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1 *»k .^ 

•^ "3 ? 

' ^i 

Cfairenton {ptm Series 















LiTT.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Ph.D. 



•Were man to live co-eval with the sun, 
The patriarch-pupil would be learning still.' 

Young, Night Thoughts, vii. 86 







• « 






Key to the General Plan of the Dictionary . . . xi 

List of Abbreviations xii 




Q L List of Prefixes 624 

11. Suffixes 630 

HI. Select List of Latin Words . ' . . . 632 

Select List of Greek Words 644 

IV. Homonyms 647 

V. List of Doublets 648 

VI. Distribution of Words according to the Languages 

from which they are derived . . . . .652 



The first edition of my ' Concise Etymological Dictionary of the 
English Language' was published in 1882, and it has since passed 
through several editions. 

Each successive edition contained several corrections and additions, 
in order that the work might be, to some extent, brought up to 

Meanwhile, numerous and important contributions have been 
made, by many writers, to the study of Indo-germanic philology; 
more exact* methods of analysing phonetic changes have been 
adopted, and important advances have been made at many points. 
Such works as Kluge's Etymological Dictionary of German, Franck's 
Etymological Dictionary of Dutch, Godefroy's Dictionary of Old 
French, the Modern French Dictionary by Hatzfeld and Darmesteter, 
in addition to other highly important books such as the Comparative 
Grammar of the Indo-germanic languages by Brugmann, have all 
contributed to a much clearer and more exact view of the science of 
comparative philology. Hence the time has come when partial 
emendations of my Concise Dictionary, however diligently made, 
have (as I fear) failed to keep pace with the requirements of 
the present day; and I have accordingly rewritten the book from 
beginning to end, making improvements in nearly every article, 
whilst at the same time introducing into the body of the work 
words which have hitherto necessarily been relegated to a con- 
tinually increasing Supplement. The result is less a new edition 
than a new book. 

Since the year 1882 above-mentioned, a great advance has been 
made in English lexicography. An entirely new edition of Webster 
appeared in 1890, and The Century Dictionary, of which the publication 


was begun in 1889, was completed in 189 1. In both of these works my 
name appears in the ' List of Authorities cited ' ; though it is seldom 
expressly mentioned except in cases of considerable difficulty, where 
the writer preferred not to risk an opinion of his own. But the chief 
event during this period has been the publication of The New 
English Dictionary on Historical Principles, the unique value of 
which is even now too little understood and respected by the 
general public. The first part of this great national work appeared 
in 1884. 

The chief difference between the second and later editions of my 
Concise Etymological Dictionary and the present one can now be 
readily explained. The former editions were mainly reproduced from 
the first edition, at a time when, from the nature of the case, litde 
help could be had from the works above-mentioned, owing to the 
fact that they either did not exist or could not be much utilised. 
But in the present work, I have endeavoured to glean from them all 
their most important results. The* work has been collated with the 
Century Dictionary throughout, and with the New English Dictionary 
from A to H (excepting a small portion of G). I have endeavoured 
to make good use of Kluge, Franck, Brugmann, and other autho- 
rities ; and have gladly adopted a large number of corrections. In 
particular, I have now marked the quantities of all the vowels 
in Latin words, as this often throws much light upon Romance 
phonology. And in many cases where the result is tolerably certain 
I have given the primitive types of Teutonic and even of Indo-germanic 

In all former editions, I endeavoured, by help of cross-references, 
to arrange derivative words under a more primitive form. Thus 
ex-ate, in-cite, re-cite and resus-cii-ate were all given under Cite. 
But experience has shewn that this endeavour was more ambitious 
than practical, often causing needless delay and trouble. Hence the 
only truly practical order, viz. an alphabetical one, has been here 
adopted, so that the required word can now be found at once. But 
in order to retain the chief advantages of the old plan, I have pre- 
pared two lists, one of Latin and one of Greek words, which account 
for a large number of derivatives. These will be found in the 
Appendix, § III, at pp. 632 and 644. 

I have much pleasure in mentioning two more circumstances by 
which I have been greatly assisted and encouraged. Some few years 


ago, my friend fhe Rev. A. L. Mayhew was so good as to go patiently 
through every word of the Concise Etymological Dictionary, making 
hundreds of suggestions for improvement; and finally sent me the 
copy in which all these suggestions were entered. They .have all 
been carefully considered, and in a very large number of instances 
have been fully adopted. Againj while the revises were passing 
through the press, they were read over by Mr. H. M. Chadwick, M.A., 
Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, author of * Studies in Old 
English' published by the Cambridge Philological Society in 1899; 
and his exact knowledge of Indo-germanic phonology has been 
suggestive of many improvements. I have only to add, in justice to 
these scholars, that they are not responsible for all the results here 
given. In some few cases I have held to my own preconceived 
opinion ; perhaps not always wisely. Still it was best that the final 
form of each article should be left to the author's decision ; for the 
reader is then sure as to where he must lay any blame. 

Many articles which, in former editions, appeared only in the 
Supplement have now been incorporated with the rest, so that the 
number of words now explained (in alphabetical order) amounts to 
more than 12,750. 

Considerable pains have been taken to ensure accuracy in the 
printing of the forms cited ; and I have received much help from the 
care exercised by the press-reader. At the same time, I shall be 
thankful to any reader who will kindly send me a note of any error 
which he may detect. I have myself discovered, for example, that 
under the word Cemetery the * Skt. p ' is an error for the * Skt. gu 
A few belated corrections appear at pp. 662-3. 

As I frequently allude to the ordinary vowel-changes in the course 
of the work, I may note here those which are the most elementary 
and common. They deserve to be learnt by heart at once. 

ANGLO-SAXON. The most usual vowel-change is that produced 
by the occurrence of an / or/ (which often disappears by a subsequent 
contraction of the word) in the following syllable. Owing to this, we 


frequently find that the vowels, as arranged in row (i) below, are 
changed into the corresponding vowels in row (2). 

{1) a, u {0), eay eo, 5, 3, «, ea, eo, 

(2) e, y, te{y\ ze{y), ob, e, y, ie{y, O. Merc, e), ie{y). 

Example \—fyllan, to fill, for *fulljan ; ftova/ully full. 

Moreover, substantives and secondary verbs are often formed from 
bases seen in the past tense singular, past tense plural, or past participle 
of a strong verb, rather than from the infinitive mood Thus band and 
bend are from the base seen in the A. S. band^ pL t. of bindan, to bind ; 
whilst bundle is derived from that which appears in the pp. bund-en. 
By way of distinction, I refer to bind- as the * prime grade,' to band- 
as the * second grade,' and to bund- as the * weak grade.' 

Lastly, our modem words of native origin belong rather to the 
Midland (or Old Mercian) dialect than to the 'Anglo-Saxon' or 
Wessex ; and Old Mercian employs a (mutated to e) where the A. S. 
has ea^ and sometimes e for A. S.'^^. 

ICELANDIC. This language abounds in somewhat similar vowel- 
changes, but very few of these appear in English, But we must not 
pass over the frequent formation of derivatives from the past tenses 
(singular or plural) and the past participles of strong verbs. Thus 
bait, Icel. beita, lit. * to cause to bite,' is the causal of bitay to bite ; its 
form may be explained by the fact that the pt. t. of btta is beii. 

Again, as regards the Romance languages, especially French, it 
must be borne in mind that they are also subject to phonetic laws. 
These laws are suflSciently illustrated in Mr. Paget Toynbee's trans- 
lation of Brachet's Historical French Grammar. In particular, I may 
note that most French substantives are derived from Latin accusatives ; 
and that to derive bounty from bonitds (nom.), or honour from Lat. 
honor (nom.), is simply impossible. 

For fuller information, the reader is referred to my Principles of 
English Etymology, First and Second Series ; the former deals chiefly 
with the native, and the latter with the foreign elements of the 
language. My Primer of English Etymology contains some of the 
more important facts. 

I subjoin a key to the plan of the work, and a list of abbreviations. 



§ I. Order of Words. Words are given in their alphabetical 
order; but a few secondary derivatives are explained under some 
more important form. Thus campaign is given under Campy and 
cannon under Cane, 

§ 2. The Words seleoted. The word-list contains nearly all 
primary words of most frequent occurrence, with a few others that are 
remarkably prominent in literature, such as unaneled. Homonymous 
forms, such as bay (used in^z;^ senses), are numbered. 

§ 3. Definitions. Definitions are omitted in the case of common 
words ; but explanations of original forms are added wherever they 
seemed to me to be necessary. 

§ 4. Language. The language to which each word belongs is 
distinctly marked, in every case, by means of letters within marks of 
parenthesis. Here the symbol — or - is to be read as 'derived 
from.' Thus Abbey is (F. -- L. — Gk. — Syriac) ; i.e. a French word 
derived from Latin ; the Latin word being, in its turn, from Greek, 
whilst the Greek word is of Syriac origin. 

The order of derivation is always upward or backward, from late 
to early, and from early to earlier forms. 

The symbol + is employed to distinguish forms which are merely 
cognate, and are adduced merely by way of illustrating and confirming 
the etymology. Thus, bite is a purely English word, derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon bitan. The other Teutonic forms, viz. the Du. bijteny 
Icel. btta, Swed. bita, Dan. bide, G. beissen, and the other Indo- 
germanic forms, viz. \j^\.,findere (pdLSefid-) and Skt. bhid, to cleave, 
are merely cognate and illustrative. On this point, there commonly 
exists the most singular confusion of ideas; and there are many 
Englishmen who are accustomed to derive English, of all things, from 
Modern High German / I therefore introduce this symbol + by way 
of warning. It has its usual algebraical value of plus or additional] 
and indicates 'additional information to be obtained from the com- 
parison of cognate forms.' 



The sjrmbol > means * older than/ or * more primitive than ' ; the 
symbol < means ' younger than/ or * derived from/ 

§ 5. Symbols of Languages. The symbols, such as F.=French, 
are not used in their usual vague sense, so as to bafBe the enquirer 
who wishes to find the words referred to. Every symbol has a special 
sense, and has reference to certain books, in one at least of which the 
word cited may be found, as I have ascertained for myself by looking 
them all out. I have purposely used, as far as was practicable, the 
most easily accessible authorities. The exact sense of each symbol is 
given in the list below. 

§ 6. Boot4Si. In some cases, a word is traced back to its original 
Indo-germanic root. The root is denoted by the symbol -v/, to be 
read as *root.' Thus bear, to carry, is from \/BHER. Some of 
these roots are illustrated by the lists in § III of the Appendix. 

§ 7. Deri^tives. The symbol Der., i. e. Derivatives, is used to 
introduce forms related to the primary word. Thus, under Act, I 
note such derivatives as aci'ton, aci-ive, &c., which cause no difficulty. 


Arab. — Arabic ; as in Richardson's Per- 
sian and Arabic Diet., ed. F. John- 
son ; 1829. See also Devic*s Sup- 
plement to Littre's F. Diet. 

A. S. — Anglo-Saxon ; as in the diction- 
aries by Bosworth and Toller, Ett- 
miiller, and Grein ; in the Vocaba- 
laries edited by T. Wright and Prof. 
Wiilker; and in Sweet's Oldest 
English Texts. 

Bavar. — Bavarian; as in Schmeller's 
Bayerisches Worterbnch ; 1827- 

Bret. — Breton ; as in Legonidec's Bret. 

Diet., ed. 182 1. 
Bmgm. — Bmgmann, Gmndriss der ver* 

gldchenden Grammatiky &c. ; vol. i. 

(2nd ed.), 1897 ; vol. ii. 1889-90. 
C. — Celtic ; used as a general term for 

Irish,Gaelic, Welsh, Breton, Cornish, 


Com. — Cornish; as in Williams' Diet.; 

Dan. — ^Danish ; as in Ferrall and Repp ; 
Dan. dial. — Danish dialects ; as in 
Molbechy 1841. 

Dn. — Dutch; as in Calisch and in the 
Tauchnitz Dutch Diet. Middle 
Dutch words are from Oudemans, 
Hexham (1658), or Sewel (1754). 

E. — Modem English; as in N. E. D. 
(New English Dictionary) ; and in 
the Century Dictionary. 
M.E. — Middle English (, English from 
the thirteenth to the fifteenth cen- 
turies inclusive); as in Stratmann's 
Old English Diet., new edition, 

F. — French. Most of the forms cited 
are not precisely modem French, but 
from Cot. = Cotgrave's Dictionary, 



ed. 1660. This accounts for citation 

of forms, such as F. recreation, 

without accents; the F. accents 

being mostly modem. Such words 

are usually marked M. F. (Middle 

French). See also the dictionaries 

by Hatzfeld and Littr^. 
O.F. — Old French; as in the dic- 
tionaries by Godefroy, Bnrgny, or 

Fries. — Friesic ; as in Richthofen, 1840. 
Gael. — Gaelic ; as in Macleod and 

Dewar, 1839; ^^ Macbain, 1896. 
G. — German ; as in Fliigel, 1883. 
Low G. — Low German; as in the 

Bremen Worterbuch, 1767. 
M. H. G. — Middle High German ; as 

in Schade, Altdentsches Worter- 

buch, 1883. 
O. H. G. — Old High German ; as in 

the same volnme. 
Gk. — Greek; as in Liddell and Scott^s 

Goth. — Mceso - Gothic ; as in Balg's 

Glossary, 1887-9. 
Heb. — Hebrew; as in Gesenitis' Dict.» 

Hind. — Hindustani ; as in Forbes, Bate, 

or Wilson's Glossary of Indian 

loel. — Icelandic ; as in Cleasby and Vig- 

fusson, 1874. 
Idg. — Indo-germanic ; the family of 

languages which includes Sanskrit, 

Greek, Latin, English, &c 
Irish. — Irish ; as in O^Reilly, 1864. 
Ital. — Italian; as in Meadows, 1857; 

Torriano, 1688 ; and Florio, 1598'. 

L. — Latin ; as in Lewis and Short, 1 880. 

Late L. — Late Latin ; as in the latest 

edition of Ducange ; by L. Favre, 

1884-7. (Low L.-> Late L. words 

of non-Latin origin.) 
Lith. — Lithuanian; as in Nesselmann's 

Diet., 1 85 1. 
Low G. — Low German ; see under G. 

above. | 

Malay. — As in Marsden's Diet., 1813; 

cf. Notes by C. P. G. Scott. 
Mex. — Mexican; as in the Diet, by 

Simeon, Paris, 1885. 
M.E.— Middle English; s^ee under E. 

M. H. G. — Middle High German ; see 

under G. above. 
Norw, — Norwegian ; as in Aasen's Norsk 

Ordbog, 1873. 
O. F. — Old French ; see under F. above. 
O. H. G. — Old High German; see under 

G. above. 
O. Sax.— Old Saxon ; as in the Heliand, 

&C., ed. Heyne. 
O. Slav. — Old Slavonic ; as in Mik- 

losich, Etym. Diet., Vienna, 1886. 
Pers. — Persian ; as in Richardson's Arab. 

and Pers. Diet. ; or in Palmer's Pers. 

Diet., 1876 ; cf. Horn, Neupersische 

Etymologic, 1893. 
Peruv. — Peruvian; as in the Diet, by 

Gon9ales, Lima, 1608. 
Port. — Portuguese ; as in Vieyra, 1857. 
Prov. — Proven9al ; as in Raynouard's 

Lexique Roman, and Bartsch's 

Chrestomathie Proven9ale. 
Russ. — Russian; as in ReifTs Diet., 

Scand.^-Scandinavian ; used as a general 

term for Icelandic, Swedish, Danish, 

and Norwegian. 
Skt, — Sanskrit ; as in Benfey's Diet., 

Span. — Spanish; as in Neumann, ed. 

Seaone, 1863; Pineda, 1740; or 

Minsheu, 1633. 
Swed. — Swedish ; as in the Tauchnitz 

Diet.; or in Widegren, or in Oman. 
Swed. dial. — Swedish dialects; as in 

Tent. — Teutonic; a general term for 

English, Dutch, German, Gothic, 

and Scandinavian. 
Turk.— Turkish ; as in Zenker's Diet., 

W.— Welsh; as in Spurrdl, 1861. 




ace. — accusative case. 

adj. — adjective. 

adv. — adverb. 

A.V. — Aathorised Version of the 

Bible, 1611. 
cf. — confer, i. e. compare. 
Ch. — Chaucer, 
comp. — comparative, 
conj. — conjunction, 
dat. — dative case. 
decl.« — declensional. 
Der. — Derivative, 
dimin. — diminutive. 
f. or fem. — feminine, 
frequent. — frequentative, 
gen. — genitive case. 
L e. — id est, that is. 
inf. — infinitive mood, 
interj . — interjection, 
lit. — literally, 
m. or masc. — masculine, 
n. or neut. — neuter. 

nom. — ^nominative case. 

obs. — obsolete. 

orig. — original or originally. 

pi. — plural. 

pp. — past participle. 

prep. — preposition. 

pres. part. — present participle. 

pres. t. — present tense. 

prob. — probably. 

pron. — pronoun. 

prov. — provincial. 

pt. t. — past tense. 

q. V. — quod vide = which see. 

s. V. — sub verbo = under the word. 

sb. — substantive. 

Shak. — Shakespeare. 

sing. — singular. 

str. vb. — strong verb. 

superl. — superlative. 

tr. — translated, or translation. 

trans. — transitive. 

vb. — verb. 

Some of the longer articles are marked off into sections by the use 
of the Greek letters p, y. This is merely intended to . make matters 
clearer, by separating the various statements from each other. 

Notes at the end of an article are marked off by beginning with 
the symbol H. XIV, XV, XVI, mean that the word was introduced 
in the 14th, 15th, or i6th century, respectively. Hyphens are freely 
introduced to shew the etymological division of a word. Thus the 
word concede is derived from Lat. con-cedere ; meaning that concedere 
can be resolved into con- and cedere. This etymological division is 
often very different from that usually adopted in printed books when 
words have to be divided ; thus capacious can only be divided, etymo- 
logically, as cap-ac-i-ous^ because cap^ is the root-syllable ; whereas, 
when divided according to the pronunciation, it becomes ca-pa-ci-ous. 

Theoretical forms are marked by an asterisk preceding them. Thus, 
under Barrow (i), the Teutonic type *hergoz, a hill, is the primitive 
Teutonic form whence the A. S. heorg and the G. herg are alike de- 
scended ; and under Beetle (2), the A. S. form lytel must have been 
*hetel in Old Mercian. 


The symbols 8 and ]> are both written for /A. In Icelandic, J> has 
the sound of /h in /Am, and 8 that of M in /ha/; but the M.E. and A.S. 
symbols are confused. The M.E. symbol 5 commonly represents j^ at 
the beginning of a word, and gh in the middle. A. S. short and long 
vowels, such as a and a, are as distinct from each other as e and 17, 
or o and « in Greek. 

The distinction between the two values of A. S. long cb (as 
made by Dr. Sweet in his A. S. Diet.) has been carefully observed. 
Thus the A. S. a invariably represents the mutation of A. S. a (as 
usual), and corresponds to Goth, at; but A. S. (^ represents the 
Wessex sound corresponding to the Anglian and Kentish e^ and to 
Goth, e. For example, heal is from A. S. h^Jan, cognate with Goth. 
hailjan, G. heilen; but deed is from O. Merc, ded (Wessex ddd), 
cognate with Goth, deds^ G. /ha/. 






Here a- = 
Here a-« 

Ay indef; art (K) See An. 

A- (i)y as in a-down^A.S, of dune, 
(E.) Here a- -A. S. of\ see Of, Oflt 

A^ (a), as in a-foot, (£.) For on 

foot ; see On. % TUs is the commonest 

valne of the prefix a-, 

A- (3)> as in Orlong, 
A. S. and- ; see Along. 

A- (4)* as in a-rise. 
A. S. a- ; see Arise. 

A- (5), as in a-chievCy astringent. (F. 
— L. ; or 'h.) Here a=F. prefix a = L. 
a/, to ; see Ad-. 

A- (6), as in a-vert. (L.) Here a-^ 
L. a; see Ab- (i). 

A- (7), as in a-tmnd. (L.) Here a-mend 
is for e-mend\ and «- « L. ^ or ^jt ; see Sz-. 

A- (8), as in a-las. (F.) See Alas. 

A- (9), as in a-byss, (Gk.) Here a- « 
Gk. d- or dy- ; see Un-, Abyss. 

A- (10), as in a-do, (£.) For at do\ 
see At, Ado. 

A- (ii)y as in a-ware. 
for M. £. ^-, J-, A. S. j^tf- ; 

A- (la), as in a-vast, 
houdvast\ see Avaat. 

Ab- (i), prefix. (L.) 

(E.) Here a- is 
; see Aware. 
(Du.) For Du. 

, ,, ^ , , L. /i^, from; 

cognate with £. ^; "see Of. In F., it 
becomes a- or av- ; see Advantage. 

Ab- (3), prefix. (L.) For L. a</, to, 
by assimilation ; see Abbreviate. 

Abaok. (K) For on hack. A S. 
<mbac\ see A- (2) and Back. 

Abaft. (£.) From the prefix a- (2), 
and b'aft^ short for bi-afty by aft. Thus 
a-b-aft-wi. by aft, i.e. at the part which 


lies to the aft. Cf. M. E. biaften. Gen. 
and Exod. 3377 ; A. S. beaftan. See A- 
(2), By, and Aft. 

Abandon. (F.-Low L.-O.H.G.) 
M. £. abandounen, vb.— F. adamionner. — 
F. d bandony at liberty ; orig. in the power 
(of). •- L. adf at ; Low L. bandum, bannum, 
an order, decree ; from O. H. G. ban, 
summons, ban ; see Ban. 

Abase. (F.-L.) 'M.^. abasen, from 
A- (5) and Base ; imitating O.F. abaissier, 
to lower. 

Abash. (F.) M. £. abascAen, abais- 
chen, abasen. — O. F. esbaiss-, stem of pres. 
part, of esbair (F. ibahir)^ to astoni^.— 
O. F. €5' ( as L. ex, out, very much) ; and 
boAr, bahir, to cause astonishment, a 
word of imitative origin from the interj. 
bah ! of astonishment. % Sometimes con- 
fused with abase in M. £. See Bashfiil. 

Abate. (F.-L.) ^ M. £. abaten.-^ 
O. F. abatre. — Late L. *abbatterey to beat 
down (as in Ital.). — L. ad^ to; and batere, 
for baiuere, to beat. See Batter. % Hence 
bate, for a-bate, Cf. Ab- (2). 

Abbot. (L.-Gk.-Syriac.) M. E. 
abbot y abbody A. S. abbod. — L. abbdt- (nom. 
a^^),an abbot, lit. a father — Gk. d^/3as. 
— Syriac abba, 9, father; Rom. viii. 15. 

abbess. (F. - L. - Gk. - Syriac.) 
M. £. abbesse.^O. F. abesse, abaesse, » 
Late L. abbdt-issa. — L. abbot- (as above) ; 
and 'issa = Gk. -ia<7a, fem. suffix. 

abbey. (F. - L. - Gk. - Syriac.) 
M. £. abbeye. — O. F. abeie. — Late L. 
abbdt'ia. ^h, abbdt' (above). 

Abbreviate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

addreuidre, to shorten. ••L. a^, for ai/, 
to, by assimilation; and ireuis, short. 
See Ab- (2) and Brief. 

Abdicate. (L.) From pp. of L. ad- 
dicdre, to renounce. » L. ah, from ; dicdre, 
to proclaim. Allied to Diction. 

Abdomen. (L.) L> abdomen (stem 
abd5nnn'\ lower part of the belly. 

Abduction. (L.) L. abductiomm, 
ace. of ahducHOt a leading away.— L. 03- 
ducere^ to lead away. — L. o^, from ; ducere, 
to lead. Cf. Duke. 

Abed. (£.) For on bed\ set Jl- (2) 
and Bed. 

Aberration. (L.) From ace. of L. 
aberrdtio, a wandering from ; from pp. of 
L. ab-errdre.^lj, aby from; err are ^ to 
wander, err. See Err. 

Abet, to incite. (F.-Scand.) O.F. 
abeter^ to excite, set on (Godefroy). — F. 
a- (Lat. ad') ; and O. F. beter^ to bait (a 
bear), to set on, from Icel. beita^ to make 
to bite, cansal of bita^ to bite. See Bait, 
Bite. Der. bet^ short for abet, sb. 

Abejrancey expectation, suspension. 
(F. — L.) A. F. abeiance^ suspension, 
waiting (Roq.)' — F. a \ and beanty pres. pt. 
of O. F. beer (F. bayer\ to gape, expect 
anxiously. — L. ad^ at ; and baddre^ to gape. 

Abhor. (L.) L. ab-horrere, to shrink 
from in terror.— L. ab^ from; horrere, to 
dread. Cf. Horrid. 

Abide (i), to wait for. (£.) A.S. 
d-btdan ; from a-, prefix, and btdan, to 
bide. See A- (4) and Bide. 

Abide (2), to suffer for, pay for. (E.) 
In Sh. ; corrupted from M. £. abyen, to 
pay for, lit. to buy up, redeem.— A. S. 
dbycgany to pay for. See A- (4) and Buy. 

Abject, mean, lit. cast away. (L.) 
L. aO'ieciuSy cast away, pp. of ab-icere, to 
cast away. — L. ab, away ; iacere^ to cast. 
Cf. Jet (i). 

Aljure. (L.) L. ab'iurdre, to deny; 
lit. to swear away from. — L. ab^ from ; 
iurdre, to swear. — L. iur-^ from nom. iusy 
law, right. Cf. Jury. 

Ablative. (L.) L. ahldtmus, lit. 
taking away. — L. ab, from; and latum 
( = tldtuni)y to bear, take ; allied to tottered 
to take. See Tolerate. 

Ablaie. (E.) For on blaze \ see A- 
(a^ and Blase. 

Able, powerful, skilful. (F. - L.) 
M. E. able, kahle.^O. F. habile, able, able. 
— L. haJbilis, easy to handle, active. — L. 


habere^ to have. Cf. Habit. Der. ability 
from L. ace. habilitdtem. 

Ablution. (F.-L.) F.; from L. 
ace. ab'lutionem, a washing away. — L. 
ablutus, pp. of edhluere, to wash away.— 
L. ab, from ; luere, to wash. 

Abnegate. (L.) From pp. of L. ab-^ 
negdre, to deny. — L. ab, from ; negdre, to 
sav no. Cf. Negation. ' 

Aboard. (E.) For on board ; see A- 
(2) and Board. 

Abode, sb. (E.) M. K abood, delay, 
abiding. Formed as if from A. S. dbdd^ 
2nd stem of dbidan, to abide. See Abide. 

Abolisb. (F.-L.) F. aboliss-, stem 
of pres. pt. of abolir.'^L, abolert, to 

Abominate. (L.) From op. of L. 
ab-omindri, to turn away from tnat which 
is of ill omen. — L. ab, away; dmin-, for 
omen, an omen. 

AborigineSf original inhabitants. 
(L.) L. aborigines, the nations which, 
previous to historical record, drove out 
tlie Siculi (Lewis and Short). Formed 
from L. ab ortgine, from the beginning; 
where ortgine is the abl. of ortgo (Vergil, 
^n. i. 642). 

Abortion. (L.) From ace. of L. 
abortio, an untimely birth. — L. abortus, 
pp. of ab-oriri, to fail.— L. ab^ away; 
oriri, to arise, b^[in. Cf. Orient. 

Abonnd. (F.-L.) A. F. abunder, 
O. F. abonder. — L. ab-unddre, to overflow. 
— L. ab, away ; unda, a wave. 

About. (E.) M. E. abuten, abouten, 
A.S. dbUtan, onbiitan; short for on-be- 
atan ; where be answers to E. by, and titan, 
outward, is related to Ht, out. See A- (3 ), 
By and Out. 

Above. (E.) M.E. aboven, abufen, 
A.S. dbufan, for on-be-ufan; where be 
answers to E. by, and trfan^ upward, is 
extended from Goth, uf, up. See A- (2), 
By, Up. (A.S. ufauM^G. oben. A.S. 
he-ufan = Du. boven,) 

AbradCi to scrape off. (L.) L. tUf- 
rddere, to scrape off.- L. ab, off; rddexe, 
to scrape. Ber. abrasion (from L. pp. 

Abreast. (E.) Put for on breast; 
see A- (2) and Breast. 

Abridge. (F.-L.) M.E. abreggen. 
A. F. abregger, O. F. abreger, cdtregier, to 
shorten. — L. abbreuidre, to shorten. — L. 
ab-, put for ad-, to; and breuis, short. 
Cf. Brief. Doublet, abbreviate. 



Abvoaoh, to set. (£. and F.) Put 

for to set on hroach\ see A- (a) and 

Abroad. (£•) M,^,abrood\'^vXioTon 
brood\ lit. on broad ; see A- (2) and Broad. 

AbrOifate. (L*) From pp. of L. ab- 
rogdre^ to repeal a law. — L. ab, away; 
romre, to ask, propose a law. 

Abrupt. (L.) L. abruptus, pp. of 
<tb-rumpere, to break off. — L. aby off; 
runtpercy to break. 

ADSCess. (L-) A gathering of humours 
into one place; lit. a going away.—L. 
abscessus, a going away ; abscess (Celsus). 
— h,absc£ssuSf pp. of abs-cedere, to go 
away. — L. abs, away; cedere, to go, cede. 

Absoi&d. (L.) From L. ab-scindere, 
to cut off.- L. abf off; scindere, to cut. 
Der. abscissa, from fem. of L. abscissus, 
pp. oiabscindere. 

AbflCOndy to go into hiding. (L.) L. 
abscondirCy to hide. — L. absy away; condere, 
to hide. Condere is from con- {cum), to- 
gether, and 'dere, to ^ put, allied to Skt. 
dhdf to put. ( VDHE, to place ; Bmgm. 
i. § 589.) See Do. 

Absent, adj. (F.-L.) XIV cent. 
O. F. absent, adj.— L. absent; stem of ab- 
sens, being away. — L. ab^, away; -sens, 
being, occurring also in pra-sens, Cf. Skt. 
santyjpes. pt. otas, to be ; from ^ES, to 
be. CfL Present, Sooth. Der. absence, 
F. absence, L. absentia, 

Absolllte, unrestrained, complete. 
(L.) .L. absoiatus, pp. of cUf-soluere, to 
set free.- L. ab, from ; soluere, to loosen. 
absolve. (L:.) L. ab-soluere, to set 
free Tabove). Der. absohU-iony from the 
pp. above. 

Absorb. (L.) L. absorbere, to swal- 
low.— L. aJb, away; sorbere, to sup up.+ 
Gk. fio<^tiv, to sup up. (Brugm. ii. 
§ 801.) Der. absorpt-ion, from pp. ab- 


Abstain. (F.-L.) F. abstenir (O.F. 
astentr), — L. abs-tinere, to refrain from. — 
L. abSf from ; tenhy, to hold. Der. abs- 
tinence, F. abstinence, from L. abstinentia, 
sb. : abstent'ion, from the pp. 

Abstemions. (L.) L. abstemius, 
refraining from strong drink. — L. abs, fix>m ; 
temetum, strong drink, whence iemu-lentus, 

Abstract. (L.) L. abstractus, pp. 
of abs'trahere, to draw away.— L. aos, 
awav ; trahere, to draw. 

Aostmse. (L.) L. abstrususy diffi- 

cult, concealed; pp. of abS'triidere, to 
thrust away. — L. als, away; triiderey to 
thrust. See Intrude. 

Absurd. (L.) L. ctbsurdus, inhar- 
monious, foolish.— L. aby from; surdus, 
deaf, inaudible, harsh. Cfl Surd. 

Abundance. (F.-L.) F. abondance, 

— L. abundantia. See Abound. 
Abuse, vb. (F.-L.) F. abuser, to 

use amiss.— L. abHsus, pp. of ab-iitty to 
use amiss.— L. ab, away (amiss); ^//, 
to use. 

Abut, to project towards. (F.— L. and 
G.) O.F. abouieTy to thrust towards.— 
L. ady to; O.F. boutery boter, to thrust. 
See A- (5) and Butt (i). 

Abyss, a bottomless gulf. (L.-Gk.) 
Milton. L. abyssus, — Gk. Afiwraosy bottom- 
less.- Gk. d-, short for dv-, neg. prefix; 
and fivffffSsy depth. See A- (9), Un- (i). 

Acaci&, a tree. (L.— Gk.) L. acacia » 

— Gk. dKcucia, the thorny Egyptian acacia. 

— Gk. dicir, a point, thom. (^AK.) See 
Brugm. ii. § 52 (4). 

Acaden^. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. 

acad/mie.^L, academid," Gk. djeaHi/jfAtia, 
a grove where Plato taught, named from 
the hero Akademus, 
Accede. (L.) L. cu-cedere, to come 
towards, assent to. — L. ac- (for ad), to; 
cederey to come, cede. 

Accelerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

accelerdre, to quicken. — L. ac^ (for ad), 
to ; celery quick. Cf. Oelerity. 

Accent. (F. — L.) F. accent y sb. - L. 
ace. accentupiy a tone.— L. ac- (Ibr ad); 
cantusy a singing, from canere, to sing. 

Accept. (F.— L.) F. accepter, ^h. 
acceptdre, frequentative of ac-cipere, to re- 
ceive. — L. ac- (for ad)y to ; capere, to take. 

Access. (L.) L. accessusy a coming 
unto. — L. accessuSy pp. of cu-cedere y to 
accede.— L. ac- (for ad), to; cedere, to 
come, cede. 

Accident. (F.— L.) F. accident, a 
chance event (Cot.). — L. accident- y base of 
pres. pt. of ac-ciderey to happen. — L. cu- 
(for <?</), to; cadere, to fall. Der. ac' 
cidence, F. accidence, L. accidentia. 

Acolftim. (L.) Formed from L. ac- 
cldmdre, to cry out at — L. ac- (for a/), 
at ; cldmdre, to cry out For the spelling, 
cf. Claim. 

AcoUvity. (L.) XVII cent. From 
L. accRuitdtem, ace. of acctiuitas. — L. or- 
(for cut) ; and cliu-us, sloping, a slope ; see 
I<ean (x). (^KLEI; Brugm. i^ § 463.) 




AooolAdA, the dnbbing of a knight. 
(F. -Ital. - L.) F. accollade, in Cotgrave, 
ed. 1660 ; lit. an embrace roond the nedc, 
then a salutation, light tap with a sword 
in dubbing a knight. «Ital. accollata, fern, 
of pp. of itccoilare, to embrace about the 
neck (Florio). — L. ac- (for ad), to, about; 
co//um, the neck. 

Accommodate. (L.) From pp. of 

L. accommaddret to fit, adapt. « L. M' (for 
ad)f to; and commodus, fit — L. com- (» 
cum)t with ; and modus, measure, mode. 

Accompany. (F.-L.) F. accom- 
pagner^ to accompany. — F. a (L. ad), to ; 
and O. F. compaing, ■ companion ; see 

Accomplice. (F.-L.) Put for a 
complice ; a is the indef. art. — F. complice, 
'a complice, confederate;* Cot. — L. ace. 
complicem, from complex^ confederate, lit. 
' interwoven.* « L. com- (cum), together; 
and stem pUc', allied to plicdre, to weave. 
Cf. Ply. 

Accomplish. (F.-L.) M.E. acom- 
plisen, * O. F. acomplis-, stem of pres. 
part, of acomplir, to complete. — L. ad, to ; 
' complete J to fulfil. — L. com' {cum), to- 
gether ; plere, to fill. 

Accord. (F.-L) A. ¥, acorder, to 
agree. — Late L. accorddre. « L. ac- (for ad) , 
to ; and cord-, stem of cor, heart Cf. 

Accordion, a mnsical instrument. 
(Ital. — L.) From Ital. accord-are, to 
accord, to tune an instrument ; with suffix 
'ion (as in clar^ion), '^Lats L. accorddre, 
to agree. See above. 

Accost, to address. (F.-L.) F. 
accoster, lit. ' to go to the side of.* — Late 
L. accostdre (same).'-L ac- (for ad), to; 
casta, rib, side. See Coast. 

Account, vb. (F. — L.) A. F. acounter, 
acunter, — O. F. a, to ; confer , compter, to 
count «L. ad\ and com-putdre, to com- 
pute, from com- {cum), and putdre, to 

Accontre. (F.— L.?) F. accoutrer, 
formerly also accoustrer, to dress, array. 
£tym. quite uncertain ; perhaps from O. F. 
coustre, coutre, a sacristan who had charge 
of sacred vestments, from Late L. cusior 
s L. custos^ a custodian, keeper. 

Accretion, increase. (L.) From ace. 
of L. accretiOf increase. •• L. accretus, pp. 
of ac-crescere, to increase. — L of- (for ad) ; 
crescere, to grow, inchoative form from 
cie-are, to make. Cf. Create. 

Accmef to come to by way of increase. 

(F.— L.) From A. F. curu, O. F. acreu, 
pp. of acroistre (F. accrottre), to increase. 

— L. accrescere ; see above. 

Accumulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
ac'cumuldre, to amass. — L. cu- {ad), to ; 
cumuldre, to heap up, from cumulus, a 

Accurate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
accHrdre, to take pains with.*L. ac- {ad), 
to ; cHrdre, to care for, from cura, care. 
See Cure. 

Accursed, cursed. (£.) Pp. of M.E. 
acursicn. A. S. d; prefix ; and cursian, 
to curse ; see A- (4) and Curse. 

Accuse. (F.-L.) A.F.actiser,^L, 
accusdre, to lay to one*s charge. «L ac- 
{ad), to ; and causa, caussa, a suit at law, 
a cause. 

Accustom. (F.-L.) A.¥.acustu9ner 
(F. accoutumer), to make usual. •F. a 
(from L. ad, to) ; and A. F. custume, 
custom. See Custom. 

Ace, the 'one 'on dice. (F.-I Gk.?) 

M.E.oj.-O.F.fltf.-Laj. [Saidtobethe 
Tarentine &i, for Gk. cfs, one.] 

Acephalous, headless. (Gk.) Gk. 
&ici<pcLK-m, headless; with suffix -^Mf.-iGk. 
d-, un- ; and «c0aX^, head. See A- (9). 

Acerbity. (F.-L) XVI cent. F. 
acerbity. — L. ace. acerHtdtem (nom. cLcer- 
bitas), bitterness. — L. acer-b-us, bitter; 
cf. dc-er, sharp, lit. piercing. •- L. ctcere, to 
be sour. 

Ache, verb. (£.) M.E. aJken, vb.; 
pt. t. 00^. A. S. acan. (V^^i ^^ drive.) 
^ Spelt acke by confusion with M. £. 
ache, sb., from A. S. ipce, a pain. The verb 
survives, spelt as the obs. sb. 

Achieve. ( F. - L.) M. E. acheven. - 
A. F. cuhever, to achieve ; lit. to come to 
a head.— O. F. a chef, to a head.— L. cid, 
to ; caput, a head. Cf. Chief. 

Achromatic, colourless. (Gk.) See 
A- (9^) and Chromatic. 

Acid, sour, sharp. (F.-L; or L.) 
F. acide.'m'L. ac-idus, lit. piercing. (^AK, 
to pierce.) Der. acid-i-ty; acid-ul-at ed 
(from L. acid-ul-us, dimin. oiacid-us). 

Acknowledge. (E.) XVI cent. 

M. £. knowlechen ; fi-om the sb. knowleche, 
mod. E. knowledge', see Knowledge. The 
prefix is due to M. E. aknowen ( » A. S. 
oncndwan), with the same sense; hence 
the prefix is A- (2). 

Acme, top. (Gk.) Gk. &K'iKfi, top, 
sharp edge. {j^AK, to pierce.) 


Aeolytev a servitor. (F.— Low L.— 
Gk.) F. acolyte^ Cot— Late l^acolythus, 
■■Gk. &k6\ovBo5, a follower. — Gk. d-, 
with (akin to Skt. sa-y with) ; k^Acv^os, a 
path ; so that ijc6k€vOoi = a travelling-com- 

Aconite, monk's-hood. (F. — L.— 
Gk.) F. aconit'm'L, acont^um, "Gk. 
dK6yTTov, a plant ; perhaps so called from 
growing iv dxSvais, on steep sharp rocks. 

- Gk. dK-6vijj a whetstone, sharp stone. 
Acorn. (£•) M.E, acam. A,S.acerft, 

fruit; properlv 'fruit of the field/ from 
A. S. acer, a held ; see Acre.4*Icel. akam^ 
Dan. agem, Goth, akran, fruit ; from Icel. 
akr, Dan. ag^r, Goth. aJkrs, a field. ^ Not 
from oak. 

AconirtiC. (Gk.) Gk. dKovcnicds, 
relating to hearing (or sound). — Gk. 
dxo^uvy to hear. 

Acquaint. (F.— L.) M.£. acqueyn- 
tefty earlier acmnien.^O.Y. tuointer, 
acainiier, to acquaint with. —Late L. 
adcognitdre, to make known (Brachet).— 
L. ady to; and *cognitdrey formed from 
cognttusy pp. of cognoscere, to know. See 

Acquiesce. (L.) L. acquiescerey to 
rest in.— L. ac- (for ad), to ; quiescerCy to 
rest. See Quiet. 

Acquire. (L.) L. acquirerty to get, 
obtain. — L. ac- (for ad)y to; quarerey to 
seek. Der. acqutsit-ion ; from pp. ac- 

Acquit. (F.-L.) M.£. aquiten.^ 
O. F. aquiter, to settle a claim ; Late L. 
acquieidre.'m'L, ac- (for ad)y to; quietarey 
vb., formed from qtiietiiSy discharged, free, 
orig. at rest. See Quiet. 

A(Bre. (E.) M. £. aker, A. S. acer.-^ 
Dn. akkeVy IceL akry Swed. akevy Dan. ager, 
Goth. akrSy G. acker \ L. ager^ Gk. <l7p($s, 
Skt. ajra, Teut. type *akroz ; Idg. type, 
*agros. The orig. sense was 'pasture.* 
(VAG."^ Der. acor-n, q. v. 

Acrid, tart. (L.) Coined by adding 
-</ to L. dcri-y stem of deer, sharp; on 
the analogy of ac-id. 

Acrimony. (F. ->L.) F. acrimoine. 

— L. dcrt'fnon-i'a,"!^. dcri-y stem of deer 

Acrobat, a tumbler. (F.-Gk.) F. 
acrobate. - Gk. dxpSffaroSy lit. walking on 
tiptoe. — Gk. SxpO'Vy a point, neut. of 
dut'pot, pointed ; and Par6sy verbal adj. of 
fiaSvuvy to walk ; see Come. 

Acropolis, a citadel. (Gk.) Lit. 


' upper city.* — Gk. dnpo-Sy pointed, upper; 
and nSKtSy a city. 

Across. (£. a»^Scand.) Vox fin cross \ 
see A- (2) and Cross. 

Acrostic, a short poem in which the 
initial letters spell a word. (Gk.) Gk. 
dKpoarixli.^GV, &Hpo-Sj pointed, also 
first ; and urixosy a row, line, from weak 
grade of artixto't to go. (-^ STEIGH.') 

Act, sb. (F. — L.) F. ac/e,"h. actusy 
m., and acium, n. — L. actus, done ; pp. of 
<7^^r^,to do,drive. See Agent. "Der, act' 
ion ; act-ive (F. cutif) ; act-or; act-u-al (L. 
cutudlis) ; act-uary (L. actudrius) ; act-u- 
ate (from pp. of Late L. actudtey to per- 
form, put in action). 

Acumen. (L.) L. ac-U'inetty sharp- 
ness, acuteness. Cf. acuere, to sharpen. 

Acute. (L.) L. acutuSy sharp ; pp. of 
ac-u-erey to sharpen. (^AK, to pierce.) 

Ad-y prefix. (L.) L. ady to, cognate 
with £. At. %'L. ad becomes ac' before 
c ; of- bef./; ag- bef. gi al- bef. / ; ««• 
bef. n ; ap- bef. / ; ar- bef. r ; as- bef. 5 ; 
a/- bef. /. 

Adage, a saying. (F.-L.) ¥. adage. 

— L. addgium. ^L, ad; and dgium, a say- 
ing ; cf. didy I say. 

Adamant. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. £. 

adamaunty a diamond, a magnet. — O.F. 
adamant. — L. adamantay ace. of adamas. 

— Gk. dSafuxr, a very hard metal or stone ; 
lit. * unconquerable.' — Gk. d- ( — £. un-) ; 
and lapAniy I conquer, tame. See Tame. 

Adapt. (F.-L.) £arly XVII cent. - 
F. adapter. "'L. adaptdre, to fit to. — L. 
ad, to ; aptdrey to fit, from apttiSy fit, apt. 

Add. (L.) M. £. adden."\,. adderey 
lit. to put to.— L. cui\ and -derey to put. 
See Abscond. 

Adder, a viper. (£.) M. £. addere; 
also naddere, neddere. \An adder resulted 
from a nadder, by mistake.] A. S. n^drCy 
ndddrey a snake.^-G. natter y a snake; also 
cf. Icel. na^ry Goth, nadrs (with short a). 

Addict. (L.) From L. addict-uSy pp. 
of ad-dicere, to adjudge, assign. — L. ady 
to ; dicere. to say, appoint. Cf. Diction. 

Addlea, corrupt, unproductive. (£.) 
Due to an attributive use of the M. £. sb. 
adely filth, used in the compound cuiel-eyy 
lit. * filth- egg* — Late L. ovum urinciy 
urine-egg; mistaken form of L. duum 
urtnuniy wind-egg, due to Gk. o^qv a/of, 
wind-egg. Orig. *mud,* from A.S. adelay 
mud (Grein). Cf. Low G. adely a puddle. 

Address, vb. (F.-.L.) F. adresser. 



— F. a, to; dresser f to direct, dress; see 

Adduce. (L.) L. ad-dtlcere, to lead 
to, bring forward. » L. ad^ to ; diicere, to 
lead, bring. 

Adept, a proficient. (L.) L. adept us ^ 
one who has obtained proficiency ; pp. of 
adipisciy to obtain. ^L. ad, to; apisci^ to 
obtain, perhaps related to apttis, fit. 
Cf. Apt. 

Adequate. (L.) L. adaqudtus, pp. 
of adaqudre, to make equal to. *L. ad, 
to ; aqudre, to make equal, from aqtmSy 

Adhere. (L.) L. ad-harerey to stick 
to. — L. ady to; harere, to stick. 

Adieu, farewell. (F.) M.E. a dieu. 

— F. ^ dieu, (I commit you) to God. — L. 
ad Deum, to God. See Deity. 

Adipose, fatty. (L.) Late L. adi- 
posusj fatty. — L. adip-, stem of adeps, sb., 
fat. Connection with Gk. &\^vpa, fat, is 

Adit, access to a mine. (L.) L. adit'Us, 
approach, entrance. — L. adit-um, supine of 
ad'tre, to go to. — L. ad, to ; ire^ to go. 

A^acenti near to. (L.) From base 
of pres. pt. of L. ad-iacere, to lie near. — 
L. ad, near ; iacere, to lie. 

Adjective. (F.-L.) Y.adjectifiS^m, 
'ive). — L. ad-iecttuus, lit. put near to. — 
L. ad-iectus, pp. of ad-icere, to put near. — 
L. ad, to ; iacere, to cast, throw. 

Acyoin, tolienextto. (F.-L.) O.F. 
adjoindre, » L. ad-iungere (pp. adiunctus), 
to join to. M L. ad, to ; iungere, to join. 

Acyoum, to put off till another day. 
(F. — L.) O. F. ajomer, properly to draw 
near to day, to dawn ; also, to appoint a 
day for one. — Late L. adjurndre, 'diem 
dicere alicui;' Ducange.— L. ad, to; and 
Late h.jurnus {Ital.giomo), a day, from 
L. adj. diurnus, daily. — L. dies, a day. 

Adjudge. (F.-L.) M.£. adiugen\ 
also aiugen {=^ajugen),^0. F. ajiiger, to 
decide. — L. adiUdicdre, to award. — L. ad, 
to ; iadicdre, to judge, from iodic-, base 
of index, a judge. See Judge. 

A^udicate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
adiUaicdre (above). 

Adjure. (L.) L. ad-iUrdre, to swear 
to ; in late L., to put to an oath. — L. ad, 
to ; iUrdre, to swear. See Jury. 

AcUust, to fit exactly. (F.-L.) From 
F. adjuster, * to adjust, place justly ; * Cot. 
L. ad, to ; iustus, just, exact ; see Just. 
% A new F. formation, due to misunder- 

standing the sense of O. F. ajoster, to 
put side by side, arrange. — L. ad,Xo't and 
iuxtd, near ; see Joust. 
Ac^utant, lit. assistant. (L.) From 
L. adiatant-em, ace. of pres. part, of 
adiatdre, to assist, frequent, of ad-iuudre, 
to aid. — L. ad, to ; iuudre, to help. Cf. 

Administer. (F.— L.) M. £. a;/»;»- 

istren. — O. F. aministrer, — L. ad-minis' 
irdre, to minister (to). — L. cui, to ; miniS' 
trdre, to serve, from minister, a servant. 
See Minister. 

Admiral. (F. — Arab.) M. £. ad- 
miral, more often amiral, — O. F. amiral, 
amirail, also amire ; cf. Low L. admi- 
raldus, a prince, chief. — Arab, amtr, a 
prince; see Emir. The suffix is due to 
Arah. al in amir-al-dahr, prince of the sea. 

Admire. (F.-L.) ¥, admirer {O.F. 
amirer).^L, admirdri, to wonder at.— 
L. ad, at ; mirdri, to wonder. 

Admit. (L.) L. ad-mittere, to let 
to, send to. — L. ad, to ; mittere, to send. 
Der. admisS'ion ; from pp. admiss-us. 

Admonisli. (F.— L.) M.E. amon- 
esten ; so that admonish has taken the 
place of amonest, with changed suffix due 
to verbs in -ish. * I amoneste or wame *"; 
Wyclif, I Cor. iv. 14. — O.F. amonester.wm 
Late L. admonestdre, new formation from 
L. admonere, to advise. — L. o^/, to; mohere, 
to advise. Cf. Monition. 

A-do. to-do, trouble. (£.) M. £. cU 
do, to do ; a Northern idiom, whereby at 
was used as the sign of the infin. mood, as 
in Icel., Swedi^, &c. See Do (i). 

Adolescent, growing up. (L.) L. 
adolescent-em, ^Qx^ of pres. pt. oi ad-olescere, 
to grow up. See Adult. 

Aiopt. (L.) L. ad-optdre, to adopt, 
choose. — L. du/, to ; optdre, to wish. 

Adore. (L.) L. ad-or&re, to pray to. 

— L. ad, to ; ordre, to pray, from os (jgen. 
or-is^, the mouth. Cf. Oral. 

Adorn. (L.) L^ ad-omdre, to deck. 

— L. ad, to ; omdre, to adorn. 
Adown, downwards. (£.) M. £. 

aduTie. A. S. of-dUne, lit. from a down or 
hill. — A. S. of, off, from ; and dUne, dat. 
of dan^ a hill ; see A- (i) and Down (2). 

Adrift. (£.) For on drift-, see A- 
(2) and Drift. 

Adroit. (F. — L.) F. od&viV, de3cterous. 
-F. a droit, rightfully. -F. h (L. «/)> to; 
Late L. directum, right, justice, neut of 
L. directus, pp. of di-rigere, to direct, 


from L. di- (for </m-)j apart, and regere^ to 

Adulatioily flattery. (F.-L.) F. 
adulation, ^la, ace. aduldtidnem, from 
aduldtiOy flattery.— L. aduldtus^ pp. of 
aduldrl^ to flatter. 

Adult. (L.) L. adultus, grown up ; 
pp. of ctd-olescere, to grow up. — L. ad^ to ; 
*oUscere, inceptive form related to alere, to 
nourish ; see Aliment 

Adulterate, to corrupt. (L.) XVI 

cent. — L. ctdulierdtus, pp. of aduUerdre, to 
corrupt. — L. adulter^ an adulterer, a de- 
baser of money. 

Adultery. (F.-L.) M.E. avouiri€\ 
but a later form was adulterie, in imita- 
tion of Latin . Cf. O. F. avoutrie, avouterie, 
adultery; from cn/outref an adulterer, 
which represented L. adulter (see above) ; 
so that avoutrie was equivalent in sense to 
L. adiilterium^ adultery. 

Adumbrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
ad-umbrdre^ to shadow forth. — L. ad^ to ; 
umbra, a shadow. 

Advance, to go forward. (F. - L.) 
XVI cent. A mistaken form ; for M. E. 
auancen, avanccn, — F. avancer^ to go for- 
ward or before. — F. avant, before. — L. ab, 
from ; ante^ before. See Ante-, Van. 

Advantage, profit. (F.-L.) Amis- 
taken form for M. £. avantage. — F. avant- 
age ; formed with suffix -^ge from avant, 
before ; see above. 

Advent, approach. (L.) "L.aduentus, 
approach. oL. aduentus, pp. of ad-uentre, 
to approach. <-L. ad, to; uentre, to come. 
Cf. Venture. 

Adventnre. (F.-L.) MJS,.aventure; 
with F. a- replaced by L. ad-. — F. 
aventure, a chance, occurrence.— L. ad- 
nentura, fem. of aduenturus, about to 
happen, fut. part, oiaduenire, to approach; 
see above. 

Adverb. (F.-L.) Used to qualify a 
verb. F. adverbe, — L. aduerbium, - L. ad, 
to ; uerbum, a word, a verb. 

Adverse. (F.-L.) l/L.Y,advers{0.¥. 
awrs).^h, aduersus, turned towards, also 
opposed to ; pp. of L. aduertere, to turn 
to (see below). Der. adver's-ary, adversity. 

Advert. (L.) L. ad-uertere, to turn 
to, regard, heed. — L. ad, to; uertere, to 
turn ; see Verse. Der. in-advert-ent, not 

Advertise. (F. - L.) M. £. avertisen, 
later advertise. From the base of aver- 
tiss-ant, pres. pt. of avertir, to inform, 


warn. — Late L. aduertere, put for L. aduer^ 
tere, to turn to, heed ; see above. 

Advice. (F.— L.) M.E. auis {avis), 
without d. — O. F. avis, an opinion ; orig. 
a compound word, put for a vis, i. e. ac- 
cording to my opinion. — L. ad, according 
to ; uisum, that which has seemed good 
to one, orig. neut. of utsus, pp. of uidere, 
to see. 

Advise. (F. — L.) M. E. aduisen, also 
auisen {avisen), without d. — O. F. aviser, 
to be of opinion. — O. F. avis (above). 

Advocate, sb. (F.-L.) M. F. advocat, 
*an advocate;* Cot. — L. aduocdtus, an 
advocate, one 'called upon* to plead.— 
L. aduocdtus, pp. of ad-uocdre, to call to, 
call upon. — L. ad, to ; uocdre, to call. 

Advowson. (F.-L.) A. F. avoeson, 
also advouson, patronage ; hence the right 
of presentation to a benefice (Roquefort).— 
Late L. aduocdtionem, ace. of aduocdtio, 
patronage. — Late L. aduocdtus, a patron ; 
the same as L. aduocdtus, an advocate. 

Adse, a cooper's axe. (E.) M. E. adse, 
adese. A. S. cidesa, an adze. 

Aerial. (L. — Gk.) Formed with sufiix 
-a/ from L. aSri-us, dwelling in the air.— 
L. aUr, air. — Gk. d^p, air ; see Air. 

Aerolite^ a meteoric stone. (Gk.) 
Also (Urolith, which is a better form.— 
Gk. dfpo-, from di7/>, air ; XiO-os, a stone. 

Aeronaut, a balloonist. (F.— Gk.) 
F. a/ronaute, ^Gk, aipo-, from daip, air; 
vavT'Tjs, a sailor, from vaw, a ship. 

Aery, an eagle's nest, brood of eagles or 
hawks. (F. — Late L.) — F. aire, * an airie 
or nest of hawkes ; * Cot. — Late L. drea, a 
nest of a bird of prey ; of uncertain origin. 
U Sometimes misspelt eyry, by confusion 
with M. E. ey, an egg ; see Egg. 

JSsthetic, refin^. (Gk.) Gk. alcBij' 
tik6s, perceptive. — Gk. olaOiaBai, to per- 
ceive. (VAW ; see Brugm. ii. § 841.) 

anSBStbetiCf relieving pain, dulling 
sensation. — Gk. dv-, not ; and cXaOrfriK&s, 

Afar. (E.) Yotonfar, 

Affable. (F.-L.) ¥ , affabh.^l.. affd- 
bills, easy to be spoken to. — L. af-^ad, 
to ; fdrl, to speak. 

Affair. (F.-L.) M. E. a^tfr<?.-O.F. 
afeire, afaire, a business ; orig. a /aire, 
i. e. (something) to do. - L. ad, to ; facere, 
to do. 

Affect. (L.) L. affectdre, to apply 
oneself to (hence, to act upon) ; frequent, of 
afficere, to aim at, treat. —L. a/- « ad, to ; 
facere, to do, act. Der. dis-affect. 



Affeor, to assess, confirm. (F. — L.) 
O. F. afeurer, to fix the price of a thing 
(officially). — Late L. affordre, to fix a 
price. ^\j,af' (for ad) ; Bud forum, market, 

Affiance. (F.— L.) O.F.^«<:^, trust; 
cf, affierj ajier, to trust (whence E. affy). — 
►' O. F. fl (L. ad)y to; wa^fidant', stem of 

Eres. pt. of Late L. fiddre, to trust, from 
ufidere, to trust. Cf. Late 1^. fidantia^ 
a pledge. 

Affidavit, an oath. (L ) Late L. affi- 
dduitf 3 p. s. pt. t. of affiddrty to pledge. — 
h. a/' ^ ad, to; Late V,.fiddre^ for L.fiderey 
to trust. 

Affiliation. (F.-L.) F. affiliation, 
an adoption as a son. — Late L. ace. afftlid- 
tionem. — L. a/"- = ad, to ; ftlius, a son. 

Affinity. (F.-L) F. affinitl^U 
affinitdiem, ace. of affinitas, nearness. — L. 
affiniSf near, bordering on. •■ L. af- (for adj, 
to, near; /)»«, boundary, end. 

Affirm. (F.-L.) M. E. affermen.'^ 
O. F. afermer, to fix. — L. affirntdre, — L. 
(rf- (for flrf;, to ; fimidre, to make firm, 
Kom firmus, strong ; see Firm. 

Affix. (L.) Late L. o^^/*^ (Ducange), 
frequent, of L. afftgere (pp. affix-us), to 
fasten to.— L. a/"- (for ad), io\figere, to fix. 

Affiiot, to harass. (L.) XVI cent. — L. 
affiictuSf pp. of affligere, to strike to the 
ground. — L. o/^ (for ad) , to ; KtAfligere, to 
dash . So also conflict, from pp. con flic tus ; 
inflict ; and cf. proflig-ate. 

Affinence. (F.-L.) F. affluence.^ 
L. affluentia, abundance. — L. affluent-em 
(ace.), flowing towards, pres. part, of 
affluere, to flow to, abound. — L. af- (for 
€Ld\ to ; fluere, to flow. • 

Afford. (E.) Altered from aforth, 

M.E. aforthen, to provide, P. PI. B. vi. 

20I. — A. S. geforiiian,fordian, to further, 

promote, provide. ■- A. S. ge-, prefix ; and 

for8, forth, forward ; see Forth. 

Afeay, to frighten. (F. - L. and Tent.) 
XIV cent. M. E. affrayen. — O. F. effraier, 
esfreUr, to frighten. — Low L exfriddre, to 
break the king's peace, cause an affray or 
fray; hence, to disturb, frighten. — L. ex\ 
and O. H. G.fridu {G,friede), peace. (See 
Romania, 1878, vii. lai.) Der. affray, sb., 
also spelt /my ; and afraid, q. v. 

Affreightment, the hiring of a vessel 
to convey cargo. (F. — L. and G.) An 
E. spelling of F. affretement^ now written 
affritement, the hiring of a ship. — F. 
affreter (now affriter), to hire a ship. — F. 

af, for L. ad', prefix ; and F. fret, the 
freight of a ship. See Fraught, Freight. 

AiUgllt, to frighten. (E.) The 
double/is late. From M. E. af right, used 
as a pp., affrighted. — A. S. dfyrht, dfyrhted, 
pp. affrighted; from infin. dfyrhtan (not 
used). — A. S. d-, intensive; 2S16. fyrhtan, 
to terrify, iiomjyrhto, fright ; see Fright. 

Affront. (F.-L.) IIL.1S,, afronten.^ 
O. F. afronter, to confront, oppose face to 
face. — Late L. affrontdre. — L. af (for ad), 
to ; front-em, ace. of from, forehead, 

Afloat. (E.) For on float. 

Afoot. (E.) For on foot. 

Afore. (E.) For on fore \ A. S. on* 
foran, afore. 

Afraid. (F.-L. and Teut.) Orig. 
affrayed, i. e. 'frightened.' Pp. of Affiray, 

Afresll. (E.) For on fresh or of fresh ; 
see Anew. 

Aft, After. (E.) A. S. ceftan, be- 
hind; cefter, after, both prep, and adv.4- 
Icel. aptan, behind, aptr, ^/r, backwards; 
Dan. and Swed. efter, Du. achter, O. H. G. 
aftar, prep, and adv. behind. |3. Aftan 
is extended from Goth, af, off; see Of. 
After is a comp. form, likeGk. iwca-Tipa), 
further off; it means more off, further off, 
hence behind. Der. ab-aft, q v. ; after- 
ward (see Toward). 

Aftermath, a second crop of mown 
grass. (£.) Here after is an adj. ; and math 
means *■ a mowing,' unaccented form of 
A. S. map. Allied to Mead, Mow. Cf. 
G. mahd, a mowing ; nachmahd, aftermath. 

Aftermost, hindmost. (E.) A. S. 
aftemesty Goth, aftumists; but affected 
by after and most. The Goth, af-tu-m- 
ists is a treble snperl. form. See Aft. 

Affa, Agha, a chief officer. (Turk.) 
Turk, aghd, master. 

Again. (North E.) Cf. M.E. ayein, 
aTsT ongegn {ongean)," h.S. on; and 
gegn, of which the primary meaning seems 
to have been * direct,* or * straight.' 
(N.E.D.)+Dan. igien, Swed. igen, again. 
Uainst. (North E.) The t is added. 
CfTM. E. ayeines, against ; extended from 
M. E. ayein, against, with adv. suffix -es. 
— A. S. ongean, against ; the same as A. S. 
ongean, ongegn, again ; see above.<4-Icel. 
t gegn, G. entgegen, against. 

Aimte. (F. - It. - L. - Gk.) O.F. agate, 
agcUhe. — Ital. agcUa, agcUha, an agate 
(Florio). — L. achdtem, ace. ot achates, m. 



Gk. axortjs, an agate ; so named from being 
found near the river Achates (Sicily). 

Age. (F. — L.) O. F. aage, edage, -i Late 
L. atdticum, -• L. atdti', stem of aids (from 
*aui'ids)f age.— L. auum, life, period. 4- 
Gk. alar; Goth, aiws; Skt dyus, life. 
Brugm. ii. § 1 1 a . 

Agent. (L.) XVI cent. L. agent-, 
stem of pres. pt of agere (pp. actus), to do, 
drive, conduct. "fOk. aycty ; Icel. aka ; Skt. 
aj\ to drive. (^ AG.) 

Agglomerate, to mass together. (L.) 
From pp. of L. agglomerdre, to form into 
a mass. — L. ag- ( ■> ad) ; and glonur', stem 
of glomus, a mass, ball, clue of thread, 
allied Xq globus, a globe; see Qlobe. 

Agglutinate. (L.) From pp. of 
aggUitindre, to glue together. — L. dtg'- 
( ^ fl</), to ; glutin-, "for gluten, glue. 

Aggrancmie. (F.-L.) M.Y.aggran- 
diS', stem of pres. pt. of aggrandir, to 
enlarge. Also agrandir (with one ^) . — F. 
(for L. odf) ; and grandir, to increase, 
from L. grandlre, to enlarge, which is 
from L. grandis, great. 

Aggravate. (L.) From pp. of L. ag- 
graudre, to add to a load. — L. ag- {=ad), 
to; graudre, to load, from grauis, heavy. 

Aggregate. (L.) From pp. of L. ag- 
gregdre, to collect into'a flock. — L. ag- (for 
od), to ; greg', stem oigrex, a flock. 

Aggress, to attack. (F.~L.) M.F.a^- 
gresser.^h. aggressits, pp. of aggredi, to 
assail.— L. a^- (for ad), to; ^od^f, to ad- 

Aggrieve. (F.— L.) M.JL,agreveft.^ 
O. t . agrever, to overwhelm. — O. F. a, to ; 
grever, to burden.— L. oflf, to;^j«<?r^, to 
weigh down, from grauis, heavy, grave. 
See Grave (2). 

Agliast, horror-stmck. (£.) Misspelt 
for agast, which is short for agasted, pp. o^ 
M. E. agasten^ to terrify ; Ch. C. T. 2341 ; 
Leg. of Good Women, Dido, 248. — A. S. 
a-i prefix ; and gctstan, to terrify, torment. 
p. A. S. gSstan is from the base gas- = 
Goth, gats- in us-gais-jan, to terrify. (^ 
GHwAIS.) Brugm. ii. § 802. 

Agile. (F.-L.) XVI cent. F. agile, 
—L. tigilis, nimble; lit. easily driven 
abont— L. agere^ to drive. 

Agistment, the pasturage of cattle 
by agreement. (F. — L.) From the F. vb. 
agister, to assign a resting-place. — F. a 
( ^ V,,ad)^,o ; and 0.¥,giste, a couch, lodg- 
ing, verbal sb. from O. F. gesir (F. gisir), 
to lie, from L. iacere, to lie. 


Agitate. (L.) L. agitdtus, pp. pf 
agitdre, to keep driving about, frequent of 
agere, to drive ; see Agent. (VAG.) 

Aglet, a tag of a lace. (F. — L.) Also 
aygulet, Spenser, F. Q. ii. 3. 26. — F. aiguil- 
lette, dimin. ol aiguille, a needle.— Late L. 
cuHcula, dimin. of ac- us, a needle, pointed 
thing. Cf. Acme. (VAK.) 

Agnail, (i) a com on the foot, (2) a 
sore beside the nail. (£.) The sense has 
been confused or perverted. From A. S. 
angnagl, a com on the foot (see A. S. 
Leechdoms, ii. 81, § 34); with which cf. 
O. Friesic ogneil, ongneil, apparently used 
in a similar sense. From a prefix ang-, 
signifying afflicting, paining, and A. S. 
nagl, a nail (as of iron), hence a hard 
round-headed excrescence or wart fixed in 
the flesh ; see Anger and NaiL p. Soon 
misunderstood as referring to the nails of 
the toes or fingers, and so made to mean 
* a sore beside the nail ' ; prob. by com- 
paring (wrongly) the Gk. vapovvxio, a 
whitlow (lit. beside the nail), or by con- 
fusion with F. angonaille, a sore (Cot.). 
See N. E. D. 

Agnate, allied. (L.) L. agndtus, 
allied ; pp. of agnasct=^ ad-gnasci, — L. ad, 
to ; nasci, earlier form gnascJ, to be bora. 

AffOy Agone, gone away, past. (£.) 
M. £. ago, agon, agoon, pp. ot the verb 
agon^ to pass by, pass away. A. S. dgan, 
pp. of dgdn, to pass away. See A- (4) 
and Qo. 

AgOg| in eagerness. (F.) For a-gog, 
in activity, in eagerness, where a- is 
the prefix A- (2). Adapted from O. F. 
en gogues (Littre), or a gogue (Godefroy), 
in mirth. Cot. has estre en ses gogues, ' to 
be frolicke, ... in a veine of mirth.' The 
origin of O. F. gogue, fun, diversion, is 

Agony. (F. - L. — Gk.) M. E. agonie, 

— ir.agonie. — L. agonia^^Gk. dyoaviay orig. 
a contest. — Gk. dy^y contest. — Gk. dytiv, 
to drive. (V AG.) 

Agouti, a rodent animal, of the guinea- 
pigfamily. (F. — Sp. — Brazil.) F. agouti, 

— Sp. A^//. — Brazil, aguti, acuti. 
Agraffe, a kind of clasp. ( F. - O.H.G.) 

F. agrafe ; also agraphe (in Cotgrave), 
a hook, clasp; agrafer, to clasp. The 
verb is from F. a ( = L. ad), to ; and 
M. H. G. kraPfe, O. H. G. crapo, chrapfo^ 
a hook, which is allied to E. cramp. 
AgreOf to accord. (F.^L.) O. F. 
agreer, to receive favourably. — O. F. agre, 

B 3 



favourably. — O. F. « ( = L. am/), according 
to ; grCf grety pleasure, from L. grdtum^ 
neut. oigrdtus, dear, pleasing. Cf. Grace. 
Der. dis-agree. 

Agriciutnre. (L.) L. agrl cultura, 
culture of a field. — L. c^i, gen. of ciger^ 
a field ; and cultura. See Acre and Cul- 

Agrimony, a plant. (F.-L.-GkO 
M. E. agremoinef egremoine.^'M.. F. aigri- 
nioine. — L. argemoniay argemoni^^QV. 
dpy€fjidfV7j. (I^ewis and Short, L. Diet.) 

Aground. (E.) For on ground. 

Ague, a fever-fit. (F. — L.) Lit. 
* acute ' attack. — O. F. ague^ fem. of agu 
(F. aigu), acute. — L. acuta {Jebris)y acute 
(fever) ; fem. of aciitus ; see Acute. 

Ah! (F.-L.) M.E. a!-O.F. a!- 
L. aA! 

Ahead. (E.) For on heady i.e. in a 
forward direction. See A- (a). 

Ai. a sloth. (Brazil.) From Brazil, ai. 

Aid. (F.-L.) M.E. aiden. - O. F. 
aider. ^Yj. adiuldre, frequent, ofadiuudrej 
to assist — L. ad; and tuudre, to help, pp. 
tUtus. Cf. Brugm. ii. § 583. 

Ail, V. (E.) M.E. ei/en. A.S. egian^ 
to pain ; cognate with Goth, agljan. — 
A. S. egley troublesome (allied to Goth, 
aglusy hard). Cf. A.S. ege^ terror, orig. 
pain ; see Awe. 

Aim, to endeavour after. (F.—L.) M.E. 
eimen. From confusion of (i) A. F. 
esmer, from L. astimdre, to estimate, aim 
at, intend ; and (2) O. F. aismer^ from L. 
ad-cestimdrey comp. with prefix ad-y to. 
See Esteem. 

Air (i). (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. air, eir. 
— F. air. — L. der. — Gk. dijp, air. 

air (2), mien, affected manner ; tune. 
(F. — It. — L. — Gk.) F. air, look, tune. — 
Ital. ariay * a looke, . . a tune ; ' Florio. — 
Folk-L. neut. pi. deray treated as a fem. 
sing. (Diez). — L. tf<?r. — Gk. d^p (above). 

Alrt, a point of the compass. (Gael.) 
Gael, airdy a quarter or point of the 
compass. Cf O. Irish airdy a point, limit. 

Aisle, the wing of a church. (F. — L.) 
Better spelt aile. — F. aile. — L. dloy a wing. 
Prob. for *axia, dimin. of Axis. 

Ait. (E.) SeeEyot. 

Aitch-bone, the rump-bone. (Hyb. ; 
F. — L. and E.) Grig, spelt nache bone. — 
O. F. nacJUy sing, of naches, the buttocks ; 
and E. bofie. Naches -= Late L. ncUicds, ace. 
of naticcBy dimin. of L. nateSy the but- 

Ajar. (E.) From a chary on char^ on 
the turn (G. Douglas, tr. of Virgil, b. vii, 
prol.). — A.S. on cierrCy on the turn ; cf. A.S. 
cyrran, cierran, to turn. See Char (2). 

Akimbo, in a bent position. (Scand.) 
M. E. in kenebowe, Beryn, 1838. Perhaps 
from Icel. t kengy into a crook; with 
E. hoWy i.e. bend, superfluously added. 
Here keng is the ace. of kengr, a crook, 
twist, kink. Cf. also Icel. kengboginn^ 
bent into a crook, from kengr^ a crook, 
twist, kink, and boginn, bowed, pp. of 
lost verb bjUga, to bow. See Kink and 
Bow (i). (Very doubtful ; a guess.) 

Akin, of kin. (E.) Tot of kin. 

Alabaster. (F. - L. - Gk.) M.E. ala- 
bastre.^O.Y. alabastre (F. aibdtre).^!^ 
alabaster, a/abastrum,'^ Gk. dkA^arpov, 
dKafiaaros. Said to be derived from Aia- 
bastron, a town in Egypt. (Pliny.) 

Alack. (E.) Prob. a corruption of M.E. 
a ! lack ! alas ! a shame ! lit. ' lack.* (It 
cannot be the same as alcu^ 

Alacrity. (L.) Formed by analogy 
with celerity y from L. alacritdtem, ace. of 
alacritdSy briskness. — L. alacer, brisk. 

Alarm, a call to arms. (F. — Ital. — L. ) 
M. E. alarme. — Y.alamie. — Ital. alVarvtey 
to arms ! for aJle arme. — Late L. ad 
illas armas, for L. ad ilia arma, to 
those arms ! to your arms ! 

alarum. (F. — Ital. - L.) The same 
word, with an old pronunciation, in which 
the r was strongly trilled. 

Alas! (F.-L.) M.E.fl/flj.-O.F.a/oj 
(cf F. h^las), - O. F. a, ah ! and las, 
wretched that I am ! — L. ah\ and lassusy 
tired, wretched. (Allied to Late.) 

Alb, a white vestment. (F.—L.) M.E. 
albe — O. F. a/^d. — Late L. alba, sb.; orig. 
fem. of L. albus, white. 

Albacore, a kind of tunny. (Port.— 
Arab.) Port, albacor, albacora. Said to 
be of Arab, origin. 

Albatross, a large sea-bird. (Port. — 
Span. — Arab. — Gk.) Formerly also alga- 
/rm. — Port, alcatraz, a cormorant, alba- 
tross; Span, alcatraz, a pelican —Port. 
alcatruz, a bucket, Span, arcaduz, M. Span. 
cdcaduz (Minsheu), a bucket on a water- 
wheel. —Arab al-qddUSy the same (Dozy). 
Similarly Arab, saqqdy a water-carrier, a 
pelican, because it carries water in its 
pouch. (Devic; supp. to Littre.) 

Album, lit. tliat which is white. (L ) 
L. alburn^ a tablet, orig. neut. of albus ^ 




alblllll61l, white of egg. (L.) L.. albu- 
men out (also album out), white of tgg,^ 
L. albus, white. 

Alcaydei a jndge ; see Cadi. 

Alchemy. (F.-Arab.-Gk.) O. F. 
alchemie. — Arab, al, the ; and kimidy 
alchemy.— Late Gk. x^/xcta, chemistry; 
probably confused with -xyiuiaj a ming- 
ling, from Gk. x^^"'* ^^ 'povn out, mix. 

jQcohol. (Med. L— Arab.) Med. L. 
alcohol, applied to pure spirit, though the 
orig. sense was a fine impalpable powder. 
•- Arab, al, the ; and kohl or kulj^l, a 
collyrium, verv fine powder of antimony, 
used to paint the eyelids with. 

Alcoran ; see Koran. 

AlcovOi a vaulted recess. (F. — Span. ^ 
Arab.) F. alc&ve. — Span, alcoba, a recess 
in a room. V Arab, al, the; and qobbah, a 
vault, dome, cupola ; hence a vaulted space. 

Aldar, a tree. (E.) M. £. alder, aller 
{d being excrescent). — A. S. alor {aler, 
fl/r).4'Du. els] Icel. olr (Jor plr) ; Swed. 
al; Dan. elle, el; G. erle; O. H. G. erildj 
earlier elira; Span, aliso (from Gothic). 
Teut. stems *aluz', *aliz', *alis'. Allied 
to Lith. alksnisy L. alnus (for *alsnos) ; 
Russ. ollfkha ; and perhaps to Blm. 

Alder-f prefix, of all. In alder-liefest 
(Sh.) ; here alder is for aller, O. Merc. 
aira, A. S. ealra, gen. pi. of al, eal, all. 

Alderman. (E.) Merc, aldorman, 
A. S. ealdorrtutn.'^yicTC. aldor (ealdor), a 
chief; and ptan, man. Allied to O. Fries. 
alder, a parent; G. ellem, pi. parents; 
and to L. al-tor, a bringer up, from alere, 
to nourish. Cf. Old. 

Ale. (E.) M. £. ale, - A. S. ealu, gen. 
alo} (stem *a/M/).-f Icel., Swed., and Dan. 
dl\ Lithuan. alus; Russ. oUrvina, 

Alembic, a vessel for distilling. (F. — 
Span. — Arab. — Gk.) M. E. alembyk, — F. 
alambique (Cot.). — Span, alambique. — 
Arab, al, the ; and anbiq (pronounced am- 
btq\ a still. «-Gk. djifit^, a cup, goblet; 
cap of a still. Cf. Ijimbeok. 

Alert. (F.-Ital.-L.) Y.alerte; for- 
merly allerte, and (in Rabelais) a Pherte, 
i.e. on the watch.— Ital. alVertay on the 
watch; from the phr. stare alterta, to 
stand erect, be on one's guard. — Ital. alia 
(for a la), at the, on the; eria, fem. of 
erto, erect — L. ad, to, at ; illam, fem. ace. 
of tile, he ; erectam, fem. ace. of erectus, 
erect ; see Xreot. 

Algelira. (Late L.- Arab.) Late L. 

algebra, computation. — Arab, a/, the ; and 
jadrr, setting, repairing ; also, the reduction 
of fractions to integers in arithmetic ; hence, 
algebra. — Arab, root jabar a, to set, con ' 

Allfuaiil, a police-of)icer. (Span.— 
Arab.) Span, alguazil. — Arab, al, the ; 
Tvaztr, a vizier, officer ; see Viaier. 

Al^^nm, sandal-wood. (Heb. — Skt.) 
In 2 Chron. ii. 8, ix. lo; spelt almug, 
I Kings x. 1 1. — Heb. algummim, or (trans- 
posed) edmugim ; a borrowed word. Sup- 
posed by Max Muller {Set. Lang. i. 332) to 
be from Skt. valgU'ka, sandal-wood; where 
'ka is a sufHx. 

Alias. (L.) L. alias, otherwise. — L. 
alius, another ; see Alien. 

alibi. (L.) L. aiibi, in another place. 

— L. ali-, as in alius ; and sufHx -bi as in 
i-bi, there, u-bi, where. See below. 

alien. (F.-L.) M.E. a/iV«<?.-O.F. 
alien. — L. alienus, strange; a stranger. — L. 
alius, another, -f- Gk. &>Jkos, another; O. 
Irish aile, W. aill, all; Goth, aljis (stem 
aljo-), other ; see ISlse. 

Alight (1)1 to descend from. (E.) M. £. 
alihten, to alight from horseback ; A. S. 
dlihtan, the prefix a- being— A. S. a-. 
The simple form lihtan also occurs in A. S., 
meaning to make light, relieve of weight, 
alight (from a horse) ; from liht, light, 
adj. See Light (3). 

alight (2), to light upon. (E.) M.E. 
alihten, with reference to the completion of 
the action of alighting. See above. 

Align ; see Aline. 

AliSe, similar. (£.) M. E. alike, olike. 
A. S. onlic, like ; from Itc, like, with prefix 
on' = on, prep. 

Aliment, food. (F.— L.) F. aliment. 

— L. alimenhim, food ; formed with 
sufBx 'mentum- from alere, to nourish. 

alimony, money allowed for a wife's 
support upon her separation from her 
husband. (L.) L. alimonia, nourishment. 
— L. edere, to nourish ; see above. 

Aline* Align, to range in a line. (F. 
— L.) Adapted from m<S. F. aligner, to 
range in a line. From the phr. d ligne, 
into line. — L. ad, to ; llnea, a line. See 
Iiine. {Aline is the better spelling for 
the E. word.) 

Aliquot. (L.) L. aliquot, some, several 
(hence, proportionate).— L. aliens, other; 
and auot, how many. 

Alivei in life. (£.) From A. S. on life, 




in life; where life is dat. of ///*, life; see 

Alkali, a salt. (Arab.) Arab, al^ the ; 
and gall, ashes of salt-wort, which abounds 
in soda. 

All. (E.) M. £. al, sing. ; aiie, pi. • 
p. Merc, al, a//; A. S. ea/t pL ea/ig.^lce\. 
aUr\ Dan. al ; Du. al; O. H. G. 
al ; Goth, alls, pi. allai. Teut. type *al- 
ftoz ; allied to Irish uiU, all, from Idg. 
type *ol/os, 

all, adv., utterly. In the phr. all-fo 
brake (correctly a/l lo-brake) , Judges ix. 53. 
Here the incorrect all-lo, for * utterly/ came 
up about A.D. 1500, in place of the old 
iaiom which linked to to the verb ; cf. *J4l 
is iobrosten thilke regioun,' Chaucer, C. T. 
2757. See To-, pr^x, 

almost. (£.) A. S. eal-mast, i. e. quite 
the greatest part, nearly all ; affected by 
mod. £. f/tost. See Most* 

alway, always. (E.) {i)K,S.ealne 
weg, every way, an accus. case. (2) M. E. 
alles weiSf in every way, a gen. case. 
Allay. (E.) M. E. aleyettt alaien, the 
stem ot which is due to A. S. dleg-es, dleg- 
^, 2 and 3 pres. t. sing, of A.S. dlecgan, to 
lay down, put down, which produced also 
M. £. aleggeuy to lay or' set aside. — A. S. 
a-, prefix ; and lecgan, to lay, place ; see 
A- (4) and Lay (i). p. But much con- 
fused with other forms, especially with M. E. 
aleggeny to alleviate, from O.F. aUger, 
alegier^ L. alleuidre ; and with old forms 
of alloy. See N. E. D. 
Allege. (F.— L.) alegen, aleggen. 
In form, the word answers to A. F. alegier, 
aligier^O,Y, esligUr (see Godefroy) ; 
from A. F. fl- = 0. F. «-, and ligier.^'L, 
ex-\ and litigdrey to contend '(Ducange), 
from L. lis (gen. Itt-is), strife. Latinised 
as adiegidre (Ducange), and treated as if 
allied to L. allegdre (F. alUgiter) ; hence 
the sense usually answers to that of L. 
allegdre,, to adduce. — L. al- (for a</), to ; 
legdre, to dispatch, to tell, from leg-, base 
of lex, law. 

Allegiance, the duty of a subject to 
his lord. (F. — O. H. G.) Hi.^^alegeaunce. 
Formed from F. « (=L. ad), to; O.F. 
Hgance^ ligeance, homage, from O. F. l^;e, 
liege, liege. See Liege. % The form 
ligance (Godefroy) was due to a supposed 
connexion with L. ligdre, to bind. 

Allegory. (L.*Gk.) XVI cent L. 
allegorta.^TjV.. dKKtfyopia, a description 
of one thing under the image of another. — 

Gk. d\kffyop€tv, to speak so as to imply 
something else ; Galat. iv. 24. — Gk. dXXo-, 
stem of oXAos, other ; and dyoptv€iv, to 
speak, from dyopd, a place of assembly ; cf 
&y€ip€iy, to assemble. Gk. AWos * L. alius; 
see Alien. 

Allegro, lively. (Ital.-L.) lia\, alle- 
gro, — L. alacretn, ace. of alacer, brisk. 

Alleluia. (Heb.) See Hallelujah. 

Alleviate. (L.) From pp. of Late L. 
alleuidre, used for L. alleudre, to lighten. 
L. al' (for o^), to ; lettdre, to lift, lighten, 
from leuis, light. 

Alley, a walk. (F.-L.?) M. £. aley. 
mO. F. alee^ a gallery ; a participial sb. — 
O. F. aler, to go ; F. aller. fi. The ety- 
mology of aller, much and long discussed, 
is not yet settled ; the Prov. equivalent is 
atiar, allied to Ital. andare, to go. 

Alliance; see Ally. 

Alligator. (Span. - L.) Lit. * the 
lizard.* « Span, el lagarto, the lizard, i. e. 
the great lizard. —L. ille, he, that ; lacefta, 
a lizard. S>ee Iiisard. 

AlUteratioily repetition of initial 
letters. (L.) Corned from L. al- (for ad^, 
to ; and litera, a letter ; see Letter. 

Allocatei to set aside. (L.) From 
pp. of Late L. allocdre, to allot. ^-L. cd- 
{=ad), to; locdre, to place, from locus, a 
place. Cf. Allow (i). 

Allocutioil, an address. (L.) From 
L. allocutio, an address. ->L. al- (for ad), 
to ; locttiid, a speaking, from locHtus, pp. 
of loaui, to speak. 

AllodiaL (LateL. — O.Frankish.) Late 
L. allddidlis, from allodium, alddium, a 
derivative of alodis, a free inheritance 
(Lex Salica). It means * entirely (one's) 
property,* from O. Frank, cddd ; where a/- 
is related to £. ail, and od signifies ' pro- 
perty ' or * wealth.* This O. Frank, dd is 
cognate with O. H. G. ot, A. S. ead, IceL 
aiSir, wealth. Cf. Goth, audags, blessed. 

Allopathy, a treatment by medicines 
which produce an opposite effect to that of 
disease. (Gk.) Opposed to homoeopathy, 
q. v. — Gk. 6x\o-, for dAXof, other; and 
ira0-cri', to suffer ; see Alien and Pathos. 

AUotf to assign a portion to. (F. - L. 
and E.) A. F. aloter,^h,Y, a, from L. 
ad, to ; and M. £. lot, A. S. hlot ; see Lot. 

Allow (i)) to assign, grant. (F.— L.) 
F. allouer, to let out for hire, assign for 
an expense. « Late L. allocdre, to allot.— 
L. al- (for ad), to ; and locdre, to place, 
from locus i a place. 



Allow (2), to approve of. (F. — L.) 
M. E. alouen.^O. F. alouer, later allouery 
to approve of.— L. allauddre.^'L, al- (for 
ad), to; iauddre, to praise, from laud-, 
stem of iaus, praise. 

Alloy,, a due proportion in mixing 
metals. (F.— L.) Formerly o/Zb^ ; M. E. 
ah^, — O. F. alay, aUy^ alloy. — O.F. aleier, 
aleyer^ to combine. — L. cUligare^ to bind 
together ; see Ally. The O. F. dUiy sb., 
became aioi, which was misunderstood as 
being h loi-\a. ad legem, according to rale 
or law (Littr^). 

Allude. (LO L. alladere, to laugh at, 
allnde to (pp. alliisus),^!^. al- {=ael), 
at; lildere, to sport. Per. allus-ian, 

AllvrOy to tempt by a bait (F.-L. 
and G.) A. F. alurer ; from F. a leurre 

— to the bait or lure. — L. <i</, to ; M. H. G. 
luoder (G. luder\ a bait. See Iiure. 

AIIwIaIi washed down, applied to 
soil. (L.) L. alluui'US^ alluvial. — L. al* 
(^=ad), to, in addition ; luere, to wash. 

Ally, to bind together. (F.-L.) M.E. 
alien, ^O, F. alier^ to bind up. — L. ad, 
to ; ligdre, to bind. Der. alli-ance, M. £. 

Almanac, Almanack. (Late L.) 

Late L. almanach, % Origin unknown ; 
not of Arab, origin (Dozy). 

Abniffhty. (E.) O. Merc, almcehtig, 
A. S. dJmihtig. The prefix is O. Merc. 
al-, O. Sax. aXo-, O. H. G. ala-, related to 
All. And see Mights 

Almond. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. aU 
maund^O. F. almatidre, more correctly, 
amandre ; the al being due to Span, and 
Arab, influence; mod. F. amande.^ 
L. amygdala, amygdalum, an almond ; 
whence the forms amygdala, amydUa, 
amyndla, amyndra (see Brachet). — Gk. 
fifiVT&iXi;, df(<^8aXov, an almcHid. 

Almoner; see Alms. 

Almost. (E.) A. S. ealmSst\ see All. 

Alms. (L.— Gk.) 'b/i.'E,almesse,\2XtT 
almes» A. S. almasse. — Folk-L. *rt//- 
mosina (whence O.F. almosne, F. au- 
mSne, Ital. limosind) ; Late L. eleSmosyna, 

— Gk. iK«fj/uMr{nfri, pity; hence alms.— 
Gk. IXc^fMM', pitifol.— Gk. ikttiv, to pity. 
— Gk. lAcof, pity, f Thus alms is a 
singular form. 

almoner. (F. — L. — Gk.) O. F. a/mos- 
ttiir, a distributor of alms. — O. F. almosfte, 
alms; F. omxw^^.- Folk-L. *alimosina 


Almnif, the same as Algum, q. v. 


Aloe, a plant. (L. - Gk.) L. alo^ 
(Pliny). — Gk. oXlifri ; John xix. 39. 

Aloft. (Scand.) Icel. a lopt (pron. 
lof(), aloft, in the air. — Icel. a (=A. S. 
on), in ; lopt, air. See Loft. 

Alone. (E.) M.E. al one, al oon, 
written apart ; here a/, adv., means * en- 
tirely,' and oon is the M. E. form of one, 
Cf. Du. alleen, G. allein. See All and 

Along (i), lengthwise of. (E.) M. E. 
along, A. S. analang, along, prep, with 
gen. ; orig. (like O. Sax. antlang) an adj., 
meaning complete (from end to end).— 
A. S. and-, prefix (allied to Gk. <Svr<, 
Skt. anti, over against) ; lang, long. The 
sense is ' over against in length,' or ' long 
from end to end.*+G. entlang, along. See 
A- (3) and'Iiong (i) ; and see Anti-. 

Alonff (2) ; in phr. all along of you, 
&^c. (£) Equivalent to M. E. Hong, 
Layamon, 15502.- A. S. gelang, * depend- 
ing on,* as in on dam gelang, along of 
that. — A. S. ge-, prefix ; lang, long. 

Aloof, away. (E. and Du.) For on loo/; 
answering to Du. te loef, to windward. 
Cf. Du. loef houden, to keep the luff or 
weather-gage, Dan. holde luven^ to keep to 
the windwud ; which suggested our phrase 
* to hold aloof,' i. e. to keep away (from 
the leeward shore or rock). See laafP. 

Alond, loudly. (E.) From a-, prefix, 
due to A. S. on, prep. ; and A. S. hlud, 
loud. See A- (2) ana Loud. 

Alp. (L.) L. Alpes, the Alps; of 
Celtic origin. Connected with L. albus, 
white (Stokes). Der. trans-alp-ine, i. e. 
be^'ond the Alps. 

Alpaca. (Span.— Peruvian.) Span, o/- 
paca', iiorti paco, the Peruvian name, with 
the Arab. def. art. al prefixed. 

Alphabet. ;Late L. - Gk. " Phoe- 
nician. ) Late L. alphabelum, — Gk. &Kfpa, 
fiijra, the names of a and $, the first two 
letters of the alphabet ; Heb. dlepk, an ox, 
the name of the first letter ; and deth, a 
house, the name of the second letter. 

Already. (E.) M. E. al redy, quite 
ready; .from al, quite, representing the 
neut. of O. Merc. M, all, used adverbially, 
and Beady. 

Also. (E.) M. E. al so, quite so ; A. S. 
ealstvd ; see above. 

Altar. (L.) A. S. altdre. Matt. v. 24. 

— L. altdre, an altar, high place.— L. 
alius ^ high. 

Alter. (L.) Late L. alterdre, to alter. 




— L. allert other.— L. al- (as in al-ius); 
with comparative suffix -tero-. 

altercation, a dispute. (F. — L.) 

M. E. aitercatian. — O. F. altercation. — L. 
altcrcdtidnem^ ace. oi altercdtio.^'L. alter- 
cdtus^ pp. of altercdri, to dispute, speak in 
turns. — L. alter, other, another. 

alternate. (L.) L. altemdttis, pp. 

of altemdre, to do by turns. — L. alter- 
nus, reciprocal. -> L. alter (with suffix 

Although. (£.) M. £. dE/M^^^; see 
Already and Though. 

Altitude. (F.-L.) XIV cent.-F. 
altitude, — L. altitiidOf height. — L. alius , 
alto, high voice. (Ital.— L.) Ital. <7//^. 

— L. alius, high. 

Altogether. (£.) M. K al u- *ther, 
quite together. See Already. 

Altruism, regard for others. (Ital. — 
L. ; with Gk. suffix.) Coined from Ital. 
altruif another, others, a form of altro, 
another, when preceded by a preposition. 
Grig, a dat. case. — L. alteri huic, to this 
other; datives of aiter, other, and hie, 

Alum. (F. - L.) M. E. alum. - O. F. 
alum ; F. alun. — L. alUmen, alum. 

Alway, Alwasrs. (£•) See AIL 

A.iif|, (E.) See Are. 

Amain. (E.) For en main, in strength, 
with strength ; see A- (2) and Main, sb. 

Amalgam. (F. or Late L. — Gk. ?) F. 
atnalgame, Late L. amalgama, a mixture, 
esp. of quicksilver with other metals. 
Origin unknown; said by some to be a 
corruption or an alchemist's anagram of 
malagfiM, a mollifying application; per- 
haps with Arab, al (^the; prefixed. — Gk. 
It&Xiar^yjn, an emollient. — Gk. yuaXaxfauv 
{{0T*fji€i\dK-yftv), tosoften. — Gk. futXcueSs, 

Amanuensis, one who writes to dic- 
tation. (L.) L. dmanuensis. — L. ^ manii, 
by hand ; with suffix -ensis. 

AT^firftTlthi an unfading flower. (L.— 
Gk.) Properly amaranth as in Milton ; 
but -anth is due to confusion with Greek 
cEytfos, a flower. — L. amarantus. — Gk. 
dfidpayroSf unfading, or as sb. unfading 
flower. — Gk. &-, not; and iiapaivtiv, to 
fade. (VMER.) 

Amass, to heap up. (F.— L.— Gk.) 
F. amasser, to heap up. — F. <J masse, into 
a mass. — L. a/, to ; massa, a mass. — Gk. 
/«a(a, a barley-cake. See Mass (x). 

Amatory. (L.) L. amatdrius, loving. 
— L. amdtor, a lover. — L. amdre, to love ; 
with suffix -tor-, -tor, of agent. 

Amase, to astound. (£.) M. £. amasen. 
A. S. dmasian, pp. dmasod; Wulfstan's 
Hom. p. 137, 1. 33. From A.S. d- 
(preflx); and *masian, to perplex. See 

AmasOUy a female warrior. (Gk.) Gk. 
ana^iav, one of a warlike nation of women 
in Scythia. %To account for the name, 
the Greeks said that these women cut off 
the right breast to shoot better ; from Gk. 
d-, not ; and /mfitSs, the breast. Obviously 
an invention. 

Amhassador, Embassador. (F. 

—Late L. — C.) F. ambassadeur, — F, 
ambassade, an embassy; prob. borrowed 
from Ital. amhasciata. — Late L. amhascia 
(Lex Salica) ; more correctly *ambactia ; 
a mission, service. — L. ambactus, a servant, 
emissary; Csesar, de Bell. Gall. vi. 15. 
The L. word is borrowed from an O. 
Gaulish (Celtic) word {ambactos T) a slave, 
lit. one driven about, a pp. form from 
ambi'y prefix, about, and the verb ag-, 
cognate with L. agere\ cf. O. Irish imm- 
agim, I drive about, send about. (Fick, 
1894, ii. 34; Brugm. ii. § 79.) Cf. W. 
amaethj a husbandman. 

Amber. (F.- Span.— Arab.) M. £. 
aumbre. — F. ambre. — Span, ambar. — 
Arab, 'anbar (pronounced *ambar), am- 
bergris, a rich perfume. ^ The resinous 
amber was so called from a resemblance to 
ambergris, which is really quite a diflerent 

ambergris, i. e. gray amber. Called 
gris amber in Milton, P. R. ii. 344. The 
F. gris^ gray, is from O. H. G. gris, gray ; 
cf. G. greis, hoary. 

Ambi-» Amb-» prefix. (L.) L. ambi-, 
about ; cf. Gk. d/x^i, on both sides, whence 
E. prefix amphi^. Related to L. ambo, 
Gk. aft^, both. Cf. A. S. ymb, Irish im, 

Ambienty going about. (L.) L. amb- 
lent', stem of pres. part, of amb-ire, to go 
about, from ire, to go. 

Ambiguous, doubtful. (L.) L. amb- 
iguus, doubtful, lit. driving about (with 
'Ous ( = L. -osui) in place of L. -f«). — L. 
amb-, about ; and agere, to drive. 

Ambition. (F. — L.) F. ambition. ^h, 
ambitidnem, ace. of ambitid, a going round, 
esp. used of going round to solicit votes ; 
hence, a seeking for preferment. — L. amb' 



itum^ supine Giamh-tre^ to go about (but 
note that ambttio retains the short i of 
Uunty the supine of ire-, the simple verb). 

Amble. (F. -L.) M. E. ambUn, - O.F. 
ambler ^ to go at an easy pace. — L. atnbu' 
Idre, to walk. 

aillblllaJiCe« a moveable hospital. (F. 
— L.) F. ambulance, i- L. ambulant-, stem 
of pres. part, of ambuldre, to walk. 

ambulation, a walking about. (L.) 
From L. ambulation a walking about. — L. 
ambu lotus, pp. of ambuldre. 

Am.bro8iay food of the gods. (Gk.) 
Gk. dfA0po<ria ; fern, of dfifipdaios, length- 
ened form of dfifipOTOs, immortal. — Gk. d-, 
not (E. un-) ; and *fjifipor6s, for *fipoT6s 
(Gk. 0poT6i), mortal; see Mortal. Cf. 
Skt. a-mrta, immortal. See Amaranth. 

Ambzy, Aumbry, a cupboard. (F. - 

L.) M. E. awmebry, awmery, Prompt: 
Parv. ; the b is excrescent. — O. F. aumaire, 
almaire, armarie, a repository ; properly, 
for arms ; but also a cupboard. — Late L. 
armaria^ a cupboard ; armdriumy a re- 
pository for arms. — L. art?ta, arms. 

Ambulance, -ation ; see Amble. 

Ambuscade. (Span. — Late L.) From 
Span, emboscada, an ambush. Orig. 

Ep. of emboscar, to set in ambush. — Late 
at. imboscdre, lit. to set in a bush or 
thicket.— L. im- (for in), in ; and Late L. 
boscum^ a bush. See Bush. 

ambush. (F. — Late L.) Formerly 
embush.>^0.¥. embusc/ier, embuissier, to 
set in ambush. — Late L. imboscdr,e; as 

Ameer, the same as Emir, q. v. 
Ameliorate. (F.-L.; with L. sujix.) 

Formed with suffix -ate («L. -dtus) from 
F. af/i^liorer, to better, improve. — F. <i 
L. ad), in addition ; -meliorer ( = Late 

. meli5rdre\ to make better. — L. melidr-, 
from melior, better. 

Amen. (L. — Gk. — Heb.) L. dmen, — 
Gk. ditliVj verily. — Heb. amen, verily, so be 
it— Heb. dmen,fam, true. — Heb. dman, 
to confirm ; orig. * to be firm.* 

Amenable, easy to lead. (F.— L.) 

From F. amener, to lead to, bring to. — 
F. d, to ; mener, to conduct, drive. — L. ad, 
to ; Late L. mindre, to conduct, lead about, 
also to drive out, chase away ; L. mindrty 
to threaten.— L. mina, threats. 
Amend. (F. — L.) M. E. amenden. — 
F. amender.'^'L, emenddre, to free from 
fault. — L. e, from ; mendum, a fault. 
amends. (F. — L.) M. E. amendes. 


AMITY -O.F. amende, reparation. — O.F. 
amender (above). 

Amenity, pleasantness. (Fi-L.) M F. 
and F. amenitS-^'L. amanitdtem, ace. of 
amanitds, — L. amanus, pleasant. Cf. L. 
amdre, to love. 

Amerce, to fine. (F.-L.) A. F. (not 
O. F.) amerder, to fine. — O.F. a (= L, ad), 
to ; merder, to pay, acquit, but usually to 
thank ; cf. Late L. mercidre, to fix a fine. 
Cf. O. F. mercit (F. merci)^ thanks, pardon. 
— L. mercedem, ace. of merces, reward, 
wages, also pity, indulgence, thanks 
(passing into the sense of 'fine').- L. 
mere-, stem of merx, merchandise, traffic. 

Amethyst, a gem. (L. - Gk.) L. ame- 
tAystus.^Gk, dfUBvarosy an amethyst; so 
called because supposed to prevent drunk- 
ennv ^ .- Gk. dfi4$vaTos,uot drunken. — Gk. 
d-j^A'bt ; and fjnOvdVy to be drunken, from 
lJL(9v, strong drink; see Mead. 

Amiable. (F.-L.) O.F. amiable, 
friendly ; also loveable, by confusion with 
aimable (from L. amdbilis).^L.amicdbilis, . 
friendly. — L. amicus, a friend. — L. amdre, 
to love. 

amicable. (L.) L. amicabihs, friendly ; 
as above. 

Amice (i)> an oblong piece of linen, 
variously worn by priests. (F. — L.) M. T. 
amyse, and (earlier) amit. — O. F. atftis, 
amit (Burguy). — L. amict-us, a covering. 
— L. amictus, pp. of amicire, to throw 
round. — L. am- {amb-), around ; icuere, to 

Amice (2), a pilgrim's robe. (O. F.— 
Span. ? — Teut. X) * In amice gray ; ' Milton, 
P.R. iv. 427. — O. F. aumuce (F. atwiusse); 
Late L. cdmucia. — Span, almucio (Pineda) ; 
where al seems to be the Arab. def. art. 
(cf. Port, murfa). — G. miitze, a cap (cf. 
Lowl. Sc. mutch). But G. miitze may be 
from Late L. 

Amid, Amidst, in the middle of. (E.) 
Amids't is lengthened from M. £. amiddes. 
Again, amidde^s was due to adding the 
adv. suffix -s to aptidde'^A.S. on middan, 
in the middle ; where middan is the dat. of 
midde, sb., the middle. — A. S. mid, midd, 
adj., middle. Amid'=K. S. on middan (as 
before). See Mid. 

Amiss, adv. wrongly. (E. or Scaud.) 
M. £. <?;i misse, i. e. in error. — Icel. a misy 
amiss. — Icel. 5 ( = A. S. on), in ; mis, adv., 
wrongly (due to an older lost pp.). See 
Miss (i). 

Ami^. (F. — L.) O. F. amiste, amisted. 



amistet, ^ Late L. *amtcitdtemy ace. oi*amU 
citdSt friendship. — L. amicus, friendly.— 
L. amdre, to love. 

Ammoniay an alkali. (L.«-Gk.— 
Egyptian.) Suggested by L. sal am- 
moniacum, rock-salt. — Gk. AfifiaivicucSv, 
sal ammoniac, rock-salt. — Gk. Afifujifi^y 
Libyan. — Gk. diitiw¥, the Libyan Zens- 
Ammon ; a word of Egyptian origin ; 
Herod, ii. 4a. ^ It is said that sal am- 
moniac was first obtained near the temple 
of Ammon. 

ailllllOilitBi a fossil shell. (Gk.) Coined 
with suffix -ite (Gk. -iti;s) from the name 
Ammon; because the shell resembles the 
twisted ram*s horn on the head of the 
image of Jupiter Ammon. 

Ammuiutioily store for defence. (F. — 
L.) From Mid. F. amunitiony a soldier's 
corruption oi munition, due to substituting 
Vamunition for la munition (Littr^). — L. 
ace. munitionem, a defending. — L. miini- 
tuSf pp. of mUntre, to defend. 

AmnestYf lit. a forgetting of offences. 
(F.— L.— Gk.) F. amnestic, '^'L. amnes- 
tia, ^Gk, afivTiariaf forgetfulness, esp. of 
wrong. — Gk. A/Jtyrjinos, forgotten. — Gk. d-, 
not ; and /ja^dofjuu, I remember. (^MEN.) 

Among, Amongst. (£.) The earliest 
M. £. form is amende, whence amonges 
with added s (a common adverbial suffix) ; 
and hence amongS't with excrescent A — 
A. S. onmang, prep., among. — A. S. on, in ; 
mang, a mixture, crowd. Cf. Mingle. 

Amorous. (F.~L.) O. F. amoros\ F. 
amoureux. — L. amordsus. — L. amor, love. 

Amorphous, formless. (Gk.) From 
Gk. d-, not ; and fxofxp^, shape, form. 

Amount, to mount up to. (F.-L.) 
O. F. amonter, to amount to. — O.F. a 
mont, towards a mountain or large heap. 

— L. ad, to; montem, ace. of mons, a 

Amour. (F.— L.) F. amour, — L. 
amor em, ace. of amor, love. 

Amphi-, prefix, (Gk.) Gk. Aitf^, on 
both sides, around ; see Ambi*. 

AmpMbious. (Gk.) Gk. dfut>l0ios, 
living a double life, on land and water. 

— Gk. AfjKf>i, on both sides ; filoi, life. 
Amphibrach, a foot in prosody. 

(Gk.) The foot composed of a short 
syllable on each side of a long one (u-J). 
Gk. Aiuplfipayw, — Gk. Ajjupi, on both sides ; 
and fipaxvSf short; see Amphi- and 

Brief. ^ ^ , „ ,^ , 

Amphitheatre. (Gk.) Gk. d/i^t^^s- 1 Gk. V^ctir,' to write. 



rpovj a theatre with seats all round the 
arena. — Gk. d/upl, around; BiSrpov, a 

Ample, full. (F. — L.) F. ample. - L. 
amplus, spacious. 

J^putate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
amputdre, to cut off round about. — L. am", 
short for amh-, ambi-, round about; 
putdre, to cleanse, also to lop or prune trees. 

— L. putus, clean. 

Amulet. (F.— L.) F. amulette.^'L, 
amuletum, a talisman hung round the neck. 
[Once thought to be of Arabic origin ; but 
now given up.] 

Amuse, to divert. (F. — L.) F. amuser, 
' to amuse, make to muse or think of, to 
gaze at;' Cot. — F. ^ (»L. atf), to, at; 
O. F. muser, to gaze at, stare at, muse ; see 
Muse (i). 

AUy Ay indefinite article. (E.) A is 
short for an ; and an is an unaccented form 
of A. S. an, one ; see One. 

An-, Af, neg. prefix, (Gk.) Gk. dy-, 
d-, cognate with L. in-, and £. un- ; see 
UTn-, In-, A- (9). 

An, if. See And. 

Ana-,An-,/r^jr. (Gk.) Gk.dNi-,dv-; 
from Gk. Ava, upon, on, up, back, again; 
coenate with K ^» ; see On. 

Ana, Anna, a sixteenth of a rupee. 
(Hind.) Hind, ana, a sixteenth part, esp.. 
of a rupee. (H. H. Wilson.) 

Anaoaptist. (Gk.) One who baptizes 
again. Coined from Gk. ivA, again ; and 
baptist. See Baptise. 

Anachronism, error in chronology. 
(Gk.) Gk. 6vaxpovian6i.^Gk, AvaxpovU 
(fiv, to refer to a wrong time. — Gk. di'd, 
up, back (wrong) ; xft&poi, time. 

Anaconda, a large serpent. (Ceylon.) 
Now used of a S. American boa ; but at 
first applied to a large snake in Ceylon. 
The Tamil dnai-kondra means ' whieh 
killed an elephant ' (Yule). 

Awftitijft.^ bloodlessness. (L.— Gk.) A 
Latinised form of Gk. Avaifua, want of 
blood. — Gk. dv-, not ; atfta, blood. 

An8BSthetic, rendering insensible to 
pain. (Gk.) Coined from Gk. dy>, not ; 
and alaBrjTiKSs, full of perception ; see An- 
and .Esthetic. 

Anagram, a change in a word due to 
transposition of letters. ( F. — L. — Gk. ) F. 
anagramme,'»'L, anagramma, '^Gk. Mr 
ypafifM, — Gk. di'd, up, here used distribu- 
tively ; 7pd/</ia, a letter of the alphabet.- 



Analoffy* proportion. (F.— L.— Gk.) 
F. anahgte. — L. analogia, *^ Gk. dyctKoyioj 
equality of ratios. — Gk. dyd, upon, 
throughout ; -Xoyia, from Ady-os, a word, 
statement, from Xiy^tv^ to speak. 

Analysis. (Gk.) Gk.dvoXvo'ts, a resolv- 
ing into parts, loosening. » Gk. di^oAi^civ, to 
imdo, resolve. — Gk. &y&, back ; and Xvtiv, 
to loosen. (^^LEU.) Per. analyse, verb, a 
coined word. 

Ananas, the pine-apple plant. (Span. 
•>Braz.) Span, ananas (Pineda); mod. 
Span, anana. — Brazil, nanas or nana. 
^ The Peruv. name is achupalla, 

Anapasty Anapest, a foot in pros- 
ody. (Gk.) L. anapasttis.^Gk, d^d- 
mtaros, stmck back, rebounding ; because 
it is the reverse of a dacM. — Gk. dvaira/c<y, 
to strike back, i- Gk. dya, back ; and ira/eiv, 
to strike. 

Anarchy. (F.-L.-Gk.) XVI cent. 

Y, anarchic. ^\a, anarchia.'mQ^, dyapxi^^j 
lack of government. -• Gk. ayapx^s, without 
a ruler. — Gk. dv-, neg. prefix; dpxos, a 
ruler, from Apx^^'^t ^o ^^> ^o ^ ^^t> 

Anathema, sl curse. (I^— Gk.) L. 
ana/Aema. 'mGk. oMtyia, a thing devoted 
or accursed.- Gk. dvariBrifu, I devote.— 
Gk. Ayd, up; W^/u, I place, set. Cf. 

Anatomy. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. ana- 
/omie.^Lu analoptia. ^^Gk, ayarofuaj the 
same as iofaroisfi, dissection. — Gk. dvorifir 
ytty, to cut up. — Gk. dv&, up ; riiivtiy, to 
cut Cf. Tome. 

Ancestor. (F. — L.) M. £. ( i ) ancestre, 
O. F. ancestre, from L. antecessor, nooL, 
a predecessor, foregoer ; and M. £. (2) an- 
cessaur, O. F. ancessour, from L. ante- 
cessorem, ace.— L. ante, before; cessrus, 
pp. of cedere, to go. 

Anchor. (L.— Gk.) The current spell- 
ing imitates the false L. form, anchora. 
A. S. ancor, — L. ancora (wrongly anchora) . 

— Gk. dytcvpa, an anchor, lit. a bent hook ; 
cf: Gk. d7iK&r, a bend. (/ANQ.) 

Anchfiwet, Anchorite, a recluse. 

F. — Late L. - Gk ) F. anachorete (Cot.) . 

— Late L. anachoreta. "Gk. dyax^apTpr-ffSf 
one who retires from the world. — Gk. dva- 
X^pttyf to retire. -Gk. dj'd, back; and 
X«p<2)^y to withdraw, from xwpos, space, 
room. (VGHE, GHO.) 

Anchovy, a fish. (Span. -Basque?) 
Span, anchcva ; cf. Basque anchoa, anchua, 
an anchovy. Perhaps * dried fish ' ; firom 
Basque antvtta, dry. 

(I), old. (F.-L.) With 
excrescent t. M. E. auncien."F. ancien. 

— Late L. antianus,- old, belonging to 
former time. Formed with suffix -dntis 
from ante, before. 

Ancient (2) , a banner, standard-bearer. 
(F. — L.) Confused with ancient ( i) ; but 
from O. F. enseigne, m. * ensigne, auncient, 
standard-bearer ; ' Cot. ; also for O. F. en- 
seigncy f., ' a banner;' Cot. See Ensign. 

And. (£.) A. S. and^ end, 4- O. Fries. 
anda, ende ; O. H. G. anti, unta, G. und, 
Prob. related to L. ante, before, Gk. dj/Ti, 
over against. 

an, if. (E.) Formerly also and; 
Havelok, 2861, &c; the same word as the 
above. An if^ if if, a reduplication. But 
andi/^hut if if; Matt. xxiv. 48. 

Andante, slowly. (ItaL) Ital. andante, 
moving slowly, pres. pt. of andare, to 

Andiron, a fire-dog. (F.— L.) Not 
connected with iron, but corrupted from 
M. E. andeme, aundeme, aundire, — O. F. 
andier ; mod. F. landier, put for tandier, 
where t is the def. art. Cf. Late L. ande- 
rius, attdena^ a fire-dog. 
Anecdote. (F.-L.~Gk.) F. anec- 
dote.-'ljaXe L. anecdota, orig.— 
Gk. dy^«8oTa, neut. pi. of dyixioros, 
unpublished ; hence an unpublished story, 
story in private life. — Gk. dv-, not; i/c, 
out ; and 9ot6s, given, allied to SiSw/ii, I 

Anemone, a flower. (Gk.) Gk. di^c- 
/Mduvi;, lit. wind-flower. — Gk. 3v€fios, wind. 
Anent, regarding, with reference to. 
vE.) M.E. anent, anentis; older form 
onefent, where the t is excrescent. A. S. 
anefen, onefen, near ; later form onemn. 

— A. S. on, OH', efen, even. Hence onefn = 
even with, on an equality with. Cf. G. 
neben, near (for in eoen). See Sven. 

Aneroid, dry, applied to a barometer 
having no liquid mercury in it. (Gk.) 
Coined firom Gk. d-, not; »^-J, wet; 
c78-o(, form, kind. 

Aneiuysm, a tumour due to dilata- 
tion. (Gk.) Gk. dyt^pvfffui, a widening. 

— Gk. dv', for dyd, up; and c^pvvciv, to 
widen, from titpvs, wide. Also aneurism. 

Anew. (E.) M.E.o/-ne7ve. A.S.^ 
niowe, John iii. 7 (Rushworth). From Of 
and If ev^ 

Angel. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. ange/e. 
— L. ang^elus. "Gk. Ayytkos, a messenger. 
Cf. Gk. dyyapos, a mounted courier, from 



O. Persian. Der. arch-angel, q. v., ev- 
angel'ist, q. v. % The A. S. form was 
engel, directly from L. angelus. 

Anger. (Scand.) M. £. anger, often 
with the sense of vexation, trouble. — Icel. 
angr, grief; Dan. anger, Swed. dnger, re- 
gret. 4" L. angor, a strangling, anguish. 
(VANGH.) See below. 

Angina, acute pain. (L.) L. angina, 
quinsy, lit. cYioVing.^L., angere, to choke. 

Angle (i), a comer. (F. — L.) M.E. 
angle, '^Y. angle.^L,. angulus, an angle. 
Cf. Gk. dyicvkos, bent. 

Angle (2)» ^ hook, fish-hook. (£.) A. S. 
angel, B. fish-hook ; dimin. of anga, onga, 
a sting, prickle ; cf. Icel. angi, a prickle, 
G\i,' ayicvpa, a bent hook, Skt. ahka{s), 
a hook.-j-Dan. angel ; G. angel, dimin. of 
O. H. G. ango, a prickle, fish-hook. Allied 
to Anchor. Der. angle, verb, to fish. 

Anguish. (F.— L.) M.E. anguise, 
angotse, — O. F. anguisse ; F. angoisse. ^ L. 
angustia, narrowness, poverty, perplexity. 
— L. angustus, narrow. — L. angere, to 
choke. CVANGH.) 

Anilinef ^ substance which furnishes 
a number of dyes. (F. — Span. — Arab. — 
Pers.— Skt) Formed, with suffix -tne, from 
anil, a dye-stuff. — F. fl«i7. — Span. aHil, 
azure. — Arab, an^nil; for al-ntl, where al 
is the def. art., and nil is borrowed from 
Pers. nil, blue, or the indigo-plant — Skt. 
nila, blue ; nili, the indigo-plant 

Animal. (L.) L. a»ma/, a living crea- 
ture.— L. anima, breath, life. (-^AN.) 

animadvert, to censure. (L.) L. 
anintaduertere, to turn the mind to, hence, 
to criticise. — L. anim-, for animus, the 
mind (allied to anima, breath) ; ad^'to ; 
and uertere, to turn (see Veree). 

animate. (L*) L< animatus, pp. of 
aniffidre, to endue with life. — L. anima, 
life. Der. in-animate, re-animate. 

animosity. C^*— LO Y ', animositi. 
^\^, animositdtem, ace. of animositds, 
vehemence. — L. animosus, vehement, full 
of mind or courage. — L. animus, mind, 
courage, passion. 

Anise, a herb. (F.— L. — Gk.) M.E. 
anese, anys.^Y. anis (Cot). — L. anisum ; 
also anethum^'^GV, aviaovy avtjaov, orig. 
&^ov, anise. 

AnkSTi a liquid measure. (Du. — LateL.) 
Du. anker, the same. — Late L. anceria, 
the same. 4" Swed. ankare ; G. anker \ from 
the same. 

Ankle« (E.) M.E. ancle*, also an- 

clowe. — O. Fries, ankel; also A.S. ancleow, 
with a longer suffix (cf. O. Fries, onklef),'^ 
Dan. and Swed. ankel \ Icel. bkkla (for 
onkla — *ankula) ; Du. and G. enkel. Per- 
haps allied to Skt. artguli, a finger, anga, 
a limb. 

Anna, a small coin ; see Ana. 

Annals. (F.— L.) F. annates, pi. sb. 

— L. annates, pi. adj., for li^i annates, 
yearly books, chronicles; from anndlis, 
yearly. — L. annus, a year. 

Anneal, to temper by heat. ( (i) E.; 
( 2 ) F. — L.) Two distinct words have been 
confused. 1. M. E. anelen, to inflame, 
kindle, heat, melt, bum. A. S. onalan, to 
bum, kindle; from on, prefix, and atan, to 
bum. Cf. A. S. aled, fire. 2. M. E. anelen, 
to enamel glass. — Prefix a- (perhaps = F. d, 
L. ad) ; and O. F. neeter, nieler, to enamel, 
orig. to paint in black on gold or silver. — 
Late L. nigetlare, to blacken. —L. nigellus, 
blackish ; from niger, black. 

Annex. (F. — L.) F. annexer. — L. an- 
nexus, pp. of annectere, to knit or bind to. 

— L. an- (for ad), to ; and nectere, to bind. 
Annihilate. (L.) L. annihitdtus, pp. 

of annihitdre, to reduce to nothing. — L. 
an- (for ad), to ; and nihil, nothing. 

Anniversary. (L.) For 'anniver- 
sary memorial.' — L. anniuersdrius, re- 
turning yearly. — L. anni- (from anno-), 
from annus, a year ; and uersus, pp. of 
uertere, to turn (see Verae). 

Annotate, to make notes on. (L.) 
From pp. of L. annotdre, to make notes 
on.— L. an- (for cut), to, on; notdre, to 
mark, from nota, a mark. See Note. 

Announce. (F-L.) Y.annoncer.^^ 
L. annuntidre, to announce. — L. an- («= 
ad)fio\ nuntidre, to bring tidings, from 
nuniius, a messenger. See Nunoio. 

Annoy, to vex. (F.—L.) lA,'E,anoien, 
anuien. — O. F. anoier, anuier, to annoy. — 
O. F. anoi, anui (F. ennui), vexation. Cf. 
Span, enojo, O. Venetian inodio, vexation. 

— L. in odio, lit. in hatred, common in the 
Late L. phr. in odio hahui, lit. I had in 
hatred, I was annoyed with ; cf. L. in odio 
esse, to be hated by (Cicero). —L. in, in; 
odio, abl. oi odium, hatred. 

Annual, yearly. (F.— L.) M. E. an- 
nuel. — F. annuel. — L. annudlis, yearly. — 
L. annus, a year. 

annuity. (A. F. — L.) A. F. annuity; 
A. D. 1304. — Late L. annuitdtem, ace. of 
annuitds.'^'L. annus, a year. 

Annul. (L.) L. annul Idre, to bring to 



nothing. i-L. aft' {for ad), to; nui/us, no 
one ; see Null. 

Annulary like a ring. (L.) L. annu- 
laris, adj. ; from annuTuSt a ring, eariier 
spelling anulus ; dimin. of L. anus, a 
rounding, a circular form (Lewis). 

Anocmiey a dmg to allay pain. (L.— 
Gk.) aVi cent. Late L. anodynus, a 
dmg relieving pain. — Gk. ov6i^vo^^ free 
from pain. «• Gk. dv-^ not; and hlxnn^y 

Anoint. (F.— L.) M. E. a^i^'n/, used 
as a pp.Banointed.— O. F. enoint, pp. of 
enoindre, to anoint. — O. F. en, upon ; 
oindre^ to smear. — L. in, upon; ungere^ 
to anoint. See Unguent. 

Anomaly. (Gk.) Gk. dw/iaX^a, de- 
viation from rule. — Gk. df ^^ioAor, uneven. 

— Gk. dv-y not ; and 6/iaXos, even, related 
to hyM, one and the same. 

Anon, immediately. (£.) M . £. awm, 
anoon ; also <man, A. S. on an, lit. *■ in 
one moment.' — A. S. on, on, in ; dn^ one. 

Anonymous, nameless. (Gk.) Gk. 
itvifm/H'Os, nameless ; with -ous added. *• 
Gk. iy-, BSg, prefix ; and oyo/M, name. 

AnotiMT* (£0 For an otAer, one 

Answer, to reply. (£.) A. S. and- 
swerian, anaswarian, to answer, speak in 
reply; a weak verb. —A. S. andswaru, a 
reply. — A. S. and', against, in reply ; 
swtrian, to speak, to swear. The A. S. 
and' = G. ant' (in ani-worten) = Gk. i»ri ; 
ste Anti- and Swear. 

Ant. (E.) M. E. anUe, short for amete, 
A. S. Smeite, an emmet, ant. Doublet, 
emmet, q. v. 

Antagonist, an opponent. (L.— Gk.) 
Late L. antaganista.'^Gk, dvraycaiftffTfis, 
an opponent. — Gk. Avt', for dtrrt, against ; 
and 6rfcavi(oftai, I struggle, from Aydnf, a 
contest. (VAG.) 

Antarctic. (L.— Gk.) 1^ antarcticus. 

— Gk. darrapieTtK6s, southern, opposite to 
arctic. •Gk. dyr-, for dvri, opposite to; 
and dpKTiK6f, arctic. See Arotio. 

Ante-y prefix, before. (L.) L. ante, 
before. Allied to Anti-, q. v. 

Anteccdont. (L.) L. antecedent-, 
stem of pres. part, of antecedere, to go 
before. » L. ante, before ; cedere, to go. 

Antediluvian, before the flood. (L.) 
L. ante, before; diluuium, deluge, a 
washing away.«*L. diluere, to wash 
away. • L. di-, apart ; luere, to wash. 

Antelope. (F.-L.-Gk.) In Spenser, 


F. Q. i. 6. 26.-0. F. ante/op. -mLaie L. 
anta/opus.^Late Gk. 6»0o\ov-, the stem 
of dy$6Ko^, used by Eustathius of Antioch 
to signify some uncertain quadruped. Of 
unknown origin. 

Antennae, feelers of insects. (L.) L. 
antenna, pi. of antenna, properly the yard 
of a sail. 

Antepennltinia, the last syllable but 
two in a word. (L.) L. ante, before; 
P^enultima, fem. adj., last but one, from 
pcen-e, almost, ultima, last. 

Anterior. (L.) L. anterior, former, 
more in front, compar. adj. from ante, 

Anthem. (L.—Gk.) FoTmetly antem. 
A. S. antefn. ^htite L. antiphona, an an- 
them.— Gk. darri<pcg»a, considered as fem. 
sing., but really neut. pi. of &irri^>wvoi, 
sounding in response to ; from the alternate 
singing of the half-choirs. — Gk. 6yri, over 
against ; ^«^4}, voice, sound. 

Anther, the summit of the stamen of 
a flower. (Gk.) From Gk. di^^^s, bloom- 
ing. — Gk. &tfB€tv, to bloom ; wOos, a young 
bud or sprout. 

anthology, a collection of choice 
poems. (Gk.) Lit. a collection of flowers. 

— Gk. &vBo\<rp.a, a gathering of flowers. — 
Gk. Av$o\6yo^, flower-gathering. — Gk. 
&ifO<y', for Moi, a flower; and Xi'^av, to 

Anthracite, a kind of hard coal. 
(Gk.) Gk. dyBpouclrfj^f resembling coals. 

— Gk. dvBpcuC', stem of &vBpa^, coal. 
Anthropophagi, cannibals. (Gk.) 

Lit. * men-eaters.* — Gk. dvBpamwjMyoi, 
man-eating. — Gk. Mponros, a man; and 
<payuv, to eat. (-^BHAGw; Brugm. i. 
§ 641.) 

Anti-, Ant-y prefix, against. (Gk.) 
Gk. 6vri, against; allied to L. ante^ 
before. Cf. Skt. anti, over against, allied 
to anta, end ; see End. % In anti-cipate, 
the prefix is for L. ante* 

Aniac, fanciful, odd; as sb. a trick. 
(Ital. -L.) Orig. an adj. Adopted in 
the XVI cent, from Ital. antico, with the 
sense of * grotesque * ; lit. antique, old. — 
L. antiquus, old. See Antique. 

Antichrist. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
Antecrist.^L. Antichristus (Vulgate). 

— Gk. dyrixpiffTos (i John ii. 18). — Gk. 
dyri, against; xP^ffroSf Christ. 

Anticipate. (L.) From the pp. of L. 
anticipdre, to take beforehand.— L. anti-, 
before ; and capere, to take. 



AntieliluaaE. (Ok.) From Anti- and 

Antidote. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. anti- 
dote. «> L. antidotum^ a remedy. — Gk. tuvri- 
doroi', a remedy; a thing given as a 
remedy. *iGk. di^rc, against; ^r6v^ neat, 
of ^r6%^ given, from SlSojfu, I give. 

Antimony, a metal. (Late L.) Late 
L. antimonium, (XI cent.) Origin un- 

Antipathy. (Gk.) From Gk. avTirt&' 
Ofia, antipathy, lit. * a suffering (feeling 
strongly) against.' * Gk. dvri, against ; 
noBtty, to suffer. See Pathos. 

Antiphon. (L.-Gk.) L&ie Isanti- 
phma^ an anthem ; see Anthem. 

Antiphrasis. (Gk.) SeeAnti-and 

AntioodeS. (Gk.) Gk-at^rtVoScr^pl., 
men with feet opposite to ours, from nom. 
sing. dKTiirovs. — Gk. ^vri^ opposite to ; and 
rr€m^ foot, cognate with Foot. 

Antique, old. (F.-L.) T. antique,^ 
L. antiquuSf also antuus, formed with 
sufRx 'tcus from ante, before ; as posticus is 
from post, behind. Doublet, antu. 

Antiseptic, counteracting putrefac- 
tion. (Gk.) Gk. dvri, against ; and 
fffjirTiKos, putrefying, <njin'-6s, rotten, from 
(rfyirtiVy to rot. 

Antistrophe. (Gk.) From Anti- 
and Strophe. 

Antithesis. (Gk.) From Anti- and 

Antitype. (Gk.) From Anti- and 

Antler. (F.) M. E. auntelere, for 
auniolier (^).^0. F. antoillier^ said to 
have been once in use (Littre). In this 
case the O. F. word is supposed to be 
equivalent to a Late L. ^antoculdrem^ ace, 
i. e. the branch (of the horn) in front of 
the eyes; cf. G. augen-sprosse, a brow- 
antler (lit. eye-sprout). See Romania^ iv. 
349. From ante, before, and oculus, the 

Anns, the lower orifice of the bowels. 
(L.) L. anus. 

AnviL (F.) M. E. anvelt, anfeld, an- 
felt, A. S. anfilte, onfiUi. — A. S. an, on, 
on, upon; and a verb *JUltan (see below), 
causal of *fealtan, to infix, redupl. verb 
cognate with O. H. G. *falzan, M. H. G. 
v(3zen, whence G./alz, a groove, fl" Some 
derive it from on and jealdan, to fold ; 
however, the O. H. G. anafalz, an anvil, 
is not derived from ana, on, ^n^faldan. 

to fold up, but from M. H.G. valzen^ as" 
above. Cf. L. incus, an anvil, from in, 
on, and cUderCy to strike; and note the 
A. S. gloss: ^ Cudo, percutio, anfilte;* 
Voc 217. 5. 

Anxions. (L.) L. anxi-us, distressed ; 
with sufiix -ous.^'L. angere, to choke, 

Any. (E.) A. S. anig, any ; from dtt, 
one, with sufiix -ig (E. -y). + Du. eenig, 
from een, one; G. einiger, from ein, one. 
See One. 

Aorta. (L.— Gk.) Late L. aorta. ^ 
Gk. dio^Ti\, the great artery * rising ' from 
the heart. — Gk. dtiptffOai, to rise up ; 
ddfxtv, to raise. 

Apace. (E. and F.) For a pace, i. e. 
at a (good) pace ; where a is put for 
on (cf. a-/oot) ; see A- (2). Pace, M. E. 
pas, is from F. pas (L. passus). See 

Apart, aside. (F.-L.) F. a part, 
apart, alone, singly; Cot.^L. ad partem, 
lit. to the one part or side, apart. — L. ad, 
to ; partem, ace. oipars, a part. 

apartment, a separate room. (F. — 
ItaL — L.) F. appartement. — Ital. appar- 
tamento,Bn apartment, a partition, lit. sepa- 
ration. — Ital. appartare, to separate. — 
Ital. a parte, apart. — L. <»/ partem ; see 

Apathy. (Gk.) From Gk. dithB^ia, 
want of feeling. • Gk. d-, not ; itaBuv, to 
suffer. See PathoSi 

Ape. (E.) M. £. ape ; A. S. ri/a.4-Du. 
cutp; Icel. api\ Swed. apa-, G. affe\ 
Irish apa (from E.) ; O. Bohem. op. 

Aperient. (L.) XVII cent. Lit. 

* opening.' — L. aperient-, stem of pres. pt. 
of apertre, to open. Perhaps from ap-, old 
form of aby from, away, and -1/^-3= Lith. 
wer- in werti, to move (to and fro), 
whence Lith. ai-werti, to open. Brugm. 
i. § 361. 

Apex. (L.) L. apex, summit. 

Aph-, prefix. (Gk.) See Apo-. 

Aphsoresis, the taking away of a 
letter or syllable from the beginning of 
a word. (L.~ Gk.) Late L, apkaresis.'^ 
Gk. dxpcupeais, a taking away. — Gk. d<p', for 
ano, away ; atptois, a taking, from alptiv, 
to take. See Heresy. 

Aphelion, the point in a planet's orbit 
farthest from the sun. (Gk.) Coined from 
Gk. dfj>-, for d'n6, from ; jfAios, the sun. 

Aphorism, a definition. (Gk.) Gk. 
d<l>opifffji6s, a definition. «-Gk. d(popi^uv, to 



define, limit. « Gk. axp-, for diro, off; 
6pi{ftv, to limit, from SpoSj a boundary. 

Apiary, a place for bees. (L.) L. api- 
drium, neat, of apidrius, belonging to 
bees. — L. api-, stem of apis, a bee. 

Apiece. (£. aftd F.) Orig. (at so 
mncn) a pUce^ where a is the indef. article. 

JLj^^ prefix, off. (Gk.) Gk. &ii6, off, 
from ; cognate with £. of, off\ see Of. It 
becomes c^h- before an aspirate. 

Apocalyvse. (L.-Gk.) M.£. apo- 
caltps (Wyaif). — L. apocalypiis, — Gk. 
diro«dAv^<;, a revelation. — Gk. dvoKakknt- 
T€tv, to uncover, reveal. — Gk. dir6, off; 
and itaAvirrccy, to cover. Cf. Koktd, a cot. 

Apocope. (L.— Gk.) L..apoccpe. ^Gkx 
diroKowff, a cutting ofif (of a letter). — 
Gk. dwi, off ; and K6nTttv, to hew, cut. 

ApocrTplUk (Gk.) Lit. 'hidden 
things ; * nence, uncanonical books of the 
Old Testament. — Gk. dwSnpwpa, neut. pi. 
of dw6Kfn^, hidden. — Gk. dwoKf^vnTuv, 
to hide away.— Gk. diro, from, away; 
HpvwTfiPf to hide. 

ApolfeCy the point of the moon's orbit 
furthest from the earth. (F. - L. - Gk ' F. 
apogie (Cot.). — L. apogatim, — Gk. dir^- 
yaicfv, neut. of dv^aiof, away from earth. 
— Gk. dird, away from ; 7$, earth. 

Apologue, a fable, story. (F.-.L.- 
Gk.) F. apologue, — L. apologus, - Gk. 
dnoXoyoi, a fable. — Gk. aitd, off; A^09, 
speech, from \4yuv, to say. 

apology, a defence. (L. — Gk.) L. 
apo/ogia. ^Gk, diroKoyUiy a speech made in 
defence. — Gk. dw6, off; A^os, a speech 

Apophthegm, Apothegm. (Gk.) 

Gk. dw6ip$€yfta, a thing uttered, a terse 
saying. — Gk. dH, off, out ; and tpOiYtoiuu, 
I cry aloud, utter. 

Apoplexjr. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) F. 
apoplexie.^LAie L. apoplexia^^Gk, dwo- 
wK^ia, stupor, apoplexy. — Gk. dironK'^ir- 
attv, to cripple by a stroke. — Gk. dir6,off; 
wK^aativ, to strike. 

Apoetanr. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) F. 
aposlasie. — Late L. apostasia, mmGk. diro- 
arturia^ late form for dvoaraan, revolt, lit. 
'a standing away from.* — Gk. ditd, off, 
away; arcurif, a standing, from era-, 
base allied to i^rrtf/u, I place. Cf. Statics. 
apostate. (Late L. - Gk.) M. £. 
apostata, — Late L. apostata, ^Gk, dwo- 
ardrfitf a deserter, apostate. — Gk. diro, off ; 
ffrdriTr,, standing, from era' (see above). 

Apoitle. CL.-Gk.} A. S. aposfoi.^ 


L. apostolus. — Gk. dudcToKos, one who is 
sent ofif. — Gk. diro, off; <rrikKtiv, to send. 

Apostrophe. (L. — Gk.) L. apo- 
strophe, — Gk. dvoarpoipij, a turning away ; 
in rhetoric, a turning away to address 
some one else. — Gk. dvo^ away ; aTpi<p€tv, 
to turn. % In the sense of a mark used to 
denote an omission, it should be apostroph 
(L. apostrophus, Gk. dvSirrpotpos). 

Awthecary. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) 
M. E. apotecary, potecary,'^0, F. apote^ 
caire.^LAie L. apothecdrius, lit. a store- 
keeper.— Late L. apotheca, a store-house 
(esp. for drugs). — Gk. diro^#ri;, a store- 
house.— Gk. dir^, away ; ri'$rf'/u, I put. 

Apotheosis, deification. (L. — Gk.} 
L. apotheosis.^ Gk, dwo$iojffis, deification. 

— Gk. diro$€6ci, I deify, set aside as a god. 

— Gk. dir^, Kway, fully ; Bfoi, a sod. 
Appal, to terrify. (F.~L.) l^e present 

sense is late ; the M. £. apalled meant 
* rendered pale ' ; cf. Chaucer, C. T., 10679 
(F365). — O.F. apallir, apalir, appalir, 
to wax pale, also to make pale (Cot.).— 
O. F. a-, prefix ; O. F. pale, palle, pale. — 
L. ad, to ; pallidus, pale. Cf. Fale. 

Appanage, Apanage, provision for 

a dependent, &c. (F. — L.) O. F. apanage 
(also appanage), properly, a provision for 
maintenance. — O. F. apaner, lit. to supply 
with bread (Late L. appdndre).^!^. ap- 
(for ad), to, for ; pdn-is, bread. 

Apparatus, gear. (L.) L. apparatus, 
preparation. — L. appardtus, pp. of appa- 
rare, to prepare for. — L. ad, for ; pardre, 
to get ready. 

Apparel, to clothe. (F.— L.) M. £. 
aparailen, — O. F. apareilier, to dress, 
apparel. — O. F. «, to ; pareiller, parailler, 
to assort, put like tmngs with like, to 
arrange, from pareU, like, similar. — L. 
ad, to; Med. L. pariculus (Ducange 
has paricla, paricula), similar, from L. 
pari', stem oipar^ equal. Cf. Far. Der. 
aptarel, s. 

Apparition. (F.-L.) Y.apparitiofu 

— L. ace. appdritidnem.^h. a^drere, to 
appear. See Appear. 

apparitor, an officer who attends 
magistrates to execute their orders; an 
officer who serves the process of a spiritual 
court. (L.) L. apparitor, an attendant, 
lictor.— L. appdrere, to appear as attend- 
ant, wait on. See Appear. 
Appealf V. (F.-L.) M. £. apeUn, - 
O. F. apelcr, to call. — L. appeildre, to 
address, call upon; a secondary form, 



from appelUrey to drive to, incline towards ; 
from ll ap' (for ad)^ to ; pellere, to drive. 

Appear, to become visible. (F.— L.' 
M. £. aperen. — O. F. aper-^ tonic stem (as 
in pres. subj. apere) of O. F. apareir^ 
aparoir^ to appeiir. — L. appdrere. ^L.. ap- 
(for ad\ to, forth ; pdrere, to come in 
sight, also spelt /arr^r^. Cf. Apparition. 

Appease. (F. — L.) M. £. apesen, 
apatsen, — A. F. apeser^ apeiser^ O. F. 
apeser (F. apatser)^ to bring to a peace.— 
O. F. a peisy a pais, to a peace. * L. a/ 
pdceniy to a peace. See Peace. 

Appellant. (F.-L.) F. appellant, 
pres. pt. of appelUr, O. F. apeler, to 
appeal ; see Appeal. 

Append, to attach. (F.— L.) Formerly 
also M. £. apenden^ to pertain to. — O. F. 
apendre, to depend on. — L. append^re, for 
L. appenderey to hang to or npoii. — L. ap- 
(for cui)y to ; pendere, to hang. 

appendix, an addition. (L.) L. 
appendix, — L. appendlfre, to suspend upon. 
— L. ap- (for aii)y to ; pendSre, to weigh. 

Appertain. (F.-L.) M. E. aper- 
tenen, —OF. apartenir (F. appartenir)^ 
to belong to. — L. ap' (for ad)y to ; per- 
tinere, to belong. See Pertain. 

Appetite. (F.-L.) O. F. appetit.'^ 
L. appetituSy an appetite ; lit ' assault 
upon. — L. appeterey to attack. — L. ap- (for 
€id)y to ; petere, to seek, attack. 

Applaud. (L.) L. applauderey to 
applaud. — L. a/- (for ad)y at ; plaudere, to 
applaud, clap (hands). Der. apploMsCy 
from pp. applausus, 

Apple. (£.) ME. <i;^/. K,S.appel, 
apl.'^DvL. appel\ Icel. <r^/t; Swed. <z//f ; 
Dan. <;^Z;; G.apfel'y liizh. ahhal\ Gael. 
ubhal\ W. ^/; Russ. iabloko\ Lithnan. 
obolys. Origin unknown. Some connect 
it with Abella in Campania ; cf. Verg. 
^n. vii. 740. 

Apply. (F.-L.) M.E.fl/^^».-O.F. 
aplur.^'L. applicdre, to join to, turn or 
apply to. — L. ap- (for ad)y to ; plicdre, to 
fold, twine. Der. appli-ance \ also appli- 
caiion (K. amplication), 

Appoggiatura, a grace-note or passing 
tone prenxed, as a support, to an essential 
note of a melody. (Ital. — L. and GV.^ 
Ital. appoggiaturay lit. a support. — Ital. 
appoggiare, to lean upon. — Ital. ap- (for 
ad\ to, upon ; poggioy a place to stand or 
lean on, &c. — L. ady to ; podium, an ele- 
vated placet A balcony, from Gk. nobiov. 
See Few. 


Appoint. (F. - L.) M. E. apoifUen. - 
O. F. qpointery to prepare, arrange, settle. 

— Late L. appufutdrey to repair, appoint, 
settle a dispute ; Ducange. — L. ap- (for euL) \ 
Late L. pufutdrCy to mark by a point, from 
Late L. pututa, a prick, fem. of punctus, 
pp. ; see Point. Der. disappoint. 

Apportion. (F.— L.) F. apportiotur, 
to portion out to. — F. ap- (put for a before 
/, in imitation of L. aP'^ad)y to; portunty 
a portion ; see Portion. 

Appose. (F. — L.) Y,app05er\ formed 
to represent L. appdnerCy on the analogy of 
composer y exposer, and other presumed re- 
presentatives of compounds of L. pdnere ; 
but really formed on F. poser (Irom L. 
pausdre). See Pose. 

Apposite. (L.) L. appositusy suitable ; 
pp. of apponerey to put near. — L. ap^ (for 
ad)y to ; pdnere, to put. See Position. 

Appraise. (F.-L.) .M. E. a/rai>^i{, 
to vame. — O. F. *apreiser (cf. O. F. apre- 
tier in Roquefort). — O. F. a-, prefix ; 
Preiser y to value, from preis, value, price. 

— L. cidy at ; pretium, a price. 

appreciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

appretidrey to value at a price.— L. 0/- 
(for ad\y at ; pretium, a price. 

Apprehend. (F.-L.) Y , apprehendre 
(Cot.). — L. apprehendere, orig. to lay hold 
of. — L. ap- (ror ad)y to, k\.\ prehettdere, 
to grasp. See Prehensile. 

apprentice. ^F.—L.) O.Y.aprentiSy 
nom. of aprentif (see Godefroy, s.v. 
aprentic). The O. F. aprentis, aprentif y 
represent Late L. *apprenditlvuSy nom., 
and *apprenditivumy ace, from a Late L. 
*apprenditusy used as a pp. of L. 
apprendere, to leani, short for L. appre- 
hendere, to lay bold of (above). 

apprise, to inform. (F. — L.) From 
the m.. E. sb. aprise, information, teach- 
ing. — O. F. aprisey instruction. — O. F. 
appriSy aprisy pp. oi aprendre, to learn.— 
L. apprendere (above). 

Approach. (F.-L.) lA,Y,,approchen, 
aprocken. — O. F. aprochier, to approach. — 
L. appropidrey to draw near to (Exod. iii. 
5). — L. ap- (for ad)y to; prope, near. 

Approbation. (F.-L.) Y. approba- 
tion. — L. ace. approbatidnem, approval. — 
L. approbdtusy pp. ofapprobdre, to approve. 
See Approve. 

Appropriate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
appropridrcy to make one's own. — L. ap- 
(for cui)y to; proprius^ one's own. See 




Approve. (F. — L.) O. F. approver. - 
L. approbdre^ to approve. — L. ap- (for ad), 
to ; probdrey to lest, try, esteem as good. 
Der. apprtHval\ dis-afiprovt. 

Apf^ximate. CL.) From pp. of L. 
approximdre, to draw near to.*L. ap- 
(for ad),X.o\ proximuSy very near, superl. 
adj. {roxxLpropey near. 

Appurtenance. (F.-L.) h'.¥,apur' 

ienaunce (O. F. apartenance)y that which 
l)elongs to. — O. F. aparteniry to belong to. 
Siee Appertain. 

Apncot. (F.-Port. - Arab. - Gk.- 
L.) Formerly also apricocky from Port. 
albricoque directly. Also abricot, — F. 
abricoty * the abricot, or apricock plum ; ' 
Cot. — Port, albricoque, — Arab, al barquqy 
where al is the def. art. ■- Mid. Gk. vpcuKo- 
luov (Dioscorides) ; pi. vpaiK6/cia. The 
pi. vpaiK6«ia was borrowed from L. pra- 
coguay apricots, neut. pi. of pracoquusy 
another form of pracoxy precocious, early 
ripe (Pliny; Martial, 13. 46). — L. /«?, 
beforehand; and coquerey to cook, ripen. 
See FrecooiouB and Cook. % Thus the 
word reached us in a very indirect manner. 

April. (L.) L. Aprilis ; said to be so 
named because the earth then opens to 
produce new fruit. — L. a/^ri>v, to open; 
see Aperient. 

Apron. ( F . — L. ) Formerly napron. — 
O. F. naperoHy a large cloth ; augmentative 
form of O. F. ftapey a cloth (F. nappe), '^ 
L. viappay a napkin, cloth (with change of 
m to Hy as in F. ttaite^ a mat). See 

Apse. (L. — Gk.) Now used of a recess 
at tne end of a church; formerly apsey 
apsisy a turning-point of a planet's orbit. — 
L. apsis y pi. apsides y a bow, turn. — Gk. 
iaffiSy a tying, fastening, felloe of a wheel, 
curve, bow, arch. — Gk. &vruvy to tie, bind. 

Apt, fit. (L.) XIV cent. L. apt us y 
usea as pp. of apisciy to reach, get, but 
really pp. of O. Lat apere^ to fit or join 
to|;ether. ^ 

Aquatic. (L.) L. aqUaticuSy pertain- 
ing to water. — L. aqua, water. 

aqua-fortis. - L. aqua fortiSy strong 

aqnarinm.-L. aqudriutHy a water- 
vesscl. -■ L. aquUy water. 

aqnarins. — L. aqudriusy a water- 
bearer.— L. aaua, water. 

aqiiedlIci.-L* aquaduclusy a con- 
duit ; from aqua, gen. of aquUy water, and 
ductus f A duct ; see Duot. 

aqueous. As if from L. *aqueuSy adj., 
a form not used. — L. aquOy water. 
Aquiline, like an eagle. (F. — L.) F. 
aquilin ; hence nez aquilitty ^ a nose like 
an eagle ; * Cot. — L. aquilinusy adj. from 
aquila, an eagle. Cf. £agle. 

Arabesque. (F.-Ital.-Arab.) XVll 

cent. F. Arabesquey Arabian-like; also 
full of flourishes, like fine Arabian work. 

— Ital. Arabesco; where -esco^'E, -ish.^ 
Arab. *araby Arabia. 

Arable. (F. — L.) F. arable, - L. 
ardbilisy that can be ploughed. — L. ardre, 
to plough. (VAR.) See Ear (3). 

Arbiter. (L.) In Milton. — L. arbitery 
a witness, judge, umpire. 

arbitrary. (L.) In Milton. - L. 
arbitrdriuSy orig. like the decision of an 
umpire. — L. arbitrdre, to act as umpire. 

— L. arbiter (above). 

arbitrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

arbitrdre y to act as umpire (above). 
Arboreous, belonging to trees. (L.) . 
L. arbore-us, adj. from arbor, a tree ; with 

suffix 'OUS. 

Arbour, a bower. (F.— L.) The word 
seems to be really due to M. E. herbere, 
also erberey from O. F. herbiery L. her- 
bdriuffiy a herb-garden, also an orchard. — 
L. herbay grass, herb. The special sense 
was due to confusion with L. arbory a 

Arc. (F.-L.) XIV cent. Y.arc.^ 
L. arcuniy ace. of arcus, a bow, arch, arc. 
arcade. (F.—Ital.— L.) F. arcade. 

— Ital. arcatay an arched place ; fern, of 
pp. of arcare, to arch. — Ital. arcOy a bow, 

— L. ace. arcum (above). 

Arcana. (L.) L. arcdnoy things kept 
secret, secrets. — L. arcerCy to keep. 

Arch (0, a vault, &c. (F.-L.) O. F. 
arcJUy a cnest, box (L. area, see Ark) ; 
also, by confusion, an arch, owing to the 
use of Med. Lat. area with the sense of 
L. arcuSy a bow, arch. See Arc. 

Arck (2), roguish, waggish. (L.— Gk.) 
* So arch a leer ;' Tatler, no. 193. The 
examples in the New £. Dictionary prove 
that it is nothing but the prefix Arch-, 
chief (for which see below), used separately 
and peculiarly. Cf. ' The most arch act * 
in Shak. Rich. III. iv. 3. a ; 'An heretic, 
an arch one;' Hen. VIII. iii. 3. loa. 
Also ' Byends ... a very arch fellow, a 
downright hypocrite' ; Bnnyan's Pilgrim's 
Progress. A. S. arce-y O.F. arche-y L. 
archi'y Gk. d/»x*" (prefix). See below. 



Arch-, i^efix^ chief. (L.-Gk.) The 
form arch^ is due to A. S. arce-y as in ca^ce- 
bisceop^ an archbishop, and to O. F. arche-, 
as in arche'diacre, an archdeacon. This 
form was borrowed from L. archi'^G\i, 
cLpxi'y as in dpx(-cto''^o*o^) <^ archbishop. 

— Gk. &pxfaff to be first, to mle ; cf. Gk. 
^XVf beginning. Der. arch-biskop, arch- 
deacon^ &c. ; bat, in arch-angely the ch 
remained hard (as k) in the Romance 
languages, on account of the following a. 
Cf. Ital. arcangeloj Span, arcangel. 

arclL»0l0gy. (,Gk.) Gk. dpx«oAo7ta. 

— Gk. dpxa<V>s, ancient, which is from 
^PX4} the beginning ; and the suffix -logy^ 
Gk. -Xo7(a, due to Khfo^^ discourse, from 
X^7C(y, to speak. 

arohaic. (Gk.) Gk. dpxcuK6sy antique, 
primitive. — Gk. ipxiuos, old.-»Gk. <i/>x4i 
a beginninjg. 

arcluusm. (Gk.) Gk, dpx(uafi6s, an 
antiquated phrase. ^ Gk. Apx^^C^^t to 
speak antiquatedly. -• Gk. &px<uoSj old 

Arohier. (F.— L.) M. £. archer. ^ 
A. F. archer; O. F. archier, a bow-man. 
*Late L. arcdrius, a bow-man; from 
arcus, a bow. 

ArohetSTpOi the original type. (F.- 
L. — Gk.) F. archetype, * a principall 
type ; * Cot. — L. archetyprum, the original 
pattern. — Gk. &px€Tvwov, a model ; neut. 
of dpxtTvnos, stamped as a model. — Gk. 
d/>xc-B<ipx(-f prefix (seeArchi-); rihros, 
a type. 

jUChi-i prefixy chief. (L.— Gk.) L. 
archi'y for Gk. apxi- ; see Arch-. 

archima]idxite.(L.-Gk.) l^archi- 

piandrita, a chief or principal of monks, 
an abbot. — Late Gk. dpxifov^rriSf the 
same. — Gk. ApxH chief; in&vhpa, an en- 
closure, fold, .afterwards a monastery. See 
Aroh- and Madrigal. 

archipelMOy chief sea, i. e. Aegean 
sea. Jtal.— Gk.) Ital. 0n*f^^/a^i0, modified 
to archipelago. — Gk. d/)x*-, chief; and 
viXayos, sea. 

architect. (F,-L.-Gk.) Y,archi- 
tecte.'^lj, architectuSy the same as archi- 
tectdn,^Gk, dpxiriKrafy^ a chief builder 
or artificer. — Gk. dpxi-, chief (see Archi-) ; 
riicTWy a carpenter, builder. 

architrave. (F. — Ital. - L. attd Gk.) 

In Milton. — F. architrave,^liaX. archi- 
iraoe, the part of an entablature resting 
immediately on the column. A barbarous 
compound ; from Gk. d^X'** prefix, chief, 


principal, and Lat. trabem, ace. of trcU^s, 
a beam. See Trave. 

ArchiveSy s. pi., public records ; but 
properly an archive is a place where re- 
cords are kept. (F.— L.— Gk.) F. ar- 
chify pi. archives; Cot. — L. archiuuniy 
archium, — Gk. dpxtiovy a public building, 
residence of magistrates. — Gk. dpyrj, a 
beginning, a magistracy. 

Arctic. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E.ariik.^ 
O. F. artique; F. antique. ^h. arcticus. 

— Gk. dpKTiK6sy near the constellation of 
the Bear, northern.- Gk. dpm-osy a bear. 
Cognate with L. urstis ; see Ursine. 
Der. ant'arctic. 

Ardent. (F.-L.) XIV cent. M.E. 
ardaufU.^O.Y. ardant, pres. part, of 
ardre, to bum. — L. ardent-em, ace of 
pres. pt. of ardere, to bum. 

ardour. (F.— L.) O.F. ardour, ardor, 
heat. — L. ardorem, ace. of ardor, a burn- 
ing, fervour.— L. ardere, to bum. 

Arduous. (L.) L. ardu-us, steep, 
difficult, high; with suffix -^t^.+Irish ard, 
high ; Gk. hpOhs, upright. 

ArCy pres. pi. of the verb substantive. 
(E.) O. Northumbrian aron, O, Merc. 
^rM^i, as distinguished from A.S.(Wessex) 
sint, sind, sindon,. Cf. led. er-u, they are. 
From the Idg. V^> to be ; from whence 
also are Skt. s-anti, Gk. c2(r-/v, L. S'unt, 
G. s-ind, Icel. er-u (for *w-»),they are. 

am. O. Northumb. am, O. Merc, earn, 
A. S. eom.'^SV.t. as-mi, Gk. el-/", Goth. 
i-my Icel. e-m ; &c. 

art. O. Northumb. arU, O. Merc. ear6 ; 
A.S. eart (with / due to -/ in sceal-t, shalt, 
&c). Icel. est, ert. 

is. A. S. fV.^-Icel. eSy later er. Cf. also 
Goth, and G. is-t, Skt. as-ti, Gk. ctr-rt, L. 
es't. See also Be, "Was. 

Area. (L.) XVI cent. L. area, an 
open space. 

Areca, a genus of palms. (Port.— 
Canarese.) Port, areca. — Canarese a^iH, 
a^ike, areca-nut ; r being substituted for 
the cerebral d (H. H. Wilson). Accented 
on the first syllable. 

Are&ction; see Arid (below). 

Arena. (L.) L« arenay sand ; the 
sanded space in which gladiators fought. 
Orig. harena ; cf. ^^hia.tfasenay sand. 
^Axgent. (F.-L.) White; in heraldry. 

— F. argent.^'L, argentum, silver; from 
its brightness. Cf. Gk; dpyvpos, silver, 
Skt. arfuna(s), white. (^ARG, to shine.) 
Bnigm. i. §§ 529, 604. See below. 



Argillaceous, clayey. (L.) L. ar- 
gilldceus^ adj. from argilla, clay, esp. 
white clay. Cf. Gk. <l/>7(5s, white. 

Argonaut. (L. — Gk.) Y.. argonauta. 
»Gk. ApyovavrrjSj one who sailed in the 
ship Argo. — Gk. ipy^, the name of Jason's 
ship (lit. swift, from dpy6Sf swift) ; and 
yavrrji, a sailor ; see Xafaxitical. 

ArgOSYf a merchant-vessel. (Dalma- 
tian.) ^rmerW spelt arguze and ragusy 
(see N. and Q. S. iv. 490 ; Arber's Eng. 
Gamer, ii. 67). The orig. sense was *a 
ship of Ragnsa,' which is the name of a 
port in Dalmatia. Ragnsa appears in 
XVI cent. E. as Aragouse, 

Al^e. (F.-L.) M.E. arguen,^ 
O. J*". arguer,^\A\.^ L. argutdre (L. ar- 
^/7/ar/), frequent, of arguere, to prove by 
argument, lit to make clear ; cf. argutus^ 

Arid, dry. (L.) XVII cent. "L.driduSy 
dry. — L. drere, to be dry. 

arefioctioil. (L.) XVI cent. Coined 
from L. drefacerey to make dry. — L. dre-re^ 
to be dry ; and/acere, to make. 

Arignt. (£.) For ^n^/i/, in the right 

Ariso. (E.) M. E. arisen, A. S. 
drtsan. — A. S. ^-, prefix ; rtsan^ to rise. 
Sec Bise. 

Aristocracy. (C^k.) Modified from 
Gk. Apurrotcpariaf government by the 
nobles or *best' men. — Gk. dpiaro-, for 
dptarot, best; and Kparttv, to be strong, 
govern, from Kparvs, strong. The form 
ap-iaros is a superlative from the base 
dp- seen in d^crJ}, excellence. TieT, aristo- 
cratic', whence aristocrat, for ' aristocratic 

Arithmetic. (F.-L.~Gk.) In Sh. 

— F. arithmitique ; Cot. — L. arithnietica. 

— Gk. dpi$/ifjTiicriy the science of numbers; 
fem. of dpi0firjriit6sy adj., from dpiOpU'UVy 
to number. — Gk. dptOfds, nun^ber, reckon- 

Ark, a chest, box ; hence a large float- 
ing vessel. (L.) A. S. arc.^h. arcay a 
chest, box ; cf. L. arcerty to keep. 

Arm (i)} part of the body. (E.) M.E. 
arm. A. S. ^<ir«.+Du. arm ; Icel. armr\ 
Dan., Swed., and G. arm ; Goth, arms; 
L. armusy the shoulder; Russ. ramoy 
shoulder. See Brugm. i. § 524. 

Arm (3), to furnish with weapons. (F. 
— L.) F. armer, » L. armdrCy to fur- 
nish with arms. — L. armay arms. 

anaada, a fleet. (Span.-L.) Span. 


amiaday an armed fleet ; fem. of armadoy 
pp. of armary to arm. — L. armdrcy to arm 
(above). Doublet, army, 

armadillOf an animal. (Span. — L.) 
Span, armcuiilloy lit. * the little armed one,' 
because of its hard shell. Dimin. of ar- 
madoy pp. of armar, to arm ; as above. 

armament. (L-) L. armdmentum, 
an equipment. — L. armdrCy to arm, equip. 
— L. armay arms. 

armature, doublet of armour. 

armistice. (F.— L.) Y. armistice,^ 
Mod. L. *armistitiumy coined on the 
analogy of sof^titiumy i. e. solstice. — L. 
armi-y for armay arms ; and -stitiumy for 
'Statium (through atonic position), from 
statumy supine of stdre^ to stand. (Cf. 

armour. (F. — L.) M. E. armoury ar- 
murC'^O. F. armurCy armeUre.^'L. ar- 
mdtUray armour. — L. armdtuSy pp. of 
armdre, to arm. — L. arma, arms. Doublet, 

arms, s. pi. weapons. (F.— L.) M. E. 
armes. — O. F. armesy pi. — L. armay neut. 
pi., arms, lit. * fittings. (V-^^j ^^ ^^0 

s^rmy, (F. — L.) O. F. armee, fem. of 
pp. of armery to arm. — L. armdtay fem. 
of pp. of armdrey to arm. — L. arma, 

Aroint thee ! begone ! Origin un- 
known. The usual reference to ryntye in 
Ray does not help us. 
Aroma, a sweet smell. (L.— Gk.) 
Late L. ^rJ/na.- Gk. dpojftOy a spice, 
sweet herb. Der. aromat-icy from the 
Gk. stem dpatpar; 

Around, prep, and adv. (E. and F. — 
L.) M. E. around; for on round; see 
A- (2) and Bound. 

Aronse. (£• ^^ Scand.) From A- (4) 
and Bouse. 

Arquebus, a kind of gun. (F.— Du.) 
F. arquebusey *an harquebuse, or hand- 
gun,' Cot. ; Walloon harkibuscy dialectal 
variation of Mid. Du. haeckbusse, Du. 
haakbuSy lit. ' a gun with a hook.* This 
refers to the hook whereby it was attached 
to a point of support. — Mid. Du. haecky 
Du. haaky a hook ; and Mid. Du. bussCy 
Du. busy a hand-barrel, a gun. See 

Arrack, an ardent spirit. (Arab.) 
Arab. *araqy sweat, juice, essence', distilled 
spirit. — Arab, root *araqay to sweat. 
% Sometimes shortened to Rcuk; cf. Span. 
raque, arrack. 




_ (F. — L.) M. E. araintH. — 
O. F. aretsnier, to speak to, discourse 
with, cite, arraign. »0. F. a (L. ad), to ; 
reisner, retsoner, to reason, from O. F. 
resort, ratson, reason, advice, from L. ace. 
raiionem ; see Beason. 

