcHtfir,\o bound; but orig. to resound.— 
L. bombitart, to resound. — L. bcmhus, a 
humming sound. > Gk. SbpStn, the same. 
Der. rt bound (F. reboudir). 

butnbld-bee. {IL) C(.O.r>\i. bommt//H, 
to b(i£x. frequent, of b^mmen, to boom; 
sec Boom (I). 

bump (3), to boom as a bittern. (C) 
\V. ini'snp^ a hollow sound ; hence adetyny 
Imffnp, a bittern. 

bumper, a drinking-vessel. (F. — L.— 
Gk.) A comiplion of bombard^ nsed in 
the &anie sense (Temp. iL 2), a jocular 
word ; it orij;. meant a Vind of cannon ; sec 
bombard above. 
Boom (3), a pole. (Du.) See Beam 
Boon (i>. a petition. (Scand.) M. E- 
bciit. Ch. * Icel bi^H, Dan. and Swcd. bon, 
a petition. + A. S. b^n (whence bent in 
Won^sworthV Fcrhnp* allied to Ban. 
Boon ( 2) ; see Bonny. 
Boor, a ^^ensant. (Dn.) Da. boer, a 
r>casaht. lit. * tiller of the soil.' — Du 
bumutn, to till. + A. S. btian, to till, to 
dwell, whence biir, gtbtir, a pcftsant (only 
preserved in Hti^h-bcur). So also G 
batiCH, to till; whence bau£r, a peasant. 


bondage, servitude. (F. — Scand ) M.E. 
and F. ^m/d^T, seivitnde ; ihe sense beinc 
due to confusion with the verb to bind. 
Rut it orig. meant tlie condition of n bend' 
man, cnlled in A. S. bottda^ a word 
borrowed from Icel b6ndi, a husband- 
man. And btindt * bit audi, a tiller; from 
loel. biia. to till, prepare, cognate with 
A.S bihn. 

bound (3), ready to ^o^ (Scand.) In 
' the ship is ffound for Spam.' Ace. Fonned, 
with cACrcsccnt d. from M E boun, readv, 
Ch C. T. 11R07. - Icel. b^il^$H, prepared; 
pp. tif buj. to till, prepoic. 

bovrer, an arbour. ^E.) M- E. bour. 




bosk {It, tocetoMaelf fm};f. (Scaad.) 
loiL MmI; m fvc omtatit naAj. * led. 
Ma, la pR^oie ; and -si, pal ior tik, ooe* 

self; see beoibd O) above 

bjr-law, ft Urn aSaSmg a I wiuAtpL 
(^icMmA ) rormaly mho StHkm^ kmHam, 

— IceL A^irr.^ a lo««4av. ti^^iw; 
fnwv ki^mr, gaa. of A«r or if r, a lown, 
rOfagc (frov M^ to dwiil); Md iij^, a 
k<r. So abo Duu t^im , Ui—> la ir, cni- 
Uf Ty ocMH|KHune^ 

tiyra, a cow<lHMBe. C^) M. E. ffr, m 
Mita0.s.T.J«i^ A S. ^rrr. pL. dvtdl- 
ing»; in Smt, O. E. Texts. * AS. Mr, a 
bower. CtTcd, iatr, a paaig ; DM^J wr, 

htufauid; lee gadey fTnwaa 
iwigfaboar. (E.) lit. odc wbo dwdb 
AS. midMMr, mUMtir. . Aa 
oi^; and Mr, gMr, a peasant, 
.^G. jaa^jlAar, simiUriy fornied. 
Boot (i), a covering for the foot. (F.* 
T--GI1.) See Butt (0 
Boot («), advantace. (E.) See B«tt«r. 
Booth. (Scaod.) NL £. ^i«. - IcrL 
^/•N. a booth, shop; Swed. A*/, Dan. Aa^ 
•f G ■''M.fe. i>o 3l>o Gael. ^kM, Irisb Av^l, 
^//■A, W. irspth, a hat. Allied to SkL Ms- 
varw< a hoose. { V BHU.) 
Booty. (F. - Low G.> FonocHv spelt 
hmtiM. * F. Sttti'n, 'a booty, prey; Cot 

- l>tt rm'f; cf. Iccl. *)l/i\ Dan. /tZ/t, 
)mH. i/fe, cxchangTt bxiter ; also l<ooty, 
»\*oi\ ; IceL ^jv/o, to divide, deal oat ; 
ftp that the oii£. aenoe of ifiory was 

Borate. (F. — I^wL,) Fonnerly iv»r- 
^f». — y. Ifourraihe. — Low L. terraginem^ 
ace. of hcrrago, borage ; prob. named from 
iU roughnesa. Pcrfaaps from Low L. hprra, 
htma, rotigfa hatr (whence F. iomrrt, Ital. 
^rrtt); ice BurL 

Borax. (Low L.- Arab. -Pen.) Low L. 
b^rujt '. alw b^roium. — Arab, hiird^- - Pers. 
bUrtth, borax (VuUcn). 

Border, an edge. (F. - O. Du.) See 

Boro ( I ), to perforate. (E.) M. E.foriVjr. 
A. S. /tfri'drt.+ Du, ^rfn; Icel. ^omi Swcd. 
h&rra; D*n. Atfr»; G. ioArrni \^ /ffrart. 
(VUUAk, to cm.) See Feriorata, 
bora (3>, to worry. Merely a metaph. 
or the verb above ; Heu. ViU. i. 1. uS. 
''And we Buiio. 

Bora (iX a tidal aarge in a river. 
leeL SSm, a biDov casaed bf 
S««d. «aL Mr. a aoBad. 
Boraai^ the nortlk wiad. (U-i 
Amtf.-Gk. B*r««t, Boppot. Uxe N. 
(E.) M.E. iv^A, 
A. S. pan*, ittTf \\^ 
dat. J^rnyX A fort. — A. S. ^ik;^-«% 
of Aw ja w , 10 protect ; cognate with" 
i oi r gmm^ to hioe, keep, I. /anire, 
<VBHARGU.)4*t>a. Mi^; IceL) 
Swed. and Dan. tmxi G. Miwgi 

b*lTO«r ( 1 ), a bvriftl-aioaDd. 
Car herrww (like f^rtom for 
M. E. Arr74. Ar#r«A. a hUl. niuuivL—Ai 
kmrgt SerrA, a hilL. graic • mound. — Aj 
Ja wjgw , to hide, pmtect ; see bnry ' ' ^ 

borrow. ^E) M. E. ArriMw; 
Jarfiaa, ht to give a plcdge.^AI 
Affi^ a plrtlgc. * A . S. Ar^f<»y pp. of r 
to kecpL procecL 

burgMS. iF.-M. H. G.> M. 
^r^j. — O. F. iwfjw. — I..0W Lit. 4hp 
bdonging to a foit or city «- Loi 
ii0;M/, a fort — M. H. G /'ur^ (G, 
oognate with A. S. AwrC ab^ve. 

Dar^wr. <E.) Formed by 
to fw/yi »im t m ^ . 

btirglar. (F.-G. and L.) ■ 
btr {M law lenn) a house! : 
'bofoogh^icf.' — F. *wi/y (doni U. i^*-'.') 
a town: and O- F. Urvt a robber, 
Lat £f/re; tec Larceny. 

burgomaat«r. ( Du ) Da. /.-' 
a to¥m-mastcr.— I>u. ^/y. co^^ 
E. f*r«aip4; and nwoMr. a niaMcr, 
O. F. mtuirv ; see UaaUr 

burial. ^E.) M. E. ' 
tomb; also spell itrjt.'- 
byr^s, a tomb— AS. ^< 
see bnry <i). 

borrow, a shelter for rabUta 
U. £. hrvrgh, a care, shcUer : mefcfy 
raried spelling of ^rP9t^ abo%e. 
5ttmw, verb. 

btiry (I), verb. (E.) ME. 
A. S. htrigiinf fyrgoM^ to t - ' 
grouna. Fornied (by cI- 
from hor^-em, pp. of vitrei .. . - 
tect (as above). 

bury (3). a town (E.) la 

ftc — A. S. byrig, dat. <n burk, a 

Bosom. (K.) M. K. to/^A. A.< 

•^ Du. baatm ; G. bujfm. 

Bom. aknob. (F.-O. H.U.) 

Botany. (F.-GU ^ 1- .\^„..« 


_ iClL0*r4ri«^. beton^nj^lopUsts. 
0»T^f • hob-Gk- &6«itu¥, to 

>teb (iV <o P*tch. <0. Low G.) See 

hi lo A- S AJ. both I Lat. -ho in am- 

Ck. .^•ii Skt. '^Ad to U'bha^ 

IccL -i>. ihcT. 

^rr ■ ^^, (C.) In Swift.- 

i ^,. , irocbtc; t'uaitihnm, I 

irb : '. 'f' *«»t 'rooble. So 

yi : -ifU do not agree. 



^ - '^0 Gad. bohUt a 

P^- r«5cl. (F. — Low 

^ — F. boutiiiU.^ 

L| ::. ot hutica, a kind 

L ,L iTiT. ft fla'^k. Per- 

Fr' •'*^ Boot (0- 

P ._o-# L. - Gk.1 M. E. 

V Mtcodi to boUla; from 

I I 1- ; i« »bove- 

^ '-c for proNuions, esp. 

. ._ - L. — Gk ) A comiplion 

. Ii_ ^tuUnf, a bullcry. properly ft 
SiBT « boiler ; '"'rirn M E. botehr^ a 
: fctcaboTt y*6ouUfy.) 

fu^ ttttb ih' 

»(:(]# (il - >•■.>; KC Beat. 

b0tttm, bothom. 

d. Jtf/>/.r«; U». M#W; G. bcdm\ Lat. 
r; Gk. vW>i^; Vedic Skt. buithna, 
noond. Allied to Irish bonn, £ole 
Ibol-; G«ct. ^wwt, ftolc, bottom ; W. 
, stock. See Fiuidamont. 
^odOir. <F.-C. ?) F. houhir. m. pri- 
I (tlOBi ^' ' i^^v- lit. a place to sulk 
y. ibw- Perhaps Celtic ; 

JV /•a^' 'k ; Mc Pout (1). 

1 E. botigh. A, S. ^ff, 
<? cirig. sense was 'an 
■ ^ ;.i<i (^'_fr. Swed. ^.f, Dan. /'.t.-, 
of aa animal* lirT'Ce the bow 
) ol ■ thlji; G. ^rf^'i Gk. v^x^i< 
; SkL itOitf. the ana. *|Ued 

tj>r horn of a ship. (Scind.) 

4kler* of a ship. • IccL W^. 

ichcd to the 

Boulder, a large stone. (Scand.) Swed. 
dial. bulUrsUcft, a large rolling 5t(ine; so 
called from it& rolHnp down stream with a 
crash. — Swcd. builra, to thnnder, ronr ; 
and Item, a stone ; see Bellow and Stoua. 
Dnnish pots U for //, and has buldrt^ to 
roar, bufdcr, a crash. 

Bounoe. to jump tip quickly. (O. Low 
G.) M. E. bvnstn, to beat. - Low G. 
bumen^ to beat, knock at a door; Du. 
bonstn, lo botince, throw. From I)u. bans, 
a bounce, thtmip; cf. G. bittuf'S bounce: 
Icel. fic/t, bump I imitative of the sound of 
a blow. See Bump (1). 

Bound (1), to leap. (F.-L.-Gk,) See 
Boom (1). Dcr. rt-hounJ, 

Bound (j). a boundary. (F.ST!.) M. E. 
bouwic, Ch. : with excrescent J, os In 
jpj/nV. — 0. F. bo/ttit, a boundary; aUo 
spelt bodtu (Burguy); Low Lat. bcdina 
(contr, form henna), a bound, limit. J 
Bred. M/rw, a thicket, luft of trees; bSJ, a 
taf\ of trees ; cf. Irish bat^ a cluster, & 
bunch. Thus the orig. bound was a Itift of 
trees or a thicket. Dor, bcund-ary (for 

bourn (i>, a boundary. (F.-C.) In 
Sh. — F. borm, a bound; corrupted from 
O. F. bctm*, a boundary, as .ibove. 

Bound (3), ready to go. (Scaod.) S«« 

Bounden, the old pp. of Bind. Ai ia 
* boirmitn duly.' 

Bounty. (.F.-L.) Sec Bonny. 

Bouquet. (F -Low G.) See Buah. 

Bourd, a jeit; to jest. (F. - Tent 7) 
M. E. bcurdtf sb. ; bourdtHf v.-*F. bcurdr, 
a f^ame; bourdtr, to play. Etym. doubt- 
ful ; but F. bcurder prob. - O. F. bckcnfer, 
to tourney, joust with lances, hence, to 
amuse oneself. - O. F. bchort, a mock 
tournament; supposed to stand for bot- 
horde, i.e. a beating a^inst the hurdles or 
baniera of the lists —O. F. bfft-tr, to bcftt; 
and horde, a hurdle. — M. H. G. b^t^M, to 
beat (O. H. G. fdian\; and M. H. G. 
hurt, a hurdle; tec Boat and Hurdle. 

Bourn (i), a boundary. (F.-C.) See 
Bound (j). 

Bourn (2), Bum, a stream. (E.) M. E. 
bounte. A. S. buma, a fountain, stream, 
well. (VUHUR?) + Icel. brunnr-. Swed. 
brunrt', Don. brand; G. brunnen; Goth. 
^rw«wfl,a^iinp, well; cf. Gk.f/)<op. b well. 

Bouso. BouxQ. BOOBO, to drink <leeply. 
(Du.) Sec Box (I). 

Bout, a turn, (hcand.) See Bow (1). 


flaw (1^ to hand. (K.) M. K. &cfvi», 

If Aajfnv. A. H- /f/ixitn. ^ Du. ^m^M\ 
i41$je**H ilii\U. lnUf;iiM\ Skt. /'Ah/^ to 
f " ,-, to luni 1 ■ ' 

, Id (Ire. ( V 

mJ (K-) Ki.i.i 

\\OW (,t>, ■ Wi-nion to olioot wilh. 1.1'..) 
I. K /»»«w A S. A'^Hi, A Ikjw ; Iwi-ftusc 

i( I* >«M/ III A'livt/ 4'^'"' Av^ I Iccl. '^''A'i ; 

Ulght, 4 koi) til ii>i^r, A Uy. (b.) M. E. 
'\^^t- A H hjXJ^ At ill u^frrri ^A/, a 
Ai^^Ul (taty) i^ WAtcf ^KC tirvtn).»A. S 
4lib*-«M^ |it pi. of ><4j(V<r, to bow, bcml. 
L Watk * turn. vSc«nd.) Al»o A#arc4f. 
r, V< (^ I. I ift,- l)Mn >t4f/, ft tKn<l, 
fei aUw • Ivi^hl or bay; ci^^at« with 

MMUmIow. (K.) a wiatlow o( mm^ 
iu Im«; not th» mm u Aior< 

%g«b WnJl «Wy^ «»i ^>flNH wBi. ft* M 
V«\ t^ '^fcgaMtt* of ft ab^ 

>,> .u> UK. i^Mk^ar 


buahelf A meuuie. (f. •• Low. L.— GL] 
Sec Pyx. 
Box C5)* to fig^^ v^tli 6sts; a 
■* M.E. box, $b,-P»n. " 
ike; daskt a sUp. thwack; _ 
. . , 1. Aua, to whip, flo£. beat (II 

Box (4), io phr. 'to box the corai 
(Span.) Span. Auur, to sail 
ixUad (Meadowy) i O. Spas. Acum, 

Boy. (O Low G) M.E- Ay. , 
in E. Friciic A», Afy, a boy ^K< 
allied to O. Dn. io^. a boy, Dv. 
knavT^Iccl. i^, a knave ; i^. Smit, 
L*l /w/<w, « IJoy. See Ptipa 

Brabole; to qaand. cl>u.) Do. 
AmEm, to II ■■■rr, oosfoaiiii ; « hk-nct^ 
Mmi.kt€hihtaSk. SceBUb. __^ 

8n0«b «%• ft fas hold. i.r-L) 
Ifec noboft «f CHl)ncia(.-*0. 

..«. « tit iiMft^ dw IhMk^vft { 

^ bvj^ tics- 

irriu& ift iftK 4ata.»0-F. <•»% 
of ft 


OR > Mil tfegl 



« B. 

11 ^ i» 

*«i«^ i^^^^W' 






(Skt) Skt. 
maji — Skt. 

jium IfAii. to 


M El. ^rtiJm. 
ish, weave, 

. .tumaboul, 
bcaoe it'tig^t a 

to wvmre. (T 

[1, tt licBtun ( tee Bre«oboB. 

ta. <E.) M.Z.^rayHt. K.^.i>rt^n, 

t, the tniL4-DQ. »/yu>. 

IM ( O ; see Broftk. 

biuh. iem. (E.) A S. hrwi^e, 

tra^, willow*bu»li. IVob. 

vrowiitg oa rongh or 

G. ^ra<A, fallow, uo- 

(E.) A-S. ^nucoft, pi. of 
ittiriju (allied to ^r«i, 
)i Swcd. traJUn, Dan. 

nbto. (C) ME. ^rrm^V. A.S. 

^ ImmmAt/.^ HtL irtutm, ■ blackbriry ; 

Sfwrn^tkr, Van. ^/v/w A/ r, G. ^/vm- 

Bieny. (VitHKAM.) 
U. £. ^niM. -> W. Uu». Irish 
IftA. So alio F. ^rm ; izuxa 

noh. (F 



See Brae«. 
^^'■^indy; sec Bum. 
for scolds. (C.) 
jngaj (O. Gael 
u% ■ von 01 piilory ; GaeL htxn^, 
hmmf*r, a hitlrr.^-Da. pmngtr^ pio- 
cotlir ; G. /rnf^^rr, a pillory ; 
to pinch. 
(E.) See Barn. 
». (£.) M E ^rui. A.S. ^nrj. 
the fwb iccn in led. ^ni/ii, 
e : Swed. ^^uid, 1o flame ; 
tr$. Der, ^/om^h, A. S. 

Mictr, braiiar, a pan to hoUl coaU. 

) y. hrmisifrt^ a camp-kettle. 

Um coftht — Swed. ^m/n. fire, 

lo ianie: tec above. 

%% to kardcn. i F. «- Scond.) 

, I. »i. h merely means lo 

t»)l»Oorj. - (E) 

Ir. ot W.V 

ll It £^ and derived from 
Aon^ tf ^nvi^v' i ^£lfrifi. 

breeae (3), cinders. (F.-Scand.) OF. 
h-ise, spell ^n-r^ in Cot^ the old form of 
F. Ifixtisf, live coals; see broster above. 

Brat, a child. (C.) So naniid from its 
pinafore ; it also meant a rag, clout, or (in 
derision) a child.*- VV. brat, a r.ig, pino/ore ; 
Gael, and lui,\\ bnt, a cloak, rag. 

Brattice, a fence of boards ia a mine. 
I.F. — Tcut. ?) M. E. breta.uht, httasft^ 
hruiash^ a paiapti. batllemcnl. — O. F. 
brttesthe, a unall wowlen outwork, b^ittle- 
mciil; cf. I'rov. Uiirtsca, Ital. tftrteua, ihe 
t.-une. A diHicuit word i prub. formed 
from G. irrttt, a plank- 

buttress, a sopport, in archUectnre. 
(F. — Tcut.) M. K. ioiertu\ Pals;jra\'e 
has bottras, buttcras. Grig, a plural 
form, as if for itH/tcretStm^O. i'"". l>ou{ergt, 
pi. of bouttrttt a prop. — K. boutir, to 
thrust, pr 3p. Cotgrave also has /^vm- 
tant, a buttress, from the iatne verb; 
see Butt U)i p- M* col- 2, I. 5. (Mis- 

Bravado. (Span.) See Brave. 

Bravo. (F.) F. brave. * brave, gay, 
line, proud, brdggard, valiant ;' Cot. The 
same as Ital., Span , and Port, bravo. Elym. 
miknowu ; none of the explanations nre 
satisfactory ; the Bret, brav, O. Swcd. A/ii/l 
appear Co be borrowe<l from F. Cf. Bret. 
bru^, to itrnt about, Gael, brragh, fme; 
see Brag. 

bravado. (Span.) Altered from Span. 
bmvaJa. 'a bravarlo ;' Minsfaeu's Span. 
Diet-— Span. ^mtw. brave. 

bravo, a daring villain. (Tial.) Ital. 
bravo, brave; as a sb , a cut-throat, villain. 
bravo ! well done. (Ital.) ItaL bravo, 
brave : used io the voc. case. 

Brawl (I), to quancl. (C) M.E 
brauim.''yi. brawi,broi, a boast; brolia, 
to boast ; bragtU, to vociferate ; cf. Irish 
bra^im, I boast boimce» bully. Prob. 
allici.l to Brag. 

Bravrl (s), a sort of dance. (F.-Tcut) 
See Bum. 

Brawn, muscle. (F.-O. H. G.) M.E, 
braun, muscle, boor's flesh. — O. F. Anwi», 
a slice of fle&h \ cf. Prov. bradon, tJie same. 
- O. H. G. brditm, ace. of M*A, M. E. 
,0 slice of flesh for roasting— O H.G. 
m (G. braUn), to roost. ^ Ihc orig. 
> wa3 merely *mmcle ;' the restriction 
to that of ' boar s flesh' is accidental 

Bray to, lobrui«. (F.-G.) Sec Broafc 

Bray (j), to make a roaring ooisc. (F * 
C.) SaeBraak. 




Braxe, (i)to hftrden; (a) to onamoit 
with brass ; see Brass. 
Breach. (E.) .S:e Break. 
Bread. (K.) M. E. breed, A. S. bredd. 
Prob. allied to Brew, becaase fermented. 
Cf. A. S. pL t. brca-w, + Da. brood\ Icel. 
bmuiS; Swed. and Dan. btifd; G. btvd. 
Breadth. (E.) See Broad. 
Break. (E.) M.E. breJten; pt. t. brak; 
pp. broken. A. S. brecan, pt. t. brae, pp. 
bfwen.'^Du. bnken; Icel. braka^Xo creak ; 
Swcd. braka, to crack ; Dan. brakke ; 
Goth, bn'kan; G. brecAen; IjoX. fran^rt. 
(V BHKAG.) The orig. sense is to break 
with a noise, to crack. 

brag, to boast, (C.) W. bra^, to 
boast ; Irish bragaim, I boast. Allied to 
Gael, bra^k, an explosion. (V BHRAG.) 

braggart, a boaster. (F. — C.) F. 
bragard. — Bret, braga, to strut abont ; cog- 
nate with W. bragio, to boast ; see above. 

brake (i), a machine for breaking 
hemp ; a name for various mechanical con- 
trivances. (O. Low G.) M.E. brake.— 
Low G. brake, A flax-brake; O. V>VL.braecket 
' a brake to beat flax ;' Hexham. — Dn. 
breken, to break ; see Break. 

bray (i), to bruise, pound. (F.-G.) 
M. E. bnzyen. — O. F. breier (F. bttfyer)." 
G. breehen, to break ; see Break. 

bray (3), to make a roaring noise. 
(F. — C.) F. braire (Ix)w Lat bragin, 
bragafr). Of Celtic origin ; cf. W. bragal, 
to vociferate ; Gael, btnghf a burst, explo- 
sion ; see brag above. 

breach. (E.) M. E, breche, a fracture. 
— A . S. breee, as in hlaf-gebrece^ a piece of 
bread. - A. S. *wffl«, to break. fOrOF. 
breche. a breach, — G. <5«fA«. 

brick. (K.— O. Du.) F.brique, a brick; 
also a fragment, bit. — O. Du. bricke, a 
brick; orig. a fragment. — Du. breken, to 
break. Der. brick-bat (see Bat). 

Bream, a flsh. (F. - O. H. G.) See 
Baas (3). 

Breast. (E.) See Burst. 
Breath. (E.) M.E. brteiK brtth. A.S. 
brdiS.^G. brodem, broden^ brodelf steam, 
Tnpour* exhalation. 

Breech. (E.) See Breeches. 

Breeches, Breeks. (E.) A double 
plural, the form breek being, in itself, a pi. 
form. A.S.^rcV, breeks: pl.of^nJir, with the 
same scnive.4*^u> broek, a pair of breeches; 
Icel. br^k (pi. brakr"); M. H. G. br^iock\ 
Gael, bntg, a large shoe, briogais^ breeches. 
Cf. L. braeca^ a word of Celtic origio. 


braoketh a corbel, ftc (F.<«C.) F» 

merly spelt bmgget, as in Mioshin, el 
1627. So named from the rescmbUnoeto 
the front part of a pair of bivecha, is 
formerly made.— F.^/U!fitf//«« 'a cod[Nec^* 
Cot (the front part of a pair of brenhes); 
the allied Span, bingueta also meant 1 
projecting mould in architectoce, a btadut 
or corbel Dimin. of O. F. bragm^ '1 
kind of mortaise/ Cot; from bragimt 
breeches; so also Span, bragueta is tbe 
dimin. of Span, bn^as, breeches. * L-bnatr, 
of Celtic origin ; Bret, bragn, breeches. 

brail, a kind of ligature or fastening. 
(F.-C.) O.F. braitl, a dnctnre; orig. 
for fastening up breeches ; dimin. of F. 
braie, breeches.— L. braecm, Bret brttgn,n 

breeoh. (E.) M.E. breech, proprfy 

breeks, or the covering of the hinder part tn 

the body. — A. S. br^, pi. of br^ ; see aboR. 

brogues, coarse shoes. (C) Gad. and 

Irish brog, a shoe, legging ; see Breeohsa 

Breed. (E.) See Brood. 

Breeze (1), a gadfly. (£.) Also brisa, 
bn'mtey.— A. S. brimse, a gadfly, named 
from its humming, •f- Du.^rrjsv^r : G. bnma 
(from M. H. G. bremen, to hum) ; Skt 
bhramara, a large black bee (from Skt 
bkram, to hum. whirl, fly about as insects). 
Cf. \jiX,frtmert. 

Breese (a), a strong wind. (F.) Fonnedy 
briu-^O- F. brist, used by Rabelais in the 
same sense as F. bise^ the N. wind; c£ 
Span, brisa. Port, brisa, the N.E. wind; 
Ital. breMxa, a cold wind. Orig. unknown. 

Breese (3), cinders. (F.— Scand.) See 
Brass. ^ Quite distinct from prov. £. 
bn'js, dust, F. bris, rubbish, wneoce F. 
debris ; see Debris. 

Breve, Breviary ; see Brief. 

Brew. (E.) M.E. brtwen, AS. 
brehoan, pt. t. bre^, pp. ^^/v«Btfff.+Dn. 
brouwen; G. brauen; Icel. brttgm; Swcd. 
brygga ; Dan. bryggt. (^ BHUR, to boil, 

brewls, pottage. (F.«M.H.G.) M.E 
browes.^O. F. broues, a pi. form; from i 
sing, brou, broth. — Low Lat brodmm 
broth.-M. li. G. brot, broth; cognati 
with E. Broth ; see below. 

brose, pottage. (C.) Gad. bntkoi 
brose. From the same root as K. Brew. 
broth. (£.) A. S. br^. - A. S. br^^wen 
pp. of brtSwan, to brew. + Icel. ArvB 
M. H. G. brot; cf. G.gibraudt, as msdi « 
is faRwed at once. And see Bread, 


tor. Bri«r. (O M. E. htrt. A.S. 
4.C>eL aavl Iriii^ ^tM, x tnt&h, briar. 
rtM iF.-O M.E. *r»Vv.-0. F. 
r of bread given to a beggar; 
B fnif^enT of brtad— iJrct 
...- .-ifk ; cp. VV. ^»^'«^ IwoVcn, 
^Qrra («*r»w fon«\ broken btcaJ, 
ArT««^ to breiJk, A11ie<l to Briok and 

(f^.*C. Da.) Sec BrMk. 
. <K) M. E. AW./*: alw (^iV./^-. 
^ti/r A S. ^rv.-/, a bride. Vrob. 

Bi Swcd. 

3 J Uths. 

> brUi'Oit, a btitlc- 

i briile-alc, bridc- 

fi-tdc; and m/c, aJc, 


■*, ^,.^-^i.u ^E.) Tot ^riJfi;Mm; the 

I r U t&tmtire A.S, bryd-f^uma, lit. 

^ . wheri: xww iscocnalc with L, 

z Hoixmco + Do. bmide- 

I . VII . Swcd. hntfii^mme ; 

^rv4£^*it i <i. brtiutiiam, O. 11. G. 





. (t> M.E.*nj:^,*/wi^Y. A.S, 
_ ^IccL ^ry^'a ; Swcd, brys^^a ; Dati. 
{yv. s pIc; ^- bntfkt. Alitcd to Icfl. 
, poA ir#, a bridgr, pftvcineiit ; O, 
^^. ^rp a [aid w.\y. 
rUU*. tF.> M. E. *oV//. K.S.brUi!. 
Do. ^<idLi\ M.II.G. Ar//r/, Ar^y/iV 
CMKV F. hridt'), Terhaps allied to 

rfef oy *lw»l iF.-L.) M.E. hrtf. 
U Ar«i>, «hort. + Gk. 

»ril. *c (F.-I») F. 

I The same as F. bnj 

4*«.iag in n short form. 

fL.) L. af>brtuiahis, pp. 

aboilcn — L.^-, put for 

&ard lifinij. shoit. 

(K.-L.) ME. a^rtgfn.*^ 

j ai: i ''f abTrvi€rt to 


(ItAl.^L; M-K* J^^r/note; 

t!ie leognt in uae^ — lul. Ar/tr. brirf. 

T ji. ^rrt»u niyort, l>«r. umibrtvi. 

\J) F. brevit, 'a brief, 
'':iD2»* ^^ Dimia. from 

y- (F.-U) F. brH>iain.^l^ 

^iHnw, kLortucaa- — L. brtHu, ihott. 

Brf?. Brigade ; tee Brigand. 
Brigand. (F.— IlaL) F. brigand, a 
robber. — Ital. bri^nfe, an intriguer, robber ; 
orig. pFT-v part, of bn/^rr, to strive after.— 
ItaT. bri^a, strife, quanel, trouble. Orig. 

brig : sec brieantlne (below). 

brigade. (F. — Ital.) F. *Jrf^^/*, aciew, 
troop. — Ital. brigata, a troop ; orig. fcin. of 
pp. oi brij^rx, lo stfive, fight, as above. 

biigandine, a kind of armour. (K.* 
Ital.) F, brii^ru/iMg, a kind of armour, 
worn by brigands. — F. bri^Mif, a robber; 
$ec above. 

brigantino, brig, a ship. (F.-Ital.) 
Brig is merely short for brigantirte. — V* 
brigoHtin, a kind of ship. — Ital. brigantino, 
a iMrateship. — Itfl!. bn^anU, a robber. 

Bright. (K.) hX.V.lrt^ht. AS-betrr^f. 
-^ led b/'arir ; M. 11. G. ber/if -, Goth, 
fhiirfttSf saining. .MHed to Skt. bknij, t< 
shine; L.y!ii^-/a/r, to flame, (y* BHAKG, 
to blaze.) See Flame. 

Brill, a fish. (C) Com.*rr//(\mackarel, 
contr. form of brithelli, pi. of brithe!, ■ 
mnckarcl, a spotted fish. — Com. Ar/M, 
speckled. Cf. Itish and Gael. *rrar, speckled. 
Ihe brill is minutely spottnl with white. 

Brilliant, shining: sec Beryl- 
Brim. (E.) M.E. *rj'w, A.S. *n*«, 
surf, burgc nn the shore. + Jcel. brim, surf, 
G. br<\m4, border, M. H. G. brtm, border; 
Ski. bkrimi, a whirl-pool, from bhram, loj 
whirl. The brim of Uie sea is its maigiit,, 
where the surf is heard to roar; cf. L,j 
frtmtn. \^ BHkAM.) 

Brimstone. Brindled. Brine ; see 

Bring, (E,) A. S. brimgan, pi. t. brattg\ 
also brntfftm, pl.t. brohtt. (Mod. E. retains 
only the weak pt. i. br^H^^ht.) + Da. 
brengtn ; G. bringrn ; Goih. brigrat 
i;_ written for ^Wh^h), pt t.broA/a. {An 
tension from ^ lillAR, lo bear.) 

Brink. (Scand.) M. £. brinJk. - Di 
brink, verge; Swcd. brittM, descent or si 
of a hill ; Iccl. bnkka y^brtnka), ■ slope^j 
crest of a hill ; allied to Icel. bringa, 
grassy sinpc, orig. the breast. Cf- NV« 
b/yn^M, a hillock, brym, a hill, brtm, 

Brisk. (C.) W. bfys^, quick: Gael. 
briofg, quick, lively. Allied lo Gael, brietg, 
to start with surprise, leap for joy ; Irish 
briox^, a start, a bounce. 

BriBket. (K.-C.) O.V.&riscA^e^Unchei, 
j s. V. brtchet)-^ brithtt, ' the brisket, or *^ — •- 


piece' [(if men]. Cot. Mod. F. hrtehet.^ 
I3fet. brttrhfd, the breast ; spelt brusk in ihe 
dialect of Vaunts. 

Briatlo. (E.) M. E. bristU. berifU, hirsiU ; 
dituiu. of A. S. lyrst^ a bristle. 4" Ou. bcrst<l\ 
Iccl. burst', Swcd. l>orst\ G. bcrstt. Allied 
lo Skt. bhTishii, pointetl. 

Brittle. (E.) M. E. britel, hrotth brttUl 
Formed, with sufiiit -tf/( = A.S. -<»/), from 
A.S. brui-M, pi. of pt, t. of ireJ/aM, to 
break ; whence also bryttan, to brejik 
(secondary verb). It means 'fragile.' Cf. 
Icel. bfjita, Swcd. bryta, Dan. brydt, to 

Broach. (F.-L.) See Brooch. 

Broad. (E.) M. E- brcod. A. S. bMd. 
+Du brttd', Icel. bitit\r\ Swed. and Dan. 
hrtJx Goth. *n«(/r ; G.brtit. 

breadth. (E.) The final -M u late: the 
M. E. form is breJe ; Ch. — A. S briJu, 
breadth. — A. S. brdii, broad. ^Icet. brcidd\ 
^t<A\i. braidei \ Q.breite\ Da. brccdfe. 

Brocade, Broccoli, Brochure ; see 

Broolc a badger. (C.) A. S. broc - W.. 
Com., and EicL broch ; Irish. Gael., and 
Manx brvc, a badger. Named fiom his 
white-streaked face ; cf. Gad. brocatA, 
speckled, grayish, as a badger; brucach, 
spotted; GacL and Irish bretu^ W. bruk, 

Brocket. (F.-L.) See Brooch. 

Brogues. (C.) See Breechss. 

Broider. to adom with needlework. (F, 

— C ■?) [In 1 Tim. ii. 9, btoidcrfd is put 
for broiiUd, old fonn of braidtd^ Formerly 
brodir, Judg V. 50 (Bilile of r^ji).— F. 
broiier, ' to imbroydcr.'Cot. Perhaps Celtic; 
from Bret, brouda, to pierce, also to cm- 
broitlcr, broud, a spike, goad ; W. brodia, to 
embroider; Gael- /"W, a goad. p. It has been 
confused with F. border, * to border, also lo 
imbroydcr/ Cot., Span, and Port, bordar, lo 
embroider, which seem rather lo be con* 
nected with F. bord, the edge of a garmeut ; 
sc« Bordor. Der. ettt-broLier. 

Broil (0. to fry. grill. (F. -Tcut?) 
M. E. broiUn.^O. V. bruiiierAQ boil, 
tKoqacfort). Prob. a frequent form of 
Q.y. bruir, to roast (Burgny); mod. F. 
brom'r. Perhaps of Tent, origin; cf. Dn. 
broeiJiH, to foment, hatch c^s, grow Tery 
hot; G. /'rw/ww, to scald. ^ We also find 
GfteL bruiiA, to bod, roast ; lifish brni^Aimt 
I boil. 

Broil (a), a tumult. (F.-Te«t.?) F. 
trtmiiUr, to jumble, Cuhuju?. confound. 


Perhaps related to G. brudeJn, br^dtM, to 
bubble (whence to give off steam, coofose) ; 
a. brodel, broifem, vapour, allied to E. 
Breath (Schclcr). Cf. F. btvuUhrJ, a 
mist, fog. % We also find >N.brxKh^ tumult, 
broiheii. a tempest ; Gael. brei,^hUadh, titf- 
moil. broigiuk, noise (pcrhft[>.s unrelated). 
Broker. <E.) SceBrooku)- 
Bronchial. (Gk.) Gk. Bfiyx**** neol. 
pi., the ramifications of the windpipe.— 
Gk. ^p6yxot, ihe windpipe ; cf. fipnyx*^- ' 
gill. Allied to Gk. a^x'"*' ^^ ^<^^- ^*'* 
brvrKk't'tis; (rom 0p6yxof. 
Bronze. (F.-ltal.-Teat) SeeBrown. 
Brooch. (F.-L.) Named from the pin 
which fastens iL M. E. brockr, a pin, yejL 
brooch. — F. brocht, a spit, point. —Low L 
bnvfa, a pointed stick. — L.^/vrinttj, ashaip 
tooth, pomt Cf. Gael. bn>ff, to goad.^r^, 
on awl ; \V. procio^ to stab. 

broach. (F. - L.) M. E. settm m 
brc(ht — \o set ft-broafh, tap lir^uor. — F. 
mtttn en brxMe, to tap, by piercing a bar 
rel. — F. i^nv A^r, to pierce. — F. bnkki, '» 
broach, spit.,* Cot. : sec above. 

brocade. (Span.-L.) Span. brMain, 
brocade ; orig. embroidered, the pp. of ■ 
verb brotar*- \no\ u&ed) an^weiing to F 
btvcMtr, * lo broach, also, lo sLtich . . . vilb 
great stitches,' Cot.— Low L. brvccm, U 
brcccus ; sec Broooh. 

broccoli. (Ital. - L.) Ital. br^ctpHy 
sprouts ; pi. of broccolc. a sprout. Dlnib 
ofbroivo, A skewer, a shoot, stalk. — L. fm* 
(Hs, a i»oint. 

brochure, a pamphlet (F. — L.) F. 
brfffAurt, a few leaves stitched together.* 
F. brother, to stitch : sec brocade. 

brocket, a red deer two years old 
(F. — L.) F. brxart, the same; so calkd 
because he has but one line to bis 
F. br0£/u, a spit also, a tine of a 
bora ; see Broooh. 
Brood. (E.) ME. /f*/. AS 
(rare) ; ' hi br^da^ beora /'nA/'= lliey now 
ish their brood ; jf^fric's Horn. ii. to.-4-I^ 
breed; G. brut. Perhaps it means 'ihst 
which is hatched by heal ;' allied to Br**' 
cf. W. brofd, warm. 

breed. (E.) M. F.. bnd^'t \ »; ^, V 
an, to produce- a brood. 
br6d, a brood. (So also /. 
by chancjc from S to /,) 
Brook (1). to endure, put u{i 
M. E. broken, bmnken. A. S. hrtU. 
use. enjoy; which was the oii^. 
Du. ^bruiken, led. brdka^ Q, bt 


, to use : L. frmi, to enjoy ; 
ir kkrmj)t to enjoy. (^ 

^^Lit) M. E, ^r»ccur, 

a Iransftction. An^Io 

; orig. a • broachtf ' 

L- brocfa/ar^ one 

see Broocli. 

Stream. (R.) M. £. 
<4- Do. jrvtfi. G. bru€M» a 

I.) Mic,.lr9m*,hroom. A.S. 
broom ,- hence a bcMun 
rig! o/ it. ^ Du. ^rtm. Allied 

>Ui ; lee Brew. 

l.i fm/mjed wftk F.-Tcut) 
'/. alora pciion. base wretch. 
t. pp. of bn^CtaMt to pcrittb, 
wnencc also dbroHeti, dcgc- 
llencc was made brvtkii- 
iot vile people (Dryden), 
" to btothii. 8. Oiig. 
!M.E. itfn///, which was u<«C(l, 
the unie MRse. — O. F. 
one. orboatdA*»0. Du. (and 
dank, boanl : lee Board. 
E.) M.E. brother, A.S. 
*nv/ ' ' MSjV; Golh. 
kL »' '/r; G. ^r«- 

; W. brawd', 

■ ; Ok. i^^r^fi; Skt. 

■ rJitri ii from Mn', 
orig. to bear. (V 



111. i I 

V.E. brwM. A.S. ^fi/. 

Af— trtp ; Icel. hnin^ eye- 

»Sd; H.H.G. ^/^. eye hd ; 

Gael M/; Ilret. atrant-, 

*tn.abni: Skt. bAnS. Orig. 

oamed fTom twitching ; cf. 

the twinkling of on eye. 

> M. E.A^im. AS. bnin. 

loel- brttitu : Swcd. bnm ; 

C. ^rotui. From the same 

-Tcut.) F. broHse. 
cf abh-pnuire, to 
t-ww*, brown, whence 
knmirr, to burnish 
•tc abovv. 
> In Kryaafd the Fox. the 
ijf, ie. brown •■ Lhi. bruin, 

• G.) F. bruMttt, fern. 

of brumtt, brownish. — M. H. G. bnin, 

bumlah. to polish. (F.-G.) M.E. 
bumiitn ; iKo ournrn. — O. i*'. bitrnir, 
i»-««iV (pres- |>art. burnis ant), lo embrown, 
to polish. - O, F. *r«i*, browu.*> M. H. G. 
bnin, brown. 

Browse. (F..-M. H. G.) A corruption 
of broust.^O.T. brouster (F- brouttr'). to 
nibble off young shoeti. — O. F. bnniit (F. 
br»tu), a sprig, slioot, bud.-*M. H. G ^rvi« 
a bnd ; Bavar. brossi, bress^ a bud , tee 

Bruin. (Cu.) See Brown. 

Brulae. (F.-Tcut. ?orC.?) M. E. *«- 
Jfff, brijtn.^O. F. bruiser, bristr, to break. 
Either from G.brtsten {G. bersi^M), 
to butst (Diez) ; or of Celtic origin, as set-n 
in Gael. 6Hs, to break, Ir. bn'n'm, I break. 
% Not from A.S. Irrysan, whidi Hcniii to 
be allic<i to A, S. bretUatt, to break. 

Bruit, a rumour. (F. — C?) F. bruif, a 
noiic. — F. bruirt. to make a noise. Per- 
haps of Celtic origin ; cf. Bret, bruihttUm, 
to roar as a lion ; W. broch^ din, tumult. 
Cf. Gk. ^pv\&ofiat, I roar. p. Sclieler derives 
F. bruitt from L. rugire, to roar, with pre- 
fixed b. 

Brunette ; tec Brown. 

Bnint ; lec Burn. 

Brush. (F-Teut.) M.E. brusthe, a 
brush: also brush wood, which is the older 
sense, the orig. brush being made of twigs. 
•■ O. F. ^«r^, Y.bresie, brushwood; also, 
later, a brush. — Low L, brustia, bntta'a, 
a thicket. Derived by Diei from O. H. G. 
brusfa, G. bontt, a bristle ; but rnlher from 
Bavar. brossf, bross. a bud, M. H. t*. brot, 
ft bud ; see Browse. 

Brusque, rough in manner. (F.«.Ita1.) 
F. bruj^tu.^XxtX. brusco, sharp, tart, sour, 
applied to fruiti and wine. Origin on- 

Brute. (F.-L.) F. brut, fcm. brute.^ 
L. brutus, stupid. 

Bryony. (L.—Gk.) L. bry<mia.^O}iu' 
&p%nifia, Bftwrrj, bryony.— Gk. fipiup, to 
teem, grow luxuriantly. 

Bubble. (Scand.) Swed. bubbla. Pan. 
bifb/e. a bubble; also Du. bobbei, a bubble, 
bof>ih-Un. lo bubble. A dimin. form ; pro- 
b.ibiy |)Ut for bltU*blt, a dimin. of blob, a 
bubble; ftcre Bleb. 

Buccanier. (K. — West Indian.) F-Vw* 
tanitr, a pirntc. — F. baucaner, to broil on 
a sort of wooden gridiinn.oF. boui<tn, 
wooden gridiron, used by canoibalt {^ 



broiling men and animals. The word AMtfOJt 
is said to be Caribbean, and to mean 'a 
place where meat is smoke-dried.* 
Buck ( I ), a male deer, goat. (£.) M. £. 
bukke. A. S. btuca, a he-goat. + Dn. bok, 
Icel. buJbir, Swed. boci, a he-goat; Dan. 
Ouk, a he-goat, ram, buck; G. bcKi, W. 
dwch, Gael, doc, Irish boc. Also Skt. buJkJka, 
a goat. 

Duokram. a coarse doth. (F.-M.H.G.) 
M. £. bokeram.^O. F. boucaran (F. bou- 
^mn), a coarse kind of cloth ; Low L. bo- 
querannus. — Low L. boguena, goat's skin. 
-M. H. G. boc, a he-goat. 

butcher. (F.-G.) M.E. bocher.^V. 
bocher, orig. one who kills goats. o-O.F. 
boc (F. bouc)^ a goat. — G. bock^ a goat 

Buck (3). to steep clothes in lye. (C.) 
M.E. ^ui^n.'Gaei. buac^ dang used in 
bleaching, lye in which clothes are washed ; 
Irish bua£, lye. Orig. cow-dung ; from 
Gael, and Irish bo, a cow ; see Cow. 

Bucket. (£.) ^."E-boket. Formed with 
dimin. suffix -«/ from A. S. btU^ a pitcher. 
Cf. Gael, bucauf, Irish buicead, a bucket. 

Buckle. (F.-L.) M.£. ^oir/.-O. F. 
bocii (F. bouc/e), the boss of a shield, a ring, 
a buckle,— Low L. buailOf the boss of a 
shield ; buccula, visor of a helm, boss of a 
shield, buckle. -• Lat. buccula, the cheek, 
dimin. of bucca^ the check. 

' buckler. (F. - L.) M. E. bokeUr, - 
O. F. bocUr (F. bouclUr), a shield; so 
named from the boss on it ; see above. 

Buckram ; see Buck. 

Buckwheat ; see Book. 

Bucolic, pastoral. (L. - Gk.) L. buco- 
/iats.^Gk. $ovKo\ne6s, pastoral.^Gk. 0ov- 
Mukott a cowherd. — Gk. 0om, an ox ; and 
KikKuVf to drive. 

Bud. (£■ ?) M. £ budfc, a bud ; budden, 
to bud. Not found in A. S. Cf. Du. bot, 
a bud ; botUn^ to bud. sprout. Prob. allied 
to Beat ; see button under Beat. 

Budge (I), to stir; see Bull (a). 

Budgre (2), a kind of fur ; see Bag. 

Budgrct, a leathern bag ; see Bag. 

Buff, the colour of dressed bufTalo-skin. 
( F. - L.) F. buffie, a buffalo. - L. bufalus ; 
see below. 

Buffalo. (Span.- U-Gk.) Span.*«/&/o, 
buffalo, orig. a kind of wild ox. — L. bujaltu, 
also bubaius. — Gk. ^ov^oXot. a buffalo, 
wild ox, anteloj^c. (Not a true (rk. wonl.) 

Buffer (1), and (i) ; sec Buff^^t (i). 

Buffet (1), a Mow; to strike. (F.) 
M. E. bcfftU ^ufftt, a blow, csix. on the 


cheek. -O. F. bufit, a blow, dfania. of M 
a blow, esp. 00 the cheek ; cf. ^fir, b»^, 
to puff out the cheeks, also Co boffet; m. 
F. bouffer. Prob. of imitative origia, alliel 
Xo puffer, to puff; see Puff. 

buffer (I), a foolish fellow. (F.) Oik 
a stammerer ; hence a foolish fellow. M. & 
bufftH^ to stammer.- O. F. bmjer, toprf 
out the cheeks (hence, to puff or blov ii 

buffer (9), a enshion, to deaden ooo- 
cnssion. (F.) Lit * a striker;* frfmiM.K 
buffen^ to strike, orig. to bnifet on th( 
cheek ; see Bufbt. 

buffoozL (F.) F. bouffoH, a bnflboa 
jester, one who made grimaces. — F. Jn^ 
to puff. 

Buffet (>), a dde-board. (F.) F. kfi 
a side-boua. Origin nnknown. 

Bug (i), a spectre. (C.) In Sh.-W 
bwg, a hobgobhn, spectre ; Ga^ and Ir 
bucan, a spectre.+Lithuan. Anajpii, temfie 
from bugti, to terrify, allied to Skt. hhj 
to bow, turn aside ; see Bow (1). 

bug (2), an insect. (C.) So named lie 
cause an object of terror, exciting disgust 
bug-bear. (C. and £.) A snppOKi 
spectre in the shape of a bear. 

Bugle (1), a wild ox ; see Beaf. 

Bugle (>), a kind of ornament (M.H.G.; 
Low L. bugvH, pi., the name of a kind « 
ornaments ^a.o. 1388). Dimtn. of M.H.G 
bouc, boug, an armlet, large ring, riq 
shaped ornament. — M, Ii. G. bie^u^ t 
bend, bow; cognate with Bow (1). 

Build. (Scand.) l/L,M buldcn. LateA.i 
byldan, to build. — A. S. bold, a house, wbic 
appears to be of Scand. origin, and fornir 
by adding d to Icel. b6l, a house, farm, 'lli 
word is realty Scand. U. Swnl. bjflja, I 
build (Ihre . -• O. Swed. bol, a honse. dwel 
ing ; Icel. b6l, a house, Dan. bol, a snu 
farm. Formed (like A. S. ^i/r -■ E. Afwri 
from Icel. biia. O Swed. bo^ to live^ abtri 
dwell : cf. Skt. bhtl, to be. See Be. 

Bulb. (F.-L.-Gk.) V.bnlbe.-l^bu 
bttSj a bulb.— Gk. 0o\iiM, a bulbous rou 

Bulge. (Scand.) A mther late wor 
Of Scand. origin; Swed. dial, bulg^ \ 
swell out ; bulgin, swollen, pp of a stroi 
verb which occurs as A.S. be/gam (p 
bolgen), orig. to swell, but only used in il 
sense to swell with anger. So also lo 
bJlginn, swollen, angry. (^ BHALGH. 
boll (a), a small tmnour. (E.) ILl 


yif oc ^*, ■ boil. sweUing.*^ 
•L JUU«. Dftn. iyid. G. UuU. 
'««, to piifl'up. 
of ■ ticc (Souid.) M.E. 
)ir, hdr, the trunk of a. ticc, 
. M/; D«a- Axt^- Fjnm iu 

nATcn. (Soind.) led. Mj^nm, 
of « }oU verb; Dun. hullen^ 
w, to nreU ; Swcd. bulna, to 

CE.) A. S. &»///«-; with suffix 
-5//r: from its round shafc. 
O. H- G. fxthtar. 
at pin of iron, an arrow. (E.) 
^ !^ hvit, only in the sense of 
ting bolts; but properly a 
ed from its roundness. 
i«mS\ G. botUH. 
king-ve&scl (.E.) M. E. 
a bowl ; from its round- 
7i:M.H G.^?;/^ SecBaU. 
aur. (Scand) M.E. Mke, a 
MAK. a heap ; O. Swcd. Mk ; 
[K CrSwed.^/nra, toswcU. 
the tnmk of the body. (Du.) 
SmJrJke, thorax (Kiltnn); 
6ukr, the tmnk ; Svvetl. 
ioMfk, the belly (which 
sn /)• "^^^ Gael, i^tf/^ 
of the body, (i) lump 

d.) Dan. bttlvark 
Da. heiwtrk, G. A?// 
imievanf). Compounded 
of a tree, log, Iccl. i'u/r, 
elf a tiee ; and Dan. t'trrit, 
n woik. Lit. 'lou-work,' or 
bo3a above See also 
ofaihop; Bulkhead; 

of Ihe cow- (E.) ME. 
I«C foonrl tn AS., but tbe 

a bullock, occurs. Piob, 

Kv Bellow, +Du. i>u/; 

MU; I. ithsan. ^m//hi. Per. 


(L.) M.E. *«///. 

r^Au, knob. Irailcn 

*.itc LatinV 

■ \. i.I.) Low 

...titi. li ttilfeta, 

\\ kiUti is a c<»rTnpiinQ 

ball, tic \ »re Bull 

(F,-U) F. W////. 

- Low L. hiiiiia^ dimln. of W//», a writing ; 
see but (i) above. 

boll (0, to bubble up. (F-L.) O. F. 
tailiir, to boil (K. 6outMtr).^L ^jf/irt, to 
bubble op, boil.«»L. ^W/a, a bubble; see 
Bull (2) above. 

bowl (0. a round ball. (F. - L.) F. 
Aow.V. a bowl to play with.~Lat. lw//a, t 
bo5s, knob, Ac. 

budge, to stir. (F.-L.) F. SeaPtr, to 
stir; Oic same as Ital Micarr^ to bubble 
up. — L. Ai/Z/inr ; see boil(i) above. Cf. 
Span, builir, (i) to boil, (») to stir. 

bxUlet. (F.-L.) F. inmUt, dimin. of F. 
bouU, a ball; see bowl (1) above. 

bulletin. (F.-Ttal.-L.) ¥. M/t/m, 
a ticket. • llal. bttJ/ef/ino, a safe-conduct, 
pass, ticket Dimin. of buiUfta^ a pass- 
port, lottery ticket, dimin. of bulla, a seal, 
bull. — L. bulla ; see Bull ( j) above. 

bullion cF. - L.) F. boMUhn, a stud ; 
but the O. F. buUione meant a mint, and 
Low L. bulliono, bnllie meant a mass of 
iDelaI.*Low L. bullare, to stamp, maik 
with a seal. — L. bulla, a seal; sec Bull (2). 

ebullition, a boiling over. (F. — L.) 
O. F. ebulltiion.'^'L, ace ebulliti«mcm \ a 
coined word, from ebullituj, pp. oi e-bmllirt, 
to bubble up ; see boil (1) above. 

parboil. (F. — L.) It now means Mo 
boil insufficiently,' by confusion with part. 
The old sense is 'to boil thoroughly.' — O, 
F. parbouillir, to cook thoroughly (Koque- 
fort). — Low 'L. furl'ullirt, \^. f^rbuUin^ to 
boil thoroughly. — L. per^ through ; and 
bullire ; sec boil (above). 
Bullaco. wild plum. (C.) M. E. bcltu, 
'Gncl. bulaisttar, a bullace; Irish buloSp, 
a prune : Hrct boles, tohf, bullace. 
BuUet.BuUetiu.BulUon; weBTill(s). 
Bully, a noisy rough Icllow, (O. LowG.) 
In Sh. — 0. Du. bollaert, ' a jester or a cylwr, 
Hexham; Low G. bulltrjaaH, bulltrl>iik, in 
Hamburgh bulUi-brock (cf. E. bully-rock), 
a boisterous fellow. So also Sued, bulltr' 
bos, a noisy fellow: bvller, clamouri bullnt, 
to make .1 noise. Allied to Bull (T), Bal- 
tow, an<l Boulder. 
Bulrush. (Scand. onJ E.) M. E. bnl- 
rysihi, Piompt. Parv., p. 344, col. a. Lit 
'stem-rush;' from its stout ittcm. ■■ Dan. 
bul, ^xtvA, trunk ; see bola, under Bnl|;e. 
Bulvrark. (Scand.) Sm Bulge. 
Bum, coDti acted form of Bottom. (E.) 
So also O. Frie&ic bodtn, bottom, bicame 
N. Friesic t4n%. 

btun-bailUr, onder-hailifT. (£. mmd F.) 


A slang term. TckM quota passages to 
shew that it arose from the pursuer catch- 
ing 2t & man by iJie hinder part of his 

Bumble-bee, a bee that booms or btuns. 
See Boom (i). 

Bumboat. (E.) From 6um and boa/. 
Grig, a scavenger's boat on the Thames 
(A. t). 1685); afterwards used, to supply 
vegetables to ^hipt- 

Bump (i), to thump ; a blow. (C.) W. 
w/io, to thump; /«*«/, a lump; Com. 

m, bum, a blow ; Gael, and Irish btum^ 
a sliokc, also to strike. Ilie senses are: 
(I) to strike. (3) a blow, (3) the effect ofa 
blow. See Bunch. 

Bump {^\ to boom. (C) See Boom (i). 

Bumper. (F. — L.-Gk.) SteBoom(i). 

Btimpkin. (Du.) See Beam. 

Bun. (F. -• Scand.) O. pror. F. bune, 
bupie, a cake, kind of fritters; the same as 
F. i'ifpUt a swelling or bump due to a 
blow (Burguy), whence mod. F. Ui^it, a 
fritter. * BignttJ, little round loaves or 
lumps/ &C.; Cot — Icel. bun^, a con- 
vexity; bunJti, a bunch ; see Bunch. 

bunion. (Ital. — Scond.) A late word. 
— Ital. ^H^noiu, a round lump, boil, blaiu ; 
■ugmcntative of bupHo, the same; cf. O. ¥. 
bugtte, bum, % swelling ; sec Bun. 

Bunch. (Scand.) M. E. bunche .^^XztX. 
hunki^ a heap, pile ; Dan. bunke, a heap. 
— O. Swed. bunj^, to strike ; Swed. dial. 
htingtt, to bunch out. Cf. Ou. bcnken, to 
beat ; W.J^arw^, a cluster; and seeBamp(i). 

Bundle. (E.) See Bind. 

Bung. tC. ?) Perhaps Celtic; W. hvn^, 
an orifice, also a bung ; O. Gael, buine, a 
tap, spigot ; Irish buinne, a tap, spout. 

Bungalow, a Bengal thatch«l house. 
(Pers.— Bengalee.) Pcrs. bangaiah, of or 
belonging to Bengal, a bungalow; Rich. 
Diet. p. 293. From the name Bengal. 

Bungle. (Scond.) See Bang (i). 

Bunion. See Bun. 

Bunk, a wooden cue or box, berth. 

Scand.) Cf. O. Swed. bunke, the plank- 
g of a ship, forming a shelter for mer- 
chandise, &c. (Ihre); the nsnal sense of 
Swed. bunkt is a heap, pile, something 
prominent ; tee Bimoh. 

Bunt, the belly of a sail. (Scand.) It 
answers in form to Dan. buruU, Swed. 
nt, a bundle, a bunch; from (he pp. of 
verb to Bind. But the right words 
for 'bunt' are Dan. bug, Swed. bmk, Du. 
bogt, from the verb to Bow. 



Bunting (i), a Wrd. (E- ?) U. t 
bmtting\ also buntyU (^btnUtf), 
Sc burtdin. On^m unknown. 

Buntlng(j),a ihiti woollen stuff (« 
(F.-L.-Gk.) Lit. 'sifting-cloth' 
ME. boMtfn ( - buiten),iQ sift ; 

Buoy. (Du.— L.) Du. boa, a bo( 
a shackle, a fetter —Low L. Ma, a' 
clog. — L. boia, pL a collar for ih^J 
orig. of leather. 

Bur, Burdock ; see Burr. 

Burbot, a fish; see Barb (l>. 

Burden ( 1 ). a toad ; sec Bear (t] 

Burden, (a), the refrain of a song." 
Low L.> F. bcunhn, a drone b(«; 
roing of bees, drone of a bagnipc 
— Low L. burJofum, ncc. of ^;rn/«.a1 
Prob. of imitative origin ; ct 
Sc. bin-t CO make a wbiuing 

Bureau. (F.-L.*Gk.) See Be 

Burganet. a helmet. (F.) F. 
^naff, • a burganet.* Cot. So called 
firbt used by the BuigundiaAs. — f 
gppie. Burgundy. 

Burgeon, a bud, (F.— Teal.) 
fCeo»t a young bud. Lengthened] 
Langudoc bcun, a bud, eye of 
(Di«) -M. H. G. bur(n,0. M.G, 
to raise, push np. push out.^M. 
bor, for, an elevation; wbcnoe 
( = in for), upwards. 

Burgess, Burgher, Burglar, 
gomoator. Burial ; see un-icr Baroivi 

Burin, an engraver's tool. (K. — ItaL< 
G.) F. ^ttnw. -Ital. bcnno. Ptob. fre 
M. H. G. borm (G. bchttn), to 
Bore (I). 

Burl, to (»ck knots and looi 
from cloth. (F.-L.) To huri ii 
dS burls, M. £. burle, a knot in 
Langiiedoc bourit, an end of I) 
cloth; dirain. of F. bourrc, a flock 
of wool or hair. — Low L. burra, a 
pad ; allied to L. burra, refuse, trai 
L. rtburrus, rough, &s if from a Li* 
rough. Sec Burr. 

Burlesque, comic. (F.-ltat. 
buricstpie.— XXdX. burUjio, ludit 
buria, waggery, a trick. A drmfas 
burra, rough hair, also a Jest (Al 
Sec BurL 

Burly. (C: with E./«^r.) M. ^ 
buriUkt, borii. Forme*! by addl 
suffix -ly (A. S. -tie) to the base 
and Irish AiJrr. bcrr-^, a knob, bill 
deur, greatness, whence also Iri^ 


na. G«eL ivrr-^U/t swncgering, 
Src BiUT. 
(i>.verb. (EL) M. E. ^cmm; also 
A. S. Aefiman, byman. i>nmnaM, 
verb, pit L i^^m, tran, pp bcmin, 
n; alio /rnnam. Atfrwan. bunnan, 
Kvb>. ^ led. AnrwM. Can. ^ntnJi, 
^ wtow ; G. ^ranjvrw; Gotb. ^Wm* 
^ IVihApt allied to LaL feruitt, to 



i; piece of wood» scar of 
( M. E. ^rond^ A. S. 
}d, a Imju;:^. a swonl ; rrom the pt. t. 
& infffta f t, + led. brnnJr, a tire- 
, nroi^btaiW (rrom its fU&hing > ; 
i. snA t>u. krand, fire-brand, fire; 
3. G, ^#si«f, a bruid, «word. 

■IMIW. (E.) Short for MuN/-n^ur, 
froM tbv fire. 
rant-fbx. brant-goose or brent- 
rbc prefix is SomJ- »s in Swed. 
)gUv\f* a branl-fox, brandg^^ a btent- 
T1*e orig. fcnse if 'Lurat/ with 
aoCiOfi nf redness or biowniics«. 
raadlflh. i;F.— Scaod.) M. £. bmun- 
t-^V- SmrtJi^t'<tH/, pres. pt. of brana'ir. 
LaDcQah a iword. — Norman F. brandy a 
w IccL Ar«»Vr ; sec brand above. 

(Dil) FornKfly h^rUivint, 
; vbcDCc brandy * Dii. hmuJe- 
i.~«i«o iiwu^ryN. brandy; lit- burnt 
vDa. bramJr, for gtbrwtdttt bomt; 
««/«, «riec '^ %ct Bum. 

W^l (s), a soit of dance. (F.^Scand. 
at. > 'A French brau'lj" L. L. L. lii. 
K. ^^muU, 'a * ■ - vig, . . ^rau// 
CoL - --. to reel ; 

. T,4rmUtr. A -_ _. ^ btamitUr 
fr), hmM^ Ikr, to wag. shake (CotO. 
»tati«« formt of F. krwuiir. See bran- 

I ftbOTV. 

rlSB«ton« snlphnr. (£.) M. E. brim- 
, also brtmtoon (Wyclif).- 
V, to bnm. and //«m. stone. 

lao Xotl- ^ffmmiMttinm, brimstone. 

rlndlad. bcindad, sticakd (Scand.) 

, Ai-r«./-, St in *^r''ftMttr, briodlcd, said 
. a brand, flame, 


rtno >,(-..' "^i <- ■'tirt4. A S- brynt, 

bqokor; • p«Jlit-uUr uk of brynt, a 

stn_< fram the bomiit^; lastc. — A. S. 

of i«»#tMii) to bum. 4" O. 

*icr:::r DtL ^nrn, pickle. 

;i onset. (Scanfl.) 

• IceL bruna, to 

u;^^ wiU) liic s^-ctni of 6rc, as in battle. 

— Icel. brum, burning, heat, — IceL brunn- 
um, pt. pi oi bfcntta. to hum. 

Bum (3), a brook : sec Bourn (a). 

Burnish : see Brown. 

Burr, Bur. (E.) M. E. bHfrt. knob 00 
a buixlock : borrr, roughness in the throat. 
Not in A. S. •4- Swed. bcm. a sea urchin; 
kartiborrt, a burdock ; Dan. borre, burdotk. 
Cf. Gael. A)/rd, a knob, bcrr, to swell 
Der. bur-Jock. 

Burrow ; see Borough, 

BursQX. (1^ -.Gk.) See Furae. 

Burst. (K.) M. K. brrsfen, brttten, pt t, 
brojt. A. S. birstan, to burst asunder, 
break ; str. vb. + Uu. Ursten ; G. bersten \ 
Icel. bresta ; Swed. brista ; Dan. brisU. 
Cf Gael, brisd, to break. 

broofit. (E.) M. E. breast. A. S, brt^st. 
+ Du. b^rst; Icel. brj6st\ Swed. brost\ 
Pan. hyst\ G. brust; Goth, bruits. The 
O. H. G. /rwj/ means (i) a bursting, {i\ a 
brcnst ; the orii;. sense is a bursting foilh, 
from the swclHni; of the female breast. 

Bury(i),tohide; (2) town; see Borough. 

Buah (X), a thicket. (Scand.) M. £, 
buvrM, busk. — 'D:iXi, busk, Swed. buske, a 
bush.shnib. 4> Du ^M (whence F. bois)\ 
O. II.G.^'/*jf ; G. btisch. 

ambuscade. (Span. -Low L.-Teut.') 
Si.>an. amhuscaJo, embcscaJa, an ambush. 
Grig. pp. of tmboscar, to set in ambnsh.M 
Low llat. imbescare, lit. to set in a bush or 
thicket. — L. im-, for in. in; and Du. boscA, 
Dui. busk, a bush, thicket. 

ftmbush. (,F.-Low L,-Teut.) For- 
tatrXy embus h.^ O. F. ^mbusiMtr.embuusiirt 
to set in ambush. —Low L. tmboiiran; as 

bouquet. (F. - Low L. - Tcut ) F. 
bouquet \ O. F. bosquet ^ orig. • a little wood,' 
dimtu. of O. F. hos (F. wi>), a wood. — 
Low L. bcscum, bus^um, a wood. — Diu 
bffsch, a wood, or O. H. G. btuc. 

BUflh r?) : see Box (i). 

Bushelt a measure ; see Pyx. 

Bufik (I), to get oneself ready. (Scand.) 
See Boor ; and compare Baak. 

Busk (a), a support for a woman's stnya, 
(F.) F. busque, 'a buske, or bustc;' Col. 
Also spelt bustt. It seems tu be the same 
word as Bust, q.v. 

Buaklu. (Du.) Put for bruskin. O. Dv. 
bfMukrMS, buskins (Sewclj ; from t J Du, bor- 
stkcn. a little pui«. — O V.bvrst ; sec Purao. 

Btisa, to kiifi. ;G. ; fCH/tuid xvitk V. — L.) 
The old word was bast. — F. b^sinr^ to ki«a. 
>Lat. basium, a kiss. Conf utad vfUli Q 

58 BUST. 

and proT. G. (Bavarian) hussen, to kist; 
cf- Gael, and W. bus, mouth, Up. 

Bust. (F.-ltal.) F. busie.^lXMX. busto, 
the bust, trunk of human body, stays. — 
Low L. bustum, the trunk of the body. 
Etym. uncertain. 

Bustard. <K.-L.) See Aviary. 

Bustle. (Scand.) IccL bttstia, to bustle, 
splash about as a fish. Cf. Dan. Imstt to 
bounce, pop ; Swed. dial, busa, to strike, 
thrust. Prob. allied to Busy. 

Busy. (£.) M. £. bisy. A. S. byH^, 
active; whence bysgu^ exertion. "^ Da. 
bezig, busy. Cf. Boatle. 

But (i), prep, and conj., except* (E.) 
See Out. 

But (2) ; see Butt (i). Butt (a). 

Butcher : see Buck (i). 

Butler; see Bottle (i). 

Butt (i), an end, to thrust ; see Beat. 

Butt (a), a large barrel. (F.-I*-Gk.) 
\Ve tind A. S. bytt; but our mod. word is 
really F. -O. F. Aw//^ F. botte, ' the vessel 
which we call a buit,^ Cot. — Low L. butta, 
a cask. - Gk. jSurif, ^oCnt, a flask ; of un- 
certain orij;in. 

boot (i), a covering for the leg and 
foot. (F.-G.) O. F. boute, F. botte, (i) 
a butt, (a) a boot ; the same word as the 
aI>ove ; from their former shni>e. 

Butter. (L.-Gk.) M. K. boUni A.& 


buttr^butera. ^'L.bHiyrum. — Gk.ilstfrf^ 
butter; lit. ox>cheese. — Gk. ^oim, aa v 
and rvp^, cheese. ^ Really Scythisa; A 
Gk. sense is a forced one. 

butterfly. (E.) A. & butior-JU^.'Bk 
butter-fly. So called from its exocsMi 
resembline butter, as shewn by the 0. Di 
boter-sthijttt a butterfly, lit. bnttervoidi 
(KiUan). -|- I^n- b9Ur^ieg\ a M(n 

Buttery; see Bottle (i). 

Butto<^ Button ; see BeM^ 

Buttress ; see Brattio^ p. 49, cbL \. 

Buxom; see Bow (z). 

Buy. (£.) M. £. bu^m^ biggm, A ! 
byegoHt to purchase, "f- Gou. bugj^ 
f}et. abidt (a), q. ▼. 

BuSB. (E.) An imitative word ; ctLn 
Sc biz», to hiss ; ItaL huMumn, to kn 

Bunard. (F.-L.) M. E.^«raftf.teMi 
an inferior kind of falcon. — F. bmtard. 
F. bttse, a buzzard ; with suflix -anf.— L( 
L. ^«w— L. buttfif a sparrow-hawk. 

By. prep. (E.) U.K bi, A. S. i/, A 
+ Dn. bij; G. bti; GoUi. ia, O. SI 
obAi, Gk. dfupl. 

By-law, a law afliecting a towuhi 
(.Scand.) See Boor. 

Byre, a cow-honse. (£.) A Nortbetn 
derivative of bower ; tee p. 46, coL I, L u 


Cab (i) ; see Caper (i). 

Cab (3^. a Heb. measure. (Heb.) Heb. 
^ab, the JSlh part of an ephah. ITie literal 
sense is 'hollow ;' cf. Heb. qtibab^ to form 
in the shajie of a vault ; see Aloove. 

Cabal. (F.- Heb.) Orig. ' a secret.* F. 
(obaie, 'the Jcwes Caball, a hidden science;* 
Cot. — Ucb. qabbMiih, reception, mysterious 
doctrine. — Heb. qdbalf to receive; gibbei» 
to adopt a doctrine. 

Cabbage (i); see Capital (i). 

Cabbage (a), to steal. (F.) F. eabasser^ 
to put into a basket. — F. cabas^ a basket ; 
of unknown oiigin. 

Cabin. (C.) U.Z. caban.~\f. caban, 
a booth ; dimin. of cab^ a booth made with 
rods set in the ground and tied at the top ; 
Gael, and Irish caban, a booth, hut, tent. 
(Hence also F. eabam.) 

cabinet. (F.-C.) F. cabituf, dimin. 
of F. eabame, a cabin ; a word of Celtic 
origin, u abovs. And sc* OabarcUne. 

Cable, a rope ; see Oapaotons. 

Caboose, the cook*t cabin on board ih 
(Du.) Formerly camboast. — Dn. bo 
buiSf a cook's cabin ; also ' the cfaimoey 
a ship,* Sewel. A jocular word ; it mea 
lit. 'dish-pipe;' faom Du. kom, a di 
and buis, a pipe; witii reference to i 
cook*s dishes and chimney. (Henoe a 
Dan kabys^ Swed. kafyuh caboose.) 

Cabriolet ; see Oaper (1). 

Caoao, atree. (Span.— Mexican.) Sp 
tacao\ from the Mexican name of the fi 
of the tree whence chocolate is ma 
^ Not the same as cocoa. 

chocolate, a paste made from cac 
(Span. — Mex.) Span. r^wwAi/lr.— Mex.r 
colatl. chocolate, Clavigero, Hist, Mex. i 4 

Cachlnnation. (L.) L. ace. <mtkm 
tiontm, loud laughter. ^L. taeMimamnt 
laugh. Cf. Cackle. 

C^ok, to go to itooL (L.) U.E.«aU 


.V ~ '», a frrafMnt- 

I »u- hildlen \ 

-J t^jt^/n. The 

r« K li«nh sotmd. (Gk.) Gk. 
Mund. •• Gk. «ax^^v»f, 
, bad i uid ^wf-if, soaad. 

idiow. (F.-L.) See under 

; K< 0*d«noe. 
smmU lioK for tea. (MaUyO 
A tmr.M package of lea, 
1 1I ibe tea-trade 
'/, a catftr, a 
t^ ,. aM.KUHpois. This 
rl in China and Japan, 
ie up iu packages coll- 
•t, cask. (L.) L. ittdmt a 
»Gk «u9or, a cask, 
a fail xd the Toice. (7.-L.) 
.»F. oadErfUY, *a cadence, just 
'^ CoU^Low U etuUniia, 
stem of pres. pL oi 
1. f»d, to (aJL 

evenu (F.-L.) F. 
veesdmt:' Cot. — L. tufitient-, 
of acdiiert, to happen.— 
CMtmr, to fall. D«r. 

oorpsc-like. (U) L. 
^—L. t^J^ur, a conjsc. — Lat. 
II. fxir r^ead. 

'I^) L. etninntSt 


r — i:r.i — L.) V.€as€adi.^ 

a waterfall : orig. fem. pp. of 

"* l^it iot rdJKU/r*.— L. 

r.wLk. fia/wffi, sup. oi t^^Urt, 

«iicaL(F.— L.) M.£.mi.- 
» UU, a caue.oL. 

cliaiK«.«»L. iwrif-. crude funu 

». So also ^»uu it/. 

<K.-L.) Si. I'.-fAouHCi. 

'hofw L. cthitnita, a fall- 

Gftdanoe. Oer. ^* 

rtc w-hh. (U) L- r«- 
1), a.-Ml Mcii^nr, to fall 
tl below. 

(K. - L.> F. .<1(^ 
rtfai>m<M» decay. ■» 



L. dt, down ; eadeniia, a falling ; sec 

decay, to fall into ruin. (F.-L.) O. F. 
circatr.mmO, F. i/if- ; and eacr, to fall. — L. lit, 
down ; and cotitrr, to fall. 

docidiious, falling off. (L.) L. Ufciii- 
UHJ, that foils down. •- 1^ dtcuUrt^ to fall 
down. — L. d4, down ; and eadtrt. 

eache&t. (K. — L) M.K. eschttt (also 
chiU), a forfeit to the lonl of the fee. — O.F, 
tj{hrt, rent, that which falli* to one, pp. of 
ischeoir (F. A-Aflir). — Low L. tx-cadtre, to 
fall in with, meet. — L. <x, out ; and eadirtf 
to fall. Hence cJua/. 

incident. (F,-*L.) V.inrntien/, 'an inci- 
dent ;' Col — l- incident , stem of of 
imtdert, to fall upon — L. in, on ; andca/Zr/v. 

occasion. (F. — L.) — 1*. ot-cojion. — X.. 
ace. oiiasidM^m. — 'L. oc- (for eb, at); and 
casus, pp. of (Otiertf to fall. 

Occident, west. (F.-L.) O. F. ftYiV/- 

rw/, west — L. Occident-, stem of pres. pt. 

of oceidert \ sec oooaaion (above). 

Cadet ; sec Capital. 

Cseura. (L.) L.C4rxwni,a cutting: a pnnse 

in R verse.— L. casus, pp. oi ordere, to cut. 

oiroumcise. (L.) L, circMmeit'Us, pp. 
oi eircumcidere, to cut round. — L. circutflt 
round ; and cadert, to cut. 

oonciae. (F. — L.) F. eaneit.^h. <vh- 
eisuj, bnef, cut short ; pp. of coneidtre — 
L con- (for rum, together); and cadtn^ 
to cut. Der. ccneis-iot$, 

decide (.F - L.) F. <iVr»Vi>r. - L. deeid- 
err, pp. dccisus, to cut off, decide. — L. dt, 
down ; and cadert, to cut. 3>«r. dids-ioH 
(from pp. i/zruwi). 

excision. (F.-L.) F. exeistpn^ 'a 
dei-troying ;' Cot. — L. ace. extisiontm, a 
catting out, a destroying. — L. txtisus, pp. 
of ex-cidere, to cut out. 

incise, to cut into. (F. — L.) V. inciter. 

— L. ineitus, pp. of in-ei^Ure^ to cut into, 
precise. (F.-L.) OF. /nAu, strict. 

— L./nfn/wr, cut off, concise, strict; pp. 
of Pnt-eidere, to cut off. 

Note also suffix -cide in Momi-cide, sui- 
-cide, in/imft-eide, ate. if Here probably 
belong chisei, iciuors, q. v. 

CoouoouB ; sec Codanoo. 

Caftan, a Turkish ganncui. (Turk.) 
Turk i^, a HrcM. 

Cage ; see Cave. 

Oairn, a pile of »tc»nc4 (C.) C«el., 
Irish, W., bret. earn, a crag, rock ; also n pile 
of vione*. (Jael. caim, gen. oi cam i earn 
verb, to ptU up. 




GUtlff: a 
CWol*: tec Qfev«. 
Oftks: fee Cook. 

CftUmikj. (F.-L.) r. <afcaBfilf.«>I. 

Calaah. a sort <tf cuxMt. (F. « G. • 
SlmMic) F. <«fiac.G. iHU^Kic-PbL 

Acamssc; Rom. iwfi ii aafa ^ a caniaee. — PoL 

aDd Rtas. i0&, a wbecL (VKAi.) 
Oacareooa, CaloiiM^ Calculate; see 

Caldron, Cauldron. (F.-L.) O.F. 

taidrm * (protx Picard), girta oalj- in tfe 
fom thaUfwrn, mod. F. t/kamdnm (IfcaL 
tatdtrom, Spui. /vAJfrvn), a vessel for kol 
water. ^L. mJUkr, oootr. fonn of imHita, 
hot.- L. adtrt^ to be boc^^t fr^. to bofl. 

calanture, a feverou olmukss. (F.«> 
S{ian, — L.) F.^-a/fiv/ar/v.— Span. oodbMarvL 
— L. caiinl', stem of pttt. pt. of trnkn^ to 
be hot. 

calorie. (F. - U) F. tmUfifme, - L. 
M/^n heat. — L. iaUrt, to be hot 

caloHilc, making hot. (L.) L. caUri- 
fiim, cualing hot. — L. ca!i>ri; crude form of 
caJor, heat ; and ■/<■-, ior factrt, to oaake. 

caudle, a w»nn drink. (F.-L.) O.F. 
cauJel, chatoUJ, a ioit of wann drink.— 
O. F. cMaml^ cJtaiJ, hot. - L. cj.V«j, for 
tAlidm, hot. 

chafe, to warm fay friction, rex. (F.— 
L.) M. K. chau/en, to warm. — O. F. 
chauftr (F. </tat$fer\ to warm ; cf. Prov. 
caJ/ar, to warm. — Low L, caUfi^art^ to 
warm. — L. caSefsuere, to warm, make to 
glow.— L. £aJt-rc, to glow ; facert, to Piake. 

chaldron, a coal measure. (F. — L.) 
O. F. iMaidrtm, orig. a caldnxi ; lee 

scald (I), to bam. (F.-L.) ME. 
tealdtn. — O. F. escaUtr*, later form a- 
chsiuiUr, to scald (F. ^haadfr), - L. 
txcaiiUxrt, to wash in hot water. - L. cjr^ 
out, very: and <aUtu ^ catiJui^ hot. 
Calendar ; sec C&lenda. 
Calender, a mathme for preiiing cloth; 
lee Oy Under. 

Cftlenda. ( L.) L. caUttda, s. pi., the fint 
day of the (Roman) month. Ong obscarc ; 
but ccrtiiioly ixomO.I^i..'a^« {orcaUre*), 
to proclajm.-^Gk. ta^tiv, to Ruramon. 

oaUodar. (L.) L. caUmdatiuM, an 


kept In money-c 

fittest WM 

{JLA daj> ai each moot 
— 1> tmltmdm. raknda 
(L) Pp.ofU 
briif tqgitfhcr, coorilatc— 

aoiBua.(F.-L.) V.ttmik. 
imm, «■ ■iiiiMlly called t 
(caoaX Iqe^ther ; aad eaiart, to 

Intarealata, to inaert. (L.) Froa 
of L. imier'tAtart, to proclaiiD that 
hai bem tsKxted ic thie calendar, lo il 

raooacUe. iF.-U) O.F 
—I- IT-, ^aia i itmiUare \ mc oao«4l 

Calantora; aecOaldroiL 
Can <^) M.E. ia/T- A.S. m 
Da. AtfjT; loeL 14^: Swed. H^\ 
imhi Godi. i«S«: G. kai^ D«r. 4 
A. 5. ftmifioM. 

Caliber, Calibre, bore of a gtax. 
F. caJiJirr, sire of a bore. Et)'m. onks 
Perhaps fram lihrJ, with what v< 
( Dici) ; or from Aiab. qjiti>, a fonn, m 
modd. Rich. Dice p. 1 1 1 1 i Littr^). 

oalipera, compasses, ih.) VyH 
caHitr-epm/aiiet, i.e. compos-ses for 
ing diamelersi see above. 

caliver, a sort of musket. (F. 
from its caiiber or borr ' 

Calico, cottoa-clot>. 

from Caiicut, on theM;. 

it was (wil imforted. 

Calif. Caliph. (F.-Arab.) F 
sacceuor of the prophet. — Arab, 
succeasor.^ Arab. kAaia/a, to 
Caligraphy, Calligra 
ing. (Gk.) Ok. mcXKAy^ 
prefix (from c(l\us« good, 
«ij», to wnte. 

oallsthenica, calliathenl 
ful exercuea. (Gk.) Ffom Gk 
aBtv-ift, adorned with streugth. — Gk. 
(fur JToAiST, fair); and a$iv-vst s' 

calomel, a prci^ararlon e 
(Gk.) Coined to c«ijre>s a. 
from B b!ack ftobstancc—Gk. 
and >t^X ai. black. 
Calipers ; mc OaUbor. 
Caliathetiios : sec Califfraphy. 
Caliver ; &re CftUber. 
Cftlk, Caulk. tF-L.) M. 
tolrcft(i.-0. F, - '" ■" 

A wound with '■■ 
force down by y. . - 

calx, th« heel I MC UmL 





<L.) From pp. of U ^»- 

tRH Ib« heiLCe, to enforce 

•» L» Of, ia ; cfUcan, to 

■^ A. S. ftallian \ cf. kiUt-^alla, 
4>Db. to^^ff; Icel. uhI SwcO. 
CtaL ^ilrib j O. IL G. cAaUw. 
. (L. amJ E.) From L. rr-, bftck : 

% kftM. fF.*I-) F. taJirmjt.^ 
f Uuck-tfc innwl. — L. caj/ut, eaUutH, 

V im6ed^ ball). (E.) M.E. 
Npv. A.b. r«/M, haiil 4'Ou. iAt/, 
ed.i«/: G. ^v ' ' '/./^: SkL 

idd-hcMled. ) 

Hr.-Gk.) J: .:j. Allied 

the time when the Hocks 
(formal^ tAaitmet), to rest 
L. tauma, the heat of 
tine for rest).— Ck. «ibf«a, 
i»», to bum. Her. U-caim, 
iX. ) See CftUcTftpliy* 
lo ; icc Oaldron. 

KCBsaiioQ. — L. calui, 

(F.*L.) M.E. chaltnge, 
scoK 'a claim.' >■ 
r. a dispute, claim ; 
tmtuntHia \ %ct above. 


L. i^tx, stone, lime (stem 
L.acaU. + W. airey^. Munc. 

(L.) Should be <aUanimi. 

]xruimDg to lime. •> L. 

(F.«*t«) F. rff Ain/r. » Low 
U) fedoce to ft calx. * !>. cal£; 

\.. cdJaJattii, pp. of 

by help of &mall 

.a-.'.ui'u.i, pebble i dimin, of 

• pavf' ■-■ -' "IT. 


7( it 

■■■J, bpan. 

«/- r caUiiUa 

»Low L. cakia/us, pp. 

kke a roadway with 

iinc % Or ffom Low 


y .u;i, A.s. rto;^. 



a coreriflg. calyx (or cup) of a flower. 

Cam ; sec Comb. 

Cambiic. tn'">ders.) N.imed from 
Kttmerijk, also called Cambray. a town in 
I'lnnder*, where it was fiisl made. 

CameL (F. - L.-Gk. - Heb.) M.E. 
camd, <amaii, chameL •• O. F. camtl, ihanul. 

— L. (amttus. — Gk. mi^i/Aot. • Heb. gdmdl. 
Cf. Krah. jamal. 

camelopard, a giraffe. (L.— Ilcb. and 
Gk.) Formerly eamdop<u-daiis. <» L. ca- 
nuhpaniaiis. — Gk. «a^Aovii^>2aAis, giraffe ; 
partly like a camel, jiaxtly like a pard.* 
Gk. j(a/u]Ao-r. a camel i^Wch. gdrndi) \ nud 
«af>3aA(t, a pard i see FartL 

camlet, a «tuft. ^Arah ) Formerly 
fdm^^/.supposedto be named from coittAin- 
iiiK iitmel's nair. Really iVoro Arab, kham^ 
/at, khamalat, camlet; Kicb- Diet p. c'ljs. 
Camellia. (Personal name.) A plant 
named after Geo. Jos. Kamcl, a Moravian 
Jesuit, who dt'&cjibed the plants Ui the 
ishuid of Liuon. 
Camelopard : see CameL 
Cameo. (Ital.) Ital. cammeo, a cameo, 
piecious stune carved ic relief. Origin tin* 
Camera. (L.) L. camera,, a chamber; 
hence camera odsatra. a dork chamber, box 
for photography ; see Chamber. 
Camlet ; see CameL 
Camomile ; .%ec Chamomile. 
Camp. (L.) We find F. camp (Cot.) ; 
bnt the E. word was prob. taken directly 
from L. eamfus. a field, ground held by an 
army. + Gk. w^»o», a garden. 

campaign, orig. a large field. (F.» 
L.) F. (Picard) camfaigne^ campapic, an 
open Acld. — L. camfoHui, open field. — L. 
lamptis^ a field. (Also sptlt champaii^M^ 
and even champion in old authors.) 

oampestral, Rowing in fields. (L.) 
L. camficitr-is^ growing in fields. — L. cam- 
pus, a field. 

champaflrno. (F.— L.) Awinenaroed 
from Champagne in France, which means 
*a plain ; ' sec below. 

champaign, oi^en country. (F.— L.) 
In Sh. F. champai^^nt, of which tlie Picard 
form wa,^ cautpati^u ; see oampatgn. 

ohampioa. (F.-L.) O.Y. champion, 

— Low L, eanipiimemt ace. of campio, a 
combatant. — Low L, camput, a duel, com- 
bat ; a peculiar use of L. camptt-t^ a held. 

decamp, to depart. (F — L) F. (//• 
nlM/tfr; O. F. ^•TAdw/tf^, eiig. to t«uov« 




a camp.«»L. dt's-, awa^; and campus, a 
field, latrr. a camp. 

Bnoamp. (F.-L.) Coined from *h- 
( — F. fn, L. xh)\ ajid camp; hence * to 
form into a camp.* 

Boamp. (K.-ItAl.-L.) Formerly a 
vagabond, or fugitive. — O. F. tsca/rip^r, 
t'es^ampfr, to flee. — Ilal. uampare, to es 
cape, decamp.^L. ex, out; and (ampus^ 
battle Aeld. Ddr. scamptr, to nin or flee 

shamble, to walk awkwardly. (Du.— 
F.* iLal.^L.) T>ix.sehantp€Uft, to stumble, 
trip, also to decamp. — U. F. /ctcamptr, to 
decamp; as above. 

Campaign, Campeatrsi ; see Camp. 

Campaaula, (L.) Lit. *a little bell;' 
dimin. of I>nw L. campana^ a bell. Hencx 
aUo campanifonn. 

Camphor. (F. — Arab— Malay.) For- 
rocrly spelt camphire (with an inserted i"). 

— F. camphrt, ' camphire ; * Cot, — Low 
L. camphora (whence the form eoMtpkor). 

— Arab, kiifur^ camphor; cf. Ski. iar;^i^/T», 
camphor.— Malay kdpUr, liL chalk; ktipUi 
Jiariis, chalk of Baruus, a name for cam 
phor. h'aivHs is in .Sumatra, 

Con (I). 1 am able. (E.) A.S. can, 
ta/iit, ist and ^rd persons sing. pros, of 
cunnan, to know. The prc^. t. can is 
re&ily an old pt. t. ; the same peculiarity 
occnn in Uu. kunnen, Icel. and Swe^l. 
kurma^ Daii. kttfuie, to know, to be able ; 
G. kontUH, to know. B. The pt. t. is 
€OuU, with intrusive/; Ui.^. ctftnit, A.S. 
(li^i ; cf. Cloth. kurUha, Du. kondi, G. 
kmntt \ shewing that A. S. ci/fff (for 
<uv^*\ has lost an n. y. The pp. couth, 
A. h. (Uti, known, only survives in ««- 
ccuth, which see below. (.^UAN.) 

eonO). to enquire into, observe. (E,*) 
M. E. cnnnun, to examine. A. S. rttnman, 
test, seek to know ; a dcstderalive form 
from cHttnan, to know. Der, aU-tfinner^ 
i. e. alc-le?i!er. 

coddle. (E.) Put for f(»iiM//, frequent, 
form of M. E. ku\^n {kuihtkfn\ to be 
familiar, embrace. — A. S. kUti, known, fa- 
miliar; !.ee Can, 5 Y- 

cunning, adj. (_E.) Orig. pre*, pt. of 
M. E. curtfUH, to know. 

cunning, sb. (Scand.) Modified from 
Icel. kuHftanJt, knowledge. — Icel. tunrm, 
to know. See Can {i). 

ken, to know. [Scand, > M. E. ke»n/fi. 
M Icel. k^ntuif Swed. kanna, Dan, kitHtie, 
to know ; to alao G. ktnneK, A. S. cfunan, 


Goth, kattn/att. Causal form of 

to know, derived from can by vowel-duai 

of a to/. 

kith, kindred, acquaintance, (V.) M 
ci/S^c, kith. A. S. nr^iV, native land^ I 
dred. — A. S. rW9, knowor pp. of 
to know, 

kythe, to make known. (E) A; 
cyf>a», to make known. « A. S. Afl^ km 

uncouth. (E.) A. S. umnitf, <jrig. I 
known: hence, strange, odd —AS •• 
not ; and ctlH, known, pp. of cWMO*, 
know. And see Know. 

Can (a>, a dnnk<n(;-ve.^5c1. (E.) A 
canna, canm. ^ Du. J^m ; Icel 
Swed. karma ; Dan. kanM ; G. 
tankard, mug. (Apparently % true Tl 
Canal. (F.-L.) F. <-*««/ (whi 
Du. kanaai.) — L. cauaiu, a channel 
orig. a cutting. Cf Skt. k.kitn^ 
fierce; khani, a mine. (^SK.V.> 

channeL { F. — L. ) M . E. fkam^^ 

— O. F. ckanel, <antt, a canal. — L. 
as above. 

kennel ( j), a gutter. (F. » L) 
tion of M. E. fa«^/. a channel : i 
Canary, a bird, a wine, • 
(Canary Islands.) All named 
Canary i&Iaods. 
Cancel; see Cancftr. 
Cancer, (L) L %anfe^, a crib; «h». 
'eating* tumour. + t'k. xv^wdroc, Shi. 
ka\ay a ciab ; cf. Skt. hixrketn^t hanL N 
from its hard shell. 

oonceL (F.-L.) F, camttUr.^ 
L, cancellare, to cancel a d«^l hrdi 
lines scross it, — L. eafh< x 

camalfi, laltice-work ; • 
crib, whence pi. eancn. iv-n. 
mean lattice-work. 

canker. (L.) L. rnttcfr, a eak 
cancer; hence that whit:1i corrodes. 

chancel, (F.-L.t .Sn cnllrd 
orig. fenced ofT by a Im: . 
chancel , an enclostire '■ -'tk 

open screen, — Low L r.i'..t.--., ^ li 
ii:rcat ; L. cctnctiluit ft gritinj; 
oaooel (above). 

chancellor. (F.-L,> O.Y.c 

— Low L, ace, cametinfiwm^ ^ 
orig. an ofliecr who Moud ne*r tiie 
before the juilgment tcai. — L. 
grating; see okauoel (aUfvc). 

chancery. <F.-L) For <km 
M. £. ckanctUrit.'-O F. t^atuMiai 


i«, th« rrcorii'toom of ft 

Mv chaxieellor. 

»cc Oftadld 

(V— L> F. canJt^U. white. 

.mL. MmJiiat, white, .^liunig 

lo thaar . L tanJfn •, to «t 

(L.) A candlc'holder : 

,) fis, while 

Ci»)j . Lithcc wore 

[la, (U) A S.eaHdiL^L,taHdeta, 

r •>!*. otMdfwt, to glnw. 

kmr. (F.«*Ul h .aW/'wr.-.L.ftcc. 

rbcncc, finccrilvV 

<L jub/ F.) i.)t a 

ttuc it bums brighily. 

• (ajKlW; Kre c&ndlo. 

. — U) bhon for incenser^ 

iV. w Low L. ifUCHSprium, a 

r ■• Low L. ittfiHJum ; sec 

Mlatlor (F-L.) O.V chaN,feiur, 
•l»oliicr- * Low L- toMiiiiarxa, a 
>L. tMm^Ia ; fritr caDdle. 
CF.- U) O. K. <AanJtUer, & 
L <^tmtfiaTiui ft Londle- 
icc ouidle. Der. 
, wfkcrc tkiinJUr mcjcly 

lt> RlowinK bo! (L > From 

of in fsn^itture, to glow ; 

ihc inceptive form of 

(L.) L. iturmJian'uj, sct- 

iM.vt../1/iMi, ft, tmminf;.* L. 

m, u{iOQ i and 

1 lid. 

Jilliimv. (L) L. M- 

rftf to tcl oil (ire ; see 


of burnt 



• ut. 

ftt tft- 


.h. IJor- 

le (iu hi 
icc lotrl. 

IF,- Hal -PtT«.) 

i'llc;* Cot - IiaL 

■ am/i, c»ndy; 

; — ftri. «nd 

3 i wiioMM Anb. 


faruf/t nuidc of sugar. The word in Aryan 
(Peri.) ; cl. bit. **A./nd«rr.w. sweetmeat*, 
/kAanda. a broken jiiccc. Hex. sngisr-iafu/y, 
Ital. tmtMer» 4aniii. 

C&ne. ( F. - L. - G k .) ME. earn, ranw, 

— F. carint.^l^ eanna **Cf\i.K^yvo, *r»(»nj, 
ft rred. Cf. Heb.yo/i^^, retd; Arab, ^anii/, 

canister. (L - Gk.) L. canit/mm, a 
reed tia^ket. "*Gk. Kavnar^r, the sauic.* 
Gk. K^trr} = k6»vj}^ a iced. 

cannon. (F.-L -Gk.) F. canon, 
orig ft gun • barrel— L.. catma, a reed ; see 

canon. (L.-Gk.l A.S. canon. - L. 
<ano», a rule. — Gk. xamn-, a rod, rule. — 
Gk. K^fr] = /nivrij, a (slraighl) cane. 

O&ninfi. (I>.) L. catunur, tietonging (o 
a Hog. — L. canu, a dog ; see Hound. 

kennel (i), a house for ^.o^%. (F. — L) 
hX. E. ktnci. A Norman form of O. F. 
cktttil, a kennel. M Norman F. ^ctj, O. F. 
chin (,F. chicn^, a dog, from L. ace camm, 
a dog ; with suffix -i7»L. 'iVV, as iu ffH-i/r. 
a shccp-fold. 

Canister ; tee O&ne. 

Canker ; kc Oanoer. 

Cannel-ooal ; see Candid. 

Cuinibal. (Span.-W. Indian.) Fof^ 
mcrly canibal. — Span, canibai, corruiilion 
of Caribai, a Carib, native of the Caiib- 
bean Islands. The ^V. lodian word carid 
means 'brave.' 

Cannon ; free Caoe. 

Canoe. (Span. — \V. Ind.) Span, tanoa ; 
orig. ft Caribbean word for ' boat.* 

Canon : sec Cane. 

Canopy ; sec Cone. 

Cant (i\ to sing tn s whining way, 
whme. (L.) L. fdwAtr*, lo sing ; frujtKnt. 
of canere, to ling. So aX^Q Gael. atiHHt, 
talk; from mn, to sing, say. Cattt wab at 
lirst a beggar's whine ; hence, hypocrisy ; 
see recnnt, 

Acoont. (F.-L.) F. A-^m/.-L. ace 
(ucenium, a tone.— L, oc- Kiox m/); and 
cart/us, a singing. — L- cttMtus, pp. of fOMert. 

canorous, tuneful ^L.) L. 
L. toHtrt, to sing ; »ee above. 

canticle. (L.) L. cantuulum, a littls 
»or>g ; dimiri. of canttcum, ft song ; diniin. 
of cantMs, a song 

canto. Otal — l*) ^**L ''*«/o. « *>"jj- 
ing, section of a poem. — L. ace eantum, a 
auiging. KWig. 

canaonet (Itol.-L) Ital eanumrf'^t, 
dlmiu. of fai*uM4t a li>tuB, tuii^.ol* 


aV.^ W--^ 

% Ifec 

«U Mrs back; 

MX t O. F. 

i.) F. 

- -U 41k, down; 
4«^ Dtr. d^eanl- 

■ • liroher, & 

mil cantltr, 
w-, |>renx, 

04rt» I'lV 

§ •V*>>«' o^ > 


il from F. rantffn, a comet, 
a s:}UAiT<1 stone; from G. 
: «e Cant (a). 

(F.-U-Gk.) M.E.M 

— L Mimufiis, bcmp.«Gk.«i 
GC Skt fond, hemp ; sc« H* 
(F.-L.-.Gk.) Ori£. W 

bencc to sin, 
r, to cixivas^ tO 
C«Ql (I). 

(F.-Carib.) ! 
vhg. A Ctfibbeui wocd. 
Gap: sceOftp« <i>. 
Capable ; see bdov. 

Ckpacioua. able lo coaUun, (L) 
. ovde tcfB cl (i 

trt, to bold, 

1 ) 
- u r 

anticipate- (L ) t, dsfn/an^to 
beforehand. -i X. on/r-. bc£orc; aali 

eabl0. (F.-L.) SLE. mM^- 

(boldinp) rope— L. <»Atv*. to hofd 

caitifr. (F. - U> it t 
rdi/i/ a captive, a wvt£h 
L. captiuus ; see oapttv* br.jv. 

capable. ^F.-L) F. 
caf^ilu, comprebemibfa ; 
to hold «•!• fofien, lo KnliL 

oapsale.aeed-TaKl (F.-I^F^ 
a imAll case. — L. iiMkrw^k, itttA. «f I 
a cue : see oaaa (a) bdow. 

eaptioiu. <F. — L) F. 
Ung.-L. ^d«fi'«rMi.*U fMM^ i 
B ftophi&tica) Brgum^A.*iL«i|MM 
captre, lo hoKI. 

captive. (L.) L. imfHiamj. a 
— L. caftus, pp of ctfitrT, f: 

captor. cApture; fron 

case (3), a recepuele, ^t.-t. i 
rass/.^L. capiOj a bo3^ oowo.*'!- 
to hold. 

oasement, frame ^ 
Shon (or tMcasemtni* ' ' 
cscloses. From oi/aw \UtW»l, 
suffix -mrnt- 

cash, coin fF-LJ Or'i' 
to keep money m.»F. na 
caae<a)n^ - - '^'*'" " '■ ' 
keeps a tD 


iTMB F. A/^tM^ '* 

£K/xr. a fBuc, box ; lee 0M« 

Bl CW.^l*) FicaM fvAUr, ranwt 
*, rinrt'rr, to hant. dlifie: Ke-. ce to 
tl afiMm t« It«! r^^rtaT, Low 



. .i. Oa. 

i flora Picafd 

r^ to bmj provisions. (F. — L.) 
M a vftfb ax>m M. £. taiour, a. 
C imnHOttft (vfaom we &hoold oow 
lift-^rV C a<WBr u tbort for ar0/««r^ 
EroHi AAtfr, a bttymg. purdusc, Cb. 
r^.O. F a^«/ (mod. F. o^^j/). ■ 
* Low L. ^-aptum, % purcbase 
jt fo« arra//ttM.«*Low L. 
':^mc(a.d. tooo), frequent. 
10 (cocirc^ also to bnj ; «ee 




MX tokunlafta. (F.-U^ OF. 
tKs~<r^ to p«noe; tec oatoh &t>oTe. 
♦ (3). tomckasc; short ioxeruhax*, 

10 (j;, ■ priater'ft frame. (F.— L.> 

«, a ikriiLC. « X* at/f«, a box ; see 


Ait. (F.-l.) M. E. emreii.^O.f. 

I^L of £ii«i-<Ytf<>, to cuoccirc; tee 

iCi ■ * ) M. E- fprt,(-ti(H — 

«* .;/>. • L- iffnril^rt^ to 

t-^i- L4n' ('(MW, (ogcUicr); and 

WpCiflO. (F.-I.) ^.tmetpticn.'^ 

t0me€f4**^*^^ » L itm£tptu$^ pp. of 

« . ».ci- ala»v«. Dor. prt'^wuJfticH. 

— L) OF. ^frtv/^, Jii-/- 

/, to talte m^txy, deceive. — 

E;. anil ris/kT'T, to tAke. Dor, 
O. F. ArW>, pp. of Jfrfvtr. 
n. (F.-L) O.K. Jt<ef{iM. 
ft, AB^^n^Mm. • L. ift^t/.'us, pp. of 
Itedecdvc; see deceive. 
H (F.-I.) O. F. tmauttr, 'to 
Kccwt' Cot.-F.M, in (L. iW): 
Kcafitr, f«iiif, a ca4e ; tee oaaa (a) 

L.) O F. mihassfr, 'lo 
g^,' Cot. tlrnce to 

ll .Ml -:-,,( . / ... - (I. A 

la)t«.«*I« /ar, out; (Jftre, Co 

I izapcrcseptible. (F.— 1«) rrun i*. 

- j«. fiol ; And /<trrffi/i&/e ; »cc hclow 
I ixxoeptive. (L.) Coined from L imy/- 
/Ju. pp. of tjuifrrf^ to begia : see below. 
I incipient iL.) L. ittdfimt-, item of 
pr«. pt of ifc.'t/rrt, to bcgio. •• L. cm, 
upon : Ai/r/r. to lay" bold oC 

InUroept. (F -U) F. imUrctpUr.^ 
I* ifUerttptuj, pp. of imttrdftn, lit lo 
catch between.— L. r>/rr, bclweco; iafiert, 
to take. 

occupy. (F.-L.) M. £. occmfim. F. 
M-rafAer.— L. tfcnr/tfrr. to lay bold of.— L. 
fr- ( — ^. Bcar); tafert. to seiie. Cer. 

perceive. (F. - L.^ O. F. ferttvtr. - L- 
ptrcip^n, lo apprebeod. — L. /rr, tboioogh* 
Ij ; captrtt to sciie. 

perception. (K.-L.) V.perrtpHffH.m.'L. 
ace ftrttptiomm, — L. ptrttptau^ pp. of 
pirriftrt ; »ee above. 

prooept. (F.-L.) O ¥. prtcrpte.'^'U 
/ntiffifum, a prescn bed rule. — L..prtectpfHtt 
pp. of praci/rre. to take beforehand, |^ve 
rules.— L« /rt«, before; captrt, to tahr* 
Der. pnapt-ar. 

purohaae. verb. (F.-L.) M. E. par^ 
cMtutH, put-ckattK, — O. F. purtkMtr, lo 
pursue eagerly, acquire, gee. — O F. pur 
(F./wir), £rom l^ ptv ; and O. F. chactr, 
see chase (i) above. 

receive. (F.-L.) O. F, rtctvtr, rt- 
cevoir. — L. ruipere, to take back. — L, n, 
back ; ca/^rf^ to Uke- 

receptocle. (F.-L.) F. 
L. rtfcftatulum,^ place to ftore away.— 
L. ttxfpi us, pp of rraptrt', see above 

reception. (F.-L.) F. n^^M.-!. 
ace rtttpthntm, a taking back. — L. rw^^ 
«f ; as atiore. 

recipe. (L ) L. rrrr^V, take tboa ; imp. 
of Ttcipert ; sec receive. 

recipient. (U) L. ruipient-, stem of 
prcs. pt oireciperti see receive. 

■aah (1). a case or Irame for panes of 
gla**. (F.-L) Coiniptionof F. Mojiw. •» 
fmme of wood for a window ; ' Cot.— O. F. 
(htutt (F. cMdsse), a case, shrine. — L. 
eapsa, a cue. See ohaaa (3) and oaae (3) 

scaffold. (F -U anJ Tcul.) M. E. 
] ,i',i Y — O. F. /< 1 1 • • f*v\y found as 
/.', moi\. 1 . a scaffold. 

.\it tuaMifa.: xorrcspoodiog 

lo bj«an. and ctii-jjutio, a luneral 
canopy, also a ttace. scalToId. ^ The 
former part of lb« word occu' %. 





&n^ FM. i^K iBiL aMc A.S 

«nf . a case : see a h WL 

oapuiMa, tenpins* of a hoK (T.- 
Spaa..Lo«l.) OiF.d 
AiS^tanBaS cowET far a 
ti^ fioa SpaL ^'tf^ ' 
La«I-.^^ a cape: mt 

]M.*Lo« U> r. 4^MML-.fiaL affm- 
*am, a r»nT1 booi^ knee a huuA.^ nr: 
olBiK, oc twffmat^ a oow.^kaL twffB^ 
mope; we Caapa (iV 

ohapeL (F.i-U) arrA^^Mfe.-Lov 
L. mfriim^ orig. a ifaisc ii viack waa pre- 
•fffvcd dbe 13^ or cope of Sl Martsa 
(»«taV - Low U t^m. mffm. of^ 
MOoed cloak: ai above. 

(F.-L.) F. riiti^Fva, a 
prortcdor; orie- a kind of bood. — F.c^^ 
a eoMLw Low L. mAs : as abore. 

•Mplot. (F.«L) U. EL €kmfekt.^ 
O. y. «I«/Mrf. a bead^bcK. «rcatJi.-.O.F. 
«U/tr/, Keatl'dreia. » O. F. cMmfe, a cope ; 

«Op« (If, a hood, cape. (F.-LowL.) 
M4 E. /jr/V. varioitt of rd/v. a ope ; see 
Oapa ■bore. (For the «. cf Icel. Jt,i/>a.) 

oaOApo. (F. *L.) M. E. esca/^n - 
C). I', tuafer (K. ^chaffer), to escape, lit. 
Ui slip out of one'i cajjc. » L. «x ra//a» oat 
<tf one'* ctjic: trc Capo (t) above. 

•CMpe; ktiOrl Utt /xi-tf/V (ftUive). 

OAX>a (j), twratllan') j we Capital. 
Oftpor(i). to <laric< about. (llal.-L.) 
iriy eapt^aU iSir P. Sidney V — Ilal. 
'm, to 4kip as a i^at. — IlnJ. nx* 
' ii.i 'iirtiin. of<^j//w, wild goat; 
•aLwita fd/m, abe-goat ; 

uabilulot (F.-ltal.-X^) Co^ 

■ IIIIMMI flill «C 

(F.^ftaL-L.) r. 

ItaL A^rM^ IfK lap oira kai 

(J), (fce flowrtod «l a 

fiML (T.-x ck-Pai.> ar 

iF. <^^\-U taffmirix. - Gk. 
te 6a9t ^Pcn. 

(GoA) Ba«t*i 
eat code «r;ka« 
BL booeof lke«oodr-«God. «yaifl;«1 
C«e €aa««Har) ; 4aaa;«MUC »ood. 
flajiltoty, Oe hav. (L.) L. 
«4.frasoi^iX6B.hHK. PoWpailM 
diakmraL (F.^L.) O.F 

• t» dadiev^' Lc. to disoeder tkc U 
CoL-O.F. Am- (L. i&X aput; 
(^. dbgmm\ a bait; 60m ll aoc 

Q^talOXdbdC (F.-U) F.^ 

• L. tmfifaHft belOQipai( to the bta<i-* 
MOitf^ ttcB ofn/B^tte head ; 

MUflfva (F.-L.) M. E. 
O. P. miuTtr^ liL to bnag to a 
O.F.«f4(^lo a bead-U«^atfar 
saneV Bar. mckMrn-mmt. 

CAbbAge (i\ a TCseCable. (T.«teL' 
U) O. F, fiMJT ai^w» *a cabbide^' O 
(lit. * RMiad-headcd cat-lvi^e : ' wc ti 
dropped ckgmxY The >. /-aAau, n 
beaded, is from llal. eapmecis, a lutte 1 
dimiiL of nor/v. head. * JL or/w/, head 

oad. ^F. - L) Sboit for towi i 
caMe, an errand bojr^ boy; toe J 
~ Y. cadet ; sec ca<tot. 

Aftdet. orig. a yotmpcr sr* 
F. M^, a yoacgcr brMhcr ; - 
Cafidit b a Cjascon foi m > I • 
th'um (by a hafcai of Oj-- n 

/for//; P. Meyer): UL a 1 
head. dimiiL from I. mfmi^ a, 

cape (2). a heactlauL (F. 
F. m/. — Iial. rtf^, hcail, 
cAjmt, head. 

capital (2\ ctocit of 
F. (apital. — Low L. m/! 
oi Oifitahs, cl" ♦' ■^"- '^ 

capita) ^ 

• 1. ) I^w I 
dimiD. from L. (•^^ bead* 

npdteliMI, eon tu. (F. - 1..) F, eaf- 

l«>L. tmp^i. t>jIL head. 
MpttoL ' of Jupiter, 

Aooc. L-i . — L. <apit., 

b etf tajfSLi, X o^aU , Lui ihe reuon for 
ttmc ti otecore ; see Smith. Class. Diet. 
■pttular, reiftticg to x chapter. i^L.) 
9 L. cM/ituia*it, adj. of ca/fifaium, a 
bpljO of m dlhcUfsJ, or a chapter of ft 
K ; Me ciMptor bdow. 
HpltllMa. (L.) Low L. eapitulatm, 
fd tm/itmSmrt, to divide into cbapten, 
\ lo f fotwe lams, (for santnder). * 
k» L e»fttmlmm, %. chapter : cce chapter 
Dttr. rt<apiiulati, 

(F.-L.) M. E. (apitain.-^ 

I. «• Low L ta^itantus, <apit- 

■ NBOB oi MlcUcn. - L rV^> stem 




<F.— L.) M. R flitt/jpfopcrtjr ; 
live itock, cftttJe. - O. F. ctUtl. - 
L. tMpiutU, capital, property; ace 
Ul (a) above. 

hapiter, the capital of a colamn. (F. 
) O. F. tkafittt (F. tkapiuau)^ the 
«>L> tafittili^mt the same ; dimm. of 
■ hettd 
V . ■ diTttiod of ft book, s^-nod of 
- L> M. E. tkafitre, ftUo 
"^' '•■■-•]» of ail older 
X chapter of 
(ttUlt hr»' . ^ ^1 Ute L., a 

Dd ; dlMio. ofnfmt, • licaM. 

b. (F.oL) PI. of M. £. cka4f/, 
|Crty, aW callIe,-0. F. Ma/W»O.K. 
f, pcoficny : ice oatiU above. 
hfpf '• = ' ) ME. fAr/, eAirf. - 
p. r hcad.xL. ca/Mt, head. 

•ow L. taf^tamau, tapiUnuit ft cftpiain ; 
captain ab^^ti. 

orporal (t), a subordiDate officer. 
^U&L'L.) A comipt farm ofF. ra- 
l/. «• llat aitJ^flntJV, a Lhicf, corporal of 
.-I^i! .'j.'»\ licjd. — L. «/i»y. 

: rora pp. of I-ow 
"i^ t£tt olT; and 

sua iA <^v^« ^<^^'- 

antcheon of a deceased 
F.*L) Comiptioo of orA'wi^vf/, 
iagm of ^ikitpfmtMl. 

(L) L xii/tti, bade of Uie 
> <W( «ii)| over againat; and 

(^.•LO OV.^rtcifut.^ 

L. fradpitium, a falling headlong down : 
a precipice — L./rffri/;Vi-, crude form of 
prxeeps, headlong.-* L. pra, before; and 
capitt; cr. form o\ caput, Der. prtcipiisit^ 
from L. pracipitare, to cast beadlanjr. 

Binciput. (L.) The fore part of the 
head; liL 'half head.'»L. Jr»ri/u/, half 
the head— L- «»«, half; msx^ caput \ see Capsiae. 

Capitation, Capitx>l, Capitular^ 
CapitiUate; see above. 

Capon. (L. — Gk.) A. 5. capun. » L. 
ace captntem, from nom. capo.^Gk. k6wv¥, 
a capon. (VSKAP.) 

Caprice. (F.-Iial.-L.?) F. «/rw». 
^\iA\. capricdo, a whim. Perhaps from 
It:il. caprUf a she-goat; so that capHcci4f 
might mean a friiik like a goat's: sec 
Caper (i). ^ Or capri€cto^capo-ncc%o, a 
bri&tling of the hair; from cafQ, bead, 
riccio, n bristling. 

Capricorn, Capriole ; see Oaper (i). 

Capsize, to upsa (.Spftn.?-L.) Peiti.ips 
from Span, caputar, to &ink (a ship) by 
the bead ; allied to cabutar^ to nod the 
head, pitch as a ship does. — Span. cab<ia, 
the head, fore port of a ship; a derivative 
of L. caput, the head ; sec Oapita) ( i). 

Capatan. (F. — Span.— L.?) )\btstan. 
^Span. (c^strantf, <abrcstante, an cnijinc 
to raise weights. £tym. uncertain: but 
Min&heu'B Span. Diet. 0^^3) ba& cabtt- 
itanti as the form, and Monlaa's £tym. 
Span. Diet. (i88i) has cabria, a crane, 
and suggests Span, cobra estantt, a fixed 
(permanent) goat; since the Span. eain-A 
meana (i) goat, (i) a machine for throw- 
ing large clones. Here Sp. ca^^a^L. i-fl//tf» 
a she-goat ; sec Oaper ( i ) ; and estantc =■ 
L. sioHtem. ace of x/iimj, &taudiag, from 
ttart, to staiid. 

Capsule : see Capaoioas. 

Captain ; see OapitoL 

Captious, Captive ; see Capacious. 

Capuchin: sec Cape (i). 

Cor. CF.-C) M. E. ra/rr.-O. F. ear 
(F. char)t a car. — L eamu, a car ; of 
Gaattsh origin. — Bret, iarr, a chariot ; W. 
car, O. Gael, edr, Irish carr. (v'KAR.) 

career. (F. -C.) F. carHirt, a road; 
also a horse race, running of horses, career ; 
O. F. caritrr, a road. — O. F. carter, to cany, 
— O. F. car, car; iee above. 

cargo, (Span. — C. ) Sjian. rarjr^ freight, 

load; cf^ cargikrt, to load, m I^w L, 

cam'carf, to load a car ; see ehaive below* 

oaricature. (Ital • C) luj. oari> 









taiunt, « satirical pictore ; «o called b^ause 
cxaggcrntcd or 'overloaded.' — Iial. mrr- 
faff, to load, burtlcn.^Low h,tam'rarr, 
to load a cor ; see charge. 

oarraek. (F.-Cl O. F. carra^tu, a 
aliip of burden. -Low Lat. carraca, ihe 
•amr. — Low L. earracartt <arrican, to 
loatl ; bce cbarce. 

oarriage. (F.-C.) M. E. tariagr.Xhit 
which is carried alwut (as in Bible, A. V.) 

— 0. F. eariagt; from can'tr, \o carry; sec 
below. % Its modem use is due to con- 
fusion with iarochf a vehicle (,Ma>>&ingcr) 
m Ital. (atrixeio, a chariot, augmentative 
of c^nff a car. 

carry. (F.-C.) O. F. «wr. - O. F. 
Mr, a car ; sec Car. 

oart (C.) A,& cnri (for f(wt).-.W. 
ntf»y, a wain; Gael, and Irish caiti ; 
dimin. of W. car. Irish Mrr; see Car. 

oharso. (F.-C) K. charter, to load. 

— Low Ln. carruart, to load a car. — L. 
r<amu, a car. a Gauli<»h word ; see Car. 
Der. cMarg^r, a dish or horse, because 
carrying a bunlcn. 

ohaiiot. (K.-C) F. chariot; O. F. 
fAarf/^. — Low L. carretn, a small car. 
diijiiu. o{ (arnu. a car; ste Car. 

suporcargo. ^L.; anJ Span. - C.) 
From L. super, above ; and Span, carj^, a 
freight. Suggested by Span. sci^recargOy a 
supercargo ; where solre =■ L. lu/er. 

surcharge, sb. (F.-L. and C.) F. 
TUTxharge, an over-charge. — F. sur ( — L. 
ti/ffry, .ihove; and oharge ^nbovc). 

Caracole, iF.- Span. — C. ?) f.catxt^o!, 
taracoU. a snail ; whence fairt U caroiote. 
applied to a mana-uvre by soldiers, ami to 
turns made by a hor^.— Spau. iamcot, a 
anAll, winding staircase, turning about (from 
the snnil-slteH's spiral form). Pcthajis of 
Celtic oHi^Hn; cL Gael, caituh^ circling, 
winding, from car, a Inm, twist. 

Carat. (F.-Arab.-Gk.) F. camt, a 
Ifcry light weight,- Arab, qirrdi, a pod. 
bosk, carat. 24ih part of an ounce *Gk. 
ic%p^to¥, fruit of the locust-tree; also, a 
CAtal; lit. 'asmall horn.' -Gk.*</»aT-, stem 
of «'par, a honi; sec Horn. 

Caravan. (F.-Pers.) F. caravam.'^ 
VtT%, karufdn, a caravan, convoy. 

oaravanaary. (Pen.) Pcrs. kanvdn- 
tardy^ cm bin for camvans. — Fcrs. kartptin, 
caravan; saniy, public building, uax, 

van. a coNxied wnggon for goods. (F.— 
Pet^.) Short fox rd/tfvui*. luu 6m fgr 


Caraway^ Carraway. (Spaa.* 
Span, ai-iiuxihutjfa. a caraway { 
is merely the Arab. dcC art. 
kartfiy.i'a, karavfiyA-4t^ carava] 
plant. Cf. Gk. ripot, mipov, comia. 

Carbine. cF.-Gk.) Formeriy^ 
carai'in. which meant (not a moJcel, 
the man who carried it, a ma&l 
carttbtH, 'an arquebuziei;' Cot. 
from O. F. taiabrim^ a Ught-aimed 
ortg. a soldier who worked one of 
war-engines •> Low L. thadaMa, 
a destructive war-engine.— Gk. 
overthrow, dc^ructit'O.— Gk. am 
to cast down, strike down with 
Gk. xaru. down ; ^oAXtir, to cas 
accahUr, also from cadaSuia,) 

Carbon. (F.-L.) F. ^sHmr.-Li 
carbotitm, a coal, 

carbonado, broiled meat (! 
Span, carbonado, rneat broiled o*tr 
— Span, carbon, coal; stc abo^c. 

carbuncle. (L.) L. 
small co.ll, (a) a carbur^. 
glowing. Double dimin. uf L 

Carcanet. [F.-C.) Dimin 
a collar of jewels, or of g 
kcfxhtn, the bo'.oin, circle »■ kilchstu a collar. — Bret, kc 

Carcase, Carcass, ^F.-Iiai,i 
M. E. f*i/rjy/. — O. F. can/matUt i 
body. — ItaL cariassa. a kind of 
shell, a ihcU ; closely allied to 
also furrasso, a quiver. - - " 
being likened to a sh' 
rupted from Low L. /i3'. 
Pcrs. tariiuh, a quiver 
Litlrd that F. caryutu pi 
same word.) 

Card (]), piece of pa&tcltoord. (F.^Q 
Corruption of F. * '' ''^ 

Low JL Citrra ; L. 
leaf of paper. Dei. ..- 

carte, a bill of fare. < 
in the F. phr. oxr// 
pit]:ier.— Low L. carfa; stc C;*. 

eartoL (F.-ltal -Gk.) 
Itol. carttJh. lit. a 
carta, pnijcr, bdl ; 

cartoon (!■*•* i' " 

ItaL carutu, Ut.A large paper: fr«ca< 
aa above. 

cartouche, cortri^'' 
Gk.' CarfnJ^t («ith i 
ctxrhifge, conn pi foim 
cartpufhi, a roll of paj 
a roll of paper, carlr.v;^.. 

ame Irom the 
rifcjMtr. (Low L.»Gk.^ 
tm, ^Aar/m'arruiK, r rcgis- 
rm^^ a document ; dimin. 
iperj ICC Cird above. 
«G1l) L. ikarta, n puper.^ 

(r— I Gk.) Vi.Y^cMartrr. 

nr*«.*Low I,. tJkarfuJa. carfu/a. 
•ficroc docomeot : ^ec oartuliu7 

t\ an bKtrunieiit for combing 
«I*.5 F. fOFJIf. — Low L. cardtu, 
lUiiiile: fof wool-combing — 
au4 wool. 

(1-.) L. tarJinalii, principal, 

^icUling 10 the hinge of a door. 

item <A canic, a hinge. 

M. E. ean. A. S. rarw, team, 

*.i» f.trTT. sorrow; IccL. kari, 

:m, a lamtmt (^ 

ion with L, rttra\ 

uHj, (K -C.) Confused with 

i7>jijr^ Norman form r>{ 

eaatioos. (E) M. E. 
full of care, sad.*- 
r. CAary neaat <i) 

;F,-i.> Lit. Mo dean the 
bo lay a «hip on its side.-*F. 
ked-wL. carina, kecL 

,*1tU.*L.) F. carttft, a 
Mi«acares3, fori'iluig.— 
^J. iV«r!ir».«» L rarus. dear. 
O. F. ekariM. - L. 
■*. — L. fanw, dear. 

Ll O. F. rherit', stem 
tA/rir^ to Iiold dear.^F. 

[F.-U) M. E. airfbtties» a 
roads m«ct. — O. F. pi. 
fk* aatna, — U ac& gvaittcr 
Mrv — K puafy^r, four; and 
Lture : t«c Oar. 
.) I* tmntt, rottennea. 
aaaUr C**« jJ--ivr>. 
(Smb.- > Span. 

It lorm ' crimson. 

. dye,- 
) cnmnon. 

coQBccii 0}' afi insect (viz. 


the cochineal insect). — Skt. krimi, a worm; 
j'asi, to i>ro<lucc. (See CochineaL Worm.) 

crimaon. (F. - Arab. - Skt.) M. E. 
crimpsm. » O. F. cramoisin, cramoisynt 
(sec cramGiii in Liltrrf). — LowL. tramei- 
siiiM, also earmesiHtit, cnmsoiu — Arab. 
find Pers. tjirwiif ; sec above. 

Carnage ; see below. 
Comal. (L ) L. ,ar»a/tj, fleshly, - L. 
{am , stem of caro, flesh. -fGk. Kpia$; Sltt. 
(traty'ix, raw fl<.»h. 

oaniago. (F.-L.) F. eama^, flesh- 
lime, slaughter of animals, — Low L. 
camaticum, a liibut--- of animals; cf. car- 
nafum, time for eating Hesh. — 1* cam-, 
stem of caro, flesh. 

carnation. i,F. - L.) F. tama/ifftt, 
fle^h colour (Litlrif). — L. ace. camaticmm, 
fleshiness. —L. cam-, stem oi caro. 

carnivaL (F.-Iial.-L.) F. eama- 
vol, Shrovetide. — Ilal. camevaU, earnavaJi, 
the last three dnys l>cforr I^nt —Low. L. 
carrultrvale, earmlcvamtn, removal ol flt-nh, 
fjhrovctidc. — L.rflrfftf-m, aoc of cofv, HcsU; 
and ieuare, to lif^, remove, take away; 
from Intij, light. 

carnivorous. (L.) L. carniuortts, 
flesh-eaiing. — L. camt; crude form of caro, 
flesh; and uor-are, to devour. 

carrion. (F.-L.) M.E. catvi^t, a 
arcane- O. F. carvifpte; Low L. caronia, 
a carcase. — L. caro, flesh. 

chamel. (F. - L.) Properly an adj., 
containing carouea^ as in chamtl-himst.^ 
O.K. cMarnti, adj carnal; as sb. a ccRie* 
tcrv. — L camalis ; sire Carnal above. 

incarnadine, to dye of a r&i colour. 
(F. — Ital. — L) F. ituamaiiin, canialioa 
colour (Cot.) — ItiU. iruamadinOf camalioa 
colour (Florio) ; also spelt incamatino. — 
Ital. incarttato^ incaniate ; also, of flesh 
colour. — L. incamatut, pp. of ificarnan, 
to clothe with flesh (below). 

incarnation. (F. - L) F. t'ncama- 
ticn — L, ace. incamafiotum, embodiment 
in flesh — L. fff>arfui/uj, pp. of mramaf^ 
to clothe with flesh.— L. in, in; and earn-, 
stem (tf care, flesh. 
Carob-tree, the locust -tree, (Arab.) 
Arab, than^h, bean*pods. 

Carol, a song. (P. — C.) Formerly, a 
kind oi dance — O. F. catttU. a (singing) 
dance. Of Ccliic oiigin : cf. Bret. ^i>/i>?y. 
a dance, movement of the body m cadence; 
Manx carvai, a carol ; Corn, carol, a choir, 
concert; W. carol, a song, c^vii, to mouT 
in a circle, daace i Gad. cmruU, melody. 



carolling. ^ Bui tliesc Celtic word» are 
now thonght to bo borrowed from F. or E. 
Tnie origin unknown. 
Oarotiid, adj. (Gk.) Gk. nafmrrt^ts, 

1. pi., the two grcAi arteries of titc 
neck ; It was tliou^^ht that an altemtjon 
in the flow of blood through them causal 
stupor. •• Gk. MOfoat, J ftupefy; jcdfot, 

CarooBBl. ^i) a drinking-bout : (a), a 
pageant, (i. F. - G. ; 2. F. - Itnl.) L 
Somelimcs from the verb carouse below. 

2. But, in nid authors, cdrvusH means a 
tort of pageant, of which tome kind of 
chariot-nice foraied a principal part ; Dry- 
tlcn. Virgil, /F.n. v. 777— F. cammsti, a 
lilting m&tc^. — Itol. laraseUo, cormpt form 
of garvielh, a tournament. — Ilal. ^m/^, 
<ju»trclso(ne; .^v/a, a strife. 

OarouM. (F. « G.) F. carpus, *a CAr- 
rouM of drinke/ Cot. «■ G. gumus, right 
ont ; oscd of emptying a bumper. — G. giir, 
i|uitc; and aus, out. (Kaleigo even writes 
litr0UM; directly from G. garaw.) Der. 
cnnmt'oi, but only tu one sense of that 
word ; »ee above. 

Oarp (I), a fish. (E ) M. E. carfe. Not 
hi A.S. + nu. katjhir; Iccl. kar/i\ Dan. 
kafft\ Swcd. Jiarp; ii. karf/en; late Lat. 
car^a (whence F. furiV, &c.). 

Carp (a), to cavil at. (Scand.) M. E 
car/^H, which ofteti merely means to talk, 
say •« led. karf^i. to boast ; Swrd. dial. 
kurfa, to boait. talk much. 51 '^^*^ P'^' 
sent Mniittcr scn^c \s due to contusion with 
I. carfitn, to pluck 

Carpenter. (K.-C.) O.K. enrffntier 
(F. charpcutier), — Low L. airpcntarius^ 
troin carpimtart, to work in timber.^L. 
Mfpfnfum, H carriage ; a word of Celtic 
origin, w Gael, and Irish cardaJ, a carriage, 
chariot, litter; Irish card, a basket, litter, 
carriage, phmk ; Gael cat'r^, chariot, ship, 

Carpet. (F.-L.) O.F. carptu.-Uivr 
L, far/>i/a, earpe/a, a kind of thick cloth; 
dimin. of ^tfr^ia, lint.^L.rdr^ pluck, 
pull to pieces (lint being tnaiJe of rags 
pullc<^i to nieces) ; cf. F. charpie. Hot, 

Carrooic, Carriage : sec Oar. 

Carrion ; see Oarnal. 

CiUTonade, a sort of cannoa, (Scotland.) 
So named because made at Carron, in 

Carrot. (F.-L,) F. carott, carotu.^ 
L, caroia. Perhaps borrowed from Gk. 
lywT^r, a carrot. 

Cairry, Cart : see Car. 
Carte. Cartel ; set C 

CartUag:©. <F.-U) . 
— L, cariilaghum, ace o\ ^^' ■ 

Cartoon, Cartouche. CorUi 
Cartulary; sec Card (i). 

Carve. (E) \\.¥, kerucm- A.S.4 
+ Du. kervffi ; Icel. kyrfa ; Dan. , 
Swcd. karfva ; G. kirUn, to notdrH 

Cascade ; see Cad«aoe. 

Case (i), an event; see Oadcsoa 

Caee (3), a boa ; see Oapaeioua. 

Casemate. (F. - Ital.) F. 
loop-bole in a fortiiicd walL—llaLi 
maifa, a chamber built under a 
bulwark, to hinder those who 
ditch to scale the wall of a fort. 
to mean 'dark chamber.' — TtaL 
case, house, cottage, room ; and II 
fern, of ma/fo, ong. mad, but the 
rriaUu means ' dim.' 

Casement, Cosh; see Capaeli 

Cashier 1.1); odc who attends 
pa.Mnents ; see oaah, under Ca] 

Cashier (a), to dismiss from 
(G. - F. - L.) G. car." — 
merely borrowed from 1' 
burst, . . also to ca&ieen:. ^cj 

(G. wotds, boi rowed from i*.,endi 
•• L. cauare^ to annul, disci 
caxsus, void, nuU. 

Cashmere, a rich staff. (India.)_ 
called from the vale of Cashmere, in ' 
Also spell cassimcrt, kerscymcrt. 

Casino, a room for dancing. (IlaL' 
Iial. casino^ dimin. of ca^ a 
house. xL. casa^ a cottage. 

oassock, a vcstmcut. (T.— Ital. 
F. casaqut.-^XxaX. casacea, an ouid 
a jocular word; iiom casa^ a hoowi 

chasuble, % wstment. 'F - ^^ 
^hasubU. — Low L. casabnUi^ r. 
hence, a mantle. — L. casa, a c 

Cask. (Span.-L.) Span, to^..-^ a 
sherd, coat of an onion : also 1 
wine, a casque or helmet. The 
is ' htisk ;' cf. Span, rdxfrtna, |^ 
shell, Port casca, rind. — Sjian. 
burst open ; formed (as if from ' 
cart *) from an extension of I* 
to break, bunt ; see Quaih. 

casque, a helmet. iF. — ItaL^L) 
fo/';«/. — Ital, casco, a helmet, 
the vaoie as Span, casco above. 

Casket ; sec Oapaoioaa. 




wc Ouk. 


from ; 
fitf', to . 

■I'l, a spice 
in F's. xlv. 

.^ the btrk 

•re Ouhmera. 


Unl. (Malay.) First 
Jats. Lillrc (s. v. (osoar) 
ly name a« kasmwarir. 
.) led. ijj/a, to throw ; 
kas/e. Prob. allied to 
ip. Der rt-coit. 
wcc iPort-L) Port, 
a * pure * breed ; a name 
to classes of men iu 
fem. of casta, pure.* 
Ic.-f Gk. ntfo^r. 
(L) I* fAstigatut, pp. of 
Msten; Ut 'to keep pmc.' — 

^F. -» L.) O. F. thdite, * L 

•I*) Used in place of 
ttidn ', see ohaatUc. 
-• L) M. \L ihastisen ; 
;».— O. F. rAaslur.^l^ 
itigata fttK>ve. 

(F.-I-) M.E.iW;i/. 
imtjtiu, unchaste. — 

iaittt, *L. casUttum, 

\, a forttfict] place. Der, 

K. (AiUtain, thasNlaw. the 

m tkmsitl ot castle; aUo fhAU- 

of F< tjUiitAin « O. F. t^AtiJ/r- 

-r,i;^< to a lady't chain or 

) F. iJUteau, O. F. 

caiifituiu, ak aljore. 

. (U * CkJ U rai/#r. - Gk. 

,teaif«r. Bat of Eastern onf^in; 

Skt kastiiri, musk; Ten. 

}iuned from some rcsem- 
*a mediciae made of 
in the Utile bogs that 

itrr'* groin.* Kersey. Uut 

TaUe production. 
) L> (ojtraiau, pp. of 

A.S. iW. -f- Do,, Pan. 4»/. 

iwiAla. Arab, yi//, Turk. JkeJf. (Prob, 


caterplUar. (F.-L) M. E. tatyrftlx 
corruption of O. F. {hattfeUust, a weevil; 
a fanciful name, really meaning ' hairy sbe- 
caL* — O. F. ehait, a she- cat ; and peUuit, 
hairy. — L. eaitUt cat ; /iiojw, haiiy, from 
pilum, hair. 

caterwaul. (E.) M. E, (aterwautni 
coined frora m/, and u«i»*n*, to make o 
wailing noise. 

c&tkilL (H.) A loose spike of flowen 
rcaembling a cat'& tail; hence called a 
€ot'kiH, \. e. little cat. 

kltt«n. (£.; with F. mfix.^ M. F. 
kitoun, where the suflfia -oun is F., sug- 
gested by F. chalfon, a killen. AV/ is a 
u cakcned form of ra/, ajipearing in the true 

E. form kit-iing, and in ^oos.) *iV//r, to pro- 
duce kittens. 

Cata^. /nf/x. (Gk.) Gk. jtoto, down, 

Cataclysm, deluge. (Gk.) GV. (wto- 
KKvctA6%, a dashing over, flood. — Gk. jcara. 
down ; rnXv^iiv, to dash, wash, as waves. 

Catacomb. (Ital. -Gk.) Ital. cafacamfja, 
a sepulchral vault. — Low L. catacumha.^ 
Gk. Mird, down; «v/</lq, a cavity, hollow 

Catalepsy, a sudden leizure (Gk.) For- 
merly ca/aU/jis. — Gk. caraAi/^d. a grasfv 
ing, seizing. — Gk. ifar^, down; Aa^-, l^ase 
of ka^itv, aor. inf. of Au/t^rd^, to vcize. 

Catalogue. (F.— Gk.) F. carafopa.^ 
Low Lat ace. ra/a/iP^m. — Gk. xordAoTOf, 
a coantingup,entolnient. — Gk. «ara, fully; 
At7<iK. to say. tell ; see liOgio. 

Catamaran, a sort of raft. (Tamil.) 
In Forbes, Hindustani Diet., ed. 18=9, p. 
280, we have ' Jta/manut, a raft..; the 
word is orig. Tamil, and means tied logs." 

Cataplasm, a poultice. (F.— L.-Gk.) 

F. (ataplasmt.^X^. caiapicuma.^GV. oarct- 
wKaa^, a plaster, poultice.— Gk. mra 
it>y6.eauv, to spread over. — Gk. jrard. full| 
and vAotfffdr, to mould ; see FUater. 

Catapult. (Low L. - Gk.) I^w U 
catafulta, an engine for throwing stones.— 
Gk. KoroWAriji. the same. -"Gk. jcard.down; 
voAAni', to swing, hurt 

Cataract. (L. -Gk.) L. taiarruta. Geo. 
vii. 1 1. --Gk. «ora^^d«ri^f. as sb.. a water- 
fall ; as adj. broken, rushing down. Prob. 
allied to KaTopfof^vfu, 1 break down ; the 
3 aor. imrtfi^yjjv was used of llie nifihing 
down of waterfalls and itoimx^Ok. aani, 
down ; ^iyvufu, I break. 


OaUrrh. (Low L. • Gk.) Low L. 

ea/arrhu J. ^Gk. ^arAfi^ot, a flowing down 
(of rheum), a cold in the head. ••Gk. xarii. 
down; nnd /i'ty, to flow. 

Catastrophe. tGJc.) Gk. mtroffr/w^^, 
an overturning, sudden turn,— Gk. learA, 
down : OTpi*ptiv, to turn. 

Catch. (F. -L.) See Capaoious. 

Catechise. (I>ow U - Gk.) Low L. 
£ate(hizare.^C\i, ifonjx^C*'*'' t** catechise, 
instruct; lengthened form o\ mnTt]xi*tY, to 
din into one's eai«. lit. *to din down.' — 
Gk. «rar-a, down ; iixVt * *ouiid, ?X°»| » 
ritging in the ears ; see Echo. 

Category, a class. (Gk.) Gk. «iTi;7opfa. 
an accusation; but in logic, a predicament 
or dau. — Crk. tfa-rriioptiv, to accnsc.^Gk. 
«iT-(i, down, against ; &yvpt\/uv, to declaim, 
address an asM:mbly. Irom 6r(op6^ on as- 

Cater ; sec Capaoloui. 

Caterpillar, Caterwaul ; see Oat. 

Cathartic, purf^ing. (Gk.) Gk. itn9afm- 
Kut. purgative. — Gk. KaBaipuv, to cleanse, 
purge. * Gk. jta&apjj. pare; see Cute. 

Cathedral. U- - Gk.) L. cath<drah's 
eaUsia = a. cathedral church, or one which 
has a bishop's throne. — Low L. cathedra, 
a throne — Gk. iva&cO/xi, a seat — Gk. «a^, 
for jrarii, down; and \hpa, a seat, chair, 
from li»iUkx ( >-^S-/o^cu), I at ; sec Sit. 

choir. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. ckaitt, 
chsure.^O. F. chaiere, cluiett. — Low L. 
cathedra^ a throne, raised seat* chair ; see 

chaise, a light carriage. (F.-L.— Gk.) 
F. chaise, a Parisian modiAcation of F. 
thaire, a pulpit, orig. a wat. 

Catholic. tL.-Gk.) L. catkoHats (Ter- 
tulliari). — Gk. jcoSoAucm, nnivei^al. — Gk. 
ita9j\-ov, adv., on the whole, in general.— 
Gk. jtatf-, for «iit>t, accoiding to; and 
5Xow, gen. of o\ot. whole. 

Catkin ; sec Cat. 

Catoptxic; see OpLla 

Cattle: see Capital. 

Caudal, bcloiigiug to the tail. (L.) L, 
Cauda, tbu toil. 

coward. (F.-L.) Norm. F. eouard, a 
hare, F. eouarJ, a coward ; cf. llal. cmhnht 
a coward. Named frooo the *bob*lailed' 
bare.-0. F. C9t (Ital. ^^a), a lall-L. 
tauda, a tail 

cue, the same as queue (below), 
queue, a tail, (F.-L.) F. quttu a 
tnil. — L. citudxi (nbovc). 

OaUdie ; kc Coldrou. 


Caul, a net, coTerinfr, esp. for ihe heai 
(F.-C.) O. F. raie. • a kind of UllU C4f^J 
Cot. — Irish caiia, veil. hood. cowl. Gai 
rd//, the satiie. 

Caulrirori; see Caldron. 

Cauliflower ; see Colo. 

Caulk : >ee Calk. 

Cause. (F.-L.) F. cause.^h. 
caussa, a cause. 

aoeuae. (F.-L.) F. aecustr.^L. 
mre, to lay to one's charge. — I*, cc^ (fi 
oi/). to ; and canst, a suit at law. a ca 
Der. accu3-at-ivc, the case cxprcising tl 
sui>;e£t govemc^l by the trans, verb. 

because, for the rcnsoo that. (E. 
F.) Formerly written ^ caauit ^ f* 
i. e. by the cause. 

excuse. ( F. - L.) F. excuser. - L. 
sort, to release from a charge— L. « 
out: and causa, a charge, a cause. 

recusant, opposing an opinion (P. 
L.) F. ri(usa*it, 'rejecting.* Cot-i ^ 
pi. of Hcuser. — L. recuiart, to i 
oppose a cause or opinion. — L. rr-, 
from ; and causa. 

ruse, a trick. (F. — L.) F ntse^ a 
— F. ruscr, to beguile; contr. from O 
rciiscr, to rcfus<:, recoil, escape. do4^ 
L. rctiisart, to nelusc ; sec above. 

Causeway ; kc Calx. 

Caustic. (L. — Gk.) L. caustina.^ 
icavoriK6s, burning. — Gk. nufif (ful. mh 
to bum. 

cautariao. (F. • Low U — Gk^ 
caittcriser. ^Lovf L. cautcnaart. to scar 
Gk. ifam^/KciftiK to sear — Gk. ♦nv^, 
a branding-iiou. — Gk xttUw, II 
holocaust. (L.-Gk.) L. : 
Gca. xxii. 8. — Gk. 6KiiKavtrrQv, .. 
burnt whole; ncut. of ^K.'.nnviTai, Um 
whole. — Gk. t\o-f, whole; and Kolt^w^ 

Caution : see Caveat. 

Cavalier. (F.-Iial.-L.) F. rarwld 
a hur^eman. — Ital. cavaliere, the canK 
llal. cavalh^ a hor^e. — L. ace. cabaHum, 
horse ; nom. cabalius. 

oavaloada tF. -ItaL— L.) F. 
rdij!r. — Ital. razwi/ra/a. atroop of horvema 
orig. fcm. of pp. of cava/rare, lo rid<c 
Ital cat'a//o. a horw; as above. 

cavalry. (F.-lial.-L.) O. F. m9 
ierie. — Ital, ravaiUria, cavalry, m I 
ca-faiurf, a knight ; sec CavaUsr. 

chevalier. \V. - L.) K. ekfwiUim 
hnrscman.— F, cheni/, a bocM.*>L- •« 
caiKil/umt a horse (above). 


. (F.-U) ME. ckivttlrU.^ 

h hone. — Low L. acc. raAi/- 



. CF.*L.} M.E.MH/.-O.F.MM; 
C>*c.*L» /«i(A*. s cave, a cage.— 
V.bolbiw. CV^^U) Der. r*xp.i<y; 

Bgc ; u abore. 

xP. - U) O. F. eagtoUr, to 

A bird in a cag^; hence to 

Coft). Coined from 

fffnca$tuj, hollow. — L, 
tm :her; <auus, hollow. 

ava- — L.) Y.exeavaticH.-^ 

. uH^att/i^Mf M, a hollowing oat — 
«attf/au. pp of ejteauare, to hollow 
L «*• o«t i tamart, to hollow, froni 

Ion. (F.-Iul.-LO F. ffa6ioH, a 
b IcrC* ^kct filled with earth.— 
^■W^— r, a (abion ; angmeni. of 
, ■ Ca^, aUo spelt gorgiOy and allied 
la. gmmm, a cape (in the nautical 
%m^ to which ihrouda are fastened), 
a hollow place, cage, den, 

cage, pri»OR. (F. — L.) 

