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Jor the St^e of ^tubtnU. 




ftfii ibstioii, Srtticl. 


1890. * 


^ ^ ^^ Di 


L I B R A R Y 



» vaaaiMMaaaaiaiKi 

. ^$ 1. 



Sib JOHN GOSS, Mua. D, 


.! I %^ littU So0h 




That a new edition of this little work shonld be called 
for within three months of its first appearance afforda 
gratifying evidence that it has met — ^to some extent, at 
least — an acknowledged want among students of mnsic 

In response to the general invitation with which T 
concluded my " Introductory " Chapter, several corre- 
spondents have favoured me with corrections and sug- 
gestions of which I have thankfully availed mysell 
Accordingly, a few minor names and matters have been 
added or substituted for others. The general plan and 
the bulk of the work, however, remain the same as 

I cannot let this occasion pass without expressing 
my sincere obligations to those gentlemen, the majority 
of them musicians of acknowledged learning and emi- 
nence in the art, who have assisted me in the careful 
preparation of this Second Edition for the press. 




••• ••• 







• • 




• •• 


• •• 

• •• 







Thb plan of this little Histoiy is so distinct — aa fax 
as I am aware— from that of anj other work upcn the 
same subject, that a careful perusal of these prefatory 
explanations will greatly help the reader in his study of 
the book. It would be more correct to say that all 
previous Histories of Music are distinguished from the 
present effort in the respect that they have no plan at 
all, beyond the two very general features of chronological 
order (rarely adhered to) and a grouping of composers 
and events into a number of "schools." The volu 
minons works of Bumey and Hawkins each form a 
mass of promiscuous and ill-digested matter, which 
requires much sifting and collating on the part of the 
student before he can arrive at the information he 
requires ; while, as both works are now a century old, 
they stop short of the most productive as well as the 
most interesting period of musical history. The smaller 
histories of Hogarth, SchMter, Eitter, and others, though 
admirably adapted for the purpose for which they were 
originally compiled, are still no more than courses of 
popular lectoxefl^ in which much that is naturally 

zii Introductory. 

required for a student at a musical examinatioii, ii 
necessarilj omitted. 

The classification adopted in the following pages is 
the result of manj trying experiences as a student, 
whose chief diificiQty has been the separation of the 
Bubjectiye from the objective divisions of the study. 
To a certain extent the one is necessarily wedded to the 
other, and I have recognized this where necessary, — yet 
without disturbing the general plan, which I will now 
proceed to describe. 

The book is divided into Three Sections. 

The First Section contains a general review of musical 
epochs and events, including short biographical sketches 
of the principal characters concerned, with an enumera- 
tion of their most important works. The principle of 
chronological order has been observed, yet not slavishly, 
as sometimes it would have seriously interfered with 
the general plan, without yielding an equivalent 
advantage. A palpable difficidty has been the classi- 
fication of the "schools." The term "school "is so 
ambiguous, and has been employed in so many senses, 
fhat the student is frequently at a loss when asked to 
define any one of them. There are the " Belgian " or 
"Flemish," the "Roman," the "Venetian," the 
" K'eapoUtan," the "Spanish," the "German," the 
"French," the "English" schools; and these terms 
have respectively been variously and indiscriminately 
used to denote either a group of composers of the same 
nationality, or a distinguishing style of musical com- 
position. Again, as to the latter interpretation of the 
tormi the student, in the course of his reading, is liable 


lo a new bewilderment with eyerj sneoeeding work 
he is led to peruse. Some writers adopt the aboye 
dassifioation ; others speak broadly of two great con- 
trasting schools — the Italian and the German ; others, 
again, add to these two the French and the English 
schools ; while a fourth section will deny or ignore the 
existence of the English school in toto. In order to 
disencumber the mind of such perplexities as these, I 
have generally adopted the method of classification by 
nationality ; and have included the Eoman, Venetian, 
and Neapolitan groups under the common head of 
'* Italian." On an examination of the text of the first 
section, the reader will notice that beyond paragraph 
18, every paragraph, with a few exceptions, is headed 
with an initial letter enclosed in brackets. Each initial 
letter denotes the division to which the matter that 
follows it belongs ; viz., B., Belgian ; I., ItaLan ; 0., 
German ; E., English ; F., French. These paragraphs 
are so worded that the reader, according to lus require- 
ments, may trace the course of any particular '' school " 
without interruption. Thus, if at any time he wish 
to confine his attention to the succession of English 
composers, he will look for the first paragraph headed 
by the initial E., after which his eye will easily and 
rapidly guide him to the second and further paragraphs 
bearing the same initial letter. And as far as the 
succeeding paragraphs of each denomination are con- 
cerned, the chronological order will be found intact. 

The Second Section comprises a series of Chrono 
metrical Tables or Charts, the first Chart containmg 
1000 years^ the succeeding Charts 100 years. Each 

xhr Introduelorf. 

Chart is dnplicated| and the duplicates are placed » 
opposite pages. The right hand duplicate contains the 
names of musicians and historians, while that on the 
left hand is devoted to the corresponding epochs and 
events. As in a geographical map the relative positions 
of towns or counties may be seen at a glance, so in this 
Chronological map the student may see pictured before 
him, upon a very simple plan, the time-relationship of 
persons and events, — persons with persons, events with 
events, and events with persons. For this admirable 
Rcheme I am indebted to my able and learned friend, 
Mr. David Nasmith, LL.B., whose Chronometrical 
Chart of English History has formed the model for these 
tables. The study of History, with its legion of 
miscellaneous facts and disjunct dates, has by this 
invention been rendered far less irksome and more 
definite, and it is a matter for regret that Mr. Kasmith*s 
valuable Chart is not to be found on the walls of every 
school-room in England, notwithstanding the earnest 
recommendations of Brougham, Thiers, Carlyle, and 
other eminent historians. 

The Third Section summarizes the history of the 
art itself, unencumbered by the necessity of tracing the 
career of any composer referred to in the course of the 
text. It deals (1) with the birth and development of 
the modern scales, counterpoint and harmony ; (2) with 
the history of choral music, ecclesiastical and secular; 
(3) with instrumental music, and the development of 
the now classical forms of compositon; (4) with 
musical instruments, ancient and moderi ; and enumer- 
•tea (5) some of the principal works of each important 

Iriroduetory. x¥ 

elass, togethei ivith the names of composers, arranged 
m approximate chronological order. 

The student is warned that he is not to expect in this 
what is called a '* readable " hook ; it has been written 
with a yiew to systematic study, and not for mere 
entertaimnent, — in short, it is a text-book, not a 
discourse. To this end I have endeavoured throughout 
to restrict myself to matters of fact, every digression 
being an attempt to throw light upon facts disputed or 
uncertain. These pages, then, are not intended for 
consecutive perusal, but for sectional study ; each 
division, while maintaining a relation with the whole, 
being complete as to its own subject. I would therefore 
recommend, firsts a cursory perusal of the work from 
beginning to end, in order to master the plan and gain 
a general idea of the contents ; secondly, to select any 
school or period treated of in the General Summary j 
thirdly, to refer, as occasion may require, to the 
corresponding text of the Art Summary ; and lastly, 
to consult the Chronometrical Tables for the period in 
question— or, better still, to copy out such Tables upon 
a separate sheet, and upon a larger scale, that they may 
lie immediately in front of the student while he u 
reading. Each of the sections may be studied as a 
principal text, and compared with the other sections in 
the same way. For example, if the student take for 
his subject the growth and development of the Sonata 
form, he will read Section III., paragraphs 26 — 28 ; if 
he wish for particulars respecting the principal composers 
mentioned in par. 28, he will refer to Section L ; who 
were contemporary wiitexs ol Sonatas he will ascertain 

Xf£ Introdvctory. 

at a glance from the Tables in Section IL ; and ac Ji^ 
mutatia mutandiSf according to the nature of the subject 
in hand. The student is thus enabled to take a more 
or less comprehensive view of anj subject in proportion 
to his individual requirements. The miscellaneous 
questions at the end of the book have been added as 
an assistance to students preparing for examinations. 

Having, by a systematic study of these pages, 
possessed himself of the principal facts of Musical 
History, the student will be the better able to under- 
stand and appreciate the more critical writings of other 
historians, and to every advanced student such reading 
is recommended as an after course. 

Lastly, in a work containing an enormous number of 
facts and dates, some of them controverted or otherwise 
uncertain, it is to be feared that occasional discrepancies^ 
real or apparent, may be f ound« I shall be grateful to 
any reader who will comii^unicate to me any such errors 
or discrepancies, with a view to correction upon the first 
opportunity. As to omissions^ the necessary limits of 
the work have precluded the insertion of many names 
and particulars of secondary importance, but I hope 
and believe that the information supplied is amply 
lufficient for the needp of tiis ordinary student cl muKO. 

Mondoftp W. 




1. While in the works of manj of the ancient 
writers the subject of Music has been dwelt npon al 
more or less length, it is impossible for us to form upon 
their statements or passing allusions an exact' idea of 
the character or extent of the art as practised in the 
days of the Egyptian, Grecian, and Eoman empires.* 

2. With regard to the musical scales of the Greeks^ 
all that we really know is : — ^That they were built on a 
system of tetrachords — or groups of four notes ascend- 
ing in diatonic succession; that, familiarly speaking, 
two of these tetrachords put together formed a " scale ; " 
that there were various kinds of scales, differing in 
nature from each other in respect of the relative posi- 
tions occupied by the semitones; and that, therefore, 
the effect of the music, whether melody or harmony 
produced from such scales, was entirely different from 
that of the present day. 

3. It is generally believed that the Greeks originally 
derived the rudiments of their musical knowledge from 
the Egyptians, who were great proficients in the art, as 

* '' In short, there can be no histonr of music as an Nt, 
where no musical wcrks of art exist." — Sohluter, 


2 Hktory of Muiie, [i. 

may be seen from the monumental remains of that 
splendid nation. Upon a number of these monuments 
are representations of harps, lutes (or guitars), and 
other instmmenU ; bands of musicians performing con* 
certed music ; bat in the nature of things there is no 
source from which we may gain any notion as to the 
effect or character of the music produced. 

4. There has been much discussion on the question 
whether harmony was known to, or employed by, the 
ancients. On the one side it is asserted that the Greek 
writers make no mention of harmony * (as we under- 
stand the term) in any of their works upon music, and 
that the construction of the old scales — the discordant 
nature of their "thirds," for instance— effectually pre* 
eluded the use of polyphonic musia On the other side, 
the existence of the stringed instruments, such as the 
lyre, the harp, and the lute ; the structure of the double 
pipes blown by a single mouthpiece ; have been adduced 
as strung evidence in favour of some sort of harmony, 
however crude it might sound to modern ears. 

5. The most noted among Greek theorists were 
Pythagoras {circ. b.o. 600) and Lasos; amongst 
practical musicians were Tei^ander of Lesbos (B.a 
670), who invented or introduced the seven-etringed 
kithara; Olympos the Phrygian, who brought into 
Greece the art of flute-playing, which thenceforward 
formed an important element in Greek instrumental 
art ; and TyrtSBUS, a soldier, musician, and poet, — who 
in fact was a " troubadour," or minstrel. 

6. Although it is tolerably conclusivB that instru- 
mental music, pure and simple, was a favourite recre- 
ation of the Egyptians, the Greeks for many ages 
employed their instruments only aa an accompaniment 
to the voice, whether for monologue or chorus. It is 

* The term ipftopta (hannonia), as employed by Greek writers, 
is applied only to their octave system, or ocnjuuction of two 
•uccessive tetrachords (v. oar. lOj. 

I. «— 9.] Genera^ Summary. 8 

characteristic of tlie race that the later deyelopment of 
flute-playing as a separate art was accompanied by the 
institution of competitive trials of skill, by which the 
real vocation of the musician was lost amid the petty 
technicalities of mere mechanical display. And upon 
this began the decline of Grecian music, which indeed 
practically died out with the fall of the Grecian empire. 
\y7. The Bomans had no distinctive music of their 
own. They were pre-eminently a martial race, and 
probably the music they most appreciated was the 
trumpetK^lL In their earlier days they were too busy, 
and in later times too lazy, to cultivate the art among 
themselves. In the era of luxury and dilettanteism 
which preceded their decay, they employed Greek 
slaves as singers and players. In the reign of Kero, 
who affected a devotion to music, the piirsuit of the 
art became fashionable for a time, but the Homans 
were not in earnest, and consequently left behind tUeiu 
no marks of musical culture. 

8. It is not imtil the fourth century after Christ 
that the actual history of music as a separate art 
begins. About the year a.d. 330, Pope Sylvester, we 
are informed, instituted a singing school in Eome, but 
there is no statement upon which we may form an 
accurate idea of the kind of music practised. By the 
light, however, of subsequent events we know that the 
singing must have been unisonal, and that the melodies 
were built upon the old Greek scales or models, or 
possibly were ancient Hebrew airs, though some good 
authorities consider this doubtfid. We aJso infer that 
St. Sylvester was acquainted with the method of anti- 
phonal chanting, as Pliny, who lived in the second 
century, incidentally mentions this as the custom amongst 
the Christians of his day. 

9. A few years later (374— 397) St. Ambrose, Arch- 
bishop of Milan (not the Ambrose to whom is attributed 
the authorship of the Te Deum), took an especial 
interest intthe culture of Church music, and arranged 

4 History of Music. [r. %^tL 

the four diatonic scales known as ''The Authentio 
Modes." Ho decreed that upon one or other of these 
scales all Church melodies should he constructed, and 
during his time many new hymns or chants were com- 
posed, some of them hy himself. St. Amhrose also 
greatly improved the style of antiphonal singing, and 
organized a fine choir in his own church at Milan. 

10. St. Amhrose had no immediate successor to con- 
tinue the excellent work he had hegun. By degrees 
the music of the Church deteriorated ; and it was not 
until two centuries had elapsed that a reform was 
effected. Gregory the Great (590 — 604) during his 
pontificate devoted himself to the work of reformation 
and improvement, and -restored to Church song that 
solemnity of character which it had gradually lost, "fie 
also added to the Ambrosian scales four others, which 
he called " the plagal modes." Both the authentic 
and plagal modes have for their foundation the old 
Greek system of " tetrachords." We annex a completn 
tahle of the eight scales : — 

Tons AuTHENTia Tom Plaoal. 

1. Dorian. DBFOABCD ^ Hypo-Dortan . ^ 

(or iQolian). i 

8. Phrygian. EFGABCDB 4. Hypo-Phrygian. BODBFGAB 

5. Lydian. FQABGDEF 0. Hypo-Lydian i ^^«««.«^ 

/« T r \ { CDBFOABO 
(or Ionian). ) 

^n comparison it will be seen that the plagal modes 
commence at a fourth below the authentic. The above 
are known as the eight " Gregorian modes." 

11. St. Gregory established a music school at wliich 
these modes and the order of the Church Service were 
systematically taught. The liturgy was noted entirely, 
it is said, by himself, and the whole was entitled the 
"Antiphonar,'* the chant or plain-song (canttuf-planus 
or catUm-firmns) being sung alternately or antiphonallj 

f. n — ^14.] General Summary. 5 

between priest and choir. A very crude description o^ 
notation was used, consisting of dots and scratches of 
various shapes, and the ^* stave " was then unknown. 

12. The system founded by Gregory the Great 
quickly spread throughout the Christian countries. 
Trained teachers and singers were sent from Eome to 
France and Germany (604—752), and schools of Church 
music were established in most of the principal dioceses 
in those countries. It is, however, afi&rmed that the 
improvement effected was but transient, owing to the 
barbarous and untutored condition of the people, who . 
in those times were little more than savages. 

13. The Emperor Charlemagne (768 — 814) proved 
himself a zealous apostle of the musical system of St. 
Gregory. He founded music schools at Metz and other 
towns, and placed them under Italian singers of note. 
In this work the emperor employed one Alcuin, a 
British ecclesiastic, as his principal assistant, and 
Charlemagne himself paid periodical visits of inspeo- 
tion to these schools, both in France and Germany. 
It was not until this period that '' Gregorians " be« 
came the universal use throughout western Christ- 

14. There is documentary evidence that at this period 
musicians had a crude conception of harmony. Isidore 
of Seville, a contemporary of Gregory, alludes in his 
''Treatise on Music" to Symphony and Diaphony, 
concerning which Professor Eitter observes — " By the 
first word he meant probably a combination of con- 
sonant, and by the latter of dissonant, intervals." Some 
little time after the death of Charlemagne, Huobald 
(840 — 930)| a Fleming, accompanied his melodies by 
a diseantus, or added part, consisting of a series (when 
combined with the melody) of consecutive fourths or 
fifths; a " diaphony " wliich would be simply horrible 
in our ears. Organum was another term for this weird 
accompaniment. The organ was now in une at some 
ehuiches, and in Winchester Cathedral there was au 

6 Hiitofy of Mnrie. [i. 13. it 

instrnment having 400 pipes, a magnificont one foi 
those days. 

15. Ouido of Arezzo (990—1050) effected many 
important improvements in the system of notation, or 
lather f ound^ the system upon which our present me- 
thod is hased. The somewhat comprehensiye term, 
inventor musiece, was applied to him hy the musicians 
of his time. Hitherto two lines only had heen em- 
ployed as a stave ; to these he added two others. Each 
of tiiese additional lines had its distinctive colour — the 
one red, the other green or yellow. The yellow line 

indicated the place of the note C fU ; the led 

line the place of the note F ^^^; and from these 

our C and F clefs are respectively derived. Guidu 
may also be regarded as ^e father of solmization, 
for he invented the terms ui, re, mi, fa, sol, la, which 
are used by students even now. (Si was not used till 
the 17th century, when Lemaire introduced it as a 
name for the seventh of the scale, or leading note.) 
The terms used by Guido were derived from the follow- 
ing Latin lines, which he taught his students to sing 
to a melody so arranged that each line began with the 
note it was employed to indicate : — 

XJT queant laxis, 
EEsonare fibris, 
MIra gestorum, 

FAmuli tuorum, 
SOLve polluti 
LAbii reatum, 
Sancte Johannes. 

16. Franco of Cologne (c. 1200)* formulated a 
system of musical measure and time by means of vary- 
ing the shape of a note to denote its comparative length 
They were named and figured as follows : — maxima^ wmm^ 

* Forkel assigns to Franco a much earlier date than this, 
nuuntaining that he flourished during the latter half of the lltk 

,1. 16— 1&] General Summary, 

(or duplex Imxga) ; longa, BHf ; hrevis, wm ; and semi- 
brevutf ♦. He likewise invented "rests" of the samt 
relative values, and the signs he used are practically 
identical with those of the present day. He divided 
time into " triple," or perfect, and " duple," or imper- 
fect. The bar ^p, which gives a more perfect 

rhythm and accent to music, was not introduced till 
a much later date. In Franco's time, counterpoint of 
even five parts was employed in the accompaniment of 
melodies, but, although no longer restricted to progres- 
sions of fourths, fifths, and octaves, the harmony was of 
the most rigid kind, imperfect concords being at that 
period classed as discords. 

17. Adam de la Hale, who also lived in the 13th 
century,* was a famous troubadour or wandering 
minstrel, and wrote songs in three-part harmony, the 
melodies of which woiQd be accounted agreeable even 
in the present day. In character the songs of De la 
Hale are not unlike the popular '* f olknsongs " of 
Southern France and Northern Spain, as still sung by 
the rural population in those provinces. As in those 
early times Church music was exclusively in the hands 
of ecclesiastics, so these troubadours were the chief 
composers of secular music. As a rule they also wrote 
their own " words." Amongst the most notable trou- 
badours were db la Hale, Chatelain db Ck)nROY, 
(King) Thibaut of Navarre, and Faidit. 

18. Marohettiu of Padna (c. 13 — ), is credited with 
having " established the first correct principled 1^ the 
use of consonances and dissonances ; " while to Jean de 
Meurs {c. 1330), who was probably a contemporary of 
Marehettus, is ascribed the introduction of florid coun- 
terpoint. It is supposed by some, that notvdthstanding 
the character of iJie name, Jean de Meurs (or de 
lioris) was an Englishman. 

• Onmy Axes the date at about 1280. 

of Muric. [l 

19. (B.) We now come to the rise of the Belgian 
SehooL Abont this time (14th centuiy) Belgian musi 
dans began to devote themselves in a special degree to 
the elaboration of counterpoint (harmony as a distind 
branch of study was not known till long afterwards), 
and so distinguished themselves in the art that they 
won the best appointments in France and Grermany. 

20. (B.) The first important name in the Belgian 
series is that of OniUanme Dnfeky (1380—1430), chapel- 
master {maeriro d\ eappella) at Eome. He harmonized 
many existing melodies, both sacred and secular, in 
fairly good style, for four voices. He also wrote 
masses, in which appear some excellent specimens of 
canon. Dufay was followed by Johannes Ockenheim 
[or OckeghemJ (1430 — 1513), who has been called " the 
oebastian Back of the 15th century," and of whom some 
say that he founded the canonic or fugal style.* This 
latter assertion, as we have already seen, is scarcely 
true. As to canon we have positive evidence that 
Dufay was familiar with that form of writing, while 
in those days a " fugue " was scarcely more than a free 
style of canon. There b no doubt, however, that Oo- 
kenheim's work was more polished, and had more 
breadth and design; but he fell, with his contem- 
poraries, into the error of exhibiting his contrapuntal 
skill at the expense of the feeling of the music 

21. (B.) But both as a scholar and as a composer, 
Ockenheiia was outdone by his brilliant contemporary 
and pupil, Jusquin des Fr6s (1440 — 1521), of whom 
Luther was wont to say that he was *' master of notes, 
while others were mastered by notes." Various amusiug 
anecdotes are told of Des Pr^, who is accused of making 
musical puns in his compositions " to gain his private 
ends." It is more to our present purpose to record hii 
originality as a composer ; for he was one of the first to 
discard the old cantus firmua and secular motifs and to 

* ' Burner i$ a eumm in^* an English composition (fi, 1250), li 
howerer, an earlier inetanoe <rf eanonio writing. 

] General SutKnary^ 9 

mvent his own nmsical subjects. Des Pies wrote 
several masses and motetts, in four and in five parts. 
He began his public career as a singer in the pope's 
chapel, but subsequently became chapel-master to 
Louis XII. of France. Des Pr^s numbered among his 
pupils Aboadeldt, Mouton, Willabrt, Goudiicbl, 
Glembnb non Papa, and other excellent musicians. 

22. (B.) Adrian Willaert (1490—1563) is fre- 
quently 4>ol^en of as ''the founder of the Venetian 
School.'' As, however, Willaert was a Belgian both by 
birth and by training, it is confusing, if not altogether 
misleading, to disconnect him from the Belgian School. 
Indeed, we doubt if the existence of '' l£e Venetian 
School" is sufficiently distinct and apart from the 
Belgian and Eoman Schools to merit a separate page in 
the annals of musical history. It is better, therefore, to 
class the Venetian and Eoman Schools (after the time 
of Willaert) under the common head of ''Italian." 
Willaert received his training from Des IWs, — ^some say 
from Mouton also, — ^and after many wanderings finally 
settled at Venice, where eventually he obtained the 
post of chapel-master at St. Mark's. Willaert was a 
voluminous composer of songs and motetts, some of 
which he arranged for two, even three, separate choirs ; 
and to him is ascribed the introduction of a new 
feature — the madrigal. He was succeeded at St. Mark's 
by Cyprian de Sore, a pupil and fellow-countryman, 
who became so popular with the Italians that they 
styled him **I1 divino." De Eore excelled in the 
madrigal Another contemporary of Willaert was J. 
Xouton, master of the chapel to Francis I. of France. 

23. (B.) The most distinguished contemporary of 
Willaert was Orlando Lassus, or Lattbb (1620 — 
1595), who attempted nearly every then-known form 
of composition, but devoted himseif chiefly to Church 
music, such as psalms, hymns, litanies, magnificats, 
motetts, (fee, &0. His settings of the Seven Penitential 
Bnlms^ for five voioesi are amongst his best works. 

10 Hiiiary of Jfir«je. [i. 

I.AS8US introd iced the chromatic element into mnncal 
composition, iis well a8 such mnsical terms as Allegro 
and Adagio. He was greatly eulogized in his day, was 
spoken of as ** the prince of music " {muticas prineepe)^ 
and received the order of the Golden Spur. 

24. (B.) With Lassus, the famous Belgian School is 
brought to a close. To the Belgians we owe a consider- 
able development of the great first principles of the 
art ; but they carried their scholasticisms too far, and 
burdened their music with painful elaborations and 
curious conceits. The spirit was lost in the letter. For 
laaterial on which to buUd their numerous contrapuntal 
devices they indiscriminately selected Gregorian plain- 
chants and secular melodies, even to love ditties and 
comic songs, which gave their titles to the masses and 
motetts that were biult upon them ; e. g, '' The Noses 
Bed," " Adieu, my loves," were well-known titles of 
sacred compositions. During this period the canonic 
or imitative form of counterpoint was developed ; the 
■itdrigal, too, was introduced. It is said that Berit- 
HABDT, a German, invented the organ pedal about the 
year 1490.* Pbtbucoi, an Italian, was the inventor of 
movable music-types, 1502. For some time prior to 
this date music had been printed from large wooden 
blocks on which the characters were engraved. 

25. (E.) We have now to speak of the Early English 
School, which, so far as we have any record, was in- 
augurated by Dunstable, who died in 1458. He has 
been called "the father of English contrapuntists," 
and was reputed as excellent a musician as his con- 
temporary, Dufay. Another early writer was John 
Tavemer {c 1630), organist of Christ Church, Oxford. 
Christopher Tye (c 1600—1560) in the year ,1545 
received the degree of Doctor in Music from the 
University of Cambridge. Tye was afterwards ap- 
pointed organist of the Chapel Eoyal, and was the 

* As organ pedaU wane ia axiateace bafore this date^ Uia troth 
fvobably li that Mrahardl intradnced them aboat thia timeat Yaaiea. 

r. fls, M.] General Stimmary, 11 

music-master oi Queen Elizabeth, who prided herself 
on her playing of the Virginals, — a kind of primitive 
pianoforte, and the precursor of the latter instrument. 
Tye wrote a number of works, the best known amorigst 
them in the present day being the anthem / toiU 
exalt Thee^ Lord. 

26. (E.) The reign of Queen Elizabeth was prolific 
in musicians, as it was in authors, soldiers, and states- 
men. John Merbeoke (1523 — 1585), first a singer, 
afterwards organist, of the Chapel Boyal at Windsor, 
sufiered many trials during the reign of Miry, on 
account of his profession of the reformed faiths It \b 
even said that he narrowly escaped martyrdom. Mer- 
becke's principal work was the setting of the English 
Liturgy to a plain-song, which survives and is commonly 
used to this day. It was Thohab Talizb (1529—1585) 
who harmonized (and slightly altered) Merbecke's can- 
ine. The skill of Tallis as a contrapuntist was unsur- 
passed by any of his contemporaries at home or abroad. 
He wrote a motett in no less than forty parts : of the art 
of canon he was a consummate mastcot: His well-known 
'' Evening Hymn," in which occurs an infinite canon 
at the octave between the treble and the tenor, is an ex 
tract from a larger work. A notable pupU of Tallis was 
William Byrde (1543 — 1623), composer of the famous 
canon N<ni Nobie Domine^ and one of the chief con- 
tributors to Queen Elizabeth's "Virginal Book" — a 
celebrated collection of studies for the Queen's favourite 
musical instrument Other Church composers of this 
period were: Biohard Farrant (d, 1580—1), whose 
reputed anthem, Lard, for Thy tender merded eake/^ is 
still a familiar composition ; Robert White (d 1580); 
and Br. John Bnll (d. 1622), the first professor of 
music at Oresham College. It will be noticed that two 

* Beoentiy proved to be bj Hilton. A service in G minof^ 
ho«t?er, stiU remnne the undisputed work U Farrant. 

13 History of Mime. [l 9 

great composers of this period died within the saiiu 
year (1585), namely, Merbecke and Tallis. 

27. (E.) During the latter half of the 16th century 
the '' madrigal '' became exceedingly popular in this, as 
in other couutries, and a number of English composers 
devoted their especial efforts to this form of composition* 
The madrigal may be briefly described as a part-song, 
of a light and generally a pastoral character (iii. ^2). 
The principal nuidrigalists of this time were, Thomas 
Xorleyy Eirbye, Dowland, Weelkes, Wilbye, and 
Boiet. The i-enowned collection entitled *'The IMumphs 
of Onana," to which, with Morley at their head, a 
number of composers contributed, was published in 
1601. The book was dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. 

28. (I.) We turn now to the rise of the purely 
Italian School, which is generally admitted to have been 
inaugurated by the compositions of Constanzo Festa 
{d. 1545), who, although trained in the school of the 
Belgians, rose above the mere scholasticisms and nar- 
rowing traditions of his predecessors. Festa was a 
member of the Sistine choir at Eome, and wrote a 
number of Church compositions, of which a Te Deum 
has survived to this day. He also wrote madrigals. 

29. (I.) But the chief glory of that period wag 
0. Palestbiva (1514 — 1594) who lived to effect a 
complete revolution in the style of musical composition 
for the Church. A pupil of GtOUDIMbl (1510 — 1572), 
himself a musician of no ordinary attainments, Pales- 
trina is said to have '' grasped the essential doctrines of 
Goudimel's school without adopting its mannerism.'' 
In 1562 occurred an event which brought Palestrina 
into noble prominence, as the leader, if not the origin- 
ator, of a more exalted tone in sacred music^ because 
more religious and devotional In that year (1562) the 
famous Council of Trent expressed its condemnation of 
the frivolities that had so long crept into compositions 
of the most solemn character — such as the wholesale 
introduction of secular tan associated in the popular 

tfi Uf 30.] General Summary IS 

miiid with amorous or humorons words — ^and demanded 
the restoration in their place of the old Gregorian plain- 
chant. This sweeping edict was strongly resisted^ 
however, by Pope Pius IV., who prevailei upon tlie 
CounciL to rest their decision upon a new work to be 
composed for that purpose by Palestrina. Palestrina 
undertook the commission, and in 1565 had completed 
three masses, which, on their being performed before a 
Commission of Cardinals, won for their composer the 
distinction of having rescued Church music from a 
threatened relapse into comparative barbansm. The 
best of these three works was dedicated to the memory of 
a former pope, who had been an early patron of Pales- 
trina, and was called after his name (Missa Papce Mar- 
y>2li). During his long and brilliant career, Palestrina 
composed numberless works, including several masses 
— some of them in six parts, — a Stabat Mater for two 
choirs. Lamentations, Imprqperia^ and many motetts. 
To Palestrina is attributed the transposition of the 
eanitis firmtts or principal melody of a composition, 
from the tenor part, where hitherto it had invariably 
been placed, to the soprano or highest voice. Palestrina 
was succeeded at Eome by Fklioe Anerio, who worthily 
continued the work of reformation which Palestrina 
had so well begun. We must not, however, omit to 
mention Vanini (df. 1607) a contemporary and collahora- 
ieur of Palestrina, and moreover a gifted and thought- 
ful writer, l^anini and Palestrina together instituted a 
school in Bome in which the nuova musica, as it was 
called, was carefully taught and faithfully continued. 

30. (I.) Other notable contemporaries of Palestrina 
were : Chmtoforo Morales {b. 1510), a Spaniard, who 
in 1540 was admitted into the Sistine choir at Kome, 
and wrote many campodtions for the Churdu His 
motett for six voices, Lamentdbahir Jacobus, is still 
performed in the Sistine Chapel. Luoa Marenzio 
(1550 — 1594), called "the sweet swan," composed a 
fevmber of Church works, but especially d\a\iYVi^\i\^^^ 

14 EManf of Munc. [i. ao— li 

himself as a madrigalist Giuseppe Zarlino (1519— 
1590), besides writing many elaborate Church com- 
positions, published several works on Musical Theory. 
Gioyanni Gkibrieli (1540 — 1612), a nephew and pupil 
of A. Gabrieli (a great contrapuntist in Ins day), 
directed his chief attention to the improvement of com- 
positions for combined choirs. He also made some 
crude attempts at orchestration ; amongst his works 
may be mentioned In Ecdesiia Benedicite Domiiie foi 
two choirs, with accompaniments for one violin, three 
cornets, and two trombones ; also Suirexit Clu'udus, 
for three voices, two violins, two cornets, and four 
trombones. Tomaso Ludovico Vittoria (1560 — 1608), 
a Spaniard, was another distinguished Church com- 
poser of this i>eriod. It will be seen that we have 
classed these Spanish musicians with the Italian 
School, as Spain never had, properly speaking, a dis- 
tinctive school of her own. 

31. (B.) The latest lights of the old Belgian School, 
which was now fast dying out, or rather was merging 
into the Italian School, were : Jacques Arcadeldt 
(1500 — 1570); Jacques Clement ("non Papi") 
(1500-^1566); Hubert Waelrant (1517—1595), who 
made certain improvements in the art of solmization ; 
Claude Lejeune (1540 — 1600); all prolific and 
scholarly writers. Some of Arcadeldt's compositions 
are in use at the present day, and are highly esteemed 
by Church musicians. 

32. (I.) Origin of thb Opera. About the year 1580, 
we find a society of literati established in Florence with 
the object of instituting a revival of the ancient Greek 
art of musical and dramatic declamation. The recitative 
was thus introduced, in imitation of the intoned recit« 
ations of the old Greek tragedies. In 1594 was pro- 
duced the first opera, entitled DafnSy the words Jby the 
poet Einuccini, the music by Peri. In this work the 
rntmca parlant^, or recitative, in a somewhat crude 
style, was first represented. The success of Dc^m 

i. m, si] General Summary, 15 

called forth the opera Euridice, of which Peri and his 
friend Cacoini were tlie joint composers. Earidiee 
was produced on the occasion of the marriage of Mary 
de Medicis with Henri IV. of France, at Florence, in 
the year 1600. But it was reserved for Claudio Mon- 
teyerde (1566 — 1650) to give a pronounced form to 
the opera,^ and to impart to the recitative a more 
decided character. Monteverde was strongly condemned 
hy his contemporaries for the unprecedented licence of 
his harmonies, as well as for the freedom of his melody. 
It is said that Monteverde was the first to employ the 
chord of the dominant seventh without preparation. 
His principal operas were Orfeo, Arianna^ II Ballo delle 
Ingrate, and Tanered aivd Glonnde. Tlie orchestras of 
this period were of the most primitive kind, consisting 
of one or two flutes, lutes, viols, and a harpsichord or 
spinet, the players generally heing placed behind the 
scenes. The further progress of opera will be traced in 
subsequent pages of this work. 

33. (I.) The £ise of Oratorio. The development 
of the oratorio progressed side by side with that of the 
opera. For ages it had been the custom on important 
ecclesiastical occasions to perform *' miracle-plays," or 
rude — we might say profane— dramas on sacred subjects. 
About the middle of the 16th century, St. Philip de 
Neri, a priest of Florence/ devoted himself to the im- 
provement of these performances, and introduced his- 
torical scenes or sacred allegories in the course of the 
services ha held in his ^praiory, (Hence the term 
"h-atorU), which is the Italian for " oratory.") The first 
oratorio worthy the name was not produced till the 
year 1600, when L'Anima e corpo, by Emilio del 
Cavalibrb, was performed at a church in Rome. The 
composer arranged his accompaniments for the follow- 
ing instruments : a double lyre, a harpsichord, a double 
guitar (or theorbo) aad two flutes. What Monteverde 
did, however, for the opera, was effected for oratorio by 
Oiaociao Carissimi (1680 — 1673), whs^ made mva^ 

16 ffiHar^ of Mu9k. [t 

impioyements in the existing fonn of the ledtatiYe, and 
invented the Arioso^ from which sprang the more 
elaborated Aria. His boAt known works are Jephiha 
and Jy^ah ; the latter oratorio was reyived a few years 
ago by Mr. Henry Leslie, whose celebrated choir has 
given some excellent performances of the woik. 

34. (I.) The most noted Italian composers of this 
period were: LndoYico Viadana (1560 — 1625), who 
is said to have composed '* the first Chnrch concertos 
and solo songs for the Church." He was also the first 
to write harmony as distinguished from pure counter- 
point) and accompanied his voices (generally on the 
organ) from a hasao contintio, or figured bass. Whether 
he actually invented the <* figured bass " is, however, a 
matter of some doubt : it is said to have been employed 
in the first iustance by Catalano {b. 1595), a Sicilian. 
Viadana's tenor solo Bone Jesu, had an accompani- 
ment of two trombones — an odd combination, truly, as 
it would seem to our more sensitive ears. Gregorio 
Allegri (1580 — 1652) was another active writer for the 
Church : his liest known composition is a MUerere^ 
which is still performed at the ** Sistine/' and at other 
Eoman Churches. In 1877 this composition was sung 
(for the first time, we believe, in an Anglican Church) 
at All Saints', Margaret Street, under the direction of 
Mr. W. Stevenson Hoy te, the organist Oraiio Benevoli 
(d 1672) wrote several famous motetts, some of which 
are scored for as many as 24 voices with brass accom- 
paniments. Oeronimo Frescobaldi (1587 — 1654) wrote 
a number of fugues, madrigals, and Church composi- 
tions, and was regarded in his day as a very accomplished 
organist. - 

35. (G.) The German, as a distinctive school, sprang 
from, and grew up with, the great Protestant movement 
under Luther (1483—1546), which began about 1524. 
Luther introduced the Chorale, from which our modem, 
hymn-tune is undoubtedly derived, and to Luther 
himself axe attributed several fine compositions of this 

L 36, 36.] General Summary. 17 

order. In 1524 a collection of chorales by J. Walther 
(1490 — 1655), a friend of Luther, was published at 
Wittemberg, under the immediate supervision of Luther 
himself. Luther obtained compositions of the same 
kind from Goudimel and Clemens non Papa, already 
mentioned. Johann Ecoard (&. circa 1545), Ludwig 
Senfl (1490—1560), Lucas Lossius (1508—1582), 
Jacobus (}allu8, or Handl (1550 — 1591), amongst 
•whose works is a motett in twenty-four parts, for four 
choirs. Helcliior Vulpius (1560 — 1616), Leo Hassler 
(1564—1618), M. Praetorius (1571—1621), were aU 
eminent musicians of this school and period. But 
especial mention must be made of Heiniicli Schiitz 
(1585—1672) who has been called the "Father of Ger- 
man Oratorio." He wrote Tlie Passion according to the 
four Evangelists, the Story of the Resurrection of our 
Lord, and Seven Last Words. Schiitz also composed 
the first German opera. Daphne (set to a German 
translation of Einuccini's woixis), which was performed 
at Dresden, 1627. 