Anange. (F. - L. and O. H. G.) 
M. E. arayngtn, arengen, — O. F. arengier, 
to put into a rank. >0. F. a (L. ad), to ; 
rangier, rengier, to range, from O. F. 
rang, reng, a rank. See Bank. 

Arranty knavish, notoriously bad. (F. 
— L.) This word is now ascertained to 
be a mere variant of errant (cf. parson for 
person). Chaucer has theeferraunt, arrant 
thief, C. T. 1 71 73; and see Piers Plow- 
man, C. viL 307. See Errant. 

Anras, tapestry. (F.) So named from 
Arras, in Artois, north of France. 

Array, verb. (F. — L. and O. Low G.) 
O. F. arraier, to array. — O. F. arrai, 
arroi, preparation. — L. ad (becoming ar- 
before r),\.o, for ; O. Low G. and O. Fries. 
rede (cf. Goth, garaid-s), ready, A. S. 
rade, ready ; so that to array is ' to get 
ready.' See Beady. 

Arrears, sb. pi. (F.~L.) FromM.E. 
arere, adv., in the rear. — O. F. arere (F, 
arrive) , behind. — Late L. ad retro, back- 
ward.— L.iu/, to; rd/r<7, behind, fl What 
we now call arrears answers to M. E. 
arerages, s. pi. formed from M. E. arere 
with F. suffix -age. 

Arrest, to stop. (F.— L.) O. F. ares- 
ter (F. arriier), to stay.— O. F. a ( = L. 
ad), to; L. restore, to stay, remain, from 
re-, back, and stare, to stand ; see Best 

Arrive. (F.— L.) F. <irrrwr. — Late 
L. arrtpare, adrtpdre^ to come to shore, 
land. — L. ad, to ; rtpa^ shore, bank. Der. 

Arrogate. (L.) From pp. of L. arro- 
gdre, to ask, adopt, attribute to, add to. — 
L. ar- (for ad), to ; rogdre, to ask. Der. 
arrogant, from the pres. pt. 

Anrow. (E.) M,E. ar ewe, arwe, A.S. 
arwe, and ear A (rare).4- Icel. or, an arrow 
(gen. orvar) ; allied to Goth, arhwazna, 
an arrow. From Teut. base arhw- ; cog- 
nate with L. arC'Us, a bow. 

arrow-root. (£.) So called, it is said, 
because the tubers of the Maranta were 
used as an antidote against poisoned 

Arse. (E.) M. E. ars, ers. A. S. ars. 
+Gk. 6^poSf the rump. Idg. typ« *orsos. 

ArsenaL (Span.— Arab.) Span, ar- 
senaJy a magazine, dock-yard, arsenal; 
longer forms, atarazanal, atarazana, where 
the a- answers to Arab, a/, def. article. 
Cf. Ital. darsena, a wet dock. — Arab, ddr 
af-ftnd*aA, a house of construction, place 
for making things, dock-yard. — Arab, ddr, 
a house ; a/, the ; and finaah, art, trade, 

Arsenic. (L. — Gk. — Arab. - Pers.) 
Late L. arsenicum. — Gk. dpfffvticov, arsenic ; 
seeming to mean a male principle(the alche- 
mists had a strange fancy that metals were of 
different sexes). But really borrowed from 
Arab, az-zemtkh ; where az is for al, the, 
def. art., and zemikh, orpiment, is from 
Pers. zemi, orpiment, yellow arsenic (from 
zar, gold). See Devic, p. 4. 

Arson, incendiarism. (F.— L.) O. F. 
arson, incendiarism.— Late L. ace. ar- 
sidnem, a burning.- L. ars-us, pp. of 
ardere, to bum. See Ardent. ' 

Art (i), 2 p. s. pres. of verb. (£.) See 

Art (2), skill. (F.-L.) M.E. art.^ 
O. F. ar/.— L. artem, ace. oiars, skill. 

Artery. (L.— Gk.) L. ar/^rM, properly 
the wind-pipe; also, an artery. — Gk. aprri- 
pia, wind-pipe, artery. 

Artesian, adj. (F.) Artesian wells SlK. 
named from F. ArtisUn, adj. formed from 
Artois^ a province in the north of France, 
where these wells were early in use. 

Articlioke. (Ital. -Arab.) lULor//- 
ciocco, a corrupt form ; Florio also gives 
the spellings archiciocco, archicioffo ; also 
(without the ar, which answers to the 
Arab. def. art. a/, the) the forms carciocco, 
carcioffo, Cf. Span, dkachofa, an arti- 
choke. — Arab, al kharshufy or jiarshaf, an 
artichoke. % Not Arab, ardi shaukl 
(Diez), which is a modem corrupt form 
borrowed from Italian. 

Artidev a small item, part of speech. 
(F. — L. ) F. article. — L. articulus, a joint , 
knuckle, article in grammar ; lit. ' a small 
joint.' Dimin. of artus^ a joint, limb. 

articulate. (L.) L. articuldtus, dis- 
tinct; pp. of articuldre, to supply with 
joints, divide by joints.— L. articulus^ a 
joint (above). 

Artifice. (F.-L.) In MUton.-F. 
artifice, ^L.. artificium, a trade, handi- 
craft; hence skill. —L. arti-t stem of ars, 
art ; and -fie-, for facere, to make. Der. 
artific'er, a skilled workman. 

artillery. (F.-L.) O.Wartillerie, 



equipment of war, machines of war, in- 
cliu&ig cross-bows, &c., in early times. • 
O. F. ariilier, to equip.— Late L. *artil' 
Idre^ to make machines; a verb inferred 
from the sb. artillator^ a maker of machines. 
Extended from arti-j stem of ars^ art. We 
also find artillidtor, answering to an older 
*articuldtor\ also Late L. articulum, arti- 
fice; arfuuh,wct, 

aartiBaa, a workman. (F. - Ital. — L.) 
F. ariisan.mmJtsih artigianOy a workman.— 
Late L. *arttfidnus, not found, but formed 
from L. artitus, cunning, artfril. — L. or/t-, 
stem of arSf art 
ASy conj. (£.) M. £. or, ais, alse, also, 
al so, As\bk contraction of also. (Proved 
by Sir F. Madden.) See Also. 

▲satotidav Assafotidav a gum. 

(Med. L. — Pers. and L.) From Pers. dzd, 
mastic; the "L. faetida, fetid, refers to its 
offensive smell. See Fetid. 

Asbestos, a mineral. (Gk.) Gk. &- 
afitarotf unquenchable; because it is in- 
combustible.— Gk. d-, neg. prefix; and 
•afitOTOs, quenchable, from afiivyv/u, I 
quench, extinguish. See Brugm. i. § 653. 

Ascend. (L.) L. ascendere, to climb 
up.— L. ad, to; scandere, to climb. See 
Scan. Per. ascens-unty from pp. ascensus. 

Ascertain. (F. - L.) From O.F. 
acertainer, acertener, to make certain 
(with s inserted). ^¥,a {^L..ady to) ; and 
certain, certain. See Certain. 

Ascetic. (Gk.) Gk. a<rictjriK6s, given 
to exercise, industrious ; applied to hermits, 
who strictly exercised themselves in reli- 
gious devotion.— Gk. dir^n/T^s, one who 
practises an art, an athlete. — Gk. iantiv, 
to work, exercise; also, to mortify the 
body, as an ascetic. 

AscititionSf incidental. (L.) Coined, 
as if from L. *ascittcius, from ascitus, pp. 
of asciscere, ox adsciscere, to receive, learn. 
— L. a/, to; sciscergf to learn, inceptive 
form of sdr^, to know. 

Ascribe. (L.) L. ascrfbere, to write 
down to one's account —L. <i- (for euf), to ; 
scriberiy to write. 

Ash, a tree. (£.) M. £. asch, A. S. asc, 
4> Dn. esch ; Icel. askr ; Dan. and Swed. 
ask\ G. esche, Teut. type *askiz, Cf. 
Russ. iasem, Lith. £jf>, ash. 

Asluuned. (£•) A. S. dscamod, pp. of 
dscamtan, to put to shame.— A. S. d-, ex- 
tremely ; scamian, to shame, from scamu, 
shame. ^. Or for A. S. ofscamody with the 
same sense (with prefix if-^ off, very). 


I. (£.) The pi. of ashy which is 
little used. M. £. aschty axty sing. ; the 
pi. is commonly aschefty axen, but in North- 
em £. it is aschesy askes, A. S. asce, pi. 
ascan, axan, ascan.^Du. asch ; Icel. and 
Swed. aska\ Dan. aske\ Goth. azgOy pi. 
azgon ; G. ascht, Teut. stems *askdn-y 

Ashlar, Ashler, a facing made of 
squared stones. (F.— L.) It consists of 
thin slabs of stone for facing a building ; 
formerly applied to a square hewn stone ; 
and, probably, so called because it took 
the place of the wooden beams used for 
the same purpose.— O. F. aiseler (Livre 
des Rois), extended frt>m O. F. aiselUy 
aisieUy a little board, dimin. of ais^ a 
plank. — L. axilla, dimin. of L. axis an 
axis, also, a board, a plank. 

Ashore. (£.) For on shore. 

Aside. (£•) Fox on side. 

Ask. (£.) M. K ashen, axien, A. S. 
dsciany dhsian, dcsian ; the last answers to 
prov. £. ax, ^ Du. eischen ; Swed. dska ; 
Dan. aske ; G. heischeny O. H. G. eiscdft, 
Teut. types *a$shdny *aiskdjan. Cf. Russ. 
ishatey lAih. jiskoti, to seek ; Skt. ichchhd, 
a wish, desire, eshy to search. 

Askance^ obliquely. (Ital.— L.^ Spelt 
a-scance by Sir T. Wyat ; ascanche by Pals- 
grave, who gives de trotters, en lorgnant, 
as the F. equivalent. £tym. doubtful ; but 
prob. due to Ital. scansarcy * to go a-slope 
or a-sconee, or a-skew, to go sidelin ;' Florio. 

— Ital. J- ( = Lat ex, out of the way) ; and 
catisare, ' to go a-slope, give place ; ' Florio. 
This is derived, according to Diez, from L. 
campsdrey to turn round a place, bend 
round it ; cf. Gk. teAinrrHVy to bend. 

Askew, awry. (O. Low G.) For on 
skew ; Hexham gives M. Du. scheefy* askew, 
awry ; ' see Skew. 

Aslant. (Scand.) For on slant. 

Asleep. (£•) For on sleep ; Acts xiii. 

dILslope. (£•) For on slope. 

Asp, Aspic* a serpent. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
F. aspe, asptc.'^'L. aspidem, ace. of aspis, 

— Gk. ikartii (gen. iavihoi), an asp. 
AsparagnSf a vegetable. (L. — Gk.— 

Pers.'/) L. asparckgus,^Qi\i. dcvipayos. 
Supposed to be of Pers. origin ; cf. Zend 
fPareghay a shoot, a prong; Lithuan. 
spurgas, a shoot (Fick, Prellwitz). 
Aspect. (L.) L. aspectuSy look. — L. 
aspectuSy pp. of aspicerey to look. — L. a- 
Jor ad), to, at ; specere, to look. 



Aspen, Asp, a tree. (£.) M. £. aspy 
Chancer, C. T. 2923 ; aspen is an adj. (like 
goUUn), and is used for aspen-tree ; cf. Cb. 
C. T. 7249. A. S. aspe, aps. 4- Do. esp ; 
IceL ospy Dan. and Swed. asp ; G. espe, dspe. 
Cf. Lithnan. apuszis ; Ross, osina. 

Asperity. (F.-L.) Y.aspMtl^l.. 
asperttdiem, ace. oiasperitds, roughness. * 
L. asper, rough. 

Asperse, to cast calumny upon. (L.) 
From L. aspersus, pp. of aspergere, to 
besprinkle. — L. as- (for ad) ; spargere, to 

Asphalt. (Ok.) Gk. dff<t)a\TOS, SiffipaK- 
ToVy asphalt, bitumen. A foreign word. 

AspJiOdeL (Gk.) Gk. da<p69€\os, a 
plant of the lily kind. Der. daffodil, 
q. V. 

Asphyida, suffocation. (Gk.) Gk. d- 
ffipv^la, a stopping of the pulse; cf. d- 
<r<fwKTos^ without pulsation. * Gk. d-, not ; 
and ff<pv^iSf the pulse, from <r<pv(tiv, to pul- 
sate ; cf. a^vyfioSf pulsation. 

Aspire. (F.—L.) F.aj/, to breathe, 
covet, aspire to. — L. aspirdre, lit. to breathe 
towards. — L. a- (for ad), to; splrare, to 
breathe. Der. aspir-atey v. to pronounce 
with n full breathing. 

Ass. (C.~L.) Vi.'E,. asse. A.S. assa. 

— Irish assan.^lj. asinus; whence also 
W. asyn, Swed. dsna, Icel. asni. Hence 
also (or from L. dimin. aselius) came Irish 
asal, Du. ezel, Dan. and G. esel, Goth. 
asilus, Prob. of Semitic origin ; cf. Arab. 
atdn, Heb. dthmy a she-ass. 

Aff # f^-8 1. (F. - L.) M. E. asaiUn. - O. F. 
asaillir, to attack.— Late L. assaitre ; L. 
assiltre. — L. ad, to ; salire, to leap, rush 
forth. See Salient. 

Assart, the offence of grubbing up trees 
and destroying the coverts of a forest. (F. 

— L.) From A. F. assarter, F. essarter^ to 
grub up, clear ground of shrubs. — L. ex, 
out, thoroughly ; Late L. sartdre, frequent, 
of L. sarrire, sanre, to grub up weeds. 

Assassillf a secret murderer. (F. — 
Arab.) ¥. assassin. From Arab. Jjiashdshin, 
pi., eaters of ' hashish,' the name of a 
sect in the 13th century ; the * Old Man of 
the Mountain ' roused his followers' spirits 
by help of this preparation, and sent them 
to stab his enemies, esp. the leading cru- 
saders. — Arab, fyaskish, an intoxicating 
preparation from the dried leaves of Can- 
nabis indica, a kind of hemp. Cf. Arab. 
ftasAty, dry. 

Assault. (F.-L.) o.F. «jm//.-l. 


ad, to ; saUus, a leap, attack, from saltus, 
pp. of salire^ to leap. See A Mail. 

Assay, s. ; the same as Essaj, q. v. 

Assemble. (F.—L.) 0.¥. assembler. 
— Late L. assimuldre, to collect (different 
from L. assimuldre, to feign). — L. as- (for 
ad), to ; simul, together. 

Assent. (F.—L.) O.F,assenlir.^'L. 
assentire, to assent, agree to. — L. as- (for 
ad), to ; sentzre, to feel, perceive. 

AssCKrt. (L.) From L. assertus, pp. 
of asserere, to add to, claim, assert. — L. 
as- (for ad), to ; serere, to join, connect. 

Assess, to fix a tax. (F.—L.) O.F. 
assesser.^LaXt L. assessdre, to sit as as- 
sessor, to assess ; cf. L. sb. assessor, one 
who adjusted taxes ; orig. a judge's assis- 
tant, one who sat by him. — L. assessus, 
pp. of assidere, to sit near. See Assize (i). 

Assets, sufficient effects of a deceased 
debtor. (F. — L.) O. F. assez (pron. assets), 
sufficient (to pay with) ; properly an adv., 
but, in £., mistaken to be a pi. sb. — L. ad 
satis, up to what is enough. 

Asseverate. (L.) L. asseuerdtus, pp. 
of asseuerdre, to speak in earnest. — L. as- 
(for ad), to ; seuerus, earnest. 

Assiduous. (L.) L. assidu-us, sitting 
down to, applying closely to ; with suffix 
-ous.^h. assidire, to sit near. — L. as- (for 
ad), at, near ; sedere, to sit. See Sit. 

Assign. (F. - L.) O. F. assigner, - 1-. 
assigndre, to assign, mark out to. — L. as- 
(Jot ad), to; signdre, to mark. from signum, 
a mark, sign. 

Assinmate. (L.) From pp. of L. as- 
simildre, to make like to. — L. as- (for ad), 
to ; similis, like. See Similar. 

Assist. (F. — L.) F. assister. — L. as- 
sistere, to step to, approach, assist. — L. as- 
(for ad\, to ; sistere, to place, stand, from 
stare, to stand. 

Assise (i),a session of a court of justice. 
(F.—L.) M. E. assise.^ O.F. assise, an 
assembly of judges ; also a tax, an impost. 
Probably fem. pp. of O. F. asseoir, to sit 
near, assist a judge. — L. assiiiere, to sit 
near ; see Assiduous, Assess. 

assise (2), a fixed quantity or dimen- 
sion. (F. — L.) O. F. assise, a tax, impost ; 
the Late L. assisa was also used in the 
sense of a fixed allowance of provisions. 
The same word as the above. Another 
form is Size, q. v. 

Associate. (L.) From pp. of L. as- 
socidre, to join to. — L. as- (for ad-\ to; 
socidre, to join, associate. — L. socius, a 



companion, lit follower. *L. sequtt to 
follow. See Sequence. 

Assoilf to absolve, acqnit. (F.— L.). 
M. £. assoilen. — O. F. as{s)oilU, pres. subj. 
of assoudrCj asoldre, to absolve. — L. d^ 
soluere, to absolve. — L. ab, from; soluere^ 
to loosen. See Solve. Doublet, absolve. 

Assonant. (L.) "L. assonant-, st^moi 
assonanSf sounding like ; pres. pt. ofasson- 
are, to respond to. — L. as- (for oii-), to ; 
sondre, to sound, from sonus, sound. 

Assort. (F. — L.') O. F. assortir, to 
sort, assort, match (15th century). — O.F. 
OS' («L. Of-, for L. ad), to ; sort-, stem of 
L. j^^rr, lot. See Sort. < 

Assuage. (F.-L.) O. F. asouagier, 
ascagier, to soften, appease ; (Prov. asua- 
viar). — F. a ( = L. acT), to ; and L. suduts, 
sweet See Sua^re. 

Assume. (L.) L. assumere (pp. Af- 
sumptus), to take to oneself.— L. at- (for 
o^, to; sumere, to take, which is from 
emere, to take, with a prefix of doubtful 
origin. Der. assumpt'ion (from the pp.). 

AMMta^m (F.— L.) M.E. assuren,^ 
O. F. aseUrer, to make secure. — O. F. a 
( = L. aa), to; seiir, sure, from L. securus, 
secure, sure. See Sure. 

Aster, a flower. (Gk.) Gk. Aariip, a 
star. See Star. 

asterisk. (Gk.) Gk. Aar€plcrKos, a 
little star, also an asterisk *, used for dis- 
tinguishing fine passages in MSS. — Gk. 
Aartp-, stem of darrip, a star. 

asteroidy a minor planet (Gk.^ Pro- 
perly an adj., signifying * star-like. — Gk. 
daT€po-€i^St star-like. — Gk. dartpo-, for 
dtrrffp, a star ; and t76-os, form, figure. 

AjrtJmiay difficulty in breathing. (Gk.) 
Gk. SaBfio, panting. — Gk. &&((ty, to breathe 
hard. Cf. Gk. drjfju, I blow. See Air. 

Astir. (£.) For on stir ; Barbour's 
Bmoe, xix. 577. 

Astonish, Astound. (F.-L.) The 
addition of -ish, as in extingU'ish, is due 
to analogy with other verbs in 'ish, M.E. 
astonim, astunien, astonen ; whence later 
astony, afterwards lengthened to astonish ; 
also astound, by the addition of excrescent 
d after ii , as in sound, from F. son. All 
from O. F. estoner (mod. F. Stonner), to 
amaze. — Late L. *extondre, to thunder 
out, from ex, out, and tondre^ to thunder. 
Ct'L.attondre, to thimder at, astound (with 
prefix at' for L. ad, at). 

Astray. For on stray, Barbour's Bruce, 
xiiL 195. See Stray. 


A str iction. (L.) From L. ace. as- 
trictidnem, a drawing together.— L* astriC' 
tuSy pp. of astringere ; see Astringent. 

Astride. (£.) Fox on {the) stride. 

Astringent. (L.) From stem of pres. 
pt. of astnngere, to bind or draw closely 
together. — L. a- (for ad), to ; stringere, to 
draw tight. 

Astrology. (F.-L.-Gk.) F, astro- 
logie.^la. astrohgia, (i) astronomy; (2) 
astrology, or science of the stars. — Gk. 
dcTpoXoyia, astronomy. — Gk. darpo-, for 
dffrpov, a star ; and ^Koyia^ 'allied to A0709, 
a discourse, from kiyetv, to speak. 

Astronomy. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. as- 
tronomie.^h. astronomia, ^Gk. darpo- 
vofiia, mm Gk. darpo-Vy a star; and 'vopia, 
allied to v6iios, law, from vipitty, to dis- 

Astute. (L.) L. astatus, crafty, cun- 
ning.— L. astus, craft. 

AjBnnder. (£.) For on sunder. A. S. 
on-sundran, apart See Sunder. 

Asylnm. (L.-Gk.) L. durf/^m.-Gk. 
davKov, an asylum ; neut of ojavKoi, adj. 
unharmed, safe from violence. — Gk. d-, 
not ; and trvAi;, a right of seizure ; cf. 
axiKdoi, I despoil an enemy. 

Asymptote, a line which, indefinitely 
produced, does not meet the curve which it 
continually approaches. (Gk.) Gk. djavp,- 
m-arros, not falling together, not coincident. 

— Gk. d-, not ; avpi, for aw, together ; and 
m-orrSs, falling, from mwrtiv (pt. t vi- 
VTODKo), to fall. (-/PET.) 

At. (E. ) M. E. at, A. S. ^/. + Icel. at ; 
Goth, at ; Dan. ad; Swed. &t\ L. ad. 

Atabaly a kettle-drum. (Span. — Arab.) 
Span, atabal. — Arab, at (for at, def. article) ; 
tabi, a drum. 

Ataghan ; see Yataghan. 

Atheism. (Gk.) Coined from Gk. 
d0e-os, denying the gods, without a god ; 
with suffix -ism. — Gk. d-, negative prefix ; 
$(6s, a god. 

Athirst. (E.) M. E. ofthurst, athurst, 
very thirsty; orig. pp. of a verb. A.S. 
offyrsted, very thirsty ; pp. oiofj>yrstan, to 
be very thirsty. — A. S. of, very (prefix) ; 
2xAhvrstan, to thirst ; see Thirst. 

Athlete. (L.-Gk.) L. athUta.^Gk. 
dOKrjTrjSf a combatant, contender in games. 

— Gk.d9X^-€cv,to contend for a prize. — Gk. 
d0\oi (for dftOKoi), a contest ; 3jB\ov (for 
dftOKov), a prize. See "Wed. 

Athwart« across. For on thwart, on 
the transverse, across ; see Thwart. 




.Gk.) Named after Atlas, die 
demi-^od wlho was waad to bear the worid 
on his shooldcKS ; his fignre used often to 
appear oo tiie thle-page of atUises.— Gk. 
'ArXoff (gen. *ArXarros)j pcoh. 'the sos- 
taiaer ' or bearer, from <^rrEI^ to bear. 

atlaaitiCy an ocean, named after ML 
Atlas» in the N.W. of Africa. (Gk.) From 
'ArXam-, stem of 'ArAos; with suffix 

I. (Gk.) lit. 'a sphere 
of air round the eaith.' Coined from 
ir/to-^ stem of dr/u9f Taponr, air; and 

AtoUf a groap of coral islands fonning 
a ring. (Maldive Islands.) 'We derive the 
cxpreasioo from the hfaldive islands . . . 
where the fonn of the word is ata/u. It is 
prob. connected with the Snghalese prep. 
aiul, inside.' (Yule.) 

Atom. (F.'L.-Gk.) F.aiffme(Cct.). 
* L. atamus. •* Gk. aroitoiy sh., an indivisi- 
ble particle; allied toaro/iot, adj., indivisi- 
ble. —Gk. d-f not ; ro/ir, ^grade of r€ftr, as 
seen in tS/m^up, to cot, divide. 

AtonOv to set at one, to reconcile. (E.) 
Made up from the words at and ofu, and 
dne to the frequent ose of the phnyse at 
ooH, at one (i. e. reconciled) in Middle 
English. Al at on— 2^ agreed; Rob. of 
Glooc. p. 113. Tyndall has atonemaker, 
Le. reconciler, Works, p. 158. Dor. atotu- 
tnentj i. e. at^one'inent ; we actually find 
the word onement, reconciliation, in old 
authors ; see Hall, Satires, iii. 7. 69. 

AtrOCi^. (F.-L.) ¥,atrocit^,Cf^^ 
L. atrdcitdtem, ace. of atrocitds, cnielty. — 
L. atroci', from atroxj cnieL 

Ateopliy. (Gk.) Gk. dr/w^, want of 
nourishment or food, hunger, wasting away 
of the body, atrophy.— Gk. d-, not; and 
rpi^iv (pL t. ri-Tpo<^), to nourish. 

Attack. (F. - Tent. ?) O. F. attaclur, 
to attach, fasten.— O. F. a, for "L, ad,\.o\ 
and (perhaps) a Low G. word with the 
sense of E. tack, a nail. See Tack. Cf. 
Picard attaker, to attach ; Bret, tacha^ to 
fasten, from tach, a tack, nail ; and see 
Detach, Attack. Der. attach-ment, 

attack. (F.>Ital.-Teut.?) F.a//a- 
^»^.— Ital. attaccare, to fasten, attach; 
atttucare battaglia, * to ioyne battell,* 
Florio. Cognate with F. attacher; so that 
attack is a doublet of cUtach, 

Attain. (F.-L.) M. £. ateinen.^ 
O. F. ateign-f pres. stem of ateindre, 
ataiftdre, to reach to. — L. attingere, to 

attain. — L. at- (for ad), to; tangere, to 

attaisdAT. (F.-L.) From the O.F. 
aUindre^ vert>, to convict; used snbstan- 
tivdy ; see above. 

atteint, to convicL (F. -L.) From 
M.E. atteynt, ateynt, convicted, whence 
the verb has been evo l ved ; orig. pp. of 
O. F. ateindre (above). ^^ In no way 
alHed to taints 

Attar of RpiIBBj (Arab.) Also, less 
correctly, otto ofrmes, i.e. perinme. — Arab. 
'itr, peifume. —Arab, root 'atara, to smell 

Attcttaper. (F.-L.) 0,Y , atemprer, 
to modify. — O.F. a ( « L. ad)^ to ; temprer, 
temperer, to temper.— L. temperare, to 
amxirtion, r^;nlate, qualify. See Temper. 

Attempt. (F.-L.) 0,V. atempter, 
to undertake.- L. attentdre, to attempt — 
L. at' (for ad)^ to; tentdre, to try; see 

Attend. (F.-L.) O.IP. atemlre, to 
wait— L. attendert (pp. attentus), to 
stretdi towards, give heed to.— L. at- (for 
ad), to ; tendere, to stretch. Der. attent- 
ion (from the pp.) ; attent, adj., 2 Chron. 
vi. .40, viL 15. 

Attenuate. (L.' From pp. of L. at- 
tcmtdre, to make thin. —L. a/- (for ad), to; 
tenu'is, thin. See Thin. 

Attest. (L.) L. attestdri, to be witness 
to.— L fl/- i=ad), to; tf start, to be 
witness, from L. testis, a witness. 

AttiCy a small upper room. (L — Gk.) 
It orig. meant the whole of a parapet wall, 
terminating the upper fa9ade of an edifice. 
Named from the Attic order of architecture ; 
see Phillip, ed. 1706.— L. ^//fVifx.- Gk. 
'AttucAs, Attic, Athenian. Cfl F. attique, 
an attic ; Attique, Attic 

Attire. (F.-Teut?) M.E,atir,atyr, 
sb. ; atiren, atyren^ verb.- O. F. atirier, 
to adom (Roquefort). — O. F. a (=L a</, 
prefix); andO. F. tire, iiere, a row, file ; 
so that atirier is properly * to arrange.* Cf. 
O. Prov. tiera, a row (Bartsch). See Tier. 

Attitude. (Ital. — L.) Orig. a painter's 
term, from Italy. — Ital. attitudine^ aptness, 
skill, attitude.- L. aptitudinem, ace. of 
aptitado, aptitude. — L. aptus^ apt. 

Attorney. (F. - L.) M. E. attoume, 

- O. F. atome [L e. atom4], lit. * one ap- 
pointed or constituted ; ' pp. oiatomer, to 
direct, prepare, constitute. — F. « ( = L. ad), 
to ; O. F. tomer, to turn, from L. tor- 
ndre. See Tom. 




Attract* (L<) ¥TomL..a/tractus,pp, 
of aUrahere, to attract.— L. «/• {=ad), 
to ; trahere, to draw. 

Attribute. (L.) Yiom a/tributiis, pp. 
of L. aitribiieref to assign. — L. a/- ( =«</), 
to ; tribuerCi to assign ; see Tribute. 

Attrition. (L.) From L. ace. attrt- 
iioneniy a nibbing or wearing away. — L. 
€Utritus, pp. of atterere^ to mb away. — L. 
at' ( ^ad), at ; terere, to mb. See Trite. 

Attuney to bring to a like tune. (L. 
and L.— Gk.) From L. at- {'*ad), to; 
and £. Tune, q. v. 

Atllnim. (F. - L.) M. E. adortu, au- 
bume,ong. citron-coloured or light yellow. 
— O. F. a/bome, aubome, blond (Godefroy) . 
— Late L. a/bumus, whitish, light- 
coloured. Torriano explains Ital. albumo 
by ' that whitish colour of women's hair 
called an aburu colour.' Cf. L. alburnum, 
the sap-wood or inner bark of trees 
(Pliny). — L. aibus^ white. 

Anctioil. (L*) L* auciionem, ace. of 
auctio^ a sale by auction, lit. 'an increase,' 
because the sale is to the highest bidder.— 
L. auciust pp. of augere, to increase. See 

AndacioiUi. (F.~L.) F. audacieux, 
bold, audacious. — L. *auddctdsuSj not 
found; extended from L. auddci-, from 
audaxy bold. — L. auderet to dare. 

Audience. (F. ~ L. ) F. audience, * an 
audience or hearing ; ' Cot. — L. audienHa, 
a hearing. -^L. audUnt-, stem of pres. pt. 
oiaudire, to hear. For *auisdtre ; cf. Gk. 
aloBiaOtu, to perceive, for &fta$€trOai, 
Bmgm. i. § 340. 

audible. (L.) Late L* audibiUs, that 
can be heard. — L. audtre, to hear. 

audit. (L.) From L. audiius, a 
hearing. —L. audtre, to hear ; whence also 

Aoifer. (£.) Totnauger. M,E,naue- 
gar ( B nazfegar), nauger, a tool for boring 
holes —A. S. nafogdr, an anger, lit. nave- 
piercer, tor boring holes in 5ie nave of a 
wheel. — A. S. nctfu, a nave ; gdr^ a piercer, 
that which gores; see Nave (i) and 
Oore (fO* 4* ^u* ovegaar (for navegaar) ; 
IceL mtfarr ; Dan. naver ; Swed. nafvare ; 
O. H. G. nabager. 

Aught. (£.) M. E. aht, aght, aught, 
A. S. aht, earlier awiht ; from a, ever, and 
wiht, a creature, wight, whit ; lit ' e'er a 
whit' See Whit. 

Augment. (F. - L. ) F. augmenter, - 
h.augmentdrefiotsA9iXgt, >- L. augmentum, 

an increase. — L. augere, to increase. Sec 

Augur. (L.) M. £.af/^r.— L. a/^^r, 
a sooth-sayer ; said to mean a diviner by 
the flight and cries of birds. Hence a sup- 
posed etymology (not certain) from auis, a 
bird, and -gur, telling, allied to ^rrTr^, to 
shout. Cf. L. aU'ceps, a bird-catcher. 

August. (L.) L. augustus, venerable; 
whence E. august, venerable, and August, 
the month named after Augustus Caesar. 
Cf. Skt djas, strength. Brugm. i. $ 213. 

Auky a sea-bird. (Scand.) Swed. alka ; 
Dan. alke ; led. alka, dlka, an auk. 

Aunt. (F.-L.) M,E.aunte.^A,¥. 
aunte; O. F. ante (mod. F. t'anie).^Y., 
amita, a father's sister. Cf. G. amtne, nurse. 

Aureate. (L.) Late L.atfr(fa/i/j, gilt', 
from aureus, golden; in place of L. au- 
rdtus, gilded, pp. of aurdre, to gild. — L. 
aurum, gold ; O. L. ausum. Der. aur- 
elia, a gold-coloured chrysalis ; aur-e- 
ol-a, aur-e-ole, the halo of golden glory 
in paintings ; auriferous, gold-producing, 
ixoxaferre, to bear. 

Auricula, a plant. (L.) L. auricula, 
the lol^e of the ear ; used to mean the 
* bear's ear,' a kind of primrose ; see below. 
auricular, told in the ear, secret. (L.) 
Late L. auriculdris, in the phr. auriculdris 
confession auricular confession. — L auri- 
cula, the lobe of the ear ; double dimin. 
from auri'S, the ear. See Ear. 

Aurora, the dawn. (L.) L. aurora, 
the dawn ; from prehistoric *ausdsa.'\'Ci\i, 
iEolic avws, Ion, ^s, dawn, from pre- 
historic *avaws. See East. ^ 

Auscultation, a listening. (L.) L. 
auscultdtionem, ace. of ausculidtio, a 
listening; from the pp. of auscultdre, to 
listen. — L. *aus', base of auris^ the ear. 
See Ear. 

Auspice, favour, patronage. (F.-L.) 
F. auspice, a token of things by the flight 
of birds, an omen, good fortune. — L. au- 
spiciutn, a watching of birds for the pur- 
pose of augury. Short for *auispicium, — 
L. aui; for auis, a bird ; and spicere, 
specere, to spy, look into. 

Austere. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 

austere, — O. F. austere, — L. austerus, 
harsh, severe. — Gk. aiKrrijpSs, making the 
tongue dry, harsh.- Gk. aiav, to dry.> 

Austral. (F.-L.; orh,) We find F. 
austraU, 'southerly;' Cot— L. Austrdlis, 
southerly.— L. Austir, the South wind. 



Antkentic. (F.-.L.-Gk.) M.Kau- 
ten/ike, autentik.'^O, F. auientiquef later 
authentique (Cot.). — L. autheniicus, 
original, written with the author's own 
hand.^Gk. avBtvrtKSty vouched for, war- 
ranted.— Gk. Mhrrpf also ahro-ivrris, one 
who does things with his own hand, a 
'self-worker'; see Auto-, p. Gk. Ivrris 
(for *(rivT'rii) is prob. allied to L. sons 
(gen. sontis), guilty, responsible. 
Author. CF. — L.) M. £. auiour, 
alitor ; later author (with th once sounded 
as /, but now as th in thin).— O. F. autor 
(Bartsch). — L. auctorgm, ace. of auctor, an 
originator, lit. ' increaser, grower.' — L. 
augere,, to increase. Cf. Auction. 
AutO-y prefix. (Gk.) Gk. avro-, stem 
of ainiii, self. Der. auto-biography y a 
biography written by oneself (see Bio- 
STftphy); autography something in one's 
own handwriting, from Gk. yp&4>€iVj to 
write (see Qraphio). 

autocracy. (Gk.) Adapted (with 
suffix '{y for Gk. -rcia) from Gk. avro- 
Kp&T(ia, absolute power. — Gk. avro-, self; 
'Kp&rtia (in compounds), power, from 
KparUiVy to rule. — Gk. icparjkf strong; 
cognate with £. Hard. 

antouatoiiy a self-moving machine. 
(G.) Gk. avrdfMToVf neut. of airrSfjiaroSf 
self-moving. — Gk. abrd-, for o6t<Js, self; 
and -fiaros, cognate with Skt. maids, 
thought, considered, known, pp. of man, 
to think. (VMEN.) 

autonomy, self-government. (Gk.) 
Gk. oirroyofAia, independence. — Gk. abrS^ 
yofAos, free, living by one's own laws.— Gk. 
aW6-, self; and yofxos, law, from viftofjuu, 
I sway, vifuiv, to distribute. 

autopsy, personal inspection. (Gk.) 
Gk. aitroif/la, a seeing with one's own eyes. 

— Gk. axtro-, self; S^s, sight (see Optic). 
Anto-da-fb. (Port -L.) Lit. ' decree 

of faith ; ' a judgment of the Inquisition, 
also, the execution of such judgment, when 
the decree or sentence is read to the 
victims. — Port auto, action, decree; da, 
short for dg a, of the ; }?, faith. [The Span, 
form is auto de fS, without the article 
'/a — Port, a.]— L. actum, ace. of actus, 
act, deed ; de, prep. ; i7/a, fem. of ille, he ; 
fidcm, ace. oi fides, faith. 
Autumn. (F.— L.) l/L,'K, autumpne, 

— O.F. autompne, — L. autumnus, auctum- 
nus, autumn. (Perhaps allied to augire, 
to increase.) 

Auxiliary. (L.) L. auxilidrius^ 


helping, assisting. — L. auxilium, help.— 
L. augtre, to increase. 

AvadaTaty a finch-like £. Indian bird. 
(Arab, and Pers.) Formerly amadavat 
(N. £. D.) ; or amudavad, N. and Q. 6 
S. ii. 198. Named from the city oiAhmed- 
dbdd, whence they were imported. — Arab. 
Ahmed, a proper name ; Pers. dbdd, a city. 

Avail. (F.-L.) M.E. auailen (= 
availen). Compounded of O. F. a, to ; 
and vail-,toTk\c stem of O. F. valoir {paler), 
to be of use. — L. ad, to ; ual'ere, to be 

Avalanche. (F.-L.) F. avalanche, 
the descent of snow into a valley. — F. 
avaler, to swallow ; but the old sense was 
' to let fall down.' — F^ aval, downward, 
lit 'to the valley.'- F. « ( = L. act}, to; 
val, vale, from L. uallem, ace. of uallis, a 

Avarice. (F. — L.) M. £. auarice 
(with u for w). — F. avarice, ^Y,. audritia, 
greediness. — L. audrus, greedy; cf. L. 
auidus, greedy.- L. auere, to wish, desire. 

Avast, stop, hold fast. (Du.) Du. hou 
zHist, houd vast, hold fast. — Du. hou, short 
form of houd, imper. of houden, to hold 
(see Hold) ; and tuist, fast (see Fast). 

Avatar. (Skt.) Skt. avatdra, descent ; 
hence, the descent of a Hindu deity in 
incarnate form. — Skt. ava, down ; and trj, 
to pass over, pass. 

Avaunt, begone ! (F. - L.) A. F. 
avaunt ; O.F. avant, forward 1 See Ad- 

Ave, hail. (L.) Short for Aue Maria, 
hail, Mary (Luke i. 28).— L. aue, hail I 
imper. sing, of auere, to fare well. 

Avenge. (F.-L.) 0.¥,avengier,to 
avenge. — F. a (L. ad), to ; vengier, to 
avenge, from L. uindicdre, to lay claim 
to, also, to avenge. See Vindicate. 

Aventailf the mouth-piece of a visor. 
(F. — L.) A F. aventatUe ; O.F. esventail, 
air-hole. — O.F. esventer, to expose to air. — 
L. ex, out ; uentus, wind. See Ventail. 

Avenue. (F.— L.) ¥, avenue, advenue, 
access ; hence an approach to a house (esp. 
one shaded by trees) ; fem. oiavenu, pp. of 
F. avenir, to come to. — L. ad, to ; uenire, 
to come. 

Aver. (F.-L.) A. F. and O. F. tfw^itfr. 
— Late L. auerdre, aduerdre, to affirm to 
be true. — L. ad, to ; uerus, true. 

Average* an equalised estimate. (F.) 
Formerly a duty, tax, impost; then, 1 1 
extra charge on goods, the incidence of 



snch a charge, the general estimate or 
apportionment of loss of goods, &c. 

Formed, with suffix 'age, from F. avar-ie, 
now Qsoally ' damage (cf. Span, averia, 
haberia, * the cnstom paid for goods that 
are exported* (Pineda), Port, and Ital. 
avaria, Late L. avaria^ averia), A 
Mediterranean maritime term, orig. signify- 
ing * duty charged on goods ' (G. P. Marsh, 
in N. £. D.). Origin unknown ; perhaps 
from Ital. avere, kavere, goods, chattels 
(F. avoir), a sb. use of havere, haver (L. 
habere), to possess. \ Not from Arab. 
*avdry damage, which is boirowed from 
Ital. avaria, in a late sense. 

Avert. (L.) L. d'Uertere, to turn away. 

— L. J (=«^), off, away; ueriere, to turn. 
Per. averse, from L. pp. duersus. 

Aviary. (L.) L. aut'drium, a place 
for bixxls; neut. of adj. auidrius, belonging 
to birds. — L. aui-, stem of auis, a bird. 

Avidity. (F.-L.) F. awV////, greedi- 
ness, eagerness.— L. auidiidtem, ace. of 
auiditds, eagerness. — L. auu/us, greedy, 
desirous. — L. auere, to crave. 

Avocation. (L.) From L. duocd- 
Honem, ace. of dttocdtio, a calling away of 
the attention, hence a diversion, amuse- 
ment ; afterwards used in the sense of 
emplovment. — L. duocdius, pp. of d-uocdre, 
to call away.— L. d (^aff), from, away; 
uocdre, to call. See Vooation. 

Avoid, to shun. (F.-L.) M. E. 
auoiden {==avaiden), to empty, empty out, 
get rid of; later, to keep away from, shun. 
— O.F. esvuidier, to empty out, get quit 
of.— O.F. es't prefix (L. ex, out); and 
O. F. vuit, vuide (F. vide), empty, void. 
See Void. 

Avoirdupois. (F. - L.) Formerly 
avoir de pots (Anglo-F. aveir de peis), 
goods of weight, i. e. heavy articles. — F. 
avoir, goods, orig. *to have;' de, of; 
O. F. pais, A. F. peis, weight. — L. habere, 
to have; de, of; pensutn, that which is 
weighed out, neut. oipensus, pp. of pen- 
dere, to weigh. 1[The F. pois is now 
misspelt /mVj. See Poise. 

Avoueh. (F.-L.) M.E. avouchen. 
— O. F. avochier, to call upon as guarantor 
(Godefroy).— L. aduocdre, to call to or 
tommon (a witness).— L. ad, to; uocdre, 
to call. Cf. Voaoh. 

avow, to confess, to declare openly. 
(F,— L.) M.E. avowen.'^O^Y. avouer, 
t^ioer, — L. aduocdre, to call upon ; Med. L. 
to call on as patron or client, to acknow- 


ledge, recognise. — L. ad, to ; uocdre, to 
call. ^Another M.E. avowen, to bind 
with a vow, to vow, is obsolete ; see Vow. 
Doublet, avouch (above). 
Await. (F.-L. a/^O.H.G.) O.F. 
awaitier, agaitier, to wait for. — O.F. a 
( = L. aid), for; waiiier, to wait, from 
O. H. G. wahten, to watch, from the sb, 
wahta (G. wacht), a watching. See "Wait. 

Awake, Awaken. (E.) M.E. 

cnvakien, awaken \ and awaknen, awake- 
nen; both orig. intransitive. Two A. S. 
verbs are confused; dwacian, wk. vb.; 
and onwacnan, with wk. pres. t., but 
strong pt. t. onwoc, pp. onwacen. The 
prefix is either A- (2) or A- (4). See 
"Wake, Waken. 

Award, vb. (F.-L. and O. Low G.) 
M.E. awarden.^K^Y, awarder; O.F. 
eswarder, esgarder, to examine, adjudge. — 
O. ¥, es- {- L. ex), out ; O. F. warder, to 
ward, guard, from O. Low G., as in O. Sax. 
wardon (cf. G. warten), to watch, guard. 
See Ward, Guard. 

Aware. (E.) A corruption of M. E. 
iwar, ywar, aware (common) ; from A. S. 
gewar, aware. — A. S. ge-, a common 
prefix, not altering the sense ; wcer, ware, 
wary ; see Wary. 

Away. (E.) For on way, i.e. on 
one's way, so as to depart. A.S. onweg, 
away. See Way. 

Awe. (Scand.) M. E. a'^e, aghe, awe, 
[Also e^e, egke, eye ; all orig. dissyllabic. 
The latter set are from A. S. ege, awe.] — 
Icel. agi, awe, fear; Dan. ave.\-K, S. ege; 
Goth, agis, fear, anguish; Irish eagal^ 
fear, terror ; Gk. axo^, anguish, affliction. 
(V AGH .) Der. aw-ful. 

Awkward, clumsy. (Scand. and E.) 
Orig. an adv., signifying ' transversely,* or 
'in a backhanded manner.' M.E. awk- 
ward, awkwart ; ' aukwari he couth him 
ta*=he gave him a backhanded stroke, 
Wallace, iii. 175. p. The suffix -wardi% 
E., as in for-ward, on-ward, &c. The 
prefix is M. E. auk, awk, contrary, perverse, 
wrong ; this is a contraction of Icel. ofug- 
[Swed. afvug, in Widegren], like hawk 
from A. S. hcifoc, — Icel. bfugr, often con- 
tracted to bfgu, adj., turning the wrong 
way, back foremost, contrary. 7. Here 
of- is for af-, off, from, away; and -ug- is 
a suffix. Cf. O. H. G. ap-uh, M. H. G. eb- 
ich, turned away, perverse ; from apa = 
G. ab, off, away, and the suffix -h, 8. 
Thus the sense of awk is * turned away * ; 




from Icel. af'^ cognate with E. of^ off, 
Gk. 6.ito, 

AwL (£.) M. E. awel, aul [we also find 
a/, er\. A.S. awely aztmi; perhaps cog- 
nate with JL. aculeus, a sting, spine, allied 
to L. acuSf a needle. % The A. S. al or 
Stl, an awl, seems to be a distinct word, 
and allied to Icel. air ; G. ahle ; Skt. drd 

Awn. (E.) M. E. agune (13th cent), 
awene, awne, A. S. pi. agnan, Corp. Gl 
•f- Icel- bgn^ chaff, a husk ; Dan. avne, 
chaff; Swed. agn, only in pi. agnar, 
husks ; Goth, ahana ; O. H. G. agana, 
chaff. Cf. Gk. pi. oxvai, chafif; O. L. 
agna, a straw. 

Awning. (O. F.?) In Sir T. Herbert's 
Travels, ea. 1665, p. 8 ; the proper sense 
seems to be ' a sail or tarpauling spread 
above a ship^s deck, to keep off the sun*s 
heat.* Perhaps from O. F. auvan, auvant, 
mod. F. auventf * a pent-house of cloth 
before a shop-window;' Cot. Cf. Prov. 
anvan, Late L. antevanna, auvanna, 
avanna. Perhaps from L. ante, before ; 
uannuSy a fan (fem. sb.)* 

A.wry, (E.) For on wry, on the twist; 
Barbour, Bruce, iv. 705. See Wry. 

Axe, A.-g, (£.) M. £. ax, ex. A. S. ax, 
older forms acus, acus.'^Dvi. oaks; Icel. 
ox, oxt; Swed. yxa; Dan. oxe; Goth. 
akwizi ; O. H. G. accAus; G. axt ; L. ascia 
(if for *acsda) ; Gk. d^ivrj. 

Axiom. (Gk.) XV cent. - Gk. diiw/M 
(gen. d^tcvfiaros), worth, quality; in science, 
an assumption. — Gk. d£<do;, I deem worthy. 

— Gk. d^ios, worthy, worth, lit. * weighing 
as much as.* i- Gk. Aytiv, to drive ; ako, to 
weigh. (-/AG.) 

Axis, axle. (L.) L. axis, an axis, axle- 
tree. + Gk. d((M>v ; Skt. aksha, an axle, 
wheel, cart. Cf. also A. S. eax, an axle ; 
Du. as ; G. achse ; Russ. os* ; Lith. aszis. 
(^AG, to drive.) See below. 

axle. (Scand.) M. E. axel. [A. S. has 
eaxl, but only with the sense of shoulder.] 

— Icel. oxull, axis; whence oxul-tre^ an 
axle-tree ; Swed. and Dan. axel, axle. 
p. It is a dimin. of the form appearing 
in L. axis ; see Axis. Cf. W. echel, axle. 
Der. axle-tree, where tree is a block of 

Ay! interj. (E.) M. E. ey ! K natural 
interjection. % The phr. ay me is French ; 
O. F. aymi, alas for me ! Cf. Ital. ahimi, 
Span, ay di me, Gk. oXyuai. See Ah. 

Ay, Aye, yea, yes. (E. ?) Spelt / in 

old edd. of Shak., &c. Origin uncertain; 
perhaps a variant of Tea. 

Ayahy a native waiting-maid, in India. 
^Port. — L.) Port, aia, a nurse, governess 
(fem. of aio, a tutor). Prob. from L. auia^ 
a grandmother. — L. autis, a grandfather. 

Aye, adv., ever. (Scand.) M. E. ay. — 
Icel. ei, ever. + A. S. <f, ever, also away 
Goth, aiw, ever, case-forms from Teut. 
*aiwoz (Goth, aiws), an age, which is 
allied to L. auum, Gk. cdiw, an age. Cf. 
Gk. alf (, dtl, ever. 

Aye-Aye, a kind of lemur. (F. — Mada- 
gascar.) F. aye-aye, supp. to Littre. 
From the native name ai-ay in Madagas- 
car ; said to be named from its cry. 

Azimnth. (Arab.) Azimuthal circles 
are great circles on the sphere that pass 
through the zenith. Properly, azimuth is 
a pi. form, answering to Arab. as-samUt, 
ways, or points (or quarters) of the horizon ; 
from «/ samt, sing., the way, or point (or 
quarter) of the horizon. — Arab, al, the; 
txAsamt, a way, quarter, direction; whence 
also £. zenith. See Zenith. 

Asote, nitrogen. (F.—Gk.) So called 
because destructive to animal life. — F. 
azote, ^Gk. d-, negative prefix; Pamela, 
preserving life, from ^07-17, life, (dnv, to 

Ainrey blue. (F. — Arab.— Pers.) M.E. 
asur, azure. — O. F. azur, azure ; a cor- 
rupted form, standing for lazur, which was 
mistaken for Vazur, as if the initial' / 
indicated the def. article ; Low L. lazur, 
an azure-coloured stone, also called lapis 
lazuli. — Arab. Idzward (see Devic) . — Pers. 
Idjuward, lapis lazuli, a blue colour. So 
called from the mines of Lajwurd, where 
the lapis lazuli was found (Marco Polo, 
ed. Yule). 

,, to bleat. (E.) In Shak. ; an imita- 
tive word. 

Babble. (E.) M. E. babelen, to prate, 
mumble, chatter. The suffix -le is fre- 
quentative ; the word means * to keep on 
saying ha, ^a,* syllables imitative of a child's 
attempts to speak. +Du. hahbelen\ Dan. 
bable ; Icel. babbla ; G. bappeln ; and cf. F. 

Babe. (E.) M. E. bob, earliest forni 
baban. Probably due to infantile utterance; 
cf. Babble. 


Babimsa, Babiroussa, a kind of 

wild hog. (Malay.) Malay bddt iilsa, 
lit. * deer-hog/ or ' hog like a deer ' ; from 
rilsa^ deer, and bdbft hog. 

Baboon. (F. or Low L.) O. F. babuin, 
F. babouin ; we also find M. £. babion, 
babiaHf babezuim; Low L. babewynus, a 
baboon (A.D. 1295). Origin uncertain. 
Cf. O. F. baboUf a grimace (Godefroy). 
Prob. from the motion of the lips. Cf. 

BacchaaaL (L. — Gk.) \^,Bacchdndlis, 
a worshipper of Bacchus ^ god of wine. — 
Gk. B(i«x^^» g^ of wine. 

Bacbelor. (F. — L.) M. £. bacheUr, - 
O.F. bacheUr,^\aXA L. Haccaldrisy but 
only found as baccaldrius, a holder of a 
small farm or estate, called in Late L. 
baccaldria^ Remoter origin unknown, and 
much disputed. Hardly from Late L. 
bacca^ for L. uacca^ a cow. 

Back. (,£.) M.£. bak. A.S. bac.-^- 
Icel. bak\ O. Sax. b<ik\ O. Fries, bek, 
Der, a'biuk, q. v. ; back-bite ^ M. £. bak- 
biten (P. PI. B. ii. 80) ; back-ward^ M. £. 
bacu/iuvl (Cursor Mundi, 2042). 

backnnunon, a game. (£.) In 
Butler's Hudibras, pt. iii. c. 2. The sense 
is ' back-game,' because the pieces, when 
taken, are put back. See eanunon (2). 

Bacon. (F. -Teut.) M. E. bacoft, - O. F. 
bacon; Low L. baco.^O. H. G. bac/tOj 
M. H. G. bacACf butiock, ham, a flitch of 
bacon. Cf. G. bachd, a wild sow ; M. Du. 
^^» A pig ; M. Dan. bakigf a pig. 

Bad. (£.) M. £. badiie. Formed from 
A.S. baJdcly s., a hermaphrodite; and 
allied to A. S. badlingy an effeminate 

Badffe. (Unknown.) M.F.^^^; Prompt. 
Parv. JLow L. bagia^ bagea, * signum, in- 
signe quoddam ; ' Ducange ; apparently, 
a Latin version of the £. word. Origin 

badger. (Unknown.) Spelt bageard 
in Sir T. More ; a nickname for the brock. 
Dr. Murray shews that ^a^<rr= animal with 
a bcuige or stripe. See above. 

Baoinage, jesting ulk. (F.-Prov.- 
L.) F. badinage. — F. badiner, to jest. — 
F. badin^ adj., jesting. — Prov. bader («F. 
bayer\ lit. to gape ; nence, to be silly. — 
Late L. ^i^rip, to gape ; prob. of imitative 
origin, from ba^ expressive of opening the 
mouth. Cf. Babble. 

Bafie, to foil, disgrace. (F.?-G.?) A 
Scotch word, as explained in HalTs Chron. 


Hen. VIII, an. 5. To baffull is * a gieat 
reproach among the Scottes ' ; it means to 
disgrace, vilify. Cf. Lowland So. bauchle 
(XV cent, bachle), to vilify. Origin doubt- 
ful ; but cf. F. beffler^ to deceive, mock 
(Cot.), bafouer (Cot. baffmer^ to bafHc, 
revile, disgrace) ; allied to Ital. beffare, to 
flout, scofle (Florio), from beffdf a scoff; 
Norman F. baffer, to slap m the face ; 
Prov. bafHf a scoff. Prob. from M. H. G. 
beffenj to scold ; cf. G. bdffen, Du. baffen, 
to bark, yelp ; of imitative origin, like 
Du. pafy a pop, a box on the ear. 
Bag. (Scand.) M. £. bagge. ^ Icel. bc^ggi, 
O. Swed. bagge, a bag, pack, bundle. Not 
found elsewhere in Teutonic. (Gael, bagis 
from £.) 

bagatelle, a trifle, a game. (F. — Ital . 
— Teut.) F. bagatelle, a trifle. — Ital. bagat- 
tella, a trifle, dimin. of Parmesan bagata, 
a little property ; from Lombard baga^ 
a wine- skin, of Teut. origin ; see Bag, 
baggage (i). 

baggage (i), luggage. rF. -Scand.) 
M. E.^fl,^:^^, bagage, — O. F. bagage, a col- 
lection of bundles. — O. F. bague, a bundle. 

baggage (2), a worthless woman. (F. 
— Scana .) The same as Baggage ( i ) , in a 
depraved sense. Perhaps influenced by F. 
bagasse, 'a baggage, quean,' Cot.; Ital. 
bagascia, * a baggage-wench ; ' Florio. 

Bail (i), security ; as verb, to secure. 
(F.— L.) O.F. bail, s. custody; from 
bailler, a law term, to secure, to keep in 
custody. *L. bdiuldre,^ to carry a child 
about, to take charge of a child. — L. 
bdiulusy a porter, carrier. 

bailiff. (F.-L.) M.E.baili/.~>O.F. 
baillif, Cot. — Late L. bdjulivum, ace. of 
bdjulivus, a custodian, &c. — L. bdiuldre 

bailiwick. (F.-L.; and 1£.,) From 
M. £. baili, short for bailif (above) ; and 
M. £. wik, A. S. wic, a district ; hence, 

* district of a bailiff; ' later, * office * of the 

Bail (2), a bucket. See Bale (3). 
Bail (3), at cricket. (F.-L.?) O.F. bail, 
an iron-pointed stake ; Godefroy adds that 

* in the arrondissements of Vervins and 
Avesnes, bail is the name of a horizontal 
piece of wood fixed upon two stakes.' 
Perhaps from L. baculum, a stick. 

Baim, a child. (E.) M. £. bam, A. S. 
beam. + Icel., Swed., Dan., and Goth. 
barn. Lit. * that which is born ; * Teul. 




type *harnofn, neut. sb., from ba>'^ 2nd 
grade of der-an, to bear ; with snfBx -if^-. 
See Bear (i). 

Bait, to feed. (Scand.) Lit. * to make 
to bite ; * a dait is * an enticement to bite.' 
M. £. batten f beiten, — Icel. beita, to make 
to bite, causal of bita^ to bite ; Swed. beta, 
to pasture ; Swed. bete, Dan. bed, a bait. 
See Bite. 

Baize, coarse woollen stuff. (F.~L.) 
An error for bayes, pi. of F. baye, * the 
cloth called bayes ; * Cot. — O. F. bai, bay- 
coloured. — L. badiuSy bay. From the orig. 
colour. Cf. Span, bayo^ bay, bayeta, 
baize; &c. See Bay (i). 

Bake. (E.) M. £. baken. A. S. bacon, 
pt. t. boCy pp. bacen. + Icel. and Swed. 
baka ; Dan. bage ; Dn. bakken ; G. backen ; 
cf. Gk. 0<&Y«tv, to roast. (V BHOG.) 

Bakshish, Backsheesh, a present, 

small gratuity. (Pers.) Pers. bakhshish, 
a gratuity ; from bakhshtdan, to give ; 
baksh, a share, portion. Cf. Zend, iitksh, 
to distribute ; Skt. bhaj\ to divide. 

Balance. (F.— L.) M,E, balance.^ 
F. balance^ * a ballance, pair of weights or 
ballances;* Cot. Cf. Ital. bilancta, — L. 
bilancem, ace. of bilanx, having two scales. 
— L. bi-, for biSy double, twice; and lanx, 
a dish, platter, scale of a balance. 

Balas-mby, a variety of ruby, of a 
pale rose-red or orange colour. (F.— 
Low L. — Arab. — Pers.) Formerly balais, 
-> F. balais ; Med. L. balascus, balascivs. ^ 
Arab, balakhsh, a ruby (Devic). — Pers. 
badakhsht, a ruby ;* named from Badakh- 
shan, N, of the river Amoo (Oxus). 

BaJcony. (ItaL— Teut.) Ital. balcone, 
palcone, ong. a stage. — O. H. G. balcho, a 
beam. 4*0. Sax. ^o/i^, a beam. See Balk(i). 

Bald. (C.) M. £. balled; the orig. 
sense was 'shining, white,* as in * bald- 
fated stag,* a stag with a white streak on 
its face ; cf. prov. K bally a white-faced 
horse. — Gael, and Irish bal, ball, a spot, 
mark, speckle (properly a white spot or 
streak) ; Bret, bal^ a white streak on an 
animal's face; W. bait, whiteness in a 
horse*s forehead. Cf. Gk. 0aA(os, white, 
<pa\riKp6i, bald-headed ; Lith. baltas,vfhite. 

Baldachin {pronounced baoldakin or 
bseldakin), a canopy over an altar, throne, 
&c. (F. or Ital. — Arab.") F. baldaquin \ 
Ital. baldacchino, a canopy, tester, orig 
hangings or tapestry made at Bagdad.— 
Ital. Baldacco, Bagdad. — Arab. Baghdad, 


Balderdash, poor stuff. (Scand. ?) It 
formerly meant a jumbled mixture of 
liquors. Cf. Dan. balder, noise, clatter; 
and daske, to slap, flap. Hence it appears 
(like slap-dash) to have meant a confused 
noise ; secondarily a hodge-podge (Halli- 
well) ; and generally, any mixture. (Un- 

Baldric, a girdle. (F.-M. H. G.- 
L.) O. F. *baldric (not recorded), older 
form of O. F. baldret, baldrei ; Low L. 
baldringus.^Vi, H. G. balderich, a girdle; 
extended from O. H. G. balz^ a belt. — L. 
balteus, a belt See Belt. 

Bale (i)> a package; see Ball (2). 

Bale (2), evil. (£.) U.^^bale. A.S. 
bealu, balu, evil. + O. Fries, and O. S. 
balu ; Icel. boly misfortune ; O. H. G. 
balo, destruction. Teut. *balwom, neut. of 
HcUwoz, adj. evil; cf. Goth, balwawesei, 
wickedness. Der. bale-ful. 

Bale (3)» to empty water out of a ship. 
(F.-Teut.) XVH cent. It means to 
empty a ship by means of bails, i.e. 
buckets. i-F. bailie, a bucket. Cf. Du. 
balie, a tub; Swed. balja, Dan. bailie^ G. 
balje, a tub. — Late Lat. *bacula (Diez), 
dimin^ fromDn. bak, M.Du. back, a trough. 

Balk (i)» a beam, ridge of land. (£.) 
M. £. bcUke, A. S. balca, a ridge, heap ; 
which explains balked » laid in heaps, 
I Hen. IV, i. i. 69. 4- O. Sax. balko, a 
beam ; Du. balk, a beam, bar ; Swed. baJk, 
a beam, partition ; G. balken. Tent, stem 
Halkon-, a bar. Cf. Phalanx. 

baJk (2), hanlk, to hinder. (£.) 
M. £. balken. To put a balk or bar in a 
man*s way. 

Ball (i)y a spherical body. (F. — 
O. H. G.) M. £. bal, balle. - F. balle. - 
M.H.G. balle, O. H. G. ballo (G. ball), 
a ball, sphere. -f> Icel. bdllr, 

bale (i), a package. (F.— O. H.G.) 
M. £. bale.'-F, bale, a ball, also a pack, 
as of merchandise ; Cot. The same as F. 
balle, a ball ; hence, a round package. 

Ball (2), a dance. (F.-Late L.) F. 
bal. — F. bailer, to dance. — Late L. balldre, 
to dance.+Gk. fiaXKl^uv, to dance. 

ballad. (F. -Prov.- Late L.) M.E. 
balade.^O,¥, balade\ F. ballade. ^Vvoy, 
balada, a song for dancing to.— Late L. 
balldre, to dance. 

Ballast, aload to steadya ship. (Scand. 
or O. Low G.) Three forms are found : 
(i) O. Dan. barlast, i.e. bare load, mere 
weight, Swed. barlast; (2) O. Low G. 



ballast i i.e. ' bale last/ useless load, Du., 
Dan., £. Fries, ballast ; (3) Dan. bag-last^ 
i.e. back load. Of these, (3) seems dne to 
popular et3rmology; and (a) arose out of 
(i). See Iiast (4) ; also Bare, Bale (2), 
Back. Cf. M. Da. bal-daedt, evU deed 

Ballet. (F.-LateL.) Y . ballet, 6\m\n, 
oibaly a dance. See Ball (2). 

Balloon, a large ball. (F.^D. H. G.) 
Formerly biUoon^ a ball used in a game like 
football ; (also ballone, from ItaC ballone, 
in Florio).-O.F. balm, 'a little ball, or 
pack ; a football or baloon ; ' Cot. Mod. 
F. biiilon ; Span, balofi ; Ital. pallone ; 
augmentative form of F. Ifalle, &c., a ball. 
See BaU (i). 

ballot. (Ital. -O. H. G.) Ital. ballot- 
tare, 'to cast lots with bullets, as they 
vse in Venice;* Florio. — Ital. ballotta, a 
little ball used for voting ; dimin. of Ital. 
balla, a ball. See Ball (i ). 

Balm. (F. - L. >- Gk.) A modiBed 
spelling; M. £. basme, bame, bautne,'^ 
O. F. Sasnte.'^'L, balsamum. ^Gk, fiaKaa- 
ftor, fragrant resin of the fid\<rafws, or 
balsam-tree. Prob. Semitic; df. Heb. 
bdsam, balsam. 

balJMUn. (L.— Gk.) L. balsamupt; 
as above. 

Baluster, a rail of a staircase, small 
colunm. (F. — Ital.— L.— Gk.) F. balus- 
ire\ balustreSf 'ballisters, little, round, 
and abort pillars, ranked on the outsides of 
cloisters, terraces,^ &c. ; Cot. <^ Ital. balaus- 
tro fB, baluster; so called from a fancied 
resemblance to the flower of the wild 
pomegranate. — Ital. balausto, balaustra^ 
the flower of the pomegranate. » L. balaus- 
tium, mB Gk. fiakai^iov^ the flower of the 
wild pomegranate. Per. balustr-ade, F. 
balustrade, from It&hbalaustrata, furnished 
with balusters. 

Bamboo. (Malay — Canarese.) XVI 
cent. Malay bambtl.^ Canarese banbu, 
or bamtm, bamboo. 

BambooxlOy to hoax. (Unknown.) 

Baa, a proclamation. (£.) Chiefly in 
the pi. banns (of marriage). M. £. ban, 
A. S. gebann, a proclamation (the prefix 
gC' midcing no difference). Cf. A. S. dban- 
nan, to summon, order out. Influenced 
by 0« F. ban, of G. origin (as below). + 
Du. ban, excommunication; Icel. and 
Swed. bann^ Dan. band, O. H. G. ban, a 
ban. All from Teut. strong vb. Hannan-, 
to proclaim ; as in O. H. G. bannapt, Cf. 


L./dma, a rumour. (^BHA.) Brugm. 

i. § 559- 

Banana, the plantain>tree. (Span.) 
Span, banana, fruit of the banana ; said to 
be of African origin (from Guinea). 

Band (i), Bond. (Scand.) M.£. 

band; variant, bond, ^IceL band; Swed. 
band; Dan. baand; cf. Du. and G. Mnd. 
Teut. *banddm, n. ; from band-, 2nd grade 
of bind-an, to bind ; see Bind.- Allied to 
A. S. bend, Goth, binindi, a band. Cf. Skt. 
bandha^ a binding. Der. band- age (F. 
bandage^ ; band-box ; bandog, q. v. 

band (2), a company of men. (F.— 
Teut.) F. bande ; Cot ; whence G. bande, 
A |[iLng, set. — Low Lat. banda, a gang ; 
allied to Low L. bandum, a banner. See 
Banner and Bind. 

Bandanna, a silk handkerchief with 
white spots. (Hind.) lAindi, b(indhnu,^9i 
mode of dyeing in which the cloth is tied 
in different places, to prevent the parts tied 
from receiving the dye ... a kind of silk 
cloth ; ' Shakespear's Hind. Diet. 

Bandicoot, a large Indian i-at.(Te1ugu. ) 
Telugu pandi'kokku, lit. pig-rat (Yule) . — 
Tel. pandi, a pig, kokku, a rat. 

Bandit. (Ital.-O. H. G.) In Sh.- 
Ital. bandito, outlawed, pp. of bandire, to 
proscribe. • Low L. banntre, to proclaim. 

— O. H. G. bannan, to summon; whence 
O. H. G. ban, cognate with £. ban. 

Bandog, a large dog. (£.) Orig. 
banddog, a dog that is tied up. See 
Prompt. Parv. p. 43. See Band (i). 

Bandy, to beat to and fro, contend. 
(F. - Teut.) Orig. to band (Turbenrile).- 
F. bander, ' to bind ; also, to handle, at 
tennis;' Cot. .S^ ^aWiff, to league against. 

— F. bande, a band ; see Band (2). 

bandy-legged, bow-legged. (F.- 

Teut. a/m Scand!) Prob. from bandy, for- 
merly the name of a bent stick for playing 
a game called bandy, in which a ball was 
bandied about. See above. 

Bane, harm. ^.) A. S. bona, a mur- 
derer, bane.4-0. Sax. and O. H. G. bano\ 
Icel. bani^ Dan. and Swed. bane, death, 
murder. Teut. stem *banon', m. Cf. Goth. 
banja, a wound. Bar. hane-ful. 

Bang (i), to beat. (Scand.) In Sh. 

— Icel. banga, Dan. banke, to beat; O. 
Swed. bing, Icel. bang, a hammering. Cf. 
G. bengel, a cudgel. 

Bang (2), a narcotic drug. (Pers.— 
Skt.jf ers. ^«^. — Skt. bhangd, hemp ; the 
drug being made from the wild hemp. 




Bangle, a kind of bracelet. (Uind.) 
Hind. Bangrty a bracelet, bangle. (H. H. 

Banian ; see Banyan. 

Banish. (F.-O.H.G.) M. £.^amV. 
shen. — O. F. bants- , stem of pres. part, of 
banir, bannir, to proscribe. — Low L. ban- 
nfrgf to proclaim ; see Bandit. 

Banisters; a corruption of Balusters. 

BanjOy a six-stringed musical instru- 
ment. (^Ital. — Gk.) A negro corruption 
of bandorgy bandora^ or pandore,^\\s\. 
pandora, a musical instmment, usually 
with three strings. ■• Gk. rtavhovpa, the 
same. Perhaps of Egypt, orig. 

Banlc (i)) a mound of earth. (Scand.) 
M. E. banke, — O. Scand. ^banke, orig. 
form of Icel. bakki^ ridge, eminence, bank 
of a river; cf. Dan. bakke, Swed. backe, 
bank ; whence also Norman F. banquet a 
bank. Teut. stem *bankon-. Cf. O. Sax. 
and Du. bank, O. H. G. banchy A. S. bene, 
a bench (see Bench). 

bank (a), for money. (F. — Teut.) F. 
banque, a money-changer*s table or bench. 

— M. Du. banck, M. H. G. banc, a bench, 
table. See above. 

bankmpt. (F. — Ital. — Teut. and 
I^.) Modified from F. banqueroute, bank- 
ruptcy, by a knowledge of the relation of 
the word to L. rtiptus, broken. — Ital. banca 
rotta, a broken bank, due to the money- 
changer's failure. — M. H. G. banc, a bench 
(see above) ; and L. rufta, fem. of ruptus, 
pp. of rumpere, to break. 
Banner. (F.— Teut.) M. E. banere, 

— O. F. banere (supp. to Godefroy, s. v. 
baniere), also baniere. ■- Low L. *banddria 
(Ducange gives banderia)^ a banner. — Low 
L. bandum, bannum, a standard. From 
a Teut: (Langobardic) source ; cf. Goth. 
bandwoy a sign, token. * Uexillum, quod 
bandum appellant;' Paulus, de Gestis 
Langob, i. 20. Prob. allied to Band (i) 
and Band (2). 

banneret, orig. a knight who had 
men under his own banner. (F. — Teut.) 
M. Ys.baneret. — O. F. baneret ( F. banneret) ; 
lit. * bannered.'— O. Y, banere (above) ; with 
suffix -et = L. pp. 'dtus. 

Bannock, a cake. (C — L. ?) Gael. 
bannachy a cake. Perhaps from L. pdni- 
cium^ a thing baked ; fTom pdni-s, bread. 

Banns, pi. of Ban, q.v. 

Banquet. (F.- Ital. -Teut.) F.<5fl«- 
quef.-mlial. banchetto (Torriano), a feast; 
also a bench ; dimin. oi banco, a bench.— 

M. H. G. banc, a bench, table ; see bank 

BansbeOf a female spirit supposed to 
warn families of a death. (C.) Gael. 
beanshithy a banshee, from Gael, bean, a 
woman ; sitk, a fairy ; O. Irish ban-side y 
fairies (Windisch, s. v. side), from O. Ir. 
ben (ss£. quean), a woman, side, fairies. 

Bantam. (Java.) A fowl from Bantam y 
in Java. 

Banter, raillery. (Unknown.) 

Bantling, an infant. (G.?) Prob. 
considered as band-ling, one wrapped in 
swaddling bands; with double dimin. 
suffix -l-ing; but really an adaptation of 
G. bdnkling (with the same sense as bank- 
art), an illegitimate child; from bank, a' 
bench ; i. e. ^ a child begotten on a bench,' 
not in the marriage-bed (Mahn). Cf. 
bank (2). 

Banyan, a tree. (Port.— Skt.) An 
English, not a native name for the tree. So 
called because used as a market-place for 
merchants or ' bannyans,' as we termed 
them; see Sir T. Herbert, Travels, ed. 
i665,pp.5i,i23. — Port, baniany an Indian 
merchant. — Skt. banij, a merchant. 

Baobab, a tree. (African.) The native 
name in Senegal (Adanson). 

Baptise, Baptise. (F.-L.-Gk.) 

Formerly baptise ; M. £. baptisen. — O. F. 
baptiser.^la, baptizdre. '^Gk. iSanTiffiv; 
from fidwrttVy to dip. Der. baptist. Gk. 
fiawTterffSj a dipper ; baptisniy Gk. ^arma' 
fM, fidwrifffiosy a dipping. 
Bar, a rail. (F. — Late L.) M. E. barre. 

— O. F. barre. — Late L. barra, a bar. 
Barb (i), hook on an arrow. (F.— L.) 

F. barbe. — L. barba, a beard. Hence O. F. 
flesche barbelie, * a bearded or barbed 
arrow ;' Cot. See Beard. 

barbel, a fish. (F. — L.) M.E. bar- 
belie. — O. F. barbel. — F. barbeau. — L. bar- 
bellus, dimin. of barbus, a barbel. — L. 
barba, a beard. % Named from four 
beard-like appendages near the mouth. 

barber. (F,— L.) M.E. barbour.^ 
A. F. barbour, with suffix -our=\jsX, ace. 
'dtorem ; cf. O. F. barbier, a barber. 

— F. barbey a beard; from L. barba, 

Barb (2), a horse. (F. - Barbary.) F. 
barbey a Barbary horse; named from the 

Barbarous. (L.-Gk.^ L. barbar-us; 
with suffix -tf«j. — Gk. fiap^ap'is, foreign, 
lit. stammering ; a name given by Greeks 



to express the strange sound of foreign 
languages. Cf. L. balbus, stammering. 
Barbed, accoutred, armed ; said of 
horses. (F.— Scand. ?) Also (more cor- 
rectly), barded.^Y. bareU, 'barbed as a 
horse,' Cot. — F. barde^ horse-armour.— 
Icel. barii, a brim, edge; also, a beak 
or armed prow of a warship (cf. barHit a 
shield) ; wh Ace it may have been applied 
to horses (Diez). 

Barbel, Barber; see Barb (i). 
Barberry, Berbernr, a shrub. 

(Med. L.) From Med. L. barbarism a bar- 
berry-tree; of unknown origin. Hence 
also M. F. berberiSf Sp. berberis, and even 
mod. Arab, barbdrts. % The spelling 
should be berbery or barbary\ no con- 
nexion with berry. 

Barbican. (F.) M. £. barbican, — F. 
barbaeamy a barbican or outwork of a 
castle ; also, a loop-hole ; also, an outlet 
for water. Hardly from Arab, barbakh, 
an aqueduct, a sewer (Devic). 

Bard. (C) W. bardd, Irish and 
Gael, bard, a poet. Cf. Gk. <^pa^tiVy to 

Bare. (£•) M. £. bar. A. S. beer, -f- 
Icel. berr\ G. bar, boar. Teut. type 
*bazoz; cf. Lith. basas, O. Slav, bost^f 

Bargain. (F. - Late L.) M. £. bar- 
gayn, sb. — O. F. bargaignier, bargenir, to 
chaffer.— late L. barcdnidre, to change 
about Remoter origin unknown. 

Barffe. (F. — LateL. — C?) m.^. barge. 
— F. barge. ^LAte L. barga, variant of 
barca ; see Bark (i). 

bark (i), barque. (F.-Late L.- 

C. ?) Bark is an K spelling of F. barque, 
a little ship. — Late L. barca, a sort of ship 
or large boat, a lighter. Perhaps of Celtic^ 
origin (Thumeysen).— O. Irish bare (fem. 
a-stem), a bark. 

Bark (2), the rind of a tree. (Scand.) 
M. E. bark. — Swed. bark ; Dan. bark ; 
Icel. borkr, Teut. type *barkuz. 

Bark (3), to yelp as a dog. (£.) M. £. 
berken. — A. S. beorcan, to bark. Cf. Icel. 
berkja, A. S. borcian, to bark. Perhaps 
of imitative origin. 

Barley. (£.) M. E. barli. — A. S. barlic. 

Cf. A. S. bere, barley (Lowl. Sc. bear) ; and 

^ 'lie, for iTCy like. Cf. also Goth, barizeins, 

made of barley ; lu.far, com. 

bam. (E.) yi,Y..berne. h.S.bem, 

J contr. form of ber-ern (Luke iii. 17).— 

A. S. bere, barley j and em, cent, a place 


for storing. A. S. am is for *ran{it), 
cognate with Icel. rann ; see Bansack. 

Barm (i), yeast. (£.) M. E. bertfte. 
A. S. beorma. + Low G. barm ; Swed. ^ 
bdrma ; G. bdrme. Teut. stem Hermon- ; 
perhaps allied to Ferment. 

Barm (2), the lap. (p:.) M. £. barm. 
A. S. bearm, lap, bosom. -fO. Sax., Swed., k 
Dan. barm; Icel. barmr\ Goth, barms. 
Teut. type *barmoz ; from bar-, 2nd grade 
of ber-an, to bear ; see Bear (i). 

Barn. (£.) See Barley. 

Barnacle (i), a kind of goose. (F.- 
Med. L.) Dimin. from F. beittaqiu (Cot.) ; 
Med. L. bernaca. * Bernacce, aues aucis 
palustribus similes ; ' Ducange. Used by 
Giraldus Cambrensis. Cf. Port, bernaca, 
bernacha\ Span. ^^;i>«V/a (Neuman). (See 
Max Miiller, Lectures, 2nd Series.) 

barnacle (2), a sort of shell-fish. (F. 

— Med. L.) The same as Barnacle (1). 
See N. £. D. ; and Max Miiller, Lect. on 
Science of language, ed. 7, ii. 583. 

Barnacles, spectacles, orig. irons put 
on the noses of horses to keep them quiet. 
(F.) The sense of 'spectacles* is late, 
and due to a humorous allusion. M. E. ber- 
fiak, dimin. bernakill. * Bernak for hors, 
bernakilly Chamus' (i.e. L. camus)\ Prompt. 
Parv. We find bernac in A. F. (in an 
Eng. MS.) ; Wright's Vocab. i. 100, 1. 3. 
Origin unknown. 

Barometer, an instrument for measur- 
ing the weight of the air. (Gk.) Gk. iSapo-, 
for fiapoSy weight ; and nirpovy a measure ; 
see Metre. 

Baron, a title. (F.-Late L.) M.E. 
baron. ''Y. baroft; older form ber, nom. 
(Pro v. bar)y the suffix -on marking the ace. 
case (Diez). Cf. Ital. barone, Sp. varon. 
Port, vardo. — Late L. baro, ace. -onem, a 
man, a male. Origin unknown. 

Baronche, a carriage. (G. — Ital. — L.) 
G. barutsche. '^liaX, baroccio, biroccio, a 
chariot, orig. a two-wheeled car. — L. bi' 
roitiSy two-wheeled; with suffix -occio 
assimilated to that of carr-occio, a chariot 
(Diez\ — L. bi^y double ; and rota^ a wheel. 

Barracks. (F. — Ital.) F. baraque. 

— Ital. barcucay a tent for soldiers ; cf. Sp. 
barraca. Prob. connected wlh Late L. 
barray a bar, pale. 

Barrator, one who incites to quarrels 
and lawsuits. (F.) Formerly barratoury 
baratour ; from M. E. baraty deceit, strife. 

— F. baraty * cheating, deceit, guile, also 
a barter,* Cotgrave. Allied to Barter. 





f Influenced by Icel. baratta^ a fight, a 

BarreL (F.) M.E.^«/v/.-O.F. (and 
F.) bariL Perhaps from Late L. ban-ay a 
bar, pale ; from the staves of it. 

Barren. (F.) M. E. barain.^K,Y. 
barain^ -e ; O. F. brehaing^ fem, bre- 
haingrUy baraigne\ F. br^haigne, sterile. 
Of unknown origin. 

Barricade. (F.-Span.) F. ^^m- 
r«^<r. — Span, barricada, a barricade, lit. 
one made with barrels full of earth. —Span. 
barrica, a barrel. Perhaps from Span. 
barra^ a bar ; see Barrel. 

Barrier. (F.) M.E. bamrc^O.Y. 
barrere (Godefroy, s. v. basseih) ; F. bar- 
ritre, — F. barrer, to bar up. — F. barre, a 
bar. See Bar. 

barrister. (Low L.) A barbarous 
word ; formed with suffix -ister ( = Low L. 
-istarius) from the sb. bar, Spelman gives 
the Low L. form as barrastertus, 

Barrow (i), a burial-mound. (E.) For 
berrow (like parson for person^ &c.). 
M. E. berghy berw, a hill, mound. O. 
Merc. berg\ A. S. beorg, beorh^ a mountain, 
hill, mound. + O. Sax., Du., G. berg, 
Teut. type Hergoz, a hill. Cf. O. Irish bri, 
a mountain ; Skt. brhanty large. 

Barrow (2), a wheel-barrow. (E.) M.E. 
barewc^A.S. bar^f 2nd grade oi ber-an^ 
^ to bear, carry. Cf. M. H. G. rade-ber, 
wheel-barrow, from raJy wheel. 

Barter, to traffic. (F.) U,E.barfryn. 
— O. F. bareier, barater, * to cheat, beguile, 
also to barter ; ' Cot. O. F. baraf, * cheat- 
ing, also a barter;* Cot. p. Of doubtful 
origin ; perhaps Celtic (Littr^). Cf. Bret. 
barady treachery, Irish broth ^ W. brad^ 
treachery, Gael, brath^ advantage by unfair 
means; Irish bradach, Gael, bradach^ 
thievish, roguish ; W. bradu, to plot. 

Barton, a court-yard, manor. (E.) O. 
Northumb. bere-iun (Matt. iii. 12).— A. S. 
berty barley; and tun^ an enclosure; see 
Barley and Town. 

Barytes, in chemistry. (Gk.) Named 
from its weight. — Gk. fiapvnjs, weight. — 
Gk. Papiis, heavy. See G-rave (2). 

barytone. (Ital.-Gk.) Better ^an- 
/one ; a musical term for a deep voice. -^ 
Ital. baritone f a baritone. — Gk. fiatpv-Sj 
heavy, deep ; and t6vos, a tone ; see Tone. 

Basalt. (L.) Also basa/tes. L. ba- 
saltes, a hard kind of marble in Ethiopia. 
An African word (Pliny). 

Base (i), low. (F. — Lk) M. E. bass, 

base. -* Y, bos, m., basse, fem. — Late L. bets- 
sus, low; the same word as L. Bassus, 
proper name, which seems to have meant 
* stout, fat,* rather than merely * low.* 

Base (2) , a foundation. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M. E. bas. — F. base, — L. basis. — Gk. fidms, 
a step, a pedestal, base. — Gk. base 0a-, 
to go (as in ^vuv, to eo); with suffix 
•ffi' (for -ri-); cf.Skt.^-^/(x), a going, from 
^am, to go. See Come. 

Basement, lowest floor of a building. 
(F. — Ital. — L.) Appears in F. as soubasse- 
ment, the basement of a building ; formed 
from sous, under, and -bassement, borrowed 
from Ital. bassamento, lit. an abasement. — 
Ital. bassare, to lower. — Ital. basso, low. — 
Late L. bassus \ see Base (i). 

Basenet, Basnet; see Basinet. 

Basbaw ; the old form of Pasha. 

Bashftll. (F. and E.) For abash-fiti; 
see Abash. Prob. by confusion with abase 
and base. 

Basil (i), a plant. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 
basile (Supp. to Godefroy) ; short for 
basilic ; cf. F. basilic, * herb basill ; ' Cot. 

— L. basilicum, neut. of basilicus, royal. — 
Gr. fiaaiXixdut basil ; neut. of fia(Ti\iK6s, 
royal. — Gk. fiaat\€vs, a king. 

pasiUcay a large hall. (L.-Gk.) L. 
basilica, fern, of basilicus, royal. 

basilisk, a fabled serpent. (L. — Gk. ) 
L. basiliscus. — Gk. fiacri\iatc6s, lit. royal ; 
also a lizard or serpent, named from a spot 
on the head like a crown (Pliny, viii. 21). 

— Gk. fiaffikfj^s, a king. 

Basil (2), the hide of a sheep tanned. 
(F.-Span,— Ajab.) A. F". baseyne (Liber 
Albus, 225). — F. basane, M. F. bctssane.^ 
Span. badana,2i dressed sheep-skin. — Arab. 
bitdnahy the [inner] lining of a garment, 
for which basil-leather was used. Cf. Arab. 
batn, the inside. 

Basin. (F\ — Late L.) M.E. bcLcin, 
basin.^O.Y. bacin, bachin; F. bassin.'^ 
Late L. bachtnus, bcuchtnus, a basin 
(Due). Supposed to be from Late L. 
ba^ca, water-vessel (Isidore). Cf. Du. bck, 
a bowl, trough. 

basinet, basenet, basnet, a light 

helmet. (F.— LateL.) In Spenser; F. Q. 
vi. I. 31. — O.F. bacinet, dimin. of Inutn, 
a basin ; from its shape. 

Basis. (L. — Gk.) L. basts. — Gk. ^(n% ; 
see Base (2). 

Bask. (Scand.) M. E. baske^ to bathe / 
oneself. Palsgrave ; and cf. bathe hire, to >/ 
bask herself, Ch. C. T. Nonnes Prestes 




Talc, 447. — Icel. *da8asl' (later />a6asl), 
for 6adn stk, to bathe oneself. Cf. also 
Swed. dial, ai basa sig i solen, to bask in 
the sun, badfisk, fishes basking in the son 
(Wedgwood). See Bathe. ^Formed 

Basket. (F. ?) M. £. basket. Mod. 
Norman F. basquette (Moisy). Origin 

Basnet ; see Basinet. 

Bass (i)» the lowest part, in music. 
(F. — L.) The same word as Base (1) ; 
but so spelt in imitation of Ital. basso y 

Bass (2), Barse, a 6sh. (£.) M. £. 

barse\ also base^ bace (with loss of r). 
/ A. S. bars, a perch. +Du. baars ; G. bars, 
^ barsch, a perch. Named from its prickles. 
From *bars', 2nd grade of Teut. root 
Hers, whence also Bristle, q. v, Cf. Skt. 
bhrshti^ pointed. . 

Bassoon, a base instrument. (F. - L.) 
F. basson, augmentative from F. basse, 
base (in music), fem. of bos, base. See 
Base (i). 

Bast. (£. "i M. £. bast ; bast-tre, a lime- 
tree. A. S. bast, inner bark of a lime- 
. tree ; whence bast is made. 4* Icel., Swed., 
^ Dan., G. bast. Often spelt bass, 

Bastaard, an illegitimate child. (F.) 
M.E. bastard, applied to Will. I.-O.F. 
bastard, the same as fits de bast, lit. * the 
son of a pack-saddle, not of a bed. [The 
V expression a bast ibore, illegitimate, occurs 
in Rob. of Glouc. p. 516.] — O.F. bast, a 
]>ack-saddle (F. bAt) ; with suffix -ard, from 
O. H. G. hart, hard, first used as a suffix 
inproper naifies and then generally. 

Saste (1)1 to beat. (Scand.?) The 
form bas-it occurs as a pp. in 1553. Cf. 
Swed. basa, to strike, beat, whip. 

Baste (2), to pour fat over meat. (Un- 
known.) InSh. ' To baste, \\vi\x^\^ Levins, 
ed. 1570. 

Baste (3), to sew slightly. (F.-M. 
H.G.) M.E. basten.'^O.Y. bastir, F. 
bdtir, to sew slightly; a tailor's term.* 
M. H. G. besten (for *bastjan), to bind; 
orig. to tie with bast. * G. bast, bast. See 

Bastile, a fortress. (F.) O.F. Itastilie, 
a building. — O.F. bastir (F. bdtir), to 
build. Origin uncertain ; perhaps allied to 

Bastinado* (Span.) Fiom Span, bas- 
ionada, a beating. — Span, baston^ a stick. — 
i.ate L. bastanem, ace ; see Baton. 

Bastion. (F.- Ital.) ¥ , bastion.^WtA, 
bastiofie, part of a fortification. — Ital. bas- 
tire, to build ; allied to O. F. bastir, to 
build. See Bastile. 

Bat (i), a cudgel. (£.) M. £. batte.^ 
A. S. batt (£ng. Studien, xi. 65). Cf. Irish 
bata, bat, a staff. Ber. bat-iet, with double 
dimin. suffix -l-et. 

Bat (2), a winged mammal. (Scand.) 
Bat has taken the place of M. £. bakke. — 
Dan.3a^^«,now only in comp. a/ten-bakJke^ 
evening-bat. Cf. O. Swed. natt-backa, 
* night- bat* (Ihre) ; for which we find 
Swed. dial, natt-batta (Rietz). 

Batoli. (£.) A batch is as much as is 
baked at once ; hence, a quantity. M. £. 
bacche, a baking; from A.S. bacan, to 
bake. See Bake. 

Bate (1)} to beat down, diminish. 
(P'. — L.) Short for Abate, by loss of a. 

Bate (2), strife. (F.-L.) M.£. bate\ 
a dipt form of Debate, in the sense of 
strife. ^ So tX'sa fence for de-fence, 

Bath. (£.)' M. E. ^/ A.S. ^<r9.+ 
Icel. ba6\ O. H.G. bad', Swed., Dan., 
Du.,G. /W. Teut. -*^-/<7»i, neuter. The 
orig. sense was a place of warmth ; cf. 
O. H. G. bdjan (G. bahen^, to foment. 

bathe. ^E.) A. S. Mian, to bathe.— 
A. S. b(e9, a bath. And see Bask. 

Bathos. (Gk.) Lit. depth, sinking. — 
Gk. ^^oy, depth ; cf. $aSvi, deep. 

Baton, Batoon, a cudgel. (F.) F. 

bdton, O.F. bcuton.^\A\A L. bastonem, 
ace. of basto, a cudgel. Origin doubtful ; 
connected by Diez with Gk. fiaar&itiy, to 
Battalion. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. bataillon. 

— Ital. battaglione, a battalion. — Ital. bat- 
taglia, a battle ; see Battle below. 

Batten (i), to grow fat; to fatten. 
(Scand.) Orig. intransitive. — Icel. ^a/»a, 
to grow better, improve, recover. Cf. 
Goth, ga-batnan, to be bettered ; Icel. 
bcU-i, s., improvement, £. Better, q-v., 
and Boot (2). Cf. also Du. baten, to 
yield profit ; boat, profit. 

Batten (2), a wooden rod. (F.) To 
batten down is to fasten with battens. Batten 
is merely another spelling of Baton. 

Batter (1), to beat. (F.-L.) M.E. 
bcU-ej^-en ; with frequentative suffix -er-. 

— F. battre, — L. bcUtere, popular form of 
battuere, to beat. 

batter (2), a compound of eggs, flour, 
and milk. (F. — L.) M. E. batour, bature. 

— O.F. bature, a beating. — F. battre, to 




beat (above). So called because beaten 

battery. (F. — L.) Y.bater'u^batterie^ 
'beating, battery;* Cot. — F. bcUtrCfKo beat. 

battle. (F.-L.) ViJ£.,bataille,bataile. 
-O. F. bataille, (i ) a fight, (a) a battalion. 
— Folk-L. battalia^ neut. pi. (turned into 
a fem. sing.), fights; Late L. battudliay 
neut. pi. of adj. battudlis, fighting. — Late 
L. baltturty to beat. 

battledoor. (Prov.-L.) M. E.<Ja/y/- 

dourcy Prompt. Parv. — Prov. batedor^ Span. 
batidoff a washing-beetle, which was also 
at first the sense of the E. word. [The 
corruption to battledoor was due to con- 
fusion with battlcy vb. to fight.] — Prov. 
bcUre^ Span, batir^ the same as F. battre, to 
beat ; with suffix -dor, which in Prov. and 
Span. = L. suffix 'torem^ ace form from 
nom. 'for, expressing the agent. 

Battlement. (F.) M. E. batelment, 
batilment*bateillement, from O.F, bateil' 
luTt to fortify; formed from ^afV/f, battle, 
fight, but confused with O. F. bastilier, to 
fortify, derivative of O. F. bastir, to build. 
See Battle and Bastile. 

Bauble (i)) a fool's mace ; (2) a play- 
thing. (F.) (I) M.E. babyll, bable, babel, 
Gower, C. A. i. 224; (2) M.E. babel, 
Tudor E. bauble. From O. F. baubel, 
babel, a child's plaything (Godefroy). 
Perhaps connected with M. Ital. babbola, 
a toy (Florio) ; and with L. babulus, a fooL 
Cf E. Babble. 

Bavin, a faggot. (F.) Prov. E. (Wilts.) 
bavin, a faggot ; hence, as adj., soon kin- 
died and burnt out, i Hen. IV. iii. 2. 61. — 
O. F. baffe, a faggot, bundle (Godefroy, 
Roquefort). Remoter origin unknown. 

Bawdy a procurer or procuress, go- 
between. (F. -O. H. G.) The full M. E. 
form is bawdstrot, P. Plowm. A. iii. 40 
(another MS. has bawde), — O. F. *balde- 
strot (found only in the later form baude- 
trot), equivalent to Lat. pronuba, a bride- 
woman. -O. H.G. bald, bold, gay, lively 
(cognate with E. Iwldy, and M. H. G. 
strotzen^ vb. (E. strut). 

Bawl. (Scand.) Icel. baula, to low as 
a cow ; Swed. bola, to bellow : see Bull, 

Bay (i), reddish brown. ^F.^L.) 
M. E. bay.'^O. F. bai.^'Y.. badius, bay- 

bayard. (F.-L.) A bay horse; 
from the colour ; also, any horse. The 
suffix -ard is Teutonic ; see Bastard. 


Bay (3), a kind of laurel ; properly, a 

berry- tree. (P'. -L.) M. E. bay, a berry 

— F. bate, a berry. — L. baca, a berry. 

Bay (3), inlet of the sea. (F.-L.) F. 
bale, an inlet. — Late L. baia, a harbour 

(Isidore), p. Confused with bay, a recess 
in a wall.— O.F. baee, a gap.— Late L. 
baddta, fem. of pp. of baddre, to gape. 

Bay (4), to bark as a dog. (F. — L.) 
M. E. bayen, — O. F. baier, to yelp (Gode- 
froy). Cf. Ital. baiarCt *to barke,' Florio. 
From the sound. 

Bay(5\inphr.fl^^^. (F.-L.) Fox at 
abay.^F. abois, abbots', itre aux abois, to 
be at bay, lit. ' to be at the biying of the 
dogs.* PI. of F. aboi, the bark of a dog ; 
verbal sb. from F. aboyer^ O. F. abater, to 
yelp, bay. — O. F. a (for L. ad) ; and baier 

Bay-window; from Bay (3, sect P) 
and Window. 

Bayonet. (F.) XVIIcent. ¥, baton- 
nette ; bayonette, a knife ; Cot. Probably 
named from Bayonne (France), where 
first made or used. 

Basaar. (Pers.) Pers. bdzdr, a mar- 

BdeUinm. (L.-Gk.-Heb.) A pre- 
cious substance. — L. bdellium. — Gk. ^%kK- 
Aiov.- Heb. bedolakh (Gen. ii. 12). 

Be-, prefix. (E.) A.S. be-, prefix; 
often causative, as in be^numb, to make 
numb. Note also be-head, to deprive of 
the head ; be-set, to set upon, set round ; 
be-mire, to cover with mire ; &c. 

BOi to exist. (E.) M. E. been. A. S. 
beon, to be.+W. bod, to be ; Russ. buile ; 
L. fore (pt. t. fta) ; Gk. <pvuv ; Skt. bhft. 

Beacb. (E.?) XVI cent. Orig. 
' shingle.' Prob. E., and the same as^ 
prov. £. bache, a valley; also, a sandbank* 
near a river. A. S. bcec, a valley ; Kemble, 
Cod. Dipl. iii. 386. 

Beacon. (E.) M. E. beken. A.S. 
beacn, been. + O. Sax. bokan ; O. H. G. 
bouhhan, Teut. type Haukftom, neut 

Bead. (E.) Orig. ' a prayer ; ' hence 
a perforated ball, for counting prayers. 
M. E. bede, a prayer, a bead. A. S. bed^ 
gebed, a prayer. — A. S. biddan ( «■ Hidjan), 
to pray. + Du. bede ; G. . bitte ; Goth. 
bida, a prayer. See Bid (i). 

Beadle. (F.-Teut.) M.E.bedel.'^ 
O. F. bedel, F. bedeau, a beadle ; lit. * pro- 
claimer,* or * messenger.' — M. H. G. biltel, 
O. H. G. btitil. - O. H. C;, bttt-, weak 



grade of biotan, G. bieten ; cognate witi) 
A.S. beddan, to bid. Cf. A. S. byclely a 
beadle, from beodan. See Bid (2). 
Bea^lef a dog. (Unknown.) M. £. 
bej^ty Squire of Low Degree, 1. 771. 

Beak. (F.-c.) M.E. ^<ff.-F. A?^.- 

Late L. beccus, of Gaulish origin. Cf. 
Irish bacCy W. bach, a crook, a hook. 

Beaker. (Scand. — L. — Gk.) M . £. 
bikcTy bykgr.^loel, bikarr, a cup. ^ O. 
Sax. biieri; Du. beker; G. becher\ Ital. 
bicckiere, p. Perhaps ^om Late L. bicd- 
riunty a wine-cup. — Gk. P^kos, an earthen 
wine- vessel ; a word of Eastern origin. 

Beain (i)y a piece of timber. (E.) 
M.E. beem. A.S. beam, a tree. +I>u. 
^^m ; G. battm. Cf. also Icel. badmrt a 
tree ; Goth, bagms. 

Beam (2), & ray. (£.) [Usually iden- 
tified with Beam (i), specially used to 
signify a colmnn of light; cf. A.S. byr- 
nende beam, * the pillar of fire.'] But A. S. 
becttHy a beam (as in sunne-beatHy a sun- 
beam) answers to a Teut. tjrpe *bau-fnoz, 
prob. cognate with Gk. tpav-aisy light, <p&os 
(for <pdfos), also *pws, light. See Fhos- 

Bean. (E.) M. E. bene. A. S. bean. 
<^Du. boon; Icel. baun; O. H. G.pona, 
bona (G. bokne). Teut. ^pe *baund, f. 

Bear (i), to carry. (E.) M. E. beren. 
A. S. beran.^lce\. herd ; O. H. G. beran ; 
Goth, bairan ; also X»^ferre'y Gk. if>4p(tv ; 
Skt. ^Ar ; O. Ir. berim, I bear ; Russ. bra/e, 
to take, carry; Pers. burdan, to bear. 
CyBHER.) Der. upbear. 

Bear (3), an animal. (E.) M. E. bere. 
A.S. ^nj.4'Icel. bera {bjam); O. H. G. 
bero, perOy G. bar\ Du. beer. Cf. Lith. 
^i^f, brown (Kluge). Teut. type *^^r£?«-. 

Beard. (E.) M,E.berd. A.S. beard. 
^DvL.baard ; G. barf. Teut. type *bardoz. 
Allied to Russ. boroda ; Lith. barzda ; L. 
barba, beard ; from Idg. type *bkardhd. 

Beast. (F.-L.) M.E. beste.^O.Y, 
bcste (F. bfie'),'^'L. bestia^ a beast. 

Beat. (E.) M. E. beten. A. S. beatan. 
4-IceL bauta ; O. H. G. potany M. H. G. 
boiin, Teut. type ^bautan-. 

Beatify. (F.-L.) F. bSatifier.^ll. 
bedtificdre, to make happy. — L. bedii-y for 
btatuSy pp. ofbedre, to bless, make happy; 
and •^•, for facere, to make. 

beatitude. (F.-L.) V. beatitude. 
— L. bedtiiudinem, ace. from nom. ^^a/i- 
/i?<^, blessedness. — L. bedtt'y for beaiusy 
blessed ; with suffix -ttldo. 


Beau, a dressy man. (F.— L.) F. beau ; 
O. F. bel.^L,. bellusy fair. For *ben-lus ; 
from ^^/i- (as in ben-e), variant of bon-^ as 
in bon-usy good. Brugm. ii. § 67. 

beaulhr. (F. - L.) M. E. beute. - A. F. 
beutCy O. F. beauiey beltet. — L. bellitdteniy 
ace. of bellitdSy fairness. — L. beHus, fair 
(above). Der beauti-fuly beaute-ous. 

Beaver (i), an animal. (E.) M. E. 
bever. A. S. befer, beofor. + Du. bever ; 
Icel. bj6rr ; Dan. Asz^^r ; Swed. bdfver ; 
G. biber ; Russ. ^r* ; Lith. bebrtis ; L. 
yf^^r. Skt. babhrus (i) brown ; (2) a large 
ichneumon. Teut. type *bebruz ; Idg. type 
*bhebhrusy reduplicated deriv. of bhru-y 
brown, tawny. Brugm. i. § 566. See 

Beaver (3), Bever, lower part of a 

helmet. ;F.) Altered by confusion with 
beaver-hat, — M. E. baviere. — O. F. bavilre^ 
a child*s bib ; also, the bever (beaver) of 
a helmet. — F. bavery to slaver. — F. bavey 
foam, slaver. Perhaps from the move- 
ment of the lips ; cf. Bret babouz, slaver. 

Beaver (3), Bever, a short imme- 
diate repast. (F. — L.) M.E. beuer ( = 
bever). — A. F. beivre, a drink ; substantival 
use of O. F. bevrey beivre, to drink. — L. 
bibere, to drink. 

Becalm, to make calm. See Be- and 

Because. (E.afi^F.-L.) See Cause. 

Bechance. (E. find F. — L.) See 

Beck (i), to nod, give a sign. (E.) 
M. E. bek-yny the same as bek-nyny to 
beckon (Prompt. Parv.). See Beckon. 

Beck (2), a stream. (Scand.) M.E. 
bek. — Icel. bekkr ; Swed. back ; Dan. bah ; 
a stream. Teut. type *bakkiz. Also 
Teut. type *bakiz ; whence Du. beeh, a 
beck ; G. bach. 

Beckon. (E.) M.E.beknen. A.S. 
becnan, beacnian (also btecnan\ to make 
signs. — A. S. beacny a sign. See Beacon. 

Become. (E.) A. S. becuman^ to 
arrive, happen, turn out, befall. 4 Goth. 
bi'kwiman\ cf. G. be-quetHy suitable, be- 
coming. From Be- and Come. 

Bed. (E.) M. E. bed. A. S. bed, bedd. 
+Du. bed\ Goth. badi\ G. bett. Teut. 
type ^badjonty n. 

bedrid, bedridden. (E.) M.E. 

bedrede (Ch. C. T. 7351); bedreden (P. 
PI. B. viii. 85). A. S. bedridoy bedreda, lit. 
* a bedrider ; * one who can only ride 011 a 
bed, not on a horse. — A. S. bedy a bed ; and 




*rid'af one who rides, from the weak 
grade of ridan, to ride. 

bedstead. (H.) M. E. bcdsude, — 

A. S. bed, a bed ; and stede, a stand, 
station ; see Stead. 

Bedabble. Bedaub, Bedassle, 
Bedew, Bedim, Bedisen. See 

Dabble, Daub, &c. 

Bedell. (Low L. - Teut.) From the 
Latinised form {pedelltis), of O. F. and 
M. E. bedel ; see Beadle. 

Bedlam. (Palestine.) M. £. bedlem, 
corruption of Bethlehem, in Palestine. 
Now applied to the hospital of St. Mary 
of Bethlehem, for lunatics. 

Bedouin. (F.-Arab.) O.F, bedoutn, 
a wandering Arab ; orig. pi. — Arab, bada- 
win, pi. of Arab. Inidawly, wandering in 
the desert. — Arab, beuiw, a desert. 

Bedridden, Bedstead ; see Bed. 

Bee. (E.) M. E. bee, A. S. bco, earlier 
bio.-^Dvi. bij\ O. H. G. bia. Cf. G. 
bie-fie ; Lith. bi-tU ; Ir. bea-ch. Perhaps 
* flutterer * ; cf. Skt. bhl, to fear ; O. H. G. 
bi-betty to tremble. 

Beecb. (E.) A. S. boece, bece, a beech ; 
becen^ adj., beechen ; both derivatives (by 
mutation) from the older form boc. See 

Beef. (F.-L.) M.E. beef,^K.¥, be/; 
O. F. boe/ (F. bceu/).^h. bouem^ ace. of 
bos, an ox.^'Gk. /Sot/s, ox ; Ir. bd,. Gael, bb, 
W. biiw, Skt.^tf, A. S. ciiy a cow ; see Cow. 
beef-eater, a yeoman of the guard. 
(Hyb.) Lit. * an eater of beef; ' hence, an 
attendant. Cf. A. S. hldf-ata, a loaf-eater, 
a servant. ^ The usual derivation (from 
Mr. Steevens' imaginary beaufetier, later 
spelt buffetier) is historically baseless. 

seer. (E.^ M. E. bere. A. S. beor. + 
Du. and G. bier ; Icel. bjorr. 

Beestings ; see Biestings. 

Beet. (L.) M.E. ^^/^. A, S, bete.'' 
L. beta, beet (Pliny). 

Beetle (i), an insect. (£.) Pro v. E. 
bittle, A. S. bitela, lit. * biting one.' - A. S. 
bit', weak grade of bitan, to bite ; with adj. 
suffix 'ol ; cf. waC'Ol, wakeful. See Bite. 

Beetle (2), a large mallet. (E.) M. E. 
beteL A. S. bytel ( = O. Wes. Hletel, 
O. Merc. *betel) ; cf. Low G. botel, Teut. 
ty^*baut'itoz, * a beater ; * from*/'a«/-a«-, 
to beat ; see Beat. 

Beetle (3), to overhang. (E.) From 
the M. E. adj. bitel-brouwed, 'beetle- 
browed ; ' P. Plowm. A. v. 109. Orig. 
sense doubtful; either from M. E. bitel, 

^harp, or from M. E. bilil^ a beetle. In 
either case from bit-, weak grade of bitan, 
to bite. 

Befall, Befool, Before; see Fail, 


Beg. (F.) M. E. beggen. A. F. begger, 
Langtoft, i. 248 ; used as equiv. to be- 
guigner, Britton, I. 22. § 15. Formed 
from the sb. beggar ; see below. 

Beget, Begin ; see Get, Gin (i). 

Beggar. (F.) M. E. beggare\ cf. 
iff<r§5Pfr=a Beguin or Beghard, Rom. Rose, 
7256 (F. text, Beguin).^0,¥, begard, be- 
gart, Flemish beggaert. Late L. Beghardus. 
Formed, with sufhx -ard (^G. -hart), from 
B^gue, a man's name. See Beguine. 

Begone, Begnile ; see Go, Guile. 

Beguine, one of a class of religious de- 
votees. (F.) Chiefly used in the fem. ; F. 
biguine. Low L. beghhia, one of a religious 
order, first established at Liege, about a. i). 
1207. Named after Lambert Le Begue, 
priest of Liege (12th c.) ; •whence also 
Beguin, Beghard, masc. Le Begue means 
* stammerer,' from the verb bigui, to stam- 
mer, in the dialect of Namur; allied to 
Picard b^giter, F. hegayer. 

Begnm, in the E. Indies, a lady of tlic 
highest rank. (Pers. — Turk.) Pers. be- 
gum, a queen, lady of rank.* Turk, beg, 
bey, a bey, governor. See Bey. 

Beba£f, interest. (E.) Formerly in the 
M. E. phrase on my behalue » on ray 
behalf, on my side; substituted for the 
A. S. phr. on {mm) healfe, on the side of 
(me\ by confusion with be healfe (t/ie), 
used in the same sense. From A. S. be, 
by ; and heat/, sb., side. See Half. 

sebave. (E.) I. e. to be-have oneself, 
or control oneself ; from have with prefix 
be-, the same as prep, by, 

bebavionr. (E. ; with F. j«^.) 

Formed abnormally from the verb to 
behave ; confused with F. sb. avoir, (1) 
wealth, (2) ability. Cf. Lowl. Sc. havings, 
(i'; wealth, (2) behaviour. 

Bebead. (E.) From Be- and Head. 

Bebemotb. (Heb. - Egypt.) Heb. 
behemoth, said to be pi. of bekemdh, a 
beast ; but probably of Egypt, origin. 

Bebest, Bebind, Bebold. (£) See 

Heat, Hind, Hold (i). 
Beboof, advantage. (E.) M. E. /^ bi- 
houe, for the advantage of. A. S. beho/ 
advantage. 4" O. Fries, biho/, Du. l}ehoe/, 
advantage ; G. behu/; Swed. beho/\ Dan. 
behorv, need. p. The preBx be is A. S. be^ 




E. by. The simple sb. appears in Icel. 
hof^ moderation, measure; cf. Goth, ga- 
hobainsj temperance, self-restraint. From 
A. S. ho/y 2nd stem of the vb. Heave. 

behove, to befit. (E.) A. S. behofiany 
verb formed from the sb. behof above. + 
Du. behoeveuy from sb. behoej\ Swed. be- 
hof va ; Dan. behove. 

Belabour, Belay; see liabour, 


Belch. (E.) M. E. belken, A. S. 
bealcian, baican, to titter ; translating L. 
eructdre^ used figuratively. Cf. bcelc^ sb.+ 
Du. balken^Xohr^y, See Bellow and Bell. 

Beldam. (F. — L.) Ironically for ^^Z- 
datne^ i.e. fine lady. — F. belle dame.'m'L. 
bella, fern, of bellus^ fair ; and domina, 
lady, fem. o{ dominus, lord. See Beau. 

Beleaguer. (Du.) Seelieaguer. ' 

Belexnnite, a fossil. (Gk.) Gk. 

fi€\fftviTfjSf a stone shaped like the head 
of a dart. — Gk. fi4\€ftvoVf a dart. — Gk. 
fiA\X€tv, to cast. (-v'GwEL.) 

Bel&y. (F.-G.) Orig. *a watch- 
tower.' Corrupted (partly by influence of 
bell) from M. E. berjray^ betfrey, a watch- 
tower.— O.F. berfreiy betfroi, belfroi (F. 
beffroi), — M. II. G. bercfrity a watch-tower. 
— M. H. G. berc'y for berg-y base of bergerty 
to protect; and M. H.G. frit y /tide y a 
place of security, a tower, the same word 
as G. friede, peace ; hence the lit. sense 
is * a protecting shelter,* watch-tower. 
Allied to Borough and Free. 

Belie. (E.) A. S. beUogaUy to tell lies 
about. From be-y by, prefix ; and leogan, 
to lie. See Iiie (2). 

Believe. (E.) Vi,l£„ beleuen (beleven). 
The prefix be- was substituted for older 
ge-. — O. Merc getefatty A. S. geliefauy ge- 
lyfaUy to believe; lit. to hold dear.-f>Du. 
geUxmen ; O. H. G. gilouban^ G. g-lauben ; 
Goth, gorlaubjan. Teut. type Vaubiany 
with A. S. ge-y prefix ; from lauby 2nd 
stem of Teut. root */^«^-:Idg. VLEUBH, 
to like. See Iiief. 

Bell. (E.) M. E. belle, A. S. belUy 
a bell.^-l^a* bel. ' Perhaps named from its 
loud sound; cf. A. S. bellan, to roar, 
bellow. See Bellow. 

Belle, a fair lady. (F.-L.) V, belle, 
fem. of F. beaUy O. F. bely fair. — L. bellusy 
fair, fine. See Beau. 

beUadoima. (Ital.-L.) It&l.bella 

donnay fair lady. — L. bella domina ; see 
Beldam. A name given to the nightshade, 
from the use of it by ladies to give ex- 

pression to the eyes, the pupils of which 
it expands. 

Belligerent. (L.) More correctly, 
belligerant.^la, belligerant-y stem of pres. 
pt. of belligerarey to carry on war. — L. 
Mli'y for bello-y stem of bellunty war ; 
gererty to carry on (war). Bellum is for 
O. Lat. duellum ; see Duel. 

Bellow. (E.) M. E. belwen (c. 1300). 
Not fully explained. It may have resulted 
from confusion of A.S. bellatiy to roar, 
bellow, with the str. verb belgan^ to be 
angry, or with the rare verb bylgiatty to 
bellow (which would have given billaiu). 
See Bell. Cf. Bull. 

Bellows. (Scand.) M. E. beliy bely^ 
belowy a bag, but also used in the special 
sense of * bellows.* Bellows is the pi. of 
M. E. below y a bag, from Icel. belgr ; and 
M. E. beli (from A. jS.) also means belly. 
Cf. G. blase-balgt a * blow-bag,* a pair 
of bellows ; A. S. blast-belgy bellows, lit. 
* blast-bag.' See below. 

belly. (E.) M. E. bely. K.S. balg, 
belg, a bag, skin (for holding things) ; 
hence (later), belly. + Icel. belgr, bag; 
Du. balgy skin, belly; Swed. b^lg, belly, 
bellows ; Dan. balgy husk, belly ; G. 
balg ; Goth. balgSy bag. Teut. type *balgiz. 
From balg'y 2nd stem of Teut. root belg 
( = Idg. VBHELGH), to swell. Cf. Irish 
bolg, bag, belly ; bolgaim, I swell ; W, boly 
belly. Der. bellows, q. v. 

Belong, Beloved, Below; see 

Long, Love, Low. 

Belt, a girdle. (L.) M. E. belt, A. S. 
belt.'^lcel, belli ; Irish and Gael, baity a 
belt, border ; O. H. G. balz ; Swed. bdl/e ; 
Dan. balte. All borrowed from L. balteusy 
a belt. 

Beltane, Old May-day. (C.) O.Irish 
bel'tene ( W indisch) ; lit. ' fire-kindling/ from 
an old custom. Celtic type *belO'te{p)nid ; 
where belo- is cognate with A.S. b&ly a 
blaze, and tepnid is from *tepnoSy type of 
O. Irish teuy fire ; cf. L. tep-ere, to be warm 
(Fick. ii. 125, 164). 

Bemoan. (E.) From Be- and 

Benoh. (E.) M. E. benche, — A. S. 
^^;i^.-f>Du. banky a bench, table, bank for 
money ; Swed. biink ; Dan. hank ; Icel. 
bekkr-y G. bank. Teut. type Hankiz, 
Doublet, bank. 

Bend (i), to bow, curve. (E.) M. E. 
benden. A. .S. bendan, orig. to string a 
bow, fasten a band or string to it ; cf. A. S. 




hetid, a band ( « Teut. *bandiz) ; from battdi 
2ud stem of hind-an^ to bind. See Bind. 
So also Icel. bendaj to bend a bow ; allied 
to band, a cord. 

bend (2), an oblique band, in heraldry. 
(F. - G.) O. F. bende, also bande, a 
band ; see Cotgrave. The same word as 
F. bandCj a band of men ; see Band (a). 
Beneath. (£.) M.E. benethe, A.S. 
beneodan, prep, below. — A. S. be-, by; 
neoSaHf adv. below, from the base mod- 
in neoS-eray nether ; with adv. suffix -an, 
Cf. G. nied-en^ nied-er ; see Nether. 

Benediction. (F.~L.) F. bMdU- 

Hon. — L. benedictionem, ace. of befiedictio, 
a blessing. — L. benedictus^ pp. of bene- 
^cere, to speak well, bless. —L. bene, well ; 
<«. 1 dicere^ to speak (see Diction). 
benison. (F. — L.) Vi.Ys. beneysun, 

— O. F. beneison. — L. acc. benedictionem. 
Benefactor. (L.) L. benefactor, a 

doer of good. — L. bene^ well ; and factor, 
a doer, from^o^^r^, to do. 
benefice. (F.— L.) M.E. benefice, 

— F. binifice (Cot.). —Late L. beneficium, 
a grant of an estate ; L. beneficium, a, 
well-doing, a kindness. — L. bene, well ; 
2Jidifacere, to do. 

benefit. (F.-L.) Modified (badly) 
from M. E. benfet, - O. F. bienfet (F. 
bienfait), — L. ^^nefcutum, a kindness con- 
ferred ; nent. -of pp. of benefcuere, to do 
well, be ki*- ^ 

Benevoience. (F.-L.) Y^b^nhw- 

lence (Cot.). — L. beneuolentia, kindness.— 
L. acc. bene uolentem, kind, lit. well- 
wishing.— L. bene, well; and uolentem, 
acc. 01 uolens, wishing, from uolo, I wish 
(see Voluntary). 

BeHigbted. (E.) See Night. 

Benign. (F. - L.) O. F. benigne (F. 
bMn), — L. benignus, kind ; short for *be' 
nigenus, — L. beni-, for *benus, variant of 
bonus, good; and -genus, bom (as in 
indigenus), from genere, old form of 
gignere, to beget. 

Benison, blessing; see Benedic- 

Bent-grass. (E.) M. E. bent, A. S. 
beonet, for earlier *binut, bent-grass (in 
place-names). 4-0. H. G. binuz, G. btnse, 

Benumb. From Be- and Numb. 

Bensoin, a resinous substance. (F. — 
Ital. — Arab.) F. benjoin, *gum beizoin 
or gum benjamin ; ' Cot. — Ital. ben- 
zoino, bengim (Torriano). The Ital. io 

hengivi seems to have been substituted for 
the Arab, name, Itibdn jdwi, lit. frankin- 
cense of Java. (Further corrupted to gum 

Be^neatb. (E.) A.S. becwedan to 
assert, bequeath. — A. S. be; prefix; and 
cwetfau, to say, assert. See Quoth. 

bequest. (E.) M. E. biqueste, bi- 
quiste. Formed, with added -te (cf. M. E. 
requeste), from A. S. *bicwiss, *bec%viss 
(not found), sb. due to becwetSan, to be^;- 
queath, assert, say. Th^: components (nL 
this form occur ; viz. be-,^ bi-, prefix, and 
cwiss (in ge-cwis), a saying. Cwiss is 
from Teut. *kwessiz, Idg. *g(w)ettis, formed 
(with suffix -ti-) from Idg. base *g(w')et-, 
whence cwedan, to say (Sievers, A. S. 
Gr. § 232) ; and becwiss is thus a regular 
deriv. of becweban, to bequeath. 

Bereave. (E.) A.S. bereafian, to 
dispossess ^ see Beave. 

Bergamot (i)» an essence. (Ital.) Ital. 
bergamotta, the essence called bergamot. — 
Ital. Bergamo, a town in Lombardy. 

Bergamot (2), a kind of pear. (F.— 
Ital. -Turk.) F. bergamotte (Cot.).- 
Ital. bergamott-a (pi. -^), * a kind of excel- 
lent pears, come out of Turky ; ' Torriano. 
— Turk, beg armiidi, 'prince's pear.' — 
Turk, beg, prince ; armild, pear. 

BerrjT- (E.) M. E. berie, A. S. berie, 
+Du. Oes, bezie; Icel. ber; Swed. bar; 
Dan. bar; G. beere; Goth, bast. All 
from a base baS', Lit. ' edible fruit ; * cf. 
Skt. bhas, to eat. Dep. goose-berry, 

Bertb. (E.) Formerly *■ convenient 
sea-room ' ; prob. from the M. E. ber^en, 
to bear; as if *bearing-off room.' Cf. 
prov. E. berth, a foothold, grasp, position. 
See Bear (i) ; and cf. Birth. 

Beryl. (L.-Gk.-Skt.) U.KberiL 
-O. F. beril.'^L. bery //us. '^Gk. fi^pvX- 
Xos ; cf. Arab. bi//aur, crystal, beryl.— 
Skt. vaidiurya (Prakrit ve/Hriyd), orig. 
beryl, brought from Vidiira in S. India 
(Yule; Bohtlingk). 

Besant, Bezant, a gold circle, in 

heraldry. (F.-L.-Gk.) Intended to 
represent a gold coin of Byzantium.— 
O. F. besant, * an ancient gold coin ; ' 
Cot. — L. Byzantium. ''Gk, Bv(6,vriw, the 
name of Constantinople. 
Beseecb. (E.) M. £. besechen. From 
be-, prefix; and sechen, Southern form 
corresponding to Northern sehen, to seek. 
See Seek. 




Beseem, Beset, Beshrew, Be- 
side, Besiege; see Seem, Sit, Shrew, 

Besom, a broom. (E.) M. £. desum, 
besme, A.S.desma.-^'Du.dezem; G^besen, 
Tent, type *besmon; m. 

Besot, BespeaJc ; see Sot, Speak. 

Best ; see Better. 

Bestead ; from Be- and Stead. 

Bestial. (F.-L.) F. bestial. - L. 
bestidiisj beast-like. -^ L. bestia^ a beast. 
See Beast. 

Bestow, BestreWf Bestride ; see 

stow, &c. 

Bet, to wager. (F. — Scand.) Short for 
abet J in tbe sense to maintain, or ' back,* 
as abet is explained in Phillips, ed. 1706. 
See Abet. Der. bety sb. 

Betake. (£. and Scand.) See Take. 

Betel, a species of pepper. (Port.— 
Malayalim.) Port, betel, oetele. — Malaya- 
lim vetXila, i. e. veru Ha, mere leaf ( Yjile). 

Bethink, Betide, Betimes, Be- 
token ; see Think, &c. 

Betray. (F. -L.; wttk E. ffrejix,) 
From be; preBx ; and O. F. trair (F. 
trahir), to deliver up, from L. trddere, 
% The preBx bC' was due to confnsion 
with bewrav. See Tradition. 

Betroth. (E.) See Troth. 

Better, Best. (E.) 1. From the 
Tent, base ^bat, good, was formed the 
Tent. comp. stem ^batizon-, as in Goth. 
batiza, better^ A. S. betera (with mutation 
from a to e), M. E. better. The A. S. bet, 
M. E. bet, is adverbial and comparative. 
3. From the same base was formed Goth. 
baiista, best, A.S. betst [iox bet»ist), M.E. 
best. Similarly Du. beler, best ; Icel. betri, 
beztr; Dan. bedre, bedst; Swed. battre, 
bast; G. besser, best. Der. (from the 
same base) batten, boot (3). 

Between. (E.) A. S. betweonan, be- 
tween ; earlier betweonum, — A. S. be, by ; 
tiueonum, dat. pi. of tweone, double, allied 
to twd, two ; see Two. Here tweonum 
^also twtnum) answers to Goth.twet'/tnaim, 
dat. pi. of tweihnai, * two eadi.* Cf. L. 

betwixt. (E.) (M.E. bettvix; to 
which / was afterwards added. — A. S. 
betwix, betwux, betweox, betweoks, appa- 
rently extended from A. S.betwih, between. 
From A. S. be, by ; and *twth, answering 
to tweih' in Goth, iweihnai, two each. 
See above. 

Bevel, sloping; to slope, slant. (F.) 

In Sh. Sonn. 121.-O. F. *bivel, ^buvel, 
only found in mod. F. biveau, and in F. 
buveau, * a kind of squire [carpenter's rule], 
having moveable and compasse branches, 
or the one branch compasse and the other 
straight ; some call it a bevell ; ' Cot. Cf. 
Span, haivel. Origin unknown. 
jSever, a potation ; see Beaver (3). 

beverage. (F.-L.) O.F. bevrage 
(Supp. to Godefroy), drink. —O. F. bevre, 
boivre, to drink. — L. bibtre, to drink. 

bevy. (F.-L.) It answers to O. F. 
bevee, a drink ; from O. F. bevre, to drink 
(above). Cf. Ital. beva, a bevy (Florio) ; 
also, a drink (Torriano). 

Bewail, Beware, Bewilder, 

Bewitch; see IT^ail, Ware, Wild 

Bewray, to disclose. (E.) Propeily 
to accuse. M. E. bewraien, biwreyer, to 
disclose. A, S. be^ prefix (see Be-) ; and 
wregan, to accuse (for older *%vrogian, 
with mutation from o to e), Cf Icel. 
ragja (for vrcegjd), to slander, Swed. rdja, 
to discover ; O. Fries, biwrogia, to accuse ; 
Goth, wrohjan, to accuse ; G. riigen, to 
censure, p. These are causal verbs, from 
the base wroh- seen in Goth, ivrohs, 
accusation, Icel. rog, a slander. 

Bey, a governor. (Turk.) Turk, beg 
(pron. nearly as bay), a lo^^, prince. 

Beyond. (E.) M.E:ieyonde, A.S. 
begeondan, beyond. » A. S. ^.ijjfpr be or bi, 
by ; and geond, prep, across, ocyond, from 
geon, yon. Cf. Goth, jaindre, thither, 
jaind, there ; from jains, that, yon. See 

Beiel, the part of a ring in which the 
stone is set. (F.) Also spelt basil \ it 
also means a sloping edge. ^ O. F. bisel 
(Roquefort) ; mod. F. biseau,2i bezel, basil, 
slant, sloped edge. Cf. Span, bisel, the 
slanting edge of a looking-glass. Per- 
haps from L. bis, double. 

Besi^ue, a game at cards. (F. — Pers.) 
F. besigiie (with ^) ; also bisy (Littre). 
/3. The first form* Pers. bdzichah, sport, a 
game ; the second — Pers. bdzi, play. — 
Pers. bdzidan, to play. [A guess.] 

Besoar, a stone. (F.— Span. — Arab. 
— Pers.) O. F. bezoar, F. b^zoard.^^^zxi, 
bezoar. — Arab, bddizahr, — Pers. pdd-zahr, 
bezoar ; lit. ' counter-poison,* from its 
supposed virtue. ^ Pers. pdd, expelling ; 
and zahr, poison. 

Besonian, a beggarly fellow. (F.) 
In 2 Hen. IV. v. 3. 118. Formerly 




bisonian ; made by adding E. -ian to 
V. bisogne, spelt bisangne^ in Cotgrave, 
* a filthe knave . . . bisonian/ Or from 
Ital. bisognoy need, want ; whence bisogni^ 
pi. * new-levied souldiers, such as come 
. . . needy to the wars'; Torriano (not in 
Florio). Origin unknown. 
Bi-, prefix. ( L.) L. bi-^ for V«/-, twice. 

— L. duo^ two. So also Gk. 8t-, Skt. dvi. 
See Two. 

Bias. (F- — L.) F. biais^ a slant, 
slope ; hence, inclination to one side. Cf. 
Ital. s-biescOy s-biesdo^ oblique. Origin 

Bib. (L.) A cloth under a child^s 
chin ; from M. E. bibben, to drink. — L. 
bibere^ to drink. Hence wine-bibber 
(Luke vii. 34) ; L. bibens utnum (Vulg.). 

Bible. (F.-L.-Gk.) U.E.bibie,^ 
F. bible. — Late L. biblia, fem. sing. ; for 
L. biblia^ neut. pi. — Gk. fiifiKiuy collection 
of writings, pi. of /SijSXioi', little book, 
dimin. of ffi^Kos, a book. — Gk. iSv/SXos, 
Egyptian papyrus ; hence, a book. 
bibUograpby. (Gk.) Gk. $t&Kio-, 

for fii0\iov ; and ypaxpeiv, to write. 

bibliomania. (Gk.) Gk. fiifiKio-, 

for fii^kiov ; and Mania. 

Bice. (F.) Properly * grayish ' ; hence 
biew byce, grayish blue. — F. bis, dusky. 
Cf. Ital. bigio, gray. Origin unknown. 

Bicker, to skirmish. (Uncertain.) 
M. E. biker, a fight ; bikeren, to skirmish. 
Cf. M. E. beken, to peck ; biken, to thrust 
with a pointed weapon. Apparently from 
O. F. bequer, to strike with the beak (see 
Beak) ; or from A.S. becca, & pick-axe. 
Cf. Du. bikken, to notch a mill-stone ; also 
E. Fries., bikkern, to hack, gnaw, from 
bikketty to hack, bikke, a pickaxe (G. 

Bicycle. (Hybrid.) In use since 1868. 
Coined from Bi- and Cycle. 

Bid (i), to pray. (E.) Nearly obso- 
lete ; preserved in bidding-prayer, and in 
to bid beads (pray prayers). M. E. bidden. 
A.S. biddan. '^Du. bidden; G. bitten; 
leal, bidja; Goth, bidjan. Teut. type 
Abidjan-, allied to L. fido^ I trust ; Gk. 
irc/^o;, I prevail upon ; froni-^BHEIDH. 
See Bnigm. i. § 589 ; ii. § 890. 

Bid (2), to command. (E.) M. E. beden. 

— A. S. beodan, to command. +Du. bieden^ 
to offer ; Icel. bjotia ; G. bieten ; Goth. 
anabiudan ; Gk. vtvOofjuu, I enquire ; Skt. 
budA, to understand. Teut. type *beudan-. 
(VBHEUDH.) Confused with Bid (i), 

the forms of which have taken the place of 
those of Bid (2). 

Bide, to await, wait. (E.) M. E. biden. 
A. S. btdan. + Du. beiden ; Icel. bi6a ; 
Swed. bida ; Dan. bie ; Goth, beidan ; 
O. H. G. bttan. Teut. type *bTdan-. 

Biennial, lasting two years. (L.) 
Formed as if from bienni-um, a space of 
two years ; the true L. word is bienndlis. 
— L. bi' two ; and anndlis, lasting .a year, 
yearly. — L. annus. So also tri-ennial, 
from tri- (for tres)^ three ; quadr-ennial, 
more correctly quadri-ennial, from quadri- 
(for quadrus), belonging to four ; quinqui- 
ennial, from quinqui' (for quinque), five ; 
dec-ennial, from dec- em, ten; cent-ennial, 
from centum, a hundred; mill-ennial, 
from mille, a. thousand, &c. 

Bier, a frame on which a corpse is 
borne. (E.) M. E. beere, bare, A.S. 
b^r, ber. — A. S. bdr-, 3rd stem oiberan, to 
carry. + Du. boar ; O. H. G. bdra (G. 
bakre); allied to Icel. barar, fem. pi.; 
\jjeretrum ; Gk. (pipfrpov. 

Siestings, Beestings, the first 

milk given by a cow after calving. (E.) 
A. S. by sting, byst (for *biest), thick milk. 
From A. S. beost, first milk after calving. 
+Du. biest ; G. biest-milch. 

Bifurcated, two-pronged. (L.) Late 
L. bifurcdtus, pp. of bifurcdri, to part in 
two directions. — L. bi-furcus, two- 
pronged; from bi-{s), double; furca, a 

Big. (Scand. ?) M. E. big ; also bigg, 
rich (Hampole). Not A. S. Cf. prov, E. 
bug, big, hog, boastful. Prob. of Scand. 
origin. Cf. Norw. bugge^ a strong man. 

Bigamy, a double marriage. (F.->L. 
and Gk.) F. /^2]^mi>. — Late L. bigamia ; 
a clumsy compound from L. bi', double 
(see Bi-), and Gk. -yafxia, from y^nos, 
marriage. It should rather have been 
digamy (Gk. btyaiua). 

Bi|fgen, a night-cap. (F.J M. F. 
begutn, ' a biggin for a child ; * Cot. 
Named from the caps worn by beguines ; 
see Beguine. 

Bight, a coil of rope, a bay. (E.) 
M. E. bight, A. S. byht, as in wateres 
byht, a bight (bay) of water (see Grein). — 
A. S. bug', weak grade of bugan, to bow, 
bend ; with mutation of w to^.+G. bucht, 
Teut. type *buktiz. See Bow (1). 

Bigot, an obstinate devotee to a creed. 
(F.) F. bigot, * an hypocrite, supersti- 
tious fellow;' Cot. Applied by the 




French to the Normans as a term of 
reproach (Wace). Of unknown origin. 
It is an older word than heguine^ with 
which it seems to have been somewhat 
confused at a later period. 

Bijon, a trinket. (F.-C?) Y, btjou. 
Perhaps from Bret, inzou^ a ring with a 
stone, a finger-ring, from biz^ a finger. 
Cf. Com. btsou (the same), from bis^ 
beSf a finger; W. by son ^ ring, from bys^ 

Klberry, a whortle-berry. (Scand.) 
Dan. bdllebary a bilberry ; where bar is E. 
berry. In M. Dan., holle had the sense of 
Dan. bugle, i. e. boss (Kalkar). Cf. Norw. 
bola^ a swelling, tumour. ^ North Eng. 
blea-berry = blue-berry \ see Blaeberry. 
In both cases, -berry takes the E. form ; 
see Berry. 

Bilbo, a sword; BilboeS, fetters. 
(Span.) Both named from Bilboa or 
Bilbao in Spain, famous for iron and 

Bile (i)i secretion from the liver. (F. 
— L.) F. bile.^'L, bilis, L. biHs is for 
*bislts, Brugm. i. § 877 ; cf. W. bus/ly 
Bret, besllt bile (Fick, ed. 4. ii. 1 75). Der. 

Bile (a), a boil. (£.) See BoU (2). 

Billfe. (F.— C.) A variant of bi/lgie, 
which orig. meant the bottom of a ship's 
hull ; whence bilge-water (N. E. D.). See 

Bill (i), a chopper, sword. (£.) M. E. 
bil, sword, axe. A.S. bill, sword, axe. 
-I- O. Sax. bil, O. H. G. bill, n. ; (cf. G. 
bille, axe, f.). Teut. type ^biljoni, n. 

bill (2). a bird's beak. (E.) M. E. 
bile. A. S. btU (Teut. type *biliz ?). Allied 
to Bill (I). 

Bill (3), a writing, account. (F.— L.) 
A. F. bille. — Late L. billa, a writing ; the 
dimin. is billeia, bulleta, shewing that billa 
is a corruption of L. bulla, a papal bull, 
&c. ; see Bull (1). 

billet (I), a note. (F.-L.) A. F. bil^ 
lette. • Late L. billetta, billeta, dimin. of 
billa, a writing ; see Bill (3) above. 

Billet (2), a log of wood. (F.) . F. 
billette, billot^ a billet of wood. Dimin. 
of bille, a log, stump. Origin unknown. 

biUiarde. (F.) F.^fV/an/,'abillard, 
or the stick wherewith we touch the ball 
at billyards ; ' Cot. Formed with suffix 
-ard (G. -hart) from bille, a log, stick, as 

Billion ; see Million. 

Billow, a wave. (Scand.) Icel. i>ylgya, 
a billow; Swed. bblja; Dan. bblge.'^-M.. 
H. G. bulge, a billow, a bag. Lit. * a 
swell * or surge ; cf. Icel. belgja, to inflate, 
puff out. The Icel. bylgja has mutation 
of « \Qy, and, like M. H. G. bulg-e, is from 
bu^g-y 3rd stem of belgan, to swell with 

Bin. (E.) M. E. binne. A. S. binn, 
a manger; Lu. ii. 7.+DU. hen, G. benne, 
a sort of basket. Perhaps of Celtic origin ; 
cf. Gaulish Lat. benna, body of a cart ; W. 
hen, a cart. 

Binary, twofold. (L.) L. bmdrius, 
consisting of two things. — L. btnus, two- 
fold. — I^. bf-, double ; see Bi-. 

Bind. (E.) M.E.binden. A.S. bin- 
dan. 4- Du. and G. bittden ; Icel. and 
Swed. binda ; Dan. binde ; Goth, bindan ; 
Skt.^ bandh, to bind. (-/BHENDH.) 

Binffy a heap of corn ; obs. (Scand.) In 
Surrey s Poems. — Icel. bingr, Swed. binge, 
a heap.^M. H. G. hige, a heap of corn ; 
whence Ital. bica. ^ Distinct from Inn, 
though perhaps confused with it. 

Binnaclef a box for a ship's compass. 
(Port.— L.) A singular corruption of the 
older word bittacUy by confusion with Inn, 
a chest. — Port, bitacola, a bittacle (i.e. 
binnacle) ; Vieyra. Cf. Span, bitacora, 
F. habitcule, the same. The Port, bitacola 
stands for *kabitacola, the first syllable 
being lost. — L. habitdculum, a little dwell- 
ing, i. e. the * frame of timber in the steer- 
age of a ship where the compass stands * 
(Bailey).— L. habitdre, to dwell; frequent, 
of habere, to have. 

Binocular, having two eyes. (L.) 
From Lat. bln-i, two each ; ocul-us, eye ; 
with suffix -dris. 

Binomial, having two terms. (L.) 
From Late L. binomi-ns, equiv. to L. 
binominis, adj. having two names ; with 
suffix -dlis. From L. bi-, two ; nomin-, 
for nomen, a name. 

Biography. (Gk.) A written ac- 
count of a life ; from jSio-, for iS/os, life ; 
and ypdfpdv, to write. The sb. fiios is 
allied to Quiok. 

biology. (Gk.) Science of life ; from 
Gk. /3to-, for /9«oy, life ; and •\oyia, a dis- 
coursing, from \6yos, a discourse. 

Biped. (L.) L. biped', stem of bi/ies, 
two-tooted ; from bi-, two ; pes, foot. 

Birch, a tree. (E.) M. E. birche. 
A.S. birce, f.+G. birke, f.<Teut. Hirk- 
jon: p. Also A. S. here, beorc, + Du. 




*befk ; Icel. bjork^ Swed. hjork, Dan. birk 
(cf. North E. Wr>&).<Teut. *berkd, f. Cf. 
also O. Slav, briza^ Rass. berUza ; Lith. 
berlas. Also Skt. bhurja, a kind of birch. 

Bird. (E.) M. E. brid (the r being 
shifted) ; A. S. bridd, a bird, esp. the 
yonng of birds. 

Birettay a clerical cap. (Ital.— L.— 
Gk.) Ital. beretta (Torriano) ; cf. Late 
L. birretum, orig. a scarlet cap. — Late L. 
birriis^ burruSy reddish. See Bureau. 

Birth. (Scand.) M. E. burthe, birtke, 
Cf. Icel. burdr, m. ; Swed. bord, Dan. 
byrd, f. ( = O. Icel. byrtf, f.). + A. S. 
gebyrd, f. ; O. II. G. giburt (G. geburt) ; 
Goth, gabaurihs, f.<Teut. *burtiiz = \<Ag. 
*bhrtis (Skt. bhrtis^ f. nonrishment). All 
from the weak grade of -v/BHER, to 
bear. See Bear (i). 

Biscuit, a kind of cake. (F. — L.) F. 
biscuiiy lit, twice cooked. — F. bis (L. bis)^ 
twice ; and cuii, cooked, from L. coctum, 
ace. of coctus, pp. of coquere^ to cook. 

Bisect. (L*) From L. bi-^ short for 
bisi twice ; and sect-wn^ supine of secure^ 
to cut. 

Bishop. (L.-Gk.) A.S. biscop,^L. 
episcopus. '^Gk, Matcovoiy a bishop; lit. 
* overseer.'- Gk. ivi, upon; aieorroSf one 
that watches, from cicoir-, o-grtide of aic€v-f 
as in aKin-To/jMi, I spy, overlook. See 

Bismuth, a metal. (G.) G. bismu/A ; 
also spelt wismutj wissmul, 7uissmuih, 
Origin unknown. 

BiSOXli a quadruped. (L.— Teut.) L. 
bison (Pliny) ; Late Gk. fiiaosv. Not a L. 
word, but borrowed from Teutonic; 
O. H. G. wisuntf G. wisent^ a bison ; 
A. S. weosendy a wild ox ; Icel. msundr. 
See O. H. G. wisunt in Schade. 

BisseztilCy a name for leap-year. 
(L.) Late L. bissextilis annus ^ bissextile 
year.— L. bissextus, an intercalary day; so 
called because the intercalated day (for- 
merly Feb. 24) was called the sixth of 
the calends of March; there being thus 
two days with the same name. — L. bis, 
twice ; sexfus, sixth, from seXy six. 

Bisson, purblind. (E.) In Sh. M. E. 
bisen. O. Northumb. bisen, blind (Matt, 
ix. 28). Origin unknown. 

Bistre, a dark brown. (F.-G.?) F. 
bistrej a dark brown. Perhaps from prov. 
G. biestcTy dark, gloomy, also bistre (FlU- 

Bit (1% a mouthful, small piece. (E.) 

M. £. bite (a syll.). A.S. bita, a morsel. 
From A. S. bit-, weak grade of btiany to 
bite.+Dn. beef\ Icel. biti\ Swed. bil\ 
Dan. ^/V/.<Teut. type Hiton-, m. 

bit (2), a curb for a horse. (E.) M. E. 
biit. A. S. biie^ m. a bite, a biting. <Teut. 
type *biiizy a bite ; cf. bitoly a curb.+Dii. 
gebit\ Icel. bitill (dimin.) ; Swed. bett'\ 
Daxi. bid; G.gebiss. 

Bitch. (E.) M. E. bicA^f bicche. A. S. 
^/Vf*^.^Icel. bikkja ; also grey-haka. 

Bite. (E ) M. E. biten, A. S. bitan, 
4" Du. bijten ; Icel. btta ; Swed. bita ; 
Dan. bide ; G. beissen. Teut. type *bttan-. 
Allied to l^findere (pt. i.f}fdi)f to cleave ; 
Skt. bkid, to cleave. (-/BHEID.) 

bitter. (E.) M. E.^iV^r. K.S.bHer, 
bitoty lit. 'biting.'— A.S. bit-y weak grade 
of bitany to bite.^-Du. bitter \ Icel. hitr; 
Swed., Dan., G. biiter. 

Bittern, a bird. (F.-LateL.) The 
n is added. M. E. botory bitaure, — F. 
butory *a bittor [bittern];' Cot. Prob. 
named from its cry; cf. L. but ire y bubdre, 
to cry like a bittern ; whence also L. bUtiOy 
said to mean * bittern/ though the same 
word as biiteo, i.e. buzzard. 

Bitts, naval term. (Scand.?) The 
bitts are two strong posts on deck to 
which cables are fastened. Prob. from 
Icel. bitiy a bit, mouthful (see Bit (i)); 
also, a cross-beam in a house ; a thwart 
(L. transtrum) in a ship. [F. bites, bitts 
(see Cot.), Span. bitaSy may have been 
borrowed from E.] Cf. also A. S. bietingy 
a cable for holding a ship, from bietan^ 
to restrain, curb, equivalent (in form) to 
Icel. beita ; see Bait. Also Swed. betingy 
a bitt, whence betingbuliy a bitt-bolt, bitt- 
pin ; Dan. beding : used also on land for 
tethering horses, as in Swed. beiingbultj a 
peg for tethering, from beta, to pasture, bait. 

Bitumen. (L.) L. bitumen, mineral 
pitch. Cf. Brugm. i. § 663. 

Bivalve. (F.-L.) From Bl- and 

Bivouac. (F.-G.) ¥. bivouac yOng. 
^/z/dkT. — Swiss G. beiwachty an additional 
watch at night (Stalder); cf. bei-gebeuy 
to add. — G. bet, in addition ; wachty a 
watch, from wacheny to wake. Sec Wake 
(iV Cf. G. beiwache. 

Bizarre, odd. (F.— Span.) F. bi- 
zarrey strange, capricious ; orig. ' valiant.' 

— Span, bizarroy valiant, gallant. Perhaps 
of Basque origin; cf. Basque bizarray a 
beard. Cf. Span, homhre de bigote, a man 




of spirit; where bigoti means * mous- 

Blaby to tell tales. (£.) M. £. blabbe, 
a tell-tale ; blaberen^ to babble. Cf. Dan. 
blabbre, to babble ; Dan. diaL blaffre, G. 
plappem, to babble, prate. Of imitative 
origin ; cf. Gael.//a^, a soft noise ; plabair, 
a babbler ; blabaran, a stammerer, biabA- 
dach, babbling, garrulons. 

Black. (£.) M. £. blak, A. S. blac, 
blac [which editots have often confused 
with blSc^ bright, shining]. Cf. Icel. 
blakkr, dark ; also A. S. biacy Low G. blak, 
O.H. G. black, Icel. blak, Swed. bUck, Dan. 
bhsk, all meaning < ink.* Connexion with 
Dn. blaken, to scorch, is doubtful. 

blacknardy a term of reproach. (£. 
and F.) i*rom black void, guard, A name 
given to scullions, turnspits, and kitchen 
menials, from the dirty work done by 
them. See Trench, Select Glossary. 

Bladder. (£.) Vi.lS., bladdre, A.S. 
blctddre, blkdre, a blister, bladder (lit. 
blowing out).+Du. blaar [Icel. blatira 1] ; 
O. H. G. bldiara (G. blatter), Teut. type 
Hl&dron-y wk. fern. From Teut. stem 
HI&-, to blow (see Blow (i) ); with suffix 
'dron similar to Gk. -7/)d (cf. X^^P^> ^ pot). 

Blade, a leaf, flat of a sword. (£.) 
M. £. blade, A. S. blad, a leaf.+Icel. 
blaSf Swed., Dan., Du. blad, a leaf, blade ; 
G. blatt. Teut. type Hla-dom, neut., with 
sense of * blown,* i.e. * flourishing;* pp. 
form (with suffix -ch- = Idg. -td-) from 
VBHLd. See Blow (a). 

Blaeberry, Bleaberry, a bilberry. 

(Scand. and £.) From North £. blae, 
livid, dark ; and berry. The form blae is 
from Icel. bld-r, livid ; see under Blue. 

Blain, a pustule. (£.) M. £. blein, 
A. S. blegen, a boil. Hh I^u. blein ; Dan. 
bl^n. Cf. O. H. Q.plehen-ougi, weak-eyed. 

Blame, vb. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.£. 
blamen,^0,Y, blasmer^ to blame. — L. 
blaspkemdre, to speak ill, also to blame. 
— Gk. &\aa<pfriiittv ; see Blaspheme. 

Blaacb (i), to whiten. (F.-O.H.G.) 
From F. blanckir^ to whiten. — F. blanCy 
white ; see Blank below. 

Blancb (2), the same as Blench. 

Bland. (L.) L. blandus, mild, 
blandisll, to flatter. (F.-L.) M. £. 
blandisen.^O.Y, blandis-, stem of pres. 
part of blandir^ to flatter. — L. blandtrt, to 
caress. — L. blandus^ bland. 

Blank, white. (F. - O. H. G.) In 
Milton, P. L, X. 656. - F. blanc, - O. H. G. 

blanckf white. Nasalised form from 
O. H. G. blaky shining; cf. Gk. ^A<$7-€or, 
flaming, shining, from ^Xcy-ctv, to shine. 

blanket. (F.-O.H.G.) Orig.ofa 
white colour. M. £. blanket. — A. F. blan- 
ket (F. blancket), dimin. from blanc, white; 
see above. 

Blare, to make a loud noise. (£.) 
M. E. blaren, Cf. Du. blaren. Low G. 
blarren, to bleat ; M. H. G. bleren, bkr- 
ren (G. pliirren), to bleat, blubber. Prob. 
imitative, like bleat \ but cf. Blaze (2). 

Blason ; see Blason. 

Blaspheme, to speak injuriously. (L. 

— Gk.) L. blaspkemdre, ''Gk, fiXaa^" 
yLiiv, to speak ill of. — Gk. fi\da<fnjfju>s, adj., 
speaking evil. — Gk. pXaa-^ for *$ka0ei-, 
i. e. hurtful (cf. iSAiiiS-i;, hurt) ; and 0i7/u, I 
say : see Fame. Brugm. i. § 744. 

Blast, a blowing. (E.) M.£. blast, 
A. S. bli^st, a blowing ; cf. Icel. bldstr, n 
breath, blast of a trumpet ; O. H. G. blast. 
Formed with Idg. suffix to- from the old 
base of Blase (a). 

Blatant, noisy, roaring. (E.) Spenser 
has * blatant beast"; F. Q. vi. la (head- 
ing) ; also blattanl, id. vi. i. 7. Prob. 
imitative. Cf. Lowl. Sc. blad, to abuse ; 
blatter^ a rattling noise ; G. platz, a crash. 

Blay, a bleak (fish). (£.) A.S. blage, 
4-Du. blet\ G. bleike. 

Blase (i)> a flame. (£.) M. £. blase, 
A. S. blasef a flame, in comp. bdl blcesCy 
a bright light ; blase, f. a torch ; <Teut. 
type *blasdn, Cf. M. H. G. blasj a torch ; 
also G. bldsse, Icel. blest, a *■ blaze ' or 
white mark on a horse, Swed. bids, the 

Blase (a)i to proclaim, noise abroad. 
(Scand.) Mark i. 45. M. £. blasen. — 
Icel. bldsa, to blow, blow a trumpet, sound 
an alarm ; Swed. bl8sa, to sound ; Dan. 
blase, Du. blazen, to blow a trumpet ; G. 
blasen. Also Goth, uf-blesan^ to puff up. 
<Teut. type *bl&S'an; to blow; whence 
A.S. bl&sty £. blast. Much confused with 

Blason (i), Blason, a proclamation. 
Hamlet, i. 5. ai ; Shak. Son. 106. A cor- 
ruption from Blaze (2), M. E. blasen^ to 
proclaim ; due to confusion with Blazon 
(2) below. 

slason (2), to pourtray armorial bear- 
ings. (F.) M. E. blason, blasouny a shield; 
whence blazon, verb, to describe a shield. 

— F. blason, a coat of arms, orig. a shield 
(Brachet). Cf. Span, blason, heraldry, 




blazonry, glory, hacer blason^ to blazon, 
hlasonar, to blazon, brag, boast ; suggest- 
ing a (very doubtful) connexion with G. 
hlaseuy to blow the trumpet, as done by 
heralds, to proclaim a victor's fame ; see 
Blaze (2) above. (See Scheler.) Or if the 
orig. sense was a bright mark on a shield, 
it is allied to Blaze (i). 

Bleaberry; see Blaeberry. 

Bleach. (E.) Orig. ' to whiten ; ' M. E. 
blechen, Ancren Riwle, p. 324, 1. i. A. S. 
OLecan, * A. S. bide, shining, bright, pale. 
See bleak below. -4" Icel. bktkj'a ; Du. 
bleeken ; G. bleichen ; <Teut. *blaikjan; 

bleflbk (i)) orig. pale. (Scand.) M. E. 
bieik. — Icel, bleikr, pale ; Swed. biek ; 
Dan. bleg.'^X. S. bide ; Du. bleek ; G. 
bleich, Teut. type *blaikoz. From *blaik'f 
strong grade of Teut. *bleikan- (A. S. 
blican), to shine. 

bleak (2), a fish. (Scand.) From its 
pale colour. 

Bleaiveyed, having watery, inflamed, 
or dim eyes. (E.) M. E. bleer-eyed. 
Cognate with Low G. blarr-oged, blear- 
eyed ; cf. blarr-oge^ an eye wet with tears, 
from blarren, to howl, weep ; which seems 
to be allied to E. blare. 

Bleat. (E.) M. E. bleten. A. S. bl^- 
tan, bletan, to bleat as a sheep. 4- Du. 
blaten ; O. H. G. pldzan. Cf. Rnss. bk- 
Jate, to bleat ; h.^erg, to weep. 

Bleb, Blob, a small bubble or blister. 
(E.) Cf. M. E. blober, a bubble on water ; 
blubber^ a bubble. By comparing blobber, 
blubber J with bubble^ having much the same 
meaning, we see the probability that they 
are imitative, from the action of forming 
a bubble with the lips. 

Bleed. (E.) M. E. bleJen, A. S. blh 
dan, formed (by mutation of to e) from 
A. S. bl5d, blood. < Teut. type *blddjan-, to 
lose blood >Icel. blcelia. 

Blemish, to stain. (F.) M. E. ble- 
misshen. — O. F. blemis-, stem of pres. part, 
of blemir^ blesmir, to wound, stain, make 
pale. — O. F. bleme, blesme, wan, pale. Of 
unknown origin. 

Blench, to shrink from. (E.) M. E. 
blenchen, to avoid, elude. A. S. blencan, 
to deceive ; as if from a Teut. type *blank' 
jan-y causal of *bltnkan', to blink. But 
proof is wanting. 

Blend, to mix together. (Scand.) 
M. E. blenden. Due to blend-, base of the 
pres. indie, of Icel. blamia i^Swed. blanda, 
Dan. blande), to blend ; cognate with 

A. S. and Goth, blandan, str. redupl. vb., 
O. H. G. blantan, to mix. 

Bless, to consecrate, &c. (E.) The 
orig. sense may have been *to consecrate 
by blood,* i. e. either by sacrifice or by the 
sprinkling of blood, as the word can be 
clearly traced back to blood. M. E. blessen, 
A. S. bleisian, O. Northumb. bledsia, bloed- 
sia (Matt. xxv. 34, xxvi. 26), which can 
be explained from blod, blood^with the usual 
vowel-change from to oe or e, Teut. type 
*blddison, Cf. bleed, (Suggested by Sweet ; 
Anglia, iii. 156.) 

Blight. (E.) XVII cent. Of unknown 
origin ; perhaps allied to M. E. blichening, 
mildew. And cf. M. H. G. blicze, G. bliiZf 

Blind. (E.) A.S. blind.-^^'DvL, blind; 
Icel. blindr; Sw., Dan., G. blind ;<.Teut. 
type Hlindoz (^Idg. base Hklendh'), Cf. 
Lith. blfsli-s (3 pr. s. blendzia-s), to become 
dim (of the sun). 

blindfold, vb. (E.) M.E. blind- 
folden, verb (Tyndale) ; corruption of 
blind/elden (Palsgrave), where the d is 
excrescent. The true word is blindfellen, 
to * fell ' or strike blind, Ancren Riwle, p. 
106. — A. S. blind, blind; s^difellan, to 
strike ; see Fell. 

Blindman'sbnff; see Buff. 

Blink, to wink, to glance. (E.) M. E. 
blenken, to shine, to glance ; whence mod. 
E. blink, by change of en to in, as in 
many words; Allied to A. S. blanc, while 
(as in blanc-a, & white horse), cognate with 
O. H. G. blanch, M. H. G. blatic ; see 
Blank. Cf. Du., G. blinken, Swed. 
blinka, Dan. blinke, all late forms; and 
A. S. blTcan, to shine. 

Bliss. (E.) See Blithe. 

Blister. (F.-Teut.) Vl,^. blester, 
blister. (Not found before 1300.) — O. F. 
blestre, * tumeur,* Godefroy. Of Teut. 
origin ; cf. Icel. bldstr (dat. bliestrt), a 
blast, also a swelling, allied to E. Blast. 
From the notion of blowing out. 

Blithe. (E.) M.E. blithe. A.S. 
blide, sweet, happy.+O. Sax. bltSi, bright, 
glad ; Du. blijde,blij \ Icel. blifir\ Swed., 
Dan. blid\ O.H. G. blidi, glad; Goth. 
bleiths, merciful, kind. 

bliss. (E.) M. E. blis. A. S. blis, 
bliss ; contr. from A. S. blids, happiness, 
lit. blitheness. — A. S. bliSe (above). + 
O. Sax. blTzza, blTdsea, happiness. Teut. 
stem Hlissid ; with ss <,tt, the suffix being 
■tid^ as in L. laefi-tia. 




Bloat, to swell. (Scand.) We now 
generally use bloated to mean 'puffed 
out * or * swollen,' as if allied to blow. 
But the M. E. form was blout^ soft ; con- 
nected with Icel. blautr, soft, effeminate, 
imbecile, blotna, to become soft, lose 
courage. Cf. Swed. bldt, Dan. blod, soft, 
pulpy, mellow. Allied to Icel. blaudr^ 
soft ; A. S bleaff G. blode^ weak. 

bloater, a prepared herring. (Scand.) 
A bloater is a cured fish, cured by smoke ; 
but formerly a * soaked 'fish. — Icel. blautr^ 
soft. Cf. Swed. blbtfisk^ soaked fish ; from 
blotUy to soak, steep; from blot, soft 

Blob, a bubble. (E.) See Bleb. 

Blocx, a large piece of wood. (F. — 
M. H. G.) M. E. blok, - O. F. bloc,^ 
M. H. G. blocJif a block ; cf. Du. blok^ Dan. 
bloky Swed. block, Der. block-ade. 

Blond. (F.) XV cent. F. blond, m. 
blonde f fem. 'light yellow;' Cot. Referred 
by Diez to Icel. blandinnj mixed j cf. A. S. 
blonden-feaXf having hair of mingled 
colour, gray-haired. See Blend. % But 
the Low L. form is blundusy pointing to 
a Teut, type ^blundo-, answering to Skt. 
bradhna-s, reddish, pale yellow (Kluge). 
Cf. O. Slav. bron\ white ; Brugm. i. 

Blood. (E.) ^.Y.. blod, blood, A.S. 
A/A/.+Du. bloed, Icel. bloU, Swed. blod, 
Goth, bloth ; G. blut\ <Teut. tyj^e *blodom, 
n. Hence bleed. 

Bloom, a flower. (Scand;) M. E. 
blome\ not in A. S. — Icel. bldm, bldmi, a 
flower; Swed. blovtma.) Dan. blomme.'^ 
Du. bloem ; Goth, bloma ; allied to O. Ir. 
bltith, \a,flds ; see Flower. And see below. 
blossom. (E.) M. £. blostne, also 
bios t me, A. S. blosttna, a blossom ; from 
base bid' of A. S. bid-wan, with suffixes 
-5t and -ma (Teut. •/;w«).-f"Du. bloesem ; 
M. H. G. bluest (with suffix -st). See 

Blot ( 0, a spot. (Scand. ?) M. E. blot, 
blotte. Origin unknown. It has some 
resemblance to Icel. blettr, a blot, stain ; 
Dan. dial, blat^ a spot, a blot. 

Blot (a), at backgammon. (Scand.) 
A blot is an ' exposed * piece. — Dan. blot, 
bare, naked ; whence give sig blot, to lay 
oneself open, expose oneself; Swed. blott, 
naked ; blotta, to lay oneself open.^-Du. 
bloot, naked, blootstellen^ to expose ; G. 
bloss, naked. Allied to Icel. blautr, soft ; 
see Bloat. 

Blotch, a large blot. (E.) A mod. 
variant of blot, perhaps suggested by botch. 

Blouse, a loose outer frock. (F.) 
From F. blouse, a frock much used by 
workmen (XVIlIcent.). Origin unknown. 

Blow (1), to puff. (E.) M. E. blowen. 
A. S. bUnvan. + G. blcihen, O. II. G. Ha- 
han ; allied to \u, flare. 

Blow (2), to bloom, flourish as a flower. 
(E.) M.E. blowen. A,S. bldwan-^Du. 
bloeijen ; G. bliihen, O. H. G. bluojan. 
Allied to L. florere ; see Flourish. 

Blow (3), a stroke, hit. (E.) M. E. 
blowe. Not in A. S. ; but we find M. Du. 
strong verb blouwen (pt. t. blau\ to strike, 
dress, flax by beating ; O. H. G. bliuwan, 
whence G. bldiien,io beat; Goth, bliggwan, 
to strike ; all from Teut. ^bliwivan-, to 
strike. (History obscure.) 

Blubber. (£•) M. E. blober, a bubble ; 
bloberen, to bubble up, to weep copiously. 
Of imitative origin; cf. Blob. The 
blubber of the whale consists of bladder- 
like cells filled with oil. Blubber-lipped. 
with swollen lips. Cf. E. Fries, blubber, 
a bubble, a blob of fat; blubbern, to 

Bludgeon. (E. £?rF.) XVIII cent. 
Of unknown origin. 