' ). a prison, bird-cage. 

a cage, diinm. of gaita, 

f ona of faMa ; &ee oage 

ouilioo. (L.) L. caunU^ liL 
.«»]. marrrv, to beware. 
itioQ. <F.»U) F. tfttv/WM.-L. ace 
Ma^ beed. • L. tam/us. pp. of camrt, 

liTB, f« or The Murgeon. (F.-Ital. 
— Iiftl. fontfr^.^Turk. 
li. r — i.^ O. F, €9uiiUr. — L, 
if^. to lanicr; henca (o wrangle, 
i^Lvt. amSQ, faui/AtJt a jecimg, 

1^^) As imitation of the cry of 

mr or <Uw. Cf. Do. kaatito, Dan. 

;a(£djw - w« Chougtl. 

m; w« Oade 

nr. a tree. (U*Gk.) K.S. etdtr. 

^^^^Kft late word.«>L. etJtte^ to 
■^^B yi^ C^licd to (oMtt, to 

(1.) X« mhutum^ a gathering 
ialo one omm; Lit, a soinis 

away. •L abiotsstu, pp. of abs-ctderc, to 
go away. 

accede. (L.) L. Acftdtrt^ to come to- 
wards, aswnt to. * L. a<^* (o^ )» to ; ^nfrrt, 
to come. 

acoesB. (L.^ From the pp, a^asttu. 
Der. Ofcai-icn, (UcesJ-ffr-y, Sec 

ancestor. (F.-L.) M. £, amtssour^ 
whence ancesfcr, with excrescent t after r. 
— O. F. amessour.^lj. ace. anUcestortm^ 
a predecessor, fore-goer. — L. on/^, before; 
and cess-US, pp. cActtiert, to go. 

antecedent. (L.) L. antetedent-^ stem 
of pre*, part, of anttctJtre^ tn go before, 

cease. (F.— L.) F. «xi^r.— L. cessart^ 
to loiter, go slowly, cease ; frequent, of 
cedert, to yield, go away, go. 

cessation. (^F. — L.) F. f*/ja/i>rt.— L. 
ace c/ssafiomm, a ceasing. • L. cessaius, 
pp. oi cessart (above). 

cession. (F. — L. ) F. cession. - L. ace. 
ctssiontm, a yielding. — L. f^i/u/, pp. of 
cedctff to yield. 

concede. (L.) L. cffn-eedtre, to retire, 
yield. Der. conceu'ion (from pp. rtf««j/i*jV 

decease. (F.-L.) M. E. ^^m.-O. F. 
(//f« (F. iiit^j), death. — L. ace. iUeessum^ 
departure, death. — L. Jifessus, pp. of tU- 
adtrt, to depart. 

exceed. (F.-L.) O.F. <jrr/d!rr. - L. 
ixetdert, lit to go out. 

excess. (F.— L.) O. F. /j«x.-L. ace. 
excessum, lit. a going out or beyond. — L. 
txctjsus, pp. of tx ceaert. 

incessant, ceaseleu. (L.) L. itues- 
lanf; stem of ittcfssaMt, unceasing.— L. wi-, 
not ; cessans, ceasing, pros. pt. of ressart, 
to cease ; see oeaae (above). 

Intercede. (F.-L.) F. interchter.^ 
L. iMtercedirt, lit. to go between ; hence, 
to mediate. Der. inttr-ftssitmt Sec 

precede. (F.-L.) O.T. ^recidir {¥, 
prkhlerX — iL. pra-cidtre^ to go before. 
Der. precedent, pre-ctssion. 

predecessor. (L.) \^. pradtcesior.*' 
L. prtt, before ; decessar, one who retires 
from an office, from decessuM, pp. of dectd- 
ere, to depart 

proceed. (F.-L.) O.Y. preeeder.^ 
L. practdtrt, to go before or forward. 
Der. process (mod. F. pnxh) ; process-ion^ 

recede. (L.) L. receden, to go back. 

recess. (L.) \^ reeesms, a retreat.— 
L. ricessus, pp. of rt-ceder». 

rotrocesaion. (L.) Coined (with 
suffix -ion) from L. retroctss-us^ pp. of rtte^ 
eed^rt, to go backwarda. 





secede. (L.) L. uetdtrt^ to go apaxt, 
withdraw. Der. stctss i^n. 
suooeed. (K.-L.) Y.jutcfdtr\ Cot 

— L. iuicetUn (pp. ttucessm\ to follow 
after. — L. nu- (xwA), next ; ttdert, to go, 
come. Der. succ/ss, O. F. succts, L. sue- 
ttTSHs, result, (ram pp. nuasrux. 

Oeil« Ciel, to line the inner roof of a 
room. (F.'L.) Hence the sb. ceiling or 
cui-ing. M.E. cttlen. to ceil; from the 
sb. sytt or Q*//, a canopy. — F. nW. a 
canopy ; the &arae word as citl, heaven. [Cf. 
Ital. Htlo, heaven, a canopy, a cieling^j — 
L. cerium, heaven. + GIc. icoAor, hollow. 
(V KU.) % Not to be confused with E. 
JiY/, nor with seat; nor with seti{Y.silier) ; 
nor with L. tilart, to hide. The L. caiare, 
to cmbou, lecms to have some slight 
influence on the word, but did not ori- 
ginate it. 

celestial (F. - L.) F. ciltstUl. - L. 
e^Uiti s, heavenly. — L. catnm, heaven. 

Celandine, a plimt. (K.-Gk.) K. <iH- 
doin€\ Low L. rWfii^MiwM. — Gk. y<^i^ 
rioK, swallow-wort. »Gk. )(cXifioy-, stem of 
XcAtStt*', a swallow. (The n is intrusive.) 

Celebrate. (L.) L. ceUbratw^ pp. of 
(tUhrare, to frequent, to solemnise, honour. 

— L, teleb^r, freqaenicd, populous. 
Celerity. {F. - L.) F.c///nU. - L. ace. «■ 

//r(/4i/^w,5peed. — L.«/^r, quick. (y^KAL.) 
accelerate. (L.) L. acceUratM, W-^^ 
a^ceUrare, to quicken. • L. fl^-- (for aJ) ; and 
<£ier, quick. 

Celery. (F.-L-Gk.) F. cJUn, intro- 
duced from the Picdmontese Ital. siUri. -• 
L. st/ifWM, parsley (with change from n to 
rX^Gk. <jiKi¥ov, a kind of paisley. 

Celestial ; see CelL 

Celibate. (L) The orig. lense was 'a 
single life ;* it was afterwards an adj., and 
again a sb., meaning ' one who is single.' — 
L. eaiibatus, sb. celibacy, single life. — L. 
talih-, stem of <iilehs, single, unmarried. 
Dop. ctlibeuy (for ceiibaiy). 

Cea (L.) M.E. «///.- L. «//«, small 
room, hut Cf. ^'//arr, to hide. (^KAL.) 
oeUar. (F. - L.) M . E. ctUr. - 0. F. 
uiur.^l^ ullan'um^ a cellar. •L. etlla, 

oonoeaL (,L, ) L. ccnuiart, to hide, - 
L. coH' (rwM) ; and eti^rt. to hide. 

occult (F. - L.) F. (Kfulte. - L. oc- 
fttiius, pp. of otru/ere, to cover over, conceal. 

— L. ^- (for 0^): and obs. L. taUre*, to 
hide, allied to er/arg, to hide. 

Cement (F.-L.) O.F. rtmm/.~U 
tamtntHmt rabble^ chippings of atone; 

ow X* 


hence, cement Perhaps for crtfrMtm 
from eadtrt^ to cut. 
Cemetery. (L— Gk.) Low 
/rri'wm. — Gk. KOitir}H}fiio¥, a sli 
cemetery. — Gk. Koifiaa/, I lull 
pass., to fall asleep. Allied to 
down. (VK1-) 
coma. (Gk.) Gk. Hwfta, a deep 

— Gk. iroi/uioi, I lull lo sleep (above). 
Cenobite. (L. - Gk.) L. omM 

member of a (social) fraternity (Jei 

— L. exemobium, a convent — Gk. «ea 
a convent. — Gk. Koivofito^, living so 

— Gk, Koivi-%, common ; ^io%, life- 
Cenotaph. (F.-L.-Gk.) OF. 

tafht. — L. etncta^hinni. — Gk. ctrot 
an empty tomb. — Gk. Uiv^tf emp ty; i 
a tomb. 

Ceneer; see Candid. 

Censor. (L.) L. censor, % 
assessor, critic. —L. ctnstrt^ to 
nion, appraise. 

censure. (L.) L. ctnsufo^ 
nion. — L. etnsert (above). 

Cent, a hundred, as in ptr /Mf 
In America, the himdredth part of a i 

— L. fentum, a hundred ; see Hundi 
centenary, (L.) U eentemtrit 

lating to a hundred. — L. r/m/^msi, i 
died (usu. dUtributively). — L. cenhtu 

centenniaL (L.) Coined 
happening once in a century.**] 
hnndrcd ; oMm-us, a year, 

centeeimal. (L.) h-remu 
dredlh. — L (rufttm, hundred. 

oentigrrade. (L.) Divided 
drcd d^recs. — L. cen/i-, for cenfuw 
drcd ; gradus, a degree ; see Qrads 

centipede, oentiped. (F.— L. 
eentit*ide,^\^ ceniiptda, a many-foot 
hnndrcdfooted) iiiicct.— L. ff»/j-, f 
turn, hundred ; and/^t/-. stem of^ 

centuple. (L.) L. rm/i 
centupHc'), a hundredfold. — 
hundred ; piU are. to fold. 

centurion. iL.) L ace 
captain of a hundred. — L. 

century. (F.-L.) F. 
eenJuria, a body of a hundred 
ber of one hundred. — L. tentu- 

quintal, a hundred • weigl 
Span. — Arab. — L) F. 

— Span, f/jtfin/d/. — Arab, 
of 1 oo lbs. — L. centum^ % 

Centaur. (L. - Gk.) L. 
Gk. t.iwrn.\tpa%, a centaur, a 
man and half horse. 

. centuA 
ed 1^ 



A pUaL (t.. - Gk.) L. cm- 
wa^mvphf. oenuory ; a pUnt 
'die Cm/oair Chiron. 

Centexuilal, Centuple, 

Ac ; kcc 0«nt. 

lUr. iF. - L. - Ck.) F. 

m «GlL Wrrpov. m spike, 

!.»Gk. m^vriv, 1 goad on. 

fiyinu frc>in i ceilre. (L.) 

^. cziide fonn of ctntrum ; 


iCBilii^ towards a centre. 
>*«) ; fefere, to seek, 
draw to • crotre. (F.« 

id tfntr um, a centre. D«t. 
ttntr^4 (modern), 
depamnjf from a ceatJV, 
L. — Gk.) F. tx£entriqut.'^ 
rrtnu.vGk. (MHtrrp-ot. out of 
lUk. J«, oot ; aipTpov. centre. 
Itcig lo pouery. ^Gk.) 

'%. CAjth. 

[b wax. (L) L. r/mrv, 

wax, + Gk. *v^' ^''* 

kCifk/E.) Ut.awaxc^ cloth. 

(L) Fram f^ir, to wax ; 

(Xl -mftr/um). 

^ ^ -U> 0,F. «. 

• t-rrra, was. 

to the brain. (I* ) U 
CC Gk. «^M, head. 
iIab, a kind of sauiagc. 
Fotmerly itrvttas (Phil- 
f, itrvelat. — I taL rtnv- 
•aveJoy; from its cou- 
ItaL cfrxfllo, brain. ^ L, 
of err-ei^ntm, brain. 
OoTMBent ; »ce Oer«. 
(F. M L.) M. K urtmcme, 
r. ■• L» r^nmomta^ a cere* 
-SkL ^mum, action, ntc. 

|(F. — U) O. F. wr^/m, «r- 
*ure; Willi »tiffix -a«iw. 
iouixalc ; Gk. 

'. — i-) The s U added. 
setrumr, to make cer- 
C^i^ mC lo) ; and cerlain, 

M E, (ertiJt^H,^ 
jrr^ to maLc 
. cnide form of 
f;«inl j6i*,iur/af-rrv«tomalce. 



azure. i^L.) L. <^ruUus, 
Perhaps for ctgiuius*, from 

tamiuj, blue 
talum, sky. 

Ceruse, ; aee Cere. 

Cervical, belonging \o the neck. (L.) 
L. ctruu-, item of aruix, neck. 

Cervine, relating to a hart (L.) L, 
r/KMiff-Kj. — L. teru'Us, a hart; see Hart. 

Cess, an assessment; shurt for aasesa. 

Cessation, Cession; see Cede. 

Cess-pooL (C. ?> Also spelt iess-foct, 
sus'Pocl, Prov. E. jwj/, xojx, hofrwa^h, 
mess, puddle ; prob. from Gael, sos^ any 
nnseemly mixture of food, a coart« mess. 
Perhaps allied to ^htVxugh^$9gk, rooistuie. 
W. tug, moisture, W. sock, a diain. Pool 
is originally a Latin word : sec Fool. 
% Or for [si)cess- or {re)cest-pooi7 

Cetaceous, of the whale kind. (L.-* 
Gk.) L, tett, ctfmt^^Gk. Jrijrpr, a sea- 

Chafe; see Caldron. 

ChAfer, Cockchafer. (E.) A. & 
ctafor^ a kind of beetle. + I>u. k<vir'. G. 


Chaff. (E.) A. S. tea/, later thaf, husk 
of grain. + Du. kaf\ G. kaff. ^ The verb 
Id chaff =. ic cAa/e, i.e. to vex. 

chaffinch, a bird. (E.) le. tMaf- 
finch ; it frequents barn-doors. 

Chaffer; see Cheap. 

Chaffinch ; see OhaflT. 

Chagrin. (K.-Turk?) F. ehapin, 
melancholy. Diet identifies it with F. 
chagritt, shagreen, a rough stuff taken ai 
the type of corroding care ; see Shac'e^ii* 

Chain. (F.-I>.) O.K. chahu, cAam*. 
^ L. catena, a chain. 

chignon. tF.-L.) Hair twisted; 
Another sjicUing of F. <AafrMn, a Iink.«> 
F. rhij/ft/, O. F. ehaint, a chain (above). 

concatenate. (L.) L. ttmcafenatta, 
pp. of (oncattnart, to link together. — L, 
c6th (cum), tui^'cther; and cattrta, a chain. 

Chair, Chaise ; see Cathedral. 

Chalcedony, a kind of quartz. (I* » Gk.) 
L. chatceiicuim, Kcv. sxi. 19. ■- Gk. 
X^SKTjhwv^ Kev. xxi. 19 ; a stone found at 
ChaI.eiUn, on the coa^t of Asia Minor. 

Chaldron ; see Caldron. 

Oholioe, a cup. (.F.-L.) O. F. talin 
(dialectal ty, cAaJire), —L. raficfm, ace- of 
ca/ix, a cup. Allied to ca/yx, but not the 
same word. 

Chnlk ; see Oalx 

Chnllonge ; see Calumny 

Chalybeate. (U-Gk.) U«cdo(«%l«i. 


Chorooai ; m< Char (i;. 


ot ; sec Oar. 

K, — Itjil.) F. tJkarfa/am, 

OJM, a mountebank, great 

I13I rMr/arr. to [iralllc. — 

tUc- Prob of tmilfttivc origin. 

a kind of wild mostard. (c,.) 

Rprl. - A. S. rrr/u ; the Utter 

ba ' Icck i' origin of <rr- un- 

.*L.) M. E. £harme^ ab. — 
an enchantment — L. carmen, 

jUment. (^ KAS.) 

sec OftniAL 

; tee Card (1). 


(»). (3); «ee Capa4rfoua. 



Pi— til. Chastise ; tee 

; see OMlno. 

Itter. !,£.) M. K. eha/enn, 
to ciutter, t« ittcr ; frcquent- 
i cSaZ, An imitative word ; 
to tnjble, chatter, Swecl. 
; SkL fad, to recite, ffuia^ 


p Ch«w. 
d spelling; of Jaws ; see 

s low price, (U) Not E. 
t- M^, fhrrp, barter, price ; 
Hence j^wa Mm/, in a good 
mmrrk^'\ ; whence E. ehtaf; 
1 A.&. «<i/, price; whtncc 
mm, to chcipcn. buy. So nl&o 
, whrijce kecfen, to buy ; 
" ■ "'(cc kau/fn, to buy ; 
> .1 . ^tM^, a purchase : 
n,). to traffic. Hut 
arc Uiaowcd from I,. ; in 
O. H C» thA^ufo, a huckster, 
/ . icr. Lf. <;k. 

..V, to buy. 
T ■ ■ '••»'• is from 

. a bar- 
jMiiiicy, jtUu bttauicsaj &ec 

, « Bitfdhaiit (L. aW E > The 
■ msrdr fchnrt for i-Aa/fman. 
ip». a ntercliarit.«>A b. rr'A 
,w« abore ) ; and man. a man 
to faaner. (U. Da.t M E. 

<*/^ (Lydgate). - T>i. kccptH, to buy ; the 
same as A. S. ctdpian^ to cheapen ; see 
Ch^ap above. 

C0P« (»)« to vie with. (Du.) Orig. to 
cheapen, barter, bargnia with ; M. E. cof>tn 
(as above). 

keep, to regard. (L.) Not E., but I* 
M. E kipen. A. S. cffan, also rypan, orig. 
to trafHc, sell, also to seek afiex, store tip, 
keep. This vcib is a mere (icrivative of 
AS. eedjf, barter, price ; sec above. 

Cheat, to defraud. (F.-L.) Cheat is 
merely short for escheat ; cf. M. E. chete, an 
escheat (Prompt. Parv.). The eickeaters 
were often cheaters-, hence the verb. See 
osoheat, entered under Codenco. 

Check, a sudden stop, repulse. (F.— 
Pen.) M. E. ehek. a stop ; also check I in 
playing chess. The word is due to the 
game, which is very old. The orig. sense 
of check was ' king 1 ie. mind the king« the 
king ii in danger. — O. F. esehec, ' a check 
at cDe«»-p1ay,' Cot. * Pers. xAjM, a kinc, 
king at chess ; whence skAh-mAl, check- 
mate, Ut. * the king is dead.* from m^t, he 
is dead. Simibrly we have F. hhte, a 
check, repulse, defeat, pi. iihe<$, che^ ; 
Ital. scatcQ, a square of a chess-board, also 
a check, defeat. Sec cheaa below. 

checker, chequer, to mark with 
squares (F. — Pcrs.) To mark with squares 
like those on a chess-board. M.E. chek- 
kcr, chel-ere, a chess-board. (Hence The 
Checkers^ an inn-sign.) — O. F. eschtquier, a 
chess boaid, also, an exchequer. « O. F. 
ochti, check t at chess ; see above. 

checkers, chequers, an old name for 
the game at drauj;hts ; from the checker or 
chess-board ; see above. 

cheok-mato. ^F.-Pers.) From Pers. 
sh6h frtiit, the king is dead ; see Obeok. 

cheque. (F.— Pcra.) A peilantic spetl< 
ing of check, from confusion wllh exche- 
quer; it is really a name given to a dral^ 
lor money, of which one iceeps a memo* 
nmluni or ceuftter-check. 

chess tht-pameofthekin^. (F. — Pere.) 

A corrupted ^im of cheeks, i.e. kings ; see 

Cheok above— CJ. F. eschees, chess ; really 

the pi. of euhec, check, orig. *kijig.' 

^ From Pcrs. thdh. a king, were formed 

O. F. eschec, F Ahee, M. check, Iial. icacco. 

Span, xaque, ja»iue. Port, xiv/ue, C. $chach, 

I t>u, tchaak. t)an ikiik, Swetl. schack. Low 

j Lat. hufus scacconim :* (^amc of checks, or 

: of kings 

I sxohequer, a court of rcvcaoe. 








Pcrs.) M. E. wcA^*^nf.-0. F. tschequitr, 
a chea-board ; heiicc ■. chcckereil cloth on 
wliich accounts were reckoned by means of 
counteis. — O. K. eschet, check; «c Check. 

Cheek. (E) M. E ekike, chtokt. - A. S. 
rrc/r^, check. + Da i(aa^. jaw^ dicck ; Swed. 
kik, jaw. Allied to Jaw. 

Cheer. <J, - L. - Gk.) M. E. chirt. 
orii^. ihc mien ; hence * to be of good (hter* 
— U. F. chert, the face — Low. U €ara, 
face.^Gk. «iipa, the head. Der fhttr-fult 

Chees*. (L.) M. E. thts*. A. S. iht, 
(yse. — L. castus^ cheese; whence other 
foMiis are borrowed. 

Chemise. (K.-L-C?) ¥. chemist, 
•-Laic L. ramiVt'a, a^iirt, ihin dress. I'rob. 
Celtic; cf. U. Iii&h taimma, shiiU 

Chemiat, Chymiat ; »hoit for mi- 
chemist \ see Alohemx. 

Cheque, Chequer ; sec Ohook. 

Cherish ; tec Caress. 

Cherry. (F.-L.-Gk.) ME. eheri. a 
omlake for eken's^ the final s being mistaken 
for the pi. inflcxioti. — O. K. arise. — 1^ 
orranu. a cbcriy-trec. — Gk. itlftaaoi, a 
cherry-tree ; usually said to come from 
Ccrwos^ in Poaius; a story which Curtius 

Chert, a kind of quarti. (C?) The 
Keiitiib form ts chart, rough ^ruuniL Pro- 
bably from Irish ceart, a i«:bble; cf. Gael. 
*WT, a shelf of rock, W. carts» stone 

Cherub. (Heb.) The inie pi. is iMentb- 
$m, « Hcb. k'nlv ^pl. k^nivim), a mystic 

Ch«Trtl» a plant, (U-Gk.) A.S. r<rf- 
^//. — L. cartjolium (Pliny), — Gk. x^f><- 
fw^Xo•', chervil, Itt. plea&ant leaf.-Gk. 
Xaf»-'«i', to rejoice ; ^^vXAoa*, leaf. 

ChvBa ; see Oheok. 

Chast Cl— Gk.) M.E chestt, chistt. 
A.S. cyiti.^L. nJ/a.-Gk. Kltrnj, a chest. 
box (whence G. kiste. Sec) 

dat, a soit of tomb. (L. « Gk.) h. <utci ; 
SI above. 

oistem. (F.-L.-Ck.)^ 
L. cisttfma^ a re&crvoir for vralcf.— L, iistm 

Chestnut. Chesnut. (F.-L..Gk) 
Cktmut is short for cktstant, which is 
shoit for cktstm-nut, nut of the cJUtten, 
which is the old name ol the tree, called 
in M. E iA€JttiH. •• O. F, ekaseai^fu ^F. 
tkJt*ij(m).^L. tmstama^ chestnut -tree. • 
Gk. «arT«j>or, a cbcstnut ; checnuu were 
•Ikllcd ««#nva. or mt/wa KiAr«rnra, from 


KtiffTova, Ca^tana, the name of a dt}j 
PontDs where tlicy abounded- 

Cheval-de-frlse, an obstnK 
sj'ikes. (FO Ul. 'horie of Fri( 
jocular name ; the pi. iktvamx-Jt-i 

Chevalier : see Cavalier, 

Chew, Chaw. ^E) M. E 
A.S. f^rwjw. lochcw.eaL + Du. 
G, kaucn ; Rtiss. Jafaf9, Der. 
a jaw; now spclt/dtv. 

Chicanery, y F. - Pers. ?) F, rt 
wraiiyling. pettifogging; Cot. — Fa 
to wraftjilc; orig. to dispute in 
of the mail or ckicam (UrachctV 
<hica$u is from the medieval Gk. 
a woid of HyiantJue oiigtn (.id.; 
from PcTS- ehau^H^ a club. bat. I 

Chicken. (E) Somciimes sh«tt| 
to ekiik\ bnl the M. E. wonl 
A. S. ticm ^.for eycen •. not 
dimin, oitocc, acock (cf. k^ 
So also Du. *rVAf#(, *"'■"" 
pears to be a diniin. 
cock ; cf E. ekuck, a 
G. kiichUifh « chicken. % Moie \ 
aot an exact dimiii. of <0cc. but f(<« 
same imitative baac; sec Cbuok (2). 

Chicory, a plant, soccory. l^F. 
Gk.) F. ehiiokt, — L. cickfini 
myw/kfOf, «<)(«u/>v, succory, p. 5"i 
corrupter form of the word, app 
ticccry or cickorjr, from 1- nck9t 

Chide. (E) M. ErAidirw. A.. 
lo chide, Lrawl. 

Chief, Chieftain : sec OspM 

Chiffonier, a cupboard. (F. 
place to put rags in. — t. chii 
picker, aUo a cupboard. — F. 
Urig. unknown. 

Chiton ; see Cbatn* 

Chilblain; see OooL 

Child. (E) M.E cMiU, 
Allied to Do. and G. ki»>i, a 
i6i.'/jlrt. the womb. C^GA.)Se8' 

Chill : see Cool. 

Chime ; see Cymbal. 

Chinusra, Chimera. (U-Glu)j 
ekimar%, — Gk. x'>**'(»*. ■ she goal ; ll 
fabulous monster, with i goat'> body. «4 
xi/u^of, he-goat. +1'=«1' ff^*^* y'^st 

Chimney. (F.-U-Gk.) F. cktm 
* a chimney ;* Cot. * Low L. 
provided with a ckimort ; hcooe, at 
»L. rtfOTMM/. a &r< |ilaoc;«*< 
oyttL, fire plsM. 



IB. ar ape. rAfncnn.^ I fttn 
■ft in 

Icei Ixnt, Dan. kifi%{, Swrcd. 
kimmiMf the cbe«k ; G. ii>Mi, 
k : U iriM. dicek ; Gk. i^rvi, chin ; 
Amh {nr gQMa\. jaw. 
ina, (Ch^iL) Shurt ioT tAinavnnt, 
raitt fins CJ^na, Th« name of the 
iW W {nrmciljr CistuicJi we Lave 
r 6b«J «. asd uc Chinese u a 
Cimir u the singulax, by a 

iftodDOslk whooping-cough. fE) Put 
Movi^^MffA; cf. Scotch k»nJt-<oujih, 
Jkatr {Atft meuis cfugh). A ^i'i4 u a 
ll la the brcftlh. UAsaltted form of a 
RIK. ro c^p. -f Du. kinkhacst ; 0. 
Mtkkim1\ ^ttvA. hkhesta, chincout;h, 
h. le nip ; G ^fA^H* to gasp. Cf. 

f G.) O. F. e(cAtn£ (F 
^e.-O. K G. rhmi. i 
'Aj- schiau, a splint). For 
Ik Vj*'> * tborn^ spine. 

(I), « deft. (E) Formed by 
Ko M. E cMint. % cleft, rift. - A- .< 
lidliak.* A. i\ dman, to split Strong 
, -4- Da- im*> a chinV. also a germ; 
Wi to b«d; c£ G. krimett, to bnd. 
"■JHtiqs Kcds mikkc a crack in the 

iak (iV tojbigle. (E) An imitative 
I i tL iimk, dattA ; and see Ohin- 

lat&(HMBUm-Skt.^ Hmd.rAA/n/. 
tarf caClaa cftotfa. named from the 
qptitd paSlcma on it ; <-A^//. chintz, 
« i|KiL*Skt €Ai/rm, vaiiegatcd, ipot- 

ip; aM Clkapd). 

IrOffrttphy. bandwrititig. (Ck.) Ck. 
mmif*^, t» write wiiii tite bvul. — Gk. 
h«cradefonnorx(<^. tHc land ; ypAtftttv, 
lite. (^GIlAR-l Cf. fhifV-maHcy. 
bf the hand ; (kho-poJ-ist. 
(a&d caret) the feet. 
r •»-.,!. I c^llin^ oi SurgevM. 
'». 'a surgeon ; ' 

k ife«*kfci^ vriUi the hamK ^kill with 

lH»d^ ut, KBTScry.'Gk. x"^** crude 

•f ][<d(^ the uod; and Ipfuw, to 

caoatuiad lona of tkirur- 


gtm ; »ce above. Der sur^a/t short tn 
<hirurgxcai ; sur^ry^ corruplinn of M. E- 
surgen-rU ( -^ turfnon-ry) ; cf. F. fhirur^it. 

Chirp. (E.) Also chirrup. M E. rAir- 
/rrt- Also M. E. chirkem. chiriueH. Co 
chirp. The forms ckir-p^ <hir~k. cMir-m 
arc from an imitative baK KIR. to coo; 
cf. Du, kirren, to coo ; Skt. gir, the voice ; 
I,.^arr»>^, to ch.itlcr. (^GAR > 

Chlrurgoon ; &cc Chirography. 

Chisel. (F.-L.) M. E. ^iVr/.-O. F. 
thiitl, ciscl (F, cistau). Cf. Low L. 
cueUus, scissors (a. o. 1353). O. F. cistt 
answers to Low L. casilluj • or castHui \ 
not found, but a mere variant oi'L.cijonum, 
a cutting instrument (V<^etiD$) \ see Sche» 
ler's note to Di«. — L. r^i-w«, supine of 
(adtrt, to cut ; whence alio late L. incisor, 
a carver, cutter ,- sec Caeaura. 

Bcissors. (F.-L.) The mod. E. joj- 
sors ii a comipt spelling, due to coofu^ion 
with Low L. scissor (from scimUre, lo cut), 
which, however, only means a man who 
cuts, a batcher, a tailor, and has, in fact, 
nothing at all to do with the word. The 
old sfK-lling was nxars, citars, or ciurt', 
and this a^iu was adapted (by pntting 
the K. sufmt -ers in place of F. •caux) from 
P.cijfaux, 'sizars, or little sheers;' Cot. 
This F. ciscaux = cutters, pi. of dseau. a 
chisel Thus, etymologically. £. scissors 
= risers ^cisiis, pi. oWisil = chisel. 

Chit, a shoot, sprig; a pert child. (E.) 
1*hc tnie sense is a shoot, or bud ; hence, 
a forward child. Put iarcAiih. A. S.f/5, 
a geim, sprig, sprout. Allied to Goth. 
keian. uskfian^ lo produce a shoot ; alio to 
E. cAi/J, kin. (VGI. for GA,) 

Chiv&lry ; see Cavalier. 

Chlorine, a pale green gas. 
Nnmed from its colour, 
green. (V^HAR.) 

>Gk.x^w>MSr, pale 

chloroform. (L. anJ Gk.) The latlci 
clrment rtlates to formic acid, an acid 
formerly ob.ained from red aBts.»L. /i»r- 
mittt. an ant, 

Chocolate ; see Cacao. 

Choice ; sec Chooae. 

Choir ; see Chortu. 

Choko. (E.) M. E ckowkm, chcktn, 
cheokitM. A. S. ctician : only in the deri- 
vative (iccUung^t to translate L. mminati^, 
which the gloi.sator hanlly seems to have 
understood. + Icel- ^&ka, to gulp, kyka, to 
swaIIliw. from Aai, the gullet. Allied to 
Oough, and Chuok (i). 

Choler. the bile, anger. (F. -L.«GV1 


oik. |i| p s JApflft • hmti of 
■MO* Atf- 4:i«r^ <l»r <^ 

'^ '^SlkMHk Id chML (Ttek.) T» act « a 
nlMiiT irr ^ML Bn Joaaaa has iI^mw la 
te MM ^ '• TM.* «M tfee IvpOed 

«Mi «r -ckMi:' l if ifciMJi f , L 1. TV 

l» M 4 TiitUslk f^imu or iaOir- 
M^ taMMlrml a aecerioai fraud 

-Ck. «v^ 

CliryMUJi, itia 6«k i^ks kf i 

kMeeM. (Ck-) Gk v i'^ Mk tic j 
colowftS ibcalk Q^ WTufciL chnai 
Gk. x^**-^ e«U : «ee 0«U 
chr^MllCe^ a yvUov sti 
L. tkryaHtha^ Rrr, zxL ic - _ 
Aitfof. — Gk. x^(^^f* EO^i'* Ai#0«, CRM 

Ml. lO.-' 
■> BlOOC. • ^ 

^WV^J^Ift/' i^^"" *-'■ "•" (''TM/. I ^'/i' 

A .^^K-CUJ 



(SoiAtl.) Nsned from {ts 
r, A seal. prov. Swed. 

r, bt, trom Sweil. iw^'A, a 
>ProT. SwcU, .(M^to, 10 lop. 
to £. <i«>/; and tee Ohump, 

bt (Scaad.) Pror. Swed. 

ntly, lois. (F,— 

• ikock (Tofber- 

yi.e a shock, jolt.— 

ID >>1(, shake ; allied to K. 

to cbuck as hen. (£.) An 
d; Ol has tkuk to express 
nude tiy a cock: C T. 35180. 
D«r. <hmk-U, in the &ense * to 

(j>. a dtickcB. A f&rietjr of 
See above. 
(E.) To cktukU IB lo laugh 
vray; proU. related to 
to Ckiuk (3). 
; see Chap (0- 
) M. E. ihircfu, ckiruht. 
Hfitt^ Uler cirtt i whence K. 
*^tKn»K>9, a church, ncut. of 
the LoTti. -Gk . ifv/wft, 
>lik. Mvpoff.fttrcii^ih. 
•r. G. ^i>(i/, dec 

-irr/, thtOrl. A. S. 

> Ou. kdrti, Dan. Sw. Icel- 


llokL (F.-U-Gk) F. 
riyiWf. - Ck. x>^»t joice. — 
pulp. ^U-Gk.) For- 

. ^i/AIM/. wGk. XV^< 

: as abort. 

If, iF-L.) F. ticatrUe. 
ace. of (uatrix. a icar 
.-•L.) ItAl. or^nm/. a 
ao.«>L. ace Ciarpnciu, 

[L.-Gk-Hcb.> It merely 
drink M . E. /i'«r, 0"//r. — 
iMrm. >Gk. aUtfa, itron£ 
jbUMr, itrotig drink. -Hcb. 

r Sp*n cigam j 

rn Cuba 
i'cnivian bark. (Si>an.) 
coaotca of Chit^koH, 



Wife of the governor of Peru, cored by it 

A. D. 1638, ^Should be M;/)</j(Tfr(i.) 

Cincture. (I*) L. cimtura, a girdle. - 

L. onttus, pp. of cinj^trt^ to gird. 

enoeiiite. prcKiiant. (F.-L.1 F. m- 
cHntt. — L. incincta^ lit. girt in, »aid of a 
pregnant woman, fem, of pp. of im-an^trc, 
to gird in. 

preciuot. (L.) Low L. prxanttum^ 
a bourd.-iry. *L. pntcinctus^ pp. oi pra- 
cingert^ to gird about. 

fihin^lea, an eruptive disease. (F. — L.) 
Called vma in Latin, from its encircling 
the body like a belt.*0. F. ffnt^'// ^F. 
sangU), a girth. — L. cwguium, a belt — 
L. tingtrt, to gird. 

succinct, concise. (L.) L. inccimtm, 
pp. of succin^rt^ to gird up, tuck op short. 
— L. Tuc- {fulf^, nn ; <iKgert, to gird. 

Cinder. (E,) \lisspelt for sirtiiir (by 
confasion with F. ctndre «= L. aiurtm ; 
(cc Cinerary). A.S. sindtr, scoria, slag. 4> 
Icel.jiw./r; Swcd.j/WVr; G.ji'/j/^r, dross; 
Du. sinlih, dnclcrs. fl The A. S. /iW^f 
occur* in the 8lh century. 

Cinerary, relating to the ashes of the 
dca'J. (L.) L. ciMfranus.^L. a'ner-t stem 
of cinij, dost, ashes of the dead, -f- Gk. 
K^vLf, dust; Skt. jkana, a. grain. 

Cimuibar, Clnoper. (.Gk.-Pera.) Gk. 
tHvrAiiapt, vermiliuu. From Pcrs. tinjarf^ 
ttHipi/r, red lead, vermilion, cinnabar 

Cinnamon, a spice. (Heb.) Heb y;«- 
nAmSn ; ^flid to be of Malny origin. 

Cipher. (F. - Aral>.) O. F. ci/rt (F. 
ckiffrt)^ a cipher, icro. — Arab, iifr^ a 
cipher. Der. de-ciphtr [\^ (ie, in the ver- 
bal sense of ««-; and cipher) i cf. O. F. 
dechiffrcr, ' to decypher/ Cot. 

sero. (Ital - Low L. - Arab.) ItaL 
ufv, short for i^rv. — Low L, tepAjrntm 
(Dcvic). — Arab, si/r (above). 

Circle. (L.) A S. drcu/. — L. nnutus, 

dimin. of cirrus, a ring, circle; see Ring. 

"DQT.CH-cirtU, umi-an/e; and see rirrwM-. 

circus, a ri'ig- (L.) L. fircus (above). 

research. (F. — L.) Compounded of 

rt't again, and ttarcH (below). 

search, to explore. (F. - L.) M. £. 
ttrtken, cerckm.^O. F. certhtr (F. <k*r^ 
eher). — L. cirxart, to go round ; hence, to 
explore. — L. circus^ a nng labovo). 

Circuit ; see Itinorank 

Circum, //-^, round. (L.) L. drrum^ 
around, round ; orig. ace. of circHS^ a 
circle; sec Oirole. D»r. circum-timHfnt 
(see AmbU) i vsw (see Oaaura) i -ftrtm* 



•Jmcmt CKie J«t (i) \ ; -JinrfiM* 'see tioonB- 
aio«i>; -jmAr (see Serib** ; -^^to:/ tiee 

Circus: xe 
(^rruA, ft fleecy dooi^ 

i««.*aak^ cIL^Ck -..T^KO. 
(VU.) Scr H)a D«r. ono*; *' 

to revive ^Ite 

I^ giUttrmt^ ft C"'**'- ''^ ■ k < 
cbC VB Malv^; ife tnc fam is 

(F.-l Gk.) P. 

iMftk^Gk. Mtyv. ft otvoft; wi ^ 

^F. - AiaK) P. €h^m, 
Un civet «ftt: bemwdfc 



•II i MKM1 IW 

1^ i —^'i—x tt «<r 

*f XcdL tt^ CD 

Bo dack. Oftck . Itak 


ftp^(r-D«^ r.i 

d^ : Ao ft» bfa^ kA ; ct Oa.J 

ft ^^L^^^ 

elDik. daks. (F.-C) ILS.1 

AfacBai^Ke: see factov 
. (C.) TWddc. 

hkfcdlgifthdldocfc; li ^ ii V *] 
MMd as ft hdL.> biA t h g a i m , 
■■kcftftoiae; d^dsf^ct of ft 
afao GftcL Obr* • WO. dock; W. 
MLAv. IWliiAd^rttcafOftte 
TWeC|*Jgis» fawJU »rf 


«hu^ a 



T)«.> XVI Rent -m. khm- 

■' boanl J. 
1. klampt. 

"f^r, a tmitb't 
p. <TeuL bue 
H. G. kiimpftH, to press 
Allied to Cramp.) 
r, to diinb by j;iaai>ta[' tij;htly. 
) M. E. ttxmtrtn, claml'cren. — 
U'*^''*, to pincii doscly together ; 
'imman^ to gnp finntj ; see above 
to OBnb. 

p,*b. (E.) M. E. (hst-en, elafsen. 
MMT b KLAT'S, extended from 
, whcBOe KlAM P ; see Clamp. 
I (l), ahrsvy click. (ScAiiil) M £. 
w lecL AAi2^. kiumla, n. club ; 
MWIb « e>aK log. Uimp : Daii. Miidb, 
)Jmmf^ lamph, A mere vaiunt of 

> (s\ aft usociatioii. (ScftDt).) XVI] 
Ljt, 'aclonpof people.* — Swed. dial. 
A dsmpv Itunp, also a knot of 
^KieU). See oLove. 
npk * aus, blodc. (ScAnd.) XVI 

Kol inA S.-Dnn. kiump, Swed. 

<^ Da. Jkipm/t, 0. kjump, a dump, 
Off ; IccL kiumba^ x dub. All from 
I Euc of pp. of M. U. G. klimpJtH, 
ft tkbllv together, 

H. (L»»eL— L'l GatI ' " rini;, 

XI i Irish iUnJ, dar. ts, A 

■ Lr p^antA^ « Kion ; ^. . 1 .^ — . 
dngnna <r.-L.) K. dandestin. 
wmStJtimiu, secret, dose. Allied to 

E. ClAuk ; cee Olaok. 
, (£ ) %L.1L t^Mm, fVVe only 
& rii;Mrfaa(f, a pouation ; Wright's 
■^ Tbc oriff. tense U to make a 

^^ Af^A. f>a ki^pptn, M . H . G. 
^rpat^ eUpw pnte, moke a noue. 
lo OMk. GUMvr. 

It r" ^' Clarion; tee CImt. 
^. It uf ClAck ; d f^w4. 

•* Ul&mp. 

- U) F. r/ajj«. a nuik. — L. 
• cUm, os^mbly, fleet. 

(E) A freqnentntire of daS, 

\ £■» of OUok. A.S. dot- 

<***<*T*"g «^ Du. ktaitrtn, to 




dtB. (£.) A mere 

ClaUAO. (F— L.) F. ^Azwr.— L rAiw/a, 
as in clausa orath, an eloquent period ; 
hence dausa, a period, a cUu&e. — L 
dauiur, pp. of daudtrt, to shuU (V 

ololster. (F.-L.) M. E. iUisUr,*- 
O.K. doistrt (F. tloUrt).^\^. daustrum, 
lit. endofture.*L. daus-m (above). 

close (n, to shut iQ. (K-L.) M. £. 
doutt.-^O.y. das, pp. of OF- dort^ to 
shut io. — L. dauruj. pp. of daudirt (as 
above). Der. tiu-dast, ert'doie. in-dase. 

close (3). shut up. (F.-L.) M. £. 
dot. f/aw. — O, F. dot (as abore). 

doeet. (F. — L) O. F. fJ^i^/, dimin. of 
dos^ on enclosed space. oO.F. des\ see 
oloso (l). 

ooncUide. (L.) L eondudert, to shut 
up, close, end. — L f<Mr-(<'i#jn), together : aikI 
•dMiUrt = dauJett, to shut. Der. condus' 
UH. Similarly es-dude, in-elude, prt-dmJe, 
Si-dud*; whence in-duj-tve, prt-dus-wfty 
te-duxiou (from pp, -<iusus ^ cfausus) . 

recliise. (F.-L.) M. E. reduse, orig. 
fein. — O. F. recluse, fcm. of redus. pp. of 
redcrrt, to shut up. — L r^ir/ut/fritf, to un- 
close; but in lale Lat. to shut up. 

sluice, a floodgate. ^F.-L.) O, F- 
esdujt, * a, sluce, floudgate ; * Cot. — Low 
L txduia, a Dood-gate ; lit. shut oil 
(water) ; pp. of tjc-tludtre, to shut out.*> 
L. ex, out ; daudere^ to shut. 

Clavicle, the collar-bone. (F.-L.) F. 
davuut'e, the collar-bone.- L. dauieula, 
lit. a small key ; dimin. of dauis, a Jccy. 
Allied to daudire; see Claaie. 

clef; a key, in music. (F. — L.) ^.dtf. 
— L. ace. datum, a key. 

conclave. (,F.-L.) F. condave, a 
small room (to meet In) — L. tondaue, a 
room ; later, a place of ajisembly of car- 
dinols, assembly. Orig. a locked up place. 
-•L. <oH' {(um) \ dauis, a key. 

Claw. (£.) M. E. dau, eUe. A. S. 
dawu ; also dd^di^, a claw.'f-Du. klaatiw, 
led. j(/J. Dan. Jth, Sw. kio. G. klaue. 
Allied to Clow ; from a Teut. base KLU 
-Aryan GLU. CI glue. 

Clay. (E.) M. E. dai, dey. A S. dag. 
+ Ou. ajid G. ktei, Don. kiag. Prob. 
allied to Cloave (a). 

clog, a hindrance. (E.) Allied to Lowl. 
%<!. dag. to bedaub with day, hinder, ob- 
struct ; Dan. kUzg, kUg, loam, also as adj., 
loamy. Perhai^ a Scand form. 

Claymore ; see Oladiaior. 

CUftXL C^) M.E. dtnt. A.S. tUmt^. 



clear, piire.<4>Irish aod Gael. g/am.'W.gfaim, 
glan, clear, hripht. 

cleanse (£.) A. S. rA^r/tfM. to make 
clean. — A. S. ititne, clcmo. 

Clsop. (F.-L.);«r.<-/rr.-0. F. 
tier, rlair.-'l^ c/artu^ bright, clear, loud. 

claret. (F.-L) Orig. a cUrificd wine. 
M. F. f/d/r/.-O. F. fAi/r/,f/iii>vA— LowL. 
e/aretum. wine dahlied with honey. — L*. 
ciariis, clear. 

clarify. (F, -L.) O. F. flarijiir.^ 
L. clarijuart. to make clear. — L. ciari-, for 
eiaro-, crude form of dams ; and ^c-, for 
facere, to make. 

cl&rion. (.F.-L.) M.E. e/aHoun,^ 
0. F. e/artm*, claron (F. tiairen). a dear- 
sonnding horo.~L r/an'- (a** above). 

dodaxe (F.-L.) O.F. declarer. -^ 
L. declarart. lo make clear, declare. — L. 
dt. fiiUy. clarus. clear. 

glair, the white of an egg. (F.-L.> 
M. E. gleyre.^O, F.giain. — L. (lam. fern. 
of clartts, bright; Low U clara oui, the 
while of an egg. 
Cleave (i). to split. (E.) Strong yerb. 
A. S. cMfan, pt. t. c/r^i/. pp. €lofm (-» 
E.fA«'/n). + Du. klevtn. Ice!. *^V/a (pt. t. 
klauf). Swcrl. klyfva, 'Dvi.kicve, G. khtbm. 
(Teut. bnsc KLUB; cC Ck. 7^£^«k, to 
holltiw out.) 

oleft, clift. (Scand.) The old ipelling 
is f////. -Iccl. klufl. Swed. -f/j^, Dan klofl, 
a cleft, chink, care. — Iccl. klufu, pi ofpt t. 
of kljiifa (above) ; cC Swed. kly/va, to 

oloveCs), a bnlbortuber; a weight. <E.) 
A.S. (luf, in (lu/'itfjfrt, butler cup (bulb- 
wort). - A. S. clu/oH, pL t. pi- of cUiJan, to 
cU avc. 

Cleave (a), to stick. (K.) Weak verb. 
The correct pt, t. is cUax*e4^ not r/atv. 
which belongs to the verb above. A. S. 
tUJian^ fleofian, pt. t. f /»/(?.//. 4. Dn klcveift 
Swed. klt'Ma tig, IHn. hlal>e. G kltUn, to 
adhere, cleave to (Teut. base KLIB.) 

cliff, a Bleep rock, headland. (£.) A.S. 
€Hf a rock, cliff +Du. and Iccl. klif, Cf. G. 
and Dan. klippe, Swed. kllpfa, a crag. 
Orig. sense prob. ' a climbing-place,* a 
steep : Kc Climb. Clip. ^ It canMoi be 
allied to r/^oiv (1). 
Clof : see Clariole. 
Cloft : sec Cleave (i). 
Cleinatla. a plant (Gk.) Gk. MXintarts, 
tlrush-wood, creeping- plant wGk. K^nftar-, 
stem of KKi}iMy a shoot. twig.«»Gk. «Ad«»'. 
to brcAk off, ptuac 


Clement. (F. - L.) F. demeni, - L 
cUmtniem, ace oi clenutu, mild. 

Clench : see Claok. 

Clerk. (F.-I Gk.) A, S. and O.F. 

cltrc.'^l^ eieri(us.'^0\i. «t>.iyi«^, one oC 
the clerg>'.-Ck. «x^po», a lot; in late Gk^ 
the clergy, whose portion is the Lonl^ 
Dent, xviii. a. 1 Fcl. v. 3. 

clergy. (F.-L.) ME. rJkf^rw, oft* 
•learning.'- O. F. fierce, as if from U 
fleriria* ; mod. F. cUr^gf, from Low 
{leriraius, clerkship.— Low L. cUrims, 

Clever. (F.-L.; tenfmed with E.) !■ 
BnUcr's Hudibnu (1663). It took the pl«c« 
of M. E. dtlivrr, quick, nimble. Ch. proL 
84.«»0. F. dtlivrt. free, prompt, alcit; 
compounded from L. de^ prefix, and /IBrr. 
free ; see Deliver. But apparently confused 
with M. K. (livir^ ft claw, also as adj. rci'!^ 
to&eiie, allied to Climb.Cloavei*^ % Not 
from A. S. gltiiw, M. E. ^rt(, skilfal ; itill 
less from G. klugW 

Clew. Clue, a ball of thread. fE.) 
r/fi(V. A. S. c/fTW. short foim nf r/rvvi^ 
a clew. + Du. kluuvn ; whence k/tttueni^ 
to wind on clews (K. fltw up a HiU( 
M. H.G. kluwtH, Allied to^mm, 

Click ; see Claok. 

Client. (F.-L.) F. c/im/. a suJtor., 
L. c/Unfer»,ucc of cltrtu = dufHS. orig. 
hearer, one who listens to advice ; pses {t 
of (lu^re. to hear. (V KRU.) 

cuff; see Cleave (a). 

CUmatc. (F.-Gk.) M.E. fUw^.^ 
F. climat. — Ck. «Xi^t». stem of xAl'^ 
a slope, zone, region of the earth* cfr 
m^ite. - Gk. mkivw, to lean, «loj>c: 

climacter. a critical time of life (F.^ 
Gk.) F. (limactert. adj. ; whence /*« 
clima£t€rt. 'the cIun.ilericaU '^-i »•' 
every 7th. or qlh, or the 63 ycart 
life, all very dangerous, but the .. 
Cot. — Gk. KMftaKT^p, a step of a lai;Jci 
dangerous period of life. — Gk. aA4>i4f, 
laJflcr, clini.ix; sec below. 

cUmaz. the highest degree. (Gk.) 
itKifutf, a ladder, staircase, highest jntch 
expression (in rhetoric). — Gk. KAm»v» 
slope. Der. anti-climax. 
clime. (U-Gk) L fUmta^w^ 

— Gk icAf^a: see (7U mate 

Climb. (K.) M E.<-// 
A.S. n'iml'iiM, pi. I. r/a-. 
Du. klimmgftt M.U. G. a.. 


;; allied to Clip, Orftmp. 


M. £. tliM^rm, to become 

together. A. S. tUnean 

.thmgni). to dry up. shnvel 

to cluster \ cf. ktnmpt, 

<|^ • U - Gk.) F. etiniqut, 
~ Cot. — L. ciininu. the 
ITT, belonging to a bed, 
nir^, his art. — Gk.KXiyt;, 
. mkhntp, to lean ; ice Leon. 
Itakor ; §ce Olaok. 
wd.) H. £. 4/f/A«. «. Icel. 
d i/r>t^. Dan. i/«/^. to clip, 

Tbe oiig. sense was ' to draw 
llher,' hence 'to draw together 
i thcan ;' ct A. S. ityppan, to 
LiUed to CUmp, Cleave (a), 
lec CUok. 
lock ; tee Olaok. 
I Olot. 
CloM. Closet : see Claoae. 

I M. K, (tot, clcJU, a ball. csp. 
led to eio/e, a burdock. A S. 
lock. ori£. a bur-^-Du. kluii, a 
,a tall.- led. klAt, Swed. kht, 
a ball, elobc, G. kUss, a clot, 

II to L. rU'dm, giomus. 
■od.) Dan khd* ; Dan. form 

S««d. kht (above). 
aX to ooagnlate. (£.) M. E. 
[form clots, frequent, form of a 
■e ab. (lot. 

l^ M. E. fAvA, ^iii/4. A.S. 

Urbi, Ihia. */.rrff, 

1 tlrcss. Dot. ehihts, 

Ipi. CI i'.UJ.*!. 

■Plcrwithaclolh. (E.) ME. 

PP»i pt. t ththedt or r/W</«, 
«r ctW Formed from A S- 
Utdin. from ^,V^(/; so also Icel. 
Hit. >, G i/W./i'ff. 

L) -, ortg. a mass 

the ti:uc woi.i u M. E. ctudt, 
ck. A- S. ^/i/J*. a round mass, 
Ic, hill. Allied to (Inv. q. r., 
(wfaeuce E. con-gh-mtr' 

to a hill-side. (K > 
<^iir4. AUietl to led. 
illfidc, from kijufa, to 

,(C.) VLlL.€hsa. A.S. 


f/i//, a patch. — W. r/ii*/, Cora, r/w/, a pat^ 
clout ; Ir. and Gatl. dud, tbe same. 

Clove (0. a kind of spice. ^F. » _ 
M. E. <hxv (the change to r/tftv. in the 
XVIib cent., may have been due to con 
fuiiion with Span. r/<2T'o.) — F. clou, a nail ; 
chu dt girvpi, * a clove/ Cot. : from the 
resemblance to a nad. Cf. Span, clavff^ 
nail, also a dove. — L. tiauum, ace 
(iauHs, a nail. 

cloy. (F. — L.) Orig. to stop up, hence' 
sate- O F. c foyer, ' to cloy, slop np,' Cot. ; 
a by fonn of F. doutr {O. F. doer), to nail, 
fasten up. [A horse pricked wilii a noil, 
in shoeing, wis said to be chyedJ^^O. 
eh, F. clou, a nail, as above. 
Clove {i), a bulb; see Oleave (i). 
Clover. (E.> M.E, r/ar^r. A.S. da/re. 
trefoil. + Dii. khiver, Swed. klo/ver, Dan. 
klUver, G.Al/e. ^ The supposed connection 
with cleave (i) is very doubtful. 
Clown. (Scand.) led- kiunni, a clumsy, 
boorish fellow; Swed. diaL klunn, a log. 
kiuHS, a clownish fellow; Dan. klunf, a 
log; cf. Dan. kluntet, clumsy. Allied to 
Clump. The orig. sense is • a log.' Sec 
Cloy ; sec Clova (i). 
Club (i). a stick : see damp. 
Club (i), an association ; see Clamp 
Cluck- (E.) See Clack. 
Clue ; see Clew. 
Clump ; see Clamp. 
Clunuy. (Scand.) From M.E.r/Mwx/i 
ciomsed, benumbed ; benumbed fingers are 
clumsy. This is the pp. of clomsen, to be- 
numb, or to feel benumbed. — Swed. dial. 
klummun^ benumbed (Kicti) ; cf. IceL 
klumsa, lockjaw. From the Teut. base 
KLAM, KRAM, to pinch, whence also 
Clamp. Cramp. Cf. Du, kUmmen, to 
pinch. •^/<'tf/ru-», to be betiumbed, kleumsch^ 
numb with cold. 
Cluster, a bunch, (E) A. S. dtattr, 
clysUr, a bunch. Allied to led ilAstr^ a 
bunch, klasi, a duster; Dan. and Sw 
klau, % duster. We also find Swcil. d 
klyi$e, the same as klifsa, a daslcr, from 
klibba, to cleave, stick to. This links it to 
Cleave (j). 
Clutch : see Latoh. 
'Clutter (I), a din ; sec Clatter. 
-Clutter ^a), to clot ; see Olot. 
Clutter (3>, a confuseil heap; to hea 
up. (W.) W. ^/JM^/, a heap, pile; cl\ 
einv. to heap up 
ClysLer. ^U-Gk.) L. cl/tfer, *o 




tiod into the bowels. — Gk. mXpcr^p, a. 
clyster, syringe. •- Gk. mk^Cur^ to wuh.4' 
L. cJuert. to wash. (^KLU.) 

Co-, prctix. (L.) L. c€', to;;;cther: used 
for <■«•• ( — rw«>, together, before a Towel. 
Hence co-t^itnt^ ca-tqnal, co-opcraUf €0- 
of^ItHate. See otben below ; and see 

Coach. (F.-Hunjj. : or F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. coeh^, ' a coach;' Col. Elym. dispnted ; 
it was Eaid, as early as a.d, 1553. to be a 
Hang&riui word ; from Hung. Jt&csit a 
coach, so called becaose first made at a 
Hung, Tillage called JCfftsi ; see Littr^, and 
Bcckmann, Hi&t. of Inventions. Still, it 
seems 10 have beco confused with F. cocfu^ 
a kind of boat (E. eark-boai), see Littr^. 
This is derired from L. cffncha, a shcU. 
conch ; see Oonoh. 

Coadjutor ; see Aid. 

Coagulate; see Agent. 

CoaL (E) M.E. w/. A. S. «/.+Du. 
kocf, Iccl. Swed. M Dan. kui, G. kohU. 
Cf. Skt-yt-d/, to bUie. 

collier. (E.) M.E.<v/i>r; from M. £. 
«/, coal. CC baW'fer, saw-yer* 

Coaleaoe : see AUmenk 

CoftTM; sec Cxxrrent. 

Co&Bt. (F. - L.) M. E. t6st€. - O. F. 
costt (F. c$U), a rib, slope of a hill, shore, 
w L casta, a rib. 

accost, to address. (F. - L.) O. F. 

arcosUr, to come to the side of. — Low L. 

arcojfart.^h. ac- {aJ); and cosfaf rib, side. 

OOet&l, relating to the ribs. (L.) From 

L. tatts, a rib. 

cutlet (F.-L.) F. cfffeUeff, a cutlet; 
formerly ccsteUttt, a little rib; dimin. of 
coste, rib (above). 

Coat; see Cot. 

Coax. (C?) FonnerlT«*«, vb., from 
eekes, sb., a simpleton, dupe. Perhaps from 
W. .-*v^, vain, foolish, €otgyn^ a conceited 
fellow; Com. toe, rain, fooli&h, O, Gael. 
rand, void, ^'gev^t a coxcomb. See 
Cocker, Cog (1). 

Cob (i), a round Inmp, knob. (C.) As 
applied to a po y. it means short and stout. 
M. E. ioh, a head, a person. — W. cob, a 
tuft, a spider, ccp, a tult, top ; €0/<i, crown 
of the head. 

cobble (a), a small round lump. (C.) 
M. E coiiyhtcne, a cobblC'Stone. JUiaijn. 
of W. (ob, a tuft (abovcy 

cobweb. lC. anJ E.) From W. ceh, a 
k*pi'1cT; Of fchort for M.E. atUnap-wih, 
wlere att4n9/>, a spider, means 'potton- 


bunch,' from A. S. ^r, poUoQ, and c^ 
a bead, tuft, borrowed from W. co6, t»f, 

Cob (3>, to beat. (C.) W. (Ok, 
thump ; d cobt a bunch. 

Cobalt, a mioerel (G.-Gk) G 
cobalt ; a nickname given by the 
because considered poisoaoos ; better cpi 
jkabo^, meaning (1) a demon, (3) cobalt. 
Low L. coba/us, a mountain-sprite, dead 
*Gk. it60a)Kos, a rogue, goblin. 

goblin. (F.-U-Gk.) O.P. mMj 
— Low L. gobilinm, dimio. of Low i 
cohaim (aboTc). 

Cobble (I ), to patch up ; see Covpli^ 

Cobweb; see Cob (i). 

CochineaL <Span. - L. - Gk.) Sp< 
cochinilla^ cochineal (made from iasM 
which look like berries). — L. •»«'««, 
a scarlet colonr. - L. c^fum, a Un 
also kermes, iuppo<;ed to Ik a benyt— C 
VMtitof. a berry, cuchinnt. 

Cock (0. a male bird. (^E.) M. E 
A.S. cocc; fiom the birds ay. 'Ciy 
anon rt»A/ coh!' Ch. C. T. Nun's Pries 
Tale, 456. CC Gk. mUxv, the cry of t 
cnckoo ; W. cog, a cuckoo. 

<K>ck, the ttop-cock of a barrel, ia t 
same word. So also G. kahm, {\)^ 
(a) a stop-cock. 

oookade, a knot of ribbon on a h 
(F.) F. coq%iaT\U, fern, ^{t^quard, 
also ce^uart/t, Sonne/ i fa efcmonii, *l 
bonnet or cap worn proudly,' Cot. K01 
with sufHx -on/ from F. c^y, a cock (£n 
the bird's cry). 

oookatoo. a kind of parrot. (Mab 
Malay ioid/i/d. a cockatoo ; from the Ik 
cry ; cf. Malay kukuk, crowing; of ood 
kakaJi, cackling of bens. Skt kukkt^ 

cockloft, upper loft (E. ami Scaai 

From cock and ie/i. So alsoG. haknHfk 

a roost, cockloft ; Dan. hJtkAmm^r, a k 

chamber, room up in the raficw. 

coquette. (F.) V.coqmttf, *% 

or proud gossip,' Cot. ; 1cm. of roma^ 
little cock, dim in. of .r/, a cock. C1|W 
\L. cocky, i.e. strutting as a cock. 

coxcomb. (E.) A fool, named fii 
hiE coik's <omh^ or fool's cap, a^s 
cock's crest. 

cuckold. (F. - L.) M. E. k^Jtgmk 
iukcxocUt cokoU\ bnt iVc final J \% itcf 
cent, pcrhapK by >. 
soffix -wcalii (.M. L 
Bw&f, a thieitaold, ^c-i^, r, n«t 



) ; Ulrr comom ; orig. ■ 

; K nun whose wife U un- 

u« endless allusions to 

lieiwern A cuckoo and a 

SIuOl. L L. L. t. 3. 920. &c) 

ace ol nuuius, a cnckoo 

» L.) F. fpMC0u. M L. 
ntd^lMS, a cuckoo; from 
• Gk. mt'fMwv^, a cuckoo ; 
Sku jMiVj, a cnckoo. Cf. 
Aad tee Coo. 
a p{t£ of hay. (ScJtnH.) Dan. 
1; kc3.A«iitr, lamp. ball; Swcd. 
10 stick «p abruptly. (CO 
as la «r A bkeirmJ, cock 
-xArMM^A, cock-fiosetl. 

of the lock of a gun. 
ta. the botch of an arrow ; 
fit an arrow on the bow- 
• pnn, by the transrerence 
ola archery teim) ; cL lul. 
Id off an arrow. The 
ifnscd with F. £^, a cock, 
'phrase Jm Bakn spanntn, 
Orij.'in of IiaL cocta ( — F. 
; but sec Cos. 
a bMit ; see Conoh. 
Oocluttoo; see Cook(i). 
lee ; ac« Orooodil«. 
to pamper. (C 7) M. E. 
• W, orrr* to fondle, indalge; 
aoubi^ fioodling. Perhaps allied 
■Br. C^im. MTp Tain, foolish. 

sort of bivalve. (C) 

of fft-i, a cockle (P. 

9.<). A. S. sm-coc(a\ 

\, . W. tffcij cockles ; cf, 

tit&k, small bowl, GaeL 

a haik« shell of a nut, 

\%. sense was probably 

ftikU^ a snail, allied to 

(fl ; ICC CoxloIl And aec 

lOV • *«^ among: com, (C.) 

tarca. « GacL so^ll^ tares, 

t*piU^ com-cocklc; €o^n, 

Irish fo^^ll^ corn<cockIc, 

. Th* Ofig. KHK was prob. 

L to be on ever -^-'" — mrf 
, The same a -^t, 

^W. jWf^ to sli 1 L toss 

la ln*h/^. a nodf^,^A, rect- 

on rfrmfanle peraoo. (£.) 



From M. E. cohtnay^ a foolish person, 
Ch C. T. 4306. Ut. 'cock's «Le. yolk- 
lc•4s^ cKfi'* *-'^- ^^' ^ O'i A. S. mg^ egg. 

Cocoa (1), the cocoa-nnt palm*tree; ace 

Cocoa (2) ; cormpt form of Cacao. 

Cocoon ; see Conch. 

Cod (1), a fish. (E. I) Spelt coddt in 
Palsgrave. Perhaj^ named from its rowidcd 
shape ; cf. O. Du. kdiJe, a club (Hexham); 
and see below. Der. ^•Hng, a young 
cod ; M. £. fodlyng. 

Cod (J), a husk, bag, bolster. (E.) 
Wcntx pcoj'cod, busk of a pea, A. S. rodd, 
a bag. •^Iccl. isxidi, pillow; kolSri, scrotum; 
Swcd. kudife, a cushion. 

coddle, to pamper, render effeminate. 
(£.) Grig, to castrate; but confusetl with 
caJtitr, ' to cocker,* Col. Sec p. 578. 

codling, codlin. a kind of apple. (E.) 
Cf. prov. E. cad/ingT, green peas, proptily 
'young pods ;* also A. S. tod-af-ptt, a cod- 
api>Ie. a quince. 

Code, a digest of laws. (F.-L.) F. 
c<k{e. — L. codUem, ac& ofcfidex, a tablet, 

codicil. (L.) t.. tadin'/fus, a codicil 
to a will : dimin. of codex (stem ccdu-)» 

Codling^; see Cod (t\ Cod (3). 

Coerco. (L.> L. ceerccrt^ to compel.— 
L. f{>-(fwm), together : arrert, to enclose. 
confine, allied to atra. a chest ; sec A.rk. 

Coffee. (Turk. - Arab.) Turk, qakvth, 
— Arab, qahweh, coffee. 

ColTor. <F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. «/«.- 
O. F. co/re, also cofin^ a chest. — L. ace 
(ophinum.^ Gk. tft^iFor. a basket, 

coffin. (F.-l^-Gk.) Orig. a case, 
chest. — O. F. cofin, as above. (Doublet of 

Cog (i). a tooth on a whecl-rim. (C.) 
M. E. (eg. — Gael, and Irish tog, a mill-cog ; 
W. cȣOt^ eacs, cogs of a wheel. 

Cog (j), to trick. (C.) W. (oegifi, to 
make void, trick. — W. cctg, empty, vain ; 
see Coax. 

Co^nt. Comitate ; see Agent 

Co^ato; see Natal. 

Cogmisance, Cognomen ; see Noble 

Cohabit ; sec Habit. 

Cohore ; see HcBitnt«. 

Cohort : sec Court. 

Coif. Quoll a cap. (F - G. - L.) 
O. K- toi/t (oi£e\ Low L. cojia, a cap — 
M, H- G. kupir, kupfi. a cap worn under 
the helmet Allied to Coif (a) and Cup. 

Ooi^ ; see Coin. 



CoU <i), lo ipither toceiber ; «e€ 

CoU (a). I noise, bustle. (C) Gael. 
goii, mgc, bftttle: Irish goiH, war, fight ; 
Gael. cQiJcid, fitir, noise. — Irish goil^ to 
boil, rage. 

Coin. (F.-L.) M. E. «!>(.- O.K. f«w, 
a werJge, stamp on a coin, a coin (stamped 
by means of a wedge) *L. cuntum, ace. 
of cumns, a wedge. Allied to Cone. 

ooisn^ (F. — L.) F. eoing^ cairn, & 
corner ; li(. a wedge (as above). 

ouneate. wedge shaped. (L.) L. ch- 
ntm, a wedge ; with suttix •att. 

quoin, a wciige. (F.-L.) The same 
as F. <oin ; see Coin (above). 

Coincide ; see Oadenoe. 

Coit ; see Qaoit. 

Coke, cbancd coal. (Unknown-J ' Ccke, 
pit-coal or sea c*.al charred ; Coles, 
16S4. EtjTn. unknown. 

Col&nder, Cullender, a itrainer. 
(L.) Coined from L. volant-, stem of 
pres. part, of coiarc, to strain. — L. coium, a 

<nilvert, an arched drain. (F.-L.) 
Formed, with added /, from O. F. (cuteuirt, 
'a channel, gutter,' Cot — F. couler, 
to trickle. — L. cotan, to strain, drain 

poroolaW, (L.) From pp. of L. ptr- 
eolart, to filter through. 

Cold ; sec Cool. 

Cole, Colowort, cabbage. (L.) For 
*w9rt, see Wort. M. E. «7, caul. A. S. 
raw/, I'awel * L. eauJis, a stalk, cabbage- 
+ Gk. mifXiif, a stalk ; aoiXor. hollow. 


cauliflower. (F.-L.) Formerly rtf/Zf- 
/fary. From M. E. «/ (O. F. co/), a cab- 
bage ; and Jfoty, from O. F. ^on, fleuri, 
pp. of /leurir, to flourish, from L..Jiortn\ 
see Plouriah. The O. F. <»/-L. ace. 
<auUm, from caulis (above). 

kail, kale, cabbage. (C.) Northern E. 
— Gncl. and Ir. caJ, Manx kaii, W. cowl. 
Cognate with L. caulis. 

Coleoptera, sheath winged insects. * 
Gk Ki>\ta-%, a sheath ; wrt^r, a wiug. 

Colic ; see Colon. 

ColiBeum ; see ColoaanJi. 

Collapse : see Lapae. 

Collar. (F.-L.) M. E. f(»/e/.-.0. F. 

cvlur, a collar — L. totiart. a hawA for the 

neck. — L. coUum, the neck.+A.S. htah, 

G. hois, the neck. 

ooUet, the part of the ring in which 


the stone is set. (F.-L.) F. roAic/, a coOtt 

— K. eol. neck. — ]..u cellum^ neck. 
colporteur. (F.-L,) F. f0f/»rttw\ 

one who carries things on his neck >0(I 
shoulders. — F. col, neck : and pofUur^ % 
carrier; see Port (i). 

deoollation, a beheading. (F.— L] 
O. F. di«tllati4}n. — Low L. ace decaih" 
tioHtm. From pp. of dtiollart, to behcftd. 

— L di, off; foilum, the neck. 
Collateral ; see LataraL 
Collation; sec Tolerate. 
Colleague ; see LeraL 
Collect ; see Lesond. 
College ; see LegaL 
OoUet ; see Collar. 
Collide ; see Leaion. 
Collier ; see Coal. 
Collocate ; see Looaa. 
Collodion, a solution of no-cottoa. 

(Gk.) Gk. wxxtyfi.^i. glue like. - Gt 
KikK-a^ glQ^* 'CiBtt, like, from «?Sg«, up" 
pea ranee. 

CoUop, a slice of meat (B. 7) M. & 
tthp/>e. Cf. Swed. kdl9pt, O. Swed. W«yl^_ 
slices of beef stewed ; G. khpps, a di*b of 
meat made tender by beating. From iht 
verb seen in E. chp « clap, to make a noise; 
Dn. klofptn^ G. khpj'tH, to beaL Allied 
to Clap. 

Colloquy ; sec Loquaoioua. 

Collusion ; see Ludioroua. 

Coloeynth, Coloquintlda, pith of At 
fruit of a kind of cucumber. (Gk.) Fran 
the nom. and ace cases of Gk. «oXcMm^ 
(ace. xoAoirwdido), a round gonrd or 

Colon (i). a mark (:) in writing ud 
printing. (Gk.) Gk. jruXof, a daoKj 
hence a stop marking on* a clause- 
Colon (2), part o? the intestines. (GLj 
Glc KoiKov, the same. 

ooUc. (F.-L-Gk.) Short for 
pain.^"^. ioHquit adj. — L. fo/uut.^fSk, 
xttrAtKut, suffering in the colon. — G^ 

Colonel, Colonnade ; «ee Column. 

Colony. (F. - L.) F. c^lank. 
cohnia, a colony, band of bus' 
— L. ccionuj, a husbandman. wLk 

agriculture. (L) L. agn 
culture of a ^e!d ; see Aore. 

cultivate. (L.) U cnZ/itntfttT, pp. 
cultittart. to till. — Low L :1a 

tilliag. — L. cultus, pp. of .- 

ctuture. (F.-L.) F. .u..«// -I 


fcs. of fttl. part, of rv/rnr. to 

sR Infcription at the end of 

■Idkte. (fiV.) Ijitc 

• >Kof^, a summit ; 

»i:^iiin{^ jttroke. Allied to 

ktida ; sre Colocyuth. 

Urge lUioe. Der. t^hstal, 

th* tune as ioiostium, a large 
«t Kome, in which stouc) a 
of Ncra The Ital word is 

r (F.-L.) M. E-fflAwr-O. F. 

". f#«iV«^'>. — L. BCC (ohrrm, from 

bt (V KAL) 

rtour ; IK Collar. 

[E.) A. & «//. ft vouMg camel, 

H. Ac -f Swed. dial' kullt. % l:>oy, 

ibtne, i.-L.^ O. F. 

^vl^w i ' J, AcolDmbhic; 

dovc-iUe; tiom a stippos^d 
1^1. isimmda, a dove. See 

^pillar, body of troops. 
tsfrnmna, a pillar [ cf. 
imfm, a tumroitf ^^tr, a h.ill, 

(F ->ItaI,«L.) Sometimes 

scii ia the Span, tpelling ; 

ips tbc pronunciation as 

t»Untf, fclcHnel. — Ital. 

coloDcl: lit ■ little column. 

was be who Icl the c-rcjany 

of Ibe regimcnl Diniu). of 

a ootuum. •> L. tolumna 

(K.-Itat-L) F.vtfAw- 

nitmmata. a range of columns, 

a column (above). 

olf two great circles on the 

<U-Gk.> So called 

of tbem is always beneath 

Thf w-fsrd means docked, 

.t$hi L'l; acolurco 

Ijiincated ; a 

k-^, M >c«.cu, clipped; and 

(L.) Pat for ftim, with. 

rhao followed by A, /, fn, /. 

cem-mtM, where mijt is K. : 




) ^S. mmJ. a combt crest, 

ridge.4* Da. Aam^ Icel. kambr, Dan. Swed. 
kam ; G. kavtm. 

oozn. (Scand.) Dan. kam, comb, also a 
rjil^'c on a wheel, cam. or cog, 

oakiixn, tow from old ropes. (E.) 
A. S. diitmba, tow. (For the letter- 
chaiifie, cf. E. ni^^A. S. dc.) Lit. • ihot 
which is combed oat.' — A.S. o-, prefix 
(Goth, us, oat) ; cemban, to comb, camb, a 
comb ; see A- (4). CC O. H. G. diamdi^ 
tow ; of like origin. 

unkempt, i. e. uncombed : for iw- 
/■f/rt^V. — A. S. cemban, to comb; formed 
(by vowel-change of a to «) from camb, a 

Comb, Coomb, a dry measure. (L. — 
Gk.) A. S. iumb, a cnp. — Low L. rumba, 
>lrk. KVfi&ij, a bowl, hollow vessel. 

Combat; see Batter (i). 

Oombe, a hollow in a bill-side. (C.) 
W. iwm. Corn, rww, a hollow, dale; Irish 
tumar. n valley. (^ KU.) 

Combine ; see Binary. 

Combustion. (K.-L.) F.cembmfum, 
— L. ace combusthfum, a burning up.— 
L. combujtus, pp. of com-bttrrre, to bum 
Dp. — L. «-(j«-, for rtfw, together; burets*, 
to burn. orig. purere •. 

Come. (E.) A. S. cumoM, pL t cam, 
pp. fum^w.-f Da. komen, led. >wwa, Dan. 
kommtt Sw. komma, Goth, kwiman^ G. 
kommen, L. utn irt f_gu^n ire*), Gk. 3air- 
f iv (p-amivcty*) ; ikt. ^'aw, to go, ^J, to go. 

become. (£.) A. S. btaiman, to arrive, 
hoppcn, turn out, bcfall.+Goth. bikxtnm- 
an\ cf. G. bt'p/iM, suitable, becoming. 

comely. (E) A. S. ryjw//r, comely. - 
A. S. eyf»u, suitable^ from cumam, to come ; 
and //r, like. 

Income, gain, revenae. (E.) Properly 
that which coma in ; from im aixT temt. 
So also outcome, i.e. result 

welcome. (Scand.) Icel. vtlkemifim, 
welcome, in greeting, properly a pp.^IccL 
fv/, the same as £. w//; and komimm, pp. 
oikoma, to come; m also, 
Swed. vdl'kommen. 

Comedy. (K.-L.-Gk.) O.T.ttmtdig, 
*a play;' Cot— L. comcedia.^GV. xofft^ 
Bia, 1 comedy. — Gk. xaifto s, a banquet, 
festal procession; 0/(17, ode. lyric song ; a 
comedy was a fcetive ipectacle, with sing- 
ing, AlC The Gk. itatfiot mtant a banquet 
at which guests recline<1 ; from nmttfiv, I 
lull to rest; cf. itoirij, a bed. And se-e 






oomio (L-Gk.) L. camtats. ^Gk, 
notiUKui, belon^Dg to a cw/iot, as above. 

encomium, coaunendation. (L. — Gk.) 
latinised ftom Gk. iynuititov, neat, of 
iyiiiMJiuof, laudatory, full of revelry. — Gk. 
iv, in ; icwftof, revelry. 

Oomely ; see Oome. 

Comet (F.-L.-Gk.) O.K. rovtfU.^ 
L. cometa. — Gk. Kotiri-n^s, longhairi.-d ; a 
tailed star, comet. — Gk. «v^, hair.^L. 
coma, hair. % Also A. & cemeta » L, 

Comflt ; see Foot. 

Comfort; see Foroe (l). 

Comic ; see OomedT-. 

Comity, urboAity. (L.) L. comitaitm, 
ACC. of comiias, orbamty. — L. ifimis, 

Com,m^a. (L. — Gk.) L. rvmma. — Gk, 
«4)>i/ia, that which is struck, a stamp, a 
clause of a sentence, a comma (that marks 
the clause). — Gk. «^«T«i*', to bew. stnke. 

Command ; see Mandate. 

Com,memorato ; see Memorx. 

Commence ; s<« Itlner&Qt. 

Commend ; see Mandate. 

Commensurate ; see Measure. 

Comment; see Mental. 

Commerce ; see Merit. 

Conunination; see Menaoo, 

Commingle. (L. tutd £.) From Com- 
and Mingle. 

Comminution ; see Minor. 

Commiserate ; see Miser. 

Commissary. Commit ; see Misaile. 

Commodious ; see Mode. 

Commodore ; sec Mandate. 

Common. (F. - L.) M. E. temmun, 
eemaun.^O. F. (ommun, — L. communis, 
common, general— L.^^^m- {cum^, together 
with ; and munis, obliging, binding by 
obligation (Flaulus). (V MU, to bind.) 
Der. commun i(m^ community, 

commune, verb {V, — L.> M. E. 
comumn. O. F. commknier. to communi- 
cate, talk with. — L. <0mmHmiart, — L. 
(ommunit, common, 

communicate. (L.) L. communica- 
tiu, pp. of fommunicare (above). Der. ex- 

Commotion ; see More. 

Commute ; see Mutable. 

Compact ; kc Pact. 

Company. (F. — 1*) M, E. ri?w/rt»f>'/. 
O. F. (cmp.tnif (cf. also O. F. (omfnin, a 
conn ■'" "" •' F.f<rm/aMf0fi(F.f<7m/«^M7N)f 

a companion). — Low L. r^w/ 
c&mpania, a taking of sneols t( 
L- com- {cum), together ; and /attis, 
see Pantry. Dsr. c^m^mcm -O. F. 
panitm. Also ctcc^mfany, O. P. 
fai^nifr^ from F. a <-L ad) $sA 
/a>^;>rjtoas&ociatewith,ixom cot 

Compare : see Pore. 

Compartment ; see Part. 

Compass ; see Patent. 

Compassion, Compatible; 

Compeer; see Par. 

Compel ; see Pulsate. 

Compendious ; see Pendank 

Compensate ; i>ee Pendook 

Competo ; see Petition. 

Compile ; sec Pill (3). 

Complacent ; see Pleoee. 

Complain ; see Ploiroe. 

Complaisant ; see Fleoeeb 

Complement, Complete; 

Complex. Complexion ; see 

Complicate. Complicity; se 

Compliment, Compline; se«j 

Comply; sec Plenary. 

Component ; see Foaitioo. 

Comport ; see Fort (1). 

Compose; see Foae. 

Composition, Compost, 
pound ; &ee Position. 

Gomprehend ; see Pre! 

Compress; sec Prosa. 

Comprise ; see Prehensile. 

Compromise ; see Missdle. 

Comptroller; see Botary. 

Compulsion ; see Pulaate. 

Compunction ; sec Pi 

Compute ; see Putative. 

Comrade ; see Chamber. 

Con (1), to scan ; sec C3a& (i),' 

Con (a), short for contra, again^" 
In the phrase * pro and ton* 

Con. prtjix. (.L.) Put for com- U 
with, when ll»e following letter isr, d,\ 
n, y, *, /, or V. Before ^, /, m, ^ 
ccrm- ; before /, «/- ; before r, cvr^ 

Concatenate : see Chain. 

Concave ; see Oaye. 

Conceal ; sec Cell. 

Concede; sec Cede. 

Conceit; see Capaoiot 

Conceive^ Conoeptloti? 

Conoentro ; tee Oeatrs^ 


nix: in Ute Lat^ to belong 

>- (AMV), Wttb ; Uld £^' 

dccrre, observe. 4* ^jl^- 
e, decide; Skt kxi, to 
.-L.) M. E.<fa-fw.-O.F. 
'ntf».«i.*L. dunitis, pp. of 
decTc*, lit. to fiep*rale. 
, (L.) Low L. Uifrttati, a 
; Bcut of dtcrttalii^ conlain- 
,^1^ Jfcrttum (above). 

iF.-L.) O.K. sHufnur,'' 
tt to distinguish. 
, prudent, l F. - L.) O. F. Jis- 
■tus, ^t^oidis-^nure (above). 



tnate. (L.) l^ditcHminatus, 
tm'«arr« I0 separate. — L. dis 
o5 dirfrimtM^ a separation.— 
ft (pt. L diurtui), to dis- 

Dt. (L.) 1* txtrtmentum, 
r«. «• I* uun turn, supine of 

L (K - L.) O. F. ixcrttitm ; 
L. «,srr«/au, pp. of tjcetmert 

^••L.) M E. wffT, «ffif«. - 
(fern. jwrnriV). — L. tcaetus, 
; p]K of Jt ttriurt, 10 sepa* 
j«rr«)^ verb, from L. Ufrttm \ 

(F.-U) F. ucrtiairt.'^ 
act of ifirttahux, a 
ofiocr. * U ncrtt us, secrc: 

|o nUn with othen, ammge. 
Qouc distinct from tvtuffri.) 

inarne fthell. (U • Gk.) L. 
» «^7«f «.also «^Mif), a cockle- 
modAm, a oooch. D«r. iomhc- 

, OOck-bo«t, a small boat. 
Uk.) O.K. /o^ttf. a IcirMl of 

■hell -> L. iVMifAd Ctbovc). 

t)« I>aii. iiff; Icei. kuggr, 

t4 from Cora. r^. W. <w<M, 
are ftUiod to U ^mcA^. Der. 

MOv ooeoa-nat p«Im. (Port.) 
. MM^ a bu^benr. an ugly 

tiian chiMrm; hciicc applied 
M o«t oo acconnt of the 
ftfit $X Um Um of the out. 

The orig. sense of roca was slnill. head; 
allied to F. eoque, shell. — L.rtfM^-Ad (above). 
aocoon, case of a chr)'salis. (F.— L, — 
Gk.) F. cocon^ a cocochi ; from iO>ju<, a 
shell. • L. ecruha (above). And see Coach. 

C!onciUate; see Oalenda. 

Conciao ; see Cecsura. 

Conclave ; &ee Clavicle. 

Conclude ; see CUiue. 

Concoct ; see Cook. 

Concomitant; see Itinerant 

Concord ; see Oordl&l. 

Concourse ; sec Current. 

Concrete ; see Crosoont. 

Concubine ; see Covojr. 

Concupiscence ; sec Cupid. 

Concur ; see Current. 

Concussion ; see Quash. 

Condemn ; see Donin. 

Condense ; see Dense. 

Condescend : sec Scan. 

Condign ; see Dignitr. 

Condiment. (L.) L. twditnentum^ 
scasoiting, saace. — L. condirt, to season, 
spice. (Orig. ntiknoun.) 

Condition ; see Diction. 

Condole ; see Doleful. 

Condone ; sec Date (i). 

Condor, a large bird. (Span. * Peruvian,) 
Spnn. tonJor.^ I'eruv euttiur, a condor. 

Conduoe. Conduct, Conduit; see 

Cone. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
(pMMi. ~Gk. »aivos, a cone, 
L. I'UHtus, a we<lgc ; A. S. 

canopy. (F.-.Ital.-L.-Gk) Sboold 
be (onopy. but we find F. conepi, borrowed 
from Ital. canaf^. (Also F. ftw^r^;.) — L. 
conattum^ Jaditb. xiii. 9.*-Gk. rnvfurruflr, 
an £g7i>tian bed with mosquito curtains 
(hence, any sort of hangings). -• Gk. 
Mifo^-, stem of nwvQ^, a mosquito, gnat; 
lit. ' cone-faced ' or ' cone-headed,' from the 
shape of iu head. — Gk. jcowot, a cone; 
and w^, face, appearance, from Gk. base 
on. to see (see Opticsj. 

Coney ; see Oony. 

Conikbulatfij tee Fate. 

Confection ; see Faot. 

Confederate; see Federal 

Confer ; see Fertile. 

Confess ; s«e Fame. 

Confide; sec Faiih. 

Configuration ; sec Flgare. 

ConAne ; see Final. 

Confirm; see Firm. 

F. Mm. « L. 
peak, peg. + 
Adm, a nooe. 


ConfiBcate ; tec FlaoaL 

Conflagration ; sec Flagrant. 

ConHict ; see Affliot. 

Confluent ; sec Fluant. 

Conform; sec Form. 

Confound; see Fose (l). 

Confraternity; see Fraternal. 

Confront ; sec Front. 

ConAiae. ConfUto; see Fuae(i). 

Conge, Congee ; see Permeate. 

Congeal ; %ec Gelid. 

Congenial, Congenital ; see Oenus. 

Conger, x sca-eel. (L.) L. coM£tr, a sea- 
eel. + ^^k- t^TtP'^P liic s&roe. 

Congeries. Congestion ; see Oerund^ 

Conglobo. Conglomerate ; sec Qlobe. 

Conglutinate ; see Olue. 

Congratulate ; see Qraca. 

Congregate ; see Orogariotu 

Congress; see Grade. 

Congrue, to agree, suit. (L.) L. £m- 
r(, to suit. (Root uncertain.) Der. 
\grutnt, from the prcs. pt. : congru-ow, 
r^«A'^rww/. suitable; (on^ru-ity. 

Conjecture; sec Jet ^i). 

Coi^oin, Conjugal, Coi^tigate; see 

Conjure ; see Jurr. 

Connect; see Annex. 

Connive. (F. — L.) F. comiwcr. - L. 
cortniHcre, to close ibe eyes at, overlook.* 
L. cofi' (r«m), together ; and the base «/V-, 
to wink; cf. nic-fart, to wink. (.^NIK.) 

Connoisseur ; sec Noble. 

Connubial ; sec NuptiaL 

Conquer ; see Query. 

Consanguineous ; see Sanguine. 

Consdenoe ; mx Science. 

Oonscionablef Conscious ; see 

Conscript : see Scribe. 

Consecrate ; sec Sacred. 

Consecutive ; sec Soqaenoe. 

Consent, -serve ; see Sense, Berre. 

Consider; see SidereaL 

Consign; see Sign. 

Consist ; sec State. 

Console ; see Solace. 

Consolidate; see Solid. 

Consonant ; sec Bound (3). 

Consort ; sec Sort. 

Conspiouotis ; >ee Species. 

Conspire ; sec Spirit 

Constable ; sec Itinorant. 

Constant; &ce State. 

Constellation ; see Stellar. 

Consternations bc« etratum. 


Constipate; see Stipulation. 

Constitute; sec State. 

Constrain; see Btriugent. 

Construe ; see Struotore. 

Consul. (L.) L. tcnsult a consol. Etyd 
doubtfal; ]^rhaps from <VNM^<frr. to 
suit ; see bclovr. 

Consult. (F. - L.) F. fatuulttr. - 
coMJu/tarc, to consult ; frequent i"onn 
c&HJulerr, to consult. Root uncertain. 

ootins^ (F. — L.) M. E. rcmtil 
O. F. conseil.^l^ cimsiHum, dcliberaliOJ 
— I^ conauUre, to consult. 

Consume : see Exempt. 

Consummate ; sec Snb-. 

Consumption: ice Exempt. 

Contact, Contagion ; sec Tangent 

Contain ; wc Tenable. 

Contaminate ; sec Tangent. 

Contemn. -(F. — L.) F. contemner.^Xi 
cenUmnfre, to despise. •• L. t^ow- {#i»*] 
with, wholly; Umture, to despise. 

contempt. (F.-L.) O. V.ienumf4. 
"L.coHUmpiHs. BcorTL-L. pp, (finUmfh 

Contemplate; see Temple ^1), 

Contemporaneous ; see Temporsi 

Contend ; see Tend ( 1 ). 

Content ; see Tenable. 

Contest ; sec Tealament. 

Context; sec Text. 

Contiguous ; see Tangenib 

Continent; sec Tenable. 

Contingent; sec TanK^at. 

Continue ; sec Tenable. 

Contort ; sec Toriure. 

Contour ; sec Turn. 

Contra-, /r^yfx. (L.) h. tomfm, 
Compounded of fp« , for rttM. *rtlh; 
'fm. related to trans, beyond. Der. 
dinini^*hh, &c.; and see Oontmry 
counter-, //lyfj-. (F.-U) F. 
against —L. ecntra (above). 

encounter. (F.-U) O. F 
to meet in combat, — F. tn. 
ayain^t. — L. /«, in ; c<m/ra, ai;a. ...._ 
rencounter, rencontre, (,K, 
F. ren€ontrt, a meeting — F. rm^a 
meet. — F. «-, agoing ttu^ntrtr^ to 

Contraband ; see Ban. 

Oontraot ; stc Trace (i). 

Contradict ; kc Diction. 

Contralto , see Altitude. 

Contrary, (F. — L.} F. ^.^prffnitt 
coHfrartHS, contrary ; t 
Htrr'tu) frorn coni/a, agajn 

Contrast ; sec State. 


Kne ; kc Venture. 
tlo : set- Trfbo. 


sec Vers*. 
[L.) Eji^Iii^bcd from L. 
obfitioocy. — L. cantumtui-, 
of C9mtttmax, itubboiu ; sup- 
allied to £0HUmHtrt ; ice 

r. (F. — L.) F. coniumeHe. 
citti^ iattilt, re^iroach ; proh. 
HMncTM ; KY Ooutumaoy. 
to Uuisc scvetxly. (L.) L. 
of comtundtrt, to bniise 
tftfft- (mai), with, much ; uttl 
tthLe. -f Skt /u*/, to strike; 

tAitrike. (VSTUD.) 
lilimL (F.-U) O. F. 0bttis, 
* L. 4iA/MMif, blunted, pp. of 
lo bcfti a£ainkt. And sec 

Convent \ see Venture. 

«<« VtrgB i.i'i. 
Convert j tec Verse. 
>ec Velitole. 

%ee Voluble. 


to sfjitAte violently. (L.) L. 
of ti^HtuiUrt, to pluck up, 
nffn- i>i«w), *ilh. sevc/cly ; 
k (of UQceitJiin origin). 

tK, — L.) V.rrvulsien, *» 

jr : alM> the d/awiDg of 

one jiurt of the boOy to the 

rtuuitiatum, ftcc of rt- 

bedc^L. nuuUtu, pp. 



e ralTtit F 




a wo(d of uncerliLin 

A ptttrly UititAlive \4orti; 

M. E /«t/n, 10 cook ; 
cook, w t*. fpquerf^ to 
a cook, -f- <it< rrfwrrif, 
cook. (v'KWAK. oiic. 

biscuit, a kiiid of cake. (F.-L.) F. 
I'isoiif, lit. twice cookwl. — F. ^I's (L, fiiJ^, 
twice ; and <■«//, cooked, from L. (oc/uJt 
pp. of copiire, to cook. 

oake. tScaiid. -L.) M. E. rir^.-Icel. 
aiid Swcd. la/ta ; Dan. Xd^tr ; so aI»o Du. 
lf-<V'^, G. kuchtn, R cnke, clearly allied to 
G. kkti?it, cooking, koehtn, lu cook. All 
from L. c<f-fuirf, to cook, (Doublfvl). 

concoct. (L.) L. rffWfiv/Kj, pp. ofr^x* 
covert, lo cook togciber, boil together, 

decoct. (L.) L. decoctHi, pp. of di- 
cooture, to boil dowo. 

kitchen. (L.) M. E. kiehtne, A. S. 
ciuH (put for tyctn). — L. iajnina, a kitchen, 
«>L. cotjuete, to cook ; sec Oook ;.ibove). 

precocious. (L.) Coined from L. 
/nrciwi-, crude form o( pnti'OJX, prematurely 
ripe, — L. ^nt, before ; fo^uin, to cook, to 

Cool. (E.) A.& aK cool. + Du. >t«/; 
Dan ^v7. G. kMAi. Allied to Oolid. 

chilblain. (E.) A f>!ain caused by chUK 

chill, cold. (E.) Properly a sb. A S. 
tieU,iyU^ chilliness; cf. A.S.rt'/iin, to cool; 
A. S. ai, cool. +■ Du. kilL a chill ; Swcd. 
i^'/a, to chill ; L. gtlu, frost 

cold. (E,l M. E. .Wrf", katJ, adj.. A.S. 
<•«/./, adj. + lcel. katiir^ Swcd. ,ttt//, iKon, 
,ttfA/, DtL keuii, Goth. A«A/r, G. kalL tf. 
L. geluiuSf cold, 

keel (3), to cooL (E.) To kett a pot 
is to keep it from boiling over, liL to 
cool it. — A. S. <-//d/i, to cool ; see C 
Coolie, Cooly, nn Fast Indian porter. 
(Hiiul. —Tamil.) \\x\A. ktiU, a labours 
j-y>rter, cooley (Forbes). —Tamil i*^/*, daily 
hire or wages ; a day-labouier (WiUun), 
Coomb \ see Oomb. 
Coop. (L.) M. £. eup*t a bosket 
A. S. cypa.^i^ cuf^, a tub; whence aUo 
Du. ktitf, IceL kdpa, tub, bowl, G. ku/i ' 
tub, vot, coop. Cf. Skt kti/^, a piU 
hollow. (V KU.) Dor. cwf-*r^ tub- 

cowl (a), a vessel carried on a pole. 
(F.-L.) M. E. ctmU - O. F. a^vtl 
\(uv(au'\ a little tub; dimiu. of cHtx, a 
vaT, tub. — L. cupa (above'. 

goblet. (K.-U) V.gohcUt, 'a goblet;' 
Col. Dimin. of O. Y. gvbtl, a cup, — Lew 
L. ivptUym, ace of nt/ieilus, a cup ; dimin. 
of L. iM/t», a val. 

Co-operate, Co-ordinate; sec Ope- 
rate, Order. 




Coot. (C.) M. E. <0//, €&Gtt, % water- 
fuwl ; A. S, eyta^ a kind of bird ; Dd. koet^ 
a cool. Prob. Celtic. — W. avfiar, a coot, 
lit. a. bob-tailed hen, {rom ewfa, shot, bob* 
Uilcdf ood tar, a hen ; cwtiadt cwtyn, a 
plover, Gael, cut, a bob-tail. --W. cw/an, 
to shorten, dock ; see Out. 

OopaL (Span. — Mexican. ) Span, cff/a/, 
— Mex. ce/a//t\ resin. 

Cope (I), a cape ; «ec Oape (i). 

Cope (3), to vie with : see Cheap, 

Copious ; see OpUtive. 

Copper, a metal. (Cyprus.) M. £. cafier. 
• Low L. cuf^r, Ih cupruntt a contmctioa 
for Cu/rium as, Cyprian brass. — Gk. 
Kirtpi'Jt, Cyprian; Ki-wpot, Cyprus, whence 
the Romans got copper. 

oopperoa, sulpnate of iron. (F. ~L.) 
M. E. coperost. —0. F. copt rose {foupe rose) ; 
of. Ital. eopparosa, — L. cupri rvsa, rose of 
copper, a translation of Gk. x^Ajc-oytfox, 
brnss-flowcr, copperas. 

oupreoUB, coppery. (L) L. euprtus, 
adj. of cuprum. 

Coppice. Coppy, Copse, a small 
wood. (F. — L.— Gk.) Cpppyii short for 
coppice^ and copse is contracted. «- O. F. 
copeit \ Low L, coptcia^ midcrwood fre- 
quently cut, brushwood. —O. F. (op*cr (F. 
t'ouper), to cut. — O. F. eop (F. eoup), a 
stroke. — Low L. calpus, L. (olapkus, stroke, 
blow. — Gk, x^Ao^or, a blow. 

recoup, to diminish a los*. (F. — L. and 
Gk.) Liu to secure a piece or shred.— 
F. rtcoupe, a shred. -• F. recouper, to cut 
again. - L. n-t again ; aiid F. cmtptr, 10 
cut (nbovc). 

Copulate ; see Couple. 

Copy ; fee Optative. 

Coquette ; ^t Cook (i). 

Coraole, a liyht wicker boat (W.) W. 
eorwgi, cwrwgi, coracle ; dimin. of cer^vg, 
a trunk, cwrwg, a boat, frame. So Gael. 
curacAan, coracle ; from curacA, boat of 
wicker-work. Ir. comuk. 

Coral. (F.-L - Gk.) O. F. coml - 
L. eeraliumf corallium. • Gk. xD/MiAAiof, 

Corban, a gift. (Heb.) Ileb. qorbAn, 
an on'eriiii; to God, in faKilmcnt of a tow. 
Arab. ^urAdn, a sacrifice. 

Corbel. (F.-L) O. F. ccr^l, a little 
basket, a corbel tin architecture). [Dis- 
tinct from O. F. cor^/, a raren.] — Low L. 
cor^/Ja, lilUc basket. -L. f*rW/, basket 

corvette, a fmall frigate. (K.-Port- 
Uj F. cH'veUt. » Port Mfxv/tf; Span. 


corhe/a, a corvette. - L. eorhita, a all 
sailing ship of burden. — L. corHs^ btsk 

Coro ; see Chord. 

Cordial (F.-L.) F. certiial, hea 

— L, cenii; cmde form of cor^ heart ; i| 
suffix -o/u; see Hoart. 

accord. (F.-L.) O.F. orvn&r, 
agree. — Low L. ac-ccnfane^ to agree; t 
for L. ftm-con/are (below). Dor. am 
itt^, a^eord-inr-ly, Ac; aecotJ'iam^ fi 
its sweet sound. 

concord. (F. — I*) F. cpm*nU. « 
c&ruordia, agreement — L. eoncvr^; I 
of cpn-cors, agreeing. — L. r^n- (fiM*)r 
(stem torJA, the heart. 

oo&cordant. (F.-L.) F. comorJi 
pre*, pt. of eencorJtr, to agree. — L. i 
cordart, to agree. 

concordat. (F. - Ital. - U) F.. 
cerdat, an agreement — ItaL coneordai 
convention, Uiing agreed on, esp. belil 
the pope and F. kings : pp. of conf^rA 
to agree. — L. ruMcpriwr (above). 

core. (?'. — L.) M. E. rtnr, heart 
fruit). — O. F. cor, t§tr, heart * U 

courage. (F.— L.) F. couragt, 
corTagt ; lorroed with suffix -a^r ^L. -««/w 
from O. F. cor, heart (above). I>«r. 

discord. (F.-L.) O. F. ddseori, 
cord, vanance. — L. dis-cordia, varimOc 
concord (above). 

quarry (j), a heap of slaught 
game. (F. — L) M. E. qmerrr. — 
curtc, (uiree, inicstLiirs of a slain ms 
the part given to boiitids : so callcil bed 
«*nippcd in the slua. — F.^w'r. a skin, \ 

— L. forium, hide. Not allied to L. 

record. (F. - L.) M. E. rwor4H 
U. F. rccordcr.^l^. rtccnfiire, rtrordarx 
recall to mind — L. rt- again ; rrrd-p I 
of for, heart. 

Cordwainer, shoemnker. (F. « S| 
M. E. cerdu-'a^ier, a workci in Mfrfr* 
i.e. leather of Cordova. - O. F. tf#rA 
Cordovan leather— Low L. CtfnrffH, ' 
dova in Spain (L Cordultt), 

Core ; sec CordiaL 

Coriander. (F. - U - Ck.^ 
awrfrr. — L. coriamimm. — Clc 
Kvpiw, coriander. The leaves a strong bug-like smelt; 
ffi'/Hi, a bug, 

Cork. (.Span.— L) Spon, 

— L, cprtictm^ occ. of cvritx^ bark' 


kkftbiM. (F.-L.) Thc/U 

F. € f m p raM ; the same as 

(»M*crow). cofTDorant. 

mttn'mMi, MS-crow. Perhaps 

L. i^rutu, i crow, and Bret 

lonot (b-om mor, sea, and 

im. (R) A. S. r#r»,+Dti. 
Dtn. Swcd. *(»r», Goth 
Kuss. ume ; sec 

.) Tee!, kima, Swcd. 
F, ft churn ; from O. 
kdma, Dan. kitnte, to 
'ittd G. krmat, to clnim. 
r, lam lo s curd or ' kernel ; ' 
>weJ_ kama^ Dan. kierm, 
. 2nd G. <i/n«, grain, 
lo Com. 
\ii.) .VS. tyrmri, a RTi>'<o ; 
& ^vrv^ a grain (with the 
from tf to jr). And see 

hud excrescence on the 
.) K- tamt, A horn, horny 
.J^Lowl^^rrTM; L. (tfruM, 

Itiorny BcmbriDe in the eye. 
I, fem. of (VfTMH/, homy. -• L. 

lb 'F -! N F. r*f«(7/i. 
Lomcl-ijce. — 
^7 ; fomo/tum, 
L. tarfttuj B coineltrce ; 
homy niitme of the wood. -> 

• kind of chotcedony. (F.» 

ly fenmSine. •• F. comafine, 

or cornnline, a flesh coloured 

CI Port £t>tfi^/inai Itfll. 

hufu ; in allusioik to 

rail spprnmnce. ^ Altered 

' vf)/ tit G,, from 

I connected it 

ilcsh. Cf. onyx 


•D O. V. cemierr. — 

oomer, angle, — Ixw L. 

(#rw»^ born, f>tojection. 

t^) M. K eortitt, a horn; 

lone (accompanied by a 

alio an oHiccr of such a 

r/. ctrnttff, dimin. of F. 

MC Cora. 

(L.) For tamu-co/ia, 

OB»>boTsc4 t&lmftl (F.'L.) 



•*««/, one; 

I F. amirpme. •- L. $ini-, for 
cortiu, horn. 

ComicOi CoroUa, Corollary; sec 

Coronation, Coroner, Coronet ; see 

Cor];>oral (i) ; see Oapitat 
Corporal(j), belonging tothebody. <L.) 
L. torf^oralu, bodily. ■>L. torfor-, stem o( 
C0rfui, the budy. Der. (from L. corpor) 
corporate, corftor-e-ai (L. cer/ore-ut). See. 

corps, corpse, corse, a body. (F.— 
L.) Here tvrps is mcM). F. ; fw« is fiom 
torpst by loss of /. M. E. corps. •• O. F. 
corfi, con, the body. — L. corpus, 

corpulent. ^F.-L.) F. corpuUnt. — 
L. corpu Unttu, fat. — L. corpus. 

corpUBola. (L.) L. corpusculum^ 
double dimin. of corpus. 

cornet. (F. — L.) F. corset, a pair of 
slays ; dimin. of O. F. cors, body; see corps. 

corslet. (F. -. L.) F. corselet, ' a little 
body/ Cot. ; hence body armour. Double 
diroin. of O. F. con, body ; sec oorps. 

Incorporate. (L.) L. iruorpomtus, 

Ep. of in-corporare, to furnish willi a body ; 
ence to fonn into a body. 

Correct; ^e Bogont. 

Correlate ; see Tolerate. 

Correspond ; sec Sponsor. 

Corridor ; see Current- 
Corroborate ; sec Robust. 

Corrode; see Eodeut. 

Corrugate ; see liugoso. 

Corrupt ; see Bupture. 

Corsair; sec Current. 

Corset, Corslet; sec Corporal (>]. 

Cortege ; see Court. 

Cortex, bark. (L.) See Cork. 

Coruscate. (L) Fiom pp. of L. 
corujt'arc, to gUuer. 

Corvotte ; see Corbel. 

Cosmic, relating to the world. (Gk.) 
Gk. KOfffntfis, aU] , from n6aiu>\, order, also 
the world, univci^c. 

cosmetic, thAt which beautifies. (Gk.) 
Gk. KoatiyiTiK&i, skilled in adorning ; 
whence also F. cosm/tit/ue.^CV. tcooniVf 
I adorn. *Gk. Kicfiot, or^ler, ornament. 
Also cosmogony, eetmo-p^phy, coimo logy, 
cosmopotUi (citi7en of the world, Gk. 
woS.Wif%, a citiien). 

CoBSnck, a light nrmcd S. Rossian 
soldier, (kusa. — Tatar,) Uuss. koMk*, 
kaioAc; s:i,vl lo be of Tatar (Tarur) ori«:tn. 

Cost ; j^ce Btate. 

Costal ; tec OooaV 



Coatermonger. (F. anJ E.) Formerly \ 
cciterd0tangtr or cMtard-mett^, a sdlcr i 
of iOitards or sjiplcs. ['Ilie sc^x 'iiteng^r 
U H. ; see HonKer.l M. E. ceitani, an 
apple, where Ihe suffix -ani is F. ; prob. 
from O. F. <cjU. F. (dte, a rib; c£ F. /mii 

U€u, ribbed fruit vH^milloa). |^£t}ra. 

Costivo ; »cc Stipulation. 

Costume ; «ce Custom. 

Cot, a small dweUiiig ; Coto, as en- 
closure. (E.) M.Z.ffl//. A. S. ro/*, a cot, 
den ; Northambhan cct. 4* Du. k&t, Icel. 
lb;/, cot, hot ; ptov, 0.kcih,CQX., Cer, coli-<igt 
(with F- soffijL) ; cfftt-aroicoit-er; ik£*p<Qte. 

coftt. CF.-G.) M. E. «ft.-O.F. eott 
(F. cotle) \ Low L. cola, a coat, aUo a coL 
»M. H, G. kottt^ kutu, a coane mantle, 
lit ' covering ; ' allied to A. S. «a€, a cot, 
ong. 'ooTcnog,* 

ootorift, a set of people. (F. — Teat.) 

F. ecreritf a »et of people, company; 
allied to O. F. aUetie, servile tenure 
(Uttie) ; Low L. eeteria, a tdoie by 
cottira who clubbed together. — Low ll 
cv/d. a cot.*Da. kot (above). 

cotillon, cotillion, a dance for 8 
persons. (F.-M. H.G.) F. cotWoK, lit. 
A )>elticoat ; see Cotgrave. Formed, with 
mfiix 'til-^n, from O. F. coU^ a coat, frock ; 
■ee coat (.above). 

Cotton (0» » downy substance. (F. — 
Spnn, — Arab.) M. £. <otoun.^Y. cofam. 
— Span, cotottt aigtniffn, cotton \ where ai is 
the Arab. art.). — Arab. i/u/h, ^uiun, cotton, 
cudwreed, a pUnt. ^F.— Span.— Arab. ; 
anj E.) Also called iotton-.otid, of which 
cuii-weeJ is a contraction. 

Cotton (a), lo agree. From a technical 
u&c of Cotton 1 1 ; ; sre Nares. 

Cotyledon, ' seed lobe. (Git.) Gk. 
«orvAi}Atbr. a cup shaped hollow. — Gk. 
Kor^Xr}, a hollow vcisel, cup. (^ KAT i) 

Couch; see 1*00 UB. 

Cough. (O. Low G.) M. E. covphem, 
ecwh^H. [The A. S. wor\l U Aw.(i/t»w!j Cf. 
Do. ku^ken, to cough ; M. i\. G. kuihen, 

G. keifhfn, ktmhfH, to gasp. From an 
baitative base KCK. to ensp; tee Chin* 

Could; aee Can (i). 

Coulter, Mjt of a plough. (L,) M. E. 
tttttr. A. S. nt//rr.-^L. rwUer, a coulter, 
knife, lit a cnlicr.+Skt. karitari» scisson, 
from krit, to cat. (V KART.) 

outlus, (F. -L.) Y.eouUiaif 'acutte- 
Ut, or oounelaa, or ihort nrord;' Col. 


(Perhaps borrowed from Ilal .-a^VW 
*a ciirileax,* Flurio; which is. 
the same won!.) — O. F. ow/. 
cff$ittam\ a knife: cf. Hal. tc. 

— L. ace. cui/eh'um, a knife. 
f«//#r (above). % The F, -as, iLai Jitm 
L. -^ituj; but F. coHteias was acmailj 
into £. cvrtieaxt I Vet a iuriicaat «M 
sort of rofordX 

cutler. (K.-L.) ^.Y.. coltUr.^ 0.1 
nttlitr. — Low L. culufl*iriu$t knife-maJM 

— L. euIUUmSf a knife (nbove). 
Council ; see CAlenda. 
Counsel ; see Conaolt, 
Count \i\% title ; see Uin«v«iit 
Count I i\ to compute ; see Putative 
Countan&noo : see Tenabl*. 
Counter-, picfix ; see Contm-. 
Counteract; see A^nu 
Counterfeit; see Fact. 
Countermand ; see HandAte, 
Counterpane (i) ; see Quilt. 
Counterpane (a), counterpart 

deed ; see Pans. 

Counterpoint ; sec Pungent 

Counterpoise ; see Feudant. 

Counterscarp, sign, -tenor 
Soarp, Sign, Tenable. 

Countervail ; see Valid. 

Country, (F. - U) ME. <9nfnk^m 
O. F. (0ntnt ( = IiaL ntUfuJay 
centraJat ccntrat^, a rvfiion* lit 
liea opposite; a translation of G 
country, lil. oppu^ite, from xrffM, o 
•■ L. rt?/*//!!. opposite; we Oontra*. 

County; see Itinerant. 

Couple. (F. - L.) O. F. c«ftt, 
ceupU. — L, cdpuUt a boml IvjikI^ 
which joins ; short for • — 

{cunt\ togeilier; and O. I i 

preserved in the pp ri//wi ; ^c A(iU 

cobble (.1), to patch up, mend. ^ 
L.) O. F. cohltr, tonliO\ to join t 
another form of 0. F. co^Ur^ the 
O. F. ff///, a band (above). 

copmate. \L.) From pp. o*^ L 
lart, to join. -• L. to^ula, a band (a' 

Courage ; see Cordial. 

Courier, Course ; see CumnL 

Court (Oi »y'fJ J fo) ' 
nssembly. (F. — L.) M 
O F. coti, ruri fF. fcuf 
also a tribunAl. — Low I 
yard.coutt,iialAce. — L... 
carf, also spelt coAtyn, a 
caule^yard, court, also n 
of loldierx — Ih^ (/hmj, tv^ 


y»rJ, cogRAte 

tUas. .F.-L.^ 
Me* teJkerttm, ttom cpApn 

(F-IUl -U) F. ftfit/j^. a 
ie.«»Ita] f^fit^'^, a retiuue. 

» coOft. » Low Lb toriit; 

, to seek favour. (F.*L.) 
«0W/t ; hence to practise arte 

«f eourltjr manom. (K.— 
r CL €9rtru» Kidorn tortiotu.^O, F. 
, cowtcoaa * O, F. <ertf, a cooit. 
VtMUL (Span. - U) Span, corle- 
fieea. of t^taaiw, one bclooging to 
(at.«SMii. /^/ffi, courteous: &om 
IBmt.«Low L. r#f/>j (above). 

(F.»L.) M. £. (QrUisit.'m. 
11/, courtray, * O. F. torieu, 

« L. ; ohJ E.) From 
tufftz 'wr, as io coli-itr, 

(F.-L.) M.K,rtr^m.-0. F. 

P«L«w L. »rfin4t a imall coan. a 
rt or ' CM-taio ' of a CAstlc, a hootjing 
\ rocad as cdcIokiic. • Low L. corh4 

tmif, an oheiunce (F.-L.) The 

ivcra •■ €cm'i£fy, a tourtly ad. 

B^ <MMrt lB; a cormilion of no/ 

|H^^K^nU, the otd name. 

^^H^^ftc ; ut Court. 

mP >' - ' "^ M. E. ^wm.-O. F, 

[F - t ow L. etuinut, contr. 

oC L, ';«jw, the child of a 

[% tttttr, a ccuiin. — L. <:p«- (rNw), 
oln'wm. (or im 6rinuJ* or xai- 
aw/fr* i.l«'« SQicr*. sorvr,) a. 
Sdbkkhcr, Compmdiam, 5rd 

iL.) To mm is to act as 
Io vpcngr Dpon. beguile, 
call coBiin. to ti'ongc. 
)|)te : Me Hamilton aud 
^imjtH. a cuUMi) <.abuveV 
m. a BOuk. i E '• A. S i<^j, a chain- 
cava •4- ' ' ' a hut; C Aodm, 

it. -.-.r«. 

bkk t -L.) O. F. fJVrtfr 

L .V".*"~tW, to cn^rr— L- *^ 



r*.« ^rww.* <■*«,, * 


O. K. covrir, to covet ; iY/» a bed ( » L. acc 
U^tum, Irom Uetus. a bed). 

covert. (F.-L.) O. F. <-«vr/, pp. of 
ravrir, to cover ^abovr). 

CUrftw. (F. - L.) O. F. cavrejru 
(F- (otivtr/fu\ a 6re-cover, covcrit g of hreSp 
time for pulUng out fires. — O F- amrir^ to 
cover ; feu, fire { = L. focHiH. ace. of focus^ 
hearth, fire) : see Foouo. 

discover. (F.-L.) M. E. dixremttn. 

— O. F. dcscotfvrir^ Io uncover, disclose.^ 
O. F. df$' (L, du')^ apart; c&uvtirt to 
cover i above). 

kerchief. (F. - L.) M. E, €urthiel 
fouerchtj, — O. F. anirekhtf, lit. a bead- 
covering —O. F. i-wriV, to cover; chef^ the 
head ; see ohie^ under CapitaL 
Covet: ICC Cupid. 

Covey. (F.-L.) O. F. mm, a brood of 
partridges ; fcm. of pp. o(rav€r \ F (ouvtr), 
to hatch, sit. — L. culare, to lie down, tit. 
+ Gk. «ifirT».K, to bei d. (VKUP.) 

concubine. iK. — L) O. F csmubirtt. 
*!.. ^ffrhu&ina.^'L. con- {cum), together; 
(u^rr, to lie. 

iocub&te (L) From pp. of L. in- 
fu^re, to tit on egf^s to hatch them. 

inoubUB (L.) L imu6us,a. nightmaic. 

— L. incubare, to lie upon. 
icciiiubent. (L) L. ituum6eHt-, &tcm 

of pre*, pi. of in-cumhere^ to recline on, 
re»t on or in (remain in); where curndtn 
is a nasnliscil form allied tocu^tc, to lie 
down. So a,]io /ro-(um6cri/, prostiate; n- 
fumhcnt, lying back upon ; suc-cumAj to tie 
under, yield to. 

Cow VI ), female of the bull. (E ) A S. 
ctii pi. cy, whence M. E. ky, and the 
double pU ky-fw^kifu. ^ Du Hm, Ictl. 
kyn Swed. Dan. ko, G. kuh, Irish and 
Gael. &^, L. bos i.Kcn. t0nu\ Gk. 0oi*, 
Skt. ^. (VCU.) Sec Boef.- Buck (:)). 

cowslip, a-flowcr. (L ) M 1c..caujlof>pe. 
A. S. ciislcppc, (H-ilyppe, lit. cow-flop i.e. 
a piece of dung. (Other A. S. names of 
plants arc of a very homely character.) Cf. 

klne. cowK. (E.) A doubU pi., made bjr 
aduing -if, short for -tn (A. S. -an), to M. b. 
>/. A S. <y, cows. The A. S. f^, pL of 
fa/, a cow, is formed by vowel change from 
a/ to>. 

Cow (j), to dishearten. (Scand ) Icel. 
kug^, to tyrannise over ; Dan. km, Io 
cfMrrce, anbdue. 

Coward . tee OaudaL 

Cow«r. (Scand.) &L E. rmrrw. -Icel 




ktira, Dan. >»r/, to do/c, Iter quiet; Swed. 
ku/a. Ik> dore, rooM, Mtttc to icit ^as binis). 
LI. Uoth, kwairrus, identic. 
Oowl (I). K monkb >ioo<l. (L.) M. £. 
fQuet^cHMtL A. S ii///^. a cowl; cf. Kcl. 
kt^jl, *tfrf. towL-L iu^ttHtu. i^ybKU.) 

Oowl (j), a vessel carried on a pulej &cc 

Cowry, a \m%\\ tibcll useil for money. 
(Itttid.) M!nil, kauH, a smalt shell 
(C^/'ifiJ m*->mta) used as coin In the lower 
prnvirirc% of India; Dcngali /:(7/i (Wilson). 
Cowftlip; sec Cow. 
Coxcomb; tee Oook \i). 
CoXBwaln; see oook (5), under Conoh. 
Coy: »ee Quiet. 
^^m CoBon ; see Couain. 
^■Crnb<iy a shell fish. lE.) AS. mi^^. 
^^^ Ucl knUflfif Swed. JtraUa, Dan. h-abU, 
r Du, <('tti, C. ^nt^. Cf. Gk. cdpa^of, 
I prickly crab, beetle. L. scanxb^us, beetle. 
I iV^KAK.^ 

■ on^bbttd« peevish, cramped. (E.^ From 

rnfc\ ah. 1 L c. crab like, soappi^ or awk- 
ward. Cr Du. ^luM^M, to ftcr&tcfa. kriHm, 
lo I* peevUh ; Icel. *»»A\i, to scrawl 

orfiyflKh. (K.-O. M G.^ A misspcl- 
linu c)l M K i-rrt^j/. — O. F. tftvisst, ts- 
itrvisM {/%-txvUi4\, « O.H G rrrUs, G. 
M*tXi, a crab: allied to G imUf ^abo^-eV 
Or»b (9), k kiud ol Apple (Sc&nd) 
Swed. h^mMu/Jtt a cnb«pple; perhapt 
allied to Ocmb <t)( Lc puchia^ sturpv 


Or«blMd: «eOr«b(iV 
fOv4lok. (E.> A. S, inaain-f— , lo <nck, 
noult> 4-Dti«Taclc<i»Uu 

«• *«ttk. lBM«tf«% like cmIv, 

—>. <T«a. iMHi AMtik iv 

', ir-Da.) 

> in ribi—B •fclW. JMlwk to 

'• K.f«tt*Mwtoay««l. AIM 


eftf*t€r, to crtakj allied (o 

cricket (i), an insect. (F. •- Tt«Lj 
^^ . E. rn'Jtef. — O. F. (rtqnet, tripui. crickri. 

— O. K. criquer, to creak, rattle, cliirp^ 
Du. kri<k, a cricket : hnkJttiiJtJUn, to raltlft 
Cf. L. ^Tiu-«/«j, jackdaw. 

croak. (E ) AS. crJaoM, to croak: 
allicr*! to fm-t^, rmcA And sec Crow 

Cradle. (C.) A.S. cra^/c' -Imh .^a*- 
t/Zm/, Gad- crcathalt, a cradle, a gTale ; i 
W. rf'ryi/, ciadlc, Iriiib arw^'-a*-?. a hur^!!.- 
L- cmtes, a hurdle. See Orate. : 

Craft, skill. (E.) A.S. (*•.■ * 
kroiht, IceL kraptr, kra/t. Sw^d Viu, U 
kra/f, force. Allied to Cramp. 

Crag. tC.) \V rrn/i-, Gael ow; 
rock ; W. tartg, GacL carra^, ra^ 

— Gael, <arr, a rock. 
Crake ; see Craok. 
Cram. (E.) A.S. cmmmtan, t 

+ IccL krtmja, Swed, kf-ama, Don. i 
to squeeze Allied to Cramp. 

Cramp. (E.) M. E. etnmpe, % 
spasm ; cC A. S. cremffkt, cnunpled 
KRAMP). -f Swed. Du. inzm/. 
krixmp*, C. ktum/^ cramp; G. 
to cramp, squecie. [Lost s 
erimfam*, pt. t crxtmf*, pp. 
And see OUznp, Or«ia. 

crimp, to wrinLle. (E.) \V 
fois) of Cramp, •f Da. krimfiett, 
kfjmfm^ to shxifUt. Daa. krymfe ug 
|o i^tiak onesdf tc^;ether ; (j. ' 
cr«a|ik. D*r. crimp-U. 

enoaplac <£.> U. E o» w / < w i, 
■ritiih; 6«qDoUative of Cramp. 

OttM^ a biid. (B.) A .S. rrn.4. 
Ii 11^ Icel <>•*> (far im- • -v-* '-• 
Dm. I^ww. G. kfmm^kk . 
•yfifmrn^ a osae^ alM a c 
wdcte. Cf Lrnn. (VGAiCi 

aHtt G kr^mherrfx Dan. Iim. ' 
.•>.£«/ . f *0M^ at ajbotc) ; S«ec! 
Ornaivm. lU — Gk.) U «-•«.... — 
Gk ^■■4>>a«a; Allied to aitfR., hraL 

fusion tiraa* 
&e skan cX — C1^ l- 



esiily Qps«t, as a. boil. (E.) 

If or iwisted a&lde. Cf. Da. 

rrct; » bo&t ; Swed. krangOt 

to heel over; see oringo 

l\ liTtly. (E.) The iajne won3, 
tUbtor of an aosteady bott. 
(E.1 AS crtmgatt, criruan, to 
t, (tSX bcaeatb the foe. Put 
led form of cranJk, 
,) M. E. triHkUd.crtncUd, 
It. fono oi crink, which 
of ttmnh, 
>«L.) M. E.<roif^i mode 
•^ to F. //oil, ft notch *L. 

DOtcbed (L.) From L. €rtna, 

ite (Low L.-F -L.) From 
L. trtntlUrt, lo furnish with 
— O. F, rrrmlt a battlement ^ 
ifO.F.mfw.F.miw, anolch (above). 
to, a garland. ^O. Dn.) O. Du. 
DiL InBJu. a garlaitd, wreath. <4* 
oJNlEr. Sw. jlrtfAr, G. krvtfUt, 
ft; weOiiap. 
k; see Crack. 
. > L. £nums, thick, dense. 
^F. - U) M. E. grtsi, rrtct. - 
lalAeaa.*0. F. /m/, fat.— L. 


UrrsAa, a hurdle; hence 

&c (VKART.) 

a framework of iron bars. 

.) ftl. E.^nt/A*-LowL.^?«/a, 

eram, a gratiag. — L. ertUa, 



boil on a gridiron. (P. — L.) 

\ttti\\.'mT. grii^ 'a gridiron/ 

U, jpraiL^L. cnUicti/um, 

gridiron (whence F. 

, — L- rm;<v (above'}. 

~ Gk.1 L. trater, % bowl, 

Gk.«far7p, a large bowl in 

•Cf* nuued. M Gk. **fAinfVfu, 

rk.) Gk. Kpaffit, mixing ; 
, « Gk. Mfdrm/fu (above). 
> Autiian.) F. cravate, 
^1) a cravaL Ctava/s 
France in 1636, oj 
ii« who were called 
CrwMUM or Cmtfo/ts. 
ef Amtrta. 

/iffiANV 10 crave, 

asV. -^ Icel. krtfja, S*ed. krnfva, Dan. 
knevtf to demand ; Iccl. kra/a. a dcinaiid. 

Craven. (F. -* L.) The oldest foon is 
M. E. ctynfinf, with the sense of beaten, 
foiled, or overcome. Mr. Nicol ha& con- 
clusively nhown that it is a dipped form of 
0. F. cravantj, pp. explained by Coignive 
by 'opprcasedf foiled.' It is the pp. of 
O. F. £ravanitr, to break, oppress = Low 
L. crepantart*^ formed from crepant; stem 
of pres. pt. of trtpare^ lo crack, break. 
Cf. S|>an. quebrantar^ to crack, break. 

Craw, crop of fowls. (Scand.) Dan. 
^rv, Swed. krafva^ Swed. dial, krve^ the 
craw. Allied lo Du. km^g, G. kronen, 
neck, collar. 

Crawfish, the same as Orayflah. 

CrawL (Scand.) Iccl. kra/fa, 10 paw, 
crawl ; Swed. knxfia, to grope, kraia, to 
crawl ; Dan. kravie, to crawl. Frequen* 
tative from Tent, base KKAP, to wiae, 
grasp, hence, to grope; sec Cramp. 

Crayfish ; see Crab (i)* 

Crayon ; see OretAOAoiu. 

Croxe. Creak ; see Crook. 

Cream, t F. — L.) O. F. <resmt {erf me) ; 
Low L. erema.^h„ ertmor, thick broth» 
ihick juice from soaked com. 

Crease (1), a wrinkle. (C?) Bret.^fr/f. 
a cicase. wrinkle; kritu, to crea&e. fold 
garments; \V. cry<k, a wrinkle, ery<hu^ to 
rumple. % Hardly from Swed. kmSf a 
carl, krusa, to curl ; for which see Qooso- 

Creaae (1), Creeee, a dagger. (.Malay.) 
Malay kris^ *a dagger, kiis, or creese*; 

Create. (L.) From pp. of L. crfan, to 
make.'f SkL kri, to make. Der. cnaf-ure, 
O. F. criaturt, L. ctrafura. And see 

oreole, one bom in the W. Indies, but 
of European blood. ^F — Span.*L.) F. 
rrA'/r. — Span. (rioHo, a neyro corruption 
of creadi//a, dimin. olcriado, one educated, 
instructed, or brought up; hence a child 
of European blood. CriaJo is pp. otin'art, 
to cieatc, aUo, to educate.->L- crtarr, to 
create, make. 

procreate. (L.) L. procreatm, pp. 
of/«vrra«, to generate, — L./n», before 
forth; creart, to produce. 

recreation. ^ F. - L) F. rtcrtaiim. — 
L. rtfnatwHtm, aoc. of rtircAtio, or ig. re- 
covery from illness (hence, amu&enient). 

— L. rrt'na/ur, pp. of rttrtArt^ lo revive, 
ref/iiii.-L. rt'f a^ain; /rrart.\o toi^k^ 




Creed. (L.) M Er>TJ>; A.S. crtt£a.'^ 

L. ereJe, I tielieve ; Ihc ftni word o( the 
crecti. 4* O. Imh crrtim, 1 belirrc ; Skt 
piii/<^/A<iwr>, 1 bclicrc. (^KKAT.) Dot. 
ered-emit (,0. F. crtdence, L. irtdentiAS \ 
trtd-ihU\ credit (L pp. crtditus'S; crtd- 
u/mu (Lk crtdtUus)^ dec. And sec Ku- 

grant. (F. — L.) M. E gtMunlem. — 
O. K, graanUr, grauMttr, later spelling of 
craanler^ ertunter, to caution, assure, gnar- 
antee ; whence the later iei)i«s. to promise. 
yicW; Low L.r«i3M/a/y, put \ox crtJcntart^ . 
— L. ertJent-, tXem of pres. pt. of crtdtrt, 
to trust. 

reore&nt. (7. — L.) O. F. rtntant, 
fiunt-hcartcd ; pres. pt of ncrvirt, to be- 
lieve again, also to give up, give back 
(hence, to give in'. — Low L. re-frtdtrt^ to 
believe again, recant, give in. 

Creek. >.E. > A.S, tntca, a civek.4-Da. 
kretk ; Icel. kriki, a crack, nook. The 
orig. sense is *a bend.' as in Swed. dial. 
armkrik, bend of the arm. Allied to 
Crook, q.v. 

oric^ a spasm or twist in the neck. (E') 
M E (rykkf \ also osed in the sense of 
' bend.* Merely a variant of oreek (above) 

Creep. (E) M. IL^creptn : A. S. crtiptm. 
+ l>u. kruiptn. Icel. krjtifd, Swed. ktyfo^ 
Daii. krybt, to crawl. ^Base KRUP.) 
Allied to Cramp. 

cripple. i,E) M, E crtp*l, cnt/ei ; 
O. Noithnmb. cryM, Luke, v. 24. Lit. 
'a c«epcr.' — AS. rm//-. stem of pL of 
pt t. o\ frefipan ipt t crtiip) ; with suffix 
-// of the agent. 'f'Du. krtupei, Iccl. kryppU, 
Dan. krwing yirom krySt, to creep), G. 

Cremation, burning. (L.) L. mrMa* 
tiotum, ace. of trcfnatioi horn pp. of 
crtmart, to bum. 

CrenAte, Crenellate ; see Orairny. 

Creole : Ke Create. 

Creoeote, .1 liqaid distilled from tar. 
(Gk.) Lit *flc&h-prescr\cr.' — Gk. Kpiai-t, 
Attic fonn of Kpiar, flesh ; and avr-, short 
for ffttT'^p, preserver, from aai^tiv, to pre- 

Cresoent. (L.) The * increasing' moon. 
— I., craceni-, stem of pres. pt of crtsctrt, 
to grow, increase (pp. cre-tus), inchoative 
form from cre-arr, to make : see Cr^atd. 

accretion. [LO L. aicrttiorum, ace. 
ol a^Lretic. an increase.* L. accreiut, pp. of 

^•C'fHtrt tU glOW to (df-'O/), 

tioerxkAf to coma to by way of Increaw. 

(F.-L.) O. F. ocrrtM, pp. of 
\a££rettrt\ to increase. — L. at'<rt$urf 
Cabo*e'. Sec Crow below. 

concrete, fontied into one ntaM. (L.) 
L. {&rurti-M, pp. of e^H-crettere, to pe« 

deereaae. (F.-U) O. F. detnU^ di^ 
a decrease ; from dtcroutrt, vK, to deCRBa 
— L. Je-<rts(ere, to diminish (ppL 4i£rt4i^ 

decrement. (L.) L. decftrntrntam^ % 
decrease. — L. decre-ttu, pn of dg-crt t art~ 

exoresoonoe. (F. - L.) O. F. txens' 
«ffc.'r.— L. cxcresitniia, an oulgrow'.h — L 
cxtraetHt; stem of pres^ pt Kii<jUTu<€n^ to 
grow out 

increaae. (F. - L.) M. E imamm^ 
mcTtsm. — F. <!■ (L. in) ; and O. F. mruMr, 
Norman F. erestr^ nsually cr^tft (F. 
croUrtX to grow ; from L, frttcert, 

increment, (L.) U «* 
an increase : cf. dtcrtmtnt above. 

reoruit ^F.-l*) F. rrcruur^ to 


from rrerute, mistaken form of rem*, 
fcm. of nrrrf, pp. of rtcroUrt. to grw 
again. Rtcnu, as a sb., means ' a levy 4l 
troops/ Ut 'new-grown.' — L. rt-cntimi, 
to grow again. 

Creas. (E) M.E trts, also ktn (V 
shifting of r). A.S- cam, unt, cmM^^ 
Du. 4tfrr, Swed. krvuu^ Dan. hmrtt, G. hftaM. 

Creoaet ; see Grose. 

Creat. ,T.-L.) O. F. frefi^.—LeriiM, 
a comb or tuft on a bird*s held, crest 

Cretaceous, chalky. ^L.^ L f nCMOU, 
adj. from rr^/d, chalk. 

crayon. ^F. — L.) F. erxty^n , cxtandil 
from F. fmiV, chalk. — L t-r,.'«; 

Crevice, Crevaaao. (,F. - i 
crgvic4. crrvast^ trfvasst. — O. F. »..-.-. - 
rift. — OF. crrvfr, lo buret asuodex. — 1. 
crepart, to crackle, barst 

decrepit (L.^ U df£rtfiims, 
creeping about like an old maSL SfiiL' 
i* jV. away ; cfr/ifus, noise, orig. |ifL 
cntfcrt (above). 

dlacrepant, differing. ^F. — V ^ '* 
du£Trpitnt. — L. discrtpcHt; Blci 
pt of ducrrpart, to differ m soun , 
crackle apart 

Crew. t.F. — L.^ Formerly 
for a££rut, a re- > - ■ 

incxeaj»e : on;: 
see top o( •' 

Crib, a 
kriUia, I' - 
kf^SU, G. 'i'-i//<i cnb. Oat. cn«. lAt^ W 


crth^ porloin : tribb-Agt, where 

store ot canU. 

Gunger. (F.-O. Sue.) 
,F, ertiht {ttitkg); Trov, 
Id i^ibove). 

; ftM Orftek. 
; tee Orook. 
) F. fnw«. — L. fW»wrn. 
ult (stem crimin) Der. 
■^e ; heoc« re-triminatt. 



CrtDkl« : »«e Omnk. 

■ Udjf'6 stiff skirt. (F,«L.) 
11% fi) luir doth, (i) crinotiDC. 
{L tec erintm), hair : and //», 
r doU), from U /inum. Sax. 
tj wc Or«ep. 

writiklct]^ curled. (L.) A. S. 
trittut, curled. 

fF. - L.) V. crfff, formerly 
baued. craped, crisp : Cot. From 
td snri*ee. — L, crupus. 
(GV.) Ok KptTiKi^t, nl>le to (lift- 
ij^rr^i, ■ judge. — Gk. Kpiruv, to 
Ivr. crit^trifin, Gk ir/itr^piov, a 
tritu. froni Gk. Aiajr^trurvf. fit 
pudiing bdwecn. 
^Ql] Gk. v'<^"> ' dUceming, 
r«ir, to judge. 


Orook ■ 

• jitcber (C) AS. fnKva — 

unh fivgan. W. ersehan. a 

"" "~" Corn. €rfgm, a shell. 

Icel krukka, Swrd. 

G- itnv^; prob, all of 

I r... I -K_C t Low U 

also n cresset 

;'■•.*/, an pitltiL'D 

Of ^^i. oritfin; lec Icel. 

(F.-U-Gk.> r.ffvco^iU. 
ft/Ki. — Gk. K^it^JkiXo^ a lirard, 

<F.-Loir L.-L.^ By 

t0ik, i\ waa snid tu be n 

, frvm tt click's egg ; also 

<i-T<rfi:ie. — O F, cixatriet^ 

'■•' wilh l^'w I- 

It ■'."/«#; l»ut more 

iTii/'i.?' 'I I "^nMimon thu 

croc<-i ■,■- — L oii- 

•inckrr' X 1 iitilatioi. of 



Gk. XyytvpoM, % The result of nuroerons 
CroctiB. (L. - Gk.) L. crocus. - Gk. 
Kp6nt, crocat, uffron. Cf. Arab, karkam. 

Croft. (E, ? ffr C. ?) A- S. crpft, a 
field. + Do. krofi. Pcrhnpi of Celtic 
ori^'in; cf. Gael croif, hillock, croft, small 
piece of arable ground, Kruofh, a hill, 

Cromlech. (W.) W. crvmJecM, a flag- 
sione laid across olherv. — W.^ripm, crooked; 
fUfh, fiat tlone. 

Crone, an old woman, {F. — L.) Tusser 
has cronr, aa old ewe. Vxoh. from Pic&rd 
{ar<fH€, carrion ; whence U. Du. karonU^ 
kroHu. an old sheep. See p 69. col. a. L 30. 
Der. (ren-y, orig. an okl gossip. 

Crook, a hook, bend. (E.) M. E. crok 
(Ancrcn Kiwle) ; prob, E.+0. Da. krokt^ 
Dii. kreuli, Icel. kn^kr, Swed. krok, Dan. 
krv^, hook, bend, angle. Also Gael crocan, 
a crook, W. f»-iw-a. crooked ; W. crwg, a 
crook. (ySKAKK.) See Oroaa. 

cricket, a game. (E.) Tlie game suc- 
cccilcri ft kind of hockey, playetl with a 
booke«l stick. Dimin. of A.S. rnVr,R staff; 
see oratoh below. 

crochet. (F.-Teut.) 7. crocket, a litlle 
hook ; dimin. of croc, n crook. — Icel, krxiJtr, 
a hook (above). 

crosier. (F. - Tcut.) M. E. croecr^ 
croscr, 8ic. FonneH, with suffii -<r, from 
M. E. cnxc, in the same sense of 'bishop's 
staff.' — U. F. eroce, *a crosier,* Cot. ; mod. 
F. (rosse- Low L. trocia.^O. F. eroi, a 
crook; see crochet above. ^ Nol from 
crcii, to whidi it is only uUtntately re- 

croea. (C. - L ) M. E rwr, rnw ^ 
ibolh are iued). — 0. Irish rrw; cC Prov. 
(fos, a cross.— L, cructm, ace. of rrrix. e 
cross, orig. a gibBet (from its ' bent ' arm) ; 
allied to W. ervg^ a cross, rmy, a crook, 
Gael, (reiih, a gibb< t ; W. crt^, GaeL 
crock, to hang. See Crook above. Der. 

cross, adj. (F. — L.) Orig. traDsrene, 
from the shape of a cross ; hence pcensh. 

crotchet, in music. (F.-Teut.) F. 
crockctf " a small hook, a quaver in music ;* 
Cot. (1 suppose the hooked mark now 
called a quaver was once called a crotchet.) 
See oroohet above. 

orouch. tE."i M. F. frourkm, allied to 
fpvkcft. to l»enH : from M. E. cvt. a crook. 

orudal. (F.—U) K. frudal, • 


— <X F. rp«M^ a<rott 

iF. « U «n/ T^ct) Lit. 
w atA fa B Wdk.-F. #«. 

«t ff^Cft^Mk; d r ancivr^; to book 
y-^ L i«. te; nd a D«. hmkc, locL 

^0^0^ (E.) A. & ^.^ feke M cT ft 
at *« verb M 0^ M cftt off rihc 
ta; •»< liffic* n^ ft iMTiftriLl ^^ D«- 

iNi M^ Gt "VTi^ OftJL «•« u. 

«*«taft. Urf^ MA. mM» mttUtn 

OTMip ^>\ IkMb fMf of ft iMor <r. 

— Tt%t\ F. * iw y > i, Dftmf; otij. |v»- 

|BMftnBCitK«» Icdt "'^jfl^* ft ■•■(■ ^^ftft^wt V 


- ^ . « <m|\ ««a dA ;W l»Mdt. ftrif. ft 
Wftck ^«bo«TV 

r: aseOkvak 

iGk.) Gk.«vi^««p.fti»dk. 
«Mcli the 9oin»'««r4 nvmMa;^ 
Orou^*^ ; »re OVftOfe. 

IF* tma00 {%htr^ 
Oroalftr: «•< 

Orow,^ (E.) A.S.mlMMt.1 
rfTwrf Der. rrrr, A.& 

crow -like Izak. 

Crowd (i)> to pash, throng. (%) 
<nUM*. pff. t- mdif, to {Mih 
1 1 Mi l gKrod. ft crowd, throng. 

Qtoirdd). n fiddk. (W.) M. 
-W. trmtk^ A trunk, belly, 
Sddk ; Gael cruU, hari>. 

toto (s). an old mQ«>ical uuti 
--G.-C) O. F. rr/A ■ kind 
•nswcring to O. FI. G. AnfU, 
Low L. chrofta. Of Olric 
trmiA^ a violin ; Gael, rrwi/^ a 

Crown. (F-L) M, F. nm 
(«)keaoe rr««]«). * O r ..--. 

ooTTcd: Gael 
Allied to Curve, Cirolc 
oomioe. iF. — It^i • L. 

•eft. of ffmix, a border, ihoii fiui 
a nqwit frmme. — Gk. rapmrit. 
•b^ k wreathf cornice. 
ooroUaaL.) L.r9rWJW. dhnin of' 
eoroUary. (U) U 
«eat of a gvlind. ft grftCvd^i 
tniiercnoc. •• U anaa (i 
ft oown. (F.-»L) 
•F. /VTMia/, =<: -1 
to a crown, ■• i 

lU) I. ■ 
6oift p(^ of tfjiw ^t , do 

toayMM. ^ kaL 


n0 w. TVv 

(1.) Al»o 
«>c ixsadalieaa of Low Ui 
a flanaer; lit ooe who 
a cnvft-ofioer. • L. t t tm hu t, 

" CF.-L.> Dimin. 
a lmiwo : see Otuvb- 
CrmeUl. Cruciiy : uc Oook.] 
Qrwritblft; sre Crock. 

(F.-L) OF. ^ndt. 
^Sk crwl: albed to cfwiAk, tav] 
OnMC: fMGSoM. 
CntSM; •«« Crook. 


^Zr. v«rb: cC Do. Mrtttrnflm, 

, lo cnnuble. 

t : we Ca^mp. 

(K • An iniitfttire word. 

'; tee Crop 

(L.) U f/-wra/r>, belotiguig to 

^ <w»r». Hem of er$a, the leg. 
1 1 Mc Oook. 

•mall poL ^Scatirl.) M. E. 
pel. Jknis, « pot; SweO. ^r«u, 

KT, ft mng . Uu. JtfWJ, cap. 

« ; M. H. G. if^^, mug. Prob. 


F. — La'O M.E. mrxj*-/, • light 
the t op of a pole- ••OK rnusef, a 
enpiorboIdinggreAse.'* L.f'rtu- 
Confused w >th O.F. trruu/, 
; from O. Dd. kr*tjft4 (Above). 
. - Tcut,') Allied to F. crruset, 
oL Of Tfut- onjjin ; &ee above. 
(F. — Tent.1 O. i''. cruisir, 
cr»dr. break, —Swed. kryita, 
'/. to (qurezc; Gotb. kriustanj 
\h tb« teelb, knuts^ gnashing 

-l*) O F crustt (F. cro&tt). 
CfttU of bread. Cf. Gk. «j»i/ot, 

(F. - L. ) Put for (TMstatie, by 
ipftR husktn (for ^TMskin). 
r. ermsfadt. and orig. as<^ 
"pasty." -O.F. croMJ/a./f, 
(em pp. of erusfare, 
a cnul. 
[( tec Orook. 
<L. - Cle.'i U n^/Za. - Gk. 
noti, faidJ^en catr; orig. fern 
bidden. •- Gk. KpCmnv. to hide. 
»h».^<jk.) Lit. 'hidden things.* 
Totanient not coromoaly 
I, Deal. pi. of 'iw6Kpvtfi<n, 
■pLsriii', to hide away. 
^^^ — Ck.) F.grpUff a c*ve, 
»/ta, frufta ; L trypta (abore). 
|Ue .F.-Ital.-L.-Cl:.) F. 
Ibdicroci M IljJ.^/v/rrra, curions 
cnch Ai wu employed on 
pTOttocs — ItnL^To/Zd I, below). 
illal-U-0k.1 belter jnWM. 
; ibcMffie as ¥.rrott4 I above). 
(F, — U.— Ok.) Formerly fm- 
• L. cfystalium. crystal. 
^«t. lot, cnyvtal. M Gk. 
-*.r- — r.lf ir^vM. fro&t. 

J cnb, whelp : 



Cube. (T...L.-Gk.) F. nvV-L. ftcc 

ru^//m. ~ Gk. xi^oi. o cube, die. 

Cubit. ( L. ) L. ^v^V»i. an elbow^ bend; 
the length &oni the elbow to the middle 
finger's end. Allied to L. cuhart, to lie 
down, recline ; see Covey. 

Cuckold. Cuckoo : see Oook (i). 

Cucumber. (L.) The h is excrescent; 
M. K. rucumer. — I^. cMrttmeretn^ ace. of 
cucumis^ a cucumber. Prob. from coqiurt, 
to ripen ; see Cook. 