36. (E.) Eeverting to the English School, the next 
important name is that of Orlando Gibbons (1583 — 
1625), who was bom at Cambridge, and received his 
musical training at the Chapel Eoyal, of which he was 
appointed organist at the age of 21. Gibbons attained 
to a leading position amongst his contemporaries, was a 
great favourite with Charles L, and was admitted a 
Doctor of Music at the University of Oxford. Many 
of his Church compositions are in use at this day — 
notably the anthem Hosanna to the Son of David^ 
and the well-known Church Service in P. Henry 
Lawes (1600 — 1662) was a prolific and highly-favoured 
'writer — cliiefly of secular compositions — and set to 
music several "masques" (the private theatricals of 
those times), the best known among which is Milton's 
Comus. William Child (1608 — 1696) is another 
composer of this period whose music may even now be 
heard in our churches. Matthew Lock (1620—1677) 


18 SiBiory of Jfntttf. \i.M,9 

b chiefly remembered through the fiimons ''Macbeth 
muuc," which, however, is more probably a work oi 
Puiceirs. But he wrote a number of woiks, sacred a« 
well as secular. His opera P$yehe^ produced in 1673, 
was the first English opera* properly so called, and 
was also, as we believe, the first opera presented on an 
English stage. Another opera composer of this period 
was John Ecclbs (h, circa 1620), but his works have 
not survived him. John Blow (1648 — 1708) wrote 
some excellent anthems, of which / was in the Spirit ^ 
I beheld^ and lo, are the best known. Michael Wise 
{d, 1687) has also given some lasting contributions to 
Church music 

37. (E.) Hevbt Pttroell (1658—1695) has with 
justice been styled '* the greatest English musical 
genius.** A pupil of D^. Blow, and chorister in the 
King's Chapel, Purcell had the inestimable advantage of 
a sound and early training. At the early age of 18 he 
was appointed organist of Westminster Abbey, and in 
1677, a year later, he composed his first opera. Dido 
and ^neas. This work made at once a foremost place 
for him among the composers of his time, and in 1690 
another opera, Tlie Tempest^ set to words by Dryden, 
added still further to Purcell*s reputation as a dramatic 
composer. Amongst other operas by Purcell may be 
mentioned King Arthur, Diocletian, Fairy Queens 
Timon of Athens, Don Quixote, and The Libertine. 
His masic to the masque in the Tragedy of CEdipua 
must not be forgotten. The celebrated 12 sonatas- 
for the violin, including the one called " The Gk)lden 
Sonata,** were composed in 1683. Almost the last 
work of Purcell was the Te Deum and Juhilaie in D, 
with instrumental accompaniments, recently performed ' 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, at a festival of the College of 
Organists. Purcell was also an accomplished writer for 
the harpsichord, and indeed scarcely any then-known 
form of composition was left by him untried. He died at 
the early age of 37, and was hanouied with a tcmib in 

e, sr, mlJ Oeneml Summarp, 19 

Westminster Abbey. Jer. Clark {d. 1707), another 
pupil of Dr. Blow, and a contemporary of PurceJl, wrote 
cathedral music which is still performed. The well- 
known anthem, / tvUl love Thee, O Lord, is perhaps 
one of his best works. Dr. Aldrich (1647—1710), 
Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, did much to encourage 
musical art in his day, and was himself a proliiic 
composer of Church Services and anthems. With his 
name we close the record of English musicians of the 
17th century. 

38. (E.) WiUiam Croft (1677—1727) has giv«n the 
Church some noble anthems, exceedingly popular even 
now, amongst which may be mentioned God is gone 
up; Lord, Thou hast searcfied me out, — ^for three 
voices ; — Lord, rebuke me not, in which there U a 
fugue in six parts; and Put ms not to rebuke. In 
1715 Croft was made a Doctor of Music at Oxford. 
Matirice Greene (1698 — 1755) wrote some English 
operas, now quite forgotten, and many Church composi- 
tions. James Kant (1700—1736) was ^ pupil and 
great admirer and imitator of Croft. His anthems 
Hear my Prayer, and Lord our Governor, are among 
the most popular at the present day. J. Weldon 
(1708 — 1736), whose anthem Hear my Crying gives 
evidence of the writer's skill and originality as a 
harmonist, has left behind him work only suificient to 
cause lasting regret at his untimely death. William 
Bojce (1710 — 1779) was eminent as an organist, and 
wrote many organ pieces that were much admired in 
his day, but he is now known chiefly by his numerous 
vocal compositions. He wrote one opera. The Chapleif 
and one oratorio, Solomxm (which by the way he terms 
a serenata). His best known anthems are, By the 
waters of Babylon, The Lord is King, and where 
shall Wisdom, He took the degree of Mus.D. at Cam- 
bridge in 1749. Thomas Ame (1710—1778) wrote as 
many as 23 operas, three oratorios, and a great numbec 
o< anthems aad song?. Joka Travers {d. 1758) it 

Hittwrff of Muk. [h 

•notnor Church writer of this period; his anthem 
Ascribe unto the Lardy for two voices, is a favourite 
composition in oar cathedral choirs. He also wrote 
some canzonets, or short songs, for one and two voices. 
James Hares (1715—1783) is the author of some 26 
anthems. His Service in F is frequently sung in our 
churches, and is likely to continue popular for many 
years, as it is at once simple and melodious. Jonathan 
Battishill (1738—1801) wrote several operas, and 
many anthems, the latter including the celebrated com- 
position for seven voices, Call to Remembrance, Samuel 
Arnold (1739—1802) wrote 40 English operas and 
seven oratorios, besides many Church compositions. 
Perhaps his continuation of Boyce*s Church Service in 
A is the best kno>vn of all his works. 

39. (0.) There would seem to exist, in the German 
School, the want of a definite link between Schiitz and 
Bach ; but Professor Kitter mentions one John Ssbas- 
TiANi {circa 1660), who appears to fill the gap. Sebas- 
tiani wrote a version of the Passion which was pro- 
duced in 1672, the year in which Schiitz died. This 
work contains, we are told, a number of chorales 
arranged in good counterpoint, interspersed with tenor 
recitatives, all accompanied by strings. From this 
description there is little doubt that Bach based the 
form of his own Passion-music upon that of Sebastiani. 
Reinhard Keiser (1673—1739), a native of Leipsic, 
besides composing more than 100 operas, wrote " The 
Bleeding and Dying Jesus,* an oratorio which he pro- 
duced at Hamburg in 1704. In this work, however, 
the usual recitations and chorales were omitted. 

40. (G.) JoHAHH Sebastiah Bach (1685 — 1750), 
bom of a race of musicians, was the son of J. A. 
Bach, organist of Eisenach. At an early age, and 
close upon the death of his father, he began his mu* 
sical training under the care of his elder brother, J 
Christopher Bach, who also died when Sebastian wai 
Iml fourteeui leaving him without friends or 

1 a] Qeneral Summary. 31 

Bach, having a fine tirehle voice, entered a choii in 
Liineberg, where he remained — long after he had lost 
his voice — until his eighteenth year, when he managed 
to obtain a place amongst the violinists in the Court 
band of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar. Shortly afterwards 
he was appointed organist at Amstadt, and during the 
live years he held this position gave much time to self- 
improvement both in composition and in playing. In 
1708 Bach removed to Weimar as Court organist, and 
his reputation both as organist and harpsichord player 
now rapidly spread through the surrounding States. In 
1723 he was appointed to the directorship of the 
Thomas-Schule at Leipsic, a post which he held until 
his death. In 1725, Bach had completed the first 
volume of his WoJUtemperirte Klavier (well-tempered 
Clavier) — the well-known forty-eight preludes and 
fugues. This work was not completed till the year 
1740. His greatest works, the Passion according to St. 
John, and that of St. Matthew, were produced in 1729. 
A third Fctssian^ntoTio, St. Luke, has also been 
attributed to Bach, but the authorship is held to be 
somewhat apocryphal The Ma.tthew-Passion is un- 
doubtedly Bach's finest work : the dramatic double 
choruses, the expressive solos with their occasional ob- 
bligato accompaniments for instruments, the exquisitely 
harmonized chorales, proclaim alike his scholarship, his 
genius, and his unfeigned piety. The Christmas 
Oratorio f a smaller work, but containing many cha- 
racteristic beauties, was produced in 1734. It is said 
that the Christmas Oratorio was originally intended for 
performance in six portions on six separate occasions 
during Christmastide. Bach's writings are numeroua 
and varied in character. His mass in B minor (for 
although a zealous Protestant he wrote several masses)^ 
composed in 1733, has recently been performed in this 
country. His suites des pieces for the harpsichord will 
always form valaable studies for pianoforte-players. 
The 8uites Anglaises, composed at the request of an 

nUtory of Mmio. [i. «^ «. 

English amateur, rank among the best of Bach's efforts 
in this style of comi>o8itioiL The celebrated Art of 
Fugue (1749) was among the List of Bach's works, and 
was written shortly before his blindness. Two of 
Bach's sons, Friedemann Bach (1710 — 1784) and C. 
Philipp Emanuel Bach (1713—1788), were well- 
esteemed musicians in their time. The latter in his 
Instruction Book for playing the clavichord Q753) 
introduced a new system of ''fingering/' whi(Ui was 
soon generally adopted. (iiL 37.) • 

41. (0.) Oboeob Fbxdxriok Hahdh (1685 — 1759) 
was originally intended for the legal profession, but 
evinced, at a very early age, a strong predilection for 
music, and practised upon the harpsichord for some 
time in secret. When he was about seven years old ha 
accompanied his father on a visit to the Court of the 
Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, and there accidentally found 
an opportunity of playing upon the organ in the ducal 
chapeL The duke was struck by the child's perform- 
ance, and at length persuaded the father te devote his 
son te the art as a profession. Handel was at once 
placed under the care of Frederick Zachau, cathedral 
organist at Halle, Handel's native tewn. Four years 
afterwards he went te Berlin, where he first met hin 
future rival, Bononcini Very shortly, however, his 
father recalled him to Halle, having decked an offer 
to send the youth to Italy for the purpose of complet- 
ing his studie& On the death of his father, Handel 
went to Hamburg as a violinist in the opera house. 
Here he composed and produced his first opera, Almira^ 
1706. This was rapidly followed by other successful 
operas — Nero, Florinday and Daphne — all in the same 
year. In 1706 Handel went to Florence, and at once 
established his reputation there by the production of 
Eoderigo. He removed thence to Venice, and the opera 
Agrippina made him very popular with the Venetians. 
At Eome, HandeFs first oratorio, The Reaurredion, was 
written and performed; and at Naples, the pastoral^ 

t n.] Chneral Summary. 33 

An Ckilatea e PoUfemo, from which latter work his 
later cantata, Acis and Galatea, was in part derived. On 
his return to Grermany, in 1710, Handel was appointed 
chapel-master to the Elector of Hanover. The same 
year he visited England ; and in 1711 Rinaldo was pro- 
duced at the Haymarket with extraordinary success. 
After a short ahsence in Hanover, Handel returned to 
England, and composed (1713) the well-known Utrecht 
Te Deum and JiMlate, which was sung in St. Paul's 
cathedral, the queen (Anne) heing present. On the succes- 
sion of the Elector of Hanover to the throne of England 
(1714) Handel had cause to he apprehensive of the 
consequences of his neglect of the chapel-mastership 
at Hanover, and, it is said, composed the Water Mtmc 
with a view to appeasing the wrath of his sovereign. 
However, he regained the favour of George I., and 
retained it as long as that monarch lived. Handel's 
oratorio on the Passion was written in Hanover in the 
year 1717, hut was first performed at Hamburg. In the 
same year he was appointed director of the music at 
the chapel of the Duke of Chandos, who resided at 
Cannons. The celebrated Chandos Te Deums and 
Anthems were composed here. In 1720, an attempt 
was made to revive Italian Opera in London, and an 
association of persons, under the title of the Eoyal 
Academy of Music (not to he confounded with the 
existing institution of that name), was formed to pro- 
mote the scheme, with Handel as musical director and 
composer. The first opera was Radamistus, and its 
success was complete. HandeFs first English oratorio, 
EstJieTf was composed in the same year, and produced at 
Gannons; and in 1721 the new Acts and Galatea was 
performed. About this time there was a serious 
division amongst the directors of the Haymarket opera, 
«nd Eononcini and Attilio were brought over from Gter- 
many in opposition to Handel. These circumstances 
ultimately led to the dissolution of the society, in 
1728. Eor this opera, Handel wrote Mmio SccbvoIo^ 

S4 Eiilory of Mmie. \y m^ 

jF7cnidanie, Otho, Qiulio Cesare, Ilavitts (where occmi 
the Donipace) Boddvida, Scipio, Alexander^ Admetus^ 
and Ptolemy, In 1729, he organized a new opera 
company, and wrote Lotharlc, Parihenojpe^ Portu, 
jEtitis, Sosarme, and Orlando; but the enterprias 
proved a failure. Upon this Handel had recourse to 
oratorio, and in 1732 revived Eidher^ the success of 
which led to the performance of Acts and (kUatea, 
This was followed by Deborah (1733). In this year 
Handel visited Oxford, where he produced AthcUiah^ 
and in consequence of its success was offered the degree 
of Doctor in Music, which, however, he declined. For 
the next two or three years Handel again busied him- 
self with opera, and was again unsuccessful: dming 
this period SemiramiSf Arbaces, Ariadne, Pastor Fido^ 
DidOf Berenice, and Xerxes were produced, as weUl as 
Alexander's Feast, the only successful work of this 
series. For a time Handel now gave his attention to 
the renowned organ-concertos, which give abundant 
proof of his exceptional skill as an organist. In 1738 
the oratorio Said was written, and in 1739 it was pro- 
duced and most favourably received, at the Haymarket. 
Israel in Egypt was commenced immediately after the 
completion of Said, which it followed at the Hay* 
market ; then came The Ode on St. Cecilia^s Day. The 
12 grand concertos for harpsichord and strings appeared 
the same year, while shortly afterwards (in 1740), 
L* Allegro ed H Penseroso was produced; these failed 
at the first performance. Handel's great masterpiece, 
ITie Messiah, composed in 1741, and rejected in Lon- 
don, was performed at Dublin in 1742 and received 
with the greatest enthusiasm. Ths Messiah was fol- 
lowed by Samson, 1743 ; * Belshazzar, 1744 ; Herctdes, 
1744 ; Joseph, 1744 ; Judas Maccahmus, 1747 ; Joshua^ 
1747; Solomon, 1748; Theodora, 1749; Susanna^ 
1749 ; Jephtha, 1751. The DeUingen Te Deum dates 

* In Sam»(m the Dead March in Saul reappeanL 

J. 41, 42.] General Summarp. 3S 

1743. During the last seven or eight years of hia 
life Handel was afflicted with total blindness. He died 
on Good Friday, 1759, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey. Many of his smaller works have not been 
mentioned, but an exception must be made in the case 
of the Suites^ in which The Harmonuma Blacksmith is 

42. (0.) Among the more conspicuous German con* 
temporaries of Bach and Handel, Hasse and Graun 
deserve especial mention. J. A. Hasse (1699 — 1783), 
whom the Italians honoured as '' the divine Saxon," 
excelled both in oratorio and in opera. But (I.) the 
writings of Hasse were all more or less formed upon 
Italian models, and therefore should properly be classed 
as belonging to the Italian SchooL Schluter tells us 
that *' of Hasse, a grand and noble Te Deum, as well 
as a Bequiem (according to Krause, superior even to 
Mozart's), are still annually performed in the Catholic 
Court Church at Dresden. On the other hand, the 
light Italian style and opera air appear without disguise 
or reticence in his masses and oratorios." C. H. Oraun 
(1701 — 1759) is now chiefly remembered through hia 
great " passion" work, Der Tod Jem (The Death of Jesus), 
which has recently been revived in Germany, and also 
in this country. J. A. HUler (1728 — 1804) composed 
a number of light operas or operettas, induding the 
celebrated Liederspiele. Oeorg Benda (1722 — 1795) 
was another prolific writer of opera ; Ariadne auf Naxos 
and Medea are his principal works. Mozart was greatly 
impressed with the beauty of Medea, which he heard 
during his visit to Mannheim in 1778. In the course 
of his observations on this melodrama, Mozart writes : — 
'' It is not simg, but declaimed, and the mnsic is like 
a recitative ohbligaio; sometimes there is talking amid 
the music, which has a splendid effect." J. G. Nau- 
mann (1741 — 1801) principally devoted himself to 
Church music: his Dae Voter Unser, a settmg of 
Klopstock's paraphrase of the Lord's J'rayer, is his 

96 Biihrp of MMe. [i. Of u 

chief composition. T. H. Himmal (17G5 — 18U) wai 
a popular composer of opera, his Fanchcn being among 
the most succe.'^sful of his workii. 

43. (I) Alessandro Scarlatti (1659— 1725) gave to 
the oratorio a more decided form than it had at the handa 
of Carissimi and his contemporaries. He introduced 
independent movements {intermezzi) for the oicheatra, 
which he greatly improveid, and divided the aria into 
three distinct portions. He wrote masses, oratorida, 
operas, and other compositions; and his celebrated 
fugue for two choirs Tu ea PetruSf is still occasional! j 
performed at St. Peter's in Rome. His son, Dombnioo 
Scarlatti, was a popular harpsichord player and com- 
poser for that instnimcnt. F. Durante (1684—1755) 
wrote exclusively for the Church, in which branch qSE 
the art he did good service, but his claim to a place 
in musical history rests chiefly upon his having been 
the master of several musicians of eminence, including 
F. Feo, who composed, inter alia, a grand mass for two 
choirs (A. Stradella, composer of several fine oratorios, 
among them St, John the BapOst, is also accounted one 
of Durante*8 pupils, though there is apparently some 
evidence to the contrary) ; Dnni, Terradeglias, Jo- 
»elli (1714 — 1774), and Piccini, hereafter mentioned. 
An important contemporary of Durante was Leonardo 
Leo (1694—1746), whose oratorio, Tlie Death of Aid, 
is highly spoken of by historians. Other Italian or 
Neapolitan musicians of this period were G. P. Pergo- 
lesi (1710 — 1736), composer of a Stahat Maier and 
several operas ; 0. Sacchini (1735—1786) ; Gnglielmiy 
Galnppi, Lotti (1660— 1740), who adopted the then 
modem style in his operas ; A. Galdara (1674 — 1763), 
one of the greatest masters of fugue; Marcello (1680 
— 1739), author of the Paraphrases an the 50 Psalms 
of David. 

44. (French Opera.) Originally an offshoot of tha 
early Italian Opera, which was introduced into Franca 
by Cardinal Mazarin, about the year 1645, the Freueh 

i» 44.] Oeneraf Summarff. 27 

School of Opera boasts a nnmeTous array of com* 
posers. The first genuine French work was La PaS" 
toraUy composed (in 1659) by R. Cambert. But the 
actual founder of the French school was J. B. Lull> 
(1633 — 1687), who, though by birth an Italian, was 
brought up in the household of the French monarch 
(Louis XIV.) and was placed in the king's private 
band as a violinist. His Tragedies lyriquea consisted 
mainly of recitatives and choruses ; here he generally 
ignored the aria and the duet^ both so highly chaiacteir- 
istic of the Italian School Lully is regarded as the 
originator of the overture, which he genemlly composed 
in two parts — ^the first an adagio, or slow movement, the 
second a sprightly minuet, or a fugue. Lully was suc- 
ceeded by J. P. Aamaan (1683 — 1764), the renowned 
mathematician and writer on musical theory, who 
greatly improved upon Lully*s style, by introducing a 
greater variety in the melody and harmony of his vocal 
writings. His principal opera. Cantor arid Polliuc, was 
a popular work with tiie French f orvmany years, despite 
the strictures of Boubseau, who complained that Ka- 
meau's harmonies were far-fetched, and destructive of 
tune. An attempt was made recently — ^in Paris — ^to 
effect a revival of Cador and Pollux^ but the writer is 
not aware whether it was successful. During the life- 
time of Bameau (1752), a rival opera company, imported 
from Italy, caused no small stir amongst French mu- 
sicians. This company, whom the French styled " Lea 
Boujfona^^ introduced a species of comic operetta, or 
opera-houffe^ on the French stage : but in a short time 
Lea Bouffona were compelled to leave the country, 
through the persistent opposition of the French or 
" National " party. But they had left behind them the 
taste for opera-boujfey and several French composers 
produced, almost immediately upon the departure of 
the Italians, a number of comic operettafr--aiiiongBt 
them. Lea Troqueura^ by D*Auvbrgnb (1713 — 1797). 
Aaiong ether contemporarieB of Bameau, w^re Dumi 

28 Eittarp of Mtme. [i. 44, 45. 

(1709 — 1775), Philidor, and Mootioht (1729 — 1817), 
the composer of Le Deaertfrnr^ and Eoae ei Colaa. 
These paved the way for Ore^ (J 741 — 1813), in 
whose reign the French operetta reached its senith. 
Despite the example of his great predecessor Bameau, 
Gretrj had recourse to the developed aria form, which 
he frequently introduced in connection with the recita- 
tives. Gretr/s Ricliard Canur-de-Lian and ZSmire d 
Azar achieved for their writer an immense popularity 
in his own day, and they have both been performed in 
Pans in recent years. Among the most favoured con- 
temporaries of Gretry were : D'Alayrae (1753—1809), 
composer of Nina and Lea deux Savoyards — both lately 
revived; Barton (1766^1844), composer of Montana 
et Stephanie, Ponce de LSan, Le DSlire, Aline^ and o^vst 
works of a similar character; Simon Catel (1773 — 
1830), whose opera SSmiramis has been placed on 
the French boards very lately; and lastly, Hioolo 
Isonard (1777 — 1818), a native of Malta, composer of 
the much-admired Cendrillon. These names, with those 
of BoiELDiBU, G08SBO, and Mbhul, the celebrated author 
of Joseph, bring us down almost to the present generation 
of French composers. 

45. (I.) Ch. W. GiTTOK (1714—1787), a native of 
Bohemia, received his training at Prague and Vienna ; 
and subsequently at Milan, where he studied Italian 
opera under Samartini. In 1741, his first opera Ar^ 
taxerzes was produced at Milan, and its success en- 
couraged him to write Clytemnestra and DemetriOj 
which were produced at the same theatre. In 1745, 
Gluck visited England, and his Caduta del QiganH 
and Artamene were produced at the Haymarket, with, 
however, but doubtful succesa After a few years' stay 
in this country, Gluck returned to Vienna, and thence 
went to Home, where, in 1754, La Glemenza di Tito a 
Antigone were well received. He afterwards went to 
Florence, and the real importance of this visit consists 
in the vlUuable friendship which Gluck titan formed 

L 15—47.] General Summatg. 29 

with the poet Calzabigi, whose schemes for the im- 
provement of opera were ccrdially entered into by the 
composer. The result was the production in 1764 * of 
Orfeo, at Vienna, on the occasion of the marriage of 
the Emperor Joseph II. In Ch'feo, the drama is 
released from the old restraints and conceits with which 
Italian opera had too long been burdened, and the 
music was written with a view to heightening the 
dramatic effect of the work. The opera met with an 
unqualified success, and fully established Gluck in the 
honi rank of composers. This work was followed, in 
1767, by Alceste, which was a further development of 
the same art principles. This work, however, was not 
so well received as the composer had reason to expect, 
and in his disappointment he turned to Paris. (46.) 

46. (F.) Gluok arrived in Paris in 1773, and early 
in 1774 IphigSnie en Aulide was performed, and xdti- 
inately gained him his footing in the French capital. 
He sul^equently adapted to the French stage his 
Orfeo and Alceste. The advent in Paris of a formidable 
rival, Piccini (1728 — 1800), who sought to establish i^ 
France the old and exploded form of Italian opera, 
created some sensation, and aroused considerable party 
feeling. This occurred in 1776. The musical world in 
Paris was split into two powerful parties, the " Gluck- 
ists" and the •* Piccinists," and the controversy was 
carried on with a good deal of unnecessary acrimony. 
In 1777 G-luck produced Armide • which, however, 
suffered a temporary eclipse by the production in the 
following year of Piccini*s Roland, Gluck's IphigSnie 
en Tauride, however, in 1779, practically asserted his 
triumph, although the rivahy continued until his 
death in 1787. 

47. (G.) JoaEPH Hatdk (1732—1809) was bom 

• Some writers give 1762 as the date of Orfeo, while Alcetie 
MS been assigned to tiie yeaiB 1766, 1767, and 1769 respeol- 

Jliatari of Mwtk. [l #. 

of poor parents, in the villa^ of Bohi»n, on fbe Aw* 
Irian frontier. Hia iirst Htcp in a long musical oarees 
"XTas in- the capicity of a chorister in the Cathedral ol 
61 Stephen, at Vicuna, not many miles from his natiTB 
place. Here he remained ei^ht years, and during this 
porirHl received lessons on the violin and harpsichord 
from the cathedral choir-master, Kcuter. It is said 
that Haydn pr«ictL<ed at leait sixteen hours a day. His 
first lessons in compo.<ition wore obtained, not from 
lioiitcr, but from Fux's Grcuiiis ad Pamasmin^ which 
he studied without the help of a master. On quitting; 
when his voice had broken, the cathedral choir, Haydn 
suffered a gooil deal of privation, and scraped together 
a scanty living by means of harpsichord lessoni. After 
some rcbuiSs, he obtained the position of personal 
attendant upon Kicolo Porpora, a popular singing- 
master of that day, who allowed Haydn the privilege 
of playing the accompaniments during the singing 
lessons, and eventually gave him a good deal of valu* 
able instruction in singing and composition. While 
thus eiigiigoxl, Haydn contrived to secure one or two 
poorly paid appointments, such as the choir- mastership 
of a church in Vienna, the organistship of a private 
chapel, and the position of tenor singer in the Cathe- 
dral of St. Stephen. About the year 1750, when he 
was 18 or 19, Haydn obtained his first introduc- 
tion to the public through the instrumentality, it is 
said, of one Curtz, a comic actor, who conmii^ioned 
him to compose an opera, The Devil on Ttco Sticks, 
This was represented at one of the Vienna theatres, and 
had a short-lived success. Haydn next devoted himself 
to the composition of instrumental trios and other 
chamber music, which at once made him popular, not- 
withstanding the opposition he met with from certain 
quarters on account of supposed musical heresies. His 
reputation as a youthfid composer of promise brought 
llim to tke notice of Prince Esterhazy, an enthusiasUo 
amateur, who, struck with the merit and orijinali^ of 

^ 47.] Chneral Smrnnarp. 81 

a new symphony of Haydn's, retained the oomposei in 
his private service ; subsequently (1760) giving him the 
appointment of chapel-master — a post which he con- 
tinued to hold till the death of the prince, in 1790. 
Daring his tenure of office, Haydn composed a laig9 
number of symphonies, operas, masses, concertos, trios, 
quartets, and other vocal and instrumental works. In 
1790 he was induced, on the earnest representations of 
Salomon, to visit London, where Salomon acted as 
director of the ** Professional Concerts,'' the scheme of 
which was very similar to that of the present " Phil- 
harmonic Concerts." Under agreement, Haydn pro- 
duced either a symphony or a smaller composition at 
each concert given by Salomon. The success of this 
professional campaign induced Haydn to revisit London 
(in 1794), where he remained untU the May of the fol- 
lowing year. During his two visits he composed the 
group known as the London Symphonies, twelve in 
number, which rank amongst the finest of his orches- 
tral works. On his return to Vienna, he retirod from 
professional and public life, but still busied himself in 
composition, and in 1798 — at the age of 66 — ^produced 
his great oratorio. The Creation. This work, the words 
for which, it is said, were originally written (by Lidley) 
for Handel, produced a profound impression at the lirat 
performance, which took place in the Schwartzenberg 
Palace, Vienna. The fame of Tlie Cfreation soon spread 
through Europe ; in England it has long been second 
only to ITie Messiah in popular favour. Thomson's 
weU-known poem furnished the subject for Haydn's next 
oratorio, The Seasons, which was completed in 1801. 
This was Haydn's last impoitant work. A complete 
list of his compositions would hll two or three pages of 
this book; they have, however, been summarized as 
follows :—" Symphonies, 118; quartets, 83; concertos, 
24; tiios, 24; sonatas, 44; operas, 19; masf«s, 15; 
dances, about 400; pieces for the baryton (a species ol 
ffM-^khffamba), 163;" but this summary is by no meaai 

89 Hkhry ff Mu9ic. [l #» 48, 

exhaostive. In oratorio, besides The OreaHon and Tk- 
8eas(jn8f most be mentioned The Eetitm of Tobias; and 
lastly, The Seven Last Wards—^ beautiful but little- 
known work, lately revived. (77m Seven Laet Words 
was performed in the church of St. Peter, Bayawater, 
on (xood Friday, 1876, and again in 1877, under the 
direction of Mr. Edwin Lott, organist of the church.) 
Haydn is generally regarded as the founder uf the 
modem symphony, and the sonata-fonn; but he him- 
self has acknowledged his indebtedness in these re- 
spects to Philipp Emanuel Bach, ''who first prepared 
the way for the brilliant epoch of instrumental music 
which began with Haydn." The latter may, neverthe- 
less, be regarded as the father of modern orchestration* 
48. (0.) WoLFOAHo Amadxus Mozabt (1756 — 
1791), the son of Leopold Mozart, — himself an ex* 
oellent musician, and author of a treatise on the violin 
— ^was bom at Salzbuig, Germany. At a very early age 
Mozart gave surprising tokens of his musical genius, 
which the father fostered and encouraged in every pos- 
sible way. At the age of four years he received his 
first lessons on the harpsichord, and two or three years 
afterwards on the violin. It is narrated that when he 
was only six years old he made his first crude attempt 
at musical composition— a concerto for the clavier— 
which was not devoid of distinct musical idea and 
expression. About this time his father took the boy 
and his sister Maria — the latter eleven years old^-on a 
professional tour to Vienna, where they were received 
with much favour, and were invited to perform before 
the Emperor and Empress. The following year they 
visited Munich, Mayence, and other cities of Southern 
Germany, and thence proceeded to Paris and London. 
Li London they performed before the King and Queen 
(George ILL and Charlotte) at St. James's. Everywhere 
the little musicians — ^more, probably, by reason of their 
youth than for their actual performances — were petted 
and caressed. In 1765 they went to Holknd, whase 

L i&l General Summary. 

young Mozart wrote the six: sonatas, for violin with piano- 
forte or harpsichord accompaniment, for the Princess 
of Orange. Early in 1767 Mozart went again to Vienna, 
where he spent two or three years in study and compo- 
sition. Here, besides writing two or three small operas 
and a Stahat Matei'^ he produced his first mass, on a 
commission from the Emperor, in 1768. In 1770 he 
commenced a lengthy and eventful tour through Italy, 
receiving much praise and many honours and keep- 
sakes, but very little pecuniary reward. His opera, 
MUridate^ was performed at Milan during this tour; 
but although it had a temporary success, this opera 
does not deserve a legitimate place in any catalogue of 
Mozart's compositions. His next opera, La Finta Oiar- 
diniera, produced at Munich in 1775, in many respects 
shows a sensible advance upon previous work, but con- 
tains no features worthy of special comment. His first 
really important opera is IdomeneOy which was produced 
at Munich in 1781. This work, although to a great 
extent built upon tho old Italian model, especially with 
respect to the elaborated ariay abounds in characteristic 
beauties, both in the choruses and in the instrumental 
scoring. Owing to the weakness of the libretto, and 
its want of dramatic interest, it is ineligible for the 
modem opera-stage. Occasional excerpts, however, are 
still to be heard in the concert-room. Die Entfuhrung 
au8 dem Serail, produced the following year, exhibits a 
growing independence of style, and more varied re- 
sources in the illustration of the several contrasting 
characters. Le Nozze di Mgaro (1786) is too well 
known to be commented upon here ; we may, however, 
note that this is Mozart's finest work from the purely 
dramatic point of view; while Don Giovanni (1787) 
excels in the elucidation of individual character. 
Bespecting tiie latter work, a German critic writes* 
" Mozart's Dan Giovanni is, by its marvellous delinea- 
tion of both thd lights and shadows of life, its com 
bined seriousness and playfulness, tragedy and comedy 


Mi History qf Mtme. [l 

a nniyenal, nniqae, and deeply signifi'^amt ifioik; 
to which, in the sister ait of drama, (Goethe's Famd caa 
alone be worthily compared.'* The succeeding op^n» 
Ckm fan futie (1790), though contaiuing many inci- 
dentad beauties^ is marred by the childish and essen- 
tially inartistic character of the libretto. In 1791 
appeared La Cleniema di Tito, — the libretto of which 
is identical with that previously employed by Gluck 
and others — which was performed at Prague for the 
coronation of the Emperor Leopold XL In this opera 
Mozart introduced (to the aria, Non piu di fiori) an 
obbligaio for a new instrument, the Gomo de baasetto, or 
basset-horn, a kind of low clarionet, now prtctically 
obsolete. Two of these ''basset-horns'* are dso em* 
ployed in the Requiem, of which we shall have to 
sp«ftk later on. In many of the details of La ClemensuL 
di Tito Mozart had recourse to the assistance of his 
pupil, Sussmaier, who, it is said, wrote most of the 
recitatives for this opera. Within a few weeks of the 
production of Tito, the 2kLuberfl6te (11 Flauto Magico) 
was completed, and perform^ at Vienna, and was 
repeated one hundred times during the same and the 
following year. This was his last opera. Mozart had 
also been active in the production of other works. He 
had written many masses, and several symphonies, of 
which the finest are the G minor, the E flat, and the 
Jupiter Symphony in C, besides numerous quartets, and 
other chamber music. He had also written a number 
of pianoforte concertos and sonatas (which latter are 
seldom performed in public). His last work was tha 
Requiem (1791), the greater portion of which he com- 
posed on his death-bed. There has been much discus* 
sion among critics regarding the autheaticity of three 
important numbers in this beautiful work. It is 
asserted by some that the pupil, Sii jsmaier, who had 
already given Mozart much assistance in the preparation 
of Ija Clemenza di Tito and othf\r contemporaneous or 
later works, actually composed the greater part oi 

L 4R, 49.] General Summary. 85 

Hie Requiem. If this be the case, it is surprising how 
Siissmaier sustained the iudividuality of Mozart 
throughout the remainder of the work, and it is still 
more astonishing that, apart from his connection with 
Mozart, so accomplished a writer should have lef; 
behind him no other abiding memorial of his own 
powers. The numbers claimed by SUssmaier as having 
been entirely composed by himself are the three last — 
Sanctus^ Benedietus, and Agnvs Dei. Mozart's won* 
derful skill in orchestration has been exemplified to us 
not only in his own works. The originally thin scoring 
of The Messiah was expanded by him in 1789, and 
since then Mozart's '^ additional accompaniments" have 
invariably been adopted at the performances of this 
oratorio. Other works of Handel were similarly re- 
scored by Mozart As a contrapuntist, also, Mozart 
takes high rank. The fugal movement (finale) in the 
Jupiter Symphony, and that in the overture to Zauher- 
flote, are standard examples of the highest form of 
contrapuntal development. 

49. (0.) The Grerman contemporaries of Haydn and 
Mozart are very numerous; but we cannot do more 
than catalogue the principal amongst them, giving their 
names, as far as possible, in chronological order. J. 0. 
Albrechtsberger (1736—1809) is chiefly known to 
us through the medium of his elaborate work on har- 
mony, counterpoint, and composition; but he wrote 
as many as twenty-six masses, and numerous other 
smaller works, chiefly ecclesiastical. Michael Haydn 
(1737 — 1806), a younger brother of the great Haydn, 
was greatly esteemed by the latter for his sacred com- 
positions, which included ma-^^ses, motets, canticles, 
and other liturgical music. C. D. Dittersdorf (1739 — 
1799) produced thirty-seven operas, over forty sym- 
phonies, and \ number of other forgotten works. J. 
Andri (1741 — 1799) wrote German operas. J. 0. 
Hanmann (1741 — 1801), composer of oratorios, masses* 
operas, and symphonies, still survives in occasional ex* 

86 Hutory of Mtme. \u m^ 8G 

tracts from bis larger woikfl. J.P.][artini(1741-*1816^ 
wrote masses, a Requiem ^ and several French operas. J, 
P. Schuls (1747—1800^ and Ch. Heefb (1748—1798)— 
the latter a master of Beethoven — were both writers of 
opera. The Abb^ Stadler (1748—1833) and Tofltr 
(1749 — 1814) were composers principally of Church 
music : Vogler, however, wrote five operas, and, more- 
over, was tiie author of several treatises on the theory 
of music. J. P. Beicburdt (1752—1817) wrote thirty 
operas and some 'oratorios. J. Eleyel (1757 — 1831) 
is a familiar name with the pianoforte student Be- 
sides his sonatas and other pianoforte compositions, he 
wrote a number of larger instrumental works, including 
symphonies and quartets. J. L. Do^k (1761-^1812) 
takes a still higher position in the classical pianoforte 
school. His sonatas, occasionally hoard in the concert- 
rooms of the present day, abound in originality and 
artistic power. D. St^elt (1764—1823) was another 
prolific composer for the pianoforte, and among his 
works are t<> be found many excellent studies. C. F. 
Zelter (1758 — 1832) wrote part-songs and other vocal 
compositions, and organized the Uedertafel, a choir of 
male voices, said to be the first society of the kind 
formed in Germany. Andreas Eomberg (1767 — 
1821) is best known in this country in connection 
with the popular Lay of the Bdl, a favourite work 
with local choral societies. He wrote seven operas and 
several symphonies. Other Grerman composers and 
teachers of the same period are : Schobebt, J. H. 
Knecht, D. G. TiJBK, Petbr von Winter, J. Frbindi^ 
y. Weiql, B. a. Wbbbr, Wbnzbl Muller, and B. 
RoMBERQ, brother of the Andreas Eomberg mentioned 

50. (I.) The leading Italian composers of the latter 
half of the 18 th and the commencement of the 19th 
centuries were not so numerous as those of Germany. 
L Boccherini (1740 — 1806) stands almost alone 
in the domain of purely orchestral mmic. B 

I. SQ, 51.] General Summarjf. 87 

▼iotti (1753—1824), the celebrated violinist, and 
founder of a new school of yiolin-playing, wrote a 
number of concertos, chiefly for his own instrument, 
and with an especial view to the display of his own 
marvellous powers of execution. The only notable 
composer of pianoforte music was Muzio - dementi 
(1752 — 1832), whose Qradus ad Pamaasum and 
twelve Sonatinas are likely to remain familiar subjects 
of study for years to come. Clementi was a prince 
among teachers, and during his lengthy stay in Eng- 
land exercised a remarkable influence upon the art of 
pianoforte-playing in this country. His grave lies 
within the precincts of Westminster Abbey, and a 
small tablet marks the spot. A. Salim (1750 — 1825), 
IT. Zingarelli (1752—1837), D. Cimarosa (1754— 
1801), 8. Mayer (1763—1845), and F. Paer (1771— 
1839), were all composers of oratorios, masses, or 
operas, but their works are now nearly forgotten, save 
by a few musical antiquaries. 

51. (F.) M. L. Chbbumhi (1760—1842) was a 
native of Plorence, but having at the age of 26 
settled in Paris, where he took up his permanent abode, 
he is properly classed by some historians as belonging 
rather to France than to Italy. A pupil of Sabti, an 
able teacher of that time, Cherubini made rapid pro- 
gress in the art^ and at the age of 22 produced his 
fli^t opera, 11 Quinto Fabio. To the Pans public he 
introduced himself by Demophon, but this work failed 
to command a positive success. In 1791, however, he 
completely won the popular favour by the production 
of Lodoiska. Undoubtedly his best opera is Lea Deux 
Joumies, which he brought out in the year 1800 ; this 
work is not unknown to the stage of the present day. 
Other operas were Medea, Eliza, AnacrSoUy Fanisha, 
Lea Ahmdragea, and Ali Baha. But Gherubini's fame 
rests not so much on his work for the stage as that for 
the Church. His masses, notably the one in D minoi; 
ire grand and impressive compositionBy and for theic 

88 Hwhry qf Mmie. [l n» M 

flcbolarij treatment alone are worthy of especial study. 
The some may be said of the Requiem in C mmor, 
written in 1810. In 1835, Cherubini wrote a Bequiem 
for male voices only, for the commemorative service in 
honour of Boibldieu (1775 — 1834), one of his own 
pupils, himself a popular writer of opera. Cherabini*8 
well-known treatise on Counterpoint, Canon, and Fo^e 
establishes his position as a master in the art The 
work was written in the French language, and has been 
translated into English by Mr. Cowden Clarke. As a 
composer, Cherubini was highly esteemed by Beethoven, 
who pronounced him '' the most estimable of living 
musicians." An important contemporary of Cherabini 
was £ H. Mehul (1763—1817), whose operas were at 
one time very popular. The principal of these were 
Josephj Euplirosipie, Straionice, and LUrato, Excerpts 
from Joseph are still occasionally published in France 
and England, but the work is not now performed, except 
in Germany. A single overture (Le Jeune Henri) 
seems to be the only composition by Mehul which has 
really survived this once popular composer. Among 
other French contemporaries of Cherubini we may note 
J. F. Lesdeur (1764—1837), O. F. LanglA (1741— 
1807), and Pierre Eodb (1774—1830). 