Blue, a colour. (F.-O.H.G.) M. E. 
blew, bleu.^K.Y. blu, blew, O. F. bleu, 
blue. — O. H. G. bldo, blue, livid, G. blau. 
4-Icel. bldr, livid ; Swed. bla, Dan. blaa ; 
A. S. bldw (O. E. Texts, p. 588 . ; < Teut. 
type '^blitwoz. Cognate with \j3\.flduus^ 

Bluff, downright, rude. (Du.?) A 
bluff IS a steep headland. It appears to be 
Dutch. M. Du. blaf, flat, broad ; blaffaert^ 
one having a broad flat face, also, a 
boaster (Oudemans) ; blaf van hct voor- 
hooft, * the flat of a forehead ' (Hexham) ; 
blaffen, bleffen, to mock (id.). Cf. E. 
Fries, bluffen, to make a noise, bluster, 
impose on. 

Blunder, to flounder about, err. 
(Scand.) M. E. blondren, to confuse, to 
move blindly or stupidly. Formed (as a 
frequentative) from Icel. blunda, to doze, 
slumber ; Swed. blunda, to shut the eyes ; 
Dan. blunde, to nap. Cf. Icel. blitndr, 
Dan. and Swed. blund, a doze, a nap. 
From the sense of ^confusion.' Allied to 
Blend and Blind. 

Blunderbuss, a short gun. (Hyb.) 
In Pope. Formerly spelt blanterbusse, 
plantierbusse (Palmer, Folk- Etymology); 




i. e. 'a gun on a rest.* Apparently from 
L. plantdre, to plant (see Plant); and 
Du. huSy a gun, orig. a box, barrel; see 
Box (i). But the corresponding Dn. word 
is donderbus, i. e. thnnder-gnn. 

Blunt, dnll. (Scand.?) M,E. d/ufU, 
blontj dull, dulled. Origin unknown; 
perhaps allied to Icel. hlunda^ Dan. 
bluftde^ to sleep, doze ; see Blunder. 

Blur, to stain ; a stain. (Scand. ?) 
Properly * to dim * ; metaphorically, * to 
deceive. We find : ' A blirrey deceptio ; 
to blirrty fallere ; ' Levins (1570). Of 
uncertain origin. Cr Swea. dial, blura^ 
to blink, partially close the eyes; Swed. 
pliray Swed. dial, biiraf to blink ; biirra 
fojr augu, to quiver (be dim) before the 
eyes, said of a haze caused by heat; 
Bavarian pletTf a mist before the eyes. 

Blurt, to utter impulsively. (£.) 
Lowl. Sc. blirtj to make a noise in weep- 
ing ; cf. M. £. bUren, to make a loud 
noise, to blare. Of imitative origin. 

Blush. (£•) M. £. bluschetiy blusshen, 
to glow. A. S. blyscan, used to translate 
L. ruiildre, to shine (Mone, Qnellen, 355) ; 
cf. dblysian, dblisiany to blush ; from A. S. 
blys in bal-blysy lit. *a fire-blaze.* 4'I^'i- 
blozetty to blush, from bios, a blush ; Dan. 
blusse, to flame, glow, from blus, a torch ; 
Swed. blossa, to blaze, from bloss, a torch. 
From Teut. root Hleus, to glow. 

Bluster, to be boisterous. (E.) Doubt- 
less associated in idea with blast (Icel. 
bldstr, Swed. blBst), Cf. E. Fries, blus- 
tern, to be tempestuous (esp. of wind) ; 
bluster y bliiser, a breeze ; bliisen^ to blow 
strongly ; bliise, wind. 

Boa, a large snake. (L.) L. boa 
(Pliny); perhaps allied to ^^j, an ox ; from 
its size. 

Boar, an animal. (K.) '^JL.boreykoor, 
A. S. /wr. 4* Du. beer\ M. H. G. ber, 
Teut. type *bairoZy m. 

Board (i). (£.) M. E. bord. A.S. 

hordy board, si^e of a ship, shield. 4-Du. 
hoord\ Icel. borHy plank, side of a ship ; G. 
bord\ Goth, -baurd in fotu-baurdy a foot- 
stool. Cf. Irish, Gael., W., and Cora. 
bordy a board (from E.). Teut. type 
*bordomy n. % The sense * side of a ship * 
explains star-boardy lar-boardy on hoard, 
over-board. Der. board, to have meals as 
a lodger ; from board, a table. 

board (2), to go on board a ship, to 
accost. (F.— Teut.) The sb. ^^n/ is E., 
but the verb, formerly spelt bordey bordy is 

short for aborde, used by Palsgrave. — F. 
aborder, ^ to approach, accost, abboord, 
or lay aboord ; * Cot. — F. a, to (L. atl) ; 
bordj edge, brim, side of a ship, from 
Icel. bordy Du. boord, side of a ship. See 
Board (i). 

Boast. (E.) M. E. bost. [W. bost. 
Corn, bosty Irish and Gael, bosd, are all 
borrowed from E.] Origin unknown, but 
perhaps a late formation (with suffix -st) 
from A. S. bogan, bon, to boast ; cf prov. 
E. bogy to boast. 

Boat. (E.) M. £. boot, A. S. bat. 
Cf. Icel. bdtr ; Swed. b&t ; Du. boot ; Rnss. 
bof ; W. bad; Gael, bdta, a boat, fi. The 
Icel. word is borrowed from A. S. ; and 
the other forms either from £. or Icel. 
Teut. type *battoz, m. 

boat-swain. (£.) Lit. ' boat-lad ; * 
Icel. sveinn, a lad ( » A. S. swan). 

Bob, to jerk. (£.) Perhaps imitative. 

Bobbin, a wooden pin on which thread 
is wound; round tape. (F.) Formerly 
bobin.^Y, bobine, 'a quil for a spinning 
wheele, a skane; * Cot. Orig. unknown. 

Bode, to foreshew. (E.) M. K boden, 
bodian, — A. S. bodian, to announce. » A. S. 
boda, a messenger ; hod, a message. From 
bod; weak grade of beodan, to command, 
announce. See Bid (2). 

Bodice, stays. (E.) A corruption of 
bodies (pi. of body), which was the old 
spelling. (Cf F. corset, from corps,) 

Bod£in, orig. a small dagger. (?) 
M. E. boydekiHy Ch. Origin unknown. 

Body, the frame of an animal. (£.) 
M. E. bodi'y A. S. bodig.-^O, H. G. potach, 

Boer ; the same as Boor. 

Bo|f. (C.) Irish bogach, a bog, from 
bog, soft; cf. Irish bogaim, I shake ; a bog 
being a soft quagmire. So also Gael. 
bogan, a quagmire ; bogy soft, moist ; bogy 
to soften, also to agitate. Cf. O. Irish 
bocc, soft. 

Bognrd, Bogirart, a specti^. (C. ; 

with F. suffix,) From bogy variant of 
Bug (i); with suffix -ard, -art (F. -ard 
as in bcLst-ard), See below. 

Boggle, to start aside, swerve for fear. 
(C?) Prob. coined from prov. E. boggle, 
bogie, a spectre. Cf. W. bwg, a goblin; 
bygel, a scarecrow; bwgwly a threat, 
bygylu, to threaten; bwgwth^ to scare. 
See Bug (1). 

Bohea, a kind of tea. (Chinese.) So 
named from the Bohea hills; the moun- 
tain called Bou-y (or Wu-t) is situated in 




the province of Fokien or Fukian^ on the 
S. £. coast of China. 

Boil (i), to bubble up. (F.-L.) O.K. 
Mllir^ to boil (F. bouilHr), — L. buUire^ to 
bubble up, boil.«>L. htlla^ a bubble; see 
Bull (a). Cf.' Norman F. boiilir, to 

Boil (3), a small tumour. (£.) Prov. 
E. bile ; prob. affected by botl{i), M. E. 
Me, A. S. ^i, a boil, swelling.+Dn. 
Sut7; G. beuie, Cf. Goth, ufbatdjan^ to 
puff up ; Icel. beyla^ a hump (with muta- 
tion). See Bowl (2). 

Boisterous. (F.) Lengthened from 
M. E. boistous, Ch. ; lit. * noisy.' Batsious 
answers to O. F. boistaus, lame, but the 
difference in sense is remarkable. The 
O. F. boisious also meant < rough,' as 
applied to a bad road; hence perhaps 
M. £. boisiausj rough, coarse, noisy. 

Bold. (E.) M.E. boldy bald] A.S. 
beaidy bald^ ^^.-flcel. ballr\ Du. boud\ 
O.H.G. bald\ cf. Goth, bcdthaba, adv., 
boldly. Teut. type ^bcUpoz, 

BoxOf stem of a tree. (Scand.) M. E. 
bole,^lct\, bolr, bulr^ the trunk of a tree, 
stem; Swed. b^l\ Dan. buL Cf. Gk. 
tpaX-ay^f a log, trunk. Cf. Balk (i). 

Bolledf swollen. (Scand.) Earlier 
forms are M. E. bol lefty pp., and bolnedy 
pp. The latter is the pp. of M. E. bolneuy 
to swell.— Dan. bulne, Swed. bulna, Icel. 
bolgna, to swell, inchoative forms from 
wk. grade of belg- (cf. Icel. belgt'a, to in- 
flate). Cf. A. S. belgan (pp. bo^en), to 
swell with anger. See Bellows, Billow. 

Bolster. (E.) A. S. bolster, with suffix 
'Ster as in holster. From its round shape. 
^Du. bolster, bulster; Icel. bolstr; O. 
H. G. bolstar (G. polster), Teut. type 
*bul-stro8; from Teut. *bul, weak grade 
of *beul, to puff up. See Boil (3). (See 

Bolt (1)) a stout pin of iron, an arrow. 
(E) A. S. bolt.'^Bu. bout, formerly b<flt ; 
I)an. bolt] G. boh, bolzen. Root unknown. 

Bolt (a), Boult, to sift meal. (F. - 
L.-Gk.) Spelt bonlte in Palsgrave.— 
O. F. bulter ; mod. F. bluter ; oldest form 
buleter, a corruption of *lmreter, to sift 
through coarse cloth ; cf. M. Ital. burat' 
tare, to boult (Florio). - O. F. and F. 
bure^ coarse woollen cloth. — Late Lat. 
bura, burra, coarse red cloth. — Lat. 
burrus, reddish. — Gk. irvppds, reddish.— 
Gk. wvp, fire. See Bureau and Fire. 

BoluSv a large pill. (L.-Gk.) Late 

L. bolus (not L. bSlus), a Latinised form 
of Gk, fiSiKoi, a clod, lump. 

Bomb, a shell for cannon. {¥.or Span. 
— L. — Gk.) F. bombe ; Span, bomba, — L. 
bontbus, a humming noise. — Gk. fi6fjifioSf 
the same. See Boom (i). 

bombard. (F.- L.-Gk.) The verb 
is from E. bombard, a great gun ; Sh. — F. 
bombarde, a cannon; extended from F. 
bombe ; see Bomb. Per. bombard-ier, ¥. 
bombardier (Cot.). • 

Bombasti orig. cotton wadding; hence 
padding, affected language. (F.— L.- 
Gk.) From O. F. bombace (with added /), 
cotton wadding.— Late L. bombacem, ace. 
of bombax, cotton ; for L. bombyx. — Gk. 
fi6/jifiv^, silk, cotton; orig. a silkworm. 
Cf. * to tulk jTustian: 

bombasine, bombasine, a fabric 

of silk and worsted. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. 
bom basin, — I.ate L. bombdcinum, — L. bom- 
bpcinus, adj. silken; from bombyx, silk; 
see above. 

Bond. (E.) See Band (I ). 

Bondage, servitude. (F. — Scand.) 
M. E, ana A. F. bondage, servitude ; the 
sense being due to confusion with the verb 
to bind. But it orig. meant the condition 
of a bondman, called in A. S. bonda, a 
word borrowed from Icel. bdndi, a hus- 
bandman. And bdndi =^biiandi, a tiller; 
from Icel. bHa, to till, prepare, cognate 
with A. S. biian, to dwell, and G. bauen. 
Thus A.S. bonda is allied in sense and 
origin to E. boor^ q. v. 

Bone. (E.) M.E. boon*, A.S. ban, 
4-Du. been ; Icel. bein ; Swed. ben ; Dan. 
been ; O. H. G. bein. Teut. type *bainom, 
bonfire. (E) Orig. a bone-fire. 
' Bane'fire, ignis ossium ; * Catholicon 
Anglicanum, A. d. 1483; where bane is 
the Northern form of bone, Cf. Picard^ 
d'^os, a bonfire. 

Bonito, ^ kind of tunny. (Span.— 
Arab.^ Span.* bonito, — Arab, baynith, 
a bonito. 

Bonnet. (F.) Y, bonnet \ O.F. bonet 
(a. d. 1047), the name of a stuff of which 
bonnets or caps were made. Origin 

Bonny, fair. (F.-L.) YxomY, bonne, 
fair, fem. of bon, good. — L. bonus, good ; 
O.L. duonus. 

Bonse, a priest. (Port.- Japanese.) 
Port. bonzo^^J&p, bonzo, a religious man. 

Booby. (Span.— L.) Span, bobo, a 
blockhead, booby (related to F. baube. 




stammering). — L. balbus, stammering; 
hence, stupid. 
Book. (E.) M. £. book ; A. S. bd<y «i 
book ; also, a beech-tree. The orig. 

* books ' were pieces of writing scratched 
on a becchen board. 4- Du. boek \ Icel. bok \ 
Swed. bok ; Uan. bog\ G. btuh ; all in the 
sense of * book * ; Goth, boka, a letter, pi. 
^JXw, writings, p. With A.S. boc^ beech, cf. 
].. fagtis, a beech, Gk. ^ijyoSf a tree with 
edible fruit. • 

Boom (i)» to hum. (E.) M. K. bom- 
fMfttf not found in A. S.4-i^U' lH>mmeftf 
to boom, to give out a hollow sound like 
an empty barrel. An imitative word; 
like L. bombuSy Gk. fiSfxfioSf a humming. 

Boom (2), a pole. (Du.) Du. boom ; 
the Du. form of Baam (i). 

Boomorangf y a wooden missile weapon. 
(Australian.) From the native Australian 

Boon (1)) a petition. (Scand.) M. E. 
bone, Ch. — Icel. bon ; Dan. and Swed./v«, 
a petition.+A. S. boen, ben (whence bene 
in Wordsworth). The sense of * favour * 
.irose from confusion with Boon (2). 

Boon (2), good. (F. — L.) In the phr. 

* boon companion.' — F. bon, good. — L. 
bonus. See Bonny. 

Boor I a peasant. (Du.) Du. /wer, a 
j)easant, lit. * tiller of the soil.' — Du. 
bouwen, to till. + A. S. btian, to dwell in, 
whence gebfir^ s., a peasant (only preserved 
in ncigh-boitr). So also G. bauen, to till, 
whence bduer^ a peasant; Icel. btla^ Goth. 
batMH, to dwell. Teut. stem *bu-j related 
to Be. (Streitberg, § 90.) 

Boot (i), advantage, proht. (£.) M. E. 
bo/e, boot. A.S. bot^ profit. 4- Du. boete; 
Icel. b^/ (cf. bati)f advantage, cure; Dan. 
/W, Swed. bo/f remedy ; G. busse, atone- 
ment; Goth. bota. Teut. type *bdtdy f. 
From bot; strong grade of baf*; see 
Better. Der. boot-less, profitless. 

Boot (a), a covering for the foot. (F.) 
M. E. bote. — O. F. bote (F. boffe) ; cf. Span., 
Port., Late L. bota. Origin unknown. 

Booth. (Scand.) M. E. bo/Ae. - M. 
Dan. bof/i (Kalkar), Dan. bot/; Swed. bod 
(cf. Icel. btld, a dwelling, booth). — Dan. 
/w, Swed. bo, Icel. bt7a, to dwell ; see 
Boor. + G. bu(/e, a stall. Teut. type 
*bupd, f. Cf. also Irish both, a hut, 
W. bdd, a residence ; Lith. buta, butt as, 
a house. See Build. 

Booty. (F.-LowG.) Formerly spelt 
itutin. — F. butiUf * a booty, prey ; ' Cot. 

— M. Du. bute, Du. butt \ cf. Icel. byti, 
Dan. bytte, Swed. byte, exchange, barter, 
also booty, spoil ; G. beute, spoil. 

Borage. (F. - Span. > Arab.) For- 
merly pourage, — F. bourrache. — Span. 
borraja, ''Avdih, abft raskh, lit. * father of 
sweat ; ' because it is a sudorific. 

Borax. (Low L. — Arab. ~ Pers.) Low 
L. borax \ also boracum, ^ hivih, biiraq, — 
Pers. bftrah, borax (Vullers). 

Border, an edge. (F. — Low L. — 
Teut.) M. E. bordure, bordeure.^O.Y. 
bordeiire (Span, bordadurd), an edging. — 
Low L. borddtftra, edging. — Low L. bor- 
ddre (Ital. bordare. Span, bordar, F. 
border), to edge. — Low L. bordus (F. 
/;^/v/;. — Teut. (O. Low G.) bord, side; see 

Bore (1), to perforate. (E.) M. £. 
borien, A.S. ^^rra^. 4- Du. boren; Icel. 
bora; Sw&l.borra; "Dan. bore; G. bohren. 
Also h./ordre, to bore; Gk. tftapdav, to 
plough. Brugm. i. $ 510. (y^BHER, 
to cut.) 

bore (a), to worry. (E.) Possibly a 
metaph. use of the verb above ; Hen. VIII, 
i. I. 128. 

Bore (3), a tidal surge in a river. 
(Scand.?) Perhaps from Icel. bdra, a 
billow caused by wind ; Norw. baara^ a 
billow, swell in the sea. 

Boreas, the north wind. (L. — Gk.) 
L. Boreas, ^Gk, Bopias, Bo^fids, the N. 

Borough. (E.) M. E. bur^h, borgh ; 
also bonve. A.S. burh, burg (gen. and 
dat. byrig), a fort. Perhaps from Teut. 
burg*, weak grade of *bergan-, to' pro- 
tect ; whence Goth, bairgan, to hide, keep ; 
see Barr6w. <4- Du. burg; Icel. borg; 
Swed. and Dan. borg; G. burg; Goth. 
baurgs. See below. Brugm. i. § 566 ; ii. 
§ 160. 

borrow. (E.) M. E. borwen ; A. S. 
borgian, lit. to give a pledge. — A. S. borg, 
borh, a pledge. — A.S. //<7r^-, weak grade 
of beorgott, to keep, protect; see Bar- 
row and Borough. 

Bosom. (E.) M. E. bosom. A. S. 
/w/z/.+Du. boeum ; G. busen. 

Boss, a knob. (F. - O. H. G.) M. E. 
boce, bos.'^O.Y . boce (F. bosse); cf. Ital. 
bozza, a swelling; M. Ital. bozzare, to 
rough-hew, to bungle. Prob. from O. H. 
G. bozan, to beat ; a bump being the 
eflfect of a blow. Cf. botch, beat. 

Botany. (F. - Gk.) F. botanique, 



orig. an adj.^Gk. fioraviKAs, belonging 
to plants. — Gk. fiordinj, grass. — Ok. 
fiiaietiv, to pasture; cf. fioroVf a grazing 

BotargO. a cake made of the roe of the 
sea-mnllet. (ital. — Arab.) M.Ital. dotargo, 
^\,Marghe\ see Florio and Torriano.— 
Arab, butarkha^ botargo ; given by Devic. 
Supposed to be composed of bu^ Coptic 
del. article, and Gk. rdpixos, dried fish 
(Joum. des Savants, Jan. 1848, p. 45). 

jSotoh (1)1 to patch. (£.) Origin 
unknown. Similar is M. Du. duisen, to 
strike, beat, also to patch up; cf. Du. 
botsen, to beat. 

Botoh (a), a swelling. (F. - G.) 
M.E. Atff^^.-0. North F. bo€he\ Picard 
boche ; O. F. boci (F. bosse\ a swelling; see 

Both. (Scand.) M.E. bafe, Scot. 
A0fM.*-Icel. bd9ir, both, dual aqj. ; Dan. 
baade\ Swed. b9da,^Q. beide. And cf. 
A. S. bdf both ; Lat. -bo in afnbo\ Gk. -^ 
in Afi-^ ; Skt. -bha in u-bha^ both. Icel. 
'tiir is for 0^iV, they, the ; so that bo-th 
was orig. two words ; of. Goth, bafoskipa^ 
both the ships (Luke v. 7). 

Bother, vb. and sb. (E.) In Swift. Cf. 
pother \ prov. Y*,puddtrt confusion ; M.E. 
putheren, to bestir oneself. Origin un- 

Bots. small worms. (E.) Lowl. Sc. 
bats. Of unknown origin. 

Bottle (i), a hollow vessel. (F.~ 
Late L. - Gk.) M. E. botel - F. bouteilh, 
•-Late Lat. buticulct, double dimin. of 
Late L. butts, buttis, a cask, a butt ; see 
Butt (2). 

Bottle* (a), a bundle of hay. (F.- 
O. H. G.) M. E. boteL - O. F. bote/, /tot- 
elle, a small bundle, dimin. of botte^ a 
bundle, as of hay. oO. H. G. bozo^ a bundle 
of straw or flax ; allied to O. H. G. bozatty 
to beat (see Beat); perhaps from the 
beating of fiax. 

Bottom. (E.) M. E. botum^ bothonu 
A. S. A^/m.^Du. liodem ; Icel. botn ; Swed. 
botten\ Vtm* bund; G,boden\ Lui./uftdus; 
Gk. wv$fi^v; Vedic Skt. budhndf depth, 

Sound. Allied to Irish bonn, sole of the 
ot ; Gael, bonn, sole, bottom ; W. bon, 
base, stock. See Fundament. Brugm. 
i. %% 103, 704. 
Boudoir. (F.) F. boudoir, a private 
room for a lady ; lit. a place to suIk in. — 
K. bouder, to sulk. Cf. E. pout. 
Bough, (E.) H*'E, bough, A.,S, bog, 


boh; of which the orig. sense was *an 
arm.'+Icel. bogr, Swed. bog, Dan. bov, 
the shoulder of an animal, hence the bow 
(shoulder) of a ship; G. bi^; Gk. ir^x*^^* 
the fore-arm ; Skt. bahus, the arm. Teut. 
type *boguz; Idg. type *bhdghus. See 
Bow (4). Brugm. i. | 184. 

Bought, a bend, turn, fold. (Low G.) 
In Spenser, F. Q. i. i. 15. Low G. bugt, 
a bend; Du. bogt, bocht; Dan. bugt, Cf. 
G. bucht. The E. form is Bight. And 
see Bout. 

Boulder, a large stone. (E. ?) Etym. 
obscure; cf. Swed. dial, bultersteen, a 
large rolling stone; so called from its 
rolling down stream with a crash.— Swed. 
butlra, to thunder, roar; and steen, a 
stone. Danish has buldre, to roar, bulder, 
a crash. 

Boult, to sift meal ; see Bolt (a). 

Bounoe, to jump up quickly. (E.) 
M. E. bunsen, to beat. Cf. Low G. bun- 
sen, to beat, knock at a door; Du. bottzen, 
to bounce, throw, from Du. bons, a bounce, 
thump; G. bumps, bounce; Icel. bops, 
bump ! Prob. imitative. 

Bound (0, to leap. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. bondir, to oound ; but orig. to resound. 
i-L. bombitdre, to resound. «iL. bombus, 
a humming sound. — Gk. fidfAfios, the same. 
Dop. re^bound (F. rebondir). 

Bound (a), a boundary. (F.-C?) 
M. E. bounoe t Ch. ; with excrescent d, as 
in soun-d, A. F. bounde, bunde; O. F. 
bonne, a boundary ; also spelt bodne (Bur- 
guy); Late Lat. bodina (contr. form 
bound) ^ a bound, limit. Perhaps of Celtic 
origin ; Thumeysen, 91. Der. bound-ary. 

Bound (3), ready to go. (Scand.) In 
*■ the ship is bound for Spain,* &c. 
Formed, with excrescent d, from M. E. 
boun, ready, Ch. C. T. 11807. - Icel. 
buinn, prepared ; pp. of bua, to till, pre- 
pare. -f* A. S. biian ; see Boor. 

Bounden. the old pp. of Bind. (E.) 
As in ' bounaen duty.* 

Bounty, orig. goodness. (F. - L.) 
M. E. bountee, •- O. F. bontet, •- L. ace. 
bonitdtem, from bonitds, goodness. — L. 
bonus, good. See Bonny. 

Bouquet. (F. — Late L.) F. bouquet; 
O. F. bosquet, orig. ' a little wood,' dimin. 
of O. F. bos (F. bois), a wood. « Late L. 
boscum, buscum, ace. of boscus, buscus, a 
wood ; of unknown origin. Cf. Bush. 

Bourdi a jest ; to jest. (F.) M. E. 
bourde, sb.; bourdett, v.-l«. bourde, a 




game ; bourder^ to play. Of unknown 
origin. (Not as in Diez.) 
Bonm (i)y a boundary. (F.) In Sh. 

— F. borne, a bound ; for O. F. bodne, 
variant of O. F. bonne, a boundary ; see 
Bound (2). 

Bonm (2), Bom, a stream. (£.) 
M. £. bourne, A. S. burna, a fountain, 
stream, welL+Icel. brunnr; Swed. brunn; 
Dan. brond; G. brunnen; Goth, brunna, 
a spring, well. 

Bouse, Bonze, Boose, to drink 

deeply. (Dn.) M. E. bousen (ab. 1300). 

— M. Du. *busen, later buyzen, to drink 
deeply. i^M. Du. buse (Latinised as busa 
by Erasmus), buyse, a large cup, also a 
tap, a conduit (Kilian) ; Du. buis, a con- 
duit, pipe. Cf- O. F. buse, a conduit ; 
G. bausen, to bouse. 

Bont, a turn, a round, occasion. (Low 
G.) The same as Bought (above) ; prob. 
in^uenced by about. 

Bow (i), to bend. (E.) M. E. bowen, 
bogen, bitgen, A. S. bu^an.^Vu. buigen ; 
O. H. G. biogan ; Goth, biugan ; Teut. 
type Heugan- or *bugan-', Cf. Skt. bhuj, 
to bend ; Lat. /up€re, to take to flight, 
give way ; Gk. (ptv^tiVf to flee. Brugm. i. 
§§ 658. 701. 

bow (2), a bend. (E.) From the 

bow (3), a weapon to shoot with. (E.) 
M. E. f^vwe. A. S. boga, a bow ; because 
it is bent or bowed.^'Dn. boog; Icel. bogi; 
Swed. bSge ; Dan. bue ; O. H. G. bogo ; 
G. boggn. From A. S. bog- ; cf. bog-en, pp. 
of biigan, to bend. 

bow-window. (E.) A window of 
semi-circular form ; not the same as bay- 

Bow (4), the * shoulder ' of a ship. 
(Scand.) From Icel. bogr, shoulder; see 
Bougli.^Du. boeg, bow of a ship. 

BoweL (F.-L.) M. E. boueL^O. F. 
boSl\ (mod. F. boyau), — Lat. ace. botellum, 
a sausage ; in Late L., an intestine ; 
dimin. of botulus, a sausage. 

Bower, an abode, chamber, arbour. 
(E.) M. E. bour, A. S. bur, a chamber. 

— A. S. bi7an, to dwell. 4" Icel* ^^^* a 
chamber; Dan. buur, Swed. bur\ O. Sax. 
bur; O. H. G. bur, Teut. types Hurom, 
n., *buroz, m. ; see Boor. Cf. Booth. 

Bowl (1)1 a round wooden ball. (F.~ 
L.) M. E. bouIe.^F. bou/e,'^'L. bulla, a 
bubble ; hence, a round thing, a ball. 

Bowl (2), a drinking-vessel. (E.) 

M.E. bolle. A. S. bolla\ from its round 
fonn.+Du. bol, ball ; Icel. bolli, O. H. G. 
bolla, bowl (G. bolle\ From Teut. *bul-, 
weak grade of *beul-, to swell ; cf. Goth. 
uf-bauljan, to puff up. See Boil (2). 

Bow-line. (Scand.) Not so called 
because it keeps a sail bffived (for it rather 
keeps it straight), but because fastened to 
the ship's bow, — Norw. and Swed. bog- 
Una, bow-line, from bog, bow of a ship; 
Du. boeglijn, from boeg, bow. For the 
pronunciation, cf. bow-sprit. See Bow (4) 
and Iiine. 

Bow-window; see Bow (i). 

Box (i)> the name of a tree. (L. — Gk.) 
M. £. box ; A. S. box, ^ Lat. buxus, the 
box-tree. — Gk. vv^os, the box-tree. 

box (2), a chest or case to put things 
in. (L. — Gk.) M. E. box ; A. S. box, — L. 
buxum, anything made of box-wood; 
hence, a box. — Lat. buxus, the box-tree. 
(Hence a box at a theatre ; a shooting-^^jr ; 
a Christmas box or present; &c.) Cf. 

Box (3), to fight with fists; a blow. 
(E.) The verb is from M. E. box, sb., 
a blow. Cf. N. Fries, bakke. Silt bokke, 
a blow (Outsen) ; M. H. G. buc, a blow ; 
Du. beuken, G. pochen, to beat. 

Box (4), in phr. ' to box the compass.' 
Apparently one of the numerous uses of 
the vb. formed from box (2). See 
N. E. D. 

Boy. (E.) M. E. boi, boy. Preserved 
in E. Friesic boi, boy, a boy (Koolman) ; 
allied to M. Du. boeve, a boy, Du. boef, 
a knave. 4* Icel. boH, a knave ; G. btibe. 
Bavarian bueb, bua, bui, a boy. Cf. A. S. 
Bofa, personal name. 

Boycott, to combine with others in re- 
fusing to have dealings with any one. (E.) 
From the treatment accorded to Capt. Boy- 
cott, of Lough Mask House, co. Mayo, Ire- 
land, in Dec. 1880. 

Brabble, to quarrel. (E.) Cf. Du. 
brabbelen, to stammer, confound ; whence 
brabbeltaal, foolish talk. See Blab, 

Brace, orig. a firm hold. (F. — L.) 
From the notion of embracing. — O. F. 
brace, the two arms (Bartsch) ; hence a 
measure of 5 feet, formed with extended 
arms (Cot.) ; and hence, a grasp. — Lat. 
brdchia, pi. of brdchium, the arm. + Irish 
brae, W. braich, the arm ; Gk. fipaxiojv, 

bracelet. (F. — L.) F. bracelet ; 
dimin. of O. F. bracel^ an armlet (Bartsch). 




^L. brdchidle, an armlet. ■■L. brdchium^ 
an arm. 

Bradly a kind of huntiog-dog. (F. — 
G.) M. K. brachiy pi. branches, ^ A. F. 
brach€z, pi. of bracket^ dimin. of O. F. 
brcu (F. ^A-fl^w^).— O. H. G. brctcco (G. 
brack), a dog that hmits by the scent. 

Brackexit fem. (Scand.) M. £. bra- 
ken. From O. Icel. *brakni, not fonnd ; 
represented by Swcd. brdken^ Dan. brepu^ 
fem ; cf. Icel. burkni^ fem. 

BraclEet, a corbel, &c. (F — C?) 
Formerly spelt bragget^ as in Minsheu, ed. 
1627. So named from the resemblance to 
the front part of a pair of breeches, as 
formerly made. — F. bragiutte, * a cod- 
piece/ Cot. (the front part of a pair of 
breeches) ; the allied Span, bragueta also 
meant a projecting mould in architecture, 
a bracket or corbel. Dimin. of O. F. 
brogue, ' a kind of mortaise,' Cot. ; from 
braguesy breeches; so also Span, bragueta 
is the dimin. of Span bragas, breeches.— 
L. brdca, breeches; said to be of Celtic 
(or Teutonic ?) origin. See Breeohes. 

Brackish. (Du.) Du. brak, briny, 
nauseous; older form wrack, brackish 
(Hexham) ; allied to M. Du. wracke, a 
wreck, Du. wraken, to reject, blame, dis- 
approve.— Du. wrakj orig. 2nd grade of 
wreken, to wreak; orig. to drive. See 
"Wreck. [So also wrang^ sour, is allied 
to wrin^en^ to wring. See Franck.] 

Bract. (L.) Lat. bractea, a thin plate 
or leaf of metal. 

Brad. (Scand.) M. £. brod, ^IccX, 
broddr, a spike ; Swed. brodd, Dan. brodde, 
a frost-nail. 4> A. S. brord^ a spike. Teat, 
type *brozdoz. Cf. O. Irish brot, Ir. brod, 
AV. brath, a sting. 

BraCf brow of a hill, steep bank, slope. 
(Scand.) M. E. bra, ^r J (North). — Icel. 
bra, brow; hence, brow of a hill; see 

Brag, to boast. (Uncertain.) M. £. 
braggen, to sound loudly, to vaunt. Etym. 
unknown ; cf. Gael, bragky an explosion, 
crack; A.S. gebrccc, a breaking, crash, 
noise; Icel. brak, a creaking, braka, to 
creak ; cognate with L. fragor, noise. 
Also (late) M. F. braguer, * to flaunt, 
brag,' Cot. ; M. F. bragard, * gay, gallant, 
braggard,* whence E. braggart. We find 
also W. bragal, to vociferate (from E.) ; 
'BifX.braga, to brag (from F.). Cf. Bray. 

Braggct. (W.) M.E.^nz^/.-W. 
bragpt, a kind of mead; allied to Irish 

bracat, malt liquor. — W. brag, malt ; Irish 
and Gael, braich, malt, fermented grain. 
Cf. Gael, brack, to ferment. 

Bralmiaa, Brahmin. (Skt.) Skt. 

brdkmcasa, a brahman, holy man. — Skt. 
brahman, prayer; also devotion, lit. *a 
greatness * of the soul ; cf. brhatUy great. 
(VBHERGH, to be great.) ' 

Braid (i), to weave. (E.) M.E. breiden. 
A. S. bregdan, bredan, to brandish, weave, 
braid. •4- Icel. bregUa, to brandish, turn 
about, change, start, braid, &c. ; whence 
bragd, a sudden movement. 

braid (2), full of deceit. (E.) In 
All's Well, iv. 2. 73, braid is short for 
braided, i. e. full of braids or tricks. M.E. 
braid, trick, deceit. — A.S. brcegd, deceit; 
from A. S. bragd, 2nd grade oi bregdan, to 
draw out, weave, knit, braid. 

Brail, a kind of ligature or fastening. 
(F. — C. ?) O. F. braiel, a cincture ; orig. for 
£Eistening up breeches. — F. braie, breeches. 

— L. braces, breeches. 

Brain. (E.) l^^.Ys.brayfu. K.S.bragn, 
bragen, the brain. + Du. brein. Cf. Gk. 
fip€x/i6s, the top of the head. 

Brake (i)» a machine for breaking 
hemp; a name for various mechanical 
contrivances. (O. Low G.) M.E. brake. 

— Low G. brake f a flax-brake; M. Du. 
braecke, * a brake to beat flax ; ' Hexham ; 
Du. braak. — Du. brak, 2nd grade oibreken, 
to break ; see Break. ^^ 

Brake (2), bush. (E.) U.Y..' brake. 
+Low G. brake, willow-bush (Bremen); 
also stumps of broken trees, rough growth. 
From A. S. brecan, (pt. t brccc), to break. 
% In the sense of *fem,* modified from 

Bramble. (E.) yi.Y..brembil. A.S. 
bremel, brembel. Allied to Du. braam, a 
blackberry ; Swed. brom-bdr, Dan. brom- 
bcer^ G. brombeere, a blackberry. Here Du. 
braam^ G. brofu (O. H.G. bidnia) answer 
to A. S. brom (see Broom) ; of which A.S. 
brem-el{lox TQ\xt.*br^miioz) is the diminu- 

Bran. (F.) M.E. bran. -^O.Y. bran, 
bren. Cf. W. bran, Irish bran, husks, 
chaff (from E.) ; Bret, brenn, bran (from F.). 

Branch. (F.— L.) Y.bran€ke.^L.2X& 
L. branca, the paw of an animal. 

Brandy a burning piece of wood, scar 
of fire, a sword. (E.) M. E. brand, A. S. 
brandy a burning, a sword : from brann, 
2nd stem of Teut. ^brennan-, to burn ; see 
Bum. + l^cl. brandr, a fire-brand, sword- 




blade (from its flashing) ; Swed. and Dan. 
brand f fire-brand; fire ; M. H. G. brants 
a brand, sword. 

Imuidish. (F.-Scand.) ViJS..braun- 
disen. ■- F. brandisS'Onf, pres. pt oibrandir, 
to brandish a sword. » A. F. brand, a 
sword. — Icel. brandr ; see Brand above. 
brandy. (Du.) Formerly brand- 
ivine, brandy-wine \ whence brandy, — Du. 
brandC'Wijn, M. Du. brandwijn, brandy ; 
lit. 'burnt' (i.e. distilled) vrine (or, ace. 
to Kilian, because it easily bams). — Do. 
branden, to bum; and wijn, wine; see 

BrankSf a punishment for scolds. (£.) 
See Jamieson. Hence were borrowed 
Gael, brangas (O. Gael, brancas), a sort 
of pillory; Gael, brang, Irish brancas, a 
halter. ^ Du. pranger, pincers, bamacle, 
collar; G. franger, a pillory; Du. 
prangen, to pmch. Cfl Goth, ana-praggan, 
to harass. 

Bran-new. (£•) Short for brand-niw, 
i. e. new from the fire. See Brand. 

Brant-fojc, Brant-gooaeorlirent- 

ffOOSe. The prefix is Scand., as in Swed. 
brandra/t a brant«fox, brandgh^ a brent- 
goose. The orig. sense is *bumt,' with 
the notion of redness or blackness. 

Braaier . Brasier, a pan to hold coals. 

(F.— Scand.; F. brasier.^Y, braise, live 
coals. — Swed. brasa, fire (below). 

Braaa. (£.) M.E. bras. A. S. bras, 
Terhaps allied to the verb seen in Icel. 
brasa, to harden by fire; Dan. brase, to 
fry ; cf. Swed. brasa, fire. Der. braz-en, 
A. S. brasen. 

braae (Oi to harden. (£.) K. Lear, 
i. I. II. It means to harden like brass; 
see below. 

' braie (a), to ornament with brass. 
(£.) In Chapman, tr. of Homer, Od. xv. 
J 1 3 ; from brass, sb. ' Aero, ic brasige ; * 
iClfric, Gram. p. 215. 

Braaaart, the piece of armour which 
protected the upper part of the arm. (F. — 
L.) F. brassart (Cot. J, brassard (Littre); 
also brassal, Formea with suffix -ard 
from F. bras, arm. — L. brdchium, arm. 

Brat (1)) a cloak, rough mantle. (C.) 
It also meant a rag, clout, or pinafore.— 
Gael, and Irish brai, a cloak, rag ; O. Irish 
brai, a rough cloak ; W. brethyn, woollen 
cloth, f W. brat is from E.) 

Brat (a)i a child ; esp. ' a beggar's brat^ 
Perhaps ' a rag,' the same as Brat (i). 

Bratti06| a fence of boards in a mine. 

;(F.-Teat.?) M.E. bretasc/u, bretasce, 
bruiaske, a parapet, battlement — O.F. 
bretesche, a small wooden outwork, battle- 
ment; cf. Prov. bertresca, Ital. bertesca, 
the same. A difficult word ; prob. formed 
from G. breU, a plank. 

Brayado. (Span.) See Brave. 

Brave. (F.— Ital.) ¥. brave, 'hnvc, 
gay, fine, proud, braggard, valiant ; ' Cot 

— Ital. bravo ; the same as Span, and 
Fort bravo; TroY.brau. £tym. unknown; 
none of the explanations are satis£Eictory ; 
the Bret brav, O. Swed. brqf, appear to 
be borrowed from F. 

bravado. (Span.) Altered from Span. 
bravada, *9 bravado;' Minsheu's Span. 
Diet.— Span, bravo, brave. 

bravOy a daring villain. (Ital.) Ital. 
bravo^ brave ; as a sb., a cut-throat, villain. 
bravo! well done! (Ital.) li^. bravo, 
brave ; used in the voc. case masc. 

Brawl (i), to quarrel. (£.?) M.E. 
brawlen. Perhaps £. Cf Du. brallen, 
to brag, boast; Dan. bralle, to prate, 
chatter; G.prahlen, to brag. 

Brawl (2), a sort of dance. (F. —Scand. 
<?r O. H . G.) * A French brawl,* L. L. L. iii. 
9. — F. bransle, ' a totter, swing, . . . braivl 
or dance ; ' Cot. — F. bransler^ to reel ; mod. 
F. branUr, Allied to O.F. brandeler 
(Littr^), brandiller, to shake (Cot.), 
frequent forms of F. brandir, to brandish. 
See Brandish. 

Brawn, muscle. (F.-O. H. G.) M. E. 
braun, jnusclci boards flesh. — O. F. braon^ 
a slice of flesh ; cf. Prov. bradon, the same. 

— O. H. G. braton, ace. of brdto^ a slice 
of flesh for roasting. — O. H.G. brdtan 
(G. bratefC), to roast.-|- A. S. br&dan. 

Bray (i), to braise, poimd. (F. — G.) 
M. £. brayen. — O. F. breier (F. broyer), — 
O. Sax. brekan (G. brechen), to break; 
see Break. 

Bray (a), to make a roaring noise. 
(F.-C.) A. F. braier\ F. braire (Med. 
Lat bragire). Of Celtic origin; cfl Gael. 
bragh, a burst, explosion, braigh, to crackle 
(Thumeysen) ; and cf. lL,frag-or, noise. 

Braie ; see Brass. 

Brasier ; see Brasier. 

Breacb. (E.) M. £. breche, a fracture. 

— A. S. brec€, as in hlaf-gebrece, a piece of 
bread (more commonly brice, a breaking); 
O. Fries, breke. — A. S. brecan, to break. 
% M. E. breche is also partly from O. F. 
breche (F. briche), a fracture. — G. brcchcn. 
to breidc. 




Bread. (E.) M,'E.J>reed. A, S, dread. 
'^Du.hrood; Icel. drautf; Swed.andDan. 
drad; G. hrot, Teut type Hraudom, n. ; 
or Hraudoz, nent. form in 'Oz, It some- 
times means * bit * or ' piece ' ; cf. A. S. 
' breadru, fnuta pdnis^ Blickling Glosses ; 
O. Northumb. bread^ a bit, morsel ; John 
xiii. 27. 

Breadth. (E.) The final 'th is late; 
from M. E, brede^ breadth; Ch. — A. S. 
bradu.'\'\'ct^, breidd; O. H. G. breiti (G. 
brgi/e); Goth, bratda, f. From Teut. 
*braidoz, broad ; tee Broad. 

Break. (E.) M. E. breken ; pt t brak; 
pp. broken. A, S. brecan^ pt t. braCf pp. 
brocen.'^T>\x, breken \ Goth, brikan; G. 
brechen. Cf. Icel. braka, to creak; Swed. 
^rai^^, to crack ; Dan. ^r^>&i^; Lat.yra»- 
^^r^, to break ; Gael, bragk, an explosion. 
( VBHREG.) The orig. sense is to break 
with a noise, to crack. 

Bream, a fish. (F.— Tent.) M.E.breem, 
-O.F. bresme (F. br^mey^U.K.G. 
brahsem (G. brassen) ; O. H. G. brahsina 
(Kluge). Cf. Du. brasem. 

Breast. (E.) M,E. bresf,bre€sL A. S. 
breosL + Icel. brjost (Swed. brostf Dan. 
bTyst) : Teut. type *breustom, n. Also G. 
bn4sf, Du. borst, Goth. ^;*«j/j : Teut. stem 
*brust' (with weak grade). 

Breath. (K) M.E.breetkfbre^k. A.S. 
br^.^O. H. G. brddam, G. brodeptf broden, 
brodel, steam, vapour, exhalation. 

Breech. (£.) See Breeches. 

Breeches. (E.) Really a double 
plural, the form breech being, in itself, a pi. 
form. A. S. brec, breeches; pi. oibroc, with 
the same sense. -4- Du. broek, a pair of 
breeches ; Icel. brdk (pi. brakr) ; M. H. G. 
bruoch. Cf. L. brdca, said to be a word 
of Celtic (but rather of Teutonic) origin. 
See Brognies. «• 

breech. (E.) M. £. breech; A.S. 
brec, the breech; A.S. Leechdoms, ii. 
146. Cf. A. S. brec, breeches, pi. of brae; 
see above. 

Breed. (E.) A. S. bredan^ to produce 
or cherish a brood. —A.S. brodjti brood 
^with mutation from Jto ^).+G. briiien; 
from brut. See Brood. 

Breeks, breeches. (Scand.) Northern 
£. From Icel. brakr, pi. of brdk\ see 

Breese (i)* a gadfly. (E.) M.E. brese. 
A. S. briosa. 

Breese(a),astrongwind. (F.) Formerly 
brize.^O. F. brise, uMd by Rabelais in the 

same sense as F. bise, the N. wind ; cf. 
Span, brtsa, Port, briza, the N.E. wind; 
Ital. brezza, a cold wind. Orig. unknown. 

Breeze (3)> cinders. (F.— Scand.) 
O. F. brese {breze in Cot.), F. braise.^ live 
coals. See Brasier. 

Breve. (Ital— L.) Orig. a j^^/ note; 
now the longest in use. —Ital. breve, brief. 

— L. breuis, short. Der. semi-breve, 

brevet. (F.— L.) F. ^rw^/, * a brief, 
breviate, little writing;' Cot. Dimin. from 
F. bref, brief.— L. breuis, short. 

breviary. (F — L.) F, brfy;iaire.^ 
L. breuidrtum, a summary. — L. breuis. 

brevity. (F.— L.) F. briiveU.'^'L. 
ace. breuttdtem, shortness.— L. breuis, 

Brew. (E.) M. £. brewen. A. S. 
breoivan, pt. t. breaw, ]pp. gebroTven.'^'DvL. 
brouwen; G.brauen; IcA.brugga; Swed. 
brygga j Dan. brygge. Cf. L. de-fru-tum, 
new wine boiled down ; Thracian fipvrovy 
beer, (y^ BHREU, to decoct.) 

Brewis, Browis, pottage. (F.- 
O. H. G.) M.E. brewes, browes.^O.F, 
brouez, broez, nom. of brouet, broet, soup 
made with broth of meat ; dimin. of breuy 
pottage (Roquefort).— O. H. G. brod^ broi, 
broth ; see Broth. Also spelt brose. 

Briar, Brier. (E.) M.E. brere. 

A. S. brStr, O. Merc. brer. 

Bribe. (F.) M. E. bnbe. - O. F. bribe, 
a piece of bread given to a beggar. 
Cf. briber, to beg; Span, briba, idleness, 
bribar, to loiter about ; Ital. birba, fraud ; 
birbante, an idle beggar. Origin un- 
known ; not Celtic. 

Brick. (F.-M. Du.) F. brique, a 
brick; also a fragment, bit. — M.Du. bricke, 
a brick ; cf. Walloon briquet^ a large slice 
of bread. — Du. breken, to break. Der. 
brick-bat (see Bat). 

Bride. (E.) M. E. bride ; also birde, 
brude, burde. A. S. bryd, a bride. + Du. 
bruid\ \qx\. briHir; Swed. and Dan. ^n^/; 
O.H.G. briit\ G. braut\ Goth, briiths. 
Teut. type *brudiz, f. 

bridal. (E.) Formerly bride-ale, a 
bride-feast. A. S. bryd-ealo, a bride-ale, 
bride-feast. — A. S. bryd, bride; and ealo, 
ale, also a feast ; see Ale. 

bridegroom. (E.) For bridegoom ; 
the second r is intrusive ; by confusion 
with groom. A. S. br^d-guma, lit. bride- 
man; where guma is cognate with L. 
homo, a man ; see Homage. 4- Du. bruide- 
gom; Icel. brilSgumi; Swed. hrudgum\ 




Dan. brudgom ; G. brdutigam^ O. H. G. 

Brieve. (E.) M.E. brigge, brugge, 
A. S. 3r^<:^.+Icel. bryggja ; Swed. brygga ; 
Dan. brygge^ a pier ; Du. brug ; G. brilcke. 
Teut. type *brugjd^ f. Allied to Icel. brii^ 
Dan. ^rtf, a briage, pavement; O. Swed. 
bro^ a paved way. 

Bridle. (E.) M.E. bndeL A. S. 
brtdel, 4" Du. breidel\ O. H. G. bridely 
brittil (whence F. bride), A. S. ^riV/^/ 
represents an earlier *brigdel (cf. brigdilsy 
a bridle, O. E. Texts, p. 44, 1. 127). — A. S. 
bregi-an, to pull, twitch (with change of 
e Xot). See Braid. 

Brief ( i ) , short. (F. - L.) M. E. bref. 

— F. bref.'^lj, breuisy short. + Gk. /3/)axvy, 

brief (2\ a writ, &c. (F.-L.) F. 
brief, a brief; Cot. The same as F. bre/ 
above ; from its being in a short form. 
Brig, Brigade ; see Brigand. 
Brigand. (F.-Ital.) F. brigand, a, 
robber. — Ital. brigun/€, an. intriguer, rob- 
ber ; orig. pres. part, of brigare^ to strive 
after. — Ital. briga, strife, quarrel, trouble. 
Orig. uncertain. 

m?ig ; short for brigantine. 

brigade. (F.-Ital.) ¥, brigade, a 
crew, troop. — Ital. brigaia, a troop ; orig. 
fem. of pp. of brigare, to strive, fight, as 

brigandine, a kind of armour. (F. 

— Ital.) F. brigamiine, a kind of armour, 
worn by brigands. — F. brigand, a robber ; 
see above. 

brigantine, brig, a ship. (F.- 
Ital.) Brig is merely short for brigantine, 

— F. brigantin, a kind of ship. — Ital. 
brigantino, a pirate-ship. — Ital. brigante, 
a robber. See Brigand. 

Bright. (E.) M. E. bright, A. S. 
beorht, berht. + Icel. bjartr ; M. H. G. 
berht ; Goth, bairhts, shining. Teut. type 
Herhtoz, shining. Cf. Gk. <f>opK6s, white. 

Brill, a fish. (E.) Origin unknown. 

Brilliant, shining. (F.-L.-Gk.— 
Skt.) F. brillant, pres. part, of briller, 
to glitter; cf. Ital. brillare, to sparkle. 
The orig. sense was to sparkle as a beryl. 

— L. beryllus, a beryl ; see Beryl. 
Brim. (E.) M.E. brim. (Not in 

A. S.) Cf. Icel. barmr, brim ; Swed. 
bram, border, edge; Dan. bramme; M. 
Du. breme ; G. gebrdme, border. 

Brimstonei sulphur. (E.) M. E. 

hrimston, biemstoon, also brenstoon (Wy- 

clif).i"M. £. brenn-en, to bum, and stoott, 
stone. So also Icel. brennisteinn, brim- 
stone. See Bum. 

Brindled, Brinded, streaked. 

(Scand.) Icel. bronti-, as in bronddttr, 
brinded, said of a cow. — Icel. brandr, a 
brand, flame, sword. Thus brinded « 

Brine. (E.) M. E. brine, A. S. bryrte 
(for brine), brine, salt liquor. +M. Du. 
briint ; Du. brijn, pickle. 

tiring. (E.) A. S. bringan, also 
brengan, pt. t. brdhte.^Y)Vi, brengen; G. 
bringen; Goth, briggan (written for 
bringan), pt. t. brdhta. 

Brink. (Scand.) M. E. ^rt/iy&. — Dan. 
brink, verge; Swed. brink, descent or 
slope of a hill; Icel. brekka {jiotbrinka^, a 
slope, crest of a hill ; allied to Icel. bringa, 
a grassy slope, orig. the breast. 

Brisk. (F. - Ital.) Spelt bruisk in 
Lowl. Sc. (1560). — F. brusque, * brisk, 
lively, quicke, rash, harsh;* Cot. — Ital. 
brusco, tart, harsh ; see Brusque. 

Brisket. (F.) O. F. brischet (Brachet), 
s. V. brechei), also bruschet (Ducange) ; 
brichet, * the brisket, or breast- piece,* 
bruchet, * the craw-bone of a bird ; * Cot. 
Mod. F. brechet. Cf. Bret, bruched, the 
breast ; spelt brusk in the dialect of 

Bristle. (E.) M. E. bristle, bersile, 
birstle ; dimin. of A. S. byrst, a bristle.+ 
Du. borstel; Icel. burst \ Swed. borst; 
G. borste. From Teut. *burs', weak grade 
of *bers = Idg. *bhers, to bristle ; cf. Skt. 
sakasra-bhrshti, having a thousand points. 
See Burr. 

Brittle. (E.) M.E. britel, broteU 
brutel. For A. S. Hrytel^ltMX, Hrutiloz, 

from brtit', weak grade of A. S. breotan, 

to break. It means 'fragile.' Cf. Icel. 

brjota, Swed, bryta, Dan. bryde, to break. 
Broach. (F. — L.) M.E. setten on 

broche»\.o set a-broach, tap liquor. — F. 

mettre en broche, to tap, by piercing a 

barrel. — F. brocher, • to pierce ; broche, 

* a broach, spit,' Cot. ; see Brooch. 
Broad. (E.) M. E. brood, A. S. brad. 

+ Du. breed', Icel. breiOr; Swed. and 

Dan. bred; Goth, braids; G. breit. 
Brocade. (Span. — L.) Span, brocado, 

brocade; orig. embroidered, the pp. of a 

verb *brocar (not used) answering to F. 

brocher, *to broach, also, to stitch . . . with 

great stitches ; * Cot. — F. ^r<v^^. — Late L. 

brocca, L. broccus ; see Brooch. 




broccoli. (Ital.— L.) Ital. broccoliy 
sprouts ; pi. of broccolo^ a sprout. Dimin. 
of broccOf a skewer, a shoot, stalk. — L. 
broccus, projecting, like teeth. 

broclmro, a pamphlet. (F. — L.) F. 
brochure, a few leaves stitched together. — 
F. brocher, to stitch ; see Brooade. 

Brock, a badger. (C.) A. S. brbc.^ 
W., Com., and Bret, brock; Irish, Gael., 
and Manx broc, a badger. Named from 
his white-streaked face ; cf. Gael, brocachj 
speckled, grayish, as a badger ; Gk. <popK6s, 
white, gray. (Cf. E. grayy a badger.) 

BrOf^ctj a red deer two years old. 
(F.— L.) F. brocartf the same; so called 
because he has but one tine to his horn. — 
F. broche, a spit, also, a tine of a stag's 
horn ; see Brooch. 

Brogues, coarse shoes, leggings. (C. 
— £.) Gael, and Irish brog^ shoe ; M. Irish 
^r^r, shoe. — A. S. broc^ breeches; or Icel. 
brok. See Breeches. 

Broided. braided. (£.) The wk. pp. 
broided took the place of the str. pp. 
broiden, woven, itself due to confusion of 
browden with broider (below). Browden 
represents A. S. brogden, pp. of bregdatiy 
to braid. See Braid. 

Broider, to adorn with needlework. 
(F.) [In I Tim. ii. 9, broidered (as in 
some edd.) is an error for broided; see 
above.] Used as the equivalent of F. 
brodery 'to imbroyder,' Cot. The oi is 
due to confusion with broided, — O. F. 
broader^ also brosder (Supp. to Godefroy) ; 
cf. Late L. brusdus^ brosdus, embroidered 
work (Ducange). Of unknown origin; 
perhaps from Teut. *brozd-, whence A. S. 
brordy Icel. broddr^ a spike ; see Brad. 

Broil (I), to fry, grill. (F.) M.E. 
broilen. — A. F. broiller (Bozon), O. F. 
bruiller, to boil, roast (Roquefort). Origin 
unknown; cf. O.F. bruiry to roast; per- 
haps from M. H. G. bruejen^ to scald ; see 

Broil (2)1 a tumult. (F.) F. brouiller^ 
to jumble, confuse, confound. Cf. Ital. 
brogliare^ to disturb, broglio, confusion 
(whence E. im-broglio). Origin un- 

Broker. (F. — L.) M. E. brocour^ 
nn agent, witness of a transaction. * A. F. 
brocoury an agent ; orig. a * broacher ' or 
seller of wine. —Late L. broccator^ one 
who broaches. — Late L. brocca^ i. e. spike; 
see Brooch. 

BrO]liilie» a chemical element. (Gk.) 

Named from its ill odour. Formed, with 
suffix 'ine, from Gk. /3pw/i-os, a stink. 

Bronchial. (Gk.) Gk. i9/>($7x<a, neut. 
pi., the ramifications of the windpipe. * 
Gk. 0p^x°^i t^c windpipe; cf. /3pa7xos, a 
gill. Der. bronch-itis ; from fipiyx^^' 

Bronie. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. bronze, 
— Ital. bronzo ; bronzinOy made of bronze 
{z = ds), — L. as Brundustnufft. — L. Brurtr 
dusiuniy Brindisi (in Italy) ; where bronze 
mirrors were made (Pliny, xxxiii. 9). 

Brooch. (F. — L.) Named from the 
pin which fastens it. M. £. broche^ a pin, 
peg, brooch. — F. brochCy a spit, point.— 
Late L. brocca, a pointed stick ; broca, a 
spike ; L. broccus, projecting, like teeth. 

Brood. (E.) M. E. brwi, A. S. brod 
(rare); *hi bredatf heora brod* = they 
nourish their brood ; ^Ifric's Hom. ii. 10. 
^T>\x,broed\ Cbruf. Teut. stem *^r^-iy-, 
from a verbal base *br0', preserved in G. 
brii-heUy to scald (orig. to heat), Du. 
broe'ien, to brood, hatch ; from the idea of 
* heat ' or * warmth.* Der. breed. 

Brook (i)) to endure, put up with. 
(E.) M. E. broken, brouken, A. S. brU- 
can, to use, enjoy; which was the orig. 
sense. + Du. gebruiken, Icel. briika, G. 
brattchen, Goth, brukjan, to use; cf. L. 
/rw/, to enjoy. See I'ruit. (^BHREUG.) 
Brugm. i. § III. 

Brook (3), a small stream. (E.) M. E. 
brook. A. S. ^r«-.+Du. broek^ G. bruchy 
a marsh. 

brook-limep a plant. (E.) M. E. 
brok-lemke, brok-lemok. From A. S. broc, 
a brook, and hleomocy brook-lime. 

Broom. (E.) M. E. bromcy broom. 
A.S. broniy the plant broom; hence, a 
besom made from twigs of it.<4-Du. brem ; 
Low G. braanif broom. Teut. type *brd- 
moz. Allied to Bramble, q. v. 

BrOBOy a later form ofbrotvis or brewis; 
see Brewis. 

Broth. (E.) A.S. ^nj^.+Icel. bro9; 
O. H. G. brod, Teut. type *broPomf n. ; 
from bro-y bru-, weak grade of breu-, as in 
A. S. breowan, to brew. Lit. * brewed.* 

Brothel. (E. ; confused with F.~ 
Teut.) 1. M. E. brothel, a lewd person, 
base wretch. — A.S. broO-en, pp. of 
breodan, to perish, become vile; whence 
also dbrotfen, degenerate, base. Hence 
was made brothel- house, a house for vile 
people (Much Ado, i. i. 256), afterwards 
contracted to brothel. 2. Orig. distinct 
from M. E. bordel, which was used, how- 




ever, in much the same sense. — O. F. bor- 
delt a hut, orig. of boards. ~ Da. bord^ a 
plank, board; see Board. 

Brother. (£.) M. £. brother. A. S. 
brd9or,'^T>\x, breeder \ lcel.bro6ir; Goth. 
brothar\ Swed. and Dan. broder; G. 
bruder; Gael, and Ir. brat/iair; W. 
brawd; Rnss. brat*; LaU /rater; Gk. 
(ppar/fp ; Skt. b/trdtr, Teut. stem Hrother-; 
Idg. stem *bArdter-, 

Aroagham, a kind of carriage. (Per- 
sonal name.) Date 1839. Named after 
the first Lord Brougham. 

Brow. (£•) M.£. browe. A.S. bru. 
+Icel. bruftt eyebrow; Lith. bruwis; 
Rnss. brove; Gk,b<pph; "Peis.abru; Skt. 
b/irii. Brugm. i. § 554. 

Brown. (E.) M. £. broun. A.S. 
brtln.^Du, bruin; Icel. brunn; Swed. 
brun ; Dan. brunn ; G. braun ; Lith. brunch. 
Cf. Gk. <ltpwoSf a toad; Skt. ba'bkru(s), 

Browse. (F. -M. H. G.) For broust; 
lit. * to feed on young shoots.' — M. F. 
brouster (F. brouter), to nibble off young 
shoots. — M. F. broust (F. brout)^ a sprig, 
shoot, bud. — M. H. G. broz, a bud ; Bavar. 
brossty brosSf a bud. From the weak grade 
of O. H. G. briozany to break, also, to 
break into bud ; which is cognate with 
A. S. breotan. See Brittle. 

Bmin. (Du.) In Reynard the Fox, 
the bear is called bruin, i. e. brown. — Dn. 
bruin, brown. See Brown. 

Bmise. (£. ; partly F.) A. S. {to)- 
brysan, to bruise. Influenced by O. F. 
bruiser, briser^ to break, perhaps of Celtic 
origin ; cf. Gael, bris^ to break, Irish bris- 
im, I break. (The spelling ui, from A. S. 
j?, occurs in S. £ng. Legendary, 295. 58.) 

Bmity a rumour. (F.~L. ?) F. bruit, 
a noise. — F. bruire, to make a noise. 
Scheler derives F. bruire from L.. rugire, 
to roar, with prefixed b, F. ^rM//=Late 
L. brugitusy a clamour (Ducange) ; cf. L. 
rugttus, a roaring. Partly imitative; cf. 
G. briillen^ to roar. 

Bnmette. (F. -G.) F. brunette, fern, 
of brunet, brownish. — M. H. G. bran, 
brown ; see Brown. 

Bmnt. (£.) Prob. imitative; d, dint 

(dunt), a blow; influenced by North £. 
brunt, i. e. * burnt,* as if the * hot * part of 

the fight. 

Brash. (F.-Teut.?) U.^.bruschey 

a brush ; also brush-wood, which is the 

older sense, the orig. brush being made of | (for Ital. buchirano), late Ital. bucherame. 


twigs. — O. F. broce, F. brosse, brushwood ; 
also, later, a brush. — Low L. bruscia, a 
thicket. Derived by Diez from O. H. G. 
burstdf G. borste, a bristle ; but perhaps 
Celtic (Thumeysen). 

Bras^uef rough in manner. (F. — Ital.) 
F. brusque, — Ital. brusco, sharp, tart, sour, 
applied to fruits and wine. Origin un- 

Brute. (F.— L.) F, brut, fem. brute. 
— L. brutusy stupid. 

Bryony. (L. — Gk.) L. brydnia.^^ 
Gk. B/nmvia, fipvunj, bryony. — Gk. fipvtiv, 
to teem, grow luxuriantly. 

Bubble. (£.) Cf. Swed. bubbla, Dan. 
bobte, a bubble ; also Du. bobbel, a bubble, 
bobbekn, to bubble. Of imitative origin. 

Buceanier. (F. — West Indian.) F. 
botuanier, a pirate. — F. boucaner, to broil 
on a sort of wooden frame. — F. boucan, 
a wooden frame, used by hunters for 
smoking and drying flesh. The word 
boucan is said to be a F. spelling of a 
Tupi (Brazilian) word, and to mean *a 
frame on which meat is smoke-dried.' 

Buck (1), a male deer, goat. (£.) 
M. £. bukke, A. S. buc, male deer, buccat 
a he-goat. +Du. bok, Icel. bukkr, Swed. 
boch, a he-goat ; Dan. buk, a he-goat, ram, 
buck ; G. bock ; also W. bwch, Gael, boc, 
Irish boc. Brugm. i. § 800. 

Buck (2), to steep clothes in lye. (£.) 
M. £. bouken. As if from A. S. *biician, 
not found. Prob. from A. S. bUc, a pitcher 
(prov. £. bouk, a pail, tub) ; but M. £. 
bouken has the specific sense of ' steep in 
lye,' like M. H. G. bUchen, Swed. iyka, 
Dan. byge, Low G. bUken, bUken (whence 
Ital. bucare, F. buer), 

bucket. (£.) A. F. boket (Bozon). 
Formed with A. F. dimin. suffix -et from 
A.S. biiCy a pitcher: Cf. Gael, bucaid^ 
Irish buiceady a bucket (from £. ). 

Buckle. (F. - L.) M. E. bokel - O. F. 
bucle (F. boucle), the boss of a shield, a 
ring, a buckle. — Late L. bucula, the boss 
of a shield ; buccula, beaver of a helm, boss 
of a shield, buckle. — Lat. buccula, the 
cheek, dimin. of bucca, the cheek. 

buckler. (F.-L.) M.E. bokeler.^ 
O. F. bucler (F. boiulier), a shield ; so 
named from the boss on it ; see above. 

Buckram, a coarse cloth. (F.— 
Ital.) M.E. bokeram.^O. ¥, boguerant 
(F. bougran), a coarse kind of clotn ; Low 
L. boquerannus or (in Italy) bUchirdnus 


Oi%iii nncertain; perhaps from Bokhara 

Buekwheat. (E.) Lit. beech-wheat; 
from the resemblance of its seeds to the 
mast of the beech-tree. The form buck is 
from A. S. bdc^ as in buck-mast , beech- 
mast. So also Du. boekweiti buckwheat ; 
G. buchweizen. See Beeoh. 

BucoliOi pastoral. ^L. — Gk.) L. biico- 
licus.^Gk. fiovKoXucoSf pastoral. -« Gk. 
fiovK6\os, a cowherd. — Gk. fiov-s, an ox; 
and iciXXeWf to drive. 

Bud. (£.?),bud(ie,SihvLd; 
budden, to bnd. Not foond in A. S. Cf. 
Dn. bot, a bud ; botieny to bud, sprout. 

Budge (i)) to stir. (F. - L.) F. bouger, 
to stir; answering to Ital. bulicare^ to 
bubble up (Diez). — L. bultirt \ see Boil 
(i) above. Cf. Span. bulHrt (i) to boil, 
(2) to stir. 

Budge (a), a kind of fur. (F.?) 
Perhaps related to O. F. bochety bouchet, a 
young kid. 

Blldgetv a leathern bag. (F.-C.) 
F. baugettty dimin. of bouge, a bag. — L. 
bulga, a leathern bag (Gaulish). — O. Irish 
bolgt bole, a sack. 

Baff (i), the colour of dressed buffalo- 
skin. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. ^i#^, a buffalo. 
— L. bufalus; see BufOEiIo. 

Buff (2), in Blindman'B buff. (F.) 
Formerly blindman-buff^ a game ; in whidi 
game boys used to buffet one (who was 
blinded) on the back, without being 
caught, if possible. From O. F. bufe^ F. 
bujfe^ a buffet, blow; cf. Low G. buff^ 
/^, a blow (Liibben). See Buffet (i). 

BuflUo. (Port, or Ital. -L.-Gk.) 
Port, bufaio, Ital. buffalo, oiig. a kind of 
wild ox.— L» Utfalus, also ^^^m;.— Gk. 
0o4fia\os, a buffalo ; a kind of deer or 
antelope. (Not a true Gk. word.) 

Bufm (i). and (a) ; see Buffet (i). 

Buffet (i), a blow; to strike. (F.) 
M. £. boffet, buffet^ a blow, esp. on the 
cheek. — O. F. buftt^ a blow, dimin. of buft^ 
a blow, esp. on the cheek; cf. bufer, buffer ^ 
to puff out the cheeks, also to buffet; mod. 
F. bouffer, Prob. of imitative origin, allied 
Xotouffer, to puff; see Buff (a), Puff. 

buffer (i), a foolish fellow. (F.) Orig. 
a stammerer ; hence, a foolish fellow. M .£. 
buffen^ to stammer.— O.F. bufer, to puff 
oat the cheeks (hence, to puff or blow in 

buflbr (a), a cushion, to deaden con- 
cussion. (F.) Lit. 'a striker;' from M. £. 


buffen, to strike, orig. to buffet on the 
cheek; see Buffet (ij. 

buffoon. (F.) F. bouffon, a buffoon, 
jester, one who makesgrimaces. — F. bouffer , 

Buffet (a), a side-board. (F.) F. buffet , 
a side-board. Origin unknown. 

Bug (i), a spectre. (C.) In Sh.-W. 
bivg^ a hobgoblin, spectre ; Gael, and Ir. 
bocan, a spectre. -fLithuan. ^a»^»x, terrific, 
from bugti, to terrify, allied to Skt. bhuj, 
to turn aside; see Bow (i). Brugm. i. 

§ 701- 

Bug (a), an insect. (C?) Said to be so 
named because an object of terror, exciting 
disgust; see Bug (i). But cf. A.S. 
sceam-budda^ dung-beetle (Voc.), prov. E. 
shorn-bug (Kent). 

Bug-bear. (C. andlL) A supposed 
spectre in the shape of a bear; see 
Bug (i). 

BU|gle(i)»awildox; a horn. (F.-L.) 
Bugle, a horn, is short for bugle- horn \ 
a bugle is a wild ox.— O. F. bugle, a wild 
ox. — L. ace biiculum, a young ox ; double 
dimin. of bos, an ox. 

Bugle (a), a kind of ornament. [Low L. 
bugoH, pi., the name of a kind of pad for 
the hair (a.d. 1388), throws no light on 
the word.] Etym. unknown. 

Bugle (3), a plant. (F.) F. bugU\ 
Cot. ; cf. Span, ana Late L. bugula. Cf. L. 
bugillo, (perhaps) bugle. 

Bugl088.aplant. (F.-L.-Gk.) Lit. 
^ ox-tongue. — F. buglosse. — L. buglossa ; 
also buglossus. — Gk. fiovyXvooof, ox- 
tongue ; from the shape of the leaves. — 
Gk. fiou-s, ox ; 7Xw<r<r-a, tongue. 

Build. (£.) M.E. bulden. Late 
A. S. byldau, to build. —A. S. bold, a house, 
variant of botl, a dwelling, n.^Teut. 
*bU'flom, from bu-, related to bu-an, to 
dwell ; see Bower. Cf. A. S. bytlian, to 
build, from b^l (above). [Cf. O. Swed. 
bylja, to build (Ihre). — O. Swed. bol^ 
a house, dwelling; Icel. bol^ a house, 
Dan. bol^ a small mrm.l 

Bulb. (J.-L.-Gk.) F. bulbe.^l.. 
bulbus, a bulb. — Gk. fio\fi6t, a bulbous 
root, onion. 

Bulbulf a nightingale. (Pers.) Pers. 
bulbul, a bird with a melodious voice, 
resembling the nightingale. Of imitative 

Bulge, to swell out. (F. — C.) Formed 
fromM. E. bulge, a wallet, pouch. — 
O.F. boulge (bouge\ a bag.— L. bulga. 




a bag (Gaulish). See Budget. Doublet, 

Bulk (i)i size. (Scand.) M. £. holke^ 
a heap.— Icel. btllkit a heap; O. Swed. 
iwlk; Dan. bulk, a lump. Cf. Swed. 
bulna, to sweH. 

Bnik (2), the trunk of the body. (Du.) 
In Sh. — M. Du. bu/cke, thorax (Kilian). 
(Prob. confused with Du. buiA^ IceL btlkr, 
the trunk ; Swed. buk, Dan. bug, G. bauck, 
the belly.) 

Bulk (3)} a stall of a shop. (Scand.) 
Perhaps related to Balk. Cf. Dan. dial. 
bti/kf a half-wall ; Icel. bd/kr, a beam, also, 
a partition ; Line, bulker, a beam, a wooden 
hutch in a workshop. Der. bulk-head, a 

Bnll (i), male of the cow. (£.) M. E. 
bole^ bule. Not found in A. S., but the 
dimin. buUuc, a bullock, occurs. Prob. 
* the bellower ; * cf. M. H. G. buUen^ to 
roar ; and see Bellow, -f I^* ^*^^\ led* 
boli\ G. bulk\ Lithuan. bullus, Ti&t, 
buU-ock^ A. S. bulluCj as above. 

Bull (2), a papal edict. (L.) M. E. 
bui/e.^LAL bulla, a bubble, boss, knob, 
leaden seal on an edict; a bull (in late 

bullet. (F. - L.) M. F. boulel, dimin. 
of F. boule, a ball. — L. bulla, a boss, 
knob, 8cc. 

bulletm. (F.-Ital.-L.) F.bulle- 
iin, a ticket. — Ital. hulUttino, a safe- 
conduct, pass, ticket Dimin. of bulUtta, 
a passport, lottery ticket, dimin. of bulla, 
a seal, bull. ^ L. bulla, a boss, &c. 

BuUace, wikl plum. (F.?) M.E. 
bolas. Apparently related to O. F. beloce, 
a buUace ; cf. Bret, bolos^ polos, bullace ; 
LowL. bolluca ; Walloon, biloc (Remade). 

Bullet, Bulletin; see Bull (2). 

Bullion. (F.-L.) T\it \,¥. bullion 
meant a mint, and Late L. bulliona, bullio 
meant a mass of. metal, apparently, from 
its being melted ; cf. P\ bouillon, a boiling. 
■■ Late L. bulliottem, ace. of bullio, a boil- 
ing. — L. bulllre, to bubble up, boil. » L. 
bulla, a bubble. 

Bully, a noisy rough fellow. (O. Low 
G.) In Sh. The oldest sense, in E., is 
*dear one, lover.* — M. Du. boel, a, lover 
(of either sex) ; borrowed from M. H. G. 
buole (G. buhle), lover. 

Bnlmsh. (E.) M.E. ^f//r^jr^^. Prompt. 
Parv., p. 244, col. 2. Perhaps ' stem-rush ' ; 
from its stout stem.; cf. Shetl. buhoand^ 
a bulrush. — Dan. bul, stem, tnmk ; see 

Bole. Or bull may mean Marge," >rith 
ref. to a bull, Cf. bull-daisy ^ &c. (Britten). 

Bulwark* (Scand.) Dan. bulvark, 
Swed. bohferk (Ihre) ; cf. Du. bolwerk, G. 
boll'werk (whence F. boulevard). Com- 
pounded of Dan. bul, Swed. bo I, trunk of 
a tree, log, Icel. bulr, bolr, the stem of a 
tree; and Dan. vark, Swed. verk, a work. 
Lit. * log - work,* or * bole-work ' ; see ' 

Bnm-bailiify under-bailifT. (E. attd 
F.) A slang term. Todd quotes passages 
to shew that it arose from the pursuer 
catching at a man by the hinder part of 
his garment. 

Bnmble-beef a bee that booms or 
hums. See Boom (i). 

Bnmboat. (E.) From bum nnd boat, 
Orig. a scavenger's boat on the Thames 
(a. d. 1685) ; afterwards used to supply 
v^etables to ships. 

Bump (i)y to thump; a blow. (E.) 
Of imitative origin ; cf. M. Dan. bumpe, 
to strike with the fist ; W. pwmpio, to 
thump; pwmp, a lump; Corn, bom, bum, 
a blow. The senses are : (i) to strike, 
(2) a blow, (3) its effect. . See Bunch. 

Bnmp (2), to boom. (E.) Imitative ; 
cf. Boom (i), and Bumble-bee. 

Bumper, a full glass. (E.) From 
bump ; with the notion of a bumping or 
full glass ; cf. thumping, i. e. great. 

Biunpkin. a thick-headed fellow. (Du.) 
M. Du. boomktn, a little tree (Hexham) ; 
dimin. of boom, a tree, a beam, bar ; see 
Beam (i). The E; bumkin also meant 
a luff-block, a thick piece of wood (Cot- 
grave, s. V. Chicambault, and see bumkin 
in the E. index) ; hence, readily applied 
to a block-head, thick-skulled fellow. 

Bnn. (F.) Cf. prov. F. bugne, a kind 
of fritters ; perhaps the same as O. F. 
bugne, a swelling or bump due to a blow 
(Burguy), also spelt bigne, 'a bump, 
knob;* Cot. O. F. bitgnete, a fritter (Gode- 
froy) ; also bugnet (id., Supp. p. 393). 
* Signets, little round loaves, buns,* &c. ; 
Cot. Minsheu has Span, bufiuelos^ ^ pan- 
cakes, cobloaves, buns.' See Bunion. 

Bunch. (E.?) M.E. bunche, Cf. 
M. E. bunchen, to beat. Prob. imitative, 
like bumf, bounce. And see Bunk. 

Bundle. (E.) M. E. buwUL Dimin. 
of O. Northumb. bund, a mmdle (Matt, 
xiii. 30). — A. S. bund; weak grade of 
bindan, to bind.^Dn. bondel', G. biindeL 



Bmiflr, a stopple. (Du.— L.) M. Du. 
fH>nge ^VL, bom)y a bnng; dialectal form 
of *bonde^9& preserved in F. bonde^ a bang. 
Cognate with Swiss punt (Weigand, s. v. 
Spund). — L. puncia, an orifice ; orig. fern, 
pp. of pungere, to prick. Cf. W. bwngf 
an orifice, also, a bnng. 

Bungalow, a Bengal thatched house. 
(Hind.) Hind, bangalah^ of or belonging 
ta Bengal, a bungalow; Rich. Diet. p. 
293. From the name Bengal, 

Bungle. (Scand. ?) Of imitative 
oiigin. Cf. Swed. dial, bangkty to work 
ineffectually; O. Swed. btmga, to strike 
(Rietz, Ihre.) And cf. Bang. 

Bunion. (F. — G.) O.F.^Mf^^;i,only 
in the sense of a fritter (Gode&oy) ; but 
really an augmentative of O. F. huigne 
(F. btgne, *a bump, swelling,' Cot.).— 
O. H. G. bungo, a lump (Graff, in 
Schmellcr) ; cf. Icel. bunga, convexity. 
So also Ttal. bugnom, augment, of bugno, 
a boil, a swelling. See Bun. 

Bunk, a wooden case or box, berth. 
(Scand.) Cf. O. Swed. bunke, the plank- 
ing of a ship forming a shelter for mer- 
chandise, &c. (Ihre) ; the usual sense of 
Swed. bunke is a heap, pile, something 
prominent; M. Dan. bunke, room for 

Bnnty the belly of a sail (Scand.) It 
answers in form to Dan. bundif Swed. 
bunty a bundle, a bunch ; from the weak 
stem of the verb to Bind. % But the right 
words for 'bunt' are Dan. bug, Swed. 
huk, Du. buik, G. bauch ; see Bulk (a). 

Bunting (0, a bird. (£. ?) M. £. 
bunting; afso buntyle ^ = bunte/), Lowl. 
Sc. bunt/in. Origin unknown. 

Bunting (>)} a thin woollen stuff for 
flags. (E.) Perhaps ' sifting-cloth ' ; from 
M. £. bonten, prov. E. bunt, to sift. Cf. 
F. itamine. In the same senses. 

Buoy. (Du. — F. — L.) Du. boei, a buoy ; 
also a shackle, a fetter.— O. F. buie, a 
fetter, F. bou^e, a buoy. — Late L. boia, a 
fetter, clog. — L. boia^ pi. a collar for the 
neck, oxig. of leather. 

Bur, Bnrdoclc; see Burr. 

Burbot, a fish. (F.) F. bourbotte 
(also bar bote), ^¥. bourbetter, * to wallow 
in mud,' Cot. — F. bourbe^ mud; of un- 
known origin. 

Bnrdon ( i ) , Bnrthan, a load carried. 

(E.) A. S. byrtten, a load. From Teut. 
Hur-, weak grade of ♦^tffrtw-, to bear ; see 
Bear (i). 4* ^ce^- byrdr, byrtft; Swed. | 


bonla; Dan. byrde\ Goth, baurth'ei', G; 
biirde ; from the same root, with varying 
suffixes. For the form burden, see below. 

Burden (2), the refrain of a song. 

(F. — Late L.) F. bourdon, a drone-bee, 
humming of bees, drone of a bagpipe; 
see Cot. — Late L. burdoftem, ace. of burdo, 
a drone. Prob. of imitative origin ; cf. 
Lowland Sc birr, to make a whizzing 
noise, £. buzz, % Confused with Bur« 
den (i). 

Bureau. (F. - L.) F. bureau, a desk, 
writing-table; so called because covered 
with brown baize. — F. bureau, O. F. buret, 
coarse woollen stuff, russet-coloured. — 
O. F. buire, M. F. bure, dark brown ; F. 
bure, coarse cloth. — L. burrus, reddish. — . 
Gk. wpp6s, reddish. — Gk. vvp, fire. 

Burgeon, a bud. (F.~Teut.) F. 
bourgeon, a young bud. Lengthened from 
Languedoc boure, a bud, eye of a shoot 
(Diez).-M. H. G. buren, O. H. G. pur- 
jan, to raise, push up, push out. — M. H. G. 
bor, por, an elevation ; whence G. empor 
{^in por), upwards. 

BuMeSB. (F. - M. H. G.) M. £. bur- 
geys. — O. F. burgeis. — Low Lat. burgensis, 
belonging to a fort or city. — Low Lat, 
burgus, a fort. — M. H. G. bure (G. bitrg) ; 
coenate with A. S. burg; see Borough. 

Durgher. (Du.) Formerly ^r^^r.- 
Du. burger, a citizen. — Du. burg, a city ; 
cognate with £. Borough. 

Durglar. (A.F.-E.) K,¥,burgler, 
burg/our; Law L. burgu/dtOK^LsLW L. 
burguldre, to break into a house. — A. S. 
burh, burg ; see Borough. 

burgomaster. (Du. a;i^F.) Du. 

burge-meester, a town-master. — Du. burg^ 
cognate with £. Borough ; and meester^ a 
master, from O. F. meistre ; see Blaster. 

Burgonety a helmet. (F.) F. bmr- 
guignote, 'a burganet,' Cot So called 
becafise first used by the Buigundians. — 
F. Bourgogne, Burgundy. 

Burial. (£•) M. £. buriel, biriel^ a 
tomb ; also spelt beriels, biriels. — A. S. 
byrgels, a tomb. — A. S. byrgan, to bury ; 
see Bury. The spelling witi^ -at is due to 
association wi^^jufur-al, 8cc 

BuriUy an engraver's tooL (F.~G.) 
F. burin; Ital. boritto, Pirob, from 
M. H. G. boren (G. bohreti), to bore; see 
Bore (i). 

BurkOf to murder by suffocation; to 
murder, stifle. (Personal name.) From 
the name of Burke, an Irishman who conn- 




mitted murders by sufTocation ; executed 
at Edinburgh, Tan. 28, 1829. 
Burly to pick knots and loose threads 
from cloth. (F.— L.) To burl is to pick 
off burls. M. £. burle, a knot in cloth. * 
O. F. btmrle ; dimin. of F. bourre^ a flock 
or lock of wool or hair. — Late L. burra, 
a woollen pad ; allied to L. burra, trifles, 
trash, Late L. reburrus, rough. 

burlesque, comic. (F.-Ital.-L.) 

F. burlesque. '^lisil. burlesco, ludicrous. » 
Ital. burMf waggery, a trick. A dimin. 
from L. burra, trifles, nonsense (Ausonius). 
See Burl. 

Burly. (£.) M. £. burli, burlUhe, 
borli ; prov. £. bowerly ; Shetland boorly. 
Formed by adding the snflix -ly (A. S. 
•He) to A. S. bur, a bower, a lady's 
chamber ; hence, the old senses of ' fit for 
a bower/ stately, excellent, large, great ; 
and, Anally, stout, big. £. g. 'a ourly bed.' 

Bum (i ), verb. (£.) M.E. bemen ; also 
brennen. Tliere are two forms, a. intrans. 
A.S. beoman, iyman, strong verb, pt. t. 
beam, braUy pp. bomen.'^O, Icel. brinna ; 
Goth, brinnan ; Teut. type ^brennan- ; cf. 
A. S. bryne, flame, p. trans. A. S. baman, 
wk. vb.-^-Icel. brenna, Dan. brande, Swed. 
branna ; G. brennen ; Goth, brannjan ; 
Teut. type ^brannjan-, causal to the former. 

Bum (2), a brook ; see Bourn (2). 

Burnet, a plant. (F. -O.H. G.) 
Low L. bumetd. — O. F. brunete, the name 
of a flower : burnette, brunette, a kind of 
dark brown cloth, also a brunette. See 
Brunette. Named from the dark brown 
colour of the flowers. 

bumisll, to polish. (F. ~ O. H. G.) 
M. £. bumishen ; also burnen. » O. F. 
bumir, brunir (pres. part, bumis-ant), to 
embrown, to polish. — O. H. G. brunen 
(< *brunjan) . — O. H. G. briin, brown ; see 

Bumouee, Bumoose, an upper 

cloak worn by the Arabs. (F. — Arab.) 
F. bumotis, boumaus.^Arah. bumus, a 
kind of high-crowned cap, worn formerly 
in Barbary and Spain ; whence Span, al- 
bomoz, a kind of cloak with a hood. 
Burr, Bur. (£.) M. £. burre, knob 
on a buidock; borre, roughness in the 
throat. Not in A.S. N. Fries, burre, 
borre, a burr, burdock. -f Swed. borre, a sea- 
urchin; ^ardT^/rr, a burdock; Dan. ^^rrr, 
burdock. From Teut. base *^«r8-<*^«rj-, 
weak grade of Teut. root Hers, to bristle. 
See Bristle. Der. bur dock. 


Burrow, a shelter for rabbits. (£.) 
M. £. borwgh, a cave, shelter ; merely a 
varied spelling of borough, Der^ burrow, 

Bursar. (Med. L.--Gk.) Med. L. 
bursdrius, a purse-beater. « Med. L. bursa, 
a purse. — Gk. fivpaa, a hide, wine-skin. 

AUnrt. (£.) M. £. bersten, bresten, pt. 
t. brast, A. S. berstan, to burst asunder, 
break ; str. vb.+Du. bersten ; G. bersten ; 
Icel. bresta ; Swed. bn'sta ; Dan. briste ; 
also O. Irish briss-im (for *brest-tm), I 

Bury (i), vb. (E.) M. £. burien. 
A.S. byrigan, byrgan, to hide in the 
ground, bury. From burg-, weak grade 
of beorg^an, to hide ; see Borough. 

Bury (2), a town. (£.) As in Canter- 
bury. •- A. S. byrig, dat. oiburh, a borough. 
See Borough. 

Bus, a shortened form oi omnibus, (L.) 
See Omnibus. 

Buell (I), a thicket. (Scand.-L.) 
M. £. busch, busk, — Dan. busk, Swed. 
buske,B. bush, shrub.-|-Du. bosck ; O. H. G. 
busc ; G. busch. All from Late L. boscus, 
a bush ; a word of unknown origin. 

Busll (2), the metal box in which an 
axle works. (Du. — L. — Gk.) M. £. busse. 
— Du. bus, a box, barrel (of a gun) ; G. 
buchse. — Late L. buxis^ a box. — Gk. irv^is, 
a box.— Gk. wv{os, box-wood, box-tree. 
See Pyx. 

buslicil, a measure. (F.— L.— Gk.) 
M. £. bushel, - A. F. bousselle, O. F. boissel ; 
Late L. bustellus, a small box; for 
*boistel, dimin. of O. F. botste, a box.— 
Late L. buxida, ace. of buxis, a box 

Busk (i\ to get oneself ready. (Scand.) 
Icel. buask, to get oneself ready. — Icel. 
bua, to prepare ; and -sk^ for sik, oneself. 
See Bound (3) ; and cf. Bask. 

Buek (2), a support for a woman*s 
stays. TF.) M. F. busque, * a buske, or 
buste ; Cot. Mod. F. busc. Of uncertain 
origin. Cf. M. F. buc, * a busque ; ' Cot. 

Buskin. (Du.) Du. broosken, buskin 
(Sewel) ; mod. Du. broos, with dimin. 
suflix 'ken. Or from M.F. brousequin, 
now brodequin\ or from Span, borcegui. 
Origin unknown. 

Buss, to kiss. (£.) [The old word was 
bass. — F. baiser, to kiss. — Lat. basium, a 
kiss.] The modem bws, of imitative 
origin, may have been partly suggested 
by it. Cf. prov. G. (Bavarian) htssen, 



to kiss ; Lith. Imczoti^ to kiss ; also Gael, 
and W. buSi mouthy lip. 

Bust. (F. - Ital.) F. buste. - Ital. 
busiOf the bust, trunk of human body, 
stays; Late L. bustum, the trunk of the 
body. Etym. uncertain. 

Bnirfeard, a bird. (F.-L.) Formerly 
also bistard (Sherwood).— O. F. bistarde^ 
*a bastard; ' Cot. (Mod. F. outarde^^\,. 
auis tarda, a slow bird (Pliny, N. H. x.. 
22). Cf. Port, abetarda, also betarda^ a 
bustard. % Both O. F. bistarde and F. 
outard6 are from euiis tarda ; in the former 
case, initial a is dropped ; in the latter, 
outarde stands for an older oustarde, where 
ous s L. auis. See Diez. Auis tarda<, 
lit. 'slow bird,' is far from being truly 
descriptive ; so that it is prob. a substitu- 
tion for some form foreign to Latin. 

Bustle. (Scand.) A variant of (ob- 
solete) busklct to prepare ; also, to hurry 
about. Frequent, of busk, to prepare one- 
self; see Busk (i). Cf. Icel. iustid, to 
splash about as a fish. 

Busy. ^E.) M. E. bisy. A. S. bisi^ 
{bysig), active ; whence bisgu^ exertion. + 
Dn. bezig^ busy. 

But (i), prep, and conj., except. (E.) 
A. S. be-HtaUy bUtan, bUta, lit. 'without.' — 
A. S. be, by ; Otan, adv. without, from t7t, 
out.-4-Dn. buiten. 

But (3) ; see Butt (i), Butt (2). 

Butcker. (F.- G.) M. E. bocher.^ 
O. F. bochier, orig. one who kills goats.— 
O. F. bo€ (F. b<mc), a goat — G. bock^ a 
goat. See Buck. 

Butler. (F.-Late L.-Gk.) M. E. 
bcteler, one who* attends to bottles ; from 
M. £. botel, a bottle ; see Bottle. 

Butt (i), a push, thrust ^ to thrust. (F. 
— O. Low G.) [The senses of the sb. may 
be referred to the verb; just as F. boite, 
a thrust, depends on bouter^ to strike.] 
M. £. butten, to push, strike. — O. F. boter, 
to push, butt, strike. — O. Frank. *bdtan, 
corresponding to M. Du. booten, to beat, 
M. H. G. b^en, O. H. G. bozan, to beat. 
Der. butt (mound to shoot at), from M. F. 
buite, the same, allied to F. btU, a mark, 
from buter, O. F. boter, to hit Der. 
a-but. See Beat. 

Butt (2), a large barrel. (F. - L.) We 
find A. S. bytt\ but our mod. word is 
really F.-O.F. boute, F. botte, * the vessel 
which we call a butt;* Cot— Late Lat 
butta, buttis, a cask. 

Butt (3), a thick end. (E.) M. E. but, 

butte. Cognate with Icel. buttr, short; 
see Buttock. Der. butt-end. 

Butt (4), a kind of fiat fish. (£.) 
Allied to Swed. butta, a turbot, M. Dan. 
butte, Low G. but, Du. bot, a butt. Prob. 
from but, stumpy ; see Buttock. 

Butter. (L. - Gk.) M. E. botere ; 
A. S. butere.^'L. bfityrum.''Gk» fioihv 
pov, butter. Probably of Scythian origin. 
butterfly. (E.) A. S. buttorfleoge, 
lit. butter-fly. So called from its excre- 
ment resembling butter, as shewn by the 
M. Du. boter-schijte, a butter-fly, lit 
butter-voider (Kilian). + Du. botervlieg\ 
G. butter-Jliege, 

Buttery, a place for provisions, esp. 
liquids. (F. — LateL.) A corruption of 
M. E. boteierie, a butlery, properly a place 
for a butler ; from M. £. boteier, a butler; 
see Butler. (Thus buttery =bottlery^ 
Confused with the word butter. 

Buttock. (E.) M.E. buttok. Formed, 
with dimin. suffix -ok (A. S. -ue), from 
butt, a thick end, a stump. Cf. Icel. 
buttr, short, butr, a log ; Dan. but, Swed. 
butt, stumpy, surly ; Du. bot, blunt, dull. 
See Butt (3). 

Button. (F. - O. Low G.) M. E. 
boton, also, a bud. — O. F. boton (F. 
bouton) , a bud, a button ; properly, a round 
knob pushed out. — O. F. boter, to push, 
push out ; see Butt (i). 

buttresSi a support, in architecture. 
(F. — O. Low G.) M. E. boteras ; Palsgrave 
has bottras, butteras, Orig. a plural form, 
as if for *butterets. — O. F. bouterez, pi. of 
bouteret, a prop. — F. bouter, to thrust, 
prop. Cotgrave also has boutant, a but- 
tress, from the same verb ; see Butt (i). 

Butty, ^ companion or partner in a 
work. (F. — Low G.) Shortened from 
boty-fehwe or booty-fellow, one who shares 
booty with others. From boty, old spell- 
ing of booty « F. butin, booty. Of Low G. 
origin ; see Booty. 

Buzom. (£.) M. E. boxom, buhsum ; 
the old sense was obedient, obliging, good- 
humoured. Lit. * bow-some/ — A. S. bug- 
an, to bow, bend, obey ; and -sum, suffix, 
as in winsome, '^'Dvi, buigzaam ; G. bieg- 
sam. See Bow (i). 

Buy. (E.) From A. S. byg', as in 
byg-est, byg'^, 2 and 3 p. sing. pres. of 
A. S. bycgan, to purchase, whence M. E. 
buggen, biggen, + Goth, bugjan. Der. 
abide (2), q. v. See Sweet, N. E. G. § 1 293. 

BuBBa (E.) An imitative word ; cf. 



luowl. Sc. Oizz, to hiss ; Ital. htzzicarCf to 
hum, whisper. 

Bimara. (F. — L.) M. £. bosard, 
busardt an inferior kind of falcon. — F. 
btisard.^F. buse, a buzzard; with Suffix 
-ard (from O.H.G. A«r/). — Late L. bttsio 
== L. buieo^ a sparrow-hawk. 

By, prep. QE.) M. E. bi. A. S. bi^ 
btg.'-^'Dw., bij \ G.bei] Goth. /'/. Cf.Skt. 
dbhif Gk. dfi-(f>i. 

By-law, a law affecting a township. 
(Scand.) Formerly also biriaw. — Icel. 
^.?-r, f^-t*y a village (gen. bajar^ whence 
bir-) ; /^jf, a law. So also Dan. by-hv, a 
town-law. Icel. bSr is allied to biia, to 
dwell. See Boor. 

Byre, a cow-house. (E.) A Northern 

E. deriv. of bower. A. S. i^re, a shed, 
hut— A. S.bur, a bower; cf. IceL btlr, a 
pantry. See Bower. 


Cab (i) ; see Cabriolet. 

Cab (3)1 a Heb. measure. (Ueb.) Heb. 
gab, the 1 8th part of an ephah. The literal 
sense is * hollow * ; cf. Heb qdbab, to form 
in the shape of a vault ; see Alcove. 

Cabal. (F. -«eb.) Orig. ' a secret.' F. 
cahale, *■ the Jewes Caball, a hidden science ; * 
Cot. — Heb. qabbdldh , reception, mysterious 
doctrine. — Heb. qdbal, to receive; qibbel, 
to adopt a doctrine. 

Cab page (0> a vegetable. (F.-L.) 
M.E. caoachej caboche*^¥. (Picard) ca- 
itoche, lit. *■ great head ;* cf. Picard cabus, 

F. c/ioux ca^f large-headed cabbage. — L. 
cap'Ut, head ; with augmentative suffix ; 
cf. Ital. capocchtay head of a nail. 

Cabbage (2), to steal. (F.) From 
F. cabasser, to put into a basket ; Norman 
cabasser, to cabbage (and see Supp. to 
Godefroy). — F. cabas, a basket; Norman 
cabas y tailor's cabbage; of unknown origin. 

Caber I a pole. (C.— L.) Gael, cabar, 
a rafter. — L. type *caprio, a rafter; see 

Cabin. (F.) M.E cabane.'^Y, cabane. 
— Prov. cabana. — Late L. capanna, a 
hut (Isidore). 

cabinet. (F.) F. cabinet, dimin. of 
F. cabane, a cabin (above). 

Cable. (F. - L.) M. E. cable, - O. F. 
r^/Vi?.— LateL. capulum^ caplum^ a strong 
(holding) rope. — L. capere, to hold. 

CabOOSef the cook's cabin onboard ship. 
(Du.) Formerly camboos€.^T>vu kombws, 


a cook's cabin; also 'the chimney in a 
ship,' Sewel. (Hence also Dan. kcUys, 
Swed. kcdfysa, caboose.) 

Cabriolet. rF.-ltal.-L.) Cab is 
short for cabrioiel.^Y. cabriolet, a cab; 
from its supposed lightness. — F. cabriole, 
a caper, leap of a goat ; formerly capriole. 
— Ital. capriola, a caper, a kid. — Ital. 
caprio, wild goat ; copra, a she-goat. — 
L. caper, goat ; fem. capra. 

CacaOfatree. (Span. ~ Mexican.) Span. 
caccM ; from the Mexican name {cacauatl) 
of the tree whence chocolate is made. 
% Not the same as cocoa, 

Cachinnation* (L.) L. ace. cachin- 
ndtionem, loud laughter.— L. ^tf^^m/iari^, 
to lauffh. Cf. Cackle. 

Cacnnclia, a dance. (Span.) Span. 

Caciane. a W. Indian chief. (Span. — 
W. Indian.; Span, cacique, an Indian 
prince. From tne old language of Hayti. 

Cack, to go to stool. (L.) M.E. 
cakken.'^h, ecu are, 

CaoUe. (E.) M.E. kakelen, a fre- 
quentative form. Not in A. S. 4* I^u. 
kaJkelen; Swed. kackla; Dan. kagle\ G. 
gackeln. The sense is ' to keep on saying 
kak\' 0.1. gahb'le, gobb'le, gagg-U* 

Cacopbony, a harsh sound. (Gk.) 
Gk. KOKOipojvia, a harsh sound. — Gk. kojco- 
<twyos, harsh. — Gk. koko-s, bad; and 
fpofy'i, sound, Der. cacophonous (Gk. koko- 

Cad, a low fellow. (F.-L.) Short 
for Lowl. Sc. cadie, an errand-boy; see 
]amieson,^¥, cadet; see Cadet. 

Cadaverous, corpse-like. (L.) L. 
cadduerosus, ^h. cadduer, a corpse.- Lat. 
cad-erot to fallj fall dead. 

Caddie, a kind of worsted lace or tape. 
(F.) In Wint. Tale, iv. 4. 208. M. E. 
cadas, explained by bombicinium in 
Prompt. Parv. ; (hence Irish cadcu, cad- 
dis). Though also used to denote 'wor- 
sted,' it was orig. coarse silk. — F. cadarce^ 
* the coursest part of silke, whereof sleave 
is made ; ' Cot. Cf. Span, cadarzo, coarse, 
entangled silk, that cannot be spun on a 
reel ; Port, cadarfo, a coarse silk. Origin 
unknown ; probably Eastern. Der. cadilis- 
worm, from the caddis-like shape of the 
case of the Isltysl, 

Caddy, a small box for tea. (Malay.) 
Better spelt catty. A small padcage of 
tea, less than a half-chest, is called in the 
tea-trade a caddy or ra//^. — Malay kdti, a 




weight equal to i^ lb. aToirdnpois. This 
weight is also used in China and Japan, 
and tea is often made np in jtackages con- 
tainii^ one catty. 
CuMt a band, cask. (F. — L.-Gk.~ 
Heb.) F. cade.'^L,. caJus, a barrel, cask. 
— Gk. inios, a cask, jar. — Heb. kaJ, a pail. 
CadanOOy a fall of the voice. (F.— 
Ital. ->L.) M. £. cadence. — F. cadence^ * a 
cauience, jast fdling of words ; ' Cot. » 
Ital. cadensa^^VaMt \».c€k1entia, a falling. 
•«L. cadeni'j stem of pres. pt. of cadere, to 
lall.-1-Skt. (ad, to fall 
Cadet, orig. a younger son. (F.— L.) 
y. cadets a younger brother ; Prov. capdcL 
Capilet is a Gascon form = Late L. capii- 
ellum (the substitution of / for // being 
regular in Gascon ; P. Meyer) ; lit. a little 
(younger) head, dimin. from L. caput ^ a 

Cadi, a judge. (Arab.) Arab, ^adf, 
qazi^ a cadi or cazi, a judge. Hence Span. 
alcaide^ the judge (£. cUcayde) ; where al 
is the Arab. def. article. 

Caducous, fallmg. (L.) L. caduc-us, 
falling; with sufiix •^wf.^L. cadere, to 
fall. See Cadence. 

CSDBUra. (L.) L. casuroy a cutting ; 
a pause in a verse. *L. cas-us^ pp. of 
cadere, to cut. 
Caftan, a Turkish garment. (Turk.) 
Turk, qaftdn, a dress. 
Cage. (F. -L.) F. tra^^.-Late L. 
caveay L. cauea, a cave, den, cage.«>L. 
lauuSf hollow. See Cave. 
CaSqne, a boat. (F.— Turk.) ¥, caique, 
» Turk, kat'k, a boat. 
Calm, a pile of stones. (C.) Gael., 
Irish, W., Bret, cam, a crag, rock ; also a 
pile of stones. 

Caitiff. (F.-L.) M.E. ^-aiVi/.- 
A.F. caitify a captive, a wretch (F. ch4iif). 
— L. captiuuniy ace. of captiuus\ see 
C^fole. (F.) F. cajolery to cajole; 
formerly, to chatter like a jay. Perhaps 
of imitative origin ; cf. cackle. 


kdyuy wood; putih, white. 
Cake. (K- or Scand.) M. £. cake. 
N. Fries, kdky kdg, late Icel. and Swed. 
kaka; Dan. kage, Teut. stem *kakdn-, 
fem. ; from Teut. root *kak't of which the 
strong grade is *kdk' (whence prov. E. 
cookie, Du. kock, G. kuchen, a cake). 

, Calabaeh, the shell of a gourd, v^** 
. —Span.— Arab.— Pers,^ F. caiel^nuse.^ 
\ Span, calabasa (Port (Wo^tt}. — Arab. • 
j Pers. kketrdtts, a melon ; lit. ' ass-^gourd,* 
, i. e. large gourd. — Pers, kkar, ass (hence, 
. coaise} ; buiok, odoriferous fruit, Cf. Ski, 

kkara, an ass. 
! Calamint, a herb. (F.-L.-Gk.) 

M. F. calameni. Cot.— Late L, calamiMtkeu 

— Gk. MoXafupiif. 

Calamity. (^F.-L.) ¥,caJamii4.^ 

L. ace. caiamiidtem, a misfortune. 

Calash, a sort of carriage. (F.— G 

Slavonic.) F. caliche. — G. kaUscke* — Pol . 
kolaska, a small carriage, dimin. of kc/asa^ 
a carriage; Kuss. koiiaska, a carriage. •• 
Pol . kat^, a wheel ; O. Slav. kolo. ( VQEL.^ 

Calcareous. (,L.) Should be ca/- 
carious, ^h. cakdriuSy pertaining to lime. 

— L. calC'y stem of calx, lime. 
calcine. (F. - L.) F. calciner,^ 

Mod. L. calcifidrey to reduce to a calx. — 
L. calc'y stem of calx, lime. 

calculate. (L.) L. ca/culdi-us, pp. 
of calcuidre, to reckon by help of small 
pebbles.— L. calculus, i^bble; dimin. of 
calxy a stone. 

Caldron, Cauldron. (,F.-L.) M.K. 

cauderon, A. F. caudruu,^0. North F. 
(Picard) cauderotiy for O. F. chauderou^ 
mod. F. chaudron (^Ital. calderone, S|)aii. 
calderon), a vessel for hot w ater. Extended 
from L. calddr-'ia, a hot bath. — L. caUus, 
contr. form of calidus, hot. — L. calere, to 
be hot. 

Calendar. (L.) L. calendarium, an 
account-book kept by money-changers ; so 
called because mterest was due on the 
calends (ist day) of each month; also, a 
calendar.— L. calenda, calends. 

Calender (Oj s^ machbe for pressing 
cloth. (F. — L. — Gk.) F\ calattdre,^ 
Med. L. *calendray celendra, a calender ; an 
adaptation of L. cylindrus, a cylinder ; see 
Cylinder. Der. calender, a smoother of 
linen, a mistaken form for calendrer. 

Calender (>)» a kind of wandering 
monk. (F.— Pers.) F. calender. '^'Pen, 
qalandar, a kind of wandering Muham- 
madan monk, who abandons everything 
and retires from the world. 

Calends. (L.) L. calenda, s. pi., 
the first day of the (Roman) month. Orig. 
obscure ; but certainly from the base ceU', 
as in O. Lat. caldre, to proclaim. 4" Gk. 
KokHVy to summon. Allied to Hale (a). 

CalenturOi & feverous madness. (F. 



— Span. — L.) F. caienfure. '^SpaxL calen- 
lura,^L, calent'j stem of pres. pt. of 
calerct to be hot. 

Calf (I). (E.) M.E. kaif, O. Merc. 
calf\ A.S. ceaffi'^DvL, ka^\ IceL hdlfr\ 
Swed. ktUf\ Dan. kcUvx Goth. koUbd\ 
G. kaXb, Der. calve ^ vb., A. S. cealfian. 
Perhaps allied to Skt. garbhat womb, a 
foetus. Brugm. i. $ 656. 

Calf (2), the thick hind part of the 
shank. (£.) Perhaps the same as the above; 
cf. Gaulish L. gaida, great-bellied ; Icel. 
koMy calf of the leg. See Cave ixL 

Caliber, CaUbre, bore of a gun. 

(F.) F. calibre, size of a bore ; Span. 
calibre (1623). Etym. unknown. Perhaps 
from .^rab. qdlib^ a form, mould, model, 
Rich. DicL p. 1 1 1 1 (Diez). Mahn sug- 
gests L. qua Itbrd, with what measure. 

CalieOy cotton -cloth. (E. Indian.) 
Named from Calicut, on the Malabar 
coast, whence it was first imported. 

Calif , Caliph. (F.-Aiab.) F.cali/e, 
a successor of the prophet— Arab, kha- 
ItfaA, successor. — Arab, khalqfa, to suc- 
ceed. Doublet, AAalifa, 

Caligravhy, CaUigraphy, good 

writing. (Gk.) Gk. tetiKXtypafia.^Gk, 
tcaWff prefix (for KdXXos, beauty, from 
MiA<$9, good, &ir) ; and ypSuptw, to write. 

caluithenics, callisthenicst 

graceful exercises. (Gk.) From Gk. 
Ka\Xiff$€V'^s, adorned with strength. — 
Gk. icaXXi- (for tcoKKos, beauty, from 
tca\6s, fair) ; and aBiv-os, strength. 

CaliperSy compasses. (F.) For caliber- 
compeuses, i.e. compasses for measuring 
diameters; see Caliber. 

Calisthenics ; see Caligraphy. 

Caliver, a sort of musket. (F.) Named 
from its ceUiber 01 bore ; see Kersey*s Diet. 
See Caliber. 

Calk; usually Caulk, q.v. 

Call. (£.) M. E. callen. A. S. ceallian ; 
cf. hildecalla, a herald. £. Fries. kaHen.-^ 
Icel. and Swed. kalla ; Dan. kalde ; Dn. 
kalUn\ O. H. G. challdn. Teut. type 
*kalldn' or ^kallojcm-, weak verb ; cf. W. 
galw, to call, Russ. golos\ voice, sound. 

Callety Callatt a worthless woman. 
(F.— Low L.— Low G.) In Oth. iv. 2. 
131.— F. caillette, a gossip, chatterer; 
lit. a little quail ; dimin. of cailUy a quail, 
also a woman. Littr^ gives caille caiffSe, 
femme galante. See Quail. (Doubt- 

CalloiUiyhard. (F.— L.) Y, callcux.^ 

L. calldsus, thick-skinned.— L. calltu, cal* 
lum, hard skin. 

CalloWt unfledged, bald. (L.) M.E. 
calu, calewe. A. S. calu, bald.4'Du. Aaal, 
bald; Swed. kal; G.kahl, TtvX.*kalwoz, 
early borrowed from L. caluus, bald. 

Calm. (F. — L.-Gk.) F. calme, adj. 
Allied to Prov. chaume, the time when the 
flocks rest ; F. chdmer {iormtxly chaumer), 
to rest from work ; Ital. calma, rest — Late 
L. cauma, the heat of the sun (whence, 
time for rest) ; Job xxx. 30. [It is sug- 
gested that the diange from au to al was 
due to association with L. cal-cre, to be 
hot.] — Gk. KavfM, heat. — Gk. koIuv, to 
burn. Der. be-cdlm. 

Calomel, a preparation of mercury. 
(Gk.) Coined to express a white product 
from a black substance. — Gk. teaKo-s, fair ; 
and fiik-as, black. 

Caloric. (F.— L.) F. calorique.^L. 
calor, heat. — L. calcre, to be hot. 

CalorifiCy making hot. (L.) L. caldri- 
ficuSi making hot. — L. ccUori-, stem oi color ^ 
heat ; and ^-, ioifacere, to make. 

CalthroPf Caltrap, a star-thistle, a 
ball with spikes for annoying cavalry. 
(L. and Teut.) M. £. kalketrappe, A. S. 
caketreppe^ a star-thistle. Coined from 
L. calci-^ stem of calx, the heel ; and the 
Teutonic word trap. Lit. *■ heel-trap'; see 
Trap. So also F. chaussetrappe, the same. 

Calnmetf a kind of pipe for tobacco. 
(F.— L. — Gk.) Norman F. calumet, a 
pipe ; parallel form to O. F. chalemel, F. 
chalumeau, a pipe. — L. calamus, a reed. — 
Gk. KhXayjoi, a reed. See Shawm. 

Calumny. (F.— L.) Y.ccUomnie,^!., 
calumnia, false accusation.— L. calm, 
caluere, to deceive. 

Calve ; see Calf. 

Calx. (L.) L. calx, stone, lime (stem 
calc') ; in Late L., a calx. 

Calyx. (L. - Gk.) L. cafyx. - Gk. 
Ka\v£, a covering, calyx (or cup) of a 
flower. Allied to Helm (2). 

Cam, a projection on a wheel. (Du.) 
Du. kamm, a comb (see Kilian) ; Low G. 
kcunm ; cf. Dan. kcun, comb, also a ridge 
on a wheel, cam, or cog. See Comb. 

Cambric. (Flanders.) Named from 
Kamerijk, also called Cambray, a town 
in Flanders, where it was first mside. 

Camel. (F.~L.-Gk.-Heb.) M.E. 
camel, cafnail, chamel. — O. North F. cam%l, 
O. F. chamel. — L. camelus. — Gk. ledfirfKos. 
^Heh.gdf/idl. CL Arab.Jcwtal, 




camelopard, ti giraffe. (L.-Heb. 
and Gk .) Formerly canulopardalis. — L. ca- 
meloparddlis. — Gk. mifn/Xoircip&zAcs, giraffe; 
partly like a camel, partly like a pard. — 
Gk. KdftrjKO'-Sy a camel (Heb. gatndl) ; and 
•niLfi^aXtSy a pard ; see Fard. 

Camellia. (Personal name.) A plant 
named (by Linnseus) after Geo. Jos. Kamel, 
a Moravian Jesuit (17th cent.), who de- 
scribed the plants in the island of Luzon. 

Camelopard ; see Camel. 

CameOi (Ital.) Ital. camnuo, a cameo, 
precious stone • carved in relief. Origin 

Camera. (L.^ L. camera, a chamber ; 
hence camera obsciira, a dark chamber, 
box for photography ; see Chamber. 

Camlet, a stuff. (F. — Arab.) Formerly 
camelot.'^M.Y. came/of, Cot.; supposed 
to be named from containing came/ s hair. 
Really from Arab, khamlat, khamalat^ 
camlet ; Rich. Diet. p. 628. 

Camomile ; see Chamomile. 

Camp. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. camp (Cot). 

— Ital. campo, a field, camp. — L. campum, 
ncc. of campus, a field, ground held by an 
army. Brugm. i. § 563. 

campaigU, orig. a large field. (F. - 
Ital.— L.) r. campaigner campagne, an 
open field. — Ital. campagna^ a field ; also 
a campaign. — L. campdnia, open field. — 
L. campuSy a field. (Also spelt champaign, 
and even champion in old authors.) 

campestral, growing in fields. (L.) 
From L. campcstr^is, growing in fields; 
with sufHx -al. — L. campus, a field. 
Campanula. (L.) Lit. 'a little bell ;' 
dimin. of L. campdna, a bell. Hence also 

Campnor. (F. — Arab. — Malay.) For- 
merly spelt camphire (.with an inserted t), 

— F". camphre, * camphire;' Cot. — Low 
L. camphora (whence the form camphor). 

— Arab, kdfiiry camphor ; cf. Skt. karpUra, 
camphor. — Malay kdptir^ lit. chalk ; kdpur 
BdriiSy chalk of Barous, a name for cam- 
phof. Barous is in Sumatra. 

Can (i)) I am able. (£.) A. S. can, 
cann, 1st and 3rd persons sing. pres. of 
cunnan, to know. The pres. t. can is 
really an old perf. t. ; the same peculiarity 
occurs in Du. kunnen, Icel. and Swed. 
kunna, Dan. kunde^ to know, to be able ; 
G. konneuy to know. p. The pt. t. is 
couldf with intrusive /; M. £. coude, A. S. 
crtHe ; cf. Goth, kuntha^ Du. kottde^ G. 
kmnte ; shewing that A. S. cu(ic (for 

^cuntie) has lost an n. y. The pp. cou/hj 
A. S. ctid, known, only survives in w«- 
couthf which see. Allied to Ken and 
Know. (^ GEN.) 

Can (2), a drinking-vessel. (E.) A. S. 
canftCy a can. -f- Du. kan ; Icel. kanna ; 
Swed. kanna ; Dan. ketnde ; G. kanne, a 
tankardi mug. (Apparently a true Teut. 

Canal. (F.— L.) F. ra#f<z/ (whence also 
Du. kanaal). — L. candlis, a channel, trench. 

Canary^ a bird, a wine, a dance. 
(Canary Islands.) All named from the 
Canary Islands. 

Cancel. (F. — L. ) F. canceller, - Law 
L. cancelldre, to cancel a deed by drawing 
lines across it. — L. cancellus, & grsitingf pi. 
cance/lif lattice-work, crossed lines; dimin. 
of pi. cancrt, lattice- work. 

Cancer. (L.) L. cancer, a crab ; also 
an * eating' tumour. Cf- Gk. napHivos, Skt. 
karkata, a crab; cf. Skt. karkara, hard. 
Named from its hard shell. Brugm. i. § 464. 

Candelabmm. (L.) L. candelabrum, 
a candle-holder ; from candela, a candle. 

Candid. (F.-L.) F. r^wflTfoV, white, 
fair, sincere. — L. candidus, white, shining. 

— L. candere, to shine. — L. *cand^re, to 
set on fire (in comp. in'Cendere).'^^\ii. 
chand{iox fchand) , to shine. ( ^SQEND.) 
Brugm. i. §§ 456, 818 (a). 

candidate. (L.) L. candiddtus, 
white- robed ; because candidates for office 
wore white. — L. candidus, white. 

candle. (L.) A. S. candel. — L. can- 
delay a candle. — L. candere, to glow. 

candour. (F.-L.) Y , candeur,--!.. 
ace. candorem, brightness (hence, sincerity) . 

Candy, crystallised sugar. (F. — Ital.— 
Skt.) F. Sucre candi, sugar-candy; whence 
F'. se candir, 'to candle;* Cot — Ital. 
candire, to candy ; candi, candy ; zucchero 
candi, sugar-candy. — Arab, qand, sugar; 
whence Arab, qandi, made of sugar. 
The word is Aryan ; cf. Skt. khdi^^ava^ 
sweetmeats, khan^a, a broken piece, from 
khan^y to break. Der. sugar-candyy Ital. 
ztuchero candi, 

Candytnfb, a plant. (Hyb.) From 
Candy, i. e. Candia (Crete) ; and tuft. 

Cane. (F.— L. — Gk.) M. E. cane, 
canne. — F. canne. — L. canfui, — Gk. icAvvay 
a reed. Cf. Heb. qdnehy reed; Arab. 
qandh, cane. 

canister. (L. — Gk.) L. canistmm, 
a light basket. — Gk. ^dficurrpoi^, the same. 

— Gk. Kw\\ — KQway a reed. 





cannon. ( F. ~ Ital. — L. — Gk.) F. 

canon. ^Ital. cannone^ a cannon, orig. a 
great tube, a gnn-barrel. — L. canna, a reed ; 
see Oane. % The Span, ca^on, a tube, a 
deep gorge, is cognate. 

canon (0> & "ile. (L.— Gk.) A. S. 
coMon. -• L. canon, a rule. — Gk. xav^f a rod, 
rule, i- Gk. ic6vij » ndvvay a (straight) cane. 
canon (3), a dignitary of the church. 
(F.— L. — Gk.) M.E. canuny canoun.*^ 
O. F. canogne, now cAanoine.^LAt. canoni- 
cum, ace. of canonicus, adj., one on the 
church-roll or list.*-L. canon, the church- 
roll ; also, a rule. See canon (i). 
Canine. (L-) L- canmus, belonging 
to a dog. — L. cants, a dog ; see Hound. 
Canister; see Cane. 
Canker. (F. — L.) North F. cancre. 
(F. chancre).^\a. cancrum, ace. oi cancer, 
a crab, a canker. See Cancer. ^The G. 
kanker may be Teutonic (Kluge) ; so 
perhaps £. canker in the sense of ' disease 
of trees'; cf. Gk. yoyypos, an excrescence 
on trees. 

Cannel-coal. (L. and £.) Lit. a 
' candle-coal,' because it bums brightly. 
Prov. £. cannel, a candle. See Candle. 
Cannibal. (Span. — W. Indian.) For- 
merly canibaL — Span, canibal; for Caribal, 
a Carib, native of the Caribbean Islands. 
The W. Indian (Hayti) word carib means 
* brave.' Hence also Caliban* 
Cannon (i) ; see Cane. 
Cannon (2), at billiards. (F. — Span.) 
A corruption of carrom, shortened form of 
F. caramboler, v., to make a caimon at 
billiards, to touch two other balls with 
one's own ; see Hoyle's Games. Orig. 
sense, to touch the red ball ; whence 
caramboler, to cannon (as above) and 
carambolage, sb., a cannon. — Span, caram- 
bola, a manner of playing at billiards, a 
device, trick, cheat. Origin unknown. 
Canoe. (Span. — W.Ind.) ^'^Xi,canoa\ 
orig. a Haytian word for ' boat. 
Canon (i) and (2) ; see Cane. 
Canopy. (F.- Ital.- L.-Gk.) Should 
be conopy, but we find F. canopi, borrowed 
from Ital. canopi. (Also F. conopie^ — L. 
condpeum, Judith xiii. 9. — Gk. Kwonrtiov, 
an Egyptian bed with mosquito curtains 
(hence, any sort of hangings) . — Gk. Komwr- , 
stem of idn^osfff, a mosquito, gnat; lit. 
' cone-faced ' or * cone-headed,' from the 
shape of its head. • Gk. Kofvo-s, a cone ; 
and &{f/, face, appearance, from Gk. base 
on, to see (see Optics). 

CanoronSy tuneful. (L.) L. canor-us ; 
with suffix -ous. — L. canere, to sing. Brugm. 
i. § 181. 

cant (i)) to sing in a whining way, 
whine. (L.) L. cantdre (whence Picard 
and Walloon canter, to sing) ; frequent, 
of canere, to sing. Cant was at first a 
beggar's whine ; hence, hypocrisy ; see 

canticle. (L.) L. canticulum, a little 
song ; dimin. of canticum, a song ; dimin. 
of cantus, a song; cf. cantus, pp. of 
canere, to sing. 

canto. (Ital.— L.) Ital. ra»/^, a sing- 
ing, section of a poem. — L. ace. cantum, 
a singing, song (above). 

canzonet. (Ital.— L.) Ital. canzo- 

netta, dimin. of canzone, a hymn, song. .- 

L. cantionem, ace. of cantio, a song.— L. 

cantus, pp. of canere, to sing. 

Cant (2), an edge ; as verb, to tilt. (Du. 

— L.) Du. kant, an edge, comer. +Dan. 
and Swed. kant, edge ; G. kante, a comer. 
p. All from Late L. cantus, a comer ; which 
is prob. from L. canthus^GV, tcdvBos, the 
comer of the eye, felloe of a wheel. 

Canteen. (F.-Ital.) F. cantine,^ 
Ital. cantina, a cellar, cool cave (hence 
the sense of vessel for liquids). Origin 
doubtful. Perhaps from Late L. cantus, a 

Canter 9 an easy gallop. (Proper name.) 
Short for Canterbury gallop, the pace at 
which pilgrims rode thither. 

Canticle, Canto; see Cant (i). 

Cantle, a small piece. (F. - L. ?) O.F. 
cantel, a small piece (F. chanteau), dimin. 
of Picard cant (F. chant), a corner ; Late 
L. cantus. Prob. from L. canthus, comer 
of the eye ; see Cant (2). 

Canton, aregion. (F.— Ital.) Y. canton, 

— Ital. cantone, a nook, angle; also, a 
corporation, township (Torriano) ; Late L. 
cantonum, canto, a region, province. 
Origin doubtful. % Canton (in heraldry), 
a comer of a shield, is from F. canton, 
a comer, Ital. cantone, from Ital. canto, an 
edge ; see Cant (2). 

Canvas. (F. — L. — Gk.) "M.E, canevas. 
North F. canezfos.mmljaic L. canabdcius, 
hempen cloth. — L. cannabis, hemp. — Gk. 
K&vvafits, hemp. Cf. Skt. fcaui, hemp; 
see Hemp. 

canvass. (F.-L.-Gk.) Orig. to 
toss in a canvas sheet, to criticize or 
discuss thoroughly. From canvas, sb. 

Canionet; see Cant (I). 



Caoutchouc. (F.-Carib.) ¥, caout- 
chouc; orig. a Caribbean word, cahuchu. 

Cap, a head-covering. (Late L.) A. S. 
cceppe.^haXt L. cappa^ a cap (Isidore). 

Capable. (F. — L.) F. capable. — Late 
L. capdbilisy comprehensible; afterwards, 
able to hold. — L. caperCy to hold (below), 
capaciouSf able to contain. (L.) 
Coined from L. capdci-, stem of capax^ 
able to hold. — L. capere^ to hold, contain ; 
see Heave. Brugm. i. § 635. -(-^QAP.) 

Caparison, trappings of a horse. (F. 

— Span. — Late L.) O.F. caparasson.^ 
Span. caparazoUj cover for a saddle ; aug- 
mentative from Med. L. caparo, a cowl; 
from Span, capa, a cloak, cover. — Late L. 
cdpa, a cape ; as below. 

Cape (i)> a covering for the shoulders. 
(F. -Late L.) O. North F. cape. - Late L. 
cdpOj a cape (Isidore of Seville); whence 
also Prov., Span., Port, capa^ Icel. kdpa, 
&c. Allied to cap. Doublet, cope. 

Cape (2), a headland. (F. — Ital. -L.) 
F. ra/. — Ital. eapOt head, headland. — L. 
caput, head. 

Caper (i)) to dance abont. (Ital.— L.) 
Abbreviated from capreole (Sir P. Sidney). 

— Ital. capriolare, to skip as a goat. —Ital. 
capriola, 'a caper in dancing,' Florio; 
also, a kid ; dimin. of capra, a she-goat. 

— L. capra, a she- goat ; cf. cdper, he-goat. 
^Gk. Kiwpos, a goat; A.S. Aa/er, Icel. 

Caper (3)) the flower-bud of a certain 
plant. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. F. capre (F. 
cdpre), — L. capparis. — Gk. in&irva/Ns, caper- 
plant ; its fruit ; cf. Pers. kabar, capers. 

Capercailsie. (Gael.) Here z repre- 
sents M. £. )y pron. as >'. — Gael, capull- 
coille, great cock of the wood ; lit. horse 
of the wood. — Gael, capull, a horse (see 
Cavalier) ; coille, gen. of coill, a wood, 
c^;nate with £. Holt. 

Capillary, like hair. TL.) L. capil- 
Idris, adj. ; nrom capiUus^ hair. Perhaps 
allied to cap-ut, the head. 

Capital ( I ), chief. (F.-L.) Y. capital, 

— L. capitdlis^ belonging to the head. — L. 
capit'y stem oi caput, the head.4>Skt. kapd- 
la{m), skull ; A. S. hafela^ head. Brugm. 
i. h 64T. 

capital (2), stock of money. (F. - 
L.) F. capital. "IjbXg L. capitdle, wealth; 
neut. oicapitdlis, chief; see Capital (i). 
^ capital (3), ^ead of a pillar. (L. ; or 
F.— L.) L. capitellutUy heiad of a pillar ; 
dimin, from L. caputs head. Or from O. 


North F. capitel (F. chapiieau) ; from L. 
capitellum (above). 

capitation, poll-tax. (F.-L.) F. 

capitation. 'mljaX^ L. ace. capitdtiofum , 
poll-tax. — L. capit; stem of caput, poll, 

capitol. (L.) The temple of Jupiter, 
at Rome, called Capitdlium.^'L, capit-, 
stem of caput, a head ; but the reason for 
the name is obscure; see Smith, Class. 

capitular, relating to a chapter. (L.) 
Med. L. capittUdris^ adj. of capitulum^ 
a chapter of a cathedral, or a chapter of 
a book ; see Chapter. 

capitulate. (L.) IjaXt'L.capituldtuSt 
pp. of capituldre, to divide into chapters, 
also to propose terms (for surrender).— 
Late L. capitulum, a chapter ; see Chapter. 
Der. re- capitulate. 

Capon. (L. — Gk.) A. S. capun.^Xu. 
ace. cdponetn, from nom. capo, — Gk. K&nosv, 
a capon. 

Caprice. (F.-Ital.-L.?) Y. caprice. 

— Ital. capriccio, a whim. Perhaps from 
Ital. capro, a he-goat; so that capriccio 
might mean a frisk like a goat*s; see 
Caper (i). 

Capricorn. (L.) L. capricotnus, 
homed like a goat. — L. capri-^ for capro-, 
stem of caper, goat ; and corn-u, horn. 

capriole, a peculiar frisk of a horse. 
(F. - Ital. - L.) F. capriole (see Cot.). - 
Ital. capriola, the leap of a kid; see 
Caper ^i). 

Capsue, to upset. (Span.?— L.) Per- 
haps from Span, capuzar, to sink (a ship) 
by the head ; apparently a derivative of L. 
caput, the head. (A guess.) 

Capstan. (F.— Span.— L.?) F. cc^e- 
stan; Prov. cabestan. '^Spsai. cabestrctnte, 
cabrestattte, a capstan. Of these forms, 
cabestrante is the better, and is allied to 
Span, cabestrage^ a halter, or a haltering, 
and to cabestrar, to halter. — L. capistrant-, 
stem of pres. pt. of capistrdre, to haljer. 

— L. capistrum (Span, cabestrd), a halter. 

— L. cap-ere, to hold; with double suffix 

CapsulCf seed-vessel. (F. — L.) F. 
capsule, a small case. — L. capsula, dimin. 
oi capsa^ a case ; see Case (2). 

Captain. (F.-L.) U.K. capitain.^ 
O. F. capitain. ^L&te L. capitdneus, capit- 
dttus, a leader of soldiers. — L. capit-, stem 
of caput, head. 

Captious. (F. - L.) F. captieux, cavil- 




ling.^L. capiidsiis.'^l^, captiOf a taking, 
a sophistical argument. i-L. captus, pp. of 
capertt to hold. See Oapaoious. 

captive. (F.-L.) F. captif (fcm. 
captive), ^"L. captiuus, a captive. — L. 
captus, pp. of capere, to take.+W. caeth, 
a captive; O. Irish cacht^ a female captive. 
captor. (L.) L. captor y a taker. — L. 
cap'^ as in capere, to take; with suffix -tor, 
capture. (F.-L.) F. capture, '^'L, 
captura, a taking. — L. cap-., as in capere, to 
take ; with fern, suffix -tura, 

CapnohiXLy hooded friar, hood. (F. - 
Ital. — Late L.) M. F. capuchin ; F. 
capucin, ^ItaX, cappucino, a small hood, 
hence a hooded fnar ; dimin. of cappuccio, 
a cowl. — Ital. cappa, a cape ; see Cap and 
Cape (i). 

Car. (F.-C.) M.E.ftf^^.-0. North F. 
carre, a car (Ducange, s. v. Marcelluni), 
— Late L. carra, f. ; allied to L. carrus, 
a car; of Gaulish origin. — Bret, karr, 
a chariot; W. car, O. Gael, car, Irish 
carr. Allied to L. currus, a chariot ; 
Brugm. i. % 516. 

Caracole. (F.— Span.) F. caracol, 
carcuolcy a snail ; yAitnctfaire le caracole, 
applied to a manoeuvre by soldiers, and to 
turns made by a horse. — Span, caracol^ 
a snail, winding staircase, turning about 
(from the snail-shell's spiral form). Per- 
haps of Celtic origin ; cf. Gael, carach, 
circling, winding ; car, a turn, twist. 

Carafe, a glass water-bottle. (F. — 
Span. T- Arab.) F. carafe, — Span, garrafa, 
a cooler, vessel to cool wines in.— Arab. 
ghirdf, draughts of water; Arab, root 
gharafa, to draw water. (Dozy, Devic.) 
% Or from Pers. qardbah, a large flagon ; 
but see Carboy. 

Carat. (F. - Ital.- Arab. -Gk.) F. 
carat, a very light weight. — ItaL carato.^ 
Arab, qirrdt, a pod, husk, carat, 24th 
part of an ounce. — Gk. /c€fl&Tiov, fruit of 
the locust-tree ; also, a carat ; lit. * a small 
horn.* — Gk. Htpar-, stem of Kipai, a horn ; 
see Horn. 

Caravan. (F.-Pers.) Y.caravane.^ 
Pers. kdrwdn, a caravan, convoy. 

caravansary. (Pers.) Pers. kdr- 
wdnsardy, an inn for caravans. — Pers. 
kdrwdn, caravan ; sardy, public building, 

Caraway, Carraway. (Span.- 

Arab.) Span, al-carahueya, a caraway; 
where al is merely the Arab. def. art. ; 
also written <:am. — Arab, karwiyd-a, 

karawtyd'a, caraway-seeds or plant. Cf. 
Gk. icdposy K&pov, cumin. 

Carbine. (F. — Gk.) Formerly cara- 
bine, a musket, the weapon of a caradin, 
or musketeer. — F. caradin, * an arque- 
buzier ; * Cot. Perhaps from O. F. calabrin, 
a light-armed soldier ; of uncertain origin. 

Carbon. (F.— L.) F. carbone.^h. 
ace. carbonem, a coal. 

carbonado, broiled meat. (Span.— 
L.) Span, carbonada, meat broiled over 
coals.— Span, carbon, coal; see above. 

carbnnde. L. carbunculus, (1) a 
small coal, (a) a carbuncle, gem, from its 
glowing, (3) a red tumour. Double 
diinin. of L. carbo, coal. 

Carboy, a large glass bottle^ protected 
by wicker-work. ^Pers.) Pers. qardbah ^ 
a large flagon ; wnich is prob. of Arab, 
origin. Cf. Arab, qirbah, a water-skin, 

Carcanet. (F. — Teut.) Dimin. of F. 
car can, a collar of jewels, or of gold,— 
O. H. G. querca, the throat; cf Icel. 
kverkr, pi. the throat ; lAiYi, gerkle, throat, 
gerti, to drink. Brugm. i. § 653. 

Carcase, Carcass. (F.- Ital.) From 

M. F. carquasse, a dead body. — Ital. 
carcassa, a kind of bomb-shell,' a shell; 
also, a skeleton, frame ; cf. Port, carcassa, 
a carcase, a very old woman. Of unknown 

Card (1), piece of pasteboard. (F.— 
Ital. — Gk.) Corruption of F. carte, *a 
card,' Cot — Ital. carta; L. charta,^Gk. 
X^Vi X^P'f'Vi a leaf of papyrus. Der. 
cardboard. Doublet, chart. 

Card (2), an instrument for combing 
wool. (F.— L.) F.carde.^Med.h,cardus, 
L. carduus, a. thistle ; for wool-combing. 

Cardinal. (L.) L. cardindlis, prin- 
cipal, chief ; orig. relating to the hinge of 
a door. — L. cardin-, stem of cardo, a 

Cardoon, a plant. (F.— Prov.-L.) 
F. cardon, Cot, — Prov. cardon\ with aug- 
ment, suffix from Med. L. card-usy a 
thistle. See Card (2). 

Care. (F.) M. £. care. A. S. caru, 
cearu, anxiety. 4- O. Sax. kara, sorrow ; 
O. H. G. chara, a lament ; Goth, kara ; 
Teut. type ^kard, f. Hence, care, vb. ; A. S. 
carian. % Not allied to L. ciira. 

Careen. (F.— L.) Lit. 'to clean the 
keel ; * hence to lay a ship on its side. — F. 
carine, carhte, keel. — L. carina^ keel. 

Career. (F.-C.) F. carriire, a race- 




course. * Late L. car r aria ttta), a road 
for cars. — Late L. carra, L. carrus, a car ; 
of Celtic origin ; see Car. 
Caress. (F.— Ttal. — L.) F. caresse, 
a fondling. — Ital. carezza, a caress, fondling. 

— Late L. caritia^ dearness.«L. cdrus, 
dear. Bnigm. i. § 637. 

Caorfax. (F.—L.) M. £. carfoukes^ 
a place where four roads meet. — O. F. pi. 
carrefourgSt the same: from sing, carre- 
fourg. — Late L. quadrifurcus, four-forked. 

— L. quadri" (from quatuor\ four; and 
furca^ a fork. See Pork. 

Car^fO. (Span. — C.) Span.ra^^freight, 
load; c£ cargar^ to load.— Late L. carri^ 
care, to load a car ; see Charge. 

caricature. (Ital.-C.) Ital. cart- 
caturay a satirical picture; so called because 
exaggerated or 'overloaded.* —Ital. cari' 
cart, to load, burden. — Late L. carricdre, 
to load a car; see Charge. 

Caries. (LO L. caries, rottenness. 

Carkf buiden, anxiety. (F.—C.) A. F. 
karke. North. F. form of F. charge, i. e. 
load ; see Charge. Cf. M. £. karke, a 
load ; as in ' a karke of pepper* 

Carkanet j see Caroanet. 

CarminatlTey expelling wind from 
the body. (F.—L.) Y,carminatif,^waA' 
voiding;' Cot— L. carmindt-us, pp. of 
carmindre, to card wool (hence, in old 
medicine, to cleanse from gross humours) ; 
with suffix 'tuus, — L. carmin-, from car- 
men, a card for wool. — L. cdrere, to 

Carmine. (Span. — Arab. — Skt.) Span. 
carmin, short form ofcarmesin, adj. ; from 
carfftesi, crimson, — Arab, qirmizt, crimson ; 
from ^fin7/i;;,cochineal. — Skt. krmi, a worm, 
the cochineal insect. 

Camatfe; see below. 

CamaL (L.) L. camdHs, fleshly.— 
L. cam-, stem of caro, flesh. Brugm. i. 

5 5^5. 

carnage. (F.-L.) F, carnage, fiesh- 
time, slaugnter of animals.— Late L. car- 
tid/icum, a tribute of flesh-meat ; cf. 
camdtum, time for eating flesh. — L. cam-, 
stem of caro, flesh. 

carnation. (F.-L.) F. carnation, 
flesh colour (Littre). — L. ace. carndtionem, 
fleshiness. — L. cam-, stem of caro, flesh. 

camiyaL (F.-Ital.-L.) V.cama- 
7tal, Shrovetide. — Ital. camevale, camovale, 
the last three days before Lent — Med. L. 
camelevdle,carftefevdmen,ttmo\9\ of flesh. 
Shrovetide. — L carne-m, Viccoi caro, flesh ; 

and leudre, to lift, remove, take away, 
from leuis^ light. 

CanUTOrons. (L.) L. camiuorus, 
flesh-tating. — L.frtr««-,decl. stem o^caro, 
flesh ; and uor-dre, to devour. 
Carob-tree, the locust-tree. (F. — 
Arab.) M. F. carohe, caroube, — Arab. 
kharriib, bean-pods. 

Caroche, Carroche, a kind of coach. 

(F. -Ital.-C.) Nearly obsolete; but 
the present sense of carriage is due to it. — 

F. carroche, variant of carrosse, * a carosse 
or caroach ; ' Cot. — Ital. carroccia, car- 
rozza, a chariot. Extended from Ital. 
carro, a car. See Car. 

Carol, a song. (F.-L.-Gk.?) For- 
merly, a kinS of dance.— O.F. carole, 
a (singing) dance. Godefroy (s. v. carole) 
cites Swiss Rom. cor aula, a round -dance, 
also a dance-song. Prob. from I/. 
choraules, a flute-player to a chorus. — Gk. 
Xopavkrji, the same. — Gk. x^P'^^t & chorus, 
round-dance ; and avK6s, a flute. 

Carotid, adj. (Gk.) Gk. tcaporrihts, s. pi. , 
the two great arteries of the neck ; it was 
thought that an alteration in the flow of 
blood through them caused stupor.— 
Gk. Kap6cj, I stupefy ; xApos, stupor. 

Carousal, (i) a drinking-bout; (2), a 
pageant (i. F.-G. ; a. F.-Ital) 1. 
Sometimes used as'if from the verb carouse 
below. 2. But, in old authors, cdrous/i 
(also carousal) means a sort of pageant, 
of which some kind of chariot- race formed 
a principal part; Dryden, Virgil, JEn, v.. 
777, — F. carrousel, a tilting-match. — Ital. 
carosello, also spelt garosello, a tourna- 
ment ; of uncertain origin. 

Carouse. TF. — G.) F. carous, ^a ca- 
rousse of drinke,' Cot. — G. garaus, right 
out ; used of emptying a bumper. — G. gar, 
quite ; and aus, out. (Raleigh even writes 
garouse; directly from G, garaus,) Der. 
carous-al, but only in one sense of that 
word ; see above. 

Carp (i), a fish. (F.) M. E. carpe, 
XV cent -O. F. carpe (Span. Port, carpa, 
Ital. carpa, Florio) ; also Du. karper-, 
Icel. karfi\ Dan. karpe\ Swed. karp', 

G. karpfen; O.H.G. charpho\ Russ. 
karf ; Lith. karpa. 

Carp (2), to cavil at. (Scand.) M. £. 
car pen, which often merely means to talk, 
say. — Icel. karpa, to boast; Swed. dial. 
karpa, to boast, talk much. % The pre- 
sent sinister sense is due to confusion with 
L. carpere, to pluck. 



Carpenter. (F.-C.) K,¥.carpettier\ 
O. North F. carpentier (^ , charpentier),'^ 
Late L. carpentdrius ^ sb. ; carpentdrCi to 
work in timber. « L. carpentum^ a carriage ; 
a word of Celtic origin. — O. Irish carpaty 
Gael, and Irish carbad^ W. cerbyd^ a car- 
riage, chariot, litter. 

Carpet. (F. — L.) 0,F. carpi/e.-^tAte 
L. carpi fa, carpeta, a kind of thick cloth ; 
also carpia (F. charpU), lint. — L. car- 
pere, to pluck, pull to pieces (lint being 
made of rags pulled to pieces, and carpet, 
probably, from shreds). 

Carrack. (F.) O. F. carraque^ a ship 
of burden ; Late Lat. carraca, the same. 
Of unknown origin. 

Carriage. (F.-C.) M.E. cartage, that 
which is carried about (as in Bible, A. V.). 

— O. F. cartage ; from carter, to cany ; see 
Carry. % Its modem use is due to con- 
fusion with caroch, a vehicle (Massinger, 
Renegado, i. 2); see Caroohe. 

Carrion. ( F. - L.) M.E. caroigne, a 
carcase. — O. North F. caroigne \ Late L. 
caronia, a carcase. — L. caro, flesh. 

Carronade, a sort of cannon. (Scot- 
land.) So named because made at Carron, 
in Stirlingshire. 

Carrot. (F.— L.— Gk.) F. carote, ca- 
rotte. — L. carota, — Gk. icapuT6v, a carrot. 

Carry. (F. — C.) O. F. carter. — Late 
L. carrudre. — L. carrus, a car ; see Car. 

Cart. (E.) A.S. crat, crat\ cf. Du. 
krai. Or from Icel. kartr^ a cart ; whence, 
probably, Picard carti^ a cart. 

Carte, a bill of fare. (F.-Gk.) Chiefly 
in the F. phr. carte blanche, lit. white 
paper. — Late L. carta; see Card (i). 

CarteL (F.-Ital.-Gk.) F. cartel^ 
Ital. cartello, lit a small paper ; dimin. of 
carta, paper, bill ; see Card (i). 

Cartilage. (F.-L) F. cartilage, 
gristle. — L. cartildginem, ace. oicartildgo. 
Der. cartilagin-ous. 

Cartoon. (F. -Ital. -Gk.) F. carton, - 
Ital. cartone, lit. a large paper ; from carta, 
a card ; see Card (i). 

cartonclie, cartridge. (F. - Ital. 

— Gk.) Cartridge (with intrusive r) is for 
cartidge, corrupt form of cartouche, ^Y, 
cartouche, a roll of paper.— Ital. cartoccio, 
a roll of paper, cartridge. — Ital. carta, 
paper; LsitQh. carta; see Card (i). ^The 
cartridge took its name from the paper in 
which it was rolled up. 

cartulary, a register. (LateL.-Gk.) 
Late L. cartuldriumf chartuldrium, a 

register. — Late L. chartula^ a document ; 
dimin. oicharta, a paper; see Card (i). 

Carve. (E.) M. £. keruen. A.S. ceorfan ; 
pt. t. cearf, pi. curfon^ pp. corfen. [The 
A. S. ceorfan would have given *charve ; 
c was retained from the pt. pi. and pp.] 
+ Du. kerven ; G. kerben, to notch, cut ; 
also Dan, karve, Swed. karfva, to notch, 
from the 2nd stem. Gk. ypiupfiv. Brugm. 
i. § 791. 

Cascade. ( F. — Ital. — L. ) F. cascade. — 
Ital. ccuccUa, a waterfall ; orig. fern. pp. of 
cascare, to fall. For *casicare, — L. cdsdre, 
to totter. — L. cdsum, sup. oicadere, to fall. 

Case (i)) an event. (F.— L.) M.E. 
ccu,^Y, cas.^h. ace. cdsum, a fall, a 
case.— L. cdsus, pp. oicadere, to fall. 

Case (2), a receptacle. (F. — L.) O. F. 
casse. — L. capsa, a box, cover. — L. capere, 
to hold. 

Casemate. (F. — Ital.) Y. casemate, 
a loop-hole in a fortified wall. — Ital. ccua- 
tnatta, a chamber built under a wall or 
bulwark, to hinder those who enter the 
ditch to scale the wall of a fort. It seems 
to mean 'dark chamber.' — Ital. and L. 
casa, house, cottage, room; and Ital.m^/'/a, 
fem. of matto, orig. mad, but the Sicilian 
mcUtu means ' dim.* 

Casement, frame of a window. (F.— 
L.) Coined with the sense of encasement, 
that which encases or encloses. From 
case, verb ; with suffix -nient. 

Cash, coin. (F. — L.) Orig. a till or box 
to keep money in. — F. casse^ a case ; see 
Case (2) above. Der. cash-ier, sb., one 
who keeps a money-box or cash. 

Cashew-nut, the nut of a W. and £. 
Indian tree. (F.— Brazilian?) Cashew h 
a corruption of F. acajou, which is said to 
be from the native Brazilian name acajaba 
or acajaiba, (Mahn, Littr^.) 

Cashier, to dismiss from service. 
(Du. — F. — L.) Du. casseren, to cashier ; 
merely borrowed from F. casser, * to 
breake, burst, . . also to casseere, dis- 
charge;* Cot. [Du. words, borrowed 
from F., end in -«'^».] — L. quassdre, to 
shatter, frequent, of quatere, to shidce; 
which annexed the senses of L. cassdre, to 
annul, discharge, from L. cassus, void, null. 

Cashmere, a soft wool. (India.) So 
called from the vale of Cashmere, in India. 
Also spelt cassimere, kerseymere. 

CaSinOf a room for dancing. (Ital. — L.) 
Ital. casino, dimin. of casa, a cottage, 
house. — L. ccua, a cottage. 



Cask. (Span.—L.) Span. casco,9,B\iXkl\, 
sherd, coat of an onion ; also a cask of 
wine, a casque or helmet. The orig. sense 
is * hnsk ' ; cf* Span, cascara^ peel, rind, 
shell. Port, cascay rind. — Span, cascar^ to 
burst open ; formed (as if from Lat. *quaS' 
sicdre) from an extension of L. quassdre^ 
to break, barst ; see Quash. 

cas^uet a helmet. (F.— Span.—L.) 
F. fOfftf^.^Span. cascOf a helmet, head- 
piece ; see above. 

CaidEety a small box. (Span.— L.) Ap- 
parently confused with F. cassette^ * a small 
casket ; * Cot. Formally, it is a dimin. of 

Casque; see Cask. 

Cassava, a plant (Span. - Hayti.) 
Span, cazade; also cazavif * the bread made 
in the W. Indies of the fruit called the 
yuca;* Pineda. It properly means the 
plant, which is also called manioc ; said to 
be from the Hayti casabbi, with the same 
sense. See R. ^en's works, ed. Arber, 
p. 175. ^ See Tapioca. 

Cassia, a species. of laurel. (L. — Gk. — 
Heb.) L. casia^ cassia, » Gk. Kaola^ a spice 
like cinnamon. ^ Heb. qetstothy in Ps. xlv. 
8, a pi. form from qetsi *dh, cassia-bark. ^ 
Heb. root qdtsa*, to cut away ; because the 
bark is cut off. 

Cassimere ; see Cashmere. 

Cassock, a vestment. (F.— Ital.) F. 
casaque, « Ital. casacca^ an outer coat. Of 
uncertain origin. 

Cassowary, a bird. (Malay.) First 
brought from Java. Malay kasuwdri. 

Cast. (Scand.) Icel. kasla, to throw ; 
Swed. Jkasfa ; Dan. kasfe. Der. re-cast, 

CastaaetSy instruments used for 
making a snapping noise. (F.— Span.^ 
L.— Gk.) F. castagnettes, 'finger-knack- 
ers, wherewith players make a pretty 
noise in some dances;' Cot — Span, cas- 
iafietaSf castanets; pi. of castafUta^ a 
snapping noise resembling the cracking of 
roasted chestnuts. •- Span. castaHa, a chest- 
nut.— Lat. casianeay the chestnut-tree.— 
Gk. Koaravw ; see Chestnut. 

Caste, a breed, race. (Port.— L.) Port. 
ccutaj a race, orig. a * pure* breed ; a name 

? liven by the Port, to classes of men in 
ndia. — Port, ccutay fern, of ccuto^ pure. — 
L. castus, pure, chaste. 

oastii^te. (L.) h, castrgd/us, pp. of 

ccutigdre^ to chasten ; lit. *■ to keep pure.* — 
L. castus, chaste. Donblet, chastise. 
Castle. (L.) A. S. caste/, ^L, cos- 


teiium, dimin. of castrum^ a fortified 
place. Der. castell-an, O. North F. caste- 
lain, O. F. chastelain^ the Iceeper of a 
chastely or castle ; also chdielcune (fem. of 
F. chdtelain » O. F. r^of/^/aiVi), now applied 
to a lady*s chain or 'keeper' of keys, 

Castor. (L. — Gk.) L. castor.^QV. 
Koarcapy a beaver. But of Eastern origin ; 
cf. Malay kastUri, Skt. kastUrt, musk ; 
Pers. khaZf beaver. 

castoi^-oiL Named from some con- 
fusion with castcreum, * a medicine made 
of the liquor contained in the little bags 
that are next the beaver's groin ; ' Kersey. 
But it is really a v^etable production. 

Castrate. (L.) L. castratus, pp. of 
castrdre, to cut. 

CasnaL (F.— L.) V.casuel,^L.cdsU' 
dlis, happening by chance. — L. cdsu-, 
stem of cdsus, chance. See Case (1). 

Cat. (£.) A. S. cat.^ Du., Dan. hat, 
Icel. hottr, Sw. halt, G. kater, katze; L. 
cdtus, W. cath, Ir. Gael, cat, Russ. h0t\ 
hoshka, Arab, qitt, Turk, kedi, (Prob. 

Cata-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. /rar^, down, 

Cataclysm, deluge. (Gk.) Gk.«ara- 
KXvcfi&Sy a dashing over, flood. — Gk. KarA, 
down ; kX^hv, to dash, wash, as waves. 

Catacomb. (Ital. - L.) Ital. cata- 
comba, a sepulchral vault.- Late L. cata- 
cuntbas ; of which the sense and origin are 

Cata&lque« a stage or platform, 
chiefly used at funerals. (F. — Ital.) F. 
catafalque* ^\\»\, catafalco\ of unknown 
origin. See Soaifold. 

Catalepsy, a sudden seizure. (Gk.) 
Formerly catalepsis, — Gk. imti&Ai;^!?, a 
grasping, seizing. — Gk. Kar<i, down ; Aa^i- 
^6vuv, to seize. 

Catalogue. (F. - Gk.) F. ccUalogue, — 
Late Lat. ace. catalogum, — Gk. learSko^os, 
a counting up, enrolment. — Gk. iNird, fully ; 
Xi-^tiv, to say, tell ; see Logic. 

Catamaran, a sort of raft. (Tamil.) 
In Forbes, Hindustani Diet., ea. 1859, 
p. 289, we have *katmaran, a raft . . ; the 
word is orig. Tamil, and means tied logs,* — 
Tamil kaXKu, binding; Ptaram, wood 

Cataplasm, a poultice. (F.-L.- 
Gk.) F. catap/asf/te,^lj, cataplasma,^ 
Gk. KaravXafffia, a plaster, poultice. — Gk. 
«arairA.a(r<rciK, to spread over, — Gk. Kard^ 




fully ; and vXdaauVf to mould ; see 

Catapult. (Late L.~Gk.) Late L. 
catapulta, an engine for throwing stones. — 
Glc. KaTaitikrifi, the same, i- Gk. Kara, 
down ; vaWtiv^ to swing, hurl. 

Cataract. (L. — Gk!) L. cataracta, 
Gen. vii. ii.-iGk. Kara/ifidxTriSf as sb., a 
waterfall ; as adj., broken, rushing down. 
Prob. allied to Hara^fi^wfUf I break 
down ; the 2 aor. /caTf^fiayfjv was used 
of the rushing down of waterfalls and 
storms. — Gk. ^ora, down; firiywfu, I 

Catarrh. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) F. 
catarrhe, — Late L. ccUarrhus. — Gk. 
Karap^s, a flowing down (of rheum), 
a cold in the head. — Gk. ivard, down ; and 
^Uiv^ to flow. 

Catastrophe. (Gk.) Gk.«rara47rpo<^4, 
an overturning, sudden turn. — Gk. irar<i, 
down ; arpitptty, to turn. 

Catch. (F.— L.) O. Picard cachter, 
variant of O. F. chacier, to hunt, chase ; 
hence, to catch. It answers to Ital. cac' 
a'arey Late L. *captiare^ extended form of 
L. captdre, to catch. — L. captuSy pp. of 
capere, to seize. % We even find M. Du. 
kaetsefty to catch, borrowed from Picard 
cockier. The M. £. pt. t. caujie imitated 
laujtCy pt. t. of M. £. lacchen^ to catch. 
Doublet, chase (i). 

Catechise. (L.— Gk.) IjsXe l^. cate- 
chizare. — Gk. tcarrjxK^iyt to catechise, 
instruct ; lengthened form of Karrix^tiv, to 
din into ones ears, lit. 'to din down.'— 
Gk. «ar-<i, down; iiX^iVt ^^ sound; cf. 
^X^''} a nnging in the ears ; see Echo. 

Category, a class. (Gk.) Gk. ivari;- 
fopia, an accusation ; but in logic, a pre- 
dicament or class. — Gk. KartiyoptiVy to 
accuse. — Gk. icar-a, down, against ; *d7o- 
pHVy with the sense o{A,yoptv€iv, to declaim, 
address an assembly, from dyopd, an 

Catenary, belonging to a chain ; used 
of the curve in which a chain hangs. (L.) 
From L. catena, a chain ; see Cliain. 

Cater, to buy provisions. (F. — L.) 
Formed as a verb from M. £. catourt a 
buyer of provisions (whom we should now 
call a ccUer-er), Catour is short for 
acatour, formed from cuat^ a buying, pur- 
chase, Ch. prol. .571.— O. F. acat (mod. 
F. achat)y a buying. — Folk-L. acaptuniy a 
purchase ; for cucaptum, — Folk-L. cucap- 
tdre, to purchase (a. d. 1060), frequent, of 

cucipere, to receive, also to buy; see 
Accept and Gates. 

Cateran, a Highland robber. (Gael.) 
Low L. cateranuSf answering to Gael. 
cecUhaime, lit. * common people ; ' cf. 
ceathairne-choilley s. pi., freebooters, out- 
laws. From Irish cethertiy ceithern, a 
troop, band ; cf. L. caterua, a band of 
men. See Kern. 

Catercousin. (F.-L.) Nares (ed. 
1876) has : * Cater-cousins, friends so 
familiar that they eat together.* If so, 
the word is from cater, vb., and 

Caterpillar. (F.— L.) Adapted from 
O. F. chcUepelose, a caterpillar (Godefroy) ; 
the latter half of the word was assimilated 
to piller, one who pills , or robs or spoils. 
O. F. chatepelose is lit. * hairy she-cat.* — 
O. F. chate, fem. of chat, cat; pelose, 
hairy. — L. cdtus, cat ; pilosus, hairy, from 
pilus, a hair. 

Caterwaul. (E.) M. £. catenvawen', 
coined from ccU, and wawen, to make a 
wailing noise. 

Cates, provisions. (F. - L.) So called 
because provided by the catour, mod. E. 
cater-er ; see Cater. * Cater, a steward, a 
provider of r^/^j ; * Baret (1580). 

Cathartic, purging. (Gk.) Gk. ica$ap' 
ruc6s, purgative. — Gk. KoBaipttv, to cleanse, 
purge. — Gk. teciOapSs, pure. 

Catiiedral. (L. - Gk.) L. cat/ie- 

drdlis ecclesia=2L cathedral church, or one 
which has a bishop's throne. — Late L. 
cathedra, a throne. — Gk. icaBiZpa, a seat. 

— Gk. KoB', for KarA, down ; and t^pa, a 
^at, chair, from %ioi»m ( = kZ^yotwn), I sit ; 
see Sit. 

Catholic. (L. — Gk.) L. catholicHs 
(TertuUian.) — Gk. wa^oXi^os, universal. 

— Gk. KoAhK-w), adv., on the whole, in 
general. — Gk. koB-, for Karin, according 
to ; and 5Xov, gen. of oXos, whole. 

Catkin. (Du.) A loose spike of 
flowers, named from its soft downy ap- 
pearance.— M. Du. katteken, 'a kitling,* 
Hexham. (It also meant * catkin'; cf. 
F. chattons in Cot.) Dimin. of Du. kat, a 
cat (M. Du. kcUte). 

Catoptric, relating to optical reflec- 
tion. (Gk.) Gk. KaTovrpiKSs, reflexive. — 
Gk. Kdrom-pov, a mirror. — Gk. Kar-d, 
down, inward ; ow-rofMi, I see, with suffix 
'Tpov, of the instrument. 

Cattle. (F. — L.) M.E. catel, property ; 
hence, live stock, cattle. — O. North F. 



caiel. — Late L. capitdUi capital, property ; 
see Capital (2) and Chattels. 

GancuSy a name applied to certain 
political meetings. (American Indian?) 
Said to be from an Algonkin word mean- 
ing to speak, to comisel, whence kaw-kaw- 
jasUf a counsellor. 'Their elders, called 
cawcawwassaughe5\* Capt. Smith*s Works, 
ed. Arber, p. 547. * Caucorouse^ which is 
captaine;* id. p. 377. ^' This is more 
likely than the entirely misupported story 
about caulkers* meetings. 

Caudalf belonging to the tail. (L.) L: 
Cauda, the tail. 

Caildley a warm drink. (F. — L.) O. 
North F. caudel, O. F. chaudel, a sort of 
warm drink. i-O. F. chaud, chaid, hot.-i 
L. calduSf for calidus, hot. . 

Caul, a net, covering, esp. for the head. 
(F.) O. F. cole, 'a kind of little cap ; ' 
Cot. Origin unknown. 

Canlcbx^n ; see Caldron. 

CauliflLower. (F. - L.) Formerly 
colyjlory. From M. E. col (O. F. col), a 
cabbage; and flory, from O. F. Jloriy 
Jleurif pp. oi Jleurir, to flourish. The 
O. F. col is from L. ace. caulem, from 
caulis, a cabbage ; 2ixAfleurir is from I., 
yfor^r^ytoflourish. See Cole and Flourish. 

CauU:, Calk. (F. - L.) M. £. 

cauken, to tread ; hence, to squeeze in (as 
oakum into a ship's seams). — O. F. cau- 
quety to tread ; to tent a wound with lint. 

— L. calcdre, to tread, force down by 
pressure. — L. cak^t stem of calx, the heel. 

Cause. (F. — L.) F. cause, — L. causa, 
caussa, a cause. Der. cause, vb. 

Cail8ewa7f a paved way, raised way. 
(F.— L. ; a»tf E.) Formerly caus-ey -way; 
by adding way to M. E. caus^, causte, 
causey. ^O. North F. caucie (mod. F. 
chauss^e, Prov. causada, Span, calzada). « 
Late L. calcidta, for ccUcidta uia, a paved 
way. « Late L. calcidtus, pp. of calcidre, 
to make a roadway by treading it down ; 
from L. ccdcdre, to tread. — L. calc-, stem 
of calx, heel ; see Caulk. 

Caiutio. (L. — Gk.) L. causticus. — 
Gk. KavaTiK6i, burning. -» Gk. KawTr6^, 
burnt. "•Gk. icaitiv (fut. KavoM), to bum. 

cauterise. (F.-LateL.-Gk.) F. 
cauleriser.^LoLte L. cauterizdre, to sear. 

— Gk. KavTrjptd(tiv, to sear.»Gk. Jtavr^- 
piw, a branding-iron. — Gk. xaleiv, to 
bum (above). 

Caution. (F.-L.) Y. caution, ^.l^, 
ace. cautionem, heed. — L. cantus, pp. of 


cattere, to beware. Cf. Skt. kazn(s), wise. 
Bragm. i. § 635. Der. pre-cautum, 
Cavalier. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. cava- 
lier, a horseman. -• Ital. cavaliere, the 
same. — L. caballdrium, ace. of ccUnilldrius, 
the same. — L. caballus, a horse. See 

cavalcade. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. 

cavalcade. — Ital. cavcdcata, a troop of 
horsemen ; orig. fem. of pp. of cavalcare, 
to ride. — Ital. cavallo, a horse. — L. ca' 
ballum, ace. of caballus, a horse. 

cavalry. (F. - Ital. - L.) O. F. 

cavallerie. — Ital. cavalleria, cavalry. — 
Ital. cavaliere, a knight ; see Cavalier. 

Cave. (F.^L.) M. E. caue.^O. F. 
cave, a cave. — Folk-L. cava, a cave. — L. 
cauus,)io\\o\r, (^KEU.) "Det. caV'iiy\ 
cav-em (F. caveme, L. cauenta). 