Cud. (E.l M. £. cudt. code, guide. That 
which i» chewed. Peihaps from the same 
base a*; A. S. eeSwan, to chew ; but net — 
P|j. chewed, because ibc verb was orig. 
strong- Cf. sudi, uUied lo seethe. 

quid, a mouthful of tobacco. (E.) 
Merely another form of cud\ M. E. guide 
(above! . 

Cuddle : see Can ( 1 ). 

CudgeL (E,) M. E kua^ri. A. S. 
cycgtt\ in Gregory *» Pastoral Care, ed« 
5we«l, p. 297. 

Cudweed ; see Cotton (i ). 

Cue : sec Caudal. 

Cuff (I), to stiike. (Scaod.) Swed. 
kuffa^ to thrust, push, also to cuff (Ihre). 
CL Goth, kaupaijan, to sthke with the 

Cuflf (a), part of thcsleive. (L.) M. E. 
cuff't coffe. I-ate A. S. cvffie, a kind of 
cip ( Ixo). + M. H. G. kupje, kuppe, kufft, 
a coif; see Coif. Of Lnt origin. 

Culraaa. (F. - Ilal. - L.) Formerly 
cumce.^O* F. euirace (F. cvirasu), — Ital, 
ccnusa, tcu'm&A'f hovr L.. cora/ia. Fonnrd 
from etunacius * , put for L. cffria*etu, 
leathern. —U. coriutn, leather (whence F 
CHir. leather). + Luh. skurJt, Gk. X"^**** 
hi<le. (Vi>KAIi.l 

excoriate (I-.) Emm pp. of L. tM- 
efin'arr,lo strip olTskiu. — L. rx, off; eprium, 
hide. «kin (above^ 

scourge. (F. — L.) O. F. excergie (F. 
/rtfM^yrV), a scourge. Cf. Ilal. scttn'a/a, 
O. Ual. Uflria/a, a vcntrging. scoriare, to 
whtp. The Ilal. tcoria/a answers to L. 
erronata, lit tlaycd off, hence a strip of 
leather lor a whip, a thong ; pp. of «x- 
ecriart, to flay oft (nbove). 

Culsaes. pi. (K. — L.) O.F. cuissaux, 
armour (or the thighs. — F. cuisst. thigh. 
• L cpxct. hip. 

Culdee. (C.) Gael rM/Vc/iU' Coldccj 
IrUh eeiledi^ a Culdee. a servant of Cod, 
Iroin Ir. m/r, sei-vaut ; and 1^, gen. of *Aa, 


Ciilinary. (U) 1- mlinariui, belong- 

lu; lo the kitchen. —L. cuUna^ kitchen. 

Cxillender ; stx CoUnder. 

CuUlon, a wretch. (F.-L.) A coarse 

»arj. F. tetiULm I'ltaL co^Hciie). — L. 

''OAm. (U) L. emlMtu, % stalk; allied 
IP <» WM wi; a stalk. !:^ Haulm. 
Ootttinato. I,U) From pp of ].. 
14 ooBM to s top. — L. (ulnin-t 
ct rwimm 1»c»Jmiwm\ a top. Sec 

C0lp«U«. [T. - L-) O. F. oiJ/Hif'/e, 
W^MMf ^r. ^^mt^aM^). • L. €v//ahi/u, blame- 
laxMrthy. — U m/^^fr, lo blame —L. cuZ/a, 
a taaU 

OUkftrtt tU) lo Dr)den. A corrup 
ttOA of Ck^^AA^ i.>. an accused pctson . <- L. 

m j^a tfci . pp. of mi/*^ ia**ove). ^ The r 

tpato 1.L) Fra 
to cleaj of blame 


w ijMw , to< 


r-lt« i.L) From pp- of Low L. 

r. »o bnag hi&me u^oo. 

»; •(« OooHir- 

Oolttvat' r*..».,.^. -f^ Colony. 
Onlv«r • d"^ 

C^xlvetrv. ,- "- Tipt lorm, for 

-iX f fwmimvruu, a oilvcrin ; 
: niiUiarr named from its long 
\}kx a vMkit. •OF ^-vuitHViiH, 
.«.U <<Arf»<. ^Wvr. an aditcz. 

•M CoUadar. 
P; wOamolato 
<Mmmla, » iJant (U-CW. 
M % i9mm A & r»i«^«. 

,U .-«»>»* ^^^'^ '"^'" *i*~ 


«0OUmulat* i.l-> >^'°" »'J' *** ** 

to hiiultr.-l'^* Hj^T** 
..oirwi^ion of U rtr-w/*/. » 

1*1 Wth 

^\^ U iViu ^V» i''*-/***^ 


4> o. sikt. #wf*. nv crrMifv. •' 

*vfiy. a hoUo* 

bardi. or' ■ -/ . ■ 

Allit 1 :3; MortcAittr 

OUpcl - L) lul 

dome ; Iram lu ifaApe^ w Lew Li 

Cupid, god of IrtTc 
dc«irc. — L. ctt£<rt^ to i' 
to !>«come cxdicd- X>ct i 

concupiscence - ! — !. '. 
fiuenu. — L. een£v/ 
nt/iietre, to desire ; 

oovet (F. - U) ME. 

O.F.r^w---- p <-' ' 

tare (for 

from L . -^ - , .. -.. .-. , 

of. — L cuptit^ to desire (abow). 

Cupola ; see Oup 

Cupreous \ vet Copper. 

Cur, iScand.) M E rwr»r.- 
dial, kurrtt a dog + O. Da. 
hoosc'tiog. Nomeil from grovUug. 
kurra. to murmur. gruiuUe. 

Curate ; tec Curo. 

Ctirb ; lec Curve 

Curd. (.Ci M.E. /»r</. a^» 
<mth, grtUk, GaeL grtitk, curds.. 
(*'wJ, a round lump. 

Cure. (F-L.1 O. F «/r»L 
atteiition. ^A'iJ/allief! *-^- -• 

accurate. (L.) 1 .. 
ntrare. to take pains «iii. 

aaeure. (F.-L.) M E, 
O. F, ascurer, to make secnre — 'Xl 
( " L. aJ) ; sfiir, sure ; mt^ V^ 

curat©. (L.) Low L 
curate : turarttm kfn/d r » - - 
wi'b cure of souls.— L rMni, cuit, 

ourloua. tF.-l..) O.?, i^nna»\ 
curiosut, ailenlive. — L. o*j«, allcntioa- 

enstire. to make sure. (I* .-L) 
pnuiuicd of F. m I.L. «•), ia; ■*! 
«,wr ^ufe: sec atiro ibclow). 
ppoc— - ^ M E. /rplAifffr; 

L ■I'.c , , - rn ; loe beio». 

procurator. ^U) L. /**-**rtr, li 
maiiAijcT, deputy. — L, ^f9-4.uitirti 

procure. fF.»L.l F. 


- U.) O F. excMrtr, to 
»p»n. tsmrar, O. Ital. i^Hna^r, 
up. » L. /LErvnsnr, to t>lce 
<• L. «r, VC17 ; <i«nsrr, to Uke 
rr«. urn. 

U st-mruf, frve from 
, sport frora ; cum, 

ocrtiin, iccure. (L.) 
owed from L. tecmms, 
ftUo O. Fries liker, sihur^ 
Ur,0. n. G.s^Amr, Swed. 
nkJUr^ W. Her. See MOure 

, ^L.) F«v rsM rtrni, without 

^-U) O.F. <rfr ^F. /rfr), 
stgi$r. * L. /fVwriM ; tee M- 
Oonblet. tuurt, 


>. LowC) M. E. rrw/(with 
r). » O. Da. krui^ a curl, 
kH; Din. ^/v//if, a curl, Swcd. 
Prob. O. Du. >rw/.V« U 
vuJUJtH, to crimp, crumple, 

crook : sec Crook, 
tb-rd, (K.) O.F. roriiru, *m 
', C( ital. (kiur/ff, a curlew, 
bowl. ^ wed iturla,lo coo; io 
led from its cry. 
foon. (E. o»rf F ) Formerly 
(Phil. Holland) ; it means a 
eom, hence a ttingy fellow. 
wntJi^ing, prr*. pi. of mu,/i*t, 
t wtCHh (M. E. mmtkgm), 
. F. iwwrtfr, to bide, to 

{F. - L - Gk) Formerly 
.« F. rttiiim dt Caritttke^ 
Hence turrani » a cor- 
C^n'mtA U. Ctr%f$/AMj, Gk. 

;^rutfitnc. flowing. ^F. — L.1 
/. O- r . ntrcttt, pres, pt of 
rM»n>\ (o run. •L.Twrrrr, 
,«A«r, tomorr. (yKAK.) 
(F. - L) lomierly 
from the phra» 
! aAjthing of an ortlinary 
' t^ «/ C0ttnt. See 

(F.«»U) F. temovn.^ 

rassiac Togclhcr «L. r<m- 

to ran to|£ether. 



concur, (l-^ L. coHcurren, to nrn 
together, a^ee. 

corridor. (F— Tlal.— I-) ^.torridor, 

— Ilal. (crriii^rt, a swift hor«: aUo, a 
long (nmning along) gallery-. — ItaL cor- 
ttre. to run. — L. cumrt, to nm. 

cor««tr. (F. — Prov. — L. ) F. conaire. 

— Prov. icrtarit one who makes the couna, 
(cersa). — Prov, ccrsa, a course, cruise, -i 
L cumds, a course : cyrtuj, pp. of cumtt. 

courier. ( F. — L.) F. couritr^ % runner. 
» F courir, to run. — L. ntrrtrt. 

course. (F -L.) F. cmirst.^X.. cur- 
wm, ace. of cursui, a course ; from pp. ol 
currtre. Der. (fiurt fr. a sfldft horse. 

curricle. (L.) L. r«rrr'rw/»«i. a run- 
ning : also, a light car. — L cnrrtn, to mn. 

cursive. (L.) Low L curjivus, fluw- 
ing; said of handwriting —L. r«r/-M/. p(L 
of cumrt, to run. 

cursory. (L.) Low L. turs»tius^ 
hasty. — L. cunffri-, cn»lc form of cursor, 
a runner. — L. curs U4 (ab»>vcl. 

diacouTse. cf— L.) O.F. discours, 
»b. — L. tiisatrsuSt a running aboot ; also, 
cnnvcnation. — L. discurtus, pp. of dis- 
eurrtrt^ to run about 

discursive, (L). From pp. ^iurwrfw/. 

excursioii. t.L.> L. excursicntm, act 
oi ixcursio, a running out. — L. fJTMrxaa. 
pp. of tx-rurrtre, to run out. 

incur. (L.1 L. iw-i-wmmr, to nm into, 
mn npon. ticfaU. 

Incursioa. (F. — L.) F. incurtion.^ 
L incursioHftn. ace. of ittcursio, an inroad, 

— L, itu^ursus, pp. of in-currtrtt to run 
into, attack. 

Intercourse. (F. — L.) Modified from 
F, entrecours, intercourse, commerce — 
Low L. infcr-cursus, commerce ; lit. a run- 
ning between or amongst 

occur. (F.-L.) F. M¥«mrr.»L. Jir- 
mrrrre, to run to meet, occur; («■-— *^.) 

precursor (L ) L. /ne n*r«r, a fore- 
rtmner : see cunory (above). 

recourse. (F. -t^) F. ruomrs—lM 
rft'urrum, ace. of rtcursus, a running back ; 
from pp. of re-€urrtrr, to run back, 

recur. (L.) L. rt-turrtre, to nu back. 

suoconr. (F.— L.) M. K Mtaurm.^ 
O. F.sucurrt (Bnrguy). Mod. F. ucourir, 
»L. stu-currere, to nm under or to, mn 
to help, aid (,/fM*- - jw^). 

Ourry (1 \ to dncu leather (F. -L. mmd 
Tcut) O. F. comroirr, ccnrHtr (RuinyV 
later cofirvyer, €9mrwpitr, to caxTY< Qtc* 




leather, orig. to prepare •- O. F. ccnroi, 
gear, preparation. A hybrid woni; made 
by prefixing am- ( »=L, cen , cum) to O. F. 
roi, order (Ttal. -rttio in arm/a, array). 
6. This O. F. nri is of Scand. ori^ : from 
Dan. rnfff order, also to set in order, 
Iccl. tnciSi, tackle. Precisely the same 
O. F. rvi helps to fonn E. ar^ray ; see 
Array. ^ To curry favour is a corrup- 
tion of M.E. (0 curry /awt, to mb down 
a horse ; Faxtc/ was a common old name 
for a horse. 

Curry (a), a seasoned dish. (Tamil.) 
From Tamil Jkari, sauce (Yule) ; not from 
Vcn. khur, meat, iclish. 

Ourae. (E.) A.S. curstan.stxh; curs, 
sb.f an imprecation. Der. ac-cuncii, from 
M. E. aconim, to cuise extremely, where 
the prefix a- » A. S. J-, very ; sec A.- (4). 

Curolvo, Cursory ; see Ourrent. 

Curt, (L.) L curftu, short, cut short. 
See Short. (^SKAR.) 

curtail (F.-L.) It has nothing to 
do with taii\ but is a cormntion of the 
older form curtai-, verb, to docK ; from the 
adj. curItU, having a docked tail (All's 
Well. ii. 5. 65). - O. F. c9urtault. later 
taurtauf, 'curtail, being curtailed;* Cot. 
The same as Ital. cortaUo, 'a curtail, a 
horse sans taile,* Florio. Formed, with 
snfllx •««// (-sltal. -aitio^ lujw U -a/das, 
from G. tvo/r/. power), from O. F, e^urt, 
short. — L. curfuj, short (as above). 

Curtain : see Court. 

Curtle&xe ; see Coulter. 

Curtaoy: see Court. 

Curve, ft bent line. (L.) L. curuns, 
bent. 4' Gk. Kvpros, bent. Allied to Cirole. 
Dmr.curv-a/'-ureth. curua/uf\t, from pp. of 
curuan, to bend ; from curuus, 

curb. (F. — L.) M. E. courbcn, to bend. 
F. conrhtr^ to bend, bow. « L. curuare 

ourvet. (lul.-L.) Ital. foroctta, a 
cnrvel, leap, bound. *0. Ital. corvart (now 
curvart), to bend, crook, stoop, bend about. 
~L. curuart, to bend. 

incurvate, to crook. (L.) From pp. 
of L. ifi-curuare, to bend into a curve. 

kerbstone. (F.-L.; anj E.) Here 
Air^ is for cUrd ; so called because the 
stone cur^j the stone worit or keeps it in 
its place ; or from its being, as round a 
well, on a curpcdcdgt. 

Cushat, the Ting-dove. (£.) A.S. »- 
scc*f/e, a wild pigeon, 

Coahion ; sec QuUt 

Cusp, d..") h cuspij, a point 

CuBtnrd ; see Crust. 

Custody. {h.\ L. cuttodia, a kecf 
guard . — L. cvstodi-, crude form of ftu 
a guardian: lit. 'hidcr.* Cf. Ck 
to hide. See Hide. W KUDH.) 

Custom. (F. - U) M. E. cwsfmma 
O. F. cuslume, costume ; Low I* costm 
The Low L. costuma (as in other cases 
due to ncot- pi. fcmsue/umina, frnm a d 
comnetumcn, a word used in place ol 
consuetudo, custom (Littr^). — Ll ronxiM 
pp. of cofuwtcert, to accn^tora, inchoaj 
form of consuere, to be accustomed. « 
cott' {cum), together, very ; mere, to 
accustomed (LucretiosV Sutrt is p4 
from nwM/, own ; so that suircto V 
one's own, have it one's own way. 

aooUBtom.. (F. - L.) O. F. estww < 
tunU, to be accustomed . — F. a (for 1. 1 
O.K. costume, castom (above). 

costume. (F.-ItaL-L.) O.F.fWi! 
a costume. — Ital. costume. '»\Ayv L. 
tnma (as above^. Doublet oi cuttcm. 

desuetude, disuse. (L.) L. dttmea 
di&use. — L. i/rjitf/iu, pp. of riSr -jwMrr/i; 
grow out of tue. opposed to com 
see Custom. 

Cut. (C.) M. E. cutttn^ a weak fCfl 
— W. rw/an, to shorten, dock; com| 
W. cwtwj, a lot, with M.E. rw/, 
(Ch. C. T. 837). So also Gael, cuttticl 
shorten, cut short. Cf. also W. nw/, a I 
Gael, and Ir, cut, a short tail ; Coiok 
shoit. See Coot. 

Cuticle. (L.) L. cuHcmia, 4oi 
dimin. of cutu, hide. skin. Sec Hi 
{^KXJ, SKU.) Der. cut-an^-Ptu, fi 

Cutlass. Cutler; see Cooltar. 

Cutlet ; see Gooat. 

Cuttle, a fish. (E.) Formerly 
A S. cude/e. a cuttle-fish. Altered 
ctt/t/e by the influence of G. iutUl^K 

Cycle. (F-L.-Gk.) F. rn^. -. 
cjrf/uM.afzc of ryf/*/. — Gk. «i»»»K»T. adi 
cycle. + Skt. c^aim, a wheel 
Allied to Curve, Oirolo. Der. cy>r!m 
Gk. kvmXu/¥. whirling round, pre*, p 
KVKKivt I \' ' .Mm 

Also <n-< I is 

drclcof sciL.->. . , ..■..*...- — ' 

put for i-ytvitXttn waiS*in^ ti. 
plete instruction (sec Pedaa 
emyfiica/t circular, Irnm (^k 
circular; nscd of an epistle 
round to many. 



cnetv K young twan (F. - L.) 
of O. F ri^nt, % swan. Strangely 
ikit O. ¥. word is mot from L. 
a avian ; but the oUlest 0. F. 
wmt ritnf, from Low L, UiinuSj 
See Uiti; 4tli cil p- ;I4. 
^liadar.<F.-L.-Gk.) O.V.d/in^fn, 
r tyiimdwt- •• L. cyliruirus. — tilt. 
irSfM, a roUrr, c^'liniler — Gk. wA/fStfir, 
|oU ; from ovAf^i*'. to roll. CC. Kuss. 

■ machine for nDOOthing 
(F*»U*Ck ) ' CaitHiitr, to press 
( * BsHtv. «* F. ioUmdrtr, to smootb 
tti^Mdrt^ tb., a calcntkr. - Low L. 
a c^lcihlcr ; corniptioo of L. 
a roller (as above). Der. 
; ■ MKK>iher of liaco, a aii!>talcen 
for tmkmJnr, 
baL fF^U-Gk) Vi.ZnmtfaU. 
rimi-ulf. — L. cyvif>a,'Mm. — Cik. 
% a cyiobal ; named from its cup- 
t(ac. •• Gk. xvuBn* « cup. 4- ^kt. 
a jar Allied to Oup ; aitd sec 
l,th a.*L.-Gk.) M.E.ri/m^, 
the orig. teoiie w&s cymlal ; 
diinc or ringing ot a cjuibal. 
friMn F. eAimbaU, dialectal roim 
WarAo^ (above). Dor. fhtrntt 

III T .-Gk.\ V.cjni- 

[••Gk. t i^Le, a Cynic. — Gk. 

k, atnii o( «h^r, & 'lot^: •« Caoine. 
[jnOCOr*. <L. — i^k ) L. tyiwmra, 
ctai* ia ibc tail of the constellation of 
Bear : one of these is the Pole- 
Uv of aimction to the magnet 
Lbe Cynoiure. tail of the 



•UJ* H 

I. arcei 

r«uer Bear; lit. 'dog's tail'»Gk tf&vot, 
gen. of mW, a tlog ; ov/u, a tail. 

quiuay. vF. -Gk.) Formeily /tkim- 
aHty.^O. F. stfuitianrie (i6th cent ); also 
jyutMafut, ' the squinaocy or s^mtnzie ; * 
CoL Formed with prerix«l / ( «0. F. es-, 
L. ^jr, very) from Gk. mvaymj, lit, a rfog- 
thioltliug, applied to a bad kind of sore 
throat. — Gk. mvv-, siem of mvvr, a dog ; 
dyx-'i>', to choke. 

Gypreaa (i). a tree. (F.-U-Gk.) 
M. E. cipra.-^O. F. cyprti. later cyprh.^ 
L. typarinus, ntpnstns.^Gk. trvwoptaaut, 

Cypress (j), a kind of aajw. (F. 
— L.) Palsgrave explains F. erej/t by 
'a cyprc** ior a woman's neck'; Cot- 
pravc has *trtspi, ciprcs, cobweb lawn.* 
The oiitin o' typrus is doubtful; but 
it occurs as (ipm, cypits in P. Plow- 
mnn. nnd we nnd <('/>//, fine linen, in 
Uunbar. H cncc it is prob. corrupted 
frnm O. F. cr^spt, crape. See p. loi, coL 
I, L 33. % Or from the isle oi Cyprus. 

Cyst, a pouch (ill animals) containing 
morbid matter. (L. - Gk.) Fonnerly 
written c^'slu —Late U ryj/tf. — Gk. *n/ffTi», 
a hng. pouch. •■ Gk. jcvfir, to cotitaiu. 
iV KU.) 

Csar. the emperor of Russia. ( Russ. - L.) 
Kuss. tiari (with * route), a kinR. Cor- 
rupted from U Citsar. ^ Tliis ha* 
lieen disputed; bot ace Matt xili a^ in 
Schleicher. Indogermaid^e Chresloma- 
ihie, p J75, where O SUy. c/jflrr/w occura 
(or rood. Ross, isarstvo, kingdom. Der. 
r%tr,rwitt, from Russ. tsartvith, war's 




hib (iV to itrike gwtly. (E.) M. E 
); aW AJiJy. a blow. Not in A. S. 
iP^i^ tfrn 10 pinohi fumble, dabble : 
grope, prov. G. /tf//tf, fist, 

- ' ' ^bing; 

i-H, to 

^, _ : . ./dW«« 

\ eiperl (T- 1) Sopposed to be 

nicK. *« uiTo. 

L. dactyfM» the 

^ — Gk. fia«rvXM. 

Da06 ; see Dart. 

Daotyl. ^L. - Gk.^ 
metrical foot marked - 
a Anger, a dactyl. See Toe. 

date (»>. fruit of the palm. (F.-L.- 
Gk.> M. F-. dare. -O. F. iiatd (F. (iatu\ 
a date.-L. dmfyium, ace. of da<tytu%.^ 
Gk. &i«TwXot. a <laic. Pfob. «#/ allictl to 
SojvrvAot aboNC. but of Semitic ori|frn. 

Dad (C* VV. tad Irish daid^ Hret. /«/, 
/*/. father -fCk. T'"n, Skt. ftiJd dad. 

BiiHbdil ; see Aaphodol. 

Dagger. (,C.) ^L 1'« du^rt ; allied to 





fagffnt, to picTce— W. (/dfr, Irish Jatfftar, 
a dagger ; O. Gael tiaga^ a dagger, pistol ; 
Uret. ./ti^, iiaffer (whence F. tfajpu). 

Daggle : see Dew. 

DaguexTotype. (F. owrfCk.) Forme*! 
by adding -ctyfe lo F. Duguirrt. a per- 
sonal Dame, the in\*entor (a.d. 1838). 

Dahlia. (Sweil) Named after Z^oA/, a 
Swedish botanist. 

Dainty : see DL^nitr. 

Dairy ; ^ee Bike. 

Dais ; see Diso. 

Daisy ; sec Day. 

Dale, a valley. (Scand.) M. E. dale.- 
— Icel. dalr, Dan. Swcd. dW, a dale. + Da. 
dai\ Goth.i/a/r; Q. thai, 

dell, a dftle. (E.) M E. ddU A.S 
Jtlt dat dtlU ; CarCularium Saioo. i. 547, 
ii. 71. 

dollar. (Du. — G,> Do. JaalJtr, a 
dollar. Adapted and borrowed from G. 
thaler^ a dollar. The G. rhaitr U short 
{qt j0achim.ftkaUr, a coiti m.iile from silver 
fuim 1 in Joachirruthal ^Joachim's dale) in 
Uohvniia, ab. a.o. 1518. 

Dally ; sec Dwell 

Dam (i), a mound, bank a^^ainst water. 
^E.) A.S. damm. only in the derived 
stx\i for-dtmm<mt to dam up.-fDu. dam, 
IceL dammr, Dan. dam, bwed. damm, 
M. H. G. tarn, G. damm, a dam, dike. 
Goth. /aurdammjaH, to dam up. 

Dam (3), a mother ; see Domain. 

Damage ; sec Damn. 

Damaslc (Syria.) M. E. damash, 
cloth of Damascus, Heb. dmesfg, damask, 
Dammtitq^ Damascus \^Ucn. xiv. 15), Der. 
damoik-rost \ damask-ifu, to inlay with 
gold (F. damatquintr), 

damaon. (Syria.) F. damaisint, a 
Damascene plum. ^ F. DamaSt Damascus, 

Dame; sec Domain. 

Dam.n, to condemn. (F. — L) M. E. 
dammen, dampn^H. — F. damner — L. 
damnart, to condemn, fiDC. — I*, damnum, 
loss, fine, penalty. 

condemn. (L.) L. condemnare, to 
condemn wholly, pronoimce to be guilty. 

dama^. (F. - L.) M. E. damagt. - 
O. F. damage (F. dommage) ; cf I'rov. 
damnaJjt, answering to Low L. damnati- 
cum*. harm ; we fui-l Low L. damnaiicus, 
condemned to the mines. — L. dammttus^ 
PP of ^ammi/r (above] 

Indemnify, to make dnmaee good. (L.) 
Ill coinc'l, — L indemni'S. uitlianned. free 
from >o>»: and 'jU-ar{^\o\faitrt^ to make. 


Indemnity. (F. -L.) F. 
*L ace. indemnitattm-^X.^ in-Jt 
nnharmed, free from loss {damnum) 

Damp. <E.) Cf. M. E. dam/tm, I 
focate. Not in A. S. + On damp, if 
steam ; r>an. damp, G. damp/, ti 
Swcd. damb, dust. Allic^l lo Gk. 
vapour, Skt. dkiipa^ iDcenae. 
Sec Dust. 

Damael . see Domain. 

Damson ; see Damaak. 

Dance. (K.-O H. G.) M. E. da 
-O. F. darner. ^O, H. G. dam^, \ 
along, trail. — O. U. G. cA'iMCMi, to 
draw ; allied to E. Thin. 

Dandelion ; see Dental. 

Dandle. I.E.) Cf. prov. E. dam 
wander idly; Lowl. Sc damiUi, 
about idlv Frequent form from a 1 
bas5 DA'ND. lo trifle ; cf. O. Du. d 
to trifle. O. F. diw»^/iw/r, 'to look II 
ass;' Cot. + G. tandeln, to toy, 
play, dandle, lounge; from O. H. G 
a trifle, G. tand, a toy. Cf. O. Ilal 
dolart, 'to dandle or play the 
FInrio; dandola, a toy; worda of L 

dandy. (F.-O. LowG.) F. ^sm 
meacock, noddy, nirmy;' CoL Fk 
O. Low G. base above. 

Dandriff. scurf on the head. (C) 
mcrly dandntfft. — \V, tmt, skin, 
whence marwdtm ( * marw^ deat' 
skin), scarf, dandriff; Bret. ta»^ 
I'he second syllable may be acoouai 
by W. drwg, Gael, drock, Bret, 
bad ; the guttural becoming^, as in 

Dandy; see Dandle. 

Danger ; see Domain. 

Dangle ; see DiDg. 

Dank ; see Dew. 

Dapper. (Du.) Orig. good.' 
ht-nce brave, fine, spruce. XV. cent 
dapptr, brave. +■ O. H, G. tat'^.T, wi 
val.ant, G. tapftrt brave; 
OUiag' 'n>m gadabam, to Ik .. >> 
befall, kus*. dobmi. good. 

Dapple ; see Deep. 

Dare (t). to \-enturc. (E.) 
Hai-c: pt. t. dorxU, duntt, A, 
1 ilare; ke dear, be dare; pi. 
infin. durran. + Goih. 
daurjfa. I durst, infin. davrram; 
far, I dare, infin tttrran. \\\ 
to be bold, Bpa<Tvt. bold ; Ski 
dare. ^V^HARS.) 

.a u« 



, htr Dart. 

E. J>fX-. A. S. Jiitrt, 
T>u, dattitr^ Swctl. F>nn. 
(£bUi% duk. Der. dark- 
en the dark. (E"! FonnctI 
idloag). A. S. ^»c iiti^, b*ck- 


.) W. damio, to break in 

U» piece, iittrn, a jiiccc, fra£- 

Cora. </an«, ttrcl. j!!!*^, a 

iicce. fiub. IminVI^'AK. to 

|(F.-Teut > M. E. lAirwA litr- 

ar. I I K \» \\..s\- ntllV 

■cJii Jtittrrtiii, danUiit t-'l^'y* 
«£ifi*r, kiiii>cficd (Roquefort). 
seiii ta O. Du. door, 
% A Cool, Swctl. riu/u, to 

G.) M. E. Jart.~ 

dATit). Of O. Low G. 

daroS, a dtrt, Swed. dart, a 

llItfrra^r, i dAft. Cf. A. S. 


'O. Low G,) Formeily dam. 

CB^e of the word ^\%q 

O) • liart. to ■ d*ce- 

i called a ^/t, from iti iwift 

• (fftce (F.-O. Low G.) F. 


I. £. doichm «Du. 
^a/>d, to bcJl; wc 
iMing Agauut rocka 
Wen pnnt of lime. (F. — L.) 
. ^Co/r. dale. • Low L jWii, 
ncBt pi of tfittm, Kiven, 
+ Gk. Wftcy>*i. 1 
ditddmi, I give; 
irt tVnA.) 
Lv tenJon^rtt to remit, 
(akn). wholly; donarc, 
tlon ^ bclow>, 


or kbewn* i.e. ifiTOWD 
1. of dartt to give. 




, SkL 

UX. donafionfut, a gift, from pp. of donate, 
to (;tvc. * L- </<oH»'!'J. a gift, -f Gk. £4^/iuk, 
* G''*- tV^-^A, to give.) 

dowagor. a widow with a jointure. {If. 
— L. ) Corned from' i/<wu^, mi endowment. 
Again dotvage u coined (with !>uffix -aft) 
ftum K. dou'tr, to endow.— L. dotan, to 
enriow. — L. (/oA, rtem of i/^j, a gift, dowry. 
Allied to dart, lo give. Der. en-dow^ from 
F. tn aiid doner, 

dower, an endowment. (F.-L). M. E, 
dov^r.^O. F. doairf, later i/tiimi/ir<» l-ow 
L. do/arium. — L. dotare, to endow (above). 
Dor. dawr-j>t ihort for timoer-y. 

editioiL (.L.) L. editiotum, ace of 
tditio, I puMishing. — L. uhtns, pp. of 
fi//r/, to give oot, publi&h. — L. t, out; 
tjti/Y, to give. Dor edil, a coined word. 

pardon, forgiveucss. (F.-L) M. E. 
pardoun.^Y . pardon, bb. — F. pardonner, 
to forgive. » Low 1^ per-donare, to remit a 
debt, pardon ; see Donation (above), 

perdition. (F.-L.) V.p^rdi/ion.wmX^ 
ace. ptrdiiicmm, utter lotM.<-L- /f/t/f/MJ^ 

f)p. of perdert, to lose.— L./r*-, thorougb- 
y ; libnr, to give. 

redditioa, a restoring. (F. — L.) F. 
rtddilion. — L. rtdditiofum^ ace of nddiiio, 
a restoring, — L nddtrt, to give back. — L. 
nr«/-. back ; dare, to give. 

render. (K. — L.) M. E. rtndrtn — F. 
reruirr.^L. reddcrt i above). 

rendesvoua. ^.F.-U> F. nrmiSmwMj. 
*a rcndevous. place appointed for the 
assemblie of souldiers: Cut.— ?*. rtndtM 
wnts =: L. reddife uoi, render your&clves; 
imperative pL 

rent (>). annual payment. (F. •- L.) 
M. E. rtttU.^V. rente. Cf Ital refidita^ 
rent.- Low L. rmd{ta*j nasalised fonn of 
L. rtddita, fern, of pp. of reddirt^ to render \ 
see render (above). 

Burronder. (F. — L.) F. surrtMdre. to 
give up. — F. sur ( — L. sv/er), above ; 
rendre, to render; see render (above). 

tradition. (L.) L. traditio, a surren- 
der, a tradition (.Col. ti. i^).' L. traditus, 
pp. of trad^n, to deliver. -L. tra-, for 
tnifu, across; -dere, for dtj'e, to give 

traitor. (F.-L.) O. F hojtiur, t*m- 

tor. -• L. trotiilortm. acc of trudittr, a 
l»ctmycr. — L. traditus (above >. 

treaaon. (F. — L.) M, E trauoM.— 
O. V traison. — L. acc. traJitiotum ; tee 
tradition ^above). 

Data (a\ a fruit: see Dootyl. 

Daub. (F -U) M. £. J'an^cn.-O. V. 




dau&er, to planter ; answering to an o\*ltt 
fbriD da:L\i'*. _ L. deaib^rtt lo wh)t4.n. 
pluter. « L. i/<r. down, rery; aJhan. lo 
wbiicn. from a/^»j, white; mc Alb. Cf. 
Span./a/A<4Txr ^■=l^a*7l4:d/^r•J, to plaster. 
(Not from W. d^tf6, GacL and ir. ^ 
plaster.) Der. hedauh. 

Daughter (E.> M. E. da^kUr^ iehter. 
A. S. tlJitor. 4" Dii. dockter, Dan. daiUr, 
dotUr, SweJ. iAtf//r. IceU i6V/»V, Goth. 
daukiar^ G. tackier, Kuh. dacJu^ Gk. 
«i/Y(fn}^. Slit, duhitH, The SkL ^Mii/ri 
seems to have meant 'milker' of the cows; 
from t/wA ( =4£lv^\ to milk. 

Batmt tF.-^L.^ \^^LdaunUn.^O.^. 
danur\ also donter.^X*. domitart, to tAme. 
lubduc; frcqucQl. o( damart. to tame; see 

indomitable. (L.) Coined from u«-. 
not ; dcMtiart^ to subdue v>^^ve). 

I>auphin ; see I>olphin. 

Davit, anpport forshij^" boaU. (Ileb.^) 
Formerly spelt L>am'd, a& if from a proper 
bame (A.O. l6i6j. 

Daw. (K.) Fiom the noise made bv tbe 
bird; cf. caw. -f- O. il. G. tdJks, a daw; 
dimio. iahtii i^oow G, dokU), a daw ; 
whmce Ital. /aero, a daw ^Florio). Der. 

Dawn : see Day. 

Day (.E,) M. F. day. dot, dot. A. S. 
dtf^. pi. da^as. + Ou. Dan. Swed, <ili^, 
Iccl. dt^r. G. /d^', Golh. t/a^i. ^ In no 
way allied lo L. dut. 

daisy. (E.) M. £. day^syi (4 syllabtr^). 
A. S. (^^ fii^, eye of day, i. e. snUj which 
it resembles. 

dainrn. (E.) M E.^mt'n^n; ^^adawtn, 
of which dawn~€n is an cAlcn* 0:1. — A. S. 
dugian, to become day^ dawn. ~ A. S. i^i:^-, 
stem of dag. 

Dase. (Scand.) M. E. dasm, to stupefy. 
— Swed. dasa. to lie idle; Icel. dasasA. to 
be wearied, Lt. to dare oneself, where -sA 
is the reflexive suffix. The orig. sense is to 
be stupid, to dote ; sec Doso. 

dairtard. (Scand. , witA Scand. smJU.) 
M. E, dastard; where -urd is a F. suffix, 
as in duti-ard, sluggard. — Iccl. dttstr, 
exhausted, pp. of dasa, to be out of Liealh ; 
oWa^r. exhausted, weary, po. a^ daiasA, lo 
be weary (above). Cf. Icel. doji, % laiy 
fellow, O. Du. doiOirt, a loul. The orig. 
■ease is * sluggard.* 

dasxlo, 10 confuse. (Scar.d.l Froa^ 
dai$; with (mjuent. so&a U. Der. ^- 


Da- (1). frtJU. (L. ; •r F.-U) L. 
duwn, away, £rao, fcry ; hence somctiu 
V. di; O. F. d*-. 

Do- {i),frtjix. (F.-L> F. «fif-, O. 
des- ; from L. du- ; see Dia*. 

Daaoon.(L.-Gk.) U.VLdtim. A. 
diatPM, • L. dioionus. •- Gk. Sieucdror, n 
Tant. adeacoo- (^DI.) 

dia4X»iAl, belonging to a deaccm. C 
•> L. — Gk. ) F. diacemal. — Low L. 
tf.'/j-, from L. dia£0Hus (abore). 

Dead; see Die (i). 

Dea£ (E.) M. E. detf, A.S. ^ 
Dit. dwf^ Dan. d^. Swed. d^ Ic«L 
Goth. dauAs, G. /dtt^. Orig. 'o 
allied to Gk. rC^ot, Mooke, 
stupor. CV DHU.) 

Deal (1), a Jiarc. (E.) M. E. d*tl A. 
dixi. a share. •^Uti. */«/. Dan, jlr//, S*i 
dtl, Iccl. (/rt/», Goih. </ai/r. C. M«A 

deal(2).todividCjdistnbute. ,£.' SkL 
JelfH. A.S. d^/iM.-A.S. yi/. a 

above^. -^ Du. deel/n, Dan. i/^/f, S' 
.('c/is. IceL i/^iVd. Goth. dailjoH. G. /fln?a< 
all from tbcir respective stis, ;;at>ovc>. 

dole^ a porticm. ^^E.) Diaie«:lal »arii 
of deaJ (I). M. E. dcfe, dale. A.& ^ 
geddl, a portion ; Tariant of A, SL 4 

ordeal, a severe test, jadgment tnr i 
&c (E,) M Kcfda/. A.S. : ' ' ' 
■ dealing out, judgment, d'c 

cr-, prenx. out: ^'/, ddJ, a • : ^ 

dole ,above'. The prefix or. « In. 
G. ur-, Goth. US; out.-f-Uu. ocrdttL, 
MfY^rfV, judgment; similarly couipouml 

Deal (3). a thin board. iDu.) Du. 
• pUnk.-f G.i/<W/; sec ThilL. 

Dean ; »ee Decemvir. 

Dear. ^F-) M. E. dcrt. A. S. 
dyrt^ dear, precious. + Din, axii! S 
dear, costly. IccL dyrr^ dtar, pri 

darling. (E.) M E. dtrUng. 
dch.'ing, a favourite. — A, S dsfrtt 
with double dimin. fcuffix -i-img. 

dearth, scarcity. (E.) NL E. 
deamess; hence, dcartb. Not in A 
but formed as Atal-th^ warM-tA, &c^ 
i/yrff, value ; from dyrr (above). 

Death; sceDU(i). 

Debar ,- see Bar. 

Debase ; ^ee Baae. 

Debate : sec Battac (i). 

Debauch. {V. - L. and Teut.) 
dejAattcAtr (F. dJ6auLh£r\ ' to detiosh. m< 
^ucc mislead;* Coi, Utcxsappowi 

*r^ er^t^ *\% * ♦o ciilTce away from a 
v derived from the 
, away, and O. F. 
r, cxiiiiiiiLti hv KoqMttotl as "a little 
* ■an br Cotgravc as *a course of 
or bricto in building.' Cf F. /m- 
to nsc in business employ, er- 
rr, to foiigh hew, (runie. TTie orig, 
of inukf wu prob. *balk,* i.e. 
IbOMe frame of a buildings course 
Uki& small baildbg, flee, j of Teat 
; aecBaUL. 
ituro; Kc Habit 
LUt« : sec H»biU 

Ir. (F.) M. E. Jebantrt, deBenairt ; 

df hfm a$n^ lit of a Pood mien. 

of; Am Mr, rood; and oirr, mitn 

«fi«\ ft word of uncertain origin. 

is the E. phr. *to jfive onc:>eir 

ZMxmch. (F. -L> F. d^homher, to 
■carV, lo cttrrge ffom ; hence, to march 
o«t of a narrow posa. — F. dt ( « O. El. dts- 
m L. Ju\ am> ; and bomfkt^ mouth, opcn- 
frOB I* Mteca, mouth. 

iboCfMh to flow into the sea, as 

■ I* ) Span, distmb^ar, 

« Span, dts* (L. dis'\ 

r» to enter the mouth, froco 

im\ hUK and b^ca (L, kmea), 

^•aboQcbnre. [F. - L. ) F. rmht4rknre^ 
Of opming (of a river). — F. 
to pat to the moulh. * L. iW, 
tbc moatb. 

broken pieces. (F. » U and 
.) P. d^rii, fragments, — O. F. 
% to HTC amndcf. — O. F. dti- 
di$'\ apftrt ; and M. H. G. hrtsten^ 
ak, oocnase wiih £. Barat 
ate Habit. 
; uc Beat. 
aui*. {K.-.Gk.) F. dttaJe, 'a de- 
*CoL; ie. •» aggregate often. — Gk. 
BmiMm. kc of Sradc, « Gompany of ten. * 
Ok. M«i^ 1m ; Mr T«n. 

dooatfon. (Gk.) Named from its ten 
Aaglca.wGk. I«m, ten; Taiv-la, a comci, 
flBcl^ aDIed to ^^nv knee ; see Knee. 
Dor. 4 f w Ay w (fy, cor, Ii^co, dcvcnj ; 
4»-dttt^m (MMm, twelve). 

dMAbMTOB. (GL> Named from its 
IB wdca c* tiiai i^ » Ck. Atf«o, ten : np a, 
m lioBfc Ut. *«eBl** from IA<>f, a seit ; see' 
•M. Dv. Sf-dkm'itdrm (Gk. M9««a, 

a«o«kiftw. (F, • L. « Gk>« F. dVia- 


kgw. — L. dtcah}^iJ. •■ Gk. 8««iiiA«-|ror, the 
ten cotntu&ndmcQts. — Gk. fi^xo, ten ; AoTOf, 
a ipcech, saying ; see Loffic 

oecaayUablo, having ten lyllablcs. 
(Gk.) Gk. lUa^ ten ; ovKKa^^ a syllable. 
Dor ktn JccasyliaSit (Gk. {*-5e«a, eleven). 

Decamp ; see Oarop. 

DeoaniQ ; see Deoemrir. 

Decant; &ee Cant (3>. 

Decapitote ; see Capitol. 

Decay ; see Oadeuoe. 

Decease ; sec Cede. 

Deceive : see C&pacioua. 

Decemvir, one of ten magi^lntea. (L.) 
L. dccemuir, one of the decemuiri^ or lea 
men joined in a commi««ion. * L. detent^ 
ten isee Ten'^ ; and uxr, a man (sec 

dean. (F.-L.) M. E. *<•/».- O. F. 
deien (F. deym\. * L. decanus^ one set 
oven ten soldiers^ or over ten monks, a 

decanal. (L.) Belonging to a dean. — 
L. d^can-Hi (above^. 

decennial, beloDging to ten years. (L.) 
Coined from \^ decenn-alu. of ten yean. » 
L. dtc imy ten ; an/tujt a year. 

decimal. (F.-L.) O. F. dfcimal.^ 
Low L, dtcimaHj^ belonging to tithes.* 
L. decima^ a lithe; fern, oidetimui, tenth. 
wL. dicetrty ten. 

decimate. (L.) From pp. of L, dect- 
ntitrf, to select every tenth min, for punish- 
ment »L. d/frw, ten. 

dime, the tenth part of a dollar. (F.— 
L, ) F. di'ffUf O. F. disme^ tenth, •• L. 
dtiitfius, tenth. —L. dectm, 

decussate, to cross at an acute angles 
(L. ) From pp. of L. decussarty to cross, put 
into the form of an X. — L. dicujsu, a coin 
worth ten asses Cai-es).ai)d thciefure marked 
with X, i.e. ten. • L, decern, ten ; tf/Ji-, crude 
foira of at, an ace ; see Aoe. 

denary, relating to tens. (L.) L. dftta- 
n'us, containing tea.^'L. di-ni {-decni)^ 
pi. ten by ten. • L. dtctm, ten. Hence 
d<nur, L. denarius, piece of ten (oi-es). 

Decent. tF. - L.) F. -/ayh/. - L. dt- 
<tnt; stem of prea. pt. of deare, to become, 
befit ; cf. dtiUi, honour. 

decorate. (L.) From pp. of dtiprart, 
to adorn. — L.dWiTr-, stem <dd4<MS, honour. 

deoomm. (L.) L. dt<9rtnn, seemli- 
iicss : neul. of dtcorut, lecmlv. — L. dec9r» 
stem of dtior, Memlineia, allied to dteui 
(above). Dar. m-d4t0rum. 



Deception ; &« Capaciooa. 

Decide; sec Oesara. 

Daciduoiis ; see Cadence. 

Dwcimul, Decimate ; »c^ D«oomTiT. 

Decipher; see Cipher. 

Deck, to cover. (O. Lhi.) DxLi^ilm,to 
cover : dei, r cover, a ship^s deck. Co^pUu 
with E. Thatch, q. v. 

DeoUdm; set Claim. 

Declare ; ice dear. 

Dcclenaion, Decline ; sec Incline. 

Dedivity ; see AocIiTiiy. 

Decoct : utt Cook. 

Decollation ; see CoUar. 

Decompose; tec Pose ^i). 

Decorate, Decorum : see Decent. 

Decoy ; bee Quiet. 

Decrease ; sec Crescent. 

Decree ; see Coaoem. 

Decrement; sec Creacent. 

Decrepit; &ee Crevice. 

Decretal ; s<e Coucem. 

Decry ; see Queniloiu. 

Decuaaate ; scr Decoinvir. 

Dedicate ; sec Diotion. 

Deduoe, Deduct ; *tx Duke. 

Deed: ^ec Do (i). 

Deem; see Do (i\ 

Deep, proiound. (£.) M. E. Jtffi. A. S. 
d^^/.+Do. di'ffi, Dftn. i(x6, Swcd. dt'itp, 
loci (^/W/r, G. tie/j Goth, iliufij. (Teot. 
hue DIP.) 

dapple, a spot on aa animal. (Scand.) 
Iccl. dtpiU, a ^pol. dot ; a dog with Bpoti 
over the eyes is «lso called deffiU. The 
orlg. sense is 'a little pool,' from Norweg. 
dafi^ a pool. Allied to Han. dial, dupf^, a 
bole when water collects, E. dt^, a j^ool ; 
and to £. dtep^ dip. 

depth, deeprcfis. (Scand.) loci dyf^^ 
depth; from djtipr, deep. + Da. diepte; 
Goth. diiUf'ifha. 

dibber, dibble, a tool £or setting 
plants. E.) Formed with suflia ~er or -u 
of the ngent, from prov. E. dii, to dip, 
hence lo maJic boles in earth, weakened 
fonn of dip (above). 

dimple, a small hollow. (Scand. ) 
NaalisoJ form of Nonreg. dtpil, difti, a 
pool ; dimin. of dapi, a pool ; see dapple 
above. Cf. Swed. dial, difp, a pool. 

dingle. (Scand.) Konnerlj dim^e, 
variant oi dtmpU i above). 

dip, to plunge, immerge. (£.) &L E 
dipptn. A. S. dyppan, later dippan; 
oaosal form from dypan, to plunge in, 
fanned (bjr vowd-chaiige from tS xo y- 


from dtip, deep (abovcV ^ Daa 
dip. Compare Dive. 

Deer. (£.) U E. Mtr, 
A. S. dt6r, a wild animaL ^Ds* 
dyr. Swcd. dyur. led. dyr, Go<] 
tKJtr, L-jtra^ Git. ♦v, a wild 
veUdtr-mu, q. v. 

DefEtce ; ux Face 

Defalcate ; sec Falchion. 

Deffime ; «e Fame 

Default; sccFalUble. 

Defeaaanoe. Defeat : see 

Defbcate ; Me Fstoea. 

Defect ; sec Facv 

Defend. CF.-L.) M E 
O. F. df/endrt — I.. di/fmUrt, to J 
lit strike doMTQ Of awa>'.«*L. (&, i 
femUrt*, to vtrike, only in cooip. dt-fi 
^-/endcrr. Cf. G. «4U'itr, to 
(V DHAN.) 

defenoe. (F.-L.) M. K. 
O F. d4fem*- — L. dd/enja, a 
(Tcrtullianl. — L. dtjmt tu, pp, 
fendtrt i,above% 

fence (F.-L.) Shott for J>/^ 
a guard. 

fend- (F -L.) Short for deft^ 
ward nff, Der. ftndtr. (i> a 
gtiaid for a hrc, (a) a buffer lo 

offence. (F.-L.) OF.^ 
— I., offtnsa, an oficnce ; orig. fein. i 
of of'Jtndcrt, lo da»h araiii&L. 

offend. tF.-L.) M. E. 9fftmk% 
offendre. — i^ cf-fendtrt^ to doah or 
against, injure .fl/*- • oA-)- 

Defer ■ i ) and ( a) ; see Fertile. 

Deficient; see Fuot. 

Defile vi\ to polluic. (F.^L.; 
v»ak L. and E.) M, E. dt^ 
trample under foot : later ST)enitig 
sec Foil (O. Thii wutd u o1 
it suggested a hybrid compound 
prefixing L. d!r, down« to the old i 
to defile (Mach iii. i. 65).-iA.S., 
defile, moke foal, formed (by vowi 
of f> to >) from A. S. fiU, foul ; sc< 

Defile (3)1 to pa&& along ia « 
File (I). 

Define; secFinaL 

Deflect; sec Flexible, 

Deflour ; see Floral. 

Defiuxion ; sc? Fluent. 

Deforoe ; see Foroet 

Deform ; .-ee Form. 

Defratid ; tee Fraud. 

Defray \ see Fra&ila. 



I) a 

10 ik| 


ert&ta; »ce Oenos 
tition ; m« Glut. 

Degree; sc< Orad^. 

U g>p^* (L } ^ defiiumt-, 
9B cif pveL. pC of dtkijcert, to ^^pc L>)<cn. 
L. A, dowD ! hisurt^ to gape. Allied lo 

9«lfy ; «c* Doltr. 

Jelly. tK-U) ME. Jtite.~O.F, 
Ut.^ L. licttA'em, ace of dtitas, deity* 
Ddknd. — U ^^-, ior ^^w;, God ; cf. 
^mt, e^filte- + A. S. Ttw. ■ god 
»ber - , Ic«I. tivi, a ^od, 

► 11 sAf. W. i/mp, (iad. 
id U. UM. vj-i. r*ii '.feient Aip', Jupiter, 
tt.jEratt,«eod, <isfcu, divine. (^ DIW.) 
It TueedAT* 

«4t»tL (K.-U) F. J ./f>M. to God. a 
■■naidaiiOD, ueJ as a raiewcU uying. — 

. tJ fifum, to i'fOA, 

deify. vF.-L) M.E. i/rt)!)vii. - O. F. 
vJikeF'. ' lo dcii>,' Cot -• Low L. deificnrt. 
iLdWilCeii/, Aocouiiti.ig a> godi. *Lil<n' . 

> i^rau, a {«d; and ^c. ior /<uert» to 
Bk«. Der, dlrj)Cr«/-wM, doe to pp. of 

VLO Fiom Lk i&n/; with suflix 

' I irit,dcril. (F.-I..) 
tiodally, like mod. 
- O. F. Dtus ! O 
1 a o nation.* L. Oau, 

Ood, voc ove). Similar cor* 

■ ioct ta fcc-'W. &».p from good to bad, 
So alM> llu, /ffw, 
(F* • L.^ O F. jtviai. »in- 
bom andcr the lucky pt&iiel 
" •mia/iff pertaittiiij; lu Jupilcr. 
iid< fonn o( O. Lat. A«w. 
\^ Juf^iUr (-Jovo-iathcr). 
(of Otauis. allied to (//mj, 
td i ct Gk. A«4«, gen caM ui Zitv. And 




: Kc D«lJoate. 
»c« LesaL 

to anat. O.) L. dtUtus 
to listroT. koot unceiiAUi 

hit. tF.^1.) Put (or tndtUbU. 
if, ' imlrlii le;' Cot. — L. 
W" - I • ■ itUHUs, 

for Gk. S^XijTffniot, noxious *Gk. thfKffi' 
a destroyer.*>Ok. Af}A.^o^(u, I liann, injuie. 
Sc.. Tear. (^DAU.) 

Delf. ^Du.) Earthenware 6nl made at 
l^€//f, a town iu S. Uollout), about a. d, 


Deliber&te ; see lilbrate. 

Delicato, dainty, rcfHiol (U) 
ddiio/uj, luxurious ; allitd to dtiid^ 
pUa&ure. delight — L. ddUtre, to amuu 
allure. — L. dt, away ; laart, to entice. 

delectable. (F. - L.) Late M. KJ 
diUctabit, ^ K. deUctabU.<-'h. diUaahiliMi 
dctightfal. — L. deltctate, to delight; 
qucnt. of de-IUertt to allure. 

delicious. (F.-L.) M.E. dtHciom^ 
— O. F. delUieus. — Low L. delicUms^ 
pIca&ant.»L. deitcia, pleasure (above) 

delight. (F.-L.) Mnspclt \ov dttitt. 
M. li. delittn, verb. — O. F. aV/rrtr, 
dtUiUr. • L. deUfiart ; see deleotable. 

dilettante, a lover of tlie fine arts. 
(.llal.-L.) \\^\ diUtiante, lit. 'dclijihting 
in.' ~ Ital. diUttare, to delight — U 
d^iectare^ to delight ; &ee delectable. 

elicit, to coax out. (L.) From pp. of! 
E. t'lutrt, to draw oat by coaxing. •L €^ 
out ; iacert, to entice. And sec Laoe. 

Delineate ; see Line, 

Doliaquetit; sec Licenoa. ^ 

Deliqueaoe ; see liiquid. I 

Delirious. (L.) A coined word, from 
h.delirium, modnesb', whicli is also adopted 
into English. — L. dtHnu, mad ; lit. * (^oiog 
out of tlie farrow.'— L. de, from ; and iins, 

a fufTQW. 

Deliver ; see Liberal. , 

Dell ; &ce Dale. 

Delta. ^Ck.) Gk liXra, the k-tter A ; 
anijweiing lo Heb. dtiUth, (he name oi the 
4(b letter of the alphabet \ ong. 'a door of 
a tent.' Der. dtlloid. <Or\^. Phtrnician.) 

Delude ; ^ee Ludicrous. 

Deltige ; see Lava. 

Delve, to dig. lE.) A.S. 
del/an, pt. t. dealf, pp. delftn. + Du. 
dtiven\ M. H.G. u!Un. Extension from 
the base DAL. a dale See Dole. 

Demagogue. (F.-Gk.) V.d^magogtu, 
••Gk. Af/AO-jrvytk, a popular Icadcr.^Gk* 
hriiA-c^, people; dyc^i^, leading, from af'ttK,.! 
to le3«L 

Demand ; see Mandate. 

Demarcation ; ticc Mark 1 1 \, 

Demean ; see Menaoe 

Demented; hee HentoL 

Demerit; mc Merit. 

, _ — Mf, (L) U 

4Mtlfli (Ui Co4m<1 torn U Jmt^. 

■•Jrt«. (L.) I. ^^nrifMBMi;. IOC 

4f 4fi«ACn^ to «M t«Mk. » L. dfaitf-. 
fa fof« of dEnw. 
ladMkt, lo cvt f«to peteta llk« toetlL 
V/w L ) A Uw ttm. • Uw. L. »■- 

wttnr, to fMdi - L, /«, m • afewr-. »an 
-frrt*, « lo»C»i. Our imJrmturx ; so called 

' deeds wcfift est with 

•t oiw Mother. 

H. rink <!CL^ GL fcfVB. stci>^ -Gk. 
, to fcr: «WB>Qe vUh £ Tear. tK 

.•^Gk- CnlifaML ■over akin. » Gk. 


Gk.«x^tyck;«^^ttrsstaa oTI^ 
tkia. Itoxift i> alEed to w^jmrfm, I fis; 
•ee Paot. AaA sec TuidBCBiy 

Derrla. OarvUh. m Penan 
ncebc (Pav) Pom. ^MFvitJk, poor; 
dcxriifa, wbo professed Dovetty. 

Diaaoftnt; aeeCtent(i). 

IKwwHUiii ; i«e Soui. 

Doaorlbe, Deaory : see Sorfib*. 

Desecrate : wc B%md- 

Daoert ( i ^, a waste ; ace S«e««a. 

<a), Bcnc Beeerva ; see Befi 






Xanz foe. (F. - L- ) O. F. dt- 
^«L. iUxiiervn. In long for. 
PcfliApl (.like canriiUrart) 
J, ft star, OS if to turn the cyo 
t, to regtci, tixhs. 

(Ll h- JuiJirMliis, pp. 
B DUo 
•ce BolA (5). 
•cc i>Mp«rftt«. 
U Dispatch : scr Pedal 

, to lo^ all ho]^ »L. i/a 
from //V-, cnicle form of t/ts, 

<F. - U) M. £. det^rat, 
[XF. ittftnr^ 10 (]espau-.*L. 

llo, ■ dcspmte nun. (Span.*< 
AsptxaiU.^XA. dcsptfottu^ pp. 
f (*l.ore>. 

'- (F.- L.) O F. protpertr'~ 
to be proipcrous. • "L. prosper, 
'u\g to ooe'i hope.**L 
_to; ^tr-Jnmr/^i, hoyc 
. (L.) L./fvrpirut, uotter 

Ito : see BpeolM. 
w« Spoil 
; MC 8poD«or> 

tjTanl. iF.-L-Gk.) O.F. 
vw I*. dapoet/j.^Gk. itavunjt. 
The svllatile w<ir. is :\Uiecl tu 
tmbtna. Skt. /u//. laid, and to 
Mcin of 8«cr- unkiiowD. 
KAtlon, A ftcaltog off. {L.) t. 
ima, I ftCftle. 
are S«rve. 

DeaUtuU) ; »ee Bute. 
I Me SUuoture. 
ftee Oaitom. 
Ey ; ICC SftUeni, 
■er T«ek. 
ee T&Uor. 
kce T«uftbl«. 
pet T«8tiRi«nt. 
t •et T«n»blo. 

-U .?A "ff: /<" 
to. :L. ■ L - '. j.p. 

r. 09 fflftkc wonc - L. Uiitrwr, 

worse. Formed from «j!p, ftway. from ; with 
coinp. suT.xcs '/friar. (So aUo in-Ur-iffr 
from in.) 

Determine ; sec Term. 

I>eteat : see Testament. 

Dethrone ; mc Throae. 

Detonate, to trxploilc i.L.) L tUfamatm, 
pp. of tJitonare, to cJtplode.-L. dt, hxWy ; 
tcttare, to thunder. (VSTAN.) 

Detour ; »ee Turn, 

Detraction; sec Trace (1). 

Detriment: see Trite. 

Dotrude; sev Intrude. 

Deuce (1). two : «e Dual. 

Deuce 2). a devil ; see Deltj 

Devastate ; Ke Vaat. 

Develop ; see Envelop. 

Deviate ; see Vi&duot. 

Device ; see Divide. 

Devil. (L.-Gk.) 
dioAa/iu.-'Gk. ftid^oAor, the tiliindcrcr, the 
devil. * Gk. itafiaWttv, to throw across, 
tradnce. sliinder.^Gk. Sui, through, acrofts; 
$d\\ttr, to throw ; see Bolomnito. 

diaboUoal. (L.-GW.) U t/ia/Wif-iM, 
dcvili&h. — Gk. 8ta0&\ittv§, devilish, •• Gk. 
6ia0nkat, the devil (above). 

Devious ; sec ViaduoK 

Devise ; >ce Divide. 

Devoid; sec Void. 

Devoir ; ^ce Habit. 

Devolve ; see Voluble. 

Devote ; see Vote. 

Devour ; sec Voracity. 

Devout; sec Vote. 

Dew (E.^ U.E.deu.Jew. KS^dedw, 
dcw. + Du. danxif, Iccl »/oi;y {Rcn. dffggvar), 
I*)aii. (/«^, Swcd. i/Jiy, G. t/iait. Perhaps 
allied to Ski. J/tdv, to run, or dAtSv, to wa&n. 
bedew, to cover with dew. (E.) From 
dejv, with prefix dc-. 

d&g£\e, to moistca. wet with dew or 
spray. (Souid.) Frequentative vcib fr'-m 
Swcd. dag^, Iccl. da^, dew. Cf. Iccl 
dJgvz<a, to bedew. 

aa&k, moist. (Scand.) M. E. danjt, 
wet [.esp. with ref. to dtU').''Svre6. dial. 
danJt, mnr^hy ground; Iccl doJtJk, a pool. 
Nasalised form from Swcd. dagg, dew. Iccl. 
lAw- dew. 

Dexter. <L.) L. dtsttr. on the right 
hand side, right. + Gk. flefuJc, richl, Ski. 
dahhivi^ on tlic right or south, Goth. 
/aijiivM, right hand. W. dthtu^ right, 
southern. Gael, and Irish deai (the Mme). 
The .Skt. dakikiiM is orig. 'clewr;' cf. %t 
dakika^ clever, dakths to tuit. 

SK, 9>^a. wikK, ^mk. ifSL.* C 
l..lir«ktraBL<4-l.fl».^; Sic. «r 

9 is mas^ mX. myni. 

rill tJUft 

M.CL A»d or 

c^>s«o»ri «r ftm Md u« Mte «r H 

, fa. ««nm^ an ' dKAMoL-Gk. Im. 

(y i i fc i t iifa g Micmoed); Me Fto-^ne&s. 

l>U9«r; mcJmw. 

DUphaaoiMi; tatPteMoa. 

DUphoratie, cMiaf ibimjiMIim (1. 
-Gk.> Lv 4Upk»Tttkm, niWiic-Gk. 
» a»qyy f K<i (tkc i«ae>.-GlL fcafr'^y.t, 
p»l|iArAtfob.*Glc U w fwBtaf^ to earn off 
(]bv ivnplntiM). - Ck. AU, tlirougb ; 
wMc, 10 bear . tee Boar. 

DUphra^m, a dividinf acntbruic. 
(K . L. - Ok O F. dfaphrofme - 1. 

'•k. MC Urtwccii : 

ienat in. aocioac^ .v 

L tfrtumm. ace of ^bSML a b?^*' 
&Atf. B|L fltrdkvf. to aay. » i f wT 

to anmwrurr , G- ae^p*. *0 ofiOi^ 

Abdicftto. (U) FrocB f^j i U 
orr, to rcwmacc — L. O^ voas; ^iieat, 

aiSdict. tUt U a^&^w. p^ oT 
dUtn, to adjc'-c. ***£?» to 


;/ cMjn^ toj^ttb ■ "^ 

ijf from the iaruc « — " ■ 

contradict. L.i I. rmtrmiutm, 
oi ctmtrtt dicett, to speak aKailul 


tio. to itrvole. (U) L. dttiicaiut, 

inr, 1o <lc^o(«, 
I. iL-l L tfiffatvt, pp. tit dirfare, 
^qnentatire of autre, to iaj. 

^ (X.) Low L. ifidhttarium, 
Mftitm', (tem of ://■-//«. « uy- 

(L.> Z>i||i'A/ as pp. i» 

from ihr ob*. \'erl» Ji^ht, 

ire. M.E \fihttn, to pre- 

to wl in order, wraitge ; 

dietart, to dklate, pre- 

,-L.) Ital. Uifto, that which 
•ahL^L. dittum^ neut. of pp. of 

fc (F. - U) M. E. ^//<v. « O F. 
■BfMl oif porm --L. Hutntum i thing 
Ba: oc«1. of Mdatuj, pp. of dUtare ; 



*^»^ T \ f tdiifum, ncnt. of pp. of 

-■ I i>»///'4f (stftTl inMc'\ ■ 

k««>Dd)img that indicates. — L. 
to point out (b«1ow). 
Lta. fL.) Froni pp. of L. in- 
l^to jwlnt lowarr!*. point oot. 

~^,— L.) For indite 1 which ii 
ttlingV an<l so pronounced, 
a cycle of fifteen years. (L.) 
m c^cle of (axe* or tributes 
*n yean; the lit. srnte is 
nl.' — L. inJittiotum, 
appointmrnl. csp. of a 
■ L. %m^tttrt,. pp. of m-j'kYnr, to ap- 

— L.^ O. F. tHiHrter, to in- 

aLv^ «jkU ii»///;r. — Low L. 

to point out, frenncnt. of in- 

rw^Qlotjt (Doubtless confused 

^BOvely rrUted L. iruiiftus, pp. of 

(I.) Law X^ in/etrfi.fufUt 

(null .-%'i.-,ri, I. ittf/n/it-/Uf/i, 
• of l«/«*r-- 

•'j-nt beiween 

» L) M F,. firvrhm. - 
4^r (//Vf^rr). — L. /nr- 

F r r . m r.n f\f jfc yj u 

i;.c (uobI j-cncri! 
out tic dirided.*- 


predict. (L^ L. /fWi/iV/wi. pp. o( 
fra-Jirert, to say beforehand, foretell. See 
aL>M3 Donediction, Beninon, Aven^o. 
Judge, MalediotloD, M»liaon. Valedio 
lion. Verdict. Vindicato. 

DidB<!tic, inslnjctire. (Gk ) Gk. StSaKJt 
K-lt, instniclivc-»f»k. RiS'irtKrif, to Icacli 
( = &aax ffMir*). + L. docgre, to leach. 

Didapper, Divedapper, a bird : ace 

Die (i\ to 1o« life. (Scand.*) M. E. di/n. 
(/OYw.-Icel. de}'Ja ; Swed. di>, Dan. dS^, to 
die. + Goth, diwan, M H. G. lautven. 

dead. (E.) M. E. deed. A. S. dtdd, 
dead. ^ Da. dcod, Dan. dod, Swed. do^f, 
IceL dau^r, Goth. dauiAs. 7*he Goih. 
dnu-tfu is formed with weak pp. sufTtx -/4j 
from day, pt. t. of strong \crhditoaH, Iodic 
death. (E.) M. E. decth. A. S. ./^rfff. 
•f Du </<V(f. Dan. Swed. dod, Iccl. dauISi, 
Goih. dauthus. G. /iv/. The Goth, daufkut 
il form(<l with suffix -Mi« from «/««, pt. t. 
of the strong verb Jixvan, to die. 

Die (3), a tmidl cube for gaming; sec 
Date (n. 

Diet (i\ regimen. fF.-L.-Gk.) M. E. 
«//>/^. — O. F. (//>/^ Hnily fnre. — I>nw L. 
dieta, diaia, a ration of food.*-Gk. fljoira, 
mA.!c of life, diet. 

Diet {i\ %xx n&scrnbly. (F. -L.-GkO 
O.K. diet, *a dietc, parliament/ Cot.— 
Lx>w L. diatn^ a public assembly: also a 
mtion of food, diet. — Gk. Sjaim, a mode of 
life, diet: sec Diet (l)- ^ The use 
of the word was due to a pcpnlnr et> mglogy 
which connected dtata with diet, a day 
we even find diata used to mean '« day's 
journey;' Ducange. 

Differ : see Fertile. 

Difficulty ; see Fact. 

Diffident; see Pailh. 

DiiUiBe ; see Fuae \\), 

Dig iteeDike 

Digest : see OcruntL 

Dight; Me Diction. 

Digit, a finger, figure. CL.) L. digitns, 
a fmj;ei ; hence a figure, from counting on 
the finders. + Gk. WjurvAuc. ,\. S. id, see 
Daotyl.Too. (VlJAK, to lake (Curtius).) 

Dignity. (K. - L.) M E. di^'utiet.-^ 
O. v. digniteit. — L. dijptitttUm, ace. of 
dt^^tiHat, woTthinc«», — L. di/^Ttttr, unrYhyt 
atlictl to d/(if, it is fitting: see Decent 

condign, well merited (K — L> O. F. 
eendigtu. — L. iondipms, very worthy.— 
L. ccm. {cmm), very: dignm, worthy. 










(F, -L> ILK. 

KicnfalcacH. * I. 

r. ^"nraF. 

>> tbe tne poyilv Ol F. fees ; 
k&pabBticlKS: dCXF.^bw, 

er. Apu tf, to dopL^L. d^mmri, to 
dl^iUy. (F. - I.) a F. ^i^ibr.- 

to tosfcc VUllkj.~l* 
; waclbr; >»^ far 

Low 1. 

^V^ fcr 
^vrrv; to 

diadmlB. ibL (F.-L.) M. E. ^Mb7«. 
-O. F. dtxJnm^ tU^O. F. Aadigmtr, to 
diadaim-O. F. ^ey- (U «&•>, afftrt. 4ip. 
Mr (L- diimtn)^ lo lUalc vo^by, horn 
WiMMis. wottt^. 

Di«i«H: seeOnda. 

DUw. a trendi, tzvKh ad ttofaHkMCit. 
buk. <E.) U. E. iSil; afao JfeA (-»od. 
t, dHay A. S. ii&^. -f. Dk. i^i, IceL 
diOft. Dan. d^. Swrd. ^'ir, G. teuM, pood, 
tank, Gk. ruxw, nil. nmfiAJt, Skt. JM, 
rampart. All from ^ DHIGH. to kMAd. 
fono. iBOski ; ss u Cock, rfywo. 

dAify. (Scuid.) M. £. i^^wTg. A raoa 
for a ^<;v. i. & a mSk-woauB. fanB*«erTanC. 
« Iccl. >/W£w, Swcd. d^ a maid, dairy- 
mud, who was also tbe bread-maker ; the 
orig. Kiue is *kneader of doQ£b.**Ioel. 
dfir. Swed. df^, dough ; see dou^h below. 
oiff. (£.) M. E. diggrm ; weakened form 
of dikitm. A. S. diciam^ to make a dike. ~ 
A S. die, a dike (above). 

ditcb. (E.) M. £. ^A. duk* : weakened 
form of M. £. diJk, a dike; see Dike 

dou^h (£.) M. £. dak, dM. A. a 
i&fA. -I- Du. 4^^. Dan. d>s^, Swed. dtf 
Icrl. d>^, Goth, daijp, a kneaded lump, G. 
Uif^ The Goth, o^r^ is ^m digam, lo 
kJMad; sec Diko above. (And sec Lady.) 

Diloicerato ; sec Lacerat«. 

DUapidAte ; »ce liapldary. 

DllAta : see Tolerate. 

J^Uoznma; see LemnLb 

2>ilett&nte : sec Delicato. 

l>lUgent ; see I^ogend 

DUI, a plaiir E.) M. K. duU. A. y. 
ds/f. + Utt. di//t, Dan. di/d. Swed. rfi/y, 

»flttta : ace Zavo. 

I. (K > M. K. -//«. A. S. dim. dark. 

Icel. iitmmr, M. II. G. timmtr, Him; 

f«d. dimma, a (d|;, haze Cf. O. Saa. 

Dlmitj. a whiK itaC <U-Gk.> 
L. drmtJm, silks wovea wttb two 
-Ck- 9iwttm. made widi a dooUa 
-Gk. S.-. doable: #vt«. a tkae^ 

Dimpl«; see Doap. 

Din, damov. (£.) ». S. iSni^t 
A. Sl d^ ^m: ^1— a, lo w - nw a rf ^ 
leeL War, SmdL d^, Daa ^ 
Ski. dkmm, loariBg, a tomol, «Aawt<,a 
oiSb rflwi i , to reaomd. 

DfnB.(F.^ M. E. dimm'^O.Y.&Mf, 
t. dfmr, lo dase. - Low L. ^^ronaanr. dwfl 
foe ^ MHuaarv. la knafc one's iuk* 
L ^b- : and ^'aam^ hatiag. (ffniaf^ 

dinner. (F.) M. E. duur; from a F 
ditMrr, to dine ; the iaAnitiTe mood beinc 
watd as asb. 

Din£. to throw Tiolently. beat (C) 
H E. diMgm, pt. t. il!o«^. pp. ^i»v«»; * 
t2«e £. stroQi; verb ; thongb not found k 
A & <f loeL d^mgfa, Dao. dm^, SmtL 
dit^ga, to bang ; all weak verbs. 

danglo, lo swing about ;,Sau>d.) Oia. 
dangU» Swed. dial dav^/a, to swint; aboirt ; 
cf. ijwed. and Icel. dingfa, Daa. tft^A, ta 
swing about : freoncatadrc forms fram dug 
(pL t d!(»v), lo throw about. 

dingy, dirty. (£.) Ori^. soiled wiik 
dang. A. S. diugtimg, A dongintj ; from 
dmmg, dnng ; so slso bwed. dsm^ig, dunp. 
from dyng» dong; sec below. 

dung. (E.) A. S. dungi o»%. t)Mt 
which is thrown away; from the pp. a 
Dins. + Swed. <fyn^» dong \ Dan. tfynpi 
a heap, mass; G. dtmg. 
Dint, a blow, force. <E.) M K. £at^ 
dunt; abo da$t, A. S. dynt. a blvtr. -f 
IceL '^r«'/^ a dial, dynfa, lo ditt . S««t 
difti, t/jiw/, a stroke ; duttta. to strike. 

dent, mark of » Mow, vE 
Uow ;' M, E dent, vftiirtui of .j. 

aiii . . _ ■"<:, iih-re-^.t 

Jboiirev, 1 keep bou>c, covcni. — Gk. 
(for hta\ ilirougt^out; ul«7«, 1 dweU, 
nTjTot, a huose; sec Wick, a town. 

Dioptrics : sec Optio. 

Dionuno, a scene seen thnnigli a 


I;i- ffor Sf^}. through ; l^pa^ai, 

AfMr, I MC 


Gk.) From Glc Ik^tf/pa, 
the leather)' Dniure of the 
fonncd en the disease. » 
'4 to prepare Iratber. 
n^, a union of two vowel- 
ooe vrllable (F » Gk.) For- 
ti^f (itcn JonsoQ). » O. F. 

w Gk. At^k^oyyoi. with two 

wks 9i- (for 2I1), double; ^0^7701, 
^'77«>irti. I cry ODt. 
(U - Gk.) L. diftottM, a 
oonfemog a privilege. — Gk. 
diing folded double; also, a 
^prob. orig. folded double). 
(8b), double: -vAilof. folded. 
■Mf-ar, 6otB AtvAar^r-f stem of 

,two-i*tnged insects. (Gk.) From 
>. double ; «T<p^, a wing, from 

L. a double-folding tablet. (L.«> 
' 1* pi. */i/.^cAa. —Gk. Btimnctt, 
tAbteU; tieut. pi. of flirrvyof, 
two. *- Gk. &i- (&r), double: 
9 foM. 

L.) I., dirw, featful. -^ Gk. 
idfol ; allied to Ai'or, fear. 
see Regent. 
CC.) Irish duirt, a 

M. E. drit (with shifted 

dfert, excrement of birds; 

It + O. Dn. dritt, 

(L.) L. dh', apart ; cf. Gk. 

pe Di- Heocc O. F. dei-, 

Etmcs becomes dix* in £,, and 

fif-, ai in di-feat. The prefix 

ily rxprcsccs the leversal of an 

like the E. verbal prefix Mn-- 

be^nnin^ with ihit prefix. 

forms. For euimple. for 

and so un. 

ite. (L.-Ck.) 

. .. — Cik. iitrmn, a 

iciir. to cast, til row. 

iri 0oor in a HaU. iF.^L.* 

o^ the raikcd iilaiform on 

table in a hall stands. 

table i!Mif\ but was 

over a scat of i^tate, 




O, P. dtis^ dels, B high table. *L. diicus, 
a qaoit, pUtter; m late L., a table. «Gk. 
9/<rMot (abovel. 

desk, a sloping table. (L — f;V.) M E. 
daJ^e, dtsk, a variant of dish or disc^lu. 
ducuf, a disc (above). 

diah, a platter. (L.«>Gk.1 M. E. disrA. 
A. S, diic^ a dish. — L. ditcus^ a quoit, 
putter (abovel. 

Disoem ; see Concern. 

DlBciple. (F.-I,.) OF. disnpJe.^t, 
disripuium, ace. of ducipuiaij, a learner. 

— L. discert, to learn; alUetl to dccere, to 
teach ; sec DooUe. Dor. dt'jdfiiiru, O. F. 
dunpiin4, L. distiplina, teaniiag. 

Disclose: see CIaubo. 

I>iBOomfit. tF. - L.) M, E. discomfit 
(Brace). — O.F. disconfiz, discomfited, ^p. 
oi dacffftfirt, * to discomfit, vanquish/ C-ot 

— O. F. des- (L- dis-) ; and cenpre, to pre- 
serve, make ready, from L. c<mfiart» to 
preserve ; see Faot. 

Diacoosolate; see Bolaoa. 

Discord; see Cordial. 

Discount ; sec PutatiTS. 

Diacourae: see Current 

Discover ; sec Cover. 

Discroot ; see Concern. 

Discrepant ; see Crevice. 

Discriminate : sec Conoem, 

Discursive ; &ee Current. 

Discuss : see Qua»h. 

Disdain ; e/;c Disnlty, 

Disease ; see Cone. 

Disembark: see Buk (1). 

I>isembog:ue ; see Bebouoh. 

Disfrrooe ; see Qraoe. 

Diaguise ; sec Wise (a). 

DisgtiBt; sceOu8t(a). 

Dish ; see Dlao. 

IMshevel ; see CapiUarr. 

Disinterested ; sc* Intoreat (i). 

Disk ; see Diso. 

Dislocate ; see Looua. 

DismaL (F.-U?) In ok) books, the 
nsuftl phr. Ls 'dumai days.' which proU 
refers 10 tithing-time.^O. F. ditma/, adj. 
» L. decimaiis, relating to tithes « L. 
decima (O. F. dismt), a tithe. — L. dccfm, 
ten. C Or else ' dismal days ' - O. F. d:. 
ffM/.—L. dits mail, evil days. 

Diamantlo ; 9ct Mantle. 

Dismay; see May (i). 

DiBTQiss ; sec Miafile. 

Diapara^e. Disparity ; see Far. 

Dispatch : see Pedal. 

Dispel ; see Pnlaata. 



Dispense ; see Pendant. 

Diaperae ; Kt Spkna, 

Display: sec Ply. 

^sport ; see Port (i), 

"" spose ; see Foae. 

DiBposition: see Position. 

Dispute : see Put&iivQ. 

Disquisition ; tee Query- 

Disruption ; see Rupture. 

Dissect ; %ce Secant. 

Dissemble; see Similar. 

Disseminate ; xt SominaL 

Dissent; see Sense. 
ssertaUon : see Series, 
ssident; kce Sedentary. 

Dissipate. (L.) From pp. of L. distip- 
art, to disperse. — L. rfx/-, apart ; and 
O. L. ntpare, to throw; we find al&o in- 
ripartt to throw into. 

Dissociate ; «ee Bequenc«. 

Dissolute, Dissolve ; see Scire. 

Dissonant; see Sound (,3). 
see Suasion. 

Distaff". (E.I A di>tftff is a staf 
bedizfntd with flux, fttdy to be spun off. 
' I dysyn .1 dystafft, I put the fiaxe upon it 
to spvnne; Palsgrave. M. E. distaf. 
dysestaf. A.S. distaf. The A.S. distaf 
stands for disi-sfttf. where sfaf= E. staff, 
and dist * ■> Low G. diesse, the bunch of 
flax OD a distafT. See Diiea. 

Dlstain ; see Tinge. 

Distant; «ee State. 

Distemper ; sec Tempar. 

Distend ; see Tend. 

Distich, a couplet. (L. - Glc.> L. 
'iistickHS, duiukon.^GV, liorixov. a coup- 
let (in verse) ; ncut. Q^ttunxot, having two 
rows. — Git. &- (fiif), double ; cri\o^, a row, 
allied to <rTffx«'»'. to ko. (VSTiGH.) 

Distil: see Still {,2). 

Distinguish, to mark off. <F. — L.) 
O. V. disttn^Hir, to diiitingiiish ; the snffix 
-ish has been idded by analogy, and caaoot 
be accounted for in the usual way.^L. 
diitirtf*uere, to mark with a prick, dis- 
tinguish (pp. dtJtifu/itj).^L. di' I for (/f'j-l, 
apart; itinj^'uert" (not in u&e\ lo prick, 
allied to Gk. (rrl^uv, to prick, and E. 
s/ini^. (VSTIG.) Sec Inntigatf*. 

distinct. (K.-L.1 O. F. distintf.^'L. 
dif/inrtus, distinguished ; pp. of dis/ittgvtre. 
extinguish. (L.) Coined, with suffix 
-»j^, from L. exttiti^uerr, better gJcsftM^tfre 
{^^.extifiitus,^xs/ttu/uj). loquench, * L.«ir, 
out; stinpttrt*, (o firick, aUo 10 extiii- 
guUb. "D^r. extimt (from pp txtimtuiy. 


Instinct. (F.-L.: ffrL.) Y.imtimt 
ah. — L. instittctum, ace. of instinttut^ as 
impulse. » T.. ittrtitutui, pp, of ttt ffmgmtn, 
to guad on. 

prestiffo. (F.-L.) F. prtsHgt an 
illusion, fascination, influence due to fame. 
^\.. pmstigium, a rleccption, illusion, jug 
glerr. — L. /r^fj^ff-, base ol prsstinfuit'^ 
to ohsctire. aUo to deceive. 

Distort ; see Tortxire. 

Dist ract ; see Trace 1 1 >. 

Distrain, Distress; see Strine^nl. 

Distribute; sec Tribe. 

Distriot ; see Btrincent. 

Disturb ; sw Turbid. 

Ditch : see Dike. 

Dithyramb, a kind of bvmn. (L. •• Ok) 
\^. dithyrambus. — Q)k. 6*$iffyafiBot, a bymA 
in honour of Bacchus. 

Dittany, a plant. (F.-L.-Gkl M t 
dyfant. '^O.F. dictame, — L.. dictawnmm^ 
ace. of di(tamnus.^K]k)ii. Slrrufirof, dittany; 
named from Mount Dutt in Crete, what 
it ffrcw. 

Ditto, Ditty : see Diotioo. 

Ditiretic ; see Urine. 

Dium&l ; see Diary. 

Divan, a council-chamber, sofis. (Pen.) 
Pcrs. diviin, a tribunal; Arab. dit^'Uiin,% 
royal court, tribunal, cconcil of slate. 

Divaricate ; see Varicose. 

Divo. (E.) M. E. diufn, dnum («-v). 
A. S. dyfan, to drive, weak verb ; allied 
to ddfan, strong Terb (pL t. dMf. ppk, 
dofen), to plnnge into ^-Icel. d^a, 10 divt^ 
dip. Allied to Deep. 

dabohlok. (£.) For dap-tAuJk; wc 

didapper, a bird. C^.) Short for dtn-' 
dapptr. Cf. A. S. ddfcd^ppa^ % pf licaTt. 
Here dapper ( = A S. d.ippd) mean« • 
dipper or diver ; and dive-dapptr » divr* 
diver, a redoplicatcd word, 

dove, a bird. (E.) A. S. dtifa, Ut. a 
diver. -• A- S. ddt'an, to plunge islo^ 
O. Sax. ditva, Gotk. duio, G. tauA^, a rinvi, 
lit. diver. So also L. ta/umfta. a 'lo*e. f» 
the same as Gk. irokvftBis^ a divo, <€*• 
binl. First applied to sea-gutls, Sec 

dovetail, to fasten b --': • — *H» 
(E.) From ii»pf and /fljV; t^ 

of the lilted ends of the b< ' i . ^ , 

Diverge ; see Vergv U). 

Diverse, Divert ; see Veraew 

Divest ; see Vest. 

Divide. (L.> U dimiJtrt, lo ifiitf% 
wparate (pp. dMUinu).^ls.di- {f^»\ Sf«t| 


• Xrmt vrtb. prob. m^finin^ 
(V^WID.) Bar. divU itn 

A pittt. (F. - U) M. F. 
, F. dfviu. a device. «l?o ii 
fov L. Jiuisa, B diminn ; also 
doiee ; ong. feixL of pp. of 

p f'Un. (F. — L.1 M. E JeuitfH. 
— O. F. tffvisr. *b. (>bt>vc) 
) L. xtt^i under; ami 
Dar. tuinixvittcn 

iF. - U) O. F. dizHn. - L. 
le, god-tike : alU«l to dmus, 
t. god: see D«ltr* 
see Vers*. 
[l see VulG«r. 
deck out (E.) To tfisen was 
diatsfl with flax, hence lo 
lUiff. Der. ire-divn, 

perfona. (E.) M. E. rfiw. 

It. t. t/yiftt I'p. jif(/<^« ; the 

* or • place/ + ''"■ </'V«. 

C tifun; Gk. ri-^ff/u, I 

place. (VDllA.) 
trouble. (K.) lonnerlya/ 
In Northern E.. a/ was 
[pTPi* !hc gctiiml, Thas 
to do, a great trouble. 
,) M. K dMl. A. S. </<^, 
^^ I^u I^* daoif, 
(A/.\ Uoih. gaJnis, O. 
Der msi-dted, 
M, E. fitmen. A. S 
rive a doom. «• A. S. 
doom (, below). 
'dotlics. (E) Short for 

(E.) Short for do en, 

jodffomt, decision. (E.^ 

K. S a>'o>, Hi. a thing act or 

to net. do ; see Do 

-.i dcm, led. diimr, 

' H »• /*(*w. Gk, Oifut, law 

I wt;., Der ./*■/'« 'above). 

(E) AS. jV«// dir,c, 

(£,) Short for de 

Short Cor 1^ ft/, i.e. lift up 

fiu|» truly. (E.) Pot for in 
[hst t ne deed i abort). 



Do <3), to be wf>r1h. be fit, av.iil. (K.) 
In the phr. Mhiil will de.' Hrov. E. d&n\ 
to avail; M. E. dtf}^". A. S. dugan. to 
avail, he worth. + Du. deugi*n, Dan. due^ 
Swtd. duga, Iccl. dtiga, Goth du^n, G. 
/anuTN to avail, be worth. (^ DllUGH.) 
doughty. (E.) M.Z.diiJtfi. valiant. 
AS dj'h/iff, valiant. — A. ii. duj^n, to l.e 
worth, be strong (above). + dypftg, 
Svted. dti^ff, Icel. dyg^usr, G tMchh'^\ 
simiKirly form' d from the verbs above. 
Ant^l see Dog<cbeap. 
Docile. (F.-L.) r.dociU.^'L dociiis. 
teachable.— L. </<v7fT, to teach. Cf. Zend 
t/J, toknow; Gk.ficdo^, l.iugbt. (^ DAK ) 
Allied to Disoipla and Dldaotlo. 

dootor. (U) U (/ar/tf/-, a teacher,— L, 
doifre. to leach. 

doctrine. (F.-L.) F. dodritu. ^J^ 

d^crHtta. lore, learning. — L. docen. in tench. 

document. (K. — L) K. document, 

— L. documcntum^ a prooC — L doccre^ to 

teach, shew. 

Dock(.i),tocnrtatl. (C. 7) Perhaps from 
\V. /«i'p, to cl ip, dock ; cf. tocyn, a short piece. 
docket, a label, ticket. tC?) l'ro]vrly 
a brief abstract From the verb de<k^ to 
curtail (make a brief al>stiact>. 
Dock (2), a plant. (C. ?i K.%docre\ 
bnt ptob. borrowed from Celtic. — Gael. 
do^ha, a burdock ; Irish mecuandogha, a 
great burdock, whirre mcoian meant a tap 
rooted plant, a* a carrot. Dor. bur-deck. 
Dock (3), a basin for ships. (Du —Low 
I L.-(rk ?) O. Dd. dokkt, a harbour (so 
i also Dan. dokke^ Swed. docka^ G. do<ke\,^ 
Low L. doga, a ditcli, canal ; also a cuij. — 
;Gk. fiux^. a receptacle —Gk. 8«xafuu, 1 re- 
i ceive. % Mifilor)' obscure. 
{ Docket ; sec Dock ( 1 1. 
^ Doctor, Doctrine. Document : 
I Docile. 
Dodecafpon. Dodecahedron ; sceDe 
Dod^, to go hither and thither, to 
quibble. (E) Orig. to walk unsteadily, 
hence to go from side to side as if to es- 
cape; allied to prov. Ii. dade. to walk nn- 
stcndily, Scotch diiddie dotidle, to waddle, 
dcd, to jog, (/[fijv, to jog alo:ig, dodgri, to 
hnljhlc. North E, ihui, to shake, do,hitr, to 
s.\i.\Vt. totter, da*igt, dc*i£t, \o walk dam- 
ailv. Cf. A.S, djfdrioM, to lead hither and 
Dodo an extinct bird (Portl Port, i/ot/'/p, 
.lilly. fooli^h ; the bird ljcit)(; of n cltimsy 
make. Said to be borrowed from E Dolt. 




Doe. (a) M.E. i/». AS.JV.-f Dan. 
ifaa : Swcd, Jo/-, in dff/k/arf, a buck. 

Doff. (E.) S«Do(0. 

Dog. (E.) M. E- ./^5jr A. S. </«yti. 
4- Do. Jaf. Swell, ^^c^f, a maslUT; Dan. 
thggt, a buU-dog. Dor. ^j?^, verb, to track, 
follow a5 a dog ; dogged, sullen. 

Dog-oheap, vixy thcap. i^Scand.) Swcd. 
dial, dug, vcr)' ; as in der iat, extremely telle. 

-Swed. duga, to be fit (-A. S. du^an); 
*ee Do (J). So also I-ow G. dager, »eiy 
mach, from da^vn, to araiL ^ . 

Doge ; see Duke. 

Doggerel, wretched poetry. (Unknown.) 
M.E '/i%Tw/, Cb. C. T. 13853. Origin 

Dogma, a defimte tenet (Gk.) Ok. 
S6yiia, an opinion ostein JioyfiaT-). * Gk. 
Jiotiv, I am of opinion. Allied to Deoo- 
nizn. Dep. dopnat ic^ dogtnat-iu. 

dozology. (L.-Gk. 1 h. doxehgia.» 
Gk. ?t*^oXo7m, an ascription of praise.— 
Gk. do^o-t for So^a, glor>-, orig. a noLion ; 
X^yNV, to ^peak. 

I>oUy, a small napliin. (Pemonal name.) 
Foiraerly we read of ' doily stuff,' and 
' doiUy petticoats.' Said to \>c named after 
'the famous Doily,' Spectator, no. 383, 
"an. 34, i;ia. Mentioned in Dryd<m's 
md Keeper C1679). 

Dolt, a imall coin. (Du.) Du. Jm/, 
a doit. 

Dole; see Deal (i). 

Doleful, sad. (Hy) rid ; F.-L. ajf^f E.1 
The suffix Jul is E. M. E. doil, dutl, doi 
(Scotch dool\t sorrow, grief. «-0. F dotl^ 
del (F. dtHii\^x\ti\ verbal sb. of O.K. 
doloir, to grieve — U dolium, in cor-dolium^ 
(frief of heart. — L. dolere, to grieve. 

condole. (L.) L. con-doltrt^ to gric^-c 

dolour. (F. - L.) ME dolvur. - 
O. F. Joleur. — L. dol^rem, ace. of dohr, 
grief. — L dalin, to grieve. 

Indolence tl-) From L, irulolefilia, 
freedom from piln; hence, ease, idleness. 
— L, m, not; Jolenl-, sletn of pres. pi. of 
dolere. to pricvt 

DoU (Du. or Gk,) (1) Pcrhaoi from 
O. Du. dol. a whippinff top: Dn dolUn. to 
sport, be frolicsome, I fence perhaps 'a plav- 
Ihing.' See dally, onder Dwell, (a) Other- 
wile, from Dell, for Dorothy \ % familiar 
name, of Gk. origin. % History obscure. 

Dollar : see Dal**. 

Dolour , Ke Dolafol. 

Dolphin, a f»h. (F..L.*Gk.) M.E. 


tul the 



— X^dtlphinum, ace oidtlphinm, 
*Gk. h*\iht¥', stem oi^K^^t, a dotpk 

dauphin. F.-L-Gk.) V dami 
a dolphin < as aboveV A title of the c] 

son ol the kiuj^ of ! ho took it I 

the province ol latul the 

vincc had formcil; tl loj 

Dolt ; see DuIL 
Domain. (F. - L.) O, F. da% 
dominium, a lordiihip. • L. domip 
allied to L. domatt, to tame, sul 

dam {7\ a mother, applied lo aniii 
(F. — L.) The same word as dami ^liel 

dame. (.F.-L.) M.K dam^ ^^i 
dam/, a lady. — L. deminti ; fern. 
Mus (above). 

damsel (F. « L.) M. E, 
O. F. damaisiU, a girl, fern, of 
youn}^; man, squire, page. — Low 
cellus, a page, short foi dominicelU 
dimin. of dominus, a lord, {yt 
often of high birth.) 

danger. (F. - L.) M. E. 
power, esp. power lo h.irm — O. 
I F . dan^r) , also doft^if 1 X 1 II cent. ^. • 
Kite power, irresponsible authoiity. 1 
answere lo a Low L. type dommai 
dominiarium *, not fotmd, but 
formed from Low L. dominiut 
authority. — Low L. domnus, L. 
a lord (as aliove). 

demesne. (K.-L.) Formcrl] 
and merely another spelling 

dominate. (L.^ From pp. 
nari, to be lord over.— L. domu 

domineer (Du.-F -L.) 
minteren, to ft'ost Imrurioti^ly ; 
borrowed from O. F. domintr^ 
rule. — 1.. damitiari, to be lord o^ 

dominical iF.-L.) O. F. 

— Low L. domifiiralis, belong 
LorTs day, or to the Lord.**! 
a lord. 

dominion. (Low Lw] Low 
monrm^ ncc. oldominio. lordship ; 
Low L. dominium, lordship ^-L.! 

domino. (.Siaii. — L.) Span.' 
ma%r|iierai1e-itre&s ; urig. a tt%%s\ 

— Span, domitu. a master, u 
dfiminm. Der. domtnon^ 1. pU. 

don (2\ a Spanish Itlle. ($ 
Span, don, sir. — L. dominw 


Ff.) _ I \ lul. JffHHa, — L. 

- L.) Span, tfufffa, 

, deo^)<m. (F. - T..^ M. E. 

, F. dtmtm, the chief towcx of 
V L. domnioHtm, ncc. of 



doneeoa- tower, chief lower. 
in t&mimt*, properly dominion, 
; see demiiiJon (above). 

_rowt-Gk.) o.F.a'tfw. 

' 'use; Prov. xxl 9 

A home ; c(. 6uft«f, 

. ...i..! See Timber. 

F — L.) F. dcmestiifue.^ 

belonging to a hoii5<hold. •• 

(F.-U) O.V.dominU,% 
s»min/amm. a babitatioD.— 
' dtmuj, a house ; and -cUium, 
hide (see Cell). 

leer ; mtc Domain. 
Ion ; see Domain. 
(>); aee Domain, 
put 00 dothea ; hee Do ( \ ). 
.; ice Data (1). 

dungeon, a. v. Domain. 
[iee I>an tO* 
>m«day; see Do (1). 

,^E.) M. E dort. A. S 

Du. rfpr, Swtd. (fifrr, 

damr^ G. /^iVr, M^r. L. 

M^. Skt (/c'./nj, j'c'Jr. 

ijj. (F. — L. ) V . xht mattt. 

•Iccp. — L. Jar^Hir*^ 

\K. M^ E.) A 
ItiiefJQg-room ; formeti iJrom 

ihJ) Lk dffrmi/orium, a 
ibcT ; neoT, of dorroiforiHi. 
sleeping, *L.i/47nwM't}/', a 
to ileep. 

S^ T. The prefix 

1 ill dorrcr^ a 
.-•Irtl. j'.ii/', tcnumbefl, 
alumber, diita^ to ••U-cp. 
' calm ; Mtid »cc Duae. 
.— L) F. dorsal, belonging 
•Xx>w L> dMrsalU,^ L. dptium, 

fF— I-"! Fo'TOcrly tndotsi 

).r htkZV. of. — 

.Ti L. dorsum. 

of mef^idne given at oocc.^Gk. &Si7k, a 
giving. * Ck. SiAw/u ^base flo-J, I give. 

anecdote. (F. - Gk.) F. a»/i-dW^.«* 
Gk. J»'JMr5orur. unpublished ; hcaoe an un- 
pablished story, story in private life. — Gk. 
^-, not i 4x, out : and tinut^ given, from 
^l«Hti, 1 give. 

antidote. (F.->1..-Gk.) F. antidote. 

— L. antidotut, a remedy. — Gk. dm'^Tur, a 
remedy ; a thing givco as a remedy —Gk. 
<lvr/, against; Sorui, gi^cn, from Si&u/it, I 

Bot. ^Du.) Dn. dot, a little buudle of 
»I'oilt wool. Ac good for nothing. Cf. 
Swe<J. diaL dottt a tittle heap, small lump; 
from tbe str. vb. dttta, to drop. 

I>Ote. (E.) M. E. dotuH, dotnt, to be 
foolish (LAyamon).<^0. Du.t/n/cff, to dote, 
mor>c; Du. dutren. (o dose; Iccl. doita^ to 
noa with ilecp, M. H. G. titien, to mope. 

dota^re. (E. ; with F. lu^.) M. E. 
dotagt; from M. E. dot-en \ with F. ioffa 
•age (L. -atirum). 

dotard. {K. with F.sujix.) From ./tf//, 
with F. mfHx •ard {p. H. G. ^^i/V). 

Double, Doublet ; M:e Dual. 

Doubloon, Doubt; see Dual. 

Douceur ; see Dnlcat. 

Douche , sec Duke. 

Dough ; tec Dike. 

Doughty; tee Do (3). 

DOUBO, to immcrge. (Scand.) Allied to 
Swcd. ditma, to pluuipdown, fkll clumsily, 
Dan. dundse, to thump —S wed., 
adin. — Swed. dial. ^MMd, to mnkeadtn; sec 
Din. llencc to douse is prob. to (all plump 
in. na in liutler, Hudibras, pt. il. c. I. 502* 

Dout ; sec Do ^1 ). 

Dove, Dovetail ; see DIts. 

Dowaj^r, Dower ; »ec Date (i). 

Down II \ soft plumage. ^Scand.) M.E. 
do^am, — Icel. dUnn^ Swcd. dun^ Dan. 
duHtk, down +Du. dofis^ down. Allied to 
Diiat, t^DHU.) 

Down (a\ a hill. (C.) A. S. ddn^ a hill. 

— Irish d^n^ a fortilied hill, fort; CaeL 
dun, W. din, a hilUfort.-f A. S. tdn \ see 

down (3), prep, and adv. (£. umi/C.) 
A coriiiption of rt</«wi — A.S. ofdunt - off 
tlie hill, downwards. — A. S. oj^ oil; dune^ 
dat. of i/f/ff, a hill ; see Down (a). 

dune, a low um.l-hill. (C.^ M.E. 
dnnt \ the same word as down (above), 
Dow^o (O* to strike in ihe face. (Scand.) 
ME. dus€h*n^ to strike.— Norweg. Hnv^ 




ik, out down from. Cf. O. Dn. 
rn, to strike, E. Fries, dossm, to strike, 
pare tiash, 

Powrse (3) ; see Souse. 

J>0W8e (3), to cxtiin;m»h. (E.) A.S. 
ifttHeiatn, to cxtingnish. 

Doxology ; Hce DoRtna. 

Doxy; see Duck 1,3). 

Dose. (.ScnriH.'i Iccl. t/$Isa. to doze ; 
Swcc!. dial t^Mja, Duo. t^ose, to dor.e. mope. 
Allict] lo A.b. i^wtrj, stupefied; and prob. 
lo E. if <>r- mouse. 

dissy. CE) M.E. dysy. A. S, dysi^, 
diny ; allied to A. S. d^nw/. stupefied. -fO. 
Dq. tiuy^igh, dizzy ; allied to ifu'oaj, fool- 
ifih : Dan. tfost'j^, drowsy, dase^ to doze 

Doaen ; see Dual. 

Drab (1), « slut. (C.) Irish dmfw^, 
Gael, drahag^t a slut : Gael, dradachj Oirry. 
— Irish drab^ a spot, slain. 

drivel. iC; with E. rt(^.rO M E. 
d'iueUn; earlier \orm drau//f»,ti freauent. 
form from Irish dra6, a spot, itain. (rrob. 
confused with dn'i'fi/f.) 

Drab (3) ; see Drapo. 

Drachm; sec Dram. 

Draff, dregs. (E.) M. E.rfftt/(L*yamonV 
•^ Do. (/m/i hogswnsh ; led. dnt/, Swcd. 
ara/t Dan. drav, dnrgi. Cf. Gael, and 
Irish dra^k, drofT; allied to Drab ;i). 

Draft, Drag ; <:cc Draw. 

Drayman, an interpreter. (Span. -• 
Gk. — Arab.) Span, dragoman. •• Kote Gk. 
Zpa'^vtiavo^, an interpreter, «• Arab, tar- 
tmm^fU an interpreter, translator ; ace 

Drngon- (F.-L.-Gk.) F. dragoM.-~ 
L. ace. draconem, from nom. droco.^GV. 
SpoKtuf, a dragon, lit. 'seeing;' from his 
■up[>ofted &harp sight. *Gk. lipox-, base ol 
t*t/iev/itu, I see, 

dragoon. (F.»L. — Gk.) F. dragon, 
a dtagooii ; so called because the draroons 
orig. had a dragon on their standard [see 
Kob. ofGlouc. p. 303: Ac.). 

tarragon, a plant. (Span. — Pers. « Gk.) 
Span. taragoHtta (whence F. /argffn),wm 
Pen. tarkAUn^ dragi>n-wort.<-Gk. fipiuran', 
a dngon. 

Drain. (E.) K.^-drthHigran^drrniaH, 
tn drain nway, itmiu off. Matt xxiii. 24. 

Drake, male of the duck. (E.) A con- 
traction of tmd-txike or end-rakt, a masc. 
form of A. S. ened, a duck. Endfake be- 
came dnik* by luu of M-. + Iccl. iMid, a 
duck I O. loci. andriJii^ a drake: Swnl, 
dock, anddraJttt drake; Dan. oW, 

dock, ttndrik, drake: G. imtf^ dude ; 
rieMt drake, p. I he A. S. emd Is co 
with L. {tttai (stem anat-X a duck : the 
is allied to Goth, uiks, ruling, mighti 
to rit in biiheP'rk. 

Dram, Drachm. (F.-^.-Gk.^ 
drame, drtichme^ ' a dram, eighth p< 
an onnc;e;'Cot. — L.t/rwr/ww. — Gk.Jip 
a handful, a drachm.i, o-scd both as V{ 
and coin : cf. ipay^a, as mach at on 
grasp. — Gk. Upaaaofim, I grasp. 

Drama. (L. * Gk.) L. drama. • 
Jipatia (stem hpdfmr-), an act, a dial 
Gk. ^p6of. I perform. (V DAR.) 
dramatit (from S^/iar-): &c. 

drastic, efTective. (Gk.) Gk.Spatf 
effective. "-Gk. B^idw, 1 perform. 

I>rape, to cover with cloth. (F.«1 
K. draper, to make cloth —F. ^n^. ( 
I-ow L. draffus Prob. from Ice!. * 
to beat (from the fulling process^ 
Drub. Der. drap-er, drapery. 

drab (a), dull brown. (F -Teut.) 
colour of undyed cloth. — F. drup (abi 

Drastic; «ee Drama. 

Draw. (E. "I M.E.rf«mwi. AS. J 
(by change from g to xd\. + Du. d* 
Iccl. SwetT. draga, Dan. ^m^. Goth, df 
G. tragen. to pull along. cati7. AUi 
Skt. d/triii^h, to lengthen, to exert 01 

drag. (E.) M. E, draggen ; pr( 
the weak or causal form from A S. dr 
So also Swcd. dragg, a drag, gni; 
whence dragga. to drag. 
draggle. (E.> Frequent 
draught, draft. i.E.) 
nctic spelling. M. E •/' « <':i ■" , ■ 
From A..S. drag-an ; with suSixd 
Du. dragt, a load, from d/agtn, to ( (/raifr: loel. drd/fr, a dni^ 

drawl, (E.) FT«i«eDtali« of 4 
{larallcl to draggie. 

dray. (E.\ A.S. dnrgr, that «h| 
drawn ; as in dnege-nef, a draw-ai 
Swefi. drftg, a slcflgc, dmy. 

dredge (I t, adrflg-nct. tF. — Du.^ 
drege, oyster-nci,— Du. dregMft,A^h^ 
from dragrn. lo diaw (above). 

dregs, let«. vScand.) PI. of 9 
dreg, mire; we also find ** ^■ 
dregs — Iccl. drfgg, pi. ./ 
Swcd. dragg. — Iccl */nuo. t . 
Dread, vb. lE.) A- 8. 
dfSdan. to drcfld. Tear. 
Dream (i), a visioiL (£.) 


und. harmony; al&o 
iciicc 'a (ircain of 
b^-,. . . ., |oy, dicam ; Du. 
irttumr, ywcd. <//v«, G. 
led to Droio, Drone. 
[>, to dream. iE.> A. S. rfr^- 
Ij lormed from d*v4m. sb., by 
lo/(u qsoaIj. + G. trdumeH. 

>rear. (E.> />m]/- is shoit 

1L.drtry. A. S. t^rA^ri^', sad ; 

lonDCi) with suffix -ig frotii 
|Ot«.*A S. JrtJian, to drip. 
[S^fr, (jory, from afrtyri, }>ore ; 
Hd^ on£. i;ory» from O. H. G. 

na digbtly. (E.) Formerly 

If, to keep on dripping. Krc- 

' ASL^/cnron, todrip^above). 

f, to C&ll in drofis. 

^E,) M. E- ifrvj, properly 

t/rei ; also t^ram. Hi. 

rn.'— A. S. Jre^san, lo 

fM.+Hu. drotstm. dit'gs, 

twae. to be slngcish. lE.) 
A. S. drxinatt. to be 
S. dre^sam^ to mourn ; al^o 

Der. dnni't-y. 
dfa+i-uct : &ec Draw. 

-^Vlc Hour on meat. 

To drtd^ is to 

_, drtti^ or mixed 

dr^X^f* ni ucd com ; also a 

•plum — Prov, dnxrea.^ 

plum.'Gk. Tpayr)}ia, 

il ^Ijk.ypurntf {I aor- 

alLied to rpuw, I rub. 


21 1. 


pierce, to train foldlen ; tee 

yaw cum in rowc. (£. ) 

'.■ 1.. (rl. vi/- ut.i. h Stands 

rm of 

n\ with 

rc« uUc> • row, iljill, from W. 

for fht/rof, a grvovc, 

f, a groove.) 

cJotli uu:d for iroiuen. 

from G. driu'ich, lick- 

trt/u; Btrm of /^ij';>, 

wl.» /rj-. from /**i, 



I Drink. fE.) A. S. drincoH, ptt. dru/u, 
pp. druMten. -^ Vu. Jfiul^n, Icel. d*ehl:a, 
iJwed. druka, Dan. dnkki^ Goth. dri^kitH 
{ = drimJ^aft), G. tn'nkcn. 

drench, verb. ^E.) M. E. dreH^htn. 
A. S. drtHCQH, causal of drittcan , hmce 
' to make drink.'+Du. dnnken, Ictl. ^rr-t. 
«^'<i. Swcd. dfdnkii, G. trhnken 

drown. (E.l M E. dravnta, druncm^n^ 
drunsrt$ien. AS. dmnctiiau, lo he drowned, 
to sink. — A. S. dntnceii, pp. of drituan. ^ 
Swcd. dntnhtd, from dnuken, drunken ; 
Dan. drttkne, from drukkcn. (Ininkeo. 

drunkard. (.E. ; ic/VA F. supix.\ From 
A. S. drunc-, base of pp. of drtncan ; with 
F. suffix -d*,/ (G. hart). 

drunken, drunk. (E.) A. S. drumtn, 
pp^ oi drimatti lo drink. 

X)rip ; free Drop. 

Drive. (E.) ME //n*«*«. K.S.dnJan 
(pi, t. dr.if, pp. dri/ett'\. + Du. drijxmt; 
led. drifa, %weA,drijva, Pan. drrvi, Goth. 
dnikiM. G. Irtiben. (Base DRIB.> 

drift. (,E.l M V.di-ift. Formed from 
<//7/-, base of pp. oidiifaH ; with suflix /.+ 
Du. drift. Icel. drift, Swcd. //W//, G. iri/t. 
J>ev. adrift - on th. drift ; sec A- (a). 

drove. lE) ME drvf. A.S. dni/, 
a drove, from diiif, pi. t. of drifam. 

Drivel; <>cc Drab (i). 

Drizzle ; see Dreary. 

Droll <F.-Du.-Stana.> Y.dnUrM 
plt:a^ant wag ;' Col. » Du. drttlHgt otld, 
strange. — Dan. treld, Swed. troU, IccL i>W/j 
a liob(ioljl"'. merrv imp. 

Dromedary. (F. - L. - Ok.*) M. E. 
dromedarie.^'O. K. dromtthutt uildcr form 
dram<darit*\. — \jCt'>^ L. drcmadariuj.^h. 
dromad-, stem of dramas, a dromedary.— 
Gk. Spoftni-, stem of Spofiit, fast rumiing. 
— G1|L flpa/tfiV, to run.-fSkt. dmm^ to nm. 

Drone (t), to 1mm. (E.) M. E drptuf$, 
drourun. Noi in A.S. + ^^ dreunrn, 
Icel. dr^n/a, Swed. driftia, Dan. drprif. (o 
drone, loar, &c. Cf. Goth. dmn/NS, ■ 
sound, Gk. $f>^f"i, a dirge ; Skt. dAnia, 
to sound. (Vl^HKAN.i 

drone (i), a mm-wurking bee. (E.) 
M. E. dran. A. S- dnin •f- Dan. drofu ; 
Swed dronart, lit, 'bummer ;* Icel. dfjihii, 
M. H. (•. twmtj, Gk. dpuira^. (From the 
drffNiHg sound it makes.) 

Droop ; sec below. 

Drop, «b. ( E. » ME. drvft, sb. ; hence 
drcfttn^ drvf/^Hf verb. — A, S. drof^, »b. ; 
dntfian, verb. These are from the pp. 
df^'tn uf Uu tuoog verb dtx^fan^ U> ' 


drip. + Du. rf/w/, sb., IceL rfre/i", Swed. 

Idroppe, I>an. draahe, G. tropfe. 
diibblo. lE.) Put ior drippU, frequent, 
form otdrip, 
drip. ^Scand.) M. E. (/ry//VM.-Dan. 
iryppt^ lo drip; d'ri'/, a drop. — Icel. 
dfof-ih, pp. q\ drjtipa, lo drip.+ A. S. 
drf/'pan (above). 
droop, to sink, fail. (Somd.) M. K. 
drouptn. — Icel. dnipa, to droop ; wcftk verb, 
from drjiipa^ strong verb, to drip. Cf. ' 1 
am ready to drop^ i. c. I droop. 
Dropsy ; &ec Hydra. 
Broaky, a kiod of carriAge. (Ru&s.) 
Rus», drojki, & low four-wheeled carriage 
(they sounded aj in Freach). 
I>roBa : see Dreary, 
Drought ; see Dry. 
Drove ; we Drive. 
Drown ; src Drlak. 

■ Drowse, Drowse ; act Dreary. 
Drub, to beat. (E.) Prov. E. Jrah, to 
beat. A secondary verb, due lo A. S. 
Ktioog vb. drepan ipt C dtvp), to beat. + 
Iccl, drrpa, to kill, slay ; Sned. drahda, to 
hit, dnipa, to kill ; Dan. drahe, to kill. G. 
tfxpm, to hiu (Base DRAP.) Sec 

■ Drape. 
Drud«:e. (C.) M.£. dntggtn, vb.; of 
Celtic ongin ; cf. Irish drugairt, a dnidger, 
drudge, blare. 
Drug, Druffget ; «ee Dry. 

■ Druid, a priest of the ancient Britons. 
(C.) Itihh druidh, anaugor, Oiui.dniidAt 
W. dtntrydd, a dniid. 
Druio. tE. ?) Prob. E. : not found ear- 
lier than the XVI cent. + Don. drum, a 
■ booming sound. Icel pnima, to raiile: 
Du. trVfH, Dan. irommtt G. trommtl, a 
drum. Cf. Drone (i). 
Drunkard. Druiiken ; see Drisk. 

■ Drupe : see Dryad. 
Dry. (E.) M. E. druM, A.S. dr^gr, 
+ Du. droo^t dry; G. trofkgm. dry. 

drought. (E.> M.E. rfw^, drottgtti 

better diQuhtht i.P. Plowman). K.^.drug- 

ufk, drought. — A. S. dntgian, to dry; 

dtygt, diy.+ Dn. droogte, drought; froiu 

^_ drceg, dry. \\x. should rather Xxdrcughih.) 

^B drug. (K.— Uu.) ^\,)L drogge,drum. 

^m wO. F. drogiu, a drug.^Du. droog, dry; 

the pi. drwfgm, lit. dried roots, was used 

in the special sense of * drugs ;* sec Dry. 

Dor. dru(^'if(. 

drugget. (F. • Do.) O. F. droiutt. 
* a kiii'l of vtafr that's half ailk. hal/ wool : 
(>" 'H.o/ </r^'vr, adiu|; ^tLbuvc), al>o 


used in the sense of rubbish, 
from the conrscness of the mater 
Dryad, n nymph of the wood 
Gk.) L. DryaJ; stem of Dryas, a i 
nymph. « Gk. hpvah-^ stem of &p«« 
same. — Gk. IpZt, a tree: see Tree. 

drupe, a fleiibv fiuit containing a i 
(K.-L.-Gk.) F. drupt.^U dftt/ 
over-ripe olive. — Glc Spvm, au ove 
olive; allied to 0j>tnrcr^, meatung i 
U) ripmtd on the tree (from wiTrm 
\z)./aJiiMp from the tree ^from mimtm 

haoiaaryad, a wood-aympb. 
Gk.) L. hamadryad-, stem of Mamtot 

— Gk. d>ia2^af, a wood-nymph; ih 
of each nymph depended on that c 
iree to whicn she was attached. « 
a/ia, logelber with; V'''' ^^■ 

Dual consisting of two. (L.) L. 4 
dual. — L. duo^ two; sec Two. 

belligerent, waging war (U) I 
tigtrant; stem of U//igtmMX, cariyii 
war. — L. A^//i-, for Ul/am, war; / 
pres. pi. oigtrtrt, to carry i see Jeftl. 
ium i!i for O. L. dutilum ; sec duel bi 

deuco (I), a two, at cards |,F. 
K. dtttjc. two.— L duoi, BCC- oi duo, t 

double. (F. - L) O. F. .i'^. 
doiibU. — L, dnplust lit. twice-full. — L 
two; -//wj, allied to ///inci. full 

doublet, ^F.-L.) M. E. dtMt 
O. F. donbUt, an inner (double) gai 

— F. double, double i above). 
doubloon. (F. •- Span. — L, ) F. W!n 

— Span, dobion, a coin, liie double ofapj 

— SjKin. d<^. double, ^t^dmplm (sl 
doubt. t.F.-L.) M. £. dMitem.^ 

don/ir.^L. dubitart, to be of (wo K 
allied to dubt'its, doubtful; sec 

dozen, twelve. (F.^L.) O. 
(F. dauxMHi), a dozen.— O, F. 
douu), twelve ; with »uflix -atrui^i 

— L. duodeam, twelve. — L- 
decern, ttm. 

dubiouB. (L.) L. duiims, don 
moving in two directions. — L. dm-4^ t 

duwieolino. (L.) /m t/tut£entm» 
12 leaves to the sheet. — L. dk 
of duodecimus^ twelfth. — U 
twelve ; see doftea above. 

duoL (Itol.-L.) It's!. duiUA 
L. dueliumt a fight between ti 
du-Ot two. 

duet. (Ital.-L.) Ital. 
two.-Ital. dtte, two. — L. duA, 

duodenum, the tust ol Utr , 

wo K 



so oiUed 

.... -, — v. -live form 

re doaea (at>ove). 

1 ow), 
t^ — '^J l-it. doiiblencss. 
<. — L tec. (iupluitatein.'^\^. 
'f dupUx, twofold.— 

(0 fold. 
- L.) F. indiibitatU. 
^iisi^ ttot to be doubted. — I. 
itoMJiSt douljllul, from Jut'i- 

doubt (ntiove). 

^L) The verb is (ram the 

»b W3S oiig an adj. M. E. 

^^iou».— F. «/v//f, rtl*lltou5, 

•cc. of teMlitt rcucwing 

«lf&in : Mlum, wu « O. L. 

dTiel (above). Scr. 

(K-L) O. F. r*/*K^/- 
» O. F. rtJoHter. Uter rr- 
tb fttf. Sec Be- ond Doubt. 
» confer kmghtbood by it fclroke 

E. JuMtn A. S. dublHXH'. AS. 
B tcS6. ^f O. Swed. iiu&6a. K 
•Mm, to strike. be«t. % Some- 
ri*cd from O. F. i/^r, to dub ; 

tft of Sc&nd or Low O. origin. 
A. S Jat66am was alio of SuuiJ. 
a D«b 
tu : K< Du*l 

DtMMt . Kc Duke, 
a*. Duchy: mc Duka. 
;i), a biid. ice Duck (i). 
(aX *o ^«. ^li tbe ^»eftd (F..) 
An*. Jmktm. Nut m A. ^. •f Dii. 
a h£6or. .'i^e; Dan. UukAt, Swcd. 

/.s '"inee* dive. 

U ' M. £. tieki, ifult 

ir;' Ut< tujTix •/ represents A S. 
. of the •cent Fruni the verb 
k !)■■. dMMmtf. lit. diving duck; 
r^^K (Uviag fowl. Der. Ju€k- 

K rLAfiVJir difriMi. ^llfTiX. 

; (O. Low G.) 
! , Dan. (iukhii 
f. M, H G. 


. Fries. d(>^rjt, 
■«oTc). I'rob. 

A nauti- 
li. I. canvas. 
dU; led J»iJir,G ru£h. 



Duct. Ductile; s'.c Duke. 
Dudgeon (i). resentment. (C.> W. 
dychuM, a jeer; dygen, malice, dudgeon. 
Cf. \V. dygas, haired; Com. duchan, griff. 
Dudgeou {i\ haft of a dagger. (Un- 
known) Dudgeon-hafud means thai ihe 
faaft wu curiously worked 01 ornamented : 
dudp'n means covered with waving marks. 
Eiym. unknown. 
Due ; iifc Habit. 
Duol : see Du&l. 
Duenna; sec Domain. 
D\iot: see Dual. 

Duffel, coaiv: woollen cloth. (Do.) Du. 
duffel', so called from Dufftl, a place near 

Dug, a teat. vScand.) Allied to Swed. 
ddgga, Don. da^, to suckle. Cf. Skt. duh^ 
to milk. 

Dugong. a sea-cow. (Malay.) Malay 
dtiyong^ a Ma-cow. 
Duke, a leader. (F.-L.) M. E. duk.- 
O. l'\ due. — L. dtuern, ace. of </H.r, a 
Icttder.-L. ducere, to lead. (y'DUK ) 

abduction. (L.t L. abductifftttm, ace. 
oi aMnftiOf a leading awny. — L ob-ducert, 
to lead aw ay (whence also E. a6dti(e). 

adduce. (L.) L. ad-dmert^ to to: 
hence, to bring forwnrd. 

conduce. (L.) L rM-dtutrt, to draw 
logctlicr towards, lead to. 

conduct. (L ) Low L fimductut de- 
fence, protection, K>-'"*r't, e&cort.««L. con- 
duttus, pp. o{ ccM-aume (above). 

conduit. (F. - L.) M. E. amdui/.'^ 
O. F. tcHiiuit, a conduit— Low L. eon- 
ductus, a defence, escort : also, a can.Tl. 

deduce. (L.) L. U-ducert, lo bring 
down; (hence, to infer). 

deduct. (L.) Orig. to derive from — 
L. dt-ductrt, to bring down. 

doge, a liidce of Venice. (Ital.— L.) 
lul. do£f, prov. fonii oi doce*, a duke.— L 
ductm, ace. of dtix, a leader. 

douche, a shower-bath. (F.-Ilal -L>, a ithrjwcr-bath.^Ital. doccia^ a 
cnnditit, Mater-pipe. * Ital. docciare, lo pour; 
equivalent to Low Lai. dwtUre*^, dcrra- 
live of L. ductus, a duct; see duot. 

duoal. (F.-L) F. dufai, adj. from 
dm ; see Duke. 

duoat. a coin. (F.-Iul.-L.) O. F. 
ducat. — Ital. duca/fi, a ducat, also a duchy; 
named from duciUus (duchy of Apulia) in 
the legend upon it; »ee duchy below. 

duchess. iF.-L) F. Ju.hctst. O F. 
duiuUt fcin. of d¥t% dnkc ; Mt D^ke. 


duchy (F.-L.) F. ^itt-M-Low L. 
dmaium, ace. of JucaiHS, a dukedom. *L. 
tiw-. ktem ol '/mjt, a duke. 

duct, a conduit- pipe. (L ) L. ductus, a 
leading (hcnuc. a duct).-!* ductus, pp. of 
ducert, to lead. 

ductile. vF.-L.) ¥ . duftiU. mtWtahXc. 
— L. ductULs. easily led. --L. duct-ns, pp. 
of ducert [.above). 

educate. (L.) L. tdtuaiw, pp. of 
idmarc. to educate — L. t-duttrt, to bring 

eduod. (Ij.) L. t'duren, to bring out. 

jjiduoe. V.L.) L. in-ducere, to lead to 

induct (I^.^ L. indufZ-ui, pp. of i'm- 
duccre, 10 biiiig in. 

introduce. ^L.l L. intra- ductrt, to 
brJDg in. Der. iH/rodu^t-fon (from the pp ). 

produce, vb (L. L.//v-i/Mrnr,tobnng 
forward. Der prcdmt-ivi, •ion (from the 

product. »b. (L.) L. pro,/u./iu, pro- 
duced ; pp. of/n^/iKf^/Y (above). 

redoubt^ an intrenched place of retreat. 
(K. — ltal, — 1- h\ rtdoute fonntrly redou 
i.LilLn*)> idoubl.^ltal. ridotio. a place of 
retreat — llal. tidotta.ridutlo^ pp. of ridum, 
to briu^ home. — L. rtductrt, to bring 

reduce. (L.) Orig. to biing back.— 
L. re-dtture, to bnng back. Der. rtduct- 
ion (.from ihc pp.). 

seduce, to Ica<^ astray. (L.) l^jt-ducert, 
to lead KBidc Der. stduct-i4m (from the 

eubdue. (F.-L.^ M. E. sodtun (after. 
wai'ls altered to suhdut for clcamc^a).— 
O. V, souduirr, to seduce; but the one. 
&i-nbe niu^l liave been lo subdue. •- L, /W0- 
duv<rt, to brinjj under. 

auperinduoe. (L.) L. mptr, beyond; 
and in-ductrt, to induce. 

traduce, to defame. (L.) "L.tra-duan, 
(o le id over, transpoit. aUo, to defame. 
Utrt tra- - trans, acrou. 
Dulcet, sweet. (F.-L.) O. F. douctt 
(Col), ufMhich aj) older spelling must have 
beeu doket* ([iaX. diti£ttto).^0. F. duUe, 
fern, dolj (F. daux), sweet — L. dukis, 

douceur. (F. — L.) F. thuceur, lit. 
»W(-etnca> (hence, pleasant );ift). — L. dui- 
tffum, ace. oidukor, swectncu. — L. duUii, 

dulcimer. (Span — L.) Roquefort hu 
F. douktmer (undated); it must be bor- 
/owed Uova Spaa. dtiUtrntU, a dulcimci i 


named from its iweet soimd. — L. Mn 
mr/ri. sweet sound ; Mrc Molody. 

Dull, stupid. (E.) M. E. ./«/ A?; 
fooliikb ; put for dztvl* ; cf. ^\ 
fal^ god, idoL— A. S. dwoi , 
of ktroug vb. dvf/an, lo err, be ^luJ.i:l. + 
Du. do/, mad ; Goth, dtivtis, fuCtli^, (a 
ioii. mad. (^OJnWAR.) See DwalL 

dolt, a stupid fellow. (F..) M E. duiU 
blunt; extended from M.£,f/w/,dull ^abt>ve> 

Dumb. (E.) M. Ii. domk A. ^ dmmt^ 
mute. + l^u- ^om, I eel. dumdr, SwtA 
dumb, Dan. dum, Goth, dumhi, G dumi^ 
Goth, dumbs is allied to Goth, daubs, dcafl 
sec Deaf. Der. dumm y ( = <//- 

Dump, an ill shapcn [>iece. 
E. dump, a clunib)' lump, a L 
short and Ihick. I^wl. Sc diimt, to tkca^ 
btiikc with the feet: Swcd. dial. str. vt 
dimpa |,siipiiic durtipiH^, to lall itow 
plump. Ct. I)u. dompntu»» a gicAl noK 
Ici-I. dumpa, to thump ; and cf. Thi 
dumpling, a kind of pudding 
A small aolid ball of pudding; du 
is a double dimin. of dump ^above). 

Dumps, melancholy. (Scand.) 
dial, duifipin. mclanchol)', orig 
difftba. to sleom, reek ; Dan. durn^ 
low. + Du. domp, damp, hazy, G 
damp. Allied to Damp^ ct *lo 
one's spiiits.' 

Dun (i>, brown. (C.) A. S. dumm, dajl 
— liish and Gael t^M, brown; W, / 
dmi, dusky. 

donkey. (C) Double diiaia. wtik 
fix •Jt-iy [ -Lowl. So. -idk'ii, u \ 
ickie, a little little hoisc, tlanHab. 
duH, familiar name for a hone, fl 
colour (Koiiico, t. 4. 41). ^ So I 
don ek, a hedge-sparrow, ^m it» 

Dun (3 1, to urge for payment. (! 
Cf. M. ^.dunning, a loud noise; to^Aif^ 
to thunder at ones door — Icct, 
tbuiiflei ; loina eiuuM dy» Jyrif 
make a din before one's uoor ; Sw 
to moke a noise. Allied ti Din. 

Dunce, a stupid person. (Scoi 
From the plir. *a Duns man,* te. a 
of Dunse, in Berwickshire. In ridicalt 
the disciples of John Dum Scotiia, 
man, tiicd a. d. i'3oS. % Not to be 
with John Scotus Eri^ena, died a- 

Dune, a low sand .hill ; see Dowa 

Dung ; see Diuf . 

DtiDgeon ; 5er Domain 

Duodecimo, Duodenuitt ; mc IhiaL 

Dup ; *ee Do (1). 


I, m fi«non «**']y deceived. (F.> F. 
k dttpe. Tike O. F. a'u^e meant a 
:iivbeocc<Ai;^i a dope, because thebi id 
U«ca«|{lkl -So "'^o Bfft hou/ftrii, a 
,• fhipc^ Fcdup^ of imita) iveorigia. 
ifsate. Duplicity; »ec DuaL 
JKW, Dunition : see Dure. 
MMP.aha'loI autUeiice, Icvce- i Pen.) 
*4kiAdr^ « pnnce't court, levcc ; lit. 
of ii.lituiiaii.:c-' — Pcrs. darf door 
%r* aHmittance. 

I, t- L dnrarr, tolxiKt.** 

Us. >:• •4* Irinh and Gael. 

» . lire. Cf. Gk. Svvatuf, 

I>eT -in'-fng, orig pre* pt of 

iaotv CAplivity. (F.-L.) The orig. 
nu I^Ag czidaniai.c or hordfJiip.^F. 
lo tot : wilb kuffii -ixttfe, sec above. 
»tion (U'l .\ cotncd word; from 
oi X- ^ttunarr^ to last. 
mm, hanlfthip. ^F. - L.) M. K 
L— O-F /»(^r.Y. — L. i/nnViflf harsh- 
L. dmrmi, hard, severe. 
ltr». <F. •> U) M. £. tHdurtH"^ 
MWfr«*F. m (L. m) ; and durtr ^L. 

nraia^ to hmrden- (L.) From pp. 


- 'O/Mf, pp. of 1?^- 

p tolUK 

.indi/MfY«/, hard. 

c dim. 

ly an adj. M. E. 

UHt. dii 

Ite same. Piob. 

. ^ Swed, dial. 

. , misty. Der. 


Hi/. + Du. dnist^ 

/• /. meal. Cf. G. 

Allied lo L. 

.!«« (Vt^HU.) 

to tlollond. (G.) 

the Gcmiant. » G. 

X Ul beloogtnr to the 

: M. II G. diuf'isk, where the 

' V and diut u cognate 

iW. ikimda, a people, 

lift: aevIHrvU. 

HrC <£.} U.1Ldwtfg,4wfrxk\ the 

/ represents the gmtural. A S. diwr^t 
d-.iforj^^ a dwiirf. + Du. dtvfr^, Icel. 
^'f'y'» Swcd. Don. dver^, G. ra*erg, CC 
Vcfiic Skt. ^Ananu, a (female) evifipirit. 

Dwell. .E.) M. E dwtUen, to linger. 
A S. dwdlan. only in the active ftcnac to 
retard, also to «duce. Causal of A. S. 
dwilan (pi. t- dtuitl. pp. dwoUn), lo be 
torpid or doll, to err. + Iccl. dxftlja, lo 
dwell, delay, orig. to hinder ; Swed. tivd/jtu^ 
to dwell (rtflcxive); Dan. dztt/t. to linffrr: 
M, H. G tuv//en. to hinder, delay. 
(.VDHWAR.) /Vjid sec DuU. 

dolly, to tufle. t,E.) Prov. E. difafUt 
(Exmoor Sc(iUling). M. E. dalien, to play, 
trifle. Allied to A. S. dwth'gan. lo err, be 
fooliiih, O Northnrab.</u0/j(^, dwoUga^ the 
same, Mark, xil. 47. And sec Dal). 

d^&le, de^idly nightshade. (E.) Named 
from iu soporil'ic eflfects. A. S. dwa/a^ an 
etror, Klupefaction.* A. S. diofian (above). 
+ Dan. dvMf, sttipor, dvaUdrik, a sopo- 
rific, ' dwale-drink.' 

Dwindle. (E.) The frequent, form of 
M. E. dwintn, to dwindle, A. S. dwinan, 
to dwindle, languish. ^ Icel. dvima^ dvinA, 
Swed. tvina, to dwindle, pine away. 

Dye, to colour; a colour. <E) M. R. 
dcym, vb.. dth. sb. A. S. dtti^tan, de^^an 
verb, to dje ; from ddig. dedh, kb,, dye. 
colour. Perhaps allied to Pew. 

Dyke ; tee Dike. 

Dynamic, relating to force. [.Gk.) Gk. 
SvMi^Kili, powerful . ~ Gk. Btfra/xir, power. ^ 
Gk IvyatMxi, 1 am strong; see Dure. 

dyn&Bty, lordship. (Gk.) Gk. Sucaff ret a, 
lordship, V Gk. 5i/»wn}r, a lord. -• Gk. 
iSwa/iOj, I am strong. 

Dysentery, disease of the entrails. (L. 
— Gk.) L. dys€Nteria.^OV, Hvrrtintpta,^ 
Gk. bvff-, prefix, with a bad sense; irrtpa, 
pi., the inwards, l>oweU, fiomli'Tot, within, 
iv. in ; see Interior. 

Dyepepsy, indigestion. (L.*Gk.) L. 
dyj/v/jia — Gk, Stxrirt^'a. — Gk. Svawtwrot, 
har\l to digtrst — Gk. Si/tr-, prefix, with a 
bad Keu!>e; vinrttv, to cook, digest; see 
Cook. Der. dysptptU (from WffMrret). 



««.. Uke). + Du. #/i. each; O. H- O.t^gaiik, 

UL (E.^ M E. «"A<, tUh. M. H. G. itgtlkk, G.Jigiuk. See Aye. 
Sep^oAed to »taiid for <(A-, Satfer ; see Aoid. 
or d^/U, te. ay^lUce (aver- Xiagle ; sec Aquiline, 









Eagre, lidal wave in a river. (E) A.S. 
ttigor-, t'^r-, in comp. riigor'Sin'am, o.can* 
sUeam.-j-lcel. a§if\ ocqah. 

E&r (I), organ of heating. (£.) M. £. 
tre, A. S. tdit, + Du. oor, Ictl. <K^a, Swcd. 
um. Dan. <;/r, G. ff//'', Goth, aujp, Russ. 
KfAtf, L. autis, Gk. ovt. Allied to Ski. av, 
to be pleased, L.anJin^ to hear. (^AVV.) 
earwig, on insect. (E.\ A. S. ^*r>^ 
U'icga, lit. ear-runiier, from its being sup- 
poiicd to creep into the ear. A. S. vHcg, i 
Dor&e. or a nmner ; allied to Wa;. 

Bar \^i\ spike of corn. (E.) M.E. er 
A. S. t»r (j)l.) ; Northamb. Mrr.+Du. oar, 
Icel, Dan. Swcd. ajr ^for ahs), Golh. a<5j, 
C. a'^rtf. Allied to Awn. (VAK.) 

B« (3). to plough. lE.) M.E rrwi. 
AS, erian, to plough, + laL irja. Goth. 
arjan, Irish anUm^ I plough, L. aran, 
Gk. aM$«, I pluQch. (V AR.) 

E&rl (£.) M. E <rr/. A. S. mW. ^ 
Icel.yiir/. O. Sax. rr/, a man. 

Barly : sec Sre. 

Bam. (E ) M. E. tt-nien. A. S- eamian. 
■4- G. trntCH, to reap, from fr«/^, har\'est, 
ftom O. H.G. amJn, to reap, earn. B. From 
the sb. seen in O. H. G. trin, Goth, asans^ 
a harvest. CVAS.) 

Barneet (I), seriousness. (E) Froperly 
a sib., as in ' in earnest.' M. E. tmat, sb. 
A. S. eortttst^ sb.^Du. tmst^ sb. ; G. trnst. 
(Baic ARN.) 

Earnest {%\ a pledge, (F. -L.) Tht- 
/ is added. M. E. tmts\ also spelt «r/«, 
ar/£r. Dlmin. of O. !•". f rtj, arrw^, pL — 
L. drMa.^Gk. ippa^wv. a pledge 

Earth. (E.) M. E r/Mr. A. S. tor6t. 
+ Du. aarJct Iccl.yl7^^, Dan. Swed. /ijn/, 
Gulh. tfiVMtf, G. Cf. Gk. ^, earth. 

Earwig; see Ear (i). 

Base. (F.) M. E wr-O. F. aiu, ease. 
Cf. llal. agiCf Port, azo, case. Grig, vin- 

disease. (F.) O. F. des-aist. want of 
ease. — O. F. d>/- (L. dis-) j *ijr, ease. 

Easel ; sec Asa. 

East, the (quarter of smi-risc. (E ) M. E. 
fit. A.S. east, adv., in the east; eJjtaM, 
from the east. + Du. ms/. ib.. Icel. aujtr, 
Dan- w/, Swcd vitan, G. of/rtt. wA Also 
h. aur-anx, dnwii, Gk. i)(U, loff, aOtut, dawn, 
Skt tts/iiU. dawn. iV US.) 

oaster. (E ) M. E. «/rr. A^SeJsfar-, 
in comp. ; pi. edstre, Easter. — A. S. Edslrt, 
a goddess whose festivities were in ApriL 
Allied \oEast\ from the increasing light 
and warmth of spring. 


sterling. (£.) M. E sterling, 
lini; coin ; named from the EsUriittgi ( 
eastcrlin{;s, men ot the east ) ; th 
name for the Haiisc meichanU in Lon 
temp. Henry III.— M.E.i//, cast SreBi 

Eat. tE ) M. E <{tn A > ^ : 

€tcn% Iccl. eta, Swed. dta. D.. 
itan, G- etsen, L. tJen, Gk. *-«:>, oki i 
to cat ^V AD.) See Tooth. 

etch, to engrave with acids. iDu.— < 
Dn. ilsen, to etch. — G. atMcn, to com) 
etcl) ; the cansal of G. esstn, to eat 
fret (1), to eat away. (E.) A.S 
short for for-etan^ to devour entirely. 
Gotii. /ra-itan^ to devour eiituely i 
vretcn, G./rcssen ( "Vtr-wen) 

orta, remnants, leavings. fE) M< 
ortej. From A. S. er-. out (wnat b Ici 
etatt, to cat. Proved by O. Du. Qrtti 
piece left after eating, Swcd. dial 
uraU^ refuse fodder. The some prefix 
occnr^ in or-deal ; for which see DcaL 

Eaves, the clipped edge of a thatc^ 
roof. \E.^ M. E eutu\ pi tuesu ( 
eaveses). AS. efese^ a clipped edge J 
thatch ; whence e/etian, to sorar. ^ li 
N/Ui Swed. dial, uffs, Goth. M^itiMi, a poi 
from (he prcjectioa of the eaves ; O. Hj 
e/asa. Urig. sense 'that which profi 
or is over ; ' allied to Over. Dar. Ml 
dropper^ one who stands under droppi 
from the eaves, a secret lisicncr. 

Ebb. (E.) M. £. ehbe. A. S. cM«^ ' 
of the tide. + Du. e^. ebb*, sb.. Daa. « 
sb and vb., Swed. ehh, sb. Allied to Bt 

Ebony, a hard wood. (F.-U-Gk 
Hcb > Formerly fAr«. — O. F. eb€nt.t\<^ 

— L. hebenus, ebeHum.^G)L.l&*^at, ifii 

— Mcb. Aovtt/m, p!.. ebony wood; (ifol 
non-Semitic word. 

Ebriety.dninkcnnesi. (F.^L.^ F^dn 

— L. ace ekrietaUtH.^l^ i^riuM, dnul 
Der. tH-edriate, to make dninkea. 

sober. (F. - L.) .M . E. j^^e. - K. kJ 
"L, jobrium, ace. of sit^'^fM^ sober. -^L 

s je'^ apart, hence, not ; eAn'us^ drvnk. O 
scbrietyt F. jobrutit L ace. sobri4im itm4 

Ebullition; see BuU («), 

Eccentric ; see Centre. 

Ecclesiostio. ^E-Gk.) Low 
tiaiiuus. — Gk. liicirAf}<rm<rrt«^, 
to the ixieA.i;^^*'** '-^- ft^^embly, 
Gk. itetkrjTot, sutninoncil, — Gk i 
call furth. — Gk. {«, out : mnXim, I 

Echo. (L.-Gk.) M.E ftw- 

— Gk. ^x^i B sound, echo; c£, ^ 
a ringing noue. Dmt. <a/*nA*Mlh 



see Iii3gio. 

K-U-Gk.) M. R.#Wi>j, 

. titift*^ « L- tflifm. * Gk. 

luit, «sp. of light of tlie suji. 
t>^>to luvc out. sofTer eclipse. 

^*iW9i¥, lo leave. 
[1*.— Gk.) Formeily iVifsii. 

— Gk. i\Xu4n, a dcfecc, an 

word : Also, an oval figarc, 
)>Uiie fornif vvith the bi&e of 
!«B ui^'le than that of a para- 

iXKtit*iv^ to leave in, leave 
tk iA>, fur }vr in; Kt'twttv^ to 
iiiif^if-ai^ ftclj.» Gk. lAAdrrtx^. 

•ce l/oclo. 

<F. - L. - Gk.) Formerty 

ia«j)A|>cnient of a household. 

tr otxof, a bouse : and vt^ttv. 

See Wlok (3) and Nomad. 

gcnetml, (L. — Gk.) Low 

iLfk. oijroujuviirilf.uiuversal. 

fvif {hc y^), the inhalitcd 

elmvpuvotf pm. pt. pa^>. of 

il.»Glc. olxos, a house 


; tee Bconomy. 
I.) Icel. iAd» an c^idy, 
jTW» lo whirl alxiut; Swcd, 
Dan. dial. iJ^t the sanic. 
leel. (5 , A. j>. «»/-, Colh. »'(/•, 
ai a preliK. 
M. £. tggr. A. S. /</. ao 
Du. Mv, Icel. Jjwc*! <£y; 
r. Cf, 1- art//, Gk. (U(«, a 
eOgr, conier. (V AK.i 
hUgale. ^Scand.) M, E. 
to good on. ■■Icel. igg, 

(U) Low L. tdibiiis. 
aee Bftt. 

lie. (L.) L. amfentus, 
lUfartt to eat; from tua, 

• ■•L. ^/frfy, to eal- 
(L.) L. o^rms^ {\^ eaten 
, lit. ' that which hu 
pp. of Uytdert, to eal 
to cat. Der. o6<i-i'ty. 
^ U) O. F. A/i>£rr. «- L. ^'- 

' - L, «*/!-. 

iftV* I hearth; 

M^j/^afaun, a build inc ; 
' OMe who had the 



BdlUon: see Date (i). 

Educalo, Educe ; see Duke 

Bel. ^E.) M E.f/. A S. ci/+Du.ort/, 
Icel. Alh I>an. iwA Swed. d/, G. aai Allied 
to L, an^tiila, ou eel. anniis, Gk. <x**i 
Skt. d^i'. a snake. {^ AGH.) 

BfToce ; see F»c«. 

Bffoct ; see Pact. 

£fl&mlziute ; see Feminine. 

Effendi, sir, master (Turkiah - Gk.) 
Turk. e^"***/'. sir. — Mod. Gk. Q/'tcri;!, for 
Gk. avBivTi\%^ a despotic maalcr, ruler; see 

Efferveeoo ; see Ferventw 

ElTeto ; ice Fetua. 

Eftlcicacy, Kfliolent ; see Faot. 

Eflfigy; see Fitfure. 

EIQoreacQXice ; ^e FloraL 

Etfiuanoe: sec Fluent. 

Effort : see Force. 

EfTrontery; lee Front. 

Effiil^ent ; see Fulgent. 

Effuse: vee Foaa (1) 

Egg (1), the oval body whence chickens, 
Ac are hatched. (S.and > M. E #x'. I'l* 
<Si''''J - Icel. <gg, Dnn. ag, tiwcd. z^^. + 
A. S. ay (-M. £. ty") ; Du. ii. G. ei. Irish 
ugh, GaeL ^h, W. jt-}-, L. ouum, Gk. tWi'. 
Allied to L. auit, a biid. 

Egg C^), to instigate ; see Edge. 

Eglantine. ^K. — L.) F. f^anthte, 
0. 1'. ai^/aMtint, aiglantitr, iv^ect 
— Low L. actdentm'^ prickly (not found), 
fxoiu L. antUut, a pricMe, dimui. o( 
acM, a needle ; see aiglet, under Acid 

Egotist, Egoist, a telf opinionated per 
ion (L.) Coincil from L. «go, I ; see I. 

Egregious ; sec OreKsrioua. 

Egross; eve Grade. 

Eh I inteij. (E.) M. E. ty. A. S. S, id, 
Cf. Du. j9^/ G.eil 

Eider duck. vScand.) The E. JmcA i» 
here ad. led to Icel. tfSr, an eider-duck i,* 
pronounce*! like 1 in //wi^).+Dan. edtrfu^l 
(eider-fowl). Swed. tuUr. Der. eidcr'JawH, 
Icel. it^ardiin. 