52. (0.) Lttdwig yak Beethoyev, the greatest among 
German composers, and the most universal musical 
genius the world has ever produced, was born at Bonn, 
1770, and was the son of a tenor in the Electoral 
chapel. The father, a man given to intemperate habits, 
was, while he lived, a source of misery to his son, as 
well as to the whole family, who were kept in a state of 
poverty approaching to destitution. Ludwig, who 
showed early signs of musical talent, was regarded by 
his father as a possible source of enrichment, and on 
this account was forced to practise upon the pianoforte 
80 many hours at a stretch that his studies became a 
positive slavery to him. He received his first lessons 
from Van den Eeden, the Court organist, but the sua* 

I. 81.] Chneral Summarff. 

eeeding oi^nist, Neefe, gaye bim more methodical 
instruction. Such was the progress he made, that at 
the age of 12 he occasionally took Neefe's place at the 
chapel organ; and at the age of 13 (1783) was en- 
trusted with the post of cembalist (piauist) — then an 
important position, in the orchestra attached to the 
Court Theatre. His great ambition, however, was to 
go to Vienna for the completion of his studies, and in 
1785 he was enabled to carry out this project. Arrived 
in Vienna he sought out Mozart, who at first, it is said, 
received him somewhat coldly, but on hearing him play 
an improvisation on a given theme, was so astounded 
that he said to his friends, '' Pay heed to this youth ; 
he will one day astonish the world." The opinion of 
Mozart, then in the zenith of his popularity, did not, 
however, have an immediate effect on the fortunes of 
the young musician. Beethoven had already published 
(1783), when in his 13th year, some small compo- 
sitions, including three sonatas, which were dedicated 
to the Elector of Cologne, his patron at Bonn. During 
this first sojourn in Vienna, which lasted about two 
years, he appears to have given himself up entirely to 
study. In 1787 he was recalled to Bonn, by the death 
of his mother, his affection for whom was heightened 
by the fact that she was as affectionate and watchful as 
his father was harsh and neglectful. He had now 
virtually to provide for the maintenance of his family, 
and was obliged to have recourse to teaching, an occu- 
pation which he always disliked. The only bright spot 
in his life at this period was the intimate and lasting 
friendship he formed with the Breuning family — 
Madame Breuning (a widow), her three sons, and a 
daughter. In their society Beethoven spent many 
happy hours of relaxation, and in their company made 
his acquaintance with the classic literature of the world, 
and especially of his own language. Here, too (at 
Bonn), he gained the friendship and assistance of the 
Count Wal^tein, io whom he dedicated the well-knowc 

40 Ei^tary of Mhm [>. fit. 

sonata wbich is now identified with the Count's name. 
To the influence of Waldstein is attributed the appoint- 
ment of Beethoven, about this time, as Court pianist* 
In 1792, having been granted a pension by the Elector, 
Beethoven was enabled to revisit Vienna, and so left 
Bonn, never to return. Again settled at Vienna, and 
this time under more favourable circumstances, Beet- 
hoven placed himself under the tuition of Haydn. 
But, unhappily, there was no real fiiendship between 
them. Men of temperaments more opposite in charac- 
ter it would be hard to conceive : Haydn was mild and 
equable, Beethoven was enthusiastic and eccentric 
Beethoven thought he had reason to complain of the 
indiiference and actual negligence of his master, but 
notwithstanding these misgivings, he continued to re- 
ceive lessons from Haydn until 1784, when the latter 
left Vienna on a visit to London. Beethoven availed 
himself of this departure to attach himself to Albrechts- 
berger, then organist of the cathedral, under whom he 
remained about fifteen months, and with whom he got 
on little better than with Haydn. iN'everthelea^, there 
is ample evidence that he worked unceasingly all this 
time. (The result of his studies is supposed to be 
shown m the work entitled Sttidien im Generdlbass^ 
published under Beethoven's' name, but it has been 
pretty clearly proved that only a small proportion of 
this book is Beethoven's sole and actual work.) It 
was in the year 1795 that Beethoven commenced his 
public career as a composer and performer. At the 
annual concert, for this year, in aid of the widows and 
orphans of musicians, Beethoven produced the piano- 
forte concerto in C major, himself being the pianist. 
This performance was a sudden revelation to the Vien« 
nese public, and from this time engagements crowded 
upon him. During the seven years that followed, he pub- 
lished the thirty-two sonatas, three concertos, two sym- 
phonies, nine trios, and numerous other smaller worka 
But in 1800 the greatest calamity that could befall • 

1 al] Oeneral Summary. 41 

musician oTertook Beethoyen — deafness. It is remark" 
able that nearly all, if not all, his nine symphonies 
were composed under this affliction. The following 
are their dates: First Symphony ^ in C major, 1800; 
Second, in D major, dedicated lo his patron, Prince 
Lichnowsky, 1802; Third (the Eroica), 1803—4; 
Fourth, in B flat major, 1806 ; Fifth, in C minor, 
about 1808; Sixth (Fa^ardle), in F major, about 
1808; Seventh, in A major, 1812; Eighth, in F 
major, 1812 ; Ninth (the great Choral Symphony), in 
D minor, 1822 — 3. The only opera Beethoven wrote 
was Leonora, produced in 1805, and condemned by the 
critics. He wrote new overtures, making four in all, 
to the work ; and under the new title of Fidelia, it was 
once more presented. This was in the year 1814. In 
Church music Beethoven was not prolific. His first 
Mass, in G major, composed in 1807; the Misaa 
Solemnis, in D major, 1818 — 22; The Mount of Olives, 
a short oratorio (in which occurs the well-known HaUe- 
lujah), about 1800 ; appear to be his only sacred com- 
positions. His works have been thus roughly sum- 
marized by Czerny: — One opera, two dramas with 
music, a melodrama, several single dramatic choruses 
and songs, one oratorio, two masses, nine symphonies, 
eleven overtures, one septet, seven pianoforte concertos, 
one violin concerto, two violin quintets, seventeen 
violin quartets, five violin trios, thirty-five solo sonatas 
for pianoforte, ten sonatas for pianoforte and violin, six 
sonatas for pianoforte and violoncello, seven trios for 
pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, a pianoforte quintet, 
a great many other pianoforte compositions, cantatas, 
songs with pianoforte accompaniments, &c. As a virtuoso 
on the pianoforte, Beethoven out-distanced all his rivals, 
including the cdebrated Hummel, who was studying 
under Mozart at the period of Beethoven's first visit lo 
Vienna. Beethoven owed much of his command of or- 
chestral resources to his practical acquaintance with ths 
ttnnged instrumentSi any of which he was able to play 

43 HtBiory of Mmric. [l«^« 

and to this cause in aspecial d^^nethebeantjand finish 
of his string trios, quaitots, and quintets, are doe. It 
has baen asserted that Beethoven's bom parts are often 
weak; some saying that his want of familiarity with that 
instrument made him timid in its employment; others, 
that he was apt to give it impossible passsges. To 
both these accusations the horn part in the Septet alone 
ought to be a sufficient answer, and the Septet was a 
comparatively early production (1800). Notwithstand- 
ing incessant hard work, and a career of almost onin- 
terrupted artistic triumph, Beethoven's last years were 
haunted by a dread of approaching poverty, for wLvcb, 
however, there was no real cause. He died at Vienna 
(1827), and was publicly buried with great pomp. 

53. (0.) J. N. Hummel (1778—1837) received bis 
early lessons from Mozart, and even while a boy is said 
to have been a wonderful performer on the pianoforte. 
In after years he was considered a worthy rival of Beet- 
hoven iu the art of extemporization. He principally 
devoted himself to the pianoforte, both as player and 
composer. Schliiter says of him: ''After the three 
great masters, Hummel is the best pianoforte (not 
sonata) composer; and, as such, is the founder of a 
school which has cast into the shade Dussek, Steibelt^ 
Pleyel, Wolfl, and others." In Church music his masses 
take high rank even now, and the one in B flat is fre- 
quently performed. Hummel also very successfully 
adapted the symphonies of Haydn and Mozart, and 
some of Beethoven's also, for pianoforte, flute, violin, 
and violoncello. A Septet, written for pianoforte, 
string and wind instruments, is Hummel's dt^ cCcBUvre, 
His operas — and he wrote several — are now forgotten. 
S. Nbukomm (1778 — 1858), who wrote in all depart- 
ments of composition; A. Reioha (1770—1836) 
author of the well-known work on fugue; A, 
DiABELLi (1781—1858); C. Kreutzer (1782—1849), 
who composed twenty-four operas and a number of 
masses, were among the most esteemed German maah 
elans of this time. 

L H] General Summary. 4!k 

64. (0.) ludwig Spohr (1784— 1859), a native of 
Branswick, developed at a very early age that remark- 
able talent for the violin which placed him amongst the 
most brilliant violinists of his timf^. At the age of 14 
he obtained the patronage of the Duke of Brunswick, 
who placed him in his orchestra, and subsequently em 
ployed Franz Eck, an excellent player, to give him 
lessons. Of his long and successful career as a per- 
former we shall not now speak : the D minor and E 
minor concertos, both composed at an early period, 
bear sufficient testimony to his executive powers, as 
well as to his skill as a composer of violin music. As 
a writer, with the exception of a few lessons received 
in his youth, it is said that Spohr was entirely self- 
taught. This accounts for much of the freedom, some 
would say lawlessness, which characterizes all Spohr's 
work. His first opera, Alruna, had a considerable 
local success, but it is now entirely forgotten. How- 
ever, the reception accorded to this work encouraged 
Spohr to further efforts in opera, and in 1816 Faust 
was produced at Prague. Spohr's Faust, since eclipsed 
by Gounod's immortal work, contains many fine points, 
and should not have been allowed to fall into unmerited 
neglect. Seven years later Jessonda was produced at 
the Conrt Theatre of Cassel, to which Spohr had been 
appointed as director. These are his two great operas ; 
Zemire und Azor had but a fleeting popularity, and 
other operas were even more short-lived. Of his ora- 
torios, The Last Judgment is the best known in this 
countey; Calvary (1835) deserves a more frequent 
hearing. In 1820 Spohr came over to England to con- 
duct one of the Philharmonic Concerts, and under his 
own b&ton was produced, for the first time and in 
manuscript, the Symphony in D minor. The symphory 
entitled Die Weihe der Tone (The Consecration of Sound). 
an ever-present feature in our orchestral programmes, was 
produced in 1832. 27w Fall of Babylon was composed 
lor and produced at the Korwieh Musical Eestival of 

H Ifhtory qf Jfntie. [l M» A 

1842$ in 1843 Spohr himself condooted a performance 
of the work at Exeter Hall, by the Sacred Hannoiiie 
Society, l^ides the works already mentioned, Spohr 
compiled eight symphonies, including the Hidorical 
and the ISeasons, a double quartet for strings, and a 
number of works in which the violin fignrea as the 
principal instrument. As an example of his skill in 
part writing may be mentioned his Mass for ten voicea, 
composed for the Leipeic Choral Society, bnt relinr 
quished by that body as impracticable. Spohr, how- 
ever, successfully produced it at Cassel, in 1827. Spohr's 
choral muAic, although highly esteemed amongst us^ is 
yet so difficiilt by reason of the " chromatic " pipgies- 
sions in which he freely indulges, that few vocal 
societies find the courage to attempt it in pnUie. Hia 
instrumental works are in constant use and reqnaat, 
while Ms two great violin concertos are frequently 
selected by modem virtuosi as admirable vehidea for 
the display of their skill on the most difficult of all 

55. (G.) Karl Xaria von Weber (1786—1826), the 
son of a travelling actor — once a man of wealth and 
good social position — had the good fortune to be placed 
under the tuition of Michael Haydn (par. 49). Of his 
juvenile productions — including two comic operas — ^it 
is needless to speak : Weber's actual career as a com- 
poser did not commence until he had visited Vienna 
(in 1803), where he studied for some months under the 
Abb4 Vogler (par. 49). The following year Weber 
was appointed to the directorship of the opera-house at 
Breslau. Here he had a narrow escape of being acci- 
dentally poisoned. A succession of worldly reverses 
subsequently induced him to accept the post of private 
secretary to Prince Ludwig of Wurtemberg. In the 
year 1811 he obtained the countenance of the Grand 
Duke of Wurtemberg to a new opera, Abu Hassan^ the 
Boccess of which enabled Weber to make a professional 
tour amongst the principal cities of Germany. In 1813 

LK.] Oeneral Summarff. 46 

he obtained the appointment — a comparatiyely import* 
ant one— of musical director of the theatre at Pra^e ; 
for which he composed several new works. Thence he 
removed to Dresden (1816) in the capacity of Kapell 
Meister to the King of Saxony. We cannot stay to 
enomerate tiie many compositions (among them the 
Jubilee Cantata and the Mass in £ flat) which ema- 
nated from Weber's pen at this period. A new, and 
the most brilliant, era of his life was commenced with 
the opera Der FreischiUZf originally intended for the 
Berlin Theatre. The same year, 1820, he completed 
Preeiaaa, and this work was produced before its prede- 
cessor. The success of Preciosay marked as it was, was 
as nothing compared with that of Der Freiechutz, the 
fame of which quickly spread to this country, and 
occasioned an invitation of the composer to London, as 
well as the commission to write Oheron for the English 
stage. In 1823 Euryanthe was produced, at Vienna, 
but ihe success of the opera was very transient, and 
gave Weber considerable di^ppointment. Acting on 
the advice of Beethoven, Weber subsequently curtailed 
the work, and thus obtained for it a wider hearing. 
Weber paid his promised visit to London in the year 
1826, bringing with him his opera Oberan, which was 
produced at Covent Grarden under his own b&ton. An 
internal disorder of long standing, aggravated no doubt 
by hard work and continuous anxiety, prematurely ter- 
minated his life. He died suddenly, at the close of his 
engagement at Covent Garden, and was buried in 
London. Some years afterwards his remains were re- 
moved to Grermany, and were re-interred at Dresden. 
The great work of Weber's life was the development of 
a distinct school of German opera. His Der Freiachutz 
and Euryan&ie mu«t always be regarded — ^the period of 
their production duly considered — as among the most 
important contributions to the rising scbooL SchlUtex 
regards Wagner's Lohengrin as the offspring of Eury^ 
miuhe by ''direct descent" ^tir^an^^e, however^ hat 

46 nutory of JUHik. [i^ M^ ai. 

lonp; been shelved, owin^, no doubt^ to the weakness of 
its libretto ; but Der Freisnhiitz enjoys an nndiminislMd 
popularity. It is affirmed by some that it was Weber 
who originated the pLin of including in the opera 
overture the leading airs from the body of the work. 
It is, however, to be noticed that the same featate exists 
in the overture to Don Oiovanni (1787), a work which 
dates many voars before Weber's operas. 

56. (0.) Frans Schnbert (1797—1828^ began his 
career as a chorij*ter in the Imperial Chapel at Vienna^ 
where he remained until his 16th year. Of his 
juvenile efforts at this period we shall not speak; we 
should, however, make an exception of the oelebnited 
song Hagar'a Lament^ which shows how early his won* 
derful powers as a song-composer were defe&oped. 
When the loss of his treble voice brought an end to 
bis chorister's duties, he returned to his native town in 
the capacity of schoolmaster^s assistant in his fathet^s 
school. Here he composed a number of works, includ- 
ing the Ma88 in F, which, slight as it is in construction, 
is a charming composition ; and well deserves the in- 
creased attention which has of late years been accorded 
to it in tliis country. The Masses in G and G were 
composed about 1815 ; the same year were produced an 
enormous number of songs, including The Erl King, 
highly prized by Goethe, At the age of 20 Schubert 
left his home to reside in Vienna, and subsequently 
entered the service of Count Esterhazy as music-master 
to his children, where he remained about two years. 
After this Schubert never held any definite appoint- 
ment, but lived an erratic kind of life, although he was 
seldom out of Vienna. He once applied for a post ip 
the Imperial Chapel, but failed. He formed but few 
permanent friendships, and did not succeed in winning 
the r^ard of Beethoven until the lattei was on his 
death-bed. As a composer for the opera, Schubert was 
exceedingly active and uniformly unsuccessful TIm 

U B9, 07.] General Summarp. 411 

music to Mosamunde, originally produced at the " An der 
Wien " Theatre, in 1 823, appears to be the best example 
of his efforts in this class of composition. A few 
years ago the music of Roaamunde was brought before a 
London audience at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, but 
we do not know of any further attempt u> keep it 
alive. Next to his marvellous songs, Schubert's piano- 
forte works are the most popular amongst his composi- 
tions. His sonatas are, as a rule, somewhat erratic in 
point of musical form, but they are all full of strong 
connected interest, and exhibit in a remarkable degree 
the inexhaustible fertility of Schubert's mind. The 
same may be said of the pianoforte fantasies. In the 
domain of chamber music, his most important com* 
position is, perhaps, the octet for stringed and wind 
instruments, occasionally performed in this country. 
Of Schubert's nine symphonies undoubtedly the finest 
is the symphony in C, composed in 1828, the year of 
his death. The score of his unfinished symphony in 
£ minor presents so many characteiistic beauties that 
it is a matter for regret that he did not complete the 
work. Of his Church music, to the works already 
mentioned must be added the Mass in E flat (compoped 
in 1828), which is frequently performed in this coun- 
try. Schubert also wrote several cantatas — including 
MiriartCs Battle Song — melodramas, marches, and other 
occasional compositions, but all these save the marehef 
are now nearly forgotten. 

67. (G.) The name of Jacob Keyerbeer (1794 — 
1864) is indissolubly associated with French Opera, 
but he was a Grerman not only by birth but by training, 
and was a fellow-disciple with Weber under the Abbe 
Vogler at Vienna, at which city Meyerbeer was known 
as a brilliant pianist. His early operas — JephthcHs 
Daughter and The Two (Miphsy produced in Germany, 
and JlomUda, Semramide riconosciuia, Margherita 
d^Anjou^ and others, for the Italian stage, — were by no 
means so successful as his later works in Paris. Boberi 

M Hisiofy of Mume. [l m,m 

h Diallf, prx]aced at the Paris Grand Opera in 1831, 
at onee established the fame uf its composer. Bob&H 
was followed by Les HwjwsnoU (1836); LEtoile dm 
Nard (originally in German), 1854; Lb Prophktt 
(1849); Le Pardon de Ploermd — better known as 
Dinarah (1859) ; and LAfrieaine (1864). The greater 
part of Meyerbeer^s life was spent in Paris, and Bonini 
was the only composer who rivalled him in popularity. 
Among the lesser Grennan contemporaiies of Meyerbeer 
we should give the first mention to J. MoaohelM 
(1794 — 1870), so celebrated for his pianoforte playiiu^ 
that Mendeksolin, who was in a position to command 
the best mastcrR, availeii himself of Moscheles* toition. 
Moscheles held for some time the position of professor of 
the pianoforte at the Leipsic conservatorium. He conb 
])08ed, besides some symphonies, a number of ooncertoSy 
sonatas, and variations for his especial instrument^ and 
his works still occupy occasional places in our concert- 
programmes. Ferdinand Eies (1784 — 1838) was a 
pupil of Beethoven, and excelled as a pianist. He 
compoRod sev(^ral pianoforte concertos and sonatas; also 
two operas, bolides quartets and other cliamber music 
F. Kalkduknnkk (1784 — 1849) was another aocom- 
plished pianoforte player, and has left behind him 
many studies wliich are higldy prized by pianoforte 
teachers. With one or two notable exceptions the 
names of F. E. Fesca (1789—1826); J. C. F. 
Schneider (1786—1858); P. J. Lindpaintnkr (1791--. 
1856); J. Maysbdbr (1789—1863); B. Klmm 
(1794—1832); C. Czerny (1791—1857), whose piano- 
forte studies are familiar to the students of the present 
day; M. Hauptmann (1794 — 1868) well remembered 
as the teacher of many living musicLins ; A. B. Ma&x 
(1799—1866); G. Reissiqer (1789—1859) bring the 
catalogue of German composers down to our own day. 

58. (G.) Peux Heitoblssoen-Bartholdy (1809 — 
1847), born in Hamburg, was the son of a wealthy banker, 
vdu> on discovering his child's precocious talent fot 

1. 68.] OeneraJ Summary. 49 

music spared no pains in fostering and developing it 
both by direct tuition of celebrated professors and by 
the refining influence of the highest musical society. 
Brought up in an atmosphere of musical culture from 
infancy, Mendelssohn had opportunities which seldom 
fall to the lot of a musical student, and availed himself 
of them to the fullest extent. On the removal of the 
family to Berlin, Mendelssohn received his pianoforte 
instruction from Berger, the principal pianist there, and 
for composition was placed under Zelter, a pupil of 
Sebastian Bach : this combined course began when 
Mendelssohn was but eight years old Under Zelter 
he continued some years ; but at this time his parents 
had no thought of his devoting himself entirely to music 
as a profession. This was not decided until the year 
1825, when, on visiting and playing before Cherubini, 
in Paris, he obtained the enthusiastic approbation of 
that great master. The first composition of any im- 
portance was the Symphony in C minor, written in 
1824, when Mendelssohn was but 15. In 1825, the 
cpera, T?ie Wedding of Oainacho, was produced at Ber- 
lin, but while it had a hearty reception at the hands of 
the public, the Berlin press was hostile to the work. 
Two years afterwards (1827) came the overture to the 
Midsummer Nighfs Dream; and, in the following year, 
the descriptive overture A Calm Sea and Prospei'ov^s 
Voyage, To about the same period is attributed the 
ReformcUion Symphony, introduced into England a few 
years back by Mr. Manns at the Crystal Palace. The 
year 1829 was marked by Mendelssohn's first visit to 
England,* he having just completed his studies at the 
University of Berlin, He appeared at several London 
concerts, and was warmly received on all sides. A 
short trip to Scotland occasioned the overture entitled 
FingaVa Cave, or The Hebrides, produced on his return 

* Professor Bitter (History of Music, p. 394) gires 
date of this visit l^e inTitation (from Moscheles) « 

1827 as th« 

came ia that 

iwr, but the joamey was deferred until 1829. 


00 History of Jftrnt. [l m 

to Berlin, in the same year. In 1830 Mendelssohii 
proceeded on a tour through Italy and Switzeiland, 
and while at Rome compofwd the music to 77^ Fird 
Walpurgis Nvjht of Goethe. In 1833, after having 
faileil to obtain the principal professorship at the 
Berlin Sing-Academie^ he was appointed ''Municipal 
Music Director " at Dtisseldorf, where he commenced 
the oratorio, St, PaiU. From Dtisseldorf he was sum- 
moned to the directorship of the Gewandbaus concerts 
at I^ipfuc, and while there completed his 8t. Paul, the 
first performance of which took place at the Dusseldoff 
festival of 1836. In the autumn of the following year 
Si. Paul was produced at the Birmingham ioetival, 
under the composer's direction. The public oelabration, 
at Leipsic, in 1840, of the fourth centenary of the in- 
vention of the art of printing, occasioned the produo- 
tion of the Festgeaang and the sinfonia eaniait^ Lob- 
gesang, (Hymn of Praise), The former cantata was 
sung in the public square at Leipsic, on the unveiling 
of the statue of Guttenberg; the Hymn of Praise 
was performed in St. Thomas's Church. (The recent 
Caxton Commemoration Festival, 1877, was similarly 
marked by a performance of this work in Westminster 
Abbey, under the direction of Dr. Bridge, the organist.) 
In 1841 Mendelssohn accepted the appointment of 
Kapellmeister to the King of Prussia, for whom he 
composed, as his inaugural work, the music to the An- 
tigone, The year 1843 witnessed the accomplishment 
of a long-cherished project of Mendelssohn's — the 
Leipsic Conservatorium of Music — of which he was the 
founder and first director. Among the ori^(inal profess- 
ors were Schumann and Hauptmann. Mendelssohn's 
last great wurk "^'as the Elijah, which was expressly 
composed for, and produced at, the Birmingham Fes- 
tival of 1846. An opera, Lorelei, and an oratorio, 
Christtis, were both left unfinished. His death, in 
1847, took place at Leipsic, and his remains were conr 
veyed for interment to Berlin. It is needless to giva t 

u n, ».] ijhneral SumMary, 51 

full list of his works, which are well known in thia 
country. The disciples of a new school hayo protested 
against the general idolization of Mendelssohn which 
would place him on a par with Handel and Beethoven; 
but, in spite of all that can be adduced against liiiny 
Mendelssohn continues to maintain a high position in 
the popular esteem. Earely, if ever, is any scheme 
of ''Classical Concerts," whether of orchestral or of 
chamber-music, marked by an utter exclusion of works 
from the comprehensive repertory which Mendelssohn 
has left behind him. All his compositions — from his 
symphonies to the charming Lieder ohne worte — ^from 
the Elijah to the Anthems for two Glioirs — breathe a life 
and freshness, a sublimity and devoutness, which more 
than compensate for an occasional absence of detailed 
and formal construction. 

59. (G.) Bobert Schumann (1810—1856), a native 
of Zwickau, Saxony, was educated at Leipsic for the 
legal profession, but eventually abandoned his studies 
in favour of music. Under the care of Wibok his re- 
markable powers as a pianist were rapidly developed, 
while his theory studies were directeii by Heinrich 
Dom. In the year 1834 Schumann brought out the 
Nens Zeitachrift fiir Miisik^ a journal which still exists, 
and in it he published a number of essays and sketches 
on musical subjects — all full of literary power and keen 
critical perception. So far, Schumann had confined 
himself principally to compositions for the pianoforte, 
among which we should mention the Smiata in F sharp 
minor, that in G minor, and the Fantasias; and it was 
not until 1841 that he attempted his first symphony, in 
B flat. In 1843, the Cantata, Paradise and the Feri, 
a setting of the story from Moore's Lalla Rookh, was 
produced at Leipsic, but did not create any very decided 
impression. An opera, Oenevihvey produced in 1848, 
also proved unsuccessful. The same year the music to 
Manfredy excerpts from which are occasiooally performed 
VBL this countiy, wss wiitten. Schumann's finest work 

02 HiUory %f Mmme. [l so, ai 

of this dasc, howoTer, is his music to Fautif a work full 
of beaaty and power, which deserves to be better known 
and more widely appreciated. This was prodnoed in 
1850. In the same year Schumann was appointed 
to the Directorship of Music at Diisseldorfy but his 
confirmed ill-health, and the increasing symptoms of 
mental disorder, prevented him from undertaking much 
active duty, although as a writer he was still very pro- 
lific, producing his Symphony in E flat (1 85 1), and 
several fine works, including The Mitugtitffa Cwrse^ 
nermann and Dorothea^ and The PUgrimage of Ute 
Rose, But, in 1854, insanity took complete possession 
of him, and after an ineffectual attempt to diown him- 
self in the Rhine, he was conveyed to a private asylum 
in the neighbourhood of Bonn, where, in 1856, ha 
died. The claims of Schumann as a composer were 
almost unknown in this country until his widow^ the 
gifted pianist Clara Schumann, by her wonderful play- 
ing of his works for the pianoforte, brought to light 
her husband's exalted genius, which was too far in 
advance of his own time to obtain the immediate recog- 
nition which his illustrious contemporary, Mendelssohn, 

60. Prederic Chopin (1810—1849), a native of 
"Warsaw, spent by far the greater portion of his artistic 
life in Paris, and his works are strongly tinctured with 
the style of the French School His dance-music, 
especisdly his Polonaises^ based on the form of an old 
national dance in Poland, is remarkable for the under- 
lying melancholy which in fact more or less charac- 
terizes all Chopin's works. His MazourhaSy Studies^ 
Nocturnes^ Waltzes^ Galops, and Impromptus, as well 
as the Polonaises, are all familiar compositions in the 
drawing-room, as well as in our concert-rooms. Chopin 
introduced several new features in pianoforte scoring. 
'^ It is to him," says laszt in his well-known lA/e of 
Chopin, " that we owe the extension of chords, stnidc 
together in aip^ggio^ or en batterie ; in the Chromatis 

I 00, n.] General Summary/. 59 

nnaosities )f which his pages offer sauh striking ex* 
amples ; the little groups of superadded notes falling 
like light drops of pearly dew upon the melodic figure." 
His sonatas, the first of which contains The Funeral 
March, and his concertos serve to exhibit every variety 
of sentiment and passion, in which, however, patlios 
strongly predominates. Chopin died of decline at an 
early age (39), and the March to which we have alluded 
was performed at his funeral 

61. (E.) The list of celebrated French composers of 
the period succeeding our last summary of this school 
is a brief one. Daniel Auber (1782*— 1871) for many 
years director of the Paris Conservatoire, devoted him 
self principally to opera. His best known works are 
Fra Diavolo, Le Dmnino Noir, and Masaniello {La 
Muette de Fortici). L. Herold (1791—1833) lives 
through his famous opera, Zampa (1830) ; other operas 
were Marie and Le Fr4- attx Glercs, Hector Berlioi 
(1803 — 1869), whose intimate acquaintance with every 
possible resource of the orchestra led him into the com- 
position of works which require the employment of 
lai^e and abnormally constituted bands to produce 
them, was originally a medical student, but afterwards 
went through .the music course at the Conservatoire of 
Paris. He produced a large number of works, chiefly 
orchestral, of which his symphonies. Episode de la vie 
d^un artide^ Harold en lialief Bovfieo et Juliette, and the 
Faniadiquef are the principal. His opera Beiivenuto 
Cellini is still, we believe, occasionally performed in 
f ranee. Halevy (1799 — 1862), besides his greatest 
opera, La Juive, so popular in Paiis, wrote several 
operas, among them njEclair, and Les Mousquetairea 
de la Heine. FIslioibn David (1810—1876), whose 
symphony-ode, Tfie Desert, was revived, after long 
neglect^ at Paris shortly after his death, brings us to tho 
end of the list of completed careers. 

* Schliiter and lonie others mention 1784 as the iliite of Auber'a 

54 HMonj of Mwtk [i. m, m 

62. (I.) 0. Bpontini (1784—1851) efTe^ted considera 
ble in ^rovements on the ntyle of Ciluck, to whom alM) 
be, more nearly than any other compoi^r, approaches ii. 
classic dignity. Like Gluck, Spontini, after a brief 
Italian career, settled in Paris (1803), and for the Paris 
Opera wrote his master-piece, La Vestcde^ as well as ^e 
operas, Ferdinand, Cortex, and OlympU. Professor 
Kitter, who, as we think, mistakenly fixes the date of 
Spontini's birth ten years earlier, thus writes of him : 
'' Animated by a sense of heroic grandeur, fall of pathos 
and passionate expression, ho necessarily gave to his 
forms an adequate amplitude and vigour of styla But 
not this quality alone characterizes his works : tender- 
ness of feeling, and sympathy for the softer chords of 
human pasnion, are also famUiar to his pen. Amidst 
all the brilliancy of scenic representations, he seldom 
becomes trivial, or degenerates into mere saperficisl 
effect. His effects are always sustained by noble 
dramatic meaning. His orchestral accompaniments 
and illustrations are vigorous, sonorous, and brilliant, 
according to the requirements of the scenic situation." 
All this is amply proved on a mere glance at the scoie 
of his VestcUe, which ought to find an English publisher, 
and a place in every musician's library. 

63. (I.) Gioachino Eossini (1792—1868), a native 
of Pezarb, in Italy, early distinguished himself at the 
school of music at Bologna, where he studied composi- 
tion under Johann Maitini. While yet a boy, he wrote 
seveial operas for the provincial theatres, and at the 
age of 21 produced Tancredi at Venice. In 1816 
Eossini went to Eome, and produced, at the Carnival 
of that year, the Barhiere di Siviglia and another opera. 
Otello was performed at Naples shortly afterwards, and 
at Eome La Cenerentola, while at Milan La Gazza 
Ladra found immediat^i favour. All these works were 
written in the same year — 1816. Mosh in Egitto (in 
^hich the celebrated prayer, To Thee, great Lord — Dai 
^w> itellaio Soglio — ^was inserted as an afterthought), was 

I. fl^ 64.1 General 8umn. try. Sfc 

produced in 1818, and La Donna del Logo in Uie ye^i 
following. In 1823 took place tbe first performance (»f 
Seiniramifle^ at Venice. After a short and successful 
visit to London, Eossini went to Paris, where he re- 
mained for the rest of his life. The only opera of note 
composed for the Parisians was the fine work Gufflielmi, 
Telly which appeared in 1829. After this date no other 
compositions, except the Stabat Mater and the post- 
humous Messe Solennelle, appeared from his pen. Th<v 
most prominent among Kossini's Italian contemporaries 
were: V. Bellini (^1802—1835), whose Norma, La 
Sonnamhula, and / Puritani, are his only lasting 
operas ; G. Donizetti (1797 — 1848), the composer of 
Lucrezia Borgia, Luda di Lammermoor, La Favorita, 
Don Pasquale, LElisire dCAmore, La Fille du Eegi- 
menb^ and other favourite opt^ras; S. Mebcadantb 
(1797 — 1870), and M. Carafa (1785 — 1872) both 
truthfully described as '^ weak imitators of BossinL" 

64. (E.) Samuel Wesley (1766—1837) was a son 
of the Eev. Charles Wesley, the great hymn-writer. 
Samuel Wesley is said to have attempted composition 
even in childhood; at the age of six years he wrote an 
oratorio, Rath — a mere childish production, as might 
have been expected, but still showing signs of unusual 
musical taste and ability. Wesley's anthems are among 
the finest of his time. They must not, however, be 
confounded with those of Samuel Sebastian Wesley 
(1810 — 1876), his son, whose Blessed he the God aiui 
Father, and Tlie Wilderness, and other anthems and 
Church Music, stamp him as one of the greatest Church 
writers of the age. William Crotch (1775—1847) 
was another in whom genius was early discovered and 
developed. He has left behind him the oratorios. 
The Gaptimty, and Palestine, and a number of 
anthems, services, glees, and a work on Harmony. 
His grand motett^ Methinks I hear the full Gelestiai 
Choir, is frequently performed, and may be cited as an 
exquisite specimen of vooal writing in five parte. Foj 

66 History of Music. [i. m. «l 

some years Pr. Crotch filled the Chair of Music at the 
University of Oxford. Thomas Attwood (1767—1838) 
was a pupil of Mozart, under whose careful training he 
acquired thit sweetness of style and clearness of diction 
for which his writings are noted. He composed a 
numher of anthems— of which Come^ Holy Ohosi is the 
most popular — and several operas, now unknown. J. 
B. Cramer (1771 — 1858) was a leading pianist and 
teacher, and composed upwards of 100 pianoforte 
sonatas, seven concertos, numerous studies, and the 
well-known instruction hook. John Field (1782 — 
1837), a pupil of Clemen ti, was another accomplished 
pianoforte player and composer, whose nocturnes are 
ever favourite composition**. Sir H. K. Bishop (1782 — 
1855) was a prolitic composer of almost every kind of 
music, hut excelled in the part-song and glee. He 
wrote many popular operas in English, and ^m these 
many of his hest-known songs and choruses are taken. 
V. Wallace (1814 — 1865) survives in his operas, 
Maritana, Lurline, &c. M. W. Balfe (1808—1870), 
an Irishman by birth, but an Italian by training, com- 
posed principally for the stage. His operas, The Bo- 
heniian Girl, and The Talisman, a posthumous work, 
are at the present moment the most prominent of 
Balf e's productions. Sir William Stemdale Bennett 
(1816 — 1875), one of the most gifted of English com- 
posers, was not a prolific writer, but everything he has 
left us is of the highest merit. His two cantatas. The 
May-Queen and The Woman of Samaria, are beautiful 
works of their kind. Of his orchestral works, the 
Symphony in O minor, the concert overtures. The Wood 
iSfymph, Paradise and the Peri, and the pianoforte 
concertos, are among the best. Cipriani Potter, a former 
principal of the Royal Academy of Music, is still remem- 
bered as a skilful teacher and an accomplished writer. 

65. (E.) The more prominent among the composers 
of our own day shall now be briefly noticed. Sir John 
Gms (&. 18)0), sometime oiganist of St. Paul's Cathe^ 

L 6&J General Summary. ^ 57 

dial, was in boyhood a cb rister of tbe Chapel Rcyal, 
and afterwards became a pupil of Attwood, at St. Paul's. 
He has composed a large number of works, chiefly 
sacred. Among his anthems the best known are, If toe 
believe that Jesus died (composed for the funeral of the 
Duke of Wellington), Praise the Lord, give thanks^ 
Saviour of the World, Stand up and bless the Lord 
your Ood, and taste and see how gracious the Lord 
is. His secular works include Ossian^s Hymn to the 
Sun, There is beauty on the Mountain, The Sycamore 
Shade, ^c. Sir John Goss jras formerly a Professor in 
the Eoyal Academy of Music, and his work on Har* 
monyand Thorough-bass is a well-known and widely 
popular text-book. Sir Julius Benedict {b. 1804)^ 
composer of The Lily of Killamey and other operas, 
and of the oratorio, St. Peter, is a native of Stuttgart, 
Germany, but has been resident in England for 
many years. Sir Michael Costa (6. 1810) com- 
poser of the popular oratorio, Eli, and of Naaman, 
has alEM> written several operas, among which may be 
mentioned Malvina and Don Carlos. He is the con- 
ductor of Her Majesty's Opera, and of the Sacred Har- 
monic Society. O. A. Macfarren (i^. 1813), Professor 
of Music in the University of Cambridge, and Principal 
of the Eoyal Academy of Music, has written an immense 
number of works, chiefly vocal, among them the two 
oratorios, /SS?. John the Baptist and The Resurrection, 
Edward J. Hopkins {b, 1818), organist of the Temple 
Church, London, ranks with the best Church writers of 
the present day. His Services in F and A, his anthems 
and hymn-tunes, are deservedly esteemed, and will have 
a permanent place in the music-literature of the Church. 
The Eev, Sir P. A. Gore Ouseley, Bart. {b. 1825), Pro- 
fessor of Music in the University of Oxford, is the 
composer of the oratorios St. Polycarp and Hagar, 
and of several fine anthems, of which It came even to 
pass is perhaps one of the best. Sir Frederick Ouseley 
has written treatises on Harmony, on Counterpoint^ 

68 ffUiorp of Mmie. [l 

Cn.'Mn^ and Fugue, and on Musical Form. Otiiei 
eminent English musicians are : Sir A. P. Stewart^ 
Professor of Music in the University of Dublin, com- 
poser of Church music, cantatas, and instrumental 
works ; Dr. Stegg^all, organist of Lincoln's Inn, whose 
anthems and services are justly esteemed as among the 
best of the day ; F. H. Cowen, composer of the Rose 
Maiden^ the Corsair , dramatic cantatas; also of Patdinet 
an opera, and TJie Deluge, an oratorio ; A. SuUiyan, 
composer of The Prodigal Son, The LiglU of the 
World, &c. ; Berthold Tours, who has written some 
Une anthems and Churcli Services, besides numerous 
songs; Joseph Bftmby, author of many popular antheuis 
and services ; John Barnett, whose Mountain Sylpli 
is a favourite composition; J. F. Bamett, composer of 
The Ancient Mariner, &c. ; J. L. Hatton, aubh(»r oi 
Hezekiah, (an oratorio), and several anthems, songs, and 
part-songs, &c , &c 

66. (F.) Charles GoinroD {b. 1818) stands at the 
head of Frencli composers at the present day. lie has 
written some fine sacred works (Messe Solennelle, Messe 
du SacrS Cceur, &c.), but his fame will rest chiefly upon 
his operas, of wliich Faust is his chef (V osuwre. Amongst 
other leading French composers are Ambroise Thomas, 
director of the Paris Conservatoire, author of MtgnoUy 
Hamlet, and other operas ; Flotow (author of Maria) ; 
Jacques Offenbach, composer of many comic operas, 
including La Grande Duchesse, Barhe Bleu, &c. ; and 
Hbrve, another writer of Opera Gomique, whose 
Chiljperic has had a world-wide but ephemeral popu- 
larity. Among other living French musicians may be 
mentioned Masse, Massenet, C. Saint-Saens, Leoooq, 
and Guilmant. 

67. (I.) Giuseppe Verdi (b, 1814) now stands al- 
most without a contemporary of any importance among 
Italians His operas are very numerous, the most 
popular among them being Emam, Eigoletto, H Trova 

1. 67— ».] Oen&ral Summari. 59 

tare, La Traoiatay Un Ballo in Mctacher /, anri Avia, 
His Requiem, notwithstanding a frequent disrefjard of 
many important canons of contrapuntal writiug, is a 
grand and impressive work. 