Cave in. (M. Du.) Properly to 
calve in, a phrase introduced by Du. 
navvies. Cf. W. Flanders inkalven, to 
cave in ; E. Friesic kalfen, to calve as a 
cow, whence kalfen in, to cave in. The 
falling portion of earth is compared to a 
calf dropped by a cow. Confused with 
cave, a hollow. 

Caveat, a caution. (L.) L. caueat, 
lit. let him beware. — L. cauere, to beware. 

Caviare, roe of the sturgeon. (F.— 
Ital.) F. caviar. — Ital. caviaro ; whence 
also Turk, khdvydr, caviare. 

CaviL (F.-L.) O. F. caviller. ^\.. 
cauilldri, to banter; hence, to wrangle, 
object to. — L. cauilla, a jeering, cavil- 

Caw. (E.) An imitation of the cry of 
the crow or daw. Cf. Du. kaauw, Dan. 
kaa, a jackdaw : which are imitative. 

CagrnLan, an American alligator. (Ca- 
ribbean.) Also caiman. The spelling 
cayman is Spanish. — Caribbean acayuman 

Cease. (F' — L.) Y, cesser. ^\,.cessdre, 
to loiter, go slowly, cease ; frequent, of 
cedere (pp. cessus^_, to yield, go away, 


Cedar, a tree. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
cedre.^'L. cedrus.^GV. KtSpos, 

Cede. (L.) A late word (a. d. 1633). 
— L. cedere, to go, to come, to yield. 

Ceil, Ciel, to line the inner roof or 
walls of a room. (F. — L.) Hence the 
sb. ceil-ing or ciel-ing. M. E. ceelen, to 
ceil ; from the sb. syle or cyll, a canopy. — 
F. ciel, a canopy ; the same word as cid^ 
heaven. [Cf. Ital. cielo, heaven, a canopy, 




a cieIing.]-*L. calunij heaven. % Not to 
be confused with £. jj7/, nor with seal\ nor 
with seel (F. siller) ; nor with L. celdre^ 
to hide. The L. caldre, to emboss, seems 
to have had some influence on the word, 
but did not originate it ; cf. M. £. celure^ 
a canopy, Late L. caldtura. 

Celandine, a plant. (F.-Gk.) O. F. 

celidoine.''ljaXe L« celidinia. *- I., cheli- 
dania.^Gk, X€Xdd6viov, swallow-wort.— 
Gk. x^^^^-f stem of x*^^^9 a swallow. 
(The n is intrusive.) 

Celebrate. (L.) L. eelehratusy pp. 
of ceUbrdrey to frequent, to solemnise, 
honour.— L. celeher^ frequented, populous. 

Celeril^. (F.-L.) Y. ciUritL^l., 
ace. celeritdteniy speed.— L. celer, quick. 
Cf . Gk. KtKri^f a runner ; Brugm. i. § 633. 

Celery. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. <■//<?«, in- 
troduced from the Piedmontese Ital. sel- 
leri ; for Ital. selini^ pi. of selino, parsley. 

— L. selinoHf parsley. — Gk. aiXtvov, a kind 
of parsley. 

Celestial. (F.~L.) O.F. ceUstUl 

— L. calesti'S, heavenly. — L. calum, 

Celibate. (L.) The orig. sense was 
* a single life * ; it wa^ afterwards an adj., 
and again a sb., meaning 'one who is 
single. — L. calibdtuSt sb. celibacy, single 
life. — L. calib-y stem of Calebs^ single, un- 
married. Der. celibacy (for *caHbdtia), 

Cell. (L.) M. £. celle. - L. cella, 
small room, hut Cf. celare^ to hide. 
See Helm (2). (VKEL.) 

cellar. (F.-L.) U,¥,celer, A.F. 
celer\ O. F.celier.^h, celldriumj a cellar. 
— L. cella (above). 

Celt (i)) a name originally given to the 
Gauls. (C.) From L. pi. CeUat the 
Celts; the word probably meant 'war- 
riors*; cf. A.S. hild^ Icel. hildr^ war; 
Lith. kahii to strike ; L. per-cellercy to 
strike through, beat down (Rhys). 

Celt (2), a primitive chisel or axe. 
(Late L.) Late L. celHSf assumed nom. 
of the abl. celte (=with a chisel), in the 
Vulgate Version of Job xix. 24. But this 
reading is due to some error, and there 
seems to be no such word in Latin. 

Cement. (F.-L.) O. F. cimetU.^ 
L. camentuMy rubble, chippings of stone ; 
hence, cement. Perhaps for *cadmentumi 
from cadere, to cut (Brugm. i. § 587). 

Cemetery. (L.— Gk.) Late L. ^d?#»^- 

terium. — Gk. Koifirfrifpiw, a sleeping-place, 
cemetery. — Gk. /rot/i4w, I lull to sleep ; in 

pass., to fall asleep. Allied to icttfjuu, I 
lie down ; Skt. ft, to lie down. 
Cenobite. (L. — Gk.) L. ccsnobtta, 
a member of a (social) fraternity (Jerome). 

— L. ccenobiumy a convent. — Gk. tcoivofitoy, 
a convent. — Gk. Koiv6fiios, living socially. 

— Gk. Kotvd'Sf common ; jScos, life. 
Cenotaph. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 

cenotaphe, — L. cenolaphium,^Gk. Ktvo- 
rdtptoy, an empty tomb. — Gk. M€y6-s, 
empty ; rdt^os, a tomb. 
Censer. (F. — L.) M. E. censer, »^ 
O. F. censier, senser (Godefroy); short- 
ened from O. F. encenster,^lkx.<t L. in- 
censdriumy also incensorium (whence 
mod. F, encensoir). — L. incensumy in- 
cense; from pp. of incendere^ to kindle. 
See Incense. 
Censor. (L.) L. censor ^ a taxer, vainer, 
assessor, critic. — L. censere^ to give an 
opinion, appraise. 4-Skt. famSy to praise. 

censnre. (F. — L.) F. censure, — L. 
censHra^ orig. opinion. — L. censere 

census. (L.) L. census^ a register- 
ing. — L. censere (above). 
Cent, a hundred, as in per cent, (L.) 
In America, the hundredth part of a 
dollar. — L. centum, a hundred; see 

centenary. (L.) L. centendrius, 
relating to a hundred. — L. centenus, a 
hundred (usu. distributively). — L. centum. 

centennial. (L.) Coined to mean 
relating to a century. — L. cent-um, hun- 
dred ; ann-uSf a year. 

centesimal. (L.) L. centesim-us, 
hundredth. — L. cent-um, hundred. 

centigrade. (L.) Divided into a 
hundred degrees. — L. centi-, for centum, 
hundred ; grad-us, a degree ; see Grftde. 

centipedCfCentiped. (F.-L.) F. 

centipide. — L. centipeda, a many-footed 
(lit. hundred-footed) insect — L.r^f»/f-, for 
centum, hundred; and ped-, stem oi pes, 

centuple. (L.) L. centuplex (stem 
centupHc-), a hundredfold. — L. centu-m, 
hundred ; plic-dre, to fold. 

centurion. (L.) L. ace. centurid' 
nem, a captain of a hundred. — L. centuria 

century. (F. - L.) F. centurie. - 

L. centuria, a body of a hundred men ; 

number of one hundred. — L. centu-m, 


Centaur. (L. — Gk.) L. Centaums. 



— Qk. tcivravpos, a centaur, a creature half 
man and half horse; which some have com- 
pared with Skt. gandharvas, a demi-god. 

centaury, a plant. (L.— Gk.) L. 
r^if/aiimx. — Gk. Ktvravpuovy centaury; a 
plant named from the Centaur Chiron. 

Gentenaryy Centennial, Centu- 
ple, Centnnon, &c. ; see Cent. 
Centre, Center. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. 

centre. — L. centrum. — Gk. KivrpWy a 
spike, goad, prick, centre. - Gk. Kfvriw, 
I goad on. Cf. W. cetAr, a spike. 

centrifagal, flying from a centre. 
(L.) L. centri'y for centro-, stem of cen- 
trum ; and/ug'-ere, to fly. 

centripetal, tending towards a 
centre. (L.) L. centri- (above) ; pet-ere, 
to seek. 

Ceramic, relating to pottery. (Gk.) 
Gk.«c^Attiv-2s, adj. — Gk. icipayi-oi, potter's 
earth. Cf. nfpdvvvfu (ftit. Ktpaav), I mix. 

Cere, to coat with wax. (L.) L. 
cerdrey to wax.— L. cera^ wax.+Gk. Krip6Sf 

cereolotll. (L.on^E.) Lit. a waxed 

cerement. (L.) From cere-, with 
suffix -ment (L. -mentum), 

cerase, white lead. (F.-L.) O^F. 
ceruse. ^h, cerussoy white lead.-L. cera, 

Cereal, relating to com. (L.) L. 
cereSlis.^L,, ceres ^ com. 

Cereteal, relating to the braim (L.) 
From L. cerebr-um, the brain. Cf. Gk. 
irdpa, the head. Brugm. i. § 619. 

Ceredcth, Cerement ; see Oere. 
Ceremony. (F. - L.) M. E. cere- 

monie.'^F, c&^m^nie.'^'L, cartmanta, a 

ceremony, rite. 

Certain. (F. - L.) O. F. certetn, 
certain. '^L. cert-us, sure; with suffix 
'dnus. . Allied to L. cemere, to discrimi- 
nate ; Gk. KfivtiVy to separate, decide. 

Certi^. (F.-L.) M.E.certtfien." 
F. certifier. "'Uite L. certificdrcy to make 
saie.'^'L.certi-, for certo-y stem of certus 
(above) ; and -Jie-y for/ac-ere, to make. 

Cemlean, azure. (L.) L. carukusy 
carulus, blue; for *caluleus, *caluluSy from 
ca/um, sky. Brogm. i. § 483. 

Cernse, white-lead ; see Gere. 

Cervical, belonging to the neck. (L.) 
From L. cerutc-y stem of ceruixy neck. 

Cervine, relating to a hart. (L.) L. 
cerutn-us.^h. certMtSy a hart; see Hart. 

Ceee, Hmit, measure. (F. - L.) In 


I Hen. IV. ii. i. 8. Orig. a tax, rate, 
rating, assessment; see Spenser, State of 
Ireland, Globe ed., p. 643, col. a. For 
sess'y from sess, verb, to rate; which is 
short for Assess. 

Cessation. (F.-L.) ¥, cessation.'-^ 
L. ace. cessdtidftem, a ceasing. — L. cessd- 
tus, pp. of cessdre, to cease. — L. cessus 

cession. (F. - L.) F. cessum. - L. 
ace. cessidnem, a yielding.— L. cessusy pp. 
of cederCy to yield, to cede. 

Cess-pool. (Hybrid.) Most probably 
equiv. to {se)cess-pooi'y see N. E. D. Cf. 
Ital. cessoy a privy (Torriano) ; which is 
a shortened form of secesso, a retreat.— 
L. secessusy 'the draught;* Matt. xv. 17 

CetaceonS, of the whale kind. (L.— 
Gk.) L. cetus. - Gk. «Stos, a sea-monster. 


Chablis, a white wine. (F.) From 
ChabHsy 12 mi. E. of Auxene, in the de- 
partment of Yonne, France. 

Chafe, to warm by friction, vex. (F. — 
L.) M. E. chaufen, to warm. - O. F. 
chaufer (F. chauffer), to warm ; cf. Prov. 
calfary to warm. -Late L. *calefdrey to 
warm; for L. calefacere, to warm, make 
to glow.- L. cale-re, to glow ; facerCy to 

Chafer, Cockchafer. (E.) A.S. 

cefer (aXso cea/or)y a kind of beetle.+Du. 
J^ever ; G. kc^er. 

Chaff. (E.) A.S.cea/A^tcTcJta/yhvisk 
of grain. +Du. kaf; Low G. kaff. If The 
verb to chaff '^ to chafe, i. e. vex. So also 
chaff-waXy for chafe-wax. 

chaffinch, a bird. (E.) I.e. chaff- 
finch ; it frequents bam-dooi^. 

Chaffer. (E.) The verb is from the 
M. E. sb. chapjarcy also chaffarcy a bargain- 
ing. - A. S. ceapy a bargain, and farUy a 
journey, also business ; see Cheap and 

Chaffinch ; see Chaft 

Chatfrin. (F.) F. chagrin, melan- 
cholyT [Diez identifies it with F. chagrtn, 
shagreen ; but wrongly.] 

Chain. (F.-L.) O.Y.chatneyChaifne. 

— L. catenOy a chain. , 

Chair. (F.-L.-Gk.) U.E.chatrey 
chaere.^O. F. chaierey chaere.'^L. cathe- 
drUy a throne, raised seat, chair. -Gk. 
Kodkh^i a seat. - Gk. koB-, for «ot<5, down ; 




UpOf a seat, from ((ofiai (=: id-yofuu), 
I sit ; see Cathedral, Sit. 

diaise* a light carriage. (F. — L.— 
Gk.) F. chaise, a chair, also, a chaise ; a 
Parisian modification of F. chaire, a pulpit, 
orig. a seat. 

Clialcedoiiy, a kind of quartz. (L. — 
Gk.) L. chaUedonius, Rev. xxi. 19. — Gk. 
XaXtfi^Scui', Rev. xxi. 19. 

Chaldvon, a coal-measure. (F.— L.) 
O. F. chaldron, orig. a caldron ; see 

Chalicei a cup. (F.-L.) K,¥. chalice; 
O. F. calice, — L. calicem, ace. of calix, a 
cup. Allied to calyx, but not the same 

Chalk. (L.) M. £. chalk, ^A^S. ctalc 
(Southern). — L. calc; stem of calx, lime. 

Challenge. (F. — L.) ^,Y^ chalenge, 
calenge, often in the sense *a claim.' — 
A. F. chalenge, O. F. chalonge, calenge, a 
dispute, claim ; an accusation.— L. calum- 
nia, false accusation ; see Calumny. 

Chalybeate. (L. - Gk.) Used of 

water containing iron. Coined from L. 
chalylhs, steel. — Gk. x^^ (stem x^^^-)i 
steel ; named from the Chalybes, a people 
of Pontus, who made it. 
Chamber. ^F.-L.-Gk.) Y.cham 
bre; Prov. camora.^h. camera, camara, 
a vault, vaulted room, room. — Gk. Ka/jiapa, 
a vaulted place. 

ohamberlain. (F.-O.H.G.-L.- 

Gk.) F. chamberlain, O. F. chambrelenc, — 
O. H. G. chamerlinc, M. H. G. kamerlinc, 
one who has the care of rooms; formed 
with suffix -Uinc (the same as E. l-ing^, 
from L. camera (above). 
Chameleon. (L.-Gk.) h.chama- 
lean. — Gk. xa/iat-AcW, lit. a ground-lion, 
dwarf-lion ; a kind of lizard. — Gk. x<>M°^ 
on the ground (also dwarf, in comp.) ; and 
Xionr, lion. Cf. L. htimi^ on the ground. 
chamomile. (LateL.— Gk.) Late 

L. camomilla {chamomilla),^G\i. xaiiai- 
firjKov, lit. ground-apple, from the apple- 
like smell of the flower. — Gk. x«A*«*-> on 
the ground (see above) ; fi^Kov, apple. 

Chamois. (F. - G.) F. chamois ; 
borrowed from some Swiss dialectal form; 
cf. Piedmontese camossa.^M. H. G. gamz 
(for *gamuz), a chamois (G. gemse). 

Champ, to eat noisily. (E.) Formerly* 
cham or chamm ; of imitative origin, like 
jam, to crush. Cf. Swed. dial, kdmsa, to 
chew with difficulty. 

Champagne. (F. - L.) A wine 

named from Champagfte in France, which 
means * a plain ' ; see below. 

champaign, open country. (F.-L.) 
In Sh. F. champaigne, of which the Picard 
form was campaigne ; see Campaign. 

Champak, a tree. (Skt.) Skt. cham- 
paka, the champak. 

Champion. (F.-L.) O.Y,cham- 
pion.^'L, campidfiem, ace. of campio, a 
combatant (Isidore). — L. campus, a place 
for military exercise; a peculiar use of 
campus, a field. See Camp. 

Chance, hap. (F. — L.) M. E. cheaunce, 

— O. F. cheance, chaance. ^hAte L. caden- 
tia, a falling, a chance. — L. cadere, to fall, 
happen; see Cadence. 

Chancel. (F.-L.) So called because 
orig. fenced off by a latticed screen.— 
O. F. chancel, an enclosure fenced oflf with 
an open screen. — Late L. cancellus, a 
chancel, screen ; L. cancelli, pi., a grating ; 
see Cancel. 

chancellor. (F.-L.) O.V.chance- 
lier, — Late L. ace. cancelldrinm, a chan- 
cellor; orig. an officer who stood near the 
screen before the judgment-seat. — L. can- 
celll, a grating ; see Chancel, Cancel. 

chancery. (F. — L.) ¥or chamelfy. 
M. E. chancelerie, — O. F. chancelleries — 
Late L. cancelldria, the record-room of a 
cancelldrius ; see Chancellor. 

Chandelier. (F.-L.) 0,Y, chande- 
lier, a candle-holder. — Late L. cande- 
IdriuSj m. ; cf. candeldria, a candle-stick. 

— L. candela ; see Candle. 
chandler. (F. — L.) 0,¥.chaftdelier, 

a chandler. — Late L. candeldrius, a 
candle-seller. — L. candela\ sec Candle. 
Der. corn-chandler, where chandler merely 
means seller, dealer. 

Change, vb. (F.-L.) 0,¥. changer, 
changier.^ljSLte L. cambidre, to change 
(Lex Salica). — L. camhtre^ to exchange. 
Cf. Late L. r<z/;j^{W/, exchange; whence 
F. change, E. change, sb. 

Channel. (F. — L.) M. E. chanel, 
caftel. '^O.F, chanel, canel, a canal.— L. 
ace. canalem ; see Canal. 

Chant. (F.-L.) ¥. chan/er, vh^'-L. 
cantdre, to sing ; frequent, of canere, to 
sing. Der. chantry, M. E. chaunterie. 
Late L. cantdria ; chanti-cleer^ M. E. 
chaunte-cleer, clear-singing. 

Chaos. (Gk.) L. chaos, Lat. spelling 
of Gk. x<^o'* chaos, abyss, lit. a cleft. CS 
Gk. \6LCfKiKv, to gape. See Chasm. 

Chap (t)t to cleave, crack. (E.) M. £. 




{happen^ to cut; hence, to gape open like 
a woimd made by a cut. £. Fries, happen, 
to cut ; not found in A. S.*f-M. Du. happen , 
to cut ; Swed. kappa, Dan. kappe, to cut ; 
G. happen, to cut, lop. See Chop (i). 

Chap (a) ; see Chapman. 

Chapel. (F.-L.) O. F. chapele,^ 
Late L. cappella, orig. a shrine in which 
was preserved the capa or cope of St. 
Maitin (Brachet).i«Late L. capa, cappa, 
cape, hooded cloak; see Cape (i). 

chaperon. (F.— L.) Y, chaperon, z. 
protector ; orig. a kind of hood.*- F. chape, 
a cope. —Late L. cdpa ; as above. 

Chapiter, the capital of a column. 
(F.— L.) O. F. chapitre, usually a chapter 
of a book, but representing L. capitulum, 
which meant * chapiter ' as well as 
' chapter.* See Chapter. 

Chaplet. (F.-L.) U,^. chapeieL^ 
O. F. chapeUt, a head-dress, wreath. — 
O. F. chapel, head-dress. — O. F. chape, a 
cope ; see Chaperon. 

Chapmaily a merchant. (£.) The 
familiar chap is merely short for chapman. 
—A. S. ceapman, a merchant •• A. S. ceap, 
price, barter (see Cheap) ; and tnan, man. 

Chape, Chops, the jaws. (£.) A 
late word, of unknown origin; possibly 
from Chap (i). % Perhaps suggested by 
North E. chafts or chaffs, jaws (Cleveland 
Gloss.). —Icel. kjaptr i^pt pron. 9& ft), the 
jaw ; Swed. kaft, Daiv Kiceft, jaw. 

Chaptsr, a division of a book, synod 
of clergy. (F. — L.) M. E. chapitre, in both 
senses.— F. chapitre, variant of an older 
form chapitle, «- L. capitulum, a chapter 
of a booic (little head) ; also, in Late L., 
a synod; dimin. oi caput, a head. 

Char (i)f a turn of work. (E.) Also 
chare, chore, cheivre ; M. E. cher, char, 
orig. a turn, hence, a space of time, turn 
of work, &c. — A. S. cerr (below). Hence , 
char'Woman, a woman who does a turn of 
work. See Ajar. 

char (3), usually chare, to do a 

turn of work. (E.) M . E. cherren, char- 
ren, to turn ; A. S. cerran, to turn. — A. S. 
cerr {cierr, cyrr)^ a turn. % The sense 
' bum * is later than the appearance of the 
sb. char-coal. 

Char (3)» a fish. (C. ?) Of unknown 
origin; perhaps napoed from its red belly 
[the W. name is torgoch, red-bellied, from 
tor^ belly, and cock, red]. — O. Gael, ceara^ 
red, from cear, blood; Irish cear, red. 

also blood. 

Character. (L.— Gk.) h. char cuter. 

— Gk. x^P^f^hpi ^^ engraved or stamped 
mark. — Gk. xapaaauv, to furrow, scratch, 

Charade. (F.-Prov.) Y, charade, 
introduced from Proven9al charrada, a 
long talk, from charrh, to chatter (Snpp. 
to Littre) ; cf. Languedoc charrade, idle 
talk. Cf. also Span, charrada, speech or 
action of a clown, from Span, charro, a 
clown, peasant. 

Charcoal. (E-) From char and coal\ 
but the sense of char remains unknown ; 
some refer it to M. E. cherren, to turn* (as 
if to turn to coal), but there is no proof 
of this. See char (2). 

Charge. (F.-C.) F. charger, to 
load. — Late L. carricare, to load a car. — 
L. carrus, a car, a Gaulish word; see 
Cark, Car. Per. charg-er, a dish or horse, 
because carrying a burden. 

chariot. (F.-C.) F. chariot, aug- 
mentative of F. char, a car. — L. carrus, a 
car ; see Car. 

Chariiy-. (F- - L.) O. F. charitet. - 
L. ace. cdritdtcm, love. — L. cdrus, dear. 
Brugm. i. § 637. % Not allied to Gk. 

Charlatan. (F. - Ital.) F. charlatan, 

— Ital. ciarlatano, a mountebank, great 
talker, prattler.— Ital. ciarlare, to prattle ; 
ciarla, prattle ; prob. of imitative origin. 

Charlock, a kind of wild mustard. 
(E.) Prov. E. carlock. — A.S. cerlic, 
origin unknown. 

Charm. (F.— L.) M. E. chanm, sb. 

— O. F. charfne, an enchantment. — L. car- 
men, a song, enchantment. 

ChameL (F.— L.) Properly an adj. ; 
containing carcases, as in charnel-house. — 
O. F. charnel, adj. carnal ; as sb. a ceme- 
tery. — Late L. carndle, glossed hyjlaschas 
(flesh-house) ; Wright-Wulker, Voc. 184. 
37.— L. camdlis; see Carnal. 

Chart. (F. -L. - Gk.) q. F. char/e, 

— L. charta, a paper. — Gk. xaprri, a leaf 
of paper. Doublet, ran/ (i). 

charter. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 

chartre, — O. F. chartre, - Late L. cartula, 
a small paper or document. — L. charta, a 
paper ; see above. 

Chary, careful, cautious. (E.) M. E. 
chari, A.S. cearig, full of care, sad.— 
A. S. cearu, cam, care.^'Du. karig, G. 
/^ai^, sparing. Chary xoKdocA. (i) sorrowful, 
(a) heedful. See Care. 

Chase (0* to hunt after. (F.-L.) 




O. F. chacierj chacer, to pursue; see 

Clia86 (3)> to enchase; short for en- 
chase i which see. 

Chase (3)) a printer*s frame. (F. — L.) 
F. chdsse, a shrine. — L. capsa, a box ; see 
Caae (a). 

C]uunil« (L* — Gk.) L. ckasma, a 
galf. — Gk. x^I*^t a yawning cleft. Allied 
to x^'^^^^i to gape ; see Chaos. 

Clia4rte. (F. - L.) O. F. chaste. - L. 
castusy chaste ; see Caste. 

cliuten. (F. - L.) Used in place of 
M. E. cJiasty or chcLstien ; see below. 

Cbastise. (F. — L.) l/i,l^. chasHsen; 
shorter form chastien. — O. F. chastier, — L. 
castigdre^ lit. * to make pure.* — L. cckstus^ 
chaste ; see Castigate. 

Chasuble, a vestment. (F. - L.) F. 
chasuble. — Late L. casubula, with the same 
sense as Late L. casukty a little house; 
hence, a mantle. — L. casa, a cottage. 

Chat, Chatter. (E.) Ui.^.chateren, 
also chiteren^ to chatter, twitter ; frequent- 
ative form of chai. An imitative word ; 
cf. Du. kwetterettf to warble, chatter, Swed. 
kvittra, to chirp. 

Chateau. (F.-L.) 
chcuiel'^h. castellumy dimin. of castrum, 
a fortiBed place. Der. casteU-an\ also 
chdtelcane ; for which see Castle. 

Chattels. (F.-L.) Pi. of M.E. 

chcUelj property, also cattle. — O. F. chaUl^ 

0. North F. ccUely property; see Cattle. 
Chatter ; see Chat. 
ChaudrOIli entrails. (F.) Macb. iv. 

1 . 33. The r is inserted by confusion with 
F. chaudrotiy a caldron. — O. F. chaudufty 
older forms caudun, caldutty entrails 
TGodefroy). [Cf. G. kaldaunen^ entrails ; 
from Mid. Low G. kaldune, the same.] 
Thought to be from Late L. caldunay 
a dish containing entrails (Dncange). Per- 
haps from L. calidus^ warm (F. chaud). 

Cfhaw ; see Chew. 

Chaws, by-form of Jaws ; see Jaw. 

Cheap, at a low price ; orig. a sb. (£.) 
M.E. cnepy cheep, barter, price; always a 
sb. Hence, goixl cheap, in a good market 
(F. bon march4) ; whence E. cheap, used 
as an adj. A. S. ceap^ price ; whence the 
verb ceapian, to cheapen, buy. So also 
Du. koop, a bargain, kocpen, to buy ; G. 
kauf, purchase, kaufen, to buy; IctX.hctup, 
Swed. kbp, Dan. kiobf a purchase ; Gotii. 
kaupon (weak vb.), to trafEc. ^Some 
say that these words are borrowed from 

L. ; in particular, that O. H. G. choufo, a 
huckster, is from L. caupo, a huckster. 
But this is now held to be unlikely (Kluge, 

Cheat, to defraud. (F.-L.) Cheat is 
merely short for escheat ; cf. M. £. chete, 
an escheat (Prompt. Parv.). The eschea^ 
ters were often cheaters ; hence the verb. 
See Bscheat. 

Check, a sudden stop, repulse. (F. — 
Pers.) M. E. chek, a stop ; also check ! 
in playing chess. The word is due to the 
game, which is very old. The orig. sense 
of check was ' king ! ' i. e. mind the king, 
the king is in danger.— O.F. eschec, *a 
check at chess-play,' Cot. — Pers. shdh, a 
king, king at cness; whence shdh-mdt, 
check- mate, lit. * the king is dead,* from 
Arab, mat, he is dead. Similarly we have 
F. ^chec, a check, repulse, defeat, pL tehees, 
chess; Ital. scacco, a square of a chess- 
board, also a check, defeat. See ohess 
below. % Devic shews that O. F. escKec 
represents Arab, esh-shdg; wjiere esh is 
for al, the def. art., and shag is the Arab, 
pron. of Pers. shah. 

checker, chequer, to mark with 

squares. (F. — Pers!; To mark with 
squares like those on a chess-board. M. £. 
chekker, chekere, a chess-board. (Hence 
The Checkers, an inn-sign.) — O. F. esche- 
quier, a chess-board, also, an exchequer. 
— Low L. scaccdrium, a chess-board. — 
Low L. secret, chess, pi. of scaccus, from 
the Arab, form of Pers. shdh^ kins^. 

checkers, chequers, an old name 

for the game at draughts ; from the checker 
or chess-board ; see above. 

check-mate. (F. — Pers. and Arab.) 
From Arab. *shdg-mdt, for shdh'ttidt, the 
king is dead ; see Check. 

cheque. (F. ~ Pers.) A pedantic 
spelling of check, from confusion with 
exchequer ; it is really a name given to a 
draft for money, of which one keeps a 
memorandum or counter-check. 

chess, the game of the kings. (F. r- 
Pers.) Equivalent to checks, i.e. kings; 
see Check above.— O.F. esches, chess; 
really the pi. of eschec, check, orig. * king.* 
^ From Pers. shah, a king, were formed 
O. F. eschec, F. 4checy E. check, Ital. scacco, 
Span. xaque,jaque, Port, xaque, G. schach, 
Du. schaak, Dan. skak, Swed. schack. 
Low Lat. ludus scaccorutn - game of 
checks, or of kings. 
Cheek. (E.) M. K. cheke, cheoke, 0» 




Merc cece, A. S. cedc€t cheek. 4* I^u. 
kaak, jaw, cheek ; Swed. kdky jaw. 

Cheer. (F.—L.) M. K chere^ orig. 
the mien ; hence, ^ to be of good cheer, ^ 
-■ O. F. chere, the face. — Late L. cara, 
face. (Relationship to Gk. icdpay the head, 
is doubtfal.) Der. cheer-fuL 

ClieOSe. (L.) M. £. chese, O. Merc. 
cese (A. S. cyse, for earlier *ctese<,*ceasi), 
with >-matation ; prehistoric A. S. *casi 
<< *c&sioz, — L. cdseuSf cheese ; whence 
other forms (G. kase, Du. kaas) are bor- 
rowed. Sievers, 2nd ed. % 75. 2. 

Cheeta, Cheetah, the hunting leo- 
pard, a leopard used for the chase. (Hind. 
— Skt.) Hind. cAttd. mm Ski. Mfrakay a 
cheeta; from chiira^ spotted, also visi- 
ble, clear. — Skt. chit, to perceive. See 

Chemise. (F.-L.) F. chemise. ^^ 
Late L. camisiaf a shirt, thin dress; 
whence O. Irish caimmse^ shirt (Stokes). 

Chemist, Chymist; short for ai- 
chemist ; see Alchemy. 

Cheque, Chequer ; see Check. 

Chensh. (F. — L.) O. F. cherts- , 
stem of pres. pt. of cherir, to hold dear. — 
F. cher, dear. — L. cdrus, dear. 

Cherooty a cigar. (Tamil.) Tamil 
shuruttu, a roll ; hence, a roll of tobacco 

Cheny. (F.-L.-Gk.) U.E,cheriy& 
mistake for cherts, the final s being mis- 
taken for the pi. inflexion. — O. North F. 
cherise^ O. F. cerise; representing Folk- 
L. *ceresia, ^ceresea.^h. cerastis, a cherry- 
tree. — Gk. K4paaos, a cherry-tree ; usually 
said to come from Cerasos, in Pontus; 
a story which Curtins doubts. 

ChMrt, a kind of quartz. (?) Unknown. 
Cf. Irish cearty a pebble. 

Chemb. THeb.) Thetmepl. is<:>i^^t^- 
flm. — Heb. hruv (pL J6^riivTm),SL mystic 

Chervil, a plant (L.— Gk.) AJS.cer- 

JU/e.mmh. charephylla, pi. oicharephyllum, 

— Gk. x<u^^^^^''> chervil, lit. pleasant 

leaf.-*Gk. x^P*^^^t to rejoice; ipi&KKoVy 


Chess; see Check. 

Chest. (L. - Gk.) M. £. chesiCy chiste, 
A.S. cisf.^h, cista. '^Gk, /ciaTtfy a chest, 
box (whence G. kistey &c.). 

Chestnut, Chesnnt. (F. - L. - Gk.) 

Chesnut is i^ort for chesfnui, which is 
short for chesten-nuty nut of the chestetty 
which is the old name of the tree, called 

in M. E. chestein,^0.¥^ chastcagne (F, 
chdtai^e),^h, casianeay chestnut- tree. — 
Gk. HdarapoVy a chestnut. Chestnuts are 
said to have been called icaaravay or icdpva 
KaaTavcuOy from K&ffravay Castana, the 
name of a city in Pontus where they 
abounded; but more probably from Armen. 
kaskeniy a chestnut-tree, from kcuky a chest- 
nut (Kluge). 

CheVi^-de-frise, an obstruction with 
spikes. (F.) Lit. * horse of Friesland/ a 
jocular name ; the pi. chevatix-de-Frise is 
commoner. See below. 

chevalier. (F. — L.) F. chevalier , a 
horseman. — F. cheval, a horse. — L. ca- 
balluniy ace. of caballusy a horse. 

Cheveril, kid leather. (F.-L.) O. F. 
chevrehy fem., a little kid. Dimin. of 
O.F. chevrey F. cktorcy a goat, kid. — L. 
capram, ace. of capray a she-goat. 

chevron, an ordinary, in heraldi^^ re 
sembling two rafters of a house. (F. — L.) 
(Most lucely meant to represent the saddle- 
peak.) — F. chevroHy * a kid, a chevron in 
building, a rafter;* Cot. Augmentative 
form (S. chevrey a she-goat. — L. capray a 
she-goat ; see Gaper (i). Cf. .L. capre- 
oluSy which likewise means a prop. 

Chew, Chaw. (£.) M. £. chewen, 
A. S. ceawaHy to chew, eat.^-Du* kaauwen\ 
G. kauen ; O. H. G. kiuwan ; 'Rxiss.jevcUe. 
Cf. also Icel. tyggjay tyggva, to chew 

Chibonk, a Turkish pipe. (Turk.) 
Turk, chibaky chybQky a stick, tube, pipe 
(Zenker, p. 349). 

Chicanery. (F.-Pers.?) F. chica- 
nericy wrangung, pettifogging; Cot. — F. 
chicanery to wrangle ; orig. to dispute in 
the game of the mall or chicane (Brachet). 
Perhaps irom the medieval Gk< T(vtc&ytoyy 
a woni of Byzantine origin (id.) ; from 
Pers. chaugdHy a club, bat. 

Chicken. (£.) Sometimes shortened 
to chick ; but the M. £. word is chiken. 
A. S. ciceny earlier *cituin, -f ^Q* hiekeny 
kuikeny a chicken, Low G. kiiken ; cf. G. 
kUchleiny a chicken, Icel. kjitkUngy Swed. 
kyckling ; related to Cook, which ^ews the 
weak grade *ctiC' ; see Cock (i). Sievers, 
2nd ed. § 165. 

Chiccry, a plant, succory. (F. — L. — 
Gk.) F. chicorU.^\u> cichorium,^Gk, 
Mixopiay neut. pi. ; . also Kix^pioVy mx^p^y 
succory, fi. Stucory is a corrupter form 
of the word, apparently for siccory or 
dchoryy from L* cichorium* 




Chide* (£•) M.£. r^tV/^/'. A,S.ctda/it 
to chide, brawl ; pi. t. cidi/e. 

Chief. (F. - L.) M. E. c/ie/, chief, - 
O. F. chefy chief the head. — L. type 
*capuffi (Ital. capo)» — L. caputs head. 
Der. ker-chief q. v. 

Chieftain. (F. — L.) O.F. chevetaine. 

— Late L. capitaneus, ccipitdntu, a captain. 
— L. capit', from caputf a head. 

Chiffonier, a cupboard. (F.) Lit. a 
place to put rags in. — F. chiffonier, a rag- 
picker, also a cupboard. — F. chiffon, aug- 
ment, of chiffe, a rag. Orig. unknown. 

Chignon. (F.-L.) Hair twisted; 
another spelling of F. chatnon, a link.— 
F. chatfu, O. F. chaine, a chain. — L. ca- 
tena, a chain. 

Chilblain. (E.) A Main caused by 
a chill. 

Child. (E.) M. E. child, A. S. cild, 
Teut. type *kiipom, neut. ; cf. Goth, kil- 
thei, the womb. 

Chill, cold. (E.) Orig. a sb. A. S. 
ceU, cicle, chilliness. Teut. type *kaliz, 
sb. ; from *hal-an, to be cold, as in A. S. 
calan, to be cold, Icel. kola, to freeze. 4" 
I)ii. kil, a. chill ; cf. L. gelu, frost. 

Chime, sb. (F. - L. - Gk.) ^f . E. 
chimbe, of which the orig. sense was cym- 
bal ; henc3 the chime or ringing of a cym- 
bal. Shortened from O. F. chimbale, dia- 
lectal form of O. F. cimbcUe, a C3rmbal. — 
L. cytnbaluni, — Gk. Kvyi&aXov ; see Cym- 
baL N.B. We find M. E. chyme-belle, 
which looks like a popular form for cymbal, 
Der. chime, verb. 

Chimera, Chimasra. (L.~Gk.) L. 

chiniara, — Gk. yxyjaxpa, a she-goat ; also, 
a fabulous monster, with a goars body. — 
Gk. xiL\unpo^, he-goat. 

Chimney. (F.-L.- Gk.) Y,cheminie, 
*a chimney;' Cot. — Late L. camindta, 
provided with a chimney ; hence, a chinmey. 

— L. camtnus, an oven, a fire-place. — Gk. 
Kiiiuvoi, oven, furnace. 

Chimpansee, an ape. (African.) I am 
informea that the name is tsimpanzee in 
the neighbourhood of the gulf of Guinea. 

Chin. (E.) M.E. chin. A.S. ««.+ 
Du. kin, Icel. kinn, Dan. kind, Swed. 
kind ; Goth, kinnus, the cheek ; G. kinn, 
chin ; L. gena, cheek ; Gk. yivvs, chin ; 
cf. Skt. hanus, jaw. 

China. (China.) Short iox china-ware, 
or ware from China, The name of the 
people was formerly Chineses; we have 
dropped the final s, and use Chinese as a 

pi. ; hence Chittee in the singular, by a 
second dropping of se. 

Chinchilla, a small rodent animal. 
(Span. — L.) Span, chinchilla, lit. 'a little 
bug,* as if from its smell ; but undeservedly 
so named. — Span, chinche, a bug. — L. ci" 
micem, ace. of cimex, a bug. 

Chinchona ; the same as Cinchona. 

Chincongh, whooping-cough. (E.) 
For chirJi-cough', cf. Scotch kink-cough, 
kink-host {host means cough), A kink is a 
catch in the breath, nasalised form of a 
base *kik, to gasp. 4" I^u. kinkhoest ; M. 
Du. kieckhoest', Swed. kikhosta, chincough, 
kikna, to gasp ; G. keichen, to gasp. 

Chine. (F.-O.H.G.) 0,Y,eschine{¥, 
Mine), the back-bone. —O.H.G.j'/if>fa, a 
needle, prickle (G. schiene, a splint). For 
the sense, cf. L. spina, a thorn, spine, 

Chink (i), a cleft. (E.) Formed with 
suffixed k, from the base of M. £. chine, a 
cleft, rift. — A. S. cinu, a chink. — A. S. cin-, 
weak grade oicinan, to split (strong vb.). 
+Du. keen, a chink, also a germ, kenen, 
to bud ; cf. G. keimen, Goth, keinan, to 
bud. (Germinating seeds make a crack in 
the ground.) 

Chink (2), to jingle. (E.) An imitative 
word; cf. clink, chnk; and see Ohin- 
oough. E. Fries, kinken (a strong vb.) ; 
M. Dan. kinke, 

Chints. (Hindustani — Skt.) ¥or chints, 
pi. of chint. Hind, chhint, spotted cotton 
cloth, named from the variegated patterns 
on it; chhit, chintz, also a spot. — Skt. 
chitra, variegated, spotted. See Cheeta. 

Chip, vb. (E.) Related (with a lighter 
vowel) to chap (i) or chop ; as if to cut 
a little at a time. Cf. A. S. for-cyppod, 
gloss to praecisus (Lye) ; E. Fries, kippen, 
to cut. 

Chirography, handwriting. (Gk.) 
From Gk. xtipoyfKuptof, to write with the 
hand. — Gk. xapo^, from x^^Pi ^^'^ hand; 
ypdipeiy, to write. Cf. chiro-mancy, for- 
tune-telling by the hand; chiro-pod-ist, 
one who handles (and cures) the feet. 

Chirp. (E.) A\so chirrup, M.E.chir- 
pen. Also M. E. chirken, chirmen, to 
chirp. The forms chir-p, chir-k, chir-m 
are from an imitative base ; cf. Du. kirren, 
to coo. 

Chirargecn, the old spelling of sur- 
geon, (F. — L. — Gk.) F. chirurgien, 
* a surgeon ; ' Cot. — F. chirurgie, sur- 
gery.— L. chirufgia,^G\i, x^^P^Pl^^^ ^ 




working with the hands, .skill with the 
hands, art, surgery. — Gk. x^^P^> from 
X€(p, the hand ; and tp/yuv, to work. 

Chisel. (F. - L.) M. E. chisel, - A. F. 
chisel, O. F. cisel (F. ciseau). Cf. Late L. 
cTsellus, scissors (A. D. 1352). O. F. cisel 
answers to Late L. *clsellum, with the 
sense of L. cisarium, a cutting instmment 
(Vegetius) ; see Scheler*s note to Diez. — 
L. *ctsufn, for cas-um, supine of caclere, 
to cut ; whence also Late L. incisor, a 
carver, cutter ; see Csesura. 

Chit (i), a pert child. (E.) M. E. chit, 
a whelp, cub, kitten. Allied to kit-ling 
(Icel. ketlingr), and to kit-ten; cf. G. kitze, 
a female cat. 

Chit (a)} a shoot, sprout. (E.) In Hol- 
land's Pliny, xiii. 4. Perhaps allied to 
M. E. chithe, vl ziptovX (N.E.D,).— A. S. 
cidi a germ, sprout. Cf. Goth, keinan, to 
produce a ^oot ; G. kdm, a germ. 

Chivalry. (F.— L.) M,E, chivc^rie.'' 
O.V.chevalerie, horsemanship, knighthood. 
* F. cheval, a horse. — Late L. caballum, 
ace. of caballus, a horse. 

Chlorine* a pale green gas. (Gk.) 
Named from its colour. * Gk. x^^p-^h V^^ 

chloroform. (Gk. andL.) The latter 
element relates %oformyl 9xA formic acid, 
an add formerly obtained from red ants. — 
Xufortnica, an ant. 

chocolate^ a paste made from cacao. 
(Span. — Mex.) Span, chocolate, — Mex. 
chocolatl, chocolate; Clavigero, Hist. 
Mex. i. 433. % Not allied to cacao. 

Choice. (F. - Teut.) Not E. M. E. 
chois. - O. F. chois (F. choix), - O. F. 
ckoistr, O. North F. coisir, to choose. Of 
Teut. origin. — Goth, kausjan, to tr>', 
test; causal of kiusan, to choose. See 

Chcnr. (F.-L.-Gk.) Tht choir oi Si 
church is the part where the choir sit. 
Also spelt quire ; M. E. queir, quer. — 
O. F. cuer, later choeur, *the quire of a 
church, a troop of singers;* Cot. — L. 
chorum, ace. of chorus, a choir. — Gk. 
Xop^t a dance, a band of dancers or 
singers. See Chorus. 

CnolEe. (E.) M. £. choken, cheken, 
cheoken. A. S. ceocian ; only in the deri- 
vative dceocung, to translate L. rumincttio, 
which the glossator hardly seems to have 
understood, and in the pp. dceocod, ^Ifric, 
Horn. !. 316 : with change from eo to ec, 
shortening of ^ to in M. E«, and subse- 

quent lengthening. Cf. Icel. koka, to 
gulp ; kok, the gullet. 

Choler, the bile, anger. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
Anger was supposed to be due to excess of 
bile. M.E. coler, ■- O.F. colore, — L. cholera, 
bile ; also cholera, bilious complaint. « Gk. 
XoKkpa, cholera ; xo^4» bile ; X^^os, bile, 
wrath. See Call. 

cholera. (L. — Gk.) L. cholera, as 
above. And see Melancholy. 

Choose. (E.) M.E. chesen, chusen. 
A. S. chsan (also cedsan), to choose 
(pt. t. cdcK, ceds), -f Du. and G. kiesen, 
Icel. kjdsa, Goth, kiusan; Teut, type 
*keus-an'. Allied to L. gus-tare, to taste, 
Gk. y€6ofMi, I taste, Skt. jush, to relish. 
(VGEUS.) See Gust. Brugm. 1. § 602. 

Chop (i), to cut; a later form of 
Chap (i). 

Chop (a), to barter. (E.) Probably a 
variant of chap, a verb which seems to 
have been evolved from the sb. chapman, 

Chopine, a high-heeled shoe. (F.— 
Span.) In Hamlet, ii. 2. 447 ; for chapine. 

— O.F. chapin; later chappin (Cotgrave). 

— Span, chapin, a clog with a cork sole, 
woman's shoe, high cork shoe. Perhaps 
from Span, chapa, a thin plate (of metal), 
used to strengthen the work it covers. 

Chops ; see Chaps. 

Chord. (L. — Gk.) L. chorda, - Gk. 
XOf^t the string of a musical instrument, 
orig. a string of gut. Brugm. i. § 605. 
% The same word as Cord. 

Chome. (L. ~ Gk.) L. chorus, a band 
of singers. — Gk. x^P<>^> a dance, a band of 
dancers or singers. See Choir. Der. 
chor-al, chor-i-sfer, 

Chongh, a bird. (E.) M.K cho^e, 
chough. Not found in A. S., which has 
(however) the forms ceo, cio, and the early 
forms ciae, chyae. Somewhat similar forms 
are seen in Du. kaauw, Dan. kaa, Swed. 
kaja, a jackdaw. 

Ghousei to cheat. (Turk.?) To act as a 
chouse or cheat Ben Jonson has chiaus in 
the sense of ' a Turk,' with the implied 
sense of 'cheat'; Alchemist, i. i. The 
allusion is alleged to be to a Turkish 
chiaus or interpreter^ who committed a 
notorious fraud in 1009.— Turk, chd^ush, 
a sergeant, mace- bearer, Palmer's Pers. 
Diet. ; chdvmshj a sergeant, herald, mes- 
senger, Rich. Diet p. 534. Or (medi- 
ately) from M. Ital. ciaus. 

Chrism ; see below. 

Christy the anointed one. (L. — Gk.) 




A. S. Crist. '^'L. Chrtstus. ^Gk. xP^ards, 
anointed. — Gk. xp'X I rub, anoint. Der. 
Christ' ian, Chnst-en-dorn^ 8cc. ; Christ- 
mas (see Mass} ; attti-c/irist, opponent of 
Christ (.from Gk. avrlt against; see 
1 John ii. 1 8). 

chrisilli holy unction. (L. — Gk.) 
Also spelt chrisomCf whence chrisome'Child, 
a child wearing a chrisomC'Cloth^ or cloth 
which a child wore after holy unction ; cf. 
O. F. cresme^ * the crisome, or oyle ; * Cot. 
—Late L. ckrisma, holy oil. — Gk. xp*^M^f 
an nnguent. — Gk. xp^m (as above). 
ChroniatiOf relating to colours. (Gk.) 
Gk. XP^A'A^'*^^* ^^J'^Gk* XP^t"^"^'* stem 
of xP^h^i colour ; allied to xP^t ^^» 

chromei chrominni. (Gk.) A 

metal ; its compounds exhibit beautiful 
colours. — Gk. xP^P'-^t colour. 
Chronicle. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) M. £. 
cronicle, with inserted /; also cronike^ 
cronique.^K, F. cronicie', O. F. croniquty 
pi. croniques, chronicles, annals. — Late L. 
chronica^ fem. sing. ; for neut. pi. — 
Gk. xpov^f^f^i P^M annals. "-Gk. xp^^^*^^^> 
adj. from XP^"^* ^i™®- ^®'» chron-ic 


OAronolOgy, science of dates. (Gk.) 
From xp^^^'^f ^i™^ » -^07^01 from \6y-os, 
discourse ; see Iiogic. 

ollTdnomater, time-measurer. (Gk.) 
From xp^^O'S, time ; fiirpov^ measure ; see 
Chrysalis, the form taken by some 
insects. (Gk.) Gk. xP^ffaWir, the gold- 
coloured sheath of butterflies, chrysalis. — 
Gk. xp^<f-^i gold. 

chrysanthemum, a flower. (L. - 

Gk.) L. chrysanthemum.^^ Gk. xp^^^' 
Bifiov, a marigold. — Gk. xP^^'^^t go^^! 
ay$tfiov, a bloom, from dvifii't to bloom, 
related to dvBos, a flower, a bud. 

chrysolite, a yellow stone. (F. — L. 
— Gk.) O. F. crisoiite. ^L,. chrysoiithuSf 
Rev. xxi. 20. — Gk. xp^^^^^^^' ~ ^k* 
Xpv(r6'Sf gold ; XSOos, stone. 

chrysoprase. (L. - Gk.) L. chtyso- 

prasuSf Rev. xxi. 20. — Gk. xP^^^'P^^os, a 
yellow-green stone. —Gk. xP^^^'^t gold; 
irp&aov, a (green) leek. 
Chub, a 6sh. (E.) £tym. unknown. 
Cf. Dan. kobbe, a seal, prov. Swed. kubbug, 
chubby, fat; Norw. kubbetty stumpy; 
Swed. kubb, a block, log. This does not 
explain the ch ; but see Chmnp. 

chubby, fat. (E.) Lit. * like a chub ; ' 
cf. prov. Swed. kubbug (above). 


Chuck (1), to strike gently, toss. ;F. - 
Teut.) Formerly written chock (Turber- 
ville). — F. choquer, to give a shock, jolt. — 
Du. schokkeuy to jolt, shake ; allied to K. 
shock and shake. 

Chuck (2), to chuck as a hen. (E.) 
An imitative word ; Ch. has chuk to ex- 
press the noise made by a cock; C. T. 
15180(8.3464). Qt cluck, jyer.chuck-le, 
in the sense 'to clucks 

Chuck (5), a chicken. A variety of 
chicky for chicken. See above. 

Chuckle. (E.) To rAf/^>&/^ is to laugh 
in a suppressed way; cf. Chock (2). 

Chump, a log. (£.) Cf. Swed. dial. 
kumpa^ to chop into logs; kutnping, a 
log, round stict ; also Icel. kumbr, tn- 
kumbry a log of wood, from Icel. kumbr, 
nasalised form of kubbr, a chopping; 
Icel. kubba, to chop. Der. chump-endy 
i. e. thick end. 

Church. (Gk.) U.lLchirckeyChireche. 
A. S. cirice^ later circe ; (cf. Icel. kirkja ; 
G. kirche, Du. j^ri^).— Gk. ic^aK6¥y a 
church, neut. of ttvpteutosy belonging to 
the Lord ; or (possibly) from Gk. /evpicucdy 
pi., treated as a fem. sing. — Gk. n^pios, 
a lord, orig. mighty. — Gk. ifvpos, strength. 
Cf. Skt. fUra, a hero. 

Churl. (E.) U.E.cher/ycheor/. A.S. 
ceor/y a man. ^-Du. kere/, G. kert; Dan. 
Sw. Icel. kart. Teut. types, *kerhzy 

Chum, sb. (E.) A. S. cyrin ; older 
form cirin (printed cimC)y Corp. gloss. 
1866. -4- Icel. kirnay Swed. kdmay Dan. 
kiemty a chum; cf. O. Swed. kertuiy 
Swed. kdmay Dan. kieme^ to chum, Du. 
kemeuy to chum. 

Chutney, Chutay, a kind of hot 

relish. (Hind.) Hind, chatnt (Yule). 

Chyle, milky fluid. (F.lL.-Gk.) F. 
chyle. — L. chains. — Gk. x^^^^r, juice. — 
Gk. x^<w ( = X^f-<w), I pour. (VGHEU.) 
chyme, liquid pulp. (L.-Gk.) For- 
merly chymus.'^Y., chpmus.^Gk. xVP^h 
juice. — Gk. x^"*** as above. 

Chymist; see Alohemist. 


Cicatrice^ scar. (F.-L.) F. cicatrice, 
— L. ctcdtrtcemy ace. of cicatrix, a scar. 

Cicerone. (Ital.— L.) lta\. cicerone, a. 
guide; orig. a Cicero. — L. ace. Ciceronem, 
proper name. 

Cid, lit. a chief or commander. (Span. 



—Arab.) Usually a title of Ruy Diaz, 
the national hero of Spain. — Arab, sayytd, 
ol lord ; Richardson*s Diet. p. 864. 

Cider. (F. - L. - Gk. - Heb.) It 
merely means strong drink. M. £. sicer, 
cyder. wmY. cidre\ O. F. cisdre (for *ctsre), 
-•L. j/r^ra.^Gk. aitttpa, strong drink.— 
Heb. shekdrf strong drink. — Heb. shakar, 
to be intoxicated. 

Cieling ; see Ceil. 

Cigar, Se^far. (Span.) Span, dgarro ; 
whence also t . cigare. 

Cinchona, Peruvian bark. (Span.) 
Named after the Countess of Chinchotty 
wife of the governor of Peru, cured by it 
A.D. 1638. Chinchon is S.£. of Madrid. 
(Should be chinchona.) 

Cincture. . (L.) L. dnctura, a girdle. 
— L. ctnctusy pp. oi {inhere ^ to gird. 

Cinder. (£.) Misspelt for sittder (by 
confusion with F. cemre = L. cinerem ; 
see Cinerary). A. S. sinder^ ' scoria/ slag. 
•4-Icel. sindr\ Swed. stnder; G. sinter y 
dross, whence Dn. sintelSy cinders. % The 
A. S. sinder occurs in the 8th centuiy. 

Cinerary, relating to the ashes of the 
4lead. (L.) L. cinerdrius, — L; ciner-y 
stem of cinisy dust, ashes of the dead. 4- 
Gk. K6viSy dust. Der. ctnerartay a flower ; 
named from the ash-coloured down on the 
leaves. Brugro. i. § 84. 

Cinnabar, Cinoper. (L.~Gk.- 

I'ers.) L. cinnabaris. — Gk. Kivv&fitipiy 
vermilion. From Pers. zinjifrah, zinjatfy 
red lead, vermilion, cinnabar. 

Cinnamon, a spice. (L. — Gk.^Heb.) 
L. cinnamomum. — Gk. kiwoimhw, — Heb. 
ginndman; said to be of Malay origin 
(Gesenius) . Cf. Malay kayu manis, cinna- 
mon ; from kayuy wood, nianisy sweet. 

Cipher. (F. - Span. - Arab.) O. F. 
cifre (F. chtffre)y a cipher, zero. — Span. 
cifra.'^KnXi. sifry a cipher; lit. 'empty 
thing ; ' from f(^r, adj. empty ; Rich. Diet, 
p. 937. (A translation of Skt. fiinyay (i) 
empty; (a) a cipher.) Der. de-cipher , 
from L. de, in the verbal sense of «/i-, and 
cipher ; cfl M. F. dechiffrer^ * to decypher ; ' 

Circle. (F.-L.) A,S. circui; butM.E. 

cerc/e. — F. cerc/e. — L. circuitts, dimin. of 

circus, a ring, circle ; see Bing (i). Der. 

encircUy semi-circle ; and see circum-. 

oircne, a ring. (L.) L. rir^wx (above). 

Circuit. (F.-L) F. circuit, ^l^ 
ace circuiiwHy a going round. — L. cir- 
cuitus, aUo circumi/usj pp. of circumlre 

(also cinutre), to go round. — L. drcutUy 
round ; ire, to go. 
Circnm-, prefix^ round. (L.) L. 
circuftty around, round; orig. ace of 
circus, a circle ; see Circle. Der. circiivi- 
ambient (see Ambient) ; circum-amhulate 
(see Axnble) ; and see below.' 

circitmcise. (L.) L. circmncls-usy 
pp. of circumctdere, to cut round. — L. 
circuniy round ; and cadere, to cut. 

circnmference. (L.) L. circum- 

ferentiay boundary of a circle. — X». circum- 
ferent'y stem of pres. pt. oicircum-ferre, lo 
carry round; from /erre, to bear. 

Circnmflez. (L.) L. syl/aba cir- 
cutnflexay a syllable marked with a cir- 
cumflex (a) or *bent' mark. — L. rtVf/////- 
flexuSy pp. of circum-flecterey to bend 
round ; iiomflecterey to bend. 

circumjacent, lying near. (L.) 
From stem of pres. part, of circum-iacerCy 
to lie around ; from iacerey to lie. 

circnmlocntion. (L.) L. circum- 

lociitioy a periphrasis. — L. circumloctttuSy 
pp. of drcum-loquiy to speak in a round- 
about way ; from loquiy to speak. 

circnmscribe. (L.) L. cinum- 

scrtberCy to write or draw around, to limit ; 
from scriberey to write. 

circumspect, prudent. (L.) L. cir- 
awispectusy pmdent ; orig. pp. of circnm- 
spicere, to look around; from specere, to 

circumstance. (F.-L.) Adapted 

from O. F. circonstance. •• L. circumstcuKia, 
lit. a standing around, also an attribute, 
circumstance (influenced by F. circon- 
stance).^!^. ctrcumstant-f stem 
ofdrcum-stdre, to stand round ; from stare y 
to stand. 

Circus ; see Circle. 

Cirms, a fleecy cloud, tendril. (L.) 
L. drrusy a curl, curled hair. 

Cist, a sort of tomb. (L.— Gk.) L. 
cista, a chest. — Gk. Hiartfy a box, chest. 

cistern. (F.-L.— Gk.) Y.dsteme. 
— L. cisternay a reservoir for water. — L. 
cista y as above.' 

Cistvaen, a British monument. (L. 
and W.) W. cistfaeuy a stone chest, 
monument made with four upright stones, 
and a fifth on the top. — W. cist, a chest 
(from L. dstcC) ; and tnaeny a stone. 

Cit, Citadel ; see civil (below). 

Cite, to summon, quote. (F.— L.) F. 
dter. — L. dtdrey frequent, of cierCy to 
rouse, excite, call. 4* G^* '^^'^'^j ^ g^* 




(VK.I.) See Hie. Der. ex-cite, in-eite, 

Cithern, Cittern, a kind of guitar. 

L. — Gk.) [Also M. E. giteme ; from O. 

\guiteme, a guitar.] The n is excres- 
cent, as in bitter-n, in imitation of M. £. 
giteme. '^'C, citkara.'^Gk. KtOdfMy a kind 
of lyre or lute. 

Cltiien; see Civil (below). 

Citron. (F.-L.-Gk.) ¥, citron. -^ 
Late L. ace. citronem.^h. citrus, orange- 
tree. — Gk. tcirpov, a citron ; Ktrpia, citron- 

City; see Civil Cbelow). 

Civet. (F.— Arab.) ¥. civette, civet; 
also the civet-cat ; Ital. zibetto ; borrowed 
from medieval Gk. ^aviriov (Brachet).» 
Arab, zahad, civet ; Rich. Diet. p. 767. 

Civil. (F. — L.) F. civil. ^Ij. ctutlis, 
belonging to citizens. --L. ciuis, a citizen. 
Allied to A. S. htwan, members of a 
household. Der. civil-ise, civil-i-an, 
cit ; short for oitisen (below). 
citadel. (F.-Ital.-L.) Y.dtcuUlU. 
i- Ital. cittadella, a small town, fort ; 
dimin. of cittade «= cittate {cittd), a city. — 
L. ciuitdtem, ace. of ciuitds, a city. — L. 
ciuis, a citizen (above). 

citisen. (F. — L.) M. £. citesein, 
from A. F. citisein, in which s was an 
insertion. — O. F. citeain (F. citoyen) ; 
formed from O. F. cite {cit£) city, by help 
of the suffix -ain — L. -anus ; see below. 

cit^. (F.-L.) M. E. cite, citee. - 
O.F. cite (F. cit^ . — Late L. tyi^*civUdtem, 
for ciuitdtem, ace. of ctuitds ; see citadel. 

Clachany a small village with a church. 
(Gael.) Gael. clachan,{i) a circle of stones, 
(2) a small rude church, (3) a small village 
with a church, -i Gael, clach, a stone. So 
also Irish clacAan, a hamlet ; dock, O. Ir. 
clock, a stone. 

Clack. (E.) M.E. clacken. Imitative; 
allied to Crack. £. Fries, klakken.-^ 
Icel. klaka, to chatter; Du. klakken, to 
clack, crack; Irish clc^, the clapper of 
a mill. 

Claim, to demand, call out for. (F. — 
L.) O.F. clcumer, clamer.^1^. cldmdre, 
to call out; cf. O. L. caldre, to pro- 
claim; Gk. xaAcfv, to summon. Der. 
ac-claim, de-claim, ex-claim, pro-claim, 
re-claim ; also (from pp. clamdtus) ac- 
clamat-ion, de-clamat-ion, ex-clamat-ion, 
pro-clamat'ion, re-clamat-ion, 

clamour. (F. — L.) lA.^.. clamour. 
— O. F. clamour, ^ L. ace. cldmorem, an 


outcry.— L. cldmdre {^iho\e). "Det, clamor* 

Clamber, to climb by graspmg tightly. 
(E. ; perhaps Scand.) XV. cent M. E. 
clameren, clamhren. Cf. Icel. klambra, 
to pinch closely together; Dan. klamre, 
to grip firmly ; see Clamp. Affected by 
Climb, of which the M. E. pt. t. was 
clamb, clam. 

Clammy, viscous. (E.) Earliest form 
clay my, perhaps* from A. S. cldm^ clay (see 
Clay) ; but confused with an adj. clam^ 
sticky ; with which cf. £. Fries, and Du. 
klam, Dan. klam, clammy, moist. See 

Clamour; see Claim. 

Clamp. (I>u.) XV. cent. Dvi.klampe, 
a holdfast ; whence klampen, to clamp, 
grapple, also to board a ship. •4" Dan. 
klamme, a cramp-iron ; Swed. klamp, the 
same ; Icel. klombr, a smith's vice ; Teut. 
base *klamp, answering to the 2nd grade 
of M. H. G. klimpfen, to press tightly 
together. Cf. Clump. 

Clan. (Gael.) Gael, clann, ofFsprmg, 
children ; Irish eland, clann, descendants, 
a tribe; ^. plant, pi. offspring, children. 
Cf. Skt. kula(m), a nerd, family. Brugm. 
i. § 669. 

Clandestine. (L.) L. clandestinus, 
secret, close. Allied to clam, secretly. 

Clangf, to resound. (L.) L. clangere, 
to resound ; whence clangor, a loud noise. 
•4*Gk. it>jorffi\, a dang; allied to KKik^uv^ 
to clash (fut. Khari^oi). Der. clang-or. 
See below. 

Clank, a heavy rmging sound. (Du.) 
XVII cent. — Du. klank, * a ringing ; ' 
Hexham. Cf. Du. klonk, pt. t. ofklin^en, 
to clink. See Clink. Der. clank, vb. 

Clap. (E.) M. E. clappen. [We only 
find A. S. clceppetan, to palpitate; Voc. 
473.] E. Fries, klappen, to clap hands. 
The orig. sense is to make a noise by 
striking, -f* ^cel. klappa, Swed. klappa, 
Dan. klappe, Du. klappen, M. H. G. klaffen, 
to pat, clap, prate, make a noise. Allied 
to Clack, Clatter. 

Claret. (F. — L.) Orig. a light red wine. 
M. E. claret. - O. F. claret, clairet (F. 
^/aiV^/), adj. ; dimin. of clair, clear. i-L. 
cldrus, clear. See Clear 

clarify. (F.-L.) O.Y.claHfier.^ 

L. cldrificdre, to make clear. — L. cldri-, 

from cldrus, clear ; and -Jic-, for facere^ 

to make. 

clarion. (F. - L.) M. E. darioun. — 




O. F. ^clarion^ claron (F. clair&n), a clear- 
sounding horn, i- Late L. ace. cldrimetn, — 
L. cldri' (as above). 

Clasll* (E.) An imitatiye word ; sug- 
gested by clcuk and crcuhf dash, 8cc Cf. 
£. Fries. kJcUsen, to crack a whip. 

Clasp. (£•) M*. £. claspey elapse^ sb. ; 
clasptn^ clapsen, vb. The base seems to be 
klap-S', extended from klap- (see Clap), 
and influenced by M. £. cHppen, to em- 
brace. 'Cf. G. klafiery a fathom; Lith. 
giiiys, an armful ; knd cf. Orasp. 

Glass. (F. — L.) F. classe^ a rank.— 
L. ace. classeMf a class, assembly, fleet. 

Clattdr. (F.) A frequentative of ^/a/, 
which is a by-form of ClAok. A. S. clat- 
rung, a clattering ; £. Fries, klaitem, to 
clatter. •4- I^- klateren, to clatter. Of 
imitative origin. 

Clause. (F.— L.) F. r/a«<j^. — LateL. 
clausa, a passage, from a book, a clause.— 
L. clausus, pp. of claudere, to shut.4- 
O. Fries, sluta, to shut. See Slot (i). 
(^KLEU.) Brugm. i. % 795. 

Cnavide, the collar-bone. (F. ~ L.) 

F. cUnncule, the collar-bone. — L. cldutcula, 
lit. a small key ; dimin. of clduisy a key. 
Allied to claudere ; see Clause. 

Claw. (E.) M..E. clau, dee, A. S. 
clawu (also cled)^ a claw.4-I^u. klaauw\ 

G. klaue\ Icel. kid, Dan. Swed. klo. 
Allied to Clew ; from a Teut. base *klau-, 
and grade of *2/^m-, to draw together; 
cf. O. H. G. kluwi^ forceps. 

Clay. (E.) M. E. clai, cUy, A. S. 
clag.'fjyxk. and Low G. k^t\ Dan. klag. 
Teut type *klai'jdy fem, ; from *klai-, 2nd 
grade of Tent root ^klei- ; cf. A. S. cldm 
(for *klaumoz)f earthenware ; Gk. 7Xo(-<$s, 
sticky matter. See Cleave (a) and due. 

Claymore^ a Scottish broadsword. 
(Gad!) Gael, claidheamh mor^ a great 
sword. Here claidheamh is cognate with 
W. cUddyf^ O. Jr. claideh^ sword ; and 
Gael, mar^ great, is allied to W. mawrj 
great Cf. W. cUdd, a sword. 

Clean. (E.) M. E. cUne, A. S. clSne, 
clear, pure. ^ O. Sax. dent, cleini ; O. 
Fries, klen ; Du. klein, small ; G. klein, 
O. H. G. chleini, pure, bright, fine, small. 
All from Teut. *klaini', orig. ' clear, pure.' 
cleanse. (E.) A. S. cklmianf to 
make clean.— A. S. dane, clean. 

Clear. (F. - L.) M. E. deer, der. - O.F. 
der, dair, — L. ddrus, bright, clear, loud. 

Cleaty a piece of iron for strengthening 
the lolet of^ shoes ; a piece of wood or | 

iron to fasten ropes to, (E.) M. E. dete, 
a wedge (as if from A. S. *deaf)y also 
elite, dote, a lump; cognate with Du. 
klooty a ball, G. kloss, a clot, lump. Allied 
to Clot ; and see Clout. 

Cleave (!)> to split. (E.) Strong verb. 
A. S. cleofan, pt. t. deaf, pp. clofen ( ■« 
E. r/^^if ).4-Du. klieven, Icel. kljufa (pt. L 
klauf), Swed. klyfva, Dan. kldve, G. hlie- 
ben. Teut. base *kleub ; cf. Gk. 7XW- 
<i^(iv, to hollow out. 

cleft, Clifb. (Scand.) The old spelling 
is f/i^. — Icel. kluft, Swed. klyft, Dan. 
kloft, a cleft, chink, cave. — Icel. kluf-, 
weak grade of kljitfa (above) ; cf. Swed* 
klyfua, to cleave. 

CleaTC (a), to stick. (£.) Weak verb. 
The correct pt. t. is cleaved, not clave, 
which belongs to the verb above. A. S. 
clifian, cleofian, pt. t. clifode.'^'Dvi, kleven, 
Swed, klioba stg, G. kleben, to adhere, 
cleave to. All from Teut base *klib-, 
weak grade of Teut. root *kleib', found in 
A. S. clifan (pt t ddf), Du. be-klifoen, 
to cleave to. Allied to Clay, Climb. 

Clef, a key, in music. (F.— L.) F. clef, 
— L. clduem, ace. of clduis, a key. 

Cleft; see Cleave (i). 

Clematis, a plant (Gk.) Gk. ivAi7/4art;, 
a creeping plant.- Gk. kKtuMr-, stem of 
icXriitay a ^oot, twig.— Gk. Kh&tw, to 
hreik off, prune (Brugm. ii. % 661). 

Clement. (F.-L.) F. dement, ^t,, 
dementem, ace. of clemens, mild. 

Clench ; see Clinch. 

Clerestory, an upper story in a church, 
furnished with windows, (F.— L.) Old 
spelling of clear-story. The triforium 
below is sometimes called the blind-story. 
See Story (a). 

Clerk. (F. - L. - Gk.) A. S. and O. F. 
cUtrc'^'L, clericus,^Gk. tcXrfpiK^St one oi 
the clergy. — Gk. KXijpos, a lot ; in late Gk., 
the clergy, whose portion is the Lord, 
Dent, xviii. a, i Pet v. 3 ; cf. Acts i. 17. 
(St. Jerome.) 

clergT. (F.— L.) 'M.,E. clergte, often 
also (a) * Teaming.' — (i) O. F. dergie, as if 
from L. *clericta; (a) mod. F. dergS, 
from Late L. clericdtus, clerkship. — Late 
L. clericus, a clerk (above). 

Clever. (E.) Cleverly is in Butler's 
Hudibras, i. i. 398 (1663). For M. £. 
diver, adj., meaning ready to seize, allied 
to M. E. diver, a claw, and to Cleave (a). 
So also E. Fries, kliifer, clever, Dan. 
dial, klover, klever (Molbech). ^ It took 



the place of M. £. deliver^ quick, nimble, 
Ch. prol. 84. — O. F. delivrt^ free, prompt, 
alert ; compounded of L. di, prefix, and 
liber ^ free ; see Deliver. 

Clew, Clue, a ball of thread. (£.) 
M. E. clewe. A. S. cliwen^ a clew ; also 
cliowe (Epinal gl. cleoutiae).'^'D\\,, kluwen^ 
whence kluwenen, to wind on clews (E. 
clew up a sail) ; M. Low G. kluwen ; and 
cf. G. knciuel \ior *klauel)y a clew. Per- 
haps allied to L. gluere, to draw together. 
Cf. Olaw. 

Click. (E.) An imitative word, ex- 
pressing a lighter and thinner sound than 
Glaok. E. Fries, klikken. Cf. Du. klik- 
klakken, to clash. 

Client. (F.— L.) F. client, a suitor.— 
L. clientem, ace. of cliens = cluens, orig. a 
hearer, one who listens to advice ; pres. pt. 
of cluere, to hear. (-^KLEU.) 

Cliff, a steep rock, headland. (£.) 
A. S. clify a rock, cliff.+Du. and Icel. 
klif\ O. H.G. klep. Cf. G. and Dan. 
klippe^ Swed. klippa, a crag ; and Icel. 
kleif^ a ridge of cliffs. 

Climate. (F. — L. — Gk.) yiJE, climat, 

— F. climat.^luZXQ L. climat-^ stem of 
clima.^G\i, KXifuiT-, stem of icKifia, a 
slope, zone, region of the earth, climate. — 
Gk. KkivtiVy to lean, slope ; see Lean. 

climaeter, a critical time of life. (F. 

— Gk.) M.F, climacUre, adj.; whence ran 
clitnactere, * the climatericall {sic) year ; 
every 7th, or 9th, or the 63 yeare of a 
man s life, all very dangerous, but the last, 
most;' Cot. — Gk. KkiftaKtrip, a step of a 
ladder, a dangerous period of life. — Gk. 
icXtfjuxK'y stem of icXifia^, a ladder, climax, 
with suffix -TTjp of the agent ; see below. 

climax, the highest degree. (Gk.) 
Gk. K\TfM(, a ladder, staircase, highest 
pitch of expression (in rhetoric). — Gk. 
K\iv€iv, to slope. Der. anti-climax. 

clime. (L. — Gk.) L.. clinMf B. cUmsLte. 
— Gk. KXifta ; see Climate. 

Climb. (E.) yi.K,climben,^\.A.clomb. 
A. S. climban, pt. t. clamby pi. clumbon.-^ 
Du. klimmen, M.H.G. klimmen. Teut. 
type *klimban; The m was orig. in- 
serted in the present stem, and did not 
belong to the root ; as is shewn by Icel. 
klifa, to climb. Hence it is allied to 
Cleave (2). 

Clime ; see Climate. 

Clinch, Clench, to rivet. (E.) M.E. 
clenihen, ktenken, to strike smartly, to 
make to clink ; causal of klinken, to clink. 


Cf. Du. klinkf a latch, rivet ; also, a blow ; 
and O. H. G. klenkan, to knot or bind 

Cling. (E.) M. E. clingen, to become 
stiff, be matted together. A.S. clingan 
(pt. t. clang, pp. clungen)y to dry up, 
shrivel up. -f Dan. klynge, to cluster. Allied 
to Swed. klanga, to climb; O. H. G. 
clunga, a clew. 

Clinical. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y,clinique, 
'one that is bedrid;' Cot. — L. clinicus, 
the same. — Gk. «Aivi«($s, belonging to a 
bed, a physician ; ^ KXivixii, his art.— Gk. 
K\iinj, a bed. — Gk. xXtVciv, to lean; see 
Ijean (i). 

Clink. (E.) E. Fries, klinken. Nasa- 
lised form of Click.^-l^n. klinken, to 
sound, pt. t. kUmk, pp. geklonken ; Swed. 
klinka, to jingle. Cf. Clank. 

clinker, a hard cinder. (Du.) Du. 
k linker, a clinker, named from the tinkling 
sound which they make when they strike 
each other. —Du. klinken, io cXvak; cog- 
nate with E. clink, 

clinqnant, glittering. (F.-Du.) In 
Shak. Lit. * tinkling.' — F. clinquant, pres. 
pt of O. F. clinquer, to clink. — Du. 
klinken (above). 

Clip, to cut. (Scand.) M. E. klippen. — 
Icel. klippa, Swed. klippa, Dan. klippe, to 
clip, shear hair. Cf. Snip. Der. clipper, 
a ' cutter,' a fast vessel. • 

Clique, a gang. (F. — Du.) F. clique, a 
gang, noisy set. — O. F. cliquer, to click, 
make a noise. — Du. klikken, to click, 
clash ; also to inform, tell ; cf. Du. klikker, 
a tell-tale. See Click. 

Cloak, Cloke. (F. -C.) M. E. doke, - 
O. North F. cloque, O. F. cloche, ^\jdXt\.. 
cloca, a bell ; also a horseman's cape, which 
resembled a bell in shape : see below. 

clock. (C.) The orig. sense was* bell'; 
bells preceded clocks for notifying times. 
Either from M. Du. clocke (Du. klok), a 
bell ; or from O. North F. cloque, a bell. - 
Late L. cloc{c)a, a bell ; of Celtic origin. — 
Irish ciog, a bell, clock ; clogaim, I ring 
or sound as a bell ; O. Irish doc, a bell. 
Cf. W. clock, a bell, &c. The G. glocke is 
a borrowed word ; so also Du. klok, &c. 

Clod. (E.) M. E. clod, clodde, A. S. 
clod (in compounds), a lump of earth. 

Teut. type *klU'do; from the weak grade 

of Teut root *kleu; to stick together. See 

Clew, Cloud. Cf. Clot. 

Cloff, a hindrance; a wooden sole of 

a shoe; wooden shoe. (E.) M.E. clog, 




a log, clump. Not found in A. S. A late 
word ; cf. Dan. klagge^ mud (Molbech). 

Cloister. (F.-L.) M.E. cloister,'^ 
O. F. cloistre (F. cloStre\^\i, clauslrum, 
lit. enclosure.— L. ciaus-us, pp. oi clau- 
dere, to shut. See Claose. 

dose (i>» to shut in. (F.-L.) M. £. 
closen^'mO. F. clos, i pr. s. of O. F. clcrej 
to shut'in. i«L. claudere (above). Der. 
dose^ a' field ; dis-close, en-close, in-close, 

close (a), shut up. (F.-L.) M.E. 

clos, cloos.^O, F. f/«f, pp. of clap£ (above). 

closet. (F. — L.) O. F. closet, dimin. 

of cloSf an enclosed space. —O.F. clos, 

pp. ; see close (2). 

<not. (E.) M.E. clot, clotte, a ball, 
esp. of eaitb. A. S. clolt, clot, a lump. 4- 
G. klotz, a lump. Teut. type *klut-to-, 
from the weak grade of Teut. base *kleut ; 
see Cleat, Clout, Cluster. 

Caoth. (E.) M. E. cloth, cloth, A. S. 
cla8.'^T>VLf klud, G. kleid, a dress. Der. 
clothes, A. S. clddas, pi. of cld9, 

dothCf to cover with a cloth. (E.) 
M. E. clot hen, clcUhen, pt. t. clothede (or 
cladde), pp. clothed (or clad). Formed 
from A. S. ^/(rfJJf.+Du. kleeden, from kleed ; 
so also G. kleiden, from kleid, ^ But the 
pt. t. and pp. clctd are of Scand. origin : 
cf. IceL klcedd-r, pp. of kla^a, to clothe ; 
Swed. kladd, pp. olkldda. 

Cloud. (E.) M. £. cloud, orig. a mass 
of vapours ; the same Word as M. £. cliidy 
a mass of rock. A. S. cliid, a round mass, 
mass of rock, hill. From Teut. root *kleu, 
to stick together ; see Clew, Clod. 

Clontfh, a hollow in a hill-side. (£.) 
M. K,ciough, cloje. Answering to A. S. 
*cldh, not found ; coj^nate with O. H. G. 
kldh. The A.S. *cloh ( = O.H.G. kldh, 
as in Klcthuelde^ Forstemann) represents 
a Teut. type *klanxo-, from *klanxt 2nd 
grade of HHnx ; cf. G. klinge, O. H. G. 
chlinga, a dough (Acad., Aug. and Sept. 

Clout, a patch. (E.) Vi,^ clout. A.S. 
cliit, a patch ; whence W. clwt^ Corn, clut^ 
a patch, clout; Ir. and Gael, dud, the 
same. Orig. sense ' mass, piece of stuff' ; 
orig. Teut. type *klut-oz, from Teut. root 
*klut-, *kleut-, as seen in Clot. Closely 
allied to Cleat (which is from the 2nd 
grade of the same root). 

Clove (1)1 a kind of spice. (F. — L.) 
M. E. dotv ; the change to clove, in the 
XVIth cent, was due to the influence 
of Ital. chiovo. — F. dott^ a nail ; clou 

de girofle, *a clove,' Cot.; from the 
semblance to a nail. Cf. Span. clcmOy a 
nail, also a clove.»L. clduum, ace of 
dduus, a nail. 4*0. Irish do, a nail. 

Clove (2), a bulb, or spherical shell of 
a bulb of garlic, &c. (E.) A.S. clufu, f. ; 
cf. cluf-wyrt, a buttercup (lit dove-wort). 
Named from its cleavage into shells.— 
A. S. cluf-, weak grade oideofan, to split; 
see Cleave (i). Cf. Icel. kl^, a cleft 

Clove (3), a weight (F.-L.) A. F. 
clou ; the same word as Clove (i).—Late 
L. cImjus, a weight (for wool). 

Clover. (E.) M. E. daver, A. S. 
cldfre^ clSfre, tTefoil.4>L>u. hlaver, whence 
Swed. klqfver, Dan. klover; Low G. 
hlever; cf. G. ilee, ^ The supposed 
connexion with cleave (i) is impossible. 

Clown. (Scand.) Icel. /^/i/Mm, a clumsy, 
boorish fellow : Swed. dial, klunn, a log, 
kluns, a clownish fellow; Dan. klunt^ a 
log ; cf. Dan. kluntet, clumsy. Allied to 
Clump. Orig. sense ' log * or ' clod.* 

Cloy. (F. — L.) Orig. to stop up, hence, 
to sate. M . F. cloyer, * to cloy, stop up, ' Cot. ; 
a by-form of F. clouer (O.F. doer), to nail, 
fasten up. [A horse pricked with a nail, 
in shoeing, was said to be cloyed^^O,Y, 
do, F. clou, a nail ; see Clove (i). % Cloy 
(in E.) is usually short for ac-cloy or a-cloy, 
where the prefix a- represents F. en- ; see 
F. endouer, endqyer in Cotgrave. 

Club (0) ^ heavy stick. (Scand.) M.E. 
clubbe, » Icel. klubba, klumba, a dub ; 
Swed. klubb, a club, log, lump ; Dan. klub, 
club, klitmp, lump. A mere variant oi 
Clump below. See Golf. 

club (2), an association. (Scand.) 
XVII cent Lit 'a clump of people.' 
Cf. Swed. dial, klubb, a clump, lump, also 
a knot of people (Rietz). See above. 

Cluck. (E.) M.E. clokhen, to cluck 
as a hen ; a mere variant of Claok.^ 
Du. klokken, Dan. klukke, G. gluchen; 
L. gloctre. An imitative word. 
Clue ; see Clew. 

Clumpi a mass, block. (E.) XVI 
cent. Not in A.S., except as in clymp-re, 
a clump. Cf. Dan. klump, Swed. klump ; 
Du. klomp. Low G. klump, a dump, 
lump, log ; (Icel. klumba, a club, with b 
for p). From klump-, weak grade of 
Teut *klemp-,tiS in M.H.G. klimpfen, to 
press tightly together. Cf. Clamp. 
Clumsy. (Scand.) Cf. M. E. clumsed, 
clomsed, benumbed ; benumbed fingers are 
clumsy. This is the pp. of clomsen, to 



benumb, or to feel benumbed. Cf. Swed. 
diaL klummsen, benumbed (Rietz) ; Icel. 
kiumsa, lock-jawed. Cf. Dn. kiemmen, to 
pinch; kleumenftohthtaviXXihediykUumschf 
numb with cold ; also A. S. clontf clam, a 
bond, clasp. See Olajnmy. 

Cluter, a bunch. (£.) A. S. cluster, 
clyster y a bunch. 4- Low G. kluster. Suggests 
a Teut. type *klut'tro-, a cluster ; formed 
with suffix 'tro from *klut-f weak grade of 
Teut. root *kleut't to mass together; for 
which see Clot, Cleat, Clout. 

^utchi to seize. (£.) M. £. clucchen, 
clicchen, A. S. clyccan (whence pp. ge- 
clihty Somner). We find also M. £. cloke, 
a claw; which was superseded by the 
verbal form. 

CluttOTf a clotted mass ; also clutter, 
vb., to clot (£.) Clutter^ vb., is a variant 
of clotter^ to run into dots ; see Clot, and 
cf. £. Fries. Jklutem, to become clotted. 
Clutter also meant confusion, a confused 
heap, turmoil, din ; by association with 
Clatter. Cf. £. Fries, kloter, a rattle. 

Clyster. (L.— Gk.) L. clyster, an 
injection into the bowels. *Gk. Kkvirrffp, a 
clyster, syringe.— Gk. AcXvfctv, to wash. 4* 
L. cliiere^ to wash. (^KL£U.) 

Co-f prefix. (L.) L. co-^ together ; 
used for con- {^cum\ together, l^fore a 
vowel. Hence, co-efficient, co-equal^ co- 
operate, cO'Ordinate. See others below; 
and see Con-. 

Coaoh. (F. — Hung.) F. cocAe, ^ a 
coach ; * Cot. £tym. disputed. Said, as 
early as A. D. 1553, to be a Hungarian 
word ; from Hung, kocsi, a coach, so called 
because first made at a Hung, village called 
ICocsi or Kocs, near Raab ; see Littr^, and 
Beckmann, Hist, of Inventions. 

Coadjutor. (F.-L.) XV cent. A.F. 
coadjutour, — L. co-t for con- « cum,iogetheT; 
and adiutor, an assistant, from vb. adiu- 
udre, to assist— L. cui-, to; iuudre, to 

CoagnlatO, to curdle. (L.) L. coSgu- 
Idtus, pp. of codguldre, to curdle. — L. 
codgulum, rennet, which causes milk to 
run together. — L. co- (cupt), together ; 
ag^ere, to drive. 

Coal. (£.) M.E. f<)/. A.S. r<?/.+ 
Du. kool, Icel. Swed. kol, Dan. kul, G. 
kohU, Cf. Skt. jval, to blaze. 

Coalesoe, to grow together. (L.) L. 
coaiescere. — L. co-yior con- = cum, together ; 
and cUescere, to grow, inceptive of alere, to 


CoarS6f rough. (F.— L.) Formerly 
course, an adj. which arose from the phrase 
in course to denote anything of an ordinary 
character; cf. mod. E. of course. See 

Coast. (F. - L.) M. E. coste, - O. F. 
coste (F. cdti), a rib, slope of a hill, shore. 

— L. costa, a rib. 

Coat. (F. -G.) M. £. cote. - O. F. 
cote (F. cotte) ; Low L. cota, cotta, a coat. 

— Mi H. G. kotte, kutte, a coarse mantle; 
O. Sax. cot, the same. 

Coax. (E. ?) Formerly cokes, vb., from 
cokes, sb., a simpleton, dupe. Perhaps 
allied to Cocker or to Cookney. 

Cob (i), a round lump, knob. (E.) As 
applied to a pony, it means short and 
stout. M. K cob, a great person 
(Hoccleve). In some senses, it seems to 
be allied to A. S. copp, a top, summit. 

cobble (i)f a small round lump. (£.) 
M. E. cohylstone, a cobble-stone* Dimin. 
oicob (above). 

Cob (2), to beat. (£.) Cf. W. cobio, to 
thump; cob, a bunch; prov. £. cop, to 
strike, esp. on the cop or head. See Cob 


Cobalt, a mineral. (G.) G. kobalt, 
cobalt ; a nickname given by the miners, 
because considered poisonous; better 
spelt kobold, meaning (i) a demon, (2) 
cobalt. Of G. origin (Kluge). 

Cobble (i); see Cob (i). 

Cobble (a), to patch up. (E.) Origin 
unknown ; cf. Cob (a), of which it seems 
to be the frequentative. 

Cobra« a hooded snake. (Port.— L.) 
Port, cobra, also cobra de capello, i. e. snake 
with a hood. — L. colubra, snake ; di, of; 
capellum, ace. of capellus, hat, hood, 
dimin. of c&pa, a cape. See Notes and 
Queries, 7 S. ii. 205. 

Cobweb. (E.) M. E. copweb, coppe- 
web ; from M. £. coppe, a spider, and web. 
Cf. M. Du. kop, koppe, *a spider, or a cob/ 
Hexham. From A. S. coppa, as in dttor- 
coppa, a spider; lit. poison-bunch; from 
A. S. dttor, dtor, poison, and cop, a head. 

Coca, a Peruvian plant. (Span. — Peruv.) 
Span, coca, — Peruv. cuca\ Garcilasso, Peru, 
bk. 8. c. 15. Distinct both from cocoa (or 
coco) and cacao. Dor. coca-ine. 

Cochineal. (F. - Span. - L. - Gk.) 
F. cochenille.^S^Ti. cochinilla, cochineal 
(made from insects which look like berries). 

— L. coccinus, of a scarlet colour; see 
Isaiah i. 18 (Vulgate). —L. cocatm, Khfjiy\ 




also kemies, sapipoKd to bea henj.^Gk, 
K&Mmas^ a berry, codiincaL 

COGk(i),aiiiakbird. OL) M.£.<«^. 
A. S. cocc ; from the bird s ay. ' Cryde 
anon cok I cok!* Ch. C. T. Nnn's Piiest's 
Tale, 457. Ct Skt. kukkmia, a code; 
Malay bukuk, crowing of cocks. And 
cf. Cackoo. 

OOdkp the stop-cock of a baiiel, is the 
same wcvd. So also G. kakH^ (i) a cock, 
(a) a stop-cock. 

COCkp pait of the lock of a gun. From 
its original shape ; cf. G. den Hakn span" 
fi€U, to cock a gnn. 

cockade, a knot of ribbon on a hat. 
(F.) F. coquartUj fern, of coquard^ sancy ; 
also coquarde^ bonnet ^ la coquarde, ' any 
bonnet or cap worn proudly ; ' Cot Formed 
with saffix -an/ from F. caq, a cock (from 
the bird's cry). 

COClEercl, a yoong cock. (£.) Double 
dimin. of Cock (i). Cf. pik^erel. 

COCUofbf upper loft. (£. a»ul Scand.) 
From cock and lofi. So also G. AaAnkaiken, 
a roost, cockloft ; Dan. loftkammer, a loft- 
chamber, room up in the rafters. 

Cock (3), a pile of hay. (Scand.) Dan. 
koky a heap ; prov. Dan. kok^ a hay-cock, 
at kokke hoet^ to cock hay; loel. kokkry 
lump, ball ; Swed. koka^ clod of earth. 

Cock (3), to stick up abruptly. (£.) 
Apparently with reference to the posture 
pf a cock^s head when crowing ; or to that 
of his crest or tail. Cf. Gael, coc, to cock ; 
as in coc do bhoineidy cock your bonnet ; 
coC'Shrowuhy cock-nosed. Ajid see Cock- 

Cock (4), Cockboat, a small boat. 
(F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. coque, a kind of 
boat, orig. a shell. Cf. Span, coca, Ital. 
cocca^ a . small ship. Derived (by Diez) 
from L. concha^ a shell ; from Gk. Mdymf, 
a cockle ; see Cookie (i). 

Cockade ; see Cook (i). 

Cockatoo, a kind of parrot. (Malay.) 
Malay kakatua ; from the bird's cry. Cf. 
Malay kukuk, crowing of cocks. Skt. 
kukkuia, a cock. See Cook (i). 

Cockatrice. (F.-LateL.-L.) By 
confusion with cock, it was said to be a 
monster hatched from a cock's egg, — O. F. 
cocairice, — I^te L. cScdtrUem, ace. of 
Cicatrix, cauc&trix^ answering to a Latin 
type *caicdtrtx, i. e. ' the treader or tracker,' 
used to render the Gk. Ixy^vfiory, and 
afterwards transferred to mean 'crocodile' 
«'see account in N. E. D.).>L. ea/cd-re, to 

tread; with fem. suffix -/in>, of the 

Cocker, to pamper. (E. ?) M. £. 
cokeren (whence W. cocriy to fondle, in- 
dulge). Cf. M. Dn. kokeleny kenitltn^ 
* to cocker, to foster/ Hexham ; M. F, 
coqueliner^ 'to dandle, cocker, pamper 
(a child) ; ' Cot Perhaps from cock^ as if 
to make a nestle-codc or chick of. 

Cockerel ; see Cook (i). 

Cockle (i)> a sort of bivalve. (F. - L. 

- Gk.) M. £. coktL [Cf. cocK a cockle 
(P. Plowman, C. x. 95) ; A. S, sti^cofca ; 
(where j^«sea).]— F. coanit/e, a cockle- 
shell ; cf. Ital. cockigtia. •- Lat. type *cocky* 
Hum, for conckytittm, a cockle, shell-fish. 

— Gk. leorfxykioVf a cockle, dimin. of gey* 
mikfi, from xiyicti, a cockle or mussel. 

Cockle (a), a weed among com. (E.) 
A. S. cocce/t tares; whence Gael, copai/f 
tares, husks, cockle; cogulty corn-cockle; 
Irish cogaii, com*cockle. 

Cockle (.^)» to be uneven, pucker up, 
(Scand.) Of Scand. origin ; cf. Norw. 
kokiutt, lumpy, uneven, * cockled up ; * 
from Norw. koklg, a little lump, dimin. of 
kok, a lump; see Cook (a). Cf. Swed. 
kokkeif dimm. of koka^ a clod. 

Cockloft ; see Cock (i). 

Cockney I orig. an effeminate person. 
(£.) Florio has: ' CaccAcre//$\ cackllngs 
of hens ; also egs, as we say cockantgs* 
From M. £. cokenay^ a foolish person, Ch. 
C. T. 4208. Lit. * cocks' egg y i.e. yolk- 
less t%g. From M. £. coken^ gen. pi. of 
coky a cock ; and ay^ ey^ A. S. ar^ egg. 
See C. S. Bume, Shropshire Folk-lore, 
p. a 39. 

Cockroach. (Span.) From Span. 
cucaracka, a wood-louse, cockroach ; from 
cuca (also cuco)^ a kind of caterpillar. 
Origin uncertain. 

Cocoa (0) Coco, the cocoa-nut palm. 
(Fort.) Port, and Span. cocOy a bugbear, 
an ugly mask to frighten children ; nence 
applied to the cocoa-nut on account of 
the monkev-like face at the base of the 
nut. Cf. Span, cocary to make grimaces. 

Cocoa (a;, a corrupt form of Caoao. 

Cocoon^ case of a chrysalis. (K. — L. — 
Gk.) F. cocon, a cocoon ; from eoquCf a 
shell. See Cook (4). 

Cod (i), a fish. (£.1) Spelt codtie in 
Palsgrave. Perhaps named from its round- 
ed shape; cf. M. Dn. kodde^ a club ^ lex- 
ham) ; and see below. Der. cod- lift f(^ a 
yotmg cod ; M. E. coillyng. 





Cod (a)} a husk, bag, bolster. '(^) 
Hence, peas-cod, husk of a pea. A. S. codd, 
a bag.HKIcel. k^kidi, pillow, kodri, scrotum ; 
Swed. kmlde, a cushion. 

Coddle, to pamper, render effeminate. 
(F. - L. ?) Perhaps for caudle, vb. (in 
Shak.), to treat with caudle ; see Caudle. 
Cf. prov. £. coddle, to parboil, stew. 

Code*. a digest of laws. (F.~L.) F. 
code. — L. codicem, ace. of codeXj a tablet, 
book ; older form caudex, a trunk of a 

codicil. (L.) L. codicillus^ a codicil 
to a will ; dimin. of codex (stem codic-). 
' Codling (0) CodUn, a kind of apple. 
(C. ?) Earlier spellings querdling, quad- 
ling, quodling. Apparently formed, with 
£. suffix 'ling, from Irish cueirt, an apple- 

Codling (2^ ; see Cod (i). 

Coerce. (L.) L. coercere, to compel. 
— L. CO- (cum), together; arcere, to en- 
close, confine, allira to area, a diest ; see 

Coffee. (Turk. -Arab.) Turk, ^a^- 
z/M."-Arab. qahwah, coffee. 

Coffer. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. cofre. 
— O. F. cofre, also cqfin, a chest. — L. ace. 
cophinum, * Gk. m6<Ikvos, a basket. 

coffin. (F. — L.— Gk.) Orig. a case, 
chest. — O. F. cofin, as above. (Doublet 
q{ cOjffer.) 

Cog (i)} a tooth on a wheel-rim. 
(Scand.) M. £. cogge [whence Gael, 
and Irish cog, a mill-cog ; W. cacos, cocs, 
cogs of a wheel]. Not in A. S. --M. Dan. 
Jkogge, a cog, kogge-kjul, a cog-wheel 
(Kalkar) ; Swed. kugge, a cog ; M. Swed. 
kugg (Ihre). 

Cog (a)* to trick. (Scand.) Prob. 
to catch as with a cog; to cog a die, to 
check it so as to make it fall as desired. 
Cf. Swed. dial, kugg, Norw. kogga, to 
dupe; Swed. kugga, 'to cheat, to cog;* 

Cogent. (L.) L. cogenl; stem of 
pres. part, of cogere, to compel ; for 
cO'Ogerc {^con-a^re), lit to drive to- 
gether. Brugm. 1. § 968. 

Cogitate. (L.) L. cogitdtus, pp. of 
cogitdre, to think; for co^gitdre, from 
CO-, con; together, and agitdre, to agitate, 

frequent, of agere, to drive. 

Cognate. (L) L. co-gndtus, allied 

by birth. — L. co- (for cuni), together; 
gndtus, bom, old form of ndtus, pp. of 

nasci, to be bom; see 19'fttal. 


Cognisance, knowledge, a badge. (F. 

— L.) Formerly conisaunce. — O. F. con- 
noissance, knowledge ; M. F. cognoissance, 

— O. F. conoissant, pres. pt of O. F. 
conoistre, to know. — L. cognoscere, to 
know. •- L. CO- {cum), together, fully; 
gnoscere, to know ; see Enow. 

cognition, perception. (L.) From 
ace. of L. cognitio,'mh, cognitus, pp. of 
cognoscere (above). 

COgnomeni a sumame. (L.) L. co- 
gnomen, a sumame.— L. co- (cum), with; 
ndmen, a name, altered to gndmen by con- 
fusion with gnoscere, noscere, to know^ 
See Noun, Name. 

Cohabit. (L.) L. co-habitdre, to 
dwell together with. — L. co- (cum-), to- 
gether; habitdre, to dwell. See Habi- 

Cohere. (L.) L. co-harere, to stick 
together (pp. r0^«ji/j). — L. r^, together; 
harere, to stick. Per. cohes'ion, cohes- 
ive, from the pp. 

Cohorty a band of soldiers. (F.~L.) 
F.'L, acc, cohortem, from cohors, 
a court, also a band of soldiers. See 
Court, of which it is a doublet. 

Coif, QlI0i£( a cap. (F.-G.-L.) 
O. F. coije, coiffe ; Low L. cofea, a cap. — 
M. H. G. kuffe, kupfct a cap worn under 
the helmet ; O. H. G. chuppha ; stem 
^kupp-jdn-.^O, H. G. chuph (G. kopf), a 
cup ; also, the head. — L. cuppa ; see Cap. 

Coign ; see Coin. 

Coif (I), to gather together. (F.-L.) 
' Coiled up in a cable ; ' Beaumont and 
Fletcher. — O. F. coillir, to collect. — L. 
colligere', see Colleot. 

Coil (a)> a noise, bustle. (F. ^ L.?) 
Orig. a colloquial or slang expression; 
prob. from Ooil(i). We find 'a coil of 
hay,* a heap ; and coiU to twist. 

Coin. (F.-L.) M. E. coin. - O. F. 
coin, a wedge, stamp on a coin, a coin 
(stamped by means of a wedge). — L. 
cuneum, ace ofcuneus, a wedge. Perhaps 
allied to Cone. 

coign. (F.— L.) F. coing, coin, a 
comer ; lit. a wedge (as above). 

Coincide, to agree with. (L.) L. co- 
(for con- '^ cum, with); and incidere, to 
fall upon, from in, upon, and cadere, to 

Coistrel, a mean fellow. (F. — L.) 
For coustrel, the older form (Palsgrave), 
An E. adaptation of M.F. coustillier, 
an armour-bearer, lackey ; lit. ' one who 




carries a poinard.' * M. F. coustilU, a 
poniard ; variant of O. F. cotistel, better 
coutelj a knife.— L. cuUellum, ace. oi cul' 
ieilus, a knife; dimin. of culter. See 

Coit ; see Qnoit. 

Coke, charred coal. (E. f) < Coke, 
pit-coal or sea-coal charred ; * Ray, 1674. 
£tym. unknown ; cf. M. £. colk, the core 
(of an apple). 

Colanaer. Cullender, a strainer. 

(L.) Equivalent to Med. L. cdldtorium^ a 
strainer ; apparently coined from L. colant-t 
stem of pres. part, of coldre, to strain. —L. 
colum, a sieve. Or the M. £. colindore 
may have been taken from Span, colador^ 
a strainer (from L. coldre). 

Cold. (E.) M. £. cold, kald, adj.; 
O. Merc, caldy A. S. ceald, adj. 4* Icel. 
kaldr, Swed. kally Dan. bold. Da. koudj 
Goth, kalds, G. kalt. Tent. *kai-doz, 
cold ; from Tent. *kal, to be cold (as in 
Icel. kaia, to freeze), with suffix -doz » Gk. 
'tSs. Cf. Lat. gel-iduSf cold; see Con- 
geal, Chill, Cool. 

Cole, Colewort, cabbage. (L.) For 
'Worty see "Wort. M. £. col, caul, A. S. 
caul, cdwel (or Icel. kdl), »- L. caulis, a 
stalk, cabbage. +Gk. ieavX6s, a stalk. 

Coleoptera, sheath -winged insects. 
(Gk.) Gk. KoK^i-s, a sheath; wr^p^v, a 

Colic. (F.-L.-Gk.) Short for coHc 
pain.'^Y, colique, adj. — L. cdlicus,m^Gk. 
KwKutSs, for ko\ik6s, suffering in the colon. 
— Gk. tc6\oy. See Colon ^2). 

Coliseum. (Med. L.—Gk.) The same 
as colossium,K large amphitheatre at Rome, 
so named from its magnitude (Gibbon). 
The Ital. word is coliseo. See CoIossub. 

Collapse^ to shrink together, fall in. 
(L.) First used in the pp. collafsed. 
Englished from L. collapsus, pp. of colldbt, 
to fall together. — L. col- (for con-, i. e. cum)^ 
together ; Idii, to slip. See Iiapse. 

Collar. (F. - L.) M. E. and A. F. 
coler.^O, F. colter , a collar. «L. colldre, a 
band for the neck.— L. collum, the neck.«f 
A. S. Aealf, G. Aals, the neck. 

CoUety the part of the ring in which 
the stone is set. (F. — L.) ¥, collet, a 
collar. — F. col, neck.— L.- collum, ntck. 

Collateral. (L.) taHtl^collaterdlis, 
tide by side. — L. col- (for com^^cum), 
with; lateralis, lateral, from later-, for 
*lcUeS'j stem of latus, side. 

Collifttioiii a comparison; formerly, a 

conference. (F.— L.) O. F. collatum, a 
conference. — L. ace. colldtionem^ a bring- 
hig together, a conferring. — L. coUdium, 
supine in use with the verb conferre, to 
bring together (but from a different root). 
^\j,col- {(or con- = cum), together ; latum, 
supine of tolUre, to take, bear. See 

Colleane (i), a partner. (F.-L.) 
M. F. couegue. — L. collega, a partner in 
office. — F. col' (for con-, cum)^ with; 
legere, to choose ; see Iiegend. 

Colleague (2), to join in an alliance. 
(F. — L.) O. F. colliguer, colieguer, to 
colleague with. — L. colligdre, to bind 
together. — L. col- (for con-, cum), to- 
gether ; ligdre, to bind. See League (i). 

Collect, vb. (F.-L.) O.Y,collecter^ 
to collect money (Roquefort). — Late L. 
collectdre (the same), from collecta, a col- 
lection, orig. fem. of pp. of colligere, to 
collect. — L. col- (for con-, cum), with; 
legere, to gather ; see Legend. 

collect, sb. (L.) Late L. collecta, a 
collection in money, an assembly for 
prayer, hence a short prayer ; see above. 

Colleen, a girl. (Irish.) Irish cailin, 
a girl ; dimin. of caile, a country-woman. 
Gael, cailin, dimin. of caile. 

Colletfe, an assembly, seminary. (F.— 
L.) O . F. college. — L. collegium, society of 
colleagues or companions.— L. collega, a 
colleague; see Colleague (i). 

Collet ; see Collar. 

Collide. (L.) L. collidere, to dash to- 
gether.— L. col' (for con-, cum), together; 
ladere, to strike, hurt. Der. collis-ion 
(from pp. colliS'Us), 

CoUie, Colly, a kind of shepherd's 
dog. (E.) Formerly, coalfy, coley\ prob. 
the same as coal-y, coal-coloured, black. 
Cf. obs. colly, adj., coal-black ; collied in 
Shak. M. N. D. i. i. 145. 

Collier. (E.) lA.K colter \ fromM.E. 
col, coal. Cf. bow-yer, saw-yer. 

Collocate* to place together. (L.) 
From pp. of L. col-locdre, to place together. 
— L. col- (for con-, «#»»), together; locdre, 
tojplace, from locus, a place. 

Collodion, a solution of gun-cotton. 
(Gk.) From Gk. KoiOM-r^^, glue-like. — 
Gk. KliKK-Of glue; -clSi/r, like, c75of, 

Collop, a slice of meat. (E. ?) M. £• 
coloppe, col-hoppe ; pi. col-hoppes (P. Plow- 
man>, whence M. Swed. kollops, Swed. 
kalops. Here col- -= coal (see Coal) ; cf. 



Swed. diaL gloi^hoppa^ a cake baked over 
^ledes or hot coals. (E. Bjorkman). 

CoUoony* (L.) From L. colloquium^ 
conversation. — L. col-loqtiiy to converse 
with^ lit to speak togelner.— L. col- (for 
con-^ cuni)y together; loguly to speak. 

CoUudey to act with others in a fraud. 
(L.) L. colludere (pp. collusus)^ to play 
with, act in collusion with. — L. col- 
(for con-, cum)f with; ludere, to play. 
Der, collus'ion, from the pp. 

Colocynth, Coloq^nmtida, pith of 

the fruit of a kind ot cucumber. (Gk.) 
From the nom. and ace cases of Gk. 
, Ko\oKW$is (ace. Ko\otcvy$i^)y a kind of 
round gourd or pumpkin. 
. Colon (i)f a mark (:) in writing and 
printing. (Gk.) . Gk. «ctf\or, a limb, 
clause ; hence, a stop marking off a clause. 
• Colon (a)i part of the intestines. (Gk.) 
Gk. k6Kov, the same. 

: Colonel. (F. - Ital - L.) Sometimes 
coronelf whicn is the Span, spelling; 
whence the pronunciation as kumeL^^Y. 
colonelf colonnel, — Ital. r^^/i^/^, a colonel; 
lit. a little column, as being *■ the upholder 
of the regiment ; * Torriano. The colonel 
was he who led the company at the head 
of the regiment. Dimin. of Ital. cohnna, 
a colunuL — L. columnar a column. See 

Golonnada. (F. - lul. - L.) F. 

colonnade, <m Ital. colonnata, a range of 
columns. « Ital. colouna^ a colunm (above). 

Colony. (F. - L.) F. colonie, — L. 
colonia, a colony, band of husbandmen. 
— L. coldnuSf a husbandman.— L. colere, 
to till. Colere is for *quelere; cf. L. 
inquilfnus, a sojourner. Brugm. i. § 121. 

Coll^^lionf an inscription at the end of 
a book, with title, and (sometimes) name 
and date. (Gk.) Late L. colophon. — Gk. 
KoKoifwy, a summit; hence, a finishing- 
stroke. Allied to Coluxxui. 

Coloqnintida ; see Coiooynth. 

Colossus. (L. - Gk.) L. colossus. — 
Gk. ieoKoaads, a large statue. Der. coloss- 
al, i. e. large ; coliseum^ q. v. 

Colour. (F.-L.) U.E.colour.^O.F. 
colour (F. couleur).'^'L, ace. colorem, from 
coloTf a tint. 

Colporteur, a hawker of wares. (F. — 
L.) Lit. 'one who carries wares on his 
neck ; * F.. colporteur. — F. colporter^ to 
carry on the neck.-*F. coly neck; porter , 
to carry. — L. Mllum, neck; portdre, to 


Colt. (E.) A. S. colt, a young camel, 
young ass, &c.4'Swed. dial. kulH, a boy ; 
Swed. kullt Dan. kuld, a brood ; cf. Dan. 
dial, koltringy a lad. 

Columbine, a plant. (F.-L.) M.F. 
cohmbin.^lAit L. cQlumbitta, a colum- 
bine; L. columbtnus, dove-like; from a 
supposed resemblance. — L. columba, a 
dove. See Culver. 

Column, a pillar, body of troops. 
(F. — L.) L. columna, a pillar; cf. 
columen, culmen, a summit, colliSf a hill, 
GV. Ko\w6i, 2i\i\\\. See Hill. (VQEL.) 

Colure, one of two great circles on the 
celestial sphere, at right angles to the 
equator. (L. — Gk.) So called because 
a part of them is always beneath the 
horizon. The word means docked, clip- 
ped. —L. colurus^ curtailed; a colure. 
■- Gk. «<$Xovpo$, dock- tailed, truncated ; a 
colure. — Gk. k6\'0^, docked, clipped ; and 
o6p(&, a tail. 

Colza oil, a lamp-oil made from the 
seeds of a variety of cabbage. (F. — L. and 
Du.) F. colza, better colzat.'^'DvL. koolzaad, 
rape-seed, cabbage-seed. ->Du. ^ool (bor- 
rowed from L. cauh's), cole, cabbage ; and 
Du. zaad— £. seed. 

Com*, prefix. (L.) For L. cum, with, 
together; when followed by A, /, »/, 
/. See Con-. 

Coma. (Gk.) Gk. K&iM, a deep sleep. 

Comb. (E.) A. S. camb, a comb, crest, 
ridge. -I* Du. kam, Icel.kambr, Dan. Swed. 
kam ; G. Mamm. Teut. type *kamboz ; 
Idg. type ^£ombAos; cf. Gk. y6fupas, a 
pin, peg; Skt. jamblia-s, a tooth. 

Comb, Coomb, a dnr measure. (E.) 
A. S. cuptb, & cup.^Du. kopi, a bowl ; G. 
kumpf, kumme, a bowl. 

Combat. (F. — L.) Orlg. a verb. - F. 
combattrCy O. F. combatre, to fight with. — 
F. com' (for L. cum), with ; and F. battre, 
O. F. batre, to fight, firom *battere, for 
L. battuere, to beat. Der. combat-ant, 
from the F. pres. pt. 

Combe, a hollow in a hill-side. (C.) 
W. cwm. Com. cum, a hollow, dale; 
Celtic type *kumbd, a valley ; cf. Irish 
cnmar, a valley. 

Combine. (L.) 'L.combTndre,ioyxm\t^ 
join two things together. — L. com- {cum), 
together ; and bmus, twofold. See Binary. 

Combustion. (F.^-L.) F. combus- 
tion. — L. ace. combustioncm, a burning up. 
— L. combust -us, pp. oicom-biirere, to bum 
up. — L. cofn- (for cum), together; and 




(perhaps) ureret to burn, with b inserted 
by association with amb-urere, 

Conie. (E.) A. S. cuman, pt. t. c{w)fffpt, 
pp. ctim^n,^Dvi. kcmen, Icel. koma, Dan. 
kompte, Sw. komma^ Goth, kiviman, G. 
kommen't L. uen-tre, (^guen'tre)^ Gk. 
$aiv€tv, Skt. ^»z, to go. (VGwEM.) 

Comedy. (F.-L.— Gk.) 0*Y,comedie, 
*a play;* Cot— L. cdmadia,^G\i. Kwii^» 
UoL, a comedy. — Gk. Kwn^h6sj a comic 
actor. — Gk. lewfio-if a banquet, revel, 
festal procession ; do(8<$f , a singer, from 
dciSciK, to sing. A comedy was a festive 
spectacle, with singing, &c. See Ode. 

comic. (L. — Gk.) L. comicus. — Gk. 
KcafiiKSs, belonging to a tcwfios, as above. 

Comely. (E.) M. £. cofn/i, kumli. 
A. S. cymlicy earlier form (ymlic, beautiful, 
fair. The A. S. <^ie, exquisite, is closely 
allied to O. H. G. ciimt^, weak, tender, 
and to O. H. G. kttm, with difficulty (G. 
kaum). The A. S. y was shortened before 
////, and the M. £. comli was associated 
with M. £. conien, to come, and so gained 
the sense of ' becoming,' pleasing, decorous. 
Cf. M. £. kimti a weak person. 

Comet. (L. — Gk.) Late A. S. comtta, 
— L. cometa,^QtV, leofxftrrjs, long*haired ; 
a tailed star, comet. — Gk. ic6/iri, hair.^L. 
coma, hair. % Also O. F. comete, 

Comfiti sb., a sweatmeat. (F.->L.) 
Formerly confit^ confite,^0,Y, confit, lit. 
confected, prepared ; pp. of confire, — L. 
confectumt pp. of conficerty to prepare, put 
together. — L. con- {cum)^ together ; facer e, 
to make. See Oonfeot. 

Comfort, vb. (F. — L.) M. £. con- 
fortertf later comforten.^O, F. conforter^ 
to comfort. — Late L, con-fortdre, to 
strengthen. — L. con* (cum), together ; 
ViTiA fort-is y strong; seeForoe (i). 

Comfirey, a plant. (F. - L.) O. F. 
confirey cumfirie ; Late L. cumfiria ; pro- 
bably for Lat. conferua (Pliny), comfrey, 
a name given to the plant from its sup- 
posed healing powers.— L. conferuerey to 
grow together, heal up (Celsus).— L. con- 
{cum)y together; feruere^ (orig.) to boil. 
% It was also called confirma (from L. 
fimtarCy to make firm), and amsolida 
(from L. soliddre, to make solid). 

Comic ; see Comedy. 

Comityy urbanity. (L.) L. comitdiemy 
ace. of comitasy urbanity. — L. comtSy 
friendly, courteous; 

Comma. (L.— Gk.)* L. comma, ^^Gk. 
Hofifia, that which is struck, a stamp, a 

clause of a sentence, a comma (that marks 
the clause). — Gk. Kltt^rtiv^ to hew, strike. 

Command. (F. - L.) O. F. cotn- 

maftdery comander, — L. commenddrty to 
entrust to; confused with Late L. com- 
manddrCy as if an intensive form of man' 
ddre y.\o command. Both forms are from 
L. com" (rt/w),. together; and manddrCy to 
put into the hands of, entrust to, command. 
See Mandate. 

Commemorate. (L.) From the pp. 

of L. commemordre^ to call to mind. — L. 
com- (for cum)y together; memordrCy to 
mention, from memor, mindful. 

Commence. (F.-L.) Y,commemer\ 
O. F. comencer (with one m ; cf. Ital. 
cominciare), — L. com- (cttm)y together; 
initidrcy to begin ; see Initiate. 

Commend. (L.) L. commendare, to 
entrust or commit to ; see Command. 

Commensurate. (L.) From L. 

commensurdtuSy as if from *cofnmeftsttrdret 
to measure in comparison with ; a coined 
word.— L. com- {cum)y with; mensurUy a 
measure ; see Measure. 
Comment, vb. (F.— L.) Y.commenter, 

— Late L. commentdre, for L. cotnmentdrfy 
to consider, make a note on. — L. com^ 
mentust pp. oi comminiscly to devise. — L. 
com- {cum)y with; -mift" for *w«i, to 
think, as in me-min-t { = *me-men-t)y I 
remember, and men-Sy mind. See Mental. 

CommercCy traffic. (F.—L.) Y. com- 
merce, ^h. commerciumy trade.— L. com- 
(^ = cum), with; merc-y stem of merx^ 
merchandise, with suffix 'i-um, 

Commination, a threatening, de- 
nouncing. (F.— L.) F. commination,^ 
L. ace. commindtidnemy a threatening.— 
L. commindtusy pp. of com-mindrty to 
threaten. — L. com- {cum)^ intensive prefix; 
and mindrty to threaten. See Menace. 

Commingle. (L. and £.) From 
Com- and Mingle. 

Comminntion, a reduction to small 
fragments. (L.) Formed from L. com* 
minut-usy pp. of com-minuercy to break 
into small pieces; see Minute. 

Commiseraiion. (F. - L.) M. F. 

commiseration. — L. ace. commiserdtidnemy 
part of an oration intended to excite pity. 

— L. commiserdrly to excite pity (pp. -dt' 
us), — L. com- (cum)y with ; miserdrt, 
to pity, from L. miser, wretched, pitiable. 

Commiflsaryf an officer to whom 
something is entrusted. (L.) Med. I^. 
commissdriuSy a commissary. — L. com- 



missus y pp. of committere^ to commit ; see 

COmmity to entrust to. (L.) L. com- 
miiterey to send out, begin, entrust, 
consign; ^p, commtssus.^h. corn- (cuni), 
with; mitiere, to send, put forth. Dor. 
commisS'ionf F. commission, from L. ace. 
commissidnem^ perpetration. 

Oommodions. (F.-L.) O.^.com- 

modieux ; Med. L. commodiosus^ useful. — 
L. commoduSy fit, suitable. — L. com- 
{cum)i with ; modus j measure. 

Conmiodore, the commander of a 
squadron. (Du. — F. — L.) Formerly 
spelt commandore (1695) ; also comman- 
deur, as in Dutch ; Hexham has : ■' den 
Commandeur van ten Stadt, The Com- 
mandeur of a Towne.'— F. commandeur, 
a commander. — L. ace. type ^comman- 
ddtorem, from Late L. commandore ; 
see Command. 

Common. (F.— L.) M. £. commun, 
comoun. — O. F. comun. ■■ L. communis, 
common, general. » L. r^/^;- (rM/»), together 
with ; and milnis, ready to serve (Plautus) ; 
cf. miinus, service. (As if ' helping each 
other.*) Cf. Lith. mainas, Russ. miena, 
barter. Brugm. i. § 208. Per. commun- 
ion, commun-ity, 

COmmiUie« verb. (F. - L.) M. E. 
comunen, ■■ O. F. communer, to commune 
with ; Late L. commUndre. — L. communis, 
common (above). 

communicate. (L.) L. commUni- 

cdtus, pp,oi commiinicdre,'''L, communis, 
common. Der. excommunicate. 
Commotion. (F.— L.) Y. commotion, 
■-L. commotionem, ace. of commotio. ^"L. 
commot'us, pp. of commouere^ to disturb. 

— L. com- {cum), intensive; and mouere, 
to move. See Move. 

Commute, to exchange. (L.) L. com- 
mUtdre, to exchange with. — L. com' (cum), 
with ; mutdre, to change. 

Compact (i), adj., fastened together, 
fitted, close, firm. (F.— L.) 
pacte.'^'L. compcu:tus, fitted together, pp. 
of compingere^^lu^ com- {cum), together; 
pangere, to fasten. See Fact. 

Compact (2), sb., a bargain, agree- 
ment. (L.) L. compactum, sb. ^ L. com- 
pactus, pp. of compacisct, to agree with. — 
L. com- {cum), with ; pacisct, to make a 
bargain, inceptive form of O. Lat. pacere, 
to agree. See Fact. 

Company. (F.— L.) M.E.companye, 

— O. F. companie. [Cf. also O. F. compain, 


a companion, O.F. companion (F. com- 
pagnon), a companion.] — Med. L. com- 
pdniem, ace. of companies, a taking of 
meals together. ^-L. com- {cum), together; 
and pdnis, bread; see Fantry. Der. 
companion, from O. F. companion. Also 
ctccompany, O. F. accompaignier, from F. a 
(for L. ad) and O. F. compaigfiier^ to asso- 
ciate with, from compaignie, company. 
Compare* to set together, so as to 
examine likeness or difference. (F.— L.) 
F. comparer, — L. compardre, to adjust, set 
together.— L. compar, co-equal. —L. com- 
{cum), together ; par, equal. 

Compartment. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. 

compartiment, *a partition;' Cot. — Ital. 
compartimento, — Ital. compartire ; Late L. 
compartire, to share. — L. com- {cum), 
together ; partire, to share, to part, from 
parti-, decl. stem oipars, a part. 

Compass. (F. - L.) F. compos, a 
circuit, circle, limit ; also, a pair 01 com- 
passes. — Late L. compassus, a circuit. — L. 
com^ (cum), with; passus, a pace, step, 
passage, track ; so that compassus =2. track 
that joins together, circuit. See Face. 
Der. compass, verb ; compasses, s. pi., an 
instrument for drawing circles. 

Compassion. (F. — L.) F. com- 
passion, — L. compassionem, ace. of com- 
passioy sympathy. — L. ^^/r{- {cum), with; 
passio, suffering, hompati, to endure. 

compatible. (F--L.) F* compati- 
ble, * compatible, coneurrable ; * Cot. — 
Late L. compatibilis, adj., used of a bene- 
fice which could be held together with 
another. — L. compati, to endure together 
with. — L. com' {cum), with; pati, to 

Compeer^ an associate. (F. — L.) 
M. E. comper.^Y, com-, together; O. F. 
per, a peer, equal. — L. com- {cum), to- 
gether ; parem, ace. of par, equal ; see 

CompeL (L.) L. com-pellere, to com- 
pel, lit. to drive together. — L. com- {cum^, 
together; pellereAo drive. Der. compuls- 
ion, from pp. compuls-us. 

Compendious, brief. (F. — L.) F. 

compendieux, — L. compendiosus, adj., from 
compendium, an abridgment, lit. a saving, 
sparing of expense. — L. compendere, to 
weigh together. — L. com- {cum)^ with ; 
pet^ere, to weigh. 

compensate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
compensare, to weigh one thing against 
another. — L. com^ (cum), together; pen- 



sarty to weigh, frequent, of pendere^ to 
weigh {^^, pensus). 

Compete. (L>) L. competere* » L. 
cont' {cum)y together; petere, to strive 

competent. (F.-L.) M. F. com- 

peUtU ; orig. pres. part, of competer^ to be 
sufficient for. — L. compeiere^ to be sufficient 
for. — L. com' {cum)y with ; peiere^ to seek. 
competitor. (L.) L. competitor^ a 
rival candidate. » L. cont' {cum)^ with ; 
petitory a seeker, itam. petttuSy pp. oipeterey 
to seek. 

Compile. (F. - L.) O. F. compiler, - 
L. compildre^ to plunder, pillage, rob ; so 
that the word had, at first, a minister mean- 
ing.— L. com- {cum\ with ; pilare^ to rob. 
See PiU (3). 

Complacent. (L.) From stem of 
pres. pt. of complacerey to please. — L. 
com- {cupi), intensive ; p/acere, to please. 

complaisant. (F. - L.) F. com- 

p/aisant, obsequious, pres. part, of com- 
plaircy {o please. —L. complacerey to please 

Complain. (F. - L.) O. F. com- 

plaign-y a stem of complaindre. — Lale L. 
complangere^ to bewail. — L. com- {cum)y 
with ; plangere, to bewail, lit. to strike, 
beat the breast. 

Complement. (L.) h^complementum^ 
that which completes. — L. complere 
(below). Doublet, compliment, 

COmpletCf perfect. (L.) L. completusy 
pp. of compter ey to fulfil. — L. com" \cum\ 
together ; plere^ to fill. Allied to ple-nusy 
full. See Plenary. 

Complex. (L.) L. complexusy en- 
twine<l round; hence, intricate; pp. of 
complectiy to embrace. — L. com- {cum), 
together ; and piectere^ to plait, allied to 
plic'dre, to twine. See Pleaoh. 

complexion. (F. -^ L.) F. com- 

plexiotty appearance. — L. cotnplexionem^ 
ace. of complexioy a comprehending, com- 
pass, habit of body, complexion.— L. com^ 
plexuSy pp. of complectiy to surround, 
entwine.— L. com- {cum), together ; //f^- 
terey to plait. 

complicate. (L-) From pp. of L. 
complicarcy to fold together. — L. com- 
{cum)y together ; plicdre, to fold. 

complicity. (F.— L.) F. complicitiy 
* a bad confederacy ; ' Cot.*— F. complice, a 
confederate. — L. complieemy ace. of com- 
plex, interwoven, confederate with; see 

Compliance, Compliant; formed 

with F. suffixes -cmcOy -anty from the verb 
to compfyy which, however, is not of F. 
origin ; see Comply. 

Compliment. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. 

compliment, — Ital. complimentOy compli- 
ment, civility. — Ital. complircy to fill up, 
to suit. — L. complerey to nil up ; see Com- 
plete. Doublet, complement, 

compline. (F.— L.) M. £. company 
the last church-service of the day ; it was 
orig. an adj. iy^^ gold-en from gold)y and 
stands for complin song ; the sb. is complie 
(Ancren Riwle). — O. F. complie (mod. F. 
complies y which is pi.), compline. — Late 
L. completa (sc hdra)y fem. of complelus, 
complete; because it completed the 'hours' 
of the day's service ; see Complete. 

comply, to yield, accord with. (Ital. 
— L.) Itnas no doubt been supposed to 
be allied to ply (whence compliant, by 
analogy -with pliant) y but is quite distinct, 
and of Ital. origin. — Ital. complircy to fill 
up, fulfil, to suit, 'also to use compli> 
ments, ceremonies, or kind offices and 
offers;' Torriano. Cf. Span, cotnpliry to 
fulfil, satisfy. — L. complerey to fill up ; see 
Complete. Cf. supply, 

Comploti a conspiracy ; see Plot (i). 

Component, composing. (L.) L. 
component' y stem of pres. pt. oi compdnerey 
to compose. — L. com- {cum)y together; 
potierey to put. See Compound. 

Comport, to behave, suit. (F. — L.) F. 
se comporter, to behave. — L. comportdre, 
to carry together. — L. com- {cum}, to- 
gether ; portdrey to carry. 

Compose. (F. — L. and Gk.) F. 
composer, to compound, make; Cot. — 
F. com- (L. cuni)y together; and ¥, poser, 
to put, of Gk. origin, as shewn under 
Pose, q.v. ^ Distinct from compound. 

Composition. (F. — L.) ¥, composi- 
tion, — L. ace. compositidnem, ace. of com- 
positioy a putting together. — L. compositusy 
pp. of L. compdnere ; see compound. 

COmpOSty a mixture. (F.— L.) O. F. 
compost, a mixture. — L. compositum, neut. 
of compositus, pp. of compdnere (below). 

compound. (F. — L.) The d is ex^ 
crescent ; M. E. compounen, — O. F. com- 
ponre (Bartsch). — L. compdnere, to com- 
pound, put together. — L. com- (cum), 
together ; pdttere, to put. See Component. 

Comprehend. (L.) L. com-prehemlere, 
to grasp. — L. com- (cum)y together, and 
prehendere, to seize ; see Prehenaile. 




CoinpireSS. (L*) L^ comprtssdrt, to 
oppress.— L. com- {cum), together ; /r^j- 
sdre, frequent. oipremerCy to press. 

Comprise. (F.-^L.) From O. F. 
compriSf comprised, comprehended ; pp. 
of comprendrCi to comprehend. — L. cofn- 
prehendere ; see Compreliend. 

CompromiJief a settlement by con- 
cessions. (F. — L.) F. compromise * a 
compromise, mutual promise;* Cot. Orig. 
pp. of F. compromettrei * to put unto com- 
promise ; ' Cot. — L. compromittere, to 
make a mutual promise. — L. r^/^/- {cunC), 
mutually; promiUerty to promise; see 

Comptroller, another spelling of con- 
troller ; see Control. 

CompnlBion. (F.-L.) See Compel. 

Compnnctioii, remorse. (F. — L.) 
O. F. compunction. ■• Late L. ace. com- 
punciidnem, ^"Lu compunctus, pp. oi com^ 
pungiy to feel remorse, pass, oicompungere, 
to prick. — L. com- {cum) ; pungerct to 

Compute. (L.) L. computdre, to 
reckon. — L. com- (cum), together; putdre, 
to clear up, reckon. Doublet, count (2). 

Comrade. (F.— Span. — L.) Y.camar- 
odS?.- Span, camamda, a company; also 
an associate, comrade. — Span. camarOf a 
chamber, cabin. — L. camera, a chamber. 

Con (i)» to study, peruse, scan. (£.) 
M. £. cunnen ; A. S. cunnian, to test. 
Allied to A. S. cunnan, to know ; see 
Can (1). Der. ale-conner, i. e. ale-tester. 

Con (a), short for contra, against. (L.) 
In the phrase * pro and con.^ 

Con-) prefix. (L.) For. com- (cum), 
with, when the following letter is c, d, g, 
jy n, q, s, t, or v. Before d, m, p, it is 
com^ ; before /, col- ; before r, cor- ; before 
ft m or n. 

Concatenate. (L.) L. concatendtus, 
pp. of concatendre, to link together. — L. 
con- (cum), together; catena, a chain. 

Concave. (F. — L.) F. concave. ^h. 
concauus, hollow. — L. con- (cum), with, 
together; cauus, hollow. 

Conceal. (F.-L.) O. F. conceler. 
— L. conceldre^ to hide. — L. con- {cum), 
completely ; celdre, to hide. See Helm (a). 

Concecle. (L.) L. concedere, to retire, 
yield. — L. con- (cum), together; cedere, 
to yield. Der. concess-ion (from pp. con- 

Conceit. CF. — L.) M. £. conceit, con- 
ceite. Formed as if from the pp. of O. F. 

concevoir, to conceive, though the real 
pp. was conceu (F. confu); by analogy 
with deceit, q.v. See below. 

conceive. (F.-L.) M,E, conceven, 
conceiven.^A, F. conceiv-, a stem of O. F. 
concever, cottcevoir, to conceive. — L. con- 
cipere, to conceive. — L. con- (cum), alto- 
gether ; capere, lo take. 

conception. (F. — L.) F. conception, 

— L. conceptionem.^Ya. concept^us, pp. of 
concipere, to conceive (above). 

Concentre, to draw to a centre. (F.— 
L. andGk,) F. concentrer, mmL. con- (cum), 
together ; and centr-um, a centre, from Gk. 
Kivrpo¥\ see Centre. Der. concentr-ic, 
concentr-ate (modem). 

Concern, vb. (F.— L.) Y.concemcr. 

— L. concemere, to mix ; in Late Lat., to 
refer to, regard. — L. con- (cum), with; 
and cemere, to separate, decree, observe. 
4" Ok. tcpiyfiv, to separate, decide ; Lith. 
skir-ti, to separate, distinguish. Brugm. 
ii. §613. (VSKER.) 

concert. (F.-Ital.-L.) Ofien con- 
fused with ccmsort in old writers. — F. con- 
certer, *to consort, or agree together;* 
Cot. — Ital. concertare, 'to agree or tune 
together, sing in consort,' Florio ; cf. con- 
certo, sb., agreement. The Ital. forms 
shew that it was derived from L. concertdre, 
to contend, struggle together ; indeed, we 
find also Span, concertar, to settle or adjust, 
covenant, bargain ; which also points to 
the same origin. [It would seem that the 
L. vb. took up the sense of to settle by 
debate, and so, to agree.]— L. con- (cum), 
together ; certdre, to contend, vie with ; 
orig. * to decide by contest ; * frequent, of 
cemere, to decide. See Conoem. Der. 
concert, sb. , concert-ina. 
Concession. (F. — L.) Y. concession. 

— L. ace. concessidnenu — L. concessus, pp. 
oiconcedere, to concede ; see Concede. 

Concll, a marine shell. (L.~Gk.) L. 
concha. — Gk. Klr^ici\ (also Kf^Ktii), a cockle- 
shell.^-Skt. (ahkha, a conch. Der. con- 
chology (from if^7ico-s). 

Conciliate. (L.) From the pp. of L. 
concilidre, to bring together, conciliate. — 
L. concilium, a council ; see Council. 

Concise. (F.-L. ; or L.) F. concis. 

— L. concisus, brief, cut short ; pp. of con' 
ctdere.'^h. con- (cum), intensive; ccedere, 
to cut. Der. concis'ion. 

Conclave. (F.— L.) F. conclave, a 
small room (to meet in). — L. concldue, 
a room ; later, a place of assembly of 



cardinals, assembly. Orig. a locked up 
place. "-L. con- (cum), together; c/duis, 
a key. 

€U>llcllldet (L*) L* concliidere, to 
shut up, close, end. « L. con- {cum), 
together; saxd 'c/ud^re^claudere, to shut 
Per. conclus'ion. Similarly ex-clude, in- 
cludcy pre -elude, sC'Clude ; whence in-clus- 
ive, pre^clus'ton, se-dus-ion (from pp. 
'Clusus * clausus). 

Concoct. (L.) From L. cancoctus, pp. 
of concoquere, to cook together, digest. — 
L. con- {cum) ; coquere, to cook. 

Concomitaat, accompanying. (L.) 
From L. con* {cum), together; and 
co9nitant-em^ ace. of pres. pt. of comitdri, 
to accompany, from cornet-, stem of comes, 
a companion ; see Count (i). 

Concord. (F.— L.) F. concorde,^!^. 
Concordia, agreement. — L. concord-, stem 
of con-cors, agreeing. — L. con- {cum) ; cor 
(stem cord'), the heart. 

concordant. (F.-L.) F. concord- 
ant, pres. pt. of concorder, to agree. — L. 
concorddre, to agree.— L. concord- (above). 
concordat. (F.— L.) F. concordat, 
an agreement. — Late L. concorddtum, a 
convention, thing agreed on, esp. between 
the pope and F. kings ; pp. of concorddre, 
to agree (above). 

Conconrsc. (F.— L.) Y.concours.^m 
L. ace. concursum, a running together.— 
L. concursus, pp. of con-currere, to run 
together.— L. con- {cum), together; and 
currere, to run. See Concur. 

ConcretCf formed into one mass. (L.) 
L. concret'US, pp. of concreuere, to grow 
together.— L. con- {cum), together; cres- 
cere, to grow. 

Concnbino. (F.— L.) O.Y . concubine, 
— L. concudtna^^h, con- {cum), together; 
cubdre, to lie. 

Concupiscence. (F.-L.) ^, concu- 
piscence. — L. concupiscentia, desire. — L. 
concupiscere, to desire; inceptive form of 
concupere,^!^, con* {cum), intensive; aud 
cutere^ to long for. 

Concur. (L.) L. concurrere, to run 
together, agree. —L. con- {cum), together; 
currere, to run. Der. concourse, 

Concnseion. (P\— L.) Y , concussion, 

— L. concussionem, ace. of concussio, a 
violent shakine* — L. concussus, pp. of 
cotuutere, to shake together. — L. con- 
{cum), together; qucUere, to shake. 

Condemn. (F.— L.) O.Wcondemner, 

— L. ccndemudre, to condemn wholly, pro- 


nounce to be guilty. — L. con- {cum), 
wholly ; damndre, to condemn. 
Condense. (F.-L.) Y, condenser, '^ 
L. condensdre.^h. condensus, very thick. 

— L. con- (cum), very ; densus, thick, dense. 

Condescend. (F. - L.) F. conde- 

scendre.^ljBXt L. condiscendere^ to grant 
(lit to descend with). - L. cofi- {cum),mi\i ; 
discendere, to descend; see Deaoend. 
Der. condescens'ion, from the pp. 

Condign, well merited. (F.-L.) O. F. 
condigne.^lj. condignus, very worthy.— 
L. con- i^cuni), very ; dignus, worthy. 

Condiment. (L-) L. condimentum, 
seasoning, sauce. —L. condire, to season, 
spice, preserve (as fruit). 

Condition. (F.-L.) Y. condition,^ 
L. conditionem, ace. of conditio, a late 
spelling of condicio^ a covenant, condition. 

— L. condicere, to talk over together, agree 
upon. — L. con* {cum), together; dicerey to 

Condole. (L.) L. condolhe, to grieve 
with. — L. con- {cum), with ; dolere, to 

Condone. (L.) l^,conddndreAoTem\i, 
pardon. — L. con- {cum), wholly; dondre, 
to give ; see Donation. 

Condor, a large bird. (Span. -Peru- 
vian.) Span, condor, — Peruv. cuntur, a 

Conduce. (L.) L. conducere, to draw 
together towards, lead to. — L. con^ {cum), 
together; dOcere, to lead. 

conduct, sb. (L.) Late L. coftductus, 
defence, protection, guard, escort. — L. r^/i- 
ductus, jpp, oi con-dHcere (above). 

conauit. (F.-L.) U.E,cotiduit,~' 
O, F. conduit, a conduit. — Late L. con- 
ductus, a defence, escort; also, a canal, 
tube ; see above. 

Cone. (F.-L.-Gk.) U,Y,cone.'^L. 
cdnus, — Gk. Kotvos, a cone, peak, peg. + 
Skt. fdna-s, a whetstone; cf. L. cos, the 
same. See Hone. Brugm, i. § 401. 

Coney; see Cony. 

Confabulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
confdbuldri, to talk together. — L. cott- 
{cum), with; fdbuldri, to converse, from 
fdbula, a discourse ; see Fable. 

Confecty to make up into sweetmeats. 
(L.) L. confectus, pp. of conficere, to put 
together, make up. — L. con- {cum), to- 
gether ; facere, to put. Der. confect-ion, 
confection-er. See Comfit. 

Confederate. (L.) h. confxderdtus, 

united by a covenant, pp. of confxderdre. 





— L. con^ {cum\ together \ fader-, for 
*f cedes-, stem oi foedm, a treaty. See 

Confer. (L.) From L. conferred to 
bring together, collect, bestow. — L. con- 
(cum)f together; fertey to bring, bear. 
% Not from F. 

Confess . (F. - L.) O. F. confesser. - 
Late L. confessdre,^'L, confessus, pp. of 
confiteriy to confess. — L. con- (cum)y fully; 
fateri, to acknowledge, allied to fdriy to 
speak. Cf. Gk. ^r($, a speech. Bmgm. 
i. § 195. 

Confide. (L.) L. cotrftdere, to trust 
fully. — L. €091- (cum), fx\\y \fiderej to 
tnist, allied io Jides, faith ; see Faith. 

Configuration. (F. - L.) F. can- 
figuraCion. — L. coftfigiiratidnem, a con- 
formation. — L. configurdtuSy pp. of con- 
figurarey to put together. — L. con' {cum) ; 
figurdrey to fashion, from Jigura, a figure. 
Sec Figure. 

Confine, to limit. (F.-L.) F. con- 
finery to keep within limits. ■- M. F. 
confin, near; Cot. — L. conftnisy bordering 
on. — L. con- {cum)y with ; /tnis, boundary. 
See Final. % Mod. F. has only con/ins y 
sb. pi., confines; representing O. ¥/ con- 
fines, L. confiniay pi. ; whence E. coftfines, 

Confirm. (F. — L.) Vi.Y., confenncn. 

— O. F. confertner, — L. confirmdrey to 
make firm, strengthen. — L. con- (cum), 
{ally; fir mare, to strengthen, from firmus, 

ConfiscatOi to adjudge to be forfeit. 
(L.) L. confiscdtus, pp. of confiscdre, to 
lay by in a coffer, to confiscate, transfer to 
the treasury. — L. con- (cum) ; fiscus, a 

Confiagration. (F. - L.) F. con- 

fiagration. — L. ace. confldgrdtionemy a 
great burning. — L. con- (cum), together; 
fidgrdret to burn. See Flagrant. 

Confiicti an encounter. HL.) L. con- 
flictuSy a striking together; from the pp. 
of confltgerey to strike together. — L. con- 
{cum\ together ; fligerCy to strike. 

Confinent. (L.) From stem, of pres. 
pt. of confiuere, to flow together ; see 
Fluent. So also conflux, sb., from the 
pp. confluxus, 

Conxorm. (F.—L.) F. conformer.'^ 
L. conformdrey to fashion like. — L. con-, 
together ; formdrey to form, from forma, 

Confound. (F.->L.) Y.confottdre,^ 

L. confunderey to pour together, confound. 
— L. con- (cum)y together ; fundere, to 
pour. See Fuse (i). 

Confratemi^. (F.-L.) FromL. 

con- {cum)y with ; and Fraternity, q v. 

Confront. (F.—L.) ¥. confronter yio 
bring face to face. — Med. L. confrontdrly 
to be near to. — L. con- (cum)y together; 
front- y stem oifrons, forehead, front. 

Confuse. (L.) M. £. coftfus, used as 
a pp. in Chaucer. — L. confiisuSy pp. of 
comundere, to confound ; see Confound. 

Cfonfute. (F.—L.) F. confuter, - L. 
confutdrey to cool by mixing cold water 
with hot, to allay, also to confiate. — L con- 
{cum)y together ; *futdrey to pour out (?) ; 
ci.f litis y a water- vessel to pour from, from 
the L. base/M-, to pour. Brugm. i. § 605. 
See Futile, Befute and Fuse (i). 

Congeal. (F.-L.) F. con^eler.^h, 
congeidre, to cause to freeze together.— L. 
con-y together ; geldre, to freeze, from gelu, 
frost. See Gelid. 

Congee, Cong6v leave to depart. (F. 
— L.) F. congiy Mcave, dismission ; ' Cot. 
O. F. congiCy cungey congiet (Buiguy) ; the 
same as Prov. comjcU.^laXt L. comidtus, 
leave, permission (VIII cent.) ; the same 
as L. commedtusy a travelling together, 
also leave of absence. — L. com- (cum)y 
together; medtus, a course, from pp. of 
medre, to go. 

Congenial, kindred. (L.) Coined 
from L. con- (cum)y with; and genial, 
adj. from Y,. genius \ see Genial. 

Congenital. (L.) Coined by adding 
■al to the obs. word congenite (XVII 
cent.). — L. congenitus, bom with. — L. con- 
(cum)y with ; genitus, bom, pp. oigignerey 
to produce. See Genital. 

Conger, a sea-eel. (F. - L. — Gk.) 
M. E. congre. — O. F. congre. — L. congrum, 
ace. of congrus, by-form of conger, a sea- 
eel. — Gk. yoYYpo^f the same. 

CongerieSy a mass of particles. (L.) 
L. congerieSy a heap. — L. congererey to 
bring together.- L. con- (cum)y together; 
gererCy to carry. 

COXigestion, accumulation. (L.) From 
L. ace. congestionem. — L. congestusy pp. of 
congerere (above). 

Conglooe, to form into a globe. (L.) 
L. con-giobdre.^h, con- (cum)y together; 
globus, a globe. 

Conglomerate. (L.) From pp. of 

conglomerdrCy to wind into a ball, heap 
together. — L. con- {cum)y together; and 




glonur-^ for ^gloitus-, stem of glomus, 
a ball, clew of yarn. 

Conglutinate. (L.) From pp. of 
L. conglutindrey to glue together. » L. 
con- {cum)i together; glutindre^ to glue, 
from gliiiin-, stem oiglilien, glue. 

Congou, a kind of tea. (CWnese.) In 
the Amoy dialect, called kang-hu U, where 
kang-hu is lit ' work, labour ; * i. e. tea on 
which labour has been expended (Douglas). 
The true Chinese is kung-fu cJCa^ with 
the same sense. 

Congratulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

congrdtuldrt, to wish much joy. — L. <:<?»- 
{£um)i fully ; grdtuldrt^ to wish joy, from 
adj. grdtus, pleasing. See Grace. 

Congregate. (L.) From op. of L. 
coftgregdre, to collect into a nock. — L. 
con- {cum)y together; gregdre, to assem- 
ble a flock, from greg-y stem of grex^ a 

CongreBS, a meeting together. (L.) 
L. c<mgres5us,^\., cottgressus, pp. of con- 
gredit to meet together. — L. con-^ together; 
grcuit, to advance, walk. 

Congrue, to agree, suit (L.) L. con- 
gruerty to suit. (Root uncertain.) Der. 
congru-ouSy from L. congruus^ suitable ; 

Conjecture. (F.— L.) F. conjecture, 
— L. conUcturay a casting together, a 
guess. — L. coniectusy pp. of conicercy to 
throw or put together. — L. con- {cum)y to- 
gether; iacercy to throw. ^ 

Coiyoin. (F.— L.) 0,¥, conjoittare. 
L. coniungere (pp. coniunctus), to join 
together. — L. con- (cum), together; tun- 
gerey to join. See Join. Der. conjunct- 
iofty conjunct-ivti from the pp. 

COWUgali relating to marriage. (F. — 
L.) F. conjugal, — L. coniugdliSy adj.— 
L. coniugemy ace. of coniuxy a spouse.— 
L. con-y together ; iug-y allied to iungerCy 
to join, iugumy a yoke ; see Join. 

COl^Ugation. (L.) Froni L. coniu- 
gdtioy a conjugation (Priscian) ; lit. a 
yoking together.- L. coniugdtusy pp. of 
coniugdrcy to yoke together. — L. con- 
{cum)y together ; iug-um, a yoke. 

Conjure. (F.—L.) M.E.comuren.'^ 
¥. conjurer ,»^'L. conturdrcy to swear to- 
gether, combine by oath. — L. con-y to- 
gether ; iiirdre, to swear ; see Jury. 

Connect. (L.) L. connccterey to tie 
together. — L. con- {cum), together; and 
necterCy to bind (pp. nexus), Der. coti- 
fiex-ion [not connection"], from the pp. 


Connive. (F. — L.) F. conniver. — L. 
cofmtuirey to close the eyes at, overlook. 
— L. coft- (cum), together; and ^mguere, 
to wink ; cf. nic-t&rey to wink. + Goth. 
hneiwany to bow ; Brugm. i. § 664. 

Connoisseur, a critical judge. (F.-^ 
L.) F. coftnaisseur y formerly connoisseur, 
a knowing one. — O. F. connoiss-anty pres. 
pt. of O. F. conoistre ; see Cognisance. 

Connubial. (L.) L. connubidlis, re- 
lating to marriage.— L. co(ti)nubiufn,mvii* 
riage. — L. con- (cum), with; niihere, to 
marry. See Nuptial. 

Conquer. (F. — L.) M. E. congueren, 

— O. F. coft^uerre. — L. conquirere, to seek 
after, go in quest of; in Late L., to con- 
quer.— L. con- (cum), with; quarere, to 
seek. Der. conquest, M. £. conquest e, 
from Late L. conquesta, L. conqutsita, 
fem. oi conquTsttus, pp. oi conquirere. 

Consanguineous. (L.) From L. 

consanguine-US, relaied by blood, with 
sufHx 'Ous. — L. con- (cunt), together; 
sanguin-y stem of sanguis, blood. 

Conscience. (F. — L.) Y. conscience. 
'L.conscientiayCOTi^\o\x^xits&. — h.conscient-, 
stem of pres. pt. of consctre, to know along 
with. — L. con- (cum), with; scire, to 
know. See Science. Der. coftscionable, 
an ill-contrived word, used as a contrac- 
tion of conscien(ce)-able. 

conscious. (L.) From L. consci-us, 
aware, with suf!ix 'OUs. — L. coftscire, to be 
aware of (above). 

Conscript. (L.) L. cofiscriptus, en- 
rolled, pp. of conscribere, to write down 
together. — L. con- (cum), together; scri* 
here, to write. 

Consecrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

coftsecrdre, to rencier sacred. — L. con- 
(cum), with, wholly; sacrdre, to conse- 
crate ; see Sacred. 

Consecutive. (F.— L.) M.F.consecu- 
tif, Cot. Formed with suffix -^(L. -iuus) 
from L. consecHt'US, pp. of consequi, to 
follow together. — L. con- (cum), together ; 
sequi, to follow. See Sequence. 

consequent. (L.) L. consequent-, 
stem of pres. pt. oi consequi (above). 

Consent, vb. (F.— L.) F. consentir. 

— L. consentire, to agree to. — L. con- 
(cum), with ; sentire, to feel. See Sense. 

Conserve, vb. (F. — L.) F. conserver, 

— L. conserudre, to preserve. — 1>. con- 
(cum), fully ; serudre, to keep. Der. cofp- 
serve, vb ; conserv-atory. See Servo. 

Consider. (F. — L.) 0.¥. consiJerer, 



— L. cofisiderdre, to consider, orig. to con- 
template the stars (Festiis). — L. con- {cum), 
together; sicUr-, for * sides- ^ stem oislduSy 
a star. 

Consign. (F. — L.) F. consigner.^ 
L. consigndrCt to attest, register, record. 

— L. con- (cum), together; signdre, to 
mark ; see Sign. 

Consist. (F.— L.) F. consister, to 
consist, rest, abide, &c. — L. consistere^ to 
stand together, consist. * L. con- (cum), 
together ; sistere, causal form from stare, 
to stand ; see State. Der. consistory. 

ConSOl6. (F. — L.) F. consoler. 'mV,, 
consoldri, to comfort. — L. con- (cum), with ; 
soldri, to comfort ; see Solace. 

Consolidate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
consoliddre, to render solid. — L. con- 
(cum), together; soliddre, to make solid, 
from solidus, solid. Der. consols, a 
familiar abbreviation for consolieiated an- 

Consonant, agreeing with. (F. - L.) 
F. consonant, accordant; Cot. — L. conso- 
nant-, stem of pres. pt. of consondre, to 
sound together.— L. r^w- (fMw), together ; 
sondre, to sound ; see Sound (3). 

Consort, sb. (F. — L.) F. consort. ^ 
L. consort-, stem of consors, one who shares 
property with another, a partner. — L. con- 
(cum), together ; sort*, stem of sors, a lot, 
share. See Sort. 

Conspicuous. (L.) L. conspicu-us, 
visible, with suffix 'Ous.'^h. conspicere, to 
see thoroughly. — L. con-^ fully ; specere, to 
see. See Species. 

Conspire. (F. -L.) Y. conspirer.^ 
L. conspirdre, to breathe together, com- 
bine, plot. — L. con- (cun^, together ; 
splrdre, to breathe. 

Constable, a peace-officer. (F.-L ) 
O. F. cotustable (F. connitabU). — L. comes 
stabuli, lit. * count of the stable,' the title of 
a dignitary of the Roman empire and after- 
wards in use among the Franks. See 
Count (i) and Stable. 

Constant, firm. (F.— L.) F. con- 
stant, — L. constant; stem of constans, 
firm ; orig. pres. pt. of constdre, to stand 
together. — L. con- (cum), together ; stare, 
to stand; sec State. 

Constellation. (F.-L.) ¥,constel- 

Icttion. — L. ace. cotistelldtionem, cluster of 
stars. — L. con- (f«///;, together; stelldt-us, 
pp. of stelldre^ to set with stars, from 
Stella, a star. See Star. 

Consternation. (K'-L) Y-cott- 

ster nation. — L. ace. consterfidtionem, 
fright. — L. consterttdtus, pp. of conster- 
ndre, to frighten ; intensive form of con- 
stemere, to bestrew, throw down. — L. con- 
(cum), together; stemere, to strew; see 

Constipate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
constlpdre, to join closely, press together. 

— L. con- (cum), togemer ; stipdre, to 
press, cram. 

Constitute. (L.) L. constitatus, pp. 
of constituere, to cause to stand together, 
establish. — L. con- (cum), together; sta- 
tuere, to set up, denom. vb. from status, 
a position ; see Statute. 

Constrain, to compel. (F. - L.) O. F. 

cofistraign-, a stem of constraindre, later 
contraindre. — L. constrifigere, to bind 
together, fetter. — L. con- (cum), together; 
stringere, to draw tight. 

Construct. (L.) From L. construc- 
tus, pp. of construere (below). 

construe. (L.) L. construere, to 
heap together, build, construct ; in Late L., 
to construe a passage. — L. con- (cum), to- 
gether; struere, to pile, build. Der. 

Consul. (L.) L. consul, a consul. 
Etym. doubtful; but allied to consulere, 
to consult : see below. 

consult. (F. — L. ) F. consumer. — L. 
consultdre, to consult; frequent, form of 
con-sukre, to consult. Root uncertain ; 
prob. allied to sedere, to sit ; cf. solium, 
a seat. 

Consume. (L.) L. consHtnere, lit. to 
take up wholly. — L. con- (cum), together, 
wholly ; sUmere, to take up, from *sups-^ 
allied to sub, under, up, and emere^ to take, 
buy. Brugm. i. § 240. Der. consumption, 
from the pp. 

Consummate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

consummdre, to bring into one sum, to 
perfect. — L. con- (cum), together; sum- 
mare, to sum, from summa, a sum ; see 

Consumption ; see Consume. 

Contact, sb. (L.) L. contactus, a 
touching. — L. contactus, pp. of contingere, 
to touch closely ; see Contingent. 
contagion. (F.-L.) F. contagion, 

— L. contdgidnem, ace. of contdgio, a 
touching, hence contagion. — L. con- (cum), 
with ; tag-, 2nd grade of tag', as in *tag- 
tus (^tac-tus)^ pp. of tangere, to touch. 

Contain. (F. — L.) From a tonic stem 
of O. F. contenir.^h, continere, to hold 



together, contain; pp. confenfus.'^'L, con- 
(cum)f together ; tenere, to hold. 

Contaminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

contdmindre, to defile. -■ L. contdmin-, 
stem oicontdmen, contagion ; which stands 
for *contagmen. — L. con- {cum) ; tag-y 
as in tactus, for *tag-tU5t pp. of tangere^ to 
touch. Bmgm. i. § 768. 
Contemn. (F.-L.) VL,^. contemner, 
— L. contemnere, to despise. — L. con- 
(cum)y with, wholly; temnere^ to de- 

contempt. (F.-L.) 111,'F. contempt-, 
Cot. — L. contemptuSf scorn. — L. con- 
temptus, pp. of contemnere (above). 

Contemplate. (L.) From pp. of 

contempldrty to observe, consider; used at 
first of augurs. -L. con- {cum) ; templum^ 
an open space for observation (by augurs) ; 
see Temple. 

Contemporaneous. (L.) L. con- 

tempordne-us, adj., at the same time ; with 
suffix 'Ous.'mt,. con- {cum), with ; tempor-, 
for *tempos', stem of tempus, time. 

contemporary. (L.) L. con-, with; 

and L. tempordrius, temporary, adj., from 
tempor- (above). 

Contend. (F.-L.) 0,Y.contendre,^ 
L. contendere, to stretch out, exert, fight. ^ 
L. con- {cum), fully; tendere, to strive. 
Der. content-ion (from the pp. contentus). 

Content, adj. (F.-L.) Y, content, 
satisfied. — L. contentus, content; pp. of 
contt'nere; see Contaiii. Der. dis-con- 

Contest* vb. (F.-L.) Y,contester,^ 
L. contestdri, to call to witness, to bring 
an action. -iL. con- {cum), together; tes- 
tdri, to witness, from testis, a witness. 
Der. contest, sb. 

Context. (L.) L. contextuSy a joining 
together, order (hence, context of a book). 
—L. contextus, pp. oi contexere, to weave 
together. — L. con- {cum), together; 
texere, to weave. 

Contignons. (L.) L. cmtigu-us, that 
may be touched, near ; with suffix -ous, — 
L. con- {cum), with ; and tag-, as in 
tac-tus (for *tag'tus), pp. of tangere, to 
touch ; see Contiiigent. 

Continent. (F.-L.) F. continent, 
adj., moderate. i-L. continent-, stem of 
pres. pt. of continere ; see Contain. 

Contingent, dependent on. (L.) 
From stem of pres. pt. of contingere, to 
touch, relate to.— L. con- {cum) ; tangere^ 
to touch. See Tangent. 


Continue. (F — L.) F. continuer. - 
L. continudre, to continue. *L. continuus 
(below). Der. dis-continue, 

oontinnons. (L.) L. cofttinu-us, 

lit holding together ; with suffix 'Ous, — 
L. continere, to hold together, contain. See 

Contort. (L.) L. contortus, pp. of 
contorquere, to twist together. — L. con- 
{cum), together; torquere, to twist. 

Contonr, an outline. (F.— Ital.— L.) 
F. contour, esp. in an artistic sense. — Ital. 
contomo, a circuit ; contomare, ' to en- 
circle; ' Florio. — L. con- {cum), together ; 
tomdre, to round off, to turn ; see Turn. 

Contra-, prefix, (L.) L. contrd, 
against ; orig. the abl. fem. of an obs. adj. 
*con-t{e)r-us, a comparative form from con-, 
prep, together ; cf. extrd from exterus. 

Contraband. (Span. - Ital. - L. cmd 
Teut.) Span, contrabando, prohibited goods. 

— Ital. contrabbando, prohibited goods. — 
Ital. contra ( = L. contrd), against; bandc, 
a ban, from Late L. bannum, a word of 
Teut. origin, viz. from O. H. G. ban, a 
command. See Ban. 

Contract (i)* to draw together. (L.) 
L. contractus, pp. of contraJiere, to draw 
together. — L. con* {cum), together; tra- 
here, to draw. 

contract (2), a bargain. (F.-L.) 
M. F. contract ; Cot. — L. contractum, 
ace. of contractus, sb., a drawing together, 
a bargain. — L. contractus, pp. (above). 

Contradict. (L.) L. contrddictus, 
pp. of contradicere, to speak against. — L. 
contrd, against ; dicere, to speak. 

Contralto. (Ital. — L.) Ital. contr- 
cUto, counter-tenor.— Ital. contra^ oppo- 
site to, and alto, high. — L. contrd, against ; 
altus, high. 

Contrary. (F.— L.) K,Y, contrarie\ 
F. contraire, — L. contrdrius, contrary ; 
from contrd, against ; see Contra-. 

Contrast, vb. (F.— L.) Y.contrcuter, 
to strive, contend against (hence to be in 
opposition to, &c.). — Late L. contrdstdre, 
to stand against. — L. contrd, against ; 
stdre, to stand. 

Contravene, to hinder. (F.— L.) F. 
contrevenir, * to thwart ; ' Cot. — Late L. 
contrduenire, to oppose ; to break a law. 

— L. contrd, against ; uentre, to come. 
Contribnte. (L.) From pp. of L. 

contribuere, to contribute, lit. pay to- 
gether. — L. con- {cum), together ; tri' 
buere, to bestow ; see Tribute. 


Contrite. (F.-L.) Y.amtrit^l^ 

contrituSf thoroughly bruised, hence, peni- 
tent ; pp. of L. conierere, to rub together, 
bruise. «L. con^ (cum)^ together; terere^ 
to rub. See Trite. 

Contrive. (F. — L. and Gk.) An 
alteretl spelling ; M. E. contrauen, con- 
treuen (sc controven^ contrevm), — O. F. 
controver, to find, find out (Bartsch).— 
O. F. con- (L. con-^ for cum) \ O. F. trffver^ 
to find; see Trover. % Contrive (cf. 
retrieve^ is from M. £. contreve^ answering 
to O. F. coniriW',, stressed stem of c6n- 

Control, sb. (F. — L.) Control is short 
for contre-roil, old form of counter-roll. — 
O. F. contre-rol{f)e y a duplicate register, used 
to verify the official or first-made roll.~ 
O. F. contre^ over against; rol(J)ey a roll. — 
L. contrdy against; rotulum, ace. of ro- 
tulusy a roll ; see Boll. 

Controversy. (F.-L.) A.¥. con- 

Iraversie ( 1 3 ^7). — L. controuersia, a quar- 
rel. — L. controuersuSy opposed. — L. 
contro-y masc. or neut. form corresponding 
to fern, contrdy against; uersusy pp. of 
uerterey to turn. See Contra-. ' 

Contumaoy. (F.-L.) A.F. contu- 

piacie ( 1 303). — L. contumdciay obstinacy. — 
L. contumdci-y stem of contumctXy stub- 
bom. --L. con'{cum\yccf\ and *tum-axy 
prob. from tum-erey to swell with pride ; 
see Tumid. 

Contumely. (F.— L.) M. F. contu- 

melie. — L. contumeliay insult, reproach ; 
prob. allied to coniumdcia\ see Con- 

Contuse, to bruise severely. (L.) L. 
cpntususy pp. of contundere, to bruise 
severely. — L. con- (r«w), with, much ; and 
tunderey to strike.<4-Skt. tudy to strike; 
Goth- stautan, to strike. (V^TEUD,) 
Hmgm. i. § 818. 

Connndmm. (Unknown.) Formerly 
used in the sense of whim, crotchet, or 
hoax. Also quonundrunt'y orig. in univ. 
slang ; prob. of L. origin. 

Convalesce. (L.) L. conualescere, to 
begin to grow well ; an inceptive form. 
— L. con' {-cum), fully; ualere, to be 

, Convene, to assemble. (F.-L.) F. 
convenir y to assemble. — L. conuenfrCy to 
come together. — L. con- (cum), together; 
uenire, to oome. 

convenient, suitable. (F.-L.) 

From stem of L. conueniens, suitable; 


orig. pres. pt. of conuentre, to come to- 
getner, suit (above). 

convent. (L.) L. conuentus, an as- 
sembly. — L. conuentuSy pp. of con-uentre. 
convention. (F. — L.) F. cofwen- 
tiony *a compact;* Cot. — L. ace con- 
uentionem, a meeting, compact. — L. con- 
uentuSy pp. of con-uenire, to meet. 