Bight (E) ^A.'E.fighti. h.S. eaAta. 
+ Du (uhe, Icci ,Uia. Dan. oKe, Swed i//«, 
Gotli. ahtau, G. <]<:/«/. Irish «fA/. G.iel. 
A-4^, W. myth, L tfi-Zif. Gk. ^t^. .SKt. 
ashxan. Dar. tigkMn, A. K ' ' 
t*gh fy* A.S. eahtaUg\ etgh-th, . . 

Bither. (E) M. E. ^'Mf/-. .j. . . o 
auihtr^ other. A.S. i^g |w, ciiW rac 1 td 
form of ^hw^'^y, Comp. of iahwm^'% 
wheie A » ^yt, ^c Is a prcnx, and liw^Vir 



whether. + Du. iaUr, G. jti/er^ O, H. G. 

or (t\ conj., offering an alternative. 
(E.) Short for other, ou/h.r, anther, the 
M. E. fonns, which also answer to Mod. 
E. either. Hence ^iV^i^r and or are doublets. 

ftJocuUte, £;)ect; ue Jet (i). 

Bko (I), to augment. (E.) M K.tJUn. 
A. S /raf ,4'^cel. auka^ Swecl. oka, Dao. 
cgi, Golh. aukan (neuter), L. augere. 
(V WAG.) 

eke (1), also. (E.) Vi.'E^eek.eke. AS. 
«j£. — Du. oak, Iccl. <iu.(, Swed. och (nodi. 
Dan. tf^ (and), G. atuh. AU from the verb 

nickname. (E.) tA.E. neketiame, A\ho 
ekename; [a nekename»an ekenanu). See 
Prompt. Parv. ; cf. L. agnomen (ag^ " aJh 
G. tunamt. From ^iv and namu. ^ Icel. 
aukitafn, Swed. aknamn, Dan. ^^movpr, an 
cke-name, nickname. 

Slaborate : see Lsboor. 

Eland, a S. Africin antelope. (Do.* 
Slavonic.) Du. eiarui, an elk. Of Slav, 
origin : d. Russ. oUru^ a stag ; tee Blk. 

Suapae ; see Lapaa. 

Blaatto. (Gk.) Formerly etasfiekt i.e. 
springing back. Coined from Gk. Maa> = 
i)<a<6vtt, I drive (fut. iKaa-u). 

Slate ; see Tolerate 

Elbow, the bend of the arm. i,E.) M. E. 
eibffwt, A. S. eiSoga.^K.S. el-, signifying 
•elbow [* and boga^ a bow, a bending (see 
Bow). A. S eit'xk allied to Goth, aleina, 
a cubit, L. vlna, Gk. otKivr}, Skt. anittti. the 
elbow. (VARand VBHUG.) + Du,^//rf- 
Socg, Icel. ain-dcgi. Dam. al-6ue^ G. ellen- 
bem. SeeXU, 

Bid, old age, Elder (i\ older; see Old. 

Elder (a), a tree. M. E. eiUr. AS. 
tiUn, r//^m.-fLow G. elloorn. % Distinct 
from aUer, 

Eldeat: see Old. 

Elect : see Legend. 

Electric. (L. - Gk.l Coined from L. 
eUetrum, smber. which has electric pro- 
perties.— Gk. ^Afwrpoi', amber, also shining 
metal ; ullieil to i^kittriup^ gleaming, Skt. 
arM. to shine, (y ARX.) 

Electuary, n kind of confection. (F.- 
Ll M.E. leftiarie.^O.V. lectuairt, eUc* 
tuaire.^h. eiectuaritim, a medicine that 
dissolves in the mouth. Perhaps lor eiiiuta* 
rium *. from eiingtre, to lick away, or 
from Gk. lit\«l-)(«iv (the same). 

BleemOBjmary : sec Alma. 

BUir&nti •ecL««eDd. 


BQegy, a funeral ode. (F.— L.-Gk\ 
O. F. elegit, ^\^, eiegia.^GV. iKr^ia^ \< 
sing., an elegy; orig. neut. nl. of U«Y«rov, 
a distich (of lament). •• Uk. 1^170% 

Element. (F.-U) O. F. c/mmm/.-L. 
tUmentum, a first principle. 

Elephant. (F.-L.-Gk.-Heb) M.£. 
elifaunt. • O. F. plifant^ eUphamt. — L. 
eU'phanUm, ace. of tUpkai.'mQV. \kk^m^ 
an elephant — Heb. aUph, ileph, an 01, 

Elevate ; see Iievity. 

Eleven. (£.) }A.%, tnleutn. A.S. m^> 
lufon. + Du *//, Icel. elliju, DaJi. tllet»u 
Swed. tlfva, Goth- ainliu G. tij. p. The 
best form is the Goth. ain'tif\ where ain» 
one; and -/i/- Litbuan. -lika (in vmdiUm, 
eleven). Liih. iika meao* ' rcmatning,* 

Elf. (E.) M.E. *;/ A.S. tf//.+Icel.a^. 
Dan. Swed. alf, G. 4i/. Der. elf-in, adj.. 
for eif-en *. 

oat a fimpleton, (Scand.) Prov. E. 
j«/; an elf. -Icel. dJ/r, an elf. CKstKO 
u:;cs elvish in the sense of ' simple.' 

Elicit ; see DeUoato. 

Elide ; see Leaion 

Eligible ; see Legend. 

Eliminate ; sec Iiimit. 

Elision : see licaion. 

EliKir. {Ar.-Gk.> Aiab. < 
ihilosophcr's stone; where ^/isi 
article. — Gk. iJj^vv, dry (rcsulutim). 

Elk, a kind of deer. (Scand.) Ictl 
Swed. elg, nit elk.+M. H. G. tieM^ 
oUtu, a stag; L aites, Gk. i\ 
riihva, a kind of antelof-. '*—'-- — 

Ell. (E.) M. E- eiU, 
a cubit + Du.c//f ; Icel. «</ 
the elbow to the tip of the miiidie 
Swed. a/ii, Dan. aien, Goth- 
eiU. ell ; L. ulna, elbow, cubit ; Gki 
elbow. Ell ^ el- in el-bow. 

Ellipse ; see Eclipse. 

Elm, a tree (E.i A.S. e/«+Pa-«fa. 
Icel. iilmr, Dan aim, Swed. «/»n, G- 
(formerly elnie), L. uimus. ( ^ AL.) 

Elocution : see I*oquaoioua. 

Elongate: see I*oa<. 

Elope ; see Ifsap. 

Eloquent ; sec Loquaoloiui, 

Elae. otherwise. tE^ AS tik*t _-. 
friim base//', signifying 'oihei' + Se**! 
eljfsl, Goth, alfis; allied to U mkatf 
to Alien. 

Elucidate; sec Lt^oid 

Elude; see Iiudioroufl 

Blyeium, a heavca. \JL - u«>> ^ 


Gk itA«!#*fB', ihort for ^hiffiov 
Elriiui field (Od. 4. 563). 
to; sec Me«cr«. 
A. (L.) h. imanatut, pp. of 
> flow out.«*L. <, out ; manarc, 

pate, (L) From pp. of L. 
to wt fre« — L /. out : matt- 
Usiuicr pTopeny. — L. mana'/-, 
tm'€e/-(, lit. one who takes pro- 
lod or reodva it. — L. matt'us, 
to Ukc; see ManuAt, 0*p»- 



lee IC&ioulln*. 
. — L.) F. /m- » L. /w, for 
I uid /. Hence rm^/m. to 
tfM-Atfflri, to cocloMT with 
up a book ; emSotfy, to invest 

Bark (I), 
ff Mc Baz- 
•ce AiabftMkdor. 
sec Bftttlemant. 
: fee Belle. 
ky». (E.) M- £. ymbtr, u in 
K.S. ym^rtm, ytiUiryni^ a due 
t, oT period ; the eRibcr<lays 
It rtfmr at each of the four sea- 
The A. S.ymb-rym is lit, 
' — A.S.^w^, round ( = G. 
•) ; and rynt, a ran, coune 
f Quite di&tinct from G. 
tvpUd from L. qwUuor tern- 

(E.^ M.E rm/rrr. A. S. 
+ Icel. timyrja, Dan. 
». timurya^ enibcn. 
to filch. iF.-L.) Formerly 
iri/ ; 00 doubt the tame as 
rrb imh^ciU. to weaken, en- 
itit'iract from. A siiop- 
.■>...,:. . v.(.^ jjii master's 
, (rated filching. 
^ f v(^i/r, formerly 

r-l^-Gk.) O.V.tmh!emt. 
• Gk tfiSKritia, a thing put 
•• Gk. *>i- - tr, in, on ; ^dA* 
put. See Bplemnilo. 
^-Gk.) O.V.tmboiismt. 
an intercdlatioa or in- 
to complete K period «>Gk. 
3dXA«i*-, CO cast. 
(1I. to adorn with bocsea or 
K.^L-oi^G,) From ZUn-, 

BmboBS ( 2), to enclose or shelter in a 
wood. iF.-L. and Teut.l O. F. embM- 

tuer. to shroud in a wood. <• O. F. em- « 
.. (M, in ; O. F. ^j^, a wood ; see bon- 

quet. under Bush (i). 
£aibouchtire : see Debouoh. 
JBmbrace ; see Brace. 
Embrasure. (F.) F. embmsurt^ an 

aperture with slant sides. —O.F. tmbtixser, 

to slope the sides of a window. — O.F. em- 

» L. i«, in ; O. F. brastr, ' to skue, or 
chamfrct,' Cot. (Of unknown origin.) 

Slmbrocation, a fomenting. (,F. — Low. 
L. — Gk. ) O. F. embrocation — Low L. em- 
brocafus, pp. tii embrocare, to foment. — Gk. 
ifiQpox^, a fomentation.— Gk. ^fSpixf^K 
to soak in. — Gk. ifis^lv, in; $fiix**^, to 
wet, soak. 

SmbroJder ; see Broider. 

Embroil : see Broil (2). 

Embryo. (F.-Gk,1 Formerly rw^ry^W- 

^Q.V.embryon.'^GV tt^pvcv, thecmbiyo, 
foftos. — Gk 4/i- B \v, within : ffpHov, neut. of 
pres. pt o( fipviiv, to be full of a thing. 

Emendation. (L.) Coined from the 
pp. of L emcnJare, to free from fault. — L. 
tf free from ; menJttm, a fault. 

amend. (F. - L.) M.E. amenden - 
F. attunder.^X^ emendare (abo\'e) 

amends. (F. - L.) M. E. amendes, 
sb. pi. — O. F. amende, reparation — O. F. 
amender i above). 

mend. (F. — L.) M.E. menden, short 
for M. £. am^nden, to amend, by loss of a: 
&ce ameod (above). 

Emerald, a green gem. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M.E. emeraude — O- F. esmeraude, — L. 
sviara^um^ ace. of smansgdm.^GV. afii' 
payiios, an emerald. Cf. Skt. marakata 
(the same>. 

smaragduB. (L. — Gk.) \*,smara^dm 

Emerge ; sec Merge. 

Emeroda; see Hemorrhoids. 

Emery, a hard minemi. (F — Itol. — Gk) 
Formerly emfril: XVU cent. - O. F. 
cmeril^ tsmetil. — Ital. smeri^li^. * Gk, 
<fMVP*^> fft^^piXp emery. — Gk. vftaw, I rub. 

S^eCio. (L— Gk.) L. rmr/fV»r. -Gk. 
J/i(Ti«os, causing sickness. — Gk, ^pUai, I 
vomit : sec Vomit. 

Emigrate ; free Mlirrate. 

Eminent, excellent. (L.) L. emintnt', 
stem of prci. pt. of e-tni$tert, to project, 
excel — L f, out ; miture, to project. 

Imminent, near at hand. (L.) L- 
immuuni , stem of pres pt of im miHin^ 


lo project over. «■ L. I'w- « i», npoo ; 
minety, to projecl. 

prominent, projecting, forward. (L.) 
I,, prominent', slcra of prc$. pi. of pnh 
mitiere, to project forward. 

Smir. a cominnmler. (Arab.) Arab amir, 
a nobleman, prince. — Arab, root amara, 
he comniajided. Der. atimir-a!, q. v, 

Bmit; see Misaila. 

£inmot. ail nnt. (£.) M. E. amU, 
amote. A. S. ameU. nn ant. + G. anitia, 
i an ant. Doablot. am, q. ▼. 
L BmolUent ; see Mollify. 
I Emolument ; see Mole (3). 
^^ Emotion ; see Move. 
^^H Emperor; see Faro. 
^^V Emphasis; see Pbaas. 
^^B Empire ; sec Fiira. 
^H| Empiric, a quack doctor. (F.»L.— 
^^Gk.) O. F. empiri/pu.^X^ empiricus.^ 
Uk. j^*«pucui. expenenccd ; also one of a 
certain »et of phy&ician<«. — Gk. ^^- - ^f, 
in: -wtTpa^ a trml, allied to r«{^vt, a way 
and to £. Faro. 

Employ; see Ply. 

Emporium, a mart. (I. ■• Gk.> L. 
emponum. ^Gk. <>Jv^piot', a mart ; neut of 
ifiirupioi, commercial— Gk. ^/Jiroffiaf com- 
merce, IfiwQpoi, a Imvellcr, merchant,— 
Gk. ifM' « 2r. m ; wupot, a way : kcc Em- 

Empty, void. (EO M. E. tf/ipii. A. S. 
a/ftfi^, lit. full of leisure. — A.S. lem/a, 
amtffa, leiiiure- 

Empyrean, Empyreal, pertaining to 
clemenLol fire. (L. — Gk.) Adjcciivcs 
coined from L. einpyrte^Ht, Gk. ifivCft- 
aiot, extended from {/A-wvpot, exposet) to 
fire— Gk. i^.^iK^ in; wlp, (ire; see Pire. 

Emii, a bird. (Port.) Part.f//Ai,an ostrich. 

Emulate, (L.) From pp. of L. amuiari, 
to try to equal. — L. ^tmn/m, striving to 

Emulsion, a milk-like mixture. <F.-- 
L.) O. F. emidsion ; formed from L, 
tmuh-m, pp. of e-mu/^tf, to milk out.— 
L. e, ODt : mulgen, to milk, allied to 

En-, prtJU, (F.-L.) F. m* « L. in-, 
iu ; tometimec meil with n causal force, oa 
eH'tast, tn-ehain, Sec Sec £m-. 

Enact I see Agent. 

Enamel (F\ - O. H. G.) H. £. 4m- 
amai/a.-^V. M («L. ml, on; amaiii, put 
for O. F. fsmai/, enamel (=-l!al. smaKo), 
from O. H. G. rmait/oH, to imclt. See 
0rDBlt, vuU and BuiJt. 


Enamour ; see Amatorr 

Encamp ; lee Oamp. 

EnoBBe ; see Capaoioua 

Encaustic, burnt in. (F. •> L. —Gk.) 

O. F. eticaustique.''V.. emaMfirtUt^Gk* 

ii(Kaoorf:6t, related to burniiig in. — Gk.if, 

in ; tmii, I butiL See Ciiim 

ink. (F.-U-Gk.) M. E. ^Jbr . • 
O. F. ffi</tu (F. rncre). mml^ rtcaus/ujn, the 
purple ink used by the Inter Roman 
pcrors; neut of incauftus, burnt in- — Glc 
l7KauffTofl. burnt in.—Gk. ^v. in; miX ' 
bum. (Cf. llal. inehiostr0, ink.) 

Enceinte \ see Oinoture. 

Enchant; sec Cant <i). 

Enchase : see Capacious. 

Encircle ; sec Olrcle. 

Enclino: see Incline. 

Eaclitic. iGk.) Gk. K«Xinir&. ff» 
cUning; ui^ed of a word wnlc^ 
accent upon another. — Gk. I'j 
lean upon, cncUnc. — Gk. Jr, on , 
lean \ stc Lean <i). 

Encloae ; see Clauae. 

Encomium; see Comedy. 

Encore, again. tF. - U) 
(— Ital. amord), again, 
for in katu Motxim, to 

Encounter : see Contra-, 

Encouro^; see Cordial. 

Encrinite, the stone lily. ^Gk) Cofscd 

this hour ; 


Kpivov, a U^; «ilb 

from Gk. ^, 

suffix -tTTJt, 

Encroach; see Croolc 
Encumber ; see Cumulate. 
Encyclioal, Enoyclopffidia j 


End. sb. (£.) M. E. enM. A. S. 
sb. + E)u. iinde, Iccl. emit, Sw 
tnde, Goth. anJdt, G. ^fh^* Skt. 
limit % Hence ibe prel'utea amit^ 
an- in an-rrver. 

Endoavour; see Habit. 

Endemic, peculiar tu a dUlrirt id.) 
Gk. h6T)fi'0%, belangtn|{ to n 
Gk. h, in ; 8q>t«, a people . 

Endive, a plant (F.-L.) V. jiM^InK* 
I., infuiiui. 

Endo^n ; see OoneiOa. 

Endorse; see Dara&l 

Endow ; sec dowager, under DatA 

Endue« to endow. iF. -I. • An 
spelling oi tnJoa); XVI K, 

^r (later enJauer), lo en 
L. Ml *»d t/atAi% to etun>M^ it 


dcnrry. 5c« B&dow. 

K« Amftiory. 

(F.-Gk.) O. F, tntrgU - 
, Tigtmr action **Gk kvifi^%^ 
Gk. 4*, in ; fpTov, at work ; 

; ttcc Snare. 

3 i^v^^l with t fief; see Fief. 
] tee File (I). 

see 0«««- 
r ; wc OenoB. 

; Kc Grain. 
; «(« Oravo (l). 

•ce Oro««. 

, to advance, augment (F.— 
emkMnt^m. [Of O. F. origin ; 
is oaly preserved io I'lo- 
ProT. fvuiUAr, to lurthcr, 
rtschV — O. Pror./Md»j. before, 
in antt, in Croat of, before ; sec 
\ "Wkt k is an English insertion. 

(L^Gk.) L. (rwfjfTOo- — Gk. 

m ^tSrt^mr-\ a riddle, dark 

. aMtftfopot. I ipcnk in ridilles. 

, a tale, starj. Der. angmat- 


R Join. 


B ; MX Light (IV 


»re Amatory. 
R Odium. 
LB; see NormaL 

^E.) M.f-1 irttfA. 

A. Sl gtndh, 

t -A.S gttudh 



il auflices. 
Pan. H9k. Swed. nog, Du. 
Goi b. f^'i/wAf, 1 be ^- 
_ (VNAK.) 
I see Sxempk 
ire ; we Table, 

'L.) M. F. /«/»ri«. -OF. 

imtrmrt, to go into —L. m. 

to aoss. overstep ; cf. 

SkL ni, to cross. Sec 


Entloe. f F.) M. E. mfiren. - O. F. ^«- 
tiegr, nuUhtr^ lo excite. Origin onknown. 

Entire ; see Tangent. 

Entity, being. (L.) A coined word, 
with tuffix -ty from L. ^w/«-, crude form of 
eni being: bee Essenae. 

Entomology ; »ee Tome. 

EntraUs : see Interior. 

Entreat ; sec Traoe ( i ). 

Enumerate: see Number. 

Enunciate; see Nonoio. 

Envelop. \F.-L. and Tent.) M. E. 
ewooiupai, —O, F. trweluper, later envt- 
hptTy to wrap in, wrap round, enfold. — F. 
<7i ( » L. i«). in : and a base volu^-, to wrap, 
of Tent origin ; this base u perfectly 
represented by M. E. whpfin, to wrap, 
which is merely another spelling of Wrap. 
Ant! see Lap 13^, Der. envelopt, sb. 

develop, to unfold, open out. (F,— L. 
tfffrt'Tcut.) F. d/vthffer. O. F. dtivehptr. 
- O. F. dts- { = L. dit- ), apart ; and the base 
Vf/o/i' OT voiup- ( above 1. 

Environ; sec Voor. 

Envoy ; sec Viaduct. 

Envy; sec Vision. 

Epaot. (F.-Gk.) O. F. epacte, nn addi- 
tion. the epact (a term in Astronomy).*. 
Gk. Itrarrut, added. ^-Gk. ivAyttv, to bring 
in, add. — Gk. Iir-, for M,to\ and Af*tv, 
to lead, bring. (y'AG.) 

Epaulet ; see Bpade. 

Ephah, a Hebrew measure. (Heb.— 
Ecypt.) Heb /fhiih, a measure ; of Egyp- 
tian origin ; Coptic //r, measure. 

Ephemerft. flics thai live for a day. 
(^Gk.) Xyi cent. — Gk. iiprintpa, neui. pL 
of itffTitifpof, la&tiog for a day. — Gk. ^ « 
iff/, for; ^nipa. a day. Der. tpkcmrr^^ 
adi , ephemer it (Gk. l^fitpiSf a diaryi. 

Ephod, part of the priest *s hablL (Ueb.) 
|{cb /p/iiid. a vestment. - Heb. d/Aad, lo 
put on. 

Epi-, ptrjix. <Gk.) Gk. M, upon. to. 
besides ; spelt epA' In tpk-emerat, ep- in 
*p Oik, ep-Ali. 

Epio, narrative. (L.— Gk.) L. epicus." 
Gk. iwtK&t, narrative •- Gk. fror, word, 
narrative, song ; see Voice. 

Epicene, of common gender. (L.^Gk.) 
L. r/fVirww/ — Gk. l-wi-ttinvox^ common — 
Gk, iiri; itoivtlj. common. 

Epicuro, a follower of Epicums. iL.— 
Gk.) L. £pi(yntt.^GV. 'EviNovpoi ; lit. 

Epioyole ; see Cyole. 

Epidemio, affecting >' (leople. (L.— Ok.^ 



Fomed from L. epidcmus, epidemic- ■•Gk. 
Ir/S^/iOE, among the people, general. — Gk. 
ivl, among; S^aioc. people. See Badomio. 

Epidermis ; see Derxo. 

BpigLottis; Me Olou (j\ 

Bpigram ; st-e Orunm&r. 

EpUopay. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.K. </>*/<•/• 
/!>, 'the falling sickness;' Cot.^L. epi- 
lepsia. "GV.. lirtAT^tia. iirUifi^itt a s«L(ure. — 
Gk. JviXo/i^dKiiK, to seize u)>vn. — Gk. 
<rl, on ; KantBii'uv^ to scitsc. Dor. epileptic 
(Gk. IvAi/irrtJfor). 

Bpilogue ; &ec liogio. 

Epiphany; see Phantoni. 

Epiacopal. ( F. - L. - GL.) O.V .episcopal. 
■- L. episcopalis, beloiignng to a bishop, 
-•L. tpiscoptts, a bishop.»Gk. Jvio«uiTtif, 
&a over-seer, bishop. * Gk. imi. upon ; 
VKovM, one that watdics. (V^I^AK.) Sec 

Episode, a story introduced into another. 
(Gk.) Gk. irrtiaaiot, a comiut> in besides. 
•»Gk. iw' (jwi). besides; fitroSov, an en- 
ttonce, «t(TiS5iot, coming in, froui tli, iii^ 
iW«, a way. 

Epistle ; see Stole. 

Epitaph. tK-L -Gk.) F epitaphe.~ 
L. epilaphium. — Gk. Irird^ios, upon a 
tomb. — Gk. ^iri, on ; T<i</KM, a lomK 

Epitholamium, a maninge-song. (L. 
»Gk-) L. epithciiamium.^ KjV. Iv^QaKh.^ 
fuw, bridal song. «Gk. 4irt, upon, lor; 
06Kan<K, bridc-chaiiibcr. 

Epithet; &cc Theme. 

Epitome; see Tomo. 

Epoch. (L. - Gk.) Low L. ep^cka.^ 
Gk. 'ffoxi^, a stop, pause, (ixerl date — Gk. 
iir- (^fft). upon; «x**'f ^ huld, check. 

Epode ; Mc Ode. 

Equal. (L.) L. aqualis, equaL - L. 
m^uj, just, exact. Ci. Skt. rjC-d. one. 

adequate, vl-*-) X'- aiiaqttatus, pp. of 
Oi/ai/uare, to uake ecjual to. — L. oi/. to ; 
tti/MHS, equal. 

equaxilmity, evenness of mind. (L) 
From L. aquanimitas, the iiame. — L. aquan- 
intis, of even temper, kind, — L. ^u-ta, 
equal ; animuj, mind. 

equation, a .statement of equality. iL.) 
L. ace. tiifuanetiem, an equali:^i^g; frotn 
pp. of atptare, to make equal. — L aquus^ 

equilibrium, even balancing. (L.) U 
o^uiN^Him. — L. aquilibris^ evenly 
balanced. — L. tttfui-^ lor iryuHt, even ; /i- 
ico/v. to balanoe ; sec Llbrete. 

ir/ar. tfU 


equinox. (F. — L.) F /^mwj-r- 
izquirt^ctium, time of equnl day and ni| 

— L. aqui , for a^mw, MCtfi-, aude f) 
of ffi7x. a niuht : see Night. 

equipollent, equally potent. (P.^ 
O. F. equipoleni.^i^. tr^vtpai.'i 
af/uipcflens. of equal power. - ; 
eefuui\ pollens, pre*, pt of /t....... ;« 


equity. (F. - L.) O. F. egmiti, « 
tti/iiifa/em^ ace of ^uiUUt cqui^. « I 
»p4us, equal. 

equivalent. (F.«L.) O. F. tqmtmh 

— L. ctquiuaUnt , sicm of pres. pL 
tttfurttalert, to be of equnl force. — L. tffM 
((T^wMi; uatere^ to be worth; «re Val' 

equivocal. (L) Formed from 
t»qmuceut. of doubtful sense — L. tf^ 
{let/Hus) ; WA'-, stem of iMUr, voice, scn« 
see Voice. Der. equivoe-ate^ to f| 
doubti'ully. ^ So aUo equi-<m^ular, 
multiple^ iScc. 

iniquity, vice. (F. — U) 
iquiUe. — F. initfuife.— L. iuiyuitt 
of imquitas, injustice. — L. wi. not : tfyifA 
equity; see equity ^above). 

Kquerry. an oO'tcer who has chaise 
hordes and stables. (F.-O. H. G.) Pi 
jieily equerry means a stable, and tnod. 
equeriy stands ioi equerry- mart. -F. A*/ 
O. F. esturie, a st.ible; Low L Kttrti, 
Stable. - O. il. G. skUra, Uuu% 
sfhauer), a shelter, stable. (V^^ 
% Spelt equerry to tnake it look n 
allied to equiMt. 

Equestrian ; see Bquine. 

Equilibrium: sec Equal. 

Equiuo. vi-.) L. etfututu, reUling 
honses. — L. equus, a horse, 4' ^^k r 
lKKot\ SkL af.T'u, lit 'runnt't,' (^AK.) 
equestrian. (L.) Fonncd from 
equesiri , crude forin of equesftr, beloogil 
to horsemen. — 1» equa, a honcmsa. 
equus, a horbc. 

Eqtiinox ; see Bqnal. 

Equip, to furnish, fit out. (F * 
O. F. tqnipcr, tsquiper, to Kt oat.«£ 
jkipa, to Bet in onler, allied to 
shape. Allied to Shape. I>er, €\ 
■me tit. 

Equipollent, Equity; sec EqobL 

Equivalent. Equivocal : see £q 

Era. (I.) L. ara. ait era, (weA 
From a tvirtlcular sciuc of tfn*, 
(for calculation)* pi- ol 'J^. brw^ 

Eradicate ; sec Badlx. 

Sraee; sec Bone. 



(E.) M.E. ir. A. S. rfr, 
; prep. ^dr. uid conj. ^ Du. 
O. H. G. /r,G. thtr, Goth. 
Iy» looo. % A poiticive. not a 

(E) M. E. rfr/y. A. S. 
fiutn ^r//r *, adj . not used.* 
ft: J&, like 

Kt. (E.) M, E fr$t. A. S. 
. of Jr, soon. 

(E.) M. E tfr, *r, ar, vari- 
//y. A. S. t^r ^above). (In 
' rrt, or tver.) 

U«t. ^F.-0. H. G.) M. E 

F, trmint (F. hermitu).— 

/«, cnnine-fur (G. emtilin) 

karmfif u ennine. 4* A S. 

/sann&. f Littre ap> 

ion from Armenius mus, 

cf. PctUifus mm, an 


k.) Gk. i^tn'utSt, rclatini; to 
iptrr^, cnide form of Ipatt, 



y. (F,-L.) M.E 
,— 1* irrsrtt to wander ^fo^ 
G ifTWf. to stray, Goth. 
tkAke to stray. («^AK.) 

a. tL.1 From L. ace a^rr- 
Vraadcrmg (lom ; from pp. of 
wander from. 
aa error. ^L.) L. grrafum, 
frrare, to male a mi«>lake. 
hiolty. (U) Put for U 
■drring —I* trran (above). 
F. - L.) M E /"wr. - L. 
c of irrw, a mUtake. — L. 

^E) M. E. ertnJt. A. S. 

mesti^ buatncsa. -f* ^'^1- 

'i, ^wnl.^mnvt/r, Dan. arenJe\ 

tmri, a meKa;i^ The form of 

ih»t of an old pr« pt- i pcr- 

i£ ' from VAR. to go, 

g. (F.-I*T F errantt 
rrer, ttr^r, to wander. 
«l * L. tlfr^ a journey, 

! Bubr. 
^L.) From j-p of L. eruffare, 
.«>L.#.otii! rwtart. to belch; 
in, to bcUow. (VKU ) 


Oft (he akin (!>. 

• Gk.) L. trysipelat. •• Gk. ipvaimXai, 
redncfis on the skin — Gk. ipvvi-f for 
ifnrQ-p6%, red; viXKa, skin. 

Escalade : htx Scan. 

Escape; see Caps (iV 

Escarpment ; sec Sharp. 

Escheat ; sec Cadeuoe. 

Eschew; sec Shy. 

E»curt ; sec BeRent. 

Esculent ; see Edible. 

Escutcheon ; Eftqoire. 

Esophagus, gulitt, tL.-Gk.l Late U 
rf/c/Z/a^T/r. — Gk. olao^^ot, the gTillet, lit. 
cuiivejer of food. — Gk otaai. I shall carry, 
from a base ot-. lo carry (Skt. vi^ to drirc) ; 
tpay-, base of ^a7ftV, to eaU 

Esoteric. (Gk.) Gk. (avrtpuci%, inner; 
hence, secret. — Gk. Icirrtpn^, inner, comp. 
of iaai, adv., within; from U»*li, Into, 
preji. Opposed to exoUfU. 

Espalier; s^e Spade. 

Especial: see Species. 

Esplanade ; ace Plain. 

Espouse: aee Sponaor. 

Espy : see Speoles. 

Esqtiire, a shield- bearer. (?. — L.) M . E. 
squytr.^O. F. (smyer, esnner, a s<iuirc.— 
Low L. sfufarius, a •hield-bcftrer. — L. 
uutum, a shield, cover vF. iVw). (^SKU.) 
Doublet, squirt. 

escutcheon, scutcheon, a painted 
aliicld. (F. — L.) Konueily sm/c/iion, 
sfurAin; XVI cent — O. F. escuuan. the 
same; answering to a Low L. ace scutio- 
ntm *, extended from L. uu/um, a shield. 

Eeeay. Assay, on attempt, trial. (F.— 
L. — Lik.) O. F. ;j5a>. a trial.— L.^xd^'w'/>. 
a trial of weight. — Gk. Jf^ior, a welghingi^^M 
^G\i. ila-ftiv, to lead out, export goodtu^^^| 
-Gk. ii, out: ^y*iy. to lead. (.VAG.i ^^^ 

Essence, a r|u.ility, being. (F — L.) F. 
fjtctut. — h. ejs£tiJia, a being. — L. tsstnt-, 
stem of old prcs, part of tsse^ to tte. 
(^AS.) See la. Der. tatnti-al ; and 
m:c tniity, 

quintessence, pure essence. (F — L.) 
Lit. • fifth essence.' — L. ^inta essentia^ fifth 
essence (in aiklition lo the foor elements). 

Establish, Estate ; see State. 

Esteem, to value. (F.-L.) O. F. «/#■ 
mtr. — L. astimort, O. L. mstumart, to 
value. Allied to Sabine aisos, prayer, Skt. 
iih, lo de&ire. (V^-^ 

aim. to endeavour after. (F— L.) M.E 
ttmen. — O. F. iutmer^ tsmtr^ to estimate, 
aim at, intend. — L. a/( and itttima.*^ tQ 




estimate. (L.) From pp. of L. ttrti- 
marg, to value (nhove). 

Estrange ; see Exterior. 

Estuary, mouih of n tidal riTcr. (1..) 
L trstuarium, the same. * L. trituan^^ to 
»urgc, foftm as the tide.^I*. «x/iu, heal, 
surge, title. (VIDH.) 

Btoh : see Eat. 

Eternal. (F. - L.) M. E. tumtl. - F. 
tltrntt. — L aiermiiit, eternal. — L. attmuj, 
lit. lasting for an age ; put for ^tii-Umuj*. 
*L. *eui-, for anum, on age. See Age. 

Ether, pure upper air. (I... — Gk.) L. 
a//itr. - Gk. al^p, upper air; from iu 
t'lt^wing — Gk. a($ttv, to glow. (^IDH.) 

Ethic, relating lo custom. (L, — Gk.) 
I.. t/AiiUJ. moral. — Gk. ^6tituf, moral.— 
Gk. Jj^ot, custom, moral nature; cf. i$ot, 
manner, custom. + Goth, tii/w, G. n//e, 
custom: Skt. svaJhd, self-will, strcngtb. 
from JTW, self, fihti, to place. 

Ethnic, relating to a nation. (L. — Gk.) 
L. ^Mn/iKj. — Gk. i0viH6i, national. * Gk. 
iBvns, a nation. 

Etiquette ; see Stick (i). 

Etymou, the tnie aource of a word. 
(L.*Gk.) L^ etymon. ^GV, irvfiov \ neuL 
aUrv^Mst, real, true. — Gk. Iriut, tnie. Al- 
lied to Booth. 

etymology. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
ttymcfpip'f. — L. etymohgia. — Gk. Jru/fo- 
Ao^i'a, etymology. — Gk.ery/io-!, tnie ;*A*7fa, 
Recount, frura \ituv, to si:>eiik. 

Eu-, prefix, well (Gk.) Gk. tZ. well ; 
neut. of ivt, good, put for ^a-vr*, real, from 
V AS, to be. 

Eucharist, the I^rd'&Sopper, lit. thanks- 
giving, (I.,- «• Gk.) L. c$tchanstia -• Gk. 
iitX<ifi*^rla, a giving of thanks. — Gk. «5, 
well ; x"P*(^t^'' I shew favour, from x^fi**t 
favour (VGHAR.) 

Eulogy ; Kc liOgio. 

Eunuch, one who is castrated. (H« 
Gk.) L. eunuchut. •- Gk. tvv <M\ot, a 
diajbbcrlain ; one who had charge of 
ilceping apartments. — Gk. fVK^, a couch; 
ix^iv, to keep, have in charge. 

Euphemiazn, a Kiftcned expression. 
(Gk.) Gk. <6(f»7/ijcr/«!i, the same as tinp^fAia, 
the use of woris of good omen.— Gk. tZ, 
well ; -Pfifil, I i].»cnk. (V BHA.) 

Euphony. (Gk.) Gk. t ^o/vfa, a pleas- 
iiti^ sound. — Gk. <£>^<<M'ui, swl-cI voiced.— 
Ck •!, well; (f^atvri, voice, (y liHA.) 

Euphrasy, the plant eye bright. (Gk.) 
Supiioscd lo be berieficial to the eyes; lit. 
•drlight.' - Gk. lOfpaah, delight. - Gk. 


t^pnlvtir, to delight, cheer— '^'^ ** 
^ptr-, hast of 'Ppi*', midriff, h-. 
Euphuism, aflectation ill s[-^ 
So named from a book EHf-kmrs, bi 
Lyly (i57o>.-Gk. ffi^^y. well grovm,' 
ccllent— Gk. <Z^ well; ^wj, growth, frt 
^iJo;*(u, I grow. (^ BIIU.) 
Buroolydon, a tcmpestnouswind. (Gl 
Gk. t\ifiOKAvlw¥, supposed to mean 
storm from the east.'— Gk. «9po-c. S 
wind ; xAilSan', &urge, from KAiJ^fv, 
surge, dash as waves. 
Euthanasia, easv death. (Gk.) C 
rOtfoKairfa, easy death : cf. c^PfiFsrat, dyil 
well. — Gk, fv. well ; tforciV, to die- 
Evacuate; see Tacatiou. 
Evade, to shun. (T.-L.) F. evutkr. 
L. euaJtrr (pp. tuasus). to escape.- L 
away ; uatUrt, to go. Der. tvas iom <frg 
the pp.) 

invade. (F. - L.) F. trrvtu'tr, - 
in-uadtre (pp. ittuatm'), to enter, iuva'' 

— L. in, in ; uaiiere, Der. inx^as ton. 
pervade. (L) L. ptr-wuitrt, to 


Evanescent ; see Vain. 

Evangelist, writer of a gospel. (T. 
Lk — Gk.) O. ?.rvan^tisU.^h ev^nffi 
iffa — Gk. fta-yytAitfTT^f.- Gk. fvayyiAdl 
a reward for good tidings. gonieL^G 
e5, well; d77#Aio. tidings, fiom dyytKttf 
messenger; sec An«ol. 

Evaporate ; see Vapour. 

Evasion ; sec Evade. 

Eve, Even, the latter part of the 
(K) £ve ii short for /v^« ; (for 
see below). M. E. w/, eum, A 
//m. ^ O. Sax. (ffdW, IccI ofian^ 
afton^ Dan. aflen, G. abend. Soppotdl 
mean the ' after ' part of the <Uy ; aUiid 
Aft. Cf. Skt. d^ra. posterior; ^a4B 
dhyd, evening twilight Dttr. tvtm- 
evening, even. (£.) M. E 

A.S iftttm^, put for rf''— -• • 

from ci/fw, even, with m 

Even, level. (E.) Ml 
e/en, e/n^Vhi. e7>en, Iccl. *a/», Dan 
Swcd. yrt«», Goth. i^#M, G then 

anent, regarding, ^ 
(E.) M. E. djwit/. mtii 
anc/rnf, whtrC the / is e» 
andctt, flnf/en, near I aUo writ 

— AS PM.on; e/en, e\cn- Hesi 
even with, on an equaliljr wiih.<^C 
(for in eden). 

Ever. (£.) M. E. imr (omt^ A- 



KcUtcd to A. S. Jwa. Goth 
!l3*r. ftvr-iojfmg; n^ir-mart. 
kcit one. (E.) M. E. euiri, 
,& ^rt, ever; tf/r. each (Sc. 
'»<s«r^tffib ; tee Sfteh. 

(E.) M. E. twrihxMr. 
r, net; gtkunrr, where. The 
ttinds for tvir-yufhert, i.e. 
/- i» » mere prefix (— ^O- 
|i tec Tisioa. 

M. E. eutL A. S. yM, arlj. 

fo. tUVtl, («. M^//. Gotfl. H^l/j, 

Swc<l »/.'d, Dan j'/iii'. i)l, arlv. 
id.) Icel. ilir, cogn&te wilb 
it it % contncted form. 
•cc Violop. 
||« ; sec Vi«0«rft. 
« Volublo. 
M E. ruv. A. S town, A 
^ Du. «?i. Icel. «;-, M.H. G. 
t. «M>, ft «herp, Kuiis. tff//a, 
r At ; Skt tft'j, K tbeep, orig. 
m dvi>, devoted^ fttUiched. 

^tjix. (L) L.ex; /, out, + 
'"lus. u*, oat, 
ice Acid. 

{^%) to demand; tee 


tee Acent. 

tee Oav«. 

(F-L.) O.K. «. 

to raise ; to saipotA. 

r*r lo drive, oofy in 



a ■elected patuge. (L.) L. 

«n «tr«ct ; oeut. of pp. of 

•elect. — L. ur, out; car^rt^ 

•coicc, acuity, oiggord (F. 

I* umrfnUt lihort form of 

tDbttimte for L. /x* 

, lo tclcct ^above). 

picked out. teJect, 




I Bxchaquer ; tee Cheolr. 

, Exoiae, s (ax: see Sedentary. 

Sxdslon ; see Ctesura. 

Bxolaim ; see CUim. 

Bzduda ; tee Olauso. 

Excoxomunioate ; tec Common. 

Excoriate ; see Cuirass. 

Excrement ; f>cc Concern. 

Excreeccnce; see Croaoent. 

Excretion ; tee Concern. 

Excruciate ; see Crook. 

Exculpate ; tee Culpable. 

Excursion ; see Current. 

Excuse ; see Cause. 

Execrate ; tee Baored. 

Execute ; see Sequenoe. 

Exegesis, exposition. ^Gk.) GI1. l(ii- 
yflffit, interpretation. — Gk. I^rj-yttafiai, to 
explain. — Glc 4(, out; ^yttafiai, to guide, 
from Ayttf, to lead. {^ AG.) 

Exemplar, Exemplify ; tee Exempt. 

Exempt, freed. (F. - L.) O. F. /x/w//; 
whence txemfiter, to exempt, free, — L. rx- 
tmptuSt pp. oi ex-inure^ lo take out, deliver, 
ficc. — I*Mr, out; rm/r«, to take. (V AM.) 
assume. (L.) L. assumtrt (pp. as- 
sumpfHs), to take to onc&clf. — L. as-, for 
aJ, to ; sutmre, to take, which stands for 
iuh imert *, from tub, under, secretly, and 
tmin, to take. Der. ajxum/f'ieft (from 
the pp.). 

consume. (L.) L. conit*mtrt, \i\. to 
take wholly. » ll cffti- {cum), together, 
wholly ; ntmtrr, to take, for which see 
above. Oer. <CHsum^-ioH (from the pp.). 
ensample. (F.— L.) ME. tnsampU. 
• O. F. tnsixmple, corrupt form o^ txamfU, 
tsfm/U.^L. exemplum, a sample, pattern. 

— L. AT/ffw/v, to select a sample. ^L. tx, 
out ; tmert, (o lake. 

example. (F. — L.) O. F. txampU. 
F. txempU. — L. exemplum (above). 
exemplar. (F. — L.) M. E. exfmp/aire. 

— O. F. ex^mp/aire.m'h. txemplarium, late 
form of txtm/iar, a copy (to which the 
mod. E. word is now confomcd). — L. ex* 
tmptarii, adj., serving as a copy. — U tX' 
tmplum ; see enaomple above. Der. tx- 
impiar-y ( - O. F. txtmplairt). 

exemplify, to shew by example. (F. 

— L.) A coined word; as if from F. /x* 
empiijier'*-. — Low L. txtmplijicart, pro- 
perly * to copy out.* — L. esempii; for ex- 
tmplum^ a copy ; fatttr, to make. 

impromptu, a thing said ofT hand. 
(F. — L. ) K. impromptu. — 1* in prpmpiu, 
in readiness; where promptu ia abl. of 



fram/tM, & sb. formed from fromtrt, ti» 
bring forward; see prompt (below). 

X>Gremptory, decisive. (F. - L.) F. 
ptreniptoirt.-^V.. ptrtmftorius^ destructive, 
ded<>ive.~U peremptory a destroyer. — 1^ 
pertmptus^ pp. of per-imen, to take away 
entirely, destroy. — L. /^r, utterly; emert, 
to take. 

premium. (L.) h. pnrmium, profit; 
lit. *a taking before,' put for pra-imium *. 
«- L. ptir^ before ; emere, to take. 

proBume. (F.-L.) }A.^. prerumfn. 
^0.¥. presumer.— l^ pra-ntmere, to take 
beforeh&nd, presume, imagine. — U. prj', 
before ; sumert, to take ; sec assume 
aliovc. Bar. praumpt - wh, &c. (from 
the pp.). 

prompt. (F. - L.) F. prompt. - L. 
prvmptum, ace. of frompfus, promttis, 
brought to light, at hand, ready, pp. of 
promert, to bring forward. — L. pro, for- 
ward ; imert, to take, bi ing. 

ransom, redemption. (,F.*L.) M. E. 
rttMJfiun (with frnal n). — O. F. raertion^ 
later nxn^oH, a ransom. — L. redtmpthnem, 
ace. of redemptia, a buying back. «• L. 
ndemptus, pp. of rtdimere, to redeem ; 
iee redeem below. Doublet, rtdtmp- 

redeem, to atone for. (F. - L.) F. 
rtdimer^ * to redeem ;' Cot. — L. rtdimere, 
to bny back. — I.h red; back; emere, to 
take, parcfaose. Der. rtdempt-icn (from 
the pp. reiiempfiii). 

resume, to take up again. (F. * L.) 
F. returner.^ L. resumere.^L. re-, again; 
mmert, to take; see auume (above). 
Der. rtsumpt-ion (from pp. rtrumptus). 

sample. (F. — L.) M.£. sampU. -* 
O. F. etsempUf example \ &ee ensample 

sampler. (F. - L.) O. F. examphirt 
(XIV cent.), the »ame as exemplaire, a 
pattern ; see exemplar nbove 

sumptuary, relating to expenses. (L.) 
L. lumpfuan'us, adj. from tumptt*-s, ex- 
pense. See below. 

sumptuous, costly. (F.-L.) F. ««/- 
tiuux tCot ) — L, ittrnftuosuj, cositly— L- 
sumptus, expense. — L. rumpfus, pp. of 
Tumerr, to lake, use, spend; lee aaaume 

£xequiea; see Sequence. 

£xerciae, »b. (F.-L.) ME. wcrnrrr 

O. F. txercite. -• L. exercitittm, exercise. — L. 

exerti/us, pp. of exenrert, to dnve out of 

aa enclocsure, drive oo, act at work. — I. ex. 


out ; aiTfre, to enclose ; see ArtL 
exenise, vb. 

Bxert ; see Seriea. 

Exfoliate: see Foliag:^. 

Exhale. (^F— L.) F exkaUrJ 
halare, to brcatlis out. — L. rx, 
to breathe. 

Inhale. (L.) L* in-hckrt, 
in, draw in breath. 

Sxhaust (L.) l^exhamfftf, 
haurire, to draw out, drink tip.*! 
out ; haurirt, to draw water. 

Exhibit ; see Habit. 

Exhilarate: see HUarit/. 

£xhort ; sec Hortatory. 

Exhume ; see Hmnble. 

Exigent ; see Agent. 

ExUe; see Bole (i). 

Exist ; see State. 

Exit ; see Itinerant. 

Exodus, departure. (L. — Gk.) 

— Gk. (^o8ot, a going out.~Ck.^ 
oVf, a way, a march. (^SAF 

Exogen ; see Oeneslj. 

Exonerate ; see Oneroua. 

Exorbitant ; see Orb. 

Exorcise. (L. -Gk.) Late L.. 
-Gk. jfopWCn**. to drive away bysd 
tion. — Gk' k(, away; Aftxl^tip, to sa 
from vpKOT, aa oath. 

Exordium. (L.) L, gxonitmm^ a 
ginning. — L. exordiri, to begin, to wi 

— L. rj; and ordiri, (o bei;in, wrav«. 
Exoteric, external. <Gk.) Gk. 1^ 

fhKt^c, cutemaL — Gk. l^arripat, more ovtn 
comp. of adv. t^ot, outward, (rem 
exotio, foreiga. (L.-Gkp Uj 

— Gk. jfduritf^f, outward, (oreij 
fffu, adv., outward, from i(, oat. 

Expand, Expanse : see PateoL 
Expatiate: sec Space. ^m 

Expatriate ; see Paternal. ^| 
Expect ; see Speoiea. ^H 

Expectorate , see Feot^mL 
Expedite ; tee Pedal 
Expel: sec Pulsate. 
Expend ; see Pendant. 
Experience, Expert; see 
Expiate ; see Pioua, 
Expire : ice Spirit. 
Explain ; see Plain. 
Expletive : ^cc Plernaox. 
Explicate. Explicit ; tec Ply. 
Explode; ice Plaudit. 
Exploit: see FI7. 
Explore ; &cc Doplore. 
Exponent ; sec PoeftlMi. 

X win 


art: see Fart (s). 

jne; see Fom (i). 
ssition ; see Position. 
:)8lu]ate ; see FoatuUt*. 
>iuid ; 9te Position, 
ress : »« Prou. 
ulsion ; kc Falaftte 
unge ; see Fungcnt 
urgate ; sec Piir». 
lllsite ; MTf Qnory. 
tnt i sec Btnte. 
my : set StaticB. 
rmpore ; see Temporal. 
Fnd ; sec Tend, 
inuate : mc Tenuity, 
nrfor, oiilward. (F. — l.) Formerly 
•*r. w O. F. exUHfur. — l^.exffiiorem, 
I txftrior, outlaid. couip:ii3ttve of 
t or txttr. outward. «■ L. tx, out; 
nnpar. siiflluE •/rr ( « Aryan -/ar). 
^n^, to make strange. (K. — L.) 
Irangrr, to make strange. — F. 
»r. strange. — L. exfranrum, ncc. of 
tm, foreigri. on \\\t outside. — L. 
without ; are extr* below. 
smaJ, outward. (L.) From L. 
Htf, outward, extended form from 
>, oohvard (above), 
tft. (L.) L. £r/na, beyond, beyond 
■ necessary ; pui for rxf^rd = txUrd 
on the outtr side, where exUrti is 
i. abL oi exterttt ; sec Gxterior. 
raneouB. iL.) L. exfnutcus, ex- 
; extended from exfra (above). 
reme. (F. - L.) O. F. extr<me. - 
•'fPfMc/, supcrl. of txterus, outward ; 
t^rior '^ar<ove). 

rixwic, external. (F.-L.) It should 
be txtrittscc. —OF. txtrinstqutj 
d. — L. txirimeau^ adv., from 
t.^l^txtrin ( — ^j^rtjw*). adverbial 
from txur^ OQiwnrd ; and x/ruj, 
;, »o that txtrin-secus ~ on the out- 
Suctu is allied to secuHi/um, accord 
from sf^ui, to foUow ; kc Sequence. 
mg». foreign, odd. (F. - L.) 
jfram^ ; kc eatraiige (abov«). 



Bxtermlnate ; tee Term. 

Bxtemal ; ^ee Exterior. 

Extinguish; sec Distinguish 

Extirpate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
txtirfart, to root out, better spelt exstirp- 
are, to ptuck tip by the stem. — L. ex, 
out ; stirfs, stir/r^t the stem of a tree. 

Extol : see Tolerate. 

Extort ; see Torture. 

Extra, Extraneous ; see Bxterlor. 

Extract; see Trace (i^. 

Extraordinary ; see Order. 

Extravagant ; see Vasue. 

Extravosate ; ace Vaso. 

Extreme ; sec Exterior. 

Extricate ; see Intricate. 

Extrinsic ; see Exterior. 

Extrude ; see Intrude. 

Exuberant. (L.) From stem of ores. 

fit, of L. exubemre^ to be fruitful or 
uxijiiant — L. ex; and uberare, to be 
fruitful, from uier, an udder, fertility ; see 

Exude ; see Sudatory. 

Extilt ; ace Salient. 

Exutrice, cast skins of animaU. ^L,) 
L. exuuiec, things stripped off. — L. exutre, 
to strip off. 

Eye. ^E.) ME eye, eighei nl. eya^ 
tyen (whence eyne), A. S. t^, pi eAgan. 
■+■ Du. cog, Icel. aii^, Don. pit, Swtil. 
iiga, Goth. augo. G. augt, Kas«. oko, L. 
ocuftu (dimin. of a'mj*); O. Ok. 0x«or ; 
Skt. aksha, {^ AK.) Der. dais-y, q. t. ; 
U'iHi{-ow, q. v, 

eyelet-hole. (F.*L.;«m/E.) Eyelet v* 
pet for O. F. ceiiUt, ' a little eye, an oilct 
hole/ Cot ; dimin. of O. F. 0tii, from L. 
oculum, acc- of ociifus^ tyt. 

Eyot, a little i land. (Scand.> Also 
spelt ait. eyet, eyght. From M. E. /i, an 
island =< Icel. ey, an island ; with dimin. 
snfFix -tt, as in hefm-tt. ITie A. S. form is 
igo^, igeafS ; where ig is cognate with IceL 
ty ; see lalaad. 

Esrro : &ce Itlnorant. 

Eyry. a nest ; see Aery. 


[sec Fftie. 

; F. - L.) F. /ahn'tiue. - L. 

rkshop, fabric. — L. fabri-, for 

>rkntaii. — L. fa-, to put. do, 

Jacere, to makel, with suffix 

\t agent (^ DHAO I>»r. 

/cUfrU-ate, fiom pp. of L. fa^riean, to 

forge. (F.-I..) 
shop.— L. fabrica^ 
"Der. forge, vb. 
Facade ; see 7ao«. 

O. F. forge, a work- 
a workshop (above). 



Face. (F.-L) F./ar/.-L. /rriVw. ace 

nl fades, the face, appearaoce. (V l^ilA) 

dafaca. (K. - L.) M E. dt/aim. — 
O. F. dtsfacer^ lo dcrnce, distigurc. — OF. 
(IVj- ( = L. (/«-)» apai t ; face, face (nbovc). 

efface. (F.-L.) F. eftuer.^r.ef- - 
L, W"-, for rx. out; aiul/fl« (^above). 

fafade, face of a building. (F.-Ttal - 
L.) ¥, facaJe tCot.)*-Ita1. /aca'ata, face 
of a building * Ital. fatcia, face. » L. 
faiiem.^QC oi faciei, face. 

superficicB. (L.) L. xu/erjida, sur- 
face, outer face. — L. tu/tr,Mho\c;/attej, 

sur&ce. (F. — L.) F. xutface, upper 
face. — F. lur, above ; j^r, face.«-L. r«/^r, 
above ; fades, face. 
FacetioUB, (K. - L.^ F. faeetieux 
(Cot )«-0. F. /if^/«, 'witly miith,' id.- 
L. facetia. wil ; common in pi. — L. facttm, 
couit(.-ous ; orig. fair, allied to \,. fades. 
Facile ; sec Foot. 

Fact, a deed, reality. (L.) L. factum, 
a deed ; orig. ncuL offitefMS, pp. oi facere, 
to make, da c V DH A.) 

affair. (F.-L.) M.E. a^frt -O. F. 
afeire. afaire, a business ; orig. a fain, i. e. 
(*u I lie thing) to do. — L. o^, iii'\fii£ert. lo do, 

affect. (L.) L, affectate, lo appi/ 
oneself lo (hence, to act upon); fretjuetit 
of afficcrt^ to aim at, treat— L. af- «- aJ, 
to ; facert, to do, act. Der. dis-cffecU 

comfit, sb. (F.-L.) Formerly ««/f^ 
tonfite. — (^.F.rtf'iyfi'.Ut.conrected, prepared ; 
pp. of confire — L. conjicert, to put together. 
— L. ccn- ieum), togtlhcr ; facere, to put. 

oonfect, to make np into sweetmeats. 
(L.) L. eonfectns, pp. of eonJUere, to put 
logclher. make up (above). Der. eon/ect- 
ion, confechum'tr. 

coimterfeit, imitated. (F.-L.) M. E. 
ccitnUrfeit.^<.). F. contrefait, pp. of eontre' 
fain, lo imitate —F. centre, over against, 
likc;7^(r^, to make. — X^ cintr^, against; 
facere, to make. 

defeaAanoe. a rendering null (F.^L.) 
O. Nonnan F. law-term difeisanci. a render- 
ing void.— O. F. deftiaant, ptcs. pait. of 
defaire, dts/aire, to render void. — O, F. dts- 
(L, dis-), aj.iiiit ; faire {\*. facere), lo make. 

defeat. (F.-L.) M. E. defailen. to 
defeat. — O. F. difait. desfait, pp. of defaire, 
disfairtf to render void ^above). 

defbot. (L.) L. defectw. a want.*L. 
eUfectus. pp. of dcfictre, lo fail, orig. to 
vndo. - L dV, down; fann^ lo nuke. 
Der, deftct-iffm, 


deflaient. (L.) From stem of pes. pi 
of de/cere, to fail (nbovc). 

deficit, Uck. (L.) L. de/dt. It fidb 
3 p. s. pre*, of de/icere (above). 

difTioulty. (t.-L) M £ diJScufta 
-O. F. diJuu/tr.^L. difficMltaltm, ace 
difficultas (put for diJidHtas^), dilTiciilifl 
-L. dijidlis, hard.-L- dif- (for dij\ 
apart ; fadlis, csisy ; sec faoiU (below) 

diacomfit. (F.-L) O.V.destvnjH 
pp. of disconjire, 'to discomlit. dcftaW 
Col. - O. F. dts' \ = L. rf;>-). apait ; r»*yiX 
lo picsei ve, prepare ; sec oomllt tibova 

effoct. (F. - L) O. F. efrt<t. - 
effectum, ace. of effectus, an enect, — 
effectust pp. of eju^ert, to work out. — I 
ef"=^ex, out, thoroughly ; facere^ to do. 

efBcaoy, force, virtue. (L.) L e^adt 
crfecUvc powci. — L. ejfficac*, iot efficast^ 
efficacious —L efficen (above). 

efficient. \L^ From stem of pKS. pi 
of cfficere, to work out (above). 

fkoUe, easy to do. (F.-U) f.fadk 
w^\..facilis, i.e. do*ablc. — L-yJ^rnr, to 

fac-Btmile. (L.> Shurt for ft 
simile, made like L.>^/wM, neuLOf^ 
o(facert, to make ; simi/e* ncul. of siMihSf 
like ; see Similar. 

Action. (F.-U) r. factiim, a sect 
— L. f actionem, ace. of jacdo, a d"iftg| 
taking part, faction. — l^yoc/w/, pp. ol/ii 
cere, to do. 

faotiticus. (L.) U faaitim, 
QioX.^L.. /actus, y^. of facere, to mole 

factotum. (L.) A gci>cral agefit«»L 
fac-ere totum, to do everything. 

faculty, facility to act. (F,-U) M.K 
facuiiee. — F. facultc. — L, facuttatem^ 
oifacuitm {^fan/itas*), faciliCy.*L^ 
iJts, easy; see faoile above. 

Cashloa. (F.-L) (J.¥.faceon,fii.J^ 
make, %hipc.^ L.factioiuM, acc oi faci 
a making ; see faotion above. 

feaaibie, ea.qr to be done. (F. • 
[Belter fdsaSU.] - 0. F. fdsabU. faii^'i 
'feasible, doable;* Col. -O I 
prcs part, offaire^ to do, — h.jr. 

fetich, fetish, an object of su[«rsi 
worshio vF. - Port. - L.) F. A* " 
Port. yr/Vi'pp. borcery, lil. artificial; 
name given by the Fori, to the 
made idols of Afnc-a. — l^facdtiuj, 
^\, fact-uj, pp. offaccrt, lo make. 

fbat. a deed vvdl done. iF,— I.) 
feet, feiie. - O. F. fait. - L fact»m, a dcftl 
Ke Faot. 

fiaature, make, form. (F.«L.) IL 


ktittu — \*.faaui^ pp. ol/tutre. 


H decree. (L.) L/o/, let it tc 
mI. Ap^ I become ; used as pass, of 
, to Oo. 

hct, to Uinl (F.-L) ME. inftct, 
,; abo imftcun, verb —O K r'/i/rr/, 
Dd. • L. inftttHj, pp. of in-firere, to 
^ djre, diin. — U f'/, iti:y<irf/Y. to put 
pflMft^ -K -' ■' ^' » ''•'■' Ajj^iV. 

Nft pp. '-Jl . ■ . ic. 

iteel, « ^vetoor. ^F.-L.} M. P.. 
t - O. r. ^/«^ (F. prifil). - L. 
"ftM, one lel over olhcn; pp. oi pra- 
to Ml before. — L. prm-, fwfore ; 
I lo make. 

lOeieQt. (I..) L,/»rp/>/>ff/-, stem of 
pC oi prv^Jiftrt, to make progress, ad 
— L./r». forward ; facere. lo make. 
3fiL (F.-L.) M.t //^^V.-F./ro- 
U prt^tiium, aeut. of pr^fattu, pp. 
■iwrr, to make pro^ieu, be prolit- 

mSooi, nfrnhmcaL (F. - L.) F. 

Em, • yqiftst. «• L. aoc. rt/ttticHtm, 

Rmtkiag. — L. n/una, pp. ^irefiun, 

ukc, ffcfttorc — ll «-, a^iiin ; faart. 

BaaL (F.-L.) From F. jm^j-, base 

^h-mmt, f9tu pt of Jujire, to suffice. 

mfit4ft, lo »upply. — U iuf-'^sub^ 

l/vert, lo niaKe, put. 

fOmttnt iU) j'foin (he stem of 

pt o4 L. m^tft, 10 ku0ice (above). 

flWt. »b. ^F. - U) O. F. /«-/a//, 

/, exoetsi on'g. pp. of s^r/'airt, to 

rzit, exaggerate. — L, iuf^f, above ; 

. to fuake. 

m ; »cc yatuoua. 

lye, to turti out, ncceckJ. (E.) M. K. 

r* luut louiul^. A. S./i^poftt to lit 

ItoPaol fVfAK.) 

)••. (.L) L. /a*//, dregs; pi of 

Ibe aaine. J>9r. ftt -mUm, L. /iv-m- 

aiSJ. (fom/itjr. 
teoate. (L.) From pp. of Htfacart, 
I fircd» diie(;s. — L. dSf-, out ; yWir*, »tcm 
r (ilwTe). 
:. to drvlc* (E.I) *To/v, defi- 

L«vi»% (if;o). The orig seoic is 
Mp.* F^bafx a oomiptioo oi/ag, 
[i); aad %tt bcJow. 

nsUMM. t £■ ?) Ill Mauiiifer. 
^. Pvrtiaptf fot Jlag-^Hit - 

(F.-L.?) F./V. 



'■ fagot, a bundle of sticks;' Col. (i) 
Perhaps fnun L.y^r-, stem ot fax, ■ torch ; 
ci.fa^ula^ a little torch, (a) Or, since the 
Ital. form is fangotto, perhaps from Iccl, 
fan^a, an armful \ sec Fang. 

Fail : see FalUble. 

Pain. (E.) M E. /oyit. A.S. /m<w. 
gla<l. + O.Sox. /j^«, lcc\. /fgifiH. glad. 
AIMcH to Fftdge. (V PAK.) 

fawn (i), to cringe to, rejoice servilely 
over. (ScaiHi ) Icel. fa^ia, lo rejoice, 
vrelcome one; allieil to/^fiW/t, fain. 

Faint ; ue Fiffixre. 

Fair (O, pleasing, beautiful. (E.) M. E, 
/ayr, AS./trger, fair. + }ccl. /offr; Dan. 
/fir, Swfd./i^r, Goth./a^j. fit, O. H.C. 
Mcar; Gk. »i7Yi5»» fifTO (V^AK.) 
' Fair i a), a holiday. (F.-L) M. E. 
/eirr. — L./en'a, a holiday, later, a fair; 
commoner a& pi. feria, put for ftS'ia*, 
feast'd^ys ; allied to Feaat. 

Fairy ; see Fato. 

Faith (F.-L.) Nf . IL./eiih ; also /<y. 
yiightly altered from O. ¥.feid,/n, faith. 

— L-jrfl/^/M. ace. o^ fides, failn +(il£. nanf, 
faith. (VJJHIDfi. from BMANDH.) 

afllonoe. (F. — L ) O. Valance, trust ; 
cf a^''. ^/tf* to tmst ^whence E. aj/y).^ 
O. F. a (L. ti(/), to ; and ^/an/-. item oM>res. 
pi. of Low V. Jidart. to trust, from \^.jCiirt, 
to lni>t. Cf. Low L.Jiiian/ia, a, pleoge- 

affidavit, an oath. (L ) Low U <^- 
dauif, 3 p. 6. pt t. o( a^dart, to pledge.— 
L. a/- ^ a-/, lo ; Low h.JuMre^ for L.Jiifrt, 
to truit. 

confide. (L.) L. conjidertt to trust 
I'uUv. — L. etm- {eum^, fully -.JUere, to trust. 

defy. (F. - L.) M. t. dtfym. - O. F. 
defiiT, deffier, dfifiir, orig. to renounce one's 
faith. — Low L. dijfidart, to renounce faith. 

— L. dif't for i/u-f apai I ; ^dart^ foi Jidert, 
to trust. 

diffident- (L.) L dijffiden/-, stem oF 
diJJUdou, pre*, pt. of diffidert. to distrust. 
— 1-. di/-=dit-, npXTt ; Jldcrt, to trust. 

fealty, true !«r\-icc. (F. - L.) O. F. 
fiaUe,ftthtit, Mchiy. — L- /id</i/iUim, ace. 
of Ji-ielifoj, lirielity; see be^ow. 

fidelity. (F. - L.) ^i.fideliU. - L./4>. 
lifatem, ace. aXjidelitas, niithfuliicM. — L. 
fideli', crude form ol JidcHt. faithful. — L. 

jidtJ, fttith- 

fiducial, shewing tnut (L ) From L. 
fidncia, tiiubt. — L- fidere^ to trust. 

Intidel (F. -L.) OF infide!e^ 'in- 
fideli ;' Cot - L. infidtiis, faithlcsc. *- L 
iM, not ; fid4lis, faithful. 




perUdloiia. (L.) From L- ferfidhsut, \/a// rt, to Ucic ; frequenl tana of L. ^* 
treacheiouft. — L.. per/tdia, trcacheiy. «- L. Urt, to faiL Der. de-fanU {de- — OF- 

perjidus^ tieacherous. — L. ptr^ away (cf. 
Skt. /orj, from) ; Jidts^ fnitK. 

Falchion, a sword. (Ital. - L.) Ital. 
faiciont {ci pron. as eft). — Low \t-faUiontm, 
ace. oi/aicio, a bent sword. ~ l^/aia-, crude 
form o(/a/x, a sickle. 

defaleate, to abate, deduct. (L ) From 
pp. of Low L. dtjfa/fofv, to abate, deduct, 
take away — L. di/- ^ dis-, a]art ; Laie I*. 
faicart, to cut wIld a uckle, from L. /alx 
(»lcmya/f-), a iickle. 

fiaaoon. (F.-L.) M. E./(i«r<»».-O.F. 
faufOM, /auUon.^VMt V.. /tUcon^m, ace. of 
/a/rt), a falcon, so named from its hooked 
claws. — L./a/r-, item otjaix, a sickle. 
Faldatobl ; sec Fold. 
Fall, to drop down. (E.) M, Kfaltm. 
A-S./ia/Zan.'^Du. vaJien, lcz\.faiia, Dan. 
/aid* iSotfaiit), S^cd. /aUa, G./a/ZeH. L. 
/eU/erf, to deceive, /a//j', to err ; Gk. ctpaX- 
Ktof, to cause to fall, trip np ; Ski. sj>^a/, 
to tremble. (^SPAK.) fl^ Grimiii's law 
does not apply, because an initial / is lost 
in Teut. and Latin. Der, b€-Jalt, fiom A.S. 
bt'/taJian, to fall out, happen. 

fell (I), to cause to fall. (£.) A. S. 
fellaa, causal q{ ftaUan^ to fall. So also 
Du. tv//r«, Dan. /aide, Swed. fdJia, IccL 
fefla, G. f\xllcH ; all causal fonns. 

Fallible. (L.) l,.faUibiiu. liable to 
err. — L. yj///, to err ; falUre^ to deceive; 
cognate with ^fallt q. v. 

default. (F.-L.) See fault (.below). 

faU. (F. - L.) Y.JdiUir. - i^/aiUre, 
to bqpiile ; /aili, to err. 

fbUaoy. (F. — L.) Fonncd by adding -y 
lo M. E. /a//or*', a fal lacy, deceit. — ^./aliiui. 
^V^fauacia, deceit. — L.faiiiU; stem of 
faiiax, deceitful. —L.yi///rf, to deceive. 

falao. (F.-L.) M. E./a^.-O. F/a/r 
{F./aux),'''L./aJsuj, fali>e; pp. oi/aUtre, 
lo deceive. 

fillter, to totter, stammer. (F. - L.) 
M. E./a/frm, to totter ; fieqiicntalive from 
abascyW/-. — O. F.yii//tfr» tofail; not re- 
corded : but see fault Iwlow. 

fkiucet, a &pigot, vent (F.-L.) O. F. 
(and F.) fauiut^ a faucet ; faulset. Col. — 
O. V./aulsfr, lo falsify, forge; SkUo Jaulser 
Mfi /jrw. to pierce a bhield, hence, lo picrce. 
^\^ falsare^ to falsify. — L.yd/fuj, false. 

fault. (F.-L.) Formerly ya«/. M. E. 
fauU. — O. F. fault, a fault. (Span, ami 
Itai /j//j, a defect.) - O. F. faluf. not 
fona^ bm answering to &{>aa.yW/a>-, Ital. 

L. re/eiltn, to shew to be 
L. rv-, again; faUtrt% to 

de- = L. •///-). 

refeL (L.) 
false, refute. < 

Fallo'W (0, oilg. 'harrowed ;* of land. 
(E.) A. y. falging, fallow-land. — A. S. 
feaik, a harrow. 

Fallow (3), used with reference lo 
colour. (E.1 A.h. feaiu^/eala^ pale red, 
yellowish. + Dtt- two/, lorL ffir, t»a)c 
G. fahl, pale, also /alb. L. failidmj. Gk. 
iroAtur, g^, Skt f*alita, gray. Sea Fal«. 

False, Falter ; see Fallibla. 

Fame, report. (F.-L.) F. /aaw.-L 
fatna, icport. — L./ari, to speak ; see Fal* 
confesB. (F. - L.) O F. eonftsstr. - L 
con/esiHs, pp. of c<mfiteri, to confer. ^L 
cott- \cum), fully ; /ateri, to ackuowledgc 
from h./aZ-ttm, supine ot /art, lo frpeak. 

defame. (F. - L.) ME. J^amm. 
diffamtn-^O. F. dt/amtr, to take away a's character. — T.. diffamarr, to spread 
a bad report. — L.i/(/^. for dis't apart;/iiMJi 
a report. 

Infkmy. (F.-L.)^ji^ 
mia, ill fame. — L.m-. not, ljad;yaiwd, fame. 
profeaa. (F-U) We Imd M. £.//#• 
fessid. pp., Englished from O. F. froje^ 
mosc., pro/fsie, km., professed.— L. /.»*■ 
fessus. pp. o( ptc/teri, to avow. — L./r«, 
forth \fattri, to speak; see oonfeas (nboi'e'l. 

Family. (F.-L.) F /Amilit. - L 
famiiia, a household. — l^T^Mfs/ai; a aer 
vant. O&cmn /amt/\ &om Oscan ^^4Mi«i» « 
hous.e. Cf- Skt. dJtiiman, a house. (^ 
DMA.) Der^ami/i ar {L./amihsruy 

Famine. (F. - L.) f.Jamint, — Low 
L. famina *, unrecorded, but plainly an 
extension from L. /amgt, hunger. Ct 
Skt. AJm, privation, want. (V^'^AI 
Dor. fam-ish, formed (by analogy witt 
languish, &c.) from \a./am a, hunger. 

Fan, an instrument for blowring. (L) 
A.S.yajiii.- L. Manntts, a fan (cf. r. tu)«); 
sec below. Allied to Skt sd><s, wiiid, £roiB 
pj, to blow. (VWA.) 

van (2), a fan for winnowing. (F.-L.) 
lo Milton, P. L.ii. 927. — F. wiJ*. *a vaoaar 
Cot. — L. uannus (above). 

Fanatic ; see Fane. 

Fancy: see Phantom. 

Fane, a temple. (L.) L. Jknum, ■ 

temple; supposed to be derived from L 

/an, to speak (hence, pcrhn^^ la deOkalaX 

fan ft tip, religiouly inaaue. ^F * ^} 


»l^ famtiicnt^ (l> belonging 
■-'\ by a diYini(y, cn- 
1 temple. 

us, unholy; lit before (i.e. 
the tcmpIcL. //u, before; 
a temple. 

Fiioikre, x donrUh of tnimpcts. (F. — 

V Arab) F. fan/art. — Span, fan- 

bluster, ♦munling. — Arab, /affdr, 

Dar fan/a rr-oH-Oiif, Wuslcr. 

Uloo, cUw. ^E.l A.S. fane^ 

• •eixtng. — A- S./angan •, to seize, only 

la the contacted form /tf« (pi. tjA""/! 

/wSt<npfJiV + nu.t'(i«r.f"', to catch; Iccl. 

ici /•«/, sU.. » catch of fish), Dan./*w, 

tJ. _;^ Uoth. faha», O./dHj^rH, to catch. 

Oh, a carch, also a bng. (V PAK.) 

tMgr -, »or Phaatom. 

^«^ ' 1^ 1 M, E /rr. A. S. yttfr.+Du. 

t ^Tt, Syr ci\. JJerrart^ adv., Dan. 

•n: Oolh.Jairra, tidy. AllicJ 

k. 9*^ap. beyond ; Ski. partu^ beyond, 

•r*. £ar. .^VWl > The comx*. faHher 

k convptioci of M. ^. femr {i.t. jfat^er) ; 

ic to COdtuion with furtktr, comp. of 



VtonM. (F- « L.) The orig. sense U 

bace, a jest in&crtcd into a 

lyT^F. /5in"f, stuffing, a faice. — F- 

■, t« itaflL— L./a/ifjW, to «iuff.+Gk. 

M«*<sf, lo shut in. 

looter (i *, lo stuff fowls. (F.»Lw> A 

Drrvptioo ^/<ute, to stofl' (above). Der. 

nj wuigf , a euruptiOD oK farad mtat or 

FMlrIbL « pack, bundle. (F. - Arab,) 
K. >«&■/.-«->, K. fanM (K. fardeau). 

)uiiisi. etf P. fsr^, a uuTtleo, now ' a bale ' 
coAbc^ Piotx from Arab. faniaJi, a 

■^^^ " P • "'' (^ - ^^^^ 

u't. farthei, to roll up in 
a bundle (above). 

(E.) A.S./anw. 
Sweti. J 

I, Icel Sweti.ya/a, 
< iotli. faroH, to go : 
Cf. L. tJTpirier, I 
, (o bring over. (V 
', Le- may yon spccl 
■*■ :*£^'JV'^f, • passage through ; 

k -p^ftil practice or journey. 

I ^crry. *• ME. /erirn. A. S. 

P',*'ic<«j t9 .;.oA.S. faran, to 

af /bm, 

^n/, a fordt PBSsagr. Allied to A. S.ybnxn, 

to po ; ajiH Xo fnih ; see below 

fi'ith. firth, an estuary. ^Scand,) M. E. 
frth. — IztX./jerbr, a firth, bay ; Dan fiord, 
Swed.j^'.rr*/, the same; h./crtus, n haven, 
Gk. wopBftvt, a ferry. Allied to y^fa 

Farina, ground com. (L.) L. firina, 

meal. — L./ar. a liind of grain : allied to 

Barley. "Der. fart ttateous, U farina te ui. 

farrtlgO. ^L. ) i^ farrago, nitxcd food 

for cattle, a medley.— L.yar, grain, spclt- 

Parm ; see Firm. 

Parrlor; see Ferreona. 

Farrow, to litter pigs. (E.) From the 
sb. farrow, a liller of pigs. — A S. fearh, 
a pig; ^\. fearas^'Sl. \\. G. varek, a pig; 
G]/trk'tl', h.porcusx bee Fork. 

Farther ; see Far. 

Part^iinff ; see Four. 

Farthing^ale; tee Verdant. 

Fascinate. (I*.) From pp. of L. ySmi- 
nare, to enchant. 

Fascine, a bundle of rods. (F. — L.) 
O. F. fascim, — L. fascina^ a bundle of 
twigs. — Uytum, a bundle. 

Fashion ; see Foot. 

Fast (I), finn. (E.) AS- /rr/.+Du. 
vast, Dan. SvttA. fast, Iccl fastr, G. ftst, 
Cf. Gk. in-ittlof, fast, steadfast Allied to 
Foot. DBr fast {2), fast (3). 

fast (3), to abstain from food. (£.) A. 5. 
fiTf/dH, orig. to moke fast, observe, be 
strict : from fast (above). -4- Du. vastiH. 
Van./aj/t, Swed.and \cc\.fasta, O.fasttn. 
^^^^ (3)> quick. (Scasd.) A peculiar 
use of /ai/ (i) above; this use is Scnnd. 
Cf. Iccl. drtkita fast, to drink hard, sofa 
fast, to be fast aalecp,^^/r / vrrkum^ harti 


A i. 

at work ; &C. It means firm, close, urgent, 

fasten. (E) A.S. fastman, to make 
fast or firm. — A.S. /cf/, firm. 

fkatness. (E.) M. K.f<stna,fastHissf, 
orig. strength- — A.S. fasttuss, the lirma- 
mcnt, orig. that which is firra. — A.S./zj/, 

Paslldioua. (L.) L._/ij//V;'««/, disdain- 
ful —L-yoj/ii/iWiw, loathing; perhaps pul 
for fauutidium • (VaniSek). — L. fastHS^i 
arrogance ; tattittm, disgust ; so that fas- 
tiJium ^ arrogant disgust 

Fastness ; see Fast. 

Pat (1), fiioss. (E.) A S./*/.+Da. w/. 
Dan fed, Swcd. ft/, Icel. feitr. Cf. Skt 
fivan, fat. 

Fat ^J), a vat ; see Vat. 



Fata, destiny. tF-L.) M.E. /o/^.- 
O.V.fat (not common). — L./tf/tt//i, whul 
is ^iK>(iCii ; neul. of pp. Ml/art^ to stTilt .+ 
Gk. ^;^(i, I say, .Skt bhash, to speak ; 
A.S Itanitan : a.eL* Bail. (^BHA.) 

affable. * ?". - L 1 F. afa^fe. - L. afa- 
bilii, rnsy to be spoken to. — L. a/- ^ ad, to ; 
ybW. lo siwak. 

confabulate (L.^ From pp. of L. 
cenfahuhiri, to talk together. — L. fc«- 
{(um), *iih ; fabulari, to «>n\er&e, from 
fabula. a discourse; see fable ilx^tuw). 

fable, a Btory. (.F.-M F./abie.^L. 
fahula, a nariative. ^l*,fa'ri, to speak, 

fairy. (F.-L.> M- E. /mw. fayryr, 
enchantment. [The mod. use of the word 
is improper i^/rj* = encbaniment, the ri'.;ht 
word for •elf being /ajy.]^O.F. /a/n't, 
enchantment. — O.F. Ai^, a fay; sec below. 

fay, a fairy. (F.-'L.) F./Zr, O. F./o*-, 
a fay. Cf. Fort. /ada, lla\. /afa, a fay.— 
Low L, /afa. a. fate, goddess of destiny, a 
fay. — L./a/'«w, fate tabo\T). 

ineffable. (F. - L.) F. inefabU.^ 
L. ineffabilu, unsjKakable. — L. iW, not ; 
t/ (for ix), o\xti/an\ to speak. 

infant. (L ) L. in/att/-, slein of irt/ans, 
not speaking, hence, a very young babe.— 
L. I'rt-, not ; /ans, pres. pt. of/art, to »peak. 

infantry. (F -Iial.-L.) F.ift/antcrie. 

— Ital. in/anUria, foot-soldier& ; otig. a 
band of ' infants/ as young men were called. 

— Ital. in/oMitt, an infuiL- L. in/antem, 
ace. oi infatts (above). 

nofanous. (L.) L. m/arius, impious. 

— L. ne/as, that which is unlawful. — L. fu, 
not ; /as, law, fromy^n*, to speak, declare. 

preface. ( F. — L.) O. F. prt/au. — 
Lriw L pra/atium^, not found, put for 
L prafatum, a preface, neut. ol pra-/atus, 
spoken before. 

Father. (E.) U.Z. /aJer. A.S. /adrr. 
\T\\e f|icliing with /A approaches the Ice- 
landic-) + Icei.yflfT»>, Du. vcihr, Don. Swcd. 
fader, Golh /adar, G. f«/er, h. pa/it, Gk. 
iTaTi7p, Per*, pidar. Ski. puri. (^ VA.) 

Fathom. (E.) M.E, /adrru, A.S. 
fteJim the space reached by the extended 
arms, a ^^rasp, embrace. + r'"' vadem, Icel. 
fax mr. a fathom, Dan. /avn. Swcd. famn^ 
AD embrace, G. /adtn. Allied to FsteaL 

FaU^ruo. ^- (F.-U) O. F. /atigv/\ 
from faii^uir, to weary. — L. /attgart, to 

F&tuot3«. CL.) L./altiti3, tilly, fccbl*. 


Dar. in/aluaie, from pp. of L. in/«i 

lo make a fool of. 

fade, vK (P. -L.) From F./«ft, »dL, 
unsavoury, weak, faint, — L. /aNtus, fooUto. 

vade. to fade. <F. — I^) A weakened 
form of fade (above).. 

Fauces. (L.) l^ faucet, pi., the tipptt 
part of the throat. 

Faueet, Fault ; sec Fallible. 

Faun ; see Favour. 

FauteuU -, sec Fold (i). 

Favour, sb. kY. - L. ^ O. F. fattur - 
i^/auorem, ace ofybiMir, fa^ our. — L./stfcrr, 
to hefrtcnd. 

faun, a rural (Roman) deity. (L) L 
fauHUi.'ml^, /autre, to be propitious. 

favourite. (F. - U) Otig. fcm. o» 
F. favori, favoured. 

Fawn (I ) ; eee Fain. 

Fawn (3), a young deer; fee Fata*. 

Fay : sec Fate. 

Fealty ; sec Faith. 

Fear. ^E.) M. E. /eer, A. S. /ir. * 
sudden peril, danger, frar. Otig. osed of 
the peril of travelling —A- S./antw, to go, 
travel. 4" ^^^^' /«'''• honn, G. pfoAr^ 

Feasible ; see Fact. 

Feast: »:c Festal. 

Feat; sec Faot. 

Feather. (E.) M. E /etker. A- & 
/e^er. + Du. veder, Dan /wdtr, Swcd. 
J^&diTt IccIj^VCt, G /eder, L. /twna ^ht 
|/^/-«a«).Skt./.r/m See Fen. {^VAt.) 

Feature ; see Faot. 

Febrile ; see Fever. 

February. (L.) "L./ebrvarim. the mcatfa 
of expiation. — L-TtArwd. neut. pi., a festival 
of expiation on Feb. 15. — L. /ahmtt, 
cleansing ; /ebruare, to enpiate. 

Feculent -, see Fvoea. 

Fecundity; sec Fetua. 

Federal. (F.-L) F. fid/ml 
with suffix -a/, from L. fader-^ 
/adus, a treaty. Akin \q fides. EaUh. 

coniederata. (L.) u. <&i9, 
united by a cmyrtam/, pp. of 
— L. aw- {cum), t>:igether i ^B^ry% 
form cf/arduj, a (leatv. 

Fee, a grant of Innil, property, 
(E.) M. £ /ee. A. S /rch. /el ^rV. 
property. + Du. vee. U--: 
Swcd /a, Goth. AtA*. G 
Ji/iu, L./sf»*u: SVt. pofu^ ca::ic ^yt arj 
See Pecuniary. 
t fallow^ a ptrUier. (Scand ^ ^r £ 


StCB of 

— '-■-* ff!agi, a pattaer in a ' fclag.' 
•:ouit«<i]Jon-<bip; liU a laying 
c "\*.i\y.»\f:t\. fi, propcily. 

■ r, ft Uw; sec Law. 
> M. E. /(bit.^O, F. 
'.-•. 0.5 shewn by 
' eble; since ItAl. 
I. ..v.ii. , hence, weak.* 
AUictl to Fluent. 
rcix point Ui character.-* 

faU. O.fuMiof. rcrhaii& allied to 

Kn ; tee Tlcure. 

is&^r. iM Flald. 

I'. - L.) O. F. ftliriti. - L. 
•I — U f^iici', crude form 
. fruitful; ftllicd 10 Fetus. 
) L, Jtlinus, beloiij^iny to 
r. ft cat ; XiU * the fruitlul j * 

I Wi, ft akin. (E.) M. E. ///. A. S. 
4. Du. tv/. led. /<•//, Goth ///. 


'■ <ktn (E.) A.S-///W; O. 

i!«n!c<! (fc.m the baseyfA in 

Goth.^i/, skin. 

|\ cruel, dire. vE.) A. S. /el, in 

•/^/= fierce for slaughtir, ic. + 

wi cnce O. F. /ti, 

I^tiin. horrid. 

, K riiii. \ -i..iiid.) M. E. yi/." 

/l!/. a hill; Don. /u/J, bwed. 

Or^f. an open oowq; allied 

* BftB VbS 

r, VeUot. pftrt of ft whccl-rim. (K.) 

I Aim, A. S. /r^. a felly. tJo 

d fros the pieeesDemg put tO|;«ther; 

A. S. ff^lAH. ^chtH .ini' fi<h.iH, 10 

cirsrc ' 't»», to 

I>n : e. 

(V*.fi4Ui. (I'.^Low I*.— 
— O. K. A^/0/1. a traitor. 

tiCiUmj, deceive allied to L 

filter, to stiain. (F.-O. Low G.) F. 
fiiirer^ to strain ihrou^jh felt. «-Du. riV/, 
felt; originally spelt y///. 

Fciucca. A ship. (Ital. — Arab.) Ital. 
felwa. '^ Anh. /u/i, a ship, {iicc Uevic) 

Female; sec below. 

Fominino. (F. — L.) O. F. /effiitini.^ 
L. ftminiHHi, womanly. — L. fcmma. a 
woman, d'crhopa allicii to Fetus) 

effeminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
effemtnart, to raake wooioni^. — L. t/-t for 
ex, thorotighlv: /('mmd (above). 

feniiUe. (F.-L.) Put Iw femiU. by 
conlu&inn with mate. M. %. ftmelt.^O. F, 
femelU. — L. jemella, a young woman ; 
diinin. oi/emina, a woman. 

Fomoi'al, belonging to the thigh. (L.) 
L. femoralis \ adj. from femor', base of 
femur, thigh. 

Pen, a bug. (E.) M Eyrn. A. S./fff«. 
+ Du. veen, Icel. fen, Goth, fani, mud. 
Cf. 1m faJus, a marsh. And ^ce Vinowed. 

Fence ; short for defttue ; »ce Defend. 

Fend ; short for Defend, n. v 

Fennel, a plant. {L.) M. t.fenef. A. S. 
finely fxHHgU, •• L. ftrtiieulum, fennel ; 
double dimin. ot/mum^ hay. 
fenugreek. i^U) L.fenum Gnxcum. 

Fooff . see Pief. 

Ferment ; see Fervent. 

Fern. (E) A. S.feam. + Du. vat 
Skv. paraa, a wint;. feather, leaf, plant. Ibe 
ong. sense being ' feather* 

Ferocity. (F.-L.) F.ferocitl^'L.tLcc. 
ferocitaSfm^ ficrcene**. — L. feroei't cnide 
form oiferox, Actcc,^L,./trtu, fieroe, wild. 
Alhcd lo Deer. 

fierce. (F.-L) M. E. fert.^0. F. 
ftfj, fieri, old nora. of O, F. fer^ fier^ 
f\ttce.'»L.ferut, wild. 

Ferreous. (L) L /emus, made of 
iron, t^ I* ferrum, iron. 

farrier. (F. — L) Formerly /l?rrrf^ a 
worker ui iron. — F.y^r, iron. ^ I. . fe»-ntm. 
ferruginouB. (L) L. ferruj,i»$u, ^mc 
^% ferrugineus, rusty. — L.^r/-wyi>(-, stem 
oiYerruj^, rust of iron. — L.y>rrw*i. 

Ferret (i), an animal. (F. — LowL — 
C. ?) O. F. Jfunf, a fcrreL -Low 'L./nrf 
tm,furti-tMj, a fericl , alMi /«rp. Said lo 
be irom \j.fur, a thief; more likely from 
Bret.//^r, wise, Vi.^ur, wise, wily, crafty, 
ffurtj, wily one, a ferret. 

Ferret (i), a kind of silk tape ; tee 

Femiginous : see Ferrecua. 

FerruU, a metal ting at Utc ci^ q\ a 





stick- (F. — L.) Corrupted spelling (dotf 
to coii/usion with ferrum, iron) of the 
older form vefrtli, XVI cent. — O. F. 
viroU, II ferrule ; Low L. vifvla, ihe same. 
From L. uino!a, a little bracelet ; dimin. 
of uiria, an armlet. —L. uUre^ to twist, 
pUit. ^^^W.) Allied to Withjr. 

Ferry ; tee Faro. 

Fertile. (P.-U) ¥. /ertiU ~L./erfi7ts, 
krtile. — L. /errg, to bear; allied to Boar 


ciroumferonoe. (I*) L. tirtumfir- 
tHtiOt boundary of a circle. — L. anN/n- 
firtHt-, stem of prcs. pt. oicircum'/trre. to 
carry round. 

confer. (F.— L.) F, ronftrtr.^Y,. ecn 
fern, to brinjj together, collect, bestow. 

defer i,i), to delay. (K.-L.) M. E 
differrtn, — O. K. differcr^ to delay. — U 
litfferre, to bjnr different w.iy». delay. — L. 
iiijt for Ms-, apart ; ferre, to bear. 

defer (3\ to by txfore, submit oncscU. 
(F— L.) O. F, tieftrtr, to admit or give 
way to an appeal. — L. diferrtt to bring 
down, bi iog l)efore one. 

differ, iL.') L. Mfftm, to carry apart, 
to diflcr. — L. rfi/-, for liit', apart; ferrxt to 

Infer, to imply. (F.-L.) F. inftnr. 
— L. infeny, to bring In, introduce. 

offer. (L.) A. S. o^naw. — L. offtrrt, 
to offer. — L. ef-^ for «^, ucar; ferre^ to 
bring. Ber. offtr t-or-y, from F. offtrioirt, 
L. efferieriuui^ a place to which ofierinj;» 
were brought 

prefer. iF.-L.) O.F. pre/tnr.^L. 
(^raftrre, to set in front, prefer. 

proffer. i,F.-L.\ O.Y. pro/irtr, to 
produce, adduce. — L. profem» to bring 

refer, to assign. (F.-L) O.f. rt/htr 
(F. rf/Jrtr).—L. re /em, to bear back, re- 
late, iclrr. 

suffer. (F.-L.) M.Z. sofmt, ruf/en 
-O. F. tofrir (F, s<mffnr).^h, sufferre^ 
10 Dodergo. — L. j«/ {n*^)! under ; ytrre, 
to bear. 

transfer. (F.-L.) V. tmns/htr. ^ 
L. tram ferrt, to convey across. 

Ferule, a rod or hat for punishing 
children. (L.) Foimerly />r«^, — L./rtii/*i, 
a rod. — L. /frirr, to suikc. + IccL ^ifja^ 
to strike. 

interfere. (F. — L.) Formerly enftf 
feir, to dash one heel ng«in<;t the othrr 
(Blount). — F. tHttt, between; /erir, to 
»lrike -L inUr, between \/irin, tc strike. 


Fervent, hot, tealowi. (F. - L.) O. F. 
fervmt.^l^ fefuert/-, »lein of pie*. pL of 
J4ruert, to boil Allied to Brew. Der. 
fervour, from O. F. frrvtur - L. act 
/eruerem, heal ; fervid, from U femi^tx, 

effervesce. (L) L. tfftntetun — U 
ej-y lor ts, out ; fertteseere, lo begin to 
boil, inceptive oi/etuere, to boil, 

ferment. (L ) L. fcrtneHtum (ithort 
inr feruimeHlum), leaven. — L. ftrutrt, to 


FcatRl. (L) A late word, coined 

(with adj. suffix -at) from L, ftiittm^ a 
feast, orig. ncut. oi festus, bright, joyful. 

feaat. (F.-L.) M. E. feste.^Q. f. 
ftste {^,flu\'^\..futa, lit. festivals pi. of 
fcstttm (above). 

Coetlval. (F.-I^wU— L.) Properly 
an adj. - O. F. /tj/iMi/, festive. — Low L. 
fesfiuaiis. — L festiuus 1 beiowV 

festive. CL.l L. / itimu, belonging to 
a feftst. — L./i'.r/ww, a feast. 

fate. (F.-L.) Mod. F. fht, the wnc 
as O. V.fciie\ sec feaat (abo^-e). 
Fester, to rankle ; tee Food. 
Festive ; sec Featal. 
Festoon. (F.-L.) 7. fettom, a ft^ 

land, festoon. — Low L. /-'' -": rf 

festo, a gailaiid. U^uolly '^ L 

festnm, a fea&l ; but it is - ;y lo 

be from Low L- fesii V. falM\ 

a top, ridge, from L 1 top 

Fetch. (E.) M. t v, .^<-«. 1 
f,2Ate. K.S.fetean, 10 letch. Gc 
Luke xii 20. TxXih. ftcean ta a ij..t 
oi/eiiitn, to fetch * AngUa, vi. ]77K 
/ir/ a pace, stem, journey. (V^FAD 
fetih, sb., a stratagem. 
Ffite ; see Festal. 
Fetich, Fetish; see Faot. 
Fetid. (F. - L.) O. F. fetUt. - L 
fetiiiiu, fartiJus, stinking —L1 faUrt, R 
stink. Allied to Fiune. 
Fetlock, Fetter; ^ee Foot. 
Fetus, offspring. (L.) L. ^/itr, a brin(p- 
ing forth, offkpriny. - L. ftuirt •, an ob» 
iete verbk to generate, produce ; aUicd to 
fu'i, \ was : see Future, B«. 

effete, exh-nuftwl. (i ' 1 
weakened by having brod 
— L- eff (or /x, out : 
brought fonh, pp o; 
fawn (»), ay. 
O. F. /rt«, faett, eailici y>.«, a tAra, 
answering to a Low L ionu frtanm • il*t 
fonnd)/^L fetuit/ittuj, offspnng. 




^ ^^ ) 0. F. ftcomfiti 

.'ittem, fniitfulncss. 

cw : : tUicd to /eims, 

A^i «p Feiine. 
''!>. hn»'H: »pc Fo«. 

i (L') M. E. 

\^.-.iT^ . .T,. ..-. .'vc-, ft/or \ •« 
TiiL 15. •• U .i^^t-iV. fevcr. lit a 

OBUrD;.* CI A. S. bijian, G. ^i^cM. 

tit coble. 

In«. reUfmg to f-tver, (F.-M K. 
-' ■. fewt ; wiih RtifTu -Ht. 

int. U' ) AS. f<f<r' 
*,. ^M.. ,,M^a. fevcr-dupcUing. — L. 
ferer ; Jw^rt^ to pol to fliglit. 
T-^ •!.£./««. K--&. fed, pi. 
f ' -, Uon. yia, Swcd. ytl, 

:**-<«; Gk. aoD^f, stna'l. 
(Jooiuttl 10 die. (E.) A,S /r^, 
to <1«f + Icel. /ei^t Du. prf-^ ; 
jfaCr K ccmArd; bwed.y<f. Dtiu/r//. 

; ffre 7»et. 
(F - L-) A weakened and 
fona tii/ahlt. q. t. 
Ibrv. CF.-L.) F./^n.^UJibra, a 



feoff, to invest with • fief. (F. - 
O. H. C;.^ Norman F. ffcff*-. O. ?,Jitfer, 
vcib ftom F fuf, a fiei (atmvc), Der. 

L e. /ej-^t where V is the auffix of 


iBktr '^^ M. E.////. A.S.Atf/; 
|. a. V, ftb , frand. 

nati< . > tcura. 

rtddto. a Woiin, ^L) A. S. Ji^U, 
It /5Ji. Dan /./^/. Du, iv^/-/. G 
id. Apparently borrowed from L. 
M^ MtilbLi, a riol ; see Viol. 
IddSty; secVftith. 
Utcait (Scifid.) A dim in. fonn of 
fr. to t« cfltUkisaUy moving up and 
■m, tftdt /i« to North of Engbnd 
.^ Jkkfm, tn Adgcf, to hasten. — ] eel. 
V, to cUmb op nimbly, aa a spider \ 
ml Jtko. to h(int after, Norw. /-6a, to 
kr trouble, /ka tsitr^ lo hasten alter. 

■ xre Fnith 


I ; I nel Cf. ^•.f/ui, 

/iit4« /i/. ^t. /'^w/. expreasiona of 

IftTMl brM of a ftDperlor. (F. - 
\\ VtA O.V JU/, fnimeily inelt />»i 

Norman I'.; 
Lti ; and ^e/» 


feud (a), a fief. (Low L. -F-O. H. G.>J 
Low L- ftuJtim, n Latinised 
_fiem, also spelt/?/ (.above). Dor. ftudat, 

Field. (E.) M %. Md, K.%. Md. -^ 
Da. tYW. Dan. /<•//. Swcd. >//, G. ftid; 
cf, Ruvs. /oiV, a field. Allicfl to Fell (4). 
fbldBp&r, a kind of mineral. (G.) 
Corrupted from O.fehhpatk, lit. field-spar. 
fieldfare, a bird. (E ) A. ^.ftlde/art, 
lit. ' fieM-travcUer; • sec Fore. 

Plend. (E,^ M. E. Jend. A. S. /<;»«/, 
ftSftd, lit. 'a hating one/ an enemy, the 
enemy; orig. prcs. part of fein, ft6gam, Ko 
hate. -f> Dd. vijana^ Dan. Swcd. Ji€ndt\ 
\ct\.fj.inJi, prcs. pt. of/f*<i, lo hate; G4>lli. 
/ijatuis^ from /ijan, to hale; G. ftind. 
(V" PI) See Foe. 

Pierce : sec Ferocity. 

Fife. (F.-O.H. G.) F.//W.-0. H.G. 
ff/a, G. f/ft/t, a pipe.-O. II. G. f/iftn, to 
blow, whistle. See Pipe, 

Fig. (F.-L.) F./>wr-L./f»«, ace. 
of firus, a fig. 

Fight. (E.) M, E. /ihun, fektm, verb. 
A- S. feahhitM, to fight ; fetkte, a fight. + 
Dn. pttkitm, Dan. /^/| Swed. Ja&m, G. 
/tfkttn, lo fight 

Figure. (F.-L.) F./^rr.-L.rffwni, 
a ihtng made. — L. /M^r/ (base J^<), to 
malce, fashion, feign. 4* '-'k' ^i7V>i'«(**i to 
handle, Skt dih, to smtar {^U\UG\\.) 
Dor. dis-Jipire. prefigurt. 

configuration. (F.-L.) V.efnjifru- 
ralicn ; from ace. of L. cemjipiratie, a con- 
formation. — L. {^ttjiguratus, pp. of cpn 
Jipiratr, to put together. — I* f^«- (nrw ); 
figitrart, lo fashion, (rora fi^^ra (above). 

efflgy. (L.) Short for ^/^^V/, an image. 
— L. /^f-, base of tffiHnrt. to form- — X. 

^-, for ejr; JtHgrre, to form. 

faint. (F. - L.) M. £./««/. - O. F. 
/titrf. weak, pretended ; orig. pp oi/et'ndrf, 
10 feign. — L finite, to form, feign. 

feign (F.-L.) M. %.ftitun, - O. F. 
fein^i't — L fin^rt (abovcV 

fiction. (F.-L.) VJiftioH^V./<rh' 
mm, ncc. of/r/w, a feigning— L. /r/Ni, 

pp. Of/Wjp/flf. 

figment. (L.) \a. figmemtum^ an in- 
vention — L-/^-, base m fimnn. 
trnjisflgure. ( F - L.) F. tramfigmrt* 



« L. tramfi^ran, to change the fignre or 

ipcorance. — L. ttanst kcrow (implying 

langc) ; fi^tra, figure. 
Filament; see File (i). 
Filbert, fruit of hattl. (F.-O. H. G.) 
Formerly phiiibtrd (Goweri ; »hort for 
Pkitibird or Pkiiibert nut, from the proper 
name Pkiiibert ; (S. Philibcrt's day i« Aug. 
aa). — O. H. G.jtf/i'-A^/t, very bright; from 
Jtii (G. vul), greatly, bert, berht, bright. 
% Called in Germany Lamhertsnufs (S. 
Laml)ert, Sept. 17); prob. fron\ the lime 
of year of nottmg. 
Flloh. (Scand.) Extended from M. E. 
fiUn, to conceal. •Icel.yr/o, to hide, bury. 
+Goth.y(/Aa«, to hide. 
File (1), string, line, order. (F. * L.) 
O. F. JiU; allied to F./A a thread. - L. 
JUum., a thread. 

defile (3), to march ia a file. — F. di- 
fiUr, 10 defile. - F. ii/. - O. F. des- -» L, dis-, 
apart ; ftUr, to spin threads, from h^Jilum. 
Der defilt, sb. 

enfilade, a line or itnight passage. 
(F. — L.) F. enfilade, a long slrmg lof 
things). — F. enJiUr, to thread. — F. «•• — L. 
in, m ; fil, a thread, from h.JHum. 

filament. (F. - L.) O.F. //amen, • 
L jUamentiim, thin thread. — Low h./ilartt 
to wind thread. — L.yf/iiM. 

ftligrree. Span. - U) Formerly //«'- 
grvnt; XVII cent. — Span./Zi^rana, fili- 
gree-work, fine wrought work. — Span. ^/d, 
a thread or tow, JiJar, to spin ; gutno, grain 
or texture ; so called because the chief 
texture of it was wrought in silver wiie. 
From X^filnm, thread; ^ranum^ grain. 

fillet, (F. - U) M. K.JiiUt. - O. F. 
/iUt, dimin. oijii, a thread. — L._/^/mot. 

profile. Otal. - L.) lul. profiic, a 
sketch of a picture, outline (Florio). — L 
fro, before, in front \ Jt/um, a thread (Ital. 
/ih, thread, line). ^ The mod. F./ro/U 
is al^K) from l)al. /n^V^r. 

purl (5), to form an edging on lace, In- 
veit stitches in kniLting. (F. — L.) Fre- 
quently misspelt pearU Contraction of 
purfit.^Y. pourfdcr, to purfle, embroider 
on an clge — F. /V«r (L pro\ confused (as 
often) with Y.par (^L. per), ItuQoghoQt; 
/!/, a thread. 
File {3), a steel rasp. (C.) A.S./r^/.-f 
Du vij/, iXm./;/, Swed.//,G./«/f, Russ. 
pt/ii, a hie, sharp tool. 

Filial. (L.) From U //i-m, a son; 
fi/ia. diui;hlcr : oiig. infant; cf. L./e/art, 
tn»ick. l^UHA.) 


affiliation (F »L.) Y.mJjViafUm, 

adoption as a son. •- Ldw L ace. dJUi^ 

tionem.^h. a/- = tuf, to ; rfAiu, a son. 

Filibuster; seep. 15G, col. 1. 1 4. 

Filigree; see FlU (i). 

Fill: aeeruILO)- 

Fillet; teeFUo(i). 

FilHbeg, PhiUbog, a kilt. (Gaelic 

(j^kL /ei/eadk'dtar, the modem kiU. — GseL 

filUadh^ a fold, plait, from the verb^/E//, 

fold ; and btag, little, small. 

Fillip, to strike with the finger-nail« 

when jerked from the thumb. (lu) 

other form oiflip ; sec Flippaau 

Filly J see Foal, 

FUm; »ccFeU(j). 

Filter ; see Felt. 

Filth ; see FouX 

Fin. (E ) A. S /«. a fin + Do 

Swed._^«a, Dnn.^wnA L pinna* 

Final (F.-L) O.F.>«a/.-L 

final — L.^«i/, end. 

affinity. (P. - L.t F. A^tnUi, •> L 
q^Hitafem, ace of affinitas^ DcaiticaL* 
affinU, Dear, bonlering on. • L etf*^ for 
near;^nrj, boundary, end. 

confine, to limit. (F.-L.)^m^^ 
to kten within limits. — F. tonfim, near.* 
L. emfinis, bordering 00. — L. C9n- (jmiJi 
with ; Jinis, boandory. 

define. (F.-L.) O. F. Jejin. 
fine, conclude. — L. defimre, to limit. — !• 
de, down ; Jinirt^ to end, fromySnt/. end. 

finance, levenue. (F. — L ) O.K fimukt, 
— Low L. fimantia^ payment. — l^w L 
finartt to (lay a fine. — Low L. fimx^ 
settled payment, %. finish or end, i.a. ' 
arrangement; L.jinis, end. 

fine (1), eaqulsite, thin. (F.—L.) O.F. 

jfft, witty, perfect, — L-y^w'/MJ, well rotindd 

or ended, said of a sentetue (linuihei)| 

' orig. pp. ofjim'rt, to end. — L- y^HU, 

fine (2). a tax. (Law L.) Law L.,/&it% 
a fine; a final arrangement; h^jtmii, 
See flnanoe above. 

floial. (D A coined word; tnm L 
JiMirt, to finish.- L._/frfj>, end, 

finical. (F.-L.) A coinerl word; » 
tendc<l Irom line (1) above. 

finish, vb. (F.-L) M. E^utWAw. 
O. I'.fimis; base ot pi«s» pt *Ajkmr^ 
iinish— L.y*Hi>Y, to end. — ll^MfA 

finite, limited. (U) X^pmfns, pf^ 
finirt^ to end, limit. — i^jinu. X>«r. 1 
finite, infintt-tsitHOi, 

refine. i.F.— L.> Coined fro« nMi 
fitti (I), but imiuted Itom F. r^^Mwr, 


ef t* n-, agatR, \^. af- ^i ad, 
^T, fill*. D»r. njint'mrni\ cf. 


r. -• L.) From L. /«/#r, 

E.) M.F.. Att-A. AS. 
r>an yfwiy, Swcd. and G. 
uhAflxnch. CI. Gk. ff»iV 
'1 ; prov. K tpink. Der. 
uil-Jinth, 9lc. 
no It-- 1 A S. ^ni/art. + Dn. rirufgn, 
^^MT, Swctl ami !,.cl. /Cwiwd ( ^finda\ 

(VI' AT.) 

[ ^ 'i. (K> M.E. 

ii«<M«i^i loniieJ with kutfiK -/-mi^ from 
.S.ywt/^M, pp. of finJan. 

Pino (I)., ■-: Final. 

at^^V^. .^...!. it. ji/t^^er, Goth. 

yrr s •/iV^)* Frob. allied to Fans; 

hnUl, Finical, Ftnlah ; see Pinal. 

rir, a tR«. (E.) M. E./r; A.S./nrA, 

'led, ^7«, Dan. y/r, Swed. ywrt, G. 

t^T, NV./>r. The ume as L. ftumu, 


Plr© (E.\ A.S.//r. -|- Du. I'Mirr. Iccl. 

r . , rbri icd Swell ^rr, G/eittr, Gk. wvp. 

4fnj {'^/u'ana), punfying, alto 
Sr« Bolt (9). 
irkin ; v« Four, 

na, (K.-L.) M.E. /rrwr.-O-F. 

» U J(/mMf, KtMdfoftt Ct Skt. 

prwCT^ing. (VDHAK^ 

afllnSL iF. * L.) M. E. afftrmm.^ 

F. i^rmtr, lo fix. -i L. uf-^itd^ to ; ^r- 

*», %o Itt, tJomyfnwMf. 

n (K.*L.) M. K-fonfcrmrn.^ 
"ifr.^t,, mt-Jirmart, lo make 

flwm. (F. - U) M, E. /rrme. - F. 
"^iVa Cam (Itth crut.'. — Lnw L.Arma, 
fixed rcnt« a farm ; fna. of U firmuj^ 
tnHAt. (Kfwd thitfijctJ Ttnt) 
OrmameDt, erlr*rial sphere. (F.-L.) 
^ F.^> j a am ' ju /. ^ L. Jirmamentum, a sup- 
»tt, afac^ cxfaaie oJ the s^y.^L-jirmare, 
tUttrngthmi; ftom/rmus. 
Ill*ftm- it.^ I' r>i;^ntpjMj. not strong, 
raV D^r r, tmjirm'i-ty. 

FlJTttMI. - (l^c»-) I'eri./jr. 

riif, a voddaU, uhIcc, 
nnrt; Met row. 
^^t^ '^ 

ilic rcvenoe. (F. — 
.' /itpu, the public 



purse. » t. JucuSf a basket of rushes, also a 

oonflncftte, to adjudge to be forfeit. 
(L.) L, cenjitraius, pp. of ccHfiscart, t« 
Liy by in a coffer, to confiscate, transfer t( 
the prince's priry parse. — L. €<m- [cum) 
Jisttij, a purtc. 

Pieh. (E.) A.S.yfjf.+Du. visch, Iccl 
/ijkr, Dan. and Swed. Jisk^ G. finh, L. 
^fir, ^'pysg, BreL /*/*, Irish and Gael, 
rojfjf (for/Zajc). 

PisBiire. (,F. - L.) O. F. Jissun. — L. 
yifsura. — 'L.jissw, pp. d Jtmffne, to cleave. 
+.Skt. MrV/. to cleave: A.S d//j«, to bite. 
(VBIIID.) And sec Vent (n. 
Plat (E.) M. E. /j/. /«/. y«/. A. S. 
y5x/.+Du. v«ii//. G./atist, knss. piastt» 
Allied to L./«/nKf, Gk. wvy;*^, fi*t. 
Fistula, a deep, narrow abscess, (L.) 
From the shape; h^ifrtta, a pipe. 
Pit (1). lo suit; as adj., .ipt. (Scand.) 
M.E. ^//r/r, to arrange. — Icel. and Noiw,' 
Ji/Ja, lo knit together; Swed. dial.^/(/a» lo 
bind together. 4* Goth /tijan, to adonij 
deck. Allied to Fctoh. 
Fit (3), a part of a poem, attack of ill- 
ness (E ) M. E. y?/. A. S _AA « *<wg, a 
struggle •4'lcel. /r/, a pace, step, foot (in 
po(try), fit (of a (loeiii). Allied to Fatob 
and Pit (I). 
Pitch, the same as Vetch, q. t. 
Pltchet. Fitchew, a polecat (F.— 1 
O. Du.) Fitchtw is coi nipted from O. F. 
fijsau, a polecat. — i > Ihx. fisi*» a polecat ; 
from the smell. Cf. Iccl. Jha, to make a 
smell ; see Fotat. 

Pita. son. (Norm. F.-L.) Formerly 
fiz (with J as /»V — O. (with i -as //) ; 
alBO_^/s, fib^^l^.JiHus^ a son. 

Five. (E.) ME.//; sometimes /«/* 
as a plural. A.S. fif (for /«/«).+Da. 
vijf^ Dan. Swed, ftm^ Iccl. Jimm, Golh. 
/ffi/i G. fttnf, \W fum/, L. quivque, Gk. 
rr^nrf (also mlvT%s, Ski. pafickan. (.Base 
KANKAN.) jyw. Ji/-fh, K.S.jma: /if- 
t€/it. A. S. /(/Jv'W ; A/Vk. a. ^.p/tig. 
Fix. ( K. - L.) O.Y.Jixe. fixed. - L./.rwj 
fixed; pp. of/ivnf, to fix. Cf. Gk o^y*^ 
-<(*iv, to compress. 

affix. (F.-L.) M. E, a^km.^0. 
aJUhtr. — b. F. a, to \\>, ad) \Ji(her, to fi; 
answering to I-ow I- yf^jrar/ •, develop 
itomjigerf, to fix. % So also prt'fix^ 
fx {i.e. sub-fix), tiutu-Jix, 

PId. (.Scand.) Icel. /7/rf, Dan. /j#J' 
uith the wimc wnw a* L. /ci/crr 
Fl»bby;put iox/ia/fy ; see Flap. 



Flacdd. (F. - U) F. JIacndt. . L. 
ftoidduj, Ump. -^L^ Jiaetus, Aabbjr. 

Fla{^ (I), 10 droop, grow weary. (E.) 
Weakenctl form of jw*, to han£ loosely ; 
M. E, fiakkcn^ to flap about. From tnc 
base jfae- of .\. S. flac-or, flying, rovinp.+ 
Icel. jlakka, to rove ; JIaka, to flap ; ^i'^Ta, 
lo flulter ; G./a^'kem. to flutter. 

flicker, to flutter. (El.) Frequent, ronn of 
/fiVk, weakened form of M. E. fftukm ^abovc). 
flag (J), an eiuign. (Scand.) Dan. 

JlAg, Swcfl.^42^, a flag ; &om base of Icel 
'vera, to full 
fla{; (,))j a reed; the same word Mjfag 

Jlitra^ to fmiter (above). 


(a"); from its wamg in the wind, 
Flog (4), Plagstone, a paving-stooe; 
see Fl&ke. 

Flagellate. (L.) From pp. of U 
fiagtUart^ to scourge. ^'L.Jtarelium. dimin. 
of Jtagrum, a scourge, {y nllLAG,') 

flalL (F. - L.) O. F. /«/ (F. jTMu), 
a flail, scourge. — L. fiagellum (above). 
Flageolet ; see Flute. 
Flagitloua. <L.) h. Jfagt'/iosHs, ^hmnc- 
ful. V \^ jiagitium, a disf^raceful act, ~L. 
Jta^itare. to act with rioleooe. Allied to 

Flagon : ace Fl&ak. 
Flagrant, glaring, as a fault. (F.^L.) 
O. F. ftogrt^t^ pioperly burning. — L, 
JIagrant ^ stem orpres. pL ^i foptxtrts lo 
burn.+Gk. ^ifiv^ to bum; Sk. hhr6u 

conflagration. (F. — L.) F. cpnflag' 
ra/ifiH. — L. ace evnjiagraeionem, .1 great 
burning. — L.tvn- {cHfn\ \ogtihei\Jlagmf't, 
to bum. 

flambeau. (F. >L.) V, Jtamheau^ % 
link, torch ; dimin, of O. F. fiambi, a 
flame : see fiame. 

flame. (F.-U) O.Y.Jtamt,Jlamm*\ 
9hQ JUmhe. — L. Jfamma {^^ag-ma), a 
flame; from the bose^d'^-, to bum; cf. 
/lagrare. See FU,Braiit. 

namen. (L.) L. Jtamen a priest of 
Rome. Prob^ foxJlAg-mtn •, be who boms 
the sacrifice. 

flamingo. (Span. -Pror. -L.) Span. 
flatHtme^ a flamingo ; but said to be a 
Proven9al word. The F. form i« Jtamant^ 
lit 'flaming.' but it was certainly confused 
with F. Piamand, % Fleming, whence the 
t>ecu1iar form of the Span, word seems to 
be due. Still, the etymology is certainly 
from \^ Jtamma, a flume; from the flame- 
like colour of the bitd. 
Flail ; see Flas«Uate. 

' /SIR 
. Jtatn 

as pS 


Flake, % thin alioe (Scind.) 
JIak, a slice. An ice floe; cf. loel. 
/n^na, to flake off, Swcd. Jfaga^ a" 
Allied to riar- 

flAg (4\ a paving-stooe. (Scand.) Tfl 
^fla_^, a flag or sUb of stone ; Swed.^1^ 
a flake. A weakened form of flake. 

flaw, a crack. (ScandO M. Y^jUmt: 
Swed. Jlagat a crack, flaw, also, a fl^ 
(as above). , 

flitoh. side of bacon. (E^ M.i 
^i«ht. A S./ufe. + IccV/ikki a flitd 
Jtik, a flnp, utter. Orig. a this sSq 
weakened form of Flaka. 

floo, a flake of ice. \\>^.) DaniBfl^ 
as in $'is-/lagt, an iue-flt'e. lit. ■icc-floke 
FlamDeau, Flame ; see Flacnmk 
Flamen, Flamingo ; see Fl 
Flange ; see below 
Flank, the side. (F.-L.) F.MSSZ 
the 'weak' part of the body. — L. 0ae 
soft ; with inserted n as in jangi', 
iocu/aforem ; see Flaooid. % Cf. G. 
softnc-s : also, the side. 

flange. (F.-L.) The 

K.jlanrA, a projection; which, again, il 

weakened formof^^ffi; hence it meansi 

rim projecting on one side,' | 

flunkey, a footman. (F, — L) Modd 

From Y.Jianqutr^ to flank, run by the si 

of. support, be at hand.*F. fi^ne, side. I 

FlanneL (W,) Prov. £. Jianmtn^ 

better form — W. gmlanen^ flannel, fiij 

gti'lan, wool. Allied to "WooL 

Flap, to beat with ihe wingy. 

M.^. Jfa/frn, to be^it ; not in A.S. 

rariant oljfa^k, to beat ; see Flac (t).| 

Du._/fj//^». to flap. J>9T.jfab6y CQapfM 

Flare , see l>clow. J 

Flaah. to blaie. (Scand,) Swed. ^ 

Jlaia, to burn violently ; IceL yCasa, 

j\x<M,JlaJt a swift rushing. 

fltire. (Scand.) Norweg, 
blue : the some aa Swed. 

Flask. (l>owL.?) AS. /««-« 
find Icel. JfasJta, Din.Jfatit. S^-edr 
G. fasche : but hardly a Teut, 
Low L. Jiasca> a flask : cf. also 
Gaet^r^. Kemotor ongin un 
flagon. (F.-Low L.) O. 
another form ofyTar^dM-^Low L 
ace. of ^asc§, a flaik. «* Low 
I, above). 

Flat (Scand.) M. E. /tf/.-l 
Swed. /a/. Daa./i»/, 
Flatter. i,0. Low G.) M. £. 



aweo. ID 

ret weTil 


m — O r> •■• %\toflaIter 

Cf. llii -, iccii in 

Jtrc^n^, ti; vvcd. dill 

o cum ; cic M. h. jiakktn, to move 

EK* Flag (T\ 
:, ^ - L) F. ffatti- 

\ us, mm L. jIatUt, 

Aarr, to <_uuw ; see BlOW ( O. 
[D From pp. of L. ue-filrt, 
, puff up. 

to dtvpUy ostentmtiou^Iy. 

Il Kcms to hftre been particn- 

of the d'uplfljp of fluttering 

*SwciJ. diiLl.yfdjvid, to waver; 

'jia. to vnver, ui&wering tu 

; i« FU« to. 

(Untr X«-ll) The sense of 
t ucmi to havf been adapted 
Mcr tense of ' hue ' or ' appear 
L,.JIfnior, golden coin, yellow- 
X^JUtMS, yellow, gold-coloured. 
r: Me VIaIw. 

(E.> A.S. yfmj. + Du. 

■^Mtrd to V,o\h. JiAhta, a 

lo wcarc. 

I- ftkin (£.) M. £. 

lu flay + IccL^d. pt. 

Allied to FlAke^ q. v. 

a lancet , kc Phlebotomy. 
«pfl*. (Scand.l M.E. Jt^.^ 
fcpot ; fitkka. to fttniii ; 
+ t)u t'/V*. G fttk. 
'LAIC to stnkc, dab ; cf. 
. (V PL.\K-) 
: Floxible. 
■Tlee; see Fly, 
lE.) M. K //a A. S /y/. + 
I. C.jh*a. U Fl«ah 

(Scand.) M. V.Jicrien. 
fina, Ui tiller, Rii^glc; abo »pcU 
'.jUua, to titter. 

tmbet of ships ; tee Float. 

:k ; tec Float. 
ri ; Fleet (4), lo move 


E./*ja. A..S./.tjr, flesh. 

locoD ; l>aii yfrz.^. SwctI ^''J't, 

L/MMi. Prol> allied to Flake, 

see Floral. 

\V - L) F. //jiWr. - 

lly henl —f^.yycrw^ pp. of 

Dttr. %n fitxiMt. 

,(^) 1.. svi..ihi .ilium- 
,•1- o ... pp, 

lo b^ul round. 



deflect- Q.) L diflecttrt, to bernj 
t'own or aside. 

flection, a bending. (L.) Better 

^tshn ; (rom L ace Jfexitwtw, a bending. 

^L^txiiJ, pp. Q\Ji<cUrt. So aJ5oy?/jr *r, 

flinch. (F. * L.) A nasalised fonn of 
M. E. fenken, to flinch, waver — O. F. 
fttihir, lo hentl, ply, go awry or aside. 
flinch. — L.y?ff/rrr, to bwid. 

inflect, to mwlulate the yoice, &c (L.) 
L. in-fltcUre, lit to bend in. 

reflect. (L.) L n-Jtectert, lit. to bead 
back, hence lo return rays, &c 

Flicker; see Flag (i). 

Flight ; see Fly. 

Flimsy, weak, slight. (W. 7) Prob. 
fiom \V. iiymsi^ sluggish, spiritless, flimsy. 
(Fory? »■ \V. //, sce/lMmmrry.) 

Flinch ; sec Flexible. 

Fling. (.Scand.) Swctl. ftanga, to use 
violent action, romp, race about; i ftiing, 
at full speed (takini^ one s flinf^) ; O. Swed. 
/tenga, to strike. 4- l^aii. Jiertgi, to slash : 
i fl^'tg, indi.scriminatcly. Allied lo Flioker 
and Flac (i). 

Flint. (E.) A. S. ^int. + Dan. ftini , 
awed. ^iM/a ; Gk. irAji<4fi, a brick. 

Flippant. (Scand.) Flippant is for 
jUppaud, the O. Xorthem prts. pt. ; _^j/* 
pathi ^ piailliii^;, saucy. — IceL ^ip«tt to 
prattle ; Swctl.^, to talk nonsense; 
cf. .Swed. AiaX.Jlif, the lip. \A'cakened form 
of Flap. 

Flirt. (E.) Often written ^wfY, meaniug 
to mock, gibe, scorn; Lowl. Sc. jffiW. to 
flirt. A. S. Jteard, a piece of folly; 
JitarJian, to trifle; cf.Sv/e*.hJiti''d, artifice. 

Flit ; sec Float. 

Flitoh ; SVC Flake. 

Float, to swim on a 1t(juid surface. (£.) 
M. E. Jfcttn i also /t/fn. The fonn /mK 
iv due to the sh. J^oat, frum K.S. Jiota, a 
ship. The verb is properly y?«/. A. S. 
Jledtan ; coyriate witli Iccl. fijita^ G. 
JlieiJen, to float, flow. We fin<f, however, 
the (derived) vcrb_^^/uif», A. S. Chroo. an. 
1031 (Lan.i MS.). (V I'LU) 
afloat. (E.) Ni. 'E.onjiou, i.e.on the float. 
fleet (1 ), a number of sbii>s. (t.) M. K 
JIfU. a fleet. A.&./aff. a ship; the collec- 
tive scn-ic IS later. — A.S. yfrtvdfv, to float, 
fleet {3), a aeck, bay. (E.) Cf A/«/ 
Ditch ;y/^/ is a shallow cirekj channel. 
M. E. ^tf. A. S. Jtfik, a. bay of the sea 
I (.where ships ^00/). 
i fle^ U). swift (£.) iF'iom K.^. 






fiitig, iwift; allied \o ^t^tan, to float; 
MM flit Iwlow. 

fleet (^\ to more twMy. (E.) M.E. 
/UUh, 10 float, swim ; A. S. JU^OHt the 
U'lie; sec Float (above). 

flit, to remove from place to place. 
(Scand.) M. E. ////•«f.-Swc<I. ////a. to 
flit, remove; "Dzn. Jljrtft : cauul of S wed. 
Jfyta, V>ui.Jiytfe, to float. 

flotBam. goods lost in thipwreck, 
and floating oo the waves. ^Law F. 
— Lat) An O, F. Uw-tenn, formerly 
fii>tS9n (Rlounlj. A. F. foUson. -« Low 
L. fluc/atioHfm, a floating. *L. Jfmtuf, 
a wave. Conftucd with £. Jiaat. Cf. 

flutter, (o flap the wing*. (F..) M.E. 
Jfoitrm^ to fluctuate. A. S. Jiotcrian^ to 
float about.-A. S. >?#/. liie sea; Jiottt^ a 
ship. — \.S. Jlot-, stem q( Jlot-^n, pp. of 
Jltotan, to float 
Flock (i), a company of sheep. &c 
(K.) M.E. /a. A. S. /«-<-. + Icel 
/okJkr, Dtkn./ok, Swed. yftv*. Pcrhap* a 
vnrinnt of Folk. 

Flock (i), a lock of wool (F.-L.) 
O. V.JltK, - L.jfiKruj, a lock of wooL Cf. 
Lithuan. pioMkoj. hair. 
Floe : see Flako. 

Flogr, to beat (L) A late word; and 
a mere abbreviation oiJia^Uati, q. v. 
Flood; see Flow. 

Floor. lE.) A. S. /I6r. + Do. trAvr, 
G. /uTf W. tiawr, Bitt. Uur, Irish iar 

Sloral, pertaining to flowcn. <L.) L. 
ficmiiit belonging to Flora, goddess of 
flowers. — L.y/i7r-, 5tcmof_^tf/, a flower; cf. 
ficrtn, to flourish, allied to Blow (j>. 

deflour, deflower. (F.— L.) M. E 
deficuren.^O. F. defieurtr.^hom L. di' 
/lorarTt to gather flowen. 

efflorescence, (K.»L.) Y.efflortsecnct, 
lit. 'a, flowering.' From L. tfflorticert^ in- 
ceolive form of ef'Hortrt^ to blossom out 

(l: ^/- ^ «). 

fbrret (i). a kind of silk tape. ^Ital.- 
L.) \\v^.Jiorctto,% little flower, also ferret; 
diniin. fii fiore, a flower. — L. ^tfrr«, ace of 
flos, a flower. 

fieiu--de-U8, flower of the lily. (F.) 
O. F. Jteur tie /#>. Here lis • Low L. 
HUhj, corrupt form of L. lUium^ a lily ; tec 
flower and lily. 

florid. (L.) \..fioriJtu^ lit, abounding' 
with flowers; hence rosy— L.^tf/i-, crude 
fofw ot^9s, I flower. 


florin, a coin (F.-Ilol.-L.) M 
ficrin (aboot a. d. iJ37)-«-0, V./ttrin^ 
florin. — Hal. Jiorino ( « ^orine), a coin 
Florence, so called because it bore a 
the s)'mbol of that town. — ItaL ^/(«rt| 
flower : see ferret {i^ above. 

floscule. (L.^ I^ JfoTcuha, ■ 
flower ; double dimin. mji&s. 

flotur. finer part of meal. < F. - L.) Sb< 
for ' flower of wheat.'— F, ffeur, short 
^tir de ftirine, floor; see flower 
(which is a doubIct^. 

floiuiah, vh i.F.-L.> M E>frn>* 

— O, V . Jlairiss-f stem of prcs. pt of/atri 
to flourish — L.^arac/re, inceptive fonn 

jforere, to blossom. 

flower, sb.^ F.-L) M E/*arr.-0. 
Jfattr iF. /fnwrV — L._/?p»rw, ace. ofjfet. 

Infloi^eeoence, mode of flowering. ( 

— L.) F. injiffrtsccmt. From the on 
pt of L. in-Jioitsceft, to bunt intft H 

Florid, Florin, Floectile ; see 

Flosa : see Fluent. 

Flotilla. (Span.-L.> Span. /fi»/i7/«. 
Utile fleet; dimin. fij^ota, a fleet, crittiti 
with O. Y.Jfaitt ■ fleet of ships, a crowd 
people. This O. F Jtott \fcm ) is 
allied to V.. /lot (masc). a wave: 
Jiiutm^ a wave ; see Fluent, p 
same lime, the sense seems to 
affected by Dd. vleoi. lccl.^«/i. • deC 

Flotsam ; see Float. 

Flounce {\\ to plunge abenl. (S 
Swed. dial, and O. Swcd yfamM, to ploni 
allied to Flonndar (iV 

Flotinoe u), a plailed bordei 
dress. (F.-L ?) Changed from K 
frouHCi^ a plaiL— O. V . frmutr^ frmmav^ 

father, plait, vTrinkle;//«ftf^ U /tmtk\ 
nit or wrinkle the forehead. ~" 
Low L. /rontiart*^ not found, 
iarly fonned from fronii-, ciade 
ftc*is, forehead; see Front. 

Flounder (0, to flounce about. (O \ 
G.1 XVI cent. Nasalised form of 
fioMUrtn, to dangle, flap, sjilnsh fhr( 
mire. Cf. Swcd.yf<w^f0; to flutter. 

Flounder (a), a fish (Scaitit) S 
ftuiuirtt, Dan. Jtyndtr. \QfA.JIy^t%. Pt< 
frcffn flouuJet-itt^ about ; see above, 

Flour, Flourish ; «ec Floral 

Flout, see Flute. 

Flow, to stream (£.) A. S. tfL^«4«. 
Du. vhiijen ; Iccl./PAr, to fi<~- 
ii rains; Rnu. //wr/r, to float 
Skt. /Ah, to iluac^ swim. ( yi'UJ j 


.) A. S. JUd^ % flood ; from 
reV + Pa. vUtd, Icel. Jl^^d, 
Goth. jUdus^ % river, G. 


•ec FloomL 
i ice Fluaal 
chimi>ey-plfe; see Hut*. 

liRbt floaling down. (F -L. ?) 
fir^; d. piov. E Jlukt, wnule 
>. Ik fZkCre corniplion ot Jiock 
ifncc alto Low G.Jfo^, flue. 
.) From §tcm of pres. pt. of 
flow. CL Ck. fXi^«<r, to 

.. (F.-L) F. ajlufiue -t. 

>im<Unce.»L. aj^urmf-, stem of 
s/^jSmrt, to flow to. abound. 

(L) From stetn of pre«. 
to 0OW together. So aUo 

M pp. /M/fMXMf. 

(ll) From Acc of L de 


ft flowiog. (L) From the 

fw^rT, to flow oat. 

to w»Tcr. i.L.) From pp. of 

float ftboat. — L. ^ttfftu, a 

r/«/. old pp. oJ JfMrf, to 

- L) O. F. ^Ki;^. • L. 
»g. — I . ^itfrt, to flow, 
risted iilkcD fiUmeiitt. (Ital. 
fAffM, Venetian Jituso, soft, 
M/a. flow fcUk.»L. j^H-rMJ, 

ior-8p&r. a roinenl. (L.) 
(Ul. a Sovring) wa» luniicrl)- 
ia alchemy and chcmi^ti)-. 

10 flow fwinij. (F.-L.) Cf 
of water (,G. Douglas). -F. 
^ a (lux, also a Jiush at 
/urm^ a flowitij;; from 

10 flOM. 

CF.>-L7) This seems 
Muifo; it meant in iull (low, 

.-L) O. F./«jr. a flia.-L. 
of 0ttxuf, a AoHtngi ori^ 



*M/lmefut, a 
ntlucnce of 

» O F 

of the Ut 
»^*a . — Li nfiu ent , 
rrr, lo flow into. 
'L.) Jtal. tn^uenia^ 
oia severe catanh. A 

Influx. (L.) L injfuxus. a flowing in ; 
see flux (above), 

superfluous. (L.) 'L.n4perJiMus,oitx- 
flowiug. — L mftr, over ; jCutrt^ to flow. 

Fluke (I), ■ fish. (E.) M. E. Jiukt. 
A. S. /Wf, a kind ol plaice. + Icel.yftUi, 
a kind of halibut. 

Fluke (3), part of an anchor. ^Low 
G. ?) AI^o spell /«ut. - lx>w G./w«*t, a 
wing; cf. Swed. ankarjiy, the fluke of an 
anchor. Piob. allied to fly. Kfiukt ^at 
billiards) is % fiyi*ig stroke; cf. Du. vlng^ 
quick, Q.fu^.^ a flight. 

Flummery, a light food. (\V,) W. 
llymt-u^ llymrwufd, flunimcry. sour oalxneal 
boiled and jellied. — W. Uymrig, crude, 
raw ; Uymus, sharp, tart. — VV. Hymu, lo 
sharpen; //y^Mj sharp. 

Flunkey ; see Fl&nk. 

Fluor ; see Fluent. 

Flurry, hurry (.Scand.^ Swift has_^M^»7, 
a gust of wind. — Swed, fiurig, di^rdercd, 
dissolute; Jiur^ disordered hair, whim; 
ti orw te.jfuru/t, shaggy, disordered. 

Fluu CO* to ^ow swiftly: see Fluent. 

Flush (I), to blnsh, redden. (Scaod.) 
M. E, Jlusheftt to Tc<ldcn (with anger) — 
Swed. dial _//iU/a, to bum, f^arc; Nnrwcg. 
Jiosa, passion, vehemence. Allied to Fl&sh 

Flush (.0, level; ice Fluent. 

Fluster, to heat with drinking, confuse. 
^IScand.) Icel. _^Mi/ni, to be fluttered; 
/austr, fluster, hurry. Allied to Fluata 
{i^ and Flaab. 

Flute, a musical pipe. <F. — L.) O. F. 
JIautt, JfeuU. a flute ; jfiauUr, to blow s 
liute, .answering to a Low L..^afttare* (not 
found), to blow a flute, from L. Jlatux, % 
blowing. >' L. yfa/v, to blow ; see Fls- 

flageolet, a sort of flute. (F. - L.) 
O.V. fla^oiet^ dimin. oi Jiagroi, with the 
same sense. — Low L fiautiolus* i,nol 
found), dimin. of Low L. Jiauta, a (luie 
(, ^ O. F.^aufe above). 

flout, lo mock. (Du. - F. - L) Bor- 
rowed from l)a, ^ity/en, to play the flute, 
also to jeer. — O. Du. ^uyi (Da. ^m'/), a 
flute; bonowed from F. 

flue (0, an air-passa{;e. chimney-pipe- 
(K. — L.) A meie cormplion of y/«/r ; in 
rhacr's Virgil. X. J09. wc lindyfw. to trank- 
late L. contAa, a sea-^bell Uumpet. 

Flutter : see Float. 

Flux; see Fluent. 

Fly, lo float m air. (E.) M. E. Jf^jem, 
pt. i.Jifw. A.S,yfrJ^^ ptt./CciiA.Vu« 



|»%Biit led. fg'^ Dn. Jfyt*. 
G.0iam. O. U fimmm, » 
.) Anierf to Flov. 
fffftwiatny. ft tretbootec (SipM.«E.— 
> Spas. jfiKliudcr, a aoe imjuyti a a flf 
.^ue^MCer.* Dm. mySmUtr, • f i wt iii Bfcr . 
>!>•. vriftmittm, to roll, yliMiiu.— Da. 

fleft^E.) U.^ Jkt, tL Mam, A,& 
.VM, A fle>.+Da. idbv. 1ccL>l. C. jM. 
tass.iAri«. Lit. •« jmixr.* (xSKLfhs 
Evin, to fT» abo to jufk 
flodge. tDtemiik vidi feslbczv. (Scaid.) 
pfK/A^ffi b ROW Mbstitvled for M. K. 
rtttdv to ilT.—Icel. jCry^, able to 
Xf.^lotljuxgft, to caaae tofi^. causal of 
ilJiSga ; ice V\j. 'D*T.JU»igg-lmg. 

fliae, to escape. (Scand.) loA. /i/*, 
lo flee. pL i./i«i t - E. As/) ; S«cd. 
Dan ;^, to flee. Allied to Ice), 
ifr^j^tf. to nv. 

ffiffht, ict of flying (E.) AS. Jfykt, 
allied lo/j^^e, fligbi.- A-S.^*^. base of 
pi. of pc. I. oOKn^m*. to flj. So alio Sired. 
Jfyii, G./Htht. 

Foal.(£^ M.E.>S(. A.S. ;^^. + Do. 
^•rtWlm, Icel./o/., Dan /<V>. SwedLya/r. Goih 
mtZt, G.J^Mum, L. /m/.W, y ouhp of an animal, 

filly, a female foal. (Scand.) Icel fyl/a, 
a filly, from foii, a foal ; Dan. /W, from 
/ffJt : Swed, /&//. inmJhU. + G.fullm. 

Foam. (EV M. £.>«<;. A.S./i«.+ 
ProT. C. faMm\ L. sfunia. Allied to 

Fob. watch-pocfcct, <0. Low G.) An 
O. Low G. word, only preserved in the 
cngnate H, G. (Prussian^ fuf^, a pocket ; 
for which see Bremen Mr'ort. i. ^37. 

FocUB, a point where ligbt-rayt roeel 
(L ) L. fonu, a hcarlh ; hence, h centre 
of fire. Cf. Gk. ^, lighu (v' BHA.) 

fuel. (F.-L.) M. E. /«**// 1 Barbour). 
O. F. fauailht only found in f<maitUr^ a 
wooflyartl i Low V. Joaliia, fud. --LowL. 
foialt, fuel. — L. focus, a hearth. 

ft»ao(o), fllftOOd); see ftj«fl(l) below. 
ftiaUfi), alijghtmu&ket. (F.^L.) Orig. 
Dot the musket itself, but its fire-lock ; aUo 
t|<ll futcl, fuset, fust, * Fust, ftijee. or 
fitsd. a pipe filled with wild fire, and put 
inio the touch-hole of a bomb;' Ker»ey 
(i;»5'. - O. F. /w/«7. •• fire-siccle for a 
tinder-boi ;* Cot.— L. foftU. 2. steel foi 
fire. — L. /»cui, a hearth; Der. 




(£> M.E/M. A-S./B, 
to k*"e. t-H rn Got 

wA.S. />! *, noiJiie () 
m apcOaff' by cofti 
jfis/CaV-f 0,/M, £und; Cocfa 

b ^rtd. 

Vbs. (Dan-t Du./r< •^ ^ 
bha&Bg Ml cf MOW : d y>^ to 
aaiv>.4lecl. jU, imy. now ' 

saov^tocn ; nresB_^w-cwi^ PP* ^^ ' 
j^iOia to be tossed by waul, dttft. 

FoiblO; see Feeble 
Foil (iX to defeat (T. - L^ 
jfpf ^, to trample ondei (ooL * < ' 
to trwBple OQ, also to oppre:-- 
ciiarge cxtiemdy <Cot.).*Low L* 
yWarc, to fall cloth ; kce Full (3)^ 
frii» a bloni sword, so called beovsc 
or blunted ; faii, a defeat 
Foil (2). a set-off; sec FoUa^O; 
Foin, to thrust with a swprd. (F.-L 
Ob&otcte. Lit *io ihrast with an «e] 
spcxr.* — O. F. /pHi'mtt an oel-spcai.»I 
fuscima, a trident 
Foison : see Fnae (i \ 
Foist, to intrade siirrcplitioakly (O. 
O. Du. vystcH, * to fiule,' t.e. to break 
notscleA«iy, which is also the orig. 
ffiitt; allied to O. Da. wtst, 'a fiak 
^Sewel). So aUo Dan. /u, the 
fiomJire, to fixi ; see Fiaa. 
Fold(i),to ' ■ - ■'■-' '^ 
JoUen, A, S 
+ Dan. faiiie, : ._. , 
falda, Goih.yii;/Adtf, yj.fixi.'tn, 
Gk. vA^cetv, to weave. (^ PLAK.) 
foiJ^ sb., a plait; -ftU^ >offtiL. u 

fcldatool, a fol ' ■ ^ T 
O. ILG.) Ix>wL 
faU an, to fold ; .j/.^ ... 

faUtOUil, an nmi Lhatr. ^^K, — ) 
O. H.G.) F. fatiUinl. O. F. 
(Cot.) -Low L. /..■ 
Fold (1), a pen 
yti^i/, also fahii. ji%»t»:. ><i\ 
ifWh fohi (t>. but with IceL 
Jjalar\ a board. 

Foliage, a clatter of )ca^r> 
Modified from O. F. /tmSi4tw 
ftuilie, a leaf. - 1. Aii/A«, pi c>1>m«' 
leaf.-f Gk. ^vKKw, Tea/'. 
exfoiiaU. (L.) Frow pp. oT t» 

from fjT. off, 

[i], k cef off, u fQ setting a gem. 

'iir. K leaf, 'alao the 

'•^ ;' Col . Sec above. 

O, i.i, J L. phr. irt /j/io, 

fiap'ax. urn, a leaf, lilicet. 

t.nit..fv^ ;^ , ,.^^,cd horn L. //r» 

"i. 1 !ca(. 

-l-> O F. fre/cit. - L. 
m^ Iti. 'thfce-lnr.'-L. tri-, allied 
pferee ; fplimm^ a leaf. 
^ • ciowtl of people. (R) A.S. 
Io«L/^. DuL Swed./c/*. Du. G. 
i^aan. ^ui'koj, a cro^^o, Ku'y^. poik\ 
lij. AUicd to TSook ; and prob. to 

Icle. ieoJ-v«»L (F. - L.) O. F. 

it, titllc ba^ - L. /(^//ti-M/MJ, double 
of f»Uu, a bae. 

riwwv. wfak vcTb> to follow. 4> Du. 
, Mi^/j^Ot D9a./i>J!g»t Swcd./c^'a, 

^j ace Pool. 

Wnt. (F. - 1*) O. y./ommirr. - 
iwiatofT. « h. fommtum, thort for 
nf(AM*, a wann application, lotion. •» 
mr, lo wartn. 

dL foobsk. cScuid.) M. £. fonJ, 

temmooly /mm-^i, pp. oi/onntft. to 

a fool, frocn the M. E. sb./w.ytfWK^, 

— Swf* M*tf, a fool; Icel.y.irt/, a 

'.ally, a bnoyont per- 

■ 'im^ atuuUrd, L. f-an- 

^oni Thn5y^-</« flag-like. 

"^ r, fami'ie^ Tcrb. 

f^f water. (L.) A. S. 
- ' ICC- of foni, a fount. 

(F.-L.) O. F. 

I ^al>ovc). Der. 

jif. u. r. jh/iiiitM4, Low L. /yM- 

1 1 J . Fount, an frisortment of types ; 

M, E. /oA. A. S. /W.I. 
ttw aats- (V i*A.) Allied to 

X ti» Uke food, civc food. (E.) 

rt. A. S.yriAxnr; pu! fot /iJan, .^ i.,,ni ^ to ir— / 
K -L.0 O. F Ar/nf, 
iiloer ; fittrir, to ftriter 
OOdivy. O F. Dict.y-L. ///V/^j a 
^ MitpUtitdf ool from 

fodder, food for caltle. (E.) ME. 
fodiUr. K.?*.J^Jor,fi<iifor\ exttnded fomi 
oi/Siia, food.+L^u. vo€iUr^ Iccl.yy/y>, Dan. 
Swctl./fff/ifr, 0,/Htttr. 

forage, fodder, chiefly obtained by pil- 
lage. iF.— LowL. — Scaiid.) ^\/E../ot-agt. 
■ O. F./eurag^e. — O. F./orrer, to forage. 
r.— Low L. 


^Q.F./om i.F./eum), fodder. 
/fi/frum, fodder. — Dan. and Swed 

foster, to nourish. (E.^ A.S.jdstriart, 
vh. ^ A. S. /Jj/^r, nourishment; allied to 
/oJa, fooH + Icel /Jsir, nu<sing./(^j^ni, to 
nurse ; Swed. fostra, Dan. fosttx, to rear, 
bring up. 