68. Niels W. Ckide (6. 1817), a native of CJopenhagen, 
one of the most distinguished of living composers, ia 
chiefly known through his Erlkin^a Daughter and 
other cantatas, but he has also written some splendid 
symphonies and other orchestral works, as well as 
chamber-music and songs. Anton Knbinstein, a 
native of Eussia, better known as a pianist of the first 
rank, has also written concertos and other orchestral 
pieces, of which latter his recent Ocean Symphony is 
the most remarkable. 

69. (G.) Eia&AXD Waoser (&. 1813), whose art 
theories have for many years been the subject of a grea^ 
deal of bitter controversy amongst musicians, has en- 
deavoured to revolutionize the whole system of opera, 
and to overturn all previous notions of musical form. 
His earlier operas, Eienzi, and Das Liebesverbot, are 
framed upon the old models ; but he forsook these in 
his Fliegende Hollander and Tannhdvser, and even these 
he considers as far beneath the ideal form of opera. 
Lohengrin may be regarded as a more decided advance 
upon Tannhdmer ; but Tristan and Isolde and the 
Meistet'singer are the first works which embody the full 
realization of Wagner's views. His greatest contribution 
to the " music of the future '* is th« well-known (»pera- 
series, Der Ring der Nibelungen, TMs fourfold wofk 
consists of Das Rheingold, Die Walkure, Siegfried, 
and Gotterdammerung, and the whole series was per- 
formed at a great public festival, in 1876, at Bayreuth, 
Germany, in a theatre especially constructed for that 
purpose. A selection from this tetralogy was per- 
formed in London, at the Eoyal Albert Hall, 1877, 
under the composer^s personal direction. Franz Liizt 
(6. 1811), a native of Hungary, is one of the greatest 

60 Hktory ofMumc [l a», 7o 

of living mrtuon on the pianoforte, for which he hat 
written concertos, and numherlees smaller stadies and 
transcnptions, hesides cantatas and symphonies. Liszt 
is a strong advocate of the Wagner tiieorieSy to which 
we shall refer more particularly in a later section of this 
work. Johannes Brahms {b. 1833), whose Song of 
Destiny and Requiem are becoming familiar works in 
this country, has also proved his remarkable genios in 
the symphony and other important forms of composi- 
tion. J. Bafl^ J. Joachim (6. 1831), Ebnst Paueb, are 
all distinguished composers, amongst many others^ in 
their rRspectivo styles. 

70. We have now come to the conduBion of our 
general summary, which from the nature of our 
subject can be little more than biographicaL Our suc- 
ceeding section will consist of a series of tables of 
musicians and events ; after whi ih we shall proceed to 
trace, with the help afforded by the present seetion, iba 
hirtoiy of the art iML 





1. Each page contains a " square," divided into ten 
parts. The squares on opposite pages are duplicates, i.e, 
they represent the same period of time ; the lefi hand 
page indicating events, discoveries, &c., the right hand 
page contcdning the names of musicians. From the 
time of Alfred the Great (870) and onward, the reigns 
of the English Sovereigns are given in the respective 
intervals of their accession, in order the more clearly to 
localize the musical events in the mind of the student. 

2. The first square (right and left) includes the dates 
A.D. to A.D. 999. Each succeeding square represents 
100 years. 

3. Table No. L contains ten spaces of 100 years each ; 
these again are subdivided into ten spaces of ten years 
each. Table No. II. (and each succeeding table) con- 
tains ten spaces of ten years each, each space of ten yean 
being afterwards subdivided into ten spaces of one year 
each. These spaces are so arranged that each terminal 
number of a date has a fixed position in the squares : 
thus, the date ** xxxO " is always assigned to the " band " 
at the top of the square ; the date **xxx6 " is always 
to be found in the centre square, and so on. 

4. The sign * prefixed to a name or event denotes 
that the date is uncertain or approximate. 

5. It will be well for the student to exercise himself 
in the identification of dates and squares, by the use of 
the figures, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, before systematic- 
ally employing the tables in conjunction with the text, 

Example, To find the year 1655: — 5 is invariably 
une cefitre figure. Turning to Table VIL (1500—99) 
we see that 1550 is the cejitre square of ten years, and 
1555 the centre of that square. A few experiments of 
this kind will easily familiarize the student with tht 
plan of these tables. 

TABLE I.— A.D. lo 999. 





3 5 

I I 
^ I 











3j a 




c0 Ki S 


TABLE L— A-D. JO 999. 





f M 1 ! 

1 f 1 



t ! 1 f ! 

! fi 


1 ! 

' ! ? 1 f 

3 S 
1 1 


L 7 ? 7 7 

2-i S 


- ! ! ^ f 


! f 

S 2 

- i i f ' 

3 i 1 


! =f 


T M |7 = 

"! 1 



7 f 




TABLE IL— A.i>. 1000 10 1099. 












TABLE IL-:-A.D. 1000 to 1099. 

















lO 00 














































TABTiE TIT.— A.D. 1100 lx> 1199. 














^ 5 





TABLE III— A.D. 1100 TO 1199. 
















































TABLE lY.— A.D. 1300 «o 1S99. 












IS „ 




€Q 8 








TABLE IV_A.D. 1200 to 1299. 


























S 4) 












T 7 1 





























V-l ^^4 






































































I ABLE y_ 





table; v.— A.D. 1300 TO lS9ft. 































• 7 













































































r-t 2 







1 g 
























-,. J ' '1 



TABLE VL— A.D. 1400 to 1499. 










s • 












TABLE YL— A.D. UOO to 1499 







































































TABLE VIL— A.D. 1500 to W99. 










C So 

























TABLE YII.— A.D. 1500 to 1599. 





























2 • 

I O 















































^ So 


























TABLE VUL— A.D. 1600 fo 1W9. 



. P* 
















w1 ?-a a 8 



1 1 




TABLE Vin.— A.D. 1600 to 1699. 










o Is 











































































TABT.E IX.— «.». 1700 to 1799. 

HD81CAL spoons AND BTBNT^ 






1 '' 


= « 


3 i 



5 r 



TABLE IX.— A.D. 1700 lo 







O « 
O t 



































































I M 





















7 17. 








TABLE X.— to. 1800 TO THE ] 





if J 

1 1 



1 1 


si 1 



1 1 

S f 

1 il 


n.j 81 













•0 " 


























• •sis 









I •do- 















































HitUnj of Mme. [m. it A 


1. Fob the reasons adduced at tbe commencement of 
the first section of this work, we shall not lead our 
readers into the labyrinths of Greek scales, or the 
fanciful dissertations of mediaeval writers on musical 
theory, but will proceed at once with the actual history 
of music as an art (and science), which practically dates 
from the fourth century after Christ. 

2. The plain-song of the early Christian Church 
was, as we have seen, formed upon the old Greek scales 
or modes, the use of which was carried into Italy by 
tbe Greek slaves who acted as minstrels to the rich 
dilletanti of Rome. The voice was generally accom- 
panied with the lyre (Xiyxi), an instrument which had 
from seven to fifteen or sixteen strings. Whether the 
lyre supplied harmony or merely " doubled " the voice 
is, however, an open question. There is no record of 
this instrument being employed in the Church ; and in 
all probability it was judged as of too secular a charac- 
ter to admit of its use in Divine worship. The modes 
or scales of Gregory the Great have already been tabu- 
lated (y, sect, i par. 10); we shall now present our 
readers with a view of the eight chants or "tones" 
formed upon those modes. The folio wing are quoted 
by Sir John Hawkins from a work by Gktfinrius 
(1502). For the convenience of the student we have 
translated them into the modem notation : — 

Tomi L 

LiL^4 -- ^ " r r i 


€? f:» €? €? m €? I a G^^ € ? €? a p & 



*Fri-Aaa to-nusaic in-ci-pit aic ue - dia-tur ot 

* ''The first ToQofhuBoommflneoth, thus prooesdeih (or «MeIte<«4l< 
lluu tndeth.** 



Art Summarff. 





^ r r r-P^Mi 



« — 9^ ^' "*" 

-<» — (» 








Tons IL 






-« — 49- 



1 — r— r 



Se-cun-dus to-nut sio in-d-pit sio me - dl - a - tor 
Ending L Ending it 










et sie 



ni • tur. 



r r '°>-i4 



Itr>ti - a* to-nus aic in • d-pit lie ma-di • k • tor 
■ndlog L Ending 11. Ending IIL 








0t sio ft - nl - tur. 

Ton IV. 


T! — &- 


-& — G — &- 










Quar-tus to • nus sio in -d-pit sio me • di - a • tur 
Ending L Ending it Ending iii 







€?GG G 


fi an 


«t lie ft - ni - tur. 
Ton Y 






rrr^ ? ^-f- 

QolB-tM to-oui«ieiB-al-itt ilo m*-di-a*tttr 




Hktory tf Ktifte. 

fin. t. 



ft . nl . tar. 

Ton YL 

^P ^y- 

»i p f^ " >' 

f r r r"Trr r *"]" ")> 

B«x*tuA to-nusfio in-ei-pit aio me - di - a • tor 





Toiri TIL 

et aio ft - ni 



1 — r 






7 a p 


Sep • ti - mus to 


tn- d • ptt 


-» — ®- 

B TTTT^-F?^ 





et eio . . • me - di* - tor 
Tin<Hng ii. Bndlnsr fiU. 

"• I I i F ^ 


et aio fl - ni - tur. 


rr"Hir rr"r|j 


rd «ie Mkimit. 







Oo - ta - TUB to - uue eie 


Ending ii. 

H: g >j >o ^^ p-jg-^-c^ 

I I I 


g ^ -<g 






■io me - di - a - tur et etc ft • ni-tur. 

These chants were ordered to be used in all the 
Christian churches of Europe, and to be used in their 
integrity. It must not be supposed, however, that 
«trict uniformity in the manner of singing the tonei 

m. t, s] Art Summary. 81 

eould be pieserved thronglioat Chiistendom ; tbe Gallic 
singers took great liberties witb the Cantus firmua^ and 
were frequently rebuked for their many unpardonable 
licences. Besides the above, there were the mon 
ancient '' Ambrosian Chants," so called after Si Am- 
brose, who either composed them, or more probably 
directed their use in the Church. The following ex- 
amples we take from Dr. Crotch's Taluable work| 
'' Specimens of Various Stjles of Music ":^ 

Sx. S. AMBROSIAN CHANTa (CSrea A.a 884-897.) 

O; - ^ _o ^^ l^^l II Q -^ rJ— ry 


^ p ^- 

"O — g " ^ o 


3. The general method of singing the chants was 
alternate or antiphonal: either between priest or 
choir, or from '' side to side,'' as the Psalms are now 
sung in our cathedrals. Cathedral choirs, and those of 
most churches, have for ages been divided into two 
portions facing each other, and respectively termed De^ 
eanif or the side of the Dean or other principal priest, 
and Cantoris, or the side of the Cantor, Precentor, or 
** chief singer." Hawkins mentions yet other modes of 
antiphonal singing: — ''With respect to the music of 
'the primitive church, though it consisted of psalms and 
hymns, yet was it performed in sundry different man* 
ners; that is to say, sometimes the psalms were sung by 
one person alone, the rest hearing with attention , 
sometimes they were sung by the whole assembly; 
sometimes alternately, the congregation being for that 
purpose divided into separate choirs; and, lastly, by 
one person, who repeated the first part of the verse, the 
rest joining in the dose thereof. Of the four diferent 
methods of ringing above enumerated, the second and 
third were veiy piroperly distinguished by the names ol 

HUtarff of Mmk. [m. % 4 


•jmphoc J and antipbony, and the latter was aometimet 
ealled reeponaaria ; and in this, it aeems, women wecr 
allowed to join, notwithstanding the apostle's ixgunctioii 
on them to keep silence." 

4. The ancient chants and hynm-melodies of the 
Choich were all built, as we haye seen, upon the Greek 
acales or modes — Dorian, Ljdian, Phrygian, Ac. The 
origin of the modem major scale, now common to the 
whole of the civilized world, has never, to our know« 
ledge, been actually traced or satisfactorily accounted 
for. The native airs of Western Europe, where the 
modem scale took its rise, are built upon totally differ- 
ent tonalities — ^the Scotch and Irish, for instance; 
while in Elngland itself, the primitive melodies sung by 
rustics, from Yorkshire to Somerset, denote a mods 
similar to, if not identical with, the Dorian.* In the 
absence of direct evidence to the contrary, we are in- 
clined to the belief that our present scale was gradu- 
ally evolved in obedience to the requirements t>f 
couuterpoiut. With most of the old modes the use of 
imperfect concords (thirds or sixths), especially if 
syncopated or suspended, would be less tolerable even 
than sequences of consecutive fourths or fifths. An 
experiment upon a complete scalar passage in most 
of the modes will exemplify this. The absence of the 
'' leading-note " — the 7th of the scale a semitone distant 
from the octave — for a long time deprived musicians of 
the perfect cadence. For one or two centuries after the 
introduction of added parts to a melody, the subject 
was invariably taken from the Gregorian plain-song; 
but gradually it became the custom to raise or lower by 
a semitone various notes in order to avoid awkward in- 
tervals. In the Dorian mode, for example, the sixth 

* Many readers will doubtlen recognise the following fragmefil 
I a familiar ** pastoral" strain : — 




in. 4, 8.] Art Summary. fSB^ 

note, BQ, was altered to Bb, on account of the diflso- 
nance existing between the former note and F, the third 
degree of the scale. If, to create a "leading-note/' 
"We raise the seventh degree (Ct|) to CJL we have at 
once the complete modem scale of D minor. That 
of D was the usual minor key with the early con- 
trapuntists ; next to it came the key of A minor, pos- 
sibly founded upon the related plagal mode, the Hypo- 
Dorian {v, see. i. par, 10), which required only the 
raising of the seventh degree by a semitone to consti- 
tute it a perfect modern minor scale. 

5. The first attempt (on record) to clothe the bare 
unisonal or octave-singing of the appointed plain chants 
of the Church, was that of the Fleming, Hucbald. Hi? 
diaphony, or two-part accompaniment upon the rude 
pipe-organ which at that time was being introduced into 
the principal cathedrals of Europe, consisted of an un- 
varying succession of fourths, fifths, or octaves, which 
would give the cantus firmus a certain grimness and 
stififness not wholly out of character with the naf*ve 
severity of the Gregorian tones. Some writers state tnat 
the organum was not played but sung, others that it 
was intended to be sung at a certain time-distance after 
the cantvSj as a kind of canonic imitation. But if we 
look at the following specimen of the organum or 
diaphony by Guido [circa 1022) we shall at once see 
that the latter hypothesis is utterly untenable : — 

Bx. 8w Oboanux or DiAPHomr. 
(«) CwnJtut, 


At whatever point we may commence the ducantuB 
or under-part we shall be m«t, sooner or later, by in- 

EUiori Iff Mutie. [ul§,x 

■opamble difficulties. We must, therofore, ace^t ths 
above enida accompaniment as it stands. We can, 
howeyer. Imagine the birih of a more euphonious 
counterpoint by the — perhaps at first — accidental com- 
bination of a portion of the cantus firmuB with a new 
commencement of the octave organum^ as below :— - 

fc l* m m gj g " ^ B ^ " ^ ' 

At the point* the imitation would be interrupted^ 
when the performer would either resume his octavs 
accompaniment or proceed to the invention of further 
imitations at other intervals. This suggestion is offsred 
with considerable diffidence and only in the absence of 
any other rational proposition. 

6. Into the various musical methods invented by, or 
attributed to, Guido d'Arezzo, it would be impossible 
to enter at length, in the present little work ; and many 
of the descriptions, as given by Hawkins and others^ 
would only be confusing to the student. The chief 
innovation appears to have been the extension of the 
old tetrachordal system, introiiuced by Ambrose and 
Gregory, to that of the hexachorH, or six-note series* 
This hexachord system is illustrated by the employment 
of the UT, RB, MI, &c., which form the commencing 
syllables of the lines we have alrea'ly quoted (sec. i 15) ; 
the melody to which they are supposed to have been 
set by Guido runs as follows : — 


Ill J J^f—^^^ ^|J J J J ^i ^ 

in «M-«lt iHT. li U • W • M • IC i • Mi 


Art Stmmarjf. 


xa ges 




o < p 






I 'll 

II ^fi^ 



SOL • ve pol-lu- ti LA-bl - i re - » • turn Sane • te Jo-an-nei. 

It will be observed tbat the tonality of this chant in 
no way coincides with that of our modem scale. The 
invention of the stave, or stafE^ for the purposes of 
notation, is popularly ascribed to Guido, though some 
writers affirm that a seven-lined stave * was in use before 
his time. For several centuries the size of the stave 
varied considerably, some employing three, some four, 
some seven, some eighty others ten, and others, again, 
as many as eleven lines. From the last mentioned it is 
stated that our modern five-lined staves are derived, the 
fixed F and C lines being variously supplemented above 
and below to suit the respective requirements of the 
various voices : — 

Bz. d. Diyiflioiis of the Great Stare of EleTen linei. 

Baritone. Tenor. Alto. Mezco Soprano. Violin or 

Soprano. clef. 

In the ancient missals the C and F lines were eithex 
painted in distinctive colours or were written as dotted 
or thickened lines, with a view to the more readily dis- 
tinguishing them. They thus served, in a rude fashion, 
the purpose of the modem clefs, which, in their turn, 
are a development of the rudimentary forms to be seen 
in the staves still employed for " Gregorian " music :— 

Of this itaYe the lisM only, not the spaces, were used for *M 


Hiitory of MuHe. 






This stave of four lines was the one generally adopted 
in, and for some time after, the thirteenth century. 

7. It would appear that Guido and his contempo- 
raries used notes which were all of the same character 
and relative time duration, for the first indication ol 
long and short notes we have is from the writings of 
Franco of Cologne, who gives the maxima^ longa, brevts 
and aemihrems {sec. i. 16), and thus creates the caniiu 
mensurabilis, or measured song. These characters and 
terms were employed for several centuries, and our 
modem system of notation is founded upon the inven 
tion of Franco. For a long period the system was 
ascribed to Jean de Meurs (or Muris), but the claim of 
Franco has since been thoroughly established. Dr. 
Crotch furnishes the following specimen of Franco's 
counterpoint, rendered into modem notation : — 

Ex. 8. 



OJ-ij ^ 


-& — &- 




















8. We advance a step in the history of counterpoint, 
when we find Mai^hnttus of Padua, who flourished 
about the early part of the fourteenth century, giving 
rules for the alternate employment of consonances and 

m. i^ •.] Art Summary, 91 

dissonances. But if we are to place any faith in the 
authenticity of the preceding example— 4. e. if it has not 
received some '' finishing touches ^ from a later hand — 
we may he sure that nearly every rule necessary to 
the production of good counterpoint was known in the 
time of Franco. 

9. The early theorists and historians generally were 
ecclesiastics, and devoted their attention mainly, if 
not exclusively, to Church music ; consequently there is 
hut little record of the progress of secular music during 
the first twelve centuries after Christ. There are, how- 
ever, various allusions to the existence of a race of 
itinerant minstrels, who visited the houses of the great, 
and sang to them hallads of which famous exploits or 
weird legends formed the principal themes. The story 
of King Alfred assuming the character of one of these 
wandering musicians, as a safe disguise and passport for 
admission into the enemy's camp, is a familiar passage 
in every history of England. There seems little douht 
that Alfred was as accomplished a musician as he was 
a poet, and that he did much to further the pi'ogress of 
musical art in England. By some he is even c««idited 
with heing the founder of the Chair of Music at Oxford, 
hut there is scarcely sufficient evidence at hand to prove 
this. These " bards," or " troubadours," as they came 
to be called, led a romantic and adventurous life, and it 
was no uncommon freak for a man of gentle birth to 
take up the r6le for a time. Very frequently it so 
happened that two or more of these poet-minstrels wer» 
visiting the same house or hostelry at the same lime, 
and as a natural consequence th^y entered into friendly 
competition for the first place in the esteem of their 
listeners. There is no doubt that this practice de- 
veloped into the more public " tournaments of song " 
which formed a strong feature in the musical enterprise 
of the twflfth and thirteenth centuries. The Minne- 
tdtiger were a famous confraternity of German trouba- 
ioura who held public competitions for the post u| 

Hidory iff Mutic. [in. •, ml 

honour, or laureatethip, of the ooonirj. A notable oon- 
t6«t of the Minneeanger took plaoe abont the year 1207, 
in a town in Saxony. It \a affirmed that '' the original 
home of the troubadours was Provence, in the south of 
France, where they originated about the eighth century. 
Subsequently, at the time of the German Minnesange]!^ 
there were also troubadours in Italy, Spain, and Eng- 
land." The Eisteddfod^ or annual musical competition 
in Wales, is a remnant of the old bardic contests of 
this country. The MeiBtersanger of Germany were a 
subsequent race of musicians, who in the fourteenth cen> 
tury sought to revive the ancient exploits of the Hinne- 
sauger, and for that purpose formed themselves into 
bands or guilds for the regulation of contests ; but these 
had a very ephemeral existence. Wagner's opera the 
Meidertinger is founded upon the popular traditions 
regarding these later troubadours, who were, as a rule, 
ignorant of the true art of poesy or of musical compo« 

10. lu the first section of this work {par, 17) we 
have alluded to two or three of the principal trouba* 
dours of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 
have given the first mention to Adam de la ELale, of 
Provence. In his ** History of Music," Professor Bitter 
gives two of De la Hale's melodieH. The second of 
these two we shall quote here, with, however, a con- 
siderable alteration of Professor Bitter's added har- 
monies : — 


Melody by Dk "LL ttatj, 

r. H, n.] 

..iri Summarf. 



ll*r^^^ f 




The above is taken from a littls musical play, oc 
masque, entitled liobin and Marion. De la Hale com 
posed eevecal of these dramatic pieces, which were a 
kind of secular counterpart of the ancient miiacle-plajB 
or " mysteries " — of which more hereafter. 

II. The art of counterpoint received ite full develop* 
ment at the hands of the Belgian or FlamisL mastera, 
of whom Dufay was the first of any note. It was bo- 
lioved that to tiaa master we owe the invention of the 
canon, or imitation at regular intervals of one voice bj 
another. Here is a short canon in two parts, " at the 
octave above," by Dufay ; — 


Sistar^ qf Mmic 

[m. n. 

This specimen ezhibita oompaiaiiyelj &w cnidities. 
The canon by Jnsquin dee Pr^ of which the following 
is the commencement, is, however, a striking advance 
upon the work of Dufaj : — 

Juaqurar db Ftfie. 







ig£i^r-r-r^ ^if 

The miisicians of this (and a later) period gloried in 
the production of canons, some of which were p^irposely 
so enigmatical that it taxed the ingenuity of l^eir con- 
temporaries to discover where they commenced, and at 
what intervals the various parts were to be employed. As 
in the poems of George Herbert we find him indulging in 
quaint metrical devices by which his lines are sometimes 
made to represent the shape of an altar or of wings, so 
we find the old contrapuntists moulding their canons 
into circles or triangles, or so contriving them that they 
may be suncr any way — upside down, or backwards, 
making equally " good counterpoint " in either case. Most 
of these caprices must have cost their authors many 
months of labour and thought; but from a musical 
point of view they are worthless. As technical studies, 
however, they were not w'thout a certain value, for 
they led to the discovery cf the furthest resources at 
the musician's command, and familiarized him with 
every form of melodic ccmbination. 


m. 12.] 

Art Suminarf. 


12. The Belgian writeTS carried, as we have seen, the 
art of <sounterpoint* to great perfection, and formulated 
most of the rules which, with a few modifications, are 
observed by strict contrapuntists at the present day. 
They divided counterpoint into five principal methods 
or ''species;" the first being note against note (the 
simplest and at the same time the most severe form) ; 
the second, two notes of counterpoint to one of the 
plain-song; the third, four notes to one; the fourth, 
syncopat^ counterpoint; and the fifth, figurate oi 
florid counterpoint. For the benefit of the general 
reader a short illustration of each species of counter- 
point is appended >— 

Ex. 12. GooHTBRFonrr (Jlnt »peeie»\ 










Plaim-Somo, or Caktxts firmub. 
Bx. IS. CoiTMTERFOiMT {fitcmd Mpeeies}. 














Ex. 14. GoDMTERPOiirr {third tpeciei^ 


* Contra^ against; punctmn, point, or note. 

Hktarp of Mimic. f m. % fli 

B&1& CoammrotwT O^mlkafmU^ 










IflL OoinRKEPoniTO|/U«pte<it)L 










13. Descant was an art by which fhe singer was 
Able to add to a plainnsong at sight a kind of longh 
eomiterpoint consisting entirely of concords — the uni- 
son, third, fifth, sixth, and eighth. The eaily writers 
laid down a number of rules as to the employment of 
these intervals by the singer. The counterpoint in Ex. 
12 would serve as an illustration of the allowed pro- 
gression and intervals in descant ' Fabubdbh (or /also 
bordone) was a yet simpler form of counterpoint, and 
was originally, as the term indicates, nothing but a 
drone bass, or ''tonic pedal." The term was used 
afterwards to signify a simplified species of descant, 
moving, for the most part, in thirds or sixths. The 
following fragi^ent of an example given by Morlej 
will best show the nature of the feiburden : — 

Ex. 17. PLAIN-SOMa 

Fabxtrdsh. ^ .^. 

U gJ ^ 





^ ■ H Tf " ^ B ^ 1 ^ 

^ e 

I aaaiaaai 


m. tt — w.j Art Sumwx^ 9t 

The fabnrden* when written, was always placed under 
the plainHSong. 

14. In an earlier portion of this work (i. 24) we 
have alluded to the practice by the Belgian composers 
of employing the plain-song of the Church or the secu- 
lar melody as the *' given subject " on which to build 
their counterpoint. The first (so far as we know) to 
break through this established custom was Des Ptes, 
who frequency invented his own subjects, and may be 
regarded as the first Composer of modem music* 

15. It was not, however, until after the time of 
Palestrina that the ecclesiastical modes were entirely 
set aside for the modem major and minor scales. But 
Palestrina and his contemporaries had learnt to discard 
the circumscribed plain-song and the frivolous air, and — 
the former in an especial degree — gave to Church-music 
not only dignity but sweetness and expression. 

16. The date of the introduction into the Church of 
music other than the liturgical (by liturgical music is 
understood the Mass, the setting of the Psalms and 
Canticles, &c) is not precisely known. The mirade' 
play, which was the precursor of the Oratorio, was a 
very ancient institution, originally introduced by the 
ecclesiastical authorities as a means of popular instruc- 
tion in sacred doctrine and history, but afterwards cor- 
rupted by the gradual introduction of absurd and mon- 
strous traditions respecting our Saviour and his apo- 
stles, and by the interpolation of ludicrous soliloquies 
and dialogues. The reader may gain a very fair idea 
of these miracle-plays, or '' mysteries,'' from the example 
which Longfellow gives in his well-known poem " The 
Golden L^nd." L*Anima e Corpo (i. 33), produced 
as a specimen of the reform which St Philip de Keri 
initiated in the sixteenth century, is little more than a 
"mystery " play, although it formed the immediate inau- 

* The term ^ modem mosio '' is used in contradistinction to that 
vlMh existed io tta ansont or ante-Christian periodf. 

Hii^oiy ^ Mmie. [m. it. 

gtiratiTii of the oratorio. The stage^ireetions of Cttn^ 
Uere, the composer of the music of UAnima e Ccrpo^ are 
cite<l by Dr. Bumey as follows : — " It is reccmmended 
to place the instruments of accompaniment behind the 
scenes,* which, in this first oratorio, were the following : 
A double lyre, a harpsichord, a large or double gui- 
tar^ and two flutes. — 1. The words should be printed, 
wiUi the verses correctly arranged, the scenes numbered, 
and characters of interlocutors specified. — 2. Instead of 
the overture, or symphony, to modem musical drama, a 
madrigal is recommended, as a full piece, with all the 
voice parts doubled, and a g^reat number of instruments. 
— 3. \Vlien the curtain rises, two youths, who lecito 
the prologue, appear on the stage; and when they 
have done. Time, one of the characters in the Mo- 
rality, comes on, and has the note with which he is 
to begin given him by the instrumental performers 
behind the scene& — 4. The Chorus are to have a pLtce 
aliotUid them on the stage, part sitting and part stand- 
ing, in sight of the principal characters; and when 
they sing they are to rise and be in motion, with proper 
gestured. — 5. Pleasure, another imaginary character, 
with two companions, are to have instruments in their 
hands, on which they are to play while they sing and 
perform the ritomels.— 6. II Corpo, the Body, when 
these words are uttered, * Si che Jwrmia alma mia,* 
Ac, may throw away some of his ornaments, as his 
gold collar, feather from his hat, &c. — 7. The World, 
and Human Life in particular, are to be gaily and ridily 
dressed ; and, when they are divested of their trappings, 
to appear very poor and wretched, and at lengtn dead 
carcases. — 8. The symphonies and ritomels may be 
played by a great number of instruments ; and, if a 
violin should play the principal part, it would have 
a good eflfect. — 9. The performance may be finished with 

* It is noticeable that TTagaer has reverted to this old pnotiei 
tl concealing the orchestra. 

m. 1% ir ] Ari Summarff 99 

or without a dance. If without, the last cl oruB is to be 
doubled in all its parts, vocal and instrumental ; but if 
a dance is preferred, a verse b^pboning thus : * ChioeM 
aUuiimi, e utellcUi,' is to be sung, accompanied sedately 
and reverentially by the dance. Then shall succeed 
other grave steps, and figures of the solemn kind. 
During the ritomels the four principal dancers al» to 
perform a ballet, 'scdtato con cajnnole,' enlivened by 
capers or entrechats, without singing, and thus, after 
each stanza, always varying the steps of the dance; 
and the four principal dancers may sometimes use the 
galiard, sometimes the canary, and sometimes the 
courant step, which will do very well in the ritomels.* 
— 10. The stanzas of the ballet are to be simg and 
played by all the performers within and without.*' 
This description, which presents to the mind a thing 
totally foreign to the modem idea of an oratorio per- 
formance, is valuable as showing that the original in- 
tention of the promoters was to establish a sacred 
drama, not a lengthy religious cantata, imder the title 
" oratorio.** But very few of the oratorios which are 
popular at the present day are literally dramatic .The 
Messiah or the Creation could not possibly be adapted 
to the stage without mutilation. On the other hand 
Bach's Passion (that of St. Matthew in particular) 
would seem to approach very nearly to the old idea of 
the oratorio, a sacred musical drama, with its narrator, 
and the responsive double choirs. 

17. It will be seen that the early oratorio was con- 
stituted of the recitative, the choms, and the ritomello 
or instrumental interlude. The recitative, or musica 
parlante, introduced as a revival of the old Greek form 
of musical declamation, was employed chiefly as a 
vehicle for the narrative portions of the sacred play. It 
was raually sung to the accompaniment of the theorbo 
(arch lute) or of the spinnet or harpsichord. Cavaliere 
&i oratorio, and Monteverde in opera, effected some 

interlude or MUr* Mcte^ 


Eidory qf Mmie. 

[in, IT. 

frnproveroenU upon the original erode r^dtativo, but 
Carissimi gave it an established form ; and the Arioso 
iprang out of these cou tinned elaborations. The 
Aria^ with its '* binary " construction, was a still later 
development The following example of recitative is 
taken from Mr. Leslie's edition of Canssimi's oratorio, 
Jonah: — 

Bx. 18. BaoTTATiTS from JomaJL 

^f^^ p p rri 

And there-up • on they oast kta, and be-hold tho 

l^^f ^^^j^f^ J h .rti'^g r g^ 

lot did fall up-on Jo - nah. 

So all the men who wera 



'^ ur^ - 

a tempo moderato. 






• ft I 

in the ship Mid un - to him. 













m. 17.] 

Art Summary. 


A short extract from the same oratorio will serre as 
a fair illustration of the dramatic chorus-music of the 
seventeenth century :— 

Bx.19. Ohorub from /(MMiA. Cabusiml 

Sotheydidiakeup Jo-nah,anddidca8thimforthin-td tha 



f f I t fC 




aea, and the tea did then cease from tho fu-ry of its rag-ing. 

What has been said of the art-development of the 
oratorio will apply also to the opera. There is indeed 
but little distinction to be made between '* sacred'' and 
'' seciilar " choral music of those days. The following 
chorus from an opera by Caccini will show this : — 

Ex. 20. CACcniL 

102 mUmyifMmk. [lair. 

Until about the middle of the eighteenth oentaiji 
ortttorio took its place as Church muaic, t. a. it was re 
garded as an adjunct to, if not indeed an important 
feature of, Divine worship. Hence the introduction, 
bj Bach, into his Passion Music, of familiar chorales 
in which the congregation were allowed to take part. 
MendelBsohn, who was au ardent admirer of Bach, and 
was mainly instrumental in reviving the popularity of 
that great master, himself introduces old chorales in lus 
oratorio, ^. Paul, and also in the Lohgemxng^ which 
was first performed in the Church of St. Thomas, 
Leipsic. It was Handel who established the oratorio 
upon the secular stage, and since his time perform- 
ances of oratorio have been almost universally confined 
to the concert-room. Very recently, however, there 
has been a movement in favour of reinstatiog this class 
of music in its original place, and the Pcuswru of 
Bach, and other oratorios, or lengthy selections from 
them, are now frequently performed in our cathedrals 
and larger churches. In design and construction, the 
development of the oratorio progressed side by side 
with that of other departments of musical art ; and save 
in the matter of orchestration, this species of composi- 
tion is pretty much where Bach left it. It only remains, 
therefoie, to append a list, chronologically arranged as 
far as possible, of the principal composers of oratorio, 
to who{»e names, occumng in the first section of this 
work, the reader is referred for further information : — 

yame. Principal WoriB. 

Cayaliere (1600), VAnima e Corpo, 

Cariasimi (1580—1673), Jmah ; Jephtha, &o. 

BchiitB (1685—1672), Pa»Hon ; Beturreotion, ke. 

Keiaer (1673—1739), Bleeding and Dying Jetm, 

J. 8. Baoh (1685—1760), Passion (S, Matthew 4rS. John), 

Handel (1685—1759), Messiah, Israel in £gypt, &« 

Leo (1694—1746), Death of Abel. 

Graun (1701—1769), Der Tod Jesn, 

fitradella (o. 1760), St. Jtthn the BoftkU 

m. 17, la.] Art Summarj^ lOA 

ydme, Pnnoipal W^^ If. 

Haydn (1732— 1809), Oreatim: Seasont, 

Crotch (1775— 1847), Palatine; Captivity. 

Beethoven (1770 — 1827), Mount of Olives, 

Spohr (1784—1859), Calvary ; Latt Judymewtj &ql 

Mendelssohn (1809—1847), Elijah; St. Paul, 

Among the composers of oratorio of our own day 
may be mentioned : Macfarren {St. John the BaptUif 
&c.); Costa (Eli; Naanian) ; Benedict (St. Peter); 
Ouseley (St. Polycarp ; Hagar); Sullivan (Prodigal 
Son ; Light of the World). The exquisite sacred can- 
tata of the late Sterndale Bennett (The Woman of 
Samaria) may justly be classed with the oratorio. 

18. The MajM, a species of composition called forth 
by the requirements of the Eoman liturgy, is of very 
early date, and may be divided iuto two classes : the 
first, Missa Solemnis, sung at high celebrations of the 
Holy Eucharist ; the second, Bequiem, used at Masses 
for the Dead. The Missa Solemnis generally consists 
of the following separate movements : Kyrie Eleison, 
Gloria in Exedsis (usually subdivided into Oloria, 
Domine Deus, Quoniam Tu Solus, &c.). Chredo in 
unum Deum (again subdivided into Credo, Et Incamattts, 
&c.), Sandus, Benedictus, Agnus Dei. The Eequiem 
Mass contains, in addition to the liturgical numbers, 
— the Gloria, however, being usually omitted, — the 
beautiful Latin hymn known as the Dies Irce. It is 
seldom that the whole of the Dies Irce is included in 
the Beguiem, as the performance of an elaborate setting 
of every verse would be too wearisome. The verses 
most commonly selected are Dies Irce, Tuba mii'um, 
Becordare, and Lachrymosa. At first the Mass was 
sung to an authorized plain-song, which, as the art of 
coiinteipoint developed, gradually came to be accom- 
panied by other voice-parts, above and below. Then 
new melodies, many of them being, as we have seen, 
popular secular tunes of the period, were introduced as 
subjects upon which the contrap mtist might exercise 
hia ingenuitj in constructing canonic imitations, aad ao- 

IM Eklory of Mmie. [m. m 

called fognei (L 24). This abase of the art having 
been denounced by the Council of Trent, Palestrina at 
once effected wonderful reform by means of his noble 
Masses, of which we have already giyen some account 
(L 29). For a long period Masses were sung without 
any kind of instrumental accompaniment ; a primitive 
kind of orchestration was, however, introduced towards 
the close of the sixteenth century. Since the Eeform- 
ation, English composers have had no opportunity of 
distinguishing themselves by setting the '* Mass." The 
Communion Office of the English Church is ill-adapted 
to an elaborated musical treatment. The Kyri^ Eleison 
is only a short response repeated after each Command- 
ment ; the Benedictus and Agnu8 Dei, though still used 
without authority in some churches, are unusual subjects ; 
while the remainder cannot be split up into detached 
movements. The single-voice setting known as Mer- 
becke's is an adaptation of a traditional plain-song, with 
a number of interpolations by Merbecke himself. In 
Roman Catholic Churches the Mass has always been 
the principal function ; consequently every known re- 
source has at all times been employed to give grandeur 
and solemnity to this portion of the Roman lituigy. 
The compositions of Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Schu- 
bert, and other modem composers were therefore ar- 
ranged for soli, chorus, and full orchestra.* The princi 
pal composers of this form of work are very numerous, 
and in the following list we do not attempt to includt^ 
other than the most notable amongst them : — 

Dufay (1380—1430). 
Ookenheim (1430—1513). 
Des Pres (1440—1621). 
Palestrina (1514—1594). 
Lassus (1520—1696). 
Byrde (1643—1623). 
Allegri (1680—1652). 

* At St. Peter's, Borne, however, no instrumental acoompanimeac 
il say lort is permitted* 

DLM^tt] Art Summary. IM 

Soarlatti (1659— 172S). 
Fux (1660—1732). 
Caldara (167^—1763). 
Biarcello (1680—1739). 
Bach (1686—1750). 
Leo (1694—1746). 
Durante (1693—1766). 
Feo (1699—1750). 
Basse (1699—1783). 
Pergolesi (1710—1736). 
Graun (1701—1759). 
Haydn (1732—1809). 
Webbe (1740—1816). 
Paesiello (1741—1816). 
Kanmann (1741— 1816)« 
Martini (1741—1816). 
Zingarelli (1752—1837). 
Mozart (1766—1791). 
Cherubini (1760—1842). 

Beethoven (1770— 1 82';0« 
Hummel (1778—1837). 
Weber (1786—1826). 
Botfsini (1792—1868). 
Schubert (1797—1828). 
Berlioz (1803—1869). 