Converge. (L.) Late L. conuergere, 
to incline together (Isidore). — L. cofi^ 
{cum)y together; uergere, to bend, in- 

Converse, vb. (F.-L.) Y.converser, 
to associate with ; Cot. — L. conuersdrJ, to 
live with. — L. con- {cum), with ; uersdrt, 
to dwell (lit. turn oneself about), orig. 
pass, of the frequent, of uertere, to turn. 

convert, vb. (F.-L.) O. F. con- 
z/^rft>. — Folk-L. *convertire, for L. con- 
uertere, to turn wholly, change. — L. con- 
{cum)y wholly ; uertere, to turn. 

Convex. (L.) L. conuexus, arched, 
vaulted ; related to conuehere, to bring 
together (hence, to unite by an arch). — L. 
con- (for cum), together ; uehere^ to carry, 
bring. See Vehicle. 

Convey, Convoy, vb. (F. - L.) 

M.E. cofiueien, cotiuoien {conoeien, con- 
voten), to convey, also to convoy. — A. F. 
conveiery O.F. convoier, to convey, convoy, 
accompany on the way. — Late L. conuidre, 
to accompany. — L. con- {cum), with; uia, 
way. % Convey is the A. F. or Norman 
form ; convoy is Parisian. 

Convince. (L.) L. conuincerey to 
overcome by proof. — L. con- {cum), 
wholly ; uincere, to conquer. Der. con- 
vict y verb and sb., from A.F. convict <,h, 
conuiciusy pp. of conuincere. 

Convivial. (L.) Coined as adj. from 
L. conutui-uniy a feast.- L. con- {cum), 
together ; utuere, to live (hence, eat). 

Convoke. (F.— L.) F. convoquer.^ 
L. conuocdrCy to call together. — L. con-, 
together ; uocdre, to call. 

Convolve. (L.) L. conuoluere, to toW 
together, writhe about. — L. con- {cum, 
together ; uoluere, to roll. Der. convolut- 
ion, from pp. conuoliitus; convolv-ul-us, 
L. conuoluulus, a twining plant. 

Convoy ; see Convey. 

Convuse, to agitate violently. (L.) 
L. conuulsus, pp. of conuellere, to pluck 
up,- convulse. — L. con- {cum), with, 
severely ; uellerCy to pluck. 

Cony, Coney, a rabbit. (F. - L.) 
M. E. coni'y also conyng. Anglo-F. conil, 




conin\ O. F. conniL — L. cuntcuius, a 
rabbit ; a word -of uncertain origin. 

Coo. (E.) A purely imitative word ; 
also spelt croo, Cf. cuckoo^ cock. 

Cook. (L.) M. £. coken^ to cook ; 
A.S. coc, a cook.— L. coquusy a cook ; co- 
qturty to cook.+Gk. vicativ ; Skt. pack, 
lo cook ; Russ. pech{e\ to bake. ( V^EQ ; 
whence Lat. *pequere, becoming *queqtt€re 
by assimilation, and then coquere; Gk. 
*W^-t€iv, whence iricauv,) Bmgm. i. § 
66 r . A.S.cdc^ Late L. cacus, for coquus, 

OookiOy a cake ; see Cake. 

Cool. (E.) A.S. <:<?/, cool. 4*^^* ^^^^» 
Teut. type *k0l-uz; also, with mutation, 
Dan. ioif G. kuhi ; from kd/-, 2nd grade 
of kai', as in A. S. calan, Icel. kala, to 
freeze ^t. t. kol) ; see Cold. 

^rOOllOy Cooly, an East Indian porter. 
(Hind, or TamiL) Hind, kiilt, a labourer, 
porter, cooley (Forbes) ; prob. from UToIt, 
a tribal name (Yule). Or from Tamil ^^/i, 
daily hire' or wages; hence, a day- 
labourer (Wilson). 

Coomb ; see Comb. 

Coop. (L.) M. E. cupe, a basket; 
answering to A. S. *cupe, not found, though 
cype (with /-mutation) occurs as a gloss 
to (ioh'um.^L. cupa, a tub, whence also 
Du. Auip, Icel. kupa, a bowl ; also Late I^ 
copa, whence G. ku/e, tub, vat, coop; 
O. Sax. copa, a tub. Cf. Skt. ki/pa, a pit, 
hollow. Der. coop-er, tub-maker. 

Co-operate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
co-operdri, to work with ; from co- (cum)^ 
witli; and ^^<fri, to work; see Operate. 

Co-ordinate. (L.) From (cum), 
with ; and the pp. of ordindre, to order. 
See Ordinate. 

Coot. (E.) M. E. cote J coote, a water- 
fowl. -fDu. koett a coot. Origin unknown. 

Copkl. (Span. — Mexican.) S^zn, copal, 

vMex. copalli^ resin. 

Co-parcener, a co-partner. (F. - L.) 
Parcener is the true old spelling oi partner \ 
see Partner. 

Cope (x)) orig. a cape. (Late L.) M. E. 
cope^ earlier cape ; A. S. *cdpa, not found ; 
but IceL kdpa occurs. » Late L. cdpa^ a 
cape; see Cape (i). [Cf. pope, from 
A. S. papa, ] Der. coping-stone. 

Cope (3), to vie with. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
M. eT copen, coupeti, to fight. — O. F. coper, 
couper, colper, to strike (F. couper, to cut). 

— O. F. cop, cotip, colp, a blow. —Late L. 
colpus, L. coiaphus, a blow. — Gk. if<JAa^os, 
a blow on the ear. See Coupon. 

Copeck, a small Russian coin, worth 
less than ^r/. ; a hundredth part of a rouble. 
(Riiss.) Russ. kopieika, a copeck ; dimin. 
of Russ. kopee, a lance. So called from the 
figure of Ivan IV, holding a lance (1535). 
See Boubie. 

Copious, ample. (F.— L.) O. F. co- 
pieux,^\u. copiosus, plentiful. — L. copia, 
plenty; for *cO'Opia,^'L. co- (for cum), 
together ; op-, base of opes, wealth. Cf. 
in-opia, want. 

Copper, a metal. (Cyprus.) M.E. coper, 
A. S. copor, ""Late L. cuper, L. cuprum, a 
contraction for Cuprium ces, Cyprian brass. 

— Gk. Kwrpios, Cyprian ; Kvvpos, Cyprus,' 
whence the Romans got copper. 

copperas, sulplmte of iron. (F.— L.) 
M. E. coperose, — O.F. coperose (couperose) ; 
cf. Ital. copparosa. According to Diez, 
from L. cupri rosa^ rose of copper, a trans- 
lation of Gk. x<^^~<x''^o^» brass -flower, 
copperas. But this is prob. only a popular 
etymology ; and the Late L. cuprosa seems 
to be merely an adj. form from cuprum. 
See N.E.D. 

Coppice, Coppy, Copse, a small 

wood. (F. — L. — Gk.) Coppy is short for 
coppice, and copse is contracted. —O. F. 
copeiz [Low L. copecici], underwood fre- 
quently cut, brushwood. — O.F. coper (F. 
couper), to cut.— O.F. cop (F. coup), a 
stroke. —Low L. colpus, L. colaphus, stroke, 
blow. — Gk. K6\a(po%, a blow. ^ O. F. 
copei% answers to a Late L. type *colpdti- 
ciuMy from colpdre, to strike. Coppy arose 
from coppice being taken as coppies, pi. r 
and copse {cops) from reducing a supposed 
pi. *coppis to cops, 

Coprolite. (Gk.) Lit. * dung-stone.' 
Made from Gk. Kovpo-s, dung ; and \i$-oi, 
a stone. For -lite, cf. Aerolite. 

Copulate. (L.) From pp. of L. copti- 
Idre, to join. — L. copula, a band ; see 

Copy. (F.— L.) M.E. copy, abun- 
dance ; the mod. sense is due to the mul- 
tiplication of an original by means oi copies. 

— O. F. copie, abundance ; also a copy. — 
L. cdpia., plenty ; see Copious. 

Coquette. (F.) F.r^^^we?/^^, *apratling 
or proud gossip,' Cot; fem. oi coquet, a 
little cock, dimin. oicoq, a cock. Cf. prov. 
E. cocky, i. e. strutting as a cock. 

Coracle, a light wicker boat. (W.) W. 
corwgl, cwrwgl, coracle; dimin. of ^r^nc/^, 
a carcase, civrwg^ a boat, frame. So Gael. 
cnrachan, coracle, from curach, boat of 



wicker-work ; cf. Ir. corrach, O. Ir. curaek, 
a boat. 

Coral, (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. coral. '^ 
L. corallutHy cordlium.-^Gk. tcopaWtov, 
coral. See Schade, p. 1374. 

Corbaili a gift. (Heb.) Heb. Jordan, 
an offering to God, in fulfilment of a vow ; 
from qdrab, to draw near. Cf. Arab, qur- 
ban, a sacrifice. 

Corbel- (F.— L.) O. F. r^r^^/, a raven, 
a corbel (in architecture), from the notion 
of a projecting beak, i- Folk-L. corbellum, 
for corvellum, ace. of carvellusj dimin. 
of L. coruus^ a raven. ^^ Distinct from 
€orbeily a basket full of earth (F. corbeilie, 
L. corbicula, dimin. of cordis, a basket). 

Cord. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. corde.'^ 
F. r^r^. — Late L. corda, a thin rope ; the 
same as L. chorda, — Gk. x^P^* ^^^ string 
of a musical instrument. Der. cord-age 
(F. cordage) ; cord-on (F. cordon) ; cord- 
-elier (F. cordelier, a twist of rope, also 
a Gray Friar, who used such a twist ; from 
cordeler^ to twist ropes). See Chord. 

Cordial. (F.— L.) F. <•<?;'<//«/, hearty. 
* L. cordi', decL stem of cor, heart ; with 
sufHx -dlis ; see Heart. 

Corduroy, a thick-ribbed or corded 
stuff. (F.— L.) F. corde du roi, a trade- 
name, invented in England ; lit. ' king's 
cord.' See Cord and Boyal. 

Cordwainer, shoemaker. (F.— Span.) 
M. £. cordewaner, a worker in cordewane, 
i.e. leather of Cordova. — O.F. cordouan. 
Cordovan leather.— Late L. Cordoa, Cor- 
dova in Spain (L. Corduba), 

CorOf hard centre in fruit, &c. (F. — L. ?) 
Etym. doubtful. Perhaps from F. cor, a 
horn, also, a com on the foot, callosity. — 
L. comu, a horn, a horny excrescence. 

Coriander. (F,-L.-Gk.) F. cori- 

andre. — L. coriandrum (whence A. S. eel- 
lendre).^G\i, Kopicarvov, H6piov, coriander. 

Cork. (Span. — L.) Apparently from 
O. Span, alcorqtu, a cork shoe, which 
seems to be an Arab, form allied to Span. 
al'comoque^ the cork-tree, where al is the 
Arab. clef, art., and com-oque is formed 
from L. quern-US [ioi *quercnus)y oaken, 
adj. from L. quercus, an oak. % But the 
bark of the tree, was called, in Span., corche, 
corcho, — L. corticem, ace. of cortex^ bark. 
Hence cork is often derived from Span. 
corcho, though k for ch seems improb- 

Cormorant, a bird. (F.-L.) The / 
is excrescent. — F. cormoran ; O. F. cortna- 


raniy cormoran (Littr^).— O. F. corp, a 
crow ; and O. F. *marenc^ belonging to 
the sea, deriv. of L. mare, sea, with G. 
suffix -t»^; cf. Y.Jlamanlj flamingo. — L. 
coruum, ace. of coruus, a crow; &c. 
Cf. Port, corvomarinho, a cormorant ; lit. 
' marine crow ; ' from L. coruus marinus. 
But probably -moran was due to, or con- 
fusea with, Bret morvran, a cormorant 
(from mor, sea, and bran, a crow). 
Com (i), grain. (E.) A. S. com.^'Dn. 
koren, Icel. Dan. Swed. G. korn, Goth. 
kaum, Teut. type *kumom, Idg. type 
*g9mom, com; whence O. Slav. zrHno, 
Russ. zemo, com. Cf. Lat. grdnum, 
grain; Skt.y/"r«tf-, worn down, pp. oijri. 
Doublet, grain* See Churn. Bragm. i. 
% 628. (VGER.) 

Com (2), a hard excrescence on the 
foot. (F. — L.) O. F. corn (F. cor) , a horn, 
homy swelling. — L. comii, a horn ; see 

cornea, homy membrane in the eye. 
(L.) L. cornea^ fem. of comeus, homy. — 
L. comii, a hom. 

Cornell a shmb. (Bu.— L.) M. Du. 
komelle, 'the fruit of the comelle-tree,' 
Hexham ; cf. M. H. G. comelbaum, corael- 
tree ; Weigand. [Cf. M . F. comille, a cor- 
nel-berry ; comillier, comel-tree.] — Late L. 
cornolium, cornel-tree.— L. comus, a cor- 
nel-tree ; from the hard, horny nature of 
the wood. — L. cornH, a hom. 

cornelian, a kind of chalcedony. 
(F. — L.) Formerly comaline. — F. coma' 
line, 'the comix or comaline, a flesh- 
coloured stone;* Cot. C£ Port, come- 
Una ; also Ital. comiola, (i) a comel-tree, 
(2) a comelian, prob. so named because 
its colour resembles that of the froit of the 
comel-tree (Schade).— Late L. comiola, 
comel-berry; cornolium^ cornel.- L. cor- 
neus, adj. of comus, a cornel. % Altered 
to carneolus in Late L. (Schade, p. 1379), 
carnelian in E., and cameol in G., from 
a popular etymology which connected it 
with L. cam-, stem of carOy flesh. Cf. 
onyx - Gk. ^Kvf, finger-nail. 

comer. ( F. — L.) A. F. comere ; O. F. 
comiere. — Med. L. comeria, corner, angle. 
— Med.L. coma, angle.— L. comua, pi. of 
coma, hom, projection ; taken as a fem. 

comet. (F. — L.) M. E. comet, a horn ; 
later ,..a troop of horse (who carried a cor- 
nette or standard) ; also an officer of such 
a troop. — F. comet, comette, dimin. of F. 




€amet a horn. •- Med. L. coma, a horn 
Cornice. (F.-Ital.) M.F.andPicard 
cornice ; F. comiche, — Ital. cornice, a 
ledge for hanging tapestry (Florio) ; 
usually, a crow (from L. ace. corntcem, a 
crow). Origin uncertain ; by some identi- 
fied with coronix, a square frame. *Gk. 
Kopeapis, curved ; as sb., a wreath. 

Corolla. (L.) L. cifrolla, dimin. of co- 
rona, a crown. See Crown. 

corollary. (L.) h,coro/idriumyVL 'pre' 
sent of a garland, a gratuity; also, an 
additional inference. »L. corolla (above). 

coronal, a crown. (F.— L.) Properly 
an adj.^F. coroncUy adj.«>L. corondlis, 
belonging to a crown. ^"L, corona, a crown. 

coronation. (L.) LateL. ace. corond- 
tionem, from pp. of corondre, to crown.— 
L. corona, a crown. 

coroner. (F.— L.) Also €rowner\ 
both forms represent A. F. coruner ^coroner, 
Latinised as corondrius, a crown- officer, a 
coroner (afterwards Latinised as coro- 
ndtor\ — O. F. corone, a crown. ■■ L. corona, 
a crown. 

coronet. (F.-L) Dimin. ofO. F. 
corone, a crown. — L. corona, a crown. 

Coronach, a dirge. (Gael.) Gael, cor- 

ranachy a dirge, lit. * a howling together.' — 

Gael, comh' ( « L. cum) , together ; rdnaich, 

a howling, from the verb rhn, to howl, 

cry, roar, which is from rhn, sb., an outcry. 

So also Irish coranach, a dirge. 

Corporal (i)> a subordinate officer. 

' (F.— L.) O. F. corporai, ^'L6X<^ L. cor^ 

j>ordl%s, a captain ; a leader of a body of 

troops. ■■ L. corpor-^ for *corpoS', stem 

of corpus, body. % F. has now the form 

caporal, from Ital. caporale, a chief of a 

band; as if from Ital. capo, head (L. 

caput) ; but this does not explain the -or-. 

corporal (3), belonging to the body. 
(F. — L.) O. F. corporal J corporeL'^'L. 
cofpordlisj bodily. — L. corpor-, for *cor~ 
poS', stem of corpus, the body. Der. 
(from L. corpor-) corpor-ate, corpor-e-al 
(L. corpore-us), &c. Brugm. i. § 555. 

corps, corpse, come, a body. 

(F. — L.) [Here corps is F. ; corse is from 
the O. F. cars,'] M. £. cors, corps. ^^O, F. 
corSi M.F. corps, the body. — "LsCorpus, body. 

corpulent. (F.— L.) Y. corpulent,^ 
I^. corpulentuSf fat. — L. corpus, body. 

OOrpnscle. (L. ) L. cotpus-cu-lum, 
double dimin. of corpus, body. 
Corral, an enclosure for animals, pen. 

(Span. — L.) Span, corral, a court, yard, 
enclosure. — Span, corro, a circle, a ring of 
people met to see a show. From the 
phrase correr toros, to hold a bull-fight, 
lit. to run bulls. — L. currere, to run (Diez). 
See Eraal. 

Correct, adj. (L.) L. correctus, pp. 
of corrigere, to correct. — L. cor^ (for 
con- =^ cum), together ; regere, to rule. 

COrreffldor, a Spanish magistrate. 
(Span.— L.) Span, corregidor, lit. 'cor- 
rector.*- Span, corregir, to correct. — L. 
corrigere (above). 

Correlate, to relate or refer mutually. 
(L.) Coined from L. cor- \ = cum), to- 
gether ; and Belate, q. v. 

Correspond. (F. — L.) Y , correspon- 
dre.^h. cor- (for con-, cum), together; 
and Bespond, q. v. 

Corridor. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. corridor. 

— Ital. corridore, a swift horse; also, a 
long (ruiming along) gallery. — Ital. cor- 
rere, to run. — L. currere, to run. 

Corrie. (Gael.) Gael, coire, a circular 
hollow surrounded with hills,^ mountain 
dell ; also, a cauldron. [Cf. G. kessel, a 
kettle, a ravine.] + O. Irish coire, core, a 
kettle ; W. pair, A. S. hwer, a cauldron. 
Brugm. i. § 123. 

Corroborate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

corrobordre, to strengthen.— L. cor- (for 
con- ^ cum), wholly ; robor-, stem oirobur, 

Corrode. (F. — L.) F. corroder. - L. 
corrodere, to gnaw to pieces. — L. cor- (for 
con- =» cunt), wholly ; rodere, to gnaw. 
Der. corrosive, from pp. corros-us. 

Corrody, Corooy, allowance, pen- 
sion. (Low Lat. — Teut.) A. F. corodie, — 
Low L. corrodium, earlier corredium, L. 
form of A. F. conrei, preparation, pro- 
vision, allowance. See Ourry (i). 

Corrugate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
corrUgdre, to wrinkle. — L. cor- {cum), 
wholly; and rUgdre, to wrinkle, from 
i-uga, a wrinkle. 

Corrupt, adj. (F.— L.) k.Y.corupt, 
— L. corruptus, pp. oicorrumpere, to break 
wholly, corrupt.— L. cor- (for con- -cum), 
wholly ; rumpere, to break. 

Corsair. ( F. - Ital. - L.) F. corsaire 
(Prov. corsari, one who makes the course, 
corsa). — Ital. corsare, earlier corsaro, a 
pirate. — Med. L. cursarius, a pirate. — 
L. cursus, a course. See Course. 

Corse, a body. (F. — L.) M. E. cors. - 
O. F. cors. — L. corpus, a body. 




corset. (F.— L.) F. corseU a pair of 
stays ; dimin. of O. F. cors^ body. 

corslet. (F. - L.) F. corselet, ' a little 
body/ Cot.; hence, body-armour. Double 
dimin. of O. F. cors^ body (above). 

Cort^^e. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. cortigCy a 
train, retmue. — Ital. corteggio, a retinue. 
*ItaU carte, a court. -■ L. cortem, co- 
hortem, ace. of cohars, a court ; see Court 


COrtes, the span, national assembly. 
(Span. — L.) Span, cortes, pi. of corte, a 
court. — L. cortem (above). 

CorteZy bark. (L.) L. cortex (gen. 
corticis), bark. Der. cortical. 

Coruscate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
contscdre, to glitter. 

Corvette, a small frigate. (F. — Port. — 
L.) F. corvette. ^V on. corveta ; Span. 
corbeta, a corvette.— L. corbita^ a slow- 
sailing ship of burden. — L. corbis, a basket. 

Cosmic, relating to the world. (Gk.) 
Gk. Kofffincds, adj., from tcSfffios, order, also 
the world, universe. Der. cosmo-gony, 
cosmo • grap^j cosnio - logy, cosmo 'polite 
(citizen of the world, Gk. itoKii^, a 
citizen V 

cosmetic, that which beautifies. (Gk.) 
Gk. KotrjiTiTiieos, skilled in adorning ; 
whence also F. cosm4tigue,'mGk, leofffiiotf 
I adorn. — Gk. «d<r/io;, order, ornament. 

Cossack, a light-armed S. Russian 
soldier. (Russ.— Tatar.) Russ. kozak\ 
kazak' ; of Tatar (Tartar) origin. — Turk! 
quzzdq, a vagabond; a predatory horse- 
man (Yule). 

Cosset, to pet. (E.) From i6th cent. 
cosset f a pet-lamb, a pet Prob. the same as 
A. F. coscet, cozetf a cottar; A. S. cot-s&ta, 
a dweller in a cot, 'cot-sitter.' From 
A. S. cot J cot ; s^ta, dweller, from sittan, 
to sit. Cf. prov. G. kosscU, a cottager. 
[So Ital. casiccio, pet lamb (Florio) ; from 
casa, a cottage.] 

Cost, vb. (F. - L.) M. E. costen. - O. F. 
coster (F. coiter), to cost. — L. const are, to 
stand together, last ; also to cost. — L. con- 
{cum), together; and stare, to stand. 

Costal, relating to the ribs. (L.) From 
L. costa, a rib. See Coast. 

Costermonger. (F. and K) For- 
merly costerd-monger, or costard'tnonger. 
a seller of costards or apples. [The suffix 
-monger is E. ; see Monger.] M. E. 
costard, an apple, where the suffix -ard is 
F. ; prob. from O. F. coste, F. cdte, a rib ; 

cf. Y. fruit cdteU, ribbed fruit (Hamilton). 

Costive. (F.— L.) YromO.Y. costeu^, 
— L. constipdtus, constipated. See con* 
stiier in Littre ; and Constipate. 

Costume. (F.— Ital.-L.) O.Y.cos- 
tume, a costume. — Ital. costume ; Low L. 
costuma; see Custom. Doublet of cus^ 

Cosy, Cosy, comfortable, snugly shel- 
tered. (C. ?) Lowland Scotch cosie, cozie 
(Bums). Etym. unknown; perhaps cf. 
Gael, cbsctch, cbsagach, abounding in re- 
cesses, also snug, sheltered ; Gael, chs, a 
hollow, recess, cave ; Irish cucu^ a cave. 

Cot, a small dwelling; Cote, an en- 
closure. (E.) M.E. r<7/^. A. S. cot, cote, a. 
cot, den ; Northumbrian cot.^Dn.kot, Icel. 
kot, cot, hut ; prov. G. kot/i, cot. Der. 
cott-age (with F. suffix) ; cott-ar or cott-er ; 

coterie, a set of people. (F.— Teut) 
F. coterie, a set of people, company ; 
allied to O. F. coterie, servile tenure 
(Littre) ; Low L. coteria, a tenure by 
cottars who clubbed together. — Low L. 
cota, a.cot. — Du. kot (above). 

Cotillon, Cotillion, a dance for 4 or 
8 persons. (F.-M.H.G.) ¥. cotillon, lit. 
a petticoat; see Cotgrave. Formed, with 
suffix -ill-on, from O. F. cote, a coat, 
frock ; see Coat. 

Cotton (i), a downy substance. (F.— 
Span. — Arab.) M. E. and A. F. cotoun. — 
F. colon. ^SpBJi, colon, algodon, cotton 
(where al is the Arab. art.). — Arab, qutn, 

qutun, cotton. 

cotton (a), to agree. From a technical 
use of cotton, to form a down upon ; from 
Cotton (i); see Nares. 

Cotyledon, seed-lobe. (Gk.) Gk. 
KOTvXriUiv, a cup- shaped hollow. — Gk. 
KorvKri, a hollow vessel, cup. 

Concll, to lay down, place, set. (F. -- 
L.) M . E. couchen, to set, arrange. — O. F. 
coucher, colcher, to place. — L. collocare, to 
put together. — L. col- {cum), together; 
and locdre, to place, from locus, a place. 
Der. couch, db., a place on which one is 
couched or laid. 

Coucll-graSS, a grass which is trouble- 
some as a weed. (E.) Here couch is a 
variant of quitch, palatalised form of 
quick ^ i. e. tenacious of life ; see Quick. 

Conffh.. (E.) M. E. coughen, co^vhen. 

A. sT^cohhian, only found in the deriv. 
cohhetan, to make a noise. [The usual 

A. S. word is hwostan.'] Cf. Du. kuchett, 

to cough ; M. H. G. kfichen, G. keuchen. 



to gasp. From an imitative base *keu/t, 
*kuh, to gasp ; see Chincough. 

Could ; see Can (i). 

Coulter, part of a plough. (L.) M. £. 
colter, A. S. culter, — L. cutter^ a coulter, 
knife. Cf. per-cellere^ to strike. 

Council. (F. — L.) F. concile. — L. con- 
cilium, an assembly called together. ^iL. 
coft' {cum), together; and caldre^ to 
summon. % Often confused with counsel. 

Counsel. (F. — L.) M.E. conseiL^ 
O.F. conseil.^h. consilium, deliberation. 
-iL. consulere, to consult; see Consult. 
% Often confused with council. 

Count (i), a title of rank. (F.— L.) 
The orig. sense was * companion.' A. F. 
counte (not in M. E.). — O. F. conte\ also 
comte. — L. comitem, ace. of comes^ a com- 
panion (stem corn-it- ). — L. com- (for cum-), 
together; and it-um, supine of ire, to go. 
Dep. count-ess ; also count-y (below). 

Count (2), to reckon. (F. — L.) F. 
conter, formerly also compter, ^"L, compu- 
tare, to compute ; see Compute. 

Countenance. (F.~L.) o. F. con- 

tenance, gesture, demeanour; also look, 
visage. — L. continentia, continence, which 
in Late L. meant < gesture, demeanour.* •» 
la,contifient-, stem of pres. pt. ofcontinere; 
see Continent. Der. dis- countenance, vb. 

Counter« a piece to count with, a 
bureau. (F. — L.) M. E. countour. — O. F. 
conteour, countour. From O. F. conter ; 
see Count (a). 

Counter-y /r^i^ir. (F.— L.) F. contre, 
against. »L. contra, against. 

Counteract. (F.—L.) See Counter-, 
prefix, and Act. 

Cfounterfeit, imitated. (F. - L.) 
M. E. counterfeit, — O. F. contrefait, pp. 
of contrefaire, to imitate. — F. contre, over 
against, like ; faire, to make. — L. contra, 
against ; facere, to make. 

Countermand, to revoke an order. 
(F.—L.) F. contremander, to recall a 
command. — F. contre (L. contra), against ; 
mander (L. manddre), to command. 

Countenane ( i )> a coverlet for a bed. 
(F.—L.) An altered form, in place of 
counterpoint, as in Shak. — M. F. contre- 
poinct, the back-stitch or quilting-stitch, 
also a quilt ; Cot. p. Thus named, by a 
popular etymology, from a fancied connec- 
tion with M. F. contrepoincter, to work the 
back-stitch (from contre = L, cofttrd). But 
really connected with M. F. coutrepointer, 
to quilt (also in Cotgrave). In fact, contre- 


poinct is a corruption of O. F. coutepointe, 
a counterpane (see courtepointe in Liltre). 

— L. culcita puncia, a counterpane, a 
stitched quilt (see Ducange).— L. culcita, 
a quilt ; puncta, fem. of punctus, pp. of 
pungere, to prick. See Quilt. 

Counterpane (2\ counterpart of a 
deed. (F.—L.) M. F. contrepan, contre^ 
pant'. Cot. — F. contre (L. contra), over 
against; pan, a piece, part ; see Pane. 

Counterpoint, the composing of 
music in parts. (F.—L.) M. F. contre- 
poinct, ' a ground or plain song, in music ; ' 
Cot. The lit. sense is point against point, 
from the points or dots which represented 
musical notes, and were placed on staves 
over or against each other in compositions 
in two or more parts. — F. contre (L. con- 
trS), against; point, a point ; see Point. 

Counterpoise. (F.-L.) From coim- 
tcr and poise ; see Poise. 

Counterscarp, exterior slope of a 
ditch. (F.-Ital.-L. awflf Teut.) F. con- 
trescarpe ; Cot. — Ital. contrascarpa. — 
Ital. cofttra, over against ; Scarpa, a scarp. 
See Counter- and Scarp. 

Countersign, to attest by signing in 
addition. (F.— L.) F. conttesigtier, *to 
subsigne ; ' Cot. — F. contre, over against ; 
signer, to sign ; see Counter- and Sign. 

Countertenor. (F.- Ital.- L.) M.F. 

contreteneur; Cot.— Ital. contratcnore, a 
countertenor, the highest adult male voice. 

— Ital.^^if/m, against, over against; tenor e, 
a tenor ; see Tenor. 

Countervail. (F.-L.) M. E. r^w- 

trevailen. — O. F. contrevail-, a stem of 
contrevaloir, to avail against. — O. F. con- 
tre, against; valoir, to avail. — L. contra, 
against ; uatere, to be strong. 

Country. (F. — L.) M.E. contree,^ 
O. F. contree ( = Ital. contradci).^\aX& L. 
conirdda, contrdta, a region, lit. that which 
lies opposite ; cf. G. gegend, country, lit. 
opposite, from gegen, opposite. — L. r^»/nf, 
opposite ; see Contra-. 

Countey-dance. (F.) From country 
and dance. ^The F. contredanse was bor- 
rowed from this E. form.) 

County, orig. a province governed by a 
count. (F. — L.) M.E. countee. '^O.F, 
counte (i. e. coun-ti), F. comti, a province. 

— Late L. comifdtum, ace. of comitdtus, a 
county (though the old meaning was a com- 
pany or suite). — L. comit-, stem of comes, 
a count ; see Cotint (i). 

Couple. (F.-L.) O. F. cople, later 



coupie.^la. copulay a bond, band, that 
which joins; short ioi *co-aP'ula,^'L, co^ 
{cum)f together; and O.L. apere^ to join, 
preserved in the pp. aptus ; see Apt. 

Coupon^ one of a series of conjoined 
tickets or certificates. (F, — L. — Gk.) F. 
coupon J a piece cut off, a coupon. — F. couper^ 
to cut, slash. — F. coupy a blow. — Late L. 
colpuSy short for colaphus, a blow. — Gk. 
K6Kaupos, a blow on the ear. 

Courage. (F. — L.) F. courage, 0,F, 
corage ; formed with suffix -age (L.-dticum) 
from O. F. coTy heart. — L. cor, heart. 
Der. encourage. 

Courier. (^F. — Ital.— L.) l/[,F. courier, 
a runner ; F. caurrier, — Ital. corriere, lit. 
* runner.* — Ital. correre, to run. — L. cur- 
rere, to run. 

course. (F.—L.) Y, course, '^'L, cur- 
sum, ace. of cursus, a course ; from pp. of 
currere. Der. cours-er, a swift horse. 

Court (0} a yard; royal retinue, judicial 
assembly. (F. — L.) M. E. cort, curt, — 
O.F. cort, curt (F. court), 2i court, a yard, 
also a tribunal. — L. ace. cortem^ cohortem 
(nom. cohors), a pen, enclosure, • cattle- 
yard, court, also a cohort, or band of sol- 
diers.— L.^^ (^-Wfw), together; and ho'>^-, 
as in hort-us, a garden, yard, cognate with 
yard. (VGHER.) 

court (a), to seek favour. (F.—L.) 
From the sb. court ; hence, to practise arts 
in vogue at court. 

courteous, of courtly manners. (F. 
— L.) M. E. corteis, later corteous,^ 
O. F. corteis, courteous. — O. F. cort, a 
court ; with suffix -m (L. -ensis). 

courtesan. (F. - Ital. - L.) Fem. 
of F. conrtisan, a courtier. — Ital. corti- 
giano (in Florio cortegiano), a courtier. For 
*cortesiano, an extension of cortese, cour- 
teous ; from Ital. corte, court. — L. . ace. 
cortem ; see Court (i ). 

courtesy. (F.—L.) M.E. cortesie. 

— O.F. cortesie, courtesy. — O. F. corteis, 
courteous ; see courteous. 

courtier. (F. — L.) M.E,courteour. 
From A. F. *cortei-er (O. F. cortoi-er), to 
live at court ; with suffix -our (L. -atdrem), 

— O. F. cort, a court. 

Court cards; a corruption of coat 
cards, pictured cards, the old name. 

Courteous, &c. ; see Court. 

Cousin. (F. - L.) M. E, cosin. - O. F. 
cosin (F. cousin ; Late L. cosinus, Ital. 
ctigino, Romaunsch cusrin, cusdrin).^!^. 
consohrinus, the child of a mother's sister, 


a cousin.— L. con- {cum\ together; soh^T' 
nus, for *swesr-inus, belonging to a sister ; 
from L. soror (for *swesor), a sister; of. 
Skt. svasr, a sister. See Sister. (Cf. 
Brugm. i. § 319.) 

CovCi a nook. (E.) A. S. cofa^ a cham- 
ber, a cave. + Icel. kofi, a hut ; Swed. 
kofva; G. koben, a cabin. % Distinct 
from cave, coop, alcove, Brugm. i. § 658. 

Covenant, agreement. (F. — L.) O.F. 
covenant^ also convenant, agreement. — 
O. F. co(n)venant, pres. pt. of co{n)veniry 
to assemble, agree. — L. conuemre, to as- 
semble, come together ; see Convene. 

Cover, to hide. (F. — L.) O. F. covrir 
(couT/rir),^!,, coopertre, to cover. — L. co- 
(cum), wholly ; opertre, to shut, hide. For 
*cp-uerfre ; cf. Lith. az-weriu, I shut, 
wartai, doors, Oscan ace. veru, a door. 
Brugm. i. § 350. 

coverlet. (F.—L.) M.F.. cover/ite. 
— A. F. coverlet, coverlit (not in O. F.), 
a bed-cover. — O. F. covrir, to cover ; /j/, 
a bed, from L. tectum, ace.* of lectus, a 

covert. (F. — L.) O. F. covert, pp. 
oi covrir, to cover (above). 

Covet. (F.—L.) M.E, coueiten (co- 
veiten). — A. F. coveiter (F. convoiter), 
Cf. Ital. cubitare (for cupitare), to covet. 
Formed, as if from L. *cupiditdre, from 
cupiditd'tem, ace, eager desire, which 
is from cupidus, desirous of. — L. cupere, 
to desire. See Cupid. 

Covey. (F. — L.) O. F. cffvee (F. cou- 
vie), a brood of partridges; fem. of pp. of 
cffver (F. couver), to hatch, sit. — L. cuddre, 
to lie down, sit. Cf. Gk. Kv<p6s, bent. 

Covin, secret agreement, fraud ; a law- 
term. (F. — L.) M. E. covine. — O. F. 
covine, agreement. — O. F. covenir, to as- 
semble, agree. — L. conuemre, to come 
together. See Convene, Covenant. (The 
O. F. covine answers to Late L. convenia, 
pi. of convenium, an agreement.) 

Cow (i), female of the bull. (E.) A.S. 
cH ; pi. cy, whence M. E. ky, and the 
double pi. ky-en^kine. Teut. stem *Jt«-, 
whence also Icel. >&yr. -4- Du. koe, Swed. 
Dan. ko^ G. kuh ; Teut stem ^ko-. Also 
Irish and Gael, bo, W. buw, L. bos (gen. 
bou'is), Gk. ^ow, "Pers.gdw, Skt.gV' (nom. 
gdus) ; cf. Russ. goviado, oxen. Idg. 
stems *g{w)dU', *g(w)ou'-. See Beef. 

kine, cows. (E.) A doub/e pi., made 
by adding -n, short for -en (A. S. -an), to 
M. E. fy, A. S. cy, cows. The A. S. cy, 



pi. of alt a cow, is formed by vowel- 
change from il to y. 

Cow (2), to dishearten. (Scand.) Icel. 
kilgat to tyrannise over; Dan. kue, to 
coerce, subdue; Swed. kufva, to sup- 

Coward. (F.— L.) A.F.^^Mar^,ahare, 
a coward, F. couard^ a coward ; cf. Ital. 
codardo^ a coward. Probably named from 
the « bob-tailed* hare.i-O.F. coe (Ital. 
codd), a tail; with F. suffix -ard, from 
Teut. 'Iiart, orig. hard. — L. cauda^ 2i 

Cower. (Scand.) Vi,^. couren^^lctX, 
ktlra, Dan. kure, to doze, lie quiet; Swed. 
A'ttraj to cower, lie quiet ; Swed. dial. kurOf 
to sit hunched up. Cf. G. kauerUf to 

Cowl (i)> a monk^s hood. (L.) M. £. 
cule, coule. A.S. cugele^ cugle.^la. cu- 
culia, a cowl ; cf, also cuculltis. 

Cowl (2), a vessel carried on a pole. 
(F. — L.) M.E. cotul, — O.F. cuvel {cuveau), 
a little tub; dimin. of cuve, a vat, tub.-^ 
L. aipa, a tub. Der. cowl-staff. 

Cowry, a small shell used for money. 
(Hind.— Skt.) Hind, kaurt, a small shell 
{Cypraa monetd) used as coin in the 
lower provinces of India.— Skt. kaparda. 

Cowslip, a flower. (£.) M. £. cou- 
sloppe, A. S. cU'SloppCy cii-slyppey lit. cow- 
slop, i. e. a piece of dimg. (Other A. S. 
names of plants are of a very homely 
character.) Cf. oxlip^ q. v. ; and prov. £, 
bull'slopy a large kind of oxlip (Britten). 

Cozcomb. (£•) A fool, named from 
his cock^s cofnb, or fool's cap, cap with a 
cock^s crest. 

Coxswain. (F. and Scand.) For 
cock'Swain; from cock (4), a boat, and 

Coy. (F,— L.) O. F. coij older form 
quei, quiet, still ; spelt cqy^ quoy, in Cot- 
grave. — Folk-L. *quetum^ ace. of *qttetus, 
tor L. quietus f still. See Quiet. 

CoyotOf a prairie-wolf. (Mexican.) 
From coyote y Span. pron. of Mex. coyotL 

Cosen. (F. — L.) To cozen is to act 
as cousin or kinsman, to sponge upon, 
beguile. — F. cousiner, to call cousin, to 
sponge, live on other people ; see Hamil- 
ton and Cotgrave. ■> F. cousin, a cousin ; 
see Cousin. 

Crab (i), a shell-ash. (£.) A. S. 
crabha.'^lQd. kraddij Swed. krcdfba, Dan. 
krabbe, Du. krab^ G. krahbe. Allied to 
K. Fries, and Dui krabben, to scratch. 



claw ; G. irebs (O. H. G. crebiz), a crab, 
Du. kreeft^ a crab. See Crayfish. 

crabbed, peevish, cramped. (£.) 
From craby sb. ; i. e. crab-like, snappish 
or awkward. Cf. Du. krabben, to scratch, 
kribbenj to be peevish. 

Crab (2), a kind of apple. (E.) Cf. 
Swed. krabbdple, crab-apple. Perhaps 
allied to crabbed (above). 

Crabbed ; see Crab (i). 

Crack. (E.) A. S. cracian, to crack. 
+Du. kraken, to crack, creak ; G. kra- 
chen. Cf. Gael, croc, a fissure, cnac, a 
crack, to crack (from £.). Imitative, like 
crctke, creak J croak, crash, gnash, knock, 

cracknel. (F. — Du.) Formerly ^rai&^- 
nel, corruption of F. craqueHn, a cracknel. 
— Du. krakeling, a cracknel. Named from 
its crispness. — Du. kraken, to crack. 

crake, corncrake, a bird. (£.) 

From its cry; M. £. craken, to cry out. 
Allied to crack, croak. 

Cradle. (£.) K.^.cradol. Cf.O.H.G. 
cratto, a basket ; also O. H. G. crezzo, 
prov. G. krdtze, a basket. 

Craft, skill. (E.) A. S. rr<5/*/.-#-Du. 
kracht, Icel. kraptr^kraftr, Swed. Dan. G. 
kraft, force. Cf. A. S. crafian, to crave, 
demand. Der. handi-craft. 

Crag. (C.) W. craig, Gael, creag, 
crag, rock ; Irish creag, a rock ; cf. W. 
careg^ Gael, carraig, rock, cliff, Bret. 
karrek, O. Irish carricy a rock. 

Crake ; see Craok. 

Cram. (£>) A. S. crammian, to stuff. 
+ Icel. kremja, Swed. krama, Dan. 
kramme, to squeeze. From cramm-, 2nd 
grade of the str. vb. crimm-an, to crumble. 
And cf. Cramp. 

Cramp. (F.— Teut.) F,crampc, 'the 
crampe,* Cot. ; cf. crampon, * a cramp- 
iron.' — Du. kramp, a cramp, spasm. From 
the and grade of Teut. ^krempan-, *krim- 
pan', to draw together, as in O. H. G. krim- 
phan, to draw together, str. vb. Cf. E. 
crimp, cramp, crumple; Icel. krappr, 
cramped; kreppa, to pinch. And com- 
pare Crank. 

Crane, & bird. (£.) A. S. ^ra^.-f-Du. 
kraan, Icel. Irani (for krant), Swed. 
trana^ Dan. trane, G. kran-ich; W. and 
Bret, garan, Gk. yipayos, a crane, also a 
crane for raising weights. Cf. L. grus, a 
crane, Lith. garnys, a stork. From 
^GER, to cry out ; cf. Gk. y^fnn, voice 
cranberry. (Low G.) Modem; from 




Low G. kraanbere (Berghaus), G. kran- , worn by the Croatiansy who were called 

beere^ lit cranebcrry; cf. Dan. iranebar 
(from tratu=^kranet as above); Swed. 

Craninin. (L.~Gk.) Med. L. cra- 
nium, i- Gk. tcpavioVf sknll ; allied to icdpa, 

(h*ank (i), a bend. (£.) M. E. cranke. 
Allied to £. Fries, krunken, pp., bent. 

in F. Croates or Crovaies or Cravaies. 
CroiU is a name of Slavonic origin ; cf. 
Russ. Kroe^f a Croatian. 

Crave. (E>) A. S. crafian, to crave, 
ask. Cf. Icel. krefjaj Swed. krafvay Dan. 
kravCf to demand; Icel. krafa, a de- 

Craven. (F. - 1.. ?) The oldest form 

Cf. Du. kronkel, a wrinkle, kronkelen^ is M. £. cravant, with the sense of beaten, 

to wrinkle, turn, wind. Teut. base *krenJ(>, 

variant of *kreng-, Cf. Cringe, Crinkle. 
crank (2), easily upset, as a boat. 

(E.) L e. easily bent or twisted aside. 

Cf. Du. kranky ill, poor ; also krengen, to 

careen a boat; Swed. krdnga^ Dan. 
krangej to heel over ; see Cringe. 

crank (3), lively. (E.) The same 
word, from the idea of turning quickly. 
Cf. Norw. kringf active, brisk ; Dan. dial. 
krteng, dexterous. 

Cranny. (F. - L. ?) M. E. crany, 

— F. cratty a notch ; with E. suffix -y. 
Allied to Ital. crena ftmoizh. (Florio). Cf. 
Late L. crena, a notch (a word of doubt- 
ful authority). See Crenellate. 

CrantSy a garland. (M. Du.— G.) M. 
Du. kraniSi Du. krans, a garland, wreath 
(whence Dan. krands, Sw. krans). All 
from G. kranZf a wreath. 

Crape. (F.-L.) F. ^r^/^, formerly 
crespe, * frizzled, crisped, crisp ; * Cot. 
From its wrinkled surface. — L. crisfus, 
curled. See Crisp. 

Crare* a small ship. (F.) In Cymb. 
iv. 2. 205. M.E. crayer,'mO,Y, crater, 
creer, a war-vessel. Of unknown origin. 

Crash, vb. (E.) Of imitative origin ; 
closely allied to crack, Cf. ciasky (&sA ; 
and see Craze. 

Crasis. (Gk.) Gk. Kpatns, a mixing ; 
hence, contraction. — Gk. K(p6yyvfUf I 

Crass. (L.) L. crassus, thick, dense. 

Cratch, a crib, manger. (F. -O.H. G.) 
M. E. crecche, — O. F. creche {criche) ; 
Prov. crepcha. — O. H. G. crippea (whence 
G krippe)y a crib. See Crib. 

Crate. (L.) L. crates, a hurdle ; hence, 
a wicker-case, &c. 

Crater. (L. - Gk.) L. crdtir, a bowl, 
a crater. — Gk.' Hparrjp, a large bowl in 
which things were mixed. — Gk. Kfpdvvvju, 
I mix. 

foiled, or overcome, i. Mr. Nicol sug- 
gested that it is a clipped form of O. F. 
crcpvanU, pp. explained by Cotgrave by 
* oppressed, foiled'; this is the pp. of 
O. F. cravanter, to break, oppress «: Late 
L. *crepantdre, formed from crepant-, stem 
of pres. pt. of crepdre, to crack, break. 
Cf. Span, quebraniar, to crack, break. 
2. But it seems rather to be due to a con- 
fusion of the E. vb. to crave with M. £. 
creaunt, used in the precise sense of 
recreant, craven, beaten; this answers to 
O. F. creant, trusting, from Lat. ace. 
credentenit believing; from credere^ to 
believe, in Late L., to yield, to fear (cf. 
re-creatU), Cf. prov. E. cradden, cradant, 
a coward; prob. from an A.F. form of 
L. cridentem. 

Craw, crop of fowls. (E.?) M. E. 
crawe. As if from A. S. *craga, the neck ; 
not found; N. Fries, krage^ neck, craw. 
Allied to Du. kraag, G. kragen, neck, 
collar (whence Late Icel. kragi, Swed. 
krage, Dan. krave, a collar). Note also 
Dan. kro, the craw of a bird ; Swed. krdfva. 

Crawfish, the same as Crayflsh. 

CrawL (Scand.) Prov. E. craffle, 
croffle, to crawl. — Icel. krajla, to paw, 
crawl ; Swed. krafla, to grope ; Dan. 
kravlct to crawl. Cf. N. Fries, krabli, 
krawH, to crawl ; Low G. kraueln. Fre- 
quentative from Teut. base *krab-, to 
scratch, claw ; see Crab. 

Crayfish. (F. - O. H. G.) Altered 
from M. E. crevise. — O. F. crevisse, es- 
crevisse (Jcrevisse), — O. H. G. crebiz, G. 
krebs, a crab ; allied to G. krabbe, a crab ; 
see Crab (i). 

Crayon. (F.— L.) F. miyi^w; extended 
from F. crate, chalk. — L. creta, chalk. 

Crase. (Scand.) M. E. erased, i. e. 
cracked. — Swed. krasa, Dan. krase, to 
crackle ; whence also F. ^eraser, to break 
in pieces. Cf. Swed. sl& in kras, Dan. 

Cravat. (F. — Slavonic.) F. cravcUe, slaae i krasy to break in shivers. 
(i) a Croatian, (2) a cravat. Cravats Creak. (E.) M. E. kreken. Allied to 
were introduced into France in 1636, as i crctke^ crack, Cf. Du. kriek, a cricket, 




M. F. criquer, to creak, allied to craquer^ 
to crack. Of imitative origin. 

Cream. (F. — L. — Gk.) O. F. cresme 
(F. crime) ; really the same word as O. F. 
crestne (F. chrSnie)^ chrism ^though con- 
fused with L. cremor, thick juice). — Late 
L. cArisma, consecrated oil.>-Gk. xp^fffMy 
an unguent; see Chrism. 

Grease (!)» a wrinkle, as in folding 
paper, &c. (F.-^L.) Earliest spelling 
creast, a ridge (later, a furrow). Variant 
of crest t ridge (as of a roof). Cf. Walloon 
cress, a crest, ridge of a roof, kretUf 
wrinkled (Remade) ; Prov. crest, creis, a 
ridge; and prov. £. crease, a ridge-tile of 
a roof. {Athen, Sept. 18, 1897.) 

Crease (a), Creese, a dagger. (Ma- 
lay.) Malay kris, *a dagger, kris, or 
creese;' Marsden. 

Create. (L.) From pp. of L. credre, 
to make.'^Skt kf^ to make. Der. creat- 
ure, O. F. creature, L. cre&tura. And see 
Crescent. Brugm. i. {641. 

Creed. (L.) M. £. crede ; A. S. creda, 
— L. credo, I believe : the first word of 
the creed, -f O. Irish cretim, I believe ; 
Skt. frcui'dadhdmi, I believe. Der. cred- 
efue (O. F. credence, L. credential ; cred' 
ible ; credit (L. pp. creditus) ; cred-uUms 
(J^ credulus), &c. Brugm. i. § 539. 

Creek. (£• ?) M. K. creke, a creek .4- 
Du. kruk, M. Du. kreke ; cf. Icel. kriki, a 
crack, nook (whence F. crique). The 
orig. sense is * a bend,* as in Swed. dial. 
amtkrik, bend of the arm ; krik, an angle, 

Creelf an angler*s osier basket. (F.— 
L.) O. F. creif, wicker-work (Ducange, 
8.V. cleia).^!^. type *crdticulum, for 
crdiicula, wicker-work, double dimin. of 
crdtes, a hurdle. See Orate and OriU. 

Creep. (£.) M. £. crepen ; A. S. 
creopan,'\'T>Vi, kruipen, loel. krjUpa, Swed. 
krypa, Dan. krybe, to crawl. Teut. type 
*krenpan; str. vb. 

Creese ; see Crease (a). 

Cremataon, burning. (L.) L. cremd- 
tidttem, aoc. of cremdtio \ from pp. of ere- 
mare, to bum. 

Crenatei notched. (L.) From Late 
L. crma, M. Ital. crena, a notch. 
orenellate. (LateL.»F.— L.) From 

Sp. of Late L. crSnelldre^ to furnish with 
attlements.*0. F. rr^ff^/y a battlement; 
dimin. of O. F. cren, F. cran, a notch, 
from Late L. crhta (above). 
Creole, one .born in the W. Indies, but 

of European blood. (F. — Span. — L.) F. 
^r/i9/(f . — Span, criollo, a negro corruption 
of *criadillo, dimin. of crtado^ one edu- 
cated, instructed, or brought up ; hence, a 
child of European blood. Criado is pp. 
of criare, to cieate, also, to educate. — L. 
credre, to create, make, fl" Cf. Span. 
criadtlla, dimin. of criada, a servant-maid. 

Creosote, a liquid distilled from tar. 
(Gk.) Lit. * flesh- preserver.'— Gk. «/>«>-, 
for Kpias, flesh ; and awr; short for owt'Tip, 
preserver, from aiiitiv^ to preserve. (Ill- 

Crescent. (L.) The 'increasing' 
moon. — L. crescent-, stem of pres. pt. of 
crescere, to grow, increase (pp. crhtus), 
inchoative form allied to cre-dre, to 
make ; see Create. 

Cress. (E.) M. E. cres, also kerse (by 
shifting of r), A. S. ccerse, cerse, cresset, 
+Du. kers, M. Du. and Low G. kerse, G. 
kresse, O. H. G. cressa. 

Cresset. (F. - L.) M. E. cresset, 
a light in a cup at the top of a pole. — 
O. F. cresset, craisset, a cresset (with 
grease in an iron cup).— O. F. craisse (F. 
grcUsse), grease; Littre. — Folk-L. *crassia, 
grease, from L. crassus, thick, dense. So 
also Walloon crachi, a cresset, from 
crachCt grease. 

Crest. (F.-L.) O. F. creste (F. 
crite,) — L. crista, a comb or tuft on a 
bird's head, crest. 

CretaceOILS, chalky. (L.) L. crh 
tdce-us, adj. from creta, chalk ; w ith suffix 

Crevice, Crevasse. (F.~L.) M.E. 

crevice, crevase, crevasse. — O. F. crezuisse, 
a rift (Late L. crepdticL).'»0. F. creuer, to 
burst asunder. — L. crepdre, to crackle, 

Crew. (F.— L.) Formerly fz-wtf, short 
for accrue, a re-inforcement. — O. F. ac- 
creue, increase ; orig. fem. of pp. of ac- 
croistre, to increase. — L. accrescere, to 
grow to. — L. aC' (for cut), to ; crescere, to 

Crewel, a thin worsted yam. Origin 

Crib, a manger. (E.) A. S. crib.'^ 
O. Sax. kribbia, Du. krib, G. krippe ; 
allied to Icel. Swed. krubba, Dan. krybbe. 
Allied perhaps to M. H. G. krebe, a basket; 
but not to Du. korf, G.- korb, if these are 
from L. corbis, Der. crib, verb, to put by 
in a crib, purloin ; crihb-age, where crib is 
the secret store of cards 




Crick, a spasm or twist in the neck, 
(£.) M. £. crykkc ; also nsed in the sense 
of wrench. Prob. allied to Craok. 

Cricket (O* ^^ insect. (F.—Tent.) 
M. E. criket, — O. F. crequet^ criquety 
cricket. — O. F. criquer, to creak, rattle, 
chirp. -• Da. kriek^ a cridcet ; krikkrakken^ 
to rattle. From the imitative base kHk ; 
cf. proy. E. crocket, creaker^ a cricket. 
Hexham has M. Du. kricken, * to creake.* 

Cricket (2), a game. (F. — Du.) The 
game was once played with a hooked 
stick (Cot., s. V. crosse),"' O. F. criquet, 
* biton servant de but au jeu de boule ; * 
Godefroy. — M. Du. krick, kricke, a crutch; 
Hexham. Cf. A. S. cricc^ crycc, a cratch, 

Crime. (F. — L.) ¥. crime. '^'L. cri- 
men, an accusation, fault (stem crtmin-) ; 
allied to cemere, to decide, -f ^k. ^pT/m, 
xpcfia, a decision ; xpiveiv, to judge. Ber. 
crimin-cU, crimin-ate \ hence, recriminate 

Crimp, to wrinkle. (£.) In late use ; 
answering to an A.S. *crempan, E. Fries. 
krempen, causal deriv. of Cramp. The 
orig. str. vb. occurs as E. Fries, and Du. 
krimpen, O. H.G. krimfan\ Teut. type 
*krempan' {Jtrimpan-\ to draw oneself 
together, shrink up ; pt. t. *kramp, pp. 
^krumpiano'. See Cramp and Crumple. 

Crimson. (F. — Arab. — Skt.) M. E. 
cremosin, — O. F. cramoisin, cramoisyne 
(,see cramoisi in Littre) ; Low L. crame- 
sinus, also carmesinus, crimson (Span. 
carmesi, Ital. cAerptisi),'mArBh, qirmizt, 
crimson ; from qirmiz, the cochineal in-- 
sect. — Sict. krmi{s), a worm. Bmgm. i. 

§ 41?- 

Cringe. (E.) M. E. crengen ; causal 
derivative of A. S. cringan, crincan, to 
sink in battle, fall beneath the foe. 
Crincan is a strong verb; see Crank, 

Cringle, an iron ring. (Low G.) 
Low G. kringel, a ring (LUbben); E. Fries. 
kringel\ allied to Icel. kringla, a circle 
{ci.kringary pi., the pullies of a drag-net). 
Dimin. of E. Fries, kring, a ring, Du. 
kringy a circle ; allied to Crinkle, Crank 
(i), and Cringe. 

Crinkle. (E.) M. E. crinkled, crencled, 
twisted. A frequent, form of the causal 
deriv. of crink, which occurs in the A. S. 
str. vb. crincan, to sink in a heap; see 

Crinolinef a lady*s stiff skirt. (F.— 
L.) Y. crinoline, (i) hair-cloth, (2) crino- 

line. — F. crin (L. ace. crinem), hair ; 
and lin, flax, hence thread, from L. Itnum, 
flax, also, a thread. 

' Cripple. (E.) M. E. crepelj crtipel ; 
O. Northumb. crypel, Luke v. 24. Lit. 
* a creeper.* — A. S. crup-, weak grade of 
creopan (pt. t. crjeap), to creep ; with suffix 
-el (for 'il(h) of the agent.^Du. kreupel, 
Icel. kryppill, G. krUppel, Cf. Dan. krbb- 
ling^ (from krybe, to creep). See Creep. 

Crisis ; see Critic. 

Crisp, wrinkled, curled. (L.) A.S. 
crisp. — L. crispus, curled. Brugm. i. § 565. 

Critic. (L. — Gk.) L. criticus.^Gk, 
KfHTiKos, able to discern ; cf. tcfHTijs, a 
judge. — Gk. icpi-v€iv, to judge. Der. crit- 
erion, Gk. Hpniipiov, a test ; dia-critic, 
from Gk. IkaitpiTiKdsy fit for distinguishing 

crisis. (Gk.) Gk. «p/(ri9, a discerning, 
a crisis. — Gk. Kpi-vuv, to judge. 

Croak. (E.) Cf. A. S. cracetung, a 
croaking. Of imitative origin. Allied to 
crake, creak. 

Crochet. (F.— LateL.) Y, crochet, di 
little hook ; dimin. of croc, a crook. — Late 
L. croccum, ace. of croccus, a hook. 

Crock, a pitcher. (C.) A.S. crocca. 
Of Celtic origin. Cf. E. Irish crocan, Gael. 
crog, Irish crogan, W. crochan, a pitcher, 
pot.-f-Gk. HpcootrSs (for lefWKySs), a pitcher. 
So also Du. kruik, Icel. krukka, Swed. 
kruka, Dan. krukke, G. krug. 

Crocodile. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. croco- 
dile.^ L. crocodilm*^ Gk. /vpox^SccAos, a 
lizard, a crocodile. 

Croons. (L. — Gk.) L. crocus. — Gk. 
KpoKOi, crocus, saffron. Perhaps Semitic ; 
cf. Arab, karkam, Heb. karkdm, saffron. 

Croft. (E.) A. S. croft, a field.+Du. 
krocht, kroft, a field on the downs. 

Cromlech.. (W.) W. cromlech, a flag- 
stone laid across others. — W. crom, fem. 
of crwm, crooked, bent ; llech, flat stone. 

CronCi an old woman. (F. — L.) Tusser 
has crone, an old ewe. Prob. from Picard 
carone, carrion ; whence' M. Du. karonie, 
kronie, an old sheep. See Carrion. 

Crony, an old chum. (Gk.?) Pepys 
has chrony (N. E. D.). Perhaps for Gk. 
Xp6vios, a 'long-lasting' friend ; as it arose 
in college slang (Skinner). Butler rimes 
cronies with monies, 

Crooky a hook, bend. (Scand.) M. E. 
crok (Ancren Riwle). — Icel. krokr, Swed. 
krok, Dan. krog, hook, bend, angle. 

Crop. (E.) A. S. cropPi the top of a 

J 20 



plant, the craw of a bird ; orig. a bunch. 
[Hence the verb to crop, to cut off the 
tops; and hence crop, a harvest.] 4*1^0* 
krop, G. kropf, bird's crop ; Icel. kroppr, 
a hunch; Swed. kropp, Dan. krop, trunk 
of the body. . Cf. W. cropa, Gael, and Ir. 
sgroban, bird's crop. [To crop out is to 
bunch out] 

croup (2), hinder part of a horse. (F. 
— Teut.) Y, croupe f crupper; orig. pro- 
tuberance.— Icel. kroppr, a hunch (above). 
crupper. (F.— Teut.) F. croupiire 
(O. F. cropiere),^Y , croupe (O. F. crope, 

Cro^ueftf a game. (F.—Late L.) From 
N. French croquet^ a little hook, bent 
stick; the same as F. crochet. See 

Crosier. (F.— LateL.) yi.'E. crocer, 
croser, &c. Formed, with suffix -er, from 
M. £. croce, in the same sense of *■ bishop's 
staff.*— O. F. croce, *a crosier,' Cot. ; mod. 
F. crosse ; Late L. crocia* — O. F. croc, a 
hook ; see Crochet. % Not from cross, 
though early confused with M. £. croisier, 
a coinage from O. F. crois, a cross. 

Cross. (L.) M. £. cros\ from Icel. 
kross, adopted from O. Irish cros,^ L. 
cruc-em, ace. of crux, a cross. Der. 

crosSy adj. (L.) Orig. transverse, 
from the shape of a cross; hence, peevish. 

Crotchet, in music. (F.^Late L.) 
F. crochet, *a small hook, a quaver in 
music ; ' Cot. (The hooked mark now 
called a quaver was called crochet in 
French.) See Crochet. 

Croton, plant. (Gk.) Gk. nporw, a 
tick, which the castor-berry resembles. 

CrOQCll. (F.— LateL.) M. E. rr^w- 
chen, to stoop, bend. — O. F. crochir, 
to grow crooked (Godefroy). — O. F. 
croche, a crook; also ^ri^r.— LateL. croc- 
cum, ace. of croccus, a hook. 

Croup (i), a disease. (£.) From Low- 
land Sc. croupe, crope, to croak, make a 
harsh noise. Of imitative origin ; asso- 
ciated with crow, croak, and with North 
E. roupj rope, to call, shout hoarsely, from 
Icel. hrdpa, weak vb., to cry out. Cf. A. S. 
hropan (pt t. hreop), to cry out ; G. rufen 
. (pt. t. rief). 

Croup (2), of a horse; see Crop. 

CrOW(i),vb. (E.) A. S. fra7f«i« (pt. t. 
creotu), to crow.+Du. kraaijen, G. krdhen, 
weak verbs ; and cf. O. Slav, grajati, Lith. 
groti, to crow. Of imitative origin 

crow (2), a bird. (E.) A.S. crawe 
(s^e above). +0. S. krdia, Du. kraai, G. 
krahe, Der. crow-bar, bar with a crow- 
like beak. 

Crowd (i), to push, throng. (E.) A. S. 
^criidan (pr. s. crydef, pt. t. cread), to 
push ; whence croda, gecrod, a crowd, 
throng. ■4' M. Du. kruyden, kruyen, Du. 
kruien, to push along ; E. Fries, kroden, 
kriiden. Teut. type ^krudan-^ str. vb. 

Crowd (2), a fiddle. (W.) M. E. 
croudc^Vf, crwth, a trunk, belly, crowd, 
violin, fiddle ; Gael, cruit^ \aj^ ; O. Irish 
crot, harp. 

Crown. (F.— L. — Gk.) M.'E.corone, 
coroune (whence croufte).^0.¥, corone 
(F. couronne), — L. corona, a wreath. — Gk. 
Kopdnnff, end, tip ; Kopivn, a wreath, gar- 
land.— Gk. Kopairds, bent, curved. Cf. 
Gk. KVfnSs, L. curuus, bent. 

Crucial. (F. - L.) F. crucial, ' cross- 
like;' Cot — L. cruet', decl. stem of crux, 
a cross ; with suffix -diis. 

crucifir- (F--L.) 0,V,cruciJter,^ 
Late L. *cructficdre, for L. cruciftgere 
(pp. cructjixus), to fix on a cross. — L. 
cruet, dative of crux ; figere, to fix ; see 
Fix. Der. crucifix, -ion. 

Crucible. (L.) From Late L. cruci- 
bolum, (i) a night-lamp, (2) a vessel for 
melting metals. The lamp may have 
been so named from having four nozzles 
with wicks, forming a cross (still a com- 
mon Ital. pattern) ; as if from cruci-, decl. 
stem of crux, a cross ; with suffix -bolum 
= -bulum, as in iuribulum, a censer. 

Crude. (L.) L. crudus, raw. Allied 
to Baw. 

cruel. (F. - L.) O. F. cruel. - L. 
crudelis^ cruel ; allied to crUdus, raw 

Cruet. (F.— Teut.) A. F. cruet, a 
small vessel (Godefroy) ; dimin. of O. F. 
cruie, crue, pot.— Low L. cnlga, a pitcher. 

— O. H. G. kruog, G. krug, a pitcher ; 
allied to Crock. 

Cruise. (Du.— L.) Du. kruisen, to 
cruise, cross the sea. — t)u. kruis, a cross. 

— L. ace. criic-em, from crux, a cross ; 
with lengthening of ii. 

Crumb. (E.) Prov. E. croom, A. S. 
crUma. (The final b is excrescent.) +Du. 
kruim, Dan. krumme, G. krume, a 
crumb. Cf. Ital. grumo, a clot. Der. 
crumb-le, verb; cf. Du. kruimelen, G. 
krUmeln, to crumble. 

Crumpetf a kind of cake. (£.) Wyclif 




has crompid cake to render Lat. ia^a- 
num (Ex. xxix. 23) ; cf. prov. E. crumpy 
cakdy ciisp cake. -For crump- td, pp. of 
M. E. crumpen^ to curl np (whence £. 
crumple), Cf. G. kriimpen^ krumpen, to 
crumple, curl up; krumm, curved; Du. 
krommen^ to crook, curve. See below. 

Crumple, vb. (E.) Frequentative of 
obs. crump, to curl up. From crump^^ 
weak grade of A. S. *crimpanf str. vb. ; 
see Orajnp and Crimp. 

CmnclL. (E.) An imitative word. 
Cf. prov. ^ crinch, cranck^ to crunch. . 

Crupper ; see Crop. 

Gmral. (L.) L. crurdHsy belonging 
to the leg. — L. crur-y stem of crus^ the 

Crusade. (F. and Span. -L.) The 
form is due to confusion of F. croisade 
with Span, cruzada. — Late L. crucidtay 
sb. fern., a marking with the cross, pp. f. 
of crucidrey to cross. — L. cruH-y decl. 
stem of cruXy a cross. 

Cruse, a small pot. (E.) M. E. cruse, 
W. Fries, krbssy E. Fries, kros. + Icel. 
kriis, a pot; Swed. krusy Dan. kruuSy a 
mug; Du. kroeSy cup, pot, crucible; 
M. H. G. kruse^ G. krausey mug. 

Crush. (F.-Teut.) O. F. crusir, 
cruisiry croissiry to crack, break ; (Span. 
cruxiry Ital. crosciare). From a Teut. 
type *kraustjan' (see Diez), causal form 
from Goth, kriustcmy to gnash with the 

Crust. (F. - L.) O. F. crouste (F. 
cro^te),^Lu, crusta, crust of bread. Cf. 
Gk. Kpvosy frost; see Crystal. Der. 
crust-y, hard like a crust, stubborn, 
harshly curt (of people). 

Crutch.. (E.) M. E. crucche ; from 
A. S. cryccy a crutch, staff. + Du. kruky 
Swed. kryckay Dan. krykkey G. krucke. 

Crr. (F.— L.) yi,E, crien.'^Y, crier, 

(Fuller forms occur in Ital. gridarey Span. 

gritar^ Port. gritar,)^L, quiritdre, to 

shriek, cry, lament (Brachet) ; lit. * to 

implore the aid of ^he Quiriies* or Roman 

citizens (Varro). 

Crsrpt. (L. - Gk.) L. crypta. - Gk. 

KpunT-qy a vault, hidden cave ; orig. fern. 

of Kpwrr6iy hidden. — Gk. HpwrrfiVy to hide. 

Crystal. (F.-L.-Gk.) Formerly 

crista/, — O. F. cristal, — L. crysiallumy 

crystal. — Gk. ifpuaToAAoy, ice, crystal.— 

Gk. /cpvaToivfiVf to freeze. — Gk. le/rt^os, 


Cubi (E.?) Etym. unknown. Cf. 

Shetl. cood, to bring forth young, applied 
only to a seal ; Icei. koddiy kapr, a young 

Cube. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. £:«Af.-L 
ace. atdum. — Gk. «vfios, a cube, die. 

Cubeb, a spicy berry. (F. — Span.- 
Arab.) F. cudede, in Cotgrave. — Span. 
cubeba, — Arab. kabdba{f)y pi. kabdbahy 
cubeb, an aromatic. 

Cubit. (L.) L. cubitusy an elbow, 
bend; the length from the elbow to the 
middle finger's end. . Allied to L. cubdre, 
to lie down, recline ; see Covey, 

Cuckold. (F. ; with G. sujffix,) M. E. 
kokewoldy kokeweldy cokold,^0, F. cucu- 
aulty coucual (Godefroy), a cuckold. — 
O. F. cucu (F. coucou)y a cuckoo ; with 
depreciatory suffix -at^//, -cd, from G. 
'waid (Diez, Gram. ii. 346). Cf. O. F. 
cucu (F. coucou\ a cuckoo; secondly, a 
man whose wife is unfaithful. (There are 
endless allusions to the comparison be- 
tween a cuckoo and a cuckold ; see Shak. 
L. L. L. V. 2. 930, &c.) 
Cuckoo. (F.) F. coucou; from the 
bird's cry. Cf. L. cuculus, a cuckoo ; Gk. 
KoKKv^j a cuckoo; K6KKVy its cry; Skt. 
kokila-y a cuckoo; Irish cuach, W. cog, 
Cf. cocky cockatoo. And see Ooo. 
Cucumber. (L.) Thesis excrescent; 
M. E. cucumer.'m'L, cucumeremy ace. of 

cucumisy a cucumber. 

Cud. (E.) M. E. cudey codey quide, 
A. S. cwiduy cweodu, cudu, Teut. type 
*k7vedu'om, neut. Cf. Skt.yfl/«-, lesin; 

also Icel. kwdday resin. Orig. sense, 
'glutinous substance.' 
Cuddle. (E.) Perhaps for ^couthUy to 

be familiar, to fondle; from coutk^ adj. 

familiar, well known; A. S. ciifiy known, 

pp. of cunnaUy to know. See Can(i). Cf. 

prov. E. coutk, loving ; coot/ey to fondle. 
Cudgel. (E.) M.E. kugget. A.S. 

cycgel'y in Gregory's Pastoral Care, ed. 

Sweet, p. 397. Cf. Cog. 
Cudweed. (E.) Yxomcud^iAwud'y 

* the plant being administered to cattle 

that had lost their cud.' So also cud- 
Cue, for an actor. (L. ?) Sometimes 

written q or qu in the i6th cent., and 

supposed to be for L. quando, when. 
Cuff (i), to strike. (Scand.?) Cf. 

Swed. kujfay to thrust, push, M. Swed. 

kuffUyio strike, to cuff (Ihre). 
Cuff (2), part of the sleeve. (L. ?) 

M. ¥, ctiffty coffe, Cf. Late A. S. cuffiey a 



kind of cap (Leo) ; M. H. G. kupfe^ 
kuppe, kuffisy a coif; see Coif. [Very 

Cuirass. (F. - Ital. - L. ) Formerly 
curace, — O. F. cuimce (F. cuirasse), — Ital. 
corazza^ a cuirass. Formed from L. 
coridceuSy leathern. » L. corium, leather 
(whence F. cuir, leather). 

CnisseSypl. (F.-L.) O.F.cuissauXy 
armour for the thighs. — F. cuisse, thigh. — 
L. coxaj hip. Brugm. i. § 609. 

Culdee. (C.) Irish ceiUde, a Culdee, a 
servant of God. — Ir ceile (O. Irish ceU)^ 
servant; and di, gen. of iitay God. 

Culinary. (L.) L. cuRndriuSy be- 
longing to the kitchen, -i L. cultna, 

Cull, to collect, select. (F.-L.) M.E. 
culien, — O. F. coilliry cuilliry to collect. — 
L. colligerey to collect. See Coil (i) and 

Cullender ; see Colander. 

Cullion, a wretch. (F. — L.) A coarse 
word. F. couillon (Ital. ccgiione),^!^. 

CuUis, a strong broth, boiled and 
strained. (F.— L.) Foimeily cofysy coleys. 
fc- O. F. col^is, coule'iSy later couliSy * a 
cullis/ Cot. ; substantival use of coleis, 
later couliSf 'gliding,* Cot.i-L. type *cdla- 
ttcius ; from cdlSrty to strain. Cf. Fort- 

Culm, a stem. (L.) L. culmus, a 
stalk ; allied to calamuSy a stalk. See 

Culminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
culmindrey to come to a top. — L. culmin-y 
stem of Oilmen ( = colunien)y a top. See 

Culpable. (F.-L.) M.E. coupable. 
O. F. culpabUy colpablty coupable (F. coup- 
able). — L. culpdbilisy blameworthy. — L. 
culpdrCy to blame.— L. culpUy a fault. 

culprit. (F.— L.) In Dryden. Not 
orig. a single word, but due to a fusion of 
A.F. cul' (for culpabUy i. e. guilty) and 
prist or prest (i. e. ready to prove it) ; 
signifying that the clerk of the crown was 
ready to prove the indictment (N. E. D.). 

Culter ; see Coiilter. 

Cultivate. (L.) Late L. cultivdtuSy 

p. of cultivdre, to till. — Late L. cultivuSy 

t for tilling.— L. cultusy pp. of colerey to 
till. Brugm. i. $ 121. 

OUlture. (F.-L.) F. culture. "L, 
cultilra' allied to culUuSy pp. of colere^ 
to till. 



Culver. (E.) A. S. culfrcy a tiove. 

Culverin. (F.— L.) Corrupt form, 
for *culevrin. — F. coulevritUy a culverin ; 
a piece of ordnance named from its long 
shape, like a snake. — O. F. couleuvrin^ 
adder-like; from couleuvre, an adder. — L. 
colubray coluber, an adder. 

Culvert, an arched drain. (F.— L.) 
Of doubtful origin ; perhaps formed, with 
added /, from O. F. coulouere, * a channel, 
gutter,* Cot. — F. couler, to trickle. — L. 
coldre, to strain, drain. Compare Port- 
cullis and Cullis. 

Cumber. (F.— LateL.) M.E. com- 
bren. — O. F. combrer, to hinder (rare) ; 
usual form en-combrer. — Late L. cumbrusy 
a heap, a barrier ; of doubtful origin. 
[Cf. L. cumulus y a heap; but also G. 
kummery grief, oppression, prov. G. kutfi' 
meTy rubbish. Thus cumber =*X.o put a 
heap in the way.] Der. en-cumber ^ from 
O. F. encombrery to encumber, load. 

Cumin, Cummin, a plant. (L.- 
Gk. — Heb.) M. E. comin, A. S. cumin j 
cymen.^'L. cuminumy Matt, xxiii. 33.- 
Gk. KVfuvoy. — Heb. kammon, cumin. 

Cumulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
cumuldrey to heap up.— L. cumulus y a 

Cuneate, wedge-shaped. (L.) Formed, 
with suffix 'CUe, from L. cune-usy a wedge. 
Allied to Gone. Der. cunei-form ; i. e. 
wedge-shaped. See Coin. 

Cunning, adj. (£.) Grig. pres. pt. of 
M. £. cufineny to know ; heuce, * knowing.* 
From A. S. cunnany to know ; see Can (i). 
cunning, sb. (E.) M. E. cunninge. 
From A. S. cunnany to know. Perhaps 
suggested by Icel. kunnandi^ knowledge ; 
from Icel. hunnay to know. 

Cup. (L.) A. S. cuppey a cup. — Late L. 
cuppay variant of L. ciipd, a tub, in Late 
L., a drinking-vessel ; whence also Du. 
Dan. kop, F. coupe, &c. See Coop. 

cupboard. (L. and £.) M. E. cup- 
bordcy orig. a side-board for holding cups ; 
Allit. Poems, B. 1440; Morte Arth. 

Cupid, god of love. (L.) L. cupidOy 
desire. — L. cupere, to desire. '^ Skt. kupy 
to become excited. Der. cupid-i-tyy F. 
cupiditSy from L. ace. cupiditdiem. 

Cupola. (Ital. — L.) Ital. cupola, a 
dome; from its shape. — L. cUpuhy a small 
cask, a little vault ; dimin. of L. cUpay a 

Cupreous, coppery. (,L.) L.cupre-us; 



of copper ; with suffix -ous. — L. cuprum, 

Cur. (E.) M. £. kur-dogge^ (ab. 1225). 
•4*M. Du. korre, a house*dog; cf. Swed. 
diaL kurre^ a dog. Named from growling. 
Cf. prov. £. curr, to purr; Low G. 
kurren, to snad (Liibben) ; Icel. kurra, 
to murmur, grumble; Swed. kurra, to 

Curate; see Core. 

Curb. (F. — L.) M. £. courben, to 
bend. — F. courber^ to bend, bow. — L. 
curudre^ to bend ; from curuus, bent. 

Curd. (E.) M. E. curd, crud, Prob. 
from A. S. crud-, related to criidan, 
to crowd, press together. Ct Ir. gruthy 
Gael, gruthy curds. (Fick, ii. 1 19.) 

Cure. (F.-L.) O. F. cure,^\.. cura, 
attention (prim. Ital. *koiza). Brugm. i. 
§ 874. % Not allied to care, 

curate. (LO Med. L. cUrdtus, a 
priest, curate; cf. curdtum beneficium, 
a benefice with cure of souls. —ll cura^ 

cnrioiLS. (F.— L.) o. F. «^<?j.-L. 

curidsusy attentive. — L. cura, attention. 

Curfew. (F.-L.) A. F. coeverfu, 
covrefeUy curfeu\ O.F. covrefeu (F. couvre- 
feu)f a fire-cover, covering of fires, time 
for putting out fires. — O. F. covrir, to 
cover ;^«, fire {<X^ focuMt ace. oi focus, 
hearth, fire) ; see Cover and Fooua. 

Curious ; see Cure. 

Curl, sb. (E.) M. E. crul (with shift- 
ing of r) ; from M. E. crul, adj., curly 
(A.D. 1300). Not in A.S. E. Fries. 
krulia, krull, krul, a curl.<4-Du. krui, a 
curl, krullen, to curl ; Dan. krolle, sl curl, 
Swed. krullig, curly ; G. krolle, a curl, 
M. H. G. kriU/e. Cf. Norw. krt4/l, a curl, 
something rolled together ; krulla, to curl, 
bend or bow togfther. Allied to E. Fries. 
krillen, to bend, turn, wind; Low G. 
krellen, to turn; N. Fries, krall, close- 
twisted ; suggesting Teut. base *krellan-y 
to wind, str. vb. (Franck, Koolman). 

Curlew, a bird. (F.) M. F. corlieu, 
*a curlue;* Cot. Cf. Ital. chiurlo, a cur- 
lew, chiurlare, to howl, Swed. kurla, to 
coo ; so that it is named from its cry. 

Curmudgeon. (E.?) Origin unknown. 
In one instance spelt corn-mudgin (Phil. 
Holland), as if a hoarder of com, hence, 
a stingy fellow; where mudgin is for 
mudging^ pres. pt. of mudge, to hoard, 
also spelt mooch (M. E. muchen), to skulk ; 
from O. F. mucer, to hide. But this is a 


forced spelling, giving a wrong clue. Iii 
1596, we find cormullion, with the same 
sense. The first syllable seems to be cur, 
a whelp ; and we find Lowl. Sc. murgeon, 
to mock, to grumble ; mudgeon, a grimace. 
Currant. (F. — L. — Gk.) Formerly 
raysyns ofcoraunt, — F. raisins de Corinthe, 

• currants ; ' Cot. Hence, currant is a cor- 
ruption of Corinth (L. Corinthus, Gk. 

Current, running, flowing. (F.—L.) 
M. E. currant, O. F. curant, pres. pt. o£ 
curre, corre (F. courir), to run.— L. cur^ 
rere, to run. Prob. for *cursere, Brugm. 
i. §§ 499, 516. Perhaps allied to Horse. 
curricle. (L.) L. curriculum, a 
running; also, a light car.^L. currere, 
to run. 

Curry (0, to dress leather. (F.—L. 
and Teut.) O.F. correier (Godefix)y), 
earlier forms conreder, conreer, later con- 
royer, courroier, to curry, dress leather, 
orig. to prepare. —O.F. conrei, older form 
cunreid, gear, preparation. A hybrid 
word; made by prefixing con- ( = L. ^^«, 
cum) to O. F. ret, order (Ital. -redo in 
arredo, array), fi. This O. F. rei is of 
Scand. origin ; from Dan. rede, order (also 
to set in order), Icel. rei6i, tackle. Pre- 
cisely the same O. F. rei helps to form E. 
ar-ray ; see Array. % To curry favour 
is a corruption of M. E. to curry favel, to 
rub down a horse ; Favel was a common 
old name for a horse. 

Cur^ (2), a seasoned dish. (Tamil ) 
From Tamil kari, sauce, relish for rice 

Curse. (E.) A. S. cursian, verb ; curs, 
sb., an imprecation. Cf. O. Ir. cursaigim, 

* 1 reprehend ' (Windisch) . Der. ac- cursed, 
from M. E. acorsien, to curse extremely, 
where the prefix flE- = A.S. a-, very; see 

Cursive. (L.) Med. L. curstvus, flow- 
ing ; said of handwriting. — L. curs-us, pp. 
of currere, to run. See Current. 

cursory. (L.) Late L. cursorius, 
hasty. — L. cur sort-, decl. stem of cursor, 
a runner. — L. curs-us (above). 

Curt. (L.) L. curtus, short, cut short. 
curtail. (F.—L.) It has nothing to 
do with tail, but is an alteration of the 
older form curtal, verb, to dock ; from the 
adj. curtal, having a docked tail (All's 
Well, ii. 3. 65). — O. F. courtault, later 
courtauti ' curtail, being curtailed ; ' Cot. 
The same as Ital. cortaldo, *a curtail, a 




horse without a taile,' Florio. Formed, 
with suffix -auU (=Ital. -aJdo^ Low L. 
'OlduSf < C TvaUy power), from O. F. 
court, short. -"L. curtus^ short. 

Curtain. (F.— L.) M. £. cortin.^ 
O. F. cortim.^Jjate L. corttna, a curtain 
(Exod. xxvi. I, Vulgate), a screen, plain 
wall of a fort, orig. a small yard.-«L. 
cort-em, ace. of cors^ a court. See Court. 

Cvrtleaze. (F.— L.) A perversion 
of cuttleax, which was a perversion of 
cuitelasj an old spelling of cutlass. See 

Cuxtsey. (F. — L.) The same word as 
courtesy^ i. e. a courtly act. 

CnrTe. a bent line. (L.) Late L. 
curzms, L. curuus, bent. ^ Gk. ivvpros, 
bent. Der. curV'Oturc, L. curudtiira, 
from pp. of curudrCy to bend ; from 

cnrvet. (Ital.— L.) Ital. corvetta^ a 
curvet, leap, bound ; dimin. from M. Ital. 
corv-o (Ital. curvo), bent.-^L. curuus 

Cnshatf the ring-dove. (£.) A. S. cu- 
sceote^ a wild pigeon ; also cuscote. Here 
sceote probably means 'shooter, darter,' 
from sceotan, to shoot (cf. A. S. scSota^ a 
kind of trout) ; and perhaps cil refers to 
the * coo * of the bird. Cf. Lowl. Sc. cow- 
shot y a cushat. 

ChuMon. (F. — L.) M. E. quisshiny 
cussAin.^O,¥. coissin, coussin^ a cushion. 
[It is supposed that O. F. coissin was the 
true form, altered to coussin (perhaps) by 
the influence of O. F. coute^ a quilt.]— L. 
type *coxtnumf a support for the hip, 
from coxa, hip, thigh (like L. cubital, 
elbow-cushion, from cubitus, elbow). Cf. 
Ital. cuscino, cushion, coscia, hip; Span. 
co/in, cushion, cuj'a, hip. {/Romania f 189a, 
p. 87.) 
. Cusp. (L.) L. cuspis, a point. 

Custard. (F.-Ital.-L.) ForM.E. 
crustcuie, by shifting of r. Formerly cus- 
tade, crustade, and orig. used wiUi the 
sense of * pasty.' *F. croustade, a pasty. 
i» Ital. crostata^ * a kinde of daintie pye ; ' 
Florio. — L. crustdta, fem. pp. oi crustdre, 
to encrust. — L. crusta, a crust. 

Custody. (L.) L. custodia, a keeping 
guard. — L. custod\iy, stem of custos, 
a guardian ; lit. *■ hider.' Cf. Gk. K€i&$ttv, 
to hide. See Hide. (VKEUDH.)Brugm. 
i. % 699. 

Custom. (F.-L.) M. £. custume,^ 
O. F. custuwe^ costume (F. coutume). 

From a L. type *costumne, for *cos- 
tudne, shortened form of consttetudinem, 
ace. of consuetudo, custom. — L. consuetus, 
pp. of consuescere, to accustom, inchoative 
form of *consuire, to be accustomed. — L. 
con- {cum), together, very; suescere (pp. 
suitus), to be accustomed ; possibly from 
suus, own; so that suescere ^io have it 
one's own way. 

Cut. (Scand.) M. £. cutten, a weak 
verb. Of Scand. origin, but the traces of 
it are not many. Cf. Mid. Swed. kotta, 
to cut (Ihre); Swed. dial, kuta, kdta, 
to cut small with a knife, also spelt 
kvbta, kdta, kdta ; kuta, or kytti, a knife 
(Rietz) ; \cit\, kuti, a little knife; Norw. 
kyttel, kytel, kjutuU a knife for barking 

Cuticle. (L.) L. cuticula, double 
dimin. of cutis, hide, skin. See Hide. 
Dep. cut-an-e'ous, from cut-is. 

Cutlass. (F.— L.) F. coutelas, * a cut- 
telas, or courtelas, or short sword ; ' Cot. 
(Cf. Ital. coltellaccio, * a curtleax,* Florio ; 
which is the same word.) — O. F. coutel^ 
cultel (F. couteau), a knife ; cf. Ital. col- 
telle, knife; with ace. suffix -dceupi.^lj. 
ace. cultellum, a knife ; dimin. of cutter, a 
coulter. % The F. -as, Ital. -ck:cio='L, 
•dceum; but F. coutelas was actually 
turned into £. curtleaxe. Yet a curtle- 
axe was a sort of sword ! 

cutler. (F.— L.) M. E. coteler,mm 
O. F. cotelier. — Late L. cultelldrius, knife- 
maker. — L. cultellus, a knife (above). 

Cutlet. (F.-L.) F.<:^/^/^//^, a cutlet; 
formerly costelette, a little rib; dimin. of 
O. F. coste, rib.— L. costa, a rib; see 

CuttlCf a fish. (E.) Formerly cudele, 
A. S. cudele, a cuttle-fish. Cf. G. kuttel- 
fisch (perhaps from E.). 

Cvcle. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. cy cicala, 
cycfum, ace. of cyclus, — Gk. H{nt\o%, a circle^ 
cycle. + Skt. chakra-, • a wheel, circle. 
Allied to Wheel. Der. cyclone *= Gk. 
kvkXwv, whirling round, pres. pt. oiievKkow, 
I whirl round ; epi-cycle ; bi-cycle, 

Cyi^ety a young swan. (F.— L. — Gk.) 
Dimin. of O. F. eigne, a swan. Strangely 
enough, this O. F. word is not immedi- 
ately from L. cycnus, a swan ; but the 
oldest O. F. spelling was cisne (as in 
Spanish), from Late L. cicinus, a swan, 
variant of cycnus, ^G\i. kvkvos, a swan. 
Cf L. ciconia, a stork. See Diez ; 4th ed, 
p. 714. 




•. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. HU 
indre^ later cylindre, — L. cylindrus, — Gk. 
K^XjybpoSy a roller, cylinder. — Gk. xvXtvSctv, 
to roll; from irvAtW, to roll. Cf. O. Slav. 
ko/o, a wheel. (VQEL.) 

Cymbal. (F.— L. — Gk.) M.E.cimdalg, 
— O. F. cimbale. — L. cymbalum, — Gk. 
KVfi0a\oVf a cymbal ; named from its cnp- 
like shape. — Gk. KVfifiri, a cnp. 4- Skt. 
kumbka-, a jar. Allied to Cup ; and see 
Comb (3). (VKEUBH.) 

CyniCf lit. dog-like. (L. — Gk.) L. cynt- 
cus. — Gk. KvviKoSf dog-like, a Cynic. — Gk. 
KVV', as in Kw-d^j gen. of kvwv, a dog (E. 

cynosure. (L. — Gk.) L. cynosHra, 
the stars in the tail of the constellation of 
the Lesser Bear ; one of these is the Pole- 
star (hence, a centre of attraction). --Gk. 
Kw6covpa, the Cynosnre, tail of the Lesser 
Bear ; lit. * dog's tail.* — Gk. tci^os, gen. of 
Kvoiv, a dog ; ovpA, a tail. 

Cy;pre88 (D, a tree. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
M* E. apres. — O. F. cypres, later cyprh, — 
L. cupressuSy cyparissus^^QrV, icvirapi<rffoSf 
cypress-tree, Cf. Heb. ^^^r. 

Cypress (a), a cloth of gold, a kind 
of satin, a kind of crape. (F.— L.) Pals- 
grave explains F. crespe by * a cypres for 
a womans neck ' ; Cotgrave has * crespe, 
cipres, cobweb lawri ' ; which suggests 
some confusion of cypress with crape. 
The origin of cypress is doubtful ; but 
it occurs as cipres y cypirs in Piers Plow- 
man, and as cyprus in Sir Degrevant, It 
seems to have been imported from the isle 
of Cyprus, 

Cyst, a poach (in animals) containing 
morbid matter. (L. — Gk.) Formerly 
written cystis, « Late L. cystis, * Gk. nn/^rts, 
a bag, pouch. 

Czar, the emperor of Russia. (Russ. — 
TeuL— L.) Russ. tsare (with e mute), a 
king. O. Slav. ^/jrarT. — Goth, kaisar.^ 
L. CcBsar, ^This has been disputed; 
but see Matt. xiii. 34 in Schleicher, 
Indogermanische Chrestomathie, p. 375, 
where O.Slav, cesarstvo occurs for Russ. 
JsarstvOy kingdom; &c. Der. czarowUz, 
from Russ. tsarevich\ czar*s son ; czaritsa, 
from Russ. /xanVja, . empress ; czar-ina, 
with Ital. suffix -ina, from G. fern, suffix 


Dab (Oi to strike gently. (E.) M. E. 
dabben ; also cUibbe^ a blow. Not in A. S. 

Cf. M. Du. dabben, to pinch, fumble, 
dabble; G. tappen, to grope, prov. G. 
tappe, fist, blow. See Dub, Tap. 

oabble. (E.) To keep on dabbing; 
frequent, of dab, 4> M. Du. dabbelen, to 
fumble, dabble ; frequent, of M.Du. dcibben 

Dab (a)» expert. (E.?) Prob. from 
^^ (^) : perhaps influenced by dapper or 
\iy adept. 

Dab (3), a fish. (£.) M. E. dabbe. 
Prob. allied to dab, a light blow, a soft 
mass dabbed down. See Dab (i) , dabble. 

Dabble ; see Bab (i). 

Dab-chick. (E.) YoxmtiXy dap-chick, 
dop-chick. Cf. A.S.<iS:^-^»idr, a moorhen, 
lit. ^ dipping duck ; ' doppettan, to dip often, 
immerse ; Du. dobber, a float. See Dip. 

Dace. (F. — O. Low G.) Formerly 
darce, — O. F. dars, nom. case of the word 
also spelt dart, meaning (i) a dart, (3) a 
dace. The fish is also called a dart or 
a dare, from its swift motion. See Dare (a) , 

Dacdt, a robber. (Hind.) Hind. 
ddkdit, a robber belonging to an armed 
gang; from 4^^i robbery by a gang 
(Wilson). Der. dacoii-y, robbery. 

Daclnrl. (L.— Gk.) L. dactylus, the 
metrical foot marked -ww. »Gk. SairrvXo;, 
a finger, a dactyl. 

Dad. (E.) A child's word for < father.' 
So also W. tad, Irish daid, Bret, tat, tad, 
father ; Gk. rata, Skt. tcUa, dad. 

Dado. (Ital. — L.) Formerly used of 
the die, or square part in the middle of the 
pedestal of a column ; afterwards applied 
to the part of an apartment between the 
plinth and the impost moulding.— Ital. 
dado, a die, cube, pedestal. (Cf. Prov. 
dat'%, a die.) — Folk-^. datum, assumed to 
mean ' a die ' ; lit. ' a thing given, a lot.* — 
L. datum, neut. of pp. of dare, to give. 
See Die i2\. 

Daffodil! (F.-L.-Gk.) The aT is a t/ 
later addition ; perhaps from M. F. fleur 
daffrodille, translated ' daffodil-flower.* 
M. E. affadille ; Prompt. Parv. — M. F. as- 
phodile, also affrodiile, * th'affodill, or 
asphodill flower ; * Cot. — L. asphodeius, — 
Gk. do'0^8cXos, a kind of lily. See As- 

Daft, foolish ; the same as Deft. 

Dagger. (F.) M.E, daggere; allied to 
daggen, to pierce. — F. dague, a dagger; 
of unknown origin (not Celtic). Cf. Ital. 
Span, dc^a^ Port, adaga, dagger. The 




Port, form suggests an Eastern origin ; 
cf. Heb. ddkh&hf to strike. 
' Sagflflei to moisten, wet with dew or 
spray. (Scand.) Frequentative verb from 
Swed. daggf Icel. dogg (gen. daggar), dew. 
Cf. Icel. dbggva^ to bedew. See Dew. 

Da^erreotype. (F. and Gk.) 

Formed by adding -o-/^ to F. Daguerriy 
a personal name, the inventor (A. D. 1 838). 

Ilalllia. (Swed.) Named after Dahly 
a Swedish botanist (A.D, 1791). 

Dainty, a delicacy. (F.—L.) M. £. 
deintee^ qrig. a sb., a pleasant thing ; cf. 
A. F. deyniee^ greediness (Bozon). ■• 
O.F. daintU (i. e. daintif)^ agreeableness. 
» L. ace. digniiatem\ see Dignity. 
% The O. F. daintie is the true popular 
O. F. form ; digniteit is a pedantic form ; 
cf. O. F. dain, old spelhng of digne^ 

Dairy. (Scand.) M. £. deyeryty a 
room for a deytf i. e. a milk- woman, farm- 
servant.— O. Norw. dHgja, Swed. deja^ a 
maid, dairy-maid, who was also the bread- 
maker; theorig. sense is 'kneader of dough.' 
■- Teut. type ^daig-jan-y sb. f., as if from 
(Goth.) deigan (pt. t. daig)^ to mould; 
whence also Goth, daigs, Icel. deigj Swed. 
deg, dough ; see Dough. % The cognate 
or borrowed A. S. dage occurs once only ; 
pee Thorpe, Dipl, p. 641. 

Dais, a raised floor in a hall. (F. — L. 
~Gk.) Now used of the raised platform 
on which the high table in a hall stands. 
Properly, it was the table itself] but was 
also used of a canopy over a seat of ^tate, 
or of the seat of state. M. £. dgi^t deys, •- 
A. F. deis^ O. F. dois^ a high table (Supp. 
to Godefroy).>*L. discumy ace. of discus, 
a quoit, platter ; in Late L, a table. — Gk. 
blaaoSf a quoit, disc. See Diao. 

Dailiy. (E.J) M. £. dayifsya (4 sylla- 
bles). A. S. dages eage, eye of day, i. e. 
the sun, which it resembles. 

Dala, a valley. (£.) M. £. dale.^ 
A. S. dal (pi. dai'U), -f Icel. daJr, Dan. 
Swed. dal, a dale; Du. dai; Goth, dais; 
G. fAai; aUo O. Slav, do/a (Russ. dpi') ; 
cf. Gk. 06KOS, a vault. Der. deii. 

Daily, to trifle. (F.-Tent.) M. £. 
daiien, to play, trifle. - A. F. and O.F. 
daiier, to converse, chat, pass the time in 
light converse (Bozon). Of Teut. origin ; 
cf. Bavarian dalen, to speak and act as 
children (Schmeller) ; mod. G. (vulgar) 
dahieUy to trifle. 

DalmatiOt a vestment. (F. ^ Dal- 

matia.) F. daintatique. •- L. daimatica 
{uestis) ; fem. of Daimaticus, belonging to 

Dam CO) a mound, bank against water. 
(E.) A. S. datum, only in the derived 
yeih for-demman, to dam up; O. Fries. 
dam ; North. Fries, dam. -f Du. dam^ 
Icel. dammr, Dan. dam^ Swed. damm, 
M. H. G. tam, G. ddmm, a dam, dike, 
Cf. Goih. faurdammjanf to dam up. 

Dam (2), a mother, applied to animals. 
(F— L.) The same word as Dame. 

Damage. (F.~L.) U.IE., damage.^ 
A. F. damage (F. dommage); cf, Prov. 
damnatje, answering to Late L. *damndti- 
cum, harm ; we find Late L. damndiicus, 
condemned to the mines. i-L. damndius, 
pp. of damndre ; see Damn. 

Damask. (Ital. — Syria.) M.£. da- 
masJie, cloth of Damascus. » Ital. damasco. 
— Heb. dmeseq, damask, Dammeseq, Da- 
mascus (Gen. xiv. 15). Der. damask* 
rose ; damask-im, to inlay with gold (F. 
damasquiner, from damasqu-in, adj.). 

Dame. (F.-L.) M. £. </rtw^.-O.F. 

dame, a lady.^-L. domina; fem. of domi- 
nus, a lord. See Don (2). 

Damn, to condemn. (F.— L.) M. £. 
damnen, dampnen, * F. damner. — L. dam- 
ndre, to condemn, fine. • L. damnum, loss, 
fine, penalty. Brug. i. § 762. 

Damp. (E.) Cf. M. £. dampen, to 
suffocate; £. Fries, damp, vapour. -f-Dn. 
damp, vapour, steam; Dan. damp, G. 
dampf, vapour ; Swed. damb, dust. From 
the 2nd grade of Teut. ^dempan-, pt. t. 
*damp, pp. *dumpano-, as in M, H. G. 
dimpfen, timpfen, str. vb., to reek; cf. 
Swed. dial, dimba^ str. vb., to reek. See 

Damsel. (F.— L.) M.E. damosti.^ 
O. F. danuiseie, a girl, fem. of dameisei, a 
young man, squire, page. •- Late L. domi- 
ceiius, a page, short for *dominiceiius, 
double dimin. of dominusj a lord. (Pages 
were often of high birth.) 

Damson. (L.— Syria.) M. £. dama' 
scene, — L. , Damascenum (^prunum), plum 
of Damascus. See Damask. 

Danoe. (F. - O. H. G.) M. E. daun- 
cen, — O. F. danser, — O. H. G. danson, to 
drag alon^ (as in a round datice).i- 
O. H. G. dans, 2nd grade of dinsen, to 
pull, draw ; allied to E. Thin. • Cf. Goth. 
at'thinsan, to draw towards one. 

Dandelion, a flower. (F.-L.) F. \/^ 

dent de Hon, tooth of a lion ; named from 




the jagged leaves. >L. dent^m^ ace. of 
denSy tooth ; di^ prep. ; honem^ ace. of 
leoy lion. 

. Dandle. (£•) Prob. of imitative origin ; 
cf. M. F. dodtner, dodeliner, ' to rock, 
dandle, loll/ Cot. ; M. Ital. dandolare, 
dondolare, ' to dandle or play the baby/ 
Florio; dandokty dondola^ a toy. Gode- 
froy gives M. F. dandirur, to balance or 
sway the body. Cf. £. Fries, diiuiannen, 
to walk unsteadily, sway from side to side. 

Daadriffi scurf on the head. (£.) 
Formerly also dandruffs. Of unknown 
origin ; bat cf. prov. 'E.dan, scurf, dander, 
a slight scurf on the skin ; and (perhaps) 
drib, a driblet, or driftj a fine shower. 
% The W. marw'don, dandriif, is from 
marw, dead, and hm, skin. 

Dandy, a beau (£. ^). Origin unknown. 
Prov. £. dandy, gay, fine. Note M. Dan. 
dande, brave, excellent. Dandy is also a 
form of Andrew, [F. dandin, 'a mea- 
cock, noddy, ninny,' Cot., is unsuitable.] 

Danger. (F.— L.) M. £. daungere, 
power, esp. power to harm. — O. F. dan- 
gler (F. danger), also dongier (XIII cent.), 
absolute power, irresponsible authority. 
This answers to a Late L. type *domnid- 
rium, *dotninidriumy not found, but regu- 
larly formed from Late L. ^m{t)nium^ 
power, authority. •Late L. domnus, L. 
dominuSy a lord. 

Danffle« to swing about. (Scand.) 
Dan. wtn^e, Swed. dial, dangla^ to swing 
about; cf. Swed. and Icel. dinghy Dan. 
dingle, to swing about; frequentative 
forms from ding (pt« t. dang), to throw 
about. See Ding. 

Dank, moist. (Scand.) M. £. dank, 
wet (esp. with ref. to dew). — Swed. dial. 
dank^ marshy ground; Icel. dokk (stem 
*dankwd-) , a pool. Cf. Swed. dial, ddnka, 
to moisten, Dan. dial, donke, dynke, Norw. 
dynka, to wet ; also Dan. dial, dunkel, 
moist, Swed. dial, dunkelhet, moisture ; 
North. £. danker, a dark cloud; Sw«d. 
dial, and M. Dan. dunken, musty; G. 
dunkel, dark. 

Dapper. (Du.) Orig. good, valiant ; 
hence brave, fine, spruce. XV cent.— Du. 
dapper, brave.^-O. H. G. taphar, weighty, 
valiant, G. tapfer, brave ; Russ. dobrui, 
good. Brugm. i. § 563. 

Dapple, a spot on an animal. (Scand.) 

dape, a pool, a wet splotch ; whence the 
idea of * splash ' or ' blot.* 

Dare (i)» to venture. (£.) M. £. dar, 
I dare ; pt. t. dorste, durste, A. S. ic dearr, 
I dare ; he dearr, he dare ; pt. t. dcrste ; 
infin. *durran, + Goth, ga-dars, I dare, 
'daursta, Idurst, infin. -daursan ; O. H. G. 
tar, I dare, infin. turran. Also Gk. Bap- 
aiiv, to be bold, Bpatrik, bold ; Skt. drsA, 
to dare. (VDH£RS.) Brugm. i. $ 502. 

Dare (3), a dace. (F.— O. Low G.) 
A new form, made by taking darce (old 
form of dace) as a pi. form {=dars), and 
thence making a singular dar, now dare. 
See Dace. 

Dark. (£.) M. E. derk. A. S. decre, 
with a broken vowel ; for . older *derc. 
The O. H. G. tarchanjan^ to hide (answer- 
ing to W. Germ. *dark'n-jan) is from the 
and grade *dark of the same base. Cf. 
also 0. Sax. der-ni, A. S. deme, O. H. G. 
tar-ni, secret, dark ; see Tarnish. 

darUinff, in the dark. (£.) Formed 
with adv. s^x -ling, as m flat-ling, M. E. 
hedling (headlong), A. S. bac-ling, back- 

Darling. (£.) M.E. derling, A.S. 
diorling, a favourite. — A.S. d^or^e (in 
comp. deor-), dear; with double dimin. 
suffix 'l-ing. See Dear. 

Dam. (£.) XVII cent. Prob. from %/ 
M. £. dernen, to conceal, from deme, adj., 
secret, hidden; cf. prov. E. dern, dam, 
to hide, to stop up a hole. — A. S. deme, 
dyrne, secret, hidden. + O. Sax. demi, 
O. H. G. tami, secret. See Dark. 

Darnel. (F.) M.E. darnel, demel. 
From an O. F. word, now only preserved 
in Walloon (Rouchi), darnelle^ darnel 
(H^art). Hitherto unexplained; but cf. 
Swed. d&r', as in d&r-repe, or repe, darnel 
(Lowl. Sc. domel) ; and O. F. nielle, nelle 
(Late L. nigella), darnel (Godefroy). The 
Swed. d&ra means to stupefy (as with 
lolium temulentum) \ cf. Dan. daare, a 
fool ; Walloon damise, daurnise, drunken 
(Grandgagnage) . 

Dart. (F. - O. Low G.) M. K dart, - 
O. F. dart (F. dard). Of Teut. origin ; cf. 
A. S. dardli, a dart, Swed< dart, a dagger, 
Icel. darraJHr, a dart, O. H. G. tart, a 

Dasll. (£•) M. E. daschen. Cf. Ix)w G. 
daschen, to thrash (Berghans) ; Dan. 

Icel. depill, a spot, dot ; a dog with spots , daske, to slap, Swed. daska, to beat ; we 
over the eyes is also called depilL The I speak of water dashing against rocks, 
orig. sense is * a little pool,' from Norweg. | Dastard. (Scand. ; with F. suffix.) 




M,E, dastard; where -atd is a F. suffix, 
as in duU-ard, slugg-ard. Dost appears 
to be for dazed\ cf. Icel. dastr^ exhausted, 
pp. of d^Esa^ to be out of breath ; daseiSr, 
exhausted, weary, pp. of dttsask^ to be 
weary ; see Dase. Cf. Icel. eUuiy a lazy 
fellow, M. Du. dasaerty a fool (whence 
M.£. das-art (i.e. daz{e)ard), a dullard, 
in N. £. D.) ; Low G. ddskopp^ a block- 
head (Berghaus). The orig. sense is ' slug- 
^ Date (i)» a given point of time. (F.— 
^ L.) M. £.^a/^.-F. date^ date. -Late L. 
daia^ a date ; L. daia^ neut. pi. of dcUus^ 
given, dated.— L. dare^ to give.+Gk. 8f- 
Sa;/M, I give ; ^roi, given ; Skt. daddmiy 
I give; Russ. dcUe^ to give. (^DO.) 
Brugm. i. %% 167, 168. 
V^ Date (a), fruit of the palm. (F.-L.- 
Gk.) M. E. date, - O. F. date (F. datte), 
also daielty a date. — L. dactylum, ace. of 
dactylus.^'Gk, tAservKos, a finger; also a 
date (somewhat like a finger). But it is 
probable that SdrrvAos, a date, was a word 
of Semitic or^n, assimilated to the word 
for * finger.' Cf. Aramaic digid, a palm- 
tree (see Gen. x. 27) : Arab, daaa/. 

Daub. (F.~L.) U,E.dauSm.''0.¥. 
dauber y to plaster ; answering to an older 
form ^ddlber, — L. dealbdre, to whiten, 
plaster.— L. d?, down, very ; albdrty to 
whiten, from aibus, white ; see Alb. Cf. 
S^n.jaibegar {^*d€tMcdre)y to plaster. 
Der. be-daub. 
y Daughter. (E.) M. E. doghter, doh- 
ter. A. S. dohtor,'\'iyvi, dochter^ Dan. dat- 
ter, dotter, Swed. dotter, Icel. doitiry Goth. 
dauhiar, G. tochter\ Russ. doche^ Lith. 
dukte^ Gk. Ovyd-njpy Pers. dukktarj Skt. 
duhUf, Orig. sense doubtful. 

Daunt. (F.-L.) M. £. daunten,^ 
O. F. danter\ also donter,^!^ domitdre, 
to tame, subdue ; frequent, of domdre^ to 
tame ; see Tame. 

Danphin. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. dauphin, 
a dolphin ; see Dolphin. A title of the 
eldest son of the king of France, who took 
it from the province of Dauphiny (a.d. 
1349) \ <^^ ^^^ province had formerly had 
several lords named Dauphin. 

Daviti a support for ship*s boats. 
(Heb. ?) Formerly spelt David , as if from 
a proper name (a. D. i6a6). Also called 
daviot in A. F., a dimin. of O. F. Davi, 

Daw. (£.) From the noise made by 
the bird ; cf. caw.^O, H. G. taha^ a daw ; 

dimin. tahele (now G. dohle), a daw; 
whence Ital. taccola, a daw (Florio). Der. 

Dawky transport by relays of men and 
horses. (Hindi.) Hindi ifdky post, trans- 
port, &c. (Yule). 

Dawn ; see Day. 

Day. (E.) lli.E. day, dai, dm, A.S. 
dag, pi. ^^Ar.«4-Du. Dan. Swed. dag, Icel. 
dagr, G. tag, Goth, dags. Allied to Lith. 
dagos, hot time, autumn ; digti, to bum. 
Teut. type *dagoz ; Idg. type *dhoghos ; 
firom VDHEGH, to bum ; Skt. dah, to 
bum, ni-d&gha-^ hot season. Day is the 
hot, bright time; as opposed to night. 
% In no way allied to L. dies, 

dawiLi vb. (Scand.) M. E. dawnen ; l/ 
from the older sb. dawning,^SwtA, Dan. ' 
dagning, a dawning, dawn ; as if from a 
verb *dag-na, to become day, from Swed. 
Dan. d^, day. 2. We also find M. E. 
dawen, to dawn ; from A. S. dagian, to 
become day, dawn.— A. S. dag-, base of 
dag, day. {Cf./azvn, vb.) 

Daywoman, dairy-woman. (Scand. 
and £.) In Shak. L. L. L. i. 2. 137. 
The addition of woman is needless. Day 
« M. £. d^e, «» O. Norw. deigja, a maid ; 
esp. a dairymaid ; see Dairy. 

OBMibm (Scand.) M. E. d&iJM, to stupefy. 
—Swed. disa, to lie idle ; Icel. dasask, to 
be wearied, lit. to daze oneself, where -sk 
is the reflexive suffix ; dasi, a lazy man ; 
dasinn, lazy ; Dan. dial, dase, to be idle ; 
Low G. ddsen, dosen, to be listless ; in *n 
das* sein, to be in a * daze' (Berghaus). 

dasiley to confiise. (Scand.) From 
daze; with firequent. suffix -U, Der. be- 

De- {i),prejfix, (L. ; ^F.-L.) L. di, 
down, away, from, very; hence sometimes 
Y,d4-,de-, O.F. flfe-. 

De- (a) , prefix, (F. - L.) F. aB?-, O. F. 
des' ; from L. dis- ; see Dis-. 

Deacon. (L. — Gk.) M. E. deken. 
A. S. diacan.^'L, diaconus.^GV., SiAkovos, 
a servant, a deacon. Cf. ky-Kovi«a, I am 
quick, ly-Koyis, a maid-servant. 

Dead. (E.) M. E. deed. A. S. dead, 
dead.4-Du. daod, Dan. diki, Swed. difd, 
Icel. daudr, Goth, dauths, Teut. type 
*dau-9oz, orig. a pp. with Idg. suffix -to- 
(Teut. -d(h) from the vb. *dau-jan- (Icel. 
deyjd), to die. See Die (i). 

Deaf. ( E.) M. E. deef, A. S. deaf.-^ 
Du. doof, Dan. dav, Swed. dofy Icel. daufr. 
Goth, daubs, G. taub, Orig. ' obfuscated ; 




allied to Gk. rv<poSf smoke, darkness, 
stupor, Twp'Kos, blind. (VDHEUBH.) 

Deal (i), a share. (£.) M. £. deel. 
A. S. dSif a share, -f Dn. deel, Dan. deel, 
Swed. del, Goth, dails, G. tkeil. Cf. 
O. Slav. d^liHf a part. Bmgm. i. § 279 (2). 
deal (2), to divide, distribute. (£.) 
M. £. delen, A. S. dalan.^A.S. dal, a 
share (above). 4* ^u* deelen, Dan. <^/($, 
Swed. ^/a, Icel. <^27a, Goth, dailjan, G. 
tketlen ; cf. the respective sbs. Tabove). 

Deal (3), a thin board. (Du.) Da. <^/, 
aplank.HhG. </iV/i?; see Thill. 

Dean. (F.-L.) M. E. flfe«^.-0. F. 

deien (F. doyen),^Li. decdnum, ace. of 
decdnus, one set over ten soldiers, or over 
ten monks, a dean.— L. decern, ten. 

Dear. (£.) M. E. dere, A. S. deore, 
c^re, dear, precious. + Dan. and Swed. dyr, 
dear, costly, Icel. dyrr, dear, precious; 
O. Sax. diurt'j G. theuer, 
\J dearthf scarcity. (£.) M. E. derthe, 
deamess; hence, dearth. Not in A. S. ; 
but formed as heal-th, warm-th, &c.<4- 
Icel. dyrfi, value, from dyrr (above) ; O. 
Sax. diuritha^ value, from diuri, dear, 
precious; O. H. G. tiuridaf from Hurt 
(G. theuer). 

Death. (E.) M.E.deelA. A.S.deaS. 
4-Du. dood, Dan. Swed.d^V/, Goth, dauthus, 
G. tod\ cf. Icel. dauOi. Tent, type *dau- 
duz, formed with Idg. suffix -tu-, Tent. 
-9m-, from the base *Mu- ; see Dead. 

Debar (F.) F. Ofdarrer; O.F. des- 
barrer. From De- (2) and Bar. 

Debase. (L** and F.-L.) Formed 
from base by prefixing L. di, down. 

Debate. (F.~L.) M. E. debaten.^ 
O.F. debatre, to debate, argue. — L. <^, 
down ; battere, to beat. See Batter (i ). 

Debauch. (F.-L. tz^^Teut.) O.F. 
desbaucher, (F. dibaucker), * to debosh, 
mar, seduce, mislead ; ' Cot. Diez sup- 
poses that the orig. sense was *■ to entice 
away from a workshop* ; it is certainly 
derived from the O. F. prefix des' (L. dis^, 
away, and O. F. bauche, explained by 
Roquefort as ' a little house,* and by Cot- 
grave as ' a course of stones or bricks 
in building.' Cf. M. F. embaucher, to use 
in business, employ, esbaucher, to rough- 
hew, frame.* Godefroy gives desbaucher 
only in the sense of ' rough-hew,* but his 
Supp. adds — ' detach from one's service, 
turn aside, distract.' The orig. sense of 
bauche was prob. ' balk,' i. e. beam, hence 
frame oi a building, course in building. 


small bidlding, &c. ; of Teut. origin ; see 

Debentlirei acknowledgment of a 
debt. (L.) Formerly debentur (Bacon). 
— L. debentur, lit * they are due,' because 
such receipts began with the words deben- 
tur tnthi (Webster); pr. pi. pass, of 
debeo, I owe ; see Debt. 

Debilitate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
debilitdre, to weaken. — L. debilts, weak. — 
L. de, away, not ; -bilis, prob. allied to 
Skt. bala-^ strength; cf. dur^bala- (for 
dus'bala-)^ feeble. Bmgm. t % 55,^. 

Debonair. (F-) M. E. debanere, de- 
bonaire ; A. F. debonaire for de bon 
aire, lit. of a good stock. — ', of; bon-us, 
good; and O. F. aire, place, stock, race, 
a word of uncertain origin. Diez 
suggests that it represents Lat. ace 
eigrum, field. 

Debonch. (F.— L.) F. diboucher, to 
uncork, to emerge firom ; hence, to march 
out of a narrow pass. — F. ^ ( «= O. F. des- 
<L. ^<V-), away; and bauche, mouth, 
opening, from L. bucca, mouth. 

Debris, broken pieces. (F. — L. and 
Teut.) F. debris, fragments. - O. F. de- 
brisier, to break to pieces. — O. F. de-, 
from L. de, down ; and brisier (F. briser)^ 
to break ; see Bruise. 

Debt. (F. — L.) A bad spelling of 
dett, M. E. dette. - O. F. dette (but in M. F. 
misspelt debte).'^'L, debita, a sum due; 
fem. of dibitus, owed, pp. of debere, to 
owe. Debere '^de-hibere (Plautus), Le. to 
have away, have on loan.— L. de-, down, 
away ; habere, to have. Der. debt-or, 
M. £. det-tur, from O. F. deteur, L. ace. 

Debut. (F. - L. and O. H. G.) A first 
appearance in a play. — F. d^but, a first 
stroke, first cast or throw at dice, first play 
in the game of bowls ; verbal sb. oidibuter, 
M. F. desbuter, * to put from the mark he 
aimed at * (at bowls). Cot. ; hence, to come 
in first, be entitled to lead. From L. 
dis', from, and F. but, mark. See Butt (i \ 

Decade. (F.~L.-Gk.) Y, decade,* 2, 
decade,' Cot; i.e. an aggregate of ten.— 
L. decadent, ace. of decas, — Gk. Sc^dSa, 
ace. of 8c«df, a company of ten. — Gk. 
hkKa, ten ; see Ten. 

decagon. (Gk.) Named from its ten 
angles.— Gk. hkna, ten; *fW'ia, a comer, 
angle, allied to fhw,. knee ; see Knee. 
Der. hendeca-gon {tvh^Ka, eleven) ; dodeca- 
gon {JMtKa, twelve). 



deoahedron. (Gk.) Named from its 
ten sides or bases. • Gk. S^isra, ten: i^-pa, 
a base, lit. 'seat/ from tio/juu (for ifyofAai)^ 
T sit ; see Sit. Der. do-deca-fudron (Gk. 
8ci;8<ica, twelve). 

deoalogne. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y,dica- 
iogue.'^'L.aecaJogum, ace. of decalogus.^ 
Gk. h€K&koyoi, the ten commandments. -^ 
Gk. ZiKa, ten; kirfoSf a speech, saying; 
see Logic. 

decasyllabic, having ten syllables. 
(Gk.) Gk. hUay ten ; avWa^ri, a syllable. 
Der. hendecasyllabic (Gk. tvl^na^ eleven). 

Decadence, decay. (F. — L.) Y. deca- 
dence, — Med. L. decctdentia^ ^ L. diy down; 
cadentia^ a falling ; see Oadenoe. 

Decamp, to depart. (F~L.) L. di- 
camper ; O^ F. descamper, orig. to remove 
a camp.— L. dis-, away; and campus, a 
field, later, a camp. See De- (a) and 

Decanal. (L.) Belonging to a dean, 
i- \., decdnus, a dean ; with suffix -al (L. 
-dits) ; see Dean. 

Decant. (F.-L. a;f</Gk.) F. decan- 
ter (Span. flSfrrtw/ar). — Med. L. decanihare 
(a word of the alchemists), to pour out.— 
I^. ^f from ; canthus^ the * lip of a cup, 
a peculiar use of Gk. k6.v6w^ comer of the 
eye (Hatzfeld). Der. decant-er, a wine- 

Deca^tate. (L.) From pp. of Late 
L. dicapitdrey to behead. — L. di^ off; and 
capit', stem of caput, head. 

i)eca7f to fail into ruin. (F. — L.) 
O. North F. decair (Span, decaer) ; vari- 
ant of O. F. dechair, decheoir.^O, F. de^ ; 
and cheoir (F. choir\ to fall. — L. de, down ; 
and Folk-L. cadire, cadire, to fall, variants 
of L. cadtre, to falL 

Decease. (F.— L.) M. £. deces,^ 
O. F. deces (F. d^cis), death. — L. ace. 
dicessum, departure, death. — L. dScessus, 
pp. of dicldere, to depart.— L. di, from ; 
eidere, to go away. 

Deceive. (F. — L.) A. F. deceivre ; 
O. F. deceveir, decevoir, pres. subj. deceive, 
— L. dicipere, to take away, deceive. — L, 
diy away ; and capere^ to take. Der. de- 
ceit^ from O. F. deceit, pp. o{ deceveir, 

December. (L. ;^rF.-L.) O. F. 

Decemdre.^L, December, '^'L. decern, ten; 
as it was the tenth month of the Roman 
Decemvir, one of ten magistrates. 
(L.) L. decemuir, one of the decemuiri, 
or ten men joined in a commission.— L. 


decern, ten (see Ten); and uir, a man 
(see Virile^. 

Decennial, belonging to ten years. 
(L.) For L. decenn-alis, of ten years; 
cf. H-enniaL^'L, dec-em, ten; annus, a 

Decent. (F.-L.) 0,Y, decent, ^l^ 
decentem, ace. of pres. pt of decere, to 
become, befit ; cf. decus, honour. 

Deception. (F. — L.) 0,Y. deception, 

— L. ace. deceptidnem,^!^ deceptus, pp. 
of decipere, to deceive ; see Deceive. 

Decide. (F.-L.) Y , didder.^!., di- 
cidere^ pp. dictsus, to cut off, decide. — L. 
de, down; and asdere, to cut. Der. de- 
cis'ion (from pp. cUcisus), 

Deciduous, falling off. (L.) L. di- 
cidu-us, that falls down ; with suffix -(ms, 

— L. dicidere, to fall down. — L. de, down ; 
and cadere, to fall. See Decay. 

Decimal. (F. — L.) 0,¥, decimal.^ 
Late L. decimalis, belonging to tithes.— 
L. decima, a tithe ; fem. of cKcimus, tenth. 
Cf. L. decem, ten. 

decimate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 
cimdre, to select every tenth man, for 
punishment. — L. decem, ten. 

Decipher. (F. and Arab.) Formed 
after F. dichiffrer, to decipher. — F. di-, 
O. F. des-, L. dis-^ apart ; Cipher, q. v. 

Deck, to cover. (Du.) Du. dekken, to 
cover ; dek, a cover, a ship*s deck. Cog- 
nate with E. Thatoh, q.v. 

Declaim. (L.) Formerly declame.'^ 
L. diclUmdre, to cry aloud. — L. di, down, 
fully ; cl&mdre, to cry ; see Claim. 

Declare. (F.-L.) O.F. declarer,^ 
L. dlclSr&re, to make clear, declare. — L. 
di, fully ; clSrus, clear. 

Declension. (F.— L.) O.F. dedinai- 
son, used for the * declension ' of a noun. 

— L. diclinStidnem, ace. of dicUftdtio, de- 
clination, declension. — L. diclindtus, pp. 
of diclindre (below). 

decline. (F.-L.) O.F. decliner.^ 
L. diclinare, to lean or bend aside from. — 
L. di-, from ; -clindre (only in comp.), to 
lean ; see Incline, Lean (i). 

DecUvity. (F.-L.) F. didiviti.^ 

L. dicliuitdtem, ace. of decliuit&s, a 
downward slope. — L. dicliuis, sloping 
downward. — L. di, down; cliuus, a slope, 
hilL See Lean (i). 

Decoct. (L.) L. dicoctus, pp. of di^ 
coquere, to boil down. — L. di, down, 
away ; coquere^ to cook. 

Decollation, a beheading. (F.-L.) 




O. F. decollation, ^JjEiit L. ace. dScolld- 
tidnem. From pp. of dicolldre, to behead. 

— L. de^ off; coilumy the neck. 
Decompose. (F.-L. a;^^/ Gk.) F. 

decomposer (XVI c.) ; from flife-, prefix, and 
composer, to compose. See Compose. 

Decorate. (L-) From pp. oidecordrCy 
to adorn. — L. decifr- (for *decoS'), stem of 
decus, honour, ornament ; cf. L. decire, to 
be fit. 

deconun. (L.) L. decorum, seemli- 
ness; nent. of decorus, seemly. i-L. decor-, 
stem of decor, seemliness, allied to decus 
(above). Der. ift'decorum. 

Decoy, a contrivance for catching wild- 
dacks. (F. andDvL.) Coined from prov. E. 
coy, a decoy, by prefixing the E. de- (F. 
dif-, "L, df). £. coy is from Du. kooi, a 
cage, decoy, M. Du. koye, older form 
kouwe (Hexham) ; from L. cauea, whence 
also F. and £. cage ; see Cage. % The 
prefixing of d^- was probably due to con- 
fusion with M. E. coy en f to quiet ; so that 
de-coy seemed to mean a ' quieting down.* 

Decrease. (F.— L.) A. F. descrees, 
descreis, O. F. descrois, sb., a decrease ; 
from descroistre, vb., to decrease.— Late L. 
discrescere, used for L. dicrescere, to 
diminish (pp. decrStus), -* L. dS, down, 
away ; crescere, to grow. 

decrement. (L.) L. dicrSmentum, 
a decrease. — L. dicrS-tus, pp. of dicres- 

Decree. (F.-L.) M. £. decree, - 

O.F. decrel.-mL, dicritum.^l^ dicritus, 

pp. of decernere, to decree, lit. to separate. 

— L. <//, away ; cemere, to distinguish. 

decretal. (F.-L.) O.F. decretal. 

— Late L. dicrltdJe, a decree. — L. dicritus. 
Decrepit. (L.) L. dicrepitus, noise- 
less, creeping about like an old man, aged. 

— L. di, away ; crepitus, noise, allied to 
crepitus, pp. of crepdre, to crackle, make 
a noise.. 

DeclTTf to condenm. (F.— L.) O.F. 
descrier^ to cry down, disparage. — O. F. 
des- (L. dis-), implying the reversal of an 
act, and here opposed to * cry up * ; crier, 
to cry. See Ory. 

DeCUSSatef to cross at an acute angle. 
(L.) From pp. of h. decussdre, to cross, 
to put into the form of an X,^Li,decussis, 
a coin worth ten asses (as-es), and there- 
fore marked with X, i.e. ten.— L. decern, 
ten ; assi-, stem of as, an ace ; see Ace. 

Dedicate, to devote. (L.) L. cUdicd- 
tus, pp. of didicdre, to devote.— L. de. 

down ; dicdre, to proclaim ; from dic', 
weak grade of die-, as in dicere, to say. 

Deduce. (L.) L. didOcere, to bring 
down (hence, to infer).— L. di, down; 
dOcere, to bring. See Duke. 

deduct. (L.) Orig. to derive from. 
— L. diduct-us, pp. of didOcere, to bring 
down (above). 

Deed. (E.) M. E. deed, O. Merc, did, 
A.S. ^^.-fDu. daad, Icel. ddfi, Swed. 
dSid, Dan. daad, Goth, dids, G. thai, 
O. H. G. tdt. Teut. type *d&di% ; Idg. 
type *dhetis ; from ^DUE, to place, put, 
do. See Do. 
Deem. (E.) M. E. demen, A. S. dl- 
man, to judge, give a doom. — A. S. dom, 
a doom ; see Doom. Cf. Du. doemen, 
Icel. dcema (for dcemd), Swed. doma, Dan. 
domme, Goth, domjan, O. H. G. tuomian, 
Teut. type *ddmjan-, from *ddmoz, doom. 
Deep, profound. (E.) M. E. deep. 
A.S. diop.^Dvi, diep, Dan. dyb, Swed. 
djup, Icel. djupr, G. tuf, Goth, diups, 
Teut. type *deupoz ; see Dip. 

deptk, deepness. (E.) From deep; 

cf. IceL (^pO, depth, from djupr, deep.^ 

Du. diepte ; Goth, daupitha. 

Deer. (E.) M.E. deer, an animal. 

A. S. dior, a wild animal. -fDu. ditr, Dan. 

dyr, Swed. djur, Icel. c^, Goth, dius, 

G. ihitr. Teut type *deusom ; Idg. type 

*dheusom, i^roh. ^ vjAmtX* ; from *dheus-, 

to breathe (Kluge). Bmgm. i. § 539 (2). 

Der. wilder-ness, q. v. 

Defkce. (F.-L.) M. £. defacen.^ 

O. F. desfacier, to deface, disfigure. — 

O.F. des- (<L. ^w-), apart; face^ face; 

see Face. 

Defalcate, to abate, deduct. (L.) 

From pp. of Late L. diffalcdre or dtfcU- 

cdre, to abate, deduct, take away. — L. dif- 

( =dis'), apart, or else d^, away; Late L. 

falcdre, to cut with a sickle, from L. falx 

{iXtvcifalc-), a sickle. 

Defiuue. (F. — L.) M.E. defamen, 

diffamen, — O. F. diffamer, to take away a 

man's character. — L. diffdmdre, to spread 

a bad report.— L. dif- (for dis-), apart; 

fdma, a report. See Fame. 

Default. (F.-L.) M. E. defaute,^ 
O. F. drfaute, a default, from defaiUir, to 
fail ; imitating faute from faillir. See 
De- (i) and Fault. 

Defeasance, a rendering null. (F. — 
L.) A.F. law-term defesance, a rendering 

void. — O. F. drfesant, defeisant, pres. part, 
of defaire, des/aire, to render void. — O. F. 





des- (L. dis"), apart ; /aire (L. facere), to 

defeat. (F.-L.) M.£. defaiten, to 
defeat. * A. F. defeter^ioTrnt^ from O. F. 
defait^ desfait, pp. of defaire^ desfaire, to 
render void (above). 

Defecate. (L.) From pp. of difae- 
care J to free from dregs. »L. di^ out; 
faec', stem oifaex^ ^hfaecis, dregs. 

Defect. (L.) L. defectusy a want. • L. 
defectus^ pp. of dificere, to fail, orig. to 
nndo. — L. ^/, away; facere, to make. 
Der. drfect-ion, -ive. 

Defend. (F.-L.) M.E. defenden. — 
O. F. defendrc^L.. difendere, to defend, 
lit strike down or away. — L. de^ down; 
*fendere, to strike, only in comp. de-fendere, 
offendere. Cf. G. Otivtiv, to strike ; Skt. 
han, (VGHwEN.) Biugm. i. § 664. 

defence. (F.~L.) M.£. defence,^ 

O. F. defensc^'L. defensa^ a defending 

(Tertnllian). — L. difens-us, pp. of di' 

fendere (above). Also M. E. defens^ O, F. 

defensy from L. difensum^ neat. 

Defer (i), to delay. (F.-L.) M.E. 
differren,^0. F. differer^ to delay.— L. 
tafferre, to bear different ways, delay. — L. 
dif' (for dts-\ apart ; ferre, to bear. 

defer (3), to lay before, submit one- 
sell (F.— L.) O. F. defereTy to admit or 
give way to an appeal.— L. diferre, to 
bring down, bring before one. — L. fl5?, 
down ; ferre, to bear, carry. 

Deficient. (L.) From stem of pres. 
pt. of dificere, to fail ; see Defect. 

deficitf lack. (L.) L. deficit, it fails; 
3 p. 8. pres. oi dificere (above). 

Defile (0> 'o pollute. (F.— L.; con- 
fused with L. and %,) M. E. defoulen, to 
trample under foot ; later spelling defoyle\ 
see Foil (i). This word is obsolete, but 
it suggested a hybrid compound made by 
prefixing L. di, down, to the old word 
file, to defile (Macb. iii. i. 65) = A. S. 
fylan (for *fuljan), to defile, make foul, 
formed (by vowel-change oi U Xjq y) from 
A. S.ftll, foul ; see Foul. 

Defile (2), to march in a file. (F.— L.) 

F. difiler, to defile. - F. aS^- -= O. F. des- (L. 

dis')f apart ; filer, to spin threads, from L. 

Jilum, thread. Der. defile, sb., F. difili^ 

a narrow passage ; orig. pp. of difiler. 

Define. (F.-L.) O.F. definer, to 

define, conclude.— L. deftnire, to limit. 

— L. <^ down ; finire, to end, from finis, 


Defiect. (L.) L. deflectere^ to bend 

down or aside. — L. di, down ; flectere, to 
bend. Der. defiex-ion, from deflex-us, 

Defionr, Defiower. (F.-L.) M.E. 

defiouren,'^0,¥. defieurer, Cotg. — Late 
L. diflordret to gather flowers.— L. di, 
away ; fior-, ioifios, a flower. 

Deflnzion. (L.) From ace. of L. di- 
fluxio, a flowing down. — L. di, down ; 
fluX'Us, pp. oifiuere, to flow. 

Deforce, to dispossess. (F. — L.) 
Legal. — A. F. deforcer, to dispossess (Med. 
L. difforcidre).^0. F. de-^des- (L. dis-), 
away ; and Y, force. See Force. 

Deform. (F.— L.) M.E. deformen, 
chiefly in pp. deformed, — O. F. difformer, 
to deform ; Godefroy. — O, F. dtfforme, 
adj., deformed, ugly; Cot— L. diformis, 
ugly.— L. di, dLV/By, forma, shape, beauty. 

De&and. (F.-L.) O.F. defrauder. 
— L. difrauddre, to deprive by fraud. — L. 
di, away ; frauds, stem oifraus, fraud. 

Defray. (F. -L. and O. H. G.) O. F. 
desfrayer, to pay expenses ; Littr^. — O. F. 
des' (L. fl&V-); fraier, to spend. Fraier 
is from O. F. *frai, *fre, IsXtTfrait, mostly 
used in the pi. frais, fres (F. frais), ex- 
penses ; cf. Low L. fredum, a fine, com- 
position. — O. H. G. fridu (G. friede), 
peace ; also, a fine for a breach of the 
peace. See Afflray. 

Defb, neat, dexterous. (£.) M. E. deft, 
daft. A. S. dafte, as seen in ge-dafte, mud, 
gentle, meek; ge-dceftltce, fitly, season- 
ably; daftan, to prepare. Cf. A. S. ge- 
daj-en, fit, pp. of a lost strong vb. *dafan\ 
Goth, gcukiban, to befit, gadobs, fitting. 

DeAincty dead. (L.) L. defunctus, 
i. e. having fully performed the course of 
life, pp. oi,difungi, to perform fully. — L. 
di, fully ; and fungi, to perform ; see 

DeQr. (F--L-) M.E. defyen,^O.Y. 
defier, dejfier, desfier, orig. to renounce 
one*s faith. — Late L. difflddre^ to renounce 
faith. — L. dif (for dis-), apart; fiddre 
(from fidus, faithful), to trust; cf. L. 
fidere, to trust. See Faith. 

Degenerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

digenerdre, to become base. — L. digener, 
adj., base. — L. di, down; gener- (for 
*genes'\ stem oi genus, race. See Oenos. 

Deglutitiony swallowing. (F. — L.) 
F. diglutition,^L„ di, down; glUtitus, 
pp. oiglatire, to swallow. 

Degrade. (F.-L.) O.F. degrader, 
to deprive of rank or office. — Late L. di* 




gradare^ the same.— L. di^ from ; gradus, 
rank. See Qrade. 

degree. (F--L-) O.Y.degre^degret, 
a step, rank ; orig. a step d<nvn (used of 
stairs). — L. di, down ; gradus, a step. 

Dehiscent, gaping. (L.) L. dehi- 
scent'^ stem of pres. pt. of dihiscere^ to 
gape open. — L. de^ down ; hiscere, to 
gape, inceptive of hiare^ to yawn; see 

Deify, Deist ; see Deity. 

Deign. (F. — L.) M. £. deigtien,^ 
A. F. deign-., a stem of O. F. digf^t)er^ to 
deign. — L. digndre, by-form of digndrf, to 
deem worthy. — L, dignus, worthy. Brugm. 
ii. § 66. 

Deity. (F.-L.) M.E. deite.^O,¥. 
deite.'^. deitatemt ace. of deitds, deity, 
Godhead. — L. dei-^ for deus, God ; of. 
diuus, godlike. Cf. W. duw, Gael, and 
Ir. dia, Skt. d^a-, a god ; Gk. dioSf Skt. 
daiz/a-y divine. See Tuesday. 

deiff. (F. - L.) M. E. dei^en, - 
O. F. aeifier, ' to deifie ; * Cot. — Late L. 
deificdre, — L. deificus, accounting as gods. 

— L. dei', for deus^ a god ; and -Jic-f for 
facere^ to make. Der. deificat-ion^ due to 
pp. of deificHre, 

deist. (F.-L.) F. diiste. From L. 
de-US ; with suffix -ist. 

Deject, to cast down. (L.) From L. 
deiectus, pp. of deicere {deiicere), to cast 
down. — L. diy down ; iacere^ to throw. 

Delay, Vb. (F.-L.) O. F. delayer, 
dilaier\ also deleer (Godefroy). It answers 
in sense to L. dil&tdre, to defer, delay, 
put off ; which would properly give O. F. 
dileer, Dildtdre is from dildtus^ deferred, 
put off; from L. di- {dis-), apart ; Idtus, 
borne, pp. of toilere, to lift, sustain, bear. 
% The O. F. spelling with ai causes a 
difficulty. Der. delay, sb. ; O. F. delau 

Delectable. (F.-L.) Late M. E. 

delectable. '^Y . delectable. ^\,. dilectdbilis, 
delightful. — L. delectdre, to delight; fre- 
quent, of delicere, to allure. See De- 

Delegate, a chosen deputy. (L.) L. 
delegatus, pp. of delegare, to depute, ap- 
point— L. di, away; legdre, to depute. 
See Legate. 

Delete, to erase. (L.) L. diletus, pp. 
of dilere, to destroy. See below. 

Deleterious. (Gk.) Late L. dele- 
teri-us, with suffix -ous. For Gk. 817X17- 
rfifHos, noxious. — Gk. hrfXrjrtip, a destroyer. 

— Gk. 817X^0^101, 1 harm, injure. 

Delf. (Dn.) Earthenware first made at 
Delft, formerly Delf, a town in S. Holland, 
about A. D. 1 310 (Haydn). The town was 
named from its delf 01 canal ; cf. Delve. 

Deliberate, carefully weighed and 
considered. (L.) L. deliberdtus, pp. of flS?- 
liberdre, to consult.— L. di, thoroughly; 
librdre, to weigh, from libra, a balance. 

Delicate, dainty, refined. (L.) L. 
dilicdtus, luxurious ; probably allied to 
dilicia (or dilicia, pi.), pleasure, delight, 
and to L. dilicere, to amuse (below). 

delicions. (F.— L.) Hi. Y, delicious, 
— O. F. delicious, — Late L. diliciosus, 
pleasant. — L. dilicia, pleasure.— L. di- 
licere^ to amuse, allure. — L. di, away; 
lacere, to entice. 

deliffht. (F. - L.) Misspelt for delite. 
M. E. aeliten, verb.- O. F. deliUr, delei- 
ter. — L. dilectdre ; see Delectable. 

Delineate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

dillnedre, to sketch in outline.- L. di, 
down ; Itnedre, to mark out, from linea^ 
a line. See Iiine. 

Delinquent, failing in duty. (L.) L. 
dilinauent', stem of pres. pt. oidilinquere, 
to fail, to omit one's duty.- L. di, away, 
from ; linquere, to leave. 

Deliquesce, to become lic|uid. (L.) 
L. deliquescere, to become liquid.— L. d^, 
away; liquescere, inceptive form oiliquerc, 
to be wet. See Iiiquid. 

Delirious. (L.) A coined word (with 
suffix 'Ous), from L. dUtri-um, madness, 
which is also adopted into English.- L. 
delirus, mad ; lit. *' going out of the 
furrow.* — L. di, from ; and lira, a furrow. 
Cf. O. H. G. leisa, G. g-leise, a track. 

Deliver. (F. — L.) O. F. delivrer, to 
set free. — Late L. deliberdre, to set free. — 
L. di, from ; Itberdre, to free, from liber, 

Dell, a dale. (E.) M. E. delle, A. S. 
dell, neut. ; Cart. Sax. i. 547; ii. 71. 
Teut. type *daljom ; see Dale. 

Delta. (Gk.) Gk.dcXra, the letter A; 
answering to Heb. daleth, the name of the 
4th letter of the alphabet ; orig. ' a door of 
a tent.' (Orig. Phoenician.) Der. deltoid. 

Delude. (L.) L,diliidere{pp,deliisus), 
to mode at, cajole.— L. di, down ; liidere, 
to play. Der. delus-ion, from the pp. 

Deluge. (F.-L.) O.F. deluge. -^"L, 
diluuium, a washing away. — L. diluere, 
to wash away. ^ h, dt- {dis-), apart ; 
luere, to wash, allied to Lave. 

Delve, to dig. (E.) M. E. delucn. 




A. S. delfatty pt. t. dealf, pp. dolfen.'^'Dvi. 
delven ; M. H. G. telben. Cf. Rnss. doU 
bite J to hollow out. Bnigm. i. § 521 (2). 

Demagogue. (F.-Gk.) F. (Uma- 

gogue. — Gk. SrjfjLayoaySs, a popular leader. 

— Gk. drjfi'os, people; d7ci;7os, leading, 
from &y-€iVf to lead. 

Demand. (F.— L.) F. demander, to 
demand, require. — L. demanddrey to en- 
trust ; in late L., to demand. — L. de, 
away ; tnanddre^ to commission, order. 

Demarcation. (Span. - L. and 

M. H. G.) From Span, demarcacion (see 
N. E. D.) ; whence also F. demarcation. 

— L. de, down ; and Span, marcar, to 
mark, a word of German origin; see 

Demean (i), to conduct; reflex,^ to 
behave. (F. — L.) M. E. afew^w^w. — O. F. 
demener, to conduct, guide, manage. — 
O. F. flfe ( = L. de) , down, fully ; mener^ to 
conduct, from Late L. mindre, to drive 
cattle, conduct, from L. mindrt ^io threaten. 
See Menace. 

demeanour. (F. - L.) M. E. demen- 

ure (XV cent.) ; a coined word, Irum 
M. E. demenen^ to demean, behave; see 
Demean (i). 

Demean (3), to debase, lower. (Hy- 
brid; L. and £.) Made, like debase^ 
from the prefix De- (i), and the adj. 
mean. See Mean (2). 

Demented, mad. (L.") Pp. of the old 
verb to dement. ^\., dementdre, to drive 
out of one's mind. — L. de^ from ; ment-, 
stem of mens^ mind. 

Demerit, ill desert. (F.— L.) Also 
merit, in z. good sense; Cor. i. i. 276.— 
O.F. demerite, desert; ^also a fault, de- 
merit.— Late L. demeritum, a fault; from 
pp. of L. demerere^ demerert, to deserve 
(in 9^ good sense). —L. de^ fully; merere, 
mererty to deserve. See Merit. 

Demesne. (F.— L.) A. F. demeine^ 
demene^ also demesne (with silent s) ; other 
spellings of Domain, q. v. 

Demi-, half. (F. - L.) O. F. demi, 
half. — L. ace. dimidium^ half. — L. di- =■ 
dis-j apart ; mediuSj middle ; see Medium. 
^ Demyohn, a kind of large bottle. 
(F.) t rom F. dame-jeanne ; cf. Span. 
damajuana. Much disputed, but not of 
Eastern origin. The F. form is right as 
it stands, though often much perverted. 
From F. dame (Sp. damd)^ lady; and 
Jeanne (Sp. Juana)^ Jane, Joan. See 
N. E. D. 

Demise, transference, decease. (F. — L.^ 
O. F. demise, desmise, fem. of pp. of 
desmettre^ to displace, dismiss. — L. dtmit- 
tere ; see Dismiss. 

Democracy. (F.-Gk .) Formerly de- 
mocraty (Milton). — M. F. democratie ; Cot. 
— Gk. iijfioKpariay popular government, 
rule by the people. ■- Gk. Srjfio-, for S^ftos, 
a country-district, also the people ; and 
Kparfiv, to rule. Cf. O. Ir. dam, a retinue. 

Demolish. (F. — L.) O.Y.demoliss-y 
inchoative stem of demolir, to demolish. -• 
L. demolirif demoHre, to pull down. — L. 
de, from ; molesy heap, mass. 

Demon. (L.— Gk.) Y oTmtxXy damon, 
» L. damon. — Gk. Saifjuuv, a god, genius, 
spirit. Cf. baiofiai, I impart. 

Demonstrate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

demonstrdre^ to show fully. — L. ^, down, 
fully ; monstrdre, to show, from monstrum, 
a portent. See Monster. 

Demoralise, to corrupt in morals. 
(F.-L.) Mod. F. dimoraliser.^Y . d4-, 
O. F, des (L. dis-), apart ; moral, moral ; 
with suffix 'ise («F. -iser^ for Gk. -ifcii^). 
See Moral. 

Demur, vb. (F.— L.) O. F. demotirer, 
demeurer, to tarry ; hence, to hesitate.— 
L. demordrt, to delay fully —L. fl^, fully; 
mordrty to delay, from mora, delay. 

Demure. (F. — L.) XIV cent. Coined 
by prefixing de- (see De- (i)), to M. E. 
mure^ mature, calm, demure. — O.F. w«<r 
(F. mi^r^, mature. — L. mdturus\ see 

Demy ; a spelling of demi-. 

Den. (E.) M. E. den\ A. S. denn, a 
cave, allied to denu, a valley. -f M. Dn. 
denne, a cave (Kilian). 

Denary, relating to tens. (L.) L. 
dendrius, containing ten. — L. dent ( « *deC' 
ni), pi. ten by ten. — L. dec-em, ten. Hence 
denier, L. dendrius, piece of ten (as-es). 

Dendroid. (Gk.) Gk. Uvhpov, a tree ; 
-uhrjs, like, from c?8os, form, shape. 

Denisen, a naturalised citizen, inha- 
bitant. (F. — L.) Formerly deynsein.'^ 
A. F. and O. F. deinzein (also denzeifC), 
used in the Liber Albus to denote a trader 
within the privilege of the city franchise, 
as opposed Xoforein, Formed by adding 
the suffix -ein ( = L. -dneus) to O. F. deinz, 
now spelt dans, within. '"L. de intus, from 
within. — L. de, from ; intus, within, allied 
to Interior. 

Denominate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

dendmindre, to name. — L. de, down, fully ; 



ndminSrty to name, from ndmin^^ stem of 
nomen, a name ; see Noun. 
Denote. (F.— L.) V,d4noter,m.'L,de' 
notdrey to mark out. ^ L. dij down ; 
notdre, to mark, from nata^ a mark. See 

Denonement, the undoing of a 

knot. (F.— L.) ¥, denouement ySh,,itom 
d^noueTy to undo a knot. — L. dis-, apart ; 
noddre, to knot, from nodus, a knot. See 

Denounce. (F.— L.) 0,Y,denoncer: 
—L. dinunti&re, to declare. — L. diy down, 
fully ; nuntidre^ to tell, from nuntius, a 
messenger. See Nuncio. "Der.denunciat- 
ion^ from L. pp. dinuncidtus. 
Dense. (L.) L. demus, thick.<4-Gk. 
Sflurt^, thick. Brugm. L § 851. Ber. con- 
Dent ; see Dint. 

Dental. (L.) Formed with suffix -al 
(F. -a/, L. 'd/is) from L. denl-, stem of 
denSf a tooth, cognate with £• Tooth. 

dentatedi furnished with teeth. (L ) 
L. dentdtus, toothed. *L. dent-, stem of 
iienSf a tooth. 

denticle, a little tooth. (L.) L. den- 
ttcuius, double dimin. of dens, a tooth. 

dentifrice, tooth-powder. (F.— L.) 
F. dentifrice, — L. denti/ricium (Pliny). — 
L. denti-, decl. stem of dens, a tooth; 
fric-dre^ to rub. 

dentist. (F.-L.) ¥,dentiste. Coined 
from L. dent; stem of dens, a tooth. 

dentition. (L.) L. dentltidnem, ace. 
oidentitio, cutting of Xtt\h.'^Y,.dentitus, 

§p. of dentire, to cut te«th.>L. denti-, 
ed. stem of dgns, a tooth. 
DenudOf to lay bare. (L.) L. d^nH- 
dare, to make fully bare.— L. d^, fully; 
nOddre, to lay bare, from nOdus, bare. 
See Nude. 

Denunciation ; see Denounce. 
Deny. (F.-L.) M.E. flfe»i<f«.-M.F. 

denier, earlier form deneier, — L. denegdre, 
to deny fully.— L. di, fully; negdre, to 
deny. See Negation. 

Deodandy lit. a thing to be given to 
God. (L.) From L. dT^^, dat. of ^^j, God ; 
dandum, neut. of dandus, to be given, 
from dare^ to give. 

Depart. (F.-L.) 0,Y,departtr,des' 
partir, to divide, to part from.— L. dis-, 
away from; partire, to part; see Fart. 
Cf. L. dispertire. 

Depend. (F.— L.) O. F, dependre, to 
depend, haog on ; Cot. — L. dipendere, to 


hang down qr from.— L. di, down, from ; 
pendere, to hang. See Pendant. 

Depict. (L*) Formerly used as a pp. — 
L. d/ipictust pp. of dSpingere, to depict, 
lit. paint frilly.— L. di^ fully; pingere, to 
paint. Cf. Picture. 

Depilatorjr, removing hair. (L.) 
Formed, in imitation of ^f. F. depilatoire 
(Cot.), from a L. adj. *dipildtdrius, not 
found. — L. depild-re, to pluck out hair. — 
L. di, away; pildre, to pluck away hair, 
from, pilus, hair. 

Depletion. (L.) *Depletion,zxitmpty- 
ing ; Blount. Formed, in imitation of 
repletion, from L. diplitus, pp. of diplire, 
to empty.— L. di, away; plire, to fill. 
See Plenary. 

Deplore. (F.-L.;<7rL.) O.F. de- 
plorer,^la. diplordre, to lament over.— 
L. di, fully; pldrdre, to cry out, wail, 
weep. Brugm. i § 154. 

Deploy, to open out, extend. (F.— L.) 
F. aeployer, to unroll, unfold ; O. F. des- 
ploier, to unfold. — L. dis-, apart ; plicdre, 
to fold. A doublet of DiBplay. 

Deponentf one who testifies. (L.) L. 
diponent', stem of the pres. pt. oitiipdnere, 
to lay down, also (in late L.) to testify. — 
L. di, down ; ponere, to lay. See Position. 

Depopnlate. (L-) Frompp. of L.<i;f- 

popuTdre, to lay waste ; in Late L. to de- 
prive of people or inhabitants. Orig. to 
ravage by means of multitudes.- L. di, 
fully ; pipuldre, to populate, fill with 
people, frovapopuluSj people ; see People. 

Deport. (F. - L.) M. F. deporter, to 
bear, endure ; se deporter, to forbear, quiet 
oneself. — L. diportdre, to carry down, re- 
move ; with extended senses in Late Latin. 
Der. deportment^ O. F. deportement, be- 
haviour. ^For the varying senses, see 
¥. deporter. 

Depose. (F.-L. and Gk.) O.F. de- 
poser ^ to displace. — O. F. de- (L. de), from ; 
and F. poser, to place, of Gk. origin, as 
shown under Pose. % Much confused 
with derivatives from h, pdnere, to place. 
See below. 

Deposit, vb. (F.-L.) Obs. F. de- 
positer, to entrust. — Med. L. dipositdre, to 
lay down. — L. dipositum, a thing laid 
down, neut. of pp. of diponere ; see De- 

deposition. (F.-L.) p. F. deposi- 
tion, '^L. ace. dipositionem, a depositing. 
— L. dipositus, pp. of diponere, to lay 
down (above). 



depot, a store. (F.-L.) F. dipdt\ 
O. F. deposL - L. dlpositum^ a thing laid 
down (hence, stored) ; neut. of dipositus, 
pp. of diponere ; see Deponent. 
Deprave. (F. ~ L.) M. £. deprauen, — 
O. F. depraver, mmlj, deprduare, to make 
crooked, distort, vitiate. i-L. di^ fully; 
prauust crooked, depraved. 

Deprecate. (L.) From pp* of L. 

diprec&rly to pray against, pray to remove. 

— L. di, away; precdrl^ to pray. See 

De^eciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
depretidre, to lower the price of.^L. di, 
down ; pretium, price. See Freoious. 

Depredate. (L-} From pp. of L. 

dgprad&rty to plunder. — L. flS?, fully; pra- 
dart, to rob, from pngda, prey ; see Prey. 

Depress. (F.— L.) O. F. depresser 
(Godefroy).— L. type *dipressdre; from 
L. dipressus, pp. of dsprimere, to press 
down. — L. diy down ; pretnere^ to press. 

Deprive. (F. — L) O. F. depriver 
(Godefroy). — Late L. deprtvdre^ to de- 
prive of office, degrade. — L. de^ fully; 
priuare, to deprive. See Private. 

Deptil ; see Deep. 

Depute. (F.-L.) U. F. deptaer; Cot, 

— L. diputdre^ to cut off, also to impute, 
destine.— L. <//, down ; putdre, to cut off, 
orig. to cleanse. Der. deput-y^ M. F. 
deputS, one deputed, pp. of deputer. 

Derange. (F. - L. and O. H. G.) F. 
dhranger^ to disarrange; formerly des- 
rangier, mmJa. dis-^ apart; O. F. rangier y 
rengierj to range ; see Bange. 

Derc^Ctioily complete abandonment. 
(L.) L. ace. direlicHmenty complete neg- 
lect. — L. direlictuSf pp. of derelinquerey to 
forsake. — L. ^, from ) relinquere, to leave 
behind, from re-^ back, and linquere, to 
leave. See Belinquiah. 

Deride. (L*) L* dSridlre^ to laugh 
down, laugh at; from de^ down, and 
ridlre^ to laugh. Der. deris-ive, from 
pp. dirJsus. 

Derive. (F.— L.) O. F. deriver, to 
derive, also to drain. — L. diriudrey to 
drain off water. — L. dif from ; riuuSf a 
stream. See Bivulet. 

Derm, skin. (Gk.) Gk. 8^p;ia,skin.— 
Gk.8^pciy, to flay; cognate with £. Tear, 
vb., to rend. 

Dierogate. (L.) From pp. of L. difro- 
gdrcy to repeal a law, detract from. — L. 
di, away ; rogdre^ to ask, propose a law. 
See Bogation. 


Derrick, a kind of crane. (Du.) Orig. 
the gallows; and named from a Dutch 
hangman ; see T. Dekker, Seven Deadly 
Sins of London, ed. Arber, p. 17. — Du. 
Dierryk, Dirky Diederik ; answering to G. 
Dietrichy A. S. peodriCy * ruler of the 

Dervis, Dervish, a Persian monk, 
ascetic. (Pers.) Pers. darvlshy poor; a 
dervish, who professed poverty. Cf. Zend 
dri'^u-y poor ^Hom). 

Descant. (F.— L.) Orig. a variation 
in a song. — O. North F. descant {O, F. des- 
chant)y a kind of song. -LateL. discantus, 
a refrain, kind of singing. — L. dis-, apart; 
and cantus^ a song. See Cant (i). 

Descend. (F.-L.) M. F. descendre ; 
Cot. — L. discendere, lit. to climb down. — 
L. di, down ; scandere, to climb ; see 

Describe. (L.) l^descrtbereyXQ^rA^ 
down, describe fully ; pp. descriptus 
(whence descriptioti). — L. dij down; 
scribere^ to write. See Scribe. 

descry. (F.—L.) M.E,desefyenyto 
discern. — O. F. descrire, short form of 
O. F. descrit/re, to describe. — L. descrtbere. 
% Sense affected by O. F. descrier, to pro- 
claim, publish ; from O. F. des- (L. dis')^ 
and crier, to cry. 

Desecrate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 

secrdre or disacrdre, to consecrate ; (with 
change of sense due to O. F. dessacrer^ to 
profane, from L. dis-, apart). — L. de^ fully ; 
scurdrCy to account as sacred ; see Sacred. 

Desert (i), a waste. (F.-L.) O.F. 
desert y a wilderness.— L. disertum, neut. 
of disertuSt waste; pp. of deserere, to 
desert, abandon.— L. diy away (negative) ; 
serere, to join. 

Desert (2), merit. (F.-L.) O.F. 
desert, fem. deserte^ lit. a thing deserved, 
pp. of deserviry to deserve ; see below. 

deserve. (F. — L.) 
L. deserutrey to serve fully ; in Late L., to 
deserve. — L. dSy fully; serutre^ to serve. 
See Serve. 

Deshabille, careless dress. (F.-L.) 
F. dishabille^ undress. — F. d^shabillery to 
undress. — Y.cUs (L. dis-)y apart, away, un- ; 
habillery to dress ; see Habiliment. 

Desiccate, to dry up. (L.) From pp. 
of L. disiccdrey to drain ary. — L. diy away ; 
siccdrey to dry, from siccusy dry. 

Desiderate ; see Desire. 

Design, vb. (F. - L.) O. F. desigfur, 
to denote, to design.— L. disigndre, to. 




denote, mark down.^L. di^ down; sig' 
ndrcj to mark, from signum^ sign. Per. 

I>esire,tolongfor. (F.-L.) O.F. ^- 
sirer^ desirrer.^L., disiderdre^ to long for, 
regret, miss. Perhaps (like considerdre) 
allied to sidus, a star, as if to turn the eyes 
from the stars, to r^[ret, miss. 

desiderate. (L.) h.destderd/us,]^p, 

oidisiderdre (above). 

Desist. (F.-L.) O.F. desister, to 
cease. xL. disistere^ to put away, also to 
desist. •L. diy away; sistere, to put, also 
to stand still, from st&re, to stand. 

Desk, a sloping table. (L. — Gk.) 
M. £. desket desk; in Chaucer, C.T., F. 
1 1 28. « Med. L. desca, a desk; c£ Ital. 
descOf ' a desk ; * Florio. ^ L. discum, 
ace. o( discus,' Si disc, table. See Disc, 

Desolatef solitary. (L.) "L^disoldtus, 
forsaken; pp. o( desd/dre, to forsake. *L. 
d^, fully; so/are, to make lonely, from 
sffiuSf alone. 

Despair : see Desperate. 

Despatch; see Dispatoh. 

Desperatef hopeless. (L.) L. dispe- 
rdtusy pp. of desperdre^ to lose all hope. ~ 
L. <U, from ; sperare, to hope ; from spgr-, 
as in sper-eSf O. Lat. pi. of spest hope. 

despair, vb. (F.— L.) M.£. des- 
peiren, desperen, -■ O. F. despeir-y tonic 
stem oidesperer, to despair. *L. dispirare 

desperadOi a desperate man. (Span. 
— L. ) M. Span, desperado, « L. dispirdtus, 
pp. of dispir&re (above). 

Despise, to contemn. (F.—L.) M.E. 
despisen,^0. F. despis-, stem of the pres. 
part., &c., of despire, to despise.— L. dS' 
spicerCy to look down, look down on 
(below). Der., despic-e^le, from L. di- 
spicari, to look down on, allied to di- 

despite, spite, hatred. (F. — L.) M.£. 
despit,^0,¥, despit, 'despight, spight ;' 
Cot. — L. despectum, ace. of dispectus, 
contempt.— L. dispectus, pp. of despicere^ 
to despise. — L. di, down ; spccere, to look ; 
see Species. 

Despoil. (F.-L.) 0,¥.despoiller(J. 
d^pouuler), to despoil.— L. dispoliare, to 
plunder. — L. di, fully ; spoli&re, to strip 
of clothing, from spolium, spoil ; see 

Despond. (L.) L. dispondire, (1) to 
promise fully, (a) to give up, yield (hence, 


to despair). — L. di, (i) fully, (a) away; 
spondire, to promise. 

Despot, a tyrant. (F L.~Gk.) O.F. 

despot. — Med. L. despotus. — Gk. 8co'ir($ri;s, 
a master ; lit. ' master of the house.' The 
syllable 8«<r- = Idg. *dems, ' of a house ; ' 
of. Skt. dam-pati', master of the house. 
The syllable vox- is allied to Gk. vocn, 
husband, Skt. pati-, lord, and to Potent. 
Brugm. i. § 408. 

Desquamation, a scaling off. (L.) 

From pp. of L. desqu&m&re, to remove 
scales. — L. dl^ off; squ&ma, a scale. 

Dessert. (F.—L.) O.F. dessert, ^^ 
last course at dinner. — O. F. desservir, to 
do ill service to ; also, to take away the 
courses at dinner. — O. F. des-, from L. dis-, 
away ; servir, from seruire, to serve. 

Destine. (F.—L.) O.F. destiner, to 
ordain. — L. distindre, to destine, ordain; 
allied to L. distina, a prop, support. — L. 
di, down ; and *standre, to cause to stand, 
derivative of stare, to stand. Cf. Cretic 
arcarum, I set. Brugm. ii. § 603. 

Destitute. (L.) L. distitatus, left 
alone ; pp. of distituere, to place alone. — 
L. di, away ; statuere, to place, causal of 
stare, to stand. 