Fool, a jcsler. (F. - L.) O.Y./oi (F. 
/tfu), a fool. •- 'L./oilis, a wind-lag; pp. 
/tiUs, puffed checks, whence the tei ni was 
easily transferred to a jester. Qi.Jiart, to 
blow. Dor. he-fool. 

ftiUy. (F. - L.) M. E. fdyt. - O. F. 
folit, folly. -O. F fol (above). 

fools -cap, paper so called from the 
w.itcr-mark on it. 
Foot. (E.) lA.'E/of.foof, r,\. /et,/eei. 
A.S./V, pi./// +Du. veet, \ct\./6tr, Dan. 
fni, Swed./itft Coth. /ii/$4S, G.Jtiti, h.pei 
\»tein /V(/- ), Gk. row (item «o8.), Skt. /W, 
/J./. cVPAD.) 

fetlock. (Scand.l Orig. the Mock* or 
tuft ol hair behind a horse's pastem-joint. 
The syllable /ocJi^lccX. fokkr, A.S. iocc, a 
lock of hair. Fct- is allied to \cc\ fet, a 
pace, hltp,/iifi, a pacer (,used of horaes) ; 
and to Icel.Jiifr, a foot (above). 

fetter, a shackle. (E.) M. E. /iter, 
A. S. /(for, a shackle for the foot ; allied 
lo/Sf, (oot.-^lccl /jc/»rr, G/auf, h. peJ- 
iea or com-/ej, Gk. witrj. "D&r./efffr, vb. 
Fop. a coxcomb. \Du.) From Du./i?/- 
pen, to prate, cheat ; fopptr, a wag ; fop- 
ptrij, cheating (—E.y^y/V'j') 
For (1), prep., in place of. (£,) Orig. a 
prep. A. S. Jor^ for ; also, before that ; 
allied to A. S. forx^ before that, for ; see 
Pore. + Du. vocr^ Iccl. fyrir, Dan. for, 
Swrd.yir, G./iir. 
For- (a), prtjix. (E.) For- has usually 
an intensive force, or preserves something 
of the sense k>\ from^ to which it is nearly 
teUtcd, (Qiuie distinct fromy^nf*). A.S. 
for- ; \ct\.for-,fyrir-, Dan./(jr-, Swcd. /»-, 
Du. G. ver., OoX\i.fra', fair-, Skt. piint: 
The Skt. /and is an old laslrumcntal Miig. 
of para, far; hence the on^. sense is 
' away.' Der. far-btar, for-btd, for-femd, 
f6r£a (miaiptli yi"*-^). >'-««^ i^r-jiva, 





fcr-hm, for^sake, for-rumir\ lec B»*r, 
Bid. &a 

For- (3\ pnfijs. (F.-L.) Only in fpr^ 
clcst im'i^pc\\./Drraajt),/tr-/tif,v\ii<:h see. 

Foraffe ^ sec Food. 

For&minated, pcrfonted. (L.) FromL. 
foramin-, stem oiJirrapuH, a soiaU hole. » 
L^orarTt^ lo bore ; see Boro. 

yoray, Forray, a raid for fornE»'ie- 
Foray, f array Axt old Lowl- Scotch spel- 
lings of Forage, q. ▼., under Food. 

Forbear. (£.) Fiom For- (a) and 
Bear. K.^-forbiran. 

Forbid. (£.) Fiom For- (a) and 
Bid (a). K.S./or&eSJan. + G. vtrhietiH, 

Foro« (I), strength. (F. - L.) M. E. 
forxt,Jors. ■■ O. F.Jprct. — Low L forties 
strength. — h./orti; crude form of /ffrtir, 
>lroDg. (VDHAK.) 

comfort, vb. (F.-L.) M. E. tcnforim, 
later comforttn. — O. F, ion/orUr, to com- 
fort. * Low L. con-fortart, to sUcngthca. 
deforce, to ilispO!>&ess. (F. — L.) Legal. 

— O. F. tU/otxir, to disposscM (Low L. 
diffortiArt). — O. F. dt- = il!«- — L. rfu^ 
■way ; and V. forte (above). 

effort. (F. - L.) F, efort, aa effort ! 
«'erbal sb. from F. Vej^ctxtr, lo endeavour. 

— F. if- («L. fx)i and /*>nrr, force, 
fort (F. - L.) O. ¥.fort, sb. a fort ; 

a i>eculiar use of ^,fortt adj., strong. ^L, 
%\x..fori-tm, strong. 

fortalice, iin»ll fort. (F.-L.) O. F. 
fortclcsc4t hovr h. forta/itia i see fortresa 

forte, load. (Ital. - L.) IXAlforit, - 
L. tec for/-em, strong. 

fortiiy. (F. - L) O. F. forii/ur, lo 
make strong. — L. forti^, crude ^rm of 
fortii ; -fitart, (otfiurre^ to make. 

fortitude. (L.) 'L.feriiiudo, ktiength. 
^l^forti-j, strong. 

fortress. (F. - L.) M. Z.fortrtstt. - 
O. Y ■ forte rtstt , forteiesfe. — Low l^forta* 
Itfia, a small fort. — Low L.y(7r/i>, a fort; 
V. forth, strong. 

Force (a), to stuff fowls; see Faroe. 
Foroe (3)> Foes, waterfall. ^Scaod.) 
Dan.yitf, lcel./Af/._/i»r.f, a walerfalL 
Foroepa. pincers. (L) l^fortept, orig. 
t«(.d for holding hot iron.«L.7^r>ivMU, hot; 
covert, lo hold. 
Ford; sec Fore. 

Fore, ill front, coming first (E.) A.S. 
fprt, for, bcfure, ^pn^.\forttf orotic before* 
adv.4'^"- voor, Icct.Jyrir, Oan.yS^, Swed. 
Jir, C. wr, Goth, /***/«, L./f«, Glu itp6, 


Skt. /m. The orig. i>eiisc ia *be>o&4i 
allied to Fat. Der./o/v-arw, -Ak/t, -tfaWa 
•fostU, •Jait, 'faihir, -/t^gtf, -frci, -A*"'* 
•^ (in the scAse *to go before' only), 
•^rxfwui, -AoMd, 'head, -Jwd^, -hww, -l 
•dOcJt^ •man^ -noc/t, •ordain, -/art, •ranJkg i 
»«/, -sA i/, -jhoricH, "ihow, -/t^*/, 
{K.S.fort'Steail, fib. lit. 'an obslracti 
■tasU, -tell, -thought, -toktm, -ttoth, 
•warn ; all easily nndcr^lood. 

afore. (£.) A. S. wfiroHy adv« 

before. (E.) ME. ^i/^nf. A-S. 
foran, biforan, prep, and adv. — A. S- 
hi- (E. by) ; foran^ before. 

first. (E.) A. S. fynt ( ^for-tif), 
correct supcrl. of forr, with vowel- 
of c to>. + lce],^fy/r; Dan. Swcd.^ 
formor, more in front. (E.) 
early; XVI cent; a folac formatioi^ 
soil M. E. forpuJt, \. e. forcmcpst ; 
below. Formed by adding -rrto thel 
form- of A. S-form-a, fir^t really a 
form, precisely equivalent to L. 
where -m- is an Aryan saperi, auflrax. 

foremost, most in front <E> Adoni 
snperU the old snperl. form beiag mu-J 
understood. Formed by adding ^j/ 
A. S. form-a, foremost, lirst ; LhU 
formest, often written fyrmtjt, whU 
turned intoforemait by confusion witlsi 
See below. 

fbrwardL (E) M. Z-ffinuanL 
forewcard, adj. — A. S.fort, before ; 
su&x ; see Toward. Der. ^ 
M. K.forwardes^ where -^ is the raffia i 
case, used adveibialty. And see ~ 
Foreclose, to preclude, exclude. (F^i 
Better tyehforc/oie.^O, Y.fonios.jpgk 
forchrrt, to exclude, shut out— O. F.jli 
from i^/foris, outside -, and clorrt, to 
from L. daudert. Sec Forfeit and 
Forego, to relinquish ; see ForgiK 
Foreign. (F. — L^ The g is 
inserted. M, E. foraitu, forryne, — '! 
forain, aliai, strange. •• Low L.^ 
adj., from L foras, out of doors, adi 
ace pi. foim. allied to X^.fortt, d< 
l^ forum, a outiket-plaoe. and E. 
Foremost ; see Fore. 
Forensic, belonging to Iaw-cowt& <L] 
Coined from l^forens-ij, bclon-,*!"- ^■•. • 
forum. — L.yi'rww/, maiLel-plac' 
place . orig. a veaiibuie or door i^ 
Led t<.> L Jortt, and E dc*r, 

forest. (F.^L.) O F.>iTi<.-Lee 
\ffrti(a^ % wood, fvrtjtu, open vgmm 


(Vedicvftl writera oypo^ 
banting groand, to the 
puk )— U /aru, out of 
to \^/ara, cloork. Der. 
todx/friUr, foster. 
toteg forfeiteil or tost by 
.— L.) \k\.^forfeu\ whence 
— 0. F. forfatS, ft Clime 
6ne, a fine ; also ft pp. of 
Vr. to iresjixss. — Low L. 
ft (rtspftss. fine; orig. pp. 
'^frii/acert, to trespass, lit. ' to do 
* — L /fris factrt, to do or act 
or abfc>«d: from foni, oat of 
^dyCnr/nr, to do. Sec Foreolofle. 
P u ru fim d. to avert. (Hybrid ; 
M- ^ fpr/mJtn. An cxtrnor- 
of E. fir^. prefix, with 
ll&ax abtjrevutiun of liefemi. 
(a) antl D«re&d; ftl!>o Fend. 

lE 1 From Fop- (»> and Got, 

\) From For-(J)an«i Oivo, 

■Do vrr^ntft, G-vcrxff'/fi. 

to give up. (E-) Bel- 

A. S. firF^fh to pus over. 


A. Sw fifr. - U /una* s 

•»*• pronged. (L.) Low L. 

pp. of UfHTtari, to part id two 

h^rcus, two-pronged ; 

i /w/ra. a fork. 

lort (E) M.E, /ir/urw. 

(» pp. of /iyr/eihoM, to lose 

_/»f^, prefix, .ind /tthan, to 

yor- <3l and Ijoaa. So also 

Dn. and G. vir/arett, siroi- 

iR-\ O. V, forme also means 

.— L) F. epHfarmer.^'L. 
h Lu) M. E. Je/hnrteHt 
-OF. defforme^ 
•ifljr.— L. deformis, ugly. 
'; A»rTAi. hL^pc, bcautV. 
;« fumi. (L.) L, 

a form. 
t!!j[:Ait Loowlcil(;e ta (F. 
rr. — L. ift-ffirmare, lo pal 

aUo. to ' " 1 

K. r,' hape 



transforni. (F.-L.) F. transformer. 

■- L. tmns-formare, to change the shape 
of. Also UHi-fomi, mu!ti-form, &c. 

Former; see Fore, 

Formio. pertaining to ants. (L.) L. 
formica, an ant. 

Formidablo. causing fear. (F.-L.) F. 
formidable, ^V,. formidahilis , terrible. — L. 
formidare, to dread ; formido. fear. 

Formula : see Form. 

Fomioate. (L.) From pp. of L.famte' 
art, to commit lewdness, seek a brotbeL 

— L. fomie; base of/wnMx, a vault, arch, 

Forsake. (E.) M. E. partaken, A. S. 
forsacan, to neglect, ong. to contend 
a<;niu&t, or oppo^.— L. for-^ prefix; and 
saean^ (o contend, whence the £. sb. sakt. 
Sec For- (3) and SaJte, So aUo Swed. 
forsaAa, Itxa. forsage. 

Foreooth. (E.) M. E. fcr scfhe, for • 
irulh. A. S. for s^Se; where /»r=for, 
and iJf^e is dat. oisJ!^, truth ; see Sooth. 

Fonwear. (E.) From For- (j) and 
Swear, A. S. forruvrtart. 

Fort, Fortaiice; see Force (i). 

Fortliy. Fortitude; mc Fo c^ (i). 

Forth, forward. (E.") hl.K.fortA A. S. 
/tvN, adv ; extended from /j/v, befot c ; see 
Fore. + r)o- voorf, from vcffr; G. ffrtt 
M. H. G. vorf, from wr. 

Fortnight ; see Four. 

Fortreaa ; see Force (i). 

Fortuitous : see below. 

Fortiino. (F.-L.) V . foHtmt.^Xs. fer- 
/una, chance. — L.y(»rft*-, allied \o fortu, 
crude form of fors, chance ; oric. ' that 
which is broiiglit/ i^fjox ferre, lo bring; 
tee Fertile 

fortuitous. (L.) L. ftrtuUtu, casnal. 

- L.pfiu- (as above). 
Forty ; see Pour. 
Fonvard ; tee Foro. 

Fossa. (F. — L.) F. fosse. ^L, fossOj a 
ditch. — L. fossa, fcm. of fossus, pp. ol 
fodere, to dig. 

fossil, petri6ed remfttns obtained by 
digging. (F. — L) O. Y.fostiU, 'that may 
be Jigged;' Cot. ^\^. fossil is, dug up.- L. 
fc!i-m» pp. oifcdert (ftbovcV 

Foster: see Food ^and Foroat). 

PoiU. (E.) M- E. fouL A. S. f4l + 
Du. fwxA Icel. /J//. V>ikX\.fuHt, SwtA.fmi, 
Goih ftd/Sf G. fatU. Akin lo Putrid 

filth, fonl matter. (E) A, S. ^^/ff - 
A. S^fttf, fottl Lby vowel change oC UtoSi 





foum&rfc. ft polecat. (E. and T.) M, E. 
fuimarix comp. of M. E. fvl, fonl (ns 
above), and O. F. marte, mattre, a marten ; 
see Morten. 

Found {\\ to lay ■ roundation; see 

Found (2>. to cut metals. (F. «• L.*) 
O. I*'. fon.ite.'^X^ fundtrt, to poar, ciLst 
metals' (^GHU.) 

font (i), fount, an assortment of types. 
(.K— L.) O. V.f&ntt, a usting of meials. 
— O. F. fottiire, to cast (above). And see 
Fiue wS. 

Founder ; see Fund, 

Foundling: sec Find. 

Fount J ). a spring ; see Font (i). 

Fount (j) ; sec under Found (i). 

Four. (E.) M. K. feovfur. fowtr, four. 
A, S. ftSwtr- •+■ Icei. fj6rir, Dnn fire. 
Swed.^m, Du. wVr. Goih._/f(/uY^r, G. vUr, 
W. ptif-witr^ Gael, cttthir, L. quatuor, Gk. 
Wrropcr, riaaaptt, iriavpfi, Kuss. <hetf£ra. 
Slit. fAart/ar. (Aryan type, iwtfriwir.) Der. 
four-th, A. S. yiriirlki ; four'tttn, A. S. 
fehvcrtsnt\ for-ty, A. ^.fthotrtig. 

farthing, fourth p.^rt of a penny. (E.) 
M. E ftt-thing. A. S. ftr\ins, /ecr^iH^, 
older lorm ffot'^ting — A. S./tSr^-a, fourth , 
with double dnniii. suffix -/-i«^. 

firkin, the fourth pait of a barrel. (O. 
Du.) From Du. wVr, four ; with suffix 
■kin (as in kiUer^kin) answering to the O. 
Du. double dimiu. auffiz -k-tn (G. ik'tn 
in m>i<ichen), 

fortnight, two weeks (E.^ M. V^/outie- 
ni^hi; a\&o /i^urtfH m'^Af, — M. IE,, fcurieti. 
I.e. fourteen: night, old pi., i.e. nights. 
A. S./cMi^rtytii niAl, So al&o S(unight = 
icivn night. 

FowL (E) M. E. ^/, A.S./ugo/, a 
bird + Du. tfoge/, Icel. /ugi, Dan. /ugf, 
Swcd. fiige^t Golh. /ugU, G. roir/. 

Fox. (E. ) A. S. /ox. + Du. tw, lc«l. 
/ax.fiia, Golh./fiwAtf, G./wrAi. 

foxglove. lE.) A. S. /Mtj gfe/a, i.e. 
fox's glove ; a fnnciful name 

vixen. (E.) M. E. vixen, fixen, » »he- 
fox; nnswennc to A. S.Jyx en, made from 
/ex by vowel-change of ^ to y, with fem. 
suffix ■en; precisely as A. H. gyien, a 
gi^ldcsa, from god, a gofl. 

Fracas. (F.-Ital. -U) F. /raear, a 
crash, — F- /racasser, to shatter. — Ital. 
/roiiusart, to break in pieces, — I tai. /m, 
Among ; and canare, to break (imi- 
JU inUrrumptrt^. Cauart^lm 
ahattcr ; see QuaftK. 


Fraction, Fraoture ; see FragOe 
Fractious, peevish. ^E.^ A prov a 
word, fnirn Noilh. E /ratcA, to vf]Uabbk 
elude ; the same as M. E. frsuehtn, I 
creak u a cait- % Not fnim l^/ntngtrt 
Fi'agile (F. - L.) F. /regi/i- — L 
/ragiiif, easily broken. — L. ^no^, base fl 
/rangere, to break. 

defray. (F.-L.) O.F. dtffxtftr, ti 
pay expenses. •* O. F. di' ( - I* diS'\ 
/rait, expense (pi. /raits *moi\. F. /raisi 
Irora Low L. /nutnm, ace. of /ntctHS. tt 
pcnst (DucanRe), The Low L. /rxttttu ' 
from L-./niitus, pp. of /rangere, to break. 

fraction. iF. — L.i F /m^ticn.^' 
aco, fraeticnem. a breaking —L 
pp. oK /rangere, to break. 

fi>aoture (F.-L,) O.T./rmimn- 
h./radura, a breach. * L. yinsrfaix, pp 
/rangere, to break. 

ttnfgm^nt. { F. — L.) F. /rtigmimt. 
t„ fmgmentuM, a broken piece, — " 
(base of/ran^re^ ; with suffit .m 

froU. (F. - L.) M. E. /reel - 
/rai/f, brittle. — L./nrfi/rw, ace o^ " 
see fragile above. 

frangible. (L.) Late L 
breakable; a coined word. «• 
to break. 

infraction, violation of law (F - 
F. in/raetion. — L. ace in/rue tifftum. 
we.nkcning. breaking into.»L. ^j;' 
pp. of in-/ringtre ^Ixlowj, 

infringe. (L.) L. m/h'ngrrt, 
break into, vir)late taw. 

irrefragable, not to be refuted. 
L.) F. irre/tagable — L. irte/n§^ 
10 be withsioovl. — L. ir- (> im, o< 
/rdptri. to oppose, thwart ; from rr-, 
an<r(ptobably) L. /tm:-, base ©f / 
to break- (For thc^lo- ' ^ 

/rd^iuifi, prob. fn:)m the 

reft-act, to bend h^... , 

(L.) L. re/rtutm, pp. ol rt/nngeft, 
bend buck. Der. rt/raet-fff^y n n 
form for re/t-nctary, fiom I*, rtfi 
stubborn, obntinate. Also rrpsn^t^i, 
mistnlicn form for rr/rin^Qi^ie. 

refi'oin {i), the harden of 
(!•. — L.) F. re/'--'" ■ t.i n! 
rejranhs, a refrain. 
repeat. So called li- 
the O. F. refreindrc, to 
same word as Prov. nr/ .'i 

both are from L. rtfring^ ^ 

(pull back, hence, come / 

i he woni is tather Prov 



>*/w. pres. pL of 

If*, ir. 

a ; tec Frtt«kU. 

EOS, lo coQstnict (E.) M.Z./rtmm. 
frtmmdiM, to (jitoiftotc. ctfrcl do, lit. 
tlMT. — A-S /ram, strong, goor1» lit. 
rd'^A S '• V" • rrp.. troni, away; 
rom. 4* ' to furiher, from 

^4^., Ii "f. adv., forward, 

^fifrt^. from. Dcr frame, sb. 
^^Dld. quarrelsome. vC.) Obsolete. 
fmm/aid. •• W. fft^titfoit pAuionatc ; 
fnmi, tn rooie, {ttx^ffrvm, lc»ty. 
DO, Pranohise ; sec Fr&n^ 
Dfflble: free Frftfiils. 
r£. fr«. (F.-LowL-O. H.G.) 
/nw; Low L. fi^ntM, free. — 
W< /fonkc, a free tnin« ■ Frank. 
Were ft Gcnnanic people, 
a Ficuchct-ui. (F.-G) M. E 
1-*. /> ajv/ : Quiucd ffom iu being 
A, L < Franki&k, 

DClliAe. (F— G.) M. E. /VnnrArj/, 

F. Jwmmkiu, privileged lilierly. — 

f^^SKkir-, litem of pics pt. ol/ramkir, 

/rojtr, free ^atovc). Der. 


(F.-G a««/L) O F. 
ire incense; »c Frank 

■ frt*hoUer. (F.-O ME. 
,-0. F. JrunMtyn (^^ f*artch*' 
Low L. /nxn^'kilattut. •> X^w L. 
If, Cte« ; we Fraalc (^bove). The 
Ml- ' " Vi. -tuu ( ^ E- •i-ing as 
Jji ; y a^ ill (kamUriMH. 

^lu . -■. 1 .ooa/. 
tani«L iF - L.) O. F. fnxumei 
r L. /rni<nt^i4'u, the same as L. 
Mtf. Hotheiljr. * L. //utir^ cogiute 
L Bro^H«rr 

t^rri V - L.) O Y.frattmite. 

Mc ■ v«, brolhcrhrtofl. — L, 

Mu, u'v^^ii'-i-r.-'L, /'W/r, Uotlier. 

LrCzido i'i>. iiiui>!erer of a brother. 

— L /loiridda^ 

., . - . J , cni'te form of 

«. »LL>cr, lium onJirt, 10 kill ; 

(]>, raaider of • brother. 
t^Jm/n-^idi»m, the killing of 

- L.) M. E. /r/«. . O. F. 
a brother. • L frairtm, ace. 

FREEZE. t6i 

: Fraud. (F - L.) O. F. frtMudt, - L 
Jraudcmt »cc. of fratu, deceit, guile. 
Cf. Skt. dkitfta, iraudulent ; dkvsi, lo 
bend, (y' DHWAR.) 

defraud. (F.-L.) O. F. de/reuder.-^ 
L. Jc-jrauJart, to deprive by fraud. 

Fraught, to lade a »hip. (Scaod.) \N'c 
now use fraught only as a pp. M. E. 
J rah fifi, frozen, only in the pp. fraught. 

— Swcd.yrOi6/a, to fraught tir freight, fiom 
frakt^ a cargo ; Dan. Jragte. from fragt, a 
car^o. •!- Du. b^vrackun, from vraiht\ G. 
fraihUn. UowfnuAt. Origm onLCitain, 

freight, a cargo. (F.-O. H. G.) A 
curious siielling of F. //W, the Ircight of a 
ship, the ffh being inserted by coiifwion 
with fraught above — b'.fret, ' the fraught 
or freight of a ship, also, the hire Cliat's 
paid for a ship; * Col. - O. H. G, frth/^ 
orig. 'icrvicc,' whence use. hire. This 
O. H. G.frtA/ is thought to be the same as 
O^'raektt a cargo. 

SVay (I), an afTray. (F.-L.) ijhort for 
afft^jf, or tffmy, orig. ' terror ' as sheun by 
the use ^ fray tn the sense of terror, 
Bruce, XV. jJij. Sec Affray, 

fray (j), to terrify. (F.-L.) Short for 
a^^y ; sec Affray. 

"Pray (3), to rub away ; see FrioUon. 

Freak n). a whim, caprice. (E.) A 
quick movement; from M. li. //vi, quick, 
rigorous. — A. S. /r^f, bold, rash. + loci 
frtkr, voracious; bwed. //w^, impudent. 
Dan. f*ak, audacious, G. fnek, saucy, 
0.fI.G.>»A. greedy. 

Freak 1 3). to streak. (Scarul) A coined 
word ; short for/r^.*/* below, 

freckle, a small spot. ^Scand.) We 
find both frtktll and frcken or frakn.^ 
\ot\. frtknur, pi., freclcles ; Swed.y>u*«/, 
Dan. fngfUt a freckle. Cf. Gael, krtoi* 
Gk. n^'TK^, Skt. pii^nu vari^aledj 
spotted. Allied to Fleck. 

Free, (t.) M. E./rr. AS./'«.^.+ 
Du. vrij, Iccl. yi-/, Swed. Dan. fri, Cioth. 
freis, ij./rti. Orig. acting at pleasure, re- 
joicmg ; allied lo bkt. friya, belo^'ed, 
agreeable ; also to E. Friend. Der. /ner- 
aom, A. S. freedom. 

FreesQ. (E ) M. E. frtscn. A. S. frtis- 
an; pp. fraren.'^lcti./ryMa, Sv,c*l. jfryM, 
Dan. fryit^ Du. vrieun, G. frieren, L^ 
prurirt, to ttch, vri|;inaJiy 10 barn (cC 
pt-uina, hoarfrost), SkL //*jA, to btmj- 

frore, froren. (L) K,^ Jrortn^ pp. 
taifriasaH ^abovc). 







frost. (E) M.E./nsf, forsl\ A.S. 

for ynwr«V+Dti- twrr/, Icel. Dan. S«red. 
Gj/>wj/; Goih./rj«j. 

Freight : kc Fraught. 

Prenay. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. Y^frenesye, 
•• O. F. frenaisie, — L, phrmesu. — Lale 
Gk. tppifTfffit = Gk. i^fitvint. infl&misation of 
the I 'rain. * Gk. ^f»cr-. base of ^/i^r, midriff, 
hcftrt, sciwcs, 

frantic. (F.-L.-Gk.) Vi.'E^fremetii, 
shorter foim frattii.^O. Y . frtnatiqtu.^ 
L. pkttntiicus^ phfmi/icus. mad. — Gk. 
^pVKiTivvf, mad, ioflcring from ^fMvirti 
(ft bore ^. 

Frequent, (F. -L.> O V.fn^umt. - 
L, frtquentem, ace. of frtqutHj, crowded, 
frequent ; prci. part, of a lo t s^hfnquert, 
to cram, alUcd to farcire, to cram ; see 

Freeh. (E.> M.E,/mJl. also .^A. 
A- S. fine. Here first ( =faris£ •) orig. 
meant ■ moving ' or * on the mopc,' used of 
fresh water, as opposed to st:ignant water. 
— A. S, /amn^ to move, travel; see Fare. 
+Icel. ftrskr^ fresh, frlikr, brisk ; Swed. 
Dan fn'jk. Yian./trsk^ Dxl vtrtth, G.JritcAt 
M. H. G. wVjc, 

afresh. (E.) For onfrtsh or o/frtsh ; 
cf. annc. 

&«BCO. (Ital. - O. H. G.) A painting 
oa frcth plaster. —Ital. /rr/fff, cool, fresh. 
-O. H. G./wr (G./rwrA). 

frisk, to skip about. (F. - Scand.) 
From the adj. /ru*. brisk. — O. V./nsoue, 
'fri&ke, blithe, brisk;' Cot. - Icel. /r/j-6r, 
frisky; Swed./rir*. fresh, aho lively, Dan. 
^iti.halc ; all cognate with E. fresh {abort). 
refresh. (F. ~U a>ui G.) M. E. rr 
freschen. — O. F. refreuhir\ Col. — L- nf -, 
again; O. H.G. /ni>< (G.yW>fA)p cognate 
wiih TL fresh. 

Frot (t). to devour ; see Eat. 

Fret (j). to ornament, variegate. (E.) 
M. K. fretun AS. frahvan, to adorn; 
from frafwe, ornament. Koot unkoown. 

Fret {^), a kind of grating. (F- — L.) 
Common in heraldry. — O. F.fre/e, a ferrule; 
/refers, pL, an ifon giatiog ( Diez) ; frttttr^ 
to hoop : /np/^*', fretiy (in heraldry). Cf. 
Span, fretes, frets (in heraldry); Ital. yirr* 
nc(a, an iron grating. — F. ferrer, to hoop 
with iron — F fer^ iron ^\m. ferrum, iron. 

fret (.«)• B stop on a musical instrument. 
(F.^L) F*vU are bars across the neck 
of the inftrumcnt ; the same word as 


I Friable, easily crumbled. (F. — L) 
friabU, — I* friabilis. — L Jriatt, tQ 
crumble. Allied lo Qrlnd. 

Friar ; sec FratemsL 

Fribble, to trifle (F.) Piob.fbr>V 
from O. V.frippcr, to rub up and do^ 
wear to rags. Sec Frippery, 

Frioaasee, a dish of fowls cot iq 

-ItaLI-U?) F./nVoxi/f, af>ica»tt| 
of pp. of fritasstr^ to fricassee, all 
squander money. A fricas'^e is ma 
cliickens, &c cut op into sjunll piec« 
suspect it to have bem borrowed 
ItaL frtuassart \ to bicak ia piece*. 
Fraoas. ^ Origin doubtful. 

Friction. (F. - L.) F. frietien 
ace. frirtifiMim, a rubbing. ^ L». ft 
coatr. pp. of fn'ran. to rub ; auit 
fnart^ to rub ; lee Friable. 

fray (.^\ to wear away by rubbing 
— L.) O ¥. ff-ayer^ to grate upon 
frtcare. to rub. 

Friday. (E.T k.S. fngt iitq^; i 
fri^e M, gen. of/njfw. love, aJso the go 
of love. Allied lo Friend. (^pTO 

Friend 'IL) M. fcL/rrW. A.SLA 
orig. ' loving.' prcs, pi oifrtin^^tt/gi 
lo>*c.+Du. vriend; Icel./fVMd'i. from 
to love; Dnn. fnttuie. Swed. froaU 
frtunJ\ Goth, frijonds^ a ft icnd |»re 
of friJoH, to love. Cf, Ski, /W. to 
(VPRX.) I>er,fHtmi'sAi/,A,S,fi 

Friese (i), m coarse woollen cloth 
-Du.) t,friu,fnse,'ini^;* Cot, 
drap di frise, 1 e. cloth of Fncsland. < 
Vriejland, Friti>land, l-'n/s, a Kric^ 
belonging to Fncsland. So also ekn 
Frise^ a hor^« of Friction J ; whence ritf 
dt Frise, spikes lo resi»l cavalry. • ji 

Friese (a), part of the entabUtur* 
column. (F.) O. F. /n'«, ■ 0. 
frize; oIm the broad and 1^ 
next below tlie comish [cuit..v<-;, <> 
twccn It and the architrave;' Coi. J 
fris9, a frieze; cf. Ital. /f;^w, a fr 
lace, border, oroamenb Urigta i 

Frigate. (F.-ItaL) O.K. />^ 
frigate ;' Cot. - luL frtg^A^ a ^ 
Ori{;in uncertain. 

Fright. (E.) M. ^frysAi. K.%fy 
fyrhmM\^\\\fyrht, timid.+O. Saiuylt 
fcrhU \>Ui.fryp, Swtd.fniJkiOM, C 
Goth. faHrhiei^ fiighl, famrAU^ 
Koot uukaowB. 



to riif'riiMi ! I' > Th^ rfouble 


I rify ; 
. KC A- ^4). 
.vi. cold, adj.— 
I*. J'rigui^ coUi, &b. 

» shirt. (F,-L.l Ohg. 

a hawk ruffling its 

ig ckiUy, was said to 

frilUr^ to ihivcr with cold.— 

cbiUy. — Low l^/n^idu- 

from L. fri^idttluj, uiill). 

/mj (aSovc). 

knmtA . I ^ K'— • r-n. of L. 'C- 

- L. «., 

■ '^M/, cold. 
* U^f'jri uf luuM tltrcads. (F. 
frimgi. — O. F. frtmge • (not 
foioi of F, frangtt frinj^e ; 
fctnn ii frimhit, put i,by 
■■— lA/Tf'/*. — L. fmbna^ 
■:. a fibie; kc Fibro. 
out clothes, ira&h. (F.) 
1 Jwif-ier.^O V. fripitr. *a 
xrr, trimmer up of old ^ar- 
^ aL/i a seller of ihcm so niciidod ;* 
>»0. f.Jriff<r, to tub up and down, 
1 10 ni^^ Origin unknown. 
Uc ; M« rreali. 
tth. lirth ; ce« 7&ro. 
ItUr; seeFrr (1). 
IvotoUS, t/iAing. (L.) L. frtHolus, 
orig. aai>c Kcms to nave been 
Ly \\cx>zjt Jr iuoUt Die&nt broken 
ftc^L. fnATi^ jriinrt, to rnb; 

t* cMi\% render rough. (F. 

Tt O. F. fri::4r, * to frixlc, cri«pe, 

C«l* ^Cf. Span, fritar, to frirrle. 

fricxc« from frisa, fric/e.] 

ViVr is from frin.friii. 

Dor. ymi «, fre- 

-Low U) M, E. /n»i.- 
l>nir U frocut, a monk's frock, 
Jbc4mt (Ducange). Tiob. so 
woollen, we Flook (i). 
Diex; bit Bnchct derives it Erocn 
L G. Ar^k (G. fv^), a coat. 

* vbbaiAJiu: ui a livikc's fool, 
ia abapcd like a fork; prrhapc 
tJ /Mkt %. V. Y«t il wftt 

certiiinty supposed to mean ftt^ (though 
it is hard to see why) because it was aUo 
called a frmh, i. e. M. E. frosh, A, S. 
frvx, a frog. Sec above. 
Frolic, adj.. sporiivc. (Du.) XVI cent. 
OrijT. an adj. — Du. vrolijk, fiolic, merry. 
^G. frvhiuh, merry. Formed with »um)t 
■UJk ( « E. liktt -ly) from the O. Sax./r.iA, 
0. I'ries. /ro (=G. /roM)^ merry, I>«r. 
/rv/ir, sb. and verb. 

From, away, forth. <E.) A. S. /rout, 
fram. -^ Icel.^Va/w, forward. distingui>dked 
in use from /aJ, from; Swed, pam. Pan. 
/ran, O. a G. J'njM, forth; Coth. /rani, 
Irotn ; /mmii, adv., further. Allied to Par, 
Fwo. (v'I'AK.) 

fipo. (Scand.) The Scand. forra.-Icel 
fHi^ Dar y>ii, from. 

firoward, ^icrvcrsc. (E.) M. E./nTr««nr 
commorily Jraward (Northern). A. S 
/remuvarJ, only in the scn^-c 'about to 
depart;' but we etill keep the orrg. trCDfie 
oi /rom tiHirdf i.e. a\-eisr, pcr\'crsc. (Cf 
waywari/, i. c. away • ward.) And see 

Frond, a branch. (L.) L. froHd-^ ttcm 
oi/'rvns, a leafy lininch. 
Front. (F.-L.) M. E. /n»«/, forehead. 
— O. F. frvHt, forehead, brow. — L. /rvnt- 
tm, ace of yVr/tr, forehead, btow. Allied 
to Brow. 

affVont .(F.-L.) M. E. a/ron/cn.^ 
O. F. a/ronUr, to confront, oppoie face to 
face. — O. F. a (L- ^t io; /nttf, forehead^ 
face (above). 

confront. (F.-L.) F. ion/ronttr, to 
brin^ face to face — K. f<?«- = L row- 
(i-Mfff\ together; frgnt, face .above). 

efTrontery. iF.-L.) XVlIIcent.-F. 
tffrontifii^ 'impudency;' Cot. — O. F. 
if rent J, »hamcIcs«.-0, F. //- « L. ^- V^ 
«•) ; /rant, face. 

frontal, a band worn on the forehead. 
(F, — L.) O. F. frontal — L. fi-ontaU, an 
ornament for t horse's forehead." 
stem of fronSt forehead. 

frontlor (F.-L.) O. Y. fronlifre,^ 
Low L /roNttria, frvntaria, Loider-Und. 
»L. /«»«/-, stem o(/rxtHS (above). 

nrontiapiece. (.F.-L.) Misspelling of 
yVr/i/iV/iV^. — O. Y. /rontispict, 'the fronti- 
spiece or fore-fro;it of a house;' Cot- — 
Low \m. /ronthpUitiin, a front view. — L. 
/roiifi't cnidc form oi/roHS \ sfrm-it to see ; 
sec Spooioa. 

frontlet. (F.^L.) For/mvAi/.^/, dimm 
of Ixoutal (abort). 






frounce, to wrinkle, cuil, pUit (F.«» 
L ) The older fonn of fisunu ; se« 
Flounce (j). 

Frontier, Frcntlapieoo : s« Front. 

Frore, Froat ; see Freese. 

Froth. (ScanJ.) M. E. Jrothe. - led. 

froth, foam on liquids. 
Frounce ; see Front. 
Froward ; see From. 
Frown. (F.-ScAod.) M.E./tvtmem.'^ 
O. F. frogntr^ only in comp. nfrpgrntr. to 
frown, lower, look sullen. Cf. Ital. i«- 
fngH9, (iownmg, Ital. dial. (Loml>ardic) 
frij^Hare, to whimper, make a wry face. 
Of Scand. origin; cf. Swed. Al\a\. /ryna, 
Horw. /rvjnia, to make a wry face; Swed. 
Jfina, to giggle. Compare E.Jlter. 
Fruotiqr; see Fruit. 
Frugal, thrifty. (F.-L.) Y. frugal.^ 
h. frugality economical; lit. belonging to 
fruits. — L. /rugi, frugal ; orig. dat. of 
//■wx. fmiti of the earth. Allied to Fruit. 
Fruit (F.-U) M. E. /rwiV.-O. F. 
//w//. — L, fntctum, ace oi fruttus, frait. 

— L. fnutus, pp, oi /mi {^/rugui*), to 
enjoy; allied to Brook (i). (y^HRUG.) 

fructify, ( F. - L. ) F. fmdifitr, - L. 
fnuUJicare, to make fruilfuL— L. fructi-, 
(or frtutus, fniil ; -Jitart, for f<utrt, to 

fruition. (F. - L,) O. F. fruition, 
CDjoymenL Coined <> tf iiom L /• " 

— L. fruit-US, the same a« fntctus, pp. of 
frui, to enjoy. 

frumenty, furmety, wheat boiled in 
milk. tF. — L.) O. V . frour/tertt/, 'fmmen- 
tie, wheat boyled ; ' CoL Lit made with 
wheat; the suffix ■/ » L. -atus, made with. 

— O. V.froumcnt^ whctkt. ^L-frfimfn/Mfn, 
com (from the basc/n# « fffg) 

Frustrate, to render vain. (L.) From 
pp. of L. fnistrariy to ren-Ier vain. — L. 
frustr^ in voin; orig. abl. fem. of obso- 
lete adj. /rw/rw { = /nui-tn$j\ deceitful. 
Allied to Fraud. 

Frufltum, a piece of a cone or cylinder. 
(L.)^ h.frustum, a piece cut off. Cf. Gk, 
9po.vap^ a Cragment, from ^peiiiup^ to break 

Fry (O, to dress food. (F.-L.) M. E. 
/ri/M..O. F. frirt,^U. frigtre, to roaat. 
+ Gk. ^irwrt', to parch : Skt hhrah\ to 
fiy. (VWIAKG.) 

fritter, a kind of pancake. (F.-L.) 
M. K./rytowrt, Jritomt. fCf. F. frittou, 
'A Ijiiier/ Cot-J-f" '««, a frying. 

difth of fried fish (al>o a frvEocnt, 
-O. F. frit, fried. - U fiiOm, 
frigtri (above). 

Fry (3l, spawn of fishes. (Scand.) 
fri. — Icel. /nr, frjd, spawn, fiy, 
Swed./>iff. + Goth. ynnxtf, seed. 

Fuchsia, a flower. (G.) Name 
L. Fuchs, German botanist, ab. 154 

Fudge. (F.-Low G.) Prov. F. 
ftucht ( Hecart). - Low G futiik \ k) 

Fuel ; see Fooua. 

Fugitive. (F.-L.) O. V. fiigit 
fugitiuus, fleeing away. — ll fu^ 
saptne oi fitgtrt, to flee. + Gk, f 
to flee; Skt. bhuj, to bend, turn 
(VBHUGH.) Der. tmtrifugal, 

fugue, a musical corapositioo. 
Ital-L.) F. /«|w/. - ltd. yitfo, a 
lit. a flight -L..^tfa, flight 

refUge. (F.-L) M. E, rtftt^ 
refuge. — L. refugium, an cscap 
rtfugert, to flee back. 

raftigee. (F.-L.) F. rtfugii. 
Mi rtfugier, to take refogc. « F. 

subterfuge. (F.-L.) V. subi 
*a shift:' Col. — Low L. suhttrfug 
L. suUei-jir^ert, to escape by steaUl 

Fugleman, the leader of % fiU 
lilt for ftug{eman.''Q fHigtiwtaM 
leader of a wing or 6le of men.— G. 
a wtng, dlmin. oi ffug, wing, freitt^ 
to fly; maun, a man. See Fly. 

Fugue : sec FngitiTe. 

FulcnuD, a point of support. (I 
fuUrum, a, support. — L. /«*»>*, tl 
Cf Skt. t/Aru, to stand firm. 

Fulfil ; see Pull. 

Fulgent, shining. (L,) Frrvm 1 
prcs, pt, of L. fu/gert, »' 
i^iftty, to bum ; Skt / 
(^BHARK.) ''fmlgtt^ ^v - 

fulminate, to thunder, hurl I:? 
(L.) From pp. of X^fuh: 
der. — L./wrw;«-,stem of/i. 
bftU ( ^fulg-meti). — h./uJgirr, 

Fuliginous, sooty (U) L^, 
sooty. — L. fuUgift', stem of 
Allied to Fnmo, 

FuU C0» complete. . K ^ A .<?. 
V0i, Icel fullr. Dan 
fuJi. Goth./w//r. G. / 
irX^/>f7f, L. pItMUM. iV I'AiC) 

mt verb. (E.) A. S. fyUm\ 
from fmi by vowclobsBge froa • 1 


1cc1.^//tf, Dun.^^ir. Swcd. 
fuSijmn, G. /wV/m. 
.El) y^,t fulRUen. A S./hI- 
», - A, S./J,/, full : /J'//jH. to fill, 
laoma, dating. <L) M.K./M/rttM. 
M. E. /W, fuli ; with suffix sttm ( - E. 
r M in «i>MW*mr/.) And sec Plenary. 
" : ra whiten cloih. bleach, (L.1 
rase) in ih./uU €' , a Lirnchcr. 

^ ... bleacher. — A. S./miViii/i. Io 

:ta. •• Low I^ fuiUrtt (i) to cleuiK 
Wft. (a) to AlII doth.*L.y«(//tf, a fuller, 
iiM'. PcrHsp« allied to in/uia^ a 
e fiUet (See btlow.) 
U (3\ lo fnU doth. felt. (F.-L) 
.httUr, 'to full, orlhitken clonth in « 
; Cot. Also spelt fouUr, to trample 
^Low lM./mJ/srt, (i) to dcanftc dothes, 
>f«U.«L/it//0. ft fuller. (SecAbove.) 
ht MBMKor/w/^ (a) and/u// (3) should 
!pl4i>dDCl ; the «cnAC of felting ii due 
ft wwAJme of dothet by bxmpiing on 



K« TuU (I). 
tVOOi^ PuHid. tiiwiiy (U) From 
IiAmuv t**^« fuJmdHS, somewhat 


mhla. lo ^ope aboQl. 'Dn.) XVI 
^\^ fvmmeUn, to fumble. 4* Swe<l 
i, Dan. J^nlt, led. fdlttia, to grope 
t; doc to the sb. api«aring as A. S. 
ttk« pa]n of the haaa, L. ftahna ; sec 

lll«.<P.*L,) O F.>iw-L./wwi«ii, 
ai/mmtu, smoke. -f-Skt. dhtima, smoke. 
:)HU.> Allied to Dust. 
nriC^m. (L) From pp. of L. ^m- 
V to fiwii^Ic. — 1* futn , iot fumuj, 
nr ■ -drtiwt iat agrrt, lo drive ahout. 

-. planr. (F. — L) ForTnerly 
rr - .'itaietrrrt, fumitory (put for 
— L./wmwf rff //rrirf, smoke 
so name*] from the smell, 
r. — L.) F. tarfumir, to 
c thorou^;alj.— L. ptr, 
... .,to sraiXe.Uofu/umuj, 
lit. (C.) XVIIl cent, - 
Jimm, ddvbt. pleasure, a tune, »OT>g ; 
,/fmm. V^Dittinct ftom /omf, 
amnbnlut, a rone flaiicer. (Span. 
} Fennrr! \//i>. — Span, /urn- 

*lr. afor. . fun tj, a tope ; 

Ofltloa. - (F.-U) 

:.»«r/w. per- 

/«^), to peiform, orig. to ase.+Skt. bhuf, 
lo enjoy, use, 

defUnct, dead. (L.) L. defurufus, i.e. 
having fully i>erformed the course of life, 
pp. w dtfungi, to pcrfonn fully. •U dSr; 
AuA fungi (above). 

perfunctory. (L.) L. ftrfttwtonm, 
carelessly done —L./^c/m^w/iw, pp of/Vr- 
fungi^ lo perform fully, complete. 
Fund, a store. (F.-L.) O. F. fimd, 
'a bottom, a merchant's stock;* Cot.* 
L. fundus, bottom ; cognate with £. 

found (i), to lay the fonndation of. 
CF. -LO M. E. founden. - 0. f.ffimUr. - 
L fundarg, to found —L /«k(/«j (above). 

founder, logo to the bottom. (F.— ll) 
M. ^. foundren, said of a boree falling.— 
O. f.fondnr, in comp. afondnr (obsoleleX 
t^onarer, to fall in (still in use); orig. to 
sink in. — F. fond, bottom. — L. fundus, 

ftindAment, base. (F.-L.) M. £. 
fundcment.-^O. F. fondiment, foundntiOD. 

— L. fundamentum, foundation. — L.^m/* 
art ; ste found { i) above. 

profound, deep. (F.-L.) T.prvfomi. 

— L, profundum, ace. of profundus, deep. 

— L. pro, fonvard, hence downward ; fund- 
us, bottom. Der. profundity, F. pf^ 


Piineral. relating to a burial. (L.) Low 
L. fumralis, adj.. fiom L. fumr^, base of 
funus, a burial. Der. funtrt-al^ from L. 
fttrureus^ funereal. 

Fung:u8, a spnngy plant (L,-Gk.) I* 
fungus (pntfbrjr/wM^Hj). — GV-otpCryyot, At- 
tic form of ait6yy<», a sponge ; see Sponge. 
Funnel. (F.-L) M.E. >w?/. Pmb 
from on O. F. fonil*, preserved in Bret 
_/t>Hw//. a funnel, and short for tnfonil^.^ 
L. infundibulum. a funnel. 
Pur, (F.-O. Low G.) M.E. >nv.- 
O. K, forttt futrrt, a sheath, case ; cf. 
Span, forro, lining lor clothes, Ital./ft//rv, 
lininy, fur, scablird. — Gulh. fodr, scab- 
bard, orig. ' protection ;' Iccl.y^ffr, linixig ; 
allied to G.futter, which (like Icel.y^) 
also means 'fodder.' Allied lo Fodder; 
the senses of feeding and protecting being 

Purbelow. t flounce. (F.) Prov. F. 
farbala, a flounce, in the dialect of Hainault 
(Diei) ; the usual form is F Span. Ilal. I'ort 
faibaia, a flounce. Origin unknown. 
Purblah, to polish, trim. (F. — O H.G.) 
O. F. ^Hriu-t stem of pita. ^, o^ /««vMv 



avMr. m 



to furbish, polUh. — O. H. G. /ur//ii», 
M. I{. G. vSrbtn, to purify, clcui, mb 

Furl : Kc PAPdel. 

Furlung ; see Purrow. 

Furlough, leave of absence (Du — 
Scand.) Also spell furloe, — Du. v€rhf, 
Ifovc, furlough : borrowed from Dan. for- 
lev, iswcd. foricf, leiivc. Cf. G, v^rlaub, 
furlough ; aUo Diui. orlov p. As to the 
prefix, l>tL G. twr-, Xi^i\. for- »rc ihe same 
as E. for- ; whilst Dan. or-Goth. ^/, out. 
The syllable lof is Icel. hf, (i) praise, (j) 
leave, the Mine u G. Uh^ praJ»> allied to 
K. liief. 

Furmety : sec Frumenty. 

Furaace, an oven. (F.-L.) M.E._^ 
tttis.'^O.Y . fomaisi. — V. fomaeem, ace. of 
femax, an oven. >• L. fomus^ ari oven ; 
allied to fonrtus^ warm. Cf. Skt. gharma, 
waimth, glow. Allied to Glo'vr. 

Furnish, to fit up. equip. (F.-O.H.G.) 
O. F.^fewmiVx-, stem of j.res. -pi, of faurru'r, 
to furnish, of which au older sficlliog is 
ftfniir, the same word as Prov. /hr/ftir, 
ft-omir. ^ O. H. G. yVw //I/law, to provide, 
furni>h. —O. Il.G. fntma^ utilily, profit, 
gain ; cf. G./rpw/H.good. Allied to For- 
mer : and cf. Frame. 

perform, to achieve. (F. — O. H. G.; 
with L. frffx) Corrupted from M. E. 
^rfifurtuH, \ti.ltT parJ'ouruuH. — O. V.par^ 
fffumir, ' to perforro;* Cot. — L. /fr, tho- 
roughly ; and O. F. foumir^ to iumish, 
provide (as above), 

veneer, to overlav with a thin slice of 
wrvod. (G. - F,-O.H. G.) G fumiren, 
to furnish or provide small pieces of wood, 
to veneer. ••F.^/^rmV, to furnish ; a word 
of G. origin ; sec above 

Furrow. (F-.) M.K.farwe. K.S.fitrh, 
a furrow. + G. futxhe, a furrow. Cf. L. 
fotra, a ridge between two furrows. 

furlong, ^ih of n mile. (K.) A.S fur- 
htij;, orijj. a furrow-long, or the length of a 
liirrow, — A. S./urA, a iurrow ; i'an^, lon^. 

Further. (L ) Really the cornp, of 
/»re, but usually misunderstood as conip. 
of for/A. M. K. fur^fr. A. S. fttrJ^tir, 
fuf^cr, further. • A.S. for-e, atlv., before; 
with comp. suflin -t^or (Ar^-nn -far). + Dn. 
Wrifrrj, adv., further ; comp. ofvor, l»efore. 
with comp, suffix -i/fr-j ; O H. Q.furdor, 
ftyom O. H. G.fuH, bcfon-. So aUo Gk. 
i»l»^T*^of, comp. ofir^'. Tier, further, verb, 
A. S. fyr^ran^ formed from fuf^r by 
rvirel-chai^ of « to/. 

ftirthes^. - "'•=' '^ ^-1 form, made as I 
superl. of/. to a mistakes k 

mology oiy ' i \t true nipcii of J 


Furtive. (F. • L.) O F. furHf, fl 
furtive. — \4. furiiuui, < 
furtum, theft.— 'L/w/u - t^j 

a thicf.+ Gk. .;<ai/i. a ihni, ii... \y> ^fU^ 
to bear, carrj- (away). (V BHAR.) 
Fury. (F. - L.) V.fnrit. - L. f'ux 
n^c. — L.furtre, to rnffc. (V BHUk.Ji 

Infuriate. iltal.-L) Ital. iu/xru 
pp. of iufuriare^ to fly into a rage. — ll 
infuria, 'in a fury, rai^inglyj* Floria 
L. in, in ; furia, ra^c (abo^e 
Furze. (E.) M. E./w. K.%»fyn 
Gael prtas, a briar. 
FUBCOUB, brown. (L.) \.,fuicu$^ 

obfusoate. to darken. (L) From 
of L. obfustart^ to obscure » L. «^ 
fusrus, brown. 

Fuse ii\ to melt by heat. (U> A 1 
word. Due ioftuif/U \.\n Cti.iuceT).^if^ 
in Sir T. ilrowne. — L fusui, pp, of^^imu 
to pour. melt. AUiciI to Gk. x^'**"* ^ 
^rH/a», to pour. i^GWV,") "D^r/tu- 
(from O. I'.fujiA/e) ifuS'ioa. 

coofbund. (F.— u) V.eattfmJrw.* 
cenfHfuUrtt to pour toecthrr, coatoQnd 

confliBO. (L.) M. E. tonfus, ned i 
pp. in Chaucer. * L. ronfutm, pp. of 
fundtrt (above\ 

confute. (F. - L.) P. tmfuitr. • 
€onfutare, to cool by mixing cold w 
with hot, to allay^ also to confute. •> 
(OH- {ntm\ together; futix^ a walcr-'Te 
to pour from, from the b«!«/w-, to pi 
See r'futft b low. 

diffXiso. (U") L. Aiffutm, pp. of 
funJertt to shed abroad; (L. kif» 

eff\iae. (L.) L, efunu^ pp. </ {^/ 
dere, to pour out (L. //"•=«x.) 

foiaon. plenty. (F.-L.) O. F. iW 
abundance. — l^fiisiiimm, acc ofyvnl 
pourinf; out, hence profusion. «»!» yli 
pp. ofjHM.itre, to pour. 

f^Bil (3), easily molten. (U> L-/ 
Aj, easily molten. — h.futut, pji. f>f 

futile, vain, (F. - L.> I 
fyfifu, that which easily poi- 
vain, empty, fmile; put fnr •., 
fud-i. pt. t. oifundert, (. ; >: 

Infuse. (F.-U) I ", 
fusuj, pp. of infundert, to ji. 

profuse, lavish. (L.) J.. ^ 
at prtfumdtn, to poitr fortk, 



to npay (L.) V, rt-fun^n, 

b«cl(, ftlio to restore, ^ve back. 

!o rttfiy a rfcjuesl. ^F. — L.) 

- ' ' ■■■■fr \\\\t same a* 

■ ■ e, 10 rrjecl). Il 

Fir» TO a i i^iTjanr*, ibnned 

frrt^tieo'T ndert, to pour 

to : : . . ^ c back (whence 

\\ ft. \Ve mty ftl<o note E. rtfust, 

■tfit', prft:*.-. of which the orip. 

to be fc-fuseo. 

;y i» from rr-, 

I n I y II '" ■ 
IVftlt^i, to , TOTC. (F. — L.) 

ii*fr. •- L ....._ ,, to repd, rebut. 
i^. tiT)«e vu probi ' to pour back ; * 
Lftit« above. 
ftoifUslon (F.— L.) ?. tttfusiim.^h. 
riKJMM/w. ace. of iuffmio. a pouring 
♦»rr — L. XM^iut, pp. of iuf-fundfrt, to 
j<c<r i»Tei. (L. rw/"- j«^. under, &1so over.) 
liifUaa (L.) L. trans/usui, pp. of 
/tfiv. to poor out of one vessel 

i j), Fusoe (I) ; lee Fooda. 

(}Xas[undIe ina wmtch. (F.^L.) 

BET. /kftV, orig. a spindleful of thic»d.*» 

L»» L^tm/tf, ihr ^imc ; fcm- of pp. of fus- 

«r. to tt« a ipin<J!e — L/n/»j, a spindle. 

ftaBQ<j). a fpinf^Je, In heraldry. (L.) 

. of L../ujvi. a spindle. 
FuaII \\\ a Ii;;*)t muskrt; see Fooua. 
TumXI K*\ * ^P> ^^^'' ^c Fiuee (3). 
FbMI (i). easily molten ; sec Fuaa (l). 
buie. flu-ry. (E.I The sb, cor 
to M E. /j#j, adj., eager; A, S. 
i proTTipt + Icel. ftitSt eager 
be, oriZfing; O H G. /wnj, ready, willing, 
(f ), to bcoome mouldy ; >ee below. 



Fuat(a), the shaft of a column. CF.-L.) 
In Keracy (1715). -O. F./iw/, a trunk.— 
t,.fujtim, ace. of /uttis, a cudgel, ihicV 

fuat (1), to become mouldy. (F.— L.) 
In Hamlet, iv. 4. 3g. Coined from fttstgd 
at fttity^ answerin? to O. V.fttstt, ' fusty, 
tasting of the cask/ Cot.-O. lp.fusli» a 
ca<^k, orig. a stock, tnmk. log. — L./MJ//m 
(as above). 

fliAtlgate, to cudgel. (L.) From pp. 
Kiih./wtigare, to cudgel — L. /la^, Mem 
of ftufii, a cudgel ; -igurt^ for agrre, to 
diivc, wield. 

Fustian, a kind of coane cloth. (F.— 
llal— Low L. — Egypt) M- K./urtanex 
also fustian. — O. r . fustaint. — flal. fus- 
/agtta; Low l^-fus/a$ieum. — Knh. fustdt, 
another name of Cairo, in Egypt, whence 
Ihestuff Brst came. % Introduced through 
Genoese commerce. 

Fuattgato; kc Fait (a). 

Fusty ; see fuat (1). under Ftut (t). 

Futile; see Fuae (1). 

Futtocks, certain timbers in a ship. 
(E.) ' FuitOfkSf the compassing limbeis 
in a ship, that make ihc breadla of it ; ' 
Ker»cytrp5). Callctly<W-//.v<tj in Florio, 
«. V, ttamitu. The first syllabic is iot/oot; 
futlixhs il thought to lie \ox foct'hooks, but 
perhaps fuUocks ^joot-ffcJu (cf. buUock). 
Bailey gives tbe lorm/w/-AM7<(.r. 

Future, about to be. (F.-L.) O. F. 
futur^ leva. /$4tMre. — V../ufMt-Mt, about to 
be; fuL part, from /mi, I allied to 
B9, (VBliU.) 

Fuasball, a spong)- fungus (E.) Cf. 
prov. ^. fuzty./fity^ light and spongy; Du 
vo&t, spongy. 



OdfaanUne^ O^berdina. (Span.-C.) 

8^aA.jvAardirMii, a coanc frock. Kittcndcd 

&wm Spoo. guStut, a creat coat with a 

r-J to Span. ioKiui, the some, and 

i4d. a cabin. Of Celtic origin; 

IK gauin. 

CHtbbJa. to nratlle. (Scand.) Frequent. 
d U, K /«M>m. 10 lie, delude kel. 
fttAAa, to ciMKk ; x^^, mocltcry Cf I'L&h 
aU, ge^, tlM nouth Allied to Oobbls 

O^bion; see Oaro. 

Otbto. a |hU» of • hoaic-top. (F.— 

M H. G - C) M E. ga^ft. - O. F. 
gnbU ; Low L. gatulmu. — M. H. G. gaUU, 
G. ^vaV/, n fork ; giM (G. gubel), a gable. 
+ Icel. fa/7, Dan gi^vl, Swed. gafv*i, a 
gable, gaffe!, a fork, Goth, ^'^/o, a gable, 
Du. .^n^r/. Uut it siccms to be of Celtic 
origin ; cf. Irish ^iiMii/. a fork, gable. Gael. 
gohhiit, ^ gafi, a fork; see Gaff. 

Gaby; ste Oap«. 

Gad ( M« a wc'ge of steel ; see Goad. 

Gad (1) to lo^nt; tec Goad. 

QafT, a 1i|^ht fishing-tipenr. a tor* ot 
boom. (F.»C.) A khi(>9 ^ff ^ a<.iucd 




, pro 

froni the fbriei/ end a^inst the mist ; ihe 
fishing spear is hooked. — O. F. ^^, * 
gaff, iron hook. Of Celtic origin —Irish 
^/,ga/a, ft hook, W. ta^, a grasp, grapple. 
fork, ^a/ht/, a hold- From Irish gahh, to 
take, cognate w-ith !>. (apere, to take. And 
see Gable (^KAP.) Der. ^ncvAvi (obso- 
lete), a spear. W. ga/lacA. 

javeliXL (F.-C.) O. F. Javefin. 'a 
javeling,' Cot ; allie<l io Javiht, ' a gleave, 
dart,* id. Most likely orig. a pointed 
weapon with a furkcd end, sach ns cuuld 
be m&de of a branch of a tree. — Bret, ^'/, 
a place where a tree forks, Iri&h ga/. ga/a, 
a nook, ^^/>^. a soeor, gafi^/ait. a fork of 
a tree ; Gael. ^^man. a prong ; \V. ga/f, 
a fork, gajfa^h, a dart, (Irish M as v.) 

Ooifer ; see Orand. 

Gag. (C. ?) M. K. gaggm, to loffocate. 
»W. ctgt'e, to choke; ceg, the mouth. 

Oage O). a pledge. (F.-L.) M. E. 
gage. — F. gage, verbal sb. from gagtr, to 
pledge. — Low L. uaJiart. to plc<lge. — Low 
L. uaJium, a pledge. •• L. Hthii-, crude 
form of wu, & ple>ige. 4> A. S. ufJ, a 
pledge. Sec Wed ; aiid see Wage. 

eng»age (F.-L.) O. ¥. eu^gtr, lo 
bind by a pled^je. — F. en (L. in\ iu ; gagt, 
as above. Dor. dis-/ngagt. 

Gage (a\ to gauge : ^ce Gauge. 

Gain (i), pmht. tScari'l.) M. E. gain. 
— Iccl. ;<3^'n, gain, advantage; Swed.^d^'n, 
profit. Dan, jdvn. 

gain (a), to win (Scand ) Keally from 
sb. above. 'Yea, though he ^int nnd 
«ram his purse with crowns," and again, 
' To get a gaiiii by any trade or kinde ; ' 
G«coii;nc. Fniits of War. si. 6i) and st. 66, 
But doubtless influenced by F. ,fn^^r, which 
it strikingly resembles both in form and 
sense. ThisF. ^^^r. O F. ^oa^iVr (ItaL 
guai/agnare), a from O. H . G. wfitfanjan - 
wtiJcm^n, to pasture, which was the orig. 
wnse of the F. word ; from O. H. G. 7wj.2i 
^G. HvirtV\ pasture-ground. Der. rt-gain. 

Gainly ; e<e Uneainly. 

Gainsay, to sp^ak against (E) The 
prefix is A. S. gign, against, whence E 
Apiia. Affainat. 

Gait. (Scand.) A peculiar use of M. E 
<w/f. a way; see Gate. 

GaitAr. a covering for the ankle. (F — 
Tcnt.l Y.gjittre, ^rmerly guti/nr. The 
s|Klling with gu shews the word to be 
Teutonic C^ = G. w). Allied lo M. H.G. 
wester, a child's chrisom-cloth, lit. ft 
cOTering Goth, watti, clothing ; see Vest. 

Gala ; see OaUant. 

Galaxy, the milky way. (F.-L.-Gt 
M. E. fff/AxiV. — O. F gaJaxU.^h. n 
iaxiam, ace. of ^/*uxaj. — Gk ToAofJei 
milky way. — Gk. -^aK'nn- for 7tiAa*r., 
ofTfiXii, milk. See Lacleal, 

Gale. I. Scand ) From Dan gal, furioi» 
Norweg. riVf galen stot-m, a (urioos storm 
eit gaJtt vtrr, stormy weather. Cf led 
gafinn, furious, from galit, lo enchanl 
storms being raised by witches. 

Galeated. helmeted. (L.) U galtmtm 
— L. ga/e>3, a helmet. 

Oaliot: see Galley- 

Gall (I), bile. (£.^ M. E galU. A. 
graf/a. 4* Da. .ca/., Swed. gati^ 
Dan- gaJ(/f (tor galif). G. ga/U. i^/tf, Gk 
xnAi;. Allied to YeUow and Oreea. 

Gall (2>. to rub a sore place. (F.— 
O. F. pa/Ur.^O. F. ga/U, a galling, lldl 
ing. — L. calltis, hard thick skia ; Late 
calitts. itch. See Calloua. 

Gall (3). a gallnnt. (F.-L.) O. ffl 
gaf/e.^l^gaJJa, a gall-nut. oak-apple. 

Gallant gny, splendid, brave. (F 
M. H. G ) O.h'.gnJ/anf. letter ga/oMi. w 
one /. Orig. pres. part, of O 1' 
rejoice. — O. F. ga//. shows, min 
(Cf. Ital. .Span. I'oit. g>^a, fest..- -..„ 
Perhaps ftom M. ti. G. waltat, U. H. 
ttfauOn, to go on pilgrimiige- 

gala. (K. - ItaL - M. U.C.) F. 
borrowed from Ital- ga!a^ festive atti 
whence di gala, menily: ct gaiante, gft; 
lively. See above. 

gallery. \F.-ltal -M. H. G.) O. 
gali^ric, gaUrii. a gallery lo walk in. 
dtver^ioii, mirih— Iial. ga>Uria . Lo» 
gaUria, a long portico, gallery. — Law 
galarr, lo rejoicr, arouse OJicsclf ; the 
as F. gaUr (above). 

galloon. (F. or Span.^O. U. 
galoii. ' galloon lace ; ' Cot, AL 
gahn. galloon, orig. fmery for fest 
Mons.— V. and Span. ,^'if. festivity ^ 

Galleon : see Galley. 

GrUlery : see OalUni. 

Galley, a low built ship. (F ^ 
ga/t'ie. — O. F. golie ; Low L ga/rm. a 
Orig nnknomi. 

galleon, a Lirge galley. (Spaa.) 
gaJeon. a galleoti — I^w L. gautt., a j 
gaUlaa. a sort of galley. (F. 
O F. ^/wfr— Ital. ga'rti-t:t a 
galley — Itfll and low L 

galliot, small gnlley. t r 
Low L gaii^*t HnaU galley 


OnlHard. • lively dance. (Span.-C. ?) 

■i (with U MS fy), a kind of 

-; -ii .1 'ianct —Span. ^a//afi/tf. gay, 

. >-. The O. F. gniliani meant 

''oW ; perbapi of C«llic origin : cf. Bret. 

^,7.icU'-i, potrer, gailoudik. ttrijng, W.^a/Zst/, 

able «//, energy. 

OaufiUB : tee Gallfly- . . — - 

Q&lliffaakins. Urge ho«e or troas«n! 

f y — Iinl. — L.) Comjption of F. gar- 

rrrgna^uts, 'slops, yrcgs, gallo- 

Vciiilians;' Cot. — Ilal. GrKheuo, 

•m Ital. Creio, a Greek. — L. 

' 'rcck. The was given to a 

, . ..^. !-r l.tijii of hose worn at Venice. 

Oalllnaoeoua. (L.) L. gal/inaaus, 
Ix^oiigtng to poultry. — L. gafiina, a hoL 
« l^jpaUau, a cock. 
OaUfot; see Oalley. 
Oallfpot, a small gbzed earthen pot. 
(I>u ) Cormption ol O. Dxx. g/f//cf, a 
gallipot or ^lajcd pot — O. Dii. gffyf, 
«hining pr.ilir's clay; cf. N. Fxiciic g/a/, 
mhti: ing. aJlicii to G.giatt, itooolb, polished, 
»zid to £. glaJ. And sec Pot. 
O^Uon. (K.) M. E, gahn, galun. - 
K F. galicn, j'aJon, a paUoti ; orig. ■ a large 
I ; ' angmentativc form of the word 
htch ap^K-ars as mod. F. yd/;, a bowl. 

nn known. Cf. OIU. 
O&Uoon ; see Qallant. 
Qallop. (F.-O. Flemish.) M Z-ga/a/- 
«>i ; also spell wa/epen.*»0. F. gaU/cr.^ 
Klcm. walcp, a gallop. The word is 
e to a retemblaucc between the sound 
by a galloping horse and that made 
e boiling of a pot. — O. Fries, and 
vtalia or Vki/fan, to boil ; perhaps 
the addition of Flem. and Du. op 
^ E- «^). Allied to E. Ttv//, verb, to 
as water. Cf. E. «*a/-^, and Skt 
gallop, from the same root, 
vv •• vK.) 
Oallow, to terrify. (E ) King Lear, iii. 
3. 44. A. S. g^hvioMf to icntfy ; in comp. 

Galloway. • nag, pony. (Scotland.) 

NafiiiT') from Getaway, Scotland. 
Oallowglaaa, a heavy.anned foot-sol- 
&er. (^Irii^h.) Ir. gjJhghii^h, a &crvnnt. a 
Uloglaja. Lit. ' fonHf^-n s ildicr.*-Ii. gatl, 

^£n ; ^^iuh, youth, toldicr. 
OallowB (E.) M , E iii/ttw. pi. A. S. 

>aV|vi, grafga, croa, gibbet ; whence mod. 

.E./iiZ«m, the 1 bcingasigri of the ul. form. 

|+1cel./i^^. Dsn. tiwed./TX/^, uu. ga/g, 
Gotfa giig9, a cross. G gatgm. 


M G« 

^K Na» 




Ooloche, a kind of shoe. (F.^i 
— Gk ) F. galocht. •• Low L, catoj. 
(see Brachet), a clog, wooden shoe. — 
Ka\oviA*ov, dJmiD. of xoAi^voin, «aAii«o 
shoemaker's lasL * Gk. iroAo*!'. wood ; 1 
a foot. 

Oalore, in plenty. (C.) Irish and C 
go Ucr^ gu wr, sulBcienlly ; from 
sufficient.. The particle go or gu ecuv 
an adj. into &n anv. 

Qalvanlsm (Hal.) Named from 
su/zi of Bologna, Italy; about aji. 17$ 

Gambado : hct: Oambol. 

Qainblo; see Game. 

Gamboge. (Asiatic) A cottuj 
CamivUia, in the Anamesc territory, wh 
it was brought about a,d, 1600. 

Gambol, a frisk, caper. (F.-Ital.- 
Forroerly eamhU, gamdauU» gambau 
O.V. gamioift, 'a gamLioll ; ' Col- — 
gamiiata, a kick. — Ital. ^mba, the 
the same as K. j'amhe, O. V . gatnbe, Lat 
gamba, a joint of the leg. The true 1 
of the base is camp- (Diez), corrcspon 
to Gieck Kafiwff, a bending, with refer 
to the bend of the leg. Cf. Gael, and 
cam, crooked. 

gammon (i), the preserved thigh 
hog. (F. — L) 0.y.gam6on(F.jam6 
a pammon ; from O. F.gamde, leg. 

jamb, side-post of a door. (F.— L.) 
jambe^ a leg, also a jamb (see Cotgn 
See Gambol. 

Game. (E.) M. E. game, alto get.* 
A. S. gamnt, Fport- 4- ^'^tX. gaman, I 
gamm/»t O. Swed. gamffum, O. H. G 
man, jov. mirth. 

gamble. (F..> A late word, put 
gttmm U or gam U, a frequent form w 
has taken the place of M. F.. gamenn 
play at games. — A. S. gamenian, to 
at gamis ; from gamcn, a game. 

gammon (3), nonscnM:; ong. a 
(E.) M, E. gamen, a game (above). 
sec Baokgammon. 

Gamiuer ; sec Grand. 

Gammon (i), preserve*! thigh of a I 
see Gambol. 

Gammon (j), nonsense; see Qame 

Gamut. (F. — Gk. ; aWL.) Com] 
O.V, gar/tf, jjamme, and uf. Here^i 
represents the Gk. •fa^l^la (y\ because 
musical scale was rcpre^nted by a, b, 
''f,S* ^^ '"* being ^-=7. Ut is the 
name for do, the isl note in singing, 
cause it began an old hymn to bt-Ji 
• Vt qneant laxls' &c., used In ' 





finging. Camui U the icale, fron y (/) 
to wX (a). 

Oander: «ee Goow. 

Qang (0, a crew ; s«« Go. 

Oan^lion, %. tnmcmr on a tendon. (L.* 
G k . "t L. gangiiffn •■ Gk. TOTyXtor. 

Oangrexie, a mortification of th« flesh. 
(F.-U-Gk) O. F. ^BH^ryiir. - U^zw- 
#nmtf . — Gk. Tavy/xurd, ao eating sore. * 
Ck. ypalyfiv^ ypattr, to gaaw. (V GAK.) 

Dannet: see Oooae. 

O&ntlet (t) ; sec G^tmtl«i. 

Oantlet (3), Q-antlope, a military 
panlshmoDt. (Swed.) Formerly g^nthpt ; 
conupted by coofosion with gauntUt. 
Again, ^nthpe \% a comtplion of Swcd. 
gailof/, lit. ' a running down a lane ; * to 
nm the f;antlop« is to ran between two 
Ales of soldicH, who strike the ofTender as 
he passes. -• Swed. gafa, a lane, street (see 
Oate) ; and icpp, a running. frQm /^/tf, to 
run, cognate with E. Itap. 

Oaol, Jail ; see Cave. 

Qape. (£.) A.S.x^rii/an, to open wide; 
from gtd/j wide. ^ Dti. gaf^at, Iccl. and 
Swed. jfo/a, Dan. ga6c, G. gafftn. CC 
^\. jahh, jamhK, to gape. 

ffaby, a simpleton. (Scand) Icel./n/i, 
a herdless man; ci.gafanat^r (lit gape- 
mouthed), the same.— Iccl. ^pa (above). 

gap, (Scand.) M.E. ^^//tf. — Icel. and 
Swed.^/, a gap, abi'ss. — Icel. and Swcd. 
^nAs (above). And see Oabblo. 

Oar (I), Oarfish. a fish. (F.) A fidi 
with slender body and pointed head. From 
A. S. gdr (or Icel grirr)^ a spear; cf. 
Qarlio. So ilsofiJti. 

€}ar(3). tocauK (Scand.) tcel. and Swed. 
gora, Dan. g;'i>rie. to make, cause: lit. to 
make rcaiiy. — Icel. g^rr, ready ; see Tare. 

Garb (i), dres*. (F. - O. H. G.) In 
Shak.— O. F. ^r^, a earb, good fashion. 
— O. H. G. garawrrt, M H- G- g^r-wen, to 
get ready. — O. H.G.^n?, ready; cognate 
with K. jfare ; see Tare. 

Garb (J), a sheaf. (F.-O. H.G.) An 
heraldic term. — F. ^n6<. — O. H. G.^nSw, 
a shcof. 

Garbage ; see 3arbla. 

Garble, to select for a purpose; hence, 
to corrupt an account. (F. * Span. — Arab.) 
Orifi. to pick out, sort, sift out. — O. F. 
mrheUr* (not found), the same as gm- 
PttUr, to garble spices, or sort them oat, 
orig. to sift. The same as Span gurhiUar^ 
\\i^ gurhtUtkrtt 10 garble or sift wares.— 
Spun. gMrHliOt a coane sieve.— Pen. ^lUr* 


W, Arab. gAirid/, a sicre ; Arah. ^Amrh 

ttftittg, seari^hing. 

garba^. remse. (F. — Span. — Ai 
Prob. for gar^-^gt ; »ec above CI 
graUoMt rcKtse of drugs (.Uttre). 
OarboU, a commotion. (P'-^L.) C 

ftrbeuiSf * a garboil, hurliburly ; ' CoL 
pan. garhtfh, a crowd; ItaL ^o^^ 
a garboiU disorder. From h.garr-i^ 
prattle, chatter; and huUirt, to boil, bn| 
boil with rage. Thns the sense ia ' aa 
boiling.' i. e. a hubbub. Florio kai ] 
gamimllare, to rave. See Jar CO- 
Garden. (F.-O. HG) M. E./b« 

— O. F. gardin (F. jartfi'm). -OK 
gartin, gen. and diaL oi gaUo, a yaid. 1 
oate with K. Yard, q. r. (Thegeii. ap{l 
al^o in O. H. G. gartin-art, a gaidend 

Gargle. Gargoyle ; sec Gorge. 

Garish : sec Gaao. 

Garland. i.F.-TetitT) M. E.^ 

— O. ¥. gariofu//. Cf. Span, ^tnrmt 
Ital.ghir/oMifa 1 whence mod. F.gMtrian 
a garland. Prob, formed, witb suffix -4 
from M. H.G. wiertUn*, a suppeaed., 
quentative of ttiVrvr. to adorn, from 0,G 
wiara^ M. H. G- vnrnr, R^ed gold, 

Garlio : sec Oore (3). 

Garment : see Gamlah. 

Gamer, Garnet ; see Oratn. 

OarnlBh. (F.-O. Low G.) AWj 
nish. — Q. f.gamit; wamit , stem of 
pi. ofgamir^ loarmir, lo warn, avert, fol 
garnish ; all from the notion of ' waiU 
or protection (hence decoration). J 
an O. Low G. source ; O. Friea werwi 
give a pledge, A. S. wtanttam : sec'W 
garment. (.F. - O. Low G.) 1 
gamfment. — O. F. garmtmen/^ ^^^"vnJ 
a robe (defence). --O. P.gamir labo*j 
garniture. (F.-O. Low G.) F. 
niture, gamishmmt •• Low X^ganm 

— Low L gamitus, on'g. pp o( ga/ 
to adorn, which is merely a Latinised ] 
of F. gamir (above). 1 

garrison. (F.-O. Low G.) Conj 
with M. K.garisffHH, xi'arisntn, % reitf 
but the true fonn is M.E. gaf^nrriyn. ' 
nufin, provision, siorcs, sn 
garmuffft, store, supply. — O 
pres. pt of gamir, to >", , , . r 
(above). And sec Wftri-r, ■. n 
Garret tF.-G) M r - . _' 
gariu, place of refuge, 
^rrr, twa«'r,lo proer* 
to ddcfkd. Allied to Wary 



I »tc Otrter. 

lun. tl- 1 I. ^m»/iM, talWUve. 

't. to cb&ller. (V GAR. ) 

(F -C.) O. F. ^r/ur (North 

Hecart). tpelt jartur in Cot- 

JmrrftUrt). - O. F. ^rr^/ (F. 

tiAm of the l£g : a dimin. form. 

i^''* ^- ^*^< *tuuik of ihe leg; 

I f «n«, leg. 

krroW,r^ — ^'-^ '^ron.-C.) Span. 
aaid^ i>c light, strxng- 

L^ "jIIm. Formed, 

I. sufiix -^r/, iroiD Span, garra, a 
1. dutch, grasp. — Hret., W., sod 
the ihuik of the leg. 

The Ilelgian chemist Van 
>.D. if>44) invented Iwo 
the Utier Hid not ctsme 
r«ermi to have t^een thinkmg 
tTt. ►pint, volatile fluid {^gkasf), 
/v'd£m, to blow. 
le, boasting (GaKony.) F. 
NmaiW; bojtsting : uid to be a %-ice of 
tOM ; al anjr nte named from them. 
|gft. to h«k. cut »i«ply. iF-IjiwU) 
fteriy j«r74. ^nr - O. F. garttr^ to 
w, piaroc«ith • Unoet — Low t.,gana, 
%n%if^ \sy mxking incisioas in the 
I; called n Gk. hfxapalit. Perhaps 
lipled from jfopalif. an inciMoa. 
^•p. (Scaad.) loeL grufa, Swed. 
)f, Dmu ii'fff to yawn. Certainly 
I as cU4 fofm gafta *, extension ofga/a, 
Ipe; «ee 0*p«. (C( M. F. tlaficn, to 
h ti «//yH from A. S. 4tfs.) 
Ifttrk^ belonging to the belly. (L.- 
r 1» mttricui ; from a miHe form 
HP*. » Uk. 'I'otfTpd-, crude form of 
^, ihc bdly. 

i^Ui^, % door, hole, opening. (E.) 
^^v, x*'' AS. ^'2/, a gtic, open- 
j^^b prA a hole, opening, gap ; Icel. 
Ik opmag. The orig »ense wis ■£• 
|or •» »»y 10^/ in : ' from A. S. gat, 
I ofgi^tm, to get : see Get. 
Ite^iV a auect. ^Scand ) Common 
p* Notth; it also means *a way.* — 
gmtMt S««d. /tt/d, a way, path, stieet, 
~ fr ; cL <ioih. gtUwa, G. 

pl. I. ^ grta, to get ; see 
tpare O. gasu, b street, 
O. H 0. krttan, to get. 
fndcd 10 be allietl to (he verb 


. may 



\ A.C i we mi^t - 

ft ^. lor iKt Ukc reaiAU 1 

aaswen to Tetit. type GATA. bat gaU 

(a) to Tcut. tvpe GATV\ A (Fide. til. Js); 
they are closely allied. 

gait, manner of walking. (Scuid.) 
A particular nse of M. E. ga/e, a way ; tec 
gate {2) above. See al&o Oantlet (2). 

QAther (E.) M. E. gaJeitn. A S. 
gaJrian, gaderian, to collect, get together. 
— A. S. gader^ together ; also goihr, 
gtador. — A. S. g^, a company, society 
iwbence also A. S. gmieling, a comradeV 
Allied to Oood 4* ^- g^^rm, to collect, 
from gadtr, together ; cf. gadtt a spouse, 
G. jo///, a hnsband. 

together, (E.) M. E. /pgrdert.^A.S. 
f,ipfJre, U-gaHirt. — A. S. /tJ, to ; gador^ 
gn(itr, together (abore). 

Qaud, a show, ornament. (L.) M. E. 
gauJi. — 'L. gaudium, gladness, joy: hence, 
an ornament. — L.^«^fr«, to rejoice (base 
^« , a» in gauisus turn, used as pt. t ) -^ 
Gk. fnUtr, to rejoice ; 7av/>ot, proud. Der. 
gaudy, adj. See below. 

enjoy, to joy in. (F. - L.) M. E. 
enioim. — F n« (L. in) ; F. ioie, JM£\ 
tee joy (below). 

jewel, a valuable ornament. (7. — L.) 
M. E. itnvel, iuei. — O.V.joel, Jouel (later 
jpyau), dimin. of F- toU, used m the sense 
of trinket ; see joy (below). % Early 
mimnden^tood, and wrongly Latinised as 
iofale, as if it were a derivative of i»cu$, 
which is not the case- 
joy. (F.-L.) M.E. Hy^.-O. F- ioyt, 
joyt ; oldest form g^t (F. joii) ; cf. Ilal. 
gioj^t joy, also a gand, jewel, Span./?ya. a 
gaud. — L. gaudia, neut. pL, afterwards 
turned into a fenu sing. — L. giudtrt, 
to rejoice (above). 

r^oioe. (F. — L.) M. E, rtiohen. — 
O- F. rtijaii'^ stem of prcs. pt. of rtsj^r 
(mod. F. rijeuir\ to gladden, rejoice. — L. 
rt-, again ; F. ujeir, to rejoice, from L. 
ex, much, very, and gaudert, to rejoice. 

Oaxige, Qoge, to mensurc the content 
of a vessel. i.F. — Low L.) Spelt ga^ in 
Shak. — O. F. gougrr, later jaugrr, ' lo 
gage,' Cot — O. F. gaugt* (not foundt, old 
lorra of Jaagr. 'a gage, instrument where* 
wilh a cask is measured:* Cou Law L» 
gctugsa (A.n, 1446). Doubtless allied to 
)ejaU. a tsrge bowl ; tee Gallon. 

Oaunt. thin, lean. (Scand.) An East* 
Anglian word, ind therefore presttmaMy 
.^and. Also spelt gont (167I). Cf. 
Nofweg. gand, a Ihin stick, a tall and 
thin man. an overgrown itri^lin^ (^Kucd'^*- 



^, 9U^ gmi, xpj (T. /m> Ct 
•liipc OB 



Cr. H & i«im^ to Mfc 

^mmtCT flit. i4$;f. 




I ) 0,F. /Butfte. aa 

, th« orig. MBtc k 
-';]«, from lul. gaii£tta. % 
(f^atut, M mftfple, wbeacc U 

'- '■■•)- :' 'T ' .' - Ttry 

■ .Icjjc 
'■'-). tl 

OOin IvM iliaii a inri^- 
rm$k*u\y. 'I'l. 

VK«, K 1r«'4aui)', 'I' 
OMf, «1 

nfiaLlL.-Gk). L 
*Gk. 'r^yvnt, orifia, Mmroe. 
1c»; ittaeiMU. (VGAN) 
iailoeimi,ftplaM ihatgravi froai « 

of y'7»nn*i, 1 wm btva, ftUied to y^««, t 

■ro^en, a plant tK«t lacrcmM* 
vaidlf. (Gk.) From Ok. ff-*. «« 
fron «^. out ; aad Yf* (m abmV 

genealogy. (F. - I^ i- Gk.> V 
m.n mi i f su. • O F stmcipgu. » L /■< 
A^<a. « Gk. ^cnaAo^fo, ui Ai 
funUy, p*cdi£Tce (i Tim. L 4.)«Gk. i' 
birth (i[lic«l lo 7lrM^ ■ ■•■-• *-*- *^ 
accounL, allied to \vy<.i * 

0«net, an uiinuj. ^. ~ ^ J 

-<-;/£. ' ft kind of wccscU ;' Coi- 

Uonial; ice Oasiu. 

HonlAte^ jointed. (L.) Id boluiy. 
il» gmiiuhim, a little knee, joint in & 
; ooable dunio. of gtnu, k knee. 

BfdUctlon, genuflexion, a bend 
^h^fa>ci: ( V — I. ■! F. gcnnftxitm. 
^^^Ht^ 'Hcm, > L. gtnUt 

^B^V'' *^ bend. 

wSSaU O«iutivo, OeniUB ; see 

KT, bom. 

; cecJeanet. 
Itvel; tec 0«QU«. 
ttl&n. a |4fl.nt. (F-L) O F.^u- 
» L grntmtm \ na-ined after GentitUt 
TTtsn km^. abt. ax. 180. 
lUXe. Oontle ; see Oonus. 
itry, 0«iitiliie ; «e 0«naa. 
luflection; see Qenioulate. 
IIUL kin (L^ L.^tmnj (stein ^vw^t), 
»oe.<4-Gk. 7^ren,rftcc.+A-b- ^rt, kin. 
Oil (V CAN > 

nffenial. kinrlreil (L.) Coined from 
an'l jrww/, adj. from 
rc below 




-rr, to pioduce. 
■■pflm* I : ■■:n pp. of L. tie^tt- 

J^^ becouiti L>Aae. *■ L. Jt^ner^ adj , 
^Kh 4iSr. down ; giner-, stem oi gentu, 

g«n(lor. to breed, <F.«-L.) ME. 
itiren.^O. F. c»9^imdrtr,^V.. t'njyH' 
, to |>rodooe.Mi. iw, in; ^w^/o»r. to 
, frtMD gmir-, crude form of ^f/ri// 

line. (F.^K) O.F. /flifux, a tool 
mg f t i mm, natural capacity, also, an 
tiott.*I> t«, in , gmiiu; ice genitu 

l^er (1). klmf. (F. - U) ME. 
fwiih r«cTe«cn)t ^. — O. F. .^w-c, 
rrv, &tl. (.a«e of gtHw, kind, 
uU deriv. from the abl. 
ic to the common phrases gtuert 
i kM grmert, fimui f^entrt \ so also 
pnaerr. kind. 

adflr <a). to prwluce. (K. • L.) 
^m^ni; a clippiil form of nkgtn' 

■H^HBatiti|> to a j^eniti, common. 

pnr toa4V«aa(itein//';r/r V llc^kce 
>/. Jo., a 1---1-- ■ •'*!'rai'itsi>no, from 
frnvmiU^ rme commander, 



generate. (L.) From pp. at h. gem- 
ran, to produce, — U g<nfr-, item oigmus. 

greneric, pertaining to a germs. (L.) 
Coined from I- gentri-, ci ude form of genus. 

ffenoroua. (F. -L.) O.F. gtturom, 
later ^^irr^-z/.T.—L geuervim^ (properly) 
of noble btnh. «L. gefur-, crude form of 


ffenlal. tF. - L.1 O. F. gimal. ^^ M 
gtmaiu, p)cai>3at i adj. Irom genius \ sec I 
genius (below, 

genitiO. (F. - L.) O. F. gvniiaL - L. 
genttalix, generative. —L. gtnitum, supine _ 
^^g'gntre^ to beget, ■ 

genitive. (F. -L.) O. F. geni/if.^h, 1 
gemtiuus, Lelon^^ng to birth, applied in 
grammar to a certain case of nouns.— L. 
genitum (above). 

genius, inborn faculty. (L.) L. grmHJ, 
the tutelar spirit of any one; also wit, lit. 
'inborn nature.' Allied io genm, 

genteel (F. >- L.) fti. E. gentU ~ L. 
gentiiij, belonging to the same dan, a 
gentile (afterwards applied to mean well- 
bred, &c.) — L. ^rt/i-, crude form of gem, 
a flan, tribe. Allied to ^'ruitj. 

gentile. (F. - L.) O. F. gMtiJ, •» L _ 
gefifi/is (above). ■ 

gentle. (F-L.) O F vc"""/ (above). 1 

gentry. (F.-L.) U. E, genirie, high 
birth; corruption of M. £. gtHfrise. the 
same. — O. r. gerUerise, another form of 
gentiiise, rank (-iLow L. gtHtiUtia*),^ 
L. gtnf ill's ; see Bonteel above. 

genuine. (U> 1* gcmtiMus, of the 
true gtnia or Ktock. — L genus. 

gin (3), a trap, snare vF.~L.) M. E. 
gin, short for M. E. engin, a contrivance ; 
see engine above. PioU. confused with 
Ice), ginaa^ to dupe. 

ladigenoua, native. (L.) L. ittdigenm, 
native —L. indi' = 0. Lat imh, within; 
and gen ui, pt. t. of gigiure. 

ingeniouB. (F. - L.) F, ingenieujc 
CCot.l — h. wgem'osus. clever. — L. itigeti- 
turn, i^atural capacity; we engine above. M 

ingenuous. (L.) L. iNf^rMtfUJ, inl>oru» ■ 
fice-born, frank. — L. f», in; gtMui, pt t- * 
of gigMire, to (■'CflCt. 

progenitor. (F.-L.^) I onnerly //v- 
gTMi/cur, mm F. progetttteur — L. prt^emi- 
t&rem, ace of /progenitor, an ancestor. « 
L. pre. before ; genifor^ a parent, from the 
Bttpine of gignertt to beget. 

progeny . ( F . - L.) O. F. prvgmu. - 
L. prcgtnitm. ace. of pr^grnus, Uncage^ 
offspring - 1 .. pro-f forth ; gmme, khl. 




regenerate. (L.) From pp. of rr- 

temrt, to produce anew. 

jgi'aphy. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 

ligrapkit, — L. teopnphia, •• Glc "^tot- 
ypcupia, lit. eaxth-Ue&cnplion. — Gk. yta- -^ 
yrito-f for 7^101, relating to >^, earth ; 
■^ypa^a, descripiion, from yp&^iVf to write. 
Cf. Skt. .fo, the caith. 

apogoe* point of the moon't orbit 
furthest from the earth. (Gk.) From Gk. 
lirit, nwfty from ; 7^, eartii. 

geometry. (F. - L - Gk.) O, F. 
gtonutrit. — L. gtomctria. — G k ffaitfrpia, 
land -measurement. — Gk. 7ca>- (as above); 
•furpia, measurement, from y^rpiw, 1 mea- 
sure, ftirpov, a measure; see Metre. 

georgio. (L. — Gk.) L. gtorgicus, re- 
lating to hubbandry. — Gk. itaipytxnt, the 
same. — Gk. 7(a'^7itt, tillage. — Gk. 7(0?- 
(as above) ; ipyuv, to work. See Work. 

perigee, point of the moon's orbit 
nearest the earth, (Gk.) From Gk. w«/m*, 
about, beie ' near ;' 7^, earth. 

Geranium, a plant. (.L. — Gk.) L. 
j^ratttHm, Latini&ed from Gk. yipdvtw, a 
geranium or crone's biU (from the shape 
of the seed-pod). »Gk. yipayot, a crane; 
allied to Orane. 
Oerfolcon ; sec OyrfalooxL 
Oenu, a seed. (F -L) F. gtrmt.^'L. 
gtmten (stem i^trmifi-), a sprout, germ. 
Der. gtrvtinatt (from the stem). 

german. germane, akm. (F.-L.) 
Cousimgtrman are cousins having the 
same grandfather. Formerly spelt ^nwa/n. 
— O. V. gtrmain.^X^. gtrmanum, ace of 
gtrmanus, fully akin. Allied to Q-enn. 

Oenind. a pari of a Lat. verb. (L.;! L. 
gtrutuiium, a gerund. — L. gtrundus. that 
which is to be do.ic or carried on; fut. 
parC pass, ci gtnrc, to cany on. {terform, 
bring. (VG.Vii.) 

congeriea a ma&i of lAriicles. (L.) U 
ion^ria, a heap. - L. C9n-girtrt^ to bring 

congestion, acaimulation. (L.) From 
L. ace coHgfJtio/tem.^l^ tongtsttu, pp. of 
ecH'f^nn (above). 

digeet. to as^imilate food (L.> M. E. 
lii^^st, used as a pp. • digested. — L. dtgtJ- 
ttts^ pp. olt/i'gertre, to cany apart, separate, 
dissolve, digest. 

«xa^:gerate. (L) From pp. of L. 
ijcaj^mrt^ to heap up, amplify. ~L. €X, 
very; sg^r, a heap, from <v- - o//, to, 
genre, to bring, 

gestAtion, the carrying of the yoting in 


the womb. (F,-L.) OF. ftstafitm^U 
act gtstatioHtm^ a carrying — I* ^/iUAu. 
pp. o{ gejtart, to cany, frequent, form a 
^rtre, to bring. 

gesticulate, to make gestures. (U) 
Ffom pp. of gtiticulari, to make mimic 
gtsture».*L. gestioilui, a gesture, double 
dimin. of gestust a gesture. • L. gcstus, pp. 
q\ gertrt. 

gesture. (L.) Low I* gtttura^^ mode 
of aciioiL — L. gesius, pp. o\ gerere. 

jest, a joke. (F.-L) ig. a stotTi 
merry tale. M. 1^ ^stt, a stoir.^O. F>. 
gtsttf an exploit, romance, talc of exploits 
^h. grsta, put for titi ga/a, a thing dooc, 
an exploit. — L.<vj/tfJ, pp. oi grren. 

register. (F — L.) F- rfgisire, *■ 
record ; * Cot — Low L. rtgisfrum, mow 
correctly rtgestum, a book in wbich Ihiofl 
are recorded (L. ngcr»/H/itr).^L. r^w* 
earn, neut of pp. cu n-gtrtrt, to bvff 
back, rvcord. 

suggestion. (F.-L.) T.snggutim.^ 
L, ace. suggcs(io»um.''\L mggutau, pp. o( 
SH&trtrtt 10 bring under, supply. suggoM. 
wL. sng- (for suA\ tinder; gertrt, ts 

Oet. (E.) M. E. gtim, pt X. gal, }f9^ 
getat. A. S. gitan, pt. t. gttt^ pp. ^iOm, U 
get, obtain, -f Iccl. ^/d, Goth, ^i/sfl; U 
•fumiert (base «</), in prthtndttt, Mk 
seize; Gk. x'^^'^*''**' ^base xo^Oi ^ **^ 

beget (.E.) A. S. *^fi>a« ; tee Bs-. 

forget. <£.) A. S.yp/jTtew; see 

Oewgaw, a plaything, specious trifle. 
(E.) Formerly ^^iiif, corruption of M- E- 
gitu^ut ( = givegove^ a gewgaw). -' 
Kiwle, p. i>ji6. Cf. North E. ft, 
mutual donation and reception. A 
plicated furm of A. S. gi/u^ a gift, froB 
gifan. to give. Gewgaw was orig. a sinal] 
gift, a present, toy. Uifle, &c Sec Ol** 

Qeyslr ; see 0)iah. 

Ohttstly. terrible. (E.) M. F 
A. S. ^xt^iiit, ghoslly. allied lu 
gaisJoHf to tenify. ^e Aghaa; 
words are gtxjteat, terri6ed, K. Lear, a* 
I. f,^. gastncts, Olh v. 1. ic/'. 

Oherkin, small cucum) - 
Shoit for aghtrkin.^Viw. ' *? 

kin (of which an older foim ^ < 
ifj^wr/rw • (= agurk kin), l-c-.i. 
ased the dimin. sufiBx -^.tm \s!ictc .-- 
OSes *Je. WiLhoul the liual m, we ha 
agurlu (Sewel). The worI is thai 

ft Imw 


due to a word appear- 
^ruu; fjom Ok. d-y- 



r. + Dti ^fj7, G /rai/ Allied 
k Ui-ptitjan^ to temf)', and to £. 

»ul, ■ tdjid of dtinon. (Per&.) Pen. 
iflMfimirT ivItiui demon. 
L (F.-L-Ck.) M. E. gtant, 
— O- F. froM/. — L. gigantem, »cc 
L/, •- Git- 7*'7«» tstem 7t7aFT«), a 
(V^CAN.) Der. Hgant-it, ftom 
-, Hrro oi gigas ^sbo*-?). 
.sninfidcl, (Turk. » Arab.) (Ttia- 
■D lUl. i^lling ii»ual amonf; the 
of the l^rant (Byron •: Turk. yaw. 
Arab kiinr^ ui infiilcl 
, idle talk. (E ) Formed from 
*b. g^''^r, to jjabblc, frequent, of 
Corona rp/iaJ^r, andj^oM/r. 
(F,) Vf. E.^'^/./iA'/.-O. F. 
(F. /TtA^. ■ Rilibet. Prob. allied to 

f'Ar/, a Urge stick, pcrh&ps a dimiit. 
gfSit, a tort of ann, an iiuplement 
■p earth. Root unlcnown ; 
to Jib (0. 

a kind of ape. (Unknown.) Cf. 

ft BafloD. 

110^ faaniped, swelling. (F. — L.) 

.•■I* /iMAiWi, huTiifMrd (whence 

ff>. — L./iMi, a hump, bunch; 

U best AUied to Skt. kuhja, 

JibCL. to mock. (ScAnd.) From 

aitd rufaly (Rieti); cf. \ct\.geifa, 
VtXk noncfue, Icel. geip^ idle talk. 
' »b«rlah, q v. 
the internal eatable parti of a 
^...«' ^-f--' cooking (F.*) M. E. 
, which, Bccoiding to 
I, F. giMotU, atewed 
i>( bokuQwu origin, not uccev 
to F. gi^iir. game. Cf. 
I, a fc7«r» giztaid. 
r. (E.J M. E. giM, adj. Formed 
S /iddtam, to king, be merry; mj 
«cfac of gii/ify waa mirthful. 
gitiit, gitU, a ioog. poem, 





a kinil of eagle (Da. and 
T^ ftnt syllable is from Du. gUr, a 
eL G. ^Kitf, M. H. G. gir, a 
*- - OTTfkloon. 


rti;-c. livilt Ikoal. rScand.) 


In Shak., • gig Is a boy's top. M. E. gigge, 
apparently a whirling thing, Ch.Ho-Fatiie, 
ui. SjJ (whence E whiriigig). Prob. of 
Scaiid. origin ; cf. Icel. geiga, to take a 
vrrong direction, to rove at random, gjogru^ 
to reel, stagger; allied to Jig. 

ji^, a lively tunc or dnnce. (F. — M. H. 
G.) O. F. gigi^ K^i*^* A fiddle, dance.* 
M. H. G. gigt (G geige), a liddlc. I^rob. 
from the rapid motion of the player, and 
allied to Gig. 

Oigrontic; see Giant. 

Qiggle, to titter. (.E.) A weakened fonn 
of M. £. gagieUn, to cackle, or 'gaggle ;* 
where again gaggU is a weakened form of 
Oaoklo. Cf. Icel. gagi. a goose, G. Jiichem, 

to PEgl*- 

Qiglat, Qlglot, a wanton woman. 
(Scind.) Dimin. of p'gU, a flirt, used by 
Cotgrave (s- v. ga!irouilUtlt).— \<x\. giJikr^ 
a pert person, Dan. giek^ a wag. Peihapa 
allied to Gig. 

GUd; see Gold. 

Gill (i). organ of respimtion in fishes. 

Scand.) M. E gilie.^UAw. gitz!U,^y»itA. 

fti7, a gill : Icel. g/oOiar, pi., gills. Cf. 
eel. gin, mouth. Allieo to Tawn. 

Gill (3), a raTtne, chasm. (Scand.) Also 
^,4///. - Icel. gi//, gaf, ravine. (VGHl.) 
Allied to GiU(i). 

Gill (3), with g soft, a quarter of a pint. 
(.h ) M. E gilU.^O. K. gilU, a sort of 
wine-measure. Low L. geJla ; Low L. giUo, 
a wine-vessel. AlUtd to F. Jaltt a Targe 
bowl : see Gallon. 
Gill (4), with g soft, a woman's name, a 
piicher, ground-ivy. (L.) Short for CiiHan, 
I.e. L. JuHana, a fern, name due to L. 
Julius ; see July. Der. JlirtgUt or giU- 

jilt, a flirt. (L.5 Formerly//////, dimin. 
of y///. a flirt, orig. Jill or Ciltiany a per- 
sonal name (as above). 
Gillyflower, a flower. (F.«L.-Gk.) 
Formerly gilo/ert gtrafiour. Corrupted 
from O. F. girofih^ 'a gilloflower;' Col. 
From F. clou de girpfle, the tame. — Low 
I.. {oryophyllufH, IjLtmiscd ftotu Gk. «a- 
ptK^fXAof, a clove tree, lit. 'nut'lcaf.** 
Gk K^puQ-y^ a nut ; ^iiAAor, leaf. 
I Gimbals: ue Garaini. 
{ Gimlet, Gimblet; see Wimble 
I Olmmal-ring : see Gemini. 

Qlmp; see Wimple. 
I Gin (I), to begin. (E.^ Obsolete; often 
'. ncedlesaly wriuim '^h'm, as though be were 



omitted. M. E. ginntn. A. S. gyfmoM, 
to lic^iu. commonly en-^HtuiH (pt. t. 
ffngann, pp. on^nngn ) . + Goth, ^'m- 
nan, in Ihe comp. i/u-^'nntpi, to begin. 

begin. (E.) M. K he^innen. AS. ^r- 
pn»an ; from ^nnoK, w'xxh prefix bt- « £• 
by; we By.+l3ii. G. begiHHen. 

Gin (?). ft trap, snare ; see 0«nus. 

Gin (3>, a kind of spirit ; sec Juvenile. 

Glngt^r, the root of a certain plant. (F. 
— L, — Gk. — Ski) M- V,. ^ngtr,^ngtiurt 
(=^iMjn/«rt).-0. F. gtftgibrt {¥. gin^- 
rmirr). '^ h. xm^'^r. — Gk. ^tyyiptpts.^ 
Ski. fri^gavfra, ginger ; lit. ' hom-»haped,' 
from the horns on iu — Skt- f^i^^u, » horn j 
vera, t body. 

Gingerly ; see Qo. 

Qingham, a kind of cotton cloth. (F. ) 
Modem. — F. guingan ; corruption of 
GuiHgamfi\ the name of ft place in Brit- 
tany where such fabrics were made. 

Qingle ; the same as Jinglo. 

Gipsy ; the same as Oypsy. 

Giraffe, ft long-legged animal. (F. • 
Span.«Aiab — Egypt) F-jpni^. — Span. 
giraffa. « Arab. *ard/, tani/aL Fiom 
^ypt. soraphi, L e. long neck ^Mahn). 

Gird ^i)> to enclose, bind ronnd. ^E.) 
hi^K. gurJtn.girddH, A. S, ^m'aw, to gild. 
+Dd. gordtn, IceL gyr^a^ to gird (cf. 
gtriSa, to fence in). Dan. gt'orde, G. gurun. 
Cf. Goth 6i'^atr,/an, to begird. Allied to 
aarth. Garden, and Yard. (VGHAR.) 
girdle. (E.) A.S gyn/fJ, that which 
girds. — A. S. gyrdan. to gird. -f-Du. gordti, 
\<x\.gyf%iUt Swed. giirdel, G.gurUl. 

girth. (Scand.) M. E. prth. - Icel. 
^'^rS, a girdle, girth; gt'^'^% g"lh round the 
waist : l3an.^'<i}i-J.^(toth. gainia, a girdle. 

Gird ( j), to jest at ; see Tard. 

Girdle. Girth ; see Oird (i). 

GirL (O. Low G.) M. E. gir/, I'rr/, 
gu*J, often tued to mean ' a boy ;' a c^ld. 
Formed, fts a dimin.. from O. Low G.gor, 
ft child. Cf. i}wiss gutft, gurr/i, a dc- 

Erecifttory term for a girl (Sanders. Gcr. 

Gist; see Jet (i). 
Gittern ; see Cithern. 
Give. tF«) M.E.gelun,yflun(So^x^hcTn^. 
^^ (.Northern) ; pi- ya/ or ga/. pp. yitsen, 
gifen, youiH, A. S. gt/an, pi. L gea/, pp. 
^/m. + Du. geven, Icel. gefa, Don. gwt, 
Swed. gi/va, Goth, giban. G. gebetf. 

gift. ^E) M. E. gi/t.yi/t.^\. S. gi/t. 
a giti^raxc); comoioa is th« pL^i^^^ Qup- 


tials.»A. S.^V^M. togive.+!oeL^y/i 
gift, G. -gift I in mitgi/t^ a dowry). Der 
ttimard. (F.-L.) M. V - - "'- 

being added), —O. F. grzii 

{^"F .gorier). ^'L.gigcriumtQ', ; ^ ,, ^ 

cooked entrails o7 poultry. 

Glabrous, smooth. (L.) From L.^aW^, 

Glacial, icy. (F.-U) F, ghfial.^h. 

fia^ialis, icy.— L. glaHa. ice. Allied to 
*. geiu, cold ; see Gelid. 
glacier, a mountain ice-field. (F.«-l») 

F. gltuier \% Savoy word).— F. gtatft fce.« 
h. giaa'em, ace. ofgiaeus, ice. 

glacis, smooth slope. (F. - L.) F. 

f/iv/jr. — O. F. gicuert to covtr wilh ice.— 
'. giitce (above). 

Glad. (E ) A, S. gia<i, shining, bn^t, 
cheerful, glad, -f Du. glad, smooth, bhght, 
Icel.^/irKr. bright, glad. Dan. Swed. r^i'.a*^ 

G. glatl, siiiooih. polished. Cf. Riu». 
giadkit^ even, smootli. Orig. sense ' ahin- 
tng.' or • bright* (V GllAK.) 

glade, an open spa^e iit a wood. (Scsnd.) 
The orig. sense was an opening for light, 
passage through ft wood. — Icel, gia^. 
bright, shining. Cf. Swed. dial g/nU-yf/tii, 
completely open, said of a lake whmce the 
ice has all melted away. Also Norvig- 
giftff, a clmr spot among clouds. 

Gladiator, ft swordsman. (U) L.^ 
diatar. — L. giaJitUj a sword. 

claymore, a Scottish bfosflsword. 
^GaeL) Gael. c'aUMtamk mcr. n jjteil 
sword. Here ciaidheamh is cognate wtili 
W. deddyf^ cUddru, a sword, and with L 
glAiiut The Gael. mar. great, is alUfld 
lo W. mawr, L. magnus, great. 

glaive, a sword. cF.*L.) Q.T.gUm 
— L. giadium, ace. o\ giadius^ a sword. 

Glair, while of an egg; see Clear. 

Glaive ; see OUdiator. 

Glance, a swift dart of light, quick took. 
(Scand.) — Swed. giaw, Instrr. whwcs 
gldtua, to shine ; Dai 
whence glandse, to i 
gratis, splendour. f». i.>^ .:■.. 
put (or g/oHlt*. is from the pt. ; 
the strong vcrh glin/a, to shine, ■' 
in Swed. dialects (Ricti). See OUni- 

Gland, a fleshy organ in thr bo'lr. secp*" 
ing fluid. {V ~.L.) O.F. gli 
whence a kernel, glaod) •• 1 
of ,^^/rt«j, an acoru.+^k. ^-i 
from $dJ<\tiv, to cast, lei aU) 

'D»t,giand-irSf a disease oi ^ 


\c hriL-Titlv. (E.) M. E. 

iiicid substance. 

a)[nei. M. n.G. 

Allietl 10 GlMB. Cf. 

S. //^i,+Du. g/ai, Dan. 
rt jfAji/, O- JSwH-^'jif/*. Icel. 

i.V ■ 
fo' vbi. (E.) M.E. 

blue. (L.-Gk.). L. 
>». -| live 1. gleaming, bluett. 

bum of liKht. <E.> A. S. 
A^ S. giimo, tite same. 4*0. ^iax. 
Uncsi. Allirtl to Git xAi-opor, 
^*Ti, to shine, t V OH AU.) 
r, iwrb. (Saind.) M. E. ^i- 
r f giimiHir, sb., 

Jv .r^ veib. ^/u;- 

^ 1 oi Oati.^'/iMjw^, 

»■», to \htiie.— isweil. ilial. gHm. 
oieW allie* tn Oleam. 
, a : ' iScand.) For- 

f , ' .//. lo glimpse; 

b nitl-.x -j> i]<vii> bwed. dial.^/im, 

i>*. - Teut.> M E. ghmn. - 
, giamr (F. planer), lo glean; 
«fir Ca.p. 561). - Low L. A'.Vwa, 
k»d, ■ honaful. Of Icut. oiigin; 
* in A.S. ^Vn, a banaful, 
E. jt.'m, to proviilc hamlluU 
y for a lltatcticr. ^ WcaUo 

f" " (Levins), aiso 

i~ c due to A.S. 

■■■. id. 

ir. - U) O. F. ^ebe, 

ponging to a parsonage ;' 

, «oU, a dod of earth. Allied 

% kite (b!tt)) : see Qlids. 
I, a glowing coal ; see Glow. 
, wnging, (E.) A. S. ^tV^, 
jojr, miilh, mnsic+Iccl. ^, 
Swcd. dial gly, mockery, 
vmlley. i.C.) Gael, and 
r, a valley, glen, 
^lublc. tDu) Du. 
lo slide •• 
•way. .VlLied to 

t lock nf hair. (C ) Iri^h and 


t (E). Hie same aa 
rtofti /• « A. S. 4V*, a common 



prefix. Cognate with Du. /$4Mtn, lo cas- 
trate, O Du. iupptH. Sec Lop. 

Glide. CE.) M.E. gUdm, pt. t. gi»od, 
A. S. ^iitian. + Du. gltjtfin, Dan. xi'iV/ir, 
Swed. ,t'/i./j, (!m gUiun. Allied to Omd. 
glede (1). a kit?, a bad so called. (E.^ 
M. ^. gUJi. A.S giUa.Si kite, lit. 'gliiJer. 
from i(» smoulh Hi^ht « A. S. glid-^ ba«c of 
pp. oi glidan^ lo glide. 

Glimmer, GUmpBe: tt^e Oleam, 

Glint; see o litter. 

Glisten. Glister ; see Olitter. 

Glitter. I.E.) M E. glUtrrn, 10 *hin( 
Cf. leel. giitra, to gliller, frequent oigiita, 
to&bine: Swed.g/itfm, lo gUllcr; gfitttr, 
sb , a S]mrkle. Cf. O. Snx.gUtoH, G. ^/«- 
/«. to shine. (VGHAR.) 

glint, to shine, glance. (Scand.) Swe<l. 
dial, giinta, to shine ; no^ali^ed from Icel. 
giitc, to shine. 

glisten, gllfltor, to glitter. <E.) Ex- 
tended from base glu- of M. K. g/isien, to 
shine. A. S. g/istan*, only m the comp. 
gjijrn'att, to ^inc. We alsio find M. E. 
gh'jferfH, giiitrtH, to glitter. Cf, Du. giin- 
steriHt to glitter. 

Gloat ; see Olow. 

Globe. (,F.-L.) 0.¥.gU^.~L.g/a6um, 
ace. c>f g/adi4S, a ball ; cf. ghmus, a b.ill, 
clue, glfha, a clod. Allied to 01 •■»■. 

oonglobe. to form into a globe. (L.) 
L^CBn-globart.^h. c<m- {cum), wiih;/6^, 
a rlob^ And see below. 

Olomorat* (L.) Frompp.of^tfw^rrtrt, 
to collect Into a ball. -^L. glomer-, stem of 
glomus, a 1 all or clew of yam. See Globe, 
conglomerate. i.L.) From pp. of««- 
glomtrart, to wind into a ball, bcap 

Gloom ; see Glow. 

Glory. (F.- L.) M, E. ghru. - O F. 
glorit \¥. gicirt).-^!^ ^tfrifl. +Gk. «A^of, 
Skt. (ravaz^ KuiS. slava, gloi7. ^^ KKU.) 

GlOBB (i), lustre; see Qtow. 

GI08B (j\ a commcotary. explanation, 
(F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. glcse.^O. F. glase, 
' a glossc,' Cot. — L. gicssa, a difficnlt word 
requinng explsnalioii. — Gk. ^K&nffa^ the 
tonpue, a tongut. language, word needing 
cxplaiiatioo. Der. ^oti, verb. 

glossary. ^L. — Gk.) L g/ajsarium, a 
glossary; t'ormcd with sulEx 'ahum from 
L. ghss-a (above"!. 

gloasographer. (Gk.) Coined from 
giosso-t put for Gk. 'yAwaffo, a hard word ; 
fpA'Uuv, to write. 
glottif. (Gk.1 Gk. YXwrrif t the moatL 

of the windpipe.— Gk. 7^£^ra, Attic form 
of >Xwa<ja, the tongue. Der. epi-gUttU. 

gloBO, to interpret, flatter. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
M. E. ghsm. 10 make glosses. - M. E. glost^ 
a plofs ; see OIoss. 
OloTO. (E.) A. S. gUf, a glove; cf. 
Icet. i^'fAi prob. borrowed from A. S. glSf, 
Perhaps from g- {put lor ^.), prefix ; and 
Iccl. /j/f. Goth, lofa^ ihc palm of the hand. 
T>Gx fox-glovt. 

Glow. (E.) M.E.g/fiwn. A.S.gitfmin, 
to be ardent, to shine hr'n^hily-^lextgUa, 
Dan. g^M, lo glow, stare, Swcd. glo, to 
stare, Du. glotijm, G. gliik<n. Cf. Ski. 
gharma, warmth. (^GHAR.) 

glede (3). a glowing coal. (£.> A.S. 
gUJ (where ^ is from tf, by Yowel-chnjige). 
—A. S, gfJwan. to glow. 

g'loat, to vtarc, f^Azc with admiration. 
(Scand.) Formerly gfc/c (XVI cent) - 
icel. gJof/a, to grin, &mile scornfully; Swed. 
din.1. ghtia, gluUa, to peep, connected 
with Swcd. dial. gl<Ki, to glow, stare ; cT 
Swed. glo, to stare, Dan. giiH, to glow, to 

gloom. (E.) A. S. glSm, gloom, twi- 
lighL+Swed. A\9\. gldmug, staring, wofol, 
wan. from the vb. ghy gioa, to glow, shine, 

gloss (1), lustre. (Scand.) Ictl.g/fisu, 
a blaze, glys, finery ; Swed. dial g/isa, a 
glowing, ghssa, to glow; extended from 
Swc<i diaLWtw, Iccl. ^iia, to glow, 

glum, gloomy. (Scand.') M. E. ghm- 
mtn, to looKgloomy.— Swed. dial.^/47w///a, 
to -.t-ire, from glca^ lo stare ; cf. Swcd, 
g^'imug, gloomy ; and see Oloooi, 
Oloze: see Gloss (3). 
aiue. (F. - L.) O. F. giu. • !x)w L. 
giM/em. ace. of gJus [gtti. giutis), glue ; 
allied lo "L. gluun, g\)xt, giutus, tenacious. 

agglutinate. (L) Frompp. oftf^/w- 
tinar£, 10 glue together. — L. ag' (^^ad)^ 
to; glutin-, stem olgiuUn, glue. 

oonglutlnate (L) From pp. of L. 
fOHgiutinare, to glue tt^ther; sec above. 

glutinous, gluey. (L.) L. g/u/incJUi, 
sticky. — L.^/«^/«-, stem oi gJu/^tt, giac 
Olum ; MX Glow. 

Qlume. a Horal covering of grasses. (L.) 
L. giumot a husk, hull. ■• L. glubtrt, lo 
^*x\. take oir the hu^k. 
Olut, to Kwallow greedily. (L) L. gtv- 
'"^, gi'uitirt, to swallow ; cf. gula, the 
throat. +.Skt,^r>, lo devour, ^7, to eat. 

deglutition, swallowing. CL.) From 

L. J*t dowD ; giatitus, pji. of gimtin, U 

glutton. (F.-M M.E.^;*/#».-O.K 
glofoH. * L. ace. gikta/itot, a glotlon. •• 
ginlire, to devour. 

Glutinous; sec 01 tie. 

Olutton ; see Olut. 

Olycerine, a viscid fluid, of sweet taste 
(F. - Gk.) F. glycfrim ; from Gk. 7* 
pirt, sweet; from Gk. 7\i'«rur, sweet (V 

Qlyptic, relating to carving in Btooe 
(Gk.) Ck. YAi»irri«oT. carving. — Gk- yXwas 
Tof, carved. — ^'k. 7^ W'«>'» to hollow 
engrave. Allied (o Grave (I), 

Qn&rl. to snarl, growl, {&) Frcq 
tative oi gnatf to snarl, an imitative woid. 
+ Du. kn^^rrtn, Dan. kHNrre, to grow^ 
Dan. knarre, to creak ; Swcd. iiumn, G. 
knurrtn, to growl, G. knarmt, to Ottk. 
Allied to On&ah. 

Qnarled, knotty, twisted, (E.) Gmarkd 
is full of giiarls, where gwtar / is a dimio. 
of grtar or knar, M. £. knat-rr, a knot of 
wood. See Knurr. 

Qnash. (Scant).) M. £. gnasf/ti, to 
gnash the teeth. — Swed. ^-ff"*' ' ■ irasli 
(between tLe teeth); Dan. / luh; 

Iccl. grrasfan., sb., a gna'^r r ^ ..;. a 

cnick.+G. hsasUrHt to cra<;kle. O. Gadr 
cnac^ to crack, cra^ ; allied to Greek. 

Onat (£.) A. S. ^rtat. Said to b« 
named fiom the whimng of the wings; 
cf. Iccl. giuUa^ to clash, gnat, cla&h of 


Onavr, (E.) M. E. gnavKti. pt. t, rw^ 

gnaw, A. S. gnagwt^ to gnaw ; 

'Mern*,ihegr-hc'mgApTeftTt +f ■ 

OlceLind^, mod. Iccl « : 

Swed. jvu^^ Without tt . 

ftagen, Dan. n<?^^. 10 gunw. .:^>vj. ■.M^a-, 

prov. E. nag. to worry. Sec NaQ. 

nag (i), to worry, teajse. i..Scai)d ) ^wti. 

nagga, to nibble, peck ; Daju iwgft kdl 

nagn, to gnaw ; see above, 
Gneise, a rock. (G.) G.gnrin, 
Qnome, a kind of sprite. (F. «* Ck) 

V.gnctud, ■ gnome; a word doc " '^-- 

celsos. — Gk. -yvwfiTi, intelligence 

notion that gnomes could re 

treasures. — Gk. yva/ym, to know 
dlAgnofiis, scientific detetut< 

a difea^. (Gk.) Gk. it^yt^kiakt^ i ^ 

tinguishing. — Gk. 8(o, between; ( i m* 4 

enquiry, from yv&vat, to know, 
gnomon* index of a dial. {L.*G^ 

U/ritfMMS. • Gk. Y>^^4«»-. an uiter;m:' 

tc wlio Icnows), the index of & diaLw 

^oatic, ODC of a certain sect (Gk.) 
'CW. yrojcTiKit, wise, good at knowing — 
I'Ck. yimijTut^ from fyanus, knowu. «■ Gk. 
*y»^ai, to kv.ow. 

prognostic, a presage. (F. — L— Gk.) 
^ , /fvgnoxtiqut \ Col. — L. pi^jinaticon.^ 
>lu wpayrawTiKor, a token of tnc future.— 
ik. mp&, before ; YvcMTUuf, good at know- 
• (abo^•e). . 

\fi\x, 1 kind of antelope. (Hottentot.) 
'ound in S. Africa. Said to belong to the 
[liottefiiot lant^uage. 
~ 10 move about, proceed, advance. 
M E. gvttt i'Wf- A S. gxm^ a con- 
icled lorm of^n^n, lo go.'f-Du. iiuiM, 
ft ganga, Daii. guae, Swed. ^, Golb. 
m (put toT gangan), G.gthcH. 
igone, beset. (E.) Jfw^^M^-be- 
•et wiih grief M. E. Aeg9Mt pp. of ixgon, 
to besict. — A. S. ^igtin, bigdn, mgangan, to 
go about (surround, beset), ~ A. ^. hi-, bt' ', 
\m, to go. The prefix W* = E. by. ^ la 
ohr. ' begomti* we really ose two words, 

M gVtU. 

fftn^ (0> • crew of persons. (Scand.) 
gamgr, a going ; also, a gang (as 
''iftgamgTf a gang of thieves) ; from Icel. 

to go. 

ffiUiff (4), to go. (Scand.) lQt\. ganga, 
|to gu ; see Oo above. 

gingerly, with soft steps. (Scand.) 
iPropcTly with toUcring or slovr steps.— 
[Swed. diaL ging^>>, guf'g'ih to go gently, 
totter ; frequent form from Icel. ganga, to 
E^ 4r I( appears to have been c^dly con* 
'ftucd wiihgiugtrl 

Ooad. (t.) M. E. gPi/t. A. S. gd^. 

.Appa.renlly put for gasti*', cf. IccL goi/ar, 

[jigo«d ^apparently put ior gastir*)^ Goth. 

a goad, •f' L. fuista, a spear. See 


gadCi),awedgeof steel, goad. (Scand.) 
^Xl. £. ^^, a guad. — liitX. gaddr^ a goad, 
sj^ike, &ting ; cognate with A. S. ^(i</ 

g&d (a), lo nunble idly. (Scand.) In 

J^vins. Lit. to run like cattle stui^ by 

Riea.— Icel. ^/i/a, to goad. •• Icel. j«(/i^ 


rw^ri ,\^^ fj5h cftllcd a pike. (Scand.) 

, hy^tA. gdJM, a gcd ; aihwl to 

goad. Named from the sharp 

Uiin l-cad ; it is therefoiY alio called pikt. 

OoaJ. tile «vinamg post in a race. i,F.— 

!0l Lk/w O^ Formerly ^k — F. gauii, a 

poie, big rod ; in O. F. spelt wau* 
O. Fries. ivafu> North Fries. vraeU, a 1 
+ Icel. voir, Goth, -wahts, a staff. C 
a round stick, and named from its roi 
ness ; cf. Kuss. vaP, a cylinder. Allio 
Volute, and lo 'Walo. 

Ooat. (E) M.K. goot. A. S. ^j 
Du. giit, Dan. gtd. Swcd. get, IccL ^ 
G. i^eiss, geiiJCf Goth, gaitsa, L. hadus. 

Gobbet, a mouthful, a sn^all pi 
(K. — M. E. gvl'tt, a small pice 
O. F. gi>6(t, a morel of food (see \a\\ 
Dimiii. of O. F. gob, a gulp (in swall 
ing). — O. F. gobtr, to »!evour. — Gael 
beak, bill, muulb: Irish ^d^, mouth, b< 
VV. givp, head ami iteck of a bird. 

gobble. (F.-C.) Frequentative, 1 
suffix 'le, (TQvaO.y.gvbtr, todevour(abo 

job (i). topeck, asa I.ird. (C.) M 
ioi>dyH, to peck. From Gael, and I 
gob, the beak (above). 

job (a), a small piece of work. (F.« 

AUu spelt gob, a portion, lump, jol 

work (HalliwcU). — O. F. gob, lit a moi 

ful, also a lump, portion. — Gael audi 

gob, the mouth (above). 

Gobelin, a French tapestry. (F.) Nai 

from Giles Gobelin, wool dyer of Pi 

about A. p. 15J0-30. j™ 

Goblet; see Coop. ^| 

OobUn ; see Cobalt ^ 

Goby, a fish. (L.-Gk.) ForL.^ 

ori^. applied tu tlie gudgeon. — Gk. ittu^ 

a kind of tii>h, gudgeon, tench. 

gudgeon. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.Rwi 
— F. geujoti. — L. gobicnem, ace of goal 
by-form of gobius (abovey 
God. (E.) A.S. 4W. + Du. god, I 
gu^t 'Odjx.gud, Swcd. gud, Golh.^M, 
gott. % Not allied to good, adj. 

goddess. (E. ; with F. sujix.) M 
godtiesse (godijsi). Made Irom god 
adding the O. F. suffix •^ir (■■ L. -iui 
Gk. -uraa). 

god&thor. (E.) M. E. gvd/oi 
father in baptism ; from ^:/ and /odVr. 

godhead, (E.) M. E. godJied. i 
godkOii\ the su^x answers to A. S. ^ 
office, -State, dignity ; see ^hood (suffix* 

goodbye, Urewell. ^E.) A famil 
but meaningless, contraction of Cod 
with you, the old form of farewell {\ 

gospel, the life of Christ (£.) M 
^spel. A,S. godi/€U. - A. S. god, G 
Le. Christ: s/iJ/, a story. Lit 'nami 
of God,' Lc. Uc ui Chriiit. % 





underilood as mcnntng good tpelit u IT 
meant for a translation of Gk. rva-fyiKtoVf 
butlhissrcms a mistake ; forthcE. word wa* 
early inirorluce<I into Iceland in the form 
pt^rfJiiU (where ^wb* = god, as dts- 
linguished from ^^ = g'^d)f »nd into 
Germany ns D. U. (J. ^tsptU (where got = 
god. as distinguished from guot, good). And 
»et below ; where «w- again =s ^, 

gossip. (E. ) Now a crony ; formerly 
a sponsor in baptism. M. E. FOjn'S, also 
godsib, lit. 'related in god' — M. E. ^W, 
god : sib, lelated, from O. Northmnb. silbo, 
pi. relatives, allied to C>otb. siiya, rcUtion- 
thip, G. sipf^, affinity, tt'fifim, kinsmen. 
Ct*. Skt. sab%^a, t)t for an a&^mbly, tiusty, 
from sa&hd, an assembly. 

Oodwit, a bird ; sec Good. 

Goggle-eyed, having rolling and staring 
eyes. I.C.) M.K. gp^f-eyiW. 'Thcy^^/; 
With llicirc>es hither and thither:* HoUn- 
shed, Descr. of IreLond. c. i. — Irish gogor, 
light (in demeanour), lit. wavering, j^v^tirA, 
wavering, reeling, Gael. gOf^-h, nodding, 
idde; frura Irish and Gnel. go^, to uod, 
" slightly. Ckarly shewn in Irish and 
1. gogiHuiUach, gogglc-cycd. having 
wandering c>es, from ffig, to move slightly, 
and suil, a glaoce. 

Gksltre ; see Outtural. 

Gold. (E.) A. S. gold. + Dn. gvud (for 
fp/*/), Icel. guff, Swed. Dan. guid, G. gold, 
Gotli gulfh, UiiBS. c/a/tf, Gk. xpiwoj, Z-tod 
tanxftu. .Skt hitana. (V CHAR.) Allied 
to Yellow. Der. mari-gold. 

erild, to overlay with gold. (E.) M. E. 
gildtn. A.S. gyldan, to gild (Etlmlillcr) ; 
d. K.^. gyldfn, golden. Formed (by regular 
change fioni o lojf) from gold, gold. 

Qol^ a game (Du.) First mentioned 
A.n, i5,:^s. The name if from that of a 
Du, game played with club and l;all.* Du. 
lolf, a club used to strike balls ^ith. -f- 
Icel. kfil/r, clapper of a bell, kyl/a, a club ; 
Dan. Mtbi, butt end of a weapon, koh, btilt. 
shnft, arrow, Swed. kol/^ buit-end, G. koiOe, 
club, mace, knob. 

Oolosh ; the sjime as Oalooho. 

Gondola. (Itat.-Gk.) Ital. gtm<Ma, 
dimin. of gonda, a boftt. — Gk. itCvht, A 
drinlrinjj v«MrI ; from ibe sh.ipe. 

Oonmnon, Oon^on, a kind of ban 
ner. (F.-M. U. G.) l\.K. gvfffanon.^ 
O. F. gonfanon. — M. H. G. gHnx/fa$ia, lit. 
•batiU- flag.'-M. II. G-i'Wi.i'.iaiff/, battle; 
fano |,G./dAiM), a banner, flag, iiKinguui 
is Allied to A.S. gUi) (for gunS*), battle. 

war, and to Skt. Atutf to kitt. 

allied to Vane. 

Gong. t,Ma1ay^ WtXxj eg6mg a* gi 
the gong, n ionorous instmmeni. 

Good. (E.) ME gwki KS. gid 
Du goid, Iccl.^ffr, Don Swed gtsi.Cx 
gods, G. gut. Allied to iiwi^, godno, % 
ably, godnuii, suitable. Der. good J, s. 
i.e. good things, properly ; ^fv/ afiV/, 
.Also good-mam, i.e. master of the boi 
good wife, mibtress of the house. 

godwit, a bird. (E.) Lit. 'g 
creature.* A. S. gSd wiht, a good wij 
good creature {Tuiht being often applied 
animals and birds). Sec Wi^t. 

Goodbye; ^ce Qod. 

Goodman: sec Good. 

Goose, a binl. (E.) A. S. g6t, pt 
(the long is due to loss of si, and «£ 

fa*M*). + Du gam, Dan gaas^ Swea.i 
eel. ^c//, G. gam, L. atttrr, Gk. x^'. • 
hamsii, Russ. ^f'. y^ GHA. GKAN 

gander. i.E.) M. E. gattdrt. A 
gandra, also spelt gannx (the d halm 
fact, esercsceiitV + G. gafutrtcM { • ^ 
{rich). From the base gan- or (ta 
gans . 

gannet. Solan goo^c, a sea-fowt I 
A. S gnnol. -f Uu.gett/, a gander ; M.W 
gOHst, a gander. From a b.^. 

gostiawk. (E.) Lit. ^ 
A.S. gSsAa/u£ ^^ A.S. gdi, gooic , Wj 

gosling. (E.) Formed frnrr, \ < 
goose ^M. E. ^j), wnh 
sufTu ling. And see Oossm h. v 
Gooeeberry. (F.-Mli.G.,M^ 
In Lcvms. Tut for gro^itberty (as giM^ 
for graff«r\. The r is retained in Nortl 
grosert, gooseberries ; Bains has ^nW 
gooseberry. (The suffix berry is Eogll 
— O. F. grose^, g*viu*, a goo'^berry, 
recorded, but occurring not only iti 
O. F. dimin iorm groiteU, gi . 
berry, but al^ in Irish g-'. 
grvt'j • fid, W . gnoys, a g 
borrowed front M. E. 1 
gftijele is as old as the i s^ii t... 
(Bartsch). p The oiig. O. F ^TT»t.v 
gfvrt* was botTowed from M. H G-i 
curling, crisped, whence G. JtramMtft 
cranberry, a rough fr-'-'^^^vptry C( S" 
kfUjbdr, a goost 
curled, frixded. i 
to the rougher ki: 
curling hairs oo u 
iht Lat. cameu u:. . 


^lier. a liiml of wocxl (Heb) Hch. 
fiirr, a wod , t-cih-i^js pi'nc or ftr. 
lorbetlledL Oorcrow; §tt Oore (i). 
lonUaa. (Gk.) Only in the r>hr. 
,' i e mtricflle knot. Naine^l 
fgian kin^ Cart/t'tts, who tied 
declftre^ that whoever loosed 
over A&ift. Alexander atl 
ipplied the oracle to himself. 
lors ^i), dotted blood. (E.) It for- 
krljr n«anl 51th. A S. gor, hlth, dirt + 
on?. Swed. ^rr. dirt. 
o»' ■ a fat belly. (E,) 

ndt lit. filth, dirt >lso 

. ....'/. So al&n Sweii. 
a M ptiuich, from^/", dirt^ 
intcstinef. and fuj/j, belly. 
c»rrion-crow, (E.) 1. e. 
{»\ a triangular piece kt into a 
nat% m trianf^nlar blip of Und. (E.) 
£. /wnr. A. :». gdn, a S]<ftr, project- 
pt«ce of land; from ^r, a spear. 
Iroin the »hape. ^o also Icel. 
triangular &lip of Und, Uom ^I'rr, 
C ^^T ■ wc<lge, gu&sct, gore; 

rcc. (E.) From jrfr, a 
iu viv u^uol change from 4 to 

« ptanl. (E.) A.S.fJrUJf,\it. 
fk.'^A S ^ifr^ a fpear (above), 

tbe tkroat, a narrow pass. <F.«* 
^Vfjr, throat.* Low L. gorpa. 
giffgo, jptr^, variants of 
klrUpooi. hence un l&te U) 
'bfirn its voracity. Cf. U 
gotlct. •f Skt. ^f^/u, a whir]- 
►. (F.-L.) Modified from O. K 
to gargle I ' Cot. — O, F 
Iba weasand of the throat, aUo 
fit, or mouth of a spout. Formed 
_ _ th» throat (above). So also 
'/^fg^, a gargoyle; Ital ^r^zta, 
from gsfptf tlic chroa.L 
a ipout. CF.-U) O. F. 

kfcowv. tpjettdld. (K-L.) 
gorgeous;' Cot The O. F. 
nrarti a gorget ; the kcnse of 
Ofig proud, from the twell- 
ci tJba iluoat in pride. Cotgnve gives 
pt f^tgrtf, 'to hold down the bead. 
jtfcnMt ike cnin into the Dick, aa Mine 
la (ffd«. or lo make iheir faces look the 



Hence the 


we say, to IHcUe it. 
derivation is from ¥./;orgr, throat. 

gOT^t, armour foi the throat (F. *L,) 
From ^vrgtt i.e. throat. 

gurglo. to purl. (ItaK -L.) In Spenser. 
Theat^-lis, 3. Imitated from Ital. gor^o-^mm 
j^liari, to pari, bubble, boil ; gor^mi^^^^^ 
gureUng of a stream. — Ital. ^/y», a whirl-^^^ 
pool.—X, gurgtj, whirlpool; cT. ^rgulit 

Qorgon. a monster. ;L,-Gk.) L. G^ 
gan, Gorgo.'^GY. ropycj. the Gorgon * 
Gk. yop-yut, fearful. 

Qorilla. a km<l of large ape. (O. Afri- 
can.) An old word revi\ed, In the Peri- 
plus of Ilanno. near the cud, somecreatun-a 
are described ' which the inteipreten called 

Gk>rmandis« : see Oourmand. 

Qorse. lE.) Formerly gvrti. - A. S. 
^r-if, gone, 

Ooahawk, Oosling : see Oooie. 

OoBpel ; see Ood. 

Ooasamor. (£.) M. E. gossottur, gwtt- 
JOiner, lit 'gooif •summer,' The prov. E. 
name (in Craven) is summer-goese. Named 
from the downy api^atance of the film. 
Also called summer-€olt (Whitby); also 
tummtr-gauu tcorruptly). Cf. C. torn- 
mtrJaJtn (lit snmmer-thrcadi), ]^ossamer ; 
Pu. tomtrtit alien, Swed. scmmeriraJ, the 
sanie But in G. it is also called miuUhfn- 
sffmrnrr, lit Maiden - summer, der atu 
Weihtr spmmer^ the old women's sunmier. 
It would appear that summer is here used 
in the sense of 'summer film/ so that 
gossamer — goose -summer -film. (Better 
sftclt ffossomtr or gosiummtr). 

Oossip ; see Ood. 

Oouge. hollow bladed chisel. (F.^Low 
L.) F, gougK. — Low L. guvia (Span. 

Ooui*d. (F. — L.) F. gourde^ formerly 
goukeunie and cougourde (Cot) — L. eucur- 
bita, a gonrii. 

Gourmand, a glutton. (F.^ F. gtmr- 
mami, a glutton, gormand, belly-god;' 
Cot Etym. unknown ; but perhaps of 
ScaiMl. origin, and really for 'gore-roon:* 
tee Oore(^ I). Oorcrow, ^c Der.^nwanfA 
ise (for geurmand-ise^. 

Oout ;i^ a drop, disease. (F. » L.) 
M. F., i;»urtt a disease supposed to be due 
to delluxion of humours •O. F. gouUt 
gout/e, .1 drop. — L. gtHta. a drop. 

ffuttor, (F.-L.\ M. E. ^^/«.-.0. F. 
S^tttrt^ fouiien (Littre, a, v goutti^rt, % 



gulter). Esp. uactl for catching drops from 
the caves of a roof.— L. gtttta, a drop. 

Oout (a), taste ; see Oust (3). 

Govern. (F.-L.-Gk.) 'S\.V..goHemm. 

— O. F, govermr.^X,. gubemare. to steer 
a ^hip, rule.* Gk. iof0ffv^y, to steer. 

Oowan. a daisy. (.Gael.) Gael, and Irish 
^/tTJrt, a bud, flower, daJsy. 
Gown, a loose robe. (C.) M. E. gouru. 

— W. g7vn, a loose robe ; Irish gunn^ Gael, 
and Com. gun ; Manx goon. 

Orab, to ^ize. (Scand.) Sved. grahba^ 
to RTosp. Allied to Gripa. 
Oraoe. (F. - L) O. F. gract. « L. groHa. 
^L.grafits, dear, pleasing. Allied to Gk. 
Xop4, joy, x^P*'f favour, Skt. Aarj,'. to desire, 
and to L. Tearn. (VGHAK.) Der. 

agree, tp accord. (F, - L.) O. F. 
agrrer, to receive favourably. — O. F. a gre, 
favourably. — O. F. a (L, aJ), according to; 
g^, g^f, I'lcasurc, from L. gttitum, neat. 
oigratus (above). Der. dis-agrtt. 

congratulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
iOHgratuidn, to wish much joy. — L. ««- 
(cum)^ with; gmtulari^ to imh joy^ from 
adj. gi-atus. 

grateful, pleasant. (Hybrid: F.»L. 
»iii E.) Tile first syllable is from O. F. 
grot, pleasing, from I« gnUui; with £. 
•offix '/u/. 

gratify. (F -L.) O. F. gntti/Ur.^L. 
ijicare,gratijicarit to please. — L. ^fm/i-, 
or graius, plea-stng ; and 'JUart, iox/cucnt 

make, Der. gratijic-af-icn. 

gratiB, freely. (L) L. gratis, adv., 
freely; put for gratiis, abl. pi. oi gratia, 

ace ; see Oraoa. 

gratitude. (F.-L.) F. gratitudt.^ 

w L. gratitudincm^ ace. of gratiiudfi, 
thankfulneu — L. gttzfus, pleasing. 

gratD'.toua, freely given. (L.) L.gra- 
tuitus. ficely given. Vxom gnUus. 

gmtuity. a present. (F.-L.) O. F. 
gratuity, 'a free gift;' Col. — Low I* 
gtatuitaum, ace of gm/m'tas.^1^ grmtui- 
iui (abovc^ 

gratulate, lo congratuUle. (L-) From 
pp. of L. graiuJari, to wish a person joy. 
As if from an adj. gnUutux •, joyful ; from 

graim, pleasing. 

ingratiate, to commend to the favour 
ol ;L ) Coined from L. in, in; gyatia, 
favour, grace. 

Ingrato, ungrateful. (F.-L) F. ingmt. 

— L. tn grafuj, not pleasing. 

Grade, a degree. (F.»L) ¥. g^-oM, a 


degree. — L. grcuium, ace of gradm, 
degree, step. — L. gmJi (cp. ^n-znu), 
step, walk, go. (VGARDH.) 

aggreaa, to attack. (F. «* I») F. j 
gresut;-{^ aggressus, pp. of ^Qpnatf (« 
ad-graiii), to assail. 

congress, a meeting together. (L) 
^ofigTTSsvs. — L. ctmgrtJTns, pp. of ctM-gnd 
lo meet together. 

degrade. Ci^ -I^) O. F. digr^dtr.U 
deprive of rank or nfRce, — L. t^gr^darr, thi 
same. — L. tit, from; grtu/us. rank. 

degree. (F.-L.) O K tffgrt, t'tgrH, 
step, rank; orig. a step down (used 
stairs). — L. tie, down ; gradus, a step. 

digroBB. lit. to step aside. <Xj\ ! 
digrtistts^ pp. of digrtA ( — du gr»^ ' 
go aside. 

egress, a going out (L.) L. /^ 

— L. fgrrsiMJ. pp. of fgrtdi, to gft out 
gradient, a gradually rising slope. \V 

L, gradient; stem of pres. pt of gradi^ M 
walk, advance 

gradual, advancing by steps. (L 
Ong. gradual, sb., a service-book called 
Lat. graduaUt and in E. gradual 

— Low l^gntdmilis, only in neut. 
a service book of porlloas sung in 
i,e. on the steps (of the choir).— L. 
a step. 

graduate. (L.) I^w L. 
one who has taken a degree. — L. /!■<■ 

grail (I), a gradual, a service }>ook. 

— L.) M. E. graile, t^rayit — O 
—Low L. gnviaU, aUo called 
sec cTftdual. 

grallatory. (L.) A term -rr"'-:-' 
wading birds.— L. grallaror, a 

stilts — L. gralia (--hon for gra 

^h. gro'ius, a step. 

ingredient, that which enien tnt» 
componnd. (F. — L.) F, >«<'' 
samel — L. ingredicntu siera 
of iti-grtdi, to eater upon. ' cl; 
enter into). — L, in, in: g^- '. ^1- 

IngreBB. (L.) l^.ingr^ 

— L ingresius, pp. of tn 
progress, advancemt-i 

pregre; (F- /;x7fr/i)-— L 
of frvgttstHS^ an advan^:'. 

pp. oi prp-grtiH, to go fn 

rogroBB, retum. y'L.) 

— U ngrtisms, pp. of 
back. — L. nt . back 

retrograde, goi 
ntrtgradms, adj., u»tU ol a fJoitcL- 

m^*t^fra^iit 10 go buckwAid. Hence rttrt' 
-, xrrh, 
r.:!ro^e8«lon. (1*> Coined from pp. 
^ L. f9tr0-gfUiii (above). 

tranagTMaloa. (F. » L.) F. tmw- 
^uti*n,^'L. ICC tramgressiomm, a pas- 
sage across, in late LaL a Iransjrcssiun. •• 
L. trtutigrtssus, pp. of traru-^rtdi, to go 
Oradient. Oradnata; see Qrada. 
Oraft^ Oraff; see Graphic, 
Or&il (0 : Me Qrade. 
Orail (3), the Holv Diah at the Last 
S«ip|>et. (F. — L. «• Glc.) The etymology 
«ra& very early falslfieil by an intentional 
change from San Grra! (Holy Dish) to 
S^m^ Rtal (Royal Blood, perversely taken 
to mean Real Blood). — O, F. graai^ g^'^t 
, a flat <iish ; with nnmerous other 
both in O. F. and Low L, It 
appear thai the word was comtpte<i 
trinus wavs from I,ow L. ^raUtla, a 
\\\ bowl, diisiin. of craifr, a bowl ; tee 

Ormil (3). fine sand. (F.-G.) In Spcn- 
F O. i. 7. 6; Vii. Bcllay. «t. u.- 
.>. lit bail (K.^//).-G,^w, 
; allied to Grit, 
liu. ^F.-L.) M. E. grtin.^O. F. 
»L. granum, a grain, com. Cog- 
Twith E. Corn. (VGAK.) 
entrain, ingrain, to dye of a fast 
coloLf. (F.— L^) M. E- en^eyntn, to dye 
grmn, u e. of a fast coloar. Coined 
rom F. m (L. I'm) ; and O. F. gmittf, * the 
of herbs, also grain, wherewith cloth 
died t'm graitt, scarlet die^ scarlet in 
line:* Col From V.rranut», 
garner. (F. — L.) M. E /^vmtK — 
F. ^tmifr, variant of ^tnier^ a gra- 
— L. groftaria, a grajiary. — L. 
r*rjw, com. 
garnet. ^F.«-L.) M. £■ garnet, also 
It grunaf.^O F. grenat, 'a precious 
iooe called a gronat or garnet. Cot. ; 
L granaiui. So called from itn 

ibUncc ti the seeds of the ponicgra- 

i(aie. or mahfm granatum, lit. seeded apple. 
t- granum, a grain, aeed. 
graj:>ary, store-hotise for grain. (L.) 
L grxtnaria ; »ce garner ahovc. 
grftUffB. ■ fnrm-house. (F. — L.) O. F. 
■ bani, a fami-houie. — Low L. 
I. a bam. — L.^v^Mww. com. 
_ -unite, a hard stone. (Ital -L.) Itftl. 
mj/tv gxanite; speckled stone. * Ital. 
U, ppL ofgramr^t lo reduce to grains 




(hence, to speckle) • lur^/a/ftf, a 
L. granum. a grain. 

granule, a little grain. (L.) L. 4 
Hufutfi, dimin. ot granum, 

grenade, a war-missile. (F.^Sptu 

L.) Formerly also granado, which ia 

Span. form. Named from its iikenesi 1 

pomegranate, being fille^l with coml 

tibles as that is with seeds. --O. Y.grtm 

'apom^ranet, a ball of wild-fire;' ( 

^^^gojx. granada, the same; granado, 

of seeds. » L. granatus, fall of seeds, m 

granum. Der. grtnad-ier. ^H 

Orallatory: mc Grade. ^B 

Qramercy; see Grand. ^* 

Gramineous. (L.) From \^.grmm 

stem of gramfH, grass. (.^GAR.) 