19. But while the English School was deprived of 
so complete a subject — from a musical point of view- 
as the Mass, the purified liturgy of the Anglican 
Church still afforded the musician ample scope for the 
exhibition of his imagination and skill. There yet re- 
mained to him the Te Deum, Magnificaty and other 
Canticles, the Psalms and Hymns, and that other im- 
portant item, peculiar to the Church of England, the 

20. The Anfhem was always regarded as the principal 
feature of the English '' Cathedral Service," as it could be 
elaborated at the will of the composer, and was generally 
of two or more movements. The woids of Anthems 
are, as a rulcf, taken from Scripture; but sometimes 

Crtions of the Prayer Book (the Collects for instance) 
vd been used. Vetie Anthems are such as contan 

IM EMarf ^Mmie. [mLm 

one cr more moTemente assigned to a single yoice, or tc 
a duet, trio, or quartet; usually concluding with a 
chorus. There are many instances, however, of verse 
Anthems in which the only movements are for solo 
voices. Full Anthems are those in which the whole 
choir may take part throughout Verges are of very 
frequent occurrence in Anthems and Service-music, as 
Church composers were naturally desirous of displaying 
the leading voices in the Cathedral or other Church 
choirs under their charge. Some of these *' verses " are 
very elaborate — ^almost to tediousness ; a fair specimen 
of this kind of authem is / wets in the Spirit^ by Dr. 
Blow. The '* verse" ports in Cathedral music, with 
the exception of solos, are generally sung without ac- 
companiment, while the ''full'' portions, or choruses, 
are accompanied by an organ-part, sometimes indept^nd- 
ent, but more usually a mere ''doubling" of the voices. 
Most of the following composers of Anthems have also 
written Service-music, t . e. settings of the Canticles and 
Communion Office ; and what we have said about the 
Anthem applies also to the Service-music of our Cathe- 

yames, Anthenu^ 

Tje (1600— 1660X fl feUl exalt Tliee, too. 

Tallis (1623—1685), \leall and cry, &0. 

Byrde ( 1643 —1623), \Bow down Tliine ear. 

Gibbons (1683—1625), JHotanna to the Son of DoM^ 


Child (1608—1696), ^Pi-aUe the Lord, O my Soul 

Blow (1648—1708), \l beheld, and lo, &c. 

* The student is recommended to procure as many as he can 
of the Anthems here enumerated ; and if he study tht^m in theii 
ehronological order he will gain a better insight than any yerbal 
description will eive him, into the development of form and style, 
■ft well as the inaividual characteristics of each composer. 

t Anthems thus marked have been published (or repobliiM] 
miibm a recent date, and are •asiljr proewabla. 

SI. 10^ SI.] Art Summary. KH 

Namet, Anthemiu 

Wige {d, 1687), Prepaid ye the feofr, 

Puroell ( 1 658— 1695X t O give thanht. 

Clark (d. 1707), ^Iwill lace Thee. 

Aldrich (1647—1710), \o Piaue the Lord. 

Croft (1677—1727), \Ood U gone up, &o. 

Greene (1698 — 1755), t^ Clap your Iiands. 

Kent (1700 — 1736), \ Hear my prayer, 
Handel (168&—1759), Chandos Antlieine. 

Weldoo (1708 — 1736), ^Hewr my crying. 

Boyce (1710—1779), ^By the natere qf Bahyltm. 

Travers {d. 1758), \A$cribe unto the Lord, 

Nares (1715—1783), ^Bleeted U he t^tat eonndereik 

Battishill (1738 — 1801), \Call to Remembrance. 

Arnold (1739—1802), \Who it this that cometh. 

8. Wesley (1766—1837), \77iou, God, art praUed. 

Crotch (1775 — 1847), jlIoK dear are Thy counsels, 

Attwood (1767—1888), \Com^, Holy Oltost, 

Clarke-Whitfeld, ^Behold, how good and joyful. 
Mendelssohn (1809 — 1847), \ Judge ine, O God. 

Walmisley, ^Father of Heaven. 
StemdaleBennett(1816 — 1875),t^ that I hneftf. 

S. S. Wesley (d. 187^, iThe Wilderness. 

Dykes (d. 1876), \These are they. 

Among the most prominent writers of Anthenui and 
8ervice-music in the present day are, Goss, E. J. Hop- 
kins, Macfarren, Ooseley, Elvey, Sullivan, Stainer, 
Stewart, Steggall, Turle, Bamby, Bridge, Calkin, Gar- 
rett, Smiart, Thorne, and Tours. Some modem Anthema 
have been scored fur full orchestra, and are more dra- 
matic and descriptive in style than those of the oldei 

21. Many pages might be taken up with the history 
of the Hymn-tune, or Chorale, a species of composition 
which, because it is easily learned by ear, becomes the 
speciiil property of the people, and like an heirloom, 
is handod &om generation to generation. Many " Gre- 
gorian " hyinn-tanes are in use at the present day, and 
it is needless to say that they are of the most ancienl 
date; but their preeenoe in the hymnals of our day ia 

106 JEnUaiy ef Mutie. [m. & 

dne, not to their baving been treasured up i>y the 
nassee, but to the zeal of a few musical antiquuianaL 
Of these about the best are Urbs becUa, Jesu dulci^ 
memoria, and Corde natuSf named respectiyely after the 
first words of the Latin hymns to which they were com* 
posed. Ex. 17 (par. 13) will show the commencement 
of an ancient tune very familiar to those accustomed to 
the use of a certain Church hymnal.* The scales in 
which these old melodies are written are ill-suited to 
the modem process of harmonization, and the vocal 
hannonies added to many of these " Gregorian " tunes 
are necessarily forced and disconnected, leaving no im- 
pression of a distinct tonality — they are, in short, 
without beginning and without end. For many of the 
old tunes which are really and truly the heritage of the 
English and Grerman nations we are indebted to the 
great religious movement of the sixteenth century 
under Luther, who, with the aid of Walther and Gk>u- 
dimel, published the first collection of chorales to words 
in the vernacular (1524). The two chorales, Ein^ festB 
burg ist unser Gott (a strong tower is our Ood), and 
Great God, what do I see and hear, are both ascribed 
to Luther, but it is doubtful whether he really com- 
posed them, though he may have arranged qt harmon- 
ized them for Walther's book, probably with some help 
from Goudimel or Clemens non Papa. "The Old 
Hundredth " has been variously ascribed to Luther, to 
Groudimel, and to Guillaume Franc; all that is posi- 
tively known concerning this immortal tune is that it 
was published about the year 1550. It is by no means 
improbable, however, that it had actual existence, either 
« orally " or in manuscript, even before that date. Many 
of these ancient hymn-tunes were doubtless quotations 
or adaptations from larger works. Tallis's Canon, well- 
known in our time in connection with the Evening 
Hymn, belongs to this class : 

S%mm Aneimti tmd Modtm. 


Art Summary. 





K e^ 






The canon, "at the octave below," is between the 
treble and tenor yoices, and these parts are given in 
larger notes for the sake of distinctness. The other two 
parts serve to complete the harmony. Moreover, if 
the experiment be tried, it will be found that the Old 
Hundredth can be made, with only three alterations 
(marked *), to form a crude kind of " canon, two in one 
at the octave below/' at the half-bar distant : 


Old Hundrei>th. 

JiJ.I A^ 








r r \'\rf^T? 

P €? 





\ Pm - » J i i I I I M 




y^ < g i j 


'^\ r r r ' iP 

■<9 — _ < P I O ^ 


Ti will abo bdobierved that this '' canon" is infiniic 


SUtory iff Muiic. 


or pflrpetoa], on examining the two points X *• '^^ 
alterations (* and **) might easily be accounted for. 
That such a combination, crude as it is, will be regarded 
in the light of a mere coincidence, we can hardly anti- 
cipate. The fact that many of the old masters were 
aocnstomed to take fragments of chorales as subjects for 
f ogal writing, would seem to prove that these ancioit 
melodies were often originally composed with a view to 
oanonic imitation, more or less strict, in the accom- 
panying voices. We might multiply instances, but 
the following fragments will suffice for our present 
purpose : 

Ex. 2S. (Fnan tbe W^rttmbtrger G«$angbueK-~lMS^) 













(a) «t Sre bdow. 



_ t9 

f-f^ i f r f : 









•^ — &- 

03) at 8ye below. 








Kricoxr (c. 1650). 




: a a 




(y) at Sre above. 












m. n, 2l] Art Sumwrny. Ill 



IL «^ 


(S) at 4th below. 

Our modem hjmn-times are in too many cases cbarao- 
terized by a straining after vivid effects in harmony, 
to the exdosion of the flowing counterpoint which 
gives an unmistakable grace and dignity to the old 
chorale. It is unnecessary to attempt to catalogue the 
names of composers of hymn-tunes ; the best amongst 
our English writers will be found amongst the com- 
posers of anthems mentioned in the preceding para- 

22. We now pass into the dominion of secular music. 
After the ''folk-songs" of the troubadours, which 
had a long and uncontested popularity for many ages, 
came the Madrigal, a kind of part-soug, about the pre- 
cise origin of which there has been a great deal of 
useless speculation. The term ''madrigal" has been 
variously accounted for, some opining that it comes 
from madre di gala, or " mother of the festival " — ^in 
allusion to the Virgin Mary as patron of the month of 
May, with its olden pastoral festivities ; others that the 
name is derived from that of the Spanish town, Madri- 
gal, where one, Don Jorge, an early writer of '* madri- 
gal" poetry, lived, and whence, after the fashion of those 
days, he derived his surname, " de Madrigal." Other 
theories have been advanced, but they are not even 
worth mentioning; the most feasible is that which 
assigns the term to the above prolific and popular 
writer of madrigal poetry ; for it has been in all ages 
the custom to associate a thing with the name of a 
noted producer. The earliest form of madrigal, but 
for the secular words — generally of a pastoral, or an 
amorous character — could hardly be distinguished from 
the sacred motett, or anthem. There is little doubtp 
moreover, that for a long period the madrigal wa^ 
written for voices only- -it was a chorus, in fact, witiv 


SUiary qf Muth. 


out instrumental accompaniment. The madrigal com 
posers of the Elizabethan era greatly developed and 
extended this form of composition, freely employing 
canonic imitation, and other contrapuntal devices. The 
ancient ** Ballets " and ** Fa las " were also a species of 
madrigal, but were usually of a more light and trifling 
kind, and bore little resemblance in form to the mad- 
rigal proper. Some historians have assigned the intro- 
duction of the madrigal to Adrian Willaert, chapel- 
master of St. Mark, Venice, but this is uncertain; at 
all events it is known that his successor at St. Mark's, 
Cyprian de Eore, devoted himself to this form of 
composition, and gained a high reputation for it. The 
latter part of the sixteenth century was the golden age 
of the madrigal, particularly in England, under the 
reign of Elizabeth, who fostered music no less than the 
other liberal arts. TJie Triumphs of OnanOy dedicated 
to Queen Elizabeth, is the finest collection of madrigals 
extant (i. 27). The best of these are popular even in 
the present day. Luca Marenzio, a friend of Dowland, 
was one of the most accomplished among the many 
Italian madrigalists of the sixteenth century. The 
madrigal, Dissi a Vamaia, quoted in extenso by both 
Hawkins and Crotch, opens as follows : — 

Ex. 24. 





-. Jr^i 








Tbe above is a compression of the vocal score ; the 
madrigal pore was not accompanied as a rule, though 
indeed there are many madrigals extant with baeto 
eontinao, or baaS figured for lute or harpsichord. The 
modem "madrigal" is hardly diatinguiahable from the 
" psTt^ong ; " i.e. it contains a continuous melody, and 
is generally provided with a pianoforte accompaniment 
The following is a sufficiently comprehensive list of the 
chief madrigal compoeeni, and the madrigals men- 
tioned are those of especial note at the present day ; — 

Willaert [t] (H90— 1663), 
Fnta (i. IMS), 

De Bore (a. 1E80). 
PalBBtriiui (161*— 16B*). 
It. Edwardes (1520—15661, 
Marenzio (1S£0— 1691), 
ByrdB (16*8—1623), 
Wilbye n6«l>— 1812)i 
Dowland (1M2— 1626), 
Horlef (1668-1604), 
Benet (1566—1606), 
OibbODS (1688—16X4, 


In going to my Unelt/ beJ, 
Dinii a Tamata. 
While the Irigkt *IM. 
yiB'a gaea ne faired Jltnar*. 

My honny lau. 

Te rettlea thovfhtM. 

Oh tiUU the lettmsdfMtm 

tl4 Hktory of Mimic [di. n, 2S 

After Gibbons the madrigal deteriorated, and 
though T. Linley, W. Horsley, W. CaUcott, and R. L. 
PearsaU have contributed some excellent models, this 
species of composition may be regarded as belonging to 
the past 

23. The Glee was an offshoot, or, more correctly, a 
later development of the madrigaL While the lattei 
consisted of only one movement, the glee had two, 
three, and four. The glee was also written for solo 
voices in each part, and therefore was capable of much 
greater style and finish than the madrigal, which was 
designed for the chorus. In the present day the glee 
is more popular than its precursor, doubtless because 
the style of the former is in greater aooordance with 
the requirements of modem art. The glee is now 
frequently sung by modem choral societies, by which 
means, although some of these bodies are highly 
trained and capable of putting great expression into 
the music they sing, the real charm of the glee is lost. 
At one time Bounds and Catches were the most popular 
'' domestic music '' in vogue, and many of these catches 
were, in fact, glees in which a punning expression was 
given to the words. To this day glees are divided 
into two kinds — the serious and the cheerful — though 
the latter does not necessarily imply a playing upon 
words. The father of the English glee was Thomas 
Brewer, whose Turn Amai^llis is still a favourito at 
the glee-clubs. The writers of glees have been so 
numerous that we cannot give more than the leading 
glee-composers in the following list : — 

Name, Glees. 

T. Brewer (1609—1676), Turn Ameryllii, 

T. Arne (1 710—1778), Which u thepropereit day, *• 

8. Webbe (1740—1816), When rnnds breathe etfttl 

Btafford Smith (1760— 1836), £ lest pair of Hrens. 

K. J. S. Stevens (1723—1837), Siifh no more, ladisi. 

Dr. Callcott (1766—1821), The Bed Crote Knight. 

JL Spofforth (1770—1827), Hail, miling mom. 

ai 13—25.] Art Summary. Hi 

Name. Oleei. 

W. Horeley (1774—1858), By Celia*t Arbour. 

Sir H. Bishop (1782—1856;, I^avc my Harp. 

Sir J. Goes {b, 1800), Otnan'i Hymn to the Sum, 

24. Our first section contains a brief account of the 
nse of the Opera (par. 32), and, so far as it goes, there 
is little to add here. It is to be noticed, however, that 
many composers of later periods considered the sub- 
jects of the primitive operas worthy of further experi- 
ment Dafiief Euridiee, and Orfeo have rpceived new 
interpretations since the times of Peri, Caccini, and 
Monteverde — the Daphne^ for instance, of Schutz and 
of Handel, and the Orfeo of Gluck. From the year 
1594, the date of the production of Peri's Dafne^ to 
the year 1627, the opera appears to have been confined 
exclusively to Italy, its native home. In 1627, how- 
ever, Schiitz^ Daphne formed the introduction of opera 
into Germany, which has since done po much for this 
branch of the art In 1645 Italian opera was intro- 
duced into France under the auspices of Cardinal 
Mazarin, but the first French opera was that of Gam- 
bert {La Pastorale) , composed in 1659. England 
follows very closely upon France, for in 1673 was pro- 
duced the Peyche of Lock. 

25. A complete, though concise, history of the opera 
would fill a volume like the present, and an account 
of Italian opera alone would occupy three-fourths 
of the space. Gur remarks upon Italian opera must 
therefore be very sparing, and we shall not unneces- 
sarily repeat any statements made in former sections, 
which may be readily referred to upon occasion by 
means of the General Index. From the date of its 
inauguration under Peri and Caccini, the opera in Italy 
has not ceased, up to the present day, to keep pace 
with the general progress of the art. The vocal 
features of the opera are now and have always been,— 
•8 in the case of the oratorio, — the recitative, the arii^ 


Bkhrg o/Mwme. 


the dnet (and oc^asiaDanj the trio, qiurM^ qiiintet, Ae.)^ 
and the dioiu^* The instnimeiitalaeeinnpeiiiBenia^ 
the orerture, and the interludes (entt^aeUt) orejm- 
phonies, wexe also in the eailiei days of the opeia 
Terj similar to those of the oratorio. Bj deg;reee» how- 
erer, the siniilaritj to the oratorio as regards both 
style and treatment became less and less, and at this 
time the ovatorio and the opera haTe little in common. 
It is in the wotkB of Montererde that the first signs of 
a greater freedom in the treatment of seeolsr snbjects 
are apparent ; witness the following extiaets-— portions 
of recitatiye and duet from his Orfeo : — 

ss. iJpMo 



'« lo Mlegiio «1 al do -kr lBivt«d» Oo' 






•P rV(^ rr\ 

■i ti do-nio tg - liof Non h non h eoa-iiff-liof a^ 








' ■• 





Ex. 88. (Apollo <mdOrf»<uemd to heaven, tktffktg.) Morstbum. 

* Even the Chorale has been introduced, when toited tc the 
iceae or occasion. 


AH Summasrff. 


After Monteveide, the next great light of the Italian 
opeia was A. Scarlatti, known as the founder of the 
8o-called Neapolitan School His operas, Carlo Re 
d^AlmagnOf II Giro, and others, were an immense 
advance upom their predecessors, and obtained for him 
the first place among the opera-composers of his day. 
His style would now he considered stilted and con- 
ventional, bat they have decided form, and mark an 
epoch in the development of the aria. Lotti and 
flai^K^^i were the immediate successors of Scarlatti^ 

118 HiUary of MuHe. [m. wk 

whfle Piecmi was, as we know, the fayotured champipii 
of the Italian school in France. Gluck, Hasse, Mozart, 
and oth<)r German composers contributed largely, if 
not mainly, to Italian opera; while Handel, German 
as he was by nationality, was essentiaUy Italian in 
opera. Gluck in his later operas (i. 45, 46), such as 
Or/eo and Alceste, was the first to break from the estab- 
li^ed lines, and the Zauherfiote of Mozart is generally 
looked upon as the pioneer of a distinct German school 
of musical drama. The little-known EuryantJui of 
Weber is still more decidedly '^ Germai^" but Eichard 
Wagner has gone beyond all others in the noted 
"Tetralogy" of 1876. Wagner has initiated a com- 
plete revoluticn in opera, discarding the set airs, and 
substituting for them a modernized mtuka fcadante, 
or recitative. He declines to write melodies fpr t\ie 
purposes of miie vocal display. The old traditions as 
to the "related keys" are cast aside without com- 
punction. In short he makes music entirely subservient 
to the dramatic element. With him, the libretto u 
no longer a species of lay figui^e up<»n which to hang 
any kind of musical drapery or embroidery that ihe 
composer may fanry or the singer desire. Wagner 
composes his own libretti, and this fact illustrates tLe 
fundamental principle on which he works, and cf 
which he is so strenuous an advocate. This principle 
is, that the music, the poetry, and the mise-^n-seene of 
an opera should each aid, not over- weight the other, 
and thus unite to produce the desired dramatic effect. 
The old opera may be regarded, on thei other hand, as 
a collection of vocal and instrumental compositions or 
numbers, each complete in itself as to form, and 
strung togethei by the story of the libretto. In fai'.t, 
Wagner's dramatic music is so far removed from that 
which for ages has been known as ** opera," that it has 
been difficult for mu^icians or the public to connect the 
former with the latter. They therefore say " this is 
B0t opera," and some few add " nor even music" It ii^ 

ai. K.] Art Summary. I IS 

howevei, to be lememTjered that no musician has ever 
ventuied upon a new path without bringing upon him- 
self and bis work the doubt, suspicion, or contempt of 
the majority of bis contemporaries, wbo are naturally 
satisfied with what their predecessors and themselvea 
have done. In such cases it is posterity which assigns 
to a musician or thinker (a composer must be both) bis 
rightful place in the realm of art. If we view the 
subject firom "Wagner's new standpoint, all previous 
opera can only be regarded as of the Italian type, 
whether produced by Italian, German, French, or 
English composers. Thus, the operas of Purcell, 
though the words are Engish, were avowedly con- 
structed upon Italian models, and the same may be 
said of the works of every English composer of opera, 
from Lock to Balfe. In short, the success of the 
English composer has been in proportion to his power 
of assimilation to the Italian style./ To the Frencb 
composers, £rom Cambert to Gounod, tbough many 
splendid works have been produced, we may apply the 
same terms. Germany, however, may claim the 
honour of effecting most of the improvements which 
are now universally accepted as essentials. Gluck's 
Orfeo, Mozart's Zauherjiote, Weber's Euryanthe, 
Wagner's Lohengrin, are so many landmarks in the 
development of opera; and such a view is not incon- 
sistent with the conviction that tbe works of Purcell 
or Handel in tbe past, and of Yerdi or Gounod in the 
present are important contributions to musical art. 
llie foUowing are the most celebrated opera-composers 
of every school, and further information respecting 
each may be gained on reference (by means of the 
General Index) to tbe name wherever it occurs in oui 
£r»t section : — 

^ame. Principal WorJu, 

Ptori (<•. 1600), Lafne. 

OBOOini (r. 1600), Ihtridiee* 

• Jointly with P«ri. 


HMoiy of 



Hontererde (1566 — 1650), 
Bohati (1585—1672), 
Cambert {o, 1659), 
Lock (1620—1677), 
LuUy (1633—1687), 
Henry ParoeU (1658—1695) 

Lotti (1660—1740), 
A. Scarlatti (1659—1725), 
Eeiser (1678—1789), 
Bameau (1683—1764), 
Handel (1685—1759), 
Leo (1694—1745), 
Hasse (1699—1788), 
Clayton (c. 1700), 
Graun (1701— 1759^ 
Pergoleai (1710—1786), 
Ame (1710—1778), 
Boyce (1710—1779), 
D'Auvergne (1713—1797), 
Gluck (1714—1787), 
Benda (1T22— 1795), 
J. A. Hiller (1728—1804), 
Piccini (1728—1800), 
Monsigny (1729—1817), 
Arnold (1739—1802), 
Gr^try (1741—1813), 
lyAlayrao (1753—1809), 
Mozart (1766—1791), 

Cherubini (1760—1842), 
Storaoe (1763—1796), 
Mehul (1763—1817), 
Himmel (1766—1814), 
Berton (1766—1844), 
Beethoven (1770—1827), 
Catel (1778—1830), 
Boieldieu (1775—1834), 
Isouard (1777—1818), 

Primeipal WorU. 

Orfeot ArUmna, fto. 


La Poitarale, 


Tragedies Lyriquei. 

Dido and JEneai, I3/ng Arthm^ 


Carlo Be d^Almagna. 
More than 100 operae^ 
Castor and PoIUub, 
Almira, Jtinalde, ^ 

Arsinog, RosamnmL 

28 Operas (iirtoMfWii^ !».)• 
7%e Chaplet. 
Les Troqveurs, 
OrfeOy Alceste^ Armide, fto. 
Ariadne au/yawos, Medett^ 
Holandf ko. 

Hose et Colas, Le Desertmer. 
40 English Operas. 
Zemire et Azor, &c. 
Les Deu^ Savoyards. 
Don GHovanni, Mgaro^ Zaiiber* 

fldte, &c. 
Les Deux Jovm^es^ Medea, Ieo. 

\i English Operas* 
Joseph, Euphrosynsm 


Ponce de Leon, &0. 

Fidelio {Leonora), 


La Dame Blanche, 


* The celebrated " Macbeth Music " has recently been 3 
far Porcell. 

ML SB, 96,] 

Art 'Summary. 



Aubep (1782—1871), 
Sir H. Bishop (1782—1866), 
Bpohr (1784—1869), 
Spontini (1784—1851), 
Weber (1786—1826), 

Herold (1791—18831 
EoBsini (1792—1868), 

Meyerbeer (1794—1864), 
Schubert (1797—1828), 
DoDizetti (1797—1868), 
Halevy (1799—1862), 
Bellini (1802—1836), 
Berlioz (1803—1869), 
Sir J. Benedict (b. 1804), 

Balfe (1808—1870), 
Mendelssohn (1809—1847), 
Schumann (1810— 1866^ 
Flotow (J. 1811), 
Wagner {b. 1818), 

Wallace (1814—1866), 
Verdi (b, 1814), 
Gounod (b. 1818), 
Ambroise Thomas 

Prin&ipai Wc^U, 

Fra Diavolo, MoionieUo. 

Miller and his men, &a 

Fangt, Jessonda, 

La Vestale, 

Der FreieehUtt, Preeiaa, 

OvgUelmo TeU, Semiramid^ 

Let Hitguenot$t VAfHoaine, 
Mosamvnde (incidental moBic). 
Luoresia Borgia^ Lueia, &o. 
Za Juivet Le$ Moutqyetairei, 
NornuL, La Sonnambula, 
JBentenuto Cellini, 
Oipey't Warning, Lily of Ml* 

Bohemian Cfirl, Talisman, 
Wedding of Caniaoho, Sco. 
TannhSuseTf Lohengrin, Ai&#- 

Maritana, LurUne. 
Jl Trovatore, Rigoletto, Atdm. 
Faustf Borneo et Juliet, 
Mignon, Hamlet, 
Orphte aux JSh^fers, 8to, 

26. The following brief chronological summary of 
the rise and progress of Opera will further assist the 
student : — 

Society of Literati established in Florence for the 
purpose of reviewing ** the ancient Greek art of 
musicai and dramatic declamation*' {musioa 

First opera, Iktfne, by Perl, libretto by Kinucemi ... 

Mridice, by Ptori and Caccini ... 

Monteverde gives a more pronounced form to the 
Opera, and produces ^/p0, &0. 

Introduction of the Opera into Qennany— Schiliti' 


(o.) 1680 

(e,) 1660 


122 JTtffofy qf Mkde. [m. m 

Open intioduced at Yenice ... ... ... 1637 

Italian Opera introduced into France under ICaiarin 1646 

Opera introduced at Naples ... ... ... 1647 

Fint French Opera, La Pa$Urale^ by Cambert ... 1659 
Improvement of the Recitative, by CariMimi, InTcn- 

tion of Arioso ... ... ... ... (i^.) 1660 

[Orchestra of the |>eriod, "small French violin,** tenor 

and bass violti, harpsichord, theorbo^ flute k bee, 

trumpets, trombones, &c] 

Opera introduced at Home ... ••• ..• 1671 

First English Opera, Ptychet by Lock ... ... 1673 

Lully, the supposed originator of the overture, whioli 

he composed in two movements, Adagio and 

Allegro ... ... ... ... {c.) IGSO 

Purcell composes The I'empestf and other Enfl^iih 

Operas ... ... ... ... 1690 

A. Scarlatti develops the Aria, giving it what is now 

known as the " ancient binary " form ... (0.) 1700 

Handera first Opera, Alwira, at Hamburg ... 1706 
Italian Opera introduced into England ; performance 

of ArnnoS (with English words, however,) at 

Drury Lane ... ... ... ... 1706 

Bevival of Italian Opera in England — Handel's 

Jiadamigtu 8 produced ... ... ... 1720 

Handel's new Opera Company started ... ... 1729 

Qluck*s first Opera, Artaxerxes, produced at Milan 1741 
Gluck visits England; writes operas for the Hay* 

market Opera House ... ... ... 1746 

Hasse writes for the German stage, but on Italian 

models ... ... ... .,. (c.) 1750 

Iie» Bouffon» appear in France ... ... 1762 

Production of G luck's Orfeo at Vienna ... ... 1764 

Gluck goes to Paris ... ... ... ... 1773 

The "Gluckist aiid Piccinisf' factions in Paris ... 1776 

Mozart's 7Jo//i«nf0 produced at Munich ... ... 1781 

Metastasio, the celebrated poet and Opera librettist, 

dies ... ... ... ... ••• 1782 

Mozart's /)0» ^^rtfftni first performed ... ... 1787 

Mozart's ZauberJlOte first performed at Vienna ... 1791 
Ame, Arnold, Storace, and others produce a number 

of English Opei-as ... ... 1760—1800 

Cherubini's Let Deux Joumee$ produced ... 180C 

Beethoven's Leonora produced at Vienna ... 1806 

Leoiiora reproduced as Fidelia^ with new overture 1814 

m. 1^ ssr J Art Summary. 123 

Tint perfonnanoe of Spohr's Fautt^ at Fntgue •.. 1816 
Weber's Der HreisekStz and PrecioM produced ... 1820 
[Weber is supposed to have set the fashion of incorpor* 

ating principal airs of the opera in the overture. J 
Jleyerheer^ a Les Hiiguenotg produced ... ... 183€ 

Wagner's Nibelungen (Tetralogy) produced at a 

public festival in Bayreuth, Germany ... 1878 

27. We have hitherto restricted our attention to the 
development of vocal music, accompanied or unaccom« 
panied. We now turn to the consideration of purely 
Instrumental Music, a very wide branch of our subject, 
as it ranges from the pianoforte morceau to the elabor- 
ated symphony — from the " solo instrument " to the 
"full orchestra." The independent employment of 
instrumental music dates from a very early period. 
The E^ptian monuments show that bands of harps 
and other instruments existed in almost pre-historic 
times ; certainly we can form no idea of the style or 
effect of the concerted music produced by these ancient 
minstrels. In the latter days of the old Grecian 
empire there sprang up a race of flute-players, but we 
are equally ignorant as to the nature of their perform- 
ances In the earlier ages of the Christian era instru- 
ments were generally used as an accompaniment to the 
voice ; in fact the history of modem instrumental 
music as a distinct art, and as we now understand it, 
does not commence until about the sixteenth century. 
It is true that Eoyalty had its private bands as well as 
its vocalists, at a much earlier date, but if we except 
the startling " pibroch " of the Scottish bagpipes, the 
precise natuieof the music performed is practically lost 
to us. Probably the repeiioire of these old bands — 
such as the band of weyghtes or hautboys employed by 
Edward III. of England — consisted only of dance-tunes 
and the weU worn airs of popular songs. Nevertheless 
these ancient dance^tunes may be regarded as supplying 
the germs of some of the mont elaborated forms of 
mo.iern composition. The caranto, the gavotte^ thfl 


Eittcrff of Marie 


gigue thfi sarahandey the dllemandey the gaUiard, were 
all ancient dances, afterwards made ** claarical " by the 
studies of Corelli, Bach, Purcell, and other illnstrioiia 
composers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
The suttes-deB-pihces of these writers consisted of sets of 
three, four, or even a greater number of movements 
modelled upon these old dance-forms, and grouped to- 
gether with a due regard to contrast between the pace 
or measure of each kind of dance. The following short 
extracts, taken from various sources,* will give the 
reader some idea of the principal dance-fozms utilized 
in these suUes : — 



















Bx. 27. Allbmaxdv. (/Slow.) 




g^-J- i l 





• We should make special aeknowledfinnent of the following ; 
Hawkins* mttory </ Mmie; Stainer and Barrett's IHetummry ^ 
Muiitml Terms, 

DI. r] 

Art 8umma/rjf. 


Ex.88. Oatori. FnmiktmiU»{f()r(>nke9tn^inD, J. S. Bach. 



Xz.S9 Oaluabd. (KMly.) 


19A Hidorjf of Mmio. 

■k. tOi Oiov* or Jia (XlMljr.) 







J i J :^ ft f r 

l .! t ..g_^ 








Ex. 8L Sarabavdi. {Stam omI «<a<<ly.) 


fen - Wr ^afe 

"J ftHTX p 


■uJ-^J j^ 




Other dances were the BourrSe, OariUon^ Chaconne, 
Cotillon^ Minuety Passepied (a variety of the minuet), 
Polacca^ Pavaine^ PassecaUU^ Musette^ Tarentelle^ 
Hornpipe (a species of gigue), Eigadoan, &c. Most of 
these dances were in use in the times of Elizabeth and 
Louis XIY., while the minuet and the gavotte remained 
fashionable at Court for a long time afterwards. The 
fuites were written principally for the harpsichord, but 

nt IT— «.] Art Summartf. 137 

also for strings, and for the organ. Many »uitei were 
arranged for violins and harpsichord, with a basso 
eontinuOf or figured hass for the latter. Among the 
most distinguished writers of suites are Curelli, Bach, 
Purcell, Handel, Couperin, Kiihnau, Domenico Scarlatti, 
Alberti, &c. 

28. Lutes and viols (of which more hereafter) were 
long employed only as accompaniments to the voice. 
Hawkins writes : ^' Concerning compositions of many 
parts adapted to viols, of which there are many, it is to~~ 
he ohserved, that when the practice of singing mad- 
rigals began to decline, and gentlemen and others begas 
to excel in their performance on {he viol, the musicians 
of the time conceived the thought of substituting 
instrumental music in the place of vocal ; and for this 
purpose some of the most excellent masters of thai 
instrument, namely Dowland, the younger Ferabosco, 
Coperario, Jenkins, Dr. Wilson, and many others, 
betook themselves to the framing compositions called 
Fantazias, which were generally in six parts, answering 
to the number of viols in a set or chest, .... and 
abounded in fugues, little responsive passages, and all 
those other elegancies observable in the struct are and 
contrivance of the madrigal." As we have seen, viola 
were afterwards employed in suites^es-piScpj* 

29. It is to the suite that we owe the Sonata, justly 
regarded as one of the highest forms of composition. 
The primitive sonata, however, is scarcely to be identi- 
Hed with the class of composition now bearing that 
name. Tliose of Frescobaldi and others of this time 
are mostly single movements, and are sometimes called 
Oamom, In Purcell's time the sonata generally con- 
sisted of three or more movements ; the celebrated 
Golden Sonata^ iot two violins and a figured bass (by 
Purcell),is in five movements — Largo, Adagio, Canzona* 
Allegro, Grave, and Allegro, all (except the fourtli 

* The term Cani$ma ii Ic be noted here. 

13S Hi8f4}fTf qf Mumc. [tiL ». 

moYementy whi^ is in the lelative ninor) being in the 
key of F. The Sonata di CJiieaa^ belonging to about 
the same period, consisted, as the name implies {Cliureh 
Sonata), of slow and solemn movements, mostly adapted 
to the organ, while the secular and more lively com- 
position was denominated Sonata di Camera (Chamber 
Sonata). The movements usual in the modem Sonata 
are, 1. The Allegro. This is the most important of all 
as to its form, which is of the kind commonly called 
Sonata, or more correctly, Binary ; t. e. it consists of 
two subjects or themes, the first in the tonic, the 
second in the dominant,— or relative migor if the first 
theme be in a minor key, — and the development and 
recurrence of these two themes are to a great extent 
guided by established rules, though much is left to the 
individual skill and style of the composer. The 
modem binary form was developed by Haydn ; aftei 
him eame Mozart ; while Beethoven perfected it in his 
well-known sonatas and symphonies. 2. The Andante 
or Adagio. This movement, usually with one principal 
theme, canialnle, is generally in a related key other than 
that of the dominant; e. g. if the first movement be 
written in the key of C, the Andante may be in F. 
3. The Minuet or Scherzo. The latter, a more vigorous 
muvement than the Minuet, was introduced by Beet- 
hoven. 4. Allegro or Presto. This is written in the 
original key (the same as that of the first movement) 
and \a generally of a freer character — the Rondo form, 
consisting of only one principal theme of somewhat 
frequent recurrence. But the forms of these after- 
movements are not so essential to the sonata as that of 
the first. In some compositions the second and last 
movements will be found to be written in strict binary 
form ; while in others even the first movement vrill be 
found wanting in the essentials of the " sonata " proper. 
Thus, the first movement of Beethoven's popular 
" Sonata in A flat " (Op. 26) is nothing more than an 
^ air with variations * " while the sonatas of Schubert art 

m. ».] Art Summary. 139 

particularly erratic as to form. Sonatas hare been written 
for the violin, the organ, the harpsichord or pianoforte, 
and for other instruments ; the following are the names 
of the principal composers who have written for the 
haipsichord, and later on for the pianoforte :— 

Suitet and {Early) Sonatoifor ffarpsiehord. 

Graziani (1609—1672). 
Cesti (1624—1676). 
LuUy (1634—1687). 
Biber (1648—1698). 
Gorom (1653—1713). 
PurceU (1668—1696). 
A. Scarlatti (1669—1726). 
Kuhnau (1667—1722). 
BuouoDoini (1672—1750). 
Albinoni (1674—1746). 
Mattheaon (1681—1722). 
D. Scarlatti (1683—1757). 
Durante (1684—1756). 
J. S. Bach (1686—1750). 
Handel (1686—1760). 
Albert! (1706—1746). 
Boyce (1710—1779). 
W. F. Bach (1710—1784). 
C. P. E. Bach (1711—1788). 
Schobert (c. 1760). 

Modem Sonatas for the Piamfforiit 

Haydn (1732—1809). 
Clementi (1762—1832). 
Mozart (1756—1791). 
Pleyel (1757—1831). 
Dossek (1761—1812). 
Bteibelt (1764—1828). 
Beethoven 1770—1827). 
Cramer (1771—1858). 
Hummel (1778^1837), 
Held (1782—1837). 
Ferd. Bies (1784—1838). 
Salkbrenner (1784— 18li). 


Modem Simataiffr the Piameftrt^, 

On»1ow (1784— 185S). 
Weber (1 786— 1S26). 
Czerny (1794—1808). 
Moscheles (1794—1870). 
Schubert (1797—1828). 
Schumann (1810 — 1856). 
Mendelssohn (1809— 1847^ 
Chopin (1810—1849). 
Henselt (h. 1814). 
Stemdale Bennett (1816—1875). 

It should be added that the above compoeen were 
more or less distinguished as performeiB on the harp- 
sichord or pianoforte. 

30. The Sonata di Camera has already been men- 
tioned; the class "Chamber Music "{MtuieadiCjamerd) 
indudes many varieties of composition-^-all -music, in 
fact, which is capable of petformance by a few persons. 
Songs, glees, pianoforte solos or duets, and other 
instrumental solos with or without pianoforte accom- 
paniment, would properly come within the • category. 
Jiut the term " Chamber Music " is now commonly 
used to indicate works written for two or more instru- 
mental performers, of whom there should be only one to 
each part or instrument. Stringed, wood, and even 
brass instruments of a not too noisy character, have 
been employed in this species of music. Eacii per- 
former being a soloist, especial care is taken with each 
part, so that the skill of the player and the character- 
istic qualities of his instrument may be suitably 
displayed. The earliest instrumental chamber music of 
which anything certain is known was that composed 
for the "sets of viols/* and to which we alluded in 
par. 27. The " fantasias " of Dowland, Jenkins, and 
others of that date were generally written in six parts, 
for the six instruments comprising a " chest of viols." 
Tl e modem compositions of this class, from the daet 
to .he octet, are usually written in the " sonata ** Uam 

HL SO, n.] Jrt Summarf. 181 

described above, and may be familiarly described as 
sonatas for several instruments in concert, with this 
distinction, that each part is an indiyidnal voice ; not a 
mere contribntary to complete harmony. Sammartini 
(1700 — 1775), Haydn, Boccherini, Mozart, Viotti, 
Pleyel, Shield (1754—1829), Gr^try, Cherubini, 
Dussek, B. Eomberg, Beethoven, Beicha, Greorges 
Onslow, Hummel, Neukomm, Spohr, Ferdinand Eies, 
Weber, Fesca, Schneider, Schubert, Mayseder, Haupt- 
mann, Molique, Beissiger, Mendelssohn, Schumann, 
Bennett, are among the most distinguished composers of 
chamber-music of the approved type. 

31. The history of the Concerto may almost be said 
to run side by side with that of the Musica di camei'a, 
and may be regarded as forming the link between the 
latter and the purely orchestral symphony. The 
modem concerto is a composition for one principal 
instrument and the full orchestra, but the orchestra, 
although it cannot be regarded in the light of a mere 
accompaniment, is entirely subservient to the solo 
instrument, only coming in fortissimo when the soloist 
is in rest.* The most usual concertos are those for the 
pianoforte, or the violin; but compositions of this 
kind have been written for the organ (by Handel, &c.)y 
and for almost every orchestral instrument of import- 
ance — such as the flute (by KUhlau), the clarinet (by 
Weber), and the violoncello (by B. Bomberg). The 
musical form of the earlier concertos by Corelli and 
others prior to, or contemporary with. Bach, was very 
similar to that of •the '' sonata '' of the same period ; 
the present form is like that of the symphony, except 
that the concerto has fewer movements. The minuet 
is seldom, if ever, introduced in the modem concerto. 
We append a list of the principal composers of concertos. 