Destroy. (F.—L.) lA^'E. destroien, 
destruien.^ O.F, destruire (Y.dJtruire; 
Ital. distruiggere).mmh. type *destrugere, 
for L. distruere, to pull down, unbuild, 
overthrow (pp. destru€tus),^lj, di, down; 
struere, to pile up. 

destmction. (F.-L.) O.F. de- 
structiim.'^'L. ace. distructionem \ from 
distruct'US, pp. oi distruere (above). 

Desuetude, disuse. (L.) L.,disuitiido, 
disuse. — L. disuitus, pp. of desuescere, to 
grow out of use, opposed to ccn-suescere ; 
see Custom. 

Desultory, jumping from one thing 
to another. (L.) L. disultorius, orig. be- 
longing to a disiUtor ; hence, inconstant. — 
L. disultor, one who leaps down, or from 
horse to horse. — L. disultus, pp. oidisilire, 
to leap down.— L. de, down; satire, to 

Detaell. (F.-L.a»^G.) Y, detacher, 
to unfasten. — F. di'=0, F. des- (L. dis-), 
apart ; F. tache, a nail, tack ; see Tack. 
Der. detachment. Cf. Attach. 

Detail, a small part. (F.-L.) O.F. 
detail, ' a peece-mealing, also retaile, or a 
selling by parcels ; * Cot. — O. F. detailler, 
to cut into pieces. — O. F. de- (L. di^, 
down fully; tailler, to cut; see Tailor. ' 




Per. detaily verb (which is from the sb. 
in £., thongh in F. it is the other way). 

Detain. (F. — L.) From a tonic stem 
of O. F. detenir. .- L. diiinire, to hold 
back ; pp. ditentus. ^ L. de, down ; tenirey 
to hold. Der. detention (from the pp.). 

Detect. (L.) From L. ditectus, pp. 
of dStegere^ to micover, expose. — L. dS^ 
away ; tegere, to cover. See Tegument. 

Detention; see Detain. 

Deter. (L.) L. dSterrSre^ to frighten 
from. — L. di^ from; iet^ire, to frighten. 
See Terror. 

Deterge, to wipe off. (L.) L. deter- 
girey to wipe off. — L. di, off ; tergere^ to 
wipe. Der. deterg-ent^ from the pies. pt. 

Deteriorate. (L.) L. deterior&tus, 
pp. of deteriardre, to make worse. — L. 
deterufTy worse. Formed from diy away, 
from; with comp. suffixes -ter-ior, (So 
also in'ter-ior from in.) 

Determine. (F.-L.) O.F. deter- 
miner, mmh, determindre, to bound, end.— 
L. de, down, fully ; temiinare, to bound, 
from terminusy a boundary; see Term. 
Der. pre-determine. 

Detest. (F — L.) M.F. detester, to 
loathe.— L. detestariy to execrate, impre- 
cate evil by calling down the gods to wit- 
ness. — L. dSy down ; testari, to witness, 
from testisy a witness. 

Dethrone. (F.— L. ^ii»/Gk.) M.F. 

desthronery * to unthrone ; * Cot. — O. F. 
des- (L. dis')i apart; L. thronusy from 
Gk. $p6voSy a throne. See Throne. 

Detonate, to explode. (L.) L. d^to- 
ndtusy pp. of detan&rey to explode.— L. diy 
fully ; tondrey to thunder. 

Detour, a winding way. (F.— L.) F. 
cUtoury a circuit; verbal sb. from F. 
ditoumeTy to turn aside.- F. d4~ (L. dis-^y 
aside, apart ; toumery to turn. See Turn. 

Detraction. (F. — L.) O.F. detrac- 
(ion*^L. dgtractionenty ace. of ditractioy 
a withdrawal ; hence a taking away of 
one*s credit.— L. ditractusy pp. of ditra- 
herey to take away, also to disparage.— 
L. dgy away; traherey to draw. See 
Trace (i). 

Detriment. (F.-L.) 0,F, detriment. 
— L. dilrimentttmy loss ; lit. * a rubbing 
away.' — L. ditrt-tusy pp. of ditererey to 
rub down ; with suffix -ntentum. — L. diy 
down ; tererey to rub. See Trite. 

Detrude. (L.) L. ditrOderey to thrust 
down. — L. diy down ; truderey to thrust. 

Dence (■)> &two, at cards. (F. — L.) 


O. F. deus (F. deux)y also dous, two.— L.- 
duosy ace. of dudi two. 

deuce (a), the devil. (LowG.— F.— 
L.) Low G. de duus ! the deuce ! (Bre- 
men Worterbuch) ; G. der daus ! Orig. 
an exclamation on throwing the deuce or 
two at dice, as it was a losing throw.— 
O. F. dotiSy two (above). 

Deuteronomy. (L.— Gk.) LateL. 

deuteronomium. — Gk. d€VT€pov6fuoUy a 
second giving of the law. — Gk. Sci^rcpo-s, 
second ; vdfi-oiy law. 

Devastate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 
uastdre, to lay , waste. — L. de, down ; 
uastdre, to lay waste, from adj. uastus, 

Develop, to unfold, open out. (F.— 
L. and Teut.) F. divelopper^ O. F. des- 
velopery desvoluper, — O. F. des- (L. dis-^y 
apart ; and the base velop- or vdlup-y which 
appears also in envelope. This base repre- 
sents Teut. wlap'y as in M. £. wlappen, to 
wrap up ; see Ijap (3), Wrap. 

Devest, to unclothe. (F.— L.) From 
M.F. desvestiry to devest.— L. dis-y off; 
and uestirey to clothe. Doublet, divest. 

Deviate. (L.) From pp. of L. de- 
uidrey to go out of the way.— L. diy from ; 
uiay way. 

devious. (L.) L..diui'USygomgGxiX 
of the way; with suffix -^m5. — L. diy 
from ; uia; way. 

Device, a plan. (F. — L.) M. £. 
deuysy deuise {devySy devise). ^O. F. deznsy 
devisey a device, also a division.— Late L. 
dtuisumy diuisay a division ; also a judg- 
ment, device ; orig. neut. and fem. of 
pp. of diuidere, to divide ; see Divide. 

devise, to plan. (F.^L.) 
uisen {devisen), — O. F. deviser, — O. F. 
devis or devisey sb. (above). 

Devil. (L.-Gk.) A.S.dio/uIydio/oi. 
— L. diabolus.^Gk. bidfioKoi, the slan- 
derer, the devil. — Gk. StafidW€iv, to throw 
across, traduce, slander. — Gk. Sid, through, 
across; fidWeiVy to throw; see Belemnite. 

Devious ; see Deviate. 

Devise ; see Device. 

Devoid, quite void. (F. — L.) M. £. 
deuoid\ due to deuaidedy pp. of deuoiden 
{devoiden)y to empty. — O.F. desvuidier, 
desvoidiery to empty out. — O. F. des- 
(L. dis-^ ; voidiery to empty, from voidey 
vuidey adj. empty ; see Void. 

Devoir, duty. (F.— L.) lA.E. deuoir. 
— M.F. devoir, O. F. deveiry to owe ; 
used as a sb. — L. dibirey to owe ; see Debt. 




Dovo1t6. (L.) L. deuoluere^ to roll 
down, bring or transfer to. ~ L. de^ down ; 
uoluere^ to roll. % A frequent old sense 
of devolve was ' to transfer.* Der. devolut- 
ion^ from the pp. divolutus. 

Devotei vb. (L.) L. deuotus, pp. of 
diuouercy to devote, vow fully. — L. di, 
fully ; uouirej to vow. See Vote. 

Devonr. (K.— L.) O.F. devorer (i p. 
s. pr. devoure),^\^, deuorare, to consume, 
eat up. — L. diy fully; uordre, to gulp 
down. See Voraoity. 

Devout. (F. ~ L.) M. £. deuot (devoi) , 
also spelt devoute» — O. F. devot, devoted. — 
L. deudlusyjpp, of diuouere ; see Devote. 

Dew. (E.) M. £. deuy dew, A. S. 
diaWy dew.^-Dn. dauw^ Icel. dogg (gen. 
di^gvar), Dan. dug^ Swed. dagg, G. than, 
Teut type *dauwo-, Perliaps allied to Skt. 
dhSVy to rufi, flow ; Gk. OUtVj to run. 

Dexter. (L.) L. dexter^ on the right 
hand side, right. 4* Gk. Sc^t^s, right, Skt. 
dakshina-, on the right or south, Goth. 
taihswa^ right hand, W. deheu^ right, 
southern, Gael, and Irish deas (the same). 
The Skt. dakshina- is orig. * clever ' ; of. 
Skt. daksha-y able, daksh, to be strong. 

DejT, a governor of Algiers. (F. — Turk.) 
F. t£^.— Turk, ddiy a maternal uncle; 
afterwards, in Algiers, an officer, chieftain. 

Dhow, a slave ship (?). Mod. Arab. 
ddOy but not an Arab, word (Yule). Orig. 
language unknown. 

Dl- (i), prefix; apart. (L.) L. di-, 
shorter form of dis- ; see Dia-. 

Di- (2), prefix; twice, double. (Gk.) 
Gk. 8t- (for 8tf), twice. 4* L. bis, bi- ; Skt. 
dvis^ dvi-. Allied to Two. 

Dia-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. hia, through, 
between, apart ; allied to Di- (3', and to 
Two. ^In nearly all words beginning 
with dia-^ except dialy diamond, diary. 

Diabetes, a disease accompanied with , 
excessive discharge of urine. (Gk.) Gk. 
htafiiyrt^s, a pair of compasses, a siphon, 
diabetes. — Gk. Sta/Sacyctv, to stand with , 
the legs apart (like compasses or a siphon). 
— Gk. 8(a, apart; fiaiptiv, to go; see 
Diabolieal. (L.-Gk.) h.diabolic-us, 
devilish. — Gk. SiafioXiKSs, devilish. — Gk. 
itdffoKos, the devil ; see Devil. 
Diaconal, belonging to a deacon. 
(F, — L. — Gk.) F. diaconal, 'm hsitc L. 
diacondliSy from L. didconus, a deacon ; 
see Deaoon. 

(Gk.) Gk. hiaHf>iriK6s, dis- 

tinctive. — Gk. htwcpiv^iv, to separate.— 
Gk. 8(a, apart ; Kpivuv, to judge. 

Diadem, a fillet, crown. (F. - L. — Gk.) 
M.E. and O.F. diademe.^1^, diadema.^ 
Gk. didirffm, a fillet. — Gk. Sea, apart, 
across ; 5^-a;, I bind, allied to Skt. dd,J.o 
bind (whence dr<f;//<7;f, a garland). (^D£.) 
Brugm. ii. § 707. 

DSsBresis, a mark (*) of separation. 
(L. — Gk.) L. diaresis.mmGV, biaiptais, a 
dividing. — Gk. Siwi, apart; tuptms, a taking, 
from alpuv, to taRe. 

Diagnosis, scientific determination of 
a disease. (Gk.) Gk. Ziayvmais, a dis- 
tinguishing.— Gk. hia, between; yvwcuj 
enquiry, from f^wvat, to know. 

Diagonal. (F. ~ L. — Gk.) F. diagonaJ, 

— L. aiagondlis, running from comer to 
comer. — Gk. hia'^inmn (the same). — Gk. 
Sid, through, between ; ywvia, an angle, 
bend, allied to y6vv, knee ; see Knee. 

Diagram. (1 — Gk.) L„diagramma, 
a scale, gamut (hence, sketch, plan). — Gk. 
^idypafXfM, a figure, plan, gamut. — Gk. 
Biayp6jip€iv, to mark out by lines, describe. 

— Gk. 9fa, through ; ypi<puv, to write. 
Dial. (L.) M. E. dial. - Med. L. didlis, 

relating to a day ; hence a plate for shew- 
ing the time of day. — L. dies, day. Bmgm. 
i. §233. 

Dialect, a variety of a language. (F.— 
L. — Gk.) F. dialecte.^h. diitleclus, f.— 
Gk. bidKticTos, f., discourse, language, 
dialect. — Gk. Sia\4yofAai, I discourse. — 
Gk. bid, between ; kiyuv, to speak. 

dialogue, a discourse. (F.-^L. — Gk.) 

F. dialogue. '^h. dialogum, ace. oidicUogus. 

— Gk. bidXoyoi, a conversation.— Gk. bia- 
Xiyofiai, I discourse (above). 

Diiuneter, the line measuring the 
breadth across or thickness through. ( F. 

— L. — Gk.) Mid. F. diametre, * a dia- 
meter ; ' Cot. — L. diametros. — Gk. Std- 
fifTpos, f. — Gk. bid, through; /Urpcv, a. 
measure ; cf. iitrpttv, to measure. 

Diamond. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. ^tVx- 

mant.'^O.Y. diamant, altered form of 
adamant', so also Ital. Span. diamatUe, 

G. diamant, dernant. See Adamant. 
Diapason, a whole octave, harmony. 

(L. — Gk.) L. diapason, an octave, con- 
cord of a note with its octave. — Gk. hux'- 
w&ff&y, concord of first and last notes of an 
octave, lit. * through all ' the notes. — Gk. 
bid, through ; naawu, gen. pi. fem. oi vas, 
all (xopbSf¥ being understood) ; see Fan-» 




Diaper, figured linen cloth. (F.^L.— 
Gk.) Cf. O. F. diapri^ diapered ; from 
the verb diaprer^ to diaper, dr * diversifie 
with flourishings ; ' Cot. The verb is 
formed from O. F. diaspre^ later diapre^ a 
fine cloth, often described as blanc (white). 

—Late L. diasprusy adj., also used as a sb. 
(tunica de diaspra alba), — I^ite Byzantine 
Gk. Siaoir/Ms, adj., pure white ; from &-a, 
wholly, iffvpos, white (see N. E. D.). 
^ Not the same as Ital. diasproy a jasper ; 
but cf. Prov. diaspeSy diaspres^ diaper, 
costly cloth (Bartsch) ; also Late L. aspert^ 
white money (Ducange). 

BiapliailOlUlf transparent. (Gk.) Gk. 
liwpav-'fiiy transparent ; with suffix -ous, ■« 
Gk. 8ta, through ; ^av-, allied to tpaivuv^ 
to shew. Bruem. i. § 195. 

Diajpllore'laCf causing perspiration. 
(L.— Gk.) L. diaphoreticusy sudorific — 
Gk. ii€uftopriTtic6s (the same). — Gk. dia- 
tt>6fnjaiSf perspiration.— Gk. dta^pcu^, to 
carry off (by perspiration). -• Gk. Bid, 
through ; ^o^ciV, to carry, allied to fpiptiv, 
to bear ; see Bear. 

Diaphragm, a dividing membrane. 
(F.-L.-Gk.J F. diaphrasme.^'L, dia- 
phragtna,^GK.» hiiippayi»a, partition, mid* 
riff. — Gk. 8f(i, between ; <pp&ffcca (fut. 
<l>p6(ej), I fence in, enclose. 

biarrlUBa. (L. — Gk.) L. diarrhaa, — 
Gk. Jkdfifioiay lit. 'a flowing through.' — 
Gk. BiafifiittVj to flow through.— Gk. Bid, 
through ; fiitiv, to flow. 

Diary. (I^*) L< didrium^ a daily 
allowance, also a diary.— L. di?s, a day. 
See Dial. 

Diastole, dilatation of the heart. (Gk.) 
Gk. BiaaroK^y a drawing asunder, dilata- 
tion.— Gk. btcurriKKfiVy to put aside or 
apart. — Gk. Std, apart ; ot^XXcif, to put. 

biatonic. proceeding by tones. (Gk.) 
Gk. BtaroviKoSy from Bidrovof (lit. stretched 
out), diatonic— Gk. Biartivtiv, to stretch 
out.— Gk. Bidj fully ; rtivtiv, to stretch. 

Diatribe. (F.-L.-Gk.) ¥. diatribe. 
— L. diatriba, a learned disputation.— 
Gk. Biarpifiiffy a wearing away of time, 
waste of time, discussion.— Gk. Biarpi' 
puVfto waste time, to discuss. — Gk. 8«i, 
thoroughly; rpifieiv, to rub, waste away 
(with long 1). 

Dib, to dab lightlyf (E.) A lighter 
form of dab. Hence dibber, a dibble ; see 

dibblei an instrument for setting plants, 
by making holes. (E.) M.E. debil, de- 

bylU ; apparently formed from Dab ,* see 

Dice, pi* of Die (a), q. v. 

Dicker, half a score. (L.) 'M^.E.diker 
(cf. Icei. dekr),^L, decuria, a set often.— 
L. dec-em, ten. 

Dicotyledoili a plant with two seed- 
lobes. (Gk.) From Gk. 8c-, double; 
KOTvKfjBdw, a cup-shaped hollow, from 
Konukijy a cup. 

Dictate. (L.) L. dictattis, pp. of dic' 
tare, to dictate, frequentative of dicere, to 
say (below). Der. dictat-ar, 

diction, talk. (F. - L.) F. diction, - 
L. dictidfteniy ace. of dictio, a saying. — L. 
dictusy pp. of dfcere, to say, appoint ; allied 
to dicdrey to tell, publish.^Gk. MxyvfUy I 
shew ; Skt. dify to shew ; Goth, gateihan, 
to announce, G. zeigen, to accuse, point 
out. Bmgm. i. % 207. (VDEIK.) 

dictionary. (L.) Late L. dictiond- 
riuniy foimed irom diction', stem oidictiOy 
a saying, word (above). 

DidactiCf instructive. (Gk.) Gk. 81- 
BaKTiit6iy instructive. — Gk. BiBdaiciiVy to 
teach ( « HiBoK-aicuv) ; allied to BoKHVy to 
think, BiieofAaiy Ionic for BixofjuUy I accept ; 
cf. L. discerey to learn, docere, to teach. 
Brupn. i. § 707. (-/DEK.) 

Didapper, Divedapper, a bird; 

see Dive. 

Die (i), to lose life. (Scand.) M.E. 
dyeny deyen ; Late A. S. de^an, — Icel. 
aeyja\ Swed. diiy Dan. doe, to die.+ 
M. H.G. touwen\ cf. Russ. davit{e)y to 
strangle. The Teut. base is *daUy whence 
*dau'jan (Icel. cUy-ja), Cf. Dead, Death. 

Die (3), a small cube for gaming. (F.— 
L.) Used as sing, of M. E. dysy more 
usually deeSy dice — O. F. dez, dice, pi. of 
dety a die (F. df), Cf. Prov. dat, Ital. 
Span. dadOy a die.— Late L. datumy lit. a 
thing given or decreed ; hence applied to 
a die for casting lots. — L. datuSy pp. of 
dare, to give. See Date ( i ). 

Diet (i\ regimen. (F.-L.-Gk.^ M.E. 
diefe,^0,Y, diete, daily fare.— Late L. 
dietay diceta, a ration of food. — Gk. Bkaiia, 
noode of life, diet. Brugm. i. § 650. 

(2), an assembly. (F.— £.— Gk.) 

M.F. dietey * a dlete, parliament;' Cot.— 
Med. L. diatay a public assembly ; also a 
ration of food, diet. — Gk. {(atra, a mode of 
life, diet; see Diet (1). % The peculiar 
use of the word was due to a popular 
etymology which connected diata (often 
spelt dietct) with dies, a day ; we even 



find diata used to mean ' a day's journey *; 
and dieta for * a day's work ' and * a daily 
office or dnty ' ; Dncange. 

Differ. (F.-L.) M. F. differer.^'L, 
differre, to carry apart, to diifer. — L. dif- 
(for dis-), apart; ferre, to bear. Cf. Defer. 

BiffiCQltj. (F.-L.) U.E,difficultee. 

— O. F. difficulte.^l^. difficult ateniy ace. 
of difficuUas (for *diffic%lttaSy \\\it facultas 
foryiwz7«/af), difficulty. — L. difficilis^ hard. 

— L. dif- (for diS')y apart; facilis^ easy ; 
see Facile. 

Diffident. (L.) L. diffident-, stem of 
difftdenSf pres. pt. oi difftdere^ to distrust. 

— L.£/^-( = flfw-), apart; fidere^ to trust, 
allied Xafides^ faith. See Faith. 

Diffuse. (L.) L. diffususj^^. oidif- 
fundere, to shed abroad. — L. dif- {^dis-)y 
apart ; fundere, to pour ; see Fuse (i). 

Dig. (F.— Du.) F. diguer, to make a 
dike. — F. digue, a dike.— Flem. a^Du. 
dijk, a dike ; see Dike. 

Dlgesty to assimilate food. (L.) M. £. 
digest, used as a pp. » digested.— L. diges- 
tus, pp. of dtgerere, to carry apart, sepa- 
rate, dissolve, digest. — L. di- (for dis-), 
apart ; gerere, to carry. 

bight, adorned. (L.) Z?i]fii/ as a pp. is 
short for dighted, from the obs. verb dight, 
to arrange, prepare, M. E. dikien, to pre- 
pare. A.S. dthtan, to set in order, arrange ; 
borrowed from L. dictdre, to dictate, pre- 
scribe I see Dictate. 

Digit, a finger, figure. (L.) L. digitus, 
a finger ; hence a figure, from counting on 
the fingers. 

Dignity. (F.-L.) M.E. dignitee.'^ 
O. F. dignet^, — L. dignitatem, ace. of 
dignitas, worthiness. — L. dignus, worthy. 
Brugm. i. § 762 (3). 

dignify. (F.-L.) 0,Y,dignifier,^ 
Med.L. dtgnificdre,Xo make worthy. — L. 
digni', for dignus, worthy; -ficdre, for 
facere, to make. 

Digress, lit. to step aside. (L.) L. 
digressus, pp. of dtgredt, to go aside.— L. 
di- (for dis-), apart; gradi, to go. See 

Dllce, A trench, trench and embankment, 
bank. (£.) M. £. dik. A. S. die, masc. 
+D11. dijk, Icel. diki, Dan. dige, Swed. 
dike, G. teich, pond, tank. Dep. dig, q. v. 
See Ditch. 

Dilacerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

dilfuerare, to tear apart. — L. di- (for dis-), 
apart ; lacerdre, to tear. See Iiaoerate. 
Dilapidate, to pull down stone build- 

ings, to ruin. (L.) From pp. of L. dih* 
ptddre, to scatter like stones. — L. di- (for 
dis-), apart ; lapid-, stem ol lapis, a stone. 

Dilate. (F.-L.) O. F. dilater, to 
widen. — L. dildtdre, to widen. — L. di- 
(for dis-\ apart ; Idtus, broad. See Lati- 
tude. Der. dilat'ory, A. F. dilator ie. 

Dilemma, a perplexity. (L.-Gk.) L. 
dilemma.^ Gk, biXrjfiftaf a double proposi- 
tion, or argument in which one is caught 
between two difficulties. — Gk. 8/-, twice, 
double; Xrjiiiui, an assumption, premiss. 
See Lemma. 

Dilettante, a lover of the fine arts. 
(Ital.-L.) Ital. dilettante, lit. 'delight- 
ing in.' — Ital. dilettare, to delight. — L. 
dUectdre, to delight ; see Delectable. 

Diligent, industrious. (F.-L.) O.F. 
diligent, ^Yj. diligent-, stem of diligens, 
careful, diligent, lit. loving (fond); pres. 
pt. of diligere, to love, select, lit. choose 
between. — L. ^- ( =• dis-^, apart ; legere, to 
choose. See Legend. 

DiU, a plant. (E.) M. E. dille, A. S. 
^/i/ff.-f- Du. dille, Dan. dild, Swed. dill, G. 
dill, dille, O. H. G. tilli. 

Dilute. (L.) lu^diiatus^Y^^oidiluere, 
to wash away, also to mix with water.— I^. 
di- (for dis-), apart ; luere, to wash. 

Dim. (E.) M. E. dim, A. S. dim, dark. 
4- Icel. dimmr, dim ; M. Dan. dim, Cf. 
M. H. G. timmer, dim ; Swed. dimma, a 
fog, haze ; O. Irish deim, dark. 

Dime, the tenth part of a dollar. (F.— 
L.) F. dime, O. F. disme, tenth. — L. 
decima, a tithe ; fem. of L. decimus^ tenth, 
allied to decem, ten. See Ten. 

Dimension. (F.-L.) 0,Y,dimen- 
sion.'^L. ace. dimensionem, a measuring. 

— L. dimensus, pp. of dimetiri, to measure 
off.- L. di- (for dis-), apart; metirt, to 
measure. See Measure. 

Diminisll, to lessen. (F.—L.) Coined 
from L. di- {*=dis-), apart, and E. minisA; 
in imitation of L. diminuere, to diminish 
(below). See Minish. 

diminntion. (F.—L.) F. diminu- 
tion, ^h. ace. dtminOtidnem, diminntion. 

— L. diminiitus, pp. of diminuere, to 
lessen.— L. ^/- (■sd?'w-), apart; minueret 
to lessen. See Minute. 

Dimissor^, giving leave to depart. 
(L.) L. dimissoPius, giving leave to go 
before another judge.— L. dimissus, pp. of 
dimittere, to send away. — L. di- (for dis-), 
away ; mittere, to send. 

Dunitj, a white stuff. (Ital. — L. - Gk.) 




Ital. ditnito (jA,dimtti)f ' a kind of course 
cotton or flanell ; ' Florio.^Late L. dimi' 
turn (pi. dimita), silk woven with two 
threads.— Gk. ^/uroSf made vrith a double 
thread. — Gk. di-, double ; /dros, a thread 
of the woof. 

Dimolei a small hollow. (E. ?) M. E. 
dympuU, Perhaps from a base *dump', 
allied to dip, Cf. Dan. dial, dump^ a 
hollow in a held ; dybbel^ a pool, a hollow 
in the upper lip (Molbech) ; Du. dompelen^ 
to dive; G. dumpfel, M. H. G. tUmpfel, 
O. H. G. tumphiloy a deep pool. Also 
Lith. dhhuSf hollow ; dkbti, to be hollow 
(pres. t. dumd-u), 

iHn, clamour. (E.) M. £. dtfts, dune, 
A. S. dyne, dyn ; dynnan, to resound. ^ 
Icel. dynr, Swed. d&n, Dan. dan^ noise; 
Skt. dkuni'f roaring, </Azum-, a din, dAvan, 
to resound. 

Dine. (F.-L.) M. E. dinen,m.O. F. 
disner, F. dfner, to dine. — Late L. *diS' 
iiindre, short for ^disiHundre^ to break 
one's fast. — L. dis^ ; iiiundre, to fast, from 
iiiunus, fasting. (Romania, viii. 95.) 

dinner. (F.— L.) yL,E, diner \ from 
O. F. disner, to dine ; the infinitive mood 
being used as a sb. 

Dingy to throw violently, beat. (E.?) 
M. £. aif^genf pt. t. dan^, pp. dungen ; as 
a strong verb ; though not found in A. S. 
Cf. IceL dengia, Dan. dange^SyftA^ddngOy 
to bang; all weak verbs. Cf. M. Dan. 
dinge, to blunt an edge by beating on it ; 
O. H. G. tangol, a hammer. From a Teut. 
type *dengan'. 

Dingle, a deejp dell. (E. cr Scand.) 
M. E. dingle, Cf. dimble^ in a similar 
sense. Of uncertain origin. Cf. Dimple. 

Dingo, the native dog of Australia. 
(New S. Wales.) New S. Wales dingOy 
written teingo in 1798 (Morris). 

Dingy, dirty. (E.) Ong. soiled with 
dung. Cf. A. S. dingiung (for *dyng{i>ung^ 
with g as/), a dunging ; from dung^ dung ; 
so also Swed. dyngig^ dungy, from dyng^ 
dung ; see Dung. For the pronunciation, 
cf. stingy (allied to sting). 

Dingy (with hard g)^ Dingey^ a small 
boat. (Bengali.) ££eng. dingy, a small 
boat ; * it has become legitimately incor- 
porated in the vocabulary of the British 
Navy, as the name of the smallest ship's 
boat • (Yule). 

Dinner; see Dine. 

Dint, a blow, force. (E.) M. E. dint^ 
dunt\ also dent, A.S. dynt^ a blow.+ 

Icel. dyntr^ a dint, dynta^ to dint ; Swed. 
dial, duntf a stroke, dunta^ to strike. 

Diocese. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. duh 
m*.— O. F. diocise (F. dioc^se),^h, dice- 
cisis, — Gk. hiohtfiaa. administration, a 
province, diocese. — Gk. SiotWo;, I keep 
house, govern. — Gk. &- (for did), through- 
out ; oiWoi, I dwell, occupy, from oTiro;, a 
house ; see Wiok, a town. 

Dioptrics, the science of the refraction 
of light. (Gk.) Gk. rd fiioirrpcKd, dioptrics. 
— Gk. lkowTpiK6sf relating to the btowrpa^ 
an optical instrument for taking heights, 
&c. — Gk. Ik'd, through; base *o|r- (fut. 
S^ofjuu), to see; -rpa, fem. instrumental 
suffix. See Optics. 

Dioramai a scene seen through a small 
opening. (Gk.) Gk. di- (for 8i<i), through ; 
ipa/Mif a sight, from dpAwj I see. 

Dipi to plunge, immerge. (E.) M. E. 
dippen, A. S. dyppan^ later dippan ; for 
*dt4p'jaHf causal form from the base dup-^ 
weak grade of deup-t as seen in A. S. dic^^ 
deep ; see Deep. Cf. Dan. dyppe, to dip. 

Diphtheria. (Gk.) From Gk. 81^ 
Bipa, leather ; from the leathery nature of 
the false membrane formed in the disease. 
CT. Gk. dc^ciV, to make supple. 

Diphthongi a union of two vowel- 
sounds in one syllable. (F.— L.— Gk.) 
Formerly dipthong (Ben Jonson).-iM. F. 
dipthongue, — L. ace. diphthongum^ f. — G. 
bitpBoYfos, with two sounds.— Gk. 8i- (for 
81s), double; <p$&yyos, sound, from tpOiyyo^ 
fiaif I cry out. 

IHploma. ^.-Gk.) L. diploma^ a 
document conferring a privilege. — Gk. 
8(irA.a>fia, a thing folded double ; also, a 
licence, diploma (prob. orig. folded 
double).— Gk. 8iirX^o$, double. — Gk. 81- 
ipii)t double; -irX^o;, folded. Der. di- 
plomat'iCt from 8(irAar/iar-, stem of SivAw/m. 

Diptera« two-winged insects. (Gk.) 
From Gk. 81- {pii) , double ; irrcp^v, a wing, 
from the weak grade of virofMif I fly. 

Diptych, a double-folding tablet. (L. 

-Gk.) Late L. pi. diptycha, - Gk. 8/- 
•nrMxa^ a pair of tablets ; neut. pi. of 8f- 
iTTvxoy, folded in two. — Gk. li- (8fs), 
double ; irrvx^?* a fold, ftritao^w^ to fold. 

Dire. (L*) i'* dirus^ fearful. 

Direct, adj. (L.) L. dtrectus, pp. of 
dtrigerey to direct. — L. df- (for dis-), apart ; 
regerty to rule. 

dirge. (L.) Formerly dtrige\ from 
the first word of the anthem ^ dirige, Do* 
minus mens,' in the office for the dead.— L. 





dirige^ direct thou (cf. Ps. v. 8) ; a p. imper. 
sing, oidirigere above). 

Dirk, a dagger. (Da.?) Spelt dork 
(a. d. 1002) ; also durk. Perhaps from Da. 
dolk^ a dagger ; a word of Slavonic origin. 
Cf. Polish tulichf a dagger. % Irish duirc, 
a poniard, is borrowed from E. 

Dirt. (Scand.) From M. E. drit (with 
shifted r). — Icel. drity dirt, excrement of 
birds. Cf. Icel. dritat to void excrement.*}- 
M. Du. dretCj Du. dreei, sb., drijten, vb. 

Dis-, prefix, (L.) L. dis-, apart ; cf. 
Gk. 8t-, apart ; see Di-. Hence O. F. 
des'y which sometimes becomes dis- in E., 
and sometimes de-^ as in de-feat. The 
prefix dis' commonly expresses the re- 
versal of an acti somewhat like the K. 
verbal prefix un-. For most words be- 
ginning with this prefix, see the simpler 
forms. For example, for dis-abuse, see 
abuse ; and so on. 

Disaster. (F. — L.) M. F. desastre, 
<a disaster, misfortune;' Cot. Lit. Mil- 
fortune.' — O. F. des'f for L. dis-^ with a 
sinister or bad sense ; and M. F. astre, 
a star, planet, also destiny, fortune, from 
L. astrum, a star. 

Disburse. (F.-L. and Gk.) O. F. 
desbourser^ to take out of a purse. ~0. F. 
des- (L. dis-)t away; F. bourse, a purse, 
from Late L. bursa^ Gk. fi^poa, a skin 
(hence, a bag). See Bunar. 

Disc* Disk, a round plate. (L.-Gk.) 
L. discus, a quoit, a plate. i-Gk. Hiaieos, a 
quoit. — Gk. Aiciiv, to cast, throw. Brugm. 
i. $ 744. See Dish, Desk, Dais. 

Discern. (F.— L.) F. discemer.^la, 
discemere, to separate, determine. -> L. dis-^ 
apart; cemere, to separate. Cf. Con- 

Disciple. (F.-L.) F. disdpU.^lu, 
discipulum, ace. of discipulus, a learner. 
— L. discere, to learn ; alUed to docire, to 
teach; see Dooile. Der. discipUine^ 
O. F. discipline, L. disciplina, learning. 

Disclose. (F.-L.) M. E. disclosen. 

— O. F. cUscloS', pres. stem of desclorre, to 
unclose, open. — L. disclaudere, to unclose. 

— L. dis', apart ; claudere, to close. See 

Discomfit. (,F. — L.) M. E. discomfit 
(Bruce). — O.F. disconfit, discomfited, pp. 
of desconfire, * to discomfit, vanquish,* Cot. 

— O. F. deS' ; and confire, to preserve, make 
ready. — L. dis-, apart; and conficere, to 
preserve, complete, from L. con- (cum), 
together, facere, to put, make. See Fact. 

Disconsolate. (L.) Late L. discon- 
soldtus, comfortless. — L. diS", apart ; con' 
solatus, pp. of consdldri, to console ; from 
con- {cum), with, soldrl, to comfort. See 

Discord, sb. (F.— L.) O.Y.descord, 
discord, variance ; formed from O. F. des- 
corder, vb., to be at variance. — L. discorddre 
(the same).- L. discord-, stem of discors, 
adj. discordant. — L. dis-, apart ; cord-, 
stem of cor, heart. 

Discount, verb. (F. — L.) Formerly 
discompt, — O. F. descompter, to reckon 
back or off. — O. F. des- (L. dis-^, away ; 
compter, to count ; see Count (2). 

Discourse. iF. — L.) O. F. discours, 
sb. — L. discursum, ace. of discursus, a 
running about ; also, conversation.— L. 
discursus, pp. of discurrere, to run about. 

— L. dis-, apart ; currere, to run. 
Discover. (F. — L.) M.E, discoueren 

{discoveren). — O. F. descouvrir, to un- 
cover, disclose. — O. F. des- (L. dis»), 
apart ; couvrir, to cover. See Cover. 

Discreet, prudent. (F. — L.) O. F. 
discret.^V., discretus, pp. of dis-certtere, 
to discern ; see Discern. Der. discret' 

Discrepant, differing. (F.-L.) M.F. 
discrepant. '''L. discrepant-, stem of pres. 
part, of discrepdre, to differ (in sound).— 
L. dis-, apart ; crepdre, to crackle, sound. 

Discriminate. (L.) L. discrimind- 
tus, pp. of discrimindre, to separate. — L. 
discrtmin-, stem of discrtmen, a separa- 
tion. — L. discernere (pt. t. discrS-ui), to 
distinguish. — L. diS', apart ; cemere, to 

Jjiscorsive. (L.) From L. discurs- 
us, pp. of discurrere, to run about ; with 
suffix -ive. See Discourse. 

Discuss. ^L.) M. E. discussed, pp. 
driven away.— L. discussus, pp. of ats- 
cutere, to shake asunder; in Late L., to 
discuss. — L. dis-, apart ; qucUere, to shake. 

Disdain, sb. (F. — L.) M. E. disdeyn. 

— O. F. desdein, sb. — O. F. desdegnier, to 
disdain.- O. F. des- (L. dis-), apart ; degn^ 
ier (L. digndrt), to think worthy, from 
dignus, worthy. ^ O. F. desdegnier seems 
to have been substituted for L. dedigttdri, 
to disdain (wiih prefix di-, down). 

Disease. (F.) O. F. desaise, want of 
ease. — O. F. des- (L. dis-) ; aise, ease. 

Disembark. (F.) M.F. desembar- 
quer.^O. F. des- (L. dis-), away ; embar- 
quer, to embark ; see Embark. 



DiMllibogliey to flow into the sea, as 
a river. (Span.— L.) Span, desemhocar, 
to disembogue. — Span, des- (L. dts-), 
apart ; embocar, to enter the month, from 
•em' (L. in) J into, and boca (L. bucca), 

Disgorge. (F.-L.) O.F. desgorger. 
— O. F. (US' (L. dis')^ away; gorge y the 
throat ; see G-orge. * 

Bisgrace. ^F.— Ital.-L.) M.F. ^irV 

grace,^\X.2X. disgrazia.^'L. dis-, apart; 
gratia^ grace. See Grace. 

DisglliBef vb. (F.-L. and O. H. G.) 
O. F. desguiser^ to disguise. — O. F. des- 
(L. dis'), apart ; and guise j guise ; see 
Guise. Lit. ' to change the guise of.* 

Bisgnst, vb. (F.-L) M. F. des- 
gouster, *to distaste, loath;* Cot. — O. F. 
deS' (L. dis')y apart ; gouster^ to taste, from 
L. gustare^ to taste ; see Gust (2). 

Bish, a platter. (L. - Gk.) M. £. 
disch, A. S. disCy a dish.— L. discus , a 
quoit, platter ; see Disc. 

Bisnabille ; see Deshabille. 

Bishevil. (F.-L.J U,¥.discheveier 
(Cot.), * to dischevell,- i. e. to disorder the 
hair. — O.F. des- (L. dis-)^ apart; chevel 
(F. cheveu), a hair, from L. capillumy ace. 
oi capilluSy hair. 

Bisinterested. (F. - L.) From 

Dis- (2) and interested', see Interest (2). 

Bisk ; see Diso. 

BiBlocatay to put out of joint (L.) 
From pp. of Late L. dislocare, to put out 
of place. — L. dis', apart ; locdre, to place, 
from locus y |)lace. 

BismaL (F.-L.) Orig. A. F. dis 
mat, unlucky days (A. D. 1256). [The 
phrase was misunderstood, and dismal was 
treated as an adj., with the addition of 
days; and later, of other sbs.] — L. dies 
malty evil days. Cf. F. Lun-di « Mon-day. 

Bismantle. (F.-L.) M.¥. desman- 
teller, * to take a mans cloake off his backe; 
al^, to rate walls; * Cot. — O. F. des- (L. 
dis-) J apart ; manteler, to cloak, from 
mantely sb. ; see Mantle. 

Biraiayi to discourage. (F. — L. and 
O. H. G.) O. F. *desmayery not found 

except dismay iy pp., in Palsgrave, p. 519). 
but exactly the same as Span, desmayar 
(Port, desmaier, Ital. smagare), to dismay, 
tierrify. The O. F. *desmayer was early 
supplanted by esmayer in the same sense, 
which only differed in substituting the 
prefix es' (L. ex-) for des- {L.dis-), The 
latter part {-mayer) of these words is from 


O. H. G. magan (G. mdgen)y to have 
power, be able. Hence *desmayer and 
esmayer y at first used in the intrans. sense, 
to lack power, faint, be discouraged, but 
afterwards, actively, to discourage. Cf. 
Ital. smagare (for *dis-magare)y orig. to 
lose courage, also to dismay (Florio). 
See May (i). 

BismisSf to send away. (F. — L.) A 
coined word ; suggested by F. desmettrCy 
pp. desmiSy * to displace, dismiss ; * Cot. 
The true L. form is dJ mitt ere y to send 
away.— L. di- (for diS')y apart, away; 
mitterCy to send. 

Bisparagey to offer indignity, to lower 
in ranK or esteem. (F.-L.) M. E. des- 
paragen,^0, F. cUsparager.'^O. F. des-y 
apart; paragCy rank. — L. dis-, apart; 
Late L. paraticumy society, rank, equality 
of rank, from L. par, equal (Diez). See 

disparity. (F.-L.) F. disparity 
(Montaigne). From L. dis^y apart ; and 
F. paritiy equal ity ; see Parity. Suggested 
by L. dispary unequal. 

Bispatoh, Bespateh. (Span.-L.) 

Formerly spelt dis-y not r/<p.f-. — Span, des- 
pachary to dispatch, expedite. — L. dis-y 
away ; and L. type *pactdrey to fasten, fix, 
from pactuSy pp. of pangere, to fasten. 
(See N. E. D.) Cf. Ital. spacciare, to dis- 
patch (Florio), answering to a L. type 

BlSpel. (L.) L. dispellere, to drive 
asunder, — L. dis-y apart ; pelierCy to drive. 

Bispense. (F.-L.) O.F. dispenser y 
to dispense with. — L. dispensdrCy to weigh 
out, frequent, form of dispenderCy to weigh 
out. — L. diSy apart ; pendere, to weigh. 

Bisperse, to scatter abroad. (F.-L.) 
M. F. disperser. From L. pp. dispersuSy 
pp. of dispergerey to scatter abroad. — L. 
di- (for dis-)y apart ; spargere, to scatter.^ - 

Bisplay. (F.-L.) A. F. desphyei^, ^ 
O. F. desploiery to unfold, shew. — L. dis-, - 
apart ; plicdre, to fold. Doublet, deploy. 

Bisport. (F. - L.) M. E.. disporteny 
to amuse. —O.F. se desportery to amuse 
oneself, orig. to cease from labour; later 
deportery and confused with Deport.- L. 
dis-t away, port drey to carry (hence, to 
remove oneself from or cease from labour). 
Hence sporty q. v. 

Bispose. (F.-L fl«flfGk.) 0.¥. dis- 
poser, to arrange. — O.F. dis- (L, dis^y 
apart ; F. poser, to place ; see Pose. 

Bispositioii. (F.-L.) F. disposi- 




fion.^h. ace dispositionemy a setting in 
order. — L. dispositus^ pp. of disponere^ to 
set in various places, to arrange. --L. dis-^ 
apart ; ponere^ to place, put. 

Dispute. (F.-L.) F. disputer.^\„ 
disputdre, to argue. — L. dis-^ apart; 
putdre, to think. See Putative. 

Dis^lliaitiony an investigation. (L.) 
From L. disquisTtio, a search into. — L. 
disqutsitusy pp. of disqutrere^ to examine. 
L. dis-y apart ; quarere, to seek. 

Disruption. (L.) YromL. dtsrup^io, 
dtruptioy^ breaking asunder. — L.dr;Vrw/- 
tus^ diruptusj pp. of disrumpere^ dtrum- 
perCy to break apart. — L. dis-y di-y apart; 
rumpere^ to burst. 

Dissect. (L.) From L. dissect-usy pp. 
oidissecdre, to cut apart. — L. dis^y apart ; 
secdre, to cut. 

Dissemble. (F. ^ L.) O. F. dis- 

(L. dis-^y apart ; sembleTy to seem, appear; 
cf. O. F. dissimuler^ to dissemble. — L. dis-, 
apart, away; simularey to pretend; cf. L. 
dissimuldrey to pretend that a thing is not 
See Simulate. 

Dissemixiate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

dissemindre^ to scatter seed. — L. dis-y 
apart ; simindrey to sow, from semin-, for 
semen, seed. 

Dissent, vb. (L.) L. dissenttre (pp. 
dissensus), to differ in opinion. — L. ^/r-, 
apart ; senttre, to feel, think. Der. dri>- 
senS'toHf from the pp. dissensus. 

Dissertation, a treatise. (L.) From 
L. dissertdttOy a debate.— L. dissertdtus, 
pp. of dissertdrey to debate ; frequent, of 
dissererCy to -disjoin, discuss. — L.. ^/x-, 
apart ; sererty to join. 

Dissever. (F.-L.) 0,'P,dessevrer, 
— Late L. dissepardre, — L. ^;rV-, apart ; 
separdrcy to separate. 

Dissident. (L.) L. dissident-^ stem 
gf pres. pt. of dissidirey to sit apart, to 
, disagree. — L. dis-, apart ; sederCy to sit. 

• ' Dissimilar, unlike. (F.-L.) M. F. 

dissimilaire.^O.Y. dis- (L. dis-), apart; 
and similairey like ; see Similar. 

dissimilitnde, dissimulation; 

from L. diS', apart, and similitude, simu- 

Dissipate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
dissipdrey to disperse. — L. dis-, apart; 
and O. L. supdrcy to throw ; we find also 
insipdrCy to throw into. Cf. Skt. kship^ to 
throw. Brugm. i. § 761. 

Dissociate. (L.) From the pp. of L. 
dissocidrCy to separate from. — L, dis-y 

apart ; socidrty to associate, from socius, a 
companion. See Sociable. 

Dissolute. (L.) L. dissolHtits yWcexi'^ 
tious ; pp. of L. dissoluere (below). 

dissolve. (L.) L. dissoluere, to dis- 
solve, loosen, relax. — L. dis'y apart; sol- 
uerey to loosen. See Solve. Der. dis- 
soluUion (from pp. dissolOtus). 

Dissonant. (F.— L.) M. F. disso- 
nant-. Cot. — L. dissonant-y stem of pres. 
pt. oi dissondrey to be unlike in sound.— 
I^. dis-y apart; sondre, to sound, from 
sonusy sound. 

Dissuade. (F.-L.) F. dissuader; 
Cot. — L. dissuddirey to persuade from.— 
L. dis-y apart ; suddirey to persuade ; see 

Distaff. (£.) A distaff is a staff 
bedizened with flax, ready to be spun on. 
* I dysyn a dystaffy I put the fiaxe upon 
it to spynne ; ' Palsgrave. M. E. distaf, 
dysestaf, A. S. distcef. The A. S. distc^ 
stands for *dtse-st(sfy where staf=^ E. staff 
and *dise^'Low G. diessey the bunch of 
flax on a distaff (Bremen) ; also spelt dise, 
disene (Liibben) ; E. Fries, dtssen. See 

Distain. (F.— L.) M,E, disteinen.^* 
O. F. desteign-y a stem of desteindrey to 
distain, take away colour. — O. F. des^ 
(L. dis-)y away; and teindre, from L. 
tingere, to dye. 

Instant. (F.-L.) O.F, distant,^!,, 
distanteniy ace. of distans, pres. pt. of 
distdre, to stand apart.— L. di-y apart; 
stdrey to stand. 

Distemper (i), to derange the tem- 
perament of body or mind. (F.-L.) M.E. 
distemperen.^O,Y, desteniprer, to mix; 
whence pp. destempri, immoderate, exces- 
sive.— O.F. des- (L. dis-^y apart; temprer 
(mod. F. tremper), from L. temperdrey to 
regulate. See Temper. 

distemper (a), a kind of painting. 
(F. — L.) O. F. destemprery later destrem- 
per, * to soake, steepe, moisten, make fluid, 
liquid, or thin,' Cot.; the same verb as 

Distend. (L.) L. distenderey to stretch 
apart. — L. dis-, apart ; tenderey to stretch; 
see Tend. Der. distent-ion (from the 
pp. distent-us). 

Distich, a. couplet. (L.-Gk.) L. 
distichusy distichon, — Gk. Bianxov, a coup- 
let (in verse) ; neut. ofdiarixosy having two 
rows. — Gk. 81- (81s), double; <rrlxos, a row, 
allied to artixuvy to go. (-/STEIGH.) 



iMstil. (F.-L.) O.Y, distiller. ^U 
distilldrey destilldre^ to drop or trickle 
down. — L. flS?, down; stilldre, to drop, 
from stillaj a drop. See Still (2). 

Bistini^shy to mark off. (F.-L.) 
O. F. disttnguer, to distinguish ; the suffix 
'ish has been added by analogy, and cannot 
be accounted for ia. the usual way. --L. 
distinguere, to mark with a prick, dis- 
tinguish (pp. distin€ttis).^\a, di- (for dis\ 
apart; *stinguere (not in use), to prick, 
allied to Gk. ari(uv, to prick, and £. 
stick, vb. ' See Instigate. Brugm. i. § 666. 
dlStinot. (F.-L.) O.F. distinct,^ 
L. distinctus, distinguished ; pp. of dis- 

Distort. (L.) L. distortuSf pp. of 
dtstorquerCj to twist aside. —L. dis-, apart ; 
torquere, to twist ; see Tortare. 

DistractyVb. (L.) From h.distractus, 
pp. oi distrahere, to draw apart.— L. dis; 
arart ; trakere, to draw ; see Trace (i). 

XHstrain. (F.— L.) O. F. destreign-, 
a stem of destraindre^ to strain, press, vex 
extremely, constrain (hence to seize goods 
for debt).— L. disttingere, to pull asunder 
(see below). — L. di- (dis-) , apart ; stringere, 
to draw tight ; see Stringent. 

distress, calamity. (F.— L.) O.F. 
destresse, oldest form destrece ; from a 
Folk-L. *cUstrictia (not used), regularly 
formed fipom L. dtstrictus, pp. of distritp- 
gere, to pull asunder (in Late L. to punish, 
afflict) ; see Distrain. 

Distrauffht. (L.) A modification of 
district ( ^distracted) ; from L. distract-us ; 
see Distract. 

Distribute, to allot, deal out. (L.) 
From distribut-us, pp. of L. distribuere, 
to deal out, allot separately.— L. diS', 
apart ; tribuere, to assign ; see Tribute. 

District, a region. (F. — L.) M. F. 
district, — Late L, districtus, territory 
wherein a lord has power to enforce justice. 
— L. districtus f pp. of distringere \ see 

Disturb. (F.^L.) M.£. destorhen, 
distourhen^ — O. F. destorber, to vex. — L. 
disturbdre, to disturb. — L, dis-, apart ; 
turbdre, to disorder, from turba, a tumult, 
crowd. See Turbid. 

Ditch. (£.) M.E. dicAe; cf. A.S. 
dice, dat of die, fem. [also masc.], a dike ; 
see Dike. 

Ditliyramb, a kind ofhvmn. (L. — Gk.) 
L. ditAyrambus, mm Gk, Mvpa/ifiost a hymn 
in honour of Bacchus. 


Dittany, a plant. (F. - L. - Gk.) M.E. 
dytane, — O. F. ditan, dictam, — L. die- 
tamnum, ace. of dictamnus. — Gk. ficx- 
rafjLvos, tucraiofov, dittany ; named from 
Moimt Dicti in Crete, where it grew. 

Ditto. (Ital.~L.) Ital. dittOy detto, 
that which has been said.— L. dictum, 
neut. of pp. of dicere, to say. 

Ditl^. (F.-L.) M. E, ditee.^0. F. 
diti, a kind of poem. — L. dictdtum, a thing 
dictated ; neut. of dictdtus^ pp. of dictdre, 
frequent, of dicere ; see Dictate. 

DluretiCf provoking discharge of urine. 
(F.-L.-Gk.) lll,¥.diureHque] Coi.^!., 
diHreticus, ^Gk, SiovprjrtKos, '^ Gk, diov- 
p4fiVy to pass urine.— Gk. St-d, through; 
oZpov, urine ; see Urine. 

Diurnal. (L.) L. diumdlis, daily. — 
L. diumuSf daily. — L. dies, a day. 

Divan, a council-chamber, sofa. (Pers.) 
Pers. d^vdn, a tribunal ; Arab, ddywdn, a 
royal court, tribunal, council of state. 

iDivaricate, to fork, diverge. (L.) 
From pp. of L. aiudricdre, to spread apart. 
«iL. dt- (for dis-) J apart ; udricus, stradd- 
ling, from udrus, crooked. 

Dive. (E.) M.E. diuen, duuen (u=v), 
A. S. dyfan, to immerse, weak verb ; con- 
fused with dafan, strong verb (pt. t. deaf, 
pp. cbfen), to dive. •4- Icel. dffd, to dip. 
Allied to Dore, Deep, Dip. 

didapper« a bird. (E.) Short for dive- 
dapper, Cf. A. S. dafedoppa, a pelican.' 
Here dapper (=A.S. dcppd) means a 
dipper or diver; and dive-dapper ^dxwt- 
dipper, a reduplicated word. 

Diverge. (L.) Coined from L. di- (for 
dis-), apart; and verge, vb. See Verge 

Divers, Diverse, various. (F.-L.) 

O. F. divers, masc., diverse, fem., * divers, 
differing ; ' Cot. — L. diuersus, various ; 
orig. pp. of diuertere, to turn asunder, 
separate, divert (below). 

divert. (F. - L.) M. F. divertir, ' to 
divert, alter ; * Cot — L. diuertere, to 
turn aside.— L. dt- {dis-), apart; uertere, 
to turn. Der. divers-ion, from pp. 

Divest. (L.) Late L. diuesttre, in 
place of L. deuesttre, to strip off clothes. 
— L. di- (for oKr-), apart, substituted for 
L. de-, down, away ; uestire, to clothe, 
from uestis, clothing. See Vest. 

Divide. (L.) L. diuidere, to divide, 
separate (pp. diuisus),mmlj, di- {dis-), 
apart ; ana *uidere, a lost verb, prob. 




meaning < to separate ' ; see Widow. 
(VWIDH.) Brugm. i. § 589, ii. 528. 
Der. divis'ion (from the pp.). 

Bivine. (F.-L.) M. E. «&»?«. -O.F. 

devin, — L. dtutnuSy divine, god-like ; 
allied to dtuus, godlike, deus, god; see 

Bivorce, sb. (F.— L.) O.Y.dworce.^ 
L. dtttortium, a separation. — L. dJuorfere^ 
the same as diuertere, to turn aside, sepa- 
rate ; see Divert. 

Divulge. (F.— L.) Y. divulgturj^ to 
divulge, reveal ; * Cot. — L. dtuulgdre, to 
publish abroad. — L. di^^ for dis-^ apart; 
uulgdre^ to publish, from uulgus^ the 
people, a crowd ; see Vulgar. 

BI86II1 to deck out. (E.) To dizen was 
orig. to furnish a distaff with flax, hence 
to deck out. See Distaff. Der. be-dizen, 

BiSB7. (E.) M.E. dysy, dust. A.S. 
dysigy toolish, stupid. + E. Fries, dusig^ 
dizzy, foolish ; O. H. G. tustc. From 
Teut. *du5-t as in Low G. dusen^ to loiter 
(Lflbben) ; allied to Teut. V«j-, as in Du. 
duizeleny to be dizzy. Perhaps further 
allied to A.S. div&s^ Du. dioaas, foolish 
(Franck), from Teut. stem ^dwSts-, 

Bo, to perform. (E.) M. E. dwm, A. S. 
d5n^ pt. t. dyde^ pp. gedon ; the orig. sense 
is 'put' or * place.' 4- Du. daen^ O. H. G. 
tuon^ G. thun, Teut. stem ^do-. Allied 
to Gk. ri'Orf'fUf I put, Skt. dAd, to place. 
(VDHE.) Brugm. i. § 129. 

Bocile. (F.— L.) ¥. docile, ^lj,docilis, 
teachable. — L. docere^ to teach. Allied to 
Disciple and Didactio. 

doctor. (F.— L.) M.E. doctour.^ 
O. F. dbctaur.^'L, doctortmy ace. oi doctor , 
a teacher. — L. docere^ to teach. 

doctrine. (F.— L.) ¥. doctrine, ^1^ 
doctrina, lore, learning. — L. doctor, a 
teacher.— L. docere, to teach. 

doCTUUeilt. (F.— L.) F. document, 
^\^. docufftentunti a proof.— L. docere^ to 
teach, shew. 

Bock (i), to curtail. (E.?) From 
dock^ sb., the stump of a tail, stump, cut 
end. Cf. E. Fries, dokke, dok, a bundle, 
bunch (as of straw) ; Du. dok, a little 
bunch (of straw) ; Dan. dukke, a skein, 
short column, baluster ; G< docke, a skein, 
rail, plug, peg; Low G. dokke, a bunch, 
stump, peg (Berghaus). 

Bock (2), a plant. (E.) A. S. docce.-^ 
M. Du. docke (as in docken bladereny dock- 
leaves, Mexham) ; M. Dan. &'dokka, water- 
dock (Kalkar). So also Gael, dogha^ a 

burdock ; Irish meacan-dogha, a great bur- 
dock, where meacan means a tap-rooted 
plant, as a carrot. Der. bur-dock. 

Bock (3)} a basin for ships. (Du.?) 
M. Du. docke, a harbour (whence Dan. 
dokke, Swed. docka, G. docke) \ Du. dok, 
% History obscure. 

Bocketf a label, ticket. (E. ?) Orig. an 
abstract; apparently allied to Dock (1). 
% History obscure. 

Boctor, Boctrine, Bocnment; 

see Docile. 

Bodecagon. (Gk.) Named from its 
12 angles. Formed like decagon, with 
Gk. &i;de«o, twelve, instead of 8c«a, ten. 
See Decagon. 

Bodecahedron. (Gk.) Formed with 
Gk. &i;5€>ra, twelve, in place of Se^a, ten ; 
see Decahedron. 

BodgOf to go hither and thither, to 
quibble. (E.) XVI cent. Orig. to walk 
unsteadily, hence to go from side to side 
as if to escape ; perhaps allied to prov. £. 
cUtde, to walk unsteadily, Scotch doddle, 
doddle, to waddle, dod, to jog, dodge, to 
jog along, dodgel, to hobble. North E. 
dodder, to shake, totter, dculge, dodge, to 
walk clumsily. (Very doubtful.) 

BodO, an extinct bird. (Port.) Port. 
doudo, silly, foolish ; the bird being of a 
clumsy make. Said to be borrowed from 
Devonsh. dold, stupid, the same as E. dolt 
(Diez). See Dolt. 

Boe. (E.) M.E. fi^. A.S. ^.4-Dan. 
daa, Swed. dof-, in dofhjort, a buck, may 
be allied toG. damhirsch,VL\i\Mi^, wherein 
the syllable dam- is thought to be borrowed 
from L. ddma, a deer. But A. S. da may 
be Teutonic. 

Boff, to put off clothes. (E.) Short for 
do off, \,^, put off. Cf. don, dup. 

Bog. (E.) M. E. dogge, A. S. docga. 
(Du, dog^ Swed. dogg^ a mastiff; Dan. 
dogge, a bull-dog ; Low G. do^e, F. dogiie ; 
all borrowed from E.) Der. dog, verb, to 
track, follow as a dog ; dogg-ed, sullen ; 
dog-cheap, very cheap (see N. E. D.) ; 

Boge^ A duke of Venice. (Ilal. — L.) 
Ital. doge, prov. form of *doce, a duke. — L. 
duc-em, ace. of dux, a leader. See Duke. 

Boggerely wretched poetry. (E.?) 
M.E. dogerel, Ch. C. T. 13853. Origin 
uncertain ; but prob. formed from dog. 
Cf. dog-rime, poor verses (N. E. D.). 

Bogxna, a definite tenet. (Gk.) Gk. 
807/io, an opinion (stem So7/4aT-). — Gk. 




boKtojj I am of opinion. Allied to Do- 
cile. Der. dogmat-ic, dogtuat-ise. 

DoilYf a small napkin. (Personal name.) 
Fonneny we read of ^ doily stuff,' and 
' doily petticoats.' Said to be named after 
* the famous Doily ' ; Spectator, no. 283, 
Jan. 24, 1 71 2. Mentioned in Dryden's 
Kind Keeper, iv. i (1679). 

Doit, a small coin. (Da.— Scand.) Du. 

duit^ a doit. —Icel./z/^iV, a piece, bit, small 

coin, doit-ilcel. *hvUa (pt. t. *fvfit)y to 

cut, a lost verb, but the same as A.S. 

Jywitan ; see Thwite. 

DolOf a portion. (£.) M. E. dol^ dale, 
A. S. ddly a division (Exod. viii. 23). A 
variant of Deal (i), q.v. 

DolefU, sad. (Hybrid ; F. - L. and E.) 
The suffix 'ful is £. M. E. doel^ duel^ dol 
(Scotch doot)y sorrow, grief. —O.F. doel^ 
dol (F. dmU), grief; verbal sb. of O. F. 
doloir^ to grieve. — \a*dolium^\xi cor-doliumt 
grief of heart. —L. dolere, to grieve. 

dolour. (F. — L.) M. £. dolour, — 
O. F. dolour, ^L,, doloreniy ace oi dolor , 
grief. — L. doliret to grieve. 

Doll. (Gk.) From Doll, for Dorothy ; 
a familiar name, of Gk. origin (see 
N. £. D.). Cf. Lowl. Sc. doroty, a doll. 

Dollar. (LowG.— G.) \,o\i Q, daler\ 
Du. daalder, a dollar. Adapted and 
borrowed from G. thaler^ a dollar. The 
G. thaler is short iox Joachimsthaler, a 
coin made from silver found injoachims' 
thai (Joachim's dale) in Bohemia, ab. 
A.D. 1519. 

DolmULy a kind of loose jacket. (F. — 
G. - Hung. - Turk.) F. dolman, - G. dol- 
man^ dollman, mmHving. dolffiany. ^^TuTk. 
ddldman, ddldmeth^ a kind of long robe. 

Dolnon, a monument of two upright 
stonts, with a third across them. (F. — C.) 
F. dolmen. — Bret dohten, lit. ' stone- 
table ; ' Legonidec. — Bret, tol, taol^ a 
table (from L. tabula) ; and men, a stone ; 
according to Legonidec. But (see N. E D.) 
this is due to some mistake ; the F. 
dolmen seems to represent the Cornish 
tolmen, stone with a hole beneath ; from 
Com. toll, a hole (W. twU)^ and men 
(W. maen)y a stone. 

Dolomite, a kind of rock. (F.) 
Named in 1794 from M. Dolomieu, a 
French geologist (1750-1 801). 

Dolour ; see Doleftil. 

Dolphin, a 6sh. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. 
dolphtne,^0. F. daulphin (now dauphin). 
■- Folk-L. dalfinum^ for L* delphinum, 

ace of delphinus, a dolphin. -» Gk. dcX^.>>, 
stem of Sf \0<s, a dolphin. 

Dolt. (£.) Cf. Devonsh. dold, a dolt. 
M. E. dull {=^ dulled)', from M.E. dtil, 
dull ; see Dull. 

Domain. (F.— L.) F. domaine, sb. ; 
from O. F. demaine, adj., belonging to as 
one's own.— L. dominicus, adj., belonging 
to a lord (the neut. dominicum was used 
for L. dominium, lordship). — L. dominus, 
a lord; allied to L. domdre, to tame, 
subdue ; see Tame. Doublet, demesne. 

Dome. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. ddme,^ 
Ital. duomo, domo, a cathedral church 
(house of God). — L. domum, ace. of 
domus, a house, a building. (<^DEM.) 
See Timber. Brugm. i. § 138. 

domestic. (F. — L.) F. domestique, 
— L. domesticus, belonging to a household. 
— L. dom'Us, a house (above). 

domicilew (F.-L.) O. F. domicile, 
a ' mansion. — L. domicilium, a habitation. 
— L. domi', for domus, a house; and 
'Cilium, possibly allied to Cell. 

Domesday ; see Doom. 

Dominate. (L*) From pp. of domi- 
ndrt, to be lord over. — L. dominus, a 

domineer. (Du.~F.~L.) M. Du. 

domineren, to feast luxuriously (Oude- 
mans) ; borrowed from O. F. dominer, to 
govern, rule. — L. domindri,, to be lord 
over (above). 

dominical. (F.-L.) 0,¥, domini- 
cal, — Late L. dominicdlis, belonging to the 
Lord's day, or to the Lord. — L. dominie- 
us, belonging to a lord.— L. dominus, a 

dominion. (F. - Late L.) O. F. 
dominion. ^L&te L. dominionem, ace. of 
dominio, lordship; allied to L. domin- 
ium, lordship.— L. dominus (above\ 

domino. (£• — L-) E. domino, a 
masquerade-dress ; orig. a master's hood. 

— L. dominus, a master (above). Der. 
dotninoes, sb. pi., a game. 

Don (i)) to put on clothes. (E.) Short 
for do on, i.e. put on. Cf. doff, dout, 
dtip. • 

Don (a), a Spanish title. (Span.-L.y 
Span, don, sir. — L. dominum, ace. of 
dominus^ a lord. 

Donation. (F.— L.) F. donation. '- 
L. ace. ddndtidnem, a gift, from the stem 
of the pp. of dondre, to give. — L. donum, 
a gift. Cf. Gk. ^pov, a gift. 

So^Jon ; see Dungeon. 




Donkey. (C. and E.) Double dimin. 
with sufifix -k-ey ( = Lowl. Sc. -ick-icy as 
in hors'ickie, a little-little horse, BanfFsh.), 
from dun, familiar name for a horse, from 
its colour (Romeo, i. 4. 41); see Dun (i). 
% So also M.£. don-eky prov. £. dunnock, 
a hedge-sparrow, from its colour. Donkey 
(first found in 1 785) was a prov. E. word, 
which seems to have rimed with monkey 
(whence the spelling). Cf. Somersets. 
duung'kee, pron. of donkey. 

Donna. (Ital.-L.) Ital. donna. — h, 
domina, mistress, fern, of dominus, a 
master. Doublet, duenna. 

Doom, a judgment, decision. (£.) 
M. E. dom, A. S. dom, lit. a thing set or 
decided on ; from don, to set, do; see Do. 
+ Swed. Dan. dom, Icel. domr^ Goth. 
domsy O. H. G. tuoni, Teut. type *ddmosi, 
a statute. Cf. Gk. Oiiws, law (from riBrj/Uy 
I set). Der. deem, 

doomsday, domesday. (E.) A.S. 

domes dag, day of doom or judgment. 

Door, a gate. (E) M. E. dore, dure. 
A. S. dor, n. ; duru, f. + O. Sax. dor, Goth. 
dour, G. thor, n. ; and Icel. dyrr, f. pi. ; 
Dan. dor, Swed. dorr, Du. deur, G. thiir, 
f. sing. Teut types *durom, n. ; *dures, f. 
pi. Cf. L. fores, Lith. durys^ i. pi. ; O. 
Irish dorus, n., W. drws, m.; Russ. dver{e), 
Gk. Ovpa, Skt. dvdr, f. Brugm. i. § 462. 

Dormant, sleeping. (F.-L.) Y.dor^ 
mant, pres. pt. of dormir, to sleep. ^L. 
dormtre, to sleep. + Skt. drd, to sleep ; 
Gk. dap9dv€iv, 

dormer-window. (F. and Scand.) 
A dormer was a sleeping-room. — O. F. 
dormeor,'^'L, dormltdrium (below). 

dormitonr- (L.) L. dormltdrium, a 
sleeping-chamber ; neut. of dormitdrius, 
adj., belonging to sleeping. —L. dormitory 
a sleeper. — L. dormtre, to sleep. 

Dormouse. (F. and E.) M. £. dor' 
mous. The prefix is perhaps short for 
North £. dortn, to doze (whence dorm^ 
mouse), Cf. Icel., Norw., and Swed. dial. 
dorma, to doze; all apparently from F. 
dormir, to' sleep ; see Dormant. We find 
also prov. E. dorjrer, a sleeper, as if from 
dor, to sleep. 

DomiclE, a kind of cloth; obsolete, 
(Flemish.) Named from Flem. Domick, 
better known by the F. name of Toumay 
(Lat. Tomacus), 

DorsaL (F.— L.) F. r^^o/, belonging 
to the back. — Late L. dorsdlis. — 'L, dor- 
sum, the back. 

Dory, a fish ; see John Dory. 

Dose. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. dose, a 
quantity of medicine given at once. — 
Med. L. dosis, ''Gk, 8<5<rts, a giving. —Gk. 
^Bcjfu (stems Bej-, do-), I give. Brugm. i. 
§ 167.' 

Dot. (£.) A. S. dott, only in the sense 
* head of a boil.' Cf. Du. dot, a little bundle 
of spoilt wool, &c. , goodfor nothing (Sewel) ; 
Swed. dial, dotty a little heap, small lump; 
M. Dan. dot, a bunch ; £. Fries, dot, dotte, 
a heap, bunch, lump. Cf. Norw. dotten, 
pp. of detta, to fall, to fall to pieces. 

Dote. (£.) M. E. dotien, doten, to be 
foolish (Layamon).+ M. Du. doten, to 
dote, mope; Du. dutten, to doze; Icel. 
dotta, to nod with sleep, M. H. G,getotzen, 
to doze, tazen, to mope. 

dotage. (E. ; with F. sujjix,) M. E. 
dotage ; from M. £. dot-en ; with F. suffix 
-age (L. 'dticuni), Cf. F. radotage, from 
radoter, to dote. 

dotard. (E. with F. suffix,) From 
dote, with F. suffix -ard (O. H. G. kart), 

dotterel, a kind of plover. (E.) A ' 
bird easily caught; from dote, vb., with 
suffix as in cock-erel. 

Donble. (F.-L.) O. F. doble, later 
double, — L. duplus, lit. twice-full. — L. 
du'O, two ; -plus, allied to plinus, full. 

doublet. (F.-L.) M.E. dobbelet,- 
O. F. doublet, an inner (double) garment. 
— F. double, double; with.suffix -et, 

doubloon. (F.— Span.— L.) F. dou- 
blon,^SpsLa, doblon, a coin, the double of 
a pistole. — Span, doblo, double. — L. du- 
plus (above). 

doubt. (F. — L.) M. £. douten.— 
O. F. douter, — L. dubitdrey to be- of two 
minds; allied to dubius, doubtful; see 

Douceur. (F.— L.) F. douceur, lit. 
sweetness (hence, pleasant gift). — L. dul- 
corem, ace. oidulcor, sweetness. — L. dulcis, 
sweet. See Dulcet. 
Douche, a shower-bath. (F.— Ital.— 
L.) F. douche, a shower-bath. — Ital. 
doccia, a conduit, water-pipe. — Ital. docci- 
are, to pour; equivalent to Late Lat. 
*ductidre, derivative of L. ductus, a duct ; 
see Duct. 

Dough. (E.) M. E. dah, dogh, A. S. 
ddh (stem ddg-'),^T>VL, deeg, Dan. deig, 
^^td.deg, Icel. deig, Go\}i,daigs, a kneaded 
lump, G. teig. The Goth, daigs is from 
daig, 2nd stem of deigan, to knead; see 
Dike. (-/DHEIGH.) Brugm. i. § 604. 



Doughty. (£.) M.E. dohti, duhti, 
valiant. A. S. doktig^ earlier form dyhtig^ 
valiant. — A. S. dugatiy to be worth, be 
strong.-f Dan. dygtig, Swed. dugtigy Icel. 
dvgdugr yG. tUchtig\ variously formed from 
the Tent, verb *dugan: 

Douse, to immerse. (£.?) Allied to 
M. Du. aoeseny 'to smite with violence* 
(Hexham). See Dowse (i). 

Dout, to extinguish. (£.) Short for do 
outy i. e. put out. 

DovOy a bird. (£.) A. S. dufe, only 
in comp. dtife-dopfay lit. a diver. — A. S. 
dufan^ to plunge into. + O. Sax. duiHiy 
Goth, duboy G. tcuibCy a dove, lit. diver. 
[So also L. columhay a dove, is allied to 
Gk. KoKvfxfiis, a diver, sea-bird. First 
applied to sea-gulls, &c.] 

dOTOtail, to. fasten boards together. 
(K.) From dove and taii; from the shape 
of the fitted ends of the board (C]). 

Dowager, a widow with a jointure. 
(F.— L.) O.F,dinu^ere; from douagfy 
an endowment. Again douage is coined 
(with suffix -age) from F. dou-ery to endow. 
-•L. dS^a/v, to endow.— L. dot-y stem of 
dos^ a gift, dowry« Allied to do-nuMy a 
gift, darey to give. Der. en-doWy from 
F. en and dauer» Brugm. i. § 167. 

dower, an endowment. (F. — L.) 
M. E. dawere.mmO, F. doaire^ later douaire, 
—Late L. ddtdrium,^'L, doiarCyio endow 
(above). Der. dowr-yy short for dower-y. 

Dowdy; see Duds. 

Dowlas, a coarse linen. (Bret.) From 
Daotdasy S. £• of Brest, in Brittany. 

Down (i), soft plumage. (Scand.) 
M. £. down* ■- Icel. diinny Swed. duUy 
Dan. duufiy down ; whence Dn. dons. 

Down (3), a hill. (C.) A.S. dun, a 
hill. — Irish diiny a fortified hill, fort ; 
Gael, duny W. din, a hUl-fort. + A. S. 
iiin ; see Town. 

down (3), prep, and adv. (£. and C.) 
A corruption of adown^K, S. ofdune^on 
the hill, downwards. — A. S. of, off; dune, 
dat. of dun, a hill ; see Down (2). 

dune, a low sand-hill. (C.) XVIII 
cent. — F. dune, — M. Du. dune (Du. 
duin); of Celt, origin. See Down (a). 

Dowse (1), to strike in the face. 
(£.?) Apparently the same as Douae 
(above). Cf. Norw. dus, a push, blow ; 
M. Du. doesen, to strike, £. Fries, dossen, 
to strike. 

Dowse (3), to immerse; see Douse. 
Prob. the same as Dowse (1). 


DOD^se (3), to extinguish. The same 
as Dowse (i) ;, sense perhaps suggested 
hydouty q. v, 

Dozology. (L.-Gk.) L. doxologta, 

— Gk. dof 0X07/0, an ascription of praise. 

— Gk. ^(o-y for W^a, glory, orig. a 
notion ; -A.0710, from \iy€iv, to speak. 

Dozy. (M. Du.) A cant term. Cf. 
£. Fries, doktje, dimin. of dokke, a doll. 
Prob. introduced from the Netherlands. — 
M. Du. docke, a doll. Cf. O. H. G. toccha, 
a doll, also a term of endearment (G. 

Dose. (Scand.) Swed. dial, dusa, Dan. 
dose, to doze, mope ; Icel. dusa, to doze ; 
M. Dan. dhse, to be torpid. Allied to 

Dosen, twelve. (F.~L.) O. F. do- 
saine (F. douzaine) , a dozen . — O. F . doze (F. 
douze)y twelve; with suffix -aine (L. -ena, 
as in cent-ena),^L, duodecimy twelve. — L. 
duo, two ; deceniy ten. See Two and Ten. 

Drab (i), a slut. (£.) Cf. Irish ^Tra^^^, 
Gael, drabagy a slut; Gael, drabach, dirty ; 
Irish draby a spot, stain (all from £.). £. 
Fries, drabbe, puddle-water. Also Du. 
drabbe, f. dregs, draff; allied to Draff. 

Drab (2), dull light brown. (F.-L.) 
The colour of undyed cloth. — F. drapy 
cloth. See Drape. 

Draelun; see Dram. 

Draff, dregs. (E.) M. £. draf (Laya- 
mon).<4-Du. drafy hogswash, drably draff; 
Icel. drafy Sw^d. drafy Dan. draVy dreps ; 
G. trdbery pi. [Cf. Gael, and Irish drabh, 
draff, from £.] 

Draft ; see Draught. 

Drag, vb. (Scand.) M. £. draggen ; a 
Northern form allied to Icel. draga, to 
draw. Cf. Swed. draggy a drag, grapnel ; 
draggay to drag. See Draw. 

Dragoman, an interpreter. (Span.— 

Arab.) Span, dragoman; [Late Gk. Zpa- 

Tov/MvofJ, an interpreter. — Arab, tar^ 

jumSn, an interpreter, translator; see 


Dragon. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. dragon, 
— L. ace draconem, from nom. draco. ^ 
Gk. ZpoKoiVy a dragon, lit. ' seeing ; ' from 
his supposed sharp sight. — Gk. hfiOK-, 
weak grade of dipnofuu, I see. % Such is 
the usual account. 

dragoon. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. dragon, 
a dragoon ; so called because the dragoons 
orig. had a dragon on their standard ; or 
rather, because they were armed with a 
short carbine called (in F.) dragon* 



Drain. (E.) A. S. drihnigean^ drlh- 
niafty to drain away, strain off, Matt, 
xxiii. 24, also spelt driahnian ; orig. * to 
become dry.* — A. S. *driag' = Tent. 
*draug-t second grade of Teut. *dreug-an-t 
to be dry. Cf. Icel. draugr^ a dry log. 
See Dry. 

Drake, male of the duck. (L.— Gk.?) 
M. £. drake* Not foond in A. S. ; cf. 
drake, a drake, in Low G. (Bremen) ; 
M. Swed. drake, (i) a dragon, (2) a drake, 
(3) a boy*s kite. Supposed to correspond 
to the latter part of Swed. and-draRet a 
drake (a form thought to be borrowed from 
Low G.). Cf. Swed. and, duck, anddrake, 
drake ; Low G. anderik^ drake (Liibben) ; 
G. entey duck; enterich, drake; O. H. G. 
antrahho, a drake, p. The Swed . and, A. S. 
enedy a duck, is cognate with L. ancu 
(stem anat-), a duck. The M. E. drake 
may be the same as A. S. draca, a dragon, 
borrowed from L. draco ; see Dragon. 

Dtem, Drachm. (F. > L. - Gk.) 

M. F. dranie, drachme, *a dram, eighth 
part of an ounce ; ' Got. « L. drachma, — 
Gk. dpaxtt'if & handful, a drachma, used 
both as weight and coin ; cf. dpAy/jiaf as 
much as one can grasp. — Gk. bpd<r<rofmt, I 
grasp. Brugm. i. § 509. 

Drama. (L.-Gk.) L. drama,^ Gk» 
Spa/ia (stem Spci/iar-), an act, a drama.— 
Gk. Spdca, I perform; cf. Lith. darau, I 
make. (-^DAR.) Der. dramat-ic (from 
BpafuiT') ; &c. 

drastic, effective. (Gk.) Gk. Upoff- 
riKQS, effective; allied to hpaarios, verbal 
adj. of hp&cjy I perform. 

Drape, to cover with cloth. (F.-L.) 
F. draper, to make cloth. — F. drop, cloth ; 
Late L. drappus. Of unknown origin. 
Der. drap-er, drap-er-y\ and see drah (2). 

Drasl^c ; see Dramia. 

Draw. (£.) M. E. drawen, A. S. 
dragan (A. S. ^aga- becoming M.E. -awe-^, 
+ Du. dragetiy Icel. Swed. draga, Dan. 
drage, Goth, dragan, G. tragen, to pull 
along, carry. Teut. type ^dragan-, pt. t. 

draught, draft. (E.) Draft is a 

phonetic spelling. M. E. draught, draht. 
From A. S. drag^un; with suffixed /.+ 
Du. dragt, a load, from dragen, to carry ; 
Dan. drat\ Icel. drCUtr, a draught of 
fishes ; G. trcuht^ a load, from tragen. 

drawl. (Du.) Frequentative of ^raw; 
parallel to draggle from drag. Introduced 
from Du. drdien, to be slow ; from dragen, 


to draw. 4- E. Fries, draulen ; Low G. 

dray. (E.) A.S. drage, that which is 
drawn ; as in drage , drag-net, a draw-net. 
+Swed. drag, a sledge, dray. 

Dread, vb. (£.) A. S. *dradan, in 
comp. on-drddan, to dread, fear.-^O. Sax. 
ant-drddan ; O. H. G. in-tratan. Teut. 
type *drddan; 

Dream, a vision. (E.) M. E. dreem, 
A. S. *dream, a dream ; not found. [Quite 
distinct from K,S,dream, asweet sound, har- 
mony, also joy, glee, happiness.] «f>0. Sax. 
drdm, dream ; Du. droom, Icel. draumr, 
Dan. Swed. ^mn,G./m»m. Kluge suggests 
comparison with G. trug-bild, a phantom ; 
if correct, the Teut. sb. was *draugmoz, 
m. ; from Teut. *draug, strong* grade of 
Teut. *dreugan- (O. H. G. triogan, G. 
triigen), to deceive. From the Idg. root 
*dhreugk, whence also Skt. drdgha{s), a 
crafty wounding; O. Pers. drauga (Pers. 
durugh), a deceit, lie ; Icel. draugr, a 
ghost. Brugm. i. §§ 681, 689. 

Dreary, Drear. (E.) /^r^/- is short 

{qx dreary, M.,E.drefy. A.S.dredrtg,Md; 
orig. * gory ; * formed with suffix -ig from 
A.S. dreor, gore. —A. S. dreosan, to drip. 
+Icel. dreyrigr, gory, from dreyri, gore ; 
G. traurig, sad, orig. gory, from O. H. G. 
tror, gore. From Teut ^dreusan-, vb. 

Dredge (0, a drag-net. (E.) North £. 
dreg. Answering to A. S. *drecg, *drecge 
(not found), for *drag-j(h', from A.S. 
dragan ; see Draw. And see Dregs. 

Diredge (3)1 to sprinkle flour on meat. 
(F. - Late L. - Gk.) To dredge is to 
sprinkle, as in sowing dredge (M: £. drage^ 
or mixed corn. — O. F. dragie, mixed 
com ; also a sweetmeat, sugar-plum. 
[Prov. dragea', Ital. treggea, a sngar-plum.] 

— Late L. dragdta, drageia, a sugar-plum ; 
altered form of tragemctta, pi. of tragema, 

— Gk. rpdyrf/ia, something nice to eat — 
Gk. Tparyeiv (2 aor. irpayov), to gnaw. 

Dregs, lees. (Scand.) Pi. of M. E. 
dreg, mire ; we also find M. £. dregges, 
dregs. — Icel. dregg, pi. dreggjar, dregs ; 
Swed. drdgg, pi. dregs, lees. Perhaps 
from Icel. drag-a, to draw. Distinct from 
'L^fraces, dregs of oil ; Brugm. i. § 41 7. 

Drench, vb. (E.) M. £. drenchen, 
A. S. drencan, causal of drincan ; hence 

'to make drink.' +I^u*^^^'^^^» Icel. drek- 
kja, Swed. drdnka, Goth, dragkjan, G. 
trdnken. See Drink. 
Dress. (F. - L.) O. F. dresser, drescer,. 



to eiecty set up, dress ;. answering to a Late 
L. form *dtrectidre,'m'L, directus, pp. of 
dttigtre, to direct ; see Direct. 

Uribble- (£•) Frequentative of obs. 
£. dribf to drip slightly; which is a 
weakened form of drip. Cf. drib-let. See 
Drip. So also Dan. dial, dribie, 

IMft; see Drive. 

Dzill (i), to pierce, to train soldiers. 
(Du.) Borrowed from Du. drillen^ to drill, 
to bore, to turn round, shake, brandish, 
drill soldiers, form to arms. Allied to 
M. H. G. drellen, to turn round (pp. ge- 
drollen). Low G. drally twisted tight. 
Teut. t^ *threlian- (pt. t. *thrall), to 
twist ; cf. A. S. Pearly strict. ^ Perhaps 
allied to ThriU. 

IDrill (a), to sow com in rows. (£.) 
The same as drillj to trickle, which seems 
to be a variant of trill, to trickle. 

2>ril]illff| a coarse cloth used for 
trousers. (G.— L.) Corrupted from G. 
drillicht ticking, huckaback. — L. trilic-^ 
stem of triliXy having three threads. — L. 
tri'y from tres, three; Itcium, a thread. 
See Three. 

Drink. (£.) A.S. drincan, pt. t. dranc, 
pp. druncen.'^'Dxi.. drinken, Icel. drekka, 
Swed. dricka, Dan. drikke, Goth, drigkan 
( = drinkan) , G. trinken. Teut. ^drenkan-. 

Drip. (Scand.) M. £. £fr|^^». — Dan. 
dryppCy to drip ( = Teut. *drup-jan-)» 
From Teut. ^drup-^ weak grade of *dreu- 
pan-y as seen in Icel. drjUpa, to drip, A. S. 
dreopan (obs. E. dreep)y G. triefen. Cf. 
O. Ir. truchty a dew-drop. See Drop. 

Drive. (£-) M. £. ^nW». A,S. dri/an 
(pt. t. drd/, pp. dri/en).^!)}!. dri/ven; 
Icel. drifa, Swed. dri/va, Dan. drive, Goth. 
dreibaftj G. treiben, Teut. *dreiban-, 

drift. (E.) M. £. drift. Formed from 
drif'^ weak grade of drifan ; with sufl&x -t, 
+ Du. drifty Icel. drift, Swed. Dan. drifts 
G. trift, Der. a-drift =■ on the drift ; see 

A- (2). 

drove. (£.) M. E. drof, A. S. drdfy 
a drove. From drdf, 2nd grade of drifan, 

DrivelyVb. (£.) M,E. drevelen. A. S. 
dreftiatty to dribble or rmi at the nose. 
Cf. M. £. draveleuy to drivel. From the 
base draft as in M. £. draf, draff. See 

DriBSle« to rain slightly. (£.) For- 
merly drisd or drislCy to keep- on dripping. 
Frequent, form of M. £. dresen, A. S. 
dreosauy to drip ; see Dreary. Cf. Dan. 
drysse, to fall in drops ; Swed. dial drbsla. 


Droll. (F.-Du.) M.F.fl&t»/tf,*a plea- 
sant wag ; ' Cot. — Du. drollig, odd, strange ; 
M. Du. droly * a juglar ; ' Hexham. Per- 
haps from Du. droU-y pp. stem of drilletty 
to turn, wheel, whirl about ; see Drill (i). 

Dromedarv-. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. E. 

dromedarie. — O. F. dromedaire (older form 
*dromedarie) . — Late L. dramaddrius, ■■ L. 
droniad'y stem of dromas, a dromedary, -i 
Gk. hpoytah-y stem of tpopast fast running. 

— Gk. Spa/ico', to run.4'Skt. dram,io run. 

Drone ( I ), to hum. (£.) "M.E. dronen 
(also drounen). Not in A. S. Cf. Icel. 
drynjay Swed. dronay Dan. drdncy to drone, 
roar, rumble, &c. Cf. Goth, drunjusy a 
sound, Gk. Bpijyos, a dirge; Skt. d^ra^, 
to sound. 

Drone (2), a non-working bee. (Low 
G.) M. E. dran. A. S. drdn ; which (like 
£. Fries, drdne) was prob. borrowed from 
O. Sax. drdn, Cf. M. H. G. treno (G. 
drohne being borrowed from Low G.). 
Teut. stems *drStn-y *dren'\ cf. Gk.'dy- 
Bpiivq^ a wild-bee, OpSjva^ (Hesychius). 
% With the parallel stems Vr.£^-, *dren-y 
cf. the stems of Queen and Quean. 

Droop ; see below. 

Drop, sb. (E.) M.E. dropCy ^h.'y hence 
dropieny dro^n, vb. — A. S. dropay sb. ; 
dropiany vb. These are from the weak 
grade *drup- (A.S. drop-) of the Teut. 
vb. *dreupan- (A. S. dreopan)y to drop, 
drip.+Du. drcpt sb., Icel. dropiy Swed. 
droppCy Dan. draabe, G. tropfen. See also 

droopf to sink, fail. (Scand.) M. £. 
droupen,^\<cx\, drUpOy to droop; weak 
vb., allied to drjQpay strong vb., to drip= 
Teut. *dreupan' (whence also G. triefen) ; 
see above. Cf. ' I am ready to drop, i. e. 
I droop. 

DropSV ; see Hydropsy. 

Drosh&yi Dros]nr,akind of carriage. 
(Russ.) Russ. drozhki, drojkiy a low four- 
wheeled carriage (the j sounded as in 
French). Dimin. of drogiy a waggon ; 
which was orig. pi. of droga^ a perch (of 
a carriage). 

Dross. (£.) M. E. dros. A. S. drosy 
dross, dregs ; cf. also obs. £. droseuy A. S. 
drosnay pi., lees, dregs. + M. Du. droesy 
lees (Kilian) ; Du. droeseniy dregs, lees, 
G. drusen, pi. dregs ; O. H. G. trusana, 
truosanuy husks of pressed grapes. 

Drought, Drouth; see Dry. 

Drove ; see Drive. 

Drown. (Scand.) M. E. drouneny dru' 



tun.^'M., Dan. drukney drougnej drovne, 
drongf to sink, be drowned (Kalkar) ; Icel. 
drukna. The -nkn- was preserved in Swed. 
drunknaj A. S. druncnian, to be drunk, 
also to sink, to be drowned. See Drun- 
ken. (£. Bjorkman.) 

Drowse, Drowse, to be sluggish. 

(E.) Formerly drouse, A. S. driisian, to 
be sluggish ; allied to A. S. dreosan, to 
fail ; also to drip, to fall. See "DTedoj' 
Der. drowz-y. 

Drab, to beat (Arab.?) * Drub, to 
beat the soles of the feet with a stick, a 
punishment used in Turkey;' (Phillips). 
Apparently a travellers* word. Perhaps 
from Arab. 4^rb (zard), a beating with a 
stick ; from Arab, root daraba {zarabd) , 
he beat ; Rich. Diet. p. 952. (N. E. D.) 

Drudge, vb. (E.) M.E. druggm, 
A. S. ^drycgean, not found ; but regularly 
formed from drug-y weak grade of dreogan^ 
to work, perform, endure (=Teut. ^dreu- 
gan-y Goth, driugan, Lowl. Sc. dree). Qi. 
Jcel. drjug'Virkr, one who works slowly 
but surely. The Gael, drugair, a drudge, 
is from £. 

Drag. (F.) M.E. drogge, drugge.^ 
O. F. arogiie^ a drug. Also Ital. and Span. 
droga. Origin unknown ; perhaps Ori- 
ental, Der. drugg'ist. 

Dragget. (F.) M.F. fi&v^«/, 'akmd 
of stufffliat's half silk, half wool ; ' Cot. 
Dimin. of drogue, used in the sense of 
rubbish, poor stuff; from the coarseness 
of the material; cf. £. 'a drug in the 
market.* •![ Probably not the same word 
as F. drogue, a drug. 

Draid, a priest of the ancient Britons. 
(F. - L. - C.) F. Druide. - L. (Gaulish) 
pi. Druides, Druidae (Lewis and Short). 
Cf. O. Irish druid, dat. and ace. of drui, 
a magician, sorcerer; Ir. draoi, druidh, 
Gael, druidh (whence also A. S. dry, a 

Dram. (Du.) XVI cent. Imperfectly 
adapted from M. Du. tromme, trommel^ a 
drum; Low G. irumme; Du. trom,'^ 
O. H. G. trumbd, trumpd, M. H. G. 
trumme, a pipe, trumpet ; Icel. trumba, 
a pipe, trumpet [So also Ital. tromba. 
Span, trompa?^ Of imitative origin. 

Drunkard. (E. ; with F. suffix>j 

From A. S. drunc-, base of pp. oidrincan, 
to drink ; with F. suffix -ard (G. hart), 

drunken, drank. (E.) A. S. dnm- 

cen, pp. of drincan, to drink. 
D^TUpe, a fleshy fruit containing a stone. 


(F. ^ L. — Gk.) F. drupe, — L. drupa, an 
over-ripe olive. — Gk. Sp&mnL, the same. 

Dry. (E.) M,E.dru)e. A,S.dryge, 
Cf. Du. droogy dry; G. trocken, dry; 
Icel. draugr, a dry log. 

drongnt. (E.) M. E. dro^e, drou^te ; 
also drouthe (P. Plowman). A. S. drtlgad, 
drought. —A. S. drugian, to be dry ; dryge, 
dry.+Du. droogte, drought; from droog, 
dry. Doublet, drouth (Milton). 

Dryad, a nymph of the woods. (L. — 
Gk.) L. Dryad', stem of Dryas, a wood- 
nymph. «Gk. 5/n;a8-, stem of hpvas, the 
same. — Gk. 5pG-f, a tree ; see Tree. 

Dual, consisting of two. (L.) L. dualis, 
dual. — L. duo, two ; see Two. 

Dub, to confer knighthood by a stroke. 
(F.) M.E. dubben. A.S.dubban; A.S. 
Chron. an. 1086. [So also Swed. dubba.'] 
Usually derived from O. F. aduber, adou- 
ber, adober, to dub a knight ; a Romanic 
word of unknown origin (Ital. addobbare, 
O. Span, and Prov. adoSir, O. Port, adubar), 
% Diez derives adouber, conversely, from 
dubban; which is haidly tenable; see 
N. E. D. 

Dubious. (L.) From L. dubiosus, 
doubtful. —L. dubium, doubt; neuter of 
L. dubius, doubtful, moving in two direc- 
tions.— L. dU'O, two. See Two. 

Dncal. (F.-L.) F. ducal, adj. ; from 
due, a duke ; see Duke. 

ducat, a coin. (F.— Ital.— L.) O.F. 
ducai. — Ital. ducato, a ducat, also a duchy ; 
named from L. ducdtus (duchy of Apulia) 
alluded to in the legend upon it; see 
duohy below. 

duchess. (F.— L.) O.F. duchesse 
(Late L. ducissa), fem. of due, duke ; see 

duchy. ( F. — L.) F. duch^, — Late L. 
ducdtum, ace. of ducdtus, a dukedom. — 
L. duc'^ stem of dux, a duke. ^Also 
O. F. duch4e, fem., as if from Late L. 

Dack (i), to dive, bob the head. (£.) 
yi,E,duken, douken. Not in A. S.4-Du« 
duiken, to stoop, dive ; G. tauchen, to 
plunge, dive. Teut. type *deukan', pt. t. 
*dauk (whence G./a«fA-tf»), pp,*duh'afW', 
From the weak grade duk- we have Dan. 
dukhe, Swed. dyha ; to which the shorten- 
ing of the vowel in mod. E. duch may have 
been partly due. 

duck (2), bird. (E.) M.E. dohe, 
duke. Lit. * diver ; * the suffix -e repre- 
sents the A. S. f. suffix of the agent. A. S. 



diUey a duck. From the verb above. 
Cf. Dan dukandj lit. ' diving duck ; ' 
Swed. dykflgelf 'diving fowl? Dor. 
duck-l-ingy with double dimin. suffix. 

Ihick (3), a pet, darling. (E.) Appa- 
rently the same as Duok (2). 

I>ack (4)» light canvas. (Du.) A nauti- 
cal word.— Du. doekf linen cloth, canvas. 
4-Dan. dug, Swed. duk^ Icel. dukry G. 
ttuk, O. H. G. tuoh, 

IHlOty a conduit-pipe. (L.) L. ductus, 
a leading (hence, a duct).— L. ductus ^ pp. 
of ducere^ to lead. See Duke. 

ductue. (F.— L.) F. ductile y malle- 
able.— L. ductilis, easily led. — L. duct-us, 
pp. of ducere (above). 

bade* an exquisite, a dandy. Of un- 
known origin. (Ab. 1883.) 

Ihldgeon (i)y resentment. Of unknown 

Ihldgeon (a), haft of a dagger. (Un- 
known!) M. £. dogeoHy a kind of wood 
used for the handles of daggers. £tym. 

DudSf clothes. (Scand.) Jamieson has 
dudis as well as duds ; the u was prob. 
once long. — Icel. duH^ swaddling clothes ; 
dufiay to wrap up. Cf. £. do^od^ a woman-s 
cap, a slut ; dowd-y^ ill-dressed. 

Bne. (F.— L.) M. £. dew, dewe.^ 
O. F. deu, masc., dme^ fem. ; pp. of de- 
vair, to 0X76,^1,, deiere. See Devoir. 

DoeL (Ital.-L.) lUl. du€il0, a duel. 
— L. duellum, a fight between two men 
(archaic form of L. bellum^ war). — L. du^o^ 

duet. (Ital.— L.) Ital. duetto, music 
for two.— Ital. due, two.— L. duo, two. 

Pnennft. (Span.— L.) Span. dueHa, 
a married lady, duenna.- L. ebmina, fem. 
of dominus, a lord. See Donna. 

Duet : see Duel. 

Dnifely coarse woollen cloth. (Du.) 
Du. duffel) so called from Duffel, a place 
near Antwerp. 

Duffer, a stupid person. (Scand.) 
Lowl Sc. dowfartt formed with suffix -art 
from the adj. dowf, stupid, dull ; lit. 'deaf.' 
— Icel. dauf-r, deaf; see Deaf. 

Dug, a teat. (Scand.) Perhaps allied 
to Swed. ddgga, Dan dagge, to suckle. 
Cf. Goth, daddjan, O. H.G. taan, to 
suckle. % But cf. Skt. duh, to milk. 

Dugong, a sea-cow. (Malay.) Malay 
duvongy duyong, a sea-cow. 

Dnko, a leader. (F.— L.) M.£. ^i#^.— 
O. F. due, ace. formed from O. F. nom. 


dTfcx.- L. duxy a leader.— L. ducere ^ to 
lead. (VDEUK.) ^ The L. aoc. dTK^^m 
would have given O. F. dois, F. doix\ 
like F. noix from nucem, croix from 
crucem. (N. £. D.) Brugm. i. $ 59a. 

Dnlcet, sweet. (F.-L.) M. F. doucet 
(Cot), refashioned after L. dulcis (cf. 
Itol. dolcetto). - O. F. dots (F. doux), 
sweet.— L. dulcis, sweet. 

dnldmer. (F.-Span.-L.) Roque- 
fort has F. doulcemer (undated) ; cf. 
O.F. doulcemele (Godefrov).— Span, dulce- 
mele, a dulcimer ; named from its sweet 
sound. — L. dulce melos, sweet sound ; see 

Doll, stupid. (£.) M. £. dtU ; cognate 
with Low G. dull\ answering to Teut. 
*dul'joz. Closely allied to A. S. dol, 
foolish, cognate with Du. dot, mad, G. toll, 
mad, answering to Teut. *dul'Oz. Both 
are from Teut. *dul* {<*dwul)^ weak 
grade of ^dwel-an, as seen in A. S. dwelan, 
to err, to be stupid ; see Dwell. Cf. A.S. 
gedwol-god, a false god, idol ; Irish and W. 
doll, blind. Brugm. i. % 375 (6\ 

Dulse, an edible seaweed. (C.) Irish 
duileasg, Gael, duileasg, dulse. According 
to Macleod, it means * water-leaf,* from 
Ir. and Gael, duille, leaf, and uisg{e), 

Dumb. (£.) M.£. ddmd, A.S. dumb, 
mute. 4* I^Q* dofUf Icel. dumbr, Swed. 
dumb, Dan. dum, Goth, dumbs, G. dumm, 
O. H. G. tumb, tump, stupid. The orig. 
sense seems to have been 'stupid,' and 
perhaps Goth, dumbs is allied to Goth. 
daubs, deaf; see Deaf. Der. dummy 

Dump (i)) &n ill-shapen piece. (£.?) 
Prov. £. dump, a clumsy lump, a bit ; 
dumpy, short and thick. Probably * a thing 
thrown down in a mass* ; see Dump (a). 
dTUnpling, a kind of pudding. (E. ?) 
A small solid ball of pudding ; dump-l-ing 
is a double dimin. oidump (i). 

Duinp (a) I to strike, fling down. 
(Scand. ?) Cf. Lowl. Sc. dump, to beat. 
Dan. dumpe, to plump, plunge; Norw. 
dumpa\ Swed. dial. <i^/a.— Swed. dial. 
dump-, as in dump-id, supine of str. vb. 
dimpa, to fall down plump. 

Diuups, melancholy. (Scand.) Swed. 
dial, dumpin, melancholy, orig. pp. of 
dimba, to steam, reek ; Dan. dump, dull, 
low.+Du. domp, damp, hazy, G. dump/, 
damp, dull. Allied to Damp ; cf. * to 
damp one's spirits.* 




Dim (i)> brown. (C.) A,S.dunn,6axk. 
-i Irish and Gael, dtmni brown; W. dwn, 
dun, dusky. Celtic type *donnos. 

Dim (2), to urge for payment. (Scand.) 
Said (in 1708) to be derived from the 
name oi Joe Dun, a famous bailiff in the 
time of Henry VII. But perhaps from 
the notion of noisiness. Cf. M. £. dunning'^ 
a loud noise. — Icel. duna^ to thunder; 
koma einum dynfyrir dyrr, to make a din 
before one*s door ; Swed. dhna, to make a 
noise. Allied to Din. 

Duncey a stupid person. (Scotland.) 
From the phr. ' a Duns man/ i. e. a native 
of Dunse, in Berwickshire. In ridicule of 
the disciples of John Z^MW^Scotus, school 
man, died a. d. i 308. ^Not to be confused 
with John Scotus Erigena, died a. d. 875. 

Dane, a low sand-hill. (F.— Du.— C.) 
F. dune.'^M, Du. dune (Du. duin) ; cog- 
nate with A. S. dun, a down ; see 
Down (2). Brugm. i. § 112. 

Dong- (£•) A. S. dung.^Svred. dynga, 
dung; Dan. dynge, a heap, mass; G. 
dung. Root uncertain; it answers, in 
form, to the pp. of Ding; as if it were 
*■ what is thrown down or away.' Cf. 
Swed. ^^siX:dong^ (i) heap, (2) dung. 

Dungeon, Doajon. (F — L.) M. £. 

dangeon. 'mO.Y, donjon, the chief tower 
of a castle. — Late L. domnionem, ace. of 
domnio, a dungeon-tower, chief-tower; 
shortened from dominio, properly domi- 
nion, feudal power; see Dominion. 

Dliniwassaly a Highland gentleman, 
yeoman. (C.) In Sir W. Scott's Botmy 
Dundee, — Gael, duine uasal, gentleman. ■■ 
Gael. duinCy a man (W. dyn) ; uasal, 
noble, gently bom (W. uchel), orig. 
' exalted ;* see Brugm. i. § 219 (4). 

Dnodedmo. (L.) Jnduodecttno*^'wiih 
12 leaves to the sheet. *L. duodecimo, abl. 
of duodecimus, twelfth ; cf. L. duodecim, 
twelve ; see Dozen. 

Dnodemmi, the first of the small 
intestines. (L.) Late L. duodenum^ so 
called because about 12 finger-breadths 
long. •- L. duodeni, twelve apiece, distribu- 
tive form of duodecim, twelve ; see Dozen. 

Dup. (£•) Short for do up, i.e. lift up 
(a latch) ; to open a door. 

Dnpe, a person easily deceived. (F.) 
F. dupe, a dupe. The M. F. dupe meant 
a hoopoe ; whence dupe, a dupe, because 
the bird was easily caught. (So also Bret. 
houperik, a hoopoe, a dupe.) Perhaps of 
imitative origin. 

Duplicate* two-fold. (L.) L. dupU- 

cdius, pp. of duplicdre, to double. ->L. 

duplic-, stem of duplex, two-fold (below). 

duplicity. (F.-L.) Lit. doubleness. 

— F. dupliciti. — L. ace. duplicitdtem. * L. 
duplici', decl. stem oi duplex, two-fold.— 
L. du-o, two ; plic'dre, to fold. 

Durance, Duration ; see Dure. 

Durbar, a hall of audience, levee. 
(Pers.) Pers. darbdr, a prince's court, 
levee; lit. 'door of admittance.'— Pers. 
dar, door ( = £. door); and bdr^ admit- 
tance, court. 

Dure, to last. (F.— L.) Y, durer,^ 
L. dUrdre, to last. >■ \s. dUrus, hard, lasting, 
-f- Irish and Gael, dur, firm ; W. dur, 
steel. Cf. Gk. hvvayus, force. Der. dur- 
ing, orig. pres. pt. of dure ; dur-cdtle, &c. 
durance, captivity. (F.— L.) The 
orig. sense was long endurance of hardship. 
O. F. durance, duration. — F. durer, to 
last ; with sufhx -ance ; see above. 
duration. (F.~L.) O.F. duration. 

— Late L. dUrdtiottem, ace. of dUrdtio, A 
coined word ; from the pp. of L. dUrdre, 
to last. 

duress, hardship. (F L.) M. £. 

duresse. — O. F. duresce, — 'L,diiritia, harsh- 
ness.— L. dUrus, hard, severe. 

Durian, a fruit. (Malay.) Malay du- 
rian, a fruit with a prickly rind. — Malay 
dari, a thorn, prickle. 

Dusk, dim. (Scand.) Properly an adj. 
M. £. dosk, dark, dim; deosc, the same. 
Prob. a Northern form (as the sk did not 
become sh), Cf. A. S. dox (for *dosc), 
translating "L./lSuus; Vocab. 239. 36.— 
Swed. dial, chiska, to drizzle ; duskug, 
misty, dim ; Korw. dusk, mist, duskregn, 
fine rain. Der. dusk, sb. ; whence dusk-y, 

Dust. (£.) A. S. dust.-^-Dyi, duist, 
Icel. dust, dust, Dan. dyst, meal ; G. 
dunst, vapour, fine dust. All from a 
Teut. base *dunst' (for *dwuns-t-), the n 
being lost except in G. C£ Skt. dkvaihs, 
to fall to pieces (pp. dhvas'ta-). 

Dutch, belonging to Holland. (G.) 
Formerly applied to the Germans. — G. 
Deutsch, German; lit. belonging to the 
people ; M. H. G. diut-isk, where the 
suffix -isk^Y^. 'ish, and diut is cognate 
with A. S. peod, Goth, thiuda, a people, 
nation ; Ir. tuath, a people ; cf. Oscan 
touto, a city. Brugm. i. § 218. 

Duty. (A. F.-L.) U.E. duete[e).'' 
A. F. dueti, duty (O. F. has only devoir). 



A coined word ; from A. F. deut fl^«> dne, 
and the suffix -t^ (L. -tatetn). See Due. 

]>wale ; see Dwell. 

Dwarf. (£.) M.E. dwer^^ dwergh ; the 
/represents the guttural. O. Merc, diverge 
A.S. dw^rg, a dwarf. -fDu. dwergh Jcel. 
dvergr^ Swed. Dan. dverg^ G. zwerg. Tent, 
type *dwerg-oz, 

Ilwell. (£.) M. £. dwelhn, to linger. 
A. S. dwellan, in the active sense to retard, 
also to seduce ; also dweliatiy to go astray, 
err, tarry, dwell. Causal of A. S. *dwelan 
(pt. t. *dwal, pp. dwolen), to be torpid or 
dull, to err.-f Icel. dvelja, to dwell, delay, 
orig. to hinder; Swed. dvdljas^ to dwell 
(reflexive) ; Dan. ^^/$, to linger; M.H.G. 
iwellen, to hinder, delay. Teut. type 
*dwaljan^ causal of the str. vb. ^dwelan- 
(pt. t. *dwalf pp. *dwulano-)j to be torpid, 
to cease, to err (A. S. *dwelan, O. H. G. 
gi-iwelan), Cf. Skt. dhvr, to bend aside, 
dhur-ta; fraudulent. (y^DHWEL.) And 
see Dull. 

dwale, deadly nightshade. (Scand.) 
Named from its soporific effects. Dan. 
dvale. stupor, dtmledrik^ a soporific, 
' d wale-drink ; ' Swed. dvakiy a trance. 
Cf. K,S. dtuala, an error, stupefaction, 
from the 2nd grade of A. S. *dwelan 

Bwmdle. (£.) The frequent, form of 
M. E. dztnneHf to dwindle, A. S. dwinan 
(pt. t. div&ti), to dwindle, languish. -f 
Icel. dvtna; Swed. /znna, to dwindle, 
pine away; Du. ver-dwijnen^ to vanish. 

X^yO, to colour ; a colour. (E.) M. E. 
deyen^ vb. ; dek^ sb. A. S. diagian, vb., 
to dye ; from diah, sb., dye, colour. A. S. 
diah (gen. diag-e)^ sb. f., ahswers to Teut. 
type *dattg-d, % Not allied to L./ucus, 
which is from Gk. <ftvKos, 

2)3rlce ; see Dike. 

Dynamic, relating to force. (Gk.) 
Gk. iwafUKds, powe^l. ^ Gk. 8tW|it;, 
power. —Gk. wafiai, I am strong; see 
Dure. (VDEU.) 

dmBMty^ lordship. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. c^mastii, ^ Late L. dynasiia, - Gk. Sv- 
vaartla^ lordship. — Gk. ^wA<Trri9, a lord. 
— Gk. i^ivafiotf I am strong. 

Dysentery, disease of the entrails. 
(L. — Gk.) L. dysenteria, — Gk. hwr^v- 
rcp(a.»Gk. 9v(r-, prefix, with a bad sense; 
tvrtpa, pi., the inwards, bowels, from 
IvTOf, within, Ik, in ; see Interior. 

Dyai^epsy, indigestion. (L.-Gk.) L. 
dyspepsia, ^m Gk. Zvair^ia, « Gk. di/cnrcirTos, 


hard to digest. — Gk. 5i;<r-, prefix, with a 
bad sense ; wlnrtiv^ to cook, digest ; see 
Cook. Der. dyspeptic (from Swcircirr-os). 

E-, prefix; see Ez-. 

Eakcn, every one. (E.) M. E. eche^ elch, 
A.S. mc^ each, short for a-gi-lic^ i.e. 
aye-like (ever -like or ever alike). ^Du. 
elk, each; O. H. G. eogalih, M.H.G. 
iegelich^ G^jeglicker, See Aye. 

Eager. (F.-1j.) M.E. <^r^.-A.F. 
egre (F. aigre).^L, acre/n, ace. of ac-er, 
sharp. See Acid. Der. vin-egar. 

Eagle. (F. - L.) M. E. egU. - A. F. 
egle, O. F. aigle (F. aigie).^L, aquila. See 

Eagre, tidal wave in a river. (F.— L.) 
O. F. cdguere, a flood (Godefroy). — Late 
L. aquaria^ a conduit; c€ aqudre^ to 
irrigate. — L. aqua, water. See Ewer. 

Eanling, a lamb. (E.) Eanling is 
from the verb ean^ which v^y-ean without 
the prefix ^- ( -= A. S. ge-). See Yean. 

Ear (i), organ of hearing. (E.) M. E. 
ere, A.S./ar^.+Dn.^Wjlcel.^^aySwed. 
bra, Dan. ore, G. ohr, Goth, auso, Teut. 
type *auzon', Cf. also Russ. ucho, L. 
auris, Lith. ausis, Gk. 0S9, O. Irish o, 

earwig, an insect. (£.) A.S. far- 
wicga, from its being supposed to creep 
into the ear. Cf. A. S. wicga, a kind of 
insect ; prov. E. wiggle, to wriggle. 

Ear (a), spike of com. (£.) M.E. er. 
A. S. iar (pi.) ; Northumb. ^^r.4>Du. aar, 
Icel. Dan. Swed. ax (for ahs), Goth, ahs, 
G. dhre, Teut. type *ahoz, *ahiz', cognate 
with L. acus (gen. aceris). Brugm. i. 
§ 182. Allied to Awn. (VAK.) 

Ear (3), to plough. (E.) M. E. eren, 
A.S. erian, to plough. 4- Icel. etya, Goth. 
arjan, L. ardre, Lith. arti, Russ. orat{e) ; 
also Irish araim, I plough, Gk. Ap6at, I 
plough. (VAR.) 

EarL (£.) M. E. erl. A. S. eorL + 
Icel. j'arl, O. Sax. erl, a man. O. Norse 
(runic) type erilaR, 

Early, soon. (E.) M,E.erly. A.S. 
Srlice, adv. ; from *arlTc, adj., not used. — 
A. S. ar, soon ; lie, like. See Ere. 

Earn. (£•) M.E. emien. A.S. eamian. 
+0. H. G. amon (cf. also G. emten, co 
reap, from emte, harvest). Teut. type 
*az{a)ndjan, to pet the profit of labour ; 
from the sb. *az\a)n& (Icel. onn), labour; 




cf. O. H. G. aran^ Goth. asanSy a harvest. 
(VAS.) f Others connect it with Gk. 
&pwfjuu, I earn. 

ZSamest (i-) , seriousness. (£.) Properly 
a sb., as in * in earnest.* M. £. emest, sb. 
A. S. eomost^ sb.<^Dn. emsty sb. ; G. ernsi^ 
O. H. G. emust. Tent, type *emusitz. 

Bamest (2), a pledge. (F.-L.-Gk. 
— Heb.) The t is added. M. E. er?tes; 
also spelt eriesy arles. Dimin. of O. F. 
erres^ arres (F. arrhes\ f. pi.— L. arrha, 
arrAado.'^Gk. Appafidw, a pledge. — Heb. 
'erSvon, security; from 'drav, to give 

Earth. (E.) M.E.eriAe. A.S,eor5e, 
+Du. aarde^ lce\. jord, Dan. Swed. jord, 
Goth, airthaf G. erde. Teut. types *erthdf 
*erthon'y f. Cf. Gk. cpa, earth. 

Earwig; see Ear (i). 

Ease. (F.) M. E. ^j^. — O. F. a<V«, ease. 
Cf. Ital. agiOj ease, Port, azo^ occasion. 
Orig. unknown. Der. dis-ease^ 

Easel. (Dn.— L.) Du. ezel^ an ass; 
also a support, a painter's easel. [G. esel\ 
Goth. oy/Zi/x.] — L. asellus, dimin. of L. 
annus, ass. 

East, the quarter of sun-rise. (E.) M.E. 
est. A. S. easfy adv., in the east ; eastany 
from the east.4"Du. oost^ G. ost^ Dan.^.f/; 
Swed. dstan, G. osten ; Du. ooster-^ G. 
oster-, Dan. Swed. oster^ Icel. austr (gen. 
austr-s), Teut. types *aus-to-<t ^aus-to-no' ; 
also *aust-rO' , for \Ag,*aus-ro- (see easier). 
Cf. L. aur-ora dawn, Gk. ijttv, ^o;;, ava;s, 
dawn, Skt. ushds, dawn. Brugm. i. § 218 


easter. (E.) M. E. ester, A.S. iastor-, 
in comp. ; eastre, Lu. xxii. i, Easter.— 
A.S. eastre, a goddess whose festivities 
were at the vernal equinox ; see Beda, De 
Temporum Ratione, c. 15. Cf. Lith. 
auszra, f. dawn ; Skt. usra-, m. a ray. 

Eat. (E.) M. E. eten. A. S. etan,'^ 
Du. efen, Icel. eta^ Swed. ata, Dan. ade, 
Goth. jVa«, G. ^i-j^«. Teut. type *etan-. 
Cf. L. ^flKfr,^, Gk. iBtiv, Skt. ai, to eat. 

EaveSf the clipped edge of a thatched 
roof. (E.) Also E. dial. (Essex) oavis. 
M. E. euese; pi. eueses {'^eaveses); 
also ouese. A.S. e/es^ a (clipped) edge 
of thatch, whence e/esian^ to shear, also 
*oe/es, whence oefsung^ Corp. gl. 474.+ 
Icel. ups^ Swed. dial, uffs ; Goth, ubizwa, 
a porch, from the projection of the eaves ; 
O. H. G. opasa. Teut. type *obeswd. 
Prob. allied to Over. Der. eavesdropper , 

one who stands under droppings from the 
eaves, a secret listener. 

Ebb. (E.) llL.Y..ebbe, h.^.ebba, thh 
of the tide. + Du. eby ebbe^ sb. [whence 
Dan. ebbe^ sb. and vb., Swed. ebb^ sb.]. 
Perhaps the Teut. type is *afjon'^ with the 
sense of going off ; see Off. 

Ebony, a hard wood. (F. - L. - Gk. — 
Heb.) Formerly ^^^/«tf. — M.F. ebene^ ebony. 

— L. hebenus, ebenus.'^Gk. ifitvos, k$4vrj, 

— Heb. hovmm^ pi. ebony wood ; prob. a 
non-Semitic word. 

Ebriety, drunkenness. (F.-L.) F. 
ibrUt^.<^\^, ace. ebrietdiem,^\.. ehrius, 
drunken. Der . in ebriate^ to makedrunken. 
Ebullition, a boiling over. (F.-L.) 
O. F. ebullition. ^L., slcc. ebullitionem ; a 
rare word, from ebullitus^ pp. of ibulltre^ 
to bubble up.— L. /, out; bullire^ to 
bubble; see Boil (i). 

£oartif a game at cards. (F.— L. and 
Gk.) In this game, cards may be discarded 
and exchanged ; hence the name. — YJcat^i^ 
discarded, pp. of icarter^ to discard.— L. 
ex^ out, away ; F. cctrte^ from Late L. carta ^ 
from Gk. xaprtj, a leaf of paper, hence a 

Eccentric, departing from a centre, 
odd. (F.— L. — Gk.) F. excentrique.^ 
Late L. eccentricus.^GV, tKKivrp-os, out 
of the centre; with suffix -{V«j.— Gk. Ik, 
out ; tefvrpoVj centre. See Centre. 
Ecclesiastic. (L.— Gk.) LAteh.eccle- 
siasticus, ^Gk, iKKXrftnaortKbs, belonging 
to the (KKkrjffiaj i. e. assembly, church.— 
Gk. €«K\rjTos^ summoned. — Gk. iK/coKica^ I 
call forth. — Gk. c«, out ; «aA.c<v, I call. 
Echelon. (F.~L.) F. Melon, an 
arrangement of troops in parallel divi- 
sions ; orig. a round of a ladder. — F. 
Melle, a ladder (O. F. eschiele). -''L. 
sc&la, a ladder; see Scale (3). 
Echo. (L. — Gk.) M.E. ecco.'^L, Md, 
— Gk. 4x<^> a sound, echo; cf. ?x®*» "^XVf 
a ringing noise. Der. cat-eck-ise^ q. v. 
Eclat. (F.-Teut.) F. /clat, splen- 
dour ; lit. * a bursting forth.' — F. iclater, 
to burst forth; O.F. s^esclater, to burst. 
Origin doubtful ; perhaps from L. type 
*exclappitare, formed from Low G. klap- 
pen, to clap, make a noise ; see Clap. 
Eclectic, choosing out; hence, a 
philosopher who selected doctrines from 
various sects. (Gk.) Gk. IicA€*ti«^s, 
selecting; as sb. an Eclectic— Gk. Ik- 
\iy€ty, to select. — Gk. I*, out ; Kiyeiv, to 



Eclipse. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. £. eclip, 
clips, ^O, F, eclipse, — L. eclipsis,^ Gk. 
itcK€i^is, a failure, esp. of light of the sun. 
i*Gk. iicKtiiruv, to leave out, fail, suffer 
eclipse.— Gk. I«, out; \€ln€iv, to leave. 

Ecloifaey a pastoral poem. (L.^Gk.) 
L. eclciga (the F. word was /^logiie).^ Gk, 
iickoY^, a selection, esp. of poems. — Gk. 
kic\4y€iv^ to choose out ; see Bcleotio. 

Economy. (F.— L. — Gk.) Formerly 
teconomy, — M. F. ctconomie, ■■ L. oeconotnia, 

— (]k. oiKovofJuaj management of a house- 
hold.- Gk. ot/cov6fios, a steward. — Gk. 
olfeo-y for cJtcos, a house; and vifttiv, to 
deal out. 

Ecstasy. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. «r. 
lasie (H.). — Late L. ecslasis, a trance.— 
Gk. iicffrauiSt displacement; also, a trance. 

— Gk. kiCj out ; OT^etSf a standing, allied 
to iffrafjuUf I stand. 

Ecumenical^ general. (L.' - Gk.) 
Late L. acHmenicus] with suffix -a/. — Gk. 
ot/eovftfvne6s, universal. — Gk. oltcoufUvrf 
(sc. yrf), the inhabited world, fern, of 
olKoii/ievos, pres. pt. pass. ofoMo), I inhabit. 

— Gk. oTivo;, a house. Brugm. i. § 6ii. 
Ecsema, a breaking-out of pustules on 

the skin. (Gk.) Gk. fuCtfJui, a pustule. *■ 
Gk. iitiUiv, to boil over.— Gk. in, out; 
C^tiv, to boil. See Yeast. 

Eddy. (Scand.) M.E. ydy {^idy). 
Icel. idOf an eddy, whirlpool ; cf. i6a^ to 
whirl about ; Swed. dial. i6a, icl&, Dan. 
dial, ide, an eddy. Perhaps formed from 
Icel. id', A. S. ed-, Goth, id" (prefix), 
backwards. Cf. Brugm. i. § 574. 

Edge. (E.) M. £. egge, A. S. ecg, an 
edge, border. +Du. egge, Icel. Swed. egg, 
Dan. eg, G. ecke. Teut. type *agj&, Cf. 
L. acies, Gk. axis, a point, Skt. apH-, edge, 
coiner. (^AK.) 

EdiblCff eatable. (L.) Late L. edibilis, 
— L. edere, to eat ; see Eat. 

Edict. (L.) L. idictum, neut. of pp. 
oiidicere, to proclaim. — L. /, out; dicere, 
to speak. 

Edity. (F.-L.) O. F. fflTe/f^r. - L. 
adijic&re, to build (hence, instruct). — L. 
adi; stem of adis, a building, orig. a 
hearth ; -fie-, for facere, to make. Der. 
edifice, F. idifice, L. adificium, a building; 
edile, L. adilis, a magistrate who had the 
care of public buildings. Brugm. i. § ao2. 

Edition. (F. - 1,.) O. F. edicion (H.). - 
L. iditionem, ace. of iditio, a publishing. — 
L. Iditus, pp. of /dSfTif , to give out, publish. 
— L. /, out; dare, to give. Der. edit, a J 



coined word, from the sb. editor (L. 

Educate. (L.) From L. iducOtus, 
pp. of iducdre^ to educates allied to L. 
idHcere, to bring out.— L. /, out ; ducere^ 
to bring. 

educe. (L.) L. idOcere, to bring out. 
Der. eduction (from pp. iduct-us). 

Eel. (E.) M.E. //. A.S. i^/.^-Du. 
oa/, Icel. a//, Dan. az/, Swed. J/, G. oa/. 
Teut. type *t^loz. 

Eery, timid, affected by fears, melan- 
choly, strange. (E.) Seejamieson. M.E. 
«r^, arh, are), ar)e, erje, timid ; spelt eri 
in Cursor Mundi, 1 7685. — A. S. eatg, earh, 
timid, cowardly. Cf. Icel. argr, ragr; 
G. arg\ Du. erg, bad. 

Ef&ce. (F.-L.) F. effacer.^Y, ef- 
(L. ef-^ for eXj out) ; zxAface, from Folk- 
L. T&ria (for Y,, faciem, ace. oifaciis), 
face. See Pace. 

Effect. (F.-L.) A. ¥. effect (J^,effci), 
— L. effectum^ ace. of effectus, an effect.- 
L. effectus, pp. of efficere, to work out. — 
L. ^-, for «f, thoroughly ; fcuere^ to do. 

Effeminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
effeminare, to make womanish.— L. ^, 
lor ex, thoroughly; femina^ a woman. 
See Feminine. 

Effendi, sir, master. (Turkish— Gk.) 

Turk, efendi, sir. — Mod. Gk. d^^yn;;, for 

Gk. av$€VTrfs, a despotic master, ruler ; see 


Effenresce. (L.) h.efferuescere.-^L. 

ef-, for ex^ out ; feruescere, to begin to 
boil, inceptive oiferuire, to boil. 

EffetCi exhausted. (L.) L. effitus, 
weakened by having brought forth young. 
— L. ef; for ex, out ; fttus, that has 
brought forth ; allied to L. fui, I was 
(Brugm. i. \ 361 ; ii. $ 587). 

Emcacyy force, virtue. (L.) L. effi- 
cScia, effective power. — L. efficSC', stem of 
efficax, efficacious. — L. efficere; to effect 

efllcient. (L.) From stem of pres. 
pt. of efficere, to enect ; see Effeot. 

Efigy. (F.-L.) F. effigU.^lu. effi- 
giem, ace. of effigies, an image. — L. effig-, 
base of effingere, to form. — L. ef-^ for ex, 
out \fingere, to form. See Figure. 

Efllorescence. (F.-L^ F. efflore- 
scence, lit. *a flowering.' rrom L. efflo' 
rescere, inceptive form of efflorire, to 
blossom out.— L. ef^^ex, out ; fidrire, to 
blossom. See Floral. 

EfBLuencCv a flowing. (L.) From the 



pres. pt. of effluere^ to flow out. — L. ef-^ 
for ex^ out ; fluere, to flow. See Fluent. 

Effort. (F.-L.) F. ejforty an effort; 
verbal sb. from F. s^efforcer^ to endeavour. 
i-Med. L. exfortidrCy to use force. -^L. 
tx^ out ; fotii-s, strong. See Force. 

SfErontery. (F.-L.) XVIII cent. 

— F. effronterity ' impadency ; * Cot. — 

0. F. tffrontiy shameless. ^ 0»Y, ef- (L. 
rf'i for ex)y out ; front, face, forehead (as 
if putting forward the forehead). Cf. F. 
af-fronter, to oppose face to face. See 

Effulgent, bright. (L.) From stem 
of pres. pt. of L. effulgire, to shine forth. 

— L. ef-y for exy out ; fulgire, to shine. 
Effose. (L.) L. effususy pp. of effun- 

derty to ponr out. — L. ef-^ for ex, out; 
fundere, to pour. 

E|fSf (i), the oval body whence chickens, 
&c. are hatched. (Scand.) M. £. eg, pi. 
^g^j.^Icel. iggy Dan. agy Swed. agg.'^ 
A.S. Sg (s= M. E. ey)'y Du. «, G. «. 
Prob. allied to Irish ugh, Gael, ubhy W. 
wyy L. ouutUy Gk. d><$v, egg. Brugm. i. 
§ .^09 (a). 

Egg {2), to instigate. (Scand.) M. £. 
fSS'^f*-''^ce\.eggya, to goad on.^Icel. eggy 
an edee (point). See Edge. 

Egumtine. (F.-L.) F. ^glanHtu, 
M.F. aiglatUitu, cUglantter, sweet-briar. 

— O. F. aigianty the same. «• L. type 
*aculent'US, prickly (not found). «- L. cuu-s, 
a needle ; -lenius (as in uiru-lentus), Cf. 
L. aculeusy a prickle, dimin. of acus. See 
Aglet. (VAK.). 

Egotist, Egoist, a self-opinionated 
person. (L.) doined from L. ego, I ; see 

1. Cf. F. ^goiste (a. d. 1755). 
Egrep^onS, excellent. (L.) L. igre- 

gi-uSj chosen out of a flock, excellent ; 
with suflix -ous.'^'L, /, out; greg-^ stem of 
grex, a flock. 
Egress, a going out. (L.) h^igressus, 

— L. ggressuSy pp. of igredi^ to go out. -■ 
I^. /, out ; gradi, to go. 

Egret, the lesser white heron. (F.— 
O. H. G.) M. F. egrette, aigrette, dimin. 
of a form *aigre (whence also Prov. aigr- 
orty O. F. hair-on, E. ^r-^»).— O. H. G. 
heigir, heiger, a heron. See Heron. 

Eh ! interj.' (E.) M. E. ey. Cf. A. S. 
ga\ Du. he! G,ei! 

Eider-duek. (Swed. and E.) The £. 
dtuk is here added to the Swed. spelling 
of Icel. aOr, an eider-duck (a pronouncea 
like f in time) ; whence Dan. ederfugl 

(eider-fowl), Swed. ejder; and cf. Swed. 
dial. 8d, Der. eider down, Icel. adardUn, 

Eight. (E.) M. E. eightL A. S. 
eahta, ^ Du. achty Icel. Stta, Dan. otte, 
Swed. &tta, Goth, ahtau, G. acht\ Irish 
ocht. Gael, ochd, W. wyth, L. octo, Gk. 
bicrii, Pers. hasht, Zend ashta, Skt. ashtau, 
Idg. type *oktff{u). Der. eigh-teen, A. S. 
eahtatene, eahtatyne; eigh-ty, A. S. (hund)- 
eahtatig; eigh-th, A. S. eahtoOa. 

Eisel, vinegar. (F.-L.) In Shak. 
M. E. eisei, eisil, aisiL^O, F. aisil, eisil, 
also aisi, vinegar (Godefroy). Aisil ap- 
pears to be a dimin. form of aisi. — Late L. 
acitus, bitter; closely related to L. tuetum, 
vinegar. The Goth. aJteit, vinegar, A. S. 
ecid^ G. essig, is due to Late L. acitum or 
L. acitum. 

Eisteddfod, a congress of (Welsh) 
bards. (W.) VV. eisted^od^ a sitting, con- 
gress, -i W. eistedd, to sit. 

Either. (E.) M.E. either, aither. 
A. S. agper^ contracted form of Sghwafer. 
Comp. of d^gi-hwafer; where d = aye, gi 
(forge.') is a prefix, and ^wd^A^a whether. 
+Du. ieder, G.jeder, O. H. G. iohwedar, 

IQaculate, to jerk out an utterance. 
(L.) From pp. of L. Haculdrt, to cast 
out.— L. i, out; iaculum, a missile, from 
iacere, to cast. 

eject. (L.) L. iiectHre, frequentative 
of L. Hcere, to cast out. -> L. /, out ; iacere, 
to cast. 

Eke (i)> to augment. (E.) M.E. eken. 
O. Merc, ican, A. S. tecan, weak vb. 
Tent type ^aukjan-, weak vb. ; allied to 
Icel. auka, Goth, aukan (neuter), str. vb. ; 
cf.L.augfre. (^AUGw.) Brugm. i.§ 635. 
eke (2), also. (E.) M. E. eek, eke, 
A. S. Ai^.4*DU' ooh, Icel. auk, Swed. och 
(and), Dan. og (and), G. auch. All from 
the Teut. base auk- above. 

Elaborate. (L.) L. HaborStus, pp. 
q{ ilabordre, to labour greatly. — L. /, out, 
greatly ; laborSre, to work, from labor-, 
stem of labory labour. 

Eland, a S. African antelope. (Du. — G. 
— Lith.) Du. eland, an elk. — G. elend. — 
Lithuan. ilnis, an elk. Cf. W. elain, a 
hind, Russ. olene, a stag. See Elk. 

EUtpse, to glide away. (L.) From L. 
Haps MS, pp. oiilabi, to glide away.—L. e, 
away ; Idbi, to glide. 

Elastic. (Ck.) Formerly elastick, 
Gk. H\aaTiK6i, propulsive, coined from 
Gk. kx&oi^hxavvwy I drive (fiit. iX&a-cS), 
Cf. Gk. kXacrfii, also kXaHip, a driver. 




Elat6| lifted up, proud. (L.) L»i/d/uSf 
lifted up.—L. /, out ; /d^us, used as pp. of 
/erre, but allied to tollere^ to lift. 

Elbow, the bend of the arm. (E.) 
M. £. elbowe, A. S. elboga, also ein-dcgu* 
— A. S. e/fi, signifying * ell,* orig. * arm ;* 
and dogu, a bow, a bending (see Bow). 
A. S. ein is allied to Goth. aUinay a cubit, 
W. elin^ Irish uile^ L. ulna^ Gk. itkivrj^ 
Skt. aratni'i the elbow. See £11.4>Du. 
elle-boog^ Icel. oln-hogi^ Dan. al-bue^ G. 

Eld, old age. (£.) M.E. elde, old 
age ; O. Merc, aldo, old age ; from ald^ 
old. Cf. A. S. ieldu, yldu ; from ecUd^ old. 
4* Icel. elH ; Dan. aUk, See Old. 

elder (i), older. (E.) Both as adj. 
and sb. O. Merc, celdra (A. S. yldrd)^ 
elder, adj.; comparative of aid (A. S. 
eald)^ old. 

eldest. (E.) O. Merc, aldesta (A. S. 
yldesta), superl. oiald (A. S. eald)^ old. 

Elder (a), a tree. (E.) The d is excre- 
scent. M. £. ^//ipr. A. S. ellen^ ellam,^ 
Low G. elloom, ^ Distinct from <Uder» 

Elecampane, a plant. (L.) A. S. 

eohne, elene^ perverted from L. inula ; and 
M.F. enule-campane (Cot.) . • L. inula cam- 
pUna^ elecampane. Here campdna prob. 
means wild, growing in the nelds; from 
L. campuSf a field. 

Elect, chosen. (L.) L. ilectus, pp. of 
iligeret to choose out.^L. i, out; le^^ere, 
to choose. 

Electric. (L.-Gk.) Coined from L. 
ilectrumy amber, which has electric pro- 
perties.— Gk. 1j\t/tTpovy amber, also shin- 
ing metal; allied to ^jKUrcap^ gleaming. 

Slectliary, a kind of confection. (F. 
-L.-Gk.) M. E. letuaHe, - O. F. lee- 
tuaire^ M. F. electuaire. « Late L. ilectud- 
rium, //f^/^Wwm, a medicine that dissolves 
in the mouth. Perhaps for *e{c) lict-drium^ 
from Gk. I/kXchct^i', an electuary, from 
iKktlxuvy to lick out.— Gk. I«, out; 
K^ixtiVf to lick. 

Eleemoeynary, relating to alms. 

(Late L.— Gk.) Late L. eleimosyndriuSj 
an almoner; from eleentosyna^ alms.— Gk. 
iAci7f(o<ri/yi7 pity, alms. See Alms. 

Elegaax, choice, neat. (F.-L.) M.F. 
elegant, — L. ilegant-y stem of ilegans, 
tasteful, neat.— L. /, out; leg-^ base of 
legerey to choose. 

JSlegy, a funeral ode. (F.- L.-Gk.) 
M. F. elegie. — L. elegta, — Gk. IX<7c/a, 
fem. sing., an elegy; orig. neut. pi* of 

iK^yuoVf a distich (of lament). — Gk. 
iXtyoiy a lament. Der. elegi-ac. 

Element. (F.-L.) 0.¥, element, ^^ 
L. elemenium^ a first principle. 

Elephant. (F. -L.-Gk.) M.E. 

elyphaunty oltfaunt.^O. F. olifant^ ele- 
fant, — L. elepkantem^ ace. of elephas, — 
Gk. Ix/^ctf, an elephant. Origin unknown ; 
some compare Heb. elephf an ox. 

Elevate. (L.) Frompp. ofL. //wJr^, 
to lift up.— L. /, out; leudre, to lighten, 
lift, from leuisy light. See Iievity. 

Eleven. (E.) M. E. enleuen, A. S. 
en{d)leofanf endlufon\ O. Northumb. 
^//(5/9i^.+Du. elfy Icel. ellifu, Dan. elleve^ 
Swed. elfva, Goth, ainlif, G. elf^ O. H. G. 
einlif, p. A compound of Teut. *ain', 
one; and -/^»Lithuan. -lika (in v^no' 
lika, elevenV Lith. -lika perhaps means 
* remaining ; cf. L. linquere^ to leave. 
Brugm. ii. % 175. 

Elf. (E.) M. E. elf, O. Merc. «y.-|- 
Icel. dlfry Dan. alf\ also G. alp^ a night- 
mare. Der. elf-in, adj., for ^elf-en ; but 
prob. suggested by the M. E. gen. pi. 
elvene^ of elves (in the Southem dialect). 

Elicit, to coax out. (L.) From pp. 
of L. Ulcere y to draw out by coaxing.— 
L. i, out ; laceref to entice. And see 

Elide. (L.) L. ilidere, to strike out. - 
L. iy out ; kedere^ to dash. Der. elis-ion 
(from pp. iliS'Us), 

El^ble. (F.-L.) F./ligidle.^Utd. 
L. lligibiliSy fit to be chosen.— L. iligere^ 
to choose out ; see Elect. 

Eliminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

ilimindrey to thrust out of.— L. ^, forth; 
Itmin-f stem of Itmeny a threshold. See 

Elieion. see Elide. 

Elixir. (Ar.-Gk.) Med. L. elixir; 
for Arab, el iksir, the philosopher's stone, 
esp. a sort of powder (Devic) ; where el is 
the definite article. — Gk. (r/P^ov, dry pow- 
der, or irjp6y. dry (residuum). 

Elk, a kina of deer. (G.) Prob. adapted 
from M. H. G. elch^ an elk ; O. H. G. etaho, 
Cf. Icel. elgTj Swed. elg, an elk; Russ. 
oleney a stag; L. alces, Gk. akxTf. (His- 
tory obscure.) Found in A. S. as elch^ elh. 

Ell. (E.) Vi,^,elleyelne, A.S.<f/(i>, 
a cubit. 4-Dq* ^/^» ^l\ Icel. aliny the arm 
from the elbow to the tip of the middle 
finger ; Swed. aln^ Dan. aleny Goth, aleina^ 
G. elle^ ell ; L. ulna, elbow, cubit ; Gk. 
(i;\^n;, elbow. Ell=el-'v[i el-baw. 




Ellipse. (L.-Gk.) FoTtnerlyel/tpsts. 
»L. el/rpsis. ^Gk, i\\€t\f/iSf a defect, an 
ellipse of a word ; also, an oval figure, 
because its plane forms with the base of 
the cone a less angle than that of a para- 
bola, i- Gk. cXAciir((v, to leave in, leave 
behind. •- Gk. cA-, for h, in ; Xdvuv, to 
leave, cognate with L. linquere, "D&r, 
elliptic^ adj., Gk. kWtiirriKos. 

Elm, a tree. (E.) A. S. elm^-^O, H. G. 
elm ; cf. Icel. almr^ Dan. alm^ Swed. aim ; 
also L. ulmus (whence G. ulme^ Du. olm). 

Elocution. (L.) From L. elocutio- 
nem^ ace. of ilocutio^ clear utterance. — L. 
ilocutus, pp. of iloqul^ to speak out.— L. 
iy out ; hqul^ to speak. Cf. £loqaent. 

EloiCfn, Eloiu, to remove and keep 
at a distance, to withdraw. (F. — L.) 
O. F. esloigner^ to remove, keep away 
(Law L. exlongdre). — O. F. «, away; 
loing (F. loin), far off. — L. ex, away; 
longiy adv. far off. See Long. 

Elope. (A.F.— Scand.) A. F. aloper, 
to run away (from a husband ; see N. £. D.) . 

— A. F. a- prefix (perhaps for O. F. es-, 
away, as in £. a-bash) ; and M. E. lopen^ 
to run (Cath. Anglicnm), from Icel. hUuipa, 
cognate with £. Iieap. p. Or from A. S. 
ofihlop-en, pp. of dphleopan, to escape ; 
from A. S. dp-, away, and hliopan, to run, 
to leap. 

Eloauent. (F.— L.) M. £. eloquent. 

— O. F. eloquent. — L. eloquent-, stem of 
pres. pt. of eloqui, to speak out or clearly. 
— L. i, out ; loqui, to speak. 

ElSOf otherwise. (£.^ A. S.,elleSy adv. ; 
stem *a^((?-, signifying 'other,* as in Goth. 
alj'iSf other.-fSwed. elj'est; allied to L. 
alias, and to Alien. The suffix -es marks 
the gen. case, neuter. 

ElucidAte. (L.) From pp. of Late L. 
elOciddre, to make clear. — L. e, out, very ; 
lUcid-us, lucid, clear. See Lucid. 

Elude, to avoid slily. (L.) L. glOdere 
(pp. ilusus), to mock, deceive. — L. i, out ; 
ladere, to play. Der. elus-ory, from the 

El^TSium, a heaven. (L.— Gk.) L. 
elystum,^G\i. ^K^aiov, short for ^kvcrtov 
veiiov, the Elysian field (Od. 4. 563). 

^IXk'rpre^x. (F.— L.) F,em-< 
(for in), in, before d and p. Hence em- 
J>alm, to anoint with balm ; em-bank, to 
enclose with a bank, cast up a bank ; em- 
body, to invest with a body, &c. 

Emaciate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
itnaciare, to make thin. — L. e, ytry ; 

maci', base of macies, leanness ; cf. macer, 
Emanate. (L.) From L. emdndtus, 
pp. of emdndre, to flow out. — L. e, out ; 
mdndre, to flow. 

Emancipate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

imancipdre^ to set free. — L. /, out ; man- 
cipdre, to transfer properly. — L. mancip-, 
stem of man-ceps, lit. one who takes pro- 
perty in hand or receives it.— L. man-us, 
hand ; capere, to take. 

Emasculate, to deprive of virility. 
(L.) From pp. of L. imasculdre.'^lL., e, 
9Lyiz.y from; masculus, male. See Mas- 

Embargo. (Span.) Span, embargo, 
an arrest, a stoppage of ships; lit. a put- 
ting a bar in the way. — Late L. type 
Hmbarricdre, to bar in. Formed with 
prefix em- ( = Lat. m) from Span, barra^ 
a bar. See Bar, Barricade. 

Embark. (F.—Late L.) F. embcu^- 
quer.^LatQ L. imbarcdre, to put in a 
bark. — L. im- (for in), in ; barca,2i bark ; 
see Bark (1). 

Embarrass. (F.-Span.) F. embar- 
rasser, to perplex ; lit. to hinder, put a 
bar in ones way. — Span, embarazar, the 
same. — Span, em^ (L. im-, for in), in; 
barra, a bar. Cf. Embargo ; and Bar. 

Emoassy, a mission. (F. — Late L.— 
C.) A modification of O. F. ambassee; 
cf. M. F. embassade, Ital. imbasciata, weak- 
ened form of ambasciata. All from Late 
L. ambascidta, sb., orig. fem. of pp. of 
ambascidre, to send on a mission, from 
ambascia, a mission. See Ambassador. 

Embattle, to furnish with battle- 
ments. (F.) M. E. embattelen, — O. F. 
em- (L. im-, for in-, prefix) ; and O. F. 
bastiller, to fortify. See Battlement. 

Embellish. (F.~L.) M. £. embe- 
lissen. — O. F. embeliss-, stem of pres. pt. 
of embellir, to beautify. — O.F. em- (L. 
ifi) ; and bel^ fair. See Belle. 

Ember-days. (£.) M. E. ymber, 
as in ymber-weke. A. S. ymbren-, prob. 
from ymbryne, a circuit, or period ; the 
ember-days are days that recur at each of 
the four seasons of the year. The A.S. 
ymb-ryne is lit. *a running round.' — A. S. 
ymb, round ( = G. um, Gk. d/t^Q ; and 
ryne, a run, course; see Bun. Prob. 
confused with L. quatuor tempora, four 
seasons ; whence G. quatember. 

Embers, ashes. (E.) M. £. emeres, 
A. S. amyrgean, embers; A. S. Leech- 




doms, iii. 30 (rare). + IceJ- cimyrfa, 
Dan. emnier^ Swed. morja^ O. H. G. 
eimutja^ sb. ember. Cf. Icel. eim-r^ vapour ; 
prov. E. ome ( = A.S. *«»i), vapour. 

Embenle, to filch. (F.) A.F. en- 
hesiler^ to make away with (a. D. 1404).— 
O. F. en- (for L. I'w-, prefix) ; and O. F. 
hesiUier^ to maltreat, destroy, apparently 
from O. F. bes- (Late L. bis-, used as a 
pejorative prefix). Cf. O. F. besil^ ill- 
treatment, torture ; and see Bezsle in the 
N. E. D. % Certainly influenced, in the 
1 6th cent., by a supposed etymology from 
imb^cill, to weaken, an obsolete verb 
formed from the adj. imbecile^ q.v. 

Emblem. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. F. em- 
bUme,^ L. emblima. — Gk. tfi$\fifia, a 
thing put on, an ornament. ^Gk. kfi-, for 
|y, in, on ; fiAXkfiv^ to throw, to put. See 

EmblemenjbSy the produce of sown 
lands, crops which a tenant may cut after 
the determination of his tenancy. (F.— L.) 
O. F. efnbfaenunt, harvest. — O. F. em- 
bicigr, emblader (F. etnblavtr)^ to sow 
with com. — Late Lat. imblad&re, to sow. 

— L. im- (for in), in; Late L. bladum 
»L. abl&tum, a crop, com, lit. 'what is 
carried away' (F. bli). 

Embolism. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
embolisme. — L. embolistnus, — Gk. kiifio- 
A<(r/u$s, an intercalation or insertion of 
days, to complete a period. — Gk. j/i, for Iv, 
in ; fiiXKfiVj to cast ; cf. ififioX^, an inser- 

Embonpoint, plumpness of person. 
(F. — L.) F. embonpoint, plumpness. 
For gfi bon point, in good case. -* L. in, 
in ; bonu/n, neut. of bonus, good ; punc- 
tum, point 

Emboss (i), to adorn with bosses or 
raised work. (F.— L. and G.) From 
Em-, prefix ; and Boss. 

Emboss (a), to take shelter, or drive 
to shelter in a wood, &c. (F.— LateL.) 
O F. embosquer, to shroud in a wood. — 
O. F. em- (L. in), in ; O. F. bosc, a wood; 
see Bouquet. 

EmbonGbnre. (F.-L.) Y, embou- 
chure, the mouth or opening (of a river). 

— F. emboncher, to put in or to the mouth. 

— L. in, in j F. bouche, from bucca, the 

Embrace. (F.— L.) O.F. embracer, 
to grasp in the arms. — O. F. em-y for en 
(L. in) ; and brace, the grasp of the 
arms; see Brace. 


Embrasure. (F.) F. embrasure^ an 
aperture with slant sides. *«M . F. embrcuery 
to slope the sides of a window.— O.F. rm- 
(L. m),in; M.F. braser, *to dcue, or 
chamfret ; * Cot. (Of unknown origin.) 

Embrocation, a fomenting. (F.— 
Late L. — Gk.) O. F. embroccUion, — Med. 
L. embrocdtus, pp. of embrocAre, to foment. 

— Gk. ifji$poxfiy a fomentation. — Gk. Ift- 
iS/Mxcty, to soak in. — Gk. 4/«-»|y, in; 
Ppix^^yf to wet, soak. 

Embroider. (F.) From Em- and 
Broider. Cf. O.F. embroder, to em- 

Embroil. (F.) From F. embrouiUer, 
to confuse. — F. em- (L. im-, for m) ; 
brouiller, to confuse. See Broil (a) ; 
and cf. Imbroglio. 

Embryo. (F. — Gk.) Formerly em- 
bryon. — M. F. embryon, — Gk. Hfifipvov, 
the embryo, foetus. — Gk, I/*- « iv, within ; 
fipvov, neut. of pres. pt. of fip^uv, to be 
full of, swell out. 

Emendation. (L.) Coined from the 

p. of L. gmendSre, to free from fault. » 

. i, free from ; mendum, menda, a fault. 

Emerald, a green gem. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
M. £. emeraude, — O. F. esfneraude (Span. 
estneraJdc^ ; also esmeragde. — L. sma- 
ragdum, ace. of smaragdus. — Gk. aijuk- 
paydoi, an emerald. Cf. Skt. niarakata-y 
an emerald. 

EmersfCf to rise from the sea, appear. 
(L.) L. Smergere, to rise out of water. — 

— L. e, out ; mergere, to dip ; see Merge. 
Emerodis ; see Hemorrhoids. 
EmenTf ^ hard mineral. (F.— Ital.~ 

Gk.) Formerly emerii; XVII cent.- 
F. ^meri; M.F. emeriif esmeril^^ltsX, 
smeriglio. — Gk. a/Jt^fjpis, Cfivptif emery. 

Emetic. (L.— Gk.) L. emeticus,^ 
Gk. ififTiKds, causing sickness. — Gk. ifiioj, 
I vomit ; see Vomit. 

Emi^prate. (L.) From pp. of L. i- 
migrdre, to wander forth. — L. i, out ; 
migr&re, to wander ; see Migrate. 

Eminent, excellent. (L.) L.Jminenf', 
stem of pres. pt. of imin^e, to project, 
excel. -L.^, out ; *minire, to project ; for 
which cf. im-minentypro-miftent. 

Emir, a commander. (Arab.) Arab. 
amir, a nobleman, prince. — Arab, root 
amara, he commanded. Der. admir-ai. 

Emit, to send forth. (L.) L. SmitierCy 
to send forth; pp. Smissus.^h, <?, out; 
mittere, to send. Der. emission^ emiss- 
ary, from the pp. 




Emmetf an ant. (£.) M. £. emetCy 
amote. A. S. amette, or amette, an ant.+ 
G. ameise, O. H. G. dmeiza^ or ameiza^ an 
ant. Doublet, CMt, 

Emiiidw; seeBnew. 

Emollientf softening. (F.— L.) M.F. 
emollient. ^\^. emollient'^ stemof pres. pt. 
of emollire, to soften. — L. <?, out, very ; 
molltre^ to soften, from mollis ^ soft. 

Emolument, gain. (F.-L.) O. F. 

emolument. '^h. emolumentum^ what is 
gained by labour.— L.^/«J/frf, to work out, 
accomplish. — L. e, out, greatly ; moliri^ to 
work, from moles^ heap, also effort. % So 
usually explained; but the short vowels 
in -mdlH- suggest a derivation from imd- 
lere, to grind thoroughly. 

EmOuOn. (L.) Coined from L. imdtus, 
pp. of emouire^ to move away or much. — 
L. e, out, much ; mouire^ to move. 

Emperor, a ruler. (F.— L.) O. F. 
empereor.^\j. imper&torem^ ace. of im- 
perator, a ruler.— L. imperare^ to rule.— 
L. im- (for i«-), upon, oytr \ pardre^ to 
make ready, order. Der. empr-ess. 

Emphasis, stress of voice. (L. — Gk.) 
L. emphasis. — Gk. HfupafftSy a declaration, 
emphasis ; orig. appearance. — Gk. kfi(pai- 
vofMiy I appear. — Gk. I/*- (li'), in; 
tpalvofjuUf I appear, whence ^darn^ an 
appearance ; see Phase. Der. emphatic, 
from Gk. ifi<paTiK6s, significant. 

Empire. (F.— L.) F, empire. '^ 
perium, command. —L. im- (in-)^ upon, 
over ; pardre, to make ready, order. 

Empiric, a quack doctor. (F.— L.— 
Gk.) M. F. empirique, — L. empiricus. — 
Gk. ifiir€ipiK6Sf experienced ; also one of 
a certain set of physicians. — Gk. kfi-^^h, 
in; vftpa (— ♦irepia), a trial, experience, 
allied to v6pos, a way, and to £. Fare. 
Brugm. i. § 293. 

Employ. (F. — L.) M. F. employer, to 
employ. — L. implicdre, to implicate (in 
Late L., to use for, employ). — L. im- (for 
in-), in ; plic&re, to fold ; see ImpUoate, 

Emporium, a mart. (L. — Gk.) L. 
emporium. — Gk. ifjivSpiov^ a mart ; neut. of 
kfiw6pios, commercial. — Gk. ifivopia, com- 
merce, ifiwopos, a traveller, merchant.— 
Gk. f:i- = Iv, in ; vSpos^ a way ; see Fare. 

Emprise, enterprise. (F.— L.) M. E. 
emprise. — O. F. emprise ; orig. fem. of 
empris, pp. of O. F. emprendre, to take in 
hand.— L. im- {in-), in; prehendere, to 
take. See Comprehend. 

Empty, void. (E.) HL.'E. evipti, A.S. 
amtig, (enutig, lit. full of leisure. — A. S. 
(imta, femetta, leisure, older form imoia 
(Epin. Glos. 680). Perhaps ametta is for 
*i£mdtjon^ from 5-, prefix, privative, and 
mdt, a meeting for business. 

Empyrean, Empyreal, pertaining 

to elemental fire. (L. — Gk.) Adjectives 
coined from L. empyree-tis, Gk. *kfiirvp- 
aioSj extended from ifi-vvpos, exposed to 
fire. — Gk. kfi- = |y, in ; vvp, fire ; see Fire. 

Emn, Emeu, a bird. (Port.) Port. 
ema, an ostrich. 

Emulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
(Bmuldrt, to try to equal.— L. (smulus, 
striving to equal. 

Emulsion, a milk-like mixture. (F. — 
L.) M. F. emulsion ; formed from L. 
Smuls-us, pp. of emulgere, to milk out. — 
L. /, out ; mulgere, to milk ; see Milk. 

En-, prefix, (F. - L. ) F. en- . - L. in- , 
in ; sometimes used with a causal force, as 
en-case, en-chain, &c. See Em-. 

Enact. (F.-L.) In Shak.-F. en, 
in (L. in) ; and Act. Lit. ' to put in act.' 

Enamel, vb. (F.-O. H. G.) M. E. 
enamaile, sb., enamelen, vb. — A. F. ena- 
meller, enamailler, vb. — F. en (L. in), on ; 
amaile, for O. F. esmail, enamel ( ^ Ital. 
smalto), from O. Low G. smalt (Lubben). 
See Smalt. 

Enamour. (F.-L.) O.Y . enamorer, 
to inflame with love. — F. en amour, in 
love; where F. en is from L. in, in, and 
amour from L. ace. amorem, love. 

Encamp. (F.— L.) Coined from en- 
(F. en, L. in) and camp ; hence * to 
form into a camp.* See Camp. 

Encase. (F.— L.) Cf. F. encaisser, 

* to put into a case ; * Cot. — F. en, in (L. 
in) ; and M. F. caisse, casse, a case ; see 
Oase (2). 

Encaustic, relating to designs burnt 
in. (F.— L. — Gk.) F. encaustique.^L. 
encausticus. — Gk. i'yKav<rrtK65, relating to 
burning in. — Gk. iv, in ; Koloa, I bum. 
See Oalm. 

Enceinte, pregnant. (F. — L.) F. en- 
ceinte. — Late L. incincta, ungirt, said of a 
pregnant woman, fem. of pp. of cingere, 
to gird, with neg. prefix in-. ^ Isidore 
explains Late ll incincta as meaning 

* ungirt* ; so also Ital. incinta (Florio). 
Enchant. (F.— L.) Y . enchanter, io 

charm. — L. incantdre, to repeat a chant. — 
L. in-, upon; and cantdre, to sing; see 
Cant (I '. 




Enchase. (F< —I^-) M. F. enchasser, 
* to enchace or set in gold ; * Cot. Hence 
to emboss. — F. ettf in (L. in) ; and chasse 
(F. chdsse^, the same as casse, a case ; see 
Case (2). 

Encircle. (F.— L.) From En- and 

Encline. (F. — L.) M. E. endinen. - 
O.F. en€lin€r.m,'L. tncitndre; see Incline. 

Enclitic. (Ok.) Gk. iyxKiriKSs, en- 
cUning, dependent ; used of a word which 
Means* its accent upon another. — Gk. 
iyxXivdVy to lean upon, encline. —Gk. iv, 
on; HXlvdv, to lean; see Lean (i). 

Enclose. (F.— L.) From En- and 
Close (i), Cf. A.F. endos, pp. of en- 
dorriy to shut in. 

Encomium, commendation. (L. — Gk.) 
Latinised from Gk. iyH&juov, neut. of 
iytc&fiios, laudatory, full of revelry. — Gk. 
€v, in ; leSffios, revelry. 

Encore, again. (F.— L.) F. gttcore 
(^= Ital. ancora), still, again. — L. Aanc 
horam^ for in hanc horam^ to this hour ; 
see Hour. ^ Somewhat disputed. 

Encounter, vb. (F. - L.) o. F. en- 

contrerf to meet in combat — F. en, in; 
contre, against. — L. in, in ; contra^ against. 

EncOUrMe. (F. - L.) F. encourager\ 
from F. en (E. in) and courage ; see Cou- 

EncrinitCy the ' stone lily ' ; a fossil. 
(Gk.) Coined from Gk. kv, in ; Kpivov, a 
lily ; with suffix -irrjs. 

Encroach. (F.-L. a;/^Tent.) Lit. 
to hook away, catch in a hook. — O.F. 
encrochier, to seize upon. — F. en, in ; croc^ 
a hook ; cf. F. accrocher, to hook up.— L. 
/«, in; and M. 'Dvi.krokei Icel. krokr, &c.; 
see Crook. 

Encumber. (F.—L. ?) O.F. encom- 
brer, to block up (a way). — Late L. in- 
combrdre, to obstruct. — L. in-, in; and 
Late L. cotnbrus, an obstacle. See Cum- 

Encyclical, circular, said of a letter 
sent round (ecclesiastical). From Gk. 
*^7icv#fA«-os, circular (said of a letter) ; with 
suffix -^-fl/. — Gk. Iv, in ; kvkKo-^, a circle. 
encyclopaedia. (L.-Gk.) Latinised 
from (a coined) Gk. *€yKVK\oiraiB€ia, for 
iynvKkios ircuScm, circular (or complete) 
instruction; from iyx^HKios (above), and 
vcuHtla, instruction. 

End, sb. (£.) M.£. ende. A.S. ende, 
sb.+Du. eindet Icel. ettdir, Sw. dnde, Dan. 
ende^ Goth, andeis, G. ende, Teut. type 

*and'joz. Cf. O. Irish ind, Skt. anfa-, 
end, limit. % Hence the prefixes ante; 
anti', an- in answer. 

Endeavour, to attempt. (F. - L.) 

Coined from the M. E. sb. dever, devoir ^ 
duty, with F. prefix en- (= L. in). 
Compare the old phrase * to do his dever * 
= to do his duty (Ch. C. T. 2598) ; see 

Endemic, peculiar to a district. (Gk.) 
Gk. tvh-qix-os, belonging to a people.— 
Gk. kv, in ; S^/ios, a people ; see Demo- 

Endive, a plant. (F.—L.) F. endive 
(Ital. endivia).^'La.t type *iniibea, adj.; 
from L. intibus, intubus, endive. 

Endogen, a plant that grows from 
within. (F. — Gk;) F. endogine (1813). 
From Gk. tvZo-v, within; ytv-f base of 
yiyvofjLcu, I am bom, allied to y4vos, race. 

Endorse. (F.—L.) Yormtrly endosse, 
0. F. endosser, to put on the back of. — F. 
en, on ; dos, the back, from L. dorsum, the 
back (whence the spelling with rs). 

Endow. (F.—L.) A.F. endower. 
From F. en- and doner, ^Y.. in-, in, and 
dotare, to give a dowry, from ddt-^ stem 
of dos, a dowry ; cf. dare, to give. 

Endne (i), to endow. (F.-L.) An- 
other spelling oi endow, XV cent.— O. F. 
endoer (later endouer), to endow (Burguy). 
— L. in, in; and dotare, to endow; see 
above. % Confused both with O.F. en- 
duire, to introduce (from L. indiicere\ 
and with Endue (2) below. 

Endue (2), to clothe. (L.) A corrup- 
tion of indue ; as in ' endue thy ministers 
with righteousness.* — L. induere, to 
clothe. See Indue (2) ; and see above. 

Endure. (F. — L.) M. £. enduren,wm 
F. endurer, — F. en (L. in) ; and durer 
(L. durSre), to last. See Dure. 

Enemy. (F. — L.) M. £. enemi. — 
O.F. enemi. ^h. inimtcus, unfriendly.— 
L. in, not ; amicus, friendly, from L. 
amdre, to love. 

Energy. (F.— L.-Gk.) O.Y.energie, 

— Late L. energia,^ Gk. ivipytia, vigour, 
action. — Gk. kv€py6s, at work, — Gk. kv, 
in ; ipyov, work ; see Work. 

Enervate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

enerudre, to deprive of nerve or strength. 

— L. e, out of; neruus, a nerve; see 

Enew. (F.—L.) Misspelt emmew in 
Shak. ; read eneiv, to drive into the water. 

— F. en, in; A.F. ewe (F. eau), water. 




from L. aqua, Cf. O. F. enewer^ to soak 
in water (.Godefroy). 

Enfeoff, to endue with a fief. (F. — L. 
and O. H. G.) The spelling is Norman 
F. ; formed from F. en (L. in), in ; and 
fief, a fief. See Fief. 

JBnfilade, a straight line -or passage. 
(F. — L.) F. enfilade, a long string (of 
things). — F. enfiler, to thread. — F. en- 
(L. in),\n\Jil, a thread, from \„ filum, 
a thread. See Pile (i). 

Engage. (F.-L.) O. F. engager, to 
bind by a pledge. — F. en (L. in), in; 
gage, a pledge; see Gaere. Der. dis- 

Engender, to breed. (F.— L.) M. £. 
engendren. ^ 0,¥ , engendrer.^h. ingen- 
erare, to produce. — L. in, in; getterare, 
to breed, from gener- (for *genes-), stem 
of genus, a race, See G-eniu. 