Qrammar. (F. - L. - Gk.l M. 

graHimere.^O. F. gramairt (XIII cent. 

LowL.,fna«man'a»,not fonnd, butreguh 

formed from Low L. gramma, a Icltci 

the alphabet. — Gk. •Ypafifia, a letter. — * 

■yp<ttt<*tv, to write. See Oraphio. 

anagram, a change in a word dne 
transposition of tetters. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
anagramme. — L. onagramma. ~ Gk. d 
7pa;j/ia. — Gk. dvd, up, here used distii 
tlvely; 7pd/«;ui, a letter of the alpbn 

diagram. (L. — Gk.) L. diagrami 
a scale, gamut (hence, sketch, plan). « I 
8iri7/Ki^/«o, a fignre, plan, gamnt. •• I 
ita*f(>a^tar, to mark out by lines, deicri 
»Gk. dwi, through ; fp^^^tv, to write. 

epigram, a >hort poem. (F. — L. — C 
F. epigramme. — L. tpigramma. — Gk. . 
ypofifia, an inscription, epigram. ~Gk. < 
yp6'pfiy, to inscribe. — Gk. iwi, upon; •] 
^«i», to write. 

grammatical. (F. — L. - Gk.) O, 
grammatical', fToinh,gramMa/ui4j,gmm\ 
ticfll. — Gk.7/ia/i;iariw<^«, versed in one's 
tcr^. — Gk. 7/>a>i>iar-, stem of7pd/i>«a, alet 
OrampUB; see Grand. 
Oranary ; see Grain. 
Grand, great. (K . - L.) O, F. gm 
'^ L. grandem, Acc of grandi'j, pcM. Pi 
allied to Grave. 

ag8n:*andise. (F. - U) F. aggram 
stem of pres. pt. of aggramdir, to cnlai 
Pat for agrandir (with one g\.^Y. a 1 
L. ad) ; anri grandir (L. grandin\^ 
crease, from gt-and, great ^llbove^. 

gaffer, an old mtin, gnuidfathi 
L. ; and E.) Put for gramfir. West 
form of grand-fathir. 

gammer, an old lady, grandmotj 





(F.-L. ; onti E.) Ppt ^ojgrammtr, West 
E. form oi grand'fnether. 

jframercy, thanks. (F.-L.) Formerly 
grttitnd nurcy, Chaucer, C. T. S964. •• F 
grwui m€ra\ great thanks : see Grand and 

grampUB, a large fish. (Ttal ^rSpaiu 

— L.) ^pe\i gmmf^asse, A,v. 1655, A cor- 
ruption, either of Ital. ^mn pesu or Span, 
gran pcz^ i.e. great fish. — L. gramiii /uciif 
great fish. 

gTftndee, ■ Spani&h nobleman. (Span, 

— L.) Span, ^rantff, great; also, a noole- 
man— I>..^trn/i>ffi, ace. of ^rant/is, great. 

grandeur, greatness. (F. — L.) F. 
grandtur; formed with saAix •*•»■ (L. 
•crem), from grand, great. 

grandilociuent, pompons in speech. 
(L.) Coined from 1,. grxtm/i-, cnidc form 
of grandis, great ; and ia^uent-, stem of 
prcA. pi. of lixfui, to speak. The tnie L. 
form is graniiihqufns. 

Orange, Granite : see Oroln. 

Grant ; sec Creed. 

Granule; see Grain. 

Orape. (F. - M. H. G.) O.F. gra/fe, 

boncb. or cluster of grapes;' Cot. [In 
E., the icn»e has changed, from cluster to 
single berry,] The orig. sense of grappe 
was ' a hook/ then clustered fruit. — 
M. n. G. krapft, O. H. G. thrapho, a hook. 

— M. II. G. *ri^f«, to seize, clutch; sec 
Cramp. The senses of ■ hook * ajid * clut- 
ter* result from that of 'clutching.' 

grapnel, a grappling - iron. (F. — 
M. \\. GO M. E grapeneL Dimin. of O. F. 
grappin^ a grapnel — O. F. grappe, a hook 

grapple, to clutch. (F. - M. H. G.) 
Properly to icue with a grapnel. — O. F. 
gmppii, sb., • the grappU of a ship;' Cot. 

— 0. I'gnxppt, a hook ^above). 
Oraphic, descriplipe, pertaining to writ* 

ing. (L — Gk.) L. graphictUt belonging 
to pfttDiifig or drawing. -• Gk. 7/>a^«ut, the 
uroe. — Ok. 7pa^ctr. to write Allied to 
Grave (i). 

graft, ffraff. to insert buds oa a stem. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) Craft \& a corrupt form 
for g^^, and due to confusion with gtaffeJ^ 
pp. Shaii. has pp. gra//^ Rich. III. iii. 7. 
117. M.E grnfftn, to graff, from gf^fft^ 
lb. — O.^iffe, a sort of pencil, also a 
slip for gniftmg. brcituse it resembled a 
pointed pencil in 5hai»e. - L.graphium, a 
Ktyle \o write with — Gk. yp<i<jH'*v, -jpaf^uvf, 
the tame -Gk. ypi^nv, to write. 


programme, prograni. (F. •• L. 
Gk,) Now si>eU as if from T . prtfgramm* i 
formerly /riJ^Tawwd (1706), from L. /r^ 
gramma. imCJU.. vptrypaufta, s public nolioe 
in writing. — Gk. irpij, bcforehaud ; tpaf^m, 
from ypnipftf, to write. 

Grapnel. Grapple ; see Grape. 

Grasp. (E.) M. E. gmspen, used In the 
sense Mo grope/ Put for grapsen :Iike 
f/oj/-M. E. efapsm\ an extension (lOoi 
a base^fm/-, closely allied lo Grope, q t 

Graaa. (.E.) }A.K.gnu,gt'et,a\iogin 
A S. gi^rj, grat. + Du Iccl. Goth. G, 
gras ; Swed, and Dan. grnt. 

graze (3), to feed cattle. M. E. grmuMt 
vb. — M. E. gnu, grass (above). Dtfi 
grai'i'tr (of. bow-y-er, iavf^y-tr). 

Grate (i), a framework of iron bni 
&ce Cr»te. 

Grate (a), to rab. scrape. (F.— Scoad.) 
O. F. grater (F. gra/Ur) ; Low L, trataft. 

— Swed. kmftii, Dan. kratte, to scrape. 
Grateful. Gratify ; sec Grrtoe. 
Gratia, Gratitude : see Graoo 
Gratuitous, Gratulate ; see Graoe. 
Grave (I ), to cut, engrave. (E.) M. B 

gtautn. A. S. gra/an. pL 1. grti/- + ^ 
graven, Dan. grow, Icel. gra/a, Swed. 
gra/fa^ Goth. graiam, G. graf>en, Gk, ffi^ 
ciK. L. seribcrr. (V SKARBH.) IM 
grave, sb-. a thing cut or dog out 

engrave. (Hybrid; T.ohJTL) Froa 
E gruve, with piclix *«• [¥. en, L m"!; 
suggested by F. engraver, in which gnmi 
is 0? Teut. origin. 

groove. (Uu.) 'Dz.gyeftgrorve.xcr^^t. 
a channel, a grooTe. — Db. graft 

grove, a collection of trees. 1 
groue (with «»f). — A.S. grd/, a gJOTC 
properly a glade. Allied to Or*T« \%y. 
Grave (a), sad. (F. - L.) F./ww:- 
1.. grntumt ace of granu, heanr. + Gk. 
^api f, Skt. guru, heavy. 

aggravate. (L.) Frtmi pp. of L.«f- 
grauare. to add to a load — ll t^ ("■At 
to : grauare. to load, Uom grams, heivy 

aiggrieve. (F.-L.) Ki.R. agrtMtM.^ 
O. F. agrever^ to overwhelm. — O. F «, to 
gretfer, to burden, — L. aJ, to ; ^oaai. t8 
burden, grauare^ to weigh dowtt, 
gruuis, heavy. 

griet (F. - L> M, F grief, 
O. F. grief, gy^ 

— L grauis. 1' 
l^ ^ bv.'.'.L-.i . ii-. 

Gravel. (F.-C) M. 1 
graveU, diinio. of O. V.g>u^*, ^.- 


rt h'^* frottnn, £ravel, 

^ pebbles. 

r iS-j Al, E. ^rtiTK, rnw. A. S. 

/H, G. ^T]i«, L. runm, Gk. 7/kuov, 

le^t), tosciipc&liKhtty. (F.?*L,?) 
»ljr *Ttti», Apparcaily a coined 
focDocd oo ratt, i.e to scrape ; the 
g may have been Kuggcsled by the 
>graU. Sec K**«. tUfubifnl.) 
■e (a? ; se« Orwi. 
Me ; Kc Cr*i9 
It. I.E.i M. E. grt/, grtH. AS. 

1^ ft coin worth ^d. (^Dn) M. E. 
^ft Iu>« C >ev«<ir, a coin of Bremen ; 
^Kk^(' t)ecaa»c large in compa- 
^^■^ft cop^«r coins iS^/iwarfn^ 
^^^^Htfaere; cf. Du. grvff/, great, 

fe¥Mi< I \ WftToa. sediment ofmelted 
jSg^^ 0. Swcil. rre/amr, dirt ; 
^^^K, 'lieht-tliii, rc/it$e ol tal- 
^^^^^pjulciug ; Swed. dial, ^trvar, 
Dliu <f Low li. ^rven, greaves, G. 

▼y. ^caad.) Formf Hy^prAipj', orig, 
|, fonaevl from ptave ifor x^mtyj), 
r.f imiinw. Itcnce grav/ ia (i) 
■ Pivy. 

, Ir;; arrooor. (F^ O. F. 

i;r*ftves;* Cot. Cf. 

■. pi. of ^A(». — O. F. 

iT}p t;:x':k.. ^mii. Oriffin unknown. 

NK a bW. .;K. -Ct F. ^/W 

I .■.^#« if. . r-^» *Bfet. /•rj'f, a comb. 

:r*n on a bird's bead. 

^V, rrib, comb, crest, 

r» ■**■, W.i^riiiii'ii, a crest, tuft. 

ay. (E.) A. S ^A% fr^-iy. + 

r«C^* led. grdtmffr, Dm. paaJi^, 

rndtf*; Skt. ^liJhm, greedy, from 

lobcfTttdy. (.VGAROH.) Dar. 

•nawcrmg to Icel. grd^r^ 

E. ptem. A S. grhtt. 

. j^rwi, Daa. Swcd . ,i7w», 

.f. SIkt. Aciri'. giecn or 

Allied to Tollow and 

ooloor of growing 

(K) M tgrtfm. 
to vUlt. addrao. ^ On. 

to cry, wMp. (E.) U. E. 



grtfen. A. S. tp-ikfan, gr^tam. + led. 
grdta, Dan. gr-xdi, Swed. gi-^fa, Goth. 
^etan, Cf. Ski. ^m./, lo swun''. rnnr. 
Oregarious. i.L) L.prgariui, belong- 
ing to a flock ^ L. greg-tn, ace. of ^rf"*, a 

figgre^te. (L.) Fiom pp. of L. ag- 
gregart, to collect into a flock— I., a^- (for 
(kT), to: ,fr^, stem oigrtx. a flock. 

congregate. cL.) From pp, of L. 
cffHgregart, to collect into a flock. 

egregioua. excellent. (L.) L. egrtgius, 
chosen out of 1 flock. cxcellenL — L. *, 
out ; greg; stem of ^Tr.r, a flock. 

aegregate, to :9cpnnite from other*. 
fL.) From pp of te grfgat^, to set apart 
from a dock. — L. se-, apart; peg-, stem of 

Oranade; »ee Orsin. 

Grey; the same as Qrar. 
Greyhound. (Scand.) M. E. gniAptnu/. 

— Icel grtyhut%dr, a (jreyboiind. — Icel. 
gr^t a dog ; kundr, a hound. The Icel. 
grty is also used ahru in the same sense of 
prcyhoond ; ^. greybaka, a bitch. % Not 
allietl to gray^ which is apelt grdr ia 

GridiUe, a pan for baking caket. 
{Y. - I..) Ako ginili, M. E. grtdil 

— O. F. grri/ii (Moisy. Diet, of Nor- 
inau patois') ; also grit'/ ^Gmlcfroy). — 
Low L. (raiicuium, L. tratiiuia, dimin. 
of cratiSt a hurdle. Dor. Hence M. £. 
Xridi'n, a gridfile, afterwards turned into 
griJiron, by confu&ioa with M. E irt — 
\i. iron* 

Gride, to cut through (E.) See Yard (3\ 

Qrief. Grieve; see OraTe (a). 

OrifSn. GrifTon. iF.-L.-Gk.) Bet- 
ter gfiff^n.. M. E. griffon. ^V. griffon \ 
form'.'d from Low L. griffus, a gnflbn. <- 
L. gryphus, extended lonn of gryft^ a 
griffon. — Gk. ypif4> i.stcm upvw-)^ a griffon, 
a fabulous animal sup|>osed to nave a 
hooked beak. — Gk. 7^11^, curved, hook- 

Grig, a small eel, a cricket (Scand.) 
Weakened form of ertck, still preserved in 
criik-ii; cf. Lowl. Sc tritk, a lick, loose. 
—Swed. dial, krik, AraJt, a creeping crea- 
ture. — Swed. dial, kraka^ to creep ; cf. G. 
kritcken, to creep. ^ In phr. *aa merry 
as a grig* grig is lor Greek (Troil. i, i. 
118); Merygreek \» a chamcicr in UiUH'a 
KuisSer Doister ; from L. gnKmrit to liv« 
like Greeks, i.e. luxuriously. 

OiiU [ M« Grata. 








Grtm, fierce (E.) A. S. grim \ «llied 
to gram, fierce, aiiKiy, furious. + ^ct\. 
grimmr, grim, gt-amr, angry ; Dan. griMf 
grim, gram, angry ; G. grimm, fury, gram, 
hostile. AUic'l to Gk. \p«/iv» XP'Vos^i noise. 
(VGHAKM, from VGHAR,) 

Qriinace. (F. — Scaml.) F. grimace^ *a 
crabd loolce,' Cot.'-Icel. grlmay a mask, 
hood ; whence grimuma^r, a man in dis- 
giii-^e. A grimace disguises the face. Cf. 
AS-^T/z/m. amask. Perhaps allied to Grin. 

Grimalkin, a cat. (E. ; partly O. H. G.) 
Prob. for gray Afalkiu, the latter being a 
cafs name. Malkin = Maid-kin, dimin. of 
Mahi^Maud, i.e. Matilda ; from O. H.(;. 
Mahthilt. Here maht = might ; hilt means 

Grime. (Scand.) Swed. dial, grima, a 
smut on the face ; Dan. grim^griim^ lamp- 
Mack, soot, grime ; Icel. grima, a disguise, 
mask. Allied tn Qrimaoe. 

Grin, to snarl, grimace. (E.) " M. E. 
grcmten, A. H. grcnnian, to gnn. + Da. 
gn'Jmn. to weei^. fiet : \ce\. grcttja, to howl. 
i'ia.w.grine, to grin, simper, Swcfl. grina, G. 
grfincn. Allied to Groan, and to Grim. 

Grind. (E.) \. S. grimlan, pt. t grand, 
pp. gruiiden. Allied to h.friare, to rub, 
Gk. xpitiv. to graze, Ski. gkiish, to grind 

grist, a supply of com to be ground. 
(E.) A. S. grisf. From the base gri- of 
grind ; cf. blast from blow. 

gristle. (E.") A. S. gristle, cartilage; 
allied to grist, and A..S. ^''' islhiiian, to gnash 
the teeth. Kroin the base of grind, wilh 
reference to the nece-sity of crunching it il 
eaten. Su aUo Du. knarsbeen^ griitle. 
from knarsen, to crunch. 

Gripe (E.) A. S. grifan, pi. t. grdp, 
pp. gj-ipen, to seize. + Du. grijpen. Icel. 
gri pa. Sttxd. gri pa, Dan. gribe^ Goth. 
greipan. G, greifcn, Ruiis. grabite, .Skt. 
grah {yftiX\^grahh). to seize. (VGARBII.) 
Allied to grab, grasp. 

grip, sh. (E.'^ yi.E. gripe. A. S gripe, 
a grip; ftom the pp. oi ^rlpan above). 

grope. {V.) .VS. grapian, to seize, 
handle; hence, to feci one% way. — A. S 
grip. pt. t. oi gripnn (aliovc). .Sec Gra«:p. 

Grisette. Grislod; see GriBsly. 

Griskin. , Scand.) The lit. sense is 
'little pig.' now spine of a hoj^. Dimin. 
from M E gris> a pig. — Icel. grlss, a 
young pig ; Dan. gn'is. Swed. gris, pig. + 
Gk. \i'iV»»(, a vinmj; pig. 

Grialy, terViblo. (E.) A a grytii€» 

terrible. Formed with suffix -He ^ike 
(rom grosen • «■ grprcn, pp. of gre6san, '.« 
afflict with hoiror. AIHm lo G.grttusi^ 
causing horror, and to QruMome. 

Grist, Gristle ; see Grind- 
Grit, coarse sand. (E.) Formerly gm 
A. S. gre^t, grit. + O. Fries, grtt. Ice 
gfy'^t, G. gries. (From a ba.<e GUUT.) 

erroatB. grain of oats. (£.) M. I 
grotes. A. S. grMan, pi. groats, A. S. Leed 
doms, iii. a^a. Allied to QtML 

grout, coarse meal ; grouts, dre? 
(E.) M. E. grut, A. S. gr^^ coarse mca 
+ Du. grut ; Icel. grautr, porridge, Da: 
grOd. Swed. ^rof, boUed groats ; G.griiz 
groats ; Lithuan. gmdeu, corn ; L. mdu 

gruel. (F.-O. Low G.^ O. F. gm 
(F. gruau.)^!^)^ "L. grutellum, dimin. < 
gru/um, meal. — O. Low G. and Dn.^ 
grout (above). 

Grizs^y. Grinded, grayish. (F.-) 
H. G.) From M. E. gn'xel, a gray-hain 
man. — F. gn's, gray. — M. H. C. gri 
gray ; cf G. greis, a gray-haired man. 

grisette, a gay young Frenchwoman > 
the lower class. (,F.-M. H. G.) F. -n 
ette; named from the cheap gray dre 
which they used to wear. — F. gn's, gr 

Groan. (E.) M. E. gtvpten, A. ; 
gnfnian, to groan. Allied to Grin. 

Groat ; see Great. 

Groats ; see Grit. 

Grocer ; see Grost. 

Grog, Grogram ; see Gross. 

Groin, the fork of the body, where t 
legs divide. ,Scand.) The same as \>n 
E. grain^ the place where the branch ol 
tree forks, the groin. — Icel grein, a br-inc 
arm ; Dan. gnen^ Swed. gitn. branch, an 
fork. Der. groin -ed, having angular con 
\\\9Xfork off. 

Groom. (E.) Prob. for goom. We fit 
indeed, O. Du. grom, Icel gromr, a b( 
lail ; but these have no obvious etymolo: 
and may be the same as O. Du gem^ Ici 
giimi, a man. If the r crm thuj be d 
posed of. the etym is from A. S. guifza 
man, allied to Icel. gnmi^ Goth, gnma, 
homo, a man. In the comp. bridegroom 
it is quite certain that the r it iotiusir 
I SIC Bridegroom. 
j Groove ; see Grave (i). 

Groi>e ; see Gripe. 

Gross. (F — L) OF groi (T.grvtse 
grott, great.— L. grosmx, fat, thick. 





to vritc til \*Tgt letters, to 

If. {f. - L,} The foiroer 

U the older. From K. m ^rai, 

e. iQ Urge cbcnutcn. — L, Av, 


JU) Formerly ^rcsur or 

dealer. — O. F. gro-- 

de&lcr.*>0. F. ^-/w, great 

•>, fonneily grotsery, 

ilid water. (F.-L.) iihort 

ic bad its name from 

croon, nicknamed OU Grog, 

m 1>reccbes (ab. a. d. 1 745 ) ; 

•ftilon to dilute their rum 

1, a itufF. (F. — L.) Formerly 

called liom iU coaisc ^rain. — 

grogiaia. * O. F. ^rvr. 


rotto. Orotaeque ; tec 

(t) A. S. gruHii. (Very 
A. S. ^nM</-<fff. pp. oigrindart, 
'le onf[. tense beinc line dost.) 
Icel. grumnr^ Dan. Swed. 
I Lillioan. gnmtas. Cf. Irish 
Doud, ha^. 

[linir, a ftpccUtor ia the pit of a 
,) From gyvunJ, Milb double 
M. V-aV', with a cunleraptuous 

n, dnft. (C) This pecnliar 

tobcCe]tic» Gael.;frwwwi^». 

>f. boiium, ground ; Irish 

Irom grunnf, the bottom. 

!Utg at the bottom. 

alt plAnu (E.) Al&o 

Uan<rc tr of ['Imyj. A.S. 

' ^crouxid swallower/ Lc. 

••A.S. gruHif, (-loond ; 


thrcahold. (£.) From 
q. V. Alio spelt gnmiti 

tM OfOp. 

a bird. I.F.) GrouK appeon 

EbfTQ, evolved flora the old 

which iccms to have been 

pi. iorm (cf, mimscy mife\.^ 

r4#. jfa* . f^rJrix 

ly pan > gruicAt, 

or moor- 

*I I * gfWfAfj 

0. iVr- 

ly attswer u tbU O. F. 


Orove : see Grave (i). 

Orovel, to fall flat on the c^'^^'i^* 
l,Scanil ) Due to M. F- gravi!tHg, proj^rly 
an adv., signifying flat on the ^louud ; also 
ipth grv/li/tg, grvjfingfs, where the iiiffixe> 
//«;'-, '/in^cs are D<.l\efbial; cf. AtaU Amg, 
Jijj/:-fing.~lccl. ^ti/n, in phr //^u 4 
griiju^ to lie grovcllii.g, symja ci .^riifit, to 
swim on the bcily; d. %Uo grtt/a, gn(/fa, 
to grovel; Swed. ciial. gi-uva. Hat on one's 
face, h'gga J gruvt, \o lie on one's face. 
pL-rhaps allied to Qrcove. 

Grow. (E.) K,S. griwan, ^i, U grrjhv, 
pp. gTthifeii.^'Da. grvcijtn^ Icei.^-iW. Dan. 
grct^ Swed. rn?. Ksp. to produce shoot^ 
as hcrba : allied to Greon. ^tr. grmv-tA, 
frnm Icel. gn^r, growth. 

G-rowl, to gramble. (Du.) Du. gra//en, 
to gnimblc. + G. gtvUtn, to ramble ; Gk. 
fpv.wi^uv, to grunt, ipii, grunting. Allied 
to Oruiuble. 

arub, to grope in dirt. (£.) M. £, 
gToM'en. Prob. allied to A.S. grtipian, to 
grof)C ; see Orope. % Not allied to 
ffrave (1 ). 

Grudse. to grumble. (F.-Teat) M.E. 
grocAen, grucchen^ to murmur. «• O. F. 
gnxiTt groiuer, to murmur. Of Teut, 
origin ; cf. Icel. krutr, a mnrmur, G. 
gj-HMSfft, to grunL Clearly ^rw-(;(fjf, gru-n/, 
gtvw-i are all from the tame imitative 
bnse ; cf. Gk. ^/ji/, a giunt. 

Gruel; see Grit. 

Gruesome, horril'le. (Scand.) Dan./TM. 
horror ; with suffix -tont, as in virk torn, 
active. <-f. Dan. g*'uc, lo dread, gt-u^/ig^ 
horrid, .f Du. gruwioam^ G. grausam. 
Allied to O. SAx.gfuri, A. S.gryrg, horror. 
Olid to K. Otialj'. 

Gruff, rough, surly. (Du.) Du. gro/t 
coane. loud, blunt. -4- Swed. gre/, Dan. 
grw, G. grvd, coarse. 

Grumble, to mnrmnr. (F. •• G.) F. 
gt^mmefcr (Cot) — O. and prov. G 
grummtlin, to grumble ; fre<]iienl. ol 
grummtn^ gfomMtn, to grumble i.Du. 
grvmtrutt). Allied to G. gram, anger, 
grimmtM, to rage: and to £ Orlm. 

Grume, a clot of blood. (F. — L.) [{.ate 
O. F. gi-unut a clot. -• L. grumuj, a little 

Gninsel ; see Groundiill. 

Grunt. (.E.) M. Iv. x'rT/«/cff: extension 
ol AM.gfunian, to grunt. + Dan. i"*-/!!//, 
Swed. grymtA, G grumrrt : so aUo L. 

S-unmirt, GV. ipiitir. All imitative: cC 
k 7>>G, th« noi^c made by n 1(4^. 

1 88 


Guaiacum, a kind of resio, from IJgnaro 
vitK. (Span. - Hayti.) Span- guayato, 
guajfiuan, lignum vitae. From the languaj^ 
of Hajli. 

Quano. (Span. — Pernv.) Span, gnatw, 
A«ii/w. — Peniv. Jiuanu, dung. 

Quarantee, Ouaranty; see W«r- 

Ouard: see Word. 

Quava. iSpau.-W. Ind.) Span, guay- 
aha : no doubt borrowed from the W. Indies. 

Qudgeon ; sec Ooby. 

Guelder-rose. (Dn.) Here guilder 
stands for Gtielire, the F. spelling of the 
province of Gtlderland in Holland. 

OuerdoQ, recompease. (F. - O. H. G. 
and L,) O.K. guerdon, (llal. guidar- 
dime.)^Lovr L. Vfiderdanum, a singular 
connpound of O. H. G. widar, back, again, 
and L. donum, a (;ifl. The word is really 
B hatf-translation of the true form O. H. G. 
widarldrtj a recompense. Here wtdar- 
G. wilder, back again: and Un is cognate 
with E. /«!«. So also A S. -un'btr-ieiht, o 
recompense, lit, ' back-loan.' 

Guerilla, Guerrilla, irregular warfare ; 
sec War. 

Gueas. (Scand.) M. E. gesun, Dan. 

fuse, Swcil. giisa, to guc»s.+ Du. gissem, 
eel giska. Allied to Dan. gjeae. to guess ; 
the Iccl. giika stands for git-ska *, i.e. to 
If) to get, from gtta^ to get. Thus gtuss 
is the dcsiderative ot get ; see Got. 
Gueat. (E) M. E.^j/.'sf,ges/. 

Sj/.+Icel. gtitr, Dan, giest, Swcd. giist, 
a. gojf, Goth, gasts, G. gast ; L. fiostis, 
a stranger, also an enemy. (^GHAX.) 
Allied lo Hoatae. 

Guide. (F.^Teut.) Vi.Z. gyden (also 
gyen'\ —OF. guider, to (^juide. Cf. Ual. 
piidare, Span, guiar. The gu (for w) 
shews the word lo be of Tcul. origin ; it must 
be from a <.onrce allied to Goth, wi/an. to 
watch, observe, and to A. S. wifan, to 
know. The orig. sense was ' to shew ;' cf. 
Icel. viti, a leader, si^'nal, A.S. witan, to 
observe Allied to ^^'it, 

g^uy-ropo, guy. a guide-rope, used to 
steady a weight in heaving, (Span. — Tent.) 
Span, guia, a gny-ropc, guide. — Spin. 
gniar, to guide (above). 

Guild, Gild. (£.) The spelling guifd 
is as false ai it is common. .M.E. /i7jV. 
— A, S. giid, a payment ; whence gegi/da, 
a member of a gild. — A. & gildoHf to pay, 
yield ; see Yield. 

Guile ; Bce 'Wile. 


Guillotine. (F.; Vsm«d aSttt a plqrii- 
cian,y. /. CtiiUotm, died a. d. 1814. Flal 
used, 1793 

Guilt, crime. (E.) M. E. gilt. AS. 
gyli, orig. a fine for a trespass; hence, 
Uc«pa«. Allied lo AS. gtldan (pi, t- pl» 
gji/ihrn), to pay, yield ; see TSeld. 

Guinea. (African,^ First coined (4 
African gold from the Guimea coast, aa 
1 66 J. Der. piinea/tnt)/. ^ Thtgninet' 
pig is from ^. America; so that it my 
mean Guiana fig. 

Guise ; see Wiae» sb. 

Guitar ; see CMthem. 

Gules ; see Gullet. 

Gul£ (F.-Gk.*) Formerly goufft.^T. 
golj't. •- Lste Gk. «dA^crr, a variant of Gk. 
«^wo¥, the bosom, also, a deep hoUov, 
bay, creek. Der. en-gutf. 

Gull (I), a bird. (C.) Com. g^km^ ft 
gull ; \V, gftyian. 

gull (}), adupc (C.) The same ;fi<oa 
the notion that a gull was a stupid binL 

Gullet, the throat. (F. - U) M. 
,•»/*/. - F. goulet (Cot.") ; dimin. of O f . 
(.•p/f , g^ule { F. gueuleX the throat. » 
the throat. (VGAR,) 

gules, red (F.-L.) M. E. 
F. gurulet, gules, red ; answering 
L. gula (pi. of gitla^, meaning (i) mouiV 
(a) gules. Piob. from the colonr of tJtf 
open mouth of the heraldic Uoo. a^L. 
the throat. 

gully, a channel wnrn by water. C^.* 
L.) Formerly gullet. — F. g^uUi, * a gnHet, 
a deep gutter of water ;* Cot. The 
word as giiUet (above). 

Gulp. (Du.) Do. gulfen. to tvall 
eagerly. —Du.ji/j^, a great billow, wti% 
draught, gulp. Pethaps liorrowed thn 
O. F. golfe\ see Gulf. 

Gum (I), flesh of the jaws. (E.^ K.IL 
gome. A.S.^tffM, jaws,paUlc.4'^'"' 
S wed . gDffit G. gaumeut p&l a i e. 

Gum (j), resin of certain tic 

— Gk.) ME, gomme.^V. ^^ 
Qtmmi, -• Gk, «i'/v". ft"U*- 
Eg\'ptifln origin ; Coplic kMM? 

Gun. (C?) M. E. goHfif.^ 
bowl, a gun (in the latiei sense a* c 
the 14th cent.) Of nUcurc orij^a 
haps orig. the 'bowl ol a war*«Di 
which the mi&:iite was placed. 

gunwale, upper edge of a ship's 
(C. and E.) See gurrroa/e or 
Kersey (1715). A wale is an Doter 
on a ship's ude ; and the 

of O f. 
2 to «■ 


■fr frem which guns were pointed. A 
iJSr b a * bcsni ;* we Wale. 
ltirKl« ; »e« Oor««L 
^uniArd. Oumet, a fish. (F. - L, ; 
i/'* T«nL /w^£*.) Gtt'wari/U the better 
d faUer (onn. The word roc'ins 'a 
&OID the lound which the fisli 
Ukm oot of the water. • O. F. 
(F. grpgnarJ), gi uatm^, grunter . 
O- F. gtuntatUJ, grvuf^naut, gur- 
l»diCol-l — O. F.^m'fw rr, to grant; with 
lbs .^»%/ ( -G. idr/).»L. gmUHtrg, to 

1 Iccl. Fw/a. to gnfth; 
. ■ ug verb Wira (pi. t. gauss), 



\\j \-ttf. 

\ radL AlliccI to IceU W()/d, to pour, 
DUL riatMM, L fHndert. Cf. ~ 

(Vyidr. I.lce!.) Icet.^>/*V. lit 'yaiher.' 

CmL CV^^HU.) See Out Geyair. 

/Tf/tf, (o gush; allied Kogj^a (above\ 

^i\ • suddcD blaU. gn&b of wiod. 

L) icd. xwi/r. gjSsta, a gtuLoIocL 

le p»li ^abovc). So alsobwed. di&l. 

CraAm of air from an oven. 

(F. — llal.) V.gmsset, 'a gus- 
t,* Cot. Also *the piece of annonr by 
bdi the ana bole is covered.' id. Named 
ha tappoied resemblaDce to a busk 
Iwatl or pea; dimia. of F. g9ms€, husk 
Oia «r pea. * lul. guscU, a thcU 
I of untiTiOwn origin, 
Nut I ; Kc Guab. 

i. ta*te. (U} V.gustvs, 

KIgi iX^«uijrr, touste. (^GUS.) 
to Ohooaa. 
rust, vb, {Y, - L.> O F, dtsgoHstir, 
7 dtttaatc, loath ;' Cot - O V. dts- ( - L. 
N), aeafi ; ^PM/«r. 10 taste, from U ^z- 
rv < above). 
pttt (1). lasta (F. - U) F. ^^jd/. 
r.«»l-. gutttu (above). 
rs<oat. ^F. - L) F. rag»at, a tea- 
|it4sb.*F. rM^eHttr, 10 coax a sick 
• appetite- - V. rt-, again ; a, to ; 
V 10 taaic. — L. rt-i iui\ guztart, 
hit Intntlaal canaL (£.) (The 
1 \\ atVM t . ^^ V . gvU, prov. K.gNf. 
\ S. i-W ; pi. A'«/- 
- A.S. ^/, stem of 
I. 01 iY^.Mff, 10 pour. (VGHUO 
nS. f^*'^ * l&iLMcat Dan. gjnit, a 
O- ua. g9t*, a cbaimel. G. ^ur/^, a 
^ No OObucctioa with guittr. 
atta-p«reh&. ^Mala) ) The apoil- 

ixtggufta isdae to conrusion with l^.gntla. 
a drup, with which it ha!> nothi> g to (io — 
^f alay gatah, ^uttah, gum. bala^im ; pitxh*, 
ifar: liame of the tree producing iL 

Gutter ; see Ooat (I). 
! Outtiiral. I F. - L.) F. guttural. - L 
gutturalh, belonging to the thioat, — I„ 
guitur, the throaL Perhaps allied Xogittfa, 
a drop ; tee Gout (l). 

goitre. (F. - L.) F. gottrt, a swelled 
ihiocil.«>L.^v//rr, debased form of gutiur, 

Ouy Quy-rope : we Guide. 

Ou2Zle. (I'.") O. F. goicJiUr, to swill 
do\^D» swallow grtcdily (,ia ihc compound 
dis-gtm^ilUr^ Cot> Allied lo F. gosier, 
the throat, Ital. goito, the crop of a bird, 
throat. Remoter source unknown. 

Oymnasium. (L -• Gk.) L. gymna- 
stum, — Gk. yvttvtiaiavt an athletic school, 
where men praciised naked— (-k. ^v^ti- 
CciF, to train naked, exercise. »Gk. tvtt»69, 
naked. Der. gymnast ■ Tw/uatfr^, a 
iraJDer of athlete? ; ^mnast-ic. 

Qypsum. ( L. — Gk * Pers.), 
chalk. — Gk. yi^fiop*^ not found, by-form of 
yinhh chalk. Prob. fiom Pers.yoAf/ff. time, 
Arab.yV^j, plaster, mot tar. 

Gypsy. (F. -L.-Gk.-En*pt-^ Spelt 
gi/jfn. Spenser, M, Hubbard, 86. Snort 
for M. E. ^gypntH. «- O. K. Egy/>ftiM. — 
Late L. ^€gyf>tianus ; from L. ^'Egyptius, 
an Egyptian. — Gk. Kl-pnrttof. — Gk. 
Kt-fwrm, Egypt. ^The supposition that 
tliey came from £g}^ was false ; their orig. 
home was India. 

Gyre, circular course. (L. — Gk.) L 
gyrus. — Gk. Twpof, ring, circle. Dor. 
gyr aii, from pp. of L. gyrare. 

gyrfolcon, gerfalcon, bird of prey, 
tK. — Gk.? and\^.) F ormctly gtr/au/rcn i 
gift/aucfftt (used by Trcrisa lo translate L. 
gyrfl/a/ro). Modihed from O.F. g^f/au/t, 
a gyrfolcon. — Low L. grrv/ix/co, belter ^m- 
/a/co, i.e. a falcon that tiies in g>r». — L. 
gyrus, a gj're ; /aUo, a falcon. ^ Others 
make gtro- stand for M. (L G. gir \,G. 
gittr), a vulture; which is^lUcU to ^ytam, 
I See Kluge.) 

Qyvea. fetters. (C.) M. E. giws, gyuts^ 
Of Celtic origin ; cf. W. gtfyn, Gad geinth- 
m/ {inh — r), Irish gtimhtaL gtifiAtai, a 
fetter. ifYve, boodage. captive. — Iriith jKiM- 
4M, I g 1.1, obtain. ^4, 1 tale ; cf. L taftrt. 





Hft. iDterj. (E.) Ao exclamatory soond. 
Cf. O. Flics, haha, to denote laughicr; 
G. he. 

Hnberdasher, a seller of smnll warca. 
[,F.*Scan<.1.l So oamcl from bis selling 
a bluff callcil haftriaj in O. F. , see Liber 
AUua, ed. Riley, pp 235, 331. *0. led. 
hapuriaxk, ihiogs oif small v-alue (Gud- 
muiiHus Andrea:). I suspect that the true 
Bcuse was • pedlan' w&re$/ named from the 
havcr^'Ack In which they were cnrried ; from 
Icel. haprtaik, ha/rtask, a haveisnck: oiig. 
a Img lor oals. — Icel. Ma/r, oais; tas^, 
a pouch (cf. G. ttuchi, a pouch). See 

Habergeon ; see Haaberic 

HabUlmont; sec Habit, 
[ablt, practice, cuiitom, dt^ss. (F. -»I*) 
>' habit^ a dress, a custom. — L. habitum, 
:. of habitus, a condition, dress. — L. habi- 
tui, |jjj. of habcrt, to have, keep. 

able, having power, bkilful. (F. — U) 
M. E. ad/e ; nlso hable -• O. F. habUe, ahU^ 
abtl, able. — L. habilit, easy to handle, 
active. • L. habert, Der. abil-i-ty (from 
L.. ace habilitatem). 
average, a proportionate amount. (F. 

• L.) ' AvfiMi^e {\^ avet-a^ium, from 
mviria, i.e. cattle) siin^if'^^ service which 
the tenant owe% the king or other lord, 
by hor>c or ox, or by carriage with 
either,' &c.; Hlouat'ii Law Diet. ed. ir.91. 
— O. K. aver {V. avoir), to h.ave, also, 
a* >b., gooils. propcny ; hencr, cattle, 

• L. ha^re, !o have, [vossc**. % This 
form ^average) was afterwards confused 
wil h F. avan'j, avarie, damage of 
goods I later, proportion or average of 
payment for damage^. (Arab. 'au^Jr, a 
fault, defect, tJti 'aufSr, spoilt merchan- 
dise, merely iniroduce a foim buiioMrcd 
from Late LaC. averia.) 

binnacle, a box for a ship's compau. 
(Poit. — L.) A singular coiTuption of llic 
older word bittacU, by confnsion with bin, 
a chest * Port bita^ttla, a biltncle [i.e. 
binnacle) ; Vieyia. Cf. Span, bitoiora, 
F. habiiacte, the same. The Poit. bitaccta 
stands lor habifacola*^ the first syllable 
being lost. — L. hahitaculumt a little dwell- 
ing, i.e. ' the frame of timber in the steerage 
of a ship where the compass stands ' 
^Bailey;, and prob. (at first) a shelter fot 

ire awi 

the iteersman. — L. habiiart 
qnent of habert* 

cohabit. (L.) l^eehabi/, 
together with; sccbav-*--- 

debontxtre. acki^' oC 

(L.) Formerly debet.-: ,_ _ _ ij. ■ 
bentur, lit 'they aie doe,' bccau 
receipts began with the words 4 
mihi (Wel'bter); pr. pL pa». A 
owe ; see debt (bdow). H 

debilitate. (L) From pp. offl 
tare, to weaken. • I* c'ebiiis, weak ; 
Jt-kibUu*^ te. not active. * L, ^ 
not ; Aabi^is, actirr ; sec able '^abo 

debt. (F.-U) AbadapclliDS 
M. E. i^etfe. — O. F. */f//r tafterwit 
spelt i/^bfe). * L. debifa, a. sum dui 
of tiebituj^ owed, pp. of Jeiert, ] 
Debire^de-hibere*^ luvc awi 
on loan. — L. de, down, away 
have. Dor. debt-or^ M. E. 
O, F. deteur, L. ace Jehitorem. 

deshabille, careless dicsa. 
F. dishabille, undrcsi. « F. drxkA 
undrcsi. — F. (/«>(L. dis-\ apai;, awi 
habilUr, to dress ; sec habiUmeDt «, 

devoir, duty. (F.-L.) M.^ 
» O. F. devoir, dever, to owe-^^H 
10 owe ; see debt (above). ^m 

due. iF.-L.) M.E. .//wv.-O! 
masc, dftie, fem.; pp. of dtvoir, 

duty. (F. - L) M. E 
sense * debt due.' A coined Wi 
analogy with E. words in -ty 
from the adj. due (above). 

endeavour, to attempt 
Coined from the M. E. sb 
duty, with F. prefix en- ( = L. 
the old phr. * to do bis dever 
duty (Ch-C.T. 1600); sec dev 

exhibit, to hhcw. (,L) U 
p(). oi exhibere, to hold forth. 

habiliment, drcst. lF.— 
illemeiu, clothing. ^F. habiUti 
orig. • to get ready.' — F. 4dfi 
U habilis\ see able (above). 

habitable. (F. - L.) F. 
L. hahitahilis, that Coo be d 
habitart, lo dwell, l!icqumi ol 

habitant (F.-L.) F. 
pt of habiier. to dwelL «• ^ 
quaot of habert. 





the odturtl abode of a plant. 

'ii4t, it dwells (there); prei. 

to ilwell (mlio\e). 

abode. (F-L.) TJtahi- 

t, kabitalicnem. — L. habi' 

kaiitartt to dwell, ficqucnt. 

(F.-L.) P. hahifU'U, c«s- 
, ild^i/ui/tf,conditioD. «• i^AoAitu-m, 

(F. -I*) r.iHhahittr.'mU 
to dwell in ; icc faftbiution 

to check. (L.) L. inkilfiluj. 

to keep io, hold in. 

(F. - U) O. F. pnbenJf 

iy » v.. pra&auia, a payment. 

• pobfic M3urce ; orig. lem. 

of fne^re, lo afTord. give. 

ifofv, AdAffif, to have ; whence 

itr. to fr^Utt. Bsr. pn- 

fo check. (I*) L. prefii&ituj, 
r. to hold before one, put 
r, proliibit. 

•. iF. - L.) The final r is 

in lavendtr \ it is prob. 

rJtti?. a trisyllabic word. 

ntler. also, a pie- 

mJtk, a payment ; 

of pravisioiks, alio 

ib^nd (above^. 

ibitant. Ac; see Habit. 

^• (tl.) M. K. 

'.- cuinp, /iMdf- 
hakke, Swed. 

^ ardly, mangle. 
iorm ^ k&ckU^ frei^uent 

•t cut into slices, &c. 
. h«Bli. — F. h<7£fur, 
V \ (above). 

minute lino, 

1 - u.) K ktuhtr^ 

lo hatch or engrave; ace 

> ME kaehet - F. 
-, ail ame.** ]*.4arA/r, 

Ml *'«, '11 cut, 

•ec UaelcDfly. 

- Dn.) Also AflfAu/.* 

.*a ha^uebut, a c^Hver* 

":r!i . Col So called 

'on ; the bent 

-iiienl on the 

A cofruptioo of Du 



kaakbus, an arquebus: doe, apparently, (o 
some coofu^ion with O. F. bufer, to thrust. 
<^ Du. haak, hook ; bus, yua. See Arqae- 

Hackle (i\ Hatohel. an instniment 
for flre&Miig llajt ; sec heckle, under Hook 

Hackle \,2\; &ee Hook. 

HcKrkney, Hack, a hor^ let out for 
hire. (F.-Du.?) M. E. haJunty. - O. F. 
Mttfuenee, ' an ambling horse ; ' Cot. (Cf. 
Span, haranea, Ital. chinea, shoit for 9C- 
ckinta, the same.) -• O. Du. htukttiiyt, a 
hackney (Hexham). Of obscure origin; 
but prob. from Du. hakken, lo hnck, chop, 
and ne^^, a nag. Peihaps Du. hakktn 
may have meant ' to jolt ;' cf Swed. hacka^ 
to hack, hew, chatter with cold, slammer, 
stutter. ^ Hack is short for htuktwy^ and 
quite a late foim ; hence hoik, verb, i. e. to 
use as a hack or hackney. 

Haddock, a I'isb. (E. ?) M. E. haJdokt 
(■••Ihccnt.) Urif;. doubtful ; the Iri&h for 
' haddock ' is eoiiog. 

Hadea. the abode of the dead. (Ck.) 
Gk. ^Biyt, &th)t (Attic), di&7> (Homeric), 
the nether world. 'Usually dcr from a, 
privative, and l^ttv, to ■'Cc a> iliough it 
meant ' itie unseen*]; but the asp ::ite in 
Attic makes this very doubtful;' l.iddell 
and Scott. 

Hsematite, Hvmorrhage : sec H«- 

Haft ; see Have 

Hog. (E.) M. E heiggg\ with same 
sense as .\.S. hagi^stt, a witch, a hag. ^ 
G. ktxe, M. H. G- hackt, a witch, O. U. G. 
ktiitjia [prob. short for hagasissa*]^ a 
witch. Moit likely (rom A. S ka^^ a 
hedge, bu^h; it being >uppo5ci1 thot witches 
were seen in hedges by nighi. See Hag- 
gard (i) below. ^ We may parlicalorly 
note Viu.kaagJis, kaagtdis, a lizard (plainly 
from Du haat;.^ a heilgc), which stnkingly 
resembles A.S. ka^esse. Cf. urrhin. 

haggard (a\ Inn, meagre (E.) Orig 
kagg^d, i.e. hag-like, from hag. 'The 
ghostly prudes with MaggtJ face/ Gray, 
A Lonfj Story, near end. Btisspelt by con- 
fusion with the word below. 

Haggard (i), wild, said of a hawL ; 
»ce Hwr. 

Hazard (1), lean ; see Ha«. 

Haggle (0, to mangle; see Hack (l). 

Haggle (a), to be slow in makmg a bar> 
gain (E ) In Cotgrave, s. v. karre/er. 
Doubtless a weakened form oi kaekU'. fte- 
<}Ucia of k4tk (t), to hew, i.ut« hcou Uu 



mangle, slammer, and so to wroDgle, cavU. 
This appears more p\aia\yhyD\x./taJ:Me», 
'to hackle, mangle, fauher/ i.e. slammer 
(Scwel); kakkeUren. to wrangle, cavil. It 
U oltimately the same word aj Haggle (l), 
higgle, to bargain (EO From hag^f. 
Or due to y). Pii. heiiki-lii.xt \ v-t Hawker. 
Hogiographo. holy writings. (Gk.> 

>Gk. a7i<)7pa^ Oi^Af'a). bonks writtui by 
inspiration. ^GlL £710-1, boly; 7pu^ccr, to 

Ha-ha, Haw-haw: sec Haw. 

Hall ( 1). frozen min (£.y M E. ha^tU 
hayl. A. S, hagal^ hagoi- + Icel. ha^!, Du. 
Dan. Swed. G. hiigii. CC Gk. *a«A*jf, a 
round pebble. 

Hail (.3), 10 greet; see Hale (i>. 

Hail I ^,v> an exclamation: kc Hale (1). 

Hair. ^.E.) M. E. hccr, A. S. Air, A^r. 
■f Du. Aaar, Icel ^tir, Daa kaar, Swcd. 

Hake, a fish ; see Book. 

Halberd; see Helm (1). 

Halcyon, a kingfisher; as adj. serene. 
(L. — Gk,) Halcyon days = calm days; 
it was supposed lliat (be weather was calm 
when king'lUbers were breeding. «i L. 
halcyon, aUyon, a king-fi!)ber.«*Gk. aAiruwr, 
dAxvan*, a king fisher. Allied to L. akeJo, 
ihe true L. name. 

Hale (in whole. (Scand.) M. E. kiil. 
-Icel. A«7/. Dan. Mtel, Swed ^r/, bale. 
Cognate with A. S. kdi, whole. Goth, haiis, 
Gk. KoAir, fair. See whole (.below). 

hail (a), to grrct. (Scand.) M. £. 
4«/m; a verb coined from IceL fuiil, hale 
(above) ; (his word is common in greeting 
persons, as far A»V/* farewell, kom hetUt 
welcome, hail I The Scand. verb is Icel. 
ktiha, Swed. kelsa, Dan. kilse, to greet, 
hall (ji), an exclamation. (Scana.) Icel. 

»kaii, hale, sound ; used in greeting ; see 
halibut, hoUbut, a fish. (E.) So 
catted because cxLellmt eating for holidays ; 
the lit. smw: \% ' holy (i. e. holiday) plaice.* 
From M. £. ka/i, holy (see bolx), and 

(fiutJt, a plaice (Havelok, 1. 759). So also 
Du. ktilbot, halibut, from ktUig, holy, ^. 
a plaice ; Swed. ktij^itruim, a halibut, 
fiorn kt!\{y holidays, /(j-M./m, a flounder, 
hallow, to sanctify. i,E.) M, K, halwtn, 
Aa/nven, ka/cvMn. A. S. kJJ^arr, to moke 
hotj*, from ka'Jig, holy : sec holy (below). 
hallowmaas. feait oi AU //aUpwi, i.e. 
AD Saints. (Hybrid: E. an./ L.) Short 
for ^/i ffsi/aw£ MAUt masa (or feast) oi 


AH Saints. Wcx^ hallvips* \m 
of kaL'o^ws, pU of M. K. l^xUtt* 
a &aiDt — A.S. kJl^t a saint, 
of the adj. kdlig, boly ; Sec hoif 
and Maaa. 

heal. (£.) U. E. Mm, A. 
to make whole; formed from 
by the usual change horn d Ui ii 
wbole { below). 

health. (E.) A. S. A^.V, health ; 
kdJ, whole; see heal abot-e. 

holiday, a festival. ;£.) Put 

hollyhock akindofmaUovr. 
E. and C.) M, K. hoIiJn^, i. e. h< 
A. ^. holihocu, (he &ame. C'oi 
q{ koiy, and a word hotk, mean! 
low,' borrowed from Celtic We 
kofys, mallows, kocyt inndigmdt 
lit. * blcwM-d mallow/ where 
L. bencdUtus, So called bccat 
genous to Palestine, the Holy Land. 

holy, sacred. (E.) [This word ' 
the M. E. ko^t whole, with suflu 
thercTorc closely allied to k^U- 
hofi, koiy. A. S. kdiift boly: in 
hdJ, wbole. The orig. sense was 
or 'excellent.* -f" ^'^ Af*f(f, boly/ 
A///, whole: so also loel. A^^^Cyv 
from A*i/i. Dan. krf/is'. from " 
Ailig, from AW; G. k/Ut^, Su 
whole (beluw), and UkIo 

wassail, a festive c 
(E.) Orig. a itlctlge or 
at a The A. S. fona was 
lit. ' be whole ; ' where tva is the bm 
of avfun, to be ; and kJ/ is th« fU wi 
Out the Scand. (Icel.) ktt'JJ has Uea s 
^tiluted, in this exprcKSioit, for it 
kM, causing a jumble of dialectic 

whole." (E.) M. E. koit vwiil 
A. S. kti/, whole. Cognate with 
Goth. Aar/r, Gk. coXt^t. 
Halo tj), Haul, todr.^ ' . 
(K.— Scand.) M. E. k.i 

ka/er, to haul a boat. ^.^. L 

ka/a, Swed. ka/a, 1 'an. k-aU, (o 
•^ A. S. kolian, ^hoitau, to a< 
G. h4jUHt to fetch, haulj !• 
summon. (Vl^ARO 

halliard, halyard, a rope for 
sails. (F. — Scand. an^i L.) '" 
kaU-yarU^ because it kaiu the 
Ibeir places. 

Half CE,1 M. E. Aay A. S 
Du Ad// Icel, k4l/r, Swrd. 4 
kalv, Vf^v^ fc4/&>. G. UiK . 




S- ImM >b. Iccl. Jka7/a. Goth. kail>a. 

iW^, lUe D«r. kahe. verb. 

EmJiaU^ micrtst (E) Formerly in the 
R. pkrftse tfn My bthalui = on my 
(tf. CO my utie ; siibstitutcil ft/r the 
^ yv. .- .iv./r- ^,j^ (he side of, by 
it«i ufte<1 in the same 

-y, ab., side (Above). 

"^ Tlftte. 
M E. *a///. A. S. A*o//, 
I shelter. -A. S. kai, pi. 

ic. + Du. A<x/. Icel. Aa;/. 

cd. kail. Allied to CeU. 


luj<^* Alleluia, an expression of 

^Heb.) Heb. halthl jnh, praise ye 

— HeK AaU!ii, praise y^ (from 

to ihine, prmue) ; Jah, God. 

Halyaxd; sec Hale (i). 
HaUoa, a cry to call attention. 
M lL JdjSnp. A. S. gtthi, Jnteri. 
>o). Prob. often confused wtth 

: ' -wmJUS: see Ha1«. 

vrawlering of mind. 
_„ Aii.j.v.'i/id//>, a wanoerin^ of the 
^m^jlk Ad//Mc'iiMW. aUucimari, aluH' 
wmA*x in nund, dxram, lave. 
tjilsi ; •£« HauIizl 

a l:.-TT:inotis ring. (L.»Gk.) L. 

Dio. Jtrt/iir. »Gk. dAu, a 

'>or. m which the oxen 

talfa. (VWAUWAR.) 

lt> lame. (£.'i M. E. \eUt. A. S. 

4- Icel >4.Vr. Dan. 8wrd. Aa//, 

^ ! G. 4d/«. I>er. Ad//, 



r . _ I.. > J- . JtaJu. - C. Ad//, hold I 
(E.) M. E. AitZ/rr (on/ has 
A >. Ara^?fr.A«^//T, a hallcr. 

Ua1« (a), 

^tk> &1. £. Aammf. A. S. hamm. 

. G. Aammi. Lit 'bend of the 

I'am, bent, L. camums, 

.) Allied to OammoD 

BUMdryjul ; tee Drykd. 

tec Bomo. 

[Azntner i, K ) A S. Mamsr ^ Icel. 

«rr, r»jm 4affri«w. Swrd. hammart. 

^imtr, G. ksmmtr. Tboof^ht to be 

M to Rum. kamtmt % itone^ SkL 

• tfo«% ihoderbolt. 

HamniBrcloth. (Dn. aW E.) The 
cloth which covers a coach-box; lit. cover- 
cloth; adapted from Du. htmtt, heaven, 
also a cover, tester, canopy. ' Den kimtt 
van cen koetsc, the seeling of a coach;' 
Hexham. Dimin. of A. S. hama, Icel. 
hamr^m. covering. (^KAM.) Allied to 
Hammock, a slung net for a bed. (W. 
Ind.^ Formerly hamaia\ Span, kamaca. 
A West Indian word. 
Hamper (i\ to impede. (E.) M. F, 
hampertn, hampren ; a variant of hamtUn 
plater hambU), to miililalc, esp. used of 
'cxneditation,' i. e. the cutting out of the 
bflll of a dog'i fore-foot, to hamper him 
from pursuing game. A. S hatntiiaH, to 
rnatm. + Icel. hamh, G. hammeln, lo 
maim; allied to Goth, hamft, maimed, 
Gk. (cw^^. blunt, dumb. deaf. (y'SKAP.) 
Hamper (a), a kind of basket. (.Low L. 
— K. — G.) Formerly spelt hanaper.^ 
Low L. kaMaperinm, orig. a vessel to keep 
cups in. — O. F. kanap (Low L. Aatiapu.t'), 
a drinking-ciip. — O. H. G. hn&pf^ M. II. 0. 
napf, a cup. + A. 5. kwtp, uu. n&p^ a 
cup, bowl. 

n&naper, old form of Hamper (above). 
Hence Planaftr offin, named from the 
basket in which wnts were deposited. 
Hand. (E.^ A. S. hand, hmd. + Du. 
hand, Icel. hbnd. Hand, Dan. Aaand, Swed. 
AoM/.Goth. AiM^wj-, G Aoxf/. Lit. ' seiter ; * 
from hanth, bute of Goth. hin/Aan, to seize. 

handcufT. (E,) A ^ff iox the hattd; 
but renlly an adaptaliun of M. £. handcops, 
a handcufT. — A. S. kand^ops, a hondcuC* 
A. S. hand, hand; eeps, a retter. 

handicap, a race for horses of all 
ages. (E.) From hand f cap, hand in the 
cap. a method of drawing tots; hence, a 
mi>de of settlement by arbitration, ate. 

handicraft. (E.) A. S. koMdcngft, a 
trade ; the i being inKrtcd in imitatioo of 
handiwork (below). 

handiwork. (£.) M. E. kandiu**rc, 
A. S. hand^ewiort. — A. S. hand, hand; 
gtrufforc^ the same as wcon. work. The 
I is due to A. S. ge. 

handle. (iL.) A. S. haMd/ioM ; formed 
with suffix -/ and causal tan from kand^ 
hand. So also Du. kandt/en, Icel. kimd/a, 
Dan. kandU, Sw. kandia. G. kanddin^ 10 
handle, or to traile. Der. hattdit, sb. 

handsel, hansel, hrst irtstalment of a 
bargain. (Scnnd.l Wt\. handjai. the con- 
dosioii ol a bargain by shaking hands; Ut 



' band-sale ;* so also Daa. Aaruisfi^ Swed. 
kamdjo/, h handsel. See Bale. 

hA&dBomfi. vE.) M. K. AauJium, one. 
tractable, or dexterous. * A. S. Man J, hana ; 
'SHm, su( in n'jivj'wm, winsome. •^Du. 
hoHfitaam. tractable, serviceable. 

handy (i\ dexterous. (E.) M. E. 
kendi [never Aandi). A. S. heutiig, skilful : 
forined from hand, hand, with raflix tg 
and vowel-change. + t>ti> handig, Dan. 
handig, bfhtFndig, Swed. hdndig, dextcroos ; 
Goth, handugs, clever. 

hazidl7Ca).n«ar. ^E.^ M.E.A^W^. A.S. 
ptundt, near, at hand. •A. S. hand^ hand. 

Hang, to suspend, to be suspended. (£.) 
The Qri(fiiial suou^ verb wo^ Uaiibitive; 
the weak verb intransitive; they are now 
mixed up. 'Ihc weak verb is frorei A. 5. 
koMgian, pt. t. hangodt, to hanj; down ^intr.); 
denvcd from the base of the A. S. strong 
verb kSn (contracted form of hangiin\ pt. 
I. hMg, pp. haHgiti.-^X^X. htnga, weak 
verb, from hanga {pt. t. lUkk, for kMk*^ 
pp. ^dfi^i>r#i) ; G. hkngiHt weak verb, from 
G. hangin <pL t. king, pp. gtkamgm). 
Allied to L. cvHftari, to drlay, SkL foni, 
to hesitate. (^KAK.) 

hank, a parcel of skeins of yam. 
(Scand.) Icel. hanki, a hasp, dasp, hifnk, 
koMgr, a honk, coil; Swed. koMk, a string, 
G. Atnkil, a handle, ear of a vessel. The 
orig. sense seems to have been 'a loop* to 
hang up by. From the verb above. 

hnnker, to long alter. (E.) Cf prov. 
H. Aank, to hanker afier, ol which it is a 
fretjuent. fotui ; cl. thephr. ' to 4anf about.* 
From the x-erb above. Verified by O. Du. 
hetipelift. to banker after [from hangtn) ; 
O. Du. homktrtH (Du. huMk£rtM\ to hanker 

hinge. (Scand ) M. E. hfnge, thai oo 
which the door hangs; from M. E. htngen, 
to hang.*]cel. hetig/a, to hang Cabovc), 

Hanseatlc, pertaining to the Hanse 
towns in Germany. (F.-O. H. G.) O.F. 
hanse, the hanse, i.& socieiy of merchants. 
— O.H. G. hanta {G. hanse), an association ; 
cf. Goth. hansA, A. S. h6i, a band of men. 
(About AD. 1 140.) 

Hansel; see Uandtal. 

Hansom, a kind of cab. (E.) From the 
name of the inventor [no doubt the same 
wonj as handsomt). 

Hap (Stand.) U.Z, hap.^XtxL hafp, 
hap, chance, good luck: cf. A. S. pehaf>, 
6t, The W hap must be borrowe*! fiom 
E. I>«r. kaffy, I.e. lucky; kafUat, l.c. 



aee < 

r. ID 


luckless; hafiy, by luck {h 
in the same sense'l. 

happen- 1 Scaiid.) VL E. 
hapntn. extended from hafpfn^ LC'. 
From the sb. above. 

mishap. (Scand.) M. E. «w 
verb, to fall out ill ; from Mia ( 1) at 
perhaps (L. and Scand.) A 
hybrid compound. — L. /Vr, by (as 
ckan<e, where /rris, strictly, F.>sr] 
pi. of hap, 

Harongne ; see Bins. 

Harass. (F) O. F hartui 
out, vex, disquiet Pcrhajw iror 
karcr. to let a dog at a beast. -C 
hartM^ to call out, cry ont^heace * 
dOT). (^KAR.) 

Harbinger ; see Harbour. 

Harbour, shelter. (Scand ) 
berwe. — Icel. A/r^/31, a harl>ouf," 
shelter'— Icel. k^rr, an army: *Si 
of bjarga, to shelter ; O. Swed. 4 
an inn, from har. army, htirg"^ '<> 
O. H. G. htrtbtrga, n camp, lodgit 
O. H G. ken (G. ktrr\ an array, 
to shelter (whence F auhn^, Itai.i 
(V KAR ; and see Boroagh.) Dt 
hour, verb. 

harbinger, a forerunner. (F.— C 
M. E. hfrbtrgeour, one whr> proviA 
logs for a man of rank.^O. F 4/> 
to lodge, to harbour; with suflix ■ 
-a/tfr^m). — O. F. Aerbergt, a lodgii 
hour — d. H. G. kirtherga (above). 

Hard- (E.) A.S A^art/. + Du. 
Icel hardr, Dan. hoard. Swed. 
kardus, G. kari. Perhaps 
xparvr, strong. 

hardy, stout, brave. 'F. ■• 
M. E. hardi.~0.¥. hardt, 
pp. of kanfir, lit. (o hanlcn. 
harfjan, to harden, make stron| 
karti (G. kart), hard (abovcV 

Hare. (E.) A. S. Aanci .f Do. 4d 
Swed. hart. Icel. AM, G- kaie, W. 
(Rhys), Skt. fo^-a, orig. (tx/a. a h&n 
SkL word means 'jumfjer/ froa, 
fas), to jump, leap along. 

harebelL [ E. ) F mm 
(Other derivations are fableSk) 

harrier (i). (E.) Fci 
from hare. Cf. 6cio/fr from 

Harem, set of spnrtroenti 
(Arab.) .^.Iso kamm — Arab, 
women's apartments, lit 'lacied/ flt 
bited.'*> Arab, root hainma, hf 
(becaoMiaen were prohibttsd I 

+ Dm. 



i, W. 
it. a h&n 



mma, htw 


[0, « fttew of mutloo, (t) 
(F.) F. haricot, 'mution 
t turnrps,' &c. ; Cot. The 
*be«n' is lite; that of 'tninced 
( with hub*' IS old. The oldest 
% Is kirigUi^ 14th cent Origin nn 

kl ytt H«ftr. 

(•quilL ,F F.arU^iH,MaritguiH, 
tqtikn ; d. lul. arUcthtno, a bafloon, 
The Itnl. vord seemi^ to be derived 
.; ibcO. F.phnAcwa&/j ntau^nw hUr- 
Low I* kcrU^uim familioi), a Iroc^p 
laos Uut haunted lonely places. This 
«B CO be derived from O. Fries. heiU 
lS. htili cyn, Iccl. htljar kyn), i.e. 
bell, host 01 hrll, troop of 
cluu'tfe (torn htIU.juiH to 
from a popular cl)molcigy 
the word with CkArlts 
Muller, Lect. ii. 58 1. 
(F. - Tent) Orig. used of 
and not aJ «-&)-$ in ■ very bad 
to mod. E. 'fellow;' Lh. 
S4Q. — O, F. ktrlot, arlot. a vagabond ; 
luioi, a vagabond ; Low L. ariotus, 
OIL Of disputed origin ; prob. from 
O.k^ri, a nion. Hence al$o car lot, 
%. like It. iii 5. 108. and the name 

lB»ab.(E.) M.E-Aiirm. A.S.y(^dr*7i, 
itobana^loeL harmr. gitct. Dan. 
, wiath. Swcd. hami, anger, giicl, 
'iw, £ricf. KuM. /mm/, hlianie ; ^kl. 
, XoC.. (rora pnJM. to be weary. (^ 
if.) Der harm, verb. 
pony, concord. ^F. - U * Gk.) 
■f. — F. Aanfi«»M. — L. Aar- 
tk. ifttovia, a joint, proportimi, 
^ Gl ifi*^, a joining. — Gk. 
ftt iVAK) 
BMB : sec Iron. 

p. ' K ) M. E. Jkarfi. A. S. Am///. 

*«'/, Iccl. karfa, Swcd. karpa, 

hmrfr, C. M^r/lt. Perhaps allied to 

S^ta/v, to czadclc i if so, it meant 



yilllinrit CF.-TeuLan//Gk.) For- 
MrilttA#n< with intru^ve j.»K. 
Affid; 'a har|Aichord,' Cot. From 
HftCAod Gie^ . see Harp and Chord. 

ttOOO. ;'■-' rU-aUo)4«r. 

lick i* ' - t Aar/wi, 

-;-,.,. ..^ ..u:i: whence 


1 d iir kar/tr, lo grapple. 
41;^, a hirpoon. a/^r, to 

claw, rend; Ital. nr/rtfww. » harpoon. 
arrest, cramp iron ; ar/<i/to, a hook. The 
lia\.ar/\affOMe is plainly froni L. ncc harjsx- 
gonem, a book, grappling-iron ; so also L. 
Aar^^, hook, karpax^ rapacious. All 
from Greek ; cf. Gk apvaf^, a hook. a/»iraf» 
rapacious, <!/>vi7, a bird of prey ; from <1^-, 
base of d^^^«iv, to seize, cognate with L. 
raptn. See Harpy, 

Harpsiohord ; see Harp. 

Harpy. (F.-L -Gk.) O. F. harpit. 
— L. Jtarpyia, usually in pi. harpy iir.^GV. 
pi. (SpirvfOi, lit. 'spoilers.* — Gk. ^n-, base 
of apua^iiv, to seiie, cognate with L. rapert. 
See Bapacloua. 

Harquebus : see Arguebua. 

Harridan, a jade, a worn out woman. 
{V.) A variant of O. F. haridtlU, ' a poor 
tit. leane ill-favored jade," Cot ; i.e. a 
worn out horse. Prob. from O. F. hanr, 
to set on a dog. hence to vex ; sec Haraea. 

Harrier (i). a bare-hound ; see Hare. 

Harrier (3), a kind of buizard ; wo 

Harrow, $b, (E.) M. E. M^not, Not 
found in A. S. 4>l^n* hark, a rake; Icel. 
htrji^ Dan, Harv, a bariow; SvtA. Marka. 
a rake, karf, a harrow ; G. harke, a rake. 

Harry, to ravage. (E.) M. £. hanivN^ 
htntPt, hcn^en. A.S. htrgian, to lay waktc, 
as is done by an army. — A. S. herg; base 
of hertf an ormy. +lcel. httja, to ravage, 
from htrr^ armv ; Dan. /utr^gt, from Atif, 
ThcsenseofA/^ is 'destroyer.' (^KAK.) 
harrier (3)^ a kind of bozsard. (E.^ 
I. e. Aarry-er, because it destroys smoli 
birds. And tee Herlot 

Harsh. ^Scand.) M. E. Aarrh. - Dan. 
harsk, rancid ; Swcd. hank, lanlc. rancid 
rusty. + G. hanch^ harsh, rough. Cf. 
Lithuou. karfus, haimb, bitter (of taste); 
Ski. kiit, to cut 

Hart (E.) M. E. Mart, A.S. ktort, 
AiW/.^Du. hert, Iccl. kjortr^ Dan. kiort^ 
Swcd. hj&rt, G. hirstk, O. H. G. kim^ 
Allied to L. ctruus, W. ^arrp, a hart, homed 
animal ; cf. Gk. xtfpar, a horn. See Horn. 

Harvest. (E.) A. S. >ltfr//xr, autumn; 
orig. *crop.' •4- Do. ktrfst, G. ktrhst^ 
autumn ; IceU haust, Don. Swed, hint (coo. 
traded forms). Allied to L. catpirt, to 
gather. (^^KAKP. for SKAR?.) 

Hash; sec Uaok (i). 

Haep. C^.) AS. hapjt. bolt, bar of a 
door. ^Icel. ktspa, Dan. Swed. G. htuptt 
hasp. Ul 'that which fiui* oC A. & 
i*Atgp, 6t ) MC Ki9. 







Haasock. (C.) M. E. AassoJt, orig. coutt 
grass or tedge, of which, the covering of 
hassocks was mode. — ^.ha^g, adj., icdgy, 
from k4s^, 8. pi., sedges; a. W, A^J^yn, a 
sieve, Atsor, a hassock, pad. Allied to 
Irish seifg, a sedge, bog-re«xI, 

Saatate, t)>ear-shapcd. (U) h.hastattu^ 
spear-like. — L. kasta, a spear. Allied to 

Haate, verb and sb. (Scaod.) O. Swed. 
hasta^ to haste, haai, baste; Dan. haste, 
to baste, hast, baste. 4* O. Fries. Mast, sb., 
Du, haasttn, G. hasten, vb.. Du. haasi. G. 
hast, sb, Allied to Skt. p>f (for fas), to 
jump; see Hare. (^ KAS.) Xter. Mast-^M, 
XVI cent. 

Hat. (E.) A. S. A^.+IceL Aa//r, Swed. 
Aa//, Dan. Aa/. Cf. L. cassis, a helmet. 

Hatoh (0, a half-door. (E.> M. E, 
AafcAe ; a AaUA also meant a latch of a 
door. North £. Ae^k, A. i>. Aa^a, bolt or 
bar of a door; also Aacee, a hook.+Du. 
AeA, fence, rail, gate, Swed. Aiirk. coop, 
rack, Dan. Aai, hakke, rnck. Allied to 
Hook. The ortg. sense was prob. a latch 
or a catch of a door ; hence, various modes 
of fastening. Der. hatchet, pi. sb., a 
frame of cross-bars over an opening in a 
ship's deck; AaUh-itny. 

hatch (3). to produce a brood by incu- 
bation. (E.) From the coop or ha/i A in 
which the motherbird sits. Thus Swed. 
Aiuka, to hatch, from hdck^ a coop ; Dan. 
AtxkkeOuur, a breeding-cage, from AakJke, a 

Hatoh (3\ to shade by lines, in engrav- 
ing ; Hatchot, axe : sec Hook (1). 

Batches; see Hatoh <i). 

Hatchment, cKutcbeon ; seeGapital(i ). 

Hate, sb. (£.) M. E. hate, A. S. Aete, 
bate ; the mod. E. sb. takes the vowel 
from the verb hat tan. to hate.+Du. Aaat, 
IccL hatr, Swed. haf, Dan. AaJ, Goth. 
AeUis, G. Aass, hate. Cf. W. cat, hate, 
tatau, to hate. (V KAD.) 

hatred. (E.) M. E. hairt<i, AatrttUn. 
The su^ix is A. S. -r<kden, law, mode, con 
dition. state, as in Aiw-riktUn, a household ; 
and sec kindred . 

Hauberk, a coat of ringed moil (F. » 
O. U. G.) M. Z.Aaui^rh.^Q. F. hauhert. 
-O. U. G. hahbetx, liL ncck-dclei<ce. - 
O. H. G. hals, neck : Ur^nn, to protect 
Sec CoUar an<l Bury. 

habergeon, ainiour for neck and breast. 
{?. - O. H. G.) M. £. hu^r^an, Aatiir- 


ifittH.^O.T. AoMberjoft, a small haaberf 
dimin. of havUrc (above^. 

Haughty ; sec AlUtuda. 

Haul : see Hale (>). 

Haulm. Halm, sUOc (E.) A- 
Ataim. + Do. Aotm, led. Mfmr, 
Swed. Ati/m i Kuss. soioma, strait 
culmiu, stalk, Gk. itd^a^iof, reed. AIU 
to Culminate. 

Haunch, hip, bend of the thigh. (F. 
O. H. G. ) F. AamAe, aUo an^Ai. - 0. 1 f .1 
encAd, einehd (also a»uha, ace, to Dkl 
the leg. joint of the teg ; whence O. H. 
e7$<hi/a, ankle. Orig. ' bead ;' d, i 
6yic^, bent arm ; allied to Anole. 

Haunt, to fre<i«eat. tF.) M. E. 
AtSUMten. — O. F. Aanter^ to hannt. 
Origin disputed. 

Hautboy ; see Altitude. 

Have. (E.) M. E. Aamcn. pi. L 
pp. Aad. A.S. AabboH, pt t A. 
gtAa/d. •^T)\i. A^Mm, led. Aa/Of 
Aafva, Dan. Aavi, Goth, kabam, O. 
L. capere, lo seiie. (V KAP.) 

behave. (E.) T. e. to ht-haoi 
or control oneself; from Am>t with 
i>e-. the same as prep. hy. 

behaviour. ^E. ; with F. 
Formed abnormally, from tbr 
behave. It was often shortened to 
and seems to have been confnscd 
sb. aiwrV, (i) wealth, (>) abilii 
Lowl. Sc. AavingSf (1) woaltfa, (»' 

haft, handle. (E.) A '' ■ - 

» A. S. haf-t base nf ho 
+ Du. Ae/t. led. Aept ^ 
heft, a handle. Lit. 'that wh 
haven, harbour. (E) A 
Du. haven, led. A^W, Don. 
Aamtt, G. ha/en, a harbijiir 
which holds.' From th. 
to have. 

Haveraack, tuMic/^ , .^ 
(F, — G.t F. Aavrrsfw. — G. 
haftrsoik. lit. ' oa(-bng.' — G. AdAfr^ 
OBIS ; saik. a sack, ^e Uaberdaahar 

Havoc, dcstmction. (F.) It 
to be put for hao^t.^O. F. kawt, 
whence trur Aat»e, E. 'ciy havoc 
froy i. Cf. O K. Aavfr, |o 
ami G. //o/?. seltmc. Ptob. 
AtitM, to hcttva. ^ The W. i^^ 
tion, is almost oertainlf boircnred fPV 
Se^ Hawk. 

Haw, a hedgei hence, boiy of ha^ 


Itf»r, m yitrd, OBmc«) from the 
A.S. Aagiit an enclosure, 
mipi, Swed. Aagit, cDclofture ; 
prden ; Da. Aaa,^, G. Aa^, 
»d to ClDotur«. I.V KAK.) 
■Er, ft sank fence (& rcdaplicated 


tid of A hawk, 
wild : esp. used 

;c falcon, honned, 
\oS G. origin'), from M. H.G. 

• hedge (above). 
.} A. S. A/i^"; t ftccond&ry 

a hftw.<^Du. kt^e, heg i 

n ; Icel. A/^jr, a kind of 

\gt%s dom ^4^', haw. 

A bird of prey. (E.) M. E. 

» Atfivi). A. S, Ao/^, kta/oc, 

kaxnc, Icel, Atf**r, Swed, 

{Ml, O. H.G. hafmM. Prob. 

lied to fcl. Aow. L. «/^rr ; see 

to carry sboot for sale (O. 
vtrb formed from the %b. 
to clear the tbro&t (W.) 
kwk ; <l#rA. the throwing up 

(O. Low G.) Intro- 

Ketbei lands ; Do. heuktr, 

Dtt ktuktrtn, lo hawk, sell 

iadp', A hockster. So al&o 

eha'idler, huckster, hiikn, to 

kMcri, higgling, hiykari, a 

gcr. Sec further below. 

(O. Low G.) M. E. huJi- 

Imported from the NeCher- 

Bix 'iter is still comtnoncr in 

£. Formed with this fern. 

kkh aee Bplnat^r) from Do. 

rkct. O. Du. kmkir, a stoopcr, 

ho st()0|>ft, also a huckster. 

* or kuikster was so named 
Id back, beiit under his burden ; 

kmfktn, lo Sloop under » 

IccI Ai**fw, to go belli, 

to live as a imall fArmcr ; 

' aZt on one's hams, Low G. 

Ponch . Skt k^ek^ to bend. 

airw-hole. (Scand.) HitufH 
Me Uirough which a ship's 
•0 callfl because mailc in 
tf iW Uitt>.-lccl. M^i, hah, 
past of a shi])'s bows. 
^ Dit. t*. Aah ; cf. L. calium. 


tlie O. F. vb hatiiifr, to raise ; also, to 
tow ft boat. — Low L. aUiare, to clevntc. 
• L. ii//Mi, high. Sec AiUtude. Cf. 
O. IlAl. alio/nere, 'a hnlsier JuiW!.er] in 
ft ship' (Murio) ; fiom aixartf lo raise. 
^ Not allied to Hoist. 

Hawthorn ; ire Haw. 

Hay. (E.) M. E A^y. A.SA^^.+Diu 
hooi, Icel. hiy, Don. Swed. ho, Gulh. Aav^ 
grass: G. hem. Properly 'cut gnus;' 
from the verb to Hew ; !>ee Hew. 

Haaard. (F.-Span.- Arab.-PeiB.) F. 
^uart/.— Span. OMr. a hazard; the crig. 
sense must have been 'a die ; * cf O. 
Ital. 3d/ia, a game at dice.— Arab, al 
Siir, lit. the die tDcvic). — Pers. zjt, a die 
(Zenker) ; aJ being the Arab. dcf. art. 

Haae, a mist. (Scaod. 7) Perhaps from 
Icel. k(fsi, gray, dusky ; allied to A. S. 
Aaru, a dark gray colour. It may have 
been applied to dull gray weather. (Doubt- 

HaaeL (E.) M. E. Aiut/. A. S. Aas*/, 
4* Du. Aau/aar, Icel. Aasl, hisli, Dan. 
Swed. htuui, G. hastl, L. £ffni!us, W. nil. 
Root unknown. 

Ho. (.E.) A. S. V; gen. his. dat. Afwv, 
ace. Ain€, Fern. sing. nom. hed, gen. dat. 
hirt, acc- hi; neut. sing. noro. hit, gcn.<4t/, 
dat him, acc hit. PI. (all genders), nom. 
acc. hi^^ hi, gen. hira, hiora, dat Aim, 
Atom, -f DU' A/y, Icel. Aann, Dan. Swed. 
AdM. Allied to Gk. imiivot, mtlvot^ that 
one. (Base KI.) 

hence. (H.) M,E. hemmts, older form 
htrtru (whence henne-s by adding adv« 
*uffia j). A.S. heffnan, for Airtam*, odv,,^ 
closely allied to A. S. hin*, masc. acc- of A^ 

hep. (E.) M.E. Aj'«; from AS. Ainr, 
gen. and dat. ol he6, &hc. Der. A/r-/, M. E. 
Arrrx (XIV cent.); her-stlf. 

here. (E.) M. E. h«v, httr. A. S. A/r, 
adv. ; from the base of hi, he. 4* I^u- ArVr, 
Icel. A/r, Don. A^r^ Swed. Adr, C. Ai«r. 
Goth htr, 

hither. (E.) M E hidir, hither. 
A. S. hitier, hiSer. From the base of hg, ] 
with Aryan suffix -tar. So also loel. A/Sra, 
Goth, hi^lre. L ri/ra. 

It (E.) M.E. Ait. A. S. Ait. ncul ol 
A^. + Icel. AiV» neut of Aim* : Du. A^A 
T,cut. of hi/. The old gen. case was Air, 
afterwards it. and finally iti (XVII cent.). 

Hwul. (E.) M. E M, AW. Aof«/ ( - 
AmiO. _ A. S A/a/W. -f Du h0ojV, led. 
A«wa, Si 

A^M. Dan. 

Swed. Ai^Vim; Cotb. 

^ 1.^ 

-^^^^ '^^ 'C2" —^^ ^H 

^«^ ^ 

- 4 

■" J^ ■ — ^ r^^'^^ 

^^ ^^^r^ 

.=-J^jJ»- - 

^^^ ^:s. .^K ^M- 

■ r 


G^ Ylkw».^-=-=£. ^r-«. 4 n.M«l 
s« s^ «. SMT ^iA ai tad 


H«<^W« H«tohttl: fccHook 

.« a icver. (F.-Gk.) 

n Low L. Aertuus^). 

ic, oonsumptivc. •Gk. 

; aJ»o. a habit of body. 

of Ix**'* to luvc, hold. 

ft ballr. CC^k.) From Gk. ff*£tor, 
oelcbraied hero of Troy. Lit. 
&t ; ' bom ix""' ^ hold. 
sec Haw. 

Formed as if from ib. M/*. 
I) ; thoQch wc find the conc- 
»b. htft. 5 H.G. huofa. eve 
frmn kprJe, care ; G. kuttn, 
(O.H.G. kHotd), care. Prob 



DATt of the foot. (E.) A.S. 

I- Du. kUl, Iccl. katl, Dan. -4*/, 

Allied to L. talx, Lithoan. 

; and to L. -uUtrt^ \n per-c*IUrt, 


, to lean ovcr^ faocltoe- (£.) 
M. E. heldtn^ kiUen, to in- 
side. A. S heldan. hyUan, to 
\\ cf. ni%ir-Mtahi. bent down- 
Aa/Zi (fur kaJda), to heel 
ship), from hallr (for kalJr), 
>M. A/J^«, to tilt, from A/A/, a 
t Ao/^i, 10 dlt 

■ U««re. 

(Arab) Arab, kt/rttk, s*p«- 
, u&cd of the flight of Moham- 
[ccci, on the nigot of Thursday, 
3 1 the era of the Hegira begins 

Cf. Arab kajr. separation. 
JE) M.E hayfart.kikfirt. A.S 

■ ' -A.b. hah, high, full- 
;ij. with Gk. r^>>iT, a heifer. 

An exclamation ; htigh^ 
attention ; ks, on exclamacton. 

tF.-O. Low G.) M. E. KHm- 

O. F. kaSn0s, odious: 

•offix -^ (Ik -^xus) from ^(tf>, 

^roB u O. Low G. form, such 

to hate; allied lo Hate. 

,«*L.) M. E kfire, kiir, also 

A«>, /ir •• L. A/^nfj, an heir, 

a master. (^GHAH) 

kiir is either horn L. nom. 

ktrem, a mistaken form of 

D«r keir-laom, where /tw*i 

piece <4 pro{>erly,' but is the 

[«• E. /tfv"!: I>cc Loom av 

ftjj. (L.) L. ktttdt/arttu. 

*L. kmdifan, to mheriL — L, ktrtJit 
erode form of htrts^ an heir. 
horita^. (F. - L.) O. F. htritagt. 

Formed, with suffix 'Oge (»*L. -aficnm)^ 
from O. F. heritcr, to inherit. — L. heredi' 
tarz, to inherit (.which seems to have been 
comiptcd to htritart*). Sec above. 

inherit. (F. — L.) Coined from L. in, 
in ; and O. F. kerittr (above). 

Heliaoal, relating to the sun. (L.^Gk.^ 
Late L. htlianis. — \a\i. lyXiajriit, belonging 
to the sun. — Gk. f\*ao%, sun (see Cnrtiusy 

aphelion, the point in a planet's orbit 
farthest from the son. ^Ck.) Coined from 
Gk. (lir-, for Amh, from ; f}Xio», the son. 

heliotrope, a flower. (F - L • Gk.) 
F. ht/iotrppt. — L, htiictrp/>ium. — Gk. ^Aio» 
rpowtov, a heliotrope, lit. ' sun - ttimer : ' 
from its tuniiug to the sun. i^Gk. y^Aio-r, 
son ; rpoT-, base allied to rpintiy, to turn ; 
see Trope. 

perihelion, the point of a planet's 
orbit nearest the son. (Gk.) Gk. »ff<, 
round, near; /fAioc« the sun. 

Helix, a spiral fipure. (L. - Gk.) L. 
k/lix, ft spiial. — Gk. U(^, a spiral, a twist 
— Gk. iKiaativ, lo turn round. Allied to 
Volute. (VWAR.) 

Hea (E) M.E hem. A.S. A//, gen. 
kelU \ orig. 'that which bides,' from .VS. 
kelian, to hide, secondary verb formed 
from kelan Jpt. t A<rA), lo hide. + L)u, ktt» 
kel hei, G. AW/r, Goth, halja. Allied to 
Cell. ConoeaL 

HeUebore. (F.-L.-Gk) Also ////- 
*tfrf.-0. F. eIU6ore.~''U A////A?r«i.i-Gk. 
iXKi&opott the name of the plant. 

Helm (i), an implement for steering ■ 
ship. (£.) Orig. the tiller or handle. 
A. S. k£lma. -f Icel. kjdim, a rudder ; G. 
ktlm, a handle. Allied to Haulm. 

htilberd, halbert, a kind of pole-axe. 
^F. - M. H. G.) O. F. halebanie. - M. H.G. 
helmharU, later kiltnbartt, mod. G. helU- 
barfe, an nxe with a long handle, from 
M. H. G. halm, a helve ihelm\ or ha.dle; 
though it seems to have been popularly 
interpreted as an axe for splitting a A//m, 
i.e. helmet, p. The origin of 0. H. G. 
parta, G. barte, a broad axe, is obscore; 
see P&rtiaan (2). 

helve, a handle. (E) M. K. httm 
( - A//tv). A. S. kUIf, also hilft. a handle. 
•f O, Du. hehe. handle, M /H G. kaip, 
handle ; allied to Helm ( 1 \ above. 

Helm (1), armour for the head. (E^ 
M.E.A</m A.S. Atim: liL 'acoveriiuci' 



from htlan, to cover. + Da. helm ; Tccl. 
\jdlmr^ Daa, hulm, Swed. hjelm, G. A//*w, 
Goth, hilnis, Ru<$. shUmt, Lithuan. /wi/- 
VMf. (V KAU.) I>«r. kiim-ftt dimin. 
form. Alli&I to Hell. 

Helmintholoffy, history of worms. 
(Gk.) Coined trom Gk. iX/uvSo-, crude 
form oiis^rt, a worm ; -Acryio, a discourse, 
from A,i7ii»', to speak. The sb. i\i»tvt, 
also <A/ii(, means ' thai which curls about ; ' 
allied to HeUx. 

Helot, a (Spartan) slave. (L.-Gk.) L. 
pi. Helcres, from Gk. i(Aa»T«j, pi. of *tXon, 
« helot, bondsman ; said to have meant an 
inhabilanl ol lidos (a town of I-aconia), 
enslaved by the Spartans. 

Help, sb. (E.) M. E. htlj^, pt. t. half, 

Xp. hoi/tn. A. S. helpait, pt. I. kealp, pp. 
olffH. + Du. helpen, Icel. hjdJpa, Dan. 
Mie/f^, Swed. hjeipa, Goth. Aif/an, G. 
A^^M. Allied to Skt. J»j//a, able, able 
to protect, tzf//ri, to help. (^ 
KARP.) Dor. 4^//. sb., AS. A/Z/V; 
^^!p»^attf a mistaken use of A/^ »</// 
(Gen. ii. iS). 

Helve : .^ee Helm (i). 

Hem (O, border. (E.) A. S. htmm, 
htm. Allied to G. hamme, a fence, hetlge. 
(VKAM.) Der. kern, verb, to enclo&e 
within a boider, hem in ; cf. G. htmmtn, to 
re^lrain, &om hamme, a fence. 

Hem (a), a slight cough to call atten- 
tion. (E.) An uuitative word \ allied to 

Hematite, an ore of iron. (L. * Gk.) 
Named from the red colour of the powder, 
» L. hamati/ts. — Gk. olfAarirj^t, blood- 
like. —Gk. aJpar-, stem of af/ja, blood. 

hemorr)iage, a great dow of blood. 
( F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. htmorrhagie. - L. 
kamcrrfta^ia- — Gk. a!fiopf>aila, a violent 
bleeding. » Gk. atfio-, for al^a, blood ; 
•07-, bue of Mv^h*» 1 burst, break ; the 
lit. sense being a bur^lin^ out uf blood. 

hemorrhoido. emerods. fmii.ful 
bleeding tubercles on the ajius. (F.— L,— 
Ck.) F. hetHorrhoiJi, sing., a flowing of 
blood. -• L. hamorrhouUs, pi. of hamor- 
rkois. « Gk. tu>opy)o^d«f, pi. of ai/ui/woir. 
adj., liable to a fluw of blood. —Gk. oI>»o-, 
put for a/^a, blood ; ^<tf , to flow, cognate 
with Skt. srm, to flow ; see Stream. 

Hemi-, half. (Gk.) From a Lai. spell- 
ing ofGk. 4^1-, half, cognate with L umi'^ 
half; sec Bomi-. Dor. htmisphert, &c. 

hemietioh. a halfline, in ^Kxir^. (L. 
«Gk.) \^ htmutichi' ' '. ^^rrtxioff 

a half verse. — Gk. 4^-r ^^^\ ^V^ 
row, verse. 

megrim, a pain affceting one ni*^ 
the bead. (F.-L.-Gk.1 > 
• the megrim; ' CoL— Low L ^ 

megrim. — Gk. ^luxpay^ov^ \ 
sknlL — Gk. ij^-, half, Kpav[o\ 

Hemlock. (E.) M. E. A/»r.-,_. _ ... 
A. S. hemhc, kymlict. The origin of ht^ 
is unknown ; the second S)'l1nble is a wcali 
ened form of A. S. A^r, a leek, plant ; i 
'Wiffur-lie, thar'lock. 

Hemorrhage, Hemorrhoids ; 

Hemp, a plant. (L.-Gk.-Skl.) M 
hemp (short for hemp). K. S. kein^ 
h/tnep. Borrowed at a very early perifl 
from L. fanHiifiis, so that the word safiefl 
consonantal letter-change. * Gk. aiirrfli 
Skt. funa, hemp (or rather, from an ol 
form of this word). So also Du Aenme^ 
Icel. hampr^ Dan. hamp, Swed. Adw/ri, t 
hanf\ all from L. cannabis. 

Hen. ( E.) A. S. Herat, Men, k^m ; a fi 
form (by vowel-change) from A. S. 
a cock, lit 'a unger,* from his ere 
cf. L. canert, to sing -^ Du. ^m, fern, 
haan, a cock; IceL htrna, i. of Aami; 
h'dne, f. ol Mane ; Swed. hmAt f. of 
G fietme. f. of haAn. (y' KAN.) 

Hence ; see Us. 

Henchman, a page, servai;* 
tnerly htnseman, neftikmaH ; ■: 
as a proper name. I'lob. for 
i. e. groom ; from M. E. henrc 
g€Jt, a horse. Cf. Do. aud G. a/-*, .., 
hingst, a horse, Icel. A«/r, a horse. 
borrowed from Du. htngst. 

Hendecagon : sec Dreade. 

Hep, hip ; see Hip (i). 

Hepatic, relating to ihe liver. 
-Gk.) O. F. hepatiqui.^V. ke^ 
Gk. i5»aTi«tJ«, belonging to the 1j 
^voTi-, crude form of ^r>a^, Ihe Ii 
iecur, 'SiVk. yakxit, the liver. Der. 
liver-wort, a flower. 

Heptagon, a plane levea^sided 
(Gk.) Vx. ' seven-angled." - Gk 
seven ; yoitia, an oiigle. allied to y«n. 
See Beren and Knee. 

hebdomadal, weekly. (L^Gk) 
hetniomatialit. — Gl. is^.n:u-\S. t-»*n 
iQhofiM, a week.— ' 
heptahedroD, » 
(Gk.) KromGk. 2«ra,fccvca, iJ^a^ 
seat (allied to £. Bit). 
heptarohjTi m« As^k^pf^j, 




G.) M. E hfraU. 

' oo.H.<;. 

me. Put 

HI-,. -'- -- ^ ii, K tiaiDC 

hp. for an of&ccr. — O. H. G. 

\0, ketr) ; wa!J, wait, 

//). Tbe limitation of 

henM McroE to liavc been 

with O. H. G./oraAarv, 

i^rMarm, to proclaim (iiUied 

grais, fodder, herb ; prob. 
L.^/^m; Gk. ^p&^, posture, 
to ell. 
> a flocii. (E.) M. E. h^erde. 
\t9rd, iUrxi, A/"'. \0 care, cu8t(Hlv. 
iCi^ flock, t3) (anuly- + led. hjbr^^ 
\4t^^ Svcd. hjvni, G. h9€rxit, Goth. 


d (i\ ooe who tends a herd. (£.) 
3r in oonip. shep Merd, tffw-htr\J, Ac 
A. S. K^firJt, fn*J€, keeper of 

I; ^(mA-S. ktorti. a Hock. 


s^'cnt). + Icel. hirMr, 
~.:rUet G- hirt, Golh. 
y dcnved. 

t F. - U - Gk.) M. E. ;»mj;r'. 

r. — L- Aiffifji/. — Gk. or/»<air, 
toicc, tret. beTCiy— Gk. a/p<tV, 
Dar. Atrt/u, L. h^treticuSf Gk. 
able to choose, hcrcttod ^from 

th* tiilrHg away of a letter 

■ ' of a word. 


, ".^-vi... ia.,ii.g (above). 

mark (") of separation. 

L. diartiis. ^Gk. Aicu/Mirtt, a 

^Ok. 8t-^ A(«rt t eSptffit, a taking 

■'■ --cence of two 

U - Gk.) L 

- •■'•-- to- 

, of a 

e:isc ot a tenant. ( E. ) 

tit. mibtary apparel ; 

Its whiuh, atlcr the dcftth 

icatcd 10 fats lord ; after- 

to include borse«, &:c — 

If ; piitUt£eatuH, appaict, 

HeriUee : see Heir. 

Hermaphrodite, an animal or plant of 
both sexes. i,L. — Gk.> \.. k4rmaphrodhHS, 
■■(*k. Jp>io<f<pi'>iSiTac ; coined fiom 'Ep^i^c. 
Mercury (repre^cnling ihe male) aiid 
'h^poZiTt}^ Venus (.representing the female 

hermeneutio, explanatory. <Gk.) Gk. 
ip/xi^MiTTMctli, skiiled in interpreting wGk. 
J,iM'?''«y'ifi an interpreter : also J>>M9>'fi^» 
tlie same. Suj-posed to be from '^^^f. 
Mercury, the tiilelarj' god of &kiU. 

hermetic. ^Gk.) Low L. herffuHcui, re- 
lating to alchemy ; coined from HtrmUt 
from the notion that the great kccrets of 
alchemy were discovered hyfltmuj Trismt' 
^j/iM. — Gk. 'Ep/i7t, Mercury. ^ Hermeti- 
cally was a tenn in alchemy ; a glass bottle 
was h^rmttuaUy scaled when the orifice 
wns fused and then do<»cd ogaioat any 
admission of air. 

Hermit. (F.-L.-Gk.1 [M. E. ktrt^ 
miUt directly from L. A//T«iVfl.] — F. htr^ 
m//f.~LowL. hcrtmita^ mure commonly 
ertmita. — Gk. ipifutrp, a dweller in a 
de->crt — Gk- Ip^tila, a dcstrt.— Gk. ipri}io%, 
de erte<I, desolate. Der. hermii-a^. 

Hera ; see Heron. 

Hernia. (L.) L hernia, a kind of 

Hero. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 4«nV. -L. 
heroim, flcc. of hercs, a hero. — Gk. J$/wr, a 
hero, denii gtnl. + Sit. vt'ra, a hero^ L, 
uir; AS wer. Allieil to VirilO. Der. 
hero-ie, O. F. lurvique^ L. kertncus, 

heroine. ^F— L. — Gk) F. her^me, 
L. heroine, "(ji^' ifputvfit fcm. of ^pon, a 

Heron, Hern, a bird. (F.-O.H.G.) 
M E. kerouH, AairOM, hern.^O. F. hairoH 
(F. h/mn, Ital. a^'hirone'). - O. H. G. 
heigir, heiger, a heron; with aufiixcd •«! 
^Iial. 'One\, I'rob. named from its harsh 
voice ; cf. G. hiikrr, a jack-daw (lit. 
'laugher'), prov. E. kei^haw, a wood- 
pecker, Skt. htkk, (o laugh. (V KAK.) 
4^ Swcd. h^grr, Icel. ke^, Dan. keirt^ a 

horonshaw, hemshaw, a young 
heion ; aUo a heronry. (F.— O. n. G.) 
1. .Spenier bos hemeskaw. a heron : this it 
M, k. keronsru*e, a young heron (atilj 
called keroHsew in (he North). It answers 
to an O. F. heroitn^ean *, later lorm of 
hercuHicl, a young heion (Uber Custo- 
in.uuni. p. 304), dim. of Hairtm\ cf. 





lion, Tlie 



maat form is F. hironneau^ O. F. k^iroH' 
luau. 2. But ktronshattf. a hcroory, is 
compounded of htrxm, a heron, and skaw^ a 
wood ; Cotgravc has * kairoHHitrt^ a heron's 
netst. a hemeshaw, or &baw of wood 
whtrrein herons breed.' 
HerrlQff, a fi^. (E.) M. E. hering. 
A. S. harincg, haring. Prob. so named 
from appearing in large shoaU ; from A. S. 
hert, a host, army ; sec Haxry. + Du. 
hit ring, G. karing. 
Hesitate. (L.) From pp. of L. kaiitart, 
to &tit:k fast ; inleruive form of karere, to 
titick. + Litbuan. gaistti, to tarry. (V 
adhere. (L.) L. aJ-harert, to stick to. 
cohere. (L.) L. co-hanrt, to stick 
together (pp. eehoius). Vet, eohts-Un, 

inherent. (L.) L. inherent', stem of 
prcs. pt. of in-AiTrtre. to stick in. Hence 
inhere, as a verb. 
Hest, a command. (£.) M. E. htit, the 
final / being excrescent, as in whih-t, 
amongst, dec. A.S. kJks» a command.— 
A.S. hdtan, to command. So also IccL 
kcit, a vow, from heita, to call, promise; 
O. H. G. heis (G. gekeiss), a commaml, 
from heizan (G. heissen), to call, hid. 
command. Cf. Goth, haitan, to call, name, 
behest. (E.) U.E.ivhtst. From A.S. 
bfh^f a command {.see abore) ; formed 
froft his by help of the prefix ^- (by). 

hiffht, was or is called. (E.) The only 
E. verb with a jHtsrivt sense; he higkt = 
he was named. M. E. highte ; also hatu^ 
kette. A. S. Mdttt, I am called, I was 
called ; pt. t of A. S. htitan (i) to call (2) 
10 be called, be named. So also G. iek 
keine, I am named ; from heissen^ to call, 
bid. fl. Best explained from Goth, kaitan, 
to call, pt, t. (active) kathait, prcs. tense 
(pauive) haifiuia, I am called ; as in 
'Thomas. Mici kaitada'0\Ayin\yi' =Thomas, 
who is called Did}TQus, John xi. 6. 
Heteroolite, irregoliijly inflected. (L.- 
Gli.1 K hettrtxh'tus. - Gk. irtpUkiros, 
otherwise (i.e. irregularly) inflected. — Gk. 
fripo-j, another ; -cAjtoi, formed from 
xXifrir, to lean (hence^ to v%r\ ai a case 

heterodox, of strange opinion, heret- 
ical. (Gk.) Gk. *rtpoi, another; Mf-a, 
opinion, from SoirnK, to think 

heterogeneous, dissimilar in kind. ^Gk.) 
Gk. Iri^tM, another ; 7iroi, kind, kin, 


Hew. (E.) M. E. Ataten. K. S. 
to cut. + D12. k^ntutn, loel 
^^ggo, Dan. kmggt, G. hatum -. 
to hammer, forge. Allied to I* 
beat. (VKU.) 

hoe. vF. — G.) FormeilT *#». - 
hwi, a faoe.-O. H. G. k^uwa\G. haw 
hoe, lit. a hewer. — O. H. G. kfittwem, 
hew (above). 

Hexagon, a plane aix-sided figurcL (1 

Gk.) L. kexagvnum. ~Gk. U&ifiiMtt 

comeied. — Gk. li, six; tm^o, an 1 

from "gvw, a knee. 

hexameter. (L. — Gk.) L. hrst 

— Gk. i^ofiMTpot, orig. an adj., i.e hai 
six measures or feet — Gk. I^, six ; ^j 
a measure, metre. 

Hey, inten. ^E.) M. E. An. kajr 
natural exclamation. + G. and Du hei. 
heyday (i). intcij. (G. w Da.) J 
Aeyda i.Ben Joa50D\ Borrowed Bi 
from G. heUa, hey there t halJo t or fi 
Du. kei daar. hey there I The G. A, 
Du. daar, both meim • ihcie.* 

Hoyda^ (3), frolicsome wildoca; 

Hiatus, a gap. (L.) L. ktatm, a | 
from pp. of kiare, to gape. Allm 
7fiwi3 and Ohjwm. 

Hibernal, wintry, (F. - U) F. kikt 

— L, hibtmalts, wintry. — 1* kiktri 
wintry; allied to kums, winter. At 
Gk. x*-<^»'. snow. SkL ki-maJxCAl. ( VGI 
Der. hibernate. 

Hiccough, Hiccup. Hieket, * 1 
modic inspiration, with cW'"" '^f 
glottis, causing a slight sou:i 
spelling hiicougk seems to : 
popular etymology from cough, ceiU 
wrong ; no one ever so pnmoaiKCft 
word. Properly kiecup, or. to old b( 
hiektt and kitkock. which arc sljU Km 
forms. Hick-et, hick-oek, are diminol 
of kick or kik^ a catch in the voice, ifl 
tive of the sound. Cf * a kmhinz cnut 
and see Hitoh. + Pu. kik. 
hikken, to hiccough; Dan 
vb. ; Swed. hieka^ sb. and ■ 
kak, a hiccuugh; W, 1^', a su 
And cf ChinooQgh. 

Hickory, a N. American trvej 

Hldalffo, a Span, nobleman of the 
class. i.Span. « L) bpan. kiJklg^} 
imnicnl name, lit. '&oa of aomrlluAg. 
a nobody. — Span- Aj/0, son; (4r, of; < 
something — L. /tiimm^ soc. of JiMmL 

O. Spafi. figo, Uter Mijo) ; d>. of; 

(1), to cover. (E.) M. E. Muitn, 
A. S. A>d^. •f Gk. ««^««i-, to 

Mdo t >M skill. (E.) M. E huit. huJe. 
S. ^v^. the tVin, i e. *co*cr ;' allied to 
& kjJoM (ftboTc) -f Da. huiii. Iccl. 
D«a. S«ed. kmi, O. II. G 4i//, G. 
t* /MALI, Gk. «vraf. vmvrat, skin, hide, 

(i>< ^ ^^- (^) Colloqaial: to 
by floo^- So aUo Icel. AjfOa. lo 

AiMT, tkin. 
(4\ m RiCBsart of land. (E.) Esti- 
I ao to loo acres, and leu ; (Low 
> A. S kid, A conlracied form; 
hS\ form is A/^ft^. Higid and Ktwitf 
tivd in the sjime sense, to mean 
ad (or ooe family or houbchuld. 
probabtj closely allied word*, 
ftltied to kind\i) ; iox hhvist 
tbc ad} fonncd from htui-a, a 
ODe of a household ; see Hind 
Not counrcted wiih Hide ^i). 

ugly. (F. - L. ?) M. E 
.■»0. r. ktdffj^ Aiduj, Uter hideux, 
the earliest form is kudos. The 
ocigttiai u L. kirpidcsuSf roughish ; 
ygftAu, tough, fthaggy. 
to hasten \,V-^^ M. E kun, kyen, 
A. S. iijioM. to hasten. Allied lo 
^«r, to eO) Lb rwnr, to summon ; see 

- (VXD 

>hjr : *ee Aroh-, prefix. 

lyphlc (U-Gk.) U Jl/w^/- 

■rnbolical »Gk. U^arfKvtftiKus, re* 

»»c3ol writings, • Gk. Ifjxi-r, 

7Aiv«ii', (o hollow oat, enip^ave, 


a priest (Gk.) Gk. tw- 
^tCAC^Bg the rites of worship. •Gk. 
kCred ; ^otMir, to shew, explain. 
; seeH«tsl« <^) 
(t) M E A/«i-^. key, ky. A. S. 
A/A. 4> Du. iA^i', IceL A^r, Swrd. 
CiuL Ui, G. ^mA<. G. k<Kk. The 
•coic is bctit, hrnoe loimded, knob- 
at a iBouiid or hill Cf. G. kiigtl, s 
Lfcnob. biHock. Ski. ht<ka^ the female 

as well 

C«*A.^. Jn («U»ve , ^ 

locL i. kcjd^ Dan. 

'• GoCh. AmUs/Aii. 



heyday (s). frolicsome wildncss. (E) 
Tbc ' keyday of youlh * means the 'A/)p4 
d'.-y of youth.' The spelling hey is a nre- 
servaiion of M. E key, the usual spellioe 
of high in the 14th ccntary. 

highland. (E.) From kigk and lattdx 
cf. upland, hvf-land. 

how (3), a hill. (Scand.) M. E h/igk. 
Icel. kaugr, a hill ; Swed. keg, a mound ; 
Dan. kbi, a hill— Icel. kdr, Swed. kog, 
Dan. Aoi, high ; see High. 

Hight : see Hest. 

Hilarity, mirth. (F. - L. - Ok.) F. 
kilariff. — L. ace. ktlan'tafem ; from kiiaris^ 
adj. cheerful, also spelt hilarus. — Gk. 
ikapU, cheerful. % Hilary Term ts ao 
called from ihe festival of St. Hilary (U 
Hilaris\ Jin. 13. 

exhilarate, to cheer. (L.-Gk.; vnik 
L, pre^.) From pp. of L. txhilarart, to 
gladden greatly. -• L ex, very; kilaris, 
giftd (above). 

Hildlng; see Hind (^). 

HiU. (E) M. E AiV. AsJ. A. S. *y//. 
+ O. Da. AfV; L. r0//i:x, a hill; Lithuaii. 
kalmu, a hill. Allied to Culminate. Der. 
dawn-kill^ up-hill. 

Hilt, sword-handle. (E) A. S. kitt, + 
Icel. kjatt, O. H. G. /U/so. ^ AV allied 
to AoA/. 

Him: see He. 

Hin, a liquid measure. fHeb.) Hcb. 
kin, a hin ; said to be of Egyptian ori- 

Hind (0. female of tbe sta^;. (E) A. S. 
kind. 4- Du kinde\ Icel. Dan. and Swed. 
kind, M. H. G. hiftde, O. H. G. AiWJ, a 
doe. Perhaps 'that which is caught by 
hunting;' allied to Hand. 

Hind (2], a peasant; see Hire. 

Hind (3), adj. in the rear. (E) We now 
say * kind feet;' but the older form is 
* kinder feet' We even find M. E. kyn^ 
dtrxrt (as if hindcrcr).— A. S kittdan, adv. 
at t'lc back of. kinder, adv. backw.-irds. + 
Goth, kindar, prep, behind ; kinda^a, ^>e- 
yon<l ; G. kinter, prep, behind, hinten, adv. 
behind. Extended from A. S. kine, hence; 
from hi , base of A^; see He. 

behind. ^E.) A. S. bekindan, adv. and 
pTep., after. — A S. Ae-, prcKx ^E. ^); 
kin^fan, adv. (above). 

hilding. a base wretch. (E.) Short 
for prov- E. kilderling or kinderling. a 
wretch From M. E. kin^lerimg, ba>e. 
From A S. kinder, adv., backwams, with 
ftuC&Ji •i'ing. 

Ol n. C h^. Ok^ -*lad' V ^ 
Hip .aV Hi*^ faM «f Ike 

> ifa !■ nil > M. BTa 

U. H. a Ai^ 

" 1-334- 
Hippapo«nra& ^1.-1^) U i^;^ 

of EmL^Gt: tnM. hone; wmm^dt^ 

mm, &.fc^»iiiipih wiAL 

w^eo. 4- I>L AB*r, S«cd. V<^ 13<u. 

Hinota; mcBoctM. 
Hia; aeeH*. 

blsti as JatojectMB OQMBiw llllllH 
(E.) A in«re VEhuit of kmsJk or Ittf. CI 
DuL A^i, silence ! Ajsu, to bosh. USlcoa 
hu j|i>/ = ulcacc(l, huftheil. n Pesc. 5«. 

hUBh. (E.) M. £. AxiAoi, to make 
uleat; whence pp. 4air4/, stUaced. A 
purelr imiurive word, allied to Jkxu. 

whisti a game mpurtng cileDce. ^^ 
From the ax of the word mrAuf to cnjom | 
ftileacc ; Q»uccr ha* w^nu, ' silenced ' or 
'quiet *i tr. of Doethius b. it. met. $.[ 
L 1541' Also called loti'/i; from Swcd. 
ImVia, to whuper ; tee Wlti«p«r. | 


. 1I GkJ K E. 

Not iIlMd to Jkmk, 
Hytike. a ihaU 
lLS.A«ic A-S. i^.alMftt.1 
fMte;* aOMliiHidB(i) 

Kither; MeH*^ 

HiTOiahottsebr Iws. (S.) A.SLi 
Aj^* aariicst iora ir^^ a hhne. 
en'; co-cadime viih L. oHa; «ee 
^S'oC aBicd to A.S. Jkiwm, ' 
^«s said ia ^ im ediiioDl 

IS said m ae im ediiioD). 
hiad (a), a nmswU. <E.1 
cscnicrag i M. £. iuar, a u 

4m«*. a doacrtk, tmaetbi 
niiMiniriir, aad lealiy a c**«, 
tiBtt JUmsOModt far 4f«a ■>»««* 
tke doBcstscs: c(. ikhm tig^J^r 
tbe doiCKriCT. a rnasAcr of a 
f/imt » iia— I, gea. pj. of A/maa, 

Ho. Hoa, s cat! tc adle attcndoa. 
A natnral r O. tccLii^/ 

AM» to shoi 

Hoar, whi;e it. , M. E. 
4jV. -f IceL A<irr. Loot. Cf. 
rar)c£Ated ta colour, also aaed 


«o*l white, 
horehotuad, a plant, 
h^rkfiHHJ \% the white. 
irt. The final ti is excr«f - 
AdrJkJftf, also calleil siinpiy 
Hdr, boar: Aiine. Lc. drongly 
1-- eum/a, Gk. cofiAij, a »pccie& 
Ski >«i//, to slink. 
S ; K« Houa«. 
iing. a kind of fence ; sec 

tiound ; Mv Hoar 
•e^ hiving a rough, harsh voice, 
he r is intnj5iv'e, bttC sometimes 
1 M E Affn, pio(>erly Aoos. hoatse 
U« hoarse. -^ Iccl. Aitts, Dan. /uts, 
Du. A/z/fA, G. Ariifr, 
see Hoar. 
Hub, ihe nave nf a whrel, 
ite. ^E.} The true sense is 
the had of a firc-plve was 
ibed slane on ciihcr siJc of the 
tirecn which the embers were 
[Wehattrl. Closely telatefl to 
lich is merely the nasalises) 
Der. k^^naii, a nail with a 

\\ % ctowu, mstic, a fairy. (F. 
^.) 'Elvts, kohs, and fairies;* 
and Fletcher, Mods. Thomas. 
was a common personal name, 
of Ro^in (.like Hodgt from 
narac H^in is F., and is 
i>tion of PoUrt, a came of 
ongui. Der. hebgobiim ; see 


; see Hop (I). 
(I), an ambling lutg ; see 

r (l\ • kind of telocD ; Me 


obllB ; wfK Hob < 3)* 

•llf see Hob (I'l. 

Habn&b. with free leave, at 

\ Compounded of hah and 

'o have, hence a[>plied 

leaving it, implying 

w a familiar invitation 

lo hU-noh together.' Hab 

'i to have : nab is from 

put for mi httUan^ not to 


ce Hou£h 

winc- G \ For U^khttm. 
a place m Gcimauy, on the 


rlv«r Main, whence the wine comci. It 
mean-"* ' high home.* 

Hockey, a gamei see Hook. 

Hoous-pocUB, 8 juggler's trick, a jug- 
gler. (Low L. ) As iar as it can be said to 
briong to any language, it is a sort of 
Laliti, having the L. termination -tu. 
But it is meitly an invented term, uud by 
jugglers in performLng tricks ; see Todd's 

hoax. (Low L.) Short for hocus , i.e. 
to juggle, cheat. 

Hod., a kind of trongh for earthing 
bricks. (E.) A prov. K. form of MoU; see 
Hold. In Lmc. and York, hod meana 
'hold' or • receptacle'; as in (Whitby) 
PowiUr.hoiit p<jwder-flask ; asnnUM»i, am- 
dle^tick. % Not from K. hotte, as said. 

Hodge-podge .- see Hotobpot. 

Hoe: M:e Hew. 

Hog. (E.) M.E. Ai7jj:y, *maialis,e5tenim 
porcus carais testiculis'; Catbol. Anglic, 
p. 1 8 ; . K rom the verb hack \ Scotch hag), to 
cut- Ci.hcg-shnp. one clip|«il the first year. 

Hogahead. tO. Du.) More contctly, 
oxhtad. An adaptation of O. Du. okihoojd^ 
oxhoefdt a hogshead : of which, however, 
the lit. sense is ex-head. So also Dan. 
oxhoved, O. Swed. oxhufwud, an ox>hcadt 
also a hogshead. No doubt the cask was 
at first named from the device or brand of 
an ' ox head * upon it. 

Hoiden, Hoyden; see Heath. 

Hoist, to heavij. (O. Du.) The final i 
is rluc to the pp. hout, used for hoiscd. 
The verb is really h&ise. (Cf. graft for 
«T[i^)«»0. Du. hyssen, Du. htjsschtn. to 
houc {y sounded as E. long r.4'Dan, 
htise, hisse ; Swed. hissa, to hoist (whence 
K. hiistr). % Not allied to F. Aaujur, to 

Hold (0, to keep. (E.) A S. htaldan. 
•4- Du. heuden, Icel. haida, ^wcd. h^Ua, 
Dan. h^lde, Goth, haldam, G. halten. Dor. 
hold, sb.; abo b< hoid, with prefix b<- <£. 
by); up-hold. 

upholsterer. (E.) Lengthened from 
Nf*hohtrr, put for ufhoid-ster, another form 
uf upholder, which was fonneily used of a 
dealer in fuinituie, lit. one who kaldi up to 

Hold (>), the 'hold' of a ship; tea 

Hole. (E.> M. E. holt, hsl, A.S. M 
a cave. ^ Do. Ac/, Iccl. hol^ Dan. Aw/. 
Swed. hM. G. hohL Cf. Goth, mhulom^ 
lo hollow out. p. Prob. A. S. W is fiom 



Jko/fta. pp. of str. vb. AeloM, to cover ; see 
HflU. Not allied to Gk roTAof, hollow. 

hold (f), the cavity of a ship, (Da) 
Put for ho!<. wilb cKCresccnt <l'» doc to 
confusion with the verb to Ar/e^. — Du. 
Atf/, a. hole, CAve, esp. tucd of ths hold of a 
ship (Sewrcl). 

hollow. (E.) M. £. Ac/we, adj. A. S. 
Jkff/A. sb. a hollow pUcc. also spelt Aa^. 
Extended from A. S. ho/, a hole, cave. 

Holibut. Holiday; sec Hale (i). 

HoUa, Hallo, Slop! wait! (F.) Not 
the same word as Aa//ao, to &hout; but 
difTcrciitly usc't in old aulhore. See Oth. 
t 2 56; As You Like It. iii. 3. «5;. — F. 
4W(}, * an tnierJLCtion. hoe there ; ' Cot. ~ F. 
Ma, intei}. ; and /t}, there ( » L. i//ac). % The 
form Aa/U is due to a confu>ion with haiioc. 

Holland, Dutch linen. ^Un.) From 
HoilanJ, the name of the country. So also 
hoUandi, spirits from Holland. 

Hollow ; &ee Hole. 

Holly. ^E.) M £. hoHn ; ao that an n 
has been dropped. A. S. koUn^ koUgn, 
holly. + W celyn. Com. ctlin. Bret. keUn^ 
Gael. €uilionH, \n^ cmliann, holly. CC 
also Dtt. huUt, G. huhc, holly, 0. H. G. 
AmVii (whence F. hou-r). 

holm-oak, the evergreen oak. (E.) 
Here holm is a coatractiou of M. £- ho/in, 
ahoUy. •jVi»/*«<', or holy [holly] ;' Prompt. 
Parv. ; and we Way's note. The Querau 
Hex b a most vartctble plant ; the leaves ore 
sometimes as prickly as a holly. 

HoUyhook; see Hale (1). 

Holm, an islet in a river, ilat land by a 
river. (E.) yi.VL. hoim. KS, halm, ot'x^, 
m * monnd.'^Icel. Ai^/mr, h^lmi, koJmr, an 
islet, flat meadow ; Dan holm^ Swed, holmt, 
C. holm, hill, i<tland, Kuss. kholm' , a hill, 
L. rulm<7t. hill-lop. Allied to Culminate. 

Holm-oak; sec Holly. 

Holocaust ; see Caustio. 

Holster, a leathern case for a pistol. 
(Do.) Du. hoUUr; hi. a cover. Allied to 
A. S. hcohtcr, a case, covering, Iccl. hulstr, 
sheath, Goth. huUtlr, a veil. The verb is 
Du. AulleM, IceL Ajf/ja, Goth. Auijeuit to 
cover; from the strong verb seen in A. S. 
Aflam (pp. Aolfn), to cover. {^KAL, 
KAR.) 4[ The suffix 'S/tr^'S-UTt a double 
suffix ; see Bplnater. 

holt, a wood. (E) M.E. and A.S. 
Aoll. -f Do. hour, O. Du. Aoll ; Icel. Aolt, 
G. lidlxi so also W. ceU, a covxrt. (lum 
uIm, to hide. Orig. 'covert;' (rom the 
root as the above. 


honMngB, trappings of a horse. (F, 
Xeut) The old form was Aouss ; -iif/r 1 
been added-— F. homjst, a coverlet, ' a h 
cloth for a horae ;' CoL Low 1* Am 
At4iia, hujria, the same ; also Amliia 1 
a'fum. — Da hulte, a busk, shell > beuee. 
cover, as in Du. hulstl., a woman's hca 
attire). P'rora the veib seen in O H- ( 
and Da. kulla^ to cover; sec BoUt 

hull (0. bask. (£.) M.>. A 
Aw/h, a hu&k, lit. ' covering ;' from tbesa 
root as Holater. 

hull it), body of a ship- (E.) 1 
'the shell* of a ihip, and the same w 
as the above Or prob. Dutch ; from D 
Ael^ huld. Hei hoi p«m 4eM tfAi^ I 
ship'b hold 01 hull : 2>ewcl. Sec Uotdv 
husk, shell. (1^) M.E AusAe 71 
word has lost an /, preserved in tb« cogol 
languages. The A.S. tuLS only the alh 
word Auk^ a hut. + Du. Auh/, a 
Swcd. Jy '^a ; M. H G. AuljiAt, Cm 
From trie verb seen in Da AttlUm, Gel 
Aulian^ to cover; see Holater. 

Holy; sec Hale (1). 

Homage: see Human. 

Home. (£.) M. E. hoom. A. S. 
•4- Du. helm ; Icel. Aeimr. a village; Di 
AUm, Swed. Arm, G. *«>«; Goth. 
a village; Liihuan. kjtnaj, a village 
tti/firf, a vitlagt. (.^Kl) 

hamlet tF.-O.LowG.) ME. 
lei, 'limin. of O. F. kamcl iF '■'-"^' 
hamlet. Formed, with dimi 
from O. Fries, ham. a home, l^^ _^ 

Homer, a Ur^e measure. ^Ucb.> U 
chdmtr a homer, ako a mound vwith taiu 
(-//<-M).— Heb root MXtnar, to 
SIURC up. 

Homicide: see Hamaa. 

Homily ; sec Homogoneoiia. 

Hominy, ma:rc prepared for food. K ~ 
Indiau.) W. ludiaii AHAAmm*^^ pajdi 

Hommook ; sec Hump. 

Homoeopathy ; »ec Horaogeaeott* 

Homogeneous, of the same b 
throughout. <,Gk.) Engluhed fron C 
(//lo^ctijt. of the same raoe.*Ck^ i# 
same (c&gnate with E. 8am«>, and y^i 
a nice (cognate with E Klnl S^ 1* 
AofHO'logouJ, corrcsponiling, U- 
saying, Xiytiv^ to aay ; ham-, 
in sound, from Zvvt:~ - t — 

homily. (L.— ; "vjVW.* 

d^Aja, a living lt„ o coi! 


bcmHy.-Glt ifuXct, a throng. 
j*^f. like, same, together, 
8*n3e ; atiU IX17. ttArj, a 
.lu MAiiK, to compress, shut in. 
irvoTUL^hv r,\(_) Englished from 
-s in feeling or con- 
like; waeiiy, aorist 
of ««M'x««*'. u* kufTer. See 8*md And 
kthoft And Ke Homllr. 
HOQ)0^ (£.) AS. ^Jrt, a hone, (with 
_ from d lo long e, as iii d^rin, bone). 

> led. Jknn, SweiL ^^ ; Skt fdna. a 
*^' «oo« EromjT, tu sharpen ; Gk, jHlrt-of, 

> eoBT, poik. Sec Coae. 
Bonest ; see Honour. 

Ho&ey. {£.) Si.K Auhi. AS. ^«nr^'. 

Dd Aamir, I eel. hunaug, Don. honnhig, 

* kcHing. G. homg. Pet haps orig. 

UD-lake/ or like broken lice; cf. Skt, 

I. i^rsia, broken tioe. 

boneyoomb. <El.) A. S. hunigtamb, 

\%mttj'^omh-» where com6 is the usual £. 

Ihowh the likeness to b (om^ is 

ihcr CuucafttL 

lumayauoldaL (E.^ Lye gires A. S. 
fk. Dnauthorised ; but we find A. S. 
r. i^nTel, titrilArly named. From 
bfi^ «^ftt«, lo kuck. 

(F.-L.) O. r. A.»M«r.-L. 
ac oi Acn«rt better h^rwi, 

(F.-L.) a F. hofttsU (F. 
r).wL.idiMX/ii/. honourable: put for 
*« from AoHos*, oiig. lorm of 

eovcrbig- (E.) A.S. AtW.+Dn. 
^G- iw/. O. H. G. h>iai. Mot, a hat 
9otvk% • hoUoir vessel. (VK-AT.) 
to Cot/ledoa. 

Iwink. i,E.) Tomakeonefvmi or 
UtCTO. by covcrii^ bim with a hoai. 
-bood -baawd, saffix. (E,) A. S. >b<i^ 
tisabtj \ oQcnatc with Goth, haidiu, 

(E.> M. E k^/t hu/\ nl. -iflPdf. 

" 4* Dtt. iiw/ I«l. Wr. Dan. hm't 

,iuBf.0.ktt/, Kti» kfiimUo, Skt. rti/Ao. 

-^^ (E.> M. E. Mt. AS. AJ^.+ 

h. led. kaki, Dan. Atn?. Swctl. 

G. kmktm. Allied to Gk. AuxAof. 

SIct kmek, to bend. And see 

I < 9), Any flimsy substance unspun, 

■Uk. (Da) So named from its 

H tf il has been HvkUd; &ee 



hake, a fiih. (Scand.) Norw. hakiJUk^ 
lit. 'hook'fish;' frvm the hooked under* 

hec3d0. hackle, hatchel. an instru- 
ment for dressine flax or hemp. (,Du.) 
Du. hiki!, a heaclc; dimin. of hook, a 
hook (aboTc). + Dan. higU, from hagt \ 
Swed. Aa^k/a, from AaJke; G A^cAti, the 
same as Aji(W. a Utile hook, dimin. of 
AaAin, a hook. 

hockey, a game. (E.) Also called 
hockey, because pU>cd with a AooAeJ suck. 
huokle-bone, the hip-bone. (£.) 
HuckU is the dimin. of prov. £. Auik^ 
B hooA. A huikU is a ' small joint.' Cf. 
Skt. ku(A, lo bend. 

Hookah, Hooka. (Arab.) Arab. 4w^- 
qa. a casket . aUo. a pipe for smoking. 

Hoop (I). A pliant strip of wood bent 
into a band. (E.) M. E. noof, Aof'c. A. S. 
Atfp. •^ Du. Afftp. Cf. also Iccl. A(f/>, a bay^ 
from its circular foim, prov. E. Afffit, (1) a 
hollow, (3) a mound, according as the cur- 
vature is concave or cod vex Cf. Skt. M^^, 
a bow, Gk K^firruif, to bend. Allied to 
Hop {t\ Hu mp. 

Hoop (2), Whoop, to call out, shout. 
(F. — TcuL) M. E. Aoxiptti, lo sbouL — 
O. F. kouptr^ ' (o hoop unto ; ' Cot. Of 
Teul. origin; cf. Goth. Atoo/Joh, lo boasL 
hoopbiff-cough, a cougb accompanied 
by a Aottfi or convulsive noisy catch in the 
breath. (Formerly called (Aincough,) 

Hoopoe, the [lame of a bird. (L.) L. 
Hpupa, a hoopoe; the initial A is due to 
the F. Auppe, also derived fiom ttfmfa.^ 
Gk. iitouft, a hoopoe. Of imitative origin. 
% The F. Auppt, a tuft of feathers, is from 
huppe, a hoopoe (from its tufted head) : 
not vice vcrel. 

Hoot. (Scand.) M. E A&uten. - O 
Swed. huta, to hoot. — Swed. huil inteij. 
begnuel of oiiomatopoetic origin. So also 
VY. Awtl Irish ttt ! expressions of dislike. 
hue (3), clamour, outcry. (F. — Scand.) 
In the phr. ' hut and cry.* M. E. Atti, ft 
loud cry. — O. F. Au€r, to boot — O. Scand. 
huta, to hoot (above). 

Hop (1), to leap on 00c leg. (E.) M. \L 
hcppttt, Aupptn. A. S. Aoppian-, to leap, 
dance. -♦■ Du. Aopptn, Iccl. hcppa, Swed. 
heppa, Dan. Aoppc^ G. Aiipftn, The orig. 
saiAc it ' to go up and down.* (V KUP.) 
Der. h^pptr i.of a mill) ; hopple^ a fetter 
for hDr^>es ; Aap scot<A. a game in whicb 
children A^p over tceUhsSf i.e. lines scoicd 
on the ground. 



WOT. Ion3 ; -— V-'-'l'tile 
kmMp€M • K^titeU *, r. a 

<A A bcxac who retci Ci. 

gUfitd^L, Itl e 1 ^( il, gaif^dart, ft 

r, i^'incc, from fwj/tf, a gnest. antl 
j/j), lord. Der. Aasfejs, 
'/» 'an ho5tcs-c ;' Col. 
- • K. Afif/nre. - L. 

iplUible. '^I-'. - L.) F. hoipitahU. 

Low L. kfit^itan, to rtceUc as 

w Lk Jhtjfil; stem of itiri/Vi 

(F. - LI M. E. Moi/ifa/. - 

.••Low L. hospitalt, a largt 

ft .IiiL.' formed from L, pi. hoipitaha, 

trafigen. — L. Aifi/i'/-, slem 

tel.i .lio. (F.-U) F. fmul.~ 
L. kfit/itaJe', MTc hoapitol above, 
' T, oatler. (F.-L.) OTjg. the 
him»ctf, and named Ironi hU 

u inn. fF.-L.> Mud. F. hSfei, 

?tf « O P Ufisfei-f see hostel aI>ove. 

T buspiittl iF. — L.) M. E. 

.'ipital, hoipital\ see hos- 

•t«^"v I, 

C»), an anny. (F.-L.) The orig. 

a •cnwnjr" or •foreigner.' M. E. 

Mf.^O. K. 4of/i a ho«t, army. — L. 

of ksstit, an enemy (orig. a 

V a piMt) * heocc. a hottile army, 

^Ruhl Af///, a ^e»t, stranger; 

tf] Kc Otievt. Doablet, ^fst. 

(3)» ^' camtcctated bread of the 

(I.) L. Aditiay a victim in a 

; O. Lax. foiUA^ lit. ' that which 

. -U Apiftre, u. LaL /Mtire, to 


; cee Sodenlarjr. 
, Hostler; we Hoat fi). 
CE.) Mr. ^iw/ ttiih long #V 
A.S. jU/, hot 4Da. A/^r, kc-l. ^/(//, Swed. 
4m(; Ou. iA/, G. A////. .Mlied to Iccl. 
iUflC hoae, Goth. AatJ. a torch. Uthu&n. 
«»/ni. heat. (^ KU) 

kt. (E.) M. f.. AfU. A. .S. i(i/M, 

iovwcil f • ! -.t, hy the usual 

.'. Swed. Ai/fa. 

':tb, to beat. 

Ige, iF.-Ou.) 

nf ^otfA/vf, a 

1 medley. 

1 1, hofigc- 



-duafc 4 
Soi^-poi, : 


or uutiMO cui uiio 

pieces. — O. Du. hutien^ hotiem^ to thakci 
/V'/, a pot. See Uiutle aiid Pot. 

Hotel i see Host > i ). 

Hottentot, n native nf the Cnpe of 
Good Uo;^c. (.Ou.) A name given them 
by the Dutch, in derision of their •.peech^ 
which sounded lilte stammering, or a repe- 
tition of ihe syllables hot and M, En is 
Dutch for ' and ; ' htnce Du. Act en /<u -^ 
•h.»l' and 'tot.' Cf. Du. Aateren, to 
stnmmer, taUrtn, to tattle. 

Houdoh, Howdah, a seat fixed on an 
elephant's back. (Arab.) Arab. Aawdaj, a 
litter carried by a camel, a seat placed on 
an tle[>hant'i back. 

Hough, Hock, the joint in the hind leg 
ol an aitimal, between knee and fetlock; in 
man, the back part of the knee joint. (£) 
Now ofually Aock; fonncrly Aeugh. M. £. 
kou€h. AS. kSk^ the heel. + Icel. k4, the 
bock ; Dan. Aa. Cf. Du. hak^ the heel, L, 
toxa, the hip. Skt. kaksAa. an arro pit. 
Dor. hou^h, verb, also spelt kcx, 

Hound, a dog. (E.) A. S Aund, + Du. 
hotiiif Icel. Auudr^ Dan. Swed. G. AnnJ^ 
Goth, kunds. Allied lo L. canis, Gk. 
orvurr (gen. vwJi^, Skt- ^luff, a dog ; al^io 
fo Iri:>h ru, W, ci^ a dog, Kuia, stika^ a 

Hoiir. <F.-L.-Gk.A O. F. Aon {Y. 
Aeurt). — L. Aora. — Gk. &pa, a season^ 
hoar. Prob. allied to Skt ydtm, time. 
(V YA, from V I. to go.) 

horologe, a clock. (F. - U - Gk ) 
O.K. korohgt (later Aar/o^). <mt.. Aoro/a- 
£ium.^Gk. tiipokirfiov, a son-dial, waters 
clock. — Gk. ^p<>. for Sipa, hour; -Aotio*', 
teller, from Aj^iiv, to tell. 

horoscope. (F. — L. — Gk.> F. Aont- 
uo/v.^h. korcscopux, a horo<»:ope, from 
hervsrof>iu, adj., observing the hour. — Gk. 
utfocmuwot, observing the hour ^also as sb.). 

— Gk. i}po~, for Sipa, hour ; onowtiv, to con- 
sider, allied to aMiwroiiat, I consider; see 

Houri, a nymph of Paradise. (Peti.^ 
Fer^. A$iri, one virgin of Paradise, ktird, 
Atir. a virgin of Paradise, black-eyed 
nymph. Cf. Arab. Aawrd, fern, of akwar, 
having fine black eyes. 

House. (£.) M. E. k»m. A. S. Ads. + 
Du. huu. Icel. Alb, Dan. kuus, Swed. km, 
Goth, kuj, G. Aam. Cf. SkL kpika, kapt, 
a coop, a iheath, an abode. 

hoard, a store. (E.) A. S. Aprd •^\ce\. 
Ao^U, G. Aort, Goth. Auui, The Goth. 
IcMiu shows that the orig. ■«-^*^ -^ss 'a 



thing housed." from Goth, kus, a honK 

htiaband. (Scand.') Icel. h^tbindi, 
the roaster of a house, the goodmon ; 
ihoit for hiUbtlanJi,^ Icel. Ai//» house ; 
diianJi, dwelling in, pres. pt. of biia, to 
dwell : see Boor. Der. kusband-mant 

husBiC a c&se for needles, thread. &c. 
(Scand. ) The final ^ is due to confusion 
with hurtfifc, for which see huM7. below, 
— Icel. hdii, a cast, ai in shxrish^si^ a 
scis<^ors-ca£e. — Iccl. hiis, a house. 

husay, a pert girl. (E.^ Short for hus- 
tvife. which is put for house-wife (like kuS' 
bamiinx hoiue band). 

hustings. (Scand.) The ntod. nse is 
incorrect ; k is properly Mui/mg; sing., 
and means a council, an assembly for the 
choice of a candidate. M. £. ktistin^. 
A S. hthtittg.^\cc\. kiis]ttng, a council, 
meeting. —Ice!. hUs, a house ; |»/*^, a thing. 
aUo un assembly ; see Thing. Cf. Swed. 
and Dan. tittff, the same as Icel. )finj^\ and 
the Swed. form better accounts for the £. 
huswife. (E.) I.e. keusewife. 

Houael, the euchari^t. (E.) The orig. 
sense is ' sacriftce.' M. E. houxtl. A. S. 
Aj/M/.4'Ooth. humlj Mchhce. (Root ua> 
ten a in.) 

HousingB ; see Holatar. 

Hovel, a small hut. ' E.) M. E. kovti, 
kavU: dimin. of A. S. Mo/, ki>fa, a house. 
+ IccL kof, temple, hall ; U. hof, yard, 

hover. (E.) A frequentative of M. E. 
keucH { - Maven), to stay, tarry, wait. orig. 
to dwell, a verb formed from A. S. ho/^ a 
house,dwclling(abo\'cV Cf. O. Fries -t«'W, 
to receive into one's house ; 0. Du. haven, 
to entertain, lo<Ige. ^ The W. ho/io, to 
hover, is borrowed from M . £. houen. 

"ELow (t), in what way ; see Who. 

How {2\ a hill : sec Hich. 

Hovedah ; sec Houdoh. 

Howitzer, a short cannon. (G. — 
Bohcniian.) Uorroweri from G.kaubifxe.Wi 
howitrcr ; formerly spell hau/fnifi. »hO' 
h«iniaa hau/niff, orig. a sling ior cakting a 
stone; J (itii^nioim, liohtm. Diet. i. 06a. 

Howl. iF.-L.) M. E. hmUn.^O.r. 
kuifrr.^L. ti-'u/are, to shriek, howl.^L. 
u*'u/a, an owl ; see OwL So also G. 
heuUn, to howl ; f'-orn «uU. an nwl. 

Hox, to hsmstting ; see Hough. 

Hoy (i). a kind of iloop. i.Da.) Du. 


ken, heude, a flat-bottomed fflerchasCi 
ship: Flemish hni, a hoy. 

Hoy (3\ stop! (Du.) Du, J(w'/ boy 
come I well ! Allied to Ho. 

Hoydea, Hoiden ; «ee Heath. 

Hub, a projection ; the same as Hob (2) 

Eubbuo ; see Whoop. 

Huckaback, a sort of linen cloth, 
(LowG. 7) The orig. sense was prob. 
lar's ware : ' cf. lx>w G. hukkeba*^ G. AWi» 
back, pick aback. See Hawker. 

Hucklebone ; srr Hook. 

Huckster ; sec Hawker, 

Huddle. (£.') M. E hoderm, h^wm^ 
which is an equivalent form, mrnnine l 
huddle together, as under a covert or sheltw, 
^• cnuentatiiitt^iLM - E. Aay/fji : to hide: 
Hid!iD. It seems also to hare been 
with Du. hoeteUn, Swed. kuSla. Dan. k 
10 bungle, which are allied to Huati 

Hue U)i show, appeara.nce, colouh 
M.E.^ncr. K.S.kiuf,heew,ke^t&^y 
+ Swed. ky, skin, compteuoo, Goth. 
form, show. 

Hue (2), clamour: se« Hoot. 

Huff, to puff, bluster, bully. (E.> 
old sense is to puff, blow hai-l ; ^ 
bluster, vapour. An imitative 
puff. Cf. Lowl. Sc kauch, a fo. ... .. 

heck, to breathe bani ; G. htiurkent to 
breathe. ^\ To huff At draughts, sim]>tf 
means 'to blow;* it was customary (4 
blow upon the piece removed ; cf. Laid. 
Sc. blaw. to blow, also to huff at draughts; 
Don. bhcsi en bnJkJke, to huff (Uu blow) • 
man at draughts. 

Hus, to embrace closely. (Scand.) TlM 
orig. sense was to squat, or cower do 
Paliignive has : * I kugge, I sbrink to m 
bed. It is good snort to see this Ititic bat 
Awr^T in bis beu for cold ' Of Sca'<<i 
origin ; cf. Dan. xidde Jiaa ku^ {\\\. to sit (A 
a hook), to crouch down; Swed. 4 
to crouch down ; Icel. htUux. to sit i 
hams. Su also O. Du. huken, G. 
to couch, Skt. JhteA, to boxL AUltd 

Huge. rest. (F.-Teut.?^ M. K kmt^ 
hogs'. ^ initial m has drop[«il «0 
oAtfi'f, huge, vast': I Ufa ecfi' \'r^h 
(he old form of mod. G. i 
increase, which is from 
kouch'-, high : see Hlf:h. 
Huguenot, a Frtncb pmtestmnL (P. 
G.) V. huguenot; nazned from come 
son of the name of £tnguemat, who 
doabtlcsfi conspicuoui oa a t^ortacf. 




two centuries it leut 
tioD, and U ■ dimio. of 
kc/tanHot horn /fan). 
, Hugh, li(. n Itioiiyhtful 
htt^;u, thought; allied to 
, to think. ^ See 15 fal^ cty* 
f this word noted by Scheler. 

heavy ».tiip. (Low L. * Gk.) 
lr.«* Luw L. Mu/Jta, belter kuktts, 
Aof»hip.~Gk.(>Xjrax,9i ship which 
Uo > heavy &ltip, mercfaantniao. 
cr, to draw, drag. + Lithu»n. 
111. (V^VAKK.) Der. Au!k- 
hulky, unwieldy ^ Diittnct 
hitiJte, A. S hufc, ft hovel. 
i ft busk : see Holiter. 
body o{ a ship: «ee Holaiar. 
^ to Duu. tli»> M £. kummtH ; 
woid. ^ O. hummen, Du. 
|o hum. 

), to irick, cajole. (E.) A pir- 
Of hum^ to bu7z j it also meant 
found cxpiCKsive of contempt 
. 49^ ; also to applaud ; &ee 
, OAd Todd's John»oa. Hcdcc 
Aatter, cajole, trick. So also 
Ur, to buu, tcmiar, to jest ; 
\r, to hum, alui to jesl. Der. 

ahummmg-liee.fE.l From 

inMr, (>ut for hnmrnU, freqaeii- 

w. Ct Dd. hommei, a humble- 

^$mmeUn, to hum ; G. kummd, 

e, from Aumm^M, to hum. 

, a hoax, piece of trickery. 

h^. a false alann, n bdgbear/ 

s MS. (cited in HaUiweil). 

lioctinots, and humiugi ; * aliout 

Compounded of kum^ hoax. 

•pc»:IiT, rhoit bngt<ar; the 

bcint; 'i^am Inigttear; tee 

^ box I>er. humhu,!^, verb. 

dollf drouine. (,K.) Com- 

a buizmg noise, and 

•cmnd ; see Drozu. 

•>L.) Fom^etly humaiut. 

* humane, mauly;* Cot 

» L. kome, a man ; 

ith/ from kumus, 


• U) M. E. kcma^t. . 
the service of a vasul to bis 
k^ma/fcum, the service of a 
mL. A4wr-^i a mfin 
ma&'sU' < a man- 

> F. ki iimg u) 

Cfoa L. ,...,......,^>tf i (a) « 

mnn'k.iller, &om L. ^<'mtV/j'a. — L. kcm-^, 
aitiafi ; -fUium, a killing, or -nV/d, a slayer, 
from cadere, to kill. 

humano. ^L.) Directly from L. An. 
matiuj, 1 1) human, (3) kind. 

ombre, a game at cards (F.^Span » 
L.) F. k^ml^re. ^Span. Jtu^o del Momifrt, 
lit. *game of the man.' — L. hominem, ace. 
of k0m&. a man. 

Humble. (F. - L.) F. kumiU. - 7-. 
humiUm, occ. of kymilu, humble, lowly, 
near the gromid.— L. humus, the giound. 
Cf. Gk. x"/''"*, on the ground, Rus^i 
sem/ta-, earih, land. 

exhume, to disinter. (L.) Coined fiom 
€x, GDI of; kuiNNS, thc ground. 

humiliate. {L. ) From pp. of L. 
kttmn'mre, to btunble. — L. ^«/ni/i>f hiunble 

humility. (F.-I-.) M. E. kumi/i/et. 

— O. F. Aumit'iUift humility. — L. kumiU- 
fiiUm^ ace of kurnilitaj, humility. — 1* 
hmmiiisy humble. 

Humble-bee, Humbug; seeHam(i). 

Humdrum; see Hum (i)* 

numernl, beluuging to the shoulder. 
(L. I Low L. kumeralitf belonging to the 
shoulder. — J^ humetttiy ihe hhoulder; 
txttcr umtrus, •4- Gk. iIr>«H. Goth, atiua^ 
Ski. amsa, the slioulder. 