* There are^ of course, occasional excoptions to this mle^ 

eflpe iallj when' the organ, or the pianoforte, is the lolo inttrtt^ 
meat. ^ / 

Itt fftffery ef Mime. [nL a, « 

Far the violin: Corelli, Tartini (1692-1770), Nar- 
dini, LolU (1730—1802), Viotti (1753—1824), BaiUot 
(1771—1842), Beethoven, Paganini (1784—1840), 
8pohr, DeBeriot (1802—1870), Mendelssohn, &c. 

For the pianoforte {or harpsichord) : J. S. Bach 
Handel, Hasse, Sam martini, Friedemann Bach, C. P. £. 
Bach, J. C. Bach (the foregoing aU for the harpsichord), 
Haydn, Boccherini, G retry, Dittersdorf, Kaumann, 
Clementi, Mozart, Pleyel, Dussek, Steibelt, Cramer, 
Beethoven, Weber, and others whose names have been 
mentioned as composers of pianoforte sonatas. 

32. The term ojrniphony has been, and is still, ao 
variously applied as to cause some confusion to young 
studenta The introduction of a few bars usually 
written in songs is generally so called, while Handel 
and other composers of that time have inserted in theix 
oratorios or cantatas short intermezze for the orchestra 
under the same name.* But the symphony proper, in 
the sense in which it is mentioned throughout this 
work, is a lengthy and highly elaborated composition 
for the full orchestra. The construction cf the 
symphony is very similar to that of the pianoforte- 
sonata, both as regards the employment of the ** binary " 
form and the number and style of the contrasting 
movements ; the only difference being — ^if difference it 
can be called — ^that the movements are more extended 
than in the ordinary sonata. The symphony is the 
highest form of orchestral work, and any number of 
iustruments of the same and of various kinds may be 
employed, while solos for any players can be freely 
introduced. Beethoven has added voices to one of his 
symphonies — the ninth, commonly called the Cliorai 
Symphony, We have already said that any kind of 
instrument may be employed in the symphony; but 
the following may be regarded as a fair specimen of the 
usual score : — 

* e. ^. the Pastoral SympAony in the M**9iak» 

m. m] Art Summary. 1S8 

1 Flutes^ generally two partf tiMtteii. 
2. Hautboys, generally two „ ^ 
8. GlarionetS) generally two „ ,, 
4. Bassoons, generally two f, ,, 
6. Horna^ two to four „ „ 

6. Trumpets, generally two „ ,, 

7. Trombones, ^wo or three „ „ 

8. Kettle Druma^ generally two, tuned in 4^ « r 5*^. 

9. First Violins, tdveral instruments to one part. 

10. Second Violins, „ „ „ 

11. Violas (or Tenors) „ „ 

12. Violoncelli, „ „ „ 

13. Doable Basses, „ „ „ 

Boccherini was one of tho first to write symphonies 
in correct form, but H^dn is really the founder of the 
fijTnphonic form as we have it to-day. Mozart elabor- 
ated it, Beethoven perfected it. Although many since 
Beethoven have produced symphonies, some of them 
really fine works, it cannot be said that any advance 
either in form or orchestral effect has been made within 
the last 50 years. Some of the later writers have 
written a species of shortened symphony, called tho 
concert-overture; this is of about the same length as 
the opera-overture, but more strict as to form. Over- 
tures to well-known operas have always been popular 
in the concert-room, and the concert-overture is a 
result of this popularity. Schumann, Mendelssohn, 
and Bennett; Brahms, and many other living com- 
posers, have written this class of orchestral work, which 
is more modem than the symphony. The following 
list includes as many writers of symphonies as the 
student need remember : — 
Hasse (1699—1788). 
Sammartini (1700—1776). 
Haydn (1782—1809), London Symphonies, Toy Symphoniei, 

SCO., 118 in alt 
Oosbeo (1734 *— 1829), Symphonie en Be {Z). 

* Schliiter erroneouslj g^yes the year 1778. Goisec died ia fan 
■iaefy-sixth yeaiw 

134 Bidarp ff Mmia. lia.m 

Bocoherini (1740—1806). 

Kaumann (1741—1801). 

Orftry (1741—1813). 

dementi (1758—1832). 

Moiart (1756 — 1791), Jupiter Sjfmphony^ and manj oihen. 

Pleyel (1757—1831), 29 sjrmphoniea. 

A. Romberg (1769—1821). 

Beethoven (1770 —1827), nine sjmphonies {PtatoraU^ Eroiea, 

Ch^al, &c). 
Beioha (1770— 1836^ 
Kenkomm (1778—1858). 
Onalow (1784—1852). 
Spohr (1784—1859), Die Weihe der TSme {The J^fwer tif 

Sound), &0. 
Moecheles (1794—1870). 
Schubert (1797—1828), S^frnphmif im C, fto. 
Berlioa (1803—1869), Rmneo tt Juliette, &o. 
Mendelssohn (1809—1847), iSbir^^ R^ormatitt^ and other 

Schumann (1810—1856), S^phoniei in C, B fiat^ &o» 
Liszt {Jb, 1811), Fmtt Symphony, Taue, ko. 
Bennett (1816 — 1875^ Symphony in C minor , &o. 
Niels Gade (». 1817). 

Amongst other sjinphonists now living may be 
mentioned J. Eaff, Brahms, Joachim, Bubinstein, 
Sullivan, Prout, and Silas. 

33. Having enumerated the principal foims of in- 
strumental music, it now behoves us to give some 
account of the ancient and modem musical instruments ; 
we shall, however, confine our attention to those of 
especial note. Luscinius, in his Mvsurgia (1536), 
enters into many particulars concerning obsolete instru- 
ments, of some of which he supplies excellent wood-^uts : 
many of these are included in Hawkins' History qf 
MusiCy and to this work we must refer those of our 
readers who are curious upon the subject. The more 
interesting among them shall be alluded to in the 
course of the present section. 

34. The precise origin of the Lyre (\6pa), one of the 
most ancient of musical instruments, is wrapped in 

OL 9% &] Art Bwnm^rff. 185 

obscurity, unless its invention is to be assigned to 
Jubal, '^the father of all that handle the 'haip' and 
the organ." The lyre is undoubtedly of Asiatic origin, 
was imported into Egypt, and thence into Greece. It 
is a stringed instrument, of a size to be held by one 
hand against the shoulder, while the other hand pulls 
or "plucks" the strings. It has no neck or frets, 
consequently the pitch of the stiings cannot be altered 
in playing, as with the '^ kithara " or guitar genus, to 
which we shall refer by and bye. The lyre may in 
fact be regarded as the prototype of the harp, and 
secondarily of the harpsichord — from which last we 
immediately derive the piaoofoite. Into the old 
traditions of the Greeks, who attribute the invention of 
the lyre to Mercury, we shall not enter. Originally 
the Greek lyre had but four strings; these were in- 
creased by Terpander to seven ; while later musicians 
extended the number to eight, ten, fifteen, and, lastly, 
even to sixteen string& lliese strings were attuned to 
the several Greek modes, and were plucked with the 
fingers,* as an accompaniment to the voice. 

35. The Harp, which stands next in relation to the 
lyre, is one of the most ancient and universal of stringed 
instruments, and has generally possessed a greater 
number of strings and consequently a larger compaas 
than the lyre. The shape of the modem harp must be 
familiar to every reader, and its triangular form is 
almost identical with that of the Egyptian and Assyrian 
harps as depicted on the ancient monuments. The 
further we go back, however, we shall find these in- 
struments more and more bow-like in shape ; so that 
there is good reason to believe that the first idea of the 
harp was derived &om the bow of the archer, the 

* Instead of the fin^rers, a little stick or staff, made of bone, 
metal, or a quill, and called a plectrum (irXifcrpov), was frequently 
iised for this purpose: hence the lyre, kithara, harp, lute, &c.) art 
known as **ple§trai instrumeota." 

180 Eutory of Mttme. [hl M^ si 

twftng of the tightened string or cat^t when plucked 
giving forth a more or less definite tone or note. In 
Wales the harp is still regarded as the national instm- 
ment, as it has been from the earliest times ; it is said, 
however, that the Irish harp is even more ancient, that, 
in fact, the Britons acquired it from the Irish Celts. 
The harp has been tuned in various ways, sometimes 
with a double row of strings (double harp or Arpa 
doppia) proceeding by semitones ; and the triple harp 
— that is, having three rows of strings, is otherwise 
known as the ** Welsh harp.'' The harp has long been 
recognized by composers as a valuable instrument in 
the orchestra. The Arpa doppia, or double harp, 
already mentioned, was employed by Monteveide in 
his opera Or/eo, In HandeVs Saul the harp is used as 
a solo instrument, though the movements written for 
it are not of a very distinctive character, and might 
have been played with a similar effect upon the harpsi- 
chord. In the scores of several modem operas the harp 
has been introduced with splendid effect, and Wagner 
has employed seveial of these instruments together. 
The invention of the pedal action has by some been 
attributed to Hochbrucker, 1720 ; by others to Velter, 
1730. This renders it possible that the pedal harp 
was used in Saul, which was composed in 1738-9. In 
Esther, which was produced in 1720, the old Welsh 
harp was employed. About a century later (1820) 
Erard introduced the double action, by which means 
the strings may be raised two semitones, thus affording 
greater facility for modulation. The older, or single- 
action harp, had seven pedals, raising the notes respec- 
tively affected one semitone only ; the usual compass 
of this instrument was nearly six octaves, its normal 
scale being that of E fiat. 

36. The Spinet (or Spinnet), sometimes called 'Hhe 
Couched Harp/' was a keyed instrument, and was the 
prototype of the harpsichord. By some writers it is 
mentioned as identical with the Virginals, described 

la m, ST.] Art Summary. 18T 

by Luscinius in his Musurgia (1536). Certain it is 
that the action, compass, and shape of the instruments 
were very similar, if not identical Either instrument 
had a single string for each note, which was sounded 
by the plectral action of a quiU and jack set in motion 
by the key. The compass varied between three apd 
four octaves, commencing from C or F below the bass 
stave. The smaller instruments were generally placed 
upon a table while being played upon. We have before 
alluded to the '^ Virginals" as the favourite musical 
instrument of Queen Elizabeth, for whom Dr. Tye 
composed many Uttle *' pieces " or studies. Byrde also 
wrote several compositions for the Virginals, which 
were printed in the collection known as Queen Eliza- 
beth's Virginal Book. 

37. The Harpsiohord (Harpsicon, Clavicembalo, 
Clavecin, Cembalo), introduced into this country about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, was an 
enlargement upon the spinet, both as regards power and 
compass. The notes were produced by the same action 
as that of the spinet, but in the harpsichord there were 
two, sometimes three, and even four brass or steel wires 
to each note, and " stops " were provided, by means of 
which the tone power could be intensified or diminished 
at the will of the player. Many instruments had a 
contrivance for the gradual opening and shutting of the 
lid, which gave the effect of a swelL Some had, besides, 
an upper keyboard, with a separate set of single strings 
which gave an effect similar to that produced by the 
soft pedal of the modern pianoforte. The usual com- 
pass of the harpsichord was five octaves, starting from 
the lowest baas note E : — 


IS8 Skhrtf ^f Mime. [jol m,H 

During the latter part of the seTsnteenih, and the 
greater portion of the eighteenth centuries, almost ever> 
orchestra contained the harpsichord, which occupied an 
important place in the scores, and was generally played 
by the conductor. The names of the more distinguished 
harpsichord players will be found included in the list 
of composers for that instrument given in paragraph 28 
of the present section. A perusal of the harpsichord 
music of the Bachs and their coutemporaries will show 
that, especially regarding the peculiar action of the 
instrument, the performers of that time were possessed 
of a wonderful degree of manipulative skill, some oi 
their compositions being of a character to tax the 
executive powers of many of the best piamsts of our 
own day. Until the middle of the last century the use 
of the thumb in playing was not allowed; it was 
Emmanuel Bach who, in 1753, first introduced a system 
of ** fingering ^ in which the thumb was admitted. But 
no method of fingering, nor mechanical contrivance, 
could make the harpsichord a perfect instrument; it 
lacked, from the nature of its action, the capacity for 
producing that subtle, ever- varying ** light and shade " 
which constitutes what is known as ** expression." 

38. It was the Pianoforte (Hammer-clavier) which, 
possessing the vital power of " expression," eventually 
superseded the harpsichord. The harp-like shape and 
the metal wires remained as in the older instrument, 
but the quills and jacks were displaced by the little 
hammers with which every one is familiar. Every 
degree of piano and forte being thus producible by the 
touch of the performer, the new instrument obtained 
its present name by common consent, as indicating a 
feature hitherto unknown in connection with keyed 
instruments. The idea of the pianoforte seems to have 
occurred coincidently to several persons about the same 
date; the earliest amongst them, however, appears to 
have been Oris to fall, in 1711. The other co-inventors 
were Marius^ Wood, and Schroter. The fir^t noted 

BL fi^ ».] ^rf Summmy. ISfl 

Biaker of piftnofortes was Silbermaim, whose instra- 
ments were much approved by Bach. This great 
mnsician does not appear, however, to have discarded 
the harpsichord in favour of the new instrument. It 
was not until 1760, ten years after the death of Bach, 
that the pianoforte came into popular favour, xho 
earliest makers were Stein, Broad wood, Collard, Erarti, 
and others whose names are well known at the present 
day in connection with pianoforte manufacture. Under 
the heads ^^ Sonata'' and ''Concerto" we have men- 
tioned the names of the principal composers fo^ the 
pianoforte; the same musicians were celebrated like- 
wise as mrtuoet, or performers upon this instrument. 
We should, however, add to that list the following 
artists^ who made pianoforte playing their special 
vocation : Hers, Thalberg, Schulolf; and amongst living 
celebrities, Hall6, Clara Schumann, Arabella Goddard, 
liszt,* Rubinstein,* Von Billow, EssipoflF, Pauer. 

39. The Lute, now obsolete, may be regarded as the 
most important of the many varieties of the kifhara f 
genus. The period of the invention of the lute is still 
a matter of speculation ; some say that it is of Asiatic 
origin. Dante {d. 1321) alludes to it in a manner 
which proves that it was a well-known instrument in 
his time. Mersennus {d. 1640) tells us that the lute 
consisted of three parts : — firsts the table or flat sound- 
board lying under the lower end of the strings; 
secondly, the back or body, formed by nine convex 
ribs jointed together ; thirdly, the neck, and in front 
of it the finger-board, over which nine frets or lines of 
oat-gut were stretched. The usual number of the strings 
was six, the five largest being doubled, making eleven 
strings in alL Many of tiie later ins ruments, however^ 

• Vide i. 68, 69. 

t The kithara was distinguished from the lyre in the addition 
of a neck with frets lying close undsr the strings, hy which n eans 
the pitch of each string oould bo raised by the ** stopping ** oi 
pressure of the fingers. 

IM Ekhry 9f Mu9k. [m m 

had as many as twenty-four strings. The lute was 
usuallj toned as under : 

with two strings to each note, the highest excepted. 
The Orpharionrlute had from sixteen to twenty strings, 
which were of metal instead of oat-gut. The Bass-lute 
{Theorho^ Arch-lute, Kithara hijuga) had, as the last 
name implies, two necks, or, more correctly, two heads 
and firet-hoards of different sizes and placed side hy 
side, — the longer fret-board for the bass strings, and the 
shorter for the upper and middle strings. 1^ theorbo 
came into use about the beginning of the seyenteenth 
century, and formed a yaluable constituent in the early 
orchestra. Thomas Mace, in his quaintly-written 
treatise, MusicJ^s Monument (1676), has given tfU 
interesting description of the theorbo, for which he 
was a yery popular composer. Music for the lute was 
written in a peculiar kind of notation, called ic^lature, 
consisting of letters and other signs upon a six-line 
stave. Performers on the lute or theorbo were termed 
'' lutenists," and until recent years existed the office 
of "Lutenist in the Chapel Royal." The theorbo fell 
into disuse about the middle of the last century. Some 
writers affirm that the latest employment of this instru- 
ment in the orchestra was by Francesco Conti,in 1708, 
but this statement is not correct. Handel used it in 
his Ode on Saint Cecilia! 8 Day, which was composed 
and produced in 1739, as an accompaniment to the air 
"The Soft Complaining Flute." The score is marked 
-lauta," but the compass employed 


m. 9, 40.] 

Aft Skmmarjf. 


conclnsiyely indicates the theorbo. In old tcores W€ 
frequently find the part for the theorbo written as a 
basso continuo, or figured bass. Among the most emi- 
nent lutenists were Mace, Kapsberger, Lambert, Conti, 
Gaetano, and Gauthier. Hawkins gives the following 
specimen of lute music, composed bj Thomas Mace : 

Bz.81 Mr MisTBXBi. 

Thoxas Maci. 

f^^^ j^lH^^J^ ^ 



g^^T— [|T1^^^ 






Other varieties of the hithara family were the ghittem 
or cither, the citole, the mandolin (employed by Moatrt 
in Don Giovanni)^ and the guitar, which has enjoyed 
a more recent popularity. The hackbiet or dulcimer 
may scarcely be said to belong to the same order, as 
its strings were not ''plucked," but beaten by small 
pellets or hammers, upon the principle of the modern 

40. The family of stringed instruments played with 
^ how has been a very numerous one. The mo&t 
ancient viol on record appears to be the ravetutfom (or 
ravanastron), still played in India by the mendicant 
monks of Buddha. Tradition says that this primitive 
instrument was invented by one of the kings of Ceylon, 
but as the date assi^ed to this monarch is somewhere 
about five thousand years before Christ, the tradition 
is worth very little indeed. It is faid, however, that 
ihe ravenstrom was the precursor >t the goudok^ m 

142 HUtory ^ Mme. fm. m 

KoMtm fiddle ; and the Welah crwih^ which had mi 
akioga atmng acroas a flat bridge, and was played partly 
with the bow, and partly by placking with the fingeia. 
Another ancient variety ia the urhrheen of the Chinese^ 
which oonaiats of a mallet-ehaped box, into which a stick 
or tabe ia fixed, with* Uiiee or four atringa atmng f hue 
pegs at one end of the stick and passing over a bridge 
fixed upon the mallet-like box. The trumpei'mttrine 
consisted of a triangular box with one string strong 
across a yery low bridge. From the rebab of Egypt^ 
a single-stringed fiddle with a squareahaped body, 
ia probably derived the rebeCj a three-stringed inetra- 
ment in shape more nearly resembling the modem 
violin. From the rebee sprang in fact the family of 
viols to which frequent allusion has been made. The 
Viol, or vitula, dates from the tenth or eleventh century ; 
it usually had six strings, and the finger-board was 
ftirmshed with frets. The size of the viol was approxi- 
mate to that of the viola, or tenor violin now used in the 
orchestra. The " chest of viols " has been described by 
an old writer as *' a large hutch with several apartments 
and partitions in it, each lined with green baize. 
Every instrument was sized in bigness according to the 
part played upon it, the treble being the smallest," &c. 
A model chest of viols contained six instruments, — two 
trebles, two tenors, and two basses. From the chest of 
viols we obtain the Violoncello; also the Violrdargambd^ 
or leg-viol, so called from the position in which it is 
held by the performer. The finger-board of the gamha 
was provided with frets, and the strings, six in number, 
were thus timed : 

The viol-da-gamba was an instrument much favoured 
by Bach, who wrote olUigati parts for it in soma of lua 

m. «^ 41 ] Art Summary. 148 

gcoies— one notable infitance oooun in the Paanan 
accoTtHn^ to St. Matthew. Baoh inyented a sunilar 
instrament, having a somewhat higher compass, which 
he named Viola pomposa^ but this was soon superseded 
by the violoncello. The Baryton^ or Viol-di-Bardone, 
was another instrument of the viol class, having six to 
seven cat^t strings played with the bow, under which 
lay sixteen metal strings which were plucked with the 
fingers of the left hand. Prince Esterhazy, the patron 
of Haydn, was exceedingly fond of this instrument, for 
which Haydn composed upwards of one hundred and 
sixty studies. A very similar instrument, both as to 
the number of cat^t strings and the metal strings 
beneath, was the Viol-d' amour, which Meyerbeer has 
employed for a special effect in Le8 Huguenots. The 
Double bass (eontra-basso), the largest of all the viols, 
is said to have been invented by Salo, in 1580; 
Monteelair introduced it into the orchestra in 1696. 

41. The actual inventor of the Violin, or little viol, 
is not known, nor yet the precise date of its introduction. 
The earliest mention of the instrument as a constituent 
of the orchestra seems to be that given by Monteverde 
in the list of the orchestra at the performance of his 
OrfeOf 1650 : — " Duoi violini piccoli alia Francese ; " — 
two little violins of the French sort. But that at this 
date the violin was not a novelty is patent from the 
fact that the violin manufacture was commenced by the 
elder Amati about the year 1600. We further hear 
of one Baltazarini giving violin performances in 
I^gland in 1577. From the recent research of a 
German antiquarian it seems tolerably conclusive that 
the violin manufacture was initiated in Germany, and 
was imported thence into Italy. The principal Italian 
makers of the seventeenth century were the Amati, 
the GuARNERi, and the Stradiuabi families (all of 
Cremona), who so jealously guarded the peculiar secrets 
of their manufacture, that no modem maker has so fax 
been able to reproduce instruments of the same quality. 

144 Hisiarff ^ Mu$ie. [m. a, m, 

OihecA of the same period were Jaoobus Stainer oi 
STSiNBBy Albakus, and the ELlotz family — these were 
the principal German makers. The following distia- 
guished violinists are named in approximate chronolo- 
gical order : Baltazarini, Lullt, Baltzab, Banister, 
Bassani, Ck>RBLLi, Tartini, Looatslli, Jarngviok, 
BiTTi, Albinoni, Giardini, Campaqnoli, Lunati, 
DiBUPART, Pbroolbsi, Lb Clair, Gbminiani, LoLLIy 
ViOTTi, Baillot, Rrbutzer, Hodb, Matsbder, 
Paganini, Lafont, Spohr, Db Bbriot. The principal 
violinists of the present day it is unnecessary to mention. 
42. Among wind instrumbnts, probably the most 
ancient is the Elute, of which there have been many 
varieties. The word ** flute " is supposed to be derived 
from fluta, a lamprey, or small eel, which has on its 
side seven marks or holes corresponding to those oi 
the instrument. The flute was exceedinglly popular 
with both the Greeks and the Bomans, who introduced 
flute playing into their religious ceremonies, and almost 
on every public occasion — indeed, even at their funerals. 
At first, and until a comparatively recent date, the 
mouth-piece and shape of the flute was not unlike the 
flageolet. Some flutes were " double," i.e., having two 
tubes connected with a single mouth-piece. Lusciniiis 
describes flutes of four sizes, ranging from treble to 
bass. The Recorder, frequently alluded to by the old 
English writers, was a kind of flageolet, and varied in 
length from about twelve inches to three feet, the 
largest being the Bass Recorder, The Pilgrim's Staff 
was the name given to one kind of flute from its great 
length and consequent resemblance to the staves carried 
by religious pilgrims in their processions. The Cornet^ 
not to be confounded with the modem brass instrument 
of the same name, was a bow-shaped flute, tapering 
towards the mouth-piece, and came into use in the 
xeign of Elizabeth. The tone of the comet waa 
regarded as very closely resembling the human voice, 
and f oi' this reason, at the Bestoration, when Cathedxal 

m. «, a] Art SumtMry. HH 

choristers were yet very scarce, owing to the disootirage- 
xnent of choral seryices by the Puritans, this instrument 
was nsed to strengthen the treble parts. The old 
Engtish flute, oxflute-^heCf — so called because the mouth- 
piece had some resemblance to the bill or " beak " of a 
bird, — was the flute commonly used in the orchestra up 
to the time of Handel, who introduces into some of his 
scores the modem horizontal or German flute {flauto 
traveno), as the traverso, evidently to distinguish it 
from the flute-drbeCy still in general use in his day. 

43. Of the present beed instruments the Oboe (or 
hautboy) is one of the oldest. Its use in England may 
be traced as far back as the fourteenth century. They 
were employed in the court band of Edward IIL, and 
were then known as weygMes or waitea ; and it is further 
supposed that the Cluristmas "waits" derived their 
appellation from the fact that these waitea or hautboys 
were a prominent feature of those nocturnal entertain- 
ments. In the plays of Shakespeare, we find frequent 
allusion to the ** hautboys" in the stage directions 
announcing the entry of royal or martial pageants. 
The Como Inglese (Cor Anglais) is, familiarly speaking, 
a larger oboe, and forms the "alto" of the smaller 
instrument The Orfeo of Gluck contains a part for 
this instrument, as well as the overture in Eossini's 
OuUlaume Tetl; while Meyerbeer has introduced it 
into many of his scores. The instrument has also 
been employed by "Wagner and some other modem 
writers. The " natural bass " of the above instruments 
is the Bassoon (called in Italian fagotto^ &om its 
resemblance, when the parts are severed and tied 
together, to a bundle of sticks or faggots), said to have 
been invented in the year 1539 by an Italian named 
Afranio, but there is no doubt that it was of much 
earlier date, though of different shape and compass, and 
was known as the Bombard, or Bass Weyghte. It is 
not, however, to be confounded with the Basaun 
mentioned by Luscinius, which was really a basi 


14ff . EUtory cf Mme. [m. 43, 44. 

infltniiiieDl c f the trombone (or sackbat) dase. Handel 
was one of the fint among important composers to 
introduce the bassoon into the orchestra, and his use of 
the instrument in Satd (in the Incantation scene, 
InftimoX Spirits, and Why hast thou forced met) ]& 
an instance well known to musicians. The same 
master has employed the bassoon to great advantage in 
TJiou didst blow, in Israel in Egypt. Since Handel's 
time the bassoon has taken an important place in the 
orchestra. The Double Bassoon, the compass of which 
is an octave below that of the bassoon, was first intro- 
duced into the orchestra at the Handel Commemoration 
in Westminster Abbey, 1784. Owing to the unwieldy 
size of the instrument it has been very sparingly 
employed by musicians; nevertheless Beethoven has 
introduced it in two of his symphonies — the C minor, 
and the ** Choral," with imposing efiEect. 

44. The modem Clarinet was the invention of 
Denner of Nuremberg, in 1690 ; some writers, however, 
give the date as 1720. Its pr^ecessor was the Chala- 
meau,* or Schalmey, sometimes mentioned as the 
precursor of the oboe. The term " chalameau " is still 
employed to denote the lower and middle registers of 
the clarinet, which was first used in the orchestra about 
the middle of the last century. It had a place in the 
score of an opera, Orione, by J. C. Bach (a son of the 
great master), composed about 1760. The alto and 
bass clarinets are simply larger varieties of the smaller 
instrument, each producing a correspondingly lower 
compass. The Basset-Horn {Como di bassetto), which 
has been described as taking an intermediate place 
between the clarinet and bassoon, is of comparatively 
modern date, although seldom used in modem scores. 
Lotz, of Presburg, in Grermany, introduced it in 1782; 
and Mozart appears to be the master of note who 
adopted it. His Clemenza di Tito, and more notablj 

* From Mlamu^ a reecU 

hl 44, IS.] Art Summary. 14 

Btil], the JRequiem, both contain remarkable illastrationfl 
of tiie striking properties, the individoal excellencies 
of this much neglected instrament. The Basset-Horn 
resembles in shape a large clarinet, having a metal belL 
The compass of the instrument ranges from the lower 
bass F to the middle G in the treble stave. The 
instrament might be considered obsolete but for its 
employment in military bands. The Serpent^ which 
dates from 1690, scarcdy belongs to the clarinet class, 
but it may be mentioned here in concluding our notice 
of wood instruments. The Serpent has a compass 
similar to that of the bassoon, but its alleged uncertainty 
of tone-production has long since brought it into 
disfavour, although we have heard it remarked by 
instrumentalists of experience, that in the hands of a 
skilful player it could still be made to form a most 
valuable addition to the orchestra of the present day. 

45. We can only glance at the principal members of 
the numsfous family of Brass Instruments. The 
Hoxn {Como)y though the least assertive among brass 
instruments, adds so greatly to the colouring of sym- 
phonic music, that it has always occupied an honoured 
place in the orchestra. It is also one of the most ancient 
of instruments, being at least of mediaeval origin. The 
Horn for which Beethoven and other great masters 
wrote, is the primitive one called the French Horn, 
which simply produces the natural harmonics of the 
open tube, other notes, always sparingly used, being 
artificially formed by the insertion of the hand in the 
bell. In 1748, Hampel, a German, invented a plan for 
the production of the semitones ; Kolbel, Miiller, and 
others tried further improvements, but the later inven- 
tion of Saxe (the use of pistons) completely overcame 
the mechanical difficulties, while at the same time the 
tone of the instrument deteriorated. The Trumpet 
{Clarino, tromha) is of equal antiquity with the hom» 
and its notes are similarly produced, but of higher 
pitch and more brilliant tone. The scores of the \bsX 

148 SMarp fif Muih. [ni. 4B, 4a 

cen t ury show fiuit the trampete of that time wen 
capable of prodaeing higher notes than at the present 
day, the probability being that the instraments were 
then altogether snudler in the tube and belL* The 
Trombone, formerly known as the aoMnd, figured in 
the scores of the sixteenth century. G. Oabrieli (1540 
—1612) employed four sackbuts in the accompaniments 
to his Surrexit Ghristut^ and at this the musician is 
inclined to smile ; but it is not improbable that they 
were used to double or lead the yoioe parts, each 
represented by a goodly number of sin^rs. Aggm, 
the trombone was included in the score of Monteverdi's 
Orfeo. The presence of the trombone in some of 
Handel's scores has been ascribed to Mozart^ but this is 
now considered more than doubtfuL Thm axe four 
species or sizes of trombone, the soprano, the alto, 
the tenor, and the bass. The first and fourth kinds 
are seldom now used; the latter owing to its being 
fatiguing to the performer, and of sluggish utterance. 
Other l^s instruments are the Bombardon^ the Tvha^ 
the Euphonium, of comparatively recent date ; and the 
Ophideidey which was invented to supersede the serpent 
in the orchestra. 

46. It now remains to us to give a short summary of 
the development of the Org^an, the most comprehensive 
of all instruments. In histories of the organ it is 
usual to give a description of a small collection of 
pipes worked by hydraulic action, known as "the 
water-organ of the ancients ; " but although diagrams 
are supplied with the description, the account is some- 
what apocryphaL The Magrepha, or organ of ten 
pipes, with a keyboard, is alleged to have existed in 
the second century, but doubts have been expressed 
regarding the nature of this instrument also. It is, 
however, an historical fact, that an organ, the gift of 

• The Clarei, Felt, and T%urfurhom, mentioned by Losciniua 
men all ancient rarietiM ci the Clarion or trump^ 

ttL4i] Art Summary. 249 

Constantine^ was in the possession of King Pepin of 
France circa a.d. 757. Still earlier {circa 700), 
Aldhelm, a monk, makes mention of an organ with 
'^gilt pipes/' though he gives no clue tc the size of the 
instrument. In the tenth century, an organ having 
400 pipes is mentioned hj Wolstim; the organ was 
played with " keys," and was hlown hy thirteen separate 
pairs of hollows. Drawings of this period still extant 
lepresent the organ as an instrument having hut few 
pipes, blown with evident labour by two or more 
persons, and played upon by a monk. The keys of 
these organs were of wood, of from three to six inches 
in breadth, and requiring to be played upon by hard 
blows of tiie fist. Thus it is plain that these instru- 
ments were not capable of yielding more than the plain 
song or melody of ancient Church music, or at most, 
the crude organum or diaphony to which we have 
elsewhere alluded. The ^' half-notes," or semitones, 
were introduced at Venice about the end of the eleventh 
century ; even at this date the compass of the instrument 
was limited to two octaves. The invention of the 
organ pedal is attributed to Bernhardt, * about 1490 ; 
and the compass was an octave from B flat or A. These 
pedals were nothing more than small pieces of wood of 
a size to be played with the toe — in fact, the heel was 
not used until a comparatively recent period. The 
" swell organ" was first introduced by Jordan in 1712 ; 
the Venetian swell, by which a more gradual crescendo 
and diminuendo is effected was the invention of England, 
towards the end of the last century. The swell was 
further improved by Green, a well-known organ-builder 
of the same period. As the organ developed, in the 
course of time, into the character of a solo instrument,f 
the ingenuity of musicians and organ-builders (who 

t The BegaUt or BegaUf was a fflnall portable organ (now 
ol»olete), in use during the sixteenth and seventeenth centoriea. 
Tkii, probably, was the instrument which ^ roTed so great a solact 
to Milton in his blindness. • Vidi i 24. 

150 Ehtcry of Iturie. [in. «& 

wi)re as great enthusiasts in their calling as the Italiac 
Tiolin-makeis were in theirs) was exercised in the 
production of new varietia^ of tone and register. The 
■mailer wind-instruments were more or less successfully 
imitated, and their names are still associated with 
certain organ«tope — notahly the Krumkome (Oremome, 
Oremofia\ the Gemshom^ and the Hold fiote. The 
most celebrated builders in England daring the last 
century were Abraham Jordan, ^'Father" Schmidt^ 
Harris, Suetzler, Schroder, Avery, Byfield, and Green. 
Organ-playing as a separate art undoubtedly owes much 
to Freecobaldi, who has been called " The father ot 
oigan-playing ; " he wrote fugues and other compositions 
in which he expressly studied the capacities of the 
instrument of his day. The following list of celebrated 
organists includes those chiefly who were reputed l(» 
their %i v:ial skill as performers, or composers of organ* 
music We have not thought it necessary to mentm 
Hvin^ ganists: — 

Dr. John Bull (1563—1622). 
Viadana (1660—1626). 
Prescobaldi (1680—1640). 
Gibbons (1683—1626). 
Kerl (1626—1690). 
Froberger (1637—1695). 
Buxtehude {p. 1640—1707). 
Stradella (1646—1678). 
Blow (1648—1708). 
Purcell (1658—1695). 
Couperin (1668—1733). 
Caldara (1678—1763). 
Mattheaon (1681—1764). 
Walther (1683—1729). 
J. S. Bach (1685—1760). 
Handel (1685—1769). 
Basse (1699—1783). 
Boyce (1710—1779). 
Marpurg (1719—1789). 
Albrechtsberger (1736— 180i|b 
8tadler (1748—1833). 
Vogler ^n4^-.\ft\«i. 



nt 18—^] Art Summary. 151 

Rink (1770—1846). 
Mendelssohn (1809—1847). 
S. Sebastian Wesley fd. 1876). 
George Cooper (tf. 1876). 

47. The foremost among instruments of feroussion 
is the Drum {tambour, tympanum), consisting of a 
hollow hemieipheTe or cylinder of wood or metaJ, over 
the month or ends of which is placed a skin or 
parchment, in tension. The pitch of the note produced 
may be raised or lowered by the tightening or slackening, 
as the case may be, of the parchment disc ; this being 
effected by screws or bracings of leather working upon 
cords. The drum most commonly used in the orch&<)tra 
is the hemispherical or " kettle-di'um,^ generally a pair 
tuned at the distance of a fourth or fifth from each 
other — tonic and dominant. Beethoven has produced 
some remarkable effects from the drum — for example, 
the enharmonic change in the first movement of the 
fourth symphony (in B flat), when the original tonic 
(B flat) drum is imexpectedly employed as Aj. Berlioz, 
than whom no man better understood the resources of 
the orchestra, made a special study of the drum ; and 
in his Kequiem upon the death of Napoleon I. introduced 
several sets of kettle-drums sordini. The great or long 
drum {bass drum, gi'osse caisse) is very sparingly used 
by composers, who employ it only in fortissimi passages, 
such as in the chonis '** Cmne with torches^' in the 
WaJpurgis Night of Mendelssohn. The Glockenspiel 
ia a frame of bells — sometimes of steel bars, possessing 
u fair compass of simply diatonic intervals, and struck 
with hammers, with the hand, or by keys as in the 
pianoforte. Mozart uses a glockenspiel with exquisite 
effect in his Zauberflote, The Carillon which Handel 
used in Saul was an instrument very similar to, if not 
identical with, the glockenspiel. 

48. In the above review — necessarily cursory — of 
the princi])al musical instruments, past and present, we 
have mainly followed the plan adopted by Berlioi in 

109 History of Mtuie. \m. m. 

his Treatise on Instramentation ; and, like bim, we Lave 
leseryed to the last our mention of that most exalted 
of all ^' instnunents of music," the Human Yoics. 
We have already, in our first section (L 8, 9, 11, 12, 
13, 29), alluded to the schools of singing founded by 
Ambrose, Gregory, Charlemagne, and other early patrons 
of music, or musicians, in connection with ecclesiastical 
musia Of the early institution of church choirs we 
have already treated in the present section (par. 3), 
and with the grovrth of the contrapuntal art may be 
traced the development of choral harmony, with its 
divisions of soprano, alto or contralto, tenor and bass. 
With respect to solo^inging, we have to look to tbe 
troubadours, the minnesanger, and other secular vocalists 
for the birth of the present art^ but more immedifitely to 
the opera, which gave a new and larger scope for vocal 
skilL In the earlier days of the opera the female as 
well as the male characters were acted by men (for a 
long time women were not allowed upon the stage), to 
which end, by an artificial process, the treble voice of 
boyhood was preserved to them through life. Among 
such male soprani may be mentioned, Senesino, 
Bemacchi, Caffarelli, Farinelli; in fact, male soprani 
continued in favour with the public long after the 
advent of female opera singers. Of the latter, Hawkins 
gives a long list, of which we may note the following : 
San Nicola, Santini (afterwards the wife of Antonio 
Lotti), Boschi, Mrs. Tofts, Maria Gallia (who took the 
part of Rosamund in Clayton's opera of that name), 
Margarita de TEpine, Mra. Barbier, Anastasia Eobinson 
(afterwards Countess of Peterborough), Faustina ; other 
celebrated female singers of the last century were Tesii 
Cuzzoni, Francesca Gabrieli, Mrs. Billington, &c. 
Belonging to the present century were Catalani {d, 1849)) 
Sontag, Clara Novello, Pasta, Jenny Lind, Malibran, 
Giulia and Giulietta Grisi, Mara, Alboni, Titiens {d. 
1877), Patti, Nillson, Patey ; some of whom are stiU 
living, and some in retirement. Among fiho tenor and 

H. 40^ 4Bi] Art Swnmmy* 151 

liass Bingeis of the last fifty years are: Tambtirini, 
LaUache, Staadigl, Wachtel, Bubini, Eaff, Kelly. 
MariOy Braham, Sims Beeves, Santley, &c. Many oi 
these artists distinguished themselves in oiatorio ai 
well as in opera. 

49. The ancient sohools of singing have been succeeded 
by Conaervato^ea or Academies, where every branch 
of the musical art is cultivated and taught. Amongst 
the Academies which possess an historic fame are the 
Conservatoires of Milan, Bologna, Berlin, Leipeic, Paris, 
and the Boyal Academy of Music in London. The 
Boyal Academy of Music, which was founded in 1822^ 
and afterwards incorporated by Charter, has passed 
through many vicissitudes, but has succeeded in 
establishing for itself a position worthy of the English 
nation, and has given to the. world many esteemed 
nraaicians, of whom the late Stemdale Bennett is a 
notable instance. Other institutions established for 
the jnomotion of musical learning are, the College of 
Organists, established in 1864, for the benefit of 
oigaiusts and other church musicians ; Trinity College, 
Loiidon, instituted in 1872, and afterwards incorporated 
by Charter, for the promotion of musical and general 
education; the National Training School for Music, 
which commenced its useful work in 1876 ; the Boyal 
Irish Academy of Music; and other important insti- 
tutions, aU of which, in their several capacities and 
spheres of work, have combined to further the musical 
piQgress of this country, ^or can we omit a reference 
to the Tonic Sol-fa movement, which for several years 
has been spreading through our own and other English- 
speaking countries, and has undoubtedly done much 
to improve the musical knowledge and taste of the 
masses. In 1875, the leaders of the movement obtained 
a Charter for an institution which bears the name (»f 
the Tonic Sol-fa College, and many conuexionai clioral 
bodies have been formed, and trained on the T<mie 
Sol-fa principles, the most important of which ure the 

154 Hwtory of Mum. [hl m, m 

tylliil'c notation and the ^^ Moveable Do." It is not 
within the province of this work to discuss the merits 
or demerits of this system, about which there has been 
much unprofitable controversy. 