Engine. (F.-L.) O. F. engin, a 
tool. — L. ingenium, natural capacity, also, 
an invention. — L. in, in; geni-, as in 
genius ; see Genius. 

English, belonging to the Angles. (£.) 
A. S. Englisc, ^ngtisc. — A. S. Engl-e, 
Mngl-e, pi., the Angles ; with suffix -wr, 
-ish. Cf. A. S. Angel'cynn, Angle kin 
{gens Anglorum). 

Engrailedf indented with curved lines; 
in heraldry. (F.— L. fl«flf Teut.) O.F. 
efigresle, pp. of engresler, to engrail (indent 
as with hailstones). — O. F. en, in; gresle 
(F. griU), hail. — L. i«, in ; and (plerhaps) 
G,gries, grit. See Grail (3). 

Engznin, Ingrain, to dye of a fast 

colour. (F. — L.) M. E. engreynen^ to 
dye in grain, i.e. of a fast colour. Coined 
from F. en (L. in) ; and O. F. graine, 
* the seed of herbs, also grain, wherewith 
cloth is died in grain, scarlet die, scarlet 
in graine ; * Cot. From Late L. grdna, 
the cochineal * berry * or insect ; a fern. sb. 
formed from the pi. {grand) oigrdnum, a 

Engrave. (F. atul £.) From En- 
and Grave (i) ; imitating O. F. engraver 
(from L. in and O. H. G. graban, Low G. 
graven, cognate with E. grave). 

Engross, to write in large letters, to 
occupy wholly. (F. — L.) The former 
(legal) sense is the older. A. F. engrosser. 
From F, en grosse,\, e. in large characters. 
— L. in, in ; Late L. grossa, large writing, 
from L. grossus, thick. 

Enhance, to raise, exalt, increase. 
(F. — I ..) A. F. enhauncer, a form of O. F. 

enhaucer, enhaucier, to lift (Ital. inttal- 
eare),'^lj. in; and Late L. aliidre, to 
lift, from alius, high. 

Enigma. (L. — Gk.) L. anigtna. — 
Gk. aiviyfjui (stem cuviy/MT-)^ a riddle, 
dark saying. — Gk. alvlaaoiiat, I speak in 
riddles. — Gk. dlvos, a tale, story. Der. 
enigtnat'ic (from the stem). 

EaJoin, to bid. (F.-L.) O.F. en- 
joindre (i p. pres. enjoin-s), — L. iniun- 
gere, to bid, ordain, orig. to join into.— 
L. in, in ; iungere, to join. See Join. 

Exyoy, to joy in. (F.— L.) M. E. en- 
ioien ( = enjoy eti) ; A. F. enioier. — F. en 
(L. j«); O.F. ioie, Y,joie\ see Joy. 

Enlighten, vb. (E. ; with F. pre- 
fix ^^ Coined with F. prefix en- (L. ?«), 
from lighten, vb. ; see Lighten. 

Enlist, to enter on a list. (F. — G. ; 
with F. — L. prefix) Coined by prefixing 
F. en (L. in) to Ijist (2). 

Enmity. (F.— L.) M. £. enmite.^ 
A. F. enemite ; O. F. enamistie{t). — O. F. 
en- (L. in-), neg. prefix; and amistie{t)^ 
amity; see Amity. 

Ennui. (F.— L.) Mod. F. ennui, an- 
noyance ; O. F. anoi. See Annoy. 

Enormons, great beyond measure. 
(F. — L.) Formed from enomt (obsolete) ; 
with suffix -ous. — M. F. enorme, liuge. — L. 
enormiSj out of rule, huge. — L. /, out of; 
norma, rule. See Normal. 

Enough. (£.) M. £. inoh, enogh ; 
'^. inohe, enoghe. A,S. genoh, genog, pi. 
gendge, sufficient ; allied to A.S. geneah, 
it suffices. -f-Icel. gnogr, Dan. nok, Swed. 
nog, Du. genoeg, G. genug, Goth, ganohs. 
The ge- is a prefix. Cf. L. nancisci, to 
obtain (pp. nac-tus) ; Skt. na^, to attain. 

Enquire. (F. — L.) M. E. enqueren\ 
altered from enqiiere to enquire, and later to 
inquire, under the influence of the L. form. 

— O. F. enquerre ,enquerir, ^1^. inquirere, 
to search into. — L. in, in; qucerere, to 
seek. Der. enquiry, often turned into 
inquiry; enquest (now inquest), from 
O. F. enqueste, L. inqutstta {res), a thing 
enquired into. 

Ensample. (F. — L.) M.'E, ensample, 

— A. F. ensample, corrupt form oiessample, 
exemple. — L. exemplum^ a sample, pattern. 
— L. eximere, to select a sample.— L. ex^ 
out ; emere, to take. Der. sample. 

Ensign. (F. - L.) O. F. ensigne, 
more correctly enseigne, *a sign, en- 
signe, standard;' Cot. —Late L. insignia^ 
pi. of L. insigne,2i standard. — L. insignis^ 




$CL\afuov, bridal song. — Gk. Jn-t, upon, 
for ; &dkafios, bride-chamber. 
Epithet. (L.— Gk.) la, epitheion.^ 
Gk. imBfroVy an epithet; neut, of kviOtTos, 
attributed. -• Gk. M^ besides ; 0€'t6s, 
placed, from 0*-, weak grade of rlOrjfu, I 

Epitome. (L. — Gk.) L. epitomS.^ 
Gk. imrofifif a surface-incision, also an 
abridgment. — Gk. kvl, upon ; riiwuv, to 
Epodl. (L. — Gk. ) Late L. epocka, — 
Gk. lirox4» a stop, pause, fixed date. « Gk. 
Irr- (lirQ, upon; ix^*^t ^o hold, check. 
(VSEGH.) Brugm. i. § 602. 
Epode. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. epode. - 
L. epddos.^Gk, irr^h6i, an epode, some- 
thing sung after. — Gk. lv-<, upon, after; 
dciSctv, to sing. 

Equal. (L*) L. cequdlis, equal. —L. 
€equtis, just, exact. 

eqnanimity, evenness of mind. (L.) 
From L. aquanimtfas, the same. — L. 
aquanimis, of even temper, kind. ■- L. 
aqU'Us, eoual ; animus, mind. 

eqnfttlOIly a statement of equality. 
(L.) L. ace. cBqudtionem, an equalising ; 
from pp. of aqudre, to make equal. ■■L. 
aquusy equal. So also equator<X'* aqua- 

equilibrium, even balancing. (L.) 
L. (Equilibrium. ■■ L. aquiltbris, evenly 
balanced, i- L. aqui-, for aquus, even ; 
/idra, a balance ; see Iiibrate. 

eqninOZ. ( F. — L.) F. ^quinoxe. — L. 
aquinociium^ time of equal day and night. 
—L. aqui'y for aquus \ nocti-, decl. stem 
of noXf a ni£ht ; see Night. 

eqnipolienty equally potent. (F. — L. ) 
O. l*. equipolent.'^'L, aquipoHent-, stem of 
aquipotlens, of equal power. —L. aqui-y for 
aquus : pollensy pres. pt. of pollirey to be 

equity. (F.-L.) O.F. equiti.'^l., 
aquttdtemy ace. of aquiiasy equity. — L. 
aquus y equal. 

eqniralent. (F.-L.) M.F. equi- 

valent.'^L. aquiualent-y stem of pres. pt. 
of aquiuaUre, to be of equal force.— L. 
aqui'y for aquus ; uaUrey to be worth ; see 

eqiliTOOaL (L.) Formed from L. 
aqutuoc-uSy of doubtful sense. — L. aqui-, 
aquus \ uoC'y stem of uocdre, to call; 
see Voice. Der. equivoc-ate, to speak 
doubtfully. % So also equi-angulary equi- 
multipUt &c. 

Eqiierry« an officer who has charge of 
horses and stables. (F.-O.H. G.) Pro- 
perly equerry means a stable, and mod. E. 
equerry stands for squire of the equerry, — 
F. 4curiey O. F. escurie, a stable ; Low L. 
scuriuy a stable. — O. H. G. skiiray skiura 
(G. sckeuer), a shelter, stable; allied to 
O. H. G. skt2ry a shelter. Brugm. i. § 109. 
(VSKEU.) f Altered to equerry by 
confusion vrith equusy a horse. 

Equestrian ; see Equine. 

EquUibrium; see Equal. 

Equine. (L.) L. egumusy relating to 
horses. — L. equus, a horse. 4- Gk. tmtos, 
(Ukos) ; Skt. Ofva ; Pers. asp ; O. Irish ecA ; 
A. S. eoA. Brugm. 1. § 116. 

equestrian. (L.) Formed from L. 
equestri-y stem of equestery belonging 
to horsemen.— L. equesy a horseman.— L. 
equuSy a horse. 

Equinox ; see Equal. 

Equip, to furnish, fit out. (F.-Scand.) 
M. F. equipery O. North F. esquiper, to 
fit out ; A. F. eskipper. — Icel. skipay to set 
in order, perhaps allied to skipy a ship. 
Der. equip-agey -ment. 

Equipollent, Equity ; see Equal. 
Equivalent, Equivocal ; see 

Era. (L.) L. ara, an era, fixed date. 
From a particular sense of aray counters 
(for calculation), pi. of as, brass, money. 

Eradicate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

erddicdre, to root out.— L. e, out; rddi- 
cdrey to root, from rddic-y stem of rddiXy 
root. See Badiz. 

Erase. (L.) L. erasusy pp. of erddere, 
to scratch out. — L. /, out ; rddere^ to 

Ere, before. (E.) M. £. er. A, S. 
ary soon, before ; adv. prep, and conj.4- 
Du. eer, O. H. G. er, G. eher; Goth. 
airisy sooner, comp. of air, Icel. dr, adv., 
early, soon. ^ The two last are positive, 
not comparative, forms. Cf. Gk. fpi, 

early, soon. (£.) M. E. erly. A. S. 
ariice, adv. ; from *SrltCy adj., not used. — 
A. S. ar, soon ; /£:, like. 

erst, soonest. (E.) M. E. erst, A. S. 
Sresty superlative of 5r, soon. 

Erect, adj. (L.) L. Irectusy upright ; 
pp. oi irigerey to set up straight.— L. /, 
out, up ; regere, to make straight, rule. 

Ermine, a beast. (F. — O. H. G.) 
M. E. ermine. — O. F. ermine (F. her- 
mine).'^0. H. G. hanniHy ermine-fur (G. 




on the way. — L. in niam, on the way. 
Cf. Ital. inviare^ to send. 

Envy, sb. (F.—L.) M.E. enuie (^«- 
»/V;. — 0. F. eftvie.'-'h. inuidiay envy; see 

Epact. (F. - Late L. - Gk.) O. F. 
(and F.) epacte, an addition, the epact 
(a terra in astronomy). -i Late L. epacta.^ 
Gk. lira/iTTiJ (for \itaxr6% ^yikpii)^ late fern, 
of lira«Toy, added. — Gk. k-aar^uv^ to bring 
in, add. — Gk. Ijt-, for Im, to ; and a'/eii', 
to lead, bring. (^AG.) 

Epaulet, a shoulder-knot. (F.— L.— 
Gk.) F. ipaulette\ dimin. from ipaule 
(O. F. espaule), a shoulder. — Late L. 
spatula, shoulder-blade ; L. spatula, a 
broad blade ; see Spatula. 

Epergae, an ornamental stand for the 
centre of a table. (F.— L. ««</G.) F. 
ipergne^ commonly spelt ipargne^ lit. 
thriftiness, sparingness. So called from 
the method of ornamentation; the F. taille 
(T^pargne is applied to a sort of ornamen- 
tation in which certain parts are cut away 
and filled in with enamel, leaving the design 
in reliefs i. e. spared or left uncut. See 
Littre, and Cotgrave (s. v. espargne), — F. 
4pargner\ O. F. espargner, espergner^ to 
spare. — O. H. G. sparon^ G. sparen^ to 
spare ; see Spare. 

Ephah, a Hebrew measure. (Heb.— 
^gyp^*) Heb. ephah ^ a measure ; of 
Egyptian origin ; cf. Coptic opi^ measure. 

Ephemera, sing. ; orig. pi. , flies that 
live for a day. (Gk.) XVII cent. - Gk. 
€(p^fjt€pa, neut pi. of €«prifA€pos, lasting for 
a day. — Gk. l0- = lir(^ for; 'fiiiipa, a day. 
Der. ephemer-al^ adj.; ephemer-is (Gk. 
fiprjfjifpiSj a diary). 

Ephod, part of the priest's habit. 
(Heb.) Heb. iphod, a vestment. — Heb. 
aphadj to put on. 

Itfi-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. Iirt, upon, to, 
besides; spelt eph- in eph-emeral^ ep- in 
ep'isode, ep-och^ ep-ode. 

Epic, narrative. (L. — Gk.) \a, epicus. 

— Gk. €ir(/foy, narrative. — Gk. ttro^^ word, 
narrative, song ; see Voice. 

Epicene, of common gender. (L.— 
Gk.) L. epicanus.'^QV. imtcoivosy com- 
mon. — Gk. kniy among ; Hoivds^ common. 

Epicure, a follower of Epicurus. (L. 

— Gk.) L. JSpicHrus.^Gk.'EmKovpoSj a 
proper name ; lit. * assistant.' 

Epicycle, a small circle, with its 
centre on the circumference of a larger one. 
(L. — Gk.) L. epicyclus, mm Ok. iniKVKXos. 


— Gk. Iirt, upon; «iJ/rXos, a circle; see 

Epidemic, affecting a people. (L.- 
Gk.) Formed from L. epidemiis, epi- 
demic— Gk. IviSijfjioSf among the people, 
general. — Gk. ivi, among ; S^fios, people. 
See Endemic. 

Epidermis, cuticle.^ (L. — Gk.) L. 
epidermis, ^Gk. hmhfp^ls, upper skin. — 
Gk. hiri, upon ; Bipfi-a, skin. See Derm. 

Epiglottis, the cartilage forming a 
lid over the glottis. (Gk.) Gk. kmyXuTris. 

— Gk. knl, upon ; ykwTris, glottis ; see 

Epigram, a short and pithy poem or 
saying. (F.— L.-Gk.) F. /pigramme. 

— L. epigramtna. ^Gk. kviypafifia, an 
inscription, epigram. — Gk. kmypatpeiv, to 
inscribe. — Gk. ivl, upon; ypdj>tiv, to 
write. See Orammar. 

E]pilepsy. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. F. epi- 
lepste, 'the tailing sickness;' Cot.— L. epi' 
Upsia, m^Gk, im\tj\f/la, km\rf\f/ts, a seizure. 

— Gk. km\afi0av€iyf to seize upon. — Gk. 
M, on ; Xaft0dv€iv, to seize. Der. epi- 
leptic (Gk. kniXrjvTiKds). 

Epilogue. (F. -L. - Gk.) F. ^pt'logue. 
— L. epilogus, mm Gk. hikoyos, a concluding 
speech. —Gk. ini, upon; \6yos, a speech. 

Epiphany, Twelfth Day. (F.- L.- 
Gk.) O. F. epiphanie. -^h. epiphania.'^ 
Gk. Iiri^di'm, manifestation ; orig. neut. 
pi. of (iri^i'io;, manifest, but used as 
equivalent to liri(/>av(ca, sb. — Gk. jm^cu- 
vtiVy to shew forth —Gk. Iir/, to, forth; 
<palvfiv, to shew. See Phantom. 

Episcopal. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
episcopal. '^h. episcopalis, belonging to a 
bishop. — L. episcopHSy a bishop. —Gk. k-ni- 
(jKovos, an over-seer, bishop. — Gk. Irtl, 
upon; <r*07r<5j, one that watches. See 

Episode, a story introduced into an- 
other. (Gk.) Gk. iirua6hiov^ orig. neut. 
oi kvHaihioSf coming in besides. — Gk. ktr- 
{kirf)y besides; etVoStor, coming in, from 
«Zs, in, 6h6sy a way. 

Epistle, a letter. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
O. F. epistle, also epistre.^'L, epistola^ 
Gk. kmarokii^ message, letter. — Gk. cirt- 
arkKK^iV, to send to. — Gk. kni, to ; <7T€A.- 
Kuv, to equip, send. 

Epitaph. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y.ipitaphe. 
^\u. epitaphium.'^Gk. kirirdipios, upon a 
tomb. — Gk. kni, on; rd(f)OSf a tomb. 

Epi tK ftl ftini n Vlt , a marriage - song. 
(L. — Gk.) L. epithalamium. '^Gk. kvi- 




$a\afuoVf bridal song. '^ Gk. c^t, upon, 
for ; 0d\a/ios, bride-chamber. 
Epithet. (L. — Gk.) L. epitheton. ^ 
Gk. imOfTov, an epithet; neut. of kni$€Tos, 
attributed. -■ Gk. Mf besides; Oe-rSs, 
placed, from Oe-, weak grade of rlOrjfu, I 

Epitome. (L.-Gk.) L. epHomi.^ 
Gk. imrofifi, a surface-incision, also an 
abridgment. « Gk. ivi, upon ; rifu/tiVj to 

Epocli. (L. — Gk.) lAie lu. epocAa,^ 
Gk. inox^f a stop, pause, fixed date. — Gk. 
Iw- (l»0» upon; ix^iv, to hold, check. 
(ySEGH.) Bmgm. i. § 602. 
Epode. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. epode. - 
L. epochs. ^Gk. €V(pS6s, an epode, some- 
thing sung after. — Gk. Iir-t, upon, after; 
dfideiVy to sing. 

Equal. (L.) L. aqudliSf equal. ^-L. 
aquus, just, exact. 

equanimity, evenness of mind. (L.) 
From L. lEquanimitas, the same. — L. 
aquanimis, of even temper, kind. — L. 
aqU'USi eaual ; animus y mind. 

equation, a statement of equality. 
(L.) L. ace. aquationem, an equalising ; 
from pp. of aqudre, to make equal. i»L. 
aquuSj equal. So also equator<,h. aqua- 

eqnilibrilim, even balancing. (L.) 
L. (Equilibrium. — L. aquilibriSi evenly 
balanced. — L. isqui-y for isquus, even ; 
lidra, a balance ; see Librate. 

eqninoz. ( F. — L.) F . ^quinoxe, — L. 
iequinociium, time of equal day and night. 
— L. aqui-, for aquus ; nocti-, decl. stem 
of ncXf a night ; see Night. 

equipollent, equally potent. (F. — L. ) 
O. }f. equipolent.'^lj, (Equipollent'^ stem of 
aquipoilens, of equal power. — L. aqui-, for 
aquus : pollens^ pres. pt. of pollire, to be 

e^nity. (F.-L.) O.F. equity, ^l., 
aquUdtemy ace. of aquitas, equity. — L. 
aquus y equal. 

equivalent. (F.-L.) M.F. equi- 

vaUnt.^h. aquiualent-y stem of pres. pt. 
of aquiualere, to be of equal force. —L. 
aqui-, for aquus ; ualire^ to be worth ; see 

equivocaL (LO Formed from L. 
aqutuoC'USy of doubtful sense. — L. aqui-, 
aquus \ uoc-f stem of uocdre, to call; 
see Voice. Der. equivoc-ate, to speak 
doubtfully. % So also equi-angular, equi- 
mulliplg, &G. 

Equerry I an officer who has charge of 
horses and stables. (F. — O. H. G.) Pro- 
perly equerry means a stable, and mod. E. 
equerry stands for squire of the equerry. — 
P\ icurie, O. F. escurie, a stable ; Low L. 
scHria, a stable. — O. H. G. skara, skiura 
(G. scheuer\ a shelter, stable; allied to 
O. H. G. skUry a shelter. Brugm. i. § 109. 
(VSKEU.) f Altered to eqturry by 
confusion with equus, a horse. 

Equestrian; seeSquine. 

Equilibrium; see Equal. 

Equine. (L.) L. equinus, relating to 
horses. i-L. equus, a horse. 4- Gk. tinroy, 
{iKKos) ; Skt. ofva ; Pers. asp ; O. Irish ecA ; 
A. S. eok. Brugm. i. § 116. 

equestrian. (L.) Formed from L. 
equestri-y stem of equestery belonging 
to horsemen.— L. eques, a horseman. —L. 
equusy a horse. 

Equinox ; see Equal. 

Equip, to furnish, fit out. (F.— Scand.) 
M. F. equipery O. North F. esquipery to 
fit out ; A. F. eskipper. — Icel. skipay to set 
in order, perhaps allied to skipy a ship. 
Der. eouip-age, -ment. 

Equipollent, Equity ; see Equal. 
Equivalent, Equivocal ; see 


Era. (L.) L. aray an era, fixed date. 
From a particular sense of aray counters 
(for calculation), pi. of as, brass, money. 

Eradicate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

eradtcdrey to root out. — L. /, out; rddt- 
cdrey to root, from rddic-y stem of rdtdiXy 
root. See Badix. 

Erase. (L.) L. erasusy pp. of erdderey 
to scratdi out. »L. /, out ; radere^ to 

Ere, before. (£.) M. £. tr. A. S. 
ary soon, before ; adv. prep, and conj.-f- 
Du. eery O. H. G. /r, G. eher\ Goth. 
airisy sooner, comp. of air, Icel. dr, adv., 
early, soon. % Tne two last are positive, 
not comparative, forms. Cf. Gk. ^pi, 

early, soon. (£.) M. £. erly. A. S. 
arlice^ adv. ; from *arltCy adj., not used. — 
A. S. ar, soon ; lie, like. 

erst, soonest. (£.) M. £. erst, A. S. 
arest, superlative of or, soon. 

Erect, adj. (L.) L. erectusy upright ; 
pp. of erigerey to set up straight. — L. /, 
out, up ; regere, to make straight, rule. 

Ermine, a beast. (F. — O. H. G.) 
M. £. ermine, — O. F. ermine (F. her- 
wi»«).— O. H. G. hartnin, ermine-fur (G. 




kermelin), — O. H. G. harmOf an ermine. 
4- A . S. hearma ; Lithuan . szarm&j a weasel . 
fl'But Hatzfeld supports the derivation from 
Armenius ptiis, an Armenian mouse ; cf. 
Ponticus mus^ supposed to be an ermine. 

Erode. (F. — L.) F. ^oder.^'L. ero- 
dere, to eat away. — L. e, out ; roJere, to 
gnaw. Dsr. eros-ion (from pp. eros-us). 

Erotic. (Gk.) Gk. kpojTiKdSf relating 
to love. — Gk. ipojTi-, crude form of I/mus, 
love ; allied to ipaiiai, I love. 

Err, to stray. (F. — L.) M. E. erren, — 
O. F. errer. — L, errare, to wander (for 
*ers-dre).'^G. irren, to stray, Goth, atrz- 
jan, to make to stray. Brugm. i. § 878. 

erratuXO., an error. (L.) L. erra- 
tum ^ neut. of pp. of errdre, to make a 
mistake. • 

erroneous, faulty. (L.) Put for L. 
errone-uSf wandering; with sufhx -ous.^ 
L. errare (above). 

error. (F. — L.) M. E. errour. — 
O. F. errour, ^'L, errdrem^ ace. of error , 
a mistake. — L. errare (above). 

EmV>^d. (E.) M. E. erende, A. S. 
^rende, a message, business. +0. Sax. 
drundi, O. H. G. drunti, a message ; cf. 
IceL eyrendi, orendi^ Swed. drende^ Dan. 
cerende. Usually connected with A. S. dr^ 
Icel. drr, Goth, airus^ a messenger; which 
is hardly possible. 

Errant, wandering. (F. -L.) ¥. er- 
rant ^ pres. pt. of O. F. errer, eirer, to 
wander. — Late L. iterdre, to travel. — L. 
iter^ a journey. ^T I^ sometimes repre- 
sents the pres. pt. of errare, to wander. 
Doublet J arrant. 

Erratum, Erroneons, Error ; 

see Err. 

Erst ; see Ere. 

Erubescent. (L.) L. irubescent-, 
stem of pres. pt. of erubescere, to grow red. 
— L. ?, out, much; rubeschre^ to grow red, 
inceptive form of rubere, to be red. See 

Eructate. (L.) From pp. of L. Sruc- 
tdre, to belch out. — L. e, out; ructdre, 
to belch ; allied to e-riigere, to belch ; cf. 
Gk. kptvytaOai. Brugm. i. § 221. 

Erudite, learned. (L.) L. erudttus, 
pp. of Srudtre^ to free from rudeness, to 
teach. — L. e, from; rudis, rude. 

Eruption. (L.) From L. eruptionem, 
ace. of iruptiOy a breaking out. — L. eruptus, 
pp. of erutnpere, to break out. — L. ?, out; 
rumpere, to break. See Bupture. 

Erysipelas, a redness on the skin. 


(L, — Gk.) L. erysipelas. — Gk. IpvaitrfKas, 
redness on the skin. — Gk. kpvai-, allied to 
ipvO-p6s, red; iriAAa, skin. Cf. ^pvalfirj, 
red blight on corn. 

Escalade, a scaling of walls. (F.— 
Span. — L.) F. escalade. — Span, escalado, 
escalada, a scaling ; from escalar, to scale. 

— Span, escala, a ladder. — L. scdla, a 
ladder ; see Scale (3). Cf. Ital. scalata, 
an escalade ; Florio also has ' Scalada, 
an escalado/ from Spanish. 

Escape. (F.— L.) M. £. escapen.'^ 
O. North F. escaper (F. ^chopper) ^io escape, 
lit. to slip out of one's cape; F'icslt^ &(jper. 

— L. ex cappdj out of one's cape; see 
Oape (i). 

Escarpment. (F.— Ital.— Teut.) F. 

escarpement. Formed from F. escarpe, a 
scarp ; with suffix -ment (L. omentum) ; 
see Soarp. 
Escheat. (F. ~ L.) M. £. eschete 
(also chete)j a forfeit to the lord of the fee. 

— O. F. eschete, rent, that which falls to 
one, orig. fem. pp. of escheoir (F. ^choir), 

— Late L. excculere, to fall to one's share. 

— L. ex, out ; and cadere, to fall. Hence 

Eschew, to shun. (F. — O. H. G.) 
M. E. eschewen. — O. F. eschiver, eschever, 
to shun. — O. H. G. sciuhan, to frighten, 
also to fear. — O. H. G. *scioh, M. H. G. 
schiech, shy, timid. See Shy. 

Escort, a guide, guard. (F. — Ital. - L.) 
O. F. escorte,^\\.iiX, scoria^ a guide; fem. 
of pp. of scorgere, to see, perceive, guide 
(orig. to set right). - L. ex, entirely; 
corrigere, to correct ; see Correct. 

Escrow, a deed delivered on condition. 
(F. — Teut.) A. F. escrouwe, M. E. scroue^ 
scrowe ; the orig. word of which scro-ll is 
the diminutive. — O. F. escroe, a slip of 
parchment. — M. Du. schroode, a shred, slip 
of paper (Kilian) ; cf. O. H. G. scrot, a 
shred. See Shred and Scroll. 

Escuage, a pecuniary satisfaction in 
lieu of feudal service. (F. — L.) O. F. 
escuage < Late L. scutdgium. Formed 
with suffix -age from O. F. escu, a shield ; 
because escuage was first paid in lieu of 
service in the field. —L. scutum, a shield. 

Esculent, eatable. (L.) 'L.esculentus, 
fit for eating. —L. esca, food. For *ed-sca, 
— L. edere, to eat. Brugm. i. § 753. 

Escutcheon, Scuteheon, a painted 
shield. (F. — L.) Formerly escochon ; 
XV cent.; A. F. escuchon,^0. North F. 
escuchon, O. F. escusson, the same ; answer- 




ing to a Late L. ace. *scutidnemj extended 
from L. scutum, a shield. 

Esophagus, gullet. (L.-Gk.) Late 
L. (esophagus. — Gk. oltro^yoSf the gullet, 
lit. conveyer of food. — Gk. olao- (of doubt- 
ful origin) ; ^07-, base of <^7€rv, to eat. 

Esoteric. (Gk.) Gk. kawrtpiK6sy 
inner; hence, secret. »Gk. I<7(£rrc^$, inner, 
comp. of 1(701, adv., within; from ir=c{s, 
into, prep. Opposed to exoteric. 

Espalier^ frame-work for training trees. 
(F. - Ital. - L. - Gk.) M.F. espallur\ 
Cot. — Ital. spalliera^ back of a chair, sup- 
port, espalier. » Ital. spalla, shoulder. —L. 
spatula ; see Epaulet. 

Especial. (F.-L.) O. F. especial.^ 
L. specialisy belong to a special kind. — L. 
species, a kind. Doublet, special. 

Espionage; see Espy. 

Esplanade, a level space. (F.— Ital. 
— L.) M. F. esplanade y *a planing, level- 
ling, evenning of ways ; * Cot. Formed 
from O. F. esplaner, to level; the suffix 
being due to an imitation of Ital. spianata, 
an esplanade, a levelled way ; from spia- 
fiare, to level.— L. expldndref to level.— 
L. ex, out; pl&ndre, to level, from planus, 
flat. See Plain. 

Espouse. (F.— L.) O. F. espouser, to 
espouse, wed.— L. sponsdre, to betroth.- 
L. sponsus, pp. of spondire, to promise. 
See Spouse, Sponsor. 

Espy, to spy, see. (F. — O. H. G.) M. E. 
espyen.^O, F. espier.^O, H. G. spehon 
{{jr. spd/ien), to spy ; see Species. Der. 
espi-on-age, F. espionnage, from M. F. 
espiofty a spy, borrowed from Ital. spione, 
a spy, from O. H, G. spekdn, to spy. 

ZiSqilire, a shield-bearer. (F. — L.) 
M. E. sguyer.'mO.Y. escuyer, escuier, a 
squire. —Late L. scUtdrius, a shield-bearer. 
— L. scUt'um, a shield, cover (F. icu^. 
(ySKEU.) Brugm. i. § 109. Doublet, 

Essay, Assay, an attempt, trial. 
(F. — L. ) O. F. essai^ a trial. — L. exagium, 
a trial of weight ; cf. e.vdtnen, a weighing, 
a swarm. — L. ex, out; ag-ere, to drive, 
impel, move. (V'AG.) 

Essence, a quality, being. (F.-L.) 
F. essence — L. essentia, a being. — L. *es- 
sent-y fictitious stem of pres. pt. of esse, 
to be. Der. essenti-al ; and see efttity. 

Essoin, an excuse for not appearing in 
court. (F. — L. a«r/Teut.) O.Y. essdne, 
M. F. exaine, * an essoine, or excuse ; ' Cot. 
— O. F. essoniery to excuse (Godefroy).— 


O. F. eS' (L. ex\ awAy ; and Low L. 
sunnia, O. H. G. sunne (for *snfuijdy 
Braune, xiv. 9), lawful excuse. Cf. Goth. 
sunjon sik^ to excuse oneself, ga-sunjon, 
to justify, from sunja, truth ; Skt. satja-, 
true. Brugm. i. § 287. 

Establish. (F.-L.) M. E. establis- 
sen.^O. F. establiss-, base of pres. pt. of 
establir, to establish. — L. stabiltre^ to 
establish.— L. stoHlis, firm; see Stable 


Estate. (F.-L.) O.F. estat.^la. 
statum, ace. of status, state ; see State. 

Esteem, to value. (F.-L.) O.F. 
estimer.^h. astimdre, O. L. astumdre, to 
value. Allied to Goth, aistan, to regard. 
Brugm. ii. § 692. 

estimate. (L.) From pp. of L. asti- 
mdre, to value (above). 

Estop, to bar. (F. — L.) The same as 

Estovers, supplies of various neces- 
saries. (F. — L.) A. F. estovers, M. E. 
stovers, \A. oi stover; see Stover. 

Estrange, to make strange. (F. — L.) 
O.F. estranger, to make strange. —O. F. 
estrange, strange. — L. extrdneum, ace. of 
extrdneus, foreign, on the outside. — L. 
extrd, without ; see Extra. 

Estreat, a true copy, in law. (F.— L.) 
Lit. * extract.' A. F. estrete, fem. of pp. 
of estraire, to extract. — L. extracta, fem. 
of pp. of extrahere ; see Extract. 

Estnary, mouth of a tidal river. (L.) 
L. astudrti4m, the same. — L. astudre, to 
surge, foam as the tide. — L. astus, heat, 
surge, tide. Allied to Ether. 

Etch, to engrave with acids. (Du. — G.) 
Du. etsen, to etch. — G. dtzen, to corrode, 
etch ; orig. * to make to eat ; ' causal of 
G. essen, to eat. See Eat. 

Eternal. (F.— L.) M. E. etcrnel.^ 
O.F etentel.^'L, atemdlis, eternal. —L. 
atemuSj lit. lasting for an age; for aui- 
temus. — L. aui-, for auum, an age. See 

Ether, pure upper air. (L. — Gk.) 
L. other. ^Gk. cd0rjp, upper air; from 
its brightness. — Gk. aiBtiv, to glow. 
(-^AIDH.) Brugm. i. § 202. 

Ethic, relating to morals. (L. — Gk.) 
L. Jthicus, moral. —Gk. ^6ik6s, moral.— 
Gk. ^0os, custom, moral nature ; cf. c0o9, 
manner, custom. 4- Skt. svadhd-, self-will, 
strength, from sva, self, dhd, to place ; cf. 
Goth, sidus, G. sitte, custom. 

Ethnic, relating to a nation. (L. ^ Gk.) 



L. ethnicus.^Qik. k$viic6s^ national. — Gk. 
€9vos a nation. 
Etiolate, to blanch plants. (F.— L.) 

F. 4tioler ; with suffix -«/^. From a 
dialectal form answering to iiteuler^ to 
grow into haulm or stalk, like etiolated 
plants.— F. iteulCy O. F. esieule, a stalk. 

— Late L. stupula^ for L. stipula^ straw. 
See Stubble. 

XStiq[uettey ceremony. (F. — G.) F. 
itiqtutte^ a label, ticket, also a form of 
introduction ; cf. M. F. etiqtut (O. F. 
estiquet), *a little note, such as is stuck 
up on the gate of a court/ &c.; Cot — 

G. stecken, to stick, put, set, fix ; causal 
of G. stecken, to stick, pierce. See Stick 
(i). Doublet, ticket. 

Etymon, the true source of a word. 
(L. — Gk.) L. etymon, — Gk. trvfiov ; neut. 
of €Tv/tos, real, true. 

etymology. (F.-L.-Gk.) F,etv- 
ifiologie.'^L.. etymoiogia,'^Gk. mfxo\oyiaj 
etymology. — Gk. Itv/io-s, true ; -\oyia, 
account, from Xc7cty, to speak. 

Eu-y prefix, well. (Gk.) Gk, €5, well ; 
neut. of €vs, good. Cf. Skt. vasu, wealth. 

Eucalyptus, a genus of trees, includ- 
ing the blue gum-tree. (Gk.) Latinised 
from Gk. €u, well ; xaXwrSsy covered, 
surrounded. The reference is to the hood 
protecting the stamens. 

Encluuristy the Lord's Supper, lit. 
thanksgiving. (L. — Gk.) L, eucharistia, 

— Gk. €vxap«7Tia, a giving of thanks.— 
Gk. cS, well ; xapi^onaiy 1 show favour, 
from x°-9^^i favour. Cf. Yearn. 

Eulogy, praise. (L. — Gk.) From L. 
eulogium, — Gk. €uXo7ta, praise, lit. good 
speaking; with suffix suggested by L. 
ilogium, an inscription. — Gk. cS, well; 
A^76ti/, to speak. 

Etmucll, one who is castrated. (L.— 
Gk.) L. eunuchus. — Gk. cui'oCxos, a 
chamberlain ; one who had charge of 
sleeping apartments. — Gk. cvn;, a couch ; 
€X€ii', to keep, have in charge. 

EnpliemisiII, a softened expression. 
(Gk.) Gk. €v<prjfiiafi6sj the same as cu- 
^fda. the use of words of good omen. — 
Gk. €0 well ; <l>rjtii, I speak. ( -/BHA.) 

Euphony. (Gk.) Gk. €v<lxuvia^ a 
pleasmg sound. — Gk. ^wpwvosy sweet- 
voiced. _— Gk. cS, well; ^vij, voice. 

Euphrasy, the plant eye-bright. (Gk.) 
Supposed to be beneficial to the eyes ; lit. 
^ delight.' — Gk. ^vfppaaia^ delight'. — Gk. 

€wf>paiv€iVy to delight, cheer ; cf. ^wppwv, 
cheerful. Allied to Gk. cS, well; ^pev-, 
stem of f^ptjVy midriff, heart, mind. 

Euphuism, affectation in speaking. 
(Gk.) So named from a book Euphues, 
by J. Lyly (1579). — Gk. €v<f>vrii^ well- 
grown, excellent. — Gk. «5, well ; ^tn;, 
growth, from ipvoiuu^ I grow. (-^BHEU.) 

EurodydoUp a tempestuous wind. 
(Gk.) Gk. (vpoickvdojv^ supposed to mean 
' a storm from the east.' — Gk. c9po-s, S. £. 
wind; KKvdav^ surge, from kKv^uv, to 
surge, dash as waves. ^ Only in Acts 
xxvii. 14; where some read tvpaKv\<uVf 
i. e. Eur-aqm/o; from L. .£»r-Mj,£. wind, 
and Aouilo, N. wind. 

Eutnanasia, easy death. (Gk.) Gk. 
€v0ayaaiaj easy death; cf. tvOdvaroSy dying 
well. — Gk. €?, well ; Oavftv^ to die. 

Evacuate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
euacudre^ to empty.— L. ^, out; uacuus, 

EvadOy to shun. (F.— L.) F. &vader. 

— L. iuddere (pp. iudsus), to escape. —L. 
/, away ; uddUre, to go. Der. evas-ion 
(from the pp.). 

Evanescent. (L.) From stem of 
pres. pt. of L. eudnescere, to vanish away. 

— L. /, away ; udnescere^ to vanish, from 
udnuSy emptjr, vain. 

Evangelist, writer of a gospel. (F. - 
L. — Gk.) O. F. evangeliste. — L. euangei- 
ista.m,Gk, €va77€Xi<TTiJs. — Gk. €vo77€A/- 
(ofjim, I bring good news. — Gk. cS, well ; 
d77€Aia, tidings, from dyj^Xos, a mes- 
senger ; see Angel. 

Evaporate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
iuapordrcj to pass off in vapour. — L. e^ 
out ; uapor, vapour. 

Evasion ; see Evade. 

Eve, Even, the latter part of the day. 
(E.) Eve is short for even, (For evening^ 
see below.) M. E. eue, euen, A. S. S/en, 
efen.'^O. Sax. dtand^ Du. avond, G. abend. 
Of doubtful origin. Der. even-tide^ A. S. 
&fentid, Brugm. i. § 980. 

evening, even. (E.) M.E. euening, 
A. S. &fnung ; formed from St/nian^ to 
grow towards evening, with suffix 'Ung\ 
from Sbfen^ even (above). 

Even, level. (E.) ^.Yj. euen {even), 
A. S. efen^ ^.4"Du. «'^«,Icel./a/w, Dan. 
jcEvn^ Swed.yflW«, Goth, ibns^ G. eben. 

Event, result. (L.) L. euentus, euen- 
tum^ sb. — L. euentusy pp. of euentre^ to 
come out, result.— L. ^, out; uenire^ to 
come, allied to Come. 

I - 



% (E.) M. E. euer (ever), A. S. 
afre,tytv. Related to A.S. 5, Goth, aiw, 
ever. Der. ever-lasting^ ever-more, 

every, each one. (E.) M. E. eturi^ 
euerich. — A. S. afre^ ever ; and alc^ each. 
Ever-y = ever-each ; see Each. 

everywhere. (E.) M. E. eueri- 

hwar. — A. S. afrey ever ; gekw^, where. 
The word really stands for ever-ywhere^ 
i. e. ever- where ; j/- is a prefix {=ge-). 

Evict. (L.) From L. euict-uSf pp. of 
guincere^ to evmce; also, to expel. See 

Evident. (F. — L.) O. F. evident.^ 
L. etiident'y stem of euidens^ visible, pres. 
pt. of euidere^ to see clearly. —L. /, out, 
clearly ; uidere, to see. 

Evil. (E.) M. E. euel. A. S. yfel, adj. 
and sb.+Du. euvel^ G. iibelj Goth, ubils. 
Tent, type *ubiloz, Prob. allied to over 
(G. uber)y as meaning 'excessive.* 

Evince. (L-) L* euincere, to conquer, 
to prove beyond doubt. —L. tf, out, ex- 
tremely ; uincere, to conquer. 

Eviscerate, to gut. (L.) From pp. 

of L. euiscerdre^ to gut. — L. ^, out ; 
uiscera, entrails. 

Evoke. (F.— L.) F. 4voquer, -L. Euo- 
cdre^ to call forth. —L. ^, forth; uocdre^ to 
call. See Vocal. 

Evolve. (L.) ,L. iuoluere^ to unroll, 
disclose. — L. /, out ; uoluere, to roll. Der. 
evolut-ion^ from pp. euolutus. 

Ewe. (E.) M. E. ewe, A. S. ewe^ 
Laws of Ine, 55 ; eowu^ a female sheep. 4- 
Dn. ooiy Icel. or, M. H. G. ouwe ; Lithuan. 
oz'M', a sheep^ Russ. ovtsa^ L. ^//f>, Gk. 6iSy 
O. Irish ^J ; Skt. avi-, a sheep. Cf. Goth. 
awi'Str, a sheep-fold. 

Ewer. (F.— L.) M. E. «ef^f. — A. F. 
rtc/^r, *eweire ; spelt ««;^r, Royal Wills, 
pp. 24, 27. — L. aquarium, a vessel for 
water ; cf. A. F. ezve, water; mod. F. eau. 
— L. aqua^ water. 

Ex-, E-, prefix, (L.) L. ex, /, out. + 
Gk. ki€t i^. out; Russ. fV, Lith. isz. 

EKacerbate, to embitter. (L.) From 
pp. of exacerbare, to irritate. — L. eXj very; 
acerbuSy bitter ; see Acerbity. 

Exact (0} precise. (L.) From L. ex- 
actus, pp. of exigere, to drive out, weigh 
out. -"L. ex, out; and agere^ to drive. 

exact (2) , to demand. (F. — L.) From 
M. F. exacter; Cot. (obsolete). — Late L. 
exae/dre.'^L, ex, out; and a^tus, pp. of 
a^ere (above). 

(L.) From pp. of L. 


exaggerdre, to heap up, amplify.— L. ex, 
very ; ags^r, a heap, from ag- = ad, to ; 
gerere, to bring. 

Exalt. (F. - L.) F. exalter. - L. exal- 
tare, to lift out, exalt. — L. ex, out ; aitus^ 

Examine, to test. (F.-L.) F. ex- 
aminer. mm\_„ exdmindre, to weigh care- 
fully. — L. exdmin-, stem of exdmen, the 
tongue of a balance, for *exdgmen ; cf. 
exigere, to weigh out.— L. ex, out ; agere, 
to drive, move. Brugm. i. § 768. 

Example. (F. — L.) O.Y, example \ 
F. exemple,^\u, exemplum, a sample.— L. 
exim-ere, to take out ; with suffix -luvt ; 
for the inserted p cf. the pp. exem-p-tus, — 
L. ex, out ; emere, to take, procure. 

Exasperate, to provoke. (L.) From 
the pp. of exasperdre^ to roughen,' provoke. 
— L. ex, very ; asper, rough. 

Excavation. (F.-L.) F. excava- 
tion,^\.. ace. excaudtionem, a hollowing 
out. — L. excaudtus, pp. of excaudre, to 
hollow out. — L. ex, out; caudre, to hol- 
low, from cauus, hollow. 

Exceed. (F.— L.) O.Y,exceder.^'L, 
excedere^ lit. to go out, — L, ex^ out ; 
cedere, to go. 

Excel, to surpass. (F. — L.) O. F. ex^ 
celler, — L. excellere, to rise up, surpass. 

— L. ex, out ; *cellere, to rise, only in 
comp. ante-, ex-fpra-cellere, and in cel-sus, 
high, orig. 'raised.* Cf. Lithuan. k^lti, 
to raise ; see Hill. Brugm. i. § 633. 

Except, to exclude. (F.— L.) ¥» ex- 
ceptery to except ; Cot. — L. exceptdre, 
frequent, of excipere, to take out. — L. ex, 
out; capere, to take. Der. except, prep. ; 

Excerpt, a selected passage. (L.) L. 
excerptum, an extract ; neut. of pp. of 
excerpere, to select- L. ex, out; carpere, 
to cull. See Harvest. 

Excess. (F.— L.) O. F. exces,^\.. 
ace. excessum, lit. a going out or beyond. 
— L. excess-y as in excessus, pp. of excc' 
dere\ see Exceed. 

Exchange. (F.— L.) 0,¥.esckange, 
sb. ; eschangier, vb., to exchange. —O.F. 
es- (< L. ex) ; and O. F. change, sb., 
changier, to change. See Change. 

Exclieq,ner, a court of revenue. (F. — 
Pers.) M. E. eschekere,^0. F. eschequier, 
a chess-board; hence, a checkered cloth 
on which accounts were reckoned by means 
of counters (Low L. scaccdrium),^0, F. 
eschec, check ; see Check. 



hemielin), — O. H. G. karmoy an ermine. 
•^A.S.hearma; Lithuan.jazrwS, a weasel. 
^But Hatzfeld supports the derivation from 
Armenius muSf an Armenian mouse ; cf. 
Ponticus mils^ supposed to be an ermine. 

ZSrode. (F. — L.) F. iroder.^'L. ero- 
dere, to eat away. — L. ^, out ; rddere^ to 
gnaw. Der. eros-ion (from pp. iros-us). 

XSrotic. (Gk.) Gk. l/wTt'cos, relating 
to love. — Gk. kpojTi'f crude form of l/wwy, 
love ; allied to ipapLox, I love. 

ZSrr, to stray. (F. — L.) M. E. erren, — 
O. F. errer.'^'L. errdre, to wander (for 
*ers-are).^G. irren, to stray, Goth, airz- 
jatit to make to stray. Brugm. i. § 878. 

erratnxu, an error. (L.) L. errd,- 
tum^ neut. of" pp. of errare^ to make a 

erroneous, faulty. (L.) Put for L. 
errone-us, wandering ; with suffix -ous. — 
L. errdre (above). 

error. (F. — L.) M. E. errour, — 
O. F. tfrr(^«r.— L. errdrem, ace. of erroTy 
a mistake. —L. errdre (above). . 

Erri^d. (E.) M. E. erende, A. S. 
drende, a message, business. ^O. Sax. 
drundi, O. H. G. dntntii a message ; cf. 
Icel. eyrendiy orendi, Swed. drende, Dan. 
oerende. Usually connected with A. S. dr, 
Icel. drry Goth, airus^ a messenger; which 
is hardly possible. 

Errant, wandering. (F. — L.) F. ^r- 
ranty pres. pt. of O. F. errer^ eirer, to 
wander. — Late L. iterdre^ to travel. — L. 
iter^ a journey. ^ It sometimes repre- 
sents the pres. pt. of errdre^ to wander. 
Doublet, arrant. 

Erratum, Erroneous, Error ; 

see Err. 

Erst ; see Ere. 

Erubescent. (L.) L. erubescent-, 
stem of pres. pt. of erubescere, to grow red. 
— L. ^, out, much; rubeschre, to grow red, 
inceptive form of rubere^ to be red. See 

Eructate. (L.) From pp. of L. iruc- 
tdre, to belch out. — L. e, out; ructdre^ 
to belch ; allied to e-rugere, to belch ; cf. 
Gk. kpevy€a0ai. Brugm. i. § 221. 

Erudite, learned. (L.) L. eruditus, 
pp. of erudtre^ to free from rudeness, to 
teach. — L. e, from; rudis, rude. 

Eruption. (L.) From L. Sruptidnem, 
ace. of eruptio, a breaking out. — L. eruptus, 
pp. of erumpere, to break out.— L. S, out; 
rumpere, to break. See Bupture. 

Erysipelas, a redness on the skin. 


(L. — Gk.) L. erysipelas. — Gk. hpyaintXas^ 
redness on the skin. — Gk. ipv<rt-y allied to 
4pv$-p6sj red; iriXKa, skin. Cf. ipvaifirj, 
red blight on corn. 

Escalade, a scaling of walls. (F.— 
Span. — L.) F. escalade. — Span, escalado, 
escalada, a scaling ; from escalar, to scale. 

— Span, escala^ a ladder. — L. scdla^ a 
ladder ; see Scale (3). Cf. Ital. scalata^ 
an escalade ; Florio also has ' Scalada, 
an escalado/ from Spanish. 

Escape. (F.—L.) M. £. escapen.^ 
O. 'i^orthY.escaper (F. Mapper) ^io escape, 
lit. to slip out of one's cape; Picard Reaper, 

— L. ex cappd^ out of one's cape; see 
Cape (i). 

Escarpment. (F.-Ital.-Teut.) F. 

escarpement. Formed from F. escarpe, a 
scarp ; with suffix -ment (L. 'inentitni) ; 
see Scarp. 
Escheat. (F. — L.) M. E. eschele 
(also chete\ a forfeit to the lord of the fee. 

— O. F. eschete, rent, that which falls to 
one, orig. fem. pp. of escheoir (F. ichoir). 

— Late L. excadere, to fall to one's share. 
— L. eXy out; and cadere, to fall. Hence 

Eschew, to shun. (F. — O. H. G.) 
M. E. eschewen. — O. F. esckiver, eschever, 
to shun. — O. H. G. sciuhan, to frighten, 
also to fear.- O. H. G. *scioh, M. H. G. 
schiechf shy, timid. See Shy. 

Escort, a guide, guard. (F. — Ital. - L.) 
O.F. escarte.^lXsX, scoria, a guide; fem. 
of pp. of scorgere^ to see, perceive, guide 
(orig. to set right). - L. ex, entirely ; 
corrigere, to correct ; see Correct. 

Escrow, a deed delivered on condition. 
(F. — Teut.) A. F. escrouwe, M. E. scroue, 
scrowe ; the orig. word of which scro-ll is 
the diminutive. — O. F. escroe, a slip of 
parchment. — M. Du. schroode, a shred, slip 
of paper (Kilian) ; cf. O. H. G. scrot, a 
shred. See Shred and Scroll. 

Escuage, a pecuniary satisfaction in 
lieu of feudal service. (F. — L.) O.F. 
escuage < Late L. scutdgium. Formed 
with suffix -age from O. F. escu, a shield ; 
because escuage was first paid in lieu of 
service in the field. —L. scutum, a shield. 

Esculent, eatable. (L.) L. esculentus, 
fit for eating. — L. isca, food. For *ed-sca, 
— L. edere, to eat. Brugm. i. § 753. 

Escutcheon, Scuteheon, a painted 

shield. (F. — L.) Formerly escochon ; 
XV cent.; A. F. escuchon.^0. North ¥. 
escuchon, O. F. escusson, the same; answer- 




ing to a Late L. ace. *scutidnemj extended 
from L. scutum, a shield. 

EsopliagllS, gullet. (L.-Gk.) Late 
L. asophagus, — Gk. oXtjo^foiy the gullet, 
lit. conveyer of food. — Gk. oXao- (of doubt- 
ful origin) : ^07-, base of ^7crK, to eat. 

Esoteric. (Gk.) Gk. iffwrtpinSs, 
inner ; hence, secret, -i Gk. ka^rtpos, inner, 
comp. of iffo), adv., -within; from Is=c2s, 
into, prep. Opposed to exoteric. 

Espalier, frame-work for training trees. 
(F. - Ital. - L. - Gk.) M.F. e5pallier\ 
Cot. — Ital. spallieray back of a chair, sup- 
port, espalier. »Ital. spalla, shoulder. »L. 
spatula ; see Epaulet. 

Especial. (F.-L.) O. F. especial,^ 
L. specialist belong to a special kind.— L. 
species, a kind. Doublet, special, 

Espionaffe ; see Espy. 

Esplanade, a level space. (F.— Ital. 

— L.) M. F. esplanade J *a planing, level- 
ling, evenning of ways ; ' Cot. Formed 
from O. F. esplaner, to level; the suffix 
being due to an imitation of Ital. spianata, 
an esplanade, a levelled way ; from spia- 
nare, to level. —L. expl&ndre^ to level.— 
L. ex^ out; pldndre, to level, from planus, 
flat. See Plain. 

Espouse. (F.— L.) O. F. espouser, to 
espouse, wed.— L. sponsdre^ to betroth.— 
L. sponsus, pp. of spondire, to promise. 
See Spouse, Sponsor. 

Espy,tospy,see. (F.-O.H.G.) M. E. 
espyen.^Q,Y, espieK^O. H. G. spelion 
(G. spdhen), to spy ; see Species. Der. 
espv-on-age, F. espionnage, from M. F. 
espiatt, a spy, borrowed from ItaL spione, 
a spy, from O. H. G. spehon, to spy. 

ASqnire, a shield-bearer. (F. — L.) 
M. E. squyer, — O. F. escuyer, escuier, a 
squire. —Late L. scUt&rius, a shield-bearer. 

— L. scut'um, a shield, cover (F. dcu). 
(VSKEU.) Brugm. i. § 109. Doublet, 

Essav, Assay, an attempt, trial. 
(F. — L.y O. F. essai^ a trial. — L. exagium, 
a trial of weight ; cf. exdvun^ a weighing, 
a swarm.- L. ex, out; ag-ere, to drive, 
impel, move. (y'AG.) 

Essence, a quality, being. (F.-L.) 
F. essetue — L. essentia^ a being. — L. *es' 
sent', fictitious stem of pres. pt. of esse, 
to be. Der. essenti-al ; and see etttity. 

Essoin, an excuse for not appearing in 
court. (F.-L. a«//Teut.) 0,¥, essoine, 
M. F. exoine, * an essoine, or excuse ; ' Cot. 
— O. F. essonier^ to excuse (Godefioy).— 

O. F. es- (L. ex), away ; and Low L. 
sunnia, O. H. G. sunne (for *sufuljd, 
Braune, xiv. 9), lawful excuse. Cf. Goth. 
sunjon sik^ to excuse oneself, ga-sunjon, 
to justify, from sunja, truth; Skt. satja-, 
true. Brugm. i. § 287. 

Establish. (F.-L.) M. £. establis- 
sen.^0. F. estadliss-, base of pres. pt. of 
establir, to establish. — L. stabilire, to 
establish.— L. stabilis, firm; see Stable 

Estate. (F.-L.) O.F. estate \., 
statum, ace. of status, state ; see State. 

Esteem, to value. (F.-L.) O.F. 
estimer.^V,. astimdre, O. L. astumdre, to 
value. Allied to Goth, aistan, to regard. 
Brugm. ii. § 692. 

estimate. (L.) From pp. of L. cesti- 
mare, to value (above). 

Estop, to bar. (F. — L.) The same as 

Estovers, supplies of various neces- 
saries. (F. — L.) A. F. estovers, M. E. 
stovers, \i\. oi stover; see Stover. 

Estrange, to make strange. (F.-L.) 
O.F. estranger, to make strange. — O. F. 
estrange^ strange.- L. extrdneum^ ace. of 
extrdneus, foreign, on the outside. — L. 
extrd, without ; see Extra. 

Estreat, a true copy, in law. (F.— L.) 
Lit. * extract.' A. F. estrete^ fem. of pp. 
of estraire, to extract. — L. extrcuta, fem. 
of pp. of extrahere ; see Extract. 

Estuary, mouth of a tidal river. (L.) 
L. astudrtum, the same. — L. astudre, to 
surge, foam as the tide. — L. astus, heat, 
surge, tide. Allied to Ether. 

Etcll, to engrave with acids. (Du. — G.) 
Du. etsen, to etch. — G. dtzen, to corrode, 
etch; orig. *to make to eat;' causal of 
G. essen, to eat. See Eat. 

Eternal. (F.— L.) M. £. etcmel.^ 
O.F etemcl^l^, atemdlis, eternal. —L. 
atemuSy lit. lasting for an age; for aui- 
temus. — L. aui-, for auum, an age. See 

Ether, pure upper air. (L. — Gk.) 
L. cether.'^Gk, cdSrjp, upper air; from 
its brightness. — Gk. aWttv, to glow. 
(VAIDH.) Brugm. i. § 202. 

Ethic, relating to morals. (L. — Gk.) 
L. ethicus, moral. —Gk. i}0(«<$s, moral.— 
Gk. ^Ow, custom, moral nature ; cf. lOos^ 
manner, custom. Hh Skt. svadhd-, self-will, 
strength, from sva, self, dhd, to place ; cf. 
Goth, sidus, G. sitte^ custom. 

Ethnic, relating to a nation. (L. — Gk.) 



make fiiU trial of.^L. ex, thoroughly; 
and *perirtf an obs. vb. of which the pp. 
perltus is common. See Feiil. 

Expiate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
pire, to atone for fully. — L. ex^ fully; 
piarCy to propitiate, from plus, devout. 

Expire. (F.-L.) O.F. expirer.^l.. 
expirdrcy txspirare^ to breathe out, die. — 
L. eXt out ; sptrare, to breathe. 

Explain. (F.— L.) M. F. explaner, 
Cot. — L. expldndre, to make plain. — L. ex^ 
thoroughly ; pldndre, to make plain, lit. to 
flatten, from pldnus^ flat. See Plain. 

Expletive. (L.) L. expletluus, filling 
up. — L. explitus, pp. of explere, to fill 
up. — L. ex, fully ; pilre, to fill. See 

Explicate, to explain. (L.) From 
pp. of L. explicdre^ to unfold, explain.— 
L. ex^ out ; plic&re^ to fold. 

explicit. (1^0 L* explicituSy old pp. 
oi explic&re^ to unfold, make plain (above). 
Cf. F. explicite. 

ExplodCi to drive away noisily, burst. 
(F. — L.) M. F. exploder, *to explode, 
publicly to disgrace or drive out ; * Cot. — 
L. explsdere (pp. expUfsus), to drive off 
the stage by noise (the old sense in £.). 

— L. eXy away; plddere, plaudere^ to 
clap hands. Ber. explos-ive, -ion, from 
the pp. 

Exploit. (F.-L.) M.E. esploif, suc- 
cess, Cjower, C. A. ii. 258. — O. F. esploit^ 
revenue, profit ; later, an exploit, act. — L. 
explicitum, a thing settled, ended, or dis- 
played ; neut. of explicitus\ see explioit. 
Cf. Late L. explicta, revenue. 

Explore. (F.— L.) F. explorer, ^^1^, 
expldrdre, to search out, lit. to make to flow 
out. — L. ex^ out ; plorare^ to make to flow. 
Cf. de-plore, im-plore* Brugm. i. $ 154. 

Exponent. (L.) L. exponent-, stem 
of pres. pt. of expdnere, to expound, indi- 
cate. — L. ex, out ; pdnere, to put. 

Export. (L.) L. export&re, to carry 
away. — L. ex, away ; portdre^ to carry. 

Expose. (F.-L. a»^ Gk.) 0.¥, ex- 
poser, to lay out. — O. F. ex- (L. ex), out ; 
'P^oser, to place, lay. See Pose (i). 

Exposition. (F.-L.) F. exposition, 

— L. ace. expositidnem.^h, exposUus, pp. 
of expdnere y to set forth, expound. See 

Expostnlate. (L.) From pp. of \. 
expostuldre, to demand earnestly.— L. ^j:, 
fully ; postuldre, to ask. 

Expound. (L.) The d is excrescent. 


but was suggested by the form of the O. F. 
infinitive. M. E. expounen, — O. F. es- 
pondre, to explain. — L. expdnere, to set 
forth, explain. — L. ex, out; pdnere, to 
put. See Exposition. 

Express, adj., exactly stated. (F. — L.) 
O.F. expres.'^L. expressus, distinct; pp. 
of exprimere, to press out. — L. ex^ out; 
premere, to press ; see Press. 

Expulsion; see Expel. 

Expnnge. (L.) L. expungere, to 
prick out, blot out. [In MSS., expunction- 
of a word is denoted by dots under »/.] — L. 
ex, out; pungere, to prick. Der. ex- 
punct-ion, from the pp. expunctus. 

Expurgate. (L.) Prom pp. of L. 
expurgdre, to purify thoroughly. — L. ex, 
thoroughly ; purgdre, to purge, purify ; see 

Exquisite, sought out, excellent. (L.) 
L. exqutsitus, pp. of exquirere, to seek 
out. — L. eXy out ; quarere, to seek. 

Exsequies; see Exequies. 

Extanty existing. (L.) Late L. ex- 
tant-, stem of extans, for exstans, pres. pt. 
of exstdre, to stand forth, exist. — L. ex, 
out ; stdre, to stand. 

Extasy ; see Ecstasy. 

Extempore. (L.) From L. ex tem- 
pore, at the moment. — L. ^:ir, from, out of; 
tempore, abl. oitempus, time. 

Extend. (L.) M. £. extenden.^la, 
extendere, to stretch out; j^p. extentus, 
extensus.'^'L. ex, out ; tendere, to stretch. 
Der. extens-ion, -ive (from the pp.). 

extent. (F.— L.) O. F. extente, 
commonly estente, extent. — Late L. ex- 
tenta^ fem. of extentus, pp. of extendere 

Extenuate. (L.) Frompp.ofL. ^jr- 
tenudre, to thin, reduce, palliate.- L. ex, 
out, very ; tenu-is, thin. See Thin. 

Exterior, outward. (F.— L.) For- 
merly exteriour, — M. F. exterieur. — L. ex- 
teridrem, ace. of exterior, outward, com- 
parative of exterus or exter, outward. — L. 
ex, out ; with compar. suffix -tero-. 

Exterminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

extermindre, to put or drive beyond 
bounds.— L. ex, out; terminus, hovxAm, 

External, outward. (L.) From L. 
extem-us, outward, extended form from 
exterus, outward. See Exterior. 

Extinguish. (L.) Coined, with suffix 
-ishfiiom. L. extinguere,\ittitt exstinguere 
(pp. extinctus, exstinctus), to quench.— 
L. ex, out ; *stinguere, to prick, also to 




quench. "Der. extinct (from ^i^.extitjcius). 
Cf. Distinguish. 

Extirpate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
tirp&re^ to root out, better spelt exsitrp- 
drCy to pluck up by the stem. — L. eXy out ; 
stirp-s, stirp-es^ the stem of a tree. 

Extol. (L.) L. extollere, to lift or 
raise up. — L. ex, out, up ; tollere, to lift. 

Extort. (L.) L. extort-us, pp. of ex- 
torqtiSrey to twist out, wring out. — L. ex,^ 
out ; torquere, to twist. 

Extra. (L.) L. extrdy beyond, beyond 
what is necessary ; O. L. extrad, allied to 
L. exter ; see Szterior. 

extraneous. (L.) L. extrane-us, 
external, with suffix -ous ; extended from 
extra (above). Cf. Strange. 

Extract, vb. (L.) L. extrcut-us, pp. 
of extraherey to draw out. — L. exy out; 
trahere, to draw. 

Extraordinary. (L.) lu.extrd'crdi- 

ndrius, beyond what is ordinary, rare. — L. 
extra, beyond ; ordindrius, ordinary. See 

E xtravagant. (F.-L.) F. ^jf/ra- 

vagant.^ljgXQ L. extrdvagant-, stem of 
extrdvagans, extravagant, lit. wandering 
beyond. — L. extrdy beyond; uagans, pres. 
pt. of uagdrt, to wander. 

ExtravasatOf to force (blood) out of 

its (proper) vessel. (L.) Coined from 
exfrdt beyond ; udSf a vessel ; with suffix 

Extreme. (F. — L.) 0,F, extreme. -^ 
L. extremuSf superl. of exterus, outward ; 
see Exterior. 

Extricate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
trlcdre, to disentangle. — L. eXy out of; 
tric(By impediments, perplexities. 

ExtrinsiCy external. (F.— L.) It should 
rather be extrinsec^O, F. extrinseque, 
outward. —Late L. ace extrinsecum, auj. ; 
allied to L. extrinsecusy adv., from without. 
— L. extrin { = *extrim)y adverbial form 
from exter^ outward ; and secus, beside; 
so that extrin-secus^oa the outside; cf. 
interim. Secus is allied to secundum, 
according to, from sequty to follow; see 

Extmde. (L.) L. extmderey to 
thrust out. — L. eXy out ; trudere, to 
thrust. Cf. Intrude. 

Exuberant. (L.) From stem of pres. 
pt. of L. exUberdrCy to be fruitful or 
luxuriant. — L. ex, very ; and Oberdre, to be 
fruitful, from uber, fertile, allied to Hbery 
an udder, fertility ; see Udder. 

Exnde. (L.) From L. exaddre, better 
exsUddrCy to sweat out, distil. — L. ex, out ; 
suddrcy to sweat. See Sweat. 

ExiQt, to leap for joy. (F.-L.) F. 
exuiter.^h, exultdre, better ^pelt exsul- 
tdrCy to leap up, exult. — L. exsulius, pp. 
of exsilere, to leap out — L. ex^ out ; satire, 
to leap. See Salient. 

ExnviSB, cast skins of animals. (L.) 
L. exuuia, things stripped off. — L. exuere, 
•to strip off. Cf. induuice, clothes. 

EyaiS, a nestling. i^F.-L.) Yox nias', 
by substituting an eyas for a nias.^F, 
niais, a nestling ; Cot. He also gives 
niard, yfhGnci&faulcon niard, * a nias faul- 
con.' Cp. Ital. nidiace, or nidaso falcone, 
* an eyase-hawk, a young hawk taien out 
of her nest; * Torriano. Formed as if from 
Late L. *ntddcem, ace. of *nTdax, adj. 
from L. nidus, a nest. See Nest. 

Eye. (E.) M.E. eye, eighe; pi. eyes, 
eyen (whence eyne), O. Merc, ege-, A. S. 
eage, pi. eagan.'\'T>Vi. oog, Icel. auga, Dan. 
die, Swed. oga, Goth, augo, G. auge. 
Perhaps allied to Russ. oko, L. oculus 
(dimin. of *ocus) ; Gk. ocae (dual) ; Lith. 
akis, Skt. akshi. Brugm. i. § 68 1. Der. 
dais-y, q. v. ; window, q. v. 

Eyelet-hole. (F.-L.; and E.) 
Eyelet is for M. E. oilet, from M. F. 
oeillet, *■ a little eye, an oilet hole,* Cot. ; 
dimin. of O. F. oeil, from L. oculum, ace. 
q{ oculus, eye. 

Eyotf a little island. (E.) Also spelt 
ait, eyet, eyght. Late A. S. yget (Kemble, 
Cod. Dipl. V. 17, I. 30); for A.S. tgo6, 
tgeod, a dimin. from ig, teg, an island ; see 

Eyre, a circuit. (F.— L.) "M.E, eire, 
circuit, esp. of a judge. — O. F. eire, 
journey, way. — O. F. etrery to journey, 
wander about. — Late L. iterdrCy to journey 
(for L. itinerdre) ; from L. iter, a journey. 
See Errant. 

P a nest ; see Aery. 


Fable, a story. (F. - L.) F. fable. - 
la.filbttla, a narrative. — L._/S-ri, to speak, 
tell. See Fate. 

Fabric. (F. — L.) Y. fabrique.^lj, 

fabrica, workshop, fabric. — L. fabri', for 

faber, a workman. From L. base ^fab-, 

to be skilful ; cf. Lith. dab-inii, I adorn, 



clean ; Goth, ga-dab-ithy it is 6t ; Rnss. 
dod-ruiij good. See Deft. Der. fabric- 
ate J from pp. of 'L./abricdrt, to construct ; 
ixomfabrica (above). Brugm. i. § 563. 
Fa9aide, face of a building. (F.— Ital. 

— L.) M. ¥. facade (Cot.). — IXsX.facciatay 
face of a building. — Ital.y^fw, face.— 
Folk-L. y^iVi, for \j,faciS5 (below). 

face. (F. - L.) F. face. - Folk-L. 
fcu:iay for l^.faciis, the face, appearance. 
Facetions. (F.-L.) F. facitieux 
(Cot.). — M. Y.facetief * witty mirth,' id. — 
L. faceiia^ wit ; common in pi. — L. face- 
tuSy witty, courteous ; orig. * fine.' 

Facile, easy to do. (F. — L.) F. 
facile. — \j.facilisy i. e. do-able. '»'L,facerey 
to do. Der. facility ; faculty, 

fac-sixnile. (L.) For fac similcy 
make thou like. — L.^or, imp. s. oi facerey 
to make ; simiUy neut. of similisy like ; 
see Similar. <^f We also find factum 
similey i. e. made like. 

fact, a deed, reality. (L.) L. factum y 
a deed ; orig. neut. oifactusy pp. oifacerey 
to make, do. 

faction. (F. — L.) Y./dctiotty a sect. 

— L. factionemy ace. of /actio, a doing, 
taking part, faction. —L. foetus y pp. of 
facerCy to do. 

£EU;titi0U8. (L.) 'L.factiii-us, artifi- 
^ cial; with suffix -^«j. — L. foetus y pp. of 
' focerCy to make. 

factotum. (L.) A general agent.— 
'L.fac{ere) tdtrntiy to do everything: 

faculty, facility to act. (F.-L.) 
M. E. facultee.^Y, fcuultS.^'L. faculta- 
tcMy ace. oi facultcu {—facilitas\ facility. 
'^'L^faciliSy easy ; see Facile. 
Pad, a folly. (F.-Prov.-L.) Ap- 
parently shortened from Y.fadaisey fiddle- 
faddle; cf.*^flfej«, follies, toyes, fooleries ;* 
Cot.-Prov. fadezay folly (Hatzfeld).- 
Vroy.fot (Gascon^/^),foolish. — l^.fatuus, 
Fade, vb. (F. — L. ) O. F. fader ; from 
F. fodcy adj., tasteless, weak, faint. — L. 
uapidumy ace. of ucipidus, vapid. See 
Vapid. % VadCy {ox fade, is from M. Du. 
vadden ; from O. Y, fader, 

Fadge, to fit, suit, be content with, 
succeed. (E.) Formed, in some unex- 
plained way, from the Teut. base fc^-y to 
suit, whence also O. Sax. fogiatiy A. S. 
figaity to join, suit, M. E. fe^eUy to adapt, 
fit, G. filgeuy Du. voegen (see Kluge and 
Franck). Cf. Goth, fulla-fahjany to 
satisfy, O. H. 0,^gifagy content, Du. vage- 



fuur, cleansing fire, purgatory. See 

Fieces. (L.) L. fcedSy dregs; pi. of 
fcBXy the same. "D&r. fec-ulent, L./tsc-u- 
lentuSy adj. from fcex. 

Faff, to drudge. (E.?) ^Tofagy defi- 
cere ; Levins (1570% The orig. sense was 
*to droop.' Perhaps a corruption oiflag\ 
see Flag (i) ; and see below. 

Fag-end, remnant. (E.?) In Mas- 
singer, Virg. Mart. ii. 3. Perhaps for 
flag-end =\oosc end ; see above. Cf. * the 
flagg or ihefaggfcderis ' (feathers) ; Book 
of St. Albans, fol. B ia» 

Fanrgot, Fagot. (F.-Ital.-L.?) 

F. fagot y * a fagot, a bundle of sticks ; ' 
Cot. Of doubtful origin; perhaps bor- 
rowed from \\.2\, fagottOy * a faggot,' Florio; 
a dimin. from L fag-us, a beech-tree 

Fail. (F.-L.) ¥, faillir-y cf. Ital. 
ya///r^. — Folk-L. *fallirey forL.fallere, to 
beguile, also, to be defective ; fallf, to err. 
Brugm. i. § 757. 

Fain. (E.) M,E.fayn. A.S.fagcfty 
glad.+O. Sax. ya^«. Ice), feginfty glad. 
Cf. A. S. gefeon (pt. t. gefeak), to rejoice. 
Teut. root *feh-, as in A. S. ^-fion (for 
*'feh-an) ; cf. Goth, foh-ethsy joy. 

Faint. (F.-L.) M.E. /««/.- O. F. 

feinty weak, pretended; orig. pp. of 

feindrey to feign. — L. ^«^r^, to form, 

feign. See Figure. 

Fair (i), pleasing, beautifiil. (E.) 

M. Y,fayry A. S. fcegery fair.-flcel. fagr\ 

Dan. Swed.^^.?^, Go\.\\,fagrs^ fit,O.H.G. 

fagar. Teut. type *fagroz, Cf. Gk. ir^- 
vv/*i, I fasten. Brugm. i. §§ 300, 701. 
Fair (2), a holiday. (F.-L.) M. E. 

feire* — A. F. feire (F. foire), — "L-feria, a 
holiday, later, a fair; commoner as pi. 

fericBy for *feS'iay feast-days; allied to 
Feast. Bnigm. ii. § 66. 

Fairy. (F.-L.) 'M.Y^faerieyfayryey 
enchantment. [The mod. use of the word 
is new ; fairy == enchantment, the old 
word for * elf* being fay J] — O. F. faeney 
enchantment. — O. Y.faey a fay; see Fay. 
Faith. (F.-L.) M. E. feith'y also 

fey. Slightly altered from O. F. feid, fei, 
fiiiih.^L.fdem, ace. oi fides y faith ; allied 
to fidere, to trust. Cf. Gk. triansy faith. 
(VBHEIDH.) Allied to Bide. Brugm. 
i. § 202. 

Falchion, a sword. (F. — Ital. — L.) 
M. E. fauchon, — O. F. fauchon. — Ital. 

falcione {ci pron. as rA). — Late V,, falcio- 




nem^ ace. oi falcio, a bent sword. — L. 
falci; decl. stem of/a/or, a sickle. Allied 

Xojlectere^ to bend. 

falcon. (F. - L.) M. K faucon, - 

O. Y.fauconyfaulcon.^LAit L. falconem, 

ace. oi falco, a falcon, so named from its 

hooked claws.— L.^A--, stem oi falx, a 

Faldstool, a folding-stool. (Low L.— 

O. H. G.) Low 'L. faldistolium, — O. H. G. 
fald-an, to fold ; stuol (G. stuhl), a stool. 

Cf. Y.fauteuil, See Fold. 
Fall, to drop down. (E.) M. ^, fallen. 

O. Merc, fallan ; A. %.feallan,'^\^Vi. Val- 
letta lce\. /alia, Dan. /aide (for^//<f),Swed. 
/alia, G. /alien. Teut. */allan-. Cf. Lith. 
puUi, to fall ; and perhaps L. /allere, to 

deceive, /allt, to err. Brugm. i. § 7C7. 

Der. be/all, from A. S. be/eallan, to fall, 

out, happen ; y^// (i). 
Fallacy. (F.-L.) Formed by adding 

-y to M. E. /allace, a fallacy, deceit. — F. 
/allace.^'L, /allacia, deceit. —L. /alloc-, 

stem ol/allax, deceitful. — L. /allere, to 

deceive. See above. 
fallible. (L.) L. /allibilis, liable 

to err. — L. /allt, to err; /allere, to de- 
Fallow (i). orig. ' harrowed ; ' of land^ 

(E,) A.S. falging, fallow-land. —A. S. 
/ecUh, a harrow. Cf. E. Fries, /algen, to 

fallow land ; O. H. G,/elgd, a harrow. 
Fallow (2), used with reference to 

colour. (E.) O. Merc, /alu ; A. S. foalu, 
/ecUo, pale red, yellowish. +Du. vaal, Icel. 
filr, pale, G. jahl, pale, also /alb ; Lith. 
palvas\ cf. also L. pallidus, Gk. ito\i6s, 

gray, Skt./a/fVtf-, gray. See Pale. • 

False. (F.-L.) M. p:. /als. - O. F. 
yb/j (¥. /aux).^!!, /al^us, false; pp. of 
/allere, to deceive. 

Falter, to totter, stammer. (E. ?) 

M. E. /altren, to totter; frequentative 

from a base jaJt-, Of obscure origin. 

Perhaps connected with Icel. refl. vb. 

/altra-sk, to be cumbered, to be puzzled. 

Fame, report. (F. - L.) F. fame, - L. 
/Stna, report. — L. /&ri, to speak ; see 

Family. (F.-L.) F. /amille. - L. 
/amilia, a household. — L. /amulus, a 
servant, Oscan /amel ; cf. Oscan /aamat, 
he dwells. "Det./amili-ar (L. /amiliHris), 

Famine. ( F. — L.) F. /amine, — Late 
L. */amTna, unrecorded, but plainly an 
extension from L. /ames, hunger. Der. 
/am-ish^ formed (by analogy with lan- 

guish, &c.) from L. /am-es, hunger; cf. 
O. F. a/amer, to die of hunger. 

Fan, an instrament for blowing. (L.) 
A. S.^««. — Late L. vannus, L. uannus, 
a fan (whence also F. van) ; see Van (2). 
Brugm. i. § 357. 

Fanatic, religiously insane. (F.-L.) 
¥,/anaiique,^lj,/dndticus, (i) belonging 
to a temple, (2) inspired by a divinity, 
enthusiastic— L. ^»2<m, a temple; see 

Fancy. (F. - L. - Gk.) . Short for M. E. 

/antasie. — O. F. /antasie, — Late L. phan- 

tasia.'^G]/:, <pavraaia, a making visible 

(hence, imagination).— Gk. ^pavra^Hv^ to 

display ; see Phantom. 

Fandango, a Spanish dance. (Span.) 
Span, /andango, * a dance used in the W. 
Indies ; * Pineda (1740). 

Fane« a temple. (L.) L. /dnum, a 
temple ; shortened from an earlier form 
*/asnom ; cf. Oscan /isnam, a temple ; 
allied to 'L,/istus,/eria, Brugm. ii. § 66. 

FanfarOi a flourish of trumpets. (F. — 
Span. ?) F. /an/are, Prob. of imitative 
origin, or borrowed from f^^tiVi,/an/arria, 
bluster, vaunting, which is of similar for- 
mation. "DeT./an/arr-ofi-ade, bluster. 

Fangf, a talon, claw. (E.) A. S,fang; 

lit. a seizing. — A. S. *folian, to seize, only 

used in the contracted form f^, pt. t. 

feng, pp. gefangen ; the pp. form having ' 

alone survived, evolving an infin. mood 

in dialects. 4- Du* vangen, to catch; Icel. 

fa (cf. fang, sb., a catch of fish), Dan. 

fctae, Swed.y3, Goth. ^Aa«, G.fangen, 

to catch, fang, sb., a catch, also a fang. 

Allied to L.pangere; Brugm. i. § 421. 

Fantastic. (Gk.) Gk, ipavTaariK^, 
able to represent or shew. — Gk. <pavTa(tiv, 
to display. See Fancy. 

Fantasy, older form of Fancy, q. v. 

Faquir, Faldir, an Oriental religious 
mendicant. (F. — Arab.) Y. faquir, fakir. 
^kTSih.faqtr, one of a religious order of 
mendicants; lit. 'poor, indigent;* Richard- 
son's Diet. p. 1096. 

Far. (E.) M. E./fr. A.S.^^r.+Du. 
ver, \zx^,fjarriy Syft6. ^'erran, adv., Dan. 
fjentyG. fem\ Goth. y&/rr«, adv. Allied 
to Gk. ttipoM, beyond ; Skt. paras^ beyond, 
para-, far. (VPER«) The zomT^. farther 
[for M. E. ferrer (i. e. far-er)"] is due to 
confusion 'w\t\i further, comp. of Forth. 
Farce. (F. — L.) The orig. sense is 
* stuffing * ; hence, a jest inserted into a 
comedy. — F. farce, stuffing, a farce. — F. 



farcir, to stuff. — L. ^rrfr(tf, to staff. 4-Gk. 
(ppdaattv (for *<ppdK-yuv)f to shut in. 

Fardel, & pack, bundle. (F.— Arab.) 
M. E. fardel. '-'O. F. fardel (F. fardeau). 
Dimin. of O. F. farde, a burden. Prob. 
from Arab, fardah, a package (Devic). 
Perhaps borrowed through Spanish ; cf. 
Spsn. fardel J fardOy a bundle. 

Fare, to travel, speed. (E.) A. S. 
faratiy to go, travel. + Du. varen, Icel. 
Swed. faray Dan. fare, G. fahren, Goth. 
faratty to go; Teut. ^faran- (pt. t. ^r). 
Cf. Gk. iToptvofiaiy I travel ; L. experlor, 
I pass through, Skt. /.;*, to bring over. 
{^PER,) Der. fare-welly i.e. may you 
speed well; tnoroughfarey a passage 
through; welfarey successful practice or 

Fanna, ground com. (L.) L. fariruiy 
meal. — L. fary a kind of grain ; allied to 
Barley. 'Der.farinaceouSy from 'L.fartnd- 
ceus, Brugm. i. § i8o. 

farrago. (L.) L. farrago, mixed 
food for cattle, a medley.— L.yar (gen. 
farr-is)y grain (above). 

Farm. (L.) yi.'E, ferme, [Cf. A. S. 

feorniy a feast, food, property, use.] — I^ate 

l^.firmay a feast, farm, tribute; fem. of L. 

firmusy durable. (From the fixed rent ; 

also food, from its support^ See Firm. 

Farrier. (F.— L.) Formerly yjfrr/>r, 
a worker in iron. — O. Y.ferrier (the same) . 
'^'L,ferrariuSy sl blacksmith.— L.y^rr«»?, 

Farrow, to litter pigs. (E.) From the 
sb. farrow y a litter of pigs. — A. S. fearhy 
a pig ; pi. fear as. + M. H. G. varchy a 
pig; (j.ferk-el\ h.poreus; see Fork. 

Farther; see Far. 

Farthing, fourth part of a penny. 
(E.) M. E.ferlkmg. A. S.ferfingyfeor- 
titngy older ioim. feorfling.^ A.. S. feor8-a, 
fourth; with dimin. suffix -ing or -Uing. 
Allied to A.S.feower, four. 

Farthingale, Fardingale, a 

hooped petticoat. (F. — Span. — L.) M. F. 
verdugalley ' a vardingall ; ' Cot. — Span. 
verdugadOy a farthingale, lit. 'provided 
with hoops.* — Span. verdugOy young shpot 
of a tree, rod, hoop. — Span, verdey green. 
— L. uiridisy green. See Verdant. 

Fascinate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

fascindrey to enchant. — L. fascinum, a 

Fascine, a bundle of rods. (F.— L.) 
F. fascine. — L. fascinay a bundle of twigs. 
^h.fasctSy a bundle. 


Fashion. (F. - L.) O. F. facem, 
fachotiy make, shape. — L.y&f//<7WOT, ace. 
olfactiOy a making ; see Faction. 

Fast (i), firm. (E.) A. S. /^j/.+Du. 
va^ty Dan. Swed. y^j/, Icel.yJw/r, G.fesl; 
Armen. Aasl. Der. fasl (2), fast (3). 
Brugm. ii, § 79. 

£eist (2), to abstain from food. (E.) 

A. S. fcestatiy orig. to make fast, observe, 

be strict ; from fasl ( above). +Du. vaslen, 

Dan. fasley Swed. and Icel. fasta, G. 

fasten ; Goth.faslafty to observe, fast 

fast (3), quick. (Scand.) A peculiar 
use of fast (i) above ; this use is Scand. 
Cf. Icel. drekka fasty to drink hard, sofa 
fasty to be fast asleep, fastr t verkum, 
hard at 'woikyfylgfafasty to follow fast, &c. 
It means firm, close, urgent, quick. 

fasten. (E.) A. S.fastntany to make 
fast or firm. — A. S. fasty firm. 

fastness. (E.) M.E. festnesy fast- 
ness, orig. ' strength.' — A. S. fcestnesSy the 
firmament, a fastness ; orig. that which is 
firm. — A. S, fasty firm. 

Fastidious. (L.) 'L.fastzdiosusy dis- 
dainful.- L.^j/m/2W/;, loathing; perhaps 
for *fastutidium (Vanicek).— L. fastu-s, 
arrogance ; tadiuniy disgust ; so thatyaj/f- 
d^t»x» = arrogant disgust. 

Fastness ; see Fast. 

Fat ( I), gross. (E.) M.K fatty fety fat. 
A. S. fatty orig. a pp., contr. from ^fietedy 
fattened, enriched. +0- H. G. feizit (G. 
feist) y pp. of a Teut. vb. *faitjan'ty formed 
from Teut. adj. *fait0Zy which is represented 
by Icel. feitr (Swed. fety Dan. fed)y fat. 
Cf. Gk. irtav, Skt. pwan, fat. 

Fat (2), a vat ; see Vat. 

Fate, destiny. (F.-L.) U.E. fate.^ 
O. F. faty fate (not common). — L. fatuniy 
what is spoken; neut. of pp. oi fdri, to 
speak. +Gk. 017/^t, I say. Perhaps allied to 
Boon (i). Brugm. i. § 187. (^BHA.) 

Father. (E.) M. E. fader. A. S. 
fader. The pron. with th is due to dialectal 
influences. + Icel. ,^J5iJ»V, Du. vader^ Dan. 
Swed. fader, Goth, fadary G. vaiery L. 
pater, Gk. rtariipy O. Irisla athir, Pers. 
pidar, Skt. pitr. Idg. type ^pater-. 

Fathom. (E.) M. E. fadme, A. S. 

fadniy the space reached by the extended 

arms, a grasp, embrace.-fDu. vadem, Icel. 

fadmr, a fathom, Dan.yaz/«, Swed. famn, 

an embrace, G. faden. Allied to Patent. 

Fatigue, sb. (F.-L.) O. Y. fatigue ; 
from fatiguery to weary. — L. fatigare, to 




Fatuous. (L.) L. fatwus, silly, 
feeble ; with suffix -ous, Der. in-fahtate^ 
from pp. of L. infatuare, to make a 
fool of. 

Fauces. (L.) L./i«f/j, pi., the upper 
part of the throat. 

Faucet, a spigot, vent. (F. - L.?) 
F. fausset, a faucet ; faulset^ Cot. 
Origin unknown ; but cf. M. F. faulser, 
to falsify, forge ; also faulser un escu^ to 
pierce a shield ; hence, to pierce. — L. 
falsdre, to falsify. — L.ya/jwj, false. 

Fault. (F. — L.) Formerly faut, 
M. 'E.fatite.^O, Y.faute, a fault. (Span, 
and lts\. fcUta, a defect.) — Folk-L. *faUita, 
a defect, fem. of *fallitus^ new pp. of 
falUret to deceive ; cf. F. faillir. See 
Fail, Fallible, False. Hence also O. F. 
fauter, Span. faUar^ Ital. faitare, to be 

Faun, a rural (Roman) deity. (L.) L. 
/annus, i- 'L.fauere, to be propitious (?) 

Fauteuily an arm-chair. (F. — Low L. 
-O. H. G.) F. fauteuil, O. F. faulde- 
tueil (Cot.).— Low 'L,faldistoitum, a fald- 
stool ; see Faldstool. 

FavoUTp sb. (F. — L.) O.Y. favour, 
^\., faudrem^ ace. of ^«<7r, favour. — L. 
fatiirei to befriend, orig. * to venerate.* 

fiftVOUrite. (F. - Ital. - L.) M. F. 

favorit\ c£ ¥,favort, pp. of O. Y.favorir^ 

to favour. But the final / is really due to 

borrowing from \\s\,favorito^ pp. and sb. ; 

orig. pp. of favorire, to favour. ■- Ital. 

favore^ i2i.yoyxx,^\^ fauoreni (above). 

Fawn (i)» to cringe to, rejoice servilely 
over. (E.) A. S,fahnianffagniant to re- 
joice ; variants o( fagenian^ to fawn, from 
fcBgen, fain, glad.HhIcel. /o^yia, to rejoice, 
welcome one ; allied to feginn, fain. See 

Fawn (2), a young deer. (F.-L.) 
O. F. faftf faon, earlier feon, a fawn ; 
answering to a Late L. form *fetdnem 
Cnot found), ace. of *fiio^ a young one. — 
"L^tuSy foetus^ offspring. See Fetus. 

Fay, a fairy. (F.-L.) F. //^, O.F. 

fae^ a fay. Cf. Port, fada, Ital. fata^ a 

fay. — Late L. fata, a fate, goddess of 

destiny, a fay. — L. jf^a, pi. of L. fdtum, 

fate. See Fate. "Dex. fai-ry. 

Fealty, true service. (F. — L.) O. F. 
fealie^feelteit, fidelity. — 'L.fuiiiitdtem, ace. 
oi fidllitHs, fidelity. -L.jiki^/w, faithful; 
Uomfidis, faith. 

Fear. (E.) M. E. fecr. A. y. far, a 
sudden peril, danger, fear. Orig. used of 

the peril of travelling. — A. S. far-, 3rd 
stem of faran, to go, travel. +lcel. far, 
harm, G. gefahr, Du. gevaar, danger. Cf. 
'L^pertculum, danger. 

Feasible, easy to be done. (F.— L.) 

[Also feisable,'] — M. F, faisible, faisable, 

* feasible, doable ; * Cot. — O. F. fais-, as 

in fais-ant, pres. pt. of faire, to do. — L. 

facere, to do. See Fact. 

Feast. (F. - L.) M. E. feste. - O. F. 
feste (F.y?/^). — Late L.fesia, fem. sb.— L. 
festa, lit. festivals, pi. of festum. See 

Feat, a deed well done. (F.— L.) M.E. 
feet, fete, ^K.¥.fet\ O. F. fait, - L. fac- 
tum^ a deed; see Faot. 

Feather. (E.) U.'E. fether. A.S. 

feder. + Du. veder, Dan. fiader, Swed. 

fjdder^ Jcel. fjo^r, G. feder\ L. penna 

(for *petsna), Skt." patra-, Gk. vr(p6v, a 

wing. See Pen. (VPET.) 

Feature, make, form. (F. — L.) M.E. 
feture. — A. F. feture\ O. F. faiture, 
fashion. — L.^^/Mr(0, work, formation.— 
\j.f actus, pp. ol facere, to make. 

Febrile, relating to fever. (F. — L.) 
Y^fibrile, — L. febrilis. — l^»febri-s, fever. 

February. (L.) L. frbruarius, the 

month of expiation. — L.y5f^/vtf, neut. pi., 

a festival of expiation on Feb. 15. — L. 

februum, purification ',februare, to expiate. 

Of Sabine origin. 

Feckless, ineffective. Also fectless ; 
short for effect- less ; see Fflbct. 

Feculent, foul. (F.-L.) Y.ficulent. 

— L. facuUntus, full of dregs. — L. faces, 
dregs. See FsBoes. 

Fecundity. (F.-L.) U.Y.focondit^ 
(Cot.). — L. SkQQ. fecunditatem, fruitfulness. 

— L. ficundus, fruitful: allied to fetus, 
offspring. See Fetus. 

Federal. (F. - L.) F. fid^ral 

Formed, with suffix -a/, from L. feeder- 
(for *f cedes-) y stem of fadus^ a treaty. 
Akin X.O fides, faith. 

Fee, a lordship, a payment. (F. — 
O. H. G. ?) A. Y.fu, O. F./f« (F. fief), 
a fee, fief. —Late L. fetmm, a fief (Du- 
cange). Prob. from O. H. G. fehu, pro- 
perty.+Du. vee, Icel. fe, Dan. fa, Swed. 
fa, Goth, faihu, L. pecus ; Skt. pafu-, 
cattle. (VPEK.) So also A.S, feoA, 
cattle, whence M. £. fee, cattle, property, 
now obsolete. ^ We also find Late L. 
feudum ; see Feudal. 

Feeble. (F.-L.) M.E.febie.^A,F. 
febte, M. V.faibley O. Y.Jleb/e (Godefroy) ; 




cf. Ital. fievole {Kflevole\ feeble [since 
Ital. yf </?]. — L. JlebiliSt doleful; hence, 
weak. — L. Jlere^ to weep. Brugm. ii. 

§ 50O. 

Feed^ to take food, give food. (E.) 
M.E. jeden. A. S. fidan ; for *fddtan ; 
with vowel-change from J to ^. — A. S./oda, 
food.+Du voedetiy Icel./ceda, Swed./dda, 
'Dsin./odef O. H. G./uoian, Goth, fddjan ; 
Tent, type *fddjan'. See Food. 

Feel. (E.) M. E./^/^». K.^.felan,'\' 
Du. voeletty G. fiihlen. Tent. *fdljan-; 
from Tent, base fal- (and grade, /^/-), 
whence also Icel. faltna^ to grope, A. S. 
yi?/w, palm of the hand (L. palma). Allied 
to Palm (i). 

Feeze, Feaze, Pheese. (E.) Pro- 
perly * to put to flight, drive away, chase 
away, harass, worry ' ; often misexplained 
by ' whip.' M. E. fesen ; O. Merc. /esiany 
A. S. JysiaHj to drive away quickly, 
chase. Cf. N orw, /oysa ("-Icel. */eysa), 
Swed. /dsa, to drive. From Teut base 
*/aus- (sense unknown). ^ Distinct from 
A S./ysaHf to hurry, from/«j, prompt. 

Feign. (F.-L.) M.E./«w».-O.F. 
/eigtt-, as in feign anf J pres. pt. oifeindre. 
— L.^«^^«r, to form, feign. See Fig:ure. 
Der. feint (from F. pp.^iw/). 

FeldspapT, a kind of mineral. (G.) 
Corrupted from G. feldspath, lit. field- 

Felicity. (F.-L.) 0,F, /eiicitl^U 

ace felicitdtem, — L. feiici-, decl. stem of 
ft'Hx, happy, fruitful ; allied to Feline. 

Feline. (L.) L. feltnus, belonging to 
cats. — L. felesj a cat ; perhaps allied to 
Gk. BrfXvSy female. 

Fell (i), to cause to fall. (E.) O.Merc. 
ficliauy A. S. fy Hatty causal of O. Merc. 
fallaUy A. ^,feallany to fall. So also Du. 
velletiy Dnn,/a/de, Swed.^/Aj!, Icel./ella, 
(t. fallen ; all causal forms. Teut. type 
*failjan-, causal of fallan-y to fall. See 

Fell ( 3) , a skin. (E.) M. E. fel. A. S. 
fel, fell +Du. vely Icel. fell, Goth, -filly 
M. H. G. vel'y L. pellis^ Gk. nkKKa, skin. 
D oublet, pell ; cf. fil-m. 

Fell (3), cruel, dire. (F. — Late L.— 
L. ?) M. E./?/. - O. F fely cruel (cf. Ital. 
felloy cruel). — Late L. felloy felOy a male- 
factor, felon, traitor. Perhaj^s from \^.fely 
gall (N. E. D.) ; cf. Du. dial, fely sharp, 
biting, acrid (Molema). See Felon. 

Fell (4), a hill. (Scand^ M. E./r/.- 
Icel. fjall, fell, a hill ; Dan. field y Swed. 

fjdlly a fell. Allied to G. felSy a rock 
Fellah., a peasant. (Arab.) VX.fellahtn, 

— Arab, felldhy falldhy a farmer, peasant. 

— Arab, xooi falahay to plough, till. 
Felloe ; see Felly. 
Fellow, a partner. (Scand.) M. E. 

felawe.'^lctX.fela^y a partner in a * felag.' 

— \(it\,felagy companionship ; lit. a laying 
together of property. — Icel. fey property ; 
lagy a layine together, a law ; see Law. 
The Icel. fi is cognate with A. S. feohy 
cattle, property, L. peats, cattle. 

Felly, Felloe, part of a wheel-rim. 
(E.) }Jl, E. felwe. A. S. felgy felga, a 
felly.+Du. velgy 'Dan.falgey G. felge. 

Felon, a wicked person. (F.— LateL. 

— L. ?) M. E. felun.^ O. F. felon, a 
traitor. — Late \u, feldnem, ace. oifelOyfellOy 
a traitor, rebel. See Fell (3). 

Felt. (E.) Hi. ^, felt. A. S. /«//.+ 

Du. vilty Low G., Swed., Dan. filty G. 

filz. Teut. type *feltoZy n. ; allied to G. 

falzeny to groove, join together. Der. 

filter^ feuter, 

I Felncca, a ship. (Ital. — Arab.) Ital. 

feluca, — Arab, fiilk, a ship. (See Devic.) 

Female. (F.-L.) Yorfemellyhycon- 

fusion with male. M.E. femelle,^O.Y. 

fenulle, — L. femella, a young woman-; 

dimin. oifentinay a woman (below). 

feminine. (F.—L.) 0,¥, feminin. 

— L. fhnininus, womanly. — L. fimittay a 
woman. Ctfilare, to suckle ; Gk. drjKvsy 
female, OriXii, the breast; Skt. dhdtriy a 

Femoral, belonging to the thigh. (L.) 
L. femordlis ; adj. from femor-, stem of 
femur y thigh. 

Fen, a bog. ^E.) M. E. fen, A. S. 
y^ww. + Du. veen, Icel. feny Goth, fani, 
mud. Teut. type *fanjom, n. 

Fence ; short for defence ; see Defend. 

Fend ; short for Defend, q. v. 

Fender; short ioi defender. 

Fennel, a plant. (L.) M. E. fettel. 
A. S. final yfinugle. — L faenicultimy fennel ; 
double dimin. oifaenum, hay. 

Fenugreek, a plant. (F.-L.) F. 

fenugrec. — L. faenum Gracum, lit. Greek 

Feoff; see Fief. 

Ferment. (L.) L. fermentum (short 
for *fertti-mentum)y leaven. — 'L.feruerey to 
boil. See Fervent. 

Fern. (E.> h.^. feam.'^-Dvi. varen\ 
G. farft{kraut) ; Skt. parna-^ a wing, 



feather, leaf, plant, the orig. sense being 
'feather.* Brugm. i. § 973. Cf. also 
Lith. papariis, Russ. paporot{e)y Irish 
raith, W. rhedyn^ fern; Gk. vripiSf fern, 
vr€p6v, a wing, feather. 

Ferocity. (F.-L.) U.Y, ferociU.'^ 
L. ace. ferociidtem, fierceness. — L. ferdci-j 
decl. stem of ferox, fierce. — L. feruSf 
fierce, wild. Brn^. i. § 319. 

Ferreous. (L!) L. ferreus, made of 
iron ; with suffix -ous^^h./errum, iron. 

fermginoUfl. (L.) l^. ferruginous j 
same as ferrugineus^ rusty ; with suffix 
'0us,^\„ ferriigin-y stem oi ferriigo, rust 
of iron. ^L„ferrum, iron. 

Ferret (i ). an animal. (F. - Low L. - 
L. ?) O. ¥,fureiy a ferret. — Late \j,furh 
tuSyfurectus, a ferret. Also/«rJ; said to 
be the same as Late L. furoy a thief, from 
L. fur, a thief. Cf. Gk. ^p, a thief; 
from the strong o-grade of <p4ptiv, to bear, 
carry off. 

Ferret (a), a kind of silk tape. (Ital. 
— L.) From Ital. fiorUtiy * little flowers, 
flonrishings; also foret or ferret silke,' 
Florio. Fl. oi fiortttOy dimiu. oi fiore, a 
flower. — L. floremy ace. oijlds, a flower ; 
8ee Flower. Cf. F. JUuret, ferret ; from 
fleur^ flower. 

Ferruginous ; see Ferreous. 

Ferrufe* a metal ring at the end of a 
stick. (F.T-L.) Corrupted spelling (due 
to confusion with ferrum, iron) of the 
older form znrrol; XVI cent. — O.F. virol 
(F. virole)j a ferrule ; Late L. viroia, the 
same. From L. uiriolay a little bracelet ; 
dimin. of *mria, an armlet, only found in 
pi. uiria. (Diez.) Doubtful. 

Ferry, vb. (E.) M. li.ferun, A. S. 

fert'an, to convey across ; causal of A. S. 

faratty to go. •^ Icel. ferja^ to carry; 

causal of fara^ to go ; Goth, farjatiy to 

travel by ship. See Fare. (N. E. D.) 

Fertile. (F.-L.) Y^fertiU^^'l., fer- 
tilise fertile. — L. ferre^ to bear. See 
Bear (0. 

Fernley a rod or bat for punishing 
children. (L.) Formerly ferula, — L. 
ferula^ a rod ; orig. the plant ' giant- 

Fervent, hot, zealous. (F, — L.) O.F. 

fervent. '^'L. feruent-, stem of pres, pt, of 

ferutre^ to boil. Allied to O. Irish berb- 

aiffiy I boil. Der. fervour^ from O. F. 

fervour<X'* 2lcc. feruoreniy heat; fetvid, 

from h,feruiiius, 

FOMy a horizontal band in heraldry. 


(F. — L.) 0,F. f esse (Roquefort); mod. 
F.fasce, a fess.^h, fascia , a girth; allied 
io fasc is y a bundle ; see Fascine. 

Festsil. vF.-L.) O.F. festal. Formed 
(with F. suffix -«/<L. -dlis) from L. fest- 
ttw, a feast, orig. neut. of festus, festive, 
joyful. Allied to Fair (2) and Fane. 

festival. (F.-Late L.-L.) Pro- 
perly an adj. — O. F, festival, festive,— 
Late h.festtvdlis,'^'L,festiuus (below), 

festive. (L*) h.festtuus, belonging 
to a feast. — 'L.festunit a feast. 

Fester, a sore. (F.—L.) 0,¥,festre, 
also spejt Vfj//g, an ulcer ; whence festrir, 
to fester (Godeiroy). — L,. fistula, a running 
sore. See Fistula. 

Festival, Festive ; see Festal, 

Festoon. (F.-Ital.-L.) Y»feston,^ 
garland, festoon. — Ital. festone, a garland. 
Usually derived from h.festum, a feast. 

Fetch. (E.) M. £. fecchen, pt, t. 
fehte^ fcehte, A. S. feccan, to fetch, Gen, 
xviii. 4 ; Luke xii. 20. Prob. fecc{e)an is 
a later form oifetian^ to fetch (Anglia, vi. 
177). Allied to K,B. faty a pace, step, 
journey ; Icel. fet, a step, foot-measure ; 
and to L. pes (gen. ped-is), a foot. ^ Cf. 
A.S. gefeccan, O. E. T., p. 1 78, Der. 
fetch, sb., a stratagem. 

Fdte. (F.-L.) Mod. F./^/^, the same 
as O. ¥. teste ; see Feast. 

Fetich, Fetish, an object of super- 
stitious dread. (F. — Port. — L.) F. 
fitiche. — Port, y^iVift?, sorcery, lit, artificial ; 
also, a name given by the Port, to the 
roughly made idols of Africa, — L. factitius, 
artincial, — L. fact-us, pp. of facere, to 

Fetid. (F. - L.) O. F. fetide. - L, 
fetidus, foetidus, stinking. — L, fetere, to 

Fetlock. (Scand.) As if the Mock' 
or tuft of hair behind a horse's pas- 
tern-joint, Cf. Low {^,fitlock (Lttbben); 
M. H, G. vizuloch (Kluge), The syllable 
4'ock is due to a double suffix, but was 
thought to refer to Icel. lokkr, A. S. locc, 
a lock of hair, Fet- is prob. allied to 
Icel.yif/, a pace, step,y5r/j' a pacer (used 
of horses) ; and to Icel. fotr, a foot ; cf. 
G. fessel, pastern ; and see Fetch, Foot. 
(Kluge, s. v. Fuss^ 

Fetter, a shackle. (£.) M. E. feter. 

A. S, fetor, a shackle for the foot ; from 

^et-, ^grade oifot, foot.+Du. vcter^ Icel. 

fjbturr; cf. L. ped-ica and com-pes, Gk. 

ir^8»y, a fetter. "Det. fetter, vb. 




Fetus, offspring. (L.) L. fettts, a 
bringing forth, offspring. — L. *fuere, an 
obsolete verb, to generate, produce ; 
allied to fu-it I wns ; see Future, Be. 
Brugm. i. § 361, ii. § 587. 

Feu, a fief ; a variant of Fee. 
. Feud (i), hatred, perpetual hostility. 
(F. - O. H. G.) M. "E.fedejeid, Modi- 
fied in spelling in some unexplained way, 
perhaps by the influence of foe. — O, F. 
feid€y faide, fide, perpetual hostility, i- 
O. H. G. fehida (G. fihde)^ enmity ; 
cognate with A. S. faMj enmity, from 
A. ^.fdh, hostile. See Foe. 

Feud (2), a fief. (Low L. — F. - 
O. H. G.) Low L. fiuduniy a Latinised 
form allied to O. F. fiu, also spelt fief\ 
see Fee, Fief. (The intrusive d is un- 
explained.) "Dev. fiud-al, adj. 

Feuter, to lay spear in rest. (F. — 
Teut.) From M. E. fiuter, a rest for a 
spear. — O. F. feutre^ older filtre, a piece 
of felt, also a rest fprob. at first felted) for 
the lance. Cp. ItaL filtro, felt. Of Teut. 
origin; from Low G. filt^ felt. See 

Feuterer, a dog-keeper. (F. — Low L. 
— C.) In Ben Jonson, Every Man out 
of his Humour, ii. 1 ; see Nares. Older 
spelling vewter, for veutr-er. — O. F. 
ventre f mod. ¥. vautre, a mongrel between 
a hound and a mastiff. — Low Lat. ace. 
veltrum ; for L. vertagus, vertagra^ ver- 
traga, a greyhound. Said to be Celtic. 
Perhaps from Celtic ver-, intensive prefix, 
and trag-f to run ; see Fick, ii. 136, 283. 

Fever, a kind of disease. (L.) M. E. 
finer (fever). A. ^.fefir^fifor ; see Matt. 
viii. 15 ; A. Y.fevre.^L,. febris, fever. 

feverfew, a plant. (L.) . A. S.jfefer' 
fuge ; A. F. feverfue. — Late L. febri/uga, 
for L. febrifugia, * fever-dispelling.' — L. 
febri'Sy fever ; fngdre, to put to flight. 

Few. (E.) M. ^.fewe. A. S. ^.fiawe. 
+Icel. fdry Dan. faa^ Swed. fl. ; Goth. 
fawai, pi.; cf. L. patuus^ Gk. iravpo;, 

Fey, doomed to die. (E.) K.'i^. fage, 
doomed to die. +IceLyi?i^/', Du. veeg\ G. 
feige^ cowardly; Swed. feg, Dan. feig, 

Fez, a red Turkish cap, without a brim. 
(F. — Morocco.) F. and Turk, fez] s. cap ; 
so called because made at Fez, in 

Fiasco, lit. *a bottle.' (Ital.) Ital. 
far fiasco, to make a bottle, also, to fail, 

J 84 


break down. See Flask. (Origin of 
phrase unknown.) 

Fiat, a decree. (L.) L. fuU, let it be 

done. — L. fio, I become ; used as pass, of 

facere, to do, but really allied to fui, I 

was. Cf. A. S. beOy I am. Brugm. i. 

§ 282. 

Fib. (Low G.) Allied to fob, fub off, 
to delude (Shak.) ; cf. G.foppen, to banter 
(formerly, to lie) ; Westphal. fip-ken, a 
small lie, fib (WoCsteV 

Fibre. (F.-L.) F. fibre.^U fibra, 
a thread. 

Fickle. (E.) U.Y..jfikel. A.S.Jico/; 
from *^dan, to deceive, in comp. be-fician, 
to deceive ; zi.ficy sb., ixzyx^,fcecne, deceit- 
ful ; fdcen, fraud. 

Fiction. (F.-L.) Y. fiction. ^\u,fU' 
tidntm, ace. oifictio, a feigning. — L.y?^/«j, 
pp. oifingere, to feign. See Figure. 

Fiddle, a violin. (L.) U.E.Jitkel; 
A. S.fidete \ cf. Icel. fidla, Dzn. fiddel, Du. 
vedel, G.fiedel. Apparently borrowed from 
Late L. uitula, uidula, a viol ; see Viol. 

Fidelity. (F. - L.) M. Y. fidelity - L. 

fidelitdtem, ace. oifideiitdSy faithfulness. « 
L. fideli-, stem of fidelis^ faithful. — L. 
fixies, faith. See Faith. 

Fidget. (Scand.) A dimin. form of 

fidge^ to be continually moving up and 

down, X^tfike in North of England, M. E. 

fiken, to fidget, to hasten. Cf. \c€i.fika, to 

climb up nimbly, as a spider ; Swed.yfifea, 

to hunt after, ^oxyi.fika, to take trouble, 

fika etter, to hasten after, pursue. 

Fiducial, shewing trust. (L.) From 
Late L.. fidnctdlis,'L, fidncia, trust. 
— h.ftdere, to trust. 

(F.-L.) M.E.fy.^^, 
Cf. Icel.;5?, Dan.^, Swed.j5^. G. p/m, 
Lat. pAu, phy, Skt. phut^ expressions 
of disgust. 

Fie^ land held of a superior. (F.— 
O. H. G.) O. F. fief, formerly spelt fiu 
(Roland). See Fee. 'D&r.fioff, vb., to 
put in legal possession ; from A. Y.feoffer, 
to endow with Vifiof or fief hS&o feoffee, 
A. Y.feoffli, pp. oifeoffer. 

Field: (E.) U.y..feld. A.S. feld.^ 
Du. veid. G. fe/d (whence Dan. fe/t, 
Svred.falt). Allied to A.S. foide, earth, 
land. Teut. type *feltkuz. Cf. Russ. poU, 
a field ; Skt. prthivt, earth. Brugm, i. 
§ 502- 

fieldfare, a bird. (E.) A.^. filde- 
fare [miswritten feldeware], lit. * field- 
traveller ; ' see Fare. 



Fiend. (E.) U.E./em{. A.S.fiond, 
fiond, lit. * a hating one/ an enemy, the 
enemy ; orig. pres. pt. of fiog\e)an, to 
hate. + Du. vijand, Dan. Swed. fiende ; 
\QK\.fjandi, pres. pt. oifjd^ to hate ; Goth. 
fjands,ixov[kJijan,X.Q\i2Xt\ G,feind. Cf. 
Skt. piy, to hate (Fick). See Foe. 

Fierce. (F.-L.) M.E. fers.^O.Y. 
fers^ fiers^ old nom. of O. F. fer, Jier, 
fierce {F,fier, proud). — L./ifrwj, wild. 

Fife. (F.-O. H.G.-L.) F. fifre.'^ 
O. H. G.pftfa, G. f>feife, a pipe. - O. H. G. 
p/tfen, to blow, whistle.— Late 1j, pipdre, 
to pipe ; L. pipdre^ to chirp (as a bird). 
See Pipe. 

Fig. (F.-Prov.-L.) Y.Jtgue. ^Vro\. 
7%fl. ■- Folk-L. ytca^ used for 'L.ftcuSy a 
fig. (Cf. O. F. Jie, a fig ; immediately 
from /lira.) 

Fight. (E.) U.lLJihten,fehien,yh. 
O. Merc, fek/an, to fight ; fektef a fight. + 
Da. vechteut G. fechien, to fight (whence 
'Dzxi.fegte, Swed./difd). Teut. ^fehtan-. 

Fij^ment. (L.) L. figtnentum^ an in- 
vention. —L.^^-, base oi fingere^ to feign 
{j^^.ju'ius, for *fig'tus), 

fignre. (F. - L.) F. figure, - L. 

figiiray a thing made. — L. fingere (base 

fig-)i to make, fashion, feign. + Goth. 

deigan^ to knead, Skt dih, to smear. 

(VDHEIGH.) Brugm. i. % 589. Der. 

dis-fgure^ pre-figurBf trans-figure, 

Fllaiuent. (F.-L.) F. filament. - 
Late L. Jtidmentum, thin thread. — Late 
L. fildre, to wind thread. — L. filum^ 
thread ; see Pile (i). 

Filbert, fruit of hazel. (F.-O. H.G.) 
Formerly philiherd (Gower) ; short for 
Philiberd or Philibert nut^ from the 
proper name Philibert; (S. Philibert*s 
day is Aug. 22) ; North F. noix de filbert 
(Moisy). — O. H. G.filu-berht, very bright ; 
from filu (G. viel), greatly, berht, bright. 
% Called in Germany LambertsnusSj i. e. 
nut from Lombardy (Weigand). 

Filch. (E.) Etym. unknown ; possiblv 

related to M. E./elen, to conceal. Cf. Icel. 

felnj to hide, bury; Goth, filhan, to hide. 

File (i), string, line, order. (F.-L.) 
Partly from O. F.file, a file, from filer, to 
thread; from Late L. fildre (see Fila- 
ment) ; partly from F. fil^ thread, from 
'L^ilum, a thread. 

File (3), a steel rasp. (£.) O.Merc. 

fil ; A. S.yfe/.+Du. vijl, O. H. G.fihala, 

G. feile ; as if from a base *fenh-. The 

Icel. form is///, as if from a base *thenh-. 


File (3), to defile. (E.) A. S. fylan, 
to make foul; for *fulian,^k.^. fill, 
foul. See Defile (i) and Foul. 

Filial. (L.) From L. flli-usy a son, 
fllia^ daughter ; orig. infant : cf. L. fildre^ 
to suck. Cf. Feminine. (-/DHE.). 

Filibuster, a freebooter. (Span. — Du.) 
Span, filibuster^ a mere coiruption of Du. 
znijbuiter, a freebooter. — Du. vrijbuiten^ 
to rob, plunder. — Du. vrij^ free; buit^ 
booty, plunder. See Booty. 

Filigree. (F.-Ital.-L.) Formerly 

filigrane \ XV II cent. — Y.filigrane, — Ital. 

filigranay filigree-work, fine wrought work. 

— Ital. filOf a thread or row, filaret to 

spin ; granot grain or texture ; so called 

because the chief texture of it was wrought 

in silver wire. From L. filutn, thread ; 

grdnum, grain. ^ The Sp&n.filigrana is 

merely borrowed from Italian i^Monlau). 

Fillf vb. (E.) A. S. fyllan ; formed 
iTovufulj i. e. full, by vowel-change from u 
to ^.+Du. vullen, Icel. fylla, 'Dsca./ylde, 
Sv:ed.fylla, Goth. ful/jaUf G, fallen. 

Fillet. (F. - L.) M. E. filet. - O. F. 
filety dimin. of yf/, a thread. — -L. filunii a 
thread. See File (i). 

Fillibeg, FhiUbeg, a kilt. (Gaelic.) 

Gael, feileadh'beagy the modern kilt.— 
Gael, feileadhf feile^ a kilt, prob. from L. 
uelunty a veil (Macbain) ; and beag, little, 
small. ^ Cf. W. bach, little. 

Fillip, to strike with the finger-nail, 
whenjerked from the thumb. (E.) Another 
form oifiip ; see Flippant. 
Fills, used for thills, (E.) See Thill. 
Filly, a female foal. (Scand.) Icel. 
fyljai a filly, allied to foli^ a foal , cf. 
Dan. Svied, Jolf G.fUlien, See Foal. 

Film, a thin skin. (E.) A. S. filmen 

{fylmen), neut, membrane (O. Fries. >f/- 

meney i.t skin). For W. Teut. *filmin-jo-f 

from *fsltfteny -mon-y as in A. S. agerfelma, 

skin of an tgg. Extended from the base 

fel- in A. S.yjf/, skin, Goth, fill, skin. See 

Fell (2). 

Filter, to strain. (F. - O. Low G. ) F. 

filtrer, orig, to strain through felt. — F. 

filtre, a strainer, orig. felt (Littr^).— Low 

G^//, felt ; see Felt. 

nlth, foul matter. (E.) K.^.Jyld.'^ 
A. S. fftly foul (by vowel-change of u to 
y). So also O. ^zx. fUlithdy filth, from 
/«/, foul. See Foul. 

Fin. (E.) A.S.finn, a fin.-I'Du. vin, 
Swed. fisnat Dan. finne ; L. pinna. See 



Final. (F. - L.) O. F. Jifial, - L. 
ffndltSf 6nal. — L./mw", end. 

FinanCOf revenue. (F. — L.) O. F. 

finance. 'mljaiit L. ftnantia^ payment.— 

Late L. flndre, to pay a fine. — Late L. 

finis y a settled payment, 9, finish or end, 

i. e. final arrangement ; V,, finis ^ end. 

Finoll, a bird. (E.) M. E. finch. I (M. Du.) M. E. ferdekin. From Du. 

A.S. _/?«^.+Dn. i^/w^, t>2tn. finhgf Swed. 
and G. /?»>&. Cf. W. /f«f, a chaffinch ; 
Gk. o"irt77os, cirtfa, a finch; prov. E. 
Spink. Der. chaffinch^ q. v., bullfinch^ 

Find. (E.) K,S.findan.'\r^^'Vinden, 
"Dan.finde^ Swed. and Icel.y?««fl ( =fin^)^ 
Goth.finfhan, G.finden. Teut. ^fenth-an- ; 
Idg. base *pent', whence O. Irish et-aim, 
I find. Perhaps allied to L. petere, to 
seek after; see Petition. Bnigm. ii. 
§ 634. 

Rli6 (i), exquisite, thin. (F. — L.) 
O. F. fin, witty, perfect. — Late L. finus^ 
fine; used in place of L. ftnttus, well 
rounded or ended, said of a sentence 
(Brachet), orig. pp. q{ finire^ to end. — L. 
finis, end. *^ Finns is a back-formation 
from finire. 

fine (a}f a tax. (Law L.) Law L. 
finis, a fine, a final arrangement ; L. 
, 1 finis, end. See Finanoe (above). 

.. \J Finger. (E.) A. S. /«[^r.+Du. 

vinger, Icel. fingr, Dan. Swed. G. finger, 
Goth, figgrs l^fingrs). Teut. type yin- 
groz ; orig. sense unknown. 

Finial. (L.) A coined word ; firom L. 
finis, end. Ci. final. 

finicid. (F.— L.) A coined word; 
extended from Fine (i) above. 

finish, vb. (F. - L.) Vi.'E. finischcn. 
— O. ¥.finiss', base of pres. pt. o'ifinir, to 
finish. — 'L.finire, to end. — L finis ^ end. 
finite, limited. (L.) l^.fimtus, pp. 
oifintre (above). 
Fiordi a sea-loch, deep inlet of the sea. 
( Scand . ) Norw. fjord, Dan . fiord, fjord ; 
Icel. fjchiJr. See Frith. 

Fir, a tree. (Scand.) M. E.fir; answer- 
ing to a mutated form due to A.S.furh, 
which occurs in furhitmdu, a pine-tree ; 
but prob. of Scand. origin. Cf. Icel. 
fyri-skogr, a fir- wood (written fyriskogr) ; 
from Icel.y«rfl, a fir; cf. Dan._^^, Swed. 
fura -^G.fdhre, W. pyr. Cognate with L. 
querctis, an oak ; and O. Lombardic^rMtf , 
* sescnlus.* 

Fire. (E.) A. S.^r.+Du. vuur, Icel. 
fyri, Dan. and Swed-^J^r, G. fetter, M. li.G. 


viur, O. H. G. fair. Teut. type ^fU-ir. 
Cognate with Gk. irvp. Cf. ^\^ pavaka- 
(from pii), purifying, also fire. (^PD.) 
Firk, to conduct, drive, beat. (E.) 
A. S.fercian, to conduct, support. Prob. 
from A,S.far, a journey; allied to Fare. 
,, the fourth part of a barrel. 

vierde, fourth ; with suffix -kin (as in kiU 
der-kin) answering to the M. Du. double 
dimin. suffix -k-in (G. -ch-en in mddchen). 
Vierde is from Du. vier, four ; see Four. 
Firm (i), adj. (F. — L.) M.E. ferme, 
— O. F. and F. femte.^'L. firmus^ stead- 
fast. " 

firm (a)i a partnership. (Span. — L.) 
The older sense was 'signature' of the 
house or (as we call it) the firm.— Span. 
firma, a signature. — Span, firmar, to 
confirm, %\^.^\,. firmare, to make firm. 
^Yj.firmus, firm (above). 

fizmament, celestial sphere. (F. — L.) 
O. F. firmament. — L. firmdmentum, a 
support ; also, expanse of the sky (Vul- 
gate).— L. ^rw^r^?, to strengthen; from 
firmus, firm. 

Firman, a mandate. (Pers.) Pers. 

fermdn, a mandate, order ; O. Pers. fra^ 

mdna (Horn) ; cf. Skt. pramdna-f a 

decision, from pra, before (Gk. •irp6) and 

md, to measure. 

First. (E.) A. S. fyrst, the superl. of 

fore, with vowel-change of u (A. S. 0) to 

y. ^lce\. fyrs/r ; DvLQ.forste ; Hwed.fdrsia. 

Teut. type *furisioz, superl. from the base 

*fur- ; see Fore. 

Firth ; see Frith. 

Fiscal, pertaining to the revenue. 
(F. — L.) O. F. fiscal. — Late L. fiscdlis. — 
h^scus, a basket of rushes, also a purse. 
fish. (E.) A.S.fisc.'^Du.vischflcel. 
fiskr, Dan. and Svfed. fisk, G.fisch ; Golh. 
fishs. Teut. t3rpe *fiskoz. Cognate with 
L. piscis, Irish and Gael, iasg, O. Ir. iasc 
(with loss of initial /). 
Fissnre. (F.-L.) O.'F. fissure. ^l^. 
fissHra. — L. fissus, pp. of findcre, to 
cleave. +Skt. bhid, to cleave ; A. S. bitan^ 
to bite. (-/BHEID.) And see Vent 
(i). Brugm. i. § 567. 

Fist. (E.) U.'E. fist, fesi, fust. A. S. 
yJj/.-fDu. vuist, G. fausty O. H. G. fUst. 
Teut. *fiistiz. % If the orig. Teut. form 
was *funhstiz, it may be identified with 
Russ. puiste, fist, O. Slav, p^sti; from an 
Idg. base *p9nksti-, which is allied to 




Fistula, a deep, narrow abscess. (L.) 
From the shape ; 'L. fistula, a pipe. 

Fit (i), to suit ; as adj., apt. (Scand.) 
M. E. fittefty to arrange. — Icel. and Norw. 
fitja, to knit together; Swed. ^iaX. fitija, 
to bind together ; cf. (j,fitzen^ to bind into 
skeins, from fitze, a skein. From Icel. fit, 
a hem, also * web ' of a bird's foot ; cf. 
M. 'Dan.fiddey to knit ; Dan, fid, a skein. 
Perhaps allied to Fit (2). ^ Influenced 
as to sense by M. E./etg, well done ; from 
O. Y.faity \jaX, foetus \ see Peat. 

Fit (2), a part of a poem, attack of ill- 
ness. (£.) M,E, fit. A. S.^//, (i) a song, 
(2) a struggle; which perhaps are the 
same word. Cf. Pit (i). 

Fitclly the same as Vetoh, q. v. 

Fitchet, Fitchew, a pole-cat. (F.~ 

M. Du.) Fitchew is from Vicard ficheux, 
M. ¥,fissaUy a polecat ; older iovoiyfissel, 
^M,'Du,fisse, a polecat; from the smell. 
Cf. Icel. fisdy to make a smell. 
Fitz, son. (A. F.— L.) Formerly ^2 
(with z as ts).^A.¥. fiz (with z as ts); 
also O.,fits.^lj./t/tuSf a son. 

Five. (E.) M. E. fif; sometimes fiue^ 
as a plural. A. S. /^ (for *fim/). + Du. 
tnjft Dan. Swed. /em, Icel. fimrn, Goth. 
fimf, G. funf\ W. pump, O. Ir. coic, L. 
quinque, Lith. penkiy Gk. irci^re (iEol. 
jri/Jiirf), Skt. paHcha. Idg. type *penqe, 
"D&r.fifith, A.S./t/ta; fifteen, A.S./t/- 
tene ; fifity, A. S.ftftig. 

Fix. (F.-L.) O. F. fix, fixed. - L. 
fixus, fixed ; pp. oiftgere, to fix. 

Fizz. (Scand.) Imitative; cf. Icel. 

ftsa, DAU.fise, with the sense oi'L.pedere. 

Flabby 1 weakened form oiflappy ; see 

Flap. Cf. Low G.fiabbe, a hanging lip ; 

flabhsig, flabby (Danneil). 

Flaccid. (F. — L.) F. flaccide. — L. 
fiaccidus, limp, ^h.fiaccus, flabby. 

Flaif (i), to droop, grow weary. (E.) 
"Weakened form of fiack, to hang loosely ; 
M. E. fiakken, to flap about. From the 
base fiaC' of A. S. flac-or, flying, roving. 
+Icel. fiakka, to rove ; fiaka^ to flap ; 
flbkra, flbgra, lytm.fiagre, to flutter; G. 
fiackerttj to flutter. All from the imitative 
base fiak', allied to fiap^ flicker. And 
partly from O. Y,flaquir, to be limp ; from 
O. Y.flaque, limp, 'Cfiaccus. 

flaff (^2), an ensign. (Scand.?) Dan. 
flag, Swed. fiagg, a flag ; from base of 
loitl.fidgra, to flutter (above). 

flag (3)1 a reed ; the same word 2Afiag 
(2) ; Irom its waving in the wind. 

Plagf (4)» Flagstone, a paving-stone, 

(Scand.) Icel. flaga, a flag or slab of 
stone. This might give E. dial.y?-aw (see 
Flaw), but cf. \qi^. flagna, to flake off, 
Dan. dial, flag'torv, Sc. flag, a cut turf. 
A weakened form of Flake. 
Flagellate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

flagelldre, to scourge. -• L. flagellum, 
dimin. oiflagrum, a scourge. See Flail. 
Flageolet, a sort of flute. (F. — Prov.) 
M. ¥. flageolet, dimin. oi flageol, with the 
same sense. — Vtoy. flajolstflaujols, a flage- 
olet; which cannot represent a Late L. 
*flautiolus, a little flute, as suggested by 
Flagitious. (L.) L. fldgitids-us, 
shametul ; with suffix -ous. — L. flagitium, 
a disgraceful act ; cf. \a.fldgitarey to act 
with violence. Perhaps allied to Flagrant. 
Flagon. (F. — Late L.) O.Y.flacon, 
another form oi flcucon,^\sXe "L. flasco- 
nem, ace of flasco, a flask. -• Late L. 

flasca, a flask. See Flask. 

Flagrant, glaring, as a fault. (F.-L.) 
O. F. flagrant, properly burning. — L. 

flagrant-, stem of pres. pt. oiflagrdre, to 
bum.4*Gk. <l>\(y€iv, to bum ; Sk. bhraj, 
(VBHLEG.) Brugm. i. § 539 (2). 
Flail. (L.) U,l£., fli^l,fle)l,fleiL 
[Later,y?ay^/(from O. ¥.flael>¥.fl^au).'] 
From 'L. flagellum, a whip, in Late L., 
a flail ; dimin. oiflagrum, a scourge. See 
Flake, a thin slice. (Scand.) Norw. 

flak, a slice, an ice-floe ; cf. Icel. flakna, 

flagna, to flake off, Swed. flaga, a flake. 
Perhaps allied to Play. 

Flajnbeau. (F.-L.' ¥. flambeau, a 
torch ; dimin. of O. Y.flambe (below). 
flame, sb. (F. — L.) 0.¥. flame, 

flamme\ zlso flambe.^'L. flamma ^flag- 
mat), a flame; perhaps from the base . 

flag-, to bum. See Flagrant. 

Flfunen. (L.) L. fldmen, a priest of 

Rome. Prob. for *flag-nun, he who 

bums the sacrifice; d. flagrare, to bum. 

Or else allied to Goth, bldtan, to sacrifice. 

Flamingo. (Span.— Prov. —L.) Span. 

flamenco, a flamingo; but said to be a 
Proven 9al word; the Prov. form is 

flamenc, where the suffix -enc is supposed 
to be an adaptation of the Teut. suffix 
-ing. The F. form Kzflamant, lit. * flaming,* 
but it seems to have been confused with F. 
Flatnand, a Fleming, whence the peculiar 
form of the Prov. form may have arisen ; 
Palsgrave has ' Flemmyng, flammant^ 




Still, the etymology is certainly from L. 

Jlatnma^ a flame; from the flame-like 
colour of the bird. 

I^augdy a projecting rim. (F. — Teut.) 
The same as pro v. K.Jlanchf a projection ; 
cf. Jlanch in heraldry, an ordinary on each 
side {ox flank) of the shield. — O. Y.flanche 
(A. Y.flanke)^ fem. sb. allied to ¥,flanc, 
side. See below. 
flank, the side. (F.-Teut.) M. E. 

flanc. — K. flanCy side. — O. H. G. hlancka, 
lattka, hip, bend, loin ; cf. Mid. Du. ' de 
Lanckej the flancks;' Hexham. Allied 
to A. S. hlancy slender ; see Lank. (Dis- 
puted ; but probable ; see Klage, s. v. 

Flannel. (W.) Prov. 'E.flannmy a 
better form. — W. gwlanen, flannel, from 
gwlatiy wool. Allied to Wool. 

Flap, to beat with the wings. (£.) 
M. E. flappen^ to beat ; not in A. S. 
E. Yrit%. flappen. Imitative ; \^<& flacky to 
beat ; see Flag (0.+Du.y?a//ew, to flap. 
"D&r. flabby (flappy) ; flap^ sb. 
Flare ; see below. 

Flashy to blaze. (E.) M. E. flaschen^ 
to dash ; cf. Swed. dial, flasa^ to bum 
violently ; Icel.^aja, to rush, flas^ a swift 

flare* (Scand.) Norweg. flara, to 
blaze ; apparently a variant of Swed. dial. 

flasa (above). 

Flask. (Late L. ?) A. S. flasce, flaxe ; 
we also find \Qx\,flaskay "Daxi.flaske, Swed. 

flaska, G.flasche ; but it is hardly a Teut. 
word. — Late L. flasca^ a flask ; cf. also 
^.fflasg, GsitX.flasg (from E.). Remoter 
origin uncertain. See Flagon. 

Flat. (Scand.) M.E./a/.-Icel./a/r, 
Swed. flat^ Dan.flad. 
Flatter. (F.-Teut.; ^r E.) M.E. 

flateren^ a frequentative form. Either, 
with suffix -er-f from O. Y^flat-er, mod. F. 

flatter, to flatter; or formed from an E. 
base flat-y of imitative origin ; cf. M. Du. 

flatt&en^ to flatter (Hexham) from O. F. 

flater, which is from Icel.^a/-r, flat ; from 
the notion of making smooth. Cf. the base 

flak-, seen in M. Svft6..fleckrat to flatter, 
Swed. dial, fleka, to caress ; also M. E. 

flakketty to move to and fro, and G. flach, 
flat ; see Flag (i). The sb. flattery is 
plainly adapted from O. F. flaterie, F. 


Flatulent, windy. (F.-L.) M. ¥. fla- 
tulent. — Late L. fldtulentus, — 'L. flatus , 
breath.— L.y?tfr^, to blow; see Blow (i). 

Flannty to display ostentatiously. 
(Unknown.) It seems to have been par- 
ticularly used of the display of fluttering 
plumes, &c. Of unknown origin ; most 
words in -aunt are French. Somewhat 
similar is Swed. dial, flahkt, flutteringly, 
loosely, from flanka, to waver ; perhaps 
allied to flakka, to waver, answering to 
M. K,flakken ; see Flag (i). 

Flavour. (F.— L.) The form seems 
to have been influenced by that of the 
word savour. O. LowL Sc. flewoure, 
flewer.^O. F. fleur, fleiur, flaur^ smell. 
Ct. Ital. fiatore, a bad odour ; answering 
to Late L. ace. yidtorem. — L. flatus, pp. 
oi flare, to blow. (Korting, § 3316.) 

Flaw, a crack. (Scand.) M. E. flawe, 
— Swed. flaga, a crack, flaw, also a flake ; 
see Flake. Cf. prov. £. flaw, a flake 
(as of snow) ; also, a gust of wind, like 
Du. viaag. 

Flawn,akindoif custard. (F.-O.HG.) 

M. Y^flaun. — Y,flan, O. ¥,flaon, a flawn ; 

(cf. Span, flaon, Ital. fladone).^0. H. G. 

Jflado, a broad flat cake ; G. fladen. 

Allied to Gr. wAotw, broad. 

Flax, a plant. (E.) A. S. fleax,^Ty\x. 
vlas, G. flacks. Perhaps allied to Goth. 
flah'ta, a plaiting, Gk. rtXiK-^iv, to weave. 

Flay, to strip off skin. (E.) M.E. 
flean, A. S. flean, to flay.+Icel. fld, pt. 
i* flo, \i^. fleginn, Teut. type ylahan- 
(pt. t. *fldK), to strike. Cognate with Lith. 
plakh, I strike ; cf. Lat. pldga, a stroke. 
See Plague. Brugm. i. § 569. 

Flea. (E.) M. ^..flee, ^\.fleen, A. S. 
fleah, a flea.4-Du. vloo^ Icel. fld, G. floh. 
Teut. base ^flauh-, or perhaps ^flauh-, 
allied to the verb to flee. See Flee. 

Fleam, a kind of lancet. (F. — L. — Gk. ) 
O. F. flieme, F. flamme, a fleam ; Hamil- 
ton.— Late L. fletoma, a lancet (Vocab. 
400. 11); shortened from Late "L, flevo- 
tomum, phlebotomum, a lancet. — Gk. 
ipkcfioTOfxoy, a lancet — Gk. 0X€/3o-, decl. 
stem of <t>\i^, a vein ; to/*-, o-grade of 
T^fxveiv, to cut. Hence also M. H. G. 
fliedeme, G.fliete, Du. vlijm, a fleam. 

Fleck, a spot. (Scand.) M. E. flek,^ 
Icel.flekir, a spot ; flekka, to stain ; Swed. 
flack, a spot.+Du. vlek, G. fleck. 

Flection ; see Flexible. 

FledMf to be furnished with feathers. 
(E.) The pp. fledged is now used in the 
place of M. E. flegge, adj., ready to fly. 
Pi^gg^ is a Kentish form of M. E. flygge, 
ready to fly. From A. S. *flycge ; found 



in the compound unjlycge, as in ' inpiumesy 
nnfligge,' Academy, 2 June, 1894 (Napier). 
E. Fries. Jlugge, + Du. vlug (M. Du. 
vlugge) ; O. H. G. flucchi. Tent, type 
*fiugjo%, adj. ; from ^flug-^ weak grade of 
*Jleugan', to fly. See Fly. 

FleOf to escape. (E.) M. 'E^.Aeen^ pt. t. 

Jlehyjleih. [The M. E. pt. t. also appears 

as Jteebie, whence mod. E. Jled, of Scand. 

origin.] A. S.Jleon (pt. t.fieak),'^0. Sax. 

Jliohan, G. ftiehtH ; also Icel. fl^ja (pt. t. 

floy also /^a) ; Swed. fly (pt. t. flydde) ; 

Goth, thliuhan, Teut. type *thleuhan' 

(pt. t. thlauK) ; so that^ was orig. M/, and 

there was ff^ orig. connexion with the 

verb to fly, which has from an early date 

been confused with it. 

Fleece. (E.) M. ^. flees. A. ^,fleoSf 
ezxWer fltus \ also^J.+Du. vlies, M.H.G. 
vlius ; cf. G.fliess ; also G.flanSy a woollen 
coat, M. H. G. vliis, a sheep- skin. Teut. 
stems *fleust-, *fleuso-^ fliiso-; possibly 
allied to 'L.piu-ma, See Flume. 

Fleer, to mock. (Scand.) M. E. 
flerien, — Norw. flira^ to titter, giggle ; 
also spelt flisa ; Dan. dial, flire^ to jeer ; 
Swed flissa, to titter. 

Fleet (i\ a number of ships. (E.) 
M. E. flete, fleote, A ^. fleet y a ship ; or 
(collectively) a number of ships. — A. S. 
fleotan, to float. + O. Sax. fliotan, Du. 
vlietetty to flow ; O. H. G. fliozzan^ to 
float, flow, G. fliessen, to flow; Icel. 
fljota, Swed. flyta, Dan. flyde* Teut. 
^fleutan- (pt. t. flaut, pp. flutanoz) ; Idg. 
base *pieudy as in Lith. pliidts, a float of 
a fishing-net. (VPLEU.) Cf. Gk. irA^civ, 
to sail, Skt. plu, pru^ to swim, float, 

fleet (3), a creek. (E.) A. S. fleot^ a 
creek, a place where water flows ; fleote ^ 
a stream. — A. S. fleotan^ to float, swim; 
see fleet (i). Cf. O. Fries, flet, stream, 
fleet (3), swift. (E.) C{.A.H.fliottg, 
swift ; Icel.j^l^r, swift. From the verb; 
see Fleet (i). 

fleet (4), vb., to move swiftly. (E.) 
From A. S.fleotan ; see Fleet (i). 

Flesh. (E.) M.E. flescA. A.S. fl^sc, 
flesh. + Icel. flesk, bacon ; Dan. flesk^ 
.Swed. flask y bacon : Du. vleesch ; G. 
fleisch. Teut. type *flaiskoZf n. 

Fleur-de-liSy flower of the lily. 
(F. - 1^) O. F. fleur de lis. Here lis = 
Late L. liliusy cornipt form of L. Itliunit 
a lily ; see Flower and Lily. 

Flexible. (F. - U ) M. Y. flexible. - L. 

flexibilis, easilv 'bent. ^"L. Jlexus, pp. of 
flectere^ to bend. Der. in-flexible, 

flection, a bending. (L.) Better 
flexion ; from L. ace flexianem, a bend- 
ing.— L.^<?a:«j, pp. oi flectere. So also 
flex-OTyflex-ure. (Cf. F.flexionS) 

FliclCy a light blow. (E.) Imitative; 
ci.flip. E. Fries, flikf a flick ; flikflakken, 
to strike lightly.' 

FHckeP, to flutter. (E.) U.F..flikeren. 

— A. ^.flicorian, to flutter. Imitative ; a 
weakened form oi flacker , frequent, of M. E. 
flakken, to flap about. Cf. A. S. fltuor^ 
adj., flying; G.flackern, to flutter. See 
Flag (I). 

Flight, act of flying. (E.) A,S, flyht, 

allied to flyge^ flight+Swed. flykt, G. 

fluckt, Du. vlueht, Teut. *fluhti- ; from 

flug-y weak grade of *fleugan-y to fly. See 


Flimsy, weak, slight. (E) Modem ; 
first recorded in 1703 (Kersey). Prob. 
imitative, and suggested hyfllm ; note E. 
Fries. flem, flinty a film; Dan. ^idX.flemSy 
flimSy a skim on milk. * For the ending, 
cf. tipsy y humpsy\ also limpsyy given by 
Webster as a U. S. synonym of flimsy ' ; 
N. E. D. 

Flinch. (F.-Teut.?) XVI cent- 
0,F , flenchiry flainchiry flechiry to turn 
aside, bend. Of unknown origin ; perhaps 
from O. H. G. *hlencany answering to G. 
lenkeUy to turn, bend. The G. lenken is 
from O. H. G. hlancay the side (Kluge) ; 
see Flank, Flange. ^ The initial fl 
would then be accounted for precisely as 
in the case oi flank y viz. from O. H. G. hi. 
Cf. Link (I). 

Fling. (Scand.) Cf. Swed. fldnga, to 
use violent action, romp, race about; i 
fldngy at full speed (taking oiie*s fling) ; 
M. Swed. ^(f«|^tf, to strike; lce\.flengjay 
to whip; T>2in, flengey to slash; i fleng, 
indiscriminately. These forms presuppose 
a strong verb yUnga, which the E. form 
perhaps represents. 

Flint. (E.) A.S.flint.-^Btin. flint; 
Swed. flinta. Perhaps cognate with Gk. 
nKivBWy a brick. Brugm. i. §§ 575, 704. 

Flip (i), vb., to fillip, jerk lightly. (E.) 
Of imitative origin, like^^iV^. Cf. Flap. 

Flip (a), a mixture of beer and spirit 
with sugar, heated. (E.) Prob. iroxaflipy 
to beat up. Moisy (Diet, of Norman 
patois) spells it phlippey as if from F. 
Philippe ; but wrongly. 

Flippant. (Scand.) Flippant is for 



flippand, the North. M. E. pres. pt. ; flip- 
pand- prattling, saucy. Or else, the suffix 
-ant imitates the French (heraldic) suffix 
in ramp-ant^ &c. Cf. prov. "E-flipy nimble, 
flippant ; from the base flip-, as in Icel. 
fleipa^ to prattle; Swed. dial, flepa^ to 
talk nonsense ; cf. Swed. dial._/?«]^, the lip. 

Plirt. (E.) Often writtenyf«r/, mean- 
ing to mock, gibe, scorn ; the oldest sense 
of flirt was to jerk lightly away. . Of 
imitative origin ; cf. flip, flick. So also 
E. Ynts^flirry flirty a light blow j fltrtje^ 
a giddy girl. 

Flit, to remove from place to place. 
(Scand.) M. E. flitten.^ Icel. flytja, to 
cause to flit ; ^yftdi.flyttay to flit, remove ; 
Dan. flytte ; causal of Icel. fljota, Swed. 
flyta, T>SiVi. flyde, to float. See Fleet (i), 

Flitch, side of bacon. (E.) M. E. 
flicche, A. S. flicce, '\'lct\. flikki, a flitch ; 
flik, a flap, tatter. Perhaps allied to G. 
flick- y a patch ; and to E. Fleck. 

Float, to swim on a liquid surface. 
(E.) yi.E. floieuy flotien. A.S. flotian. 
^Idti.flotay Du. vlotten. Teut. *flutdjan-, 
wk. vb. ; from *flut-y weak grade of *fleU' 
tan; to float, whence mod. E. fleet. See 
Fleet (i). ^ Confused with F. flatter 
(O. F. floter)y to float, from the same 
Teut. base *flut'. 

Flock (i). a company of sheep, &c. 
(E.) M.Kflok, A.S.flocc.-^lceLflokkTy 
hsLii.flok, Swed. flock. 

Flock (2), a lock of wool. (F.— L.) 
O. F.floc, — L. floccuSy a lock of wool. 

Floe, a flake of ice. (Dan.) Dan. 
flage ; as in iisflage, an ice-floe, lit. * ice- 
flake.' Cf. Norw. isflak, isfloky the same. 
See Flake. 

Flog, to beat. (L. ?) A late word ; and 
(in 1076) a cant term. Ci. flack \ or pro- 
bably suggested by flagellate y q. v. . Cf. 
Low G.floggeTy a flail, variant of G.flegely 
a flail, from Late 'L, flagellumy a flail; see 

Flood. (E.) A. S. flody a flood ; from 

flowauy to flow.+Du. vloedy Icel. floSy 

Swed. Dan. flady Goth, flodusy a river, G. 

fluth. Teut. *fl5-t5uzy act of flowing, also 

a flood ; from Teut. base *fld- ; see Flow. 

Floor. (E.) A. S. yfJr.+Du. vloery G. 

flur. Teut. *fl5ruz\ cognate with W. 

llaiVTy Bret, leur, Irish Idr. Idg. *pldrusy 

a floor ; from *pld-y to spread out, whence 

also L. pld-nusy plain. See Plain. 

Floral, pertaining to flowers. (L.) L. 


flordlisy belonging to Flora, goddess of 
flowers. — L. flor-y as the stem of flos, 
a flower ; cf. florerey to flourish, allied to 
Blow (2) and Bloom. 

flond. (L.) Y,.floriduSy lit. abound- 
ing with flowers; hence, rosy. — L.yf^rr-, 
decl. stem oiflffSy a flower (above). 

florin, a coin. (F. — Ital. — L.) M. E. 
floren (about A. D. isos^). — O. Y.floriuy a 
florin. — Ital. yf<7nVw {=florino)y a coin of 
Florence, so called because it bore a lily, 
the symbol of that town. — Ital. fiore, a 
^ower. ^h.florem, ace. of^Jj, a flower. 

floscnle. (L.) 'L, flosculusy a little 
flower ; double dimin. oiflos. 

Floss, rough silk ; as in floss-silk. 
(F. — L.) From yi.Y. ftosche; Cot. has: 
* soye floschey sleave silke.* [So also Ital. 
flosciOy Venetian HossOy soft, weak ; floscia 
settty floss-silk.] An adj. formation from 
O. ¥, floe her y to form into * flocks * or tufts. 
^Y.floc'y see Flock (2). 

Flotilla. (Span. -Teut.) Span.yf^- 
tillay a little fleet ; dimin. oiflotay a fleet, 
cognate with O. F. flotey a fleet of ships, 
a crowd of people. This O. Y.flote (fem.), 
Y.flotte (whence G.flotte) is from a Teut. 
source ; cf Du. vlooty Icel. floti, a fleet, 
A. S.flotay a ship. From the base *flut' ; 
see Float. Cf. M: E.flotey a fleet. (Kor- 

ting, § 3349) 

flotsaUL, goods lost in shipwreck, and 
floating on the waves. (Law F.— E.) An 
A. F. law-term, formerly flotson. (Blount). 
A. F. floteson ; O. F. flotaisotty a flooding 
of fields (Godefroy). — Low L. type *flot' 
tdtionenty from ^flottdrey to float, to flood 
{E.flotter). From the Teut. base 1yf«/- (as 
above). Cf. Jetsam. 

Flounce (i), to plunge about. (E.) 
Cf. Swed. dial, and M. Swed. flunsay to 
plunge. Of imitative origin. 

Flounce (2), a plaited border on a 
dress. (F. — L. ?) Changed from M. E. 
frounccy a plait. — O. Y./ronser^fronceVy to 
gather, plait, wrinkle ; fronser le front y to 
knit or wrinkle the forehead. Prob. from 
Late L. *frontidrey not found, but regu- 
larly formed from fronti y decl. stem of 
frons. forehead ; see Front. (Korting, 

§ 3477-) 
Flonnder (i), to flounce about. (E.) 

XVI cent. An imitative word ; perhaps 

suggested hy flounce (i) 2irA flood. Cf- 

Dn. floddereny to dangle, flap, splash 

through mire ; Svfed.fladdra, to flutter. 

Flounder (2), a fish. (F.— Scand.) 




h,Y, floundre,^0,Y. flondre (in Nor- 
mandy). --Swed. Jiundra, Dan. flynder^ 
Ictl.^yOra ; E. Ynt&,Jlunder, 

Flour, finer part of meal. (F. — L.) 
Short for * flower of wheat.' — F. Jleurt 
short ioijleur de faring, flour; see Flower 
below (which is a doublet). 

flonrishy vb. (F. — L.) M. E. floris- 

shin.^0. Y, JlorisS'y stem of pres. pt. of 

florir, to flourish. •- Folk-L. Jldrire, for 

L. Jldrire^ to blossom ; cf. L. florescere, 

inceptive form oifldrere. See Floral. 

Floutf to mock. (F.) Prob. from M. E. 

flouten, to play the flute. Similarly, M. Du. 

fluyten (Du. fluitm), to play the flute, 

also had once the meaning *■ to mock, jeer'; 

Oudemans. See Flute. 

Flow* to stream. (£.) M. E. flowen \ 
A. S.Jlffwant pt. t.Jiiow\ cf. Du. vloeijen^ 
to flow; lcel.y?<^, to flood. Teat, base 
^fld' ; cognate with Gk. tX^iv, to float. 
See Flo<xl. 

Flower, sb, (F. - L.) M. E. flour, - 
O. F. flour (F. fleur), — L. flSrem^ ace. of 
fldSf a flower. See Floral. 

Flactuatey to waver. (L.) From pp. 
oi fluciudrif to float ihovX*^'L.flucius, a 
wave. •- L. fluctus^ old pp. of fluere^ to 

Flue (i), a chimney- pipe. (F. — L.?) 
Of doubtful origin, [//m^, in Phaer*s 
Virgil, X. 209, is prob. a misprint for 
flute."] Prob. from M. E. fluen^ to flow, 
as the pipe conducts the flow of the smoke; 
*To ^VLtyfluere* Cath. Angl. - F. yfi/^r, 
' to flow, glide ; * Cot. — 'L.fliure, to flow. 
Fine (3), light, floating down. (E.?) 
Cf. prov. Y^ fluffy flue. Perhaps a deri- 
vative of the verb Fly (cf. A. S. pt. t pi. 
flug'on). We find Low Q.flog^ E. Fries. 
fl^K^flog. flue ; cf. Q.flug, flight. 

Fluent. (L.) From stem of pres. pt. 
of L. fluere, to flow. 

fluid. (F. - L.) O. F. flttide, - L. 
JluiduSy flowing. — \.,fluer€^ to flow. 

Fluke (I), a fish. (E.) M. E. floke, 

fluke. A,^,flffCy a kind of plaice. .^Icel. 

fldki, a kind of halibut. Lit. 'flat' fish. 

The base *flik' is the strong grade of Teut. 

*fla€'y as seen in G.flach, flat. 

Fluke (3), part of an anchor. (E.?) 

Also s^li flook. Perhaps ' the flat ' end ; 

and the same word as^i^(i). Appa- 

rentl3L distinct from G.flunkifilLe hook of 

an anchor. 

Flummery, a light food. *(W.) W. 

llymrUy llymruwd^ flummery, sour oat- 

meal boiled and jellied. Cf. W. llymus, 
sharp, tart., 
Flunkey, a footman. (F. — O. H.G.) 
Modern. Lowl. Sc. flunkU, a servant in 
livery. Apparently from F. flanqueur^ a 
scout (see flanker in N. E. D.). — F. flan- 
quer\ * to flank, to be at one's elbow for 
a help at need ; * Cot. — F. flanc^ side ; 
see Flank. 

Fluor, Fluor-spar, a mineral. (L.) 
The L. fluor (lit. a flowing) was formerly 
in use as a term in alchemy and chemistry. 
^Y,. flu ere ^ to flow. 

Flurry, hurry. (E.) Swift \i2A flurry ^ 
a gust of wind. From flurr, to whirr 
(N. E. D.). Imitative ; cf. Swed. dial. 
flurigy disordered (as hair) ; flur, dis- 
ordered hair, whim ; Norweg. flurtUt, 
shaggy, disordered. And cf. Y.. flutter, 

FluML (i), to inundate. (E.) Appa- 
rently of imitative origin ; ci, flush, to fly 
up quickly (N. E. D.). Perhaps influenced 
by Y.flux, 'a flowing, a flux ; also, k flush 
at cards ; * Cot. See Flux. Cf. flusch, a 
pool of water (G. Douglas) ; M. Du.fluy- 
sen, to gush or break out violently (Hex- 
ham) ; Dan. dial, fluse, to gush out. 

FlUjBh (2), to blush, to redden. (E.) 
XVIII cent. Perhaps thesame as Flush (i), 
but much influenced by Flash. Cf. Swed. 
dial, flossa, to bum, flare ; Norweg. flosa, 
passion, vehemence. And see Fluster. 
Flueh (3), level. (E.?) This is a 
derived sense; it meant in full flow, 
abundantly full; hence, level. From 
Flush (i). 

Fluster, to heat with drinking, con- 
fuse. (Scand.) Jct\. flaustra, to be flus- 
tered ; flaustr, fluster, hurry ; cf. E. Fries. 

fldstem,flustemf to rustle (as wind). Cf. 
Flush (2) and Flash. 
Flute, a musical pipe. (F.) M. E. 

flonvtey floite. — O. ¥.flaute,fleuteiflahutey 

flehutey a flute (mod. F. fliite). Prov. 

flauta. Of uncertain origin. They? may 
have been suggested by 1^. flare ^ tablow. 
Flutter, to flap the wings. (E.) M. E. 

floteren, to fluctuate. A. S. flotorian, to 
float about; cf. A,S.flot, the sea; flota, 
a ship.« A.S. flot-, stem offlot-en, pp. of 

fleotany to float. Cf. E. ¥nes.fluttem. 
Flux. (F. - L.) O. F. flux, a flux. - 

L. fluxum, ace. of fltlxus, a flowing ; 

from the pp. of fluere, to flow. 
Fly 0), to float in air. (E.) M. E. 

fle$en,jiijen, A^ S.fleoguft; ptt. fliah; 

pp.flogen.^Du. vliegen, lce\.fljugafT>an. 




JlyvefSviftA,Jlyga,0,fliegen. Teut. type 

yieu^n-, Cf. L, plutna^ a feather. 

(VPLEUGH.) Not allied to Plee. Der. 

Jly^ an insect, A. S. fleoge^flyge ; G.Jliege, 

Ply (a), a vehicle. (E.) A name given 
to a kind of four-wheeled vehicle dra>vn 
by men at Brighton, in 1816. Calledyf^- 
coach in 181 8 (Scott, Heart Midi. ch. i). 
From^, vb. See above. 

Foal. (E.) M. E./^Af, A. S.>/a.+Du. 
veuUfiy Icel. folit Dan. foUy Swed. faUj 
Goth, fula, G. foklen, Teut. *fulon-. 
Cognate with L. pulluSy young of an 
animal ; Gk. ireuXor. 

Foam. (E.) M. E. fotne, A. S. fdm. 
+Prov. G. faim ; O. H. G. feim. Teut, 
*faimO', Cognate with Russ. piena^ foam ; 
Skt. phena, foam ; and prob. with Lat. 
spuma (for *spoima), foam, and Lat. pu- 
mex, pumice. Allied to Spume. 

Fob, watch-pocket. (O.LowG.) An 
O. Low G. word, only preserved in the 
cognate H. G. (Prussian) y«//^, a pocket ; 
for which see Bremen Wort. i. 437. 

Focus, a point where light- rays meet. 
(L.) L. focus i a hearth ; hence, a centre 
of fire. 

Fodder, food for cattle. (E). M. E. 
fodder. A.S. fodor, fdddor\ extended 
form ctifodtty food.+Du. voeder^ Icel.y^^r, 
Dan. Swed. foder^ G,fuiter, Teut. type 
*fodrom, neut. Allied to Food, q. v. 

Foe. (E.) M. E. foo. A. S. fih, adj. 
hostile. Teut. type iJ/aM^??; ldg.*pot'^os 
(whence Irish oecA, a foe, with loss of 
p). From the weak grade *pig' we have 
Gk. mKp6s, bitter, Lith. pihas, unkind. 
Brugm. i. § 646. 

FoBtus ; see Fetus. 

Fog. (E.) In several senses ; M. E. 
filgi^ is 'coarse grass*; hence foggy, 
mossy, boggy, murky (whence perhaps 
the sh. fogy a mist). Origin unknown; cf. 
Dan. fog, as in snee-fog, a blinding fall 
of snow, fyge, to drift (as snow) ; but 
there \t no clear connexion. 

Foible, a weak point in character. 
(F.-L) 0,¥, foible, Y, faible, weak, 
feeble ; see Feeble. 

Foil (I), to defeat. (F.-L.) M.E. 
foylen, to trample under foot. — O. F. 
fouler^ to trample on, also to oppress, 
foil, over-charge extremely (Cot). — Late 
'L.fulldre,foldre, to full cloth; see Full 
(3). "Der, foil, a blunt sword, for practice 
m foiling, 1. e. parrying ; foil, a defeat. 

Foil (2), a set-off, as in setting a gem. 

(F.— L.) M. F. huille, a leaf, *also the 
foyle of precious stones,' Cot ; Norman 
foiUe, fem. ; cf. Ital. foglia^ Span, hoja, 
a leaf. — L. folia, pi. qI folium, a leaf; 
afterwards used as a fem. sing. See 
Foliage. h\^oO.Y.fueil,foil,m,\ from 
"L, folium. 

Foin, to thrust with a sword. (F. — L.) 
Obsolete. Lit. *to thrust with an eel- 
spear or trident.* — O. F. foine, foisne, an 
eel-spear. — L. fuscina, a trident, the 
weapon used by a retidrius, or gladiator 
with a net 

Foison, plenty. (F.-L.) O. Y.foisoii, ' 
abundance. — Folk-L. fUsionem, for L. 
fUsionemy ace. of fOsio, a pouring out, 
hence profusion. —L./«j«j, pp. oifundere^ 
to pour. See Fuse. 

Foist, to palm or put off, to intrude 
surreptitiously. (Du.) XVI cent — Du. 
vuisten, to take in the fist or hand; see 
N. E.D. (Low G. vHsten, to take in the 
hand) ; hence, to ' palm ' a die, to cheat. 
— Du. vuist, fist ; see Fist. 

Fold (i), to double together. (E.) M. E. 
f olden, O. Merc, faldan, A. S.fealdan (pt. 
t.feold), to fold.+Dan./^ii/^f, Swed./a//rt 
(^faldcC), Icel. falda, Goth, falthan, G. 
fatten. Teut. type ^falihan-. Allied to Gk. 
ht'itXAffioiy doubled ; ir\d<ra€iVf to form, 
mould. See Plaster. *Der. fold, sb., 
a plait ; -fold, suffix, as in twofold, &c. 

Fold (2). a pen for sheep. (E.) A. S. 
fald, also fcUod, falud. Not connected 
withy^/<f (1), but with 'D^ca^fold, a sheep- 
pen ; Du. vaalt, a dung-pit ; Low G.faal. 

Foliatfe, a duster of leaves. (F. — L.) 

Modifieafrom M. Y.fueillage, from M. F. 

fueille, a leaf.— L. y&/w, pi. oi folium, a 

leaf; used as fem. sing. ^ Gk. tpdWov, 

leaf. Cf. Foil (2). 

folio. (L.) P'rom the L. phr. in folio, 
yfYiQTQ folid is the abl. oi folium, a leaf, 

Folk, a crowd of people. (E.) A. S. 
folc.'\'\Qe\. folky Dan. Swed. ^Zt; Du. G, 
volk. Teut. type *folkom, neut. ^ Lithuan . 
pulkas, a crowd, Russ. polk\ an army, 
were probably borrowed fat an early date) 
from Teutonic. 

Follicle, seed-vessel. (F. — L.) F. 
follicule, little bag. — L. folliculus, double 
dimin. oifollis, a bag. 

Follow. (E.) M.E. folwen. A.S. 

folgian^ ^X'Stofylgan, weak verb, to follow. 

+0. Fries, folgia^ fulia, O. Sax. folgon, 

Du. volgen ; lct\.jfylgja, hsLn.fdlge, Swed. 



filja ; G. folgm. We also find A. S./«/. 
gangaftf (pt. t. ful-eode)^ -with the same 
sense, bat derived from A. S,/ul, full, and 
gangan, to go; and, in like manner, 
O. H. G. folUgdn, Hence the orig. sense 
was, perhaps, ' to go in full nombers,' to 
go in a crowd, to accompany ; and it is a 
derivative of Tent. *fulloz, foil. See Full. 
Cf. A,S, fylstan^ to SLSsistf/u/tum^ assis- 
tance ; also from A. S./u/I, 

Folly. (F.-L.) M.E. folye.^O.Y. 
fo^ie Jolly. ^O.F./o/,{oo\ish. SeeFool(i). 

Foment. (F.— L.) M.F./omenter.^ 
L. fdmefU&re.^la, fdmentuniy short for 
*fouimentum, a warm application, lotion. 
^\j.fouire^ to warm. 

Fond, foolish. (K) M. £. fond^ more 
commonly y^»-^df, pp. oifonnen^ to be 
weak, to act as a fool ; from the M. £. sb. 
fon, fontUf a fool. The sb. answers to 
O. Fries, famne, fomne^ Fries, font (see 
Hettema), E. Yncs.fone^fanf a maid, girl, 
weakling, simpleton (see Koolman). All 
allied to A. S. famne^ a virgin. Der. 
fond-U, vb. 

Font (i), basin of water. (L.) A.S. 
/w/.— L, fontem, ace. oi fons, a fount. 
See Fount. 

Font (a),Foiint9an assortment of types. 
(F. — L.) Y,fonU^ a casting of metals. — 
l^^ondre, to melt. See Found (a). 

Food. (£.) M.E. fode. A.S. fida, 
what one eats. The A.S. fdd- is the 
strong grade of the base *fad, corresponding 
to Gk. var- in var-cco'^cu, to feed. From 
the Idg. root pd'^ to feed, whence L. pa- 
nts, bread, pd'bulum, food, and pd-scere, 
to feed. See Pasture. "Det, fodder ; feed. 