Humid, moist. iF.-L.) F. kumide.^ 
L. kumidtts, better umiduj, moist. — L. 
kumere, umert, to be moist; cf. mums, 
uuidui, udus, moist. Gk. i^^r, moist. 
(VUG, for WAG.) 

humour, orig. moisture, (F. — L.) See 
Trench, Select Glossary, and Study of 
Words. The four kumoun, acconling to 
Galen, caused the four temperaments of 
miud, viz. choleric, melancholy, phlegmatic, 
and sanguine.- O. F. kt4mor {i . Aumeur). 

— L. ^HiWtfrrm. ace. of kumor^ moisture, w 
L. kunfftr, to be moist (above). 

Humiliate, Humility; sec Humble. 

Hummock; &ee Hump. 

Hum.p, ft lump, bunchy esp. on the back. 
(E.) • I/um/t a buuch, or lump,* lt'tj£- 
moreland;* HalliwcU. Nut found in 
M. £- It is a na&aliscd form of keap^ and 
from the lajne base as htap and hot \\)\ 
see Hop (t). Cf. Gk. ri^ot, a hump, 
Lithuan. kumpos^ bunched, SkL kuhja^ 
hump backed. Pamllel to hunck, q. v. 

hummock, hommock, a mound, hil- 
lock, rounded mass (K. ) It ap|)cars to be 
merely a dimin. of kumt ; put as U for 
kump-otk •. Ci. hill'tx k Uou 

El 3 


Hunch, a hump, roand mass. fB.) A 
ao-uliKcl form oi kook, q. v. Cf. G Mmke, 
the bent back, h<kktr, a hunch on the 
back. And cf. Skt. kui^k^ to bend, vith 
kuch, to l-end. 

Hundred. (E.) M. E. humind. A. S. 
hundred \ a compound word. — A. S. htmd, 
A hundred; and r^J, rA:d, speech, discourse, 
but here used in the earljr sense of * reckon- 
ing* or nte, to denote the rate of couiiUiig. 
Cf Icel hund'ta^f hundred, d//r.e^r, 
eighty, ti-nrtSr, a hundred (ten rate V This 
suffix is allied to B«ad, q. t. p. The A. S. 
kund is cognate with I-, centumt ansncring 
10 an Ar\an form KANTA. short for 
DAKj\NTA. i.e. tenth, as appears fiom 
Goth, taikun-taihund, a hundi-cd (lit. ten- 
tenth\ In fact htrnd^t-tnth without the/, 
juit as L. €tntum is for de-cenlum. See Ten. 

Hunger. (E.) A. S. httn^r. + Icel. 
Hhh^, Swed. Dan. hun^et\ Dn. honj^er, 
G. Atm^r; Goth. Au^rus, hunger. Prob. 
allied to Skt. kuflch, to conirnct; «n that 
hunger denotes the feeling of being shrunk 

Hunt, to chase wild animals (E.) M. £ 
hunUn. A. S. huntian, to capture. Allied 
10 Goth, hunths, ciptivily, whidi is from 
huntharts, pp. oi hitUhaa, to seize, capture 
vpt. t. fianth). Thus the Teut. base is 
HANTH. to seize. Cf. Skt. ^diaya, to 
fell, to drive, causal of ta^^ to fall. 

hint, a slight allu-non. (E.) f/iMt is 
properly 'a thing taken' or caoght up; 
short for M. E. hinted, pp. of htHten or 
htnttn, to seirc. — A. S. kentan, to seiie, 
bunt .-ifter; from the Teat, base HANTH 
(ahove). ^ Or from Icel. ymta, to mutter. 

Hurdle. (E.) M E. hurdtl. A. S. 
kyrdel; a dimin. from an A. S. base hitni-*. 
not found ; but sec the connate woids. + 
Du. h0rde, IceL kur^, G. hUnie, M. H. G. 
hurft a hurdle; Goth. MaHt-ds, a door. 
Cognate with L. crmtts. a hurdle, Gk. 
nAfToAoi, a twoven\ basket Cf. SkL krit, 
to "ipin. fkrit, to connect. The sense is a 
•woven" thing. (^ KART.) Doublet. 

hoardinc. • ltin<I of fence. ^ F. - Do. : 
0r Du.^ Not old. EiUicr from Du. fu-nie, 
a hunlle. or from F. k^t^it^ « palisade 
'^^' ' ^ = ■' icwonl. ^^ 

' of violin, jtlayvd 

!"• A derisire naine. 

rr«'tu tb« sfKiing »ound. Cf Lowl. .Sc. 
kurr^ to soArl. ^ww, fg growL • Sem \ 


strange wldffyng, ohyt<aing. l<trrvnt »S 
goftytg' - some people use a i-'' 
bling, chattering. snarKng ami , 
Spec, of English, ed. Aiorris and "^krii, f« 
2(1, 1. 165. Formed on lh« model of 
hitr!ydntr!y. Sec Hurry. 

Hurl; see Hurt. 

Hurlyburly, a tumult. (F. — L.; mi 
E.) A reduplicated word, the secondsjl* 
lable being on echo of the f'r^t Tw 
simple form huriy is the oiigin 
John, iii. 4. i6(). — K Hurler^ ici 1 
a corruption of Mniitr, to howl ; ».t i.*v-- 
So alio Ital. urlart, ultttart, to howl ; L 
uiulart. to howl. 

Hurrah ; see Huaaali. 

HurriofLiie, whirlwind. (Span.-»CAiJb- 
btan.) Span, huracan. — Carib, iw*** 

Hurry. (Scand.> Not allied to hxrrf. 
Formed from an older word kurr\ $0 aho 
scurr-y from skir. M. E. h^ritn, to bwr? 
(Aim. Poems, ed. Morrii. B. S83) -CX 
Swed. hurra, to swing, whirl rovad 
Swed. dial, httrra, to whiil, whence 
sb. hurry, haste. Cf. Dao. hi/rrt, to 
whir; Icel. Murr,% noise. Allied to 
being an imitative word. 

Hurst, a wood. ;E,> M. E. kuti 
A S. hyrst. + M. H. G. hi$nt, a 
thicket. Lit. 'interwoven ihiokct;' 
to Hurdle. 

Hurt, to dash against to hann. fF.«»' 
M. E. kmrtett, kiricn, (O to ; "^ ^ 
against; \^\ to injure. — O. F. 
k*urttr\ to strike or dash again^ 
tic origin : W. kynidu, to ram, puab 
kwrddt a push, a thrust, ktirr^, a raaa 
kcrdh, a ram ; Manx kturin, a he-coal 

hurl, hurtle ;F.-C.; untk £a^. 
Hurl is short for kmrlU\ and kurttt, i, 
(o keep on dftihing against^ is the 
tative of kurf^ in the old %crue of 
against.* .See kurtltth ^ pushes dow^ 
Chaucer. C. T. j6i8, where some KSSi 
have hurtttA: aUo kuHid, \V)c1jC 
vL 49, in six MSS.. where se««n(cca M^ 
have hurtlid. 

Husband ; mk Houae 

Hush; kce Uiaa. 

Husk ; sec Holator. 

Husky, hoarse. XjL.) CorraptBl ft<i 
hmty or kamSy, by ooo^tttoa wit^ ^ 
cdnunoaer word kuik^ * &amst, 
cough;* Coles {\h%\\ From M. 
kit, a ooqgh, A. S^ 4W/M, s 

\ Dm. Imtt, IceL hiiH, Duuu k*iu- 


, 1 cough. Allied to Skt. 

^iungafuii.) So called because 
lies, Ling of Hnn{>ai7 and 
a coi^c of horse soldiers in 
idUig thai ont man should 
(M<ea out of tMttnty. in every village. 
n^. kta^ar^ twentieth ; from huix, 
f (Ullre. Scheler). 
tmt, Huuy, Hustings ; tee 

1410. to jostle. (Dd.) Put for hH/j/i. 
p kutstUn, to fchalce up and down, 
lBUif;«ti)ef ; frequent, of O. Do. hutjin, 
wt*fn, to shake See Hotobpot^ Cf. 
. Sc JkM, to move by jerks, Ap/ttTf lo 

U (F.-O. H. G,) M. E. Atf//tf.-F. 
f « cotlaipc ; Cotjjrave- — O. H. G. 

(C Am/U), a hut. <f Swcd. AyJiia, 
« O. Skt. tuW, a hut; from tui, to 
<Wdcc to cover). 

tch, a box. (F.-Low L.) M. £. 
', *w.vV. — F.ArtcAe, a hutch, bin.— 
T. a hutch, box; of unknow'u 
Teutonic; cf.O. H. G. kuatan 
mxfm . \o ule care nf. See Heed. 
jp»h 'G. ', Hurr&h (Scaod.) Nuz- 
Mile older form ; al&o written huita. 
tow^ buixafa I So also Swcd. lod Dan. 
1^ biirrah t Cf. Dan. Aum, to hum, 

S«c Uunr- 
AetnUi, a flower. (F» *L. -Gk.) 
mhmiki. — U kyannthys. «> Gk. i^- 
N, an iris, la^k^pur mot our hyacinth). 
dcUh, a preaous stooe. iF. — L.» 

O. F. fa^ifttAi. — L. AyacintAus, a 
K. * Gk. inuni'tfdff a jacinth ; Rev. 


■HA ; ace Hjretuk 
bdcU mongrel (L. » Gk. 7) L. Af- 
L ihi|> I'rfa, a mongrel, a hybrid. 
EIt vrrivcd from Gk. iB^\t-^ item of 
I aksnlt, wantonncu, violation. 
dm. a water-^^oake. (U - Gk.) L. 
i.«Gk. Mm, waler-tnake.— Gk.i^'ft'P. 
CI Sku itinir. a water-animal, 
, A- S- »ftr. Doublot, oitcr. And 

^pUJ ; tec hrdropay (below). 
<drmilgMi» a flower. (Gk.) A coined 
l^nftsnoff to the cup-^orm of the 
■br aecd'YVuel. FromGk. Cfip>, for 
j^bcr i ^rywov, a vessel. 
qnull'' u water in motion. 

L — Ok lult^iu. » L. A/- 

,wG^. .^^i-^.^ui, bclooging lo ■ 



water -or^n. — Gk, {ifpauXir. an orgaji 
worked by water — Gk. CS/>-, for vitt^t 
water; avK6f, a pipe, tube (from the base 
a/T, to Mow ; sec Air). 

hydrodyn arnica, the science relating 
to Uie force of water in motion. (Gk.) 
Gk. CJt/io-f for ^bwp, WAlcr ; and E. dytut- 
wfVj, a wort] of Gk. origin ; see Dynamiot. 

hydrogen, a %-cr}' light gas. (Gk.) J 
Tlic name means 'generator of water.'* ^ 
Gk. dhpO', for tltup, water ; and the baae 
liv', to produce: see OttDOBia. 

hydropathy, the water -care, (Gk.) 
Gk. CS/w-, for ^ioip, water ; v<itf-or, sufTcr- 
inc, endurance of treatmait; sec Fathoa. 

iiydrophobia, fear of water. (Gk.) 
Coined from Gk. t^po; for t^aip^ water ; 
^jSot. fear. (V" BHA.) M 

hydropsy, dropsy. (F. — L. « Gk.) H 
Formerly iirofsie or yJrepiie ; the form 
(Irof-sie being due to loss of y*. — O. F. 
AykropisU. — L. hydrofisis^ Aydro/itxa. — 
I-ate Gk. {•Spofvicir*, not found, from Gk. 
thpv^, dropsy, extended from Ohpo-^ toi 
tltup, water. Der. dropsi c-ah 

hydrostatics, the science which treats 
of fluids at resi. (Glc.) Gk. C^*'-, for 
CSa'p, water ; and Statics, q. v. 
Hyena, Hysno. a sow-like quadruped. 
(L. — Gk.) L. Ayana, — Gk. ^atva, a hyena ; 
lit. * sow-like.' — Gk. C-t, a sow, cognate 
with E. Sow; with fc-m. adj. Buffix -xuro. ^| 
Hymen. (I.. - Gk.) L. AymtH. - Gk. ■ 
iVnv", the god of marriage. 
Hymn. i,F. - L. - Gk.) W.^ympnt 
(with excrescent /), — O. F. ymtu tlater ^ 
Aymtu). — L. kymnum^ ace of L. Aymnms. ■ 

— Gk. Cfivof, a aong, festive &ong, hymn. V 
Hypallage. an mterchange. (L.«Gk.) 

L. Aypaiiage. * Gk. viroAAaT:}, an inter* 
change, exchange. — Gk. ln-l, under; ilA* 
Xay^, cbanf^e, from Ax\&aatix', to change, 
which from dAAos, another. See Alien. _ 

Hyper-, prefix, denoting excc». (L.« ■ 
Gk.) h. Aypcr-, for Gk. vwip, above, be- 1 
yood, alliert to L. su/tr. lience Ayper» 
b<uon, a transposition of words from natural 
order, lit. 'x going beyond' (from ^Vfir, 
to go) ; Ayp<r^bortan, extreme norlhcm 
(from ^o^tat, north wind! ; kyptr-boU, ex- ^ 
aggeralion. Gk. iiM*^oKii (from f}dAA<iv, fl 
to throw, cast). 1 

Hyphen, a short stroke (•) joining two 

tarts of a compound word. <L. * Gk.) 
w hyfhtn, for Gk. b^iv, lit, 'under one.* 

— Gk. i^, for irv<f, under; \v^ neut. of all, 




-, erc6x. 

(Ct) Gfc fa^ «der: 

B acDtJ dSiocdef i»- 
(l.-Gk.) Vmmed 

H). «nae mier tike caitfl^ of tht 
•bone. ■- L^ i|/wi iwrfi ■■, &. pL •« 
Gk. faa x ^>f "»> ^_JP^ Vke pvti beoestJk 
lbebnmst-booei->GlLi*4,aBdcr; x^^Afoc 
s cam, gnin, epistle, cxrtilap of tihc 
faivssl-booe. l>«r. ii/f-isJk, q. r. 

HTpocTiST' pretence to Tiftne. fF. — L. 
-Gk.) O. F, hxpecridi. - L k^facriai, 
I Tim. ir. >. «• Gk. kmiKftatt, a repl7, 
answer, pUyin^ • port on a lUge, acting 
of 1 part^Gk. Irrov^Kra^t, I reply. pUy 
a pan. "- Gk. (rv^, under ; a^i^^pat, I coa- 
Icnd, middle voice of «;>tra>. I jndge. See 
Crilic. Der hypocrite, F. kypocriu, U 
kjfpocrita, Gk. urcMr^Ti^. a OUMmbler, 
M»tl. ri. 3. 

Hypogaatrlc, belonging to the lower 
part of the abdomen. (F. « L. - Gk.) 
O F. kypogaitriqui. — Late L. hyfc^u- 
tricHf, betofteing to the lower part of the 
belly— Gk. uwt^ierptcr, lower part of the 
Selljf ; see Hypo- and Oastrio. 

HyiXMrtOAls. (L.-Gk.) L. kypottaiu. 
*Gk. l/w^oraon, a ttandipg mtder, groood- 
work, mfasUtcDce^ nibstaace, a Penoo of 

I, nom. ca»e of firtt pen. pronoun. (E.^ 
M. E. ^Northern) ik, i; (Soothera) uM, 
mck, I. A. S. u. + Du. li. Icel. tJt, Don. 
re^, Swed. ja^, Goth, li, G. iVA, W. f, 
Ku^s. r'a, L. cgv, Gk. ifi/^ i-f^, Skt. a^am. 
(Anan form, AGAM.) ^ jl/> U from a 
different Li>.e. 

I', Dcg. prefix; *cc In- (3). 

Iambic, a certain metre, a short uidalong 
srllable {v -). (L. — fjk.) V. tamdifus.^ 
Gk. InfiffiH&f.^Ok, tafi^ot, an iambic foot, 
iambic vcise, lampoon. So called from 
UK in utiric poetry. » Gk. Hwrttr, to 
thiow. cast (hence attack). Allied to 

Ibex, a genus of goati. (L.) L. lArx. 

IbiB, a bird. <L.-Gk. — Egypt) L. ifiu. 

VSTA. m 



r - L - nt> 

(ba-LV -r iyfttfwMM 

* Ck. ■ ■■r w — s ibe 

(Soe) : tern, of prea pan. d 

»» ■litiil, fiL ID ibcac^ I 


TTjirntTiftlT. a k^ of 

U - (^) 

Oefm^ a wictBM. — U 

pk*^ Miftt«r^-(%. kwK ndcri « 
m W>r«i, I pUce. (VDHA.) 

L. i^rfttluju, — Gk^ k&d^9tt, a pfa 
uado, sappositicfL 
aj^aoe: froaibe 
H]r«K>I». a pAaa 
M E: /»^«0. F. i juJ w / ^.-l, A^ 

— Gk. fotfwMf, an anHnanc ptaal (mi 
hyvopy-Heb. IsAk, a plMt <Mlt a 
known what plant). 

H jstorie, ooovakbc^ takl of ita. { 
I Gk.) 0.?.k]ratrifm,''\^kjf$li$ 

— Gk. JKTTfpioic, coAenQg ia the «< 
hysterical. - Gk. ArrVt, the voalk \ 
from Gk. lNrrc^«i. UCter, tower, coopM 
from the Aryan bale UD, oat ; tee O1 

r taae niei « ibe li 
It. (F.«.I-*Gk.JI 


— Gk. rtfii. an Egjptiao bird. Of EgypL 
origin ; cf. Coptic htpptn i^I'cyron). 
loo. (K.) M E. yi. lis. A. S. £j.+Du. 
loci. iu. Dan. lir, Swcd. it, G. rt'r. 

«wtftly, Skt. //*. to hasten. Dor 

quite a modem wonJ : the latter cU 

ii the Do.. Swed.. and G. berj^, % mocn 

cf. Dn. ijsber^, Swed. ii^r^ 

G. tis&erg, an ice-bcTY r 

word), AUo i^eMinl. IM:. 

field of ice, from Dan. (^. -; :-. r - ;^' ■ J > 

idele. ^E.) M. \L. > 
from M. E. ys, ice. i'i»/. a ; 
A. S. Isgicei, an icicle; al-r 
^V//, where //er is the gen. case. 1 
is a dimin form, meaning *a «m»t! |»(e 
ice;' cf. In '•■■•■ • 4- 

iss'joknll, t 

itself in the =^...'v »> .v.^.^. -;... « « ... 
of Jaki, a piece of ice ; Low G. U^ 
lohneumon. (L.-Gk.) X^iflmm 

— Gk. I X*' **'***■*■• *•* iv:hneom<wi (TW 
lit 'a tracV' ' 
dcrouri) c 
[^IS, to glide.) Cf. Itel. raa, to go ' to track. — 0>^. '^^vi, « .uv^»U| 




■HHPJaicc in the Tclns of gods. 
Y' CV. tx"f^. jnic«; ftllied to (<r/«iT. 
tare CC Skt iuA. to sprinkle, wet. 

ithjro^raphy, descriptioa of fishes. 
) Gk. '.vWo , crtide form of fx^''^ a 
; *f^^tt¥, lo describe. So &lfiO uhtfiyo- 
irom Ai^r, a diiCourBC, Xi'^aii', to 

tola ; Mc loo. 

^noclost, n bre»iter of images. (Gk ") 
lol from Ck. «i«fw»'0-, for cf<r^, an 
re ; cAiiaTiTr, a Ureaker, from «A(i<ir, to 

3MA*droiU « »>lid Bf^urcwitb twenty 
J Cues. (Gk.) Krom Gk. <rico(rt, 
rtr; 13^ s bwe, liL a scat, from Uic 
I i^ Bo ait; sec Bit. 
n. (I- -Gk.) L.>^«A«.Gk. ISfo, the 
or ftcoiMaiice of a thing, ipcdes (hence. 
no>.-Gk. ia^iT, to sec. (V^ID.) 

Urt. (F.«L.-Gk.) O. F. idoU.^U 
r«a.— Gk. tThtXov^ an image, Ukmess. 
k tfrS0>Mu, I sppear, setm ; (d<iV, to see. 
*1D^ Dop. Uctatry (corruption of 
from f 1. F idclatrit, Ia>w L. 
tenci fonn of uiohhiria, from 

*,— ,- ^Tfltja, Krvice lo idols i^wherc 

■fa^ tervicc, is from Xarpit, a hired 
El Aiirrfkir, hire\ Heiice iJo/a/er,&c. 
\ji. (djil, ■ pastoral poem. (L, — Gk.) 
'yiUum. — Gk. f/5»AAiov, a short desctip- 
poem. — Gk. cTBot. fonn, shape, figure. 
L iO*^wi. I appear (see above). 
imtfl*r1. the very same. (L.) Formerly 
nic; iiettiUk. Fonned ai if from Low 
bx/tirmr *, atij. suggested by L. identitas \ 

IflSlUCy, nmenest. (F. — Low L. — L.) 
UkMH//. — Low L, ace. identitatem, 
BMM.— Lb idtnti-^ occurring in tfcnit- 
rvpeatodly: with luRix -/of. «L. iikm, 
laaM;*!^ ^-. and -tf/w ; from Aryan 
omma! bftMs 1 and PA. 

-th day of March, May, July, 
'■ >^f Other mooths. (F.^L.) 
Ui - ^''cs. 

Lori trhtc of citnression. (F. 

— Gil r f iii}mt — L. fi^ffid.oGk. 

«, aa idiooiL peculiarity of 1 anguage. *• 

lltC^ii T FiuVr myown.*Gk.r&Qf, own. 

•n, ulf (Curtius). 

feculiarity of tempera- 

own ; ffi^ mpaffiS, 

I tfv-jr- ( ■ tf vr), to- 

a^ aykUTii, s ciui^u/ig- OCC Onuil. 



Idiot. (F. - L. - Gk.^i F. «Vw/. • L. 
ididia, an ignorant, nnedticated person.— 
Gk. XU^rrf%, a private perfton ; btmce, one 
who is ineicpcricnccd (i Cor. xiv. lOV— Gk. 
iAi<4v, I make my own. *Gk. TSioc, own. 

Idle. (H,) M.E. idtl. A.S. idel, vain, 
empty, useleiS.+Du. i/ty^/, vain; Dan. idel, 
Swed. id<l, mere; G. eiiel^ vain, trifling. 
The orig. sense seems lo have been 'clear' 
or * bright ;' cf. Gk. I&a^r, clearf pure (as 
a spring). (V^^'H.) 

Idol. Idyll ; see Idea. 

If, conj. (E.) M.E. if, A.S. >r»A+IceL 
</ if, O. Fries. «/. ^ tf, O. Sax. <•/; 
Goib, lAi, ibai, perhaps. We also find 
Goth. Jahait if (compounded oiJaM, and, 
iMi. perhaps) ; with whi-ih cf Dn. of, if. 
or, whether, G. oA, whether Al«> O. H. G. 
iStt, if, lit. 'on the condition,' dat of i^, 
condition, stipulation. 3. The E. 1/; Icel. ir^ 
Goth. i6iii, O H. G. i&u, are from a Teut. 
type EHAI,dal. of £B.\, stipulation, doubt, 
seen in O. H. G. i^ (as above) ; cf. L. 0/-. 
in o/t'irtuj, imagining, efi-inari, to suppose. 
Prob. from ^ AP, to obtain. 

Iirnition, a setting on fire. (L.) F. 1^ 
ni/ian. As if from L. initio* (not used). 

— L. ignittis, pp. of ignirt, to set on fire.— 
L. i£rtis. fire. +Skt. Oipii, fire. Hence also 
ignts fafuuit a vnin fire ; ipte-cus. adj, 

Ignoble, Ignominy, Ignore ; see 

Iguana, a kind of American lizard. 
(Span. •■ W. Indian.) Span, iguana. Of 
Caribbean origin. 

H- ^1), put for m-, prefix, from L. iw, 
prep., when / follows. Ekx.: it-lapse^ it- 
iuston, &c. 

H- (3), put for Iff-, negative prefix when 
/ follows. Exx. : il-iej^I^ i!-legioie, il-Ugiti- 
matt, il-liberal, il-limitahU, il-liUratt^ it' 
Ic^cat; for which see Ugal^ tegihlt, &c. 
And see illicit. 

Iliac, pertaining to the smaller intestines. 
(F. — L) K. iiiaj/ue. belonging to the 
flanka. Formed from L.i/ia, a. j».. flanks, 
groin. See also Jade (3). 

niad. an epic poem. <L. — Gk.> L. 
/tiad;item oi Jlias, the Iliad. — Gk. 'IXiaB-, 
stem of 'lAi<ir, the Iliad. — Gk, 'lAior. Ilios, 
the city of llus, commonly known as Troy. 

— Gk, 'lAoj, Ilus. grandfather of Priam, 
and son of TVw (whence Trvry)> 

in ; tet EtU. 
rUapse : sec Lapse. 
Illation, an inference. (F. — L.) F. //&■ 
.Wim.-^L. ace. uJdtiotum, a hriagia^ in 



a cool 

ail a.n^^>M«. .0 ^liii. 

i. 21. «-GVi 

TmpiMTt; atePMrt. 

Ii^air, 10 MAkc wane, b^vrr; 

(F. *I.) F. im^'m\ 1 , to 
vL MMpiMri tD |iitfsc to <Md( 

tttrtt a f ^) Fnoa pp. of L. imilmri. | M|tewv«n; to taake wonc — i 
i|«LBliliii of uMfT% ao« Mu IRPm vixh iamanv locoe: 

Imbsofto. iwbk. (F. - L) ForscHy pouthv. 

M n adi. i bcl the verb imWcti^ to | ImpATt ; am Fwt» 


a; Me Ffttienb. 
see Fuie. 
Impede; icc Fed^. 

v«. Imperial ; see Fftre. 
exit] s«« Ten&bto. 
sec Vladaot. 
t ; ux Flenary. 
Imply ; tec Plj, 
ICC Deplura. 
Importable; »ec Port (i). 
; »ee Fort (2). 
ueFo«« (I). 
a : lee Foaltloa. 
kume, to abiccsL (F.-L- 
ap^Uktmi, as in Cot^avc* 
htMf, ' an Bpostume. aii inward 
U of corrupt matter* A stU) 
ia F. apciUmt, al&o in Cot- 
k 0f0tUma. mm Gk. liwocrrjfta, a 
117 from, hcacc, a separation of 
ter.~Gk. (ivt>, away ; 0T7-, base 
aei, place, stand. (.^STA) 
r; see Foailion. 
rlsh : KC Pauper. 
kte ; KC Pr»o«rioua. 
lAble : see Frehenalla. 
Ult«; uc Ratal. 
I ace Preai. 
I sec Preaa. 
I ; ae« PrefaenaOe. 
bfcu; see Exempt. 
Sate ; see Proper 
tee Probable. 

clcsi ^F.-L.) r. >»i- 
ftHt , Stem of impttdent, 
im-, for in. not : pmdetu, 
pL oi pttierf, to fed uume. 
tee Pugtliam. 
»cc PtUftAta, 
, t£e Pain. 
«r Putative. 
) A S. in. .f Du. m. Icel. 
i, Golb m. C. in. W.^, 
im, (>k. |y, iW. /m U a 
of ra. m in Gk. iv ; the 
lO be a locative case, and 
Gk. dr^, £. mp; sec 
ANA.") Der. inn'tr, 
/. A. S. iHM^mat (i e. 
fQl^erl. forui). 'Hie 
also a corruption of 
Also mwani, $Mtn-in» I 



in-ffr-, i/i'tro'. And sec inn tbclow). 

inn, sb (E.) M. E. m. i«h. — A.S »««,— A-S- in, (««, adv., within indoors. 

• AS. >n, prep., in (above). ^ Icel. i'mmi, 
an inn : ififir, adr., iodoora. 

inning, (li.^ Properly the securing or 
housing of gra'n. from inn. verb, due lo 
$Hm, »b., above. Hence innin^^ as a term 
at cricket, invariably used in the plural. 
because the side which is in oooaists of 
several players. 

In- (I), prefix. (E.) In some words, it 
is only the prep, in in comnojiilion. Exx.: 
in-bom. in-breaihe, in tfrni, in-ianJ, &c. 

In- (i), prefix. (L ) In 50mc words, it is 
the L. prep, in in composition. Exx. : in- 
augurait, iM-<arceraJe, Sec. Sometime*, it 
has passed through French ; as in-Jicatitm, 
&c. ^ It becomes »'/- before /, im- before 
^, m, and />, »r- before r. 

IJI- (3)* negative prefix. (L. ; orF. — L.) 
From L. neg. prefix im-, cognate with K. 
ncg. prefix un ; sec Un- ( 1 ). ^ It becomes 
I- before ^h, as in i-gmtAU; »A before /; 
iffi- before i, iw, and p ', ir* before r. Der. 
inabiUty, inaccusibU^ fitc^ &c ; for which 
sec abU^ a£tcsSf &c. 

Inane, empty, silly, useless. (L.) L. 
inanis, void, empty. Root unknown. Der. 
ina-n i-iy. 

inanition, exhaustion from lack of foo<l. 
(F. » L.) F. inanition, * an emptying ; ' 
Cot. From t)ie pp. of inamirt, lo empty ; 
from inanii (above). 

Inaugurate ; see Angnr. 

Inoandesoent ; see Candid. 

Incantation ; sec Oant (i). 

Incarcerate, to imprison. (L.) L. in, 
in ; and carxtratus, pp. of cantrartt lo ira« 
prison, from career^ a prison. 

Incarnadine ; see Carnal. 

Incarnation : see Oarnal. 

Incendiary, Inoenae : see Candid. 

Incentive ; see Cant <^\^. 

Inceptive ; see Capaoioua. 

Inceeaant ; sec Cede. 

Inceet : see Caste. 

Inch, the twelfth part of a foot. (L.) 
M. E. inckt. A.S. yMct.-^h. uncia, an 
inch 1 also an ounce ; orig. a small weight. 
Cf. Gk. ^tfor, bulk, weight. 

ounce (t), twellth part of a pound. (F. 
— L.) O. F. *Mf/. — L uHcia (above) 

uncial, lar^, applied to letters. iL) 
I., mnciaits, adj. from mnda, inch. (From 
the til* of the Uttcra.) 



Incident ; lee Oadanod 

Incipient ; see OapMiona 

IndBO ; see Cfcmuro. 

Incite ; tee Cite. 

Incline, to lean lowardi. (F.-L.) F. 
ifK/i/ur. — h. wc/inart, — L. in, towards: 
tlittart*. to leiin, copnate with E. Lean (i), 
q.v. (V KKI.) Doublet, etuiiru. 

declension. (F.-L.) 0,V. dtciinai- 
son, u&ed for ihe ' declension ' of a noun. — 
L. dtclinationtm^ ace of declination de- 
clinalioo, declension. ••L. deiUmuus, pp. of 
dtcHnan (below), 

decline. (F.-L.) O. F. duUntr.'^X^. 
dt'Ciinan, to lean or bend aside fiom. 

encline. (F. — L.) M. E. enclinen.^ 
O. F. enclintr.^ L. inciinart : see Incline, 
recline. (L.) L. rfc/inarr, to lean 
back, lie down. See also AocUvity. 

Inclose, Include ; see OUoje. 

Incog^to ; see Noble. 

Income ; see Come. 

Incommode ; sec Mode. 

Incorporate : sc-e Corporal (a). 

IncreABe, Increment i seeCraaoent. 

Incubate, IncubuB ; see Oovey. 

Inciiloate ; sec Calk. 

Inculpate : see Culpable. 

Incumbent; see Covey. 

Incur, Incursion ; ^ec Currant. 

Inounrate ; see Curve. 

Indeed; iceI>o<i>. 

Indomnlf)^, Indemnity ; tee Damn. 

Indelible ; see Delete. 

Indent : see Dental. 

Index, Indicate ; see Dlotlon. 

Indict, Indlotion ; see Diction. 

Indi^enouB ; see Genoa. 

Indigent, destitute- (F.-L) F. iitdi- 
ftnt.^L. inJi^ent't stem of pre*, part. .oC 
inUigrrr, to be in want.- L. i«*/-, for indo 
or iHiin, an O. LA. extension from in, in 
(cf. Gk. Ivhow. within): egert, to want, he 
in need; cf. L. imfigus, needy. Cf. Gk. 
ix^i*'. poor, needy \.Tbcucritui). (^ AGll ) 

Indigo, a blae dye. (F. — Span. — L — 
Gk. — Pens— Skt.) F.rm/>]i,T.— Span indieo. 

— L indicum, indigo; neut. of /ndicui, 
Indian (hence Indian dye). — Gk. UUmiv, 
indigo; ncuL of IvUK&t, Indian.— Per*. 
Hind, Indi.! ; a name due to the river Indtia. 

— Skt. sindhu, the river Indui; a Iwge 
river. — SkL tyand, to flow. % The 
PersiiD changers i into h. 

Indite ; sec Diction. 
Indolence : »ec Deleft 
IndomlUbl«; ••■ Deiml 



Indubitable ; see DuaL 

Induce, Induct ; see Duke. 

Indue u), to invest or clothe wilb. 
supply with. (L.) In Spenser, F'.Q. jii 6. 
35. — L. indutrt^ to put into, put on. dothe 
with. The prefix is rather %md- than im 
(for this prenx see Indigent) ; cT. tx-*»uis^ 
spoils, ind-mtia, clothes. See BxurtA. 

Indue (3), a corruption of Sndue, q r. 

Indulgenoe. (F.-L) F. imdmf^mrt. 

— L. imdu/gmfta. '^h. induigmt; stem cf 
prcs. pt. of indulgtrt, to be courteous tc^ 
indulge. (Of unknown origin.) 

Indurate; see Dure. 

Industry. (F.-L.) F. $m/maru,~L 
indusfria. — L. indtutriui, diU^^enL Ori£iA 
unccruin : perhaps from O. LaL im^ 
withm, and rtru-trtf to ajrange^ build ; mt 

Inebriate ; see Bbriety. 

Ineffable : see Fata. 

Inept ; see Apt. 

Inert; see Art (3). 

Inexorable ; &ee Oral 

Infamy : see Fame. 

Infknt. Infantry ; see PaUL 

Infatuate ; see Fatuoae. 

Infect ; sec Faot. 

Infer ; see Fertile. 

Inferior. (F.-L) O. F. imfirieur. 
L inftriortm. aoc of in/eri^r, lower, covp. 
of inftrus, low, nether. Strictly. vttf^W 
is itself a compar. form, answeriof to 
tft/^dm, lower, from aJMajt adv., nndcfBcallb 
low, down. 

infernal. (F. - L.) F. injtrml. -L 
infemaliit belonging to the lower legioiL 

— L in/emus, lower ; eitcnded frojo imfifm 
(above >. .- .,' 

^oi'Mti'to hnrmsa. (F.«L.) F. imfatmk 

— L infestarCy to attack. — L. imftttm 
attacking, hostile. Jn/tstm = imfidtia^x 
from in, against ; nn^/ed'. base ta/ndrrtt 
to strike, as seen in offmdfrt, de 

Infidel ; see Faith. 

Infinite : see finite^ undrr Final. 

Infirm, Infirmity. Infirmary t lat 

Inflate ; eee FUtuIenL 

Inflect; see Flexible, 

Inflict. (U) L. injiiifm, p|)L of ■» 
/Itgert^ to inflict, lit. to stiikc upon «!• eih 
upan:and/iVnir,tosthk«. (VuHXACUj 
See AfZliot. 

Infloreaoeno* : see Floral. 

Influono^ Inflvi»n«»» Influs ; 


Mc Form. 

InfHnffo : sec TracU*. 
I Me Fury. 

ntioue . *ce 0«naft. 
Gftel.and Irt&h atn^-ea/, 
m>wed Irom tj^ttuu/HS, 
; fire. See Igiutioa. 
Cf ODwrougbt metal. (E.) 
ooer, C. r. 16^177, &c., 
■ (noald for molteo metal. 
u Mhat which is poured 
al.'A. S. rn, in; and 
ol jftJta/f^ to pour, fuse 
inpittM, Swcd. inj^/Mta^ 
Alio Dit. giftat, G. ^tssen, 
pp. fweitiM), Dan. £>v>. Swed. 
^ttian^ to pour, ihcd. fuse ; 
b L. >iw>r*. it/ GHU.) 
0fi^B{, pot fof fiftgot. •^ G. 
Mimg in, aUo an ingot. 
•ce Oralu, 
te; ice Qrsoe. 

t, Iit^rees ; »ee Oritd*. 
y reUliug to the groin. (L.) 
■Ccm ol inguim, the groin. 
•ee Bftbit. 

; see Heatoto. 
we Ueir. 
sec Babli. 
] Me Amatory. 
I M< XanaL 
tc ItinerAnV 
e Jei(i\ 
Q: see Join. 
ee Jury. 

of Upe. (F.-L.) In the 

T. (1440) we tind. * Lynyolf, 

threde lo sow wythe, iynol/' 

that the .M. £. 'linielf lome- 

Ihoul the initial /. This 

tigml, iif^nioul, ligneul^ 

kcr'f thread ; callcfl in 

tut^. We may conclude 

a oorrvjrt fonn of in^lt, which 

wtml iiHj^Ii withoat its initial 

the r rcucb dcf. article t). 

ar : ffom E. ingot, 

c< ^>ecn supplied. 

e. thread. • I.. 

■ '-^Ti. {ScaDd. f) 

murmur, low 

wucfi in rilyilM, 



leared he was discovered, because he ' herd 
a nyngkiiiHg of his name,' AlJit. romance 
of Alexander. J96S ; where a nyngkiling 
stands lor an yngkUing. 'To iniii the 
truthe* » to hint at the truth, AUsaunder 
<in app. to Wm. of I'aleme), 616. I 
!. aspect it to he corrupted from Dan. 
ymtt, to murmur, mutter, an iieralive verb 
from ymja, to mutter, hum (of imitative 
origin) ; so also IceL^Mj^ to multer. 

Tnn ; sec In. 

Innate ; see K&taL 

looings : &(re In. 

Innocent, Innocuous; see Notiona. 

Innovate ; tee Kow. 

Innuendo : see Nutation. 

Inoculate ; see Ocular. 

Inordinate; see Order 

Inquest, Inquire ; see Query 

Inscribe, see Boribe. 

Inscrutable: see Scrutiny 

Insect ; see Seoant. 

Insert; sec Borloa. 

Insidious ; see Bedentary. 

InalgniA ; see Bicn. 

Tnirinnate : sec Sinoa. 

Insipid ; see Sapid. 

Insist: see Stale. 

Insolent. (F. - L.) M. £. imofmt. -> P. 
imoUnt, saucy. «>L. inseUnt-, stciii at insol- 
tHS, not customary, nimsual, inM)lent. — 
L. M, not ; siUtHj, pres. pt. oi soUrtf to be 
accustomed, be wont. 

Inspect; see Spedea. 

Inspire ; see Spirit. 

Inspissate, to make thick. (L.) From 
pp. of L. itu^issart, to thicken. oL. im, 
in ; sfitsus, thick, dense. 

Instance; see Bi&ts. 

Instead; see Stead. 

Instep, the npf)er part of the foot, when 
it rises to the front of the leg. (£.) For- 
merly inslup and instop (Muuheu). 1'be 
probability is that instep is a oorruptioo, 
and that the true ctymolog)* i^ (lom in and 
stoop, i. e. ' the in-hend ' o7 the foot. 

Instigate; see Stimulate. 

Instil; sec Btill (a). 

Instinct: see Diatinffuiah. 

Institute ; see State. 

Instruct, Instrtiment ; tec Struotnrs. 

Insular. (L.) L. Mjw/aru, insular.— 
L. insuiA. an island. Prob. from L. in 
sa/e-in the main sea, where saJo is abl of 
L. ta/um. the main sea, cognate with t»k. 
oiKai, tur^f^ aweli oi the aea. AUicd l« 




Ulo. ma ifil*nd. {F.-L.) O. F. is/e (F. 
/".VJ — L. inm/a, an island (ftbove). 

Uol&te, to insuUte. (Ital.-L.) Sug- 
ftmtcil by Hal. ii.f/at*. detached, used u a 
term in architecture. — ItaL iM^, an ialaad, 

— U $Hru/a, lui islaud. 

Insult: KcSaUenv 

InsiLTKant, InsurreotloQ ; sec Begent. 

XntAffUo ; see Tailor. 

Intager : Taaffeat. 

ZnteUooC. Intalligenoe ; Bee Legand. 

Intand, XatocQM ; ice Tend (.n- 

Xntar; aee T«rr«oo 

Inter*, pn^^ aiDOOgst. (Lt L. inter, 
amoo^; a compantire form, answering to 
Skt. tmtsr, within; closely allied co In- 
t*Hor. q. T. 

IntATDalBte ; lee OUa&da. 

Int*ro*cl« ; Mc 0»d«. 

Xat«ro#pt: aec 0»pftelo«a. 

Zal»rODUn» : mx Cnrreaft. 

Xttt«rdi«t : fce IMotion. 

Xntvroct ciV prafic advantage. (F.— 
!«.) O. K. imttrtit (F. tmttrH\ an interest 
intemt for mauef.^'L. imserut, 
icmble: i, pen. ifaiK. of itutrtstt, 
Ut * b* aawof * • U iM^r. 
MMMi(( mmt to bik S«« Inter- and 

latWM* (»\ te ci«^ tbe attentioB of 
ftftotbct. <F.*U) A cartoM word ; IbrtDed 
^ parttel BfiaAMiBn wilk ibe Terb above) 
Im Ibt pf^ 111*1 awV ortbe ofaaok«c «etb 
to M*nsr. oscd by __ 
Iqmob. ^ O. F* wAmiit 
iMKb^ ini- C«L-L. 

c«n itn above). I>«r. H< 

aMtl pit far dl ' whKi mj '^ 
IntorflH«; «• Fonrift. 
Xtttertor. (U) L. 


«iM^ latft^M, Tile poiiiivi 

bi t w V^n 

»■*'•« \kivt> 

todtwu o«%. 

.^ - O. F. 

iV «■< bi tb» Liber 

St^ ^J tW 4it* 

f.4 br oiUb^ tbe nOs ^ 

-> 1. 





Ao, also (more conectly) I'l 
— L, in/mniM, cotrails. oeni. pi 
ter(M€Ui, inward, adj., (roni imter, wj 
tntanial. (L.) Coined /root i 
ttmmi, inward ; extended firoa mtt 
ward ; sec interior (above). 
Ixite]:jacmt,IntozjeotioD; see J 
Interloper; se<r Leap. 
Intermit : sec Miasila. 
Internal ; see Interior. 
Intemeoine, thoroughly 
(L.) L. inUmicintij, tlioroughly dfl 
tive. •• L. iniertucic, utter slau^bto, 
imttr, tboroaghly (see White) ; and m 
Interpellation ; see Folaate. 
Interpolate ; see PoLiab. 
Interpose ; sec Pose 1. 1 ). 
Interpoeition ; sec Foaitioi 
Interpret, to upUin. ^F.-i 
interfrtttn.— Y.inUr^ttr.^X^ tmiti 
atif to e:xfK3cind.— L. inttrfret-, stci 
inUrpns^ an inlerprcter. propeily sa l| 
broker. The latter part ot the ni 
nlated rather to Ok. ^C^ 
to speak, than to Gk. 

Interregnum ; set Begent. 
Intarrogftte -. see Bogation. 
Interrupt; see Bnpiure. 
Intersect ; see Seo&nt. 
tnt«rwer«e; c»8] 
Ittt8r«ii«ie; see 8u»». 
latarral; seeWUL 
Intervene ; see Ventttre. 
Tut— f te ; sec TeaUmeaV 
lotMtiiM. <r. - L.) F. 
' tatestane^ tavard ; ' Cot — 1. 
tennid. Fonaei) fron L* 
«ap«fie wi<h Ck. Irf^ 
fran LM,ia. 
Tntimatu (i), to mm 
FiOB pp. of I. imHmuFt^ 
to aaeesMe. » L. tmrimms, itma 
10 ceesp. imftritri 

is dM a» CBBteiMi wilb tbe 
II innUy foasdea od O.F. 
wwd. matL deer. entirrTv 

f»0« L MAw*. 

Into, prr 
irecdL A 





tOHOg accoHing to t(xie. 
aCcordtnt; to tone; where 
of Antau. borrowed from Gk. 

(Low L. « L. ofui Gk.) 

of I-ow L imfexiojrt, to make 

■ I.. Iff, inio ; eo.iicMf»t poUon, 

-' '---n Gk. To^iwov, poison for 

^:'l«of i% del. from riif dv. a 

tbe pi. rJfa is used to meao 

pid ; aee TrepldAtion. 

r^ irplexrd, obscure. (L.) 

L. imtruare, lo perplex. — 
tirit^, |J. tb., bintlraoces, vcxa* 

(U1 From pp. of L, fcr- 
dlsctiUngte. «* L. £r, oul of; 
_ ttments. 

|tte,lo form secret plots. (F. — L.) 
►•#»■, formcily tpelt iH/riifutr, 'to 
, pciplci* iiunare ; ' Cot * L. in- 

wAo \ see Beqaenoe. 

loo*; sec DtUte. 

nMetion ; see 8peolea. 

16, to thrust oneself into. (L.) 

lUrf, to thru<it into. » L. in, in, 

udtrt I pp. tnuut), to thmst. Al- 

two. (L.) L, aSs/nuuj. difficult, 
di pfx. of aSt-truUtn, to thnut 

ida. (U) L. dt'trwUrt^ to thrust 

id*. (U) L. tx-tntdert, to tbnist 

(1») L. ^ytrudert, to thmst 

<L.) L. pr^-itmJtn^ to 

see Tumid. 
e UadulAM. 

SVK Op«rftl«. 
( sc« EvMle. 
k t aee VfthioLe. 
Bl (Unknown."! InSpeni* 
[J. Oriff. nnknown. ^ 
c froM r . 99€Mgi€r^ to bliud ; yet 
miem^U, lo cajole, seduce, AJX 
roude*! Uitt. V. iji; and aj>. 
Tapcri, u, :47. 

) aeo Vera*. 

It can 

Inveterate ; see Veteran. 

Invldioua ; sec Virion. 

Invite. (F.— L.") ¥. ifwif^r.^L. intti- 
tare, to ask, reiquest. invite. Origin nn* 
certain. Doablet, vU, q. t. 

Invooate ; see Vooal. 

Involoe ; see Viaduct. 

Invoke ; see Voool. 

Involute, Involve : see Voluble. 

Iodine, an elemen tary body. (G k . > 
Named from the violet colour ol ilsvapntir. 

— Gk. l4/i-fji, contr. form of JociS^r, violet- 
tike; with suffix -Iff/. — Gk. fo*y, a violet; 
(fiS-of, appearaooe. 

Iota (Gk.-Heb.) Gk./wra.thesmnllesl 
letter of the Gk. alphabet - Hcb yM, the 
sittallctt letter of the Ueb. alpha^jct. wtth 
the powei of r. (Or I'hcenidan oripin.) 

Jot. (L. •Gk.-Heb.) Englished from 
L. fo/a. Matt. v. 18 (VDlgate).-Gk. lura 

Ipecacuanha, a medicinnl root. (rort. 

— Brazilian.) Port, ip-cacunnha (Span. 
iptcacttami). Vtom the Bruiliau name ol 
Ine plant; Onarnni if-kaa-rtt/Ja. J[^ — 
/VA, !»mall ; hut, plant ; gMuHa, causing 

Ir. {\XpnJix. (U ; pr F.-U) Put lor 
L. iM, in, prep., when r rollowt. 

Ir- i»\/^i/ix. (L.; cr F.-L.) Put for 
L. neg. prefix m-, when r follows. 

Ire. (K.-U) F. irr.-L. in*, anger, 
irascible. (F.-L.) F. iVa/r/W^. - L. 
irascibiiix, choleric, from irasct, to become 
aiijjry. — L, im, anger. 

Iria, a raiiihow. I.L. — Gk.) L. I'm.— 
Uk. 7piT, a rainbow. Der. ini/-wc-«J/, 
iriJ-ium, from iriti-, stem of L. iru. 

orria, a plant, (Ital, -L. -Gk.) For- 
merly orift, oris. These are £ cormptions 
of O. Ital. iWw Utal- iVrw). — O. Ital iV/W, 
' oris-roole,' Floho. ModiBcd from L. in>, 

Irk. to weary, (Scand.) M E. iriem, 
to lire.-Swed.j'r-td. to urge, enforce, press, 
press upon ; co^^nate with L, urgtrty to urge. 
See Jrge. (VWAKG.) 

Irozi, a metal. (E.) M. E. i'«».aUo iV*. 
A S. irtn, older form istn, iron, both adj 
nod ib.+Du. //w,» i contr. from 
O. Iccl. isani), Dan Swed Jem; O H.G. 
I 1/, G. tisin ; Gulh. eutirn, sb. i whence 
tuarmiH, adj.). And cf. W. hauim, triih 
tara/iM, Bret ft&uam, iron. ^. The Teut. 
lormi exactly corTc>pond to an adj. form 
from ui ; perhaps iVvjv was named from its 
I UDOoth ha!rd luniace when brightened 


e tom»f/), h. province. — Low L, 

of comitatus, a county 

h the oU metaing w&$ a compaay or 

1. * I* itmit't ttem of tomu, % ooaot ; 

L. txit. Le. 'he goes out,' 
> it dtrectioD ; 3rd pen. s. pres. 

10 ^o oaL 

■ arcait (F.*L.) H. E. tirt, 
»p. of a judge. » O. K. Hrt. 
way. «• L. iUr, ft joumey ; see 

1 1 above), 
pcrtainiog to the beginning. fL.) 

mitia/u. ad]. Irom irtitium, a b^inoing. 
imnu, pp. o( in-irt» to go in, to enter 
or ufxio. 

to begin. (L.) From pp. of 

lo begia^L* initium (aboveV 

pfogtny, result. (F.— L.1 M. E. 

lBty.^0. F. iii^it ' the issue, end, 

I * Co(. Fem. of ixnw, pp. of u/>>| to 

(O o«l^ — U «r-i>r, to go ooL 

fufwnl rite. (F.-L.) O.F. 
51* ace. e^itum, a going to or down. 
deatlL^L. obitum, lupine of ot- 
Hbap BC*r. 

ft ttem of pre*, pt. oi/irrir, to perish. 
/n-^crT. to come to iiaui;;ht, peri&h ; 
rJtfr- It u«ed with a destructive force 
B C- /ir^ in fa^^o). 

m»tor, pretor, « Roman magistrate. 
I- frmf*r, lit. • goer before, leader: 
for /nr-i/#r» — L,/n#, before; i/^r, a 
; from irg, to go. 
Wfrtf. (F.»L) M/E. prtterie.'^ 
'\^mrrit, B* frttenUt fern.^U fra- 
Ik*- pp. of/n»/r*^i»wi to pass by. 

'^ — (F. - L.) O. F. uditioH. - L, 
a going apart, di!>sension. 




mutlnjr.^L. ad-, apart; U-um^ supine of 
irt, to go. 

euddoiL (F. * L.) M. £. sodain. * 0»\ 

F. spJaift, tuJain (F. louJatn). Cf. Ttal. 
subitoMeo, sui'iiano, sudden — Low L. 
ni&itamtu*t put for L. snbifanmjt suditen, 
extended from stiSifus, sudden, lit. that 
which has come stealthily, ortg pp. ol st4^ 
ire, to come or go stealthily. 

trauoa. (F.*L.) F. tramf, *■ trance, 
or swoon ; ' Cot Lit. a parsing away 
(from consciousuessV — L. ace. /ran/i'/j/ff^ a 
passing away; &ee truiait (t^low). 

transient. (L.) From tramitHt; 
supposed stem of L. tmntitfu, pasising 
away, thoDi;h the real stem is tratu^ttnt' i,^ 
pres. pt. oi IrAMs-irt, to posv across or away. 
transit. ^L.) L. trmmittu, lit. a 
passing aciosii.— L. transitumt supine of 
trans-irt, to pass across. 

Ivory. (F. - L.) M. E. iwrU ( - ivcne). 
— O. F. ivuru, later ivoire, — L. tbomts, 
adj., made of ivory. — L. «ivr-, stem of ;^ur, 
trory. Perhaps allied to Skt idha, an ele- 

Ivy, an evergreen. (E.) A. S. ifi^. + 
O. H. G. ebah. Perhaps allied to L. a/>imm, 
par&ley, a word borrowed from Gk. Amor 
(whence prob. G, r/A/u, tppitk). 

Iwis, certainly. ^E.) l{.TL, ywis, iwis. 
A. S. gnms^ adj., certain (whence ^nf////!-^, 
adv., certainly). + Du. ^twiu adj. and adv.; 

G. gnviss. adv. Cf. Iccl. viis, certain, sure. 
Allied to Wit. (VWID.) ^TheM.E. 
pretix I- (A. S gt-') is sometimes written 
apvt from the rest of the word, and with a 
capital letter. Hence, by the mistake of 
cditora, it lias been printed / m/, and ex- 
plained as * I know.' This is the origm of 
the fictitious word wsi, to know, given in 
some dictionaries. 


^Scand.> Formerly 

L 1 lunnS of g^fbir 
^s«-t, '*:i.*iii arc irc<jticntalive forms 
tfc* baacra^-, as seen in Icel.^o^. 
. Ct LAL-^aMmM, to jabber. See 

tf h : s«rf Hriv^ntlL 

•w, sailor. (F. — L, 
<Mki^ /aV:e, often 
a., a iciTii ui reproach. At ifi 'Jakki 
OtuKwott, C. T. 570S. ; f.cji![j from F. 
laiC it ia rtnarfcablc that Jatk was 

I generally u»l formerly (ai now) as a ml 
stitutc for Jokn.] — F. Jsufues. — L, Jiuobui. 
— Gk. 'lawttflof.— Heb. y'd'o^tJ^, Jacob ; lit 
one who seizes by the heeL^Heb. root 
Wqab, to &cize by the heel, supplant 
% The name was extended to tienote 
various implements, such as a tmoJtf-jack^ 
a 6^-Ja*'k\ so also Jcuk-o-Unt^ Jaeka'- 
loHtirm, Jiukpuiitiinji^ /ofJt-^n-apti ( —Jack 
o'dNt, with inserted n to prevent hiatus t. 

Jack (a), a coat of mail. iF.>L.— Clc 
-Kcb.) O.F./ijWtf, 'James. ii«o«*~ 



or coat of mslle ; ^ Cot Ct Itel. gituOt a 

coat of mail, Span/ifc-o. a soldier* jacket, 
O.Jatke, a jacket. Of obscorc origia; but 
prob. dac to \hcjacguene, or revolt of tl»e 
pcasaotiy nicknamed Jacques Bcnhomme, 
A. u. 1358 ; and hence due to Y.ya^wj, 
James; we above. 

jacket, a abort coat. (F.-L.-Gk.- 
HtL(.) O. F. jaquftttf a jacket ; ditnin. 
of O. Y.jaquty a jack of mail < above). 

jacobin (F.-L -Gk.-Kcb.^ M.E 
jfuobin, — Y.jacclin. — Low Lat. Jaiobinus, 
adj., lonncd ironi _/aroiiis, and applied to a 
friar of the order of St. Domioick. See Jock 
(1). p. Hence one of lheyar^i"« club in the 
Froich Revolution, which first met in the 
hall of the Jacobin friars in Paris, Oct. 
1 789. Al:^ the name of a hooded (friar- 
like) pigeon. 

jocoDlte. an adherent of James IL (L 
■•Gk. — Heb.) From t,.J<uo6 us, James. 

Jockey, one who rides a race*hone. ( F. ■> 

»L. — Ck. — Hcb^ A North. E. pronuncia- 
tion oi Jockey ^ dimin. oi Jack as a personal 
Jackalf a kind of wild animal. (Pcr^.^ 
Vers. sha^kdL Cf. Skt. ^igdla. a jackal, a 

Jacket, Jacobin, J&cobite ; aee 


Jade (0, a sorry nag. an old woman. 

(Unknown.) Cf. Lowland Sc. yaud, yawd^ 

a jade. Of unknown origin ; [icrhaps 

■ from Iccl. jaAfdt a wait ; prov. Swt.-d. 
jiUda, a niaic (.KicLr). 
Jade (i), a hard dark-greenstone. (Span. 
mL.) The jade brought from America by 
the Spaniards wa^ called piedta dt ijada, 
^m bccauM it was b'licvcd to cure pain in the 
^Vaide; for a similar reason it was called 
^" fu/Ariti's {(Tom Uk.ftf'/rJr. kidneys). — Span. 
ijada, the flank. — .Span. ijar. the flank ; cf. 
Fort. iMa/, Hhatgu^ the flank, side.^L. 
t/id, pi., the flanks 

Jaff, a notch, tooth. (C.) Irish gstg, a 
ficleft, from ga^gtum. 1 >plit. notch : W. gag 
Gael, gag, an aperture, cleft, chink ; Gael. 
gagt to split, notch. 

Jagxiar. a l»cast of prey. (Braiil ) 
*Jagua in the Guuani [Braxilianl languot;e 
Ik the common name for tygers uid dogs. 
Etbc generic name for tygcis is yur/M<irr// ; ' 
Clavigcro, WxiX. of Mexico, tr. by CuUen. 

Jail : see Cave. 

Jalap, the rout of ■ plant. (Mexican.) 
&omya/*i/a or A'a/a/fit ^ Mudco. 


Jam (1), to prres. sqoerse. 
same word as (ham, to chew, tn 
prov. £. cAamf, to tread hca\'ily, 
chew; so also (/tnm/i. bard, fii 
crammed or pressed down See 
jam ( 3), a conserve of fruit. 
A soft substance, like that which ifl 
' And if we have ojiye stronger 
must be tkamtHtd afore by the nt 
so put into ihe labes mouihe; 
More, Works, p. s^k A. Sec aiwi 

Jamb, side<post of a dc 

Jangle, to sound discordantJir* 
O. LowG.) M.E.yW/rti.-O.F. 
to jangle, prattjj^ ..Of CLJ.<ow.C 
cf. Du JangtUn, to importune, fri 
Jankai. 10 howl, yelp. An imitating 
cf. L ganttire, to yelp. 

Janiaary. (F-Turt.) O.F.Jai 
saires, * the Janitaries;* Cot. Of Tkil 
origin : it means * new lolJiert ; * 6« 
TMrkyefii, new ; and chcri, soldiery. Cb 
is for chcrik. a ttoup ; of I'ers. oriP 

January. (L.) Cn^U&bed fr>7n 1 
laHuariuSt a month named from thrffi 
Janus, who was sup[>oscd to have tki 
under his protection : cf. L. utamj. a **9W 

Japan, a name given to cer- 
lacquered work. (Japan.) > 
the country. Der./12/aM, verb, im pu.iw 

Jar (1), to nuUce a harsh notsc ^ 
It stands for an older form (Hmt, m 
found in the derivative chatJun, to CM 
(.Prompt Parv.) Again, rfiar « U% 
Teut. base KAR, conei 
base GAR, as seen in L 
crook i sec Garrulooa 

jargon, a confused talk. (F.««1 
JargvH, orig. the chatleriiu' of hi 
Cf. Span. gtrigemuB, ja' 
an extension of the ba >. 
pi ate, croak; cf. M. E. i.^jlcn, 

Jar (3\ an earthen pot. (F. 
O, F. Jart, ' a Jarre ; ' Col. 
a jar; cf. Pers. Jurrah^ » linli 

Jargon ; sec Jar (tV 

JargoneUe. a kind of pessr* 
Pcrs.?) V.jargfffitiU, a atwJi 
itony (UltrtE); formed (acC" 
fiom F. jargatt, a yellow diomaodt 
stune. — Itai. gio*-"^ * 
diamond. Perhai'-. 


Jeoiamina, a plant. (F.— 

tiM. {Ho ilio Spaii.ytfjw/iii.) 
ij jflimiiic ; jrdiumiM, jcssa- 

^Littr^), an occa- 
i jasper. — 1- ioj' 
Gk. lOOirir.'Arab. 
tM, JA<>(«r ; whence Ven. 
jttpef. CX Heb. ydjkpkth, 

v^xtA linen cloth. (F. -Ttal. 
Arab.) From O. F. diaprt, 
)m the verb Uuipnr, to diaper, 
with flouruhings ; ' Col, The 
from O. 1'. diasprt, later 
rr, a stODC much used for 
:weUery. — O. Ual. diaspro, a 
tch). ■• 1* ioipidtm, ace of 
cf, prov, ItiL. dia(trtt put 
lo lie (Diezj. •- Gk. Taavit 

(F.-L.) M. E.r0Mni>: the 

^•-'* — T.jdunuit, yellow- 

.c — I'.yuMwr (uld- 

awr. w L. gaibtHus, 

r. * i-/is/^r yellow. Al- 

'T&mble. (Scand.) The i-amc 
i/.tojeer; wlicDCc_/dH«<jVr, 
idly. — Svcd. dial, ganta, to 
Toon, spuit, jot; O. Sued. 
^.••SHeiL dlat ^-UN/, a butloiiu, 
lit a. Icel. ^fn«, frantic 
.jcvnt, ^h , an excursion. 
"H> al. ^F-L.) 

rp.'u .lY i.uiiiused with the 
U about (above), 

FonBcxlyciow; see Chew. 

f»ee S««) 

:k . KofT ; se« Shear. 
^H«'^.; Heb yahM^ith. or, 
ly, yakavth, ( iod , see article 
of the Bible, 
meagre. (L.) X^ iWif 

)t«asntall Spanish borw 
lb.) O. F. fiimtte. ' a 
hone;* Cot. » Span. 
ortg. *a borsc-soldicr.' 
; traced by Doi\ to 
of Baibaiy otkbiatoi 



Jenneting, a kind of early apple. (Un- 
known ) ypclt jpnniiui^in hncon. E^s, 46. 
Orij;in unkuowu, ihc 'etjmology' from 
" JuHt'HUing' ;s a miserable jcst ; liacon 
says they come injuiy. But sec p. 579, 

Jeopardy ; see Joke. 

Jerboa, n rodent ciuadrupcd. (Arab.) 
Xts.h. yarbU\ i,i) the flish of the back or 
loins, an oblique de!>ceading muscle, (i) 
Ihc jert oa, from the use it makes of the 
strong tno&cles in its hind legi, in taking 
lonj; Traps. 

Jerk. ^E.) We ^nd /erJk, Jert, and^iW 
all used in much Ibe same srnse, orig. lo 
strike with a lash, whip, or rod. Jerik ap- 
pear* to be a mere variant o(j<fi ox jgini \ 
Si. £. gird^M. to stiikc. Sec gixd (a), 
givt'n under Yard (j). 

Jerked beef (Peruvian.) A singular 
corruption of eharqui, the S. Aineiican 
name for 'jerked' beef, or beef dried 
in a particular way. It appears to be a 
Peruvian word ; see Picj^uU, Conquest of 
Peru. c. V. 

Jerkin, a jacket, %hort coat (Du.) 
Dimin. of Du. jurk^ a frock (Sewel), by 
help of the once common Du, dimin. suffix 
•ken, now supplanted by -jt or •tjt. Cf. 
fir-kin. kilder-kin. 

Jersey, fiue wool, a woollen jacket 
(Jersey.) Utoxsx Jersey, one of the Chanucl 

Jessamine ; see Jasmine. 

Jesses; see Jet (i). 

Jest ; sec Gerund. 

Jest^t ; see below. 

Jesus, the Saviour. (L. — Gk. - Heb.) 
L. hsus, - Gk. Iijffovf. - Heb. Yisk^a^ 
Jcshua vNehem. viii. 17); conlr. form ol Yt- 
Atishua, Jchu'thua i^Numb. xiii. 16) ; st^ni> 
fying saviour, liL 'belpof Jehovah.' — licb. 
root yiisha, to be large, to save- Der. 
jisu-it, one of the society of Jesus. 

Jet (I), to throw out, fling about spout. 
^F. — 1*) Formerly, to jet was to i,irut 
about. M. li. ietten, lo stiul. - O. F. 
jitter, jtiter, gtiUr, to throw, fling pu*.h 
lorth. M L. mctart, to flin^ ; frequent, of 
iaeert, to thiow. Allied to Gk. jarTaiy, to 
throw (whence tamdie), ID^r.jet, sb, for- 
mcrly in the scum; of guise or fa&hmii, Stc 
al^eot. mean, lit. cast away. ^L.) L. 
adiefttu, pp. of ab'ictr$, lo cast away. 

adjacent, near to. (L. \ From stem of 
pica. pi. of aJ-iairrt, to lie near. latert, 
to lie, '\s lo(mc<l from iiuert, to throw 
M^eotive. \X-) A ^^timTnaU.*! v 


fV, ti 




p, to ihift the booci-»n frDin 

the mast to Another;' Ash 

tpclt/F'^, gyti. — Dan. gib^, 

[Swcd. dial, gippa, to jcrt up. 

red. ptffa, to move up and 

E jump. ^ The form ^bf 

lu. g^jp^n^ to tuiD suddenly, 

more ftftirely. «i x hone. 

O. F. giber, to itniggle with 

id feet (Roquefort): whence 

(F. rtpmt*r\ to kick as & 

dUf. gipfOf to jerk op 

w SKme u Oib», q. v. 

H clink. (E.) M. £. gingfen ; 
BlS*c verb from th« base //»i. 
4ii»4; iceOtainkCO- Alio aUicd 




peck with lite beak ; tee 
■ tmall piece of work ; lee 

, see Jaok r i). 
, Joculur ; fiee Joke. 
I. !.>■ — i-0 W. E. JoconJe. — 
Mtf!r*, pleauat, ouly recorded in 
«ttTC» jgc0%dtux^ adj^ j&condiii, 
wfort). * L. iitcttHJms, pleasant ; 
p^iL * L. iuuare, to help ; kc 

Lh ftUfihtlv, jolt. (C.) M. £. 
|r/tyT» to ihake, agitate; Gael. 
tii the bead ; Irish gogaim, I 
~ ite. Cf. also W. ytgt^gi, to 
K. iti^; allied to Sh^a. 

'cofafish. (F.-L.) 

T name of the fish 

"7- y<-'"f appears to be a 

imfix, like toe Ja^k in yar^- 

irdly be from on alleged F. 

[whico would t>e tauioloj^cal 

M borrowed f/om F. </«»'>, 

[ftVded,' derJt being the fern. 

^2wrv^ to gild. — L. diaurart, 

%«Jii9. of ;;oM ; tee Aureate. 

F. — 1-) O. F JtVftdn.^'L. tUHg- 

utmtMii, to join. (^ YUG.) 

. to 1i« ocxi to fF.-L.) O.F. 

X>c7. A(ntJt*t. Irom the pp. 
{I. — L^ '-). F. (PHjoindrt. 
<pp. ..jiiiMM^/M/), tu join 

I together. Der. tpnjwut'ion, cmjfmtt'iv*^ 
\ from the pp. 

coEiJugal, relating to marriage. (F.— 
L.) F. conjugaL^V.. contugalu, also ro«- 
iugiaHs, adj. — L. £oniu£ium, marriage. — 
L coniugare. to unite in a yoke. — L. com-, 
together; iugare^ to connect, from iu^um^ 
a yoke. 

ooi^ti^atlon. (L.) From L. comiugi 
a conjugation (Priscian); lit. a yoking to- 
gclher. — L. coniugatus, pp. of ttm-tugartt 
to yoke together {,see above). 

enjoin, to bid. (F. - L.) O. F. ct- 
joindre. ^^L, iniungtre^ to bid. ordain, orig. 
to bin into. — L. //t, in ; iungtre, to join. 

injunction, command. (L.) From L. 
iniuH^/tc, an order. * L. iniurutus, pp. of 
iniungtre, to bid; see BDJolxi (above). 

joint. (F. - L.) O. F. jeiiut. Joint, a 
joint, sb. — O. Y.Joitut^ Joint, pp. of Jffindrc, 
to join; see Join (above). 

jiifftilar, pertaining to the side of the 
neck. (L,) htQmL.iugu/--um, or ittgui-Mi, 
the collarbone, which joins the neck and 
shoulders ; dimin. of iugum, a yoke. 

junction, a joining. (L.> From L. 
iututiff, a joining. — L. i$tfu/us, pp, of 
iun^ere, to join. 

Juncture, a union, a critical moment. 
(L.) The sen&e ' critical moment ' is astro- 
logical, from the 'union' of planets. « 
L. iunfturu, a joining. — L. pp. immtUM 

jtinta, a comicil. (Span. — L.) Span. 
Junta, a congress; a fem. form of Junto 

junto, a knot of men, a faction. (Span. 
« L.) Span. Junto, united, conjoined. — 
Lb iututuSf pp. of iuMgrre, to join. 

rqjoin, (r. — L.) l^l. to join again; 
in legal language, to answer to a reply. * 
v. nJoindrc. — L, rt-iungrre, to join agaii)._ 
D«r. rejoinder^ which i» the F. infin. mot "' 
used as a sb., as in the ca&e of attainder. 

8Ul:tJoln. (K. — L.) V . tubjoindn {Cot.) 
« L. su^iuHgtrt, to join beneath, annex. 

BUbJugAte. to bring onder the yoke. 
(L.) From pp. of L. sttbiugartt Tb, •• L. 
su6 iui[o, under the yoke. 

eubjunctive. ^L.) L. mbiumctiuus, 
lit. joinin}; on at the end. fiom the use of 
the subjunctive mood in dependent clauscfc 
» L. juAiunctut, pp, of ru^'ungertt ^ ^^ 
join : sec subjoin (above). 
Joint : see Join. 
JoiJt; sc« Jet (t). , 

22B JOKE. 

Joke, a jest. (L.) From L. una, ft jest, 

jeopardy, luuard. (F, — L.) M. E. 
/j0;r/iV, later jcfianfye, jeopanOt. •• O. F, 
jtu patii, lit. a divided game ; a game in 
which the chances were equal, hence, a 
risk, hazard. — Low L. iocus partitus, the 
some ; also an alternative. « \*. uxus^ a 
^mc; parii/us, pp, of pa/iih. to part, 
divide, from parti-, crude form of pan, a 
part. ^ The diphthong to — F. <w ; cf. 
ptopte ( - F. ptupte). 

jocose, merry. (LO L. ioconUt sportive. 
«L. rWwj, sport. 

jooiJar. \ L.) L. wularis. * L. iocu/iu, 
a little JL-sl, dimin. of iWwj. a Jefct. 

juggler. (F. - L.) M. E. iVw/owr.- 
O. Y. jogltor, jo^Ures\ X^tav jongleur. — "L. 
ioiulator, a jester. — L. iocutari, to jesl. ^ L. 
ioctituifX little jeslf dimin. oi* MrMr, joke. 

Jole : !iec Jo^. 

Jolly; see Tule. 

Jolly-boat ; sec TawL 

Jolt : tjcc Jowl. 

Jonquil, kind of narcissiu ; see Junk ( a). 

JordLan, a pot. (L. - Gk. — Hcb. ?) 
M. £. iordan {Jordcm), Chancer, C T. 
1 1 i^g. Short tot Jordan^bottU ; it was 
customary for pilgrims to bring home water 
from tlie river Jordan, and a Jordan was 
orig. a bottle, not a pot (.lUidsley, Halli- 
well). — I« lordams. — Gk, *Iopiavi/t.» 
Ucb. Variti'n, i.e. 'llowmg duwn.* 

Jostle ; see Joust. 

Jot ; see Iota. 

Journal. Journey ; see Diary, 

Jotiflt, Juat. to till. (F. — L.^ O. F. 
fcujter. to UlL — Low L. iuxfane, to 
approach (hence to approach with hostile 
intent, as in tilling). » I.. jMjr/a, close to, 
hard by (whence O. F. jomjU, dose to). 
p. The form iuxta is short for iug-ii'td, fem. 
abl. of the superlative form of L. iu^Ut 
continual. From the base tug' of iun^ert, 
toioin. (VYUG.) 

Joetle, jufitle, to push acainst (F. — L.; 
wi/h E. si//fix.) A frequent, form, with suffix 
•/<, from M.E^jous/<ri, to tilt, push against. 

Jovial : see Deity. 

Jowl, Jole, the jaw or cbok. (E) 
M. )i. jolie\ all the foims are corruptions 
of M. E. <hei, chauK which is a contraction 
of M. E. thaHcl y{kavtl\ the jowl. — A. S. 
ceaft, the jaw; pi. ctafias, the jaws, chaps. 
Allied to Chaps, q. v. % The successive 
ipellings are A. S. fra/7, chafie (Ijiyamon), 
MomtJ, r4«W. cAoii joit, Jorui ^all found). 



Jolt, to jerk. (E) From/*/?.' 
the Joie or head , cf. As You Lil 

Joy : see Gaud. 

Jubilation, a shouting 
Frr>m L. iubitatio^ ^b — L. 
of itibilarey to shout for joy. ^X* I 
a shout of joy. % Quite distill 

Jubilee, a sea>on of great 
-Hcb.) M. ^. jiibilt€.~U. 
jubilee;' Cot. — L, itibiloHs, 
(Levit. XXV. ii); masc. of adj. t 
belonging to the jubilee i Levit. xxv 
Hcb. jr66tt, a blast of a trumpet i 
joy. % Distinct from the word at 

Judge. (F.-L.) F. /«of— L. 
ace of iudtjc, a judge, lit. * one 
out law.' — L. iuj, law; Jii 
out Sec Jury and Diotion. 
acUudge. \J. - L.) .M. 
also aiugtm (■cd/w^yi*),- O. 
decide — L. adiuJicare, lo awai 
to ; iuJuart^ to judge, from iudit 
of iuiUjK, a judge I above). 

adjudicate. (L.; From 
tSiitHiUcare (above). 

Judicature. (F.-L.) F./i 
Low L. iuJicatura^ office of a ' 
ment. — L. tuduaiuz, pp. of 
judj^e. — L, iuJU-, stem of imitJi^ 

JiidioiaL (F.-L.) O. F 
luJuia/iSt pertaining to coarti of ^ 
imiicium, a trial.- L. iWiVi-, oraii 
of iitiiex, a judge. 

Judicious. (F.-L.) F. 
if Irom a L. form iuiiicimus *.< 
crude form of iui/ci. 

prejudge. (F.-L.^ O. F. 
L. prj-'iuduart^ to judge bcibt 
prejudice. iF.-L.) O. " 
— L. prtr-iudiciwm, a judicial 
previous to a trial, also a 
judicial [above). 

Jug. a kind of pitcher, (lleb.) Dl 
vessels were fomicrlv called /Sf* 
and Jngt, all of whica reprcMDt C 
names, /uf^ and Jmi^: were tiss^ 
female names, Ktm- o*!! 

Jenf^jcffjoan: 5c<y J^ 

Cotgrave. Bal tbey un 
Joanna \ 1 suppose ibcy s 
once a common name ; sec •.* 

Juggler ; see Joko. 

Jugular: sec Join. 

Juioa. (F. - L.) M. E. 
O. F.jms, jaice, brollt — I. mi, 1*11 
* mtxtui«i' ^ Skt ^dt^ Mi^ U 



m, • /roit (F.-L-Gk.-Pen.> 
whtla^ pL (Cot*) — U tisyphHm. a 
wait of the tree oUleU ti^tfius. ~ 
b^dr, Cniit of the tree ^liv^por.^ 
Afdm, iiaafiin^ the jojube- 



■V (F.-Spta-PertO F. 

Pt.^VTT%, jultib, juirp, a 

TiriK : rrnro ^I6h, rosc-water, also 

Fm. p^!, a rtwe ; 4b, water. 

f 1 K/if^lisbed from L. IuHhs, a 

.jllcd Qminctilis'S nnmcd 

II, who was horn in July. 

KOt tu leap, ftpring, skip. (Scand.) 

lial. rmmpa^ to spring, jump, wng 

ftULed to Swed. guffa, to move np 

m; Dan.^iw/*, lojoll. + M. II G. 

, to Jump, ptmpeln, to play the 

; gtmptlm^ to jump, ^rov. {j.gampen, 

^ hop, tpon (Schmeller). nob. 

» 71b (>). 

ale, to mix tof^ether confosedlr. 

\ We ftUo 6tid M. V..Jom^rtm, Ch. 

L I037; mxiA Jnmper, to mix har- 

iljr \Mar«). ui hsx,jumh-U,jamb- 

i/-*r »rc all frcqueiHativc form* of 

to/fw/f used transitively. Thus 

[* 10 make to jump, jolt together, 

discord; Of. otherwise, to shake 

malcr lo a^ree. See Jump ^i). 

i\ raactly. pat. (Scand.) From 

pre, used in the sense to agree 

. in the phr. to jump witA, 

not;* Olh. i. 3. 5 ; cf. Tam. 

^unotUT* : tec Join. 

En^-lished from U JuniuM^ 
the mnnth and of a Roman 
Frob. allied to JnrenUo. 
L.) SkL JangaUt adj . dry, 
— wa!<'tclaod % The 
Hke «f in muJ. 
tee JaToiUlc. 
ChineM Tcucl. (Port.- 
Imd Spvi.)7i»)w» a junk.— 
■ wip. boat« bark, jnnk ; 
Did p. 1 30. ttencc also 

of old cordage. cFort. 

a nt%h ; al»o juiik, ns a 

L e. mth'mnde ropes. ~1.. 

r t'nwrvr, a ruUi. C _/w»i 

D;' u old ropei. 


Jttnlcet, a kind of sweetmeat. (Ilal. • 
L.) Orig. a kind of aeanjchccse, served 
up on rushes, whence its oame. I till. 
gwtua/a, a kind of cream-cheese on rushes, 
also a junket (Florio). — ItaJ. gitmcc. a 
rush.*>ll. imtcum, ace, oi iuncus, a nuh. 
Junta, Junto : see Join. 
Juridical ; see Jury. 
Juriadiotlon, Jurist ; see Jury. 
Jury, a body of sworn men. (F. — L.) 
F.Jur/t, a jury, a company of sworn men; 
orig. the fem. pp. of jitrer, to swear. — L, 
I'urarf, to swear, bind by an oath. 4* 
Ski. bind. (VVU.) 

fttjure. (L.) L. o^-fHnirr, to deny, lit 
ro swear away Ox)m. 
adjure. (L.) 1.. ad-iumre, to swear to. 
adjust (l\ to fit exactly. (F. - L) 
From F, tu/jujUr^ ' to adjust, place justly ; ' 
Cot.^L. aJ, to: i$utus, just, exact; see 
Juat below. 

conjure. (F.-L.> M. E. tonittnm.^ 
F. c0MJttrer.^\^. eort'turart, to swear to- 
gether, combine by oath. 

injure. (F. - L.) F. injurier. - L. 
imunari, to barm.— U iniuria, bann,«> 
L. init4riuj, Hrong. — L. in-, not; ikri-, 
cruile form of tus, law. right. 

juridical, pertainiui; to courts of law 
or to a judge. (L.) trom L. mridh'tis^ 
relating to the admlnislntion of juiticc.— 
L tun-, crude form of lui, law; dUmrr, lu 
proclaim. See Juat (O below. 

Jurisdiction. (F.-L.) V . jurisdiffion, 
— L iurisJktiontm, ace. of iurisdictio, ad- 
miniAlralion of justice. »L. iuris, gen. of 
ii/r, law (see juat (1) below): atid see 
diction. ^ ^o 9\90 Juris'pruiimte, 

jurist, a lawyer. (F.-L.) Y , Juritft 
'Xot. I • Low L. iurista, a lawyer. — L. iur-, 
stem of iMj, law; with suf&x *ista ( = Gk. 

juror, one of a jury. CF. » L.) Imitated 
from F. Jurtur^ a swearer, a jnror. — I... 
iuratarem^ ace. of I'urafcr. one who swears. 
•-L. iurartt to swenr : sec Jury (aboveV 

jUBt (O, upright. (F.-L.) M. E. lust. 
-» V.jiuU. ■• L. iustum, acc- of imtus, just, 
according to right. — L. I'v/. right, that 
which ii fitting ; cf. Skt. yu, to join. 


juBtioe. (F. - L.) F. Justiet. - L. 
iustifia. justice : Low L. itufi/ia, a Iri- 
banal, a judge.— L, rw.t/i\ for itutut, ju&t; 
)we just ( I) aliove. 

JuBtUiy. .F. - L.l F. jiutijUr. - I. 
iuiti/ieart, to shew to be fuX. — V» iutti . 


opuoU toy. ^Gk.^ 
Faam Gk. «aJL-^ bewdfai ; A»4; fona ; 



Kalandar; ■ 

The natire Ai«mina ■■■■ 

Kay iM : «ee KaOa. 

Ked^ {i\ CO vaip a skin. (Seaad.) 
Swed. dial JUim^ to l^ at aaytbiag ton^ 
work cood&aailjr, dng ooeaelf tl^rly for- 
ward, dmc mtdf. To kt^gt fcs to m^ a 
dl^ dowly fonrasd, br bd^ of a ked^e* 
aoior, acamit tide. Ilnee Mg-tr^ An^ 

Sedce (>), KIdga, brisk, lively. 
(ScasdT) Ao Eakt An^MuA word. M. K. 
J^rO*, iy^T^. — Icel. kykr, corrupter form 
oCJhiikr, quick, lively; see Quiok. Cf. 
G. Auk, the ume. 

Xoel (t), the bottom of a ship. (£. or 
Sca&d ) The rorm jmtwcrs to AS. Cft^i, a 
«bip C ■* Icel. kjiff) \ but it hac been cuofused 
with I«I. i/i'''''. ^''*o V-'A Swcd. *W, the 
karl or e thip -f G Da. kidi. a keel. 
H/fUOP. kalaoxi. 4 pUoe of tlmbar 

(Norvet. ^IMilm^ 

ott kandity haw bea tb« orif. laM 
better acMr is gt««i bv Nocw. .^ 
vkn m£7 a««en to G. MtovA. e. I 
we SOL Tki» wU^ aot bei^ M i fani 
■a? cas3y kavr been comipl«d M Mt 
^kI afterwards ia C■^ti^h. to "MM. 
Koel (aV (o eeol: tee OooL 

> is doe to ao OU0 tf;; 
or^. seme is ' kaowin^ ' or wue, or I 
-l-Da. ^tm, boU, darwigi Icel- hmm 
AomX «>9c» also able; G iuk%. b 
O. H. G. ^Amw. Tbe 1 cut Uit 
KONTA. able, frooi TcaX. bvt M 
to k&ov; see Can y\). 

Keep; secCkeop. 

Keg. a saiQ cask. (5cand.> Xm 
alsoti^.*!'--' *■••*' s ke^; Sweil^ 
Norwqc.i' . rutioti nsKcrlN 

Ptob. aaoKT roumlaesL CC> 

Tv^irT^oc^ roaad. 

Kelp, calcined aabes of seaweed. Od 
iiakDOwo. (Also »pclc kiif). 

Ken ; see Oaa '.'1 > ' 

Kwnnfll (I): • 

Kennel (3); «i 

Kerbstone, Le corVstoac ; see M 

Kerchief; lee Oowr 

Kermee» the dried bodirsof htMcU ti4 
dyciitg criauon. (AraU. « iflu.) iiet Orttft 

B> Wi 


B 0). Sdme, an Irish toldier. 
> Irish tmiJkanuik, a soldier. 
r>V see Qnwn. 
~ :>Tn. 

woolJen cloth. (E.) 
■ '•■'.(}/ tan A. S. word), % 
iTcc miles Ironi Hadleigh, ia b«f- 
*rc a woollcQ tndc wa& once car- 
tm. % Not Uom/fnty, which is aUo 
m% ihr nam? of a roatrrial. 
' ^ twilled cloth of fine 

A COTTUpllOIl of Coih- 

IT* u> v.^j««<^/r, by con(usioa with 
Mr above 

M^h. .1 ttnnll y«cht or hoy. (Turkish.) 

m Turk- ya/y. ^^ly. » boat, 

• also Ital. caUco, r. caique). 

Ice Uu. i-f/r, F. (oifkt, a ketch» are 

bowed from E. 

LotUo. (L.) M. E. ketti. A. S. eiUi\ 
|| aa A.$. wonl, but t>orrowe() fiom L- 
% small bowl (whence also Goth. 
ir. Do. hftd, G kessei, Ac). Dimin. of 
ba«l. deep vessel for cooking 
IQ Glc jrorvAof, a cup ; sec 

. a hollow stem. (C.) M. E. 

, pi., hollow stalks, hemlock, 

hemiock ; Com. <'^^iu, hem- 

a'aita, hemlock. % KtX'^iktcks, 

Dpcrly a plorat form. 

(E.) M. E. kivi. A.S. tiig, ciKgt, 

+0. Frie*. tat, kti^ a key. 

prince ( Prrs. — Tatar.) Per*. 
}b, Io"', I'niicc ,- of Tiilar ori^n Cf. 
faq^ Kh.'.r ' •• •^f^x lord, a Tatar 
Chaucc in I. 

chi ■- i W. (ilntfjt. chil- 

by i'ugh as standing lor 

W- WA, a cop ; givjt^ a humour, 

; hence 'a cup-ltke malady, 

rooDcicd Torm. The E. word has 

only ihc syllable ci6, rejecting 

HllablflL Prob. allied to Cup. 

rc M, E </><^ — W. i-iiiu, to 

O. W. cH. a foot 

lish. (F.-L) A 

tkaxL-ses. (Shik.) 

K, ifut!tju€ chose, 

iinirr, ■ delicacy. Spell 

( by Ufyo'en.* F. que^m cAoje. 

r,od what sort. with sumx qttam; 

i\x%c, a ihiog. 

C<>at. fScand.) M. E. ku/. 

kid, Icel. ^'5, a kid -f- 

lo Chit, Child. <V GI. 

kidnap, to steal vonng children. 
(Scand.) Jdd, in thieves slang, means a 
child; nap is our na^.** Dan. kid, a kid; 
Md/»^, to nab ; see Nab. 

^diiey. (Scand.) Corruption of M. E. 
kidnere, kidneer; nert ia also used alone. 
1. Here kid is a corruption of qtiid or 
quitk ; cf. prov. E. kite, the belly, which is 
the same word. « Icel. kvi^r, womb, Swed. 
^(d {\. S rw'i'iNl, the wonib ; this word is 
cognate with Skt/ai/d/n. the belly, womb, 
Gk. yaar-iip, 2. M. E. nere is also a Scand. 
word. — Icel. nyra, Dan. nyrc, Swcd. njure, 
a kidney; cognate with Da. ni>r, Q.niere^ 
and allied to Gk. vtfpp^,%. kidney. 

Kilderkla. tUu.) A comiptioirof O. 
I>\i.kindeken, a]sokinnckeH. the eighth part 
of a vat. The lit. sense is 'little child/ be 
cause the measure is a small one as com* 
pared with a tun. vat, or barrel. Formed, 
with dimin. sulTix -ken (now nearly obso- 
lete), from Do. kind, a child, cognate with 
£ Child, q. v The mod. Du. oame is 
kinnetf't by sabstitution of tfe for -ken. 

KilT (Scand.) M. E. ifriV/rn, moie com- 
monly cuUtn, The old sense was merely 
to slfike. *We kylU of ihin heaed*-we 
strike off thy head; AUil. Pnems, B. 876. 
— Icel. kolla, to hit on the head, harm; 
from koUr^ top, head, paiej Norweg. kylla^ 
to Loll trees, from koll, top. head, crovm, 
poll. So also Du. kallen, to knock down j 
W, a knock on the head. 

Kiln. (L.) h.S.cyln, ^ho cyiene; merely 
borroweii from L. cu/ina. a kitchen (hence, 
a drjing-housc). See CuUnary. 

Kilt. (Scaiid.) Thcsb. is derived from the 
vt\h kilt, to tuck up.«D.-in. kilU, to truss 
ivck op; Swed. dial, kilta. to swaddle. 
Again, this verb is from the sb seen ia 
Swed. dial, kiita, the lap, Icel- kjalta^ lap 
(whence kjbitu-barn, a baby in the Up), 
Goth, kiithei. the womb. Allied to Child. 
From the sense of womb or lap wc pass to 
that of swaddling a child and of kilting or 
tucking up clothes. 

Kimbo ; see Akimbo. 

Kin, genus, race. (E.) M. E. kin^ kun. 
A. S. rynn, orig. a thbe.+Icel. kjnit kin, 
Du. kunnt, itx; Goih. ^m, tribe. Allied 
toOenoa. (V^^AN.) 

kind (1), adj., natural, loving. (E.) 
M.E. ktmde, kinJe. A.S. cyndt, natural, 
in bom ; allied to Goth, kurndt, bom. K\- 
liedtoKin. (V^AN.) 

kind (2). sb. nature, sort. i£.> M.E. 
iauM^ kutd. A.S. ^nd, ^-cynd^ aaim«; 







dae to the adj. above. Dar. kindly, 

kindle (>), to bring forth young. <E.) 
M. ]v kittdUn \ from the a<)j. dow spelt 
kind \ Bc'c above. We fmd also M. £. 
kimiei, sb., a progeny, from ihe A. S. cynd^ 
nature, or from the adj. cytide, natural. 

kiodred. (£.) Toe former d is ex- 
crescent. M. K. kit$trde.^A.S. ryn, kin; 
-r^dtn, a suffix signifvinj; law. state, con- 
dition (so also hal-red hom hatt). R^tdtn 
v> allied to the verb to read. 

king, a chief ruler. (E.) A. S. cyning. 
a king; lit. 'belonging to the tribe,' or 
• son of the tribe ;' nence, elected by ibe 
tribe. "-A. S. cyn^ a tribe, kin; with suffix 

ing^ as in ^tfrtd ^€^lt»uijins = -Alfred 
the son of i'EthelwuU.+O. Sax. kuning, 
from kimi, tribe; O. Fries, kiningx Iccl. 
konunffr; Swcd. kaMt/»ff ; Daa. kongt; Du. 
konin^; G. konig. O. H. G. chuning ^from 
O H. G. chunn%y a tribe, race). 

kingdom. (E.) M.E.ih'«nfom ; not really 
a compound of king and sumx -dem^ but an 
easy suttttitutioM ior M.E. kinedom, A. S. 
^>'niAi!Efff<. a kingdom. TheA.S.^^'/«5igiiifie» 
'royal,' very common in composition, and 
is allied to A. S cyn^ a tribe. The substi- 
tution oi kingdom for A. S. cyned6m makes 
little practical difTerence; see king above. 

Kindle (i), to inflani. ; tec Gaadla. 

Kindle (a), to bring forth young ; »ec 

Kindred ; >ee Kin. 

Kino, cows ; see Cow. 

King Kingdom ; sec Kin. 

Kink, a twJKt in a roi^e, (Scand.) A 
Northern word. — Swcd. kink, Norweg. 
kink^ a twist in a rope. <So also Du. kink.) 
Allied to Norweg. kikat kinka. to writhe, 
Iccl. kikna, to sink a\ the knees under a 
burden, Icel. kiikr^ bent back. (Teut. base 
KIK. to bend.) 

Kipper, to care salmon. (Du.) This 
meaning is an accidental one, aiising from 
a habit of curing kippcr-salmen, i. e. ••almon 
during the spawning season, which were 
cnied uecause of interior qua lily. A salmon, 
after spawning, was called a kipptr (Pen- 
nant), The lit. sense is 'spav^ner.'~Du. 
kippen, to hatch; also to catch, seixe. 4* 
Icel. kippa, Swed. dial, kippa, Norweg. 
to snatch. 

church. (Scand-E. - GkO 
M. E *!>>*(■. — Iccl. kirkja: borTowe>l from 
A S. cirtre, tirtt, a church. See Oburob. 

Klrtle, a soil o[ gowa or petticoat. ;E. 

ytipp^, to sa 
BUrk. a 


cr Scaod.) M. £. kirttL A. & eyritl. 

toolc.+lceL kyrtiU, Dan. ki^Htl, Swe 
kioml; evidently dimin. forms. Prob. 
dimin. of skirt; cf. IccI. skyrta. I>i 
skiorii, Swed. skjorta, a shirt, skirt. Tl; 
loss of s may have been doe to L. ntn 
short, which is from the same root as sk 
and short \ see Skirt. Sbirtr Curt I 
Dn. kortf C. knrz. <.hort. 

Kiss, a salute with the Upa. fE.) Tx 
vowel I is due to the vtrb, which is foi 
from the sf>. by vowel-change. M E. e, 
sb , a kiss ; whence kisjrn, verb. A Ij. f< 
sb. ; whence eyssan, verb.-fDu. kut, led 
kers, Dan. kys, Swcd krss, G. kuss, a iii 
Allied to Goth, kustus, a proof, test, 
gintus, a taste. The Goth. k$ixtus is Ire 
Itiusan, to choose. A kis^ is a ^mt 
taste, or something choice. AlUed 
Ohooae and Gnat. 

Kit (i), a milk-pail, tub: also, aa ontfi 
(O. Low G ) ME. irA-O. Du. kiUt. 
tub ; Dtt. kit. CI Norweg. kittt, a cor 

Kit (3), a small violin. (L..Gk.) Sht 
for A.S. tytere, a citiexn ; from L citkan 
see Cithern. 

Kit 13), a brood, family, quantity. [E 
A ranaiit of kith. 'The whole kh' * 
whole kith. .S'C under Can (i). 

Kit-cat, Kit-kat, the itazae mr 
portraits of a partKular aire. <rc> 
mime.) The size adopted by Sir G. KncU 
for painting members of the Kii-Kst ehr^ 
which used to meet at a house kept I 
Chn'stppMer Kat ^Hayin). PCit is 4 
Christophtr (Gk. X/NirTv-^/>ot,LiL 'Chra 

Kitohen ; see Cook. 

Kite, a bird, a toy for flying. (E.) ILl 
kitt. A.S. ry/a, a kite. 

Kith: see Can O). 

Kitten ; see Cat. 

Knack, a snap, drxteritr^ trick 
Imitative, likt iCnap. Cl. GacL 
Irish cnag, % crack. ntagaiw%^ 1 
strike ; W. enec, a snap. Tt raea 
snap, (a) a snap with '' -^t 

(3) a jester's trick, piece ■ 
joke, trifle, toy, t!i£C 

knag, a knot in wood, peg. (C-) M 
kt$aggt. a peg, a knot in wood.*- Iri«k 
a knob, peg, cnaig^ a knot in wood ; G 
cnag, knob, pin, rcg. Cf. W 
lamp. Jnsl ns E liump, « swcllmfc 
blow, is from the vctb to hmm/, 
ong. a bump, knob, is t/wa Uub 


'•trike. Gael. ("m^. to crnck, snap 
R£«TV Ikoock, W. rn^n'^, to knock. 

Ickknock. a trfck. trifle, toy. (h.) 
u|>Iication of tmaiii. in tlic scii&e of 

icnr. Cf. Du. kniJtktn, to snap, 
oed foim of jhtaAJUn, to crack ; a 
Df Celtic origin. 

Dok, to sutkc, ntp. (H.) M. £. 
•m, A S. tHttcian. Gad, rwaf, to 

OM/^ 10 knock; Irish ctta^aim, 1 
; W.rM^rw, to knock ; Com. fwoiwy'i 
ck An imitative word, closely allied 


jJl (O. a hillock. (C.) M. E. Anc/. 
mW. (So alto Du. i^nfi/, a turnip, from 
■A»eu, T>an. kncld^ a knoll. Swed. 
^Bttrnf, (i. knciltn, a knoll, clod, 
I^H'^nrf) of Celtic origin. » \V. mo/, 
I^QIock ; ailimin. fonn. The orig. 
I Id Gael, tnoc, a hill, kitoU, hillock. 
mm^ a hillock, a tumip. 
Ulile, the projecting joint of the 
. (C.) M. E. hu>kii\ cf. O. Fries. 
, Dtt. knokkeK Dan. knokkel, G. knd- 
koackle. A dimio. form ; the shorter 
appe&n in Swtd htogt^ a knuckle, 
Mr, • bone, knuckle, knot of a tree, 
cktM, a bone : words of Celtic origin. 
vmwt» a liunp, bump, Gael, (nag, a 
If^ f^^f * knob; see knac 

{jglDi a wooden cnp. (C.) Irish 
I C«eL iMfjpran, a no^in. The 
^$m loat an initial c ; cf. Gael, ma^w, 
t kaob. a p^, an earthen pipkin. 
wn^m'rt^ a noggin. Named from its 

fOfH. or from knotty wood; cf. 
^wttfgmidAt bunchy ; IriiJi ctut^, a 

blow, bump, rtiai^, a knot in wood. 

I^e. n %]ight push. (E.) Lowl. Sc. 

lo pttih. »trikc, itn'ke with the 

c& A derivatirc of Knock (above). 

mu hntgi^ to press, Swed. Amgt, a 

*, a dc&Icr in old horses. (Scand.) 
Bcriy tncvni a caHdler anil harness- 
{BmjY - lea. JkmmJtJtr, a saddle. 
ir( ••■ Kiuok. 

p, (D nnp^ !,Uu.) Dn. itna/p/n, to 
cadi* crwL. cat (whence kna/fer. 
\tif/abtt%d. a Ue). Cf. Don. kmppe, 
pi Swed ii»i/t a trick. A parallel 
}^ and of imitative origin- 
.flttikr, btnt. ihump ; Irish 
Sec Knop ihclow). 
^Ott.) Do- hutptak, a 


knapsack, lit. a provision-bag. »Du. knaf, 
eatii'g. kNapf^n, to crush, eat (a word of 
Celtic origin^ as above) ; sak, a sack (a 
word of Hebicw origin! ; see Saolc. 

knapweed, knopweed. a weed m ith 
a bard head or htcf',, see knop ( below ^. 

knave, a boy. ^ivont, sl\ fellow. (£. ; 
ptrhafs C.) M. E. huiui \knavt\ a boy, 
servant. A. S. cnafa^ older form cnafa^ 
a boy. (So also Do. knaaf, a lad, ser- 
i-ant ; Icel. knapi, scr\*anl-lioy ; G. knabe^ 
boy.) All of Celtic origin (the Celtic boys 
being servants to the Teutons); cf. Gnel. 
enaf^chf a yomigster, a stout smart boy, 
orig. an adj. signifying knobby, lumpy, 
stout \ from the sb. rna/, a knob. We 
may therefore regard it ns ultimately a 
dcri>'ative of knop ; see Ijelow. 

knob, A weakened and later form of 

knop, a bump, piotuberance, boas. ( IC.) 
M. £. h%op, n rose-bud ; knap is also a 
hill-top (whence Ao^ Star). A.S. cfKrp^ 
n hill-top (so also Da. htop, a knob, bud, 
Icel. knappr, Dan. knap, kn»p, Swed. knoff^ 
knop. G knopft all in the sense of knob, 
button, stud). W'c may aUo compare 
Gael, end/, a knob, button, boss, stud, 
hillock, also a slight blow ; from the verb 
cnap^ to thump, beat (hence, to raise a 
bump); \V. map, a knob; Irish cnap, 
knob, bunch, hillock, from cmapaim, I 
strike. See Knap (above). 

nap (3), the roughish surface of cloth. 
(E.) M. E. moppt, nap, orig. a liule knap 
or knob on clolh. which was cut away witn 
little nippers, thus leaving what we now 
call nap. The same as knop. 

nape, the joint of the neck behind. (£.) 
M. E. napr, of which the orig. sense was 
'knob,' as applied to the slight projection 
at the back of the head, al^tve the neck. 
The same word ns knap or knop. 
Knave ; see under Knap. 
Knead, to mould by pressure. <E.) 
M. £. knrJen. A.S. cneden (pt. I. cn^td, 
pp. CTUkim), a strong verb, to knead. 
4-Du. kntden, Icel. hiatUi^ Swed. knS*^ 
G. kwttn (aU from Teut. base KNAD). 
Allied to Kuas. ptttate, gntsti, to press, 
Knee. (E.) M. E. kne, pi. huts \ atw 

knit, Icel. kn/, D»n. ixi^r, Swed. knS, G. 
kni<f Goth. ^ih.^-L, g<nu, Gk. yiWv. SkL 
Jdnu. (Aryan GANU. knee). Sec 0«ai^ 
fleotion, Pantacoa, && 




to &n aa ih* IciMca. (Scaad.) 
M E. Jhuim. - Dm. kn^ ; ibmed frov 


loa to 

Kn«n. KnoU, to fooad u a bcH toIL 
(>. ) M £. ^(/i>7». A. S. ^m^OMm. to 
iaock, beat noufly. + ^* knallen^ to gtrv 
a load rrport, D«n. knaUt, to erplodf; 
$««d. bwltt, to resonnd, G. ktuUlem, to 
in«kc a loud doim, Jcel. gndla^ to totam. 
W'otda of imitative origin, to denote a loud 
CT. Do. kruxl, Dan. imaU, Sved. 
if, G. ind^, a loud noUe. 

Knlokknack : kc Kjuok. 

Knlfa: «ce Nip. 

Knight, a vouch. serrAiit. maa-ftt-ariDS. 
(K ) M. E, knif;ht. A. S. fHiA/. a boy, 
Mrvant ^ Da. knteht, a servant ; Dan. 
in/jrr,man-tcr«-aDt, knave (ttcards): Swcd. 
iiv/ifr/. toldier, knave (at cards) ; G. hnakt. 
p. PertupfOfM/^ cyH-iht*, belonging to the 
Kin Of Iftbc ;• cf. Ok. t^aat, kgitimate, 
from yivM, kin ; see KXn. 

Knit; »ce Knot. 

Knob : «ce Knap, 

Knock, KnoU (i), a hillock: see 

KnoU {]); tee Knell. 

Knop : ccc Knap. 

Knot. (E.) M E. *m»//^.-A.S. enatta, 
a knot. + Du. hu>t , Icel. l-»ii/r; Dan. 
AttMife ; Swed. knul; G. ktu}t€n.-^l^ nodus 
(for gncduj). See Nodo. 

knit. (£.) A. S. cnyflan, to form Into 
a knot, to knot ; formed \hj vowel-cbange 
of p to ^^ from cnotla^ a knot. + Icel. 
knyta. from kniitr, tb. : Dan. knytte, from 
knnde; Swed. knyta, from ^ww/". 
noddia, the bead. (K.) M. £. twiU, 

M. E., bit tS» ane m a 

I ■ ■!■■■, a kaob <HaAaB\ loeL KuA^, 

kaoK ban. C. kmttm, a kaot, kMk. 

if a mtXK rniiaml oi hue. 

I Ksoot^aacov^ vKo&«>Sewd)i 

I iacjiilf . a «ti>pw aoo«u{e. — loeL iradl^, a 1 

to be anrad oC (K> I 

A.& tndwtm (pC t. 

\^\otL ^md, O. B. G. 

Farther altea to Ra», omAt, to know; 

msu^rw (lor /MMomr) : Ck. 7«- 

Skt.>M.tokiioir. (AHfroaabasiCK; 

a sccoodaxy fonn of CAN, to ksov.) 

koowladgB. (£.: wk(A Soaad.n 

M. £. kmffmlM, htamltrAe, Tbc • 

•ioA^ is a weakened iarm c£ Mkt, aa 

ing to IceL -Mkr, -JkiH. S»el -M 

saffiz nscd for fbrmine afattrafiC OflOBa. 

I lea. k^r^Uikr, Swed Atr-JU, lo«tt, 

' soMn-itiir, troth, luitac-leiki^ b( 

Ttie A. S. spelliog of uis saflbi k 

and it occui^ in £. tnrk/>d!pr>; to il 

same as A. S. ItU^ a gam«, sport, ( 

see Lark (a). 

Knuckle; see Knack. 

Knurr, SLnur, a knot in wood« 

ball. (O. Low G.) M.E. kmr. Net 

J A. S. - O. Da. kncrrt, a hard nrrllA 

knot in wood. -^ Dam. k/wrt, a kaoC, 

kn^irnn, a lamp. See Qnarlad. 

Koran, tacrcd book of the 

dans. (Arab) Arab, pir^ rcadn^ 

lei;ible book, the Kc^ui. •» Arab. rooCf*'* 

he read. (The a is long.) 

aloor&n; thesame word with ibe Ah 
dcf. art. a/ (the > proAjced. 
Kythe; see Oia (i). 

Iiab«l : see I<ap (i). 
I«abial. (L.) l^tt L. laHatu, perlaio- 
ing (o the lips. * L. /ahum, the lip. See 
Z#ap it). Lip. 

labellum. a pendolons petal. (L.) L. 
taUIium, dirain. o{ iahisim, a lip. 

labiate. (L.) A botnnical lerm. * L. 
hh urn, a Up: with suffix aft (L. -o/aa). 
Laboratory ; see Labour. 
Iiabotir. toil. (F. - L) M. E. /a/wir. 
— O. F. /a/>citr (later /a/ri*r).-L. lahcrtfHt 
ace of /0i^r, /ii^M, toil. Allied to rvdur, 
itivnpth. (v^RABU.) 
bwabotiP. (F. - L. I with t^prtJU,) 

Coined by prefiring E. ir- («*r1 *» 
ia^tmr, a word of K. origin (•bow, 

elaborate. (Ui I.- riahoratm, pp 
tlahorart, lo labour greatly. — I- /. 
greatly; Uhcf-art, to work, froia 

laboratory. (L.^ Formerly 
/»f7 (Blount r. * O. F. f/it/vm/MWj 
Formed from L. tiatternim^ pp. 
ni'T, to cUtiOfate, work oat, 

laborioua. (F. - L) M. E ' 
ritms. • F. hbontux. — L.. 4i»rt 
toilsome. — L^ /isAfln-, crude £atm i^i 
la boor. 


atiee. (I.) h, Mmrmtm, 
^ xvi. l8. fcthApi^a/&urrtum, 
rinth. a. muc. /F. - L. - Gk.) 
rintkt. •• L. Iaf>yrinthHS. • Gk.Xa- 
r. « mue. a pUce full of Unes or 

Pet for kafvpt»9oti Irom Ktxfpn, 
>iQi/pa, ft lane. 
(1), a rninuttft substance. (Pert.— 

Pen. /ai« /«>, gum-Uc, whence 
t lake is obtained for dyeing. — Skt. 

lac; put for raA/d, lac. •• Skt. 
yp. of roAj't to dye, colonr. redden ; 
. rm^ffOt colonr, paint- Der. gitm- 

tiar, looker, a sort of vamith. (F. 
-Pctv-Skt.) F. lacn (Cot.V- 
errv. icatini^'Wax. — Port, laca, gum- 
en la^, gum lac (above). 

I (}), a crimsoD colour. (F. — Pen. 

K iaque i.Cot. ) — Pers. idk, lake. 
Zai, gain-lac (above). 
\j\ % hundred thouMind. (Hind.* 

Imni iai < alw t4Mh), a lac - bkt. 
ft hundred thou&and; appatently 
Cemce to the number of lac-insccti 
It ; see I*ao ( i ). 

. a cord, lic. (F.-L) M. E. iai, 
0. F. /ar, /o^i, a, snare, noose. — L. 
-, a ncoic, ariare, knot. Allied to 
T, to allnre; <f. E. tlicit, dt light. 
t>. a noose. (Spnn. — L.) 

EL lu): mod. bpan toio, 

; »ix ;i'j\c. •S The E. word i> from 
n .^pan . uitii i •• £. xi: the Span. 

I I aoundc^l » roiceless M. 

bat* a tittle taoe. thong. (F.->L.) 
)mhft. •• O P. ia€*U ■ lace ; dimin. 
a lice ; see above. 
rate, to tear. (L.) From pp. of 
T«nf, to tear. — L. later^ mangled, 
• Gk- Aa««/rui, lorn : Aan\ a rent ; 
»(*i, to tear, W WR.MC) 
oarato. 1 1 . ) From pp. of L. di-tac- 
o Ceir avnn'Icr. 

nyixuLl, laacrinial. pertaining to 
[L.1 Tbe»pe!Iin(;/dMrv/rta/i> bad. 
w^-tfu, better itictwmt, /airrma^ a 
O. L. da^rtMUt a tear, Coj^nate 

rk. Urft' - '■ -' •"■! t. /^.. j„ 



1), DfT 


fnl; /: 

■■ c. 

' 1 Low O ) The old 

■e' Af 'fflolt.' M E. 

- ■ ' ^\ blrmivh. 

;. /Atr. de- 


i....^^,^ ..i..... to tioak. 

ladk (3>, to be destitute of, (O. Low G.) 

M. E. iakken't weak verb; &om toA, sb. 
See above. 

Locker: see Iiftcquer, nnder Lso (i). 

Lookey. X^acquey. a footman, menial 
ftttcudant. (K. — Span.? — Arab. ?) From 
O. F, laquay, • a lackey, footboy ; ' Cot. 
There was also an O. F. form aiatay ; 
Littr^ shews tba^ in the 15th cent., a cer* 
tnin class of soldiers (esp. crossbow-mcn), 
were called alaj^ufs, alacays, or latays. (The 
prefix a- is prob. due to Arab, al, the def. 
article.) Prob. from Span, hcayo. Port 
loiaio, a lackey: Port, laeaia., a woman- 
tervaiit in dramatic performances. * Arab, 
luka^ worthless, servile : as a sb., a slave ; 
laiid. fern., mean, servile. Cf. iakii\ hkC^ 
servile. iakSi, sJovenly. ^ This ti> a guess; 
it is much disputed ; Diez connects it with 
Ital. Uuart, U. U(ktn, to lick. 

Laconic, brief and pithy. (L. * Gk.) 
L. LaionicHs, Laconian. ~ Gk. Aacaifunir^ 
Lacooian.* Gk. AtUarv.a Lacoai&n, Spartan. 
These men wee celcbrBtcd for their brief 
and pithy locution. 

Lacquer; see Loo (i)- 

Lacteal. relRting to milk. (L.) From 
L. lactt-us, milky. •• L. Ifut-^ stem of lac^ 
milk, -^ Gk. ToAturr-, stem of 70^0, milk* 
Root unknown. 

lettuce, a succulent plant. (F. * L.) 
M. E. Utut€. > O. F. laictuce*^ laitMU*^ 
not recorded, old form of iautut iCot.), 
mod. F. iaitue, lettuce. •• L /ar/aif^a, lettuce: 
named from its juiciness. — L. Uct-, stem of 
lac, milk. 

Lad. a youth. (C.) M. E. Au^<r.« Irish 
/aM, a youth, champion; W. //oW, o 
youth. Allied to Irish iuth, nimble, active. 
Gael, iaidir, ationg, iuth, strength; and to 
Goth. JMgga-iautkt, a young man ^froni 
iimdan, to growl. 

lass, a girl. (C.) Contracted from W. 
iloiies, a girl, fern, form of llawd, a lad, 

Lodanum ; see Laudanum. 

Ladder. (E.> M.EJaddn. A.S.A/ader, 
a ladder. 4* l^u. /adder, ladder, rails ul 
a cart; O. H. G. k/ttin, G. UiUr, a 

Lade (i), to load. (E.) Formerly a 
strong verb; we stdl use the pp. iadtm. 
M. E. /adffi. A S. khdan kpt. t. MMd. pp. 
hiaJen). meaning (i) to load, heap up, 
heap to{^-ihcr. 3) to draw out water, laue 
out, dia-m. *f^ Du. tadtn. Ice) hia^, Dan. 
totk, Swed. iotiJa^ Golh. kldihan ^n a/^ 
hlathan), G. btladtn, to lidc. CTcux. Vtuo 










Allied to Russ. klade^ 

HLATH. tolade) 
K load. 

ballast, a load to steady a ship. 
From Du. ballasl, bolU&t. + l^^ui- iMHast, 
bagiast', Swed. ihiriait. O. bwcd. bailast. 
The Dan. baghst, lit. * back-load.' is a late 
form due to popular etymology ; the older 
Don. form was (tariast, Agniu, both Daii. 
and Swed. bariast are comiplioos of O. 
Swed. balitut. iio also £. l*ries. ballast, 
lit. ' uiiuroQlable loud' (Koo1man).-'I)u. 
Ai/-, evil ^aa in bal-dcukU evil deed); last, 
load See Bale ^3), and laal (4}, below. 

lade (3\ to draw out water, drain. (E.) 
The same word a^ I*ade (iV 

ladle, a large spoon. (E. > M. E. ladtl\ 
so named from being used for dlpptnp ont 
or lading water from a vessel ; from M. E. 
^den^ to tade out : see above. 

last (4"), a, lartie weight, ship's 
cargo. (E.1 M. EL last. A. S. hhtst, a 
burden. Formed from A. S. hladan, to 
lade, load, -f- Icel. hlass, a cart-load, from 
A/cz0a ; Don. last, cargo, from ladt\ Swed. 
Du. and G. last^ a burden. 

load,ahurrien. (E.) Thcsenscof 'burden' 
seemttto be due lo the verb Xiade(i) above; 
a confusion caused hy the use of lead, veib, 
in the sense * to carry.' Really - Lode. q. v. 

Lady ; sec Loaf. 

La^, late, sluggish. (C) W. /fi^. slack. 
Ioo%, sluggish; Com. lac, 1oo»e, remiss. -f 
L laxus^ lax ; see Lax, Lansoid. 

Lagoon; sec Lako (t). 

Lfldo; see Lay <3). 

Iialr, den ; see Lie (i ). 

Iiaity; tee Lay (3). * 

Lake (i), a pool. (L.) A. S. Jot. - L.' 
tacus, a lake. + Gk. AfLurot, a hollow, hole, 
pit, pond. 

IfiLgOon. (Ital. - L.) Ital. la^m, a 
pool; also la^na. The former is au 
■agmenCative of L. locus \ the latter is 
from L. lacuna, extended from locus. 

loch, a lake. (Gaelic). Gael. txh» a lake. 
^Vi.iiitKh, Com. lo, Bret, huch ; L. laius. 
lough, a lake. (Irish). Irish loth ; the 
same as Gael, loch (above). 

Lake (2), crimson ; see Lao (rV 

Iiama (1). a high priest. (Thibetan). 
We speak of the g^nxfuf lama of Thibet^ 
i.c chief or high priest i, Webster). 

Ivama (a) ; see Llama. 

Lamb. (£.) M. £. lamb^ lemb. A. S. 
lamb. ^ Du. lam^ Icel. lamb, Dan. lam, 
Swed. and G. lamm, Goth, kunb, a young 



f «3^ 

1 lam 

Iiombeiit. flickering. (L.) 
flame.*** L. lambent-, stem of pres 
lambcrc, lo lick, sometimes appli 
flaiue»t«f*Gk. Aiirr«r. to lick. All 
Lap u V 

lamproy^afish. (F.-L.> O.F.iu 
(Ital. /dw/fv./a).— Low I-. lamfireda, 
spelt lam/ctra. LiL Micker of 
cause the fish cleivcs to lhcra.< 
ere, to lick ; petra, a rock ; see 

Lame, disabled, ^p. in the 
M, E. lame. A. S. lama. + Do lam 
Jamit Dan. lam, Swed. lam. '^^ '"'— 
orig. sense is briiised. m 
base LAM. to break. Cf. i 
break ; Icel. lama, to bniise ; ] 
to bruise. 

Lament, vb. (F. - L.) F. 
L. lammtari, lo wail. * L. lamemti 
mournful cry; from the base la-, to 
a cry ; cf. la-ttare. to bark. Cf. also 
laiate, to bark, scold ; Gk. ^«iy. to 
(^ RA.) Der. lament^ sb. 

Lamiaa. (L.) L. lamina, a thia 
oS metal. MM 

Lammas ; see Loaf. ^| 

Lamp. ^F.-L.-Gk.> O. F. H 
L. lampas. — Gk. Aa/nras, a torch. li| 
Gk. Ka^tituv, to shine, (y' LAP. RA 
lantern. (F. • L. - Gk ) ME 
/^mr. — F. lantemt, <»> L. lanScma, l(i< 
a lantern (not a true L. word). Le>k 
= loMfema • « lamNcrna*, borrowed 
Gk. Xanwriip, a light, torch. oGk. Ai, 
to shine. ^ Sometimes spelt toM 
because hifrn was used for 

Lampoon; see Lap (1). 

Lamprey ; see Iiambant. 

Lance. (F. - L.) F. lama. - L. A 
+ Gk. yi'rxTt. a lance. Der. Imtu, 
lo pierce: lanc-er. 

lanoegay. a kind of spear. <P. • 
dW F. — Span. — Moorish). Obsolete 
corruption of lem<e-iag;aye, compooadi 
lance (as above), and F. U(ii)V, a kfa 
Moorish pike. Ttie laiter word aa 
to Span, axagt^a ( =al ta^yti), wha 
is the Arab, dci^ article, and mmm I 
O, Span, word for * dart,* c 
So Port, aiogaia. whence 

lanceolate, Innce-sbi] 
lamcealaXms, fnnii>h<d with 
loHceola, a spike ; diimn. of lam 

lancet (F. - L.) M. E. 
O. F. Umcettt, dunia. of 


>Uiei tpetling of /anct, ^^b. 

D of launch (below). 

Lnoh, to hurl a Bpeu, send 

the wfctcr. (F* - L-) M. E. 
Irl.^F. lancer, to hurl, flin^, 

pride, pierce. • F. iatu4, « 

» Bl E. iand, lomt A. S. 

ccl Dan. Swcd. Golh. G. 

^p-JanJ, outland'ish. 

kind of coach. (G.) Said to 

I^nJau^ A town id Bavaria. 

t£ With HL land, G. au U 

in M. £■ f land ; see lalnnd, 

acoaol ofaproriitce. ^Du.) 

- XhL land^ land ; graa/^ a 

landgrav-Mt. from Du. /aw*/- 

' iamdgmaf', see MargrsTe. 

bird; aec Bail (3). 

to. vl^-) Founcrly /a ndsii/ 1 

k Dutch paiotcn.* Du. /ti«(/- 

fcape, a province. — Du. /ariJ. 

itf/, • suffix correspondini; lo 

'jn^Mt/shi^t derived from the 

be spell /AdJV. ^ The Da. 

p ns more like A than ak i 

lling with jc. 

U a German foot-soldier, a 

, (F •• G.) F. lansquemf, 

t [a misfip«llin^] or German 

M G. ianMhucht, a foot- 

. put for iandes, gen. of 

imtfht. a soldier (E. htight)- 

lands-kni^ht^ ong. a 

c Low Cuuntries. 

M.K. latu, iane. A.S. /in/, 

O. Fries. Umat tana, Du. 



L.) M. E, ianguuhfH. 

, item of pres. pan. of Ian- 

iflfa. — L. /angttfft, to be 

to Gk. Aa7-)rd(tt»', to slacken, 

alack; Icel. Aiim, to lag; 


) L laMgvidm, feeble. > 
> bw laiiguid or weak. 
4alDcs&. <F. - L.) M. E. 
lofuufur. ~ L. lanjptcrttr., 
r • L. langtun ^above). 
ce I«ajayard. 
w- -' *■ (U) From 


icr. I M. E Aii#>. 

eniter. The orig. seose was 
;,* secUn^it). 



ZiAntom; sec Lamp. 

lianyard, Z«aniard, a ceruin small 
rope in a ship, (F. — L. ?) Formerly s]>clt 
lattnitr, the final d being cxcrescenL «• 
O. F. ianitrt, 'a long and narrow band or 
thong of leather;* Cot. Orig. uncertain; 
prob. Latin ; yet it is difficult to connect it 
with L. /artarius, woollen, or with /ani- 
ariiu, belonging to a ianius, i. e. butcher. 

Iiap (i)j to lick up with the lonmie. 
tE.) M. E. lapptn. A. S. lapian, to lap. 
+Icel. hpja, Dan. labt, O. H. G. /afan. to 
Upup.+ W. //(t/w, hJamberr, GV.X&wrtiv, 
tolap with the tongue. (Base LAP.) Allied 
to lamhient, labial, and hp. 

lampoon. (F. - Teut.) F. fampon, 
orig. a drinking-song ; from the exclamation 
tamponsi - let us drink (Littrc). — F. iampcr, 
nasalised form of O. F. hppfr, to lap up ; 
of Teul. origin. 

Lap {i), the loose part of a coat, oa 
apron, part of the body covered by an 
apron, a fold, (E) M. E. lapp€. A.S. 
Itrfpa, a loosely hanging portion. + Du. 
lap, Dan. iap, Swed. lapp, G. lap pen. a 
patch, shred, rag. Cf. IccL lapa, to hang 
down ; Skt. lamb, ramb, to hang donn. 
(^RAB). Allied to ItobejLlmbo, Lapse, 
Limp (i), 

label, a small slip of paper, &c. CF.» 
O. H. G.) M, E. laM. - O. F- label, a 
label (in heraldry); mod. F. lamhiau. 
Orig. 'a small flap* or shred. - O. H. G. 
l^P^, G. lappcH, a patch, shred, rag (above). 
^ bo aUo uip-elf a flap of a coat, dimin. of 
E. lap ; lapp-€t, also dimin. of E, ii/ ; 
whence aUo the verb to lap over. 

I^ttp (3)» to wrap- CE.) M. E. /«/A"i 
also wlappcn, another form of wrapptn ; 
see Wrap. Quite distinct from lap (i). 
The form wlapptn explains dtvtlop^ m- 

Ijapidary, one who sets precious stones. 
(.L.) Englished from L. lapiJarius, astone- 
ma.son, a jeweller— L. lapid', stem of lapU, 
a stone. Allied to Gk. Xirar, a bare rock« 
Afsir. a flake, Kin^tr^ to peel. Sec Leaf. 

dilapidate, to pnll down stone build- 
ings, to ruin. (L.) From pp. of L, dUapid* 
are, to scatter like stones. — L. rfi-, for 
JIj, apart ; lapid-. base ol lapii, a stoue. 

Lapse. (L.) From L. lapsare^ to slip, 
fre^iuenU of li^i (pp. lapjtts)^ to glide, 
slip. trip. (^ RAB 1 Allied to Lap (1). 
collapae, to shrink tngctbcr, fall in. 
(L.) I-'ir^t used in the pp. t^taPied, 
Englished from L. ioUaptm^ ^. oS callolii. 



to fall together. — L. col- (for cvn-, i.e. cum)t 
together; iabi, to slip. 

elapae, to fg\\tlc awiy. (L.) From L. 
elapsus, pp. oi t-iahi, to glide away. 

illapBe, a gliding in, a sudden entrance. 
(L. ) L. iiiapsus, sb. a gliding in. ^L. 
r/- (for in), in ; ia^sui, a gliding, from pp. 
of taOi. 

relapse, to slide back into a former 
state. (L.) Fioin L. n/a^stu, pp. oi rt'ladi, 
to slide back. 

X*apwing ; see Leap. 

Iiarboard. tE. or Scand. 7) Cotgrave 
has : * Baifcn, the larboard side of a ship.' 
The M. E spelling appear* to be lad^iebord^ 
if, indeed, this be tne same word ; see 
AUil. Poems ed. Monis, C. 106. This 
possibly answers to Icel. hia^a, to take in 
sail (properly to lade). Swed. iadJa, to 
lade. Hut it is very uncertain. The word 
board means ' side of a ship.* as in star- 
board, f The F. balt^rt, babord-^G. ba^k- 
borj, where back ^it- back) is ' forecastle,* 
orig. placed on the left sidt (Littxe^. 

Xiaroeny. robbery. (F.-L.) The -^ is 
an E. addition. — O. K. iarrtcin (F. /ara'N), 
Ifticeny. — L. latrociitium, robbery ; formed 
with suflix -cinium (as in tirthdnium) from 
lairo, a robber. Allied to Gk. Xarfis, a 
hireling, ased in a bad sense ; the base 
appcarx in Gk. Aaf , to get, seen in diroAau- 
<«>•, to get, enjoy ; cf. L. iucrutHt gain. 
See Lucre. 

Larch, a tree, (F.-L-Gk.) O.K. 
lar^i't, 'the larch : ' Col. — L. Jan'cem, icc. 
ot /arix, a larch. — Gk. Adpi^, a latch. 

lATd. (F.-L.) O. F. iard.^h. iarda, 
tarida, lard, fat of bacon. Cf. Uk. Kap6t, 
nice. Aa/Mfof. fat. Dor. lard-tr^ from O. F. 
lardier, a tub to keep bacon in. hence a 
room in which to keep bacon and meat. 
Abo itUcr-lard. 

Large. (F.-L.) F. /or^.-L. fargiu, 

largess, a liberal gift. (F.-L.) F. 
iar^ifCt bounty. — Low L. iargifia*, not 
found, put for L. lar^tu, a b«stovrtng.— 
L, lar^/tts, pp. of largiri, to bestow. mL. 
iarguj. Urge, liberal, 

Urk (1), a bird. (E.) Another form is 
^rock (Bitms). M. £. larJu, also iatre 
«ri. — A-S. liwcrct. later laucrce, Uferu. 
+ Icel. tavirki, a lark : Low G. ietoerkt, 
O. H.G. ierthha, G. Urvhc, Du. U€wwrikt 
Swed. iarka, Dan l^rJU. p. The Icel. 
l^virki > woffcgf of w>ft» ftm ta, craft. 
fiVif, workf ' * ' &. idwtrt^^JJktf- 


nwrra*, worker of guile. The 
to some supersiiiioo which 
bird as of ill omen. 

Ijark (3). a game, Tun. (EJ 
intrusive, the spelling being 
should rather be /oak (aa as 
M.E. lak, iokx (Northern) /d 
td£, sport, play, contest.'^ Icel 
Uk. Dan. ieg, Goth, iaih ; cf. G 
to skip for joy. Der. wed-ioci 
(where it is a suffix). 

Xianim : short for Alarum. 

Larva. (E.) l^-iama, a gb 
used as a scientific name lor a 

Larynx. (L.-Gk.) L. j 

larynx Der. iaryng-itit. 

Lascar, a native £. In 
(Per*. ) Pers. iashkarf, a soldi 
an army. 

LasoiviouB. (L.) Com 
iasciuus, lustful. Cf. Km 
caress. Ski. lash^ to desire, las^ 
(V RAS.) 

Lash u)> to hind firmly tOj{ 
Da. lajschtn, to join, scarf tO£ 
a piece, joint, scam. So also 
Dan. iaske, to scarf. Swed. 
scarf, joint. The verb is fro 
whidi further appears in Low C 
flap, G. lascke, a flap, grnove 
timber. The orig, form was p 
with the sen^e of flap ; see bel 

Lash (a>, a tbnng, stripe (O? 
Scand.) M E. loisht, the flcxib 
a whip : cf. Low U, iaskc, a fla| 
word above). Lash m the senM 
is from its use in Ubhtng or bind: 
together; Swed. iaska, to siiti 
verb task, to scourge, is to lue a 

Lass -, see Lad. 

Lassitude, weariness. (F «L 
tudt — L. iassituJa, weariness. * 
wearied ; put for iaJ-tiu*, and a 

Lasso : see La^e. 

Last ( I ), Utest ; see Late. 

Last (3), a wooden mould of tl 
a shoemaker. (£.) M. E. iAst, I 
idst, Udst, a foot-track, path. In 
(whence the rood, sense foll'Tft 
Utst, a last, form; Icel I'ix-r 
below (he ancle ; Swed. •' 
itisUn, a shoemaker's la^i ^^ 

foot-track, The ttandanl i\i. 
Goth, laist', with orig. sense 
from Goih. iais, 1 know \fiMA 

w I. 


I. to And oat. Akin to Iteam. 

B vndore. (E.) M. E. iartm, 
l^itiin. to observe, perform, 
to i'qUow in the track of : * 
gH||Mrit (BbovcV -f Goth. 
^^^^^H^. from ; G. 

burden: sec Lftde (i). 
Mtch, fa:.texiiiig. (E.) M.E. 
b. from Ituehen, (o catch.— 
to seize, caich hold of. 
iseijte. ^E. ) M. E. r/i/rMf/i. to 
the tb. (Uckt (,also fhtuhe, 
^ tftlon. TbU sb. is allied lo 
A hook, cronk, cUektn (pt t. 
uUcb. seize. This verb <U(heH 
, gtlatian (pt. t f^iahtt^, to 
[trmed ftooi Ixccan (ftbove) by 
[« common ptefix). 
fttt liooe. 

W. E. iat ; comp. Utcr^ UtUr^ 
, laiit (Ormulutii, 416S), /dj/. 
IT, Ute. + Du. iaat, Icel. tair^ 
red. /a/; Goth, lots, slothful. 
r$\ L. tastut (for tad'ius*'), 
I Ibe verb to ///, i.e. let go, 
Ite meatu neglected, slothful, 
•t (0. 

Bther form of lattr (aboveV 
lest i contracted form oi latest. 
I binder. (E.t ME. UtttH\ 
to kinder, make late. — A. S. 
M. -^ Du. Usttn. from /a<]/ ; 
potn late ; Goth, iatjau, lo 
r//. ilothful. 
ee Latin. 

Aden. (I..) L, latent-, stem of 
Utrt. to lie hid. •f Gk. Xav9k- 
#;, Co Lie hid. (V RADU.) 

L) Im hieralis, belonging 
I. iaifT't Item of /0/ju. side, 
L (L.) l*ic L coaattfiilis, 
»L. «/-(»ftf*i-«rj*#i), with; 

tcml. (L.) From L. ^adn- 
••idc«J. — L. ifuadri', for ifMaJ- 
to four : iatiraiis, adj. 

Iig lo lOB 

A>/. ME. Ai//r. 
^. l^tta. -f Du. ild/ ; 

lal, brotire. (F. — 

,— U. F. lefct${F. laiten), 

« lath, thin plate ; be- 

mu hamuitfie^i uut iaut 


thin plates. Cf. Port, lata, tin-plate, la/iu,^ 

lattice. (F.*G.) Formerly /a/ftr. M.C^ 
latis. - F. /afi/j, lalh-work/Uttice-work. 
-F. /o//^, a loth.-G latfe, a lath. 

Lathe (i>, a machine for tuminc wood, 
&c. (Scand.) Icel. IdfS (gen. /rfB-«r), a 
smith's lathe. Perhaps for Mllrtt, and fro 
A/a^a, to larie : cf. A. S. MlaJ-xt'eoqt, a wh 
of a ivell, for drawing water ; see Lade (3). 

Lathe (j), a division of a county. (E,' 
A S. /<e^, UtS, a lathe, province; Thprpt,^ 
Ancient Laws, i. 184. ^55. 

Lather. (E.) M.E. /fiM^r. A.S /rf-rfKor, 
lather; whence WSrian, lo anoint. + Icel 
iavf>r, froth, foam, soap. Allied to Lre 
and Lava. (Case LU.) 

Latin. (F.-L.> F. Latin ~L. lattnus, 
beloitgiog to /.atium. Dor. latimer, an 
interpretei ; put for Latiner. 

lateen, triangular, appliril to sails. 
(F. — L.) F. latine, as in voili latmt, a 
lateen sail ; latin* is the fem. of laiin^ 
Latin (Roman). 

Latitude, breadth. (F. - L.) M 
latitude. * F. iatititde. -> L. latituJo (sten 
latitHilin-), breadth. — L. latits, broad : 
short for O. L- itlatuj^ttratus, spread out, 
pp. of stemerr, to spread; see Stratum 

Latten ; see Lath. 

Latter ; see Lata. 

Lattice ; see Lath. 

Laud, to praise. (L.) M. E. laudtn. — 
L. laudare, to praise. » L. lamd; stem of 
laus, praise. 

allow (3), to approve of. (F. — \.) 
M. E. ahuin. — O. F alouer, later atlouer^ 
to approve of. — L. allauddrt.^'L. al* (for 
ad), to; laudare, to praise. 

Laudanum. (L. - Gk. - Pers.) Now 
a preparation of opium, but formerly ap- 
plied to a different drug. "Laudanum^ 
Ladanum, Labdanum, a sweet- smelling 
transparent gum gathered ftom the leaves 
of Ciitus Ledon, a shrxib, of which they 
make pomander, it smclLs like wine mingled 
with apices;' Blount. 1674. (Laudanum 
has a like strong smell). oL. IddiiHurn, P^ 
dannm, rain from the shrub la*la |.Pliiiy). 

■> Gk. ATjAaKoK, AnSafoc (same). • Gk* 
K^lov, a shrub. — Pen. IJdan, the gum* 
herb lada (KichardsonV 

Laugh (E.) M £. tau^Men, Uhgken. 
A. S. hlehhan, hlikan (pt. t. klfh\ to 
laugh. 4* CHi- la^eMen, Icel. ki^t;a, Dan. let, 
SwwL U, G. iMkm, Goth* /Uo^on <^ V 





<BmcULAH«Ai7»KARK: c£. 
Gk. tt4^*t9, to Ciw. L. trpciiart, rtteirt, 
C craJke, trtak^ cr^k^ eiack, dmtik, Ac) 
Dtf. lamgAUr, A. S. kUaktar, 

ZaftOneb: tec Zaso*. 

TifttiTvIre— ; teclisr*. 

lAural. (F. - L.) M. £. ^re/. Urtr, 
lannr — F. laurUr. — Xw. iammrius*, sot 
lovidv famed £roa X^ Immrm, % Uwd' 

I«txi«ate. (L.) L. Uurtmimg, awmcd 
vitll Uarel — L. iaurta, fotn. of fgmma, 
Aflf. (bmed from taunu (ibove). 

Lave, to wuh. (F. - L.) F. ibwr. - 
L iMiart. 4- Gk. Aovf ir, to w&sh. (Bssc 
LU.) Der. lav^r^ O. F. laveir, % waahiv' 
BOol (Cot.); iap-^-^~y, F i^xtio/AW. L. 
ftl$alcrium, DruL of iamciffritu, adj.« be- 
longing to a washer. 

ablution. ( F. * L.) F. ; Uom L. sec. o^ 
/utiofie/n, A waibiai; away.— L- aiiMtrt, Ui 
ira&h awav. •L.o^ awa^; /w/r, to wash 
(doseljr allied to iauart), 

alluTl&l. wa&hcd down, applied to soQ. 
(L.) L- aliuuius, alluvUl. * L. ai-{» ad), 
to, in adiUtion ; itun, to wash. 

ULtadiluviaxi. before the flood. (L.) 
L. tMi*. before ; di/uuittm, deluge ; tee d»- 
li2«a (below I. 

delti^. ^F. - L.) 0. F. diimgr. ~ L. 
iUuMium, a wa&hing away. •- L. di'lturt^ 
to wash away. 

dilute (L.) L. t^iJuf us, xt^. of fH'Jitfn, 
to wa^h away, also to mix wrh water. 

laundress, a washeruontan. (K — L-) 
Formed by adding F. sufHx -^xr to M.E. 
iaumier or iava$uler, a washerwoman. — 
O. F. lavandurt, 'a laundcrcsse or washing* 
woman;* Cot. — Low L. AiwandSrrr<i C&amef. 
* L. iauand-uj, fuL pau. port, of lauart, 
to wash. Der. taundr-y » laundtr-y. 

lava. (Ital— L) Ital. lava, a stream 
(e&p. of molten rock),*L. hmart^ to wash, 

lavender, a plant. (F. — Ital. - L.) 
M. £. lavmdrt, the r being an £. addition. 
» F. iavamU, lavender; Cot. •■ Ilal. la- 
vmndttt lavender; ua^ed for being bid m 
frcahly washed linen. » Ital. lavanda, a 
washing. — I^ lattart, to wash. 

lotion, a washing, external medicinal 
application. (L.) L. /ottffn-nM, ace. of 
tf/M, a wathing.— L. Ipttu, pp. of lamare, 
to wa^h. 
IjaviBb,proru»e, prodigal (£.) Formerly 
«ptlt lavitA, imM*\ also i^yy, Fonaed 

wiik ffrfb -iA (A.S -^ 
•oleic Tcr^ iasc, to poar oat. 
water; M. E. Jbw^, lo bak oi 
■hat Ifcc ■rtMfc'nW we of 
Ci^boHiaMlr. 'UciawsbTsi 
God towrfff Hfa sifti: AlKt. 
607. kaB«ostoA.S;. 
(a doabtial vocd ■ 
17221: Da. f— w, G. iriim, 10 
CC Gk. AotACmt. to ani<7 g«L ^ *^ 
woni » slaKHl ceitaialy- E^ bat «aa pfi 
early Goalased with /na. DafcJMW^w 

Iaw: ceeId«(iV I 

Ziawn <i>. a spaoe of 
groB&d, a glade. ^F. • G. «r C) 
lammd (the ^ has beca droppedV * 
isiuSr. 'a land or laaad, a vild. 
khrabbj. or grassy piaa;' CoL C£ 
andSpaa.JbMb*a£cath. p. Of £Mrf 
origin ; rcicned by Littr^ to G. JUW f H 
/ana), opes ooaatiy : aad by Dtei to Sa 
jami, a ba»hy shmb^ of which the j 
latmam means 'waste lands.' Perfaaia 
cotDCS to the same chiag ; fisr £. and I 
Idrnd mar be the same as Ihsh Zsaa. i 
(enclosed) piece of land, ii the waK, 
' enclosure * be not originaL Cf- W. XM 
Gael lattHj an endosurc piece of ba^ | 

Lawn (.3), fine Imcii. ^F. pli 
Richardson supposes it to be a corrBf 
ol O. F. lifUM, ' a tme, thm. or open 
linnen; also lawn;' Cot. Bat Kots 1 
impo»si bic. Nor can it wcU be 
Span. Icna. coarse sad doth. Pak^ 
lias LoMfu lyncfi, prob for Lan O^H 
where Lan i& the l6th cctiL spelling | 
Lfum, to the N.W. of Rhcims. Ltk 
wiu also called ' doth of Kcinc^' 
Kheims; see Barct's Alvcaiic; 


Lawyer: see Lie (t). 

Z«ax, kUck. (L.) L. Uunu, stack. 
Allied to Lac 

laxative, loosening. (F.»L.) F. H 
atif.^h,. laxatiuHs^ looacning.«>L. iiua4 
pp. oilaxurt, to loosen. »L. itxui, las. ; 
laay.slow. slothful. (F.^L.) Wcfi 
the verb to lase. 'S'fntl»rmmr4n 
to /a.€ it,' &c : Cot. The -^ ts aa E~ 
addition, as in thtH'y, murk-^ 
from M E. lasiht, leukt, 
grave, Chaucer). — O K. 
* slodc, loose. . . weak, lauil, 
slow,' &c. ; Cot — Low L. ioit 
found, a corrupt pronunciatioa 
lax, loose; cf. ItaL /smv. lazy. 

(t), to ict a teannciit. 





'let (o-a-L, tUcken, 
t, loow. 

L,) o. F. iiww (/«//). pp. 
iairttr, to le( go (lease). 

to bold m a do^. (.F.« 
tj.«*0. F. Usse (F. Jat'jse), • 
/Aftf^ a thong, a loose rope. 
^ A ieojA of three was 
lally lea&hcd together. 
.) ll rtia-rart, to fcIax.^L. 
rojT, 10 lULken. 
(F— L> M. E. nUrim, «- 
|rr/«/K/-(F. rtiaisstr), to relax. 
'o relax (above ). 
pUcc; sec I«ie (i). 
Mo^. Dorm. (F.*C.) M. £. 
taia to be a Breton word, 
in Breton, but it answers to 
•M, a sonfT, |)ocni, Gael, 
hymn, ucred poeni ; cf. W. 
loond. Fcrh^ps thne Celtic 
ied to A. S. liSS, G. ii4d, a 
JiHtkem, to ung. 
irtxiiitn^ to the laity. (F.w 
E. iay.—O.V. lai, secular. 
»Gk. Xwatlf, belonging to the 
Aaili (Attic Xi-ii). the people. 
>Gk.) L. /diV<^ (above). 

lay people ^F. — L. — Gk.; 
\\ A c<Hne<) word : irom lay, 
cf. gBtit-ty iiom ^ity, &c. 


fjretr. (F.-1-.-Gk.-Heb.) 

>• L. Uivtrt, M L. Laxanu. * 

the Dame of the beggar in 

: contracted from Heb. Diime 

lb. EldaAr, he whom God 

UiAr^f^ a pUgue-hocpital. 

Ley. a meadow. (E.) ME. 
iLied land. A. S. Udk, led 
lea; cf. Hmd-Udh. i.e. Had- 
tte with prov. G. ioh> a morass, 
>w G. lo^, Belg. Aw as m 
wiih Lithuon. lauAat, an 
/jHTSj. a glaiic. open »i.>ace to 
RUK). Orig. -a dcahng.' 

comhicl : Me I«ode. 

a metal. lE.) M. £. /»</. 

1. /#■»</. Swed. laJ. Dan. /a/. 

G. Af/. 

M K V, pL ^biMY («> /rtrx). 
B- +Ua. /<w/; loliftf^e; 

a .1, /(«/. Guth. /aHy>, 

t. ■ iii'LJ or Kale, thin i^Uce : 

allied to Ross. If/ejfe, a leaf, Litbuan- //i/a.f, 
a teal. Gk. ^iwos. a. scale; Kusi. lupUe, to 
peel. Lith. lupti, to strip. 

lobby, a small hall, passoge. (Low L. 

— G.) Prob. from an O.K. lebif*-, not 
recorded. — Low L. labia, a portico, gallery, 
covered way. — M. H. G. lc%tbe^ an arbour, 
bower, open way up to the upper story of 
a house (OS in a Swiss ch&Uh\ mod. G. 
lauH^ a bower. Oiig. made w ith foliage. 

— M. H. G tottb (G. laub), a Uaf (above). 
lodgo, a vmnll house, cot, rest ng-place. 

^F -G.) M E. logt. hgge - O. F. hgt\ 

cf. Ital. loggia. Low L. lobia, a pallerj', 
O. H.G. l»ubd, M.H.G. hude,ua arbour 

liOag^a (1^ an alliance; sec liiKameot. 

ZiO&gue (3\ about three miles. (F.-L. 
-Ci O.F. Ifime (Roquefort); F. //>«/. 
— Low L. /c^«. leui-a ; I^ l^uea. a Gallic 
mile ; ■ word of Celtic origin. Cf, Bret. 
let^. lev a league; sUo leu (in Vanncs). 

Leaguer, a camp ; see Lie (i). 

Leak. (Scand.) ^\\tx\Jekat 
to drip, dribble, leak as a ship ; Swed. AffXiz. 
Dan./«j6i/.+Du. lekkin, G. Itrken, to leak, 
drop; A.S. leeeaM, to wet. (Base LAK ) 
^ 'Ihc mod. £. word is Scand. ; not from 
A. S. Ituan. Der. leak, kb., from Icel. Idt*, 
a leak. \Vc aUo fiud A.S hlea^ leaky. 

Iie&l, loyal ; sec Xjegal. 

Lean(i), to incline, stoop. (£.) M. E. 
lenen. A. S. hl-kuan, to make to lean, 
weak verb : cf. A. 8. Alim'aH, to lean, weak 
verb.+Don. /*tne, Swed. lana, causal forms; 
G. IthtUM, intrans.<^L. •elinaie, in in- 
clinare, to incline; Gk. mK\v*\v, to cause to 
lean, make to bend. (V KRL) 

lean O), slender. ^1. ^E.) M. E. tent. 
A. S hliine, lean ; orig. bending, stooping* 
hence thin ; cf. L. deelims^ declining. * 
A.S. htSnan, to lean (above). 