60. It now only remains to us to enumerate the 
principal writers on the Science of music. The 
voluminous Latin Treatise of Bobthius {d, 525) was 
based to a great extent upon the ancient dissertations 
of Pythagoras, Aristoxonus, Ptolemy, and others, and 
entered with great minuteness into the mathematical 
ratios of intervals, dealing of course with the old Greek 
acales. Cassiodorus {c. 470 — 560), a distinguished 
scholar of the same period, also wrote concerning the 
acieoce of music, but added little or nothing to the 
extensive and somewhat mystic lore amai^ed by 
Boethius. Allusion has already been made to the 
more practical treatises of Guido, Isidore of Seville, 
and Franco of Cologne. Succeeding writers, such as 
Odington, Tinctor, De Handle, Gaffurius, Franchinus, 
and others, founded their observations on the Boethiau 
and Guidonian systems. The inauguration of the modern 
science is due chiefly to Dr, William Holder (d. 1697) 
and Bameau (1683 — 1764). Dr. Holder's treatise 
on Harmony (1694) is worthy of note as containing 
the scheme of natural harmonics, familiarized to us by 
the later works of Logier and Ouseley. Hawkins thus 
summarizes this portion of Dr. Holder's work: "He 
makes a concord to consist in the coincidence of the 
vibrations of the chords of two instruments, and speaks 
to this purpose : — If the vibrations correspond in every 
course and recourse, the concord produced will be the 
unison ; if the ratio of the vibrations be as 2 to 1, in 
which case they will unite alternately, viz., at every 
course, crossing at the recourse, the concord will be the 
octave. If the vibrations be in the ratio of 3 to 2, 
their sounds will consort in a fifth, uniting after every 
second, i. d., at every other or third course ; and if as 
4 to 3, in a diatessaron or fourth, uniting after eyeiy 

sn. n.] Art Sufwnary. IM 

tbiid recourse, yiz., at every fourth course, and so of 
the other consonances according to their respective 
ratios." On that part of the theory of music which 
relates to the formation or derivation of chords there 
have heen many writers, hut among these none has, we 
imagine, been the cause of so much controversy among 
musicians as the theories of Dr. Day, whose chief 
exponent at the present time is Professor Macfarren. 
To explain the respective doctrines held by Day, 
Ouseley, and Stainer would need, to do justice to the 
subject, a separate work ; here we can only assure the 
young student that whatever differences may exist 
among theorists as to the etymology of a choid (e, g.^ 
whether it has one root or two roots) the mode of its 
employment and resolution are identical in every case 
— that is, the practical effect is the same. The harmony 
treatises of Crotch, Catel, Callcott, and Goss, have dealt 
almost exclusively with the practical side of the subject. 
The works of the three former writers, however, are gen- 
erally regard ed as being * ' behind the times." Of Counter- 
point and Fugue the most prominent expositors have 
been: Zarlmo (1617—1593), Fvx, or Fuchs (1660— 
1732), Padre Martmi (1706— 1784), Ifar^r^^ (1718— 
1795), Albrechtsberger (1736—1809), Cherubini (1760 
—1842), and Eeicha (1770—1836). Bach's Art of 
Fugtte, published in 1748, is simply a collection of fine 
examples, all on one subject, of this form of composition. 
Chief among the critics, historians, and miscellaneous 
writers on musical science and art, during the past and 
present centuries are : J. Mattheson (1 68 1 — 1 764), essay- 
ist and historian; J.J.Rousseau (1712 — 1778), essayist; 
Sir John Hawkins (1720 — 1791), historian; Dr. Charles 
Bumey (1726—1814), historian; 0. F. LangW (1741 
—1807), theorist; Gretry (1741—1813), essayist; 
J. N. Forkel (1749—1818), essayist and historian: 
C. F. Zolter (1758—1832), essayist; A. E. Choron 
(1772—1834), theorist; Giuseppe Baini (1775—1844), 
hktorian; F. J. F^tis (1784—1872), essayist and 


156 Bkhry of Music [m. 00^ bl 

Listorian; A. B. Marx (1799 — 1866), theorist; 
H. Berlioz (1803—1869), essayist; B. Schumann 
(1810 — 1856), essayist; also Ajnbros, Liszt, Engel« 
Bimbaolt, Ghappell, Hullah, Hitter, &c., &c. 

51. There is, however, another and a distinct class 
of musical philosophers, whom we may call the 
8OIKNTI8TS of the present day ; men whose researches 
as physicists have led them into a special inquiry into 
the natural laws and phenomena of sound. To this 
dass belong Wheatstone, Tyndal, Blaserna, and many 
others whose names must be familiar to every reader 
of contemporary musical literature. But undoubtedly 
the most distinguished amongst musical scientists is 
Helmholtz, the German physicist and physician, whose 
work Die Lehre von den Tanempfirulungenj recently 
translated into English by Mr. A. J. Ellis, has openeo, 
as it were, a new world to the view of the musician. 
It may be said that the art of music profits little by 
these physical discoveries; but while the science is 
still in its infancy, we cannot predicate with certainty 
concerning the result of all this recent research. It 
may be that, at any moment, while the pen is in the 
hand, or the lips are moved to speech, some sudden 
burst of light, some new and splendid apocalypse, shall, 
by the iustrumentality of science, irradiate the whols 
world of music, revealing forms of beauty, and spheres 
of vision, hitherto becliudsd or unknown. 



1 What do yoa know of the musical scales of tht 

Greeks 1 

2 Erom whom did the Greeks derive the radiments 

of their musical knowledge 1 

3 In what sense is the term ^* Harmony " employed 

by the Greek writers 1 

4 Who were the most noted among Greek Theorists f 

5 Who introduced the art of flute-playing into 


6 What ancient nation employed Greek slaves as 

singers and players) 

7 When may the history of music as a separate art be 

said to commence 1 

8 About what date, and by whom, was the first singing 

school instituted in Eome 1 

9 Upon what evidence do we infer that St. Sylvester 

was acquainted with the method of antiphonal 
chanting 1 

10 When did St. Ambrose live ; and what did he do 

for Church Music 1 

11 What were the " Authentic Modes 1" The " Plagal 

Modes 1 " Give a list of them as arranged by St» 

* The Student is requested to searcli out for himself the answers 
to these questions, the numbers prefixed to them haring (dengnedly) 
■0 felwenoe to the body of the work. 

168 Examination QuMitmi. 

12 What was meant by the term Diaphonyf Oiganumf 

13 Name some of the improyements effected by Guido 

in the old system of nutation. 

14 VHiSLi title has been applied to Guido f 

15 From what devices are our present and F cle£B 

derived t 

16 When was the note Si introduced? 

17 Who introduced the system of musical measure 

{musica mensurahilis) t 

18 Give the names and shapes of the notes used by 


1 9 What was the state of counterpoint in Franco's time t 

20 Who was the inventor of '^ rest " signs t 

21 Give some account of Adam de la Hale. 

22 Name some of the most distiaguished troubadours 

of De la Hale's time. 

23 Who has been credited with having established the 

first correct principles of consonances and dis- 
sonances 1 

24 To whom is ascribed the introduction of florid 

counterpoint 1 

25 State what you know of Dufay, and of the rise of 

the Belgian School 

26 Which of the early Belgian composers has been 

styled ''the Sel^ustian Bach of the fifteenth 
century," and on what grounds % 

27 What is your impression concerning the character 

of the " fugues " composed by the early Belgian 

28 Des Pr^ effected an important advance in the art 

of musical composition. What was it 1 

29 Name some of the most distinguished pupils of Des 


30 What was Luther's opinion of Des Pr^s' music 1 

31 A pupil of Des Pr^ has been styled ** the founder 

of the Venetian School." Give his name. 
S2 To whom ict ascribed the introduction of tbt 

Sxaminathn QiiettioM. 159 

S3 'Who was ihe most distiiignisbed contempoiaiy of 

34 Who mtioduced the chiomatic element into musical 

compositicm % 

35 Who was the fiist to use the tenns Adagio^ 

AllegrOy &c. % 

36 What were the principal failings of the Belgian 

School 1 

37 When was the oigan-pedal invented, and by 


38 Give the date of the invention of moveable musio- 

types, and the name of the inventor. 

39 Who has been called the '' father of English contra- 

puntists % " 

40 Who wrote the anthem, I mil exalt Tliee, Lord I 

41 What was Merbecke's principal work ] 

42 Give a short account of Thomas Tallis. 

43 Which of the early English musicians wrote a 

motett in forty parts 1 

44 Give the name of a famous canon by William 


45 Who was the first professor of music at Gresham 

College 1 

46 What was ^ The Virginal Book ) " for whom was it 

written 1 

47 Give the title of a celebrated collection of madrigals 

published about the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, and name some of the principal con- 
tributors to the work. 

48 Who was Constanzo Festa 1 What is his place in 

the history of Church Music ] 

49 Name a distinguished pupil of Goudimel. 

50 Give an account of the controversy which occasioned 

the production of Missa Fapae MarcellL 

51 What was the name given to the style of composition 

of which Mism Papae Marcdli was the inaugup 
ration ) 
83 Who was Naninit 

100 JBnmdnaihi^ QmiHoni. 

53 Aaix-piit motet^ LammUabaiur Jaoobutf eomposil 

by a Spaniaid, is still performed in the Bistine 
Chapel at Rome. Give the name of the composer. 

54 In what style of composition did Mareniio particu- 

larly excel 9 
56 Who introduced instromental accompaniments in 
the music of the Church 1 Name the instruments 
employed by this composer. 

56 Trace the origin of the C^ra. 

57 Wh&i wsa musica parlante t 

58 Give the name, date, and composer of the first 

Italian Opera. 

59 On what special occasion was Euridiee produced 9 

60 To what great composer of the seyenteenth century 

was it reserved to give a more pronounced lona 
to the Opera 9 

61 For what practices was Monteveide subjected to 

the unfavourable criticisms of his contemporaries 9 

62 Name the principal Operas of Monteverde. 

63 Give an account of the circumstances attending the 

rise of Oratorio. 

64 Account for the term OrcUoriOf as applied to that 

class of composition. 

65 What was the first oratorio produced, and who was 

the composer 9 

66 Name some of the improvements effected in oratorio 

by CarissimL 

67 An oratorio by Carissimi has recently been revived. 

Give the title. 

68 Which of the Italian composers is said to have 

written the first Church concertos and solo songs 
for the Church 9 

69 Give the earliest known date of the employment of 

the basso conttntio, or figured bass. 

70 Name an accomplished Italian Organist of the 

seventeenth century. 

71 Who was ''the first to write harmony as di» 

tinguished from counterpoint 9" 

Examnation Questions. 161 

T2 ITsme the best-known composition of Allogri. 

73 To whom is attributed ike introduction of fh» 

Chorale t 

74 Who was the " father of German Oratorio!" 

75 Qive the title of the first Grerman Opera, the date 

of its production, and the name of the com- 

76 To what important musical post was Gibbons 

appointed ) 

77 N^ame a well-known Anthem by Orlando Gibbons. 

78 By what well-known composition is Matthew Lock 

chiefly remembered 1 Is it universally admitted 
that Lock composed that work ) 

79 Name ** the greatest English musical genius." 

80 Who was Henry Purcell's master 1 

81 Enumerate the principal amongst Purcell's works. 

82 Who was Dr. Aldrich 1 

83 Kame an anthem by Dr. Croft containing a six 

part fugue. 

84 Who composed the celebrated anthem. Hear my 

crying ? 

85 Give a short account of Dr. Boyce, naming some of 

his principal works. 

86 A contemporary of Boyce wrote as many as twenty- 

three operas. Give his name. 

87 Name an anthem by Battishill, written for seven 


88 What German composer is supposed to form the 

link between Schiitz and Bach 1 

89 Who wrote« The Bleeding and dying Jesus f In 

what respect does the plan of this work differ 
from that of the Passion-music of Bachi 
•0 Give an account of the career of Sebastian Bach. 

91 How many Passion-oratorios did Bach write] 

92 What was the mode of performance originallj 

intended for the Christmas Oratorio ? 

93 Did Bach write any music for the Roman Church I 

94 Describe the Suites Anglaises, 


m JSaPommaiion QueMMi. 

95 Which of the sons of Sebastian Bach introdnoed a 

new system of fingering in davichoid playing t 

96 Give an account of the earlier years of HandeL 

97 What ¥ras Handel's first opera 1 His first oratorio 1 

98 From what earlier work was the Ada and GalcUea 

of Handel in part deriyed ) 

99 When and where was Handel's Edher first per 

formed % 

100 Who was the most favoured rival of Handel % 

101 Where was the Messiah first performed, and with 

what result) 

102 Give a list of Handel's Oratorios. 

103 A German contemporary of Handel was much 

admired by the Italians, who named him '* the 
divine Saxon." Give his name. 

104 Who was the composer of Der Tod Jesu f 

105 ** Mozart was greally impressed with the beauty of 

Medea" Who composed the opera referred tol 

106 In what respects did Alessandro Scarlatti improve 

the opera f 

107 Name some of the principal masters of fugue in 

the eighteenth century. 

108 When and by whom was the Italian Opera intro- 

duced into France 1 

109 Who is regarded as the originator of the overture 1 

110 Give an account of Les Bouffons. What influence 

did they exercise upon the lyric stage in France f 

111 State the circumstances of the rivalry between 

Gluck and PiccinL 

112 Who is generally regarded as the founder of the 

modem symphony 1 

113 Name the principal operas of Mozart. 

114 Who added to the accompaniments in the 


115 What was the Liederta/d ? Who organized iti 

116 Which of the French composers in Beethoven's 

time was in In's opinion ** the most estimable of 
living miisiciuu^ T* 

Mosaminatum Questi&ns. 168 

117 How many symphonies did BeethoTon write 1 

118 What was the original title of the opera Fidelio f 

State what yon know of the history of this work. 

119 To what cause did Beethoyen owe much of his 

command of orchestral resources 1 

120 What was the nature of Beethoven's physical 

affliction, and at what period of his career did it 
become apparent ) 

121 In what capacity was Hummel considered a 

formidable rival of Beethoven ) 

122 Name the most remarkable of the operas composed 

by Spontini. 

123 Eelate the circumstances attending the death of 


124 It is said that Weber introduced a new feature in 

the treatment of the opera-overture ; what was it % 

125 Who composed The Erl-King ? 

126 When and under what circumstances was the 

Lobgesang produced ) 

127 Who was the founder and first director of the 

Leipsic Conservatorium of Music] 

128 On what occasion was the Elijah produced t 

129 What is a remarkable characteristic of Chopin's 

music t 

130 Name a celebrated motett by Dr. Crotch. 

131 Give the name of the composer of a conoert-oyer* 

tuie, entitled The Wood Nymph. 


1S2 Write out, from memory, the principal musical 
epochs and events of the first five centuries after 

IM BuunitKUion Qumlions. 

iSS Who was the principal mnsiciaii of the elerenfli 

134 What lemarkable musical eyent took place in 

Gennany about the year 1200 1 
136 About what period did Franco introduce the system 

of men8i./able music 1 

136 Name the principal musicians of the fourteenth 


137 In the fifteenth century, three celebrated composers 

were bom the same year. Who were they 1 

138 What was the prevalent '' School" or style of the 

thirteenth century t 

139 Name the priocipal contemporaries of Tallis, 

i. EDglinh ; iL German ; iii. Italian ; and assign 
to each his characteristic as a composer. 

140 Give the date of the introduction of copper-plate 

engraving for the printing of miisic. 

141 Two celebrated English composers died the same 

year in the sixteenth century. Name them. 

142 At what date was the Yiolin introduced into 

England ; and by whom ) 

143 Give the date of the production of the fir<t opera. 

144 Give the title and date of the first Oratorio. 

145 When was the harpsichord introduced into 

England ? 

146 Give the dates of the first German, English, and 

French Operas respectively, with their titles and 

147 When was the Macbeth Music published 1 

148 In one year of the seventeenth century two great 

German musicians were born. Give their names. 

149 Who were Purcell's contemporaries at home and 

abroad 1 

160 Give the dates of the production of HandelV 

Usiher, Messiah, Israel in Egypt 

161 When was introduced a new system of fingering 

for tlie clavichord, and what was the princi^vai 
innovation ) 

Sxamination QuenthM. 16S 

152 IxL what year took place the first Handel com* 

memoration ) 

153 When was the bassoon introduced mto the 

164 When was Haydn's Oreation produced? 

155 Name the principal contemporaries of Beethoven. 

156 In the year 1809 a great German master died, and 

another distinguished German composer was bom* 
Kame them. 

157 Give the dates of birth and death of Beethoven. 

158 Give the dates respectively of the invention of 

pedals to the harp and of the double action by 

159 Kame six of the most distinguished French com- 

posers of the present century. 

160 Give a list of the leading English musicians during 

the reign of Queen Yictona* 


161 What were the Ambrosian chants f 

162 Describe the antiphonal mode of singing. 

163 Define the terms Decani^ CantoriSy Precentor. 

164 Can you account for the origin of the modem m^jor 

and minor scales f 

165 Write out the following " Gregorian modes," mark- 

ing the semitones: Dorian; Phrygian; Hypo- 
Lydian; Mixo-Lydian. 

166 Give specimens of Organum or Diaphony, as 

practised by Hucbald or Guide. 

167 Write out the divisions of the great stave of 

eleven lines. 

168 Of how many lines did the stave generally used in 

the thirteenth century consist ) 

169 Who is supposed to have founded a Chair of 

Music at Oxford % 

f M SttmUfuribm QHi9thm. 

170 To irbom is attributed the inventi0ii of llii 

Canon 1 

171 Define Counierpoini, Canon, Cantua firmue. 

172 Who is to be i^;arded as the first composer of 

modem music ; and for what reason 9 

173 What was the art of Descantt Fabnrdent Write 

a specimen of the latter. 

174 Describe the orchestra employed at the performance 

of UAnima e Corpo by the direction of the 

175 Give a Ust of the principal composers of Oratorio. 

1 76 Enumerate the movements in the Missa Sollennis of 

the Roman Church. 

177 What distinguishes the Bequiem from the ordinary 


178 Name any composers who have written Bequkm 


179 Describe the various kinds of Anthems in use in 

the English Church. 

180 Can you name any peculiarity in the construction 

of the " Old Hundredth ? " 

181 Describe the Madrigal, and give a list of the most 

noted composers of madrigals. 

182 What is basso continuo? For what purpose was 

it introduced, and what is the principal use made 
of it in the present day % 

183 Name four operas which may be regarded as so 

many landmarks in operatic hiBtory. 

184 What are the principal theories of Eichard Wagner 

in regard to the musical drama ) 

185 Who was Metastasio ) 

186 What English monarch employed a band of 

hautboys T 

187 Describe some of the principal dance forms in the 


188 Mention some of the most distingui ibed writexf 

of suittcs 

189 What is a " Sonata r 

^omifMtian Questions. 167 

190 Name tiuee great composers nfho assisted in 

establishing the modem binary form. 

191 Define the term Muaiea di Camei-a, 

192 What is the place of the Concerto in instrumental 


193 Name any well-known composer who has written 

a Concerto for the Flute) — for the Clarinet! — 
for the Organ 1 

194 Define the Symphony, in the old and in the 

modem sense. 

195 Who is the "father of the modem Symphony)** 

196 Give instances of the employment of the harp in 

oratorios by HandeL 

197 Describe the Spinet, the Yiiginals, and the 


198 Mention some of the earliest makers of the hammer^ 

clavier. What is the name usually given to this 
instrument) and for what reason ) 

199 Describe the more important varieties of the Lute. 

200 Give a brief account of the ancient viol family, 

and describe the principal bowed instruments 
now in use. 

201 Describe the old Comet, Becorder, and Pilgrim's 


202 How do you account for the higher compass of the 

trumpet as indicated in the orchestral scores of 
the last century ) 

503 Name as many as you can of the principal organ- 

builders of the eighteenth century, mentioning 
the improvements introduced by some of them. 

504 Mention some of the most celebrated amongst 

English Organists. 
205 What great French composer made a special study 

of the effects to be obtained from the drum ) 
106 Mention some of the greatest female singers of tbe 

last and present centuries. 


1 Table of Gregorian Tones •• 

2 Ambrosian Chants ... 

8 Ofganum or Diaphony 

4 Oantus and disoantiiB at octave 

5 Ut queant laxit GuiDO 

6 Divisions of the great stave of eleven lines 

7 Rudimentary forms of and F ClefiB 

8 Example of Counterpoint ... FRANCO 

9 Melody from HoHn and Marion De la Halb 

10 Canon for two voices DUFAY 

11 Commencement of a Canon ... JuSQUm DE8 Piiis 
12 — 16 Various species of Counterpoint 

17 Example of Faburden ... MORLBT 

18 Recitative from .TimaA ... CABISSIMI 

19 Chorus from Jonah CABlSSDa 

20 Chorus from an Opera ... CACCIKI 

21 Evening Hjrmn (Canon) ... Tallis 

22 Old Hundredth as an Infinite Canon ... 

23 Examples of imitation in Chorales 

24 Commencement of Madrigal, 

IHsH a Vamata ... 

25 Recitative from Or/eo 

26 Duet from Or/eo 

27 Coranto (quotation from) 

28 Allemande 

29 Gavotte 




80 Galliard 

81 Gigueor Jig „ 
S2 Sarabande „ 
88 Lesson for the Lute. 

Monte VKBDB 



... ECCLES ... 

Jliy Mittreu Thomas Maob 

























Abeao6«gQ8. Les, Cherubini, i. 

Abu Hassan, W$ber, i. 55 
Ad Oalatea e Polifemo, Handel^ 

Ads and Oalatea, HatuMy i 41 
Admetus, Handetj i 41 
JStius, Mondelj i. 41 
Agrippina, Handel, i. 41 
Aida, Verdi, i. 67« iii' 25 
Alceste, Qluek, i. 45, 46, iii. 25 
Alexander, Handely i. 41 
Alexander's Feast, Handel, i. 41 
AU Baba, Cherubini, L 51 
Aline, ^^o», i. 44 
Almira, Handel, i. 41, iii. 25 
Anacr^n, Cherubini, i. 51 
Ancient Mariner, Bamett, i. 65 
Anthems for two Choirs, Men^ 

deleeohn, i. 58 
Antigone, Mendelssohn^ L 58 
Arbaces, Handel, i. 41 
Ariadne, Handel, i. 41 
Ariadne auf Naxos, HiUer, i. 42 
Ariadne auf Nexos, Benda, iii. 

Arianna, Monteverde, i. 32 
Armide, Gluefc, i. 20, iii. 25 
Arsinoe, Claytcm, iii. 25 
Art of Fugae, Bach, i. 40 
Artamene, Qluek, i. 45 
Artaxerxes, Qluek, i 45 ; Ame, 

m. 25 
Aaoribe nnto the Lord, Trovers, 

i. 38, iii. 20 
Athaliah, Handel, i. 41 
▲wakfl^ sweet love^ DowUmd^ iii. . 

Babylon, Spohr, i. 54 
Barbe Blen, Ofenbaeh, i. 66 
Barbiere di Siviglia, Mossini, L 

Behold, how good and joyfuL 

Clarke Whitfeld, iii. 20 
Belshazzar, Handel, i. 41 
Benvennto Cellini, Berlioz, L 61. 

iii. 25 
Berenice, Handel, i. 41 
Bleeding and Dying Jesos, The, 

Keiser, i. 39, iii. 17 
Blessed be the GKxl and Father, 

Wesley {8. SX I 64 
Blessed is he that consideroth, 

Nares, iii. 20 
Blest pair of Sirens, Stafford 

Smith, iii. 23 [25 

Bohemian Girl, Balfe, i. 64, iii. 
Bone Jesu, Viadana, i. 34 
Bow down thine ear, Byrde. iii. 

By Celia*8 Arbonr, Horsley, iii. 

By the waters of Babylon, Boyee, 

i. 38, iii. 20 

Cadnta del Giganti, Gluek, i. 45 
Call to Bemembrance, Battishill^ 

i. 38, iii. 20 
Calm Sea and prosperous Y oyage, 

A, Mendelssohn, i. 58 
Calvary, Spohr, i. 54, iii. 17 
Captivity, Crotch, i. 64, iii. 17 
Carlo Bie d'Almagna, Scarlatti^ 

iii. 25 
Castor and Pollux, Bam emit L 

44, iii. aft 


List of ifuivDol Works. 

Cflodrnijii, ItouMrd, i. 44,iiL 25 
ChiindoA Te Deamt and Anthnmw, 

Handel, iii. 20 
Chaplet^ The, Boyee, m. 25 
ChilDeric, Herv£, i. 66 
Chflfltmu Oratorio, The, Btteh^ 

Christoc, MendeUsohn, L 68 
Clemenza di Tito, Gluek, L 45 
ClMneosa di Tito, Motart, iii. 44 
Clytemnestra, Gluekf L 45 
Come, Holy Ghoet, Aitwood, L 

64, iii. 20 
Conair, The, Oowm, I 65 
Cortes, SpoHiiniy i 62 
Coet fan tutto, Mozart, i. 48 
Connterpoint, Canon, and Fagne^ 

Cherubini, i. 61 
Creation, Haydn^ i. 47, iiL 16 

Bafne, PerL i. 82, iii. 25 
Daphne, SehUtt, i. 86, iii. 25 
Daphne, Handel, L 41 
Das Liebesverbot, Wagner^ L 69 
Dae Rheingold, Wagner, i 69 
Das y ater Unser, Naumann^ i. 42 
Death of Abel, Leo, i. 43, iii. 17 
Deborah, Handel, i. 41 
Deluge, Cowen^ i. 66 
Demetrio, Olttck, i. 46 
Demophon, Cherubini, i, 61 
Der FreischUtz, Jfeber, i. 65 
Der Ring- der Nibelongen, 

Waaner, i. 69 
Der T(A Jesu, Haese, i. 42 
Der Tod Jesu, Graun, iii. 17 
Desert, The, David, i. 61 
Dettingon Te Deuiii, Handel, i. 

Deux Savoyards, Les, I/Alayrae, 

iii. 26 
Devil on Two Sticks, the, Haydn, 

i. 47 
Dido, Handel, i. 41 
Dido and JSneas, FureeU, L 87, 

iii 26 
Die EntfUhrung aus dem Serail, 

Mozart, i. 48 
Die Walkiire, Wagner, i. 69 
Die Weihe der Toue, Spohr^ i. 64 

iii. 32 
Diaorah^ Miyirbeer^ 1 57 

DiiMsleliaii, PkreeO, L 87 

Dissi a 1* Amata, Marenzitt, iii. H 

Domino Noir, Auber, i. 61 

Don Carlos, Coaia, i. 66 

Don Oiovanni, MozarL L 48. 65 

111. 25 
Donna del Lego, Le, BaeHni. L 

Don Pasqnale, Donizetti, i. 63 
Doa Quixote, F^eell, i. 37 

Bin' f esto Burg, &o^ Luther (?). 

iii 20 
Eli, Gotta, i 65 
Elijah, St. Pe«l, JUmUaaokm, 

i. 68, iu. 17 
Eliza, Cherubini^ i. 51 
Episode ds la vie d*im artistfl^ 

Berlioz, i 61. 
Eri King, Schubert, I 66 
ErUdng's Daughter, Gade, L 68 
Emani, Verdi, L 67 
Eroica Symphony, Beethoven, iii 

Esther, HandeL i 41 
Euphrosyne, Mehul, i 61, iii 26 
Euridice. Caeeini, iii 26 
Euryanthe, Weber, i 66, iii. 25 
Evening Hymn, TalUe, i 26, iii. 

Fairy Queen, Puroell, i. 37 
Fanchon, Himmel, i. 42, iii. 26 
Faniska, Cherubini, i 61 
Fantasias, Schumann, i 69 
Fantastique, Berlioz, i. 61 
Father of Heaven, Walmielep, 

iii 20 
Faust, Goujipd, i 66, iu. 25 
Faust, Schumann, i. 69 
Faust, Spohr, i 64, iii. 26 
Faust Symphony, Ziszt, iii. 32 
Favorite, La, Doniutti, i. 63 
Ferdinand, Spontini, i. 62 
Fofitgesang, Mendelssohn, i. 6& 
Fidelio, Beethoven, iii. 26 
Figaro, Mozart, i. 48, ui 25 
Fille du Regiment, Donizetti^ h 

FiDgal*s Cave, or The HobridM^ 

Mendelssohn, i 6S 
Flavins, Handel, i 41 

List of Musieal Works. 


Fliflgende Hollander, Wagner A, 

Flora gave me fairest flowers, 

Wilbifey iii. 22 
Floridante, Sandel, L 41 
Florinda, Handely i. 41 
Fra Diavolo, Auh&r, i. 61, ilL 26 
Fraischutz, Weber, iii. 25 
Fogae {Treatise on), SeiehOy i. 53 
Funeral March, Chopin^ i 60 

Galops, Chopin, i. 60 
Genevidve, Sehumann, i. 59, iiL 

Qipsy's Warning, Benedict, iii. 

Giulio Cesare, Handel, i 41 
Ood is gone up, Croft, i. 38, iii. 

20 [29 

Golden Sonata, Pureell, i. 37, iii. 
Gotterdammerong, ^^it^^i. 69 
Gradus ad Pamossum, CiemeniL 

Gradus ad Pamassum, Fux, i. 47 
Great God, what do I see and 

hear, Luther (?) , iii. 20 
Gngliehno Tell, Jtoeaini, i. 63, 

111. 2o 

Hagar, Oueeley, i. 65 

Hilars Lament, Schubert, i. 56 

Hau, smiling mom, Spofforth, 
lu. 23 

Halleliyah, Beethoven, i. 52 

Hamlet, Thomas, i. 66, iii. 25 

Harmonious Blacksmith, Han- 
del, i. 41 

Harmony and Thorough-bass, 
Oo9», Ouaeley, i. 65 

Harold en Itake^ Berlioz, i. 61 

Hear my crying, Weldon, i. 38, 
iii. 20 [20 

Hear my prayer, Kent, i. 38, iii. 

Hercules, Handel, i. 41 

Hennann and Dorothea, Schu- 
mann, i. 59 

Hezekiah, Hatton, i. 6o 

History of Music, Hawkine, iii. 2 

Hosanna to the Son of David, 
Qihbone, i. 36, iu. 20 

How dear are Tliy Counsels, 
OroUh^ m. 20 I 

Huguenots, Lee, Meymhecr, iii 


£ beheld, and lo. Blow, L 36, iii. 
20 , , WW, 

I call and cry, Tallis, iii. 20 
Idomeneo, Mozart, i. 48 
If we believe that Jesus died, 
Goes, L 65 

I gave my harp. Bishop, iii. 23 

II Ballo delle Ingrate, MonU* 
verde, i. 32 

II Flauto Magico (Zaubeiflote), 

Mozart, i. 48, iii. 25 
n Quinto Fabio, Cherubini, L 51 
II Trovatore, Verdi, iii. 25 
Impromptus, Chopin, i. 60 
Improperia, Balestrina, i. 29 
I In Ecclesiis Benedicite Domine, 
' QabrieU, i. 30 
In going to my lonely bed, 

Bdwardes, in, 22 
Iphig^nie en Aulide, Glueh, i. 46 
Iphig^ie en Tauride, Qluck, i. 
I Puritani, Bellini, i 63 [46 
Israel in Egypt, Handel, i. 41, 
iii. 43 [i. 65 

It came even to pass, Ouseley, 
I was in the Spirit, Blow, i. 36 
I will exalt Thee, Tye, i. 25, iu. 

I will love Thee, O Lord, Clark, 
i. 37, iiL 20 

Jephtha, Carissimi, i. S3, iii. 17 
Jephtha, Handel, i. 41 
Jephtha's Daughter, Meyerbeer, 

i. 57 
Jessonda, Spohr, i. 54, iii. 25 
Jonah, Carissimi, i. 33, iii. 17 
Joseph, Handel, i. 41 
Joseph, Mehul, i. 44, 51, iii. 25 
Joshua, Handel, i. 41 
Jubilee Cantata, Weber, i. 55 
Judas MaccabaBus, Handel, i. 41 
Judge me, O GKxl, Mendelssohn, 

iii. 20 
Jupiter Symphony, Mozart, L 

48, iii. 32 

Ki^ Arthur BUrcell, i S7» iiL 

ITS TM (^ Miaical Worit. 

U CtMMOM di Tito, ifDurf, L 

La Dune BUnohe, Boitldint, uL 

La Fflla dn Ee^nunt, Doaiutti, 

L& FinlB Qiatdinisnt, Moiari, i. 


L'AMoiliEe, jV<iyn-i<wr, l.fi7,iii. 

L'Anima e Cono, Canlitr*, L 

33. iii. 17 
la FaMonle, Cambtrt, L M, ill. 

ta Sannambltla, Btlliiii, iii. 26 
I^rt Jodpumt. The, Spohr, L M 
La TniTiata, Virii, L S7 
U Vntale, SoMiluti, i. ra, ill. 3d 
Lar of the Bell, Bmhtrg, i. 48 
L'fiolair, Baimm, i. 61 
Le IMlire, BtrUm, i. 41 
LaDeurtenr, Montiany, i. 41, Ifl. 

Le Jaooe Henri, JTrtAu^ i. SI 
L'Blinrd'Amote, DtHtulli, I 63 

Le Noue di Figtm, Manrt, 1. 

Le Pri aux Cleroa, £«raJ4 L 

Lea Deux Jtmiatet, (SMtMni, L 

SI, iii. 25 
Lee Deni SaTayaida, I/Ala^rat, 

Lee Hngiuaota, MtgfrhMr,l. 67, 

Leu Uonaqnatidraa de la Beine, 

Saltvy, i. 61, iii. 25 
Lee Troqiiean, D'Auvtrgn*. ^. 

14.iii.2fi , ,_.. 

L'Etoile du Nord, ifayerbur, L Midsummer Night' 

St M4ndtluBhn, i. fiS 

Lleder ohne worta. MmHtlmtlitk 

i.5B ' 

Uedenpialt, EiiUr, i. 12, SI. 

Lifcht or the World. BiOlUan, L 

65, iii. 17 
Lil^ of KillBniB7, Btn*ikl, I OB, 

L'lnto, JfthiU, I. 51 
LohffeBUiK IHtdiq of Prdid, 

Mmd»Utekn, t 6a 
Lodoiaka, CAerubini, L 51 
Lohcugrin, Wagntr, I. ^ iS. SS 
LoiidoEL Symphooies, fiowA, L 

17, iii. 32 
Lord, for Thr tender mandn' 

■oke, .Bitton, i. 26 
Loralei, JTmiMmsAh, i. CS 
Lotiiaria, Hotufej^ i. 41 
Luoia di Lammennoor, DoHiatm, 

i. 63, iii. 25 
Lncrezia Borgia, Btmiititi, I. Sli 

Lailine, WaUoM, i. 61, iii. 3S 

UaebBOi mado, loel, [n L 36 
Halvina, OMa. i. 65 
Huifrad, S^Abiihuui, I. SO 
Hartcharita d'A^jon, jftgtritir, 

Marie, Mtreld. i. 61 
Haritana, WaOati, i 61, iiL 3S 
Uarta, FloCovi, i. 66, Iii. 26 
Masuiello, Ai^*T, L 61, iii. 2S 
Hau in B Minor, Baeh. L 10 
May QiueD, SttmdaU Bntnttt, 1. 

61 ' 

MuonAaa, CAtwfn, L 60 
Uedea, Bmda, i.ii 
Medea, CktnMni, 1. SI, IiL 26 
Ueisteningsr, Woftier, 1. 69, iiL 

B dn Saori Cesar, Oetmed, 
Maeae Solennelle, Otunod, I. 66 

^ =■ laanalle, Souini, i. fa 

The, Bandel, L 11 
MeChioks I hear tha full Caleatial 
Choir, Cfotcih L 61 

I UiSDon, Tlutma; i. 01^ iiL U 

of Miuk<a WwU. 


Ifflkr and his Men, Biahopf iii. 

Minstrel's Cnrse, Sehumann^ i. 69 
Miriam's Battle Song, SeAub^rt, 

Biiserere, AUegri, i. 34 
Missa Pap«b Maroelli, Fal$9trina^ 

i. 29 
Missa Solemnis, Beethoven^ L 52 
Mitridate, Mosart, i. 48 
Montano et Stephanie, Bmion^ i. 

Mosd in Egitto, BosHni^ i. 63 
Mount of Olives, Beethoven. L 

62, iii. 17 
Mountain Sylph, Bamett, i. 66 
Muzio Scnvola, Sandel, i. 41 
My bonny lass, Morley, iii. 22 

Kaaman, Costa^ i. 66, iii. 17 
Kero, Sandel, i. 41 
Nibelungen, TFagneTy i. 69, iii 26 
Nina, D*Alayrae, i. 44 
Nootnmes, Cnqpin, i. 60 
Non Nobis Domine, Bt/t'de, i. 26 
Nonna, BeUmi, i. 63, iU. 26 

Oberon, JTeber, i. 66 [68 

Ocean Symphony, Bubinetein, i. 
Ode on St Cecilia's Day, The, 

Sandelj i. 41 
(Edipns, Furcell, i. 37 
O give thanks, Fureelly iii. 20 
Oh that the learned poets, Gib' 

bonsj iii. 22 
Lora, our Governor, Kent, i. 

Lord, rebuke me not, Crofts i. 

O Lord, Thou hast searched me 

out. Croft, i. 38 
Olympiade, Zeo^ iii. 26 
Olympie, Spontini, L 62 
Opera, Neefe, i. 49 
Opera, Sehulz, i. 49 
Operas, AndrS, i. 49 
Operas, Hummel, i. 63 
Operas, Reiehardt, i. 49 
Operas, &c., Bitteredorf, i, 49 
Operas, Masses, &c., Kreutzer, \. 

63 [20 

O Praise the Lord, Aldrich, iii. 

Oratorios, Masaos, Operas^ 8alim 

eri, i. 60 
Oratoriosj Masses, &o., il^Mf- 

mann, i. 49 
Orchestral Music, Boeeherim^ L 

Orfeo, Gluek, i. 46, iii. 26 
Orfeo, Monteverde, i. 32, iii. 26 
Orione, /. C. Bach, iii 44 
Orlando, H<mdel, i. 41 
Orph^e aux Enfers, Qffenbaeh^ 

iii. 26 
O Saviour of the World, Qote, i. 65 
Ossian's Hymn to the Sun, Qoee^ 

i 66, iu. 23 
O taste and see, Qosa^ i. 66 
Otello, J2M««Vtt,i63 
O that I knew, Sterndale Benneti^ 

iii 20 
Otho, BCandel, i 41 
O where shall Wisdom, Boffee, L 


Palestine, Crotch, i 64, iii. 17 
Paradise and the Feri,Sehummn, 

Paradise and the Peri, StemdaU 

Bennett, i 64 
Paraphrases on the 60 Psalms, 

Mareello, i. 43 
Parthenope, Handel, i. 41 
Part-sonsv and vocal oomposi« 

tions, Zelter, i. 49 
Passion, Bach, i. 40 
Passion, S. Matthew and S.John, 

Baeh, iii. 17 
Passion, The, Handel, i. 41 
Passion, The, Sehiitz, i. 36, iii. 17 
Passion, The, Sebastiaui, i. 39 
Pastorale, Beethoven, i. 62, iii 32 
Pastor Fido, Handel, i 41 
Pauline, Cowen, i. 66 
Pianoforte Studies, &c., Steibelt^ 

Piano Studies, KalkbrennerA. 67 
Pilg-ima^ of the Bose^ Sehu^ 

mann, i. 69 
Polonaises, Chopin, i. 60 
Ponce de Leon, Berton, i. 44, iii 
Poms, Handel, i 41 [25 

Praise the Lord, Chilfi, iii, 20 
Praise tho Lord, Gom i. 66 


List of Musical Wari». 

Pramre ye the wet, W%9$^ iii. 20 
Piodigal San, SuUifm, i. 65, iu. 