Fool (i), a jester. (F.-L.) M. E. ffl, 
sb. and adj. O. F. fol ( F.fau), a fool. - L. 
fo/Iem, ace. of foIUs, a wind-bag ; pi. foi/es, 
puffed cheeks, whence the term was easily 
transferred to a vain or foolish person ; as 
in Late 'L,follis, a fool. * Der. be-fooL 

fool (2;, a dish of crushed fruit, &c. 
(F.— L.) From Fool (i) ; named like 
irifU, Florio has: * Mantiglia, a kind 
of clouted creame, called v^fooU or a trifU 
in English.' 

fo<M8-cap, paper so called from the 
water-mark on it. 

Foot. (E.) M. Y.,fotjoot, ^\.fei,feet, 
A. S. fift, pi. fit, + Du. voei, Icel. fotr, 
Dan. fodj Swed. fot, Goth, fitus, G,/uss, 
Tent, type *fiff (consonant-stem), corre- 
sponding to Idg. type *pddf with the 
valiants *pedf *pod, Cf. L. pes, foot (gen. 


ped-is) ; Gk. vo^s (iEolic irt&s), foot (gen. 
fro5-6s), fr€(6s (^irtfy6s), on foot; Skt 
pad, a foot (gen. pad-as), Cf. Fetter, 
Fetlock, Fetch. Brugm. i. § 578. 

Footy, paltry, mean. (E.) A variant 
oifoughty, musty (N. E. D.). Orig. * damp ; * 
from A. S,fuht, damp, with suffix ■^.+Du. 
vochtig, damp ; S^e^.fuktig, T>an.fugtig. 
Cf. Q.feucht, O. H. G.fuhH,fuht, From 
a Teut. type *fuhtuz, damp; from Teut. 
base *feuky as in Icel. fjiika, to drift as 
snow or dust, whence also Norw, fuk, 
vapour (Franck). 

Pop, a coxcomb. (E.) M.E. fop, a 

fool. Cf. Du. foppen, to prate, cheat ; 

fopper, a wag; fopperij, cheating ( = E. 

fopUry), Cf. fob off, to delude (Johnson) . 

For (i), prep, and conj. (E.) Orig. 
a prep. A.S. for, fore, before, for; see 
Fore.+Du. voor, Icel. fyrir, Dan. for, 
Swtd. for, G.fUr, Cf. L. prff, for; Gk. 
vp6f before, irapa, near. 

For- {2),prejix, (K) For- has usually 
an intensive force, or preserves something 
of the sensfe of from, to which it is related. 
(Quite distinct from fore-, though ulti- 
mately allied to it.) A.S.^r-; Icel, for-, 
Da.n.for-, Swed. /ifr-, Du. ver-, G. ver-, 
Goth, fra-, fair-, Skt. para-. The Skt. 
para is an old instrumental sing, of para-, 
&r; perhaps the orig. sense was 'away' 
or * forth. Der. for-bear, for-bid, for- 
fend, for-go {rmssoeXX fore-go) , for^get, for- 
give, for-hrn, forsake, for-swear; see 
Bear, Bid, &c. 

ToX'iz)) prefix, (F.-L.) Only in /pr- 
close (misspelt foreclose), for-feit, which 

Forage* fodder, chiefly obtained by pil- 
lage. (!• . — Low L. — Teut.) M. ^.forage, 
fourage, — O. F. fourage, — O. F. forrer, to 
forage. — O. Y.forre i^,feurre), fodder. — 
Low L. fddrum, fodder. — Teut tjrpe 
*fidrom, fodder ; see Fodder. 

Foraminated, perforated. (L.) From 
L. foramin-, stem of foramen, a small 
hole. — "L.fordre, to bore ; see Bore. 

Foray, Torrsj. a raid for foraging. 
(F. — Low L. — Teut.) Foray, forray are 
old Lowl. Scotch spellings, with the sense 
of ' foraging expedition.* Apparently 
coined from the M. E. forrier, forreyer, 
a forager. — O. F. forrier, a forager ; 
from O. ¥. forrer, to forage ; see Forage. 

Forbear (i), vb. (E.) From For- (2) 
and Bear. A. S,forberan. 

Forbear (2), sb., an ancestor. (E.) 




M. E. forbear (Wallace). For fore-he-er, 
one who is before. See Fore and Be. 

Forbid. (E.) From For- (a) and 
Bid ( 2) . A. S f&rbfodan, -f Du. verbieden^ 
Goih, faurbiuaan, G. verbieten. 

Force (i). strength. (F.-L.) M.E. 

force y fors, — O. F. force. — Late L. fortia^ 

stren^h.^'L. forti', decl. stem of fortis, 

strong; CL.forctis, Allied to Borough. 

Bnigm. i. §( 566, 756. Cf. Fort. 

Force (3)} to stuff fowls ; see Faroe. 

Force (3), Fobs, waterfall. (Scand.) 
Dan. foSy Swed. fors, Icel. fors, foss, a 

Forceps* pincers. (L.) L. forceps, 
orig. used for holding hot iron ; for *for- 
miceps (VaniSek). — L. formus, hot ; 
capere, to hold. 

Ford. (E.) M.E. ford; also /tt/A. 
A., a ford , passage. •^G.yiir^. Teut. 
type *furduz. From Idg. *p9r, weak grade 
of ^PERy to go ; see Fare. Allied to L. 
porfus, a harbour, O. Welsh (p)rit, Welsh 
rhydf a ford, and to frith ; see Frith and 
Fore. Brugm. ii. § 108. 

Fore, in front, coming first. (E.) A. S. 
fore, for, before, prep. ; forefforan, before, 
adv.4-I)u. voor, G. vory Goth.faura ; cf. 
Icel. fyrir, Dan. for, Swed. for. Allied 
to Gk. iropof, before ; Skt purcu, before, 
in front, Skt. purdj formerly. Also to 
For- (i), prefix, q. v. Der. fore-arm, 
'bode, -cast, -ccutle, -date, -father, -finger^ 
'foot, front, -go (in the sense * to go 
before only), -ground, -hand, -head, 
•judge, -know, -land, -loch, -man, -noon, 
-ordain, -part, -rank, -run, -see, -ship, 
-shorten, -show, -sight, -stall (A. S. fore- 
steally sb. lit. ' a position in ifront *), -tcute, 
•tell, -thought, -token, -tooth, -top, -warn ; 
all easily understood. 

Foreclose, to preclude, exclude. (F. — 
L.) Better spelt forclose, — O. F. forclos, 
pp. oi forclorre, to exclude, shut out — 
O. F. for-, from L. forts, outside ; and 
clorre, to shut, from L. claudere. See 
Forfeit and Close. 

Forej^O, to relinquish ; see Forgo. 

Foreign. (F.-L.) The g is wrongly 
inserted. M. E. foraine, foreyne,^0, F. 
forain, alien, strange. — Folk-L. *fordnus ; 
for Late L. fordneus, adj., from la. fords, 
out of doors, adv. with ace. pi. form, allied 
to L,. fores, doors \ cf. "L, forum, a market- 
place, and £. door. 

Forejudge (i), to prejudge. From 
Fore and Judge. 


Forejudge (a) ; see Fozjudge. 

ForemoStf most in front. (E.) A 
double superl., the old snperl. form being 
misunderstood. For M.E.formest, through 
secondary influence oimost. • K,%.formest, 
by-form of the regular fyrmest {<.*fur- 
mistot), through me influence of A. S. 
forma, which is cognate with Goth. 
fruma, first, Gk. irp(^or, 7rp6fJU)t, first. 
Further allied to Gk. vpo, before. Brugm. 

i. § 518- 

ForensiCf belonging to law-courts. 
(L.) Coined from L. forens-is, belonging 
to the forum. ^ L. forum, market-place, 
meeting-place ; orig. a vestibule or door- 
way. Allied to L. foris, doors, and E. 

forest. (F.-L.) O.F. forest. ^lAte 
h.forestis, free space of hunting-ground ; 
foresta, a wood (medieval writers oppose 
the forestis, open hunting-ground, to the 
parous, enclosed park).— L. .^wfr, out of 
doors; adv. allied to L. fores, doors. 
Der. forest-er, tiXsoforster, foster. 

Forfeit^ a thing forfeited or lost by 
misdeed. (F. — L.) M . E. forfete ; whence 
forfeten, yh.^K.¥. forfeit, O,¥.forfait, 
a crime punishable by fine, a fine ; also a 
pp. of O. Y. f Off aire, f or sf aire, to trespass. 
— Late L,.forisfactum, a trespass, fine ; orig. 
pp. (neut.) oi forisfacere, to trespass, lit. 
* to do beyond.' — L. foris facere, to do or 
act beyond or abroad; from forts, out 
of doors ; and facere, to do. See Fore- 

Forfend, Forefend, to avert. (Hy- 
brid ; E. and F.) M. E. forfenden. An 
extraordinary cofhpound of 'E.for-, prefix, 
with fend, a familiar abbreviation of de- 
fend. See For- (a) and Defend; also 
Fend, Fence. 

Forge. (F. -L.) O. F. forge, a work- 
shop. — Folk-L. *faurga, for *favrega 
(Schwan) ; for L. fabrica, a workshop. 
See Fabric. "Der, forge, vb. 

Forget. CE) From For- (2) and 
Oet. A. S.forgetan (E. E. T.), forgitan. 
•4-Du. vergeten, G. vergessen. 

Forgive. (E.) From For (a) and 
Give. A. S. ^r^^«.+Du. vergeven, G. 
vergeben ; Qoih.fragiban, to grant. 

Forgo, Forego, to give up. (E.) 

Better forgo. A. S. f organ, to pass over. 
From For- (a) and Go. 

Foxjudge, to deprive of by a judge- 
ment. ( F. — L.) O. Y.fotyugier. — Low L. 
forisjudicdre. —L.^m, outside : and iiidi' 




caret to judge. See Forfeit and 

Fork. (L.) A. S. forca.^'L.furcay a 
fork. Der. bi-furcated. 

Forlorn, <|uite lost (E.) M. E. for- 
lorn, A.^, JorloreUy pp. oi forleosan^ to 
lose utterly ; ivom for-^ prefix, and leosan^ 
to lose; see For- (2) and Ijose. So also 
Dan. forloren^ Du. and G. verioren, simi- 
larly derived. 

Form. (F.— L.) O. F. forme, ^ Lu 
fortna^^hsij^, Brugm.ii.$72. (-^DHER.) 
<^ O. F. forme also means ' a bench/ like 
'E^orm. Der. form-uia. 

Former, more in front. (E.) Not 
early ; XII cent. ; a false formation, to 
suit M. E. firmest, i. e. foremost ; see 
Foremost. Formed by adding -er to the 
base form- of A. S. form-a, first, really a 
superl. form, where -m- \% vca. Idg. superl. 
suffix. Cf. L. pri-muSy first. 

Formic, pertaining to ants. (L.) For 
formic-ic ; from "L. formica, an ant. 

Formidable, causing fear. (F.-L.) 
F. formidable. ^V,. formiddbilisy terrible. 
^informtddrey to dread ; formidoy fear. 

Formula, a prescribed form. (L.) L. 
formuhy dimin. 9^ forma^ a form. See 

Fornicate. (L*) From pp. of'L.for- 
nicdriy to commit lewdness, seek a brothel. 
^'L,fomtc-y base oi fornix , a vault, arch, 
brothel. Perhaps allied to Furnaoe ; cf. 
O. L. fomtiSy L. fumusy an oven (of 
vaulted shape). 

Forsake. (E.) l/L.^ forsaken. A. S. 

forsacan^ to neglect, orig. to contend 

against, or oppose ; from for- y prefix, and 

sacan, to contend, whence the E. sb. sake. 

See For- (2) and Sake. So also Swed. 

forsaka, Dan.forsagey Du. verzaken. 

Forsooth. (E.) M. E. for sothey for 
a truth. A,S* for so6e; where for ^ for y 
and sffde is dat. of sdd, truth ; see Sooth. 

Forswear. (E.) From For- (a) and 
Swear. A. S.forswerian, 

Fort. (F. -L) O. F. forty sb., a fort ; 
a peculiar use of F. fort, adj., strong.— L. 
ace. fort-em, from nom. fortiSy strong. 
See Foroe. 

fortalice, small fort. (F.-L.) O.F. 
fortelesce ; Late L. fortalitia ; see For- 
tress (below). 

forte, loud. (Ital. — L.) Ital. forte, - 
L. ticc, fort-em, strong (above). 

forniy. (F.-L.) 0,Y, fortifier y to 
make strong. ^-L. fortificdre,wm1„ forti-y 

decl. stem oi fortis, strong; -ficare, for 
facerey to make. 

fortitude. (F.~L.) F . fortitude,^ 
'L.fortitudoy strength. — L. forti-s, strong ; 
with suffix -tado. 

Forth, forward. (E.) M. E. forth, 
A. S. forp, adv. ; related to fore, be- 
fore; see Pore. + Du. voort, from voor\ 
G. fort, M. H. G. vort, from vor; cf. 
Goth, faurthis, further, from faur^a, be- 
fore. Teut. type ^fur-fo- ; Idg. type */pr- 
to-. See Further. 
Fortify, Fortitude ; see Fort. 
Fortnight, two weeks. (E.) M. E. 
fourtenight \ Vilso fourten nigkt.^M.E, 
fourten, i. e. fourteen ; night, old pi., i. e. 
nights. A. S. feowertyne niht. So also 
sennight ^ seven night. 
Fortress. (F.-L.) M. E, fortresse, 
— O. F. forteresce, fortelesce, — Late L. for- 
talitia, a small fort. -i Late L. fortis 
{domus), a fort; 'L, fortis y strong. See 
Fort, Fortalice. 

Fortune. (F. — L.) O. F. fortune. - L. 
fortHna, chance. — 'L./ortU-y allied io f or ti-, 
decl. stem of fors, chance ; orig. < that 
which is brought,' or 'an event'; from 
ferre, to bring ; see Fertile. 

fortuitous. (L.) L. fortuit-usy 
casual ; with suffix -ous, — L. fortU- (as 

Forty; see Four. 

Forward. (E.) 1A,E. forward, A. S. 
foreweardy adj. — A.S.y5?r^, before; weardy 
suffix; see Toward. Der. forwards, 
M. E. forwardesy where -es is the suffix of 
gen. case, used adverbially. And see 

Fosse. (F.-L.) Y,fosse.'^'L, fossa, a 
ditch. — L. fossay fem. of fossusy pp. of 
fodere, to dig. Brugm. i. ( 166. 

fbssil, petrified remains obtained by 
digging. (F.-L.) M. F. /miA?, * that 
may be digged;' Cot.— L. fossilis, dug 
up. — L./7JJ-WJ, pp. oi fodere (above). 
Cosset, a spigot ; see Faucet. 
Foster, to nourish. (E.) A. ^.fistrian, 
vb. — A. %.fdstor, nourishment ; Teut. type 
*ftstromy for *f5d-trom, neut.; allied to 
fikia, food.+Icel. ftstr, nursing, whence 
fdstra,Xo nurse ; Swed.yoj/ra, Y^zii^fostre, 
to rear, bring up. 

Fother, a load, heavy mass. (£.) A.S. 

fi^er,^yi. Du. voeder^ Du. voer\ O. H. G. 

fuodar, G.fuder, Teut. type *fdh-rom, n. 

From yof'y strong grade of %^» see 




Ponl. (E.) M.E./W/. A.S./ul.-^ 
Du. vuily Icei./«//, Daxi. fuuiy Swed./«/, 
Goth. fu/Sy G. faui. Teut. type */u'hz ; 
cf. Icel. /u'inny rotten. Akin to Putrid. 
(-/PtJ.) Brugm. i. § 113. 

foumart, a polecat. (£.) M. E./ui' 
niarty fulniard\ comp. of }A,E, ful, foul 
(as above), and A.S. Pt^ard, a marten. 
See Marten. 

Found (i)) to lay the foundation of. 

(F. -L.) M. E. founden. - O. F. fonder, 

— L. funddre, to found, -i L. fundus^ a 

bottom, foundation. See Fund. Der. 


Found (3), to cast metals. (F. — L.) 
O.Y. fondn^^'L, funderey to pour, cast 
metals. (VGHEU.) See Fuse (i). 
Ty&r.found-ryy ¥,fand-eru. 

Founder, to go to the bottom. (F.— 
L.) M. Y^,joundr'eny said of a horse fall- 
ing. — O. F, fondrer, chiefly in comp. 
qfondrer (obsolete), effondrery to fall in 
(still in use) ; orig. to sink in. — F. fondy 
bottom.- 1*, fundus, bottom. See Found 


Foundling, a deserted child. (E.) 
M. E. fundling ; formed with suffix -l-ing 
from A. S. fund-y weak grade of findan, 
to find.+Du. vondeling. See Find. 

Fount ( I ) , a spring. (F. — L.) Formed, 

by analogy with mount, from F. font, — L. 

fontem, ace. of fonsy a fountain. Der. 

fount-ainy O. F. fontaine. Late L. fon- 


Fount (3)1 Font, an assortment of 
types. (F.— L.) O. F. fontCy a casting of 
metals. — O.F. fondre, to cast—L. foin- 
derty to pour, cast metals. See Found (2). 

Four. (E.) yi.Y^.feowuryfoTveryfour, 
A. S. flower, + Icel. fjSriry Dan. firty 
Swed. fyra, Du. vier, Goth, fidwor, G. 
vicr'y als^ W. pedwar, Gael, ceithiry O. 
Irish cethir, L. guatuor, Gk. rhrapHy 
riffffoptSy viffvptSy Russ. chetveroy Lith. 
petuHy Pers. chehdry Skt. ckatvdras. Idg. 
type, *qetwer-, "D&r.four-ih , A. S.fiorfa ; 
four-teeny A. S. flowertine ; for-ty, A. S. 

FowL (E.) M. E. fouly A, S. fugoly a 
bird.4'Du. vogei, Icel. fugl, Dan. f*£^t 
Syred, fogeiy Groth. /«s^, G. vogel. Teut. 
type yugiozy masc. ; prob. for *flugloz^ by 
oissimilation ; the form ftuglas, pi. occurs 
in Matt. xiii. 33 (Rush worth gloss), and 
cf. the adj. flugol, flying. From ^flug, 
weak grade of Teut. yleug-an-y to fly. 
See Fugleman and Fly. Brugm. i. § 491. 


(E.) A. S. fox. -f Du. voSf G. 
fuchs. Teut. type *fuh-S'^ masc. We also 
find Icel. foa, Goth, fauho, fem. a vixen ; 
Teut. type *fuhd. A connexion with Skt 
piichchha-y * tail,* is doubtful. Der. vix-en, 
q. V. 

foxglove. (E.) A,S, foxes gtfffa,\,t, 
fox's glove j a fanciful name. Cf. Norw, 
revhfoUay a foxglove ; lit. * fox-bell.' 

Foyy a parting entertainment, by or to 
a wayfarer. (Du. — F.) From Du- foot 
(in Hexham, ^5?^, *a banquet given by one 
at parting from his friends'). — F.y2>j, lit. 
faith, from L. ace. fidem\ cf. L^te L. 
fides y in the sense of 'payment.* (So 
Franck.) But rather from F. voUy a way ; 
L. uia. Cf. Voyage. 

Fracas. (F.-Ital.-L.) Y, fracas y a 
crash. — F. fracasser, to shatter. — Ital. 
fracassarey to break in pieces. — Ital. fray 
prep.) among, and cassare, to break: (imi- 
tated from L. interrumpere). Ital. fra is 
from L. infrdy below. Cassare — ^L. quas- 
sdre, to shatter ; see Quash. 

Fraction. (F.-L.) Y, fraction.^Y., 
ace. fractionem, a breaking. — L. fractusy 
pp. oi frangerey to break. Cognate with 
break ; see Break. • 

fracture. (F.-L.) O.Y, fracture, 
^\>, fracturtty a breach.— L.^or/iAf, pp. 
oifrangerey to break. 

Fractious, peevish. (E.; and ¥.-!.,) 
A prov. E. word, as if from North. E.fratcA, 
to squabble, chide; the same as M. £. 
fraccheny to creak as a cart. But it also 
occurs (in 1705) in the sense of refractory, 
being formed homfractiony in me sense 
of * dissension,* a sense now obsolete ; see 
N. E. D. See Fraction. 

Fragile. (F.-L.) Y, fragile. ^"L. 
fragilts, easily broken. — L. ^flf^-, base of 
frangere, to break. See Fraction. 
Doublet, /rafV. 

fragment. (F.-L.) Y, fragment.'^ 
"L,, fragmentuniy a broken piece. — L./«^-, 
base oi frangere ; with suffix -mentum. 

Fragrant. (F.-L.) Y, fragrant.^ 
la. frdgrantemy ace. of frdgrans, pres. pt. 
oifrdgrdrey to emit an odour. 

Frail. (F.-L.) U.Y.. freel, freyl.'^ 
O. F. fraiUy brittle. — L. fragilem, ace of 
fragilts ; see Fragile. 

name, to construct. (E.) M. E. fra- 
mien; also fremien. A,S, framian, to 
be profitable, avail; cf. also fremieny 
fremmany to promote, effect, do, lit. to 
further. — A. S. fram, strong, good, lit. 



forward; dnfrantt prep., from, away; see 
'FrGm..'^lcs\.frama,fremjay to further, 
from framr, adj., forward, fy'am, adv., 
forward, allied iofrd, from. Cf. G,fromm, 
good. "Det.framet sb. 

Frampoldy qnarrelsome. (Low G.) 
Obsolete. Ai&oframj^ldyfrompalL Allied 
to prov. E. rantipoUy a romping child. Cf. 
E. Fries, frante-pot, wrante-poty a peevish 
man ; M. Da. wranten, to chide, Dan. 
vraniCf to be peevish, vranten, peevish. 
Cf. also Dan. vrampet, warped; Low G. 
wrampachtigh^ morose (Liibben); E. Fries. 
frantettj wrantcn, to be cross. Note also 
Sc. frampUf to disorder, and E. frump. 
The second element is prob. from E. poll, 

FraACi a French coin. (F. — G.) M. E. 
frank, ^C>,Y.franc\ said to be short for 
Francorum Rex (on a coin of 1360). See 

firanchise. (F.-G.) M. E. fran- 
chise. — O. F. franchise, privileged liberty. 
— O. F. franchis', stem of pres. pt. of 
franchir, to free. — O. F. franc ^ free; see 
Frank. Der. disfranchise, enfranchise. 

Frangible. (L.) IjsXtL., frangibilis, 
breakable; a coined yroidL,^lj, frangere, 
to break. See Fraction. 

Franion, a dissolute person. (F.— L.) 
O. H.fraignant, one who infringes (law) ; 
pres. pt. oi fraindre, to break, hence to 
infringe. -• L. frangere, to break. See 

X^aak, free. (F.-Low L.-0. H. G.) 
O. F. franc, ■■ Low L. francus, free ; 
orig. a Frank. — O. H. G. JrankOy a Frank ; 
pemaps named from a weapon ; cf. A. S. 
franca, a javelin. The Franks were a 
Germanic people. 

£railkal2lloigIl| the name of the 
tenure by which most church-lands are 
held. (F.-O. H. G. fl«//L.-Gk.) Lit. 
* free alms.* — F. franc, free ; Anglo-F. 
almoine = O. F. almosne, alms. See Frank 
and Almoner. 

franlcmoense. (F. - G. and L.) 

O. F. franc encens, pure incense; see 
Frank (above) and Incense. 

franklixiy a freeholder. (F. — G.) 
M. E. frankelein. — A. F. fraunkelayn, 
Langtoft, ii. 2x2; Zjovf 1^, francaldnus, 
franchildnus, — Low L. francus, free ; see 
Frank (above). The suffix is possibly 
from O. H. G. 'line («E. -l-ing as in 
dar-ling) ; precisely as in chamberlain. 
Frantic. (F.-L.-Gk.) U.^Jrene- 


tik, shorter form frentik, — O. F. frena- 
tique.^l^. phreneticus, phrentticus, mad. 

— Gk. <Pp€vitik65, mad, suffering from 
(ppeviTis, frenzy. See Frenzy. 

Fraternal. (F. — L.) O.f.fralemeL 

— Late L. frdtemdlis, the same as L. 
frdlemus, brotherly. — L. f rater, cognate 

with E. Brother. 

featemity. (F.-L.) 0,¥, f rater- 
nitee.'^L. Sicc, frdternitdtem, brotherhood. 

— L. frdtemus, brotherly. — L. frdter, 
brother. Der. confraternity, 

fratricide (i). murderer of a brother. 

(F. - L.) O. Y, fratricide. - \a, frdtricida, 

a brother-slayer. •- L. frdtri-, stem of 

frdter, brother; -cida, a slayer, from 

cadere, to kill ; see CaBsura. 

fratricide (a)i murder of a brother. 

(F.-L.) 0.¥, fratrecide (Littr6). - L. 

frdtricidium, the killing of a brother. — L. 

frdtri-, stem of ^^fl/^r, brother; 'Ctdium, 

a slaying, from ccedere, to kill. 

Frand. (F.-L.) O.F. fraude,^\j, 
fraudem, ace. oifraus, deceit, guile. 

Franghti to lade a ship. (Low G. or 
Friesic) "We now use fraught only as a 
pp. ^."E. frahten, fragten, only in the 
^^. fraught, Cf. Swta. frakta, to fraught or 
freight, from frakt, a cargo ; Dan. jragte, 
from fragt, a cargo; E. Fries, fracht, 
fragt, (i) a cargo, (2) charge for trans- 
port; also Du. bevrachten, from vracht; 
G. frachten, from fracht. See further 
under Freight. 

Fray (i)> ^^ affray. (F.— L.) Short 
for affray, or effray, orig. * terror/ as 
shewn by the use olfray in the sense of 
terror, Bruce, xv. 255. See Affray. 

frM- (2), to terrify. (F.-L.) Short 
for affray ; see Affray. ' 

Fray (3), to wear away by rubbing. 
(F.-L.) O. F. freier (also froier), to 
rub (Godefroy). — L.^rfV^r^, to rub. 

Freak (i), a whim, caprice. (E.) A 

quick movement ; from M. E. frek, quick, 

vigorous. — A. S. free, bold, rash ; whence 

frician, to move briskly. + Icel. frekr, 

voracious ; Swed. frdck, impudent, Dan. 

frcek, audacious; G.frech, saucy, O. H. G. 

freJif greedy ; Goth, faihufriks, covetous. 

Freak (2), to streak. (E.) A coined 
word; to streak capriciously (Milton); 
from Freak (i). 

Freckle, a small spot. (Scand.) We 
find hoih. frekell Budifreken oxfrakin.^ 
l<x\,freknur, pi., freckles ; Svfed.frdkne, 
T>an,fregne, a freckle. Cf. Fleok. 




K (E.) M.E.//-^. A.S.>«7.+ 
Du. vrij; Goth, freis; G. /ret. Tent, 
type */rijoz ; allied to Skt./ry'a-, beloved, 
agreeable: also to E. Friend. Orig. sense 
♦dear, beloved'; hence applied to those 
of the household who were children, not 
slaves ; cf. L. Itdertj free, also * children.' 
Der. freedom, A. S. freodom ; free-stone^ 
transl. of F, pier re franc he » 

Free-booter, a rover, pirate. (Du.) 
Borrowed from Du. vrijbuiter^ a free- 
booter, robber. — Du. vrijbuiten^ to rob; 
vrijbuUf plunder, lit. * free booty.* Du. 
vrii =^^, free. And see Booty, p. 56. 

Freeae. (E.) M. E. fresen. A. S. 
freosan ; pp. _^^^«.+Icel. frjosa, Swed. 
frysay 'Ds^.fryse, Du. vriezen^ G,frieren, 
Teut type ^freusan-, L. prurire, to itch, 
originally to bum (cf. prutna, hoarfrost), 
^Vi.plosha-y a burning. Bmgm. i. § 562 ; 
ii- § <557. (VPREU.) 

Freight, a cargo. (F. - O. H. G.) M. E. 
freyte ; later freygkt ; an altered spelling 
of F. frety the freight of a ship, the ^ 
being inserted by (a true) connexion with 
fraught, q. v. — F. fret, * the frai^ht or 
freight of a ship, also, the hire that^ paid 
for a ship;' Cot.— O. H. O.frlht, 'earn- 
ings,' hire. This O. H. G.freht is thought 
to be the same as Q.frachty a cargo ; and 
freht has been supposed to represent a 
Teut. t)rpe *fra-aihttz\ from fra-, prefix 
(see Fret), and ♦a/^/w>A.S. 5^/, ac- 
quisition (from dgan, to own). See Own. 

Frenzy. (F.— L.— Gk.) M.E.frenesye, 

— O. F. frenisie.^'L, phrenesis. — Late 
Gk.^/>^t'97(ri;,for Gk. ^cfms, inflammation 
of the brain.— Gk. <pptV'^ base of <l>pfjv, 
midriff, heart, senses. See Frantic. 

Frequent. (F.-L.) yi,Y. frequent, 
^Ij.frequentem, ace. oifrequens, crowded, 
frequent; pres. part, of a lost verb *frequerey 
to cram, allied to farctre, to cram ; see 
Faroe. Brugm. ii. § 713. 

Fresco. (Ital.-O.H.G.) A painting 
ovi fresh plaster.- Ital.y9r^<rtf, cool, fresh. 

— O . H . G. frisc (G. frisch) . See below. 
fresli. (E. ; andY.-TtvX.) M.E. 

fresh ; zXsofersh, representing A. S.fe^sc, 
The form fresh is from O. F. freSj freis 
(fitm, fresche) ; cf. mod. Y.frais^ fresh.— 
O. n. G. frisc (G. frisch), fresh. Teut. 
type *friskoz. Allied to Lith. priskas, 
sweet, unsoured, i. e. unleavened (applied 
to bread) ; Russ. priesnuii, fresh. 
Fret (i), to eat away. (E.) A.S. 

fretan, for Teut *fra-etan, to devour 

entirely. + Goth, fra-itan, to devour 
entirely, from fra-, entirely, and itan, to 
eat; Du. vreten, G.Jressen (t^ver-essen). 
See For- (2) and Eat. 

Fret (2), to ornament, variegate. 
(F. — L. ; and E.) M.E. fretten, to adorn 
with interlaced woik. — O. F. freter, to 
strengthen (as with iron), also to adorn ; 
also spelt /ifr/^r. — O. F. /r^/"^, a ferrule 
rCot), also 2, fret (in heraldry) ; see Fret 
(3). Probably influenced by M. 'E.fretien, 
A. S. frcetwan, to adorn ; from frcetwe, 

Fret (3)> a kind of grating. (F.-L.) 
Common in heraldry. — O. F. frete, a 
ferrule ; frettes^ pi., an iron grating (Diez) ; 
fretter, to hoop ; fretti, fretty (in heraldry). 
[Cf. Span, fretes, frets (in heraldry) ; allied 
to ItaL ferriata, an iron grating.] — F.^r, 
iron. — L. ferrum, iron. 

fi^t (4)1 a stop on a musical instru- 
ment. (F. — L.) Frets are bars across the 
neck of the instrument ; probably the same 
word 2&fret (3). See N. E. D. 

Friable, easily crumbled. (F.— L.) 
M. Y. friable. — L. friabilis. — L. frtdre, to 
rub, crumble. 

Friaor. (F.-L.) M.E. ^^r<f.-O.F. 
frere, freire, lit. a brother. — L. frdtrem, 
ace. oifrdter, a brother. See Brother. 

Fribble, to trifle. (F.-L.) Of imita- 
tive origin ; but prob. suggested by obso- 
lete /nw/, adj. frivolous, lli.'E. frevol.^ 
Y,frivole. — "L.friuolus; see Frivolous. 

Fricassee, a dish of fowls cut up. 

(F.) F. fricassie, a fricassee ; fem. of pp. 
oifricasser, to fricassee, also, to squander 
money. A fricassee is made of chickens, 
&C. cut up into small pieces. Of unknown 
origin. Some have suggested L. frigere, 
to roast, or L. fricdre, to rub (Korting). 

Friction. (F. — L.) Y. friction. — L. 
ace. frictionem, a rubbing. — L. frictus, 
contr. pp. oi jfricdre, to rub; allied to 
fridre, to rub ; see Friable. 

Friday. (E.) K,S. frfge-dteg, trans- 
lating L. dies Veneris ; -whtrt frige is gen. 
oi Frig, the wife of Woden. Teut. type 
*frijdy fem. of *frijoz, dear, beloved, alsa 
'free * ; Skt. priyd, wife, loved one. See 
Free, Friend. 

Friend. (E.) M.E. frend. A.S. 
freond, orig. * loving,* pres. pt. oifreogan, 
to love.+Icel./r^«dy, lisin.frande, Swed. 
frdnde, only in the sense of * kinsman ' ; 
also Du. vriend, Gfreund; Goih.fri/ffndSf 
a friend, pres. pt. of fryon, to love. Cf. 



Skt. prf, to love. Allied to Free. 
Brugm. i. § 567. Der. friend'Ship^ A. S. 

Priese (i), a coarse woollen cloth. (F. 
- Du. ?) M. F. frize, /rise, * frise ; ' Cot. 
Perhaps due to drap de frise, i. e. cloth of 
Friesland ; with which Cotgrave identifies 
it. — Du. Vriesland, FriesUnd, Vries, a 
Frieslander, belonging to Friesland. So 
also cheval de Frise , a horse of Friesland ; 
whence chevaux de Frise, spikes to resist 
cavalry, a jesting term. ^ Hence O. F. 
friser, to cover with a nap, to curl hair, 
tofrizz. See Korting. 

nies6 (2), part of the entablature of a 
column. (F.) M. Y.frize^ * the broad and 
flat band that's next below the cornish 
[cornice], or between it and the architrave ;* 
Cot Span. frisOi a frieze ; allied to Ital. 
fregioy a fringe, lace, border, ornament. 
The Ital. fregio represents L. Fhrygium 
{opus), Phrygian work. 

Fri^te. (F.-Ital.) M.F. fregate, 
' a frigate ; ' Cot.— Ital. ^r^a/a, a frigate. 
Origin uncertain. 

Fright. (E.) M. E./fyghf. O. North- 

umhTJryhffi, A. S. fyrhto, fyrhtu, fnght, 

allied ioforht, timid.-f O.Sax./^r>i/a, Dan. 

frygt, Swed. fruktan, G. furcht, Goth. 

faurhteit fright ; allied to O. Sax. forht, 

O. H. G,faracht, Goth, faurhts, fearful. 

lUgio. (L.) L..frJgidus, cold, adj.— 
'L,frT^rty to be cold. ^"L./rigtis, cold, sb. 
+Gk. filtyos, cold. Brugm. 1. § 875. 

Frill, a ruflae on a shirt. (F. ?) 
[Frilly vb., was a term in hawking ; a hawk 
that shivered, from feeling chilly, was said 
to frill. ^O.F, Jriller, to shiver with 
cold. Hence some have deduced the 
sense of a hawk ruffling his feathers ; but 
for this there is no authority. The sb. 
answers, in sense, to O. F. Jresel, freisel, 
a ruffle, frill; cf. mod. F, /raise, a frill. 
It is remarkable that both Y,fraise and 
£. frill mean ' the mesentery of a calf.'] 
Perhaps from M.F. vrille; Cot has: 
< vrilles, hook-like edges, or ends of leaves, 
. . . scrols.' F. vrille also means a gimlet, 
a tendril ; prob. from Dan. vrilde, to twist, 
from vride^ to writhe ; see Writhe. 

Frixitf6« a border of loose threads. (F. 
-L.)M. E. fringe, - O. F. frenge (Pals- 
grave), oldest form of F. f range, fringe ; 
the Wallachian form is frimbie, for *fim- 
brie (by metathesis).— "L, fimbria, fringe ; 
allied Xofibra, a fibre ; see Fibre. 

r, worn-out clothes, trash. 


(F. - L.) Stuff sold by a fripier. - M. F. 
fi^P^9 ' ft fripier, or broker, trimmer up 
of old garments, and a seller of them so 
mended ; ' Cot. — O. F. frepe (also ferpe, 
felpe), frayed out fringe, old clothes. 
Prob. from 'L.fibra, fibre (Korting). 

Frisk, to skip about (F.-Teut.) 
From the ad}, frisk , brisk. — M. Y,f risque, 
* friske, blithe, briske;' Cot ; O.Y.frique. 
— O. H. G.frecht greedy, M. H. G. vrtch, 
bold, lively. Cf. A. S. free, bold. See 
Freak (i). 

Fritll (1)) an enclosure, forest, wood. 
(£.) Obsolescent; M. E.^'M, peace, also 
enclosure, park. Cf. \f.ffridd, park, forest, 
which is borrowed from M. £. — A. S»fri9, 
peace; fridu, peace, security, asylum. 
Cf. Icel. fribr, Dan. Swed. fred, Du. 
zn^ede, G. friede, peace. Teut. type 
*frithuz ; from ♦/W-, base of *fri'joz, free. 
See Free. ^'Ihit M.E. frith is also 
*■ wooded country.' This is prob. a different 
word ; A. S. gefyrhCe (Birdi, iii. lao). 

Frith (a), Furth., an estuary. TSouid.) 
M. E. ^rM. — IceL f/drtfr, a firm, bay; 
"DtLn.Jwrd, Swed. f/'drd, the same. Allied 
to Ford. Brugm. ii. 108. 

Fritillary, a plant. (L.) So named 
because the chequered markings on the 
corolla were in some way associated with 
tifritillus.^'L.fritilliis, a dice-box. 

nittar (i), a kind of pancake. (F.— 

L.) M. K frytowre, fritoure, [C£ F. 

friteau, «a fiitter,' Cot]-0. F. /r»/«r.f, 

a fiying, dish of fried fish.— O. F. yW/, 

fried. ^'L.frictus, pp. oifrtgere, to fry. . 

Fritter (2),afragment; Shak. (F.-L.) 
0.¥. freture.^lj. fractara, a fracture. 
See Fracture. 

firitter away, to diminish, waste. 
(F. -L.) A derivative itom fritter {2) ^ 
a fragment; whence yW//^r, vb., to cut 
up into fragments. See above. 

FrivolonSv trifling. (L.) From L. 
friuol-us, silly ; with suffix -ous. The orig. 
sense seems to have been ' rubbed away ; 
hence friuola meant broken potsherds, 
&c. — L. fridre, fricdre, to rub ; see 

Fris, FrisZf to curl, render rough. 
(F. - Du. ?) M. F.frizer, * to fiizle, crispe, 
curie;* Cot. [Cf. Span. ^Jar, to frizzle, 
raise the nap on frieze, from frisa, frieze.] 
Similarly the F. f riser is ixom. frise, frize, 
frieze ; see Frieae (i). Der.frizz-le, fire- 
quent form, in commoner use ; c£ O. Fries. 
jrisl€,fresk^ a. lock of hair. 




(E.) M. E. fre, A. S. >«>.+ 
Du. vnj\ Goth. freis\ G. fret, Tcut. 
type *frijoz ; alliea to Skt./n(ya-, beloved, 
agreeable: also to E. Friend. Orig. sense 
* dear, beloved ' ; hence applied to those 
of the household who were children, not 
slaves ; cf. L. libert, free, also ' children.' 
Der. freedom, A. S. freodom ; free-stone, 
transl. of F. pierre franche, 

Free-booter, a rover, pirate. (Da.) 
Borrowed from Da. vrijbuitery a free- 
booter, robber. i-Du. vrijbuiten, to rob; 
vrifbuitf plander, lit. ' free booty.* Da. 
vnt^^»free. And see Booty, p. 56. 

Freeie. (E.) M. E. fresen, A. S. 
freosan ; pp. ,^r^«.+Icel. frjosa^ Swed. 
fry say Dan. /rj'W, Du. vriezen, G/frieren. 
Teat type yreusan-, L. prurtre, to itch, 
originally to bum (cf. pruina, hoarfrost), 
^Vt. pldsna-f a burning. Bnigm. i. § 56a ; 
ii. § ^57. (V^REU.) 

Freiglit, a cargo. (F. - O. H. G.) M. E. 
freyte ; later freyght ; an altered spelling 
of F. frety the freight of a ship, the ^ 
being inserted by (a true) connexion with 
fraught^ q. v. — F. fret^ * the fraaeht or 
freight of a ship, also, the hire that^ paid 
for a ship;' Cot.-O. H. G.frikt, 'earn- 
ings,* hire. This O. H. G.freAt is thought 
to be the same as G,fracn/, a cargo ; and 
/reht has been supposed to represent a 
Teut. type *fra'aihtiz\ from fra-, prefix 
(see Fret), and *aihtiz>A,S. Sht, ac- 
quisition (from dgan, to own). See Own. 

Freniy. (F. — L. — Gk.) M. 'E.frenesye, 

— O. F. frenisie.^lH phrenisis, — Late 
GV,<ppivfi<TiSyioi Gk. ^tviTii, inflammation 
of the brain.— Gk. ^/>cv-, base of ^p^*', 
midriff, heart, senses. See Frantlo. 

Frequent. (F.-L.) Vi.Y. frequent, 

— lu.frequentem, ace. 01 frequens, crowded, 
frequent; pres. part, of a lost verb ^require, 
to cram, allied to farctre, to cram ; see 
Farce. Brugm. ii. § 713. 

Fresco. (Ital. ~0. H. G.) A painting 
on fresh plaster. — Ital. ^^j^^, cool, fresh. 

— O. H. G. fHsc (G. frisch). See below. 
fresh. (E. ; <WMfF.-Teat.) M.E. 

fresh ; also/?/-jA, representing A. S.fetsc, 
The form fresh is from O. F. freSf frets 
(fem. fresche) ; cf. mod. F. fratSy fresh. — 
O. n. G. fnsc (G. frisch), fresh. Teut. 
type *friskoz. Allied to Lith. preskas, 
sweet, unsoured, i. e. unleavened (applied 
to bread) ; Russ. priesnuii, fresh. 
Fret (i), to eat away. (E.) A.S. 

fretan^ for Teut ^fra-etan^ to devour 

entirely. ^ Goth, fra-itan, to devour 
entirely, from fra-t entirely, and fVa/i , to 
eat; Du. vreten, G.Jressen {^ver-essen). 
See For- (a) and Bat. 

Fret (a), to ornament, variegate. 
(F. — L. ; and E.) M.E. fretten, to adorn 
with interlaced woik. — O. F. freter^ to 
strengthen (as with iron), also to adorn ; 
also spelt /rr/^.—O.F. //v/^, a ferrule 
(Cot.), also ^fret (in heraldry) ; see Fret 
(3). Probably influenced by M. ^E^freiien^ 
A. S. fratwan^ to adorn ; from frtetwe, 

Fret (3), a kind of grating. (F.-L.) 
Common in heraldry. — O. F. frete, a 
ferrule ; frettes, pi., an iron grating (Diez) ; 
fretter, to hoop ; fretti, fretty (in heraldry). 
[Cf. Span, fretes, frets (in heraldry) ; allied 
to ItaL ferriaiaj an iron grating.] — F.y^rr, 
iron. — L. ferrum, iron. 

firet (4)9 a stop on a musical instru- 
ment. (F.— L.) Frets are bars across the 
neck of the instrument ; probably the same 
word 9&fret (3). See N. E. D. 

Friable, easily crumbled. (F.— L.) 
M. ¥, friable, — L. friabilis, — L. fridre^ to 
rub, crumble. 

Friar. (F.-L.) M.E. >>-^r^.-O.F. 
frere^ freire^ lit. a brother. — L. frdtrem^ 
ace. oifrdterf a brother. See Brother. 

Fribble, to trifle. (F.-L.) Of imita- 
tive origin ; but prob. suggested by obso- 
lete /nw/, adj. frivolous, M..1S,, frevol.^ 
Y ,frivole,^\..friuolus\ see Frivolous. 

Fricassee, a dish of fowls cut up. 
(F.) Y.fricassiej a fricassee; fem. of pp. 
oifricasser, to fricassee, also, to squander 
money. A fricassee is made of chickens, 
Blc cut up into small pieces. Of unknown 
origin. Some have suggested L. frtgere, 
to roast, or \u.fricdrey to rub (Korting). 

Friction. (F.-L.) Y.friction,^\„ 
ace. frictidnem, a rubbing. — L. frictus, 
contr. pp. oi fricdre, to rub; allied to 
fridre^ to rub ; see Friable. 

Friday. (E.) A. S. /n~pjp-(/<!J^, trans- 
lating L. diis Veneris ; where/nj?^ is gen. 
oi Fngy the wife of Woden. Teut type 
*frijdt fem. of ^frijoz, dear, beloved, also 
'free * ; Skt. priyd, wife, loved one. See 
Free, Friend. 

Friend. (E.) M.E. frend. A.S. 

freondf orig. * loving,' pres. pt. oifreogan, 

to love.+Icel./r^fwSV, Daii.yn?«flfe, Swed. 

frdnde^ only in the sense of ' kinsman ' ; 

also Du. vriend, Gfreund\ Goi\i. frijdnds^ 

a friend, pres. pt. of frij9n, to love. Cf. 




Skt. /rf, to love. Allied to Free. 
Bmgm. i. § 567. Per. fritnd'Ship, A. S. 

Ari0ie (i), a coarse woollen cloth. (F. 
- Du. ?) M. F. frize, /rise, • frise ; * Cot. 
Perhaps due to drap defrise^ i. e. cloth of 
Friesland ; with which Cotgrave identifies 
it. — Du. Vriesiand, Friesland, VrteSf a 
Frieslander, belonging to Friesland. So 
also cheval de Frise ^ a horse of Friesland ; 
whence chevaux de /m^, spikes to resist 
cavalry, a jesting term. ^ Hence O. F. 
friser, to cover with a nap, to curl hair, 
Xofrittz. See Korting. 

nioiO (3), part of the entablature of a 
column. (F.) M. Y.frize, * the broad and 
flat band that's next below the cornish 
[cornice], or between it and the architrave ;* 
Cot. Span, friso, a frieze ; allied to Ital. 
fregio^ a fringe, lace, border, ornament. 
The Ital. fregio represents L. Phrygium 
{epus), Phrygian work. 

Fri^te. (F.-Ital.) M.F. fregate, 
* a frigate ; * Cot— Ital. y^^o/a, a frigate. 
Origin uncertain. 

Fnght. (E.) M. Y^fryght O. North- 

umb. JtyhtOy A. S. fyrntOy fyrhtu^ fright, 

allied Xaforht, timid. -fO.Sax.^r^/a, Dan. 

frygtt Swed. fruktan^ G. fiircht, Goth. 

faurhtei, fright ; allied to O. Sax. forhty 

O. H. G.forachty Goth, faurhts, fearful. 

Frigid. (L.) L.yVf;fjVi«. cold, adj. - 

'L.JrIgeret to be oold, ^'L.friguSy cold, sb. 
4>Gk. fiyot, cold. Brugm. i. $ 875. 

nill, a ru6ae on a shirt. (F. ?) 
{Frilif vb., was a term in hawking ; a hawk 
that shivered, from feeling chilly ^ was said 
to ^y/.-O.F. frillery to shiver with 
cold. Hence some have deduced the 
sense of a hawk ruffling his feathers ; but 
for this there is no authority. The sb. 
answers, in sense, to O. F. fresely freisel^ 
a ruffle, frill; cf. mod. T, /raises a frill. 
It is remarkable that both ¥,f raise and 
£. frill mean ' the mesentery of a calf.*] 
Perhaps from M.F. vrille; Cot has: 
' vril/es, hook-like edges, or ends of leaves, 
. • . scrols.' F. vrille also means a gimlet, 
a tendril ; prob. from Dan. vrilde, to twist, 
from vride, to writhe ; see 'Writhe. 

Fringaf a border of loose threads. (F. 
-L.)M. E. fringe, - O. F. frenge (Pals- 
grave), oldest form of F. frange^ fringe ; 
the Wallachian form is frimbity for *fim' 
brie (by metathesiB).— i^fimbriay fringe ; 
allied ioftbrOy a fibre ; see Fibre. 

ft iyp t ry , wom«oat clothes, trash. 

(F. - L.) Stuff sold by a fripier, - M. F. 
fripier^ 'a fripier, or broker, trimmer up 
of old garments, and a seller of them so 
mended ; ' Cot. - O. F. frepe (also ferpe^ 
felpe\ frayed out fringe, old clothes. 
Prob. from 'L.fibray fibre (Korting). 

Frisk, to skip about (F.-Teut.) 
From the ad), frisk, brisk. — M. Y.frisgtte, 
* friske, blithe, briske;* Cot ; 0,¥.frique. 
— O. H. G.frecht greedy, M. H. G. ifrtchy 
bold, lively. Cf. A. S. frec^ bold. See 
Freak (i). 

Frith (1)) an enclosure, forest, wood. 
(£.) Obsolescent; M. R^'M, peace, also 
enclosure, park. Cf. V^.jpidd, park, forest, 
which is borrowed from M. £. — A. S.frid, 
peace ; fridu, peace, security, asylum. 
Cf. Icel. friir, Dan. Swed. fred^ Du. 
vrede, G. friede, peace. Teut. type 
*frithuz ; from *fri't base of ^fri'joZy free. 
See Free. % The M. E. frith is also 
' wooded countiy.* This is prob. a different 
word; A. S. genrhSe (Birch, iii. 120). 

Frith (a), Firthy an estuary. (Scemd.) 
M. E. fi^lh, — IceL fjorHry a firth, bay ; 
Ti^iL, fiord y Swed, f/drd, the same. Allied 
to Ford. Brugm. ii. 108. 

Fritillary, a plant. (L.) So named 
because the chequered markings on the 
corolla were in some way associated with 
Kfritillus, — 'L.fritilluSt a dice-box. 

Fritter (i), a kind of pancake. (F.— 

L.) M. K frytcwre, fritoure. [C£ F. 

friteait, «a fritter,' Cot] - O. F. /rtViir^, 

a fiying, dish of fried fish.— O. F. y^, 

fried. '''L.frictuSy pp. oifrigere, to fry. . 

Fritter (2 ), a fragment ; Shak. (F. - L.) 
0,Y, freture.^lj, fractaray a fracture. 
See Fracture. 

fSritter away» to diminish, waste. 
(F. -L.) A derivative from Jritler {2) , 
a fragment; yihtncit fritter^ vb., to cut 
up into fragments. See above. 

Frivoloiie, trifling. (L.) From L. 
friuol-us, silly ; with suffix -ous. The orig. 
sense seems to have been ' rubbed away ; 
hence friuola meant broken potsherds, 
&c. — jL. friare, fricdre^ to rub ; see 

Frilf FrilBi to curl, render rough. 
(F. - Du. ?) M. ¥,frizer, * to frizle, crispe, 
curie;* Cot. [Cf. Span.ywar, to frizzle, 
raise the nap on frieze, from frisa, frieze.] 
Similarly the F. f riser is tiom frise, frize, 
frieze ; see Friese (i). DeT.frizX'le, fze- 
auent form, in commoner use ; cfl O. Fries. 
/risle,JresU, a lock of hair. 




Fro. (Scand.) The Scand. form of 
/ww. — lcel. frd^ Dan, /ra, from. See 

Frock. (F.-LowL.) M. E. /r<?>6.- 
O. Y.froc ; Low Y^froccus^ a monk's frock, 
also spelt Jloccus (Ducange). Prob. so 
called because woollen ; see Flock (3). 
Cf. Port, froco^ a snow-flake, from L. 
Jloccus » ^So Diez; but Brachet derives 
it from O. H. G. hroch (G. rocU)^ a coat, 
in which the initial h is unoriginal. 

Frog (i), an animal. (E.) Ul.'E.frogge. 
A. S. frogga^ frocga. Also A. S. frox, 
a frog. + Icel. jroskry Du. vorschy G. 
Frog (3), a substance in a horse's foot. 
(L. ?) It is shaped like a fork ; perhaps 
a corruption oiforfc, q. v. ; the F. name is 
fourchette. In any case, it has been con- 
formed to Frog (i). 

X^rolic, adj., sportive, ^u.) XVI cent. 
Orig. an adj.->Du. vrohjk^ frolic, merry. 
^G,/rdhlichj merry. Formed with suffix 
'lijk ( = E. like, -ly) from the O. Sax. 
fro- (as in frff-liko, adv.), O. Fries, fro 
( = G. froh)^ merry. Der. froliCy sb. and 

From, away, forth. (E.) A. S. frottty 

fram. + Icel. frd, from ; O. H. G. fraftiy 

forth ; Goth, framy from. Cf. also Icel. 

franiy adv. forward (Swed. fram, Dan. 

frem)\ Goth./rami>, adv., further. Allied 

to Frame. 

Frond, a branch. (L.) 'L.frond-, stem 
oifrons, a leafy branch. 

Front. (F.-L.) U,E. frvn/, fore- 
head.— O.F. /fwi/, forehead, brow. — L. 
frrontetn, ace. oifrdns, forehead, brow. 

frontal, a band worn on the forehead. 
( F. — L. ) O. F. fronted — L. fivntdle, an 
ornament for a horse's forehead. — la, front-, 
stem ^ifronsy forehead. 

frontier. (F.-L.) O.T.frontiere, 
fein. — Late 'L.fronleriayfrontdria, border- 
land. — L. fovnt-^ stem of frons, front 
(hence, border). 

frontispieee. (F.— L.) For fronlls- 

ftce; through the influence of piece. "F. 

fron/isplce, * the frontispiece or fore-front 

of a house ; ' Cot. — Late h.fronlispictu/n, 

a front view. — L. frvnli-, decl. stem of 

fr^^ns ; specerOy to see ; see Species. 

frontlet. (F.-L.) O. F. fiwtel-et, 
dimin. of O. F. frontel\ see flrontal 

Frmre, frozen. (E.) A. S. fivren, pp. 
offriosan, to freeze. See Freeie. 

frost. (E.) M. E. frost, first ; A. S. 

forst (for /r^j/).+Du. vorst, Icel. Dan. 

Swed. G. frost, "Teut. types *frustoz^ m. ; 

*frustom, n. From yrus-, weak grade of 

*freusan-, to freeze. See Freeze. 

Froth. (Scand.) M.E, frotke. "lech 

froda, fraud, Dan. fraade [Swed. fradlga"], 

froth, foam on liquids. From the Teut. 

verb *freutAan-, to iroih up; as in A. S. 


ROnnce, to wrinkle, curl, plait. 
(F.— L.) The older form oijlounce; see 
Flounce (2). 
Froward, perverse. (Scand. and E.) 
M. E. froward, commonly froward 
(Northern). From Icel. frd, fro; and 
ward. Cf. A. S. fromweard, only in the 
sense ' about to depart ' ; but we still 
keep the orig. sense of from-ward, L e. 
averse, perverse. (Cf. wayward , i. e. 
away- ward.) And see Toward. 
Frown. (F.— Teut.) M.E. frounen." 
O. F. frongnier, whence F. refrogner, 
to frown, look sullen. Cf. Ital. iu' 
frigno, frowning, Ital. dial. (Lombardic) 
frignare, to whimper, make a wry face. 
Of Teut. origin. From Teut. ^frunjan-, 
as in Swed. dial, fryna, Norw. frdyna, to 
make a wry face. (Korting, § 3324.) 
Frncti^. (F.-L.) Y.fructifier,"!.. 
friUtiJicdrt, to make fruitful.— L.^^^f/t-, 
for jructusy fruit ; "ficdre, for facere, to 
make. See firuit. 

frugal, thrifty. (F.-L.) Y. frugal. 

"la. frugdlisj economical; lit. belonging 

to fruits. — L. frug't, frugal ; orig. dat. of 

frux (pi. friiges), fruit of the earth. 

Allied to fruit. 

fruit. (F.-L.) M.E.>wi^.-0. F. 

fruit. — L. fructum, ace. of fructus, fruit. 

— L. frUctus, pp. of frui, to enjoy ; 

allied to Brook (i). (-/BHREUG.) 

Brugm. i. § iii ; ii. § 532. 

frnition. (F.-L.) O.Y. fruition, 
enjoyment. — Late L. fruitionem, ace. of 
fruitio, enjoyment. "la. fruit-us, the same 
SiS friictus, pp. oifrut, to enjoy. 

frnmenty, nirmety, wheat boiled 

in milk. (F.— L.) 0.¥. fromentee, f. ; 
'furmenty, sodden wheat;' Cot. Lit 
made witii wheat; the suflix •/f=L. -dta, 
made with. — O. Y.froment, wheat — Late 
la^frHmentum ; l^frHmentum, com; allied 
to la.fiiigis, fruit 
Arnrnp, an ill-tempered person. (E.) 
Of doubtral origin ; but cf. frampold. A 
frump fonnerly meant a 'sneer/ or 




expression of contempt. Cf. Low. Sc. 
frampU, to disorder ; frumpU, to crease ; 
frump, an unseemly fold : Dan. vrampet^ 

Fril8trate» to render vain. (L.) From 
pp. of L. frustrdrif to render vain.— 
L„frustrd, in vain ; orig. abl. fem. of obso- 
lete zA]. friistros ( = yr«</-/fvj), deceitful. 
Allied to Fraud. 

Tmstuill, a piece of a cone or cylinder. 
(L.) 'L.frusium, a piece cut off. Cf. Gk. 
Bpavfffta, a fragment, from Opaiuv, to break 
in pieces. Prellwitz ; Brugm. i. § 853. 

Fry (I \ to dress food. (F. -L) M. E. 
frien.^O. F. frire — L. frigere, to roast 
C£ Gk. ipp^uvj to parch ; Skt. bhrajj^ to 

Fry (2), spawn of fishes. (Scand.) 
A. F. fry ; M. E. /«, also used (like the 
Goth, word) in the sense of * offspring.* — 
Icel. friB^ fKi^y spawn, fry ; Dan. Swed. 
^i/.+Golh. fraiw, seed, offspring. Teut. 
type *fraiwomy neut. Brugm. i. § 1029. * 
Fnolisia, a flower. (G.) Named after 
Z. Fuchs, German botanist, ab. 1542. 

Fudge. (F.) Picard fuche ! feuche I 
an interjection of contempt (Corblet). 

F110L (F.-L.) M. E>«e;^// (Barbour). 

A. F. fewaile^ O. F. jouaille (Low L. 

/oallia)f fuel. — Late L* focdlia, pi. of 

focdUy fuel. M L. focus, a heartii. See 


Fugitive. (F.-L) O.Y.fugitif^ 

L. fugitiuuSt fleeing aWay. — L. fugit-utn, 
supine oi fugere, to flee. + Gk. ip€^y€iv, 
to flee; Skt. dkuf to bend, turn aside. 
Allied to Bow (1). Der. centrift^al, 
q. V. ; febrifuge y feverfew, 

Fugleuan, the leader of a file. (G.) 
Yoifluglentan, — G. fliigelmann, the leader 
of a wing or file of men. — G.fiUgelj a wing, 
from flug, flight, from fiiegen, to fly ; 
piann, a man. See Fly. 

Fugue, a musical composition. (F. — 
Ital. - L.) ¥, fugue. - Ital. fuga, a fugue, 
lit. a flight. -L. fuga, flight. See Fugi- 

Fulcrum, a point of support. (L.) 
"L. fulcrum, a support. — 'L.fulcire, to prop. 

FulfiL (E.) M. E. fulfillen. A. S. 
fulfyllan, to fill full, fulfil. - A. S. /«/, 
full ; fyllan, to fill. See Full, FiU. 

Fulgent, shining. (L.) From stem of 
pres. pt. of L. fulgere, to shine. + Gk. 
^kiyuv, to burn; Skt. bhrdj, to shine. 
J>er. ef -fulgent {ef'^'L ex); re-fulgent. 

Fuliginous, sooty. (L.) 'L^fuligind- 

sus, sooty, ^h, fultgin-y stem oi fuHgp, 
soot. Cf. Skt. dku'li-, dust. Allied to 
Fume. Brugm. i. § 481. 

Full (I), complete. (E.) A. S. /«/.+ 
Du. voly \c.^,fullr, Vnn.fuld (for full), 
Svrcd.full, Goth, fiills, G. voll, Teut. 
type *fulloB ; Idg. type *p9lnos, Cf. Lith. 
pilnas, full, filled ; Russ. polnuii, full ; 
O. Irish Idn (<*pldn), full ; W. llawn ; 
Sku puma-, Pers./«r; cf. Gk. vXYiprjs, L. 
plenus. Idg. root *p9l, ^ple^ to fill. Brugm. 
i- §§ 393> 461. J>et, ^11, fulfil, fulsome. 

Full (2), to full cloth, felt. (F.-L.) 
O. F. fuler, F. fouler, * to full, or thicken 
cloath in a mill ; ' Cot. Also ' to trample 
on.' — Late L. fulldre, (1) to cleanse 
clothes, (2) to full.*L./»//0, a fuller. 

fbller, a bleacher of cloth. (L.) 
A. S. fullere, a bleacher. — L. fullo, a 
fuller, bleacher. (See above.) 

Fulminate, to thunder, hurl lightning. 
(L.) From pp. of V,.fulmindrey to ^\3Xi- 
der. mmh. fulmin-, for fulmen, a thunder- 
bolt {^yulg-men^,^h.fulgere, to shine. 

Fulsome, cloying. (£.) M,E.fulsum, 
from M. E.ful, full ; with suffix -sum ( » £. 
-some as in winsome). See Full (i). 

Fulvous, Fulvid, tawny. (L.) From 
L.y^/wKj, tawny ; LateL.y^/fifi(/MJ,some- 
what tawny. Cf. Yellow; Brugm. i. 

5 363- 

Fumble, to grope about. (Du.) XVI 
QBUt. — Du. fommelen, to fumble. + Swed. 
fumla (also famla) ; Dan. famle. Ap- 
parently ml is for Im ; cf. Icel. fdlma, to 
grope about, from the sb. appearing as 
A. S. folm, the palm of the hand, allied 
to L. palma ; see Palm. 

Fume. (F. — L.) O. F. fum, — L. 
fumumy ace. of fUmus, smoke. 4- Skt. 
dhUma'y smoke ; Gk. 9vfi^s, spirit, anger. 
(V[>H£U.) Allied to Fuliginous. 

Aimigate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
fUmigdre, to fumigate. — L. /Sw-, for 
fUmuSy vapour; -ig&re, for agerCy to drive 

ftimito^, a plant. (F.— L.) Formerly 
fumiter, — F. fumeterre, fumitory (for 
fume de terre), — Late L. fUmus terrce, 
smoke of the earth ; so named from its 
abundance (and perhaps its curly appear- 
ance). Cf. G. erdrauchy fumitory, lit. 
* earth-smoke * ; W. cwd y mwgy lit. * bag 
of smoke.* 

Fun, merriment. (E.) XVIII cent. It 
orig. meant ' a trick ' ; from an obs. vb. 
fun, to cheat, hoax ; prob. from M. £. 




fon^ fonn$y a foolish person. See Fond. 
Cf. Irish fonn^ delight, pleasure, song ; 
Gael.y^MM ; prob. borrowed from £. 

FmUUnbllliBty a rope-dancer. (Span. 
— L.) Formerly funambulo. — Span, fun- 
ambuloy a funambulist. — h,/un-isj a rope ; 
anibul'drey to walk ; see Amble. 

Tunctioilt performance, office. (F. — 

L.) M. ¥. function (F. fonction) . — L. ace 

functioneni^ performance. "L.y%f»^/»j, pp. 

oi fungi f to perform, orig. to use. + Skt. 

bhuhjf to enjoy. Bmgm. ii. § 628. 

Fimdi a store. (F.— L.) M.F. fond, 
* a bottom, a merchant's stock ;* Cot. « 
L. fundus, bottom; cognate with £. 

fimdament, base. (F.-L.) M. £. 

fundement. * O. F. fondemeni, fomidation. 
i- 'L.funddtnentumf foundation. — L.. fund- 
are ; see Found (i). 

Foneralf relating to a burial. (F. - L.) 
O F. funeral, — Late L. funerdlis, adj., 
from i^funer- (for *funcS'\ stem oifunus, 
a burial. "Det.funercHdi homL fumre-us, 
FonfflUI, a spongy plant. (L.) L. 

fungus. 4- Gk. irw6yyoSf a sponge ; see 

Funnel. (F.-L.) U.E.fonel. Prob. 
from an O. F. *foni/, preserved in Bret. 

fount/, a funnel; cf. Span, font/, Port. 

funi/t Prov. fount/, enfouni/h. • Late L. 

fundHnUum (Lewis and Short); L. iV 

fundibu/um, a funnel. — L. infundere, to 
pour in. — L. in, in ; fundere^ to pour. 
Pup. (F. -O. Low G.) M. Y..forre.^ 
O. F. forre,fuerrc, a sheath, case, whence 
the vb. forrer, to line with ftir ; Chaucer 
translates forree by * furred,* R. R. 408. 
[Cf. Span, forro, lining for clothes, Ital. 

foderOi lining, fur, scabbard.] — Goth.^Wr, 
scabbard, orig. 'protection;' IciA* fodr, 
lining ; allied to G. f utter, a case, lining, 
fur. 4 Skt. pdtra^m), a receptacle ; cf. Gk. 
irw/io, a cover. Brugm. i. % 174. 
Furbelow, a flounce. (F.) Prov. F. 

far/fo/a, a flounce, in the dialect of 
Hainault (Diez); the usual form is F. 
Span. Ital. Voti. fa/ba/a, a flounce. Origin 

Fnrbiahy to polish, trim. (F.-O.H.G.) 
O. F. forbiss-, inceptive stem of forbir, 
to furbish, polish. — O. H. G. *furbjan, 
M. H. G. fiirban, to purify, clean, rub 
Furl, to roll up a sail. (F. — Arab.) 
Formerly spelt furd/e, farthe/, to roll up 


in a bundle. From farde/, a bundle ; see 
FardeL Cf. F. farde/er, 'to truss, to 
make into fardles;* Cot. \Y.fer/er, to 
furl, is from £.] 

Furlong, ith of a mile. (£.) A. S. 
fur/ang, ong. a furrow-long, or the length 
of a furrow. — A. S. furh, a furrow ; /ang, 

Fnrloil|dl, leave of absence. (Du.— 
Scand.) C)rig. twr/offe, — Du. ver/of, 
leave, furlough ; the same as Dan. for/ov, 
Swed. for/of leave. Cf. G. ur/aub, fur- 
lough; Dan. or/ov, p. As to the prefix, 
Du. ver; Dan. for-, Swed. for-, are the 
same as E.for' ; whilst Dan. or-, G. ur- — 
Goth, us, out. The syllable, /of, leave, is 
shortened from -/of, the equivalent of G. 
'/aub; as seen in G. er-/aub-en, to permit, 
and in A. S. /eaf, permission. See Iieave 
(2) ; also Believe, Lief. 

^nrmety ; see Frumenty. 

Furnace, an oven. (F.— L.) M. £. 
fomeis, — O. F. fomaise. — L. fomdcem, 
ace. Q>i fomax, an oven. — L. fomus^ an 
oven; idlied io formus, warm. Cf. Skt. 
gharma'y warmth, glow. See Warm. 
Brugm. i. § 146. 

Furnish, to fit up, equip. (F.^O.H.G.) 
O. Y . foumiss; inceptive stem oi foumir, 
to furnish, of which an older spelling is 
fornir, the same word as Prov. formir, 
fromir, — O. H. G. frumjan, to provide, 
fumish; cf. O. H. G.fruma, utility, profit, 
gain ; G,fromm, good. Allied to Former^ 
Frame. And see Veneer. 

Furrow. (E.) M. E. forwe, A. S. 

fur/t, a furrow.+Du. voor, Icel. for, Dan. 

fure, Swed. f2tre\ G. furche, a furrow. 

Tent type *furh-, f. Cf. W. r/iych, a 

furrow; L. porca, a ridge between two 

furrows. 'DeT.fur-/ong, 

Further. (E.) Probably the comp. 
of fore, but also explained as comp. of 
forth. M. E. furHer. A. S. furHra, adj. 
m. ; furdor, further, adv.+Du. vorders, 
adv., further ; O. Fries, fordera, adj. ; 
O. Sax. forthora, adj. ; O. H. G. fordar, 
G. vorder, adj. Teut. type *furthero- (i. e. 
*fur'ther'0-) answering to Gk. ir/w-rf/Hos, 
comp. of frp6, % In this view the comp. 
suffix is 'tker (Gk. -rep-). Der. further, 
vb., A. S. fyrHran, formed from furtior 
by vowel-change of u to y, 

ftirthesty a late form, made as the 
superl. of forth, and due to regarding 
further as the comp. of the same. The 
true superl. oi fore i% first. 



Furtive. (F.-L.) M. Y.furtif^ fem. 

furtive, — L. furttuuSy stolen, secret. — L. 

furiutfiy theft. — L. furdri^ to steal. — L. 

fur^ a thie£4-(^^' *P^9i & ^iti^ allied to 

^pHv^ to bear, carry (away). (^BHER.) 

Bmgni. ii. § i6o (3). 

Fury. (F. - L. ) F. furU, - L. furia, 
x^<t.'^\i. jfurerCy to rage. 

Fume. (E.) yi,Y.. first, k,^,fyrs\ 
older lQitm.fyrc5, 

FOSCOIUI, brown. (L.) L. fusc-us, 
brown ; with suffix 'Ous. 

Fuse (i)) to melt by heat. (L.) A late 
word. Due to fus-ible (in Chaucer), 
fus'um, in Sir T. Browne. — L. fusus^ pp. 
oifutuiere, to pour, melt. Allied to Gk. 
xUiv (for *xef -cii'), Goth, giutany to pour. 
(VGHEU.) Der. fus-ibU (from O. F. 
fusible) ; fus-ion. See Qush. 

Fuse (2) ; see Fusee (i). 

Fusee (i) Fuse. (F.-L.; <?rltal.- 

L.) ' Fuse y fusee f a pipe filled with wild- 
fire, and put into tne touch-hole of a 
bomb ;' Kersey (17 15). i. Fuse is from 
Ital./Mr^, a spindle, a shaft (of a column) ; 
also, a fuse. — L..fiisust a spindle, a . Fusee 
is from F. fus^ey a fiisee, i. e. a spindle- 
shaped pipe ; see below. 

nUBee (a)» a spindle in a watch. (F.— 
L.) O. F. fusliy orig. a spindleful of 
thread.— Late 1^, fUsatay the same; fem. 
of pp. of fUsdre^ to use a spindle. — L. 
ffisus, a spindle. 

Fufldl (i)» a light musket. (F.-^L.) 
Orig. not the musket itself, but the steel 
against which the flint struck. From F. 
fusily * a fire-steele for a tinder-box; ' Cot. 
Also in mod. F., a fusil. [Cf. Span, fusi/y 
a fusil.] — L.y2>d/f, a steel lor kindling fire. 
"h. focus, a hearth; see Foous. Der. 
fusil-eery jitsillade, 

Fiudl (3), a spindle, in heraldry. (L.) 
A. F. fusel (see O. F. fuisel in Godefroy). 
Dimin. oCL.fusus, a spindle. 

Fusil (3), easily molten. (L.) 'L,fusilis, 
easily molten.— ll/i/^»j, pp. o( fundere, 
to pour. See Fuse (i). 

Fuss, haste, flurry. (E.) Probably of 
imitative origin, descriptive of spluttering 
and puffing. Cf. fujrl i. e. to puff, and 
Aiss. f It cannot be connected with 
M. £. fiiSy adj., eager ; A. S. fus, eager, 

Fust (1), to become mouldy. (F.— L.) 
In Hamlet, iv. 4. 39. Coined from fusly 
(a. u. 1398), answering to O. F. fusl^, 
* fusty, tasting of the cask,* Cot.-O.F. 


fusl, a cask ; orig. a stock, trunk, log. — 
lL0.fustem, ace. oifustisy a cudgel. 

fust (2), the shaft of a column. (F.~ 
L.) In Kersey (1715). — O.F. fusty a 
trunk. — L./w/tf^i, ace. offuslisy a cudgel, 
thick stick. 

FustiaUy a kind of coarse cloth. (F. — 
Ital. — Low L. — Egypt ) M. E. fustane ; 
also ftistian ; A. F. fustiatUy fustain ; 
O. F. fusiaine. — Ital. fustagno ; Low L. 
fustdneum, — Arab, fustdty a suburb of 
Cairo, in Egypt, whence the stuff first 
came. % Introduced through Genoese 

Fustigate, to cudgel. (L.) From 
pp. of L. fustigdrey to cudgel. — L. fust-y 
stem oifustiSy a cudgel ; -igdre, for agerey 
to drive, wield. 

FusW; see Fust (1). 

FutUe, vain. (F.-L.) ¥. futile, ^L. 

futilisy futtilisy that which easily pours 

forth, also vain, empty, futile. From L. 

*fii'y allied to funderey to poiu: ; cf. Gk. 

xUiv. See Fuse (i). 

FuttockSy certain timbers in a ship. 
(E.) ^ Futtocksy the compassing timbers 
in a ship, that make the breadth of it ; ' 
Kersey (17 15). Called foot-stocks in 
Florio, s. v. stamine. The first syllable 
is iox foot 'y futtocks is thought to be for 
foot' hooks y and was so explained in 1644 ; 
hcok referring to the bent shape of the 
timbers. Bailey gives the form foot- Aooks, 

Future, about to be. (F.-L.) O.F. 
futur, fem. future, — L. futHruSy about to 
be ; fut. part, from fu-i, I was ; allied to 
Be. (yBHEU.) 

Fuuball, a sjpongy fungus. (E.) Cf. 
prov. E. fiizzyy jozy, light and spongy ; 
Low G. jussigy loose, weak ; Du. voos, 

J^lfot, a peculiarly formed cross. (£.) 
Modem; and due to a mistake. MS.Lansd. 
874, leaf 190, hs^fylfoty meaning a space 
in a painted window at the bottom, that 
fills the foot. Erroneously connected with 
the ' gammadion.' 


Gabardine, Gaberdine. (Span.- 

Teut.) Span, gabardinay a coarse frock. 
We also find M. E. gawbardyne ; which is 
from O.F. galvardiney ^l9irdiney a 
loose frock. Perhaps a * pilgrim's' frock ; 
from M.H.O. walfaH (G. wallfahrt)y 




pilgrimage. ■■ M. H. G. walUn^ to wander ; 
fart^ travel, from faraUj to go (E,/arg). 

Gabble, to prattle. (£.) Frecjuent. of 
gad, to prattle. Of imitative origin ; cf. 
JMer, % The M. £. gabben^ to mock, is 
from O. F. gaber, to mock, which is also 
perhaps of imitative origin, or is allied to 

Gabion. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. gabion, 
a gabion, large basket filled with earth. — 
Ital. gabbiane, a gabion; augment, of 
gabbiay a cage, also sptXtgaggiay and allied 
to Span, gavia, a cage (for madmen). 
— L. cauea, a hollow place, cage, den, 
coop ; see Cage. 

Gable, a peak of a honse-top. (F.~ 
Scand.) M. E. gahle, - O. F. g^U, — Icel. 
gajly Dan. gavl, Swed. gafoel, a gable. + 
A. S. geafel, a fork ; Du. gaffel, a fork ; 
G. gabel^ a fork. Further allied to O. Irish 
gaSuly a fork, gallows ; W. gafl^ the fork 
of the thighs. With a different gradation, 
we find Goth, gibia, pinnacle, G. giebel, 
Du. gevel, gable; O. H. G. gebal, head, 
Gk. «(c^aXi^, head (root-form *ghebh'). See 

Gaby, a simpleton. TScand.) M. Dan. 
gahe, a fool \ Dan. dial, gabenar, a sim- 
pleton, allied to Dan. gain!, to gape (Dan. 
nar means 'fool'). Cf. Icel. ga^ty a 
heedless man ; gapamuSr (lit gape- 
mouthed), the same ; Icel. gapa, to gape ; 
Norw. gaiaj stupid. 

Gad (i)) a wedge of steel, goad. (Scand.) 
M. £. gad, a goad. — Icel. gaddr, a goad, 
spike, sting; cognate with Goth, gasds^ 
a rod, Irish gath, L. hasta, a spear. 

gad (2), to ramble idly. (Scand.) In 
Levins. The orig. sense was to run about. 
■- IceL gadda, to goad. * Icel. gaddr 
(above). Cf. on the gady on the move. 

Gaff, a li^t fishing-spear, a sort of 
boom. (F.— Teut.) A ship's ^<ti^ is named 
from ^t forked end against the mast ; the 
fishing-spear is hooked. •- O. F. gaffe, a 
gaff, iron hook.— Low G. gaff el, a two- 
pronged hay-fork ; E. Fries, gaffel, a fork, 
a ship*s gaff; Du. gaffel, a pitchfork, 
ship's gaff. Allied to G. gabel^ a fork. See 

Gaffer, an old man, grandfather. (F. — 
L. ; and E.) From gramfer, West E. 
form oi grand'father. See Oammer. 

Gag. (E.) yi.'E, gaggen,^ to suffocate. 
Apparently of imitative origin ; cf. gaggle, 
guggle. Also, W. cegio, to choke; ceg, 
the mouth. 

Gage ( i) ) a pledge. (F. - Teut.) M. E. 
gage. — Y.gage, a pledge (Low L. uadium), 
— Teut *waidjom, n., a pledge; as in Goth. 
w€uH, A. S. wed, a pledge. See "Wed ; 
and see Wage. From the same source 
are Ital. gaggiOf Span, and Port, gage^ 
a pledge. 

Gage (a), to gauge ; see Gauge. 

GagglOf to cackle as geese. (E.) A 
frequent, form from the imitative base^^. 
Cf. cackle, gabble; also Icel. gagl, a wild 
goose ; gagg, the cry of a fox ; Lith. 
ga^ti, to gaggle. 

Gaiety. (F.-Teut) F. gaieU.^Y, 
gat, gay. See Gay. 

Gain (0, profit. (F.-Teut.) O.F. 
gainf F. gagne, firom the verb below. [It 
partly displaced the M. E. gain, advantage, 
which was of Scand. origin ; from Icel. 
gf^g^i gain, advantage ; Swed.^^, profit, 
Dan. p»v«.] 

gam (2), to win. (F.-Teut) <Yea, 
though he gaine and cram his purse with 
crunes ; ' and again, ' To get a gatne by 
any trade or kinde ; * Gascoigne, Fruits 
of War, St. 69 and st 66. — O. F. gaigner, 
F. gagner, to gain. This F. gagner, O. F. 
gaagnier (Ital. guadagnare), is from 
O. H. G. weidenon > weidenen, to pas- 
ture, which was the orig. sense of the F. 
word; from O. H. G. weida (G. weide), 
pasture-ground. Cognate with G. weide are 
A. S. wd6t Icel. vetOr, hunting, the chase. 
Cf. L. ue-ndn, to hunt. Der. regain. 

Gainly ; see Ungainly. 

Gainsay, to speak against (Scand. and 
£.) The prefix is Icel. ^^, against; cf. 
A. S. gegn, gean ; see Against. 

Gait, manner of walking. (Scand.) A 
particular use of M. E. gale, a way ; see 
Gate (2). See also Gantlet (2). 

Gaiter, a covering for the ankle. (F.- 
Teut) F. gttitre, formeTly gueslre (Cot.). 
The spelling with gu shews the word to 
be Teutonic {gu<.G. w). Origin doubt- 
ful; possibly allied to M. H. G. wester ^ 
a child's chrisom^cloth, lit. a covering; 
Goth, wcuti, clothing ; see Vest. 

Gala. (F. - Ital. - M. H. G.) F. gala, 
borrowed from Ital. gala^ festive attire; 
whence di gala, merrily ; cf. galante, gay, 
lively. See Gallant. 

Galaay) the milky way. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M. E. galaxie, — O. F. galaxie, — L. ga- 
laxiam^ ace. oi galajcias.»^Gk, ya\a(ias, 
milky way. — Gk. toXcmcs-, for yakaKr^f 
stem of 7<iAa, milk. See Iiaoteal. 



Gale (i)) a strong wind. (Scand.) 
XVI cent. Of doubtful origin ; but cf. 
Dan. galy furious; Norweg. ein galen 
storm f a furious storm, eit galet veer^ 
stormy weather. Cf. Icel. galinuy furious, 
from galtty to cry out. See Tell. Note 
F. galeme, a north-west wind. 

Gale (a), the bog-myrtle. (E.) A. S. 
gageL-^T^yoi. gagel 

Galeated, helmeted. (L.) lj,galedtus, 
— L. galeat a helmet. 

Galillgalei the pungent root of a 
plant. ( F. — Span. — Arab. — Pers.) M. E. 
galingale, — O. F. galingal, garingaL — 
Span, galanga, galingale. i- Arab, kha- 
lanjdftj galingale. •- Pers. khulanjdn, galin- 
gale ; said to be of Chinese origin. 

Galiot ; see Qalliot. 

Gall (i), bile. (E.), O.Merc. 

ga/la, + Du. gaif Icel. ga//, Swed. ga/iaf 

Dan. galdc (for gaUle), Gi gal/e ; L. /?/, 

Gk. xo^4« Allied to Yellow. Cf. Russ. 

je/cA(e)^ gall (j = zh) ; j'eUuii^ yellow. 

Gall (3)f to rub a sore place. (F.— L.) 
M. Y.gailer ; M. F. galle, a galling, itching. 
Cf. Ital. galla, gala, ' a disease called a 
windgalle ; ' Florio. Also Late L. galla^ 
a soft tumour ; app. the same word as L. 
galla, a gall-nut ; see below. % But also 
partly K ; cf. A. S. gealla, (i) gall, bile, 
(a) a gall on a horse. So also Da. gal. 

Gall (3), a gall-nut. (F,-L.) O. F. 
galle.'^'L.galla, a gall-nut, oak-apple. 

OollflAt, gay, splendid » brave. (F.— 
M. H.G.) O.F. gallant^ better galant, 
with one /. Orig. pres. part, of O. F. 
galer, to rejoice. — O. F. galcy shows, mirth, 
festivity. (Cf. Ital. Span. Port, gala, 
festive attire.) Perhaps from M. H. G. 
wallen, O. H. G. wallSn, to go on pilgrim- 

Galleoiiy a large galley. (Span.) Span. 
galeoHy a galleon. ^ Late L. galea, a galley. 
See Galley. 

Gallery. (F.) U.¥,galleru,galeriey 
a gallery to walk in.— Late 'L.galeriay a 
long portico, gallery. Of unknown origin ; 
possibly from Gk. iniXov, w'ood, timber 
(Korting). See below. 

Galley, a low-built ship. (F.—Late L. 
- Gk. ?) M. E. galeie, - O. F. galie ; Late 
'L, galea, a galley ; Late Gk. 70X^0, '^oKaTa. 
Orig. unknown. Korting suggests Gk. 
KoKov, wood, also sometimes a snip. 

GaUiardy a lively dance. (Span. - C. ?) 
Span, gallarda (with // as ly), a kind of 


lively Spanish dance ; perhaps through 
F. ; cf. gcUop gaillard, * the galliard ; ' 
Cot. — Span, gal/ardo, gay, lively. M. F. 
gaillard meant valiant, or bold ; perhaps 
of Celtic origin ; cf. Bret, galloud, power, 
W. gallad, able, gallu, to be able; O, 
Irish gal, boldness (Thumeysen). 

GalliaS, a sort of galley. (F. — Ital. — 
Late L.) O.F. galeace. ^ItoA. galeazza, a 
heavy galley. — Ital. and Late L. galea ; 
see GaUey. 

GalligaskillS, large hose or trousers. 
(F. — Ital. — L.) Corruption of F. gar- 
guesques, greguesques, * slops, gregs, gallo- 
gascoins, Venitians;' Cot.-— Ital. Grechesco, 
Greekish. — Ital. Greco, a Greek. — L. 
Gracus, Greek. The name was given 
to a particular kind of hose worn at 

GallinaceoiUI. (L.) L. galltnace-m, 
belonging to poultry; with suffix -ous.^ 
L. gallinay a hen. — L. gallus, a cock. 

G«lliot, small galley. (F.— Late L.) 
O. Y,galiote\ Late L galeota, small galley; 
dimin. oi galea ; see Galley. 

Gallipot, a small glazed earthen pot. 
(F.) From galley and pot, as being 
brought over in galleys. So also galley* 
tile ; cf. galy-halfpeny^ a galley-halfpenny, 
coin brought over by galley-men^ who 
landed wines at a place called Galley-key 
(Thames Street). 

Gallon. (F.) M. E. galon, galun, - 
O. F. gallon, jalon, a gallon ; orig. * a large 
bowl;' augmentative form of the word 
which appears as mod. F. jale, a bowl. 
Orig. unknown. 

Galloon. (F.-M.H.G.) F. galon, 
*■ galoon-lace,* Cot. ; cf. O. F. galoner, to 
adorn the head (with ribbons, &c.). [Also 
Span, galon, galloon.] — O. F. gale. Span. 
gida, festivity ; see Gadlant. 

Gallon. ( F. — Scand. ) M. E. galopen; 
also spelt walopen. — O. F. galoper, vb. ; 
galop, walop (Bartsch), sb. [Hence was 
borrowed O. H.G. walopieren, to gallop ; 
so that it is not of O. H. G. origin.] 

— O. Norweg. *walUhopp, '^oxw.vallhopp^ 
a gallop (Aasen) ; lit. a bounding over 
a neld, * field-hop.' — Norw. *'wall-, later 
vail', Icel. vbllr, a field, plain (cognate 
with E. Wold) ; and hopp, Dan. £>p, a 
jump, skip, from hoppa, to jump; see 
Hop (i). 

GallOW, to terrify. (E.) King Lear, 
iii. a. 44. M. E. galwen. A. S. galwan, 
to terrify ; in comp. dgalwan. 



Oambol, a frisk, caper. (F. — Ital. — L.) 
Formerly gambold^ gambauld^ gambaud. — 
M. F. gambade, 'a gambol! ;* Cot -Ital. 
gambaiaf a kick. — Ital. gamba, the leg; 
the same as F. jambe, O. F. gambe. Late 
L. gamba, a joint of the leg. Cf. Gael, 
and W. cam, crooked, answering to O. 
Celt. *kambos (fem. *kambd), crooked; 
Stokes-Fick, 78. 

Game. (£.) M. £. game, also gamen. 
A. S. gamen, sport. + Icel. gaman, Dan. 
gammen, M. Swed. gamman, O. H. G. 
gaman, joy, mirth. See G-ammon (2). 

Gammer, an old lady, grandmother. 
(F. — L. ; and K) For grammer, West. 
E. form oi grand-mother. 

Gammon (i)» the preserved thigh of a 
hog. (F.— L.) M.E. gambon. A.F. 
gambon (F. jambon), a gammon; from 
O. F. gambe, leg. See G-ambol. 

Gammon (a)> nonsense; orig. a jest. 
(£.) M. £. gamen, a game ; see Game. 
And see Backgainxnon. 

Gamnt. (F.— Gk. ; and "L^ Comp. 
of O. F. game, gamme^ and ut. Here 
gamme represents the Gk. yafi/m (7), 
because the musical scale was represented 
by a, b, c, d, e, /, g, the last being g^y, 
Ut is the old name for do, the ist note in 
singing, becanse it began an old hymn to 
St. John, * Ut qneant laxis,' &c., used in 
learning singing. Gamut is the scale, 
from 7 {/) to ut (a). 

Gander. (£.) M. £. gandre, A. S. 
gandra, also spelt ganra (the d being, in 
&ct, excrescent). •f-Du^ gander » C£ also 
Low G. gante, a gander (see ganta in 
Pliny). Teut. type *ganron-, m. Allied 
to Gannet and G-oose. 

Gang (1)1 a crew of persons. (£.) 

A. S. gang, a going, progression ; but the 

Galvani of Bologna, Italy ; about A. D. J sense was affected by the related word 

genge, a gang. 

gang (2), to go. (Scand.) Icel.^n^a, 
to go; cf. A. S. gang, a going, path, 
course (whence £. gang-way) ; see G-o. 

Ganglion, a tumour on a tendon. (L. 
— Gk.) L. ganglion. ^G\i, 7077X10^. 

Gaa^grene, a mortification of the flesh. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) M. F. gangrene. — L. gan- 
grana.^Gk. ydyfpaiva, an eating sore. 
Allied to yip-cjy, an old man, from 
^ySp, to grow old; cf. Skt. jaras, old 
age, jaraya, to consume (see Prellwitz). 

Gannety solan goose, a sea-fowl. (£.) 

A. S. ganot.^ljoyr G. gante, Du. gent, a 

I gander ; M. H. G. gunze, O. H. G. ganazo. 


Galloway, a nag, pony. (Scotland.) 
Named from Galloway ^ Scotland. 

Gallowglas, Galloglas, a heavy- 
armed foot-soldier. (Irish.) Irish gallo* 
glach, a servant, a galloglas. i- Irish gall, 
a foreigner, an £nglishman; oglack, a 
youth, servant, soldier (from og, youn^, 
O. Ir. dac, be, cognate with £. TooniO- 
It meant ' an £nglish servitor,' as explained 
by Spenser, View of the State of Ireland, 
Globe ed. p. 640. (See N. and Q. 6 S. x. 

Gallows. (£.) M.£.^flf/ A.S. 
gcdga, gealga, cross, gibbet ; whence mod. 
E. gallow, the s being the pi. termina- 
tion.-!- Icel. galgi, Dan. Swed. galge, Du. 
galg, Goth, galgay a cross, G. galgen, 
Teut. type *galgon'\ cf. Lith. ialga, a 
pole (i = sA). 

Galoohe, a kind of shoe. (F. — Late L. 
— Gk.) F. galoche^ answering to a 
Romance type *galopia, *caJopia ; formed 
from *calopus, sing, of Late L. calopodes, 
wooden snoes; we also find Late L. 
calopedia (see Brachet), a clog, wooden 
shoe, and calopodium, — Gk. KdKorrvhiov, 
dimin. of /voAoirovs, itdK&irovs, a shoemaker's 
last. — Gk. KoXo-v, wood ; irovi, a foot. 

Galore, in plenty. (C.) Irish goleor, 
Gael, gu leor, gu leoir, sufficiently. Formed 
from Irish and Gael, leor, sufficient, by 
prefixing go or gu, lit. * to,' but used to 
turn an adj. into an adverb. 

Gait (I), Ganlt, clay and marl. 
(Scand.) Norweg. gidd, hard ground, 
a place where ground is trodden hard; 
Icel. gald, hard-trodden snow. 

Gait (a)» a boar-pig. (Scand.) M. £. 
gait. — Icel. goltr, galti ; Swed. Dan. gait, 
a hog. Cf. O. H. G. galzA, a sow. 

Galvanism. (Ital.) Named from 


Gambado, an £. substitution for F. 
gambade ; see G-axnboL 

Gambit, an opening at chess. (F.— 
Ital. — L.) F. gambit. 'mltaX. gambetto, a 
tripping up. — Ital. gamba, the leg ; see 

Gamble. (£•) A late word, put for 
gamm-le or gam-le, a frequent, form which 
has taken the place of M. £. gamenen, to 
play at games. — A. S. gametiian, to play at 
games ; from gamen, a game. See Game. 

Gamboge. (Asiatic.) A corruption of 
Cambodia, in the Annamese territory, 
whence it was brought after a. d. 1600. 




a gander. From a base gan-; see 

Gantlet (i) ; see Ganntlet. 

Gaatlet (a), Gantlope, a military 
pmiishment. (Swed.) ¥ ormeily gantlope ; 
corrupted by conftision with gauntlet. 
Again, gantlope is a cormption of Swed. 
gathppt lit. ' a running down a lane ; ' to 
* mn the gantlope ' is to run between two 
files of soldiers, who strike the offender as 
he passes. » Swed. gata, a lane, street (see 
Gate (a)); and /?//, a running, from lopa^ 
to run, cognate with £. Leap. 

Gaol, Jaily a cage, prison. (F.-L.) 
A. F. gaole, geioh (F. gedle)^ a prison, 
birdcage. « I^te L. gdiolay caveoloy a 
cage, dimin. of L. cauea^ a den, cave, 
cage — L. c€muSy hollow ; see Gage. 

Gap. (Scand.) M. £. gappe. • Icel. and 
Swea. gap, a gap, abyss. — Icel. and Swed. 
gapa, to gape (below). 

fape. (Scand.) M, E. gapen,^lce\, 
Swed. gapa, Dan. gabe.^K. Fries, and 
Du. gapeny G. gufin. Cf. Skt. jadAj 
jamdn, to gape. 
Gar (I), Oarfishy a fish. (£.) A fish 
with slender body and pointed head. 
From A. S. gar, a spear ; ex. Garlio. So 
also plie, geS, 

Gar (a ^t to cause. (Scand.) Icel.^j^a 
(Noreen), Swed. gvra, Dan. gjbre^ to 
make, cause; lit. to make ready. — Icel. 
g^^gorr^ ready ; see Yare. 

garb (i), dress. (F.-O. H.G.) In 
Shak. — O. F. garbt, a garb, good fashion. 
— O. H. G. garawtj garwt, dress, prepara- 
tion; cf. O. H. G. garawen, M. H. G. 
garwen, to get ready. — O. H. G. garo^ 
ready ; cognate with £. yare ; see Q«ar. 
Gflkrb {2)y a wheatsheaf, in heraldry 
F.--0. H. G.) A. F. and Picard garbe, 
". gerbe^ a shea£ — O. H. G. garba (G. 
garbe)y a sheaf. Lit. * what is grabbed ' 
or caught up into a bundle by grasping. 
Cf. £. graby Swed. grabba^ to grasp ; Skt. 
grahy Vedic graJbh^ to seize. Brugm. i. 

§ 531. 

garbage, refuse. (F. > O. H. G.) 
M. E garbage, entrails of fowls. This 
agrees in form with O. F. garbage, gerbage, 
a tax paid in garbs or sheaves. Prob. 
similarly formed from O. F. gatbe^ in the 
sense of ' handful/ small bundle, a sense 
which occurs for Low L. garba. 
Garble, to select for a purpose ; hence, 
to corrupt an account (F. — Span. — Arab.) 
Grig, to pick out, sort, sift out.— O. F.gar- 


beller (see N. E. D.), the same m grabeller, 
to garble or sort out n>ices, orig. to sift. 
The same as Span, garbillar, Ital. garbeU 
lare, to garble or sift wares.- Span, gar- 
billo, a coarse sieve. — Pers. gharbtl, Arab. 
ghirbal, a sieve ; Arab. gharbakU, sifting, 
searching. Rich. Diet. p. 1046. 

Garboil, a commotion. (F.) M. F. 
garbouil, *a garboil, hurliburly;' Cot. 
Cf. Span, garbullo, a crowd ; Ital. gar- 
huglio, a garboil, disorder. Of unknown 
origin. Prob. imitative. Florio has Ital. 
garabullare, to rave. 

Garden. (F. - O. Frankish.) M.£. 
gardin. - A. F., O. North F. and Picard 
gardiny F. jardin.'^O* Frank, gardin 
(O. H. G. gartin), gen. and dat. of gardo, 
a yard, cognate with £. Yard, q. v. Cf. 
O. H. G. garttn-dri, a gardener. 

Ckurfiak; see Gar (i). 

Gargle. (F.> Late L.-Gk.) Modified 
from ]f . gargvuiller, * to gargle ; ' Cot. — 
F^ gargouilU, the weasand of the throat, 
also a gargoyle, or mouth of a spout. So 
also Span, gargola, a gargoyle ; Ital. gar^ 
gozza, the gullet. From an imitative base 
garg-, as seen in L,. garg-arizdre, to gargle, 
from Gk. yapy^pHtiv, to gargle ; cf. Gk. 
yjLprfjiptijv , the uvula. Hence also Ital. 
gargagliare, to murmur, gargatta, the 
throat. The parallel L. base is gurg- ; 
see Gorge, Gurgle. 

gargoyle, a spout. (F.-L.) Y.gar- 
gouille (above). 

Garieh, staring, showy. (£.) Also 
formerly spelt gaurisk. Allied to M. £. 
gauren, to stare (Chaucer). Cf. M. £. 
gawen, to stare ; Icel. gH, to heed, mark. 

Garland. (F.-Teut.?) U.Kgerlond. 

— O. F. garlonde, Cf. Span, guimalda, 
Ital. ghirlanda (whence Mod. F. guir- 
lande), a garland. Prob. formed, with 
suffix -<inde, from M. H. G. *wierelen, 
frequentative of tuieren, to adorn, from 
O. H. G. wtara, M. H. G. wiere, refined 
gold, fine ornament, crown. Cf. Wire. 

Garlic, a plant. (£.) A. S. gdrliac, 
lit. * spear-leek.* — A. S. gdr^ a spear ; leac, 
a leek, plant. See Gore (3) and Leek. 

Garment. (F. • o. Low G.) M.E. 

gamement. — O. F. garnement, garnitnent, 
a robe (defence). — O. F. garnir, to pro- 
tect ; see Garnish. 
Gamer. (F.-L.) M.E. garner.^ 
O. Y.gemier, variant of grenier, a granary. 

— L. grdndrium, a granary. — L. grdnum, 
corn ; see Grain. 




tfamet. (F.— L.) M. K^r^/, also 
spelt granat. — O. F. granate ; M. F. 
grenaij ' a precious stone called a granat 
or garnet,* Cot.; Late L. grdnatus. So 
called from its resemblance to the seeds of 
the pomegranate, or malum grdndtum, 
lit. seeded apple. — L. grdnum^ a grain, 

Garnish. (F.— O.LowG.) Alsow^ir- 
nish, — O. F. gamis-y wamis-, stem of 
pres. pt. oigarnir, wamir, to defend one- 
self, fortify, garnish. — O. Frank, ^wam- 
Jan ; cf. O. H. G. warnan^ M. H. G. 
warwn, to guard against, provide one- 
self with ; cf. O. H. G. wama, foresight, 
care. See "Warn. 

garniture. (F.-O. Low G.) F. 
garniture f garnishment. — Low L. gamt" 
tiira. — Low L. gamiiuSy orig. pp. of 
garmrcy to adorn, which is merely a 
Latinised form of O. F. gamir (above). 

Garret. (F. - G.) M.E. ^ar*V<f.- 
O. F. garite (F. guiriti)^ place of refuge, 
watch-tower. — O. F. garir^ warir, to 
-preserve. — O. H. G. warjan, to defend. 
Allied to "Wary. 

Garrison. (F.— O.LowG.) Confused 
with M. E. garisoun, warisoun, a reward ; 
but the true form is M. E. gamisony war- 
nison^ defence, stores, supply. « O. F. 
gamison, store, supply. — O. F. garms-ant, 
pres. pt. of gamir, to supply, garnish ; 
see Garnish. And see Warison. 

Garrote, Garrotte. (Span. - C.) 

Span,garrotey a cudgel, tjring a rope tight, 
strangling by means of an iron collar. 
Formed, with dimin. suffix -o/€y from Span. 
gUrra, a claw, talon, clutch, grasp. * 
Bret., W., and Corn, gar, the shank of 
the leg (Diez). See Garter. 

Ganruloos. (L.) L. garrulus, talk- 
ative. *L. garrtrey to chatter. Brugm. i. 

Garter. (F.-C.) K,Y. garter 'y O.F. 
gartier (North of France, H^cart), spelt 
jartier in Cotgrave (^,jarretiire),''0. F. 
and Norm, ^r^/ (^. Jarret), the ham of 
the leg ; a dimin. form. — Bret, gar, W. 
gary shank of the leg ; Celt, type ^garris. 

Gas. (Du.) The Belgian chemist Van 
Helmont (died A. D. 1644) invented two 
terms, gas and blas\ the latter did not 
come into use. He tells us that gcu was 
suggested by the Gk. x<ioJ. See N. E. D. 

(Sasconade, boasting. (Gascony.) F. 
gascannade, boasting ; said to be a vice of 
Gascons ; at any rate named from them. 

Gash, to hack , cut deeply. ( F. — Late L. 

— Gk.) Formerly garshy garse. — O. F. 
garser, to scarify, pierce with a lancet. — 
Late L. caraxdrey short for incaraxdrCy 
incharaxdre, to pierce, incise. Cf. Late L. 
garsa, scari^cation, by making incisions 
in the skin, called in Gk. fyx^P^t^l 
whence the Late L. vb. was formed. See 

Gasp. (E.) M. E. gaspen, gaispen. 
The latter answers to Icel. geispa^ Swed. 
gdspay to yawn (cf. Dan. gispe). The 
former represents the cognate A. S. *gds- 
pan (not found). Icel. geispa is for *geip- 
sa ; cf. Du. gijpeuy to gasp ; A. S. gipung, 
a gaping. 

GaS'mc, belonging to the belly. (Gk.) 
Coined from Gk. yaffTp6'y from yaarffp, 
the belly. 

Gate (i), a door, hole, opening. (E.) 
l/i.E, gate yy ate. A.S,gaty geat, a gate, 
opening (whence M. E. yate) ; pi. gatu 
(whence M. E. gate). + Du. gaty a hole, 
opening, gap; O. Fries., O. Sax., Icel. 
gaty an opening. 

Gate (2), a street. (Scand.) Common 
in the North; it also means 'a way.' — 
Icel. gatay Swed. gata, a way, path, street, 
lane ; Dan. gade ; cf. Goth. gatwOy G. 
gasse. Perhaps allied to Gate (i), and 
also to the vb. Go. p. Gate (i) answers 
to Teut. type *gatomy n., but gate (3) to 
Teut. type ^gatwon^y f. See Gait and 
Gantlet (2). 

Gather. (E.) M. E. gaderen, A. S. 
gaderiany gadriany to collect, get together. 

— A.S. gader-y together; 3so gador-y 
geador. + Du. gadereny to collect, from 
{te)gadery together. Cf. A. S. gad, a com- 
pany, society (whence also A. S. gade- 
ling, a comrade ; ge-gaday a companion) ; 
Du. gade, &* spouse, G. gattey a husband ; 
Goth. gadii^ggSy a cousin. Perhaps allied 
to Good. 

Gaud, a show, ornament (L.) M. E. 
gaude. — L. gaudiumy gladness, joy ; hence, 
an ornament. — L. gauderey to rejoice (base 
gduid'y as in gduisus sum, used as pt. t.)< 
+Gk. yrfihtVy to rejoice ; allied to yaiuv 
(se •ya^-ictp), to rejoice; yavpos, proud. 
Brugm. i. § 589 ; ii. $ 694. Der. gaud-y, 

Gauge, Gatfe, to measure the content 
of a vessel. (P . —Low L.) Spelt gage in 
Shak. — O. North F. gauger, F. Jauger, * to 
gage,' Cot. - O. North F. gaitgey F. 
jauggy * a gage, instrument wherewith a 



cask is measured/ Cot. ; Low L. gaugia 
(a. D. 1446). Of unknown origin. 

Gaunt, thin, lean. (Scand. ?) An East- 
Anglian word; perhaps Scand. Also spelt 
gant (1691). Cf. Norweg. gand, a thin 
stick, a tall and thin man, an overgrown 
stripling (Aasen) ; Swed.dial.^a;fi(,alean, 
half-starved horse (R|etz). Doubtful. 
.Gauntlet. (F.- Scand.) 0,¥.ganie- 
let, a double dimin. of gant^ a glove. — O. 
Swed. wantCy a glove; Dan. vante, a 
mitten, Icel. vbttr (stem vantu-), a glove. 
Cf. Du. wanty a mitten (prob. borrowed 
from Scand.). Prob. from Wind, verb 
(Noreen) ; cf. G.gewand, a garment ; Low 
G. want, cloth (Liibben). 
• Gauntlet ; see Gantlet (2). 

Gause. a thin silken fabric. (F.— 
Palestine.) l/i,Y,gaze\ Span. ^ofa. Cf. 
Low L. gazzdtum, gauze ; gazetufn^ wine 
from Gaza. Said to be from Gaza, in 
Palestine, whence it was first brought. 

Gavelkind, a sort of tenure. (£.) 
M. E. gauelkynde ; answering to an A. S. 
form *gafol'Cynd. — A. S. gafol, tribute, 
payment ; and cynd, kind, sort, condition. 
The A. S.^d/-tf/ (whence Low L. gabulum) 
is from Teut. ^gab, 2nd grade of Give, q. v. 

Gavial. the crocodile of the Ganges. 
(F. — Hina.) F. gavial (a corrupt form). 
■> Hind, ghafiyal, a crocodile. 

Gavotte, a dance. (F.) M. F. gaoote, 
orig. .a dance of the Gavois, Gavot is a 
sobriquet, in Provence, of the moun- 
taineers of the Alps (see Hatzfeld). 

Gawk, Gawky, awkward. (F.- 
Scand.) From £. dial, gawk^handed, 
gaulick'handed, left-handed ; gawk, clumsy. 
Here gawk is short for gau/'Uk, where 
'ick is a suffix. Of F. origin ; cf. Burgund. 
gfi/e, numb with cold, said of the fingers. 
^Swed. Dan. vaien, benumbed; whence 
Swed. dial, val-hdndt, Norw. val-hendt, 
having numbed hands. % Prob. not from 
¥.gauck€{J^,E. D.). 

Cm'. (F. - O. H. G.) O. F. gai. - 
O. H. G. ivdhi, fine, beautiful. 

Gaie. (Scand.) M. E. ^j^if. — Swed. 
dial, gasa, to gaze, stare at. 

Gaselle, an animal. (F. — Span.— 
Arab.) Formerly gazsL — O. F. gazei, 
^02^//(r.— Span, gacela,^ Ax^h, ghazdl, a 
wild goat, gazelle. 

Gaiette. (F. - Ital.) O. F. gazette, an 
abstract of news, issued at Venice. — Ital. 
gazzetta, a gazette ; the orig. sense is 
either (x) a magpie, from Ital. gazzetta. 


a magpie, dimin. of gazza, a magpie, 
whence it may have meant ' tittle-tattle * ; 
or (2) a very small coin (perhaps paid for 
the privilege of reading the news), from 
Ital. gazzetta, a coin less than a farthing, 
probably from Gk. ya^a, a treasury. 

Gear, dress, harness, tackle. (Scand.) 
M. E. gere. — Icel. gervi, gorvi, gear, 
apparel. Cf. gorr, geyrr, skilled, dressed, 
pp. of giira, to make.<4-A. S. geanve, fem. 
pi., preparation, dress, ornament; A. S. 
gearo, ready; see Tare. And see Gar 
(2), Garb (i). 

Geek, a dupe. (Du.) In Tw. Nt. v. 
351.— Du. geky formerly geck^ a fool, sot ; 
cf. G. geek, the same ; Dan. gjek, fool ; 
Icel. gikkr, a pert, rude person. ^ Not 
to be confused with A. S. geac, cuckoo ; 
nor with gowk ; nor with gawky. 

Gecko, a nocturnal lizard. (Malay.) 
Also F. gecko, -■ Malay gekoq, a gecko; 
so named from an imitation of its cry. 

Gedy the fish called a pike. (Scand.) 
Icel. gedda, Swed. gaddet Dan. giedde, a 
ged ; allied iogaddr, a goad ; see Qad (i). 
Named from the sharp, thin head ; hence 
also called pike. 

Gelatine. (F.- Ital- L.) Y.gilatine, 
kind of jelly. » lta\.ge/attna. ■- L. geldtus, 
pp. oi geldrti to freeze. — L. gelu, frost; 
see Gelid. 

Geld, to emasculate. (Scand.) M.£. 
gelden, — Icel. gelda, Dan. glide, Swed. 
galla (for galda) ; cf. Icel. getdr, Swed. 
gall, barren. Perhaps related to Goth. 
giltha^ a sickle. Cf. Gait (2). Der. 
geld'ingt ^^'om Icel. gelding, the same. 

Gelid, cool. (L.) L. gelidus, — L. gelu, 
frost. Allied to Cool. Brngm. i. § 481. 

Gem. (F. — L.) M. E. gemme, - F. 
gemme.'m'L, gemma, a bud; also a gem, 
jewel. Brugm. i. § 413 (4). 

Gemini. (L.) L. gemini, twins ; pi. 
of peminus, double. 

Gender (i), kind. (F.-L.) M. E. 

gendre (with excrescent df). — O. F. genre, 
kixA^'mh. genere, abl. case oi genus, kind, 
kin. % The unusual deriv. from the abl. 
case is due to the common phrases genere 
ndtus, hoc genere^ omnl genere ; so also 
Ital. genere, kind. 

gender (2), to produce. XF- - L.) 
M. E. gendren. — O. F. gendrer (Gode- 
froy). " L. generdre, to beget— L. gener^, 
for *genes, stem of genus (above). And 
see Engender. 

Genealogy. (F.-L. -Gk.) M.E. 



gemalogie. — O. F, genealogU. — L. gened- 
/ogia.^^Gk, y€V€ct\oyia, an account of a 
family, pedigree (i Tim. i. 4). — Gk. 7cv€4, 
birth (allied to yivoif see genus) ; and 
Xoyiaj an account, allied to Kiyos (see 
Goneral, relating to a genus, common. 
(F. — L.) O. F. general. '^ L» genera lis y 
belonging to a genus (stem gener-, for 
*genes) ; see genus. Hence general^ sb., 
a leader ; generaUissimOy from ItaX. general' 
tssimo, a supreme commander, with superl. 
suffix 'issinio. 

generate. (L.) From pp. of L. 

getierdre, to produce. — L. gener-y decl. 
stem oi genus. 

generic, pertaining to a genus. (L.) 
Corned from L. gener-^ ded. stem of 

generous. (F.-L.) 0,F.genereus, 
later ginheux, — L. generosuSy (properly) 
of noble birth. ■> L. gener-y as above. 

Qenesifly creation. (L. — Gk.) L. 
genesis, — Gk. 7cF«<r«y, origin, source; 
related to 7€i'09, race ; see genus. 

Genet, an animal. (F. — Span. — Arab.) 
F. genette^ * a kind of weesell ; ' Cot. — 
Span, gineta. -■ AxKh, j'ameit (Dozy). 

GemaL (F.-L.) O.F. genial. ^l^ 
genidliSy pleasant ; adj. from genius ; see 

Oenicnlate, jointed. (L.) In botany. 
From L. geniculumy a little knee, joint in 
a plant; double dimin. oi genii , a knee. 
Allied to Knee. 

Oenie, a demon ; see Jinn. 

Genital. C^. - L) O. F. genital. - L. 
genitalis y generative. — L. genit-unty supine 
oigignere, to beget. 

genitive. (F.-L.) 0,Y, genitif,^ 
L. genetiuusy belonging to birth, applied 
in grammar to a certain case of nouns. -■ 
L. genitum (above). 

geninSy inborn faculty. (L.) L. 
geniusy the tutelar spirit of any one ; also 
wit, lit. * inborn nature.* Allied to genus. 

GJennet ; see Jennet. 

Genteel. (F.-L.) XVI cent.; F. 
gentil. — L. gentiliSy belonging to the same 
clan, a gentile (afterwards applied to mean 
well-bred, &c.). — L. genti-y decl. stem of 
gensy a clan, tribe. Allied to genus. 

Gentian, a plant. (F. — L.) O. F. gen- 
tiane, ^\., gentidna\ named after GentiuSy 
an Illyrian king, abt. B.C. 180. 

Gentile. (F. - L.) O. F. gentil, - L. 
genttlisy gentile ; see Qenteel. 


gentle. (F.-L.) 0,F, gefttil(abo\e\ 
gentry. (F.-L.) M.E.^^if/rr>, high 
birth; shortened from M.£. gentrise, the 
same. — O. F. genterise, another form of 
gentilise, rank ( = Late L. *genttlitia),^ 
L. gentilis ; see G-enteel. 

Genuflection, Gennflezion, a 

bending of the knee. ,(F. — L.) M.F. genu^' 
Jlexion,^\^it L. ace. geniiJlexidnem.^'L, 
genUy knee ; Jlex-us, pp. of Jlectere, to 

Gennine. (L.) L. genumus, of the 
true genus or stock ; allied to L. genus 

genne, kin. (L.) L. genus (gen. 
generisy for *geneses\ kin, race. + Gk. 
7^1^09, race ; A. S. cyny kin. See Kin. 
(VGEN.) Brugm. i. § 604. 

Geography. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.F. 

gtographie, — L. geographia, — Gk. 7€fltf- 
ypa<piay lit. earth-description. — Gk. 7c«- » 
7170-, a combining form of yrjy earth; 
•ypatpiay description, from ypi^iVy to 

geometry. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 

geometrie, — L. geotnetria, » Gk. ytaffitrpla, 
land-measurement.-* Gk. 7cay- (as above) ; 
'furpiay measurement, from fi€Tp4w, I 
measure, fiirpovy a measure ; see Metre. 

geoxgic. (L.-Gk.) L. geofgicus, 
relating to husbandrv. ~ Gk. ytwpyiKSv, 
the same.-> Gk. ytcapyiay tillage. — Gk. y€oa- 
(as above) ; *tpytty>ipBtiyy to work. See 

Geraninniy a plant. (L.— Gk.) L. 

geranium, Latinised from Gk. ytpaviWy a 
geranium or crane's bill (from the shape 
of the seed-pod). <^ Gk. yipavosy a crane ; 
allied to Orane. 

Gerfolcon ; see Gyrfaloon. 

Germ, a seed. (F.-L.) F.germe,^ 
L. germen (stem gemiin')y a sprout, germ. 
Der. gertnin-ate (from the stem). 

german, germane, akin. (F.-L.) 

Cousins-german are cousins having the 

same grandfather. Formerly spelt germain, 

— M. F. gemiain.^'L. germdnumy ace. of 

germdnuSy closely akin. Allied to Germ. 

Germander. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y.ger^ 

mandr^ey germander; O.F. germandreey 
getnandru (Godefroy, Supp.) ; cf. G. ga- 
f/iander. ^"Ltitc L. gamanaria, a popular 
alteration of Late Gk. x'*-V^*'^^P^i Z'^' 
mander.— Gk. xaiiaihpvty germander; lit. 
* ground-tree,* i.e. low tree.— Gk. xaitai, 
on the ground ; ipvsy tree. 
Gemnd, a part of a Latin verb. (L.) 



L. gerundium, a gerund. ~ L. gernndus^ 
that which is to be done or carried on ; 
a verbal adj. from gerere (pp. gtS'tus\ to 
carry on, perform, bring. (^^GES.) 

ffestatioil, the carrying of the young 
in the womb. (F, — L.) M. F. gestation* — 
L. ace. gestdtionem, a carrying. — L. gestd- 
fus, pp. ofgestdre, to carry, frequent, form 
of gerere {pp, ^est-us), to bring. 

(festiciUAto, to make gestures. (L.) 
From pp. of gesticuldri, to make mimic 
gestures. « L. gesticulusy a gesture, double 
dimin. oigestus^ a gesture.— L.^j/mj, pp. 
oi gerere. ^ 

gefftnre. (L-) Late L. gestura, a 
mode of action.— L.^j/MJ, pp. oi gerere. 

Get. (Scand.) M. £. getenf pt. t. gaty 
pp. geten, — Icel. geta, pt. t. gat, pp. getinn. 
+A. S. 'getauy pt. t. -gat^ pp. "geteriy to 
get, obtain ; Goth, 'gitan ; cognate with 
L. 'hendere (base hed), in prehendere^ to 

seize ; Gk. xa'^^'^^ti' (base x^^^^)* ^^ ^i^ s 
Russ. geuktte, to conjecture. (^GHwED.) 
Der. be'getyfor-get, Brugm. i. $ 63 a. 

GewgaWi a plaything, specious trifle. 
(F.) Formerly ^i^^^cRV, (perhaps) answering 
to M.E. giuegoue, Ancren Riwle, p. 196. 
The pron. of M. E. giuegoue is uncertain. 
Origin unknown; prob. F. One sense of 
^,gewgaw is a Jew s harp ; cf. Buigundian 
gawey a Jew*a harp (Mignard). Cf. Swed. 
dial, guvay to blow ; Norw. guvUy gyva 
(pt t. gauv), 

Ooysir. (Icel.) Icel.^r^^xir, lit. 'gusher.* 

— Icel. geys€^ to gush ; allied to gj'dsa (pt. 
t,gaus)y to gush. See Gush. 

OlUMtlyv terrible. (E.) U.'E.gastly. 
Formed from M. E. gastetty A. S. gastaUy 
to terrify; allied to Goth, usgaisjauy to 
terrify. See Aghast. Allied woids are 
gastedy terrified, K. Lear, ii. i. 57; gast- 
nessy 0th. v. i. 106. See Ghost. 

Ghantf a landing-place, quay, way 
down to a river ; mountain-pass. (Hind.) 
Hind, ghdty Bengali ghat. See Wilson. 

Qlieef boiled or clarified butter. (Hind. 

- Skt.) Hind, ght, - Skt. ghftay clarified 
butter; orig. pp. oighfy to sprinkle. 

Qherkm, small cucumber. (Du.— 
Slav. -Low L.-Gk.-Pers.) Short for 
^agherkin, — Du. agurkjey a gherkin (of 
which an older form was doubtless 
*agurken {-agurk'ken)y because M. Du. 
used the dimin. suffix -ken where mod. 
Du. uses 'je ; in fact, the form augurken 
is preserved in E. Friesic). Without the 
final Hy we have Du. agorke (Sewel).- 


Pol. ogureky ogorek, ogorkay a cucumber; 
Bohem. okurka. — M. Ital. anguria, a 
cucumber (Florio) ; Lo\^L. angQriuSy a 
water-melon. — Byzantine Gk. dyyoTuptoy, 
a water-melon. — Pers. d^ff^amA, a melon, 
a cucumber; Rich. Diet., p. 194. 

Ghost, a spirit . (K ) M. K gosty goost, 
A. S. gdst. + Du. geest, G. geist. Tent 
tyue*gaistoz. Of uncertain origin; perhaps 
allied to Icel. geisa, to rage (like fire), 
and to Goth, us-gais-jan, to terrify. 
Brugm. i. § 816 (2). 

GuoqI, a kind of demon. (Arab.) Pers. 
gA^l, an imaginary sylvan demon; Arab. 
ghuwaly a demon of the woods ; from Arab. 
ghawl, attacking suddenly. 

Giant. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.K giant, 
geanty geaunt,'^\,¥, and O. F. giant y 
geant.^la, gigantemy ace. of^^ox.- Gk. 
7170? (stem 7*701^-), a giant. Der. 
gigant'iCy from L. gigant-y stem oigigas. 

Giaour, an infidel. (Pers.) Giaour is 
an Ital. spelling usual among the Franks 
of the Levant (Byron). Pers. gawry an 
infidel, a fire-worshipper ; variant of Pers. 
gabr, a Gueber ; see Gueber. 

Gibberish, idle talk. (Arab. ?) The 
hard g separates it from the verb gibber, 
to gabble, which is the frequentative of 
jibey and allied to jabber. Fuller has 
Geberishy and Camden GebrisA; apparently 
in allusion to Gebir, an Arabian alchemist 
of the 8th century, and to the jargon of 
alchemy. Or it may be merely imita- 

Gibbet. (F.) M,E. gibbety gibet,^ 
O. F. gibbet (F. gibet), a gibbet. Prob. 
allied to O. F. gibety a large stick, perhaps 
a dimin. of O. F. gibe, gibbe, a sort of 
stick shod with iron, an implement for 
stirring up earth. Or is gib-et a dimin. 
from M. Du. wippey * a gibbet,' in Hexham ? 

Gibbon, a kind of ape. (F.) F.gibbony 
in Buffon ; of unknown, origin. 

Gibbons, humped, swelling. (L.) 
From L. gibbosusy humped (whence also 
gibbose). — L.gibbuSygibbay a hump, hunch ; 
cf. gibbus, bent. 

Gibe, Jibe, to mock. (E.) Of imitative 
origin ; cf. E. Fries, gibelny to mock, Du. 
gijbeUny to sneer. Note also Icel. geipay 
to talk nonsense, Icel. geip, idle talk; 
Norw. geipOy to make grimaces. 

GibletSi the intenial eatable parts of 
a fowl, removed • before cooking. (F.) 
M.E. gibelet,^O.Y, gibelety which, ac- 
cording to Littr6, answers to mod. F. 




gihelotte^ stewed rabbit. Of unknown 
origin ; perhaps related to F. gibier, game. 

(Hddv. (E.) • M. E, gidi, gedy, adj. ; 
late A. b.gidigf insane, answering to earlier 
*gydig, which would mean * possessed by 
a god * ; cf. A. S. gyden, a goddess. From 
A. S. god. 

Gier-eagl6, a kind of eagle. (Du. and 
F.) The hrst 'syllable is from Du. gier^ 
a vulture ; cf. G. geier^ M. H. G. gir, a 
vulture. Allied to G. gUr-ig^ greedy, and 
to E. Yearn. 

Gift. (E.) M. E. gift.yifL - A. S.^//, 
a gift (rare) ; common in the pi. giftay 
nuptials ; E, Fries, gift. — A. S. gifan^ to 
give.+Icel.^]^^, "Dm. gift, G. -gift (in mit- 
giftf a dowry). % The hard g is due to 
Scand. influence. See Q-ive. Der. gift-ed, 

Gi|f , a light carriage, light boat. (Scand.) 
In Shak. , a gig is a boy*s top. M. E. giggty 
apparently a whirling thing, Ch. Ho. 
Fame, iii. 852 (whence E. whirligig. 
Prob. of Scand. origin ; cf. Icel. geiga, to 
take a wrong direction, to rove at random. 
Cf. Jig. Prob. of imitative origin. 

Gigfantic ; see Giant. 

Gi|fgle, to titter. (E.) Of imitative 
origin; cf gaggle. Cf. E. Fries. gtcAeln, 
Low G. giggsln (Danneil), G. kichemy to 

Glgldty Gifitloti a wanton woman. 
(E.?) Dimin. of gigle^ a flirt, used by 
Cotgrave (s. v. gadrouillette) ; from M. E. 
S^gg^i ^'^ same, Plowm. Tale, 759. Per- 
haps allied to Gig or Giggle. 

Oild, to overlay with gold. (E.) M.E. 
giUen, A. S. gyldan., to gild ; cf. A. S. 
gylden, golden. Formed (with vowel- 
mutation from Teut. u (>A. S. ^) to y) 
from goldf gold. See Gold. 

Gill (i), organ of respiration in fishes. 
(Scand.) M . E. gilh. — Dan . gialle, Swed. 
gdly a gill ; M. Dan. galle^ M. Swed. gel. 

Gill (2), a ravine/ chasm. (Scand.) Also 
ghyll. — Icel. gily ravine ; Norw. gil. 

Gill (3\ with g soft, a quarter of a pint. 
(F. - Late L.) M. "E^gille. - O. F. gelle, a 
sort of wine-measure. Late L^gella ; cf. Late 
L. gillOf a wine-vessel. 

GlU (4)> ^i^^ g" soft) A woman*8 name, 
a pitcher, ground-ivy. (L.) Short for 
Gillian^ from L. lulidna, a fem. name 
due to L. Julius ; see July. Der. flirt- 
gill or gill-flirt, jilt. 

Gillie, a boy, page. (C.) Gael, gille, 
giolltty Irish giolla^ boy, lad ; O. Irish 
gilla^i a servant 

GiUsrflower, a flower. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
Formerly ^V^r, geraflour. Formed (by 
confusion yni^ flower) from M. F. giroflie^ 
' a gilloflower ; * Cot. From F. clou de 
girofle^ the same. ■- Late L. caryophyllum^ 
Latinised from Gk. icapv6(f>v?iXov, a clo^e 
tree, lit. * nut-leaf.* — Gk. KapuO'V, a nut ; 
<pvWov, leaf. 

Gimbals, a contrivance for suspending 
a ship's compass, to keep it horizontal. 
(F. — L.) Formerly gimmals ; also called 
gemmow or gemmow-ring, a double ring, 
with two or more links. The forms gem- 
mow and gimmal correspond to M. F. 
gemeau, and O. F. gemel, a twin. — L. gemel- 
lus, a twin, a dimin. foim of L. geminus^ 

Gimlet, Gimblet. (F.-Teut) M.F. 

gimbelety * a gimlet or piercer ; ' Cot. ; 
gtiimbelety Godefroy (F. gibelet) ; Norman 
dial, guinblet. Of M. H. G. origin ; 
formed from a base wind-, to turn or 
wind ; cf. mod. G. wendel-bohrer^ a 
wimble. Note also Icel. vindla, to wind 
up, vindill, a wisp. See Wimble, of 
\ih\c\i gimlet is the dimin. 

Gimmal-ring ; see Gimbals. 

Gimp, a kind of trimming, made of 
twistedsilk, cotton, or wool. (F.— O.H.G.) 
See Bailey's Diet. vol. ii., ed. 1731. Named 
from a resemblance to some kind of 
wimple. — M. F. guimpe, a nun's wimple ; 
also guimple (see index to Cotgrave, s.y. 
wimple). ^O. H. G. wim^al, a light robe, 
a fillet for the head; G.wimpelyVi streamer ; 
see Wimple. % Prob. confused with F. 
guipure^ a thread or silk lace. See Gui- 

Gin (i), to begin. (E.) Obsolete ; often 
needlessly written *ginj as though be- were 
omitted. M. E. ginnen. A. S. ginnan, 
to begin, commonly on-ginnan (pt. t. 
onganHy pp. ongunnen). •^Goth, ginnan, 
in the comp. du-ginnan, to begin. Brugm. 
i. §376. 

Gin (a), a trap, snare. (F.— L.) M. E. 
gifty short for M. E. engitiy a contrivance. 
See Engine. 

Gin (3), a kind of spirit. (F.-L.) Short 
for geneva, corruption of M. F. genevre, 
juniper. -iL. ace. iHniperum; see Juni- 

Ginffer, the root of a certain plant. 

CF. - L. - Gk. - Skt.) M. E. ginger, gin- 

geuere {=gingevere),''0.¥, gengibre (F. 

gingembre). ^IjoXt l^.gingiber\ h, zingiber, 

- Gk. fi77i/9«/)if . - Skt. fr^gavera, ginger ; 




lit. ' horn-shaped/ from the horns on it. — 
Skt. frHga^ a horn ; vera, a body. 

Gingerly, with soft steps. (F.— L.) 

From the adj. *ginger, soft, delicate (with 
soft g). Apparently adapted from O. F. 
genzoTj gensor, more delicate, comp. of 
gent, fine, delicate, noble ; orig. * well- 
born/ — Folk-L. *gentum, L. gettitum, 
ace. oi genitusy bom (well-bom), pp. of 
gignere, to beget. (N.E.D.) 

GilUfliaillt ^ kind of cotton cloth. 
(F. —Malay.) ■ F. guingan. — Malay ging- 
gang, striped cloth, gingham. — Malay and 
Javanese ginggang, striped (C. P. G. Scott). 

Gingle ; the same as Jingle. 

Gipsy ; the same as Gypay. 

GinuBCOf a long-legged animal. (F.— 
Span. — Arab.) M. F. giraffe (F. 
girafe), — Span, girafa, — Arab, zaraf, 

Gird (i)) to enclose, bind round. (£.) 
M. E. gurden, girden. A. S. gyrdan, to 
gird.+O. Sax. gurdian, Du. gorden, Icel. 
gyrtSa, to gird, Dan. giorde^ G. giirten. 
Tent, type *gurdjan- ; from *gurd-, weak 
grade of Teut. *gerdan- (pt. t. *gard), to 
enclose; cf. Goth, bigairdan, to begird. 
Allied to Garth, Garden, and Yard. 

Gird (2), to jest at, jibe. (E.) A peculiar 
use o- M. E. girden, gurden, to strike, cut. 
To gird at^to strike at, jest at ; a gird 
is a cut, sarcasm ; Tam. Shrew, v. 2. k8. 

Girdle. (E.) A. S. ^r^l^/, that which 
girds. — A. S.gyrdan, to gird ; see Gird ( i ). 
4-Du. gordel, Icel. gyrHill, Swed. gordel, 

CKrl. (E.) M.E. girle, gerle, gurle, 
often used to mean *■ a boy ' ; a child. 
Answering to an A.S. form ^gyreU, Teut. 
*gurtl-f a dimin. form from Teut. base 
*gur-. Allied to N. Fries, gor, a girl ; 
Lo'w G. gor, gore, a child. Cf. Swiss 
gurre, gurrli, a depreciatory term for a 
girl (Sanders, Ger. Diet.). 

Giron, Gyron, in heraldry, the eighth 
part of a shield, made by drawing a dia- 
gonal line from the top comer to the centre, 
and from the centre horizontally towards 
the same side ; a right-angled triangle. 
(F.-O. H. G.) F.^>^«, agiron (Littre). 
— O. H. G. gerun, ace. of giro, a lance, 
spear ; M. H. G. gere, a gore or gusset in 
a garment, a triangular piece. — O. H. G. 
gir, a spear, cognate with A. S. gar, a 
spear. See Gore (2). (Diez, Schade.) 

Girth. (Scand.) M.E. ^i?^A.-Icel. 
gjorfi^ a girdle, girth; getii, girth round 

the waist ; Dan. giord.J^Qo'Cti, gairda, a 
girdle. Teut. type *^jfr^a. See Gird (j). 

Gist, the pith of a matter. (F.— LO 
The. gist is the point wherein the matter 
lies.-O.F. gist (,mod. F. ^(), it lies; 
whence the proverb *c*est la que gtt le 
lifevre,' that is where the difficulty is, lit. 
* that's where the hare lies.* From the F. 
verb ^«/r (now^<^«>), to lie. — L. iacere, 
to lie. (O. ¥,gist= L. iacet,) See Jet (1) . 

Gittem ; see Cithern. 

Give. (Scand.) M. E.^/" (Northern), 
geuen, yeuen (Southern) ; pt. t. gaf (N.), 
yafi^^y -pp.gifen (N.),yit4en,youen (S.). 
— Icel. ge/a, Dan. give, Swed. gijva. + 
A. S. gifan, pt t. gcaf, pp. gif^ \ Du. 
geven ; Goth, giban, G. geben, Teut. lype 
*geban-, pt. t. *gab» Cf. O. Irish gab-im, 
I give, I take. 

Gizsard. (F.-L.) M.E. giser (the 
d being added). — O. F. gezier, Jugier, 
juisier (F. gisier),^!^, gigerium, only in 
pl« gigiria (Late L. gizeria), cooked 
entrails of poultry. 

GlabrouSy smooth. (L.) From L. 
glaber^ smooth. Idg. stem *gladh*ro- ; 
see Glad. Brugm. i. § 589. 

Glacial, icy. (F.-L.) Y, glacial, ^^l., 
glacidlis, icy. — L. glacies, ice, 

glacier, a mountain ice-field. (F.— L.) 
F. glacier (a Savoy word ). — F. ghice, ice. — 
Folk-L. ^/aa'fl, for L. glacies, ice. 

glacis, smooth slope. (F.— L.) F. 
glacis. — M. F. glacer, to cover with ice. — 

F. glcue (above). 

Glad. (E.) A. S. ^/<:?d^, shining, bright, 
cheerful, glad.+Du. glad, smooth, bright, 
Icel. glddr, bright, glad, Dan. Swed. glad, 

G. glatt, smooth, polished. Cf. Russ. 
gladkii, even, smooth ; L. glaber, smooth ; 
see Glabrous. 

Gladden, Gladen, a plant; Iris 

pseudacorus, (L.) A.^. gladene', altered 
from L. gladiolus, a sword-lily. Dimin. 
of L. gladius, a sword ; see Gladiator. 

Glade, an open space in a wood. (E.) 
The orig. sense was prob. an opening for 
light, passage through a wood ; from A.S. 
glced, bright, shining. Cf. Swed. dial. 
glad-yppen, completely open, said of a 
lake whence the ice has all melted away. 

Gladiator, a swordsman. ' (L.) L. gla^ 
didtor. — L. gladius, a sword. 

Glair, the white of an egg. (F. — L.) 
M. E. gleyre. — O. F. glaire. — L. cldra, 
fem. of cldrus, bright ; Late L. cldra mi, 
the white of an egg. 



Glaive, a sword. (F.— L.) K^Y^glaive^ 
a sword ; O. F. glaive^ a sword, lance. * 
lu, gladiunij ace. oigladius, a sword. 

Glamour ; see Gramarye. 

Glance, a swift dart of light, quick 
look ; as a verb, to glide off or from, to 
graze, to flash. (F.— L.) The sb. is from 
the verb. A nasalised form (influenced 
by M. E. gUnteUy to glance) of O. F. 
glacer, glacier, to glide, slip, glance. — F. 
glace, \ix\ see Glacial. 2. M. H.glenten 
answers to the causal form of the strong 
verb glinta, to shine, still found in Swed. 
dialects ( Rietz) . See Glint. 

Gland, a fleshy organ in the body, 
secreting fluid. (F. — L.) M. F. and F. 
glande, a gland ; O. F. glandre, — L. glati- 
dula, a gland; dimin. of glans (stem 
gland-), an acom.<^Gk. 0d\ayo5, an acorn. 
Brugm. i. § 665. 

glanders, glandular swellings. (F. -^ 
L.) M. F. glandresy pi. ■- Lat. pi. ace. 
glandulds^ swollen glands ; from L. glans 

Glare, to shine brightly. (E.) M. E. 
glaren ; cf. A. S. gl^^ amber. + Low 
G. glaren, to glow. Perhaps allied to 
Glass. Cf. Dan. glar, Icel. gUr, glass 

Glass. (E.) A. S. glas. 4- Du. glas, 
G. glcts \ cf. Dan. glar^ M. Swed. glcer, 
Icel. gler, glass. Orig. sense prob. * shin- 
ing.' See above. 

Glancons, grayish blue. (L.-^Gk.) 
L. glauc-us ; with suffix -ous, — Gk. 7\av- 
Kos, gleaming, bluish. 

Glase, to furnish with glass. (E.) 
M. E. glasen •* M. E. glas, glass ; see 

Gleam, a beam of light. (E.) A. S. 
glatn ; Teut. type *glaimiz, + O- Sax. 
glifiio, brightness ; O. H. G. glimo, gleimo, 
a glow-worm (from base *gleim-). Allied 
to Gk. x\i-ap6s, warm. See Glimmer. 

Glean. (F.) M. E. glenen - O. F. 
glener, glaner (F. glaner), to glean ; Low 
L. glendre (A.D. 561) ; cf. Low L. glena, 
gelina, geliftia, a handful. Of unknown 
origin. The A. S.gilm, a handful, whence 
prov. K j^elmt to provide handfuls of straw 
ready for a thatcher, will not account for 
the O. F. forhi. % We also find the form 
iogleame (Levins), also s'^Xigleme. 

Glebe, soil. (F. - L.) M. F. gUbe, 
' glebe, land belonging to a parsonage ; ' 
Cot. — L. gleba, soil, a clod of earth. 

Glede C^,> a kite, a bird so called. (^E.) 



M. E. glede, A. S. gluia, a kite, lit 
^ glider, from its smooth flight. «■ A. S. 
gild; weak grade of gltdan, to glide ; see 
Glide. Cf. Icel. gleda (the same). 

Glede (2), Gleed, a glowing coal. 

(E.) A. S. gled (where e is from 0, by 
vowel-change). — A. S. glSwan, to glow; 
see Glow. Cf. Dan. Swed. glod, the same. 

Glee, joy, smgmg. (E.) A. S. glee, 
earlier gliu, joy, mirth, music. 4- Icel. gly, 
glee, gladness ; Swed. dial, gly, mockery. 
Cf Gk. x^^^i a jest. Brugm. i. § 633. 

Gleek (i)> a scoff, jest. See Nares. 
Prob. a particular use of Gleek (2). 

Gleek (2), a game at cards; in which 
a gleek meant three cards alike (as three 
kings). (F. — Du.) See Nares.— O.F. 
glic, a game at cards ; also spelt ghelicqtu 
(Godefroy). — M. Du. gelijck, alike.— M. 
Du. ge^, gke-, Du. ge-, prefix (=A. S. ^-, 
Goth.^u-) ; M. Du. 'lijck, Du. -lijk, cognate 
with E. like ; see liike. % Hexham has 
gelijk ofte ongelijk spelen, to play at even 
or odds. 

Glen, a narrow valley. (C.) Gael, and 
Irish gleann, O. Irish glenn ; W. glyn, a 
valley, glen. Celtic type *glennos. 

Glib (i), smooth, voluble. (E.) Cf. 
E. Fries, glibherig, slippery ; glippen, to 
^^.^\i\3i. glibherig, slippery, glibberen, to 
slide ; Du. and Low G. glippen, to slip 

Gub (2), a lock of hair. (C.) Irish and 
Gael. gUb, also Ir. clib, a lock of hair. 

Glib (3), to castrate. (E.^) The same as 
libf with prefixed ^- -s A. S. ge-, a common 
prefix. Cognate with Du. lubben, to cas- 
trate, M. Du. lubben See Left. 

Glide. (E.) M. E. gliden, pt. t. glood. 
A. S. gltdan. + Du. glijden, Dan. glide, 
Swed. glida, G. gleiten, Teut. type *glei' 
dan-, pt. t. *glaid, pp. *glidanoz. 

Glimmer, verb. (E.) M. E. gli- 
vteren. + Low G. glimmem^ frequent, of 
glimmen, to shine ; Dan, glimre, vb., cf. 
glimmer, sb., glitter ; Swed. dial, glimmer, 
vb., glimmer, sb., glitter. Frequent, of 
Dan. glimme, Swed. glimma, to shine. Cf. 
Swed. dial, glim, a glance, A. S. gUomu 
(for *glimt^, splendour; from ^glim-, 
weak grade of *gleim' ; see Gleam. 

glimpse, a slight gleam. (E.) For- 
merly gltmse ; M. £. glimsen, to glimpse ; 
formed with suffix -j- from *glim (above). 

Glint, to shine, glance. (Scand.) M. £. 
glenten, — Swed. dial, gldnta, gliuia, to 
shine ; nasalised from Icel. glila, to shine. 



'^M.KXj.^Unzeu, to glint, SvteA, glindra. 
See QUtter. 

Glisten, Glister, to glitter. (£.) 

Extended from base glis- of M. £. glisten, 
to shine. A. S. glisian ; whence also 
giisnian^ to shine. We also find M. £. 
glisieren, giistren, to glitter. Cf. Du. 
glinsteren, to glitter ; Swed. dial, glisa. 

Glitter. (E.) M. E. gliteren^ to shine. 
A. S. glitinian^ to shine ; extended from 
A.^, glitiaHf to shine. •f'Icel. glitra^ to 
glitter, frequent, of glita^ to shine ; Swed. 
glittra^ to glitter ; gliiter, sb., a sparkle. 
Cf. Goth, glit-munjan^ to glitter. From 
*glit-^ weak grade of *gieit'^ as in O. Sax. 
glttatty G. gleisstHt to shine. 

Gloaming, twilight. (E.) A Scot, 
form of glooming^ i. e. the time of becom- 
ing dusk; A. S. Sfen-glommung, gloom of 
eve, Hymn. Surtees, 16. 16. See Oloom. 

Gloat, to stare, gaze with admiration. 
(E.) Formerly glote (XVI cent.). + Icel. 
giotta, to grin, smile scornfully; Swed. 
dial. gloUa, giuttaf to peep ; G. glotzen, to 
stare. Cf. Kuss. gliadiet{e\ to look at. 

Globe. (F.-L.) O. F. ghbe. - L. 
globunti ace. oi globus, a ball ; cf. glomus, 
a ball, cine. 

Glomerate. (L.) From pp. oi glo- 
fnerdre,io collect mto a hz\\,^L,.glomer; 
for *glomes, stem of glomus, a ball or 
clew of yam. See Globe. 

Gloom. (E.) A. S. glifm, gloom, twi- 
light; cf. A.S. 'glommung, twilight (see 
Glounixig), and prov. ISs^glum, overcast. 
+Norw. glyma, an overcast sky ; Low G. 
glum, turbid. See Glum. 

Glory. (F. - L.: M. E. glorie, - A. F. 
and O. F. glorie (F. ghire), — L. gldria. 

Gloss (I ), lustre. (Scand.) I'cxX, glossi, 
a blaze, glys, finery ; Swed. dial, glossa, 
to glow ; "SoTv/.glosa, to glow.+M. H. G. 
glosen, to glow, glos, lustre ; Dn. ghren 
(Franck), £. Fries, ghren* 

Gloss (a), a commentary, explanation. 
(F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. glose, - O. F. glose, 
^a glosse;* Cot^L. gldssa, a diincult 
word requiring explanation. — Gk. '{Kwiaa, 
the tongue, a language, word needing ex- 
planation. Der. gloss, vb., gloze. 

glossary. (L.-Gk.) L, gUfssarium, 
a glossary ; formed with suffix ^drium 
from L. gldss-a (above). 

glOSSOgraplier. (Gk.) Coined from 
glosso-, from Gk. yXSiiTva, a hard word; 
Tpd^iy, to write. 
glottis. (Gk.) Gk. 7X«tWs. the 



month of the windpipe. •- Gk. ^XcDrra, 
Attic form of 7X0)^^0, the tongue. Der. 

Glove. (£.) A. S. gldf, a glove ; cf. 
Icel. glfffi, prob. borrowed from A. S. gldf. 
Possibly from g- (for ge-), prefix; and 
Icel. Idji, Goth. Idfa, the palm of the hand. 
"Det, fox-glove. 

Glow. (E.) M. £. glowen, A. S. 
glSwan, to be ardent, to shine brightly. 4* 
Icel. gUfa, Dan. gloe, to glow, stare, Swed. 
glo, to stare, Du. gloeijen, G. gliihefi. 
Brugm. i. % 156. D&t.glede (2). 

G£>wer, to look frowningly. (£.) E. 
Fries, gluren, Cf. Low G. ghtren, M. Du. 
gloeren, *to look awry, to leare,' Hex- 
ham ; Du. gluren, % M. £. gloren, to 
stare, is allied to glare* 

Glose. to interpret, flatter. (F.- L.- 
Gk.) M. E. glosen, to make glosses.* 
M. E. glose, a gloss ; see Gloss (2). 

Glue. (F. - L.) O. F. glu. - Late L. 
glutem, ace. of gliis (gen. glutis), glue ; 
allifed to L. gluten, glue, glutus, tenacious. 
4-Gk. ^\oi6^, mud, gum. Allied to Olay. 
Brugm. 1. % 639. 

Ghun, sullen. (£.) M. £. gloni/nen, 
glomben, gloumen, to look gloomv. E. 
Fries, glumen, glumen^ to look sullen. 4* 
Low G. gluum, a sullen look, glummen, 
to make turbid ; Norw. glyme, a sullen 
look, glyma, gloma, to look sullen. See 

GlnmOy a bracteal covering, in grasses. 
(L.) L. gluma, a husk, hull. — L. glubere, 
topeel, take off the husk. See Cleave (i). 

Crlllt, to swallow greedily. (F. — L.) 
M.E. glotien, wmO. F. glotir, ghutir^^Yj, 
glutire^ gluttire^ to swallow ; cf. gula, the 
throat. Der. glutton* 

Glutinous, ^luey. (L.) Uglutinosus, 
sticky.^L. glutin-, for gluten, glue. 

Glutton. (F. - L.) M.E. gloton. - 
O. F. gloton. * L. gluttdnem, glutdnem, 
ace, a glutton. — L. ^/^/ir^, to devour. 

G^oerine, a viscid fluid, of sweet 
taste. rF.-Gk.) Y*glyUrine\ from Gk. 
7Xv/rcp0f , sweet ; from Gk. 7Xv4ri;s, sweet. 

Glyptio, relating to carving in stone. 
(Gk. ) Gk. '{KxntJiKln, carving. — Gk. 
7XvirT^f, carved. — Gk. '^K'o^tw, to hollow 
out. engrave. See Cleave (i). 

Gnarl, to snarl, growl. (E.) Frequen- 
tative oignar, to snarl, an imitative word. 
Cf. A. S. gnyrran, to creak ; E. Fries. 
gftarren, to creak, snarl.^Dn. knorren, 
Dan. knurre, to growl, Dan. knarre, to 



creak; Swed. knorra, G. knurren, to 
growl, G. knarren, to creak. 

Qxiarledyknotty, twisted. (E.) Gnarled 
is fall of gnarU, where gnat^/ is a dimin. 
of gnar or knar, M. £. knarre, a knot in 
wood. See Knurr. 

Onash. (E.) M. E. gnasten, to gnash 
the teeth. E. Fries, gnastem^ gndstem, 
to gnash.4-Swed. knastra, to crash (be- 
tween the teeth) ; Dan. knaske, to gnash ; 
Icel. gnasiattf sb., a gnashing, ^n^x/a (pt. t. 
gnast), to crack ; G. ktuisiem, to crackle. 
Imitative ; so also Dan. knase^ to crackle ; 
Icel. gnlsta, to gnash, E. Fries, gnisen. 

Qnat. (E.) A. S. gnatt. Said to be 
named from the whirring of the wings; 
cf. Icel. g^ata, to clash, gnaty clash of 

Qnaw. (E.) M. E. gnawen^ pt. t. gnew^ 
gtiow, A. S. gnagan, to gnaw, pt. t. gnohy 
pp.^/w^(?«.+Du. knagen, Low G. gnauen, 
O. Icel. knagUj mod. Icel. naga^ Dan. 
gnave, Swed. gnaga. Without the g^ we 
have G. nagen ; also Dan. nage^ to gnaw, 
Swed. naggGy whence prov. E. nag, to 

Gneiss, a rock. (G.) G, gneiss; from 
its sparkling. — O. H. G. gneistan, to 
sparkle ; gneista, a spark. 4" A. S. gndst, 
Icel. gneistiy a spark. 

Gnome, a kind of sprite. (F.-Gk.) 
F. gnome y a gnome ; a word due to Para- 
celsus ; from the notion that gnomes could 
reveal secret treasures. — Gk. yva/ftrj, intelli- 
gence.— Gk. yvSnrcUy to know. (j/GEN.) 
gnomon, index of a dial. (L. — Gk.) 
L. gnomon. ^Gk. yv^/jwy, an interpreter 
(one who knows) ; the index of a dial. — 
Gk. yvSfvaty to know. 

gnostic, one of a certain sect. (Gk.) 
Gk. yvo)(rTiK6s, wise, good at knowing.— 
Gk. yywardsy from yvonSs, known. — Gk. 
yvwcuy to know. 

Gnu, a kind of antelope. (Hottentot.) 
Found in S. Africa. Said to belong to the 
Hottentot language. 

Go, to move about, proceed, advance. 
(E.) M. E. gon, goon. A. S. gdn. 4-Du. 
gaan^ Dan. gaae^ Swed. gd ; G. geAen ; 
O. H. G. ganygen. % * The Teut. gai- ( = 
A.S. gd'y O. H. G. ge-^ supplanted the 
Idg. y^I, to go, in Lat. ire, Gk. Uvaxy 
Skt. i. Since Teut. gai- has no old primi- 
tive noun-derivatives in Teut., and takes 
the place of Idg. ^I (the Goth, aorist 
iddja = A. S. eode still remains), and as it 
is inflected after the -mi- conjugation, the 


supposition arises that Teut. *gaimy *gars, 
*gai//i are contracted from the verbal 
particle ga- and the inherited tm, tz, iik » 
Skt. imi, ishiy it%\ cf. Gk. cTfu.* — Kluge. 
But this is mere conjecture. 

Goad. (E.) M.E. .^fjMfe. A.S.gad. 
Teut. t)rpe *gaiddy f. 4- Lom bardic gaida, 
a gore (Due.) ; from the base *gai-y Idg. 
*ghai-y whence also A. S. gd-ry Icel. gei'tr, 
O. Irish ^1, a spear; see Gore (2). 

Goal, the winning-post in a race. CE.) 
M. E. goly Shoreham, p. 145. Answering 
to A. S. *gdly prob. * an impediment ; 
whence A. S. galaUy to impede. Goal 
may have meant * stopping-place.* 

Goat. (E.) M.E.,^/. A.S.^.+ 
Du. geity Dan. ged, Swed. gety Icel. geit^ 
G. geiss, geisse ; Goth, gaits. Teut. base 
*gait- ; allied to L. hadus. 

Gobbet, a mouthful, a small piece. 
(F. — C.) M. E. gobety a small piece. — 
O. F. gobety a morsel of food (see Littr^) ; 
allied to M.F. goby a gulp (in swallowing), 

— O. F. gobeTy to devour. — Gael, gob, beak, 
bill, movith ; Irish gob, mouth, beak. 

gobble (I), to devour. (F.-C.) Fre- 
quentative, with suffix 'Uy from O. F, 
gob-er, to devour ; see Qobbet. 

Gobble (2), to make a gabbling noise. 
(E.) Imitative ; a variant oi gabble. 

Gobelin, a French tapestry. (F.) 
Named from Giles Gobelin, wool-dyer of 
Paris, in the 15th cent. 

Goblet. (F. - L.) F. gobeUt, ' a 
goblet ; * Cot. Dimin. of O. F. gobel, a 
cup.— Late L. cupellum, ace. of ciipelluSy 
a cup ; dimin. of L. cupa, a vat ; see 
Ooop. Cf. Picard gobey a great cup. 

Goblin. (F.-L.-G.) O.F. gobelin. 

— Low L. gobelinuSf a goblin ; properly 

* a household-god ' ; cf. A. S. cof-godas, 

* penates.' — M. H. G. kobely a hut ; dimin. 
of M. H. G. kobey a stall, cognate with 
Icel. ko/if a hut, A. S. co/a, a chamber 
(Kluge). See Cove. 

Goby, a fish. (L. - Gk.) For l.,gobiuSy 
orig. applied to the gudgeon. — Gk. Koj0i6^y 
a kina of fish, gudgeon, tench. Der. 

God. (E.) A. S. ^.+Du. gody Icel. 
gody gudy Dan, gud, Swed. gudy Goth. 
gut A, G. gott. Teut. type *guthom ; Idg. 
type *ghutom, perhaps * the being wor- 
shipped,* a pp. form ; from Idg. root *gAuy 
to worship, as in Skt. AUy to sacrifice 
(to), whence huta-, one to whom sacri* 
nee is offered. ^ JVot allied to good^ adj. 



goddess. (E. ; with F. suffix,) M. £. 
goddcssc {godesse). Made from god by 
adding the O. F. suffix '€sse (=L. -issa'* 
Gk. 'i(r<ra). 

godfather. (E.) M. E. godfader, 
father in baptism ; from god 9xA fader. 

JrodlieacL (E.) M. E. godhed, also 
hod\ the suffix answers to A. S. hSdj 
office, state, dignity ; see -hood (suffix). 

Godwit, a bird. (E.) Origin un- 
known. Can it mean 'good creature'? 
A. S. god wiht^ a good wight, good crea- 
ture {wiht being often applied to animals 
and birds). See Wight. 

Goffer* Gauffer, to plait or crimp 

lace, &C. (F.-O. Low G.) M. F. gauf- 
frer^ to goffer ; orig. to mark like the 
edges of wafers. ^ M. F. gauffrcy goffre, a 
wafer ; see Wafer. 

Goggle-eyed, having rolUng and 
staring eyes. (E.) H.E.gogil-eyid. *They 
gog/e with their eyes hither and thither ; * 
Holinshed, Descr. of Ireland, c. i. Cf. 
Irish and GaeL gogshuilcachf goggle-eyed, 
having wandering eyes, from gog^ to move 
slightly, and suii, eye. But gog seems to 
be from E., and of imitative origin. Cf. 
prov. E. coggUj Bavar. gageln, to be un- 

Goitre. (F.— L.) F. goitre y a swelled 
throat ; from O. F. goitron, the same, esp. 
in Savoy. — Late L. ace type *giUtridnem, 
from L. guttur, throat. 

Gold. (E.) A.S. ^/i/.-l-Du. goud {{or 
gold), Icel. gu//, Swed. "DsLa.guld, G. gold, 
Goth. gu/tA, Teut. type *gu/'t/iom, n. ; 
Idg. type *gh9l-tom ; cf. Russ. solotOy Skt. 
Aataka-f gold ; also Pers. zar, gold, Zend 
zaranya-, Skt hiranya-. Named from its 
colour. Allied to Yellow. (VGHEL.) 
Der. mari-gold, gild. 

Golf, a game. (Du.) Mentioned a. d. 
1457 (Jam.). The name is from that of a 
Dn. game played with club and ball. — Du. 
kolf a club used to strike balls with.+ 
Low G. kulf, hockey-stick; Icel. kolfrt 
clapper of a bell, kyl/a^ a club ; Dan. kolbe, 
butt-end of a weapon, kohft holt, shaft, 
arrow, Swed. kolff butt-end, G. kolb€y club, 
mace, knob. 

Golosh ; the same as Oaloche. 

Gondola. (Ital.-Gk.-Pers.?) Ital. 
^mdola^ dimin. of gonda, a boat. — Gk. 
/v^i'dv, a drinking-vessel ; from the shape 
(Diez). Said to be of Pers. origin; cf. 
Pers. kandHj an earthen vessel. 

Gonfhnoiii Gonfidon, a kind of 


banner. (F.— M. H. G.) M,E. gon/ancn. 
— O. F. gonfanon,^'hlL, H. G. gundfano^ 
lit. * battle-flag.' -M. H. G. gund, guttt, 
battle; fano \0. fahne), a banner, flag. 
Here gunt is cognate with A. S. gUd (for 
*gunth)y battle, war ; cf. Skt. Han, to kill. 
Fano is allied to Vane. 

Gong. (Malay.) Mvlzj agong oi gdng^ 
the gong, a sonorous instrument. 

Good. (E.) M. E. good, A. S. god,-^ 
Du. goed, Icel. gfftirj Dan. Swed. god, 
Goth. godSi G. gut, Teut. type *g^z ; 
from *gdd-i strong grade of *g€ul-y * fit ; * 
see Gather. Allied to Kuss. godnuii, 
suitable, O. Slav. godH^ fit season. Der. 
goods J sb. pi., i. e. good things, property ; 
good'will, &c. Also good-man, i. e. master 
of the house, good- wife, mistress of the 

GoodbjTOy farewell. (E.) A familiar, 
but meaningless, contraction of God be 
with you, the old form of farewell; 
very common; often written Cod b'wy, 
% Not for God be by you ; the form God 
buy you ^ God be-with-you you {you re- 

Goodman ; see Good. 

Goose, a bird. (E.) A. S. gos, pi. gei 
(lengthened caused loss of n, and ^Jx— 
*gons < *gans). + Du. guns, Dan. gaas^ 
Swed. gas, Icel. gds, G. gans. Teut. type 
*gans; Idg. type *ghans'; cf. L. anser, 
Gk. x^y ; Skt. harftsa, a swan ; O. Irish 
gtis, a swan ; Lith. iqsis, a goose. 

Gooseberry. (E. ; cf. F.-M. H. G.) 

In Levins. From goose and berry; cf. 
goose-grass, &c a. We also find North. 
E. grosers, gooseberries ; Bums Yuisgrozet, 
a gooseberry. Apparently from O. F. 
*grose, *groise, a gooseberry, not recorded, 
but occurring not only in the O. F. dimin. 
form groisele, grosele,B, gooseberry, but also 
in Irish grois- aid, Gael. groi^-eidt^.gr^s, 
a gooseberry, all borrowed from M.E. The 
spelling groisele is as old as the 13th 
century (Bartsch); and answers to the 
form crosela in the dialect of Como 
(Monti), p. The orig. O. F. *groise or 
*grose was borrowed from M. H. G. kriis, 
curling, crisped, whence G. krausbeere, a 
cranberry, a rough gooseberry. Cf. Swed. 
krusbdr, a gooseberry, from krus, crisp, 
curled, frizzled. The name was first given 
to the rougher kinds of the fruit, from the 
curling ludrs on it; similarly, Levins 
gives Sie Lat. name as uua crispa (frizzled 




Qopker, a kind of wood. (Heb.) Heb. 
gopher^ a wood. 

UOrbellied, having a fat belly. (E.) 
Compoonded of E. gore^ lit. filth, dirt (also 
the intestines) ; and belly. So also Swed. 
dial, girbdlg, a, iat paonch, from gdr, dirt, 
contents of the intestines, and ddlg^ belly. 
See G-ore (i). 

g O X Cro W f carrion-crow. (£.) Le. 
g&rC'Crow ; see above. 

GordiaJi. (L.— Gk.) Only in the phr. 
' Gordian knot,' i.e. intricate knot. Named 
from the Phrygian king Gordius (r<$p&(w), 
who tied it. An oracle declared that who- 
ever undid it should reign over Asia. 
Alexander cnt the knot, and applied the 
oracle to himself. 

Gore (i), clotted blood. (E.) It for- 
merly meant filth. A. S. gor, filth, dirt 4- 
Icel gor^ gore; Swed. gor, dirt ; M. Dn. goor\ 
O. H. G. gor^ filth. Origin uncertain. 

Ckire (3)1 a triangular piece let into a 
garment, a triangular slip of land. (E.) 
M. E. gore. A. S. gdra, a gore, project- 
ing piece of land ; from gdr^ a dart, a 
spear-point. Named from the ^ape. [So 
also Icel. geiriy 2U triangular slip of land, 
from geirr, a spear ; G. gehre^ a wedge, 

rset, gore ; Du. geer^ a gusset, gore.] 
The A. S. gar (Icel. geirr, O. H. G. 
ger^ is from Teut type *gaizaZf m.; 
allied to Gaulish L. gaesum, a javelin, 
O. Irish got J a spear. 

Gore (3), to pierce. (E.) From A.S. 
gdr, a spear-point (with the usual change 
from d to long 0). 

Gorge, the throat, a narrow pass. (F. 
— L.) O. F. gorge J throat. — Late L. gorgUy 
variant of L. gurgiSy a whirlpool, hence 
(in Late L.) the gullet, from its voracity. 
Cf. L. gurguHoy gullet 4-Skt. gargara-, a 
whirlpool. ^ 

gorgeous, showy, splendid. (F.-I^) 
O. F. and M. '^.gorgias^ 'gorgeous;' Cot 
The O. F. gorgias also meant a gorget ; 
the sense of * gorgeous ' was orig. proud, 
from the swelling of the throat in pride. 
Cotgrave gives F. se rengorger^ * to hold 
down the head, or thrust the chin into the 
neck, as some do in pride, or to make 
their faces look the fuller ; we say, to 
bridle it.* Hence the derivation is from 
F. gorge, throat (above). 

gorget, armour for the throat (F. — 
L.) From gorge, i. e. throat. 

Gorgon, a monster. (L.-Gk.) L. 
Gorgon f Gorgo. mmGk. Topy^, the Gorgon. 


— Gk. yopy69, feaiibL 4* O. Ir. 

GoriUay a kind of large ape. (O. Afri- 
can.) An old word revived. In the Peri- 
plus of Hanno, near the end, some creatures 
are described ' which the interpreters called 
Gorillas* — ^in GredE, yopiXXas. 

Gormandise ; see Gourmand. 

Gorse. (£.) Formerly ^orr/.-A.S. 
gorst, gone. Cf. Skt krsk, to bristle. 

Goshawk. (£.) lit 'goose-hawk.* 
A. S. goske^.^/LS. gffSy goose; Aq/iic, 

gosling. (£.) Formed from A. S. 
gos, goose ^M. E.^ar), with double dimin. 
suffix 'l-tng. 

Gospel, the life of Christ (£.) M. £. 
gospel. A. S. godspeU.^K. S. god, God, 
L e. Christ ; spell, a story. Lit ' narrative 
of God,* i. e. life of Christ % Orig. gifd 
spell, i. e. good spell, a translation of Gk. 
^vanniXiov ; but soon altered to godspell; 
for the £. word was early introduced into 
Iceland in the form guSsp/all (where gtdi- 
sgod, as distinguished from ^(5-== good), 
and into Gennany as O. H. G. gotspell 
(where got =s god, as distinguished from 
guot, good). 

Gossamer. (E.) M. E. gossomer, 

gosesomer, lit * goose-summer * The prov. 
£. name (in Craven) is summer-goose.