Leap. (E.) M. E. Upen, pt. t. //</». pp. 
lopen, A.S. hUapan^ pt. \. hleipt to run, 
jump.4'L>u loapen, Icel. hlaupa^ Dan /(*Ar, 
Swed. lopa^ Goth, klaupan^ G. lau/en^ 
cbiedy in the sense ' to run.* 

eldpe, to run away. (Du.) From Dn. 
amtloifpen^ to evade, elope, run away ; by 
substituting the familiar prefix e- for Du. 
ont-. This prefix • G. ent- = A. S. and- \ 
see Anawer. Dn. loosen, to ran. is cog- 
nate with leap (above). 

interloper, an intruder. (L. arui Da.) 
LiL ' a rurmcr between ;' coined from L. 
inter, between ; and Du, looper, a 
from loopen, to run. 





lapwing, a bird. (£.) M. E. lapp€- 
winkt. A. S. hUdprmnte, lit. ' one who 
turns Bbout in running.' — A. S. hU6p-an, 
to run ; uniue*^ one who turns ; sec Winoh. 
orlop, a deck of a ship. (Du.) For- 
merly oriopt (Phillips), Coatntcti;d from 
Du. ovtrhoPt a riuuiing over, ft deck of a 
ship, an orfope (Sewel). So called because 
it traverses the ihip. — Du. Mvr, over; 
tooptn, to run ; &ec elopa ^abovc). 
Leajm. (E.) M. E. Umen. A. S. 
Uontian.^0. /^rwf«, to Icam. FromTeul. 
base LIS, to find out ; whence also A. S. 
larnH (,G. iehrtH), to teach. And sec 
LMt (3). 

lore, learning. (E.) M. E, iert {^ioor). 
A.S. Ur, lore. This answen to a Goth, 
fofiu laha* (not found), from Colh. laii. 1 
have found out, pt. t of ieisan, to find out : 
see Last (a). [The change from / to r is 
common; see itvn, ^r^.l+Du. Utr, G. 
lihri, O.H.G. Utu, docUiae; of similar 

I^ase (t), to let tenements; ace I>az. 
Ijeaae (2), to glean. (E.) M.E. Usen. 
A.S, Usan, to gather. 4* Du. Uum, to gather, 
to read ; G. //mh ; Goth, /ijan, pt. t /dJ, to 

IieasK (F.-L.); see I*az. 
Leasing, a faUehood ; lice Loose. 
XjCast ; sec Loss. 

Leather. (E.) M.E. i^M/r. A.S. /WS^. 
4-Du. i/j£r, Iccl. iffir, Dan. latitr, Swcd. 
iiider, G. tttUr, leather. Dar. Uaihir'H. 
Zjeave (0. to quit : see Live. 
Leave (3), pcnni^ion ; sec Lief. 
Xjeaven ; sec Levity. 
Lecher ; sec Lick. 

Ifectem. Leotum, a reading<desk. 
(Low L. "-Glcl Corrupted from \jyM L. 
ieitrinum. a reading desk, pulpit; we find 
M. E UUrone, Uitorne^ Uctrvne, itttrun 
(Prompt. Parv.). — Low L. Uctrum, a pulpit. 
«>Gk. AcKT^wf, a couch ; also a rest or sup- 
port for a book. Akin to Gk. Ai;ifof. a 
couch, bed ; cf. L. Jtclus, a couch. Allied 
to Uo (1). ^Observe that it has no con- 
nectioD with Uciure, 
Zieotion, Lecture; ice Lesend. 
Ziedga, Led^r; sec Lie (1). 
L«e, a sheltered place ; part of a ship 
away from Ihc wind. (Scand.) M. E. iu, 
shelter. * IccL hU. lee { of a ship) ; Dan. A/. 
Swcd. /tr.^Du. iij ; A.S. hM, Hitow, a 
covering, a shelter, whence prov. E. lew, 
wnrm. also a shelter. See Lujcewarm. 
^ The peculiar u&e is Scand. ; yet the 


pronanciation Uw-^rJ, lor Ut 
serves the £. lew. 
I/oeeh \^\\ a physician. fE, 
Ucht. A.S. /ixv, one xvS •— ■■- 
i6cniaH. to bral.-t-Iccl. 
SweiL idkart, Goth. let'. — - -- 
Urkna, Dan. ioffc^ Swed. taJta^ G 
Hcn, to heal. 

leech (2), a blood -sucking worm. 
A. S. iAc€, lit. ' the healer ;' the tame w4 
as the above. 
Leech (.^), Leaoh, the bonier or e4 
of a sail at the sides. ( Scand. \ led. Hk 
leech-line ; Swcd. //>. Dan icg.% buU-ra] 
+0. Du. iyktn, a bolt-rope \Sewd). 
Leek. (E.) ME. tetk. AS. U^ 
Du. iook, Icel. iaukr, Dan. /o^. Swcd. l 
G- iauck. Der. gnr-Iu, ihar-lock^ JUj 
lock (latter s>-llablc). 1 

Leer, a sly look. (E.) The wb il 
development from the sb.. which is aa \ 
word. M. E. Ure, the cheek, face, cd 
plcxioo, mien ; usually in a good scnae. \ 
Sltcltoa has it in a bad sense. A.S. A^ 
the check ; hence, the face, look, mioL 
Iccl. hlyr, the cheek. ^Allied to ] 
loertn. to peqs, peer, which is ouite i 
tinct from Da. loertn, to lurL \ 
Lower (3). 
Leea, dregs of wine. (F ) PI. of a 
form Ue. not used.— F. lu» 'the l«ea» 
Low U lia, pL lim, lees (loi 
Origin unknown. 
Left, (he weaker hand. (E") 
/;//. Infi. A.S. lift. Mr Succt 
that inanis, /r/?,' occurs in a g1 
Quelleu, i. 445). and that the 
has senne for synni ^sin'i; so that M 
for lyft^ with the sense * v 
•weak;' cf. A.S. ly/i-dJl, [ 
Fries. Ueft, ittfUr hond, lefi hj:.'i ; u 
lujt, tuth. left ^. The fonn of llie I 
is LUB ; prob. allied to ZiOp. % 
allied to L. lauus, Gk- \aiin, 
-Log, (Scand.) hX. E. Ay fpL 
Icel. l^r, a leg r Dan. ta;^, iive ca' 
leg ; Swcd. la,^ (the same). 
Legacy ; see LegaL. 
Legal, pertaining to the law. 
F.W.-L./;^.':- '--' » '- 
lex. Taw, cognate 
st-nse is 'that w 
fixed ; c/ Gk. Kfrrai fu^ot. the i 
from «i>ai, I lie. (V I AGH.> 

allege (F.-L.^ N^ 
-F. cUU^uer, 'to air 
lq;an, to send, dispaiuu , jt.i>o 





^Hwlon. » t» ai^ (for ad)t to ; 
"mtoid, •ppoint, from iiqp^, stem of 

\y, s doe prevpottion in mixing metoU. 
• ) ?'ormcfiy tiUity . M fc.. ajay.^ 
|4^ , d.'rj-. .Ji'.ti^. — U. h- auur, Kiiiyir^ 
^pc. * L. a.V/tszrr, to biml together ; 
(C p. 349. col J. 1. iS. The O. K. 
t> . became aUi, and was misuDder- 
ts tictng d &i'* L. cu/ ttgtm, according 

or Uw. 'Misplaced.) 
teafiTOe, a partner. (F.-LO F. 
Ef *L coti?ga, a partner in ofBcc.^ 

. —am', (or rwjw), wilh; UgarCt to 
n an rrabaisy; Ke legata (below). 
lag«,aDa!«rTnbly.seniinar7. (F. — L.) 
tt^. ~L. coUtgtum, society of col- 
■ or penooa. *I» toUega, a coUeagae 

<|fata, a chosen depnty. (L.) L. 
ritf, pp^ of 4ie-!e£ari, to depute, ap- 

1^ loyal, true. (F.«.L.) M. E. ///. 
laaa F, /^a/, O F. /oa/, legal, hence, 
iajwl.^1^ itfftiis, legal. Doubleta, 

%af. (L) M E. Ugade\ a coined 
(•a if«L. //gatia*. not found) from 
|«/arai, a bequeit, neul, of pp. of 
, to appoint, brfjucatb ; see below. 
Ktv.aoommissioDcr. (F.*L.) M.Iil. 
■»0. F. i^fii/, a pope's ambassador. 
I^gatm, A dcpoty : pp. of Ugart, to 
It.— L. te^', item of //jc, law. 
Btee. (L : vr'M F. svj^.) A bar- 
fe woTtl ; ooioed from L- trgat'us, ap* 
d» with F luffia -/ ( - L. d/iw). 
Uator. i.L.) L, Ugitiator, a pro- 
of a law.->L. Upt. gen. of ^x, a 
iiMr. a propofcr. lit. bringer, from 
{^^liatHtH^, to benr, bring, from 
L; ace Tolerato. Der. tegitiau. Sec 
M. (F. - L.) O. K ie^nj/t (F. 
^wLow L. /rgiita, one skilled in 
nvs.* L. /itf^, Uem of ^jt, law ^with 

Ittmaie. (L^ Low L. Ugitimatus, 
tffUimtsrt, to declare to be lawful. « 
nftaiAr. acootdiog to law. — L. Ugi-, 
$tKm vX Its, law ; with suffix -ti-mus, 
•|,Mdifid. (F-L.) F.^a/(Cot). 
^tgaHh kfal (beace just, loyal); see 

IgBte* 10 eooslgs to exile. (L.) 
pp. of L. r»-%«iT, to send away. 

•tory. (K.-L.) 



M. E. tennde. •• O. F. ifgrmi*. • legend, 
story. -•Low L. Ugemia, a legend; L. 
UgtctiJa. neut. pi. things to he read.«>I* 
irgxHdus, fut. part, of Ugtrt. to lesd, 
orig to gather, collect ^V^V. ki-ynv, to tell, 
speak. (Base LAG.1 

coll (i\ to gather together. (F.-L.) 
* C&iUd op in a cable ;* Rcanmont and 
Fletcher. - O. F. fw7/i>. to collect. - L. fl 
tolHgtrt ; tee ooUeot below. f 

ooUeot. vb. (F.-L.l 0.¥. colUcttr, 
to collect money (Kociuefort). — Low L. 
celieaare (the same), from colUcta, a col- 
lection, orig. fem. of pp. of cofligtre, to 
collect . — L. «/• ^ *- f«f- = rwM), wilh ; Ugert, 
to gather. 

collect, sb. (L.) Low L. ccUetta. a 
colU-ctioQ in money, an assemhly for 
prayer, heiioe a khurt prayer; see the 
word above. 

oull. to collect, select. (F.-L.) M.E. 
€ullem.^O. F. toillir, ckillirt to collect; 
see coil ( I ^ above. 

diligent, induhtriooa. (F.— U) O. F. 
Ji/tgrnt.^L.. JiJiemf-, stem of dUtgins, 
careful, diligent, lit. loving (fond) ; pres. 
pt. of diligtre^ to love, select, lit. choose 
between. — L. di- ( >= du-)^ apart : Ugtrt. to 

elect, chosen. (L.) L. elntuj, pp. of 
etigert, to choose oot — L. r, out; itgtrt, 
to choose. 

aleffant, choice, neaL (F.-L.) O.F. 
eleganl.'^l^ elegtutt-, intern o( i/^gans, taste- 
ful, neac — L. r, out; Ug; base of Ugtrt^ 
to choose. 

eUgible. (F.-L.) F. tligibU.^how 
L. eligibiJis, fit to be choiien. — L. tligtrt, 
to choose ; !iee elect above. 

Intolloot (F-L.1 O. F. iff///&f/.- 
L. infeiUctus, perception, discernment. — 
L. inUlUctus, pp. of inUliigire^ to dis- 
cern— L intei-, lor inUr, between ; U^re^ 
to choose. 

intelligence. (F.-L.) F.mfe//igenct, 

— L. mtiiligtutia, perception. ■• L. ittUi' 
li^t-t stem of pres. pt. of inUUigtrt, to 
discern, onder>tand \ above). 

InteUlgiblo. (F.-L.) ^.tnumgiblt, 

— L. inttliigihilu, perceptible to the sca*cs. 

— L, intelUgtrty to discern (above). 
lection, a reading, portion to be read. 

(L.) From L. Itftic^ a rcadinj^. — L. Uttus, 
pp. of legtrt, to read. 

lecture, a discourse. (F- - L.) F. Uc- 
tvrt, ft reading. — Low L. Uitura, a com- 
I mcntary. — L. w/m/, pp. of Ugf.rt.^ vo n»d. 






legible, readable. (F. - L.) O. F. k- 
gihU. * L, itgi&Uis, legible. - L. kgtrt, to 

legion, a large bodv of soldiers. (F. — 
h.) M. E. IfgiouH.'^b. F. Up'tm.~h. ie- 
gionem^ ace of k^a, a Roman legion, body 
of from 4?oo to 6aoo men. — L. iegert, to 
gather, select a band. 

legume, a pod. (F. - L.) F. U^^me, 
pulse, a pod. vL. U^men {item /e^f^nn^, 
pulse, bean -plant; applied to a crop that 
can be picked (not cut). — L. /c/r/r, to 
gather. Der. itgumin'Cus. 

lesson. <F. - L.) M. E. Ussm. - F. 
U(on. — L. Uctianem, ace Qi lectio, n read- 
ing; see Uotioa (above). Doublet, Uc- 

neglect. (L.) L. mgtectus^ pp. of »<^- 
ligrre, to neglect (put for mc-ligtrt). — L. 
nee. nor, not, conlr. form oi nequs\ Ugere. 
to gather, select. 

negligence, (F. - L > F. negligence. 
— L. tiegligentia, carelessness. — L. negli- 
fictit-, stem of pre*, part, of negligert, to 
neglect (above). 

predileotioil, a choosing bcforeband. 
(L.> From X^pra, before ; dileetia, choice, 
from di'ligere^ to choose: see dilicent 

reooUeot, to remember. (F.»L.) Lit 
• lo gather a^ain ; ' from re- (prctix) and 
€ailecf\ see ooUeot (above). 

select, choice. (L,l L. seiectus, pp. of 
seiigrre, to choose. — T*. «-, apart ; iegere, 
lo pick, choose. Dor. teUa, verb. 
liegerdemain ; &ce I.evity. 
Leger-Une ; see Levity. 
^^ Iiegible, Legion ; see Legend. 
^^LlieglBlator, Iiegist ; Bee LegsL 
^^KZiegitimate; see Xiegal 
^^KZiegxune ; see Legend. 
^^ftXeisure : see Lioenoe. 
^■^Iietnan. Xiemman ; see LleC 
I Lemma, on assumption. (L.-Gk.') L. 
I lemma. — Gk. X^fifta, a thing taken ; in 
I logic, a premiss taken for granted. — Gk. 
*I-X^^/ui4, perf. pass, of \aii$dytiv, to take 
(base \a0.); cf. Skt mdA, to take. (V 

dilemma, a perplexity.- (L.»Gk.) L. 
dilemma. *'Gk. iiKrjfiita^ a double proposi- 
tion or argument in which one Is caught 
between two difficulties, —Ck. fiiaAa>iJ3ar[>- 
ttm, I am canght between — Gk. &d, be- 
tween : T^a^Liititmv. to take, catch. 
Iiemmlxig. Iteming, a kind of Non%*e 
fian rat (Nonveg.) Norwe|E. Umtmii ; 

also oocnrrii^ as lemming, Umundt, 9te. 

Cf. Swed. lemel, a lemming. Origin ob- 
scure ; Aa&cn derives it from Nor^cg 
lemj'a, to strike, beat, maim, lit. * lame,* 
ana explains it to mean 'destroying;' 
from the destraclion committed by iheai 
see Lama. But the word may be Lapp; 
the Lapp name is hnmek. 

IfOmoa. ^F. — Pers.l Formerly itpum, 
« F. limoH. « Pcrs. limtJa, limtimd, a Icinoi^ 

Lemur, a noctonial animaL (L.) I* 
lemur, n ghost : so nicknamed by oaSorai-- 
isls from Its nocturnal habits. 

Lend ; see Loan. 

Length ; sec Lone 

Lenient, mild. (L.) Frnra pro. pait<< 
of L. lenire, to soothe. •» L. Umu, softd 

lopity. (L.) Englished from LJbiiHq 
mildness. — L. lenis (abovel. 

relent. (F. - L.) Altered from F, f» 
lentir, to slacken, to relent (cf. L. rr/» 
tescert^ to slacken). — F. «-, pol far rr* 
(U n-tuf) ; L. lentus^ sUck. slow. alM 
to lenis, gentle labove). 

XiOns, a uiccc of glass tiMil in 
(L.) So called from the rciccnblani 
double-convex lens to the shape of thfri 
of a lentil. -•L. lens^ a lentU. 

lentU. a plajit. (F.-L.) M. E. iMflK 
-O. F. lentiiU. - L. lenticmlii^ a little Ic» 
til ; double dimin. of Itnti'^ crude lomi 
irnt, a lentil. 

Lent, a fast of 40 days, beginning 
Ash-Wedncsday. (E.) The fast 
sprinij-ume ; the old sense is simply 
y>\.K.ient,lenttn. A. S. >Mr/^«, tKe s; 
supposed to be derived from iSsMf, 
because in sprii^ the dajrs lengthen i 
is possible. 4* ^^- It'^*, sprisg; C. 
O. H. G. Itnsin, Ungiun, Der. 
adj., from A.& leueten, sb. 

Lentil : see Lena. 

Lentiak, the masiiC'lTee. (P. •• L.) 
lentisqui. ~ L. lentiscum^ Uniitemt^ osmill 
from the clamminess of ll^ resin. — L. 
us, sticky, plianL See LenienV 

Leo. a lion. (L. — Ck.') L. U9. « 
A^o/r, a lion. We also tiiul Du. AvMit, 
Iffua^ Russ. lev, IJthaaa. U9AS, ivM 
lion. Cf. Heb. Libi\ a liort 

loopard. (K.-I.-Gk.^ O.F. 
••L. //^/on//fjr. — Gk. Aioiri^>*«», a _ 
supposed to be a moogrrl brlwctn a fl 
(panther^ and a lioncsa. — Gk. Jm»n I 
\i«v, a lion; m^i^lmt a pard 



(F.-L -Ok ) F. /w«. - L. &»- 

of *V» : see Leo (above), 

r, (F, - U - Gk.) The sense has 

i; Ufn formerly meaiil ihe di&- 

tLf: and what we now call a Uptr 

« tfprmit man. ' The /r/« of 

I;* Wydtf, Matt, viu .^.- 

oiie; Cot. — I-. />/»ii. — 

rocy: so called because the 

Gk. A«frpdf, scaly, ^obby. 

a «cale. — Gk. A^r«i»', to peel. 

; /v/*i'&, Uthnaa. /h/Zi, to peel (V 

a tenn applied to tnsrcts 

are oovered with scales. (Ck) 

, crude fonn of Ktwls. a scale ; 

. of »r«^, a wing (allied to £. 

f. (F. - L, - GIl) a coineil 
ihr adj. Ufrnu ; which is from 
-■>1. A/^nv, aHIicted with ////», 
rgmtf {abfvic). 

belonging to a hare. (L) L. 
r, adj., from itpori; crude form of 

r»P»t (F. - L.) O. F. Igvrault, 'a 
or young hare:* Cot. The iiiffix 
Low L. -aitius, from O. H. G. waiti, 
, oommoo u a suflix. The base Zrvr- 
L. Ufffr, %\en\ of ///*«, a hare. 
; *ee Leptir 

IB injury (,K — L.) F. Usion, 
* L. UHentm, sec. of iasio, 
w, X^ lesut, pp. of UiUrt^ to 

(L.) L. caliiJtrt, to dash to- 

LmA (-/VM--nK»f), together : 

firike. hurt. Der, ctilis'ion 

(L.) L. / A'dVw. to strike out. 

(frOTTi pp. i/j'-Ut). 

I (L.) From 

— L. iiitiuj, 

list. - L. */- 


.L. V... . •^.^•^ u comp. of 

[from a difTcrent root. M. £. 

.fj /«, lU. A. S. Ar/id, less, 

/<ciM, less. p. The 

ii Jas-tivt, feeble; 

■ ■ decay. 

. verb. 

,'. adv. 

ion; a 

.It. that nut. ili) Not 
lo A-Sw phraM 6/L« (W 

«for the reaioD Icia that; wherein ff 
the reason) was sood dropped, and A 
cualeiced into its/. Here /as ^ le«s. 
and C^ is the indeclinable relative. 
nevertheless ; see Never, 
•loss, suffix ; see Looao, 

Lessee ; see Lax. 

XtOSBon : see Legand. 

Ifest: sec Leas. 

Let (t), to permit (E.) M. E. //// 
strong verb, pt. t. tat. Utt, pp. laien. tfU\ 
A. S. /i/«, Utan^ pt. t. ///. Mt, pp. litt 
+ Do. laien \iut gelatin^; Iccl. lAta \Jl 
hUinn)\ Dan. laJt. Swed. M/d, Goth. Uta 
{lailct, /ftanj); G. /rtJ/i-« \//>xx. gtlaxirtt) 
From the same base as Late. (Ba!se LAT 

I>et (2). to hinder; see Late. 

I«ethal. deadly. (F - L. ; ^ L.) F 
let/tai. • deadly ;• Cot. - L. igthaJis, for Ittaiis, 
mortal. »L. Utum, death. 

Zjethe, oblivioa. (L. - Gk.> L. Uthi. 
— Gk. A^ffi;, a forgetting; the river of 
oblivion. — Gk. Aotf-, base of AofMi'cii', lo 
lie hid: see Latent. (^ RADII ) 

lethargy, a heavy sleep. (F.^L.^Gk.) 
O. F. Uthargie, a lethargy; Cot-L. icik- 
arj^a. -• Gk. Ktf^afrf'ia^ drowsiness. • Gk. 
XilSnpDfvt^ forgetful. — Gk. Aiy^, oblivioo 

Jjetter ; see Liniment. 

I«ettuce : see Lacteal. 

I«ev&nt, Levee : see Larily. 

I^evel ; see Librate. 

I*ever : see Levity. 

I«everet : see Leporine. 

Leviathan. (L. - Hcb.) Late L. 
viaihan. Job xl. JO (Vulgate). - \UhJivy4- 
thiin, an aquatic animal, dragOD, kerpctitt 
named from its twisting itself in curves — 
Heb. root /JvdA, to cleave ; Arab, loot 
larva*, to bend, whence Unod, the twutmjf 
or coiling of a serpent 

Levigate, lo make smooth. (L.) 0«t 
of ttse.^L. Uuicatus, pp. of temgnrt, to 
make smooth. ~L. /?rt-is, smooth; •r^, for 
a^re, to make. Cf. Gk. ktioi, smooth. 

Ifttvite. one of the tribe of Levi. (L * 
Gk. - Heb) L. Ifui/a. - Gk Afvfr^f, 
Lii. X. 52, i- Heb. Lev/t one of the sons ol 

Levity, lightness, frivolity. (L-) From 
L Uttitas, lightness. > L. Uuis, light. Allied 
to Light (1). 

alleviate. (L.) Fmm pp. of Low L 
%iUmiar4, used for L. mlUuart, to lighten. 
L. ai (for atf\ to; Ituart^ to ItA, lightEn* 
from Umis^ light 



elevate. (L.) From pp. of L. rlntart, 
to lilt up. 

leaven, fennent (F.^L.) M.E /ntf/ff. 
» F. ttvain. — L. leuamen, an alleviatioQ ; 
here used in the orig. Knse of ' that which 
mivcs.' — L. Uuarr, to raise. — L. /ntii, 

le^rdemoin, sleight of hand. (F. - L.) 
O. F. /t^/r dt main, lit. light of band. 
Cf. Ilal. leg^urtf U^en, light The O. F. 
Itgitr answers to a Low L. form Uuiarita *, 
made by adding -aritu to L. Icuis, light 
F. f/f«"L. dtt of. F. moi'naL. mannm, 
ace. oi manus, n hand. 

leger-llne. ledger-line, in music, a 
short line added above or below the 
staff. (F. — L.) Properly /<yrr-/r« ; where 
Ugrr - F. i/^r (formerly Ugiir\ light ; be- 
cause these lines are small and short. See 
the word above. 

levant, the E. of the Mediterranean 
Sea. (Ilal. * L.) Ital. levanle^ £■ wind, 
eaiteni country or part (where the sun rues), 
w L. Uuant; stem of prcs. part of tettart^ 
to raise : whence » ieuart, to rise. — L. 
huis, light. 

leveo, a morninp assembly. (F. — L.) 
Mtsuitcdlor K. /i^rf^r (Little).— F./fr^r, to 
raise: see lery (below). 

lever. (F. - L.) M. E. Itvour, - F. 
itvetir, a rai&er, lifter. — I* Uuatorem, ace. 
of leuaior, a lifter. »L. Uuart^ to Uft.^L. 
Unit, light 

levy, the act of raising men for an 
army; the force rai*^ed. (F. — L.) F. /n'<V, 
• a levy, or levying of an army ; ' Cot. Kcm. 
of pp. of Uvtr, to raise. — L. Uuart^ to 
raise. — L. tenis, light, 

relevant. (F.— L.) The orig. sense is 
*he1plal;' hence, of use for the matter in 
hand— F, relevant, pres. part of relever, 
to raise up. assist, help. — L. re-Uuart, to 
raise again. 

relieve. (F.-L.) M. E. rtlaten (— rr- 
tei'fn).'—V. reicver^ to raise np, relieve.— 
L. n-ievart, to raise again. Ber. rtluf, 
M. E. rtief. O. F. rtUf (F. rtiuf). ■ ak 
due to the verb rtlever^ 
liewd, ignorant, base. (E.) M. E. Umed, 
ignorant AS. l^xvede. adj , ignorant, hence 
belonging to the taitv ; the orig 
was enfeebled, as it u the pp. of 
III, to weaken, enfeeble. A more usual 

ise of tJnean is to Iwtray; cf. Goth. 

ian, to betray, from irw, an occasion, 

ivpportunity. The cram of thought runs 

thus: occasion, opportnnity. betrayal, eo^ 

feeblement, ignorance, baseness, U 

Iiezicoii. (Gk.) Gk. A</ic6», a d& 
tionary; neut. of Xcfix&, adj., beloi^ 
to words.— Gk. A^fi-r, a saying. — Gk. Af] 
(iv. to speak: see lieffead. 

Ijey, a meadow ; see I^ea. 

Liable : see Liffamont, 

Xjiaa, a formation of limestooe. (F.— C 
F. lias, formerly liais, liait, a bard fn 
stone. Prob. from Bret. Hack, Uoih., 
stone ; cf. Gael. Uae, W. lUch, a flat stooc 
see Cromlech. 

Lib ; M-e liop. 

Libation, the pouring forth of vine 
honour of a deity. <F. — L.) F. lilmtwi 

— L, ace. libatiotum. — L. libaimx^ pp 
lihart, to to^tc, sip. pour out.4-Gk. A«ij3«a 
to pour out, »hed, offer a libatioo. Q 
Skt. ri, to distil. (V RL) 

Libel; sec Library. 
Liberal. tF. - L.) M. E. HUmi -0, 
libtml.^X^ liberalise behlting a free on 
generous. — L liber, free. Allied to l*ift, 
pleases, it is one's pleasure; SkL /»M. 

deliver. (F. - L.) OF. delivrtr^ 
set free. — Low L. deiiherare, to set free." 
L. de. from ; Uberare, to free, from tiber, 

liberate. (L.) From pp. of L A 
to set free. — L. liher, free. 

libertine. (L.) Cf. Act% vi. 9. » 
libcrtinus, adj., belonging to a (ned 
also sb.. a freed man ; later ap;^ 
denote the liceotioxis lilKrty of 1 
sect (Acts, vi.9). — L. iibtrtut,^ fr e e d 

— L. liber, free, 
liberty. (F.-L) W^.E. tiberfet, 

iibert^. - L. Hbertatem, acc of tiSert^t, I 
dom — L. iiber, free. 

livery, a delivery, a thing delivered, 
form allowed to servants. (K.- L) M 
/iWrr (=:y/w^. three sylt » - - *■' H\ 
'a delivery of a thing thai 1 
so given, a livery ;' Cot ^ afl 

of iivrer, to deliver, give tredy — L 
eran, to set free, give freely 

Libidluoua. lustful. (F.-L) F 
rMJt. — L. Itbidinosus, lustful.— L. 
crude form of libido, lofit, pi 
iibef, it plciscs Cf. Skt /mM, to 
Allied to Liberate. 

Library. ^F. - L.) F. Htfmni- • 
Hbran'a, a hook-shop : firm, tt tih^ 
belonging to bocks. — L./i^*-. stem <4l 
a book, ong. the t«ik oi a tne 



ig mftteruil). Cf. Gk. \§vit, 

written Accusation. (L.) M.E. 

:f piece of wriiiDjj, —L. liMius, 

jk, » notice iMatt v. 31); dimin. 


halAnce. be poiied, move 

tUiiced. (L.) The verb is 

lue \o Ihe iK librtttion (Kcncy). 

ihnuiemm, % poising. ~L. hbra- 

liirart, to balance. ■- L, Hbrtit ■ 

lerel ; also a pound of la oi.-^ 

ft pound of 1 3 oz. 

rat«, carefully weighed and cod- 

~ .) L. Jiiiberttius, pp. of de- 

coninlt. «- L. de, thoroughly ; 

wcitjh. from libra, a balance. 

I, an instrument for deterniming 
hing is horiionial. (F.^L.) M.E. 
mi (Am/, ievtl). • O. F. hwi, Utcr 
mod. F. mitnau^ a level, 
a level ; dimin. of iUra, a 

liloenae, leave, abuse of frre- 

L.) M K fyfrtut, — F. lictnct. 

freedom lo act — L. Hcrnt-, 

r. to bo allowable* ori^. 'lo be 

It li the intrans. form or>nnectcd 

to leave. (v'KIK.) Dor. 

re usually license, verb. 

tent^ failing in duty. (L.) L. 

•, stem of ores. pt. 0/ lieUntptert, 

omit one s duty.^L. d*, awny, 

p, lo leave. 

m, coioplele abandonment. 
^^trtlictiomemt complete ncg- 

pp. of tlerelinqutre^ to 

(rom ; rg^im^mcrt, to leave 

unlawful. (F.-L.) F. i/lin'/e. 
Cot. •- 1* illiiifw, not allowed. 
iW-), not ; licitus, pp. oi /icere^ 

frre»Jom from employment. (F. 

tQ'ser. — O. F. f/tsir ^F, leisir), 

Ig an infin. mood, mraiiitif^ * to 

".'•L. Awcnr. to be permitted. 

Ubg is bad ; It should be leiser 

trt it in Ihe i&me caae. 

one who has a grant to 

non. (L.) lin£;1ijibcd from 

far*, pp. of licentiart, to 

Uttmtia, lioeuce ; lee liioenoo 

CF.-L.) F. licefuiatjt,^ 
full oi licence. --L. littntia. 

reUc. a memorioL (F. »L.> Chiefly in 
the pi.; M.E. relikes.^F. relives, a. pi. 
'rcliques ;* Cot.— L, rtliquias, ace oi rtli- 
ania^ pi. remains. — L. re-lin^mrgt to leave 

relict, a widow. (L.) L. rtlicta, fetn. 
of reli\/tts, pp. of rt-linqnert (above!. 

relinquish. F. - L. 1 O. F. ttUnquu-^ 
from vb. reiirt^uir.wm'L. rt-linquere* 

reliquary, a casket for relica. (F.-L.) 
F. reliquaire, ' a casket wherein reliqiiea 
be kept ;* Cot. — l-ow L. rtii^Hiarium 
(same). — L. religuia , crude form of rtii- 
qvia, relics; sec relic ^abovc). 
Iiichen, a mcbs. iL. — Gk.) L. lichtn. 

— Gk. Xfijft;^, lichen, tree- moss ; also, an 
erajition on the skin. Generally connected 
Wp-itb Gk. X«Jx«>'i to lick up; from its en- 
croachment. Cf. Kuss. lishai, a lichen, a 

Iiich-gate: see Like (1). 

Liult. to lap. lE.) M. E. likkty^. A.S. 

AVrmw.+Du. Hkken, G. U<ktn, Goth. 3i. 

laigon (be-lick). Russ. lisate, L. Unf^rt* Gk« 

A»fx'«'. Skt /M. rih, lo lick. (y'RlGIi.) 

lecher. (F.-G.) M. E. Itehurjechamr. 

— O. F. Uckeor^ lit. one who licks up, a man 
addicted to gluttony and lewdness. — O. F. 
Uihtr (F. Ikktr), to lick. - H. G. 
Uihin (G. Ucken), to lick (above). 

relish, to taste with pleasure. [F.-L. 
and G.) O, F. rtlether, to lick over again. 

— F. re-, acain; UthtTf lo lick. — L. **■, 
again ; O. H. G. Itthin, to lick tabove). 

Xiicorice, Liquorice. (F. — L.— Gk.) 
M. E. litorii. — O. F. Hcoriu *, not te- 
corfled. later liqueriee, Mickoricc;' Cot.— 
L. ti^uiritia, liquorice; a corrupted form 
of the true spelling glycyrrhiia ilMiny, 
Nat Hist. xxii. 9. 11). — Gk. ^AMrv^^jla, 
liquorice, lit 'sweet root**>Gk. 7Af«vff, 
sweet ; ^{a, root See IhUoet and Wort. 

Iiiotor ; see LigamoDt. 

Lid, a cowr. .K.) M.E. lid. A.S. 
hlid^ a lid.- A.S. hUd-tn, pp. of hllJan, 
lo cover. + Du. lid, a lid ; Icel. A/i'K, a gate, 
gateway, gap, breach ; M. H. G. lit, lid. a 
cover (obsolete). Cf. Ck. xXttnit), a fold- 
ing door, gate ; allied to icAiVtif, to lean. 

Lie (i>, to rest, abide. (E.) A strong 
verb. M. E. li^en, lien, pt t lay, ley, 
pp. Uien, lein. A. S. //V^itw, pt. t. la-g, pp. 
//^T/i. + Du. li^gm. IceL li^z/a. D-in. ii^, 
Swcd. /uTU. G. iiegtn, Goth, limn, Kusa. 
Ujatt ; Lat base leg' (in leetm, bed) ; Gk, 
base X«r- <» ^^X«< bed), (.y U^G^.^ 




aU«j. to asni^. (E.) M. Z. alauii. 
En Gower, C. A. iii. n, ajj. A.S. dUigan. 
lo lay down, lay aside* A.S. ^ prefix 
(answering to Goth, tu-, G. rr-) ; /tcgun, to 
lay ; see I&7 below. ^ It Ketns to have 
brea confasc-d |,ixi sense and wriciof;. if not 
io fipcfchi with M. E. aUggen, to aJ!€\-iatc, 
from O. F. aI^^r » Low L. alltuiare^ 10 
alleviate: see aJLleTiate under Iiftvity But 
thc/i>rm and j^vai/ remain truly EnHiih. 

belay, to fasten a rope (Du.) Da. be- 
tiggm, to overlay, also to beUy a rope. « 
Do. A-- (same as E. (&e-); leggrH, to lay, 
coTnaic with E. /ix^. 

beleaguer, to besiege. (Du.) Do. ^- 
legertn, lo besiege. — Dn. ^- (»ame as E 
AfO : //^i'. a camp, encamped army ; sec 
lair (below). 4'Ci. Ixlagrm, from ia^r, a 
camp : Swed, Mngra -, Dan. bttaggt, al&o 

l&ir, den or retreat of a wild beast (K.) 
M. E, /«>. A. S. /<§Tr, a lair, couch, bed. — 
A. S. ifgen. pp. ai lUgati, to lie down, rest. 
4- Du. itfftr^ a bed. lair, from Hggen ; G. 
fagtr, O H. C./<i;nr,acoach, fromO.H.G. 
^'g^Oft^ to lie ; Goth. /i]frr, a couch. 
Doublet, ieaguer (below'). 

law, a rule of action, edict- (E.> M. E. 
/att^. A. S. /o^ (not commcn : the usual 
A. S. word '\i£). The tense is 'that which 
lies,' or is fixed (cf. Gk. KMroi vufun, the 
law li 5aed, from mi'Voi, I lie). — A. S. /d^, 

5)t t oS Hfgau, to lic+O. Sax. /<y ; Icel. 
|i^. pi. but in 8tng. sen^, a law, from iag^ 
a stratum, order; Swed. iag; Dan. iov. 
Cf. L. Ux. "Det. lau^-er (cf. saw-y-tr). 

lay (i), to cause to lie down, set. (E.) 
M. E. Uggen, pt i. UUe, pp. friV/. A. S. 
Urgan, pt I. /fjftilf, pp. gthgd; causal of 
lifgan, to lie. + Du. teggem, Icel. Uggfa, 
Dan. /f^^. Swed. AJ^d, G. //^m, GoLh. 

layer, a stratum, tier, bed. (E.> £. 
/ay er, thai which lay?; but almost certainly 
an ignorant substitution for M. E. Utr^ a 
lair, couch, place for lying down in ; hence 
a bed, stratum, Sec. See lair (.above). 

leaguer, a camp. (Du.) In Ail *t Well, 
iii. 6. 17. — Du. Ugett a lair, a camp. See 
lair (above). 

ledgo, a flight shelf, ridge. (Soand.) 
Cf. Norfolk UJg£, a bar of a ^ate, rail of a 
chair. Of Scand. origin; allied to Swed. 
iagg, the rim of a cask, IceL logg^ the ledge 
or rim at the bottom of a CftMk; Norwcg. 
U^ (pi. Umr), the lowest part of a vessel. 
Cr also Norw. i^gn, a oouch, lou; bed, 

resti. aH 
LO. Sm, '.el 


cnpport OB which anything rest 
IceL. iiggja. Swed. hgga^ Dao. Sggt, 
The sense is * suppoft? 

ledger, a book in wluch a summaij 
accounts is preserved. (Dn.) Forurt 
Ua'ger-boeJL [\\k also find Ugtr ami 
sadart^ i.e. snch as rtmained for some tj 
at a foreign court) A Udgir^baok if { 
that lies always re«ir. -• Uu. Uggtr, i 
that lies down ;the nether mill-stone is a| 
^o called). — Du. Uggtn, to lie, a comfl 
corruption of Uggen, to lie itike iaw for 
in English). Similarly, in M iddle-kafijj 
a large book was ttUcd a iigg^r m 
which lies), because not portable. CO 
fused with O. V.Ifgier, light ; Howell u 
Ugerbock for ' portable book.' which ii jt 
contrary to the usual leaae. See ki^ 
in Richardson. 

log ^i), a block, piece of wood. (ScaiM 
IceL idg, a felled tree, l.g ; Swed. dH 
iAga, a felled tree, a tree that has fai 
blown down. So called from \XilyTng\ 
the ground, as distinguised from the Uvil 
tree. - Teat, bsse LAG, to lie, IM 
iogg^ts, a aort of gime with bits of wool 
iog-wood, so called because imported 
icgx, also called bioek^wo^d (Kcisey). 

log (a), a piece of wood with a line, I 
measuring the rate of ■ ship. 
Swed. hgg, as a sea-term ; whence 
a log-line, logbok, a log-book, 

heave the log ; Dan. Ug, Itff-UfU, 

^^^, ^'b. Variant of the word abovft 

logger-head, a dunce, a piece of tira^ 
(in a whale>boac) over which a line 
passed to make it run more slowly. (Sca^ 
and E.) A similar fonnation to bifici 

low (!). humble, inferior. (S 
M. £. Ifuk, also j^. - Icel. I4gr, 
Swed. Mg, Dan. Aw. The orig. teuci 
that whidi lies down, or lies low U 
say); from Icel. A^, 
to lie, Dcr. be-!ow <^ — by low) i 
verb, i. e. to let lower, fiom U 
parative of laiv, adj. 

rely, to repose on, tmstfiilly. 
£.) A barbarmi« compound. Li| 
back, lie against.' Frctm L, 
back (as io re~<Iim) ; E. /iV, lo 
rtlt-aticij with t . suffii. 

lie (3). lo tell a falsehood. ~v 
hgkfH. pL t Uk. pp. /irvm. A. 
pt. t ieAg, np. tu^n + Du. 
Ijiiga, Dan. lyvr, S^^ 
G, iugtn, Cf. kvj^ 
hj*, a lie. (Base LUU.J 

a line,! 





(E.) M.E. Uff. A.S. Mr 

rl. h4fr, Swcd. Ijuf, Goth. 

Cf. Knss. licboi, agreeable, 

* L. imbet, iibetf it pleases ; 
ikttfe. r/LUDH.) 

E.) M.t. ir/o*/-* {Meven). 

Rx iV- '^by'i is ttibstitiitrd for 

Ra gt-. A- S. gtlyfan^ to be- 

(tfCraHcar.— A. S. fT-. prefix; 

X^Goth. gafaubjan, to 

A'lf^r. dear ; G. g/au/fn, 

vAmh. to believe, from G. 

mi/\ dear. 

penntMion, Caiewell. (E.) 

to take permission to 

if0Pe'»by your pcnnission 

). A. S. M/, permission. 

e fooi as A. S. M/, dear, 

e opg. $ciiae was pleasure: 

t, pcTmisnoD.^*!^- -^'if- ■> in 

doQ, ver-U/, leave; Icel. /<]j/f. 

lemiissioG, /o^ U) praUe, (j) 

Uv, Swcd. /(j/, praise, 

^-Am^, ver'tauh, leave, rr- 

Slit, /^. prai&c. 

pMfi«.Ti, a siAcethean. (E.) 

, «bo teo/man. «• A. S. //t^ 

ft man or woman. (Short 

And fee Purloofh. 

lid, subject. iF.-O. H.G.) 

I been sitcred bj cotifusion 

bound. In old use. vre 

a A/jr lord * as meaning a 

tact oppositioa to the im- 

M- L iigf, Uge; Ugt 

lovertigntT. Bruce, v. 165.— 

(», Itcgc, leal; a Utgt lord 

* 6c£ band, and his liegtx 
. free men. faithful to him. 

otKrr w-nicc — O. H. G. 

red, esp. from all 

> :>e orig. senw was 

likes.'- O. H.G.Utfam. 

s way, cognate with 

ts travel. Cf. Icel. /HSti^, 

I, to travel; O. Du. ledifff 

. (be duty of a subject to 
O. II, G I M.E. a/fj^raumfg. 
F. « ( = L. a/f), to ; O. F. 
Ige. from O. F. ti^. lUgt, 

I aoubaaMdor; fee 
I«liant ; tee lioeua 



Iilflslong: see Iiiro. 

Xiift ( I ), to raise ; see I«oft.. 

Lift (a), to steal. (E.) We mak of 
a shop-ti/ttr, a thief; see Shak, Troil. i. 
i. 109. Properly, the verb should be liff. 
An E^ word, but only preserved in Gothic. 
Cf Goth, hiifan, to -itcal ; hliftus, a thief. 
Cognate with L. cUpen, to steal. Golh. 

Ji/tf/ujs=GV. tcXiirnft, a thicf. 

Ijigaznent. a band, the membrane con- 
necting the moveable bones. (F. -• L.) 
f. ii^amtnt.'^X^ iigamcntum. a tie, band. 

— L. iiga-rt, to tie; with sufBx 'tntntum. 
Alligation, a rule in arithmetic. (.L.) 

From L. aJ/i^fio. a binding, barid.«>L. 
a/7ripfj/us, pp. oi a/ligurt. to bind; tee ally 

ally, to bind together (F.-L.) M.E. 
aZ/Vrt. — O. F, aiitr, to bind up. — L. a/« 
(■a(b/i, to; iigart, to bind. Der. aiii- 
anc£, M. E. ^iaaattt. 

league (i>, a bond, alliance. (F.-L.) 
F. ligtu, 'a league;* Cot. — Low L. lij^, a 
league. — L. ligare, to bind. 

Uable, rc^p-onsiMe. (F. — L.) Formeil, 
with suffix -0^//, friim F. H-er^ lo tie. — L. 
hgart, to lie. 

liotor, an officer in Rome. (L.) U 
tutor, i.e. 'binder:* either from the fasces 
or •bound' rods which he bore, or from 
binding culprits. Allied to Iigmn,ta bind. 

lien, a legal claim, charge on property. 
(F. — L.> F. lien, a band, or tie. anjtbirg 
that fastens or fetters. — L. Ugamtn, 1 tie. •« 
L. iij^arr, to tie. 

ligattire, a bandage. (F. — L)^- 
turg, a tic, bandage. ~ L. Hgatura, a binding. 

— L. li^us, pp. of iigart, to tic. 
oblige, to constrain. (F. — L.) F. 

oSiierr. — L. o^-iifftrtt to bind together, 

rally 1 1), to re-assemble. (F.-L.) F. 
raiUtr. — F. «-, again : idtitr, to ally ; see 
ally (alx>ve). 

Idght vO. illnmination. (E.) M. E. 
light, - A. S. U6ht, light. + Du. and G. 
lifht, Goth. Uukath, light. The / is 
a suffii ; cf. L. tux (stem /!»-•)• light. 
Gk. X<v«-4^. white, Skt. mch^ to slune, 

enlighten, verb. (E.; with Y.prtfix^i 
Coined with F. pre6x en- (L. tn), com- 
pounded with lightm, verb ; &ee below. 

lighten (1), to iltuminatr. flash. (E.) 
1. IwrHANk., to shine as li^btning ; 'it 
Hghtfns* M. E. UgkUntn, more coriecily 
Hfht-n-m^ w1mc« tht •<»• \a lonm&v^. 



Tkuu. TIh is 0Bly Oe iifraas. ibca 

BO Bckm (Above). 
■ (»).Mtfc«*7- (EL) M.^JMi: 
A.& Ml< ft£. (pot far /U/*).4.Dl ^. 
loci JfiErr. iW ief, Sved. ^otf, Go&. 
iWar. G. ieui/, O. H. G. UUL AIBed to 
I. XoMi. Gk. Uum. Skt. r^a. light. 

aUgbtd), to descend from. (£.) M. E. 
«ftiAH^ to mlight £rom honefatck; which 
ttiods fer cflikien, the prcfiz «- bein^^ 
A. S «^ The simple fona Uktam ocean in 
A. S.dehred from i/i/*-/fiM/, light. See 
Ucbt(^) below. 

alight (0. to light apoo. fE.) M. E. 
aiikten, rtanding for »n-iiAttn, the pre6x «- 
being < A. S. tfi*. See above. 

light <3;, to mlight. settle, dcsocnd. 
(E.) M. E. iihUn. A. S. /M/tfi». verb, 
to alight bom. lit. to make light, relierc 
a hone of his borden. * A. S. USAt^ Light 
(above). The seose ' to descend spon * 
(the earth) is aecondary, doe to the com- 
pleted actioo of descending horn a horse. 

li^Shtem (3), to alleviate. (.£•) The -^iv 
it merely formative, as in strength-tn.'^ 
A.S. UMtim, to make light.- A. S. ic6ki, 

lighten (3), to alight oo. (E.) £x- 
teiulcd from light (3) above, 

lighter, a boat for unlading ihipi. 
(Du. ) Borrowed from Du. htrter, a 
lighter, i.e. nnloadcr. — Du. /r^, lifjht. 

lights, lungs. <£.) So named from 
their lightneu. So aIso Ross. Ugioe, 
lights ; from Ugkii, light 
Xii^hten (1), to flash. Ughtning ; see 
Light (I). 

Xiigneous, woody. (L.) L. Ji^Jteus, 
wooilt'ii. — L. ii^rtuM, wood, 

Ugn aloos. a kind of tree. (L.a»^Gk.) 
A sort of translation of L. H^num aloti, 
liL 'wood of aloes.* Aloes is gen. of 
a/<(V. from Gk. dAvf}, aloe. See AJO0. 
Iiigule ; see LiogiuiL 

Liguro. a precious stone. (L. *Gk.) 
L. Itptrius.^^V. Ktyvfuov, a sort of gem 
(aml>cr or jaciotbl ; £xod. xxviiL ig. 

liik* (I), simiUr. (E) M. K. lyJb. /i>. 
A- S. //r, commonly ^-/ic. + Du. gt'/ijk, 
ItmL Wkr, g^Ar, Dan. Ug, Swcd. liJt, Goth, 


CD iorai*' aad dcrivad 
■K acM^ ■■ form, «^{x,' ««. 
fora. body, IobL ^ GMk. AO. 
DiL UJi^ « oornae. Dan. Hf, $w«d. £1 
corpse; G.:^ " V G- tfi. 

A. S. «»£&; L.^ . u% like, with p>< 

#w »««, orcfk. 

Uehgaia. aduardiyanl 
called becavee a onnw. lia 
pcrtcd uder it. The U 
U. E. &i, a ooraee. bat 
body ; from A. S. 2£r,a body ; 

luw {t\ to be pleued with. <£.> 
cawtroctioo has alteted; M. E. 
pleaaes. is impersonaL as w mod. E 
likt = if it may please yoa. - A. S. 
to please, lit to be like or svi^able fofl 
A. S. /^. ee-:ii, like ; sec XJko (tV 4* I 
/Tyien, to init ; Icel. iiha, to Ukei Go 
^lioM. to please (similaily derived). I 

liken, to compare. (Scaod.) U. 
Hkntm, to liken ; bat Uie tnic 
transitive, viz. to be like. — Swed. 
to re>emble. (1) to liken, from 
Din. it^Ht, the same, from Ug. 
Iiilac, a shrub. (Span. — Ti 
Span. /t7d^.«-TuTk. iftla^, a Ula£.2 
Ul^\ liianj, liiang, of which the pfO| 
sen-e is indigo*planL Tne tittiisl /cUfl 
for ff, and the abore form& arc frqin a 
blue, whence nilak, blnct»h. The pl| 
is named from the blucish Cil^ «• 
Aowere in some Tarietics. 
LUy. a planL Cl-'Ok 't A.&ldtf. 
L. ///iWfli.—Ck. h€ipiOr, 1 lily. 
Xiimb (i). a member, braitcb 
(E.) M K.lim. A.S. A'M.*f t 
Dan. Sued. Um, 

limber u), part of a 
consisting of two wheels and 
(Scand,> Krom prov. E. UmAoTt 
thilii or shalts, the b being 
Further, Umm-fr-t \% a lionhU plural ;. 
appears by the dcrivaiJua.»loeL Am| 
boughs, branches (hcoce. shafts'!, pL 
lim, foliage, closely related toAjNr. alui 
Xilmb (3), the edge or bonlei 
scKlJnl, &c (L.) L. Umlm4^ 
edging. e<Igc. 

Umbo, limbus, the bonlen 
(L.) The orig. phrase is i« U 
Umbo is the abl. oi-e *A iimi>mt, 
the limlnu pcfri, <■ -.y 

on the border of !• . (he 

abode tiU Chnat'i U«»Mui uio b 


tSc» tbe <amr as, A.lemblo. 
lb«r (D* flexible, pliant; %et 
} (1). 

iber (a^ ; sm Limb (i). 
ibo, Limbua ; see Limb (2). 
!• (I), bird-Ume, mortar. (1^.) M. E. 
/mm, viscoai sub&lance. A. S. f/m, 
Tijl. + Du. hjm, Icel. Um, 
:•) Itm, glue ; G. /n'm. ^loe ; 

06 (2), A irec : see Itind. 

oe l3). « kind of uLroii. (F.^Vcn.) 

pl^^Perm. Umii, % lemoo, citron. See 

ait. (F mL.) F. /utti/f. a limit. - 
imitem, aoc. of iimts, a boundary; 
to itmtH, a ihjcshold. Cf. L. /iivrMj, 



(L.) From pp. of L. 
to get rid of. » ll /. forth ; 
»-, Item of lifnen, a threshold ^abovc). 
ktel. the bcAdpiece of a door. (F.*> 
IL E. JinU/.-O. F. /!«/// (F. Hnteau\ 
m L. hmttiitu, % liDlel. put for /intj- 
I*. dimin. of L. limts (stem Umif), a 
dary ; wc Limit t>^bove). 
^limtnajy. introductory. (F.-L.) 
od itom /r/-, piefix, before ; and O. F. 
^Bp, *ict before the entry of, dcdi- 
^BCot. From L. liminanj, adj., 
^pB the begumUiK or threshold. — L. 
»> erode C^m of limfm, threshold 

ILll, to i^talnt : see Luoid. 
ap U '« flaccid, pUant. (E.) A 
^■1 form of a base LIP, a weakened 
^B»AP. as seen in E- /a/, a flap: see 
^>^ Allied word« are Iccl. Umpa, 
BM^ veaknctt; Bavarian iamjutht, 
kd, down-hanging, from the verb 
tm. to hang loo<«ly down ; Ski. iamba, 
aditw,. iamh, to hang down. Cf. \V, 
% nibby. Uiitin, limher. drooping, 

nbw {> . (£.) Ooscly 

1 to h^i put for limf>tt*. 

... 0.1. as in A. S, /tx/- 

tk Umely. (E.) In 

'cn. Ul. S* 130. We find 

dj,, hailing; and a 

m M. H. C limphtH, to 

Mace likely allied to limp \,x) than 

»t, a tman rhell-l'ish. (.F.-L) 
^^/M/ ',Philhi», 1706). A. S. 
«K^ % Lkfflptey, which aUo 

sticks to rodcs.^Low L hmprxda^ for 
L. tampcdra, a lamprey. See Lamprey, 
a, V. Lambent. Cf. * Lrmpt itia^ lem- 
pedu ; ' Wright's Vocab. 4^8. 17. 

liimpld, pure, bright. <F. — L) ^.Um- 
pide. — L. Hmpidus. clear. Allied to 
Lymph; alsa to Gk. Aa/iw/i^, bright* 
Xii/nrfiK, to shine. 
Llnch pin, a pin to fasten a wheel 00 
an axle. (E. ) Formerly iins-pin, lit. 
'axle-pin.*— A. S. ^m/.?, an axle-trce.+Du. 
Itins, a linch-pin, Low G, intui^ G. iun^t^ 
a linch-pin. 

land. Linden, the lime tree. (E.) The 
true form of ihc fib. ts //W, and Itmi-en is 
the adj. from it. Hence Hndcn irtt *» 
/ind ; the same thing. M. E. //W. A. S. 
/;>it/, the tree > also a shield, commonly of 
thi« wood. The wood 13 white, smooth, 
and easily carved ; we may therefore con- 
nect it with G. gtiind, ^^t/indt, smooth, 
Icel. /inr, smooth, soft. L. Utttus. pUant, 
A. S. //«/ ^for iiMne*), pUant. + Du. i$Hdt, 
led. Dan. Swed. Und. it. linde. 

lime (]]. the linden tree. i.E.) Limt\% 
a corruption of lint, as in Shak. Temp. v. 
10: and tint is a corraption of Und 
V above) ; tbe lengthening of 1 being due 10 
loss of d. 

Line, a thread, thin cord ; alao a itroke. 
row, rank, verse (L. ; or F. — L). In the 
bciise ' cord.' we lind A. S. Une^ directly 
from L. iinea. In the other senses, it is 
froDi F. ligtu, also from L. linta. p. The 
L. lima meant orig. a string made of Aax, 
being fern, of adj. liruuj, made of tlax.* 
L. limtm, flax. Cf. Gk. Kivw, Aax. Der. 
out dine. 

delineate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
dtlineare, to sketch in outline. — L. (/<, 
down ; Itmart, to mark out, from /iVwd^a line. 

lineago, ^F. — L.) F.ii^^pr, a lineage. 
— F. ii^ntf a line, rank, — L. /md, a Ime 

lineal. (L) L. linealis, belongirtg to 
a line.— L. Unea, a line. 

lineament, a feature. (F. -L.) F, 
lintament. Cot— L. ItH^amtnium, a draw- 
ing, delineation. — L. /irteare, to draw a 
liiiC: — L. iiMta, a line. 

linear. (L.) L liHenriSt belonging to 
a Imc — L iinta, a line. 

linen, cloih made of fUx. (L.) Used as 
a sb., but really an okl adj. ; the old sb. 
being M. E. lin, A.S. Ii*t. iKix. — L hnum^ 
Aax. (.Cf. ^id-im ixcmgoU.) See llfta»x^ 




to hsp, not found : ngnluiy 
ki A- S. wiup, adj., lUping, 
I atterance. + Du. lisfett. Dan 
» tat^, G. Hsptln. (UnltadTC) 

R border of cloth, seKoge. (£■) 

A S ////. + Du. /#>>/. Icel. 



cjuc- oil a list. (F. — G. ; with 

■) Coioed by prefixing F. tn 

word helow 

CTUlogne. (F.-G.) ¥.iistt, 
aUo* a list or selvage. It 
Ktrip. (i) a roll or list ot names. 
O. H. G. Hsta, a border; 


•cc LUta. 
diooK, have pleasure in ; sec 

listen ; see below. 
(E.1 We also find iisf. mlso 
and iust-e», the former 
locd from the latter by a fonna- 
b Goih.yW/-n-sA, lo become 
JUyjtam. to liKten to. — A. &. 
from a bue HLUS, as in 
MM, to hearticQ. Cf. IceL. 
from AJmf, the car; W. 
also L. cht-trtt Gk. tcKv-H¥, 
p^ to bear. (VKKU.) 

enclosed for a toumunenl. 

E. iuUr, $. pi., the luL,, The 

i and iistt stands lor ILue*. 

(F. tia), • t list or tilt>aid ; * 

t //ma. bpan. ii*a. Port, /ifo, 

ttltiftg. — Low L. iUta, a. pi., 

If dutUi, the likts. Apparently 

luium, a thread, a Bnail giidlc. 

ffpace roped in.) 

fonn ot prayer (F.^L. — Gk.) 
4t, afterwards altered to UtanU. 
RKf/.^I. /iViMM.— Gk. XiraMi'a, 
>Gk. AiToii'ti*', 10 pray.^Gk. 
beg, p"yj ^"?i p^ycr, ea- 

Xiiter«ture -. see Linimeat. 
1^ protoxide of lead. ^F.a-L.» 
L atarj^.^f. htMar^t, ' Uur^ic, 
t* Cot.-L. AMafjynu. — Lik. 
ilil, 'vtonciUvcx.' — Gk. Kt$-itt, 
fp/pm. Sliver; &ee Argent. 
^>hy, writing oo stone. (Gk.) 
B Gk. Ai^«-«, » stone; yfd^v, 

UJ, cutuog for stoac. ^L. - Gk.^ 


L. JitAalcmia.''C)i, A((furo>ii'a.— Gk. \i$o-s, 
stone; rvfx-, for ro/i-, Imsc of riftyftf, to 
cut : see Tome. 

Iiithe, pliant, flexible, active. (£.) M. £. 
AM*. A. S. //^e, //e, gcctlc, «)ft (put for 
/inCtf*, the long i being due to loss of n), 
<f G.geltHde, 0. 11. U. lindi, soft, tender; 
L. lentus, pliant. Allied to Icel. linr, L. 
Itnis, soft. Der. iisiom, te. iitht-so/rtt. 

Lithography, Lithotomy ; see Litb- 

Litigation, a contest in law. (L.) From 
L. Ufigutiff, a disputing. — L. liri^atm. pp 
of ittigartf to dispute. — L. >!/•, stem of 
/m, strife; •igare, for ofrnr, to carry on. 
L. /m-O. Lat jM>. allied to E. Strife. 

litigious, contentious. (K. - L.) It 
also once meant dcbaleable. ~F. h'h^icux^ 
'debatefull ; ' Col. — L. litigiosus, adj., from 
lUigiuntf contention. » L. iuigare, to ditpu le 

LitmtiB, a kind of dye. (I>n) Corrupted 
from Du. lakntots, a blue dye-stuff a-Du. 
lak^ lac: moes, pulp, -f" G- l^lif'ims, lit- 
mus ; bom lathy lac, mus^ pulp. .Sec Lao. 

Litter (r), a porUble bed. ^F. - L.) 
M. E. Hurt. - O. F. titUrt. - Low L. 
itctana, a Utter. *L. Uctus, a bed. (Base 
LAGH.) Allied to Lectern. 

litter (i), materials for a bed, heap of 
straw lo lie on. confuted mass of thtDes 
scattered. (F. > L.) The Mime word, 
applied to a straw bed for aniroalat &c 

litter tjt, a broo<i. (F. — L.) Kcally 
ihu ^auie word as the last, and nut lo be 
coiinecled ;as in Viglu^son) wuh Icel. /iT/-. 
ice the various senses of M. \L iytrrt in the 
Prompt. Parv., and cf. F. aciOHchtr, £. ' to 
be in the »traw.' 

Little. (E ) M. £. iitet. luttl. A. S. 
iyUi, Utile; we also fmd the shorter form 
///. 4- I^u- luttti^ little, lutjt, a little : Icel. 
iitiii, also Ha, adv. ; Dan. liden, also tHU 
( = iitU*)\ Swed./iVr«.Goth./«/i7». O.H.G. 
luziL All from the base LUT. to deceive; 
cf, K.S. iytig, deceitful, /o/, deceit; Goth. 
iiuli. deceitful, lntoH. to betray ; oldest 
sense to stoop ; sic Lout. The old sciwe 
* b.ise* or 'mrim' is still in use. % Not 
allied to Ujs. 

Littoral, belonging to the sea -shore. 
(L.t L. iuieralis, adj., from liftus or Htus 
(stem iitor-), uca-sbore. 

Liturgy, public prayer. fF.-L. — Gk.) 
O. F. liturg^e, iydtrgie. — Low L. /i/vr^t'a, 
m Ok. \«tTovpyia, public 
AuTvt, public; t^tiv, woiV, 



E. uvnt A«rroT. aUo kiJrm, U from Gk, 
A<(wt, Xait, the people; see Lay (3). 
Iiive (1), to exUL (£.) M. £. iiuien 
{/ivim). A. S. /ytjrt, to live, dwell ; orig. 
sense to remain, be iel't bchind.'f-Dtt. /nrn, 
to live : Icel. /i/a, to be left, lo live ; Daiu 
/£ve, Swed. le/ifa, Goth, iidan, to lire ; G. 
//•Af/i, to live. O.H.G.U^H (whence G. 
6-ieibeu), to remain. (Base LIB.) 

leave (1), toforuke, quit. (£.) M.E. 
ieuen (Ifven). A. S. /^/oh. to leave a heri- 
tage, leave behind one ; from /J/^ a heritage, 
that which is left or remains. — A. S. lijinn, 
to remain (above). •(- led. Ui/a, to leave, 
from Uif, heritage, which from ///a, lo be 
left. Cf. Goth, iaida^ a rrmiunt, from 
iiiran, to be lcft« to live. % Not allied to 
Gk. Ktift*t¥ (Curtius, Fick). 

life. vE.) M.E. li/, iyfx gen. />««. 
dat. ifut \Uv€\ A. S. /// gen. Ufa, dat. 
Ufit pL lija$. From the base of A. S. iifian. 
to remain; tec Live (above). + Iccl. llj\ 
lifi, Dan. iiv, Swed. Uf, O. H. G. ///, IKe 
(whence G. Uih, the body). 

lifeguard. (^E.) V torn life andgttanl 
^ Not from G. leH/^anit, a body-guard, 
which is only a connate word, with the orig. 
KDSC of ' life guard/ from O, H. G. ///, life. 

lifelong; better livelong i.beli.>w). 

live i.a). adj.. alive. (£.) Short for 
o/rw, which U not a true orig. adj., bat 
doe to the phrase a Htu {a iiw) ~ A. S. «n 
/i/t, in life, hence, alive. Lift is the dat. 
case of UK life ; hence the 1 in /iw is long. 

liveljiiood. (,E.) Comipdon of M.E. 
iuuloJt {JivehiU), i.e. life-leading, means of 
living ; older spelling UfUdt, Uflade, From 
A. tj. Uf, life ; Ud, a leading, way, provi- 
sions to live by, a cour», a lode ; see 

livelong, long-lasting. (E.) The same 
as Ufe-hng, i. e. long as Ufe is ; bnt Uvthng 
IS the older spelling. 

lively. (E.) M.E. U/iy, i.e. life-like. 

Itiver. (E.) M. E. /iw/-! =A'wr). A.S. 

iifer. + Du. levir, Iccl. ij^, Dan. /«wr, 

the plodc of animals. Perhaps allied to 

Xiivery ; ice LiberaL 

lavid. discoloured. (F.-L.) J.iivide. 
— L. UhUhs, blueiah. « "L, iiuirt.-io be 

Iiiaard, a fboz-footed reptile. (F. — L.) 
M. E. Usanie. « F. UsarJ, itsard. •- L. Zo- 
(W^;^ a liaard. 

MUig^tor. i^ym. - i«.) Ut. - Uu 



liurd.* — Span, ti lagario, the Itu^ 
the great lizard.** L. iUi, he, that ; 4l 
a lizard. 

Iilama.aqaadruped. (Peniviaiu] 
is a reruvian -word, meaning 

XiO. l>choM [ (£.) M. £, h. A. S. i 
interjection. It Menu lo have been 
fused with /<^, i. c. look thou ; thougl 
vowel is ditTeient. 

ZiOach, XfOohe, a small fiih. (F.! 
Ix^u, * the loach/ Cot Span, iaj^, i 
Ongin unknown, 

liood, a harden ; see Lade, 

X«oad-atar, Load-stone ; we Lod 

Loaf. (E.) M. K. iof loof. A.S. 
+Iccl. kitifr, Goth, hiaifj, hlaib*^ G 
•^ Lithuan. iUpas, brcail, Ruas^ tX 

lady. (E.) Lit. • loaf- kneaicr.' 
hiajdigt, a lady. - A.S. AUf, a loaf j 
(probably) A.S. dJujc^e, a Iciicader, ^( 
root seen in Goth. Ji^n. 10 knead 
Diko, and see Dairy. % LaJy wai 
cially used to mean the Virgin Mary^ 
lady-birdf ladyt'slipptrt &c 

l&mmaa, a name for Aug. 
A. S. hldfniasu, lit. ' loaf 
spellings htammasiCt iumntasst. 
was on this day ofTeied as a hrs 
harvest See Uaaa fa). 

lord, a master. (L) Ut. Moaf-kei 
A. S. hldforJ, a lord ; (probably t for 
wiard*, a loaf- ward ; see "Ward. ^ 
etymology from hUf, loaf, and ttrJ, i 
(hence a crust of bread), is ridiculous. 

XiOam, clay. (E.) M. E. 
idm. 4- Du. leem, G. khm, 0. 
Ak'm to Lima 1 1 ). 

IfOan, a leading, mot" 
inne i^^iiinc\. This 
xftie A.S. /Jn, commuip. 
a loan. (We have a similar double 
io da/, dole. i/«A deal.) + Da, 
hef; IceL /dn, a loan. IM^ a 
/oaH. Swed. /dJi, a loan; G,/el 
a fief p All Iiom the verb 
UAaH (pt. t /dVJ), to grant U 
itihttt, (o lend ; akia to 1*. tin^u 
Uijui), Gk. Aii««ir. Skt fiu, 

lend. (£.) The fmal d ik 
M E, /fM^n. A. S idMkiH^ 10 
/.i/i, a loan (abwc). + lccl /^mi, 
Dan. iaam, Irotn ^i.»« ; Swed. 
/rm, n lief; G. Uhntn^ from /rAis,^ 


rtinfnl - A, S. iW, pt. t. of 

ttl, CJtpericncc, suffer -f led. 

UJ, odioos ; O. H. G. 

painful, from O. H. G. 

mffcr ',G. Uidcn). Akin 

er. icath-^, 'lomt ; also toathtt 

> of the ear. ftc (F. -Low L. 
taht. - Late L. lohHS. - Gk. 
e of the ear or liver \ cerate 

we lK>ou«t. 
>0&tfl ; lec Itooua. 

a, (E.) M. E. Ai*^ 

faMcning. •4- Icel. loka, a lock ; 

lid : G. lock, B duQgeoo. From 

.UK, to fasten, as in Icel Mkn, 

galukan. to shut up. 

little ^Id caie worn at an 

.^Scand. ^rE.) Orig. a fas- 

libna, pL ii. c i. 808). - F. 

Ecb of a door, dimln. of O. F. 

which b borrowed &om led. 

a tuft of hair or wool. (E.) 
A S. ii»-.+Du. lok. Icel. hkkr, 
Swed lock. G. tofkt. Orig. 
il Icel. tykkr^ a loop, bend, 


a kind of cheap linen. (F w 
SvTiwi. a tort of unbleached 
from the place where it was 
Zw-AVwan. or S, Jftnan. near 
Brittany. — Bret. LekKoruuit 
onaa ; from Bret. Wt^ a cell. 
ton; see Ifooaa. 
place. (L.) L. locus, a place; 
a place ; prob. allied to £. 

to *et aside. (L.1 From pp. 
Uoeart, to allot - L a/- ( - ad), 

place, from /icvui. 
0, to as*ii;n. grant. (F. — "L^ 
10 lei out for hire, auign for 
* I/>w L. alinan^ to allot 

), to pUce together. (L.) From 

anr, to place tcgetber. 

D la jr down, place, »el. (F — 

; to »ct. arrange — O. F. 

place. — I.- collofart, to 

«'. Ser. C9uch, sb., a 

U t^uehtd or laid. 

10 ptti ont of joinL (L.) 



From pp. of L. duiM^rt, to pot out of 


lieu, place, stead. (.T.-L.) F. /r>w.- 
L. locum, acc of locus, a place, 

lieutenant, a 'locum tenens,* deputy, 
Sec (F. — L.) F. lieu tenant. ^L. locum' 
tencnt; stem of locum tetirns. one who 
hold's another's place. — L. locum, acc 
of loius. a place ; /eMctu, pies. pt. of tenen, 
to bold. 

local: (F. - L.) F. local, - L. tocalis, 
belonging to a place. — L. lorm, a place. 

locate, to place. (L.) From pp. of L. 
locare, to place. — L. locus. 

looomotioo. motion from place to 
place. (L.) Coined from loco-, crude fojiD 
of locus, a place ; and motion, 
IiOCUSt, a winged insecL (L.) M, K. 
locujti. — L. lacuita, a &hcll-li&h, also a 

lobster, a kind of shcU-6&h. (L.) A.S. 
hpfistrt, 3 corrupter t'oira ol A.S, lo/>ujt, 
a corruption of L. locusta, <i) a lobster, (2) 
a locust. It was perhaps confused with Don, 
lofpe, a flea (lit. a jumper), as though /<?/• 
pestrt meant jumper ; but the true A. S. 
form of ' leap* is nUdpan. 
liode, a vein of ore, a water-course. (E.) 
The true mum is * couree.' A. S. hid, a 
way, course, journey. — AS. /JO, pt. t. of 
Ux^am, to travel, go.^-IceL Ui^, lode, way, 
course, from //^a, to go ; Swed. ltd, a 
C0Qr«. (Base LITU.) Dor. lode ■ star 
(bclow\ ^ And m.'i: load, p. a.^O, col. l. 

lead (1), to coDduct (E.) M. E. Udcu, 
pL t laddt, pp. ;^.- A. S. lAdan, to lead. 
— A. S. Idd, a course, way (abovcK -f- Icel. 
Ui^, from UiiS ; Su cd. UdOf from Ud ; G. 
Iciten, Du. leidcn. 

lodeatar, loadstar, the polar star. 
(E.) Lit. 'way-slar,' fctor that guides; see 
Lode above. 

lodestone, loadstone, a magnet. (E.; 
Compounded of lale and stotte^ in iroitatinn 
of lodestar', it should rather have been 
lead-stone^ since it means a stone that leads 
or draws, not a stone to guide. 
Iiodge : see Xieaf. 

IfOft^ an upi>er room. (Scand.) M. E. 
loft, properly * air ; ' the peculiar sense is 
Scaod. — IccL /p// (pron loft), tO air, sky, 
(2) an Dp])er room: Don. Swed. toft, a 
garret. Allied to A- S. lyft, air. sky, G' th. 
luftM. Du. hu'ht I. for luft •\ G. luft. the air. 

aloft, in the air. iScand.) IceV d lot/ 
(pron. lAft^. aloft, in the air. H«k v«^ 
J- « IceL <^ « A. S, MS, m. 


lift (i), to elevate. (Scand.) M. E. 
H/ttH. — led. ly/^ta (pron. lyj(a.\ lo liJt, 
exalt in air, from /cr//, air ; Dan. lofu^ 
from hft ; Swell, lyfta^ from /j/i". (The i =7, 
mntalion of o.'\ Dor. uP'tift. 

Iiog (i), ft block of wood : see Lie (1). 

Ix>g (a), a piece of wood with a line, 
for measuring the nte of % ship; &ee 
Iiie (I). 

T^Q^ (5)* A liqaid measure. (Hcb.) Id 
Lev. xiv. 10. ~ Hcb. I6g, a liquid measure, 
lath part of a hin ; ong. 'a basin/ 

IiOffarithm \ see Arithmetio. 

Xiog8:erliead ; see Lie ( I ). 

XtOffio. the science of reasoning correctly. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) O. F. logiqtu. — L. logica, 
put for ars iogica, logic art. — Gk. Ao-in<^, 
put for Xo-yiinj Tix*'yi, logic art; where 
kofixi} is fcm. oi Ktrjtuiis, reasonable. — Gk. 
A^M. a speech. — Gk, X<7*(»'. to say.+L. 
Ugtrt, to S|x:ak ; see Legezid. 

analogy, proportion. \^. — L. — Gk.) 
Y. anahgit.^V,. ana/tfgia.^Gi:. AvaXoyia, 
equality of ratios. — Gk.dfti. upon, through- 
out i -Ao^fa, a foro) made by aildin^ the 
ftufTU -la to ku-f-uSf a word, statement, from 
\iyttv. to speak. 

apologrue, afable.itory. (F.— Gk.) F. 
d^/i?,fi^. — Gk. ilffi>A.o7M, a story, fable.— 
Gk. dw6, from ; koyos, speech. 

apology, a defence. ^L. - Gk.) L. 
apoh^'a. — Gk. AvoKoyia, a speech made in 
(kfeiice. — Gk. dwiJ, off; and X^Twr, speech, 
from \hfuv, to speak. 

catalogue, a list set down in order. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) F. catahgHt. — L. cataiagus. 

— Gk. jraraAoTor, a counting up, enrol- 
ment— Gk. jcaro, fully ; Ku-^ot, account. 

decalogue. (F.- L,— Gk.) F. i/^rra- 
A^fwr — 1_ (J><tf/qfwj. — Gk. 8«a'\o7of, the 
ten conimandnicntii. See Deoado. 

dlialect, a variety of a language. (F.— 
L.-Gk.) Y . dialtcu.^l^ Uia/£cfos.~Gk. 
tii\titrotp discourse, language, dialect.— 
Gk. dtoA^To/ioi, I discourse — Gk. 2<a, be- 
tween ; Kiyttv, to speak. 

dialogue, a discourse. (F. — L.—Gk.) 
F. JiaiogUi.^'L. dia/ogus. -^Gk. 6idXoyof. a 
couTersatioQ. — Gk. ^oA^To/Ku, I discourse 

•decUo. choosing out ; hence, a philo- 
ftOphcr who wlecle«i tloctrint-. from various 
sects. (Gk.) Gk. txA<Amiif<S«. selecting: as 
sb. an I^tectic — Gk. i(»A<7iti', to select. 

— Gk. iit, out ; \i-ftiy, to choose, 
eclogue, a pastoral poem. (U-Gk? 

L. /c/iffH (the F. woid wft» 4f/.i)|W>. *Gk. 


l«Ao7i7, ft selection, csp. of poemt.- 
iit-xiyftr, to choose out, 

epilogue, (F-U-Gk.) F. t/tl 

— U epilegus. — Gk. Imi-XMyot, a conclu 

eulogy, praise. (L. - Gk.*) Fioq 
eu/ogium. — Gk. *v\ayiov, also t^ 
praise, lit good speaking. — Gk. H, 1 
A<7ciy, 10 speak. 

monologue, a soliloquy. (F. — < 
F. monohgite, properly ' one that lov<| 
hear hin»clf talke ;* Cot. — Gk. ftartk\ 
speaking alone. — Gk. /uwd-f, alone; Xtt 
to speak. 

prologue, ft preface. (F. — L. •> < 
F. protogiu. — L. prohgus. — Gk. v^^ 
a fore-&i>cech. 

■yllogiflm, a reasoning from orad 
(F.-U-Gk.) F. syUiigume.-m\^ \ 
^Vmi«. — Gk. ffvXAa7iff>«ii, a reasoobl 
Gk. trvAAfry/fojifu, I reckon together, 10 

— Gk. <rvA- (-ffw), together; Ao^f*^ 
reckon, from A^yDi. discourse. reftsoata| 

So also all words in -logy, the chief b 
astrv-logy, ^w-, chrtmo-, cm£k9^ 4 
enfomo-, etym^-, gewi-, gn^t huU 
m intra . mythc-, fucro-, h^sp-^ tmi 
oiUo-, patho-, philo-, phrt^v>-» tkn 
physio ., psycho-, tauto-, fheo-, Mr-i^] 
' these in their due places^ 

X«oin ; sec Lumbar. 

Xioitor ; see Lout. 

lioU, to lounge about. (O. Low 
M. E. /tf//^.— O. Du. io/fcn, to sit otbi 
fire; the orig, sense was prob. to 4 
allied to Lull. 

Lollard, a name given to the folio* 
of WycUr. ^O. Dn.) It was confbaed ; 
M. E. /0//cr, i. e. one who lolls, a kti 
lazy fellow ; see Loll above ; hut the m 
are prob. related. Latinised as Lalta 
from O. Du. hllairJ, (i) a mombl 
prayers and hymn*, (j) a Lollard, Ul •< 
pmiscr ' or ' sinf^er ;' finX apcJied to a 
in Brabant. Formed with suffix -difn/o 
as E, -ard in drunJt-arJ] from O. 
hUm. lHUen\ to sing; see Lull. 

I«one. short Tor aimt ; tec On*. 

Long to. exlcwicd. (E.) M.E. « 
A. S. lang. Icng.-^Du. iang. Ic«L k 
Dan. iofig, Swcd. ^ditg. Gotli. Avr" 
langri), G. lang'. L. hngui. Aw 
.M. H. G. lingat, lo go hastily, Skt ft 
to jump over, surpass. roBgks IP i 
swiftly. The ong. ^enw nji*! wfol 
to the length ol the struic 


rim of ( K.) M. E. a/m^. 
iluiii^ prep, wilh gen.*> 
to Gk. ii^r. Ski. 
long. The sense 
vi^iokt ia ItJUK^- +0. tntioiig. 
▲• Ki) ind XjODg. 

perlxin to. i,E.) ME. A^- 
Ar-, prciu, «nd A. S. iam^um, 
»ec lone (J) below. 0*. Du. 
to coTiif m, 

kte, to lengthrfi. (L.) From pp. 
^9ngan> to rcai9v«»«*Li <» out; 
DOC (above). 

h. (£.) M. E. Utigihi. - A.S. 
U.S. /(»»f. lo»g.-f Du. //n^^ from 
i>jkn. CtngiU, from mI'j^ ^ Swcd. 

1. /!r/>f£/, Der. Ungth-tn, 
(i>, a 6»h. (E.) ME. Ungtf 
to A S. Unga*^ put for tanga, 
one' def. IvTm of long, lo"g- 

Irw, length. Named Inm iti 
Ra|«. + nu. /«»;;, a ling, from 
iaiigaf fioin iangr : Norw. 
a Une; Swed. i^mga\ G. 
_ Jw called lattgfijcA, long lish. 
; to tarry. ^E.) Frequent, fonn 
imtgrm, to tarnr. — A.S. ItmgaM, to 
put crff. — A. S. iangt long. Cf. 
ya. to Icfigihen, Du. Itngtm, to 
^ G. wJ^f^m, to piolong. 
(1), to dcaire, yearn : alM> to be- 
,) M. £ ifixgtn. AS. Jau^$ati, 
aw ^K> to long after, crave, long. 
■fy. long. Tbc ohg. tense is lu 
long, hence to stretch the mind 
CUTC; also to apply, belong. Der. 

^ty. IcDgth of life. (I..) From 
loog life.^L. hng'Us, long ; 
a(fe. from trui- - awh, 
hit ; Me Ac0> 
(.F.-U) F. loHgitUiU^ 
length : in lateLat., the longi- 
.^l^ Uftgi'-^/oNgo-, aude 
lott^' ; with (utnx -tu-th. 
aJt Uoia stem IcHgttuUnt-. 
% tbrti«t, in fcnLing. iF. — D 
Tik: E. a longt t» a m\s- 
1« fcr F. all^mgt (formerly 
ing; Le. an extension of 
^ddirenxie the thrust. — F. 
I ^(ormerly alcngtr). — 
to; hngi!'' * '^"'v lised in 
lokagth«nr (" • ng. 

I«iigfraca»i<i' r *L) 

«L. oS^UngMr. long acto>^. 
toeootiBiw. (F.^L.) M. E. 



prohngen.^T. prohngtr.^\. frvftmgart, 
to piolong. — I> fro, foiwaraj loMgus, 
long. Doublet, /ttr/ot». 

pxirloin, to sieal, (F.— L.) O.T.pur^ 
higntr, pcrloigmr, to prolong, reiard. de- 
lay (hence to keep back, detain, ttk-h).^ 
\j. pro-longart, to prolong (^abovc). 

ZjOO, a game at cauls. (F.) Formerly 
called ianterioo. » F. lanturdu^ lojtturiu, 
interj., Donscn&e ! fndgc I, aUo a game at 
cirds. The expression was orig. the refrain 
of a famous vaudeville (ab. 1640), after- 
ward» used to give au evasive answer. Being 
purposely nonsensical, it admits of no further 

IjOOf ; sec IiufT. 

XK>ok. to see- (.E.1 M. E. lektn. A. S. 
Ufian, to look.+M. H. G. luoggn, to mark, 
behold, said to mean orig. ' to look through 
a hole,' to peep, Irom M H. G. /f«v, *.». 
la^M, a hole. Allied to I«ook. % DUtinct 
from Skt. hk. to sec. 

IjOOm ( t), a machine for weaving cloth. 
(E-l M. E. iome, a tool, implement, A. S- 
ge-Uma, a tool, implement, LDiirunicni. ^ 
Der. Meir io&m, where loom meant any 
implement, hence a piece of lumiture. 

l«ootn( 3 >,toap|iea( faintly oral adistance. 
(F.«>L.) The orig. sense is to glimmer. shine 
faintly. M. E, /«#«■«. to shine. — O.F./i*iwir, 
to shine, give li(^ht (.Cotgrave). — L. /«- 
ntinart, to shine. — L Ittintn^ 'ighl- See 
Luminoiu. % O. F. iutmr is pre^erved in 
F. allumer. CI. also Iccl. //ifrtjo, to gleam. 

Iioon (1). Iiown. a base fellow. (O. 
Low G. ) Fut for lottm •. iffwm • ; whence 
M. E. loxvmyshe. iawnyshe, and Lowl. Sc 
loamy, dull, slow.— >0. L)u. htn, a lown. 
also lame, slow, inactive. That m is the 
older letter appears from Du. Immmei, Dan. 
lommei, Swed. iymmel, G. Itimmel, a lown. 
lubber. Allied to 0. 11. G. iucmi, drooping, 
mild, M. H.G. lucmen. lomcn, to dtoop. 
TerhaiM allied to Lomo. 

Loon (j), a water-bird, diver. (Scand.) 
A corrvplion of the Shetland name loom.^ 
led. Ihnr, Swed. Dan. torn, a loon. I'rob. 
the same wunl as the above, from the awk- 
ward motion of diving-birds on land ; cf. 
ho^y, guU, go&se, ffwt, &c. 

lioop. (C.) Irish and Gael, tub^ a loop, 
bow, staple, noose, orig. a bend. «• Irish 
and Gael. luh. to bend. Der. iaop-hoii. 

lioose, slack. (Scand.) M. E. /Snu, J!m ; 
it is difficult to account for the vowel- 
sound, but rrof. Zupitxa thews ixk KT\^vk, 
viL Jjj; that it ia dtw lo lh« ^aoan^tov^ 





The trne M. E. form ii /rfj, answering to 
A. S, Uiis^ (il loose, (2) false — Iccl iaust, 
Swed. Dan. ici, loose; O. Sax. Us, O. Du. 
Icos^ (l) loose, (3) false (where rood. Pu. 
hu /«f, loose. Aw/, false) ; G, Ics, loose ; 
Goth, /oi//, empty, ram. (Itase LUS, to 


leulng, falsehood. (E.) M.E lesing. 
A. 8. tedsun^, falsehood: from Udj. fal&e 
(above). Cf- Icel. iausung, fal&ehood ; Du. 
iocs, false. 

-lefts, Boffix. (E.) The trie seiise is 
loose, i.e. freed from ; /jiM-/rjj = free of 
faith, loose from faith. A. S. •/;<//, sufhx, the 
same word as Uds, loose. So also G. 'hs. 

loose, loooon, verb. (E.) The true form 
is loose, later loosen by analogy with strtngth^ 
en, &.C. M. £. loseH. lotuen (where n is 
merely Ihc siyn of the infmilivc). — A. S. 
lorian, to lose, also trans, to set free. — A. S. 
los, toss, de&tniclion; allied to A. S. Udt^ 
false, vain, loose ; see loos« above. Other 
langut^cs derive the verb directly from the 
adj ; thos Du. lossen, Iccl. Uysa^ Swcd. 
liis^, Dan. lost, G. losm, Goth, lamjan. to 
loosen, are derived (respectively) from Du. 
los, Icel. /(ju/j, Swed. and Dan. los, G. /or, 
Goth. hm» loose, vain. 

lOM. (E.) There arc two M. E. fonns, 
rU. hsiiH and Usen (the latter being obso- 
lete). 1. M. E, lositn it from A. S. los^ian, 
to become loose, eso8i>e, sometimes to lose ; 
from A. S. hs^ lo^; see above. 2. M.E. 
lesen is from A. S. Uhan, strong verb, to 
lose (pt. t. leds^ pp. lorert). This is cognate 
with Du. liesen, only in comp. ver^lieieHt 
G. Htren, only in comp. tftr/uren, Goth. 
liusan^ only m/ra-limafi, to loose. (Teut. 
base LUS; cfT LU. as in L. Im^re, Gk. 
Av<fir, to Set fiee.) Der, lorn, lost, A. S. 
pp. loren ; sk\so/orlom, a. v. 

losB, sb. (E.) M. E, Us. A. S. iSar, 
destruction. Allied to lose (above). 

louse, an insect. (E.) M. E. lotu, pL 
fyt. A.S. ids, pi. lys (lice). + Du. luis, 
Dan. luui, Swed. /mj, loci, fiii, G. /sm/. 
The orig. sense is 'destroyer;* from the 
base LUS ; Kc Loose (above), Cf. Goth. 
lamjan, to make of none effect 
Xjoot. plunder. (Hindi. -• Skt.) Hindi 
Itit (with cerebral t), loot, plunder. The 
cerebral / shews that r is elided. »Skt. 
/tf/m, shorter form of tepti-a, booty, s)>oil, 
«SkL luft, 10 break, apoil. allied to L. 
rum/nre, to break. SecBupiore. (yKUP.) 
which is Tabbed, 
Da.) O. Da lupftHt to auim, 


castrate, mod. Du. ttMtm, 
lupti, to peel. 

lib. to castrate. (Du.) Da. /mMm 
above. Der. g-lib, verb, the aaroe (o| 
letc) ; cf. O. Du-iT/u/v, 'gelt,' Hexhul 
Iioqu&clotis. ullcative. (L.) Col 
from L. lequaci', crude form of lo^i 
talkative. * L. locui, to speak. + K 
rtthe, 10 speak ; Skt. lap (for lak\ to t^ 

allocution, an address. (L.) Frofl 
ttllocntic, an address. — L. al- (for «i0^i 
locutio, a speaking, ftora ^ltv«/sci, ppi 
i>^t, to speak. 

oircumlooutioii. (L> L. citrmm 
utio, a periphrasis. — L. circumlonttui, 
of citrvm-loqui, to speak in a rofUid«l 
way. ! 

colloquy, (U) From L. ctf//«^ 
conversation. — L. col-loqui, to COOT^ 
with, lit. to speak torctber. 1 

elocution. (L.) From L. elocuti^^ d 
utterance. *L. tl<KUtU3, pp. of r 
spenk out 

eloquent. (F.-L.) M. £. 

- O. F. eloquent- - L, eh . 
of pres. pt of i'loqui, to speak 

obloquy, calumny. <L ) L^ $b. 
contradiction. ^ L- obloqui, to 

prolocutor, the chairrain 
ference. (L.) L. pf^locuier, an 
-• L. prolocutmst pp. of prO'loqui, to qi 
in public ' 

soliloquy. (L.) I^te L. lolitt 
a speaking to ooc^elf (Augustine).^ 
for solus, alone; ioqm, to Sf)cak. 

ventrlloqulBt. (L.) Coined, 
•ist(L. 'ista, Gt -iCTTT^O, from L. 
us, a spcnker (ram the belly, a icniril 

— L. ueniri't erode form of 
belly; loqui, to speak. 

Lord : sec Lo^. 

liore ; see Z«eam. 

Iioriot ; see Aare4te. 

Lorn. Io»L (E.) A. S 
Msan, to lose : sec loae, under 

Lory, a biid of the parrot k 
Also called /u/^.^Muay ItiH, 
or lory. 

XiOBe, Loss : see ZiOaae. 

IiOt, a {K)ttiou, iliarc (E.) W. & 
A. 5. A/o/. a1»o hlyt^ a lot, iha/«.*i 
hlta-OM. pi. of pt t of AibiAtofl (BLtil 
to obtain by lot. 4* Dn. M: uit^ 
bom su. vb. A^^M, to obtftla kiyM» 



G. !ooM, Goth, klauts, a lot. 

[go a portioo to. (L. am/ E.) 
Dompound. — L. ai-^ for o^, 

tagame. (Ital.-Tcat.) F. 

n of the Ital. i^tte, a loltery, 

\. origin ; sec Lot. 

t.\ wiiM F. tuffuc.) In 

ro. Formed by adding "try 
frtw-twy, jUA-fry. (The F. 
kired from Engli^.) 
' atlL 

IiOtteTy; see Lot 

cian water-lily. (L.» 

'tfV.»Gk, Aarrof, (l) thc 

e Cyrencaa lotus, the eaters 
called htopkagi» <J) the lily 

M. £. hud. A. S. k/tid. 
G. laut^ L. 'ciutus, in /n- 
led; Gk. cAvt^, renowned; 
eaid, from frw, to hear. 

Uy. (E.) M. E fl /«i/, i. e. 

loud voice. Ucre n U for 
V (i) : and /£>«y£ is the Jat. 
/iw*/ (abovcV Cr. 

a din ; from A . S. kiua, loud. 

kll alwnt. (F.— L.). The 

I &om a ftb.i being a comip- 
L an idle fellow or lounger, 
Doo word in the i6th and 
■»F. kmgis^ an idle, drowsy, 
09 (Cot). Littri supposes 
of Uwii was due to a |hui, 
to L. Uniguj, long, hence 
laa; for, strictly speaking. 
ma aame, being the O. F. 
pm or Longimtu. the name 
itefies) of the centurion who 
lAf of Christ This name 
the apocr>'phal gospel of 
)A was doubtless suggested 
a laooc, in John, six 34. 


(E.) The lit. sense is 
Bl M. E, /ffuten, to stoop, 

10 Stoop. 4- Icel- i*if''» 
(which proU taggcttcd ooi 
d), from ititm, to stoop ; ci. 
JM&r. to stoop, lean. 

May. <I>n.> M. £. hitrm. 
Dtt. UuitrgHf to linger^ 



loiter, trifle. O. Du. lotertn, to delay, de- 
ceive, vacillite. Perhaps allied to Lout 
(above). % Hut Koolman, in his £. Fricsic 
Diet., connects it with Late. Cf. Icel. 
iotra, to loiter ; from /a/r, late^ laiy. 

Xtouver, IiOOTar, an opening in the 
roofs of ancient houses. (F. — L.) M. £. 
lovir^ used to translate O. F. itmvtrt in the 
RoroaoceofPortenay, 1175. — O. '^lomttrt^ 
ail opening ; put for Vouvtrt \ from /*, deC 
article, and otmtrt, open ; see Overt. 

IfOVO^, an umbelliferous plant. (F.^* 
L,) O. K. ievesthf, Ittvtrcke (\\ right's Voc. 
i. 139). Cf, Ital, ievistue, lovage. - L. 
iigtutu-um, lovage, a plant of Liptria.— 
L. Ligusiints, belonging to Li^mria, a 
country of Cisalpine OauL 

liOve, affection. (£,) M. E. letu (/mv). 
A. S. /«/w, love. + G. iub* ; Russ. licdi^v' ; 
Sk(. Icbka, covetoosness- Closely allied to 
Llflf. (VLUBH.) Der. iovt. rcib; ^• 
lovt, tirM appearing in M. £. biiufien, to 
love greatly. 

IjOW (1), humble; see Lie (1). 

IjOW (3), to bellow. (£.) M. E. Iffwrn. 
A. S. Mi6ivaH, to bellow, resound. -^ Du. 
loeijen, O. H. G. hi6jaH. (Base HI.A, of 
imitative origin.) ' . ,j 

IjOW (3), a hill. (E.) In place -nama^^i 
A. S. Mow, AltrWf a hiH ; properly a ?^op^^.y. 
+ Goth, A/aiWt a grave; A/aifu,^ htftf' '• 
Lat. dimts, a hill. Allied to Leftn ^i). )^ 

IfOW (4). flame, (.Scand.) Icel. ^, 
flame; cf. L. iux. Allied to Lucid. 

liower (I), to let down. ^E.) From 
iow-fr, comparative of adj. lew. 

Ijower (a), to frown. (E.) . A Tariant of 
Uer. M. E. Uurtn, lurtn^ to lower, frown, 
leer ; which may be directly deduced from 
M. E. iurt, tbo fue. mien. This is a rare 
word, but we ^d : ' Hire lurt Inmcs liht ' 
-her face shines bright. Wright's Spec, of 
Lync Poetry, p. 5a. Allied to A. S, hMr, 
the check, face; see Leer. Cf. O. Du, 
/ptrtHt ' to leerci to frowne,' Hexham. 

liOy&l ; see Legal. 

Xiozen^, a rhombus ; a small cake of 
flavoured sugar, Ac, orig. of a diamond 
shape. (F.) Formerly ioien^^ esp. a shield 
of a diamond shape ^in heraldry).— O. F. 
losen^^ loungt (.F. losangi), • locenge. 
Origm disputttt Cf.Span./p/oy^ic, a loicnge, 
rhombus ; prob. from ioia^ a square stone 
for paving (whence /<»ar, to pave). Per- 
haps from L. laud', stem of Icnu, praise; 
for we find Span, iauda^ a VQBi\>^VAMb <ii>>)Bk 
an epitaph (Uies). 






Lubber. ■ dolt. (C.1 M. E. Mr*, hbttr, 
also to^ ( a looby). — W. Hob, a dolt, labber, 
Hain. a stripling, looby. Cf. /i?^ in Shake- 
speare. M. N. D. ii. I. i6. Allied to Lap 
(3). Limp, IiOb«. &c. And tec inmp. 

Lubricato. to mnke slippery. (L.) 
From pp. of L. lubricare, to make slippery, 
• L. /uin'au, slippery. 

Luoe. a fish, the pike. (F.-L.) O. F. 
/us, a pike. Cot.-L. /ua'HS, a Ash (perhaps 
Ihc pike). 

Luoid. bright. (L.) L. iudJus, bright. 

— L. lucert, to shine; cf. lu-x^ lighl- -f 
Gk. X(v«of. white. Skt. ruch, to shine. 
Allied to Light (i>. (^RUK.) D«r. 
iuci'fer^ i.e. light • bhnger, morning -star, 
bom/errt, to bring. 

elucidate. (L.) From pp. of Low L. 
tJuddare. to make clear. »L. f, oat« very; 
iucid-us, lacid, clear. 

iUuminate, to enlighten. (L.) From 
pp. of L. illuminapt, to throw light upon. 

— L. iV- (for i«), tipoti; iumtH', stem of 
lumen, light ; see lumlnAry (below ). 
% We also use illumtnt, iilumt, from F. 
liiumiMtr = L. iUuminare. 

illuatrate. to throw light npon. (L.> 
From pp. of L. illmtrart, to throw light 
upon.«*L. ii- (for rw), upon; itutrtirtf to 
col^hten ; see loatre (1 ) below. 

lunn, to illnroinate. paint. ^F. — L.^ 
M. E. HrHMfH^ contracted form oUumi'nen, to 
illuminate (Prompt. Parv.\ Again, luminrn 
is for ch/nminnt. — O F. tRiuminer, to 
illuminate, burnish, limn.^L. i/Zumiftafit; 
see illumlDattf (above). 

lucubration, a production compoied 
in retirement. (L.) Property, a working 
by lamp-light; irom L. lucu^ratio, the 
same. — L. /udtbratus^ pp. of lucubntre, to 
bring in lamps, to work by lamp-light.— 
L. ii4£uin-tim, prob. a faint liirht; at any 
rate, obviously formed from rt*f-» stem of 
lux, light ; cf. luujc, to shine. 

lumlnarj. a bright light. tF. - L ) 
O. F. iuminarie, later luminaire, a light, 
lamp. — L, luminare, a light: neut. of 
/uMifiani, light-giving. — L. iumtrt*, »(em 
oUumeu, light. Lumen^iwrttiH*; from 
{udtt, lo shine- 

luminoua. bright. (F.-L.) YJumin- 
tux. — L. luminojtu. bright : iron tumist^, 
stem of ittmnt, light (above). 

limar. (L > L. lunarij, adj. from iuna, 
moon. L. iiatta^lwma^, giver of light — 
L. lucert, to khine. Der. lun'tttr, inttr^ 
/aiMari Mad ftCe beiow. 

lunatie. (F. - L-> F. /• 

lunaticus, mad ; lit alTccled by ike 

— L. iuna, rouon. 

luBtre, (il, splendour. (F. — L 
iustre.^Low L. lustrum, m wiodai 
L. hutrarr, to shine. Prob. from 1 
adj. iustnu* (put for iuc-itrut*), d 
and so from lucert, to shine. 

lutestriug, a lustrous silk. (F.— ' 
L.) A curious corruption of huir 
sort of shining silk (Kersey i.— F. At 
lutoitring, lustring. — Ital. imtrutc* Iv 
tinsel ; from its gloss. » L. lustrm 
shine; see above. 

lynx, a keen-sighted qusdmped., 
Gk.) M. E. /y«jr.-L. /»-itx.-Gk.l 
lynx ; allied to ^ifxy«t> ^ Ump, aod l 
from its bright eye*. Cf. Skt. fsk 
shine, ioch, to see. Cognate forn 
A. S. lox, Swcd. h, G. lucks, a lynx. 

pellucid. (F.-L.1 F, j^ht^di 
ptlluddiu ( =per-lu{idus •), transpar) 

aublunar, under the tnotn. a 
(L,> Coined from L. sub, uoder; a 
lunar (above). 

translucent, allovring ■ '^* - 
through. iL.) L. transluceti. 

pt. of ttintU'lucen. to shine i; „:. 

Luok. fortune. (O. Low Ci > ^ot 
in A. S. ; but we find O. fries- A(l 
/wi. gt-luJk, good fortune, happiee 
Swcd. (KfAB, Dan. />*-*•/, G. giuJi 
geluck). Orig. • favour ' or catidl 
from Teut. base LUR, in allura. aoM 
in Du. iokktn, Swcd. lockn »»*« ^■•i^ 
/(V*m, O. H. G- lucxheu. i.. 
Luare. gain, profit. (F - > 

— L. Iturum. gam. Allied to in*ti • 
price, wa|^, G. /tf^fi, reward, Gk. 
booty, Russ. laviu, to take ■■ 1 
(VLU) D«r, Uur-atiiv, F ii»r»d 
lucraiiuus, from pp. of imcrmri^ lO 
from lufrum, gain. 

Lucubration : fee Lucid. 
IiUdioroUB, laughable <]») UAi^ 
done in spi>rt —L. tW>-, for /udhb 

— L. ludert. 10 play. 

allude. (L.) L. (t//si(i^ to iM 
allude to (pp. aUusus'^.-^X^ aS- i*>m 
ludere, lo sport Der. (ti.'ut ifiv- 

COUude. to act with oitici> n 1 
(L^ L. cc/liiiferi (pp. u 
mtb, act in coUn^inn WTth - 
-« enm ), with ; -' 

delude. (L.i 
to mock at« cajuic. iJkt. .i.-.mj ■ ■' 

elude. Ut avoUl sUly. ^U) L r« 


to mock. dMdve. Dor. 

to deoeive. (L.) L. il-Irndttt, to 

>n. <K - L.) F. iUmitm. - L. 
. ~ L. iUnsus, pp. of iltudert 

ralude, an introdaction. (F. - L.) 
r. frtJmdt. 'ft preludiom, preface, pre- 
lie ; * Cot M Lttfe L. pmludium. — L, 
iMBrrv. to pla^ beforeh.-ind, give a 
iMle. ■■ L ^nr. before ; iudtrt, to play. 
llT, IjOOi, to tarn a ship tovranls the 
fl. (E.i From M. E. Icf, a contrivance 
altering a ship's courw ; ser Layamon, 
^76. It leems to have been a sort of 
^ paddle, used to assist the helm io 
ping the ship right. Prob. named from 
Icacmblaiice of a paddle lo the palm of 
band ; cf. Low!. Sc. loof. Goth, lofat 
b of the hand. Cf. also Da. loif^ Dan. 
Swrd. iof, wcftthcr-gsge : Dan luvt, to 
■ad p^Aps Bavarian iaffen, blade of 
_flat part of a iiidder. 

iwiy. (Do. ; perhaps E.) Put for 

which amwcn to Da. U foe/, to 

Cf. Du. /of/ himJnt, to keep 

rcather-gage, Dan. holJe /wir/i. 

^tothe windwaid: which ^ug^'csted 

*1o bbld aloof,' i. e. 10 keep 

the l^nrarJ shore or rock). 

drag (Scand.) Swed. iugga^ to 

hair : from litgg, the forelock. 

prob. allied to Swed. lo^k, a lock 

] Be« Look (j). So also Korw. 

lo poll by the hair, from fug)!, hnir 

bed. Alfco cf. O. Low G. iukett. 10 

\ pull by the hair ; A. S. fycatrt, to pull 

>M<!« : Dan. titM, lo weed, (y RUG.) 

L iM^-tiga, witL F. sufnx as in /vr^- 

kgaail. a aon of square call. (Scand. 
'E.) PTob tnjm the x-erb to ft*?; the 
K» easily hoL^ted by a pull at the rope 
bbed to tbe yard. Dvr. if*£^-tr, a ship 

Kwith lojjwiils. 
riona, mouniful. (L.) From L. 
monnihit, — L fugtrt, to inoura. 
Xvyput, lad. Xtuyoi, dcsIructioQ. 

^iiimmi,p«ftU11ywann. (£.) M.E. 

Crpid. {LuAe-warm «= warm- 

Extcocios of M.E. /fTv, tepid 

{OM BtS. iewk], nether cold 

;- W«Uf. Rcr. Ui 16. Allied 

i. Amr, a nbslter, mod. Es Ut ; 

,Jhi AUka, a thaw 



to ffcaw. Afar, hfjr, warm, ktjja, to Aelter, 
•^ Dd. ienkwarm : G. lamvarm. 

IitOl. to sing to rest. (Scand.) M. E. 
hi/Ztn. — Swed. /u/Za, Dan. fiif/e, to hum, lull. 
>^ O. Du. iuilen, to sing in a bumming 
voice. From the repetition of /n lu, in 
lolling children lo sleep. This is a drowsier 
form of iat iaf used in cheerful singing; 
see lollard. 

Ijuinbar. relating to the loins. (L.) L. 
immbaru, adj. : whence lumbare^ an apron 
(Jerem. xiii. i). — L. tuminu, the loin. + 
A. S. Undenu, pi., the loins, Du. itndemn, 
pi. ; Swed. AiW, Don. iend, loin ; G. Itnde, 

loin. (F. - L.) M. E. Mm. - O. F. 
hiptt, also iongf- — Low L. ium^ra*. not 
found, fern, of an adj. Jum^tus*, from L. 
iumims, loin, 

lumbag^o, pain in the loins. (L.) L. 
iumba:^D. pain m the loins. — L. ivmdM. 

Sirloin, surioin. (F. - L.) M.E. snr^ 
hyn\ XV cent. — O. F. surhngt U4th 
cent.), the surluiu. * F. jMr, upon, above; 
iongty loin (above). % TTie story abont 
taming the tain into sir-ioim by knighting 
it is mere trash. 

Iiumber (i), useless furniture, (F.»G.) 
The litmher-room was orig. Lombard- 
room, where tbe Lombard broker bestowed 
his pledges. Cf. Lcmbardeer, a broker, 
I^mbard, a bask for osnry or pawns; 
Blunnt. • F. Lemb^rd, a Lombara (who 
a^ed as pawn-broktrr m the 1 4th centnry). 
— G. Langbari, Long beard; a name given 
to the men of this tnbe. 

Xjuznber (s), to make a great noise, 
(Scand.) In Palsgrave. A frequent, verb 
of Scand. origin. • Swed. dial. lemra, to 
resound : from Swed. Ifmmm, tcreat noise. 
Icel. hljSmr, a sound, a tune. From Tctit. 
base KLU, to hear; whence also E. /mi^, 
and Goth, kliuma, hearing. (^KKU.) 

liuminary, Iiumlnous ; sec Luold. 

Xiump. (Scand.) M. E. lempt, lumpf.^ 
Swed. dial, and Norw. lamp, a block, 
stump, piece hewn off a log. Cf. Dn. 
hmp, a mg, lump, hmp, dnmsy. Allied 
to I«ubb«r, and Lap (2). 

lunch, a large piece of bread, ftc. 
(Scand.) Lunch, 'a gobbet, or peece;* 
Minsheu. A variant of /vm/, like httruk 
lor hump, hunfh for bump. 

Itinoneoo, Itxnch. a slight meal. 
(Scaiid.) Lutuk is now osed as short for 
/uMrArtm, though iunrhton itself is an ex- 
firou iumh^ a luffl^. ColC ^^ncb'V . 




carihat^ '* hmehicn^ or big piece of bretd/ 
&c; also 'AprufHt a ccn, thamp, aUo a 
iuHchtom or big piece.* Lutukwn appean 
to be for iunshin, as ia 'a bage Imuhin of 
bread/ Thoresby to Ray (1703), wbich is 
prob. merely short for iun^kin^g). At any 
rate, it is clearly bom lutuh, a laigc piece 
(abore) % Quite distinct from numJuffn, 
given unrler Noon. 

Lunar, liunatio ; tee Iiuoid. 

Lung. (£.) M. E. Jun^, pi. iungts, 
hngti, A.S, iuttge, pi lungan.^TiM, ^ng, 
Iccl. iuMgu, pL, Dan. iingt, Swed. iuftga, 
GJunffttiH, Allied to A.S. iungre, quickly 
(orig. ligntiy), also to Gk. k\ax^* SkL 
iaghu. light. The iunp are named from 
their lightness; sec Long, Idght (,3). 

Iiunge : see Long. 

Lupine, a kind of pulse. (F.^L.) F. 
/«//!«. wL. iupinum, a kind of poise; orig. 
neut. of lupinus, wolfish, though the reason 
is not clear. — L. lupus^ a wolf; see WolT 

Iiurob <[), to lark, steal, IiUTcher, a 
dog ; see Lurk. 

Lurch (s), the name of a game. (F.* 
L. 7) 'To leave in the btrch ' is due to an 
old game. — F. hurcAt, 'the game called 
lurch r. or lurch in a game; iV demfniru 
hurckt, he was left in the lurch ; ' Cot. 
The initial / it for U^ def. art. : Cot. also 

Eves CMtxht, 'the game at tables called 
rch,' Cf. O. F. ourtei, ontt, a little vase 
(Roquefort); whence I think it likely that 
garcke mennt ' a pool ' in a game. Perhaps 
from L. urteus, a pitcher, vaae. 
Lurch (3), to devour; ohs^ete. (L.) 'To 
iunht devour, or eate greedily;' Baret. 

— Late L. hirthart, itircart, to devour 
greedily. Prob. confused with /«rrA (i). 

liUroh {4), a Budden roll sideways. 
(Scand. 7) ' A Ut lurth, a sudden roll (of 
a ship) to the leeward;' Webster. Ob- 
scure; perhaps merely lurch (2) or lurk in 
the sense to stoop or duck like one who 
skulks; see Lurk. 

Lure, a bait. (F. -G.) M. E. lun.^ 
O.F. hem, hirre, later leurre, ' a faulconcr's 
lure;* Cot. - M. U. G. Ittoder (G. UuUr), 
a bait, decoy, lure. Perhaps from i%itl, pt. t 
of laden, to invite. 

allure, to tempt by a bait. (F.-L. and 
G.) From K. a ieurre^ to the bait or lure. 

- L Oil, to ; M. H, G. IttoJer (above). 
Lurid, wan. gloomy. (L.) L. luridus^ 

pale yellow, wan. Perhaps allied to Gk. 
xA*^, green; see Chlorine. 
Ziurk. to lia in wait (Scand.) !£.£. 



htrlttm, UHun ; whidk 

imken * (not found). — Si 
Dan. lusii, to lurk, sneak, listen ; C 
Imeh^H, to lurk, G. ianuhem, ti 
We also And Swed. lura, Dan. 
lurk ; G. laturn, Icel. A/orUf (< 
(BaseHLU-VKRU) AlUedto 
lurch ( I ). to lurk, dodge, pilfer. 
A weakened form of Lurk. Th 
are (1) to lie in wait, lurk, (a) t 
steal. Der. lurehtr, 'one that % 
the lurch, or upon the catch, alac 
of hunting-dog;'' Phillips. 
Lury ; see Lorj. 
LtiBcious, delidoot. (E. 
Also ItuhioHj (Spenser) ; Imssywm 
grave). Lussyoust is prob. for An 
of which it is an easy comiptioo t 
by adding -out to E. inxty^ pleas 
licious, which is the usual old t 
Shak. bos lush (short for Uiukigm 
Chaucer would have &aid Ituty \ hi 
singular result that Shak. usca Istfi 
at once : * How lush and tu^y tl 
looks; ' Temp. ii. i. 5J ; see Loat. 
Lust. (E.) The ugual old mei 
pleasure. A.S. luxt, pleasure. 
IceL lyst, UsH, Dan. /yj/. Si 
/Mr/, Goth, lustus, pleasure, 
formerly * pleasant.' And see lusH 
list (4), to please. (E.) U.E. 
luttH\ 'if thee imt* ^\i it 
Ch. C. T, 1185. A. S. ly:tan, 
used impersonally. » A. S. 
(above). + Du./<Aj/rff, Icel. /fx/o, Di 
Swcd. lysta, Goth, luxton', G. 
from the sb. 

liatleaa, careless. (£.) Pot 
Gower has luttUM» C. A. ii. 
lust (abo\'e). 

Lustr&tion ; see Loatro (a).' 
Lustre (i), splendour; see Looli 
Lustre (a), Luatrum, a period 
yean. (L.) L./su//wffi, an cxpiatoi 
fice; also a period of tive ycar&, 
every Ave yeara a lustrum was per 
The orig. seme is *a porificaliooj 
/wrr. allied to /awarf, to 
see I^ave. 

lustration, a purificatioa 
(L.) From L. Imtratio. an 
L. lustrtstus, pp. of lus/rart, 
L. lujfrum, an expiatory sac 
Lute (1), a musical instrai 
Arab.) M.E. /«iy.-F. /w/ ^Cotgi 
F. luiA. We also find Prov. /au/, ; 
Port a/auJit Ual liuta, Du. 

.y. *' 

L mei 





h. The Port, form ihewi the Arab. 

I liDce «- is for al, the Arab. def. 

UbV V</, wood, timber, a KtafT. stick, 

of Uoefi. lute, m harp. 

I(j). tkiijdofloaiii. (F.-L.) O.F. 

vf, loun.* L. iutum. mod. thit which 

}cd down. ••X./v/'Y, to wash. Allied 


■String: lee Lonld. 

ary. (K. - L ) M E. iuxurit. - 

ftttnim (7), F. /urure. » L. iuxuria, 

, w L fuTur, pomp, excess, luxury, 

» allied to Ueensa. 

I common iuffix. (E.) A. S. -//ir, 

iffix ; -/^v, adv. tnffix ; from Ue, like; 

ft mlxtoic of aabea and water, for 


washins. (E.) H. E. liy. A. S, Udk. + 
Du. iMg, G. iamgi, O. fl. G. lemgm, lye. 
AUied to Icel. itmg, a bath; abo to L. 
iauart, to wash. (Base LU.) 

Xiymph, a colourless fluid. (L.) L. 
lympha, water, lymph, also a water-nymph. 
The spelling with y is prob. due to a sup* 
posed connection with Gk. cv/i^. a 
nymph (prob. falst). It U rather allied 
to Iiimpid. 

Xiynoh, to punish by mob*law. (£.) 
From yi;A»i Lynch, a fanocr (IJth cent; 
Haydn I. The name is from A.S. klinct 
a ridge of land. See Iiink (i). 

Itynz ; see Laoid. 

Lyre. (F.-U-Gk.) F. tyrt,^\^ fym. 
Gk. Xspa. a lyrc^ lute. I>er. lyr^. 



to pave a rond with 
atones. (Gael, and Heh. : 
r. Of/Cx,) Named after Mr. John 
fiun, 4. D. 1819. Macadam = son of 
.wGacL MOf, Km; Hcb. dddm, a 
Tom root 4tiam, to be red, 

Maooaronl; see ICaoe- 

see Hao«rftt«. 
kind of parrot. (Caribbean.) 
)0 be the Dative name in the Antilles 

» (I), a kind of club. (F.-L.) 
wmUt macA* (F. frra//^).-L. ma/ta*, 
k^ only pmcrved in dimtn. matee/a, 
w bcctlei Of. Skt math, to chum, 

I* (0* « Hnd of spice. (F.-L.-Gk. 
.T) F. moiii, mace. It &eemstoha%T 
KBfiued with O. F. macer. which ' is 
■oe» as many imagine, but a reddish, 
iticaJI, and a&liinccnt rind of a ceitain 
llDoC :* Cot. Both prob. from L macer, 
I La. the ' rind of a crrat root, which 
k Che name of the tree itself,' Holland, 
PUcy, aii. 8.*Gk. itaMtp; donbtle&s 
Item oiigfin. Cf. Skt makura, a bud, 
io%opa rlen^i). Arabian jasmine. 
to soften by steeping. iL.) 
il» mofirare. to steep; fre- 
bate m^c-.'^K\x%&. moikitt, 
r««iv. to knead ; Skt. 
(V MAK.) 
lo hMp up. (F, • L. * Gk.) 
to heap up. - F. 4 masH, Into 

a mass. ~L. ot/, to; mojjv, a mass; see 
maaa (below). 

mao&roiU, maooaronL (Ital. * L.) 
O. Ital. maccanmi, * a kinde of paste 
mente j ' Florio. Prob. from O. luL 
mafcartt *to bruise, batter, to pester/ 
Florio ; i.e. to reduce to pulp. «- ll sMr*, 
base of macerart, to macerate. Der. 
macaroHU, i. c. in a confused or mixed 
state (applied to a jumble of lan^agcs). 

maoebTOon. (F. — Ital.-L.^ K. maca- 
nm, pi macaroni, ' mac&rons, little fritter- 
like buns, . . also the same as macaroni ; " 
Cot. •- Ital. mcucaroni (above). ^ Now 
applied to a kind of biscuit 

masa (i). a lump. (F.-*L.-Gk.) F. 
moise.^L. mojsa (hardly a true L. word, 
but taken from Gk.)<»Glc /ioCo. a barley 
cake ; allied 10 t^ytui, aav kneaded mass. 
•• Gk. p^ffour. to knead (above). Der. 
mass ive. massy ; also a-mass (above). 

maxUl&r, maxiUary. belonging to 
the jawbone. (L.) L. wHUciiiaris, adj., 
from maxiJ/a, jaw-bone. •L. mtacerart, to 

Haohine. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. ma^hint.^ 
L. machina.^GV, fttfx*"^* ^ device, ma- 
chine; cf. M^X^> means. (V UAGH.) 
Allied to Make. 

meohanlc, pertaining to machines. 
(F. — L.*Gk.) M. E mtchaniMe, in the 
5<n5e 'mechanic art.' — O. F. mttrhamiqut, 
mechanical. ~ L. mtchamica. — Gk. tirix^^'^* 
science of machines. — Gk. F9X<»^ (above) 
XloGkerel ; ace Maoiilato. 




l&aokintosh, ■* waterproof overcoat. 
(Gael.) Gael. A/a>:^iut0jM, the name of 
the inventor. 

Macrocoam. ihe whole universe. (Gk.) 
Gk. fMiKpo-f, lony, grrat ; Kiofun, the world. 
Cf. mictviCQ^n. 

Mooulate, to defile. (L.) From pp. of 
L, matulart, to spot. — L- nuuu!a^ a spot, 
dimin. of a form maca *, not used. Prob. 
from V MAK, to pound, brutse ; bcc 
Maoerato. Der. immncutaU, orig. a pp. 
mackerel, a fish. (F.-L,) O. F. 
makertl {F. maqutreau'). Lit. 'stained* 
fish; from the dark blotches on them. — L, 
maca*, a Main, preser\*ed hi Span, mora, a 
Stain, bruife on fruit, and in I« macufa, a 
uuall stain ; see above. 

xxudl (i), steel network for armour. 
(F. — L.) O. F. maHit, mail, aUo a mesh 
of a net. — L. macula, a spot, speck, hole, 
mesh of a net ; sec Maoulate. 

Mad. (E.) The vowel was formerly 
long. M. E, maad, made, — A.S. n^m^J, 
gg-maad, tn a gloss ; heocc rndd-mM. mad- 
ness (Grein). -f- O. Sax. ^-mJd. foolish ; 
O. H. G. •^i-meii, vain ; Icel. meiddr, pp. of 
meitSa, to maim, hurt; Goth. jpa-ntaSds, 
maimed. The orif;. sense seems to be 
•severely injured;' the prefix .^e-, ^-, gU' 
is unes^ntial. % Not allied to ItaL rrtatto, 
for which see Hate (2). 

Madam, my lady. (F.-L.> V. madam/, 
i.e. ma dame, my lady. — L. w/ra dffmina^ 
my lady; sec Dame. 

mademoiaelle, miss. (F, - L ) F. 
ma, my; dtmoiselle, riamitel ; see Damsel, 
madonna.mylady. U^bI*-!'-) Ital.wa. 
my; donna^ laHy.fiomL. i/i?wma; see Dame. 
monkey, an ape. (ItAl.~L.) Corrapted 
from O. Ital. nwHuchw, 'a pugge. a mun- 
kie. an ape ; ' Florio. Dimin. of O. Ilal. 
mono, monna, 'an ape, a munkte. a mun- 
kie-face; also a nickname for women, as 
we say gammer, goodie ; * Florio. Afonna 
is a familiar corruption of madattna, i.e. 
my lady, mistress ; Scott introduces ^/i7M/ia 
r.iuhi in the Fortunes of NigeU See above. 

Madder, a plant (E.) M.K. mader^ 
madir. A. S. maderu. madert. ^ Icel. 
mt^ra. Dp, ntetd. Cf. Ski. madhtira, 
■weet, tender : whence fern, madkurd, the 
Dame of several plants. 

ModemoUoUe, MadonnA see Ua- 

Madrepore, coral. <F. — Ital.»I« and 
Gk.) F. madn'pon. — ItaL madre/era. 
The lit seaic it ' ■wClier<«tooc,' a fondful 


name, due to the existence of such terms 
madtx-jc/va, honeysuckle (lit. moth 
wood), madrrdHitiv, worxibine (lit molV 
bush), madrt-pcrla, mother of pearl. Hcri 
ma*frt is from L. mafrtm, ace <4 maftf 
mother; see Mother. Pora U from Gl 
wSipoz, a. light friable stone,* also a stalid 
tile. ^ Itut the word has certainly bed 
mtdefstaiHi (prob. misundtrttocd) as coa 
nccted witn pert, whence na merool 
scientific terms such as taitm-pora. tnbi 
pora^ dfnti-fora. gtmmUporn, 'Scientific' 
etymology is usually clumsy, and frC 
quently wrong. We may conclude t 
E. fere has been substituted for Gk. 
by conftision. 

Madrigal, a pastoral song. (Ilal. — L 
Gk.) Iial. madrigaU, i short song, 
pastoral ditty ; put for mandn\fa/i 
Florio also gives mardfia/i, mandnan* 
a hetdftiuan, also a madrigal. — Ital, 
mandra, a herd, flock. — L. ntandra 
stall, stable.- Gk. ^f?/>a. a foM -f Ski 
matidura, stable; frum mand, to slcef 
(The suffix -ijc^-aU" 1. MiTix -ft a/u.) 

Magazine. (F.-lu1.«Aiab.) O 
ma^iin (F. wtagasin).'^\iiL 
a storehouse. —Arab, makhdam, pi. 
maihzatt, a storehouse. — Arab. AMmsH, 
laying up in store. 

Maggot, a gnib. (W.) M E. magpi 
ma^t. — W. moi-fiad, matai, a mi^i^ 
cf. magiaid, grubs. Allied to W. mapai 
breeding, ma<^d, a brood ; from magu^ (I 
breed, Cf. Bret, and Com. m^fit, to feed 

Magi, priests of the Per<^ianv (U— Gl 
• Pcrs,) L. magi, pi. — Gk. >m7«>i, pL 
^Ytff, a Ma^n, one of a Medisn triW 
also an enchanter, properly a wise 
who interpreted dreams. Tbe orig. 
was prob. great, Irom Zend 
allied to L. maptHS, Gk 
n$ag-ic, short for mai^i: ati ; tna^-ii4^m. 

Magistrate ; sec Macnitude. 

Magnanimity, M ag n a t e ; see 

Magnesia : ice Macnvt. 

Magnet, the lodestone. (F.— L.«Gk 
M E. magruU.''0. F. r^ta\'Hr.'r 
oi O.F.mamtUyii.' 
ace. of magntt. pal 
nesian ^^r-r •' - ' 
(stem M 

belongii:, , - 

ki$o% Mafyrfaifn i.or M«7Myrt^>, 
stODC. lodcstone, aUo a kind of 
Dttr. wiy w ii W , aa old aaaia (la 


CT. 16933) for 3 mineral brought from 

l!>tne«ia : now iJilkrfiillv applied. 

UffnifloQnt. Ua^nlfy. Magnilo- 
QUence ; sre Magnitude. 

tudfl, grealnc&i. (L.) L. ma^ni' 
nie. — L. maj^tu, giviit. + ^^■ 
greflt : Skt. nuUtOMi. grcnt ; A. S. 
See MloUe. 

Altiite, ruler, vL. magiiifoius, (1) A 
(1) a ma^fiktiate.— L. magisUr, 
I. ma_i^is-tir U a double coniftar. 
I mag-nm, grcnt. 

mlty. ijicitncss of mind. 
.) F. tHOffiaMimitJ. * L. ace. m^.^'-- 
tmi/afrm. »mlL tua^ntu, ^reat; animus, 

OUI|rn*nlnioQS, hii*h-niin(lci1. (L.) L. 
In^pMmjiMU. — L. mi^nwHJ, ^eat ; animus, 

nui^lAte, ■ great man. noble. (F. — L.) 
(iM/.^L. i««4<na//M, ace. of $nagtms, 
, — U m4jr9HWi great. % Magnate 
lo the a*a of L. M^yfio/ in 1 lungnry 
Macnifioent- (U) L>. magnifirtnt', 
of mmgmjiffm, lit. doing grrat 
^lffa«d. — 1-. ntagrtt", lor wrajf- 
Tgreat ; -/can. (ot/uiens, doing, from 
r. to do. 
;WgnUy. (F.-L.) M. F. «^H/>f^M.- 
tgftffitr.^ L. magmjUare, lit. to make 
* L. jwa^tti*, lor w/^mmj, grcfti ; 
r, for fjuert, to do. 

idoquenea. (L.) L. magniio- 

clcvmlad taognagc. «• L. m%agm-^ 

wmrmu^ great: AyivM/-, atcm of prca. 

^MfM, to speak ; see Loquaoiotta. 

<>).*adj.. chief, principaL (F.~ 

t. F. MMfW. maf^m. chief »I^ mi^ 

pvat ^ Distinct Irou nmi'm, sb., 

is of A S. origin. 
I^M^. (F.'L.) M. E. ma'::csUi.^ 
, M^jiiaitfr/iF. ma^uft). •• L. maiatattm, 
at mmifrhit, dignity, honour. Here 
"• anv^Mi * >" nanfjiirrr *, fornicl 
d)c faoAe of aMb^fVji;/. LTcat, by help of 
ryan (.ooii^aralive iumx -yofii, 
tr. a litlc o( rank. iL.) L. maior, 
comiiaiatire of magnttJ, ^rtat 
»tAj9r»49mo^ iinitatcU from Span. 
. a housC'«tcw.inl 
. iP.-L.) M.K. maiiUr. » 
aai'ifif « L. Mf^TJ/rwiN, ace. of 
a ntaMcr 1 ar* mactstrate 
Dor matttr^t O. F maufrit. 
a prowtrb. (F. - L.) F. 

MAIM. 265 

mojcime,'* L, maxima^ put for maxima 

jtnUrtUarutn, nn opinion of the greatcsit 

imporiance, chief of opinions, hence a 

I maxim, Orig. fcm. of mojiimuf, greatest, 

' superlative oTmapf$us, great 

' maximum, (L) Ncut. of maximtu, 

greatest (aKovc). 

I mayor. (F.-L.) M. E. mairt.^¥. 

mairt. ->L.Mfit('ifrr»/ (shortened to mai'rem)^ 

ace. of major^ grenler ; see major (above). 

; % Mayor is the Spnttiih s|>eiliug, intro- 

dDced in the middle of the t6th century. 

merino, a variety ot &hecp. (Span.* 
L.) S{)an. merino, roving from pasture to 
pasture. — Span, merino^ an inspector ol 
sheep wallu. — Low L. majoHnus^^ major- 
domo, steward of a household : cf. Low L. 
maJomJis, a bead •sh epherd . From L, 
maior. greater ; see mi^or (above). 

miBS (j), a young woman. (F.-L.) A 
contraction of mistress; Evelyn's Diarj-^ 
Jan. q, 1662. See below. 

mister, ror., a title of addreas. (F — 
L.) A corruption of master^ due lo the 
influence of mistra$» which it an older 
word ; see below. 

mietreea. a lady of a household. (F. • 
L.^ 0. F, maistresse. ' a raiatress, dame ; ' 
Cot. {F.mai/resse.) Fcta. of O.V.maistre, 
a master ; mtc niaater (above). 
AlagnoUa. (K.) A genua of plants 
named after Pierre jI/e^^w/, of MootpcUier, 
in i- ranee; died a.i.. 1715. 
Magpie, a bini. (F.-L.-Gk. ; a«</ F. 
— L . ) A Uo ca 1 1 ed Bnagpt-pU, ^i^gg^^y -/". 
Mag is short for Magoi - F. Afargof, a 
familiar form of F. Margverite, alsu used 
to denote a magpie. This ii from L. 
Margarita^ fik. fuxfrfapirrftf a pearl ; cC 
Pers. muruftirii/. a fiearl. /W ■» F. /i>, 
from L. fica, a magpie ; see Pie (x). 
Mahogany, a trc«. (W. Indian.) The 
native S. American name (Webster). 
Mahometan ; see Mohammedao. 
Maid. Maiden: see May {,i). 
Mail (I), »tccl network; sec Maculate. 
Mail (3), a letter-bag. (F.-U. H. G.) 
M. E. mo/f. — O. F*. ma/e {¥. ma/Ze), a bag. 
wallet — O. H. G. malaho, a leatheni 
wallet. +Gae]. and Iri:>h jwo/a, a bag: Gk. 
/i«A7'.'F, hide, skin. 

Maim, a bruise, hurt. (F.-C?) Also 
i\H:\\ mahim in Law-book^ (lilount). M. K. 
maim. — O. F. me/iaing^ ' a maim^ or 
abatement of ktreiigili by hurt-i received;* 
Cot. Cf. Itol. ma^agna^ a defect, blemish. 
Orig. uncertain : peiha^iTom^TC\.,iMuJi4ik« 

It 3 




mutilation, maekaiia, to nutilste (nntcss 
thiR be borrowed from K,). 

Main (i), strength ; &ee May (i). 

Main ^3), chiel^ principal; tee ICagni- 

Uaintaln : see 2f anaaL 

ICaioe, Indian com. ;Span.*W. Indian.) 
Span. mi»«. — W. Indian mahis, mahu^ in 
the lan^ftge of the isle of liayti. 

MaJ^ty. Major ; see M&gniKuds. 

Maka. (E.) M. E mains. A. S. ma- 
nan, pt. t. fHa{i>de, to nmkc.+G. marhm. 
(From base MAK. allied to MAG.) Allied 
to marhitic; and to May (i). 

match (i), an equal, a contest, mar- 
riage. (E.) M. K. maccht, maeht, orig. b 
comrade. * A. S. mmaa^ commonly^mtxirtra, 
a comrade, companiofi, spouse; from the 
more original form maca^ a companion. 
See further below. 

mate (i), a companion, comrade, eqtint. 
(E.) M. E. matt, a comipiion of the older 
form maie, a companion, which is the 
commoner form. (So also ^/, □ mammal, 
from M. E. 6aJk\ and esp. note O. Fries, matia 
(for rftaJkta*), to make, which is a related 
word.)* A. S. mofa, a companion; also 
gemaca. + Icel- wah', Swcd. maJtt, Dan. 
magt, O. Sax. gimako, a mate, comrade; 
but O. Du. wait, Du. maat, a mate, with / 
as in English, douhtic*^ on O. Frie-iic form. 

?. All doficljr related to the adj. seen in 
eel. makr, suitable, M. H. G. gtmack, 
suitable; and further to A. S. ma^tart, to 
make, because a, thing i« snitabte by being 
ma^g so. ^ A/a/e, as usetl by sailors, is 
prob. Datch. 

Mai-, fre/x, bad. (F.-L.) F. «a/.- 
L. ma/uj, bad ; see MalJoe. 

MaJaohite : see Hallow. 

Malady, Malapert, Malaria; see 

Male ; see Masculine. 

Malediction, Malefactor, Malevo- 
lent : see Molloe. 

MaUoe,in wiLL (F.oL.) M. E. ma/iVr 
F. maUu. — L. maiilia, badness. — L. ma/us, 
bad. Allied toGk. ftiXas, black. Skt. rrta/a, 
dirty, ma/iwa, dirty, sinful, bad, Irish mai/t, 
evil. (^MAR.) 

malady. (F.-L.) F. mahiiU.^?. 
malade, sick; oldest spelling mahbiU. Cf. 
ProT. malapies, malaudes, sick. — L. maie 
hahitns, out of condition (hence sick. ill)| 
cf. mate habens, sick. Matt iv. 24 (VultT-nc). 
— L male, badly, from ma/m, bfuJ ; hahfin, 
pp. of Aa&erf, to have ; tec Habit. ^ Not 


from male ^ptus (Diet) ; this 
' foolish.' 

malapert, saacy. (F.»L: 
aperl.^O. F. wa/. ill ; 
expert, ready, akilful. The 
expert.*!, e. mischievous. •>!«». 
apeiitts, pp. of apet-ire, \\ 

malaria, noisome exhalatJ 
L.) Ital. mafan'a. for tna/a 
•->L. ma/a, fern, of maJus, bM 
aria, air; see Debonair 

malediction* a cur^e. (P 
maU.iictton. — L. ace. maU\ 
curse. — L. maUdicfux, pp. ol 
to speak ei'il of — L. maU, 
dicert^ to speak. So also mi 
ill-doer, Uoxa fattor, %. doer; 
to do. So also malrveUttt, llL 
from ttoUnt', stem of uoiem, 
uelU, to will, to wish. 

mali^rn. unfavourable. (F. 
matinj^, fem. malice (F. tnah 
liiptus, ill disposed, put for 1 
ill-bom (like baiiptus for 
L. mali', for nuUm, badj gi 
gipttrt, to produce : sec Oentl 

malinger, to feign sickix 
Coined from F. malin 
foimerly ugly, loathfiome- 
badly; O. F- kamgrt, 
dated. — L. male, adv.. badly 
of trggr, lick, ill (whence O. 
with added h and h). 

malison, a curse. (F, 
malison, older form of 
malediction above. (So i 

maltreat. (F.-L.) F 
treat ill. — L. maU, ill; troei 
treat ; see Treat, 

malTeraation. (F.«L4 
nation, * misdemeanor ;' CoC 
dulcnt behaviour.) •• F 
have ill. — L. male, ill; 
engaged in, from urrrart^ 
Hertere, to turn ; sec V 

mauffre. in spite of. (F. 
proper sense is ' ill will,* as 
B. x\. a43.-0 F. ma/t^rt, 
lit. ill will ; but al^o iiith 

— O. F. mni, ill : gre.grtt, 

— L. mains, bad; greUmm, 

Malign, Mallngsr, > 

Mall (i). aUrgcvor 


•///. » O. F. (ud F.) Mdi7, 

w L. maJ/tum, ace. of matUuSf 


the name of a public walk. 

;. Mtd L > Id rail Mall, and 

tt. James's Park. Named from 

ikmllf, btcause the game fto 

played there; this game of 

llikc the modem (roifuft, wliich 

b^m it. — O. Ita.1. }>alama^lio, 

9k a mallet at one ead/ fur 

game of pall-mall ; Florio. 

^Uamaglio: lit. 'mallet-ball.* 

, a ball ; maglio, a mall. A 

.-O. H. G. /«y/rf, M, H.G. 

L a ball; U malltuntt ace. of 

Bimer. See Ball 

B. (F.-L.) 0.¥. malUahU, 

hommerahle. pUant to the 

be From ob». L. tnalUart*, 

of which the pp. malleatus 

t^Utuit A hammer. 

wnatl mall. (F.-L.) M. E. 

maWet. ' a mftllct :' Cot. 

p««iV; ace Mall \\) above. 

e»t grievously. (F. — L) M.E. 

trike with a mall, or mace ; 

Ittd^Ir, sb a mall, mace ; tee 


•c« M aaouline. 
^ aiallet ; ficc Mall. 
t plant (L.) M. K. malwe. 
W, borrowed from J^. malua, 
Ck. lutXayy) i^^mal-uaka*), 
^Bcd from its emollient pro- 
Sk. ftaX^a«ci*', to make soft, 
, mild. IVMAR.) 
B. &£re«n stoce. (Gk.) Named 
pis, which resembles that of 
Foimcd with sulfiic -i/ex 
fuiXix-^, A mallow. 
l«llow colour. (F. — U) F. 
ow. — L irta/ua, a mallow. 
B strong »wect wnie. (F.«» 
rm^ioa of M. E. mahvsie, 
', r. flwAwjj/, 'malmcaie;* 
IffaAMfM* now called Nafieli 
■ town oo the £. coau of 
in Greece. 

bUT«r«Atfon: sec Uallce. 
Iffjuneluke, aii Eg>ptian 

[br». (,!' — Arab.) V.Sfama- 
nb>. tuamliik, a purchascil 
neu lit. ' po«Bcfiied. — Arab. 

\ Btttcr 

put for 


f/ia ma, a mere repetition of ma, an m> 
fnnliDe iyllable. Many other lan^ia^es 
have something like it ; cf. F. ma>r.JM, 
Span. Du. and G. mama, Ital. and L, 
tnnmum^ a child's word for mother. 

M&mmalia, the class of animals that 
ftiicklc their young. (L.) From L. mam- 
malis (neut, pi. mammalia), belonging to 
the brca^t».»L. mamma, tlie breast. 

maznmillary, pertaining to the breasts. 
(L.) From L. mammillans, adj., formed 
from L. mamma, the breast. 

Uammon. (L.-Gk.— S>Tiac.) L. wiaw- 
motm. a> Gk. fiatnavax, Mnlt. vi. 34. ■> Syr* 
mam*}ft4. which occurs in Chaldee Targums, 
and in the Syriac version of St. Matthew, 
atxl means ' riches.* Cf. Hcb. matfntfri, a 
hidden treasure, from tdman, to bide. 

Mammoth. (Rtiss. - Tatar.) Rusa. 
maman/', a mammoth, species of elephant, 
w Siberian mammattt. From Tntnr mam* 
ma, the earth; beciuse the Siberian peasants 
thought the aninial burrowetl in the earth 
like the mole, as the^ could not otherwise 
account for the finding of the remains of 
these animals. 

Man. (E.^ M. E. mtm. A. S. mann.-^ 
Du. man, feel, man, maSr, Swed. man, 
Dan. mand, Goth, manna, G. mann; 1^ 
mas (for mam), a male, Skt. mantt, a man. 

manikin, manakin, a dwarf, small 
man. (Du.) O. Du. muMn/^r/J (Hexham); 
double dimin. of Du. man, a man. 

mankind, the race of men. (E.) A. S. 
matuynn, mankind. — A. S. martt man, 
cynn, kind, race ; see Kin. 

Hanaole, Mana^ : see Manual. 

Manateo, a sea-cow. (Span. ~ \V. Indian.) 
Spnn. manali. a f>ca-cow. From the name 
of the animal in the language of Hayti. 

Mandarin, a Chinese governor of a 
province. (Port. — Malay. — Skt.) Not s 
Chinese, but Malay word (through the 
Portuguese). — l'ort.mdM//izn'm, a mandarin. 
— 'M.alay mantri, % counsellor, minister of 
sL-ile. — Skt. matitrin. a couniellor ; maAd* 
mantrin, the prime minister. — Skt. mantm, 
advice, counsel. — .Skt man, to think, 
(V M AN.) % Or directly from Skt, 

Mandate, a command. (F. — L.) O. F. 
maiuitit. « L. manJatum, a charge. » L. 
mantiatus, pp. ol mamlart, to enjoin; lit. 
to {Hit into one*i hand. » j^. JMJulMi hand) 
dart, to (pve; S6V lfl^^H|HHte. 

tomamdtr^ «• V 




in late L., to command. • L. com- (for 
cfim)* together; moHi/are, to put bto the 
hands of. 

oomzaend. (L.) L. tcmmettdan, to 
entrust or commit to (abo^T). 

oommodore, the cotnmonder of t 
&quadiou. (Span. — L.) Short for Span. 
comtndaJor, lit. a commander. * Span. 
comem/art to charge, command. •• L. com- 
m/Htfarr (above). 

oountennand, to revoke an order. 
(F. — L.) F. coH/remanJer, to recall a 
comtnand. * F. coHtre (. -= L. contra)^ aeatn&t : 
mander ( ^L. mattt/art), to command. 

demand. (F. — L.) F. dcmamier, to 
demand, require. ~ L. de-mandart^ to en- 
trust; in late L., to demand 

m&undy Thursday, the day before 
Good Friday. (.F. — L. ; un^/E.) Afaundy 
is M. E. maunJet, a command, used with 
cfp. reference lo the text ' ManJatum 
nonum.' John, xiii. 34. The *new com- 
jmandmcDt ' is ' that ye love one another ; ' 
but in old times it was, singularly enough, 
applied to the particular form of devotion 
to others exempU6cd by Christ, when wash> 
cDg hU disciples' feet (on the first Afaumfy 
Tnursday). See my note to P. Plowman, 
a xvL 140. This M. E. maundit = 0. F. 
mandj, that which is commanded ; from L. 
mandatum, a mandate, command. % Spel- 
man*s guess, that ntaundy is from maund, 
abasLct, is as false as it is readily believed. 

reoommend, to commend to another. 
(F. — L.) From B«> and Oonunend ; 
imitated from F. recoMfttatuUr, ' to recom- 
mend ; ' Cot. 

remand, to send back. (F. •> L.) F. 
rrmoHtUr, — L. rr-mandartt to send back 

Mandible, a jaw. (L.) L. mandihila^ 
jaw. — L. mandtre, to chew. 

man^p scab or itch in dogs. (F.»L.) 
Made out of ndj. mangy ^ an oUleT word.— 
F. mangr, ealm, fed on : pp. of manger, to 
trat. — L. manduiare, to eat. — L. matuiucHi, 
a glutton. — L. mandtre, to chew. 

monger, a feeding-trough. (F- — L.) 
F. manetoire. — F. matter, lo eat (above). 
Mandrake, a narcotic ptant. (L — Gk.) 
Short for mandragora, Othello, iii. 3. Cf. 
F. mattdragore, Ital. and Span, mandragora. 
— L. wumdragoras, -^ OV. /«ai^pa7ufpai, the 

Mandrel, the revolving shank in which 
/umers fix their work in a lathe. (F.-»Gk. ?) 
h'rom F. fuandn/if 1 punch, a naadrd. 


Prob. from Gk. tjAvipa, an end 
sbeepfold, also used to mean ' the 
which the stone of a nng is set.' 
E. mandrel See Madrigal. 

Mane. (£.) A. S. manu- Te 
gen. of m,iw, a mane ; Swed and 
Da, moan, O. Ou. man*, G- makm«^ i 
mana. Cf. W. myngwn^ maac froi 
neck ; Iruh muina, collar, from 
neck ; Skt manyd, the tendon fag 
nape of the neck : I., moftiitt 
Orig. sense ' hair ou thr nvd^* ' 

luuiegre. the same a^ 

Manganese, a metal. (F.-Ii 
An old term, newly applied. *AAu 
sn called from its liKcneas in 
weight to the magmcs or loac 
most universal material used 
glass ; ' Blounl, ed. 1 674. - O. F. 
— lul. mangatust, *% atoffe of s 
make glasses of; also, a kind oC 
^tonc ; Fiorlo. Of uncertain origi 
hum allied to magntsia ; see MafU 

Mange, Manger ; sec V>ndih] 

Mangle (i), to mutilate. (1 
F.-C.) In Sir T. More. Works, 
We find Anglo-F. mahangUr, to 
in Langtoft's Chron. i. 354. Fl 
form of O. F. tmtkaigHcr, to 
U. F. mehamg, a maim. 

Mangle {t\ a roller for sm( 
to smooth Unen. (Du, — Low 
Itorrowed from Du. maMgrUn, to 1 
roll with a rollmg-pio ; wutngtl-tttk 
ing-pin, cylinder for smoothing Una 
corresponding Ital. word is sMiV 
kind of pressc to prcssc buckiom/ 
Both Du. and Ital. words are trom 
mamganum, mangona, a military ins) 
for throwing stones, worked with 
and winch. Indeed, the Ital. mtitg^ 
means a mangonel. — Gk. iniftt 
machine for defending fc 
of a pulley- Allied to . 

mangonel, a war>cn|^ 
-Gk.) O.F.ffiiM!;iMM/(lateri 
a mangoocL — Low L. 
of mangtuut (above). 

Mango, a fruit ( Malay.) Ml 
the mango-fruit. 

Mangonel ; sec Mansle (*] 

Mania, freney. (I^ — Gk.) 
Gk. >uii'j'a, frctisy, orig. mrnial 
cf. /mVciv , mind. (V MAN > 0«.| 

to V 

«w L 


•ee MaauaL 
sec ICuix. 

tAoipolate ; see M&noal. 



b *> Gk. -^ Hcb.) L. ma/ma, 
, ^ Heb. m^A, miiiiia. p. 
Heh. mJM hu. what is this? 
5; but from wi/n. (it is) a 
L imiMff, favour, also manna. 
[ancftUVTD ; see Manual. 
UUM ; see ICanai