Prophito, Le, M^verbeer, i. 67 
Ptjeha, Xodb, i. 36, iii. 25 
Ptolemy, Handsl, I 41 
Pol DM nottorebuke, Croft, L 88 

Quando ritroTo, Fntd, iiL 22 

BAdamistofl, Handel i. 41 
Ked CroraKnight, CaUeaii, iiL 23 
Beformatioii Symphoay, Tbe^ 

MsndelMohn, i. 58, iii. 32 
Requiem, Brahma, i. 69 
Requiem, ^mm, i. 42 
Requiem, Martini, L 40 
Requiem, Mozarty i. 48, iii. 44 
Requiem, Vtrdi, i. 67 
Resurrectioii, The, Hand$l, i 41 
Reeurreotion, The, Maefarren, 

ResQireotioii, The, SekMta, i. 85, 

iiL 17 
Return of Tobias, Hoffdn, L 47 
Richard Coeor-de-Lion, Or§try, 

Rienzi, Wagn$r, i. 69 
Rigoletto, Verdi, i. 67, iu. 25 
Rinaldo, Handel, i. 41 
Robert le Diable, Meyerbeer, i. 57 
Robin and Marion, J)e la Male, 

iii. 10 
Rodelinda, Handel, L 41 
Roderigo, Handel, i. 41 
Roland, IHccini, iii. 25 
Romeo et Juliet, Gounod, iii. 

Romeo et Juliette, Berlioz, i. 61, 

iii. 32 
Romilda, Meyerbeer, L 57 
Rofiamund, Clayton, iii. 25 
Rosamunde, Schubert, i. 56, iii. 

Rose et Colas, Moneigny, i. 44, 

iii. 25 
Rose Maiden, Cowen, i. 65 
Ruth, Wesley, i,&it 

Saored Compositions, Michael 
Haydn, i. 49 

Semson, Handel, i. 41 

Saul, Handel, L 41, iiL 4S 

Sdpio, Honda, L 41 

Scotch Symphony, MmtdalamkUL 

IU. 32 
Seasons, The, Haydn, L 47 
Semiramide, JZoMtiif, L 63, ifi. 21 
Semiramide rioonosciuta, Mayers 

beer, i. 57 
Semiramis, Handei, i. 41 
Seminunia, Caiel, L 44, iu. 25 
Services in F and A, Hopkine, L 

Seven Last Words, The, Haydn^ 

Seven Last Words, Schma, i, 85 
Seven Penitential Psalms, Xm* 

nM, L 23 
Siegfried, Wagner, i. 69 
Sign no more^ ladies, Stevnu, iii. 

Solomon, Boyee, 1. 38 
Solomon, Handel, i. 41 
Sonata in F sharp minor, Sehm* 

mann, i. 59 
Sonatas (32), Concertos, &c, Be$» 

thoven, i. 52 
Sonatas, &c., Fleyel, L 49 
Sonatinas, Clementi, i. 50 
Song of Destiny, Brahma, L 69 
Sonnambula, Bellini, i. 63 
Sosarme, Handel, i. 41 
Stabat lAdXet, Mozart, i. 48 
Stabat Mater, Faleatrina, i. 29 
Stabat Mater, Fergoleai, i. 43 
Stabat Mater, Boaaini, i. 63 
Stand up and bless the Lord, 

Goaa, i. 65 
St. Cecilia's Day, Handel, iii. 39 
St. John the Baptist, Maejarren, 

i. 65, iu. 17 
St. John the Baptist, StradeUa, 

i. 43, iii. 17 
St. Paul, Mendelaaohn, i. 58 
St. Peter, Benedict, L 65, iii. 17 
St. Polycarp, Ouaeley, i. 65, iii 

Stratonice, Mehul, i. 51 
Studies, Chopin, i. 60 
Suites Anglaises, Bach, i. 40 
Suites des Pieces, Bach, i. 40 
Sumer is a cumen in, i. 20 

JAat of Musical Works. 


Sonezit Christns, OabrUU, 1 30 
SnsanxiA, Sandel^ i. 41 
Sjcamore Shade, The, Oom^ i. 65 
Symphonie en Re, Oossec^ iii. 32 
Symphomes, Beethoven, \. 52 
Symphony, Bubenstein, i. 68 
Symphony in C, Schuberty iii. 32 
Symphony in C minor, MendelS' 

ffOAit, i. 58 
Symphony in £ flat, Schumann, 

i. 69 
Symphony in O minor, Stent' 

date Bennettj i. 64 

TaUsman, Balfe, i. 64, iii. 25 
Tancred and Clorinde, Monte' 

verde, L 32 
Tahcredi, JRoMtni, i. 63 
Tannhaoser* ^o^n^r, i. 69, iii. 25 
Tasao, Xm^^ iii. 32 
Te Deum, resta, i. 28 
Te Deum, Masse, i. 42 
Te Deum and Jubilate in D, Pur- 

cell, i. 37 
Tempest, The, PureeU, i. 37 
Tetralogy, Warner, i. 69, iii. 25 
The Lord is Kmg, Boyce, i. 38 
Theodora, Handel, i. 41 
There is beauty on the Mountain, 

Ooss, i. 65 
These are they, Dykes, iii. 20 
The two Caliphs, Meyerbeer, i. 

Thou, O GK)d, art praised, S, 

Wesley, iii. 20 
Timon of Athens, JPurcell, i. 37 
Toy Symphonies, Haydn, iii. 32. 
TragMies lyriques, Zully, i. 44, 

Treatise on Music, Isidore of 

Seville, i,U 
Tristan and Isolde, Wagner^ i. 69 
TkiiimphsofOriana,JKori^ U27 

Trovatoie, II, Ver h, i. 67 
Tu es Petrus, Scarlatti, i. 43 
Turn Amaryllis, T, Brewer, iii 

Un Ballo in Maschera, Verdi, i« 

Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate^ 

Handel, i. 41 

Violin Concertos, Viotti, i. 50, 
CoreUi, &o., iii. 31 

Walpurgis Night, Mendelssohet^ 

i. 58, iii. 47 
Water Music, Handel, i. 41 
Wedding of Camacho, The, Men^ 

delssohn, i. 58, iii. 25 
Which is the properest day, T* 

Ame, iii. 23 . 
WhUe the bright sun, Byrde, iii. 

Who is this that cometh, Arnold, 

iii. 20 
Wilderness, The, S, S, Wesley. 

i. 64. iii. 20 
Wohltemperirte Klavier, Back, L 

Woman of Samaria, Sternddh 

Bennett, i. 64, iii. 17 
Wood Nymph, The, Stemdah 

Bennett, i. 64 

Xerxes, Handel, i. 41 

Te restless thoughts, Benet, iii* 

Zampa, Herold, i. 61, iii. 25 
Zauberfloto, Mozart, i. 48, iii. U^ 
Zemiro et Azor, Gritry, i. 44, iii 

Zemire und As&or, Spokr^ L Iii 



•»* In tnery earn the reference %8 to tectum erndparoffrofk 

Aoademies of Mnaic. iii. 49 
Aooompaniment, i. 6, 37, 48, iil. 

16, 17, 22, 26, 28, 80, 46 
Adagio, i. 23, 44 
Adieu, m^ loyea, L 24 
Afranio, lii. 43 
Albanua, iii. 41 
Alberti, iii. 27, 29 
Albinoni, iii. 29, 41 
Alboni, iii. 48 

Albrechtsberger, i. 49, iii. 46, 60 
Alcnin, i. 13 
Aldhelm, iii. 46 
Aldrich, Dr., i. 37, iii. 20 
Alfred, King, iii. 9 
Allegri, i. 34, iii. 18 
Allegro, i. 23 
Allomande, iii. 27 
Amatk, iii. 41 
Ambros, iii. 60 
Ambrose, i. 9, iii. 6, 48 
Ambrosian chaiLts, iii. 2 
Andr€, i. 49 
Anerio, i. 29 
Astern, i. 26, iii. 20 
Antiphonal singing, L 8, 9, 11, 

iii. 3. 
Antiphonar, i. 11 
Arcadeldt, i. 21, 31 
Arch-lute, iii. 17, 39 
Aria, i. 33, 43, 44, iii. 17, 26, 26 
Arioso, i. 33, iii. 17, 26 
Aristozenus, iii. 60 
Ame^ i. 38, iu. 23, 26, 26 

Arnold, i. 88, iii. 20^ 26, 26 
Arpa doppia, iii. 35 
AttiUd, 1. 41 
Attwood, i. 64, iii. 20 
Auber, i. 61, iu. 26 
Anthentic modes, i. 9, 10 
Avery, iiL 46 

Bach, C. P. E., i. 40, iii. 29, 31, 37 
Bach, F., i. 40, iii. 29, 31 
Bach, J. C, i. 40, iii. 31, 44 
Bach, J, Sebastian, i. 39, 40, iii. 
17, 18, 27, 29, 31, 38, 40, 4«, M 
Bagpipes, iii. 27 
Bamot, iii. 31, 41 
Baini, iii. 60 
Balfe, L 64, iii. 26 
Ballads, iii. 9 
Ballet, iii. 16, 22 
Baltazarini, iii. 41 
Baltzar, iii. 41 
Banister, iii. 41 
Bar, i. 16 

Barbier, Mrs., iii. 48 
Bamby, J., i. 66, iii. 20 
Bamett, J. & J. F.. i. 66 
Baryton, i. 47, iii» 40 
Basaun, iii. 43 
Bassani, iii. 41 
Basset-horn, i. 48, iii. 44 
Bass-lute, iii. 39 
Basso continuo, i. 34, iii. 22 28, 
Bassoons, iii. 32, 43 
BattishiU, i. 38, iii. 20 



Bcefhoven, i. 62, iii. 17, 18, 25, 
29—32, 43. 46, 47 

Belgian School, i. 19 

BelUni, i. 63. iii. 26 

Benda, i. 42, iii. 26 

Benedict, J., i. 66, iii. 17, 26 

Benet, i. 27, iii. 22 

Benevoli, i. 34 

Bennett, Stemdale, i. 64, iii. 17, 
20, 29, 30, 32, 49 

Beriot, de, iii. 31, 41 

BerUoz, i. 61. iii. 18, 26, 32, 47, 60 

Bemacchi, iii. 48 

Bemhaidt. i. 24, iii. 46 

Berton, i. 44, iii. 26 

Biber, iii. 29 

Bijuga, Kithara, iii. 39 

Bulington, Mrs., iii. 48 

Binary form, iii. 29, 32 

BiwL (or Byrde), i. 26, iii. 18, 20, 
22, 36 

Birmingham Musical Festival, t. 

Bishop, i. 64, iii. 23, 26 [68 

Bitti, iii. 41 

Blasema, iii. 61 

Blow, i. 36, 37, iii. 20, 46 

Boccherini, i. 60, iii. 30—32 

Boethios, iii. ^0 

Boieldieu, i. 44, iii. 24 

Bombard, iii. 43 

Bombardon, iii. 46 

Boschi, iii. 48 
Bouffe, Opera, i. 44 
Bonffons, Lea, i. 44, iii. 26 
BoTirr^e, iii. 27 
Bow, iii. 36, 40 
Boyce, i. 38, iii. 20, 26, 29, 46 
Braham, iii. 48 
Brahms, i. 69, iii. 32 
Brevis, i. 16, iii. 7 
Brewer, iii. 23 
Bridge, iii. 20 
Broadwood, iii. 38 
Bnddha, monks of, iii. 40 
Bull, Dr. John, i. 26. iii. 46 
Bttlow, Dr. Von, iii. 38 
Buononcini, i. 41, iii. 29 
Bumey, Dr., iii. 60 
Bnxtehnde, iii. 46 
Byfield, iii. 46 

Byrde (or Bird), i. 26, iii 18, 20^ 
S2, 3o 

CaccuJ, i. 32, iii. 17, 24, 26 

Caffarelli, iii. 48 

Caldara, i. 43, iii. 18, 46 

Calkin, J. B., iii 20 

CaUcott, iu. 22, 60 

Cambert, i. 44, iu. 26 

Campagnoli, iii. 41 

Canon, i. 20, 24, 26, 61, iii. 11, 18, 

Cantatas, i. 62, 66, 68 [21 

Cantos firmus, i. 11, 21, 26, 
(transposition of), 29, iii. 12. 

Canzone, iii. 29 

Canzonet, i. 38 

Carafa, i. 63 

CariUon, iu. 27, 47 

Carissimi, i. 33, iii. 17, 2» 

Cassiodonu, iii. 60 

Catalani, iu. 48 


Catch, iii. 23 

CateL i. 44, iii. 86, 60 

Cavaliere, i. 33, iii. 16, 17 

Cembalo, iii. 37 

Cesti, iii. 29 
Chaconne, iii. 27 
Chalameau, iii. 44 
Chamber Music, iii. 30 
Chappell, W., iii. 60 
Charlemagne, i. 13, iii. 48 
Cherubini, i. 61, iii. 18, 26, 26, 30, 

Chest of Viols, iii. 28, 30, 40 
Child, i. 36, iiL 20 
Choirs, i. 9, 11, 22, 30, iu. 3, 42, 46 
Chopin, i. 60, iu. 29 
Chorale, i. 36, iii. 21 
Choron, iii. 60 

Chorus, i. 6, iii. 16—18, 20, 22, 26 
Chromatic, i. 23, 64 
Chronology of the Opera, iii. 26 
Church Music, i. 8—14, 17, 21— 
24. 28-31, 34—43, 49, 6i iii 
Cimarosa, i. 60 
Claret, iii. 46 
Clarinet, iii. 31, 32, 44 
Clarino, iii. 46 
Clarke, Cowden, i 51 
Clark, Jer., i. 37, iii 20 
Clarke- Whitfdd, iii 2C 
Claveoin, iii. 37 
Clavicembalo, iii 87 



CUTidior|l, L 40 

Clayton, iiL 25 

CklB, L 16, iii 6 

ClemenH non Papa, i. 21. 31, o5, 

iii 21 
Clfliiiaiti, i 60, iii. 29, 81, 32 
Collaid, IiL 38 
College of Organists, iii. 49 
Cuooerto, L 34, 41, 47, 50, 54, ui. 

CoDoert OTefrtnre, iii. 82 
CflDKryatoires, iii. 49 
C€nti,iii. 39 
Contra basso, iii. 40 
Cooper, George, iii. 46 
Coperario, iii. 28 
Cormnto, iii. 27 
Corelli, iii. 27, 29, 31, 41 
Comet, i. 30, iii. 42 
Como di baMetto, i. 48, iii. 44 
Como Ingleee, iii. 43 
Costa, M., i. 65, iii. 17 
Cotillon, iii. 27 
Conehed Harp, iii. 36 
Council of Trent, i. 29, iii. 18 
Counterpoint, i. 16, 18—21, 24— 

26, 39, 48, 49, 61, 66, iii. 7, 8, 

11, 12, 18. 50 
Conperin, iii. 27, 46 
Conrcy, Chatalain de, i. 17 
Cowen, F., i. 65 
Cramer^ i. 64, iii. 29, 31 , 
Credo, iii. 18 

Cremona (Cremome), iii. 46 
Cristofali, iii. 38 
Croft, i. 38, iii. 20 
Crotch, i. 64, iii. 17, 20, 50 
Crwth, iii. 40 
Cuzzoni, iii. 48 
Caemy, i. 57, iii. 29 

D'Alayrac, i. 41, iii. 25 
Dance Tunes, Ancient, iii. V 
Dante, iii. 39 
D'Auvergne, i. 44, iii 25 
David, Felicien, i. 61 
Day, iii. 60 
Denner, iii. 44 
Desi^nt, iii. 13 
Diabelli, u 53 
Diapnony, i. 14, iii. 46 
i^M Ine, iii. 18 

Dienparty iii. 41 
Disc&ntnjB, i. 14, iii, € 
Ditteradorf, i. 49, iii. 
Donizetti, L 63, iii. 25 
Dorian Mode, iii. 4 
Double Baas, iii. 32, 40 
Dowland, i. 27, iii. 22, 28 
Drone Ban, iii. 13 
Drums, iii. 32, 47 
Dryden, i. 37 
Duet, iii. 20, 25 
Dufay, L 20, 25, iii. 11, 18 
Dulcimer, iii. 39 
Dumont, iiL 27 
Duni, i. 43, 44 
Dunstable, i. 25 
Durante, L 43, iii. 18, 29 
Dussek, i. 49, iii. 29—31 
Dykes, Dr., iii. 20 

Ecoaid, L 35 

Eccles, i. 36, iii. 27 

Edwardcs, iii. 22 

Egyptians, monumental rcmaiBf 

of, i. 3, iii. 27 
Egyptians, musical knowledge ol^ 

Eisteddfod, iii. 9 

Elizabeth, Queen, L 25, 27, iiL 

Ellis, A. J., iii. 51 ' 
Elvey, G. J., iii. 20 
Engel, iii. 50 
England, iii. 46 
Erard, iii. 35, 38, 
EssipoflE; iii. 38 
Esterhazy, Prince, i. 17 
Euphonium, iii. 45 
Evening Hymn (Tallis), i. 26, iii 


Faburden, iii. 13 
Fagotto, iii. 43 
Faidit, i. 17 
Fa las, iii. 22 
Fantasia, iii. 28 
Farinelli, iii. 48 
Farrant, i. 26 
Felt, iii. 45 
Feo, i. 43, iii. 18 
Ferabosco, iii. 28 
Fesca, i. 57, iii. 29, 80 



Festa, i. 27, iH. 23 

F^tas, iii. 60 

Field, i. 64, iii. 29 

Fingering, i. 40 

Flageolet, iii. 42 

Flaato tra verso, iii. 42 

Flotow, i. 66, iii. 25 

Flute, i. 4, 5, 32, 33, iiL 16, 27, 

31, 32, 42 
Flute-a-bec, iii. 42 
Folksongs, i. 17, iii. 22 
Forkel, iii. 50 
Form, iii. 29, 32 
Franc, Gmllaume, iii. 21 
Franohinus, iii. 50 
Franco of Cologne, i. 16, iii. 7, 50 
French Opera, i. 44, 49, iii. 24 
Frescobaldi, i. 34, iii. 27, 29, 46 
Froberger, iii. 46 
Fugue, i. 20, 34, 44^ 48» 51, iu. 

18, 28, 50 
Full Anthems, iii. 20 
Fux, i. 47, iii. 18, 50 

Gh>brieli, A., i. 30 

Gabrieli, Francesca, iii. 48 

Oabrieli, 6., i. 30, iii. 45 

Gade, N. W., i. 68, iiL 32 

Oaetano, iiL 39 

OaffuriuR, iii. 50 

Gallia, Maria, iii. 48 

OalUard, iii. 27 

Gallus, i. 35 

Galop, i. 60 

Galuppi, i. 43 

Garrett, iii. 20 

Gauthier, iiL 39 

Ghivotte, iii. 27 

Geminiani, iii. 41 

German opera, iii. 24 26 

Giardiiii, iii. 41 

Gibbons, Orlando, i. 36, iii. 20, 

Gigue, Hi. 27 [22, 46 

Glee, iii. 23 

Glockenspiel, iii. 47 

Gloria in Excdlsis, iii. 18 

Gluck, L 45, 46, iii. 25, 26, 43 

Gluddsts and Piccinists, i. 46, 

iiL 26 
Goddard, Arabella, iii. 38 
Goss, J., L 65, iiL 20, 23, 50 
Oonec, i. 44, iiu 82 

Gondimsl, !. 21, 29, 85, IiL 21 
Goudok (Russian fiddle), iii. 40 
Gounod, Ch., i. 66, iii. 25 
Graun, i. 42, iiL 17, 18, 2o 
Graziani, iii. 29 
Greek scales, i. 2, iii. 1 
Green, iii. 46 
Greene, i. 38, iii. 20 
Gregorian chants and melodiea 

i. 13, 24, 29, iii. 2, 4, 21 
Gregorian modes, i. 10, iii. 2 
Gregory the Great, L 10—14, iii 

Gresham College, i. 26 
Gr^try, i. 44, iii. 25, 30—32, 50 
Grisi, iii. 48 
Guameri, iii. 41 
Guglielmi, L 43 
Guido, i. 15, iii. 6 — ^7, 50 
Guilmant, i. 66 
Guitar, L 3, 33, iii. 16, 39 

Hackbret, iii. 39 

Hale, Adam de la, i. 17, iiL 10 

Halevy, i. 61, iii. 25 

Halll, Charles, iii. 38 

Hammer-clavier, iii. 38 

Hampel, iii. 45 

Handel, i. 41, 42. iii. 17, 20, 24— 

27, 29, 31, 35, 39, 42, 43, 46, 47 
Handl (Gallus), i. 35 
Handle, de, iiL 50 
Harmonics, iii. 50 
Harmony, i. 4, 14, 16, 17, 19, 26, 

32, 38, 44, 49, 65, iii. 4, 30, 48. 
Harp, i. 3, 4, iii. 35 [50 

Harpsichord, i. 32, 33, 37, 40, 41, 

47, 48. iii. 16, 17, 22, 27, 29, 81, 

Harpsicon, iii. 37 
Harris, iii. 46 [46 

Hasse, i. 42, iii. 18, 25, 26, 31, 82, 
Hassler, Hans Leo, i. 35 
Hatton, J. L., i. 65 
Hauptmann, L 57, iii. 30 
Hautboy, iii. 27, 32, 43, 44 
Hawkins, iii. JO 
Haydn, i. 47, 49, 53, iiL 17, U^ 

29—32, 40 
Haydn, Michael, i. 49 
Hebrew airs, i. 8 
HelnAoUftt iii. 51 



HeoBelt, iii. 29 
Herold, i. 61, iii. 25 
Herr^ i. 66 
Hen, iii. 38 
Hexachord, iiL 6 
HiUer, J.X, L 42, iii. 25 
Hilton, i. 26 
HimmeU i. 42, iii. 25 
HoohbrUcker, iiL 35 
Hohl flute, iii. 46 
Holder, Dr. William, iii. 50 
Hopkins, E. J., i. 65, iii. 20 
Horn, i. 52, iii. 32, 45 
Hornpipe iii. 27 
Horaley, iii. 22, 23 
Hoyte, W. S., i. 34 
Huobald, i. 14, iii. 5 
Hullah, iii. 50 

Hummel, i. 53, iii. 18, 29^ 3: 
Hymn, i. 23, ii. 4, 19, 21 

Instmmental Mosic, iii. 27 

IntermeBBO, iii. 32 

Irish Academy of Mosio, iii. 49 

Irish Harp, iii. 85 

Isidore of SeviUe, i. 14, iii 50 

Isooard, i. 44, iii. 25 

Italian opera, i. 41, iii. 24, 25 

JamoTick« iii. 41 
Jenkins, iii. 28 
Joachim, i. 69, iii. 32 
Jomelli, i. 48 
Jordan, iii. 46 
Jorge, I)on, iii. 22 
Jubilate, i. 37 

Kalkbrenner, i 57, iii. 29 
Kapsberger, iii. 39 
Keuer, i. 39. iii. 17, 25 
Kelly, iii. 48 
Kent, i. 38, iii. 20 
Kerl, J. C. Yon, Ui. 46 
Kettle-dram, iii. 47 
Kirbye, i. 27 
Kithara, i. 5, iii. 23, 29 
Klein, i. 57 
Klopstock, i. 42 
Klotz, iii. 41 
Knecht, i. 49 
Kolbel, iiL 45 
Krentzer, L 53, iii. 41 
Kmmhom, iii. 46 
KuhlsiVL, ii'L 81 

Kittman. iii. 27, 29 
Kyrie Eleison, iii. 18 

Lablache, iii. 48 

Lachrymosa, iiL 18 

Lafont, iii. 41 

Lambert, iii. 39 

Langl^ 1. 51, iiL 50 

Lasos, L 5 

Lassos, Orlandos, L 23, iii. 18 

Lawes, L 36 

Leclair, iii. 41 

Leoooq, i. 66 

Leipsic Choral Society, i. 54 

Lejeane, Clande, i. 31 

Lemaire, i. 15 

Leo, L 43, iiL 17, 18, 24 

L'Epine, Margarita de, iiL 4§ 

Lesueur, i. 51 

Liedertaf el, L 49 

Lind, Jenny, iii. 48 

Lindpaintner, L 57 

Linley, iii. 22 

Liszt, Franz, i. 69, iii. 32, 88, M 

Litany, L 23 

Literati, Society of, i. 32. iii. 25 

Liturgy, English, i. 26 

LocateUi, iii. 41 

Lock, i. 36, iu. 24 

Lolli, iii. 31, 41 

Longa, L 16, iiL 7 

LossiuB, i. 35 

Lott, Edwin M., L 47 

Lotti, i. 43, iU. 25 

Lotz, iii. 44 

Lully, L 44. iiL 25, 29, 41 

Lunati. iii. 41 

Luscinius, iii. 33, 36, 42, 43 

Lute, i. 3, 4, 32, iii. 22, 28, 39 

Lutenists, iii. 39 

Luther, Martin, i. 21, 35 

Lydian mode, iii. 4 

Lyre, i. 4, 33, iii. 2, 16, 34, 35 

Macbeth Music, i. 36, iiL 25 

Mace, Thomas, iii. 39 r5Q 

Macfarren, G. A.,i. 65, iii. 17, vX^ 
Madrigals, i. 22, 24, 27, 30, 34 

iii. 22, 28 
Magnificat, i. 23, iii. 19 
* "il^i^ire^ha, iii. 46 



Malibrao, iii. 48 

Mandolin, iii. 39 

Mara, iii. 48 

Marbecke (or Merbeoke), i. 26. 

Marcello, i. 43, iii. 18 [iii. 18 

March, i. 60 

Marohettos, i. 18, iii. 8 

Marenzio, Luca, i. 30, iii. 22 

Mario, iii 48 

MarioB, iii. 38 

Marpurg, iii. 46^ 50 

Martini, i. 49, iii. 18, 50 

Marx, A. B., i. 57f iii* 50 

Masqnes, i. 36 

Mass, i. 20, 21, 24, 29, 40, 43, 47 

•49, 56, iii. 16, 18 
Mass^i. 66 
Massenet, i. 66 
Mattheson, iii. 29, 46, 50 
Maxima, 1. 16, iii. 7 
Mayer, S., 1. 50 
Mayseder, i. 57) iii. 41 
Mazarin, Cardinal, i. 44, iii. 24 
Mazourka, i. 60 
Measure, Musical, i. 16, iii. 7 
Mehul, i. 44, 51, iii. 25 
Meistersanger, iii. 9 
Mendelssohiii, F., i. 58, 59, iii. 17, 

20, 25, 29—32, 46 
Merbeclce (or Marbecke), i. 28, 

iii. 18 
Mercadante, i. 63 
Mersennus, iii. 39 
Metz, Music School at, i. 13 
Mears, Jean de, i. 18, iii. 7 
M^erbeer, i. 57, iii. 25, 26, 40, 48 
Minnesanger, iii. 9, 48 
Minstrels, i. 5 
Minuet, i. 44, iii. 27, 29 
Miracle-plays, i. 33, iu. 16 
Molique, iii. 30 
Monsigny, i. 44, iii. 25 
Monteclair, iii. 40 
Monteverde, i. 32, iii. 17, 24, 25, 

35, 41, 45 
Morales, Christoforo, L 30 
Morley, Thomas, i. 27, iii. 13, 22 
Mosoheles, i. 57, iii. 29, 32 
Motett, 1. 21—24 (in 40 parts), 

26, 29, 30 (24 parts), 35,49, 64 
Mouton, i. 2L 22 
Mozart, W. A., i. 48 49, 59, 58 

iii. 18. 25, 26, 29-32, 89, 44, 

Mozart, Leopold, 1. 48 

Miiller, W., i. 49 

MUller, iii. 45 

Musette, iii. 27 

Musica di Camera, iii. 30 

Musica parlante, i. 32, iii. 17, 25, 

Nanini, i. 29 

Nardini, iii. 31 

Nares, i. 38, iii. 20 

National Training School for 

Music, iii. 49 
Naumann. i. 42, 49, iii. 18, 31, 32 
Neefe, L 49 

Neri, St. Philip de, i. 33 
Nero, i. 7 

Neukomm, i. 53, iii. 30, 32 
NiUson, Christini, iii. 48 
Nocturne, i. 60, 64 
Norwich Musical Festival, L 54 
Noses Red, The, i. 24 
Notation, L 11, 15 
NoveUo. Clara, iii. 48 
Nuova Musica, i 29 

Oboe, iii. 27, 32, 43, 44 
Ockenheim, i. 20, iii. 18 
Odington, Iii. 50 
Offenbach, i. 66, iii. 25 
Old Hundredth, iii. 21 
Olynipos, i. 5. 
Onslow, iii. 29, 30, 32 
Opera, Origin and prog^^esB of, i. 

32, 37—39, 41—^, iii. 17, 24 
—26. 48 

Ophicleide, iii. 45 

Oratorio, Rise and progress of, i. 

33, 38—43, 47, 49--59, 61—67, 
69, iii. 16, 25 

Orchestra, i. 30, 32, 43, 47, b% 

iii. 16, 18, 26, 32, 45 
Organ, i. 14, iu. 27, 29, 31, 46 
Organ Concertos, i. 41 
Organists, i. 34, 36—38, 40, 41, 

iii. 46 
Organ-pedals, i. 24, iii. 46 
Organum, i. 14, iii. 5, 46 
Orpharion, iii. 39 
Ouseley, i. 65, iii. 17, 20, 60 



Orerture, L 44, 48, 51, UL 16. 25 

Paor, F., i 50 
Paesiello, iii. 18 
Pairanini, iii. 31, 41 

pjestrina, i. 29. iii. 15, 18, 22 

Paris ConBervatoire, i. 61, 66 

Paasecaille, iii. 27 

Passepied, iii. 27 . ^, 

Passion Music (ScbUtz), i. 35, 
ffiach), 40, (Handel), 41, 
(Gratm), 42, (Haydn), 4? 

Pafcta, iii. 48 

Patey, Mdme., iii. 48 

Patti Adelina, iii. 48 

Pauer, E., i. 69, iu. 38 

Pavaine, iii. 27 

Pearsall, iii. 22 ^ ^, 

Pergolesi, i. 43, iu. 18, 15, 41 

Peri, L 32, iii. 24, 25 

Petracd, i. 24 

Philidor, i.44 

Fhryg^ian mode, iii. 4 

Pianoforte, i 49, 62, 63, 56, 50, 
60, 69. iii. 22, 29, 31, 38 

Piccini, i. 43, 46, iii 25 

Pilgrim's Staff; iii. 42 

Pipe, Double, i. 4 

Plagal modes, i. 10 

Plectrum, iii. 34 

Pleyel, i. 49, iU. 29—32 

Pliny, i. 8 

Polacoa, iii. 27 

Polonaise, i. 60 

Polyphonic Music, i. 4 

Porpora, i. 47 

Potter, Cipriani, i. 64 

PrsBtorius, i. 35 

Preindl, i. 49 

Pr^s, Jusquin des, 1. 21, iU. 11, 

Prout, Ebenezer, iii. 82 

Psalms, i. 23, 48, iii. 16, 19 

Ptolemy, iii. 60 

Puruell, Henry, i. 36, 37, iii. 20, 
25—27, 29, 46 

Pythagoras, i. 6, iii. 50 

Quartetts, i. 47, iii. 18, 25 
Quintetts, i. 52, iii. 26 
Quoniam Tu Solus, iii. 18 

fio^ i. 69, ill. 82 

Raff (2). iii. 48 

Bameau, i. 44, iii. 25, 50 

Bayenstrom, iiL 40 

Rebab, iii. 40 

Rebec, iii. 40 

Recitative, i. 32, 33, 39, 42, i!i 

Recordare, iii. 18 U7, 21 

Recorder, iii. 42 

Reeves, Sims, iii. 48 

Regals, iii. 46 

Reicha, i. 53, iiL 30, 32, 50 

Reichardt, i. 49 

Reissiger, i. 57, iii* 30 

Rests, i. 16 

Riee, F., i. 67. iii. 29, 30 

Rigsuioon, iii. 27 

Rimbault, iii. 50 

Rink, iii. 46 

Rinuccini, i. 32 

RitomeUo, iii. 16, 17 

Ritter, iiL 50 

Robinson, Anastasia, iii. 48 

Rode, L 61, iii. 41 

Romans, Musical pursuits of tibfl^ 

Romberg, A., i. 49, iii. 32 
Romberg, B., i. 49, iii. 30, 31 
Rondo form, iii. 29 
Roro, Cyprian de, i. 22, iii^ 22 
Rossini, i. 63, iiL 18, 26 
Round, iii. 23 
Rousseau, i. 44, iii. 50 
Royal Academy of Music, i. ik, 

66, iii. 49 
Rubini, iii. 48 
Rubinstein, L 68, iiL 32, 88 

Sacchini, i. 43, iiL 25 

Sackbut, iii. 43, 45 

Saint-Saens, L 66 

Salieri, i. 60 

Salo, iii. 40 

Sammartini, iii. 30—32 

San Nicola, iii. 48 

Santini, iii. 48 

Santley, iii. 48 

Sarabande, iiL 27 

Saxe, iii. 46 

Scales or modes, i. 2, 4, 8 

Scarlatti, A., i. 43, iii. 18, 25, tl 

Scarlatti, D., i. 43, iii. 27, ~ 

Schalmey, iii. 44 



Seherao, ill. 29 

Schmidt, iii. 46 

Sdmeidor, i. 57, iii. 30 

Schobert, i. 49, iii. 29 

Schools of Music, i. 8, 12, 13, 29 

Schroder, iii. 46 [iii. 49 

Schroter, iii. 38 

Schubert, i. 66, iii. 18, 25, 29, 30, 

Sdhuloff, iii. 38 
Sohuls, i. 49 

Schumaim, Clara, i. 59» iii. 38 
Schumann, R., i. 59, iii. 25, 29, 

30, 32, 50 
Schiltz, i. 35, 39, iii. 17, 24 
Scientists, iii. 51 
Sebastian!, 1. 39 
Semibrevis, i. 16 
Senesino, iii. 48 
Senfl, i. 35 
Septett, i. 52, 53 
Serpent, iii. 44 
Seven-stringed Kithara, 1. 6 
Seventh, Chord of tho, i. 82 
Shield, iii. 30 
Si, i. 15 

Silas, Edwaid, iii. 82 
Silbermann, iii. 38 
Sing Aoademie, Berlin, 1. 58 
Singers, great, iii. 48 
Sin^rin^ Schools, i. 8, 12, 13, 29, 

iii. 48 
Smart, H., iii. 20 
Smith, Stafford, iii. 23 
Snetzler, iii. 46 
Sonata, i. 37, 47, 48, 52, iii. 29, 

Sonata di Camera, iii. 29 
Sonata di Chiesa, iii. 29 
Sonatinas, i. 50 
Songs, i. 22, iu. 27, 30 
Sontag, iii. 48 
Spinet, 1. 32, iii. 17, 36 
Stwfforth, iii. 23 
Spohr, i. 54, iii 17, 25, 26, 30, 31, 

Spontini, i. 62, iii. 25 
Stadler, i. 49, iii. 46 
Stainer, iii. 20, 50 
Standigi, iii. 48 
Stave, 1. 11, 15, ih. 6 
fltocgall, C, L 65, iii. 20 

Steibelt, i. 49, iii. 29, 31 
Stein, iii. 38 

Steiner (or Stainer), iii. 41 
Stevens, R. J. S., iii. 23 
Stewart, R. P., i. 65, iii. 20 
Storace, iii. 25, 23 
StradeUa. A., i. 43, iii. 17, 40 
Stradiuari, iii. 41 
Suites- des- pieces, i. 40, 41, iii 
27 29 

Sullivan, A. S., i. 65, iii. 17, 20 

Siissmaier, i. 48 
SweU, iii. 37, 46 
Sylvester, Pope, i. 8 
Symphony, i. 14, 47-49, 52, ia 

16, 25, 32 

Tablature, iii. 39 

TaUis, Thomas, i. 26) iii. 20 

Tambour, iii. 47 

Tamburini, iii. 48 

TaranteUe, iii. 27 

Tartini, iii. 31, 41 

Tavemer, i. 25 

Te Deum (Ambrosian), L 9; 

Festa, 28 ; Purcoll, 37, iii. 19 
Terpander, i. 5, iii. 34 
Terradeglias, i. 43 
Tesi, iii. 48 

Tetrachords, i. 2, 10, iii. 6 
Tetralogy, i. 69, iii. 25, 26 
Thalberg, iii. 38 
Theorbo, iii. 17, 39 
Theory of Music, i. 30, 44. iii V 
Thibaut of Navarre, i. 17 
Thomas, Ambroise, i. 66, iii. 25 
Thome, E. H., iii. 20 
Thiimerhom, iii. 45 
Tinctor, iii. 50 
Titiens, Mdlle., iii. 48 
Tofts, Mrs., iii. 48 
Tonic Sol-fa movement, iii 49 
Tours, i. 65, iii. 20 
Travers, i. 38, iii. 20 
Trinity College, London, iii. 49 
Trios, i. 47, iii. 20, 25 
Triumphs of Oriana, i. 27 
Tromba, iii. 45 

Trombone, i. 30, 34, iii. 32, 43, 41 
Troubadours, i 5, 17, iii. 9, 10^ 




Trumpet, iii. 82, 45 

TrumpMBt-marine, iii. 40 

Tuba, iii. 45 

Tuba Minixn, iiL 18 

Tiirk, i 49 

Turle, J., iii. 20 

TjBj Christoplier, i. 25, iii. 20, 

Tympannm, iii. 47 
TyndUdl, iii. 51 
Types, Movable, i. 24 
Tyrtaeaa, L 5 

Oxiisonal Singing, i. 8, iii. 5 
Urh-heen (Chinese fiddle), ^ii. 40 

Velter, iii. 35 

Verdi, i. 67, iii. 25 

Verse Anthems, iii. 2 J 

Viadana, i. 34, iii. 4'i 

Viol, i. 32, iii. 28, 4'j 

Viola, iii. 32 

Viola-da-gamba, i 47, iii. 40 

Viola pomposa, iii. 40 

Viol d amour, iii. 40 

Viol di Bardone, iii. 40 

Violin, i. 30, 37, 48, 50, iu. 16, 27, 

29, 31, 32, 41 
Violinists, iii. 41 
Violoncello, i. 52, 53, iii. 31, 32, iO 
Viotti, i. 50, iii. 30, 31, 41 
Virginal Book, Queen Eliaa- 

beih's. i. 26 
Virginals, i. 25, iii. 36 
Vittoria, i. 30 
Vitula, iii. 40 
Vogler, L 49, iii. 46 
VaTpiwi; i S5 

Wachtel, iii. 48 

Waelrant, i. 31 

Wagner, i. 69, iii. 25, 26, iS. iT 

WaUace, V., i. 64, iii. 25 

Walmisley, iii. 20 

Walther, i. 35, iii. 21 

Walther (2), iu. 46 

Walts, 1.60 

Webbe, iii. 18, 23 

Weber, B. A., i. 49 

Weber, C. M. Von, j. 55, iii. 18 

25, 26, 29—31 
Weelkes, i. 27 
Weigl, i. 49 

Weldon,'j.,i-38, iiL20 
Welsh Hi^rP) "»• 35 
Wesley, S., i. 64, iii. 20 
Wesley, S. Sebastian, i. 64, iB- 
Woyghtes, iii. 27, 43 [20 v 
Wheatstone, Sir C., iii. 51 
White, Robert, i. 26 
Whitelooke, iii. 27 
Wieck, i. 59 
Wilbye, i. 27, iii. 22 
Willaert, i. 22, iii. 22 
Wilson, Dr., iii. 28 
Winter, P. Von, i. 49 
Wise, Michael, i. 36, iii. 20 
Wolstan, iii. 46 
Wood, ui. 38 

Zacbau, F., i. 41 
Zarlino, i. 30, iii. 50 
Zelter, i. 49, 58, iii. 60 
ZingaielU, 1. 50, il. II 


A CONCISE HISTORY OF MUSIC. From the commencement 
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9 f modem history." 


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